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All rightt reserved. 

'"Think of the l«anty whirh Go<l ho* *pr»ad abroad tot 00 use; it* 
profuaenoai In doocrt *pot* where nan* <*« »e© it : it* niinutenc**, m> tlml 
>■-<>■ 1 > on "nly I* discovered by • mioronoopo ; Mil iu intent, cmbracing 
aI) tUnga. " flnw lt 

•' Meek orMtiirtn I the firrt mercy of tho earth, VaffiUf; with Imidied 
tottneat iu dentle** roclu: creature* full o| pity covering wllli atrangn unci 
liinlir IwnoO the. aacred disgrace of niin, laying <|"i"t finirer* on thv 
trembling stone* to teach them rent. No word* that I know of will uy 
what thaaa M<«*ea and Lichen* are : none air delicate enough, noM perfect 
enough, Don" rich • uough, Tliey «M not bo gathered like tho flower*, for 
chuplvt or love-token ; but of the'* tho wild binl will mak» Hi ".«(, and 
the woaried child it* pill.. v., ud a* tho earth'* firat morcy ao they are it* 
la«t n nil other »ervio» fa rain from plant and tree, the aoft 

Mob*** and grey Lichen* take op their watch by the headrtonc. Tho wood*, 
the hJo***>m», the gift-bearing g r u m e* hare dime their part* for a time, but 
thaso do aervicc for ever. Tr«-.. (..r t J , .. builder'* yard, flower* for tho 
bride'* chamber, porn for the granary, Mo*ae> and Lichen* for the grave." — 
/:•■ •» M. 

- i -:-i nil- Hr. . o ■ mence* with excessively minute »tmcturr», which are 
continually reproduced In (ncc*>c*lv*hle number*. On html llm Lii-lu-n* lii.t 
appear on rocks, and the bark of trues, covering them with coloured tpotl 
and band*.— liar. 

Bead*, to <mr eye invisible, will find 

(Jr. the rude rock the bed that fit. their kind : 

There, iu tho rugged »oil they «*fe ly da-ell, 

.iw»i> and now! tli- «:ibtlo atom* iwill. 
And *pr»*d ft" enduring foliago ; lh«a wn trao* 
'flic freckled flow »r ui inty baa* ; 

Thaw all hicreane, till in unnoticed year* 
The stony tower u* grey with ago appear*.— CroM-e. 



B.A., St. John's OoUegt, Cambridgt, 

To no one can I more appropriately dedicate this Third 

Edition of my Lichen- Flora than to you, whose marvellous 

researches in the West of Ireland and elsewhere, conducted 

with consummate scientific skill, zeal, and perseverance, have 

added so largely to our knowledge, and whose unvarying 

kindness and friendship in communicating authentic specimens 

of novelties have rendered me service in the preparation of 

this work altogether inappreciable. 

Believe me, gratefully, to remain, 

Ever sincerely and affectionately yours, 



March 25th, 1879. 


The Liohoncs aro a Natural Order of aerial cellular plants in- 
termediate between the Alg«o and Fungi, approaching the former 
principally, but not exclusively, through the Collemaoei — and fibi 
Ascomyootos of the latter, by having the spores in 'asci or thecn 
uud Mnir hyiiicnitnu gfttfl included in a closed receptacle or pari- 
thoeium. Their own peculiar characteristic is that they hare 
gonidia or minute spherical cellules containing chlorophyll or some 
green granular matter, generated by the action of light, immediately 
underneath the cortical layer uf the thallus. 

They may be found everywhere, clothing rock*, trees, old pal- 
ings, stones, and earth, and giving to thoso localities those beautiful 
patches of colour which tbo artist delights to touch in, and which 
give such brilliance and finish to his landscape sketches. 

Tin- liviiiK irtrjun* which Nature's hand alone, 
Proluw of life, pour* forth upon tho stone, 
Yut ovor gruwing ; whurn tho common «y» 
Can but tho bare and rocky tied descry. -On We. 

Nevertheless, Lichens aro not indifferent to either their tab 
stratum or locality ; some prefer tho harder rocks, as granite, 
micaceous-schist, gneiss, quartz, or sandstone, others calcareous 
rocks, others the bark of trees and old partially decayed or decay- 
ing wood, others the earth, whether calcareous, siliceous, or pro- 
duced from.tbe decay uf vegetable matter ; others grow 00 decayed 
mosses or jnngi •nuanniip, others on tho leaves of evergreens, others 
again on various substances, as iron, bone, leather, flints, and glass; 
others again, reduced to apothecia alone, become parasitical on 
the thalli or apothecia of other Lichens, and others affect both 
rocks and trees indifferently. 

Certain Lichens are peculiar to mountains, others to subalpino 
regions, others to plains, others to moist places, others to shady 
places, some like the neighbourhood of water, or even contact with 
water, others aro constantly or partially submerged either in the 
rocky beds of rivers or on the soa shore, and others again ou the 
under -surface of stones in stone walls or in eaves, or on the umlrr- 
surface of overhanging masses of rook. 

They obtain no nutrition by absorption through the prohensilo 
rhranee or tho hypothftDua by which they arc attached to the sub- 
strata or surfaces on which they grow. All their nutrition is 
derived from the atmosphere, tho water or humidity of which act- 
ing chemically on the elements of the different surfaces to which 


they are attached, supplies to them iu the state of very complex 
solutions tlio substances necessary to their existence. Their 
growth iH, therefore, Beeesssarily slow mid int. rmitteiit, depcuding 
on tho riryni m or humidity of the atmosphere, on dry or rainy 
►seasons. In tin of their existence their growth is 

very rapid under favourable conditions, but when they have at- 
tained to * certain si2e, growth would seem to be arrested ami 
becomes slow. Their duration of life, especially iu the fecundity 
at the reproductive organs, is remarkable and exoes- 
ex tending to many centuries. They will not grow in a flourishing 
in- perfect condition iu the immediate neighbourhood of towns, or 
where the air i* impregnated with smoke, soot, or othor deleterious 
ingredients. In such situations they exist only in a gonidiul or 
rudimentary state, appearing on tho trees, walls, <fco., as green 
dmrt, iu ninth stato tiny ff&l oonthnie for ages, increiuiiiig by 
Hon like the Alga?, but never developing into perfect lichens. 
'I I..' pseudo-genus Lepraria of the elder botanists represented thin 
condition. Tln-ir'.e in n fully developed and fructiferous 
condition is a sure and certain mdu itaoo of the purity of the air 
and salubrity of tie- i I i mate. 

A lichen consists of a thallu.t or vegetativo portion, bearing the 

Inn 1 ilii-nt 11 >n in (he apothecium or female fruit, and (he sprrmo- 

gouium or supposed niolo fruit. There are also other bodies, 

i dly found on the thallns, termed pyaiiJn, which ■one 

• omider sj a kind of secondary fruit, and others as fungilli. 

The t halliis is very variable in form, aire, colour, and consistence, 
and is cither horixoutal and membranaceous or foliaceous, or 
pendulous and filamentose, or ocenrri: I. ■ la imtU erect Bhrublike 
clusters, or else forming a more or less thick crumbly or powdery 
i, investing the surfaec of rocks and trees, and becoming lobed 
in various modes in the circumference. If, then, wo m.-ikea M m through a inembranaceous tfaeJlaa, H will be seen to eon 

-rally of a eurlietil layer mi (lie upper snrl.n-i firmed of 
minute, closely compacted cellules, immediately underneath which 
is the gonidial Inyer consisting of linght-gnvn ■pherieal cells 
arranged in an interrupted cnanni diately above the 

medullary Utyrr which eoiisists of mini. inn;; tul.nhii mid articulate 

colourless filament.;. The lower surface is cither naked, or has a 
cortical layer similar to the Upper one, and also rtVtium or 
rooUikc filaments which attach it to the surface upon which it 

If again we make a similar vertical section through ft crostai 

thallus, it will exhibit a cortical layer on the upper surface with a 

: imxnedtaterj anderneath^ftnd then the medullary layer, 

ting of Moments baft become dead, and 

transformed into n tartn. ib Ian1 nokealer maula- 

f 1 1 n 1 1: . ; . .-■:,.. : 

hypcthnlttu, generally of ■ bll 

anient* CI ted cells, and which in fact is • 


vegetation arising from the germination of the spores, and upon 
ii the several other layers of the thallua are gradually and 
anally deposited. This fl pen ptlble 

rdor around the thallua. The thallnn i 

i. ii-ii is often kyponkiaodat 
or cnnociih'd boneatb tlie epidermis of thi I >ws, 

or mnutont, existing only in scattered portiooa va or ondof 
friable faco of the rool other cases altogether wanting 

when the apothecia grow jmruaitieally on the thallua, or apothecia 
of other lichens. 

Ua are produced in oefla of »«By young tlmlli ami evoo 

in older tlmlli anil uro of two aorta — either u simple OoD OOotahv 
ing granular nutt. : i go n i d i um , W i lotion of two, til 

or more spherical granules without any propor cellular membrane, 
containing green granular matter and named gramila gonima. 
These gouidia, together with the DMbeahtt granulations, aud Ma- 
lta <>f the medullary layer, are often protruded through ilu- 
cortical layer to the turfitee of the thallua iii powder* or gnu n 
eruptions »f n globular shape termed tortdia. 

The apothtcium of whatever form, wher b Batata, lirellato, 

or enclosed in wartlike perithecin or nuclei, has a similar internal 
structure, and when viewed in a vortical section is seen to consist 
of on excipulum, dark or pale, formed of cells generally compact, 
tag the ht/potltreium, of Similar rtrTO 1 either 

dork ore froawhon upper snrffci ition 

grow the <uri «ir (fata end the paraahptn iting the 

hymemunt or «, .mil are oongjutinated by a jouyliko 

us termed the gtiatina hytntnea. The parapht/ir* m 
Momenta having minute globular or clavatc aptoOl RUi I with 
coloured granular matter, which, by their close proximity, lv 
tttte the disk rum, and to which they give their peculiar 

colour. Around thia disk or epitheolum is a margin farmed by the 
edges of the oxoipuhun or hjpotheefatn end of the same colour, or 
elso formed by the thallus, and partaking of Ha peculiar colour. 
The former is t. rmed a proper mmgin, the latter • thallitte margin. 
The iuei or (ktcce arc linear, clavatc, or globular sacs or wt 
containing the tport*, which' in different species aro variable in form, 
aiae, and colour, either brown or colourless, simplo or divided by 
septa or Other* iae Into several colls, and in number generally B, 
8, or Innumerable. The spore- 
oily nuclei, and have an outer ana inner pei 
or v, ..citurlv ud endotpore. 

Tlie tfiermogoi. nutti globular conccptaclce imbedded in 

the thelitis, <li lable on its surface as minntc tubercles, and 

in exhibiting a colourless receptacle from which arise 

filaments either simple (iterigmaUt), or articulate 

f ar ti rv *leriffmalaj, bearing on their summits or joint! rerj mil 

rodlikc <ir cylindrical straight or curved bodlee (spermatid), which 

proeeuro detaches and protrude* in a oloudj stream 

.. I he i p. i i.lir -pniiiogonium. 

The jycrudts are minute dark-coloured conecjitaclc*, like the 
pcrithecia of Sphrcrirc, sessile on the tlmllns and containing simple 
filaments (baridiaj beat ly on their apices, bodies, often 

oblong, but variable in form and size (slylotportsj. 

On the under-surfaoo of the tballus of the Stidei ore tniuuto 
uni'iiliihi palo oxcavations termed eyphtlkr, whose function is 
unknown. Those are gonondly empty, liut when filled with white 
or citrine powder ore called pttudocyph< 

The thallus of several genera bears on its upper surfaco orbicular 
iuhI Battened, or globular tubercles named ctphalodia, consisting 
int. Timlly of colls or granula gonima. Their use is unknown. 
This upper-surface is also frequently found oxuboraut with minute, 
erect, coral-like excrescences with dark-coloured apices, and then 
eOOrtltUtaj the old pseudo-genus Iridium, which U now known to 
I mi really an anomalous stato of the tlmllus of some I'crtusoria. 
Black powdery patches or spots aro scattered on the thallus not 
infrequently, which formerly © i the old pseudo-genus 

SpUoma, but are now considered to consist of minuto parasitical 

In the genua Purtusaria. the apothecia become abortive and 
stcrilo and converted into soredia, on which state was anciently 
founded a pseudo-genus Yariolaria. 

The apothecia of certain lichens possess tho power of dissolving 
the surface of the calcareous rocks on which they grow, by means 
of carbonic acid obtained from the atmosphere, thus fun 
minute shallow cavities or foveoli, in which they partially bury 
i hciiiselvea. 

Of tho USOS to which Lichens may bo applied it may suffice to 
state generally that the " Iceland Moss," C'etraria idandica^ con- 
tains starch and a bitter principle, and is used as a tonic and 
• !,'iiiu!n m in medicine, mm in Iceland boiled in mQk m food 
Cetrttria nivalis is also nutritious. Uoccdla tincloria, Lecaiwra 
pareUa, Ixcaiiora lartarta, Pamttia taxalilit, P. coiupersa, Ac, 
afford valuable dyes . In s rway, I inland, and Bui 

alcohol or brandy is distilled from Chuliua rangiferina, which 

lichen sod other Cladoa o mralnable in tli« northern and 

arct: isthi food of Rdndeox und cows. And in Africa 

the curious /.r.viK'« a <t<:ul< nta which roll*, ii bad state, over 

the sandy plains, is collected as food for men and horses. 

The geographical distribution of Lichens over the world varies 

according to tho different sones, and may bo stated generally 

thus : — In the Arctic regions tho ClaJoni't and Sttrtocaula occur 

i iint-nao abundance, covering tracts of country, many square 

■ in extent, to the almost exclusion of other vegetation, but 

liuish in profusion gradually na tho warmer regions are 

approached. In Ihi ate zone- tho corticolar Liohcns, such as 

..orei, Lteidfi, Oraphidttt, and r<rm«rro abound. In thcTrop- 

■• aw thtir maximum development in tho Siuiw, 

and Parmttice; the loaves of evergreen trees aro covered with Singula; 

and the hark with the genera Thelolrcma, Verntcaria, Trypetfulitm, 
Chiodfcion, Grap/iis, ItQ. The Graphidat which abound in this 
and tin; temperate sonc diminish in number and profusion as the 
arctic xono is approached. Certain species, especially the saxioolar 
ones, are cosmopolitan. Our British Lichen-Flora may be token 
as a fair representative of the lichens of the Temperate Zone. 

If we partiouloriso the several Tribes their distribution may be 
•hewn more clearly, thus :— 

Byswacki ; entirely in Temperate sono. 

I-i'.iiisKi ; Temperate. 

Colmmei ; Temperate, very few Tropical. 

M y:-;ianoiei ; Temperate, Arctic and Tropical 

CALicnn; Temperate, few Tropical. 

Sph-ebophobbi ; Temperate, very few Tropical. 

B.iojiYcti ; Temperate and Tropical. 

Clado.mki; Arcti<\ Tcin])or*te, do Teasing towards Tropics. 

SrnutoCAVLXi ; Temperate and Arctic, especially decreasing 
towards Tropics. ; Temperate and Tropical. 

Bh>hl-lei ; Temperate and Tropical. 

Usnbbi ; Coamopohtan. 

Ramajjnbi ; Cosmopolitan. 

CrzKASifci ; Arctic, Ttan]>erate, few in Tropica. 

humn i i :. i ■ . \. ■■ ■ 11 . an in Tropics. 

inporatc, Arctic, decreasing in umnlier in Tropics, 
horo attaining maximum dcvclopnn -nt. in tbo BfSottL 

Utkophoru j Arctic Temperate, decreasing towards Tropics. 

Leoanobei ; chiefly Temperate, Arctic numerous, and Tropics. 

Lbcideikei ; chiefly Temperate, numerous in Arctio and 

GiuriunKi ; chiefly Temperate, few Arctic, numerous Tropical. 
[ROB; Temperate. 

PritKNucAiuici : chiefly Temperate, Arctic nmiiy, Tropics com- 
paratively less numerous. 

r variation in altitude is also very groat, as may bo readily 
observed in the ascent of lofty hills and mountains, the lichens 
of the plains occurring at the bases and lower altitudes, and the 
subalpiue lichens making thou - appearances asono ascends upwards 
to the very summit. Nevertheless Cetntria Islandica and Cctraria 
aeulrata occur plentifully, the latter in fruclifunlum, mi N 
Wootton Roata, Norfolk, and in Lineomthlrs only "200 feet 
nlxivo the level of the Na, probably brought there in a glacial icra 
and surviving on the retreat of the glacier, (In tin- other hand 
l. [». Hooker observed Placodium miniatum with Phytcut 

Jiaricant on the Himalayan I (tabu, on Um very summit of 

Bbomtso, alt. 18,590 fcot, Tho former Placodium miniatum 
is the most Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpino lichen in the world, 
colouring the rocks of an orange-red, as at Bhomptso, and on 
Cockbura Island In the Antarctic Ocean, Thamnolia vemiwhru, 


Plneodium miaiatum, Plaratlium rlegaru, T.rcanora orrina , fsetiMtra 
Moroplitiut, I.rfidra gtoyrnphUn, ami TjkuUo. arroaf&O, nil alpine 
European and Arctic species, occurred in 'lie Donkfa P us, nit. 
19,800 feet. At 17,000 feet alt. PanuHa pk/todet, A.-<-.jiwn» 
vtntota, Ltcanora eanddaritt, /,. ■. Ltcetnoi I "Ira 

and ■ !a chrytolcuea, all European ipeeies, nte noted. At 

18,300 f. ■ ! ■ hora cylwtriea, ( tripe 

de rochr.) At 22,000 feet nit. on Irjcatsilhassa, CSnghll M"uu 
tains, PAyicia fiaviean* wn* nlso found. 

With u view u> show the Geographical Distribution throughout 
Great Britain and Ireland a line or figures or numbers is added 
to aaofa Species, corrosp ending with the l'."t'iiiieal Provinces of 
Mr. II. Watson's CyM? Brititnnici, and Moore and Morc's 
Cybtle I/iberniea. By this weans the Student will see at a 
lance In what counties any particular Kiiec'icx has ivivdy 

leathered, and alBO what ec. untie* are still unexplored for it. 

nor. nor. 

1. = Cornwall, Do von, Somerset. 

2.=Wilta, Dorset, Hants, Sussex, Isle of t71 

8. = Oxfoid, Buoka, Berks, Harts, Middlesex, ESesax, Surrey, 


•t. = Xorfolk, Suffolk, Ban! Northampton, Cambridge, Red- 

B>. = StaSbrd, Salop, Worcester, Warwick, Hereford, Monmouth, 
1 •' no tar. 

6. = Cardigan, Badnor, Brecon, Glamorgan, Carmarthen, 


7. = Anglesey, Oani.r. ■ ..:. Flint, Denbigh. h, Monl 

8.= Derby, Nottingham, Leicester, Kutl.nnl. [dneolft. 
0. = Lancashire, Cheek 
10. - York. 

ll.~Northimili.Tl in. I, Durham, 
li. Cumberland, W< tstmoreland, Isle of Man. 

Renfrew, Lanark, Ayr, Dumfries, Kircudbright, Wigton. 

14. = Linlithgow, Haddingtou, Edinburgh, Barwlak, Peebles, 

EteUtirk, Boxburgh. 

15. = Inverness, KLfin, BaufF, Aberdeen, KiwardinS, E '••: I ■ 

i'- h, Btuiu: 
Bkye, Bum, Coll, Thxes, Mull, Colonaay, Jura, Way, 
Ar„ Bute, Arran. 

17. Caithness, Sutherland, Cromarty, Itosa. 

18. Bhetland I ilea Orkim ■ lata , Hebrides. 

19. - Kerry, South Cork. 

.rk. Waterford. South Trppo 
21. - Kilkenny, Curlew. Queen*. 
Vaxford, Wl 

Kildare. Dnbl ith. 

24. ■ Limerick, (lure, Kwt Gal way. 


i.r.T. ;-mv. 
26. = North Tipperary, Kings, West Month, Longford. 
26. -West Galway, West M 
37. «• Bast Mayo, Sligo, Leitrim, Roscommon. 
23. =■ Fermanagh, Cavan, Monaghan, Tyrone, Armagh. 
89.= Donegal. 
30. =j Down, Antrim, Derry. 

In collecting Lichens it is requisite to be furnished with a 
geological hammer mid Iron ohiaeu of &ood temper, to detach thin 
pieces front the rocks, with the liehena gmwiu Hi. icon, and also 
with a strong,|, ola oyster-knife, to cut or 

prixc off lichen* from tho bark of tree* or from old palings, &o., 
and a pocket lens. All that is necessary to preserve such speci- 
mens is immediately to fold them in soft paper, to prevent injury 
from nibbing against each other in carriage home. They tt kfolM 
no drying or pressure, and are always in a condition proper for 
examination. Generally speaking, it will be advisable to coll 
specimen* In drjf weather. Hun is apt to swell up the parts of 
lii:h«>ns 80 much M to render thon rather difficult to bo distin- 
guished from each other in thi ■»■ native localities, and specimens 
gathered in wet weather will not unfrcqucntly be found destitute 
of spores, which by tho lateral pressure on the asci occasioned by 
Hi. swelling of the adjacent parts by tho moisture have DMB 
ejected. The practice which will be found useful is, on return 
.', to fix the specimens on paper, with strong glue, writing tin. 
locality IV >.v obtained, and then arranging them roughly 

in genera. Thi* arrangoment, leading to the successive cxnminu- 
•f several species, or specimens, in any parti, uhtr HOWL will 
be found to facilitate, by comparison and oonteiat, their satisfac- 
tory determination. 

lenistis unfortunately well aware of the groat difficulty 
of preserving specimens of lichens which grow on the earth. Too 
neatly he find*, on consulting Ha herbarium, thaj the earth 
on vhtel such lichens grew has become dry and crumbled into 
.living in such disintegration the destrm lion of tho lichen 
itself, especially when this happens to possess a cxustaccous thallus. 
Toi s an offoetive preparation has been discovered by M. J. 

M Norman, of TrlSmao, Norway. It consists of a solution of 
■lass in spirits of wiuc, such as is used in tho preparation of 
English adhesive plaster, which a chemist informs me is better 
i Plaster." This composition when Hqneflod in 
a vessel plunged into water of the temperature of 28 — 80" C, is 
Imbibed by tho enrth on which the lichen grows, and be- 
ea inspissated into a aoUd gi Inline, nt a temperature bolow 15". 
may be applied by a camera-ban* pencil until the 
:li becomes saturate'. I, l.ui care should be taken that tin lichen 
itself be not moietened with it, foi otherwise it would become dis- 
coloured. When the surface has become dry, the specimen may 
be submitted to moderate pressure, which, after some days, pro- 
duces the requisite hardness and tenacity, 


The modo of arrangement or preservation in the herbarium must 
bo left to individual taste and convenience. The following may 
be adopted as practically most convenient. Having individual 
specimens glued down on small or suitably-sired pieces of paper 
with their names, localities, collector's name, date of collodion, 
and drawings or notes of spores and inUirnal struoturo appended, 
fasten these with small pins on quarto single sheets of good cart- 
ridge paper, from which any particular specimen can bo readily 
removed for examination and replaced as occasion requires. 
Those single sheets are then placed in a cover of cartridge paper 
also of quarto size, and the name of the species written on the left 
hand corner at the bottom on the outside. These covers, each 
containing a single species, arc enclosed in a quarto cover of thick 
pasteboard, folded bookwisc, marked on the bock with the name 
of the genus, and are kept bookwiso on shelves in cabinets, ar- 
ranged according to the system, and in the larger genera to the 
sections, adopted in the following work. Reference to any par- 
ticular speoimen is thus readily practicable, oven m tin- most 
extensive genus, and constant use and practice insensibly and 
gradually impress on the mind a lasting knowledge of systematic 

The successful study of lichens is not really so difficult as per- 
sons imagine, if ouly they will bring to the work, careful painstak- 
ing observation, delicate manipulation in dissection, and a 
microscope with a good object-glass of i inch focus. The on 
of examination which may be adopted is this. Moisten the 
apothecium with witter, tlmi .ipplvinga watchmaker's lens to the 
eye, make, with a sharp surgeon's knife or scalpel, a very thin 
tioal section through the centre of the apothocium. Place this 
on the lower glass of a compressor, iu a drop of hydrate of potash 
which assists in loosening the cohesion of the parts, and swells the 
spores to their piupcr shape, bring down the upper glass of the 
compressor with slight pressure, and place the whole under the 
microscope, increasing the pressure by the screw of tho compressor 
gradually as vision shows to be necessury. A view is thus ob- 
tained of the asci, spores, poraphysos, structure, and colour of the 
hypothecium, ilkc, and drawings may be made of any of them 
most readily either with a camera lucida or by throwing the 
microscopo into a horizontal position and placing an oblique Mod 
disk on tho end of tho eye-piece, on looking through which a pi I 
of the object is thrown on paper and may b » ith a pencil, 

the oxtrancoiis light lieing excluded by covering the head with a 
dark-coloured doth. 

If the spores bo mature the application of an aqueous solution of 
i WW tingo them or tho gclatina hymenoa blue, or of a red- 
wine colour, with or without a preceding blue tinge. This re-ai I 
occurs only in some lichens, whilst in others there is no such re-act Ion 
produced, hence it proves useful as a slight confirmatory character. 
Tho formula by which the solution is to be prcpnrcd is :— Iodine 

gr. j. ; Iodide of Potash, gr. iij ; Distilled water, J o*., which must 
be kept in a glasa-atoppored bottle of dark -coloured glass, or covered 
with tinfoil u.\ exclude light. In Ming this teat, the acotion of 
the a|xitheciiun must be ]>Iaced in the iodine solution at once, Mid 
i ii 'i | •• in the hydrate of potash, which would nullify tho 

re-action. To test the thallus cither on it* cortical layer, or in 
the medulla, hydrate of potash is used, compounded of equal 
weights of caustic potash and water. Hypochlorite of lime 
(chloride of limo and water) is another reagent, which may be made 
of any strength. These are applied by small brushes made of spun 
glass, one brush being kept exclusively for each reagent, and also 
a separate vessel used for each. The modus operandi is this : h 
tho cortical layer or tho medulla (existed by scraping off a mono! 
nl' the cortical layer) with the hydrate of jiotash, and while 
still moist apply tho hypochlorite of limo, and note whether any 
rc-«ction, and of what kind, results. BonwUmoi the hydrate of 
potash produces a distinct yellow tingo, which may be symbolised 
as (K+) or if only faint as (K f+) This yellow re-action is 
sometimes persistent (K+), but in other lichens immediately 
changes to a red colour (K yellow then red). In others the yellow 
produced by the hydrate of potash is changed into red, or tho 
yellow is deepened, l>y the immediate application of hypocldorito 
Of lime, symbolised (K yellow (' red) or (K yellow, C deep-yellow). 
Again tho hydrate of pothsh may produce no re-action, but tho 
immediate subsequent application of hypochlorite of limo elicits 
red or yollow as the case may be, symbolised thus (K - C + rod) or 
K - C + yellow). Sometimes neither reagent produces any re-action 
and is thus noted (K - C - ). A very convenient mode of symbol- 
ising tho reaction of the cortical layer and medulla of the same 
u is to place the re-action of the former above that of the 
latter thus (K + — C). Tlieso re-actions, which may be generally 
obtained on any portion <>f the thallus, are frequently more vivid 
on the younger or circumferential portions. Success depends on 
the reagents being freshly compounded and of tho proper strength, 
and . temperature has also something to do with it, as in very 
severe cold weather the re-action takes place very slowly and im- 
perfectly, and perhaps at all times it would l>e advisable to warm 
the reagent. Great cleanliness must be observed with the brushes 
and Teasels, which should be thoroughly wiped dry after using. 
None of the liquid reagent should to left exposed to the air from 
one day to another, nor a fresh supply added to any which has 
Issen so exposed, nor must any which has been once used be 
returned to tho stock bottles, which should always have close fit- 
ting glass-stoppers. Neglect of these precautious results in failure 
and uncertainty. The aqueous solution of iodine is also useful as 
a test on the exposed modulla in certain easss. 

The following work is arranged as to Families, Tribes, and 
Genera, with some slight modifications, on tho system of Dr. \V. 
Hylander, of Paris, as being simple and philosophical, founded on 


u general consideration and balancing of all tho parte of lichen*, 
their external and internal structure, mid MOxllibltfngtllQirooml 

a with the Algw ind Fungi to irhififa Lichens are intcrnu'd 
To facilitate the student* labour in the ready and accurate dc 
mination of his specimens, the species, especially in the more 
oxUnsive genera, such na Iseawfra, IsatUa, i'trrucaria, «fce., Lave 
been thrown into small groups, distinguished either by the pecu- 
liar external character of the thollus or the forms and colour and 
septa of tin' ipont, and in the largest genus, Leeidea, each of 

i groups is again subdivided into lesser ones according a< 
hypothecium is dark or colourless. Objoctionable as such an 
arrangement confessedly is in separating allied species, it ia 1 'rlicvcd 
it will be nevertheless found convenient and useful. In Uic diag- 
noses Uie prominent and distinguishing characters an: printi 
italics, and the chemical re-action added iw a confirmatory aid. 
Its general habitat, relative frequency gg n< ;n< ity, date of first 
discovery in Britain, (also appended afterwards to the name of its 
discoverer,) are giv. n. l'lie synonymy I. i> bwil purpoc 
concise, rctoiuing only a reference to tha work in which each lichen 
was first described and named, and also to the works of Achariua, 
the Liuiueus of Lichenology ; and finally to the various works of 
Dr.W. N) lander ; and to thoso of bnjnblet students, where neces- 
sary. By a reference to these works tho synonymy may be, if 
desired, followed out i» extento. References are mode to charac- 
teristic figures of the lichen, itaspores. Ac. Mierometric measure- 
ments of the s]>ores are also given, from the works of Mudd, 
Nylauder, and T. M. Fries, to which are added my own measure- 

References arc made to various pull: ihod Kxsiccati, Continental 
and British, enumerated hereafter ; and in the preparation of the 
work the Herbaria of Mr. Dawson Turner, Mr, Borrer, iukI the 
liuokcrum Herbariujn at Kow ; many original specimens from 
Acharius ; tho collections of I>r. Grcvilio, Dr. George Johnston, 
Mr. Carroll, Mv. OrombJa, Mr. Larbaloetier, and iicrs 

have been consulted and examined, and where necessary mi 
copically. To which must be also added my own immense 
Lichen-Herbarium (without exaggeration the finest and most 
extensive private one, both as to BritUb and Tropical lichens, 
in the kingdom, and destined at my death to be presented to the 
National Herbarium at Kow) comprised in 400 quarto ease* 
occupying, book wise, shelves 120 feet in length. The names of 
lloUninU oo whose autlvority thoso localities rest are appended, 
awl a note of admiration (!) added where a specimen from any 
lity has boon personally examined. Those localities to whirl. 
no name is appended have l»ecn ascertained by the ]x:r 
research of the author, and for these he alone is responsible. 

The marvellous discoveries of Mi. I i the West 

of Ireland, and Uie inferior, but very interesting, ones of Mr. 
Crombie. Dr. Slirton, Mr. McAndrew, Dr. lUinbridgc, and 


n in the North of S.-otluiid, tad of mynolf in North and. 
Sooth Wales, have raised our Laches Flora to u equality m 
numhers iiuil runty, with that of am utlw country III Bur 

The ntunl wtai and IbnM or varieties comprised in 

tin BOOOOd edition of iIum work luuountcd to 1,156, whilst in 

t he prat) I tl ii v bare risen ui 1,710, and may bo tabulated 

Hows : — 

t ;.i in, 

hi.. 1 


Bnilom ma 


PWtyijlm.l 8 




SpseUa or Total. 









: .1 : ■ 

Baramvre* . 

<j»tltelia .... 



Pik.phur.Ki 3 

Plw ss — ul« 



AU-ituria ••- 

I... i, . 


























• ■ 













(icmu. S|wii' 

frul III. 

ngfatfarwaid 3S» 

Kicasolla i 

Paralalia •-!.-. 

Phncia 17 



Pannariit .. 



.i r., 














Agvriurn . 
1 . 1 1 1 1 • ■ ■-- 1 - . i ' 

Op p»p£ 



:r»plia 1 




Stlginatidlum 5 

Arlliuniii 34 

Graphii 10 

i Ihiodecton 1 

Mefaapilea . . . . 
Mycoponim 3 

ThclocariKin .. 
Noniiancllna .. 
Bndoenpoa .. 












































Carritd forward. . 33U Total ,1710 

I have purposely "inittril any mcmi^n i>f the Sehwondeneriau 
Theory of Lichens, as 1 cannot but regard it a* purely ImagfauuT, 
•* tlie baseless fabric of a vision;" which even if it ooold bo 
proved to be true, which is not yet the case, cannot maki 
to be lew lichens, nor interfere with their Bjstemfttle stmly. 

Ii will be weU for us eTer to bear in mind the sound romarki 
which Mr. lieutham embodied in 1£72 in one of thOM mlmn 
addrosst* which, iui Preaideni oi the UfiBltan Boofoty, ha .unmully 
delivered. " There is u very common roadJMB to take nt once 
as proved any jxuadox, or theory, opposed to general belief, when 


a new discovery appears to afford some plausible argument la Hi 
favour. In Lichens, according to Schwendeuer, ire 1 i. (In sup- 
I ed ['inmiUi surrounding .ind unclosing Its presumed victim, 

ling it off from nil communication with the outer world I 
which it has to derive it* nutriment ; and yet we are to hi i 
tliat the poor prisoner not only sustains its own life and feeds its 
hoHts, but flourishes, grows, and multiplies. If ths njpbsj feed 
upon the enclosed gonidia, what do tho gonidia feed upon? If 
there really is parasitism in the caso> whioh is very doubtful, may 
not the gonidia be the parasites, the lichen, the host ? or may uot 
the gonidia be mere stages of existence of certain lichens falaelj 
ascribed to Algas 1 The whole questiou is a very curious one, 
notwithstanding the skill and nouteuess of Sehwendeuer and 
others, requires much more observation and study buforc the COB 
elusions derived from thorn can Iks taught as an established theory. 
And whatever be tho result, tho group of lichens is so distini 
its vegetative characters, and at tho samo time so extensive and 
varied a one, that it seems more methodical to treat it, as hereto- 
fore, as a distinct class, than to absorb it in that of fungi, not 
withstanding the close affinity shown by its reproductive organs." 

Should the student desire to possess microscopical preparations 
of sections of the thallus, spores, <kc, of lichens, I can confidently 
refer him to my friend, the Rev. J. E. Viae, Forden Vicarage, 
near Welshpool, Montgomeryshire, whoso slides, prepared with 
groat scientific knowledge and skilful manipulation, are unrivalled, 
and cannot be surpassed for beauty and usefulness. 

Mr. E. M. Holmes, F.L.S. (80 Arthur Road, Holloway, London 
N.), and Mr. W. Joshua, F.L.S. (Cirencester), are also doing gi 
service to practical science in issuing fasciculi of microscopical 
preparations (in slides) of sections of the thallus, spore*, Ac., 
which will enable tho student to attain a more thorough and 
adequate knowledge of internal structure. The examples I havo 
seen are most beautiful and excellent, and arc deserving of tho 
highest commendation. 

I take this opportunity to make known that my friend, Mr. 
Larhalostior proposes to publish under tho title of " Larualbsttbr's 
LiciiKK-ilKMJABiux " a series of dried Licheus of Ireland, England, 
and the Channel Islands, four fasciouli of whioh will be issued each 
year, each containing 40 species, nearly all rare or little known 
plants, at 12/6 each fasciculus. Mr. Larlxtluaticr also intends to 
issue fasciculi of " Lkuibnks Raiuasimi " at 20/- each, independent 
of the above. 





Timlhia fiiriiishfil with u stratum of gonidia or gramilu p 

poeed, re*y often (at l«ml in the omul ncoua vpeoin) 
lining crystal* of oxalate of lima Fraotifiontion oonwrtwg 
of eporoa in bynunua i» most specie* 

becoming blue, in >there reddish, on the application of an .kjhooiu 
solution "t' «<"l in .-. Spennoffonia inpyrenodine oonoeptaclee distinct 
from the apothecia, and Qtei generally on boa same 

thallas with the apotheolafmoaceatouf^ oz separately 

different thiilli (lii'Tciou*). 

ins am ili 'I from r*ungi by the j»o*.-nli:»i- t-yjw, fnrm 

^tnictnrcof tli allies and their prinoipal 

divisions are chiefly hased on tho diversities of the thaihia, though 
sometimes tho differences of the apothecia and spcrmogonia de- 
termine tbeae. 

Thallu* bjenaccous. =*Fm m I ■• I . BYSSACET. 
Tha ia - family IL COLLEM 1CJ 

Thalamium colliil"- lh«oifcr>>iw caviti 

Thallu* not gelatinous. = Family IV. LICIiEN'AUEL 


Thallus brssaceous ; granula gonim:» in a thallinc vagina. ■ 
Tribe I. Sibosiphsl 


Thallus filiform, branched. ■ Tribe 1. 1,1,-iiim.i. 
Tludlua meiubi-Aiiaccuns, lobate. •• Tribe II. CoLLU 


Tftalamium oaUoloee, with superimposed Kheriferotuj uaviti 

Tribe I. Mviuaxoiki. 


Sporoa pulverulent on surfaoe of BruetifiOatioD. «Sm1m I. Kpi- 


Tliullus foliolose ; apotliecia tonnbxa] n podetia. liiatorino. = 
Series II. Cladodki. 

I'IimIIi:-. efoUoloM, iVuticuloio or filamcntose ; apothecia lecano- 
rine. = Scri«* III. EUKakiOIIB. 

Timlin* foliacoous, depressed, lobod. =Series IV. F'iivi.i/>i>icf. 

Thall us crustacoous, squamoae, radiate, grannlosc, povden, OE 
evanescent. = Series V. Placode. 

Fructification "|itaclca, <=Si-ricti VI. Ptrkkodbi. 

Series I. F.PICON IOHF I. 

Thalliw horiwmtiilly upurtfed; apothecia stipiuto, cupidiform, 
or sessile. = Tril>e 1. C'aliciki. 
Thallna fruticuloee, ramose; apothecia nucloiform. = Tribe II. 



Tfaallvi bortHotal ; apotbacia substipitaN'.=Tril>c III. Reo- 

Thall apothooia MstoriiM an icjrphiibnn or simple 

podetIa»a«TrilM iv. Cunognu, 

Tlmllua caaspitose, podetiifonu ; apothecia terminal or lateral, 
itc.=Tnbe V. Stereooaulei. 


Thall un branched, whit*; a|»tliccia lateral. = Tribe VI. Roc 


Thallus podctiiform ; apothecia unknown. = Tribe VII. 

Thalliw branched, terete, or compressed, medullar} axis firm ; 
apothecia peltate. =Tribc VIII. Uskbxi. 

Thall uk branched, round or riOTirnraajitdi medullary axis woolly ; 
•cia lateral or terminal. = Tribe IX. Kamaij.nei. 

Thall* i> BOa pw e d , fruticulosc or mcmbranously dilated , 
thecia marginal. - Tribe X. Cetrahiki. 

Series IV. PHYI.IX'l 

A|".lhocia pcltiform. » Tribe XI. Peltigbrxi. 

Apiithecia marginal, on under side of thallna, - Suit- 
tribe 1. Nephron ki. 

Apothecia marginal, on upper side of thallus. m Sub- 

triU' -j. Pmnm. 

Apothecia not marginal, innate. •'*. Nolorinei. 

A I -•thecia Iccanorine. ■ Tribe XII. Parmbmei. 


Thallu* iin'ii'.lii\i!i.icco-lobat.<', tomontOM and i i 
beneath ; spora fusiform, I -3 -septate ; paraphTsosdintm. i. 
» Sub-tribe I. Stictbi. 

TIuiIIm- Itthfctojobate J mont <.-llipaoid r simple; purn- 

pliyaea mdmtinct. =Sul)-lnbe 2. IsihKh AIUKI. 

ThalliiA i -l.n.'iiliir ; IBOfCt biloimlar J paranir 

digtinnt. — Snb-tribi 

Apotbeobl Iceidcine, gyrosc = I'rih.- Mil. 

um v. PLA< 

Apothecia lccanorino. = Tribe XIV. LkUSOUL 

Thallu«Ki|iiai.iul. mb, gonidia large, distim-t,. = Sub-tribe 1. 

Thalliw ■quamaloBe or granulose, witli granula goo 
(uo gouidia). = Sob-tribe 2. Pannariei. 

Thallus pulverulent. =SuMnl>r :'. Ami iiii^.mbi. 

TtialhiM radioRo-laciitiate or curt ilagiueo-Mpiamosc ; spores 
ellipsoid, nimple. =Siil.-«i-iln- 4. Bqi UUBIB. 

IIii- raoi&te (not radioeo-laciniate) ; spores ellipsoid, 
bilocular, oells united by a longitudinal tubiv = Sub-tribe 
5. Plaoodh. 

Thallua erustaccouH, granuloso ; spcttt rimpk DC variouNly 
aeptaU'. —Sub ttibe 6. Ku l.»: 

Apotli toil ndoccxpoid, ••m-loaod in vmrwm oi tiuilus ; 
spores vi i ollipvoid.— Sub-tribi 7. PlBrmiBHd. 

Apothecia in thallms verruca;, but with an i>jh.mi * - j ■ i 1 1 i ■ ■ 
cium ; spores plurilocular or murali-divided. = Bub-trihc > 
Apothecia biatonne or leekl ductim-. = Tribe XV. 


Aputlirr.ia lirullinc. =Tribc ,\V!. (Juai-iiidki. 

lorered by a black rimuloso-dchiscent peridium.= 
Tribe XVII. Pbridib. 


Aj-othecia pyrenodine. = Tlibo XVIII. Ptrknooarpei. 


Tribe I. Sikosiphei. 

ThaUus cseapitoae, distinctly vaginate. = Siho8Ipimn. 
TbidluM caspitosey granula gonima concatenate iuto a central 
axis; apothecia biatorine. = Goniosema. 



Thai I iin i:«oqntoNC, granuU gonima in transverse strata, ape 
tbeeia lecideino, =»SriLONm,v 


*n.»l|... fruttculoae, granula gumma cua&ate in transverse »tr»ta ; 
apotheeia caducarpoid in m» tiling* of the thalb 

Thalhts friitiiuti*.-, ruonid, granula goninia ccrnlnccnt , »p» 
duets in terminal glotaee receptacles. ■ Liraix \. 

Thallu* appreesod ; granul* gonima tuvniltfucmi-o-OcrMe : apo- 
theeia lcodeine. = Pteryi.ii *. 

Thalia* fruticuhwe ; granula gotiima woeilifornu -concatenate ; 
spothocia Iccidciue. = LsrroiUMi «■ 

Tube 1 i\>uxmu. 

Thalluji granalato-arcolate, intcronllv rubrkusc, granula gi-nim* 
in glolmlar cell* j apotbcria urceolato-hinate ; spores *iin]itt'. = 

Thallns granulose or frattcukoe, granala goninia in globular 
cell*; apothecia innate, leeanorine or endocarpoid ; spore* simple. 

Tballiu without cortical uiuln gonima motiilifortn ; 

apothecia Iccnnorbic; sjmrc* multilocular, rarely sinaplc.=COL- 

ThaOiu with distinct cortical layer, granule gonima ui"' 
:i©cia lecanohne; spores multilocular, rarely simple. = Lsr- 
II x. 

ThalliiN internally green : granula goninia anhmonOiforni ; 
a[«rthecia subgyalcct 

Thallu* minute, atellato-divided, or ca or oon£ 

effuse ; apothecia pyrcnocaqioiw, vcrrucarioid. = Ptrsnidicm. 

Ran. hi. 

:k I. Mykiaxgiw. 

tThalamium cellulose, with Kiiperiinposed thecittroua caritica. 

Tuna I. GaUOtSb 

ThalliiN ii ticiii pitnuitic on JVrtaMTMB globoeo-turbi- 

iKilmcssilc, hlack ; sjiores nigreaccut, simple. - SrmxoTiii I •.. 

I<ia gr.tnuloBo pulverulent ; apothecia globoso-turbirmU\ 

•ate, black; spore* iiij<r<v.t'ii»coiin, simple or l-WJ) 


ThaUua pulverulent ; A] globoao-pnhrcrulent, stipitati , 

: HporcS C I VBB. 

Tballtu granul .aliform, sessile, black ; spores 

iciMlt, 1-KcptatC. -TllACJlVLlA. 


Apothecia terminal, nucleiform, globose, irregularly dehiscent ; 
spores sphserical, violet-black. = Spii.euotuorox. 

Tribb III. Bjjomycel 

Thallus gelatinofio-conglutinate ; apothecia stipitate clavato- 
capitate; spores filiform, multiseptate. = Gom phillus. 

Thallus crustaceo-granulose or subsquamulose ; apothecia stip- 
itate or sessile, biatorine. = B<eohycbs. 

Tribb IV. Cladoniei. 

Thallus foliolose, or squamulose, or granuloso-crustaceoua ; 
podetia fistulose, laciniato-ramose or scyphose ; apothecia terminal, 
biatorine, livido-fuscous or scarlet. =Cladonia. 

Thallus verrucoso-granulate, bearing large fuscescent sessile 
cephalodia; podetia rigid, simple, iniuute; apothecia terminal 
subglobose, black. =Pilophoron. 

Tribb V. Stereocaclei. 

Podetia covered with variously-shaped fragile granules ; apo- 
thecia fuscous ; spores cylindraceo-fusiform, 3-9-scptatc ; cephalodia 


Tribe VI. Roccellei. 

Thallus fruticulose, from a common base, terete or compressed ; 
spores oblong or fusiform, S-septate. = Roccella. 

Tribe VIL Siphulei. 

Thallus of prostrate subulate stipites, acute at the apices, fistu- 
lose. = Tiiamkolia. 

Tribe VIII. Usxeei. 

Thallus filameutose, pule cinereo-viresccnt ; apotliecia concolo- 
rous. = Usmea. 

Tribe IX. Ramalinei. 

Thallus cylindrical, horny ; spores simple. = Alectoria. 
Thallus applanate, flaccid ; spores simple. = Evrrnia. 
Thallus compressed, rigescent ; spores 1 -septate. = Kamalixa. 


Tribe X. Cetraribi. 

Tlmllus spadiceous, laciniose or fistulose. = Cetraria. 
Thallus various in colour, niembrnnaceo-dilatate and lobate. = 


Tribe XI. Pbltigbrki. 

Sub-tribe I. Nephrohbi. 

Cortical layer continuous on the nerveless lower surface of the 
thallus ; spores septate. = Nephrohiuh. 

Sob-tribe II. Peltidei. 

Cortical layer not continuous on the nerved and rhizinoso lower * 
surface of the thallus ; spores 3-5-7-septate. = Pklttoeka. 

Sub-tribe III. Folorinei. 

Cortical layer not continuous on the obsoletely-nerved lower 
surface of the thallus; spores 1 -septate. =Solorina. 

Tribe XII. Parmeliei. 
Sub-tribe I. Stictei. 

Gonidial stratum of the thallus consisting of glnuco-virescent or 
glauco-cserulescent grauula gonima in pluri-locular nodules. = 

Gonidial stratum of the thallus consisting of free, true, bright 
or yellow-green gonidia ; rhiwnrc simple. = Sticta. 

Under surface of thallus with fasciculate rhizinee ; spores 1-3- 
septate. = Ricasolia. 

Sub-tribe II. Imbricariki. 
Spores simple. = Parhelia, 


Spores polari-bilocular or 1 -septate. — Phtscia. 

Tribe XIII. Gtrophorbi. 
Thallus monophyllous, umbilically amxed. •* Uhbujcaria. 

Series V. PLACODEI. 

Tribe XIV. Lecanorkl 

Sub-tribe I. Psorohbl 

Gonidial stratum of thallus consisting of large distinct gonidia' 


SlIB-TlUB« II. Paxnariei. 

fionidial Htrafnm of thallus wuiMJsting of granula goniui*. = 

Sub-TRwe III. Amphii.mmki. 
Thallus white, granuloafrpurfexukctt = hunn/OUM. 

Si •ii-TRim: IV. Sqcamariei. 
Spores simple. = Sqcamahia. 


•s polari-bilocular. = Placodiim. 


Apotbccia internally colourless; spores 8 or DumtroilB, limpl 
or variously divided, eolomieai or fbacoac. I.u mos s. 
Apothecia tabercaloao»locanorinc j hjpoifatoiuin blaak ; 
rnn, 3-si-])t!itc Dimxa 

Si b-tribb VII. Pertisariki. 

AiHiliecia endocurjioid. or leeaiiomid or rariolaroid ; npatm 

I _ '. v simple, very Iiitjlt, c-llijiHoid, with :i thick Bpiaporl 


AjMithecia enimpcut, rotiindato-diffcnned ; spores 1-2, DUimll 
divided. ■ PuLrcns. 

SCB1i:m:i. \ III. TliKLoTKENBI. 

Apothecia verruciform, open; spuvs 6, iinir.»li-divii)ed.=» 


Apothecia urceolate ; fcjiores murali-locu'ar. = Uhceolaria. 
Tribe XV. Lbcidkinm. 

Tliallus crustnecous, squamosc, scurfy, powdery, granulate, 
areolate, continuous, rimulosc, or Bvanasoent . spores 8 or aamef 
ous, colourless or fascoiu, simple or t iriooalj septate. = Lecidea. 

: i : ;i|i"(liii'i;i u} unlet rumoid, naked, UmI 
spore* P^icptjite. = Oi»>.smtiu:via. 

Thiil! : :i|i.,t lui i.i kvi'lcinc, i-levated, nuked, black 

spores numerous. ^Siinxiiwi on. 

Thibb XVI. OiiAriiima. 

A|- T. parallel, plane, internally dmraseenl 

•pores R, simple. = Xvux; hatha. 

mi i [i.:ilKN riAlKA 

tlieeto | 'i iiniiiiii. '.Mil: :' or i longtitudinsDy pantile] 

i'TYrll'H. KAPHA. 

tpotbeoio rod, roiundat< or oblong biatorine, plane, inteniallj 

nrlc*» ; n| "i'ii i, \i;yrich. 

A|ii.illii'i'i:i Mack. Iwmiii ; bypothoeium black, cutiiv : »[" 

or aumeroas, simple or 1 leptate. Litbo<hufsa ( 

Apothoeia black, superficial ; pwitbwfauil I leak, entire ; spore* 
8, obovatc or t'lisilnnn, 1-muHueptAte j paraphyscs indistinct. 

Apothccin black, imjiroas >d in thallinc verruca) and surrounded 
with a ■panose tlmllinc margin j hypothednm black; spores 
un, ^-septate = PuuroRAPHA. 

Apotlaciii in [ unlet it'-.i-m oroIoogatO) bnmoreod; hypo 

theeium oolonriess. Strm own *■ 

Apnthci'm roundish, pl.nn-, or tumid, innately matte ; asci pyri- 
fonn in i\. iv. vii. .11* of tho Babgolstinotts hymeninin : pai 


Apothecia black, innate or immersed . Bporoa 8, oulono or 

ri i iongate or cylindrical, pluii-bictil.irj paroph; ::nt . 

= Gi:ai-iii . 

Apt t 1 1- ieic, immersed to whin rounded vor- 

Apotheoia. mtncato-nexuDBO, immersed in white piano lepr«Bed 

vun ilea.-. =C,I,YPHI8. 

Apothecia black, f.upi'i l'kirtl, arthonoi.l . ; .,.-.. | septan | pan 
distinct. = Mi-: i v.rii.KA. 

Tiilii: XVII. PmnB. 
Api'tliia'Li coutainiirj ni:.m OOUjolned OS in a OOmBBOI] 

exeipubmi, but without poritmx i a.-- My< opoevN, 

in the I'cimv, dab 
nro.=Ri»ii-t miia. 

:,. VI. l'VUKNOH 

Tumi; X \' J 1 1 . PYBKKX UML 

Ajxiiliccia single in edtrine spbajrleal ttiallinc verrucn; Bpo 

I'liiiiiirin black, Imxncreed in aequamuloee (hallos; sj 

Pcritbooia pale, immi i itc or aquaniiDfonn thalltta ; 

■ port •- 8 simple I 
Poritli eta bl lj coloured, entire or dimidiatOi semi 

immersed or sessile ; ipora 8 «>r numerous, Btmple or rarionslj 
itc. « Vsiun ■ una, 
Perithecia qui imbedded in a round or 

IVntli.i nigregato, their oatiola D 

into one common centnd peril iccium. « Ahthothk 



i .lliii i.l iok >. ftlSOOlia, nl imi i gnuhna 

in 1-2 or it MCiM enclosed i" ■> v:i 


TLollua minute, Hi: dcnaofy imphrod or 

vngiuntf, gnuiuln gvminin in 1-2—3 ttcriea. 

I. 8TR0SIPH0N. 2A*. 

Filaments bru ■■ lv •. i-. 1..1 1. , rniu|Kinui.i of 

tiiK>iK cellules, mu i i Li .!• and 

uplc <>r 2-3-fnld scrim within tin 
1. S. vmpactM, Kt.:. I'lack, deusuly Intrk onanta 

•'1, ooolcBct-n! below, i i mh. i oartilagineo 
Pusooim : oellnli - in 

Syn : -K -19). 

I >— Hi *. IX 

Qaua, Dikiuih 

ImtaNI' i.slimv, Mr . Larbakmttr. 


HaIIn8 6tifbrm,gnuiulag «nh 

auteq oblo 

I. I :. ' , \ :..•',. ■ 

Aiiim. pale uiilnii. 

Oll»ltl> -;»I [ ii I if 

S ; Ootltma, Ach. Bra. 339. 
\i'm. wkIMak- N»L. »i' Sy„. 

Gk-. — Kutop*, • •■•'!. ■■-. 

Hot. hwi I . 

ir« near UdccnrJ, Mam. Tartur 4 
i ' utynmory- 

in Booblwyd! C'«nii tdwall Cwm Cjth. 
,.ljr I ' 

i. Una, thwi via .010 mm, ! 

•007 mm. linwvl "f.V./'..; Bporw jOM .024 nm. long; .00? mm 

Ka«: II. I OU EM kCEL 


bai monil 

i Im ' ba 
in. I;, andocarpoid, 
generally i tally whitish or pale, 



Till UK I. I.1CH1NB1. 

Thallus small or minute, fHifbrm, oajtju^oeo-irntleuloee, or de- 
nwo imntoTcirt ; granule gonima uiotii rarSouslj 

BOnCntfl. AjHitluriii ].-i'iiti..iriiir', lii.iti.niii- or loOldoio* <"" BOdoMF' 

poid. Spores 8, colourleen 

I. EPHEBK Fr. Ban. X>/'. 

Timlin:- lilil'i'iiu, branched, fruticnk*e ; granule gonima target 
Kiilitransveraplv arranged in little heaps, i, 1, or more t<>i:rthcr 
Apotbeoia eudocorpii'l, in thti Icened portion of tilt tballua, Spcr 

1. E. pubescent, Fr. blackish-brown, slender, cwepitoue, entangled, 
branotien, tUghtlj ni^ul.w ; . I'ulnuriflBB, lineari-oblong or 

siiiii', 1 septate; parepAyaei tadhtinet. 

On -Hi ... !|ii ni> rooka, nol onlreqaent 1851. 

: Frf.ii 8.O.V. SV! (182J) ; Bornet in Ann. So. Net ier. X xvilL 170 : 
XyL Prod. 17, Syn. 90. 8o*BJ 24. £M«a ,„t,t, \.\ K \\\I. ft. Scot |>. «M, Cnta 
I •ultoncy. Ac. in Miu. Brit. 
In. t- Aju -:■ V.t. !. a I. 7. Ann. and Mug. Xat. Hint, July, IWiB, t 4, f. 

^13, 14. Nvl. Syn. t. ?. f. 1 4 17-20. 
;xh : Nyl.'l. M. A N. IBS. lloi.p. 712. Fellm. 2. 
'.>■>,.. |)i,i i;iii Si ;.iicliim\i:i, K. I..\y>l»ud, France, SwiUvrlanil, Algeria 
Creculaml, X. America. 

i 7 ii It I- I'.' S&..9S. 

li.iitin" m ' A/v. Rnlfi. Simtli DeWB. *r. •/ M. Orotultt, E«lo- 
. Durham. /Yr J. S/am'nuui. In the River Knnc above Ivy Bridie, 
Devon. l>r.ll,.U. BlackatOtM Rock. Dartmoor. Mr. Parfill. 

VtUOt, I." Ii A"'-: AflhilUftt, Knivninr; Craig- CJuie ; Rev J. M. 

IKKLAVU: Qleosarfff, Coachford ! want of Cork. Mr. Carroll. Dublin 
lOUlnm, Mr Anlitr. Loch Lewie and Cromag-lan, KUIarncy. Dr. 
Kylonort I on. Calway, Mr. Larltalnlirr. 
WALK Summit ■( 1 Vn-maen-mnwr !; (ISM) Barmouth ! lilydcr Vach !, 

■ of I.lanhrrll! 

■ :milt iiroviili-v '•- 1-1. " S|iore» .011— 1H uitn. lonir, .003— I mm. broad." 
(i\»i.J K|*.tv. .01:* .01 1 mm. long. .0034 mm. broad. 

i'ii..:l -i. filiform, branched, Eruticuloee, grtnula Koniaui largo, in 
ii. i. Apothccm leeidi ine, lenticular. Spermntla 
1. B 4 Swum, Born, blackish-brown, slender, tmpittm, **■ 

bed : apotheole black, terminal, bemiapherb i, im 
n nigretcmt ; oolnarlote, oblong, 

■ thick, artioul 
On inn . r.-uv. I 

Srss— Bomet In M, in. (herb. Dae 1856, «.. 4: XyL Prodr. 17; Svn. »; 
Soand.S& Mmlil Man. JR. 

Mem. Cherb. UtUSi Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hiit, July l*». 
t. 1. (. 7. >. ■<. !», UjKyL Syn.t.2,t8. 
Lwjfbt. 847. 

mi :— France, Pyrene«^ Finlaud. 

in. lit i J. M. Cromtne. 
W i. luar IU, : C'llyJw Varh I 

SncnrdouU : Llyn Cm I Cader ldria. Cwm Cywlon ! Cvon Fyuaon lloer I 



UtnUfm ' ■ lb* regular tranaverie nrnuiKcnicnt, gron| -it nf th* 

irranula Ipmima uill ■!! i > ■■hi fyilitbt J"llfo«BtWniflIl it -'iiiprallv 


K)l mm. brawl. Crlutina hjir >l latMaMbttM 

tlii-n ilu»Vy ■• !■ let. " (JfgC) ^|»>Pt» .00S nun. Ion*, .004 mm. broad. 

J. .■>;.. .-evertent, NyL black or fuscous-black, tjl' ■lymrtil- 

loideo-cornj.Ki'i, more generally forming tmaO farm ■n/i } 

non or Ion crowded ; apothteia blatok, ■'. on., ■what 

convex, iiiuiiurxiimU', internally entirely olwcmrely cinenuwont ; 
tpor«$H, colourlwa, oWon if toe apothechun 

somewhat cwrulescciit. ; opithocion. tint i . paraphpes fhidUti, 

their apioe» incra««;i.''' 'Iiiii^rntr ; hypothtmm net i tth . • •■• 

Una hyrueuea I. blue, the apioea «>f the tiwov more Intent 

On granit:'- uid iiueiiix'o KohistOM rocks, rare. 1863. 

fa :— NyL id Flora 1808 p. DHL 

Kiidand, Kaatern Lapland. 

i'll.iv I... 

. -n I •*«*■■■ and Craig TnlK«li (but diiIt In »WriIn 'Utte, there - 
ra uncertain), lirr J. U 

ba thalhu occur minute colourless immersed globose pjrcnMa* with 
red xlyloKjwrw. Si»n>* ,00S— All "(Syl.) 

3. •' , \\ I. block or ftuwou . 

in tmali com)" 

aproned 01 bfpothttivm i 

*pf/ret 8, colounem, m if' -ri 1 1 1 I ...,./ ■.'. |i:n ,i|,|, , ... - -|. i 

Ahtb hymenal tinged blue, tin u it, by Iodine. 

On nl). in. rocks, tin 1869. 

: -Njl. in Hot* I : Crombic En. 1. 

PR.-.V : 

UKD :— Ben I.swur*. Rer. J If. Crombi f] 
' Spora* .010- M mm. ton*. .OCMnmni. broad." (Jfyl.) 

III. I.ICHIXA. ,1.7. 

Thai] us ftncou»M»cki (raticaloee, firm, maud* go 

irloboee thiuline racept i 
lecanorinc, sabpyrenoid Bpom lolourltn, elhpeoid, mil] 
Sperniatia oblong 

1. L pygmaa, (Light£) cttapitoae, ramose, -mull. 

On ii inks, not. unfrequent 177 7 

Sra -.-Fiteiu pmmtrut, Mghtf. Kl. Scot. p. Wi (1777) UeUna, Axardh. S) ii. 

,,; Nyl. HyD.91, Sr..n.l 'I, Mu.l.l Mm,. 83. 

E.Boi ■■ -tt. Crypt, t. am. Tulaane I.i. Ii i ''. 

I. ]■>.. v-ui. tad Mac. Nat. ■ t. I, f. 21. N'yl. 8yn. t. S I 

Ughtf. 1. 0, I 

-Leigh'. »». Happ 123. Larba! 
G» illimvi.i, ' liili. 

Bor. Pkov:-1 ..«. .10. II II 18. U 

t's Buy ! Cornwall. Mr. Sal/t. T Deo a. 'nll-i 

09*l> I nlx-rlnnd. Mr. Bnlrr. Huntclift, ' lev»hknd. Ur '■' 

Hooka mar .Shalilnn, K»libi>- :.-. r.i.|iiav. Ur. Pa 

tlasii:— Leitb nnd Ncwharcn ; Hebriile*. Sir J. E. Smith. l«le» of 
Jara, leoa, Firta o( Forth. «rr. J. Light!***. | ' 

nre ucaucf-ruttu 

liciTi. - Mutax nxiv *r £ton«. Ari&m oa, Don. Or. JMi». 
I*bfia. Pr. JrWr. Maflarkfia-! <ial*a«. Jfr. Ca>iafli„. 

«'a:ih:-C»«I1 Bn! Mi 
Cw.HTn OiMt-W 3mmji Shore. u< *ck, Hra. *ndJ«ho«: 

u. Z_«r«*»fc*<iatr 
St»ar- .002-9 not. loo* .011-161*0*1 -Spun. OBB n. IobX, by 
.NB ia. \mrnd.- fJlmM.J "Saana .096 ana. lie .015 mau t^wi*' 
f JI>M F-]«***e Bartow. 

1. oxtnu, (Ach). detaely caapitoee. very small, took/, aof 

•v | OM«t 

Ou maritime rocks, not imfrvqueat IMS. 

Srx.-£«*ni ««***, Ach. Prod. 80S. <17*H Z^»— . Acarda. tfef*, IOSl 
llflSi; Nrl Syn. *t ScaaJ. 94. MaoM Ma*. 94. 
ria r-E. Bet. x. WJ. Cm. Scott. Cm*, t. SSL TbL Ma. Uc*. L 10, f. 
- Ann. 4 Mac. Sal HR July, ltW, L 4, f. SS. 
LarbaL LHafch. 78Z. 
Qmw. Dutmist-Evnpb. Scaadlaaria. Fraaea. State, Portugal Kan* 


Bar. Pk.v:- : 29.. .90. 5L 

•itmU Jfr. «W/a WaitMMMl Bay. Cornwall. 

. . a . 

8om-ixi> .- KiacanUaa, EaaUra eoa»U from Firth .i Forth northward* 
ftrr. J. M. CmmUt. 

It juarc rlier. flir r. to/. (1*13*. Co. Down. />. Jfnasaw, 

•ear Cork, JTr. G»rroff. Dublki. />. Jforc 

Wjmr. .— BrooMtla. Glanw«irao. Vr. H.JI. Black .Sterna, Conway Bar ' 
<:io,l* Ifcwk! Y Fkfe »»** near Bann.mll.: Caawdi Bay! 
Mutable*. Ooodwkk Bay! fVmbrnlaahii*. 

h*; Sooth Coaat ol Jcncy I .Vr. LaAalmHtr. 
ML hrtHT. .01 • mm. broad. Ktwporr bruad. 

iv. PTKBYGIUM. .\y. 

Tli.Jlua aptmesed, laciuiato-multifiil, vc> 
lied ; gntuida 

! ..yiT (ae- 

lata (aee Nyi 
1. / ', Micropkjrftiu a 

ouavbeot, i{r»ii 1 ■» genoralty iiiaiiilifiiniii iniiwliiiwhi . 

tpoh -Hihtr fxciptlunt : 

1 lissa, obluiig, 2-3-scptate. 
rocka, very rare. 

riib. LJcfc. Hyi*rb. |». » aotr. flriwwri* trimrkilm, Xyl.UmUeimm 
ro«Ju«. Tit. ft. 

8coTLA3ct..-Crai}: Tulloeli, Blair Atkolt, Pcrthahire. Srr. y. Jf. r.->o*o*. 

"J. /'■'. /,/>,.,•,,•.•;*-, I'|.i:i,Ii. .', «i/- 

ur/araeroui, fAi*, or ubaoletely rtMrtoar, 

Jna i-ui.iiiv d 

tty)/otJnriii>n witUurmU-nigricami ; cpitiiociuin ceerulosounti-n 

Ilotuiota, Drifbrm, 1-*-/ 1 
-Icarcous mar 
itll«\ r. ioh> ,11..,:.. 

I land ol Lannure, Argyloaira. *. J 



A Wad v> Ft. <uptn*tiuim\\ih.) VtjL, i.m dMbn "> ilw Uullw and «■««■. 
Sporaa .010 — 11 mm. Ion*, .OW.ffmm. broad. Cielntinn hymcnea I blur. HMD 
•htiky fatcMent. 

V. i.u-Ti.i;u.|i 'I. Ay. 

Qranola noima rnomlifbnnly ooOcatnattd "Syngouimia 

1. L. dtadriwm, N\i. ardfi the base flarv 

<'<nd, or obooletely soruewhrn voea- 

hively branrlicd, slender. SITUi 1 1 ijjothecitt 

pate or ;■ •-, smallish; epitheoituu ut ■hat 

COOVI .tourlr/u, tlli/Miiid. MnA ," j.-iliitiim liyiiu-luu I 

On mossy trows on lofty mountaihi, rare. I 

Svs: Nyl. Vynm. Or. (8. Nyl- Bjrfl. US. /.. JHWn, Ufeht. I,i,b. Kt 
Snded p 

i l: t». l-.i. Sot RiUnb.7. t. I". I I 

• Iiiktrib: Br*/il, I -li ■ uf I u,,i j I...H, >'»p*iti and N«r»- Caledonia. 


Ini iff ! Adm. Ji>na. 

Crembie, in .Touni. Bot., »)■«. " On uibinittintf a ipeoimeii of /.ryfc-jtMin 
M ■■■ ■ Xylandi-r he pronounced it to he. entirely tliv precast aiadM, 

I liar* h>«ii in hflrb. <':utuU& ex herb. Jonex, 
there are no apothecia prevent, and it U moat likely that the ouomaloua 
apolliixU lulhrrto ilaecribad were aimply anerniiigoii**, th.Migli iiven th«M, 
which are not unfreqnent in the «i>e< iiuen« referred to, are nearcely riiihtly de- 
veloped. Tbla it another oi those intereating exotic upociea which find their 
«rayt»&W. Ireland." 

II. InllENJl, 

Thallus new various, crustaceous, grauuluae or lobate, laalniata 
byllino; mania p is-jrrwm either monQi- 

form or variously dUipenod. Apothi'ciu 1ci.iih.iiim i* MatorJlM U 


I. SYNAI.ISSA. hit. Ay. 
Thali nt. mmutfl, of rariotu (bun, thinlj inuro 

1 1 itiil. .^i . ilri Ulcil, ;-i;iiiiiI.i "niiiiru 
•liiilur .i-lls; lipotbccia iliniiti , i -iiii'iil' r.'ii. . I. I noruM M 

rlocorjK.-i'l Spermatu uliUm/. 

1. S. tytupkorea, (!>(-'.) black, /a$tiffialo<KneUd, brandies ten 
ibc, aomttim** only nodutifbrm . apotAoM ajraMaW., 
jmnrtifonnii)! ' length diluted, (Aniline margin tun 

; s 8-24, • . ellipsoid or simple. 

On Duritimi cal arooui rooks, i 

•- .-CUfflB... DC M. I ■ -". 388. Caliana lynaliuum. Ach. L. U. (HO. Syn. 
•iw/imm, Nyl. Syn. III Mmld Man. 35. 
Fi<; Hepp Sporen t. 11. f. 80. NyL "Syn. 1. c. t. S. f. 4 
Ex* :-Zw. te& Hepp t*>. And It. S. l, An/1 VeneL «. 
Gr< •-, Kranoe, Pyreneen, Oennany, Italy, Algeria. 

Bet. Pm 

Rocks, near Bristol. t*r. Thru, 
Ileron. Adm. Jena. 

GeUtiu.t hyniana* f. " Spnrea .(XW . Ioiib, .000 !i mm. I>r»»d." 

(Oft.) - »porw .00125 in. diam. i,M*dd t. 1. f. 2)." 


1HK I N i'M>IU 


i.ioeoila, thin, ifiMiiulosi- iiivi.luti-, Imlv OOlInlfl 

i ii .1) y rubriooNi t- imuhI.. gonimi agglomerated in gtobulai 
colls. »p I icoloroUB, minute, nreeoliito-iiimito m 

in- iamt margined reoeptaele, nuuyin v. -.11. i 

eonnireuL Spores « i 1 1 ■ ] > I • . 

1. P. hanuUtph, iSinii'ii dark or rvbri /uteott*, crnxW., 

• >]i(ik<r, ■•• ..«.-..■•. ■ irnn/uiit, tA 'illy nuhconco- 

loroui 09 in": 'ii En the lower portion , N[iermati* . 

llipaoid ; total*, mnnjin* eJerxtttd, 

entn. pore* B, oofouriaaa, olfipeoid, impla. 
Uu alpOU rooln, rare 1»65. 

8rx:-Smrit. Un U7.(1«»J, Nyl. Lapp, «. 104. OronUi En. i 
Exa:— Fellm. 5. 

... Dprrais:- Lapland. 

I'ROV J- 15k 

Scotland .— B«n Lawon. Aim. Jena U86f.). 

S. P. homanpti*, NyL fouim, thin efltaae, 

v«ia OOnOolorOUS, IcotlUjrine, »ni;ill. ml. in. illy pale | I pitli.'. inin 

oolourliMM ; pnrauhjraea dendcr: niKin-.t s, oolourloti, ellipsoid, 

:-iin|.| .1 Iiviiii'ih- i •, in "ii'- rati R llli il ' 

: Nil in Flora, 18w. p. :i I i Mo In BmBUD Jmini. Bot 7. 48. 

1 Ii-im-al, li*» |j.w..r». (!»>") Rtv. J. it. Cnrnlnt 

d t.i /•. ijT»w»-tsftra, Nyl. but dirtinct. 
"SpOM .mi- IH mm. loOC Mi I" mm. Lnnul." fAVJ 

4. /'. ftufai*lii, Nyl, ././Wr/y ftueatU or brotm-blaaL, minute, 

„.../•!.',, ,...„,,hu''.i.'., .•Il'n.s.-, ^-r.miiliv, O/fgbm '• :iii'l iinllmiil in 

rted giomrruU*, more or loss distiuct, or irregularly scat- 
tered ; "apoiheeia nou rite avoluta visa." 
On maritime rocks, rare. 186C. 

: Nyl. Bo. Gas. ,i. 144. (18»). 
Gcoo. Divtrjb .— Franc*. 
Bor. Paov:— 7. I 

Scvtlaxu. Cairn Oowar i*)U0 ft.) /kv. /. if. (tombit. 
Walbi— Bamenta I 
Okax*kl InLAMm :- Noinnont and La Muy*. Roiilav Kay, .I*rvy. Mr, Utr 
tal<*«r. 11868). 

■">. /'. /»'/«»'i, Nyl t"uKi'i.i>K liliuk at lil.rk, vAen mo*M ruhri- 
t o m m g r i ea n t or mbritoto-rufrternt, prmudat faen'ti 

•'y "ixmlttriform ; wporw £, cxdourleaa. I 
IMN »ith ii. 

On alpine roeka, rare. L864. 

: NyL In Flora, WIT., p, XV „rn. But. 3. 2W. 

Bor. 1'mdv :— IS. 

Sooti-am n< Beu Laatr* :■. near I»cli T»y »n.l in (ilm (Kiehart. 

Adm. Jonn. 0«4) 

1. /'. pkjtlitOltla Nyl KM, effuac. EOK, »/nam- 

W«< fiiiwrtuT^oav-Miioyua/, tutntilft!. , eOO- 

Uiiuotu, rut**datv<Ufarmcd 


5-15 in each thalliue squamule; epHheohun | oneo 

lorooa, irhfe tballlai mkrcin; spore* 8, oldongo ellipsoid . pan 
iet few, deader; geuraaa ojmenea Lbtaich, mi thecsdark- 

On quataow boulder* in tub eapOM stream*, rare. 1870. 

Nyl. In Plnm. l«rr. p. 102. 
Bor, Pie* -!.'•. 

StxrTLA.vii:— IWs-T-gloo, Blair Athole. Hev. J. M. Cromlnr. (Wl. 

" NcvW alii*.! ton. Ta-manlea, N'vl. Spore .WO 7 mm. tag, about .003 
brawl. IWlinc ■c|tumul<u comi>o»««I of minute cualeieent gntnulm. fjgm* 
mall* ulrtiiler, nlilong or fualfonn-oblonir" (NyU 

7. P. h<tmal"!. <^ini It) fwti-etcenli-ritftjiis, • i "'■ i. i,i, ditfracto- 
rimose, gmnid<tlo-r\Ufo*r ; aptdhma very much crowded, innatr, 

vex, shining, nipwrnt, when moist olivaceoftutcoscvnt. 

thulliiw margin creuate, at length excluded. 
On alpine rocks, rare. 1871. 
Srxi-CWfcmo ktrmalrum, Smrft. Lapp. 117.(1820.) Stlrtou In Urerlllta. 


G«Ki. DmTRis :— .So»n<linaria. 
Bor. Paw l -U, 26. 

LAXT. :— Ban Laa-tr*. »r. .Srirtmi (1871 1 
IakLAMi :— I)iiiiKhni«Rh mountain. (.ialway. Mr, LarbaleMur. 

8. P. gnuMtinti, (.Smrfk.) /uto-rufetctHt, tartamun, e/fiuf t 
rimotHUfrtut, granulate, granuUi rugoso-nodulo»e, somewhat plane, 

., rotundato-diflormed ; apothrcui m>. 
nnmtrottf in rttdi tliallinr grtmult, internally whitish, reddish, 
■ing, margin thin, mtirt, ichitun ; ipom 9, COloUIMBB, ellip- 
iplc, or spuriously 1 -septate ; gelatiim bjUMM and 
thocoe I due with iodine. 
Oa a i>cks. very rare. 1865. 

Stjc : Smrft. Lapp. 90. (18»). Nyl Lapp, or. 104. Cromblo En. & 
Kxa :-K.Un». 4. 

Gaoo. DnraiK ;— Buaria, Lapland. 
BOT. PaOV :-". 1 

HooTLAJili :— Bwi Ouarhaii in Hivadalliaur. Rrr. J, Si. Crvmliie. (180A). Ben 
Law* Dr. HoU. 
Watas :— <"ad*r Mri«. l>< Half. 

I«r« .0O» -.011 mm. Ion*. .0045-.OOM mm. broad." (Kyi.) 

III. COLLEMA. Aeh. Nyl. * 

Thallus vo 1 , ^rnniila ^unium moniliftrm, no diitinot 

cortical layer Apothccin rufisceut, locum. nur. Sj.. .!■•■■ \ ^iti i] .l«- 
or variously divided, septate and nunli locoler, 
• Sporm unknoien. 

I hi, Nyl. fuscous-black, UtuarUacitiiotr , 

Ufidt ■■/■■', >i'" . internally almost .•* tnJjpbiU 

but with sii.. ill brown naonlrifbrm aonlnm; apotheose unknown. 

On decaying moaacaon alpine rocks, rtre, I866L 

_V« ,**• *»au» an.l Uotorium I h«»» «nlirvly Mb>«al tlw * nuipinont u( |w 
'raa4 n « uJ Mi, OuiuMc In Joa. ii I. 

Hot. (18T4), 



i j;i3 amilb8MU.JMiin.Bot. & *«9. 
Gboq. Duron :— Pnuarin. 
Bot, Pjwy:— 16. 
Scotland :— Summit of Ben t«vtr«! plentiful, but ht<rili.<. AJm. June* 

Crombie l.c. remark* that " probably tlii» upacl** Iwlmiu" i"» ili«tim-t t : 
which may be named Licbimyptit. though ae the fractitlcatinu i« at preeent 
entirely unknown, it i« l«.«t retained an luiudituliiitf a Hipaiate Miction of 

• ' Spore* Mm. 

~. C. bto fm e iw i W] Lob, '•<'.'•/•, diffonni-lobato or 
mar- mfbu t/uilline 

'i tumid; ipvra 8, ooloorlett, ■ imple; |oi-»j>hT***i 

tli Un*; i»*el.-»tin» uywtuH'a \itmusml with ioauv nutim. 

. OtltlWC! ut i-JI'll .;j]( V. 

On mihiili H. r.: ■>ckn 1 rare. 1834 

- \.-h. I. P. lis*. (1RII)); :-v" KM (M. SoMtd «. Carroll in Seeen. 
Journ. Bot. 4. 22. 

Kn. : -llepn BpOMB, t. TO I. S0L 
BaB : Y.k. 164. Auxi Venet. 7. II 
i iub :— Ormauy, Italy, 

BaB : Y.-k. 164. Auxi Venet. 7. Hepp. 661. 
<;ixm;. lJisnun :— Ormaiiv, Italy, Swiuvrlauil. 
Ben. Pbot:— 1 .Jk.Jt.JUf, 30. 

K.n .i vm- : i hotldar. Mr. Btvrrr. St.Vinoont»Rock». Brirtol. Ur. Tai 
im>: IppSii. lure. J. M. Crombit 

■r Diutkerron. Kerry, Mr. J. Toylin: (18S1). Near Fcmoy. 
Mr. T. ChniuUrr. 

W ' ■■;* rovkit ! near Llanvnllen. 

'• Sp°™» -036-28 mm. Ion BOB. brood." f.V.rf. > 

3. ft chalttzaruidt*, V. I., similar to ' '. eAdfamMtm, NvL, bat 
with much smaller oft ipont .012 17 nun. l 

.008— .015 uuu. bruud. Tliec*- 

in ri«,ra. J »>H. 1 1. -".«. 
Crombie Lc. a»y* ' ' Intermediate, m it were, betwevn the |muediiur ami the 
billowing upaclea, with larger eubgloboae eporee." 

i. ' '. nyrwoooeiRKa (Ada.) Moot, diffbrmi-lobat« or 1. 1. mint*. 

iiulliin' margin tumid; 
On movsj walls, rare, 1*69. 

.Sis : Nyl. in Flora, 1*10. p. 293. Croraulu Ell. 4. 
Gk» -Norway. 

PftOVi I 

;— Bradley wood, near Nswton Basbtil !■*■>• 

Ilnrruloy Park, near 
Crombie I.e. remarks, " this ■node* 1» with be dliUugalahed from 

wp preceding one*, and probably all three are referable I" one and the«am« 

"C&-0U mm. diam." INulj 

5. '' • ."f'JUl, Ai ilftll, rrOtfMlj) tlltll tui'Jldly 

vjtamtloft, */*amutri gem r -. i lis >, newly 

•II I lobe, 

urcr'Jtitr lit I loroua, uujmsmed, thnlline 
m»i_ ; sports 8, ooloorli 

■oid, 1 1 in* bjrav «)H»i»lty 
ttsci blue with 



On the earth, rare. 1810. 

Sts : -Ach. L.U. W (1810) ; NtI. in Flora, 1867. p. 830. 
Bc/l. Pbot:— ♦. 

Ka-<iLASL> • -Yarmouth. Mr, T). Turner. (1«10). Rotthivdcao, naar Briifhton. 
Mr. U'.JvtAua. 

p*l«i .017—23, mm. long, .008 .010 mm. broad." (Ay. J 

* • Spore* $-*rptate. 

6. (?, eeranitaim, Nvl. 'o-ownitk-olive, or grteniih-blaek, tcetjri- 
lore, laciuiat&lolxite, lobes dilated upward*, ereet, crowded, fatti- 
giate, ftrmgatrKiflindrifnl, obtuse ; upothecia pale brown, minute, 

£ /utility margin smooth, thin, granulate ; spores 4, colour- 
i, hroadly oblong, S-eepUte or irregularly murali-locular. 
On earth in alpine localities, very rare. 

8vn -Nvl. in lion lf«5. I>. 863. C aranoidet, Mudd Mad. O, (non Borr.l. 
Carroll in Seam. Journ. Bot. 3. 887. 
Bot. Paov. IB. 
SCOTLAND : — Summit of Bra J<awera. Aim Jone*. 

7. ('. 'iitriculittitm, Hffm, dark-green or darkly viridi-glnucos- 
cent, rigid, opake, dilated, lobale, What somewhat imhric 
more or let* gramdowe, irregularly rejiumlu croiiata>J apotaeeia 
rufous, innate, or emergent, margin thick, more or It** granulate ; 

. oroid, 3 mptata 

iiu inu**v wiilln in suhalpini- l<>( ■;ilitn w,>\ 1869. 
Bw : 119m. FL<i«rm, 2. p. 68 (171*). NtL Syn. 106. Crmubia In Ka«n. Jen. a 

FN i — Schar. Knum. t. 10. f. :l 
-SBw. Ml A. 11. Sobaw. UH 

Oboo. OlKTBlB :— Switxerlaml, I't imnv. 

Bot. Paov :-l«. 

WQfUIIDS— A|i|im, Ai.:vl. -hir.-. />.. ..' If. Qltml lt. (UBS). 

Form memornimriii, kplhh. tlinllu-. monbrUUU 

SooTLAJtn :-IUrc In B. W. Highland* near Inverary. Iter. J. M. Omnt/it. 

Var. piiiguetcen*. Nvl. (hallux tliii k. i. Inbc mure divided. 
On shady wullx and calcareous rucks, »mong»l decuyd mosses, 

Scotlaku i 
("rombie Lc mw, 
linum, Borr." 

8. 6'. /wi-Mtti, Ach. dark ftuemu-grten or nigro-olivaeeou*, 
■ ''iraitateout, grtu tobttit, lobe* complicate, often niululato, 

I.I.MMly-red with iodine; :i|K>thecia iuscoiu, plane, tliallin 
■ Hi ire; spores 8, colourless, ovoid or dLtpaoM, 3-septatc, tan 
On hii1» alpine rocks, Dot itnfrequeat 1741. 
St»:-Ach. Prodr. 132. (1788). Xyl. Scand. 20. C.tunaformt, Ach. Syn. 332. 

yranu/lluj. Kin. 

B. Bot. t, 1757. 
. li«pp. 411 
Gcoo. DiMtKiii ;— Kiiniiw, Sw..lmi, KlnUiuI, SwiUarlmnl. 
H.t. I'hh : 1.12 W ..30. 

UAjrn : Oxford, DiBenht*. (1741). new Kirkhy UmsdlU Sft"/. J?. .ftaWA. 
Shanklla. R<r. T. Satfftf, BoHan Wood* And Iqiclvlmrnuyli, Yurkahlr*. />r. 

-N'yL In Flora 187'-'. p. KS. Orombbia Jonm Bot. n.«. 2. 133. 

Rnlarfg, Kiiiii.,Ci»iKTuii,-i., Blah Aii».lf.jJrr,y. If.OirMsK*, 

' thin, according to the authentic ipcoimcn ex herb. 



Carrinjlon. Froeterfey : ud Runhnpe, Wear Valley, Durham. Mr M»d'I. S. 
Duron; l»Io of \S%tl ; Tnnjuay. Dr. BUI. l'entTejraer near Oewe-try. R" T. 
Salteey. Anilwrly iltu Stroud. Mr. W. Jatkua. Bctweeu Staplckurct Mid 
Bougbton Mum 'helaca, luid near Lympne, Mr, Raima. 

iMLASr. ;— New Belfast Mr. frmptettm. Dunkerrcn. Dr. Taylor. Killarory. 
i rviMjrton. 

WaLS* :— Oarrefwrn rooks. J#r. Griffith. 

Crombie Lc. aaya, "The true plaut, which in bait dintinguUhel by tho 

i m with I fnim olhrr »perh«, with which it inijrht lm coiifuiiudad, doea 

not appear to be at all common in thU country. The form titan forme, Ach. w 

rharairUriacd merely liy having the loliea of the thalltu limner anil mora deeply 


9. C. pHlpotum, (licrnh.) dark green or ftueo-altixteeotts, orbicu- 
lar, ("bate, Mr* mbtmbriciiU, often plicate; a/wthtixa rtifttcenl, 
moderate, plane, tballfne margin entire ; spores 8, oroid, 3-aeptate, 

often with longitudinal Hi 

On i-aloareOHB earth in Kuhulpinu plnecs, ni.t nnfrci|iirnt. 1780 

Sin :-Bcmh. in Schrad. Journ. Bot. 1799, rol. 1. p. 7. Ach. Syn. 311. Nyl. 

I, an. 
I . -Bamh. I. c. t 1. f. I. Xohirr. Kn. t 10. f. 5. E Bot t 8W. 
M. ft N. WW. Oft /.». WO, nil. IBB, IBB. 

tS»p IHk.iimi ;— Central RaTopa, Nnrth Africa, Aiia, North America, 

Bcrr. I'rov:-!. IS IB IS •->■ . SI. 

BsatAJin :— Orford, Dr. SiMorp. Cambridw, Her. It. IUHvtn.(\, 
barlac betwaan Newh*?«n and RotUngdeaJi 

Hill, Slindon ; Horvham Church ; Snithnvw, I-ewe* ; rluntpterpolnti Tun 
bridge Walla. Mr. lUn-rrr. Budlcigh SeJtCTton. 1'ivf. Diekte. nenr Kcaton 
mon; Wrotham ; Wy»: Polkaatoo*; Shoreham ; Sandwich ; Kent. Mr. 
ffofaua, Lydiard Tregcae, Wiltai <'.l'»icr«t»rKhire. Mr Jmhva, I.litnyhlodwcl 
Bodta! LI Hill! High Rock, ucar Bridgnorth, Shropahlra ! 

HOOTLANli ;— Northern pal I .'.. a, J. M. CVtmtUr. 

On walla, freqMut. Mr. Carroll. KOIarney. Dr. Harrington. 
' (lalway. Mr. I 

Cm j i rnwy, and common on all the Ialanda. 

Mr. U,rtMlt*tirr. 

"Sporea .010—21 nun. baft .007— .010 inru. broad." (AW.) 

Forma gretnidatttni, Sw. [obee of 1 1 ml Ins and margins of apothecia 

- :t; mihiti-il. 
In liineHtoiif district*, frequent. i.Mi'ly fertile. (Crumble I.,: J 
Foriuu [\ li.) thalluH elMOlj tmbrii ned ; upoUi. 

• I. 

Kwlimi:- Ban in S. 4 W., hardly fertile, though apennogonlfri.m.. 
iter. J. M. Crombit. (L c.) near Clrcnccater, Mr. Jothm, 

Forma hydmrhitrnm, (Ach.) glaucous, lliallini' lobeB thli I., din- 
Crete, expand™! and r.uliniit, oval. rBptfld ;iii'i :'.n ised 

On dftaap oaleavM very qwiiBgij and infertile. 

ii:— Cralj[Tuuoch. Kn: J. M. ftvmiiir (1.. m 
it. rrranoiJr.', Bojt. etii in n.-nt. or olgrioH 

rctitndtrto-fiulrini!'" , lobste, Wn iml/rimtrd, <ufrruiirt(/, </i 
itytntnl*, f/mli/crON*, MtTOWiV imd rAm//. • | tub- 

cylindrical, yi-Tni/r/rm, fasti/fiat*, crowded, tnrgi'l 

,n, MWilo, convex, nun i v or crcnnlate or tt cttffato 

'/iiiHuItite ,- ipom -S ooIonrloB*, 3-ncpuiie. 
On chalk, ran. 1881. 

K. Hot Sonpl. KIM. (1*31); CromUe Kb. 0. 
r ■ v Bol rhi| |d ■ 2X1 



Bar. Paov :-S; SUA 

Ksolaxd }— Boxgrove newCTilrh»nUir. Mr. It. J. F. TTiomat. (18S1). Siumx 
Down*. Mr. Borrtr. Henham, Kaaez. Mr. FanUv. I.lai,f..rdn trardcu wall, D«ar 
Otmtitry. Rrr. T. Solfty. naar Ctrancaatar. Minchinhainpton Common Mr 
Jotkuo. dmt High Klin*. CheUfield. Kent. Mi: llolmn. 

Cu.vxnki. Imlaxim :— tluaroaey. An'. J*. Satvry. 

Thia, acwi 'rimnntol tha original (pecimen 

is Herb. Sowerby. attached to tho lii.' !!. Hut. SiippL Kami to b* 

rrthcaUn to tho prwatnl qweitf, but tho chiiracU'ra erf the plant hi H«rl>. Borrtr 
at K«w an not very definite." 

ptdpoudua^ Nyl. much smaller than tlie type, minutely 
grauuluso-lobulate, aubeffuao ; apothecia with on entire tlmllmi; 

Oft the earth, very ruiv. 

Srx:— Nyi Egypt, p. 1. 

Esxjlaxo :— Near Cireuoaattir. Mr. JaaAua. 

Var. t*na/, Aflat darkly flllllW— Ullf DC vireaoent; apothtria 
niflius, innate-, thallino margin lux*, pruniiiwnt. 

On earth, in upland mountainous districts, rare. 1811. 

.VI,. Sv.,. SU. (1817} Nyl. Send. SO. 

PW :~K. l$ot. 2»f>. Hepp 8poren t 11, f. 87. 

Kxa: Lch/ht. 10-,. am Uadd I. H.pp 87. 

':,,-.. I 'ixTHlu ; — 2><rit»'rlaod. 

Bot. Pb...v. | B .7. .10. .16. 19. 

: 4honlry.Shropi.liir*. ».•. 7'. Saltt'v. Ayton ! Cleveland. Mr. 
Mtulit Suawx ! Mr. Bomr. 

Stxrti.AM, :— Appio. Met. J M. 

lKEI.\.vn:— I'.ljwU.toiui KridgH. «>. Cork. Mr. Carroll. 

WAUH : North Wain. Art. //•':<>> /"••• t«. (1811). ltarniouth ! Ratwaan Llan- 
gollen anil Corwan ! 

10. C. Htbpliaatiie, Nyl. in Ran 1873, p 3(54. r. pKcatilt, 

Am. in Flora 1867 pre p, 

SounaM) :— Appin. /frr. J. ,\f. OrWli 

Of thU I hava »«eii no not hat any dtagnoala been puhluhad. 

nljiel. c. «,>'•, "Mifliciently aUnOarlO ft /-"'/"""m, Imt will, larger 

11. C. Kwmmi, Aok dorife green, tin". apprt$$«d, fete mnu//, 
scattered, thick and pulp;, .'hen BOOHt, slightly civnuhite ; apothtda 
rufout, place, moderate, margin piominml, entire or dtafitfyermm- 

>r«* 8, eoloarloM, ovoid, S-oeptate, >wth ocoaatonal I, 
id septa. 
On wet clayey soil, not iinfroqaetit. 1831. 

-Act.. I- l.". li3U. Sv... SD0L Nyl. Soand. 30. 
; f. 1. 
(laoo. Durnui —Prance. Sweden. 
Bot. PfcO* :-Z, :t B 7. 

i: ■ ;:..»N!> :— Hnntpi' afr. Borrtr. (\Xil). naar W>M>ton .tinder* 

KJir*. Mr. »: Jttkua. naai Chalafleld, Kent. .Vr. JlWma 

lublu I.e. a*y». "eoaily recofrniwd from tlia allusl R|Mtcl<M by tho odgluU> 
luvtwl viantMCMiil tballiM aiul thu appreawd thinly margined aputhi-. 

■in. (HikIk.i ill «-tnt or ftuco-viretctitt, . 

■ -in, ij--'imi-''- and rrrnalr ; 

afiothrfiii ijurl/f/ rufacent, lAalliiu naroM grmmlat* : iporai K, 
colourless, ovoid, 3 septate, imiril'ormi-locular. 

On grarelly earth, Ereqaenl 1831. 



-Hudi. FI. AngL 417. (1T08.) A.).. 8jm. 812; Nyl. Scand.30. 

16 i. i. i»iii. t. fa. t.-a. 

i.'..:- Ui K }it. UK'. Minl.l:'./.« l vi. KoIIdi. 7. 

G«> .. and Central Kiim|»'. 

Bot. P«ov .-1, 8, »., 5 10, 11 14 15. 16...19. 80... 31. 

BffOLAKD!— 8<UBML <tfr. i»,/rrrr. (1831); (Wham MnmluM, MU K.vlrar. Mr. M»M. IMwllah. Mr. /y««. Hudahead, Berwick on-Twwd. 
J>r. (I. Jfihntton. Gloucwtcraliit*. Mr. Juhua. \Vci.t.-ilium ; ( "l.« Iwlifl.i, Kent. 
Mr. BotflM, 

ScOILaKDl— A[ipiii mid Killiu. Her. J. M. Oromhit. ucar Edinburgh. Dr. 
OrceitU. Fortanhire. Mr. O. Dm. 

Ibkla mi : - < in limcatoric rock* and walU. mmmon. Mr. Carroll. 

i Ik n "I Honn. L'EUeq, Jtney. Mr. lAxrU ila li tr. 

Cmniacy. tttr. T. Satmy. 

Viir. crittat 'iltnit, Nyl. tiialln- ni:ir-i | di vl h ii. 1 . 
Ilenn, Mr. Lurtalalirr. GUmtttatcnhlrc. Mr. Jothua, 

13. (' duiUttm, Ach. dorkotivr or fuMo-nvrrimnt, lolmtc or 
crenato-<tranulo$t ; apothocia rul'.iiix, plane, nn.ilcrafcs, thailinr mnr- 
<nn grmufah spona 9, oolourkn, oblougo-ollipftoid, S-neptate, or 
■ubmaralj divided. 

i hi >v;ill-. tad mlflareoua rocks, frequent. 

:-Ach. .Syn. 310. Nyl. S.»wl 8L 
I hi i Sporent, 105, f. 923. 

k- M I S WM. 468. Nyl. 4. Schnir. 425k Zw. 1W, IBS. MnAI ::. 

Bam 833. LarbaL 52. 

ii i i intra! Europe, Sveden. Algeria. 

!• l.v. 8 M 10 IB in 31. 

BxOLASD :— I'lncliiiiRthoriH-. Yorkshire. Mr. Mmlil, Torquay. .!.'. 
near Hauling*; and near Sbniikliu. I«lc of Wight, I'r. Boll, near Ctranoaattr, 
Mr. w. Jothua. PoatUng; MnMitona; Wrouuun; Boogtiloa Monahaleie | 
Korenoaka; Braataad, Kent. Mr. WUmm. 

i thorn part*, Ittr. J. M. Oram 
iKKkAMi:— Killnrnvy. Mr. ff.tniy. 
\\ Aim :— Pylc, rjlamorgan. Dr /loll. 

(,'HAXyn laLAXDe Ou< uvala, .leracy, and ciinmcin on all the inland*. Mr. 

i .iriiw nw.liim. (Siimi.) tliiiUino lobes broador, egranulose. 

Scotland.— K f. M. QrtmUi, 

I iMir- South i«rt*. 

Forma vunwearp , (Duf.) toallia microphylllne or 

obliterated : spotiiei in with > Granulate tnalline margin. 

Stx: -Ny!. Syn. |.. 111. (1863.) 

Gkoo. Di*tri» .— Franc*. 

Bot. Paw:— ft, 

Ksi.i imi:- Near Clrenotstcr. Mr. M 

11. i". wrfawenij A'l: eh'wwwm orbicvlait, 

,o.t)\T\ bi Death, wi"yi'iH rfVmfa^ ymdtdol-- 
i-reoate, sometimes complicate j apo&aia rttUuklroum, 
plane or Bouunrtnvt concave, thalliiie margin orenul ite j 

irleas, ovoid, 2-3~«eptalt' imlnmllv divided, im-giilarlv 

ruundi l.icular ; ^ilaliim Iimiimiim iuteiUM Ulli . • i 1 1 > iodSlM 
On ridcaruouH rooki, frequent 1 7 1 1. 

! Ach. Syn. 818 NAT] NlL Baaed. 88. C. muM/Wm. Schicr. Kn. 2M. 
Mrn'Mlii Hud*. FI. 
i lot. t. 18M. 

<;,>«'. I)i»i»j» :- Central Kuropc, (;»rtnany, Hyran*««, S.-anilina>ia. 
Bot. Pbi>t:— l.-.n.-.T, H...10. il u IT. i'i . S;,27.. <*■. 



D! I.'erliynhlrc : nc»r S«ltl* »iwi Kirli, l.n, Ynrlahire. Sir J. 
I .u'tnn, co. Hereford. Mr. Littleton Rrmni { I T 1 1 1. Northern Conntiai. 
Mr. Hadtm. Peiitrwwr nt»r 0»w»try. Jhr. T. Sulitty. Teaxlalc. Mr. R„l*rl- 
$on. St. MicliMl'*, Tanra«J. Mr, Barrrr. licrwick-im-Tvi-eed. Or. johntton. 
Totne» Cwtle ; North Boiey Mid IUington, Devon. Mr—n. Jona A A'motf<>n. 
GlouoMMrahiro. Mr. JuiMiia. Abdon ! Shropshire. 

Scouaxo :— Highland*. Sir J. K. Smith. Ooygaoh, SutherUndnliire. Mr. 
&-<rrrr. now Edinburgh. Mr. blticart. 

Inu.AXD :— Nftir Rrlfaat. Mr. TtmptriOH. llaiitrv. Mia Halrliim. near < l»Iw»y. 
/<r. iTw, Miridlvton, near Cork. Afr. CarroH. linllwn. Slign /<>•. /»i 

Walks :— Caernarvon. J/r. Ilwl*i-.. near Oeftl Hmw, Itouuixliahir*. ifr. 

Chaicmil Iblajuw :— Quenvait and La Met*. Jon ! J/c Larhulrttiir. 
"Sport* .081-27 mm. lung, .000 .oil m& trad? f> 

Forma marginal?, (HiiiIm.) imbricate, n nil 1 1 f i ■ I, dontatftH Pntte ; 

u]iuthccuk marginal, jiliinc, uigrii-ruscoiM. 
On roekx. 

I Angl. MM. (1778.) 
Ksglasd :— Sbiiilon, Cl'.urrsUraMr*. Mr. /Mlotf, 

Forma jaeotxeif- ilium, (Sebrwlc.) lobM ilernly iMnniato, lacinie 
radiant, straight, narrow, elongate, broader outward*, hiccru- 
pinnatind ; apothocia marginal. 

Six :-Schnnlc FL Bau. 430. 

lRUAKr>:— Sooth. iv»! portioMt Crombft, l.c- 

Ckasmu. Iblasl>«: — Cromhie. Lo. 

Forma rjyrotum, Ach, lobes gyroso-c»unilk-at€ ; Bjboduda 
Sootlasu :— Cnig Tulloch. Iter. J. M. Orombit. 

Var. iMnyfittifwB, 8ehl. Bohter. Uu-iniio <.■!.. ngato, (onwrbiri oon 
cave, imbricato-lobulute, lebt$ eomplviitr, iiiiugiiisriinrr j upothoofa 

On calcarcoiw rocka, fttquest 

Stji :— Sonar. Knum. 245. (18S0) ; Crombie En. 4. 

Km :-Scli«jr. Bn. t. in, f. 1. 

Ex»=-Sch«:r. 418 419. 

(Ixoa. DnrtBIII :— 

Bot. Pbot. :— 10. 

EHuxd :— Teeadale. Mr. Baler. 

SooTi.*M> Kiflln. B . -'. K ''■ '■'••- 

16. Q. hf payemm, NyL aeorij -iiailar to ft bu&thmm, but with 
larger n|>ore* .026 — 36 mm. long, .010 — 16 mm. broad. 
On calcareous rook*. 1876. 

Stk :-NyL In Finn 1876. p. 283. 

J&ELaKU: — Tullywhee Bridge, KyUumro, Connoman. Mr, Larbalutur. 

16. C. pranvli/erum, NyL nigricani or fnyroWttxjoeuiM.orbitiiliii. , 
firm, tpriisidcl more or lew with iridionr. jtobula, laciniatc, l.-icmnu 
in a dry state on the under surfaee often lungitndiiially mid 
tnmdudly thinly rvgulotr-plictitr ; apothecia modtMiiti-, roddiab, 
tbullinc margin nt km ill lubanoatej sporea 8, colourlcax, obi' 
b-ttptatt, tondimrt urith 1 - - 2 connecting septate*. 

On old widls and calcareous rocka, rarely among moBBcs mi ih. 



8TH : -Xyt in Klnra. 1WB. p. 108. 
Gatxx. Dtstrib:— Europe. 
Bar. P»; I ■ 

USD :~Coeddar Cliff*. Mr. See***. Uish W.mda anil K«i«»!*Mg». JeV. 

■ •tiasim— Amiln. K". /. Jf. CrmeMr. 
I »> iam> :— Killamey. Mr. ffnrdf. 

"In general eapeet anincwhat aimlUrto C.wvtitmnm, Aeh. Sporea 0.025— 32 
urn. long. 0.008— 12mm. broad." (!f<it.) 

Forma meuokJium, Nyl. lohca of thallus larger. 
Bw : — C iatddun. '-Am*, Nrl. Crumble Eauin. .">. Leirat. Ltch. 

Fl. 2d ed. M. 

Irb-akd :— Muckrua*. Killerncy, Jfr. Unrdg. 

Forma min/-r, Oremb rh.dliw jworly developed, resembling C. 
pulp-Miim, /. pranulatum. Sir. 

17. ('. jfuumlifiiime, Nyl. fiumutMack, ffrtmmi v , form' 

ing ill hit.-.l |i:ir. .-Iim, areola; tmaU, pranuliform or subvcmicom • 

;i|«.t hiii.i unknown. 

On granitic rocks, very rare, 1876. 

Bn ;-Nyi. Ucfc. Band, p, 2*. (1861.) 

Bar. Plior :— 96l 

iMUKDi- South aide of Kylemor* I.ek«, co. Calway. Mr. tAirfrttrtlur. 


18. C rrutaftwn, (Hoflm.) Schier. Miml i rijrrMti, coriaceous, 
lacitiiate. -Vwr/y <k6m/<. alien motet lurgeaoetit and olive-green, 
laciniir abbreviate, tomewhat broad, imbriatitwr/gregate, margin* 
undulate, eritptiUrerenidale, extremities incifO-creuatc ; ajiothecia 
fosoOOSj large, MijierficiaL 

On calcareous rocks. 

Sts l -Hoffm. D. Kl. 2. p. 101. (1791.) Seh*r. En. 256. 
Hill.t. l!)f. 28. 

Orombio I.e. enyi, "IHffere (mm tho preceding (C mdmum.). th..u-ii 
prrliain imly a* a aub-apecioi, in thv Imbftiato a<m»8»Ui1 lacfolav laid lb* 
•Hfjhtly 'lirtorrat character of tho upon*, probably not very rare in upland 
tracU, though, till recently, overlooked a» a Hritiih plant." 

19. 0. pvlymrpon, (SohaV.) nigricant or nigro-oltvaccotia, orbi- 
cular, IhmM miliar/, nearly undiridrd, narrow, moi/jint thirJcaud 
and devoted ; apoUnaia v, .■ ,,. „ u nierotu, covering nearly the ci 
thelitis, roddisD In-own, plano-convex, UnllilM margin entire., palm-, 
thickish, elevated, or somewhat incurved; spore* 8, colourless, 
clongato-ovoid, 2-3-scptate, cells nucleolate. 

On calcareous nn-ks, rare. 

:-Krplhb. Gee. 2. 677. fl*») Korb. Tar. i\7. Crombio In Journ. Bot 
n.». 2.133. foirm. mxltift'ifa tar. pulirmrpn. Soli/ r. Sple. ."jSJ. 
"l - i. Ann' " 
lapp 919. . 
Pbijv i - n. .16. 

RlNMini :- -Cheddar Cliff* ; near Kendal, near Oakaay, (iloiKaUnUre. Mi . 

SoOTl.AMi :— Apidn, Arnyleahlr*. iter. J. M. Cromtir. 
<L.,..,li.- l.._. -:.v-. ■• 1 :.(' ., : i.,-l,. I brtltf DOM IM atelti Bid l!.-:«U." 

20. 0. Isuti-eri, (Pw. KrK) dark-olivaceous, menihraiiacccw-'i 
lagtijous subllaooid wlvcn moist, centrifugal, inciso-lobatc, tacinirr 

Via :— llepp Sporen t 106. 1 919. Arnold in Flora 1887. U 3. i . 67, 88. 

Safaaw. Il'L KeppSlD. And I^ngob. 4. Th. M. Krie»S,»iul 49. 

(!w. Dtanua :— Scandinavia, Switwrland, Italy, Pyrtneta, Itavaria. 



untttUats, lobidatt, margin* rrol, multr :! <m ; 

iMeda moderate, ■oattand, wiim •■■.■■■•, Nry thorftt/ tfipitate, 
rrfUiuh-bitHen, plane, proper margin very thin Bad qIubbm} UttlHna 
margin tliiekish, gramilcao-rugulose ; tportt 8, colourless, liiuari- 
ublontf, S-teptatf. 
On storuvu-allx, rare. 

Si.i:-Korb.8. L. G. 4t4.(l*»>: Arnold in Flora UWT p. I :: .. i 
.fmirn. B.H. n.a. 2. 133. SymxhMutiu mmpficatitt, Mmll Man. It. fin part), 

Flo :— Mudd UH. I. «. Henp Si-oreo, «. 106. I. Ml. Arnold in Flore 1867. 
t. *. I. 81 -*l. 

i . Ana Laagob. 5. 

(■zoo. Pwrani*- Pyrenoet. Italy, Switzerland. 

Hot. F«ov:-ll. 

i AWD :— Near High Fore* Ion, Teeadalc, Durham. Mr. MwU. 

CVoiubia 1. c. mjr», " lHatlnguiahed by baring tho lhalliia broadtr, and Hm 
»i*in« 3-Mtit>t« and obtuw at either »!»•«, hut apparently » miraK oonbtfnl 

*♦♦• chorti plttratplatf, 

21. (7. Myjiiim, (Del.) black, ladniaU', laoioill deeply iuciacd, 
rotundatolobnte nt the 61 apothaoia atrO ratbag: 

On stone wiiIIk, and eetoaMOtU rot 

9nr; Bote. Mo, M4. (184.0). Arnold In Flora 1867, p. 185 and 141. 
« 'nimbi* in .lonrn. Bot. n. a. 3. p. 132. 
Fio :— WUnb. N. Act Stock*, tl. p. 145; t 4. 1. 5. Flora 1867. I. XL «0-73. 

ISKfHl. D|>TR1A:— Kwitxrtand. 

Bur. P»ov:-5...1I. .12. .26. 

Esm.Axn: N'*ar HIkIi Fore* Inn. Teeadalc, Durham. Mr. .WW-/, nnar 
K. :nlal, Westmoreland. Mr. Mortindolt, Sbipton! Abliojrtoii '■ OfeaOtataraUn, 
Mr. JcjAuo. 

I«o.tXT> :— Kylemot* Lake. Mr. tarMMKtr. 

I'romUe 1. c. a»y«, "Similar to tho preceding n>caie». but with 3-5«ptflU 

22. C. flaaittwn, Aoh. <btrk-$rt*n or fotoota graoOj Qiombrinft- 
coooh, undulaUhplUatf, lobatot mm l». . Htmm ; 
■pottwoift nifcacont, piano, margin entire; sporcx 8, colourlow, 
ovoid or broadly fuaformi-oblong, l-O-septato. 

On rooka and walls and trees in mountainous districts, imi 
'infrequent, but rare in fruit. 1783. 

-Aoh. Syn. 322. (1*17). Nyl. Soand. 39. 

Fio:— K. Bot. U 1658. 

Kxs :— M. ft N. tOflt. Zw. 1(16. Scmer. 412. Irfiiiht. 845. 

Gaoa. Durrain:— EnropA. 

Bot. Pwov:-l, 2 .,5 .7.,in, 20 ,98, 27...30. 

BtMLA.ii> : -Westmoreland. Sir J. K. South. (1783). Devonshire. 
Ihektm. Praniinlw, Stwwx. Mr. Barnr. Sldmonth. ft». T. .Vofw.v. lSolton 
Wood*. Dr. Oarrington. near Exeter. Adm. Jane*. TUvvsulx, Yorkshire. Afr. 
Baker. Holwlclc, Yorkshire. Mr. Rohtrt*«\. Plymouth and Budlefeh SalUrt an, 
Mr. PwrMt, lOanymynech Hill ! I, 1£<kiI(. ! Shn>}mhlr». 

SooriAirn :— Northern part*. Mr. D\ek*>n. Klnnoull Mill, I'orth. fir. lAwiiay. 
KflHn. lUr. rththlre. Or. Ball. Reeky Linn ; ( 'Inva. 

Afr. a. Don. 

Iui.txn : -llantT) 1 , Vui BuUktMl. Mallow and Caetlemartyr. 0O. Cork. Mr. 
OarrvU. Moyne Abbey, to. Mayn and IU-ii UuIIm-h. Sll,-.>. Dr. ViekU. Killarnty, 
Dr. Ouriagton. AghalM Bridge, Lagan Canal. Dr. Moore, Kylemore I*kf, Mr. 

Wajlbb ;— TncMtl* j Cader Idrla. Mr. Bnlfi. Harlech. Mr. thmr. Dow- 
ygadol. Dn, near Barmouth. Rrv. T. Sat wry. Barmouth I Bcttw»-T- 
oxdl Tretnadoo! 

CaAXSII. I.v.ASr* :— St. Martin's, .Teivey. Mr Ijirbalfttitr. 

"tipotm .023—38 mm. long. .007-010 mm. broad." (Nni ! 


S3. C. jateiadart, (Una) dart-fifm or /'uwvitrrwcnf, »«£-. 
<N/<ir, ertnalo-l'J>*Uti*, generally in rrerf, ntb~podic eU ate eamgtomrr- 
nli'im*, dilated UjrVnTQB, (aitli lodlM bluod -red) , rtpaditcia n 
cent, crowded, biatoriue, somewhat convex, margin tliin, undulate ; 
spores 8, colourless, fumfurm, 3-Kcptatc. 

On old trees, rare. 1741. 

Sis -.-lidunfiueiem^rit, Una. Mast 2. 133. Iimi (Virata arofhmtraimm. 
Jlfla.. FL Gann. p. 108. 07»); A*. Syn. 317. Nyl. Syn, 115. 

H.. --K. BoC L 1KB. Nyi syn. t. 8. f . L 

Exii .— Zw. 167. Nyl. 102. 

Caw. Dnmun : — Ceatral Furor*, France. Germany. 

BOT. Panv : -2. S, 4 .7 ..11,12, 13.15. 18. 

■ i-vv :— S*. Leonard* For***, 8us*tx ; Oxford. Dittoim. (1741). Anblt- 
aida, Waatmuraland. Mr. y. JT. SaiilA. Gornaec* Hill* ; Xawatnrkol HraOi ; 
('untridg*. Srr A. Kc/au*-. N.F. aid* of Sltpsnsoaae, Sbroradiire. Jter. S. 

8coTiASi>:-Naar !<*k«K*trin*; Apian : Fort William. «rr. J. V. t n«J»c. 
AberMdy, and near Kmatnre. Or. floff. Forfanaire. Mr. O. Oc*. Diunfri**- 
•Irir*. Or. Auryrj*. Barcaldla* ta Lora. Jfer. J. M. CnmMt. 

WaLB»:->fant Glyn, mabivWUr.. Jfr OrjJUa, 

"Siwrai .016-29 nun. long, 304-4J am. broad.' f Ay., 

CroSQui* I. c remark*. " Kaally reo cubed by the faKiculal* lobule* of Hi* 
and the bialorine apAbacia." 

24. ('. HiHltipartitKM, Siil fiuaxJiraenms ornigriBH tale, 
radiate, latimht narrote, nmUifid, somewhat convex, 

at thf apex, lobes divergent ; apothocia atro-rufous, moder. 
Uialliiuj margin thickiah, erea ; spores 8, culourlcax, cylindrical, 
curved, oksoeo4ocular ; paraphrses thick, pea :lntc 

On «ub-alphic calcareous rucks, not unfrequcnt. 1782. 

Rts :-Sm B. Bt4. 2582. (1814) ; MM. Syn. 118. 

FN : -E Bot. t J6K2. Njrl. Syn. t. 2. I. 8. 

Bar. Faor r-«...5...7. 8.. 10, 11, 12. .16 .19...S6.. 28. 

EnUD :-K*ndal, WaatBiuraUnd. 8b J. K. Smitk. (17*2.) UaTnaafrtra. 
Aim. Jolt. Modydd and Pcntregacr, near Onrortry. Iter. T. Salwew. Cbnidar ; 
\V«ath««»l«. YorkkSrire. Mr. Borrtr. Mlddlrtoo Beck, Ihtrhan. Mr. Jb*rrt*m. 
Buxton. Or. BoU. xmr ValUra, 8.«wrwt ; Barnrfry Fark. Glouoeatonhira. 
Mr. JotlKta. AUon But ! Uanymrneca Hill ! Shropahira. 

800TLAITD :-Apfdn. Jttr. J. M. Onmbie. Ban U«.n Or. BtU. 

Iksxaitd ^KUlarnry. .Viir T. Oopr. lhuiktntm. Dr. Tmjlor. MHdletoo, Mar 
Cork. Mr. Grnll. Shaqiwalk. Amain. Aim. Jtmo. CaMl* Taylor, <:«lway. 
l». Man. Loufh In*«h and Ballynjtklll Bay, Oaiway. Mr. Lorbaiatitr. 

WaUCft :-I.UUt Orm«'< llaad ' Fgt«yM( rock* t 

" Sporw .098—48 nun. long. .007 nun. broad." ( Sfl.j 

25. C. nujrt*ctn*, (Huds.) niaro-tirttcent, thin, membranaceous, 
t^naoHoyJiyU'/ut, orbiadar, drprrttfd, rotundato-lobste, radiatw 
rttffoto-pt' luilccd or granulate, tueendiit'j i» the ontrr, 
depraio-adnate at the rircum/crenct ; apotheeia dark-ni: 
plane, small, crowded, tballiue margin entire ; s|iures 8, colourless, 
fusiformi-cylindrical, pluri-septaie. 

On old trees, not unfrequent. 1741. 

Six:— Hilda. Ft. Antf. HO. (1768). Una. Suppl. FL p. 4f.l. (17>1) : A>l.. 
Byn. m. NyLSyn. 114, Liekca rrmrtilio, MirbU. So*, p, M0. 
Fin :-H»m. M. Uch. t 37, f. i3. 

:-N.» N. 184. Ixiiht. 104. SJcbw. 110. 
Caoo. Dsnaia .— Ruropa, Algeria, Aarrka, Ada, Folyorua. N. Ztaland. 

;. Psov :-l, 2. 3, 4. 5 7 .14, 15.81. 
r'ii;u*M>:— BagUy Wood, aca », (1741). HkotoTvr llanta- 

lion*, uaar Oxiore. Dr. SiMkarp. Cambrida^aoira. Bn. Jr. tU'.tuiA, near Bua«ay. 



Mr. NVrfminl. near HoUworUijr, Daron. Mr. Mnrtxrrg. Hnaan. ATr ifcmrr. 
KxeUr. Mr. I'arjUt. Malvern : Suaaex : Iilc of WUlt ; and Corn, 

wall Kvurr.J 'v Or. CM ' 'Upharu ; K»m|-U.ii, lit-i.. / .' r.mles 

fori Hill and'l'nlvcrbahih. 8hn>iMhir«. ftrr. B North Bnvey, D) 

A>r. J. /». J«.o. Kemble, Gluuoeaterahire. ifr. Jurlimt. near P«mdiur»t: 
B»e«uh..tvu|{»i : near HaUUwt, K.nt. Mr. Holmu. 

StvnuAM) :— Grampian*. Jfcr. 7. Jf - . Cromhit. near Keniuor* aa 
rVrttnhir*. />r. Wort. near Edinburgh. />r. UrmUi. Kcaky Linn ; 1>wi of Glain 
mi*i Glen l>ol«, Forfarahir*. Mr. W. Oarrlintr. 

fart ild trunk* frequent. Mr Carroll. 

<'han.mkl bum! Guarnaw. fin-, 7". Saltery. Jtraey and Gtwruwiy, 
frequent ; Seigneurie. Bark. Mr. Latbttlatirr. 

- Spona .031-42 mm. long. .004 mm. broad." (Nyt. ) 

'26. (.'. wjyrr.i/fitHut, Ach. nignt -nrrsi-rnl. ibstO) 

rigid, plicjiU;, tutt radialonujoie, nor apprru*/, difTornu-d, lobes 
crwttU', mtir;/' !-M0-crupa1«; apotheci* rufboa, crowded, 

moderate, plain, Unflina margin tliiii, entire ; fcpores 8. colourless, 
fuaifonni-cj lindriuiil. straight or curved, pluri-scpUte. 

On old trees and rocks, rare. 

: -Ach. Syn. 317. (1817); Nyl. ©yn. 115, 
Pto I Nvl.Syn.tS.f-9i 
Bn s-it * ». »«. 

Gaoo. DurraiB :— Europe, A>da, America, Polynoaia. 
Rot. PaWT : 1. -', 1 

i.**d :— Hvnfield, Suawx. AJm. Jonu. near Exeter and near Tnubridm 
Wall*, tor. ./. -tf. CVvmo.V.. :— Klllaraay. Or. Mam. .0»-<>8 mm. long, .00l-.005mm. bread." (Jt/,1./ 

■J". C. terruUiUwn, Xyl. oitK-&/vtm, thin, granuloiit ; ay 
eeia tpadiceo-red>luh, tmaU, margined by the. ikalliit ; a]K>rcx r>, 

colourless, eDLflQid or oblongo-ellipsoid, I ■■ . • j ■ t : ■ t . . ii ajj 

uia hymcoea and especially thoctc I. bluish 

On old ash-trees. 1874. 

MTU :— NyL In Flora. 1KT4. p. 80i- 

Gxou. Diwtbib : — Eutpjw. 

Hot. Vaov : — IV 

*WL4»I> :-U«h Kalriiw. Krv. J. M. Ortual,,. . (MM), 

"Spore* 0.018-2* mm. long. 010-13 mm. broad. " 

Tballof vrrv rariotlt, thin, granuln goniiim 111. .u 1 1 J. .ii.-i. .-. .i 1 1- il 

layer cellulose, distimi. AjMrtawen leouoriiM or iiib-biatorine. 
Spores 8, variously septate or divided. 

1. L. fMtormtrat, Nyl fntcotu or futco-trirt#xnl, granuloscr 
M*//iir, imbricate; ajKiiheria rafamti, btatorme, modento, i<rm>- 
lair, gyaUctiforn ; spores 8, hyaline, ovoid, 3 l-aopUh . tpstiagly 
longitudinally divided; galaaU hymooom and sad bluo mta 

On mossy Tails, chierty in chalk districts, rare, 18(56. 

BO :— Nyl. Hrodr. 22. (U07) : Byn. 110. OanoB ha Seem. Jouru. Rot «. 22. 

Gaoo DisTBin :— Knuicp. 

Bor. Psov : -3...S1. 

botAM!) : - MaMxton*, Kniit. -4rfm. Jont*. flS»>"..) ,- l'r«tty wnarally .li»tri 
bwUd in S. and W. En R l*nd." /.>.. J. M. Crambit. MarScuinK. Kent. Mr. 

Chas>KL Ini_vM>n :— Under Fort Kwex, .Uderney. i/r. Larbalatirr. 
" Spona -OSV-2S mm. long. .011—12 mm. hroad. ,r f Ny/J 


this ucMur-riMu 

2. L. miarophtfUnm, Ach. darkolirt or futanu-yrrrn, mirrvphylli •>■ , 
imf/riaiini, lobtt yrawuAi/o-crmn/V, uinfr, ofUli rnmicosrwliffract, 
effuse; apotAtda psJlidrvrafesocnt, small, crowded, rtrtrolato- 
nmoitc, tkaUmt margin nearly concotoroua, waft'rr; spores 8, 
colourless, oToideo-ellipsoid, 3 -septate ; gelatins hymeoea blue with 

On old elms, rare, 1810. 

STU :-Ach- U r. 6». (1810) [ Syu. MO. NyL Syn. 11*. 

Fjo .— E. Bot SiimiI. t WtL 

Ex* : M. & N. m. Zw. 1«8. NyL 5. Setter. 4LL Learnt 2W. 

Gtwo. Dmrsis :- Central Europe, France. Sweden, Germany, Switzerland, 



Kan. 'war Bory St Edmond'a, Soffeik. ft*. «. fl. CealA**, V 

l>nn4.>ni near Kxeter, Devon. Afr /WW. Ingitby P»rk. Cleveland. Mr Mw*i. 
Lyndhant New Focatt Km ./. Jf. CVomfcK. Danny ; Ocfcley Green, Surrey. 
Mr. Berrer. new Worceeter. I*. BoB. 

Ouunra. Iiukim i— St Martin'* CJuenvau. Jeraoy. Mr. Lorbalatirr. 

Crombie I.e. lUtea that " the two preceding n~rim fina a natural tn.rorfti.-e. 
between O ol l ema ami Ixj/tr^ium, the thallaa having the rtrnctnrc of Lrft- 
white the apoUeda are thoee of r.JI<. 

M 8paie».01i>>ru:. .008 .010 mm. ittmt" fW/Li 

3. L. amphimnm, (Ach.) Sjl.olwaeeotu orfu*o>rir<#x*lyadnat- . 
•lightly ttpread alwit or snberusteeform, unequal, scarcely truly 

theeia obtevrtlp ru/atent, mall, tomcuJuit coif 
spores H, colourless, ellipsoid or ellipsoids .. -ovoid, 3-aeptnt* 
rariousiy divided. 

On the earth, sparingly. lh7'J. 

Sim: Nyl. Kcand. 32. (1861) ; Crumble ia Juuro. Bot n. a. 4 188. 

rsi» : — Scandinavia. 
Wot. I'aov : 1,.,5. 

tnUD ;- -Newlyn Cliff ! near Penzance, Cnmuall. Mr CVrwmn, near 
Ktrund, GUmcentenibiro. Afr. Jnth 

i ore* .039—73 mm. long. .OOP .011 mm. broad." fXpl.) 

4. L. rhyparoAft, N'yl. ftacous or ftuco-ni<frttc«: <m>iu, 
or RObgrUulOM^ diffuse, vinous rod with iodine; a/xttAtria 

iforou* or rarely rufesn (Ttt, m ill. somewhat plain and •: 
(i. idly DttfentM ; ipOlM % colourless, ovoid, one or both apievs 
attenuate, unnnuirali divided j parnphyses slendor ; gelatins hy 
inones blue with iodim ■. 
On alpine rooks, rare. 1863. 

StS :— Nyl. in 1887. i> 210. Carroll in Seem. Jonra. Bot 3. *W« 
C. jwnvrVam, Leight. Uch. Fl. 2d od. p. 26. 

niUDi N'oarmimmit of Ben Lau-cn! Aim. Jona. {\f*A). Abere 1 
n*-o*t Jtrr. J. M. ' Wi'-.V. 

Cmmbie Lc. uys"in ite lew developod and more obaenre ittU, m rai Die 
Mimmlt of Men I.*wen, originally named by Nylander Cnilevvi ptcrtllvm. 
htn UK p. BUT 

■■ icY*.f /Htm-rirticent, imbneiited. micro- 
pAyllint, di$itato4milri<: . BlhMTial, kuIxmIiuIi ; 

Ihteia biatorine, urcwlate, maryin entire. IhioE, /xiler ; sporex 
iMurless, ovoid or oblong, irregularly niunili-locular. 
On iiKHMy earth, Dot common. I76S. 

Srn ; IhVlta. Br. Crypt 1. 12. (IW5I i Nyl. Stand. 38. C ijwvuxx*. Nyl. 
Scand. 38. {not Umi—imwm, Nyt. f<eaad. St.) 

O* ORKAT MimviN 


DMH l • t t f. :>. NvlSvo. t. 4. f. 10. 


Kx.t :— Schirr. 40*. H«|i|>3U. Mndd 4. 

Cm:. IHhtwti:- Kraniv, Swiwlcn, Kinljuxl, Crinany. 

Bot 1'ii'" ■ -1. 1 I. s. : .M !"• 18 

KvotA.ii> c— Ndfirkk. Mr. Crotrt. (17!G). Wtehiiigb*m, SattoU Mr. 
WWnwW. iir*r Yxnnmith. Mr. Ii IVtfMr Ma* Batby I Cleveland Atfc. MuJd. 
Sidawath. Jtev. T. XaJnty. Twinebam, Sumcx. Mr. Horrtr. near Halting* ; 
ami Shanfclin, tula of Wight. Dr, Noll. Inworth, BaMC. KV. FMfCNM am 
SUnwhoiw*, Gloncartenhir*. Mr. Jothun 

Sootlaxd:-- Knrfanhlre. Mr. W. Oardintr. 

Inu> BWr Cork. Jf r. CnrnJI. krmagh, ■<"*'". J""". 

Wau v Ddeaefl, and Clogwyn-yOamedd, Snowdon. Mr. (rntUf,. 

C;lyder Vach. .Wr. /.<•«_ 

r 'Spom .W4-34 mm. long. .011—13 mm. broad." fJVVj 

6. A. fragile, (Tayl.) dark-olive or fmco-otivaetoui, firm, 
Inciuiiito-lohaU, rotnlate, lobe* radiate, erenate, /tuto- 
unrqnnl ; gran i tin gamma variously dispersed, rarely moiiiliforiu ; 
apottetia peJu brown, nnrvliito iniwie, at length niiiilv plane, 
tliiiliine margin thickish ; BporeK 8, colourlo*, ovoid, vmiaualy 


On sub-alpinc calcareous rocks, very rare. 

Svx t-Oolltma, Tayl. FI. I lib. 2. 100; Uptogium, Nyl. Syn. (98. 
Eb:- Ar». IBS, 
Bot. Pbov :— 19 

Ibd.\si>: IXmkftrron. />r. Tnulnr. 

Cronibi" I.e. remark r that " tfii» rare Iriili >iKcim in externally nonjewhat 
•imilar to young «tate» of Co/Una muttynrtitam, Imt the character of tin 
cortical ilratum anil of the aimtlieoia in widely different." 

•' Spora .029 mm. long. .013 mm. broad." (S"L ! 

7. L. eretaeeum, Sin. <A> {•aeeo-fuaeotu or olive-brown, tnicrophj/- 
llint, rvfulrttoMulatt or stellato Ineini'iU, lobea unequally urenate, 
aotnewhut Imbricate j gnuiula gooim aimple, nirvly uokulifdnn; 
cortical layer rather mdutinct ; apotkreia nifowt, nearly buitorine, 

Pf Or yyileetifornt, (Owll, margin paler ; sporc:s 8, rnlfuirlcBs, 

ovoid, variously divided, :i-7-soptatc, with longitudinal septa. 

On chalk and flint, oxccsHtToly rare. 1800. 

8v»: — Sm. K. Bot. 738. (1800)] Ach. Syn. 818. Nyl. Syn. 120. 

-E. Bot. t. 73S. 
Gaoo. Uihtkiu :— France. 
Hot. IViv :-2, 1 

■jtexn dountie*. Dr. Nothdtn. (1*0(. Kent and Suwer. 
fUt. J. M. Cromliir. ReiuaU lim. Surrty, nuar CtrtAOMMT- Mr. J' 1 : 
Ob the Undercliff, near Kolkcetoue, Kent. Mr. Uolmrt. near Lewte, SnMei. 
Jr-r. l/Hnn. 
"8p(Ni .082-40 mm. Ions. .011-17 mm. lm.a.1." (JVy.) 

■ i'/",ji, \yl. -.'Ann! or viiiixcenti 1'iiscoum, 

MOff WI«U/-r, adlUlt«, tol-'tl«t<>*ir'<m>lw .• ^annln l'i'Iiiium I 

moniliform j cortical layer rathci- indiHtinet ; qpatfufa ruftWt, 
WW" Mil, in a tliiiliine i'.\i;i]i\iliiiu whoHC margin 

nconooloroua with the epltheeiiiai j iporea 8, colourlesa, ovoid, or 
narrower at either apex, .'J-l Mptete, 
On old uulls. vory ran'. I 

XyL Syn. 121 [MR] : Seand. 83. Crombie En. 7. 
.—(fnrma tffwi) Am. 830 I.«r1ial. M. 
• leu, Germany. 
Bot. Vaov :- 1 5...H. 
BtMUXK !-f>'nrw iffita,) Bath. Dr. //■■". near Cirenualer. J/r. JorAuo. 


Cmasxil Ixlaxi* : <f<jrma rfusaj St. Brelade's ! St. Piter'*, Jeresr. 
Mr. toWrtKr, (im.) ^ 

< 'nimble Le. remarks that " the structure of toe tbsilns ii nlnKat *. In 
/*. kialnrinum and L, mirropkfUam, but distinguiihod from Ui« formsr by th« 
tlislliuc excipiUum ud th* cbiattn of tit* aijorw*." 

"Spores .M* Siiiiii. I»ntf. .«W-.010 mm. btoaA." (Kfl.J 

9. L. tantrum, (Aib.) /Jitmbeo-ftutetornt, membranaceous, 
longitudinally ruyulvM or pllcatulate, lacerwlaciniate, margin* a 
dentate or dentate -ind ciirpcd ; tj» | .illido-nifouji, mode 

rnr», margin | i urlcaa, ovoid or narrower 

lit nithcr rjkoc, iiiiinUi-louulur. 

On roomy rocks and walls, I'lvqucnt. 174). 

Bttl : Ai-h. I-rodr. 133. (17W*) ; N 1 1. 9*1 tat S,:.,„|. 88. 

I i I : I : .1 . t. UWS. Nyl. Syn. t. 8. f. ft. Hopp Sporen. t. 106, L 81*. 

Bill -Schatr. «CM. Mu.ld.\ Zw. 173, St. ft N. loll. An/.i Uiumb. II. Lar- 
ha). I. I 

Gauc. llini Kib :— Central Euni|w, Germany, Austria, Sweden, Pyrenees, 
Fraau*, Italy, Algeria, X. America. 

Hot. Pbov :-l, J, J, 4. 5 . 7, 8.. 12, 18, 14, 15, ...19..M. J7...30. 31, 

KiraLAMD . - Westmoreland. Sir J. X. Smita, Cambridge. Rev. R. Rrll^n. 
Oxford. Z>r. StfiiWrji. Baysdale ! Mulgrave Castle t 01er*l«nd, Yorkshire. 
Mr. M add. Torquay ' I '• <'hainwood i Bar4uU 

Hill I IrfiluHUnliir*. &*. -t. flfojJeo u Clilf ! near Tl 

Baker. Cuteainbe I Somerset. In. W. ft. Coleman. Near Linton 
Mr. .' liar; Eshing, near Godalmiiur. Mr. Burrtr. Bud), I 

ton. JW! {McMa MM Sbaoklln, taU "f Wight, ftr. /foil, near Cirencester, 
.tft. ir. JuMkuii. Hungi-rshall Kink'. Kent. J/r. Joiner. Kynesfurd : Wrotham : 
■Ikestone.Kent. Mr. Uotmt*. Uanymynecli Hill I fJhrefeUra, 

So. , • iiuuiii.-w". Rev J. M. Vromtne. uva of Ulaiiuau: Den of 

Unltbayis.-k. Mr. W. Gardiner. High Ashe*. Leith HilL Mr Horrrr. Crai. : : 
hart, K.litilmn/li. Dr. GrtrUle. Dtn ■! (;i.muni»? Airli. ; I J leu Utile ; Reeky 
rstire. Mr. W. (fardintr. Grey Mare - . Tail, Moffat. Dr. A'ithJ. 
Berwickshire ! S,r W. C.TVerWyow. 

iHaiajro ;— Comiii.iii. Mr Oarrott. Ibulnilben ! CO, 8ligo. Dr. Moon. Collin 
GIcd .' Belfast. Dr. X i.Av. KUlamey. Dr. Carrinfton. BaUynaklU Cburctiyard 
Vr. Urbalat ier. 

WaxsB : -Gam Dingle, Deubiitfwfcire, Mr. QnjfM. The Torrent Walk, 
Mr. Urj. DollyuirUyn ; Garth loaf, McrWcth.hlre. Mr. Bamr. 
Kslwywg Books I Bettwsy-Cowl ! TMtVkdOQ ! 

Chab.iel IaLsJuin : -tjucnTala, Jorwy ! ifr LaiUUettier, Guernsey. Her. T, 
.Sal«r y . 

" Sporaa .0»«— 48 mm. lon«. .MO- 1* ram. broad" (N*), 

Forniu^waftriareiw, Hoffm. (FL iima. 104. Dill. t. 10. f. 31. o.) 
tolio* IvotdeV mill Bfln rating margins densely fimbriate and «■'. 
cilia exeemvely branched. 

Coin Borers BdOowcomb* Wood, near CbjBOthtt, Mr. W. Joikm. Iktrry 
•Jar. O.Jv, »y. Mr. LmrialaHer. Killin. See J. M. Crxmbit. 

" Probably not very ,r*r», but scarcely ever aaan In a fertile cceiditioa.* 

l>tdtiiutt«m, (Hfltoi) iLaik bivwu, mnuller, imlvinate, lobe* 
minute, much OMfWod, te. 

On moaaj rocka, 4c., D n. 


-Seaaw. ^0o. M. ft X. «37. LarbaL Ml Ilepp 9iV. 
'.. Lluntia : SooodiuavU. (lermany, Switwlaarl. 
Bor. Plwv:— S...7.S.. 11, 12. 10 2*. .30,31. 

EXO -,i.i( -hire &r. ] '.'hit* Lsutin, A.I..I. ! and near 

Warnit-ei ! Wontim, Dr. Hvtt. Twycn-s ! Ltkeetevabirs. ilcv. st. iwetrosa* 



TmwUU. Mr. Jbtatm. Malvern Hilli and near Ankftnline, Worcestershire. 
Ur. JM. near llnaowtm. 4fr. »'. J»*kua. Atom. Cumberland. ». R 
.'•■'• i. 

SooTiasn :-A(ii>En. ««-. J. M. Cromlne. 

I«*iju»d: -Armagh. A«fm. Join*. Killanwy. Mr. Oarrotl. boar Park, Belfast 1 
JW, £>u-*«. 

W\i.»» :— I»"Ig*U«J"- Or. Ilotl. KljI w y«,-,- IWk« ' 

CltASXKL I»ijlX1« :-- Quenvaia, Jeney ; Henn : Jtfr. LarbaUtUtr. 

Var. /op/Warn, Ach. thallus atill smaller, elongated, ciliato 

diaaecbed or nimoeo fimbriate. Sterile. 

On mossy rock*. Ac., rare. 

8tx.— Ach. Ll V. ML 11*10) : Syn. 824. Nyl. 8yn. 123. 
Bn j— AmI i..»h K iiI>. «2 a. 

(inn;. 1>i»ihib .—Italy, Kunda. 

Hot. Paor : -5 1« Si. 

BmUKDl— Near Mali vrn, />r. Boll, CowoOOtb* Wood. Clmicestcnhire. Mr. 


gl i;,i v. ; , Appill. /!»•'■. J .If. frc.,r 

Cha*m:i buURMl — "Hpariiik'ly in Channel Hands." CromHe. 1. e, 

"i««/inw, Arr.., a»peot intermediate between /■ 
and tremtUoidet.>: Near Ghftlford, Gloucestershire; near Aruml.-I. Etamot, Mr- 

10. L. tubtilr, (Sclirad.) dark cfad 
laeiniatt, laei» <<ly duateted, namm 

i, bateraally i iitu.i-. ■ illuk • pallido I -ui. ta ni . 

sinnll. oone&T> in tiiin, entire j jporcH s.i'..! 

. ijToid, 3-5-eeptate witli ]■ .n-_'it u- 1 in.-»l septa. 
Ike earth, rare. 1791, 

Sys r-Sohrad. 8pic.95fl7SH); Nyl. Syn. I:'l 

Kio: K Bot t 1«K Mudd Mm t. 1. f. «. 

r.x- : Nyl I 2w. I7B. 

Central Kurope, 

Bor. »';..•.•: •-' 3, i B .iu l« :n 

-—Near H»l» Knd, Walthaiiis! i« I itst.Jfr. Rimini 

Pom- oltlahaU, Norfolk Mr. I' Turner. Mianklin. Tile of Wight. 

Ittr. i m-ar Aytoii. Cl.-vi-land. ,1/.. Mu,l,l. X.. w Hull, ll.-nhi-M. 

Sussex ' Vr. Sorter. Newborr, near Won i iter Or ll '■>'■ 

il. Cro»iAi>. near WoatOB ondci Edge and Cowcorobe W 1. GkraOtatenhlri 

Jt>. ./oatiM. bvtwe»ii Rnsthal] Common and tin- lli-:li Kaoka nearTunbi 
Well*. Vr. Jmntr. nenr H»M«.I ; l» ! u , i lladloir and Punk'* Crti-n, H] 

-B<«ky Ltaa, r Ifr, it', ffoi 

laxLMO: "(in wet clay, not anecmBiMi" /". Ttmhr. 
Ch'. kaw 3— OMm*]r. *». r. S'l/i't", Boom Halt, Jwrcj 

•MibU I. c ri'inorVi, "Hurt carefully bo dintingiilnhfil (rem /..I'mn- . 
and all Ibvaomawli 

IfM .0» -23 mm. leaf. .010 mm. broad." (Jfvl.J 

Fum» htiinettluM, Nyl Uk in R brooder. 

tuks, rare. 1876. 
Ksulaxii :-Noar Hloii»lioii»«, tiloucMcrvhir*, Mr, Ju-i 

11. A. Mtutnl illii'!-..) /■iituii.-'.futcetemt, rotimduhiJobafe, 

/■■in fed, ■• "'■■'', imbricati . 

orcrm'iu, ktibei pothecia brovra, acattored, mini 

Doargln mooth, entire, el«Tated ; ipo 
'.Motig, ntteuuuU\l at the apices, irregularly uiiinili-loeuliir. 


On old momy wall* in upland limestone districts, rare. 1741. 
Stx i Book ri. UmL ">a r .. (177H); r.Mma mttnum, Ach. Syn. xa. NyL 

121 Brand 

Kn. h.<pi. siK.rv., t. 7t. rasa, 

I. 101. M. AN. 1SS2. Mudd. 6. Sci. 171. 

f.|>o. Scandinavia, Sweden, Kinhwnl Amtrio, Germany, 
Algeria, Near Zealand. 

Provi i . a, 4, r. 7, 8 u H. 1». 16.10,30 2s so, 

RjlC , ; , Id ■r.-f.inUliir.'. l/r f,,tllttoa Brotnt. (1741)., I '<■■, on, Jf>. Ili'd-on, Chaafiird. I »i iron. .Vr. Ktiehrm. Ilur»-li Cattle, 

near Yarmouth, .Vr. Ii. Turner. Stanhope, I 'ui-li:uii. Iff ,l/n.W, near lUrfl 

Teetidale, /". //•''' EtatNCMr, near Otwcetry ! flrr. T. Salary. 

ChasMTa Knelt*. Malvern 1(111* ! -Vr. Ian. Matlmk ! l).<rby«nire. /V. 

lofon. near Buxton, hihI ll)d« Bnd! NV.,rv«trr. Dr. Hot!. BudUWh 
Halterion. / . Haeaock'iiGal'. Sumh. Mr.tinUilnli '. nod, 

n*ar CittincmUr and Chow Magna. .Wr. IK. J,«l,mi. Wvu ; between Deal ai»d 
-Sandwich. Kent. *Vr. BotHM 

Appiu; I^M-lmbcr. Tfcr. ^. If. Cromhir. n.'ar AtlWdW 1 />r. 

h I I bar. rW, ''». BaMivtoa, Ban lowers. Itr.lMt. 

1 1" /OHM I lolfant Jfr. Iim;>/rr.iii. l!»utrv. Via. 

//W n. n. /'/■. v 

\v,i i.-«i -t;»ni h.Tii.i -ii-iiir.-. i/.-. iiriffith. Bwmouta! 
pen 004 n long, .00&-.016 mm. broad." i.vv.; 

Parma Po tini i r i, (Dei) thattua '"i -'lit green. 

I in : im) : Rare, ou Dunkerron and near Cork. Cnmln 

\';ir. emrutohm, (Xyl.) iltitlliw smaller, it* nurgjaa «nw»to- 

Uafa between 1 1 * • • type and /.. toen 

On trooe. 

Sis;— L.frnurwn- Mml. I Man. 4(5. 
Kxiit-iitr>:-Nc*r Aytou, Cleveland. .tfwrfrf. ffrri. 

I J. /.. fragrant, (Sm.) oKmbWW^Simoim or virescent i<r Difa 
rorur Enute, ateenditu/, ■ rowded, ami 

'. ,■ apotkeeia tammy tinnier s. 

. thirl; tumid IfKJn -. 1. 1 null 

nubpjril 3 5 septal lurnlS-locnli 

< In not ri.nniii.ii. 1 BflSB. 

Si»:-Sm. E.Bot. 1912. (1S0R). 

i:. r..i. i 


Km iirrey, ; near BlaxV.u, Bilaborrnich I. one. Woodnioncot*, 

nd llnr»t|>lcriK)iiit, rinuex. Mr. Borttr. (MOB] aaoi Aytwi, <l-vr 

land. Mr. MudJ Kurthoaiptaii, 

QlonOMtanhin, Mr. Isn. I.lanft-rdn and l'cnlr«;aer, near Otwratry. /frr. r. 

V, (Aol>.)/if*-»-rt>«i. fofafft, /ofa 

or ascend > .'A« maryi'ii ; nf.-ot/itsiit nifes- 

Bcatterad, tntirtt$ margined by tht tkaUn* ; tporct 8, colour- 
knffl, broadly 

dm blue with iodine-] spermatia iucrasante at eitlierapcx. 
■ -Oku, not iinfr«quei)t . 1811. 
'..!.. m: :•.!' .p ;-- /r*"", NyL 8«uhL 

Omo. Outrun : i rop*. Nonray, Svmtcii. Al^rU. 


i . . ! Sborclioiji ; :•(. Mi.ln..|. 'I.i. 

ii i-*Undtire. 
t H<ixl«)r Hill, .Maiilxt- 
and l5»imiiik\ near Mol ' -'hm*. 


ScoTLiitn :— Aii(An. Rtr. J. M. Orvmhb. 
I«LA»i):-KiU»ni«r. Mr. Hard*. 
Wauh :— North WaW Mr. Orifiilk. fUU). Barmouth, 
i I1A9HBL IftUtKDrt :— Ouarnaey. Rer. T. Salmeg. Jersey, rare. .aft-. LaHal- 

» wj'nor. Orombio L a " thallus smaller, whin dry some- 
what aiigulocie, probably identical with Collema Jatnculnrr , 
Hrit -.-Calttmajfunatih, Tajtot in Hli. Brit. Mua. ft Kew. 
It. L. prdmatum, (Hud*.) fu*x*mti, /tuco-rintratcent or /**»- 
MW« .■>.'. thin, membranous, IcKiniatt, laciuijc erect, tabon 
/.-H/aftMORMMW ; apothecia rufoscent, atnnll, Wifln, irrogulurly 
scattered, concave, margin eloviit..]. i.iiim; sport* 8, colourlew, 
•ojd, attenuated tX tM upioes, irregularly mural Moenlar. 
nossy sandy ground, rare. 1 696. 

Srs . VL Abb. 536. (OT8) i ** s .vn. 319. Nyl. 8yn. J»i. Scand. .t\ 

Flo :- K B..I. t Im. 

li M.ft N. !0M. Hwinffl. 

I Vntral Kurope, France, (Jermany, ttwiUerland, Sweden, 
Algeria, Canariea. 

Rot. Pbov >—*, X. 4 .10. 1.V.33...2S...81. 

— Yarmouth; Ilemaley. .Vr. I>. Turner, <\.xtlimn' ClerelAnd. 
Mr. JfwW. Cobharo, Surrey ; Brnm Hill. rJoo6eld Mr. Borrtr. 

ftxnt.AX i> :- Braranor ! /Yo/. 01 landed Banfe, rfata, 

J.w* BUir Athole. »rr. y. .V. Ore 

InKUXD :— Logxelaw, co. Wicklow. Vr. Mom. Armagh. Adm. Jntut. 

Craxnkl tstAsnar-IJuemaey! .Iff* ',/',„„.. Harm. Mr. CortoteMr. 

Crombie l.c. remark* "easily ■ li>linKui | dicd m I by the rerolnte 

mtrxli.- -.f tlm |as|nla% mott vliiblu when nmUU-ned and wliicli are d 
Iwiwler or n*ro>wtT, anil linnar." "Hpcrw .02*---»O. mm. long. .016—1-1 | 
broad." fJVjrfJ 

16. L. trrmelloults, (L.) fhuu 1 ..r /•'irmtm-olim- 

nv-mKninaeeout, smooth. b>baU. imbricated 
ap e t & ttin nffimt Of roJeaoMr^ rfwaftrf, urctolute or bAxn*, ma 

thick, fill 8^ I "I mill-:.:., ell: | .-• Ill I. 

34vpt lie, iiri'gularly mumli [ocular. 

On sub alpine and maritime rocks, frequent. I 

Mv.v :-I.inn. Simpl. M- *- r, 0- 07*fl I v 'l,. S ,. 124. Scand. S6, 

I lot t WSL Nrl. %■ t. 2. f 7. " 
Kx»:-M. & N. I00O Bctar. WO. And Lang K. Urb. S. 

i uttml KtiroiM, I' ,• Il:ily. ^ClUlllioKvU Sv. . li. ii, 

Finlanii. Cub*, Amazon*. N. Zoaland, Coyloo, Rio dc J.un'i ■<. t». < Iraoada. 
I'-.,.'. : l . ... 8, 7 .li, M. r. '...... iu 80 28,30, 

:— Devomhire. Mr Slatrr, Yorkxhin Jfr, Curt it. Whitdllfl Etoalwl 
I.niDow. Bri . T. Salmii. Kuan Minor. Cornwall : 

.Vr. Rurrrr. Hurnby, Y.irk.l.iir. Mr. TmdaU T. ir ,,u:.>. Dr. //..«. Hayla 
Tdwbb n«*r l'entanoe '. Mr. Qmcm b«tw»n Mmwea and linrcy Trnoj - ; 
IlnlnifUin, IVvou. Miurt. Jmn • ,1 A'.r. 

OTLAltOr— IHanbu »ry. 

.-.Un.! Hill* Or. OrevO, tppin. s. HcbrUsa Rtr. J. Si. 


ash :-Bcl/a.t Mr. Tempi. Hir.r. Dr. Utoka. Buntry. Mia 

•m. Aakaw Wood, Korry. />•'. Taylor. Ulackwater Brid)^, Kc 

Kiltamey, Mr. OirrrJ. Dm : Vlnyim \IiIm-, ■-<■ \l»yn ; 

Tullyvree l' Bajwoy, »/r UrrbalaCirr. 

ban, near Harlech <f>. ifcrmrr. Riahonaton Glen, OlanorRaaanfa* I 
Harlrch Caatl* 1 

"-(ioiV&U Mill! St. JVUr-M V allay • .trr—s. Mr. 

-<«• CCl- 497— HUD. •"»<■ -00x-H mm. nroad." ffffrfj 



F. paiyp/iylluw. Nyl. rocks Doilghruagh, rcry rare. 1876. Mr. 

16. A. da matimtn, Bon. olntym or oiirt-brotm, »\ibf*>riacro»*, 
Ntundo-l<ili;i1< *inuot<- or inript-ermnU, 
amooth «r miiititolv granulate; apollteeia riifont, plane, margin 
narrow, n rasolate; iportM 8, ootounaas, cull] 
3-aeptatc, murali-locular. 

On calcareous rocks, not OflMft 

; Bot Su|,|.l. t871G. (1831). 
ipd I ?T16, f. 2. 
!'uov: I, 111 7 . 10...1S...J*. 
BmUVD :-l-fiich Wood, naar Briatol. Mr. f,<nltr. Ketwick ; Mai ham 
V .rk.hire ; New TimbfT Hill. giumx. Afr. Aomr. WertmnwUixi 
Robtrttan. PrntregMr, Oatrntry. ilrr. T. Hatwri/. Devonshire. Sir H". /, 

ii:.. i,,. Barratoy r rk, paw CHrtoowtar. l/v. j.uJhul. 8*tnsoft Kmt Allan- 
dale, Northumberland. Mid Alatoii. Cumberland. «rr. IP. ->,Jin»>i>. Korea 
l-aae, near Cirruumtar. Jfr. IT. .AuAmii. 
■ la vii ;-Wr. JJonrr. 
mil :-Tulloywce Bridge, Galway. Jfr tartalrMitr. 
Wat.u ■— UmttOM Kwi-ka ! Mr. 'Infill .11 fffrt. fiinrtr. Stacajiole. PW»> 
bnikeahire. V&w. T. Ball 

17. /.. fbajuttUt, (Hocks.) dark olive or olive-black, eoriaceo- 
matbrana 'y imbiicattd, lobate, lobe* oblong or obovale. con- 
vex, prcUftnvtf m bmeitik . opoffaeia brovn, small, i/l>A>n- 

•c-wile, nvuMiv, ihiilln.i nnuym ■BOOth, pule; spores 8, oolrmr- 

pttte, irregularly murali-locu] 

On rocks in mount. 1111 .-ifivaiiiN, nirc. 1 724. 

Sin :- Hudson FL An*. 684. Ach. Syn. 314. MmM Man. 40. C rinJm, 
Ail,. Syn. :cc 

I ':.. -R Bot t 2039. 
Bor. T . 10.. 13.. I.",. 

Malharu Cove. Yorkshire. Ih\ RkharJton. (1794) 

Si.ii ■,•!■: liivi-i i.i:i \u I'.'inwi. /•'./. ./. .1/ HoBstngtoa PaB, 

1 juiark. ifr. Borrtr. 

W.iu:.-. Snowdoo. In River Elwy, about halfway fmro Ui» op|KiMt« tho cave to PuiitNewydil, 4 mile, from Denbigh. Mr. Griffith. 

"Bpom.OU— 9 mm bug, .007— 9 mm. broad." fA'"'.'. 

18. £. eMorwluiii, I.Sw.) lead coloured <ir plumlteo-virrscmt, 
membranaceous, loba(e, plicate, longitudinal}} m^one, lobe* »iik1ii- 
late ; tpe ii t ri i rufoiti or fuscorubui, concave or plane, tkalliue 
maryiti thick, nyaio ptewl* ot/urfwa c eo frpnul att ; spores 8,oolour- 
low, tWpaoid, »U«anmt«d at cither apex, 3-5-«eptato, with i 
tudinal septa. 

On DBOaaj triuikg insub-alpine regions, rare. 

■ :-SwMti VI ind. Ootid. 8. lSDi (1»6); Ach. Syn. SSI Nyl. Syn «8. 
i:x-> }— Wright h. 

Obdo, Danmi-W. Barm, FnonC-nnriM, K.* W. Indie*. N. ZealaixL 
Jamaica. Moxtco, Bnudl. Cuba, Teaerlno. 

: .imii : Charlton Korert, Sna»M. Jfr. /fcrrrr. 
Ian '..rneyand:- untira. Mi* ffuUiint, 

Walim :— Barmrath. /"rr. T. Sr/inry. Garth, dni H, BMi. 

" .S|Miya. 030— ST mm. long. .010—1" mm. I I ■'.). 

19. /.. mturniif ■■• ■■•■^fiitcriifrnt <\r rJivocro- 

I'J^jlir-in. Of poljffJiytlan* uih! 



umplioate, donate and plicate, w^fricanti/vfttrtuwut abemt, 

ii'.h cinerr-nts ur uIUz-cihc'cjU* mid denst/;/ ineau -in ; 

:. rufous, Mattered, plana, thallhu 

d ■ mi hi ; spores 8, colouruaa, ■ 

Ou old trunks in ntil>-:ilpni<! looalitiat, rare. 1790. 

Hals, Ur. Crypt. 2. B.XL (17!"', B. SM. (to S>n. 127. 

-Dick*. U.U £8. Kll.lL L 190a N vl. Syn. t. 4. f. M. 'll..j,|. .spuren 
t 74. ! 
Kx*:-M. 4k N. 4M. In part. 8..h*t. 424. MH>. A.,,.. Ufl ' Bk Ml Hcpp 

g & 

Gum. DtaTlUa: -Europa, Pyrancca. Italy. Havana, SwlUorWI, S.-ui(lin» 
vi», Sweden, E. Lapland, Hungary, Au»triA, N. \n.. 
But. Paw , 16. 

: -TmmUU, Diiihain. /•'■!. ./. flltirtwan. : - Wmtern |»rt», .Vr. Inrkron, (1790). KiUin. A/>. A IWrur, 
Aiiiiir-. A«r. y. .W. Cr\-mlnt. near Aberdeen! /W. Dickie. OUm l.yii a*d 
Glen Lochy,*. i>r. i/.^/. K.irfandilrc. j/r. *.'. /*.«. 
AM .030-28 mm. leant, .010—11 mm. bread." (Xyt.) 

/,. Ilur • litt.) dark lead-colour or ptimbeojtueaomii 

large, Uehdalc compueatt, lobe* crtnulat- oar anotuly dir 

trcUtl, citrltd and erispate bnxealh, cineratctut and W&nttUtf a' 

apotnaeia dark-rufous, large, plane or thai- 

margin, n kM, densely tinualo lacinuiU tmd 

km 8, oolourlcK*, all lated or apioulate at oi 

ilv rnurah-locu] 
i calcareous rock* and old trunks in sub-alpine regions, rare. 

ta -.-UAH. Kl. Bent, Ut, 0J77J : Act. Syn. 830. Ny). Syn. 132. 

•Lu-htf . l Rot. t. 300. Hepp Sporen t, lOo. 1. 927. 

Exn :-H..p|. •.'27. Maudom 8B. 

U*w. Dlsiun:-— D*uuia>k Switzerland, Canariw, Amarie*, Amazons, 

»., it ae 

La»r>: — Cumberland ! Ur, Bvrgai. Gowbnrrow Park! and KeawkU ! 
lajjo - . 

Sii.rtaXIi :— On txuik ol rlvnlat iJnir Kiniml, near Barntimpen, par. 
Kirkiiatrick : and in Meilin I-inn Wood ! par. Johuntoi. 
Dr. H»rga>. (1774) Bcotch II Ighlaa .I». Sir W. J. Booker, Grampian*. Bee. 

Kylaomra Uks. Mr. Larbatatier. 
» Bridge and ] 

Boy. Dr. Boil. Garth and Kliaiadr I)u. near Bar- 

I Oard%Bn»hlre. Sir J. 

J. M. Onmliie. Inrurary ! Jfr, fcntluim. OIm Palta h. Dr. /!■■//. 

Ilamey. Itr. Taylor. Doer Park, Antrim. Dr. Moor*. 8. »i'l» 
vykuiiim Uka. Mr. Larit ' 
■•-vgwyn, near l>oU:eD _ 
month, iter. T. Salary. Hxllwa-y-cowl ! 
"Sporca .080— «0 mm. loim, .013-17 mm. biuad." firj 

21. L. turgidum, (Aoh.) flark vlivt-yi'.rn, thkk, r.,tuw< 

Hinooth or grauulatod, lobt* luraid, ;i-.aiuliu:; and nut 

iccmr, tmdulaU and jilicale at the circumference; a|«.ci;i 

I sh-browu or nigricunt, modal 10; margin thick; turgid, 

man w /«» gmudate; ipovM 8, ooloniiats, oblong or ovat>- 

mg, 3-mi|)tato. 

On rock* and *unUt/'i- on. 

i . 6M. iimo). Syn. SU. Nyi. Bcaad M 
t— Sobar, 433. HappSln. l^aight. 287. 

liisiuii:— i'ranie, Suitwrland. 
. Paov :-3, 4, 5 ..10...12. 



EKOLAXIi:— Near Hcarbomtu.h. Mr. Iloilttme. Milhim, YurUUre. Dr. 
Cmrington. Leigh Wood*! ClUtou. Mr. Lartjalattcr. Gorleiioa* ChureJ»; 
DuBwiofc, Suffolk. Mr. D. Turner Houthnvrr l'ri.iry. Mr. Jmn.r. !.t<Mi 
1 am and f.uiMfonl. 4fr. Ikrrtr. near Malvern. /*r. //'/*V. (.'Iiewuiagna 
near BrUt<> Br Edna, and Borodianipton. .U>. ./watM. Xcving- 

ten Mat KaniltfiW : nrar ; Wrotham thani ; I'ortlinj ; 

Kent. .-.hiold. Alston, Cumberland. See. W. Joknton. Upton. 

HbHfnal, Sutvpehire; Llanforda. nuar <>K*u«try. 

Croinbie I. c remark", " confined apparently U- S. and W. K-ngland, rawly 
MOOgniasd from all itatee of Goltema rmlpuruK and L. piicatilt, li jr iU »uUro 

22. L. Xehradrri, (Bomb.) darkUh <Aitx-grtm, tvjjAtoit, small, 
erect, diehotonvitutj/ branched, Icba tnllinear, iircguluriy undulato- 

;to-rugratc and lingular, tonttrieted ul the bate and o, 
dilated in the middle ; npothecia roddkh, lateral, concaTc, margin 
nitirv, paler. 
Among meases in calcareous, raiv. 1783. 
8vm .-Berab. In 8uhrad. Joum. 1799. faw. L 22. Ach. Syn. 388. Nyl. 8y»- 


r. ■ . Bol I 

Cum. DiHimu :— France, Germany, Bavaria, Algeria. 

Pi II ! i. ' 2H. 

Bmi UfDi Matlock, Derbyaotre, Sir J. E. Smalt. (17*3). Courier Church, 

folk : and mar Bury : and Sumwx. Mr. U. Tuner. near Yarmouth ; Batik. 

..' it, OrvmbU. HoHy B Dr. BoB. near Storriagtrin 

h: Crow Link, Suucx. Mr. Borrtr. Suaetx Downe, near Bright**; 

near Bath; near Bab W< iba & Dares, shank!!.., [abj „( v. 

a Oirenoeatar, Mr, W, Jtmuo. Bathamptoa Down*, luth. 
Itr. It-U. mm Chelaficld ; Wrotham ; Shorehaiu ; Folkestone ; near Otiord, 
Kent. Mr. ll.Jvut. 

1 L-sxii . — On decayed mortar of old walls in Glenlyon, Perthihire. A". 

fit. Crrnii'.n . 

IhklWIU ;-Klllani«y. />r. Mow,, near Cork. Mr. Carroll. Sheep Walk, Aih*. Jane*. Davro* Bridge, near Kylomorc, Golway. Mr. £<ir- 

CMaxXKL Ixlaxds :— L'etaoi, Jeney ; Herm. Mr. Larbaletticr. 

23. L mierwieopicum, Nyl. olivacco-nigricant, most minut.rlT | 
io, cilui.0, brancbed, erect, unequally terete, brancbli Ul 

On rook*, ram 

Six ; -Nvl. Prodr. »i. Syn. 125. 

Viu:-Nyl. Svn. t. 4. f. 17. 
i.AM> J— Cowcotiibe WOOd. near, Clom-mterahtre. Mr. J.uAua. 
Kant Wood*, near Mairbrtonc. Kent. Mr. IHna. Llauytiiyoech 1 Shrojaihire. 

Cmunai iBLAMDBl— Jtemj. Mr. iMrttlittitr. 

Ckou I.e. "approacher. In battl at leaat, nearer to the iirecediBS 

Uiaii to any «Uto of L. laeerum, while the discovery of the ariotliecia by no 
recently, nrax Sliiere, in Surrey, nli<iw» that It U sot, ae tulgbt ha»-e been ma. 
pected, an uniloTe!"i>ed atate of fouio other «pecie«. 

'.' 1 L. .n, (Sw.) /ateout, or (Aivaceo-fttKtKeut, BD 

'Vii<'4Ctff'o«(>-i'<Tm«>»r, branchesjili/ormiJtretfor«iilHxm}>re**<d, 
intricate, apicus alightly uttcnuat*; apulhexia ftiaoo-rnfcjfCCJi' 
. ttmkul, apprmtd, margin thin, amool 

.''■luurlcu, oblongu-ftwifurm, 1 
ka nud walla i i = 175M). 

I ,«. I. 'MS (17WI : Adi. Syn. 328. NyL Syn. 154. 

Ckmt, 1 t. C f. 9. Schair. Kn. t W i I i.. E. Bot, «. 
23M. SyL »yn- »• «• f- H..-1* 



r. 175. M. k X. 949. Sclutr. 408. Lelght, 3Ui. Aiui Ltagvb. 12. 

Sod. DimiBi- Kuroiw, Franco, SooodinaTia, Sweden, Buuia, Fynnttv, 
Germany. Italy, Algeria. 

. ' ! '. 7. 10, 11 ,.18 .a, 3L 

K>ula»d :— Kgleito] i Srr. /. Harrinum. Oiwmtrr. Ret. T. 

&tliery. l^iolirautfliriast, CU-vuland. Jf>. McOi. ISlacluton* Itock, Dartu. 

;••• i'. //.-;•.. s mtfi lin at, Hi- D . '/"". 

SoatLutu: -Scotch Alp*, Afr. />«■**>«. (1790). inn* «cr. y. J/, 

Cnrnine. Uvii Iawot* ; I-ooh Dochart, I'rrtlwhin. 1W. II 

I*KLA»D :— LiumUu-. m Wickbtw. A'l.». Jonct. 

Wiua i (jurUmeQio. Jfr. ©ryWA. Barmouth : IV™ Foxea ! near Dol« 

MOOn Iii-uum:— Guemoey. ikr. 2". Soltxy. (juaavau, Jersey. J/r. 

'• Siwrw .02S-S7 mo. Ion*. .007 mm. broad." (Jr>f.) 

V. G0LLEM0PB1S. iVy/. 

Thallua internally idaucous-groeu. Goninii* Bubmoniliibrndy 
■RBDfl L 

1. C ScJiHrcrii, (Maa*.) fuKfKinerateent or ci/tereo-fi 
.MililnrtAruous, thiol; tcdiif^rmi-granulate, » 

ipoivjioit m alrorvfou* of , very minute, crowded, 

•WruNtw/<-, puHCti/ormi-impreited, tkm dudfunni-ditaUd, nuu 
spores 8, colourless, globoso- ovoid, Biraple. 
On calcareous rocks, rare. 

:-Stixb. Fleoht. 141. <'r„mbi«,En.8. 
ll-l^pSporont. tt.l.m. 
Ex.i :- And 430. Zw. 9ft M. Mm. 338. 

lilnlBIB .—Europe 

Bet. Flov :— ».. 

K.voiaxi) ;— tihin*. Surroy. Iter. J. .V. <' I ..wcombe Wood, near 

l."balford, Gmoc*«t«r»hire. ifr. ,/oaAua. Buxlvy Hill, near Maidttono : uoar 
K..T,i-in-. K.,.t. Mr. Helmet. 

Scotland ;— Oour Guw, Br&vinar. Urate Tulloch, (900 ft) Blair Alholo. 
Bm. J. M. Orotii/, 

" Abatac* of taiy |in>|Mr hypotfcaUa* at one« «i>ar»t*» it from /'«; 
whiili utbrnriu it dcucly raeaiblet.'* Crvml/ie. 1. a 

2 (.'. f-ciuopsoides, Nyl. fitteoiuJ/Uut, opakc, 

ifc or nearly continuous, somewhat scabrous; apothecia 000 
■us, ttrttolaU, tballiuo margin prominent, p MMi t m t; spores 

E4-*. < i, ellipsoid, sunple ; paraphnea aleader, nol 

On tuaritune calcareous rocks, rare lSOO. 
. :- Nyl. in Flora, 1S66, ]). 371 Coliema pj/renoptoUta, NyL Syn. L 103. 
Gboo. l>iHiBrB :— l'vrwiota. 
vkd : -Craig Tulloch. Malr AthoU. Kti: J. .V. CromUt. 
IlutLAXii ;— Kqiiiuotv, K.;rry, AJm. J<»u*. (1S60). 
"oi-orw .014-30 mm. long, .006 -.010mm. broad." ( K<jK) 
i. C. furfwdla, Nyl. black or fuaooua-black, either entirely 
furfnraexo-granuUae and effuae, or ditperttd in small furfur ■ 
ttrmcat, tsitA larger convex fertile granules intermixed; apotfiecia 
Hiibpyrenodeoleeanorine iinprcued in the ferl :los ; sporca 8, 

iHeao, aliortly <:llii»c>!il, niiiij.l nyaca diati- tiiui 

'.[lenuatia oblongo-cylindricaL 
On alpine rocka, very rare. I 

-'Stomal aspect like a Pyrtnopfis, but with mwiiHfhrm grannla 



Bn :-NyL In HilUk. p*.. 9. ■ t Vt ft. X0U4. *. (a. wr. Dp. *»■ <18»> t 
Ko»»d.» Carroll hi Seem. Jourm. Hot 3. SM. 

i'm>T;— in. 
So.iti.ibd: — Summit of Corbuie, in Bredalbano. AJm. Jaita. (l«">). Miud 
. Krr. y. Jf. f.VwaW. 
■ i-owa .011-17 mm. long, .0O8—.011 mm. broad." fTTyj 

4. C. oUongaHSy Nyl- olive-brownish, ^mmUuav-cruM'iatiu\ 
confluent: apotkeem bright, or rod-testaceous, some* hut comaec, 
mtHHif, margin thick ish ; spores 8, eolourlwa, obi: lo <* 
spuriously 1 -septate; Kelatiua hyiuenc-u I -. 

KM Of rocks, 1874. 
I to ' '• A rm t idi tm a, (H«pp) mid C. FlUoviani, (Hop] 
■ 1 1 0". -1 11 1 _: in dUoHU ittMM "t" aporw. 
-Nyl. la Flora 187*. p. 80S. 

G*l»t- Illsl 1. :li • Kiirnl.i-. 

Bor. Paov :— IS. 

ixi) .-• Near llawrbraek, Waatinonliuul. ifr. Mnrtiiulalt. (If,*). 
'• Spuna 0.016—30 mm, long, 0.006 mm. brood." 

5. C. ftifundnw, Nyl. 66i«t, opakc, thin, aiwAato+ptaaiubtiri 

it rhxfy, small, variable, effuse ; apUAecia 
vml, tin. ','., /.v. but variable, tad aomewt 

piano, internally entirely palo; spores 8, 1 llijwoiil 

simple; parnphysiw distinct, slender; gelatin* hymcnca at 
blUfl then vinous-red with iodine. 

On green-sand nicks, rare. 1865. 

Si s : N vL In Flow. 186&. p. 602. Cromblc En. 3. 

Bor. Pbot:— 3. 

Ksi.laud i-Nm Maidntonc. Kant. Aim. Jonu. (1865). 

"Ojgetm .nil- 53 mm. lang,.007-.0n mm. br«*d. u (Nyl.) 

5, ''. Arnoldiaiui, Nyl. olivruyofntcuH*, thin, yrantUote ; apa- 
M r«/w« or dart ru/out, biatoriu M aJmotL 

form, in the centre, small ; par.iphyscs articulate ; spa lour 

two, cllijwwid, simple, containing ruiuuto oleose gutt 


lu old oolite i]narric8, rare. 1875, 

Hrx i-byfcgn'um. Nyl. Syn. 11H. |1*»). Verrucarit in<**ia*a, i/ W . 
Kin : H.pp Hp^ran U 11. f. 92, 
Kxs I— An. 32. S3. 

rum :— Kurapc 
Bor. Paov. :-8. .n. 

OUSDi— Oowcombe Wood, ucar Chall aid, liloueeatenbir*. Af>. ./cmA*.. 
Sheer*. Surrey. Kfr. J. if. C. 

ree .017-30 mm. Ion* S mm. linm.1. ti«UUn* hymccK* 1 

lsdo-Mue Own dlluUly vinomred." (Nyl.) 

7. (7. Upttyir.Ua, NyL otiv<UYo/tucou*, Miffhtly •nbtoralloidc'f 

furfvraaetu, efiuM ; <i}*othtcia Macro-lurid, otinuU, like thoeo of a 

Leptogim > somewhat iiuprcmod or at length nearly 

plane, with a small margin ; spores 8, colourless, oUipaoi ■ 

• ago-ellipsoid ; pamphyae* slender, thiekcr at the apices. 

On quartoosc rocks, rare. 1876. 

Spo*M .010—17 nua. long. .0OV— 7 mm. broad. <;«a»tin» KymanM I 

vim»o fulvo^nbwcont. A very peculiar ipteic*, momUIaj( Ltftvjivn aim* 

&>T. v. ..i i .230. 

Bor. I'kov j-26. 

luti. ii Inajh, Coaacaaara. ilr. Lartxttatxr. (1H76). 




Thallus Dido- 

effuse, of the same structure iu» that of Is)'tor/ium. Apothecia 

noearpoua retruo ari c 
" 1. P. adintilum, N'yl. dark otivaooona, aduate, forming small 
patebea, ateD*tCHltvidaa\ paya diatinot, attennatod s.1 thi 
amending or sutareit. vinous-rod with iodine; apothecia pji 

ia, in the I'.'ntr.'.ii' thu thallus, promlaeat pemhocdum mtii.iy 
black; aporos4,fu*cou*orfii-'iceseetit, oI.I.uil". 3 septate; paraphysc* 
^lender or 
On chalk, very rare. 1865. 

Sis :-Jfyi in Flora MfK. p. 210. 
Bor.Paov:— .1 .5. 

ISD»— ftnloy Hill, Kent. jtrfm. Jone. (ISM). Dorking, .tfr. •/„»/....,. 
Oromule 1. e. »tat«i tlmt. " toeordlog to Nyhuid*r in KM., if tho ajwlhcia 
xr* in* ]«ra»itit-, tlil» ought to be included in » dwtinct tribe called Pynn- 


'1'i:m ■ I. MvniAMIIKI. 

I. MVI'.I kNOT m. Ukt ■< 

Thalliu blade, ooduloso-polvinate, cellulose, unatratined. Apo 
tin i ino, Bpnteroideo-crilnlorW. Spores 8, oofewtaaj 

obion ■' almost mural! divided 

l. i. f /'"/... M. .t R. hlack, niKilic, sin. ill. iiilici-. L'lnineraie 

in- iimiilli i - j ■!»-- ;...]iiilvm . niiiiuU", 

k, slightly impraeaod ; Kporos 8, ooloorieaa, oblong orobloi 
oToid, rarionalj aeptato; gelatiaahymoaN rinooa win iodine. 

On ash and elm, rare. 183G. 

. :-MnL and Bttfci in M,,..k. .trnirn. Rot. 1845, p. 73. N'yl. Syn. UB, 
\a gtomer\,lo$um. T»yl. FL Ilib. 2. 10*. MdL Hyn. 
Sjra. t, I 1 1,6. 
-*fo«. ST. 
(Jnxj. Oixmrn :— Euroj*. Franco, Algeria, Mexico. Auitralio, N. America. 
Bor. Prov;-1,2. 1II...31. 

Exi.lami :-Penovnw. Wr. Half: UU of Wight. Iter. T. .Sa/i«y. near Shank- 
tin. Dr /f-JI. Trevoll.> Wood, Cornwall Mr. Ounow. 

ELAND}— Cairicalloe] near ("«rk; near Crumhaven, Cork. Mr. Carroll. 
Kerry. Dr. Tattor. 1 1*36). 
i .i una : Sart I /.'• . '•' Si 


Ina various iu oolour, white, whitish, cinernscent, Barli ut, 

•us, fuscous, ami very rar ml, and very rarioiM in form, 

filaim-iiti eoua, Hqunraoae, crtutaeeoua, pulverulent or 

naaoont In moat epooioe the itratunj eonidiali | urae 

gonidio, in a few only of gnHMlla gouiina. Apothecia cither 

utipitatc or locanorinc or peltate, or pataUulat*, or pyrcnocnrp<.ii« 

Series I. Epiconii 

Apothecia witli the spores nuked, collected into a apora] mass 
mi tin- surface Spores 8, in asci. 



Tunc I. Caucih. 

Thallas crustaccous, granuloso, or obsolete, yellow or naro-viras 
cent or ciuorascent or whitieh. Apothecia cnpuliform, constricted 
below into a stipes, or sessile. 

I. SPHIN'CTRINA. F,. pr. />. DUK 

Thallus none. Apothccia parasitic on /VrtwaartVr, glohoso- 
lurbinate, sinning, Mack, sossuo or short It Spores 

nhuMOent, simple. 

1 . S. tHrbirutta, (Pen.) Apothccia tvtxrssiU, small ; spores 
mall, >jfobo$e or aubgloboae ; iodine pale blue, then obscti 

On Perttunria commuuit, COinmon. 1796. 

Bn :-Catiei*m ».r6,*rf.», Pen. Fan;. 50. AA. Srn. 6*. NyL Syn. 1C 
If odd Mi ..■.■■•.. 

tot 8530. NyL Syn. lieh. t .V f. 1. 
- : -Sch«T. 0. LtUki 132. Madd 211. Ant IUL & *&. Bwah. ft Schab. 2. 
M. A N. *• 
Oaos. Dbtub i— Europe. Seaedinnvu, Portasal, France, AlKwia, North 

linr. Paovr-2,3 r. in 

u CaUbro • Kwbv 1 Yorinairo. Afr. MmU. Pnwick. Woe. 
rahbe. Jfr. <hnr«trr, ShroMhire. Jle». T. Salwn. Tmtn I 

W»U.. Jfr. ,fiiu*r. SMw1»«n+l. K«nt ir>. JM.W*. «:««l CLnbuu, SolT.Jk, 
GiicatUog. Sium\. . KoanjUM. Oakbr P«ric. near Cfrmoortcr. Mr. W. 

J'aknu Aym«tn>y! Hay Poc*U ! H«r*f ordthlro : lCa^ltk '. mu 


;:i part*, /in-, y. if. Cremate. Carae of Cowrie. JTr. 
Bl m te 

laKMKnr— Klnrr.'r, <'.<r!c t Mr Carntl. 

I cy. Mr. LnrlalatitT. 

i, dime." 

(MmM.) "8po«a .0CO-C mm .Ham.' 

(Ngl.) S\*m* MA mm. dlam. 

2. S. anr/t : •A&guiali} «' . v thallus ; spores 

j/Urbote, ellijuoid and Mima, moderate, iodine Una. 

On old rails Ac, rue. ' 1805. 

Hr* : " AsN miCTverjnnfe*, 3m. T. and B. Lich. 180. 

E. Bot. l*»tt. Nyl. Syn. IM, 3. 
Bn : -Kocb. 5»: MS. Zw. 385. Th. M. Fr. 72. 

«■». Dtwrwm-N. KnsUn.l. N. America. 
-•ex; Caietoc. near Yarmouth. Mr. H*rtr. (1SJY..) 
Paekisffton. Oraitcor «/ Aglaford. Twycroee ! tiojieail I Uieenterehir*. A 

.iRhmnrc. MB* \V»terf-e\l. •*</*. JvatA. 
!««• .00123 to .«« In. dlwii." {MutM. ) •' ffootsi mm. lens. 

.006-0 mm. bread." (:• krnff, .008 sun. broad. 

\'vl. apothecia arm'/g , ruscescent ; Bfx 

On lYrrusariay ran'. I 

■I. Cebc. C. - !»n. 259. 

ft, f. 2. 

•!cm. 1/kh 
Ej.hi Nyl. 5. II h.iad-^ 

r 'MCf, 1'yrcneca. ' !>•!«. 

Bot. Pbutj— t, 
Eucujii .--Now For**, Haata. Iter. J. M. Crvmbit. (190»). 

or OREAT BRtTArjr 


'S|«>TO.002to.C'X»in. loiw.bjr. 
mm. Jong. .007— d ma. broad." 
am. knwL 

, HV. lMT>,\lfttitr. 

' if./J " Spiral .011-16 
CJjrf .) Spore* .018-15 dh. long, .007-8 


Thallus granulosa, powdery, uquamuloeo or altoi-ether evanett- 
., stipitato or subseesik-, capitulu gl 
tarbinatt "i onpular. s^ros fuscous or nnatia 

short, oblong. 

A. Spore* tintjtle. 

1. C. 'UptofUam, \yl. obsolete ; apothoi la Moat v 

i, BportJ raiiw scarcely pratbiaent ; 
irtMtnt, ol mpk (or 1 -septate. ) 

vory rare. 1868. 
Tho smallest of all the spocioe, and easily recognized. Iu plaoo 

car dittemimttmn. 
Sm t-C. JlptotUnm, Njrl. in Flora 1868. p. 10L 

Imi^Mu : — Cromngluvn, Killaraejr. Mr dm 

" Spora .006 - 9 mm. Ion*. .003 mm. brood." (Ajrf. ) 

2. C. eArytoee/Judttm, AcIl ci/rint or yellouHjretn, granulate, 
■roto-coivj! t oTnueact'iii ; apotheela Hack, shortly 

longate, capltnla htrbineUoitntiform, eitriH0-4ufk 

U margin; i or turriisjinoiLi; Hporcs 

nOt, globe**. 

On palings, dre , rare. 180-4. 

Sin it SnppL 15, 8yn. CO. Nyl. fan. 1W. 

M .,.!■! Ilaa. 

t'li I.l.-li. I. \ t. 11.12. 
ahk- : pc 

Ueoq. 1>ihtiiiii : Kiiropa, N. 
Hot. Pkov:-3, 4. 1' U. 
Bkolakb: - ifolk. ,Vr. A TV H). Norfolk; Suffolk: 

Emu. Sir »'■ J ll-Ur. Itoamlak, mid llaynlal. ■. Yorkshire! Mr. 

i'. Shipluume, Kmit. Mr. Jriu 
SorjlXAHD! N'mrSlntoford. Or. Gretille. 

■ in. bog. by .001 in. brc*d." ^iTu JJ. J " Sporei .003-6 mm. 

di«n> r*i*> 

/. trw/itiMx^pWum, Nyl- apothi oil <'vic»l<Uo-ranme, ■tipM bit 
; ula black <iffiu*d at margin only ; spore* globose or 

I Lsoous, larger. 

STS:-Nvl. Sy: 

Kx»:-l*iglit. 134 in : 


^•WMi .004— .016 mm. long. .001 S mm. brnMl." fJV//l.) 
J. r '. pMaocepkalvm, Bon*. paUido-ciner ua tl or ••■/.•oh/, 

aaratVf*am, cronata, i itc<l ; apotb 

, injiitulu I 
Jkno-tiridiyrnino** ■■>■ >-nt. gt •!•■ 

On kiards, palings, Ax., mro. 1807. 
St»:-C. rikao«iA«Jiim, T. & B. Lich. Brit. 145. Aeh. Svn. (ft, NM. Srn. 

Kx-i :-Jk4«er. 12. Hy£ W."Hepp 339. Leigh! 'l.:r 

o, N. America. 

Hftr«fonimir#, on wimo ptliagl CJOnuTMB 



WI. Syn. 
bar. 2IN. lUb. v i HO. Sw. MS. A. : 

Groo. Piatwb. :— Scandinavia. .. riaa. 

Bcrr. Faov.:-3. 3, 4, 

p.- Lakfiiliiun, near Norwich. Mr. I). Tiirntr. (1W|. Iltin.1 
pinpoint. Sinwe* ! Mr. ftirrrr. linmyanl, SnlTolk ; Allmiini. Sium* 
W. J. Uuotcr. Hay Park. ne«> r Salmq. Coelchill Wood. 

-•tenhif*. iff. Purt.>n. between Tiinbridge -Walla (' nmir.ii anil Hon* 
Wood, Kent Jfr. /oi«r. 
"Bporea.001 U.dUm."ri/«<W.; ••8pc.ree.003- Smm.diam." r/V-/ 

4. i MmuaMf, very thtu or obsolett- ; aiioth- 

ecia with »6w»a> tmtoiniitt eopitula fit './Jfiufd, sporaJ tun 

,.-, mm/A pratrt uoMoont) gfeboM. 

On oajf . tir.«, hi.llics, Ac., rare. 1818, 

Bn :— /-*»<* aeicularii, Sm. E. Hot. 238ft. Nyl. .Syn. 148. r*orW/«». Mud.l 
: -K. Bat. 2385l Nyl. Syn. t. 5. f. 1 1 

[1838. Kyi. !' Mn.lil :••.-'. 

I >ir..|u 

:i. . in .'i. 
:— Near Burr. Rtr. O. R. J*nU> ■ luawxl .Vr. If. Rmr, 

IirenUlele! Newton Wood, and Bouedale toll! Yorkuhire. Mr. M-M. 
Surrey; Hnntpierpolnt, 9iiit, Sir W. J. 11 

-Terroe, near Umerick ! Mr. Cam.ll."(.a/. 

5i C. trithialr, Aoii. flavido-ciiiernswin or I iiicreo-glauceflcent, 
■■■mulote; apothooiM black, Btipol dim 
etpitu] bl u .. ;. n I 

nwc, or htmiifi iporw ftuootoont, qptai 

On treaa, ire, 

&T*!~aCrfeaWc, A<*.] - : vn. M. Nyl. Syn. MO. M...I.I 

Pn; , V. Ak. H. I8ML I R f, II. Nyl, Svn. t •"-. I 

Geo-; I 'i pkiii • N I America. 

II..I. 1'R..'. -V 10 . II. 

i . ar Ludlow. Shropshire. Be*. T. .Wiwy. Inglouy. Cleveland. 

Mr. U 

Scoti.anii : -Illume Womla, Haddiagtonabire. Dr. Maim*. 
l-irea .O025-.0Wr. mm. diam." (Xft.) 

Vnr. einereum, (Peru.) ciiimi try itti -or "'■' 
and i fd. 

Id [line* and 

.i rintrrvm. Per*. Icon, and Deacr. Funic, p. 38. Ach. 8y», W. 
Nyl. Syn. I 
Fin : Pen. Icon, and Peacr. Fung, t, 14. 
Bug; HrtiT 

Gnoo. DterklBi— Germany, Helvetia, Franco, Scanclinaiia, KinlaniL 
I. . " 

i. UTD:— Deer Park, ('. no. Cork : Torvoe, near l.lmerkk. Mr 


Vm, MtnnouruKi, Ach. yllow or jlariilo^iiirraMrtU, trproto-ym/iu 
!ln< ia Uaet or /u$eov*JJ<itk, capilula ci»eretr)>rniMo»r or 
nearly naked Uiu'nili. 

On tn-c*. 

IBWIM, A<h. I.. U. 213. Sym. 01 Nyl. Sys. ISO. Mu.kl Mas 
Pro ^E. Bot. SSOS. Nyl By*. I. Bt t Ift, 



B»:— Nyl. 12. M. * N. HA Wwr. IS. Slit. Zw, 12 17. Hepp 1S8. Rab. 


bot. p*j% ■ . ia 

«x! Mr. Borrtr. Bon«daU Ollt. N«w 
and nt-Ar l.i : Yorkafctr*. Mr MmM. near Bury St. Kdmunds, 

Suffolk, /ire. II. K. UatKu. 
Waum:— l: pfath). 

r'Truyin^NCT, (liorr.) />a/*-«>imt*V" 
l.'protu;; apotlnrciii (a <<m»», lsirjr*-- 

On otka, pnfea, Ac. 1839. 

HTH-.-C. (rm V ine*m,T. ft I!. Ucfc Br. US. »j) Svn DM M.:.l.l Man. 260. 
Fia: r 18. 


Gum. Durrani :— Germany, frMMt 
Bot. Pk.-v: :i, I. ;. .10. 

UIDl ■ Krajiiliii'-ili.-uii. MM Norwich. Mr. D. Tun i'ark 

and Hay Park, near 1, '•■■• Thorndon Hall Park I Mr. Pi 

l.ittl* Malvtrn. i". Wi.rwater. -Mr. IrfM. IloujfarU W | flreen- 

how. Yofkahln ! Mr. MuM. Bury St Edmund*. 8uffi.ll ntatf, 

Kaglcy Park. \Vorc:«ter«hirr. lfr. Pa ion, W..uhara, near Reigate. Mr. 
pbouniv, Kent .1/ . Jtnnrr. Almond Pari! i«w». 

Caer Carat!'* ! Shopaliir*. 

■ OM "i! mm Sbsm | I 

Var. brtmuotum, (Acli stipes t/nul'.. 

Eerii .J. .»- 
On oM trees, Ac 

\.i,. in v. a. H. ISM p. -T ■'. N't). Syn. IM. Mudd 


ilin. 12, 

i \ . Ak. II. i-i. ;. t. EL Off. 12. Kyi. 8ya t & i. 

, •>. /. 

I " i ii i ii : —Europe, X. America. 
Bit. Phot: 2. 1 10. 

iby i'ark; Bayxlalx, Su^iLil.-, Vorkxlii|.. D ■ . W. 

JoMml lliiltuu Bark ! near Oxford. A/ Her. 

■ rrx .OCSff— .COt miTi ilium. (Ngt.) 

6. C. 'la**otfxrruhi , N 

oongl tjnganidii ; •poUi J 


ill, r ,iv. I s7 i 

I l.r.» 1S7.V p. ««1. 

Phot: III. 

— Glen Lochay, 1'trtbnliire. />>•. /. .V. 1874) 

"Nearly aimilar to a >Uunger form of '". ' / ' Mi:. 


T. ('. hi ' , Al h. 

v, tuikrd, cipilu! i black, ml'iT : •]■ 

fiwowwcnf, glahoM, mtxtt, 

On nrs «Vc. n 

■onphmm, Ach. in Ak, M I I'M. I 


■-V. Ak. il 1.6. I. 17. 

Exa -.-Sehicr. 688. Zw. 1& Kyi. II. In i It, 8 88 
Gary. Ih-.rxin : ScanilinavU. Germany. Helvetia. France. N. America. 

Bot. i ■ 10, ii ia. 

», floKKarta Wood and 

Yorkshire. Mr. I • Thomdon 

Hall Bark I Em>. Afr. //. PjiHirf. Epptog forest. Brr. ./. .U. CVomWt. Oakley 
Bark, near Ciicooaeter. Mr. W. Jothim, 


SoortAXn:— Near Stirling and Atwrfoldy. Rev. J. M. Cnmlit. 
"8f««a.0026-.O0Smtu.dlam." (Xft). Spore. .009 ma. diatn. 

•.neState *ir. ftrnipiimm •h.>uM fa compared with lhi«. Are they not 
both «t*U* of th( muiic plant 1 

8. C. Kytmutrientc, Larlx FtmuititxU on n whitUh tbaJhi*, 

ly thM of LreaMora cuitrea. (L.) ; ttpAhtcin rs'c-Wnrry 

miuutt, shortly »f»J ' 'nlum eraUrifurm, niqrrt-fiufuu, 

umtwhat shining; itipe* very thort, of a pater \chiri*h cole 

paraphysos entanglod branched | HOMM or /tueenuffrtttrnt, 

tpkxriatl, with n distinct UROw i p) pOTl raritUa in she, 

shady rocks, rare. 1877. 

Sys i — I^Stht, in Linn. Traiuu 2d. nor. 1. 243. 
Pi.. : Linn. Tran.. Let. S3, f. 14 It * H. 

: 90. 

IBU.VXD : K yU-moro. Mr. /^irlmlrMier. (1-877). 

A Tory bountiful new s|«de«. Spore* .004— .008 mm. diom. 

fpem \sff4ttt. 

* Cortisol*. 
0. 0. hyprreKum, Ach. /faro-nrttcml, granulate or sit'ttr/rroM ; 
apothooi* Muck, Oapttalnm gOAnttrlentiform, sti/xs ■ 

.1 nuuu btaok M ; spore* nigrvtttcnt, cllij. 
. rmill. 
On . At. v.xy conunoti. 1 1 

... Mclh. p.W. .358. 

i:. m. Nvi. . Lf. 23. 

II. 243. Wffht " II ;■;• : lit 105. 
ud8clmh. 123. 
(innn. ilwriua :— Earoc*. Seauilnaria. N. America. 

a ..■». 

Kxi nbano. Norfolk. Sir J. E. Sniih. near Bnrr. SnfMk. Mr. t>. 

r, KiMaln and l'\v«lalr. nud ISrentvliOe. I -liirr. Mr. 

I. A»h«, Norfolk; DUctalta* mi. I Huntjitoi point, Sumtx '. Mr. ftorrrr. 
Ickw.itth. Suffolk. Mr T. (Aioy. Poi.hiU», Warwick»bJre. Ur. /'.. 

■ ' .i.-U<no Park, noar Lvnluun : llrooma P». --rt*- 

Kent. Mr. Uoima. near Clrnnowter. Mr. W. Jottmn. Patviwy road. 
KMtbounM. Mr. Haptr. ShrcfMhire ! Herefordahire I Loiceatenhire. ! 
:, );• . J. M. (yombir. 
Ikklami :— Near IWlfaat. Mr. TemiM-n. Killarney. Sir T. Oaot. 
\VAis.:~Noar Bala ! Mr. BrMMn. Bettw».y-cot. I 

... i..*L'7V..W,i "Spurn .000— 
.iiiD. lonu. .004-' SrUTfU 

10. C. fraaWir»«ro, Ach. rimimicwt, Inin, gronulose or ol> 

black, crt]>it nlurii, turbimto-globote, rt/tteent bent,itl. ; 
spores uigricaut, ollipsoid, 1-sepUte, constricted, large. 

trees, |»1 i. 1778. 

, Ach. In V. Ak. H. 181«l p. 372. NyL Syt, 

li. U B, f. 24. 

m. A. «eh*r. 243. Falun. 15. 

Srs.-tVk-.Mi fnir,\r/ia«i« 
:l, Nyl.8) 

K. B..L 4U. Nyl. 8yn. t. B, f. 24. 
Kxh: / Nyl. 10. M. ft N. 

. IVn. 

14, U l'.< 23.. 30.31. 

< Taiiiehaan, Siimck. Mr. I'-rtrr. Noitti 

• •'. a, .MmMvi*. m«r Stoke- 
i. .1 IiibWit, Onetay 11(11, Nin>t>« W :>i..l. 

Wo-t.1. (.:u»I*rlatHl. U 
I'lMlhi, War-iokaWre. Mr. /'«« 



Oxfordtbir*. Mr, LmrUlutitr. Anliton Koyno*. aeu Cir«Do«Uir. Mr. It' 
/«*«, Kaetor Wood. IMr I 

new Wtatorhuo : Wye i Aabovcr Wood, near Penihunrt, Kent. Mr. Uolma. 
Hay Puk, nou I n.p.Mr*. 

HooTUANTj :-IW- '••■<>. HrMtnivr. /fcr. ./. Jf. Crvmbi<. 

Iunaxu :— Powcnconrt. J «ot««. Glenorm. i>r. Moort. CmUp- 

bmurd Purk, B»»dnn. Mr. J. Svllimn. 

Wiu» — JVl.lurton : Moiitgoineryihir*. 

L'MAVirio, Ixluinw:— Notrtniuit liny, .lerwy. Jfr. £<j»*»/a<«r. 

.008 to .0(rr. in. tons, !>>- ."™1 in. lm.».L" (.Vurfrf.) "Spom .008- 
.013 dub. lone, .<XH— 7 mm. broad." fjfj* ) 

Var. Atmiplodum, N ■> rufesoont, thiriraped •! the baso 

and upward* gradually into the i:i| uuium. vrhiel» has a thin 
whitish margin 

New Forest, nc»r Lyndhurrt ! Mr. Larbalttkr. <1873). 

11. C. quercimtto. Pent grtyi»h-\fhil<, 'jranulatt, or nearly 
smooth, or aubleproeo or eTiuMM»nt; apothecia blue'-., ooodflntfl^ 

ilium Ivritina/o-Untif'/rm, d>\ MM bateath ; disk />' 

convex, wftit'; prrtinote or unkvd, with ^ruy margin; a|X>rCK nigri- 
i lli|iMiid. l-Miptatc, iiUghth i il. wmaU. 

*k*,wo<*!.... . 1*05. 

Sm :— V. qwrcinmm. Pore. Fung. Soppl. ML Kyi. Syn. 16o. Mudd Miui 
Pio:-E. Bot. I4G& N V 1 8 

oct. M7. 606, Zw. «*. Mudd J44. 
Giog. Oistuib :— Eorojw. N. Amelia. 
: 1" II. 
:— I.*k«»hi>m. Suffolk. Mr. Barter. (1R0M \vton Kt"kad«ri 
Bay»Ul«, Xeuton Wood, Vorkthlro. Mr. Mud.!. 
Mr. Jtrmtton. near 'I'i., 

»r*. nc*r Hn>cki'nhnnt in bora : 

Euicotoiic. J/r. I! Pxrk ; RuraftPrrin W Ivn.n, 

Sftfrt. Joan .(- A'inaX I; !■!.- II III. in-:n 

K«et. ifr. JjV«w». 
v. :■ ■ B lltll! 

i to .0025 In r .001 to .001» id. bro«d." (Jl/ 

■ rai .006— 9 mm. long, .003— .">. mm. broad." I-". 

12. 0. curium, Bon-. uHtnimaeJif, CMt < 

ttrtmtj. viipitul'! dbo*njY\i.- 

11 1 ■..' I, pale.;, *r 1818. 

«tffma, T. * B. LUh. Br. i 

I.', ipfcTrimji'v.-' "Jl 

-K. Bot. 3508. 

Sw. l»ft aa Ulght 138. Uepp XJ7. Soh*r. M8. M. and N. Vf.Z. 
Urn. 16. Aim Uuwob. 
«, Dwtmiu :— Earop*, So»ndJn»Ti», Kunttrhntlu, N. America. X. 
7.. klaad. 

P:— 1,2,3,4,0 7 10 L* 81. 

— Stokeiley, Ayton, Xewt-jn. Rtoffdnlp, t'lrrtland ! Mr. MiulJ. 
.11 Piuk, UlcwUnhli'- i 13) : llnl- 

•t»r. Mr. K. Ia*4. fbtliemtt'in ! Ml dop I 

T. Salwty. ntm ClreticMter. Mr. W. JotAun. Qteat Glonhun, 8ul 
wj. ii)thc, iimir Romnqr : n«H I 
Abdoa I Hiifli Rook, nrai I Hill! Lo 

M»y Pork, mu Ludlow! l.Luiyblcdwc] r,wk* ! UogUth ! near I i I- 
Stretton Mi:.;;-!iirc 

Braar, Bl»ir Atbol 
I«1tLA»l>:-DeCT Puk. Chitla Martyr, co. Cork ! Mr. CamU. 
Wilis :-B»ln : Mr. Brittain. Towyn ! 



Chaxskl ItLkSDU :— Roxel. Jetwjr. Mr. LarbaU-i 
•SiM,r<» .0016 to .002 in. long, by .ttfl In. broad." {Mr. Miuht.) "Sporea 
.007-.014 BUB. Inn*, .004-7 mm. Wo* I 

13. tilt, (Pete.) ../ niwi/ ; Kpotbaoik 

mill" '■-, oapitola .."M//'., *ufafU)toit or 

"ntiform, disk eUghtlv brownish-black; spores 

fusottceut, obloiif,', or ellipsoid, 1 

On /.l.'.nl if. -. timber, So., rare. 1812. 

Stm:-C. li&tUt, V<v fma. S„|,|.l. to, Mi.I.I Mm. sm>. 

Em : NyL 18. H.,... 838. ui tf hL 314. Mu.1.1 247. 

Cm.-.. Dmtkib : -hurope, <J*rinany, France, Scandinavia, N. America. 

BOf, I'M... ■:■■ 2,3 -.10.14,>.— Bliu'VlxwW, Kivxdale, Cleveland. Yurkxliire ! Mr. M '/■'/(". Bobm&I 
Mr. hum,: (ISIS). 1'iwy Wood. Durham. J/r. JOTik*. gopMlla .</,. ft 
Now Kop*«t. Itrr. J. It. ■ ■' i'i»«« Tunbridg* \V. ilia • ' .mmon wad 
Hur*t Wood. Kent. .tfr. Jlolma. 

Si . i Wood*. /Jr. Orf 

"S|-.u-< .001'. in. lone Iiy .0005 linivl." IMwl'l). Spore* .000— .009 mm. 
MB. l.tuftd. 

II. <:. ;■ ■■! "ilneutn, (Do Brond.) macular, polo or whitish; 
;■;.<■! i - --'Ill il:i'k, slight, aomowhat Innlor, 

i.l.iinliiiii f."..-.'.i«."'. .■ ipoma ni^resceut, eUlpaofa, *im/Jr, tatyt, 
• ate. 

Oil poplaiB, ran-. [618. 

IB in Dub. B. GilL CHS. NM Byo. 188 
i.\ i— Hopp8S9. J5w. 987. Am. »>> At 

... I iihtkib :— W. France. 
IJi.t. 1'kov:— 1!». 

i mi urn: KUaney. Sfr T. ftp*. <i>ii3). 

IB. ' '. ■''■■'., op:il>..% dun, suhfurinn&nu*, el 

iipotlicoiu iV....i-. minute, wenC^ ird'Ui/ui-M, apjonl mass radiatinel ; 
■pores Mijcri'mx-nt, oblong, or ol I metrical, conspicuously 

K>,. potheoium rabriooai at. 

On oak. 1866, 

. -fc\ rrt.iwni. NyL in Flora 1868, p. ML 
Bot. 1'ii'iv : :u. 
Cn.s I LAiem :— J«rwy. Mr. Tjtrtontitr. (1868). 

.rea.OOB— .011 mm. Ioiuj, .OOS5—.O035 mm. broad. (K V I.) 

m *3nxiteta, 

16. rlialhift of />^T</tvj /rroMia .- 

i ■ .rl .iii.I Bl nl Of elongated! ntsty.l/rmm, flato-fmlvrmUttf, 
■■nil mass yellowish-brown J xporv* MM 
lineal oMoi ■'-. fuaooem- 

I ttooea iu walls, l 

■i-.-OomiatfU rilrina, Ulght. Ann. * Mag. K. H. 1S.-.7. |.. 130. NM. 8vn. 

- Ai ii. 1.11.1 Mat X. 1 ' NyL Syn. t 7. i. 1. 

'.vr,a88 1U1.. 7-'. 
raw:— Saxon* 

\V . u Crwen uid Bala ! (18M). Tygwyn ! near IKilgvlli-y. S.with 

ba<>'. nMt! MtarTrtmadoe. 

• i»-«ly, near Kendal. Weatu md IVtit, Y<>rk»hiri'. 

SootlaS-pt— "l-n F»ii.|.r. Hlair Mh.lf. tttr. J M. CrwMt. 



-wea .001* to .003 ia. loox. by .0OC6 fai. broad." (.UwW.» "Spam 

.O0S— .011 mm. long. .U03J— 51 mm. broad, "f Ay.y Spore* .on- ! Inm.-. in: 

mm. UauL 

1 -vary* S-ttptate, 

17. I ••«, (Leight. ) obsolete; apothecia brotmitAUnri: 
stipes «A<//V. afo -uliim duvato-pfr^fvnit, truucalo, 

mad lit Km margin; disk deprtual, dark brown j sikh-ck s. 
*crg laiyr,, Ztrptatt. umber^olourr'l, Oettfl ^rimr.! 

Parasitic ou UwIIub of Thdotrcma trpadiiium and ■ -n holly. 

8rx i— apWnff rum KfMii. Leiuht. in Ann. and Ma«T. N. Uiat. 1«M. p. 182. 
& ouinru, Nyl. Syn. HW. Mudd Mius. 

. -Ann. »n.l Ma*. N. Ha* 1857. I.. B f '.'0. M Nrl By*. I. 5. f. 28. 
Ku :-Zw. SI. Ldght. 238. Am. 142. Mudd 2tt. AnjdltoL S. 47. lUbli. . 

Mi Dihthih:— Bavaria, Franco. 
Bor. Paxjv:— S...10...1!) .36. 

Kxr.nirn: Inslcby Park. RranUdalr, Fantdalc, Boiuyalo <iill, HorrarU 
Weed, Cleveland, York.l.iro ! Mr. AfuoW. (1SMH. Now Forwt, ftr. J. .V. 

Isaiasor-Naar KiUaxn«y and Old Deer Park, fTalUaillallll III fork; 
I'Hmbower. KJUeach. lfr.Carroll, l-iiu-h Inaifli I < Sal way. Afr. Larbalaticr. 
InoMi .008 to .013 id. lonff. by. 0OM5to\OW in. broad." (.tf<«W.> "Spowa 
3* mm. lootf, .OO7-.011 mm. broad." fAy.; *po«»a .W+-.0T.-' ...m. 
lonr, .018 - .019 mm. broad. 

All the authentic apecimena of C , Kjt which I hav* received from 

Mr. Crombie and Mr. 1-arlu.U.licr, are prmitely idenliral with my C. trptatam. 

18. C. byMoceum, IV. obaotata j apothaeia minutt, tUndrr, dis- 
persed; «porc« ntjrr«r*n/, oblongo-fusiform, simple or ultimately 
1— 3-eeptate. 

On dead alder twigs and sloe, rare. 

8t* r- Ik L. K. 309. Nyl. Syn. UQ OnaoUl la .luurn. Bot. u.a. 2.188. 

Nvl. Syn. t. 5. f. 87. 
Exb :— Fell !«■ Scand. IK Anal Ij 

oh. SM, 

1. Syn. t. 5. f. 27. 
Exs:— Fellm. V>. Friea Scanri. B ,\n».i bsofloe 
Gam. Diotki ii I — Scandinavia, Kaitt Lapland. .Sweden, I« .mlxtrdy, Bavaria. 

Hot 1 1 7 IS. 

Kxcla>i> :— Hay Park, Hcrcf<inl«hir» ! 

Scon-ixi) :— Banka of the Garry. Blair Athol«. lUv. J. M. Orambk. [1873). 

Wau»:— Taii-vl.wU-li Wood, Capel Carta ! Mr. W. PkiUip: Ihilgelley ! 

"Spores .015—23 mm. long, .005—7 rum. broad." (A'j/M 

ill. fJONIOCTBE. .!•«. .\y. 
Th.illuii loproM or powdety, (Aim oreruMtoeat. 
yellow or pale (not black), itjpitete, oxoipaluin varj open. 8p 

1, colourless or flavcscoiit, (brming tlw glolxiw^pulwrulcnt 


1. U.J" * Ach. sulphnreoiu or taiphnrto-virtteent, 'ip" 

thexia ttdpKurro-mffufed, or with llavovirescent, uaked, tbmffatt 
ttipittt, sporal nuuw y^/foiu or pale umber ; spores colourless or pale 

fUMCesceilt, sphwrioJ, minulr. 

raota oftran aiul sandjr ground) not common. 1805. 

Sis -C. /•ir/urtuf, Ach. in V. Ak. H. 181*. p. 288. Mudd Man. 26L". Nyl. 

S> Fwf-K. Bot. 1130. Ann. * Mac- K. H. 1857, t. 8, f. 1». Nyl. s y „. i. :,, l. 

kx»:-«ch*r. II. M. 4. N. 1288. Lathi. 4SB. \n,i H..1. & 8S, Hepp J«L 
Gl . :— Eurup*, SwiUcrlaud, Italy, tiermauy. ba pl a Btt , a, 




:-i3. «. 5 7 10. 11, IS 11 IE .80. 
-anh:— Near Uury. Suffolk, /fcv. '-'. ft .'.. Mm. .,1 -ui .,. lurking and 
. Sutrejr; near IIalc«w«rtli, Suffolk; Sh uold, 

■. /! rt.r. CuuinarUml ! Vrj. Siangtr. )t«d Wo. [, I 
■mm CbelUubaiu. Mr. Lttt. 0»» wtiy | L-.dlow,*. /£rr. r. Nn/wy, 
I^iaiiImUI*, Yuriuhiro. J/r. Slw !.•--.■] . Durham, J/r. to'txrUvit. 

Kurt'.. .r lUvnuv. 

Acre Wood, Durham : WanilwrV 

■ •irwrten.liirv. 
waUr! Haute. STr. JoAua. rhiwlhurtL Krat. Vr. //,.,«*. 

trtttoat High Book! near Bridgnorth: n«ar H.TTiogton ! nuJ 
•niiall ! nwi Oawwtry: <;•»- -I>xll " Shiu|»hii». 


'anhirv. Mr. »'. Mmfiiur. AUrfcMy. UUlr Altai*, ft*-. J. M. Ora 
Uml Fffabir*. Rtv. '.'. B 

IaHAin>:-N«*r BelfaM. Mr. Tem,<U<<m. 

Walk* :— Kddarton ! Montecauoryihlr* ; Uotoy* -y Uwd I 

;..,ra».0W6!n.diam."<Ji\uM.) -Spem .0025- .003 mm. dlam." I :■ 
Sport* .002— .003 mm. dutm. 

Var. ttUjJiurtiia, Fr. «*CT-iu«nf , very Utiu, or obuolulo ; i 


On old trues, wry ruro. 1869. 

Sis i BHM L. B. |s «B. I1KJ!); Ny|. Scnud. U. Sya. 102. ftbaM Mai.. aJS. 
-Hoop 8i»ren t. I& I 

vt 7. Am. . JA 

. Sw«leu, Switzerland, France, Bavari-, Uonuauy. 

. . ,•. :• 
UD :-K«w Korat*. Hante. An J. Jf. 6Vw»oi«. |lt*»|, 

Viu-. />■/<.', (L.)</ritnUA yellow, apshrda mora com|Ntct and t«M 
dtorttr $tiyit«*. 

i.'ml Kfcmis of /fo*i una. 1870. 

Bra :-». 1.. K. SO. NyL Syu. US, Modi Man. 202 . Muter /ahnu, Una. 
SkUU. Ca/. urtr-i.™, Aco. 

A. 11. I**, t. I f. 7. 
I I .— Bohaxr. 208. 
BoWMima Um ci Qralg IWDocfc. Am /. .v. OnmMt iihtoj. 

•_'. c. pallida, ft. afti In, <>r >.!•■■ 

small, Vi/^-j hyaiiur or ixtl. 

'■hmo, uponu m*a« ukiUor pallet m 

leas, *|>h«,'rical, far) 
Cht tm«, nirc. 1 

Sin r.,..'fviu. Kr. 8<6*L C/it. I, * | Nvl. Svn. u.\ Mml.t Man. SC2. 
Aim. * M*i. S Syn. t. 6. 

bar. 7. Zw. 101, 102, Toefc. WO. iltfi. «. 18ft. lUJoh. & Bcfcnb. 
146. Siurft. M. 

luu, SaiUarlaad, Uenuaay, l'yrvtivaa. N. Amarica. 

ar EglcatoM. Hurkaiu ; lU-t C'vinawo Wood, near Hvxbatu 
an.l F«ltoo. Mr. WincX. 1 180k ( TataUale, Darkam. «.r. y. H»rrimo*. 
ha, Lan*«ahirx.. ilr. ft y..oA. l)«f«tl. i/r. Baxter. 

,«r« .00136 to. dlam." (J/ «. .OW-0 urn., dlam.* (Jf^.) 

. .008 mm. diam. 

3. ( '. /iyilin'11", Nj I 

">ral moss globoec, tekiuorp-r mmmV 

raro. 16 

UH. CVunU* Bfc 14. 
Flo: -Kyi. By» t. f.. I. 40 



»:-M.*N. 11CJ. Am. 317. 

W, IHHTJun :— Swilur Unci, Swedet). 

;. P»ov ,-10. 

ftuwi. :-l'.r»nudal*. Yorkshire. .WV.ll/wtt. (1M&) 

h ,0025-jOOI »in. ilUm." (-Vjrf.) Sfioraa .0(0- IKN nam. 


Thallus thill) granule**, «■• rows or forcigr 

Muck, «: iliform, open, sporal duum block. Spores nigri- 

iiuicoufrblack, ellipsoid or oblong, 1-cepcate, rarely pturi» 
t -plate. SpcnuaUu oblong or ellipsoid. 

I . ,-(>, ft, lirtxfvirrtoeul or citrine, griuniUwu or gnuiu- 

loso-arcolutc ; apothtda blade, inutile or slightly prominent ; xporcB 
luaco-nigricant, oblong or ellipsoid, 1-acptntc. (K — ) 
ild poats, pole*, Ac., »»«■ 1805. 

8t« :—T. UgiUarit, Pr. Scand. n, 3*1. NyL Syn. 16k Mudd Man. 204. 
K. Bot. t, 1530. NyL Syn. til. 29. 
: M. A N*. 1097. ScW. 451. IIcpp 150. Bab. 211. Zw. 2K4, Anil II S. 
44 Mudd 240. Smrft. 138. Jtoich. ic Schof.. M. 

Gaac Dutub : - ScandlnATia, Garxuany. Switzerland. Italy. 

Bot ;i, 4. 

EyoLA.ii> :— Enfield Cfauv, JUV. Diektm. (1*061. Waltharnrtow. Loaghton, 
Km- 1. J/r. if Purtttr. Southtown, near YannoDth, ,Ui. /i. j"n..-m.-. !1 (in 
Brat, Suffolk. Ret O. R. Unthit Colch«at*r. At*. 7. .If. CVom4i«. Petixtow, 
Suffolk. Mr. LarKoittitr. 

"Su»«a .OOSto .OUST. In. long, by .0CJl7r, t.. .<*2 in broad," (JBuuV). "Snora 
.015—25 hub. lonif, .OCij-.OU mm. broad, aptnuatia affijiaoid. "(Ay.) 

.'. T. lympamtUoy Fr. itlijteant or, granuloBO or 
granuloso-ooncn*xmt ; apothocia black, prominent, mart/in of 
txdptdum cinerarot atbo^Jftuttl, aporal miias black, slightly 
• ethpruinou ; uporee fuscous, oblong, 1 -septate. (K *) 
post*, palings, 4c., very common. 18O0. 

I :-T. tompuulla. Fr. Soand. SM. NyL Syn. ICG. Mudd Man. 2M. 
n. t 5 1 33. 
t- 91 ft N. 8Ml Sonar. 4S& Hnip 330. 331. Ana It. S. 4* l*n«ob. 311. 
Ltfcht.HH Mudd 2«o 

ixnUB :— Seaiidinatia. SwiUerUuid, lUly, Algeria. 
Bor. Fun ..10...3L 

irmoutb Mr. t>. IWiwr. (1SO0), Parton, Qlottowtarsbir*. A/r. 

W. Jij^imt PenAhunt ; Hnutcd ; near Euvit^n ; L>unk'e Green. noar Uodlow, 
K«nt J/>. Wiw;. >jml Mr. Soutrby. Aytoo. Iloaadala, YnrkaliSre! J/r. 
J/ndcf. Om.«hI^ Her. J'. Sotmy. Kpnine Poroet. /fcr. 7. M. 

Onmhe. Kxminnttr Mantes. Devon. Mr. Porjitt llamjhinoud Hill ! Wrekln ! ! near Hhr«»»!mry ! Aymeatrcy ! Ilcniordahlra. 

I kW-ANTi :— Cnrnirhiiiorr, nuar Watorfonl. Adm.Jontt, 

CNA.XMH. IuiAXDrt : Jersey. Mr. Larbalatirr. 

pnra.008tO.00Slo.lone by 0015 U> .0017r> in h P .ad."(ilfu<«). "Sjwrta 
.010—18 mm. k««, .007— .018 mm. broad. - (Ay.) 

3. T. itigvii'ti.i, py. paranfH on PtrtmarMB , apotheda *«iror/y 
j»wmmku<, ontinly Wuok, >Ain« ; aporea lusoo-uigrictuit, ellijisoid, 
1-Bcptato, obtusely rotuudatc at the apices. 

On old oaka. 

In T. iii?me!la, tbe reaction K i» at 6r»t bright yellow, then cbanKing to 

- r. MitMulla, Pr. Sound. P. 382. NyL Syn. 167. Mudd Man. tM. 
; -KtL Syn. t. 5. (. 33. 
Km -if. Il S. SBH, Uopp 332. Sohujr. 502. NyL 17. Zw. 200, L*ight. 236. 



fiWO. Pi u, Switctrluiil, Havana. 

.'. :i ..'■ ,.7 id .11. 

. // ••, I ...-. ■. I'.a. I . v M 

,;. . ! 
l.-i.i'if .r.l.i .iinl Miil.ll.-ton I. ..I...'. Mai i . . '. ->hronahirel /.'. . I'. .'...'..->.. 
Oakwre ibrrland. Mr. 11"../. neaj 

ley Park, Di 
center! Mr. W ■■' ■■ <a rlMishmoad Mill: Shrap 
\V.u.i>:--tUnn..iiH. . 

• I«>r»» .0035 u. ,003 in Ion i-, .<* ,008 

"17 mm. I... .007 "10 mm. brood." | i-irra 016— .Ol* Dm. 

i'K>7— .OOiTiiiin. I.i.ivl. 


Ttullu ■ fhrtii uloao, ramose and ramolo«e,thi ipiewBubgl 

i . tii. ,i|...iii.'. in : npothocu ifeiform, on to i - 1 

illhn ■ ... .1 I V thq • I ■!.!.. .1..'. Of 'In tl, .Mill. | 

aporal muss black. 


Tli;ili. mo .iii. i».ii.-.ii.-.i, iv .-iir , .|...iii. 

eta w iii'- ipic ■ ' ■]■' tola i' 

ur viola 
Bphi. I i--kilx»>j, covered with ovder. SpetBMtOl 


I. j ton, patiidixtltieamt, ranw '«*«/, 

hole lucuro-duiii" 
(K — ) 
On rock*, rori I 
St»;-.S. (mwraniM, A.h. Melli. p, 185. 170, M...I.I Mxii, :i,i 

ti. ■ ; . Rot ml. 

•-rUI». ti. '. i i.. ,....!.. r.:.'. i:..i, h. .;-.■!.. ii.. a. 

•rlaud. Owmtty, N, & .•*. America, Aurtrs- 
lwLi, Owl 

B«7. Pi i >■:.-■ W, n n, U J6...S3 

Kkolako : TnnMiltw. Jfr. if, Fonter. Cnrmford Muor. near M»tl. 

- -m*l ! Mr. Bomr. Vl ti Tcwdalo. M llk-h (Jre«n 

.. Karn.lal. nod llul. i 
■hire! Mr. Mu.1.1. K rtimmherUad. i"rol Crakforda and 

.Mvn. .r <S.wi»tr)'. ISIij. .|"lilii\ /:•.. T. S»lm». Kglu.i 

Ki'nUley; Muirelt-wi. .4 ; Ihirham : Ntu/ton <!r«K> ; tiarbottlt .iuu 

■ton Cimj. : Cheviot : Hedgehop. : Simonaida : Xwrthimiberlaod. J/r. H'ih-A. 
Malvi itenlilr* ; Huffw-leai, MouniiiuthahlriL J/r. pMrt**. Ar- 

UiBafley rock*. Siumx .tf/-. W. W»i. Dartmoor Ton. Mean Jo*a and A~>. .- 
SoOTLilfU :— Dunmrn, near Kdiuli'ii. I iiinunUiBa, J/r. 

-. KiDlnandl.... KO«aUl 

Iw i. Kerry. /■ ivillanioy Mr. OtmJl. 

Ilawroei Kiver' I >i«mu«.d Mountain : ... I..l-»y Mr. /,.. i W«.'irr . 

W'xva, !— Cwro liyehan, near Barmouth. Rcr. T. Xaftwy. Aberduvey. Am 
A. Btvumm, 
< ii injiii. lauKim . ev. 

:.«..0O7— .OIIbmii •Haw.* 
- .006- 007 mm. dlam 

K. |k»Ki or wl rrddUMinnen, 


^n».v. . !•• • • |)l 

tcio-Ht'jnconi, HphaiK*!. (K— ) 1 iiiodullu 

Oil lVl'Wb, OOII11UU1L 1704 

IRKA1 i'.i.i 


--.artaOMfablVn. in Dot, N\ Ami. 1. |». "3. Nyl. 8y«. 17L Mudd 

i««h(..\^. Lich. t. 1 f 1. 

'!". M. 4 N\ -Mi. Mudd 2M. Ami. UiiKob. «SI. 

iro|w Miukrra, Antarctic Ammo, Auatnlaoia. 
. 1* 

,tA!n.:-S««M»! J/r. . 

CVMsforcUl.Shrop.hir. ■ . j/ r . 

JTWrf. Dorbnhtrc. Mr Jtofa .*, rumr M»UmV -il*. 

ManoaCra^a l'<cun»n»jii. i 

Jt>«m Tur«fr ,< .s,i«r«y Piut"» Omua : Stockd»l« <:ill : UlnUa «riok K«nn j 
new Fart l»jn*.l IiigMon. Yuikthire, />.-. \V,od*#. Tee. i 
Dorham. Cbatn. -»U*ln; ■' I rua»; 

I I -rhottJ* aad II«d.< 

ithmnberlm I .Item 

Hill". WoccwScritlic -. Am.. 

Bqtmx. Mr. IT. Jw- ■ 
Mean. Jena A- ATiwuron. 8ti|xrntoiiai ! C«r Cir ■. i 

Scon-tn IF. 

J. BfeMbjr, Long Island i Anrnn ; Hi .tide*. /V»/. 

ibitaxii : -ilantry. .Via llutfSim. I-.iitfb limy. .«rfm. Joiv». Killamey. 
i>r. Oaringfm. 

Waljbi : ban. Her. }". Sahetf llarmnuth! Mr. Ijuk llolylwiul 

Mountain ! a Mimvlilyl Cm Cywimi! 

■"iw .— itnef, Gacrntcv. Aldeniejr and Sark. Mr. t^rMaUtr. 
broad. (.1/ [Nim .000— 

i.V;''.i Srwroa.0W-.01l mm. dia 
3. .V, fragile, Per* .Rwoont a 

round, tporin : tpofJlOOifl b 

at, yfo&oa*, receptacle ir-r. _-n j : .i-lv debiaoeot above, 1 1 

'. iphctrical or glolxito rlli/itr/id. (K ♦ ) 
malulla I—. 

On rook*, 

Bra .—S. /m^U, Fora. fa U«t N. Aon. L f. 28. Nyl. Syn. 172. Mu.Ll Man. 

-B. Bot, 2174. I I.i.h t. 1 f. 2. 

Wnor. 15. 
il irttUc Ami 
Hot. r«uv.— I. .' • B 10 


it, IxierMt. i it Oiwmtr. 1 ' 

■ TknUiro. Mr. J/v viot | 

Marhuttle: Northumberland. Wow Tata- 

Ihirham. .Vr. ll% ■ \i!> ix. Af r. H' 

Toraiiil ottor Tore on 1 '.-.rtmoor. Mtt$n. Jonai A'»n<)rfon. Stiper:'. .n. • Hill! 

ill mil Itilix! !'. ■ II liri I 

J. M. Croml 

Inklaxd: Malin Head, eo l< «al /■;•. ."• : . ECHUrnar. 0r. i 

.'l.inM.w; n*7 — .01;* kiii. ili»in 


ThaQt ...I podotSn - 

■.htIi-.v-, g 

oblong and - liara- 

phjsofl distinct. 

Troul ill. B/COMTOEL 
Tliallns 1 

i. nucule simple or 



I. fiOMI'IIII.U'S. Xyl. 

Thallus very thin, conitiKtiiijj <>f ■pbttril >1 gO&idia and irregular 
filaments ormglutinatod Lpothtdl fttipitate, ktiiuII, o 

I ■•» 8, filiform, multiwiptatc. Panphvrai indiltind Storig- 
m«t;i Mn.|4i\ SpermAtk dander, cylindrical, atndgnt, 

I. i. Nyl. cinorascei.t or cinereo-virweent, thin, 

ofrusc or olwotato; apotheci* small, stipitate, capiiulum lubtor 
■it ; Hjiorca very loug, cylindrical, 60-100-Kept*tc. 
On mosses, 4c, rare 

Sts i-O. oatoeWA*. NyL IVodr. p. MO. 8yn. 17B. 

Fio:-Nyl. Bra. t, 7. f. 3. 

Kxs :- l!*b. 7.W. Maa». 88. Ann Lanjob. 17. 

Okoh. DiMRin :— Franc*, Italy. 

Bar. r*0V!-7 I' 

lnr.i-AKi>:— Cuig Mountain, co. Kerry. Dr. Taylor. Turk M.. nut. .in, Killar- 
n«r. Afr Cbmig, CattST Hill! U mlle» (rum Kylouiurc Mr. Utrlitltttitr. 

T)i» Iriib 1-lnut i» the »«. m i>rV<*ji/W«i, Nyl, ttyn. 17$. "miuot, ajtotfiKiu 
■laoribai paran tttalutb." 

WaUBI— DoJicelUy! A/r. H", I'hiUipi. 
"Spora* 160-200 iu lot*." (Ay. J 

II. 15.EOMYCES. />«•*. 

Tliallus crostacoou*, pulvcrcoua, granulcine or nqnamiilow 
Atmlheeia biatorinc, sessile or 4 Stcrigmnta articulate. 

S|..rmatia cylindrical, straight, 

1. B. ni/ut, DC. albu-viretetnt or albidi+glawetvtnl , lliin. ■ 
minutely grnnulote or tqwtmuUte or Uprise, grannlin depressed 
(K. ytfiow) ; ujiothccia farruo-ru/ttttnl or earnto-ftutr*cmt f some- 
what ooji --iiiiitr, stipes moderate or rcry short, whitish; 
spores 6 or «, ohicm-ji.-'ltiptoid, simple, colourless. 
arth and stonos, not oaoooomon. 

Bm-K. Twfm. DC. Fl ft. i. \>. MS. Kyi. Syn. 17lt. Mndd 

«, in Nvi. sv,,. i i. r. i2. t. a. /. is, ix a. 

Man. 13. 

Kick . Tuck. IL And It. S. a. 38. FtUm. S3. Xyl. 87. M. A N. 70. Scba-r. 

I I„rt.. a Lelgllt. 17H. Stcnh. 13f.. 
Umu». DjutbiB:— Km riot, N. ftcalnml, 

Bor. Fine. I. ft... 7... 10, 11., .IS. H. 1!.. 20.. 38, .51. 

bnuyi) r*or*»t and Hi«i«y W I, SA ./. *. Smith. Rtrwfck- 

nn-Twed. Or. O. JtAtubm. WhitmndirT* 1 YorkaMra. AYr. Bnlrr. near Ayt-.u I 
< 'letoland. ifr. Mu Jit. Dartmoor Mid Lmrtlci^h I ifr. I'.irilt. 

AmpUilll, Rtda. Hrr. G 4Mo(, BeoWwoodj H.ui..ii 1 >■ m« : Cacrvoran ; Twbell 
Dene, Northumberland. JO. WWA, Shotow Hfll. Oxlm.l. .1/- «*oVr. Try- 
ti«< H«»th, Warley. Kwi. Mr. Varr-ru: (iu<wtllu K , S«»,x. for. S. If. N«m- 
ttU. KowUiidn Kill, lhirhun. &t. B'. yokiwon. BnwUd j Iijlithun Codh 
RiutlwU C<anmon. Krat. Mr. lldmu. Brampton BrUn 1'iul. -Sire. 

Sti|»r.t.ine« ! HkiiglniiMnd Hill! WbiUoUffa Wood*, iiwr Kndluw 1 Ivtvnn 
■uti »n<l ( N«mi ; l<ung ir». 

ScoriAjiti :— Glrn^ow. Sir /. £. AWfA. Kf«ljm and Aucliindmny Wood* : 
Brnenl Ilcrudtm.-t, uou Kdlnliutvh. Or. (,WI. Kalil.ivan ; Sidlaw Hill*. Mr. 
Ilnltimyiick, I'frUubiro ! Ifr. I'aHrit. Klnlaui». I \ 
■Itay. Glen Cimao. for. J. M. Cromoie. 

*D :-Donghruash Monotadn ! Tnlly ! <«. Oaliray. Mr. Imialntltr. 
.i.w:-Bamiouth' HoOta! 
('HAjmrL Ibl*»i« :— Hotel Manor, Jeraty. Mr. larlilatirr, Un«ma»y, Her. 

Wh«n hy<lral« ol i lie thallun lweomet yalkw (K+ ) l.nt it 

baa no aflcct on th« apotheda (K— ). Tb* tliallun »hen KTowine on ■tonra ii 


nanajtoly dcpnno-irranuJir, bat when (.lowing on lb« earth tfaa granule* 
become *o,u*mal>M>, and U than conttlluu* the variety rarnrw, Klk. 1>. F. s. 
wliL-h aaam in th* Channel Itlwids »nd at GlengarilT, Inland. ** I*rli. 7. 

"Sparc* .001 to .00125 in. lone, by .0005 in. bruad." (JlsaVi.) 'Spina 
.006— 12 mm. long, -flOS— I mm. brand." (AV.) "Spores .!' long, 

.002r—.O04 to. broad." <T M. /V.) 

hi* $tt$Hif, >tkeeia small, cineraacenti-carneoua, 


On rooks, rare, 1876. 

8t» j— XyL Syn. p. 177 (18581 B. rtmctfrui, Pen. in Uat, Ann. L p. 19. 

Ex* :- Vollm. 23 Anxi I*t#.»i. 423. 

• Jr. -K. Lapland. Lnmliardy. 

B<xr. Paor j— 2ft, 

IaaTjljfnr-Galway R»d! Mr. T*r6alr*icr. (] 

2. /?. rocnu, Pith, whitith, gltaukwHVIttttWWBti (K faint 

w); ajxAhtda rosro-cnrRmtu or alhc-c/iiueou*, suhglohoae, 

■tipitntr, (K orange) ; stipe* white, roundisb, shoit. ; spores C <ir 

i/./j mi-oUong or ftnform, simple or obtolttcly I-eeptatc ; lod. 


(hi the earth, rare. 

Bl (7*t N. Ann 1. p. 19. XyL Syn. 179. Mudd Man. 

. .. NyL Bjm. t. e r. l 0. ::i. 

••I. 26. If. A N. 71. Anxi It. s. 81. Mndd SI 
Mw tt tack. 40. Lc-teht. XA. Bout Iflfl, lU-ich. and If, 

•i l>l*Tllir i uin-rii-i, N. / .il»llil. 

p»>v ; -i.. s. 4, •... - .lo.ii ii. i. is .-.-..aet 

E«ouu«d: Kielder, Xortbumbcrlai. i Carlton IWk! tad 

1-miandal*! Clviflaud. Afr. ATmM. near Kxatsr. Ml*. /'.irifM. 1 

-4. Bony HsstMsid I >• ran. Mtmn. JnintA Kmgthm. Top of West 

l "|i ..( 

AU*a Gam. Nutthiiniherliiiid. 7i'". II . Juhnton. It,hthaiu Couuikhi : I'i.v HID, 
HatMr*. Waiilmr Hill I H«ri-f../.UIiin-. 

Or '. • I '.jjdovan, Sidlaw Illlb ainl Clova. 

Mr. W.'iavrr. liUoberry 11111! Perth. Dr. l.,„,ln„, 

tau.U<l> :— N««r Clonmcl ! Mr. Wright. I onntmara. Dr. Moore. Killnrney. 
Dr. Carrington. 

Wat** :— Valley abut* Berlbwnngj 11« iiilnifi-irion and near Iburiuiuilli. I 
■-<-*, MnntfcViiiiervihire. Air J. A" SmMk CrfbCoch ' Snowdon. 
mg, by .0(r, , 
ram. fc.HK, S|x,r« .011 20 mm. lonjb .002— 3 

mm. broad." (T. Ai. ».) Spores .017— .021 mm. long. .003 mm. broad. 

/?. flaoophglUu, Ach. u/utUA or gUnteetemt, erustaceo- 

"oso-l'jbatr, plicatt and tub- 
ertnulatr, (K yellow); apothecia earnsV4tf/SsaoB(i4 rnwv>- 

fatftKent, atipiiMo, (K -- ) itipea apjeally diviilfl. and btarins 
sereral ajj^rLy sporea Mon;/>, eltiy ■ 

On tlio wrth, vi i v 

-B.f/aett*wlliu. Ach. Mclli. p. 322. NyL Syn. ISO. Mudd Man. 63. 
Vcb. Mrtb. t, 7. f. i. 
Bai : Tuck- 42. Am. 14*. 

rus: N, Burop*. N. Amarlca. 

BOt P*»v— S...7 .11, i 

Esolasu : - fiimlxrlaiid ! lin. Stam/tr. >^lmton«. Durham. Rn: J. 
tf.Trriman ■ . .itliuiiihcrland. Rn: V}'. Mi. 

mradl Sbropaniro. 

BooTLAiii):— Si.llaw HillK Mr. W. f/or<Jiner. Foot of lien I.awvrt Ailm. 
Jann. Orampiann ; Itraemin J. At. Cromhir. 

VVaUB! At root •( <"ivl«r Iilri.. Mr. Jtal/t. Arran Kowddy. Mr. Burrrr. 
raelw b*liiml Union Workh Barmoatii. Ben T. Suhctf. Cwni 



nil! IK Ill'N )I.<1:.'. 

,00951a, .>» '. hi, b mat I.".' IT) •■!■/.) ' i id Ion, 

OOSR— .MMmii. tirWl." <A>M "Siiora .010 r. mm. Ions jOOS I nun, 

4. A' 

i! c-r Riihlo|>roM, n 
eoloMrrd, cftV».. ft) , 

tpONB $ Or 8, y"ii.>iV,.iiii, I ■• .-/'i<ii : kkI. i >:Ji i>in< . 

On the • 

. •— A. ismniepMItu, Khxh. Phytogr. No. 40. N*l. On. VO. M« 
M B, M 
Km : K. Bot m. NVI. Sj-n. t. 0. f. 7. 8, ;>. 10, tl. k t. J 
i Vi„i It 8. m lief|>137. Mo.1.1 

Im. '-'I Sflhw M, Rcieh. ••• Bohob, bt 209. 

i. Di'ium: •. America, K. India*. 

Bot. PftOT : 1 I 

KxGUMn>:-Matlock. .S.r J. «. .SW<A. York*hiro ! Mr. 1 Old 

Moort aodOsfx I»n4 JIV.JM m-WI. 

llowhloo Moor. Yock.ini.' .i/'. j'.-i" m rSattla. Dr. Wlniur. 

AnrtogUjr, Sqmox. Mr. OtrbiSa. 

So/tun i,|«nJ. >W. Bo//,,"'. Ii.ii ..f BalUiarock, l'-rtli-' 

/>r. (A/Jrit. Gfan . -f. .If. OvwiiV. Ben Lawrn : ilou More: Cnun- 

iHUAXn : —Pa** ■>( Bab-Witt, <t», Cork I Mr. OnrroU. K»Wk! 

KvlcmoR ! Conneroara. Mr. h'rtniaititr. 

Wamu: -Own Byohaal !:• . T. s.ilmy. twar IMmlUy! 

"Spam .008?. to >»'• la, Inns, bj .001 i„. Wwd." (tfwM. ) " Sporta .013-27 
mm. long BTaM "8r*re« .018-J7 mm. Johh. .00*-« 

mm. ntto.* 1 3" -W. /'.-.) S|K>rw .033 mm. Innif. .«W mm. Iiroxl. 

us partly or entirely bob n»o«o- 

loMi <>r (rutiauloee or c*8|>tt<««\ with fixtulooo pod- il 
rniuono. Apotin-cin I 

«fl*t*. Spore* simi'l •■. 


ThalluB either tabnk liiform, pndctui general) 

in the ftp rphi ; thallaa generally foUoloao, or sq< 

ut the base. - only mud] -.ceouft, A 

coloured, but neror Mack, mtcrunlly hollow. Siiorca 


Thullu* cni&tnoeous ; podetia cluvutc. iMpillBofurm, simple «* 
branched, glabrous ; apotlii-cin IV> 

'— )> 

I, P I hif. pale u 

(t in 

il- - ! ro nd, not common. 

i .Syn. 186. 

<hL 90*. 

-■-•«,«. -,3ft. 



■ .tjwio :— Wcatmorvlkinl ! Mr: Staaotn Yorkuhliv ! Mrwrt. Dix 

Mwl.l Bonrsra lb, Haiit- ! Art .« Mfffordk. for. 7". Sulmp. 

lUvmuwurth • I Woodland*; I lliirhuo: Cheviot j 

II-, I. -J..,.- ; W..II11. ;l .11 M...1-. .\'..i!liniiil..i-ilwii|. .If.. t!".i;.,'i \i.Iiiil : Ip V 
H iHV'. Stasia I drpl. Gtrmiehatl. Ben Nevi ' S11 11. ./. H-ikxr. Loch 
'.'r. CVwuV. 

luLkSD South of Ireland '' /■ '■ 1 11",'. tli. XJm. JontM. 1 lonernfla 

uui»; Killwo. Jfr. CbrroM. KilUrney. I/.u JTattMni :liu.i. 

rVajalrtm. DoiiKhiUMth MoanUIn jy. ,Wr. LorMrtlier, 

Xear Barmouth ; Lhuidriadod Wulls, Ilblimndilrr. /fci'. jf. Solwty. 

Bo&mnua II Cudomu. ffojftH. iSjrT. 

Thalhw leafy ; podotia soyphipborous or branched, more or lew 
pulvcraccous *nd squamosa; npotuecia terminal, biatorinc, pale 
<>r rod. 

A. Phoocnrjxt, upothtcia ftucou* or pal'. 

* Rwtirm, ( K f + € + ). 

1. C. nuiivi<rff>ii<, i'Y thallai macropKytlitu, spreading, yeO 
green abovo, ■ • ««'<* f\—2 inch) long, MnA 

rotmid'xrentt'- I ire, small, oyliii'li ii :il, 1 

upper surface of the bulnfaB : Bpothecl 1 pal "us. 

henths and rooks, 1 1 

.--I'ii I.-, the .hi!, n ui reliction. 

■ lim\. Njfl 
EML Mioh. inn. t :.'l. f. 3. 

1 ■ortnnl, Alittri*. Canarfaa, 
I, .'. I...0..1S 20.. SI. 

mnirnth. If.-. /'. '/'»•-,» •. New- 

harvo, ttwa a w ; Sun Bihar, Smi.y. lit Bomr, Kn.Uln.10 

.«i!Si«h Igh 1 ;.»., ir .1 M. 1.1. .11. Dawn, Mr. 

Vnm. Juita nm/ Kiiiy 
' ma of Ardwicr! Mr. (,■ 
1 1 • ugwlff. Adn. Jnnn. 

< IxiOTitcy. Hit, T. Sahoqi. Jcnty ! Mr. Larialatirr. 

•* RotrtioM, (K + C + )• 

mtyWHt, Kll; rli.illu. tquamulo ' i |""l"li:' 

/rulieotx, (1 — 

.i'LaUi, Mid divergvnti-furcato at. the apex, polo ■,■ •//•■''. 

lit/ verruevtt, 
ia small, subsplianicaL, pale. 
Hilly slopes, common. 1 8 1 _■ . 

SiM:-Klk C.'-l. IM D89*) Nyl. Myu I ■'. 
■tt-a+H. 1)111. t *vl f.» 
: -Lafcbl, 10. 363 574. 

:- V.iwjx, Africa, India. Tropiukl America, 8 America. 

. HI 

nty.Mr. Bornr. MW2| Th«tf<>nl ! S,r IT. 
J. I<:*„ lla»lt.i,-.1..k«! K.:,l, i.>.| Win. I,i„ I.I ' ||. „!.. .1/,. « 
M»r . I-;. 11' ".■ ,'.' .'.«* 

v. ,.t r : Whit* Mill. Babbran W.Mjda! For- 
fal*).br. Mf. 1/ /.imf«l». 

|»«U*.i|).-N> . Galwuy. ,Vr. lnrUU<4tirr. 



Waum :— Barmouth. 

Ckasxkl Islasl-s :— Jcraoy. Mr. Larbnlaticr. 

A(oliac(ouafonn(f./i>/i<>»i,.KIk it Clad. Ml] I In A danaamtan- 

K |nl ibi|>r***<cd hum, occur* in Durham! Kent I and Leiceatonhire '. And 
Hants : urn! la identical with Mima, Ach. *i*c. in hb. Kew ! 
Hi.; amooth pale Rreyiah ereen cortex >» more or Wat parWd by irrafular 

whitiah reticulation*, And often become* tub decorticate, with adnata Yoroat. 
which eonietimea are developed Into ecalw or leafleta. Thii i» al*o the van* In 
furmla, but the different chemical reaction will alwayii lUaliuituiah them. 

3. C. turgidn, Hilin. tehitith or tfauco-citurascttit, basal leaflet* 
laciniifurm, variously divided and crenate, more or less ascending, 
podrtin tmouth, Kjuamont-decorlicate, turgido-cylindritat, branched, 
■ it the truncate, dentato-radiate apices. 

In rocky niountuiu ranges, runt-. 1870. 

Srai-IIffm. Fl. Germ. 124. (171*). Nyl. Boand. 55. Crombie En. 20. 
Bcnmycu tumha, Aefa i gm, :ivi. 

Northern Kuroiie. Ada, Himnlayiw, X. America, ChilL 
Bor. Paov :— 18. 

8c«>TtA*i> .— Bracinar, Grampian*. Rev. J. M. Crombie, (1870). Moffat, Itt>. 
W. JnhmoH. 

I. . (IK'1.) according to Nyl. In Flora 1X7.» p. 

i.i represented by Cuem. Clad. lJolg. 91 it 93, and is di 

y K tinging tfafl llmlliin of u alight yellow which quickly 

i '<:; to i pale ochmooont tint mid by the tntporriom eoT/phi. 
I.. Ii.iv,' Im-oii found mi the ground, ram, (1875.) atApptn, 
Argyllshire, by /»'*». y. J/. Crvmbif, 

•*• ^««<»o», (tf + C— ). 

5. ( '. ■ ■ rtieeniit, Schtcr. thallus maervjAytliur, eatpiloie, aub- 

ontH, unrnnely '■' ■•■:.,.■■ renate, cartilaginous, glaucous- 

green above, white beneath, purpbah-blaek at Uw base; ]x>dcUa 

from disk of husiui*, short, alender, nnooth or m bt e rn ia 

; te/phl liniplt and i row, mw 

Um mfuamott. 

Hills and rooky places, common. I: 

Bm .-vi, , i. Rutin, . Nvl Sy„. r.T, in pArt; a. An.l I Mm.i.I 

Brit. CU.I 

i M. A N 7*». 8ch»r. 4.-.7. 

,tilii :— Km luia. 

Boi at 

Daltmocrl BmMaU Common I Kant. Mr. lUimr. Yorkshire ! 
Mr. ' nirliaro. Mr. Winch. Biuth&U Common, Kent. Mr. 

Jtnnrr. Wort Allen. Cam, Northumberland. Ret. W M**m. Hhrouahln I 

8coriAM>: lVnllaml Hill*, twar Kdinhuiyfc. Ar -' I S».U. <1782). Hljh. 
land*! Sir W. J. If. Benna -Hour, I ! 

Mr. Orvtt. Umg bland : Hchiidea; Am rW, HartfeU, Moffat, 
v.«W. Duneani. Dr. Orrrill, , ron-diar I Mr. Me A'.aJay. 

Umsi) : - -Hanlry. Mui Hvlrkini. Kiilarney. Dr. (Sirrtaytoa. River Dawraa I 
8aln>ck Itvatl ! KyUmore ! to, Galway. Mr. LarbiUMier. 

WiU» i -Barmouth ! Llyn CraJiuuit ! fwm i'v»i„» : I ; ■ ydir Wood* : Bettwa- 
jr-eoed. 4 

ChaSXIX Islasl* : Gueraaty. Btr. T. &i/wr>. Jener; Sara. Mr. Uiriale*- 

I j«iiii»» fr«<|UOJitly rour* or km thickened, And slightly recurved at Um 
■natvin*, riraoac-reticulate on U|>|wr aurfAee, obacureiy longitudtoallv veine.1 
UcwaUi, and mlaiuu>ly i«rrDCOM at ajkoi, but Umm charatttr. do not aeon 



■ dUfortnt reactloa kwpa thu dutinet (rum pmeHU, rrriieitlat*, and 

F. af*j (in Flora 187G p. 239) banal aquanuc elongate, 

near, ei maU me-ittd, erect, stipate, ranrly fertile. 
On ruoka. 
Iiiusd .— KjrloBor*, oo. Galway. Mr. lutaiHti*. 11*76.) 

6. C. enriota, Flk. thallu* ashy-green, scales minute, crcnnti , 
more or less investing the base of the podetia; podetia whitish, 
\ — 1 in. high, cylindrical, dilated upwards, carionKoncellate or 
erotoJacunote, granulattr-w.rratOK, acyphi digiUito-partite, faatigiate. 

On tbe earth, rare. 1832. 

The re action teparatca hvm pyxidata,pityrta,<iecortieala, deymtram, butrutet 
and ■* unt 

I ha»« wan mull iperimem from Inland, •imilm to "forma jurenilu." Hemi 
Ml and ,'.12, aad probably rofarablo to ij/mpAgwr/a, Ach ! in bb. Kow. L. 
mtm ./.A »'/.«. K. Bot. 1782 h r-f. i .Wo to V' •"'"'"'" "' '' IW*iM«. 

8v» : -Kit. Clad. 1L a. (18»). Njrl. Sjm. 1W. Mudd Man. So. 
: E.Bot. fjuppl t. J781. 

Kxs :-M. k N, »», 
Gloo. DlOTKlB .—Europe. N. Aintrica. 
Bot. Pkov: 1 I 10, 11 13 , 

.u»l>:- TwwlaUl Mr. BobrrUon. (1832). l»nnd He»lh. near Yar- 
:'i. Mr. D. Turner, llormnoudon ! Suaiex ; Ecclcntxraruc, near Hatting*. 
Mr. Jm—r. St. I*unar.l« ?«■*•* ! Sn««w. Mr. Bvrrtr. 
Scotland s— Loctuber. Bet. J. M. CrombU. 
Ircland : N'u»r lUnlry ! .Vim Ilutcltim. 

7. ft dftitntti, Flk. thallus titqnto*--. 'nilline., white or 
nish-grey, leoflrU minute, ervto-lorinialt, iociniro nar 

minutely incited or ertnolt and granular at the marffUU; podetia 
ier, simplo or divided, t in., thickened upwards, cartilagla 
-ous, longitudinally ribbed or fissured, more or leas with 

granular scales. 
On old rails, not oommon. 

Tb« reaction (K ♦ 0—1 di«tin«roi»he» this from ilMJlWfl. BUt (K - C— ), 
from iif»uuu. Hffm. (K-C-), from pjpeUat i. .>ir. uitymi, |K— C— ). iind 
thataod the character* nf 11m pod I Mm U< ally tliu with oari&M. 

r- Klk. Clad. 7. (182(f). Nyl. Ryn. S10. in part : Somhophona parari- 
firau. Hook. Brit. '.237. Ctiiom> ...i. Mack. Ilih. SO, : CWoniu uruamoii 

r.JJifalo. Mudil Man. GO, Brit. Ctod. SL 
Eu :-UI K ht. 382. 

•0. VtmiB:— Europe. Tropical America. 
Bot. Phot —2. 3. I. 5 .10. 11 . l& 

i.AXT>:— St, Ixoiiarl't Foraat! Sm«u. Mr. Borrtr. Stone Wood, near 

Qn»ahit)ic;, Kent, Mr. ffabnei Barbara. Suffolk and Bolt w II 

.Sir W. J. Hooker. Yorltahirc ! Mr. M«Jd. Ba«ot'« T»rk ! Staff ord.hir*. A 
Btontrn. Lanchantar, Dnrbam ; DilatoiM Park. Cheviot, NortbambarUad 
WiarA. Hrrefordthire ! 8hrr.i»hirp '. 

Scvtlasu :-Apjiin. OapL VtrmitAittt. 

twajjrpj Owrnraon, Dr. Ta 

THbffpMmoia, NyL thallus tquamulost ; podetia, 
(1 — 2 ia), pai labrous, cartQaglnoua, longitndthaHy ribbed 

or fissured, clotfn do! tnUrVal* at the hate with tfircvliwi incited and 
crtnate unlet, granulate in the upfter part, branched, radiat<hCri*Ut/e, 

Woods and rooks, rare. 


KilUrney. it. Kylemore ! 

!>ilT«r»nt i-Mclimi kw|» thu diatitat bom ,.,rUtato rar. Jttorlieata, umI 
from >,u-imo*j. 

8t» : Ctndonia H/wmota, NyL 8yn. 809 in put: Scypliophortii >yar\ium. 
Hoe Bril :'. l'i;. in [.art; 'Vnumjwf i»»iru*«i, Mick. Hjb. 80. 
I . Lviulit. 105. Hold. l«.8eh». 71. 

i uin :— N. Europe, N. Amoiicn, S. America, ! 
it. l J u»v :— 3.. .:>....- 10 U •-•«. 
BlOUHTO : Yoilutiite! .Vr. .VwtU. Leiowlernliiro ! Be*. .1 Bob 

loy, tnwr Tblr»k ! A/r. ./. «. Ai<ltr. I»;htuiuii Common, Kent. Mr. Il-liaa. 
Shropshire! .<'««*. 

Dunkerron. i*. 
Vr. ^aroufetitr. 

•♦•• fifoefMN, (A— C + ). 
& ('. •ilcieomu. Flit, tlml lui .n-.-. ■■■ r iniii- i ; . feUaooon% HP 
ibOVO, vhitC I ".tii )i, loetMa "«rrow, pal/ 
mutiiti'l, i. i ■■■">•;... nt with black jlbrtt ; pod. I g 

roil, u|i|uT -in : ,. •■ 1. 1' I. ii uu;i\ 

I»iy b( I'll-, tUA mil 

•id narrow n iinilar in k"itiU ap|>earan» folia, 

l,P ), l.lii- all il til.- .till Ut I ictllin kco| 

PTk. I 
lint. Uudd 

i I,. I :: 

dr. f. 12.A.; V*ill. I f.3, 


. I 8, i. g .in. n I', i.i 19 81. 
UtD; N.*r Hangrate, Suffolk and AIiltxironfjB ! Mr 7 1 . '.'./.•«-. '• 
•lurr. Vr. . /.'"-. .'. //. Thimpirvii, II Moor, 

I.., . .i/i. Ttirdoic. NorUiumbarlaod and Durham, .if 
v«rn I 

■ ire! 
Penllaui id Uuin ltii 


1 I isono. Imamiki ; "vy. Jerxy, Sark. Jtfr. fieri 


*«•♦* OtURJen, (A— C— ). 

9. ' Fr, rl l; illii, ijn.imuliwo, ashy-green ; pod 

1 1 110060, or coarsely granulato-pulveraei 
iwardH ; scjphi ef/aihifm r leas prolifl-i\niH. 

Heaths, wood inks, conn i- :i 

;. L. K. SU) Bi Mi,,l,i ■• 

' . i '. i B. Bet, t. 1883. 

i: i. 

Kmwpe, India. N. ■ .., Amtrnlaida. 

lid, llolirUc*. Iftl 
N.ju.I- . »inl Oimiii.'I Ulnnda. 

perplexity, to iltompi la doMiibe or 

iiiis |Hilviuor]>hous 

Ml J IlllttC 

liumidity, tec Phej may 1w all 
readily n the following varieties, by careful attention to 

I)k .racier. 

orticate, fjMittbto- 




Var. pilyrto, Ach. podctia pvlverulrnto-arantdosvfurfitraoeoHt, 
ash).". I dtcortUatt, and often ribbed or Ucinioac 

in the u/j/j«/- part. 

G*M. DLrtBlB:— Kurvt"*, Indfo, N. and 8, and Tnipletl America, Africa, 

! i ikerian herb, xt Kow there arc (peclmena RKtlicnx) at Killornvy, 
.i.l rVfarehirti, (A OtoJI) identical with ottta, Tayl. which 
a|>|«ani to be uoljr * eubuUto form of jiifyncu. 

Var. .-.WonyAosu, Flk. podetia pulverulent, granules coarser at tho 

:— LoroaL 56. 
->. Uwtiuu :— Europe, Africa, >*. and S. and Tropical America, Aim- 

Var. etxrpUitia, Flk. tiallua exspitott tomprttsed ; leaflet* 
laciniatoloUtte, marginB crenate, or erotolw podetb arising 

from disk Hi' i simple or drrld 

costate, Motnetime* sub-verruoode or scaly ; apo< rbmtrate, 

apparently tt.uilr, pair jl 

irth ami ; OOmmOIL 

Ocemoai in Clod. Aclior. ».»>•« ho ho* fr«<inently observed *!■-- iii.m 

ptii/rra inti> wintiu.t 'I'lii' 'liffunnit reaction .. parata* ii. from 

■ :— Hlc Clint. K (1*«<). Nyl. Syu. I. '.'in .feuv 

' »: (.Woiiu *f ■ add j\1 -ii. '•,. Brit, i . 

:-Leil{kt. W8 ! Mud<f Clod. Brit. (I I Bold. I 
(inn DwraiB :-Kn 

-2.3.r. f .11, 12 18 19 98 .31. 
:— Hampshire! .UV. Lyeil. Anlin«loyl Su«ex. Mr. J<-< 

r-liV! Rock*! Mr. hurra. Ohlhui tilluun 

K«ai < - nujffor»U. Brr. T. Sofmy,, I li.nU. 

Ret. J. M. ifealon Dcane. Northumberland. M 
Alubio, ('timlH-rlond. /{re. W. Joluuvn. SluN/|«hlre ! 

luidi— Usefa Katrine | Lochaber. firr, ■/. .if I 

Ihxlami : Mat !!■ <<r T. Gage 1 1 KiP.anu-y. Or. 

• iy. Mr. lA\T\*itrttUr. 
Waiea:— Hill above Bodowen, Barmonth. /fr/. r, .W«n», 

■ KSXtL Ijilasim:— (iuroy ; ltonl ; Jeney. Mr. LarUUtUUr. 

Var. Uptophyll'i, Flk. thallus tquanttfote, iqwmulet matt, dh 
perted, rounded, ntnrly rntire ; podetia mImi!. tlmplfl OK divided, 

Slalirous ij- subverruwse, subcostal* ; npotliiT: i M.lil:in. 

\'i et botthj pi* M, rare. 

01 thii I hnvo koii no BritUh epeeimciu, but poneo an atithoutio one from 

[Wonder, collected [a Java, 7000 ft, *H. Ooamane (Clad. A, liar.) •taiae 
that in herbarium at Helringefora, ooutaini ■>. >p rfiuen if H.i I l(< hen 

land, and that ho conridcre It ae a variety 

I.-*, hut lli.. ililTi :■ inct. 

8«!- Klk Olod. 19. (I8S8). Nyl. " 

'. Itptaplinlln, Sludd itan. 57 : Cloidonia 

Bllt ~'.W ; i '' ' •■' ilia «7im»U'.. 

■linl.l 1 !rit. CUd. & 

): Bet. t 

Belf. •-■-■: H p|. M3! 

it..i ami St. Leonard^ VamU, Saaiex. Mr. Borrrr, 

Vw. fimbriate, Hofftn. thalloj whito. quaimilose ; podeila 
.'■rauaeccK- " wklte impalpable po* 

awtimc* ucalv team upwards. 


'I UK l.illll 

■n. 121 (17M.J Nrl. Svt 
di f *. f. 10. A. B. D. F. G.-Valll. VuiA. 21. f. O.-fc K. 
. SUH, 

.-ht. 325 ! 3W I 177 : Mudd Brit. dud. IS I 1 1 
<j»ta. lUsmiiii . Bump Africa, India, N. ft 9. ft Tropical America, 9 
AtUntic, Aiiatralaxia, South Indian Ik-tim, 
I . ..' II . 
Of tlil* onmmon : ■«■ a i . -n . than arc iw M|jwf loon <>r kUum: 

fnrmii in uhidi i 1 trumfxi-ifin/xd (Bchn-r. L.H. ."« ! 

and Lfiffht. 87" !) : unci coi.. In whioh the podctia an v*ry I 

•long»t-il. ilmpl*, nmwlf, Of immilaily ■ 
I3r. Clad. Ill II 
lajiu: — Bexhill, F.a»t liopcr. North Boroy, HU-lilor I 1 

ftc, P*von, MtMrt. Soar* and A'/,,.'. Swinnop Ka»I \!l"iidalu, Northumber- 
land. Rer. W. Jutuuon. 

/. oMtafa, Klk. (Clad 89) padatfo granuloso-pulvorulonf, ;it 
longtli denuded, i id Jlsccvoriu^ their coBlate tjubstniice. 

N««r Kylo-mor*. M, (ialway. Mr. U\r>/nl<ttier. (1870). 
S*r.<Ue</rtK<it", Klk. po<lith. . Inngatcd, cylindrical, attenuated, 
•rAifr, tlrfortimlr, r/ttamoft at Ihr hat*, coartcly i/nmvl , 

Bm> ids, 

fluoa. I Mstiiiii : -Africa, lull V I V. .plcal and S. Amoriin, Atiatralnda. 

Bot. Paov 1—7,8 16, 16 20. 

Kxaumi :— I«icent*r»lilre ! tier. A. £•'■ 

800TI.IXI>:— KlUIn ; <ir».l.|'i»"^ Kri. J. M. IV' 

Iau.\M> :— Kiliri'ir, , near Fenuoy I Mr.CnmO. 
NV.ujsr-Aberdnvey ! Rte. A 111 . 

10. C. g'tieilu, Hoft'ui. f hiJlua iialv n- 1 | Of livid lirvwn, 

' the baae oft' 
nbml :/Ai/rrom and ,, . nxticat- . 

>r soxsil., 
aUinx :> n- i lic.itlis, 

Dl lli" priman robiut acyphiforuua ami prolifemua form ' 
represented by DiU. I- XIV, f. IX B. and Sobwr.W : nor "f Dm robuat 
tic extended form mnowmu, (Ach ) represented by Seiner, «S ; nor of tlir— r plonuatod form tltmgaUt, Ach. npraaonlad by Tuck. •» ; nor of tha 
aciaamuloM form, ojjwto, Klk. rqinwnM by Schirr. I,,. 641 ; nor of BM 
tornola (C. ccm«H Fr. 225. NyL. Sjm. 198.) pudetU ehmt, elongate, cruelly 
<i eomute.a few with narrow Irregular iubnxlUt. »<tplii, «lal,ixmi at 
thebaic, and «ul ,imiIw nil-lit above, reprwnt>-d by 
Ia1,|>. Or. 31 ; I have mu no Brituh apeciraen*. exoept a doubtful • 
latur from Inland. MIm. II ■ ll,>ok. 

i i-rru llli. (1786) Kyi Hyo ItM Mm, M ia 

EL. Brll GUI lfook. Brit 

Gkd. Portion :— Kurofw, N. and S. America, Aoatrauvda, Imlia. 
The forme or varieties wh«1 'ain «ro tlMsao : — 

tuljuli/urm, vritli . 

cn)>a» ■ uuurglUi 

. : -Aeh. Syn. 3M <W17\. 

i: KoLt, 13W. 

Igtrt. SM, Mu.M Ur. Cla.1. »l !ST. ! S7 ! 
Ic nn> I Antarctic Aniprioa, 
Bin , . 10, II, U.. II. , SI. 

■hire I M UmU. AluVrahot ! Hanta, Ur. R. 

Kaawl Drm, Mr. PmrjUt. N- 

land and IKriua. Mr. Wiias*. Malt era Hill*, WorwaiUraWre, Mr. f 



Lydd Beaxii, Kent. Mr. Jlotma. Tuddenham Heath, Suffolk. Ret. £. .V. 
KbMVMrf. Ldth Hill, Somr. .tfr. H'. ^««iu.i.*. limb, K«m. J/r. 
Foraiac. Longrornd ! Wickin : Htijieratono* ! Shronhirc. 

ScotuM) :— Glen Oallatcr! Lion'i Face I and SldUw Hill.! ami Mora*: 
JTr. Croo//. Brn l-a»»r» I Mr. D. Turner. J IU. 7*. Or* 

Ieblami t— B-erry. i»r. Movrt. Bantry J ^1*» ifme*«nj. 

Waim:- Barmouth I 

Cuashu. Ihlasub ;— Gnernasy. /fee 2\ .So/iwy. Jcncy, 3ark, Ac. Mr.. 

Var. a&urftvu, Seiner, jiodeiia subulifonn, recurved or hooked at 

the apex, sterile. 

I :-Sehar. L. IL 69 1 Mudd Br. Clad. Ml 
uucd .-Yeraaato ! Mr. Mwid. 

r. oerodtiora, Flk. (Intl. 75. Nyl. Syn. 198. a BUiallor form 
boot "in !. of cornuta, represented bv Seiner. G 10 ! 

Mudd Ur. Clad. 23 I U ! 28 
Rare, Cleveland, Yorkshire ! Mr. Mudd. 

11. C. vet titillate, Flk. thallua foliaceo-auuiiiuulosc, leaflet* 

Lii.'iii.Mj'irm, crenato-incised j podetiau* oorUcato, g^abroas 

ill. sTrucose, sovuhifcroua, icyphi denticatata al the margins, 

2 — 4 tunes rrpr.atf.dly irjtieUtate-i>rotiferou* and tcypAi/miit /torn 

ctntrr of ttyphi ; apothooia fuacoua. 

Rock* and mountainous district*, rare. 

s\.s-: Flk. Clad M (1168). Njl. Syn. i. Wj Otadot* t 

tola, Mudd Mm. M; Clniteni-i ctrvieorna r. rerticillata, Mudd llr. Clad. 6. 
Vta-. DHL i. dv. I.'.. O. II. V JU Park -'!. f. 5. 
:-M. * X. 'ill! Mn.l.l lint Clad, 3! 
•o. DiSTRiB:— Kumiw, X. America, Aualralaaia. 
Bar. Pa.jv.--J I 10.. .26.. .81. 

— Yi.ik.liir*! Mr. Mudd. Broadwater Foroxt, Tuabridgt WaBal 
Mr. Jenner. 

i-axi) :— Kylomnro Pan ! co. G&lway. Mr. Larbalutier. 
WalBh :— Barmouth I 
CmaxjuxImlamw:- Jcmcy. Mr. LarhaUUitr. 

Var. toboli/rra, Del. thallua foliaccmi ■. laohlH n tm>*, inciso- 
crenate, glauoous-green above, whitish beneath, podatM 4 — ] in. 
Ugh, y' liilirotiB, aubvoiTUOOSC, M 

upicanh hUo a tcfpku*, ic/tote nargiiu an iattieuUtto-duaied\* with Ucijidi interrptrsed ; apotuOOilt -mill, simple, 

convex or oonglomei ma. 

Rocky mountain*, probably aol uufivqucui, but confounded 
arrvicorni*, from wbieh thi difli rent reaction diatingulahaa it. 
Sra :-D»l. Jn Dob. Bat, CUB. ML (1S») t Ctadonia mtUtflata '■. plu/togi 

Flk. Clad. 38 1 CUulonm ccrricvriiii r. ft 

B. Bot. t. 13m look* much ui'ire like tliw limn iiI'iktb* 
E»:— UiB»il. 14. MikIiI lirit Clad. & 

Geou. lliHiBiB :— Europe, N. & Tr»iii™l Am. oi •», Africa, India. 
Bar. Piers i. :■ 7 . iu. 

i^»n:— Y(ffknhir»! Mr. Mndil. Lound ! Mr. II. Turner. OurCand 
Wnkin ! Uaorenc* Hill ! 8hr..|«hin«. 

:..-.lm.m.l. co. Ci.rk. Mr. Wright. 
Waubj :— Baituuutli ! Uolyhaad MmniUln ! 

12. C. dtgentraru, Flk. thallua tqnamuleae ; podetia whituhor 
lirown, cartilaginonn, glabrouv, niyrrttxnt and albo-'jutlatc >tt the 
. scyphophoroua, aoyphi ].iulifcrou8, criutato-ramoae. 


the u<:hi:xfu>ra 

1 18 and mountiuiui, rare. 

-PDcOlai 41. (i>««i Nvl. Syii IM 
».. llisruiii .—Europe, H, Anieriui, Au»trjJuii». India. 
. 81 

Nick. Mr. IK, 00 hero common in tfaa 

i.ili«. Ha: J. If. 

.lerwy. Mr. LarbaUrtier. 

Furnui IMOSM iTOred with Id 

-.Scot 63. Gror. Kdla. Mi 
Fio.-K. Bot t. 1887. 

llCrT. 1»IUIY. :i. I ..II 

EitoLAND ;— Woolwich Bare. Sir J. K. SmM, I-ikonhnui. Mr. Tu: 
Sooruk»i> :— Pentland Hill*, new Edinburgh. Sir J, E. .VmiM. 

:XI>: Kelly '• <!lcn. Dr. Mtttt, 

13. fliallu ^<jii:iinulo80, OV(incs'.'i.'r.t ; p.-.J.-t i:« 

elongated, pals whitish or brownish green, 
LntHtkcd, brauclut atttnuato-*\thuhil<, diNr>rrnti-/*rMte J 
I, fuscous. 

Heaths and m 

RsanH IhthjgnMitaA rw i S baa paaBW 

grxi-lfffm. Kl. (tain. IV< I HOT); S'yl. Syn. 1. 20% ; |{m>k. Ilrit. 2*;. 
MiMnck. Hib. HO. Mudd 

Pio k 0. 

Bxs:- UisM, 40L Mn.i.i lfl. Mudd Br. Clad. 00 

Gsou. UiiniuB : -Europe, Jf. and S. mi. I Tr.|.icil Anieriou, India, v. 

BOT, J'SOV ;-l . S, 4, -■ I, - ■'. 1" 14. IS, If... If. It.. SI 
Ekoi.asd:— Ycrluhiro! Afr. .1/ Mr. B. S. U.ll. I a tev.tcr.ldre 1 

If. J. 11,-Ur 
.. !,i... • V. ii .11 .toror HiU, Oxford. Mr. ftu 

limited, Km*x. J/.. ; l»«k<t lUm : Uuonluililrc. Hi-. J*. .4. 

U»rtiiii-.r; N..rll l.jvoti. Mtun. Jonu A Kir, 

Shropshire ! Moir l\»rk. 1 1 • i ■ 

(iarmwait! CWlm-»-l>r<- »i> II ! '■'. 
Hill! r'nrfanhire. Mr. II'. < idea; Arrao. 

. Jlotfvur. Hunearnund PculUiid UUU. Dr. Ortf 
I KiUarsajT. Dr. '.'.irrinofon. 

ruaey. Ik*. T. Mn;, Jeney. Sark, Ac Mr. 
\V AS.C* :— Moaljr-Kwt naar Tr*m*doc 

Var. raeemoM, Flk. podctia like those of tbi s'y or scalj. 

fwi-ihi! tr, ii, 

odd On Clad. 46 1 

i i Vot I '.' , Muitd. lion Ctaachan I .if', farm. Kill- 

'VrtVnftm. Pentland Hill*, /!«•. .' 
Dr.Ont 1 IAuiAm. Mr. LarUilm* 

\ ar. "tVin. pod ' 

8t> : Mad i Uaa 18, Br. Clad. SS, 

7 1 ' 
iadd Br. Clad 181 

iro*. Jfr. .V.../.J. LtiftMUrahln ! ASrr. ^. JMwmm. neu 

aU Jfr. LurUiluiicr. 

.1, Flk. Hook. Brit. 230. Cnwuntt w<t»«w, HiM.k 
it, 84 J Mack. Bib. - 

8<otv»m. : - PenUaad Hill., /irr. ./. l*tUf«i. 



V«r. adtperia FUt. pod«tia afawnto, sfpuMWWO-furfuraceous, 
gjmringlr bru> 
IMiUD: Tnllv. Kyfamor* M-. Lml duKV . (UK.) 
II. ' '. trabriiifula, DoL pcxlotia cjwpitose erect, apices saibrid, 
i "ieMioful. raoarved, 

iltamate iiitricato-diraricato; apotliecia tonal 
. irrcgtilarlv globose, subfascous. 
r.»ro. 187">. 

iby Bat i Sail. *33 (1*29.) Xyi. in Flora 187.V p. 447. 
Ki.;:-IKII t- K. f. :T K. 

I if. 173. B. ft 176. 

B ■ :— 10. 

41A3PI -Baroaldfao, Argyllshire. lUv. J. M. Oramhu. IW>.) 

15. , w rjr tllbtpO 

is, basal leaflets small, farfsed and cmaftto; poataCM gtabrmtj 

i-ato proliferous, a/w/* m«{ oxtb rn- 
fvndil open, the at the 

In mountain ran; 18(59. 

-Aon. Syn. 2?i (1817). Nyl. Syn. 207. CromWo Kn. 20. 
k. S». 

:. Dinltun :- X. Borop*, N. Aim 

Bar. Piu.'V : I ■ 

tjucu :— Bcn-a-boord. /fcr. /. J/. OremUnt. (1HC9.) 

16, i ■', v/wiDUjta, Hfl'm. tlmllns BOHUatdloW : podotla 80 quid*!, 

liadrioal, 2io. high, erect, rtpeahHf 6raa 

rnmi margins of t.ho minutfl 
rigid mtbcorymbof: ntdwto^rutatf, gla- 
idinally tub! ■ unoso, i «■* i m**n , •' >tf 
UaJUu or teal** ; npotha nMOoua. 

«y woods, not uncommon. 

IiutinRUuhe.1 bom rfeforia ,".-. i»/,*/i„ii,i,u.. liy ililf«rent reaction; from 
piltUala r. itaoriieataby the tntirt enrtox and the podctla Ikrowjlumi , 
i »-.«/« . »n,l from furtnUt f. mhpmii. Klli. by ililtrnrut habit. 

.m. 1*5. 11798 i*rt): ». A h. Mnd.l 

... Mi ; a. in part Model Br. Clad. l'J ; flaMtanaonu Manama, Hunk. Kril. 
237. (fa i" •"* njwmo... II >,.!.■ . Soot M lin |wrtj | Mack. Hib. SO. (in 

I .art). 


:It 131 Brit. Clad. 40! 41! 
(Sbog. Dmtkib: -Europe, X. andS. America. Africa, Imllft, Aiwtralaaia. 
: l...:, . 7, 6 in. 11 I i IS 2fl 31. 

L'bamwood Fnrwt I I,*irc lUv. A. Bu iliroaa 

A'li D 1'uiiicri. Yorkahlns ! M r M uild. lla] rdahire. 

o/rry. NurthmiilwrUni! anil Hiirhain, afr, Irinr/i. Bigtor. Bora, 

and Ton Wood*, llrinifton, Dovon. Mam. Jona and Kingston. 
Scnrnvo: -Slittaw Hill,, i.n.l Glon Callater! Mr. H 

Mr. M 


..-. Ihiliw' 

IniLAMi :-Klllamey ! ,!fr. /' DUT Kylemmv. Mr. farbnltttier. 

W' Batbd, Oaniiganahira. Sir J. B. Smili ^ I rnBudlynl 

Mr. Borrrr. Cwiu Byrhan. AM. 7". Satuxg, Conway I 

iiicrn«ry. .l*r»oy. Sark, Ac. ,1/ . I •• iflfwHfr, 

M cucullata, Del. thalluH mlnnta, lollai bolato- 

i aulab , ■wullaj' . ■ ireaa at, bi m 

whitish; jiodviiii • I mi .1, . (,. cnlirunotie, Irregultrlj 

sevphiferotu or attenuate, pale ; apothecia ttrmiiinl >ulifuscous. 


Tlir. I..C.I1SMX0IU 

On tho oarth, rare. 1876. 
St* :-Duby Hot. GalL 0M(tBS»). 

R Rrj/throcnrper, ajtotketia red. 

ftoettM, (K/+ C + ). 

15. C comMrt>^iinV/«, Fr. tli.illns squamulosc, palo yollo» 
green, crenatc and crcnato-incised ; podelia i — 1 inon. gram 
vrrrurotr, glabrous or minutely squaniulose, dimple, dilated upward 
UktO inpir or proliferous scyphi; apothecia sessile or 


On earth, Ac, cninnwii 

In tho tyiiVAl (am, the tcyphi aranhort and broadly dJUted, an short Klabrcras 

l orruooee iiodetln. la the attnta knn. tna podotla »ro much umrw 

it.«l, kin! tho wvplu prolikroal fmm Uia margina: and iii tlm phjilliijihimi 

fans, tho (urlotia anu eorphi an entirely clothed with minute in-alce Of leillet*. 

In the plcun4.i form (which al»o present* tho above 3 «UUn) tho cortex of tho 

pwletia <UUi|iM*o*a Into » film dost, probably from crowinu in humid localltb». 

Tho glabrous rcrruooae otete u analogoui to C. pyndala. anil tho jilcumu w 

I ulcut ttete t<i fmliriata amonu- tho l.liiiiiearpa,. 

-Kr. I. K. 836, (1881); Nv). Syn. £» ; 

took. Brit. 840. Crnomtct Kxti'tra, Hook. Scot. 83 

III— l a.i.v. «m w.w my w i«mnw, «kwa. www. wv , ...awm. ..lO. 1*1, Ifl J Oft • 

OUtdmU oMin/era tar. <ur»uru/i '. .. A. A B. MinM .Man. 60. Brit. Clad 

jftQl K. B<.t. t, SOM. ..u.i . 1 1. Kl. t, 85. a. and 85. (tyrrlca.)-t SI 

K and o. (ertenaal— t. 24 o. (phyllophora). 
jphXpuora). I^rl»l.t. 375 ! 

\nxl flail, f bain. 14. A.-<Mtea»a> M. 

pbyUuphora) And fbwl. Cinalii. 14. Bl— 

tyniua). And Clarl. Cla. W ! (e.\tcnaa>. Tuck. L. Am. Sept 37 1- 


Mr. flail. WI-(phTiJophoT«] And 

.... I'lfTKin :— Kurope, N. k S. America, India, Aiutralonin. 
'. 3, 1/6, 8. 7, 8.. 10, 11 a IB, 
KnuKD I ; i-.-m.ev Wood) Barki I i/V. IfcnVr. YorkabJral 

Mr. MmiM. Chaniwood Koreat ! I^lee«ter»hirr. Km. A. Klotnn. Bsciiigati'-ke I 
Hants. Mr. R. S. BIB. Kye-lnaf 11)11, DSH Settle. Dr. WUJtar. Aoi| 
Beds. Iter. C. AWc4. Northumberland and Durham. Mr. Wim-M. Bronnvnivv 
Ueksj ; Kldgway ; M»! Hills, Worcesrt*»alre. Mr. Purton. Tora of Dart- 
moor : Nnrth Born, Devon, M'*m. Jama amd A'l'nusloii. \V«»t Allen farra, 
Nortliumborland, Iter. IK. Joltnton. faor Canvdoc! Wrekin ! Long Mynd ' 
Mlipvntona ! Slimudiln. 

1 and Bra-mar! SidUw Hill" mi Wilte II Ilia ! 
Forfanhire. Mr. W. <7.i ninnr. f aw.l..r Wi«d ! Nairn. Mr. Cnall. K 

■ ■. J. H,#htr. Douue! Mr. Me Kinltf. Ben Fartog ! Mr. Borrrr. falleroiah. 
Dr. Livttaj. 

Is- iiKorton Mountain and KilUnwy! Sir T. Owe. Killarney. 

Dr. <'.irrin-ftou. 

Waloi :— A I* r.lnvey I Her. A. / Q o c mn. BarmouUi t 

ski. Itu-vxim : Portalat Bay, Jenty. Mr. LmrMrditr. 

1C. C.>.r, Ach. thallus foliaceo sq.iamulose ; podelia 
1 —2 k inches liu-h, jtavtmxnt, cylindrical, simple, corticate, glabrous, 

tr tcabroiu portions or vrrrvece, irhiek 
rrentnetliy bettm* rrmatr tatumtdei; acyphi cylindrical, nnn-ow, 
ximple, or t/iortly prolifrnmdy tliritletl ; tpotl 

Mountains, rare. 

No doubt ooofoazDifed with MMiim, whits It much reaamblea. but dietlnot 
by dMsfpt wett 


neral form but not colour of apothoola. 

1. Cla 16. A ! Mast. 173! Schwr. 40! 

Qaxxi. l'lhjiiiii :-N. Ariiorloa. 
Bot. Psi>t:-I5, 



Samuuiu :— Ben Fern*: ! Mr. Bvrrrr. Aberdeen ! licit -M-Boanl. Hrwmar! 
Mr. W. (Janlimtr. 

17 ' '. dtform<t, HfTin. tlmllnx Alliaceous, leaflets pale green, 
incieo-crcnatr, whH 1 — 3 inches, lciUlesu, 

tubular, tulpkurro-)tuI*rr«lfnt, turgid, niraple, seypltiferous, * 
regular or deformed, maryiiu errtf, crtnattnitnt" 
Ijr woods, rare. 
TJ»« |»«lr>ti» ar» cylindrical, lulli'M, thlckanad opwarda, or aometiraea tarjrid 
aad narrowed under tha aoypbua, and are either entirely pulverulent, or oorti- 
c«U at the baa*, ridrerulent above. 

Svx:- Ham. PI. Oerta. 13) |17»|: N'yl. Hyn. "02; Scyphophomi dtformil, 
Hook. Brit 840; Oaomaor tfr/praiM, Hook. 8cot «; etorfonM -wrifrm r. 
Jtformli, Mndd Mat. til. r. dr/«mu a, Mudd UriL ("lad. 30. 
1374: Dill, t. *». f. 1 
. ». Mndd. 25. Soha-r. 47. I 
.. Dnmiia .— Europe. N. ud 8. America. India, AuitrnlaaU. 

En It rkahire .' M r. iitvM. Wcatraoreland ! If • S.'.Jo-twn. Amber- 

|»y WiH llr.xik, StUMX ! Afr. Jr.ntr. Kay (V-ppi.e, Heref4.rd.hlre. Bm r. 
.N«/«vy. Northumberland anil Durham. J/r. It'incA. Devon. Motrt Jona awl 

■ '. lUnna-Bonrd ami Braatnar ! Vr. 
Croall. I'entlaiHl Hill*. Dr. (Irtnllt. Ben Perre* ! .Ifr. A/rrrr. Glen Callater 
ami l.lnof D*a ! Aberdeen. .'.' .. 
lUELaBD :— HowUi. Dr. Maun. 

** Rtatium, (K + C— ). 

I*. lata, HiTin. thalluH flduMMOtn ti I msc, leaves small, 

lo>Hito-crctiaU', pale green above, whit* benotftl) ; podatia ■yArolnnco- 
fnUtvrulmt, cylindrical, I "J inchij-.t, Kim[ilc, Kfyjihi narrow, margin 
digitato^Unlalc inmrved, or dilates! nnd proliferous. 

Mossy wood*, rare. 

!»tia MinaUmea corticate at the baao, pnlvurulvnt above, aometitnet 
entirely pulvxnil i I.-kII. .., or often with a few Mattered loaflcta, or 

a uu a uti n m leafy at the bear, the leaflets dfanfadalliiig in •)/<; gn 

Keectioti, colour, ami incurved margin* of leyphi dUtiniruiah IbU from 

St»: Kffm. FI Germ. 1M (17961; N'yl. Sjro. 222 ; Sr.fiphofAorut dh/ilnlui 
(ia tort). M...W Brft. 240 ; VtHrmftt tUgiUto, llix.k. S.*.l. <i\ ; Otaiooia onxifrra 
jd, •■ - IK. 

-law. in Hiturtu D. Ft t. 1ft. IC 

-Sewer. ♦»! Ml N >■!-»» 
Gboo. DiNTmn :— N. Amenca, Aoatnlaala. 
Bot. Pn.)V.i 1.B..A..U i:t 

ExgUlkd :— Leicortenhire I Itrr. A. Blazam. WaUinirton ! Sir H\ C. Trtrtt- 

Bk. rair>i«».lr« ! Bet. T. Saliroj. OToraley Wood. Mr. Purlon, North Borvy; 
urvton ; i 1. Mom. Jona and KiimMvn. SwiasopFal, Katt 

Alltodale, Noruumborlanil H <in» 

■li ! .Ur. I*'. (Juntiner. Arran. >^rn/. Balfour, Pent- 
land HiUs /'/-. '>:— Kelly'a Glen. />r. Mnyrr. 
riUMJnx latAXiiH :— Jaraey. .Wr. Larhatti' 

M" K Hot, I 18S6, which if it were 

not described a» havinK a.-n rM apotbevia, f ahould re-fui : 1 f ar- 

eata. Certainly ltdoaanot mprw-nt tin: typiind •tr-nt.tht. m.r ilt>e» K, B 
9439, which H<- a) illu«trative of tliyUata, but nither repreaenta rar. 

Molmtt /. polyitKWa. Mmld'. ipecimen*. In hl« Br. 1 tad. from 

the bioaoo itta. 

Var.* maei/t ,./.;. Ilihu. thaDai roliaooousorir|njunulo 
nan ! in bigh, w i 

rim /< ;i|K<thecia 

terminal, taberculottc. 



MountAinouH turfy iieatln, nof unfroq 

»mi$, Hook. Bool 

rtXYtfrro , . Mm M l!r. 


CWubm nxtifem ,,, Mndd Mm. W. 

E Bot t. 202K. 
E»:-Hob»r. 33! Ml M. * V :>■' Hopp 1!3! Ana OUJ. I .• It&C. 

, L. Br. 18 
(iiun. l>ikTRin:— Kuropo, N. Aracrlc*, AnntraUnU. 
Bot. Pb»v i-l, -2 ;• B M. II u, 

I! ■■•.! . .■ i 'i irkahiic ! Mr. MmM. I,?ic««t«r»hirc ! Rtt, A. liloram. New 
K..w»t, IImiU. Mr. [fttL Kdirali-M ! M r. ^. tfoafcr. Oroiudml Mimr, now 
M»tloek. At J. K rtlmnilwrUnd »n<1 Dnrh»m. Mr. Wimrk. 

ttnxuA P»rk Wall, Kaan. Mr. Vannnt. Ar.Hnjrloy ltoclu, Siuaox. Mr. W, 
Joikua. High Tor Down ; i: OVty Traoey, DOTOCL Mttm. Jnnrx 

and K>iv>h'"ii. Wrrkin ! Slum. 

i Pmtlaad HHla, Sir. J. S. BmUk. ftmwhl Mr.MeXUia 

IlUCLAXD :— Dm 7'.iv'.m. Baatr*, Ifta HuHhim. Killarovy. Al>. 

Carroll, near Tully I oo. Ualway. 2tf r. Ltrt.iUMxr. 
Cmaxmel I>usi» :— Janoy. Mr. l*irt>tt<Mitr. 

/. cl/inif'i, (Ach.) i«xloti(» white, Mibveiitricimo-cornut*:, .-.i 

N .— Aoh. 8yn. 867. [18171. 

Kxh : -Senior. 74. Lclght 275! SOT! <0S! 

<.;«■>/. Diktriii j— Baron*. 

Bot. r»ov ^ L. 8...5...T. 8. 

Bxolaicd: Bciicotentliure ! tor. y4. Hlar.tM. Kynanc* Core ' Cornwall; 
Blocklnini i '..mi Id! Surtax. Afr. Airrrr. Ncwclitfo ! Lone; Mynd ! 

Wrukiii ! »nil Lauroow HUB ! Sbrorwhira. 

WAltt : lUniwulh ! Couway KmlU ! 

/. potydwtj/lii, Flk. pod ■ 1 1 :» UJphiAraM, '-crwtntfl. 

Srx :-Mudd Man. G2. (1861). 
Bot. 1. 9487. 

ixlit. J71. Mndd 27. 38. Br. Clad. 77. 7H. 

,. DlHTItlE . 1 i 


KM<-,LA»l>:-Weit<noT«land! Mrt. St... hit Pond! Ami 

KviiftBwCavo, < - .... II ' .lfV. /A.mrr. Yiak- 

•biro. .Vr. AfWu*. Loioutenliirr. ife». A. Itioxum. 

Sooti-av- BUI I Una oi Boo! .Ur. IT. Oantiw. I-kJi Mil 

Kirkniicha*!, 1 • ..i ■ Mr. Mc Oarrock. 

Ii«LiMi :— Bnutry I .Wim fluftkun. 

Ch J«n»y. Afr. Larhnltttitr. 

i h -.ify mid M|tiaruulcMc. 

1 . BOK 'IMO). Srn.Mfi. 
intra — Kuropa, 

• l''.Sl. 

'"Of. W«M Allen Carr», KurtHamtftr- 

Un.l I -«. I.ytb Hill : Shropahiic. 

Scotlajik .-— Cmfe-r>B*ti», Dunkclil I /'• . L\*,l**g, 

>* \— Mool-ylJoU* ! *1ontojawf}-l 
, issra. IuAKim ;— Jtracy. Afr. LnrUtltUitr. 

I. JUne li-nvw ftdMcnclin£ iukI imliricatc, 

• , thinfcertcrl mi<1 polvorjili nl m tin 
wMtfl jmlvenileut btOMth, p 

:-(^n B.] lwU.U? 

M|bt. 371. Mu.1,1 Br. CUd. W. 
ran ■— Iteopa. 



blakd :— Yorkshire ! Mr. UmU. Laurence Iliil ! ShropihU*. 
■tag latrtui t'l v into difilaU. Similar in general appearance to C. baeitlaru 
I dirlioct by different reaction. 

/. eo r om ig, rich, podctta qytthdrioftl pulverulent and «ub- 

}Uiuuiil«MH\ hranclua diiciUttvnidLnt. ; apatbeok tmiiiuiil. 
.hone, rod. 
On the earth. 1877. 

rxi-Ach. Sjn. 2*7. 
'io.— MlLt. It f. i 

>;— Near tbo l.oke, ftdlinaaiiieb, Galway. Mr. Larbalatirr. (1877). 

••• faction, (K—G-) 
19. C. Fkrkttma, FY. Anitas aquam i.ti.. 

1 — 1J inch, vli:t • Iiimwii, cylindrical, slender, cartilaginous, 

gtabrout, condmioiuly eoriieutt, vrrrucuUnir or m/iuinf>u»-df(iOrtKaU, 
niyrraemt at thr bait, tOtUt nniJ ;wniijf* iinvtfr, ajicx thickened, 
iiiw<>lctcly ecyptiiforous and shortly divided ; apothocia con- 
gjoni rate 

ntainous heaths, rare. 

Sr» :-Fr. L. E. 238. (1*31 1. Nyl. Syn. 225. Flic. Clad. 09 : ClaJonia tocri/tra r. 
rtorimna, Mudd Mao. 61. (ioturtl. Br. Clad, 83, (in pjirtl. 
Uur. in Sturm D. 1-1. t. 14. L ft. d. 

Km: t. m. »'r. i.f.ii. Scaod UL (in parti 

'in*. D ■ —N. America. AiiKtralii»i:t. 

Bot. Pw>v : - 3,. . 10...K. ,.10, 20. 

BsoLtxn : W.rk.l.iiv ' Mr. n Dicktm. l-eitl. Hill, Surrey. .Vr. IK. -f«tAua. 

-Rnra-Kounl. .V.-. »'. Oardimr. 
Ikeijxd :— Donarailo MounUInn, <n>. Otffk. J/r. Carroll. Killarncy. Or. 


Var.* fy.tetit'iru, Auh. aimilat t.. Flttriea»a in general diameters, 
•ho cortex del ;» granul.u ■ y or a 

white inipalpuble powder, or tin- granules are developed into 
. win. Ii store or Iabjh entirety cover the podetia. 
Mountaiuoitx bciitht, not unYsquont 

nitlnrrti-) MnfOMd l>y external atpeot and rharactrn al.m* with 0. umciltnU, 
I, nt Ki.jiarated by different reaction. Ajt&lnguiit to PfarUaiui, ax ptrur,' 
wm«copi>>"/<i and/ in 1 .* 'lain. 

Var.* Iitirillaru, Aoh. and auct. pro. max. 1>. ; l^iirbt, in Ann. and 

IdW. M ii Nov. 1M0, 

I.. 24, Ur. Clad. 70. 71. 78. 

Ox-. i: ;— Kurope. X. Tropical and 8. America, India, Aimtralaida. 

\i>n. Paov !— 3 ,B .7. lo IB, tfl : 

Bmlaxd:— YorkuhSrn! Mr. Mwlil. taiomtentiir* ! /.'.-■'. .1. Mliaam. Honing. 
Molt* ! Mr. /!. S. Jhtl. Ijong Mynd I StipcntooN I Wrekin ! Laurence I 
Candnc ! AMod Burf ! Crolgforda ! Shmpohire. 

8ootl*!»i>: Afcwdtea i Ban-na-Bourd ! Mr. Crottt. si.U.-iw ilill» ! and Cairo, • ! Mr. H'. i. ppln, Ar>ryle*lilr«. Rt\: J. M. Orombi*. 

InuiKD;— Ireland ! Miu JItUrMm .1 v., V. Oivjt. near Kylemora and 
Lctterfrack. Mr. /AirKiliHirr. 

W*ua»>-Barmontli ' 

Cua>!<U. Ial.i»L»:-Jor»y. Mr. IjirUiltttitr. 

90. 1 '. iusfolioso-squainacooiiK : podi 

fiavaetmt, 1 — 2 inches, ekm Bylindrioal, simple, 

tvrruir/v>-$cabroKt or /oliaee&*i{uam\d<t.<i . Kypld narrow, sonwtimes 

divided ; apotheda eoagiomi 
Lofty mouutains, very rare. 


IH.lim-t \y reaction from mtibt |K / + C + ) with which it ha» been 
hitherto confounded. 

Snc:-Sch*r. Spiral. M. (in pert) Nyl. Syn. »l. fin part) : &-ypAopA..rwj 
beUidilvru*. Hook. Brit. 340; C*»am)Kt bBettyfara, Hook. Scot. M; Mack. 
Mb. 8J; (Mmh eotrifrra B. WMijlorm, Mndd Man. 60. Br. Clad. 30. (in 

Fio :— B. Bot. I- 1W». 

R*» : -Schwr. 12. Ann Clad. Ob, 1« B ! 

O*0O. lliM-Rin : -Euroiio, N. A morion. 

Bot. P»ov :-l .7 . 11 14. l.\ 16...S3 .SO. 

Km'.i.'.nh : Lmtlciuh CIcto, 1 l.-von. Mr, Purlin, l'reMwick ('err; Hexham 
»n<i Pil.t.m Felle ; < 'htviot, Northumberland : Teenlalo end Weardele, Durham. 

Mr. irw* EMniioptnclTopcf Wort ADonOtn*, KorUmmbMrlaM. An W. 


BOOTLAXO :— Bra Neile. Mtttrt. JVmer <<■ Uonttr. Bon l-awnr. • Boa ' 'aim (.form ! .Sir| W. J. HxArr, Vnig ('hailkwh I Mr. O. TWiwi-. 
Bon Yerrog'. Ben Cniichan ! Jfr. Borrtr. Arren. I'rof. Haifa**. Pratl.m-1 
Hill». Itr. nitvair. Ixichiiagar ! Abonleon ! Cawdor Wood! Nairn ' end 
liraemM' Jf>. CVW/. 

foal Belfait. Mr Ttm,Jrt.>n. Kclly'i Clcn. DafctU Ih. M—rt. 

noaih, /irr. r. .v- 

anna 3. Qladoia. 

I!, .Una lotfloH , podotin without xeyplii, repeatedly bnu 
more I I lotfl , IpotbOi it terminal, biatorme, pale or rod. 

A. PkaoearjxB, apolAeda pale orfwtvtu. 
• Reaetion (K / + C + ). 

1. i ,, HiVni. podetil 2—6 incites high, mAuV or ;*»/«• 

drauHolonrrd glalm-.-K. in Miiehed, terminal bntih \'<nymt*r, 

foatfathUCfc apices BUbMCUm] nodding. 

Hills, iiMiii!t;iin«, ht-ntiiK, &i - ., probaUj not naooaunoo. 

Separated from ranp>/m'iu by the aboro character* and different reaction. 
BTX:-C. Mflralita, lift,: II C.rm. 111. <17W.|. KJ*. Syn. '.12. ft roari- 
/miM *. fWrofir.1. Mudd Man. 59. Br. Clad. 26. 
. :-Coetn. Clad. Bel*. 1N». ISO. Lehp\t_ S7. 
«wni. l)l»Tai» r— Bampo, N. ft H. Americ-a, India, Auitralaaia. 
Bor. P«OV i— 8...11. 12 . H, IS. IH.. 26. 
i IIAMD ! Market Raaen I Llncolnehlre. X»r. F. A. Lai. Wort Alien Can*, 

' liutulMrlaud ; Korwhiold Pali, I UfnberUed, Ktr. W. JaJkimm. 
ScwttASn ;— iWland Hilla ! /V. GrerWe. Deerhill Wood ! Sand« of Barri* ' 

■ f.r.rr. Callander! Mr. U 
Ikii \«n:-Kill«rT.ov. /v. ''.imapCm. Kylamnro! Mr. IsirtalrXier. 

/. aaaWan, podetia scabrous, with minute whitish irregular points 


-MndJ Br. CUd. ST. 00. 
In ilmilar rituadona with typo, but 'diffcrecxae owing probably In age or 

• -l*ic»at«r»hir»! fUr. A. «/«*«». Baainntoka. Kent! Mr. K. S. 
Yortahlro • Mr. J. II. K.W. Wart Alien Carre, Ncotlmniberlaml. for. 
H'. J.Jknmm. Jjoog Mysd I Shomore M<» I Shropehire, 

/. •ilj.-^nt, l.inn. podcUa wUtf or pair >■ -■ cmioom, 

intricAt«:ly iuii lg thyrtoid at ikr q 

kfa t\l>r . 

STX: -LolmefH*. 1. BJTB. 213: Cfefane* neam/mM 

•. : J, SI-1.1 i3ad. 

Fr<-. I'i • xvi. f. 2». E. F. 
M. ft X. 10SS' 



GBOO. DisTKia .■— N. Tropical and S. America, Aiintralaaia. 
Bor. Fwn ! U ■■ 

-Naar Ewl*r. Mr. PiafU. 
Sc>jti.ixj>: (Irampian*. Ktr. J. At, Crombie., KIMar* ! Mr. Carroll. Kylemore '. Mr. Varbalatxtr. 

/. portentoMi, Dtif. pOdotS*. von- thick and turbid, verrutx*u-Uprotu, 
hnuichw kIiih t pt<m dc H t t ail a to m M U ft 

i. B«vU.2t. 
En :-Co«rj. Clad. B.1 K . 104. 106. 

Bot.F»ot.— 3...11. 12. 

Kxf.t-Axi) :— I«ic«iUnhir« ! «*r. A. Btoxam. Wort Allen Cam, Northumber- 
land ; Foreatueld K-ll, i/uh.IiwUiiA Rer. W. Johruon. 

/. pumitn, Ach. donsoly cnjepitoso-pulvirnilar. 

8tx:— A.-li. I.. I -if,. (1H10). Syn. 27H 

Gnoo, DmiDr— Hi and 8. Ainrrica, Africa, I'drntwia, Aiwtralaals. 

Kxnuixi): -Leieo«t««hlro! Iter. A. Iiltnam. Neaaeliff*. Shropahire I 

-. C. atnaurocnxa, (Flk.) tlraw-coUrurtdat whitish-straw-coloured, 
efolioloso ; ptxletiiiglabroutor nliu-)>tl v Mi|ii;itii08C-decorti<;iU\ M might, 
tubulate and slender, iiiiuli Ihmii. Iu;.l. some HOvphif'-'roiix, seypki 

mptdiform, itntato-arittatt or wbnlrtCKPraoWj obob proliferous. 
"iw, very rVO. I "1)9. 

Srx :-Flk. Clad. 119. (1K»). Nyl. Syn. 216. Crombie En. 22. 
:.... n Frie»S47. 
-iTRiB :— Northommcut purU of Europe, Asia, America, anil A.i«- 
i .in. 
But. 1'kov :-15...86. 

ji'.ty of Aberdeen. Ktr. J. 1/ [UM 

lai.i. ■.-.!•: i;..:..| to ICecttVa, in la>K', S tulle* from Kylomorc. »/t-. iMrbaltttier. 

•• Itfdim, (K+C-). 

3. C rantfi/eriifi, Htt'in. podttfl '- — 8 inohai hirft, ci'iwrwMWrf, 
irrrwHlo*o-tea>>roiiJi, lubtamexUm, l<ranchod, terminal brooches tvfr- 
(orymbott, fastigiotc, apices subsccund, nodding, 

Hills, mountains, heaths, common. 

IKalinyiiudiMl from tulmiint by tbfl ar»v» character* and difrmrrat ivm-limi. 
Bra :-<*. ranpifrnna, Hoffm. Fl. Germ. 1H. (17 yn. 211 1 Hook. 

Brit KB: Mudd Man. a. B8. Br. Clad. a. b. c. 2T. j Vtnomptttv Hook. 

Sort. 86, Mack. Hib 7!'. 
Vta :-E. Bot. t. I7S. DilL xtI. f. 20. A. B. 

. (f. gracilis), 77. (f. crandla,) Coiim. Clad. BoI«. HO. Hi:, 
m Kurour, N'. ami S Vtnerica, Ana, Africa, India. 
Bor. 1'i'i.v: I. 2.. A... 10.. .18, 14,18, 10 U 

Excuxm> : Yorkshlr*! Mr. MuM. Mr. Par/Ill. Pssrt's Crags J 
• Park Room, BoUto, * orksMrs I*. Wiwlmr. Bedfordnblra Ktr. C. AVvt. 
Tlptree Heath. Eeaex. Mr. Vartnne. noar Moating*. Snaaex. Her. K. 3f, 

i ; rUAXD ;— Hjmdi of li.irrie! Snininil. tA UoU*l Face I Mr. W. Gardiner. 
Glen CUlater ! Braemar ! Dr. £Vnrf«j/. (Vain K..yn.« li ! Mr. t'r«ail. Hrbri 
Arran : I^ong IaUnd. Pro/. BaJfmr. HartfeU, Ali.irat. Or. JVirto/. Pciitlaiul 

l«u»l) :— On beatha and mountain*, common. Mr. Oarnll. 

.snki. IatAXl* :— Guernaay. Rer. T. SaJitty Jmey; Sark ; Herm : 
Jotbou, Ac. Afr. Inrbalttlitr. 

** f fiantMH, (A' X'+>- 
•i. (7. tmcialit, Hffin. wwfrt < Hr a» "&ro»i«, 

'Irical, _/>■•■ ohotomous, braaoha • U.-i i . optcM Mot 

rat/ate or digitaU. 



Heaths mid moors, common. 

Sys :-f. „.„,.,.',.. Hffm. Fl. Germ. 117. (17M). NyL Syn. 815. Hook. Rrlt. 

S»; M »; ChiomjM hmv><.<, II >..k. Soot. M. Mack. Hib. W. 

CbrfoBh* afeMalo ». uncialU, Mudd Brit I I . I 
Fia : -K. Bat, t. 174. 

K\h :— S.-h:i r. 88, Ui«ht. TO. 

Gkou HwTiiin:— Europe, N. America. 

PlOT : I...4, B -.7. B. 10. 11. ..P.. Hi. ..Is :».,.», 
i»»^ Yarmouth! Mr. [>. Turner, I^>ioMt«r<hirc. Itew. A. Blotcam. 
Dartmoor. Mr. far/ttt. Mnlham Torn, near Sottlo. I>r. Wimltvr. AmptbiU, 

Bads, Bu, ('. 4MoL NoTthumbarlaail and Durham, .tfr, Wind,. Itmin^n»< 
I.lekey. Warcaetarahirv. if. ill. l>ov,.n. 

Mrxtri. Kiitgiton. Wont Allen Cam. Xorthuwbarland. JBlK H'. .foAnam, 

StvTUino .—Ben Mc I>hiu, Braemar ! /h\ Aaiuji. Hartfell, Moffat. f>r. 
JVirAuf. Hebrldea : Ami, Prof. Ba//-mr. 

iHaT.txri :— Coachford ! co. Cork. Mr. Cartel' K | ll DM**, Jfr. Lorbnlettitr. 

\V\uM:-Ijlrn.jr-Cwm Bychan ! near Barmouth. Mr. Borrer. Capri Curij; ! 
IJyn-y Own ! Benryn Mmiiitaliw I JadV. 

/.lii,.;,. .-.■■ I't. |Mnl.-ti!i tl.i.-l.i'ii, •■! :iii'l lui'^id ii], win, Ik, apices 
ilil nted, ,i itollatsi 

Heath* ami iii,,iint;tih- . rim'. 

Srn :-C. tiirgrHau, Friea L. K. 844 (1R31I. Mudd Man. TO; Cfataaia (fcf- 
.-"j, Mudd Man. Clad. 27. 


UH>r— Hantal Mr. ft R //,''. 
BOOTLMmi Dm L*»*r»: B« VoMftb) li, c-rrillf. Hill of Ardo, near 

B J \f ■■ 
I ■• ! Jkfr. LarUikltitT. 

YYaum i— Own Idwal ! 

/. oUtuala, Ach. podotia bort, turgid, r.auutoso, 

\*iveJy short, mibtocru ml with black 

drill ■ i ' .' tM qpex 
Bogs, very rnre. 1870. 

SIX: -Al-I, 

Imum :— Bok» near Kytamort. Mr. LarboiaHtr. (1«0>. 

/. adttnat, (Ach.) podotia elongated, somewhnt turgid, l>iiinchei» 

■tafttiooa wjtl ■■>■ 

i,.l Bow. B 0* 84 j '•fcntonirt tUllaU B. rtMUr. Mudd 
Man. TO I CTirfontu • Mudd Br. Clad. Ml 

i ||] \YI I 
Rst. Soh i Mudd I.. Br. 21 I llr. Clad. 83! 

Pro*.! 2 in. 1 1 ... I r. 20. 

-Hantal Mr. 11 A 11, i). Yorkshire! J/r. JDi'jmh, Cheviot! Tae* 
.1*1.. JUV. n 

UciiNevia! />r. /.-mfc., Of Bawder, Cloval s*idlaw 

Br. Taylor iu Mark. Hil>. 7'.'. nxntfaw a rar. aUrnuala pilhered by Mr. 
TeaapWtoii OB the aide of l>eti« Mountain*. 10 wbioh h« illicit** DO 
f. 82 II. and Uiu« charactcrixni : thallue of nilnut* lobed baaaJ aoalea j podctia 
brows, mibdlvtdad at tha minadta, l««t with minoW acalra. WhaUrar thai 
Bkay if-ti.« of the Hpeaaiou, M orrtafaily tfcea not belui^t In thai 

aubfeniu Oadma. 



II. 1MLOPHORON. ft**. 
Thallus aabeo^iamajceo-granaloae. Podethim rigid, eylindri 

simple, or branched upward*, granulate, 

i'u|<itulii'oriu, subglobose, internally Bolid Bporee 

illi| > ilongo-ellipsoid, simple Stcrigmata simple. Sper- 

ni;iii;i ... lindrical, curved or straight. 

1. /'. jilmla, Tuek. whitish, siihsqiianiacco-granulato, coiicrc*- 
centi-areolate, approved ; podeti* solid, erect, 

•le, subsquaroaooo-gi apothocia subglobose, depressed ; 

spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, or ellipsoideo-fusiform ; cephalodia 
lhall BtarioHmj ii 1 1 1 1 utoly luburculose. 

On parpWlHoWWI wet rocks, rare. 

«jn:-J». Jtoutu, Tuck- Syn. N. Amrr. i,. l«. ItHi:.). Nyl. Svn. SU». 
ii . -Th. M. PHm Moo. Star, t I'il. t 10, I . Nvl ; ,n. t. 7. 1. <L 
Gkoc. DlariilB :- N. America, Lapland, Norm-ay, Sweden, Finland. 

. r. w . k 

VXLaJO) i— Morrona, Ben Cruachan. Jtm. /. Af. Crom(ri<. near Cuchullin 
Ililla. near Sligachan, Ialo of Skyc ! Mr. V 

iRRI.AXn :— Kylaninre Canth> ! Balrooll Road ! 00. Unlway I ,Vr. IsirhaJi I 
Walkm :— IJyn Cue! Llyn Aran! and the Giant'* Pebble 
Arraii Mowddy ! l*aa» of Llanbcri* ! Snotrdon ! Cwm Cyyvi.m! Own PfrnBM 
I.iiwr! (Vni 4 'lwyd ! OapaJ < '■ 

rea .017—20 mm. lonif, .000—8 mm. broad." firjA ) 

A «iiigl» apeeiun-n ..I Mother «i«cluii, iiiunod by h, Nylandar in it 
lettvr to K»». J. M. I'pmiliir, 1875, Bod noted by the latter in It 
May, 1875, a* /'. drumatuinn, Nyl. waa collected l.y Mr, I rombtt on mi- 
cacMi -(cliktux roefci ui Monoae, Braamar, la 1880, BbI "" datesoth »f 

thin exceaavely rai« «|H<ci«>> Hfl ban as yet been published, therefore I 
am ignorant of it* peculiar charaitoruticx, particularly a* I havo aeon 

II" M- i ll-.lll. 


Thallus generally cjespitoeo, formed of podetia with i 
tilaginoua medullar, axis, around ■blob me white exterior ii 
granulosa portions of the thallus are congregated. Apotheola ter 

miiiiil or lateral, lecideinc, iiij.'iicau( Of ftUQOna, 

I. STKlilCOCAULON. Seknb, 

tia covered with fragile granules of variotu forms, »po- 
thecia fuHcous ..I- fusoo-paUi icent, internallj solid, Spona i 
.-.iforni, with »» or buboj septa, (8- 0). Si 

ui aciculari-bacillar, straight, or slightly 

i luved. 

1. 8. |iit.wc, ramose, glabrwu, granules cin- 
enuccnt, ml,ji>,rt!>' : -.l, nj.utheeia l-.-iii I and 

•pores cjimdraeeo-fumfbrro, 8-taptatv . >vphalodia oiner- 
asocnt, rarrooose, mrautor* granulate, sessile, 
on rooks, Domman. 

Mix t-8, amOoUm, l"r. Schcd. Grit. I. p. Si I1RJI). Mil Scand. BS. Syn. 
MX. Modd M.n. 65. 

-Nyl. Syn. t 7. f. 16. Scbrer. En. t. G. f. 5. 



Kx»:-Tuck. 1H. Scnwr. ML 1K| V 114. at * >'. 78. Leigbt, 148. Maw. 44. 
Aaxi It. 8. 38, lUbk.U30. 

Gaoc. Vutnih j— K. K«Mp*, N. A»la, X. America. 

Bot.Fi«ov:-1. 7. .10, 11. IS, 14, 1\ II 

Kxoumn :— TmaiUle, Durham. Jfan .'. H.irrimmi. Kayadalr Uoorl <!lev»- 
Und. JkV JkTudd. Dartmoor. X>r. tfutf. Watt Allen Cut*. Xorthumberland. 
Brr. W. Jettntan. 

SCOTLAND ;—Ca*rlav«r0ck Wood! Du lulu ..f Bkyc. l». Liiutmy. 

IVntland HiU». Or. OrtrilU. Si.lUw Hill*: Balgay : Clova: Canlochen. Mr. 
W. Qa> uiplani. firr. J. M. Cromtrit. 15«i> Ijhwix Itr. //•■«. 

Ltl Marney. /*r. Cnrrington 

Mdiaiiciiddr/iltoekj; Blackwator Bridge, Kerry. J/r. UirrW/. Mounteina of 
Muin. Mr. Lnrbtttjtr 

Walks- .— Cader Idria. Dr. Hull. Pen-ygwryd. Mr. *Y. Jvhua. Barmouth I 
OaMl Curlg! Owm Cywion I Aran Mowddy ! 

^Sporea .006 to.OOSin. long, by .0000 to .00075 in. broad. 11 (Mudii). "Spores 
.0»-» nm, long. .003— 5 nun. broad." (iYy/;. "Sporta .022—40 mm. long. 
.0026—40 mm. broad." (T. M. fr.J 

2. ■& jiOfi/filf, Ach. dourly stipate, lute-uditi'j, nearly ylabroiu, 
granules albo-cinerasccnt or whituk, ertuaUi spoiltcm terminal , 
aporoa fUotfornii-cyliudrical, 3 (sometimes 5 — 9)-sepl*lo ; cephalodia 
vi rrucoae, ciucrnsceut, sessile. 

On rocks, common. 1724. 

Sra :-& pwefcafc, Ach. Math. 815. (1808). Nyl Sean. 04. Syn. 312. Mudd 
Man. 65. 
Fw :— K. Bot. 263, XyL Syr.. 1 7. f. lit- 28. 
)■:<-: Tuck. 11.'. HappaOl Rakfe. ft Bdmb, Mi Latght Us, 

GBM. DbfTKin :— Kuropt, Aaia. X. Auiori.-a. < '. v! ,.n. 

Bot. F»oy :-l, 8.. .V 1. S...10. 11. 12, 13, 14. 15...18, 19...86 

Kjionvi.: I'limbtrland ! Mrt. Stmnoer. Qcweatry! Shropuhire. Rrr. T. 
Sa/«ry. Yorkshire. Mr. Oitnm. Teeadalu. 6ft »'. C. Trtrrlyan. K k I Imni- 

lwrland. /V»/. iW/our. Sussex. Afr. Bmminn,. Falecai Clinto, Teeadole. Jfr. 
3/VaU between LoetwlLolol and 8t Anatoli, Cornwall. Mom. Tmrnrr & 
Snwcrby. Bear Ambleside. Sir J. K. Smith. Dartmoor, Devon. Mr. jffrvoerry. 
huuibcrland and Durham. Mr. H'liuk. Blaclutuno Rock, Dovon. Mr. 
Porta. Black Edge, near Buxton. Dr. H AlrestsT. Mr. Purten. 

AbdonBurf! Sbropahlra. 

800TLAW1>:— Hill aa-t ■•! <il«'n Callntor ' Braemar; Ca«rUvaruek. Domfriaa ; 
andonpoiiU Birnam, Donkekl. J>r. Iai\<I*iv. ln.-liiia.lnll. K»rwick*ti<r«. Sir W. 
C. rm efaaw. Btrathmartin. Forfandure. Mr. W. Oonimcr. Calloruiab, I-ewl». 
Dr. LinUmi/. 

Ibju.a> n :— Onnemara I co. Ualwa}'. Dr. Moore. Killamey. Dr. Corrin&oti. 
Conner Cllfl, Dinulo. Mr. Oarntl. Tullywea Bridge! near Loach Inayl. 
Galway. Mr. larUlalkr. 

W.vuji :— Cailer Idria and Snowdon. Dilltiuu*. CraJg Breiddin ! Moot- 
romeryahlre 1 Tnlriw ! 

" Sporra .005 to .009 in. long, by .0005 to .00075 in. broad.'' (.Wurfrf.) " Sporoa 
.018—40 mm. long. .0035— .45 mm. bread." (Ay.) "Sporea .024— S) mm. long. 
.003—4 mm. bTOad." {T. M. t>.\ 

3. S. lomriiloeum, ¥r. podetit dentely uracil I ittott, tMt- 

uh, diraricaloramonf, |{tiuiu1i:h nlbido-riivnuctnt, crowded, rounded 
or errnaie; npotlieem tonnuiul and lateral; spore* ftuiformi-bucillar, 
3,-<nkrcljr 6— 7)-scpUtc 
rweka, rare. 

Stx :-& (MMiKMi. Fr. Scbad. Crit 8. p. 20. 11024). Xyl. Scand. 64. XyL 
Svn. 343. Mod.1 Man. 66. 

ick. 33. Schaw. 343. Hepp 802. Ami Veo. 1». 
I >iiithiii : - KnrojM. A>i», Veru, N. A S. America. 
Bot. I'a. 

KxuLaM>.-Yorkahire. Mr. Ditt>». ForaebJald, Alatoa. Cumberland. An. «'• 


BoonABP l S ou th Kerry Link*, Kiftahiro ! y>. <<„.,„. Sand* of Harri. ; 
Haul of Canlochen, Korfarahlro. Jtfr. IK. Gardiner. torn l*we« ! /*•. Lindmj. 

"Sporea .006-.00*in. lorn:, by -000.1 to 00O7. - . In. liruad.'Y.MW./. I ' Sports 
.023 37 Dim. long, .0US1 - .0O«5 mm. broad, (Jfyi-) "SlKire* .023—87 mm. 
long, .002-3 mm. tiro*)." (7. it. Fr.) 

V«r. aljnnnm. I.iur. podotia less tomcntose, granules wk 

1 1 1 r-id, v. n ucoso-conglomcrntc. 
I in rocks. 

St:. men, Uw. fir. !- K. p. 204. (1831). Nyl. fTi— lit tH. Syn. 2*1. 

-MiiUI Mu. 68. 
Kick: -Scaaw. 263. Hepp 308. 
flsno. Distms :— Enrol*, Aaia. 
Be*. Psov:— 12 lo. .28. 
MHaiilWO i land ! J/ra. Slani/rr. 

SCOTIAUD:— B«n Lmwur.. Or HoU. Biwur. Adm. Jontt. 
I«UM) . — Connemaia. Dr. Moore. nc*r Glencortol ! Mr. lAtrbalalitr. 

Var. botryonuH, Nyl. podotia glabrous, {granules thyrsoidce-con- 
glomerut* on the extremities of the branch**. 
On rocks. 

Sin :— Nyl. Sound (M. 
Ex».— Schitr. . 

-SwItMrlaad, ScMdinari*. 
I'aov :— 10. 
EsaLASO :— Taaadalo. ilr. Mudd, 

4. & denudatum, Flk. podutia slen/Ur, dimple or branched, 
ttftmunlf. at the aprs, glabrous, xnuiulcs whitish, or ulUi-ciiicras- 
cent, nibprl/iilr, medio-defirfstfd, the ceir ivui. mart/in 

uli\!f. crrmtdatr ; apothceia (uaooua, small. pbuWOT convex, tormund 
or Lateral ; spores cloiigato-fusilonii, :$-(rarr-ly f> -7)-*cptatc ; ceph- 
■lodia olivaceo-fusccaccut, vcn-ueoso-glomorulosc. 

On rocks, not uncommon. 

■ )-& dtntulatum, Rk. I). I.. 16. USICj. Nyl. Scm.I. St. Syn. .'17. Mml.J 
Mm. 06u 

-NyL Syn. t. 7. I. 28. 
Kxs :-M. & N. 4*1. Pr. MB. An/.l Usfofc l.\ SmrfU 1«3. 
Gsau. Disiiub :— Kiiropr. Asia, A marina, 
Bot. Phot ;-l :. .7 . Hi, n...r. l*. 19, 20...2K...S0. 

• LAJiD:— Dartmoor. Ur. Bolt. B»lt«nil>y Koorl YurW.Mr*. Mr Mndd. 
I'mmUU, Durham. Mr. D,,k,r. t'leo Ilill : Mynydd-y Myfyr, Sliropuliire. IUr. 

T. 8 '•■;/. 

BCOTtAXD »— Aumbrc I Perthahir* ; (Vrl»vi.n«:k Wood! I'umfrie* ; Ben 
Mm Dhiu, BniMiar! (4294 ft): lien Neri* I Dr. Lxndmy. Bon L»wcr»! 
ft.); Or. GZrhritt- Sidlaw HilU Mil Clovs. Vr. IC Ounfiiin-. 
IsluiiL Prof. Hal/our. Grampian!. Itn; J. M. Oromtii 

IiiXLaSD:— Oonnaiaom! mu! to. Antrim ; Killanioy. />r. Mvore. Gongauni- 
l>»rn«, Cork. Mr. Carroll. Kylvmvni Ca-tlti ! Sulmck Koad ! co. Galway. Afr. 


W '■: P«n-y-Kwry.l. Mr. II'. Jotiua, IJyn Aran I Llvn Cm! Cadar 

Iria! Arran Mowddy ! Pimot IJiuili.ri- ! Snowdon! Cwto Klwal ! 


'3por«a .021— 40 mm. 



"Sporw .000 to .008 la. long, by .00t» to .00075 to, 1 wad." i VwU.) " S] 
M6— Wmm long, .003— ♦ mm. broad." (iV..//.) "f 
.002—1 nun. broad." (T, M. Fr.) 

5. S. eondentatuui, HrTn). tyri/ tmatl, podotia) WJ short, xtrong, 
niniple, Hiked, granules wlliti ■ rMOBt) OOdul" •>-, r.r.Miiil.ii •, 

cmdcmeil into a lax-granulotc cnut ; apothecia fuscous, sessile ; 
Bporcs fiuifonn or <:yliudiMCeo-fusiform, 3 — 7 tscptutc. 
On the earth ami rocks, rare. 



Sta :-« nwbwilM, ItofTni. Kl. Cmu. i>. 180(1796). Nyl, Stand. Ik.. Syn. 

'uJ.l Man. OS. 
Ki,.: Njl. Sra. t. 7. t H. 

Exs :-8ch»-r. fiOO. Mudd 33. Ann It. S. 29. Mui 181. Th. IV. 04. ltoSch. 
wwSJiub. <8. 

■ Kin:— Km- ricui Java. 

Bot. i E .7.1'), 11.. .IV.. 1* 

I •'■ ... IB :— BntUndiy Moor ; ! Aytoii ftfoOf! C).v*HniL Mr. Mtnld. 
Sweeney' HhrojiehirB. «r, I". Satiety. Teewlole, Inirhsm. Krr.J. Harrimau, 
l-:<i<llrigh Saltrrton, Devon. £»r. />»<». Abdon liiui: Shi..ri !,:,.-. 

SCOTLAND :—Aniulir*a ! P .-. l.imimy. Am -IiU-tIuhim slid lialLcm- 

BMk, Forfarshire, Mr. Gar-liner. Gwtletoa. Bracmar. itcfin, Jvne*. 

lurjusi) :- Manttcrton, Killarncy. Jfr. <AirroW. 

Walsh :-M<~,)-y.G.>lfa ! Mon4.-onwryi.hir*. Cwui Bwhlwyd I Crib C»< I. ! 
Snowdon. Cider [i 

CraSCKKI. Islasds :— La Mole, Jersey : TortaveL Guematy. JO. ItrliaUttitr. 
i«m .005 u. .1)07 in. tag, l.y .OW to 0007.'. in. lirond.'M.W IK*** 

.028-38 mm. long, .008— .4 mm. broad.'" (AV.I "Spor*. .020-30 mm. loae. 
.0018-35 mm. broad." (7\ if. e"r.) 

Vnr. wrAt/ruiim, Ach. thallus closely atrucsl to thu rook ; pi 
■lender, glabrous, often BorediiferouB at the npiccs ; cuphul 
Ycrrucose-glomerulose, darkly eincreo-fiuocsn nt. 

On rocks, rare. 

8tn :-.S. nrtohnum, Ach. Syn. 285. (1817). Nyl. Scand. 06. Syn. 2!0. Mudd 

v. . '., 

Fi<; i E. Bot. Suppl. 2887. 

Exh :-M. * N. ■Hi. And It. S. 30. Korb. 271." 

Gkuu. Dixrwn :— Kumw, N. America. 

Bvt. Fkov : 7. 11 15 ...19.. 36...80. 

ExoLANP ;— near Et,-lmtouc, Durham. Hrr, J. fforriman. WaUtown ; Honat- 
■Uaila, Northumberland. Mr. Witirh. 

SOOTUUTO »— Ben Novia. Aim. Jonri. Ben Lomond. Mr. Cotton. B R 
Craaohan ; Ben N*vU; Morroii*. Rtr. J. M. Crombu. Ben Lowers. Dr. II 

Ii:ki-\m> :— Dunkerron! I>r. Taylor, near liu.iit'. Caitacway. Or. Moon. 
Kylemora ! Co. Galway. Moam ! Joyce County j Itoow* I Connemare. Mr. 

W.m.w :~L1jtj Aran ! near Llyn Gwenma ! fader Mrin, 

"Spore* .008 to .004 in. long, by .001 to .00125 in. broad." (A/W-O 
- 8porM .030—88 mm. long. .004-5. mm. broad." (afyl ) 

Var. a»ulj/loiJe«m, (Ach.) thallim smaller. podeUa slender, simple 
or branched, branches ahortly ramuloBodivided at Uie apices. 
On rocks, rare. 
8t> :-Ach. Meth. BtapeL 51. (1808). Nyl. Scand. «. Syn. 281. Crombi* En. 

I r-Lcijjht. 295. 
Grim, I)i.«t».ib :- Sweden, Finland. 
B..r. Psov:-10, 11. 12. .15. 

■ LAUD :— Hou»o*Lrada, Northumberlanil. Mr. Winch. North Wait. 
Durham, Mr. Thomhill. Bay*lid* Moor ! Cleveland. Mr. Mudd. Fcrtehield 
Wood, AUton, Cumberland. Jim. »'. JuAhjoii. 
ScvtlA-NH :— Ben l^w.n. Rrr. J. M. Cronbit. 
" Spore* .015—80 mm. long, .0025— 35 mm. broad." (Kyi.) 

evolutum, Grwwe. densely csespitose, gbabroOB, very much 

brancbed upwards, t/mnula cincrrthgUutcotu or wftiivA, crweded, ram- 

ulotvdivided, fJanr^coi?iiirrtted ; apothecia Umninal, large, niar- 

Kiiifd, lit length convexo-dilVomicd ; tjmrrt firm, oolong or obtongo- 

futi/m-m. i. Li ii. c. i-ttptaU. 

On granite LuuMcrs, rare. 1870. 

ST* :-C.r»w. la Bot, Notu*». 1805. , k 181. T. M. IV, Uok Scaad. 4ft. 


Gave. DotbU; — Sweden. Fieland. 


■-•... v, :.ii. 
-Barcaldinc, Anrylcehirc. Her. J. it. OromUe. 

IitKl.ASn:— I/etterfnvck. I Im D IM ! Jfr. I.itixi/mier. 

\S '.ur_> : -Nmit li.niaiii, Bnowdon ' HWO.) 

u 8peM ."10—30 mm. long, .006—6 mm. broad." (T. M. Fr.) 

S. mmnn, ' very small, flocculoBC-pulvuiulc-iit ; podeiie: 
''■scHxnigostod, simple or braiiclii.'il upwarda, broach* 
uliffiate, 'AisoUtelg Jbtdo-glaueeicaU or 

*U>MBru$itu>se, minute, nodulvsr or fxnodrrt/ ; upotheciu unknown. 
On earth and fissure* of rooka, ran.-. 

8m :— S. nanum. Ach. M«Ui. 315. (1803). Nyl. Seaud. 66. 

Nov. Cien. t. 53. I. K. 
Bn :-M. * N. 017. EbUP W. '11>. ft. 37. M»». 143. Schwr. 588. 
C-BOO. Dwtbib:— Europe, Algeria, America. 

IkT. TllOV: 1. ...'.. .-. .10... 15.. .80. 

E3.ilam> :— Laumma ! /in: T. S-ilmy. Wnroerterohire Beacon, Malrern 

Hilla ! Mr. Lett. Yorkshire ! Mr. Viion. Sweeney, near 0»wc*t, •, . Nl:,.>| *!»&». 

T. Salaxu. Teeadalo Forest. Her. J. //.,,.-,„,..,.. Cornwall. Mm, ./*«<*. 

Devonshire. Her. J. it. Crnrnlne- near Barter. Mr. Parjlli. LLuiymync I. ! 

LougsT/ad I Bhtopettro 

rua»: Dm o< Balthavock ! Perthshire. />,-. Ouiiri*. Wert Water I 

rehire ; North bank* ol the lulu, Wert 'if the livelcy Lin, Forfarshire. 

Mr. W. Gardiner. Stenton Cr*t,% Punkeld. Dr. lAndtajt. uran :,<1k1- 

bane and Hriu-mar. /tr-r. J. M. Cnnnlrie. Clun 1-K-liy. DM! Killin. Perthshire. 

IV. aw/, 

Ihklabd : — Leonuunt, co. Derry. -idin. Janet. 

W*u» ;— (.Swyiltr W —-1 ! Towyn ' Abvnlovey ! 

Confer. NyL Obe. In Flora 1876 p 

Thullim fniln n 1. >-.<■ Of filiiimMitoKi', rivcf 0t MadulOO*, !<•: i , r 
viiri' -i;d or angular, without any Icaflotl "i" gmonlu 

n I , internally tabnloM with ■ h..ll..w medulla, or solid. 

Apothocia gcnornlly Iccantirimi. 

TlialliM ramose, terete or compressed, whitish, mlveartilf 
Internally with • oopioua filamoutose medulla. ApotheoM "lnate, 
icsnt. Spons oblongo fusiform, 3w;ptiitc. 


Tliiillus fmticulose, terete or compressed, albicant, or cinereo- 
Ittrld, optica, imooth, internal] 

rocanorun . black. Sj..n .■,-. obi 

or fnsifonii, .; wptate, straight or curved. Spermatia admlar, 

1. R. tmctoria, DC teroto w sTib-compreaeod. whitish, wrt» 

■i-ei(miji.tte, *iwj>l- Vt <.ifur«ile ; npotluTki ii-cn I.-in •, I 

Blbidofrnlnoae . -■'•tongo-futi/orm, fr aep t t U (C red.) 

• in seaside. 

Bra L (16061 NM. ss. ,.-•.- Mm ,1.1 Man. 78. 

. K. BoC SU. Nyl. Syn. t. 1. f. 2- Tul. Mem. l,i<h. t. 16 f. 61 7. 
Kl»:— Schwr. 002. Mat*. 1JI. Ami Etr. I. Hepp SB8 
Oaoo. Distbib: — Euroiie. Africa, E. Indies, Central Amtiric*. 
Bot. Pbov:— 1, 1...31. 



Esulaxii :— Portland IilaiuU. I'tawunt £ocr«lvim. Lyniuouth T<ir>. Mtsi 
Atmal. Devon. JUf. J. M. Vrvmht. 

i fi'.vski. [siAVE*: (taenuey. Mr. « Si Ooa Bay, Jvney. Jfr. 
r. ■"*«<"» Soflly lakmiU. .S.V IT. J. Ilvohr. 

.«**• .«» m. W. by .Cul in. broad." (MwU. t "Sporee .014-22 mm. 
km*. .004-0 mm. broki-dfyl.) 

•.'. II. lAyeopri*, Ach. "lightly compressed, whitish, 

or m urA 6r>TnrA*vi <i »i/ deiuetp nnj n ■>■■■■ ■] .othocia leoidebe , Muck, 
naked or prODMM , xporw ftuif»rmi-<Mong, 3-sepUU?, (C" 
l>ut Koredia — ). 

On maritime rw 

.s™ :-A pkyoyti*. Ach. I- Oi 440. (1810). XyL 8yn. S» Muild Mu. 7r.. 
,-Schaur. Enum. U 1. f. 3. XyL Syn. t. &. t. 3. Tul. Mom. L U«. I. 1. 

-. & 

•.-.:— Mndd 48. Larb. 11. M». 208. Ami It. 8. S6. Htpf. «", 
Europe, Africa. 

Bor. Pkov :-l. i 81 

Enouiffu: -BtmlirMtp ! '»!« "1 Wi^ht: Wall, ol <;«d»li(ll tlmrvli, Ida of 
Wight! Jf>. .«. «. Mart. CoaaU of Devon iui<l ('..riiwall; Portland Island. 
Arr. 7. JT. ttwtW, Holly lalanda. 5* W. J, Bmkr. Bolt Iltad, S. l>eron. 

CaUftXIL Isiamm .— St. Brolad* Bay; Noinuont; Jersey ! Jerruiuey, 
Utiorwey | Sark. Jfr. l*rb*UM*r. HcUly bland*. /*<•. /. AT. ' V.-moic Outrnxy. 
An-, r. SafeM*. 

" Siiorw .012—18 mm. lung-. .003— 4 mm. broad.* flfyl.l 

Forma Mikicm-, Larb. yery aleuder, branched at the apices, »ul>- 

CKiOUKL iHLASitn :— 1* Moye. Jersey ! ifr. Larbalulur, (IbTJ). 

3. /?. fwiformu, Ach. compressed, whitish, alhidu Klauoesocut 
or glauoo-fuaooeooiit, ijotitktd, /ucifvrtni-branehtd, rigid j upothecia 
marginal, Iteama hm or dirinoid, fuporfioiaJ, uruiuoae ; ajtoros fusi- 
form or oblougo-fuoiform, 3-scptutc j f%" — but turtdia rxd.) 

On maritime rocks. 

St* :-A. Jmijormu. Aoh. L. O. MO. (1810). XyL Syn. MO. Mndd Man. ». 

K Bot. T» XyL Srn. t. 8. L 8, 
i I -urn. 277. I *ih h. M»n.l..i,. -O. H«|.p S«7. 8char. 66S. Mm. 288. 

Usoo. Dtarcis :- Europe, jVfrica, C'vntni Aniarka. 
Bar. Phot;— 1 . «. 

EniUkli :— Tinlaacl, iir»f Aitlmr'- Usstla, Mr. It. Turner. Cumloi DtVOB, 
V Oo«M«, bolt Head, 8. Deron. i>r. ffoC 

Isu*M : -OmroMT- Mr. DitJaon. Btanpoct B»y i X »nn !, 

Jcney! Ifr. UrUltMur. St. Br»l*ln Buy, Jorwy. Mr. rV. SUimi. BcUly 
Idaiida. .Sir l»*. ^. // 
•'Spore. .006 to .006 in. Inn*. I>y .001 In. browl." (Mmid). •• S|M>rH .030 -JW 
,00i-« mm. bro^T' rAr»<J 

TlUB£ Vll. SI I'll I I 

Thallusi" , whitish, opuko, fistulow. Aintlwcin un 



Tliallus cotmiating of or podctiu wliich are pjrlindricaJ 
or sub-comprttuted, ..d.apicos 

ncuU>, internally fist iiIinhi. A[m.Uiocu uuknowi vlin- 



1. T. vernrieviari*, Sw. chalky-white, 2-1 inchos, prostrate, 
ascending or erect, mnulata M turgid) nmpL) « bifurcate, smooth 
or longitudinally rugulose, dispersed or stipate. (K +). 

On ruoasy earth, rare. 1799. 

■;-— lirhtn nrmicttlarU, Sw. m I :h. Ma* 11% (1781). Njrl. 

Syn. SH. Modd Mm. 68. 

Pi« : K. Dot 3029 Hoffm. l'l Mel., t. si. f. 1. 2 3. Kyi -. f. H. 

Kxb :-Scb»r. »\ Took. I I*. HtHD SW Anxi Ciaalp. 88. 1-Vlii. 

Gaoti. Duiub :— Europe. Aria, Central and S. America, New llnlUml. 

Bo*. P«ov! -7 ...12 ..IS, 10. 

KkolaMo :--SkiilOaw. Cumberland.. Vi. I 

ScortASU :— Scotch Mountain*. Mr. Dixot,. (17119). lien ■ »w»! B«u NovU. 
Mr. I). Tunirr. Korfanhirt. Mr. W. Oantiu, :v'. Brae 

mar. Dr. Lindmir. Peak of Maimtoul, Iarernem. Dr. IS. Wlnlt. Grampian*. Her. 

Walm :— Cadflr Idrin. Rrr. T. Sahetf, 

Tuna VIII. rsNKEI. 

Timlin-, whitish or ]iiilliil-i v i . raiBOM and 

nani dulous, oortii ito oa all sides, 

inti-i r.iiiy with a firm filiform certOagii i • , affixed hya moro 

,,v i point or baao, ipothi Kate, 

thai I mo margin rnmnlosin-ilmr... Spores colourless, small, ellip- 
soid. Paraphyscsindistiiii.-t. 

I. USNEA. Dill. Ad,. 

Th.'illns Irnticnloso, filamentose, erect or pendnlous, librilloao- 
iloso, medullary axis solid. ftpotheeia roncolorous orbi- 
cular, or peltate, t<-nnin:il or lut.-rjil. 

colourless, simiiK'. Stcrigmata simple. K]H-niintia straight, erlitl 
drico-acicular, apiciilly truncate, fu.-ifonm-tui ally. 

1. U. iarbata, (I-.) BV. albi I QOtrl W pale utai roo-vir- 

oscent, terete, variously brasohod, are odufoua : apotl 

concolorous, rather large, librilloso -radiate ; spires shortly ellipsoid, 

On trees, pales, Ac. com n ion. 1778. 

f. 1. florida, (L.) Fr. treat, ncubrid, divenjrnti-rttmosr ; 
plane, pallido-carneous, pruinote, with long 

sv>.- iv !::.!,! atao, 08 T. at Bfe Scand. 

15.Nyl. Sjti. 397. Una. Sp. 1*1. «d. 1. p. 1156. (17.131. 

:-K. But. - l'l. Lich. t. 30. (. 2. Mu.1.1 Mau. t I. !. 1 i, 

<it»u. 1>iktkib ;— Throiurhout <'><<■■ Word, 
BoT. Psov.-l, 2. B .1 .10. 11. 12. II. 15 26...30. 

Bs»:-.\iml-. at ft K. 3G0. Schmr. »HM 1 1 -| -f XX. Bohl. 

138. Sproue -48. 54. Mudd 34. Wslw. La lotah. 93. 

. Diktrib : -Europe. Aria. Africa, America, Amtiuloria. 

:-l ..5,5. 10,11 11. IB so, a. 

EjIulakd:- Ncat Ludlow, Shropahir*! ll'v, T. SafcfV- AyUm Moor I 
JUV. J/nc/J. liibride Wood*, Durham. Mr. I'l'.n.A. Wet!. 
BaaW fW*. Woremtsrahb* Jfn i. ... 

Foreat; Dear 1!. Ha«tiiiv<. J!r>: J. M. C r u mb l e, ForeahleU Wood. 

luBlMrlandj Suinaou, Eaat Allendale, i. Krt. W. 

fWiul't. hrv. A. Illus.xm. 

ScvrLAXii : SwanaUoi Wood, _ Edinlmrvh, />•. li.rcrliill Wood, 

r<liirc- Mr. W. (lardiwir. Kiunoul Wood. Mr. t'roaH- Kiiioaird. Mr. J. 

Laixv}. Killin, Braeinar. Ber. J. M. Crombit. 


rM(C UCHfcN rum* 

Iuuhdi -Near Belfast. Air. TVnaVrtM. various places, co. Galway. Mr. 

B*— HaM. <'nnliir>vn»liit.'. Sir J. K SmM. 

Cu\*sti. I*la*ds :— Jersey. Mr. L>i'M*Mitr. 

"Spores .002 in. long. l.v. 001 m. broad." <J/u.f,/.) " S,«,i«, .006—8 mm. long. 
.008-4 mm. broad, "fl". if. Ft.) 

rii,. cartilaginous axis ooaaisU of longitudinal filament* dcsa-ly ramparted 
& lit" in a luoss arachnoid iiih>* of anastomosing filaments, amongst which *r» 
Uio bus* conglomeration* of bright green gnnidia. The cortical layer la rcry thin 
* fr««lU. easily raptured trenevorsally. The medullary »ii» .- \ 
at hn at the has* k tho* fix** the plant to tho .uU-lmtmn or matrix on which 
it grows. AarJ narrow, clarsle, Paraphyeae coherent, apices colourless, Oela- 
tina hymonea I blue. Spore* .(We— .011 mm. long, .000—007 mm. brood. 

f. 2. Airfa, (L.) Fr. erect, minutely aud abundantly fibriBott, 
much branched, often ot*/y wrrrtteoto-tor^Imlt. 
On trccHfind pale*, coinmou. 17*24. 

Srs --Linn. Six PL ed. 1. p. 11K-. U759). Modd Man. 90. Nyl. 8ya. W. 
•>. L. K 11*. (lKSlL 

.. 30. f. 1. 
-Schatr. 890. Mudd S\ Ana It. 8. 16. H«i>|> 838. Leight. 1. 

(Jboq. Dnvraia : - Northern Europe, N. America, Ceylon. 

Bor. Paov ;-l, S...4, f, 10, 11. B, .14, IB 

Exulocu.— Stockton Park; Inglebr; Creenhow, Yorkshire! Mr. MmU. 
near L*w«», Sussex. Mr. Horrrr. Northumberland and Durham. Mr. Wiatk, 
Ilah.lon, Derou. Mr. Par/in. Midland Counties. Mr. Pwrlon. Bedfordshire. 
tit*. C. Abbot. New Foreet. Rtr. J. U. CromWr. North Borer; Mansion ; 
WiiMaooubt, Ditiin. hn. J. J°. Jin<4. Conrtwood, llaingtou ; Barry Pom 
Caa-tle, Derun. Mam. Jona * AVaoaton. Swianop, Bast Allendale, North' 
lunbertand ; Foreehicld Wood, Alston, Cumberland. Item. W. Jobmton. Burr 
'Jreal C.lonham, Suffolk. 1U<. K. Bf. WooeiaVM. Ajiuealry: hire; 

Wrc-lda ! Caradoc I Haughaiuud Hill ! Valoawood ! noar Ludlow ! and gone- 
rally in 8hrt«»hlr». 

8oorldkXl> i - Berwickshire. In. <t. Joimton. near Aviernore in Strathspey. 
Mr. ifcwte. MuchaUiand Dnrris. Kincar.lir.eWdr* ; Killin. lltr. J. M. tVoafrfc. 

I*mAXI>: — Olanlxmar Womb ! near YoughaL, co. Cork. Mr. tiir>. 

Walwi- Conway Falla ! 

f. 3. datyp»ja, (Ach.) Vr. flon'jnto-pntdulotu, clothed with 
numerous thort gprtttdiw/ jiWillos. 

Bra : -». I. I is. nam Nyl. 8«nd. ». 8yn. 9CW. Mudd Man. CO. 

Ffu i ■ MIL Mtuo. t 

Fjis: Ami It. S. 13. Ma.- 

• i. DnrrtUB:— KaruM, Auiuriua, Madagascar, Java, Bra/ila. 

Bor. Paviv :— 11 15. .10 

BrautBD I Swiunop, East Allendale, Northumberland. Tsar. W. Jo/ uu tm. 
I Hill, Partfa. Dr. Lin-Ony. ConnlaaawaPa, naar Abar- 
•Wen : I J M. Crembi*. 

IaKi.xxi> : - Muckiuaa Demcano, Killanioy aod Caatlobamard I 'ark, Bandon. 
Mr. Omnlt 

t -I. plicato, (L) Fr. pmdal - II,-,,., 

moso, nioolk. 

Od troeu and rooks, frr>jue»t . 1 G9G. 

Sv.v:-Kr. I.. K.U13. 11K31I. 

Bot, SW. BnIL Moar. t 11. f. 1. NyL Bra. U^ 1.0. 
i butgeb. 414. Hepp 828. FcUrn. 48. Am. ATS. 
>r«rj :-- Kurufw, Amorioa. 

p»wv i-i.-i, s, ^ . jo, n .13, h, is. 

, r-Wnodcot Waod. BJUBTahlra. Mr. I v. <l«0rj). Dorsetshire. 

}-*Utm». Brwajh uui. Mr. M*J' 

rr«lhon« )tank«. Caatkhoward, VorMiirc Mr. Tm>lnl>. near Bodmin. 

M,mrt. Tmnrr A ICpwrKw, Caaabridnahiro. «.,-. II. Rilh.w. Northwin. HerU. 

Mr. Mill.r. Wask.rUy lhmn>. nuar Wolaimikam. I>«lua.. J/-. Wimtk. llakU.u, 

Mr. PmrjIU. Kth*<ioa. Basel. Mr. Y.,n»«c. 



Soonoxu :- Barntim p Lina, par. Kirkpatriek. DumfriMhire. Dr. Kurga*. 
Balnnta ; VaiilUiut HllU ; DriiiiixliiurlMiiJ Miiir. Dr. OrctU/t. Berwickshire. 
Itr. U. Jrtiuton. KinfwiiM, Perth. It. Lindny. 

Imlasii s— Dawros river. Galway. Mr. Lurhalatur. 

CsUXXZX Ihi.ajttw :— Gnemaoy. fUr. T. Salwy. 

f. ft. articttlata, \<\\. MMsWoua, clongnto-nunoiw, smooth, artie- 

■ rMUtrittrd, man: or !• mfUdti. 


Srs .— Ach. Moth. SIS. (1803). Nyl. Seand. 6*. 
Kro:-K. K..L av. Dill. Unas, t. U. f. 4. 

-Dicks. 24. Schirr. Of. Am. S«. 
Ggoo. Dibtiud :— Koropo, A»i». America, Canaries, Australasia. 

. : -i .2 :. 7 y !•• 
KsoLAJiU :— Eimonth Warren. Deron. Sir. W. J. Booker. LUkeord. Mart. 
Tuner 4 Bomrby. near UuniUy. Lancashire. Mr. WiHi/.n. (ir.'l). near 
I. Mr. Bcbart. Gattley Park. Herefordshire : near Biihop*s 
Castle, Salop. Mr. L. B/mcn. Forest of I loan, Gloucestershire. Mr. T. 
Haldnn, Devon. ' i Bxattr. fit* J. .v. Oromoi v. i.i.i. . 

.'. P. Jma. Berkey Kali ; Barter W ti | Chatted, Boron. Jfrwrs. ;»wi 

and KinyitQn. Exinouth Warren ' Devon. .\t r, 

l« Forfarshire. J/r. IT. ilanliner. 
IkKLAND: — Malahide. J/r. Marlay. I'urtmumock, near Dulilin. /'r. Taylur. 
Wauh :— Cwm Bychan ; Bottwa-y-Coed. An, T. Salary. 

f. C. MrafMO) Bchfflr. thalluK Uoao- 

teabrom, variously filirilloso-ramoae. 
On trees, rare. 

-Schirr. SpioiL 505. (1R40). NyL Scand. 69. 
• t. Kaon, t. 1. f. 1. S'vl. t. B. f. 8. 

Am. BO, KssB.83, 
Gauc.DlHjTtun: -Europe, Canaries, E. & W. Indii . Polynesia, N. Granada. 

. -.-2.6..M . I.'.. 

RsWLAirO i B w lpn op, East Allendale, Northumberland. Jtm H\ •' 

Sootuxi) : Killin : Brea.lall.ane. iter. J. M. Cronbit, Klnnooll Hill, Perth. 

W.vmt :— Hafod, Cardigan shire. Sir J. S. Smith. 
f. 7. ruinffinray Ach. rubiginom ; apothecia concoloroua. 
On tieea, rare 1869. 

SVN • VI. I. i ■ 'I. I1H10). Crombi.- in Scv.m. .1 .urn Hoi S. !ki. 

-«s. L. Capcnses. t. 8. f. 23—36. 
Ex* ; |. 413. 

liars). Dbtrib :— N. Auivrica, BrasiU, Caj* of Good Hope, Lombard?. 
Bur. Pnov .— 2...S. 

■ LAsm.-— 8t Leonards Forest, Sussex; Now Forest, Hants, ft"', .7. Jf . 
Crmiiit. (1869). }{a<tiuKs. />r. WoW. Punbnry 1'irk. Gluucestershiro. Mr. 
W. Joihva. 

Tiuhk IX. UAMAI.INKr. 

Th.'Jlus terete or compressed, erect or pendulous, internally 
with a woolly medulla. Apothecia OOnooUHtHU or discoloroua, 
leeauiormi-. UtalHwa DOaVgio BOtii*; paraphynos dlstinoi or mdi»- 
Sjiorea yarioua. Bpon 

I. AUBOT0R1 \, 

Thallus terete or com] i rraUi or pendakuv, 

lihiinentoM, internally arachooid or hollow, inti moM, 


mi I.OKA 

ptmshjMh Spores 

S|.::nn:it.i -,l. ndor, aoiculnr, Mj.i.u 1 ly fnsif"' -t nii-ill- 

1. A. bicolor, (Elirli.) Mack or ftuco-iugricant or castaneo- 

«*nt, teni iiiK-li liiiui ilt'jsr, ilciiHelj 

iittnL'iiU', patet at ih< a, m otaiue 

knot of the thiilliw, xmiill, wV/.yim/ ; iy>mY.« S, Kiinill, shortly 

(K = <: = ) 
On alpine rooks. 1796. 

! Kl.rh. Bertr. X p. 82. (1788) Njrl. Scond. 7L Sjrn. 279 Mndd Man. 70. 
i:. Dot 1883. 

Sclurr. 4». Tuok. 2. Mudd 39. Ami Ven. 17. Am. <00. 
:. Di.tTiiiB :— A. ipa, SwUurbnil, France, Arctic America, 

Bor. I 7...10...1.V 

Kv . I.I Moor, noar KalMax. Mr. BahT. IVnttnw. Mr. 

Parjlii. Kfjdare Moori High Cliff I Clereland and Fnrndalol jforttrir*. 

Mr. Altui-I. Dartmoor. Iff. Hull. Cornwall. Dr. Mr-nl^mery. 

BOO Mr. Dieban. <179o). abuvn l.mli Tny. Mttrr$. 

■r A- Hookrr. Aberfeldy. I'erthnhir*. Mr, MOtmiHa*. T n»rl 

llraemar. /(,■ Top of Bcii LawiT»f Mr. CmreO. ' 

•. Mr. W. Gartlinrr l'.iva.l.illi»n« »inl HrMmiir i . Mil ... ■■ iafl ,"..■. 

J. u. ; - 1 1 1 i . . . Dr. I 

W.ii.m : - Urn llnillyit ! and Carol Bychan. near Barmouth . Ret. T. ,s.. 
N -rtli Wale*, tlrr, HuQkDarin. <;iant'a rVhlilo* ! Cailer Idria j Aran ' 
Twll Do I I.lyn-ytVn ! 

"Up . .005— Cmm. hro«d." (AW.| "S|,orc«.(KJ7 Si 

long. .DON - C mm. bread." (7". M. Fr.) 

2. A. ditirffi i.) futm^nManrniu or ipmjietfrfiitcmctnt, 

<ir aibangntoi', erect Of proatral ■ ■'', somewhat 

ii. mil branched, bronchos ditttymt i^iti 
(K-<' ...i 1 . "apotheciis innato-sessilibuH, erciuilatis, diae 
On the earth in a •» ; very rare. 1872. 

Bt> l-Omaievb ri . Ufa. atoth, 803 (1*031. Whlnb. H. Ufp. *»«. Nvl. 
174- Crombfcl In from Dot. n. a. 2. p. 133. 
. I. 
I'rica 331. Richard*! t | ,i Th. M. KrieaSS. 

-Scandinavia, Austria. Aretle America. 

fkv iimnit of Cairngorm in Bracmor, •mall itato. fltv. J. U. 


'}. A in, (Acli.) ffutaneo-nigrieant. 

iiitn. '.- mar* or lr*s taf aw n an ft H fii tmt d ; apothecia radio 

linaJL adnitto ; aporw 2-3, Dolonzioaa, bngo. 
ellipsoid. i'K yi II. .v. < i 
ilpine rocks, rare. 

Sis : A 08. 1 1 i-H". Nyl. &and. 71. 

r*ia r— Kyi Syn t- ». f. 17. 

M. Korb. ML Th. Fr. 

I rope, America. 
I '• 

mar| ilwimvbonr.) : Bin Ijiwm ' B»m-y- 

In herbaria It tfaiEca th* i I, coknir. " Spore* .021 -S'. nun. 

.lB-» nam. broad." ft. M. Fr.) 



3. A. ocMroUum, (Klirk) wkrolexaou*, fniticuloeo, rrtd, rig**- 
cut, terete or compressed, smooth, lacuuoao-impressed, albo-soredi- 
ate, bnwehod, nmnli rttwrnUj, npUallg denigrate; apotli. 
dark brown, largo, receptacle nppoiidiculatc ; spores 2 or 4, fuaoouN, 
large, ellipsoid. (K/+C+) 

On th«! earth hi alpine phwot 

Sra .--Earn. Beytr. & p, ■ (Uflt), NyL Sou.. 77. Syn. 2H1. Modd.Man. 
TO. T. M. Hrie*. Scaud. IK 

PI. I.icl,. L 26. f. 2. ft t 88. f. .*,. 7. Nyl. Bra. t.«. f. 21. K. 
Bot. t. 2374. 

f»i— It * -V.«3. 8che»r. 895. Fellni. E& Zw. 384. Hepp 832. And ll. 
& 28. Mam. 4H. Keioh. ft Schub. I!7. Am. UB. 

Oaoa. Djbtrib :— Alpe ft Antic Kumpe ft N. America, Himalaya, Mexico, 
Japan, New Holland. 

Bot. Pbov:— J .11. ,.tft 

Hcotlo<i> .— Highlands of Scotland. Mr. M.temiUan. Ceirntonl, Braemar, 
Rti.J.M. Crombir. Calrnuonu, InTorne»»-ahin\ .Sir W, J. tl.-J.rr, 

Waua. — Cwra Bychan 1 naar Bamiouth. Rtv r. s..ihm. 

■ ' Smm .084 -46 mm. looif. .020-2* mm. broad." (JTm 

I'imx, .014-24 n.i.i. broad." (T. At. fr.) Swim. .038 tarn WOK 015 mm. 

f. f«Hiter, Cromb. umaller, met, slenderer, eoaeolorotiti 

lit t/u apf 

On alpine raountaius. 1808. 

Srx i-C'romuiolaJonm. Hot. u. k. I. p, 3& (1H72). 
Flo :-E. Bot. t. 2040 (onaller figure). 

I Wo I.uigfcal, SatherlanibMrf- Sir W. J. W«Urr, (IKS), ftfor- 
roae, Braemar. firr. S, M. CVmaWr. 

Var. ci»einmii'i, Vr. jymitratf; comprttgtd, thiekrr, dilated beltm 

b long slender attenuate entail K I l>n»nrli«-i 
above. (K f + C +) medulla K— C red. I 
In alpine placee, rare. 1808. 

Si* : -Fr. L. K. 28. (1830). Nyl. K.and. 73. 
Fro :- K. Bot 20*). (buyer specimen). 

Fellm. W 
Gaoc. Dihthih :— Euroiio, America. 
Boi I, 19, 

So : K*n iia-bnord ; Bon Law* n ! firr. J. M. 

Ben-Mac -Dhiii. Mr. Matmiltan. Ben Luhrhal. Sutherland, ami Calrngnnn, 
Invt -rm n n Mrv. Mrjtrt. Hnoktr k Hnrrtr. (lSOH,)Ki:i 
OiWM| Braemar. Dr. W. L. Limltny. 

«irmento*a (Ach.) prtidulnu*, elongate, complicate, flaerid, 
distantly branched, axils compressed, apict* attenuate conoobreac, 

. Orria tarmmlon, Ach. L. (1. B06. [a a dhtinct speciea I -.1 re- 

n (K = Ci)and in r*prtM«nU-d in Th. Fr. 27. M. ft N. 7M. AM. and In 

iioffm. n. i.ioh. t. :■>. 
Amongst mosses in alpine looallttod «bj mrc. 

Six :— Ac*. Sjm. 203. NyL Syn. 282. 

Scotlaxd r— near Summit of Cairngorm, Braemar. Mr. W. Wilton, in A*. 
Krit. Mia. 

A. A. eapillmi'. i \ eh.) Nyl. pallido-oaiieac 
nifetoonti ;. ill.. ite, dichotomouHly brancnod, flaccid, 

sub-comprcsseil, angalarand aubln ioIow, 

filifcinn and capillary above ; apothecia onknowxi | K »• C +). 

8rx -.—Altetoriajutata, m. naieMiKa, Ach. I* V. f»3. (Witt) 


; TOP. UCHl.N I '.:■:■'. 

Yta :-We»tr. 8v. Lair. Farg.-Hiit. V 1 . „ 11 Kg, B. 

I ]■!■ KM. 

nun : -Kiirope. 
I'll, v : lfi.J& 
.uoii>:— Yorkshire! Mr. Oiron. 
Scotland: KUlln, Bracmar. Her. J. M. Cn.nMt. 

Tha different (AeuiicjJ reaction «(>(•<•» to neparaUr Oil* a* a diitinot tiwciei 
from all (ornw of A.jubala. 

A. mbeana, N'yl. MS. is Raid to tmve boon gutborr.l on | h . .| 

Did in -. "i- Bin l.awonmnd Glen Dorry, llracniar, by Btv. J. M~. 
but I have soon no specimen, nor am I aware of any 

jMil'liubod diagnosis. 

.'>. A. julxitti, (I.iim.) .N'yl. fiUOOOl or nigricant, livido-fus- 

.-. i ni or poJIoiocnt, (onto, SM riftngatftj slender, ramose, 

Uilous or prostrate, ntauM ; Bjwtheoil brown, plane or 
• x, mall ; iporoa s , <"loiirlces, small, tlliptieal. (K — C — ) 

On trees and rucks in i t uaoua places. 

His i—A.Jubabs rar. proliia. Aoli. I* V.SU2. (1810). Nyl. Siand. 72. Srn. 
880. Mndd Man. 

Kill: .... !.- f. |8| 1!. Mill, t U I. 7. 

Bxa i-SdwKi 896, sn. tt& MwM » I d Af 

«, Dintub :— Euroiic. K. America, W. Indie*. N. Africa. ('.vnariiM, 

»}•», J»»»L. 

, 8...8...T. 8. 10, II 14. 15... 18. ..22, 2.1. 

ESHMJUTD :— Ton of Dartmoor • Mlulitur liockt. Devon. Mrssri. /MM ,t A'l'nj;- 

Ehrlnnop, >:ru-l AJJeadala, Xorthunibertaud. Per. W. Johnson. Bajrwlalc ! 

Ayton Moor! Kildale Moor; Cleveland. Mr. Mu.M. Dartmouth. Mr. H. 

Itrawn. l/vngforniacua, Nurthinubti lurnL Mr. T. Brown. Kaaiw Cwtl* ; lxmjr- 

I taU | Murton Croini Dirranfton Lav, NurthiinilK rland. Or. U. J 
stun. Ludlow Mid Gtwartrjr L Shro|«dilre. Ret. T Salia-ii. Malvmi Hill*, 
--•tenhire : Kapley, imar Kinicl-v. int. Mr. I'urton. iihU 

Murrain. Mr. Thornntll. Dartmoor; near St. I-cnard'a, Snawx. Or. Bolt. 
I I. "•■ .-h t*lo»», Devon. Mr. 

Pnr*lt. IVarU Vnim, near Settle. Or, Windsor. Bedfordshire. Rev. V. AtboL 
ijrnd ! Hhro)«hirr. 
Scoti-aMi: -Deerhlll \V.,.|». r'nrfanBiN I Or. II. Into-m. Invrrrauld, 
Braeroar! Crauiy-Banu, l>in keld Knock Hill, I . : . iT : Or. 0,n>Ui,v. lvm 
land HilN: Swanatoa Wood. Or. UrtnK.. K.Um | KoUilemurchua. fat J U. 
.irryiialiiue, lx>irl». Or. LinJtay. 
Ihrlavp !— Knnrki-urri*, 1 nrii-li. .w.-n. Mr /:. An m, Uiuch Br»y ; Kill. 
IIill». Dr. Tamlor. I.iiukcUw, o. Wicklow. A>lm. Junes. 
Wjllo :-l>iBwy. ; Llya Bodlyn ! near Banuooth. Her. T. Saltny. I'aAtr 

■l«rw .006-0 mm. lone, .004-6 mm. broad." (Sfi.) "Sporea .006-1 
mm. Jong. .004— B mm. broad." (T. M. ft. J 

V»r. rMf/iriformU, Ach. oliraoto-bljHck, ill vuosc, cfocw«'«-n/, 
mbhlarociitow}, wiry and rigid, tAortiW Ir-mchxl, (ntri 

On alpine rocks and boulders. 

\»L (1767). 8yn. 980. Mn.ld Mai. , '. Aok U I". BIO. 
i, | i i 
Kx» r. »n. AtuI It. ■ 


• n 15. 
i :— ll«ik ! r>i*tai«l. Mr. .VuU. CWnbtrry. near 
!*!>*«, Durfcam. Mr. tr 

BoOTUkHU:— Iiwh-na-irar ! ! Braemar : Blrx^m 1IIU ! |iiink>M. I>. 
lUgalaadL Messrs. Tvrntr* B 

6. J. tanata, (L.) nijnicant or fuaco-nigrioaut, jili/orm, lerrtf. 


tUndrr, decumbent, min/iat, entangled, shining ; apothecia li" 

concolorous, margin iiulveatiro or granulnlet-iutequal ; spore* 6, 

colourless, elliptical, simple; medulla white K — (J— . 

On alpine rocks. 1724. 

Sy» :-I.imi. S,.. PL ad. 1. No. U. (1753) Acb. Sjrn. 303. Parmdia, NjrL Svu . 
;;:is. Mudd Man. 101. 

-K. Bat. 840 (middle art. 

■ H*vi> MS. Anxi Iiuigob. 63. M. * N. BS7. Senior. 367. 

■ ■-. Dihtiub:— Europe. 

B :. i'iu.v.-l. ....... .7. .11. 13. .IB 19 M 

Emulanu :— Northern CoUDtia*. Sir ./. K Smith . Hrlrollyn! Mn.Stanper. 
Tecadalo Moon, Durham : Chaffot Siinonoido and Hedgchoiw. Northuinhnr- 
ljm.l. ,|fr. IPiiu-A. Kagluy Park. Wanrielohire. .1/Y. Ptrimx. <'i>rawa]L .Vr. 
SfepAni*, (1724). Ton of llartuim.r. Krr. Mr. ,\7„./„ ,-, -,,. 

■Trjixn: -High Mountain*. Sir .T. K. SmirA. Ben Mora; Baimahnnnl ; 
Manuna, Bramaer ! Ben J.awer* ! Bon-y-gloa. Jit*. J. it. Ben 

Maodbui : Lochnanar : Dr. lAndtxy. Bon Neri«, Adm. Jonei. near Aberfoldy, 
Porthahlra, Mr. H.M.iemU/an. 

Ihila.mi :— MangerUm, 00. Knrry. Mr. J. Ciirroll. near Belfact. Mr. Temple- 
(mt On the mounUiun in the South. Iir. Taylor. McGiUieuildy'. ttaoka. Or. 
uii.f Duughniagh ! «>. Galway. Mr. iMrlnlatitr, 

WaLMK :— Borth and Snomlon. Dillmiw. Bangur. Mr. Jtrcaxr. t'.'ador Idrit ! 
/;. i . 7'. .Sci/uev, 

" Smro .00828 ta. lorn/, by .001 ST. in. bnuul." (Mmld). "Spore* .009 -.01* 
mm. long, .007—8 mm. broad." f7»yf.> "Sporea .007-11 mm., .006-8 
mm bmL" IT. 

F. minusculii, Nyl. filament* entangled, ilnmnuiive, scalirotw. 
On alpine roolc*, 

Srx:— NyL Lapp, or. 180. Crombio in Journ. Bot. n. a. 1. |... 30, IMktn 
wafer, Hud*. 602. 661. 

-K. Bot. t. 231* (small right hand fig). 
Em ;— Kellm. 83. 
Ukmi, Dmtrih :— Scandinavia. 
Bot. Paov.:-7...15. 

Bootkasip :— Ben Lomoad Herb. Sowerby. 
Walsh i— LlanberU. Soowdon. Herb. Soictrby. 

Var. jnrmelioicUe, Cromb. thaUwauborbScnlar, somowhai i load} 
appreaaed, black or blackish (not olive-brown), opaque, lacinite 

shorter, more intricately divided, margin >.'f a; i muhito 

On alpine im. : 

■ :— Crombio in Journ. Bot. n. a. I. p. 23S WTO). Lichen puheieen*, Ligbtf. 
KI. S.-ot, ... H«a. U-te Herb. I"ult. *e. In Mu». Brit. 
Via :— E. &A. I r and lowor fig.) Dill. Mac I. 17. f. XL 

Ku:-Cromb. 20. 
CUM. DwTRTJi :— Saiwliiiavia. 
1'EoV:— 15. 

Morrune, Briunnar; lununit of Ben-y-gloe. Jkv. J. if. Crombit. 

F. subciliata, Nyl. margin of apothecia ciliated with npinuli- 

I'.iiiii [iiipillie. 

On cidenreous rockn. 

Sv» :-KyL In Flora 1868 p. 3*6. Crombie 1. c. 
ScOTLaXD ;— Morruno, Bnwinar. Rev. J. M. Cromlnt. 

II. KVKllNlA. Adi. NyL 

Una Uincid, erect or ascending or prostate or pendulous, ap- 
planate or Mubtervte, laciuioBO, or very much branched, destitute of 
rhiziiuu beneath, internally stuppcous. Apothecia lateral,. lecano- 




Spores small, ellipsoid, -imple. Paraphyses indistinct. 
Sterignata pwiol irtfculato. Bpamuttu slender, acicular, fuaiformi- 
incnisauto mid acute at boti) >{>l0tt< 

1. E.Jy . Manu. <riivrAMCMrf,dichot.oiiiiiim!yimiltil ni lM i •. 

upper turf net uidio»e>-/nrfitracftus orfibriUose, uruUr ■ ■ili- 

rni'itt HmI or ctr*Umurrietint ; apotheoia sub-marginal, bodfe- 
rufous, receplac/e. nmoth } spores ellipsoid. (K + C +) medulla 
K— ( 

Ou trees, pal**, Ao. common. 

Six:~Mann. Ueb. Boh. |.. 106. (M86). NyL 8cand. 73. Syn. 2M. Mudd 

Km n. 

-E. Bot. 9&4. Hoffm. PI. Licb. t. 9. f. * Hepi. Snorai. t 05. t. 884. 
H .-Tuck tA. M. * N. US. Scbxr. 387. A»rf It 8. 71. llc|.|> Ml. Mudd 10. 
LAjhtSJ. Keich. *s. '. 

Obuo. Distsid :— Europe. N. Africa, Canariea. Aria, X. ft Coutral Amorica. 
P«ov: 1 l! US, ,9, 

Ekula.m> :— Kgleetono, Durham. Her. J. Hurnmnn. Farndale ! Aylon 
Moor! Yc.rk.hiro. Mr. Mudd. <>nr«try! Myndd y-Mvfyr ! Shropahlrr. 
T. Sal i-ry. ChUllncham Park: 1<»vtmi Gattb), Northumberland I'r. <). Mu- 
tton. Dartmoor, mr. ParfU. Swinnop, Eaet Allendale, Northumberland 
W. Johtuon. Wrckin! Caer Caradoo ! Hay Park! near Ludlow. and other 
placvn ! in Shropshire. 

Scotlawp .— Ballhayock Wood», Faith ! Johnrton Ulll ! Forfar. l>r. I 
my. DaerblU awl IWlduvan Wood*, Forfanihir*. Jfr. IK. rtarrfiW. KMins 
Bracmar. Her. J. if. CVom'.'ic. Ben Lsweri; <."rianl»ri.->, 

Ikxlaxd :— Lough Bray, near Dublin. Dr. Taylor. Koeheatowu Hill, co» 
Bert Tnn. Coll. DM. 

\Valk» :— Cwm Ilychau, near Barmouth. He*. T. Balmy. 

''Spam .00175 in. long, by .001 in. broad (t. 1 I 161, " Sports 

.007-.010 mm. long. .00S5-.0M mm. broad." (Kyi.) " S|.orca .007-10 mm. 
long, .004-4 mm. broad." (T. M. Tr.i 

"J. K. pntneutri, (L.) whilitA, or albido-palleaccni or albido- 
flaTCHc«nt, imilti Imiiimte, laruruttif-ru^iK, mai'jin* g<n<, 
tertdiate, isnbcnnaliculiite uiwl pulu beneath ; npothecin lnt«<r:il or 
marginal, bodio-ruibua, rteeptaeit rugate ; spores ellipsoid. (K * C ♦ 
medulla K— C— ) 

• 'i trees, common. 

By* i-Lina. 8p PI MM. BXO). NvL Bcaad. 74. Syn. S». Modd Man. 71 
Flu r-E. Bot 859. H«pi> Bporen. t, 96. f. 838. 

:.. M. Schar. SOL Anxi It. 8. 7C. HappSS. Mudd 
It I.oi k ht. »\ I-arbal. 89. 

... DmtjUb:— Euro|»o. N. Africa, Ada, N. America, Pern. 
BOT. Pm.v : 1 I •• 7 10, II, I'.' . 1.V..1H, 30 ,.30, 31. 

,um» :— Tliink! Yorluliire. Jfr. Aiirr. Onrmtry ! Shroiahirr. Bit. T. 
v. Kcoirtok, ! Cumberland. M r». Jfemprr. Lounadal* ! ami K II. lab) ! i I, , , 

laaAl. Jfr. M»d.l. Berwick-on-'lVwd. Dr. O. J,.h,iM,m. Cil-ide W t*. I hirhain. 

Mr. IKiiifA. WalNngton. NorthunilwTland. Mm Trrrdyan. Eatei. Jfr. r.irr»mr. 
I laU. near SottU. Dr. W.mUor. Midland Ciuotiw. Mr. FurtvA. Mora- 
ton. > '/. X. Btom/ltU. Swin 
ttof, Km** Allendale, Northumberland. Jtir. W. J.ihtutm. NcMclifla! Bomare 
Pttoli Haaghm-Mul Hill: Shr«r»bury! Shr..|»hir,.. Dinmoiv : Hcrrfordaliire. 
s...i-,M,: Klnnool QUI I PntL: fliiiiliiii Woods I rMbaburghi BfaH 
barry HU1 ! Perth. Dr. UiKitny. HeerhiU and oU.. i -, Mr 
OmrdiMr. Fall, of MoMaa, Abcrfeldy. I*. Bolt. Killin ; Bnuraar ; Durri. ; 
•wellm Are. J. if. OvmMr. 
Irh^xu :— C'A*t]et<nianl Tark ! Banden i lUarnny j < , a->tlt.mary I near fork. 
Jfr. terra 1 !, near IhdfaaU Mr. Temylrtun, near Bantry. Jfi« i/u/cAuw. Dear 
Xillanwy. Jfr. (.'oiua. 
Wauh : - -C«ml Cw« aod Owm Byt-liao. Dear Barmouth. Her. T. Salt*. 



Cka».iicl IsLaMCe i— Jerwv, tSuernney, Mr. Larkilettitr. 

.|»m .002 In. long, by .001 in. broad." (MuM.) "Spore. .007 Hun.. 
lomt, by .*M6-*5 mm. bread." (Kyi.) " Hpatm .007-10 mm. baft .0045-*) 

Var. itittocera, Ach. laeinias scattered over with prominent datii 
fuscous ceplmlodia. 

on trees, notuaocounan 

Srs :— Ach. L. U. p. 442. Nyl. Syn. 2*5. Crombie in Journ. Bot. n. a. 1. n, 
Flu —Ach. 1. c. t. 10. f. 3. B. 
Bot. Paov:-r....l.V 

Esulajhi:— NwaollfhHIU! Wnkfo ! ShrapsMl*. 
Boariaxu .•— Kirwood above manse at Killin. Rev. J. tl. Crombie. 

Var. gracilia, Ach. thidlus with Hiluill fuscous or finoOOS blank 
tubercle* on the- apices (K-H.'-f). 
On sandy hanks and shruh*. 

ChSi -Act, LTT.4A 

Ru :— E. Bot. t. 1358 Westring Faergb. t. 11 C 
Gboo. lumii: — Sweden. 
:— 1...SL i :— Warren opposite Ermouth, Devonshire. Mr.Brodu. 

fftrrnm -QuwivaU, J«mrj\ Mr. ta^oluHm. 

Mr. Patfttt |in litt.) aaya, "The habit* of thin plant in tlii- locality iK>- 
itiniitlil. -I far M I know. have not Iwn dvwribed. The plant grows attached 
to the stems and branches of Erica tctralix, and nearly all tho branches of the 
ii!:>, lint iiintv paxtlcuUrijr in thu laryont plant*, IwoiIihi diiciiiiihwul uml 
attach thomsehe* to the branches of the Erica, also and in eTery instance where 
thl> w tho coao the apices accrete those dark disks. An examination of these 
dark doll r ;i hi-li mairBifying power show, tlnmi to W OOBpCM*! of a 
number of minute hyaline filaments surmounted with a dark brown grumoua 
uia».i ol cells, which ore more or lea* tenacious or ulutimmH wlivii moist, ami 
adhere firmly to anything to which they may attach themselves." 

III. RAMALINA. daft. /V. 
Thtllus whitish or pale, OOmprOatod, soiurwhat duoing n^'es- 

, mot or profttrata, laoiniatc, alike on both side*. Apothei a 
scattered or marginal, conoolorous. Spores colourless, obi 

red, 1-aoptata. Paraphysee distinct. Sterigniata elongate- 
paiici-articulatc miti nosing filaments. Spcrmatia cylindvi 

ohlou^-cylindrical, straight. 

1. R. thrautta, (Ach. i. pale straw-colour, jilifonn i< 

mprewed, tomowhal ikmdarly 

I id, ui capUlari-attmtujtr ami inttrmmn 

,ii ii,-- ttpien; cortical layer filnmcntosc; mcdtdla K — ; apotli 
On old lira and sandy soil in «ul>«lpiiie regions, rare. (18G0). 

Bin :--.(;..-.'■-..• thvui&t, Ach. L. t ■■: 11- Ihraiutn, Nyl. Mon. 

lianial. IS: Leight. Not. Ijch. 3!i ; Crombie in Journ. Bat. n. i. 1. 71. 
■.-.i L. S. 207. Am. 674. «. b, c d. ♦. 
Gna. Distbib:— Europ*. 
Btrr.rnov :-17. 
Horm.Mtu : - R»y of Nlgg, Coast of*. Bev J. it. Cnmhu. 

2. R. calitarit, (llflm.). pale glaucous-grey, or alhido -llavcsceut, 
rigeeceut, ereot, dirAotomoaal] braaohed ; Mm Mm 

prcteed, elongated, attenuated at the ajiitet, lonyitudiitaJty lacunofo- 


. ■ ; mi ■ 1 1 : 1 1 . K ; ny/tkecia 

rvhlend*d (>y M ' tkt 

nigMI lirnnilh ; ipart**, ri.|i.iu-Ic-..-. ollipaoid, 

.,''..'. 1-nepuU) ; Bpermogonia in put or oofani > . , epUclw. 

•Ill II. I-, •• .1111 r.. ... . 

Sts :— Lebaria <at\earii, Hffin I! (Sami. 139. ft. (ajtigvaa, rxt. ealiearit 

L. U. «M. Syu. 297. f- rartwWi Tar. «nahnk«, Fr. L. E. SO. ft. 

.,-.,, Nv] Mnn. BamaL S3; Leltfht. Not. I.uli. M. Croiubdo In Joiirn. 

Bot,n.a 1.71. 

KlO : — UilL t. 23, (. 62, A, ii : Mori*. 8, ( 15. t. 7. f. B; Ach. Act. Holm. 

im, '.' f. >. i 

Kn : M. k N. KB ; Mudd 44 ; Wolw. Luait 42. 

Cxin). DiKTRia :-Kur<>|jit, Aaia, Africa. North and South America. 

. :-l. 2 .5. fi. 7.. 10, 11 U 

axii:— N«w Formt. Itte. J. M. Cromhie. Airyholino wood*! AyUm. 

lirr Mr Mudd. < hxtt-try '. Shropshire. Jbr. T. Balmtf. (•ulverhonae 

and Exmouth Warn u ' Dtvca Mr, PnrHi' M ' n. I >■ .i.n. fttv. J. P. 

Kant Allendale, Northumberland. fioK W Juhnx»i. Shrop- 

niiiir tmtalty I 
Scotlam>: Arrabire I,. Afro. Dvliir. JnbniUmc Hill, Forfar! /V. (filehritf. 
Waijem: -l.laiidrinod ! Kadnorahlre. lltt. r. Salmy. Trcfriw ! 
" Bpovca . 010— H> Mm. 1 | ,005— 7 mm. broad." (Syl.) 

War. rubamjiliata. N\l. CcKMM of thtillus bWCK&T ''im* 1 HUM 
dilated, similarly to /i\ fraghua, longtaidlnally iiervueo-rugow, 
IMUDOM and OttaltaufaatC . ■i/iotfteeia marginal and terminal; re- 
aptacU nt$04t; tpore*ttr<ti;/fit. 

8TX :-Nyl. Mon. fUrnaL 8-1 (1W0). Ixugbr, Not. Lich. 8J. 
Aob. Act Halm, 17W, t 9, f. > O, x. 
Anri Lich. Iul. Sup. 08 : An»i Lanj;ob. 419. 
OtOO. Dl«TBI»:— Franc*. Portugal, Ahsorla, Ka-t India*. 
Dor. Plot i !. '.'. A. 

i isn :— Yorkshire ! Mr. U. I'non. KiinlmUr .' DeTon. Mr ParMt. near 
LyndhunU New Foreat. «<r. J. M. Crvnlnc Reeding! Su . A, 

tSiaxan. LUuyblodwcl roclu. 

Var. mlfiutiffuHn, Nyl. similar in general nppcuntneo to H. 

, a»tigiaU%; apotneeia terminal ; rarpta/U rtiyott ; ipom ttiaujht. 

On rocks aud troos. 

|n ! N'vL M..n. RauuJ. M (1W0). Laight. Not. Lich. S5. 
Fn: ;-A«h. Act Holm 17*7, 1 1 

Bxa 1. 24. 

<>n>n. Domus : -Kraoca, 1'ortugal, Madairn, North America. 

BOX. Pkov:-«. .12. .]«. 

Em I .raahaUd Wood. Alrton. Cumberland. Bee. W. J.Jknlon. 

ttUMJiD :— Roaka near lV«u.-hf<nil, 11 mllm w««t <4 <!ork I Mr. C 
uioy ! Afr. Chandler. 

Waum Uan sejr. 

Mr. Ouinbie, I. c. mention. .late, with Ucaafaa 1 .. I in New Forest ; and alao a linguUvrly 

Iom .'.iili wry »hort aud i-fuwdcd Lacinlai fmm Siranal 


farinam (L.) whitalii |«! iionwl oi 

ouacuwt, erect, «uln linnichod; 

i'ci/ at M 
pleuu and politAtd, BomotinuB wiVilacui 
Mom;/, more or lets conjluent ton tkt edge*; . 

filtuneutowo ; inwluli K tCBtaceofll iu«- 



■ •■•■-< ■■ -nti... roceptaculo infra ltovi ; spores ellipsoideo-ohlongcv vrl 
fusiformi-dlipooidea), reotje " (Nyl. Mon. 3o) ; apwraogoniu in 
palo or colour-lens rcceptaotai 

Ou tree* iind |i;ihii"-. IVi'iiii.-iit, rare in friioti tic:tt ion. 

Kt.i :— Lichen farlnactui, Linn. FL Suec. ed. 2, 108U. R. farimuxa, Ach. 
L. U. IMC,, Syn. 2U7; Nyl. Mon. Rainal. M; Lahjlit. N..I. I.i.-li. 

i.u la Joan. Bot. n. ► i , I 

!.. Bot t B80] Ach. Act Holm. 17V7. t. 11. f. 1. 
Kxm:— M. AN. 3M; Ami Kir, li; Aiixl IUl. Sin.. 07; S, bier. 491; Mudd 


Gam. Dtsmin : - Kuropo, Aula Africa, North anil South America, Paly- 
uwla, Australia. 

Bot. Phot .-1. J...4, 5, 6. 7...10, 11. 12. 13 l.V 

KSflUAUTt :— Norfolk. Rtv. H. Bryant. Clapluuu Park Wood, Bedfordnhir* 
(fruit). Srr. C. AUjot. New Foiwt (fruit). Mr. I,,„l>. near Newton | anil 
Kildala! Cleveland, Yorluhiro! Mr. Mu.l.J. t)»we.try! Shropuhire, Rte. T. 
Saluxy. Thir-k ', Yoi-Uiiirv, Mr. Bnltr. SU.k« Wood! Kxeter. Mr. I:, 
Chichoitcr ! Mr. Coolx. Fonthield Wood, AUton, Cumberland: Swtnnep, 
Emt Allomlalf, gprthnmhorlonft Bm. if. Johato*. Moratoa, Devon. Bt*. 

J. P. /one*. Suff. .Ik anil Hmwex. «fr. K. JV. BUnmfuM. Shomcre Wood. ' 
JIaughnmnd Hill ! Lyth Hill ! Shropuliire : Dinmorc Wood. Hemfordiihir* 

8corwm> :— KalthayiK'k Wood*! Perth, lh-. Lhultay. A Ural Mrt. 

Ibki.axi) :— Fermoy ! Jlfr. Chandler. Dunkorrou (fruit) Dr. Tb 

W*LB» :— Cannarthrn«hir« ! (fruit). Mr. Forttrr. Glynn, near Capcl Curiif ! 
Bettws.yCoed ! Breiddon ! 

Vary variable : many forum, minute In «ixe, frequently occur, lint itoarcely 

worth diitinKUuhint,'. When the eorwlia in It /an'iviorn «re touched with K 

they exhibit no reaction or only ximctime* a very faint yellow, whinh. en 

liatt applii-Jitmii of C. beoomoii of a full yellow. Sporee .008 — .0M 

nun. lone, .004— 7 nun. broad." (S>il.) 

4. R. fnxxinea, (L.) pale straw or ycll'.wisli, ,„• glguoeaMDt, 
jmdnlou; ttraggling, mbrigeacent ; luciniro oomprened, more or 
leu broadly applanato<li'i' "liunUy rusoa or 

iiurvu d.d and at Unnoted at the apkt* ; corlunl ujerfij- 

;uu : sdulla K — ; ap o t kx i a large, marginal and atptrjt 

ill : receptacle rugose or j'/iit'-r i< i 
tport* 8, ooloarltm, oblougi curved, 1-aeptato; BpenaogOBw in 
jmlo colotirlom rcci']it..' li ■■•■ 

On trceH, very common. 

St> ■. Lithen fraxiivin. I.inn. Fl. Snec. ed. 2. 1091. it fnxeinea, Ach. 
I. I . 002. 8yn. 86 ; Nyl. Mon. RamaL 3«: Lclght Not. Lieh. 36; Crom- 
bit in Journ. Bot n. «. 1. 72. 

(iijui. l>isTiirn : S. :unl C ljirope. N. America, Aliterin, Canarta, Syria. 

Ktinn.i typn!!i bmiatformu, Acli. tu'-iuug moderately dilated, \ i 
nmoh dbngattd I atthehea ■ n-x, longitudinally rugotr 

or nerro«o-plir:' 
Sis :— R. fraxinen, var, tmiad mmts, Ach. L. U., 603 ; Nyl. Mon. Kainal. 

I'. Bot i. 1781 ; Faorgh. t 12. o. 
Kxk:-Am1 Ital. Sup, (10, and Ml, A. n. D. Maw. Ital. 11'.; M,4N, 158 
(two Uvtrr •|«uiini>n«| ; Sduer. 492; Reft band KiH-n'mm). 

Gtoo. DtSTBJB ;— Eumiw, A»U, Africa, North and South America, 
neeia, AuitraUa. 

•.'... I ...-••. 7 .11. 
1 unbrid|f»*ihlr#. Rrv. R. Rei/ian. Morntou P.-von, lire, J. P. 
Jautt. Swtonoii, and Sparta Lea, East Allendale. Nmthuii.lierli.nd. Rrv. W. 
n Suffolk and Ssao. Jb». S. If. Bloom- 

I Di :— Llandrindod ! for. T. *■"<■■< n. Kil.l.-rl.ui Wood I .Monty. .men -Mr*. 
Mf.Oll— If, nun l.jny. .006— 7 mm. broa-L" fAV.; 

rnt urns-rum* 

Forma rmpiiata, Ach. Lannur trttn i m if taut pay broadly 
apjJantU&dilatod, Ucunoae, loKfitudinallf eoartetj rwaoar or mtr- 
•oar, and trxummdf nbrvtic*l«to-rugo*r, apiea ohtmsr nmd nV- 

8T» i-B. fruiw, rtt. ouTkk. Ach. I. P. 608 : Kjrl Mod. Buui. 37. 

Fw —Hofcn. PL Lath, t 18; ML t. M. Bg. 99. c. 

:-Anxi IUL Baft. 2, 9, c; M»r. OS <r«jht-han4 *t»efanen> ; M. 4 
N. (Bpper«pecliDe«) : Leigh*. »j Mm. 119. It*, a : Modd «: BohL 81. 

Gboo. Durrani :— Bonne. 

Bot. Piiov i— 1...R...7. £..10, 11, U 

Emuid :— Ckawwood Farart I lo fc o U w hiiw . An-. A. JWamn. TUnk ! 
Yorkahir*. Jfr. £at«r. Oeweatry ! Shrop.hir*. Ar. r. .Su/ifr.. new Avion 1 
CUrcUud. Mr. Mudd. Kimlutcr ! Deion. Mr. ParjiU. Foreehield Wood. 
AUtoa, Cumberland; HwSn&oji, K»it AlUwUle. NorthombtrianiL Jtrr. W 
Jeluutm. near Shrewiburj : Ihumore Wwd." iiercftrdihire ; Pulley I I.Uny- 
fciodMi mfcal RbienU* 

Hootla»d:— Inreroald: Braetnar. Or. IJiuUaf. 

Waum :— Rdderton W-»l I Montgooeryahire. 

:>. ft fastigiata, (Pin,.) j.iil.- vrllowiih Btmw-colotn. 
dftutty etttpiiait, faema l, tUlattd and inflatni 

ward*, smooth and somewhat lacimoat- unci ncrvcato-rugt* 
cal lajcr filamentoee j BUfldnlla K | apotbaoia tormina], pdtoto 
Mmilv, sul/astigiatt, mliUnded hft If"- vrrg short dt/ortntd divari- 

oaf* . uKcato-nuow; qww 8, 

colourless no-oblong, straight, evrvtd and f fib o mi, 1 -sep- 

tate ; sporniogonia in p*le colourlcn* receptacles. 
. common. 
BfelM fatlwMut, Pen. in t'ator. N. An. Bot. 1. p. JB6. /, 
i f.. if. 003, 8yn. 293; NyL Men. lUnutl. »• ; (jstght N»L 
«Ji. So; Crombio. L e. 
i i : i: ::.. t. MM (lower left hand fig.) : DHL ». ML L 83, 0] Ach. in 

IU B. : Weetr. Feorgh. t. 12. f. K. 
I I igbt. 89; Larbal. 80; Modd «; We»«r. l.nait. 41; 

M. & N. Va -. Am '•■ "rf ItaL 8", 

• la, Africa, North America. 
Bor. Pact 14, Ifl 19 H 

lahlr*. /*«•. I banra I I'urert! Lolotaterahii*. 

R i' ton I CleielaniL 

fr MuM. Foreehield WikhL AI-i.-h, Cumberland i Swimioi>, Kwt All. n- 
ad, /.'■■■. I* ■. Itnckai 

.nil l' "' " J a ■•' A , .hi, I'ulley ! >U>ii,'hmond 

I [Mil Hill! in ..I ryl Uaajrblodwal Hooka I Shropehlre; 

more' M-- 

I' Perth; YeeUr Uoueo! Haddington, ltr. 

ImoaDDI (!«al Uand! Cork. Mr. Carroll. 

K.Merl . thire ; Bettwi-r-coed. 

Jereey ! Sari ! *o. Mr. btrtaltairr. 
I >l thl. linhrii : i ranariu [I '• ll It nUI yanetoa R. /rait. 

itm lh»II.» magix contrarto et mibfaatviato diriao v«l ucioiia aabfaatigUtw. 
< • rnaaii tyuie© enrruho ■ l uam in /:. ini'inin qmu oerte arvl taainie aflini et for- 
•»n hr ambat aUm{u* colialiiUatn «t'|w hybiidaa [iroferant formaa ictercadentea 
.[imnim iletetminatio allipiandoponnlliil inotrto n i aa cw t ; tyjiua Uxuen aai|iiiie 
notb daU> aat fadle eat acnoacecultM." 
"Sfwree jM long, .009-7 mn>. broad." ( t \fl.) 

i). S. , ■iyuurrjAa, Acli. jnUi glauceaceut, 

I, Nnwll, r«fn«t,drntrtii ettrfni uct»ri-U>ciii tati . 

(li!<itatot<mprr**td, roarrrly illy ftriiito-rnffote and ml*- 

tdCHHOSf, t'J>"-:7nlllill4>*>*OrP.i i *i I- 

auientoNO ; malulht K — ; »]>otlMicik marginal or imbterrniiutl ; rr- 



rugofo-witqual or nearly tmooth ; sport* 8, e^l mr). <•;, 
ellipsoid or oblong, nearly xtrau/ht or etraiyht, 1 BOpttt* ; 
ipermogonla in pale colourless recept.i 

On in. xi -itnm- inhiiid rocks, frequent, rare in fruit. 

Stm:— B. folymorpha, Ach. I* V. 000. Sjm. 2WJ; Nyl. Mon. RamaL no ; 
Crorahie 1. c, T& 

Kto -.-Ach. Act. Holm. 1797, t U. f. 8. 

-;hhl s. mi. 

Osou. Distbib :— Kurojie. AMoo, 

" Sporaa .011-16 mm. long. .004— « mm. brood." (AV. ; 

Forma, Kgulntu. Ah. larinut thick, rigid, cartilaginous, «M*r 
plant, and lU)arly Hiinple"or broader and deformed, and covered ttrith 
sorcdiate piistidfi. 

On maritime, r ickft 

Stn :— /t tmlumorpha. w. ligultita, Ach. Syn. 295; Nyl. Moo. Kama). 61 : 

«, i.i.i,. n, o, i'„ «?. 

:-Ach. Act. Ilnlm. WW. t. II. f. 3, A, B, K, ¥. E 
I.wl.l 17: I., i-lit. 73. 
Bor. Pkov :- 1, .10 IS.. 

Exox-ixi) :— Rateberry Topping! HowdcnGUl 1 Cloveland. Mr. Mudd. Whit 

•tmcliffo ! near Tim.!., Y,,i)udilr#. Jfr. Aoirr. Slianklin Church! Ul« "I 

Wight. See. T. Salwtv. BoviaBnd, Plrmoathl Mr. /To/met. Gnlaal Came, Feu- 

I :icr Caradoc !. Shropshire. 

8coi >t of Klncardloaihlr* (fruit). At. J. M. CfonMc 

Ieki.ami : — Lotterfraclc Bay! Kiver Dawroat co. Gal way. Mr. ttrrbaleilier. 

WALBB s— Llttbedrog ! PanCon ! Forthlll ! near FiahgnanL Pembrokeshire. 

ia> tmplccta, .»••}». laeinia attanuatt% OMNitWji bwM 

acuminate and araindatr ■<< ' 

On rocks. 

^Auh. Syn.Si!.: Nyl. Mon. Romal. SL 
Flo :— Ach. Act. Holm. 1797 t. 11. f. 3. c. r. f. 

.,.. 1 ►inrni ii : -Sweden and W. France. 
I: : :•■ SL 

ScorLAXU: — Morrone and Braeinar! Her. J. Crambu. 

I .i«i :— The Warren ! Nolrmont. Jcncy. Mr. Larbalettitr. 

DA dcpr<*M, Cromb. UMtfiitott, ItOiXuM Aort, stunted, adnatt. 

On maritime rocks. 

Syx :— CromMe in Joum. Bot. ». a. 1. 72. 

■ i.',-:h. 
Kxolaho— Polperro and Tintagel, Cornwall ; between Brighton and PorU- 
;t}. Mr. for iter. 

CeHatof Kiin-iinliiii>Hliir«. Rtr. J. M. Cnmltie, 
VnKxsxv IHtAMSSl GmniBey. Her. T. So/iwy. 

7. R. poltinojia, Ach. pale straw-colour or whitish, or allndo- 
gluuoeiteunt, ilentely cetsj'itwe, membritnateo-laciniote : Ineinia .</• 
dilated and ciimprested, noiiiL'ulmt shining, HublacuuuMi- nr 1 i.nnoso- 
O0migat<\ flaccid, covered ivith broad white farinoao-tortdiate, Con- 
fluent pa: ill. mi. hi.. m : madullftK — ; apothecla 
marginal anrl terminal ; receptacle, imetjitga ; >pore« 8, colourlem, 
.ii.!' ■■"**, l-scpt.'it'- ; ;;p'.Tmogouia in pale rolour- 
lesa racefrtafiles. 
Ou tmni puliug8, rocks, Ac, rare in fruit. 

I, Ach. Sjm. 298 ; Nyl. Mon. P.amal. OS; Ltdght N..t. 
bU I. <-. 73. 
. r»inTKiB :— Europe, Africa, 
rw .010— 15 mm. long, .004 i> mm. broad." (Nyl.) 


7HK l.llllKNrU.IIA 

Forma rlatior, Ach. heinice txthertft, rfouuttj plane, 'xiblmear, 
attenuate and njli> |iulvi'nili"iitr>*>rci/iViiV a/ thr OfMm 

Aoh. Act Holm. 1707. I. U. f. 1. *. b. 0, r. 
B» : Sch-r. W : Hcmx »>l. M | M. * X. MC. Itcich. A Schub. flfl. 

BOT PBOVl-1. 2.4 

EWMAVD !— Near HnalitiKs (fruit), len J. St. CromMt. Plymouth I Mr. 
Holmri. tn-«r Ida, Dnvoii. J/r. Janxh. IWdlnt;! Suffolk, /Iter. A. Wcunim. 
Barualey Park, near Cirencwter. Mr. W, Jvikiut, Hauifhmond Hill ! Shrop- 

F'iniiii humili*, Ach. tnembranaero-dilaitd, laeinitxe, with broad' 
eonfluent, powdery white torrdia. 

IV. . -Ach. Act. Holm. 1707, t. 11. f. : 
-Mudd 40. in part. 

B«t. Pbov:— 1 .3 .10 

E.v. i.lobv!. f'lrrrlancl. Mr. M*Jd. Wolthamatow, Ewi. >W>. 

/• rater. Tuobfidga Wella. rter. J. Af. Owwiotr. Pentanvv. Mr. Curnmr. 

If theaoredia of fi pofftnorla I* wotted with K it unmodiateljr ilnlci liut 
llko water would do, but producing no reaction either on them e*ronth» thallu*. 

S, /.' mndoU*, N/1, pule ttaw-ooloiir or whitish, mrrnhra- 

na'.tou*, dilai'd ami (fimjirrunl, l-opakt, foffUOBtly rah- 

''i-niffote or rrtirulato-te . • or slightly rogiilosc, or here 

iuuI there plane, variously l.n-ini, iic. (aconite dmbrmed uitA broad 

white /m-inoto-ioredinte conjlutnt pafaldi or denudation* r/ the eor- 
! I a .-, Thiii, amorphous : 1 1 1 .-• 1 n llr» K — ; " 

iln.iii pallido-teetacen vol Mil tin; rtooptaaalan 

nibttu mgoaum " ; BMrfflOgDma In mm colourless receptacles. 
On trees, palinga, Ac., rare in fruit. 

Srit l— NrL Prodr. Gull. ALpjr. 47 l Nyl. Mon. lUmal !V,; Cromlile, I. a, It 
<,. Act. Holn, . 17!<7, t. M. I Bot.MOTI Hill .Mane, t 21, 

f, '■>",. ■ 

KM :~ Mudd V> Input. I-olcht. 41 

Gsoa. Ilimire :— KuroTie, Asia, Af rica. 

Bar. P». Id SO. 

Kxui.tM- :-T**twood Park. New Forwt (fruit*. Mr l.nrll. near I.yndlo. 
New Forwt: (fruit) ftr, .r. JV. «',,.,„'.-. [1806) i Gouudl « LeicntenUre. 
(fruit). Baedlng ! Suffolk, lit,. A. Won.m. Th« lAtard. Afr. Cwrno*. lugUbir ! 

Catnwland. Mr. Mudd, Stole. ■ \v l 1 Kxoter. Mr. PwrtU, LaUol Witl.t 

r. «nfnvy. Haujchinorid Hill ! Shropahlrr. 

Ikelawih— No« Delfut. /Jr. T'oy/.w. 

I'rotialily •■•mo. .t r.rit'ain but confonndod with /.' If 

rwlia of *. ertmioiVtVj bo too. 1h .1 with K th.y arc unatfevted, hut l( im- 
mediately afterward* thn.v are welted with (', ; ... V.i..-. Iv ,o-tai.waUr 
would il... tvt iiroducins do reaction •! ooloui aithei on theiu or on the thalhu. 
Urn. diatinirniahinc it from all «Ut. | Mrta. 

A rwnuiteoccaatonally on the thallua. 

re» .010—15 bud. long, .OOSD— .0046 mm. broad." (A>(.) 

f. xwmopkjQa, Ci •. thaUus consisting of » singto targe 
rounded lobe. 
On uxx». 

• mmbMl. c.78. 
Kmoluih :-Ljmdhunit. Itn. J. M. Crmtbit. 

pvloruM, (Dicks.) p ir. rigid, cartilaginous, 

«niMii«y. laeiitict dongate, linear, nbt :i ipk, Ot 

.' the aj Hid, i.'xtcmul 

xirti' ihoiM, Interna] portion tilanjcntotw ; medulla K yr//o»c, 

Of OflBAT KltlTAIN. 


then femujmotu-r*d ; ipothtoS* marginal ami sul>li;niiiiinl J r 
te/r nearly tmooth ; spores 8, colourless, oblong >b ligtit, 1 Mptata ; 
onifl in pale colourless receptacles, sometimes nigriennt. 
On maritime rocks, rare. 

8r» :— Uelirn tcimulorum, Dick-. Crv] 3 IS. R. t&pvioruf*, Ach, 

L. V. 804. 8yn. 297 : Nyl. Mon. liamii. M. Ldjrht Not. Lioh. SS ; Crombie, 
I. c. 74. 

I ii. i -K. Bot. 688 : Nyl. Syn. t. 8. f. 20. 

Bx»: -LuM. 13: Bohl. 112. 

Osoiv Dana; -Bozop*, Afrioo. 

Bot PaOVi 1.2..6...16...3L 

Exr.LAlcn.-— Lomaraa Cove, Cornwall. Mr. Ktuiep. I-and'a End. MrsrrL 
Turner ifc Somrby. South Count of England, itfr. furrirr. Leigh Tor. Devon. 
i)r. i/otf. IUghtor Roclu, Devon. Mutrt. Jones and KinatUm. 

8oOTl.*!cr> :— Mr. Diekxim 1 1. 0.1 txltn of Arnui. Ifo l.ulr. Kitii-anlim-diirv 
and Orkney. Br*. J. M. frenUa. lnle of May. Firth of Forth. Mr. Sadler. 

iRXLtVP: ArihflajM, Down. JIV. iyfe. 

WaLCm:— Atwryxtu-ith. Mr. IbrtftBT, Hiirlmh OhUs I 

1 .iinmon, Jertcy ! Mr. Larbaltttitr. 

'•Spam ni2-i;i mat long; .oor. ,6MB an. brad" iav-) 

V«r. ni/tfarinacea, NyL M.S. ilur m . :n nil cxti-niiil 

appearance to //. farimcan, liut tin ■oredla - ■ ; 1 ■ 1 onduOa K jcllo* 

. tV'mi^inouK-red. 
On subalpinc ami nuiritinw rooks, not. common. 

Sv\ ; Crumble 1. c. 74. 
Kxh :— Nvl. Pvr. or. St 

Bor. Paon 1. 2...5...7...10. 1.V..S1. 

l.onbraugb, Cleveland, Yorkilm • : .'/. . MmlJ. P.UckIng»tfln 

Rock* ' DeiOT Mr. I'^rfiil. Malvern Hill.. Dr. H„l\. IMyiriontli ' Mr l[,.lmci. 

i^-h-y, Snavex. Mr. W. Jiuhua. Pennnce. Mr. Curnow. Longmynd ! 8hro|»- 

8ootlaxi> : — Portlelhen, Kinrardiiieahire. Craig Tulluch. Her. J. M. Orombit. 

Kii 11I Hill, Perth. Dr. Lindnii. 

WaLM:— Bohl «>n! Harlech Ca»Un I Mo,.l- : , i;,ilfal 

(AUMML Isuurim ;— I* Couimj, Jertey I Mr. Larbalaticr. Scilly UUnd*. 

Mr. Ourmne. 

\ Njl tliiillu-. thick, riijid, lulieT<-uliM>*liJfornuttr, 
partiiugly ilividei]. o|>iiki.- ;. external rnrticjil layer 

KBorpootu, inUmiully unmentOM ; tnoduUa B jntBow thin rod- 

On maritime rocks, rare. 187& 

8t» :— Nyl. Ramal. j>. 6ft. (1 WO.) 

Went Krone* anil Canariee. 
PMOV : *.. 81. 
WALE* :-Harl«h«'a» tie! 

mmt bLJUIMt— l.a Moye I Mmd Or.pi.'il footle, Jersey I Mr. Larba- 
llltirr (l«T3,l. 

In general apjwnran™ like R. polymorpha. Lelaht. Kx». 73, Init »rn»IIer. and 
dUtlngiiUhed by different <tmctur« of the rnrticM layer and chemical reaction 
of the medulla. 

10. R. rxupidala, (Ach.). pale straw-colour, rigjd, eartiUginoiiK, 
ihiaing ; l-tcinut rlongale, linear, comprrurd, morr or let* longi- 
tudinally ttriato-nertw, "n<l iujrr/liato-tul^r>iil<v 
or dirkototttoutly branched; cortical Iji.v t lolid, external portion 
irphoa% iutenial portion flkmontnt . m t d ull a K — ; apothecia 
nuuyiiuil ruid HubUirminal ; MClptttcte smooth ; fuji-ex 8, colourless, 
ng, straight, 1 -septate : spermogonia in pale colourless rccep- 
1 idl S. 



On maritime rocks, frequent. 

Dr. Kylamier (U c.) remarks :— '• Fonan non vera upoela <lilTnr*t a. R. $tOf>u- 
/■mm, Unn prawrtim ob naotiniiom kallcam deHdentem, aeonim hfo r»t 

ftix :—H. *roiiufor«M rar. evipUala, Ach. h. U. 6U6,8rn. ! 

I>«nt. Not. I.i. I.. ST. ; R. ™;Wi, Nyl. Mou. Kama]. ». I 

Ro: Ach. V. K Ira, 17*7. t. 9. I. 2. n; ML t. 17. I. .18 

. NT, ft ■.•..,,..;..,„„. 
CromUe. f c 74. 
..18. o. 
Kx» :-Th. M. Hrla», 1 ; Aiul IU1. Sup. i» ; Hcoasr. KH i HeppOT ; Lttght. 
2: Rjkbh. 804. 
tJron. DmTUB.-~F.nrop«, A»ia, Africa, North Anurlm, 
Bor. Pbov :-!...«-.. 7 In ,», 

KxaL-iKi) :— Yorkihire!, J/r. Dixon. Blacldnostono R... ' I i,rh Cor* ! 

Babioomba ! Davon. Mr. Pnrjtlt. Mambury, Deron, Dr.Hotl. Boviaand, Ply- 
moath ! Mr. JTdma. 
Scotland :— Klncardlnathirv ! Rtr. J. M. Orsstl 
WalW:— Near Abpryat«ith. V 1 >nd. Carnal 

Mr.JtJiiutm. South Stick. : Holyhead. Gimlet Rook! Pwllhafl, Mauorbeer! 

li. -r T. Bl J. 

Tli.. ■]■ inn n- from lh<-Suth Stacks hail the lavinior nnall, MibnUte. mib- 
li . ert-.-t, with MackUh apicea Mating tho apothaula. 
l«rw .010—18 mm. long, .0M- 6 mm. broad." (.Vyl.) 

Vnr. cra**<, Del thii k, rigid, tulHjrcoloscHlitformcd 

i iiiinrn. Ibiaxim :— Rocka under Vale Caatlo, Cueruaay ! Mr. farhaUnitr. 

11. A inftrwwftffi I>ol. very Himilargetn ' axmttenM par, 

\vi. lint ilic apjaH BKNn d tad divided, wrt- 

rl • : » 1 I ivit' ; totdtttia K ,<■■ 

Kftllau (An How, tarraiaal, subtended by 

A longibb diraricuto extremity of tbi 

«pomi 8, colourless, ellipsoid 1 -septate. 

On hfutha Mid thorns, mre. 1872. 

Srx -—Nyl. Mod. Hainal. (RX (1870). Cromhie in Journ. Bot. n. ». 1. 13.1 

1h*i lery Bay, e». (ialway. Mr. Utrtni. 

Cmaxxil IitL.\m>«:-N«wIyn Cliff, Penxaocc, ami Annct I«laiiJ ! SclUr. 
Mr. ■ 

IS, It. f'MrHotrii,Crotn\x pair d, •/, cartiia- 

(br, /rtiliculoM, month Mid shining, (K— C yellow, medulla 
K — ) ; MCNMO elongate, roundiidi or notnowhnt eoinpreased, spar- 
ingly diebfrtomOtXMJ bnUMbed la tot lower part, more copiously 
i in the fi moated apieee, dilated i 

■'intended by a short divaricate I .rtp- 

Hpores 8, oolourlom, ellipsoid, Mrai|(ht, 1 repute ; 

*/xniift/o»iVi ttttnutUy W 

< in marilimo rocks, not tuifreqnent. 

I lnn.lW|, !H 

• imi Ntaf r.Mir»m« anil tliA liianl, nrar tb* Laad'a End, Cornwall. 

•S B. auinitiUi Imt monoottiotuly liranrlnO. Aboul - e^ntiinrlrta 
kU-li. "S|«rfw .011— V. inn. long. .004-e am. trt*4. SjxrmatU ,003 nun. 
Ic*t(. .001 mm. kroaJ." (iffl.J 

1 tiu\tol<mr, CM'jqntoso, »uo- 
/<**?' i HulM-oinpmwcd, smooth or obaol. 

i'/A titiuuie rotmdk 
umlly rtitwkwo, brai .ipothecia i«alli<l«-U«U. 



ceous or glaucc-whitish, terminal or Ml ittHUlllal ; receptacle Rmootli 
at rugulose. senile on a turgid hraneh, or appendieulatr ; spora 
oblong or fasifonni-obloiiir. straight or ohimletaiy curved. 

On uld thorn bushes, raw. 1876. 

8ts:— Hook, nnd Tayl. In Lond. Jonrn. Bot. i 655. (ISM) NyL M.m. 

Gawo. Dmtbib : -Anatralln, New Zealand. S. America, Nova Granada, 


Bot. Pbov j— 86. 

Ihilajhj :— Klllery Boy. eo. Galway. Mr. LarbaUt&er. (1S7G). 
•Sjwrw .009— .01» mm. long, .004—7 mm. broad." (Nyl.) 


Thalliu compressed, rarely terete, variously frutiouloso, or 
narrower, or frondose, membranaceous, dilatate or lobule, at- 
tlifillus somewhat shining, internally iillcd »ith a irbita woolly 
medulla. A|K>t)i"< inal. Spon* 8, (mall, colour 

le«8, simple. I'arapln met Sponiio^.iiia n i:u-il Ktl , ill 

;■■(•( ulifonn apiculi, or black papilla;. 

T. CETRARIA. AcJu pr.p. Kyi. 

Thullus ipftdloeoui or spndicco-pallesoent, rigescent, erect or 
ascending, 1iu:iiii. ■■.<-. rarely fmtuloKo, somewhat shining. Ajiothecia 
dull or bright brown. Spermatid . ;, lindneal. 

1. C. istnitdica, (I..) pall' or pale chcviur brown OT fasOO 
/acini** broad, variou-/// .< ■ t n-nthi mtbcana lia d aU , margins 

•lo*o-cMated, uM imprttttd wAfft nortdui on the bark; apotheab 
brown, large, adnnie to thf upper surface of the apices of Hit ladniae, 
receptacle entire or crenulate. 

On the ({round in sub-alpine places, rare. 1794. 

I\ I. ptatt/na, Aeh. laoiniie platyphyltoiis, marginR spinuloso- 


BCI :-Aoh. 3yn. 229. (1817). Nyl. Seand. 79. Syn. 208. Miidd Man. 77. 
- K. Bot. : Byn. t. 8. f. 84 

M ad<| .1. I,.i«l,t. 42. Anxi It & 4H. Mam. 102. F«Um. 

J rigid and Alpine Europe, N. America, Himalaya. 
I'tcov:— 1...7. « ..10, 11 a I I. US i . 19,20. 

• :— Durham, Rev. J. a Murton Cruipi; Belford ; Lam. 

lxirt.ii rwtck-on-Tweed. J>r. (J. JiJmtton. Klaremfalc and on Soauier 

M..or. near Scarborough, YurkHhirv. M i'.-rrinjrton ; ; Kar*- 

ley M ..hire. Mr. Tctudnle. (17CM1. Ingleborough : Gratiareth, York- 

o. Or. Windsor. <:»t.-»l..:i<l, Whlckham, anil Mr 
and Weardalo, Durham ; Cheviot ; H«dgeh"t4 ; Simonnide ; WalliriKfm Moon, 
Hand. Mr. Wineh. King"* Lynn ! Norfolk. Mr. Ptoterioto. Market 
liven ! Lincolnshire. '/>r. r'. A. Uts. 

-l'entland if ilk, near Edinburgh; Ben Ixonond. Mr J. B. 
SmM. Ben-na-Boctd, Aberdwnanlro ; King 1 * Park; Conrtorplnu.: ; Uahni 
Dr. GrtrUlt. Monte n*»r Oast tota l, Hntemar. Prof. <Jr.iA.ira. BUaw Hill* : 
C9ora Mountain* ! Forfarthire. Mr. W. Gardiner. l.onu Inland. Pro (. &<■' 
Hartlell, Moffat. I'r. Kiehel. Morehone, ISr.w.icar. Mr. Cnall. Bel 
Braemar. Mr. Baitr. Loeh-na-Marr I Re*. T. B. Brit. Mairlml], lVrth, l>r. 
iraplani /.'". .'. m. c 

—Summit of Mangerton. Dr. Tmilor. Devil'a Laiklar, Carrantnel, 
ienddy"* Reek*. Mr. Hard?. 




WaUM i-Cadvr Idrii. ftrr. T. S*heru. 

l*,rw .002 to .0025 in. long, by .001 in. broad." LVwld). "Spowa 
.007—011 mm. lung. .00ft— C mm. tirojul." (Ml). "Sporea .007— 11 mm. Ii 
,004-« mm. broad"' (T. It. Fr.J 

Y. 2. rrirpfi, Aeli. I usinifl tiaupkjUoui, iotiinto, bnoI or 

;.:, ■!!, . ■ :]jlt. or -villi IIKM-Ilis I '"'. 'I EMM Ot ■ UN " "/-'■ I' ' </ 

tubtdote, margin* xpiimlotvM-il ..n. <l, 

8tx :-Ach. I* U. 813. (1810). 

Flo s-DOl t 28. f. I 

Rxh :-Soba>r. 23. Mndd 62. Tuck. S. Anxi Langob. 21. It. 
Hep™ 170. 

(>nx>. DnfTHlB :— Northern Kuroiie and Calx) Horn. 

Bor. Paov.— 7...U...11...19. 

EVOLASD r- YYiddy llank, TrmUle, Durham. .UV .V.i.rV. Bldetone Hill ! 
<!...lm.\ y.'c V/ //. //•■vim. 

Sc«rt-ixi>: -Ben Laa-era! Ben Mc Dhul; />. Limlmy. Top of Ben Nevia! 
Jfcr. T. fi. i»r«. 

Wau--: M -.•lGoch.CwmCywi.n 1 

M r I'lnwright ha* >*iit ma apactment gathered by hluon'll at North Wnotton 
("lutiion. Norfolk. where he atatee the lii-licn i« abundant, MM Unit North 
Ii la exactly inter mediate between tho Common anil the 
Sea, i» "iily UfW **a, 

r DiUki, (Seiner.) pale oroheamit liruwn, denm-ly oieHpiti-ii-, 

lnrini(t narrow, elongate, RM . palmal-i WttlU\ • |) i"', 

•pices spinuloae (K = cT slightly red); apothecia lirown, bug*, 
ul'ii nuiual. 
On alpine rock*, rery rare. 1869. 

Syn :-Sclu»r. Knum. 16 (1850). NyL Scand. 79. 

I ii— W«tr. Faervh. t. \t 

Kxa .— Fellm. «». fh. M. Friea. M. B*bh. 91«. 

Tiun:- Scandinavia. 

Bor. Paov r— U, 

Scotlasd : - Summit of Lochnagar in Braemar. flo-. J. if. 01m 

3. ft aeuleata, Fr. Hpadiceous, fistulose, fanfc or rom/yrruni or 
angular, rigid, erect, Ml ■e\ilo»t, branches </■'■ 

. more or leas nigro-epiiiiilvtii ; ain.tlnc.-ia BpadiMOU) small, 
fauw i mrf . 

On moors, heaths, rocks, Ac, not uncommon. 

"Spore. .00175 to .002 In. long, by .00074 to .001 ha. broad." (Mwl.i. i 
" Sporea .00«— 9 mm. Ion*. .0085-.0O4 mm. broad." (Jf/fl.) " .S| .00*-* 
not long, .009 I nm. broad." (T.ii.frj 

I . 1 . fyptVa, spadiccoas, plamxtmprttted, ttMaemott, nnketl, 

divnjicato^pinnloso at the apices. 

Sin : Arh. Met*. 302. J1H03). NyL 8yn. 300. 

■Ach. Meth. t. «. f. 2. 
Kxa .- -Mudd Ml LclghC 3. Reich, k Sdrab. 21. 

(Iwki. Dmtwd :— North and Central Europe, Arctie America, Antarctic 

Pwrs-J.. 6...7.S.. 10. 11 II. IT. .19...2S..30,S1. 

Kv irrfngtoo Uw, Northumberland. Or. G. JotnUon. Craig 

furda, near Oiweatry, Shro|«)ilre. Iter. T. Mm* Hi*;h Green Wood, Tod- 

anonien. Mr. /)•.• .if,-. II. ■■ : ,: 1 (rsdhnrat 

nUa Flaiendole. .«r, AiArr. Malliam. Or. Curoaytoa. 

AytiO Moor ; Farndale ! Burtim Head : and other plaoaa In Yorkahlra. Mr. 

1 :at*«hea<l anil It . 
utirth KflU, Dttrham Mr. II iuek. M.tlv.rn Hill.. Worceaterahire. M 
Ckarowood Korrat, Leieeateraliirv. Hen A. ilnaii— Tlptra. H itb, ton. «r. 
rormiaf. Sugar I**!, Miiiimouthalijrv. J»"r, iVrf.m t'vart'a Craea. near .Settle. 



Swinnop K.n 

. Mkinlali'. .Ni.rtli'itiili.-rl.itiil fty, H'. /ol 
ynd ! natttford Hill: II;. -i ghmond Hill! Stiiraretonas! 

2*\ Windnr. 

^alli v. Long ; 

ljv.MD :— Pentland Hilln. />r. drtrillr. K<irfarabir«. A/V. »'. flW* 
Nevia ! Invcmcaahire ; Blaeberry Ilill I P«rth. Dr. Liming. Aberdoen 
link*; Grampian*, fin: J. M. Cromtit. Ulo of May, Firth of Forth. Jfr. 

Ikxi.aiti):-- Near Belfaat. Jfr. Templtton. Southern Countica. Dr. Taylor. 
near Maam I Joyce County. Mr. LartxilrHirr. 

list .— Cmo Bychan, nnr Barmouth. Ilev. T. Salwef. Amu Mowddy ' 
(Iwvlir Rock*, Bettwvyeoed! (fruit). 
CUA.1MU. IbLAMDe :— Qu*maiH, Jenwy. Mr. Larhalatitr. 

¥. 2. murimta, Ach. imallrr, daufty ituric-ato-atipitoir, densely, subterete, or suli-cumprcsaed, naked, shortly divaricato- 
loae at the apices. 

St* :- Ach. Metb. 302. (1803). Nyl. Scand. 80. 

Fio .— & Bot. 458. 

ESS:— M. * N. 7»». Schier. 555. Wolw. H, Mudd 4H. Leh/ht. 4. 

Gaou. 1>ihtbih ; — Alpine Kuroiie. 

Bot. Paov : -1...5. 7. .10.. .14. 15. 

Ks<ilaXI>:— B«v»rUy. Mr. TmtliUr. Ayton ' Y orta Mw HV*. .1/»<M- <?r»lg- 

forOa! near Gmreetty, Jtor. P. Salmi/. Malvern Hill* : Stiperrtonea, Salop; 

l<iaf, Mumiumlhahirc. Mr. I'urtim. HartiniHir Tora, Devon. Main. J una 

id Kiiv>*'"i, Stiperntunv* ! Laurence Hill ! Shropshire. long Mynd ! Haugh- 

m.d H1U! 

ScOTUtxn : lYiilland Hilla. l)r. (Jmillr. Korfanihir*. Mr. IF. (Jardiner. 
Ben Nevi» ! I*. Lindny. Glen Muiek and Glen Doe, Braemar. /tor. J. V. 

WaL»:— Barmouth ! Cmo Cywion ! 

K. 3. atanthtlla, Ach. like typica, but entirely kupido+pinulotti- 
8w=— Ach. '•• V. SSX (1H10). 

Kra r-Hoto pi. i.i<h. t. s. f. s. 

Exa :-Scn«r. 254. j.r. p, M. & N. 168. Zw. 222. Welw. 10. And Langob- 

Gaoc. DistEIB z— Switzerland, Germany, Portugal, Italy. 
Bot. Pnovs— 5...10...15. 

EjfOLAffl' : - -H:t.-iil' ! Yorkshire. Mr. Baker. Ayton ! Cleveland. Mr. 
Mudd. Clifton ! BriatoL Mr. Joshua. 
8cCTUiXl>:— Hill of Ardo, naar Atanleen. Rtv. J. M. Cromoit. 

II. I'l.ATYSMA. Ilffm. pr. p. Nyl. 
Thallus v.iiiius in colour, nigrescent, fruticulosc, generally BMU 





brilliiU'ei- -dilated, Inhati ni 1 : i i ■ i n i : 1 1 1- . nearly c.i|i>t'/ivf<- A put lu n:i 

marginal or sub-marginal. Spermogonia minutely papillate Of 
tab ■rciilate. Spennatia ineraauato at both the obtuse apicc*, or 
fusifortui incraasato at ODC apex, or fiwifunui elli)>uoid. 

A. Spermatia incrattaU at both tht obtim apice*. 

1 /'. nimU, (L.) ochrolcuoous or straminootw, rinwUo-la'- 
lin canaliciUato-patubjM, rtttculato-lacuno.* . dentAtc at the 
erett apiees (K — C + ) ; apothecia flesh-oolourod, margin ol rccop- 
taclo creuatc-rugoae ; spores 8, colourless, oblong, small, wimple. 

Ou the ground in alpine places. 

8rx :— Tinn. VI Snec. 1088. NyL Syn. 302. Mudd 3An. 78, 

tot 199t- Nyl. Syn. t. a f. 33. Mm»i> Sporen t. 08. f. 845. 
Bxa :-Scb«r. 19. Tuck. 30. i\nxi It. S. 51. BtVf *«. M ,llU f * Ldsht. 43. 
Sarft. 76. Rabh. 865. 
Geog. UlsIttlB:— Europe. N. America. 


T«K l.:i III S KU1UA 

a ..\m.i : Highlands. Dr. R-i>. jWuam Cairngorm noil Ben Lawcrx. .Sir 
11'. .1. Boohtr. Bfdm; IVi.K«l: Loan Brandy : <:i..n; Mr. W 
-Sonriv of the Dee; Lorhnagar; : Braemar; Dr. W. L. Ltndtnu. 

Beona-Boord ! Clova. Rev. T. B. Bell. Ben Mc Llhui. Mr. J. U. IlaXer. 

"Smm .000W lo. broad." <Afi«M.) "8MM 

.001— t mm. long, .004 — 5 mm. uroad.'" (Ay/.) "Sport* .00ft— 9 mm. lone, 
.008— S mm. broad." (T. M. t'r.) Spore* .OOTJi mm. lung, .C04 mm. bmu>l. 

2. P. cudtllatum, (Bell.) oehroleueous at sta 
faflWgff, lni-iiiiH! (01 undulate, 

moolk, eremite at the r«cir ms/ npicus ( K — C'-f->; ap 'therm Audi 
coloured, adnata, often diluted, margin of receptacle thin, at length 
, B, COlouriwt, oblong, simple, sm.ill. 
On tho grouii'l in alpine t< n-.i 1 i t u-n. 

8tx: Btlliail Oh*. Bot. M. (17%). Nyl. Syii. 302. Mudd Man. 7». 

I n t-Bofln. l'l. I., t. »», f. 2 Hepp SiK.rcti i. H6. f. 844. 

Kx*--M. A. N. 544. Schnr. IS. Tuck. 4. Mtm. 297. And It. 8. 50. H*fip 
844. K.-llm. 61 

Gbou. Dibtmjj .-— Kurope. N. America. 

Bor. Pnov:— 14. 

8l'utla?o :- Cairngorm Mountain*. Rtv. J. DaUon. Summit M Cairutoul, 
Braemar. Rev. J. M. Orombie. 

l^rw .00K- U- .002 i". Ii>iw . Iiy .00«8 i»- bread." (AfmU) "Sporo. .007- 
.010 mm. long, .004 mm. broad." (Nyl.) " Spore* .009-9 mm. limit, .003— ft 
Sim bnwl." (7*. M. >V.) Spore* .OU75 mm. long, .0035 mm. broad. 

R irittr, (Web.) pitthJAatk, browner below, mi 

■inubtur-, fmtitf i'i, ditticho-ramoK. 

blai kj Herniate, (medulla C— ) ; apothecia ftuicotu-black, mbtee 

minal, appendicunta, margin dentate flazuom ; .••pm Imu 

lees, oblong, simple. 

Ou alpine rocks, frequent. 

8yw !-W«ber SpMI,j.. 30!». (177M. N vl. 8*0. %/}. Mudd Man. 76. 

I E. Bot 720. W.b. 8p. t. 5. Hepp gporen t. 96. t 846. 
K» :-M. ft N. Wi. Walw. Liwdt. 112. HeppSaU. And It. 8. 67- Schmr. 2W. 

CrKO. DlBTBm i—Mt-r 

Bo*. 1'iir.v : 1 ,5. .7 .10. 11 .14, 15...18, JJl 

-Summit Of Heiig«ho[«, NciHIiiiiiiIh rhiml. I)r. (]. Jnliiut'.-n. York- 
■hire ! Mr. Duron. Kgleatone and Oronklry Veil, Durham, B$v. J. Bnrriman. 
i 'in iHet : BUnoodde : Northumberland. Mr. H'imA. Malvern Ililla, Worceator- 
■hire; Hiujar Loaf, ll« ton, X0H of Dartmoor. Mr. tfao- 

ScoTLAirn :— Clova Mountain*. Mr. 1! Morchonc ! ami OJen Dea I 

Braemar and tot. of Ix^hnagar! and near Perth, Oarrynahi"'. I^nria. Dr. 
/..riifaiy. AborfeMy, rortbahlr*. Mr. Macmillau. Ben Lawvr*. Dr. Boll. B«i 
Wvvis. Mr. Bnri*. 

ItXLXBD:— Higher Mountain*. Kerrr. Dr. Taylor. 

WaMS: •/. Moel Siabod. Jkfr. W. 

r/uilipt. ArranMowddy! (fruit) Cwui Tryfacn I Clyder K*<1 

•' Siwre. .001S t.i 001T51n. loiuj, ,00] U. .00075 In. hmad." (MmUI.) "Spor» 
.009 - .011 mm. long, .00J-< mm. Wd." (AT**.) " 8pc«« .008—11 mm. lung, 
.004-0 mm. broad. (T. M. Fr.) 

4. /'. utpintota, (Khrh.) autaiuo<iieKi<xo\u or badio-cattantov* 
or ixdlido-castaneouH, laeuiwio lolmU-, nn<i//, Laciuiie plane, proa- 
tntto or ascending, aim<. -xhtly lacuuoHe-rufruloae, margin 

undrdalv-tinK'-i' Otqprmate, pfdfir Iniieath, (K— C— ); auothecia 
badicf/tueeteoH, recoptucle nupdotc Ixntath, margin entire ; aporea 

On tree** and {loiinga, rare. 

Of wlllU'1 BRITAIN. 

— Khrh»rt Bcitr. 2. p. 95. (178M). NyL Syn. MS. GnmbU in ■'•■■•„. 
I. Mudd Man. 80. 
Kn.: Hffi II. I.. I II. I I. E. Bot t. 23*0. flg. 1. and 2. and lower right 
bud figure. Hepp Sporen t. 96. f. 

. Hepp HIS. Rabb. 741. Fellm. 63. Ldght -O. Smrft. 152. 
i Fini :— N. Euroi*, N. Aria, Art-tie America. 
Bor. Faov:- 1...5...7. 8. .10, 11.. .15.. .IS .31. 

K.-< a. .!.'•. 0. 1 inter. Oteloy Park pale*, near Ellcnnoro. 

Sln..[.-1iir. . /.'■ l.. K Ieby Park; 1U-. laic ; KlMaln ; and High Cliff, 

Cleveland Mr. Mudd. near High Force Inn, TeeedaJe. Dr. Uoll. Bardon Hill ; 
Gopoall. I.«i<wiil«r»liir*. fin-. A. liluxam. 

tkmUiitv :— Peerbfll Wood ; Whit* Hill; Porfofafaba, Mr. W. Oar-: 
Kinuordy. Mr. Lytll. Morchone ! Braemar ; Blueberry Hill, Perth : Gon-yna- 
bowia. Dr. lindtay. Qiioleh, Braeiuar ; KilUu ; BUlr*. Her. J. .V. 


Waict :— Cwm Bychan ; <'•—*! Cwm; Drw* Ardudwy. fit* •''• aWist*. 
Gtenl'i Pebble*. Coder IdrU. Afr. JW/s. 

-.kxel Iiuaxiki : -Guernsey. Jfev. 2". &i'ieey. 

.«.rw .017:. | 'idi i„. broad." Lofaatt) "Si-.r.". .008-.0I0 

ma». long, .0055— .006} mm. brood" (JVj/^. ) "Sjioiiw .006-10 mm. long. 
.004-6 mm. broaiL" \T. M. tr.) 

■dophytln, AcIl /xj/rr and larger than .m.-iti , 

lactn id, »ul»-adprttioed, margin uiuMaUxritptd, 

nllyt-tortdiaU, (K — O — ) j kpOthetii* anuill. 

On trees, paliugs, &a, frequent, trot rare in fruit . 

gni ■■■ •■»•>'. Math. r.)-. I1H03). NyL Syn. 809. Cromblo. L c. 
Fio .—- E. Bot. 2386. fig. 8. andlo» rlafl band 6»-ur». 

Em : -And It S. 64. Babh. 742. Uudd 56. 

I,.". ,1 I 
Imjloby Pork ! Kildale I Cleveland. 

Mr. Mudd. Otcley Pork 

point !, K.llcmere, Hhropthire, Ktr. T. Halmy. StincnUme* ! Shrop.-! 

ScoTUMTi:— KinnoHy, Knrfw-I >r. J. Hooker. Bloeberry IMI I 

Fertb. Dr. Lind*i)/. Scotch Mountain*. Mr. Diclxn. Linn of Quoich, Braemar : 
.'. M. Ototol 

W.U.B* .—Conway folia 1 Cwm Byvbon 1 

5. P. FaMunttue, (L.) ftiacoua or spadiceo-ftweons or fusco- 
nigricant, orbicular, smooth, loktfo-hwiniate, lacinia appreued, 
■i-tubcanalicaiaU, mtiryin* elevated, apices rotundato-crenate, be- 
in .nth nlgrlcant, (K medulla yellow); apothecia, fuacouB or fuaco- 
rufoiL-, reoeptaole plicato-rugoae, margin granulosi.- ; BpoJ 
Iotirkaa, oblong, simple, small; upermutiu slender, elongate, straight 
iueituosat* ipot. 

On alptno rocks, rare. 

Attention to the margin* of the thallu* and tpcrmatia will alway* distintruuli 
lliix fr.ra P. emmittmn, Nvl. 
.Sv.s :— Linn. Fl. Suee. 107S. Kyi. Syn. 300. SCudd Man. 

Fm ; 

Hoffm. PI I., t. 88. (. -J- Bum rkmran t. 67. f 

336. Anxilt S. 55.58. 

H«pj> 586. Schwr. 873. 374. 
Geou. DiHimu :— Arctic Europe, N. America, Himalaya. 
. f— L..7 1'J. 11 U 
umD:-Yorkiihir<; ! .Ifr. Diaon. Teesdale ; Wcaniale : Butnliold; ICoro- 
leyhop*, DuriuLin ; Cheviot, Northumberland. Mr. B'lh.A. Ilav Tor, Dart- 

'Iotb Muuntaloo. Mr. W. Gardiner. Grampian!, Braemar; 
' lure, Undatliaiit-- B-r. J. M. f.Vo>;i4«. Ben Luwin.. Dr. .'. 
WaLB.— Llyn Co*. Coder IdrU. Iter. T. Salwty. 

"8doi«*. "in. lunfc.CtXV-7 mm. broad." fAVJ "Sik.!. •-. .<*.'■• .011 

BUB. Ion*-, .004—6 nun. brood. (r. M. fr.) Si»>r»» ,008 mui. long", .0055 lum. 


6. t. d\f\u*m, (Web.) xohitith or albidfrci) itellato- 

orbicular, npproued, lacinuc narrow, applaiintL, multifid, aJbo- 



mrtdiate; apothecia gpadicoo-fu«c»u* or rtifcsccut, margin crcnu- 
late, aorediate ; spores 8, ooiourlem, oblong in- oldougo-ovoid, 
simple, straight ; thallus K + C — , medulla K yellow. 
On posts, palings, &c. not uncommon. 1 793. 

8t* ;-W«b. Spio. 850. <177»). P. aUurUa, Adj. Prodr. 117. (1798). 8™. 
308. NyL Scand, 106. Mudd Mm, 98. Parm. ptacorodim, Ach. Syn. 1S6. NyL 

Fw :-E. Bot 868. Dk*». Cr. Br. L 9. t. 6. HITm. PI. t. 66. 1. 2. Hopi> 
hM Lit BBK 

Kx» :-Zw. M. Sch»r. W. 876. M. and N. 789. Mudd 71. Uepp 850. 
Langub. 60. 

Gsoo. Dtsnus :— Denmark, Sweden. Finland. Switzerland, Italy, Bavaria, 

Bot. PaOVr-8,4, 5...8...10 r>. 

i ..ft C*rtle Park. Herefordehire. Mr. lMcLmt. (1798). Htnhaei, 
Suffolk. Mr. />. Turner, iidu WiutUor. Or. 0. H. XtxMtn. Ortiertry ! Hay 
Park near Ludlow ; Oteley Park near EUeraiere. «rr. T. Sa/rcy. Boaadale ; 
Farudale; Bruadale; Bayidale : Kildale: Ingleby Part Yorkshire. Mr. 
Mudtt. <;<i|Mall, I.eioMt«r>hlrc. Htv. A. Biota*, Haugliinimd Hill ! Shropshire, 
very fine and abundant. 

Soorusn .—Scotch Highland*, tor. J. IMtlUm. 

"8y>rm .0015 in. Ions, by .O007R In. broad." <.VwM.) "8]>or»« .011-12 
mm. long, .008— I mm. broad." (Aty.) " Spore* .006-9 mm. lone, .006— 6 
mm. broad' {T. M. >V.| 

B. Spermatid elliptoid. 

7. /'. (wmmixlum. Nyl. pullidi- :tpadiccous or ii|Kidioeo-fuscou*> 
tf**e, smooth, irrtaidarty lineari-iaeiniate or divided, lacinii plane 
attending and entangled, margin* not elevated, apices nbluputy tnin- 
cote and furcate, concolorous or paler bcn./ai i (B H 

apothecia fuscous or fusco-rufous, receptacle plieato-rugosc, m 
graoulo&e ; spores 8, colourless, oblong, simple, small j epcrmatiu 
short, oblongo-ellipsoid or fusifonn-oUipsoid. 

On alpine rocks. 

Attention to the form or the a|>ioa« of HM batsfestt Ucinla. ol the tfcallaa, 
anil the epermatia, will at once etparate thin from P. Fahluncxtc. 

-NyL Syn. 310. (1838). Crumble la Joure. Bo*, n. a, L p. 2M. 
Fkj :-NyL Syn. U R. f. O. K. Bot L 655. 
Ejci r-IKcka. 28. M. and N. 840. Ana Langob. 417. Zw. 181 
(Isoa. Dibtrib :— Central Europe and Scandinavia. 
Bot. Paovs-7. .0. .16. 
KsuLaSU :— Laacaabire. Mr Hudson. 
ScoTUkXO :— Scotch Mountain! ! Mr. IMclpm. bin Mure ; Bea-ualxK^l ; 
Ben Lawere; Are. J. M. Crvmii*. I-ooh-nairar! Brnemar. Dr. IF. L. IAndtmf. 
Rock* north »ido of Ben Lawen ! Mr. CarraU. 
h WahM. Mr. GrifitA. 
l>ore».00»— .011 mm. looif , .(«H— 6 mm. broad." (AV.) Spores .008 mm. 
long, .006 mm. broad. 

1 Spertnatia aeinUar cylindrical, incrastaU at one apex. 

S. /'. jmiprrinttm, (L) citrino-jiancMrnt or pule Huvo-virus' 

lauoo-Savescent, loluito Incmiutr, l>icinia) eronxrenatt, erovxUd, 

eruptd, smoolhisli, Ixmenth yellow, nigulosc, medulla citrine (K — 

C+) ; apotheciu badio-rufoius or lindio-fuscous, margin comigate 

or erenolAtc-denticulatu ; spores 8, colourless, oblongo-ellipsoid, 


On tlie ewtli mid trcca, in alpins lihiricts. 

: -Linu. Ft Suec. 10O8 NyL Sym. 812. Mudd Man. 79. 



Fin :-Hoffm. PL L. t. 7. f. % NyL 8yn. L M. «. M«pp »v**a UV&.L 


Exa .- Sducr. 20. Aim It. 8. 52. Langob. 371. Smrlt. 153. BaMi. 860. 
.. pnrrnrn:— N. Europe, N. America. 
I hot :— 16. 
Scotland . — Clom. Mr. R. Jacob, ueor Ben Lower* ; Rothiemurchu*. for. 
J. M. Orombie. 

" Spore. .0015 in. long, bj .000751,. .001 in. brood." (»la,t,l.) ••.Wmi.OOR-- 
7 no. long, .004— .0045 mm. broad." {lfyl,) " Sporea .008— « mm. long, .004— 
6 mm. brood." (T. M. Pr.) 

Xmc. pintutri, (Scop.) like the type, Imt lueiniii- lob-ate, appreaaed. 

and broader, margin* citrino-*ore.duite ; t)xir<$ tubgtobote. 

On trees. 

8n(i— Seori. VI. Cam. 1. 387. |17fi0). Hjrl Sjm. 312. .Mu.M MtD. 7'.L 
Flo.— E. Bot. 2111. Uffm. I'l. L. t, 7. I. 1. H rcn t. 96. f. 841. 842. 

Exa : -Scnwr. 21. Frica 383. Hcpp 811. 842. And It. 8. 53. Fcllni. <J2. 
M.*N. 451. Am. 618. 
Gmou. Dibtxih .— N. Europe, Scondinaiia, A»i», N. Amrrlw. 
Bor.Pwv: 1 1 li. ..i\ 

1 ANli ;— Framlimsham, near Norwich, Mr. />, Tunvr T, . ,1 ,!.•, Durham. 
./. Uarnnuin. Bovine of 8t. John, Cornwall. Mtr. T. .Salimi. 
1M1 : North of Scotland ; AviMuan 1 KJsnoi 
The (poefman from which B, Bot 1. 211 ww drawn wn*o fa from 

Linn, llcrb. Tho few IJritiish apeeimen* oeen arc either much Hnallcr. or when 
larger, grOMobfa-yaUow. ii-irgiua Uwm regularly cilrino wirediate. A Mtate uf 
Phytcia parietiaa was often confounded with i'ui«poTin«m by earlier writer* am] 
even by oome modern lichenlato, »eo CromUo In Jouru. Bot. n. ►. 1 . 1 • ::" 1 . 

9. P. yhiHcum, (L.) imry trkilcor ylaucetc <■ tOtnt, tnemhrn 

nacecnu, Craooth or slig/'r ndw, bciinad.' or lacilliato- 

loliatti, btcitiUB lutCriidniL', DUUgina -tnimte i>r (VQBatfOj OK uMemtO, 
or aorcdiali", .n- ufnnttlj iTIlUHitl) fTllliHio'tn hmtxUh rugate , futeo- 
nigricaitt or fu*co\u or paltttcrnt ar entirely fffflflfHltj (K-f-'" = ); 
apodiada ipadloeo rufoua, receptacle rugose beneath, margin bhin, 
prenently excluded. 

()u rocks lad trues, common. 

8r* :— Linn. Fl. Suae 1094. Nyl. 8yn. 313. MnddMan. 70. 

Km;— E. Bot. 160fl. 

Exb:-Nt1.2*. BohL 79. Mudd M. Am. 527. Leight, II. And n. S. 58 in 

CI too. DtaTKlB I — Europe, America, Aria. 

Rot. roov:-l.. I 7. in, 11. 19 .14, 15. 1G...1S, 19.20. ..HI. 

Bin 1 USD: — Irfwiherton Moor, Niirlliiiiiil.i rl.-mil Or O. aToAwftM. < 'ntliffonla, 
near Onweatry ! Ret. T. .Sufvvw. Kielder and Pendu-ntor Fell, Northumberland. 

■ U Cortle Howard, To* 

f.liir.-, ifr. Titxinlr. (17!U|. IWtern IIUIm, V ire, Mr. PurUm. Diirt- 

moor. Dr. Hall. Chornwood Forert; GopmlL Rtr. A. Blaiam. Luitleigb <'l. ro, 
Ilaron. Jfr. Parfitl. Poarfl I 'r»««, neat Settle. Dr. WbuUor. Heddnu on wall, 
NorUiiuuUrland. Mr. rTincA. Maltvm Hill., Mr. Purt.m. BotUf Itoek, 
Whiddon : Gidleijjh. Ili(jh Tor: Widdecombo-in-tlie-Moor. Devon. Mruri. 
Jinx* A Kitu/ti'nt. Swirmiin, Kimt Allendale, NorthtunberlAndi Foml 
Wood, AWcm, Cumberland. Rev. IF. Johmon. Aymestrey ' Hen'funUhin , 

flliiiafrtwl WMkfn! Bhropahln. 

80Onj4?ei> :— l'.titlaml Hdl>. l> < lov» MimiiUliw: I.'railiill Wood, 

Forfamhire. Mr. W. Gardiner, l.ona blond; Arran. Prof. Baljour. Ben Mac 
Dhul !, Broemar: Blaeberry Hill, 1'erth : Amubeo ! Pcrthihire. Or. Lindtay. 
; lU'thieniurrhiiK Her. J. M. Cnmtri*. 

Ikklavu; — Mangerton. Ifr. Taylor. Corrickodrohid. Mr. Carroll. 

W.11B :— Near UaruiouUi. Btt. T. Salmy. Cu|kJ Curig ! Aran Mowddy ! 

Cha9(1>EL ■«"■"■ :— Boiilay rUr, Jerney. Mr. Larbalatwr. 

"Sporea .00175 in. lon R . by .001 in. brood." (MadJ.) "Sporo» *0«— " BB. 
long, .0035— .0016 mm. brood." (Nft.) "Sporea .006-y mm. long, .0065-50 
mm. brood." {T. M. Fr.) 



f. lortdiota, margins M/m/taff, fusco-nigricniit mid rugose beneath. 

Kxs :-Anri It. H. » Sch»r. 363. Cliff. CloveUnU. Mr. M»-IJ. F.irwhield Wo...l, ALt-m, 
CamtiorlMid. Rex: W. JuX**o*. HlMUrrj- Hill, Forth ! Bon Mk Dhui, 
r! ft-. W. L. Linda,. 

Bnaur! Dr. W. L. Undta,. 

t faltox, (Web.) margins entire or sorodiatc, rntirely albicoHt 


W> :-HBm. Ft L. t. «7. I. 1 3. 
LocAUTUS.-CarUaU! Mr. T. C. Btytaam. Inromnr. S.r W. J. Heeler. 
KUlin. /fev. /. V. Oomiw. Ulkoknton Bock, Devon. A/r. /<i<b6, 

f. eoraUoidea, (Wollr.) margins minutely lituar^ditterio-flmbriaU, 

|i.tlli'Si-i nt "i nlhir.wit hi n.- itii. 

K. Bot. 2373. IMTm. n. L. L 46. f. 1-3. Bmb .S]ioi«ii t 80. f. 67V 
B bar. m 

F.x* : Th. l'i. 30. M. *o<] N. ISC. And Langnb. Oft H-|.|. r.74. Schwr. 363. 

lAjCAUrm.— l>oron»hlr». Mr. Slater. (\riu Mountain, Ireland. Dr. Taylor. 
Baldovan Wooda : Clov» Mountains. Mr. H . Oaeviiner. 

10. /*. /flrtimmm, Nyl. whitinh, membranaceous, wtfew/afe 
lamnntf, broadly ladniaU or lobato-laciniato, hwMi <rcnafo-vn<fu- 
laUasxd t'ltewerf, rotundate at thr.aprj, hfflMlfttJl fano my ll or 
fusco-fftllcsocnt or entirely whitish, (K+C — ) j ipothodl Spfldl 
eeous, receptacle rugulous beneath, margin thin entire. 

On damp rocks, rare. 

: -Nyl. Syo. SH.JMW>. Cttraria, Aoh. Math. 336. 
Fin :-Ach. Moth, t 6. 1. 3. 
Kxsi-Tuck. «. li] 

«;»«. Dibiiuh: -N. America, Norway. 
BOT, Fbov. :— ir., Hi. 

Sctjtlajidi— Boa I*»»r»! Craig Cluny. Braemar. Be*. ./. if. tVcmtM. Fott 
WUikn, in Ixchalxr. ^J«.^««. 
M Spora .006-8 mm. Ions. .004-6 mov broad." (Ay.) 


ThnlhiB foliaccoiis, depressed, lotatc or variously Inciniiito or 

stellate, very rarely cBBspitoso intricate, medulla stuppeoti*. Apo- 

I-.i ■) phi form or Iccauciri I loino and gyrww. S|>oros 

various. I'araphysos distinct or indistinct. Hpcrmatin shortly 

aoieular or slenderly cylindrical, straight, narrower in the middle. 


Thallus (rondoee, dilntatc, cortical layer deficient on the under 
surface. i [teltifnrm, rotundate, reuiform or oblong, mar- 

ginal, initiate to ' i or lower surface or scattered ou the 

upper surface of the thallus. Spore* 8, colourless and fi 
Lh« marginal apothecla, fuscous and ellipsoid and bilocular m 1 1 B 
•oattcrcd apothecia. Paruphysci stout, articulate. 

I lulnutc to the lower surface of tlie margin of the 
thallus. Spores 8, colourless or fusooaocnt, 3-scptatc. 




ThalliL* noubi . fragile-, lurid, or gjaaoascent or fnxccs- 

OMtt) i.iyer continuous cm thl lower Rvfto . '"'1 in'i-ivless. 

\|«.- i.ito to the lower surface of oatmB offtaDaa. Sporee 

s, colourless or ftiaosacen^ li-soptato. Granula gonima moniliform, 
dark ctcruleo-viresceut. 

1. .V. /'rvi'fittum, Ach. lurido-fu8ee»ecnt, orbicular, rotundnto- 
lobato) uv.irg'MHr/nti'ttif-cr'iutte, opake, tsrxyr.-h, ,/,/„/. ..,.•'„.,; , beneath 
pale glabrous and slightly rugulose fmadnOa white K — ); apo 
thecia fii-scii nilous, margin of roe [>t .ic\e eraudato-unr'pitil, baok of 

I i lele minutrljf deprfi$o-rjraHutate ; spores 8, fusoosccnt, I 

formi I septate. 

On troca, rock*, and stones, in shady alpine places. 

Six : -Ach. Sy D . 212. (1*17). Nyl. Syn. 320. Leight. in Ann. ft Mag. Na» 
Hut. 4. Mr. toL 6. p. S7. Mm!.! Mwi. 81. 
-TuL Mom. Lich. t. 9. f. 18-23. 

Exs:— Miu.lonSl. Smrft. 70. 

:^.nit Dm world. 

BOT. 1'ttov;— 1.3, I .7.. 12.. .15. .31. 

Esoi.ahd.— Kcawl. •'.. Hand. Mrt. Stanfitr. 8. Dtvon and Cornwall. 

Dr. IIU1. Kt^lfv wood, D«*r Oxiatd Mr. /tafer. Canibridjr««liirc. /frr. #. 

■ Scotxaki) :— HuliUmU ! Huron Von Wulfen. Blair Atliolu ! Prof. Diclie. 
Crampiai... Rer. J. M. CVrro,',.. Killiii. Dr. ll.-JI. 

WaUB r-DoUrellcy 

Ciias-xil [maxim:— ('nimnon ".. :.ll tin- I- hunk. Mr. tertoA 

•' S^.rw .004 to .0015 in. long, by .00125 in. broad." (MiuM.) 

V'ar. paritt, (Ach.) ltirido-fuscescent, paler or fusco-nigrieanl add 
glabrous beneath, mat if in* critped and casio-torcdiaU. (medulla 
te K— ). 

Srx :— Ach. Prodr. 1"H. (1798). Nyl. Syn. 380. Loitrht. in Ann. and Mag 
Nat. Hut 1. a 

Fio:-B. B«t. 900. DHL Mom I 88. f. MB, it. fed 

Bxs ;— Nyl. Pari*. 109. And It. S. 88. Lanpob. 24. 258. ft 254. A. M. & N. 
888. Ara-OSL 

Caoa. Diaraia;— Km. .;.r. Chili. 

bot. Pan .iti...80. 

U • : llminock, nrar Kovey Tracar, 8. D«T0nl Dr. lid/. Cound 
Mow, Shrnpahiro. Itev. Bdw. William*. Hoavitrw. Bxotcr. Mr. ParjtU. 
ScunAiro :— Appln. Itev. J. M. Crvnv 
IacLAxn s— NcarClrmarm. o>. Antrim. I'r. Moorr, 

i-M :— DoUr«Uey. Mr. Jtal/i. near PolgaUejr ! Dr. Boll. l>rw»yinuit ! 

Var. tufjtonunl*HnTa\ Nyl. unilcr surface of lhallux absolutely 
■ unnntcllose j back of rretptatfe rugate or toria<- te, or 

itly areolato-granulose or ajcolato-rugulose (medulla white K 

On old ash trees. 

-Nyl. Lapp. or. t>. 116. 
Ex» : -Folhn. 67. Aiul L»i w .!i. 252. M. ft N. 25S upp« (paclniaii. 
nana. Diktkib :— E, Lapluid, Lombardy, Switxerlanil. 
Hot. Paor.— 7.. .lft. 

BcoTLAirn :— H.ukI of Loch A wo, Anrylwhiro. Rce. J. M. CromUr. 
Walk :— Prw«yn»nt I 

2. .V. tonuntosum, Hffrn. livid or livido-castanooua or htrldo 
fusoescent, lobato or iaciniato-lubatc, glabrous below, tomentosc 
upwards, under surface jxde and viUott, (medtUla whit* K—J; 



apothecia tcrtnooo-nifous or rufo-iuacesoent, margin protruded, 

uumdari-tomentose, erenttlale ; back of rtcrpiacl* viU«*t ; spores 8, 

eolonrien h faBoeaoent, Ibaifunui cUong ::• . puti • 

On trees nnd rocks, very rare. 

-HITw. PL G*rro. '•. i>. 108. NyL 8yn. 3W. Lcighi 1. c. 
8. f. IdS. A. 


Flu :-I>ill. Muac. t. 38. 

Kx» ^Sehmr. 250. Zw. 170. in part M. * N. in j»rt2>2. Toole 11 Smrft 60. 

Gcoo. Dmtub :— Knmne, N. America. 

Itcrr. Faov i— 1...1& ..24 

Scutlaxd :— InTarcauM ! Mr. R. Brown. (1792). Craig Ctanv, in Brarmar. 
Jttt. J. M. Cromlnt. 

Km;la.m» :— IUngton ; North Bovoy ; Manama ; Oliagford ; WhliMcui Park ; 
l'»iU.>r lUck, Ac., Daron. Mam. Jenu ii KmgtUm. 

Ibblakd :— Dorrydaro Iiland. co. Galway. Mr. LarhaUutitr. 

Var. ramtuvi, Scoter, glaucesoent, broadly l"bnte, ante surface 
pale and villoee, albido-papillaUi, psuudocyplu-lliit*. 
On tree*. 

:. .— Schajr. Enum. 18. (1850). Nyl. Syn. Sill. I/tight. I c 
r. 60S. And 87. 
Gltoo. Dintkim:— Switzerland, Hungary, Italy, Sitadau. 

Bot. P»or :— 14. 

8«rn.«si>; - Furfanhiro 1 Mr. IHcJfon. 

3. IF. Ixukanirwn, Scliier. lividivcartAnco-fhacesceut, rotnndatw 
lobatt, margins CTMMft . Di I aafrtfiwat)y miuntcly oratalate, crisped 
and uudulate, smooth and tomewhal thinn bttbttlh pale, 

glabrous and somewhat rugulose, (medulLi /,.• K rrtl); 

Lena fuaco-rufous, margin of receptacle erenai, 
cvrml, back of receptacle minntrty drprt*»o-<trtolaU ; aporc* 8, 
fusceaccnt, fiwifiinni-.jbl<ing, 3-Mptate. 

On mossy rocka, trees, and stones, frequent. 

Srx .-Sohnr. Etmm. (1850). Leight. L «. 

Flo ;-K. lfc.1. L 916. 

Bi»i -Mudd 67. Am. 479. I«ight. 107. Nyl. Pyr. or. 86. 

Gcoo. Durrani :— Switzerland. Fyrenaca, Portugal, Italy, Canarie*. Jut, 

Bor. i 3.5, 6. 7...1&, 11 la.Jli. 16 la. 

E»olaspi Barrfalal Qggwmv .eland. Mr. MwM. Owntaikod 1 

,1rV« .Sfcuwrr. Peatrega*r! near Ovwaptrr. A«. 1". .So/mry. T.mpiny ! Do ton. 
Itr. tkaiin. near Launeaaton ! Cornwall: A»hhurton ! uw Tntn**, Drroo. 
Dr.Uoll. Bkklay! 1>»yi.ii ; M>k«anl ! Cornwall ; .Vr. Z>. J\imer. Shiplojr 
■ I. Kgltatuno, Darium. Mr. Mobertton. Dear Hasting*, Stuaox. Her. K .V. 
Blom/idf. Suawx ooMt, Paieniu*. 

800TLAKU >— Cane of ArdfMiar, 8 to. taat from Fort GeorRo! near Cawdor! 
Kefkv linn ' Craig Koynoeh I Mr. W. Gardiner. Crinan! ArxyUahira. Or. 
/..«iMy. Fall* .»( Moiww, Aberfeldy ! &r. Waf/. Bra«m»r I Mr. CrmU. Aiifit, 
Htv. J. M. OnmMtl Da»b*rt.jn«. Sir J. g. Sn«K 

lauAKD:— Sboro of Lough Tay: Lnggolaw I Atlm. Jona. GUnam, o>- 
Antrim. Prof. Diekit. 

im: <;arth*wiii. Mr. Griffith- Doljjclley • Barmouth! Drw»ynant ! 
Glyn I near Canal Cwig. G»ydlj »ooda ! Battw^y-coad. Trrfriw I Maaornww 1 
oaar Fiiogvard, r « u bro ka wJlf». Tnmadnc ! 

Var. I/ibentieum, Nyl. medulla white, K rod ; back of receptacle 

i-«ks rare. 

IWI iMtfltto p 

Iuuxd .— Dougkruagh Muuntaia I Mr. Urbm l aHer. 



Sub-twbk II. PELT1DEI. 

Stratum gonidiale formoil of grnnula gonima, not gonidia. 
Apothecui inar>;iiial on the uppor surface of thullus. Spores 8, 
oolourlww or slightly fiwcosccnt, fusiform. 

II PELTIGERA. (IlffnuJ Atk. 

Tlmllus rncmbrauacoo-lobiite, fragile, cortical layer not con- 
tinuous on tlio under surfaco and there generally nerved tad 
rhixinose. Apotheoia marginal ou upper surfaco of thai I us. 
Spores 8, colourless or slightly fusceseont, (bdftttt, 3-5-7-eej'i 
Stratum gonidiale of gmuula gouima not gomdia. 

A. Apolheeia adnate. 

1. P. aphthom, (L.) glaueo-virttcent or livido-glaucesoent, broadly 
membranaceous, smooth, with pah brown pattiliform, or verrucof. 
deprttted cephalodia, beneath either reticulato-uigricauti-ncrvcme, 
or continuously fu < ;mt, with Lroiul whitHi iij:hl-:ii : 
thecia fusco-rufewcut, rotuwlute, luluate to a narrow kwacdmg 
thalliitu lobe ; spores 8, colourless or fusccsceut, fusiform, 3-7- 


On shady alpine rocks. 

Syk : -Linn. Fl. Stiec. 100H. NyL 8yn. 822. Mudd Man. SL 

K B«t 1119. Ryl flj - Uoj.i. S,„„vn t. 19. 1. ITS. 

-Tuck. 9. 102. M A N. Ml. Mudd 58. Mae*. 12. Auzi It. S. 90. Hepp 
178. Seh»r. 891 
GBoxi. I>isTkih .•— N. Europe, N. A«ia, N. America. 
l'iiov:-o.. 7. » .10, 11 .11. IV '.v.. SO. 

• : — CrainfortU; ami DowBtOO CaeiU, llirrfi>nl>.lilr*. fire. T, .Vi/wjr. 
Cheviot*, above Lnnglcy Ford : GunurrUm <'nuj«; She win : Shields, Nurthum- 
berland: Ha^erag Wood In T.odale Foreat, Durham. .Mr. Wiack. Holu-lcfc. 
..'. Hnrnman. near BtUttOO. t>r. Hull. CUnBtOBl Laat!*tgh, Ac. IVum. 
Me— ft. Jones and Kinptton. Swiminp. Allendale, N afold, 

Alston. Cumberland. Rex. W. Johnson. 

8cot:.axii:— K.H.t .if PcnUaod JlilU. Mr. TaUtm. nc»r tho Fall» ■>« th« 
Clyde, in fruit. Main. Turner A- Hooker. DMT Babbie 1 ! How, in the IVntlnud 
BUb. Dr. Untitle. Abbey St Batluuie ! Dr. O. John/tone. Sand* of Barrio and 
weetaideof the White Hill, Fnrfanhire, in fruit Mr. W, Ciantimr. Bank* of 
the Garry. Blair Ath.dc. Jiev. J. M. VrvmKe. 
Wauca — Uyn,rludlyii ; Breldden, Ktr, T. Safiwy. Kglwyaoi Rooks ! 
laciAiru :— Sallagh Braea, near Belfant Mr. Tcmplam. co. of Berry. Mr. I>. 
Moore. Twelve Pin ■noro. Mr. Larbalestirr. 

; K.r»e.00!)U..O12in. |.,n K , by .00075 in. brood." (MudJ.J " Sporea .060- 
92 nun. long. .005-0 mm. broad. 1 * (NyL) 

2. /'. atniim, (L.) amacmt or cincrco-pallosccnt, opake, more 
or less Umgilttdiintlly laotiujswimpreutd, m/jfff* -, rotun- 
dato-lobate, under surface longitudinally appreBHO-ullKt-tomcntosc 
with imminent pale anaxiom'mimj vUlvto-tomcnlvtt nerves extending 
to (Ae very mar<jin and cloth<d with tufts of pale rhitinw ; apothecia 
fuscous or fuNO-rufous, nilnuto, maryi* ntarly entire, lack of recep- 

.'niformly temetUote, almost svbfurfuraaous ; spores 8, colour- 
less, elonguto-fiwiforni, ;i-3-scptatc 

On mosey earth, stonefl, ic. very OOa n. 

Sra :-Unn. YL Suec. 1109. Nyl. Syn. SM. Mudd Man. t2. Grevillea 3. 168. 
Fio:-B. Bot. 2299. Dill t. 27. Bg. 102. B. Heyp s^.rcnUfte. t. 



I. Welw. 15. Sehivr. 28. HappnTS. Anxi It & 91. Man- 
■ .1. SI. Keirfa. tunl Schub 114. Wap. 19. Mudd 88. l»eieht 141. 
Of' -Kuro|«, A*i», Africa, V and Central America. 

it. . : l 12, 13 . .1.'.. 19 (l»—»). SL 

HjilDt- Berwick upon -Twned ! I*. O. Jokntton. Worcester '. Dr. Ball. 
Xcrthumbarland anil Durham. Mi. Windi. Kelvcdon, Kaaca. Mr. Virtu*. 

nnbire, Mr. Porta. Midland CountJc*. Mr. Purtan. IWdfordahirv. /!■ 
AH*. near Ayton. Mr. MmU. Gimttinv. »aaan. Ita. E. A\ BtoomJIeU. 8win- 
I i]». Northumberland ; Foreahicld, Alaton, Ciim»*rian.L fir». 
ft. JoKaMon. Sbrcfialiire I 

Sootlaxd : Vorfarwhlr*. Mr. W. Oonlintr. Long Iiland : Arran. Prof. 
fhl/our. Urn l-w-r. I Dr. ffctl. CaarUwrock Road, fiiimfrlea. Or. LiaJtof. 
I«3.*Ki> .— Common. Mr. Carroll, 
Wam» :- Dolgfulor ! Dr. Uoll. 
Cha.-1.mkl Imlahim :— 4 '.1111.111111 OB all the Manila. Ifr, Istrhnlettier. 

laorta, .000 to .01" . by .0007.'. In. broad, t 1. f. 82," (MtdJ.f 

"Sporee .06* -70mm. long, .0015 mm. broad. * (tTgt.) 

f. crilipn, (Wblnb.) tllilT .'.::i|. k 

Srx .— Whlnb. Ia\pp. 44ft (1811) Mudd Man. 88. 
Kxa i-L^ht 20i 

KxansD t— Ayton ! Uwbrawrh riot I York»hirw. J/r. Mi 
Iwti~\N^i : <;ii-iiiUlon«h ! Kyletnore I Mr. LarbalrmKtr. 
m :-N«ar Dulipfiajr I 

3. J*, malitrra, (Ach.) uinerco-irluucMiCMtt. or irliiHco-fiiacOTCcnt, 

■qrtlU'i: UnOOtll but j .i:rn hit., ti.u nil tolIlXK upwards 
l/ir.-iti ; under .surface tomeilUKK- 
iittiwd tmflumt, brown, tomrntnte rpongiote nervet term- 
ing I paitr brown uniformly tomtntote margin, densely in 
'. tpongiote toward* the eettfr* and butt ; apothocitt IViaoorul 
incised, #/nni\t*itt or (named; bade of reoopi 
eoartely fnr/uraceoKt ; spores 3-G-6eptat«. 
On tatmj earth, 1873. 

\,h. Sjn. p. 240. .1 Syn. 32S. OrtTillca 3. 166. 

Sturm 1 1. Pl.t 17. lUnuStuNtiL 7. I 
]■:<-.: \|. and m. 2S3. Ana H.S. 89. Kabb. 70S. Reich, andSohnb. 

HA, HeppOO. Lelght. 361. 

•u.l, Crnnanr, Swaden, Italy, Havana, Hungary, 
Himalaya. N. America, KrivwIeii'dLand. 
6, VII [6 
K>m '.'.:'■ Kwinnon, K. AUmidale ■. rl mil. Iter. W. Jolmam. 

Kairlithf and II ■ Church Strtttoa : High Uock, uoar Brhhmoitli ! 

Sharpitoi, < ■ lia ! 

J M. CromUe. l 
Wau» :— Mannrowiii ( near KixhtfUivrd, hire! Bcnarth ! near 

Conway ; between Corwcn mid BaU ! Crab; llmldden ! 

m .466— M nun. Iiiiik. .005- 6 mm. broad." (Jfyl.) 

i. /'. rafetttn*, (Hfl'in.) p:i!o urtuu or cinereo-rufeseent, rotun- 

datololwto, ttnodih, plaint*', * flocooee or i 

tomentoeo, teM permanent dork niffny/uteotu nerve*, terminating in 

tmed flattened eon fluent pale l/ivren ttnallrr nerret at the. margin 

■ratlertd tufts of dark rhizinn: towards the er. 

•pothocia fiisoutia or rufo-fuHLOus, margin rrrunlate, t-aei of rcccp- 

tn«lo nermcaioftirfuracrotu. 

On incewy earth, Ac, •■■ lOO. 

Bri ! Hflm. Fl 43«n.i 

K.BntaS00 n.ll | :•: f. 103. H«wi Sporm I 

Id to. H*wi M Kekh. and Schnli. 110. Sf^not 57. Am. 620. c 
ViOO. Davrata I— Karopo, Aria, N. America, N. Zaahuad. 



BOT. PBOV:-l ...-, I,, 7 in, 11 .13, U. \\ Hi, 17, is ..20, 21. 111. 

Enulaxd: -Berwick upoo-Tweed I Or. O. Johnston, near Wontfixliir ! Or. 
Hull. Gimiiartmi Or* • Mat liorwoaford: Shewing Shield*, Northumberland; 
Teeadale and Healoy Field, Durham. Mr. li'inrA. Luatfeigh &W, Devon. 
Jfr. 1'artlU. Midland Countlc*. Mr. Purlon. North Borey IM«nat'>ii ; Il<iii - 
|QB ; Milhorn Down, n*tf Nuwt<m Abbott. Musrs Junes at- Kingston. nc»r 
Eaaby! Mr. Mxvhi. OM^fords ! Hill ! Urimhill ! KhrnpablN. 

Scon.Asri j— Common. Bm J.M. Crombie. ; — Romciarber\ :illyna<farde. Limerick. Mr.Carrott. 

W.iLDt -•— Barmouth ! Iter. T. S>ilvx<j. Dolgulley ! Manoniwen ! near Flab- 
guanL Moel-y-geat ! near Tramadoc. 

OUDB JblaSCH:— Giiernwy. Rei\ T. Salary. Jurmy. A^r. l*irl*dtstitr. 
" Sports .042— «2 mm. long, .004—5 mm, broad." (Nyl. I 

5. P. spuria, (Ach.) cinereo-Tirescent, smalt, digitato-lobaU, 
lolv-, HOtOa i Qgj Bmontli, ghibrous M /'/■■ .'■■nrr /i'h /, 0dp m $O4OB U It 
lellose upward* towarda the apothecia, ww&r surface whitish ioUA 
thick coarse ipongioso-tomentose turves and interstitial longitu- 
dinai wliitish lacuna ; tpothdd*. fiwcoua nr rufu-fuacoua, roundish, 
margin irregularly crtmtlatt or denticulate, bad of receptacle densely 
irregularly spongioso-tonientost ; spores 8, nciculari-fuMifurm, 3 7- 

On the earth, rare. 

Sis' -Aoh. Prodr. 189. (1796.) Nyl. Syn. NK Madd Man. 83. 

Fiu : -E. Dot. 1542. 

Ex* :— llrpp 576. Spruce A mat 50. l'Vllm. "1). M. and N. 837. Am. 38L 

Ona. I >I« I l:i ii : — Europe, Auntralaxia. 

v:-l. 2, 3 31. 

Km, us ii : BltfWx anil Suffolk. oVr W*. J. Hnnkee. near Borwiekupon Tweeii. 
Ol '■..' ton 0«we»try. Sliro|*hir-' ■ 'Iwji. near ToIiiam ; Shank- 

lin Down*. I*lo of Wight! JJr Hull. Kclredon, Enaex. Mr. Vurtiim. Exwick. 

EkfOB, \fr. Par/uu Wall bbIw Bayvoodl BcgUthl Boptoa Him Sutton 
Lane I Loppington ! Shropthire. 

SotFTUXD :— Troaaach*! Blair Atholo. Rev. J. M. Orombte. 

mm :— Yiiynfaig. VJri-. 7". Sntoty. 

Chasxkl Ihlaxus .— Guorn*ey. Ren. T. Salvey. 

"Sport* .00S-7S mm. long, .0035-43 mm. broad." (>/#/.> 

P. polydaetyln, illl'm. glaucc-palleacent or pallidc-fusceacent, 
digitato-lobate, lobe* ascending, glabrous and xhining, smooth or ob*0- 
letely imprtwwd, liencath with thick coarse tjmngiotoJvmentose faMoa- 
nigricant anastomosing more or Uss flattened turves, and inMnHtki 
longtitudinal whitish lacuna) ; apothecia fuscous or fusoo-rufescent, 
longitudinal rcvoluto nwrgin irregularly crenulaU, back of recop- 
luli; sub-vtrrucoso-lomeittOBe ; sporce 8, colourless, attenuato-fusi- 
lunn, 3-7-scpt*tc 
On mossy earth, &c, rare. 

8t» :— Hffm. Fl. G«nn. 2. 106. (1705}. Nyl. Syn. 326. Mudd Man. 83. 
L. t \. t. 1. 

Ex».— Bold. Wi. and 7!. In '. 10. Sollwr. 30. Mam. 260. M. and N. CS3. 
Ami It. 8. 04. Mudd 61. Leight 172. 

Obm. DlnTmu .—Europe, Atla Africa, Polynmla, Auntraliuiia. 

B-jt. Paov :— 1 ". 10,11,29 it, !■"■. lfl—lin— 301,31. 

Lixi>;— Kildale Moor! Cleveland. Afr. Mudd. <W«try and Ludlow*biro. Rev. T. J a fw ay. near Egiiatonn, and mi bank* of the Dorwent near 
Gibdde, Durham. Mr. WmcK AlphiDgtoni Stoke Wood, DttOB. Mr. AMM. 
Swlnnop, Kant Allendale, Northumberland. Rn: W. J„hnxm. llwngton | p. 
Kail ; bttween Moreton and latter, Uovon. Meiers. Jones «t JCiwiton. Midlife! 

«# 8c ^ L t? D: r W,, y at Craigbou** near Bdinbonb. Dr. Orerille. Forfanthlre. 

n ?? r i'? r ; Lo iW„^ Uml: Arn "- J ' r "'- ""'/•""•• near Aberdeen ; Brae- 
mar ; BUir Athole ; rullm ; Lorno. Rrr. J. A/. Cromlnt. 



IbsLaXO :— Not nnfremimt Mr. CnrrtJI. Gleodalough, Mr. La t UUtier. 
Ciiaxhel Ikasiki :— Guernsey, Her. T. Satiety. Jenwy. Mr. LmrbaUtlitr. 

liymeitina, Ach. glabrous, somewhat shining, under surface 
nearly without wins, fusco-fibrilloso. 

Amongst mosaoB on the ground, sparingly. 


Ba : -HeppHSl. 

Circa. Diirrsin .— Ean>i"?. 

Bor. Psov i 

SooTLA.-ru .— Glen Lochay, Perthahlrc. Ml J. M. OnmUt. 

V«r. collina, Ach. lobeserisped, margin! Borediato. 

On Uie ground, rare, 1875. 

. :-Ach. St*. Sfr. Kyi Syn. 337. 

i . 

Ihuaxii ;— KilUry Bay and Kylemor*. Connomars. Mr. Lartalatitr. 

7. . (Dicks.) Tireecenti-cLnereous, tprtading, ei 

. ii;i|iii suil.ui ."'tbrou* Mine, minutely drjiretxhymnnln' 

n« «ndul<\to<renate critprd and nrtio-tortdiatt, under 
side v.uii pali tomeatOM flattened anastomosing 

nerves and interstitial white lucutiw ; npothocin fuscous or fusco- 
rufeacent, adnate, suboH; ;il >, margin irrryuiaAy ermukile. Uui 
ofrtteptode tyonffioto^omffUott ■■; spores 6-8, colourless, acicular or 
isilorui, 3-soptate. 
On mossy earth and trees, rare. 

Bn -Dicks. Cryut, bee. 3. IS. (txcl syn.) (1793.) NyL Syn. S2J. Mudd 
Fio :-E. Bot. 1834. 

I Lsngob. K. Sjiruce Atnst 410. M. mil N. Ml. Babh. 914. 
N America. 

i.:— Westmoreland. Sir J. g. SmitA. Pentregncr nrar Oawcutry, 

Shreiahire ! IU Ulcr and itead Wat. , 1 ". II North l.rUnd 

r, South Ivy liridg*, 8. Devon! Dr. MM. Lust- 

Well Cl*»». I»«on. Mr. /•■tr<it. nw Symonds Yatt. Mr. YT. Jut, 

BCOTtAKDi — Srotbuul. Mr. JMataM. Inrcrsuy. Miur$. I). Tuner •(' IluJttr. 
«'li. »*. ifr. V. ' near the lino Ilil 

H'. SoWfMC .( Dr. Orerilt. Rumbling Bridge. Prof. Jtal/i-ur. KUlln, Perth- 
shire ! /'■ . // "■ TnMck rtrt. J. M. Vrvmt.ii. 
Wales :— llafud. OarAgauUf*, Mr J. K fihatt. Coriygedol and Uyn 
.. •. T. Stltctv. Xannaii, ne»r Dolgolley ! J>r. //off. (ilaiuirtru ! I 
bedr. Gwyilir wood* ! Bcttwi-y-ooeiL 

B. .!, »/<r/. 

8. i*. honzvntalit, (L.) polo or pallidofiiscescent or | 
pallescent, rotund. , ijialrrout, tmouth or dightly isnprmtd, 

thinixj, margins ainuato-civi :itc unil «li;;htlv undulate; uikI.i- 
surface with pale brown and fuscous buttk ooarw flattened aaa\to- 
mofllng or confluent nerves and Interstitial white , apo- 

thecJ* fuscous <>r fuscous-Mack, rotundatfn- 1 Uiptical, pUmt, A«n- 
tmttd; ruargitts irrtyularly ermulnlr, often injlrxrd, back ol" n p. 
toele t>rrru«x>«)-l«»«/oa; / spores 6-8, oolourless, or pale fuscc 
fastfom, 3-sepute. 

On inoaay rooks, trees, and walls, not oomnion. 

-Lino. MwL U Mud.1 Maa. S4. 

i : t. 888. INiL Mew. t. ». I 4-U Nyl. Syn. t. 8, L ». Ilej.p S|wien 

t. »;. t. est 

• or 



Em .— Bohl. ST. BctaA 27. Breutcl US. Nyl. 110. Tuok. 11. 12. M. and M. 
S4& Mudd«2. Maod. 27. U» 214. Uiicht. 10%. Anzilt. S. 93. H, T1 , TO. 

Groo. Dnrnm :— Europe, N. America. 

Bor. l'Roy:-l 10. II. 1-' II. I.\ I'". ..Ui, 20 2C...30. 

"LASU :— Bardon Hill. Leicestershire, for. A. Jitoxam. KwwSok, Cumber- 
land. Mr: Stantftr. Yorkshire! Mr. O. Dixon. Stogdale | mid Omeray Gill 1 
Cleveland. Mr. Mmdd. Orabjforda, Onweatry, Sbxopahire; WkkeUff Bock*. 

Exeterj IUIugtmi, Ac., Devon. Alum. Jona ii Kawduii. Baekiivll diurviiyi I 
wall! Lttlediall Abbey ! SlimpUitra, 

8ooruur» .-—Loch Toy, Perthshire ! and Aberfeldy road. Dr. IAi»l*i<t. Ber- 
wickahlra! Dr. O. John i ft ifirahire. Atr. Oardtncr. Ami, Prof. Balfour. 
Breadalliaiie, Appin and Locb*b*r. for. ./. Jf. Crmnbit. 

Ikclakk : Lota Wood. Cork. Mr. J. Carroll, near Kfllarney. Dr. TayUrr. 
Deny and Antrim. Dr. Maori. Glaodalough ! Doughniash I Galway. Mr. 

WaLta ^ Aber. for. U. Davit*, valley nbovo Halfway Honao, between Bar- 
month and Dolj[eII«y. for. T. &ilu*y. Gwvdlr woudal Bettwi-y-cocd. Bivcr 
Gwaino ! Manorowcn ! nenr Kivlucuard, Pembrokeshire. Bontnowydd ! near 

'•Swire* .006 to .006 in. Ion* l.y .001 to .0012:. in. broad." (Mudd.) "Spore* 
.0»— 12 mm. long, .006-7 mm. broad." {S'yl. ) 

far. tmucertm, Sebiar. •mailer ii tit. 

Amongst mosses on walls, W 
StII t— Sohasr. Spic. 264. Kmiin. 21. 
Gboo. Di-sriun : -Europe. 
Bar. pRov-i-ir. IS. 

BoOTLASb :— Glen Ixtobay. for. J. M. OromlAt. : Kylomore, and near Delphi, Coiinemora. Mr. LarbaJatier. 

9. /'. veruMo, (I_) pale or pallido-tiiiLTcuu* or rffUmr-ffbmrir 
scout, small, simple, sub-a*cendin<j or auhercct, jUiMliformi-l,. 
smooth and glabrous, «' M bauatk, imh tirvnn btacJc or 

fustous-blaxk nerve* rami/yiiu/ from t/ie base ; apothccia fuscous- 
block, rotundatc, piano, I . disk rough mid granular, margin 
ttriixto-atufln!, ; I nick of rvivpt Kflfl nigro~tom<; 
colourless or palefuscosccnt. fatifbrtt, 3-toptate, 
be earth, rare. 

Bra - Linn. ri. Bum. 1099 ■ Syn. B& tdodd Man. 84. 

:-K. lt"t. J^7. Hllin. PI. L. t. >'.. f. 2. HeppSporen t. f. \T.'. 

Ex» : Hepp 172. Sobaw. 27. M. and N. iaa. Maaa. 17. Au/.i It. S. !«. Keich. 
^,(1 Sehub. 4ii. Kubh. 814. 

Geo EuroiK-. N. Aiua, N. Amerioa. 

Bot. Puor :-.'■ IS, 14, ir. ., 80. 

Kjc«I-axi>: — WbitcclifT Book*, "■•ar LndJOW, Sliniiwhire t 

8i\rr!.ASTi :— Poo* of Ben I.awcr« I and Birkx of Aberfeldy. Mr. Huyh Itafr 
miiSan. near Killin, Pnrtliahlre ! Dr. tlilrtrut. Ben I.nweni ! Mr. -' '.irroff. 
Pa« -f KUUccranlde. Pertbubire- for. J. Daltun. Glea Kill l.inn .U'l 
Duin/riemhir*. Dr. BurpiM. Blair in Athole. Me*m. Horrent 11-iUr. Uabbim 
How In tbe Pentland Hilla. Dr. (Ira-Mr. Koelcjr Unn : foot "f Uiu White Hill 
abn« Auohterhouae, Forfanhire. Mr. W. Danlincr. West Water, near Old 
Caetle of K.t|r*ll. Mr. H. Croatt. 

Ik«i.axi» .— Knocka«h HiIIm, en. Antrim. Jfr. D. Maort. 

, : . by .001 to .00128 in. broad. 1. 1. f. 23."(.U«J</.| 
.ea.030— »."■ linn. I ■•■■-, (HJ7-S mm. broad.- (A'V.I 


Thiillua membranaceous, opako, atratum gonidiale co'tuiattng of 
granula gouima, not gonidla. Apothoofal Innate, scatbnvd on the 
upper surface of thallus. Spores fuscous, Inlocular. 




TlialluB fragile, cortical layer not continued over the under 
surface, which ia obaoletely uervoae. Apotheoia rotundato or 
oUoBg, -I'lulioeo-ruAwcfnt or fuaoous-black, Innate, scattered on 
upper surf toe of tlmllii.M. SpoHtfbjloOtUi 1 septate. Stratum goni- 
iliiilc of grtanla goobaa m-i gonidia, bright greon. 

1. S. croctn, (I..) oiriaetout, enniiiinomuour rufeaoeuti-cinora- 
it, (■ lurk-green inn ntoitt) orbloular, laolnlata lobata, lobes ro- 

tnndool>ovate, BHirg U I niiilnl.itc, <i/-/',iu Mow, smooth 
upward*, under mrfaet dap orattge<oloiii-fl, ,i),pr<$*o4ommtose, tub- 
)Hilnuil"-)ic.r\\>»( ; npothocia fuscous or fiisco-rufeseeni. n .mulish, 
itdiutte, plane, mbtmnid, immanjinatt ; spores b>, pulliilorufeaccut, 
fiusifurmi-eUipsoid, 1 -septate. 

On the ground in alpine localities, rare, 

8ta }-Linti II BoM 1101. (1755.) Nyl. Syn. 839. Mudd Mm. RV 

:-K. Bot. 498. Hffm. ri. L. t. 41. I. 2-4. and t. 42. f. 4. i. NyL Syn. t. 
a. f jo. n-|.i. S...H.I. i. («;. r r.77. 
Es- ■ 1 1 Ft. 5. Schinr. 24. lUbh. T67. Ana It. 8. 80. Fdlin. 7.'. 

flroo. Durrani : EuroiHi, .'. 

1 k>v : -14, 1J...19. 
Sojii.AM>: Forfarahirc. Mr. Ikm. Edinburgh. Mr. Marlny. top of Ben 
IjftWi:r« ! Dr. Hvrehdt ami Dr. Liiulmji. on nil the Broadaltuino Mountain* »t 

3000 ft. ox Brn v ill, back of Crate a* G 

MaoHJhyrdv, 4c. Mr. A. MetCmlav. lumrniu of tli« Hlirhland Mountain*. 
Baa Lomond A. Sir W, J. Hoofer. «uniu>iu of Baa«le», White Boat, 4c, 
Cfera. Mr. W. Onniiner. Peak of MamMuL Inveruewahlr*, Dr. B. White. Bon 
Lomond ; Morrono. llev. J. M. Crembit. 

Iiiki.a-.i. ; n, , i . ,, .. Dr. Maort. 

"8j>or««.007to.008ii.. loi.i-.lpy .002 io. hro»d." (Mudd.) "8porw.034— 
58 mm Ion*, .0:0-18 mm. broad/' (Nyl.) 

2. S. mevita, (L.) mevibranaceo-j ■■•», pallido-fusceseont 
(bright green when m.-i.-t ). ..i i.i,-ul..r. > 1 im.l.: lobfttft DkV fill • I ■!■ ■n-.Ilv 

and aluulowly eremite, smooth Mow, aIb>gratnuatopimhko»t up- 

fa . uudur tuirfuee jxiler, appresto-tpongioso (omenta**, rhuinote ; 

anothooh fiiacoun or riigrtvraaootta, imeuato-afprttttd; spores 4, 
rufofuaceaeent, ellipsoid, 1-aeptute. 

On the ground in moiat shady alpine I. .c:ihf i.-n, not common. 

8TH hUu Fl. Suec 1101 (1758 ) Nyl Syn. 380. Mudd Man. 88. 

Fio :-E. Bot. 288. Scaur. En. t. I I. S. Jouni. Linn. Soc. Bot. D, L 2. f. 8, 
H-i>i> S|".r«n I. 19. f. 171. 

Exa :-Nyl. 29. Hei.|> 171. Scha-r. 25. Mudd 63. M. and N. 61. Mau. 12*. 
And It S. ». B-.hl. 4. I)i,k.. 3S. Kahh. KA. 

i;>.!. In-ru*:— Enrop», N America. 

Bot. Paov .—8. 4. D ,16, 1* ..19. .27.. 30. 

Kxoionu.— N. W. Yc.rki.hir* j ...•.« IUUocV, HrrbyiAire ; Sir J. K. SmUk. 
raajliriilui-ln'm Her. R. Rtlhan. Falcon flinU and «Tiitc Force, Teeadalo, 
Dorh»oil Kildale, <Mdvoland! Mr. Mmld. Swdl«y Park, Y.irkahlr*. MrTw. 
BruntoH. St. Vincenfa BocV», Brfato] ! MU$ M. Atuvad. lDi;lebiiruu K h. Mr. J. 
C. Baltr. WmnUla ! ."Wr W. C. IVetWjnn. Cheddar and St, Vinorat'a Rock*. 
Mam. Turner and Somrby. Mlddlettyn-ln-ToeatUl*, Durham. Mr. Winch, near 
Boaton. Dr. MM. Via Oelli.-, iJarbytddr*. Ape» Tor. SUifordabiro. H. 
Ot*mi*. HMdin: I, Mr. Baxter. Fonahleld Wood, Alafen, Combtr- 

Lu>d. /ftr. IF. Johnroa. Whit. ! naar Ludlow, ahroi-hira. 

SooTUSii :- Ben Umn. Mr. H. Marmxllnn Ilicblanda of Scotland. Sir W. 
J. Hooter. Inchnadamff ! •> in, Glen Dole, Canlochan ; tilen 

Froaen ; R**1ct Linn. Forfarahlr*. Mr. W. tlmntinr, oaai Killin. I*. 
-Ii ; FinUrui, Killm I iLMla &r. /. if. Onmbit. 



WaUB^-Aiik!*"**, Ret. if. Diine*. (Jlyn, iiaar Capal Carta! 

Ikeulxo f-On Brandon Hill, Kerry ; Beu Hiilbtm, SlifD. Mr. J. T. Maehu: 
Coihandall. Antrim. /*•. Mont. 

"Spore* .008 in. Im br .0030 in. l.roa.1. I. 1. f. 24." (MiuM.) "Spore. 
.033-00 mm. long. .018—27 mm. broad." (Ifyl.) Spore* .05 mm. Ion*, ,09 
BUD. broad. 

3. .S'. Umlnta, (Sommf.1 »uAo>ria«»u«, fuscescent, dark-given 
and gtlmtinonl wli.-n moist, granuliilo-pluxtlo-gquamid',^. albo- 
prumose; apothi-eU fuscous Of nigTO fuscou.% A.' ■■,/,. ,.,v... 
bordered by a plane mmdti eremite atbo-furfuraetou* granulate 
margin; spores 4, nao-fuBOOMont, broadly and obtusely Mong, 
1 -septate. 

On the earth among wot mossy rocks, rare 

Htn :— s<iiimif. ki. Upp. US. [IMS.) Nyl. Syn. SSL M add Mm. 86. 

Fin :— E. Bot. 1374. Semmf. Kl. Lapp. t. 3. f. 19. .lourn. Linn. Soc. Bot. 
:>. Lt 1.0.4 n>. 

Ba i— Ami Laneob. 46. Smrft 14U- 

Qeoo. Dibthih :— Scandinavia, Europe, N. America. 

Bot. Phot:— I III, 11...15...80. 

BiOlAXO :— Purbam !:■ ..' fforrfaws. Alton, Cleveland! Mr. J. O. 
Baler. Cambridge! Mr. (>. llenDuim. Iiiifloborouxh. Ov . Uc<' 

MOOT, Cleveland. Mr. Mwl.l. 

Scotland :-llen Iwiwert. Dr. BoO. 

Inri.AND: Head of Oloniuritf. co. Antrim. Or. //..«. 

i .009 !u long, by.003 to .00» in. broad." [Mu,t,i.\ "Sporca 
•COO-ttt nan. lone, .018 Bm.MH.'' \Nui.) Sporw.OOS .iai mm. long, 

4. ■', Nyl. nil*. /ii-« i.msr, slightly derolopod, tcbamall . 

•!i]iici| by tin- crow I ■ I . ■ = i > 1 \ . 

ipothecia, or otnngod into mkJmsi or gwnsitott tkaffi* 
tpertt% rufo-fiiacouB, oblong, 1-soptate; strut um gonlmoa bright 
pa u. 

Ou eartli iu alpine localities, rare. 1*71 . 

St* :— Njrl. Syn. 331 (I860.) Stlrton in Grevillea, 2. 80. 

Nyl i .'■-. us.f. 42. 

Ex« : Am. 486. 

(tew. Dmtrih:— Pyrejiuien, Tyrol, North Italy. 

Bot. Paov:— 15. 

Scotlaxii : Bon Lawen. Or SttrUm. 

PiiaaiMy .S. HmUtfa and .¥. hiiurrrn may bo atatOM <>t 8. *tent*. " SpurM 
.086-88 nun. long. .039—42 DUD" (JVy.) 

Thnllus frondoscMliliitnt"- or lobfttO or lobfttO laciniate or ttellato 
:iat<-, BomotimM socaewhai t ■ r . 1 1-. mxd Bwtlo u lotoJinbrteBte. 
Apothocia locanorim- or in a (wpulifcnD rOCBp ta cl o . StCrifptata 
pluri-articulato or with arthrosterigiontn. 


Thallns, the uadff . urface rhixinoee, and 
with pulv.rul.ii' peoudo-cyi'lii'll r or tnu) urceolate crjphella. 
ApOfbMtft With distinct | W, Spur. :n, 1 — 3 rarely 





Thallns vjitk.u pUto4ob>t» i:!.i'!.i D 

Stratum gonidialc consist iiig of granula gonima of a dink Hue- 
green colour. 

A. Ptendcxyphellct wk Bt, 

1. 51 intrieata, (Del.) tho typical species figured in I> 
m, t. 7. f. 33. Iim not been ODMrroa in Great ltriuin. 

Var. Tkotunii, (I>«1.) coriaceous, pallidn-fusccxccnt, «N 
foocifr, lobes short and broad, teith t«ui<M*-*>hitt wrtdia sentterrd 
over the mr/iw, aud especially on (he }na>yint, under surface tomen- 
tom.' wgrc-fiisooeoont, paler brown towards cirvuiufcrcnco ; apo- 
theeia not found. 

On trees and rocks, rare. 

-Del 8t p. 90. fieSS, NyU 8yn. 3J8. Mudd Mm. 90. 

no :-DoL St. i 8. L ffl. 

Km i— Cronlii* 38. 

O«oo. IhHTBiH :- Africa. Contra) Anwrfca, Java. 

Hot. Psov 12...21...26...S0. 

EMLAxn :— N«ar Hay, Dartmoor. Dr. Hall. 

Scotland : -InrorarT. Atlm. Junu. Hen I^wcn ! Baraldlne, Lome, Rtr. J. 
U. Crrmhie. 

Ilutt-iKo:— Itntnil'in ; i-lcnum. Dr. M«nrt. Cromagluwn. Mr. 

OarnJt. Kanagh, co. Carlo iv. Adm.Jow*. Mountains of Maain.Cmiiriiiara, Mr, 

N. Walls i- Arthotf, near LM^lley. Rev. T. Saltan. 

B. Pseudo<yphella yellow. 

J. .S'. eroeata, (L.) lurido fusceer ng, broadly rottmlo- 

lobatr, emwie, rrtieitlatoJacunote, nl inflation* ami maiyiiu bearing 
tit rim soredia, under side fu*c< . ti-mentoso ; apotbeoia 

scattered, blackish, margins ornate, at length ox d 
6 — 8, fuscosocnt, oblongo-fusiform, l-«eptate. 

On trees, mosses, Ac. vory rare. 

Kr> i-Uan. Mant. 310, (1771). Nyl. Syn. 3W. Mudd Man. 80. 
toO.—X, But. 3110. 

-a. Dianii .—Spain, W. and Contfal Africa. Amtrica, Java, N. Holland, 
N /.. .:■-.„! 

I tor. Phov:-1...H, 15...W...30. 

-U(i> :— Dtrliaoor. /&». J. Jf. CromUr. 

ScOTL4>i> :— HiKhland Mountain* Mr. fi.ilvn. Olsn Morrirton. ItivrniiM- 
ulilio. M<urt. Tunny. .'. Drt^Ht. Ibvcrary ! Matrt. R..rrrr .(■ H-aitr. 

K.n Lawtn! I'.itU. of AI*rWJy. Jfr. .U„.W/«». rock* «mI el Dalmalmy 
Hill, nxar Kdinburtih. Dr. M*i~/«y. Ulca Falloch. Dr. UM. Gloom* ! 1,,. 

IrslaMi : < KalrtirMd on. Antrim. Mr. TrmyltUm. lletmi Iriand hi the IM?er 
Krnniarv. Itr. Tufl>-r. ii»ar CualiMMlall. oo. Antrim. Dr. Main. 

' nam. broad." fSJL) 

0. CypkHU ur<f 

3. 5. lit/tlxtia, (Sm.) jiulc ccniuo-rufcacont, monopHyllout, ro- 
l0*lublto| smooth and onaqna] 
amo-ooredialt, under surfWco pnlo brown, toinontot* ; a]HitlM<eia 

not »coa 



<>n mossy shady rocks and tr*0t, nit, 1748. 

Stx .— Su.. I .. 1 1 i 1104. (WW). Nyl. Syn. »4fl. Mudd Man. KS. 
Km :-~E. Bot. 1104. H«ii|) 41. f. M9, 
Em : -Larb. 15. Sehicr. 667. Wolw. Lurit 3. 
Geoo. Di.sTlun :— Kiimiir. 

Bot. Pbov i—l, •_'. 3 r., i;, 7.. .11. .14. 1»._1».. 99. si. 

E.VUI.AM) :— Haclcy Wood, near Oxford Ditleniut. (1745). Quau W.hxI, n«ar 
Ryd«. Itl..- .if Wit-lit : MM. gambnry Gill, T« aid lie Durham, itw. 

y. ffarriman. near Exeter. Devon. JWV. A. PmrflU, May Coppice, Herefordablre. 
A*. 1*. So/iorw. Kglsttpna, Durham ! Cheviot* above Tangier Ford. .\'..rt)nmi- 
barUnd. .1/r. tVincA. Torquay. Or I fell. Hcavitree, Devon. Mr. ParfiU, Bagtor ( 
North Bovey i Bottor rucks . Devon, .tfeorr, Jones * Kingiton. 

Sootlaxi> : —Braid Hermitage, near Edinburgh. Sir J. J.'. Smith. Oka NMlj 
Invaraaeihire ! I<o<:h»lwr. />r.,;. Birka t.f Altrrfeldy. Mr. Mnemilla*. 
Loch Lomond and Folia of tho Clyde. Mean. J*«m<T <fc Booker. near Balmntn. 
Z>r. tfrniAW Clova. J/r. <;. />.,«. Killin. />r. II 

Iaii_iiri>: — Near Cork, anil iimot MiicknMrt, Kill.iriu y. Iff, CarrolL near 
Belfast. J/r. TempUton. near Bantry. .Viw Hulthint. Killarnuy. J>c. CarringUm. 
Glenari:.. Or M 

Wa«s ;— Hafod. £■>/. JP. Smitli. Snowd.ui. Mr. ft. Tunnr. Ooraygedol ! and 
AUrgwynant. Act.. 7'. Sahotf, Gloddaoth near Conway ! Dolgolley ! Bar- 
ninnUi! Giyn ! near Capal Cnrlg ; Drwsjment! Cwydir wood* ! Bettwa y-cood. 

OmhI Artficyl 

I '|.a:.m::. I'm 

hlaxd* ;— Renal, Jcraey I Mr. Larbatatxcr. Jozbourg, Guernsey. 
Her. T. Satoc*. 
• • Spore* .005 to .006 in. long, by .00135 to .0015 in. broad." (MwM.) 

4. S. fitliginoxt, (Dicks.) cervino or cinoreo-fusocseent , mono- 
fhi/Uotu, scrobiculate, unequal, rotuiuto-lobeUe, centred ict'/A dark- 
Uidvtse effloraontct, under surface pale brown tomentoae ; apothocia 
scattered, nifesoout, yiUaoaliaie ; spores 6-8, colourless, fusiform, 
1-,'i wiptate. 

On rocks and true* In alpine localities, rare. 1785. 

8rs :— Dicks. Cr. Br. 1. 13. (1785). KyL .Syn. 347. Mudd Man. 88. 

FlO : E. But. 1KB. II.-pp Sporen t. 41. f. 37L 

Bxs:— Wahr. l.w-ii 7. Efchsjr. 888. Nyl. ». 'Aw. -J24. Ana It. 8. OT M. and 

QSOa DlxTinn : Bui m. Ami..., Ajntrioa, H, TissTsnd. 

Bot. Pbov :— 1...6, 6, 7. 13, U l*. W. M...X..M. 

Ksr,i.-.xi>:-Ambleaidc, Wcntiuoralaud. Sir J. X. SmilM. Rookwood Orerv». 
Booonnoi-, Ooraw*U. Mr, B. furittr. Caatollct rocka, Koawl.U, CumlMrUavl • 
Mn. Stangtr. Laiinccston ; rkxlinin. Mean. Turner i Svteerb)/, South Brant, 
D»«vm. Dr. JIM. Mortton. Devon. Mr. PorJtU. Bagtor Woods; IIhi.kI.hi ; 
Manaton, Daron. Mtmrt. Jotia ■(■ KingiiUm. WhitaolUf rncka, naar Ludlov. 


Scott Jtnu ■■ C'rinan Canal, Argylcahiro ! and GUoaak, FoWarahlr* I Dr. 
LinAtay. 1 near autnuiw of CUnlyi.n. Mr. 11 ..oar Dont- 

fria* (Id froit). I*. Ittch.vrHton. Falla of tho Clyde, and near Inrcrarv km) 
Ballytfcaulitn. Jfufrt Turner A Booker. Bold Craig, Moffat. Dr. A 
Langton Leea, CWneh ! Sir >r. r. Trmlyan. 

Ia*LA!ti>:— Roadaide between Keninare and Killarney. Dr. Taulur. Killarii. y. 
Dr. Gurrington. Derrrelare ! C.nncmara. Mr. Larba/eitier. 

Wale* :— Hafod, Cardiganaliir.. Sir J. t.\ 8mHh. Gartli W.hhIs and Cwni 
Bjrehan. Rtv. T. kbei Valley: Abeiilnvey : near Bangor. Rer. A. 

fflimaw Barmuiith and near DoU,'ellcy ; Glyn ! noar Canel Curlg ; Drwtynont .' 
Gwrdtr Woodi! Bettw»-y-oue.i ; Tnfriw! Qspd Al 

Cbaxjiki Gucrntey. An T. .wiery. Sark. Bonne Nitit Bay ; 

Havre Giffard ; La Codm, Jeiaey ! Mi: Lurbalalier. 

"8|»t*a .006 to .006 in. long, by .00125 t.. .0017* iu. broad." (M M.) 
" Spores .087— 10 mm. long. .007 -* mm. broad. " (Xul. ) 

5. S. qrtmliat, (L.) cervine or cincreo-fuscoBcent, terobiadate-, 
unequal, laeiniatoJobale, /ttrfunteetMu above; apothecia scaUtred, 
margin naked ; spores fusiform, 1 -septate. 



< hi mossy rocks, 1 

■a : - Um, S,.. PL No. <8. (17M). Nyl. Syn. 34*. Mudd Mm. 87. 

F»u: i Bol .:J!W. 

i-Schicr. 2AH. M. mid N. 155. Nyl. 1U. H«t>|> H6S. Ami It. S. Oft. 
lUhh. 9ia Mftht. 100. 

',,.,.. Iii-i.t;. - Kuropt, H. ■'<■■"< rita. 

Bor. Pnav.: - 1...5. ft I 16.. -19...28. 

:— O^YwAry, Shropshire : Hay Coppice, Herefordshire. Jfcr. '/'. 
Smluvy. Kielder wid DredwaUr Pell, Kurtfciitiilwrland. /W. Balfour. t:»w«iy, 
Kfteetane and Blackstiinc Bank Woods. Durham : Cherjott alwve I^uicUy 
Ford »nd Kaet ' Northumberland. Mr. Wimelk. near Bigbejiy, 

S. Devon. Dr. fieff. Badkitc" BaUareoa, Daren. Dr. Dicta*. Dartmoor. Afotra. 
Jvati A KiagMon. 

80OTLAVI'>: Killi,,. Dr. Salt, Falls ed Mono, Perth, Lady Wilton. Birlu of 
Aberfeldy, Mr. II. MatmOlm. Drumlaiuiij Wood. Ur. W. Sttrtm. Braemar. Mr. 
A. Croall. Fall, of the Clyde. Ur Jlopkirl. Invorary and Ballaeheuttsh. Utmrt. 
Turnrr * linker. Ai.pln and Loehaher ; liivarary. tor. J. Crembit- Reeky 
Linn, Forfarshire. Mr. W. Gardiner. New Hall. North Kale near Carlojw; 
Ulan Quolch, Ochil*. In. ATtrAeb. 

Inir.ASn r—BUck water Bridge, on. Kerry. Or. Tavlor. Uni^h taagh ; Con- 
Demara. Mr. Larbalatier. 

lis: -Barmouth! tor. T. Saluxy. near Dolgalloy. Dr. MM. Aber 
Volley, Khewgreidden. tor. A. Button*. TTefriw I Conway Falls I (jlaiisrlro ! 

'•Spores. OB— 27 mm. long. .000.— .010 mm. broad." \lfyl.) 

6. 8. Du/aureiy (DeL) Klauoeacent or glauoo-fujiecKOOUt, tmootk, 
mnrginH of lacmiiu minutely ilusrctojimiriate, uiidor siirfnco p«llea- 
Otnt, *li«l'llv t ■ itiLin i1 . • i. ■ or neiirly linked ; ■notlMOMI not moil. 

On mowy rocks and trews rnr«. 

Stk .'-DoL St p. 78, (182*). Nyl. Sya. 348. St. ttitata, Tayl. Made Fl. II1K 
J. 16J. «. rfepow. M.i.I.l Man. «. 

Fki :— DeL St. t. 6. f. 22. 

Ba :-Leifc'ht. 17X Welw. LaaltSL 

(iwiij. DisTRia :— Ktirwpe, Canaries, Madeira 

Bot. Pbov:— I 

k Walk, lUImm near Torquay. Pr. Dtntim. M 
Brrat, Devon. Dr. Hell. Clicketor Rocks, near Monhciuot Station, 

ScortAMii- A111.I11. tor. J. M. Crombit. 

1KB ilarney, Jfr CitrrollA Dr. Carringtvn. Askew Wood, co. Kerry. 

Dr. Tartar. 

[>. Afpfcttof* bullate. 

7. jS. scrolnctUaia, (Sco|>.) gtaur.a-fl<tvticeni, rtticulatojicrobicu- 
lair, nrtdiale : under surfnx* totBWntoW 1'iuooaocnt nlbidobulln'- -. 
apoUteota aoMtered, nmrgin thick cntiiv inllexod ; spores 8, colour- 
lum, fusiform, 8 7 

On ircw, ran^ 1794. 

Sts :-Scoip. CamooL p. SM. (177JV Nvl. Bm 358. Mudd Man. 87. 

Fw : -!•:. &«. <87. Pi. I., l 1. I. 1. liepp Sporea t. 68. 1 . 59t Mudd 

Exh :-Lokht. 30t Mudd 6S. M. an<l N. 444. Fellm. 74. Bcheir. 
t90. Welw. Cuidt. R. l^rU. 14. And Ktr. 47. Rabh. 8J7. 
li»W. DMTaiB :— Kurope, Asia, North Aintriea, 
Bot. Phot i—l, J . i: I5...19...M. 

tlo Howard. Yorkshire. Mr. TtaAale. 

119t). Krawick, Cumberland ! Mr,. Starotr. Otirray CUI, Yorkahire ! Mr. 
udd. CWnwood Korcet, LeieMtanMra I Qnam Wood. Ryde. Ialo of Wigat | 
tor. A- ftkoowa. r^, Durham. Xtw. J. Marriman. near Kii...«i. York. 
■biro, Afr. W. BrwUm. Exeter, Devon. Mr. Porta. Peomaiuhiei Wood) 
Bodmin and Liikeard. Minn. Turner A Sovtrhy. Rawae Caetle ! near Lonjifor. 



macua! Benrlck-on-Twecd. Dr. Jbfautm, Bm Oonfaa. Ilrrvfonlnliir. 
T. Snlirtn. Cheviot »Ikiv« Lantdey Knnl, Northumberland; Shipley Wood near 
Kj;leat»ne ; near tho High Force. Tccadalc: Watkerlvy Boars Mai Wei 
ham, Durham. Mr. WimS. Mat I •> Brido*, Smith Devon. I>r. /fall. Plym> 
Torquay ; AnBteyCove, Ac.. Exeter. Mr. ParjUl. Miill'uuH 'ountiea. Mr. I'urion. 
Kieldcr and Dcadwater Fell, Northumberland. P< ■•'. ahw Kail; 

Boutnr Wood. ; Luatlelgh CUt* ; North Bo ray: Ii li; Bottor Rock* ; 

North Pomeroy Cartle, DeTon. Mum. Jours and KinatUm. 

ScOTLAja):— Bern Nevi»! Or. Liudtay. Pcntland Mill*. Mr. Maui/iian.; 
Reeky Linn ; Ladle Craig. ; HBdl of Harri*. Mr. W. Gardiner. Largo, I 
(hire. Mr. Bowie. 

IiiKLAsn:— Near Bantry. Mitt Hulrhint. Killarnny. J)r. CarrimjUm. ;— < 'iinyiwdol >od Aberewyuant. Brr. 7. i:lii>ia>lr Da near 

DolgeHoy. Dr. itoll. Gwydir wood*! Bettwcy-coed. Trcfriw ! Cupel A riling ! 
Glanartro! Llanhedr. 

Chaxkil ISXAVDH :— La Coupe, Boulay Bay, Jersey. Afr. Larbalatkr. Jar- 
bourg, Gaernncy. Rev. T. .SufuY./. 

" Spore. .010 I.. ,QU in. tag .00175 In. broad." (MuM.) •' Sporw .050-08 
~n. bag, A06-7 mm broad. ,T (Aty.) 

II. STICTA. (Aeh. pr. ,-.) 

ThalluB variously lobed or laciaiato-lobate. Rhizimu aitupli!. 
Stratum gonldlale consists of true gonldls. of h yellow green 

colour. A Eeyjthe.llatr, bullato-reticulatrylonunlote beneath. 

1. S. pulmoTiarifi , Aeh. pallido-cervinc, rrlimlato-j' 
tinuUoUohatt, nnwit If, trvneitlt, under lurface rrUrulfitn-tomemtote., 
hullaU ; apothecia marginal, margin ruguloac, oreuulnto ; "pores 
colourless, oblongo-fusiform, 1-3-scptatc. 

I On trees. 
Auli. 1.. I', p. lt!i. I1H10), Nyl.8rn.XS1. Mndd Man. 87. 
E. Bot. 572. Hffm. PI. L. t. 1. f. 2- Nyl. Hyn. t 8. f. ». 
Exa :— Welw. 2. Maw. JS. Ilepp 801. Sehrr. m. M. and N. 63. Aari 
it. 8. ML Bnrft IBL r.. it h and Betook. iw. Ltlpht. 7«. 
GlOu. DbTRO : -Europe. Africa, Asia, America, Australasia. 
Bot. Phov^-1. 2,3, i. n>. 11. 12...15...19...81. 

. IJOTD :— Camelfonl ; I .aiini«nlnii. Miurt. Turner and Soivtrl,y. Charu- 
wood Foreat, Lcioeetenihire ! Per. A. Blnxam. Coppice near Ludlow ; Pentre- 
gaer near 0»w«»try. Ret. T. Sahtmi. Keawick. Cumberland. Met. Stunner. 
RtogdnUi, Cleveland ! Mr. Mmld. Kfpon, Vorkahlra. Mr. W. Bruntm. Bolthy 
near Think. Mr. J. U. Ilakrr. Ililka Wood", Ingleborougb. Dr. CarringUm, 
Haofurd Wood, I >'•••• 'ii»lilrc. Mitt M. Atieood. Ixingfonnaoua ! Dr. O. J«hm$ton. 
!«r and lVailwatcr Fell, Northamberlasd r*o/ Mar Nmthaiik 
and Itothbury, and Cheviot above Langley Ford, Northumberland : Blackotono 
Bank \S'i«vl near Wolnlngham : near Kgleatone and MiddlcUm-ln-Teeadal*, 
DnrlmTii. Mr. W\nch. betwevn Healltiy Fivld ami AJla&atord, Dnrlmm. Mr. 
Thornhill. near Tntneu. South Devon: Iale of ^Vi^rht. Dr. Boll. Teignmouth ; 
Budlei»h SalUrton, DtVOtl. Afr. ParfiU. Colcahill, WorwicWlire. A*, »'. T. 
I 'iVood near Oxford. Mr. Boadtr. Ukidm Vr. PurUm. 

Iiedfordahire. Rev. C. Abbot, CambridKcnhire. Rev. R. Rtihan. Ilfiiiiirt"" : Lwit- 
leU;h Cleva j Bcckev Kail n.-jir Man:it..n ; Whlddon Park: Harford: Berry 
I ..-roy Cattle ; Morwrll rook near Tavi»U«;k; Bi.tti.r hk'Iu, Duvi.ii. Mrtrrt. 
Jontt and Kinytlon. 

8ooTi.ANri : --Invrrary 1 Mr. W. Wilton. Bamcluith noar IJLwgow. Mr. i: 
Hrk. BeldCralfr. Moffat. Dr. Nirh.,1 Pentland HilU. Mr. Xtnahan, Unmby 
Wood. Dr. Ortvllle. I^nRton Wood! Sir W. C. Tretetyai,. <;i 
• Land!*; HOI of Torin: Reeky I.inn. Mr. H'. r; .. .,1. .,( St. Skan 

lar Uaao. Mr. A. CroaJI. Arran. Prof. Balfour. Finlarij; near Killin. Dr. 

VntUm Grainpian.. Rer. J. ,tf. (Vomi-ir. 
IliRr.A vi i :— Wood* iio.«r Killani.;. l)r Taylor. 

Wai.i» :— Baron Hill near Beaumaris. Rev. A. Blozam. Torrent Walk near 
noar Captl Curig, Bottw. ycood ! 




C*amtb. Iauna^-<hMtw#r> «•«•• r. Sato*. U Coup*, BoaUr B»y. 

aj,"by .0A15 W .001TB la. broad." (iT«U.) " Sport* .018- 
•m. broad" (JTW-) 

Jamrtor, nr. maerafAflln, (Hook.) pale fuseo- 

.,, tatootA, laciniato, toto bro*tlly diittttrl, tinuatt, rtttuo- 
tnateaU, under surface dark drown tocncntcac ; njwUwjei* mar 
or aeattcrad, margin entire or obsoletely crcuulato ; spores colour - 
kan, tamtam, 1-3-aeptate. 
On shady rocks, very rare. 

•ra.-Hook.Br. IX 1 *» ilSSJ). Mudd Man. ». Njrl 8ra- «• 
FN i-K. Bo*. SappL tSK. l!o|*> Spu«u t 'JO, t SU9. 

Caos. bniraia r— Aawrin. Africa, l'oh o«*». AnriialaaU 

I»fcJ» :- 1«. 

luLuur-Torii Caw*.W n*ar KilUnwyl Oomagbxm Mountains. Mr. 
WUm*. KiXUra*r(ia fruh|! Mr. Gtmtl. nuddd* near Keamarw and KuUr- 
mt. Z»r. I>ffar. 

— •*.*!." (Mmld.) 

C. P$rwk-<ypMlatt, ritrin*. 

S. attrtfo, Aoh. rtd, lotato, WntMto-iaywii, «y*i«afc»-«»<i« 
BitrM»jNi/irr«/aii ; fa fus<x>-utKric«uit, nil 

margins, tumcntoao ; apothoeia snbpodieeUate, margin 
inflated ; cporw fuscescont, Autforw, 3-aoptato. 
<m trow and rocks, ran 1 . 

Bra s-Ach. Math. iTT. I UfflTi NtL Syn. SO. Madd Man. W. 

ri& !-«. Bat »«. H*|.p Sporan I. 41, f. 578. 

Bxat-Walw. Loan. L J». Sprues Aawa. M. Sonar. W. Maudon 19. 

Urtai. l*. Letght. an. 

0BM. bOTBU:— W. Karopa, Africa, Tropica) Ada. F..1)-iic*U, Australasia, 

' Bo*. Pbot: -l. | :n. 

KiuLxm>-lHronMn. Mr. II..Un>. KjrvW, Id* .>( Wight ! /err. i< ' 
Ca«asn. Imjucob :-8*rk I Ida*.! ..( Mlwii. Mr. UaiaMirr. Scilly 

tatanda Ktv. T. Salwqf. JartmirK- " m T0A3 north of tlm Kper- 

' , Bark. Btr. T. Saltf. J*rix«*n>-. Muanwy. Mr. • ' 

III. HK'ASOl.lA, (UJjq 
TbaOui lobaic or laciuiatu, affm I i;. faaoioulata rlminie. Cy- 
I>im-11«i none. Stratum gouidia! ta of small yellow-greeB 

gooidia. Spcrmogoin:L la mastoid |ivinineuooB. 

1. II. rimpluriavi vcrMent, c<*riueeoiu, 

ubtr, lacimiiltO ttttiit, iimuatoJot>*Uue, ru-mlutt, <il<mulifrrtMt, under 
anrfatc |«lu I romrii/i^v, rhisiiut futc&tent ; apothccin ru- 

fotu, reooptack grmultitofmrfmntaiotu, matvin infiextd ; e| 
elnoijat^fujiifdrm, l-JUcjiUt.v | i. Q — ). 

rev*, not common. 
BTV >-8«.p. Cara. 1 |v 386. (lnt). ytMnVmi. UfbU. Njrl 8yn. 368. 
MaU Man. VL 

lSot 2M. Mka.Gao. t 4ft. DUX i •«. f Sporan t. 6*. 

KM : -Happ 504. Leight 110. Schar. ^80. M. and V, 840. Ann 1 *u«ob. 872. 
*W1QC. Lart-J.ta. 


Gboo. DmmiB :— Europe, Alwria, N. Awrici, Aria. 

lien. Paov :-l - r., .;, 7 11 U 1 :. I i. 1 • 19..M, 81. 

ErroLASii :— IJanfur.ia near Ogwmtnr, ShroMliire. fer. 7". Salary. Modbergh. 
Wcntiuui«IiUiil. Mr. Stinger, near ftBdaMton, T««*dale. Jfr. W. Brvnt-n, n»r 
UaaotMCtt Mrar$ Turnrr and Somrby. llUhope and Iloralayhope Dcow, 
Durham: Eait Common W land. Vr IKiiwA. 

Ibmiulilkiric. /fcr. J. ;/ Uriah ".'love and Moratoa I '.-von. 

Afr / K» ! W. tide of Clifford : Manaton : Ilairtor 

anil Iloridgo near Brinston : Brentor near Tavhttocki Bottor Rode, uoar 
Hens ... Devon. .!.'. ■■!' Kington. 

:— Moicritff Hiil, Perth. i>r. JUndaay. uxor Aberfeldy, Furthehire, 
J/r. //. Maemillan. near Inverary. Mrttri. Turner and Hooker, PentUm] llill«- 
.).'.■ u .. GrceilU. Lundic Craig*. J/r. H'. 

CIovjl ifr. G. Don. near Killin. Dr, Hull. BarcaMlnr, ana Bm ■". -V- 

Ikkijlvu: — Co. Antrim Dr. Veof*. 1 >ini* Itlaud, KilLinmy. .I/"-. C.irroM. 

Waix.i : Hafod. Cardiganshire. .Sir J. A'. Smith. (Vnygedol near Barmouth, 
tor. T. .Ww** 

ChaSSKL In lah Us :— JcrboiiTK. Giwraxoy. for. T. Balmy. Cliff* between 
Lozc] and Boulay Bar, Jorecy ; Srirk ! Mr. Lariat I 

'■-Si.orw.000 to .012 in. hour, .00121 to .001 5 in. bfOtaV \M;,1,1) •■Spore* 
.087— <8 mm. long. .000—7 mm. broad." {Kyi.) 

The glomerulaa art Identical with tt/dvjium Uilacinvm, NyL nee Flora 1878. 
p. 578. 

2. It. Itxttiiirttu, (Lightf.) pale brown, tnanbranaeeouji, ruyulose, 
enwiedlp lob-t ito-tmtaU ami vndufafa, underrar&ee palej 

and toineutose, rkixina ;«*/•• ; ajKithccia nifuiw, neepl u 
lato-rupuiaie, iuflexed ; »|>ore8 colourleaii or pullidu fuuovsccut, fusi- 
form, [ JtepUto; (medulla K — — ). 

On trees and rookt] Q0< MtttaV "• 

Stic :-Li|fht». Soot p. 852. terftow, Hud*. NyL Syn. 880. Mudd Man. 

Kio :-K. Bot. 294. HlTm. PL I,, t. 10. f. 2. NyL Syn. t. 1. f. 6. 4 u 9. I 

Em :-H«pp 603. Lright 75. Scharr. 560. Welw. 4. N Ml 


Groo. Durrani :— Europe, Africa, N. America. 

BOS Prov :-l,2 r. ,.y|S in.r.' u, r. 19...22...26...30, SI. 

EscliM) : -Dcrhjwi.. tinoroland. Sir /. *. South. Bardlalo, Clovo- 

land; Mr. Mudl. Oht rot, Lolc*«t.-r.hir» ! Krr. A. fyoxnm. Ilelka 

Wood, iBriebororurh. ' ■ - (rath Braan Woods, Dunkcllc, and near 

TUnk. Mr. J. O. laekfaU, noor Rlpon. Mr. W. tlr„ 

W«rtmontl»niL Mr. S P]M(Ha Downtoo Cwllc. ftrt. 

T. Si/wry. Horelvybopt »•>.' ;'loy Wood near Eslutouc, 

Durham. Mr. Wint/i. Irehope l.>cru» : Weonlale, Durham. Sir W. C. Trrvrlgan. 
IleaWy n«UL Durham. Mr. W„ < ;lii>, !»lr „f \ I ». Deron 

and Cornwall, it«n«r»lly. Dr.Hd 'nrton. i>r. Jjicl-tt. Bnirtor 

WoixL Ilalngton ; North Borcy : Manat m ; 1 I IhagforiJ j . 

roy Cimtla ; Bottor Kqck naar Harmock, l>."fnn. Mam. Joiiaand A'u/;/- 
Mon. Bamham Gitn-e. Gnwtlinif. 8u«cx- IUi. K. y. BloumjItlJ. 

Bcotlasd : -Drtunlanri« Wood. Mr. W. SUrem. Aucli«iidran W.mkI». Dr. 
Oreri/U. Aablbar. Mr. W. Uanliwr. n i. Mr. A. CroalL Clora. Mr. 


Iur.i-ixn: -Killarnoy. />;. . near <''irk. Mr. Carroll. Glenann, 

Antrim, and Powentoourt, WlcUtW, Irr. Moore. Derry..i lway. Mr. 


Waix> :— N«ar OtWMtry, but in Denbighsbire I and Barmouth ! Corayno 
dol. Set. T. Salwty. near Beaumaria. Sir. A.Btox- W.xxl»! Bettwa- 

y-eoed, Dojgelley ! 

CHAHWt ISLaNDS:— Gu«rn»y. /:• c. T. .•ialwty. BouUy Buy, Jeraoy. Mr. 

"Sporw .007 t. .003 in, tons, by .00125 to .0015 in. broad.* (Modd.) "Sporw 
.026 — 16 mm. long, .009— .012 mm. broad." <Ny<.) 



mto»liiiimrf fi nil.i 
■pores Of ooaovzricMy nznaon, obiv i 

On rocks and trwa, common. 1G9&. 

-E. Bo* Tte*. B3m.FI. Ltktl. BmWLIT. i. an. 

•*. Hit—. 177. T»ek. T&. NtL XL Aaxl It. S. MP. Bin 
JOl Wrfw. L-fc. 80L LdjfcL - Bold. 1» Stalk °£ff 

r :. ) 

Km :-M. Md X. 

<;*■*. DnPTKlr-Earef^ Alrfca, Aim, Axrio. Ai 

Bor. PBonr>-l.l > Z.15.« k r.8..jft,U.12..1t »_ji. 

Enuid :-N«r Faon and (■■allnij, Comall. J Lravltk lad KikUl* I I MrJtmM. Nr» Forart. Arr. >. *; 
CVomMc It*'!*. !•» of Wight ! ikr. A. Bon. Cambndce. *r. A JMW. 
Otlonl £r' A&fftory. K««*kk, Caobarlaad. Mr*. MmvTSLr Lrw— Swao* 
Jfe IT. (/mm. Mar Scdb-fk, KwU. Mr. A SUafaV. ITwillT.lm. aTr. J. 
W. WMtmu H*ldno «a-ti«- wall and Wa* IXjAoo. nw Hexham. S'urtJromber. 
Wd. Mr. »WA. Rn-naldMrfc. AW. /. ffarrmm. mm* Tata— ; BndkV 
Wood, Nrvtoa itelwIL /». tfofl. Aahbortco, I)*nm. JTr. Jtaffc Taillakt 
Claw, I>«T©n. Afr. /\»*«. Kelwdou, b». Jf>. Fmrn. Midland C«o»3n. 
ifr. /'urtopi. BadfordaMra. Jta. C. AC**. Market Km ! IAncolaalUra (in traitl 
A Am .Haogfamond Hill I XeaMUlh HiU 1 Sfcrocamre. 

Ho/runr. : -rVntUnd HllU. Rte. J. if. C mU u . 

Ibilakd i-Cietlrbmiard Park. Baudot- ! Mr. JS. JVaW. Ihmknroo Hum- 
UIm ; 1'nUo*. /*■. ra^ar. w Cork. Jfr. Cfcrmtt 

Wu» :-<ilrn ! near Capti Curia. (Jwydir Woodr ! Bcttva-r-nMd ! Dole*!. 
I«r > KUh«ii«f.I ! Pcmbrokaihin! Barmouth! 

VUAHtitt. latAMUi :— Janey, Bark, Hira, Jetlwn ! Mr. LaUlalicr. 
UwroMy. /tr*. r. Satmy. 

••Hjmrn, .00A7H to .001 In. long, bjr .OOUB In. Iav»d. t, % 1. »* (Af..ti) 
" Kj».r« ,017-30 mm. long, .007-.010 mm. broad." (/r>l., " Spot* .017— Jf> 
mm. l..n H . .007-10 mm. broad." <T. M. Fr.) 

2. /*. otitaaa, (L.) otivocto-ftutovt, orbicular or sul> orhicuutr, 
Mnooth, or minutfly eomtgatt, or aotnctimun varniahcit, /.la'n 

i&fll ajiprturd, plane, crmatr, nsl/^ptikr, .-face oon. 

njKilliL'du lnd:uiiA or IxMlio-rufcticcnt, mitrgin cm 
, -, i .1 "iirlfM, I'llijiticol, •implc; rnoddln K — C — , 
On trow, idling*, Ac. 1690. 



8T*i-Iinn. 8t>. PI. ed. 1. (177.3). A, 05. Mudd 

Man. 99. 

FiO:-K. But. 

FcUra. 81. Kcich. and Sohiib, 80. 

ope. Africa, America, Ada, AiutralaaU. 

BtrT. P*0< -1 8, LB 7 n M, IB (IB 30). 31. 

Esolaxu :— Berwick' on -Tw«cd ! ;Pr. 0. Jahmtvn. Northumberland and l)nr- 
hatn. Mr. W'iiiiA. EelTedon, Em—. "Tonnhirc. Mr.F.irfu. Cam- 

bridge. An-. Jt, Rrihnn. Oxford. Dr.&bArrp. J i^M. Ooeatliiur, 

Swwcx. /kr. A'. AT. W<*m\fieM. near Shrewsbury ! 8tJpamtone> ! Bomcrc ! Haugli- 
II ill ! Shropahlr*. 

SouTLASD :— Oraii-cr in and SwMMtOD Wood* Mr. Miiigkan. Braid 

lUnoitatr*- Or. Ormile. Becky Linn; Airlie j Camperdowu : Ham Craig*; 
do**. Mr. IT. Oordintr. 

\ KtlJ.SU :— Coiuluon. Or. Tayliir mid Mr. r.irro/f. 

\V.u.w :— Gwydir wood» ! Bettwvycocd. 

Chaxxkl Irmstm :— Guernaey. Hcv. T. Stimtf. OMBUMB 08 id tlio Ul»nd«. 
Mr. larbalatier. 

"fijptfW.OOB In. Ion*, by .00125 in. broad." (Mudd.) ", .011-19 
mm. Ioiik. .007— .010 mm. hroaiL" (S-j(.) " Sporw .010—18 nun. lnnir. .007— 
lOmmVbroad." (T.M.Fr.) 

Tor. exasperate, (Ach.) thalhm and rocoptaclo minutely paj 
exasperate; modulla white K— C — . 
On trees. 

Stic .— Ach.Syn. 820. (1R17). Nyl. 8yn. 8B& 
Fw : -VaUL Paria. t. SO. f. 8. 

El»i— Mam. 18, Mudd n. Ami It. 8. llf.. M. and :. 101 i-urht. 2(13. 
Arn. Ml. Schorr. 370, right hand ine<iiu.ui 5Vi. 
i in ii : Kum|>". 

Bor. Pbciv : -2 r. 7 M IB, IB IB 

Kncii-anI) I — Ayton, Cleveland ! Mr. MiuU, Pembridgw, Herefordahirc ! Jtev. 
J. F CroucK ni'ur Worcester. L>r. Holt. Eaitbournc Mr. top Bamafl Pooll 
near Shrewsbury ! WUootl Shropshire. 

Sootlask :— Loch Awe. Ho: J. M. Cromhie. Fort Aa^rnitiu, Oaladontan 
OmmL i> Unttay, 

Ikelaxp: — OUaoar, eu. Kerry ; Ciena: Bate of Mangerton. Killaniay. .Mr. 
. KilleryBay! Conncmarn. Mr. Lnrhaltttier. 

W.l» .— Dultfolley. X*. MoU. 

" Sporta .009— .013 mm. lung, .007— .010 mm. broad." {Nyl.) 

Tar. a i)i- il.ui: •■ 1 1 ...■■."> 1 1 .. nib-orbicular or effusr. 
niate, 1<p> 90, wiouiriy divided, miiltirhl, plane, ■ ...;••■•.. 

incited, under surface DJgricant, fibrilloso; modulla whit* K— C — . 

On rocks, not unfrequcnt. 

8m :— Aob. Metli- 214. (1«031. Nyl. Syn. 90*1. 
H.ppSporcn t. 82. f. 715. 

Ba :- And It. S. 116. Seh*r. 37S. Leight 291. Hopp 71 \ 

GtOO. DoRRm :— Kiimpa, Algeria, Aaia, Aiutralaaia. 

Bot. Pbov:— 1...6. 7 . l r ' ..1!' 23.. .SB. 

V.s i<iuay. Uiham! Dr. Deakin. Wultoaand Bay. Cornwall; 

Weinbury, S. Devon. Dr. H 

Scotlasid :— Kincardine. Rer, J. M. GrnmKr. 

Imuwd :-Howth. Dr. Moore. Mlxen Head. Mr. J. H'rvg.f. KLUCM. Mr. 
Carroll, eouth of Ireland. Miu Huirl ' '.mnnniara, Mr. LnrUi- 


Walk :— Barmouth ! Fort Hill I near FlahgnanL Pembmkiv 

"Sporoi.009-.011 mm. lonn, 0O.V- 1» mm. Iirva.1." fNjl.1 "Sporej .00»— 
VI mm long, .0OS-« mm. bTood." (T. M. Fr ) 

Var. dendritiea, (Pore.) ca»tanoo-fu8cou8, or badio-nigrio&Bt, ttel- 
orbtcnlar, appreased, laciniro narrow, imbricat«d, variouxly 
ded, multifid, 8ubteretely couvei, BotWB, iaonrnd, under 
surface nigricant. 



On rocka, not unfroquent. 

Btm :— P«tMon in AeU Soc Wctterav. 2. p. It 

ExM : -LsUjht. 860. 

Ekulutd:— NortA Hill! Malvern. Mr Lea. CaarCamdoe ! ShropahUe. 

Wajjw :— Mool-y Golf* • Montgoinaryahlr*. 

.1. P. *tygia, (L.) caxtntieo-fiiscous or pitch-black, Bomewlmi 
«hining, orbiookr, firm, laciniro siMimar, muityiJ, plane or convex, 
imbricate, divided, undcr-mirface black or spadiceoua towards the 
mar/ ni few ; medulla white K— C— ; npotheeia fuscous, 

margin grmulatocrmale ; Bpores 8, colourless, ellipLicul, tumpta. 

On alpine rooks. 1793. 

Srs:— Linn. 8p. PI. od. 1. No. 23. (1763). Ach. Syn. 3»l. Nvl. S>n. 387. 
UuUMn. loo. * 

Fio ;— K. Bot. 2048. Hflm. In. t. 11. f. 3. Happ Sporan t. 67. I 8*7. 

Ejcb :-Hepp M7. Fr. 16ti. 337. And It. 8. 111. Tuck. 17. IKcka. 35. M. and 
K. »1. Setuw. 286. Nyl. I'yr. or. 17. 

Gcou. Dihtkib :— Europe, N. America. 

Bot Pwit: 7...11...1.', :i;. 

Ksauwn :— HuUfi«l<l Moon, Durham. Mr. Wineb. 

SCOTLAND! — Highland, of Scotland. Mr. DirXton. 0781 ?«T*a. 

(4*08 ft.) ! Bon Mac Dhul, Branmar. (4«fl ft.) Dr. Lindmy. Caintochan, Oova ; 
Mr. R. Joe*. Ben Mow, Breadalbano: Loohnagar, Braemar. Rev. J. M. 

Itxtaim r—ff. minor,) Marc Dr. Moort. 

Walks:— Llandofiloy Eoclu. Rev. T. SaJaeu. 

•■S|»ra» .OulBln. loiw. br.0OO7.-. i.. .,,,1" (MuJd.) "Sporw 

.008-.010 mm. lonij, .006-7 mm. broad." (A'i/IJ "Spore* .006-10 mm. 
long, 005-7 mm. broad." ( T. M. fr.) 

4. /'. phyAode*, fJL\ whitish, tulultllatf, Jacinia> multifid, ;>/•' 

glabrous, smooth, imbricate, under surface naked, rugose, fusooua- 

black, apict* inflattd and badio-pallesoent ; K yellow C yellow, 

medulla whito K — C — ; iMthoOtft spodloeous or badio-rufe» 

i entire : spore* 8, colourless, oblong, simple, small. 

On trees, rooks, &o., common. L7S4 

Sm^IAua. 8p. PL ad. 1. No. 98. 0783.) Ach. Syn. 218. Nyl flya. 400. 

Km :-E. Bot 1SX IIopp Sporen t 67. f. B6L 

Kv . i Uepp IM. And Langob. (right hand spec.) 267. A. Kr. ail. 

Leigh t (left hand «rw«;,)4H. 

Gaoo. Damns i— Throughout tho world. 

Boft Paov i-l. .3. 4. ..7, S. .10,11 II. ir,. 16 ..W. SO .JO. 81. 

EsaLAJiD>— CVotnicrd Moor noar Matlock. Sir J. K. Smttb, Lembirton III 
Blacbadilar |ihuilall.iiM : Batwkk-en-Twa«d, In. <1 JakiuCm. <'«mMily». R**- 
R. RtUtan. Moor Park. HerffnnMuVa Rrr. T. Salvey. Castle Howard. > 
ablra. Mr. T«*Uie. Gateahead Foil. Durham. M 
Damn. Mr. P.triiU. Coin*: Bnut»r ; Kalredon. Bawx. Mr. Yam. 
Counties. Mr. J'urtca. Bedfordihire. Rtr. O. Abivt, Liuwoud Wamc I Linooln- 
ehln. Dr. K A. Lea. GuaatUiig, Suawx. Rev £. X. K!<*.<m.lMd. Wrokln HiU, 
8hr..pahir» I 

8coTui»i>:— Looh na-Gat GWn, BenLawera (in fruit) ! Mr. MtKinlaf. (iu- 
rynahlne. Lewis ; KnockhUl CrUH ! fr. Dr. Linittay. noar Dumfrina I in fruit). 
Dr. Rifiardtm. P.allan.1 II „ Hill- Mr. HfJeirlc. 

rtwaaaton Wood* (fnuH). Dr. OrerUk. Baldoran and Doerhill Wood* I Camptr- 
ilown; Auchter Mouto; Auldbar. Mr. »'. '. lear Kinnaird. Mr. J. 

Anvir. Arran. Prrf. Btlfvur. ntar Carnbo, at foot of tho OchiU, Klnrutanlr* 
(fmit). Dr A'icjW. 

lacuKDi-Near BalfaM (fruit). Mr. Tffltt-n. PowmnoMJrt Water FaU. 
Mr O. S. Oovgh. i :.-h. Mr. Otmtl. 

Waum :-Cwmbyohan (fruit). Rev. T. SaltKf. near Llyn Aran, Cadtr Idria. 
Dr, BM. Owydlr Wowta 1 BaUwa-y^oad. Llyn GdrwoyOd I 



Ciusxn, IxLAMtM :-Quorn»ey. Rep. T. Salweg. Jenwy and Saris. Mr. AW. 

" Sporea .CMU. to .002 in. long, .0007-'. to .001 in. broad." ( if <uld.) " Kixirot 
.0011 8 BOB) long, .005— fl mm. broad." (Nyl.) '\S[xm» .000—8 nun. Ion*, 
.005-6 mm. broad." (T. M. Fr.) 

■iii'it'i, Acli, lacinia: of thallua nap luiotu", denigrate 

at the margini. 

On trees, not common. 

8t* .—Ach. Metb. SSI. (1803). Syn. 818. Nyl. Scaod. 103. Mndd Man. 96. 

Exx :— Frlli... 76. Schar. 367. 

Gkmj.DistSIB:— Switzerland, Italy, Scandinavia, 

Bt>T. Phot :— 7...15. 

Sootlaxd i— Hfjchlaudii, fnwiuontly. Dr. lloll. 
Wijjm :-UolKoUoy. Dr. licit. 

Var. rrcwroa, Lcsght like the type, but apices of litcinijc recurved 
and albo+ondiatt. 
On trees and rocks, common. 

Fw ;— E. Bot. 128. upper 6a. 1. 3. 

Ex» :— Nyl. 113. M ..1.1 :u. ltoich. and Schub. 6S. 

Chm. DiVrnra:— Europe. 

But. Pjiov :-f. ...7. 10...12...15. 

Kxolastp : Hay Park, Hurofordahiro (fruit)! Her. T. Satiety. Hkh Cliff ! 
and Ixnuwdale ! Cleveland. Mr. MiuLI. Kanwfuk, CuiuWlnn.i (fruit) Jtfr*. 
Stangtr. NeaaoUffo 1IU1 ! Wrekin Hill!; Myud ! Stiperrtonea ! Shrop- 

SOOTUVD :— Looh-mvGat stream, Bvn I.a»rr» (fruit) ! Mr. A. Meh 

Nohjm Walks 9— BatBOOtil I 

Vi\r. labrosa, Ach. apices of laciniro sulMjylindrical, lurgtscent, 
On trees, dsc, common. 

8ti».— Ach. L. TJ. 492. (1810). Nyl. S T ... HI. Mu.M Un.IT. 

Fn;: -Hfhn. Knum. t. IS. f. 2. E. Bot. IM, 6a. 6. 

Em :-Aro. 297. Maw. 278. B»h>. 13. Lcight. 48. (right hand apoc). Happ 
BBS Ratt. I <■■'.. ^ 

G«k, : -Europe. 

Rot. Fbov : — B...7. ..<!»— IH). 

BmLAXD! Malvern liilla. Woroeetershirrt. Sir J. K. Smith. Penlre-noon, 
Moiiiiinutli. Dr. BOO. Mai <iroueo.tcr. Jf>. W. JojAuo. Wrekin Hill, Shrop- 
shire I 

Scoikasd .■—frequent. Rev. J. M- Crombie. 

Vfi&A:-' ...!»! Butt vra-yooed (fruit). 

Var. ptatyphylta, Ach. orbicular, laciniiB smooth, glabrous, 
broader, Cunjid and undulate, and sporuiogoniferous towards the 
centre, appreued, rounded and creuate ut the circumference. 

On roeka, not common. 

8n« r-Acb- Math. 2S1. 11808) Hyn. 210. Nyl 9yn. -100. 

En :-ScW. 366. M. 4 N. 1551 

Gboo. Dmtiiiii :— Europe. 

Bur. Paor: B 7-..U), 11 1 :,...2(). 

■•— Sualleaworth ! Mr. J. (I. Rater. Yorkahu-a! Mr. O, Dieimu 
Waekerley Bourn and Walainghani Park, Durham, ilfr. H 

Born Ik rry Hill, IVH.I. 

Ixxi.\si> ;— Near Cork I Ur. J. 

NiKiii WAU»:-Pentrcgocr near 0«w««try 1 Rev. T. Safwry. Llyn 
GcMnoydd ! Oan Ffym l.lugwy! 

Var. eneatuta, (Sm.) albidextneraMent, nearly fusoeecent, nar- 
rowly ladniate, unequal, lacinia mullilid. convex, or terete, imbricato- 

mi in ins m.h>:\ 

decumbent ardoprtaaod, aadwvuiflmiiigrioant, optical apothooia 
badio-rufous, margin annulate; medulla white K — C — . 
On alpine rocks, rare. 1791. 
Sis I— 8m, In Han*, Una 8«c L p. 83. (1791). Aoh. Syn. 306. Nyl. 8jm. 

Kio :-Tran». I.lim. Soe. 1. t. 4. t. <i. Hit-,,, VI L t. Si f. 2. H.^i 8por«u t 

Ba :-8elu»r. 868. Ft. 888. And It. S. 10)5. Zw. 183. Hopi. 52. M. and N. 

(Iron. DimuiB :— Europe. 

Bot. Prov : 1 ''. 

Scotland :-<?aimtoul; K«n l,awe»; Ben More; Morronc. Rev. J. it. 

r«. 007 -.010 mm. long. .OOfi-* mm. broad." (ity/.) "Spore* .017- 
.010 mm. lorn;, .005-7 mm. broad." f T. St. Fr. ) 

Var. o ".■!■- i " * '/i-ittwt bitf /■'<'■ > ■'ifftc&MU at the eir~ 

. bcMM KrOoS^ <n>>i:ilr!«l, Ki'l'o 

ftmeottt at the margin*. 
On old pela in maritime district*. 1876. 

Srii i— At*. Syn. 818. 

PP B8& Ann Langob. SET B. 

QBQO. I>nrrm n :- Arctic America, Hwlt**rli»nd, Italy. 
Btrr. Pbov:— 3 ..17. 

i.Avn : r.ylil. Kent. Ban J. M. Vnmihir. (l*rr>). 
HooTMJin :—«•!: Ira, r?T. y. Af. Cfcmtfe 

r>. /'. alpicota, Th. ft. nip^-Jim'toa*, cruttaeto-cartilaginoxu, 
[i alar or upended, Bub-opaka, ladmce convex, ruyi*thpii 
imbricate and complica t e, iwmtw, I slrteofe, apioai in 

ourradi osderaar&toc ratj bbu k, sparsely fibrilloae; medulla white 
K- l - apotbai nil. ooncavo, margin entire; ■pom 

colourless, ellipsoid or sub-globose, simple. 

On alpine rocks. 

KeaOfMlmla, ft, I.ieh. Arvtof R7. (I860), Licb. Seand. 128. 
Parmtlia enomita, nor. Kygu>idt4, Linda. Tr. Roy. Soo. Edra. 22. p. 284. 

E, i'...t. t. 2049. 

i iiiliiuma. 
8ootj.«ni>: — Ben Kevin. Dr. Sliwrf. Ca!riiK»nn, Braemar. Dr. 7,in'/»v. 

(18861, M im , IUiii.aa-lH«.f.l ; Ben Mom; Rrcadalbaae, Set. J. it. Crvmbu. 

"8|iorw .007—12 mm. long, .005-9 mm. bruad." f7\ .1/. «".) 

6. /'. muhi.jiui, (Wnlf. ) Atramin'iiiis, tttUotC orbtetllar, apprr*$rd, 
latini* narrow, applanato, multifid, flaro-nrrdi ej . ondoc atai 

Jack; ape to-badtona or badio4haoaaoaat, maigin 

.■mire ; spores 8, colourless, oblon 
itmple ; tlifdlus K— f.' + , medulla wl — , 

On Br treea, poata, to. 1^08, 

■If- in Jaen,. ColL 4. 239. (1790) Ach. Syn. 203. Kyi. Licli. Scan,!. 

fti ri BotwL 2796. (the yellow «|riire«! Jlffm. TL I., t 10. J. 2. 3, 
42. I. 2. 3. Hejij. Sporen t. 98. f. 86*. 

p;i« :-Anxf LaiioV. 375. M. nv 

Aliiild ::• IxlKht7S73 8t«nh. 194. 

[)i hub:— Kiip,|t, N. America. 
Birr. P«ov f-5...7. 8, •). 10 1'. 

all Park IxioreUrUiiir : I:- v. A. Btoxam. Pentwfiaer n 
Oiwwtn-I Hay Park near IVndlcnr. A*. T Salary. le«U\iy Cn-nl.n* I U<v 
garta Wood, Cleveland. Mr MuJJ. Clougha, Lonca-hire. Mr. It Jaeob. 





Hootlamo :— Latin Oil* under Cairngorm. Mr. Rvrrer, (1808). Matt Forest. 
Mr. • ithem Forest of the Highlands; Kinnnrdy, TOlfandiir.'. N-r 

W. J. //i.,irr. C»irn«..r:n Ittmr*. Horrtr and Jlooier. Gluu LVriy. Rev. J. M. 

Walbj i— Cwmbychaa uear Barmouth, and Fowis Castle Park, Rer, T. 

" 8pore».00S -11 mm.long, .0025— .0035 mm. broad." f\Ay. J 
". Z 1 . eetrarioidet, Del. glamo^ilbetccnt, suhcoriaceous, orbicular, 
lobe* rotunda.'- n/hxmutfe, eJevated, critped ; medulla 

K — C — ; npotheeia badio-rufoua, margin entire ; spores 8, colour- 
less, nlHf«i>ln, simple. 

Ou trees and ■tanse, frequent. 1869. 

ST*!— A ptrlata tar. cttrarioida, Deliso in Dttby Bot. Gall. 60J. (lie.). 
Nyl. in Mora lnfi». r>. 200. CroinbU feu. 34. 
-Am. 582. Hepp. 578. 
Gkoo. Dmtuih :— Europe. 
Bot Paors-8, •■ 7. ,13 r> :«. 
KsoLASD:-New Forert. Set. J. M. Crom>,ie. Cottaswold Hilla. Mr. W. 

ScwriAXn :— Irfvrh Lomond I Or. Stirton. New Galloway I Mr. W. Andrew. 
Walsh ;-Dolgelley ! Barmouth ! Dr. IIoll. (1809). Capel Curlg ! Drwsynant 1 
Ciusm Iblaxim :— Naur Ituuil, Jorsoy ! Mr. LarbulettSer. 

8. P. hyperopia, fAr.k.Jn]hidoc'mi:rous, membranaceous, closely 
adherent, luciuiato-lobatc, central lulir* touicwluit flQHIW, ntgoto- 
plicate • $orrdia roundinh, elevated, alliO'pidverulent ; lolics of the 

.inference linear, plane, naked ; medulla K — C — ; apothocia 
scattered, brown and shining, margin crcnulnte ; spores 8, colour- 
less, linear-oblong, simple, curved, minute. 
On pino trees, rare. 1808. 

8r:t ;-Ach. Syn. 208. Kerb. Syst L. Gorm. ::i. 

-Nyl.Scand. t. I, f, 1 K. B. Huppl. 0W, (white figure*). 

Exa — Anxl Langob. 41. Fellm. 85. 

Gsoo. Diatbiii :— Sweden, Aimtria, Italy, France, Kant Lapland. 

Bot. Paw .—15 

Sooruun> : Forest of Rothlomurchu*. Mr. Borrer. (1808). Glen Doe. Brae- 
mar. Iter. J. M. OcombU. 

Well distinguished from P. nleiiritef, with which it ba» he»n heretofore con- 
founded, by the round separated soredio, and tho curved spores, and different 
reaction, th* entire central portion of tho thallm in P, otatrttM being aorediat*. 

" Spores .011—12 mm. long. .003—4 mm. broad." (.AW 

9. /'. reddrnda, Stirt, precisely similar externally both in colour 
and albo-floredioid points to /'. oomri, Turn, but the medulla 
K—C — ; under surface black, apsuUcwnu at. the cireniNforeaOft, 
ruu;uloae; rhizinao black, nigricant, or even KDMtillMfl pallid. 

On rooks and trees, probably not uncommon but overlooked, 

sterile. 1871. 

Srs : -Stirton in Scottish Naturalist, July, 1H7S. p. KIR 
Bot. Paov:-7 .13. 

SOOTXAVD : — Near New Calloway ! Mr. J. M. Andrea. 
Wales : Glyn, near Capcl Curig I (1R71). 

B. medulla of thallm K yellow C— . 

10. /'. per lata, (L.) all/o-olaveetcenl or ip/iilith, dilated, li 
lobes rotundas, mbunbrieate, often albo-*orediate on the margin*, 
under surface fuscous-black or black, and pale towards margins ; 
K +(' + . medulla K yellow C — ; apothecia badio-rufous, margin 
entire ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple. 

<■:: km I 

l»/r. Purton. Oxford. DUlenius. (1741). Cam- 
, i; <;i.nham. Suffolk. Are. B. JV. BI,<nr\Mt. Hanxrv 

On trees (rare in fruit.) 

8T* j-LSnn. 8ytt. Nat. «d. ML. p. 713. (tf« fU 107. Nyl. Syn. ! 



Km .— Hopp 579. 880. Zw. 185. Fr. 835, M. and N. 253. Lewht. 70. 892. Ami 
b»ngob.4X. ftahl,. 

Of' :— TliniiurlwtilUiii Wnrl.l. 

Bor. Phot •— 1, 2, 8, «,T«, 7...10...13. 15. .19. 20...28...3L 

Kn.-.hnu:— Haoxano*, Cornwall; SttJce Wood. Duvoniiliir* ; Jlfr. 
near Ijewe*. Saawx. Mr. W. Vnrrin. nsar 1 llraoombe. Mm M. Attend. 

I. tni/.l.'lHirouuh. Dr. CorriaeUm. Bousdnle GUI, Cleveland. Mr. MaiU. 
botw...o Cwinclfoixi and Bodmin ; war Bfracainhn. Mntn. TSimrr A Mnetrif. 
Kolredan ; Inworth : Eiwtbnrp*, Ewx. Mr. Varennr. Stoke Wood. Exeter. 


mond Hill ! Shropebirrv 

Soothicd :— Kiuiii.ul Hill. Perth : Caerlavoroeh Raid, Dumfrioa ; Qulralng, 
Sky*. I S.W. .f Bootland. tlr.J, Af, Ornmbie. 

■ «»' ■ near Cork ! And near Knockmore. 

near I'arregallii.-. Cork. M .CarrM near Dunkcrmii. lir. Tartar, ntu L 

!wj,v. Dr. .1/...,-,-. Kill.rv i: •. ;,wk ! oo. Galway. 3fr. Lar- 

W.u.ra : — Hafod, CanliaMMhir*. Mr .'. JR S'wtO*. Bsnatnilh li" frtiit). ft-r. 
T. Si/wv. Clyn nimr Capo] Ourigl Ghrab Woodli Bettwv y ooed. Trefriw l 

Cjuxnkl Imla-iimi :— Common on »ll the bland*. Mr. LartMltttitr. 

•• Baori . .0028 to .008 b DM bw«d." fltuOd.) "Sporn 

.011—17 mm. liimj .007— .010 mm. broad." (XjUf 

Va> , , and Mjjnhatti 

at the margin?, 

On treoe and roek«. 1812. 

8m r-Btt Kl. Fr. 2. p. 403. (1905.) Nyl. .Syn. 380. 
Fig r-E.Bot. 8423. 

■-Wclw. l.uiit,7.V 77. M. Zw. Sf Anil It. S. 100. 101. Am. I.V.. 
Bot. FHov:-1.3...7..1C...19...2ii l. 

Siu-ix. Mr. Borrtr. Bolt Head and Dartmoor, H. Devon. ZV. 

Scotijisi): — ( rinan Canal, Argyllshire. ! Dr. l.imtmg. 
iRXLtXT) ;— Ca»tl«bernard Bark, ilandnn ! Mr Oarrttt, l>iink<rron. 
Taylor. Ballinabinch ! near Kylemor*! CO. (Jalway. Mr. Oirtniltitier. 

Wales :— Barmouth ! Rtr. T. Salvty. Dokrclley. Dr. H„lf. IJIvii, nf>arC*r*l 

Dark I 

'■'B, Islam* : - E. coast of Jertey I and Gucrnaey. Mr. ljnt*taU*itr. 
POBOM n f l ' pM Pfl I I thalltU minutely mvl 

duf- ■ 1876 

11. /'. pfrtiua, (Schrank . orbictdar, jdamxtpprattd, jclal 

rous, laoiiiise narrow, taulh . soraewli; :■ 

minulrly per/orattd, n; civnuto in 

•orudiiitc, miii, bbtek inn! rugOMj lOOthoeUt rufo-fit 

<M!tit, BUMtn i-ifloxtd ; K|«>r«i CalOUrlOM, 9 ->, lir" 

white K yellow C-— .) 

On rooka uu (knit 1800. 

.—Schrank. Bayer Fl. 2. Kb. 1518. (1780.) Aefc. Syn. 2W. Nyl Syn. i 

I. : l ■ Sporen t. 97. f. 857. 

t.t Sk llef'P »7. And ICfl. Tnek. 16. 8c!ucr. 888. Ny 
33, M. ft N. «5. I. 
Onxi. I'»i i -*!■*. Aaia, America, Auatnlaaia. 

1 7.-16...W 

.'. A/. 'Vmta. Dear Borey riUac*. ! 
Mtmn. Jona and Ktmiton. 





Hcnauam :•- BaUacheullah in Appin (in fruit) Mmrt. Tunitr and Hookvr. 
OlMOTMl Dr. Mafmillau. 

IiizuiKl) :— Dunkerron Mountain*. Dr. Tai/tor. Vmm of Kntrn-na F.Igh, oft. 
Oorh ; ("JUnmnr* Uk*. Kerry ; Eagle'. Nort. KUlarn-y. 4fr. Oirrotf. &ah«o. 
dun, oo. Antrim. Dr. Moore, nwir l^tterfrack ! Mr. Larbalutier. 

Walks. :— Beddgclert. J/r. /'. Turner. (ISOO). Cwmbyciuui : Mctaabov* H, * 
drwnniach ; ami on »liler tree* at Nannau. /i-i . J*. SaJvrii. tiarth near Dolgclley. 
Dr. Hell. Barmouth! 

Chairtkl Is:..\nds :— Bonno Nuit, Jerney ! Mr. Istrtn/tJiier. 

"8port« .0045-flO mm. long, .022-38. broad." (A>f.) {T. M. Fr.) 

C medulla of thallus whtit, tinged red by C alone. 

12. P. otiuetorum, (Ach.) externally similar to the morvdinto 
states of P. prrl'il/i, l>nt dJitlnguished I <■ tion i>f the 
white medulla, which It tinged red l>y C alum 

On rooks, rare. 

Stx .— Aeh. Metli. 217. (1803.) Syn. 198. NyL Lapp. Or. 180. 
Km r-DBL t. SO f. 89, B. Happ Spot :f& 

Bxi : -Tuck. 15. And It S. 99. Friea. 335. Ifepp578. Zw. 185, 
ft Ron. I»i»riui : BoMp*, N. America. 

PROT :-2. 
Exr.LAXu :— Danny, Sumox, in herb. Hooker, determined by Dr. Nylander. 
■potm .014-1* mm. U.nif, .007— .013 mm. long." (A'jrf.) 

1 3. P. t&iaeeet, (Ach.) glauooaoeut, KuborhUular, Uoiniato-lobate, 
laei mi a nhmdaU, smooth, ttfd 'tlocrenate ; ii|iotln o:i li.uln, 
rufweont, chiefly in the centre of titt thfJItU, rOOOptecil i smooth, 
margin nearly entire ; spore* 8, colourlc**, oW igli ; mod 
white C rod. 

On trees Ac. 1791. 

I ■■!,. Mil,. 90& Nyl. Syn 882. Mudd Man. 98. 
Km :-K Bot 700. Hcpp 8jK.mii t. 91. f, 

Em .—Maw. 320. 327. Anxilt. 8. 102. Lugob. 26. Lnrb. IS. Rabh. 929. 
Obqo. Durmrn :- Kurope, Aula, Africa, N. America, Auatralada. 
B-n. Paov.— 1,2. 5.7 31. 

Kxolaxd :— Dnidter, SomencUhire. Mestn. Turner and Sovxroy. I.ynton, 
N. Devon ! Mr. Mudil. naar Torquay ! Dr. luakin. New Forwt ! St. Doonanl'n 
Forwtl Mr. Borrtr. noar Cpmnrorthy, 8. Devon : Dartnm*! Dr. U.JI. Bud- 
Ulgb Saltorton ! Mr Carter. Holne Chase. Bucklitini Woods : Spitchwick, 
II. Vrttrt Jontt oud I i'.jm Bridgo noar Cirenoeater. Mr. II'. 


Walk* :— Anglcaea and Carnarvonshire. Rev Hugh Doric Abargwynant, noar 
DoUrelley! Dr. Moll. Gwydir Woods ! IMt«»-y-coed. 

CitajritXL : — L'Etooi, Jersey ! Mr. Dnrhalulier. Guernsey. Rev. T. 
.•:.>.'. < v. 

liar** .002 to .002". in tag, liv .001 in. broad." [Miuld.) " Spore* .007— 
.011 mm. long, 005 -7 mm. broad/' (AT«/.) " Spires .007—11 mm. long, .005 
i. broad.* (T. Mfir.) 

\ tr. irbicular, ttntre of (Jiallta and bate of 

rotundatc lacittiir nnffiilfirft/ trannertely wrinkltd: medulla wind- 

On trces. 

Fig .— Hepp Sporen t. 97. f. 866. 

Bis .--ScuSr. 368. Zw. 03. Oepp SS5. 
QaOO. Di:.tiuii :— Ktuxip*. 
B.>r. Fbot :-2. 3 .19. 

;la.xj>:— New Kthet Bridge! Mr. Berrtr. Chart Park, Dorking! Mr. 


IULUrp :— Banks of Blaekwater river, co. Kerry. Dr. T 



Var. leortta, (.Uli.) orbicular, sinuato-lolate, lof/e» short, rnlinm 
•'if, margin inciao-creiMte, centre t<f the thaHxs iridii/ri 
and puteerulent ; medulla white red 
On trees, puling*, Ac 18Q9- 

Br« :--A..h. Pmfe llv. Nyl. Syn. 388. Mudd Man. 98. 

-K. ISot. 30GS. 
Bxa.-Anri It. 8. 108. Hepji R.W b. and Mi. M. 4 N. 44!i. Man. 82ft 

\.-W}.\. -7. Sri,:,: SEft 

Gaoo. Dlstaiu :— Kuroiw, S. Am«rlc», Caylnn. Africa, ManritiiuL 
Bor. Paov .— 1, 8 . B, 6, 7 .11 13 . W.._»...M .81. 

KNiUUND:— Hanfield! Sua.** ; FortaalU and on Kartlmu; Down! Htoaa- 
henge! Lirermere * Her, li. R. Ltathu. (1809). Little 8ticttuii. Shr.,i-Mtal 
Ac*. T. Sal***. StaTcloy. Kendal! Mr. J. A. Martimlale. Twycrum, LeWtor. 
(hire I HarW Magna! Warwickshire. «rr. A. Bloom. Bolt Head, a 
DeTon I Dr. l< all I •■.-^rrfnrtli nnr Ktflcntone, Durham ! Jttr. J. Uorrimmn, 
ii, Dovnn. Jtfr. Air/M. Charoh Strctt-.n I 
ScoTLaxri :— <,'*vrlar«rack, Dumfrie* ! Dr. LwUtty. 

Ikkla.nd : -Ballymartle, co. Cork ! Mr. Carroll. Aakew Wood, on. Kerry * 
Dr. Ik-afar. Tully ! ttalway. Mr. LarUtltMicr. 

lylandl nnd Ban <'., Jirr. r. &ilmy. near Dnlgolley. /M 

S ''. Pen-y rbu I near Fitbcraard. Fordeo I Montcomeryalilre. 

l.'Rtaoi. Jor»ey ! Gneroary. Mr. UtrialtHier. 

Vnr. tabid \\ 1. pinmtttftd Denial itppretted, 

liivcor, MrTM incited, apieet truncato-fttrctitf, 

alro-rhizo.- Lnn'iifh ; medulla white <j red. 
On tree*, Ac. 

8rsc :-Nyl. 8yu. 388. (1«0». 
Ex* r— -Siiruoe Ainu. lfift 

.. ]>i*THtn : -Europe, Central America. 
(—1,1. 19. 

-P-.arntaK.uth ! Iter. A. JNaxmm. near Exeter I Prof. IHetit. 
lacULKi) :— Dunkerron ! Dr. Taylor. 

Viir. concentriea, Lei^lit. «]>fi<erieo^onaiomerate, growing in in 

1 .1 concentric Iftyera ; medulla white <' red. 
On exposed down*, rare. 

Bn :-Leajiit. En. 282. 

i-tJard. Ctoo. 1«6\ p. M. and 172. 
Era :-L«axbt. 282. 

. Uinrain .— Europe. 
Kmiaxii:— Melbury Hill near ShalU»tmry, 

Dorant-hiral Sir W. C. 
" from Bolt Head I have a variety which n| .jir 

) i - . . , ... i ,1. 

I •. Hull In lin. .aya. 
yoar <i'iK»A(n(.i Imt U ixidUferoua,' 

II. /'. Jtorreri, (Turn.) cinorco-glnuocaocnt, becoming pale 
ormra when dry, appreued, imbricate, nigulo nctate or 

alke+ortdiate, lobos broad and rotundale, under surface fuaoout 
[•allescont ; apothocia brwliu-rufuiut, margin derated, inflexed ; 
apurea H, eolou iptkaJ, simple ; meilulln white C red. 

On treea nnd roekit. 1KI>7. 

IN.rn. la IJan. TraniL 9. 148. (U*. . Nyl. Syn. 3». 


I :. Bot. 1780. Llan. Tr. ft t. IX f. 2. Mudd Man. t 2. f . 2ft 
r.XH : II ■ , -l Lttihe. 331. l^rb. JO. Ai.«l I-uiguo. 874. Zw- 

251. M. ami ' — . 107. Wagnar 

I'.nnjpe, Africa, AjU, America. 

•JJ...22 .26.. 111. 

Si..-, v. Mr. Barnr. i«7.) Norwich and ColtiihaB. Mr. D. 
Turner. Twycroa*, Lelceetenhlre ! and near Bntiuwtan ! Iter. A. Pea 


• lhfll aad Porkfagton dhi Oiwortry! Her. T. Sal***. SUniWad 
Park, Ew*. Mr. B. Jaeab. near WoroenUr ; near Brighton ; l»l» of Wight, 
Dr. f/«M. TeUworth ! Oxford.hire. A/r. />.ri.V«(i>r. Hating.. .!•>. ■/. ./fcafcia. 
North Hovey. JUfagton, and Tor Abbey, Duron, Mam. Jomt* and Kinyidm. 
Pennne* I Mr. Curtmw. Ttovenath ! Homer* Pool ! Mtiole Brook ! Stipar- 
iVhim ! Haughmooil Hill ! NeawlirT Hill ) new Shrewsbury! 

Isxusn :— Ballymartlc. en. Cork ! and Gluimire. Cork. Mr. Carroll, near 
Wkklow Dr. Afuinyiy. I)niik»rr»n ; Koiighly, on. Korry. Dr. Taylor. Kyle 
mora. Mr. larbalimtier. 

W.tLa* :— Pambrokwihlr* ! Line between GuuimnwdiUuh and Bodowca near 
Barmouth. Jta. T. Salm. Olrn I Cai*l Cflrij I 

CBADsna. UuiXDti .— RokI. Jersey! Mr. Laiialatitr. Guernsey. Iter. T. 

" SJora .009 to .004 fa. long, by .0016 to .008 fa. broad." IMutd. I " Spurt. 
LS bub. I.,ng, .oai—11 mm. broad." flfyl.) Sporoa .017— .019 mm. I 
.011 -.012 mm. broad. 

I 5> P. fuliyinota, (Pulx) btdlo-ttnbrbuy "H'ii'iilar, laeiniata- 

lobiilr, lobe* apprttstd, piano, crauxte, fidigiiwiofttrfuraceoM or mi- 

i brown, margin tkUk ertliulat . DMdufr< 

<'n rocks frequent, an>l I--- iV.-^n ■■nt 

80S (WW). NyL Syu. 897. Flora 1808. p. 846. 
-.. DloTBia: — Europe. 

12. ..15.. .»...«, 
BraLAXD :— Bunuu.ln I .an* n*trSu»l*v lu Keiulal, Westmoreland ! .tfr. ./. 
A. M*rti«l,ile. Norfolk ! JaV D. TVrwr. W. Hill. Malrem. Mr. W. y.«A«. 
LeogMyml! Stlpenitonee! Pontosford Hill! Ilaughumnd Hill I I.yth Hill! 


BOOTIAXDI -Hiniam Hill. Dunkold! Dr. /.iWeiy. Park nor Aberdeen; 
KJnnudlneshiro CoMt, Castleton, Braemar! Mr. Croat). Forfarshire! Mr. 

Ihhlavi i >— Near Cork '. Mr. Carroll. Dawros Itlrer ! and near !*unano I eo, 
Galway. Mr lAtrMttitr. 

\V.»ix»:-Betw»eii Corwen and Bala! Gwyilir Wood4 ! BetWs-y-ooed ; 
TrtfriM- ! (eortionle iu fruit. H '»|-ol Artliog ! 

Korina o/ivimm, Lemhi. oWiwwo rirmmt, like P. divaeta, (L) but 
Coratvidto-itidii/erum, nnd with different r medulla whit* 

On trees, very frequent, but srtenlr, tin on rocks. 

8th :-P. Borrrri, f. ofiiwei. Lelght. L. Fl. Ii (d p. t7!>. 

- :-M. * N An/i It. S. Ill Kabli. M8. Ami. 114. 

Utou. I>1HTRU :— SwiUcrl«nl, Knmce. 

1'iKiv.— A,(X 
M..i •.%!■:— Throughout Hhro|»hir»l 

Wai.w — Bcttw* y <oed I Glyn I ne»r Cupel Curig and throughout Mont- 
foaneryWUr* ! Denhegluhlro 1 tsd Carawvomhirn ! 
bfiuTOT .010 Bun. long, .011 nun. broaiL 

D. mtdulUt o/ tkaUiu K yrlUne then red. 

16. P. ptr/orttta, Wulf. *hiti«h or glaucous-whito, W>.i- 
loln»t«wiitm*to or sinuate divided, smooth, minutrly rrticulato-ritntt- 
!<>**, margin often allxi sorediaU', under surface fnacous-black or 
black ; ajKithecia badio-rufeaceni lien mtdie-per- 

for-' i entire; H|Mircji cs oolonrlom, elliptical, simple; 

medulla white K yellow In i red, 

On rocks and trees. 1836. 

'■■."uU. m Jaeq. Coll. 1. 116. (1786). Aoh. 8yn. V9S. Kyi 8yn. XI. /'. 

reKoateto, Tayl ! fa Mack. Fl. Hib, 148. 
-MI. Maw. t. 

30.1. 44. 
Exa .— M. & X. 238. Hefip Se». Sehmr. 880. fa pt. Welw. Lu, i 



GlNM. DnrtttiB : Kurope, Atartralaafa, Ceylon, Macrithu, Jamaica. 

EtTt.VtK)'. i 7 u;...19.. 81. 

• :-l*rooahIr*. Mtttrt, Jvr* and KimjUon. Trerdfc Rookery I 
mar I'mzance. Mr. Cunt*. 

Sootiaku r— Appin. Ber. J. M. Onmbie. 

Ibh-im): Stur Ituakerton ! Or. Tafior. 

WAJJB. :-Hol|fBl]«y ! Mr. J. Half*. 

i jrAinen. I.slaxiki :— Near Fort h«*u, Aldorney I Mr. LarUtlaticr. Guomaty. 
Btr. T. .Wmr, 

"Sporni .011-18 mm. long, .Q07-.0U mm. broad." (HgL) Spom .016 
mm. long, .010 mm. broad. 

ii ciliala, Xyl. margin* of thallua fimbriate mlk Mk& 

On rocks, ran-. 

8t» i— Nyl 8yn, 878. 

I'M) :— Jaotj. Coll. 1. t. 8. Hoflra. PI. Lich. t. 13. 
QlOO. DrsTBIB:— N«w Xraland. Aiulralagia. 
Hot. PaoTr-afl 

IBUAK" :— Road to ll*o«* ! near KyUmoro. A/r. terbalalitr. ULAiroe s— Jeney 1 Afr. Lorbalatitr. 

17. /'. wiwyirrra, (Khrh.)/wfe, ochrolevcous, orbicular, tadnuilo- 

divided, Iacinue appra^ nous or imbricate, miuyin* niu- 

i m... incised or crenate, undulate, under surfuv lack or 

fuKCi-so-mt, nifro^brilloee j apot'n ma, 

ran (hin, mlexed ; aporea 8, oolourleat, ellinaoid tbaUo 
K f+ C+, medulla K yellow fan ted 

On rock*, a. 1741. 

St* i-Ach. Prodr. 118. [WW.) Nyl. Syn. 39L Mndd Man. llr.'. 
Kio:- B. BotSO 10.1*. 

Ki» :->!. AN r. 879. Bold. 1 10. Wright 77. Mandou 11. la i«rt. 

8Uah. 12J In part. Ami It. S. 108. Lciijht. 78. Laibal. 66. 
Ghne. Dnrui : Inroiighonttha World, 

Bot. i' i ...-. ; b. lo,ii «.. w. a. ;-Oaw at ry, Shropshire! Rtr. T. Saimy. Katteraby Bank. Clovo- 

land I Mr. ifvi < .«1 Form, I«tcmt«**hire. Ber. A. Bloom, near 

McTonahini. Mr. B. Parfitt. Wemleydale. Mr. J. W. Wot*m. Tcca- 

Durham. Ilrr. J. ll-tmnnn. Middlcton.un-TmtNlalp, Durham I North 

Tjme near Wardan MM, Northumberland. Mr. Winch. Dartmoor; North 

v and Ilrinrton ; noar (.' « on Drewiteignton row I ; Bottor rock ; 

li-reomhc In-the-Moor. Deron. Mcurt. Jom* and Kinr/don. Bodbury BJa* 

near Church Ntruttou ! Wi i Inn! 

■I. B. Smith. Moffat, Dumfricwhire ! 
lYrth; Garrynahinc, Lewi*; I)r. .' 
Inn on. Mr. Carroll. 

Walbj :— DohfeUay : Llanbma. OiOtnius. <174X-) Conway Mountain ! Nant 
Krancon ! Brttwvy-cocal ! between Towyn anil Craig Ailoryn ! 
Cm.vk.vi1. InLaSM:-J«n«y and Sark ! and other Ulon.U. Mr. lAirialaHer. 
•• Spore. .001'iln. Ion?. .001 In. broad." f ' Srorc* .(«»— 12 mm. 

long, .0CO u3.' (Sft.) "Sporaa .001—12 mm. lono, .006— 7 mm. 

broad." (1 

f. daoptyOa, (Aflh.)] I rludlus narrowr, much more 

lod nnd in 

a, M#lh.9ir..(l«0.1 Nyl. 8yn. SOL Mudd Mac. M 
■ 1 and N. WO, Moa*. »X Anil It S 79. Lefeht. TSl 

G»oc. Durrani: -Km 
B« 18K 

irjiKii :— Craiirforila ne*r Onratry, Shropahirv I Iter. T. Silierf. GolwaU. 
I/»lo«#«er»hiro ! Rn. A. B!ox*m. Dmulord, )>*tou. Mr. Fartxt Wrvkin, Shrop- 

ScoTtAJni :— Common. Bew. J. M. Orombit. 

Walw t-Kort HiU 1 ntar FiahRuard, P«nbrok«aMra. Woel-y Colfa I 



f. uidiata. Ami. centre of thallua densely isidiote. 

m„ t-Aan Cat- I>. 2ft. (1SC0.) 

.Mm. 8U. Anxi It. S. 110. Ixright. 7l>. Wright T7. 
Gkoo. Durum.— Europe, New Z.aUml, Cuba. 
Bot. Phot;— S. .7. .12. 18. 26 

.i.aSO :— Keswick. Cumberland ! MnStaaflrr. Wnrkin, Slu 
gc.i riorlarerock Wood, DmnfriM I Or. IAndtay. 

I«KtAXl>:— D»»f» Kitcr! CO. Galway Mr. Lorlalrttitr. 
WaLB* :— Barmouth ! I.lyn Gclrluiiydd ! 

f. Mowjrolii, Schwr. laciniie of tlie thkOtU vc rj narrow miiltiii.1. 
somewhat convex, Hotel}/ adnate, tulphureo-* ■ laii I od 

EJjfhlot in the centre, paler and yellower in the radiate circum- 

-Sohmr.K ft* 

Km : -M. and N'. 12W. Schmr. 848. I/eight, m Mudil 7*. 

Gtoo. IJibthms :~Kurope, AtnHrlca. 

But. Pbov :-7, 8 .JO 12 LB 19, 80...S8, 

ijiso :— Iuglsby MiH.r ! Battenby Moor ! arid Bouoole, Cleveland. Mr. 
Mudd. mar Think. Mr. J. 0. toiirr. near Stavely. J/>. MartitutaU Cham- 
wood Forest, LdcaaUrshire. Ret. A. Btatam. Graannero, Westmoreland. «rr. 
J. Hurrman. 

Scotland :— Near Aberdeen. /•»<)/. THdcit. near Dunkeld. J>. Bolt Ulan 
Dm In Braemar. /fcr. /. J*. Cro„r 

IkKLAKi> .—Kerry. Marrt. Taalur ami Moore, near Ihinkenron. fir. Taylor. 
Curraiflimoru, Waturford. A dm. Jtma. near Lough Inagh, Coiuiomara. A/>. £or- 

i.b» — Wall between Bodowen and Glan Mawddaoh in lane above turn- 
pike road near Barmonth. tier. T. Salwty. Bettwa-y-cood I Holyhead I 

18. J', rinuota, (Sin.] flan mi at. Jivaricato-iofmt*-, lacinite narrow, 

tinuato-pinnatifid, tinu/et circular, apices dilated, cloven, often 

surediate, under surface nigi potfafloiafh >rgin 

[•ores 8, colourless, elliptico-ohlong, simple; medullu white 

K yellu* then rod. 

On rocks, wall*, Ac. 1784. 

8tx :— 8m. E. Bot 3060. (1808.) Ach. 8yn. 207. NyL 8yn. 884. 

Fig j— K. Bot. 8060. 

Gruu. Durrani :— Throughout the world 

Bot. Paov I 7 ,18, b.16 .19,30 :n. 

,iaxi>:— Bournemouth, Devon, firr. A. Bloitm. BoalhwalU, Borrowdale. 
Onmberland I Mr. ItobtrUon. 

8cotiam> :— DtunfrUaahiro. Mr. Ranjm. (17*l|. Ballaohculixh ; Mam. 
Tumc.- ■■■«' Booker. Badlck Castle, Arran ! Sir W. J. 11,-1. r. Clou Nerii ! 
Mr. Bonrr. Gleneme! Dr. MactnU 

luctAiiU :— Near KUd Cork ! Mr. Carroll. IHuikerron ! I>r. TVulcr. 

Killanjay ! Sir T. Oagt. Glenmr. Ju*r. J. Taylor. Dawn. luck ! 

co. Galway. Mr. UrUlatia: 

Walzk !— Bannoulli I Str, T. Sa l mtf . Ty Gwru. near Doluclley. l>r. floU. 

CHAron. Iiilaxub j— Common in Jersey and Guen»«v. Mr. IjtrUtlaOtr. 

"8pore» .01 1 17 BBD. lung. .008— d mm. broa.1." (fjl / 

19. /'. acetabulum, (Neck.) <jl'-ium«livacttm» or I 
earia&o-mmbranaccoHt, sub-o|Kikc, orbicular, unequal <ir ruynhie, 
lobiite, loba rounded, fltnum or hahrkat,, boa castanoo- 

fuaeoua or nigricant ; iqpotb«oia bodkrTofiras, mataett torn 
margin rugMthcrtnulatr and tortdiate ; spores 8, colourless, oblong, 
simple ; medulla white K yollow then red 

On trees. 1799. 



I .-Nock. Uulic. Oallobelg. M6. (1708.) Ach. Syn. 19!). Nyl. 8711. MR. 
Mndd Man. 99. 

Fir. :-E. Bert. 108* H«M> Sporoi t 9» f. *». 

I :-M. uulN.JM. Sober M7. Zw. 36. ITepp W. Aiui It, H. 11?, Leicht. 

Oano. Darraia :- Europe, Africa, N. America. 

BOT. PnTJV : -2, 3. 4,0 8 ..10. 

Esolanh :— S Norfolk. Oir J. ff. .SaiVA. U7TO.) Iclororth 1 

nM r Bury. Jttr. O. X. Ltotba. Skiitterskelf, Cleveland ! Mr. timid. 
Bilaton, Stoltordahlre : Boeding Priory. Suaaax! Htx. A. Btmaun. Sta«___ 
Park.Katex. Mr. R. Jaatb. nuar Ripon York-hir*. Mr. W. BrutUon. Brand _ 
CWOc, Humex. Mr. LorMcHu talk I Kelvedon ; Kivmhail ; 

IgiUlU. BK Mr. Varenne. near Worccnter. 7>r. Moll. Chilxton Park, near 
Ix-uhani. BroOBM Park, near BtblWwoM, Kent. Mr. Ilolmet. Harborough 
Magna, near Rugby ! AVr. A. Mutant, near Fairford. Mr. W. JotAud. 

r-.00w5to.008 in long, by .001 to .00!.-. br.™!.' (Mudd.) "i 
.011—18 mm. long, .00*— .010 mm. broad. - [Nyl. A T. M. Fr.) 

20. P. taxatHU, (L.) cinoraaocnt or albido-cinorasceut, me 
branacoouM, orbiculari-expandcd, laciniose, rrtieulato-ruguloae, itid- 
ioto+cabrou*, liuiiuiic ifanutto-mahafid or sinuate-incised or lobule, 
apices returns, blnok mil Bbrillon beneath; apothecia spadioeo- 
badious, or iiwcmia, Rttlgb) ontiro, or crcnulate ; spores 8, colour- 
elliptical, aiinplc ; tuwlulla K yellow then rod. 

On rocks, trees, Jtc common. 1721, 

All forma of rnirat.HU are readily diatlnguUhod by th« flttniiUIri mnulnw 

8tx t-Unn. IT Sue*. 1075. (1758.) Ach. Syn. 208. XyL Syn. 38«. Mn 
Man. 94. 

-E. Bot 008. DU1. t. 54. f. «3. Hcpp Sporen t. 98. f. 830. 

Ex* :-Anri It. S. 104 a. Leizht. 208. right «i>ee. Fellm. 78. IIopp **L irt, 

<iim. DurTRIB :— Europe, Aria, Africa, N. America. 

Itor. Paov :-l...S, 4. a, «. 7 .11, IS, U is, 19...J1. 

Km, liigleby Park, Cleveland. Mr. MiuU. !ier«rick-..n-T»a*d. Dr. 

O. Job****. Northumberland and Durham. Mr. WineK Kclredon. Beat*. Mr. 
P.irew. Dunaford, Devon. Mr. Parfitl. Midland CountuM. Mr. Purto*. Shot- 
over Hill Oxford. Mr. ItaxHr. < .Utnbri.lg*. firr. «. Btikao. Oxford. Dr. .tiAUorja 
B~lf.ini. I',., '• ,*'■>■>!. 

Scotland :— St*nni», Orkney ; Aynhira ! Dr. lAndmf. Braid Hermitage and IHIIm. Ik. OrtaOU. Korfarnhlrr. Mr. »'. (larjintr. U.iw l»l»nH ; 
Arran. f< • I'.lencroal Dr. Maenilhm. lele of May. Firth of Forth. 

Mr. SadUr. 

IxrxAtiO : — KiUamcy. Dr. Carrington. treat and rock*, rnrntniiu. Mr. Cnrroll. 

Wtua :— Aber. *re. Hugh Dtritt. Cwm Cywioo I (fnut) Birleh mountain 
near AbaryatwHh. Mat Atuwi. Cape! Arthog! (oortloole in fruit) Snomfen ! 
Aran Mowddwy ! 

CttAxirm, luLAXiw .— Gaemafry. Br*. T. So/wf.v. common on all the Wanda, 
Mr. Lar*nUM<tr. 

"Spowe .0036 in. l«ng. by .002 to .OOKr. In. br id." <Af*W.) "Sporw 
.015—19 aun. k-ng, .009—12 mm. broad." UVaf.) " S|wre» .014-19 mm. long, 
.OCO-12 oam. broad. ^ {T. M. Fr.) 

f. glotaulifera, Cromb. thollna bearing blaekuh giomerutet, aimi- 
li»r t«i those of Ricatolia ampli&ima. 
On nlpine boulders. 18 7J, 

-Crombie in Joum. Bnt. n. a. I. p. 807. 
uin> :— M^orrone, Bnuinar, Ktr. J. M. Orcmbir. (1972.) 

Var. tulcata, Tayl. whitish or albido-glauceacent, rtticalalo+ort- 
diatt, mtrrdvi irAtfuA, nvirfrintd (,y ike ruptured thaliiu, luttiform, 
ntwer tiidiiftrota ; medulla K yellow then red. 

On twea and walls. 1 83C. " 



Rtk :-Tayl. in Mark. KL Hih. 1*5. (1836.) Nyl. Sjni. 3S!>. 
h. Ord. 22. t. 49i CD. 

Bx« : -An/i It. & KM. I.. Uight. 200. loft handapec. 

G*QC. DlVTMB :— Europe. 

Btrr. Pnov t-\ .10. 11 . 15. 19- 81. 

Rxr.i USD ■■ Avtmi Moor, Cleveland. Mr. Mudd. Otwratry and Moor Park 
near Ludlow 1 7&t. T. Salmi/. urar Think ! Mr. r, K«inble near 

i'irenoerter. J/r. IT. Jtmhua. Swinnop Kast Allendale, Northumberland. Iter, 
aVMt. Wall. ,.( Ox (Vinctory ! Shrew»bury! Lyth Hill, Stoop 

8ooTlAKI> :— Tup of Ben Lawere. Dr. Limit"!/. 

Imlaxd:— Co. Kerry. Dr. Taylor. (1836). 

Ollim Imjmiwi s— GiwmiHty. Rer. T. Snluty. 

forma hirmita, Crumb, dentely black, r\ihiueoJi.briiia*e: beneath. 
On old fim 

Srx .— CromhU In Joura. Bot. May, 1875. 
ScOTfcairD:— Ban fowarK. Rev. J. M. CrtmMe. 

\»i. furfur attn, (Schaar.) Uudlus densely itUliost ; medulla K 
ynllow then rnl. 

On n>ckis »tonea and tree*. 

Stk :— P. horruetiu, TnyL belong* to thU form. Schier. Ennm. «f». Mudd 
Man. 96. 

Kx« :-Leight. 46. Setuer. 308. Hepp 862. 863. M. & N. 319. Bobl. U. Follm. 
77. Breut. 116. 

Gcoo. DinTBtB ;— Europe. 

Bar. Pnovj-1. .3. f. ..7...10, 11...12...15...19...96. 

Kssum :— Oawtatry ! Rev. T. Sutwry. YtirkxMra ! Mr. fJ. Dixtm. Dart- 
moor and neighbouring Tnr*. Mam Jrme* A KinntUm. Ardingley mck«. Siuwex. 
Mr. W. Joitiua. Foreahlcld, Alston, Cumberland ; Swinnnp Eaat Allendale, 
Nurthumlxrland. Ret. W. Joknnm. Wrskin H1U ! Neavalffo Hill ! llmiglimond 
Hill I Shropshire. 

Scotland : — Birnam Hill, Dunkeld. Dr. Lyndtay. 

Im: I Kildomrj, on. Ood OrraB, Dawro* Bridgoico. 

Gnlway. Mr. Larbalatier. 

Walw :— Syehnant noar Conway ! Barmouth ! Rer. T. Salvxy. Gwydlr 
Woods I H*tlw»-y-oo*d. 

Var. omphalodes, (L.) fiuouxu or nigricant, shining, 8tDi> 
ratienbtaMSgnloM ; BttdvLla K jeDov then red. 
On alpine roclw. 1724. 
8tx :-Unn. Sp. PL od. L (1758.) Ach. 8yn. 203. Nyl. 8yn. 888. Mudd Man. 

Wta :— E. Bot. 604. 

Kxx : - fkh»r. 488. 7.w. US. Maudon 29. Lelght. 7. Bohl 18. M. * N. J48. 
Muil.1 67. Ijt1«1. 19. Hrnrft. 100. 

Onto. Dikibib :— Europe, Ada. 

Hi... 12.. 15.16.. .18...S2 ..31. 

BUOUSD;— Cromfiiril Miwr near Matlnck, Dwliyihir*. Sir J. R. Snitk. 
Oumh«rland 1 Mrt. Stanger, a**r Torquay. Dr. Dtaiin. Hovden Gill CU-vc 
land ! Kildale Moor ! Mr Mudtt. Crtigforda noar On-eotry ! Btr. T. Saltcty. 
Berwick-on-Twfwl ! />r. G. Johnston. Rornbi and ^ nrluhlr*. Jlfr. 

Tutdali. near PctiiU.ncT anil Hcdmth. Mo*r$, Tvrnrr and Somriy Ni'rthuinhjr- 
land and Ihirliam. Mr. Winch. Tom of Dartmoor. Mr. Parftt. Malvern Hill*. 
Btr. W.S.Ruffyjrd. Mornton : Korth BofW ami DalngtCtt, MlW. Mrurs. Jtmn 
and KingiUn- Stipentonca Hill I Shropshire. 

Swn.Axn : - Amubreo, Perthshire I Clova, Forfanhirc ! Gonynahlno, Lowii I 
Dr. Ltndny. Fimtland Hilla. Dr. Ortrillr. Si.llaw Hill- and ('lm» Mmmtaina. 
Mr. W. Oardiner. Look Wand. P",/. lM/„„r. 

iMLAMri :— I^iugh Bray. co. Wicklow. Dr. Taylor. 

Wilw : — Abvr. Ret. Huyh Dnriet. near Abardoi i BtbzMa. ' 'uTiway 

italal Barmouth! Aran Mowddwy I Cwm Idwal I (fine fmit) Bettw v 

CiiaBXH IUAXD6:— R»»vi|«irt Bay, .Iftnt.v, and all tlm oUM IkUiuIh. Mr. 
iMrialaUtr. GnernMy. fin. T. Saltrty. 

Var. p/umtformu, Ach. cinerasoent, ■arroie/y la i imim tv dined e d, 

imbruxilo-cnutatrotu ; medulla K yellow then rod. 

On rocks. 

8rv ;-AA. MM*. SM. (1300.) Syn. 980. N>L Syn. 388. 
Fw:-Wectr. Farg t, 7. L «. 

!*t. Stt. Ann LaafoK SM. Hepp ML 864. Kerb, MS. M. & N. 
7» Are. 333- 
fiaoa. Disrtib r— Ecropa. 
Bar. Pmw:-»...T...(W..18.» 
BMUUTO :-8ti|»r*ooa. Hit St.rop.hfar. ! 

Sconu»t> .— Grampwn. pkatHuL nurlv frrlile. for. J. M. Orate. 
W*ijdi :-Uyn Gdrioeydfl 1 Twhiw I 

f. nbmtkcmtrica, Cromn. Hpliwrioo-coogloawmtc. 

On alpine boulder*. 1878. 
Stm :— < V*abie In Joum. Bot. b. ■. L 306. 
BooTUuiu :-H«nw, Braamar. firr. J. M. Ormlm. (187i> 

E. vudmUa K—C rtd. (C atone—)- 
21. P. Itnigata, (Sin.) albo-glaueeacent or whitish, narrowly 
laciniato-lolxite, ladnia dieariaale.'riituato-multijid or tiHtuUf 
md, often Kulnnibricate and tubcrculaU>aorediaU> at the apioea, 
laxly affixed, under ■urface black and utro-fibrilloso rh 
apothecia hadio-rufou* or fusocsccnt, margin entire or olxtoletely 
orenato or sorcdiato ; aporea 6 — 8, colourless, elliptical, airuplo ; 
medulla white K—C red. 
On rocks, walla, and trees. 1808. 

8r» .— 8<n. K. Bot 1RM. (1SOS.) Ach. Syn. 213. Nyl. Bra. ftM. Mudd Man. 

rto:-K.Bot. 1893. Hmd SpenBt.C7.LS6l. 

KX8:-MoJd6S. H.pptel.Lelght. 302. 

Gaoc Durrani j— Europe. 

Bot. PaoT.—l, »...«. 7 r. K...19. 20...96...81. 

KXOLASD :— hyntca, N. IKvon I »Vi*« JUnmt Two Hridgro, lbirUiin..r ! 
•bore the Firm by tfce Dswar Stone. Dartmoar ! St. Loonanf. Forert ! Fridge 
Rock* I ifr. Amr. Bolt Head, S. D»too! £>r. UcJt. Boaraamooth ! for. A. 

Sooiuku:— BaOaobonHih! Boaahiref Jfr. florm-. Gkaooot Dr. MacmO- 

Ihkl.vmi : — Southern Counti*. I Mi*t Hulekimt. IhmkerTan ! Axkew Wood, 
ca. Kerry : Dr. Tayier. Tolly ! oo. Galway. Mr. DerUlaUtr. aearTWHnthlrKh, 

^Kin :-A«xlr-« **d Caraarraoahlnl for. H. Damm. (lSW.lMoa.Uia. 
aboro Barmouth ! Mr. Borrrr. Dolgelley ! noar Llaabwfa ! Dr. UoU. near Aber- 
dony. foe. A. Btvzam. lVa-y.rt.iw ! mar FWiguarJ, PambrolcMhira, Moal-y- 
gait f near Trxrauxloc Drnrnairt I Gwydir Wood, t iWttwvv-cotd 

Ciuxxn. IauvxiMi— N.JS. coart Joney ! Mr. LarUttttttr. Gucrnaty, fo». T. 

"Sporai.0035to.0CS in loo* by Ml in. broad." (Modi.) '• Spore. .017— 
8.ib. Jong, .«0->M mm. broad M (JTfl.) 

Var. rugomt, Tayl. njAifc, very uneven, lobe* lnvutdly linear, 

: ic*t«d, ninrgina HUiuuUKirenaU.', rugott at the bate, oh upptr 

turj- ; nios sorediftte, margin of apothwia ruifote ; medulla 

white K—C red 

On rocka, rure. 1836. 

Sv»:-T»L in. Mack. T\. Ilih. % Hi. (1898.) 

Ulght- »*- l» !•«. Zw- JH1. 
Gboo. IhMTRlB;— KuTOpa. 

i \ITD r- Linnl ! Oirnw*ll Mr. Cvruoo. 


Scotland :-Bvllaeheuli«h ! Mr. Bomr. 

IniI.A!«n :— DunkHmm ! Dr. Ityfaf, 

Wauco : — IMlwdarn. Cncni«rv>iu»biiv '. mad-aido between Tyn-y-({TO*» and 
iKil-y-inellyn Brians Merionathihlrc ! Mr. Bomr. Ty Gwyn near Satyftj 
iter. T. Stlmr. Alwrduvey ! I»nlir»ll«y ! 

Craxxxl I»labi»:— Guonwey. /tor. J*. Satiety. 

V;\r. rtvJutit, (Flk.) sinuato-Iobate, Zoom cucullato-revol '«.' 
tu>jerculoto+em<liate tit the apices and often at the war lulb 

whir- 1 

On tree*. 

: -Fit Deut. I.i.l,. U < 1815) Nyl. Bra. MS. (aCcl ayn.) 
!■•<-■ Sefcftr. 612, I - . - ; . r . ::-.,-. fry). 112. Uudd«9, /». im. !.,-, v.. i.,ri, H 
Bafch.ttQ. And Uofofa JM Mat hMS. 

Gaon. Dinmin : I! i . 

Bar. Psov:-l, 2....' B ..36.. .81. 

Kvonxu:— I'eniAnoi! Btr. II. Ptnntd. St. Leonard's Forest? Mr. Bomr. 
O.wwtry! and I.idl.iw, BhrOptMr* I Btr. T. Salatjf. 

rkvTLASU :— Glenexoe ! Dr. Maemillan. 

I hklasd :--Rlaekw»Ur Bridge, Kerry. Dr. J'uytor. Kerry. Dr. ituort. near 
betterfraok 1 Mr. tarbtiatitr. 

W.vLB* r-Tygwyn near DolgeUey ! Her. T. Satiety. Abordovcy. Ktv. A. 
i. M-*i1-y-g«rt '. 

<"«l I sla sim : — Basel I Gorey. Jenny ! Mr. Larbatatitr. 

•'Sporw .011 - 11 mm. long, .007-8 mm. broad." (A'.v/.) 

Van fllbl :'.) laeiitue narrate, fw 'iliiiil, 

apice* attrnualr, miIi truncate, r (uvea, under tnr/ace atro-jibrill'*< ; 
medulla white K— (.' ted. 

On trees ami rocks. 1K71. 

V.xn :-Sch«r. ML BpniH tt 176. Am. 1ST. 

, »). 
Iuusi) .—Near BiJltnahluch ! Mr. Larbatatitr. 
Waub :-Cwm Cwvinn I (1871). 

22. P. Dtlmi, fDub.) Nyl. poll el n . loba inurwoTcn, eleva- 
ted, narrow ; mtaulfa A" — 6' rrdditL 
On rocks. 1 

0nj-J>. ettraa, r-r. Mb* Dob. Bot Gall. H02. rittt). />. j.n>/iM r»r. 
IWwi. Nyl. Scan.l 102. Flora 1878 p. 426. CroiiiknJe in Journ. Bot. n.». 2. i:«3. 

; -, I. M 

Kt, In -t«i b :— Korojic. 

Kjmuaso :— Kyoiial Cliff, near Paasanoo. In this totality isidiiferoui tad 
pannifonu eruditions also occur. Mr. Curnov, 

/'. iftr«mi, (l'ors.) ochroleucous or navido-oineraeccnt, 
nuh-opake, orbicular, Btalu»to4a< iiiioee, approased, laciniie mm 
multijid, tomewhtl c<m*ex, crmed,:. ■ncurved und imhrii 

tortdia n]ba-jUit*t<xnt, vrrnteotu- tubtrculosr, under SOr&Oa cuinxilor- 

oiw, rhiziiue nigrioaat j or dark rafea< 

cent, Hmall, margin buIh lift K— O faint rod. 

On rocks, rare. 1793. 

s :-Ven. In Ust. Ann. 7. a. M i,!7'.H|. Nyl. Syn. 394. 
Or. '. 1. 

lot T6. Fr. 25ft B*ich. nn<l S.hnb. 88. Stenli. 123. 
Durntni : EumiM;, "■ 
ii LS : 
FjiguaM' :— Bo»mish Moor »ud K .-lestone I'M, Darbam) Heilgehotw nnd 
•■^*»iw>t. NorthambtHmd. Jfr. VsacA. (Jhornwn i I Poresit, Itoicettorahlro. 
litt. A. Bfunw. 

ThaDns tacmorfc, TariooslT divided, general} j 
Apotheeia orange or veDow or nigrieaat, lecaourhie. P&raphv 

-re* cot oml es B or toacooa, bflcodur or 1 septate. 
Sicrigmata pluri-srtk-uuite. Spenaatia oblangixyiuMlrical, ineraa 
sate at the spices. 

Characters m abort 


A- ThaJJui Jtareteenl (K purpU.J 

1. J', jt'tiieaiu, (Sw.) jreUotr or ortutgt-ftttcm, tmtpitwr, eub- 
«, Hkmder, nttanyfal, much branched, branches si 
furctUnit at tkt apiem; apothecin orange or rufous, ntargiu • 
Miibi'dttrt! ; Mporcs 8, colourless, clIiptico-obloDg, polari-bilocul 
N ,t«-. 17 

gn : - Hw»m IV.-lr. l'l. Ind. H7. <17«.J Juh. 8jra. 2M. NyL Sys. *». 

4 Wclw. 1J. Sproeo Amax. 171. L»«: 
lbs. 17. Reich, ft Hcnnb. 39. 
i ut :— W. Kuroiie, Alia, Africa, Atonies. Aastnlaab. 

ill II IM*. 20. .31. 
Km* I*nro«, Sumox ! Jfr. Aurrvr. I)»von«hirr. Sir J. B. SmM. 
I.»nj. Bod C<vnw*a W»ldei»h«r» Psrit, K 
». t-.r HwtiiiK*; Mo ( .f Wight: & Derm Mid Cornwall 
(•Mrellr utmhiiv. Z)r. ffotf. Dan*f .-.lter- 

"toqtt. IS. Now Forert. Aw. J. Jf. Owi4*. Tim- 

**"■' ■ tlm Lsbvoii <VilL Krr. J. P. Jmti. 

'►*• ' ■ ■» rwU j InwanlUbjIi ; l.u.tlciKb CUvc, Devon. Jfrwrt. ^cit<« 


ScOTLAJro:— Orolg of Ailso. Jter. J. Ufktfbot. 

Ikki.ami :— Ardglam. Dr. Sfitir, . Waterford. t>r. Jiarltr. Dublin 

Mountains and Kllllaoy Hill. Dr Taylor. Lambsy Island o«M I 'i:l>lin s Aid- 
more. Waterford, flMWIWIUlljl. U sq al a l a n , C'.utlnh«niord, mil Cope, Clear 
Ulond, o>. <.ork; Wcotern BlaViuet Island, Kerry. Mr. Car, Mr, 

J. Oonlit. 

Vftu m »— Mosly-Qolfa war Welshpool, and PIctoa. Pembrokeshire. J2«r. r. 
Salary. Aberdovoy. /fcc. .1. Bloram. Angle, Pembrokeshire, Jfr. £<«. Hocks 
N. of Bormontl. I 

Ch/lKXU. Ihlanus : — Bowl i L'Etacq; St. Lawrence ! La Mayo, Jersey t 
Island of Sork ! Jerbourg, (Juonitoy : Brechou. Mr. Larbalrtiifr. 

" Sport* .<Xtt". in. long, by .001 1<> ,00128 limod. I. 2. f. 33." (Mvdd.j "Spore* 
.012— 18 mm. long, .007-.011 mm. broad, f 

2. /'. (hrysvphlhalvui, (L.) yellow or flavo-albicant or flavo- 
oinorascent, rigueent, narrowly laciniate, laoinise ascending, divari- 
cato-tnultifld, apices jlbrillos&ramulose or rpiiwfe, \ohili/k beneath ; 
apothecia orange, margin fibrilluno cilmti nines naked; 
sporea 8, colourless, clliptico-obloiig, poLin-bilucular. 

trees. 1801. 

gn ; -Linn. Meat. 2. 31L (1771.1 Ach. Syn. Hi Nyl 8rn. 410. 
ftfl :-E. Bot. 10*8. Uffin. PL L. t. 30. L L and U 31. L 1. Htpp Sporen t. 
65. f. 309. 

:-Henp 569. M. ft V. 254. Mm 56. 5fi. lath. 22. Wdw. Lneit. 64. 60. 
Sob»r. 389. Bohl. 322. I.clght. 894. Nyl. Pyr. or. 2. 

Gcoo. Dnrrarn •— Kuroiw, Africa, America, Polynesia, Australasia. 
Bot. Prov :— 16. .19. 20. .30. 31. 

K*i;laxi> .— Devonshire. Mr. AMMrto. (1801.) Lancing ! and Brighton ! Sussex. 
Mr. Rarrtr. DwUm, Sussex. Mr Cnirin '»y. A'l'r If" ./. //inker. 

Scoruxu :— Ben Bretht, Argylcshire. J/r. Palmon. 

Imlasd :— Belliiirea. Carripilim; near fork : near Newcastle, no. Down. 

Afr. Carroll. Cave Hill, Dear Belfast. Pro/. *%*•*. KillrttUln Hfr U~em»Mfcr. 

'iimonnt and Blarney, Cork, Bad I 'istlcbernord Park, Bandon. Afr. J 

[h, fork. Mr. Cooke- Mliokionel Mr. Uanly. 
svvtL I*UM«i: -Currnsey: St. BrelodeV, Jersey ! and Sork : Mr. tar- 
bolflicr. orchard at Sark. Ihr. T. 8 

Tho forma Krkitana (Linds. Mem. Sperm. SV4.) teems only a paler coloured 

■tat* with entire margin to the apothecia. It has occurred at (*ve Hill. Belfast, 

and Newcastle, ox Down. Dr. Dirld. and Nolrmont, Jersey. Mr. tarlialatirr. 

ixirre.003 to .00.11 in. long, by ,001961a brood. I. 2. f. 34." (M<uid.) 

" Spore* .0U-17 mm. long, .006 -.010 mm. brood. " [Xnt. ) 

3. /'. parittima, (I.. I y orbicular, mtgnbraasjoeowg, 

rotun^j-lobalo-ineifrd, )ohcii mibiinliriculc. . ill.: ■ ..i 

concave, rmoat/t, tnargina cronaU*, thickened mid upttmiAcl, under 
surface iMtlcr or whitish ; apothecia oonooloruu.i at •nxf-Orai 
coloured, margin entire ; spores 8, colourlew, oblong, polari- 

On troos, pales, rocks, Ac. common. 1690. 

Srx: I.inn s P . H. ed. L No. ». 0758.) Ach. Syn. 290. Nyl. Syn. 41i>. 
Mod.1 Man. 113. 

i:. Bot. 194, T.,l •.!,,„, i, 1. f. 1-7. lUpp Sporen t. 99. f. 870. 
Exs ! Sahar, 380. Mass. 31.32. Welw. Ludt. 65 Bobl U ML. xnd N 06. 

lr S. ISO. Mn.ld 85. Lclght. 10. Hepp 870. Larbal. 67. 
Gj»g. UiKTKin:— Knrope, Asia, Africa, N. Aniarlca. 

J, 4,5, 6, 7, 8. .Hi. ii 1.19— 30.) 26... 31. 

Bvo&aKD i harnwood Forest I 1 ,,i.v»tcrshlre. Htr. A. Ilhaam. Yorlcsldre! 

Mens. Aytan I Cleveluml. Mr. " Korthnrnpariaad and Durham. Mf- 

rf.i.rA. Haggjr], N. Devon. Mr. FatfU. Kelvedon, Kmcx. Mr. Vartnnt. 
■. Mr. Pvrton. Bedfortlahlre. /See. C. Abbot. Cambridge. Krr. 
It. Iltlh.ix. Swinnop, Kest Allendale, NiTtln : n, ' mnlwrli 

Krr. W. J..hnim. Market Bason! Lincolnshire. /"-. P. A. L«i. Slimp I 

SCOTLASD :— Loug Dland ; Arran. Prof. Balfiwr. Forfarshire. Mr. H'trditter. 
Hebrides and Orkneys. Dr. Lindmy. Isle of May, Firth of I'orili. Iff, .s 


llll. I.JOHKX I I 

Imlajid.— On traca, rock*. 4c, common. Mr. Carroli. lliver Paw-rot, eo. 
Galway. Mr. I^irfnttttitr. 

Walks :— Aberayroii. OtRBgajunJra, VUi Attimxl. Y Feele fiiwr, near Bar. 
month ! fit. Bavidli ! Mumble* ! Pembrokeshire. Dfwjymut ! 

Ciu.t hel ISLairntt ;— J«nwy ! Sark. H«rm. JotlioiL. Ore'ridum. Mr. Larba- 
Utlkr. Guerawy. /far. T. Salvxy. 

"Spore. .00* In. l«ng, by .001 to .00128 In. broad." (MuM.J " Siwm 
.010—11 mm. fenu, .007—9 mm. broad." ( liyl. ) " Spore* .018—16 mm. lonj, 
.007— 9 mm. broad.' I T. M. Ft.) 

\ :ir. aureola, (Ach.) more iiiteiue y<llow or orange, rutundo lobtile, 
siiuuitu-ineittd, ereiinfc. thickened and upturned at the 
under a Ions very minutely grandott on the surface, margin of 
npothecia email 

On rooks and stones. 

Sin :-A«h. I* I . 1*7. ilslO.iSyn. 210. Nyl. Syu. 111. Mr„l,l M-..i. 113. 
M..i. 81. Bain. 173. Am. 

I 'I Iltll: ; Kin 

But. PBOVj-1. ,S II IV 

• ;— Exeter. M tt. Eaat Allendale. Northuinbcrlawi Rtr, W. 

./ n, I .l.i iiy m;. i i] -hire. 

SofiUAM) : -KinoarJineahire. R- nttoe. 

IT. eeturtea, (AH tlt^fldt^adniatt, hwhi'iK 

narrow, Imbric ■'•uunote, thickened ai 

:in«, (lightly •jr<<n*!nt<d 00 UtO UTfoOOj BUffghl Of ipotb 

On rocks. 

Hv» :-Ach. L. U. 464. (mO.)rulila,,*, Syn. 210. Nyl Syn. 411. Miidd Man. 

Ex. : Ana Vcil W. /.«. '■•?. Wei*. Luait. 72. 

(jgoo Dwnun : -Europe, Africa, X. America, Cliili, Aiwtrabwia. 

Bur. Pbov .— 6, 

Ksni.iMi r— Crumbles, Eaatbounie. J/c. A>nrr. 

W.m,w.— T«uli> ' l/.. /.,,.-, i;,.rtli ! V Keiflo fawr ! near Barmouth. Manor- 
beer ! Holyhead ! 

Var. tttciniosa, (Duf.) orange-coloured, stonophyUoUi, /a 

piitnatijldoduttcted. BtalUtO : ■ i ■ | ■ i ■ Bttd, more 0> I ling. 

i In tree*, rocks, Ac. 

Kttdd Man. 113. 

i; i. 72. r. ess. 

•ft xi>.) Maw. 36. Hei.p 872. OSJ. 
LtMbfc 1 1 

. Unmun: — Europe. 

Kmuju : Yeldham, Emox. Mr. I'ltirjinr. Swlnnop, Eaat Allendale, North- 

rliuid. Her. H'. J>Avnn. niuu iury ! 

SottulSU:— Blackford Hill, near Edinburgh. Sir J. t:. Smith. 

Var. lychrua, i if, ptdvinale, crowded, n 

mbneate, margins gr amti on mh t r iUmt n 
'dissected; margin of apothocia entire, pulv. ml nt 
trees and old railings. 

-Ach. Met!., 1ST. (1S0S.) Syn. 210. Xyl. Syn. 111. MucU Man. 114. 
-Repp Sporen I 

MSt 549. Ami Utik-ob. Ss. Hepp 871. 872. 873. PelUn. 86. 
1! ilbh, B8& 

R run*. 
Boi .] ...7...15...W...29...*). 

Shreoahtra! 'rf<y. Hay Tnr, Dartmoor! Molitm 

Hilli. Or. Uoft, WheaUieldPark ! Oxfordahire. Mr. Lartoatitr. 



*u :— Ben Lawera. Dr. /Ml. Braemar and BUir Atholo. Her. J. it. 

«> :— North of Ireland ; and Caictlobernard Park, Bandoe. Adn. Jomu. 
Wales :- Llyn GelrWydd ! Orieelotli CantU ! 

Vur. polj/ctu-j,.'. 1 1. lull.) greenish-yellow, ynmidaUheomjlomerate, 
margin* <jrim>dato<rettaU ; apolheein numerous, crowded, margin 
7, entire. 
On trees, palings, and rocks. 1607. 

St* .— Ehrhort Crypt 13G. <178.'..) Ach. Syn. 192. NjrL 111. Mudd Mm.. 115. 

Pin :- K. H.,t. 17:'.. H.ppSporao t 7. t. M. 

:-Hepp 54. 595. Ma». 35. Mudd SO. And Langob. 835. Ldght. MS. Am. 

<'.i«o. DBTBTB :— Europe, N, America. 

Bar. Paov : 1.3. 1.6.. 10. 11. .14 

Bkolaxii:— Near Yarmouth. Mr. Turnrr. (180" . ' Kodear ! Clove- 

land. Mr. Mudd. Swinnop. Eart Allendale, Northumberland! Jin-. \V. 
Budhwjh Saltcrton. Devon. Dr. Difiv. Ml natwi Ohrial Chu«4 

Meadnir, Oxford, ,Wr. Pwrton. linvll.y Gre*n, Worcestershire, /frr. «)'. & 
/hjford. Stipenrtones ! Lonu Mynd ! near Shrewsbury ! Shropshire. 

S0OTLA.M>:-DurTla. Kimardinaahir*. Rtr. J. if. CravMt. 

Forma tumidn, iWedd.) verrueoso-bidlale. 
• in «;.li-:, rocks and trees. 1S71. 

BBIS-Weddell l.i.h. Prom, in Bull. So..-. Bot. ttVBM 1!I8. <18*U 
Gioo. Diirrnin :— France. 
Bor. Paov :-3...r>. 

Enolasp i— Tetaworth 1 Oxfordshire. Mr. Larbalmier. Llanymynech Hill ! 
Shropshire. (1H71.> 

-ma rinertueex*, height tluilliis nad margins id' itjiothccia 


> elms and palings. 1 K78. 

Bot. Paov ;— a. - * 

E»OLAXi>:-WhoatflcldPark: Oxford. Mr. LarMatirr. (187K.) 

B. Thetliiu ciTHTcucent. 
§ medulla K— C— . 

4. P.intrieat'.i, (lio-f.i <inoreous or cincnwccnt, aupitotc, nar- 
rowly lereti-eompretsed, tacini&to, densely pulieruiovillote, lacinian 
divaricato-ramose, entangled, obsoletely canaliculate beneath ; apo- 
; i lateral, Bwwile, l'u-. .11- I!. BUUgfa) entire downy ; 

< 8, colourless, eQiptioo oblong, 1-aeptate. 
On tree* and ruck*, ran-. 1804. 

Bt* i-Dcsrfontaines PL Atlant 2. 419. 0800.) atlmtiai, Nyl. Syn. 408. Ach- 
Man. 104. 

Ki., B, Bot 1715. NyL 8yn. t 8. f. CO. 

ho. - 

W. Euro 
Bot. Paov:— 1.2. 

Exm : Mil 

Caoo. Dbtbjb t— W. Europe, Africa. 

Wolw. Lurit 14. 

Urn; Mliu naar I(x>tiutp», Suasex! Brackleaham In Selasy Island; 
Mr. Bvrrer. 0.804. > Bolt Head, D«V0B. Srr. J. M. CmmUr. 

" Spore. .0045 to .005 in. long, by .0025 to .003 in. broad.- (Mwii.) '• 8por«a 
.018—85 mm. long, .011—15 mm. broad." (Nyl.) 

r>. I'. eUiarin, (L.) ttlbidodneratcent or cinertueenli-Jvtceseent, 

lintari-laaHiat*-, laciniw auli-axoending, moltifid, imbrj ate, 

tomentote, canuliculate, whitish beneath, margins jibrxUoto-eiliale ; 

I. HI 


apoihtcia prd< tsooui lihwk, cKsic-pruiiiosc, rarelj naked, 

margin sub-«nt .rr, ioAoud ; spores 8, fuscous, oblong, 1 -septate ; 

{medulla K— C— ). 

On trees and rocks. 1785. 

BlVl S P , l-L ml. I. No. a*. (1758.) Ach. Hyn. Oft Nyl. Syn. 414. 
Mudd Mm. 105. 

Il .: Offal, PI I., t. 3. f. -1. IIcppSpONDt. 1' I IT- 

Ex» .— Hepp 168. Schwr. »W. M ft N. 04. Larbal. 68. Reich, and Scboli. 38. 
UUfal, Mi 

Kiiropo, Africa, X. Ainiirica. 
B01 I '. 3. 4, 0...8..-14. i:. n._8L 

Eyotums Mwiiihlw I li" . a. Bltam. Kelvedon, Kewx. jfr. raruxf. 

comoi"n in li.'Miti. M'. I'.,ri:f. .M iill.m.l <'iiiinti«H. Mr. I'vrtvn. Cambridge, 

.','. tUhcm, Oxford. Dr. Sibthorp. Bed/ord«hire. Hrt: O. AbUA. Guoetlin*. 

Bum v. *,',„„i, -w. siiropuhlw • Moor Park tUnfarddcrtb 

tkwuiili:- Ballhaywk ! Perth. />r. Limltay. Beldoren •, Maine; Auldber ; 
Foulte. Mr. Oardintr. Cm tic of Melgvnd ; between Forfar ami Kirrimuir. Mr. 
Cronlt. Am.IuhiI.iihv and ttuedju \V,khI» ; Dalkeith; about Kirkliatan. Or. 

Iiixi-vxn : Oakpark, near Carlow. Vr Moon. 

OB uom i.'iASM:— Guernsey. Ret. T. SaXvxy. Jersey tod Sarkt JiV. Larfm- 

"Spore. .007 to .0075 la. long, by .00S5 in. hrW. M (JrVM.) "Sporw.OW- 
50 mm. Ions; .018—24 in. broad.- Ury.) " Sporee .030-50 mm. long. .018— M 
mm. broad?' (T.Jf./V.) 

Forma octtitota, (Ach.) margin of ii[M>thccia p/wli/trou*, tarinioUc 
Ontrow. 1724. 

:-Aeh. I.. U. 497. (1810). NyL IJcb. ScmhI. 108. 
. -K. Bot U 
Bn :- Rabh. 309. Mudd 77. Maae. 39. Brtut. 309. 

, lUirnun : Kumpn. 
*OT. PaOV I — 4. .10, 11 .15. 

;l.u«i>:— Bedfordshire. Ktc. C. AUal. noar Arton. Clew lend Mr. Mudd. 
Y.irlc.hir. ' Mr. Dkcon. Northumberland and Dnrbani. Mr. Wintk. :— Old Castle of Melgund, Forfarshire. Or. /,t«f«i». 

Forma verrucosa, (Ach.) laciniie broader, ptmtcMo-papiltate, $per- 
On tic«. 

Stx ^Ach. L. V. 197. (1810.) Nyl. Lioh. Sennd. 109. 

Kxs :~Bohl. 38. At.xl Ungob. *8. A. 

Gaoo. DlirTMB ;— Europe. 

Bot. Paor :-»... 5.. .7... 10.. .15, 

ElftlLAXn ;— LUnfonla near Oswestry ! Rrr. T. Soluey. near Hatchet ! Mat 
Attwat. near Think ! Mr. BaUr. between South LittUtou au.i IIed«y. Wor- 
c«at«nhir«. Mr. rW<n. 

ScoTUUiu ;-Balthay«k, Perth. Dr. IAnd*iy. 

ia Macufii, (J»yh) dark-cervine or finciWiinnl. appreaeed, 
marvitka and orUMUtiM of the umrow luctnia) uitA lcm<j OrotenUh- 
blaek cii< 

On n ii in time rooks. 

Stk^-NjI. Syn. 414. Mudd Man. 105. 
G»00. 1>ihtiuii : - Kiiruin-, Cauariea. 
Bot. PBOT :-l. 7.S...10 .15 l!i 31. 

Kvn fear l^ngbraugli, Clevoland. Mr. Mudd. near Buxton. Or. 

BoO. DrND, Mr. Pmrjttt. 
SconuM) i— Morroo* in Braemar. Htr. J. M. CrotnUt. 
IaiXJJlD :-SybU Head, oo. Kerry. Mr. CmmJl. 
Wild :- Holyhead Mountain ' 

•SK. laiAXIM ;-Ouei»Tal», Jcrxy. Mr. LarU\lil\*r. 



6. P. pulvrruienta, (Schreb.) pal afOMOBtOF pale cinoreo- 

rufoKjont or pale olivaceo-oorrinc, opake, ttiborbioulato-Mtltate, ap- 
pr c aw e d, firm, lacinise plane, multilid, minutely atb<Hjranulo*o- 
pntiiuue. toward* l/ie oUatr creiuito-incUed apxctt, under surface 
nigricanti-fibrillooe ; apotheeia fuaeuus, cwHio-pruinoeo, margin tai 

■:, pniinose; spores 8, fuscous, oblong, 1-septato; (medulla 
K— C— ). 

On trees, common. 

St* :-8chreU S|.icil. 128. (1771.) Acb. Syn. 814. Nyl. Syn. 419. Mudd Man - 

Fro:-nffm. l-i. L i. «. f- -'. Bm Bpona i- M. '• W4. 

Bx» .— M. & N. 161 (In i*rt) Ann It. S. 123. Schusr. 366. U«[>i> W4 <in part). 

Gaoo. Domus : -Europe, Africa, N. America. 

Hot. Pm>v:-1, 2, 3 .6, .7 10. 11 19 tOJ 0. 

:La*d:— Northumberland and Durham. ,Vr. »',«<■/.. I >..-vmi. Mr. I'arfU. 
Kolvedon. Emx. J/V Kurrnw/. Midland Countim. Mr. Furton. < I ucitlliiK, 
.Sn—o« ; Great Gleohwn, SaSoik. fit*, A', ,V. Rlnnm«rUl. BoaitM-OD. the-Wator. 
Mr. Jothua. Bovey Trooey ; Baator Wood. IUiruiton. Duvon. Mum. Jonet A- 
JCinyttoH. near Shrewsbury • anil Shropshire -rwm-raUly. Moor Park ! Hereford- 

Sootuasd I — Common ou trot* Sir W. J. Hooker. Forfanhire. Mr. W. Oar- 
ditier. Braid Hermitatfw ; Bhu-kfurd lluuee ; Swaimlon WimkI u*ar Edlnli 
Dr. OrttnBt. 

lKa.xxn -. — On trees, common. Mr. flarmWi 

W*i.w :— Hettwa-y-eoed churchyard ! 

Chak.vkl IsLABin .— Guenwoy. Jtev. T. Soliceg. common on all the Itlanda, 
'Mr. IstrlxilntuT. 

" S|»,ro» .006 to .fW in. long, by .003 to .0035 in. broad." ( Mudd.) " Snore* 
.020—36 mm. loo*. .012—20 mm. broad." (.Nyl.) " Spore. .020-38 mm. long. 
.010-12 HBO. broad." (T. M. Fr.) 

f. jitiyrttt, (Arb.) t.hallus thinner, sub-ciuerasceut, aub-effuso, 
locinut thortith, ttorediot* at the wiryint, margin of apolheexa crtnu- 
lair or torediatoMuxmte ; f medulla K — C — ). 

On treea and walls. 1783. 

St* .—Ach. Prodr. 123. (1798.) Syn. 201. NyL Syn. 420. Mu.ld Km, 1 1 1 
B Hot. 2064. 

RUr-U A N. 352. (in port) Schnr. 487. Gn part) Mudd 83. Zw. 186. Am. 
906. HeppKTtf. Keich. a, Scliub. K7. 

Geoo. uimtris :— Europe. 

Bor. Pnov:— 1...3. 4,5 .10. IS ,18. 

Btouasd :— StrumpRliaw ; Nnrfcilk and Suffolk. s,r J . /:. BMU, Bury. Rtr. 
O. R. Ixalha. Oswtatry ! Caetle Walk. : Ludlow ! Bet: T. Salwtv. < '»u>brid«e. 
Mr. lAxrbilatier. Cuunt**i Weir, Devon. Mr. PorfiU. PophlUa, Wara icloMre. 
Bet. W. ft Rafford. near Oxford. Mr. BaxUr. Oronley, Warwickahir*. Mr. 
m. Thame Park ! Tetaworth ! Oxfordihire. Mr. L>\rUUtUier. Yorkthire. 
Mr. Mudd. 

SOOttASO :— GUvajow. Or. So-»ilrr. Marten '• Den, Forfarshire. Mr. ' 

• • Spore* .024—28 mm. long, .015—18 mm. broad." (ivy l 

f. anyuftata, (Hfim. ) Min\U:r, ]>rtUido-<inereo-ruft#xiU, larinia nar- 
rower, linear, dicbotomous. 
On mon. 1861. 

Srx :-Hff». t^urn. 77. (17B4.) Adi. Syn. 214. NyL Syn. 420. Mudd M.n. 

-Hffm. Enum-t 11. f.2. 
r— Atiri l.-uujot.., 84. 
i .i. io. I ■; rm - -Kurope. 
Bot. Phov : -5 .10. 

I TO :— Yoriuhire. Mr. MuiUI. Benthani, near Cricklade. Mr. W. Jo$hiuu 


f. mtutigmn, (Wlilnb.) darker, ttrvttuyfatctxtnt, general Ij albo- 

■ruinose, laeiniai shorter, more distinct, aieen- 
Oiiiikmb. 1661. 

Sta :-WhlnK Ft Lapj.. 422. (1812) Aeb. 8yn. 212. Nyl. Syn. 430. Modd 
Man. lift 
Kxa :— Sobwr. 486. Arm 64. Anxi L*i«ob. 54. B. Veuet. 2L H«pj> 875. 
CtiM. DiaTiun :— Europe. 
BOT. PBOV :-15. 

SooTLAMi :— Crauj Tullocb. Rev. J. it. CromUt 
•' Spor» .024-30 mm. Ion*, .011 !5 mm. broad.' ' (Ay.) 

I '. rniuta, (Ach.) cervinr. epruisow, mafjirt of uiiothocia 1 
with laeiniola or horizontal thailinr tobuUr. 

Ontrooa. 1784. 

8rx:-Aeh. Moth. 211. (1*3.) 8m "l: 1 . Nvl. Sjn. 420. 

-Ach. Meth. t. 8, f. 5. E. Bot. 200S. 
Kxar-M-A-N .it) Bdwr. ,1.1 M.W..n 33 H««ip M. 

(in i«rt). .'. 1 ' I Hold. 69. Mudd 82. 

Gkkj. Dwtkib :— Europe. 
Bar. P«OT! 1 a. 1. r, 7 111 11 IB., la. 

— Yorkshire I Mr. O. Ihxxm. near Ayton '■ Cleveland. Mr. MwM. 
Wrtnburjr, 8. Devon. Dr. Bolt. Cambridge, tin. K. Rttlian. !>■ 
Morjp. Kii*t Alli'iuhUi! and Ilaydnn Brhta, Northumberland. /fee. IK. JaKnton. 
llaughmond Hill ! Emdon. near Sbrewnbury ! 

Scoti-anii : I-oohahex. Iter. J. M. Cnmbtt. 

IktxaXI) :— Blarn*y ! laid ncur < 'nrk. .\/r. Carroll. 

Wai.xm : Bettwii'jr-ooed churchyard ! 

All the ratioa* farm* a itetM "f /■. vutnmUnta are readily rccoeniied by 
tho thallui generally or the apiece of the lacinto being clothed with minute 
alrxi-uruiiulcMe pruina And the chemical reaction of mmlulla K 

" Spore* .026— »; mm., .012—20 mm. broad." (Ay. / 

7. /'. obtcura, (Klnli. 1 ■:iv(uxo-i>ire*ct>U or/iuctscmt, sub-orlu 
i." pprtmed, luciuiic ruuroui, inci«oMAMUe, plan*, n«< 
margins often sorediatc, under surface nigro-fhrilloMKili'ite . 
tbeou 1 :i.'m fuscous, naked, margin jxiU entire ; RMtQa 8, fu* 

•«pUito; Bjjcrinatia very mi- :ig; (roc- 

ilnli.i -). 

On L80& 

8m :-F.hrhart Crypt. 177. U*S».) Nyl. Syn. 427. P.eydoxlit, At},. Syo, tU. 
Mudd Man. 1(0. 

11*42. Hepp Sporen 1. 1». f. 696. 

Ex« :— Nyl. 33. Hep| ar. 355. And It. B. l« Mudd 80. Leijht. SO. 


G» ■■■ I iurotie, A«la, Africa, Anatrabuta. 

Bot. r«or:-l, 2, S. i. 10,11 .14 ,.16...(19-30.)...31. 

1:. .... .1.111; Seething. Norfolk 1 Uialeham, Suffolk. Sir J. K. 

BmUk. U>*X<.) Samax^Mr. Bifrrrr. Yarmouth, it*. Tomer, nwr Avion ! and 

Kaaby ! Cleveland. Mr. Mudd. NnrthmuWland and Durham. Mr. Wutk. 

UK. <!o>[>m>I1 I'ark, Eciccaterihlre. tier. A. tttoeom. 

Fenaace. Or. Hull. Upton M»«n» f ami nther plana near SlirrmiJmry ; Llany- 

OUSDl Ai'i'iu Arcylealdro. Oapt. Otmithatl. near Coliuton. IH. 

I Mil .•.-. lumon on rocka and tieo. Mr. Carroll. 

WaU- II.I.Iiii. ]. Mi'iittioiMrnhirti 

OKanrn. Isi^siw :-Cncmacy. Iter. T. .Wwqi. co mmo n on all the Iilanda. 
Mr. lariataUtr. 

MM .004 to .005 in. Iodr, .00176 in. broad." (MiuU.) "8poroi .018— 
95 ana. long, .OOll-.Oll mm. broad." I A,-,,') "Spona .015-2R mm. loos, 
409-12 ■m^brold.' , <T. .V. Fr.) 


Var. tkloaitfha, (Ach.) giaueou+ffrten or cinereous, htdmee bromUr 
and more approximate, apotfiecia very numerous. 

On Iri'i 

a :-Ach. S>-n. OJ. (lM4.)NyL Lich. Scand. 112. Mudd Man. 110. 
Ku :— Scluw. 8A3. SM. H«u> R96. Ana LangoU 2J« Venot. 2£ It. B. IM. 
g a Da • as: Buropa, 

BvT. Pkov :-.'. 

Btolaxd :• Ayton '• Cleveland. Mr. SlmU. LUnforda ! Shropshire. 

f. titholea, (Ach.) gliuco-futeeioenl, orbicular, lacinue muUifid, 
linear, very narroie, tuargiuii atro-ciliatc. 

On maritiim.' rack*, rare. 1877. 
8YK;-Ach. Math. 190 (1803|. 
Birr. Past :— 7. 
Waib : Great Onno'a Head ! (1877.) 

Vnr. vii-fltn, {\v.\i.) gUiucorirf or einereou*, stellate, Utcinia 

abbreviate/I, lii<:ini:tt-:i luliun-, obtuse, totxdiate. K — — . 

On trow, Ac. 1807. 

8n« :-Aou. Prod. 108. a798.)8rn. 101. Nyl. 8yn. 427. Madd Man. 110. 
Pio : -K. Bot. 1696. (2 upper fik'.> 
Km i— U«pi> «w. Au*i It. B. las. Bold. 104. 
Gaoo. Dwthib i— Korope, 
Bot. Prov:-1, 2,3. !>,<;...«. 

Kvouku :— Suwx. Mr. Bomr. <1807.) naar Oxford. Afr. Barter. Smith of 

ftagland Bee. J. M. Orombie. Park, Cirenoeater. Mr. W. Joihua. near Shrews. 

Held ! ami Llaiiymyncen ! and on rock* <>n llauuhniond Kill! ami 

U mim/m K U mn 

lacixu:— Ivird SlLro'j Dcinome, Weatport, oo. Mayo. Jfr. Larbalatier. 

Watm :-.S.i.u. WSm. i». OtK 
Var. ulotkrtx, (Ach.) Ixmo of rtujAtuU of apothocia nigro-jUn-il- 

On tree*, Ac. 1807. 

Srx : Ach. rind. 113. 11798.) Syn. 217. Nyl. Syn. 4SJ. Mudd Mao. 110. 
:i!96l (lower %). 

Exa!-M.*>'. H& K Um.SS. Ami It, 3. 127. 

Oho. Dmiua :— Knrope. 

Bot. Paov :-i s...r. S.-W ->v..J9, 81. 

Kxulam) : -Sumcx. Mr. jBorrrr. Shropshire. Rev. T. Saiwty. Tptna-ortb ! 
OxfonUliirf. Mr. lAirhalettitr. 

BrorusD :-Gl«n r\>od»r, HWr Atholv, Rtr, y. M.Cnmbu. 

lnri.MD :— Near Belfast, Jfr. Templeto*. Daolumm. />r. TWor. Road lo 
B««m. Mr. IsirlaleMier. 

(U Iw.ivi,. r.n.mwy. Bcr. S". SoftM*. 

8. /'. adfflntiiuita, (Flic.) oMwKrt^cirwflntf, tfcir*, orbicular, 
brieato-atellate, Uieinia twirow, cAwr/y apprettej, m r- 

'ke (VproM Kirediate centre ; (medulla K — C— .) ; spermatia 
long aciculiir. 

On trow, wall", fto. 1810. 

8ra :-HV. i.. ICOOA St Voa. MS. (1SW|. 

Flo :-H«p 8{K<«ii t 7. 1 i. no* 

Eo :-Rcleh. it Sd.uK M. Nyl. 34. Mw. 348. Ann Lugoh. 173. Ii S 1» 
HwpU. 8«fc»r. 60!'. Wrih-ht 00. M. * N. MJ. '• 

(,noa. l>i»riu»:— Europe, Cuba. 

B./r i' ■ M.-801 ..31. 

KhHUUTO i— Korwteh. .VcV ./. /.. 0M*xl Mr. Borrtr. near KmIm 

/. Jf . CVwmAir. 

iHaaxu: — "ii imt ff<.|iuiit. Mr. Carroll. DanVarroo. Dr. Tmgtor. Kyle- 
mors. Mr. Larlaltrtier. 

ChaXXIL IbiaBIW :— St. Oimu'k, Noinuont, Jcrwy. Jfr. Isirbtlulitr. 

f. Trf . »«. . 

Arw4r, dilated at tie 
On watts and trees. 

Utu:i .— Baa* t! 

tlmdm apprtned, laaaim 
marjroa and centre torediatr. 

HB! Mr T i rl M l uil. **. Gaiwaj. Jfr. Z«r- 

9. P. ii auyu— , (Strtn.) like P. mmdlarit, medulla K— and 
•pons tuacwhat smaller .003— .018 nun. long. .007— .009 mm. 


On tree* II 


8m j-SUrio* ia Tn» Ohv» S«. Nat. p. 

ScOCLaSD .— Star AJtaakarra. «X Watlnri—A Dr. 

$ «^UD« *nd MUJaK + O. 

U-C.V I 

la /'. timajBK&J, (L) whitish or albido^lamef»mt, imbctupit^ , 
HmftxriJtfinmtf, lad*** lax, di/*te, irab-asccnding, mmryim nigro- 
JtoriUomt-ciliate, under ntrfaet rabcsnsliculat* or plane, aibthffranK- 
U*e ; apotbecia cessto-pruino**, margin ra/iiat-xoronat* ; spores 8, 
fuscous, elongato-obtong, 1 -septate j (thallus and medulla Kj < 

Amongst grass, Ac. 1813. 

Br* : Lean. 8p. PI at X MIS. U764.1 Ac*. Sya. 223- NrL Syn- 414. Mnd.1 
Maa. 104. 
Kio .— E. BoC 3HS. Haw. W «. BS. f. 5TJL 

,-pp 57* M. A N. Ml. Hoargaaa « Wolw. l.nrii 79. Leixht MB. 
I^rbaL OB. 
Gaoo. Disraa .— Evopa, Ada, Africa, Aaatrlca, Auatralaala, 
Bot. Paov .—1...W.. 81. 

Emtkaxo:— Babbkoaabe, Drraaahkc. Sir W. J. Btekcr. Torquay ! Dr. 
ifeacta. Cornwall I Mr. Btrrtr. Bolt llaa.1. S. l>.t.«. I*. /T«K. 
lRH.»X7>:~BaUyeott«u I a«ar Cock ami on Csp« Clear Itlaad. Sir. CtrnU. 
UOBL In-isiw :— Jerboorg andS.W. point of KuonaaiM Hay. Jfr. /.uiu. 
Cn-uot CaMea, Qtworala, Jararr ! Bracaar*. Jfr. tmriAatier. 
mm .«»-.080nun. loag. -01S-.OJ5 mat. broad." (Ay.) 

11. P. tpteiota, (Wulf.) tekite ur albo-cmi-nucent, ttrUato-l'iei- 
niale, laciniie sarrotr, miUiitd, plane, sub-imbricato, somewhat 
a.tcendin^' at ti apices, tinder rur/aee plane <Ubo-/lo«cuioK, rhixinse 
and marginal cihie whit tali : m fuscous, margin sub-ci 

or crenulate, incurred ; spores 8, fuscous, oblong, 1 -septate ; (mcduilu 
K yeOom C \« How). 

Uu tree* and rock*. 1809. 

STS :-Wa!tai la Jao> ColL 8. II* <17».) Aeb. »yn. 211. Nyl. Syn. 41*. 

Itoj r. Bat. an 

Kxa:->1. A N. 635. 8owtr. 357. Tuck. HI Sprue* Atnat 154. Aotl 
Ijuik<iK 66. 
Gsoo. Dmrua :— Kun>|Hs Aala, Africa. America, PolrncaU, AnatraWia. 
Bot. Paov :-l.. IS, W . 19 ..», 8L 
KxoLasn :— Foldeaeo, Cornwall. Jfr. flerrrr. Bolt Head, a Deron. Dr. 

i-AXi>:-BaU»ch<raIl»J», near Kort WilHam. Jfonr.. Twnter and BooUr. 
(ilea Kalloch. /*-. fllaU. Appin. tor. J. li.OromM*. 

Iuuasi> ;— DnnkctTOn. />r. Ttfkr. GUmarm, oo. Actriat. />r. ifa>rt. 

Cnasisn. Isiaxiw :-J«rbourK, GtMraam-. Mm Rowl. Jornr. 

Jfr. Lmrbatatier. 

"Siwra« .0<M to .0M5 ia. hag. hy .002 la. hmail." {UmU.) "Spora* 
.Oft-SftBMwIonv, .013-17 mai. broad" (Xtf. * T. ii. Fr.) 



Var. Aypo/rw-a, (Ach.) under surface of tWluit white, rAuina 
and marginal cilia black. 
On rocks. 1875. 
8t» i— A«h. 8jm. 211. (1817.) Nyl. Syn. 417. 

: -Fee Em. 8uppl. t. 38. I 2. 
Rl«:-« ipnuw IV_> 153. 

'•►■-.. Dbwbi nartti ud Cntnl UMrJoa,G*M of Q I )i"i"-. Usual 

of Bourbon. Kurt Indian, Java, Cub*. Ceylon, Mauritius 
BOT. PHOT :-!.-» 2fi. 

St-oTLA-vu : — Gloncroo ! Dr. Macmillan. (1875.)> :-I)a»To« Kiwr ! Mr. Larbal. 

IS. /'. <DMa, (Karr.) greyish or glaucous-white, erowxiedi trnir* 
««/>, i^un(iV><iMrm<aCo-<ViNirr/<- l uiuuiirliz-o/fjo-'/rnnitlatt, margins 
of laciniw miimtfly jaggnl or crmitlalt, frequently ascending and 
granulate ; apothecia fuscous-black, margin sub-entire ; spores 8, 
fuscous, oblong, l-aeptato ; (thallus K_> I 

On trees, walls, Ac. 1837. rare. 

Hi" M.rfx* of th« tballu* i» niiimUiljr albo-granuiat« not ■nbcortioally albo- 
maculate aa in I: itellari* and its varletio*. 

Sts :- E. Bot. Snppl 8807. (1X37.) Iritueia (In part), Acb. Syn. 191. Nyl. Syn. 

Fio :-E. Hot SuppL 2807. 

Ba HUtk. '->». Am. 272. 248. Lalgnt, 286. 

CStuo. Djhisib:— Europe. 

Bor. I'm,-.-: i, I ..;....;.. U . 15, II) . .Ill ..31. 

Emuum>;-HuTrtpi>>r|ioiiit > 8umfx. Mr. Borrtr. near Aytan. I HsrsUnd, Mr. 
Mudd. Ludlow Cantle, Shropshire. Iter. T. Salmy. Plymouth ! .Vr. ll.Jmu. 
TreYenath, lw"i»r Paucance. Mr. Curium. 

SOOTLAVD :— C'onnel Ferry. Atvylenliire. Ur- Bvrrcr. Will's Braes; Auldbar. 
Mr. Gardiner. 

I«XLAKI> :— Dmrvle. Dr. Tavfar. 

Walks :- LUnaber ! near Barmouth. Rev. T. Sal my. Aberdovey ! 

ClIAffXlt. Ihlaxtm :— Quenvat* ; St. Otinu'i Bay ! JarMy ! Mr. LarbtxIetLur, 
Ouvrnny. Btv. T. Salmy. 

18. P. astroidea, (Cleui.) greyish-white, oHricular, this, i li W -ly 
apprcssed, almost entirely grant/lose or Uprose, laciniato-effigurat.' at 
circomff tence ; apothecia fuscous-black, naked or pruinosc ; 
spores 8, fuscous, elHptloo-oblong, 1 -septate, cells nucleolato ; (me- 
dulla Ky I 

On trees, rure. 1807. 

Km. (add.) 302. (1807.) P. CtmenHano, Acl>. Syn. 204. Nyl. 
Syn. 426. Mu.ia Man. 108, 

VM m. I-inn. Trans, t, 13. f. I. H-pp Six.rnn t. .>!». (. 001. 

Exs : - HeppOOl. 8ch«a\ 610. M. * N. 737. Welw. Lusit. 104. Anxi Laiurob. 91 

Otoe,, lii' n Sum u rlca. 

B*T. Pbov :— 1, 2, 3. 4 7, s. .10.. 19 .24 ..31. 

Ekolaxu :— Suuex '. Tunbriilsc Wella and Southampton. Mr. Borrtr. lVn- 
xanra ! Rev. T. Salter:/. iirar 8atU«. I'r. Windsor, naar Stokealey. Cleveland. Mr. 
Mttdd. Kelvedon. Eaeax. Mr. Vtrtnne. Twycroa*, LeJoaatarahtra ! Wart Hadilim, 
NorthainpU>n«hlr*. lit*. A. Bloom. Plymouth ! Broom Park, near Sibertawold ! 
Kant. Mr. //«/«<•* 

IaaXAsn i — Terroe near Limerick I and Dinis, Killarney. Mr. Carrvll. 1 >un- 
karron ; Blackwator Bridge, Kerry. Vr. Tajbr, 

Walks:- Barmouth I Her. T. Ailmry. 

Cm usn, Isl.uitmi .— Jeraoy. Mr. LarbaUstitr. 
"8pur*e .00*5 in. Ii>i«, by .0015 to .002 in. bruad." 
2C mm. long, .008— .011 mm. bruad." <!ffl.) 

(MuJJ.) "Spore* .017- 

\ r :ir. thyans, (Nyl.) albo-glaucesceut, margin* of laeinut dtlicalety 
lKELAx D: -Southaidaof Kylemore Lake, CJnlway. Mr. LarMuiirr. (1876.1 



U, /'. ft ifsicofdn, (Nyl.) nearly annifau bo !'. trUxuia, (Ach.) 
Nyl. but tin- white media arranged a» those of P. nniii, and tlie 
thai line and liinkllrne reaction with K-f- j upothecia inauffici' 


mag trees, 
Nyl i„ non wi. hSOr. 

Gri.-j. Diitkib .•—Western France. 

Hot. Phot :— 2. 

ExuLaSD ;— K«V Ky>le, I*lv of Wig-lit. Am J. M. Orombit. 1OT4. 

§£ wuAUia Ky C-. 

15. P. elettari*, (L.) wAtfe or (dba-tjtaucrjcrnt, orbicular, */«•/.'■■ 
. btcinia* multitid, contiguous, BtltcortMoUf alto-mar.- 

r aurfaoe whitish with imumonmi or faso lovnl m nigriaaot 
lilirillic ; •pothtMn fbMQUI bl I or enjaio-pruinoae, 

margin entire >t olwolotely cremilato; spores 8, fuscous, oh' 

l-HCJIT It.- , rrll-. II lldoolatC. 

All the varieties or forms of P. strliaru may be recognized by 
tho aub-cortically alho-maculatc thallua. 
On trees. 1724. 

Hvs : Uan.Bp. PI. 1. od. No. 37. |l7\t.| Ach. 8™. HB. Nyl Syn. Mi 
Via : K -i.-i. .ml Sclnili. •>• Hffm. Bn. t. 1.1 f. f. ITnl L f.8-18. 

• 1S8. Sohier. 3B0. 351. Xludd 79. Ma». 318. F.Um. S7. Uefip 
«7. Boat LOS. Anal It. 8. 117. Labht 6. 

Gfc" l". ii r«.|»-. AjSft, Africa, N". AMtUtm, Anrtralama. 

Box. Pkov :— 1 .8, 4, 5, 6, 7 .10, 11. ..14. 1S...19...3L 

Bmi . OiWMtry! Arr. .' .ir»! 

Mr. Dam. Ym*x. Mr. Pwntt. Kavtmnrcrth and Cavntey Wood* ! Wnt Dipto* 
near Hexham and Oak Wood new: Wrlam, Northumberland. Mr. H'utcA. 
Davun. Mr. ParfiU. Kalvadou, Kaaz. Mr. Vartnnr. Miilland (Vriintiwt Mr. 
PurUm. Ht-dfordjoir*. Iter. C. Abbot. Caiuhridce. Ilct. K. SttAan. Oxford. Dr. 
Sibttorp. GueatUug, Siuaox. Ktt. £. -V. lltoomfttld. Tataworth ! Oxfordahlra ! 
Mr. I^trbmlmitr. Maltvrn. Mr. I***. SutUm ! IWwick ! I Moyl 


SooTL*xi>.--Glan Ncvli. Dr. L*tut*iy. Forf&rahlre. Mr. Ilanliner. Swaurtvs 
Wood, near Bdinliiuyh. IT- OnriOt. 

Ikklam.1 : -Great Inland, Cork. Mr. Carroll. 

ryatwilh. Mxn Alvand. l.Unl^lrog 1 Bddorton I 
Konl-ii, Mi»il«p>nwrv>hlrt<. nunr Trauindoc I 

v .00171 to .009 in- liroai" (MudJ.) "Spowa 

.016- -a i. in. bog. .oos-.un ,„..!. braid." (flW.) "Si*.™ .016-S4 mm. 
Ioaic,.00»-Il mm. Wad." {T. M. Jfc) 

\ ;ir. IrptaUu, (Ach.) iiiuTov.k luoiniate, (mm >«/, iuh- 

itUy aU»-7nactiUilr, mar-jitu >.il/jo- ur JwKacentifihriilotcxUiaU. 
i ' i i < i 3 and Btuiitm. 

..M.U..IUS. (1*03.1 Sv Sy«..42V. 

• oil. i. t f, 
Ex SCI MS. Welw. Lualt. 73. And It. S. 1W. M. * N. 4S0 b. 

(in inrt). Italch. & Si-hub. 37. 
G»>" rone. 

Hot. Piwi-S.,.5 .7 ...10, 11.. Hi. aoi. 

i . :-t)a»».tr)- ! for. T. Xilvru. Vll'mu whit MaJdon I Mr. PigmO. 
I'orkahim I Mr. Dixe*. near Gainford. Durham, lit*. J. Harriman. 1'onWord 

ScotulXi» hi, common. JJe*. J. M. CVomoiV. 

Imxlasd :— 0» troaa and atxotaa, frequent Mr.Carrdl. 
W«La»:-Kddari»n! Mt^t^oui-ryallr* 



\t. itnrlla, {Scop) narrowly laeinintv, ™t,r<,r!k<dty albo-maculate, 
tjfum, crowded, aiccndmg, lubidoso-injlaied or fornicate- at the apiett, 
margins albo-rilirill 

On trees and stoncn. 1724 

8r»^-«coi>. <'»ru. M06. U7C0.)Ach. 8jm.22I.Njrl. Siyn. «9. 
Flo .— E. Bot. 135L 

Ku .— 8oh«r. 352. M.i.ld 78. M. * N. 480a. H«pp 879. Au*i It. H. I V-'. 1M.I 
C.ton. DwTiiin :— Europe. 

Bor. Paov:— I S 1,7.8 1& n u .i:'. 20 .:»;.. .31.> :— Ulting near MaM»n ! JO. ri'jyoU. Twycross! Leicestershire! 
fcr. X. Blumm. near Ayton ! and Stokeslcy ! ( 'InvrUinl. Afr. JfW</. Holy 
Iiland. Northumberland. Afr. H'ii.cA m. .1/,-. ParfiU. Kulredon, 

Eassx. Jfi'. Panane. Midland Counties. Afr. Purton. IlmlfrmWilro. Bea. V. 
Abbot. Cambridge. Krr. B JU'lm,: Oxford. //. Vllen- 

dale, Northumberland. Iter. W, Jnhutan. UuMtliuu, Sussex. See. H. A'. Mm*. 
rlaughiuuud Hill 1 LUnymynecb Hill ! Shropshire. 

Scotlamii :— Ou branchiw of trees. Sir W. J. Hovker. Swanston Wood ; Pent- 
Uul Hill*. l>r. Ot 

LMLASO:— Urv»t Uliin.!, Catk ! Il&llyiiaganlv, Limerick. Mr. Corral/. S. 
side Kylemore L&kr. Mr. Lnrbol'.' 

\Vn.» j— Llandrindod I Htr. T. .Saltcty. North! Cardlgajuhiru ! Y Figlo- 
fawr '. tw*r Bsroiuutli. <.'a»t»ll IMganiry ! 

KB. InLAsm :— Guernsey T Her. T. Salweij. Jersey. Mr. LarbalcttUr. 

Var. ea*ia, (UfTiu.) whitish or albo-glauoeHc-nt, or uli 

tido-laciniato, l.Hn.i.i. uutvt oon- 

tigiion-s, tubcortictilly alba^MttUtte, it.tprrsrd with rtrtiou* or ■■ 
cation* pvlvinalc rortdia. 

On trves, fa 179S. 

SnM IWm. Enuni I L)Aoh. 8yn. .'in. Xyl. Svn. OS, \l.i.l,l M:m. 


i:. Bot 10 :.'. Mffm. En. t. 12. f. 1. PL I., t. 8. f. I. 

121. Seha:r. 3*8. 817. M. t X. H ..ivoU 318, 

•.328. Kabl 

■I*, N. America. 

Hot. i- ii li, 16, i <iy-30>,.3l. 

.— Burifh and BradwoU, Suffolk) nml Acle, Norfolk. Mr. Turner. 
imond Hou. id Park. Mr. Suutrby. Penzance '. 

ill ; W.-.t Dipinn n, , ir H. vli.-i-ii, X 
land. Mr. Windk. Malvern Hill-. /". B tA PorthiU*, War- 

wickshire. It- . W. 8 Ruford Swiniiop, Kast AUradale, Northi 
Her. If. JtXnfm. Cbnrdb 
ScMi.uii) :— King'« Park. Edinburgh. Dr. Orecillt. Craig Tulluch : Appin. 

• . OmrM, 
Walbi:- Aberdovoy ! /Jcr. A. liloxjtit. lxtwecn Towjm and Craig Adaryn 1 

I xml Iaio5D» : -Guonuoy ! Rev. T. SaliKy. Jersey, Ac. Mr. LattaltUicr. 
wthobtCHro, (Nvl.) i nn.r.vsoent, wniilar to coma, but wnl.( \.\ 
sort" i 

,i.i rim : — On granite rocks, La Moyu ! Jerwy. Lvanauv! Clalway. Mr. 
Larbalatier. aS7C.) 

Var.Jfmtiriat Uu i» /'. Imella, bat >»itli longer 

narrower lat'iuia; and genorall^ idbo4ondiati cnitlea, fibrillowo- 

I isc long uaul most fiviucntlj- tligitato- 
dh Idi 

Ounx'ks. 1H75. 

Sis :-atirtonlu Trans. Glasgow 800. Nat. p. 
Samxxn :— IWn I^wors. />r. SJirtos. (WT6J. 


THK I.1CM . 

g§§ medulla K purple, 

16. P. endoeoceina, (Kbr.) glaueaeenly Medulla j/eUo%*-red, K 
pttrple, miln'iirtiUKinous, stellate, appreased, uiultifido-1 U nniate, 
eprainoH mutow, pttn under nrfitoe black, ■pond j 

rilnilloBc; iipothuciu fuscous, black, naked, margin entire ; spore* 

8, tfriflOO-flMCOUH, oblong, 1 -sept at i . 

. rooks, rare. 
8m :— Klir. Par. »i 11H61.) Mud J H«b- Brit. Mua. mo CromHc in Jtraro. 

M. ». 1. S». 

,:-Arn.BSt MfcalBM, 
Gtx>o. Pi8TRiB:-Tran*ylvanla. 

i'sov :— 10. 
Knuland Vurluhlro. Jtfr. iludd. 

I tkallHM f«*TMX*t, K— C— . 

17. P. <f/m7<i, (Ach.) ctutaneo/uteescent, opako, sub-orbicular, 
appreased, narrowlj laciniate, laeinia linearimuHipartite, plane 
or tn t, ttellale, imbriealcheonijetted, under surface pale, ni- 

gricanti fiKrilloM! ; apothecU adnatc, fiiseous-black, vunyiu mb- 
entire or erenutntr ; aporOI JS.*, oblong, 1 | medulla 

K— C— . 

On maritime rocks chiefly. 17-11. 
Srx ». (17DS). Syn. 806. NyL Syn. 422. Madd Mas. 111. 


S-tor. fi66. Hepp 602. M. and X. 10»9. Larb. 28. Ana ljui|njfe. 10. 
Wdw. I ..i--it 70, Maw W. BohL ni. lxl K ht. hi El Or. 2*. 

I*, Art*, N. America. 
Bet. Pwi : 1 •''. 6. 7.11. K.. 18.. 9L.iO,SL 

DTHWall, Mum. Turarr ami Stntrrlni. Mynydd v Mi fvr. tw«r 
(Wcatry ! Arr. T. Saluep. Tommy. " l*ron Mid Cornwall. Sir W. 

J, ll-*J,<.-. H.uvli. Holy I aloud »nd cm fern IaUiid*, NurthmiilxrUnd. Mr. 
.. Hartley Nal«. Mr. Tharnhill. Hml.h«*d NorUiiiaabrrland. Dr n. 
JohKM'.n. Liutlcigh Cove, Deron. ilr. Parflli. North Bovey, Hitfl.tor Dowm: 
BUikatone i :■• Ladgbu Ihm.n. Vturt, Jvnf anil Afiaprfan. 

Scotlajui .— Monorieff Hill, n«ar Perth. /T. £iW*»y. nev Montrose. i>r. 

Umn,;a:: .Vli.-lK-l.iv. to.. //. !«•>*. KUlR» Pari 

Liftoi'A*. Hennilaso Mid Ptutluid Hill... Mr. M 111; l.undia 

Creiir*. ifr. On-- '-'11'-, Orkney. Dr. iAndtoy. enact of Fife between 

Burntudand and Klrkaldy : near Granton : Crauioud lalamL Dr. Urrrillt. 
Klno*rdiue.bir. t Brw. J. 31. CramUt. lain of M*T. Firth, of Korlli, JO. to 

Iks-lasd :— X«nr Anl|,'liuw co. Down. />r. Jlaingay. on mftritiuio rocka, 
ciiiimiiii. ilr. Cattail. Ituwroa Uivro : co. Galway. ilr. I^arlnlitlitr. 

i.di : — An(fl«*«. ftrr. It. Daria. AUrrdnver and ntar I(«*iiui*ri«. fcr. A. 
fil.vom. Bangor ! Barmouth • Mocly-dolfa ! I'ronilcvh, aUnorfacor I Gimlet 
Rock! PwUhall; Goodwick Bay! near Ki«l 1|( iiar,l, W mbroki ihlra; (Vkclath 

CmaX.iil 1iU.m« :— Petit Port, Jcraty • and all the IaUiid*. Ilr. LaiiaUt- 
tier. Gntnwr, Bee. T. 8il*tf. 
"8p<.r«i .007in long, by .0085 io. broad." (MvdJ). "Spc«« .032-M mm, 

..... llW.«.Mm l,K^I* U'^l •><■.»«. 

lonj;, .01."* — '_' 
broad." ( T. M. Fr. I 

(Kyi) "8po««a .090-44 nun. loog, .0W r. mm. 

Characters tlto same as those of the ouly yenua Umbilkaria. 


ranaeeov ihvDoua, 

Apotlu-cin simply kcidcinc or pabpllaroii', coroplicato^ompoiind 

or wiKvr 


or gyrose. Parnphyso* distinct. SKrigUUta nxtioulate. Sper- 
malia slender, shortly eryLindiii ■»], obtuse at both ap 

1. I', ptutulatct, (Hoffm.) t/taUu* dm popffloe 

■ad iink.fil oti ln>tli sides ; upper side pale olive-green, Uittertd and 
tprinkted with fihrom glomeruli : under tide brownuh, deeply for- 
rotate , spores one Of two, *«n tago, oMoBA polo, wrinkled or 
reticulatod on the surface ; OMaoUl K — C tM 

On rocks and stone* in mountainous districts, not uncommon. 

ST* t-Hffm. PI. L 13. (HMJ «p»to., Acli. Syn. 68. Nyl Lich. Scand. 
113. Leight. Brit. UmblL 22. Mudd Man. 115. 

Illlm PI. I, t. M. (. 1. ■-'. K. Hot 1283. Lolght Urit. t Kig. 1. 
HsppSporsu t. H. f. 118. 

Kxs :— BohL 126. Sehair. 1M. Ilepp 118. Brcutel 201. Larbal. 20. Maudon 
22. Anri Liuufob. 207. M. * N. 6ft, Welw. B. 32. 107. Kabli. 838. R 
audSchub. 2ft. I^ight. 168. 

\ m : Eirrop lirica, N. America. 

Bat. Psov :-l ...5.6, 7,8, 0. 10 .12 lfi...l!i..22 31. 

—Malvern HilU. Mr. .Stain, near Blddiatou Lighthouae, Cho»liii. 
if) ... . ir jftUffiTf JVr. BcUon, Dartmoor 1 Dsvonshira, (fruit). Sir 

W. /. Hooker, liny Tor! on roek» in river near Two Bridge; poJdi house, 
&•?■.: i ! Jfr. Burrer. Blackatouc ltoek, DtVOn. Mr. I\nh!(. ShaAot 

Oragal -Sir W. C. Treeelyan Rngar !-«•' Mount oath. -»/r. J,kov. 

Westmoreland. J mtale. Charnwood Forest, LclcMttnhirc. VJrr. A. 

Bhutan. Hightor rocks ; Scobttor rocks, naarW!ddecoud>* ; liottor rock, Di 
Mtwr. Junts n . HiF. ] CtuT Camlov '. Orinnhfll ! Shroinhiro. 

8ootl.isi>;— HishUnd Mountain*. Her. J. Li;ilUfoot. Loch Slichatan I Ulo 
»♦• Mr. Bvrrtr. 

iBrj^iii :— <;]engariff near Bnntry, (fniit). Miu Untthini. Ireland. Dr. 
. Lough Djji oo. Wleklow. Adm. JotlM. 

Wai.b« :— Hy tin' r>.».l from Pi niuoru Ui Dolbenmaen, tad nodi r i< mi !*•» 

. Old Wall, nbout half way between tVrnarv.ui nnd Bcdikcl 
crt. Bee. II. /»/u;. Nsot l.v, vnoiit Vale new Bnowdon, tit*m%. Turner .1- 
Borrer. Mo«l Hchvj{! Mr. Borrrr. Own BychM BSS» Barmouth. /.'"•. 7". 
Salvey. Drwiycoed near Naiitllc, Cardiganshire, iliu Atueod. Trefriw '. Block 
Rock: new Cried. 1 1. 

UUBB I»lamm :— Gor»y and La Moye, Jureoy; Mr. LarUilcsIicr. near 
retitBo, GnoruMV. Mr. /, 

Connult Kinrm 1875 [-. «)3. ■'SOOM .007 U> .01 in. loBC, b] l >"'' ' 
broad, til. 38." (Mudd.) 1 " Spores .028—70 mm. long, .018- 2s g at. 
broad." (Kyi. I "8por«t .010-70 mm. long. .01H Si mm. broad.' ( T. M. 
Pr.) Sports .027 mm. loiur. 018 nun. hnuwl. 

2. r. polj/p/k/Ua, (L.) dark gremfth-topptt Ihbt, mt- 

tiputlly lobrti, naked and miovlk on both unrfaat, under surfiCL' 
sJa -Ir.'liil-. oomplSeata | -pores 8, colourless, elHp 

aoid, simple; lunlull i K C Hunt rod. 

tot uncommon. 1741. 

Brs :-Unn. Sp. PI. cd. 1. No, 45. U?5S.) Kyi Scaad. 119. Loitfht Br. 

-K. Bot UM&Hffm. t. K>. f. 2. Uight. Br. I I, 
Gbuu. DisTBin :— Europe. jUls, America. 
BOT. PB0V:-1...5...7, (, !», 10, 11, 12 U, I.". 17 1!'. 

■ itoHophjftla, T. .'•• B. tluillii.-, . :it'. 

Bts f-T. & R Lich. Brit 214. (181S.) Lefcht Br. I'mbll. & iludd Man. 116. 

In. . H ■; 83, f. 717. 

Exa :-Hepp 717. M.4 N. S12. (in put) Schotr. HO. Ixight.GS. Mudd 87. 

Evcusn :•- Otwthiro ana <'..n:w»ll. T. .t B. Lick Brit Yorkshire! Mr. 
Pirvn. luglab}- »nd H'.u.Um 'Jil' mordsn and 

on IngleboVough. Dr. Garrinaton. near Newcastle. Mr. ThornMl. Mynj 
Myfyr, near Oaweetry. Bee. T. Salvey. Abbey St Bathaun ! Weardale ! Blanch- 



ImiiI ami near Hunt Hall, Te*«ial*. Sir W. C. Trtrrliran. Cheviot ; Hedgehop* j 
Sh&ftoe and Itcodlov Crag* near Wallingt'in. Northumberland. Mr. WiaOi. 

| .!, tttM I!-;'"', Field. - - : » il I '■ : •- l'.i It. ITmit.--n.liiy IV.vk Imtwaa Waateiie) 
Fark »ml i: .bam. Mr. Thorn\i{L Westmoreland; Cronkley. York- 

Mr. Mart harnwood Fount, Lclccsteral.: mm. 

Blwk.t-inn Rook, Devon. Dr. OieKt Bhbnon* Hill, Cbrfhire. Ktr. H. H. 
Bin/mi. Wert Allan Oarr*. Northumberland. Her. W. Jotrn-n. Wrekin ! 
wr Candoc ! lj>ng Myml ! Shroghir*. 

i< Mac Dhui, Hrseniar " 
Biruani HUI; < rnig. v-Bum ! Dcnkelri i Glen P«. Or. Liiultay. Avlemore 
Ren Nnvie. Aim. Jtme*. Inchnadamf! Suther' NT. C. Treed fmn. 

Rreriuar and L>:chaber. Rtr. J. M. Onmlrit. 
■ 1 1 : I.uggnUw. Adm Jones. 
WaLMI— Cellfawr near Barmouth I Kti: T. Sulwef. I.lyn IJrdaw; Ltyn 
fJwi.i D Im; Cu-m Brwynog near I.lanberu. l/ttltiiui. Glyder Yaeh I 

Tryfaeo! Cwm r..lillwyd! Fas. of Llanberi. ! Arrkn Muwd.:< 
■; ->re. .009 to .0035 in. king, by -001 to ,001. *> in. broad, t. 2. f. Si " (if »<U.) 
"Sporea .018-18 am. loo*. .007-8 mm. broad." (^.) M 8pom .0IS-U 
mm. long, ,006-B mm. broad. ■ < T. M . /V ) 

Forma conoreyalu, (T. A U.)tli*llus xmall, duHerrd, much curled, 

edges erector reflexed. 

I : -T. ud B. l.iob. Brit. 214. |1H1S|. 1-alght. Br. I'rnbU. 7. 
■n i Ami. It. S. T'J. I.«-i«hv 318. Keioh. and Sehuh. 128. 

; lo U. 

Exulasu : Mynyd i n* Onrwtry I «jr. T. Safwnr. Batteraby 

• eland. Mr. MuM. Ramshaw Itooki ! iicmt Wanlow, Staffordshire. 
I. IHotam. Maw Beck ! Wottmorehuid. Mr. lbJ*rl**,. Wrekin ! ArccU 
Mill" ! Sliroji 

W.susx .-—Cam Tryfaen ! Fa»s of LUuberi» ! Aran Mnwddwy ! Cwm Booh- 
Uwyd : Girder Vach ! 

The (tote* mimo/tyf* and eaugnvata grow together in aomo abnndano* on the 
Wrekin and adjoining hilla, and may Iw won pacing into each other by every 
degree o( gradation. 

Forma mlatla, (T. A 13.) upper surface of thallus marked . 

tuprrjiciai crack: 

Bth I T. ami II. T.lch. Brit. 214. (1813). LefcM. Br. Umbfl. 7. 
SoortAMD :— On Ben SVg! by Loch Ericht, Invarnaanhire. Mr. Borrtr. 
: Mr. O. Zdiawit. 

'• Thallai aoiuowhat thicker than in f. monopkytta, aimnlo or more or It* oetn- 
■•I ; »«ier»«r/iic. I itli :i I. « »ii|K-ilii i«i iindulatiaK iiulantod Um«, 

tin adp • ...I which ocoaaionaUy neparatl ^.. ** tolMVe ■ -i ih !,]-. k intWaHna, 

uiuirr «ir/- but mora commonly lilotdiod with the paler 

Dolour "f tin- ■ ■ r - i - ■ ' i' 1 ' " '■' '■'''• r > r ' 1 - 

Thi» state kcdd apparently a transition to hyptrbvrea. 

riiit latent, (Leight.) thalliw vory deeply dirided, divisions 
BTV! Iy.wht Br. UmbiL 8. Mudd Man. Ufl. 

BeurLaMb:- Craig h er. SooUandl Mr. O. Lamm. 

(Irampiana. Jlre. J. M. Crv. a| 

Ww» : -il ! 

Tfce aaede of divinon of the nurgin« "f this utate U different from that of tho 
preceding once, and aailmllitee to that observable in aafAnariao. 

3. U. floccu/vta, (Wult) ureenian or 
clustered or a>.|iisti i 

rnKKtxl aud erose, up/wr surface d- '4 aoo/y i/niN- 

■ j**, under mr/nce. bind naked pitied ; *poti litly com- 

jwros 8, colourless, obloDgoclli^soid, simpl : nedalb 
K— Cred. 


On moimuinous rocks, not anoommon 

i (a 

Sfl :-W.ilf. la Joco. ColL S 99. (1799.1 T. * B. Lich. Brit. 217. I^lght. Br. 
DOW I*. NtI. Stand. 1!!>. Mndd Man. 116. 
Fw:-E. l'...v. ::!■:: HiTm. PI. I., t 88. (. 1 l. UbM, Br. VmML «>. 4. 
Kxh:— Aui Langob. ». It. S. 81. Schrer. 15i Hepp 11*, I . \ 443. 
Leig*t. BIS 

1 M I i;i . . Knrope. 

- II ||, I ■".. 18. 
•rt!i"rn <itmnti*K! r. •. -irham. Bee. J. Barrimaa. 

i wick Rock*! Ixlcentenhire. Bee. A. Blozim. Yorkshire. Mr. D 
Dartmoor. Meters. Jmm .t»ti KnujHox. Cacr Cam '. ibir*. 

ScoTLUm: — Hi«hl»n'l«. Mr. lHrl-*m. <'"r«lii)i)iiTir ,vnd < 'raigbxkart H 
/>r. Gnrillt. B«n Nevio ! Bon Cruachan ! .tfr. lUirru: Appiti. flog, J. M. 

"Sr.wB» .018-27 nun. lone, .007—9 nun. broad." (.V.W.) "Spore* .015— 
21 mm. long, .007— « mm. brood." (T. M. /V.) 

4. <7. hyperborea, (Ach.) Hark greenish-brown, thin, jam -'I. 

und somewhat !■•"-•• ■ 1 . slightly perforated, naked OH both Ddoc, 

tipper mifact ntgo*- ■■, under hiii r.i' e blaaki ft browiii nearly 

■'y Ineuiuou : ; apotheoia complicate J spores 8, eohmF- 

leas, cl li ]>:-'■:■ 1 . simple; medulla K 

On alpine rocks, very rare. 1790. 

Bn :-Anl,, Emtgj. V«t. Arad. X. H. 15. p. K>. (1794.) Syn. 66. Xyl. Lich. 
Scond. 1W. Lcight. Br. Umbil. 10. Mndd Man. 117. 

I Him PL 1.. t. 71. Leight. Br. Umbil. tig. 5. »nd 6. a. Hopp Kpnrm 

t. 14. f. 116. 

Km : rtduor. U0. 151. Hepp 116. Kellm. 90. M. 4 X. 1047. An*l lL S. 7«. 
I ••.-. 126. Kabh. *H4. 

GtXKi. Dimtkiu: — Europe, America. 

§OT. PlOl : B U . v.*. 

:lm, LwiomUn. Mr. ■ 

Scot >teh Mountain* ! Mr. Dickson in Act*. Borrtr. By tli* Trniir , 

near Dalwhiiiui.', tnveroea ■!ni". Ifr. raeaold. Aim, Am Ben 

NevU ; lioohaber : tforohoii* ; BtJfl Mm DbuS, firaamar. tier. J. M. Cn»n 

Ii(tl.ASI) :- 'Brandon Mountain*. Kerry. Dr. Moon. 

Mr. Borm sought fur the plant In vafn in the particular »Uti<m *pt-nfied by 
Mr. Brodie. 

•Spar** .003 In- long, by .0015 in. broad." [Mndd.) "Snore* .013 ir, ,,,,„. 

Inn),-, .'107- •'■' ' l-Vu/.i ''Spore* .liH> lii imn. long, .005— 8 mm. 

broad.' (J". Jf. /V.) Spore* .009 mm. tonu, .0045 mm. broad. 

■ r >. If. antie-' i ". ■ • . . . dark p-c. m .h brOtra, thiokish, slightly 
lotxxl, crci ' "!,:•■,. ,■•/./. i.'. , nii'l.-r sur- 

face pallcscetit, minuMlp dcptvuo-granulcU* ; «tpo}hcuia complicate ; 
*l x.rcs 8, colonrlesfl, i.-liipwid, simple; medulla K—C red. 
alpine rocks, very rare. 1798. 

mi. (1803.) Syn. 65. NyL Lioh. Soond. 116. Lcight. Brit. 
Umbil 117. 

Fin :— R. Bot. 2485. Ach. Mcth. t. 2. f. 6. 1/ji«ht. Br. Umb. I 

Kx» :— »ch*r. TM. Th. M. Fr. GO. I-', Ih,,. .U. Brtatol US. lUbli. S7H. Hrorft. 

flitoo, DisTRia:— Kiiropo, N. America. 

BOT, I n .15. 

Em iamj: -Rocla In co. Durham ! Mr. Jtobton in herb. Borrtr. 

SoOTLAHD : — IxxhnoKOr. Dr. I.itvlriy. Bon Mora in Brcadalbiuio ; Mrnrnw in 
Broemar. Bee. J. M. Crombit. 

I\. V. tom, (Well.) KIWI fB| Ihiukisli, splitting tufirn 

"to twi> or tJir. i,i looed| perfora- 

ted, upper surface naked, divided by Jfexttose amutomofing Uaci 



indented lieu*, with oouvex areol«, under side paler, eoanely }*tpit- 
lot, itparateti/ perforated, lar\n\nto-fibriUo$t ; upothecia eom plicate ; 
spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple ; moduli;' K i 
On alpine rocks, frequent. 1741. 

St* : - Web. SpiriL 255>. (I77&) Ach. Srn. (S. Kyi. Lkfc. Scud. US. LejgbC 
Br. UmbQ. 12. Mudd Man. 117. 
Fw :-E. Bot. 2006. HUm. PL L. U 70. Leigkt. Br. UmWl. fig. 7. 
Exe :-Tuck. 4^ M. A N. 250. Seh«r. 153. Bohl. lit. Reich, and SchoU 129. 
Gboo. Dibtwb :— Kuronc, America. 

I' I'. . v. I .!• 7 I", U ,.U .111 ^ M 

Kjcoia*i> <nta Roclunear BrUtol. Mr. Budmm. Ihirlmni ; Yoffk- 

.hire. .Sir J. E. Smith. Hirkdale, Westmoreland I Mr. RcUrtto*. Dartmoor ! 
Mr. Itorrtr. Swinhope Fell. Durham." Mr. Mudd. Stantlicld Moor am* Halifa*. 
Mr. Brunlon. Huntaralcy Peak, north w*.t <.f Waakerley Fait ; Blackburn 
nor Kgiettone, Durham ; Cronkley Fell : I'heriot and Hedgehope, Northum- 
berland. Mr. ITmA Tore about Dartmoor. Str. Mr. .Yneixrrp. 

800TLASD ;— Highland.. Rti: J. UoHUnH. Vitrified forU la the Highlands. 
Sk J. E. Smitk, Corry I-eeae. Ben Nctu * Mr. JJorrrr. Ben B««k ■ Craig 
Koynoc! Mr. OordiMtr. Clova! Mr. Lateton. Ariamore. Adm. Jonri. Loch- 
nagar. Dr. Lindtay. Ban I -awer». Dr. Mainynf. Inchnadamfl '. Sir W. C 
TrtrtiyaH. Rracmor. Her. J. M. Crombtt. 

Iuxlasu :— Mang-irUm and other Mountains. Or. Tor/or. Sliereleor, Mara. 
Dr. Moore. Luggclaw. Adn. Jona. •ummit of Danghruach ! Galu-ay. Mr. 

Walks :— LlanberU. Rev. Hugh Daria. North Wales. Sir J. g. SmM. Capel 
Curig I Mr. H. Piffpol. Ccllfawr near Barmouth. Rer. T. Salm. Cwta Tryfaen ! 
("to Bochlwyd ! Cira Ffjmnon Uoer! am! Cwm Ffjmnon Lhigwy ! 

•' Sporea .0W in. long, by .0014 in. broad.- [Mudd) " Sporea .611-12 mm. 
long, .007 mm. broad, fit 

7. V. priyrkua, (L) greenish-copper colour, imooth, lliin, un- 
equally lobod and crouato. under surf act black, ]>apilloic^grai\. 
reticulated, flbrilloia-pannote ; ii|H>thecia gyro»o-complic»tc ; spares 
8, colourless, olliptico-oblong, nnple ; medulla K — C rod. 

On alpine rocks, frequent 

8T3I .—Linn. *,,. n. cd. 1. No. S6. (17W>. MlL Soand. 139. O pellila. Ach. 
Srn. 67. 1-right Br. Umbil. 14. Mudd Man. 11 'J. 
Via :— B. Bot. U81. Mm. PI. I>. t 28. f. 3. Leight. Br. TJmbiL flg. lL 

Kxs :- M. and N. 343. Mndd 89. Rabh. 811. 

Otov. DisTnia.— Kuropa, Aaia. 

Hot. Pio^v :-l .." . y. 10, 11, 12. .15.. .17.. 22. 

1 1 :— Yortanitv. Mr. Brumlon. Durliam. Btr, J. ffurrisum. ClMahirv. 
Mt-rt. 7'. Horrrr. Cronk ley. Mr. IMmitm near Lake Tumaiul ! 

Cumberland. Mrt. Stanfirr. Bayadale Moor : Higlidlll ; Ayti.ii Moor ' Cl*T*Und. 
Mr MutU. Shaitoe Cran, Hadcvhoiw, Chavini, and Hexham Fell, Northom- 
barland ; MiunjUwlck Fell, Cronkley Fell, Durham. Mr. Wintk. Dartmoor. 
Dr. Ball. BUokrtone rock ; Hlghtor Dotrni, Devon. Mam. Jmtt and King- 

SCOTIAXD :— Hi*'hlan>U and Ixurlanda. Her. .1. I larlli Park and 

Faradlae near Moneymnak, Abenlaenahir*. WUkerinp. lAxh Phaiirirk ' Vrmie 
Koynochl Clora. Mr. Oardtntr. Ben Ferrog : Uyn Canvay ■ Mr. Borrtr. 
Ohm ' Jfr. DatBlon. Callerniuli, I^wi» ; Birnhain Hill, Dnakeld ; Ixictinagar: 
hatween Penie and Splttal o( C.lennhee ; Amuh-oe, Dr. Limdtag. Pen — n i fc iel '• 
Sir If. C. Trerel'M". OUn Clallater and Qlen Dee In Braemar. Ai. J. M. 
Crombie. Ben Teach ! Romhir.'. Mr, Hmrie. 

lan-vM' :— TonUgoe, co. Wkddow, Dr. Taylor. 

Wamm :— IJyn I.lyl i« , Ssowdon; Llyn I'wm y Ffynnou 1« ; Cwm Brarnn^ 
toward* Arddu near Uanberu. Dwfaimia Carnedd Llewelyn; Mnel Siaood; 
Mr. (IrifUh. Ona lSyihan, Barmouth ! Jtev. T. Salieey. Cwm Ffyuzron Uoer! 
C»m Ffjmnon Llugwy 1 

•'S|H,rea .0035 In. long, by .001 to .0015 in. broad." (Mndd. I "Bpc«a 
,008— .011 mm. long, .0046 mm. broad." (Njil.) " S|mrei .COB— 11 mm. long, 
001 ■• mm. I.n.ail." (T. 



Vat. I'wiaiu, Ach. polyphyllouK. complicate, deeply bttiaod A 
On alpine rocks. 

8t» :— GyropMora peUita war. luxuriant, Ach. Ia U. p. 228. Crombie in Journ. 
Bot. n. a. 1. p. 3M. 
ScoTlaxh: -HishUnd* Rrr. J. M. Otmtk, 

8. U. grvtnx, (Sw.) aAhy-grry or mouse-coloured, thin, somewhat 
I, ercn.'it.-, minutely ariolttto-pnjiillii', under surface blackish, 

naked, minutely graniUato-areola/c or tenbrid, granules pale as if 
rubbed ; apothecia gyrose ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple ; 
medulla K— C red. 

On maritime rocks, very rare. 1866. 

hnrtl In Foraeh. to. R |lttj infect. Br. PmbiL 16. 
#7. mxriM. Ach. Syn. 69, Nvl. Boand I Id tfttdd M»n. 130. 
Flo :-B. Bot. 2486. Chev. FnrU. t. 14. f. 11. c. Ltight. Br. ITitjl.U. f. 14. 

■; -STAN. 736. Xyl. 130. 
Grou. Dihtrib :— Europe. 
Bot. Phot : -31. 

rjffL ImCakih :- Btauport! K»t I Viaat of Jeney I Mr. LnrlaltMitr. 
" Sport. .008 to .0035 in. Ion*, by .001—015 mm. broad." (Mwl.l .) •■ Spore. 
.014-18 mm. long .008— .010 mm. broad." fX-,1. ) 

9, I'. probo*rid«>. (l.\ t ma m * iprm ot m \ thin, crenato, ■Ughtly 
lobed, paU prvwm, grey in the ccntro whore it is marked with 

•fed, reticulated reins, the other portion rugate, under surface 
smooth, einereo-palUtctnt ; apothecia gyro90-plicate ; sporet) 8, 
colourless, ellipsoid, simple ; medulla K — C red. 
On alpine rooks, frequent. 1741. 

STX .— Linn. Sp. FL p. 1150. Ach. Prod. 147. (179&) Syn. 04. NyL Scand. 
116, dttuta. Lalght. Br. UmblL 17. 18. 19. Mudd Man. 11- 

Ikfl : K, Bot. 2484. LeighC Br. i:,nhil. lig. in. 

Ex* :-Schav. 148. And It, S. 77. Kr. 128, Tuck. 49. 

Oboo. Domum— Europe, Aaia, Anerla. 

BOT. Pboy:-1. n. .7. ll 16 I9...S. 

LASti :— SL Vincent. Rock*. Mr. Dart. N'orth ef England. .Sir J. K. Smith. 
K*dnha|>e ! Northumberland ! Dr. Q Johnston. Cheviot : Shaftoo 
Craig*, near WaUington, Northumberland i Hiifh Force and Crankier Fell, 
Tend ale, Harawood, W'iddy Bank and Cauldron Snout, Durham. Mr. "Winch. 
Blackstone Rock, Devon. Mr. llilft. tiwiniiop* Fell, Durham. Mr.Mudd. T«r» 
of Dartmoor. Mrmrt. Jmiei nnd Kmgttci . 

ScoTLAXn :— Highland Rock.. See. J. Lighl/ooi. Ban Uvm ! Mr. Borrtr. 
Lochnagar! HiU»«Jttt<>f QUa Calls*** 1 Ban Serial Dr. Lindsay. 

Ikxlaxd : — Brandon, eo, Kerry. Mitt fftrtrtims. 

w.ujm :— Rocka.5tr.r. g. smith. Own iWaaal 

'• Spore* .00S5 to .004 in. long, by .015 to .00175 in. broad." (Mudd.) "Spare* 
.012— 1^ mm. j006— 8 mnh broad." {Jfft.J "Sporw .011— 18 mm. long, 

.m.. 7 nm 

{T. M. Fr.) 

forma jimbriato, (T. A- I',) tlmllim edged with a few black branched 
■l<-like fibres ; medulla K— C rod 
On alpine rocks. 

B*M : -Tom. and Borr. Lieh. Hrit 222. <13».) Loujht. Br. Umbtl. IS. Mu.Ll 
Man. 118. 

Exa:-M. AN. 249. 

BmiJUra :--Swinhop« Fell! Durham. Mr. M\M. 

SOOTLAMD :— Hi«hl»nil« : Mr. Borrtr. hotwuen Ulen Cnllatermad L«hnac»r '. 
Mr. TMhain. Cl-vral Loch I'hadrick ! Mr. Oaniiaer. InchnaiUiulf ! flKC IT. 0. 



Uu_im> :— Gkcmahire ' eo. Wicklow. Mr. OtmB. 
Similar fat snhataac*, colour, and trtrf othar r«a«ci except in hariag lh* 
•den of the thalliu here and l*»r* toothed aad frtnce-J with a few Metered 
black branching fibre*. There are aku o nrmAmM y » f«» fibre* »prinkir.l 
the uederod*. 

forma corrugata, (Hoffm.) thallus rhin, rough tritk delated reti- 
culation* ; medulla K — C red. 
On alpine rocks. 

Sm-Hetfm. PL Lien. «4- (1791.) T. k R Llch. Brit. 2S. Leigh t. B.-. 
VmbO. 18. Modd Man 

Flo r-Haffm. PI. L. t. 43. f. *. 7. 

SoOTUXn : -Hathlatxk ! Mr. Borrtr. 

Similar b all mfnoVi, except ia iU apper rarfeoe barbae extremely proeni- 
neat rotJealatiota, riling to aeariy -a Hn* in heigh*, and looking lik* a aarfe* of 
erect curled MiBanua. 

forma nutenUri/ormi*, (Wulf.) thallus thickish, upper surface 
'. tritA ttewited reticulation* and mmeteiat papillate; medulla 
K— red 
On alpine rocks 

Sis :-Wolfen ia Jatu. Miao. 8. «. (1781.) T. and B. Lick. Brit 232. Leighl. 
Br. rcl.ll 11). Mudd Man. 113. 
Jam. Mier. t. 9. f. 5. 
Exa i-Scaar. 1*7. 
80OTaAyn ?— HsthUnnS ! Mr. Borrtr. 

Upper rorf ace of the thallas einRularly rogae*, almo»t papillo**. Ths r* 
latWu nearly a* prominent a» in/. romapalo, and aomctime* growing oat into 
learee : lubatance considerably thicker titan in too other iiUU. 

10. U. eflindriea, (L.) dull greenish-brown, or riucraseent, 
thickish, unequally lobed, margin* nigro-/tbrUlo*, pprr 

surface rwpilott, under surface palletemt, more or I • t In Hose; 
ttpoOttcui eoucenlrico-gyro*e, pedicellate ; spore* 8, colourless, a] 
soid, simple ; medulla K — . 

On alpine rocks, frequent. 

Srx;-Lran. Sp. PL p. 114*. (17BS.) Aoh. Syn. 6* NyL Soand. 117. m*. 
Wtfoi.Leight. Br. UiaWL 19. Mudd Mas. US. 

1V.U Mi (tiro upper ng.) Hffm. PI. I., t -M. f 1-6. Lrigfat. Br. 
t'mbiL fig. 1ft. 17. 1*. 

:-Sch*»r. 1*3. 1*«. Mudd 88. Zw.SOSv Httu>7I!l. in [«rt- Ann It. .S. 7*. 
M. and N- SB. limits! 113. Ulght. 98s 

Gboo, DtsTSlB:— Europe. America, X. nolland. 

Bot.Psov: I. ..7...1U. 11, 1S...1I !)..Ajl 

rs-LAxr..— Dartmoor. Mr. StwUrty. North of England. Sir J. E. SmilA. 
( 'lieviota. Jfr. H'iWa. rummJt of Hedgehop*, XorthuintwrlamL />r. *7. Jivtn- 
Kon. Birkdale! Weetamrelan.L Mr. Ro/*rUm. Srawfell! Mn Stmnotr. York- 
shire. JbTr. Dixon. Falcon ClinU I Tecedalc. Mr. Mud.1. Fairneld, Wctaoor*- 
laad. Jfr. MartimdaU. Crookern Tor, Devon. Mwn. J~t* and Xhv***. 

Scotland :— CJoalfiVld. M» of Arran ; BreadallHine ; B*n Neria. Rer. J. 
I. iyU/nK. I^och Phadrick ! Stroincdhu ! Summit of Carlowrie ! Mr. tlaniintr. 
■ : Jfr. bum. Morclione ! Ben Mae Dhni ! Or. lAndtnf. l«ng lalaad. 
Prof. Bolf**r. 

Iuumi: - Oonnavalla. Dr. WhiUrw Slolti. Mangerton. Dr. Taftor. in 
tncniatain rock*. frt>|aent. Mr. CamJI. «timmit of lXnighniach ! on. <Ialway. 
Jfr. LorUilatier. 

Wai.w : -IJyn I.lyilaw ! IJyn Cwm y Kfynnon la» ; f'wm Bnrynog, near 
I J»n>>-rW ; Berwyru. DiBemvt. Carnoil Llewelyn. Mr. Grifth. Arran Mowddwy! 
Mr. Bomr. C'nm Bychan. Ret: T. ,s<il,rrii. Snowilon, LUnberb aacent! I 
Tryfaea! Uarwn Horlilwyd ! Cwm Ff/nBOB QmtI Own ftjUDOtl I-ugwyl 
Arran Mowddwy! CribCoch ! 

"Sr.**..0l»fn. long, by .001 B in. I.r.™l." (M*U.) "Spores .010-1 i mm. 
long. .006—8 mm. broad, f JfyfJ " spores .012—18 mm. long, 007— * mm. 
broad." {T.M.rr.) 


forma dmtirnlala, (Acb.) margins of tliaJhw roartdy friwjtd 'iiid 
tOOthti : W .lulu K — ('— . 

On alpim rooks. 

Bn : A<.h. Meth. 107. (1303.) Lciirht. Br. Vmlnl 3 Mold M»n. 119. 
VM :-K. But. M2. (two lower titf.) Dill. t. 29. I. 110. B. 
Ex« :-Schicr. Ml. 

.i.on: Loco I'hiKlnck! BcnuaBourd! Mr. Gardiner. Clova ! Afr. 

I»KLAXi> :— CHltyinore ! co. Tlpporary. .Vr. Carroll. 
WaLU : — Arr.ui'Mnwililwy! .Ifr, Hi.rrrr. 

In all re»pecU tioiiUr. except th»t tho iniiyinal fibr*» »re ooiroer Mil lirjer. 
Hint muw •ridaiilly u prolongation of tlio thaJlan. 

forma dmniata, (T. & B.) margiuB of thallua almost nuked; 

1..0.I1.IU K — <>— . 

On alpino rocks. 

. --Turn.*...! Borr. Lleh. Brit. 219. (1813.) Lcight. Br. Umbll. 21. Mudd 
Man. 119. 
Fro t-llffm. PI. L. t. 44. f. 7. 

i jr., 
\sn :- Falcon ' -linta ! Westmoreland Mountain* I Mr. Borrer. 
i. ami - Highland*. Mam. Tuntte A Bornr. 
\S'.il.r> . : -ttuinmitof Giydarl! Mr. B'/rrrr. 

forma exatyteratii, (T. & B-) thallu.- pofyphglieut. raggc<l. "/'/■■ >■ 
surface rugo$e, margi '' and frUped ; medulla K—C — . 

On alpine rocka. 

St.x:— Turn. 4 Burr. I.kli. Brit. 219. [MM.] Latent Br. Umbil. «. Mii.hl 

lam, .Vr. RiAton. 
;ujd . — C'lova'. Mr. O. Lawton. rurlwl tad undulated, and divldnl int.. iiurii.ron* »"i»" irr.-tfiilar 
lacinue ; upper iiirfnoe remarkably ruiij;li, 


Tballua eruataceous, squamosa, radiate, -rami 
MM0H& no or ltund.Miu-. i.r I -i.i( ori ikj or 



Timlin-, rations. Apothooia looanorioo or rab-bcanorSta 01 


Si i tiu he I. PSOROMEI. 

Thollui variously gqnamuloao, in toxturu eim.\piiMiou.ily cellulose, 

dladihtincl liirg.;. Apot.he.'iu Iwannrini.'. Spores 8, colour]***, 

I iniolr. IVnphyaos distinct. Spermogonia with arthro- 


I. P80ROKA, X ; ,t. 

Thalhll nrionalj nquamulose, cellulose, gouidia distinct, largo. 

Apothucia Iocs ina, oate. Sporai B, oolourieas, lai 

aliipsoid, simple. Pamphysi i distiaet. Bterigmati phm articulate. 

I. J', tggmorvm, (Vabl.) thwidt-fweesetnt or br ow mi h jw fl 

*/ieimulo*o-</ratiuiate, smmmoue crenate or aub-granulose ; ape- 


ACfttC. AD-cranlate. 

On rnn i n or ■arth, not onrnmntt 1793. 

8ts .— V«kL b VI Dm. «. t. «d& ilTW.I AA.S7m.IS8.KTL Send. 1*1. 
MiilMiw. M4 

Fto.— R Bo*. 7HL Hfla. PlLtttl 4-T. 

Bn : Srkmr. S4S. Tack. S*. F». US. 3*. Aari T aagih 44. od «. UiUL 
74. F«B» W R**. asd Sc*«b. 14*. 

Gaoo. Dutiu .— Biuu p a , ■ ■«rir« 

BOT. P»OT :-2. 3. 4. 5 11. 12. 13,K 15 IS 30. S3. 

ESOUXD^-Loifev. Skropaair.. Or. Bm H wftt m. Y— i tk JTr. Twwr. 
Ctatlrfea ! Caa*bcrlaaA Jfix ifJiayr. Omrtzr. SknoAfca. At. r. £af«ry. 

IMwtwu, Darinaa. Srr. /. Bmr n mmm. mmr Brictooa, ff l Mr. Brmmimft. 

HirCrac Wood; E^taa* a*d Middbtoa . T«wdal* K«wt. Ihiraam : Gob 
■MUM Aip Mtt BmrWoidi Skn<^ »ydi; C^criut. NVutaamfatriand. 
Jfr. IF,..-.. Shnwaaw. Smi. Jfr. LmUlmtitr. Stalrm. Or. Halt. CowWy 
Bride* road. Enter. Mr. *,rttt. 

80<mj»I»:-B— Itd Wood. Jfr. MmmfkmM. l'«tUal HHla. Or. (TmiTiV. 
Gba Dot*, dor*. JTr. 0araW. Brld fcaij. Mofatt. Or. JTioW. KJHa ; 
Bca Lawtta. Dr. B*U. Vu. JmmnM. Ac*, (taallo Mlh IhmiIi at apo- 
taacfii ■ajortbe.) Mr Carmmala* i* Braanar. Mrr J. M Crmmtmr. 

IaruurD :— X«w BetOM*. Mr. Tcmflrttm. aear KJDamt?. Dr. Tmytor. near 
Cinik*i(h, eo. Aatrlrn. AJm. Joan 

Ca»x>tt I8LAXM :-Groam. Jwwr : Bf w r iw ri .. S«A. Jfr. brUalwr. 

"8para.004to.tMi> lo^TW -OOfTS to .OOtin. broad." iJTiraW.; "Span. 
.01C-S1 -m. kac . .0W-.0U wo. broad." (Vat). 

Sdb-tbibe D. PANXARIKI. 

Thullua lociniato-railiute or nqiiainuluw or grunuloec, celhlloae, 
with oxauula gonial*. Apotbecia lecanorinc or btatorine. Spores 
8, colourloM, ellipsoid, simple or 1 -septate. Sterigmata pluri 

Characters m above. 

. A. Sport* tiuplr. 

1. P. rnbii/iiKtta, (Tliunb.) liwido-gtauteteent or pale, laciniate, 
laciniie appresaed, nearlj plane, iuciao-lobulate and creuato, upper 
turfaee rrry minutely areolato -granulate, edgei mmnchat tkiehtntd, 
filrertfwhitit/i and u/rfunnvV, iiiuhir surface tomentoec, cwrnleo- 
■ scent ; apothcci* rafota, margin crcnulnto ; spores 8, colour- 
less, ellipsoid, apices rather I pic. 
On mossy rocks and trees. 1801. 
Bta : -Tbunb»nf Fl. Otp, ITS, H7!»i.> A. •!.. Sjm. 302. NrL Seand. 1» Mudd 

Mail 122. 

Km :— E. Bot 983. H«pp 8por«i t. 061. 006. 

Em r-Scn»c. 683. 1 1 .', Aw. I,.,.it. 78. 1SS. Maudoo 15. Lrfght. 234. 

(irtxj. Diktriii :— Koropc, Amtricn. 

But. Ptort- l, l' r. ...7 iu, ii. 12, 13.. ir, ,.1'j -x 8L 

hnun -K««wlck. <'uiiilirrtan4. Vrt. Stangrr. T««dale. Durbam. Iter. J. 
Barriman. mw 8rttl«L Yorluhire. Dr. Wi*d*>r. Hay Coppio*. II«r«fnnUili». 

Ma. T. Salmy CliAnib«rry and Kglvi! Wooda, I'urlimin. Mr. Wixek, 8. 

l|,t.iililcr, V,'i " 

8cortANl> :— Ab»rl«ldy .lanrljj Woo. «. Mr. 

iS'ia-nt. /?'i-. A. Hlnaim. 

SUctHt. Glm DoU, Clova. Mr. Oantintr. KJltin. Or. Bull. 8, W. CJramplan». 
hfad of Locb Awt. Iter. J. M. Cnmhit. 

Of ..rkat nniniv 


Iaxi-ixi» : -KUUrnoy. Or. Carrington. frequent In tho mountainoiu <li«tri(-t*. 
Mr. Cnrroll. <ilrn<l»!.nii;h ! I)erry<-I:in< Inland ! Connvmor*. Mr. Larbalttdrr. 

Wauoi i -Barmouth ! Valley above Halfway Hou*e ; and aboro Burthwnog, 
Hrr. T. Suit*//. 

CHkSIIXL IsUaXlM :— Jgrbnars, I Juernney. Mr. Larbalalier. 

"Sporca.OOS&to .004 in. long/by .0015 to .0(0 in. broad." [MudJ.) "Sporw 
.017— 85 mm. long, .007— .010 mm. broad." (Aty'-) 

Var. tarulfXhbadia, (Schleich.) centre of thalhis and margins 
cit*io-p>dveridt-nt<> sorrdiust. 

On trees. 

Si* :— Schleicher Cent. 2. 7L (1805.) P. conoplea, Acli. 8yn. 4S. Nyl. Scant! . 
122, Mudd Man. 122. 
Wu —Mm.. Ki.-. Be, 219. H-ppSporwi t. 68 f. iW. 

bar. 360. Repp >Xr7. Zw. »8. Ana It. B. 151. M. and N. 347. 


Bor. PB»vr-6...7...12...15..{13— 26— SO). :;i 

Kmii.axii : Keawick, Cumberland. Mn. ISXanacr. Oiwertry, Shrojwhire ! Iter, 

Soon -.aaeha. Iter. J. M. Am 

USJUJfD; <>n reek* BOt imfirqumt. Mr. Carroll. Darryclare laland! co. 
II»l«»v Mr. LorWtUirr. 

W.m.b : - Valley above Halfway Hotue : and above Borthwnog near Bar- 

nifulli. lirr. T. StUwif, Dolg»ll«yl Hiyi ..r i':i|.,l ( Hatg • I)rw-»yii»i>t ! 

Capel Arthog ! Lljm Gwcrnan ! 

Cmaxxu. InLASTii*;- Jerbourg, (luernaey : Knit), Jeraoy. Mr. Jsartxilettier. 

3. P. Itueolmt, (Wbliib.) <(/'»< or lividarrinrrascent, xquumulose, 
H([uiuuulio imbricate rtrrueoto-arcdaU •» (hi mitre, thota towards 
tlir rimimftrrnty gjppitmiJ, radiatodobatt, dilated, sub-crcnatc, 

■ -\y I'.o'jii'idi'iii'h) rtriatodi apothecia black, plane, margin 
tumid, (*renitt<itv ; Hpores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple. 
On micaceous rocks, rare. 1811. 

8t»:-WrU. Kl. Lapp. 420. A«4i. Syu. 104. Nyl. Scand. 123. Mn.l.l Man. 

Km : K. But 22KJ. 

— Leigbt. 267. Ann L&ngob. 27. 

Oxxki. DisruiB :— Kuropa, 

Scotland :— Ben La worn ! and Mael Greodha. Mr. Borrrr. Metrn. Mar 
mtttam ' Carroll ' nnd liri-adulluiiui Mountain*. Mum. Borrrr A lt< 

iBlLASr." :— D»wro» riveT ! co. Galwny. .'/> lartatati*. 

•' Sporea .003 to .004 in. Ions, by .00125 In. broad." (Mudd. J " Spore* .015 
—17 mm. long, .000— .010— mm. Brad." fffy'-J 

4. I'. ptsUoid**, (Web.) brawn, cervine or cmereu luscesectit, 
'/ranufato-f/iKmulott, densely imbricate, itquuiimhe Htnull crenatc ; 
apothecfb tS B taoeo-rwfoMB or nifo-fusccsccnt, margin crenulatr; 

colourless, ellipsoid, simple. 

On the earth amongst moss and on rocks, frequent. 

S*S-Web. Spiuil. 200. |17>.) hrWMftaj A.I. Svu. VX\. \y\. Scaud. 1». 


Bot, 2801. 
Bx- 160. M. and N. 039. Mom. 315. Mudd 90. Ann It. 

S. 152. Frio. 2EC 

G»- I lump*. 

Bo. 8. T. l"..12...15...18...20.31. 

K\t.hxi>: II ; Yorlohin- Mr. KubnUon. Cumberland! Mrt. 

Staivrr. near Battenhr ! Baywlale I Cleveland. Mr. Mmtd. Hoaritree, Exeter. 
Mr. ParltU. new Bonohurch, laleof Wirfit. *er. A. Bloxavt. 


i in I.K-KKN.I I.OKA 

8cotlaxi> :— Keninorc : Ben La«r». Dr. U"ll. abundant in the Grampians. 
Riv. J. M. CVw'.iV. 

IhjoaxD!— Bantry. Miss Jlukliiui. Cromiglan. Dr. Cbm'npton. I/Mgh 
[nagfe * ■> iiin.i: :r* ion .ii-ciiv'ii ii.iii-;. Mr, /... . ' . i ."- ■ - . - r. is.-.: 

WaUM j— Cinn Bycbau near Barmonlli ! Rrr. T. Salicrf. Tygwya, DolgvU*}'- 
Z*. Ifotf. Owm Cyw Ion ! 

CHAsrtu. Ihundh :— Guernwy. Arr. V. Mwt. 

•' Spoeea .004 to .00* in. lour, by 002 to .O02» in. broad." (U-tif. " Spore. 
.016—27 ram. Iuiih, .007— .010 mm. broad." (Nyl.) Spores .OSS— .0236 ua. 
lorn?. .011 mm. broad. 

Y;ir. tomiata, (Aoh.) etrruteo-cinerxueent, xuinutfly <frtmulo*o-*ttb- 
pulvtrultnt ; NpotUMil ;:iuill, roddUh brOWD, mavjin 'frnnulo**. 
On the i ■■!>■ |'lac«s», frequent. 1796. 

M. 0817.1 Nyl. Scand. !M. Mudd Man. 1W. 
1)0 :— K. Hot. 1846. 
Eis : -LorruL 20. litight. -i33. Ann It. S. 15S. 

iJi.xi. DiMruw 

PKOI ; 1 ...6. .7 .11. 12. 13. H, IS .18, 31, 
Kxiit..wii:- -Xi-iw Hiifli He.«ket, Cumberland. Mn Mangtr. ShrojuMro. AVr. 

/:, WiUbm*. Booth baa! of th« lierwent abova Blanchland, Northumberland; 
H»wn> Wood near Lancheatvr and in Teeedale Korwt, Durham. Mr. H'.iu-A. 
Malvern; 8. Davnn an.l i Bndlolgh Soitcrtmi. Devon. />r. 

SCOTIAXD : -1 MimfricMhire. Dr. Hargcm. near Stirling. />r. lineluinnin. Peat- 

land HID* Afr. U plana. 

,' .V. Oval;— Klllariiii)'. Dr. f'.in-inoton. frequent In Hubalplne aituatton*. Jfr. 

W.u.m:- Bangor. Jfr. Tanitr. Barmouth ! Gwydir ! 

•;y«. IsiAxm :— Ourunr. U». T.BUa i ft i rtw. 

■i»ire«.004ifi. I .... -.I n • .UOlSin. broad." (JfWir.) Sporea .0l»— .020 mm. 
long, .»".: .OuUmm. ureal. 

5. /'. mierophylla, (Sir.) eemm fjuamu- 
lo*o-enut<tivout, urtulnlo-diffraet, I . limite. crt-mit • 
imbricate, trAiVu/t af <tf«- «d^o, under surfikoe aigrieanl ; apOtheeui 
fuMOOiw or riifenocin , /jate wifltin, manjm ultinvilttff oUilt- 
rtiUd ; M|iorc!i8, OolourlOMi Ouipagid, lin 

Onlrc.'.: in.| rook*, '•■ ■!•;■' 1*1*. 1790. 

Pnr i Ol l ltl in V. Ac. H. 801. U7M.) Ach. Syn. 53. Nyl. Scaud. W. 
Mudd Man. m. 
fn I K. Hot. 1M7. H-ppSporent. CO. f. COR. 

Kxh .— Zw. 38*. Arurl It. S. fflO. Score*, l'.l. Hcpp 608. forhal. 71. 
Gwxi DuTiua: Berop*. A«i», Afriua, N. America. 
Bor. Pb»v :— 1. A ...10.. •&.. .31. 
Kxolam) : -Cornwall ; Yarmouth. -Vr. JWn 
IkbIjISID .— KiUarney. /)r. ATwrr. Dawroi rirer I oo. Galway. Mr. Durt*itt* 

CtUXWtL blAXIM :— Jerlmn: ' lower, Jeney : L'Eper- 

trie. Sark ! Mr. IjirbalalUr. 

• .003 tu .OCOft in. long, by .001 to .0014 in broad." (Mudd.) " Snoraa 
i. lonir, .006— 1 mm. brviad." (KhI.) Siwren .014 .010 mm. 
.007-000 mm. broad. 

6. P. triftopikyUa, \ Acli.) fHinxincraient, tquamulott, ori/ietUar 
or Emgotar, s'luniimlaj racmbranaceoua, lacinmlo lolxtte, crcnatc, 
apprceacd or nticrobpidto-grannlote or coraUouleo-#/uu7nu/o*r, ctmx- 

' arcolato-diffract, hypothallus eemleo-nigrieanl ; 
fuscous or rufo-ftisccacent, hypothecinm fu*co-niyrioiNt, margin pole, 
jxrnrtmi ; spore" 8, colourless*, elUpaoUi -^i>uj>lo ; gclatina hymeuea with looiai 

n» OKKXT llfllTAIN 


On trees, rare. 179tt. 

Si I : Ach. L. It. 21B. (1*10.) Svn. 63. \vl. SoHtd. 12S. Mudd Man. IO. 
Fta :-E. Bot. 2128. Sohrad. t. I. f. 4. Bepp Stoma t. 80 I. CIO. 
Kxn.-K.Um. 98, ». Hclunr. 169, Hepp 010. M. ft N. 662. 

GHOo. DmTRis :— Europe, N \" 

Bor. I'aov:-l,2.. .1...T. .1\ 16, 17 ..19. ..30. 

; Mr. Turner. Suibox. ilr. Hrmminoi. IVntregacr near 
Oaweatry ! Tfer. 2". *x/wtj/. near l.idford, S. Devon. Dr. U.,'1. 

SeoiUXD:-L»cii Katrine. Mr. Turner. Invorary ! :m.! i.l.-n A.-h tl> itlHlnaTl, 
Boadure. Mean. Borrxr if- Booker . J. if. Or: 

I«na.Mi>: — County of Antrim. Dr. Tmilor. Curraghmorv, Walnrfunl, Mid 
mi. KUIaruey. .• Turk Mountains ; and 

IHnuIaland: Glenbower Wood, KU!*»k1i. Mr. Carroll. 

\\ . DulKclloy. />,-. Moll. GwydirWoodal 

U.iUir* y-coed. 

-|Kir«.003to.0(Hin. long, by.00125to.0016in.bmft.l. (.\ -'Spurm 
am. long, .0011 H mm. broad." fJVMJ Room .01? -.020 mm. lotur. 
.007-.008 mm. broad. 

forma nigriamt, (Loight.) thullun intcuwlv Mrjofc/ Mpothaoiarofo 
fuaceaceut, margin pale petaiateat ; spore* 8, oolourlewt, ellipsoid, 
On tail trees, ran. 187B. 

BOT. FatrV : 7. 

Siorec .0236 mm long, .0095 mm. broad. 

7. P. loddla, (Stirt.) dark or i nierolmi 

*qvamulo*e or mhmtdy eoraOoid»^iwuihtt, thickish ; bjrpouialhu 
black, thick, S|jongiu»u CuntoH, with radicles ; apotfiecia lil> ir/:. 
deine at darkly rufdnt, round or wmaftr tmilt, 

plane, toatolj margined j iporm cotovtrtm, eOyuoid or futifo 

■ •■lid, nimple, tpiiporu somewhat crmulate; paranli bract, 

nit!, ul, it.;, tin- black apices conglutinato ; hypothicu/Mfiutaetritot 
in a thickish cows or fuscous- 1 il tick. 

On Hepaticro (Frulluniee), rare. 1877. 

Stx :— Stirton in Scottwh Natiiralint 4. 161. (18J7) 
Bor. P»r>v 

i-UfI>:— NearGarvo. Dr. Stilton. (1K77-) 
"BpotmSM .018 mm. lonir, .007— .009 DO, I :ini hyinenea 1 

ih, ii mth, ii- i, I or I iiiijiw (ulvcjieont. Intenncdintc between P. W 

I nd P. nigra, l>ut nearer tbe former." iStirt,) 

S. J'. ntbltlMO, (Hrrni.) finrrtou* Of darkly e<i*io-anertUC/nt, 
■■•lakKnattoe, granules thin, iinliru-.ii. ■ . • a ' • .t. ,i, m-nntc, 
forming a thiu crust ; i\jn,ti,, ■ .,<-, nitons i,r nifo-fiuoeaeOBtj 

amall. * alight]} convex and crowned with tin- thalli 

•parol B, ooloarleea, ellipsoid or oblong, simple. 

tin the earth, \, iv raw, 1869. 

Si s : llih,.. 1-1. i tarn. 180. (1799.) Nyl. Scand. 125. 

Gixm. 1>iktiiiii : -Europe. 
Bor. I 

Soorusi) - Kiiliu, Brr.J.M. On 

OuatSBt i I ltd ','uonTaia, Jersey. Mr. LurhaletHtr. 

"Spores .016— M nun. long, .006 '■> mm. broad." (A'nl.J 

f. coronala, (Flk.) apothecia Iccauuivud, crowned with a t;num- 
In... ilinll unl. 

On the earth, rare. 1 v 


mi i.k hkn.kuvka 

8t* .— XyL Send. 13ft. 

Kx* :-F!k. 1). I. 

Go- -Kurop*. 

Dor. p«ov:— se. 

iRUjum :— S.mth diU KUUrr B»jr! Lettannora | Catway. Mr. LarMatttr. 

8jwr»« .027. mm. long, .011 mm. broad. 

9. /'. (light/.) livido-eiuenwLvnt, sulnnonophrHona, 
orbs n'-.i . . loot*, frequent!] i^-anuloso-rutciw :n the centre, radiato- 
inciaod, Iticiiii*. loiu/titiidiually rndiato-ptuwlthrugtt* or UriaUd, cqh- 
taUrkallp nrouirrf-ruffnlotr toward* the margins, which are broadly 
expanded and crenato, kypotbaltu* dart, plumheo-evtruleKmt, tome* 
to*o-fiiamentou ; apotUMM lOWD, plane, margin ixalcr, 
entire j spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simplf. 

On trees, rare. 1777. 

fl -iJyHf-.t Bl Beet 2. MS*. (1777.1 A40. Bra, 302. Coctonrpia, Kyi. 
Rend m. Mudd Man. 121. 
Fio: I.i : !.tf....i n. Scot t 26. 

Rx* .— M7 & X. 03!). Maudnii 14. Sch»r. WH. Larbal. 72. Lclgnt SSS. 
Cma. Dn irope. N. Africa. 

i:. ;, . i. •■ s, r ii. IS, 18 IB l!'. •-•<) 2B Bl 
Khoiamu:— Kcawick ! Cumberland. Mn. Stangcr. now Eglsitone, Ihirfaaun. 

Uri, J. //...n. ./. Il-nim mi aiii! I.ukwd. 

,\ln' i .'..,n;,-i, A MliUncitnii In Tumliht fhiilmii 

Mr. Winn',. 8. Devon mid Cornwall, Dr. //•»'/. Aiipuldcrconit*, Isle of Wlglit 

Scotlakd :— Fall of Foycn. Caledonian Canal ; 01m Kerb, Louhnber : Loch- 
Lomond b«lw»*ii Tarln-t ami Arruchar '. I>r. lAndtaf. UrmnlanrfK : Ranitim- 
nann I, inn. Mnffatt Or. Buiyrt*. Birk« nf Alwrfiddr. Mr. Moemillan. Clcn 
Fallodi; Kill,, Or. II ". i .r.«mpian». Krr. J M. C 

■ ii KiUarnaj : (lougaunabarra ; Cork ; tec Mr. Cmrrotl, Murium. 

Killarney. Dr. Carringt Derrydara laland! i-o. Calway. Mr. iMrhaltrt, 

K«ai Itcaumaria! Sec. A. Bloxam. Cardiganshire. Sir J. J. 
<;*7dir Wood) I lVtlwa-y-eued ! 

OkaiaiaLlW i naey. Her. T. Sofaqp. Alderney : La Coupe, Jerwy ; 

< i.:-. i.-ln.i: | V. . l/irhai 
"Sporea.ClCtf to .004 in. long, i-y .001 to .00125 in. broad." (M noica 

' ana, long, 407—9 .mm broad, <A'.rf.) 

i' .//. . I'Del.) ceii'n of rim] itloao-rugoae or ntierO' 

phj Uii . 
on Hers, frequent, 

Bra : Nvi. Bawd, 128. 

i : .. - : < tambbi r.7. Dnunax. Or. It. ad. i. 1MB, rJ. 2. Iuks. UrK 72. M 

14. Ann Elr I I 
Bor. Paov:-7 -ML 
Walsh :— Beauinari* ! «<'• -4. Afaam. 
I'iiasnix Ibla^iw :- Jerwy. Mr. LarMatitr. 

B» Spore* l-»<., 

1 0. /*. nigra, (Huda.) durl- cinrreo ni'jricant or/tarotu-Uatkor blaei, 
utcly and • 1 ■ n-rlv nra H a i ieo^raivdet ma, difmelo- 

arwlatr, lxmnded by mi expanded distSast bluiah-blaek bpttoid 
hypothnllus ; apotii ■. plane or tllgtitl] iiinii, margin 

entire, ooo oloroua, kypodncimm nigro-fvtcov* ; x|>"iv-* k, <n.>1ou 
ellipsoid, 1-aeptate, oella melaokt*. 
:dcareous rocks, 1778. 
Brt l Ilodaon Fl. And «<i Z 524. Bl - I E>8 OkBMks, A-h. 



Tut :-K Bot 1101. NyL **"'"• ««• 2- h. 

Ela:-Seh»r. 298. Maa.. 8M. Mudd 1«. And It 8. 9. HermO. 

Q«M. Dimni :— Europe, Africa, X. America, New Zealand. 

Bor. Pbov>-1. 5.. $...t. S .10. II 15 ..26 .28 . 30, M. 

Kniuuro :— S«. Itm, Cornwall. JO. Iliuiton. Kli ale. Wcrtuiora- 

Und Sir./. £ Smile, trtirbaoi. AVr. J. Hnmmjw. Worthing. Suaatx ; O.wea- 
try! *er. T. So/wjf. Bridge near Upton OB Ife I /."*. Biledale ! 

RlrauU; arxt Yarm : near Stanhor.*. I 'mlmm. UV. .Vm'W. Ingleborocmh. 
Z)r. Oarrimgton. Hudahexd; Old Cinile, Berwick -on-Twced. Dr. Juhwton, 
Oeadon and Boldao Hill.; (iatcehcad Fell and near Kglratune, Durham. 
8o>UwihmI and Hraton DtnH. »uil I[i'ddon-ou-W:illx, Northumberland. Mr. 
Winch. Malvern : H. ]>.-v,.i ; I lerlo, bin-, lir. //,.//. Exmouth, Toixjuav. Mr. 
Pijtgotl. Edgock, Worceaterxhlre : Orenlcy Bridge, Warwlckehire, Mr, /■\irlon. 

'ling, Snuf-x i Hury, Suffolk. It,,. £ X l:l.„, ,„ JM Old Earth." i 
Mr. Softr. I.lanyblodwcl rock* ! Norton Camp ! High Rock near Bridgnorth ' 
rmropahir* ; Broedon HiU ! Dtlceatenihire : Llaiivinyiiw -li Hill I 

HcoTLaSD :— Ben Lawer*. l>r. Hall. CromMe Bo. 43. mention* a var. trite? 
tat*, NyL aporia 3 uptatia, aa occurring in Appin. 

!«i oiagb. AJih. Junta noar IMfaat Mr. TmpUtOU. common nn 

rSmertone rocka. Afr. Carroll. Clam»rl>ol ! Mr, LarUilttl „ ,. 

Warn : -Denbigtuhlre. Mr. GrijUh. Eglwyaeg rock. ! 

< hum Isuurmi— Common on all tha [alanda, Mr. Larlalatttr. 

" Simrea .1)11- 16 mm. long. .005-7 niui. broad." LV'it.) 8pore» .0118 -,01o5 

"0. long, .0055— .OWI nun. hrnad. 

11. P.ektilta, (N-,1. lye-'. up-fawm, mumtibue, Mnuuaulig 

cartiiatfiitoiu, iiimutf. i-miiiili-<l :im] tiiiyiil, 'Hinted, inciiylobaU. 

iato) crowdodj imbrioato, cniHtaccous, diffl tv to trvolal i, 
hypothallu* f\ucrft.. apothocia *uWnit<i/o-*-A- 

plano-oonvox, margin thin, ntir :rcnat«; sporew B, <■.■!.. urless. 

•o-oblong or ovato, I-aeptoto. 
(h» moist shady maritime rocks, rare. 16G0. 

.!. j„ M.,.1,1 \l:.„. Br l.iYb. 126.(1801). 

Or™;. Durum:— Europe. 
Bor. P«ov:-I!i M & 

Uiuxu :— Stroove Head, Donegal. Prof. Dieku. Blackwatar Bridie; 
KUkee, Clare ; Weatern BUaquet, Kerry I M 

• S|«re» .CM to .005 in |0B( tj .001 2fi to .00225 in. hn.a.1." (Miuld.) 

12. J', canton, fDioka.) tviiofuemeent or ■ncmt, 

*imimul<\*>J'jb'Xt<, loNaj niriotiHlv <li vi<l.«t or i nnto-incised, tuuyiu 
thirkrufl i/ranoto-ercnai', or adscendenti ooBfletl 

' «A btnettlh; OpOtAtda flUOQUI or futco-ritfe. nrnt, DUTgb palai 
Hporea 8, colourless, oblongo-fusiform or ellipooiil, 1 scpUtc. 
On nujaaM in sub-«lpiue localities. 1790. 

8v*:-Dicka Cryjit, Br. t. 21. (I7'.«1.) »1»ec r mm , Ach. Syn. 193. MM, 
Somd. W. Mndd Bmd 

FIO - Dlska Ct Hr. 2, t. 6. t. 7. E. Bot. 1094. 
Bxi :-»iea 41 Anxi Langob. 80. 87. 8onw. 483, 
Owoa rope. 

i-i b ..?, a v: w i*' S3 

Exolaxd :— Teeadalc, Durham, /fe*. /. Barrimnn. S. Brent, Dftqa ftr. 
Di.lwnrtliv, Devon. Jtrr, ^. .V. OronhU. CaMletoO r>«k«! Cumberland. 
Mrt. StnnfffT. O'twestry ! lift. T. 8«lmy. Hag Cray wood in Teeadale Kormt, 
Durham. Mr. H ,/,-/.. 

MMUUn> :— Highlanil*. Mr. Dielaga. xlmuiUntly in a ravine at foot (it IUii 
More, Perthshire: I»ch Awe in Arjtylc; Clen Ey; Bon I minora ! tirr. J. M. 

iKELASTi ;— Dublin MimnUin*. Adm, Jonti. Aakew Wood: Killarncy. Dr. 
r. Maain Turk Mountain. Mr. Larbaleitier. 

Waam: I'.-nin-ndiim U*. urijuti. Own Byduta; BbtauB Each near 
Ilannmith. Ret. T. Salwrr. Dolgelley. Dr. Boll. Dolgelley ! Mr. PnUttp*. Cwm 
Ptynnon Uoer '. 


t. i. I. 39.- 

- ijry.i Spo«. 

txffoae, margin of 

, aputhccia internally 
8, colourless, 

Ol (Ml.) Gronbic is 

white* ; hjputlMia 
eOiBMtd. J~ptai*. «pa 

ihi nloiwiB atones. l-~ 

Joarm. BA a. a. 3. 133. Xjrl fc> flo HK p. 3 
i.soc. Dtunua:— '' aa ha a n a. 

So^^lt* hSfra ■»■ tW Tar « Huko. N-«t><nabarUarf. Jtrr. J. 

at. «>«*-. asra lob a r s ■ : *r. *pr. 


Thallus mooojivlkvlol^tc, subuKiulraoaceous, soft, pnlreru 
lent. containing gnumla goniiua. Aivitiiocta sen 
thalhxlnU v margined. 

III. AMI'HILOMA. (Fr. /»-. ^) 3a,. 
Characters as abort 

1.1. Innuyinomtm, (Aeh.) mkaru* or <t/£.v/«*«*ya/, aditate, 
Inhn- bet mbOaMofct*, margins rotunda to-crenatt-, 

gra*tJ l #*.pulvtr«lmt, hypotbaDoj > p n »e n toa», oeraloaccuti i> 
.itbecta unktvuwn. 

On shaded mossy rocks, frequent. 1790. 

Br»:-Ad>. Pru.]r. ISO. il. : -..-«!. 153. MoM Man. 136. 

Flu :-Bkka. Cr. Br. I 

: -Nrl. 37. Sdurr. .T7*. M. 4 X. 116. And It. S. 1*9. I^fct 85. Stcab. 
IS;. Kocb. awl Schab. » Hal*. KS4. 
Gaoo. Dtarata :— Earc-i*. X. Zcalam! 
Hot. Paov:-r. ...".«.. I 

uUrUwL ITrx .Vu»jkt. 4. a rat.-fueda ! anr Onrc*. 

t»f. R". T. S u h t t f . Brvughtoa Bank! near Frcatartwr- Fakoa Clint*. 

■:-. Mr. M*At. Bokon. Dr. i'mirngtom. XUlv.n. IIUU. In 

I -,r..t U»<«atcrabir-r. *rr. .4. Ahuow. LUnv- 

wratoli Hill ! Uaiu-hnxrod Hill ! Stii.-nt.ine. ! SUij-t. I Sbrouafcii-a.> :— Tr^aaadu ; t'xaljj miliar, Locbaber. Brr. y. ,af. 


I kolas ci :-Om aacatt -noaay rocka sot o ne ca m noa. Ur. Cum/I. 

i.mi-V>Ag»Urjt Tniiiwi 
'ii Guernsey. Ste. T. Salaf. Boolay Bay, Jersey. Mr. L.n. 




. ram iv. SQ1 amakiki. 

•Una radioao-Iacmiat* of cutOagineo . often radiate. 

Apothoda loaanorine. Sporee colourless, ellipsoid, simple. I 
Spcixnatia aciculari-cylindrkal, long; tMOfctOa 

[V. SQ1 \m\i:ia. DO 

1 I i:\raetcr8 as above. 

1. S. crtiua, (Hud*.) Dale yellow or whitish graft, tqunmoff 

iiiue cnrtilnyir. ■!, lobato-srtnate, more or 

Ins dryrtttcd, under lurfaco brown , wpothecia Uxrtaceo-rufous, plane, 
margin entire : Iporoe 8, ooIowIobs, ellipsoid, simple. 
On earth in HmcstoDo regions, frequent. 1741. 

Sirs s—HMUoa tl Aiitfl. 2n.l. *L MO. (177M Ach. Hyn. 190. Nyl. ScmuL 
130. MnddMan. ISJ 

Fto:— E.Bot 1803. H«pp.S|>..i.Mi 1. 70. f. Klii. Slunn Kl. I). t. !>. 

bM VI. 7JL 74. M. * N. 1051. Nyl. L. P. 116. Mndd 91. Bolil. 2. 
Ami It & 1... Habb. 739. Hei.i> i.IC. Bchjor. 343. \n\. 2. I.a.l 

<;*.-«;. Divniin : -KuroiKi. Africa, Atnrtralaaia. 

I'.., P...... : -i, 1 :, .;, -; io, ii.n ::;; ■/; :n. 

Ejtgi^kij :— St. Vlncont'i rock*. ISrUtnl, Sir J. I.. s„:iih. I Down ; 
.! '. Mr. liudd. ( i.v.-.-.i.y ! Bbropshii-e. Rtr. T. Solvef, IVleitonc, Durham. 
Iter. J. Unrrimnn. Wennleydale. Jork«hire. Mr. Urunton. Hnntptarpotnt, 
BMMB, Ah. Il'iiiwiimi. MM S.-Uli-. Dr. Wi*dtor.!..un, Vorkuliin- j vl 
morrlani], Mr. Huilivu. Marl.ln Stone near Middleton in-Teeidale, Dnrhun. 
Afr. Winch. near Torquay : near Bmt-.ii. In. BeO, Berry Head: ( n.y.i Buy, 

n. i .,■...„. U I 

• rLAjcn .-Kingo Park, Edinburgh, iter. J. Ltoktfoot. Peutland HUlii. Dr. 
Imxawt* t..n to. Meath ; Skerriea near Dublin ! Dr. Moore, near 

DaWi . Mr. OjrroH. Ben Bnlb. ... .'--I...... fro/. DirHe. 

Waucm :— Ptiltin lalan ri- R .-! /;/. mm, Holywell* Kb'nt- 

"hire. /'nif" OmrtkHi Baftlnjrfon. l.landdwyn rocks near Newborough, A 
Ma; (ityden. SJilltmui. 11741.) Qr*at Ornic* Hi-ad ! K.-lwymg rocki ! 

Chaxm.1. Unsi's: -Qu-Snrai*, JwMJ ; ('owrt of Hr mi ' Mr. T-nrbalttHcr. 
Ciuerruwy. Rcr. T. St/iwy. 

:...«. .oo-r. u. .00:1 ,„. i .-. i, v Mi la broad." (MwM.) '-Sporw.oil- 

14 mm. long, .006 -« mm. broad." (Ay. i- T. M. Fr.) 

2. »$'. ItHtfgero, (Wol>.) pnlo yollon ish ox ggrBOoiafa uhito, ••rUctdnr, 

'»»<•(/, QHotaUhtqpKBHQti in the (wire, radial<rl'jbalc at thrcirrum 

I'otundato-undulato-crenate, margin Ikietmid, n/-titrnta\ 
aUofmherulent, andtx lurfac. whit* , ipotlu-cin pulli < n ., 

natfRin entire ; spores 8, eoloorlt . ollipaoid, aimple. 
* *0 chalky earth, rare. l"^. 1- ). 

Six :-Webcr Splcll. 192. (1778.) A. I,. .->,.. 179. Nyl. Sc»nd. 130. Mudd Man. 
PM :-E. Bot. S7L Web. Spicdl. t. 3. Relh. Cant. t. 7. Etmp t. 99, f. 179. 
Kx»: B*npl79-M. t>. it. s im. Dick* 2a Ma». 

I:....1..I. Sf 

Gjxki. Dn-iTiiiii : BnroM, Africa. 
3 i. i U 
. ua»u :— OoRmau'iif HilU! Newmarket Heath, Cambridge. Rcr. II. lUlh&n. 
near Kcwna-res. DOaMX. Mr. l/rmminfit. ► 1'ark BMT llriilttinitl., 
Hal..|N Mr. Purlon. 

iuuid:— Ben Brecht, ArRjImhlr*. Mr. Fatman. 
"8|)orai.0Cer.ti..0OS.n. long, by .001 in. broad t 9. t 40." iX«d,l.) "Sp«M 
.012 mm. long. .006 mm. broad. (Ay.) '•Spoarta .011—12 mm. long, .005 
mm. broai-nir. M. r>.) *^ 


TH* l.K.HEN F1/)RA. 

:5. 8.cArffm>Uiiea,(8m,)oda*lmooui<) trauvoloNr, lohnto- 

UHZUI finn, imliricjito. various in t )><■ i -ircumfi i 

loutto piano, craottta or,! inoiited, andex surface polo, town/vi* 

w, moden ''"I i pOVM \ i'"l">>rleo8, 

'-lljiHoid, simple. 

On alpine rocks, rare. 1874, 

8TH ;-Smitli in Una. Tn.ii. 1. p. Si (17V1.) Ach. Syii. tM, Nyl. Ikaiul. 181. 
Flo. )I, |,|, >imrent. 20. f. 17rt. I.iim- lii: f.2. 

Kx» : -R»!.-li. A Schub. »i. Aiul It. S. 187. 158. Depp 176. 

Okw. Dl OMt, Norway. Lapland, Sweden, ltal- 

Bot. Phot :-l& 

8oOTL*»l>:— Ben Brecht, Argyle»hini. Mr. i'aUnuu. (1W4.) 
" Spore* .001»— .011 mm. Ions. .iHJf. mm. bnuwl." |A'.//. .£• V. .V. AV.) 

4. S. tartUagimta, (Westr.) ewMfw>*irB»cwri or >ilfado-*(r*Mi- 
ntmt*, oftalu, oaxtflagraooa, EdWacMtafct l<td**<* 

linear, rinuolo-jirxiosr, crciiate. ui IV'o whitish; apothecia 

earner. li'StacCOUO, Of fulvi-tiHiUlceoilK, piano, 

in pole, pertutrnt, in*!. i*d, entire; spores 8, colourless, elU| 
soid, Bimjii. . 
On maritime rocks, rare. 1 

Syn ■ \V,-slHn.-ii, K«r, A.t.St.„; ; l,. M7. (1791.) Aoh. Syn. 191. Nyl. Scand- 
FlO:— K. Bot, BappL -iSlii Heup Spi.ron't. «. f..V». 
..- 188. If-p!. "■•'. M i h. um 

GttKi. Dona : hnrope. 

Bot. Prov:— 7 .10. 

RMLAXD :- Yiirluhire. Mr. Atonndtr. (18001. 

Walb* :— On rock» on the »linpoii««r.nilUl..f 1.1 jn IWIyii, a)x»e Barmouth 1 
Rtr. T. So. 

"Spo>M.002 to .(KM Jn. long, by .001 to.OOISS In. broad." [M<M.\ " Sporta 
.oil— in mm. laaft ,005—* mm. broad," (ivy. * T. m. Fr.) 

,".. .s'. Miacpio, fPoll.) ockro /•■'i.-nt/f or pallnl,, nulp I. iir , Yirescent, 
CArtilaginnim, orfeeufar, atiprowd, ■ -•vtufeKtfOM* atf 

Mr centre, radiaUt-iohf,'. tomuxll the i irt .-//.., i.iltos evHligvotu, 

plane or tuhpHeatt, moottli cremate ; apothecia pallido-testaceous, 
or tostoooo-rufescent, plane, nungu entiiv or erenulate : spore* 8, 
colourless, ellipsoid, simple. 

. not tint'i. ■■ ( i iu nt . 17s.*>. 

Syx : -Pollleh Pal. Kl. 3. 2». 11777.) Ach. Syn. 180. Nyl. Souid. 138. Mudd 
Man. 120. 

Pro:— E-Bot. 1695. HlTm PI I. •■ . 16. 1, Mum. Bin. f. 36. 

. ■:• M KoMtt. 

Inc. 168, Nyl. Pyr. or. 29 i: led. .". Sofanb. 10. Uik+t. 145. 

(ii: hroughoiit the wol I 

Dot. I l ::i m -89) .hi. 

BTOL&Jin :— Cainlirhta<. Srr. fl. Ktlkati. Oxford It. Sibl/iorp. Cliffrtar! 
< Uvcland. Jf>. .VWoT. Guunerton Crag* near Barneaford ; near Warden MID ; 
Carhara and Walk by the Twwd, Niirtliiinilwrlaiitl : n«ar l'rj*tli; Canaey 
Hall; near K|{!nUin« and <;ainf»nL l.hirliam. 3Ir Winth. Kelvednn, Eaaex. 
Mr. Po-rciiM, Bedfordahin. /fer. C. AM**. TwycroMi Church, Laicaatanhlro. 
IXtr. A. Bloom. Midland C'cniiitita. Mr. Purt.m. Malv»rn Hilla fUr. W. .S. 
Ho/uiif. Devon. Afair*. Joaa A Kington. Lyth HU1 ! Middle! BoJbtuy Klaft 
HauKln»"i>'l Mill ! C'oer Caraidoc I .Shroi»hirc. 

Scotl.vmh— <'luva; K*.tk> Linn ; near Brechin ; Balbeuohly ; Brcnu;hty 
CaaUa; Hare Cralga t Ninewalla ; Paddock Stane near Invergnwrle. Mr. 


159 : -On rwk«. not uiifre>|iwiit- Mr. Cm-mil. urmr Belfast. Mr. Tanplt- 
ton. K«nry. Dr. Tn «'...•. La iish Iiiach. Mr Lnrtxilrstier. 
WiiB i— I.lyn i iririonjrws I Dotnllar ! Difianwy • anar Conway. 

* . 

. 'd'. 





Var. diffratta, (Ach.) nrtolato-dijfrw:t, areolae oontiguoua, angular, 
On rocks. 

8tlC:-Acl,. I.. T. «L'. iloHt.i Syn. 180. Nyl. BoM& 133. Mu.1.1 Man. 129 
El« :— Ui«ht. !« Mm 38>. Ami Lanjrob. 269. 

QlOO, DnmiBi- Europe. 
Bor. Wt\ -'<■■.' 19.. 16 

EmiLaxd:— Cliff- Kin! near Ayton! Lanbrauzh Rigg ! (Cleveland. Mr. 
ilmU. Uaughmoad llill I Shropshire. 

SOOTLAJU" :— Miiiinin..MiI. Hill. Perth ! AWimthy ! IVn Iiawera ! Itt.Lindtat. 
<"raLj Gale in Braemar. Ai\ J. if. Crvmbit. 

Waw :-Crie«ieth Cartle ! 

Var. wrii-iAoi; (Pent.) alba-jiavrscrnt, more or less aUxhtuJfutctl. 
1 1 -1 ■*■'' nirfiiw of laoiuiiu t.iu,,nls the .irrmnferoiice mintiteljt 
alho-dtprft*>yr<xnut<itr, margin of apothocia entire, ufton allxi 

On rocks and moss. 1856. 

8m :-P«ne In V*L N. Ann. Bot «t. 7- ft 24. 0794.) Aoh. 8yn. 1*1. Nyl. 
Bend, Ua 

• H«ip Sporen t. 102. t. 809. 
And Venet 30, It. S, 101. I,™*..!.. 41. Hepp899. 

(tBOci. Dlitkib : -Europe. 
Bor. Eaov :-2 ..:., 8. . 

tHUn :— On rooltilw, lim.intp.toke ! HmiU ! Mr. /lob. Southty Mill. (1R5B). 

8coTi.ixi) : (.-nisTulloch. Ban 7. .1/. Croat 

WAUSi— Lin Uiirionydd! St. David* I IVinl.rokeshire. Cartel Diganwy ! 
bear Conway. Barmouth : Llanymyncch Hill ! 

Var. tilbo.iruin/i't'if'j, (Nyl.) margins white 
icnycd mosses on walla. 

Sys :-Nyl. in SaUak. pro, K. at H K. Hot, rf, p. 181. 
EaoLAKD ;— Near Lewc*. Suuex. Am J. M. OnmbU. 

Forma ditptrta, (Leishtt) aJbo-puhendat, in tcallertd, distant, 

roHii mirsffn, in whii:li llic minute opothtcui 

arc erw/-/ and wnt w ftfatt 

On calcareous rock*, rare. 1874 

Waum :— Great Onne't Head ! ( 1 • 

6. .v. 'itlid'i. (L.) dirty eramji ukitt, smooth, criiatoceoua, dourly 
adnat', orhunlari-radiose. plum., wylalodiffnin in the OQBtre, 

radiatoJarmi" Iroumfi reaoe, tnaioaito*oran*tc^ «:tii p 

carneo-cinora*'''nt dopnwo>TSmwin>Id raJwu. nim.n- 'rplxil'tdia ; 
apotHecia pak- i .Mr h, nni-irin tumid cntiro ; "l.mrleaa, 


(hi alpine rocks, frequent- 17SJ, 

SYjii-Linn. Mant. 2. 131 0370. (Vcb. Hvn. Uft Nyl. 8o*od. 134. Mudd 
Uaa. 129. 

FlO !— K. 8<il. ©v.". II^jiii SiHiren t. HW. (. 77:t. 

Bsai -Htn>773. Th. M. Kr. 31. Am. 430. 

Grou. DoTRin :— Norway, VT. Kinland, W. Branca, N Zealand. 

BOT. Paov :-l .5. .7 .11. U l r ....17, 18, 19.. 20.30. 



BMtAHH High Fore*. Kubrick, Aii4 CtOtMf Kill. T«m<UI*. R. mart. Huu-T-.ii.irn, Mrt. Rtanfrr. AubMd*. .Vr. Hatlttone. 

il'Iron Snout; Cbarnlx-rry near Kglcctono. and in Taodale Kor*»», 
I>nrhoin. Mr. Winch. Rrtdford, I)«von. Mmn. 
• ton*. Hill I Loos Mvtnl ' ShrOpal 

Soin.AM • Ixtipv m-nr Stirling. X>r. f. Bnv.'-uumn. [17811 fat 

Aagoatna, Caladonlan Canal ! Bon Not I ■! -.Y.rt '. Dr. Linimy. 

B*B I.MV.T-- llr ' . i...Tili-f!i«llil.-. .V 

K.-nmora. Dr. Molt. Broodalbane 4 Bntcinar. Itei: J. M 

Ik'iimi: Oonaoi CUBi i>ii»,-lo! Ilia*. n( Cahar, M. ''ilikaddr'a rooki: 
I'nas of Kelmau-KiKh. Mr. Chrmlt. l>unk-nv>n Mountain. l>r. Ta 

Brill ; Caralnugh 09. Antrim. Adm, Jonu. Cout of Antrini. Ih-. Moire, T 
nek ! lotfrfnu* >ml Saltwok, 00. <;alway. Mr. Larbalatier. 
Walbi : -Near Utraatadannaii : Arthne ; Llyn Bodlyn. Iter. T. titlwty. i 
Idria ! Cwm Oywion ! Aran Mowddy ! Motby-Rnt ! unxt Tnnnador. 

'• htvad." " Sporca .014 -18 nun. 

long. .006-8 nun. broad." (JV>/. A- T. M. Pr.) 

f. dttpena, (Cromb.) thallus diffract, scattered. 
On wall», i Sraig Tulloeh, very sparingly. Iteg. J, M. Crombie. 
(1870). d ! uear Tromadoc. 

Si -nrnniB V. PLACODEI. 

TlialluB radiate or laciniato-radint. . ipothoci" lacaoorino or 
KiiKhiaUiriuc. Sporea 8, OOloorlew, ollipwid, pol>»"i-l liiiiciil 
simple or 1-wptate. Paraphyaos distinct, St.origmata articulate. 
Spenuatia slender, shortly cylindrical. 

i l»not«n n« iboTa 

A. Thallu* Jtmwiit. 

1. /'. murdrum, (iltl'm.) bright yellow, cririculari-rad :it«, 

-o-areolate or rimoao-squainulosc and whii litre, 

at the '■ii.-.'unj'-y. k.. , I.*.'. I..-, narrow, cm ..-red 

and tubcrenate ill the a/nee*, ''lOf-tcabrvtu oi» the 

vpgtrtwrfa t : apothecia duly on inn- 

lair, margin antm ; sporea 8, oolourii - 1. iKptoid, polar! bilocular ; 

K rod Ut purple. 

i in v. .:!i ■.. i qi b . km. flroqoont 

Sv.\ : litlm. Knum. fiS.UVsi.i \, |,. Svn. 1M. Nyl. Stand. 136, Mu.1.1 Man. 

. • llifm. Ra t. ". t. ••. V\ U 1. 17. f. 3. Hepp Bporan t. 23. f. 196. 

ll. ,,, 198. \yl lift Mu>. US. In part. MuddvM. Zw. 5«. Lcl*ht. Ui 
he world, 
10. U...(19-30)...SI. 

BUadala! Butch II. ill rock* naai Uatttol II Mr. Uudi. near 

Galnlofd, I>nrham. and irxut of Northumlxvlaad. Mr. WinrK Kvlvvdoo; 

m Mr. lidlaud Ooontioa. M,. 

i», Sn»»x, »iul (iraat Olanham, Suffolk. Stu. K if. RtKmfirlJ. 

Swinno|x Eaat AilcnJale. N<irthuinb«rlaniL Iter. W. Johnrm, Saltwinxl Caatla, 

ntai- Holme*. Moroton: i .i.!l.ii;h : IUington : Inwardlcigh • Tor 

uilvr, Duvon. Mmrt, .! \jtV.n. near Yarmouth. Mr. 

Scon .1' Porta* Mr. (fruilt. frequent in lowlamU and inariUmo district*. 
Rrr. J. M. Oomoir. 

iHKL.Oin :— Walla and roclca, common. Mr. Carroll. 
WaLKn:-Ca*well Bay I MumbW 



CuAima bu]« :— Ouemiwy. Rev. T. Saluty. common on all tho Inland*. 
Mr. UrUbttitr. 

:**«« .008 to .00125 la long, by .00123 to .0015. in. broad." (M«M.) " Sport* 
.011 11 u.m. long, 007— H mm. broad." (Ay.) Urn*, 

.004-7 Dim. broad." (J* M. Pr.) 

rY-nua bJmlalum, (Smrft) vtiHlinoiu, sub ell'uso-areolat' 
Miterated, nurMiffinur.iN: ur CTOnatO 1- ■! >■ i ; Mumeroim 

laid croteded. K M Or purple. 
On ruck*. 

Bn Lapp. 87. (1836) Rjl Soand. 130. Mudd >t»n. 123. 

Kw :— Htpp Sporen t. ft f. 71. 

En. :-I,ln<% ir, \i„.l.l 96. BappZL Aral LangoU 273. Ixiglit, 207. ImrbaL 

Gboo, Distkib :— Kiuop*. A»is», Airtos, Arimrlca. 

Bot. Pbx>v:— 1. .6, 7. ... 10. 15 ..19 .20. .80. ..81. 

Ksolasd:— Ayton! Yorluhirc, J/r. Afii«iY/. Torquay. Dr. Holt. N. Devon. 
Mr. Paritl. 

SnoTLAUD J— Kincardine, tor. 7. Af. CVomMt. 

IlBini :— Cuaxt "f Astrto '■-. Black rock. fork. Mr. Carrol!. KyU- 

bbot* ! oo. Calway. Mr. Inrbaleitirr. 

WaLM i— Southerodown : Glamorgan. Dr. HM. Uyn Aran ! Cador Idrfu ! 
Khyl' l'« V Kt. K l<j- fawr ! DMT liarmmitli. 0m*«]] Kay I 


CHASmrx Islmtim :— Coaat of Ouornaty, J«m«y, Sark, Herm, Jathon ! Mr. 

"Sporaa .0025 in. long, by .001 In. broad." (MudJ.) Spore* .012 -.0135 mm. 
long, .005 8 nun. Iimad. 

Forma dittidciu, NyL I rthaSlU HI 

freer, rory minutely granulato-scabrous oo tltfl upper surface. 

ifW .009—16 mm. k>n w . .009 — 16 mm. broad 

On argillaceo-aclijBtXMk: rock*. 

Srs:-Nvl. i„ Flora 1875. p. 298. 
KHOIamd :— Near Orcoieeator ! Mr. JoiHva. 

2. P.drrhochroum., (Ach.) wranttato vi tttt incmt, orbioujw, 
trifu^u-laciiiiare, taeinia txrynan-- . parttUd, w w w r , warned 

and entire, Babineued or sublobulato m vkioh arc 

slightly albo-pmiu 

**t> golden tortdia : ;i|iotheoia very rare, minute, boiii n I pi 
orango-colourol ; m vatod, nearly entire ; »pores 8, colour- 

Ian, oblong, polori 

Oa limaBt , rare. 1871. 

Stw :— IxcoHora, Aeb. Syn. 181. Pl aood t l tm , NyL Scand. 137. Amphihma, 
Kir. Tar. 49. 
BZH: -Sobjtr. iso. Arn. lfiO. Ami Laogob. 31. 810. 
QaM. Disniin :-Swlt«rl.iinl, Germany. Italy. 
Bot. Pttov. ;— 1 ,14 

En'iLANf : -Near Ambarrow and Milnthorp ! I*ven» Park ! Wwtmomland ! 
Mr. Mrirtirulalt. (1871.) Braneointw CIM : Laal n. 1 "•von. Mr. UUmti. 
•rw J018— 18 nun. long. .005—6 mm. brood." (T. M. Fr.) 

8. P. deripisn*, (Arn.) pale dirty t JUU JKQ'it-yrllotr, opnlr, thin, 
crustaceous, orbieulari*radut/-- , t Inate, plicntc-i ' tk» cir- 

cumference, laeinia; narrow, incurred and sub-crenato at 

the npioea, verrucuto-arcdute m the centre, conspicuously grtt**- 
lon-tcabroiu, i proae, on tho upper snrfaoe of the ti. 

ami on Uie tlnJliue margin of Um apothMiia : BBOtlMCia 
colorouB, Bunk, plane, -.-, tea s, eoloarleaa, ellrpeoid, potaii- 



On calcareous rockd, rare. 1S71. 

Sis :— Arnold in Flora 1866. p. 580. 
Kxic-Arn. 3X2. ». and l>. 
GtOO. DWTUB:— Kiirn)"'. 


•.■..: I': unlliighaia (Wlc ' HorrfngfWe* rmtr. Km 

WUU. Pimuury Park I Cirt-nontor. Mr. JoAua. Saltw.xKl Cv.ll- n 
Mr. Hnlma. Waatou ! Oxlordnhire. Mr. IstrtaUMitr. Wuittmro, Durham. 
W. Jekmtm. Uanymym-* Hill I Shroj.hir*. (1871). 
Walks :-RIiyddUn datk ! 

1. P. miniatum, (Hfl'm.) minutto/uiveicntt, r.ulint<- Hi tli 
foreneOi minutely putidcilato-mjrrattd ; npothocia still deeper 

On rocks, Ac. 179-!. 

STJC-Hflm. PL L. 8. 16, (1801.) Ach. Syn. 184. Nyl. Scand. 136. Mndd 
Man. ISf. 


r— Hfftii. PI 1„ t. 00. f. 1. H«ipSnorai t. 22. I. 19V At HOC 
I I-ancok ML 274. Het.p 195. 906. M. 4 N. 3S4. Mm. 

Kx» .—Ann Jjtncnlx 3H. ST*, llepp 1B0. HO 
H& ri«>it handy.*-. And It S. 1X1. a. 

(in>u. OiKtBUj :— Throughout the World. 

Rot. Tmx :-.'.. .8 I 31. 

EsiOLum :— OnrmUy, Hhrr.|»hir*. «tr. T. Salter*, on GauwfoH Church, 
Ihiiharo. Her. J. Bamman. Derbyahir*. .Sir J. K. SmilM. I.lanyraynack BUI 

Swilajih -.Sir J. R. ftni/A. (1794.) Stonnin. Orkney. Vr lAndtag. 

Imlanii:— IHackwnU-r Hill: I tankman. Or. T... 

OHAVm I i JTM : -CucrnHoy. ilc*. T. SaJnry. 

Forma Mitcraium, (Peru.) minuUo-fuhx*ccvl, »ub*ffi 
almost u sub-effigurnto or BrW*to-tobalato j apotk 

crowded, ameolorovt, margin entire. 

On rocks, frequent. 

8tk ."-Per*, in U.t, Arm. Rot. 11. n, 15. (1794.) Ach. Syn. 188. NyL 
.Scan.!. 186. 

i ■ y*. Ami Langnb. 89. 1.74. 

Gtoa. DmTHiB :— Throughout tie World. 

BOT. Pnov :-6, 7. 

Wal«b:— Barmouth! North CI, in T-nl,y. 

" Spot*. .010—18 mm. long, .0045-.055 mm. bread." fgjft, I 

5. /'. eatlopistniaii, (Ach.) bright yellow, iirhiculiu-i-radia 
adnata, rimosoareolate and whltiu In thi oentrp, hbata 
at the circumference, lacinia broad, thin, mrmbranmu, evntiffnau 
twy cioMiy apprroed, plane, dilated and inrito^rcnalr at the apicr*, 
imnoth on the upper KUrfarc ; n\» -e/ht orange, ditt n 

twury, margin fright yttUnt, thickuh, flexuott or tvtrcrmulate ,- 
jurlcftB, ltmo*-*hap<d, polari-bilocular ; K l«d Vt 


On rooks, walls, kc, frequent. 

Bn : Ach. I,. U. 487. (1810.) Syn. 184. Mndd Man. 188. KyL in Boll. Sec 
Bat. 13. p. 86*. 

[•OB 8por«n t 103. f. 907. K. Itot MV. m fig. 

Bn ^Nyl. 86. Hepj. 907. M««l 108. Schicr. 887. Ann It. S. 184. Am. I 

Giou. Duma:— hiin.pi-. 

Bcrr. Piov :—l...\ ft. 7.. .10... 14. 15.. 30, 

Hsoi.aM'; -«'r»lK -v-Klil» ! new 0«w«try. Shra(whlrt. Jter. T. 
Pftnby C'ntle' BifidaW, I'lrrtlmnd. Mr. M 
BvdlviKh Skltarton, Dctoo. Dr. Vickie IJ»nymyi>«li II Ul I Siroi* 

SoortAXl) :— Old AlimlKn and BttrHag : near P^tJnbnrgb. Dunblane. lUt. J. 

.'/ ( i-'M tiC. 



lajXASO! — Co. Down. Dr. Maingay. 

WALW :— SoiiIIiitii ■ !• 

Orme* Head ! GilUr Point I Tenby. 

■■:•-;. hy 0016 in. broad, t. ft I 
"Sjwte.OOS- 13 ■in., long, .006— lOrom. ,„ — l " '/' \f.Fr.) 

Dr. Boll. EglwyMg rocka ! Great 

Var, ptieatum, Wcdd, laeinur- of tlmllus wamw, comtw, incurved 
-ni'7 sul'--renate at the apict*. precisely like those of /*. murorum, 
luit <«i«fA and imu-j/ on tho upper surface; sporos fcrmm */«■., 
K red Of purple. 

On rocks, ic. lYequrnt. 

Sric : - WeddeU in Bull. Soa Bot. 16. p. 200. (1969.) Nyl. 1. c. 13. 36«. 
Fro :— Htpii Sporen t. 22. f. 1U7. 

KXB:—Onp\9I. And Ungob. 444. a. Mam. 94. 96. Ami 8. 134. b. 
Fellm. 103. Mudd 96. 
Gwoa. Di>Tiini .— >: ii rope. 
BocPiov^-S :■.'••," .10.15.26. 
1 Craig-y-Kbiw ! ni>j>r Utweatry, Shropshire. 'io«y. 

"S . u U.«lilr. : Mr DtCm. Ayiiir«lry ! II.Ti'lonUiilv. I.Uiij lliyiii'ill Hill! SllTOJl- 

shire. Norton Can u .veil A mm. 

Sootlaxo: -Blair AttuL B /. M. Crombtc. 

Iri:i.axi>: -Dawroa ri. \w*,j. Mr. Larbolt 

WaLD» :— Bfclwysajt rocka ! Gimlet rock i Pwllheli. Furturuan] ! St. David"* ! 
Pembrokeshire. Great Orroe'* Ilead ! 

Var. tympagta, (Ach.) dark orange-coloured, orbicular. Mb in 
bricatu. I aud lobate, piano in tho circumference ; OJXh 

theeia minute, concolurvu*. 

(m oaleanous reeks. I876i 

Bntt— Ach. PnxL 105. Univ. 437. Syn. 184. 

IrsXAXd: — Rnin at Olcgheii, Galway. Mr. IsirUilfjtirr (1K76.) 

6. /'. dtri n «m, (Aoh.) yellow, cruatneeoua, effuse, gran 
Uprose, rimoKMtrmlat* ; [a jdlowish-orange, plane, margin 

aire, atbrtndtnt; riporea 8, coknirlc.w, ellipsoid, polari- 
bikicular. K purple. 

On rooks, walls, mortar, Ac, frequent. 1807. 

8™ .—Ach. Prodr. 7& 079*.) NyL Scan.L 136. Mudd Man. 132. 

H*m> Sporan I. 9. f. 72. 
Bx» .— M. 4k N. 742. Nyl 35. Hopp 72. Leight. 86. Anxi Vcn. 85. 
tiaoo. Dcrniia :— Kurope, America. 
Bot. Prov:-1 3,4, '• ; 10 (19-301.31. 

lajiu :— Norfolk. Sir J. B. Smith. Yorkshire. Mr. UaitHane. Worcester! 
Dr. Molt. Heavitm. Kslvsd.m, Ksmix. Mr. Varrmne. 

near Moumonth. Mr. W. Jothun. Toniuay ! Devon. Dr. Dta k im, Shrewnbury 1 
Broomhill I and Shropshire, frequent I I 
Storrrusm:— Knqiiant in Um lowland districts, Rev. J. M. Crombie. 

lkCLAXD : — On mortar, common. Mr, Carroll. 
Waloi :— Barmouth ! 
CRAXKU lflLtirrn :-J»n»'y : <■"■ ■nm.-y ; ^'.irlt : Mr. Lnrl^Uttirr. 
"Spores .008 in. lotur, by .0015 in. tread." (Mudd.) "Sporea .010-15 
nun. long, .005—8 mm. broad." {If pi. ) 

7. /'. elegant, (Link.) da,.', iiliorlnculiir; .-t.'lLit.-, 

laciniffi distinct, linear, narrow, mult (fid, upper surface glabronti 
ujH)thccia flark orang»v: , 'in entire; spores 8, colour- 

less, ellipsoid, polari-biloi 
On exposed rocka and stones, rare. 

8t* :-l.ii.V. in Ann. Hot. 1. 37. TOM ) Nyl Btaad. 136. Mudd Man. 131. 
Fie :— He|>p Spoien t 22. I 196, B. Bot SUL (rl«ht hand fig. only). Flora 
1875. t. 5. f. 6. 



Exar— Sehar. 4K1. (loft hand •;• .i It. 8. 133. c. 

Giroo. DtSTSIJi >— Europe, Arctic America. N. Zealand. 

But. Faor :-«...«, 12.. .14, 15....'; i 

8owiAM>:— Ux*n*g»r. Ad*. Joju*. Cairngorm, Grampian*. Bo. J. M. 
Cnmbu. Ben Mae Btaii. i>r. JMal 

-|«>f*. .0026 to .003 Is. long, by ,001 to .0015 in. broad, t. 2. f. 4L" 
(Mudd.) "Spores .011-16 mm. long. .008-9 mm, bread." ( .v<-\ .1- T. M. 

8. P. juigem, (Sw.) albuh-Jtawmi or farriue, orbicular, *«*- 
monofJijrUoHt, dJnaU, r-vlmlo-incised towards tlie cirvumferencet 
Inciuiui Kiib|ilicat<i (, crifimto, upper surface gratttdato- 
ptdgrruimi ; B] range-colon ml, plane, margin thick, entire, 
oak yellow ; spares k, nolourlets, oQipsoid, - B | utj-1-.-. 

On the ciirth amongst rocks, rare. 1801. 

8n« :-8wartx Sn Nov. Art. Acacl. Upsal. 4. 24C. (1784.) Aeh. Sjm. IKS. NyL 
Stand. 1ST. 

m :-K. Bot. 10G7. Hffm. PL I-. t. M. t. ft )i. up Bporen t 21. f. 194. 

Kxh !-Hm 194. Mw. a Seiner.: 830. M. & And 

Langob. m. An/.l Ktr. 68. 

I itiB :— Europe, Africa. 

BO 31. 

Ksi.i IX»: l'iv«hwaWr Bay, Iulo of Wight; New Haven, .Sussex. Mars. 
Turner * fl'irerr. Bray I I inver near Padftow ! Mr. T- ' 

Sootlaxi) :- Ben liroeht, Argyla*hire. Mr. Ptutriun. 

W*u» r-Near fJtaakpOM •'•"rt, Psuihroke. Mr. Adamx (1S01.) Lyiktop 1 
Pembroke. Rtv. T. Saltoig. 

um I.M.AKiw : Qucnrol* ! Jersey; Geo*** Koarae. Guernsey. Mr. 
larhalttivr. North tide, «!timiwy. Mia l/ukU. 

"Snore. .0025 in. long, by .001 in. broad." {Mud.1.) ".Sport- 
i»™. long, .005-fi nun. ' lAJrf.) "Spore* .007—18 mm. long, .004—5 mm. 
broad." (T.M.Fr.) 

B. Thalltu cintrasetnt. 

9. P. eandifaH*, (IVicks.) glauetna or albo-cinornaowit, tnr- 
torcous, oMculart , adiuite, tubarrolate and jinnt in the 
revuf/y, radiato-plicatolvbaU, rvivndo-dilatnl and erenair 0* 
afAtx*, smooth or jml m appresavil, broni 
black, more 01 tljiill.xlnl margin perrittent ; spores 8, 

: IMS, .Ih|isi>id, lnaoptatC. (K— C — ). 
On luin :-i m rooks, frequent. 1793. 

Syx :-I>lck»ou Br. Crypt S. 15. (1703.) Nyl. Prodr. 78. Modd Man. US. 
/^lamoim Aeh. 8yn. 11 I 

-E. Ba. 1778. Wcks. Crypt. 3. C l». f. 5. Hepr. Scorn, t. 104. f. 914. 
w. 111. Nyl. 117. Ma-. 210. Am. 223. a. b. Latent, tot. H*f|> 914. 
An/.i Ktr. 11 Babh. 748. 
Gum. Dwnun:— Kuropei 

.-,*... 10. 11.. M.> :— Yorkshire. Mr. Dielaun. (179S.) Chwlilar I nrer Bristol j Beaehy 

»«. Mr. Bomr. Oswortry ! Shropahire. JUv. T. Sshwv. TeaadaU, 

]>uihain. Rrr. J. Ha/riman. St. Vincent* Boelu, Hriitol. .Viu AlwmJ. Bear 

. I.. l*»v«n. Mr. Ftrfitl. Malv. rn Wi.toester. Mr. 

l.lanyblodwel Hocks I Llanymynoch mil! Wrekin 1UU I High 

Kooli ■ • ii, Slimpiihlro. 

.tfrwr». TAimrr and IZvaktr. 
Wiu» — Great Orms'i Head ! Eglvj'seg Rooks 1 

10. P. Ct$atii, (Mom.) atlridoyUtueom, pruinoso, tartArooun, 
ort/itvlari^quawoK, adnaU, artolatoterruoMe in (he centrt, radiato. 

hdtdOfMeaU in Ike rircupi/erfnee, laeinux narrow, eotuer, incurred 



and ineifyartitate at the apices; apothocia brotmiik-black, textile, 
attio-pruu%ott, thick margin eventually nearly obliterated; cporoe 
8, colourless, ellipsoid, 1 -septate. *(K — C — ). 
On IbxWtoaa rocks, rare. 1875. 

Sts -Mmo. Mem. 47. 1853. 
Mom. Mem. t. H. i. Hi. 
Est :— M»m. 141. Ami Lanjcob. 447. 
XL Diiiiuu: — Italy. 

Es.jr.AXU :— Shcrlxmrue I GlouoMtorahiro. Mr. •'(uAua. 
•'Sp^B .0100 mm. long, .OOIKUi mm. broad." (Ua».) 

II. •'.:■•»«, ('l)til'.) itliimbeo-aibicant or uiniiroo-n.IlH'.soont, 

nilimti", nmoota, c''.'."'."'. obtoUtny lineari-radiate at the 

oiri mum!". rmioo, hypotWlus blnckinh, slightly extended beyond the 
hb; apothecia t'nici//- or immersed, black, plane, more or less 
pra&MBO, tlialline margin m/iV?, depressed; spores 8, colourless, 
eUIptta oblong, polari-bilocular. 

Ou limestone rocks, rare. 1861. 

8t» :-Dnfonr in Friw L. Eur. 125. (183L) NyL 8o*n<l. 138. Madd Man. 184. 
Hepp Spono t. tt. I. 204, 

. r. 566, Zw. 226. Anxi I,aritfob. 35. 
Gbou. Dimtuis :— Europe. 
Sot. Pwh . i : 10 15. 

.l.ANli »— Rw BtohiU Mr. Buixr. ISabbiecmnb, Devnnehire 

yb/m. Jvmi. Yatton, Somerset. Jfr. JoiAun. Uanymyneco Hill: Shropshire, 
SooTLAxi.:- Gralg Tnlloeb ! BlahrAUi H 

W.iMM : — EflwywL- Hock* ! iwar Llangollen, Glyn ! Mat Oapel C'urjjr. 
" Spore. .0025 to .00275 in. long, by .0015 In. brood." (MueW.) Spore* 
nil |S ,,,,„. looft .W8— 8 mm. bixnul." yXiil.) Sjiuitn .011 mm. lonjf, .0040 
mm. broad. 

18, /'. variabilt, (Peru.) fmco-evnertott, adflfttft, (fifraeto-areo- 

. hyiMtliallu* nigrieunt, pi-i-ili >in!iin*it ; upotliccKi ]>i'i-ininet»t, 

Ic, plane, more or less pruinosc, thai' ■ thtn, white, 

mh evenulaie ; spores 8, colourless, clliptioc-oblong, pobi 


On rookS) rare. 

Six ■ Per., in OH Ann. Bet 7. 26. (1704.) Aoh. 105. NyL ?cand. IK 
i . —Hepp Sporen t. 0. f. 74. 

-Ana It. S. 143 lUbb. 7'.ll. Hepp 74. 
Genii. Dikthiii : -Scandinavia, [I 

IB •-•(•.. 
Esi l. .no, Oireno?»tor. iTr. 

so. I!at)i ! Mr. ft /d Broome. LUnymynech Hill ! Shrup.Huv. 
. A'-.. .'. .).' 
Iuixanii :— Dawroe Ki«-er ! oo. Galway. Mr. Lnrbalttticr. 
■■ Sjimve .013-16 mm. long .007— .010 mm. broad." (JVy.) Sporen." 

.017 mi". I. mi;. .lK>7 mm. Imuul. 

18. P. Aijardhumum. (Aeh.) fumotm-cinmou*, thin, 
contiguous, •moot! •■<< (toiwdnU; apothajcii flucotu Mud*, 

tmliNrtate, convex, thullodul atngn ntir..- ; purnphyBca 

disiu •!■» 8, coloi: ■• >Mv oblong, polari^iiloouhtrwitii 

longitudinal tube. 

On limestone rocks and walls, frequent. 1871. 

n US, [14MJ KttSyn 
ron t- 46. 1. 407. 
: . Am. 60. Schier. 817. 



OaOO. IhSTBla :- -Earupc. 

Psov -5,8. 
Ksolaxd:— Usuyinrnech UiH ! Shrojwhir*. (1871.) near Cireaoestcr. J/r. 

J... '.i.,. 
Wiua :— GUtsr Point ! T«ribr. 

Scb-Tkibb VI. i SOREI. 

ThnlliM cnurtaceous, grauulose, rare]}' radiate, smooth or leproae. 

hecia locanorinc, rarely bialorhto. Paraphyaca distinct. 

Spore* simple, rarely septate, colourless, rarely fuscous. Spcr- 

mafia various in form in different species, eg. cyliixlricaJ or 

acicular, straight or arcuate, or oMongo-cllipsoid. 

VI. LEOANORA. (Adt.) Ifyl. 
Characters as oIkivc. Thccie either 8-spored or polysporous. 

A. tipvrt4 n*mtroiu. 

1. L. erenata, Nyl. Iri/jfU fnU yette*, sub-orbicular, effuse, 
erenato or <jrtnttdomyfpiam>Uop' in the centre, laciniato-r 

the circum/cmux, lacinias ntlinear, nrrjr mwrow, <tmnx, Sue-- 
creuntu imi hUDrrad at die apices (K — C — ); apothecia di. 

w, plane, thallint MdlVM rlemt-J, creitnlate ; spores numerous, 

colourma, oblong or ■ab-ouipaoid, hiloctdur. 
On Durittmi rw k • I 

: Nvl. Lam. Or. UO I ertnulata, Wshlcnbti ll<;. 

Ti, M. Fries l.i.-h. irctol 7". Nyl 

Ku:-Th. M. Fries 96. 

Ol < .udiuavia, Norway. Greenland. 

I— I. 

Walks : | ! Iter. A. Xtoxam. These Welsh specimen! irero irUrila 

and not v. smvcarsDO* of the lsania of the thsllus 

•worded well with Fries Km. .'•» ! The awi w|>ed*lly Ui« spices become Um 
with Iodine. 

"S|..r. n . l»ria, .00+— .Otti mm. brosd." (T.M. Ft.) "Snores 

.000— .015 mm. long. .004-.IXI7 mm. broad." (Nyl. I S,.,. mi.' 

I mm. broad, llydrst* of Potash jut tings* the timi: 
pain i -mi. 

2. L. viUUina, (Ach.) pale gre«ni*h-y(Uou>, grantdott, < 
granules mhw It or tvbfolmlate, or conglomerate (K — ); 
apothecia flow, piano, Utallhie mutyiu ontfre or oreanli 

spores uiunen fleas, oblo: Muli-polari-biloi 

or olwoK-toly 1 -septate. 

On rocks, walls, old pule-, A., frequent. 1777. 

Uk. I*. CT. 401 iisioi Sjn. 174 N»l. Soand. HI. Mudd Mas. 130. 
K Bed 1792 HltTii. PI. I., t. 20. I. 1. Hc|.j. Sporsn t. !t. f. 7<>. 
lehaw. ■;"<> I Ml B*pp ""• 

l- N. America, Abyxinis. 
! ! •■■..30,81. 

mberland si ■•. Bxmtnst 

lelgh Kslcerton. Devon. Mr. Varfitt. Kclved.m. Ka»i Jfr. I Hand 

•;.•». Mr. P„rUm. Cambridge. •' . SMKorp. 

Wi,.thiun. Maidetonc. Tanbridpc. Mr. //■ilmrt. Hydv, near Cireiioettci. Mr. 
II'. Jntiun. near ('litinkhurcli. Kastboanu. Mr. Itoper. llaugliinond Hill ! 
Middle I l»niporiul ! Shrofwhim. 

IIKAT lllilfAIN. 


llarrynahin.'. Unri» Or. A,,„./..„ KiUiu. Iter. J. M. Crmnbif. 
LwgMOa Mountain, co. Antrim. />/. Mam. Cl«shiuxi 1 00. Cial- 
wiy. i/.. tarbulatitr. 
WAUm: AU-i.l 

Common ..ii nil the [aUnda. Mr. IstrbaUMer. 
" 8pire« .00275 to .003 in Ion*, <iy .001 in. broad." (Mudd. ) " Spar« .009— IS 
nun. I- hi • ,SM 8 mm. brood, ^vyj 'Spore* ,00a— ll nun. [on*, .001— 6 mm. 
broad." <T. M. Fr.J 

corutains, (Ach.) darker yelluw, grauuloso^uugloiaerato, 
li&diffrtu-t. (K — ); apothocia imfjedded, rufo-fmcon 
thallinc margin aranmlata<renulate. 
On rooks tad paling*, freaoeat. 

St* :-Aoh. Meth. p. 177. (1803.) 8yu. 174. Nyl. Scand. HI. 
"'io ."-Hffm. PL L. t. 27. f. 3. 
-Bold. 78. 

IBM. Dimtbib :— Europe. 

9ot. Poov:-r. 10 1V..98. 

Sxui.aBD :— Ayton ! ClvvoUnd. Mr. Mwl,l. M iridic I Shropshire. 

itvu-Lisu.— KiUio. JUv. J. M. Crombit. 
liu.(.,ixr>:— Bally-im-kill ! Calway. Mr. Larljutettitr. 

V:ir, lundUx, (Ach.) yellow, groHiUato-ditperted or rvanrtrrnl, 
(K — ); apothecia minute, tryftf orange, plane, Kotlertd, thlHine 

niacin uiitirv. 

On rocks, fruitionl. 

BID l Arh T.. U. 401. (1X10 i Bra 175. Nyl. Scand. HI. 
FlQ : llllin. l'l. U t. 50. I. 1!. c. Hepp Bl ID t. i. (. 70. 

r.x- .-•. ll-. Btppra 

Ukou. Dwtkib: — Eur..i>..'. 
KOVl • [...IS. 
Scotlaxo:— Killin. Ktv. J. if, Crombit. 
Walw :— Conway ! ami l%*uwy ! 

/ •, (Nyl.) Irpr<xv, ptdveriilent, /wA» yit!<,ir ,■ ;l |.i 
fchec :i tpprtttaior ted, plum;, e-mcoloroiiBi margin iin-/'.-, 

. o!!>it /■nlveriUent. 
On hnf mH& 1870. 

■ ropt, 

SoOTLAJm :— Kincardine. Rev. J. M. Crombir. (l.'7'H. 

3. L. eandelaria, (Ach.) grMOiah-Tellow, mb^jrhxctUari-tteli 

vtety laeiniate, laciniic ««''*/, Bobimbrioato, crowded, tnaigmi 

isped, mow or Ieea minutely granuiott (K — C— ); i 

in L'utire or granu!<> . . spang ni av n as, 

oolonrioi • . 1 1 j i ] . ■ . . ■ j • 1 . limpid. 

Oil old tnos, ill", racks, Ac not common. 1788. 

Sts:— At*. L, V. II'. (UK I Oft Stand. 108, ttaU HflB 111 

Kw :- E. Bot. 17W. Nyl. Stand, t . 1. ( 

.-=«. SI. A.m'U. s. ISL M. ud N. TO a, (ts part.] Ratt. 867. 

Orn ".pc. A r. I ir- Ain.ii. :i 

Prov :— 1 .3, *. B in. U...14, 1V..18...26. 31. 

Bolton Wood. Dr. Currinffton. Nolthunb • i-l.m.l tad I'mi-Iihhi. 
altwkoi 1.V-I..M. Kwci. Mi. 
PnnhUla, WjrwirJuhirr. R, <J-xd. Hord'i Park near Bridgnorth. Mr. 

■\.\U. Mr. J,. I ' .. fniret Park 

LAID : -Blackbrd Hill near Edinburgh. Sir. J. K. Smith. (17S4.) KilUn ; 
Blair Atuole ; Portletheo, Kincanlineihire. Iter. J. M. Crombit, 



III-, tCiiU.M I i.t. rlin I near Kyltwrt Mr. fstrfml- 

nW tr . 

\sicbi. IsLAUDS r— Guenuwy. ■ ,«». 

' Spore* .0f« in. Ioiik, by .001 b ( V~W.) " Sporoe ,000 .014 nun. 

l.)i. k -, .004-6 mm. braSL* (AV-) sad (i*. M. Fr.) 

Viir. granulosa, i very minute, eretute, mnrgin* 

ascending, minutely and abundantly <rrannlo$e, often crowded | 
an areolato-difiractii orust, (K — ). 

On old trees, frequent. 

In : Zw. m. Wright 79. Leight. lu. 

Gkou. Distant :— Km 

Hot. 1'lliiT : — 5l 

I : i Mil Klina, Berwick ! nfar Shrewnbury, 

4. L. '//'HfoorrjKi, icenti-lm '-ru/etcntl, 

#fturmvl'J*e, tauamvla d ■'{, eremite, margin* *y>- 

tumed and while, (K — C— ) ; apolhecin lart/e, futco-rnfrnKnt, f] 
i't, edvio pnatvm it naked, nuu and 

(C ; KJiurcfl timii l.nirli'sx, (ililnng, Kih; 

Oil Ciilc II Hi' n«:k«, not common. 

Stst-Whlnb. Nov. Ant. Be. BteokL ?7. 143. (1806.) Aoh. Byn. ISO. N,l. 
■ '.. 175. nrn-iniu, (non Ach ) MuiliI Mu>, 159. 

no ■ wiiini i. .-. t. 4. 1. 1. n«ppg| .,t. a t. 377. 

En : Scbisr. 013. 341. Mow. 284. 283. »s5. Ami Langob. 32$. 127. 329. 
Repp 377. 9W. An/.i ii. B. vir.. 

IK:— Sweden, R&rariu, Aimtria, Italy, HyTeneea, Switzerland, Hungary, Mackenzie BIw. 

■' :-Lane*«hire. tfr. JtUCb, devi-laml. Mr, Mudd, Craig-y-Bllw 
nt»r Onwcjtry I 

Brawl • emax; Bon Lawer*; Morrouo; Craig Guie. 

/. Af. Ctonl 

Spent .0075 in. long, l.y .00025 in. brood." (Mwld.) " Bpum .003-41 ma, 
long.. .0016— .0OSS mm.brood.'YAyj ' S|' riH 004-5 mm. long. .001» -20m*. 
broad, "f J*. M. Pr.) 

forma pruinosa, (Sra.) cnutaceoM* (K— C- ) ; a/iotAteia of 
moderate sizo, scat pressed, piano, rrdduh-Uvek or blaat, 

while triihirt, eatifrprutttoai or naked, margin thin, entire, more or 
I. . -- umluluU' : spores numerous, colourless, ellipsoid, aimple. 

On mortar, liviUttUme meks. Ac frequent. 1811. 

NM. Stand. 176. 
17. ( 143. 

S90. Ann '. Ami It 3. 289. Ilefii. 

202. Mao- :*00l 

Gbcii Hungary, nd. 

in. II I • ..19. 
. ir Gainfonl, Durham. Ret: J. Uorrimon. <1KI1>. BO*' 
Vorl.hirr. Mr. Mudd. Llanfonla I lane near Owwlry. Rtn T. Snlmv. Smmrx ! 

Hurrrr. ui-.n MSf Slianklin, lido of Wight 

ll.,ll. nr-vr Pblatworth. Wanriokahi Show*, near Hvtwfnnl. J/r. H'. 

Joti "i roe. Jtfr. H^per, IVtawortli I < Izfonbhir*. JaV. 

■. Weulook ! llfeh Bode I nu 
KlgMaiida. An ^. Jf. CromMi, 
IaKLtNii I near Cork. ifr. drroH. 

Jicfy. AI- >r. .4. flfowm. 

Dijjajiwy ! noar < 'uinvay. Bracelet Bay 1 Mumbln. BeaumarU ! 

Forma tucarpa, (Nyl.) rmMverMi ; a|wth«>ci« red<lish when moist, 



blackish dry, very large, aggregate, intrrnally rvfetctnl ; hypo- 
una thin, black; gponw numerous, colourless, oUoqgO^Utp 
Moid, simple, mo&t liiinuU'. 
Ou rocks, rare. 1867. 

-Nyl. OolL Gall. Mot. Pyr. 14. (1863.) Prodr 
Otoe.. DnrrwB: Byro n — i. 
Bot. Pbov:-6..31. 

i_VNi> :— Wenlock! Shropshire. 
Cm. mi LsuurM n«y: north oart of Jerwy. Mr. Oirfroleitier. 


.OOtt mm. long. .002 mm. broad." fJVy. ,1 

" Var. depauperxtln, (Kphlb.) on taloweooa boulders on Craig 
Tolloch, Blair Athole. Under this var. I include f. cwapma, 
(Fr.)Tli. Fr. Soand. p. 813. and f. eon/ertu, Cromblo Ms. both 
s]xirinx r l,y in ;i!i"Vi! locality J uIho f. cinereo-pniinota, An.'i, 
winch occurs on Craig Guio, Braeinar." Crombie in Journ. 
n. ». 2. IM. 

5. I.. *>{uamnlo*a, (Schrad.) cervine or badiu-pallcxceiit, or 
budio-fuaocaocnt, tqunmaloie, aquarnulee ad P&r, and tub- 

, (K — C— ) ; apUheeinaiJtrtt immerttd im<\ f-stxl 

■ad |'l:'-ni.', rufo/titctvent OX DJ iCBnt, lh>i/liu- 

drprf*$td ; «poro« numerous minute, oglourloK, oblong, ,m:|.l.-. 

< )i i rocks, frequent. 1801. 

t 11707.1 Schrad. in Journ. Bot 18 >1. 1. V>. I- 
cervini, | Pots i Acb. Syn. 188 Nyl. Scant!, in. Mudd M 
E Bot Will ileppSporm I B, f 50. 
h-Happ re. in, 301. Scl.. bu i 2W. Ldgfci M. 

N^TBlBi— Bavaria, Hungary. CNrmi rlaod, Italy, Austria, 


'.,<■> ii .16 a; 

— Durham. Vkr. /. Harriman, LaattW Tor I Dartmoor. Dr. //Ml. 
Mugglonrick Fell and near Egleatonc. Durham. Mr. Winch. Parkgate ! Cheshire ; 

SoorUAHO .-— Highland* : Mr. /fiction. (1*01 ) bMb f'.irron, Mturt. Borrcr 

ffnnfcr. Klncanlim-. Am ./. .'/. '', 
I«ua.»KT>:— Near Kinvyle ' I ••In! en. Oalwny. Mr.lAirUJcttitr. 

I lA :— Gimlet Bock ! Pwllheli. Black Rock t near < 

i uisxri. buuRM MtanMM. A i'. r. flat ■>. 

l.y .00025 in. broad, t, S l. 53 " (Mu4 ■!.) "Spore* 
.008-011 mm. ion*. .004 -« mm. broad." (X, 

forma fin (Whlnb.) thattint tupuunulce plano-ooiiv''x, 

rted, paJtr.wrnt (K — G — ) ; npolheda minute, pmuiiform. 

On roi'ks, not oaoommoa. 1800. 

hi in Ach. Moth. Suppt 29. (1803.) Ach. Syn. IB. 
Nvl 8oand. 175. ' 

B. Bot 1 S12. latent An«. Lich. t. I. f. 8. 

.AM. Vt :il". Maim. 83. 281. Hepp in. SAm. tlT. 
Mudd 132. 

DtsTKin : Austria. Norway. Switzerland, Italy. E. Laplund. 
*:— 1 ,3 6, 7 10, 11 !-■ 

> — Near Etflwtone ! Durham. Bex: J. Bat ■<'.) Moun- 

Uiiioui part* ..( Ni.ttliniiiWrland and Durham. ! Mr. Horrtr. II" 
Avi- »»«land. Mr. M' ..h fUtmtou. OfMHL I": DiMt. 

ExcUr. Mr. I'arttU. 

i.rryiiahinc, Lewi*. Or. LimUau. 
Walks ^-Olandwr, Baruiouili ! Uasdrtadodl 

Harbour! Pembrokoiliir*. 



. *u. Iu.ucim : -La Mob. J«raty. Mr. LarUtatur. 
.1 .003 -.006 m, teas, .002 Bin. brad. 

fnrniu rinopioi i forrn^inoua-rod, nrcolato-squamuloso. 

npproascd (E ; aprthocia niinute. faluk. 

On rocks in alpine places, not frequent. 1807. 

Srx i-Bmbtarpon. Whlnl>! It, AA Math. Hupp!. 30. (1803.) Ach. %». | 
Nyl. Sand. 175, M'»U1 Man. 160. 

r Iloc 177*. Lcight Aw '•''■>'• '• '•- '• >- 

Em -Happ7B8. \m.m R s .17. S.-h*r. lift. Lwbt. 8». Smrft. l-O. 

< ; koo. Putin :— Switzerland, Italy. Norway. 
l'tt.)v:-7. .12. 15 31. 
aM)i- Mungriaftlale I Cumberland. Mr*. fHangrr. 

ScoTLAxn : -Aberfeldy ; Ben lAwon. Mr. U. MaemiUan. Braamar. At. J. 
M. Crombit. 

Walo :— AnglvMa. *«•• //. ftiiwj. Bodowen ! Glaxtdwr! Banuouth. rtrr. 
r. MM •<. Aba : 

Ciuxmx Irlaxim :— Uusrnaey, Mr. Larialatitr. 

" Sporae .0035— .004 mm. Ions, .002 mm. broad. 

forma privupta, (Ach.) trial! ux ucurlv BVI&esoeot, nigro-piavHt 
<ir dalfc brown (K — C — ) ; a/ntkreia teultrrrd, Uaekuh, margin 
Ittarl; tlmitcd, jtexnose. 

On naditoae rocks, uoi iYimjui ut. 1 810. 

8T»:-Ach. Moth. 4S. <1«03.) Syn. 1M. Nyl. Sound. 17!.. Mudd Man. 10ft. 
I i: !■ . 21*3! (two right hauriHir). 

-Ma». 04 Nyl Pyr Or 31 In i Un oh 189 /■ 
• ly. Germany, Switzerland. 

KxuLAiro >— Bglartono I Durham. S(K /. llarriman. <1SI0.) near Ayton I 
.U>. Af.ii/J. ICnttliiifdean ! Siuacx. Jfr. Borrtr. I.ynmouth, N. 

ui 1VI1, Durban ; lie 
Dene and near Jeamonri, NiTthviiiiberland. Mr. Wii\r\. 
I wt«ll Diganwy ! 

I, Jewey. Mr. Larbntaticr. 

i Btppii, (Stag.) prtyufi-fhit', U-y.r H 

thetia very minut', tatm noma, margin smooth. angular or 

On rocks. 

Bvn:-N«k- l" Htflp H ''•'"• "'"■ M«M Man. 109. 

i sight 190. 
Gnoo. Dihtrir :— K.iiropa. 

' 8, .10. 

I...T.AMI: Ictiiiivdean 1 Hnwcx. Mr. Bontr. Box)*] -ho:. Now 

Fotwt, 1' ./.iriM. I. vr. : and Kppbig Vnrett. tUr. J. M. 

■... Great Ayton ! Mr. X 

pore* .001 in ■ la. broad." /Modi ixm .ooJr.uim. 

015-20 mm. broad." f" T". If. fV. ) 

forma timpUx, (Da*.) n.urlv rrriHn,v>»u (K — U — ) apotheeia 
tmaU, black, or plicate; margin irregularly 

crenate; spores i" be. 

On rocks, not uncommon. 1 7'.i l. 

But; i».ivi,-, i„ I.,,,,,. Train a«ru»MNyL8ca«lm I 100. 

im<. i t. :•■ i hand fig. 

Utoo. DiarKia: 1 1 • i -, .. Iluuicuv, Germany. 
Bot. Pboi l i 

I: ■ . : i ^-el ! Mr. Borrtr. Capatono IIUI. lUraoomba. Mim At^-I. 

near BurkfMUvbjh, 8. Devon. l> 

Anatev Cove. Tofiiiay. Mr. PatfiU. 
Cburdi Strctton '■ ShrSpabiio. 

OF ORKA7 Kill 

8ocrrtAKI> :— Cr*faTuU<K'h ; Qntg <'•<<'»• ; Kincardine. /Ire. J. M. CnmMr. 

Ikkumu> :— Near l>nnk«nron. Dr. Tny/er. 

Waud.:-Au»jUm»! /Ut. HuohlMria. Ahtrdovay! Ktr. A. /Bum*. Bar- 
mouth ! Gondwick Bay ! new Fiihiruard, Pembrokeshire. Mody-gmt ! near 
Tremadoo. North Cliff, Tenby ! ' 

inuraai. IiilASir* :— Ij. M»ya, J«n*y. Mr. Utrl«tat\tr. 

" S|wre» .0005 to .00075 in. lomr. by .00029 to .OOOS in. broad." f .-WrfJ 

6. L. ditcreta, (Aoh.) dark ftwcotu or badio-futeout, opake, 
vtrrueono-areolate, areola) somewhat turgid, contiguous or dim 
anbruguloao (K — C — ); apotiMok cr>ncoloroua, minute, one in 
each of the khalttnc rerrae», Bpitheoimn minute obtnn (j impr ■• >.. i 
or somewhat convex in the ceulre, thulium margin obtuse; spores 
numerous, ookmileeii ellipsoid, simple, 

On mountain rocks, rare. 1870. 

8»s .—Aoh. Meth. SuppL 4L (1803.) L. tufawau, HyL Flora 1*17. l>. S7«. 
Lelght. I* Ft 3! «d. lsi 
Kxk : Nyl. Pyr. Or. 38. 
Gbou. Dennis :— Europe, Finland. 

rkMii.AMi :— Kboil and Cthik Ohm, Braeinar. fit*. J. it. Oromtik. 11970k, i 
vV.u.m:— Y Fqtfo Uvri ! nan Barmouth. Cutell Ulganwy • 
S|M ir w .0035— .0040 nun. I«B Ob broad. 

7. L. fiucata, Sohrad. rrddiA brmm, Urtareoas, an 

■ ■•udott, areola aiypdnr, miooi /•olu/tnl or rugged (K — 

I); •ij.iot&rvi'.i immertfd, concave, dark brown, margin . nf ire. 
slightly raised; spores numerous, ininiiu. oMongo-elli] 
On rocks aud walls, freqcient. 1830. 

Btl — txhrarder Bpic. 0hH M Hcand. 175. Sa-jedia ruftxtni, 

Ach. Syn. 13&. EnJomrpcm rufotiratem, Tayl. FL Ilih. ^. hki. 
Kl. : !■:. Bot Suppi. !B67 Ulv-bt. Aug. Qch. t. 4. f. 4. 

I ' djb, 872. 
Goa. Dnrruk;— Knrope. 

i-l... ; I I,:'. .7 10, 11 U VI. .31. 

:— Gorlwtone ! Suffolk. Mr. Borrtr. (1830.) Guinbro' M-K,r ! Ove 

laud. Air. Madd. Lamorna 1 Cornwall : Craigforda ! Ocwattnr, llaaY 

On I Aytoo! Mr. />•,.■». Northumberland ! ami Durham! Mr. Ii,>'jrrt*m, 

a Bank. Think! Mr. liaitr ' noar Monmouth. Mr. »'. Jatiaa. 

Wnkln! lenience Hill! Neawllffo I1U1 ! Haughmond Hill 1 I,vth Hill! 


BoOTLASO :— Ben Lawor*. for. J. M. OronAU. 

Caf>i>aghinor« near Dunkerron ! Or. Tuvtnr. 
■h :— Barmouth ' Bit. T. &i 

•I :.,<.,j,Mj,r. 
fitf.OUi -4 inin. Iouk, .UUl .iKJl.'.iuin. bn>»ii.'7.\y.y8porea006— 7 ... 

long, .win— .002 an broad. 

Si /.. .S-tml/uei, (Pi <A or CJUmtUttt, VtOJ lliin, r^ii*, 

granulosc or aubdoproM or aim / (B ■) j apo&eda 

fusee** or ftueo-rttfrsccnt, mint/It, plant, tAidlint margin whitt, 
ermtdaU; spore* 13, 11 or 3'2, rarely 8, enkuriew, elbj 

On treea, ram 

Bl I :-P«raoon in U»t. Ann. Hot. *L 7. %, I, Stanl. 16*. DrOOlUs 

Kmun. 53. 

Baa :-Ara. SOU 

Gaoo. DiHTaia;— Mill Eiurope, SwcUcn. 

Bot Puov 

Ihilaxii ;— Armagh. AJm. Joaa. 



-.vora.0as-.012 nun. lot*. .006-7 ma. broad " (Jiy.) Sj»w..0tt 
ma. Uf. .006-7 ma. IthkUT. M . *r.) 

9. L. kypophaa, (Nyl.) einenuma or cinerto-rimamt, 
yranttialo-uHttftial ; apothecia nigricant or sanguineo-black. Utir 
deine, somewhat plane, marginate, proper margin black, i 

0t unequal ur undulate, then conrex and iiumarginate ; 

KporvH uunutroua, colourlcaa. bnpfe; paraphyaea moderate 

or thirkiidi, articu! ■> thicker, electi-ino -fnwetoent ; hjpo- 

thocium colourless, fuscous-black beneath, anil with glomerulose - 

gonidia ; gelatin* hjmenea at tint blue then vinose or fulvous rod 

with iodine. 

On granite rocks, very rare. 1869. 

8YS :- Nvl it. Flats i I 'nimbla In *Wa. .lonm. Bot. a 97. 

Gzoo. Ditrnuu :— Europe. 

Hot. Prot;-1&. 

Bootlasu :-X«ar Old <-»U,.-.!nd, Ahenlws. Her. J. M. Owato. 

Allied to jwirV"o, A<h. tut diatiugaitliad chiefly try lu graybb-gTwai grana- 
lata tbalroa, and crenulate or undulate maryi* »f Uw aiuithecia. Onmbie. 
"Sporm .006—6 mm. long, .0016 ma. broad." (.V*0 

10. /- priucypha, (Whlnb.) ftuttxatltmeov*, cartila- 
glebulost., gh-bul* at t net. bcui 
ccntti , nt l.ngth formed into decumbent appreued imlrrieaUd 
fjuaaut (K— C — ); nptJhecia atrofmcow, ttih immrrted, aub- 

On maritime and subalpine rock*, frequent. 1871. 

h. Mctli. 40. (1HC0.) Nyl. la .Flora 1S73L p. 3H. 
Hot, ii. k. i. 1M. 
Qtoa DiKraiB :- Scandinavia. 

ScOTlAXO :-Coat of Kincardineshire. Her. J. M. CramUe. (18T1). 

B. Spores 8, tin/, 

* Tkallxu K yellow then red, 

11. /,. cmerea, (L.) n'srrwjM or alMdo-cinrreoiu, rimono-areolato 
or areola! te, areola- pJai 

ivo or plane, lhaOhu margiu liypothecium colourless ; 

, i -nlourieaa, ellipsoid, simple; paraphysca gclatinoso- 

oonghitinnte ; gelatin* hymeiua I bfau tlnii fulvesoent ; 

lln I — .- tkallu* K yellow then red. 
On granitic and hard rocks, frequent 

•; :-!iim. Mant 1. 1>. lit (UW | VI.. B | B. HO. Nyl. Hcanil 163. Tb. Kr. 
I. Scad. 280. 

■ rimoto-areolata, Leight. cinereous or alhido-cinernscent, 
rimos»-are>4nU, nr'rArr. jtnt or platte, apothecia moro or less ta- 
,-.■.'• rted. 

Kx lift i-T- M=w. -to Ami Hal s. 307. 

(Iwmj. Dihtbj*:— »i » sea. Holy. Hungary. 

BoT. I'il.v : ?. "I 

Pan-Diaan rnawr ! I.'ulw IdrU! l.lyn Ca* ' ' 
OUAXSU. IklaSC*;— Itvauport ! Jcraey. Ur. Larialei: 



mu ditTnteto-areolata, Leight. albido-cinornsccijt, coarsely 

dignuio-armlate, aroJu leas irregularly owl iv.r ; ftjmthreia 

rufatnle, concavr. margin pmndSl ill. 

Kxs :-Sehs:r. 620. 

CSboo. Dutrmi : 3vr!t**rljui<L Hungry, Sweden, Italy. 

Bor. Paov :— 36. 

Ixklaxd : — Dawroe Bridge ! co. Galwny. Mr. LarbalaUtr. 

fortna vtrr«co$(Hxreolata, Leight, albido or sublutesccuti 

OnOOUS, verrucoto-areolate, areola uuiall, convex, verrucote ; apotl, 

*e**Ue, margin prominent. 

Exk :-Zw. I. IUbh. DSL Richardson. 124. 

. mm :— Arctic America, Hungary, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, 
G«*manv, Lapland. 
••v>v:— SI. 
CHaXXtL IsLAXrw :— Nninmiiit! Jeraey. Mr, iAtrbaUtticr, 

forma lepvlota, Leight. dnereo/useejKtat, npiamono-areolale, 

equnroro convex or rugose ; apothteia innate, margined. 

Srx :— HrerUle* 8. p. no. 

Bor. l*Ruv:-7...81. 

W.u.Dt :— Barmouth ! IVlheUl ! Moel-y-gcat ! 

CUAKXir, Imams ;— Beauport I J vreey. Mr. IsrrtxUeMicr. 

IS. L. Myrii.i, i I'r. i oim m e w t or fct ft acwe f, tartarcons, rimoso 

arsolatc, contiguous, arcolm smooth 01 vorTUculoso-rugose, hypo- 

thaUu* block phallus K yellow then red, medulla / Wu«) ; apo- 

i;i somewhat piano, Uaeh, naked, or slightly pruinoso ; hypo- 

iim colourless; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, or globoso- 

ellipaoid, simple; paraphyses coherent; gelatina hymenea blue 

with iodine ; spermatia subcylindrioal. 

On BnP-ttlpina rocka. 

B« :-r»rn»lu; 1>. S. V. go. 10«. (ltUS.1 Lramom, Nyl. Flora I860, p. 
413L Th. M. FrieeSoand. 283. Leight. in UreviUea, L 123. 

Bx»: -I'- II.... ISO. 

Groo. Din-ruin :— Lapland. Sweden. 
Walm :- Barmouth ! Km. T, M 

13. L. prctpotlern, {Nil.) u/MU, thin, nearly smooth, areolato- 
riwxe, Bub tod and darkly limited at the circumference (K 
yellow then dnnabarine-reddiah) j apethee&a hlaeiiiA, »pake, 
glauKi-auffusL-d <>r sub.U'iiu.l.iif, moderate, thalllnfl marglD mi/utcme 
or Hubcrenale. ; Hpures 8, eolourlesji, elllpoi id, dmplfl ; poraphyMt' 

•lender; cpitln . mill v. P.i.' ; .'il.i'in.i liy nuin.i. .mil i'.s].ci:iiilly 
ln.'ci' Mm -h with lodino, 
On maritime hnsaltic rocks, rare. 1872. 

Stn :-Xyl. In Flora IH73. p. 19. CromMo In Grevfflca 1. 1 11. 

Bor. J»bov:-31. 

Cuasbxi. Islam w :— Jenc -rlatier. (1872.) 

N«it unlikn mflnu iut« of L. tulifntt* tar. atrynra, but diatini-t l.y the 
emaUer etKVce, chemical reaction tod other character!. S|«..rci .OOVl 14 nun. 
long, .0»-ft mm. brood. 

14. L. ocvlata, (Dicks.) white or nlbo-ciucraiweni, da,- 
Ulale, Klnbrou-s ; apo innate in tin- npicos of the 

Mpi] i:iink'il, tuo-evllniv. , M:u:L,' margin 

-', nitir,'; sporw 8, ■.■■!• ui ■!.'.:•;, ■- Mi i ■-■ ■!« i . 

thallu-s K femi^iuous-red. 



nossos in alpine localities, rare. I 

Stx : Ulelu. Orypt. 4 17. (1790.) Ach. Srn. lis. Nyi Sc*nd. 150. Mudd 
Mm. 158. /- •tnttylifmit, Whlnlu • Upp 111. 
kn Crvpt. t. 0. f. .S F. Hot. 
Kxs: Tfc M. i r. M R bl H* Klhn. U«. 

H1B : — Norway, K. LapUniL 

BoT. Paov.— 8. .18. -. ■ . 1 1 SiMti-ii \ii". .if.-. Dtebm (1780.) Ben Lews, .i.'. ... •/",....(• 

Hooker. Cairngorm ; linwriwli and ItomuboarcL -<•''.! AM * 7to«. /. Jf. 

" SpnrM .00(1 1.. jOI2 in- tag, to .007 to .<KW in. broad." (JiWiJ " SiK.r» 
.(OS— 30 mm. long, .011—14 mm. broad." (A'"' i ' ' Spores ,i>1»— 90 mm. Iook, 
.011— 14 mm. broad." (T. Jf. J>V.> 

«* 7Via//H-. K yellow C 

16. A. tareopu, (Whlnb.) jfnfiJo^ineratcent, gmmilose, Uiin, 
>ub-<t'ii i : •tpatkntin mall, numerous, cttmeo-rufoH* or tub-rttfotu, 

!>UncornniM'.iiivr\, thnlline margin cramtate; spores 8, ex m 
ess, ellipsoid, simple ; thallus K yellow C red. 
On trees and palings, not common. 

8TK:— WsMmImiv Siippl. A. I,. Moth. 40. (1803.) Acl.. Bftt. 177. Nyl. Stand. 
165. Madd Mm. 150. 

Kxs :— Am. Ms. 

(!ko, I)i»tri»:— Riwda, Austria, Hungary, Germany, Lapland,. s«;uvii 

Bor. Paov i— 1 .3 10 .31. 

Knw. Jlfr. Knivmtf. u*kT 
Exeter. At. ./. IT, I'nnnliie. 

iloauport Bay, .Tency. Jr>. Larhalatirr. 

-'Sjwrtw.OOH OIL* uiin. loiiv, .008— H mm. Iiroad." UVpt.) " Sporoa .0(1- 
iiuii. l.niK, .004 — .7 mm. broad." (T.M.Pr.) Spares .010 mm. lone, .00"' 

L. mrcvpi» * Itomopu, (NyL) differs from the type by the gela- 
tin* Imneuea becoming blue and then vinous, nd with iodine. 
On old polea. 1872. 

StM— Nyl. In Flora 187S. v. »1. Crombio in Jonrn. Bot. a. «. J. 13*. 
EM :-Krle»L. S. 46 (fide Nyl.) 

Bi/T, l'BOV :- 

Ebcuiii) r— Near IfBctfajr, MiddloHS. Jter. J. M. Orvmbie. Q872). 

16. L. pmiptrda, (Kbr.) glautous-tekitt, efluse, iwWwo- 

Uprose, BOB i i ' ■•. ii_v|i:.tlinllii8 per&isteut, subarachnoid, 

white; apotheda minute, crotixUd, variously mlourtd ; spores 8, 
n less, minute, oblongo-eli Uj npla, 

On deokjfng larch mils. rare. 1 

Kiirbcr Parenra *1 . (1885.) Crombie in Journ. Bot. n. *. 2. 138. 
Yxa :- Hcpp Sporen t. ft I. 69. 
Kxs:— H.| 
GB0O. Dutraili :— G*nnai>y, 

Paor:— U. 

BoOTLAiro :— Naar Loth Tnmmol, IVrtli.him. firr, J. M. OrombU. (1 

Var. Qt kr ottoma, (Korb.l tpothsoia ■abbiatarm*, yidlow, tuteo- 

uginoso, nukud and immarginato. 
On pine trees, rare. I 

1 1. I'«r. HI. 

IinaMi s — Lord Leitrim'n Dvmecnv I Jvyvn dimity. Mr, LariaitMitr. (1870). 



1". /.. farfimn, (L) white or tlbo-cu tutarw 

plane, ruguloec, paUi-i ■: tlmllm.- ma ..Vjrtti 

audita ■«««,• spores 8, ooloarlcat, (llipfio 
(tall ootbria K yellow C mi. 

On rocks, nut aneommoa. 1794 

Una, s, . PI ,,1. 1. No. It (17J3.) Ach. Bra. t72. Nyl. Scand. lli7. 
Mudd Man. I 

: -E. Bot. ISO. 

-Maudon 5. 8. 7-w. 324. Sehmr. Ml. M. * N. 68. Wi.lw. Liuit. 1U. 
BohL 10. Leight. 82. Steoh. 128. 
Gaoo. Durum :— Europe, Africa, America. 
. l*BOV;-l r, 7-..l'>. 11 I 

,.■! Hiith CUIbl Cleveland. Mr. .«.«.( Hill! 

flhropahir*. Rrr. T. Snlutu. Yorkshire ! Mr. Dixon. Hornby :iml IMmxloy, 
Yorkshire. Mr. Ttrrlnle. (1?.M.| Xorthuuil»irhmit Mid Durham. Mr. Whir's. 
ISl&clutono Rook : Luntlcich Cleve. Devon. Mr. I'wrfitt. Malvern Ililla. Mr. 
n nf Dartmoor ; North Bovoy, High Tor, I > . • -. . . i j . Kin, ./..,»•* <tna! 
Kwjthm., Kent. Sir, H ■h,u : >. 

:laxi>:— Garrynahinc, Lewi* : Hill* louth of llnllatcr! Abordeaiuihiro ; 

AixTucti.y ' Parthtab*; BnuanHBl! Duukeld. itr. r.imlmy. 

lUbAJW :— Frequent. Mr. Cnrnill. 

lib:— Nam; ■ 1 ■ • n : Cader Idri*. Mr. Hotmt*. Barmouth! 

Mountain : Qljnter Vaeh! Capci : . ..ion I 

(VKi EsiaKM I Common on M the Inland*. Afr. Larbatettirr. 

(HW to .012 in. long, by .005 in broad, t. 2. f. M ." ( ,V«»M. I " Ki»>rai 
,040— 72mm. long, .027-40 mm broad, "my.) "Spore* .030—70 mm, 
ms-33 mm. broad." (7. if. /V.) 

f.irma grandinota, Ach. vemimso-grainUate, verruca tubylobost. 

On trees, not common. ltflO. 

Bn :-a.i,. i. r. ST. 1 . |1hv>.) Svn 17-2. n v i. BotaA 157. 

E*s:-Spruco Amax. And. 193. Ana Lanifob. 4SL Belch, ft Sehnb. GS. 

QaOO. 1 M.ri.ii. : Kiiiui*. 

Bot. Pnovr-7.,.10, 11. 15. 

E.-rar.ASO :— Teeadale. Tier. ^. ffomman. Hobholc near Cartlot/.n. (llnvrlond ! 

8eon-»»»:— InToraryl Jf>. Pimotl. 
WAL»:-Gljm! near Cape] Curlg. Bettwa-ycood ! 
Spore*. 06 mm. Ion*-, ,028 mm- timad. 

foraiA /'p«, Nyl. t h illni with numerous large globose 

9n mosses, not uncommon. 1876. 

i». (188C). 
Gtoo. Dihtrib :— Enron*. 

H,.T. 1 

Kflloray Hay! Mr. l^rkaUHxtt. (1S7G). 
Wai»: — Llyn Onmi I MB I Mgellwy. 

forma frigida, Acli. tlmllus thin, pupUton, ramulom-tpinulotr. 

On mosses, not common. 

m- Ach. \I. lb, US, (l«03.)8yn. 172. NyL Scand. 1.". 
Fig :-E B..L 

,n«l Laneoh. 101. Th. M. Frio. 111. 
Gtr. Europe, N. America. 

Bot. Paov:— 8. II. .15. 

Northumberland and Durham. Mr. Wi'aeA. 
So BEUi abor* Blab b) Athol. Mr. Don, i-.(t> HiiU. jf r . Did*m. 

Uramcb . /•' . J. M. On 

Wales :-CSrm Cywion ! Conway (all nig ! 


forma gonatode*, Aoh, gntanmuloao, branches divaricate, tor- 
tvovs. gibbott, tobalo-frrucc" d. 

Ou meases, rare. 1-71 

Stm .--Ach. Prodr. «8. <179fc) NyL Scaad. i 

■ Urn. U5l 
Gaoo. Diktbib:-Kuiu|m. 
IV-T. Paov.— J. 
Wal» ;— Cwin Tryfaen ! (lffl J Cwm Cywion ! 

18. L diAfolorrlla t 'Sy]. "Somewhat similar to L. Umxpkaa 
Flk., but thallus »liit;, thin, areoUto-rimoae (K jdlei 
red) and spore* .012 10 nun. long, .006 7 mm. Iiroud. 
E]>ilhechii'i in ■ thin Motion rulwceut. SpontttU urcuate, .020 
rum. I 

On rocks, rare. 1876. 

Bin r-XrjL rn Flora 1«77. p. 406. 

Km. Paovi— L 

Eitouxn :— Near Pouianec, Cornwall. Mr. Clinton. (18X8). 

*♦♦ Z*AfliV.a K pilot* C pdlov. 

19. L. UpaiifHsis, (L.) albo-gtaHcrtctnl, thin, raemitmnacco'iH, 
ili ; apothecia Bon (I first pfot*#t>+trruam, ditk at 

longtli ■-' atu, yallidodvtcteenl, coarttly granulate, mai 

cluvatod, incurved, smooth ; spores 8, colourless, 

lu, large ; tkaltiu ami di*k of apolhtcia K //. 

On mossoa, &&, rare. 17S-J. 

Una. Sp. PL «L 1. No. 17. (1753.1 Ach. 8yn. 188. NyL Mcand. 157. 
Kn !>»•- Hepp Sportn t, 71. I. > I2X 

Km : -M. fc N. 1117. Il.]i|,fea Sdutr. 316. 

t'.Nnti. 1)litiu» t- Kurupc. 
BOT. Pwnv: I ..4 IB. 
Kkclasd i— Near Norwich. Ker. IT. Rrymt, (1782.) near 8prowvtoB. Matn. 
Turner >t Ijbiltiu. 
ScoTLaKD:— Itraamar. /&». J. M. Oromtnt. 

20. A. MTM, (Ehrfa,) |<ruvniidi-y<//ow or itravy*nlour#l, grtimt- 

lott or gnujuliit'iHiici|iiiil, tub-detonnhnUo, thin; opottaM co*- 
coturou* or flavo- pallc. oont, Ihailme vuirgin 

entire or Mil' entire ; spores 8, colourless, cllipsuiil, simple ; thallus 
K yellow C ;■' 

On trcoa, ]uliiigx, Sec, common. 1801. 

Srs:-Ehrh. Crypt. No. GS. U7tt.) Aoh. Syii. 1CL Nyl. Scancl. 16*. Mill 
Man. 14!'. 

Kiu :-K. Dot IMS, H,.ffiii. PLUtaf.i 11. -|.|. Bnona t. XI 1. 1D0. 
. : -M. ft N. 840. Scluer. 8». II l!ohL 107. 

Fellm. UU. Stenh. m. Lelght. r.l. 
G*». Jrnrrsni :— Kwvpe, Airica. N. Amcriua, N. Zealand. 
. :-2.S,4, J. .7 l m.M. 

.—Burgh Cattle una Yarmouth. Mr. Twur. Battenby * Cleveland. 
JiV. M'J'i- Nnrthnoibtriaod and Parfaam. Mr. IFiiwa 

' : miry Park |*lce,»- Krr. W. 8. flw/fcrrf. naarWetboldy. 

Warwinkifcint. Mr. i'.,rf««. oaar Cbtaoarter. Mr. W. Jotkua. Peretuwr Road, 

•Mime. Mr. Rrper. <Jr«n>Jthc ; Her«a Oak*. Sboreaam, Kent. Mr. 

r ! IiopidiKtun ' Horvrh-k ' *r , Hhrofwhira. 

a, Rir. J. Ml, Cromhit. 
lUUKii:- KmiueaU Mr Carroll. 
Walm :-Bamioath 1 
Ouaskki. IaLaliW :— (Vmimoa on all the bluadi. Mr. Ixw*ialttlitr. 



"Snorai .002 to 0025 in. lone by .001 in. broad." {Madd.) " Sport* .010 I ( 
mm. long, .006-8 mm. broad." (Ay/.) "Sporoa. OIKi — 11 mm. lime, ,005—6 mm, 
broad." fr. M.Fr.) 

'2. X . /,. iviria * ItfitaHnn, (.Smrft.)straw-<xikaired, thin, granulate- 
tquamulosr, granule* smooth, crenate ; apothocia plane, olivaceous 
rrieant, obsolcbrly ijrorato-pruinose, thallino margin persistent, 
Uiickish. (K fy < 

Amongst memos on boulders iu alpine places, rare. 1871. 

Srs :— Smrft. Boppl Tl>. Fr. Scand. 360. Crombio in Journ. Bof 

n. ». 2. 184. L. ranaf. terrestru, height. Lieh. FL 198. 
Ei MB. 

Otoa. DixTBfB :— Scandinavia, 
Bar. Pkov :— IS. 
Scorns:) .- -Summit* of Bun Lawerx ! ami B»n-nal>oord. Re*. J. M. Crombit. 


"Sport* .010—12 mm. long. .0045— 00 mm. broad." (T. M. Fr.) 

22. L. ttAintriettt'i, {sVj/L) externally intermediate between L 
ttrpineobi and L. intricate, but beat distinguished by the minute 
spores aud very slender paraphyaea. It is ofttm enwUoeoua with 
biatorino apothecia raying m color from pallido-lutescent, .hv 
aoeoua or olivacoous black, at length convex, entirely concolorous, 
(younger apothecia piano with ltitcsccnt margin). 

On wood and bark. 1872. 

Br* :— NyL in Flora 1868. p. 478. Th. Fr. Lion. Soand. 265. Crombio in 
Jonrn. Bot. n. ■. 2. 1X3. 
K*j:-H.| ZLt. 192. 

Bis: — Fellm. 138. H*ni> 192. 
Gboo. Dirrrmn :— Kait I.ipUnd. 
Bot, F»ov:-lf>. 
SoOTLaJfD :— {/. obseurior, Ay.) Killin * Blair Atbolo. Rev. J. M. Cnmbie. 


- SpofM ,007 .010 mm. losft .OOSO-.OOSi mm. broad." (Ay.) 

23. L. aim, (finds.) whitish or albido<iner ascent, granulate, or 
granulato->nicf[i:al ; apothtoia UdA, in/erna/ty nigri'-ani, 
BVTgin entire. fl.-xiM-ie or mi!i d ■ nulal. . Ipeni 8, OOloaiim 

ollipeoid, simple ; section of apothecium K Mack, thallus K yellow 
C yellow. 
On rocks and trees, frequent, 1762. 

8yn:-H.i.1«. Fl. Angl. «.!. L 415. (1762.) Ach. 8yn. 140. NyL Soand 170. 
Mndd Man. 14ft 

K:ii :-E. Bot. 049. Hoop Sperm t 20. f. 182. and t. 70. f. 613. 

. :-Hepp 013. 182. ifrwtel 401. F«Um. 140. Zw. OS. Anil It. S. 
GBOO. DlSTWB;— Kuropa Bfnerally, Italy, Switzerland, Huiitfftry, K. Lap- 
land, Sireden. Tyrol Ah». Algaria, 
Iv.t. Paov :-U £ 8. 4. :.. 10. u r... 18.. (10-80.)— 81. _ 

KsotAJtn :— Airyhiiluio Wood! I'levaUntl. tit. Mudd. Northumberland and 
Durham. Mr. W Ion, BSMS. Mr. Forrnw, Croyd* Bay. N. Deron. 

Mr. Pmittt. Midland Countic*. Mr. Purton. Cambridffo. Re*. R. RelSan. 
Oxford. Dr. SiUhorf. B*dfordahbv. B .l',bot. Moretnnand North ISorcj. 
Deron. Rer. J. P. Janes. Cuaatling, Kii~ok. Hrr. K. M. RloumMJ. Kirnbridgi", 
ISeiley, Ilytbc, CanUrrlmo-. Kent. Mr. Holmes. Fontaaford Hill I Abdon I 
"ira! Sunnor Hill! Hcr<ford*hlre. 

SooruiKD:— Kinmml Mill Blmam Hill. I illcmlah and <>arynahin«, Lvwii ; 
Sttnnia, Orkney. Dr. Lisuts' M .v. Kirtt of Forth. Mr. Sadler. 

IaxXAXt>:— Common. Sir. Carroll. Kylemore Cartlc ! Mr. Larbalulicr. 

WaUBt :— Bttwaan Corwcn and Bala I Borth '. Llyn ■ oaar 

Captl Curw : Eglwyaaj rock* I Cr»i(ff.>nla I Mod y-t!ol£a ! Goodwlak Bay ! n«"»r 
FhiiTiard.Ca.UlDina.Bran! Tonby! Crib Coot 1 



ClUirntL lat-ixim :— Jortcy ! and til the other Uland*. Mr. L*irUitiiti<r. 

AlUintiuii to the internal nifritanl Ouloui >>f the •{•oUiorium and IU cheanical 
reaction with K will prevent oonfuninn with /.. lubtasea tu, milocarp* whi<h H 
externally rcMinhlcH, hut in which tho internal colour uf the a(.-iTli<-'i'ivi la |.«i* 
andluu chemical reaction K r, and »lwi with L. argopinlu in whirh tbf 
thallu* ha* a yellowish ting*, and i> *^uaoralot»-granulc** ud the aiKrthecia arc 
fu*co-nlgre*oent. How far L. «ry>>»>AoK< u really dUtlnct Iwiu L. itMutca may 
be iiuwtioned. 

" Sport* .008 to .004 In. long, by .00175 In. broad." (Mudd.) " Sport* .010-015 
inn.. ],.t,. ; , .006—7 mm. broad." (HgL) "Sporw .010-. 014 DDL luttg, M 
mm. broad. Spennatia T«ry long, Blender, *traightitb. " (7". M. Fr.) 

Var. rubtyuoidea, (8trtii.) nitfro-ctKrrfoui or almost black, grauu- 

lose, emgurate, hypothallm white, lubbyuaid. 

On rocks, rare. 187S. 

Bra :-Stirtoit in Trail*. Olaagow Soo. Net p. 85. 0875.) 

■'HOT :— 16k 
SeOTUkBD j— Near Blair Atholc. Dr. Stirton. (1815.) 

24. L. leumphcta, (Flk.) pallidocincrcouj, tartareous, disperte- 
VcrrueotwrcolaU, *roo\w tomid, Lajpi .tliallii* lilnck : iipolhecia tjh 
preMOd or sub-innate, livido-fiueotu, plane, frequently congregated, 
margin thltu fiacmemt, ultiiimti llj •.-xchided ; hypothecium pale ; 
spore* 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple ; thallus K faint yellow, C 
faint yellow. 

On sub-alpino rocks, not common. 1866. 

8t» :-K«rb. 8. L. 0. 194. G\8».) Lejgbt Not Llch. No. xv. a886.)CromW« 
Enum. 51. 

En :— Crumble 63. 

GtOO. Dr*rRt»:— Europe. 

Bor. Fsov :-S...7...l5. 

Ksglahd .—Spout Valley ! Long Mjrnd, Shropahlre. 

Scoti-axd:— Kincardine, Ben 1-awere. Rev. J. M. Cromhir. 

IaCkiKO :— Near Kylemoro and Donghruagh Mountain ! co. Galway. Mr. 

Wmjdc— Llyo Aran! Mynydd-y Geder I and mnvrally and abundantly on 
north enaoarpmont ! and al»o In IJyn-y-Cac 1 ou too aouth rido of Cader Idria! 
(IHOfi). Crib Qocnl Snowdoo! Faw of Uaiibvru.! Aran Mowddwy! Cwm 
Cwlydl NantGwynantl 

Spore* .014 — .015 mm. long, .OOtt nun. broad. 

Var. conglobala, (Flot.) apotheciu convex, difformed and tttbercu- 
late, margin obliterated. 

On quartzosc Ixjuldcrs in alpine place*. 1872. 

Sw r- Klot. In Flora 1828. p. 564. Crombie in Jonrn. Hot n. ». 1. 154. 
Geoo. I>i!tTBin: — Korop*. 
Bor. Phot j— 16. 

Scotlakd :— Summit* of Bcn-ygloo and Cairn Gowar, Bl»ir Atbol* very 
sparingly. Rtv. J. .V.CrowWt, (1872.) 

25. L. Uucophceita, (Nyl.) similar to L. '■ »ith biato- 
rino apothecia and scarcely any gmidia | ttlun the | 
thocium, but the gclatina hymeuea not blucuh with I or only the 
thecje thus coloured ; thallus K f. yellowish. 

On micaooo-echistoao boulders. 

8r« :— NyL in Flora 1874. p. 808. 

ScOTLaXD i — Morrooe, Braomar and Hill of Ardo near Al»rde«u. Rtv. J. M. 
Oromhie. <1874.) 
" Spore* .010-13 mm. long. .006-* mm broad." (A'yt.) 



26. L nyjro-glomtraia, Leight. albido-glaxteescent, lub-areolaU, 
aquamuiott, tqvaniuU* very small, coafluout around the 'glomcrationa 
of apothecia, otherwise dispersed, adnato-appretsed, plano-convex or 
deptvueel, smooth and toialng, erenulate, iK yellow C yellow); 

thallua black, appearing onlj "" luo nutrgina of the squa- 
mules; apothecia black, Airyr, nvmmudf conglomerate, daformod 
by close proximity, tkininy, cc wfl g, internally colourless, margio 
thickiah, slightly paler, prominent, llexuose ; ht/potheciiim colourlau, 
with only a small dusky-blackish lateral excipiilum, which is often 
continuous under the colourless hypotheeiura as a thin dusky line ; 
pnraphyaea crowded, distinct ; aporoe 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple, 

On alpine quartwxie rocks, rare. 1870. 

Gbog. Uistkib .-—Europe. 

Bor. Phot :— 15. 

Sootlakd :— Ben-y-C.Iwi, aiimiuit of Odm Gownr. Rev. J. M. Crmniie. (1870.) 

AppToachinj; L. rutiieula, Nyl. in general hal>it lad apiioarance, but th»t iti» a 
much mora m frill to lichen, with a granular thallua una iiuuju* hyputlwium. 
Kit«nially with a general reniulilaiico to L. ttiduceiu, Nyl., lint dixlinct by tho 
character of tho wjuamulow thalliii, th.- mluurlaat hypothocium, tho larger 
■puna, ami the apothecia boing iutenmlly coloarloa. Gelatlna hyiuonna I 
ill lh«n dirty luteacout. Spore* .0115— .013 mm. lung, .006— 007 mm. 

27. L. circinata, (Pors.) cinrratttnt orcinerous-whito. orbicular, 
adnatc, verrueoso-areolato-dijFraet in tho centro, radiosoAaciiiint-- at 
the circumference, lacinia narrow, plano-convex, contiguous, inciacd 
and crenate at tho apices, uppor surfaco minutely albo-depre$to- 
gramvhxtef apothecia Swat*, suburceolato or plane, fuscous-black, 
margin entire ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple; thallua K 
yellow C yellow. 

On limestone rock*, rare. 1783. 

Slut— Penoon in Urt. Ann. Bot. at. 7. p. 25. (17M.) Aoh. 8yn. 184. Nyl, 
Scaud. LB. Mudil Ma... 130. 

i:.. i -£ iV.t. IML H-rni Sporao t «i (. 777. Kelh. Kl. Cantab. 437. t. u. 

• yL 118. M. t N. 457. Zw. 189. Schair. 328. Hopp 777. Anxi It. 8. 
103. IUlch.atSchub.75. 

Oaoo. Distrib :— Kurni*, A«ia, Africa. 

Bot. Pbov j— 4, 5...8...U. 12. 15... 31. 

KmiiJiKi> :— On Clar* Hall Bridge, Combridgo ; GrantchetUr Churchyard 
Wall Rn. R. RHIuxn. (17R3.) Kirkl.v I.<iiMclalo, WnstmoreUnd. Sir J. K. 9» 
Bury. Rn: G. R. Ixnthcs. Hale End ! Malvern. Dr. llotl. Barnard Cattle, 
Durham. Rtr. J. Marrimaii. Canal Bridge near CongcraUme, LeioMterahire. 
Baa A. Bloom. PoiifaiUa ; Ovendrv Bridge, Warwickshire. Mr. Purton. Ver- 
nhoro Bridge, Woroarterehire. Mr. W. Jaihiia. 

SooiLASiD i-Cathldn. Mr. Hopktrk. Clova. Mr. Don. 

Oum InLiSOS:— Ononmcy. Rtv. T. Satiety. 

" Sporag .0025 to .003 in. long-, .00125 in. broad. Spermatia abort, cylindrical, 
•taught." (MaJJ.) "Sporea .011—15 nun. long. .0065— .0086 mm. broad. 
PararihyMM thick, generally dutlnotly articulate. " (Xyl.) " 8porea .011—15 
mm. long. .006-8 broad." (T. M. Fr.) 

2$. L. fnutnlota, (Dicks.) albido-flavcsctTit, t/tici, tartareoun, 
vcrrncoiCHjreolalc or dupervyalebulote, glebulas tub-radiatololxitf, 
tmooth; apothecia numerous, sessile, ftuou* black, plane or nub- 
convex, thalliue margin thick, entire or «ub-«reuate ; spores 8, 
colourless, oblongo-ellipaoid, simple ; tliallua K yellow C yellow. 

On alpine rocks, rare. 1793. 



Stk t-Vklk*. Crypt 8. 18. 0793.) NyL Scand. 166. Mudd Mm. 145. 
Fio j— K. Hot. 2*73. 
Exh :— Leight. 293. 

flaoo. DiBTKiB :— Norway, Sweden, SOeda. 
BOT. P*ov:-7 

Sootlax"- :— Breadaloane ! Afr. Borrer. Yorkshire. Afr. IHtHui. Ben. lowers! 
Iter. H. Maemillan. 

WaI.W: — Arthur* Table, Anglnae*. Kit: A. Warn*. 

"Spore* .0025 in. lone by .001 in. broad. SMHIstia cylindrical, el 


curve-! or taatM." {Mudd.) " Sporai .010— 12 mm. long, .006 mm. 

|A'V'. .tr.Af. AV| 

'29. A. argopholi*, (Whlnb.) irhitUh or albido-ttramineotu, *er- 
rHMKHjranvlwr, firm, granule* imbricate, rotundotodolMite ; a/x> 
theciafHtexHiigretcent, thalline margin entire or crenntc ; sporai 8, 
colourless, oblongo-oUipsoid, simple ; thallus K yellow C yellow. 

On alplno rocks, rare. 

8t» :— Wahlenberg In Aoh. Meth. 8uppL 32. (M03.) Ach. Sjm. 117. Ny 
Roand. 106. 

Tva :— Hepp Sporen t. 20. f. 178. 

Km :— Fellra. 131. 

Oboo. Dutiub:— R. Lapland. Norway, K. Finland, Italy, Switzerland. 

Bor. Pkov s- A 7 .14 15.. .2*. 

SootUKStt :— Near Kdinburgh. Mr. Mauyhnn. Ben Lawem. Ret. J. 

iRiuxn :— Latter Hill ! Dawro* Bridge ! oo. Galwav. Mr. lAsrtalntitr. 

Icwl v-i;»lfn! Mnnt+" ulyn! 

near Capel Cong ; Cwm Cywion ! Trefriw ! Fort Hill ! FUhgnanl. 

"Spore* .011—19 mm. long, .007— fl mm. broad." (Ay.) "Spore* .011— 
»m. long, .006—9 nun. broad. (T. M. Ft.) 


Walk. :— Llyn-yCae ! Oadu Mrto ; Bod j i Mfe | 
" Cong : Cwm Cjn 
.nil— 1H mm. Inn 

30. L. polytropa, (Khrh.) pallido sulp/mrrmu, tartarcoius ff* 
nulnto-artolate, diffract, often diffuse and sub^vancBcctit. ; apothocis 
paie*ytllowi$h-fl**h-col<>Hred, plane or convex, innato-t*4*ilc, margin 
eoneolorout, thickish, flexwur, event nnlly obbtcrated ; spores 8, 
colourless, ellipsoid, simple; thallus K pale yellow C deeper yellow. 

On Alpine rocks, Ac, frequent. 1782. 

Stk :-Ehrhart Crypt. No. 2!W. (1793.) Aah. Syn. 47. Nyl. Scand. 164. Mudd 
Man. IM 

Flo :— B. Bot 1264. two lower fig. Hoff m. PL Lleh. t. SS. f. 2. Hepp Sporen 
t 8. 1 . 67. 

Em>-M. ft N. 74S. Scoter. 821. Hepp 67. Ami It. 8. 200. Lcdght. 179. 

QVM- Dirtriii :— Sweden, Germany, SwtUerhuid. Italy, Hungary, Norway. 

Bot. Pbov:— 1,2. .5, 6.. .10, 11. ..1.1 ..15 .18, 19 . .29 ...31. >— Durham. Rev. J. Unrriman. Lonsdalo I Cleveland. Mr Mudd. 
Eridg* ! AithingUw Common! Suaaei. Mr. Bvrrrr. Tur<|uav ! Dr. Dtaiarn. 
Naanclrffa HUl I Shropshire. 

Mountain* of Breadalbaoe. Rtr. M. Stuart. 0782.) Moon ei 
Dumfrieahire. Mr. Tiuvjiu. ftarrynahlur, Ijewi>; Stnnula, Orkney, Dr. lAn 
*iy. Breadalbane, Braemar. Rev. J. M. Crombie. 

IRi!l.A:»r>:— Blaekwater 11111! co. Kerry. Dr. Taylor, near Lough Muck ! 
Oahray. Mr. rsirtxu'ntitr. 

WAU»!-Fort Hill I near Fuhguard, Pembrokeeliirv 

Ckaxxk. Ihlasim :— Nolrmont, Jeraey. Mr. Lar>.~ VBMJ, Rf. 


"8poree .0025 to .003 in. long, by .001 in. broad. 8|>ermati* cyll 
elecantly carved or Hexu.*?." (Mudd. I "Spore* .01D 13 nuu. lung, .0 
, broad." (T. M. Ft.) Spore* .012 •MUX > long, .006 mm. broad. 

forma tonglobata, (Smrf.) thallus granulato-riiKuloxc, rimose, 
greeuish-yollow ; apothecia very numerota, crotoded yet dittinei, 
fiatidoQckraoet/M, convex, deformed and tuberctdate, margin Mite- 



On alpine rooks, frequent 
Stx.— Sammerf«.ltrLL»pp.83.a«20.)Nyl. Syn. 161 M.i.M Man. 152. 

: Mu.i.1 iaa 

<iv ,:i DisTHin : -Lapland, SwiUarlaud. 

■MUMS : ■atdabto' Moor ! Ayton ! Cleveland. Mr Mudd. Yorluhlro ! Mr. 
Doom. Mynyild-V-Myfyr ! obut Otwixtry. Rtr- T. Salwiy. 
Sf/TLAXH :— GnmoUai. /fcp. ^. Af. Crmnbit. 
Vi'jlus :— Barmouth | At. J". Salic*!/. IJyn G«irionydd ! 

forma alpiytna, (Acb.) paUido4\U<t«nt 1 tartarcous, rimoto-areo- 
<mooth ; a/xjlftecia euHcolvrout, large, appro&Bed, plane, thalline 
margin paler, elevated, pertUtent, J&tM 
Ou nlpiue rocks, frequent 1861. 

8m r-Aeh. L. U. 370.(1810.) Syn. 170. Mudil Man. 152. 

H.-iipSnownt. 103. f. 903. 
Km H i|> » e. 90S. Anxi It. S. 201. 202. Schar. 828. 
(iBCkj. Dwtmb :— SwiUtrland, Italy. 
Bor. Paov.— 10.15. 

Ksolaxd :— Itaynlalii Moor, Cleveland. Mr. Mudd. 
SoOTLaXD s — Ben Nevi«, Adm. Jona. Btu LmtOK />r. flW/, 

form* Miliaria, Ach. thalliit acmmemt ; apothecia dispersed, large, 
plano-convex, palo yollow, margin altno»t obliterated. 
On alpino rocks, raro. 

SYS:-Aeh. L. 1?. 3SO. (1810.) Xyl. Scand. Id. Crombio Bo. 52. 
i Qatar. 323. 

. IS .20. 
. uia :— Switzerland, Norway. 
SeCTUJrD :— MmiiiUiiiii ftraqtwnt. Rev J.M. Cnm, 

Irki.a^h :— Doughruagh Mountain 1 (wort ride) oo. G»lw»y. Mr. harbnletHer. 
W*u» .— Y Wyddta, Bnowdon ! Mr. Baker. 

31. L, intrioii'i. (Sohrad.) sidphureo-vireicmt, squamost-emo- 

ipaie, artola minutely rugose, tubcrtmdati . apotk- 
adnato, plano-conrox, nigro-ftucoiis, frfJHgf margin pale, 
ontiro, ■wwndlyoblitciatod ; spores 8, colon iipac4d,aSmplfl ; 

yellow bright yellow. 
On alpine rocks, frequent. 

Ht* ;— Schr.wl.T Joan. Bet ISO. «t. L p. 72. Ach. Syn. 1M. Nyl. Scand. 

ludd Man. 153. 
Kx.i : Lefebt. 163. Am. 68. Mudd 111). 

tiitoj. bmxin : — lUn.-viiia, SlUwi*, Inland, Westphalia, Bavaria. 
PfcOVi— 1...5...T...10...15...1»-.» 

' Kildale Mikt I Battorehy ! Cleveland. Mr. Mudd, 
Bal)l' m, .'/ Parfltt. ltodbury Ring ! near Church Strr'.tun. 

• m:: BO IlIbMM and I'ortUtlum, Kincardlneahlre. Rev. J. V. 

IiiKLAN£>:-Kileeaiiagb, oo. Kerry. Dr. Taylor. Letter Hill! Couneinara. 
Mr. Lartalettitr. 

Walsh: — Syohnant! near Conway. Bannonth ' C'wiu Hwhlwrd : Cms 
Ojnrion I Urn Cwlyd ! Llyn G«lrlonrdd ! 
"Spores .01O—i:i .1X11— 7 nun. broad." (Nyl.) 

32. L. pheropt, Nyl. whtiisn-crtam-xjloured or dirty-whitisk- 
brown, tartarcous, thin, ato, coutumous, wmootk, rinwlote 
(Medulla I — , thalluH K yellow C yellow); liy|«»tballiiH white; 
apothecia fiucom, small. 1, innate, plane, immarginat- . 
terually futtetcent ; hypjthecium darkly rufescad ; spores 8, colour- 
less, narrowly ellipsoid, simple ; paraphysea indistinct, ep 
colourless; gelatina hymenea I intense persistent blue. 


On vet alpine rocks, not 

■ ; Baa Um *» 1. M. O Ba l i s . 

Xmrj 1*1 
■«U':"«k GaHray. JTr. t« U»iff . 
*r». r.&hMT(UH>Ur>An>J I^y-Caa !, Ceda 
■don: CktslCwrlc! C«aI4>il! 0»» Boekhryd ! 
ioa ! GM* VeeeT Liya CVVyd' Ana Meei kl e i 1 

flpo~ J0»-5ff^bL_! JbT"-* breed.- l*V> "Bpnii 
. W «6-« as. broedT (T. JT. JV.> Spent Mt-Mt am 

Idea: QACbafc! Win will 
CvmTryfaa! CwaCywioa: 


i -::-:; 

mm jw 


33. Z. cAAmaVro, Nyl. intet, sobtartareoas, aubdotenninale, 
areolato-diffraet, cweotW nA/n'yid, miawtdf aui tow yina a /anr 
(K yellow C yellow) ; epotaMM poUi-ioJettaetomt, large, scattered, 
aeaaile, plane or ptanjo-eonrex, smooth, slightly pruinose, Utalline 
margin flexuoae, thickiah. somewhat palrerulent ; tpom 8, 
oolourkam, rotwmLdo or ttliptieo+blomg ; ample, paraphyaea dhv 
tiuct, thick. 

On treea. 1876, 

Bt» :-Nyl a IW» l«rt», 560. ftWSw p. 1*. 
«;«oo. Dihtsih :— Central Evrope. 

I'aor =-K. 
Isslamd :— Itouaaraagfe M<nataia ! and RaWaahhv* ! aear Letterbark 1 
Cooaraura. Mr. Larlaiatitr. (187A.I 
Amort bMHtifalapeda^itaaBbUiicasxjoddealincxtoraa] appaaraaeaft 
Hana-ih.) bat with dUfanat reactfaa aed wttk ncn wit* SanofeoKkaM 
Kan of Z. a|/ a w , Si-jo- .01S-.0I5 mm. toac. .0« mm bread. 

•••• r*atfw A' yrf/oK C ocwapr. 

34. L. ntlphurea, (Hoffio.) *ulf>h*rt&*irtaxHt, lAictuk, tartar- 
eons, rimomwrtolatt, smooth ; apotktcia litid<H»$ritant, biatoritu, 
eenrex, deformed, subpruinoee, margin obliterated ; spores 8, 
colourless, ellipsoid, simple ; thallus K yellow C orange yellow. 

On sub-alpine rockM, walls, tflmg, Ac, "frequent 

En. St (17M) \rh. Syn- 37. NyL Stead. 1(5. Vmld Maa. IK. 
11HC Hoffm, n. K t. 11. J. X. Hcpp Sporen t. SI. f. 1». 
Scaaw. 884. Hcpp 18*. Am. IBS. Modd 131. Bob! UT. 

8rs :— liccTm. En. SI (1711 

m -K. Bot. 11HC HoffL. . 

R Zw. I. Scaaw. SM. H*pp _ 

Gbog. Unraia :-8w*d«n, Ganaany. Switzerland. ScaodinaYia. 

Bot. Pkot :-2, J, 4. 8. .7 10 ( - I9...2S, M...30, 31. 

ExaLASD^-afffrtK! Imnadato! Romberry! Mr. MwU. Saanx • Afr. 

itorrrr. Mjlrern llllb ; Black Mountain, M.-n.mxrUubSra. t>r. Htfl. C 

CbarA, Warwicluhim Afr. i'.rtd«. Bury. Huffolk. Rn.JB.fT. BhmmtiU. Baa4- 

E^St* ?£ L * r - "»'»" Htantwr Hill! BenrferdaUn ; BcdWy Ring! 
aaar ChurcH fUraUnn r-.». r- i..„ i a.; , um , ov 

-wCfcurch Mnttoo. Cur Caradw ! Stiiwretone. U1U ! Shrof-hlre. 
SwrLAan^-Kincardhia. /fr». /. Jf. Cramtit. OarrynaMna, Uwla ; SUank, 

Iftsusi>^-lt(w>n Ikland near Kiamart. J9r. JViaVor. near Belfurt. Mr. 

JJaaptoOT I !>r.Maer*. KnUney near Dublin. Urfa. yona. GUngarUT, 

Cork, Kltkw and Roa^ CW Mangartoa, Karry. Mr. CtorroB. 

Walw .— Dlganwy I nnar Conway. B*Uwh r-ivod I 

tHAJWKL IsLAltw :-Jenwy ; Uuemwy. Jfr. Larbalalkr. 



" JJpoMn .001 in. long, by .001 la. broad." (Jfo*tJ "Sporei .010-16 mm 
long, .OXi — 8 mm. broad. </»>U '"Spot** .0]0- 15 mm. long, .005— 6 mm. 
broad. Spennatla aauular, arcuate." (P. M. Fr.) Sun* .0115 mm. laav. 
.0040 ddl broad. 

35. L, tymmicta, (Ach.) Jfavo-albieaitl, thin ; apothecia palt or 
pale-testaceous or polo-yellow, biatorine ; spores 8, colourless, elon- 
gato-oblong, simple. 

On tree* and palings, frequent 

8ts :-Ach. L. IT. 379. flSlO.) Syn. 36. XyL Scand. IBS. Mudd Man, 150. 
■ :-K«Ilm. IK Anxi If. S. 174. Zw. 34L Mudd 117. Kri«»45. Leighe. Iff, 
SinKt, 88. 

Gaoa. Durma : — Scandinavia, New Zealand, Arctic America, Algeria, 
8wad«n, SwiUtvland, Hungary. 

Bor. PaOTi— J, S...5 .7. 8...10...31. 

BaObUm — Oopaall I LelcnUmhire. Jttr. A. Bltaam. Aytnn I Cleveland. 
Mr M-dd. Kolrvdun, Rwi. Mr. Vartntu. Epping Komi. Krr. J.M. Crombir. 
Mocrton I Thame Park I Oxford ! Mr. Larbaiatitr. Shoreham, Kent. Mr. 
BMsMS. Loppington ! Montford Bridge ! Middletown ! Hnnghniond Hill ! Tog. 
ford ! Shropshire, 

Wju.» :— Trcmadoc I 

CllA.fxxt IaiAXDH:— Baaaport ! St. John'a, J titer. Mr. LartnJetlier, 

••8por«a .003 to .0035 in. long, by .O807B in. broad." (Mudd.) "Sporaa 
.010-13 mm. long. .004—5 mm. broad." (T. M. Fr.) Sporea .013-.014 mot. 
long. .005—4055 mm. broad. 

Vur. aitema, (Ach.) yellow, Itprott ; apothecia black, tnxdtin', 
convex, small, whitish within j spores obloug, simple. 
On trees, not common. 

-Ach. L. U. 178. (1R10.) 3vn. 24. Nyl. Scand. 163. Mudd Man. 100. 
F10 :— Hepp Sooren t. 9. f . «K 

-Hepp «». Ami It, S. 177. CrotnUa 66. 
Geou. l>lKTSin :— SwmUn, Switzerland, Italy. 
Rw. Paov:-i...S...19. 

..-.Axn: -Kiinlnitor Maraboa, Dovoa. Mr. ParfitL Kalrnlon, Kaaex, Mr. 
Ikzlamo :— Glanmlre and Great Inland, Cork. Mr. CnrrvH. 

Var. uepineoUt, (Ach.) yellow, granulosc or granuloso-unequnl ; 
apothecia darlt-rtifetcent or blade, mom or less immersed, convex, 
biatorinc-leoideinc ; spores oblong, simple or slightly 1 -septate. 

On old palings &c. frequent, 

Srs :-A.:b. 8yn. 35. (1817.) Nyl. Scand. 1*4. Mudd Man. 151. 
-H*pp8j»r«ii t 81. t. 1W. 

Exa t— Mudd 118. Hepp 192. Anxi Langob. 303. 

Gxoo. l>mnin : Swi.i.n, E. Lapland. Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Lam- 

Bor. PBOT.— 1.5.10. 

Eikilaxd .—Near Battcnby ! Cleveland. Mr. Mudd. Exeter, Devon. Rtv. J. 
J<\ CVWn*. Stiperatonea ! Sutton ! near Shrewabnry ; Haughimmd Hill ! 

36. L. orosthea, (Ach.) flavUanli-tulphurtoxu, thin, areolata- 
rimulau, unequal, subpalverulent ; apotJucia subeoneolorou*,Jlavido- 
earnroiu, mnvex, or (uljerculo*<hdeformed, tKbpruinc»c ; spores 8, 
colourless, ellipsoid or oblong, simple ; thallus K yellow C orange 

On sutvaltitne rocks. 

Sn :— Ach. Prodr. S*. (1798.) Syn. 87. Nyl. Scand. ICG. 
Groo. Drtiam ;— Bwitterlaml, <.«naany, Sweden, Scandinavia, Italy. 
Bor. Paov .26. 

EsetAjro :— Bolt Baad, 8. Dstoo. Dr. Holt. Long Myml I naar Cliarch 
Stretton, obropaatre. 



8o/n.*xi> :— Braeniar. Rtr. J. M. Crotn'/i*. 
IaiLA* lli«n» ! lu Oalway. Mr. Ixirlaltttitr. 

Wj.ik-1 ! -Cmn Bychan I Rtr. T. .Soiiwy. Ahanlorty I /trr. J. Jfaroai. Glyn 
near Capa] Curlg. I.lyn Cwlydl 

,<,«. .003 in. JMg, by .000":. in. Wood." (.1/«.W.) - Spnn* .009-.016 
mm. long, .006—7 mm. bruad.* (Jfyt.) Siwmi .011 mm. long, .004 ma. 

37. L. tJtpaUau, Aoh. pallido-rxlphureau*, tartaroous, granulate, 
digc uleeruient, or/vrfnraeanu ; apothtcia jxiilidoostrntou*, 

innate, plano-i:« ■r.vifs, ■lulWinod, thallhn margin hum, thin, 

aub-entirc, eventually obbterated ; apotheeia &, colourless, ellipsoid, 
simple ; tballus K yellow C reddish orange. 
On old tree* and palings, not common. 
St* :-•. Ach. L. V. 37*. (1S10.) 8yn. 1ft 
Uaioo. DisTKUt :— Franc*. 
Bot.Phov.— 1,2, «,..». «, 7. 

KMOUUID j— Snwx. Mr. /**rrr. Wood oppoaiU tha lx»lg» near Lwllow. 
HorefordAire ! Rtr. T. Srfwr;,. I*wknor t Tetsworthl Oxfordshire. JrV. i*r- 
talutier. Wcnton -niper-Mare. Mr. W. Joshua. Old Eastbourne. Mr. Jtcfr. 
Sh-- ■ Sliaruatone* Hill ! Shi. .[-lure. 

WaUB :— Tree* luwe <•( Oraig Hrniildim ! Mnnt«nm«r7*lure. Gwydir W«od» ! 
Bottwayooed. Trefriw ! Towyn ! Glyn 1 near Capel Curb/. 

iirophaodfi, }sy]. jlavido-glaucaieent, ivrrticwo-f/ranHlatf, 
(K y. II •" i orange, rod) ; hypotlutllus very thin, black ; npothocia 
/uteo-ru/rranl or lextaceo-rufextnl. modci-ato, somewhat com ex, 
marr/in thickith, cremate ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple. 
On nicks, r.ire, IU78. 

N.I. in Klom 1878. p. 280. 
Own I>i*rani i -Finland. 
Bot. Paovi— 2«5. ::i 

IaxiAM) :— Rlrer Uimnx, Galwsy. Mr. LaroalrXitr. 
Ciussxi. Im.axiis :— ValaCaatlnl GucniMy. Mr Isirlalatitr. (IKS.) 
■•SrK.n-.009— .011 inn. tag, .000 «l. Paratibysea bidirtinct. 

Uolotma hytnenea I blue then lutaecent, thecal fulveeccnt. (iVjrf) Spare* 
.010— .011 mm. long, .004— .004 mm. broad. 

39. L. tulmuau, (l).V.) albUlo fi ."li/yrtmulato-pulveru- 
lent ; npothocia pulp ..r cameo-pallid, th>fflno margin pulvwal 
spores 8, colourlca*, oblong, ibnpli . 

On old puling* and n. ■(••■, BOl OonUBOBa 1790. 

8t* :— D.C. VL Franc. SM. (lsOMcaatrai, Utglil. h. BL 2. ad. 190. 
Fio i i:. Bet 1MB, 
Ex* :-1.«vcht. 378. 

Gsoo. Dtoraiu: -Scandinavia, Franca, Switzerland. 

Bot. Paov : -2 L.M 

KaamiP :— Norfolk. ,tf>. Turner, Kipon, Yorkihirc. Jfr. Araatoit. near 

Trrfcroaa. bcicertcnhlre. Btr. A. Blazam. Or|wth Valley and Rowland* GUL 

Ihirluuu. km w. Jvimt-Ai. Baxtoa.XNr. Hon. Worthlnf. K*v. t. sainy. Oacr 
Camdoc! Wrakin ! PonWord, Hubl«f«rd ■ near BrkliraorUi, Shropaldr*. K ■ Rtr. J. M. Ctvik 

lam.'. I rqntn. tir. Taylor. Ulenarm. Dr. Moon. 

CM.VKSU. IsLAKiin :— Beou|)Ott, Jorxiy ! Mr. LarbaUttitr. 

40. /.. fiiffim*, Nyl. pai<-teJiiiu/t-ydlou<, praitHiate, granules 
minute, statu U'.I .unl dilt'usa, Mate*] ucnt, (K yellow C 
orange yellow) ; apotA Kcattcrod, «etsile, pale- 
yrllo\eitk</rcen, tludliue margin prominent^ whitish-yellow, to 
aornt'timea creuulate or flexueme ; hypothecium colonrlces ; mib- 
hymeueal gonidia numerous and very largo ; Mporcc 8, colourloaa, 
lineari-obloDg, simple. 

or on :tain. 


Ou rock*, rare. 1873. 

8TH — Nyl. in Mora (IW3.) p. 289. 

BoT.PlWV .—»... 31. 

bum : Dawroa River ! oo. Galwav. Mr. IsirhaMitr. 

( .1 4K.NW. I«.»xdh :— On hard dry rock« under ttw ehmlo of ivy near Arehi- 
Tondol Tower. Jereey! Jf>. larbnJeit\er. (1873.) 

" Spore* .009— 018 mm. lone, .00".— » Bin. broad." INyt.) Ettrmnely minute, 
»ni! ewlly overlooked. Mndi rrMinlilin^ TrrtfmallT MOM state of L. raria or 
jdytropa. Spnrm .010— .011 mm. long, .005 -.006 mm. broad. 

**♦»• RMUw A' yr/toM 6*—. 
11. Z. nub/turn, (I..) whitiik or einertucrnt, mnrc or low deter- 
minate, thin, smooth, rimulose, granulate, verrueose, rugose or 
diffract, hypothalltis white ; upotheciu fuicoiu or fnsco-palUseent or 
warty black, often pniiuosc, pluno-convex, margin persistent, 
entire or crenulate ; upon* 8, colourluw, ellipsoid, simple ; thallu* 

K y«llow C— . 

Forma allophana, Ach. whitish or albirlcxincrasccnt, determin- 
:itr n tub-di pterminato, thin, »"..//«//, rugose, or graniUalo-eorru- 
gat*; npothecia plnno or convex, rufo-fuscoiis, sub-rubricoso- 
fuacous, fuscoiiJ.-lilmk or black, thaUiiu nun-gin at first entire, 
then erenate and flexuote ; jxiraphyses slender, not distinct. 

On trees. 

Sv. 17. Si* (1810.) Syu. 158. Nyl. Seand. 100. Stbenberg In Hot. 

Zeit. 1868, \k 80S. 
Via :— E. Bot. 219. UeppSporen t. SO. f. 183. 
i i. bkt ii'. And It. S. 184 .Sobar. 308. Spruce Aim. 190. Bohl. 38. 

SUuh. 129. Smrft. 03. 
Gxoo. Diktkib : — Throughout the world. 
Bot. Paov :— 1. 2, 3. *, 5 7 .10, 11...M II [19 M). ;u. 

.mxr>: -Alryholmo Wood! Cleveland. Mr. .VnuU. Okweitry I Iter. T. 

Salver- Northumberland and Durham. Mr. Winch, Devon. Mr. Far/ill. KelvC- 

don, Keaox. Mr. Varenne. Midlaml f'ounUee. Mr. Purttn. Bedfordshire. Rev. 

lUof. Une*tlini?. Sueaex. tT. Bloomfield. Wrckin ! lUiiRhmondllill ! 

NeaaclilT! Shrupah 

Tumi -.— Balthayock Wood* ! Perth. Or. lAmUnu. 1.oiik Inland. Prof. 

luxaxn:— Kylemoro Lake! eo. (lalway. Mr. /xtrWejfcfr. 

'WW. I»L»sr*>— Common on aj] ih. 1 land*. Mr. Lartiutettkr. 
\V.ild» : - Glyn ! near Canel Curur. U wvdir Wood* I Bettwa-y-ooed. 
' • Kiiurea .0025 to .003 in. long, by .00125 In. broad." IMudd.) - Six.res .013 
—22 mm lorn;, .008— .012 mm. troad." (Hal.) 

ii l'<irUUn*U, Nyl. cinereous, rugose or rti^oso-gnuiulate 
or nub-vcmicoMc, determinate, hypothulluB not visible ; apothecia 
black or fuscous-black or rarely foaoona, naked, sometimes slightly 
o.v-sio-|iniiiio«r, moderate, nearly plane, thal/ine margin rugose 
or ndhcrenate ; spore* H. ellipsoid . i«.\raphystt distinctly articulate, 
slightly incrassate and broadly fuscesoeut at the apices ; gelatin* 
hymenca blue with iodine. 
On trees, rare. 

Srs ,»emb. TJeb. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Franc. 13. p. 3» I1ST0.) 802, 
Otoo, I»HT«m :— Kiin>]>*. 
Bot. Phov:-.' 

Exoiuxo: -Near Sliankliu. I«le of Wi K ht Vr. Hotl. Maidatone, CI: 
Sliurabaai, Krnt, Ko:klngbam. Mr. llolmu. 
" Spore. .010— .018 mm. long, .000-.0OS mm. broad.' < W. ) 



Form* rugota, (Per*.) whitish, thickuh, determinate, often 
limited, grtmulato-rngote ; apothecia paU or ftucacent, plane, 
margin devoted, thick, rugott or rugom^rnate; paraphyMt croteded. 

On trees. 

8TX ^-Aoriao, Aoh. U V. 394. p. p. (WO.) Syn. 1S7. NyL Sound. 180. 
SUmb. U 

En i-Aaii Yen. S8. Awl It. S. 188. 189. Mudd 112. 

Qcoo. Durrani :— Europe. 

Bot. Paov :-5. .10 li.. (19-30.) 

Ks.;i.ixi>: 0.we»tryt ««•. T. Satmy. CUflrlggl Cleveland. Mr. Mudd. 
Aymwaw '• nerelordihire. 

Scutlaxo :— Balthayock Wood* ! Ttrth. Dr. Lindtny. 

Uilud :-Conunm>. Mr. Carroll. 

'• Sporea .010-18 nun. krajr. .097— .010 mm. broad." UTyA) 

Forma argenlata, Ach. whitiah, thin, rMavigatf. or slightly 
rugoso-unequal f</» root* granulate or areolato-rerrucem) ; apoth- 
oeia. plana or convex, fuscous or fusco-pollcacont, margin entire ; 
paraphyie* fret. 

On tree* and rocks. 1 793. 

St* i-Ach. I 10-> Syn. 157. olnbr+to, Aoh. L o. on roeka muMi- 

trit, Sch»r. En. 78, Kyi. Scan. 160. Stixnb. 1. c 

FlO :— HeppSnoreo t. ». f. 63, E. Bot 480. 

- :-Maml.m3. M Ami It. S. 186. Kcllinnn 125.138. M. A N. 740. Briar. 
009. LindiK 1M- Aoh It. S. ml. Ltt Anxl Vea. 3G. 40. Hopp 63. Kyi. Pyr. 
Or. 3& 

• :,..., [toTRtn: Europe. 

Bot.Pwv.— 1 U 1 '....19. 26. .30. 

I : vnuksn :— Yorkiliire, common. Afr. Mud,!. Ludlow, Shrnpehira. Dr. So- 
Woods j Dartmouth; Stoke Wood, Devon. Mr. Partu. 
Kelvedon and TWMBb Bos** Mr. Vartntu. Grovo Lane, Cirencester. Mr. W. 

Scotland : -On rocki. Mr. Diekmm. (1793.) 

Iulamo:— AhIuUmi oo. Down. Dr. Mauujny. near Cork Harbour. Mr. 
Carroll. Kyleniore MeauUini ! and nwar llalllnailuch. Mr. Larlalatier. 

Walsh : -Osp*l Curls 1 FUhcuard Harbour ! IVmbmkrabira. 
i-irw .011-16 nun. long, .007— .010 mm. brood." 

i i iutnmeseen*, (Robent.) whitish, tnblimi!a'.e, wry thin, 
tmovth, nt length rimoso-areolate ; apothecia oonrex, faaooui or 
UKrrMkitOOUS, sometimes livido-prvinote, margin thick, moicuhite, 
intloxcd, sometimes crcnnlato ; parnphyses crowded, thiok. 
On trees. 

Six i-Rebent FI. Neomarch 801. <1S0I.) Slimb. L c 

Fw :— Hepp 8poron t 70 t. 614. 

Bxsi-AnxiUorob. 102. Aru. 273. 497. Hopp 614. lUbli. 916. 

(ixoo. Dbtbjb :— Europe. 

Bot. Phot:— B. 

BiroLaVD r— SUiinor I'.ill ! Herefordahlrc. (1S64.) 

Forma eoUoearjxi, Ach. whitish, sublimilate or limitate, thin, 
unequal or granulato-rugote (on rooks thicker, verrucoso-diffract) ; 
apothecia small when young, conc&ro, fiuautu-Wael or nearly 
black, margin entire or *nfrcntire ; paraphysea free, slender. 

On trees and rocks. 

8rs r-Aoh. L. XJ. 898. OSIO.JSto. 1G7. Kyi Ssand. 161. Stimb. I. c. jrinatri, 
Solixr. En. 74. 

Ex» :-8cli«Br. 310. Hepp 184. And It a 1(W. Wright 117. Wndig 109. 
Lri«ht82. Urb*l 77. 

Oaoo. Dibtiub: -Europe. 

Bot. Psot : -2, 1...8,*, T...10...»...a8...81, 


ArdlngSey rock*, Suucx. Mr. W. Jotltua. N<w:lilT« Hill I bopcington ! Ilu'di- 
ill Hill I Hill I I.lanymyneoh Hill ! Shropshire. 
Swnjutu :-BIa«b«rry Hill I P*rth. hr. i.Wwy. 

I. K. till 

Emolaitd : -Yorkabirr, oominnti. Mr. Itudd. T..mliam, B rt t ai, Mr. ParjUt. 

lymyncch Hill 

BOOTLaJiD J— BlMbtrrv Hill ! f«rth. Dr. ! 

IbXLASD : — Lambay bland. Mr. Carroll. 

W At.B« :— Aberdovey ! Ka>. A. Bloxara. Aber I Cader Idrw ! between Corffdn 
and Bala I Cwm C>-w!<.n ' OMttt Dinou Bran ! Uanbedrog ! Cape] Arthogl 
Goodwick Bay ! Perabrokwhire. 0*U Kfyiwim l.lnnwy .' 

•.sxivhaJiKTMs— Boubvjr Bay. Kosel, La Coupe, Jerwy ; Eperquerl*, 
Sark ; H«rni ami - T > - 1 i i Ml Mr. Isarbalutier. 

"Sport* .012— IK nun. l-.n*r 00H 10 mm. brawl." {Nyl.) Hpor*» .017 mm. 
long, .000 mm. brood. 

Fonna gangalea, Ach. albo-cinoroHcent, determinate radiate, 
thiei, glabrous, rimote or rimoto-artolatr. ; apothocia froquont, sessile. 
at first concavo then convex, blade, margin entire or mb-crenultiir : 
paraphysee sub-conglutinato. 

On rocka, 

8r» !— Aoh. Syn. 152. (1H17.) Nyl. Scand. 161. Stbmb. L e. 

Ex*.— MandoaBS. 

Gsoa. Dnrrnia \ —Earopo. 

EnOLUTD.'— Onw*rtry ! Shruiahlr*. Rrc. T. S.xl*r.y. Airyhnlmo Wood! 
ClereUnd. Mr. Mudd. Abdon f Ctaiirford* ! Shropshire ; Aymeatroy I I(«ra- 

Walk t— F«trtlnlog Bowl naar Dalgolley ! Penmaaiunawr 1 

Ohakwxl Ihlaniw :— Bordeaux Harlioiir, Uuaniwy. .Vr». Callings. 

Spore* .014—. 018 mm. long. .007 mm. broad. 

Forma atryiua, Ach. gw t ul tt tt or vcrrucoso-arcolate, sometime* 
nigricanti-limitato ; apothecia moderate, yhuu; rarely convex, 
fuscous or fu*co-p<dlesc<nt or coraeo-fuscesccnt, margin suberenate, 
rarely entire; paraphyses thick, Hiibconglutin^'i' 

On rocks and posts. 

8t> :-A<-l.. 1. V. 395. OS10.) Syn. 148. Nyl Soand. 161. Stixnb. I. e. 
Exs :— Eellni, 12fi. Bal.h. BS1. 
Gxoa. Dikthih:- Earopo. 
Bot. Pxov .— 1. ...... lft ...19...SL 

»KT>;— Devon. Mr. ParUt. Mealing:, Eaaex. Mr. Vnreutir. 
8eO»LA*I>:— Core, Kincanltnrahini. flrr. J. M. Cr„: 
Iatixscn :— DlnU. Killarncy . Mr. Carroll. 
Chaxnul Isuxns :— Ifrauport. Jcraey ! Mr. LarialeMitr. 
" BpOIW .011—18 mm- long, .ODC-9 mm. Uraad." {Xyt.\ 

Forma tntlaearpa, Nyl. whitish, smooth, thin, liinitiite ; opotheoif 
Marl; plane, prominent, margin white entire. 
On micaceous stone walls, rare. 1870. 

Exs :— Au/.i Laugob. KaV 

Bob Pirn i -1& 

Scotland :— High up on Craig Tnlloeh. Iter. J. M. OrouMt. <l«7n,j 

Forma epibrya, Ach. whitish, granulos&or verruatlrMosinerrigcent ; 
apotkeda Juteavt or fiuco-rufricenl, plane, margin entire, often 
flcxuoM ; parnphysex subconglutinata. 

On mosses, &c. 

8tk .— Ach. rrod. 79. (1798.) Syn. IM, Nyl. Scand. 16t Sthnb. 1. e. Mndd 

:— H«pi> Spnren t MSB. 
Exa :— Hepp 185. Sohwr. 311. Fellm. 134. Anxi It, B, V.<3. At«. 107. Th. II, 
Oxoo. DwTSin :— Enropa. 
Bot. Pbot:-10,..80...31. 



Ihusii >■ Gniabro' Moor. Cleveland. Mr. MmU. 
IarajiM':— Bel/net, Pr>\f. I>< 

Cbaxsu Iilashs : — OuesvsU, Jnrmy. Mr. LarhaltsHsr. 
•■ BprM .01 ♦- U mm. W| .006- .011 mm. brood." {Ifyl.) 

Fonna ehlarowi, Ach. ahitudi or Dt, determinate, thin, 

I ovigate or subrogoM; apathreia plane, or somewhat nmvci, 
margin sub-attire or crtnvlate; puraptrysea slender, sub-conglutinate. 
On trees and rocks. 

8ts :-4i*ant, Ach. Meth. 168. (1803.) thlarma. L. TJ. 307. Syn. 188. 
Bttnsb. L c 

Ex» .-Amd It. 8. 187. 190. llopp 77S. lUhh. S03. 727. Anil Van. 37. Lcigbt. 
118. Mudd lli Maudon 2. Mu. &. Am. 886. 

<1k>hi. DiMrurn :— Kuivp, . 

Bur. Paov.— 2,3...r> in. .23. 

Kxousd.-— Near Stokeeley! CliffrinK ! Cleveland. Mr. i ate! 

,Vr. I^rlnilutiir. Sl»ko Wood, Exeter. J/r. ParHxL Kelvtdon, Rm«z. Wr. 
I'trrnw. ItedUntl Wood*, Ml Dorkiuir. Ifr. If. .Tori itoo. Ka*t- 

bourne. Mr. Itoptr. Tov'a Hill, Kent. Mr. UiJhus. Ley ttrango near Shrvwi- 
bury '. Haughniond Hill ! Shelton Rough ! Shrupuhlra ! 
Nut urn-. numm. .'.•<,■. J. m. OrtStMs, 

Ih'Laxu : — Barclay* Kixk. Adm, Jena. 

V orma tpodophaw- 1 D Horn 1872. 

On micacoous utono vails, rare. 1870. 

l!..r. PaoV:-lB. 

8WTLASD :-B»*» of Crmiif Tolloch. Rtr. J. M. Cronbu. <1*72.) 

42. L. Uucophymu, I. eight, greyish-pink, verrueoixhsqHamote, 
#{uamid'.t icatt*r<d «ml distin.t, pi <pJuerico- 
tu'x-rctilott, minutely iimato-granulotc, (K y C — ); apol/utia set- 
tilt, nigro-fusoous, convex, thnllino margin entire, tumid ; sporea 
8, colourless, elliptico-oblong, aimple ; paruphyacs filiform, I 

nboro and joiatad . bjOWDM gawtlltt esirulcsccut with iodine. 
On rnicncoo-schistosc idpinc rocks, Tcry rare. 1864. 

Osoo. Piarara:— Eorapa, 
Bot. Paov :— 15. 

Scotlasu : Over Loch-aa Cat, Ben Lawt-re ! Mtur: Jonnd Carroll. {IMA). 
Of lhi» fin* lichen only ono fertile ipednien baa been found. The curiotu 
iddioidco-tuberouhw' IhnlliM hu often a i>iukiah tinge, 

43. L. tenera, N.I. ein t T tV nim e m t, thin, unequal or sub-gran- 
ulato-uner/ual, indeterminate, riniulose, (K yellow C — ); apolh- 
e*ia pale, minute, plane, margin paler, nearly vhito ; spores 8, 
colourless, oblong or tab bftOular, simple (or obeoletely and 
riously l-«cptatii) ; panffanea f<-w, rather thick, apex Lncraaaate, 
or clavat. ; npithocium and hypothedum (olourtet* ; L'iatin.. 
menca blue wil 

On wi t imu-itiiH gWitifl rocks, rnrc. 1868. 

St* :— Nyl. In Florm 1869. p. 83. CremUe En. 70. Linn. Journ. II. p. ♦8S. 
■ ,. Omnia : Kuropc. 
Li .si. 
B, "f the B»y of NI«r, Kioesrdine. Her. J. M. Cremhit. (ISfiS). 
• r- Bjulay Bay! La More! Jeney. Mr. lMrtnl<Mier. 
nia .008— .010 mm. long, .0011V-.0025 mm. broad." LVrf.) " Rixum 

.0114 an. Ion/, .002.— .OfBSmin. broad." Spermatia oblong. 
ilUtlnct bom, L. globulou. Elk. 


to, though 

forma explonotula, Nyl. granules of thnllim fleprettrd or flat- 
tened and more or less dispersed. 


On damp walla, very rare. 1877. 

BOT. Pbovt— 36w 

IaaLaitD :— Letterbes: ! Gonnmnar*. Mr. LarUtettier. (\fu). 

44. L. gawjnleoide*, Nyl. aHWfl tiurttmi, rrrrueoso-artotatf, 

(K deep yellow C — ) ; apothecia Mack, moderate, crowdrd, pi : 

sessile, thaUine margin white, entire 

On rocks, rare. 1876. 

Stm r-Nvl. in Flora 1*72. p. MB. and 187S. p. 6ft. 

Exa .— Mandon 55. 

Bctt. Pboy : - -36. 

Iaxuiin) {-letter HOI! (iatvray. Jn>. Larhalestier. (1876). 

****** rAo/to JT— C— . 

45. Z. epanora, Ach. greenieh-yellow, tqwimulogo-ylebulote, 
glebtda small, contiguous and conglomerate or dispersed, Hub-ra- 
diato-lobate, smooth or eitriiw-sortdiate ; npothocia luteo-fulvoua, 
piano, thaUine margin thick, flexuose or sub-crenate; spores 8, 
colourless, ellipsoid, simple ; thallus K — C — . 

On rocks, rare. 1836. 

8t» :-Aoh. Prodr. 39. (1798.) 8rn. 181. Nyl. Sc-and. 187. L. atbo-jtavuU, 
Tarl. Fl. nib. 2. 260. Mudd Man. 154. 

Fio :— H*r>]i Sporen t. BO. I 

:— I .fight. 397. H»pji 775. Th. M. Frfo*. 35. Anzi Laajjob. 43. Arn. 580. 

Orkj. DiHi'mii :— Sw«don, Norway, Seamlinavin, Walomo, (Africa). 

Hot. rnov: 7. 10 , l'.». 

Ikm.*st> ;— Dimkemm. Dr. Taylrrr. (1R36). 

Walks : — Barmouth I Iter. T. Saltcey. near Portmadoo ! 

8cotj.aj«i> : (11. n Fonder. Ktv. J. IS. Cromhu. 

'■8p?re».008— .011 inn.. l<mK, .00.-.-7 mm. broad." (J¥y£) "Spoite .009— 
.013 mm. Ionic. .006- 7 mm. broad." [T. St. Fr.) 

46. L. mediant, Nyi. vitellinout-yelha or citrine, opake, 
plicato-radiate at the circumfermce y laeinia narrow, convex, in- 
curved and Hubcrenate at the apices, minutely (framdoto^cabrout 
on the upper surface, in the centre broadly aUndo-eineraecent, or 
with scattered citrine granules, and minutely granulosa or le- 
proso-granulose, (K — ); apothecia dirty-ilavescent or flarc-fus- 
ceaccnt, plane, tlialline margin citrine, entire or crenulate ; 
sporca 8, colourless, obloiigoellipsoid, simple. 

Ou calcerous rooks, rare. 1871. 

Brs .—Nyl. In Boll. Son Bot. Fr. 9. p. 262. (1663.) and 13 p. 367. (1666). 
Km :-Arl. 222. Itabh. 796. 
Oton. Durrani:— Franoa. 
BOT. Paov :— 5. 

Esclasd :— Llanymyncch IIlll! Shropshire. (1871). 

"Sports ,011 17 mm. long, .OOJr—.OOtiT. mm. broad." (Ay.) 

47. L. tfcdactiiia, (Ach.) whitish, rugulttse, oppressed, sub-pulvrru. 
lent,lob<r In (he'iimfurenoe; apothecia crowded towards 
the centre, Uvidexarneojuscescent, more or less albr^pruinose, margin 

elevated, persistent, eventually crenuluu- aadfleznoto; spores 8, 
OOlonrleai, ellipsoid, Himple; thallus K — C — . 
On plastered widls, rocks, Ac. frequent. 

Stn i-Aofl. Math. 190. (1803.) Syn. 167. Nyl. Stand. 134. Nyl. in Bull. Sec. 
Bot. Fr. IS. p. 367. 
1*10 r— Uopp Sporen t. 20. I. 180. 



Exb .— NyL 122. Hepp 180. Mudd 118. 

Grot.. Dihtuiii : Sweden, Germany, Helvetia, France. 

Bot. Paov :— 2, 3., .6, 0... 8. .10. l. 

Kmjui.11>:— Near Ayton ! CleveLmd. Vr. .VvdV Kclvcdon. Kw>, Mr. 
Vartnne. Charnwood 1'oreet, Leieeeterahir*. A . i /<im. Gueatliug, 

BOMK. «"■ K .V. HMUU& MaJdatono, 8hnrvha<u, WrDthain, Kolkeatoere, 
Seven Oaks Kent. J/r ttnlma. Wall- o( Toog Priory ! Shropshire. 
ijisi> .—Near Aberdeen. Rev. J. M. Cronbic 

IUUXD; — Common. Mr. Carroll. 

Walk j— Fuhguard Harbour ! Pembrokeshire. 

" Sparea .008 In. lone, by .00125 la. broad. Spcrmatla cylindrical, elegantly 
curved or naxumw." {Mmtd.) "Sporea .009— .010 mm. long, .OOft— 6 max 
broad." (A>f.) 

Forma dwperta, (Porn.) wub-ermtacetm* ; apotheeia ditpertedt 
lividc-pallcaccnt or stiricinioouM or nigrescent, pruinott, margin 
white, crenulate ; thai his K — C — . 

On lime-rocks, frequent. 

Hys :-Penoon In Ust. Ann. Bot. at. 7. p. 27. (17M.) Ach. 3th. 187. NtL in 
Bull. 8oc Bot Franc. 13. p. 37H. 

Fio i-Hepp Siwren t 8. f. 6L 

Ex« r-Hepp 6L Zw. 26L 

Gaoo. Dnvnua :— Northern Europe, Franc*, Germany, SwrUerland. 

Bot. PaOTa— 1, H, B. 10 .26 31. 

Exuiobd .— Battemby Bank and Carlton Bank. Cleveland. Mr. .VvcUt. 
Chance'H Pitch, Malvcm. Or. Hell. Starcroa*, IVvon. Mr. I'mjiU. Grove Lane, 
near Cirencester. Mr. W. Juthua. 

tHLaHD :— Killcry Bay and Lettcrraore, Connamara. Mr. Larbaiatitr. 
nski. IbIsJUMI :— RouL Ji-rncy. Mr. Larbalmtiti: 

Wales: — Caiwell Bay ' Murablee. Fishguard Harbour I Pembrokeshire. 

Ciuskel ItiLAirixt ;— ltorol, Jenny. Mr Larbaiatitr. 

Hpore* .00l>— .011 mm. long, .001— 6 ram. broad. 

Forma livida, (Ach.) whitish, rimotixirfolaie, glubroa*, areola: 
crenulate at the margin*; apotheeia minute, crowded, immrrted, 
dink plane, tivido-earneotu, thaUine margin entire. 

(In rucks, run. 

§» .—Ach. L. U. 875. (1810.) Syn. 170. Crombie Knum. 50. 

Owoa. Di»t«j» : -Europe. 

Bot. Paov :— 16. 

Scoti-aku t— Apjrin. Jiev. J. M. Crombie. 

Forma verrucosa, Lcight thallus in white diepcrted, convex, wm- 

cote manses, in which the apothtcia are imbedded. 

Bot. Pbots-«. 

WaJJD) :— Bracelet Bay! Mumble*, near Swansea. 

48. L. *uU\da, Nyl. whitith, thin, minutely granulate, indctcr- 
inmate (K — C — ) ; apotheeia valeyeUow or luteo+uMimd, crowded, 
difft/rmtd by mutual prtimrt, thtdlinc margin tuberenatr. ; ajxirvx 8, 
colourless, ellipsoid; paraphysos not very distinct; gajattwi 
hymouea I blue then vinous-red. 

On dry calcareous rocks, rare. 1876. 

Stx :-NyL In Flora 1K76. p. 288. 
Bot. Pbov :— 36. 

Iwclakd:— Near Kylemore. Galway. Mr. Larbaiatitr- (18780 
A distinct species of tho stirr» of L. galactma. Sporee .010—12 mm. loaf, 
.005—* mm. broad. 

Var. pertperta, Nyl. thallus deficient ; apotheeia distantly 

Ou calcareous rocks, very rare. 1876. 

Di '.Kh.VI IsRIfAlS 


SY» :-KyL in Flar» l»7i;. t 

Bot. Psov.— 36. 

lOU I Kylomorc, Galway. Mr. LarbaUstitr. (1H76.) 

49. L. wmbrina, (Klirh.) tlialtns nearly obliterated, hypothalitu 
olim&o-fiuceMrnt, diffuse; apotheeia fuscous OT fiwoo-nigrii-. 
i], tassvHutfitsed, thitlliiie margin white, lub^renulate ; spores 8, 
i| \, simple; paraphyses articulate; thallus 
On rocks, old wood, Ac. 

8y* ;— Khrhart Crypt No. «5. (1793.) Ach, L. U. 368. NyL in Bull. 8oc. 
Bot. Fr. 13. p. 369l 

Km :-Rabli. 74". 799. And Langob. 31s. 392. An,, ai. Aral It 8. 182. 

GtOO. DiSTRlB :— Owtdeii, CiTinany, France, Italy, Lombard)', Hungary 

lkrr. Paov. :~!,...l .15, ie .34. ..SO, 31. 

E>'OLAS!>:— Llanymynoch Hill I Shropuhire, 

Scvtlaxd :— Kincardine. Rev. J. M. Crombte. Cumbrao ! Buteahlre. Mr. »'. 


IkKLaXD : - Co. Vvwa.Ailm. Jones. Cliffs of Moher. oo. Clare. Mr. Carroll. 
W.vun : Between Llangollen and Corwen 1 EclwyKg Rock* ! 
CmaXXH. iHLAN'in :— La Moyo ! Jcracy. Mr. Lartalmk 
" Spnrm.009— .012 mm. long, .006—6 mm. btvad." (NyL) 8por«e .013 mm. 
long, .006 mm. broad. 

forma crenidata, (Dicks.) cinereous, Tery thin, nearly evanescent; 
apotheeia minute, dispersed, plane, /uteoiu-grey, margin white, 
persistent, crentdate ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple; 
thallus K — C — . 

On limestone rocks, &c. not uncommon. 1793. 

STS:-Diok*, Crypt & 14. (1793.) Ach. Syn. 168. NyL in BulL 8oc Bot Fr. 
13. p. 369. 

Km :-K. But *». Dick*. I. c. t !). t. 1. Hepp Sporen t 8. f. 65. 

FlO ;— Hepp 65. NyL 125. 

Gaoo. Dibtub :— Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, Franco. 

Bot. P*OT s— 2.. -5. 6, 7. ..10. 11 (la 30). 

Etolaud:— YorVi-liirn. Mr. Dirk,,,,,. (1793.) Eglaetone, Durham. Rev. J. 
Mammon. Castle Eden ; Fulwcll : Boldon ; and Cloadon : Mlddleton Beck ; 
ami Barnard Caatlo. Durham : Carhain and Wark, Nurthtimln'rlaiid. Mr. 
WincK Shingle*, Eastbourne. Mr. Roper. If i K h Bock ! noar Bridgnorth, 8hro|>- 

8cotlaxd :— Frequent Bet. J. M. Cram',,,. 
lalLAaTi ; — Not UHOtinnititi. Mr. (\xm4t. 
Vaub .— Eg lwyeeg Books ! Cliltar Point ! Tonby. 

forma jirotixkoidei, NyL dirty-ydlourish-white, tartareous, thin, 
sub-determinate, rimoscKtreotate, areola: Jlat or slightly tumid 
and smooth; apotheeia xcutlurud, sessile, plane, hroumish black ; 
thalline margin entire; thalhis K— C — . 

On maritime rocks, rare. 1856. 

Stw :— NyL in Crombio Kn, 51. (1870.) 

Exsi— Crombie67. 

Gaoo. Disraiu :— Europe. 

Bar. Pbov : -6, 7 Ift 

Scotland i — Kincardine. Rev. J. if. Crombit. 

VfxiM :— Southerndown I Glamorganahlre. Dr. Boll. Barmouth I (1856.) 
Manorbeex near Tenby ! V Fegle fawr ! near Barmouth. Black Bock ! near 
Criodetb. HI 

Sporta .013 mm. long. .006 mm. broad. 


forma sottera, Acb. glaucous, effuse, very tliin, almabt ovancu- 
cent ; apotheeia minute, scattered or aggregate, plane, ru/eteent. 



lhalline margin thin, * Ht e, ptdixrulent ; spores much smaller ; 
paraphyses very delicate and slender. 

On dry grass, 4c. in maritime place*. 1878. 

Bnrt— Aoh. Hrn. UK Nyl Scand. 160. 

Bot. Prov i-*L 

Channki. Im-axtm:— Iji Moy#! Jmtv.Mr. Ltrba/ttier. (1878) 

•• Optra .en- U nan. tons;, .006- 7 mm. broad." i 

50. In Uaffeni, (Ach.) albo-cinenueenl, fAin, indeterminate, 
nearly evanescent ; apotieda small, crowded, plane, at length tumid, 
paler or darter brown, wore or Uu prvinote ; margin white, per- 
sistont, crenulate ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple ; thallux 
K — C — . 

On trees and old wood. 

8rx :-Ach. Prodr. 87. <1798.)Syn. 167. Crombic B 

FlO i— Hepp Sporen t. 8. I. 64. 

Exa .—And It. 3. 181. Zw. 65. Horn. 64. M. ft N. 1053. 

<:•». biarain :-Italy, Wmtphalia, (^jrmany. Helvetia, Hungary. Praauia. 

Bot. Pitov :— 3...10, ll .1 

EyoLASD i-YoTkahire. Jfr. Jfurfrf. Temdalo, Durham. Mr. rVmcA. KeJvc- 
don, Kwi. Afr. I'urmw. 

iBSIAXn :— Near Limerick. Mr. Carrot!. 

CtLairau. Iblasdo :— St. Clenient'a Bay I and near Si. Anliina : Jerwy. AtV. 

Mr. OroniHe finds a «Ut« dodgnated by Dr. Nylaadar in liu. mh-Hut,^ on 
maritime granitic rooka at Xing. I'ortleUien. Kin<-aniin<*hirv ; and alao var. 
cmtftrta. Dob. (Bot. UalL 867) ..ear Aberdeen, "thaUaa tain, 

greeouh «i evanesoant, paraphyaea aoaitaly di»crot*." 

forma ealcigma, Kyi. ciWawarf, thit&ish, crustaceoua, arrolato- 
dtfratt ; apotheeia liiid, subpruinose, margin white, cr. 
On rocks, Tory rare. 1 870. 

Bot. Pbov :— 89. 

Isslahu i— Lettetronrc. Ualwmy. Mr LarbulaUtr. (l&TUL 

61. L. eaiearra, (Linn.) white or cretaeecnu or farina*, conti- 
guous, or rimom^treolale, effigumte at the circunilorauv, hypo- 
thollua pali> ; aprAhecia immersed, plane, ctuio-prutno* ; spores 2, 3, 
6,6, ramly 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple; hypotbociam odfeav- 
loss; parnphyaea gulatinoao-conerete ; medulla/ — , iJiaUtu K — C — ; 
golatina hymenca at first pale blue then dirty yellow with I ; 
apenuatin acioular straight. 

On calcareous rooka, ftsjtJMttti 

forma conertta, Seiner, white or cretnooous, rimo»o-artxJatt or 
conligaotu ; apotheeia immersod. 

8rs:— Utim. Sp. PL id. 1. No. £.(17n3.) Ach-Syn. 113. Nyl. Sean.L 154 
M. Fries lac*. Soan.L S74. 

Fin . Acb. Moth, t 4. I. 1. Hero Sparta L 71. f. 627. 

Kxa . M-:.i.i 133. I-ekht 13. Kabh. 823. 848. Maaa. 96C A. ft B. HefpfiS? 
■aria US. Scaav. 47*. And It. Sap. 809. 

UBOO. Dtsrsia :— Germany, SwiUertand, Italy, Pyraaeea, France, Hungary. 

Em pan . R v m \i N M 

Exciuso : - IkWalo! Yorkahire. Mr. M**d. Uythe, Saadgate, Paadiunt ; 
Braataed, KraL Mr. Hoim/A. Umymyaec* Reck ! Sbrapakin. 

8corust> : - KUlin ; Appin ; Blair AUinU. Rer. J. M. Cnmiit. 

Iuumj :- Blarney, Cone. Mr. CamU. Bridge at Maam ! Joyoa cooatry. 
Mr. Lartxilatirr. 

W»u» :-4inM Onne'a Head I KflwrMc Kooln ! Oadcr Idrfa 1 Baansaria ! 

Mfurea .0a» .031 mm. kmg. .015- .080 mm. broad. 



forma eontorta, Hoffm. vtkUe or einerascent, arcol» ditperted, 
centrally elevated, deprived at the edge* ; apothecia immersed. 
On calcareous rock", frequent. 

Sv. H l.'^T. |ir;K).)Th. M. FriMLlch.8oMd.275. 

Hr-flm PL I.icb. t 22. f. 3. 
En :— M.idd 184. Ixaght. 322. Anil It 3. 210. 

OHO. DnniB }— IUI)', 8oail.lin:iii». 

Bur. Pw)T.— 6...T...10...26. 

i: . LAJin:— Roaebarry! Yorkshire, ttr. iladd. Hi«li Rook I Bridgnorth, 
Iuluu :— Ta-elrt Fini ! PmiRhraiich ! Conncm&r*. Mr. LnrlmJetlier. 
Waim :-< I r«»t Omu'a Haad ! 

forma ffojfmanni, (Ach.) glaueetcent, areolae tub-contiguous, apo- 
Iheeia larger and more elevated. 
On granite and other hard rocks, frequent. 

Br* ;-Ach. Moth. HA. (1901) 8yn. U3. NyL Seand. 1M. Th. M. Kriw L- 
flcand. 27.Y 

fti f-Hofta PL L. t. 22. f. L 2. 3. Hoffm. Ki.. t 6. f. 3. Maw. Kic. f. 75. 
K. Hot. t. 1M0. 

Ex»:-H»pj.820. Schwr. 131. Aim Ungob. 04 Anri V.m<C W. 4". .VyL 
Pyr. Or. 80. 

Gboc. Diirruin :— Switzerland, Italy. Pyroncoa, Swcdi-n, Hungary. 

Bor. Pwv :-S, 4, 5 ..7 ...10 .20. 

Exuland :— Oawcatry ! Ittv. T. Satiety. Malv-orn Hilla ! Mr. Lett. Konilwwth 
Coatla! Mr. Lartaiatir.r. VnrUahlr.- ; BtMMl :»"! NurfuU. Sir^. ■ S 
King'* W«rt*in Down! Hrv.U>]. Afr. Feroanl. Aymertry ! iliirvfvnUliir*. 
Llonymyneeh Hill ! Haiiffhniond Hill I Shropahire. 

IaXLAffD:— Topof KyWmOM Mountain* I 00. tialway. Mr. lytrtinlritier. 

Wales :— Bryn Macbpryii ! Llanyblodvcl Rovka I 

i mift odtratxa, (Schtcr.) cinoroc-ocbraooous, areoIato-diflVact ; 
apothecia immersed. 

On slaty rocks, rare. 1877. 

8tx :— Bchmr. Srio. 72. 

Exs :-Sehmr. 128. Ana Langob. 69. 

Ocno. Durrani :— SwiUurland, Italy, Hungary. 

BOT. Pbot :— 7. 

Wxim '.— Moel-y-gtst! near Tremadoc (1S77). 

62. L. laden, (Mass.) milJc-tehilc, tartareo-farinote^ contiguous, 
effuse ; apothecia pallido-testaecoue, at length /atceteent, matt 
minute, at first immersed, then sessile and sub concave ; spores 
8, colourless, elliptical or elliptioo-oblou;;. simple. 

On walla, rare. 

8t» i— AtpicUia, Maaa. Symm. p. 26. (18»). 

Oaru. Piirriun :— Italy. 

Hot. Pbov:— 6. 

EjiolaXD :— Near Orcnoafter. Mr. Jothm. 

"8poraa.009-.0122 mm. long, .00344-.oo:tr* - , nun. I.ruad." (.tfoai.) 

53. L. gibbosa, (Ach.) cinereous or vireicenli-/uMX>ua, art.- 
areolato-verrueote, fertile ones elevated in I ; hypothulltzs 

pale; apothecia areolate, xmmrrtrd, urccolal 

or plane, naked, thulline margin slightly crenulate. ; spores 
8, oolourluas, ellipsoid, rimpla, lazgcj bypothaoium ooiourleM; 

fiCMphjm gplatinoeo-ooncrote ; golatina hymenoaat first slightly 
iloa then Tiaoao-fu l vooe a t «it£ I ; medulla /— ; thallut K — ■ 
C — ; spinimtin acicular, straight. 
Ou granitic and hard rocks, frequent. 




forma vulgaris, (Tl>. Fr.'l ■liriv-whifish or cinereous, rAiot-, tar- 
tareous, areedato-vemicosc ; apollutia mom at U-m emersed, concave 
■ >r plane, ocrllale. 

Srs : -Aeh. Prod. 30. U7B8.>Syn. 138. XyL Soand. 154. Th. Fr. L. Sauxl. 
F:o :— Hepp Sporen t. 71. f. 624. 

<j»oo. Ulsnira ;— Jtorway, Hungary, SwiU*rland, Pyr*n<**, IUly.Garmaa-y. 
Bot. raov:-5,6...26. 

I . iAvri:-<>-w«to7! Art. T. Snlmy. I.yrM Itrnch, Kent. i/r. tfrftu*. 
Rtannor Hfll 1 H<rrford«mrr. 

Irklaxp:— River Dawroa! eo. Galway. Mr. Larhalmitr. 

WaLB» :-Brtwm>H Llangollen and I'orwtni ] Alwr ! Caniarvanahfec. Bu- 
mouth ! Cricrieth Cimtle iwk I 

ooroa .021 -SO mm. long, .014-18 mm. broad." (T. M. Pr.) Snore* 
.024 mm. long, .017 mm. broad. 

.1 pnrinoidea, Plot <\iirk-vire*erntif><scov*, npakc, tmootA, 
■'■■i(a-vemm*e, arcolm «»rry tonvex, tubfiemispArrical ; apothecia 
immersed, thallinc margin coareUtte, sometimes crenulatc, ■ 

j.iil. r. 

■t. L. Silo*. 13S. ;i SyitlOS. 

-K. Bot t. 1732. 
Mini. I 135. Leight. 171* 
UlOO. Dwmm— Kuropo. 
Hot. Pkov.— 2...5...7...10. 

II isi) :— ClMTrtor, YorkWiir* ! Mr. MwM. South Down*. Sumex. Mr. 
Borrtr. Hanghmond Hill 1 Lvth Hill I Caw Caradoc! Long Mynd I Abdoa 
Kntf : 

Wm.E*:— Craig Hrtlddin ' MontgOBJervnir.'. \lmr! < ':irn:irvun>.lijr«. 

Konini f/u/imata, Flot. dark n , opolco, moot] 1 

areolutJi-vcfrriieoM, dosdy apprmrd, radiakHfllguratt <ii the eiratm- 
Jertnct •; areola conwx or ■abbemimhwioa] ; opotktda immersed, 
tliillinc margin toarttai--, ofton emmhte. 

Svs : Klotow L. S. 80m. lis. (1S49.) Korb. Syrt. 103. Tli. Frio I. Seand. 

Kx» :— Leight. 175. (in hum oopi**.) 

Bot. Pbov >- 4. 

KBOUAD :— C«r Caradoc 1 

Probably only a *Utc of '. porinoidca in which the drcnmfeiviu* I* 

forma depreua, Aoh. rasifhcineratcent , areolate, areola small, de- 

pressed, plane ; apothecia immersed, areolato-impretscd, tuMeti- 


On alpine rocks, rare. 1870. 

Ac!.. Syn. 144. (1H17.) Nvl. Srand. 10. Kn. 66. 
lliao. Dinnim :■ -Sweden, Lapland, Norway. 

Scotuuiii:— lWn l*v»»r». Xtr. J. M, CVomit*. 
Ikki.asi>:— Uunkerron. Dr Taylor. 

51. L.easio-ei. •ilf'ido-cinereoiis.cauio-cinereovt, thickish, 

artolato-verrueoso-diffmrt (m/dullit l—tfiallxt K dirtp/uttesc 
a}*>tkffia immertnl in the areola, concave, mirrouodcd tdth a 1 
1 1 '.illiiK- margin, at length emerged and more "r lea pi 
■pores tf, colourless, oblong, sitnpl. . 

On ; , not common. l^Tti. 

Ex*:— Ami Langob. S23. 


BOT. PlOV :--7..-36. 

Iiui.\*l>:— BonJtnot I*Jce out odooi Doughnivjh Mountain, C<innem»ro. 
Mr. lytrUtaUee (1878.) 

M . ly-gant! 

form* odseurata, Fr. otiwiaa^MKrcucvKt. (med. I — thallus K dirty 

On rocks, frequent. 1854. 

tftlU— Mtl In Flora 18X2. n. 861. 

BSSl-flMl L 8* 313. Attn. Us. An« It. & SOS. Anil Uatob. 72. 

Gtf-O. I>i»tbib:— Kurope. 
Bor. P»ov:-5 in. 

F.irai.ASu:-Cli«rigg! Yarluhire. Jfr. Jfw&f. (1854.) Loajmynd! Shrop- 

55. L. pelobotrya, (Whlnb.) tohitish or livid-grey, very th' 
tartareovs, continuous, riinose, smooth, unc/vally raised up into 
large plano-cynvex masses or i»dt>inuli, (medulla I — ; thai) us K — 
C — ) on which arc the apotheeia which aro nt first minute anil 
inersed, then wperficial, tub-urec.otale, sub-immcrso-setsile, solitary or 
congregate, blackish-l>r'iwii, thallfm margin rery thick, somewhat 
polished, jUxuose , hypotheeiuai dark-brown; paraphysescrouilol. 

ui:t, slender; spores 4-8, colourless, ellipsoid or oblongo-elh|> 
Knd, simple ; nlatina hymenea I blue. 
On olpino micaceo-schistose rocks, Tery rare. 1869. 

Sra -.-Urtfolaru. Whlnb. it. lab M.-tl,. Hnppl. 31. (11*08.) Ach. L. V. 338. 
Syn. 13H. L,<\e«. Whlnb. Fl. Lapp. 413. Umnora, Smrf. Lapp. 99. NyL Scand. 

Gboo. Disthib :— Kinm»rk, Norway. 

SoOTIdU>l> : — B*n l,*»«r» ! Missri. Jontt it Crom/iif. 

Th. Fries L. Soand. 370. ranks thin in tho Atpicilia Motion of Lceanor* on 
accunnt of the ihh-k tliallino margin of tho apotnecia being fillud with gnnidia. 
He itatos ab» that scabrous rufesceiit cnphalodia a" miiiglpd witli tho arcolm 
of the tliallui at in LteiHea paiurol-x, which this lichen resembles in habit. 
"Spurs* .023— 85 mm. long, .012— 16 mm. broad.' (*jrf.) " Spur**) .024— 34 
mm. long. .012—16 mm. broad." (T. M. Fr.) 

56. L. Jiavid-j, Hcpp. pallido-vehraceous or eineratcent, suble- 
prote, effuse, Tory thin, rimo80-»rcolate ; apothecia tx e tl tMf 
mimUe, numerous, innate, black, concave or plane, thollino mar- 
gin thin entire ; hypothocium colourless ; parnphynea gelatinoso- 

. note, eterideseent towards tho apices ; spores 8, colonrlost, 
ellipsoid, simple ; gelatina hymenea I of an intense persistent blue, 
spores and content* of aaci fulvescent; (medulla I — , t hallux 
K— C— .) 
On moist mountain rooks, not common. 

8tjt ;— H*pn Exs. 630. (1*10.) Th. Fr. L. Scand. 286. Atpiciln micrnnOia, 
K.»rk Par. 102. A. vchraa*, M...I.1 Brit, l.ich. 163. 
Fig : -Hopp Sporen t. 71. f . 680. 

!>p fiJO. Leigbt. 292. Mudd 136. Am. 322. 322b. and 4M. 
Omo, Disrsni :— .Soancliiiavla, 0«nnany. 
Bor. Pmov :-5...10. 

'■iLWPi- Cockshaw Bank I Bmughton Bank, Yorkshire, Mr. Mudd. 
Wenlnck I Shropshire. 
"Sport* .012 -18 mm. long, .007— 11 mm. broad." (T. M. rr.) Sporas .017 
m. lung, .000 mm. brood. 

L. laeustris, With, pale or testaceous or ochraeeovs, thin, 


the Liair.y rvo&x 

subdeterminate, plane, smooth, /lightly rimo*Htrwlttf« ; apctkecia 
minute, paUido-nfeieent, ureeclato-innate ; hypothccium colourlesa; 
spore* 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple; poraphyscs con^lutiuatc ; 
gdntina hjmeuca 1 Muu, tiw>n dark vinous-red or fulveacent: 
(medulla I—, thallus K— C— .) 

On moist rocks orer which water has flowed, not common. 

Sts :-WIth- Ait. 4. p. SI. (1796.) NyL Stand. 151 TV Prim Seead. 2W. 
U AeJkariL Vtmtr. la Ach. Prodr. p. S3. Ach. Sya. 137. 

Fm i- WW). I. «. t 31. 6a-. 4. Ath. Prod, t (n til. Hrpp Sporcn 1^.1.(3. 

£u 6— Zw. 114. HeppfflS. Am. SSO. Ami Langob. 395. 

Oaoo. Inimun , Cfir— ny, Sweden, Switzerland, France. 

Bot. Paur :-7...15.. (l»-So.) 

8ourL*si> :— Loch na Cat I Ben L»w«ni. Dr. Ball. Gram pinna, WBIMCTl. Iter. 

laoAXD i— Not ran. Mr. Carroll. Hallynakill ! Gal way; MaUagbclaaa! n—r 
Tally I Mr. Lartalalirr. 

WAU»:-Ujrn AUd. Mr. OnJTfA. I179A) Trn-jMrrora. Mr. »«"■_ 
FfrmwoUow! Lira y-Cee I Cwm Cwlyd ! Harlech Caatle! Tretriw Tail* I 
Conway FaU* I Urn Gwernan ! Aber Waterfall ! 

" Siwree .014— .018 nun. loo*. .007-0 mm. trad." <4r>Q " Sport* .013-018 
max W. .OOft-8 ami. broad." ' 
.007 mm. broad. 

(r. M. Fr.) Spore* .013-415 mm. loa«. 

form* punctata, (DickB.) yreyith-while, thin, riniiiloso, uigro- 
aic; apothecia minute, numerous, sulwcssile. Hack, pi 
ctrtio-prninote, thallinc margin white, entire. 
On rocks and walls, runs. 1793. 

St* :-Wck*. Crypt. 3. 15. (1793.) CromMe Bn 85. h. eyrtatpit, Ach. L. U- 
897. fly a. 137. 

Fm :-E. Bot 4HX 

Gsoa. Diimun :— Earope. 

Bot. Pu ■ ,19,80. 

<;i.t*i>:— Ludlow.SnropibJra, Dr. Jtttph BMngton. Coast ol Sassex. JEtr. 
J. M. CromMt. 

BCOTIAXD :— On rock*. Mr. /Kobe*. (1708). 

Iam-Axti :— Northern CounWe*. Aim. J one. 

58. £. Dickxmii, (Ach.) Khraeeo-ferruainou*, thin, rai/yrfA, 
opoku, rimote or artolato-rimose, nigrc-dcterminatc ; apothttia 
tmall, innate, concave, with thick black proper margin, nigricant 
within j Ui/p'iheeium. fu*en\uMack ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, 
siinplo ; (thallus K — C— .) 
On rocks, frequent. 1781. 

Sm :-Aok Prodr. 7a 0798.) NyL Scaod. 155. L. Otdcri, Sm. L. mdmu-, Vr. 

-K. Bot 1117. Mae*. Bit fte. 67. 
Kxs :-Fellm. lfl). Ann It 8. 2l£ Zw. 26. Scha-r. 123. Are. 141 Leiabt 127. 
Gsno. UnmuB:- Sweden, E. Lapland, Germany, Norway, Tyrol Alp*. 
Italy. Switzerland. 

l'*ov:-a .7...10, 11 ..14, 15. .19. 86. 

— MidiUetoa ! Teeedal*. Mr. XuterUou. Ingleboronea. t>r. 
Can adale, Cleveland Mr. MwM. Wrrkiii ! Brows CiV* liill ! 

Mynil ! Shropshire. 
S0OTUUn> :-N. :«t K<llnbnro.h. Sir J. K. ttnilt,. (1781.) Alpine rock* I Mr. 
Dtektan. Kincardine ; Morrone ; Her. J. M. Crvmbic. 

lati.txn:— Croeham, KUlarney. Mr. Carrotl. Mosstatni ot Delphi! 
Cceineuiara. Mr. Larbntatirr. 
Waxi*: AsgloMa. Arc Hugh Dana. Barmovthf Moel Siabodt Crib 

Coch! UynOwryd! Baowdoal H«tt«*jwsoe.l ! Moel-y-goit! 

"8perea.0U-14mm. long. .006-8 mm. breed.- <Sfl.) Sjwrei.013 
luBf, .006 nun. broad. 

Or ORKAT 111(1 

59. L. cintrto-rufwt**, (Ach.) iartiy-dntnovt, whiter fnoardt 
the ciratmfereHce, areclato-verrueose, rinvw, hyi>olhaIlus nigricant; 

heda immersed, at first concave, eventually discoid bus, 

thallino margin rutin ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple ; 
(thallus K— C— , medulla I blue.) 
Ou sub-alpine rocks aud walla, rare. 

U. «77. (1810.) Syn. 14L, NyL Soiod. 151. Th. Fr. 3cuid.SU 
-Maia. Rlc flg. «i 

1 1.1. 4*1. 
Rot. Pjwv 

ScoriAsn :-4!ra«iiii»in ftn. J. M. Crrmbit- 
W»L*8t— Barm. T. Salmij. Alwryrtwitb. Mia AUoood. 

"SporM.Olil '_■! una. long, .009— .010 ram. brood." (SyLi "Sparta .012 
—24 ■a.liitur, .O07-.010mra. broad." (r. if. Fr.) 

forma diamarta, Ach. ochrey-red, rimoso-areolatr •., mil) 
ato ; ap-itkecia immersed, plane or slightly concave, 6/aot, thai- 
line margin flexvose, elevated. 

On alpine rocks, rare, 1870. 

Sr.t :-Aeh. Meth. Ml. (1803.) Syn. 137. Nyl. Scand. 153. Cromble En. v.. 
Kx» :-And Lanuob. 74. 

i. DmmiB :— Norway, RumU, E. Pyranoca, Loinbardy. 
Bot. P»or .— 11V. 
SOOTLAXD :— Breadalbane. Bee. J. it. Cromlie 

60. L. subcinerta, NyL cinereous, thick, subverrvcoso-unequal, 
rimoto-diffraet, (K — C — ) ; apothecia /ntcm-illacl; innate, plane, 
surrounded by a not very prominent thalline margin, internally 
colourless ; spores 8, colourless, inbglobdM or allipaoid, dcBpIe ; 
paraphysus indistinct; •pith*oiutt funecscaut ; gtlnttnt liyiii'-in- 1 

_htly blue then vinous-red. ' 

On Gneiwic rooks, rare. 

Btl :— Nt). in Flora lKfifl. p. 82. 

BOT. Pisov :-10. 

EjfOLAKOt— Holwick Scar, Yoilnhlre. Mr. llirranan i'» herb. Sowerby. 

Allied to L. <inereo-nrfmeen*. Spur** 0.009 0.01 1 nun. lung, a007— 9 mm. 


61. L. epulotiea, (Ach.) pale or jMtllidoocnraceotu or whitish, 
thin, rimutotc cr suD-oontinuous ; apothecui urceolate or innate, 
moderate, carneous or cirneo-rti/escent, margin thickiah, conool- 
orous, circumcised from the thallUBj spores 8, colourless, ellip- 
tioo-oblong, simple ; (tlmllns K— C— .) 

On calcareous n>< r.iuutuou. 

8t* :— Aoh. L. U. 15L (1S10.) Syn. 9. Lecideo, NyL Scand. 189. 

Exh :-Arn. 11. 1(51. Zw. Ml. Ami Langoh. "7. 

(Jkoo. DtiTRin :— Switnrland, Hungary, Lombardy, Otrmanr. 

Bot. Provi— L 2. .7...U...15...96. 

Exclamd :— MldiUGton-U-Taaadala. Rev. J. B mi tm un. lloltahope Bonrn, 
Durham. Mr, Wineh, Torquay and near Exeter. .Vr. PorfiU. near Aalib.n 
8. De iron. Dr. B oil. 

Scotland :— Ben Law*™. Dr. Holt. Troaaach> ; KUUu ; Bon Lawer* ; Craig 
Ti.U.kI.: The Bee. J. M r, 

ItCLi.M) •— Kylomoro ! oo. (tolway. Mr. I,,irt*il<itier. 

Walei :— Llvu i . Iranian. iMlgnlluy. /;.•. H.ilt. Nanl udon. 

".S|>..r« .010—20 mm. long. .010-11 mm. broad." (Ifyl.) " Apotti 
roasUli"— not to be confounded with L. tocuAri*, With. Spore* .0186 mm. 

"Spom ATM 20 mm. long 
onllia""— not to be c 
long, .011 mm. broad. 



62. /,. /'rerottii, (Ft.) trhilt, rinerateent or firthy-triiitt, con- 
tiguous, often mmUccoilH ; apOtbeob minute, innrrW in 
'i, subrotund or variously diffurmed, tauten*, ro*eo4neamate 
at length obecurate, proper margin connitent, distinct from fA« 
tkatliue margin ; hypothecinm colourless ; parnphyscs gctatinoBO- 
ooncroto; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple; gelatin* by- 
inene* I blue thon subrinous. (K — C — ). 

On calcareous rocks, not common. 

Bnn-FrU.1.. K. Uf, (US .i\vi. Sotod. 1*«. T. Fr. Scasd. SIB. 
Fki :-ktlght. Ang. I.ioh. t. 15 f. 1. 
-M- & N. *iS. M««. 830. 
10. Dmtsib :— Mw*d»n, liinnuij', Italy, Switwcland, Franca. 
Bur. Phov :— 8...1*. 
Kkolam).— Cheddar! tlr. Bomr. 

I ll .-mar. fir*. J. M. Crembit, 
aim, a* well a> other characters, teparate tbl» froaa £. i. 
•tiluli tiu enormoiu concatenate gunltlia, (our limm larger, and which wilk L 
rArjwpAawj, Korb. rWojn#, Hmrft. urf.iro. Ach. lumlw. Ach. and other 
TV. Fries Board, p. 57:1 mclodes in a dktinct genua lomuyi; Th. Fr. 
.OIL' .013 mm. lung. .00* mm. broad. "Snorm jOM— 22 tain, long. .0" <7". M. fr.) 

03. /,. fadttO, Acli. olivaeeo/tucout or badicf/uieetcent or/utm- 
eineratcent, thininy, oranulato-artoiate ; apotircia apprated, ut 
rncTDiiH, often crowded, badio/uteowt or f**coutU<ick, ihini 
iliiillin. margin entire or crenulatc; spores 8, colourless, fusi- 
: ellipsoid, siiuplo ; (thallus K — C — .) 

On moaBtain rocks, frequent 

Ht> j— Ach. 8»n_ IM. (1817.) Nyl. Stand. 170. Miuld Man. 1+4. 

Kn H*| SO, ! IM " 

I. It H«M> 181. Fellin. 186. Anxi It. a 107. 
flcoo. Dumia : -Europe, generally. 

Ben I'Mih L...B i 15 .18. .20.. 80,31. 

1 • ' " I| l'.. -v l_ * . .i ." .. •■'. ..-v.. "V, M. 

h. Dr. Carriagtvn. Batteraby Moor. Aytoa Moor; 

I rl Mr. U id. ■ (.•:.. ■.-. i Porvstl lur.lmi Hill: Lriceeteisbire. 

Durham, Rrr. .'. Uarriman. Torquay, Devon. 
'. Par/la. Stumor Hill! Hereford*!. Mi.uth : I.<>iigMvnd ; Vmm 


Candor! i lug! near Chuivh Klrrtton ; AIkIoii Burf '. StipentoDe* ! 

Bbro| -- > ■ i r . ■ 

ruixi> :- Harry nahinc, Irfwii. Dr. Limlm/i. Ben Ijtwen; CoMt of Kin- 
ranlino ; t'airnTurk, Brncmar. Itrr. J. M r 

I«*U»XJ> i !'•. I fart. Mr. Tcmi>l. < <ion Mountain, cu. Antrim. 

Dr. M<*rr. Mount I.Hnater, Carlow, and near Carnloinrh, «>. Aulriii;. Adm. 
JvMtt. Doagturuagh Mountain! Clalwny. Mr. I*irtnlmier. 

Vf* lowdon, I.lanbtru aeoent ! Barmouth! <'ader latria t Cwm 

Iwyil ! < inn Cywion ! Llyn Cwlyd ! Uvn Gel I r*^- Aderyn ! 

Umt Ihi^KIM :-J«rv 'y. Mr. larialeitirr. 

-i«.r«.00»»ii. Ions I .y ■'.•'■»•• i". l.r..»..|. t. L- f. W.* iMudd.) "Sporm 
.fKlil .Oir. mm. long. .001- t mm. broad." fSyl.) '"fiiwrw .010-16 
long, .004— « Dm broad. Siwroiatla ackular, »lraiBht.•' (T. if. FT.) 

Da cineratceiw, Nyl. paltr, eineratcent. 
On uiountatn rocks, frequont, 

8ts :-Nyl. Scand. 17a (ML) 
Kxh: AnriEtr. 18. 
Gi»a. Dnrrmis :- Norway. 
Hot. Psov.— 7 16. 

Kincardine. Brr. J. it. OnmUt. 
Wal» i-Cadtr l.: -! ( VibCoclil Snowdon ; Aran Mowd.lwy ! 

Var. airiteda, Fr. Irunneo/uteovt, granulato-arcolntc, gran«l<i 



more or loss ditpertrd, tumid and ctmwt ; hyputhalhu thin, 
black; apotheeia pallido-futcetcmt, innato-tt-tsUe in the gMUiataa, 
tballine margin thickish ; spores ellipsoid, simple; (thullua 
K-C— .) 
On mountain rocks, not common. 1869. 

Stx :-Fr. L. K. 149. (1831.) Nyl. Soand. 170. T. M. Friea Soand. 367.- 

r.toa. Dumun :— Sweden, Finland. 

B-/T. Pftov :— 7. * 

W.iua:-Dolg«U<>y ! Dr. li 

*'8lioiM«.OOS-12min. long. .00fi-7 mm. broad" UM.) "Sporw .00^—13 
mm. long, .005—7 mm. broad. Spermatia acieuLir, arcuatoeuruite.'" 
(T. it. /V.J 

forma picca, Dick*. piUk-bUxch ; apothsria black. 
On alpine rocks, rare. 1801. 

Bra :-DSclca. Crypt «. IS. (1801.) 
Kio -Dioka. 1. o. i li f. 5. 
Bn :— Mudd 110. 
Ureal. Dihtrib ;— Korope. 
Bor. Pbov:— 5. .10. .15. 

EsaLASD : -Top of Rojcberry ! Cleveland. Mr. Mudd. Abdon Burt 1 Bhrup- 
Sootlajid : -Grampian* ; Morrone ! fier. J. U. Crombit. Bon Lawen. Dr. 

64. / A auttera, Nyl. eervine or crrvine./jadiout, UDOQUalj r»w- 
o«c, thin ; apotheeia badioits-broum, somewhat, largo, ihallinr. . 

badioHt, somewhat shining, fUlCUOM, often ntbcrtnaU and 
/front; spores 8, oolonrltf, ouipsoid ; pawp hy tB modorat^ 
articulated ; gclatina hymenca 1 scarcely tinged but thocio 

Ou weathered quartaoso stones in gravr.llv (Licea, very rare. 

stx: NM.i,, flora 1874 p. m 

Bar. Pbov :— 10. 

Sootlaxi> : — Xttu naamU of Ben Crnachan, Arvylaahire. Her. J. M. 
OrmU*. (1874.) 

"Sporee .0.009 mm. long. 0.007 mm. broad. Spcrmatla 0.004—5 mm. long, 
not 0.001 mm bruad." ( Nyl. ) 

65. I., rhy/xiri.-x, N'yl. pale or liirid<><riiicniaui.'ut, granulosis 
iir graiiuloso-sqiuiniilosi:, ■qtyuntllfO sulili'liuliito-concrescent or 
tMtvupOBtd ; apotheeia (uioou*, plane ; sjiores 8, eolourlcsw, 

tag or cylindracco-oblong, simple, JJ21 — 21 mm. long, .006 
— 7 mm. broad. 

t Forma curveuent, Mudd. fiuroiis-bltv-k, minutely granulato- 
$quamub»e; apotheeia elevatostmlr, margin paler, smooth, in- 
ilcxed; tporc* 6-8, obtntely fusiform, curved, simple; (thallmt 
On alpuio moaaea and rocks, rare. 1858. 

Svs: Nvl-in Of vow V. Ak. K„rl>, 1*00. ji. 296. Scand. 1W». Mudd Man 
12.1. Crombie En. (13. 
I i -Mudd Man. t. if. 38. 
Cuoo. Dornua :— Norway. 
Bor. Paov:— 15. 

Scutlami : Summit of IW.ii I .awera '. Adn. Jontt. 1 1 
' Spore* .006 to .01 in. long, by .001 iu. lewd, i. 2. t. SB. 1 ' (Mi- 


; faTpodwcna atigbtly 


eoncreU; gMari— : hjaaaiaa I bow umb TOMMavred; sport* 8, 
w I wuI m, eBspaoid, ample, large; (medaJla I— , thalras K— 


in alpine loofittw, rare. 1861. 

flOe.) Nyi So«L 138. Mail lb*. XM.Tt.rr. 


Ku -Urn Si Tack, a Ata It S. 211. Tk. M. Fr. 36. ScW. US. 
Wifajiihf 1*0 CVmWWTX 

<i»oo. I>anaiB:-S. Vlaaark. fWvarU, S.ttWW. luly. Hu . 
H»«b*. .\«cw»t. Stacfcooir Kirtr. nd WaiU Mnoufa 
I'awr.— li 

I >>« CaUsc* a»l IWt> Una. Dr. M t i tgm . fltto.) B*n 
!.»•*•. «r r. /. ITwfar. Cn« TuOocfc; abor* Lora-savCs*. *r* J. Jf. 

••«l«rw.0»to.mi«. k«rf. br.OOeio <«a. L3.f. M." (MM I 
■■Hyjrm.mO-«»mm.Uryud.- (Sfi.J " 8|»*» .WO - 48 
n*. bwr, .016- nana, broad." fr. Jf. /v.; 

«$*. /» iymmi<t*ra, Nyl. Similar to £. «yw»irfa bod 

m L. ij/mmict* (K— C orange) bj (liferent re-ae- 
K— C— . 
On tree* and old pake, rare. 1 

His s-Njrl. in Flora 1872. p. 248. Cromtde m Jocm. Bat a. a. 2. DS. 

69. Z-. loryuata, <Fr.) jvle-mouM-colovr, smooth, tartarcoua, 
rnMtodifraci, areola plane, nisprirnnti-limitato ; opothtcia futcous, 
U'vi, aeaaile, margin jxile, persistent, entire or flexuoeo ; spores 
'.mm, tinea simple. 

On rocks, rare 1865. 
Bn-.-ranuHa, Fr.S. V. O. 284 (UB5.) Lccmnera, Nyi Prodr. 92. 



Fin :-Ma»L Kir. f. 8. 

Exs :— 8ch«r. SOS. Ana Langob. 44. 

Gaoa. Durum:- Pyrouco. 

Bor. Psot s-« 

E»olasi» .—Leigh Wood. Clifton, .tfr Lartntetlier. (1865). 
Cmaxxzz. Iiilajidk : - La Mov*, Jcwcy ! Aldcmoy. Mr. LarUiIrttitr. 
Qumtiunnlilv if di»tinuuixliat>l« from &CKfru riru/oeu. Sjiorai .011— .012 
mm. long, .0045— .0055 mm. broad. 

70. Z. fusctsern*, (Smrft.) whitish or cinereous, slightly gran- 
ulose ; hypothallus thiu, fusco-nigrescent ; apothecia fuscous, mode- 
rate, plane, margined, internally whitish ; spores 8, colourlcsm, 
globular or tubglobular, simple ; paraphyses distinct ; gclutina 
hjmenea I btanaefy fain . 

On l)in:li. 
Srif :— Smrft. L»pp- p. 1«1. Nyl. Scand. 212. 

BoT. PltOV : IV 

SOOTLAXD :— Baae of Morrono, BrMmar. Rtr. J. M. Cromlne. 
Spora diam. 0.006-7 mm. 

71. L. mammUlifera, Strtn. darkly-cinereous or fusco cinereous, 
minutely areolato-diffracl, unfa pl<me, (K — C— ) ; apothccia 
blade or fuscous-black, small, prominent, convex, internally pallido- 
cineraseent, nmnjin obtuse, at length depressed ; spores 8, coloar- 

\i\t», oQipaold, simple; paraphyses few, SUitm, loinowhftt 

thick, upices era&au clav;iti\ couijlutinati.', fiiacoux ; hypnt.hiMiimi 
colourless ; gclutina hymenea I exrulescont then iulvcsccnt, 
especially the theeffi. 
On rocks, HM 1875. 

Srx : Stlrton In Trana. Gla«gow Soc. Nat p. 85. (1875J 

Bor. I*BOV :— 15. 

Scoti-aso :— Bcn-y-gloe. Dr. Stirton. (1875.) 

Spent .006 .<H mm. long, .007- .0085 mm. broad. 

72. /,. melanaspis, (Ach.) cinereo-glaueetoent, xufarfiirular, ad- 
nata, orcolate, verrucosorugote in the. centre, radiato-lacinuil- 

the circumference, Licinmi convex, linen-, innhiiid (K — C — ); 
apothccia adprcssud, fuscous-black or rufofutcom, margin entire ; 
spores 8, colourless oUipeoid, <unpla 
On alpine rocks, nirc, 187 i. 

Si* :-Ach. Meth. 196. (1803.1 Syn. 185. Nyl. Scand. 152. 

K» :-'!•. M. Kri« M. Am. 609. 

Gtuo. Durrani ;— Norway, Sweden, Finland, Lapland. Alps. 

Bor. Paov :— 16. 

Scotxaicd :— Ben Breoht, Argrleahire. Mr. Palerton (1S74.) 

" Spores .011—14 mm. long, .007—9 mm. broad." (Nyl. I "Fpmei .010—14 
mm. long, .006—10 mm. broad." ( T. it. Fr.) Spore* .012— .013 mm. lonif. 
.0J6 -.007 mm. broad. 

,,.„„ Difk ^ apothfeia K a?ld C mi# 

73. L. parella, (L.) whitish or albido-cinerascent, granulato- 
rugoeo or rerrucoeo-granulato or rimoso diffract; 
numerous, crowded, anguloso-difformod, disk plane, In kv-tes- 
taceous, coarsely albo-grauulato, often verruoOH : mar-in thick, 
often radiato-creuulate ; spores 6-8, colourless, ellipsoid, lin 
large ; (tfiallus K yellow C yellow, the disk of apothecia 
becoming red.) 



Ou rools, frequent. 

Bm-XataaV MuUm, 1 ].. ISi. <1T«TT.) Acl,. Syn. 152. Nyl. Soaa.L l!*i. 
ModdMan. 1JA. 

1 -i. . : I-:. lU,t. 7'.7. H*iii> Sporea. t. 71. f. ttt. 

Bib :-v 1 ad It. B. 161 M . ft N. 1 144. Zw. 06. LarbaL 7*. 

Gboo. Iiiatsui :— Europe. 

]-. ... r<:.,: . -].:■ I. n, <"..7.. 10, 11 18 )- . I'.l' -3Ci>:?l. 

Kmgmmu :— Ayton. Mr. Ma.lH. WhiWone Cliff ! near ThinJc. Mr. Baler. 
B*ad>y Howl! Or. Mooter. Durham; Kern IalauJ», Northumberland. Mr. 
WW*. Devon. Mr.Par/iU- N Kawx. Mr. Vamne. Badf ordahlr. . 

' . v Ca.tle, Warwick-hire -. Malvern 11UU. Mr. /Vrfuti. Ik-Mbam. 

]<rvli-ail, ( 'hittingatone. Maidatonr. I.ydd Bench, Shorahaci, Kent. ,Vr. //-.'««. 
West Allen Can*. Nortbauiherlaiid, /(«. »'. JoAihvh, Uaeatling, Sum* ; anil 
Great Glenham, Suffolk. Tfrr. J£ AT. /tfiwavfcW. Moreton. Xort l. I i-dog. 

ton ; Iuwardleigh : lluttur ltoek, Doddboombodalgh. Devon. Mam. Jma amd 
A'MiiHon. Xeawliff >l ry King near Church Stretton ! Haurh 

Hill ! I.lanvinynech Hill ! Caw Caradoc fl Craijrforda ! Shxopthire. 

8cWT1a*D :— Stennla, Orkney. I>r L>ndtay. Cong Ialand. Pnf. Bal/«*r. ooaat 
of Kincardine; Morrooe; Craig Tullucb. for. J. M. CroaUt. I»|. 
of Forth. Mr. So 

uinion. Mr. Carroll. Hirer Dawn*! co. Gal way. Mr. Larit- 

Wai-w : Al«rdorey ! Rer. A. Bloxam. Barmouth ! Dfganwy Bear Conway I 
Drwayiiaiit ! Trefriw ! I nguard ! lioaumarb 1 Crioraeth ! Aber ! v. IHL.VSI1M :— Jertwy I and all the other lalanda. Mr. Laroaltttirr. 

"8por*i .013 to 014ln. long, by .005 to .007 In. broad." (MwU.) "Sporea 
.OUJ-88 nun. Ion*-. .Off.— Hi mm. broad." (Xgl. A T. M.Fr.J 

form* palletctn*, (I..) white, duk of apothecia afbo-pminote, 

a Unci., entire, tmooth. 
On rocks and tivrt, frcjuitnt.. 

Srx :-I,mn. Bjp PI I K, (1753.) Aeh. .Syn. 160. Rjt Scand. 1807. 

ttaud. S \>1. SS. AnriElr. 1*. LarbaL ?0. Ixlght. 8. 

Gxuo. Di .-onei. 

Bot.Pbov.--1,'.' 4.-. 7 1 ■•'-'.-. ...31. 

.untoa* Weir Bridge, Devon. Afr. Par/rtt near Klanbridce, 
S. Devon : Veuluor. I-le of Wight. Or. Holl. Midland Countiaa, Jfr. iNirtoav 
Knlfurdahir*. Be*. C. AU*L Llanyblodwel rocko 1 

8wrLAJH>:— Aborfeldy! Dr. RM. Uto$ Ielaiid. ProJ. Bat/our. Coaaf of 
Kincardine. Brr. J. M. Orom 

■. Killnloe and Mucniaa. Mr. Carroll. 
W.u.t;- -. - Hutwoen Bala an^l Dolgellry ! Ulyu I near Capel Curig. 1 Janbe- 
i! n a ; 

Iauu«i)« : -St. I^twranes, Jenny ! and all the other Ialanda. Mr. 

forma tumidxda, (Pcre.) whitish, di$k of apothecin airnro-les- 
lactout, coarfly tU^groHmale, margin thick, entire or cronate, 

On txeea, not common. 1861. 

Stji :— Potkoii in I'rt. Ann. But. »t. 1L p. 18. Aeh. Syn. 170. Mndil Man. 

i i : - Hepp Sporen t 31. f. 

Kxa :— Hepi. inn. "M. Mudd 193. Korb. 275. And LangoK 100. Ana. 14a 
Mandoo X Aaii It. 8. 16V. Sdtftr. :»7. 318. Walw. I.u-it. sa. rk*L ». M. 
A K. 114T.. 

CiKM. Diamin :— Kuropo. 

Bt.t 1,8,3 .7 1»,11. 18, 1-V 

Xear Eaaby ! n»»r Ayton I 
. v„n. Mr. Far#t. 
l,\e of Wight. l>r. //;•''• I^ymjino, Kent. 

land. Mr. MudJ. Haldoa : 
»e\. ^fr. Koreiine. nvar Sbanklin, 
Mr. Rohm. Kn lt -.lii-M. AUtaa; 

Cumberland; W<*t \ll-n C*,-.,\- ,.-. W. ^eAajm. 

:-Ilraeoiar. for. J. M. Ortm 
Wauca :— Trefriw ■ (on aycamore) l.laabodr ehnrchyarO '. I.IhiiIiI.hIwcI '■ 



form* Turnrri, (Sin.) albo-torediale. ; margin of apothecia 

thick, entire, albo-pulivTHlcnt or mvdiott. 

On trees, not common. 1801. 

BUI. fljufcll ta BL «*»«. HOT. (1801.) Act Syn. 170. Mudd Man. 1&5. 

Fnj :-K. Bot. 857. 

Ka :-Mu.ld m. Lcignt. 237. 

Ocoo. Dwnun :— Etirop*. 

».i .19,. .as. 

.iajhi:— Near Ayton! Newton Wood; Airyholme! OloveUmL Mr. 
IfuAI. NorthumlwrUni! ami Durham Mr. Winch. Kelt-edoH, Kmwx. Mr. 
Vamne. near Sruuklin ; new Totntm. Dr. Boll, n«or Exeter. Rev. J. M. 
OromUe. Wert Allen Com, Northumberland, iter. W. Jo/taton. lUwkliurrt. 
Tnnbridg. Well*. Mr. Jrnner. H«UU*1, K«.t. Vr. Holm*. 

Sotusd :— Cutleton of BrMmtr. Her. J. M. Cromhe. 

luuicn :- MuckniM demean*, jioIk. Janet. Deer Park, Caalluuartyr ; Kit- 
larney. lfr. Cbrraii. 

/». poriniformi4, NyL aiwwiH or pidlido-cineroous, firm, 
tli in, rimoto-dHTract ; apotktda 1-3-4, innate in convex verruca, 
(externally like n l'ertiwariu) (lilt ■ ■i/jriniomtraeted; 

■pores 6-8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple ; (K yellow the verruca; 
and disk brownish-red.) 
On micaceous-schistoBo mountain-rocks, rare, 1865. 

in Flora 1805. p. 353. Crouibie Ka. 56. 
Ex* : Crumble 74. 
«;wio. UiKTkrn .— Europe, 
Bot. Pkov:— ir>. 
SotrrukSi) :— Ben Lawer* ! Adm. J erne*. (186V) Portlethen ! Kincardine. Craig 

h. Hrr. J. M. Cr.,m>,„ 

•yn» .070-80 mm. lung, .034—50 mm. broad." (Njil ) 
75. L. rwpettrit, (Scop.) whiluh or dark-cinereous, thin and 
effuso, or tartareous, /ur/urtueotu, rtmuloso-areolate ; apothttia 
dull-orange, immersed, piano and margined, or emerged, convex, 
Immarginate ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoidec-oblong, simple ; 
(apothecia K red.) 
On ciilcareoua rocks, common. 

(brna incnatant, (DC.) white, thin, effuse: apothecia small, 
immersed, plane, margined. 

Sin :-Do Candollo Fl. Fr. 2. 301. (1805.) Schnrr. En. 140. 

r. . II. ■[.i.Six.wnl.Hl. 1. Si. 

-M. * N. 944. iipiwreiw. Hchwr. 220. Man. 320. 
(ijeoa. Distkib :— Europe, N. Zealand. 

Dor, i»o.,v : l r. . in. 

E.SiiLA*l>:— Ynrlahire! Mr. O. jW*>n. (Mitnllriich Itaolu; Anrtiyn Cove, 
Totiiaay. Mr. Parjtit. Whltocliffe Rock. I Ludlow. 

forma calm, (Dicks.) while, thin, tffttte ; apothecia targe, 
emerged, convex, immarginate. 

On calcareous rocks, frequent. 1790, 

Six .— Dickoun Crypt 2. 18. (1790.) Aoli. Syn. 39. Nyl. Seond. 147. Mudd 
Mm.. 104. 

I— B. Bot. 948. Dick*. Or. t. ■!. f. I .rru t. 10. f. 134. 

-Schn-r. 221. H«w 131. Moo*. 821. M. A N. 944. loirer central «pcc. 

Cxoa. DiiiriUD : -Karope. 

B..T. H*r>V:-3...6..7. .16., )' 

EsWLAXO :— Craiic y-Khiw. Omrtry! Rer. T. Satires'. Shotover 11111. Oil 
Mr. Baxter. Oreraley Oraeo Bridge : Goaghtan Court Warv.ik.liii>-. Mr. 
Purton. WbiUvllrT* KucUh: LudU>w ! Uanyinynecb Htll ! DowatOD I'Mtle 
wooda! Shropehlrv, 


m in ii- v rum* 

ai- ffl ra l aai i Mr. OUm. (lTSO.) 
Waum?- Great Orawa Hand! a^twyaeg rocki - 
form* rufetermt, (Hon.) ■^rMMfi-r^irrwtu, tarlartom, fitrfur- 
memxu, rimmlomxtrtohtf ; apothocia large, twuw, immargimUe. 
On oaJoamwas rock*. 

Sts : -H.Jfm PI Lick. L *X <1730. > 3ob»c. En, 148. 
Ka^HwDI-ffi Moid 1SL V.&X. 944. rfclrt and left apec. 
linw. Dbtbb :— Kaxopa. 
rW. 5 .10 a. 

bttUK r - Carton ! Kevtoa Wood! Claralaad. Mr. MmU. HolywaU. 
Baatboaraa. JtV »«r. WenJnek ! Su*r»w. y lime rock. ! Skr™-Uf». 
Iaa^roi-OMbrkitwnearKylemore! Garemy. JaV. .barbafo&r. 

forma riridi-jtarrtemt, (Wulf.) albido-cinereotu, Urtareow, 
rimuIoto-arrolfUf ; apothocia large or axuall, yellowish or orange, 
fuh^tuntte or rmerml, imwuxryinate. 

Six .— Wnlf. ia Jaej. Coll. X WL fI7».) Scbar. En. 146. Mudd Man. VM. 
F» :-Jaeq. CoR 8. t. • f. L Happ Sports t. SI. I. 275. 
Bib .-Learnt. 119. 
IIbdc Iharaia : Enropa. 
Bor. Pa. 

Enclasp : - Yorkshire, Mr. MmU. Skonhaaa, Folkartona, Kent. Mr. 
O-tmn. WM»«dl*iwkia«arLodliw! 
Ib-.lasd :- Whtopofal, Cork. Jfr. Carroll. 

*••••••• /Hat of apotheei«m C yellow. 

76. Z. oiaweema, (Hflin.) wUtfeka or glaucoua-whitc, rimoio- 
arrelate ; apoUutia livid or lirido nufricaa't, innate, or tul>*e**ilf, 
piano or convex, cmtio^trninote, thidhno margin thin or tumid, 
entire, flexuoae, or obliterated ; spore* 8, colourless, ellipsuid, 
simple ; ditt of apot&etivm C yellow, tAaUnt K yrllow. 

On rocks, froqueuL 
Srx :-Hoffm. FJ. G. 171 <17SC) Aoh. Syn. 165. Njt Soaad. IS). Modd 


)•„.. r. v.: UK 

Exa .— Saba*. 304. Madd 123. Dkfa. » Zw. 73. Karb. 317. Aaai It. & IDC 
v X. M7. Lekrbt 68. 

Gboo. niHTaia .— Pyrentea I Switaerlaod ! Italy ! S. W. Germany ! Silesia ! 
Vosga. ! Tyrol Alp. ! 

TSt. Pbov .— 1.8. 6.7. .10, H...15...(l*-»). SL 

K*olaxti :-CUIfriig ! Cleveland. Mr. MwM. BoK Head ! S. Devon. Dr. Boll. 
Northumberland juid Durham. Mr. H'mcA, Dunatord ; Goodrtagtaa ; Cknd- 
Uigfc, Deion. Mr. P«rjUt. Whiddon Park: PhiiwimkI Mar Ibdngtoa ! Widde- 
oombe in-the-Moor, Daman. Mum. Jona « Kington. Haugkmoad 1IU1: Bod- 
bury Ring ! near Church Stretton. 

Kcotlaxp : Portlethen, Kmoaidioaahir*. Btv. J. M. Cromlie. 
KB: Nat rare. Mr. Carroll. 

Waijw .— Angiaara. Arr. Hugh IMiria. AberuWy ! Ktr. A. Btexo*. Moely. 
Golf*! Montgomeryshire ; Berth I Cardigaaalrfra j between Fitngnard and 
LI*oa-:har ! Pen Cow ! Pembroke«hlro. 

< 'ii isjin. Urn* •—Common on *J1 the UlaixU. Mr. Lartalatier. 

"Spuna.ooai-.. tax In. broad." ( Mudi, 1 "Sporw.OlO -IS mm, 

.00»-7mttt.l.ruad.- (Sgl.) "Siwrea.011 U mm. 

broad." {T.M.Pr.) 

a. Mac .095-7 mm. 

Pom h fFlol ■ ) '\>"h<XMe*rvUo.nipit(mt t catioi>raino*e, 

tto-oonrox, tlml! ... nttglll oblit«mtod, proper mtnjin tAin, 
black, flesuoea. 
Ou rook*. 



I :-Flot. L. SOm. i>. 123. (I860.) At*. Syn. 1GB. Uciitina, Nyl. Prod. 88. 
Fm i— Hotel. PI Uoh. t. ::: 
Kxa r—Zir. 73. 74. Am. 212. Anxi 1/uignli. 67. 

Ohm. Dnnui : -Tyrol ! Alp* I Switzerland ! Madaln ! Norway I Lorn- 
butly ! Antic America ! 
Bor. Paov 
8cOTLA»D:-HlghUnda! Mr. Borrtr. 

Forma cinerco-pruinota, apothecia hemuphericcd, disk convex, 
carneoux, granulate, cinereo-pruinoie, margin obliterated. 
On rock*. 

Pre :— Hepp 8poreo t. 8. f. GO. and 1. 103. f. 004. 
KXM:-Hei,pd>. 304. 

OHM. Di»TK1b :— Swtdenl Italy! Germany! 
Y*n. Paov :— 10...28. 

. nii :— I .anliraiighrfgg ! Cleveland. Mr. Muibl. 
Ibjclasd :— Near Kinaale. Mr. Carroll, 

Forma Stearltii, (Ach.) diffuse, verrvecto-grantdato-areolate, 
"ambitu radioso-fimbriato " ; apothecia aggregato-amglomerate, 
deformed, dnereo-glaucau*, pruinoee, margin thick, tubtumid, 

On alpine rooks, rare. 1801. 
Sts i-Ach. Prod. 45. (1798- ) Syn. 166. NyL 8c*nd. ISO. Dicka. Br. Crypt- 

Fi<; :-Ach. N. Act. 8c, Stocky 15. t. 6. f. 8. 
Kxs :-Arn. M8. Reich. * Schnb. 74. 
(Jiiio. Di- :ng*ryl Bavaria ! 

Bor. Pm»v :-15. 

ScoTUxn :— Highland* ! Mr. Diction, near Invorcauld oo. Aberdeen. Mr. 
Brown. (1810.) Mocninu in Braeruar. Km. J. M. OmmAie. 

Forma complanata, Lcight. thullus and apothecia smoothed denim 

to one uniform plane, apothecia innate, nigricant. 

On slaty rocks, rare. 1875. 

Bor Pbov :-n, 7. 

Walem :— Pont Dytrynni I ne«vrTowyn (1875.) betw»«u KialiEUard and Liana* 
char I Ptmbrokaahlr*. 

77. L. angulosa, (Ach.) cmerateent, membranaceous, smooth, 
at length unequal or nigoao-sub rimoae ; apothecia crowded in the 
centre, tmbaitgulote, plane or slightly convex, pale-rufous or pale, 
dignity cx*io^>ruino»e, margin mlxntire or tub-crcn'Uat- ••; para- 
physos slander, subdistiuct 

On trees. 

Srsc :-Ach. Prodr. 54. (1798.) Syn. 166. NyL 8o»nd, 16L StLrob. 1. a. 

Kio :— Hepp Siwren t. 89. f. 780. 

Kxs :-Scluer. 540. Hepp 780. Cocmans 322. Srnrft. 64. Mndd 114. 115. Nyl. 
Pyr. Or. 1!). Auxi It. S. ITS. 179. And Langob. 198. 

OHM. Distbib : -Knrope. 

Bor. Paov : -8 .5... 10.. .24. 

Exr.r.Avn:— Yorkshire. Mr. MuM. Totham, Kmux. Mr. Varenne.. Hunt 
Wood, Kent Mr. Holma. Eimtbounit'. Mr. Ro]ier. Ku»««x ! Mr. Bnrrrr. West- 
bnrr! .Shropahlrc. Mr. W. Phtllipi. Loppington! Ncwliff 11 ill! Haughmond 
Hill! Kingitlaiid ! iwar Slirnvrnlmry, fthropahbr*. 

********* Ditk of apothecium C— . 

7a L. ntb^arnea, (Ach.) yellowish-white, tartareoua, gran- 
Mlatthoreolato-ritium, tviyradiaU at tho circumference ; apothecia 
earneous, plane or convex, tmooth, pruinost, frequently oouglom- 


crnto deformed, margin Ihiel, mibttimid, uwU/atr, in ago thinner 
and subobliterato ; spores 8, colourless, aUipMid, simple; {ditk 
tthmitm — . thallus K yellow then orange red.) 
On alpine rooka, rare. 

ST* >-Ack- M«tb. 50. <1808.) 8rn. 45. Nyl. Sand. 169. 

Aeh. N. Act Stockh- 15. t C. I. 4. HoppSporon t 103. f. 90S. 
Kx« :-Nyl. <L tm. 75. Hepi>*>5. Llndlg IM. Affid Kir. It, Mm.. 30». 
Gxoo. Durrani- -Fontainehleau ! Arjennm I Lexer* I Fruot! Utrmur! 

llMtx ! Algeria I Lapland t BogoU! N. Granada, Italy ! 
Bon Bwr; S..7 lft~S8 XL 

Sootla.hi> : — Morrnne I Braetnar. Her. J. M. CrovMe. 

lactam) :— Dawroa Bridge I oo. Galway. Mr. LarbaletUtr. 

Walsh :— Barmouth ! Crate Dhu ! near Criedeth. 

Ciiasiccl Istaxwi ;— Near Boulay Bay, Jersey ! J/V. LarUtltditr. 

79. £. atbtlla, (Pors.) white, silrory, determinate, thin, mem- 
branaceous, smooth ; apotherux scattered, eoncavo or plane, pate 
or flt*k*olottred, e<mo-prumo*r or naked, man^'a entire ; para- 
physea thick, free ; (thallus K yellow.) 

Ou trees, not common. 

Sts :— l'enoon in V*l. Aon. Bot. at 11. p. 13. 11704.) Aoh. Syn. 1U8. Nil. 
Scaad. Uii Stixnb. 1. c. Flora 1673. p. 365. 
. Kio :-K. Hot. 21M. .rea t 21. I. 1ST. 

Exb :— M. A N. 1054. 8cW. SIB. F.llm. IS7. And It 8. 178. BohL 77. 

Gaon. Distxiii :— Sweden, Germany, France, Helvetia, America, California, 
lele Bourbon, Voajee. Hungary, Arctic America. 

Bor. Paor i-l, 8, 3 ...» .10 .15. 31. 

Kxolaxd :— Stanatcad Park, Keeex. Mr. Jacob. Ayton, Olereland. Mr. 
MmU. Hay Park, lUrefcwUhlre. Ktt. T. flMnte Rnanuc I Mr. Boner. Ide 
• F.xoU* ; Kxmouto ! Chudleigh, Dcron. Mr. Porttt. K.lvedon, Emu. Mr. 

Faww. Midland Count!**. Mr. Purton. IWiill*. Wervrickahire. Rex: IT. S. 
Jbx/w* near CwanosaUtr. Mr. W. Jot\u*. Ighthem. Kent. Mr. Holme*. I«p. 
piagton 1 lLaogbmond Mill : .Shropabire. 

SeortAlTD :— A»Umot». Adn. Jaw. not uncommon. Rer. J. M. CVonote, 
OB Iblabdo :- 8t Oam'e Bay, Jctwy. Mr. 

" i .-I.tina hymenea I bine then noariy oolourleea or eomettma* luteacent and 
lha tktca their apicaa peretotent blue. Sporaa -0» 
mm. long, .086—8 mm. broad." (Iff). I 

80. L. ptralbe/la, Nyl. Similar to L. alhella, but di flora in 
tlie gelatin* hymenea becoroing I vinous-red. 

On tree*, thorns, &c, rare. 

8T» :— Nyl. in Flora 1KT2. p. 866. 

RIO : E. Bot 1461. ax herb. Sowerby In Brit. Mm. 

Knt-B&m. am. 

Gaoo. Dmrws:— Knmiie, 

Box. Paov :-'J lis lA>...»k 

Km I ■ Fo»a»t, HaaU, MUi BuUnipk. 

8cvTUMi>;—Mr. JVnar. 

Iuusd :- Killery Bay, Galway. Mr. laeMutdr. 

C. Sport* poiari^iilocular. 

81. L. auranlinea. (Lightf.) jfarttretti or paU-temon*ot»nr, 
ffranulntf, rugoac or unctptal, riinoae ; iipothooia orangtxolovrrxl, 
btatorinv, (halline waiyin obtuac, pni spores 8, 
colourless, ellipsoid, j»>lari-bilocular ; (thallus and apotheoia K 

rar. talkinn, (Schrnd.) 
On ash trees. 1789. 

;i m nniTAi.v. 


8ri» i-Lichtfoot HI Soot. 2. 810. (1777.) Ach. Syn. BO. UK NyL Sand. 143. 

-K. Bnt. 1305. H If in- PL I- L >'•!. I. S-9. 

i .: ft N Hi Sohwr. 537. Fellm. 107. Welw. Liuit. C7. Mudd 99. 

And V.u.a. 87. Bohl. 118. Frie». «. Ltlght tO. 

G&Od. Diktrib :— Kuropn, Africa, Am.-.-..-.-., Ainttrabuia. 
1,3,3,4.5...*. 11 ...14. 110 -30) 

Kxoi.tKi>:— K»tiiiln£tan. JfV. torn ray. Niu»oj. Iff /!,.,,,- H.Miwiw, 
Suffolk. Mr. Turner. Cocken ; <'w\.\- BOMB aud Dalton Denoa: GftMJrle, Ham- 
atcrley ; T<c»dalo, Durham ; near Hexham an.l Cnollerford, Northumberland. 
Air. B'iin-A. near litirwiek. Dr. II. J«hnM,m. Kximinl. r M»r»hi-, IHfOB. Mr. 
■I. Uopsoll Park, LeieMtenhire. Her. A. A/oaiui. (ioldhaiiKcr. Kiwex. Mr. 
Vartnnt. Thame Park! Oxfordshire. Mr. I Mr. W. 

j,.-\u... Pwihlicii until Park, mm Baadfat . Balstaad Cant Ifr. h ■•>•■■■•■>. 

Sootlanu :— Edinburgh. Sir. /. X. Sawrt. (1783.) 

uataBDl — Frequent. Mr. Vnrroll. 

Chaxsxi. Ihlaniih :— Jeraty ; Ouornmy. Mr. I*trb<I,$tirr. 

" Sporea .0085 to .003 in. Ions, by .001 to .0015 in. broad." (Mudd.) " Sporta 
.OIL' .1JIS1..M1. 1..HK. .(XfT .1)10 nun. broad.- (Ay.) "Sporaa .013-18 mm. 
Ions, .007— .010 mm. broad." ( T. M. Fr.) Sport .0M-.019 mm. long, .009- 
.010 mm. broad. nylhrella, Ach. yellomth, thin, areolalehdiffract, or rugott 
and rimom; a|>"tlu.'.:ia dark-orange, margin thin, obliterated; 
(thallua and ajwthccia K crimson.) 

On rocka and earth, frequent, 

Stw : Ach. Meth. 17 L (1*13. 1 Syn. 175. NyL Scand. 142. 

Ii.. : HfTr... PI 1.. L90. f. 1. K. Bat IMS, Gbpp Spawn t. 22 1. 198. 

Eu .— Hcjip 198. Ami It. & 130. Mudd 100. -Sohar. 233. Max. 238. 339. 
tm. H 

Gsoo. Drama : -Eoropa, Amarioa. 

But. Pa.. in .15. .18, 19...96. 

i n:— Bath! Mr. RrtMne. Crahc-y-lthiw near Oawaatrv ! Rtr. T. 

Balmy. Kil.lale I KoMborry ! Cleveland. Mr. Mudd. Dtvonahire. Mr. ParUt. 
LUnyinyurWi Hill ! liod Hill ! Llanyblodiral rockn I 8hro|iahlro. 

Scotlani. :— (Jl«n Oraby about Eboh Tay and elwiwher* ia tho H ikhlanda. 
Mtmrt. Hooker <0 Borrtr. Garryn&hine, Lewis ; Stennia, Orkney. Dr. Lindsay. 

Iatuxu: Blackruck! noar Cork. Mr. Carroll. 9. aide KyUmore lake! 
GIeoonrlx.1 1 Galway. Mr. I*irb,ilatirr. 

tTaibbi BUwdmo i ■!• .. ' ■'•'■ i.iMT. Boabb*. 
Sport* .014— .015 mm. long, .008— .009 mm. broad. 

Var. inalpina, Acli. pale-yellowish or greenish, very thin, itr 
arMlalo-rimosr, unequal, furfuracmu; ujiotiicoiu orange, margin 
paler, flaivtctnt ; (K crimson.) 

On rooka, not mifrcqucnt. 

Svv :-A.!.. I.. V. 888. 11810.) 3ya. 179. VIA Soand. 142. Mudd Man. 157. 
Kx-. -M.i.ll 101. 

Oboo. Diiitmib :— Enroiw. 

l; raoT>-S B IB, 16...19. 

i 'in I lallltlljllill Itiipc l'i 'Hi. ; Raaby ! Clereland. Mr. 

■in?, Baa 
Middla I I.l«iymy»«h Hill: Shn.uddra 

MuJ.1. Kdvedon : Maaalh 

1 .. 

*bv ! 
Hfll ! 

L^oaxUnhire ; 

Scotlajiu :— Weatarn jiarU. Ksr. J. M.Crombi*. 
iMusn : Wlilt*i*int ! Cork. JuV. OamU. 
\\ ai.u* :-Har l*ch CaatU I 

v or greyish-brown, leprorj-tarlar*- 

out, Uiin, rimoso-diffrart, ofteu evaneacent ; >poih«af> M.udl, dari- 

orange-red, margin eoncolorous ; (K crimson.) 

On rocks, rare. 

Srx I nil—- Sple. 185. Ach. Srn. 17». Nyl. Seand. ICMiuU Man. 138. 

-Her-n 8i- 
Kxa .— Hepp *». fST. Mast. 94ft. Anti 1< B UB SohaW. tl*. 



<«soo. Derma :- Korop*. 
Bar. Psx>¥ :— 7...10-.I8. 

LAID :— TfftkU I CVrtUnd. Jfr. JfaaU. 
luuMi^Dabma. Dr. Tartar. 
Waiis i-Near Lfcocolfaat 
Spore* .09 go. loog, .©37— .009 mm. braird. 

L. oehrao-a, (Sehser.) pakKHihrey-yoIlow, thin, continuous 
or obsolete!}- rhnoao-areolate ; apotbecia croceo-fulvous or orange, 
plane, margin entire, paler ; spores 8, colourless, polari-bilocubr . 
(thalltu and apothecia K crimson.) 
On limcxtono rocks, not common. 

8tx t-leaUea, Scow, in Nat Am. 1810. p. U. L. auraatimc* »*r. NyL 
Prodr. 76. L. tetania, T»yl ! 

Bx*:-8ch*r. IB. Zw. 368. Am. 234. Asrf It .1 l.'M. Hw 111 

Gaou. Diirrais :— Eoropc. 

Bor. Paov:-l S 6 .S..10...19...34...«L 

XHli.ii> :- -Tnconsy I Duron. Or. Dtatin. Malham Tarn, YorkiMm. Mr. 
B ail Mme. Bmtton. Oerbyablre. Her. J. It. Cvmhie. Hop* mv Kfoeabrldjs, 
a DtToo. Or. Il.JI. H-ktHtm, Exeter. Mr. Par/ttt. -■" 

Iaauuib :— Dnnkerron. Or. Taylor. Carrlgogiiiiacl, Limaciek; Kenmare. 
Mr. Carroll. Sheep Walk, Amu**. Adm. Jontt. 

Wau* r-OQUr Pniel ! Teaby. 

' Spans .003 to .0025 in. loot, by .00136 to JOOlStn. broad." (AianW.) Spore. 
.014— .I'lflo mm. long, .006— .Wbd. broad. 

83. L. ferruginea, (Huds.) albo-einera*eent or plutnbeotinercu- 
caU, or esosious, thin, moothuh, coutignous or furfur&oeous, or 
eruttaecotu, granule*) or vemtCHlotixxreolate, or evanescent ; apoth- 
(•cm ferruginous-rid, bialorine, plane, proper margin floxuose Of 
undulate, paler; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, polari-tulocular. 

On treos and rocks, not uncommon. 1778. 

forma torticola, albo^infiwmt, moothith, contiguous or fur- 

8n» t-Hoda. PL AngL *L 2. p. 698. (1778.) NyL Scand, 143. Mudd Man. 

Km :-P.. Bot. lfflW. (In part) Hffm. PL L. t 12. M. 

Ex* :— Zw. 95. A. Schnw. 583. Mm. 221. Anxl It 8. 149. BoM.106. M. A N. 
IMS. Stonh. 1S7. 

Uxoa. IHirrsrn :— Europe. Asia, Africa, America. 

Hot. Phot:-], 2, 3 5 10...13..-SS...SI. 

Ryu land :— Suaatx 1 Mr. Borrtr. Ardinfrly, Suawx. Mr. W. JaAua. 
Treoay. Devon. Mr. I'addittmbt. Halfpenny HiU ! Yorkahb*. Mr. AuV. 
Airylmlmn W. *xl I < 'Uvular..!. Mr. Mmbt. Salcombt Hill. .Sidmooth | Berry 
Head. Torbey; Lurtlokh aero; Wbltstone HilL Deron. Afr. Parfxt. Ply. 
■n.iutli. Mr, Il.Jmt*. Kelvodon j Fearing j Rivenhall. Essex. Mr. Vartnm*. 
Melrorn Hills. Afr. Parbm. Halford Hri<l«.\ Warwickshire. Bee. W. S. ttqfird. 
HauKlnii'iii'i Hill: Shrupthirr. 

SCOTLAND :— Ayrnliir*. Mrt. O i 

Ihxiaxu :— Glenann Park I Blarney. Afr. Cbrrotf. Kylcmora lake! Mr. 

Ohaicxsx tsLAlTD* s-Jar*ty ; Onamsar : Sark. Mr. lotioUtHer. 

Spam .014— .014 mm. long, .006 mm. broad. 

forma ttuMola, ptuTnbto-dnenucent, or croeious, thickiah, crus- 
taetotu, gramtloao or **mu»*Hirtolni<. 

Fia r-B. Bot 1660. (in part). 
Ba r-Zw. 96. B. Maat. 225. 224. 223. Scbnr. 448. MuddlOS. Aon It 8. 144. 
Langob. 38. Mamloii 60. P..llm. 109. I«l K ht. 83, 
flaoo. Htsranj j— Europe, 
Bor. Psxw^-3.,.5,6,7.. 10 .13...18.„(li>-S6-30). 



_ _>:- Cliff rlgg! Rowberrr! Cleveland. Mr. Mudd. &\m*x. Mr. 
r. Oaweetry ! H**- T. 8 Mr. IF. Jotfiua. Rodbnry Hag ! 

t.tiureh Stretton ; HaugfhmoQil Hill ! Shropshire. Stannor Hill ' H.-re- 
Sotti.anh :— Glaasow. Mr. OaU. Stenuie. Orkney, th: l.indmf. 
1nci.*m<:- OeoUOOO on roclu! Mr. Carroll. KiTer DawToa ? co. Galway: 
Midertin near Kvlenir>re ; Mr. Lurta/rttirr. 

Walw :— AberdoTey. Vfr.\ >4. Uloram. between Bala and Poleelley ! St 
David'*! Peoibrokealilre, 

forma fettiva, (Ach.) thallus evanttcent, apothecitt numerous. 
On roclu. 

8tx s-Ack. Sjm. 44. <18»T.) Nyl. Scand. 148. 

Flo :— Hepp Spnrm t 23. f. 301. 

Km .--Korb. 276. H«pp 201. Sohmr. 449. And Langob. 271 Ltight. 8ft. 

Ckki. Pnmun :— Europe, 

Be*. Pae-v;-l .5,6,7 12.15 .19. .26. 30,31. 

Emuairn:- Oaweetry I Iter. T. Saltcty. Starcroat. Devon. Mr. Parfiu. 

ItRLAlfD :— I jot», 00. Antrim. />r. Moore- . Mide rlin nn*r Krlcroora and 
I-etUrmore ! Mr. Larbalatier. 

WAUM:-<:imlrt ltock I Pwlhelll. Y Kegle fawr! near Barmouth, Ooodwtck 
Bay ! Perobrok~hira. South Surku ! Holyhead. 

Chaxkki. Im^KDs:-Jer»ey : Gucnuey; Sark. Mr LarbattMier. 

Mr. Crombie find* on maritime rock* in Kincardineshire a var. emcitiam, 
Nyl Scan. 143. Lojlca 1148. " thallo cineraaeente, granule**} areoUto, apothocii* 
farnurin*o-fu«ci« Tel futco-nigrla, Iecanorinl* vel demmii biatorini*." Ami alan 
at Core, Kincardineshire, and coairt of I*lr ol Has mirth of I)oii(jlw ! Mr. 
MtrtiaAolt. another Tar. hueaatra, (Zw. 86.) in which the apothecia have a 
(Satinet thalline marrin. Mr. Carmll haa alao obaerved another >tat« or variety 
potrpana, Ach. (Nyl. Scnnd. 143) "apothecii* fuaoeeoentibu* " at the upper 

forma. $eotoplaea, Xyl. umbrino-nigrieant, smooth, thin, con- 
tinuous, rimo*<*difraet, apothecia oehraceo-ferruginoiu, biatoroid. 
Spowej .009— .0011 mm. long, -005—6 mm. broad. 

On rocks, rare. 1876. 

8tx r-NyL in Flora 1S76. i>. 232, 

Gnu. Diktkib :— France. 

Bot. P*o\ 

IwtLASt" :— Kylemorr, < 'minaniara. Mr. Iwbalettier. (lR7fi.) 

84. L. Tui-hfriaiia, Ach. nigro-fxucotu, thickish, artotato-rimoie. 
or diffract, areola vrrrueose, rugoso and unequal ; apothecia flam- 
rvfaetnt, plane or suboonrex, margin thick, entire, pertutcnl-, of a 
paler-t/rtlow ■ spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, polari-bilocular. 

On rook*, nut common. 1876. 

8tx s-leetdea, Ach. L. U. p. 206 0810.) 8yn. 49. 

Bot. Pnt.v : II...26. 

IXUJkM) :— Killory Bay ! Dawroa river 1 Connemara. Mr. I^trfnlettitr. {1S76.) 

Wjldi :— St, David'* ! Pombrokeehire. 

85. L. cerinn, (I'.lnli.) rincrrvv*, thin, unequal or granulate, 
hypothallus nigricanti-crorulcscent ; apothecia pale-ioaxy-yeilo%t, 
Ucanorine, plane, thallino margin distinct, entire, thin ; spores 8, 
'.■■'lourleaa, ellipsoid, polari-bilocular, with longitudinal channel; 
(K crimson.) 

On trees, 4c., frequent. 1793. 

8rx.— Ehrhart Crypt. No. 21fc 11784. » Ach. Syn. 173. NyL 8c»nd. 144. 
Mudd Man. 135. 
Flo :— E. Bot. 627. Hflm. PI. L. t 38. f. 1. b. Hepp Sporen t, 22 f . 203. 
Kxh :— M. * N. 460, S< -lm . ■. 219. Hepp 203. Mudd m. I^ijht W. Rabh. 981 
Gioo. DtsmiB :— Europe, Africa, N. America. 




.in MJl 

kJtn. T. 

BOadale! Cbrt- 

Bor. Pao»:-1.2.J,4.5 10,11 

Ewu»D:-Om*7 Shrocaafae. Jb*. f. Ae/awy. Aytea ! _ 
bod. Jfr. JfaaU. CcJtieaaU, Neefott. Jfr. rWnxr. LajabK*. Jfr. 
Wat* on the D a aaa t 1 Mi Healeyfteld aad abort Gainlord. Darl 
WW*. ComtMi Weir, Eutar. JTr. /are*. Plyawota. Jfr. JMeua. CoJobeeter ; 
Feathcrya ; Kalredoa; Oary Ieiead, Keen. Jfr. Paraar. Midbad Cotmtie*. 
JTr. Pwtoa, mw Ctraaeaatar. Jfr. IT. ■*•»«-. Wr 
aiMrtnrald, Bhorebem. Keat. JTr. H<Jma. Sottoa ! uv! 
luun :— CoeejDoo. Mr. CtmO. 

<*xl ULuamt— Coatanaeaanibe bnarlabada. Jfr. Lurhmlatitr. 
• .0030 M. bay, by .00125 ia. broad.- (JfaaW.) " Spotee .013-18 
, .008-9 mta. broad." UTat) Saota. ".012-1* an. loaf, .008-10 
[T. M.Pr.) 8f>ora> .0145 aun. bat, .OO7-.006 aun. broad. 

Braatead, Hyta*. 

Var. cfanoUpra, (DC ) dntrxfrtceruUxaU, hypottullus praxlo- 
minattng orer the thin thallus. 
On smooth-barked trees. 

Srjr :-LM Caadolb HI. Franc 2. 5fi0. 0«B.) Xyl Scand. 144. 
Fio:-n(fm.PLL.t.S».f. Li 
E»:-r*Uai. 105. Maat. 226. Ami I.aagob-300. 
Gdw. Dutkw .— K. Lapland, France, Italy. Swttxerbnd, Lombvdy, Sean- 
Bor. Paov:-5. 
InUIB .-New Forart. Rn. J. M. CromlAt. Near 8»r<rw«lmry ! 

Var. eUoritut, Fa*, vtrdigrit-grttn, granxUattmrtolate, compact* 
th all ia and hypothallu* intanningled. 
On rocks, rare. 1861. 

Btji :-Flotow Fl. 8il«. 128. (1849.) Mudd Mao. 186. 

Kxa: -And Langob. S3. Kotk 128. 

Gaoo. DliTOI :— XSenuany, SQwtU. 

Bor. Piiov : 10 .26. 

F.X0L4in> :— On rock* near Newton, 01ev«)anil. Mr. Mwld. (IHC1.) 

Ihxla.mii :— Cong, Lough Corrib I Galway. Mr. fartalatier. 

Var. ttUltddiorum, (Horncm.) albxiHeratcen/, effuse, thin, 

granulate or Uprote ; apothecia paler or darker, waxy -yellow, 
margin pallido-eineratctnt. 

On moesoB, not common. 1799. 

Sue— Horoemann Id Fl. Dan. t. 1063. f. 2. (1792.) Ach. Syn. 173. XyL Stand. 

Km — K. ll..t. 1373. 

Ki- :- BohL 04. And Loflgob. 92. Mae*. 229. 

f ;ann. Dnrrnia :— Europe. 

Bor. Pbov:-1...8..7,8...H. .15. 

isi> : -Egleetonc. Durham. Her. J. Barrinujn. (17TO.) Tetedale. Jler. 
M. Cromlne. near Buxton, 1 >• rliyehire. Dr. Hull. Moreton Hampatcad. Hurt- 
miMir, Devon. Mr. Parjut. Goldhanger, Eases. Jfr. Knrmnr. 

SCOTLAND i— Ca»tl*t>>i>, liraemar. Adm. Jorui. Morrone : Craig TuUoca. 
firr. J. M. Cnmbu. Ben Lawera. Dr. Hull. 
.i*:-IMg«Uey. Dr. Holt. 

" 8porea.0l6-.0105 mm. long, .008— .009 mm. broad. 

Var./wra, Mass./tMnwe- ; apotbecia tuteo-fuKvut, tballiue margin 

I in trees and pales, rare. 1874. 

8T* i Mw. Sehed. 130. 

KUr-M*aj, 2?7. Mudd 97. 

(Itxia. Dint mih :-IUly. 

Bor. Pmv .-A 7 

Ksr.usi.:-B»WaU! Yorktbirc! Mr .VmM. 

B ;— Towyn ! OS74.) Afcsrdoi 
"Sporea .0121 mm. long. .0061 mm. broad. - ' iM<m.) 

OP GREAT llJlirAlN. 


forma eyanopolia, Nyl. darkly<iiur#>nt, tometimt* cmio^atriUesemt, 

Bublcproso or drpresmtgranulaU and rimot^ifract ; gpotiucit 

paU-yeUouhorange, nulicoucave with an elevated cx&iu-cxrulcsccnt 

margiu, at length triatorine. 

(hi wet atones, rare. 1K77. 

8rw :-Nyl. Lapp. Or. p. 128 (1806). 

Bar. Pkov :-26. 

Ireland ;— Betvreou Lough Foigh and Lough Mack ! Mr, Lnrbitlalur. (1S77. ) 

86. L. pyrneea, (Ach.) whitish or obsolete aud evanescent; 
apothecia rod-orange, mall, biatorme, pals, margined, at length 
convex, (K crimson) ; «pore8 8, colourless, ellipsoid, l-soptato or 
poliiri-bilocular with longitudinal tubo. 

On trees aud walla. 

8r« i-Ach. Meth. 176. (1803.) 8yn. 49. Nyl. Scand. 145. Madd Man. 138. 

FM j— E. Bit. 23*V Hepp Sporon t. 58. f. 500. 

Kla.— Fellm. 106. NyL 120. M. k N. 11 SO. (upper specimen) Mudd 98. 
Hepp 500. Zw. 828. BohL 76. Am. 281. NyL Fyr. Or. 73. Ldght. m. 

ilzoa. Diktbib :— Europe. 

Bot. Pnov— 1...5.. 7, 8. .10, 11...13, 14...S6. 

England j— Near Muaham ! Inglehy ! Yorluhlro. Mr. Mudd. Oswestry ! 
Shropshire. Rev. T. Wmy. Twycnau I Leicestershire, lieu. A. ISIozan. 
Beamish, Durham. Mr. Winch. Torquay I Devon. Dr. DtaJu*. 

Scotland : — Southern part*. Rev. J. M. Orvmbie. 

Irkland :— Waatport! oo. Mayo. Mr. Larbalettier. 

Walsh : — Llyn Aran, Cvlar Iilria 1 

" Spores .002 in. long, by ,001 in. broad." (Madd.) "Spores .011-16 mm. 
long. .005— S mm. broad." {Nyl.) " Spores .011 —15 mui. long, .006— S nun. 
broad." (T. M. Ft.) 

Viir. ulmicola, (DC.) apothecia orange-yellow, margin paltr- 
On tree", boceh, not common. 1805. 

8rw :-De Candolle FL Frano. 3. 358. (1805.) Hook. Br. Ft 2. 186. L, laUo- 
alba, Aob. Bra 40. Nyl. Heand. 148. 

Flo :— E. Bot. 1426. Hepp .Sporen t. 22. f. 202. 

Exs :-M«. 934. 232. SeW. 475. And It. S. L39. 140. Hepp 202. 

Gkoo. Dibtbib:— Europe. 

Bot. Pbov :-l, 2, 3. 4. 5. .10. .24. 

England :— Sussex. Mr. R»rrtr. Raaby Wood I Cleveland. Mr. Madd. near 
Stoke Home. Chichester ! Mr. Cooke. Whltstons, Exeter. Mr. ParfiU. Kalta- 
don ; Coaeahall ; Braxtad ! Wlthain, Knai, Mr. Varenne. Pophills, War- 
wicluhire. Rec. W. S. Ritford. Great Ulenham. Suffolk. Rev. R. N. Hloom/Uld. 
Hciltiui Park. Oxfordshire. Mr. Larbalatfer. Barnsley Park, near Cirencester. 
Mr. W. Joihm. Boxhlll. Kastlmurae, Mr. Roper. Wrotham, Hothfield, Eyna- 
ford, Shomluun, Kent. Mr. Hotmei. 

IRELAND :— Caallocgiinel ! near Limerick. Mr. CarroU. Curraghinore. Adm, 

Sporw .012— .014 mm. long, .0065 -.007 mm. hruad. 

Var. holoavpa, (Ehrh.) grr.yuhrblark, thin, cntiro or scattered 
and furfuracooius, granulate ; apothecia crowded, angular, loaxy- 
yellow-orange, sub-concave or plane, margin entire, paler. 

On flints and palings, not frequent. 

Sth :-Khrhart Crypt No. 284. (1793.) Ach. 8yn. 49. NyL Scand. 145, Mudd 
Man. 187. 

Fir. :-E. Bot 3)09. Hem. ftp.>r«n t 1). f. 73. 

Bxa :-Kepp 73. Mass. 283. 235. Ann Langob. 96. 

Gsoa. Oibtkib :— Europe. 

Bot. Pbov :-l, S, S, 4. 5 ..10. 

Ksolasd : -Sussex Downs. Mr. Borrtr. Bury. Bto. O. R. LctOha. Ingleby 1 


Omlud. Mr. MmU. Bath. Mr. 9mw. 

Con, Te*q 


Jtrr. T. *V«*». Anatoy'* 
>. IWn*r. Grol- 
vnd I Shropaidr*. 

lor^/Torquay. JfY. /'.ir/H. KrWedn.i : MtwSns. Ee*e«. J/r. 

in. Warwickshire. Un. W. S. Rnfvrd, Grin-bill t I<nmrnvi 

'• Spar** .010-14 mm. long, .008—.U10 nun. broad." <.Vy. | 

V»r. pgrithroma, (Ach.) brountuh-greg, continuous, nijrnlnsc ; 
npnthecia minute, aub.immenu.-d. concave, pnUyreenith-ditn colour 
ttith a bright-yeltote pruina, rnaryin very tumid, inflexed, bright 

On siliceous slate. 

8TS s-Ad»- 1* U. 208. (1810.) Syn. 39. CmmbW Enum. 47. pittt, Tayl. FL 
1Kb, 2. 130. 

Oboo. DnirntB :— France, Sweden. 

Hot. Foot :-»... 19 J& 

Exulanu :— Durham. Jtrr. J. Xfairiman.> :—T>aakcrron and •laewhar* In ox Kerry. Or. 7\tftor. near Lough 
Inogh and Cleg-han, Connemara, Mr. Larialalitr. 

87. L. knmotiUt, Chaub. cinereous, contiguous, vcrrtioiott, 
eubliniitate. kypotholltu earvtttcent ; apotheeia dtul-y-ferruginoiu-red, 
plane, sessile, margin somewhat thick, rmitUo-ei>ura*cent, persis- 
tent ; aporea 8, colourless, ellipsoid, tiohiri-liikiKMlar. 

On trees, rare. 

STXJ-Chonb. In St. Am. Fl. Ag. 402. (1821.) Nyl. Prod. 75. Korb. Par. 64 

Exst— Cnero. 821. 2m, VA. Maw. 170. Korb. 244. And Etr. 13. 

i' Dimn :— Europe. 

Box. Pbot :— 8. 

Exouasd t— Aldermin«t«r ! Worcertenhire. Mr. Lett. 

88. L- arenaria, {Pen.) alUxincraicent, thin, gi-anulato-pni- 
.reruient- at the centre, rutundato-lobate, and eremite at the cir- 

ritm/erence f apotheeia sessile, plane, dark laumy-red, margin pal*- 
<iramjf red, thalline m/trgin lo/utr, crermto, undulate ; itporx-s 8, 
colourless, elliptico-oblong, jiohiri-hilociihir. 
On rocks and walls, not frequent. 1 783. 

8TK :— Per*. In Uet Ann. 7. i>. 27. 0794 ) Ai-h. Syn. 102. Plum-Hum I irAo/y- 
lum. Nyl. Prodr. 73. Callopima armarium. Mndd Man. 188. 

I j— K. Bot. 1010. llllm. PI. L. t. 58. f. 1. Hepii Si.or.ii «. 22. Ilg. 109. 

Ex» .— Zw. 97. Frie- MS, Hopp 199. Schier. 632. 

Bot. Psov. :-2, 3,4,3,6,7. 

Gtoa Uiamm:— Komp.'. 

BUOUjro :-8tnimr»h*w Norfolk. Sir J. R. Smith. (1783.1 Wiabeocb, Nor 
folk. Afr. Strimtliirt. Mahutone, Rent Adm. Jontn. near - I -U of 

W%M> Mr. Hmdman. FsjrUght near Hosting*. Or. Halt. CoKEVihall. Eosex. 
M'. Vara-ur. PopUOs, Warnickahire. Rn. W.S. Huffonl. near Hereford. Mr. 
W. Joihua. 
■ Waits :— Conway ! Fkhgnard Harbour ! Pembrokc»hire. 

" Spore* .003 to .604 in. long, by .001 to .0015 In. broad." (MtuU.) Kpnrea 
,015 mm. long, .009— .010 mm. brood. 

89. L. Lallavei, (Clem.) whits, tartareous, smooth, rin 
areolate, i»«l> loluite at the circumference j apotheeia wnh-imtnerttd, 
plane, inicntely-red, scarcely margined ; spores 8, colourlcw, cllif 
tico-oblong, polari-bilocular. 

On calcareous rocks, rare. 

. :-Clem. Ew. 295. 0807.) A.-h. Sy«. V>. Mo.l.I Man. 1S-.1. 
t. 2 f. 44. 
EM Ami l:tr. 15. 8clu*r. 584. Mom. 46. 

... lM»7niB :— Europe. 
But. P»o» r- lft 

OK URKVT nrtirm 


lip I 111 ! -'"'W«f (llanmlns road, Curie. Mr. Carroll. 

" S|Mr« .003 to ,003« in. long, by .0011 to .002 la. broad." f.VwLl.) Sporw 
.01.-,— .oir mm. lung:, .0085--.OU9. 

90. L. I iiit'.i»lha, Aon. yreenuh-ycltoui or grocnish-grey, effuse, 
thm, fnumdott (K — C — ) ; apothocia crowded, palo-tawny-orange, 
plana or -iiil>-uouvex ; thalline margin sub-cronulate ; spores a, 
OoloorioM, oblong, polari-bilocular. 

On rocks, pales, posts, ami trees, not common. 1861. 

Srs :-Ach. L. TJ. 20*. (1810.) Nyl. Scand. 141. Lapp. Or. 127. vUttltneU*, 

I Man. 135. 
Ex* :— Arnold 298. 491. Rahh. 798. 
(}»m. Di-itrir ;— Europe, Bavaria. 
But. Paov : -2...S ..19 ..31. 

BroLAXD :— Near Worewter. Dr. //of/. Laogley, Eaitbourno ! Mr. Rapt.: 
IriLaXO:— Rock* and Wall* near Cork. Mr. Carroll. 
CrtAN vkl Imlasu* :— Vala Cattle, Jertey I Mr. Larbalatitr. 
"Spore* .003 to .0035 iii. long, by .001 In. broad." l-tfiuM.) 

91. £. pMoffina, (Ach.) citrine, effuse, 'jmnnloic, granules 
dispersed, globular, leprose, (K — ) ; apotheeia yellow-orange, totury, 
somewhat oonvex, biatorine ; spores 8, colourloss, elliptioo-oblong, 

On trees, rare. 1870. 

Sys :-Ach. Meth. 180. (1803.) XyL Scand. Ml. 
Km ; Hepp Sporen t. *4. f. 395. 
Ex« :-Nyl. 121. Hepp 395. 
Bot. Paov : - 2. 

UOAMU :— Near Hatting", 8u*m<x. R": J. M. Cmmliit, (1W0.) 
"Spore* .011-15 mm. Ion*. .000-9 mm. browL" [N<jl.) 

92. L. diphyodes, Nyl. inouse-coloitred or cintratcent, thiu, 
riiivoio-diffi-nd, determinate ; apothecin ftuco nit/rcinf, somewhat 
plane, ammlnant) impoaed on the stratum gonitlicum, MOtitH 
(i. e, with n more or lens visible double margin, proper ami tlml- 
line entire) intcniully whitish ; spores 8, OOlourlan, fbuoduit, but 
without any atud tube ; parnphyses moderate; epithecium fuscos- 
cont, (K violet- purple) ; spcrmatia oblong, affixed to shortish arth- 

On granitio maritime rocks, very rare. 1872. 

Sr.s ■— KfL in Flora 1S72. p. 313. Crumble In Journ. Bot. n. t. 2. 133. 
Exs :— Am. i>10. 
IttOO. Dihtrir :— Prance. 
Bon l'uov :— 15. 

8ootl\m> :— Near Portlcthon, coaat of Kincardiutndilre. Rtr. J. M. Crombit. 

• Sporon .012 18 mm. long. .000 8 mm. broad." (Nyl./ 

93. L. re/elleiu Nyl. einmactnt, this, OOStinaOQIi unequal, 
everywhere clothed icith tn tnut i viracaU loredin (K — (J — ) ; apotA 

/xtilide-rufeicrnt, plane, thalline margin thin subpulverukut or 
at length evanescent ; mm •-', colourless, ellipsoid, pulari- 
bilocular, with longitudinal tubs; epithecium luteiant ; piirupbvscs 
thickish ; golatina hymenca I intensely blue, especially the th 
On poplar, very rare. 1876. 

SY» :-Nyl. in Klora 1K77. p. «8. 
Bor. Paov :— 20. 

Ublaxd:— Xear Kylmimr* and Cl-ghan, Oajway. Mr. LarbaltAitr. (ISTo.) 
'A peculiar specie*, externally like Letanora Smnburi. Apolbrcia tir - 



btataHaavaisilirilawi iiiWmi I with K which ta the btatcharactarsrtic. Spores 
.009— .oil w loac .006-7 u. broad." (Sri.) Sports .0115 ma. k*«, 
.007 ma. broad. 

D. Sport* \ -septal*. 

94. £. mtHoida, (Borr.) frtenitk-grty or wAtfval, *p«mrt«otu, 
stellate, aj-Kaata&r eyiimlritttl, slightly compressed, isidioid, decum- 
bent or ascending, simple or divided, here and there constricted ; 
apothecia dull-patrpiua or browmuiJJaet, margin tumid, cretiulate, 
often laciniolate ; spores 8, fusccacent, oblong, 1 -septate. 

On trees, very rare. 1835. 

-Borrtr In E. Bot. SappL SO*. C18J7.) Medd Mia 106. 
Osoo. Dutsib :- Earopa. 
Bot. PaoTj— T. 

Wjub :-Cwm Breaaa J m. shore IilanVf-tr near Baraweik; Cralaanl I 
RliaUdr Mawddacfc. At. T. Wny. 
••Spart..«»to.00enLloa».by.00»te.0OSi». broad. r*"**.,/ 

95. L. topkodts, (Ach.i orey »r cinerto-fuseetcent, granulate or 
fnmulatcmrrolatt* thin, sob-determinate, (K yellow C yellow) by- 
pothallus nigricant ; apotheeia fu*cou*-blae*\ plane, small, often 
crowded and angutoae, tb&lline wtaroin entirr ; spores 8, fuscous, 
ellipsoid, 1 -septate. 

On trees and rocks, not unfrequent. 

Stk :-Aeh. FraaV. 87. (1798.) Syn. 15X NyL Scand. 148. 

FlO :-K. Bo*. 1791. HtppSporsn t. * 

Exa i-Schmr. SH. Hr,»77. 78. 883. 
Aim Iauwob. 904. Stsnh. 1M. 

Gcoo. PisTBffl :— Kurop*. 

Bot. Pboy .—*...«. 8*-»). 

Kxouwp ) ti mmx. Mr. A*rrr. Yanuearth. Mr. Turner. Nawtoo-Oap Wood 
near Biahop Anckland. Ihirhajn ; Fdtoa Wood*. hV-rUmmbetiand. Mr. WW*. 
Midland Coar.Uea. Mr. Ptrrlon. PophlHa. Warwickshire. At. W. 8. JUfenL 
Krw F«m4, Hampshire. At. J. M. IVoaiMf. Uanymynach Hill ! ShtopaW. 

SooriASn :- (aaxicolel Coaat of KfaxaidiaaiMra. A». J. it. Crtmtot. 

IaaxAxn :— On meka anil trass, cecnaaao. Mr. Otrrtft. 

•'Spores .011-12 mas. long-. .007-.011 mm. broad." {NfL> " Spores .01»- 
10 ana. long, .006-8 mm. broad.- f T. M. fr.) 

forma tjrigva, (Ach.) ttSiluA or pallido-einertueent, thin, un- 
equal or rao^raiitt/oaf, sub-effuse; apothecia crowded, black, 
small, thallin* margin emulate. 

On trees and railings. 

8t» r-Aeh. Prodr. 80. (1798.) 8yn. 151. NyL Scaod. IflO. 

F*o :— B. Bol. 1K49. 

Km i- H»n> 207. RS2. Zw. S57. Mass. 210. \V»lw. Lostt 103. 

Gsou. IhBTKUi --- Kiuopc. 

Bot. P«ov:-1.2.3, ♦. '. .11 13.. .»...«. 

Kn.i.M' — Jmimcj. Mr. Borrtr. Yarmouth. Mr. Tmrmtr. Ostnford, Dwrhaav 
Iter. J. Rarrfmam. HaliL», Dew*. Mr. Parttt. Kolredon ; Coggeshall. Kaatx. 
Mr. rartmt. K Korea! At. J. M. drombir. ChaWald, Wya, taohasa, 
K-nt Mr iidmu. Weaton. naar T.uworth. Oxfordshire. Mr. LarlakMier, 
Polt«ato, Baatboorn*. Mr Royrr. Kramptoa Brian Park ! Hertfordablre. 

SoonaifD ;— Coaat ol KinoarduM. Ker. J. M. Crcmtne. 

Ikil&sd . — Blarwy naar Cork. Mr. (limit. 

Ch.ikxk. Ihi.asm:— Jaiafjr ; <;nvrnarr. Mr. LuHmlttitr. 
'Sporca .011-18 mm. lorut, .0W-8 mm. broad." {X/L) "Spores .014—'* 
i long, .007-11 mm. broad." (T. M. r>.) 

Am. 3. 108. Madd 109. K^b. 24J. 



forma Ucideoides, Nyl. tenulaeeou*, albido-eintrat&nt, macular; 
apotluda leeuleine, black, margin brown or obliterated. 
On trees and palings. 

S<v;-NyL Scand. 149. 

Flu .— flepp Sporon t. 10. f. 79. and SO. 

Kx« s-H«pp 79. 80. M*». 237. Anxi Langob. 874 lUbh. 737. M. k N. 1331. 

Ozoa. Durum : — Scandinavia, Iuly, Germany, Hungary, Louibardy 

Box. I'rov .— 5. .10. 

Exolasd :— Near Htokeeleyl Cleveland. Mr Mudd. Cirencester. 
Joshua. Middle ton ! noar Oewcatry, Shropshire. Rev. T. Satiety. 

forma la-vigata, Ach. einereo/uscescent, smooth, with minul. 
dispersed verruca ; apothocia scattered, nearly plane, at leugtr 

On rocks, very rare. 1877. 

Bra :— Ach. L. T.T. 357. flyn. 153. 

Groo. Distrib :— Sweden. 

Bot. Paov:-S., 1B...3B. 

K»0LAXi>:— Wnplcy Hill ! Herefordshire. 

SotrriUM): -Crodn fluid. Bnutmar. Her. J. M. Cromlne. 

Iskund :— Lettermore, Galway. Mr. Larlialestier. (1877.) 

forma metaholica, Aeh. whitish or albido-cineraseent, ilirprrsa- 
artolate, HomctimcH granulate; apot/itcia black, plane or convex, 
thatline margin tub-entire. 

On trees and stone walls. 

Six .-—Ach. L. U. 351. 11810.) Syn. 163. Nyl. IYod. 93. 

Kx» ;-Nyl. 128. Zw. 62. A. B. Fri.« ML An/i I*ugoh. 377. 107. Mudd 107. 

Gkoc. Diktiiib : — France, Lombard)-, Hungary, Germany, Sweden. 

Dor, Pan ■■- -' ■<, 6, 7 ,.io. ,20. :— Newton ! Yorkshire. Mr. MuJJ. Shanklin, lale of Wight Dr. 
11 K IJanfonla! Shmiwhire. 
iKgi.Airn i— Letter Hill f co. Galway ; Kylimiora Idtk* ! Afr. lArlnilatitr. 
Wale* . — Fcatiniog Road near Dofgellcy ! Goodwiek Bay ! near Fiahgaard, 

I'uinbrukciddrc, Kliy.l<l!:iii OM0t I 

forma roboris, (Duf.) whitish, continuous, effuse, more or let* 
grtmuloic ; apotheuia large, black, plane, senile or tub immersed, 
thallinc margin lobulato-crcnate. 

On trees, yow, &o. 

St*.— Nyl. Prod*. 93. (1857.) Scand. 149. 

EX8 :— lrfaudou 38. 

Goto. DutTKUf : — France, Madeira. 

Bot. Piiov:-1. 2 X, 7 .M. J— Danny ! BuaMX. Berk Haak. Torquay! Devon. Or. Dtalin. 
New Forest. JttwTj. M. Cromhie. Leigh Wood*, Clifton. Mr. Unialeitier. 
LUnyblodwel,Slini|mhiru. Rtr. T. Sal-mey. 

Walw :— Llanrhyohwyn churchyard I new Trefriw. 

CHAXXBL IsLAXlia :— St. John'*, Jeney. Mr. Larbolatitr. 

: i malangiea, (Norm.) dark viridwltvaceoui or nigricant, 
rimitlotodijTract, effuse, fur/uraceout. 
On trees" rnre. 1871. 

Sts:-Nonn. 8pec loc. 103.(1808.) T. M. Fr. Scand 200. 

Gcoo. Dhtkiii :— Norway. 

Bar. Pbov :— fc 

Kxolasd :— HauKhmond Hill ! Pontedfonl Hill I Shropabire. (1871.) 

"BfOMI .010—18 mm. lung, .000—8 mm. broad." {T. M. fr.) 


■in UCflEM-nOiU 

. 96. L. milvimt, (Whlnb.) umbrino-futtout or /lueou+Uack, 
Uiickiah, prtiuulattHtmiaU or artolato-diffraet, vemican>-untqual, 
effuse, (K y C red) ; apollucia blaeJt, plaue, crowded, ntlgio 'Im- 
pressed, entire ; spore* 8, fuscous, broadly oblong, 1 -septate. 
Ou maritime rocks, rare. 1830. • 

8rs :-WhUb. In Aeh. Math. SnppL p. 34.<1SM.) JfjL Soaud. D. ISO. Mudd 
Man. 144. 

Fia :-K. Bot. Suppl. MCI f. 1. 

Gaoo. Dibikuj :— Sweden. Finland, I-apland. 

Bot. r»OT:-1...19...28 ...SL 

1 1 oLASr*:— Near Penzance. Mr. C«nwtr. star Sennen, Cornwall. .Vr. 
itorrr-. (1830.) 

Imxan!> :— Carij Mimntaiua, CO. Kerry. Or. Taylor. Maam Turk Moun- 
tain! ; River Dawroe ! co. Galway. Jfr. IJarbatatitr. 

CaUSUTB Im^xim :— Vale Cattle, l.ucrutey. Mr. LarbaltMUr. 

• ■ Sjwre. .0035 to .Orti . .00133 to .00175 in. broad. Spermatia short, 

cylindrical, ttrai*bt." (MuJJ.) "Sporea .013—23 mm. long, .007— .010 mm. 
broad." <AV-I -, Spoi«.014— 20 mni. long, .007-12 mm. broad." (T. U. fh] 
Sporea .030 nun. long, .01* broad. 

97. L. atrvcintrea, (Dicks.) alnxineraseent, grouulato-or tw- 
rueot&artolaie, smooth, hyrwthullus block ; apotiucia at jirti MMta 
tktn trnilr, pi let, thalliuo nwryi* suo-en/jry, eventually 
obliterated; spores 8, fuscous, oblong, 1 -septate, colls nucleolate ; 
tlbullus K yellow C rod.) 

On rocks. 1793. 

St* :-Dielu. Br. Cm't- »■ "• HTM.) IM Prodr. 03. Mudd Man. 144. 

PlO s— {Neks. 1- » t. BL f. 1 K. Bot. 201*. Hepp Sporent. 73. t. 646. 

Exb :-Nyl. 43. Zw. 68. A. B. 100. A. B. Hoi.p 64C. 208. Leight. 148. And 
lawgob. Sh. 45. Am. 161. Mudd 108. LarbaL 28. 

Ok». Dj»tiub:— KurofM, 

Bot. Phot :-l. .5, *, 7 .10 .15. .19, 80 .30, 31. 

i:. IL*JTP: Du rook*. Mr. DtcJtma. (17U3.) near Ay ton ! Cleveland. Mr. 
Mu'Ut. Crown Hill. l'ly...(il-ui. S. OtSVO. Or. Moll. Sharp* tone* ". Lyth BU ! 
Shropshire : Pe mbridije Churchyard ! Herefordthire. 

8cotlaxi> :— Near Aberdeen. i>ro/. Ihctu. 

I«xtA)ii> :— I/onifh-na-Cat Adm. /oact, Ardzlan oo. Down. /v. Va.wiy, 
Pass of Ksta-an-EIgh, co. Cork. Jzr. Carroll, near Bantry.Jfur Hulctem. Dun 
kcrrou. />r. JYi;/(...\ 

Walk :— Stormy Down. < I lamorgaa. Z»r. JT«U. Diganwy ! near Conway. 
Fort Hill! near Fishguard, Pembrokeshire, Criocictu Cattle Hill: Mocl-y- 

ritAXiicL Islajhm ;— Xinmont Hill! Beaufort Bay; Ia Coup*! Jeney. 
Mr. Larbalfitirr. 

" Spores .004 in. long, by .00175 to .00221 In. broad, t. 2. L 49." [MmU.) 

98, L. nmiopta, Nyl. darkyreyM-broum, iiHlotorminate, 
moderate, unequal, rimoto diffract, areol<t plane; (thallus and 
white medulla K — C red), apolAecia Unci; iniuUr, at first slightly 
margin'" I. at length somewhat convex and immarginate, white 

in; hypothecium colourless; spores 8, brownish-black, ellip- 
soid, 1-septate, -li.liMv eoBMrietcd ; epithecium brown ; i>araphj- 
ms moderate, subarticulatcd, distinct but very compact ; gclatina 
hjmeoea bluish with iodine. 

On gneissie maritiruo rocka, 1872. 

Srs : NvL in Flora 1873 p. aft 

BOT. PaOV:-l..,15. 31. 

K»>:— Rneemodrie ClifT near Penxanc* ! Mr. Cvrncnc. 

ScotlaJIO :— Portlethan! coast of Klncardin-.hirt. ftr. J. M. Crvmbk. 




Ckasww, Uumi :— N«ar Port Bon, AUunuy ! L: Miiye. Jen*/! .!/<-. 

"Sat unlike £«id«* coniopi in external appeanuu*. Imt a true Z,<vh;ioim_ 
Spvrraogonia black. punctate, with artlin>«t«riiriiiat» and ullghtly hacillar ape*. 
matfa. "Sporea .014—20 mm. long. .008-10 mm. broad." (iVjrf.) Nearly 
allied to £. dlnriiKiB, Dick*., bnt dittoing In thy flat plane areolae of the 
differently coloured thallua. Spore* .021 mm. long, .012 mm. bnuul. 

99. L. nivalis, (Kiirb.) whitish or albido-cineratcent, very thin 
or slightly granulate ; apolheeia crowded, ochraeeou* or aurantiauo- 
ochntooouo, biatorine, plane, small, proper margin tomewluit darker, 
thalline margin obsolete ; sports 8, cytindraceo-oblong, or cylindrical, 
simple or faintly l-scptato ; apothocia K dark crimson. 

On decaying moss among alpino rocka, rare. 1884. 
Kxtumally like L. fiilivluteu, NyL 

8tm .-- Oallopitma, Korb. 8. h. G. 127. (1855.) Lcmnora I '«*»-/ uteotina. Mull 
Man. US. Csauera nlttlls, Nyl. Lapp. Or. 129. 

Uew. Dixtkiu ;— Kaatorn Lapland, Greenland. 

Hor. Prov :— 15. 

Soohand :— Ban Lawer* ! and Ma*lar*a ! Adn, /oust, Ben Cruachan. Krr. 
J. M. Crombit. 

Externally like L. fulvotuka, Nyl. " Sporea .005 to .000 in. Ions:, bv .001 in. 
broad." (UmU.) ''Sporea .©28-S* mm. long, .005-7 mm. broad.* (AV.J 
■• Sport* .034-38 mm. long, .005-7 mm. broad." (T. U. Fr.) 

100. L. IIiUrJiiiLua; Xyl. pattido <inmtOf*t or flavido-ciueros" 
0»nt, thin, rimou or ri/nuloso-difraet (K — (J — ) ; apolhecia ruf, 
testneeous, convex, biatorine; spore* 8, colourless, fusiform, 1-sep 
tate ; paraphyses thick, somewhat articulate ; hypothecium colour' 
less ; gelatina hymonoa cseruleuccnt with iod. 

Oo maritime schistose rocks, rare. 

Bn :— Nylanderin Flora 1887. pi 335. 
fiano. Ui.vnun :— Europe. 

Phot; -!...«..»...». .si. 

Bjn&ID : — Peniance. Mr Curnoie. 

lULAXri : — South i if Inland. MUi tialchins. Klnvyla ! oo. (ialway : Dairrox 
Salrock ! Mr. Larbatestier. 

Walk. : i;u<»lwick Bay! Pombrokeahire. 

Ohamnkl [SLaWM;— La Moye, Jareey. Mr. Larijalutirr. 

" Spore. .010 -12 mm. long. .0025— .0035 mm. broad. Spenuatia arcuate." 
(If'il.) Bpcm .013 -.014 mm. long, .003— .001 mm. broad. 

forma br.Uiuima, Leight. apothecm palticlo ronteeoiu, slightlv 

On ruined walls, very rare 1877. 

Bo*. PROV:-3«. 

Iuelano :— Ruin at Civilian ! near KyUmur*. Mr. Jetrtalestier. (1877.) 

101. L. holophcra, (Mnt.) cervitvxastaneous or fuscous, cart- 
iliix'iueo-mombranaceous, squaiiudose, iqwmukl concave, plieato- un- 
dulate, rotundato-ineued, ascending, flexuose, pale beneath ; apoth 
tria erumpcut, appressed, fuscous-blitck, plane, thalline margin 
naked, very en hi ; iponM 8, colourless, obloiigo-fiuifonn, 1 -sep- 

In the fissures of maritime rocks, rare. 

8TS :-Montagno Lioh. Canar. 113. (I8i0.) Sylloga 3S2. Cn.inbic Knum. *8. 

Lai-ten tuUuriaa, Nyl. an. 8m. 337. 
Kxs :- Leight, 380. 
CEOS. Dwrua :— CaaafW 
Bot. Pbot :— 1...5...W, 20...24...80, 3L 

•J IS 


Rxaixxa :-Brad.tooe CSrarchyard Wall, S. Devon. X>r. flcB, Start Point 
Devon. Ilrar Hill. St Miuver, Cornwall. Mr. llolmn. PaJbocoBgb. Mr. Dmeial 
on i»l ■aodaton*, St Jane*, near Bridgnorth, Myttoa Baca ! Htiperrtoo**, 

laataSD :-AHgMf. co. Down. Or. M t i mf af . Sooth of Inland. AfY*. tfal 
•Wa*. Iataad Mag** and naar Belfait ! Brandon Mountain ! Dr. .Voore. Glen- 
nriff. ^rfav. y w «. BaUyoottoe! Cork; Sybil Head, Kerry- KOke* and Boa, 
Clare. Jfr. eurrotf. 

08A>m.IsLan>« :-8t Martin* Point, QaaroKry. Mr. LoetnUmVer. 

Sparta .011— .014 nun. loa*, .004 mas. broad. 

Yar. gtaucoptora, NyL *ruamulo«o-«r«iat*, or^nwidrfo-aTiiaiiHi- 
foa», or «ub lopruue ; apothecia lindo-fuxnu*, tnaliine mart/in tmo- 
tntire ; spores 8, colourless, fusiform, 1 -septate; (tliallux K very 
faint yellow.) 

Damp aides of old turf pita, rare. 1 867. 

St* :— Nylaadw la Flora 1468. p. 164. 
Oaoo. Distrib :— Karoos. 
But. PhOT r-ai. 

Olim r — -"— .— Sirk ; Groans* Coaunoa ! Salnt'a Bay ; Jcracy ; AJder- 
B*y. if r. Lartaiatier. 
'' Spore* .012—18 nam. long. .0(0— 4 asm. bioad." (.V,f. ) 

102. L. Uucotpcirta, NyL, wAtfe, opako, ayavjnta/ca*, a?u«is»i*/<r 
*¥&-<7WMtf«, <Aiit, adnatr, ditperted, often pfinulif-jrm ; apothecia 
fiucuiu, sub-opako, plane, thallino miryin tehilt, entire : spores 8, 
colourless, oblong or ovoideo-oblong, 1 -septate. 

On sandy earth, rare. 1868. 
8t» i— Xylander in Flora 1*58. p. 473. Crombie Knum. 48. 


Ilcrr. Paov : 8L 

ChaXXU. IsuUf DS i— I* Moy* ; Bonlay Bay ; Jersey. Mr. LarbctaUer. 
Allied to L. Motka* and iU var. oiaaapeora. " Spore* .011—13 cam. long, 
.OOKmav broad." fit ft. J 

103. L. erytibn, (Ach.) ouvaooo-cincroous or viresocnti-oliva- 
oooub, or darkly cinereous, l*pro*>yranulote, tAin, diffract; 
apothecia /ateso-rufotu or li vido-tostaoeous, innate, piano or convex, 
thalline mart/in rather indistinct ; spores 8, colourless, linear-oblong, 

On rocks, walls, &C. not common. 1861. 

Kvxt-Aeh. Prod. 50. (1798.)Syn.41. NyL Scand. 167. MuddMan. 14L 

Flo :— Hepp St»r*n t. 9. t. 75. 

Kx» :-Modd 104. 106. 106. Mas. 148. 145. 144. 146. Zw. 2C9. Hepp 75. 

Gtoo. DlSTlrt:— SwwUo, Italy. Germany, Switxarlaiid. 

Bor. Paov .— 1, J, 3...S, 6...10...15...1SL »...28...26...SL 

Ky itham! near AjrUn ! Redcar. Cleveland. Mr. MudJ. Bath I 

Mr. Brvme. Devon. Mr. PariU. Ketodon. Kbmx. Mr. Varenne. Bottmgdaan, 
naar Brighton. Mr. W. Jotkun. Abdon! Shropahiro; Aymeatrey! Harafofd- 

Swtuuiii :-CoMt of Kincardine ; CrairGale. Kern. J. M. Crumble. 

lasutxp :-Koa* Dublin. Or Tavtar. Co. Down. Aim. Jma. aaar Cork and 
near Oaatiemary 1 Turk Cascade, Killarney ; KUkec. Mr. Carrel/. KyUnsor*, 

■■.nt :— Ooodwick Bay ! Perobrokeabir*. 

OUimti InLA3cn«:- Jerboarg. Gaenuey ; N'alrmant! Jomy. Mr. Loria- 

"Sporta .002 to .00275 In. long, by .00075 to .001 In. broad, tit 47." 
(MmU.) "Speca* .010- 14 atm. long, .004-5 mm. broaiL Celatina bymenra 
I blue." (Jry.) Spore* .010— .011 mm. long, .004 nun. broad. 



forma *int*rior, Nyl. einrra»crnti-pallid or mbochracto-wkilU/i, 
subgranulato, aroolato-rimoso ; apothocia pallido-fttMttotrU, le- 

On maritime rooks, very raro. 1876. 

8TK:-Nyl. !a Flora 1870. p. 577. 

Gxoo. Uistbiii :— Eastern Pyrenee*. 

Box. Piiov :-«... 26... 3L 

IaSLaND :— Lettermore, Gal way. Mr. Larbalettier. 

Waixj : — Goodwick Bay ! Pembrokeshire. 

CllAMKEL IsLAffDS : — Guernsey ami La Coupe, J»rv«y. Mr. Larbalettier. 

104. L. aipoptila, (Whlnb.) fiucoiu or futco-cintnout, rub- 
ramoto-papUlato^gramdatt or labereulote, ooutinuoua or nulinto- 
nulouto or creuulate towards the circumference ; apothrHa on the 
papilla; fiiMcouK or fuscous-black or nigriount, piano or sub-convex, 
thallino margin entire, eventually excluded ; fpora 8, colourless, 
ellipsoid, 1-ieptate. 

On maritime rocks, rare. 1808. 

8n« :— Wahlenberg in Ach. Meth. SuppL 36. (1803.) Acb. Syn. 1M. Nyl. 
Scand. 157. Mudd Man. HI. 

Flo :-E. Bot. S.ippl. 2002. f. ft Walil. Kl. Lapp, t. S7. f. 2. 

Exs:-Th. M.Frie*60. 

Gtoo. DlRTRW:— Finmark, E. Lapland. 

Bor. Paov:— 1...U...15...18..20. 

F.Ni.nsn : >-Bamburgh and Staplfta Inland eo. Northumberland. (1R31.) Mr. 
RoberUon. Holy Ialand, Northumlwrland. Mr. Winrh. Tolp*dnapenwith ! near 
th* Land'* End : Penzance ; near Motuehole Cave, Penzance ! Mr. Curnoie. 

80OTLAHD :— Orkney Inland*. (1808.) Mr. Borrcr. Kincardine. Rev. J. M. 

IkRLAND : — Kinaale. Mr. Carroll. 

" Spore* .009 — .013 mm. lone, .005 mm. broad. Gelatins hymencti I intense 
blue then dark-violet." (Atyl.) 

forma maritima, (Smznrf.) grey or yrifeo-nigritatU, thin, flHBW 
lato-rugote, shortly radiose or sub-crenate at the circumference. 
On maritime rocks, rare. 

8rs :— Sommorfeltin Act. Ac Holm. 1832. p. 116. Nyl. Sound. 158. 

Ex* :— Fellm. 122. 

Gaoa. Dihtkib :— K. Lapland, Norway. 

Bar. Puv:— 31. 

ChaMSU. Islands ;— Jerbourg, Gnrnuey. Mr. Larbalettier. 

105. L. helicOpU, (Wlilnb.) albido-rinereout, thin, uiii'(|u:il, 
rimuloto^treolate, alboJimitaU ; apothecia livido-fiucetccnt or fuscous, 
plane, sub-convex, thallin* margin entire, idtimatfly excluded; 
spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple orobsolctcly 1-soptato ; [lluxllut 
K faint yellow, but net disk of apotheeium.) 

On maritime rocks, rare. 

Srwr-Wahlenbere Fl. Lapp. Of. (1812.) Aoh. Syn. Mfc Nyl. Soand. 159! 

Gsoo. DixTRin ;— lapland, Finmark, Aland. 

Box. Pnov:— 6.80. 

vxn :— On chalk. Cilenarm co. Antrim. Adm. Janet. 

Walkh: — Goodwick Bay I PHinhmkeahire. 

Tho chemical reaction ahowa affinity with lubftura and not with glaucoma. 
"S|».re« fKV.i .(US mm. long, .005 6 mm. limad." (flfft •< T. M. Ft.) 
Spore* .012 mm. lone, .006 mm. broad. Parapbysea distinct. 

106. L. albariella, Nyl. dirty -creamy-whitiah, tartareous, thin, 
oreolato-diftraot, arcolie plane, smoothish ; apothecia ftucoru or 



fusooiM-lituok, mall; spores 8, colourless, own/, l-srptat* ; parn- 
phyac* ilintinct ; ge!atiua hymnwii cieruleeoent, then violaceo-ru- 
basecnt with lodin • tolatioa. 

On maritime chalky rocks, rare. 1864. 

Si « :-Nvl»ni!rr IJch. •■Kgypt. p. ft. in Act. Hoc. Una. ISordmnx toL 25. 
Uaoo. I)i*Tmn: vEcrpt 
1W. I'nuv :-2 .. 30, 31. 

ImUtOi IWhy Head, Suuex. J/>. Larbatuticr. 118ft.) 
1»kl*M). — On ulialk at islenartn mid *t GaRW l'"int uo. Antrim. Adm. 

CinN.xn. Im.\niw ; -Inland of Brachial noar Sarl<. Mr. tarbalatier. 

107. £■ spodophceita, NyL greyish, moderate, graniiloso-verru- 
rose, thinly white fimbriated at the extreme cnvuinfVivnee, (K — 
— )] ajM.tlnTiii bttdlO rcdilisli, somrwhiit plum-, with suhontire 
acorn K |iri.iiiiiicnt thulline margin ; cpilhccium faintly brownish ; 
■a 8, colourless, oblong or fusiform-oblong, simple, or often 
milmpiuiou-h 1 -septate. 

On maritime locks, rare. 1878. 

Sim: Nyl. In Flora 1873. p. 290. 
ft .. Paov : 31. 

is: -Mnnt Orvieal t'aatle, Jenejrl . 
,006 i mm. Ion*. .OCM-ft mm. broad, «*U1 

I Mr. LarhtlatierAim.) 
,tiua h vuienea I >UgbUy 

Lin.- iti.'ii vinin. I'xtMimlly to /,. fvliophaaoTtpadofhaabnirtsiij 

nylnjf ti> tlio icrtion of L. rrysibe. Spormatia arcuate." (If ill.) Paraphyaea 
I Iml "ii|n.i. • iiiiii. long, .005 mill, brawl. 

106. /.. Ralfsii, Salw. M.S. uliir •/ tartareoua, 

lli. rub-tolliculoto-anolaU, sub-determinate; apotheda pair- 
hrtJieii i»r mlilUA-iirotcH, minute, numerous, scattered, iruiato- 
N«wile, plane, margin very thin, smooth, eventually evanescent ; 
hypoihreivm fAr'n, pule-faoten ; sporee 8, colourless, elliptical-oblong 
or orate, 1 -septate; poraphvses lax, slender. 

On 1 1 1 : 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . iiiek», rare. 1860. 

1 -.-BiaUrimm ModUit |8alw.>, Mudd Man. 178. Utaner* attaa, NyL la 
Flora 1*73. p W0. 

Dami :-Knj(land. 

Pi si. 

i ■ . ■ \<«r Mooxiiole I'av*, Cornwall. Mr. Ctounr. near Newly*, 

»u «,». r. s»r«*v. iiwxo 

t ubins Fort I .T*cwy. Mr. LarbmUttifr. 
•'S|»,.,..fW3to.««Haloag. by .001 to .0014 la. broad." [Mudd.) "Spores 
U mm.\ .0004ft mm. bruad." l.VjO Kpona .012 mm. Ion*, .006 mm. 

/rfrtiaoiM fttWiytw, NyL similar to Z. rxiywi, hut the 
ihallua pale ulvMinxnh, unequal, rimose; sporee 8, 

iH".-7 mm. broad. 
"ii i . ram 1871 

El. |v 306. 
■•■•* IVacuN*. Cornwall. Mr. Osrmm. (1874.) 

110 Hi»rK>jH; (Hopp> albiJ<*ri*umuccnt or /Mtetseent, 

..:■-. K— C— ); apoiJtrcitt 

••Battel I'Ain- or slightly cotiTex, ■toryw tft*, 

r»a*rv«vi»f t>r /»««»( h\jvth<cvium colourless ; paraphyses 



distinct, apieea colourless ; tpjrt* 8, futeout, broadly-oblang. Urge, 
with a broad dnrirr central Iraruvt'f. band or trptum. 
On <';;s rock*, probably not imfrrqiinit. 1 S7-"». 

Sxx : II<!|>1> K,, K (U >3.) Korb. Far. p ft. 
Fw :— H-iiii Kporen t. 10. fig. 81. 
HeppSl. Anrilul. S. 228. 
(itoo. DnnO '- SwiUerland, lUlv, Krrmany, SwmUn. 
Bor. PrOv:— 1.15. 

Bm&ajrD! Vitloti ! Komenetahire. Mr. Jiukua. <lH7."i.l 
SCOTLAND :— Craw Tullocli, Blair Alhole, Kee. J. M. Crombie. 
8porw.028-.02i mm. mm;. .010 .017 mm. broad. Cialatlna bymenea I 
dlrty-lili:*. W.'ll ili.tinjfuUliml by the broad aeptum of the aporea. 

Vor. immrria, (Krbr.) apothecia immritrd in the rock, plane, 
margin ftlBOMOent, invnlut,-. 
On limestone rocks k walls. 1876. 

Srx : - K .ir»i. Par. p. ft MHffii) 
tin t-Mtm. Ital. 113. Itabh. 873. 
Gboo. DfTiiin : -Co-many, IUly. 
BcT. Paov :— 1 

EflOLMrD :— Yatton and Weaton «uperMarc. Mr. Jothua. (1875.) 
Thora b an nchracawi* »tat« of Uiia variety (ate Mull. Ary. in Horn 1867. 
p. 435, | which may bo probably found on our limeatone rooka. 

111. L. iiwmitd, Nyl. albido4utttcent, opake, thin, unequal 
(K yellow); apotheda pallida rufacent, scattered, thnllinr margin 
unite, thUkuh, mbanguloso-difformed ; tporun 8, colourless, oblong, 
1 -septate, coll* nuclcolutc ; paraphyHC* slender, distinct, apicc; 
pale ; gelatina hymonca I bluo then vinoso-fulvescont or vinous- 

On micaceo-schistose rocks by the sea. 1876. 

Sy.« :-Nyl. in Flora 1876. p. 283. Flora 1877. p. 962, L. rupiaia, Nyl. In 
Flora 1877. p. 828. 
Bor. Pbov :-26. 

Iriland :— Lettcrfrack ! Lettermor* ! Conncmiu-a. Mr. Ijirhnltttitr. 
"Sporea .012 -is mm. long .004—6 mm. broad, aimllar to tboee of Vir- 
rucorta fpidermidu." fJfpl.J Sporee .014 mm. long, .004 — 5 mm. broad. 

112- A. glaueocarnea, Nyl. glauco-virttcent, rugulo*« or altogrthrr 
tubltprof, rimoso-difraet, determinate (K yellow) ; aptithteia pallida- 
earneotu or lurid, biatorint, margin obtuse, somewhat paler and 
at length evanescent ; spores 8, colourless, oblong, l»pt*te. 

On shady micaeco -schistose rocks, rare. 1877. 

8t* s— Nyl In Flora 1877. p. 469. Flora 1877. p. 562. 

Bot. Pnov :— 2t> 

Ibkum' :— Near lilendalough ! and near Lough Muck ! Oalway. Mr. l*r* 
baltMur. 11S77.) 

" Probably a aubspecies of L. baomma. Nyl. which la rather a Biat&ra than a 
litranora." (JVj//.) .S|„irt» .011 -.01 Si mm, lung, .005 mm. broad. 

113. It. tpidomela, Nyl. einrtfo-fiueout, thin, opake, nibleprote, 
rimoto-difraet : apotimig nigrietint, plan', thallinr margin nearly 
WHtire ■ paruphyscs distinct, «>mctimos branched at tho apex, apice* 
clarate, fuscous ; rportt 8, tvlvurhtt, ellipsoid or oblong, \-iept«te. 

On sandstone rocks, very rare. 1876. 

Bni-KyL in Flora 1876. p. 572. 
Bor. Pkot : -2*. 

I«jtLA«l>:-KriUry Bar! near LJIeuoirlwl ! f'onneiiian. Mr. larlnttMitr. 



"Externally resembling L. ioph"i<i. Simrru .011 — 16 mm. long, .008 — 7 
mm. broad. Gelatin* hymoiica I blue thou violet. " I Nyl.) Spores .011 
mm. long, .007 mm. broad. 

114. L. eonfragosa, Ach. whitish or albido-cincrascent, granulose 
or verrucoMMireolate. scattered or contiguous, (K y C y) ; apothecia 
fxueo-nigricant or black, sessile, margin white, entire ; spores 8, 
fuscous, oblong, 1 -septate. 

On rocks, frequent. 

Sr«t.— Ach. Moth. Soppl. p. 33 (1808.) Syn. 146. Nyl. Scand. 149. 
Exs :-Lo]k» 2835. Kabh. 873. 
Oaoo. Disthib :— Europe. 

Bar, tors— 7, ,88, si. 

iKiaAsu,:— Near LetUrmore and l'oughraagh.Connomara. Mr. Lardtiatitr. 

Walks .—Barmouth ! 

Channel Ihlaxih! :— Jerboury, Gut rnsay. Mr. Larbalaticr. 

•' Spores .016-22 mm. long, .007— .010 mm. broad." IT. it. Fr.) 

E. Spores Z-septate. 

115. L. pyreniospora, Nyl. grey or cinereo-fu*cescent, granulose, 
thin, aub-effuae; apothecia fuscous-black or black; opukc, thftOina 
margin, rugulose or obsoletely eraiulate ; spore* ft, fuscous, ellip- 
soid, tilled, ceils nudeoUUe, (spuriously \-'iseptatc.) 

On old wood, turfy earth, and grass, rare. 

Svx i-Njrl. In Of var*. V. Ak. Korh. I860, p. 267. note ; Scand. 151. 
Kir, :-NyL Soand. t. L f. 0. 
Ex» :-I.arbal. "N, 

lirou. DiuTKlB :— Sweden, Scandinavia. 
Bor. Paov ^7-81. 
Chasski. I»ua»ii» :— I«a Moye, Urosiie*, Jersey I Coast of Jtthou I Mr. Lar- 
WaLW :— Gimlet Rock ! l'wlhclll. 
" Sporoa .026—92 mm. lone. .010—11 mm. broad." (Ifyl.) 

116. L. dipHnthia, Nyl. pallido-twerascent, or pale-whitish, 
thin, unequal or sub-granulose, indeterminate ; apothecia fuscous, 
small, plane, thallinc margin entire, internally piillcsoont ; spore* 
fuscous, ellipsoid, large, 4-locular, tho two apical cells simple, the 
rent ml cells either simple or with 2 or 3 transverse cellule* ; pars, 
physes scarcely distinct. 

On the earth, very rare. 1866. 

8t» :-NyL Nov. Oreo. p. 81. (1863.) 
Cieon. I>i!«TniB :— Nova Granada. 
Bor. Pbov i— 31. 

("masm»l Lu-inue :— Slopes) of I/Epern,u«rie, coast of Sark ! Mrs. Colliim. 

" Sports .023—34 mm. long, .012- 10 mm. broad." (ivy.) .Sjwre* .028 .OJ» 

mm. long, .013— .014 nun. broad. 

117. L. rubra, (Hoflm.) white or glaucoua-white, thiu, effuse; 
apothecia rosy or fletliy-red, sub-pruinose, concave, numerous, mod- 
erate, tkallme margin, rugoso-crenulate ; spore* 8, colourless, oblong 
or oblougo-ullipsoid, 3 septate. 

On trees and mossy walls, rare. 

Hi* : -Hoflm. PL Lich. L 81, (1793.) Ach. Syn. 177. Nyl. Scand. 171. Madd 
Man. 166. 

I ... .— E. Bot. 2218. Hoflm. Let. 17. f. 2. Lchjht. Ang. Lich. 1 14. f. 1. 
Hepp Spc-ren X. 28. f. 206. 

Ex* .— Hepp 206. Nyl. 44. M. 4c N. 459. Mudd 138. Zw. 67. bis. loight 338, 
Schwr. 31H. Mas*. 26. Reich. & Schub. 73. Rabh. 860. 



GfOO. PrUTRlB :— Switzerland, Krone*, Vote**, Sweden, Bavaria, Prnwila, 
Hungarv, Germany, Italy. 

Bar. Pnov:-l...5.. 10 M »., -io. 

I -iLA-VD: Tlilndalc j near Kievaulx! Yorkshire. Mr, MwM. <"nug-y-llhiw ! 
miar < >»we«try ; Wlgmor* Castle ! Herefordshire. Rev. T. Satiety. Greta Bridge ! 
Yorkshire. Mr. Borrrr. Haldon, Devon. Mr. ParfiU. 

Scotland :— Morrone ; Craig Tullooh. Rev. J. M. Orombie. Ben Breeht, Ar- 
gylesbire. Mr, Pattrton. 

Iiixlakd. Fermoy. Mr. Carroll. 

•■-Vrw 003 to .OOXi In. lung, by .0012.'. to .0015 In. broad, t. 3. f. 58." 
MfttA.) "Spore* .016— 23 mm. long, .005-8 mm. brood." (Nyl.) Spore* 
.018— .013 imn. lorn.:, .007— -00U mm. broad. 

118. L. clatina, Ach. whitish or lutcsccnt, leprose, granulato- 
pulverulent, thin, effuse ; apothecia Uslaeeo-fuscescent, sessile, rifan* 
or <onwx, oceno-pruinote or naked, thalline margin thin, entire, 
eventually obliterated ; spores 8, colourless, acioular or fusiform, 
3-aoptato, curved or fleiuoso ; (tWlus K yellow — .) 

On pine troos and holly, rare. 1869. 

8rs:— Acli. L. U. 387. <1810.) 3yn. 168. Nyl. Scan.l. lift 
Fig :— Sturm Deutooh. Fl, t. 20. Hepp Sporen 1. 104. f. 011. 
V.xh :— Th. M. Fries 38. Am. 66. Hem. Ull. And V™. 42. 
Geou. DiSTBiB:— Austria, Norway, Switzerland. Siloni*, Germany. 
Hot. Pitov :— 19. 

IULAHD:— On aged Holly in Wood near Dorrycuintry, Kfllamey. (Sep. 
\m>.) Mr. CamtL 
'•8| .035— .WW mm. long, .00li-7 mm. broad." (JTgl. ) 

119. L. athroocarpa, Dub. albido-cinereoxu, rimoso-diffract, 
uiu-qual, granutose ; apothecia densely aggregate, deformed, fuscou*- 
black, etrsio-pruinose, thalline margin entire ; spores 8-16, colour- 
less, clliptico-oblong, obtuse- at the apices, 3-septatc ; (tliallus 
K— C— .) 

On trees. 

8t» t-Duby Bot. Call. 2. 669. (1829.) NyL Scand. 168. Crombie En. S3. 

Kxs :-NyL 39. 

Usxw. Dmtwii :— Scandinavia, Franco. 

Bot. Fkov ;— 2, 3 .5. 

Kxr.LAKu:— New Forest near Lyndhurst. Rev. J. M. Crombit. Exeter. Mr. 
Varfiu. near Pari- irnnotwUjr. Mr. Joshua. 

" Spores .012—17 nun. long, .005—8 mm. brood. Gelatino hymenca I intonao 
blue then vinous or violet." (Jtyl.J Spores .0165 mm. long, .004 mm. broad. 

forma emrulesccns, Mudd. Itaden-grty, granuloso-verrucose, rugu- 
lose, rimoso-artolaU ; apothecia pale-brown, plane, densely eeeruleo- 
pminose, thalline margin, thick, undulate, angidose ; spores 8. 

On walla, &c., rare. 1861. 

Stn s-Mudd Man. 140. (1861.) Crombio En. 53. 

rn. :-Hepp SiK.rvn t. 72. f. 688. 

Bn .-Mudd 103. Korb. 220. Hepp 638. Man. 276. Am. 173. 

■■.. Damns :— Germany, Hungary, Italy, Switzerland, Bavaria. 
Bot. Psov :— 10. 

BmtdUro ! Mar.k! Cleveland. Mr. Mudd. (1861.) 
"Spores .004 to .005 In. long, by .001 to .00125 in. broad t. 2. I. 46." (MiuU.) 

Var. fusctlla, (Schicr.) albido-cincrtous, very thin, effuse, nearly 
evanescent ; apothecia minute, crowded, fusceteent, tumid, or biat'jrine, 
slightly pruinose, thalline margin entire, eventually nearly ob~ 
literatcd ; spores 8 — 12, colourless, liueari-oblong, 3-neptute. 

On trees, frequent 



Hits :-Scha<ror SplcJL 397. 41A2A.I I ■. akk Kn. ftS. Modd Mae. 140. 

Flo :— Hepp Spon-n I. '.'. f ft) 

F.x* :-Xyl. 40. Zw. 87. Hepp 7C. Ami It. R. 223. 315. Fellm. 179. 

Gkou. DiMTiini : -Kline*, Italy, Switzerland, Hungary, K. laplaml. 

Box, Paox i 2, 3. 

Kmit.asd . 8u— I ! Mr. Borrer. Kaaax ! Mr. I'iyjolt. X«w Foraat n*ar 
Lyndhunt. /Jrr. J. Jf. Cremfci*. 

•' Spor*. .003 to .0035 In. long, by .001 in. broad, t. 2. 1. 4ft." ( M udd. J Sport* 
.0115— .015 inm. long, .OOii linn. Imiad. 

Var. metabolica, (Ach.) alhido-nincnwcrnt, thin, unequal, dif- 
f racto*itb-rimo»t; apothrcia minute, black, plane, thallinc margin 
thin, white, eventually fiucaeent and ccncoloroitt with t/ie duk. 

On trees. 

Sis :-Aoh. L. V. SSL (1810.) Svn. 158. Nyl. Stand. 16*. Crombis En. 5$. 

Ucog. Din-Hia :— Franc*. Scandinavia. 

Bor. Pbov:-»1. 

KiraLAHU :— '* In Anglia fort* valgaria." Rev. J. M. Crvmbie. L c. Eaaex. Mr. 


nki. IhLASPB i — Trinity I and Noinnont, Jersey. Mr. Larbatalitr. 
Spore* .020— .021 mm. long, .006 mm. broad. 

120. L. prosecha, Ach. paU-ttraw-tolour, thin, contiguous, 

smooth, minutttt/ rimuloar, sublolintc in the circuinlVnnr.- ( K 
apothetia nigro-fvtoons, minute or -suliinimcmcd, minute, 
scattered, thallinc margin thin, pa'c, entire ; paraphysea 
tinct *. spores 8, colourless, lineari-eUipsoid, \-2-$-teptaU. 
On maritime rocks, rare. 1874., 


Bl s :— Aoh. L. U. 346. 8rn. IBS- 

: Indie 
Hot. Faov :-7. .26. 

OaOB, Dihtiub : -Wort Indie*. 

lKKLA»D:-Rrn»Tle; Kyletnorr Mountain*! (jalway. Mr. Larbatalitr. 

WilB : Gimlet Rock I Pwllheli. 

Spores .018-.U15T> intn. long, .005 mm. broad. 

121. L. tctrasticha. Nyl. vitcllinout, dcplanate, thin, areolato- 
rimote ; apothecia octiraeto-anrantiactotu, biatorine, plane, 
ginate or at length wih-immarginate, (K red); spores 8, colourless, 
'dili-ago-cllipsoid, 4-locular or 3-scptate. 

On limestono rocks, rare. 

8ts :— Nyl. in Flora 1874. p. 307. 

Kx*. :— And Uch. var. 234. (" B. rupcatri* rar. rufo»eon»."l 

Ocoo. DihTBIB :— Italy. 

Birr. I'viv I Hi. 

8cerriA.MIi :- Inland <if I.iamnrn, Argylrijilr*. Kn: J. M. Ortmbir. (1875.) 

Somewhat aimilar to Ltcaiwra auranluica tnr. trylhrtlta, (Ach.) " Belong* to 
tit* «tlrrn "f Lteanora Rrrbiiwnti, (Fee.) Variea with a Havu-albicaut tlialloa. 
Spore* .014— 18 ram. long, .006— *mm. broad." (fyl.) Spore* .015 mm. lor*, 
.008 mm. broad. 

F. Sporrt mitlti»ept(ite. 

122. L. futvtatomma, (Khrh.) tidphurcout or albido-fiarctcxnt, 
HI uHtnt, tartareo-J'aritictc, effuse ; apothecia tcarlrt, innate or 

sub-aowdlo, Biodentfli thallinc margin thick, flcxticMC, purri-mli 
spore- By oolonrlcM, aclauki or fusiform, 3-7-aeptate, curved or 
flexuoec ; (thulliut K yellow C yellow). 
On rocks, not frequent. 1786. 

STSi-Khrhart Hanov. Ma«. 285. (1783.) Aoh. Srn. 17*. Nyl. Soao.l. 13% 

-B, Bot. *23, 486. Hepp Siwrm t 78. f. 041. 



Bn :-Zw. 70. Nyl. 45. Schiw. 543. M. * N. 638. Mudd 130. Happ 841. And 
It 8. 326. Leight. 514. 

Qno. Diatoiii :— France, Norway, Germany, Apennines, Italy, Scandinavia, 

Bot. Pmv :-l, 2, 3, 4,5, 6,7.. .10, 11 ..14. 15 .19. .30, 31. 

I liUBI :— Stonehenge. Mr. IHehon. (1785.) Tunbri<lge. Mr. Porittr. Gorle- 
stone near Yarmouth. Mttrri. Stunt <{• Turner. Ayton Moor ! Battenby Bank I 
Mr. M udd. Oswestry ! Shropshire, St. T Sotofjr, Hord'sPark nxar Hridgnr.rtli. 
Salop. Mr. Purton. Airyholmo Wood ! Cleveland. Mr. Battr. Gunnerton Crags 
naar Bawssfnnl ; H»ifdon-on-Wall 1 Harlow Hill, Northumberland; Mug. 
gleswick Park : High Form ; and Winch Bridge in Tawdalt and near Eglcstone, 
Durham. Mr. Winrh. Coggcihall, Kmcx. Mr. famine. Penshurt Park. Knit; 
SMiiere, Surrey. Mr. Sotmt. Ar-dingl-v Rock*, Suns**; Malvern naar Srmonds 
Yatt. Mr. W. Jotkua. Dartmoor : Whidden Park : Moreton. Devon. Mam. 
J<mrt and Kington. toaUthti Hill I Nesseliffs Hill I 81 

SouTLASfD . — Salisbury Craigs near F.dinburyh. Sir J. S. Smith. Blaobarry 
Hill ! P«rth ; Carry naliinc, Lewis ; Stennis, Orkney. Dr. LimUau. Morrono; 
Braemar j Killin ; rortlelhen Ktnrarilnashlra, Rev. J. M. Crombtt. 

Iulaxo .—Near Belfast. Mr. Templtton. Dunkerron. Dr. Taj/lor. Glenarm. 
Dr. Moore. Fairhrwl. Antrim ; Castlebtiniard Park and GlengarirT, AJm. Jontt. 
Western Blasquct Inland, Kerry. Mr. Carrol' 

Wain :— Barmouth ! Set. T. Saliaeu.. Harlech. Mr, llolmu. Cwm Ffynnon 
Llugwy ! Cap*] Arthng I Craig Breiddsn I 

Cicanski. uajum ! — L'etacq, Jersey! Jorbourg, Guernsey. Mr. LarbalatUr. 

" Spores .009 to .013 In. long, by .00075 In. broad." (Mudd.) " Spore* .036— 
.060 mm. long. .006—7 mm. broad." (.Ay.) "Spores .028-60 mm. long, .005-7 
linn, broad." (7\ M. tr.) 

123. /,. vrntota, (L.) tulphureo.viretr.r.nt Or ibivi-sccnt, or some- 
time* whitish or fuCOO -vireso nf. tartarwut, verrueoto or pliealo- 
rvffoit, tub-areolato-difracl, determinate, firm ; apofheeut red, 
plano-convex, large, thallinc margin thin, entire, often obliterated ; 
spores 8, colourless, acicular or fusiform, 6-7-septat*, curved or 
flexueue ; (thallus K yellow C yellow.) 

On lofty granitic mid schistose mountain rocks, not common. 

8tx :-I.lnn. Sp. PI. No. 9. (1753.) Aoh. Syn. 159. Nyl. Scand. 173. Mudd 
Man. 187. 

I'M : -K. Bot. 900. H*™ Sporen t. 73. f. 643. t. 73. f. 614. 

I :-Anri It. a 825. M. ft N. 258. Scha-r. 320. Hepp 643. Tuck. 21. Bohl. 
3C Zw. (19. Mudd 129. Lcight. 9. 

Gkm). Dihtrid :— Hungary, Italy, Austria, Norway, Tyrol Alps, Pyrenees, 
Sweden, Switzerland. 

Bot. -, . 7-10. 11. 12.. .15.. .18. .23.. 29 ..31. 

BmvLAMO : — TewlalH, Durham. fit*, J. Harriman. Caitcrton F«ll near 
Kirkby I-onsdale, Westmoreland. .Sir J. K. Bwtftk. Yorkshire, ,1/r. Dixon. 
CsM Hilln! Shropshire. Kev. T. Salut;/. AjtoO Moor I Kildalc ! Cleveland. 
Mr. Mudd. Wcardalc, Hiirham. Shewing -Sliirl.l* | T'lioviot and ilmlgehope, 
Northtunbarland Iff. WineK. Dartmoor; Hightor Rooks; Whiddon Parle; 
Boston Down ; North Boi » I '' l*BB, IfifStr*, Jonr* ami A'mjjjfon. 

Hocttlaxu :— Morehone I Amulrec ! Callcrnisb, Lewis. Dr. I.imltay. Mor- 
Tftat, Braemar. H' ■mint. I^ong Ialsnd. Prnf. Hnlfour. 

Inxi.A3<o:-Near Dublin. Dr. Stoka. SGove Croob. Mr. Templtton. Crogban 
Co, Donegal; Luggelaw. tim Jontt. 

Walks :-Pentre 3 m. from Glyder. Mr. Brewer. (174 1', tfotl BUbod. Mr. 
W. PhUIipt. Barmouth 1 Penmaenmawr ! Moel-y-Golfa ! Cader Idris I Cwm 
Tryfaen I Boitwsycowl ! 

OsanrxL Imuran -Jeany, ^fr. Lorbni.- 

•■8poPM.0075to.iii: OeOWtO l»l in. tiniad. t. 2. f. 52." (Mudd. J 

"Siiores .040—55 mm. long, KM am. broad." (Nut.) "Spores .040— 86 
mm. long, .003-0 mm. broad." ( T. M. Pr.) 

forma lejxidolemnM, (Acli.) cincrutcent, subvircscent. 
On mountain rocks, not cuuuaou. 



St* :-Aeh. Metb. 168. (1801) Univ. 399. 
Fio :-DiU. t. 18. t 14. 
Gmo. I)t»TRis:-3c*ndin*vU. 
Hot. Paov :— 8. 0. 

KsuLAXn :— Ooniil.m Hill ! Slir-.i|»hlr«. 
Vt'aus :— Oder Idrfa t 

VII. DIBINA, Fr. J??/. 

Apothoon tabttcalwo Uamurbw, bjpotiMdhia thick and Mack 
beneath. Spores fusiform, 3-scptatc. Spcrmatia slender, arcuate. 

1. D. rtpanda, (Fr.) whit*, tartareo-farinose, thick, cor. 
tious or rimuloae, tubereuloBO-unequal, sub-lobatc in tiic circum- 
ference (C red); apoUuda at first closed, i Mutually expanded 
and diluted, tttbercvlo*a-elevatrd, plnno-dcprcssed, black, ca/io- or 
edbopruinotr, rarely naked, margin thick, obtuse, cartilaginous, 
more or less inflexed and Beiuoso ; aporea 8, colourless, fusiform, 

On maritime rocks, rare. 18G7. 

Syx :-Fries 8. O. V. 285. (1825.) NrJ. Alger. MS. Prod. 97. 

Exs :— Schssr. B74. Ansl Venet. II. lUbh. 788. 

Oboo. Di»trib :— France, Pyrenees, Austria, Sardinia, Algeria, Comic*. 

Bor. Ps(iv : 7. 111. 

Walbj :— Great Ormo'i 

,a (..mine 
I Head ! 

Mr. Uatmet. 

Characters as in Perltuaria, below. 


Thallus cruataceous, coutinuotia, vcrrucoso-unequal or smooth. 
Apothecia enclosed in thalliue verruca, endocarpoid or lecnnoroid, 
or v:u-iolani»id. Spores 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-8, colourless, ellipsoid, 
simple, large, the cxtcrnul paries thick. Spcrmatia acicular. 

A. Thalliu A' yellow, then orange-red. 

1. P. multipunrtaia, (Turn.) cinereous, tnrtaroouR, vcmuoto- 
rugtxe, thin, with a fibrous I ipothecia 1-2 in hemi*i 

verruca; : ottiola albo-»or*diaU ; tpore* 1 (rarely 2), colourless, 
linear-oblong or elliptico-oblong, simple. 

On trees, bcerh, lurch. 1808. 

St*: -Turn. Una. Trans. 9. 137. (1808.) Ach. Syn. 129. NyL Seand. 179. 
Vtriclaria. Turn, and Borr I L R 71 Mudd Man. 271. 
Fio :-Linn. Trans. 9. t. 10. t I. K. Bot. 2081. Hepp Sporea t. 76. 1. 672. 

F.xs :-Mndd 262. Hopp 072. 673. Zw. 288. 

(Iron. Dimbih :— 8woa«n, Iuly, France, Bavaria, Uermanjr, PtiUippine 
Ialanda. 8. Africa. 

BorTPaov :-2, J..J. 6, 7, 8...10. 11 ...19. 

HjUTD:-6mSM| Mr. Turner. (1804.) Brantadalr. Yorkshire. Dr. Car- 
rintfon. New Forat Mr. Lyc'l A Adm. Jmm. Malhsm. Yorkahlrr. Or. 
Carrington. Durham. Mrun. R-Aion and TKonkiU. 8U Leonard'* Forest. 
•Vrnri. Tuner A Bvrrtr. Haldoo, Exeter. Mr. ParjiU. near CircaceaUr. Mr. 
W. Joehua. CaoUrbmy, T..y'« HUL Mr. Bolmu. 



Ikjoaxd :— Killamey. Br T. Oage. 

U ai.kx:— Canligaiixliire ! Jfr. Knu/ht- Nannau ; FiatyU-y-caln. Mr, Holma. 
Conway foil* ! 

"Spore* .10»i .140 mm. long, .038— 68 mm. broad." (.Ay.) "Sport* .060— 
210 BUS. long, .026-58 mm. broad." (T. .V. Ft.) 

L I', eonereta, Nyl. white or whituh, continutnu, tkickuh, rimose, 
unoqual (K yellow then oraugo-rcd) ; apothtcia jammed, endo- 
eorpoid, eolourlest; ostioluni dark, punctiform ; */x>rw2,colourloaS, 
oblong, simple, very large ,- gelatins, hymenea I — , but thocue in- 
tensely blue. 

On micaceo-schistosc rocks, rare. 1876. 

8tx :— Nyl. in rinra IRTii. v. 231. P. Wrjlrinaii, Nyl. Obi. Pyr. or. p. 85. 

Ciroo. Dm bib :— North and Arctic Anurict, Eastern Pyrenees. 

Bar. Phot.— 6, 7. .26. 

iBSLAXD ! — By th« ee», Letterfrack, Salrock ! near Kyl«morc, Connemara. 
Mr. Larbaleitier. 11876.) 

WALM :-Yr Kif I I Mr. B«t*M l)..IHI«y! 

An American apeeict forming the typical atate of P. Watringii, (Ach.) 
Spore* .115— .250 mm. long, .OW-.0H0 mm. broad. ( Nyl.) S|»m .140 mm. 
long, .07 mm. brood. 

3. P. Westringii, (Ach.) greyish or creamp-white, tartareoua, 
thickiah, rimosoareolate, areola plane; verruca scattered, fiat, 
contorted and difformed ; oitiola broumith-blaei, fiat, irregular, 
thallinc margin abraded; tportt 2, colourless, elliptical, ximplc ; 
{thallut K yellow, then orange-red.) 

On rocks, old walls, «fcc. 1861. 

Srw r-Ach, Act. Stookh. 15. 179. (1734.) Syn. 2S2. P. tdtfMNtt Mu.l.l Mm. 
272. (1861.) Crombie Enum. 59. Indium, Turn, and Borr. Lien. Brit. 93. 

FlO >— Weetring Kaergh. t. 4. 

Exs .— Mndd 260. M. * N. 1066. Mats. 86. 

<J«00. Dmtmh:— lUlv, Voagea, Sweden, France, SwtticrUnd, E. Falkland. 

Bot. Paov :-2. .7 1", 11 U .23. .31. 

Kwilasto:— Ayton Moor! Alryholmo Bridge, Cleveland. Mr.Mudd. Arken- 
dale ! Thomthwaite ; near Keswick ; Teeadal* Forest, Rev. J. Uarriman. 
Tnubridge Well* ! Mr. Jenntr. 

SoOTLAXD :— Craig Tulloch. Rev. J. M. CmmbU. 

InELAMl) : — Lough Bray near Dublin. Mr. Turner. 

U' :— Barmouth ! lire. T. Saltcey. Angioma. Rtt. Hugh Dariet. Crib 
Coch ! Snowdon. Gimlet Book ! Pwllheli. 

Chaxxxi. IxLAsns :— Nolrmont Bay, .Tereey. Mr. Larbalatier. 

The chemical reaction and general a*]*ct show that Indium WeitrinQxi, Ach. 
la identical and therefore the original name U restored. 

4. P. glomerata, (Sclileicli.) yellowUh-creanucolour, effuse, tier- 
rucotfreonglome.rate, verruens glohulose, tmoo/h : iipothecia 1 : oitiola 
dark-brown, punctiform, dcpTCMod or tub-papUlnte ; tpores 4, col- 
ourless, ellipsoid, simple ; (lhalliu K yellow, then orange-red.) 

On mosses in alpine localities, rare. 1864. 

8tji i-SchWcher Cent. 3. 77. 11805-1807.) Aoh. Syn. 111. Nyl. Scand. 183. 
Mudd Man. 277. 

Flo i-HeppSporen U 77. f. 681. Uight Ang. Linh. t. 11, f. 2. 

ExK— KeppWL Scluer. 120. Am. 132. AndLangob. 227. 

GBOO. Dwtrib :— Norway, Germany, Switzerland, Chill, N. Zealand, Mai- 
rllle IaUnd. 

BOT. Prov :-ir.. 

Scotland i— Ben Lawera. Mr. Carrol). (1864.) Craig-na-Calliach, Perthshire. 
Dr. Btaingau. MoalOnrdx. BMavdi J. M. Cromhie. 

" Spore* .021 to .025 in.'long. by .007 to .009 in. broad." (Mudd.) " Spore* 
.072— .125 mm. long. .028—44 mm. broad." (Nyl. is T. M. Fr.J Sporae <0W> 
mm. long, .040 mm. broad. 



5. P. cevthocarpa, (Sm.) brownuh-cream-eolour, tart' 
areoUsto^diffraet, areola convex, undulato-rngote ■ ; verruca tvb-glo- 
boae, conglomerate ; ostiola minute, punctiform, depressed, sub-pap- 
llluto, brownish-black ; sport* 2, edooriflMy ell ij moid, simple; 
(thallui K dcej> yellow, then orange-red.) 

Ou rocks, not common. 1804. 

Sols-Smith In E. Bot. t 23T2. (1HV.M Turn, and Borr. Llch. Brit 200. 
Indium mierodietitum ! T. * B. 1. c. 94. Mudd Mu. 271. 

Fio :- K. Bot. 2872. Lelght Ang. Llch. t.8,l.l.*t 10. 1. 1. E. Bot. 2243. 

Km :— Leigbt 2*4. 841. 342. 

(Iboo. Dditiuii :— Europe. 

Sot. P*ot:-S, B, 7. 11 ..19...23...26...S1. 

EnolaMu r— PentregaeT ! near Oiwcetry. Rev. T. Satwry. Gunnerton ! North, 
vcaberlaiiri. Mr. W. Scott. 

IiiklaMi ;— Cnnnemara. Mr. Mackay. near Bantry ! M\u Hutchiai. South 
coaaU. .Sir T. Uagt. Lough Bray MM DuMm. Mritri. Turner .c Bxrrer. Uarig 
Mountain! Dr. Taylor. U»wr« riwr ! co, Galwny. Mr. Larkalatur. 

Walib :— Barmouth. Vcunttu oj Aylf/ord. (1«)4.) AlHirtygwyii ! Rrr. T. 
Salirey. Hafod, <' , anlitfanihim. Sir J. K. Smith. Anglewa ! Btr. Ifuuh Doric*. 
Holyhead Mountain! Manorliecr! near Tenby, Fen-y-rhiw! near Plahguard, 
lVinlmiliciliire. Harlech Caatle ! 

CiiaXXBL laiAXiw :— St. Brelade'a. Jeraey. Mr. LarbaJutur. 

u 8p«M .029 to .03.". in. long, by .011 to .015 In. broad." (MiM.J Spore* 
.170 mm. long, .065 mm. bronil. 

6. P. ureeoletria, Nyl. albido-cinereous or very paleyrllow, 
thiekish, cnistaooous, rugose or utdwsr, riruONO^liiTruct, (K yellow 
then or»nge-red) ; apothecia scattered, rugono-difiorrncil, innate in 
depressed thallmr tmok$; oattala disciform, plane, black, margin 
prominent and thick ; spores 1 (rarely 2) very large, ellipsoid, 
nigrescent (A' violet) ; paraphyses thick, much branched. 

On rocks and stone walls, very rare. 1873. 

Stvt—P. tpOomantka, Nyl. In Oba. Llch. Pyrcn. Orient 3. in Finn. 1878. 
p. 70. 

Oitoo. Dnvrnin :— Eastern Pyrenees. 

Bot. Prov;— 31. 

Cilakxkl Islands I — Old wall on the court, L» Moye, Jersey! Mr. Larbalet- 
tier. (1873.) 

The epiapore In thia species has a very peculiar granulate papillate appear- 
ance ana la easily detached from the encioaad apora or nucleus. I n one aacua I 
aawSspor**. Sporte .90 mm. long, .61 mm. broad. "Sporea .160— .215 mm. 
long, .065-90 mm. broad." (Nyl.) 

7. P. dealbata, (Ach.) tvMtish or albidocinerascent, tartareous, 
gmnulose or papillato-uneoiial, rimoso-diffract ; aj>othecia in glo- 
Aore pulverulent scattered or aggregated verruca; ostiola rub-dis- 
ciform, pulo-brown, lhalline margin irregularly lacerate ; spores 2, 
colourless, clhiiMml, simple ; {thallus K yellow, then orange-red.) 

On rocks mid trees, frequent. 

Sth ;— Aoh. Prodr. 29. (1796.) Nyl. Scaml. 180. Isblium faradanm I and 
roroHmum / and eoooxietl a & /3 Turn. & Borr! Ueh. Mrit Bf. loo. 80. 
FarW«rw rhlorothteia, Tayl ! Fl. Hlb. r , .«yiirnrj». tf«ddl Man. 27* 

Kiu:-E. Bot. 1M1. 1 

fats: -An,. 104. Zw. 2KU. M. a N. 44*7. 74. 8c)i«r. 286. 287. Hew»C7:i. OFB. 
Mnd.1261. Leigbt. 320. 

Gboo. Dnratn :— France, SodUorland, Oermany, Italy. 

Bot. Prov :-l. S, 8, 4, &...7...«. 10, 11. 12...14. 15...16 ...26. 

Evausn ;-Kildalo Moor! Ayton Moor I Bandale, Clewland. Mr. Mwld. 

or ukkat ltmrAi*. 


Oswestry! Rev. T. Satwry. Cumberland. Met. Stanyer, Norwich. .Sir W. J. 
Bonier. Maresliold and Uckfield, Smwex. Mr. Barrer. Forncet Church Yard and 
Burgh Chur-li. Suffolk. Affairs. Turner A Borrtr. Salby, Yorkahire. Mr. Ttee- 
dale. Teesdale Forest, and Croiiklny Pall, Durham. Rev. J. Barriman. Choshiro. 
Mr. BraHmry. FlUton Park, Suffolk. Mr. Turner. Epplug Foroat! Rev. J. M. 
Oromoie. Kel vedon. Essex. Mr. Varenne. Devonshire. Slaeri. Jonet A Kingiton. 
Caer Caradoc ! Shropshire. 

SootlaMU :— Blackford near Edinburgh. Sir J. R. Smith, Glen Collate! ! 
Mr. Gardiner. 

IhiloSD. — Carig Mountain; Dxinkerron! Or. Taylor. Killorney. Sir T. 
Oayt. Bantry. MUi Butehim. Lough Fianehy ! Dr. Taylor, near Letterfrack ! 
Mr. Larbalentirr 

IV.UB .— Moel Slabod. Snowdon. Mr. Bolmu. Cwin Boohlwyd 1 Crib Cooh ! 
Mnuwdim ; Aran Mowddy ! 

" Spores .02* to .031 iu. Ions, by .0U to .013 In. broad." (Af add.) " Spew* 
.080— .ISO mm. long, .0J0-S2 mm. broad." (Jfyl.) " Spore* .067— .160 mm. 
long, .040— 82 mm. broad. " [T. M. /Y.) 

8. P. redwia, Strtn. cinercucetU or cinereo-fu*et*eenl, thin, 
rimulaso-areolat*, (K yellow thou intoaso rod) ; apothecia sessile, 
inclined in monocarpowt lluxlline verrucce, /tucotu or rufo-futcoiu. 
fwiim'l il\t. XHJO'jp'uiMQH ; spores 1, colourless or somewhat fus- 

toai when out, oblong; piiruphyse* crowded, distinct, some- 
what anastomosing. 
On trees, rare. 1874. 

8rs :— Stirtun iu Soott. NaturalUt 4. p. 28. (1877.) 

Bot. Pbov :-16. 

SoOTLAtfn :— Ban Brocht, Argyllshire. Jlfr. Paterton. (1874.) 

" Cloudy allied to P. muUipunclala, (Turn.) younger •pore* with broodish 
eptipoM, maturo one* with coarsely granular contents. Spores .09— .014 mm. 
Una, .03— .04 mm. broad. Gelatin* hysneue* I blue especially the thecal." 

B. Tkalltu K yellow, C yellow. 

9. /'. communis, DC. cUbicUxinerxucent, membnmaceo-cartilu- 
ginous, smoothish or ru|*ose, verrucoto-areokiie, MrrtKCB gab-glo- 
boto-de/ormed ; apothecia 1 or more; ostiola minute, |>uiictifurra, 
ik|ii-c«aed, nii/ricanl ; tp&res 2 (sometimes 1 or 3), colourless 

rifljaoSd, simple 
On trees, common. 

8tx:-D. C. Flor. Fr. t 820. (180S.) NyL Scon. 178. Porina perluia, Ach. 

:— E. Bot. 077. Leight. Ang. Lich. t. 9. t. 3. 
-M. * N. 171. (in part) Sclw-r. 118 |,„ port) Xw. 290. Mass. 16. Mudd 
»;■!. Hepp 222. 676. Bohl. 54. Stenh. 139. Reich. A Sehub. 82. 

OaOO, Dcsthib : — Europe generally, Madeira. 

Bor. Psov:- 1.2,3, 4, 5.7 ..10, (1 JE 19...30.S1. 

l.-.iii.ixi) :— Tornuay! Dm I)', lienkin. Oswestry ! Rev. T. Saturn. Sua- 
Bex I Mr. Birrrrr. Ayton ! ('luvi-liuid. Mr, Mudd. New Forest I Meun. Turner 
and Lyttl. Northumberland and Durham. Mr. Winch. HaUlon, ExsCer. Mr. 
ParjttL Keli idon, E ox. 1/.. Vartnne. Oveniloy ami Pophllls, Warwickshire; 
Shot. Word, H r,r. Park Salop. Mr. Purton. Great Glenham, Suf- 

folk. Rev. R. //. RlooinjleU. North Bovcy, Devon. Rer. J. P. Jane*. Seven 
Oak*, Poatllng, Wjw, KoiiL Mr. Holme'. Hauirlimrmd Hill I BomorePool! 
Shrenbary ; Aymeetry ! Herefordshire. Arkoll Hill ! Shropihire. 

SC07LA5D ; — Hunter » Hill, (ilammit 1 Mr. (lanUnrr. AlH-rfeldy, Dr. Boll 

Irilav p I Blarney ! n»ar Cork. Mr. Carroll, near Belfast. Mr. TempUUm. 
A»k«w Wood oo. Kerry. Dr. Tajilor. 

WAi.nt:-Glyn! near Capel Curlg; Bettwt-y coed 1 Trefriw ! Edderton ! 
near Forden. 

Ckassxl Ibulsiw :— Jersey, Guernsey, Sark. Mr. larbalntier. 



" Upon* .039 to .045 in. long, by .017 to .018 In. broAd." (MiuIJ.) "Spot** 
,130 .n-'i nun. l..nx, .0**-80 mm. browl." (Ifyl.) "Sporw .ISO— 305 mm. 
long, .042 -65mm. k«l." (T. M. Fr.) Spore* .170mm. long, .0(10— .080 mm. 

forma rupeilrU, DC. verrocro aggregato-deformed, vemtcoto- 


On rooks, conn 

Stu :-l>.C 1. c. Ach. Syn. 109. Nyl. Sc»nd. 178. Mudd Man. 272. 

Fra :-Hepp Sporen t "6. f. 670. 

Bxs :— Nyl. 48. Mudd 259. Ami Ven. 164. Hepp 670. Ami It. S. S«8. Zw. 
244. Schrer. 648. 

Giym. Oistmn :— Switzerland. Italy, Germany. France, Madeira. 

Bor. PBOVi-5. .7. 10...1J...19 .31. 

BMQfcaVD :— Ingleby Grecnbow ; Ayton ! Clereland. Mr. Mudd. BriitoL 
MiuAUwonl.> :— Birnam ! Dr Lind*ay. 

Injn.Axn i flVumm Or. .Voort. 

Walks : — Barmouth ! 

QjUJum IsLAJTM :— 8t BreladeV Jersey. Mr. Larbalattrr. 

■•* .039 to .04'.' iu. long, by .012 M 017 in. l.n.a.1." IM«M.) 

10. /'. daetylina, (A.h. | whit', thin, unequal, papUlato-dacty- 
hid, Btipitate ; apothecia in the apicet of the papilla? ; tpores 1, 
colourless, ellipsoid, simple. 

On moss in nlpiTU! districts, rnre. 1870. 

St* r-Ach. Prodr.89. (1798.) Nyl. Lapp. or. 140. Crombie Kn. 60. liidium. 
Ach. Syn. 282. 

Tm :-Ach. Moth. t. 3. f. 6. 
IVIlm. 144. 

Gzou Diiiiiin: ■ E. Lapland, Norway. 

Hot. Tuov : 7 

Scotlakti :— Morrone ; Cairn Tiirc, En Clon Dor and Glen I'andlie, Brawnar. 
Mr>*rs. Brown <& Crombie. 

V.'ai,K:-Cwiii i'yivi.m ' 

Nyl. Lapp. Or. 141. uy« thlispeci'" haa no reaction with K. but Fellm. 144 ! 
ami alio a (iwcliimu fnim Norway give decided rcactiou K yellow C yellow. 
" Spores. 125— 220 mm. long. .065— $5 mm. broad." ( T. M. Fr.) 

C. Thallus K yellow, C reddish-orange. 

11. P. bryont/ia, (Ach.) white ur whitish, thin, effuse, tub- 
gramdato-unequal ; ajiathr.cia d<trk-livid, lirrr-colour or futon- 
cent, opako, lecanoroid, fluffiiw imirgin ultimately depressed 
and excluded; tpores 1, colourless, ellipsoid, simple. 

On moss in alpino places, rare. 

St* s-Ach. Meth. 107. (1803.1 Syn. 156. NyL Scand. 178. Cromblo En. 50. 
Bxa : Tli. M. Kr. 'J. Kellm. 141'. Am 108. 
Gkou I '-1 Kin —Norway. E. Lapland, Germany. 
Bot. Pnov: IB, 

SCOTLAND ;— Cairngorm and llvniialxuinl, Braemar. Rer. J. M. Crombie. 
" 8porei . I50-.220 mm. long, .050—70 mm. broad. " (Kyi, I " Sjmrea . 112 
•-90 mm. lorn:, ■""' : '". broad." |7\ M. Fr.) 

lL>. P. itulalruea, (Sm.) yeUowUh-cream-colour, thin, 
branoccoiw, sub-determinate, moothith ; verruca scattered, hetni- 
tphttrieo-depretted, irregular ; ottiola brownish-black, pteudo-dueiform, 
depressed, tlialline margin lacerate; sporei 2, colourless, ellijwi.i.l. 

On trees, not common. 1812. 

Srx :-SmlUi Id E. Bot ML (1812.) T. & R Lich. Brit 183. Mudd Mao. 


: :-E. Bot. 2461. Leight. Ang. Uch. t 10. f. 3. 
I It. - 


Exs :— Hcpp 935. Anxl It. S. SOL SJO. 352. Longob. 223. Zw. 3». Am. ug. 
W«lw. Limit. BO. K5rb,28«. 

Gcoo. Dutiiid :— Germany, Italy, Portugal. 

Bot. Prov :-2, 3.-7, 8. ..24 -91 

Esolaxd :— St Leonard* Furwt! HanfMd ! Sunex. Mr. Borrtr. (1812.) 
Twycro** ! I.«icaUr*hlr*. Rev. A. Blanm. Mila-eud near CulcbwUr, Eamx. Mr. 
Kami ix. 

I«xi.*xi>:— Ourraghmore. Adm. Jonts. 

\VAt«M :-Dohrelley ! 

" Spore* .015 to .019 in. long, by .007 to 008 in. broad." {Mudd.) 8porw .07 
— .07.'i mm. kOf, .035 mm. broad. 

13. P. follax, (Pore.) albido-JUtveseent or cincrto-flavcsttnt, sub- 
effuse, eartilaffineo-membranaceous, smooth, plicate-rugose; verruca 
aggretjato-dtformed ; ostioUt brovmisk-black or nigricans dilated, de- 
formed, sub-looanoroid, thaltine margin thick, undulato-tub-crenaU ; 
spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple 

On trees and rooks, not common. 1801. 

8rs :— Perwon fid* Ach. 8yn. 110. (1817.) TMotrrma hymenevm, Tom. and 
Borr. L. Br. 185. Indium lutocent. Turn, and Borr. L c 87. Mudd Man. 278. 
P. Wuif „;, I :■.('. 

FlO :'— K. Bot. 1731 ft 1529. Lalght. Ang. I Job. t. 10. f. 2. 

Ex*:— Heiip 878b And Etr. 40. NyL 49. Mudd 260. Zw. 292. Leight 71. 
Yariolou and hvlioid forms ;— Ana Etr. 41. 43, Schmr. 238. Hepp 680. Zw. 297. 
SUnh. 143. 1 14. 

Gtoo. Dirtrib :— Germany, Striturland, Italy, Pyrenees, France, Madtjra. 

Bot. Pbov.— 1, 2. 8, 4. 5. .7. .10. II. 12. .19. .So. 

IAXD: — IngUby Park! Airybolioo Wood! Cleveland. Mr. MuJJ. 
Otwertry! Rev. T. Salwey.rH. Leonard* Porwt ! Danny ! Stuucx. Mr. Bmtr. 
N*w Kurrat. Mr. Dyett. Heviugham Panonago, Norfolk. Itn; J. Alderton. 
Epping Foreat. Mr. Pvnttr. Ockham, Surr»y; Huntpierpoint and Htnflfldl 
BastM ; Ickworth Park and near Bramtield, Suffolk. Mr. Jiorrrr, Acle Wood, 
Norfolk. Mr. Turner. WcUmoreland ! Mr. Winrh. near Egleitonc : noar 
Gltuldo : IIor»Ieyhope Bourne, Durham ; East Common Wood ami Kelton 
Wood xti tha Oo 
Porta. I 
E—t. Mr. 

Iwtiwo Polecat* and IMetthawe. near Eaitbourii*, MMg, air. Refer. Eden- 
bridge, Hothfield Chinelhurxt, Sevan Oak*, Kent. Mr. Holme*. (W I tadoc ' 
Kanfhmond HUll Sliarpatonc* Hill! Llanyblodwcl rock» ! Shropehire. 

Ihxi.,\nu :— Blarney! 00, Cork. Mr. CurroU. Glenarm. Dr. Moon- near B*l- 
fa*t. Mr. Ttm/JtUm. Atkew Wood, oo. Kerry; Donkarron MmuiUin. Dr. 

WAIM s— Barmouth ! Ac. T. .So/wry. Bettw* y-cocd ! Uanbedrwl Trrfrhrt 

"8porea.017to.CriI in. long, by.0O7to.0ll i... broad," (MuddJ u Spore* 
.058 85 mm. long, .(08—38 mm. broad." [Ngl.) Spore* .07—.08 mm. long. 
.085— .04 mm. broad. 

forma v/tp/turca, (Scb*r.) sulphury-yellow, tartareous, effuse ; 
verruca diformed, crowded into an artolato-verrucose crust ; apotheeia 
many ; oatiola punctiform, nigricstnt, depressed; spores 8, colour- 
lens, ellipsoid, simple. 

On rockit, frequent, but generally sterile. 

c : lIor»leynope JBonnio, I'uriiain ; cast Lommon Wood ami Felton 
on tb* Coquot, Northumberland. Mr. IViaeh. Kranklim;, Exatar. U . 
Budlrii-h Saltortun, IJuvon. Dr. Diikie. BraxUj ; Mewiiig : Yoldhani, 
Mr. Vartnne. Pophill* and Ovenley Hill. Warwickahir*. Mr. Purtoa. 


Ksa :-Scb*jr. 594. 595. Anzi Yen. 165. Etr. 42. 

GSOO. DraTKIB :— Kurop*. 

Bot. P«ov :-5...7...26. 

RmuXD :— Bodlmrjr King ! Shropabire. 

lKKL*!tb I — Sir. T. Gage in bb. Borr ! Kiver Dawron ! Galway. Mr. larla. 

8t» :-Var. moiV../,i, Schcer. En. 229. (1850.) Mudd Man. 270. 
FlO .—Mm*. Kio. f. 383. 

Wans :-Cril> Coeh ! CVmClwyd! Uantwirog! near PwUheli. 
" BpoNO .021 to .W8 in. long, by .008 to .011 in. broad." (Mudd.) 

F. TkaUtu K-, C rotxxtour. 
16. P. faginta, (L.) gUuteout-vkite, thickuh. 




efface or *ub-dcterminato, brown ud noflfs at tho circumference, 
smooth, rugose; verruca convex, confluent, aorediate, margin 
narrow, obscure, eventually excluded; spores not seen. 
On trees and rocks, common. 

StN :-Linn. 8p. PL No. 10. 0753.) Turn. a, Borr. ! Lioh. Brit. 64. V. Mm ! 
Lyoll I MS. in h»rb. Borror. 
Flo :-K. Bot. 1713. 
Ex* .— M. & N. 204. Mudd 963. 

Gtoa. Dana i tnw *■»— t— 

Bar. Pbov :-l, 2, S. 4, 8 ...10, .19. SO. 

Knoiaxd :— Su*m>x '. ATr. fiorwr. near Ayhin ! Cleveland. A/r. AfiuU. New 
Forwt ! Afr. iyetf. Devon. Me*rrt. Jona and Kingston. Great Glenham, 
Suffolk, /let-, if. JV. m,»,»ytlthi. B«xlcy. Proihunt, Pontling, BhCWbjm, Kent. 
Mr. Holmes. Haughuiond Hill ! Shropshire. 

Scotland .•— Hunter's Hill. Glimrau ! Mr. Oanlintr. 

Ireland :— Near Belfast and Devil Mountain. Mr. Templtton. 

Although I hmvo been unable to det«ct ■pore*, yet the different chemical 
reaction indicates this to be distinct. 

0. Thalhs K—C-. 

1". P. opklhaiini-.'i, Nvl. grtjfiA, thiii, rmoothish, or slightly 
rui/iifo-unf/iml, Mrroca cre/wdrd, small, albo-sortxliate ; apothteia 1 
rarely 2 or three in each verruca, Itmnoroid, nigricant, Uuxlline 
margin rugose, or sub4epron • ; spores 1, colourless, ellipsoid. 
On aged pine trees, rare. 1864. 

Srx :— Nyl. Sond. 180. (1861.) Flora 1865. p. 354. 

Oxou. DisTRin :— Europe. 

Bot. Prov :— 15. 

Scotland :— Glenfallooh ! Matrs. Jona Ji Carroll. (1861.) 

"Spore* .160— .20.1 mm. lone .080— .100 mm. IihubJ." (Ay.) 

18. P. globtdi/era, (Turn.) greyish, u I iliuriuoo membranaceous, 
verrucoso-nuiosc, albo*orcdiate, smooth, zonate and brown at the 
oircumforenco ; verruca- large, globular, dosed, slightly depressed, 
lycoperdoid, eventually lacerato<khiscmt, and pstudo-scnteltiform, 
albo-surtdiaU , spores 1 or 2, colourless, ellipsoid, simple, large. 

On trees, rare. 1802. 

Sim -Variolaria, Turner in Una. Trans. 9. 130. (1808.) Nyl. goad. 180. 
Turn. & Borr. L. Br. 50. Ach. Syn. 130. V. dxseoidta. T. 4 B. ! 1. c. 61. 
KlO s- Linn. Tr. ft t. 10. f. 2. K. Bot. 3008. mid 1714. 
Ex»:— Senter. 507. Bohl. 96. Ami It. S. 340.347. 
(•EOT., l>ISTiiiii: -Kiirnpa, Ohio, Tasmania. 

Bor. Pbov .— 1, 2, 8. 4. 8...7...10 ..19...26. 

Exglasd :— Yarmouth j and St. Leonard'* and Danny ! Same* ! ifr. Borrer. 
1802.) Craiit-y-Khiw I and Llanforda I near Oswestry. Km. T. BaUssjh New 
Forest ! Adm. Jona. Malharn, Yorkshire. Dr. Carrington. Brantsdale : Xildale, 
:,hire. Mr. Mudd. Kelvedon, Ksaex. Mr. K.»rm«. Bagtor Wood : Iltlng- 
taa, Devon. Mam. Jona and Kin-jitcn. Paradiae, Eastbourne. Mr. Roper, near 
< irenoater. Mr. »'. JuiAua. (,'oxwall Knoll ! near Bucknell, Chudlcigb ! Pens- 
hnrst. Ightharn. l\.<tliiig, Kent. .Vr. Holmes, l.lanylilodwel rock*! Shrop 

Iselard: — Caatlemartyr Deer Park co. Cork. Mr. Carroll. Ashley Park ! 
near (ialway. Mr. ImMtSSMsr, 

Walls :— Bala, Dolmelynon. Mr. Holme*. 

19. P. Htitchnuitt., (Turn, & Borr.) white or cream-eolour, thin, 
effuse, minutely rugoso-uncyual ; verruat small, crowded, deformed, 
psKudo-disci/orm ; ostiola large, brovmiahblack; caMio-pruinoeo, 
depressed, margin lacerate ; spores 1, colourless, ellipsoid, simple, 


niK MciiKN rt.oitA 

On moss in klpint rare. 1812. 

-TMotrema, Turn. & Borr. U Br. IK. 1 1S13I. Mudd Man. ?T7. 
Kin :-K. Bc.L Sokpl M08. Lolght. Any. l.irh. t 11. f, 1. 
Cixou. Dictkib:— Europe. 

Dot. Pm* :— iu. 

Iiui.asii :— Near Banlry ! Jfia ffWdWM (1812.) 

" S|Hir»w .01'.' Ui .032 in. long, by .014 to -Oil) in. .broad." (AfWJ.) 9porw 
.095 mm. long. .055 mm. broad. 

20. /'. 'jtomitlifera, (Boit.) wkUish, thin, effuse, verruca aloboso- 
ohovate, smooth ; apothecia 1 ; ostiola small, puncti/orm or papillate, 
depressed, ni'/riaxiit : spores 4, colourless, ellipsoid, simple. 

On BOM in alpine places, rare. 
Stn :-Uigbt. Aug. Uc-h. 30. (1K51.) Madd Man. S77. 
Kn; : Leight. 1. c. t. 11. f. 8. 
Oloo. l>i*Tiun : -Europe. 
Bot. Pkov :— 15. 
Scotland : - Highland* ! Mr. Borrerand Dr. Maingay. 

21. P. puitulata, (Ach.) grey or qreyUh-oliec, smooth, thin, 
effuse, contiguous or rimote : vrmia* scattered, hemispherical, 
convex, small; apolhteia many ; ostiola darl^brown, puncti/orm, 
slightly depressed; spores 2, colourless, ellipsoid, simple. 

On trOM. 

8th:-Ac»i. L. Ui 309. (1S10.) Syn. 110. Nyl. Prodr. 195. Lcight Ang. l.UU. 
30. Mudd Man. 2T5. 

Fio .--Lalght. I. .-. t. in. f. I. 

Gkou. DikTRUJ:— Enroll*. 

Bar. Pnov:-l. '.', 1 t. .7 ..(19- 30). .81. 

Ekolam- : — Slmnkliii I [aleot Wight. Dr. Hull. Budlatrh SalUirt.m, IVv,,,,, 
Or. l>\'hi. l^n.xted; Mining; Yeldhain, Keaex. Mr. Vartnne. near Ciren 
cntvr. Air. I: 

Ihklamii : — Frequent. Mr. Carroll. :— Near Dolgclley ! Tanybwlfh ! noar Capd Curls. 

Cmaknkl Islands :— Guermwy ! Ktr. T. Salury. <jii«invau, Jentey. Mr. Lar- 

[MC«i .01S to .021 in. Jung, by .007 t.) .009 in. broad." ( Mudd.) 

22. P. leioplaca, (Ach.) gktwaux-whit* or palt-yellowuli-broter), 
membranaceous, smooth, verruca* scattered, dtprcsso-hcmisphcerical, 
large ; apolhteia 1 ; ostiola brownish-black, puuetiform, slightly 
depressed ; spores 4, (sometimes 5 or 6 or 8), colourless, ellipsoid, 

On trees, not uncommon. 

Stk :-Ach. L. U. 309. excl. tar. (1810.) Syn. 110. Njrl. Scand. 181. Mu.ld 
Man. fit 

Fio :— Hepp Sporen t. 77. f. €75. 

>:<*:— Happ67a. Mudd SB7. M. 4X. 817. Senior. 119. Zw. 281. A. Stent. 
HI. Smrft. .'.7. 

Qbo«. IHbtkiu:— Sweden, Germany. Switzerland, Scandinavia. 

BOT. Pao. 7. 10 . 1.-,. ill. .M.JU .31. : — Sowcrdale ! Hogeatte Wood ; Airyholm* ; Cleveland. Mr. 
Mudd. Yoiall I„.d H c ! Staffordshire, tier. A. Biota in. Suwcx I Mr. Borrtr. 
Shanklin ! Ill* of \NVht. Dr. If.ill. K -,«. Mr. Varmne. Woolwich 

Wood : SiberUwold, Dover, Wye, Ightham, Seven Oak*. Canterbury . Kent. 
Mr. Holmu. Old Town Plaid*, i: ..'■ ->u,n,-. .1/,. fi g r, NSSSOttSl Hill: Weir 
Coppice! near Sbxewnbury. Llanyblo<lwel rock* ! 

SCOTLAND :- Braeiuar. Ktr. J. M. Crombte. Caatlcton. Adm. Juno. 

IkcljlMi:— Killuniey. Mr. C'arroO. CurnHfhinnr*. Adm. Jvnet. Castle Taylor, 
Galwav. Dr. Moore. Kenvyle Wood ! near Kylemore co. Gal way. Mr. /.xir&a- 

WAi.»:-Cr*ie Breiddon ! Drwiynant ! Bottw* y coed ! Trefriw ! Edder- 
ton Wood I near rorden. 


ChaXSEI. I*LAXr>s :-<{uenvai«. Jeraey. Mr. Larbalettitr. 

" S|Kirw .014 to .021 In. long, by .005 to .009 In. broad." [MwU.} " Spore* 
.012—75 mm. long. .020-38 mm. broad." flfvl.) "Simm .042—90 mm. 
long, .020-38 mm. broad. Spores 8=,034— 60 mm. long, .018— ;W men. broad, " 
{T. it. Fr.) 

23. P. nolens, Nyl. cinereous, smooth, areolato-rimose, determi- 
nate ; apothoeia innate, without thalline prominence ; ostiola Mart, 
pliuiL-, rotundate, oblong or deformed, 2 or more approximate, 
colourless within; >ports 8, oolourloKs, bQipcoid, simple; thecm 

cylindrical, intensely blue with iodine. 
Externally much liko Lecanom cinerea. 
On maritime basaltic rock*, rare. 1864. 

: -Nyl. In Flora 1804. p, 10* 
Gboo. Distbib :— Europo. 
Bot i'H"V M\ 

IrutLAMD:— Crlonarm, oo. Antrim! Adm. Jonti. Lough l*p;ivfh ! <'onnemar». 
Me. Lfirlialrttirr. 
Spores. 028 -.027 mm. long. .013— on mm broad. 

21. /'. .rniithostom/i, (Smmrf.) milk- whit', smooth, thin, vmi • 
tvbglobOK, somewhat depressed above, • • "it , apotBMia 

1 or 2 in each thalline verruca ; ostiola depressed, pale or pallido- 
httnouU; spores 4, colourless, ellipsoid, simple. 

On Krica Mrali.r. Very raro. 

Stn :— Porina xantJtoiloma, Smmrf. In V. Ak. H. 1823. p. 115. Kndoeui 
Smmrf. Lapp. 136. Nyl. Swuid. 10& 

Exa :-Smmrf. Norveg. 142, T, M. Kr. 74. 

Cicoo.. DiKTiun :— Norway. 

Bot. Phov :-lfi. 

Scotlash : — Morronc, Braomar. Rer. J. M. Orombia. 

" 8|x>m ,000 70arra.lanv.OM K> am. bread * (tt$t.) " Spore* .oss— 
7C mm. long. .0032-40 mm, broad. (T. M. Fr.) 

25. /'. KRgVMMftli (Aeh.) cinerntrenl, areolato- or wmeoim- 
rimote ; apotheda innate, one or more In MOD areola; ostiola Mack, 

in:irlv plane, variously Jlexunso-defm . margin 

thin, irregular, persistent, paler; spores 8, colourless, rotunda. 
ellipsoid, simple. 

On rocks, very rare. 1876. 

8th j-Ach. L. U. 3S3. 11810.) T. M. Fr. L. Soand. 811. 
(iK<Mi. Di-ii-kim:— Sweden, Norway. 
But. Pnov:— 28. 

Ikki-aXO :— I«tt«nnnm ! (Vmnemara. Mr. Lnrlaltstitr. 11870.) 
"Spore* .025-30 nun, long, .014—18 mm, broad. Theoes alone I blue." 
(T. At. Fr. I SfOTM .034 mm. long, .021 mm. braid. Paraphy*** dUtlnot. 

26. P. ine-arnata, Leight. creamy-whit*, thin, tartareous, 
effuse, smooth, plane, minutely rwwdoKhdiffiract, (K — C — .) ; 
appdueia litula, of a waxy appear" ma -, paler (fan the tludltu, pro- 
minent, sessile, drprcuoylobose, variable in size according to a 
maturity large ; oitiofom yeUnrith il*sh-rolnir, Iteanoroid, at first 
small and round, porifonn, eventually dilated and urceolale. sur- 
rounded by a broad, thiek, paU, waxy, thalline marain . hymenium 
in section ceraceagelatinoso, flesh-coloured ; paraphyse* slender, 



more or low brunolicd and untangled, apioes colourless ; spore* 2, 

oolourk'H*, rtrtf large, lineari-obtotuj or ellipsoid, simp'*, tttih a w»y 

narrow limb or epispor*. 

On granite rocks, very raro. 1875. 

8t» r-Leight. in Linn. Tram. 2d anr. 1. 341. (1877.) 

Kn; : - Linn. Tram. 1. c t. 3S. f. 1. 2 ft S. 

Box. Pbov :— 20. 

IbxxaNd :— Donehnugh Mountain ! Mr. Larluiltttier. (187J.) 

Sparta .065— .007 min. long. -08*— .0J9 mm. broad. Gelatlua hymenc* I 

Thin beau tlf ul lichen U cxceaelrely raro, and apparently quite new to ncienc*. 
It h»» occurred only once to Mr. Ijirbaloatlor, whoao indefatigable ami nkilful 
llchenoloifieal reecarchee in the w*»t of Ireland have added to many and «nch 
rare noreltim to our lichan-llora. In geuoral external up<ot it a good deal 
reaemblee Zarancra tpulolita, Ach., for which it might oureorily be readily 
luiatakou ; but tlio number, aizc. and ahapo of the •pore* and other character! 
keep them abundantly apart. It teema allied to rertiuarla rhodoltuca, Th. 
Frioe : but that apecie* U at oneo diatinguithed by ita 8 amaUer eporaa. Pert*- 
iaria rAo«fnr>iriw .if Qm o m tttri ' (.'niiiinunt. de Pertii«arii» Kurop. Med.'.jp. 8, 
t. iv. f. 4, ia like it in the large aize and narrowly limbed two eporee, but differa 
in growing on muuea, and having a verruooeogranuluae thallua and coaoervate 
aggregate oameroue aputheoia. CarovagUVa plant, which be refers doubtfully 
to P. rkodoearpa. Krbr. (Syat. p. 884), cannot be Identical with that German 
lichen, inasmuch a* Til. Krtaa, who haa examined an .iriginal aiiecimen from 
Korber. 'in Lioh. Soand.' p. 32S, refers Korber'a lichen to VanuUaria rftado- 
Ainu, Th. Kr. , arhlch haa an immenae ainglo 1-toptate apore, and u reprraentad 
in I'll. Kr. I. Baud, Est, 73! and haa reaction K— , C cruuion. and ia 
altogether different in ita aorediatc thallua. 

EL Tlutllus K broumis/i, C-. 

27. P. /astiffujttt, (Turn. & Hon.) albido-einereout, tartareous, 
thick, eoiuutimj of erect closely jiula-poeed IWtpU OOtv&HU, 
njiicua fattitjuite, running an iiruiiliitf surface, areola convex, rough, 
papitlato-sorediate or pulverulent ; nputhecia 2, 3, 4 or 5 ; sport* 
not soon. 

On silicoous rooks, rare. 1813. 

I>r. Taylnr Kl. HiK J. 111. well deacribee thU lichen IiIm VarMaria polytMeia 
aa forming largo patchee on the rock«, ' ' oonapicooua by the cfowded and •talked 
apotheoia, placed in contact, like certain baaaltio column*. " Hia ipoclmana 
to tho HiHik. Hnrli. at Kew are perfectly identical with the authentic aped- 
mena of UWum oeulalum, /} fattitjialum of T. ft B. Licb. Brit. 103. in the 
Horror Herb. A vertical nctfaa ahewed auffioieat to enable na to regard thia a 
IVrtuaaria, although the microacope failed to diacover the aporta. 

Srjt : — Isulmm oeulalum /S fattigtntum. Turn, ft Borr. ! Lioh. Brit. 103. 
(1813.) VarioiarU fdtfktcia, Tayl. ! 11 Hib. 2. 114. 

Bcrr. Piior : -1'.. 

IniLAXD ;— Coimoman. Mr. Kfdtsm, near Bantry! Miu IIuU\<hi. Dun- 
kerron I Dr. Tas/tor. Boar 'a Head Itoclu ! Mr. Bvtrtr. 

28. P. subiactea, (Leixht.) creamy-yellow, Urtoreouu, thin, 
undulalo^ut/ose, very all ghl I . r.mose ; apothttia scattered, distinct, 
elevated, deprcsto-oonvex, albo-sorediate ; spores unknown. 

On siliceous rocks, r»ro. 1813. 

ThU oocura aa a alngie apecimen in Borrer Herb, at Kew, under toe nam* 

of Varuter* laclta. V. laeUa and iU Tar. urrnortu, T. as B. ! Lioh. Brit. 68. 

have reaction K -O crimaon and are referable aa ataU* of P. i«tufo. Turn. Tha 

preaent licheu haa a totally different reaction K palebro«mith-yeUow C— and 

I doubt tho plant a|wkcii I In lli" Uoh. Brit. p. Tl'. 

St» f-Tnrn. ft Borr. Lich. Brit. 72. (1813.) 



Oaoo. brarara :— Europe. 

Bor. Paov :— 19. 

Imlakd :-Xin Hutehi.u d Sir That. Oa0t, 


Thallus slightly cniBtaccous, continuous or pulverulent. Apo- 
thecia 11 ump.-nt , i->t >m- i it<> •litV< -ruiol. tlialliuf nmryiti nulistiint. 
Spores 1-2, colourless, ellipsoid or oblong, niurali-«livi<li.l. large. 
Spormatia short, slender, straight. 

1. P. agtlaa, (Ach.) whitish or albo-canescent, thin, imbdctcr- 
m:!i:ii..' or wiii-v, ragoa or lab-laproM n ialvlar7ifjs>tat rimoao- 
diffract ; apothocia irregular, depressed, scattered or crowded, 
nigricant, albidc-or cmio-suffuscd, thalliiui margin leprose, inflexod, 
irregularly crcuat© ; tport* 2, lutco-fuxocaocnt, rlUptoid, muruli- 
dirided, apically mueronatt ; (thallus K yellow, then orange.) 

On troea, frequent. 1807. 

8T*:-Ach. Prod. 30. (17 117. NyL Scand. 184. Mti.ld Man. 878. 

Vanoloria, Turn, h, Borr I Iich. Brit. 78. 

IV. : - K. Hot. 1730. Hapu Sporen. t. 80. I. 70S. 

Kxs :-Nyl. 54. Hepp 703. M'ul.l 269. Anzi It. 8. 345. Kabh. 807. Ma*. 80S. 
Zw. 23H. Lclght 283. 

Gaoo. DlSTlua :— Italy, Germany, Bavaria, France, Switzerland. 

Bot. Paov :— 3, 3, «, 5.7.. .10. 19 .24. .36. .31. 

1807.) Sumo* ! Mr. B>rrrtr. ITonarta 

igleoy: Airvholme wood! ruldalo ; Yorkahire. Mr. MuM. Hat- 

fUld Brawl Oak ; limited, Kmox. Mr. Varmnt. Pophilla, Warwickshire Btt. 

KtraLASD : — Yarmouth ! Mr. Turner. 
Wood*! Ingleby: Airyholroe Wood I Kildale 

W. S. Rufford. Epping Forest :X«w Fortel Rev. J. M. Ommbie. Panxhunt, 
Ktlanbri'lge, Hythe, l.yiupne, Sandgate, Kcwiugton, Beechborou(b, Bidden- 
(Via, Fritteoden, Charing, I^nhaoi, Sibertawold, Kent. Mr. Holme*. Haugh- 
mond Hill ! Shropahire. Huglith I nenx Church Stretton. 

IkxLamd : — Cwtleberoardl'ark, lUndmi. Adm. joint. <"a»tl* Taylor, Qalway. 
Dr. Moore. KiUboro' ; and Kirenitono, Cork. Mr, Carroll. 

Wai.x* :— Kdderton Wood ! Fordon, Moiitgomerynhlr*. 

CllASrsiL Islak l« :— Jrr«ey, GtMrmwy. Mr. Larialetlier. 

•• Hporaa .013 to .017 fa. long, by .004 to .007 In. broad." ( MwU.) " 8pore» 
.0*5—70 mm. long, .014—77 mm. broad." (iVy.) " Sporae .045—73 mm. long, 
.014-3J mm. broad." (J". M. JY.l 

2. P. arr/eni, (Aeh.) ail very -grey or cream-colour, thin, effuse, 
nigoM or aublaovigato, pulverulent ; apotheoia orbicular, scattered 
or crowded, deproaacd, pulverulent, brown, omio-pruinone, thai- 
line margin rugose, inflcxed ; tpom 1, hiteo-fuacoaccnt, narrow- 
oblong or eylindracteoblonf, 5-ttptaie, murolidiituUi, very large ; 
(thallua K yellow, then red.) 

On troca, frequent. 1808. 

8T»:-Ach. Prodr. H. (1708.) Meth. 74. 8yn. 47. NyL Soand. 184. Mudd 
Maa. 280. Varioiaria, Turn, and Borr. ! U Br. 75. 

Faa ;— Happ 8poren t SO f. 705. 

Ixa J-Hepp 705. Y,m. 399. Kabh. 80S. 

Oaoo. DiitTBia :— Switzerland, Germany. 

B<»r. Paov i-3, 3 .7, 8. .10. 

Kxolakd:- Sumcx I Mr. Borrrr. Kildalo, Cleveland. Mr. Mmld. Charnwood 
Foraat 1 Lalcaatatahlr*. Am A. Btoxam. New Forot and new Kxeter. Xe*. J. 
M. Onrnbte. Selling. Uytb«, Tnnbri.lg", Kid.lendm and BaachDoroach, Kant ; 
She«, Sumy. Mr. BJtne*. 

WAtt»:-l>olg»U«T. Jtl>. Helmet. Bettwa-yeood ' 

" Spore* .085 to .083 in. long, by .007 tu .00» in. broad." (Modi.) "Sporat 
.100-. 140 mm. long, .027-fiO mm. broad." (.VW- •* T, M. /r.) 

238 the BBM MOM 

Sun-raw* VIII. THELOTBSUkr. 

Apoiliucia rorrucsform, open. Spores 8, lnurali-diridcd. 


'I 'li.tlluH rilightly snutaOMOti WHrtfafflMWi A|«.itliecia verruc»- 
fiiin.iit first closed, t.hcn stiohuu rotundo porifonu, margin 

double, external or thallino ono thin, oven, internal or proper one 
membranaceous, lacero-dehifteont, disk urceolate, depressed ; spores 
8, colouruau*, fusiform, uninJi-dividod. 

1 . T. Iqwtinum, Ach. whitish or ytllow-cream-eolour, surxjffnae, 
smooth or slightly ruguloso-unoqual ; apothteia hemupharieeU, 
scattered, ostiolum round, open, margin even ; disk urceolato-taUel- 
Itform, dark-brown, Casio- prumuse or naked, proper margin laee- 
rate, indexed: npom 8, colourless, oblongo-fusiforro, murali- 

On trcoM, holly, frequent, rarely on rocks. 1800. 

Stk ! Ach. Prod/. 80. (1738.) Syn. «B. Nyl. Scand. 185. Turn. 4 Borr. ! 
Lich. Brit. 180. Mudd Man. 278. 

PU : K. Bot. G7H. Lcight Ang. IJ,-.h. t. 12. f. I. 

fa • Sofaa r. 121. Kohl. 29. Mudd 288. M. k N. 257. Zw. 302. Nyl SO. H«pp 
W8. Leight. UL 

Uxor.. UiMuin:— Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, France, Germany, Spain, 
Guyana, N. Zealand. 

Bot. Piiov :-l, 2, S, 4, B, ft 7 .10, 11. ..IB . (10-30). .28 

RHQUSD :— Kglentone una Toosdale Forest, Durham. Jtev. J. Barriman. 

(1800.) SaiM<! Mr. Bomr. ffWli Wood, Boob* Abbwl Yorkshire. Jtfh 

Brtftr. near Old Kyland ! Yorkshire. Jfr. Ba*er. Baysdale '. Airyholme ! 
Hob Mole ! Cleveland. Mr. fluid, near Hevcrley. Mr. Teadait. Studli v Woods, 
Yorkshire. .1/.. I ., w Koivtt. ,Vr, EmA CottW** DMT Nonvirli. Sir. 

W. J. Hooter. St. Ijconanl > Forest and near Tunbridgo Wells. Metm. Turner 
ami Hnrrrr. QiMd* ; RJavraiwortll aodOsWSSJI Woods, Durham ; lirarl V 
Rait Common Wood and Fclton Woods, Northumberland. Mr. Winch. Stoics 

Wood, Exeter. Mr. ftn I n. Mrstn. J...-t ,1 Kinpiton. Ighthaui, Kent. 

Mr. Holme,. Hatighmnnd Hill I Holly- Pari ' near Stokcssy. Hliror-hire. 

Scotlamu :— Loch Katrine, Brendiubanc. Rev. J. M. t'rombie. 

IsiLAiti) :— Common on trees, PMM [M** Mr. CfarTtlft Is00|b Murk!©*. 
I.nlway. Mr. Larfialettier. 

Walks :- Hafod, Cardiganshire. .Sir. J. 17. Smith. Cors-ygedol ! Her. T. 
Satvty. Dolgelley ! Beltw.-yooed I 

" Spores .012 to .018 in long, by .003 to .0045 in. broad, t. .V i. lhi.fMudd.) 
"Sports .036— 70 mm. long, .011-16 mm. broad." (Nyl.) S|K>re« .080—.090 
mm. long, .015— .020 mm. broad. 

forma rupettrt, T. & B. deep-yellow or oehrey, (ariareout, dis- 
persed '■ ; q deformed, crowded, uritioltim dilated, thalline 
margin tumid, dink darkir brown ; spore* l-2i 

On rocks, not common. 1813. 

Six :-Turn. A Borr. Lieh. Brit. UO. (1813.) Uiuht, Ang. Meh. 32. Mndd 
Mas. 278. var. Ktifetftorme, Aefc. I. U. 313. 8yn. 115. 
FiO :— Leight. Ang. Lioh. t. 12. f. 2. 
ttaoa. Dnrrniii :— Europ*. 
Bot. Prov:— 2 7. 11 26. 

EM&AJID :— Teesdale, Durham. Ker. J. Hnrriman. Susatx. Mr. Berrer. 
I hulas I ■ :— Dunk«rroiil Dr. Taylor. Kylemore Castle '. oo. Galway. Mr. 

WaUM :— Llyn Bodlyn I Iter. T. Saltrey. 
Spores .070 mm. long, .015 mm. broad. 



T. tubtile, Tiu-k. Whltiah OT milky ir/iilr, iniirliliir, lOTdl " 

shining ; upofJueia trmpmit, mail, white, tkaltina margin tligkily 

prominrnt, proper margin albo-puherulrnt ; qwwi •"*, SOIOUllMBj ob- 
long, 10-13-ccllcA 

On young oaks and birch, very rare. 18C4. 

8r»:-Tmk. Suppl. 1.426. (1858.) Nyl. '•' tUnWH. p. ML 

Okou. Diataa . -Europe, N. America. 
PlOV : — l!l...2li...a». 

Ikelakd :— Lough Inchiquin co. Keny ; Croghane, Turk Mountuin, and 
Cromaglown. lULurnay: near DerryciindW and at tho Eaglea Nut .1/r. 
Carroll. (1864.) Glengariff. Adm. Jonet. Gb-ni-eigh oo. Donegal, Dr. Moore. 
Derryclare Inland ! co. G-alwav. Mr. Larbaletttir. 

" Spore* .010— 50 long, .008— .010 mm. broad." fAy'. ; 

XI. URCEOI.ARIA, /IcA. /»•- p. A r y/. 

Thallus crustaceous. Apotheoia urceoUte. Spores 8, fufloouK, 
M.-pt-ato-muruli-divided, Spermatid cyliuilricul. 

1. U. tcruposa, (L.) albido-cinerascent, tartareoUB, verrucoso- 
ruynse or granulate, uroolnto-diffiract, nnjobu vemieoao-rugoise ; 
apothetia immersed, urceolate, black, more or lorn cinereo-pruinose, 
proper margin nigrieant, thalline margin thick, rugote or creniUate 
on the hump side ; spores 8, virescenti-fuscescent, ellipsoid, 5-sep- 
tate, murali-divided ; (thallua red j 

On rockH, walla, Ac., frc(|U(Mil.. 1741. 

Stx:— Linn. Mont. 2. 131. (1771.) Ach. Syn. 142. Nyl. Scand. 176. Mudd 
Man. 165. 

.— E. Bot. 266. Ltight. An*. Lich. t. 11. f. 8. 

:— M. & N. 109. Sc-I. S. '_".!7. 229. L-lglit. M. 879. 

Hepp 915. Kellin. 141. Nyl. 46. Mudd 187. Mm. 859. 

(5 ma. DiRTiun :— SwiUcr land, Germany. Italy. Pyrenees, France, E. Lap- 
land, Ni-ir Xvalainl, Qtylon. 

Bot. Piiov , 4, 3, 4. .V..7. 8. .10, 11. 12.. .19.. .22, 23, 24. .26. 31. 

EMUXD i -Norfolk, Suffolk, ami (.'am i. Sir J. K. Smith. Darkirvr- 

hnm, Surrey. Dilltnim (174L) Gogmagog Hills ; Newmarket Heath. Rev. R. 
Awn, Lun»dale ! l-anbraiujhrigg ! Cleveland. Mr. Mudd. near Kglratone j 
Harewood Kormt, between Widdy Bank and Cauldron Snout, Durham. Mr. 
Winch. Duryard, Exeter. Mr. ParlUt. Charnwood Foreit, Lciccitershirc. Ht r. 
A. Jttowm. Kflivcilmi, Kk«*i. Mr, Varennr. Midland OouiiUmi. Mr. Piirfnu. 
Bedfordshire. Ittv. C. Abbot, near Wootonunder-Edgc. Mr. W.Joihua. Gueat- 
line, Suaaux. Btv. £. K. lilaomjUld. ForenhiiiM, Alatoii, Cuiul»'t Inn. I. Btr, IK. 
Jdhnton. Hare* Common, Pennhurst, Ightham, Tunbridge Well* Mr. Hulmet. 
Huh Rook! near Bridgnorth; Haughmond Hill! Bayiton Hill! I.yth Kill! 
urar Siu.-wabury I Cold Hatton Heath! Loppingtori ! Qri&ahDl! Sliroialih •■. 
SUnnorHiU! Hcrefordshire. 

Irh.amd :— iJimki-rniii, K»rry; Portmarnock, Dublin. Dr. Taylor. Glemla- 
lough, Wicklow. Adm. Jona. Loughoooter. Galway. Mr. Carroll. Killarney. 
Itf. Hardy. 

WaLts ;— Dolgolley, Cader Idria. Jfr. Holina. Barmouth ! Aran Mowddy ! 

QUmi IstASfUs :— Jeney ; Guernsey ; Sark. Mr. Larbaicatttr. 

- Hporw .005 to .007 in. long, by .002 to .00275 in- bmail. t 8. I. '•". (Mutti, ) 
" Siwrea .026—38 mm. long, .012—15 mm. broad." (A'yl. A T. M. Pr.J Sporea 
.025 nun. lung, .012 mm. broad. 

forma ggpmeett, (Atli.) creamy -white, thick, toft, riigoso-untqturtt 
tub pulverulent, »ul>-arciiliitc ; apothec' liTPdafafa] lil tok, cuiaiu' 
pruinose ; thallinc margin tumid, inflozed ; (t halliu C rod.) 
On calcareous rocks, rare. 
Hix :-Aoh. L. U. J38. (1810.) Syn. 143. 



Fra :— H»pn 8por*n t 104. f K9- 

Ex» :-Anzl Lansob. 3ST. 383. Zw. 7C Ma». 139. Am. M. H*pp Ut 
QMS. Dmrwin:— Portugal, Swita-rland, Spain, Finland, Tyrol. Italy. 
Bot. Pbov.:— 5...7. .10.. 12...15...36. 
BRQUro : Cumberland ! Mi*. Stanger. KiKlal* ! Cleveland, .llr. XudH. 
Llanyinyneoh'Hill ! Slirornhirr. 
Sooti.amk— Moffat. Rev. W. Johnnon. 
iKKI.AV'li :— Chuicorlxil. Mr. Isirlialt 

Waloi :— Llyn-y-Cae I Cader Idrif. Moel-y-gcat ! near Tranadoc 
forma bryopkila, Ach. greyish-while or white, granulato rugose, 

eftue ; apothocia urceolate, immersed, nigro-cicsious, margin 

tumid, indexed and crenulatc ; (C red.) 
On memos and Cladoniro, rare. 

8m :•- Ach. Meth. 148. (1804.) Syii. 10. Nyl. Seand. 177. Mu.Id Man. 165. 

Km :— Hoffm. PI. L. t 21. f. 1. Lciirht. Anjj. I.ich. t 1 1. f. 4_ Hepp Sporen 
t.23. f. 

BB >— Maw. 160. And It 8. 228. 230. Hepp 210. Schirr. 290. M. ft N. 170. 
Nyl. 129. height. 359. 360. 

J; itoo. Durrani :— Switzerland, Oennany, Sweden, Franc*, Italy, Hungary, 

Bot. Fnov:— 3...6...7...15...19...28...31. 

KSOLAMP :— Oai raa try 1 Rev. T. Salvxy. Exeter. Sir. Parfitt. Kelrcdon, 
Eaaex. Mr. Vartnne. High Rock ! near Bridgnorth ; Church Suction ! Shrop- 
shire ; Hrtdon Hillx I I«ice«tenhire. 

8octi.a»i> :— Glen I/oehy, Brcadalbanc. Ret: J. it. Crombie. 

iBXT-AJin :-Kerry. Dr. Taylor. Armagh. Adm. Jena. KilcuUy near Cork. 
Mr. Carroll. (— Llyn Cweraan I 

CiiAWNKi. Isuma :— Quenvaia, Jerny. Mr. Larbalestier. 

Spore* .020 mm. long, .013 inm. broad. 

1. I.ECIDEA. Ach. Nyl. 

'Phallus crustaceous, various, tqotilBOM, grauulose, areolata, 
powdery or evanescent. A pother m piitelluluto, discoloured (not 
black) and biatorinc, or black Rnd lccidcinc, with proper margin, 
often obliterated, or urceolate and gyalectino. Apothocia inter- 
nally without gonidia. Spemiatia acicular, straight or crenate, or 
shortly cylindrical. 

A. Sjtoret simple. 

* Thallus npiamidote or vcrruam-#juamtUowi. 

t Hypotktcium pale or colourless. 

1. L. deeipiens, Ehrh. rtddisIi-fUsh-eolowred, squamosr, sqva- 
mut/t oppressed, rotundo-lobaU or crenate, flaltish, smooth, scat- 
tered, margin* subjtejcvast, upturned, while. as well as the under stir- 
face, (K — € — ) ; apolheria marginal, lulimtc, plano-cunwx. black, 
margin thin, paler, cnt.iiY, boob obliterated; hypothocium pale ; 
spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple, about 2 j longer than broad ; 
1 blue. 

On the earth among calcareous rocks, not common. 

8t» :— Ehrhart in Hedw. Stirp. Crypt- 2- 7. (1789.) Ach. Sjrn. W. Nyi 
Scand. 214. Mudd Man. 171. 

FlO :-E. Bot. 870, Hepp .Sporeii t 14. I. 180. 

-Anti It. S. 240. And Ven. 86. Welw. Lniit. 98. Mass. 70. M. t It 
M. 8ch«r. 104. height. 384. 



Gsoo. DI8TRI8 :— Italy, Swltwirland, Pyrenees, Sweden, Norway. Bavaria, 
Portugal, Algeria. Texas. 

U ..1:.. 
EBOlAlfDl— Gogmagog Hills, Caoibridgn. Rev. R. ReDuin, Tnwlalo, Durham. 

Scotland:- Highlands. Metsrt. Stuart &■ Don. Bon Lawn. Dr. Uaingay. 
Killin and Clove. SW, ./. .V. Cnmbie. 

:- Qumrth ! t.rwit Onns's Head. 

The hypotbecium which i* very p»l«-fi!«<;oiis iwt« on a, whit* upraised promi- 

of KM thallna. Perephyse* concrete, apices fuscous. Spermatia straight, 

minute, sterigmataBtih-simpb.-. "Sport* 13 IB mm. long, 3 times as lung mi 

broad." (/7<w>.) "0.012—16 mm. long ft 0.005- 7 mm. broad." (P. At. Fries.) 

" .003 In. long, by .0013i in. broad." (MudU.) Medulla I . 

2. L. globifera, (Ach.) fusco-ntfous or castaneo-ruf event, tqua- 
mate, tf/iiamulf* miiform, imbru-atr.d, rigid, somewhat shining, 
rimoto-inculpted, lobatc, floxnosc, gnbhonaontal, (Afeawwd at 
margins, concolorous or palor beneath (K — C — ) ; apothecia fus- 
cous or black, elevated, convex and globose, immarginate, pale 
within, solitary or aggregate ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, 

On earth in tub-olpilM oakftMOua localities, rare. 

Brit : Ach. L. II. 213. ttgLOJ Syn. 51. Nyl. Scand. 193. 

FN I- Hepp Bpona I. 57. f. ■*«'•'. Sturm l>. l'l. t. 26. 

Bn :— Zw. S. Hepp 489. 8oh*r. 158. Th. M. Friea 40. Anri Langob. 263. 
Smrft 63. 

Gkoo, Distkib:— Scandinavia, Norway, .Sweden. Havana, Switzerland, 

Bor. Pbov :— 7...14. 

Scotland : — Arthur'* Seat, Edinburgh ; Pentiand Ilius. Dr. Uaingay. 

WalB :— (Jreal Urine's Head ! 

T; In iintheoium U thin and fiuce*cent and rata on a whit* globose upraised 
prominence of the thallua. Hymonlum pale-brownish, paranhrscs coherent, 
rufo-fuacescetit at the incnusat* aniova ; gelatin* hyim • t deas-bhM 

then rufo-fosoceccnt. "Spores 0.012— 15 mm. long, 0.005 mm. broad "i.VyO; 
"9— U mikn.m long, 2 -2.J longer than broad" (Hepp.); "0.012—15 mm. 
long. 0,006 — 6 mm. broad." (P. M. Fr.); ".0015 in. long, by .00075 in. liru.vl." 
{Uu4d.\ .010 -.018 mm. long, .005 -006" mm. broad. 

forma rubi/ormit, fWlilub.) uptamuU* pale brown, imbricate, 
erect, margins and under surface \ehiluh. 
On the earth in nlpinc places, rare. 1864. 

8rw :-Whlnb- FL Lapp. 479. (1812.) Aoh. Syn. 42. Nyl. Soand. 193. 

Exs :-Th. M. Friea .TO. And Langob. 137. 

QMA Dihtbib .-—Norway, Sweden, Lombardy. 

Bar. Puov :— 15. 

SooTLasn: -Summit of Htm I .aware I Mr. Carroll. 

Thalliu K — C — ! medulla I—. The structure of the apothecium i» precisely 
similar to that of L. iflM/mi, Imt tho hyincuium ami hypothocinm aro more 
darkly foaoeacent, and the spores ant about one-fourth larger. Paraphysea 
cohecrent : chemical reaction nearly similar. " Spores 0.012—17 mm. long, 
tai MOB— 7 nun. i.r,i:i.i." ir ,i/\ /■>. i s : ku-... .Mi', na lead ■"■'' ■"'" 

3. L. Salweii, Borr. whitish or creamy-while, tartareous, effuse 
or continuous, M/wtmulase, sguamules depressed, tumid or grttnulose, 
bluntly lotted, apprn.vd, unjxilifhed, minuUly innate, granulate , (K 
yellow C red) ; apothecia sessile, solitary or ebutaVMi plane, lurid 
umber-broum, pruinose, margin pal'i, thin, elevated, jUxuote; hypo- 
thecittm paU ; sporee 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple, large, twice as 
long as brood 

On earth among ruolw, frequent. 1825. 



8ts :— BomrtinE. BoL Suppl. 2-*'. I (1- HOT. M. Mm Scand. Atf>. Diatom 
WaUrotM,, K.nli. Bmt IXi. Mini.! 1M. 
Krg :— K. Bot. SuppL 286L 
Ex»:-Zw. 78. Anil Liuigob. 171. Ijirbal. 32. 
(ioxi. DlSTBlB : — Germany, BwttstrJSM, Lombard} - , Arctic America, Nor- 

Bot. Pxov :-l, 2, 6, 7 U 1 

N'ear Scnnen, < 'ornwall. Mr. Ra{f$. Valloy of Rock* at Linton, 
N. Devon ! Mr. Montr. Trevithel Moor 1 near rVnaanco. Mr. Curnon. 
111..1.O1. Mr. Holm*. 

Ikzlaxu :— Prieat Leap Mountain near Dunkcrroii. Dr. Taulor. 
i.l-. :— CruiK r.rci.lili'ii, M<<iiU,inn«ryk]iii. 
Road from Bala to Dolgelley ; Uelli-rhadd near Barmouth. Jter. T. Salttty. 
TwU-dO. Mr. Borrrr. Crib Cocli ! Snuwdan. Pen Cow ! near Fishguard, Peari- 

Chahmex Ihlasdb:— Saints Bay Guernsey ! Ha: T. Aslma/. Beanport Bay. 
Jersey ! Mr. Lar&atatitr. 

Medulla of thallu* I — ; paraj ihrsc* dutinct, (lender and entangled. Disk ol 
mAbachnn K Cnd, irwithn njitrrrT- 1 brownish, spm™ .hi mm. load 

.011 nun. broad. 

I I,, airo-rn/a, (Dicks.) lurido-cintratctnl or brownish, adnato- 
tquamulote, */uamtU<4 depremd, or sub-verrucote or sub-imiirvxile, 
(K — C — J; apolhecia futcotu or niyriexmt, initiate, plancKionYex, 
margin thin, 1009 obliterated ; hypatlte.c.i'im oilourltit, the .lides 
externally dark-browti >, colourless, ellipsoid, aSzajali : 

gelatin hymenca I bright bin*. 

On earth among sub-alpine rocks, not (infrequent. 

8tn : --Dirk-. Hr. Crypt. I A, I,. Syn. O. Nyl. Scand. 198. Mudd 


J'K; i - K. Bot. 1102. Hepp Spotta t t.V I. 122. Dl.:k.. I. .:. t. 12. f. «. 

Kx* 1— Happ 122. Th. >f. Fries. -11. Sch*r. 171. Fellm. 151. Anxi It S. 238. 

Okou. DioruB : — Germany, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, 
Austria, K. lAplaml. Hungary, Italy. 

Bot. Pkov :-5.6, 7 ...10, U. 12... 19.. .23... 81. 

En.ii.and: I'rnritli Ml. I'liuilK-rhuid. Mr. Dfetsm. (1S01.) ICgloaL . 
Durham. Rex. J. Harnman. Farndale Moor, Yorkshire. Mr. MvjUI. Cecr 
Caradoc ! Shropshire. 

Scoti-aDD ;— Ben Lnwcn ; Dochnagar ; Bon Macdhui ; Ilennaboonl. lirr. J. 
M. Crembu. Ben Lawen; Cralnlarich. Or. MM. 

IhkijlVD t— Mount Douor, Wlcklow. Adm. Jom*. 

Wales :— Cwm Glaa ! Snowdoa. I r ort HUl I near Fishguard, Feinbroke- 

CHA.VWL Islajuw :-Guernecy. iirr. 7". Salvty. 

Paraphyaea compact, ineraaute and fuacou* at tho apices. " Spore* 0.010— 
17 long, 0.006—8 mm. broad." (iVjiM "9— IS inickrm. long, 2 2J aa long a* 
broad? 1 (Hcpp.) •• 0.012— 17 mm. long, 0.005— 8 mm. broad." (T.M.Fr.) 
•■ .OUi-AXC.-, in, .001 in broad. (MuUJ.) Sporea .OH -.015 mm. 
long, .007 mm. broad. 

5. L. rkubda, (NyL) aulaneo-ftucout or lurido-fwcerccrii, aqua- 
inoev, f/uamiiia rigid, rotundaU or rotandato-dtformtd, crennto at 
tin' margin, under mrftWf pale or wluii.Hli, unequal, with long 
central radicl'.- igliMilt, mo<lerate, pale '•■ ithin ; spore* 

8, colourless, oblongc-cllipsoid, simple; paraphj se» indistinct; 
gclatina hymenea vinous-red with iodine. 

On the earth among rocks in alpine districts, rare. 1865. 

8m :— Nyl. in Flora 1865. p. 4. Crombia Kn. <M. 

Gtou. Dmriuii :-Kuropc, 


Sootlakd : -Ban Lawcra. Attn. JbHW 

Allied to L. globifen. "Bporea .012—16 mm. long. 006-7 mm/ broad." 


6. L. ylaucolepidta, (Nyl.) glauco-vireseent, membranaceous, 
tgaamulute, s'/uamules scattervl. " >\inded, margins ineito- 
lobate and erenate, tortdiif trout ; apothecia targe, adnata, solitary, 
rtddisli-blaek, convex, or cephaloid, depressed in the centre, margin 
obliterated ; hypothcoium thick, pale-brown ; spores 8, colourless, 
ovate or elliptical, simple. 

On mountain lurtv ground, rare. 1812. 

SriJ :-NyL Enam. Gen. Suppl. 337. (IK',7.1 <:»rni[l In Nat. Hut. Rev. 1859. 

Mudd Mao. 171. 
Fio :-N»t. Bbb Iter. 1869. t. S2. f. i & ». I>. <•- Mudd 1 3. f. B2. 
QBOO. Dihthid :— Enropo. 
Bot. Phov:— 19...30. 

Ihklakd :— Ne«r Bantry. Afu» U'UcJiim. (1*12.) Sontli iid« .it Croehan 
Mountain ! 4 in. from Ballintoy co. Antrim. Dr. Moon. 
Tballu.1 lika ■ CUdoni*. "Spur* .001 :, in. I„n b -, by .0()S .00073 in. broad." 


7. L. armmiaca, (DC.) paU-ochraceo-luUsmnt, areolatodiffraet, 

ar&i ■■■•■• ]'l.i r Miiiniiivi ■,, swiotk, hypo- 

thallus bluish-block ; npothecia innate, nearly piano, immarginatc, 
moderate j hypotliecium dusky or colourless ; spores 8, colourless, 
elJUptoid or oblong, simple ; (thallua K orange yellow, C red.) 

On rooks, rare. 

BtUt— L. armmiaet var. aglaovUt, Nyl. Df.lp.iii Bull. Sac, But. Kr. vol. 10- 
p. 265. (188&) Orombio Bnvm. 88. 

QaOO. UlSTklB :— Europe. 

Bot. I'bov:— 15. 

. ..ig Calliacb. Eort RrAmpUni. Rev. J. it. Crombt*. 

Panphnaa tUck, abort, distinct, bnl compact Grtttttna hnatBM I i' 
bine. "Sport* O.OOO-fl.013 mm. long, 0.005-0.006 mm. broad." (.Vyf.) 
"0,009— 0.013 mm. long, O.OM-Smm. broad." (T. U. Fr.t 

8. L. oonfcrlula, (Strtn.) pallidtxinereous, squamiUoto-crustaetovs, 
squamulcs small, contiguous or dispersed (K — C — ); apotliecia 
fuscous, nearly, minute, very numerous, often contiguous, 
obtusely margined, internally pal*; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, 
simple ; paraphyse-s not very distinct, almost conglutiuutc, fuaco- 
i -lavute ; hypot/ieeium colourless; gelutiua I blue tlien 
vinoso-violet especially the tbec». 

On rocks, rare. 1870. 

Bn :— Stirton in Trans. UbMgow Soc, N»t. p. 88. (1875.) 

Bot. Pnov :— 15. 

Scotland :— Nw Killieorankip. fM Stirtm. (187S.) 

" Spore* -01-.013mm. long, .0055— .007 mm. broad." {Stirt.) 

9. L. tndocyanea, (Stirt.) cinereout or cinereous-black, or even 
black, tquamuloto-difract, squainulae plane or somewhat convex, 
uppressed (K — C — ) ; apothecia fuscous-black, at first small tad 
urceolate, then expanded plane or convex and immurgina! 
internally nearly all but especially upwards of a violel-<olour ; hypo- 
theeium slightly futcanent or ii-irty cotowim; paraphyses distinct, 
filiform, closely intertwined at the apices ; asci cylindrical 
tenuato at the base ; spores 8, colourless, elliptoid or oblongo-eUip- 
toid, timplt. 

On rocks, rare. 1877. 



Stv :-Sl!rton In Seottlah Natnralint 4. 166. (1*77.) 

Bar. Pnov:— 18. 

8co«.AM> : -MnIL Dr. Stirton. (1877.) 

"8pore» .011— .OH nun. limy. .(KM— .007 mm. bmad.'. liymenaft I 
bln« tnoD navc»cont and the iwoi fulreaecnt. The cplthecium i» overlaid with 
»den»i-ifr*iiiilaril»rker l»)vr." iStin. | 

10. /.. tporeta, (Stirt.) whitish, difperso-fnuamidose. wjuamuikt 
small, oppressed, plane or somewhat convex and lomc-tinn 

late (K — C — ) ; apoihreia fuitvAu or fuscous-black, very enwU, 
adnate, plane, obtusely margined, somewhat shining, small ; hypo- 
theeium coloitrless ; ])araphyses not well discrete, apices fuscescont ; 
spores 8, colouring, ellipsoid, simple. 
On rocks, rare. 1877. 

Stx : Stirton in Scottuh Naturaliirt 4. 166. (1877.) 
Bot. Psov :— 16. 

Scotlaxh :— Inland of Mali Dr. Stirton. (1877.) 
"8por«« .011- .01ft mm. long, .001— -OOli mm. broad. OoUtin.i hymenea I 
Mae then fulvwcent." {.Stirt.) 

11. L. pitted/*, (Stirt.) fntro-lmdioiu or futtws-bbfk, x</iumu- 
loso^ifract, squaronlcs small, somewhat concave or plane, (K — 
— ) ; apolkeeia black, crowded, innate, small, plane, slightly 
margined ; hypotheeium colourless ; paruphysc* indistinct, irregular, 
slender, apices black " r darkly-bhi. -Mark ; /port* 8, colourless, 
oblong, simple. 

On rocks, rare. 1877. 

8th :— Stirton in Scottbh Naturalist 4. 166. (1877.) 
Hot. Pnov :— 16. 

8COTLa*D r— laUmi of Mull. Dr. Stirton. (1S77.) 

"Snores .007— .01 mm. lent .0035-.004ft mm. broad. Clalatina hymen™ I 
blue tow tulvweent," (Stirt.) 

tt FTypotheciiim dark 

12. L. lurida, (Swartz.) lurido-fvttescent, imbrie/ilo-squamote, 
tquamules ri'jesrent, sub-hwitonlal, sub-orbicular, smooth, mt 
lobate, under snrince "hitt, (K — C — ) ; npnthecia nigro-fnseoiix, 
adnate, plane or convex, margin thin, floxuose, soou obi iterated ; 
hypotheeium thick, dark-brown ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, 


On earth among calcareous rocks. 1793. 

Stx :-SwarU Nor. Act. UpaaL 4- 247. (1784.) Ach. Syn. Bl. Nrl. Soand. 102. 
Mndd Man. 170. 

Via :— E. Bot. 1829, Storm I). Fl. t, 71. Hepp Sporen t. 14. f. 121, 

Ex«:— Anxi It 8, 239. IHcla. 26. Mjot. 67. 68. Nyl. 131, M. ft N. 643. Hptm 
121. Schirr. IS". 1-arUI. 31. Owml 47. 

Omo. DrsTius .—Sweden, Norway. Italy, Fyronef*, Hungary, France. 
Switzerland, Jlavaria, Algeria. 

Bot. Ptov:— 1 .7 .12. 15 ..2S...26 .51. 

•,:. i,, moorland. Mr. Dieison. (1793.) Euleatone, Durham. Btr. J. 
Harrimai »dal«. Mr. Robertson, fiabbicomlw ! Mr. Borrrr. 

Bnxton ; Malham. Dr. CarHngton. BatMord Hill. Bath, Itr. BM. 

Scotlabd :— B*n lim Adm. Junes. Craig""'*, lit, J. M. Ommtne. 

Wiiw -Ocllfawr, Barmouth I ilrr. T. Salmi/.»y»«c rooka I Great 
Ornu'i Head I 

The oxcimilum la dark-brown, and homy in Uxture, inclining a thick dark- 
brown medullary m«*« upon whlnh Uiti hym*iiimn reati. Paraphrase danaaly 
whurwit, apices rnfescont. I broom with grecniih hu», bnt Nyt and T. M. Fr. 


aay I polo blue then vinona-red. "Spore* 1 0.015— 15 mm. Ions, 0.006—7 mm. 
broad.- (JVW.," 0.012-16 mm. long, 0.005-7 mm. broad.'' ft. M. Pr.) 
".0Q31O.W88 in. knit;, by .mil i-» iKHii". in. broad." (M I 15 mikrm 

long, twice o§ long ua broad.'' (Hepp.) .010 — nil mm. Ion*?. .000— .007 mm. 
LimiuL "Spvrniali* ■•llii»«>id nr" (Mudd.J The margin* nf lh« 
tballlne at|uamulca are goneTjJlv I upturned. 

There u « paler utate of the Ihalliu, forma patlaccni. Th. M. FneaScoml. 111. 

13. £. Friaii, Aub. broiraitfi olive, cartilaginous, dill'iim -, 
(lonosqMamQtf, tquamutts tcalltrtxl or crowd- "itu, 

imooth and polUhtd ; apotbecia Mark, promia*Qtlv sesailr mi tin 1 
squamulos, margin thickish, floxuoso and incurved ; hypothecium 
dark-brown ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple, minute ; 
(thaUusK— C— .) 

On trees and palings, rare. 1854. 

Stn :— Ach. in liljabl. Sv. FL p. 610. (1810.) NyL Scani 213. L. murmtdaa, 
Pr. L. Ref. 344. L. Cbrorfocfw.-. Mu.l.l (n..n J. . 169. 

1 i -Ann. and Ma*,'. N. Hut. «er. 3. 14. tftf.S. 9. 11. 

B»> «o4d 148. Fries 88. 

Geoo. Dihtkib :— Sweden, Norway. 
'am ■■ kft 

Enolakd:— Famdale! Stogdale! Kildale! Bayadalel Cleveland; York- 
shire. Mr. Mn.l'I. 

l J *r»|)lij»« ) coherent, spiuea fuaewcent. "Spnrsa 0.007— H long. 0.003—4 
BUB.IVMHL ' •'0.006—8mm. long, 0.003— 5 mm. broad.'' (T. iT. ft-.J 

".0018 in. Ion-, 1 , v .C*)7.*» in. broad. Spermogonla prominent, verru- 
Oarai 'oattered or muHuent. S|M>rinaiia elli|w>id or "ubcylindrioal, 

straight." (MudJ.) Sporea .007 mm. long, .004 mm. broad. 

14. L. otlrtafa, (Hffhl.) palf -oti '«•, tg UB B U l fo lBj Si/iMiiixdes imt/ri- 
crilf, atctrulinif OX eubrrecl, raii/u.m. tmoOth, l male, iii'tri/iiu and 
I'n-i p mrfaa ' Tranulato-pulvtrutait j apothotit black, opake, 
plu n'o-jjniinose, margin Boxuom; hypo- 
lini nun in,,'.. us; spores 8, colourless, cllii Dpi*, minute; 
l'!ullu8 K — C crimson.) 

On trees and palings, frequent. 1805. 

Stx :-Hoffm. 1). FI. 2. 163. (1795.) Nyl. Scand. 242. C tcalarit, Ach. Syn. 
Of. Mudd Has. 

rV,:-K. Hot. 1601 \1:.... Kit-, f. IM. 

77. Mu.M 141. Anzi It. S. 236. M. ft K. 1326. Schau-. 467. Leigh*. 
10. Bu 

Ccoo. OtSTKiB :- Uennauy, Sweden. Denmark, Norway, Bavaria, E. Lap. 
land. Italy, Aiixtrio, Switzerland, Scandinavia. 

Rot. I'ii... [ft 

■NU»l"Hai Halo*worth. Suffolk. Jfr. Tamer. Kton. Mr. Ootobtit. 
Henham, Suffolk. Mr. Tartar. Ottiwray C lill T Weatenlale! Cleveland. Mr. 

tfadU ttonnloii if 11 !•.,•■!. ■ i:--.,>. .u*'- NmoM BsrPsrkl UsnfordaMr* 

Bra. T. Safari. Uraenby ! Yorkahire. Mr. Uaitr. noar Woroeater. i>r. ftA 

Hciidon; Kinciii.-y ; Hampatcad; KpiiiiiK-; TottstMi*; nsar Iiyndhurrt, turn 
Hore»t. Rev. J. M. Cromltie. Kceton Common, Fenthunt, Seveooalu, Kent. 
Mr Ualmti. CocrCaradoe ! Kaatorn baao of Wrokln ! Haughtuond Hill ! Bhnp- 
Mrdnlla I—. Exeipulum externally dark, internally pale. Paraphyao* 
ooomrent. "Sporea (lull I." fXyl.) 

"0.010— 12 mm. lonit.O.OOSO— 35 mm. broad.' (r. M. Pr.\ "i'hjI in. long, by 
.iX»} in. broad.* (Jfiu&f.) •*'!ol.hym. 1 i :imtia cyUiidrical. .tral 


16. /.. mmiiiUarii, (Oouan) lekiU, thick, tart«roous, ttrrucato- 
or arwlato-fiuanuUosir, artolus mb-lobato-pluxUe, turgid and convex, 



cancellaloinsculpteti or liaUMj apotkccia on the margin* of the 
arfolir, iwtlfll. lil.'irk, plane, nuked, margin thin, eventually 
obliterated ; hypot! -.irk bl;u:k, thick ; spore: rl*M, 

alongato-ollipsoid, simple or dbnordj bilocaUr ; (thallu* K — C — .) 
On calcareous rocks, rare. 1 7'.) I . 

8t» :-Gouan Montp, 88. (1798.) Nyl. Prodr. 120. Mudd Man. 173. 

>':i; .• -Linn. Trana. 1. t. 4. f. 3. 

-Sclwr. 575. Mm 29. And It. S. 216. 

Genu. DlRUa :— Franc*, Algeria, (!Mnn»ny, luly. 

Bot. Puov : I M. 

BuoiAKD :— Babbicomb*, Devon. Adm. Jtmrt. irpton ! naarTonpiay, Devon. 
Dr. Deaiin. Dovedalc. Mr. II ■•' 

"Sporwt.COSS U> .008 in ltm«. by .00075 in. broad" (Mudd.) "4 to S timoa 
longer than broiul SparmatU Ktraudit, iniiuit*, Ntrrigmata nearly 

riruplo." {Nyl.) Spore* .011-. 014 mm. long. .004—005 mm. broad. 

16. L. inlummenu, (FloL) futeo-eintrtoiu or cerviriofiitcrtrmt, 

:ito, *u(h*j""i>: irrruculose, areolato-diffrad ; apo- 

: iok, Domnvaa, orowdad, minute, mnato-app lone, 

margin thin, anmmmt, lUvuott; h/potnooSuni Digrtvftueooi ; 

»porcs 8, colourless, ollipm-id. simple. 

Id insulated patches between the thallus of Leranorti glaucoma 
on rocks, frequent. 1854. 

Sis :— L. hadia r. intumtterm, Plat Uob. SiW No. 175. (1829.) NyL Scand. 
281. £. frwutoi-u, NyL Bot. Not. 1852. p. 177. Mudd Man. 205. 
Flej-Mmid.Man. I. & f. 76. 

Kxm : I .eight, 161. Mndd 174. Rabb. 749. And Langob. 330. 

Gixxi. DiirrRrn :— Fram o, Swi-ilm. I iinm.irk, l.nmhardy, Aiwtria, \V*at-;.. 

Bar. Pnov: -5.6, 7. .10. 15. 

RMOI.AM'- Pliltrigv ' I^ninmlal* I Cleveland. Mr. Mudd. Oakham Dingle ! 
near Church Stretton : Ponteefird Hill I Caer Caradoo ! Shropshire. 

ft ■•. J. it. Crov. 

Walb Gimlet Book ! Pwll.vlli. Fort Hill 1 near Fiahguard. St. Dnvlda! 

Paraphrw* imliitim-t with dark-fbaOOW apirca, I pale-blue then dirty-violet. 
"Sporea 0.010 12 mm. long, 0.005-6 mm. broad." i.vy. i " 0.010— 13 u OB. 
0,001 t BYA bn«d. (T. .». Fr.) ".0025— .003 in. lorn;, by .001 in. 
broad." (Mudd.) .013 mm. long, .006 mm. brond. 

17. L. iugut/rij),SmTnrf.fu4co-cintrwu*, cartilaginous, thicki&h, 
tquamukto-areolale, granuloeo-concreU, gUbuloso-diffract ; apothecia 
blaek y opake, tuperjtcial, plane, margin thick, entire, hyracnium 
cineraaocut ; brpotbeotum :oua; tpora 8, colourless, 
ipharicai, luSple, n miutcly multi-iiu* 'li-ulate. 

On sub-olpina rocks, ram 

Stsi: -Sommtrfalt Suppl. PL Lapp. H3. _pr. p. (1826.) Nyl. ! Oh* Holm. 
76. Scand. 232. 293. Lindsay in " " 
Fio :-Micr. Journ. 5. t. 11. 

176. Scand. 232. 293. Llndaay in MJer .inuni. 5. 177. Mudd Man. 213. 


Bn :- Frio. I.. 8.38L Mndd US. Th. M. Fri»»H>. i 

Gnw. Dihii I.ii, Norway, Finland, Bavaria, Pnuria. 

Hot. Pnov:— 10 ..15. 

BiraLAXD :— Olit wall, Ka*t of Cookx id Ayton, Cleveland. Mr. 

Mudd, CronUer Scar, Yorkahire. Mr. Martmdalt. 

Sr.TI.ASri: W«at« villas* of Braeumr. 00, AbardatB, Or. I.indtny. I1RW.1 
I'.'ti l.aweni ! Mr. Hugh Matuultan. Cantleton I BrMmar. Adm. Jena. Foot of 
Ben ygloe: Glen Fonder; Craig TuUoeh, Blair Athola. Rtr. J. M. CramUr. 



HI.', MBOtifnrm or .uiivornir.-i.fnnn, ulightly prominent. Mack, 
iparioyly *c»tt«i«J. Spermatiti »tn»ijrht, cylindrical, .0007o to .001 in. Ions by 
.OUOlSlii. broad." [Mm !■'■ 1 

18. L. fu/iginom. TayL darkhroicn or fuseo-rnfrscrnt, glcbuloto-, pulvimUo-con tjtommtt ; (K — C — .) hypolhallus nigro- 
fuscous, subbyssoul , (i)i iik. small, solitary or aggregate, 
plat convex, margin thin, soon obliterated, internally blackish; 
hypotbeelum brownish-black, thick; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, 
simple, minute. 

On rocks, frequent. 1836. 

Bm : _Tayl. ! Fl. Hlb. 2. 131. (1836.) L. amfusa, Nyl. Scand. 216. Mudd 

-Ldeht. 30fi. 
iJior.. DisTitin :— SwKiInn, Norway. 
Mm. 7 .IS .26. 

KOI j— fiu'i 1 ItMdool High Rock ! near Bridgnorth, Shropahtr*. 
I *SP:— Crianlarirh. Dr. Bell. 
Ikklakd :— Dunkerron: Carte Mountain!.' 00. Kerry. J>r Taylor. (183G.) 
QlengarifF ; Dunuiiuiway I Mr. Carroll, near Kyleinore I Lvuemiorw I Dough - 
ruaeh Mountain ! Galway. Mr. Lariaiestier. 

Wai.i Batman I (I B mflaitona between Barmouth tad Dolgwllay ! fiat 
T. SoAmv, Bartnoutli ! Oadar tdril ! I.lyn QeJifraydd I Glydcr Vaon! 

Parapbrae* uela-yeUowiah-brown, cohiurent. apicea brownish -block. " Sporea 
0.Q0B -0.010 trim, loir-, 0.1IO1 r. linn. Iirniul. |;V-/.,) "0.007-10 mm. long. 

0.001-6 mm. broad." ( T. M. Fr.) ".002 to .00276 in. long by .001 in. broad." 
(Mudd.) .007 mm toOf, .004 .005 mm. broad. Aaci fbfue. "Sikh: 
liliform, arcuate." (N'jl . ) 

19. L. bolryita, Nyl. cinereo-viresceni, squamuloso-ptileeriilenti 
ihin. (K — C — ); apothecia paU-hrovm to dark-brown, small, simple, 

tgregate. pr iiitut, almost sji/i t/iecium thick, dense 

In-oipnish-black J IBOCOI % OOkHUMM,, simple; Iti/meiiuim 
colourless, /ullucid : pumphyses Hut discn ■(<•. apic.08 «<•■ 

oa hj [MM I OKrulescent then vinous rod 

On alpine rocks, rare, 1871. 

Stx :-Kt.irlm> in Crr-vlllaa 2. p. 71. 
mum 9— B« Volrlich. Dr.SUrlon. (1871.1 
" Sparw .008mm. lone -004 mm. broad. (»->(. ) 

20. L. endomelmut, Leight. pale cinerto-virtseent, opake. gU- 
KnUif. ffUbula sr-tttcred or areolato-diffract, thick, convex, composed 
of minute, conglomrraU, convex, roundish or sub-lolxitr, tubfurfnra- 
etous upsamulet (K pale-yellow C ptJfl y iUov) ; apothteia tiolti 
black, rather large, innuto-sessile-, at Brst plane with a thirkish ratr 
gin, afterwards very coutox, and immarginate, slightly prvinote, 
ccmcolorous within; hypotheeium very Mar, nigro-fiiscous, with a 
paler-brown enclosed intermediate stratum; spores 8, colourless, 
BBlll, tlongatoellipsoid, simple. 

On stone wnlls. run. 1ST I. 

8m :- height in Linn. Trena. aeT. 2. 1. 11. 239. 
fig - Una. JW. 1. r. t. 32. f. 13*14. 

Bot. Psov :-7. 

Wain : Tn-friw! n»ar Manrw»t. (1874.) M>» ■!->■ {*«t near Tramadoc I 

A T»ry distinct apedes. Hymcnium paNeh-blue. I denic-violvt. Par»- 

triiyaea cohaerant. apicm (luoaaraqt. 
mm. broad. 

Sporaa .OU.V f0% mm. lon h ', .0045— .006 



• • T/tallu* tr.urfy. 
t ITypothttium dark. 

21. L. dupanta, Nyl. black, (Ain, furfuractotu, rimuloHe ; apo- 
Oucia uumerout, minute, ttatlertd, ttssiU, black, plane, margin thin, 
tmoolh ; hyp/A/iccium thin, nigro-Jnseout ; ejntiiccuiiu uigro- fuscous; 
hyroiniuii oplowlon; sport* 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple 

On water-washed sandstone- boulders, in sub-alpine localities, 
rare. 1854. 

Si*:— Nyl. in Flora 1860. p. 86. NyL Lapp, or. 186. L. annua, NyL in 
Lelght Ex* 186. Mudd Mm. 208. 

Kits :— Ulght. 186. Mudil Kli. 2m. 430. 

Gitoa. DiBTBin :- Europe. 

Bot. Paov : B...7 ..10...W...26 .81. 

K.xslaxd:— Near Batt«r»l>y ! and new RoeelX'rryl Cleveland, Yorkshire. 
Mr. Mudd. new Bewdley, Worcctcnhir*. Dr. JIM. 

iMU.txn .— NewCork ! Mr. Carroll. Olenoorbut ! Ur. Larbalalier. 

Wjub :— Cwm Idwal ! Glrn Cciriog ! new Chirk. 
ClUMXML I«LASU8 :— Howl, Jvnty '. . 

Jfr. fMrbaltJlitr. 

1'arapliywH diatinct, l>u t cohaervnt, apiw* nigro-fueeoiui. "Spore* 0.007 — 
-0.010 Ions, 0.0035-0.0040 nun. broad.* (Sgl.) -'.00175 In. long, l>y .0005 to. 
bratd. Speruuili rUndrieal Of *.<l>«Ui[aK>id." (Mwid.) Sporea .010— 

.013 nun. Ion/. .0(M — .005 nun. bromi. 

/.. iiiijHinjci and L. lutneoUt and iti varlntin approach each other clotely, but 
atUn ' liaracterintiu feature* of their diagnoses will enable aneaay and 

certain recognition. 

22. L. detnanjinata, Nyl. whiluh or cinerascent, very ilim, 
mlAcprote; MX) mQaw in analysis to those of L. 

dupanta, Nyl. of vhiob it may bo a subspecies. 

On rocks, rare. 1 .^ 7 7 . * 

8nr:-Nyl. In Flora 187S. p. 845. 
(iboo. Dibtkiii :- " 

H..T. 1'lMlV : 38. 

p. 845. 

1 ini md, 

Inn. ami :— Kyletuore, Ifr. Lartalaticr. (1877.) 
23. £. tylvicola, (Hot) n'twrrow or pale-ytUamtfi^amii/, thin, 
far/uraceout, rimidotc, effuse, (K — C — ) ; apothecia black, m 
conitr, immartrinatf. solitary or 2-3-«m*<if>, colourless with 
hyp 'm eterulec-cincrascciit ; 

tpitiucium pal' ; pur.ipLyscs IndUtiaot ; spore* 8, colourless, ellip- 
soid, simple; gelatine fa ■ iuous-rcd with iodine. 
On maritime rocks, rare. 
Snr :-Flot. Licb, SlUe. No. 171. <1S».) Nyl. Lapp, or. 185. Crombie Enura. 

s— i.wha). 84. Arn. 40S 
Geoo. DlHTMB :— tier-many, gwedcu, Norway, Finland, Lapland Orient. 
Bor. P«ov:-l .7 ...26 .31. 

Irslamu: Road ! and Kylemore, Conncmara. Mr. LatialcMiet. 

Walks .— Barmouth ! 
CaunreL IaLASna :-St P«Ur*« Valley. Jorvry ! Mr. Lorbalttticr. 

• Spares 0.007—9 mm. long, 0.0035— ti.004 

" '. J '• 0.006-8 ram. long, 0.0025-35 
, long, .005 mm. broad. 

injidula, Nyl. >r pale-yellowish-tawny; apoi 

nigricant, cinerascent within ; hypotheciuui fuscous ; pnrapbyses, 
spore* and other characters as iu type. 
On maritime rocks, rare. 

< iiAsxiu. iHLAsna : -ni. latere vaury, J or 
AdOM of pwaphyora pale. " Bpam 0.007— 
liroft..! Spermatia ulender, «traiEht." | 
mm. broad." (T M. Ft.) Kporv* .010 mm. loi 



8nc— Nyl. in Flora 1808. p. 473. Cromble Enum. 09. 

(Iron. D»min :— Eiiroi«. 

Bot. Pbov :— 1...7...26. 31. 

E.iiiL«[):- Buckfaetleigh. Devou. Dr. BUL 

Iiiri.anii :— Twelve Pins. Mr. LarW<aicr. 

Wales :— Abertygwyn Dolgelley ! ltr. HM. n*»r Riiilth ! 

Ohaxnu. Ihlahds:— The Warren I Jersey ; St. Peter's Valley ! .Teraey. Mr, 

Var. Hcllbomii, Lolim. dark-einereo-fuscesecnt ; apothocia black, 
turgescent, globose, immarginato, scattered colliculose, iu con- 
glomerations resembling the minute fruit of a bramble. 

On rooks, not common. 

8tx .— Bahm in Flora 1870. p. 177. 
Exs :— Am. 400 a. 

Gsoo. Disteib :— Norway, Sweden, Germany. 
Bot. Pro*:-7...W. 

Ksulasd:— Lanbrauahrigff ! CleveUniL Mr. Mudd. 

Walk;— Cwm Cywion ! Nant Gwynantl Snowdon. YFeglo-fawr! near 

24. L. paueida, Nyl. albido-cincratcent, thin, /itrfuraeeout, 
effuae, (K— C — ) ; abouwda my Uaci, minute, scattered, convex, 

inuiuu-'jiiuit, hviu nuini dusky, e.inerascent, paraphyses indistinct. 
apices I'oloiirlens ; kypotkecium thick, ftuco-nigricant ; spore* 8, 
OctlourinS, lni.ari-oblong, simple, small. 
On stones in streams, very rare. 1876. 

Svi*:-Nvl. in Florals; 

Birr. Pbov:— 26. 

Ihklami : -Near Kyli:iiiui'- ! ('mmninara. Mr. IsirliaSatirr . (1870.) 
"Si>orw.006-7 nun. long, .003 nun. brow). Gelatin* hymenea 1 vlnoeo- 
fiilvcaoont." INj/l.) Spore* .0145 mm. long, .001 mm. broad. 

2& L.tyrnjxtfftdmt,Ta.y\.paU-t/roii>)t,iL\ih-dcl-.TiitninU-./tir!ar<eKr>i*, 
thii-kisli, plane, rimuloto-areolat*,/urfu>\icruiu, ( K ylbm- >' yellow); 
apotheeia black, uuaoroua, diatliaet, -tuall, fub-innaU, rugote, margin 
indistinct, rugote ; hypoihr.cinm Aide, black or brownish-black ; 
spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple; panphym indistinct, cpitaee- 
iuni fuscous. 

On sandstone blocks in maritime localities, ran, 1831. 

8rs:-Tayl.MS. in herb. Borrer! L.promiuula [i. Borr! K. 1!. Snpi-1. M 
Hook. Br. FI. 2. 176. 

Fio :-E. Bot. Suppl. 2687. fig. 1. (2 left hand figs). Hepp .Si-oren t, 15. f, 

Exs :-Hepp 130. Am. 23 A 45. 

i.i 1 ii ;Tiun:— Kurope. 

Bot. Pkov:— 2,..5...7 18. 

Enoland ^ Bye ! Mr. Dotrrr. Wenlock ! Shropshire. 

iHUftD :— Dnnkerron ! Dr. Tuyluriii lurrti. Borw. 

Walks :- Llandudno ! 

Sporeii .011 nun. long, .036 mm. broad. 

20l L. criutulata-, (AoL) paMmwijk or grtviA, very thin, 
tortureous, effuse, slightly rimnloio-arrclatr, fiirl'uniccous, (K — 
<:— ); apotheeia very numerous, scattered, » U ■■. black, 

margin thin, entire; hypothecium thick, brownisii mokj spores 
S, .ulimrless, oblong, simple ; paraphyses indistinct, apices fuscous. 

On sandstone rock*, rare. 



a .— Ltridm pnramui rar. rrwHulnla , Adi. Kvn. LS MM7.J L. mufaJat-r, 

Mndd Man. SOU. ilwill. 

• m,,,i.: :. S3S. 

QBOO. DllHBIB :— Hungary. Germany, Sweden. 

i.iii „B id 19. 

fa Bank ! near Avion. Cleveland. Mr. Mu-U. Kteter. Mr. 
Parjtll. Kelvedon. Ewex. Mr. Vartnnt. Wedlock! Sliiowhirr. (ligiiioole) 
0»fc»,.y. Willi Mr, J.;l,,a. 

Iiir.i.AMi Kilkully! Cork. Mr. Carroll. O'Donoghuc'i Pri»n! Killnrney. 
Dr. Taylor. 

"Sporw 0.0)4—19 lomr, 0.007—8 mm. broad." i/fvl.) 'Spoi»t a012— 18 
mm. long, 0.00C 7 mm. broad." IT". M. >V.) " .003-004 in. Wr. by .00129 
— flOW In. broad." (XMeL) I blin>, »<■! -brown. S|mmi .(lli'."i nun. Umg, 
.008 mm. broad. 

27. L. trochmlet, Tayl. nH(.imw thin, lqiroso-tartareoua, 
tliyhtlt/, indi'tflrtuinatc ; apotkrtia Mark, muill, .vhv.a-; 
rwmdUh, uneven, ■ nmboaai ortnboroulsto, margin tumid, 
MMn itkteium thitk, black; sports 8, ftucoiif, oOiptioO 

. simply /■' ndiatinoti 

Ou calcareous mountain rocks, rare. 1836. 

ST»!-TayL FLHib. 2.259. (1886. | Lefcht. Brit. Graph, p. 13. (18M.)Gre- 
vill«a 4. Si. 

Fia ^ Lcigbt. Br. Graph, t. 5. f. 8. Grovillea 4. t. R figc. f. r. 

Gkoa I' un<iM<. Swnlan, Norwav, Finland. 

Bot. l'BOV:— 19. 

UTO .-—Carts Mountain ! eo. Kerry. Dr. Taylur in A«*. Jtorrtr. 

"8porM0.01$-:«>imii. long, 0.011— «d I bin- t.h-n intensely 

rinoiuv-red. Spermatia cylindrical, itmight." (T. M. i rut I.ieh.' Scainl fc 
631.) Th« largo usmooi ipona, doable the «i» of tho** of /,. n 
keep theae plants distinct, .028 mm. Ions, .016 mm. b] 

28. '/.•.. v, 1. blackuh, optquo, wry this, «t!ftmiMr' ; 
apothtcin Mark, yyrom~ru//os<: I bypotl ium bln"kisli : ,|.wv.. 

s. i'..|,,uri nbfong, rimple, iinit'thr km of thoee »f /,. trooiodt*, 

Tayl.) ; opithcciTim brownish ; paraphysos slender, not discrete ; 

gelation hyuicnea 1 pale-bluish and then tawny-vinous-red. 

On stones in alpine districts, rare. 1872. 

Sra :-Nyl. in Flora 1873. p. 289-300. Grerille, *. 28. 

riUtt i i. ••-'. ii«. a.b. 
Bot. Pbov :-15. 

Scotlaxd :- Near Summit of Morroue ! Hn: J. ,U. OrtttbU. (1S72.) 
l.-i irv<m rimptrr, but i» allied to Ltcuttn nmbonatula, Nyl. 

" Spore* .012 10 mm. long, .008 10 mm. broad." (A',.//. I SiM.rv* .Olli , 

long.-.0W-O0!T> mm. broad. 

29. //. tutyurva, Nyl. l/rownixh-Mack or yrrt/uhJirown, ate** 
minutely furjurarrmu tuiil OptlcO, nrtolato-dijFract , indeterminate 
(K — <-' — ) ; apothtcin Mark, sessile, plane, rupulosthopake, margined, 

. anfftilotr, Irniwiiish within ; epithecium brownish ; hypothe- 
cium fitsco-nierioMiti thfakiah: spores 8, eolonrieu. >*>*o- 

(lliptotid, ample ; i Blender, Irregnltf hsiinct, tliiok- 

BDMi braaoned and articulate upward*; goltttss hymonn in- 
tensely-blue with Iodine. 
On n (tone wiill.t. 1870. 

8r»:- Nyl. in i .■. "'•". ( 'i..mi.i.- in Jonrn. Be*. ■, a. 4 n, SCO. 

Biit. Pao\ : 16. 

SOOTUITD r— Glen Fender and Crais Tullocli ! Blair Athole. Krr. J. it. 
Oronbit. (1870.) 



" Externally Mmewhat rtnen'Ming L. furrtlla. but belonging to the MCtbl 
of L. pttrota- Sporm .011-12 mm. long, .008 mm. broad." (ATjrf.) Spore* 
.012 -.013 mni. font, .0055— .007 mm. broad. 

30. L. ochraeta, (Hcpp.) oc/imcra-fiitcefctnt, linn, furjuraeeont, 
(K — C — ); apolhcciablack or fuicou* black, plane, sessile, with a 
thinner darker pdithed margin ; hypotheeium julvofuicrsi-rnt, poltt 
upwards ; p&raphyses indistinct, apices colourless ; spore* 8, 
colourless, lincari-oblong, simple. 

On rucks, Jiot. comuion. 1876. 

Stk :— H«pp Europ. 263. 
Klfi t-Bm t. 2». f, 263. 
Exa r- Happ 288. Lojlca Tnuwylv. 2344. 
Uson. DntTRin:— Germany, Tranjiyltania. 
Bor. Peov :-26. 

LaBA*D>— N*» Kylemoro anil MweeUn I BallSnahineh ! Twelve I'ii.- ' 
('onnemara. Mr. Larbnltttier. (1876.1 
Sporo» .014 mm. long:. .008 mm. broad, 
f. tcruttarn. Kavimt near l^High Keagh. CJalway. Mr. Larlxileilirr. (1877.J 

81. L. pungent, K<irl>. vhiliak, furfnraeeoit*, thin, cftusc ftlmofti 
evanescent ; a/wiWa bVacit, plane, erweded, inth n black obtuse tnar- 
ijut : escipvhm bi.i.-k.tbin ; /iyj">fltrrium pale-broimuh ; paraphyses 
distinct, apices blackish; ■pom. 8, colourless, broadly oblong, 

On rock*, rare. 1876. 

Stx i Etth Pur. 1C1. (18«.) 

Gltoa. Dmnun :— Germany, OWtdtB. 

But. raoV:-26. 

IitKLAHn:— Coaat near Kylomore! Hal way. Mr. LarbaUilier. (1876.) 

8|x>re» .016-01" mm. 1"Iik, 0005 mm, broad, 

32. £. ptflVd, (Mass.) iitif fttlomA VJhiU, thin, efFusc, fwrfwra- 
ccou*. farinotc ; apot-hecia Made, sessile, plane or hemispherical- 
inarginato, eventually obliterate ; when wett-ed transparent-pale- 
brown : hypotheeium blatk ; parapliyaea distinct, cohasront, apices 
pale : hymenium colourless ; aportw 8, colourless, lineari-ellipsoid, 

On rocks, rare. 1*71;. 

Six^-Mam. Mbc. 38. (18B6.) 

Km;- Arm 73. 

Oeou. KihTMB . — Germany. 

Bor. Prov :— 26. 

iKKUum :— Twelve Pint, Connemara. Mr. Lorbnlt/tier, ( I 

8poru .013— .0155 mm. long, .00-1—005 mm. broad. 

1 1 Ifyjiothecium /iiteeseent. 

S3. L. adverlnis, N'yl. olivaero-nigrica/it, iiidi'(criniii:iti\ linn. 
furfurarsoiu, byssoid ; apothena black, niiiwir. :ii Icn^t li sulwimrex 
ma na within ; hypotb iinn black or /us- 

cons-black ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, sin II j par»- 

physes indistinct ; gelatina hymenea ctorulescent with iodine. 

Ou ealcareous alpine rocks, rare. 1866. 

ST* :-Nyl. in Flora 18*16. p. Oft 
Geoo. DnrrmiB :— Europe. 
Bor. Paov: 0,7 



-Llya Ar»n ! V* 1 ■»"*-) Oma Idwal ! Owm Bocklwjrd ! 

Oflter Prfnl I 'i'.-i.i.s. 

Ikklanp :— Briilifw mar Weatport ! oo. Mayo. Mr. Lart*jJatltr. 
- Beer** 0.011 - U.OH mm. tomr, 0.007— 0.009 mm. bn > Spore* 

.007 mm. long, .003— .001 mm. broad. 

3i. /,. aatnop I i'tL 0tiirtK at, thin, effuse, p«t/- 

'•*yow, (K— — ); apolhccia fulvo-rttfeteetU, small, 
d, etemmty coava and procmiaexit, i 

wry pale narrow mar'.'' '/tearing urhrii wetted; kypotlu.ciani 

Uxt-rufescent, thick . lourloH : paraphy&- 

distinct, apica colourless ; tports 8, eohurlat, linear, or lineari- 
oblong, simple, vert/ minute. 

On tho interior ■ i' i vn -••, rare. 1877. 

Uluat. In Linn. Trail*. 3d. Mr. 1. 2<2. 
PM :-Liun. Ttjuim. !. .-. t. 33. f. 10 ft 11. 
I : ... Tiiov :-28. 

Iluti.ASi):— Mwerlui ! near Kylemotr, oo. Ualway. Mr. Larbalcttier. (1877.) 
A very remarkabla and mil .ml v dutinot apecie*. Qelatiua hyiucaca I vary- 
pale-bluo. Sporos .009 mm. long, .0026 mm. broad. 

35. L. polyanthu, Tayl. p*' irtaruouv, thimmh, plane, 
rimuloso^treolate, furjuntetous, (K yellow orange-yellow J , 
frWta M<k£, Kinull, tulinnate or innatosessil 'hick and very 
juvmintnt, entire ; hypotkecium pule-ru/ettent ; paraphyses dis- 
tinct, apices pale, I btlM bttl asci brown : spui-en J<, colourl 

aoid or oblong, simple. 
Ou sandstone blocks, rare. 

S,s : -Tavl. MS. h l„.rl>. Horror! 
Kxa : Ana 1-ioh. Ital. Sup. 208. 869. 
Ukoo. IJihtbiii: Italy. 
Dot. Pbov t— S 

I \NH: llui..t|ii.r|..,i,,r • .l/r. Borrtr. 

Walk :-tf«Uniog road, Dolgellcy ! 
Very limilar generally W> £, ion Mid £. crurinfara, but recoKiiitable 

by dinaroul dlagmnca. Sporeii .011— .012 mm. Iuiik', .007 mm. broad. 

36. i* rtuticella. Nyl. oAn &, linn. lubleprOSI 
fAarur black, opaki , waw r, mnurf^irtafe, inttnaUjrdarh; immphy«og 
iinlirit niu i : epithedajo and bypotheolan fbaoou* »r fascoscczrl 
spores «, culourlcss. sub-oblong, dmple. 

On micscco-sel< [1BOUI rocks, rare. 1877. 

Srx : Xyl. in Flora 1878. p. 1 I'i. 

Ikrr. Paov:— 2»i. 

IrucLARU.-— Kylomore. Mr. LarlaJutier. 11877). 

••Spprta.OOO-Ummlomj, .0038 » BOB. bread. Gelatin* hymenoa I blua 
thtmvTnoao-inlveiiwntorvnnoiioHnibrufeaoent. To bo compared with /.. rtuti- 
cula. XyL in Flora 1868. p. 371. from which It differ. In to* .!iir<r«ul tballui and 
Duller ipom. It varl*» with a pulir hypotlicciiiin." (AV.) 

•ut ; 

ttt HypoUucium colourlttt. 

37. L. limi^i, Arli. all/ido-cinerasecnt, gublef/rote, thin. 0V 
furfurnocotu, effuse, (K — C — );aj*Ahreia Hoot, Mattered orer 
and conglomerate; opake. ironvex, BQb^oboae, im 

cineraecent, adnate ; hyt>otlittum colourltu or Myktly-fntcttcnU ; 
spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, or fu 

Onthecurtlri m ran^ts, rare. 1870. 



Sys :-Ach. Svn. 3ft. OKI") Nrl. Stand. 'JLI. CmmhioKii. 75. 

-Hei.p. t. .'.7. f (8ft 
Kxs :-Schier. 196. Hepp MS. Aaxl Lan ta* 407. Crombl* IK). 

CJBOfl. J>iHTRra : — Sivitxwrliuwl, N upland 

DTD: -IWii Ijiwmh; B»n Maoihul ; Summit of Cairn Cnwtr, Rev. J. 
Parai>hy«e« thiclcUh. numcrou*, dhrtinct, but cohnrent, Mul»h, aplrm pal*. 

I blnfu) Umd dirty fiiK.'-i'.itit. Tlit thtlint gtnt rtTlT^f a loom, furfurooeou* 

character, the pale-falvcacent hvpotheciiun, toe distinct pnraphvu* with pale 
aplcea, dl«tf ngul«h It from it* allle* Is. auimi' ■ ttttm. 1'' 1(5.4. !'.''■) 

IM /■'. alpntri*, Srarft. of which har» * dixtinct granular thnllui. and 
the former ha* a d*rk-fuice*oent hypothocium. turned nearly black by K. 
with fi'w in- Ii»tim:t paraphyaat, fuliginous at tho apice*, whilxlthn latter ho* 
npale-folvewent hypotlncium with distinct panphyaet, f uliginous nt tho apicea, 
and «poro» double in length. "Spore* 0.011-18 mm. long, 0.004—* mm. 

n. long, 0.004—11 mm. broad, 

brow)." tlftiL); "0.0K1 IK mm 
Bpore* .012-013 mm. long. .0056 mm. ' 

(7. if. Pr.) 

UN. /.. hitulnt'i, Xyl. yrllouHtchrartimu, thin, Irprnse nr indis- 
tinct ; apotheda cfn k, convex, immarginate, pale within ; 
hypothccnuii iriiurlrv;; cpithecium bluish ; paraphysea not dis- 
crote : spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid or oviform, simple ; gelatins, 
hymeuea bluish and then tawny-wine-red with iodine. 

On tiiiintniu' rocks, very rare. 1873. 

8ts :-Nyl. in Flora 1873. p. 297. 

Bor. Pbdv :— SI. 

Channel buna i -Rozel meadow, Jersey ! Mr. Larbalatier. (1873.) 

Tbo n|).i<-iiiiiii rnrnitltrfrlnattd by Mr. J.arhaloitlor do«* not ogr*e with Dr. 
Nylandar'i description in Flora, and ha* gonidia in tha pale nypothoeinm. 
Spam .fKf.l -.U10 mm. long, .00*— 005 mm. broad. 

39. h.phyllodisca, Strtn. black, minutely granulose or scurfy, thin, 
ofttn scarcely visible ; apothecia black, moderate, often '2-%aggrt- 
gait, and then undulate, sometimes conglomerate, mart/in \hmiiui, 
thin, 11. BOOM or sinuose, internally pallido-cinci .wnilco- 
cincrascont (K purpurascent or rosy J; spores 8, colourless, ellip- 
soid, simple; paraphysea .li.-iinct, ttlgro-elavuto or cwruleo- 
nigro-clavntc ; hypnthe.cium eoncolorous or sometimes darkly (I — \j 
tonaU : gelatina hymoncn I slightly-blue then vinoso-fulvesceuf, or 
mi iiuwtimesviuoso- violet ; hymeniumandhypotheciumpurpurasi'iiit 
with nitric acid. 

On rooks, rurc 1875. 

8tx :-8tirton in Trnn*. Glaagow Soc. Nat p. 86. 1875. 

ScOTLANIi :— N"ir Killi.i.uikic. lir. SMrtM. 11 

'•S| ...nai .007— .0"' .00*5— .0055 rain, broad. Allied to L. pi fUte- 

cocarpa, Nyl. Bom-ath the apotheela are often mod onrioua omhlon* oompoted 
of yellowish granular matter. {Stirt.\ 

40. L. chondrodes, Mass. irhiti, thick, amylaceo-tarlareovs, 
plicalo-rugose, nigrescent, furfuracenus, (K — C — ) ; apotheda vi-ir- 
fnscous when (fry, subsanguineous and transparent with a dark 
cirruinferential ring when wet, foeeolato-iunat', or adnato-seuile, 
plane, with u thin nifrrescfiii margin ; hypothedum cohurlest or 
slightly -fuscsscent, with a narrow fuscous taaipuhm pwuhjIW 
Conj;lutinate, apices fuscous; sports S, colourless, narrowly-ellip- 
soid, simple, large, oleoso-guttate. 

On calcareous rocks, not common, 187(1. 



Brl :-if«toru, Moss. Symm. 3U. (1858.) Korb. Par. 8. 
Kx»: IN!. 138 b. 

GBO Italv. Sweden, Norway. 

Hot. Pmov 

Hob, SwxnaL Xr.Jwl 
G«latina hyuumea I pal»-blu? then i«ddiah-brown. !ijKirm.017— .013 ma 
«>?— .003 mm. braaiL I "ix* ol thoaoof L. iminertrt. 

41. L. d'dutiuscnls, XyL Hiiiiilar to L infidida, Nyl. but th« 
"'tecia are /tvui or livid-pale and entirely pale within . opithi « 
and hypotheciuru colourless ; paraphy»es distinct ; spores 8, 
oolourleea, elli|»oid, simple, 

Oil maritime »ollf«toac rucks. 

Svx :-Nyl. in Flora 1870. p. 308. 

B-.T. Prov:— 1 

FnulaXD : — Devonnhire. Dr. IIoll. 

[ttLaVD:— Near Rcnvyli- Home! r.nmemora. Afr. Lartnilatier. 

■'.Sporen.007— .DlDinin. lout;, .OW-i; i ' f.VylJ Sport* .008 mm. 

long, .004 mm. broad. 

1 2. I.. cJiUrroticula, Nyl. viretcent, very thin, sublrprose or tatrfy ; 
apothtcia whitish-jlefA-eolour, plane, very minute, with ■< whitish mat- 
gin', hyii'itln.-cniin colourless ; paraphyses not well d ■■ pom 

8, colourless, acicular, slender, simjil- . 

On micaceo-wihistoae stones in a stream, very rare. 1877. 

Stn .—Nyl. b Flora 1877. p. 664. 
llor. I 

Ikixanu-.— Kyli'iii'irn! Galway. Mr. tarbcdmtitr, (1877.) 
Gelatins hymenoa I vinous-red. Spores .020— 35 mm. lonir, .001 mm. broad. 
SlMnuxLia atOUMtk .030-40 nun. fag, ,0008 <"'"■ brad." »->'.'''• I 

I I. /.. . St.irt. black, wal 'y 'jrnmdi^o-fitr- 

furaetout, con' >potlttcia black, Muilo, pluue or somewhat 

convex, opako, margin somewhat shining, often jlesuose or irregularly- 
lobate, or even lobalo-inrised, internally pellucid ; hypothodum 
colourless j paraphj'ses rather thick, not well distinct, generally 
coni'l ilii u. ; spores 8, colourless, oblong or fasiformi-oblotu/, 

On rocks, rare. 1877. 

Stk :-8tirton iu Seottuh Naturalist 4. 166. (1877). i ' M 'ill. lit. Stirlvn. (1877. ) 

• rta .013— .01K nun. lonif. .003— .004 mm.' broad. Gelatins hymenea I 
intense-blue almost block. P.plthedutn thick, black, NO» darkly vfolascant, 
K-." [Mrt.| 

*** Thallus powdery. 

44. L. liuida, Ach. gitrim pttlcu «.r viresccnt, thin, effuse, 

■so-pulvrrxlu! (K y DowO i:- V'"'''«*aminut> ., DO& » sy-ycllow, 

to; spores 8, oakrarleM, obloi 
or narrowly obovato, nmplo, minute ; gelatnm hymeueu candes- 
cent, then vinous-red with iodine. 

On shady rocks, and stone mill, ■■muumi. I v 

8t* It, M 1 1 m I Bra. 48. N vl. Soond. 196. Mudd Man. 108. 

K. Bot. 1M0. Ann. A Mag. N*t. )IUt Feb. 18*7. U 8. f. 10. 11. 12. 13. 
M«-. Wc. J. 240. 

Kx»:-Zw.92. Sohier. 2». Larbal. 3C Ami I^uutob. 123. 

i '.: ...... Sv> dan, Norway, Finland. 1 ^ilwia, SwitarUnd. 

Garaaiiy, Umiburdy, Kusaia. 


Bot. Fbov .—2, 3..A...7..*...V> ..19 ...8L 

.sii :— Woolton, Allertoii. 4o. near LirvpooL sir. J. K. Smtik. (1H63.) 
lurkficld, BtM S SI ; I'luihriilK" Wilk Mr, Bomr. 0»wt«trv ! Slm.|»l]irr Ra. 
T. Oilwt*. Carlcy Bridge road. Kx«t*r. Mr. 1-arjilL uw knighta/ord Bridge, 
\V..rc».UT>liirc ; Croealaan near Monmouth. Z>r. //.>«. Minohead, I'o. ]> 
Iihtham, K«nt. Mr. Ifolma. Hanghiuoiid UiU : NencMc Hill ! I.lnnvoiynech 
ScoTLANn : —Bleb Atlmlu ; r'»ll» nt ijloo Fender. Rtr. J. it. 


IwtAXl):— Oartlebemard Park. Mr. Camlf. 

Walsh :-Oarth near Dotg»Uey. Pr. Voii. | between Bala and Dolgelley ! 
Talyliyn I'aa. ! Cader Idria 

Channel Ihlajtds ;— Bowl Manor ! Jeney ; Guernsey ; Sark. .WV. £nrfa. 

Stwrw .004-7 DUO. lung, .0015-Si mm. broad." (T. M. fr.) '-Spots 
.00151a. long, .0006 in. broad."' (Mwid.) "SporM .004-<; mm. long, .0025- 
.003 mm. broad." 

forma Ikriotta, (Ach.) a state differing from the type merely in 
it* different habitat on earth, mosses, sticks and bark. 

Svs:— Ach,8yn. 48. 

-llepp iiporen t. 56. f. 464. 
Kxn : /.w. OS B. H«pp 4«4. Lelght. 385. 
GaOO. DlBTRiIi :— Germany. 
Bot. Tkov . .■■...7... 15. High Kmk! Bri.lgnarth, ShteptUM. 

• 1 1 :— On a putrid trunk near the Falls o( Tuminel. Krr. J, M. 
Cnmbu. (1871.) 

46. /-. ctavulifrra, Nyl. i iniireo-vironcciit or subflavoYiresccnt, 
thin, subdisperso-granulatc or subloprose ; apothecia dirty .ichra- 
oeo-rufous or dirty -testaceo-rufosoent or nigricant or black, convex; 
opitheciuiu and hy]K>ihecium palo j paraphyaeH ; spores 

8, colourless, oblong or clatate, dmittfl, i A minute, .004 — 6 mm. 

long, .001 mm. broad ; gelation hymcm.ii I blue then vinoso-ful- 

On roots of trees, rare. 

St* ;— Nyl. fa Flora Wilt, p. 384. 

forma nbviridaiu, Nyl. subvirrscaU ; gonidia small, glomeruloso- 

Ou rocks, rare. 1869. 

St* r- Nyl. in Flora W77. p. 468. 
Hot. I"uov :— 20. 

IbclaNd:— Kylumore, Gloncorbot, Doughruagh, Gartray. Mr. LarbaUMrr. 

•*•• Thalliu granulate. 

t Uj/pothecium colourless. 

46. I,. filBHSMUfll. B0DET> pale-taivny-l/rovm, determinate, some- 
what tart*reous, thin, wtimtidy granulate, (K yellow C yellow); 
apothecia Hack, numerous, crowded but diutinct, small, sessile, 
plant, opate, margin obtuse, entire, slightly Bexuose and pulish. id, 
iiitrually grey or pale-brownish; exeipulum nigro-fusanu, lateral 
only ; hypoi/iedum colourless ; spores 8, oolourloss, elliptico-oblong, 

On flints, not common. 



8ra :-a. Borrw! in E. Bot. BnppL J6ff. (1881.) Hook. Br. Fl. 1 173, Moid 
Mm. SOS. 

Km :-K. But. Suppl. 26R7. fiit. 1. ('.' right hand fig.). 

Am. 111'-. Rlehardeon 150. 
GSQQ, Kiirupc. N. America. 
Bot. Pkov :— 1, 2. 
Kx(ii.<ST> : Siinwn 1 lowni. ! Mr. Korrtr. Eimoutli : llaldnn, Itavon. Mr. 


"8porei.00271V-.003 in. long, by .0015 in. broad." {Mudd.) Spore».01l5- 
.014 iii/i. . lo:..-, .006— .007 mm. Imuul. ParaphyMa pal*, distinct, thickUli, 
apiew nigro-fiuooua, I pale-rinoun-red. 

47. L. parimma, Nyl. einereo-virrtcrni, thin, pranuiose, effuw ; 
apoftima Mack, innato-sem'U, numerous, minute, scattered, simple 
or cougregate, planoconvex, infernally pale, margin obliterated; 
hypothecium pale or merely a thin brown line ; paraphyses distinct ; 
rporr* 8, colourless, oblong or f uniform i oblong, simple, minute ; 
gelatin:! Iiymcnva vinous-yellow with ioilim . 

On old palings, rare. 1870. 

8ts:— Nyl. hi lite 1H70. IVomb. In Linn. .Tnnm. 11. 484. 
Gcoo. Distbib :— Europe. 
Bot. Pkov :-*..&. 

KsaLANn:— Colder* Orwn, M«ncl»ii '■ Miilill«m>x. Rev. J. M. Crtmbi' 
ISO.) Bonutton ! Shropuhire. Mr. W. Phillips. Sutton ! Whitchurch ! 
'• Allied to //. dtnipmto, Kr. but ililliriug in reaction. 8twnn»tj» oblongo- 

X cylindrical. Bporw .007— .011 mm. long, .0025— .0035 mm. broed." (CVeiao.) 
rea.OH mm. lung, .0036 mm. brood. An indiatinct or nheotato a*i < ' 
u risible wnl the nytneuiuin in "lightly cineraeccnt with K. 

48. Ii.fieniom, (Fries.) viretcent or wridi*in*ra*cent, <rranul<>*ir t 
effuse, thin (Ky or — C rod) ; apoUietia black; plane, scattered, 
sessile, margin (kin, JUxuose, hypotheeiam colourlets : spore* 8, colour- 
leas, ellipsoid, simple, minute ; gelatina hjmeuoa dilutely casrules- 
(Mint, then slightly fulvu-rulMwcnl. 

On old pines, wood, mils, 4c, iremicnt. 

v :-Frio» L. E. 268. Nyl. Scand. 197. Mudd Man. 197. 
ll.|i|,.S|,„r«n t 60. 1. 486. 

Ex» :— Nyl. 63. Henp 486. Ana Lamjob. 63. Orombio 80. 

(lev,. Dmriua : France. .Switzerland, Bavaria, I^anbardy, Sweden, Scandi- 
navia, Central Lapland 

Bot. Phot:-7. 10.15. 

Kn.ii.ami: -LminidaU; Klldale, Cleveland. Mr. Mudd. Hendon, Midill. ■ 
Bex. At. J. M. Cromfiie. 

Sootlam • : Killin. Rev. J. M. Orombte. 

Wausi-Chirlci Mrs. 

" flpermatia very (lender, cylindrical, straight. Spore* .0015 to .002 in. lone, 
by .0006 t» .W>or."i in. broad.'' (.Wi/U - ./.) ••Sp.iw.0.007 S nuu. luiij,-, 0.008B— 45 
mm. broad." (Nyl.) "Sporw 0.007—8 mm. long, 0.0030—45 mm. broad." 
( T. M. fr.) Paraphyice Indiatinct, apiece brownbh. 

forma aruainoea, (Rorr.) granules of thallux dissolved into 
dark-vcrdigris-grcen powder, and forming a limc-ao-diflract crust 
(K yellow red). 

On decaying rails and trees, not common. 1831. 

St* :-Bnrr»r5n K. 1M Suppl. Mf, (1831.) Mudd Man. l'.ir. 
Fio :-K. B*. Huppl. 9683. 
Ba :-l-nght. 406. 
Gkoo. Distbib :— Bump*. 
Bot. Pbov:-I.2. .5. .8. ..10..20. 
E:...i.»si»:— SlUStx! Mr. Borrtr. (1*31.) I .i-inNUndiir*. Rtr. A. Bloom. 
Ayton Moor ! Stogdmle ! Bayndale ! Cnoveland. Mr. Mudd. near Treflnch 1UU ! 

or ui< 


Qiwectry. Shropshire. Rev. T. Salaav. Dunsford, Devon. Mr. FarjUt. Bronx- 
Sroro Llckny, Warwicluliir* ; n»ar Shrewsbury ! Worfield ! Shropshire. 

lMt*Kt> :— Glanmire '. Cork. Mr. Carroll. 

Spore* .0091 mm. long, .005 mm. broad. 

49. L. eonglomerata, Fr. palt-gmn or greyish-green, granu'oM, 
thin. l'H'uw, [K — — ); n.poth.Ti-1 wmnie. vltv numerous, 
aulitiirv or conglomerate, courts, pali'-brnwn or rodduh-brOWD, 
imtai hypothecium colourlew, only slightly yollowish- 

brown in tho lowor portion j spores 8, colourless, narrow, 
cylindrical or oblougo-cylindrieal, simple. 

Ou trees, not common. 

St* h-Mm S. V. 8. p, 113. (1846.) Mudd Man. 194. 

Bn :-Leight. 151. 

Utoe. Dihtrib :— Europe. 

Bot. Pkov :— 2. .8. 

Kni-.hsd:— liopnull ! Lmceeterehiro. Rev. A. Rfoiam. Shanklin I Me of 
Wight. Rev. T. Salwr'i. 

"MOW 003 !n. long, liv .0075 in. lirniuL Spermogonia of »»iiib colour iw, 
and irnmened in thallodal granules. Spcrmatia cyhndricnaoicular. curred. 
(Mudd.) Paraphyae* dUtinct, tat oniiglutinato, apiee* culnurUm. Spores 
.01(1 1 mm. long, .0025 mm. broad. I turn* the apioM of tho paraphyses yel- 
lowish-brown, but ha* no effect on the hymenium. 

60. L. ochroeocca, Nyl. luUtceniiochratxous, granulose, efiue, 
granules small, contiguous or sub-dispersed, firm, (K — C — ) ; 
apotht.cia rufont or, |'l.ui'\ margin or indistun t, 
whitish within ; hypothecium pale ; spore* 8, colourless, oblongo- 
form, simple, small ; paraphyses indistinct ; gelatina hymenea 
I cmrulescent then vinous red, especiallyj the asci and apices of 
the paraphyses. 

On pine trees, rare. 1861. 

St* :-NyL in Ofren. V. Ak. Fork. 1860. p. 297 i Scud. 206. Mudd Man. 
<!koo. DistRIB :— Norway. 
Bot. Prov :— ISl 

Si'irn.vMi -— Ulenfallwli ! Mr. Carroll. Inviirrmnui. A '/in. Jonet. (18911, 
"Spore* 0.007-H mm. Ion*. 0.008-0.0035 mm. brood." (Nyl.) "Sport* 

.00ir> 002 in. I.nig, .OOflMn. broad." {Mudd) Spurns very variable in »Ua 

.006— .011 mm. long, 0025.-004 mm. broad. 

51. L. tpododa, Nyl. greenish-yellow, thin, granulate, some 
what eranescent, (K — (J — ); apothecia einerou* or sordid-pale, smttll, 
t-oiwr, immnrginatr : hypothecium colourless; spores 8, colour- 
less, oblong, simple- ; gelatina hymenea blue then vinous-rod 
with iodim . 

On old pales, rare. 1869. 

Sth :— Orombie In Seem. Joiini. Bot. 7. p. 233. (19C!>.) Knitm. 70. Linn. 
Journ. 11. p. 484. 

Ueoo. Dwriun :— Europe. 

Bot. Paov :-2, 8.5. 

Kviilaxd :— Noar Lyndhurnt ! In Now Foreit, Rev. J. M. Crombie. (18C9.) 
Shere 1 Surrey. Dr. Capron. User Ditches I 

Wiun .—Near Dolgolloy ! 

Closely allied to I,, deninrnta, Vr. IBd probably a «ub-»|»ciM, though txUr- 
nally distract. " Sporca .010— .014. mm. loner. .0025— .0040 mm. broad, with K 
•lightly or spuriously 3-Mptate." (Crombii I. e.) 

!,. micrococci, EJSA. dark-brighl green, rffuHc, minutely granu- 
losa, (K — C— ) ; apothecia minute, carnco-luUnxnt, innato-seasile, 




conwx, immarginate ; hjpothedam colourless ; paraphyic* iWii- 

taut, i-omjl titillate, apices, pale . spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, 

simple, minuti : gelatins nous or falvttai 

On old holly stumps, rare. 1876. 

Kurbcr T«. lftft. (1«6.) 

EUbh. 7|& Am. SSL 

Glue. Dibtkiu : - Germany. 

J'ROV :— ». 
IwtLAJiO :— Lough Inagh ' Mr. l^irUilntirr, 11879a) 
Spore* .01- uiiii. lung. .0045 mm. broad. 

53. L. decolorant, Flk. whitish or glauco-emtr ascent, thin, 
incrusting, effuse, minutely grtutulote and Uprose or pulverulent, or 
mo7? lavjely granulosu-verrucose and smooth (K yellow C red) ; 
gpothtnn very variable in colour, form and tise, hncl 
cincren-eanicou::. livido fatOOUt, pallido-fusecsccnt, nigrieant or 
fuscous-black, tattered m ngUmtnU, appruted, plane, and with 
a flexuose entire margin, oj omw nd MMHarytnafe, whit 
within ; spores 8, colourless, oblongo-ellipsoid, simple; paraphj 

On the earth in hilly ami tub alpine l(x:;ilil.ics, commoiu 1793. 

TbeeiMul Hi" thalliiuj jfrniinloa, ami the colour if tin- apothecia are } 
variable, apparently resulting from locality ami cliinatal The ch 
e»l reaction (K yfll.iv. nl u» to oonntot this with /.. eear 

Slebutota, 4c, and perhap* they arv all forma or state* of ono and the 

BlWr-llk. in Bet Mag. lH«t. p, W. Abb. Syn. 37. Nyl. 8c*nd. W7. I. 
muutrieolor. Didu. Br. Cr. 3. p. 15. Mudd Man. 197. 

Ki<. :■ k. Bet. us:. 

Exs :— Lcight. 352. Sehwr. 813, Mudd 165. 

Gum. Uinrniii : Hungary, Switzerland, Brazil*. Sweden, Runia. 

Bot. 1'bov i—l, 2. 3, », :. 7 in, 11 I.". 19, SO 22. 23 .86 .30. 

i niiul near Yarmouth. Mr. Turner. Eggleaton, Durham, /let. J. 

Harrimnn. riillrlgg-! BjJ*Ul»l BtOgdaUl llm.i I ']■•. .-luml. .Wr, 

\r IVnxatiee. Sir. Curnov. St. Paul's Cray, Igutham, Kent. Mr. 

. I. kfr. 1 DMA BmiDg KorcH : near I.yiulhiir»t, New 

Forest Rtr. J. U Dartmoor. Mr. Botnm. Ktipentones Hill I Ness- 

eUffa ami BbropihlN. 

SOOTUaXD:— BoottUh Mountain*. Mr. DitAsan. (1793.) Hraomar. Kit: J. M. 

lun.Atin:— Near Belfast. Mr. Tcmplaon. Korry. Dr. T.iylor. next Bantnr. 

Mat Ifvichint. en. \v irk l.>w. Dr. Moure. DoMrsile Mountain*, eo. Cork Mr. 

Inblln Mountain*. Adm. Jones. Delphi ! (.'onncmor*. Mr. Latiniteslitr. 

B I -l.lvn Gwrnian ! 

"Sporea 0.009-0.016 mm. long. 0.004—6 mm. broad. Gel. hym. I alight 
bio* the* lUgfaUy red." |.\V.| " Sporea 0.00S 16 mm. long, aOOl 
broad. Gel. hym. pale-blue then riolotor iliglitly fiilvu-rubemceiit," (T. It. Fr. 
'•Slx>»*.OO3-.0O3S In. long, .00125 in. broad.'' I.U«tfrf.) Sporea .0116-.01; 
mm. long, .006— .006 nun. broad. 

foma ackaroida, (Ehrh.) Rranulose, (K y C red); apotAcda 
confluent, di formed, convex, nuuhnyinate, AUOOIU or uiirricaut. 
On peaty i::"tli. frL'ipit-nl. 

St Ji :-Ehrh. Kn. 313. Aoh. Prod. 77. LTJ. 167. Mudd Ma... 
fin -.- V.. Bot. 1847. 

Kabh. 730. Ai./.i 170. Anid Iul. Sup. VS. M. * N. 65L 
Leight. IW. 
Gboo. Dihthiii:— Switzerland, Italy, Hungary, Sweden, Germany. 
Hot. rsoVi-5. 
KKOLAVD ;— fltlper-tonw. Hill • Arcoll Hill ! Ijiwrenee Hill I ShropiMr*. 



forma apbrttici , Mt. yranultt of thallus dtiiqnesein;/ into ;i 
ItproMi-pnlvrrutfRt, CQtuh B v flftd) ; npotheciii viiryiinr in 

colour as in tbetyp maiguad or i au niafl fo 

On peaty earth, frequent. 

\\>i. |o be MOfoondol wi'.h '■ '"''.itimMu, (Klk.) which it externally r<*ombla>. 
Svn :-K6rber Syrt. 193. (1856.) 

-Mu.1.1 lwi. 'IWk. i:.. S.'hur. U4. CromUe 81. 
(Jkou. Humus :— Switzerland, N. America. 
Bot. Puov:-2...5.10. 

Kmilixd: OttMmr! Mto KfcK Ban il M*, Bwnr. Gnfastcrdaf MB 

Oswestry, Shropshire. £*K r. Salwcy. Areoll Hill I Long Mynd 1 Shropshire. 

forma laxatilu, Larbal. 
W. aide of Lough Muoh, Ualway. Mr. Lartjalalitr. (1877.) 

54. £. vtrnalu, (L ) BAfl . wWflM or albido^inmuamt, Tory thiu, 
uncjiud or sub-<rrani4o»o-ttne'jwt or irrnilMlfHHlt. I'K— C — ); apothcria 
rufotu or pallido-ru/uitt, adnata, moderate, scattered or orowdi l, 
cojhvx, immanjiiuUt, palUh within . ipont 8) culourlesii, oblong or 
cDipSOldec-obloug. simple: paruphyaea indistinct : rpithccium 

On mouses, frequent. 

8tx:— Linn. Syrt. Nat. 3. p. SI. (176X.) Aeh. M«th. ft Km. 38. Nyl. 
Soand. 200. Lapp. Or. 145. 

Exs t—FtOm. IM i m '■ u. M. ft N.S45. 

QBOO. DmtRIB :— ScamUmvria, Swoden, K. Lapland, Hungary, North 
America. N. Zealand. Switrcrland. 

Hot. Phov:— 5... IB.. .31. 

BMURDr— Bintl Marrern. Mr, t*a. Common in Shropahlra ! 

SeoTLAiru t— Bon Lawcra; Bennaboord. fier ./. .If. On 

('HA9IML I«Li!tDH :— .lemey ; l«i«rn»y. .MV. larlnfatur. 

"Spores 0.013—25 mm. long. 0.006— * mm. broad. Sporea 0.011- 23 mm. 
0.005— 7 mm. Imuul. Celatinoa, hyinnna 1 |»I«-Mu« then yiuouared." 
iVy.) "Spore* 0.010-20 mm, long, 0.00*— 6 nun. broad." fjf. .1/. Fr.) 
Snores .OH— .0115 mm. long. .00-15— .005 mm. broad. 

farm* minor. Nyl. apothecia much less in size (about one- 
fourth) than thOM of the type. 

On trees, probably common. 1866. 

Sr* : -NyL Not. Sall.k. p. f. «t Fl K K.irh. nil p. 335. Lapp. Or. 1-il T. 
M. r'r. Lich. Spand. i:- 
Exs :-Fellm. (sine num.1 Am. 117. 
UsOQ- l/MTMB : E Lapland, N. Zealand, Switierland. 
Bot. Paov:— S...7. 

ISO :— IJiuiymynoch Hill ! ShnipMiirv (IS7I.) 
Walk*. : -Near 1 ' 
" 8poree 0.009—15 mm. long, 0.004-S mm. breed." r Ay. ; 

forma sabdapUx, Nyl, simil.iri.i tin; type, hut with n fow uui- 
aeptate spores mixed with the more mini 
On mosses, 4c. [870, 

Srx:-Nyl. Soand. 201. [ML] Upp, Or. 115. Kn. US 

UKOO. Disriiiu : S, midiniivia. 

P-jT. Pbov :— 15...28. 

ScoTLAif r> :— C.iuntift*. Rfr. J. M, Crombi*. (18T0.) 

iRKLaXD i — Opposite Lcenanc, Connemara. Mr. LarUUettkr. 

" Spore* 0.011—17 mm. long, 0.0O45-O.OOM BUS. brad, " (.Vyl. ) 

65. J> atn p U M f (Happ) whitith or rfmw tin 
lo$e, indeterminate ; apothteia lutn-/uKOUt or bUut. adnati , | 
or enncaro, margin IhUkitk, prominent, darker, tUnina, evintimllv 



convex, sub-immarginato ; hypothecium colourless ; spores 8, 
colourless, minute, ellipsoid, simple. 
On moss, possibly frequent, 1877. 

: -Hepp Ear. 368. Motor* •mnJit, Korb. S. L. 202. Psr. 148. 
Fioi Hcpp Sporcn. t. :M f. 268. 

-Arn. M8. Ana IBO. Ew. 834 Hepp 258. 
Gbog. Dibthid: Switzerland, Germany, Iuly. 
Hot. Paov :-26. 
Irslasd :-South side of Kylemore Lake. Mr. Ijtrbaltstier. (1877.) 

56. L. accesit-xns, Nyl. whitish, nearly smooth, dispersed or evane- 
scent ; apol/tecia testaceous or testaceo-broumish, eonw. ''ale, 
whitish within ; cpitheciuui und hypothocium colourless ; sjwree l 
eolonclm, oblong, simple; [KKptymindiriiiict ; gclatina hyme 

I bluish, then vinous-red. I 
On micaceous schist, rare. 1876. 

h» :-NyL in Vlora 1k7<"> p. HOB, Flora 1K77 p. 4(13. 

Bor. Paov 1—86, 

Ikxlaxd :— Rtovylo ; Doughniagh, Connemara, Gal way. Mr. Larbalatitr. 

"8porr» .009— .012 mm. long, .003—4 mm. broad. Spormogonia with arcuate 
tui" aiHinnatia .014—19 mm. long, .00Oa mm. broad. Apparently belonging to 
the eeotion of Z-. \trnalts.'' (Nyl-. i 

57. L. attivali*, Oh I. yellowish-green, granular, evanescent, in- 
crusting mosses ; apolhecia brown, small, immarginate, with light- 
grey pruina ; bymeuium and hypotheolUBI i-.olourless ; spores 8, 
colourless, linetri-oUong, simple, ,015 — 16 mm. long, .005 — 6 
mm. broad ; gclatina hymenea I blue then vinous-red. 

On mosses, Ac, 1876. 

Stk r— Ohlert Licb. Freumen p. 16. 0870.) 

Gnxj. Distkib :— Pruaaia. 

Bot. Paov :— 26. 

Ihklaku — Killery Bay. Galway. Mr. Lnrbalatier. 0876.) 

Allied to L. mttamnrjilttii, -Pi'til. but Jittering in the aimple cporea and the 
firm (not soft pen'z»lik« con»i-iUii'.'".i «tnn:tnre of the ajxithviua. <'<.ii>i>oi»Ud 
with and HIUMrliat resembling A. irrna/u (L.) 

58. L. dubia, Borr. pallido-virescent, thin, effuse, minutely 
grantdoso-pulncrulent, rimulosr, (K yellow C orange red) ; opotk 
black, moderate, scattered, or confluent, sub immersed or aub-ees- 
sile, plano-convex, margin soon obliterated, candescent- within; 
hypothecium nearly colourless, or very slightly fusccsccnt in the 
lower port, lateral excipulum bluish-black; spores 8, colourless, 
oblong, simple ; paraphytes distinct, apices bluish-black ; gclatina 
hymenea intense-blue with iodine. 

On old palings, not common. 1813. 

8rs i-Borrer in K. But. 3547. (1813.) 

Fio:— K. Hot. 2547. 

Gxoo. DinTiiiLi t— Europe. 

BOT. Paov :—•.', 8, 4. 5. 

KhglaMi i— Norfolk and around London. Mr. Bomr. (1813.) Overton I near 
Ludlow. Shropshire. Kev. T. fSalirep. Eml ! Mr, Pigfttt. PophUta, Warwiek- 
iihire. Bet. W. S. Kufford, Shore ! Dr. Capron. Pevenncy road, Kaxtbourne. 
Mr. Roper. Pembridge 1 Herefordshire, l'onteabury! Haughmond HUH Shrof- 

Sj.oree.0135 mm. long, .007 mm. RDM. 

59. L. turgidida, Fr. whitish, very thin, effuse, minutely gram- 


Inio- or Uproso-pvlverulcnt, often evanescent ; apothteia/vKtymgriamt 
or I'uxco-rufonccnt, slightly emiapruawtt, small, plane, or convex, 
immarginato, solitary or congregate, ■ttb-ianato-sossile ; hypoth". 
yellowisA-pale brown ; paraphyses indistinct, apices brownish ; 
spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid or ellipsoidoc-oblong, simple, small ; 
iCL'lutinu hyiiiiiie-i intoiwu blue then violet with iodine. 
On pine trues and old wood, not <• iiniiion. 

Ht» !-Kr. Sohed. Crit. 1. p. 10. (K"4.) N vl. Soand. SOI. Mudd Man. 201. 
Exs.-— Mm J'.. Nyl. UX Mudd 171. Ann Venot. 74. It. S. 273. Crombie 83. 

Kal.U. son \,„. -_-77. 

Gboo. I'ihtriu :— Sweden, France, Italy, Arctic America, Scandinavia, E. 

Bor. Pbov :-2, .5. 6...10...15. 

Bmouuri :— Bayadale ! Cleveland. Mr. Mudd. New Foroat. Her. J. M. 
Orombit. Shropshire ! 

Sooti^nd ^ Killin and Lochaber. Pan of Killiceranlrie, Rev. J. M. Crombie. 

WaHS: -Builtll ! 

' 'Spurn .0015— .002 in. long, 0.005— .00075 in. broad." (Mudd). "Sporea 
0.008-1'.' mm. long, 0.OO3-5 mm. broad." (T. M. Fr.) "Sporea 0.007-0.012 
mm. long, 0.0035—0.0065 mm. broad." (Nyl. J Sporea .007— .008 mm. lonif, 
.0085— .004 mm. broad. 

Var. pithyophila, (Srnrft.) cincrasoeut, very thin, or evanescent ; 
apothecia crowded minute, eonvox, rugulose, immarginatc, inter- 
nally fuscous. 

On old fir pales. 1872. 

-Srnrft. Lapp. 1M II '.Mi i. 'rumble in Jouro. Bot n. «. 2. 134. 
(jROO. DMTSIB:— E. I.aplaud. 
Bar. Pnov :— ID. 
Sc.ti.asi> Qlra l-Vn.lnr, Blair Atbolo and Killin. Iter. J. it. Crombie. 


" From thin /.. tnJiprllu, height. Lich. Fl. 301 differ* chiefly in the hymeneal 
gelatine being of a beautiful blue colour Wttfc iodine." {Crombie I. e.) 

Var. endopellrt, fLelgfat.) W8 WMMB / , i>potltr> u mi - - - ■ ■ 1 1 - 

crowded, piano-depressed, margin obliterated, iiUcnutlly pallido- 
/useoiu ; kypulkerium ptillidoftucoici ; spores 8, colourless, very 
minul--, slllpcoid, timpU, n.ith I rather large nuclei. 
< in old fir palings, rare. 1870. 

Exs : -Crombie W. 

Scoti.ant. t Itlair Allmla ! tor. J. 3t. Crombie. 

Thi» eomee Tery to Schier. 529, boi l> tbot the aixmu are lajjrer, and 
I. if '..l «bl0H(r, without nuclei : ncverthelcM both may be ouly it»t<« of the tame 

lii:h«n. Spore* .009 -.0095 mm. lour, .0045 mm. broad. 

60. A. pnuiiia, (Frica) dull-green or yellowish-green, luliiiiUhj 

•/rinitloso-pulw yuh <i>, offilMj tpOlhecia minute, lu'tni»j)ln.'rical, 

livid-broion or nigricant, wvnargnali . bypothoclnm Dale yello 
brown ; paraphyscs conglutinatc, ftpioCa pdc ; pOWl 5, colourless, 
oblong, simple. 

On trees towards the bases, not uncommon. 

Syn :-.W.'.virr« aWMaM, IV. S. O. V. 257. (1825.) Mudd Man. 190. 

-Mudd I'M Zw, I 
<}»oo. Dnrrnin :— Switzerland. Germany. Bavaria. 
BoT. Pbov :— 5...10. 

E*utAHi> :-HogKarto Wood ! Ingleby, Cleveland. Mr. Mudd. WapUy IIU1 ! 
Harafordahlre. CaaU* Hill Plantation ! near Acton Scott. Shropshire. 
"Spure..002-.0025 in. lung, .001 in. broad. 1 ' (Mudd.) > ' Spore* 0.007-W 


mm. lone. 0.0(9—5 mm. broke). t!cl. hym. I blut thon rinnn«.r*d. S|»rmatM 

aclcnlar. itraignt, 0.008-10 mm. long." ( T. ,\f. Ft.) Spore* .01 1 
long, 0CM mm. broad. 

61. L, qnmea, (Dick*.) ydlcurith or pale-fiiMeo-fluvcwonit, 
minuUlp granuloto-putwrulent, efi\i8e, thin, (K yellow C ornngc- 
red) ; apothteia fiueou* or futto-rubtsrrnt, moderate, scattered, #t*ft- 
immtrtrJ, plano-cowex, itnmarginatt, eonrolorow xriiAin ; hypotite- 
cium pale-yclluw ; paraphjtea ttaKUr, fulvcscent, apices reddiafa- 
brown ; spore* 8, colourlmw, ellipsoid, simple ; gelatina hyineuea 
crendosccnt with bdinfc 

Oq aged oaks and sycamore, not unfrequent. 1785. 

Sr»:--I«cl«. Br. Crypt. 19. (1785.) At*. 8711. 36. Nyl. Soand. 19C. Mudd 
Man. 192. 

:i. UnU M>.i. t. s. fig. 75. 
: VvVhv. 53. Am.i Etr. «. 
Larbal. ST. Mas*. 311. Bold. H4. 
Gtoo. Dwtwb :— Prance, Portugal, Iulr. Sweden, Denmark. 

Bo*. ' 

forfeit Mr. DUbon. (tm.1 K««r.v W.«d' G -od! 

Cleveland. .Vr. .V««W. Think and Woodend .' York«hlr». Mr. R«Itt. 
nl near Onreilry. Shropshire ; Wood oppoait« th< 1. • f nr " 

•hire '. tor. T. Rainy. XcwcmU». NurtliuuirvrUi 
Biahop Auckland, Durham. Jfr. IP.iKa. Haldon and Stoke Wo 
fur." orcostar : new Malvftrn ; Kairlijht n«ar Harting* : King»K«n- 

u.-ll. S. |)cTon. Dr. H'JI. Kolradon I Kaathorpc. Encx. Mr. Vara n< I' i.hUl 
bin. Her. » . S /.'u/oni. Kigali near Mr. Pinto* Badta 
•hif. lirv.C. Abbot. Oambridrfnibir*. Iter. R. JtfUut N ■ ■« 1 

. /.v.- .'. .tf. 1 . »tling, Suaacx. tor. J£ AT. Bloomf U, naai 

lOWtOT, .W>. H'. Jm.A.'i. Kili'llliriil|f>.i. Wrolliam, Wvii, Bogey.! Seven Oaks. 

Kant, W-. ffofoua (on in-amore) Parkgatc ! Cheahire. Neaacliffo 11.11 ' Hangh- 
mroi.l Hill I lUy.tou Hill ! Sutton! naar Slirowabury, Wmkin ! LUnyblodw*! 

lan.ASn :— Butlwr'a town ritar! Coatlcbernard. Bandon, and in I. a I 
mare'* Doer Park. Killarncy. .Vr. Carroll. 

Cn Rose! ; St, John 1 ! : Jersey ! ifr. Larbaleititr. Cutnutr. 

tor. T. .So/my. 

"Spore* .0035 In. long, by .OM25-.001S in. broad." (Muidl. "Sporas 
0.007—11 mtii lonff, 0.005- 7 nun. It.™!. C.I. bym. and .•«i>eciiilly the aaci I 
blue, then vinoao-tulvMoent." {T. M. Fr.) "Spores 0.008 O.OLi mm. long, 
0.0CG mm. brood." r.\V I BpOTM .01 mm. long, .0056 nun. broad. 

62. /.. pjridactol, (Sehnid.) paliido-virrtcent, thin, diffuse, 
minnttly grtmuloKt-jntlvrritUiit, iK y.llnu OorilSSQC red); apothtna 
ftueotu-Uaek, modern tc, scattered, or oonflotnt, RMsOfl or ml 
mersed, more or Um wave*, margined tv/itn young, tulMeyuentlg rub- 
imm '■scure or paiu/t-hmrNui' «»; 
tporai 8, Goloorii : . .1, imple; ixiraphgsa indistinct; 

: :yman-i i:a.'rnlt—vnl wflll I "line. 


1 Ach. Syn. 9k Kyi. Scand. 206. 
HI. 1.731. 
ipp TIL A _i 176. 

1 1 ..1 11 !! 

BOT. PlH)V :— 1. S.. 6. 

Ks w Porart: and near Exotar. tor. J. M. t'ronMt. Midland 

■ •*. Mr. Pi- htvwidflirr ! 

■ <* .011 nun. long. .004 mm. broM. 

63. L. tangainaria, (L.) k/iiVuA or tinerancmt, niudcrnta or 

: artareous, tfranuleso-imtqual ur ffranttloso-coKcreMrni, 
); apotheda Uack, convrjr, immar//inate, greyish 



lis, medulla of thalltu underneath vermillion-red ; hvpotheoium 
thin, pale-yellowish; tpore* 1, colourless, ellipsoid, mi m j -l-_-. very 
large, minutely granuloae, eptflpom broad; pftrnphyaea indistinct, 
apices thick. bl ui.-di. block ; Mol and i-pinpurc hluc with iodine. 
Oil trees and rock:., faqusat 

8tl« :— Linn. Sp. Plant. No. 4. (1758.) Ach. 8yn. 19. Nyl. Scand. 246. Mud<l 
Mai.. 21.1. 

KlO:-E. Hot. IV. HIT.... l'l. I„ I. II. f I. H..,.,. S| t. 66. f. 4RS. 

Exs:-FoUm. 204. Hepp 188. M. A N. 842. Schter. 281. Mudd 184. Anxi It. 
i. i :■ -..I,, a Seha 

IJewi. Dihtkib :— Scandinavia, E. Lapland, Sweden, Switzerland. ryrenee*. 

Bo*. PBOV :-2 .5. .7. 8 10, 11, 12 M. l.V..i:i. 23. 

Knclixii:— Cromford Moor near Matlock. Sir J. K. Smith. Carlton Bank; 
Bayadale; Kil.lale, Inglohy Park! Yorkahlr*. Ur. UwU. Bay Turk! Hert- 
fordshire, iter. T. Satiety. Suaiez. Mr. Rirrtr. Cumberland I tin. Stanjc 
I'.iimli»m Hoilo. near Kipon. Mr. BnwtM. Tiajllall Durham. Bm, J. Harri- 
man. Hedgehops and Caavlot, N»rih..mlH-rland. Mr. Winch. Mutton Cran, 
Nurthumlwrlau.l. Dr. O. Jokmton. Black Edgo near Buxton. Dr. Holt. Craig- 
ford* I Shropshire. 

Soort.AMi) :— Craig Vinean ! Oraig-y.Baroa ! Dunkeld ! Dr. Lintbay. Bal- 
muto, Penlland Hilk Dr. >, :!in; I'liinlxrich. Dr. Holl. 

InKLANi) :— Lough Buy near ]>ublin. Mr. Ttm-pltlvn. Turk Mountain, Kil- 
larnttv. Mr, Carroll. 

W.vlb):— Cader Idri*. Dr. Holl. l.lyn Bodlyn. Mr. Hotma. Barmouth I Cwm 
Hochlwyd ! 

|>ore« .015— .018 in. lung. .007— .008 in. broad. Sperm. .;,-i.iiia very minute. 
• tiform, immened. Spermatia cylindrical, straight" (J/.i.M.) 
' Sporw 0.070— 100 tin... long, 0.028 — 10 nun. rn.atla ahortlv acIuu- 

lar, rtralght, 0.008 -in nun lone." IT. M. Fr.) " Sporw 0.070 -Q.0I00 mm. 
long, 9.038— Sg inn.. broad" I.Vjrf.) Spore. .021— .0235 mm. long, ,01 ."11 
mm broad. Epi*j>or« .002 mm. broad. Nperuetlia .00.', nun. long, .(Hi! 
broad. There, it frequently an uniform amognlneoui stratum below tot gonidla 
in the tballiix, which state in i. pltthorica. Num. . Bat. 117, /"d/ir -iiiArina, 

NyL In hb. Fenn. 

Var. ajfiiiis, (Sclucr.) differ! from the type i 1 lie absence 

of the sanguineous stratum and in having only one large colour- 
less spore 

On mosses, in alpine localities, rare. 

Sis :— Schter. Enum. 132, Nyl. 8c*nd. W6. 

Exs :-Sch»r. 029. Zw. 336 A. 

Gaoo. IHbtmiii :— ScaudinaTia. 

Bor. PHOV :-15. 

ScoTl-AXD .•— Morrone, Breainar. Rn. J. M. Cram 

Spore* .06 mm. long. .038 mm. broad. Epi»i>ore .003 mm, 

Var. meliiia (Krphb.) ditl'ers from the (jpc in tlio alxience of tbo 
sanguineous stratum, but has two colourless ipoi 
On bark, rare. 1871. 

8TX :-Kremplb. in Nyl. Nov. Cran. 2. p. 72. (1864.1 Nyl. [am, Or. 160. L. 
KOtpvra, SUrton in Trans. GUag. Nat. and in Greviflea 2. oO. T. M. Fr. 
Lich. Scand. 480. 
Ggou. DiNTain :— Nova Granada, ScandinaWa. 
Hot. Pnov i— 15. 

BoOTLaM .--l'.i-n L»wor*. /"■ 1871.) 

"Spore* 0,057-77 mm. long. 0,034—48 mm. broad. Spore* 0.053— 64 bid. 
long, 0.031- 14 mm. broad." (Kyi.) Spores 0.051-66 mm. long, 0.038-44 
broad. IT. M. AV.) 

04. /.. mteroltuai. Ach. albido-virtieent, enutaerout, <jratmlv*e, 
artolato-rimulote, tub-fur/araeeotu, or evanescent, (A' j/tllou C — ) ; 



apotheeia blacJc, numerous, crowded, small, scssilo. plane or plano- 
convex, margin thin, smooth, paler, eventually oblitcr.v 
hypothecium colourless ; spores 8, colourless, broadly -oblong, • 
pie, with 2 nuclei. 

On rocks and stone walln, frequent. 

Srx :-Acb. L. U. 177. (1810.) Syn. 19. XyL Seand. 217. Mudd Mao. »1. 
Ill :— H«wi SpONB C 3. f. 6. 

Exa :-Leight. S30. Zw. 13. 11 Schair. 631. Mudd 172. Hejip6. 1»l Ami 
V»n.t. 76. Nyl. K. 

Gsoo. DlSTRlBi— Switzerland, Germany, Italy. Franco, Pyrenees, Sweden. 

Bar. P«ov : -1, 2. 3 ....'.. j .1". tLJB. 

KSOLAXP:— N'«»r Bsltenby! Mr. Mudd. Llanforda < near (Vwaitry; P«n- 

zance ! Iter. T. Sulvev. Deron. Mr. I'arfttt. Kelvedon ; Gopford. Esmx. Mr. 

Varmnr. St Leonard * Forest. Su.«.x. Mr. W. Jothua. Tung Priory Walls ! 

Lwbotarood I lUugbinond Hill: Brown Glee UiU ! Llanforda I Gruwhill ! 

>■ Idre. 

I HUP I .ouglicouUr. Calwav. Ifr. Carroll. 

Waib r— Atordovey ! Aer. A. lUoran. Barmouth! Holyhead ! Moel-y-gcat! 

Chajcski. I.H.AXIM : ■< .'uiumun on nil tin- Manila. Mr. l*irbalati*r. 

" Spore* 0.010— 15 long, 0.006— 9 mm broad." (.Vjrf.) Spore* .0135 
mm. long:. .0088— .01 mm. broad. Poraphyaca dlatinct, aplce* fiuKtmi or, I blur- Ktciimlum riteraally laterally "lightly nigncant. 

65. L. minutft, fSehttr.) yretnUh-whtiitA or cream-coloured, very 
thin, granulatfl, indeterminate or obsolete, (K — C — ) ; apotheeia 
minute, numerous, scattered, adnatc, plane, pallido-teslaceous, red- 
dith or nearly black when old, and then convex and iimnorginate ; 
kypothecium pale ; paraphyses indistinct, apices colourless ; spores 8, 

urleax, elliptical «r oblong, simple, minute ; gelatiua 
I vinous-red. 
On trees, not common. 1864. 

Sric :- Seller. SpJcD. 170. C183S.) Knum. 139. Mndd Man. 195. Nyl. Lapp. 
Or. MR BiaU/ra sglmnn, KM*. S. L. C5. 200. 

Flo :-H*pp Sporeu t, 4. f. 17. f. and t. 50. «7. 

BZI :- H. t .|. 17. 487. 738. Ani. 47. 418. Mmld 1«3. I-eight. 298. 

UlUTWB : — Switzerland, Sweden, Norway, Bavaria, Hungary. 

Bor. Pm.v:-:!, 3 I 1ft .16. 

1UID :— Airrliiiliiii: Wood 1 1 Hoggarts Wood, Ingloby, Cleveland. Mr. 
Mudd. (1854.) New Forert; Me of Wight. Ree. J. M. Cron&it. near Marram. 
Dr. Holt. Braxtcd, Emi. Mr. Varmtie. 

ScotlaKD :— <L soximla) Kincardine. JUe. J. M. Crvmbit. 

" Spore* .0025-.003 in. long, .00075 in. broad." (Mudd). " Siuna 0.009— 
IE am. Iirtig, 0.008-4 mm. bread." [T. M. Fr.) " Spore* 0.007- 0.011 mm. 
long, 0.003-* mm. broad." (i*y.) Spore* .011 .0135 mm. long, .001— 

Var. sarcopsioida, (Ma**.) dirty-white- or .Mih-viratceut, gronu- 

lose, effuse ; apotheeia Mm "W, casio-pntinose. 

On old posts, &c, rare. 

St* ".-Hm. Hie. U& UKX] Am. In Flora 1863. p. 330. CwmbUEn. 66, 
PlO :-Ma»a Ric. fig. 252. 
Kxh :- And Vanat 61. 63. 

«.. I ll>TBIIl :— Ifcilv. 

BOT. Puor;— 2...10. 
Baotuuro:— flhanklla; Itfadtan!; Rev. J. M. Crombir. Clevvland. Mr. 

" Spore* .OOlil mm. lorn;. .00122 mm. brdttL* {Matt.) Sfiore* .00»-.01 nun. 
long. .COS— .OOSJ niin. bniad. 

66. L. tencbricoHt, (Acli.) greenish-white or cream-coloured, 
very lAin, graniilatr-, indctcrmiuato or obsoloto, (K — C — ) ; apothe- 
da fuscous or rufe-fuscous, minute, scattered, wlane, margined ; 


hypothec! urn pale ; p9nahyH» distinct, thickUh, npiv* inrra*tatc, 
futcotu ; spores 8, colourless, ollipticiil or oblong, simple, minute ; 
gelatiua hytnaiea I blue. 
Ou trees, not common. 

Sno-Ach. L. V. 382. Nyl. Scai.d. KL tin, Or. 146. 
BXB :-LeiKht. 326. And Von. 27. 
QfJOO, Dishiib ;— Scandinavia, K. Lapland. 
IkT. Paov :— 10. 

ES0L4SD :— Cleveland ! Yorluhlro. Mr. Mudd. 

"Sporw 0.010—18 mm. long. 0.004— « mm. broad-or epores 0.008-0.015 
mm. long, 0.00-10—0.0015 mm. broad." (iV'/M 

67. L. aphatia, Nyl. grey, thin, tubverruenso or fubgranuloto- 
iiiiei/ual, indeterminate ; apothecia Hack, rather small, slightly 
convex, immargiiuttc, albican* within ; hypotheeium colourless or 
sometimes slightly violaceo-fiuccsccnt in the lower portion; epUhecium 
vvJuceo-fuscescent ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid or oblong, limple, 
minute; thalamium vaguely violacto-fuscescaU ; gaUtiim liyin 
e;endesoent with iodine. 

On maritime rocks, rare. 1865. 

Stx :— Nyl. in Flora 1867. p. 327. Crumbie En. 84. 
tJisoo. Distmb i— i Europe. 

Bor. Paov :— H 

InKU»!»D:-Near Kilkeo! co. Clare. Me. ttirrott. (1HC,V) 
KiternaJly comparable with L. tiilrirnln Imt <|iiiUi ilirtinot " Sporee 0,008— 
0.0U mm. long. 0.0035-0.0045 mm. broad." ! S 

68. L. aphanoides, Nyl. darkly-olimefo-ciurnvKent, thin, sub- 
verruaoto or tuh-granxdoso-unequal, indeterminate or mil 

a/mt/ieaa black, nnallit/i, shjrhllv QODVOX, imuuirgiuatc, nilkcd, 

whitish within; hypothtcium colourlc.u or tliglttly-rubricom-rnfes- 

M lower portion ; epilheeium cirruUtctnt ; sporos 8, colourless, 

ellipsoid, simple; thalamium ctmUcscmt ; paraphysos indistinct; 

gelatin* hymenea candescent, then violacco-rubescent with iodine. 

On calcareous mountain rocks, rare. 1868. 

Svjt :— Nyl. in Flora 0868.) p. 470. Crombie Kn. 84. 
Uaoa. DiKTnin : -Europe. 
Bot. Pkov :— 15. 

SooruiXD :— Craig Guic, ! Braemar. Iter. J. M. Crombie. 0868.) 
Approaching h. apAniui, Nyl. but with a differently Mlored tMlamlam and 
•mailer iporee, Ac. " Spore* 0.009 - 0.013 rum. long. 0.046-0.0055 mm. broad." 


69. /,. mUr.lla, N\l. lute/j-virtscenl, thin, effuse, minuKty 
unequally granulose, almost furfuraceoiu ; apothecia lividofuto.iit, 

'it» or nigro-futcoiu, somewhat greenitli when wit, VHUUtt, scat- 
tered or numerous, subinnato-scssile, convex, immarginatc ; hypo- 
lees; hymonium pallido-nigrcscent, or pale-violet, like 
pule ink ; sjxires 8, colourless, minute, oblongo-ellipsoid, simple : 
SMUp&jMl indistinct, epitheciuin colourless; I pale-blue then 

On putrid fir pales, niru. 1870. 

8r* :— Nyl. Scand. p. 203 (18G1.) Nyl. Lapp. Or. p. 177 (1806.) Crombie in 
i. Bot. n. a. 2. p. 134. L. met a noe h rtta, U-ighL l.nli. II. ::.l. ml. p. 207. 
••in In Seem. Juuru. 11. ITS. (I 

OiOO. l»*TMII:-KiuUii<L 

Bor. PflOT :— 1&. 



SCOTLAXD :-Near Loch Tummrl, l'erthihire! Rer. J. it. Ortmb*. (1S70.) 
"Spore. 0.007 '.< ,„■.,. long. CL«0(t-«.OCflB broad." (fly.) Sporai .01— 
.012 mm. loo*-, ,004— .(.«" 

70. L. con/utida, Nvl. ■ ■''uv-grry or bright-brovnisk-grey, thin- 
nish, granulate, or granulato-congiomerale, glomeruli* dispersed ; 
apotltecia black, adnate, convex. iiunuirxinaJe, white vnthin ; 
epithecium yclloui-.h -brown ; hyjtothecium colourless ; spore* K, 
colourless, ellipsoid, simple, wmewhat small ; parupbysc* slender, 
indistinct, but distinct with K. 

On micaceous old stono walls. 1871. 

Sr* i— Nylander in Ism 1972. p. 880. 

I .< I f, I'ltuv :— 15. 

800TL»*I> :-Oai* TnUoeh. Blair A thole. />r. J. Af. CWm&ie. (1871.) 
" Spora 0.007— 11 mm, lonjf, 0.0040— 15 mm. broad." (Nfl.) 

71. i. sporadic Stni. yellow or grecRish-ycllow, gremulote, 
or gramdoso-verrueost, •rranulca often conglomerate and pulverulent, 
(K yellow C orange-red) ; ap o t k e ei a black, sessile, small or moderate, 

at, rugose. Margined, internally cinerascmt; hypothcciuui 
OOlourlM port* 8, oolonrlen, el! imple; pnraphyscs indis- 

tinct, few;gn;l.\tin.i liyim-urn 1 ni;t:ii'_'nl. 

On old wood. 1874. 

Ktx :— Stlrton In Gravillca 3. p. 83. I1S7I.) 

Bot. Paot 

ScoTiJk»u.--X««r Grantown. Inverarw. Hr Stfrtan. (1 

Allied U> I., ntt/lcctu. (JTyC) "gporw .006-7 mm, long, .004—46 nun. 

broad." (a 

72. L. epimarta, Nyl. whitish, minutely-def-reeio-granulate, scat- 
tered, (K yellow) ; apeth nu, tuhobcunical. somewhat plane 
on upper port. Immarginate, generally rufused with a /■ rruginous- 

ochraceou* colour, Internally dusky-pale-ochrey; •porca 6, col 

less, oblong, iniiinir udcr, 

few. ', nearly cokmrlt ''ly-whraceoits. 

On the earth in alpine mountains, (1876.) 

Bn ] Nil In Hoi., l 


"A «mall Imt uiiKulnr apecica approaching Lttidta ttipfnota, SpOrW .006—1 

mm. lotiit, .002-T — ,0088 mm. broad. Thecal clarate, thick and •-• . 1 i .1 in the 

Zier part. Gelatin* hymenon 1 bla* than lntao-farveeeciit, c»p,-ciully tha 
or- Ajmlheda somewhat crowded, promteanti tttberctUifonn, or plane 
above, narrow below, tloir laniBS thin, wimewhat ochraceoua, but oehraceo- 

fuacaaotDt ii i portion. Tha apithadal arannielloni on thoaddiU 

K are changed into r*pnioV», • peculiar characteristic of tliir | | .vy.) 

73. L. eallicorpa, I.-xrkni. palr-altddci-iiii/J<ii'ii.,i.i, pulverulento- 

(K — C — reddish ) ; apothecia jiallido-carneous, 
red or scattered, convex, totnetehat pruinose, immargi- 
nate, (K — C reddish J; Iiypotliociuiu colourless ; panipliysea CO- 
it. npioea colourless ; spores not seeu. 

On damp perpendii alar nicks, very taro. 1S77. 

ItULaKD:— Glenourbnt near Kylemnrr. Gains}-. Mr. Itxrhalesticr. (Mr?.] 

74. nt or allio-fufcescen', thickish, 
crowded ■ •doso-grau M ; hypothallut while; 
apothecia rufo-fuecom or atro-purpurcout, plane, sessile, teit/i an 



elevated eemeoioroiu margin, at length convex and immarginnt© ; 
Aymenium /utcoat upward*; pnraphyses conglutinatc ; Aypolhednm 
yeUowitk ; sport* 6. colourless, ollipsoideo-obloug, simple. 
On trccst, rare. 1877. 

Stjc :-Anri CaUl. Sondr. p. 76. (1860.) 

(jcoo. Di.TRin :— Italy. 

Bot. Pbov :— 26. 

Iuusi):- TwclrePins, Kylemore. Galwsy. Mr. Lartmltttier. (1877.) 

tt Hypotheeium dark. 

75. L. sattguineo-aira, (Ach. pr. p.) cineratcetU or vireaeenti- 
c ; ni;nvsceut, gnmvlotc, thin or sub-coutinuoua or obsolete; 
apothecia tangvineons-blact, or fuscous-black or funeo-nifo«oent, 
moderate, convex, (mmargimite, futofrwigrieant within ; hymenium 

paler or pidleneeut : hyputhetium thick, fuicmu ; spores 8, col 

lees, ellipsoid or oniony, simple. 

On mosses, tree* and earth, in *ub-*lpino localities, not B 

8rx:-Ach. Meth. 50. (1««.| MvL Prodr. 106. Sfjuid. \W. Mudd ftCaO 
Btl .—Nyl. 52. Am. 229. And t*n ' I -.1 

Ocoo. 1>i*toib :— Sc»ndln»Tia, Sweden, Prance, Prrenr. land, 

Bavarin. Lomlwniyj^ AJgnria, Arctic \m i-i.-.i Qrsat Bw Lake. 

Arctic America 
Bot. Panv :-.V"7...10.15 It) ,J» 
RXOLANT) :— Bmughton Hunk ami IIn?girU Wood, In - 1 . • ! . v , i luv.huid. Jkr. 
Jlndd. Downton C'wrtle Wood lire! 

Sr<,n..\XT>:~Ben I.swer*! Jfer. Churchill Babinat lloch, /)r. //u'f. 

Ikklam) :- Deer P»rk, Belfast. /• luarBontq Mat 

I • :— Cadar Idrii. />r. ffo«. l>rw»ynent ! 
" Uelstina hyiumiM I blue then vinous-red oi \ < ol ••(. Sperm 0.010—19 long, 
0.005—8 mm. bread." I VvA I " Calaliua hynienca I commonly distinctly ami 
intenwlv mil, lint sometime* at first blue then dsrk-vlolot. Spomt 0.010 -31 
mm. long, and 0.004-fl mm. broad." ■ . ,., .oca 

to. long by .001 In. broad." [Mudd.) T. M. Pries iLlch. Scan.L .430) saysthis 
lichen and iu varieties are noUbly dhtingulnh«l top ostrulmcent or violet 
granule* amongst the i«r»phy»M, not found in «ny other lichen not *i 
iu illii-s /.. litrtngarta and L. albofiuteteen*. but the»« do not occur iu the 
■necimeua above cited, ('-an our British plant then be referable to t. irfto- 
AWHIMM since the thnllu« ix tliiukiah granule** and with K give* a pal* dirty 
yellow I 

76. L. vairntior, Nyl. einertovt or tuhviretrent, thin, «>«'i"rw«.«a 
rmote ; aixtthrciaftueuu*, immarginate, sonu'what plane 03 

often obluteiy tttbmarginate, and margin paUwtKt \ hyji. -1 li.-cium 

dark -fuscous ; hjoMaitaa pale fusctsccnt ; paraphjaea distinct, 
apioca colourless ; sporas 8, colourless, ellipsoid, ample, large. 
' i i doeompoaed rocks, rare. 1876. 

Sra .—Nyl. to Flora 1877. p. 2S>. 

BoT. Pbov :— 2C 

Isilaso :— Louuh Inogh ! CSalway. Mr. Larbatatitr. (1S7C) 

•• Probably a •uhanecici of L. nnf/uinen-alrn, from which it wareely Aittet* 
except in the i iiiinlailllj larger eporee .012—17 mm. long, .006 — 8 mm. broad." 
(.V.i/.) Spores .0155 mm. long, .OXh.i nun. Iimail. 

77. L. futca, (Schssr.) viridnUheineratcent, duperto~yranvlate, 
thin, cvaiusount ; apothtaa /tutfeent or nigrioant, 0] fnatt, 
:it limt. plane with u 'hin oltvat Q, then d im- 
marginate ; hypotheciam luteo-fntcticent ; bjioiv irlc«s ol> 
long or fusiformi-<>blong, simple . paraphyeea distinct, filiform. 

On dead mosses, in awnntalnone i*a< 



Srx :-Schrer. Enum. 1*0.0850.) Kr. Ar<t. V.C>. Nyl, Lapp. Or. 14.1. 

ran : France, Switzerland. K. Lapland, BtNUB. 
But. Pbov :—"... i... 

SmTi.vMi I— Ken UniI A'lni. Jonn ami Mr. Carroll. 

Walsh :— Nc»r Polgrll«y ! 

"Gelatin* Hyinciiok I blue tln-ii vinuu»-r*«l. S|Kirre 0.010—14 mm. lonjr, 
0.00(5-0.00(9 bmad." (Jty-i "0.010-15 mm. long, O.OOi mm, bnuul." 
{T. U. Prut.) I)«rk -colour*! granule* irregular in form «m intruiixed with 
tin- pimp-hym, in ull the aprcimeiu in my herbarium cited h above. Spore* 
.014— .016 mm. long. .O0.'> mm. Iirond. 

7-. L. mattivla, NyL dtuifyuhHtuteat, thin, dqrrmo-tubjft 

late or evanescent (K — C — ) ; apot Atria black, minuii , i lane 

or convex, lunuarfrinato, coloiirUtt tcitAin ; spores 8. colourless, 
ellipsoid, staple; paraphyses indistinct; epitherium colourltu ; 
hypothtcium entirely fiutco-obscurute ; ytlatina hymenal *ligkUy-Mur 
then vinov#rtd with iodinu. 
On palings At. rare. 1868. 

Stx :-Nyl. in Horn 1868. p. S44. C'romMe En. 63. 

Ex* :— Croaabl* SB. 

Qr00> Dwtbib:— Europe). 

Bot. Puov .— 5. 

utm :— Xw I.ymlhurnt in New Eortut ! iUr. J. M. Crumtnt. (1868.) 

Approaching L. myriocorpoida, Njrl. ; LMitpmua. Nyl. | and /.. (uryuiii/a, 
l'r. 'Spuru 0.007— on O.OO&'i 0.0036 mm. broad. Sperniatia oblong 

O.OOtO-0.0045 mm. long, O.OOlf. una. broad. StoriirmaU ehort." (A;/') 

79. I,, mbiwrttula, Nyl. ctnerascent, mintitoly tubwrruco*:- 
pranulotf or tiibdUpmrd ; apallu e m black, cotivrr, immaroi«atr, 
often 2 or more conmit, -, int. -rnally concolorous ; hj/petM 

t scout; paraphyses indistinct, apices subsmarogdulo- 
fttow ma t; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple, gelatina 
DM 1 blue ili'.n viiioso-fulvescent. 
On dry mmd-rocks, rare. 1870. 

SYW:-Nvl. in Flor* 1870. p. 23S. 

Bor. Pbov .—26. 

Ikxland :— Road to Woitport fl« mileii from Kylcmore '. Mr. lAir'.alettirr. 


" Spore* .OOfr -.010 mm. long, .0035 mm. broad." (A;//.) Spnrei .011 mm. 
loin:. ,000 Bini. broad. 

80. L. parattma, (Acli. ) whituh or rincrout or gntHuh-yellour, 
sub-determinate, often ui(fro-limitAte, thin, smooth or yranulosr or 
verrttcotO'ijranulote, (K yellow C oranoe-redduh ) ; apol/ttria bind; 
small, plane Ot tub-convex, margin thin, smooth, nt length 
obliterated; hy /Kit Atrium fiucrtttiU, excipiilnm pale or 
bluish ; spores 9, colourless, ellipsoid, simple, with one or two 

On various trees, old palings, occasionally on rocks and walls, 

Stk :-Ach. L. TJ. 276. in port (1S10.) Nyl. Scand. B& 

Bot 1480, in part. 
Osuu. Pi- 1 inn : Europe, Sweden. Fraacc. Switzerland. Ilungary. Italy, 
Germany, Pyronoen, Portngal. 

BoOTLASD . Oomtnon. Her. J. M. Off a. 
ISELAXIi -.—< '.mini. hi. Mr. C'trrotl. 
Walts :— Common, 



Ciiakjjici. Island*:-- Common mi nil the blond*, Mr. lAirbalatitr. 

Thin »pecie», grim-miron tntx, Tariim grentlv in the character* of ita thallu*, 
being continuom and nmooth (SnirfL. t& Lcignt. 32*. Anil It. Sup. 279. Hepp 
1'.',". I Sii— i u ! Mr. Borrtr. Shropabiz* J Bamontb 1 1 niiniil.-lv paoalati [Mb<M 
169. Nyl. Pyr. Or. 43) near Avion I Iff .»/.•/</ :r Bomr . minutely 

horizontally enrrujrate (And It. Sup. 276. b. 277c. Ixilglit. 3271 lilting and 
Hatfield ! Mr PimnU. Barmouth ! : eontlnunu*, but broalung up Into detaching 
flake* (Hepp 3. Zw. 850. Anzi Uuignb. 187. Ital. Sup. 274. 278.) Fermoy ! 
OMtkownWdl Co*fcl Mr. Carrot!. Sharpetone* ! : Slmlt.m : \S • ir Coppica! 
Haughmoud Hill I Shropshire 1 convexo-oreolate, mbfarfuraceoui, (Hepp 725. 
I. Hi. 47. 130. Anii Vcnet. 75. ItaL Sup. 281) GlenNevIa! Dr. Lindsay . 
Sharputone" ! Moutfunl Briilgn ! Shn/puhfre ; l^priwe. (Reich, and rMitih. .'A 
AnxiEtr. 30.) Cork I Mr. Carroll. Alberbury! Abdon! Sutton Spa! Shrop- 

The characteristics in Ml forum ar« the chemical reactions |K yellow C 
orango-reddiah ) : the funccaeent hypothcclum wltli * pale or bluish lateral 
•tcipnluin ; tttd ih" DB e U o h t* »i»>r«w. 

Var. talx*em*, fKorb.) cinereo-viroscciit or ycllowish-grecn, 
thin, effuso, somewhat shining, ^nhrimulose (K yollow C orango- 
red) ; apotlucia timdo-fiucoiu, adnatt or tubinnate, tumid and 
oonvex, difformed, margin obscure, soon obliterated. 

On beech, not common. 1856. 

Stx :— Korb. Syrt 203. (1856.) 

rio:-Hep»Sporcct.ol. i. 

Ex» r- Hepp 835. I-lghU 329. 

Oxoo. Vat me :— Switzerland. Germany. 

Bot. Prov :— 7. 

Wajjh .—Barmouth ! 0858,) 

Var. Jlaveits, Nyl. simular to the type, but with a yeUomtk thel- 
itis and apothecia internally whitish, and hypotJtedum nearly 
eoUmrltu, V K yellow C orange-red). 

On trees, rare. 1869. 

"Latetrobr/irocAroroi. Ach. (ex. hb. Ach.)ai|uA etiamparaiu direraa." (Nyl.) 

Si* :— Nyl. Saaad. '-'17. (1881.] Crumble Kn. 77. 

Groc. l'MTKiii :— Scandinavia. 

BOT. Prov:— 8 .7 .15. 

England :— Brampton Briiui Pack I StUnnr Hill! Herefordshire. Shor|>- 
■tonca! Shropshire. 

SoOTLASD : — On sprueo lir near Aborgeldlo Castlo ! Braemar and In Brcadal- 
bane. Btv. J. M. Crombic»:— Dotgelley! 

Var. 'Lrochroma, Ach. yretnith yellow or ydlour or dirty and 
dark-grtyiih-yrrrn, effuse or nigro-limitate, granidost. or granuloso- 
/urfuraceout and erackfd, (K yellow < iddob] ; apothecia 

black, small, uumerous, plane or convex, margin thin, afterwards 

On trees, frequent. 

Bn .-—Ach. L. U. 275. (1810.) 8yn. 18. Nyl. Soand. 217. 

I ■ .. : K. Bot. liiO. In port. 

Exs :— Leight 126. Mudd 170. Nyl. 140. /.w. 198 B»hl. 1.1. Maudon 4. M. ft 
N. 746. Audit. Sup. 274. Am. 230 Hepp 138. 

GboO. Pistrtr :-- France, Switzerland, Italy, Hungary, Ceniiany. 

Bot. Psov -.—1.2,3 5,..7,8 10 .15, 16.19, 20.. .31. 

Eholawo :— Ayton. Mr. Mudd. Oswestry! Rtr. T. Snluty. Snsecx. Mr. 

Borrtr. Twyorcea I L«ic«at«rahir«. 8w .1 nlnatm. near Worcester ! Mr. Lm. 

wm th ! Oxfordshire. Mr. Larbalestier. Devon. Mr. Porfltt, Lystoa I 

Witham: K»«rinK; EUddi Mr. Varpm. B»d Hill! Alberbury! 

Shelton ! Shaqntonce Hill '■ I.l.inymynech ! Slirotwhire. 

BOMLAXDi ,;i :l '■• ■ ' iil'i'y. I>'iu." leUnd. Pflf. Bnl/our, 


no: luinvruxu 

Iulasd:— Ftminy ! Mr. Chandler. Owtlcbcmard ' Bandon; Blarnsy '. 
(ilanmlre I Cork ! Mr. Carroll. :— WikhIh ! common. IJanlwliv;; r i^- ' lUnuouth ! 

Chasmcl Iolakiw . — Common on all tho Ialanda. Mr. Larbalatter. 

<■. eervtlaeea, thallug nearly or quid- evanescent 

On old palings, probably fri>.|u«;it. 1858. 


OlOrt. l)WTRia:-Hiinj»ry, Italy. 
Bot. I'uov : — S...7. 

Knt.lamj: Cm Candoe ! Shropahir*. 
Wales :— Aberdovey ! 

Var. latypca, Ach. whitish or sub-cinereous or almost evanescent, 
effuse, unequal, granulattxureiAale, (K yellow C orange-red) ; 
apotheciu black, seaaile. 

On ruekn, tint common. 

St* :-Aeh. Moth. SuppL 10. (1808.) Syn. M. Njrl. Soand. 217. 

Gsoo. Digram:— Norway, Swadau. 

Bar. Pbov !-15...W.._36...30. 

Bcotlajcii :— Ban. l*w«n. Adm. Joint. Coaat of Ktnnarriina. Rtr. J. M. 

Iiuoand:— Brandon Mountain. Mr. Cam-It. cv. Down. Adm. Janrt. Ixtut- 
back. Mr. LarbaMitr. 

Var. montieola, (Acli.) similar to the type, but with evanetcent 
thallua, apothcaia and snores smaller. 
On stones, rare. 18B4. 

BO :— A-:li. I.. V. 670. (1810.) /,. paratma tar. ntlidula, Nyl. Stand. 217. 

Gsou. Dibtrib :— IkaadinaTia. 

Hot. I'bot :-!». 

BcoTLaUD :— Bon. Lawera, Matrt. Carroll (ISM.) and Holl. 

forma latgpua, Nyl. tubcintrcou*, efute-, granulotf ; apothecia 
black, sessile. 
On rocks, rare. 1876. 

Sirs i— Nyl. Pyr. or. p. 801. 

Bot. Puov:— St 

Ikklamo :— KyUtnora. oo. Galway. Mr. Ixtrbalatier. (1S78.) 

81. L. protrtua, Fr. pale.rulphur-colour, effuse, t/tictuk, crusta- 
ceoub, verrueoiogranulotc, rugulosc, arrolato-rimo*, (K yellow C 
orange-red) ; apothecia black, numerous, moderate, congregated, 
confluent, mnato-tusiit, piano, at length convex, margin thin, 
smooth, entire, often flexuose, eventually obliterated ; nypodieciun 
r^fo-fv*cf)n* , snorw B, oolourleat, i blong, simple. 

On alpine and Kiitmlpiuc rocks, frequent. 

Hts :- FH« L. Ret. 824. (183L) Mudd Man. 207. L. $cabra, Tayl I Fl. Hib. 
llitt pJoautrWflW N„l. 

Flu :-Ma». Kic. % 

Exa:-Sohaw. 678. Zw. 12. 

Gkou. Plarais: Switxarland, Canuany, Italy, Kranot. 

Bot. Fuov ;-1...0, 7.16, 10.. .86.. 51. 

ExoLixn .— Nsar Torquay ! Dcton. Or. Dtakin. Lannnaa Cava ! Cornwall. 
Mr. Borrtr. 

Hcotlaxu ! -I»Ie o' Skye ! Mr. Borrer. 

Iiutuxn UlonKarUf! Mr. Carroll. Hwnn riwl near Kynvylr. (V-nnc- 
man '. likacorbot ! Mr. LarlmlaUer. 

WaLBB :- Barmouth and Polgtlley. Mr. BmmW. South Stacks! Holyboad. 
TWMw! Mnnorbeer! naar Tanby. Giiulat Rock! IVllholi. Macnoroum : 
•car Kiahguard, Pambrokeahire. 



Cumn, Inr.Avn* : — Fort Kiurx ! Al.l.'rnrv. Mr. ixirbnJatirr. 

" Spore* .0025— .008 in. I.mir. bv A0U 8 to .0015 in. brow!." (AfuddJ. 8pore» 

.UK. .or. m... In..-, .0117— .00S mm. broad. 

82. /,. iMi-i'</-iiM, Fw. jKiU-sn four, effuse, Mm, mA 

granulate, (K yellow G On&g red) j apotlieeia bleuk. moderate, 
innato-ifuilr, more or less duskily-mrido-pruinose, planu, at length 
convox, margin thin, smooth, entire ; kypotkerium pale-/u$eetcetU ; 
spores 8, colourless, elliptico-oblong, simple. 

On subalpine rocks, frequent. 1875. 

8rx :-hi..i..«- in Hon 1M& p. ((7. Krtar, B. L 0. 3*2. Par. as. 

Kii. : -Hepp Sporen t. 84. f. 726. 

Bn -2m, 108. II*n[,72tj. ami 133. loft hand apacinMii. Anxi I.ang»b. l.Vi. 
Leight, SSI. 
G»oa. Distiuk :— Germany, Italy. 

gOC I'UOV :- ". 7. 

EiraLANu:— Lyth Hill ! Shronahin.- 

Walks : — Y Feglo Kawr near Barmouth ! (1875.) 

Tin" A|intli.M-i:i. when moistened, apiK-nr paler and transparent, owinR to the 

rle hypotheeiuiii, *urroundod by a dork ring. " humectalu oVtKD kyaMa •■. " ilob 
0. Spore* 1J-'..' longer than broad. 

forma nigritn. Lcight. similar to the type, but dark and nigri- 

eant., from the pivd. .minuting black hypothallus. 

On subalpine rocks, frequent. 18&6. 

Bor. Prov ;— «. 

Knulam> :— Cowoombe '. Gloucestershire. Mr. Joshua. Haughmond Hill f 
Shropshire (laSfi.) 

83. L. rnterorJdora, Tayl. pale-tulphur^olour, effuse, Mm, 
closely appressed, smooth, rimulose, eventually breaking up into a 
sorediate state, (K yellow C orange-red) ; apotheeia Uatk, moderate, 
innato- sessile, piano, ;it length margin thin, smooth, entire, 

often flexuose, eventually obliterated; hypothtcium. rufo-fuseenu ; 
spores 8, colourless, elliptico-obloug, simple. 

On subitl|iine and maritime rucks, frequent. 

Stx :— Tayl ! in herb. Borrer. L. sabv\ndans, NyL 

Bu :-l^ii/ht. 290. Zw. 23a 

Ghou. Dmitris : — Sweden. Germany, Italy. 

Bor. Prov :-l ..:, 6, 7 10. 11. .19, 20 .26. 

Ks'iuvn I— dUMfl CUvsUad. Mr. Murtil. Durham! Mr. Robertson, Stony 
Valley, Torquay, Devon ! Dr. Deal-in. Grinihill ! Shropshire. 

Insi.ANii :— Derriipiln ! //r. Taylor. Cork I Mr. ('amJt. Kuin* »t Cleg-han 
near Kylcnore. Lettermore ' and Ix.uuh T<aith ! Mr. Larbalutier, 

Walks : Aberdovey ! Kev. A. Bloxam. Barmouth I Y Peglo Pawr ! near 
Barmouth. Iietwean Fishguard ami I.lauachar ! IVmhri.keshlrSi 

Tlila and the two preceding specie* may be pnasibly only ttatc* of one and 
the wine lichen. Spores .013 .014 mm. Inn*;. .(KIT.'. < 

S t. //. siMatypea,Lei%\il.ickitishoralbido-cineraicenti tartu 
sub-areolfUo-granulose, or unequally granulose, more or less dif- 
persed, (K — 0) | opottetM nigrtrfttteom, numerous, scattered, 
tensile, concave, margin thirkish, promioent, elevated, somewhat 
polished ; hypolhcium nigro-fiacoM ; Symenium and epitkecium 
dark-bluislM&k ; paraphyses crowdod, indistinct ; spores 8, colour- 
loss, ellipsoid, simple, small. 

On alpine rocks, rare. 1870. 

Exa :— Croinbi* 88. 

ft BOO- Dwriuii : — Knropt. 



Bot. Pbov :— IS. 

Sootlasu !— Craig Tulloch ! and Glen Pender ! Blair Atholo. Str. J. M. 

Externally »omewhai resembling some state, of L. panmma nir. 'otypea, 
|K yellow C orange- reddiab I bot • linVriiur in chemical reaction and oaher 
characters (VrUinly not identical with £. rortteon, (Flic.) a* stated by T. M. 
Krie* L. Stand, p. Ml. if tbat nieclcs be correctly represented by Aiud I^uiif.b. 
3UI and Rath. 771. S|«.r« .01 1 -.01 25 mm. Ion*. .0M5-.005 mm. broad. 

SB, /.. ruiticula, Nyl. albidoytaucetccnt, granulate, granule* 
tulhconglomrratr, depremo- e o n n ar, sidt^renate, unooth, (K yellow, < * 
yellow) ; apolliecia minute, somewhat concave, black, margin obtuse, 
entire, eventually obliterated; hypothrrium ftutatu; spore* 8, 
colourless, ellipsoid, simple; par*phy*vi> indistinct; gelatin* 
hynieneu deep-blue, afterwards dirty-lutesci nt with iodine. 

On quartzoae rocks, rare. 1866. 

Svx :-Nj-L in Flora 1866. p. 371. Laight. Not I.ieh. No. xv. 
Gboo. PrsTRIB:— Europe. 
Bot. Pkov :— 7...S8. 

Waib t-Glanfe Pobblea ! Cader Idrfa. 
iRXLAirn s — Snlroek Road ! Connomorn. Mr. Larbaleitier. 
"Spores 0.010—15 nun. long, 0.00ft s mm. broad." (Ay.) Spores .014. 
mm. bag, MM mm. broad. 

86. It. furvella, Nyl. nigro-fu$cou.i, effuse, obtitcrato-*quamu- 
hit, ffraniifiisis-f-r/iiriiceotUi diffraclo-areolale, (K — C red) ; apol/ieeia 
small, scattered, approved; plane, black, ni^uloxc. margm lliin. 
smooth, jteruofe ; epitheeium nigricant ; hypothecium nioro-futeoH* ; 
parauhygca indistinct, conglutinatc, spores 8, colourless, oblong 
or ovate, simple. 

On micaceous-schistose alpine rocks, rare. 1861. 

Srx i-Mndd Man. 207. (186L) Crombic Enum. 84. Nyl. Flora 186* p. 418. 

Gaoc.. TJWTaiB.-— Mwadnii, Norway. Finland. 

Bot. Bsov >- 15. 

Scotlako : - Ben Ijiwcrv ! Aim. J ana. near haae of Ben Lawon! Mr. 
Carroll. Glen C*llnt«r ; foot of Ben-y-gloe ; <;!• a P«ldi r Klnir Athole. lirv. 
J. M. Cromtfie. 

"8hm .000-011 mm. long. .004R mm. broad.* (Ay.) " Spores .008 In. 
long, by .001— .00125 in. broad.' (.V»«MI. The thallua baa a Rood dual U>* 
appearance of that of Pannaria nigra and la composed of minute s phirriraj 
brown granules containing- gonidia, on a ihii-kiah-browti liyjxilhalhik. Gel. hyui. 
I luteaceut. Spore* .010 mm. long, .000 mm. broad. 

87. L. furvtila, NyL nigro-ftucoiu, effuse, obliterato-tquami'lete, 
granulosufurjuraceou*, eontinitoux, (K — C red) ; apolhecia scattered, 
Ksrile, plane, Mack, r/utrgiu thin, fubfirxuotr • epii/tecivm enruleseent ; 
hmpai lack; paraphysos indistinct; spores 8, colourleat, 
oblong, simplo. 

On schistose alpino rocks, very rare. 1864. 

STX v- Nylander In Flora (1866.) p. 41H. C Vombie Knum. H4. 

Gaoo. DlBTKiB :— Europe 

l5«r. l'ltov 

ScotlaXD i— Ban Lawers I Mam. Carroll (1864.) and Boll. 

"Spore* 0.012- 17 mm. long, 0.006-8 mm. broad." (AV.) Thallua similar in 
struclnrv t.i thn juixvdiii^. Are mil Una and the pfegMtag nt»t«i only of one 
and the aamo lichen? Gel. hym. I luteacent Spores .012 — .014 mm. long. 
.006 mm. broad. 

88. /.. alpatrit (Siiimrf.) nnrr/uceni, thin, granulate or gratia- 
lulu -nil .-iri-oljiti' or Kiilxiv.ii vpi'thnllu* whili'A, <K faint 
yellow or — C — ) ; apotheda black, CPW WB j modente, 'vniwrginaU, 



subconglomurate, concolorous within ; epitheciuni and thalamium 
sordidly oserulescent ; hypothecium /uscescent ; spores 8, colourless, 
dnugato-cllipsoid or oblong, simple; pur.iphyseM scarcely distinct ; in ion cterulescent, then fulvescent with iodine. 

On the earth in alpino places, rare. 1864. 

Syk :— Somnierfelt Lapp. 153. (1826.) Nyl. Lapp. Or. 158. Crombie Room. 79. 
. . Urn. 164. 

litoa. I>urKtu :— E. Lipland, Norway. Sweden, Finland. 

Bot. Prov :— 15. 

ScotlaJtd :— Summit of Ben lowers ! Mr. Carroll. (1861) Ben Maodhui ; 
Braedalbane and Braeinar. Kr.v. J. M. OronUrie. 

"Spores 0.011— 16 mm. long, 0.004—6 mm. broad." (Nyl.) " Spores 0.014 - 
28 mm. long, 0.003—1 mm. broad." [T. M. Frits.) 

89. L. euprea, Srnrft. white, thick, verrucoto-gramdate , diffract, 
granules aublobute, contiguous, (K — or slightly yellow — ); 
apothecia rufo-ochraccous, or fuseo-rufous, hemispherical, immar- 
gtstaU, often botryoso^onglornernte ; hypothe-nwn pale-hiteo- 
fuscescent ; paraphyses distinct, fulvescent ; spores 8, colourless, 
elongato-obhng, simple ; gelatina hymonea I slightly caerulescent, 
then vinoua-rud. 

On the earth in alpine regions, rare. 

8»St :-Smmrf. Lapp. 165. (1826.) Nyt Scand. 199. Lapp. Or. 144. T. M. Kr. 
Boand. 428. 

Em: — FelUn. 152. 

Gcoo. Dibtbib —Sweden, E. Lapland, Norway. 

Bot. Prov :— In. 

Scotland:- Summit of Ben Lawers and above Loch na-Cat. iter. J. it. 

"Spores 0.009— O.016 nun. long, 0.0O4— 5 mm. broad." (jVy',) •' S|>oree 
0.010-22 mm. long, 0.003-6 mm. broad." {T. M. Fries.) Spores .016 mm. 
long, .005 mm. broad. 

Var. cupreiformU, K. Nyl. thin, egranulosc ; apothecia rufo- 

On the earth in alpine regions, rare, 1868. 

8tx :—L. *trnatis var. cuprtf/ormis, E. Nyl. At Lair, p, 90. Nyl. L.ipp. Or. 
144. Crombie En. 68. 

Groci. OnrrniB :— E. Lapland. 

Bot. Pbov:— 15. 

Sovtlasu :— Looh-nn-Cst. Adm. Jona. (18(8.) 

Var. lecanodes Nyl. apothecia spuria lecanoroidea, Ben La we™ 
(1871). Dr.Stirton. 

90. L. Berengcriann, (Mass.) white, squamuloso-gram/tate, 
squarnulcs lobulat*, concrescent into a continuous crust, (K — or 
slightly yellow C — ) ; apothecia thin fusco-nigrieant, at first plane 
with a thin obtuse margin, then piano or depresso-convex, and immar- 
ginale ; hypolhceium thick, fuscous; paraphyscs conglulinate, in- 
distinct ; spores 8, colourless, oblong or cJlipsoideo-oblong, simple ; 
gelatina hymenca I vinous-red. 

On the earth in alpine regions, rare 

8r» z-Biatora, Mas*. Elc. 128. U852.) Nyl. Lapp. Or. 144. T. M. Fr. Seand. 
Fio :— Mass. Hie. fig. 254. 
B» :— Fellm. 162. An, 439. 

OBOO. Distkib :— E. Lapland. Norway, Sweden, Finland. 
Bot. Pbov :— 15. 



ScOTT.Airn : -Ban. I-»».r». Mr. Carnal. 

"Sport. 0.010-0.018 mm. long, 0.0045-0.0065 mm. broad." <AW "t . 
0009— 16 mm. long, 0.004-C mm. broad." (T. M. /Wo.) Sporea .018— .0 
mm. lonir, .006 mm. broad. 

91. L. arctiat, Smrf. albido- or futeeteenti-cineraternt, effuse, 
yramdotc or gramiloso-vemioose, granules siimll. j>:>|nlloao-«ul] 
glolswe, (K faint-yellow C orange-red) ; npotkccux small, Unci, 
tlightly ctrti^prtUnmc, convex, immaryinatr, within obscur.iv 
cinorasccnt ; hypothocium fusce-scent ; spores 8, colourless, c-11 -] > 
soid or oblong, simple; paraphyses indistinct; gelatina hjmeuea 
slightly csorulesoent with iodine. 

On alpine mosses, rare. 1860. 

Sr» : -Smmrf. Lapp. 156. <1S36.) Nyl. Scant!. 220. Mudd 200. T. M. Vrim 

Exs :- Zw. 11. Th. M. Fries 20. Fellm. 163. R»l>h. 784. HH1. Hinrit. 49. 

GKOO. PlMTRrn:— Greenland, Kinmark, E, Lapland, Finland, Kuan*, 
Sweden, Norway. 

Bot. FBfiv :— 1.1. 

Scoti.a » i > : — Ben Lawcn Mrur$. Jonei A- Carroll. (1860.) Brncdalbane six] 
Braemar ; uimmlU of Irficlinagar and Ben Ma . J. If. Crtm/.ir. 

" Spore* 0.018—18 mm. long, 0.0065—0.0075 mm. broad." (Nyl.) " Sport* 
(1.(113-18 mm. long, 0.O0G -8 mm. broad." (T. M. Frut.J " Spore* .003 — 
•004 in. long, .001— .0015 in. broad." Ufudd.) Spore* .015—0175 mm. long, 
.0065— .0075 mm. broad. 

92. /.. vliyinota, (Schrad.) futctnu or ftitco-nigrieanl, minutely 
granulott, tub-lcprosc, effuse, (K — C — ) ; apothecia fuscous Mack or 
black, plane or sub-convex, scattered or confluent, darhuh trit/un, 
margin entire evanescent ; kypnthrcium futeoiu; spores 8, colour- 
less, ellipsoid, simple ; parapkyw* indistinct j gelatina hymenea 
reddish-brown with iodine. 

On moist or turfy earth, common. 1799. 

Sts :-Sohrad. Spieil. 88. 0794.) Ach. Syti. 25. Nvl. Scand. 19«. MuM 197. 

Fro :-K. Hoi. 146(1. H«i>p Sporen t, 16, f. 132. 

Exs i-Hepp 132. Mudd 167. M. A N. 747. Schmr. 162. 163. Fellm. 150. ,\ 
It 8. 249. Lelgl.t. 190. Cmmbie 82. 

Gioo. I>l8rBin :— Sweden, E. Lapland, Germany, Switzerland, Hungary, 

Bor. Pbov:-1.S, S, 4, 5-10. 11. ..15, 18...a9— 30)...31. 

Exolaso:— Near Yarmouth, if r. _ Turner. 0799.) Surrey, ifr. Borrer. Kit- 
dale Moor ! Baysdale Moor! York alii re. Mr. Mudd. Preetwiek Can ; Chariot, 
Northumberland: Redbeugh anil Durham. Ifr. WiiicK Bear 

Eielor. Mr. Parftt. Warliv (' BOB ; Mil., and near Colchester, Eeecx. ifr. 

Varmnc. New Forest ; ripping Forest : Ilampatead Heath. iJrr. J. M. 
Crombit. Relgate Heath. Mr. W. Jotlnm. Dartfoxa, Brent, Ightham, Joyden* 
wood, Bexley, Canterbury, Kent. Mr. Hatmti. Mynyda-y-Myiyr ! C**r 
CanuJoc I Ponteeford Hill! Wrekln Ihll ! Lauren™ Hill ! Shropshire. 

SoOTLASn :— B«B 1. If". J. Hooker. I1U1 of Ardo : Troaaacha; 

Appin. /far. J. M. Orombic. 

InCLAXD: Not iili.-oimiinn. Mr. Cirrotl, 

Chaxsm. Ihiaxm :— Jersey ; Guenwcy. Afr. Larkatatier. 

"Spore* 0.008—0.017 mm. long, 0,004—8 mm. broad." <AW.) "Spore* 
0.008 -17 mm. long, 0.004— $ mm. broad." (T. M. frit*.) "Spore* 10—14 
mikrml. long, twioc an long ae broail." (#'(■/•. 1 "Spona .003 In. long, by 
.0013) la. broad." {Mutld.) Sporea .014— .015 mm. long. .007— .008 mm. 

forma fuliyinea, (Ach.) only differs in the habitat on dM 
•tumps and wood, and is rarer. 




F.x.t :-M. & N. II IB. An/.i Ungob. 17:.. Arn. WD. 

OlOO. DrsTMBl- Euro|>e. 

Bur. Pkov:-2, 3...H. hi. 

I. •■ . ii;— Sussex. Adn. Jana. Bilndale; Kildaln And near Ayton, York- 
shire. Mr. Mmtd. Gopiall I Leicestershire, liet: A. hloxam. Kelvedon ; Booking. 
F.mex. Mr. Vunmu. * '.-iliiil in I.ndg», Ksigntu. Mr. W. Jailiua. WrekJn I 

Ihu.imi :— Near LotWirfrack. Mr. iMrMeitier. 

Cu.ix nri, Islands :— Near St. Auburn, Jersey I Mr. Larbaialier. 

Vnr. htimota, Leight. eervino-lutetetnt, tub-tquamuloso-granuUtU, 
granules convex, coarse, more or leas dispersed, (K — C — ) ; apo- 
thecia concave, margined, at length convex, imniarginate. 

On earth and peat walls, rare. 1869. 

Stk :-Crombie En. 67. Ach. Syn. 28. 
Exs:-Relch. * Bebub. 88. I.ejght, 8M. 

Gsou. Dintkiii . — Europe. 

BOT. r-nov:- •-• 5. .7. .W. 

KKOUaJfD :— New Forest, Hants, Set. J. M. Crombie. Stiperstones Hill t 
SooTi.ASn : — Kincardine I Hill nf Ardo, new Aberdeen. Rev. J. M. Crombie. 
W.vlbj :— Dolgelloy. Or. Uolt. (1869.) 

93. L. Moureana, Carr. greyish-white or cream-coloured, thin, 
tart&reous, granuloso-verrvculose, rugulose, effuse, (K yellow then 
reddish) ; apothecia black, large, solitary or congregated, scnsilr-, 
plane, somewhat scabrous, margin thin, entire, flex node ; hypothetium 
ihui, dark-brown ; spores 8, colourless, olliptico-oblong or ovate, 

On sub-alpine trap rocks, rare. 1859. 

.Syn : -Carroll Lich. Hib. 7. (1859.) Model Man. 307. 
(itXKi. I>ISTHIB :— Ireland. 
BOT. PROV ;— 30. 

Ihklani) ;— Crowglen ! near Belfast. Dr. Moore. 

" Psxaphy*** wiry •l.-ml. r, lli-tuuse, ml ted with much inneosn-gslatinous 
matter. Spores .0035— .004 in. long by .0015 in. broad." (i/wM. | 

94. L. BUtOtnptta, Nyl. white, verrueote, moderate, (K yellow) ; 
apolkecia black, tome timet slightly pruinote, convex, iramnrgiuate, 
bluish-grey within ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple ; epilhe- 

. dark-greenitlMuc ; paraphysua not well discrete ; gelatina 
hyinenca bluish, thucn; violet-coloured with iodine. 
On schistose stones. 1872. 

St.v :- Nylandar In Flora 1H73. p. 17—38. 

Bot. Paov:— 15. 

ScoTusn j— Old wall on the hill of Ardo noar Aberdeen, very sparingly. Rev. 
J. M. Cromlne. (1872.) 

" From L. mentropoUIet, Nyl. its nearest ally, it differs amongst other 
characters by th« vsniii-.»<<' IbaUO* ami bluish nplthectum. Spores 0.011—12 
mm. long, 0.007 mm. broad." (Nyl.) 

95. L. atema, Nyl. white, thin, unequal, sub-dispersed ; apotheeia 
black or livid-black, margiued, often tubplicate ; spores 8, colourless, 
ellipsoid, simple; epitbecium glaucescent; hypolheeium reddish; 
goblins bTBMBM bluish, then tawny-wine-coloured with iodine. 

On sandstone rocks. 1871. 

Stm I -Nylander i„ Flora 1H74 p. 8U. 
BOT. Psov ;-Sl. 



Chanhil Islaitm :— Jenay. Mr. isiriniatitr. (1871.) 

" Allied to L. wlitatme*, Leight. which differ* In having black »| .itrxda, a 
•lu-krr hypotheciiini and entailer tporea. Sporea 0.01$— 16 mm. long, 0.006—8 
mm. broad.* (A'j/t) 

96. L. colli tt't, Strn. ftaeou+black, grannlou, granule* di»- 
perted or conglomerate; apothecia black, anio-pniinose, small, 
sessile, crowded, often ermtigwotu, margin prominent in- 
flexed; hypothedum fiacout-black, thin; spores 8, colourless, 
clongato-cllipsoid or cylindrical, simplo, small ; paraphyses rather 
tDdWBdi thickish, apices clavste, fusceecent ; gelatins bymenea 
I intensely-bluo, almost black. 

On alpine granitic rocks, rare. 1874. 

8T!«: StMoB in Grovillr* 8. p. 84. (1874.) 

8oOTLAJn> : — Near Grantown, Inverneea. Dr.Stirttm. |1H74.> 

" Spore* 0.013 -«14 mm. long, .003 mm. broad." (Mrfoa. I 

97. /.. nrglecta, Nyl. albido-einerraus, thin, graiwlonf, granules 
gubconflucnt, subdetermiuate ; apothecia black, minute, super- 

I, opakc, somewhat nlana, margin obtuse or at length eranee- 
oont, internally almost eoncolorout or cinereo-nigrejcent ; spores 8, 
colourless, fusiformi-oblong or oblong; paraphyses moderate; 
hypotkecium futeetecnt ; gelatins hymoues I — or lutesccnt. 
Amongst mosses in alpine places, rare. 

8iH t-NyL in Sallsk. pro F. et FL F. NotU. 4. (n. ear. 1.) p. 231 UA. 
Soand. p. 244. 
Exs :— Am. 601. 
Oboq. Dnrnus :— Scandinavia. 
Bot. Prot:-1S. 
Bcotuuio :— Ben Lunn. Iter. J. M. CW.mii/. 

pent .00S-.011 mm. long, .003—4 mm. broad," (.Vyf.) 

98. L. ptdatxda, Nyl. whitish, granulost, thin, (K yellow) ; 
apothecia black, minute, somewhat convex, immarginate, uipitate ; 
kypolhecium itipiliform, rvfetcent ; hymenium camtleecent, epithe- 
cuiiii darker ; gelatina hymenea I slightly blue ; spores not seen. 

On rocks, very rare. 1876. 

8vk :— Nyl in Flora 1876. p. 296. 
1V.T. Paov:-2CL 

Ishla»|i:— Connemara. Mr. IsirbnUttier. (1876.) 

"The attenuate utipea of the apothocinm often excemla the capitahmi in 
height. Probably near h. ntyUtta. (JVy.) 

99. L. livetcm*, Lcight. white-, granidos* or granHlato-verrueam:; 
grannie* scattered snd dispersed, (K — C pale-reddish) ; hypothallm 
very black and predominating ; apothecia scattered, anting from 
the hypotkalliu, trdnnnate or innalo-teaile, round or angulsri-dif- 
formud, concave, the disk or Cpithccium of a pale grey livid ap- 
pearance, surrounded with it thick, prominent, black, entire or 
flexuose margin ; hypothedum nigro-fuscous ; paraphyscs think, 
apices brown ; spores 8, colourless, linear-oblong, simple, very 

On rocks, rare. 1875. 

Br* : -Leigh ton In Grevillaa 4. p. 78. 

Bot. Paov:-a. 

IsxlaNI) :— Doughnugh Mountain I Galw»r. Vr. LtrKr'atier. fl675w> 

Spore* .007 mm. long, .003 mm. broad. 

or oRKvr rutiTMN. 


100. /,. aniptita, Strtn. nigro-cinereom or nigro-mreseent, 
granulose, thin ; apothteia black, small, prominent, convex, immar- 
ginate, papillose (as it were glomerate), internally entirely 
cinerascent ; spores 8, colourless, oblong or oblongo-cyliudrical, 
simple ; parapbyses irregular indistinct : gelatins hyincnea I bright- 
blue ; thalamium K slightly but distinctly purpurascent. 

On decorticated wood, rare. 1875. 

Sys :— Stirton in Trans. Glaagow Soc Nat. p. 80. (187B.) 

Bot. Psov :— 15. 

Sootlasd :— Near Killiecrankie. Dr. Stirton. (1875.) 

"Spore* .0075— .011 mm. Ion*. .0025— .008 mm. broad. The paraphyiea ara 
rendered di«tinct by K whea they are »cen, u ilcndcr, irregular, and ooca- 
aionally hranohiiur filaiiwnta. Gonulia often eoturloinanta." (Strtn.) 

101. L. relieta, Strtn. nigro-cinertou*, rugose, almost granulote; 
apolheeia black, small, adnatt, plane, obtusely marginate, at length 
oonvex immarginate and rugose; spores 8, colourless, oblong, 
simple ; parapbyses few, slender, distinct, pellucid, apices clavate, 
fuscous ; hypothtcium fuscous-black ; gelatin* hymenea I slightly 
lilui- tiu'ti vinous-red. 

On rocks, rare. 1875. 

Stx : -Stirton In Tnuio. ffllMBT" Soc. Nat. p. 89. (1875.) 

BOT. Psov:— IB. 

Sootlasd : Blair Athole. Dr. Stirton. (1875.) 

" BpotM .0011— .013 mm. long, .005— .OOfi mm. broad." {Strtn.) 

102. L. meiococca, Nyl. pale-yellowish-sulphur- colour, coarsely 
granulate, areolato-diffract, thiekish, (K yellow C — ); apothecia 
brownish-black, modornto, at first somowhat concave and with a 
thinnish margin, them plano-convex and depressed and immarginate, 
adnato-sessile ; hypolhecium thiekish, bright-fuscous, subtended by a 
pale cartilaginous exeipulum, slightly tinged with brown ; hymeuiuui 
pale, paraphyses distinct, apices colourless ; spores 8, colourless, 
oblong, simple. 

In doep recesses of maritime rocks, mrc. 1876. 

8ts :-NyL in Flora 1876. p. 578. 

BOT. Psov :— 28. 

IiiiiLAKn :— Lettermore ! Connemarn. Mr. Larhatatlcr. (187ft.) 

Externally very simitar in appearance to Lecidniprvtriisii, Vr. but with diffa* 
i«nt reaction, aa well aa different nature of the hypotheciutn. Spore* .0155 
i:.::i lull',-, .WIS mm. broad. Gelatins hymenea I darJc-vinoua-fmwcaoent, Mpa- 
cially the aaoi. 

103. L. humosa, Ehrh. olivaceo-virescent, minutely ditpcrso- 
granulate ; apothecia fuscous-black or black, innato-sessile, plane, 
with a tli'jhtly prominent pale margin ; hypothecium brownish ; 
hymouium pale-brown, parapbyses cohserent; spores 8, colour- 

iiitig, simple. 

On shady rocks, rare. 1876. 

Sis :-Ehrh. PI. Cr. Dec. II. n. 135. 

Gtoo. Uiotrif :— Europe. 

Bot. Psov :— 36. 

Iau_0(D :— Lough Inaffh ! Gal way. Ur. LarbaXtstier. (1876.) 

Spores ,014 mm. long, .0085 mm, broad. 

104. L. eontinuior, Nyl. similar to L. latypea, Aeh. but dif- 
fering only in the nearly plane, rimoso-artilate thatlus (C orange). 



On micaceo-schistoee rocks, rare 1877. 

St* :-NyL in Flora 1K7. p. 463. 

Bot. Pxovi-M. 

IbeiaSd:— KyU'owr*. Mr. IstrUtlrtur. (1877.) 

Var. tubviridani, Nyl. yellow, plane, thin, areolato-diffract, 
Horediate, (C orange) ; cxoipulum nigricaut ; liypothecium fuscous, 
On walls, rare. (1877). 

8t» :-NyL L a 

iKCLAjm J— Kylemore. Mr. Larbalatier. (1877.) 

105. L. uliginascens, Stirt fuseou* or fusco-nigrieant, minutely 
granulose, cffiiso ; apothtcia black, plant or tubconvex, internally A' 
violet ; hypotheciumf means-Mack ; paraphyses few, irregular, slender; 
aj)orea 8, colourless, oblong, aimplc. 

On turfy earth, rare. 1877. 

Srs -.—81111011 in Soottiah Naturaliit 4. p. 161 (1877.) 
Bar. Puov :— 16. 

I iKD:— Near flarv*. Dr. Stirtcm. (1877.) 


'^Gelatine hymenea I rery pale-blue then dark-iinoua-red. Spore* .01- 
m. lung, .006— .007 mm. broad." (Mrfc) 


***** Thallus areolate, areola convex or granular. 
t HyjMthenum pale or colourless. 

106. L. aglaxx, Smrurf. flavescent or oehroleueous and rireserttti- 
einereous, cruitaceoua, thickish, arcolato-difract, rimose, an 
tumid, convex, generally minutely dijTracto m tctt lp t or unequally 
rugose or tmoothith, (K yellow C yellow J'^ hypothallus black ; apo- 
thecia black, innate in the areola-, moderately large, plano-convex, 
somewhat shining, immarginate, darkly cineratcent vit/iin ; hypo- 
tlioiiuui pale, slightly rufeacent ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, 
simp] e ; thaliiuuiiu caaruleo-cinerascent, epithecium cseruleo-u 
cant; paruphyiuiK indistinct, apices fuliginous; gelatins livmcm- > 
crerulesccnt with Eodi&fc 

On alpine rocks, rare 1808. 

. til (182C.) Nyl. Scand. 228. L. Orami 
i ' Haiti I ! •.Mini. Ni ! L. nrUiiatn, Borr ! 

&TV r-Smsuf. Suppl. Fl. Lapp. 
Jonea ! Nyl. in Flora 1808. p. 
Br. Fl. 8. 177. 

i: Bat 1831. 

P.xs : — Zw. 23. Ann Langob. 150. 

OHM. Diwrain :— Norway, Finland, Sweden, Lapland, Switzerland, Hun. 
gary, Italy. 

PaOT: 7 II r....l!i...%. 

BatOLam I— Nfar Winch Bridge; near WbeySyke, Tee*dale Ferret, Dur. 
ham. Ilei. J. Harriman. 11808.) 

Scotlax: Or. Hull. i:i,-n Callatw; Ben Cruaohan ! Kfentt, 

Bracnw N EL of Craig Tulloeh. lUi. J. At. OronbU. 

Iiiutu :— Mangorton. M Oil luff, aanunic of Diamond Mountain! co. 
CSalway. Mr. LarUiIrttirr. 

\V.\i,ut:— Mynydd-y-Gader ! ! near Dolgellay. Dr. Hull. Coder ldri» north 
a*carpm*iit ! Llyu Cwlyd ! Aran Muwildwv ' l.Unbedrog '. Llyn Geirionydd ! 
Syobnant I new Coawny. Twll Dal GlyderVech! Cwia ffynaoo Mi^rl 

"Spora .010—16 mm. long, .006 ■■ nun. broad. 1 blun then dirtv-vialet. 

long and 0.0010— U 
7 mm. broad." (.'. 

mjix^ ,vit— ."IW4WUI. •""£« >wi — e iuiii i»iv»*j. Medulla I—. 

A remarkable apec-le*, readily rccogniaed by the tumid eontex areola" 

Sp-rmntia aiib-«vlindrico-eloDgate 0.000—4 mm. long and 0.0010— IB 
broad." {T. M. Ft.) "Spore* .010- IB mm. long, .0011—7 mm. 
8poro» .014— .0146 mm. long, .007— « mm broad. Medulla I- . 

A remarkable upecict, readily reeopiaed by the tumid 
thaUo* and tii* innate deep-black and ahiuiog apotheda. 



107. L. areolata, Schaer. pallida Jtavetcent, cnuUuxoiu, tkidcuh, 
artolale or artolato-diffract, rimose, areola- plano-convex, tmooth, 
(K yelloio C yellowj ; hypolha/lus blade ; apotheeia black, adnatt to 
the areolar, naked, opake, moderate, planoconvex, immarginate, 
cinermeent loUliin ; nypotkaritm telovrttUy miv slightly rufesccnt ; 
spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple ; paraphvses crowded but 

On Mchwtow) rocks in mountain ranges, rare. 1864. 

8?K:~Seh»r. Spicil. 127. (U8S.) Bum, HI. Orombie Ed. Hi 
Gsoo, Distwb;— Switnirland. 
BOT. Psov : LA, 

Scoriairo r— Summit of Ben Lawers I Adm. Jone* <c Mr. CorroU. (1864.) 
The above description wqj drawn up from examination of the original speci- 
men in Mr. Oarrull a BsrfesrfalB, which wan externally Nimilnr to L, aghta and 
L. Crombiai and internally differed in no respect. I cannot but regard it a* a 
■tat* or variety of /.. ./•/'•< ". C.'au our S.otuh Uchtnb* identical v. i ill Schwrm-'s, 
wbieh is described on having the areohe of the thalliu " candid* " and the 
apotheeia " intut alba i" 

108. L. tessellata, (Flk.) creamy or whitiih, tartareous, sub- 
determinate, areolato-rimoto-diffract, areolae angular, planoconvex, 
mouth, opako, | K toDou thra red) ; apotheeia scattered or m&flamt, 
»euiU, adnate, black, slightly pruinoso, plane or sub-convex, internally 
white, margin thin, acute, olevated, flexuose ; kypothteium colour 
lets, (lie margin only with a thin black line ; epilhecium nigrieant ; 
thalamiuiu pale-yellowish ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple, 
moderate, granular. 

On alpine rocks, not common. 1870. 

Srx :-Flk. I). I.ich. 64. (1821.) Smmrf. Ijipp. HI. Nyl. Scoud. 227. Crouihle 
tuam.9i.L.tpilvlii,Vr l. K 297 V v 

Gkou. Dixthib .—Scandinavia, I^tplaud, Sweden, France, Germany, Hun- 
tparv, Italy, Switxerland. 

BoT. Puov:-5...15...3S. 

EjTOLAHD : -Caer Caradoc ! Shropshire. 

HoOTLaSD : — Ben Uwcn. Mam. Jimet nivl Carrvll. 

Ikklaxd . — Lough Bray near Dublin. Menu. Jonti <i Carroll. 

"8p«(M 0.011 17 mi 0.007-0.010 nun. broad." (ffyt.) 8jwr»» 

.011-16 mm. long, .006— .008 mm. broad. Medulla I-. 

109. L. tpilola, Vr. similar externally and internally to L. 

t'.'i'thitn, Flk. but with .i diHViMi! chemical reaetii U K — I' — . 
On olpino rocks, not common. 

1 have never aeon British specimens of the typical form, but the ferruginous 
stat«, forma ochracea, (Aoh, L. U. 166) frequently occurs. 

Srx :— Flit*. L. Eur. p. 207. (1881.) in port (specimen from Dr. Th. M. 

Exs .—Am. 260. Hepp 723. And Langob. 124. 125. 120. 

Qaoo, ]>»tiuii ;- Germany. Switzerland, Italy, Hungary. Sweden. 

Medulla I-. 

forma ochracta, (Ach.) thalliu ferruginous ; apot/ueia white, witkin. 
On alpine rocks, not common. 1856. 

St* :-Aoh. h. V. 166. (1810.) CrombU Enum. 82. 

En k-teoM Pyren. Anzi It. S. 272. Arn. 468. Sohicr. 188. 

GKM. L)i*tbib :— Franc*. Pynncea. 

Bor. Psov.— I.e. 7. It, 

Kxclaxi):— B*th«a*ton ! Mr. Bronu. Myuydd-y-Myfyr ! near Otwwtry, 

Waldi :- Botweeu Bala and DolgsUoy ! (1830.) Pan-ygwryd I Suowdon. 
Medulla I—. 



110. L. mollu, (Whlnta.) cinereous or pallido-fvtoxintrtucent, 
rimutoKHireolato-diiffraet, encta minutely albo-verrucose, convex, 
nigro-limilaU, (K yellow C yellow) ; apothecia fuscous-black or black, 
tuperjicial, plane, margined, whitish trilhin ; hypothecium colourless ; 
spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple ; paraphyaes distinct 

On mountain rocks, not (infrequent. 

St*.-— Whlnb. Lapp. 172. (18)2.) Nyl. Soand. 223. 

Eis :— Pallm. 180. Mudd 168. Am. 202. Lelght. 302. 

Gboo. Dimit.' I' I.»[i]»nil, Norway, (J. TiiiMiy. 

Bot. P»OV:-S ,7. .10,. .15. 

...*«>:— Kildale Moor I Battenby! Cleveland. Ur. M<uU. N 
Hill ! Caer Caradoo ! Sb.rop.hirc 

Si-int.Asn:— llraamar ; Breadalbanr. Jler. J. M. Crombit. 

Wun :— Barmouth t 

"Spores .007 a mm. long. .005—6 mm. broad. Gclatina hymonca I allftltijr 
Uu», Ihm vinous-violet, M|ieclally tlm solid apiceaof the thecw. (Ay.) "Sporea 
.007—0 mm. long. .005—0 mm. broad." ( T. St. Ft.) 

111. L. mesolropa, Nyl. cinerascent, verrucoao-areolalo-difraet, 
arc i, mi «/iiamote around the apothecia, indi 
luiiiate, (K— C reddish) J apothecia fuscous-black or niaricant, opal?, 

II ulmt plane, adnata to the urculie, tnmrgts obtuse or evanescent, 
whitish within ; hypoUieeium colourless; epithecium fuscescent ; 
spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple ; poraphysea slender, indis- 

On mountain schistose rocks, rare. 1867. 

Stan— Nyl. in Flora 1867. p. 32«. En. SL 

Okoo. Dihtuiii :— Europe. 

Bor. l'BOV :— IB. 

rLASl) :— Ben Lomond ! Craig Tulloch. Rer, J. tf.Crombit. (1867.) 

"Sporta 0.009— 0.013 mm. long-. 0.006-6 mm. broad." (AW Spurs* .012 
mm. long, .000 mm. broad. 

11 "2. L. mttma, Nyl. darkly cinereous, rimoso-arcolate or 
areolato-granulosc, arcolie often scattered, kgpctkalhu black, very 
conspicuous; apothecia black, piano; AfpofMCJUM wi-th an opake 
white stratum in tile lower portion; epithecium cierulcsernti- 
ftUOeSQCttt; spores 8, colourless, cllipsoideo-obloug, simple; 
paraphyses indistinct ; gclatina hymenea ctmdciicent, then violet, 
especially the theetr, with iodine. 

On quartaoso mountain rocks, nire. 

Resembling L. lenebrota ' lumidior, Nyl. 
Srs :— Nyl. In Flora 1860. p. 84. En. 85. 
Gkou. 1>ihtkiii :— Enrol*. 
Dot. I'nov: iv 

SoOTLAXn :— Craig Gule, Rraemar. Rev. J. St. Orombie. (1869.) 
"Spore* .014-17 mm. long. .006-8 broad." (Ay.) 

118. L. coarctata, (Sm.) whitish or cinerascent, thin, rimulose 
or aredato-granviar or sub-continuous or leprose, (K faint yellow 
or— C red) ; apothecia fuscoiu, fusco-rufcscenl or blackish, small, 
scattered, Innate or sessile, often teilh a toliite ptdverulent, coaretate, 
spurious thallme margin ; hypothecium colourless ; spores 8, 
colourless, ellipsoid, simple, large. 

A very variable lichen, the principal forma of which an- detailed below 
" Sporta .014-26 mm. Ionic, .007—12 mm. broad." (T. M. Fries.) "Spores 014— 
30 mm. long, .007- 11 mm. broad." (fly.) "Sporai .0035— .00426 in. long, by 
.OMTSin. broad." («f«aVt) 



(Ach.) greyiah-white, very thin, eftm, Uprote ; 
or sessile, concave or piano, mlh a contpUnoK* 
trhiu coarctote margin. 

On walls and stonos, frequent. 1798. 

Stx :— Ach. Meth. 159. (1801) Syn. 149. Nyl. Prodr. 112. Madd Uu. JS4. 

Flo :-K. Bot. t 584. (1798.) Ach. Meth. t. 4. f. 4. Hepp Sporen t. 31. f. 188. 

Em :-Nyl. 1* P. M. Schmr. 312. Lekht. 177. 

GBDO. DisTAIB :— France, Swltxorland, Hungary, Italy, Sweden. 

Bot. P«ov:-1, 2, 8, 4, B...7...10, 11. .15. .80. SL 

EMOLAXD :— Yarmouth. Mr. Turner. (1798.) YoriuMi* ! Mr. DieJctcn. 
Oaweatry < Shropahire. Rev. T. Salicry. Newton Wood ! near Ayton I Cler*. 
UikI. Mr. Mmid. Oateahead Fell ! Kglcetone and Galnford, Durham ; Htaton 
Dene »nd near Goafbrtb, Niirtlitimiu-rUnd. Mr. Winch. Volley of Rock*, 
Linton, Dovon. Mr. Parfilt. Braxted, Eaeex. Mr. Variant. Plymouth. Mr. 
Holme*. 1-ith Hill. Surrey; Haatlnga. Jr>. »'. Joihuo. Seven Oaka, Kant. Mr. 
Holme*. Wickliff Rocka! Ludlow; Hopton I near Neawliffe; Nordy Bunk, 
Ahdon ! Lung Mynd ! near Church Stretton, Shropshire. 

80OTLA»D :— KUlin 1 Mr. Pujuut. Blrnaii. Hill 1 Dunkold. Dr. Ltndja*. Craig 
Tutloch. BUir Athole. Be*. J. M. Crambie. 

iMLAXn :— Near Balfatt. Mr. Tanpltton. _ 

WaLBS:— Moel-y-(loIf* ! Montgcminmhire. Pestrcgaer! near Oeweetry! 
Cader Idrla ! Trefriw Fall« 1 Kglwieg meki 1 

Chaxmu. lHi..\sr* :— Jaraey ; (Juenuny. Mr. Larbalettler. 

forma wwftfcfa, (T*yl.) greguhtehitt, Urtareous, verruca** or 
areolato-grannlose, vrrriuxv "It. n scatUrtd, convex or jlatt i$h ; 
apothecia fiuco-ntfettent, toncaot or more or leas convex, sessile, 
margin obliterated 

On siliceous rocks, not (infrequent. 1S36. 

St* NJEfnm Tayl. I in Mark. R Hib. 1 134. (1836.) Nyl. Scand. 190. 
Kir. - -Iwight. Aug. Lich. t. 13. f. 4. 

Bxsi-MwU IX HepplM. Mu«». :«3. 

Gsoo. Distkib :— Germany, Hanovw, Italy. 

BOT. PsnV:-3, G, 7..10...19...26. 

EsoULf i> I— Newton Wood ! Cleveland, Mr. Miuld. Haughmond Hill ! Cacr 
Canuluc ! Sharmtone* ! Lyth Hill ! near Shrewsbury, Shrop«liii». 

Iuluid ;— Carig land Dunkerron Mountain*, Or. Taylor. (1836.) MwearUn ! 
Ryuvyle ! Dawroe river! near mmuiiit of Doughrnagh Mountain I Twelro 

Tin.: e<>. fialway. ,uv. Lmbulmtia, 

Walks !— Yr Kifl I Mr Holme*. Cwm GUa ! Snowdon. Trefriw fall) I 
Cwm Cywlon ! Drwiynant 1 Paai of Llanberi* .' Aran Muwddwy | Eglwyatg 

Spnrea .019$ mm. long, .01.'> mm. broad. 

forma gltbulosa, (Sm.) vhitith, tartareous, verrueoto^/Ul/ulote or 
tufmpumutlote, verrucffl tnmid, scattered or crowded ; apothecia 
minute, rufo-ftutttctnt, plane, margin thin, evanescent 

On ahady rocks, not unfrequent. 1808. 

Sra .— Sm. K. Bet. 1955. (1808.) 

Fia :— K. Bot 1965. 

Exs j-Lelght. L4ft 

liaoa. Dihtkib :— Europe. 

BOT. Prov:-1...S.. 5. 7. 8.. .10. .15. 

EbulaMD :— Great Ayton! <:arlton Bank. Yorkshire. Ju*r. Afudrf. near 
E*«t«r. Mr. Parfxl. Penianoe, Mr. Curnow. Tiuit.ri.l^n Wella. Mr. Holme*. 
Oaer Canxluc ! Stablnford I near Bridgnorth, Shropshire. 

Sootlaxu I— Craig Tullocb. Her. J. M.Crvmbte. 

W.ujh ^-AberdoTey ! 

forma ornaia, (Smmrf.) greyish-whit*, verruadoM or artolato- 
*juamu!o*t, ffnamule* fiat or more or Ions irregularly convex, 
margin* more or leu crenatt. 



On alpine rodta, rare. 

St»: Kmwt Lapp. 9t (1836.) 

Ex. :-MaoV) 123. 

6bm. Dbtbu :-Xorw»T, P t uimo . 

B.-/T. PaOT ;-» ; < Sa 

EMiun :-Goa«W Moor I CUtcImuL J*V. Jf-«. Malvcra HHk. Ar. 
BwzfcoU; Cepford, Em. Jfr. r«r»w. fbwt* Stntt,* ! I.vt* HiU I 

Somwn -KinnooJ] Hffl! Perth. &r. Umimf. Bra Ltwm. /V. 
Oka X«fc ; Loca CaUatar. Craig Tnlkch. Jlrr. J. Jt CW>«A*. 

W*u> :-Cad«r IdrW t Cwm Cwlyd ! 

iKBLASD :— I>o«gWma±4 Uovntatx. ! Galwar. Jfr. LmrUitMvr. 

8t*xm .CCS BunTW .011 i» broad. 

forma dupma, Ixsight . convex verruca! of thai] us scattered 
dispersed ; bypothallus black, predominating ; apotheeia i 
almost tubercular, spurious thalline margin conspicuous, minut 

On rock*, rare. 1875. 

Bot. Paov :-26. 

IaiLAHf .—Near Bynn-U ! co. Galway. Jfr. LartafcsNar. 

forma variolosa, ¥w. Uudline margin whit* and leprow or powdery, 
ttmnvrmt over and concealing the epitbecium. 
On rocks. 

Thi» fUU U (miatatly obaarvabU a conjoactioa with /. tUcitU. 

8m :— Kioto* Uck. Mm. VJD. (1SG0.) 

Groo. Dnm» :— Sflass. Hangar;-. Switxcrland. 

Hot. Paov :— 8. 

EaaujtD .— Nonly Bank ! Shropshire. 

forma aepauptrata, Lcight. thallu* entirely MUaated, I 
naked and prominent. 
On rucka and atones washed by water. 1866. 

Bot. P*ov;-7. 

W ai.d. :- Cadar Idrta ! w. <-e*rpn.atit(l866.) Dnwynaet I Aran MuwJdwy ! 
Pw of LlanUr* ! C« ni Crwion t 
S|<orai .0225 num. long, .0106 mm. broad. 

forma terratru, growing on the earth in crevices of rocks and walla. 

Waft MaslyssH 

111. L. pnrrimala, Kyi. while or whitish, continuous, rimose, 
rima suhartotaU or cMrytshcre suoparatlclo-radiaut, with convex or 
confluent lorcdia, (K— C red) ; apotheeia fuscous, biatorine, super- 
ficial, but imperfect and without spores. 

On fcLspathic maritime rocks, rare. 1876. 

Hrx :-Nyl. la Flora WO. p, S3S. 

Bot. Paov :—3l. 

OiiaarKia. Isuurus:— Janey. Mr. lorbnUttitr. (18X6.) 

Poaalbly a ■abtpsde* of L toantalo, with which it ain-eea in reaction ol 


115. I j. maotropoides, NyL dnerxueent, verrueoso-areolato- 
difract, aroolie convex, (K yellow, mcdullit I—) ; apothfcia /u 
Moot or nigricant, at first piano, margined, at length con* 
I iron, i inargiuate, lamina thin, eteipuittm circumcincmt j 

hypothecium colourless; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, 

On old limestone valla. 187 1 . 



8r» ;— Nylmidw iu Flora 1K72. p. 359. 

Bor. Psov :— 15. 

Sooti.axi) : - Crals Tulloeh, BUlr Atholo. ««. J. jV. CVomof*. (1871.) 

"Externally rimilar l«> L. mtsolropa, but with iHffaKlli tvac-timi, thinner 
lamiua and shorter tpures. Spore* 0.009 — 11 mm. lone, 0.008—7 mm. broad. 
Sporniatia 0.007— 10 mm. lout;, no»re«ly 0.001 mm. broad." (Kyi.) 

116. L. caligans, }iyl. /uliginous blaei, thin, rugose, difract, 
indeterminate ; apotluria blackish, ptanf, obtusely margined, within 
pale; spores 8, colourless, ihinlij amnlar; epithecium colourless; 
paraphysus not distinct ; hypothecium colourless, (excipuhun 
son ir what brownish above) ; gelatins hymenea I vinous-red. 

On maritime rooks, rare. (1873). 
Snr :-Nyl. in Flora 187-t. p. 10. 

BOT. PaOV :— SI. 

Ciian.nkl IslAXDS :— Alderney. Mr. LarWrtticr. (1873,) 
\ lliod to L. wnulu, but a very dirtlnct species, " Spore* .030—35 mm. lung, 
.0015 mm. broad." (Nyl.J 

117. L. pammitta, Stni. whitish or cinereo^Ubescent, thick, 
urtolato-difract, areola} smooth, minutely papillose, (K yellow then 
orange-red); apolliccia black, sessile, plane or somewhat convex, 
margin undulate, sometimes paler, internally pale; hypothecitun 
Colourless ; rpithecium almost constantly gyroso-plicate ; spores 8, 
OOlourlsiSi ellipsoid, .-.imple. ntlu-r small ; paruphygca thick, in- 

distinct, spiew clavatv, ugriosat; gelatinu bymsow I bluo then 

On alpine rocks, raro. 1874. 

Sy» :-Slirtoii In OrsvllUaS. p. 34. (1*71.) 

Bot. Paov :— 15. 

SOOTUro :— Ban Arthur. Dr. Mrfe* QUA.) 

"Somewhat aimiUr to L. mollis, (\Vhinb.) and L, Itsstlala, (Klk.) Sporea 
.003— .01 mm. long, .005—6 mm. broad." fStirt.) 

118. L. ttnebrosa, (Hot.) cinereo-nigricanl or darkly-cinereous 
tartarcous, rimoso * nunilost, often smooth, opake, areohr 
more or leas tumid, (K dirty yellow O dirty yellow) ; hypitliallus 
black; a)xithc,cia small, n»>mnatt it) Qw aWBoIss. buiat, plane, 

rgin thickish, BVSnttaBy obliterated; hypothecium colourless; 
spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple ; paraphyses distinct, no pi 
u dark discoloured line; gclatuia hymenea blue with iodine. 

On alpine rocks, not common. 

8tw .— Flotow in Herb. NyL Frodr. 127. Scand. 231. T. M. Fr. Scand. 540. 
Kxai-Aiui Langob. i.\i. ttabh. 7io. Aad It. S. H2. Uight 1SH. 

Gxoa. Distbib : — Sweden. P y wu sw, Bnvaria, Germany, Lombardy. Italy. 

Bar. Prov:-:. ,1 U SB,9.~*L 

BBttLASDr— Malt«ra Hilln. Dr. Hull. Abdou Burf ! Dsvil'a Chair! Stipcr- 
•tones; Caw Caradoc ! Shropshire. 

ScOtlasii :— lSra*mar ; near Pnttlath«n ; Kincardine. JtM J M. Crvmbit. 

Ikelxso :— Killarney and Lough Bray, lMiblin ; Lugselaw, Wicklow. AJm. 

Walks : — Cirm Ffyuimn 1 1 ■ •• I ' 

OUXn -Ni.irmont, Joraey. Mr. Larbalettier. 

"Spores .011-17 DSD loofj .008 -7 mm. I.n.a.1." f Ifnl. .<■ T. M. Fr.) 
Sparta .012ft— .OH mm. long, .0055 nun. broad. Medulla I roddiah. 

119. L. asperella, Strta black, thickish, gmnuloto-fitrfuractoiu, 
difraetchartolate, determinate ; apothecia black, small, adnatc, aliin- 
ing, plane, margin thin shining ; hymenium seen iu u thin section 



entirely ectruleo-virttcenl ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid or obJongo- 
ollipsoid, simple ; paraphyaes not very distinct, apices clav*t« 
cwnilcsccnt, (violet-purple with nitric ncid) ; hypol/irriiim colour- 
It**, subtended by a /uscout-blaek : gOUtiDa hymenea I 

intensely and persistently blue. 
On rocks. 1875. 

8tk .— Stirton in Tran». Ulaajraw Soc. Nat. j>. 87. (IR7.">. ) 
Hot. Pnov :— 16. 

800TLA1ID i— Beo-y-glo*. Dr. Stirtmi. (1R7M 

"Spore* .00T5-.01 mm. lone. .004-006 mm. hroad. Very clo**ly allied U> 
tnfurf'i'i, Nyl. Tim itratum _ beneath the hypotheclum l« competed d large 
colli intermingled with branching fibre* (which, however, prevail mot* in to* 
lower portion) and it accordingly, quite unlike the usual excfple."* (SXirtn.) 

ft Uypotheeium dark. 

1 20. L. panaola, Ach. albidocinertous or creamy or pnle-tawny, 
artolato-granulose, areola: large, tumid, rimom-diffraci, flattish or 
sub-convex, smooth, DO» or loss polished, (K faint yellow C red) 
wiV/i tuberexdose reddish eepkalodia intermixed, hypothaUtu dark 
brown ; apothecia black or nigro-fuacous, oppressed or immersed, 
plane or sub-concave, more or less pruuioae, margin lliin, prominent, 
smooth ; hypotheeium thiel; iar h bnv m ; spore* 8, colourless, 
■•Ili; ' ; \t, very large, with broad ipisporu; poraphysca »lcnder, 

apices fuscous ; golutinn hynionM intense-blue wii 

On granitic rocks in alpine localities not uncommon. 1807. 

forma vera, Ijoight. apotheeut prominent, adnate or appretted, 
maiyis prominent, often paler than the epithecimn. 

Stk :— Aob. L. U. 201 (1810) Syn. 33. Nyl. Scand. 225. AtpieWa attiw 
earm, Mmld Man. 164. L. cethumtna, TayL PI, Hlb. 2. 117. 

F10 .•— K. Bot 1829. 

:-Sch«r. 469. Fellm. 182. Siurft. 51. Anil Langob. 88. 

GSOO. DlSTBIR : ~~K. LmUimL Sweden, .Switzerland. 

Ilor. I'kuv:-5...7 ..11. ..II.. 19...25, 26...30. 

i) :— Cronkley ami KglmUin, Durham. Jiir. J. Hairimati. (1807.1 
Teeadale I Mr. Kolxrtscn. Abdon Burt ! Shropshire. 

Scotlaxi) :-Ben Lawer* ! Mr. Carroll. Ben Cniarlian : Craig Gnie ; KfaoiL 
Rev. J. M. CnmbU. 

Iht.lasu :— Carig Mountain! l>r. Taylor, Tollymore Park. Ur. Mainpoj, 
Connor OUfl : nuumit of Brandon co. Kerry ; Galtimore, Tipperarr. Mr. 
Carroll, near Belfast. Dr. Moore, co. Antrim. Adm. Join*. Kylemoro Cattle ! 
00. Galway ; Doughraagh ! Mr. LarbnltMier. 

WaLB* :- Kooka above Corwen ! iter. T. Satwey. Llyn liodlyn. Mr. Holme*. 
Cwm (via* ! Snowdon : Llyn Aran ! Llyn y Cae ! Cader Idrui ! Own IW-h ! 
(Jwm Cvwion ! Cwm Tryfcen ! Cwm Boohlwyd ! Llyn Cwlyil ! Ulydcr Vach • 
Aran Mowddwy I Cwm Clwyd ! Bettwa-y-cocd ! Trafriw ! Moel-y-ooel I 

"Spore* .017-27 mm. long, .008-13 mm. brood." (T. M. />.) "Spore* 
.018— 34 ma. long. .010- 10mm. broad.'* (Nyl.) "Spom.OOC 0081a low 
by .0035-.004 in. broad." (.Mudd.) Spore* -OsSo— .038 mm. long, .016 nun! 

forma subconsentinu, Loigbt. apotkteia concave, immersed in tho 
areola?, immarginate, but with a spurious thnltiiie margin. 
On alpino granitic rocks, not MMOI&Olb 1871. 

Hot. Poovs— T. 

WajJBr— Cwm Cvwion I Cwm Ffynnon Ungwy ! Cwm P/tnnon Uoer! 
CHydar V»ch ! Aran Mowddwy I 



A eonapictiotu form, but intermediate itatea mar be obaarred between tilt* 
and f . tent. Paniphyam dltttnct. aploM fnacrmn, lateral eicipulum oolourleaa, 
hypotheeiutn central, dark fuscoua. Sporai with very thick eplapora, double 
the pine of thoea ei L. tontmtitnt, which thia farm externally animilatea. 
Sporea— .033 mm. long;, .0175— .019 mm. hroail. 

forma obliterate, Leight, thallu* smooth, creamy, thin, effuse, 
nearly denuded, probably by water, with oephalodia; apothecia 
prominent, with conspicuous proper margin. 

On alpine rocks, rare. 1871. 

Bot. Fuor .-—7. 
Walks :— Cwra <.'ywion I 

Hypothecium nigro fntoous, thick ; peraphyses diatinct ; aporea 8, oolourleaa, 
with narrow epicure, .038 mm. long, .018 mm. broad. 

121. L. futco^inerea, Nyl. dnertuttni or einereo-futeoui, ofTuse ; 
rimoto-areolate, areola often verrwatform or hiberculate ; hypothallus 
black ; apothecia closely appressed or adnate, plane, margin thin 
prominent ; hypothecium nigro-fiueous ; parapkytti concrticent, 
apices fuliginous very obtuse and thickly clavate ; spores 8, 
colourless, oblong or ellipsoid, simple ; gel hym. I slightly blue, 
then vinous-red. 

On alpine rocks. 

8m ;-Nyl. Bot. Not. 1852 p. 177. T. M. Fr. Seand. 617. 

Ki.i :-Nyl. Ob*. Ilea. H..lm. fig. 9. 

Ex» : Am. 1U. 237. Fr. I* Sueo, 406 C. 

Umo. DiwrarB : — Sweden, Norway, Finland, Germany. 

Bot. Paov :— 7. 

Walks I 0*111 Idwal ! Llyn Geirionydd ! 

Externally like L. tenelman. but internally cliff-rent. "Sporea .000—14 
mm. long. .000—10 mm. broad." IT. if. /V.) "8por«B .014—20 mm. loaf, 
.007 mm. broad." (ffj/l.) Spormatia ahortly acicular, utraiglit. Spores .012 — 
.015 mm. long, .006mm. broad. Medulla I reddwb. Thallus K dirty-yellow C 

122. L. Bruyeriana, (Schror.) paJe-ytUow, verrueoto-glebidoie, 
verruca) tumid, scattered or concroto, often evanescent, (K yellow, 
C apothecia rod butthallus yellow); apothecia large, tettitc, concave, 
fu&oiu or Mack, margin thick, incurved, entire or nexuose ; hypothe- 
cium llaek ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, largo, simple granular j 
pnrnphyBes distinct ; gclatinn hymenea yellow with iodine. 

On alpine rocks, rare. 1866. 

Sts :— Srhier. Knum. 77. <!««>)• 
Km :— Hepp Spc-ren t. 70. f. 615. 

Exs: — :>:w. Hepp. MB. 

Gaoo. D»tkib : - Switzerland. 

Bot. Paov:— 7 .11. 

RsQLAXD : — Force Garth, 'IVmdale. Dr. Hnll. 

Walcs :— Oraig y-llam near Dolgelley. Dr. null, Cader Idrisl (I860). Aran 
Mowddwyl Moel-yOolfa! 

BOT. Paov: -7...10...15. 

1. odiroda. Nyl. found in Glen Callater 1872 by Dr. Stirlon. 
Sport*, .0195 mm. long, .000 mm. broad. The large apothecia hare much 
tho appearance of a Pedis, 

123. L. Kochiana, liopp. noiue-eolour or pale-*in«rto-futc<*oent, 
rimoto-areolato-difract, areolar plano-convex, nigro-limitatr, (K — 
C — ) ; apothtcia black, innate, immarginate, floxuoeo- or anguloso- 


:med, disk plans, tomruhat thintnr/ and smooth, internally 
dutJty ; hyjiotkecium a thia niaro/iucous lint resting On- the 
hypothnUus; spores 8, colourless, oblong, simple; poraphyscs 

On alpine rocka, not uufreqn 

STX :-Hepj. Wurta. 6L (1824.) Nrl. Scand. 822. 

Em .— Seher. 1st. M. ft N. M9. Zw. 8, 311. 

OtOQ. DlSTBlB ;— Switzerland, Pynmea., Spain, (knuWT, Norway. 

Scotlanmi :— Kincardine ! ISrvmnr. /tor. J. M. Crvmbit. 

WaUSB :— Pen-y-gwryd. Mr. W. Jothua. Barmouth ! Snowdon 1 Csdar Idris ! 

< '>i*vjra. IsLAyns :— thud. J«r««y. Mr. fiarbalestier. 

Ikiclam) : — near liotterfr&ck I Mr. LarbaJatier. 

H 8pona.00H--ll iiiiu. Imig, ■<**'< S nun. linuul." (Syl.) 8pore» .01— Oil 
mm. long, .000—7 nun. broad. Medulla I—. 

Var. lygtta, Ach. umber-oiloured, effuse, eon/inuoiu, smooth, 
tlightly rimulotf, (K — C— ) ; apothecia minute, adprrtso-sessiU, 
plano-convex, smooth, immarginate, itfgro-fiiscoiuj, internally dusky. 

On rocks, rare. 1865. 

BtBt-jut. Syn. 34. etc]. «-ar. (1H17.) Nyl. Scand. 223. 
CttiM. Detrain :— Switzerland. Vyrtncc*. Lombardy, Italy. 

.. Pnov:-7...26 
Waiw :— On GLm ! Snowdon. (18*5.) Nant Gwynant ! Snowdon. 
CllASirci.Isi.A!riM: Boulay Bay ! Jeney. Mr. Lnr^ateMier. 
I rki.asd : — Delphi Mountains, Cenneaiant ; Lough Muck. Mr. Lorbalutttr. 
- Spore. .009-11 mm. long, .006-8 mm. broaAT [T. M. Fr.) Madulla I. 

121. Li segregans, Nyl. whitish or aUiithxinerascrnt, verrueoto 
grnmdote, gnimdrt various, lomOwhaieoitMC, more or less segregate 
or VVZrusoao-OonfitMDt, laxly adnata ; hypothallna nigricant, scarcely 
visihlo; apothecia black, wmewluU piano, immarginate, at length 
convex, and often aggregato«mJluent, mall, coneolorous within ; 
hyfxjtJiecium fuscous ; cpitheciuin scarcely obscurate ; spore* 8, 
iirlons, oblong, (tannic . 1. vinculum iuakyj p;imj)hyse« moderate-, 
scarcely distinct ; gctatina hyim uea ihlutely-curulcscrut then 
vinoso-fulvcsocnt with iodine. 

On alpine micacoe-schistoso rocks, rare. 1866. 

8rs:-Nyi. to R on isfifi. p. 979. OnaAh En. :<■•. 
.-Babh. 708. Anxi Langob. 121. Soh*r. 82«. 

(JKOO. IhHTRni : 1 In r. .j ..-. 

Bot. Pbov :— 15. 
SooriJiXD :- -Ben. Lawon. Adm. J one). 

Systematically prulmlilv near I.. mcfaaeMoML Tuck. "Sports .010— 13 ma. 
long, .003S-.0044 mm. broad." UV//'.) 

1 "2-"i. /. . aymphortlla, Nyl. whitish or albido-cinerascent, areolate, 
areoltu convex more or less scattered and dispersed. (K yalli 
yellow) ; apothecia black, minute, somewhat convex, imniargiuate, 
aggrtgato^uxrvulatc, acervuli composed of many connate apothoci*, 
internally coneolonmt, sessile upon and nearly obliterating 
areola; spores 8, colourless, lincari-oblong, simple, the contents 
having a tendency to separate into 3 inn In m- •■• -1), 
moderate, bdkthM ;ocium darklyfuseesccnt ; hypothseumi 



brunneo-infuteaie. ; gelatina hymenea and osoi at first blue, then 
red or vinous-violet with iodtn . 
On weathered quartr.osc stone*, rare. 1869. 

Sth -.-Nyl. in Flora 1870. p. 36. Orombie is Seem. Journ. Bot. 8. M. 
Bx» :— Crumble 89. 
(9(00. DwraiB:— Europe. 
Bot. Paov: 1.. 

80OTLAJID :- Summit of Morrone : Bnumar ! Rrr. J. M. Crombit. (I860.) 
Apparently Terr near to L. tcortgan*. "Sporee .010-18 mm. long, .004—7 
mm- broad.' ( hyl ) Spore* .Ol'J—.OB mm. long, .0OJ*> mm. broad. 

126. L. commandant, Nyl. ftucout-Mack or nigricant, tbin, 
opako, aub-oreolate, areolae depressed, generally dispersed, indeter- 
minate ; 'i/»>thecia Mack, somewhat convex, with scarcoly any 
margin, concolorout within ; hypothecium thic.kish, rubricoso-fuseout, 
this colour passing upwards Solo the thalamium; epitheeium 
nigricant ; spores 8, colourless, oblong, or linear-obloug, simple ; 
paraphysus 1 ndiattkiot ; gelatina hymenea csorulescent with iodine. 

On wapHQue lioulders, rare. 1868. 

" Approaching h- Kaoanila, tn which the aparwi *r» different and the thala- 
minm not tinged with red, but more allied to L. ditpanta, Nyl. Sjiermatia 
, rtraight. SjX'rni O.0OH-O.011 mm. long, 0.003— 4 mm. broad.' AW. 
Hypothecium haa the umo reddish linp which U produced by K on the 
iiv,..i tin nun; 1 /..' mera ttihfiaea nn boBoobju, sod fat oelevrpaaM without 

dmingniihable tint into ih« thalainhmi. 
8t» i -Nyl. in Flora 1868. p. 476. Cromble Bn. 93. 
Okn. Distrir :— Kurope. 
Bot. Paov :-14. :- Morrone ! Braemar. Rtv. J. if. Crombit. 
Sporea .01— .011 mm. long, .008—4 mm. broad. 

127. L. ampholera, Leigh t. ahite, larlareout, arrolato^liffraet, 
artoliT of compound cluttered conixx granules, (K yellow C yellow) ; 
apothecia futtout, cluttered or conglomerate, innate, prominent, large, 
immarginato ; hypothecium futtout, thiokish ; paraphysea crowded, 
but distinct ; spores 8, colourless, lincari-oblong, simple. 

On alpine rocks, rare. 1870. 
Bot. Pbov :— 7.. .15. 

Hootlaxti .—Hill of Ardo near Aberdeen. Kei: J. if. Crmbie. (1870.) 

Waues i— Conway '. 

The thallua of thia haa the general appearance of that of PUnphnmn fbuU 
with it* fuecmi* cephalodio, aniline npnrm nnnmhle tboee of Leeidea tap'teida, 
from which the nature of the thallua and the different hypothrciuin diatinguinh 
it. Spurm .0175 mm. long, .005 mm. bniad. 

128. /.. dealbatula, Nyl. white, thin, rimoso or scatteredly eon- 
vtxo-tubareolatt, unequal, (K — C — ) ; apothecia Mack, mall, pro- 
minent, margined, umijonatc or at length subgyroae in the centre, 
concolorou* within ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple, minute ; 
epitheeium and hypothecium nigro -futeout ; pnmphyscs moderate, 
distinct but coherent : p;ulatinn liynu-nea I intensely-bluish. 

On schistose and hard-grained rocks, rare. 1874. 

8TW ;— Nyl'. In Flora 1874. p. 315. 

Bot. Pbov :-7...15...» 

Soott.asi> :— .Stronaelachan, Klllln. Rtv. J. il. Crombit. (1877.) 

Ibxiasu i-Kylemora Cattle ! co. Calway. Mr. Larialatitr. 


Tlllt I.HHKN-KU)K.\ 

Wii» :— Trefriw • near LUnnrat. 

"Al\\»dtoL.d*inrcula, Xul. SporeaO.OlO- 12 una. .oi^aOOS-Arnm. 1 

129. L. tUaeta, Ach. bright-ferntg-inout-red, areoU 
verrvcoso-yranulate, convex, tumid, smooth, (K — C — ) ; txpc-tiecut 
darhbluish or violet-black, numerous, scattered or crowded, various 
in sixu, closely adnate. on or between the areola, plane or cuuvux. 
margin entire or flexuosc ; hypotkecium darkfuactKcnt, ruUcnded by 
a darker-excipulum ; hymeuiwn bluish, pnrnphysca distinct, apioos 
violet-black ; spores 8, colourless, roundish-oblong, simple, small ; 
I intenso-bluo. 

On alpine rocks, probably not uncommon. 1870. 

8tw :-Aeh. Prodr. n, 6fi (17W) Syn. 22, Nyl. 8caod. 226. T. M. Kr. 8cao<L 

fn :-Maaa. Ric fig. 123. 

Eu ;-8olu»r. 190. 191. Ana Langob. 1"»9. 

Oxoo. Uibtbui :— Sweden, Norway. Finland, Switzerland, Italy. 

Hot. Paov:— lR, 

8ootla»I);— Gleii Fender ! Blair Athole. Iter. J. M. Ommbie (1870.) 

" Sporca ,008— 11 mm. long, .Our, (' nun. broad. " {T. .V. Fr.) SpOTM.OlQB, 
|ong, .005— .0055 mm. broad. 

130. L. caljxxU*, Strtn. darkly-dnercnxu, arcolato-dtfract, areolae 
somewhat convex, contiguous or dispersed ; apolheeia black, minute, 
very numerous, innato-sessile, concave, sitburceolale, acutely margined, 
at length somewhat explanate, internally pale or pallido-fuseeacent ; 
spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, almost spherical, simple ; paraphyaea 
irregular, indistinct, apices fusooseent ; hypotkecium fuscoue or 
patlido-fuiotteent, thin ; gclatirm. hymonea 1 slightly blue then 

On rocks, rare. 1875. 

STS :— Stirton in Trana. Glaagow Soc. Nat. p. 88 (1675.) 
Bot. Paov :— 15. 

S.!i/Ti.AMi>.— KilUeoranlda. Dr. Stirton (1875.) 

" Spore* .007— .00S5 ram. lung, .OOfi— .007 mm. broad. K rfiodsr* tho para- 
pliyMW a* diatinct, filiform, irregular, branching fibre*." (Slrlyi.J 

131. L. Mullensie, Stirt. cinereous or nigro-cinertoiu, areolato- 
vcrrucose, diffract, (K yellow, internally yellow then ferruginous-red ) 
formed of erect columella; which are either connate or segregate 
and dispersed; apotkecia black, subinnaie, small, plane, acutely 
margined, margin often flex nose or undulate ; hypotkecium thickiek, 
fuscous or ftucoue-blaek ; parnphyacs very irregular and indistinct ; 
nigro-apiculato ; spore* 8, countries*, ellipsoid, simple. 

On rocks, rare. 1877. 

Bni i-8tirlon in Scottish NaturaUat. 4. 1U0(1ST7.) 

Bot. Paov -.-16. 

8C0Tt*irn:— MulL Dr. Stirton. (1*77.) 

"Sporea .006— .000 mm. long, .004-008 mm. broad. Gelatin* hyn-enea I 
Muiab. then tinoua-red. Hymenium K yellow, tbentwlth stellate groupa erf 
reddish a-JTi!" crystal*. Aici with thick pel lucid wall* upward*.*' (Stiff.) 

•••*** Tkallus artolate, areola Hat or plant, 

t Hypotkecium pale. 

L. pohfccrpa, Flk. einn-a$ctnt, very tain, tartareous, 




minutely rimuloao-areolate, areolir plane or planoconvex, tmnotli, 

■• evanoiicciit, (K yellow then red) j bnothallai block; 

UaJn numerous, scattered or aggregate, adnate, plant, op' 
Mack, toft, velvety, margin vary thick, subtumid, prominent, 
tloxuosc ; fiypatAetium paU or more or let) rufetctni . with short 
lateral black excipulwm. ; epithecium nigricant ; thalamium pale; 

■pare* B| ooloarlaw, eUtptieftlj simple, bmueleolat*. 

On alpine took ■. IVr^uciJt. 

Bn :-Flk. In Smmrf. Siim.l. l\mpp. 149. (1826.) XyL Sc»nd. 226. 

fen t— Nla. 189. 

Uroo. DiHTiun :— E. I.»|iUini, Scandium lift, Uungmry, Sweden, France. 

Hot. Prov:-.v .7...1:. W, 

■msmJB .— Devil'* Chair ! Stlpcntonw, Shropshire. 

HotmiTl Milium*. Bwi-nm-liuord ; Ben (.rumchmn ; Ben Lmwera; Beu 
Nevit; Brueinar. Rev. J, M. Crombit. 

Ift.Ki.AXi> : --Maiwrtoii. Mr. Otrroll. 

Wmf.lM ;— Coder Idrio, north escarpment ! < !r»ig Brvldden I Nerin ! Egiwyieg 
roekji ! IJyn Cciriouvdd ! Bmrnioath ! 

(pOM .0011— .014 mm. long, .004-7 mm. broad." Ti'yl. "Spore* .009— 
18 mm. long. .005 mm. broad. I blue then discoloured, atcl violet-red or 
fulv«c*nt. Is «hurtly ftcicular, •trmlght or .ilii/lelv BHTfjd .000— 12 

ram. loug." (T. it. fries.) Medulla I bin*. Spore* .015 mm. long, .009 mm. 

Viir. dcclinans, Nyl. nearly ecrustaceous : hyptthtoum i'imcou* 
or fatcQ-rufrtetnt, (K yellow then red). 

:— Nyl. Scaud. 226. (186L) Crombie Knum. 81. Loight. In Ann. and Mm*. 
Ifrnt, Hist :r.m.-, 1807. 

Exsi-FcUm. 187. 188. K*bb. 844. 
titaa. Diamni : -K. Lapland, Scandinavia, 
r. I'kov:-7 .15 23. 
i M . i ontleton, Braemar. Adm. Jonei. 
lui . Iliiwy Hill. In- Moon. 

Walks l — Cader Idru, north evciirpmoiit 1 Pnm of LUnbcru ! 

133. L. margimxta, Seiner. palt*apricot-colt"ir, tmt;i 

■ tiler, diffuse, rimutoto-areolato-difrart, areola) plane, imripml, 

(K yollow) ; apothoeia black, sessile, piano or tumid, margin thick, 

prominont) wmetimea flexneie, at kngth obliterated ; hgpothta 

pale; spore* 8, colourlwis, oblong, -imple, 1 blue 

On alpi nro. 1 8fl8< 

Htv . — fi obf . Knum. UBk (IBNm) Crombio Enum. a. 

Ex» .— Schwr. 189. 

QaOO. Distiiiii :— Switzerland. 

BOT. PboV:— 2 1".. 

Bhud i— Mi "f Wight. Dr. B 

Ben Lmwcu. Adm. Jonu. (1868.) 
SpoNB.015— -011"' mm. loritr, .0065— .007.'. mm, bromd. 

134. L. lapi> <■'■■. I V, cintratctnt, tortureous, thin, areolato- 
rimosit-diff •ad, areolae flat or plane, (K — C — ); hypothallux black ; 
apolhtna numerous, small, scattered or aggregate, plant, spake, 

ft, velvety, margin thin, obtuse, slightly prominent, 
fioxuOU ; kgpothttiwn pah, uii/i ■< iMn blackuh wavy line tubten- 

tliny llif liiUt and but'-; epitheciimi nrni:inf ; tlialamium pale 

uTowly oblong, simple, often 
with 2 nuclei ; par.vphysc.i distinct, npicos nigricant. 
On alpine rocks, frequent, 


THK l.!l-HKX.m»m 

8TS :-Frlea. L. E. 300. 0831.) Nyl. Scand. 22T.. Nyl. ! 01*. Holm. 2. (IMS.) 
Mudd Man. 209. 

Exs;-2w. 130. I.«i.:ht. I*?. 

Gtou. DraTain :— Scandinavia, <;*nnany. 

Bor. Prot r— 6...7...10...15...28, 29. SO. 

Kkolaxu .— Cleveland. Mr. .Vim'./. Myaydd -v-.Mvfvr near Onw#»tryl Bod- 
bury Ring near Church Stretton I Abdon Burf ! nil in Shropshire. 

ScrTLASD :— Brcadnlbaiio ; Blair A thole ; Braemar. tier. J. M. CrotnUt. 

lKKt.i!ri> :— North. Dr. Moore, 

Wai.» :-Niint Gwynant ! Crib Ooch ! Snowdon. Cwm Bochlwrd ! 

"Sporea .003 iu. longhv .001 in. broad." (SImld.) " Spore* .008— .012 mm. 
long, .0OI—7 mm. broad. [Nyl.) "Spore* .009—13 mm. long, .001—* mm. 

broad." IT. 
Medulla I-. 

M. fr.) 8poroi .011— .0125 nun. long, .003-4 mm. broad. 

Var. ochraeea, ferruginous-rod. 
On alriino rocks, not common. 

Gkoo. Diarnu* :— Eurotw. 
Bor. Prov:-7...15...S0. 

ScOTUXD :— Blair". Krv, J. M. Crvmhir. 

1hzi.anii i-Gkoi Mountains co. Antrim. Dr. Moon. 
Waubj y- Nant Gwynant 1 Suuwdon ; Cwin Clyd I 

135. L. lilhophila, Ai:li. rinrrancrnt, tartareous, thin, rimulo- 
to-areolate, areola: plane, I K — — ) ; hypothnllim black ; apothecia 
numerous, small, scattered or aggregate, plane, opake, black, orni- 
gro~ru/etctnt, to/I, velvety, innate or sessile, margin tliin, prominent, 
flemoeo ; hypothec im/i pale, tlighlly obteurate ; epithocium rufos- 
ccnt when Btttetanedj tbakmiam pale; spores 8, colourless, 
oblongo-ellipsoid, simple : ptfftpfajiea distinct. 

On alpine rocks, frequent. 

Svn :— Ach. Syn. U. I1H17.) Nyl. Scand. 226. 

Ex.: Pallm.W0, 

ttuoo. Dihthib :~E. Lapland. Scandinavia, Madeira. 

Bot. Paov : -1 6, 7. U IB 20 . 26. 

Esauan :— SUvelr near Kendal. Mr. Marlindale. Curnwall. Dr. Holl. 

Scotland :— Ben Lawer* ; Murronc ; Ulcn Fender ; Blair Atholc. Iter. J. 
M. Crombir. 

Wauh :— Cader Idrin, north escarpment ! Nant Gwynant ! BnM 1 1 
Drwayuant ! I.lyti QsjMoojddl Ciml.-t Bock! Pwlhelli. road between Fish- 
guard! and Newport, Pembroke*' - :— Blaclcroolc Mr. Carroll. Killcry Bay. Mr. Larbalatier. 

m Sdom>.009— 12 mm. long, .005— li unii. broad. 1 lnU:n>w-blu«. SjXTmatU 
adcular, nearly straight. .012- 15 mm. long." (T. M. Fr.) "Spores .011-15 
mm. long, .000-7 mm. broad." (Nyl.) Spores .01 -013 mm. long, .00C-O00 
mm. broad. 

136. L. plana, Lahm. cinereout, or glaucescouti-wliitisli, rimoso- 
areolate, areola (K — C — ); apolhecia black, opake, small, 
adnata, variously ungulate by confluence or compression, plane, 
margin this, entire M SOXOOM ; hy/jothecium eolourlett, with a 
In ...mti lateral txcipulum extending about half uay under the hy- 

poduehm : p«raphjM ilatiaot bai ooaarool ipicee rntoeejo en i : 
spores 8, colourless, narrow-oblong or linear i-oblong, simple; I 
intense deep-violet-blue. 
On fub-tUpuu rucks, rare. 

Stx:-K..rb. Far. 211. (1SC1.I Nyl. in Flora 1873. fc B». T. M. Kria. Scand. 
lie. /.. IqaleMa tar. IIOtpMb da, Nyl. Lolght. Lid. Fl. 286. 
Ela r— NyL Pyrao. Or. 

Gsno l)i iiaia .-—Sweden, Norway, Germany, Eastern Pyrenees. 
Bor. Paov ;-10. 



80OTUVD f— Craig Tulloch. Hti: J. M. Onmttt, 

"Spares .OU— 15 mm. Ions. .00S5-.0045 mm. broad." (ITi/I.J "Spore* 
.009 — U mm. long, .0038—40 mm. broad. I iiiUow-bluo." [T. M. frits. 
Sporw .013 mm. loos, .004 mm. broad. 

137. L. rivnlota, Ach. mouse-toloured or pallido-fusco-cincniK- 
ceut, rimtUoto-areolaUydifract, areola plant, nigricauti-lunitut.. -, 
(K — C — ) ; apothecia fusrous Un.-k, moderate, sessile, margin f/iin, 
paler, jtejruase, dink plane, opake, minutely 'jrxinuloso-papUlat', ., 
nally entirely whitish; hypothocium pale ; spores 8, colourless, 
oblong, slightly curwd, simple ; paraphyscs distinot, upiccx fuscous. 

On mountain rocks, common. 1807. 

Syn : -A.I,, 38. (1803.) Syn. 28. Nyl. Scand. 222. Mudd Man. 199. 

Fio :-K. Bot. 1737. Hepp Sporen t. 57. f. 491. 

E» :-Zw. 7. '."3. H»pp 491. Nyl. 511. Fries 404. 

GsXKi. 1'iktbIb: — Sweden, France. Germany. Italy, Switzerland. 

Bot. Pnov :— 1 .3. 5. 7. .10, 11. ..18, 19., .26, Jl. 

Enolast. :— Kililale • Avion Moor! Yorkshire. Mr. MuJ.i. Hureleybop* 
Bourn, Durham. Wooler W ater foot of Cheviot, Northumberland. Mr. W 
Shenpator, Devon. I ;lithain, Sh.irpitor, Kent Mr. Holmes. Mynydd-y-Myfyr I 
G«we»try, Shropshire. 

Scotland : - Carry nahlnc. Ixwi«. Dr. Lindsay. Braemar. Rev. J. it. Crxmbis. 

IrrlaXK : —Near GlengsrifT ! Mr. Carroll. Delphi, Connemara. Mr. Lar 
baJeitter. ; ! Barmouth I 

mim :— I>e Fret ! Jersey : Jcrbourg ! Guernsey. Mr. Larbaleitier. 

"SpOTM ,009— U Bun. lung, .IXH il nun lir,.:nl. I bin.- limn in i .• I. 

especially apices of asui. Spcrnutia cylindrical, slender, ttraightish or curved, 
.004 mm. long. .001 mm. brood." I.T. M. ftte I " Spores .009 -.012 mm. long, 
.0045— .0055 mm. broad." (!fijl.) "Hpors* .0025 in. lung by .001 in. broad." 

(Miuld.j Spores .012 mm. long, .0055 mm. broad. I deep. blue. The excipulum 
■ laterally ami externally fuscoui, and may be frc<|uniilly traced iindi r tin: 
entire M]a hjpotiieviinii Tin' internal content* of IM •pafM have a tendency 
to constriction and division in the middle. I n the typical form the thollua u 
tluik.-r und imiti cruataceou*, and vemioao-anjolate. 

forma depresta, Loight. minuiely arei-hito-riinoKe, arrolir de- 

■ ■■</, jhit, plane, sometime* slightly concave ; qpothevia sessile. 

On mountain rocks, frequent. 

Exs :-Kabh. 775. An*i Ital. 8. 230. Langob. 162. 
Qaoo. Dihtiuu :— Germany, Italy. 

Ikklanu :— West Cork ! Mr. Cam.". 

Walks :— Pass of Uanberis ! Holyhead'. Crib Coch ! Snowdon. Llyn 
Cwlyd! Tanybwlch Wood ! i:»|wl Ciing. 

forma obscurior, Cromhic. thullus arcolato-riroosc, of a dark 
dusty colour caused by the intersection and predominance of the 
serpentine lines of the brownish-black hypothallus; apothecia 

On mountain rocks, nut common. 18Gf>. 

Bot. Pnov :-7. 

Walk :-01yd«r Vaeh ! Aran Mowddwy ! I.lyn y Ddlnas, near BeddgsUrt ! 

forma depauperata, Leigh t. thallus evanescent, leaving only the 
dusky hypothallus ; apothecia sessile. 

On quartzose rocks and boulders, rare. 1871. 

Rod Pbovj— 7. 

Wales :— Cwm Cyvrlon 1 Nant Franoon (1871.) 

There is • oortieolar torm represented by Hcpp 780. Babh. 808, T. M. 
Fries 43. Zw. 267. growing on Beach and Burgh iu Scaudinavia and Germany, 
but not yet detected in Greot Britain. 



138. L. alrofiucesccn*, Nyl. einereo-nigrieatU or fiuto-nigrescent, 
deplanate, artolatu-dijj'ract, n . weoltt plane or Jrai; hypo- 

tlmllus bl»ck, here tuxl there vimIiIc ; apothecia black; admit*, 

plane, at. length ttwni-whut oonvas, margined, mod Aen 

sub-angulosc, nearly colourless iriihin ; hypotheeium colourless ; 
epithecium fusccscent ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple ; 
iphyses slender, sub-irregular ; gelatina hyinenea ceerulescont, 
then partly vinoso-rubeaoent with iodine. 
On raicacoosehiiitose rocks, rare. 1864. 

8TS :— Nyl. in Klurn IBM, j>. 371. CrombU En. 83. 

Gtoa. Dihthib :— Europe. 

Bot. Piov: IS. 

Scotland . — Lower dope* of Ben lowers ! Mr. Carroll. (1864). 

lDl*nn«>ii»t» tslwMu L. futtnatra and tmeOrna, but dlttinguiihed by the 
larger *pore« and other characters. "Spore* .01$— SO mm. long, 400— .011 
rom. broad." (A 

139. L. lilhophitixt, Nyl. e-ineratcent, firm, unequally deplmi 
areolato-difract or arealnto-rimose, thin, rhagadiose, (K yellow) ; 
apol/ieeia brovmblaek; innate, plane or convex, immarginale, 
white, internally, hvunded beneath with a thin black line : spOTOB 8, 

coloiirli'.s.s, oblong, simple; panshysei moderate, lar8dc-ftuoe>oen t 
at tho apices; qrpotlWOhuD with the- middio stratum chalky- 
white, opakn (not hyaline), tin town OonMptacalif stratum thin 
black; gelatins hymenca candescent with iodii 
On niicaceo-schistose maritime rocks, rare. 1868. 

Bn :— Nyl i» H«« 1868. p. t"3. Crombic En. 06. 

i ..! ■■-. -Suropa. 
B i P*n i • 

SOpVUSPi- l'lirtl.-Llioii, Kliii-iuclino. Hn: J. .If. Orumtit, 

Walks; DolgelJcy. Dr. //..;/. 

i. L. littiophila anil systematically near /* phrttmt. "Spore* 
.000— .017 dud. I i. v./. i V. M. Irta I 

Scand. 4St. coniMcrt tbia to bo » form of L. lithophita. (Aeh. ) 

140. L. intrrludent, N j l. uhltiA & «iimwin mkitt, thin, 
loto-areolate, areola plans, minutely irrml'/nf, nigro-limitutc, (K pale 
tawny C — ) ; apolhecia black, superficial, sessile , rather large, 
somewhat plano-convex, itnnuiroinate or triti 

thalline margin, internally colourless; paraphyaea slender. db 1 
elarate and fuscous at the Moot*; sporea B, eotourloas, oBi] 
■iniple; gelutiua hjaMBM Hue. «fter\v;:r<i. -In- entire thretu 
vinous or violot-rod. 
On calcareous alpine- rocks, rare. 1869. 

3r» l- Hji in Flora 1870. \x S3. Crombio In Seem. Journ. Dot. 8. 98. 

Qtoo. Dirthm:— Kuropt. 

BOT. Phov :— IB. 

SOOXLAVD :— Morrono! Braeinar. Km, J. M. Vromtne. [I860.) 

l*roa)ly tiniilor to A. mollis, which htm i i Iim the areolre minutely albo- 
vorrucoee : and differ* from L. Xoahitma, which OSI ■ iimiiM-culouiwd thalliM 
juiil innate apothtxiu. " Spore* .010-12 nun. long. .006—8 mm. broad." [Xft.) 

141. L. nigrificant, Nyl. h/ackuh, opake, thin, rugulote, areolato- 

rimose, areola flat ; apolhecia black; jilanc. subpromineni i -inate, 

MJUWm within; hypotlk'ciuiii OolOtU ;.:thei:umi grcenub- 



black ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple; paraphysos ditthi i. 
moderate; gchitina bjSMQCC I v;ti. ms rcLlinli. 

On dry argillaceous schistose maritime rook*, ram. 187$. 

Stx :-Nyl, it. Klora ISTfi. p. 307. 

Bar. Paov;-2«. 

Iiu:hvi. : Smith Ma i ,1 Killery I'.av, (.'tninAmara. Mr. Larhalatitr. (187fi.) 

" Sj>orc» .011— 12 mm. long, .000—7 mm. brad Bttoagl probably to tbe 
ncotlon of Ij. eon/uiutn. Nyl. Tin- thtlhn entirely green within, margin uf 
■potbtalt xniiirtimiw cjerio-wiffuned." (Nut.) 

142. LJtttec-<tfra,Ny].dir(y-ystlo>"i>/),xiumitc\y areMata-difraet, 
the dark hypothallu^ apponriuo ln't.woon tha areola?, areola- dirtii- 
yellowish, plane, more or lets dispersed, (K — C pale-yellow) : »/■■■ 
theda black, one or tw. innnl. in rack areola, pin itfl ; 
hypotheciura coloml. aioa> pale, paraphyseii diHtiiict, 
oonmmit, agncsa bmraidHiigiioutl j Hpr-iv* s, rni.iurl<;*g, linowi- 
oblong, simple. 

On alpine rock*, rare. 

Bor. Puov :— 15. 

ScoTLAXT) :— Morrone I Braemar. Rev. J. M. Crombie. 

Sporei .012— .013 mm. I»ng, .00;V> mm. 

j\ ifypotheciitm dunk 

143. Z. fiuco-alra, Aeh. fuscous or chestnut rot an r/d or fitsco- 
ieani or lurido-einerascent, areolate, amlir gibboso-convex or 

/>/((«<■, smooth and shining ( K yellow (' red); apothecia appressed, 

plane or convex, scattered or. flu rat, Mark, naked or tometimoi, margin thin : hypothecium thick, black; thalamium thin ; 
•pare* 8, cil ii old, Min|'k', mall. 

'• Spore* .010-10 long, .005—7 mm. broad. " 
long, .005 — 7 mm. brood. Spermatia cylindri< 
1*1. '• [T. it. Frit*.) $\*>tw .011— .013 long, .0055-OOfi mm. broad. 

_ " Spore* .010—15 mm. 
Spermatia cylindrical. »traight. I blu* thuti violet or 

fOROa gibba, Wahl. ehcstnut-colounid, areola: gibboso-conwx, and shilling. 

On Alpine and mountain rocks, not common. 

Stic :-\Vnlnb. Fl. Lapp. 473. (1*12.) Ach. Syn. 12. 

Fia :— Hffm. PI 1Mb. i. H t 1. a. 

-Lolght. 215. 239. An ,390. 

Gboo. Pmtub: Sweden, Italy. 

Bor. Pitov :— 6...7.. 15 1» 30. 

ExoLaND:— Haughraond Hill! Long Myml ! Abdon Burf ! Ca*r Caradoe ! 

80OTl,ANn :— Ben Lawen ; aMOCMI <-'r»i|T Tulloch ; Hill of Ar.lo. Rer. 
J. M. Vrombic. 

iKKI-ASn : — Near Belfnut. Mr. TV/npMmi. Dunkerroo. Dr. " itti of 

Inland. Miss Uutehint. 

Wai.kj :— Craig Ad*ryn 1 near Tnwyn. 

fonatk/umota, Ach. pallido-futccscent, areola to- difracf., areola- Jlat, 
or slightly concave, angular, the edget raited up into a very thin 
sharp margin, smooth and ■hilling, (K vcllowC red); npotkeaa 

, l'1-.oif, ic ir continent, margined, 

On mountain rocks and stones, cotr.mon. 

St* .— Aoh. Syn. 12. (1817 ) Nyl. Stand. 230. 

Em s-Ldgjit. 216. 30*. Zw. 138. Soh«r. «0. M. k N. ML Am. m. And 

■29 1 


Gsog. Dibtrib :— Hungary, Switierlond, Bavaria, Italy, Norway. 

Bor. Pnov: 5, 0.7 io, ii.. ir. :;;. 

Eholahd :— Near Newcastle I Teesdale 1 Mr. RobrrUon. Craigforda ! 
OtwMtry, Shrop«hire. Rte. T. Salmy. Clifln t - ! Ayton '.!. "t ! dryland. Mi. 
tludd. Long llnd! Hodlmry Ki»k ! "tar I'linn-h Stretton : Vffin. : 
llaiighmond Hill I Shropshire. 

8eOTI-iin>:-Portltth»ii,*. Ktr. J. M. Or* 

Walib .— Cor»ygedol I nr«r Barmouth. Iter. T. Satiny. Cupel Curig! Mr. 
Borrtr. Moel Siabod ! Mr. Hotmei. Anftleaea I tin: Hu<jh thti,n. I'cn-mMu- 
mawriCader Idri»! Barmouth! (Mb <Whl Snowdou. Glyn ! near Capri 
Curia ; Drwiynant ! Ben-y-rbiw ! Newport Road ! Fort Hill ! near Fishguard, 

Ciiakxel Iblabuh;— Noirmont, Jersey. Mr. LariatmHtr. 

forma Mcm'yii, Acli. areolar pallido-fusccsccnt, and like thoee 

), 1. 

of i. fimota, (K yellow C red), hut npothecia innatt, plane, catio- 

On maritime rocks, rare. 

Stk :— L. ftimam tar. Moiigii, Ach. Syn. 12. (1H17.) Nyl. Sc*nd. 230. 
Exn :-Zw. 1ST. 

Croo. Dwtkib :— Sweden, Italy. 
BOT, ProV:— 6, "...2«. 

Ihxlasd !— River Dawroa I Doughruagh Mountain! oo. Galway. Mr. 
Watzs :— Barmouth ! Builtli I 

forma yriiella, Flk. luridocinrifumif cv lurido-whilith, areola; 
plane or rugose-tumid, (K yellow C red) ; apothecia npprwBO- 
irmitte, margined, often pruinose. 

On mountain rocks, rare. 

8r»:— 8ch»r. Kmim. 110. (1800.) Nyl. Scand. 230. b, diaMtm, ! Km. K. Hot 

In :— Ann It. K. 887, An/.i LaasoE 110. Bobwr. 885, K..,rb. 282. MnddlSi 

GxOO. DramiB :— Sweden, Italy, Switwrlond, Lombardy, Bavaria, Pyrtneca, 

B©T.Piiov:-*..7 9 U...18 '!«. 31. 

EmulaXI) :— Yaw How, Coninton Water, I^ncaahlr*. Mr. ITailstnne. Purhiiiu. 
Rte. J. Barriman Lyth HillJ Middle! Hitughmond UU1 1 Shropshire. 

8cOTr.ANn : — Grampian!. Kincardine, Jilt: J. M. Crombfc. 

Ikki.a.mi :— Lough Peach ! Mr. Lartmlistiir. 

Wai.ei :— Trefriw ! and Llyn Geirionydd I Cwm Bochlwyd ! 

Chahhrl Islands :— Noirmont, Jersey. Mr. Ixtrtn/ettier. 

forma meiospcrita, Nyl. %cMti*A or albidu-eineratttnl, ritnoto- 
diffract ; npothecia plane or convex, cerio-pruinoNC. 
On rocks and boulders, not unfrequent. 1878. 

Sts :-Nyl- in Plot* 187«, p. 280. 
Gl>>0. IhrrrKm :- Franc*. 
Bor. Paov :— 15 . 2i;. 

SoOTf-AXO x—Rtv. J. M. Crombie. 
IaCLaXn : — ConnemaTB. Mr. Larbaliitier. 

forma deusla, Stenh. /usco-nipriamt, areolato-diflract, (K yellow 
On alpine rocks, rare, 

STS :- Fr. Bobd. Oil. 1 )■ B. (1KW.) Nyl. Scaml. 239. 
Bxa r- film i0f>. Lefghl. 240. Zw. 538. 
Csoo. Distbib : Sweden. 
BOT. P«"-..:-. r . 7. 15. 

i aM> • Haiighmond Hill ! Wrekin IliU ! liong Mynd ! Sbm|iahir*, 
?*1>TI.AXI> I — Grain(>ian», AVi. J. .1/. OrxmMt, ;— >Ioel-y Golfa ! Montgomcryihire. 

144. L. lactea, (Klk.) t/elloie-uhilM or ciiurascent, thin, smooth, 
rimoso-areolato^liffracl, areolae plane, (K yellon then deep orange- 
rod) ; apolhecia blade, numerous, scattered or aggregate, plane, 
innate, noted or pruinasc, internallff-cineratcent, margin thin, entire 
or fleniosc ; hypotheeinm dark-niaro-fuscous ; spores 8, colourless, 
ellipsoid, simple ; paraphyses distinct. 
On mountain granitic rocks, rare. 

Stx r-Fllc In 3ch»r. Srdcil. 127. (1812.) NyL Scand. 280. /,. itnMpui, Kr. 
L S. Em. 407. M.i.l.l Man. 206. 

Exg s-Sduer. 170. Zw. 20. Ana Longob. 157. Loight. 301. And lul. S. 271. 
270. Am. 470. 

Oeoo. Dimtbib :— Switzerland, Pyrcneee, Sweden, Tyrol 

Bor. Pbot.— 5 ,7, in U N, 

Kxoland :— Think, Yorkshire. Mr. Baker. Mytton Bach! Stipentonn, 

SooTLAxn ;— Ben Lawer*. Adm. Jme*. Momma and Glen Deo, Braemar ; 
Felln of Tummell. Blair Athole. iter. J. if. Cromhit. 

Ireland :— Limerick. Arlm. Jones. 

Walks :— Ca|)e1 Curie! Mr. Borrcr. Barmouth! Glyder Vach ! Llanheria 
ascent of Snowdon ! Conway! Fcn-maen-mawr! CrlbCnch! Snowdon ; Urn 
Cwlvd ! Girder Vach I Cwm Cywion I Cwm Bocblwyd ! Pkm of LUnbeni ! 
Trefriw! Llyn Gcirionydd ! Craig Adcryn ! Moel Siahnd ! Own Kf>nuon 
Lloer ! Cwm GUe I 

"Sporea.OlS— 15 mm. long, .006 mm. broad. I blue." (AW.) "Sporae 
.002S in. long, by .001 in. broad." (JfwML] Bpom .01— .0125 mm. long, 
.0055 mm. broad. The apothecia by exceanro confluence appear often aa 
gyroee. The moat general colour uf the thallua ia yellow-whitish nr ndlnwiah 
cream-colour, the grey cineraecent thallua in lraa frequent, and the cmio- 
pruinoee state of the apotbecia rather rare. Tho chemical reaction la the 
confirmatory character in all the states. 

145. L. nitida, (Schser.) oliviceo-fuscoH*, crustaceous, nigro- 
limitate, areolato-diffeact, areola shining, fiat and dispersed in some 
states, eoneave, margins uplm-it'd, whitish and sub-pulverulent, (K — 
C — ) ; hypothallus black, often predominating : apothecia Mack, ut 
first innate in the. areola:, eventually superjia:il :md sessile, plane, 
solitary or confluent, margin thin, prominent, entire or flexuoee ; 
hypothecium nigro-fuscous ; aporcs K, colourless, ellipsoid, simple. 

On alpine and maritime rocks, not unfrequeut 1856. 

8tn :— £. futiuan txir. ntfu&i. Schicr. Enum. 110. (1880.) 

Flo :— Hoffm. PI. L. t 4fl. fig. 2. a. 6. Hepp Htmren t. 15. f. 131. 

Exa:— Hepp 131. Ami Langob. 84. A. 85. Leight. 278. I status hypothsllo 

Geoo. Dwtkib : — Europe. 

Bot. Paov:— 7...2S. 

Wales :— Barmouth ! (1856.1 Glyder Vach 1 Pan of LUnberia ! Snowdon : 
Cwm Tryfaen ! Llyn Cwlyd ! Crib Coch, Snowdon 1 Cwm Ffynnon Doer I 
Cwm Ffynnon Llugwy I 

Ireland :— Summit of Doughruogh Mountain I eo. Galway. Mr. Larbalatirr, 

Approaching L. 'uteo-etra mr. JeusUt in external appearance but with diffe- 
rent reaction. 

146. L. sub-Kochiana, NyL cinereous, crustaceous, thin, nigro- 
limitate, areolato-diffract, areola plain, (K—C — ) ; apothecia black, 
numerous, scattered, innate, or innato-sessUe, plane, margin, .sometimes slightly paler; hypothecium thick, nigro-fuscotu; 
spores 1% colourless, ellipsoid, simple, (siao of those of L./nxoatra.) 

On sub-alpine rocks, not common. 1884. 



Stk --L. UmOaU f. *u6-AVAmm.t. Xyl. in FIor» IHU!>. p. S3. Scand. p. 

Gaoo. DiBTBiB :— Sweden, tiamiauy, Italy. 

Borr. Pboys-7.. 15...28. 

SCOTLAND ;— Kincardine, tltv. J. M 

Wwb :— Moely-Golfa ! Mnntgonieryabir*. (1861.) rcn-maan-Mawr ! Car- 
nanronahire. C>win ("ywiim! I'™ Boehlwyd ! 

Ikklasd .— Kylemore Ca*t . 'alrttier. 

I Uk# L.fiuoalra tar.ffrtMclhi, but dutinguiahcd by <lin"«r»nt reaction, which 
alao »p«r>l« it from /.. latrllnla. In which alto the areolae are convex. S|»ir 
.OH nun. long, .00© mm. broad. 

147. L eontiguella, Nyl. whitith, thin, areolato-rimote, rurroundcl 
at the circumference by a block hypolkalttu, (K — ) ; apothecia black, 
adnate, plane, margined, concolorotu within ; hypothenutn brotem ; 
spores 8, colourless, oblong, »iiiijilc : epithecium dark-llui*h ; para- 

M.-8 moderate; gclatina hymonoa 1. bluish, then vinous- 

On qaftrtaOM boulders, rare. 1872. 

Srsi-Nyl. in Flora 1873. p. 289— S00. 

Hot. |-i...v : !.,. 

Scotlamd :— Morrone, Rr." /■ -V. Crombie. (1872.) 

Dfftn a* above from L. lacUa, Flk. Sporea .011— 1A mm. long, .0045— W 
mm. broad," (Ayf.) 

148. L. scutulata, Strn. palecrrvino-nifescmt, thinnish, armlatfr 
diffract, areolae plan* or trmwehat convex, (K — C — ) ; apothceia 

/usco-nirfricant or black, rather large, innate, or sometimes slightly 
otr.frw-d and elevate, margin thin ; hypothec! um thick, fuscovs- 
blacJc ; epithrcium concave; urlcM, ellipsoid. Bil 

largo ; pnraphyxes | itaOMOtnt ; udatmu hyineuea 

L ooBrulesoont, then tha middMofUu a viuoso-fiilvoscent. 

the upper portion remaining cmrulcsccnt. 
On alpine rocks, rare. 1874. 

Srx .— Stirton in Ur*rill«a3. I'- 8*. (1K74.I 
Ben Lawera. Dr. Stirton. I 

" I'loeely allied to L-pamteta, (Ach.k 1ml mill iliflVn'iit reaction and without 
th« characteriiitlc reddiah ocphalodia. Sporea .034—.082 mm. long, .012- .015 
mm. bToad." (Strin.) 

149. /.. corollidia, Strtn. pale, or pallida^intreout, somewhat 
thick, diffracto-areolttU, somewhat plane, (K yellow then rod) ; 
apothecia black, adnate, large, piano, rugose, sometimes catio^truinose, 
margin obtuse, fiexuvtt or sinuote ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, 
simple ; paraphyses pellucid, Indiftmot, aploca nMcesoeat ; hyjnthe- 
cium thick, fxocout-black ; gclatina hynuiu;i I intfllTIW Mint 

On rocks, rare. 1875. 

Bo :-Stirton in Trana. Glasgow 800. Nat p. 8S. (1H7B.) 
But. FBOTt—lT. 

1 UTS .— Thurao, Calthncaa. Dr. Stirton. i 
'Sporae .01*— .02 mm. long, .008— .011 mm. broad. Beautiful adcoUt 
cryatala .018— .OH mm. long, .<W2 mm. broad, am formed by the action of K en 
the llialliM and aubh vmental apace*. At lint a clear aulution of a 71 
appear* and thereafter stellate groupa of tbeac reddiih vryiUla. Perhera a 
1 1 n uf L. Moottana." (Strtn.) 

*••«••♦ Thalltts continuous, rimulose, plant. 

\ IlypoUutiim pale. 

180. L. Taylori, (Salw.) creamy or broumuh-white, tartareotn, 

thickish, effuse, mooth, rimulwo-dif met, (K docp yellow C — ) ; 



apotkeeia ftuco-ruftscent, immersed or ■//<,,,,,,', uumorous, scat- 
tered, plane or plano-cwnvj; margin thin, entire or imruarginatc ; 
hypolhecium paU-j/eiUncith-broim, prolonged downward* in(>, 
t hallos ; sport* 8, colourless, elliptical, or elongato-cllipti oal, I 
limply granulate; paraphysea distil. r*hat con^lutinate, 

On mountain rocks, not common. 1814. 

Bw.—Bialam Taulori, 8alw. in Tran». Fenianc* Nat. Hut Soc. 1853. p. 
M4. JVcfcteo, Mudd Mm. 199. «*»«»«• anomaly, Teyl. Fl. Hi!., 1 79. 
fArvIn U, ii. U3. Cromblo Enum. 60. 

E. Bot. 2580. 

-■.eight. 383. Ami. Etr. 28. Ami Venct. CO. 
), Dbtkib :— Fraue*. Iuljr. 

Bot. Pnov .--1 . , 1 .26. 

BMUJTD ; .f .-. ■■■ ■■ -i« • I ■ ". 1/Ym -*«i«xxf. Torrmay. />r. THakin. Gulval Cairn! 
Feasance. Ken. T. Salmy. Bolt H-iwI, Devon. Dr. /To//. Plymouth. Mr. Hrimr*. 
8W0l Valley ! long Mynd near Church Stretton, Craigforda I Shropshire. 

IhzLasu :— BUckwater «>. Kerrv. Dr. T.mlnr. <!l*ii» and Glen Fink n«ar 
Killerucy. .Sir T. Oaoc (1814.) near Tolly ! Dawroa river! on. <;*lwey. Mr. 

Waum:— Barmouth. Rev. T. Saluxy. Cwxa Bychaa. Mr. Berrtr. Cader 
Mri»! tlrvat Orme'a Head! River Gwaino! Guodwick Bay I near Fiihguord, 

"8porea .0025— .003 in. long. by. OOlin. broad." (.Wu,IJ.) " Spore. .018— 
23 m>n. long, .008— .010 mm. broad." Ufftl Si> .015— .019 mm. long, 
.0065— .007 mm. brood, frequently filled with cnhuirical globule* or granule*. 

Sperinogonu numervua, acnttored, brown lab, nir.-.d. S|>«nnatia cylindrical, 

«toee«lin(fly«lender an<l il»licat«, Tariiiiif] (ielatina hymenea I blniah, 

then fiileeecut. l'.%- Ipxhva lateral, brown extern.... 

151. L. Uiotta, NyL fuscous or grisco-nigritaitt, thin, varnuked, 
smooth, determinate, QQBtniUOm obtolttely rimtdosr ; apod* 
blaei, plane, obtusoly margined or margin in- 1 i: ttfrx -r, adnate : 
hiiftothrcium colourless; spores 8. colourlesa, <illipsoideo-obl< 
nimplo ; pnniphym-s mod-. 1*1 ••, tliicker at the- fuscescent apiocs tad 
there gcuonuly Hoptftto-articulate ; gnlatina hymoueu slightly 

On sub-alpino basaltic- rocks, rare. 1667. 

Sts :-Nyl. It. Rm 1MB. p. 828. Cromble En. 86. 

(ixoo. Damn i Barm. 

Bot. Frov:— 7 IS. 

Iaat.A9iu :— Orogham ! KiUamey. Mr. Carroll. (1867.) 


'Spore* .008— .011 mm. long, .008—7 mm. broad. Spermatin 
MHUi .00* mm. long, .0015 mm. broad.'' (Aty.) Spoma .012 mm. lung, .006 
mm. broad. A*ct linear, •porta in tingle aerie*. 

152. L. amea, (Duf.) eervinofuscrttxnt, somewhat rftinhxg, 
rimoto-areolate or verrucoso-arcolale, (K. yellow C — ) ; apotkeeia 
fuscous-black, adnate, internally whitish, often rimulosr ; spores 8, 
colourless, obloogo-tiUipsuid, simple ; hypotlicciurn colourless j para- 
phyaos cohn.TiMit, iplcee totem um 

On quartzotw bouldeni, raru. 187*2. 

Stx :— NyL Fredr. 131. (1857.) Crombie in Joan. Bot. n. a, 2. 135. Pamtlki, 
Fn. L. E. 108. 
!•:••. : \nri Langob. 111. 
GBOO. Diamni :— Pyroneea, Sweden. Norway. 
Bot. Piiov i— 15. 
SOOTLAICD :— Near rammit of Morrone, Bracmar. Ktf. J. M. Crvmhie. (1872.) 



"Sp..i. .HI ; w, .(KI.V-7 mm. broad. Som*wh»l Hk« & 6«««." 

(JTW-) "Sporai .010—15 mm. long. .005-* mm. broad. Speresatia 
adcrilar, curvttl." IT. M. Frio.) 

153. /,. icmipallnu, Nyl. dirty-whitish, or (xlbido-glawOHf , 
rimu/osr ; gpoU uew livid Of in part pallescent, convex, imtt 

mally colourless; epithi N nam and hypothecium eolourleaa; 

spores H, colourless, shortly ellipsoid, minute, simple ; paraphyaea 

indistinct : ^elatiua hymonea I Tinoso-fulvo-rubeacent. 

On ijuiirtzoKi' rocks, rare. 1876 

Sis : — NyL in Flora 1876. p, 234. 

Bot. Pnov >— 28. 

IBXLAXT) :— I/ouifh iiiagh, Kylomore rirBr, Connemara. Ur. batixtlutirr. 


"Sporee .006—9 mm. long, .0035— .0045 mm. broad." (iv>/.) 

154. L. ionfusior, Nyl. dark-gregisk, rimoso-areolate, inde- 
terminate ; apothecia black, convex, immarginate, when young piano, 
obsolete!}- margined, white within ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid 
■ ■r oblong, simple; paraphyses thickish, not very well discrote, 
blackish at the apices ; hypot.hci iinn rolourlcss ; gelatina hymeuea 
I nitrii.M'lv bluish aad then vinous-red. 

On micaceous rocks, in alpine places. 1874. 

St* :-Nyl. In Flora 187*. pp. 305—518. 
Bot. Pnov :— 16. 

HcoTLAsn :- Craig Tulloch, Blair Allinl*. Rev. J. M. Cmnbit. (1874.) 
" Allied to L confutula, Nyl. but diffenng in character of thalliu and apofw. 
S|Kirm Q.01C— 17 mm. long, 0.004—6 mm. broad." (Kyi.) 

IM. L. restricta, Strtn. »igro-cinereoiu, rugose, thin; apo- 
thecia black, adnate, small, p ft MH j obtusrhi margined ; spore 
colourless, ellipsoid, binncleate, simple ; thecal saccate ; paruphysrw 
distinct, filiform, thick ; epithecium fuscescent, rosy-purplt with 
nitric acid; hypothecium colourless; gelatina hymenea I blue 
thou fulvesceut, especially the theott. 
On rocks, rare. 1875. 

Bn :-Stirton in Tranv G1m«ow Soc. Nat. p. 88. (187G.) 
Bot, \'KnX : r. 

Scotlam) :— BUir Atholo. Dr. Stirton. [1876.) 
"Bpom.013— .017 mm. long, .008— .01 mm. broad." (Strtn.) 

156. /-. Breadalbanensis, Strtn. black or fuscous-black, thin, 

somewhat rngulott ; apothecia black or /u.icoiu-lilack, mall, convex, 

rugose, immarginate, often conglomerate, internally pale or rather 

IHillido-rufetcenl ; spores 4 — 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple, with a 

Ut epispore ; ptnnhjMa lii'lmtinct, conglutinate, apices rufo- 

PMent ; hypothecium pule, or In a thin section under a lens 

rufous ; gelatina hymenca 1 iuteuse-blue. 

On mosses and jungcrmanniie, rare- 1875. 

Bn :-MrttH tn Trana. Glaagow Soc Mat p. 8f, I1H7J.) 

But. Phot :— 16. 

Seoruixn : - Ben Lawort. Dr. Sttrton. (1878.) 

"Bpona .018. -.OSS (rawly .026) mm. long, .011—014 mm. broad. Allied to 
L. TornBeiui*. Nyl. K rcvoali tho paraphyaea m alendcr, ■omewfcat irregular 
tomda." {Strtn.) 

167. A. Hrnrica, Larhal. ichilr, t*rt»rcou\ thin, continuous* 
smooth, slightly rimulosc. (K yellow C yollow) ; apothecia pale' 



yelloio-carneous, scattered, sessile, somewhat plane, with obtuse or 
obsolete margin, or convex, subimmarginate, (K — ) ; hypothecium 
colourless, lateral exci/mlum pale, slightly dusky externally ; parn- 
phjSOS distinct, t.hirk, ApicM Milourk-sm ; tpores 4 — 6 or 8, colour- 
less, oblong nr t'llijisniil ar I'li.sit'ipnui-.'llipnoid, simple, small; gclu- 
hymenca I blue then fulvesccnt. 
On rocks in mountain streams, very rare. 1877. 

Sts .•— NyL in Flore 1877. p. M3. 

Hot. Pbov :— 2fi. 

Ihklam< : — Near Kylemore! co. Galway. Mr. Larbalestier. (1877.) 

" Sporon .015— 20 iniii. Imig, .0OS— 7 mm. brood. Sperraotla arcuate .018— 
22 mm. Ions, .0006 mm. brood." (Nyl.) 8pore» .Ul— .011 mm. long, .005 mm. 

1 1 Ilypothe.ciitm dark. 

158. L. cotUigita, Fr. greyish-white or even creamy, tart*reou» 
or thin, contiguous or areoUtte, areola; plane, smooth or rugose, 
hypothallus black ; apothecia arising from the thallus, sessile, plane 
or convex, roughish, tiuirgin thick, prominent and obtuse; hypothe- 
cium thick, blackish-brmon ; thalamium white ; spores 8, colourless, 
oblong, largo, simpl«\ 

forma limitata, Loight bluish-grey, thin, contiguous, smooth, 
limited by black hypotliatlus ; apothecia moderate, sessile, plane or 
plano-convex, with pale or blackish-brown pruina. 

On rocks, common. 

St»:— L. omtvjva, a, a. Kris* L. Kur. 298. In part (1«31.) »xcl. oyn. 

Kxs :— triuht 155. Nyl. Pvr Or. 44. 

Om. Dibtkib :— Europe. Koatera Pvrenect. 

Hot. I'UOV: -1,2, H Ti 7...I0 IS, 111 SL 

EnuLANH :— SuMazI Mr. Borrer. Fnirlight, H»ting>; l>ilh Hill; Mon- 
mouth. Mr. W. Jotkua. Lanbrongh-rlgg ! Coelcahaw near Ayton ! Yorkshire. 
Mr. Mudd. Torn of Dartimmr ; Kxit.r; Diirtiinmtli, Drvmi. Mr. ParlM. 
Tiptree Heath, Esuex. Mr. Varennt. Plymouth. Mr. Holmes. Abdon Hurt! 
Hanghuinnd Hill ! Smiitlwy IJuarriiw ! near Hopa llowitUr ! Shropshire : 
Wapley Hill I Herefordshire. 

800TLANU :— I larrrnahln*, Lewi* ; StennU, Orkney. Dr. Lindsay. 

Iiiklasii ;— Near Cork ! Mr. Carroll. 

Walkb:— Fenmaen-Mawr! Camarvoiumlrc : between Corwan ud Bala ! 
Uyn-y-Oa*! Coder Jdrio. 

Chakkkl Imi. vsm : I'mBmra on all the Island*. Mr. Larbalestier. 

"Spur™ .011! 25 lung, .00H-.012 mm. broad." (Kyi.) "SpOTM .004— 
.00-120 in. long, bv .0015-.002 in. broad. Spermatic. straight, rylindrical. " 
(Mudd.) Spore* .022-.U235 mm. long, .011— .012mm. broad. 

forma platycarjMi, Kr. greyish-white, diffuse, thin, at length 
evanescent ; a/tot hecia very large, fiat and expanded ; margin paler. 
On rocks, common. 

Syk :-Friei L. Eur. 300. (1831.) Nyl. Soand. 294. 

KM :— MawxJ- Klo. fig. 12ft. Aeh. E. U. L 2. 1. 5. 

Eis:— Zw. 18. 4M. Nyl. 141. Fellm. 1S4. 188. 

QflOO, 1 )isTRin :-^Gerro»ny, Pyreneea, Switzerland, E. Lapland. IUly, 
Hungary, France, N. /calami. 

Hot. Pnov.— 5. 7. .10. .15.. (19-30). ..26. 

-Ludlow. Mr. Jnthtui. Haughmonil Hill! Abdon Hurl! Ixmg 
Mynil I Shropshire. 

I kki.ami .-—On Mountain*. Mr. Carroll. Doughruagh Mountain ! 00. Galway. 
Mr. Larbalestier 



Walh :— Aberdovey I ftv. .d. Bloiam. Pon-ygwyrd ! Bflwyaew 

rock*! near Llangollen: Crib Coeh I Naot-Gwrnai i.'n; Barmouth ! 

Mowl-y-llulf* ! DrwnrnMll Aran Mowddy ! Cwm Ffynnon Ungwy ! tlan 
Craig ! Coder Idria. Moel y-geat ! 

"Spore* .018 21 mm. long, .00S-.012 mm. broad." (Jtjrf.) Sport* .016— 
.024 mm. Ionic .010— .013 mm. bro*d. 

firma steriza, Ach. similar generallr to platyearpa but with 
ttMar apothecia. 
On rooks, common 

Stn :-Aoh. L. U. 17-1. Nrl. Soaod. 331. 

Em : And It. 8. 288. SoW. 628. Kjt Pyr. Or. i5. Mudcl 

U«08. I»OTRlH :-8w*d«n, K. Pyrenees, Italy, Switzerland, Hungary. 

Bor. 1-iii.v : 7...10...16...-J-. ^' 

i \rtn :— Ayton ! Mr. M 
Scutlamo :— Amulreo ! Fortii'liire. Dr. Liiuttay. 
Im.-i.anu: Kylomore! Mr. l*trlalutitr. 
Walk* ; — Bannuutli ! Aran Mowddy I Eplwyaeg rock* ! 
" Sporai .020 -22 mm. long. .007-* mm. broad." (IfyL) Spore* .010 mo. 
Jong, .0105 mm. broad. 

form* hydrophila, Fr. milky or cintmsctnt, very thin, smooth, 
continuous or rimo*e or dispersed; apothecia tumid and con v. t, 

On water-washed rocks, frequent 

8TK :-Frica L. Enr. 301. (1831.) 

GkuO. DMTRIR :— Swadan. 

Bot. I 19... 36. 

Ihuavd:— N«ar Cork. Mr. Carroll. Douglirmitfri Mountain ! co. CJal way ! 
Mr. lAirbalalitr. 

Walbi:— Nant Gwynant! Aran Mou-ddwy ! Mint | |ft I 

S|*.ree.0195— .025miu. lung, .008— 0095 mm. brood. 

forma leprosa, Loight dirty-paU-brottn, scurfy or Upi-or, m round 
patent*, thin, mnmltly verrucotei apothecia Miudl, MilKttneatrru-, 
au*-iflvw««/, plane or convex, margin paler. 

On crumbly loft rocks and stone*, coounou 

In :— Leight. 1B6. 

OKM. Dibtuib :— France, Italy. 

Bot. Prov : 1, S, 3. .5.. .8. .10. 1" 

I.ASI):— Suatex I Mr. Borrcr. Penzance I Cornwall. Rrv. T. S-Utcry. 
Laiibraughrifg 1 Guiabro' Moor! Mr. Mudd. Chnlnuford ! K«w< ! Mr. Mggatt. 
CangentameT Leioeatarahlra. Rer. A. filnrom. Whitecllff Rock.. Ludlow. Mr. 
ir.Jn*ua.HauRfauiomlHin! Steeraway lima R.i.1, ' l.vih Hill' ShropahW 

Ir«uiK1> :- BalllnliaariK I Mc< iillicuddy'H Rocks I Kerry 1 MiiaheraghMcajat, 
eo.Coritl Mr. Osmll. 

Spore* .0165— .019 mm. long, .0085 mm. broad. 

form* calearea, Fr. creamy-while, tartarcous, ee.ntigvmts, smooth 
or rimtsiote or areolale, areola' slightly eOMW ; apolhecia rather 
■null, oppressed, plane or plano-convex. 

0a rocks, not Qnfrcqtunt. 

. -Fries L. Enr. Stt 11831.) ,.,<!. «yn. 

Kxm ;~And Venct. 170. Schar. 471. And It. S. 24T.. And Ungob. IK. 
Follm. 183. Mamlim 58. Am. 410. 

iiwta. IJutkib :— Switzerland, Pyrenee*. Italy. E. l.aplaini, f .ombardy. 

Bot. P«ov:-7. .10. 19. 

Kkuiaki> : llanki of Tee* near Middleton. Mr. ItoberUmt. 

IatLA-o ;— Ballvuran Wood, Kormov I naar Cork I Mr. Carroll. 

WtJM '■ -Cwmldwal ! Aran Mowddwy I Manorboci I ( « m rhunon Llugwy I 
Llyn Aran ! <Nrra Clyd 1 Cwm Cywlon ! Crib Cm h ! Cwm Ulaa ! 

&l*.ra« .02 mm. long, .01 mm. broad. 



fonua nobitis. Fr. 1 paU-athy-bluish-greg, very thick and 
. , areolate, areola? turgid and convex. ; apotktcia large, 
moro or lew convex and hemispherical, slightly pruinose, Margin 
frequently paler. 

On mountain rook*, froquc nt . 

Srs:— Fri«t L Kur. 301. CUHLt 

Km:— Madd 180. Am. 193. K.llio. 185. UichL 337. 

Okki. Dixtiiib :— Pyrenees, Italy. E. Lapland, Norway. 

BOX. PBOV r -6.-.7...10...14. 

Rjioiuxi) :— Cliffrics ! Clereland. Mr. Mudd. Coot Cat»<1.>.- I l.uimooa 
Hill I Wrekui ! P.>nU.f<.rd H1U ! Long Myndaod Bodbury Btogl iwar Church 
Stretton ! Shropshire. 

SoOTLAin): -PontUnd HU1«! Dr. Orenllt. 

Waum ;— Aber ! Digmiwy ' <':irii»rvnii»liir» ; Crafe Breiddcn* Montgomtry- 
•iiin- ; i>< iwoanlJangoTJaa .""ill Oorwenl KatlBUoa! BtowdoBl Bwnooul 

Arm Mow.lilwy ' Cwm I'fvniMffl Ijlngwy ! Cad 
Sporca .019 mm. long, .015 mm. brawl 

forma Ifofmanni, Lcight. ifirtjWWI i»fow , thick, tartaroous, 
rimulosoareolato diffract, areola flallUk ; apothtci* largo, ««<>- 
«»»<!/< or scsvile, flat or convex. 

On rocks rare. 

Bo —VtrruMria eantigua. Hoffm. PL G«rm. 2. IM. (1798.) 
IV.: Hoffa. PL Well. t. 02. 
Gtaoo- l'lMiiiii - Europe. 
BOT. Pltov ;— 2. 7 VX 

NC ! A/>. B.irrrr. 
latum :— Muaharagh Mount ! eo. Cork. Mr. Carroll. 
Waucs: -Omn Idw»l ! 
Hporaa .02 mm. Ion;, .011 mm. broad. 

1 inna fiavieunda, Ach. rusty-red, thick, tartareouit, areolate, 
aroolmjJat ; apothecia large, appressod, black, flat or pluno-oonvcx, 
moro or 1cm nlbo-priimose. 

On rocks, frequent. 

Syx .—Ach. L. U. 168. (1810.) Sya. 23. NyL Sound. 234. 

Fiq — Maa«. Ric. fiB. 1 6, 

Km :-Zw. 16. 17. Sohirr. ISA. Ann! V*n«t. 17-1. 

Gaoo. PwTaiB :— lUl.v, lVro" 00 *. Tyrol. Switzerland, Sweden, Finland. 

Bot. Pnov :-» ...7...15 „V6. 

i :— Tittontono Cl<* Hill ! Shropshire. Btv. T. Satiety. Brown H. • 
Hill: Bbropahir*. 

Sootlasii, '■ Bnwmar; Amulreo ! Perthahire. Dr. /.ijkImv. 

WaIM :->«■"! I Mr. Bomr.Uj, lor Idnal 

Barmouth! very lummit "I Hnowioonl Moal Kiabod ! lVnyiwryd ! Crib 
Uocb ! Nant Qwrnant ! Snowdon. Cwm Tryfaon : Cwm Bochlwyd ! i 
Ffynnon lloer 1 I.lyn Cwlyd ! 

Iiui-axo:— Doughruagh MounUiti ' eo. Galway. Errill llivar! Mr. Lar- 

" Spore* .015-21 mm. long. .008— .011 mm. broad." {Nyl.) Sporca .Ctrl'— 
.023 mm. long, .011**— .012 mm. broad. 

forma aggrrai.i. \lmM greyish-brovm or grey, effuse, thin, sub- 
tartaroous, granuloso-rimosiyaretilale ; apothecia minute, numerous, 
aggregated, convex, imniarginau In i> .theciuxn black ; spores 8, 
colourless, oblong, simple. 

On rocks and walla, rare. 

8tk :-Mudd Man. 308. (1861.) 

Bib :-Mudd 175. 

Gkkj. DutuIr :— Europe. 

BOT. Prov:-3..7. 10, 



Exulasi) :— I*ntmragh-rigg and near Battcraby! Ctnvalanii. Mr. ,V 
(1881.) Kalvadun, K«.x. Afr. FeWUM 
WaLn:-CwmGlaal Snowdon. 

forma notabilis. NyL white or whitish, uncpially minnlrly gran*- 
lose or nearly Uprose, sometimes dispersed, s'/metimes acereulate «n«l 
then with iui MMOt almost of Stereocaulon condenntl- 
Homewhat prominent, plane (trachyte/id J, opakc, the margin sow-' 

On rocks, rare. 

Six :— Cromble In Saatn. Joiirn. Bot. 8. 98. Nyl. Jkand. SS5. 
But. Pnov .—16. 

SOOTLAXD :— Miitn>ne, Braeniar. IUr. J. M. Crombie. 
"Spore* .018-21 mm. long. .008-.010 mm broad." (X<il. J 

forma usnbonala, Leight. cineraeceut, thin, effuse ; apothecia 
large nnJ prominent U in /. pfafyMrJM, |il:ini' i'r r.mvex, centrally 
timhonaif, margin thin, prominent, lU-xuose. 

On snhalpinc rocks, frequent. 1854. 

Boii Pnov:— 6 .7. 

EnulaSU:— Brown C'liw Hill ! Hhmpuliirf. (18W.J 

Walk* :— Aberdovey ! Rev. A. ISloxam. Mod Siabod ! Mod y-GoU*! 

Spore* .0215 mm. ling, .011 mm. broad. 

forma mfw^JonT. Nyl. einerasctnt , thjn, aieolato-rinadosc ; apo- 
thecia black, moderate, plane, marinate, sliglrly glauco-pruinot* ; 
Inpothucium smaller ; spores smaller. 

On mbftlpBM rocks, not common. 1870. 

- Bn ! -Xyl. I,. Soand. 225. 
• Bot. Pnov :-7. 36. 

QBOO, DiSTBIB : — Finland, Bavaria, l'yrviiivn, N. Zealand 

InxLAKi) :— Ildphi, Killcry Bay, Connemara. Mr. £o*fad 

WaUtx -Cribi ucli : Snowdon. (1870.1 

"Spowa .011-10 mm. looir, .006-8 mm. broad." (Nyl.) .Sport* .015-17 
rum, long, .(K)l mm. broad. 

forma puslulata, Leight. yellowish-grey, ai-eolatorimulosc 
nigricanti-liruitate. artola pkmt with a central surtdtate protuber 

i' of whii utargtd into orbicular hemi*ph*i\ 

■ pressed tubereuUt in whieA are imbtddsd a ••ongiomcration of 
minute. mar>t'tntUr blade apothecia. 
On Mil alpine rocks, rare. 1866. 

Pnov:— 7. 
..wi-Caderldrli! (18M.) 
Sporei .02 mm. lorn/, .01 mm. broad. 

159. L. alumnula, RjL white, thin, in tublobatulatf insular 
patches (K — ); apothecia black, mbinnatt, plane, marginatc, and 
oftt* mbematt in tin MSltze, internally concolorous; paraphy 
indi.-.l ii hi , ;i pices fiiaaMiigricant ; /qjj>oth:diim and ejcipalttm /tuco- 
ttigricant ; Sfwrts S, cvlourlrss, ellipso'd, simple. 

Bait developed mi the thallus of Lexidea contu/ua on nick*, rare. 


Si I :-NyL In Flora 1870. p. 57«. 
Bot. Pkot ;— 26. 

[■EMIDB— Nat? Lctterfrack, Connemara. Mr. Lartialtsttr. |ls7ii.) 
"Sporaa .'■»>'■• Mi BOB, lomr. .COO-ii mm. bruad. OUlina hymen** 1 blu« 
Iheotbethecwirabvinoci-,* (.vy.) 



160 L. terubraiu, Nyl. leaden-greyish or dark leaden-coloured, 
smoothish, continuous, rimidote (medulla 1 partly bluish) ; apothecia 
Hack, large, scattered or aggregate, plane or aubeonvox, mm 
tliiu, prominent, eventually obliterated ; hypothetmim thick, black ; 
spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple, large ; gelatins hymenea tad 
thocre I persistently intense-blue. 

On subalpine micaceous schistose rocks, rare. 1876. 

8« :— NyL in Flore 1876. \<. 309. 
Bot. Paov :— 28. 

IuKi.Mti> :— Geuevebul ! and omumit of bnnghruagh Mountain (1800 feet) 
Galway. Mr. Larbaltlier. (1876.) 

161. L. albo-ctBrulttevM, (Wulf.) glaocouaor creamy white, opake, 
continuous, smooth, (K — C — ) ; apothecia closely appretted, plane, 
axsio^pruinose, margin thinniah, entire, more or lees flexuose ; 
hypothecium thickish, dark-brown -black ; spores 8, oolourlew, 
narrowly oblongo-elliptical, simple;, large. 

On rocks in mountainous districts, not common. 

St»:-Wulf. »i>- J*' : 'l- <'•'"• "-'• !»»• BW8.) A.:h. Syn. 29. axel. var. L, em- 
tinun par. allio-cirrvletaru, Nyl. Stand. 224. 

Kio :— Hoffm. PI Uch. t. 14. f. S. 

Kxs :— Zw. 129. B. Ami lL S. 16% 

Gtuo. Distnin : — Germany. Italy. Pyrenees. Hungary. Atwtria, Switzerland. 

Bot. Pbov :— 1. 3...7...10. .26. 

Km.lisd :— Gardrineton. Torbay. Mr. Purlin. l„itl, Hill, Surrey. Mr. W. 
Joshua. North Bnvey, Devon. Messrs. Jones d 1 Kingston. 

Ihxi.anu .— Kylemore ! Mr. Larbattttio: 

Wai.ix :— Tauybwleh wood, Capcl Ciiriif ! 

Not to be coiifouii'liul with L. Bjtiata, UTlEj irhlob ll similar in external 
appearance, but 
wetted bexxmim | 
sometimes i 

be coiiMiiimiKi mm i.. njuma, ■ riL.i hhutii im xnnilar m external 
e, but hue the apotli> .. i' and the epJthedum when 

comes pallido-rufcseent. The hypothecium i» sometime* interrupted, 
i oontinuoiu and variable in thickuoai. The dr.e of the spore* in, ':,. 

"Spore* .022—28 mm. long, .010—12 mm. broad. 
.007—10 mm. broad." 

(AV. | "Sporee. Oltl- 
(T. M. Frio.) Spores .03 -.0245 mm. 

one to consider that it may be a variety of L. contigua. 
22— 28 mm. long, .010—13 
ong. .007—10 
long, .008 — 9 nun. broad. 

Var. alpina, Schser. apothecia large, derated, teuilr, plane or 
timid, ciwtio-pruinose, margin thick, prominent, Huxuose ; spores 

■ ' "' ' ' >'.' 
On rocks, rare. 

Stm :-Schs5r. Knnm. 119. (1850.) 8pie. 143. Mudd Man. 211. 

Exs :-Zw. 129. A. Bsoar. 186. And It. 8. 2HS. 

Gkoo. DlsTRin :— Switzerland. Germany, Italy. 

Bot. Paov :— 31. 

OHiiffB Islarus :— Howl. Jersey. Mr. larbatestier. 

162. L. confluent, (WVbr.) dultsmoky-grey, tartareous, eon- 
tilUtevt or arnilalo-rimulott, smooth or slightly rugulosc, effuse or 
determinate, (K — C -i . h^pothallus black; apothecia nume- 
rous, crowded or Mattered, UUSO, confluent, oppressed or 
adnate, margin thin, slightly |>nm.:m:iit. flexuose ; disk plane, in 
ago couvex, of full-opaktMack, very smooth, toft and velvety ; hypo- 
thecium dense, nigro-fiucou* ; tlinlamium pale ; spores 8, colourless, 
ellipsoid, simple, small, half the sixo of those of L. contigua. 

On mountain rocks, not froqu- at 
Si* :-Wob. SpioU. 180. (1778.) Aon. Syn. 16. pro. p. Nyl. Scand. 225 



"8por«i .007—0 mm. Ions. .Otfi— 7 mm. broad. SjimnncimU commonly 
ir fariomtly lindlwfblU, with » uarrow oigricaiit rinu. Sjwt- 
matia hacilliform. rtmijrht or •lightly curved .007 12 mm. long-" ' T- M. /Via.) 
•' Sport* .009— .01.% mm. long, .005-7 mm. broad." (Ay.) 

forma lanigala, Leight tbaDua mooM, wf iiw w B i, rt>»«&«; 

opothtria largi, UpVUmtiJ, almoit imwt by jtixta- 

jiiiirjin thin, prominent, entire or ftexuoae. />o/<r titan tfae 
On mountains or subalpino rocks, not frequent. 

.-Web. Sjilc. t. % Honp. Sporen t. 15. f. 1SB. 
B» :-M. & N. 463. lower «|wcWn. Scbwr. 44*. H.pp 125. Zw. 131. A«o 

OK I'l -ii -Switzerland, Hungary, PyrWioea, Italy. 

M.r.. l'nuvi 1.2.3 .15. 

Kxuuxn: -Chudloigh Rockt, Devon. Mr. Porta. KeWvdoo, Emex. Mir. 
Vannn: Plymouth. Mr. BM 
SccriA-xu : -Grampians. Her. J. M. CrombU. 
Spore* ."I— ."lli'i mm. \BBg, .004.", 

bona riiii'jso-Kir'oiita. Ldrht. thallus eonrtfly^rimMoai-cvlatr ; 
apothaeia and spores as iu/. laevigata. 

On tubal] •. DOt lrr(|iu:iit. 1871. 

Fio : Hoffm. 1*1. I.ioh. t. xix. L 1. (excL a. b. o. d.) 
UKOO. Dtwriun :— SwMatrl 

v.— «. 7. 
W.ti. i .viii Ityfaan! Cwm C'ywl"ii! (1*71.) I'en-y-rhiw ! n«ar Ka»h 

guard, Pembrokeshire. 

form. i . Ll :l. thallus mm 

uati', comp&ati or ( n 
sure or confluence of many tpotbccu wiwl" iviuler * 1 1 ■ - tpMf 
reticulate hy tho prominoni thin margin. 

Ou subalpino rocks, not froquent. 1?" 1 . 

-HoflBl. PL I.iiii. I MX. f. L :•- b, <:. 

I ■■ :— M. * N. 4GS. upper «pecimon. 

PBoT: T. 

B :-«]yder Vach ! Cwm Idwal I Cwm Cywinn ! (1871.) 
Speraa .01 1 .'■ nun. long, .0055 mm. broad. 

fonnn iteriza. I.n-hl. thallus evanescent, upothuciu sessile. 

On nbnlpine rooks, not froquent 1851. 

■ lucr. 2S8. 

Bor, i-i. ,: 

Walks. :-Cnug Breiddtu ' CribCochl Bnowdon. Diganwy! near Conway. 
Spore* .0115 mm. long, .005 mm. broad. 
forma minor, Hoffm. thallus rimulose ; ajjol/iecia half the size of 

tkr type, pliuu: i re or loaa confluent, 

On subalptoo rocks, nol • at, 1871. 

. : Hothn. PI. 1,1.1,. roL i- 88. H790.) 

Hoffm. 1. c. t. xix. f. I, d. 
1'kot :— 7. 
W uj» :— Aberdo»«y ! Ka: A. HUxuzm \,.,i, M..w,l.!'v\ ' Cwm Bochlwr<dl 

tw .011-012 mm. tang, .tx>i : , i,n>ad. 

. i eaydaia, Lotght, thallug furrugmco-oi 1 
On eubnjpiuc rocks, rare. I 



B, Dutiiib:— Sweden. 
Bor. Pbov :— 26. 
Ihilasd :— Batiki of ritw Dawro* ! m. Galway. Mr. VnrhoSatitr. 0875.) 

163. L. torcdiza, Nyl. wurOMMij smooth, artetato-rimulott, 
r.pi nikled wifA wna/7 rotundnlt. plane <wvw iiiti-liinitate, 

(K — G — I ; hypothallus nigrieant ; apotheda Mack, plane, margined; 
(•pitli.iimn fnrio-pruinott ; aporcs 8, large, eolourleo, fuifond- 
ellipsoid ; o|iiihocinni biMMoa&t ; paraphyBea moderate or {hull 
hypothocium fuscous-black ; gehiliuu hymemea I blue, even the 

On rocks not common. 

8r» :-NyL Pyr. Or. p. 3.1. L. mbconrtueni, T. H k Sc»od. Ji. 487. 

L. alboamuacen*. Mudd Man. ]>. 211. 
Fin:— Mans. Kir. p. MO. 

Qaoo> I'istiuii I flwultll. Norway. Finland. E. Pyroneea. 
Box. Prov :-10 .26. 
Ekolasd: — rAiibraughrigg. ' Cforeland, Yorkshire. Mr. Mudd. 

i mm. brood ; in Muddi specimen .62(1 23 

Ireland: — QUmcorbot : near Kylcmnre. Mr. /-art-' 

"Spore* .016—22 mm. lung, .007— Sunn, broad ; inM'i d 
mm. long, .008— 9 mm. broad. Liko L. eontigua, but differing In tho x.ndlnt* 
thallus, thicker paraphyse*. and i!ilt«r«iil reaction with 1 ," | X-ii i " S|xirea 
.011—21 mm. long, .006-12 mm. broad." (T. M. Fha.) "Spore* .0031 in. 
long, .001% In. Iimad." (Mwld.) BpofM -01» mm. long, .on mm. broad. 

164. L. connrnti'ns, Sy\. tc// QUOUI, mod 

ish, rimoso-diffmct, (K— V— apo&eeui Uadt, in- 

nalo-imprested, plane, obtusely margined ; hypotktdum thin, blackish ; 
spores 8, colourless, tUiptoid, simple, large] paraphyses slender; 
opithecium fuscescent ; gelatiua hymenea csoruleaceiit then fulvea- 
cent with iodine. 

On alpino rocks, rare. 1866. 

Not unlike aomo utoto of Letaivra einerta, (L). 

8ri»:— NyL in Flora 1806. p. 371 heighten in Ann. and Mag. N:it. Hut. 
Sep. I860. Crombic En 
Ucon. DBDDB1 Europe. 
Bot. Pbov .•— 6, 6, 7 

isn : Suout Valley ! Longmynd noar Church Stretton. Shropahira. 

8c©TLA»D :— Bell l-.iw.!-. J 

Walks : -Aberdovey t Ittr, A. Btomm. 1 ,1 yn y Cao ! Cadrr Idri*. Aran 
M.iw.liUvv! l^HxIwldc Bay ! Pembrokeshire. 

" Spore* .026— 38 mm. long, .015— 22 DUD, broad.'' (T If, Frits.) "Spore* 
.027— 3H miii. long, .016—22 mm. broad." Wyl.) Spore* .024 mm. 
mm. broad. 

ll">."-. /,. umbonrlta,Sy\.if/i : '/terminate, 

in orbicular irrrgu ., rim>uiMiijt'ract, smooth, (K yellow 

then red) ; apotheda Nad, , marginate, generally 

subyyrote as tmbonate in tho n.niiv , bgpothttitim flmoout orfiuee*- 
cent (the umbo mid purithecium 1'usco -nigrieant, u seen in I 
Motion] ; iintlicriiini nc.irlv eulourlem ; aporcs 8, colourless, ellip- 
soid, aimpli; ; panpbjaaf, moderate ; goUtina hymenea bright-blue 
with iodine. 

On rnicacoo-schistose alpine rocks, rare. 1866. 

His — Nyl. in Flora 1866. p. 572. Orombl* Kn, «5w 
Utioo. l>iHTnin :— Europe. 
Bot. Pbov:-7...1& 



ScOTl.AKn :— Morrnne, Br lemur ! Adm. Jontt. Cairn Timr, Braemar. Ret. J. 
M. Crombie. 

Walks ;—T«ll Dn, Owm Idwal ! Cwin Flyn 

'" Hy»t»mati<<ally nrar L. jryrison*, Nyl. ipermatia cylindrical «tr*ight- Spor«« 
.011— 14 mm. long. .006-8 mm. broad." (Ay.) Spuna .014 mm. long. .0056 
mm. broad. 

166. L. melaphnna, Nyl. nioricant, thin, opake, difirtf 
equal; apothecia black, smallish, convex, immorginate, dusky 
within; hypotheciwn slightly in/uscate in lower fortiori . j'ithetium 
arruUteent ; spores 8, colourless, oblong, simple ; thulamium 
tacrulcscent upwards ; puraphysi.'s indistinct ; gclatina hy 
cttrulcsccnt, thon partly riolot with iodine. 

On calcareous mountain rocks, rare. 1869. 

8t* :— Nyl. i., Flora 1R60. p. 83. Orombie Kn. 84. 
Geoo. Distuiu :— Europe. 
Bo*, pnv : IS, 

ScvtlaXii :— Craig Guie, Bracmar. Rev. J. M. Crombie. (1869). 

"Naturally near L. ajifuitundrt, but uttlnct by the black thallua, the Inroa- 
cate hypntheoium, Ac, approaching L. paraphano, Nyl. Sporea .011—13 mm. 
long. .004c— .0055 mm. broad." (Ay. I 

167. L. inUrjfcta, Nyl. whitish or rinerasctnt, unequal, thin* 
rimoto-difract, indeterminate (<.' red) ; apothecia HacJc, moderate, 
plane, margined, dusky within ; hypotftecium futeout ; opithecium 
nearly colourless or slightly lutescenti-fuscescent or dusky ; 
paraphyses slender, not well distinct ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, 
simple ; gclatina hymenea candescent, then v mom-red with iodine. 

On sandstone rocks in mib-alpine places, rare. 1866. 

Stx :-Nyl. in Flora 1866. p. 418 ; Lapp. Or. 177. Crombie En. 81. 

(itt-xi. Iustuiij : — Europe. 

Bot. I'nov:— 5. 

K.NuLiHD :— Omrwtry, Shropshire. Ret'. T. Snlirtv. 1866. 

" Sporea .010—12 mm. long, .006 7 mm. broad."' (Ay.) 

168. /.. mtescens, Leigh t. white, thin, continuous, minute If 
and irregularly rimulose, effuse, indeterminate, (K yellow. I 

often overspread, more or less, with a dark-brown nlga ; apot/>. 
numerous, small, planoconvex, polished and shining, immarg-inate ; 
hypotlnciiiiii very thick, black; paraphyses distinct, but conglu- 
tinatc, apioos pale ; spores 8, colourless, oblong or lineori-oblong, 
simple, moderate in size; gclatmu hymencu I. fulvesecnt. 
On rocks. 1875. 

StN:-I*ight in Gr«»illea4. 7U. [\X".\. 

Bot. Puov .—26. 

IULAM>-— Salrock Road ! Connemara. Mr. Ixirlialtttier. (1875). 

Sporea .017 mm. long, .0055 mm, broad. 

169. /.. rubumbonata, Nyl. white, subopake, thin, unequal, 
(K — C — ) ; apo&toia btaufc, opake, somewhat plane, vmbonau in 
the centre, margined, internally concoloroun ; hypothecium thiek, 
nigro-fuscous ; spores 8, colourless, oblongo-cllipsoid, simple ; 
paraphyses distinct, apices fuscous ; gclatina hyroencn I blue, 
afterwards the thecw vinoso-fulvo-rubeseent, 

On micaceoschiatoae rocks, rare. 1876. 

-Nyl. In Flora 1876. p. 286. 
Bot. Paor :— 56. 



I««u.M> :— Near Letterfrack ! Connemara. Mr. IjarkiltMier. (1 WO. 

" Belong* to lb* Motion °i I- jumnit, Schwr. Sporea .016—22 mm. long, .007 
— mm. broad. Spermatia cylindrical or obsoletely fniliormi-cylindrlcal .004 
— 7 mm. long, .0008 mm. broad." (Jfyt.) Sporea .0175 mm. long, ,009 mm 

1 70. L. contorluhi, Stirt. ptde-einerascent , or somewhat plumbeo- 
cintrascent, thiekish, rugosulose, rimoso^ireolate, (K — C — ) ; apo- 
theeia black, odnaU, rnf/irr large, plane or MOmcwhnt convex, with 
a thick margin, umbanaU or gyroso-plieute , hjfpotkteiwn Jutcous- 
black, fuscous upwards; paraphyses moderate, distinct, fusco-aw 
Onkta ; sport* 8, colourless, oblong or jnsiformi-oblong, timple. 

On rocks, rare. 1876. 

St» :— SUrton in Seottiah Naturalist 4. 167. (1877). 

Bot. Pbov -.-16. 

Scotland :— Near Salen. in Mull. Dr. Slirton. (1878). 

" Nearly allied, if not identical with L. tubutmbonala, Nyl. Flora 1876. p. 236. 
Spores .015 — .021 mm. long. .006— .0075 mm. broad, Uelatina hymeneal blue 
then vinoua-red, especially the aacl. " (Stirt.) 

171. L. fpo'lo/'laea, Njl. cinereous or odiracemis-brtmn or 
leaden-ochraceous, thin, smooth, rimulose or rtimiM-Jijfixut ; 
apotheeia black, plain. poiMMNtj margined, ooncolorous within ; 
epithelium and hypotJtecium broion ; spores 8, colourless, oblong, 
simple; paraphyses indistinct ; gclatina hymonea I bluish, than 

On siliceous rocks in a stream with L. lacustris, rery rare. 

St* t—Vyl. in Mora 1B77. ft 567. L. baliola, Nyl. In Flora 1876. p. 308. 
Bot. Pbov :— 26. 

Ikklanii :— Killery Bay, and Kylemoru Lake, Connemara, Galvray. Mr. 
" Sporea .008—0 mm. long, .002—8 mm. broad." (Nyl.) 

172. L. indigula, Nyl. while-, (kin, continuous, rnigulose, (K — 
C — ) ; apotheeia nigrieant, somewhat prominent, plane, margined, 
internally conoolorouii ; hypothocium thick, nigro-fuacous, ex- 
cipulum thin, colourlofJI ; paraphyses slender, distinct, apices 
colourless ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid or oblong, simple. 

On micaoeo-schistosc stone walls; vory rare. 1877. 

8m :-NyL In Flora 1877. p. 563. 

Bot. Pbov:— 26. 

lariaxn :— Gloneorbotl Oalway. Mr. lAirlalalUr. (1877). 

I describe the nypotheolnm aa I saw it in the only specimen, but Nylandsr 
I. i- nay* "hypotheoium rufenceuH parte »nperft*ubhymenUlicraKit<S nigrescent*. 
Gclatina hymenea I pale-blue then vinoua-red. Sporea .013—16 mm. long, 
.006-7 mm. broad." {Ifyl.) Sporea .017 mm. long. .008 mm. broad. 

«««.«*«« Thallui evanescent. 
f Ilypothecium pale. 

173. L. mutabilis, Fee. evanescent -. apotheeia rufo-fuscetctnt, 
small, scattered, sessile, plant, margin thiu, entire ; hypothecium 
colourless; upores 8, colourless Hong, simple, Urge. 

On trees, ityrica Gale, rare. I85L 



Bra ! - Fee SuppL 105. (1837). CromMe Enum. 120- Mudd Man. m. 

Km :-F«e Suppl. 1. 42. f. j 

G*oo. DtSTBlb :— Central America. Mexico, Europe. 

U W.-28 HI. 
IhiLA.SD:j-<}lrocar. Kerry' Mount Shannon, Limerick: Lough Cootcx, 
ray ; KUlaloe, Clara, Black «.iirr Bridfe, mil UNI Dniiimrr. Kerry; 
Caatlebernard Park, BendoB ; Mangerton. Mr. Carroll. 
JC»»L I.-ilasim : Raw), Jersey ! Mr. ImAoU'U— UfB OminiBii ! 

"Spores .003 -.004 in. long by .002 la. broad. Spermatift acicnlar. more or 
lew curved." (.Mudd.) Spore* .0146— .016 mm. long, .01— .011 BUB. broad. 
Gelatine hymenea I bine. 

171. L. gdatinoM, (Flk.) cernginote, lej/ruto-gdatinoiu, evaner 
cent. ia Mack, oppressed, plane, immarginate, scattered) 

iiiniliTati', pale-brown within ; hypof/ucium innoolorOUa with the 
hymenium, hi spore* b, colourless, Otiipaoid, simple ; 

paraphytct indistinct ; gclatina hymenea not coloured by iod 

On earth in sub-alpino places, not common. 

Sis :-Flork« In Beri. Mag. 1309. p. 201; Schorr. Enum. 137. Acb. Syn. J*. 
Nyl. Prod. 110. Mndd Manilas. 
-Hepp Sporen t. 67. f. 4HS. 

I-:.-.: BetuBr.906. Hepp4M Zw •". It AN. MIL i.Hfiit. ft* 
.. Dihtmb :- Switxcrland, Germany, France. 

Bar. r-nov: 9 I 10 » 23 26 .SO. 

Esuuxu i— CUSripf ! Gui»bro" Moor ! Yorkshire. Mr. Mudd. Blexhill ! Mr. 
Boper. Stiper»toiiMi 11 ill*. 

Iiir.i.i!ii>: — Kelley'a Glen and near Dublin ; Sleinith Mmintain <mk AM: mi 
Dr. Moors, near Bantry. Miu 1/uttliim. Lough Muck ! Lough Feagh ! Mr. 

" Sporca .002S in. long by .001 In. broad." {Mudd.) "Spore* .012-17 nun. 
I..H-. I'.n:. .no; miu. i.ruii.i. ' i.v.,/1 ■ Spent <*'i 9 bub. long. .00*— ."■u.m. 
broad." {T. M. Frio.) Spores .014— .0146 mm. long. .005—7 mm. DIMd. 

175. L. perolMCura, Nyl. black, subopako^Ajn, or Tftxj th in, 
effuse ; apotheeia vmcolorous, or brownishMack, slightly nmvex, 
immarginale, greyi-di within ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, small ; 
pnriiphysott uot discrete ; epitlieciutn brownishinspersod ; hypothc- 
nmn colourless ; gelaimu hyxntnet 1 bluish. 

On old fir pale*, rare. lHTIJ. 

BTW f-NyL In Flora 1S74. p. 0. 
BOT. l':-> :-15. 

SCOTLASO : -Near Klllln. Rev. J. M. Crombie. (1873.) 
" Allied t<i /.. vliijinum, lint mitnVimitly wjiaraUd by the above character*. 
Spurva .006-* mm. long, .0035 mm. broad." {Nyl. ) 

IT I). L. ntbvenalU, Btrn. white, hypophleeodai, very thin; 
apotheeia paU-yrllmc. then lilnish-blad. '''y flUCO-nigricant, 

sraoll and convex, pellucid within ; hypothecium colourless ; spores 
8, colourless, oblong, simple, inndcnito ; iwirupriyBca conghitinato ; 
gclatina hymenea I carulcsceut- UuB vinlit (tt viuuno-violct. 
On old putrid woods, rare. 1874. 
Sis :— Stirton in GrevMea 3. p. 33. (1874.) 

8O0TL»ND:— Near Gr i m*«. Dr. SWrfon. (1874.) 

•' Sports .012-.02 mm. long. .0056-.008 mm. DtOtdL" [0MaO 

177. /.. arridau, Nyl. wA.'iV, Tery thin, plane, cfluse, dispersed 

ami '. ( A'—C — ) ; apotiteta bright-jte*ny-rost-et>l<nir, plane, 

immarginatc, often with a white irregular spurious thalline margin ; 



kyptfktdu ■■'•-.«,■ hyrnenium colourless, I dirty-luteacent ; 

paruphysc* distinct, apices colourless ; spores 8, colourless, ellip- 
soid, simple. 

On stones, ram 1876. 

Svx :-Xyl. in Flora 1*76. p. .*-73. 

But. Pnov :— 98. 

Irjciaxti :— Delphi ! Connemara. Mr. Zw b ultsNu r, (1876.) 

" Somewhat generally' limllar in character to L. euarctjta. Spate* .011—1* 
BUB. hmg, .007— .010 nuu. hrowl. Iwlo .:• Uiiu.i hynwoUlil . inou ful*o- 
rubettoena." Ufyt.) Spore* .019 mm. lone .009 mm. broad. 

178. L. grumn»i, (..eight, evanescent; apethteia ruf.t-fus. 
mimUf, scattered, adiuxt'/sessHe, plano-convex, tho slight margin 
soon obliterated ; kt/i "trUts ; hymeniu-m yellow, 
grumotu ; paraphyses altogether indiitinct, apices colourless ; spores 
8, in lineari-obovate asei, colourless, oblong, simple, filled with very 
minute spherical gra R 

On pine bark, rare. 1877. 

Sr» :-Lekut. in Linn. Tran*. 2d. va. L 2*2. 

Pro: -Linn. Tr.. 13. f. 7. H. U. 

Bor. Pbov 

Iiulaxii: — BalUoaMocb I i '• teudalough ! Oalway. Afr. Larbaltttitr. ilSTT.) 
A v»rv «ingul" I QaUttBa DJIUMIfl blue, theu fulvctcent. Spore* 

.013 ■MS mm. 1..11.-. .007 JVH mm. broad. 

179. L. antUogOx Stirt. nearly evanescent; apothecia black, 
i'i-. atfiwfa, plane, margin somewhat tka\ing t internally obscure 

xtra»i hypot&eolnm odonriaai ; panphjaea wry to 
disti i nigricant or rSoutj sporos P, colour- 

loss, sphorical, simple. 
On decorticated wood, rare. 1877. 
Stx :-Stirton In ScottWi Naturall*t I. p. IiH. (1S77.I 

BOT. PR0V:-15. 

Scotlaxu :— Aviemore, ELfin. Dr. St.rlon. (1877.) 

" OalatUS h vmenva 1 BUM llnjn ditrk-vinlit. >>>re« .004— .OOOfi into, broad." 

t \ Hypothecittm dark. 

180. L. diducens, NyL evanescent ; apothecia aggregate, black, 
moderate, plana, margin tUvated, flexnose, tobaU, dark wit!' 
hypothtCB ral cxeipulum honiy and black ; spores 8, 

lUrlaaa, ••! Ii | ■-■ ■:■ I or <WiIi.hl', small, simple; paraphyscs thick, 
distinct, with black cl.ivjiti- apices ; golatiua hymenea cairule-soent 
with iodine. 

On felspathic rocks, rare. 

8w :-Nyl. in Ftftn 1886. p. 14S-, Croinuia Euum. 85. 

Kxsi— Lirtul. 39. 

Uboo. DtMTRin :— Kn. 

But. Pbov:— 26 .31. 

Iiuci.AX'ii :— Dawro* 1 I klway. Mr. /.urMtifirr. 

: Uuvi": -NnTrmont! I. 1 :i\Jcrtcy. Mr. LarUileilier. 

Spore* .008—9 nun. loty, .003&— .00*5 mm. broad. (Xyl.) Spore* .008-9 
BUB. I'Mtf. .004 in. 

181. L. OJn l l t a , Nyl. evanescent ; apothecia black, minute, 
ojKike, margin obtwe or indistinct, eoncolorout within ; hypothecittm 


i KN-P1.»K.\ 

darkly ■■futctteml ; epithetium dUuto-nigreteent ; »porea 6, cnlourloss, 
oblong, simple or with an obsolete septum ; porapbysM moderate, 
distinct, apices sub-clavato-incrassatc, newly colourless ; gelatins 
hjDMDoa scarcely tinged with iodine. 
On chalky earth, rare. 1865. 

Stx :— NtI. in Flora 1868. p. «M. CromWe En. 92. 
Gtoo. Detrain :— Europe. 
Box. Pbov t— 2. 

KxGiairn :- Near L«»» on Ilia Simmx Down*. Ailnt, Jonet. (1865.) 
Systematically naar L. ntgUtta, Nyl. Spore* .009— .011 mm. long, .008 
broad. (Ay.! 

182. L.jrtrana, Schaar. white, tartareo-farinose, vnequaUy dit- 
ptrto-grantdote or evaneMtnt ; apothecia $uptr/cial, tttsile, tcaltrrtd 
or aggregate, black, at first concave, then plane, margin thicl; 
promhMBt, flezaote, internally black ; kypothecittm and epitkecium 
black ; thalaminm hyaline ; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid, simple ; 
paraphyses distinct ; gelatin* hymenea blue with iodine. 

On calcareous rocks, uot common. 1869. 

Six : Schicr. Enum. 123. (1850.) Nyl. Prodr. 123. 
Em !-Ar./i Ungub. : i. Zw. 289. Kerb. 2GS. 

< ; r.oa. Dibtkib : - I«om bardy, Hungary, < lennany, Swoden, Norway, Pyrsave*. 
Bor. Psov:— 6, 6, 7. ..IV 
Exoui!«i>:— Ll»nymynw:li Hill! Shpojulilr*. 
itleton of B 

SOTI-ASM : --C»atl< 

! Braemar. Jte\: J. M. Crvmbie. 

WaLBS:— I.lyn Aran ! I.lvny-Cio ! Qadsf Idrla. <l««9.>CribOoch ! Snowdon. 
Cirm Cywion ! Cwm Idwal ! Tanybwlcli wikkI, ( 'a]>el Curig ! Aran Mowddwy ! 
(forth Cliff, T.iiby! Barmouth! 

Pumibly only a varinty ,.( /. e«nlipua. "Sport* .016—18 mm. long, .010—11 
mm. broad." {Nyl.) "oporw.012— 16 mm. long,. 007— 8 mm. broad? 1 (T.St. 
t'riei.) SponM.017 imn. lung, .008— 9 mm. broad. 

183. L. futca-rubrnt, NyL cineraacent, very thin, effvie, granu- 
loto-vnequal or wwo a art ; hypothallm fiucou* ; apothecia not very 
numerous, scattered, 9et&\\<-,fuscou* black, planoconvex, immarginate, 
internally futcon* ; hypothivium thich, fmcous ; epithecium pallido- 
rufssccnt; spores 8, colourless, ellipsoid or globose-ellipsoid, 

On alpine rocks, rare. 

8r« r-Hfi Anlmad. Seand. in Bot. NotU. 183. (1883.) Prodr. lCMi. Scand 
Gboo. DnrraiB :— Sweden, Norway, Kuiopc, Canaries. 
Bot. Pbov:— IV 

800TUWD :— Ben Lawn* ; Craig fJtii*. ; Craig Tullooh. Her. J. Sf. Crombie, 
" Near f.. mnguinto^itra. Act Spore* .010 — 14 nun. long, .007 !) mm 
broad." [Nyl.) 

184. L. calcivora, (Ehrh.) greyuti-white or white, thin, effttte, 
cranetcmt ; apothecia small, scattered, ealcivorout, fovcolato-immertd 
iu the rock, Muck, ciesio priiinose or naked, internally cinera- 

in the middle ; margin thin, m&ttC*at ; hypothecium rusoeftotnt 
below; spores .*, colonrlsM, sQmtioo-obloosi shnpfe, granulate; 
paraphyscs indistinct ; gclatina hymenea blue then vinous-red 
with iodine. 
On calcareous rocks, frequent. 1 794. 



Srx :— Ehrn. Cr. Ex.. SM. (1793.) NjrL Prodr. 135. L. immern, (SefaiwI.) 
A<li M«lh. U. 

ETm :-K. Bot. 193. Leigbt. Ang. Mob., t 24. f 5 Mml.l Mini. 208. 

Bu -Nyl. lift Hohiir. I'M. Anil It. S. 286. 267. Lcight. 9i. Am. 360. b. 

(itoa. DlSTMB: — France, Switwrland, Ktimpr. 

Bot. Pbov :-1...3...6. 7, 8. .10, 11. (19-30). 

I '•■.! .w i I) ;.r J. K. SmOk. IKlll i Ingleborough. Dr. Ciirrinf- 

ton, near Think. Mr. Bnktr. near Mubatn, Yorksbin If- MwU Durbuu 
mid NorthuniberlaniL Mr. OTmA. Ingtdon : Ohadld|b : Biekinston : A»h- 
burton; Balilik-iiinlie, l>*vtin. Mr.vrr». Jimrj <fr A'<n</*frr/t. Charltim, Kent. '.' 
// bbiut. I r.iix' y-Kliiw ! near Otwertry ; LUuiymynoch Hill ! Shropshire. 

mi -Sot iiiii-.iiinii.Hi. Hr.CarrdU. 

Walw:— Eslwyneif rook" ! near Mangollmi ; QtMt <)rum> H-*l ! Tenby! 

Externally ami Kent-rally almilar to, but uot to be confounded with Verru- 
• mmtr/n. !,«ight. Aug. l.iili. t. 26. I- % "Spur«i« .003— .OOHIil in. lung, 
by .001— .00124 in. broad/ - lUudd.) "Spore* .013-18 mm. long. .008—9 
mm. broad." (Nyl.) "Sporoa .010 15 mm. long, .007 8 mm. broad." 
(T. M. Friei.) SporM .011— .012 mm. long, .007 inn-.. l.r.,.-i.l. T)n< »i»itlieda. 
» -ln-ii wottod, remain of a black oolour by rcaeon of tho dark bypotheeium and 
*>> prevent* ita oi>»fnM"ii with X4 C td$A Mtt.-lrri, ( K'irli. } 'ax\*\ Iss.aiiura Apartl- 
hamitim, M\tit. in which tii- diak of ths apothecia, when wetted, become* of ■ 
trannluoent chwtnut-brown by novum ■>! tM pais hypotheelum. 

185. L. Afettleri, (Korh.) preyuh-wkit.- , thin, tffusc, ovancs- 
uout; apothecia black, innato-adnate, piano, slightly margined, at 
length convex, immarginate ; epMttttm when wetted translucent 
■■/n-finui in-tupii. ih-- margin darker-brown; \ypotkidwn coiourUu ; 
mora B, colourless, broadly oblong, simple, large ; paraphysea 
distinct, couglutiuatc, npicctt fuscous; gelatina hymeneal blue 
thru fulvcsccut, th.-i-.i reddish. 

On calcareous rocks, rare. 1 872. 

Stx :-Korber Par. 162. (1865.) T. M. Kr. Hcaad. 478. 
Exs :— Am. 351. 

UEOO. Di*trib: -(iermany, 8weden, Norway. 
Bot. PkoV!-8. 

WAUBi-GUUrPdntl Tenby. (1872.) 

"Spun* .016— 26 hum. low .000 10 mm. bmid." (T. M. fritj.) Spore* 
.02 mm. long, .0115 mm. broad. 

186. L. tnelit <•■■', Nyl tluillus mrarly evanescent ; apothecia 
black, ituniiu, convex, immarginatc, duptrted, int'mally objure; 
epithecium nigrescent ; paraphyses indistinct ; hypothecium futcom; 
spores 8, colourless, oblong, simple ; gelatina hymenea cwrulesccnt, 
then duxk\ -vinous with iodine. 

On old tir pales in sub-alpmc localities, rare. 1870. 

Syx :— Nyl. Upp. Or. It* (1S66.) I'mmWa in 8a«m. .l.mni. B R& 

Ex» :-Arn. «W. 

Ctoo. UlATRin :— E. Lapland. 

But. Paov ; -15, 

Scort.AKi) .- Pa«s of Killiocranlde in Blair Athole. Rtv. J. M. Crombu. 

"S|>»re. .008- .015 nun i.iif, .003— I mm. broad." (.Vyf.l ".Hpermogonia 
pa|iillirf.irni : Ap«nnatia thortly cylindrical, ilightly curred «omowh»t at caoh 
ape* .00:10-35 nun. loin." (T. U. Fria.) 

187. L. drptwula, Nyl. preyUh, thin, txib-areolate, ditperted, 
evanescent, hypothallu* black, but little conspicuous ; apothe-ia 
black, small, BODtOwhal ■f'f'irmed, slightly pronuniut. 1 ii>nmbonale, 
in the centre, emnlorOHi <n'hin, margin ■ihluiely turgid and tome- 
timet tubcrenate; hypothecium browuiah-blaok ; spores 8, colour- 



let*, ellipsoid, simple ; cpithecium obscurely-bluish ; paraphyse* 
moderate-, bluish-green towards th« apices; gelatina hymeoea 
intcnsoly-Mut! or dark-blue with iodine. 
On calcareous atones. 1871. 

8t» :-Nyland«r In Flora 1871 p. 36L 
Bot. Pso» .—15. 

Scotland :- Summit* el Ben-ygioe and Caini Uimr. Iter. J. M. Cromhie. 

" tipcat* .0(9—12 mm. lone, .OftV-7 mm. brawl. " f2fft. ) 

188. L. confxderant, NyL thai In* scarcely any risible; 
apotlucia black, plane, obtusely margined, vemteotxiimgttted, (ver- 
nxm composed of 20 — 30 or more apothecia), Uadith teMin ; 
hyjxtthffium thick, browui.ih black, (K j -nrj ■IimIi"; ; njtortjS, colourless, 
t ri eb l oag, lintpto, sn'iirti ; parapbyM* nodento or thick i*h, 
clavato-incraisatc and bluish-black or grccnish-black at the 

On quartzoso boulders in alpine regions, rare. 1872. 
8t* I sr3. p. 289-800. 

Rot. i*«o% . 

SCOTLaVD! Rtr.J.N 197%) 

"A very diitir.ct ipeoiea. Sperm .010-11 mm. Iodjc .003— 4 mm. broad." 

I.ViJ.I S; ■ :l. ei till- %\ 

thini U verv ptmliar. IV vi ry thin Barrow ofapale-bhi 

mirmanatcu with * thlokiah violet-black epitbecium, retta on a thick nigro- 

fuieoal hjrpoth*rJ<IB, Vnrj.lli whtcb i» » pals 
whole included iu a violet Mack thickfch cxcipulum. 

• trntiim, ami tie 

189. L. yhyllitor L bnnrn, very thin or evanescent ; 
apothecialhuk.phyllitcoid i.e.umWicattly affixed, rotulaUxtimpottnd, 
rot undato-di formed, large, above with the margins thiii, tubradiatdji 
and irregularly Jupoiei, digktiy collate and at the nco 
fu>xrenato*Ji:;: '■ickUh, the hymeneal stratum whitish ; 

or oblong, aspic : cpithecium bluish - 

blackish ; pal at the claratc apices ; 

byp ily dark ; gelatina hymenea I intensely -bluish. 

On quartzose stones in alpine places, rare. 1874. 

Stn j-NyL in Flora 1874. p 
ISoi. Paov:- l.V 

"f Mnrront". Rrapmar. Her. J. M. Cromhie. (1*71.) 
"Sports 0.009— 0.011 mm. long, 0.003ft— 0.0040 mm. broad." (. 

190. L.tartogjm* Poyiah, thin, ^determinate, opake, 
evanescent; avpotfaeda black, plane, margin often ilexuow, dusky 
witlmi ; bjpothednn i tinotlj maceaccnt, its 

u-ly colour 1. : , lover stratum nigrioatrt or block ; 

spores 8, colourless, oblong, simple ; tAalamium 
totem i-Aphyscs moderate, 'ii 'im i but o.-hnrent, nigrieoati- 

clav; apex ; gelatina hymenea intense!- b I. 

On mountain and maritime granitic rocks, rare. 1808. 

St* rlsre 1868. p. 475. Crombio Ea. fit 

Exa : ■ hmr. 187. 

tir.f -Hwitwrland, 

: noar Nik's, Kincardia* ; Cairn Go-war ; Hill of Ardo. 
Set. J. if. Croat*. (1868.) 



'• Ai>pn«u:liing L. larconinoidtt. Krbr. bat din* eri in the colonrless thslomium 
and other churoctrrs. Spores .007— -till mm. long, . 003 mm. BOM." (Kyi.) 
Spores .OOto— .009 mm. long. WA h 

191. L. sarcagymidcs, Kbr. evanescent ; apotkecia black, crowded 
and aggregate, closely adnate, dtfbrmi-angulale by close, juxta 
position, plane, margin thick, prominent, flexuose ; hymenium 
narrow, blui*h-'ii<<i , pataphjaej thick, indistinct, coiii.-lininulr, 
apices nigricant; hypothe.cium very (hick, nigro-fuicom ; spores 8, 
colourless, lineari-cllips""!. .-.imple, minute. 

On granitic maritime rocks, rare. 

8t»:-Korl»r 8. L. G. 202. CUSS.) Par. 224. 
Kis :— Korb. 47. 

■hub: -Germany. 
Bot. Puov : -3L 
ChaNJUL Islands :— La Moye, Jersey. Mr. Larbalatier. 

192. L. tephrizart*. Leight. tAallus nearly obliterated, only a 
En whitish depressed scattered areolae, (K — 0— ) ; hypotUa/lus 
fftdoMi iiating, MMRMMlt / OpOtAerfa Wad, tinun OVOM, ] huic Off 
slightly concave, prominent, wxsile, moderate, margin thiek] 
eventually obliterated ; hypothecinm nigrofiuco"*, tvttatdti by 
pale-grey isliblue hyaline excipitlum; hymaumn thin, iMi/e-greyuh- 
blue .- paraphjwi distinct, but coherent, apkea nigrofuwous ; 
spores 8, colourless, narrowly ellipsoid, simple, miunt'. 

On hard slnty rocks, rare. 1876. 

Stw :— I.inn. Trans. 2d. ser. toI. 1. p. 237. 
Flo :— Linn. Trans. J. c. tab. 82. i. 8. & 4. 
Bot. Paov:-6 3B, 

IKKLAS!) :— Kylomoro ! Mr. Lart>alest\er. 

Walib :—I.lonsebor Bridge ! near Fishguard, Pembrokeshire. (187G.) 
Spores .009— .01 mm. long, .004— .005 mm. brood. Spermatln mlimi,. «lmrtly 
cylindrical, straight. Gclatinn hymenea I dirty-blue. 

15. Sports polari-biloculai: 
193. L. polorpora, I.uight. white or albo-glauct>Ht, very thin md 

filmy, effuse, smool mawhal ihmtng, unequal or raguloto, 

(K— C— ); apotheeia black; minute, « nmfc, plane, with 

B narrow slightly pivminrut margin, at length plano-convex and 
imniurginate ; hypotkecium nigro-fiucous ; hymenfas) oalourieflB; 
I ... i »tinct, thicki*h, apices globular, ni^ro-fuscons ; spores 

%, fuscous, elliptical, with a paler-fuscous roundish cell at each apex. 
On old hawthorns, very rare. 1877. 

8tk :— Leight. in Linn, Trans. 3d. Mr, 1. p. 24L 

Fio :-Liun. Trans. 1. e. t, 83. f. 4. &. 6. 

Ikelaku :— Balltaahlnch Churchyard I co. Galtray. Mr. Larlatttlier. (1877.) resembling in general aspect Lecidea mi/rioenrpo. D.C. Gelstiii* 
hymenea I dnep blue. Spores .02— .022 mm. long, .009 mm. broad. The MM 
liar shape and structure ot the spore* keep it an entirely distinct species, 

<■'. Spore* 1 -septate, brown, 

* Jlypolheeium dart. 

191. L. canettens, (Dicks.) while or albo-glaucescent, suh-tar- 
tarcous, orbicular, adnate, radialo-plieate, svrcdiate, circumference 
truncaUhor repando-lobaU, surface generally smooth, minutely 


111*: mi-hen runtA 

a^iumloMopruiiKBKi, (K yellow — ); hypothocium black; 
npothiviu nm-, mhiiII, blft It, pUne, depressed, central, crowded, 
cjcsio-pruinosc, margin paler, eutire, flexuoae ; spore* 8, 
or fusco-nigricant, elu'ptico-oblong, l-»eptal* or bilocnlor and 

On old treea, oak, sycamore, Ubm, iw. walk and rooks, In 
but rare in fruit 1785. 

Srx :-Dick*. Crypt, h 10. 0.715.) Ac*. Syn. «. Nyl. Prodr. 119. Hadd 

Man. 1GW. 

Kn. Dirk-. Crypt 1. t. 2. f. \ K. Hot 5S2. Hepp Kporen t. «1. f. 527. 829. 
Exs^HeppBaLMS. Babar, 57«. Welw. 54. Xyl. 137. Larbal. S3. 

Bohi. &». m. A n. i ! ■■■-;. At./.! it Sup. m 

6*00. DlOTBrB:— Niinnntiily, Germany, HwiUerUml. Portugal, Kraac*. 
Italy, Africa, K. Indica. 

BOT. l'K..v: -1. 1 l I, 7 Id. 11. .15,. 19 .24. 56 .30. 81. 

Kxglasp :— Middleton ! n«ar Oaweatry. Shropshire. Krr. T. Salter*, near 
St. Carman'*, Cornwall: I*le <•( Wight! BatUnhall ! Wonwltr. Dr. B«tt. 
Ewi. Mr. Piootl. nc.r Avt'in ' Cleveland. Mr. Uudil. Gainford and Huughtun- 
USpring. Durham ; near Hexham, and Brinkburn Priory, Nurthuml»rlanil. Mr. 
WincJi. Cbndlatsh ; Bxattr, Damn. Mr. Parfu. Midland Countic*. Mr. I'urum. 
Cbeam; Handoa idga Well*. Iter. J. M. Cromt-u. Plymouth. Mr. 

Hvlmtt. Sonthrop; near Cheltenham. Mr. »'. Juikua. Wbtatfield Park! 
Oxfordshire, ,Vr. tartalmUtr. Bream*. Park near llythe. Kent Mr. Halm**. 
Bottoal near Shrewsbury ; Tong C um ! Salop. 

BOOTLAITD I Appln ; Castlatoa. Hrt. J. .V. Craw- 

Ittr.i . S tar llelfift Vr. Trm/Jrlon. rUthnmsn. Clnnmel. Mr. Hough. 

oo. Wlcklow. Mr. Moon. Robert'* Cavo, Cork ; Carrigogucumel, Limerick, and 
■ inland, ■Clara. Mr. Carroll. 

Walsh :— BarmouUi and DolgwUey. Mr. Holma. Llanbodrog ! Harlech 

ChaSXXX Iki.amw:— r'li<|ti«t Hay! Jersey ; Guernsey ; Sark. Mr. SaiHm 

" Sp*rnii^p>nia rare, black, puncttform, -lightly prominent. SpennaUa 
rather large, straight, cylindrical .00174 in. long, by .0004 In. broad. Spores 
.OOaS-.OOS In. long, by .001 -.00125 In. broad.' 1 'Mudd.\ ■'Spore. .011 
mm. long, .<« 16 7 mm. bread. I mUnst-blue." [T.M.Fria.) Sport* .0115— 
.0135 mm. Ions, .007 mm. broad, 

1 9ft. L. mtignit, (Nttg.) tulpAury-whituh, tartaroous, twa- 
«o*o-.<, •'•• . (K yellow C orange or orange-red) ; 

thada m&tr latyt, tulnatr, often confluent, very black, opakc, 
plane, obtusely margined, at length convex ; hymtniutn /tuoxi 
upward* : paraphyscs lax ; hypothecium fuscous ; spores 8, fuscous, 
miliar Large, oblong, 1-soptate, constricted in the middle. 

forma corticicola, Kbr. 

8ts :-Kbr. 8y»t 230. 0856.1 Grerillea 1. 1W. 

Els ll. I ip .'.i. AnriltaJ. Sup. 297. 

Gsog. Dmtbib :— Germany, SwiUarlan.t, Italy. 

Emiami : II.. il.tio Pool, Shropshire! lls.'l.i 
Spores .0175 mm. long, ,0OiVi mm. bruad. I violet 

196. /- Ktzorum, (Mass.) dirlyytUowitkwhitf, thin, minutely 
rtrtofato-rimttlo/c, plant, nigro-limitate, (K j/eUoio C orangt-rtd) ; 
apothecia numrnjus, scattered, sessile, plane, bloi k, margin thick, 
eutire, rather j»lor ; hypothreium blatk, or nitfro-ftueoiti ; a|K>rr 
fwacous, oblong, 1 -septate, somewhat curved, nuclcolate. 

On rocks, not common. 1870. 



Not to be coufounded with I- dittifomis, which hem it diSerant chemical »• 
actios IsfMt IPOntj and other charartoriatina. 

Sym —BurllM Mxorum, Maaa ! Rio. 81 (1852.) Biuttia latocKat, Maa*. 
(lemrac. 20. i«irf<.i diKiformit, Yr. Nyl! Seand. 286, On part). 

i .. t—iUm. Kic- fig. 166. HeppSporan t 88. (. 752. 

Exs :-NyL L. P. GO. I*rbaL 85. Ma». 847. Hopp 742. Aim Kir. ;|. 

Gkoo. Uistrib s— Italy. Fnuice, Pyreneaa. 

Bot. Pbov :— 10 .81. 

Kndlahi) :— Karndale I Yorkshire. Mr. Mudd. 

Chashkl Islamim:— Noinnoot 1 Jeney. Mr. Larbatatitr. 

SporM .0185— .015 mm. long, .006— .008 mm. broad. 

197. L. mixatilii, (Schier.) white or whituh, moderately thick, 
tartarooUB, rugoao-unvjuoi, (K. faint yellow C orange) ; apothecui 
minute, scattered, at first innate, then sessile, tin Hgin 

thin, entire ; hypnthecium nigro-fuscous ; spur** 8, duteous, oblong, 
l-septate. matt. 

On xub-alpinc rocks, not common. 

Sin t— Calirium tazatitt. Sohwr. in Natnr. Ant. Winterm. 88. (1821.1 
108. Nvl. 3. u..l m. afcuM Man. 216. 

Flo: -Hepp Sporen t. 17. f I IV 

I!,,.,, 145. '/■■". U0. Am. 166. a. h. Itabh. 800. An/i Lsssjob. 198. 
Schaw. 240. 

iJum. iM.-TRin:— Bavarin, Switzerland, F»mliardy. Iulv. 

Bot. Phov:-7 . .!•"• 86 30. 

Scotland:— Near Nigg. Kincardine. . *"'• •/■ -V, Cmmhie. 

Ireland :- -DivU Mountain oo. Antrim. /' M ft Doughmagh Mountain! 

Culway. Mr. Larba l a t it r . 

Wai.js:— Barmouth. Ifer. 2". Salviw- <"ralg Braddcn ! Mnntgn ry>hii<-. 

Drwuynaut ! 

•• Spore. .002 to .0025 in. long, by .001 In. broad." | .If,.././. | » BparM -IKK) - 
.015 mm. long. .0045— .0065 mm. broad." (Nyl.} " Sporei.OOil 14 mm 

.004— 6 mm. broad. Faraphyaoa cohmrent, aplcc* nlirriiiaiiti-fiieowcent. jVacl 
I riooue-red, apioea blue, lh" OWX Mil .liriy-l.lim." (7. Af. frit*.) Sport* 
.011 -.012 inm. long, .005 mm. broad. Hymemum I blue. 

198. L. M ■;■»' '■'•■". il'.i."-. | y.' wmfcl '/■■ll'-w, tliin, *ith-detormi- 
nate "i- effuse, minutely areolato-rimulose, smooth, plane, or eonvero- 
mif/Hfil, [K yellow • ' red) ; hypothallus brownish-blaah . qpdfaoM 
iivnutr. innate and solitary in the areola; black, plane or depressed, 
margin tlim, BOOS ulilitcrnti'd : hypotlirctina Ink-brown ; Spores 8, 
fuscous, oblong, 1 -septate. 

On maritime and mountain rocks, not unfrequent. 181 1. 

Srx :-E. Bot. 2317. (1811.) Book. Br. II -'. 174. Mudd Man. 215. 

FiOr-E. Bot. 2317. 

Exh :--Leight. 1«0. Zw. 36. 135. 425. An*l Langob. 196. Mudd 186. 
I nni :- Germany, Uimh.irdv. 

Bot. Prov • 1 6, 1 10, 11 1 • l'.i 26. 

Etola.yd :— Mnggleawirk K.ll, \V.«t Durban. Mr. Wlnrh. 11*11.1 Lynmoiitli. 
Mi** Atlunud. LaubrniiKh Biitif ! Carlton Bank ! Cleveland. Mr. Mudd. 
• iLASfi:— Craig Tulloch. Iter. J. M. OromMt. 

Irh.asu : - Dimkerron ! Dr. Taytor. Hill near Cork! Black water Bridge and 
Lough Carag oo. Kerry. Mr. Carroll, near Ky to nofl liulway. Afr. ziaroii- 

Wai.ili:- Barmouth ! Mana<!har Bridm! near Fiihguard. lVn.lirv.keahire. 

"8ponw .0025— .003 in. long bv .1*125— .00175 in. broad." (MtuU.) "Spore* 
.011—16 mm. long, .007—9 mm. broad." (T. M. Fritt.) Sporai .013—16 mm. 
long, -006 -.008 mm. broad. 

The laltida, Tayl. MS. and the ocetlata forma of the continental lioheni.U 
appear to be only etataa at L, itrrueuiuta, dilf eri ug chiefly in the mora dlaparaed 
araol» of the thallu* which aurroand the aiwtheoia with a paaudo-tlialUoe pro- 


•nir. Menu* flora 

miaent margin. Internally £. rtmieulon ho* a nigro-fnaeoiu Uter.d txcipnlasi 
whilst in ktilttda and occftata tbii an it colourless; tho hypoUu-cium 

being dark-brown In both and the >pores of the tome >1». 

Var. prw/ionma, Hy], yellow, aroilat&va-rueultme. or slightly granir 
lftto-vorruoulnxc, (K yeHo* C red) ; apothecia mb-innatr, not mar 
gincd by thallus, riirjuUmr, immarainalt ; spores as above 

On raaritimo rocks, rare. I 

8ts : Nyl. In flora ISflS. p. 8*7. Cromblo BaBBk Bi 
Geoo. Dihtbib ;— Kurope. 
Bar. Piiov : ! .. 

BcoTLAini : -r<irtli-lhi-ii ! Kincardine. Rtt. J, V. Crombie. 
Merely a rtate of L. rerrueulon not worth dutinguhhing. " Sporej .015—17 
mm. long, .008— .010 mm. broad." I Ay.) 

199. It, ttellulata, Tarl. white or nlbocinereout, thill, sub- 
OrblOi OlA*, minutely areotato-rimulotf, plane, smooth, 

(K yellow V — ) ; hypotrinllu:. thin, black ; apolhtcia minute, nume- 
rous, crowded and confluent, sub-innate, black, plane, margin 
thin, entire; lateral excipuhun nigricant, hppct&actmm utwhuA- 

blaek ; rpores 8, fuscous, obloUtf. 1-Septate, imail. 
On iiiiinlnni' rucks wid stones, frequent. 1836. 

8«t :- -Tayl. Fl. Hib. i 118 I (1836.) Mndd Man. 216. 
Kxh : - Leight. S7& Zw. 408. Larbal. U 
Fiat-HcppSpomi t M. I 

Geoo. Di.ithiii : Germany, Bwitserlsnd, Falkland Island*. 

HOT l'U"V :--l. 1 .'., 8, 7 IS.. 16 ..-.'-I .30, 31. 

Knulasii :— Lynmouth. Miu Atiuvwt. nv»r Toniunv ! tor. Iieatin. Cartiile ! 
Mr. Hiiiilmin. dmi Brighton ' Ventnor, I»le of wight: S. Devon and Com- 
wall. tor. BcB, Plymouth, Mr. ffotaa. Haaghmond Hill! shroraUn. 

1 kxlam) :— Carig Mountain' tor. Taylw. Ardglaasco. Down. Dr. Main-juy. 
■war Ciirk ; Cafrlgognnnal "ear Limerick- Mr. CamtL 

WjuB :— Aberdovey I Her. A. RUaaim. Barmouth ! Moel-y-Golfa ! Mont- 
gomeryshire, ; Borth ! Cardiganshire ; Dolgcller ! Crib Coch ! Snowdon. C*>pe] 
Curig I.lyn Dimu ! near BuddgeKrt. Gimlet Rock ! Pwthslli. Kurt Hill ! near 
Fiahguard* Fembrokeahirv. Trem.i' 1 

CHainiH. Isla>ds :— Purtelct Bay ' La Moyo ! Jeney ; Gucrux.v. .lfr. Lar- 
bat— tier. 

arm .002 to .00275 in. long by .001 to .0015 in. brood. I blue." (Mtutd.) 
"8pore« .009-12 mm. long. .00* 5 mm. broad. I blue." jr. M. Friet.) 

Thi» la Buetlui ngtutWo.Hfpo 313, see irdiag to Arnold in Flora 1872. p. 4. 

I>l tlin K«1. 

J noted, of L. itrrucu/oau, . 
job. Fl. 1 1. 303. and 310. Parnphym laxly coherent, apica nlgro! 

onfer L 

His B. lUUutatu, (T.iW.) L e. i« evidently made up, aocordha 
'rueulota, (Burr.) and //. alrualMlu, Nyl. Co 
. ii. 303. and 810. Psrophyses laxly coha: 
8pores.009-.0U Ut WDft .006 - .0015 mm. broad. 

forma etrnjlnetu, Loight. apothecia very numerous and in such 

close juxtaposition as to appear confluent. 

On rocks, rare. 1876. 

Box. Paov : - 6, 7. 

Wai.k> :— Fort Hill! near Fishguard, Pembrokeshire. (lW6.)nt*rTrem*iloel 

firm i dupemtt Loight. umU<t of thallus dispcrtnl and scutiond. 

On rockn, . 1876. 

Bot. Paov :-6. :-Good«vick Bay I (18T«.) 

200. L. Kabrosa, Ach. citrine or flavo-vireseent, thin, areolaU or 
areolat<Hfrannlose, (K yellow C — ) / apotheda mall, scutti 
blixck, opake, MQewhu convex, concutorwu within; hypwheciuot 
black ; spores 8, fuscous, ellipsoid, 1-teptate, small. 



On the earth and on thalhis of Bceomycu rafut, in mountainous 
region*, rare. 1808. 

8»» :-Ach. Moth. 48. (1803.) 83m. 25. Nyl. Scud. 217. Flotow uber. Lw. 
«eabrow», 4c. 74. 

1'n. : — E. Bot. 1878. Flot. I. c. 74. Hepj. Hporen t. 63. f. 548. 

Ex.1 : Bepp 64a An/i \-,mi. 72. Ana Langob. 306. Am. 97. 

Gtuu. DisTHlu :— Bavaria. Italy. 

Bar. P*ov.— 2...W ,.19.26. 

KkolaSD : -Smart. Mr. Bomr. (1808.) 

SooTLAsn :— Mi.rr.nw. for. J. M. Orrmbit. Ben Lawera. Dr. Boll. 

Ikkuvd:— Butty. Miu Hutchiiu. Twelve Pin« ! Kylemore ! Mr. Larba- 

"Spore* .012 -18 mm. lone .006-8 mm. broad.* {Nyl.) Spore* .015 mm, 
long, .006 mm. brood. 

201. £. diiaformu, Fr. palf-yellowuk-wkitc, very thin, smooth, 
continuous or unequal or nmiiloso-arcolato, determinate. (K yellow 
C — ) ; apothecia numerous, scattered, moderate, plain-, marginal*;, 
black 1 hyputhecium black ; spores 8, fuscous, lineari -oblong, 1 

On trees, frequent. 

Stx :— Fr. in Mono. St. Vo»g. 745. Nyl. In Bot. Notl*. 1852. p. 175. Sceod. 
236. in [Hirt, Mudd Man. 216. 

Via :— Nyl. Bot. Noti». 1812. f. 1. 

Km :-Fellm. 21)0. Maudon Mad 1865. Mm. 268. A. B. Ansi 294. 296. 
8ch»r. 197. 199. M. 4 N. 745. in part. Mudd 187. 188. Zw. 849. Leigbt. 180. 
Henp 754. 

Gkoo. Dmtbib :— E. Lapland, Italy, Svritzerlud, Germany, Madeira, Arctio 
America. Hungary. 

BoT.Paov:-2,3...5...7...10. .12. .15...19...31. 

Knoi.asu:— <2helmaford! Mr. Piwott. Tcoddo! Mrt. Stanger. Kildalc ! 
Newton Wood! Howerdale I Mr.Mud.1. I.laiiiordal Bhropidiini. Krr. T.s, /„;■„. 
New Forest. Her. J. M. Crombu. Toy's Hill, Seven Oak*. Kent. Mr. Hoi ma. 
NeiwlihV Hill I Slir..|«dilr«. 

Scotland :— Bucbory ; near Aberdeen ; Breotnar ; Callander ; Blair Atbole. 
Brv. J. M. Orombit. Klllin, ! Broadalbone ! Blrlu of Aberteldy ! Or. Holt. 

IbclaND :— Aakew Wood ! DO. Kerry. Or. Taylor. Cuxtlebemard I Mr. 

Walk* :— Uarth 1 near Doleelley. Dr. Moll. Benarth ! Conway j Dolgelley ! 
Barmouth 1 Tanybwlch Wood, Capel Curig ! Capel Arthog ! 

ChaWMBL Islanbs :— LaCom>e! Noirmont ; St. Petor'a! Jeracy. Mr. Larlnt- 

" (hem .004 to .005 in. long by .0015— .002 In. broad. Spennogonia minute, 
pnnctiform, temiinunened, black ; npeniialia cylindrical, "UhikIiI, .0*11^5 ia. 
long by .00013 In, broad." IMudd.) "Spores .019-80 mm. long. .008—014 
mm. broad." (Nyl,) Spore* .02— .029 an. toa :•-. .009— .012 mm. broad. 

202. L. atroalba, Ach. gnUO- p t lht f t nt or cincreo-fiutcescent, 
Urtareoua, areoltto-tiijf'racto-oranulote, areola: plano-wnrrx, (K 
broumith C brownish) ; apothecia piano, appresscd, margin thickish, 
floxuoso, black ; kmot&eSum black or nigro-fiucovs ; sporea 8, 
fuscous, oblong or oblougo-cllipaoid, 1 -septate, large. 

On maritime quartzoso anil tghbtPW rxiekn, frequent. 

8TN :— Ach. Prodr. «3. (1798.) Syn. 11. Nyl. Scud. 232. {cxol. eyn). 

-Fr. L. S, 382. (fidn Nyl.) Felhn. Upp. 194. 
Gxoo. Dnvrara:— E. Lapland. Pyrenece, Sweden. 
Bor. Prov;-1 ,6 U U SV.SL 

lard : — Moreton and North Bovey, Devon. Rtr. J. P. Jonrt. 
SooTi-Airo ^-Kincardine ! liti. J. M. Crombit. 

lBKL*»ni— On maritime rockn, fn.|iiiiit. Mr. Carroll. Clifden ! Cnnemara. 
Mr. lAiroairjlitr. 



WaLbi :— Fori Hill I Goodwiok Bay! near FiahguanL Pambrokeabire. 

Chaxxu, Islasds :— Jeraey. Mr. Inrbnlatier. 

L. tpurui, Sili:ir. i. ximilar externally, but differ* in the eolnurleaa byj> •■' 

cium. »maller cporea Bud chemical reae'tlmi K valluw red, juid al»o from L 

atroaOtUa which ha» reaction K yellow then red " Sporn .024— 0S4 ton 

lonjf, .011—1" mm. broad." (Nyl.) Spore* .025- .029 mm long, .013—014 


203. L. badioatra, Flk. fuieowi OX fattO-grtft 
areolato-di/Fraet, rimulose, areola plauo-canvrx, scatter' a Of 
cent (K brownish C tavmyycilow ) -, apotheeia nib-innate, upprcwed, 
piano, black, margin thin, satin or flexuose j hypotheeium Mock ; 
spores 8, fuscous, oblongo-cllipsoid, I -septate, Un 

On alpine schistose rocks, rare. 

STN :-Flk. in 8pr*og»l N. Entdeck. 3. U5. (1*21.) Schar. Knum. 111. Nyl. 
Seand. 233. 

r*IO :-H»lipSp.ireu I. ".. I. 82. 

Exa :-Schier. 179. And Laneob. 191. Ami It. S. 291. Hcpp 753. 32. 

Oaoo. Dmriira :— Switaarlanrl, Aiwlria, Norway. Traua) Ivauia. 

Box. Pbov ;— 15...88. 

Sootlaxd .— Loch-na-Cat, Bon Lawcn. Hex: J. M. Qrombic 

Irelamd :— Kill»rn«y. Adm. Jtma. 

I >iitinot from L. atroolba by the different reaction. ' ' Spore* .030 — 86 mm. 
long, .016— 1H mm. broad." <AV.I "Hnonw .027 36 mm. lung, .01 
mm. broad." IT. M. Friet.) Spore* .0295— .0305 mm, long, .012— .013 mm. 

204. /.. atrobadia, Nyl. dull-brown or greyish-brown, tlimniith, 
areolato-difract, kypothalltu black, radiating at the circumference, 
(medulla I — ) ; apotheeia black, somewhat convex, immarginate, 
conenlorous within ; cpithocium violet-brown, with K faintly 
purple ; hypotheciuni brown ; spores 8. brown or blackish, oblong, 
1-septate ; gclatina hymenea intensely-bluish with iodine. 

On quartzose rooks. 1871. 

Srx : -Nyl. in Flora 1K72. p. 361. Crombie in Joiirn. Dot. n. a, 2. 115. 

Bot. Fhov :— 15. 

BOOtUSDi Summit* of Utin-y-Uli* ami Cairn Cnwar, Blair Athol*. Iter. 
J. M. (If? l.| 

" Allied t<> L. Uulio^itra. Sport* .028—30 mm. long, .010—14 mm. broad." 

205. L, ent it p s , (Wldnlx) einereoferruginou*, thickish, verru- 
cidoso-granultite, unequal, granules minute, crenate, at length con- 
glomerate, (K- (' — ) j li\|xithjillun uigrioaiit, radiant; apotheeia 

.-, black, i mkod, margin thin, elevated, entire ; ejsei- 
pulum nigrofiuaiu* ; hy/ntheeium fiuceseent ; pnniphyaci distinct, 
apices incnusnatc, fuscous ; asci ventrioOBO-fllaYvatO ; spores 8, 
fuliginoo-fuscous, ellipsoid, obtuse at the apices slightly constricted 
in the middle. 
On maritime rocks, rare. 1870. 

8w .— Whlnbe. in Ach. Meth. Suppl. 8. (1803.) Ach. 8yn. 20. Njrl 8cand- 
237. Lapp. Or. 162. 

EXS :-Th. M. Frla*. 69. 

i i«)X>. Distbis :— Norway, Lapland. 

Bot. Paov i l.v 

BoonaVD WWarsndlVaUMAiaUi Ktawttns! In /.M.Ormtto, 

>t«a .012 1" mm. long, .U0K-9 mm. broad. Spur** .011 — 1R man. loag, 
.007 -.011 mm. broad, (nyl.) "Sporas 011—18 mm. long, .007—11 mm. 
broad. Snarmatla adoular, arcuate : aterigmata ample" (T. SI. Frin.) 
Spofea ,01( '•>— I 1 ' mm. long, .0095 mm. broad. 



206. L. mi/riantrpa, (DC) cinrrascnit, thin, untifual, or tub 
granulate, effuse or i '. (K — C — ) ; apothefitt umalt, plane or 

mib-convox, black, nuagjmd : t&potAtcum nifnjutetut ; 7*)rw 8, 
fuscous, oblong, 1-scptatc, small, epispore distinct. 

On trees, old wood palings, and rocks, frMTttHt. 

Bret-IXC. Fl. Krinc. 2. p. 346. (1H0B.) Ach. Syn. 18. Nyl. Scand. 237. 
Mudd Man. 217. 

G*nn. DiSTRin —Italy, Sweden, Germany, Hungary, SwlUerland, Fruia, 
E. Lapland, Arctic America, South America, 

•'Spore. .009— .01« mm. long, .0055 .0070mm. broad. Spore* .010— IB mm. 
long, .006— 8 mm. broad." f.Vi/'.'i ' S|>orw .009— 16 mm. long. .004 — 8 mm. 
brood.* [T. M. fries.) " Sport* .003— .0032.5 in. long, .001— .00125 in. broad. 
Siirrinatia ■-vliudrii-al, ntrM "r undulate .OOS in. long, by .00012 in. broad." 
(Mudd.) Hypothcciuxn a nigrofuwous central dim tenanted from the nigro- 
RtOMM lateral ciciimlum by a paler interral. Paraphyaea diatinct, colnerent, 
apicea large, nurro-iuacmti or nigricant. Spore* .012— .015 mm. long, .0048— 
.006 mm. broad. 

A. Cortieo'.ar forms. 

(bnu chloropolia (Fr.) thitkish, cnurtrtooous, viridi^inerasceni, 
rugoso-verruculose, unequal. 

On boarded buildings, old palings and trees (elm, pear}. 

8T5C:-Fr. 8. V. Sr. I. p. 115. (1846.) 

Exa:— Fr. I* 3. 353. Zw. 400. Senior. 628. 472. L*4ght. 63. Anzi It. Sup. 


Geoo. Dihtrib :— Scandinavia, Germany, Switzerland, Italy. 

Hot. Prov :-2...5, 6.10.. St 

ESQLASD :— Browrtun ! and Haletworth '. Mr. D. Turner. Stoketler I York- 
ahlr*. Mr. Mudd. Church Stretton ! Lyth HUH Shrewsbury! Wortield! 

Walkb I - Knighton ! Radnorshire. 

Chaxxu. Iai.AXDa : — Beanport I Mr. LaHmleslieT. 

farm pinicoUt, Ach. thin, l/roumish-grrt/, effuse, pidvcrident'j- 

On pines, yew, willow, frequent. 

Sn» :— Ach. Math. p. 66. Hook. Br. Fl. 176 

Fio :— E. But t. 1851. Hepp Spnren t, 6. I. 41. and 41 

Exs :-Hepp 41. 42. Schttr. 201). Ma**. 2U5. Anxl Ital. fat, 298. Zw. KM 
194 B. Nyl. Par. 61. Mudd 190. Bold. 124. 

Okoo. Dibtkib : — Switzerland, Italy. Germany, France. 

Hot. Prov :-2, 8...S . 7. K. .10 20. 

Enclami:— Sumexl Mr. Bvrrer. Stokealey ! Yorkihire. Mr. Mudd. Twy. 
emu ! Leiccatenhire. Bet. A. Bloiam. near Lewknor ! Whealfield Fark ! 
Oxfordshire. Mr. Larbalalitr. Coplhom I Lonpington ! Shrawibiiry ! 

IriiAXD . — Carrigaloe ! Great laland and Blarney! Cork. Mr. Carroll. 

Walk* .— Battwa-y-eoml 1 

forma quercieala, Rabh. thin, whitish, tjfuse, slightly pulverulento- 
gronulose, or cvanesc ut.. 
On oaks, rare. 1857. 

Svk :— Rabenhonl L. Enron, Ex*. 832. 

Rx»:-IUbh. 832. 

Gboo. Dihtrib:— Enropa. 

Box. Pbot:-5...7...31. 

Kkolaxd :— Wortield ! Shropshire. 

Walcm :— Bettwa-y^oed I between Corwen and Bala I (1857.) 

C'RAMSU. Ihlakim : - Maufant ! St. Saviour, Jtney. Mr. Isirbmlatirr, 

furina sajwupkila, Ach. ceriistnctvus, rmnetcent ; a/iothecia larger, 
plane, margined, ft r aggregate, numerous. 



On subputrescent wood and stumps, probably not uncommon. 

8« :-Ath. L. Univ. p. 177. (1810.) 
Via : Mm». Rlc. 1C6. JIopp Sporen t. 17. I 1B0. 
Bn :-M. & N. 1838. rULH. 7:>0. Anxi It S. »*. 300. 301 H.pp 190. 8i 
198. Richordunn 141. 149. 
Otoo. DtsTain :— SwilurUnd, Qwiuanv, N. America. 
Bot. Pro? .—10 ...31. 

Esqlaxij.— Farndalc ! Yorkshire. Mr. MudJ. (1SJC.) 
CBAmnu, Islands : — Bt (Smtmtfl Bay I Jetiwy. Afr. LarWalirr, 

B. SaxieoUtr formt. 

forma areolala, Leight. einerattent, thin, effuse, Minutely 
areolate^ areola plane ; apothecia black, numerous, crowded, adnato- 
aeavile, plane ; margin inghtat prominent., thiekish and paler, 
eventually obliterated; exciptiluai Intend, nigl ■ irt ; 

hypothecium central nigro-fusoous ; paraphywe 
apices rery largo, nigro-fuscous or nigricant ; spores 8, fuscous, 
oblong, 1 -septate, small ; golatina hymenca 1 violet. 

Stx >-Uightoii In (JnvMm B. p. 81. (1870.) 

Eia !-Sch«r. 447. 

Gwoa. PinnitB : Switzerland. 

Bot. Bkovi-o, 6...J8. 

Esror.AMn :— Caer Cawtdoc '. Shrojuhire. (1856.) 

I»h.aki> .— BaUinahincli ! !*»<■ of Doughrungh (cant tide) '. Mr. LariaUttitr. 

WlUii — Goodwiek B»y ! near ftshauard, Penibrokeehlre. 

Spora* .012— .014 mm., .006 -.007 mm. broad. Tho thalltu hM no re- 
action with K or C. but when C in applied aftsr being wet with K, a lingular 
whitieh efferveeconee emuae. 

forma trprosa, I-eight. albidtxineratceirf, areola) dissolved Into 
leprost, pulverulent, effuse condition. 

Sth ;— IXghton in Grevillea 5. p. 10. 0876.) 

Exa: -Follm. 197. Zw. 17f. I .eight. UL Modd 18». 

Gsoo. Dnrrarn : — E. Ijtpland, Germany. 

Bot. Pbov :-6, 6 U> :M. . _ 

KxatAXD :— Cliffrfgg- I Yorloihir*. Mr. Mudd. Haughmond Ilfll ! Stoopahlre. 

Ikku»»Ti-— Kyluiuor* Mountain* I Mr. Larbalatitr. 

Walsh ;— Goodwiek B»y ! Newport Road ! near Kinhguard, Penibrokeehire. 

forma ecnutacea, Lejght, iliallxu nearly or quite twmttcetU 
obliterated, leaving the numerous minute apothecia naked and 

Sr» :— Leigbton in GravOlea 6. p. 10. (1876.) 

Bot. I'nov.-— 2-..6, 6...10...20...2IX 

Ksulano :— Aahiiigton Common I Siih»*i_ Mr. Borrtr. CUffrfgg! Yorkshire. 
Mr. Mudd, Haughmond Hill ! Sharpatonee Hill I Lyth Hill: Ixwgmjmd 1 

IaruLM) :- Near KllcuLly, Uorfc ! Mr, Carroll, near Tillage of Glencorbot I 
Doughruagh Mountain ! Galway. Mr. l.artuleititr. 

WALM: — Goodwick Bay! St. David's I Pembrokeshire. Chapel l*wn! near 
Gacr Ditches, lladncnhire. 

Intermediate ataUa wan often obaorvable connecting the abort) foi 
Eitemally f. tcnutaeta rwemblee /,. dirpama, NyL, bat the diffcitait »j 

Crent coufution. Acoording to •pecimena recoiled year* ago from 
tct, a» occurring wltli hi* truo /.. jmminuln, on Hint* on tho 8ua*ez Do«__ 
thla form would appear to be the lichen mentioned by him In E. But 
3887, ae (irulMibly "true/,, tyjtta,' U xlnmlt !«■ rcnMmbcnd that Ml. 
BenCt determined hia licheni by external character* alone, the conrimiatory 
uharaoter of the aporca bcini" at that time ncarcely thought nf 



forma optgrapkina, Leight. thallus obliterated ; apothecia coaetr- 
vale into gyrocarpov* or Ofiegraphinr minute clutter*. 

Sr.t :-Lei(rhton in GrevilleA .1. ». NX (1876.) Leieht. Br. Graph, p. 12. 

ho : Ulght. Br. Graph, t. 5. F. 6. a. b. 

Bot. Pbov ;-fl, 7. 

Wift-llWWIll Her. Hiyjh Davits. North Cliff, Tenby! (1872.) Cwm 

KfyiiTi'.n l.loi.rl Naut Francnn. 

207. L. vernicoaia. Tuck, viridi siramineout, cnistoocous, 
effuse, impoied if minute granules), at length conglo- 
merated into a tubrimoH om*t\ aportoctg black, rather aiuall, 
oppressed, nearly plane, witli a tliin mot evanescent margin. 

On Btones and rocks. 

St* :— Tuck. Bunt, Udv N. Amor. Suppl. 1. p. 429. (1858.) 
Oeoo. Disruin :- X. America. 
Bvr. Pbov :— 31. 

Chakkh. IsLAStM:— Fliquet Bay I and B» Move ! Jeraey. Mr. Larbalestitr, 
8|>e<:iinFiiH (mm tlift above localities which I have Men, »r» evidently aaii- 
oolar forms of L. myri/>air)xi. 

208. L. nigritula, Nyl. cinemtcent, minutely granulote, or pul- 
Yereo-granulose, thin, indeterminate or evanescent, (K — C — ) ; apo- 
thecia miaul.-, opake, plane or Bub-courex, black, margin thin, 
soon obliterated ; hyputhecium fuscous or fuscescent, excipu/um late- 
rat, nvgro-futmui ; spores 8, fuscous, ellipsoid or oblong, 1 -septuto, 
minute. ; epinpore thin. 

On trees, oak, pine, and wood, rare. 1861. 

Srx:— Nyl. in Bot. Notln. 1813. p. 99. Scand. 23*. Mudd Man. 217. 

Fro : — Hipp Sporen t. 6. f. 19. 

Ex« :-Nyl. ivj. /.»-. 126. Hepp 43. Anzl It. S. 293. 

Geoo. Dwtbib :— Pari*. Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Hungary, Denmark, 
Sweden, Norway. Finland. 

Bot. Pbov: 2. 8 -.7 .10. 

Esolaxd :— New Fnn-itt, Hanta. Adm. Jonn. Kamdale. CleTeland. Mr. 
Mudd. (1861J Seven Oaks. Toy'. HiU. Hytho, Kent ! Mr. Holm,,. 

WALB8 :— Trafriw ' Ghnlet Rock! Fwlhrlli Un gram), Dolgelley I 

"ftMCM .007 -11 mm. long, .0035— .0045 mm. broad. ■' (Njit.) "Sporea 
.006—10 mm. Long, .0f»-4 mm. broad." (T. M. Fr.\ " SpOTM .00175— .00226 
In. long, .00075 in. broad." (Mudd,) S|»r« .006—9 mm. long, .002-3 mm. 

209. L. coraeina, Ach. nigrieant or cinereonigricant, areolato- 
rimoso^iiffrart, areola- small, plane or Conner, smooth, (K yellow 
tliin ml); hi/p: •thallus very black; apotkreia produced from the 
hypothallus, small, innate or udpreascd, very black, plane or 
convex, margin thin, entire; hypotliec.i u m thick, black; thalamium 
peUueid; paraphysos cohicri:nt> apices nigrieant; spores 8, 
ftuco-nigricant, ellipsoid, 1-scptatc; golatina hymenea intense- 

blue with iodine. 

On alpine rocks, rare. 1808. 

8T»:-Ach. Syn. 11. 
atm* ot 233 

Fta :— E. Bot. 283. r >. Mil Id t, 4 p. 80. 

EXS :— M. * N. MS. Fellm. 19l Cromhle 92. Am. 633. 

GBOO. DlSTRIB »— Norway, Lapland. 

Bot. Pbov:— 7...10...15. 

KiraUVD :— Xe»r Kaaeby, Mr. Mudd. Stavnlrv. Mr, Mariindale. 

Scotuaxii: -Head of Lochlee in Glen E»k, An sua Mr. a. Don. (1808.) 
( 'airni;i>rm ! /kef*. Borrrr. Murrone. Adm. Jons*. 

. 11. pro. p. (1817.) Smmrf. Lapp. 142. NyL Scand. 232. I.. 

.-.'.•«•.. Mml.LMan. 215. 



WaL» :— Bannmith. Rrr. T. S,uun/. 

"8pore» .012—17 mm. Ion*:, .007— 010 mm. broad. 
—17 mm. lung, .00) 10 .i. ' i T. M. 

in. 1»ok by .0015 to .002 in, broad." 
.OCX" mm. broad. 

fHyl.) -SpoTW.011 

"ftoww .w:i to .«x» 

> Spore* .OH— .0165 mm. long. 

210. L. ruli-di*ciformU, Lcight. dirty-yellotrit/i irhite, thin, 
ntinui'h/ artolato-rimvlose, plant, nigro-limitftte, (K pelltw then 
red) ; apothecia scattered, sessile, plane, blackish, more or lc 
pruinost!, margin tlii. k. Midrc. paler ; hypothtcivm Hack; 
nvmcnium pale-brown ; spot l'l"'ig, 1-acptate. 

On rock*, not common. 1851. 

Cjroc Dmrntn :— Europe. 

BOT. Paov:-I ..7 ...20. .81. 

Exgiaxii:— Torouay ! Devon. Dr. Dtakm. Lamorna! Cornwall ifcr. T. 

IkelaKP : — Salruek ! Conncmara. Mr. Larbalestier. 

Waj bnent! near ('noway; Dlganwy ! near Conway! Ceowajr 

Mountain ! H«lyh»ail Mountain ! CtlbCoeh ! Siiowdon. 

Channel Islamim :— South tide of Jcrbourc ! Mr. lutrbalalier. 

Nut to be i-onfomidwl with /.. «rM»rual, Mass, ot X* diiciformit. Ft. wblch 
hare a different chemical reaction and other characterise*. Paraphyan die- 
tinct. Spore* .018 .Oin mm. long, .007— .00* broad. 

Var. mewsperma, Nyl. similar to the typo, but with apothecia 
often cresio-pruinose, and smaller spores. (K yellow then red.) 
On rocks, rare. 1868. 

Stn :— Nyl. in Flora 1808. p. 478. Crombie. En. 88. 
CKoa.,l>i!iTai8 :— Europe. 
Bot. Paov :— 31. 

Cmax.vki. Inlands :— Jerbourg. Guernsey; Const of Sark: Jereey! Sir. 
, Larhaltttitr. 

"Spore* .009— .012 mm. long. .005— 7 mm. broad." (Ifyl.) Spore* .01— .011 
nun. lung, .006—7 mm. broad. 

211. L. tuecedens, Nyl. whitish, thin, granulate, unequal or 
Kub-areolatc , apothcia /usaui-Uaek, moderate, margined, colour- 
leas within ; hypothecium fuscous or rubricoso-fuscous ; spar-- 
niarescent, ellipsoid, ximple or 1 -septate, epispore thin ; pnraphyatt 
moderate, articulate, ipa thioMned, fuscous or fusccsccnt 
gelatina hymonca crorulesccnt, then vinous-red with iodine. 

On alpine micaceo-schietoae rocks, rare. 1868. 

8TK :— Nyl. in Flora 1866. p. 872. ' 
(Saoc. Dmtbib:— Europe. 

:'nav— I.'.. 
Scotland : — Ben Lawere. Aim. Jones. 1806. 

Compare L. ttttdrnt, Nyl. Sixteiiiatiiwlly near /-. nigrttuia, NyL 
.011—14 mm. long, .00*5— .0055 mm. broad. 

218. L. Ilnokerii, (IWr.) white or pale-j/elJow, consisting 
oppressed or plicato-ruyose squama, somewhat farinose, effigurat 
at tho circumference, (K. faint yellow Gain* y> How) ; apothecia 
twill, Made, piano ; hyjtothccium black ; spores 8, fiuam, ellipsoid, 
1 septate. 

Ma earth on alpine rocks, rare. 1808. 

8» .—NyL Prodr. 189. 

0(00. IlcrraiB :- Iuly. Helvetia, Pyrenea*. 

But. Phot :-15. 

Sooti -mi :— Ben Lawer* ! Missrs. llookrr A Barrer. (1808| 



Imbedded in the tb»llu» in ■ minute Spkrria Ifaoierii. Nyl. (Danmpia, Mm,) 
with rlli|»ulil 3-5-W|.t»tn liutciiiin wnt. j *<••• l.i-itfht. Aug. Licb. t. -T. i. It. 
Verruearia, Borr. in K. Bot. Suppl. 8628. I. 2. 

213. L. prctcaveiuia, Nyl. tballu* obscure, thin, scarcely 
visible t apolheeia black, plane or somewhat concavo, margined, 
small ; hyputhcium someivhat reddish-hrnrn. above more intente 
in, colour; epitheciutn obscurely amber-brown ; sporu 8, faintly 
blackish, elliptical, 1 -septate ; jtarnplu/tcs slender ; gelatma 
hymenea blue then vinous-red witli iodine. 

On decaying holly, very rare. 1869. 

Stn :— Croruhie in Heetnan Journ. Hot. 7. 232. (1860.1 Enum. 88, 

Giou. Dmtrib :— Europe. 

Bot. Paov:— 2. 

i. mid :— Near Lyndhuret in New Forett. Rtr. J. M. Cnmbie. (1869). 

Distinct from L. myriooarjw, IX". by the form of the piraphyies and reaction 
with indinu, awl from It. ajprasn, Mrpp, liy 111'- parapliyiuu ana colour of upore* 
and bypotheoium. 

214. L. deludens, Nyl. whitish, firm, thin, rimou, (K pale- 
yellowish), surrounded by a very thin, black hypothallus ; 
apothecia black, innate, circumcised, plane, obtusely margined, 
concolorous within ; hypothec.ium brown ; spore* 8, fuscous, 
1 septate ; paraphyscs discrete, regular, moderate, clavate, 
brownish ; golatina hymenca I intensely-blue. 

On weathered quartzo&e stones in alpine regions. 1871. 

8t» i-Nyl. in Flora 1873. p. 289— 300. 

Bot. Pmov :— 15. 

Scotland :— Summit of Cairo Oowar, Blair Athule. An. J. H. Oremhit. 

"Allied to L. nllwltnt, Nyl. Sporei .022—27 mm. lone, .008—13 mm, 
broad." (ifyl.) 

215. L. hyperisa, Strn. cineraseent or plumbeo-cineraseent, thin, 
smooth, continuous, obscurely limited, (K — C— ); apothecia black, 
tessUe, plane or some what convex, rather large, margin obtuse, 
internally ciueraacent ; hypolhecium fuscencent, grumous ; spores 8, 
fuscous, ellipsoid, 1 septate, very often with 3 or 4 nucleic rather 
large ; paraphyses distinct, slender, often articulate, apvet 
branched, interspersed with numerous granules; golatina hymenoa 
1 intensely-blue, almost black. 

On smooth bark of trees. 1874. 

8tw :— Stilton in Urevillea 3. p. 35 (1874). . ', 

Bot. Pbdv ;— lfi. 

ScoTI.Ajcn :— near Killin, IVrlh. t>r, Slirton. (1874). 

Spore* .016— .022 mm. long. .009— .012 mm. broad. («r(n. | 

216. L. c-xcelsa, Leight. white, thin, effuse, arenlatorimote, 
areola plane and flat, somewhat alumni;, ( K Jpsllou C yilluw); 
apothecia black, or violet -black, small, innate or innato^essile, 
plane or somewhat iBtrgta thickiah, prominent ; hypo- 
theciiiui in ■.'i-o-t'iiseous ; |):u-:i|ili_v.<"".; indistinct, apices tiigro. 
fiuootu, incrii5sate, I dirty-blue ; spores 8, fuligineofuscous, 
oblong, 1-scptAte, small. 

Oo micaceo-schistosa rocks, rare. 1875. 

flm :-LeUjhton in Grevillea 4. p. 78. (1876). 
Bot. Pnov s 8& 



Imxutd :-8anait of Kybatora Moimtaina '. oo. Galway. Vr. UrUlaHrr. 


Sporm MSt— MM mm. long', .C07 bud. broad. 

217. L. impramda, Leight alhido*iarra***l, t/nn, .ft/my, 
rintulote, nigro-timitate, (K yellow then red) ; apotkteia Uaet, 
minute, jmnctiformy numerous, crowded into small gronpes of 
3 or 4 or more, impretted or tunttn in the thatiw*, eaeh mnJem 
apciAteittm eirctm*?U4*d to at to appear tumnmJed by a thin 
tkalline margin ; hypolheciuin thin, uigro-ihacous ; paraphyse* 
indistinct, apices colourless ; hyincnium tingr<l with brown .- 
tporet 8, ftucout, rotundo-obloxg, l-orptatt, more or loss constricted 
in the mi<l<llo. 

On bluish-grey slate*, rare. 1876. 

St* s-Mastaa Trana. 3d mr. rol. L p. 237. 

Flo j— linn. Tnuu. L c. tab, 82. t. 1 and 1 

Hot. Paov -.-«. 7. 

Wai » :-I Jutcsic Rri4r* ! and Fort Hill ! near FkhKUard, Fembnkohirt. 
(IbTsX Featinfcff Boad mar lMfoUey ! near Tr«u*doe! 

Galatiaa hymw** I Arty-eta* Spans .014— .01*5 nam. loos. .009 an. 

brood Several plant* »n>w on the aamc atone, and by the iiaion .■( their dark 

ithallia map out tbe inrfac* aa lu L. nratrapkim. AilUd to U tteOutota. 

Tavl bat ■l"-i net by lh» thin filmy nijro-limiut* thallon, larger apnrws l-3rf 

Urfcr, and the tinguUrly impreaaed a|*>thecla. 

218. L. ryuoUa, Leigfat albido-rineratcent, thick, tartareout, 
diffrarto-areolaU, areola plane or subplano-conYCX, irregularly 
urinlded, nigro-limitnte, (K yellow then red) ; apothecia nigro- 
Jutrout, opaice, rutty, large, prominent, and sessile, numerous, 
margin thick, paler, entire or flexuose ; hypotAertvm very thiei, 
/uxo-nigritant ; hymenium thin, brownish, paraphysea indict" 
apices thickened, nigro-fuscous ; tportt 8,/mcoim, oblong, 1 septate, 

On Cambrian rock*, rare. 1876. 

8ts :— Linnean Tranr. 2nd »cr. rol. 1. p. 287. 
FlO :— Mnn. Tran*. 1. c. t. 32. f. 6 and 6. 
Bot. Pbov —6. : Fort Hill ! near FUhg-nard, P«mbrokeahin (Sept. 1H76.) 
Sporn JD16- "17 am. 1MB. .007— .008 mm. broad. Gelatina hyinenea I 
paJa-dirtybtoe, Medulla I 


llypothexium eolourlei*. 

219. L. atroalbella, Nyl. grueo-palletrent or iusco-griseous or 
canmo-fusceseent, areotatorimoto-iliffract, areola anally plane, 
tmooth, (K yellow then red) ; hypothalliu nigro-futctnit ; apotkecia 
innate in the areola, plane, margined ; hypotheeium eolonriett ; 
spores 8, fiucovt, ellipsoid, 1 -septate. 

On quartzoso anil schistose rocks, froqiwut . 

Stu h Nyl. <>i«. Bobs. -'. n. (UttJ afadd lias -'it. 

Via : Hepp Spnren t. B. f. 31, t. 8L f. 529. 
■ Hipp it 5». Mndd. 188, Uigfct 1*4. 

GSOO. Dihtbiii :- (lermany, Pimm, Sweden. 

Hot. Paov : 5. 10. -19. 

lis itASiD:— Near Kaaby ! Uattenea Hank: T.atil>mii|f)i KlRff! CI*T«auid. 
Mr M'-id. Haughmond Hill ! Lytb Hill ! Bodbury BinR ! near Church Strrt- 
ton, Sbmpahlr*. 

Ijulasd :— Kilourry ! n«ar Cork. Mr. Onrelt. 



" 8noi<a* .012—13 ram. long, .007—8 mm. broad. Spore* .010—18 mm. long, 
.007—9 mm. broad." (Ay.) " Spore* .003 to .0035 id. long, .00125 to .001? » 
In. broad." (MuM.) Sporti .013 mm. long, .005 -«S mm. tinuul. 

220. L. iilocizoides, Loight. cintreo-albescenl, lartareo-pulferu- 
lent, almost ovuncsccnt, (K — C — ) ; apothecia scattered, at first 
punctiform, immersed, then emerso-aduate, plane, j'utwM-black, 

"i paler badio-fuscous, margin paler; hypAhccium 

colourless ; spores 8, fuscous, rotunda-oblong, 1 -septate. 

On calcareous rocks, 1851. 

8r* :-L. aloeiso, Lright. Lid.. R 2d. »d. 310. 
Exs :-Am. 263. 364. 

fiBOa. DlHTHIO :— Italy, H.narU. 

Hot. Pkuv :-l ..5...7...20. 

ExtiLASD :— Huxton ! Derbyshire. Dr. Uoli. Torquay ! Dr. Diuiin. Watton- 
IUii«r-:nare ! Mr. Jvihuti. Llanymvmicli UUI ! 

Ikkuixd :— C»rlg»loo, Goat Iiland ! Mr. Carroll. 

Walk* :— Eglwyaeg rock* ! Craig Breldden ! Dlganwy near Conway ! (185L) 
I.I iti In... 1 

Not L. alociia, Maaa. Synin. 42. which ia there described »• having 
" .lUphanoua" or colourleM •pore*. Paraphytoti distinct, apicea dark brown. 
Spore* .015— .016 nun. long, .008—9 mm. broad. Kpiiporo narrow. 

221. L. Uucoclinella, Nyl. while, cream-coloured or cinereous, 
tortureous, difracto-are.olato-verrucose, (K yellow C red) ; apothecia 
appressed to the areol<e, or siibiunatoau.iailc, black, plane, sub- 
immnrginatc ; hypothectum colourless ; spores 8, fuscous, oblong, 

Ou quartzose and schistose rocks, not common. 

tits : -Nyl. in litl. 1870. 

Ex* : -Leight. 217 (in part). 

(Jjcoo. Dmn : — Italy, IJcrmany. 

Bot. Pkuv.— 2. .5. .7 .28. 

Em;LANi>:-3hanldlnl bio of Wight. Jtev. T. Saliceu. Lyth 1IU1! Caar 
Caradoo ! ShropHliire. 

IukuM) : -Clifden ! Connemara. Sir. Lnrbnlestier. 

Wiua :— Digaiiwy ! near Cmiwuy. 

Spores often uucleolate, epinpore distinct, .013— .0146 mm. long, .008—9 mm. 

222. L. occulta, (Korb ) pallido-luteseenl, effuse, adnate, thin, 
minutely areolate, areoUe somewhat convex or rugulaso-glcbulose ; 
hyputhallus dark ; apothecia nigro-fuscous, very minute, adnate, 
at first marginod by the t hall us, eventually free and somowhat 
convex, proper margin more or less visible; epithecium fuscous; 
hypdheaum tvtmcuU ; paraphyses indistinct ; spore* 8, fuscous, 
small, oblong, l-septate ; thallus tingod yellow with K and on 
immediate subsequent application of C still yellow, but IMS 
obliterated (K y C— ). 

On rocks, sparingly. 1872. 

Sy* :-Korb. Par. 186. (1865.) Laight in Greriilea 1. p. 88. (.1872.) 

m : -t.revllIe» U 4. f. 6. 

Bxa :— Loight. 217. (in part). 

Oaou. UlSTUin : — «Jermauy, Switzerland. 

Bor. Paov:— 5... 7. 

Emolaso .—Lyth Hill ! Shropshire. 

Wales :— Diganwy near Conway ! ){ettw*-y-coed '■ (1872.) Moal-y-gort 1 

Sporea .015 -.0155 mm. long, .0075— .008 mm. broad. 

228. L. discolor, (Uepp.) palc-cinereo-brotmisA, thin, tar- 



tareoiu, minutely areolito-rimnl'se or almott continuous, artota 
plane, subvemu-ulose, limited by a more or less conspicuous 
darkish-brown hyjxtthallus (K y C y) ; apotheria blackishbroKn, 
minute, numerous, adnalt or subinnato-scssile, plane, margin 
thickUh, persistent, more less flexuose ; hjpothecium colour- 
less ; poraphyscs distinct, apices fuscous ; spores 8, fuscous, 
1 -septate-oblong, cell, nucloolatc, cpixporc distinct. 
On rocks, chalks, flints, Ac, not uncommon. 1842. 

8t» :— Htpp Km. 319. 320. Israrwrn discolor***, Njl, in Flora 1868 p. 547. 
— Hepp Sporan t. 39 f. 319. 830. 

Ex»:— Aim Langoli. VJX l'.G. 

Grou. Dihtiiib :— Italy, Hungary. 

lkrr. Pnov.— 1, 2 ,12 20. 
■ E» :— Sniwi Downs I Mr. Borrer, (1843). Penzance ! Rev. T. Sal* 
Torquay ! Dr. Dentin, between Ingo and Stavclcy ! Mr. Marliiulolt. Ka 
bourne I Mr. Ranrr. 

IaaXAXD r— Wfaitepoint ! Cork. Mr. Carroll. 

Sporea .01'.' .021 nan. lon«. .01— .011 unn. broad. 

224. L. mttndakh Stirt. fuscous or nigro-futrout or black, 
minutely »]U(tmuloio-oreotate, areola) oppressed, contiguous or dis- 
persed, detenu inti • ; IijuoUiaDuj black; apolhecia Marl; smalt, 
adnate, plane, margined : hy/x>lh*eium colourless ; puraphywa 
slender, not well discrete, apiees fuscounblack, claratc, ooa- 
, glut iuute ; asci saccate ; spores 8, virescent or /menus, ellipsoid, 
l-stptate, binwleate, nuclei rather large, generally virescent and 
sometimes conjoined hr :t tube. 

On rocks, rare. 1877. 

8TH :— Slirtnn In SoottUh Naturallat 4. 1G6. (1SJ7). 
But. Phov .—16. 

i axi) :— Near Oarve. Dr. Stirton. (1877). 
"Krlatina hymonea I blue tlmn dark-violet, the a*ci vlnoao-i'ulratttBt." 

D. Spores 1-septate, colourless. 

* lli/pothseium dark. 

225. /,. titfosa, (Mont) dirty-ockraeeous, tartarcous, rimoto- 
artotaU, areolar plane, sometimes lobulate, (K — C — ); apotheeia 
black within and teithout, at first innate and immarginate, I 
oppressed, plane, margin thin, prominent, entire ; hypotheduvs 
black; spores 8, colourless, oblong, 1 -septate, small. 

On mountain rock*, rare. 

BtI :-Monto«ne M.S. in S.-hier. K„. lit;. (1H50). 

Via r-flm Simwn t. 59. f. 508. 

Exa:-Schier. 579. Zw. 348. Anzi L&ngoh. 360. Hqm nofi. 

liioo Dimhiii : l\i. ^ny, Switzerland, llurirary. Lombard*. 

Bor. «BOV:-l i ..":. * * 

Bhulaxii: Think, YorkaMr*. Mr. Safer. SUrcrow] Deronahlre ! Mr. 
PqsjU -'hrojHhire. 

Wauh :— Cider Idria ! north-wart. 

Spora .01— .012 nun. long, .005—6 mm. broad. Paraphyte* dlntlnct, apices 
lacraaaate. nigricant. Excipulum block, hypotbedum brown-black. 

226. L. ehdlylcia. Dorr, cinereo-fusoesccnt or leaden-black, 
thin, slightly tortureous, minutely cracked, (K— C — ); apotheria 



i, •uperfiolal, scattered, black, plane, margin entire, slightly 
rated; hfpo&tehm nigrofiucous, tlnckish : lateral cicipulum 

l.iui.-h-hlack ; paraphysat diatiuct, apices nigricant; tportt 8, 

colourless, lincari-oblong, 1 -septate, mall. 

On rocka, tilea, flinta, Ac, not uncommon. 1881. 

ST* :-Borr. in E. Bot. Suppl. 2687. Nyl. PhkI.-. I.T.. Alu.ld Man. 180. 
E. Bot. Supp!. 2687 l\ 2. Hepp Spore* t 4. t. 13. * t, 58. f. 498. 
!.■». li.pp l:. 4!I8. An/.. Ungob. 44H. 

Fiu :~E. Bot. Sup 

Geoo. Dixthis :— Europe. 
BOT. Put.v ; 1, •-'-..5, l!, 7..10 .1!) ..2C...31. 

KwUliPt- Built I Mr. Homr. (1831.) Ayton ! Cleveland ; n#»r Kirvxult. 
BiMnle. Yorkshire. Mr. Miidd. near Brighton ; Lancut Down, Cornwall. />/. 
'Abtt. WnkU ! PfatatCord Hill ! ffanghiriOTiri 1 1 tit ! Shropahire-. 
Scotland :-B*n L,»wera and Craur Guie. Btr. J. M. Cromhie. 
ItttLAxn.- —! Dr. Taylor. Whitepoint ! near Cork : Blackwater; 
Blackalone Bridge; Mr. Cbrrofi, Kylemora: Dawro* Bridg* I GUuoorbot; 
J>tterraor«, co. Galway. Mr. Larbalatur. »— Aberfwrnaatl DohnUey. itr. J/oii. Trefriw fall*! 

Chahmil Ihlaxus : — Bonne Nuit; Koxel Valley ! Jereey. Mr. Larialatltr. 

" Spermogoni* minute, uunctifunn, aemi-lmmenod. Spermatia ellipaoid. 

•holt .0005 in. long, by .0001 in. broad. Spores .002 to. 0025 in. long, by .0005 

to .00075 in. broad?' iMudd. I ' ' Spore* .007—010 nun. long, .00*23— .003 mm. 

broad." ( Nyl.) Spore* .007— .012 mm. long, .0025— .0035 mm. broad. 

forron tcnutacm, Loight. thallus evanescent and obliterated. 
Wales : - Goodwlck Bay ! Pembrokeihire. (1876). 

227. /,. umbrinella, Nyl. umbrint-braim, Uiin, subruf/ul,,.tr t 
rimuhv: a/xtfAeeia black, prominent, plane, sub-margined, 
whitish within ; rpii/tr,-ium and hi/polhecium brown ; tportt 8, 
eolourlttt, fiui/trm, simple »r l-Atptutr ; paraphysos with brown 
clavate apices ; gelatina hymenca I bluish then vinous-reddish. 

On micaceous rocks, rare. 1876. 

Sys :-Nyl. in Flora 1876. p. 309. 
Bot. ruov :— as. 

IrKI.amj s— Ihwnn river, Connemara. Mr. iArbalertitr. (1876). 
" Spore* .00*— .014 ram. long, .002—3 mm. broad. Nearwit to ft. proninula 
Mart, but with tlilnuur thullii* and different reaction with iodine." ( Nyl. ) 

228. L. applnnala, (Fr.) griitv-palUseent, thin, disperto- 
areolate, ui-euhc plano-convex, depressed, (K brownish C 
brownish) ; hypoihnUui niijrieant predominating ; apothecia black, 
piano, innato-scssile, margin thick ; hy| n black ; 
paraphysos coiiglutiuate, apices clavate, fusco-nigricant ; apores 8, 
colourless, oblong, 1 -septate. 

On quartzoNi! and nchi»tose rocks, not common. 1866. 

BfBt— Da S. V. Be. p. lie. (1846). L. attvalba mr. Morotaora, Nyl. LicJL 
TTotm. 1. In B..t. Noti». 1853. p. (i. Siran.l. 233. L. totludtni Nyl In Flora 1870, 
p. 38. l„,i K )it. I„ Kl. 2ded. 314. 

Kxs .— Kr. L. Sn. 382 C. (fide T. M. Frio*. L. Seand. 618). Am. 232. 

(>UOG. DlSTIim :— Si-jiTiilinnvi 
Bot. I'hov:— 6, 7..15...26. 
Scotland :— Killin ! Hreadslbane. 



tier. J, M. Cnmbit. B*n I,awer* I Dr. 

Walks : -Barmouth ! Cwm GU* 1 Snowdon : Llvn-y-Ca* ! Cadcr I<lri» ; Pen 
Cow! n*ar Finhguard, P-iiihruluahtr* ; Towyn ! Holyhead! 

Ikklamii :— Kylenwro t Salrock Road I to. Galway. Mr. larkaUMier. 

" Spore* .018— 27 mm. Ii.n«. .UO'J .UU mm. broad." (Nyl.) - Sporr* .016 
—29 mm, long. .000— 13 mm, broad." W. M. Fr.) Gelatina hymonru I dark- 
bine. Spore* .026 mm. long, .011 mm, broad, colourle**, nometiumi (tiaotMcntt. 



229. L. atrcalbicant, Nyl. whitith, gramdato-armlaU, thin, tar- 

tmOU.H, i i!r.-;r. flHU tJi . >. w'-: , tROTI Of fait KOUtTtd, (OftMtS ST 

-, (K — C — ); apothecia black, said!, inHtito-Muile, pfa 

margined; hypotheeium nigro-fuscant ; paraphyse* 

coherent, apices nigro-fuscous ; */x>r« 8, edeur/***, broadly-eblony, 

1-stptate, tpitport distinct. 

On rocks, rare. 1876. 

8rs» :-Nyl. In Flora 167*. p. 363. 

;— Am. 689. c 
Bar. Pnov :-26. 
I in una at Clcghan ! Letteruiore ! Connemar*. Mr, Carbalatier. 


(;«l»tiii» hymenoa I pale blue then darkly- fu*oe«oent. Spore* .021— .02-15 
mm. long, .01— .013 mm. broad. 

230. L. alpicola, (Schrcr.) like L. gtographiea, but with tportt 
eolourU**, \-teplai*. 

On alpine whinstone rocks, very rare. 1869. 

8rx r—L. ocoaraphie* car. mlpieoU, Sch«er. Spic. 121 (US3.) NyL Prodr. 

I4S. Cn.i.iliio in BmBL Journ. Bot 8> 99. 
B»r— Sehier. 178 H.ppI.M. 
Gbog. Dihtiub :- Snitierland, France. Pyreaeca, Sweden, Aaia, 

Scotlaku :— Summit of Ben Neri.. Ser. J. M. Crumble. (18C9). 

231. L. grossa, (Pers.) cineratcetit or cintTtoriretctnt or 
cinrreo-albicant, thin, continuous or rimoae, unequal, indeter- 
minate, (K — C — ) ; apotkeda lunje, Mcattcrcd, saute, piano, 
black, disk minutely papillate, man/in thickish, more or leas 
flezuottc mid ptiluhea ; cicipulum lateral, thick, internally and 
externally bluish-black with a central paler stratum, hypoihteium 
black ; tports 8, colourless, oU llipsoid, l-sept*te, very lory*. 

On trees, ehn, ash, oak, not uncommon. 

Srs:— Perenon in Bob. MoaaM fid* Nyl. Prodr. 139. Nyl. Scand. 239. 
Iteubapremne*. Fr. L. a E«. 36. Leeldea teiutmtac*, Chov. Fl. Pari*. 1. 174 
Mudd&Ian. 181. 

Fiu : -Hepp Hportn t. 73. f. 647. 

Frfe. L. 8. 2fi. fide Nyl. Hepp 647. Mndd 147. height. IK. lUbh. 
860. Zv. 423. Nyl. 6fi. Arn : 

Groc Diktkui :— Europe, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Franoe, Germany, 
America. AualralU. 

Bar. Psov :— 1, 2, 3.. 5, 6. 7.. 10, 11. .13 ..15. .19, 20 .24,. .26., 30, 81. 

.holme Wood! KlldaW ! Cleveland. Mr. Mudd. Torquay 1 
Devon. Dr. Deoim, The Lodge! near Ludlow, Shronhlr*. Iter. T. Saheay. 
■x ! Mr. horrtr. Durham ! Her. J. Harriman. near Mai vera ; near Newton 
BMfcellinear Slmiiklin. Or. Boll Btok Wood, 1'. ■•.,.. I,' -. /•. -r:. '..,.■■■. baO, 
Baeeji. Mr. Famine'. New Forest. Iter. J. M. Cromlic. Soutli Carney near 
r-jri in .!, :. Hip. W. Jothma, AUlim ! Shropabba, 

ScOTLaim : — Invercauld ! Braemar. Ifr. Lindsay. Glenooo ! Mr. Burrer. 
Crummach ! Ayrshire. Mrs. DMe. Kenmore, Pertlmlilre. Dr. BM. Braemar ! 
Killin. Rrr. J. M. Crumble. 

Ini£ :- Den-ii|uin ! co. Keny. Dr. Taj/tor. Blarney, Cork: Kiilarney. 
Kerry ; and Dromoland, Clare ; Ixniyhoonter, Uslway. Mr. CamtL near Bel- 
fast. Mr. Tempt taylor, Gabeay. Dr. Moort. Curraffhnu**, Water- 
ford. A dm. J una. Lord Sligo'« drnieene, Yvefftport ! eo. Mavo. Mr. LnrbalettUr. 

Wal» :— Hendri-lciiimi 1 o#ar Barmouth. See. T. Salixv. Frontraitii. 
Alieryetwith. Mitt AUtcwd. IJanbednv ! 

CHaywci. I*!.Asnm :— Ronl, Jemey. Mr. Larbalettier. 

" Spore* .024— .03 mm. long, .012 -19 mm. broad. Qelatlna bymeuea I Use 
then vSnoua-red. Spermatia >ibli>ug»-elliiieuid .003 — 3 mm. long. .001 nun. 
broad." [Xfl.) "Spore* .«--.(« mm. long, .008- 18 mm. broad." {T. M. 



rrla.) "Sporw .006—7 In. long by .003 in. broad." [MudJ.) ParaphyM* 
■Under, conglullnatc. apicea fuliijiimua. Suoru TOT J\H mm. lime, ,013 — 
.0145 did. broad ; epiej>ore thick. 

232. /,. tameri, (Hopp) w/iixitJt, very thiu, smooth, oontiguout 
or rimulose, (K yellow C — ); apotAteia violel-blttek, moderuU-, 
numerous, solitary or confluent, piano or plano-oouvex, sessile, 
margin thin, pale, soon obliterated, internally dusky ; hgmmhm 
violet-black ; hiji*>thceium reddish-vialet-hlaek ; exapulum pate, not 
black or black purple ; parapbysus coherent, apices fuligineo- 

Xcant ; gel. hym. I hluo then darkly discoloured ; spores 6, 
irless, oblong or ellipsoid, 1-scptate. 
On trees, rare. 1869. 

Sr* .— CWftfario Laureri, Hepp in Am. Kx«. 353. (1867). T. M. Fries L. 
Scand. 582. Ltculta inUrm 
ed. 314. Crombie Kn. 64. 

i. Nyl. 

Scand. l»l. (txal. vox.) Lolght. I.. Fl. 2iwi 

Exs :-Arn. 353. Rabh. 804. Zw. 397. 

<iroi>. UioTiau:- Sweden, iJiminark. 

Bot. Pbov:— 2...31. 

l'.si;:.tNi>: — Now For«»t ! near Lyndhumt, and Itlngwood, Hanta. See. J. it. 
Crombie. (1800). 

" Sporoj .012-17 mm. hng, .006-.0075 mm. broad." (T. M. fria.) Spon* 
,016 mm. long, .1)07 mm. lu.i.ul. Apilhur.ia wlinn nioixtimrd dark, frnin the 
dirk hypothetium, which, an well a* other character*, dictiniruiah it from L. 
utruyurpurta, Schmr., with which it m apt to be confounded. ■ 

2.'53. L. contrUtans, NyL/oiscom or Juxco-nigricanl, thin, granu- 
late ; apothecia black, somewhat, coiivi-x, imumrginate, diuky within ; 
spore* 8, colourless, ellipsoid or oblong, 1 septate , ptnaphjm 
indistinct ; epithocium nigricant ; hj/puhecium dusky ; gclatina 
hjineaett cajrulescont, thon dusky-yollow with iodine. 

On mosses in alpine localities, raro. 1864. 

Ion 1886. i>. 864 GMuUt Kb. 72. 

UMOj Distiiui .— Kup ■!'■■. 
Bot. Pbov :— 10. 

Scotland :— Sou Minnnit of Ben Lawera. Mr. Carroll. (1864.) 
'•Sv.trmniii-.UK' near /.. metinia, Nyl. Spore* .010— M nun. long, .0045— 
.0065 mm. broad." (JT<£) 

234. L. TmpUttmi, Tayl. g nyuh ukttt , thin, afftaw, grm vtam, 

(K — C — ) ; apothecia moderate, more or let* crowded, sossile, black, 
liiiilal;/ polished, piano, with a thin entire or fle.uioso margin ; 
hmothtaum thick, tnwni*fMick ; p;ii eutiL'lutmute, rich 

yellowbrowu, apices darker ; spores 8, colourless, oblong or ob-