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Tuckerman, Edward 

Lichens of California, Oregon, 

and the Rocky mountains 


Dc Not Circulate 
Do Not Photocopyl 



New York Botanical Garden Library 

QK587.5.C3T82 gen 

Tuckerman Edward/Lichens of California, 

3 5185 00038 0319 


Lichens of California, 

Oregon and the Rocky Mountains; 

so far as yet known. ■ Vv 

With an Appendix. 

By Edward Tnckerman, M. A., 

Professor of Botany iu Amherst College. 

Amherst. M 
J. 8. A 0. .'. 


Triuted by Ileury A. Marsh, 
Amherst, April, 1SG6. 

-. who visited the North West Coast of Amer- 
787-8 rhat latter, with Yam-ouv 

to observe, principally, it" not 
enti: . the remarkable Coast-lichens of 

rnia. Some specimens reached Acharitta ; 

but others, and among them Ramahna MennetH, Tayl., 
remained un 1 for more than half a century, 

■od fortune to meet this venerable bota- 
nist i . mred by him with a considerable 
set of his dui For other results of British ex- 

;lly the Lichens of the 

north of California, and of the Rocky Mountains, 

ledgement is here due to the liberality 

the late much-lamented Sir, T\\V. Hooker ; to whose ^ 

open hand I also owe an important collection made 

in connection with the Oregon Boundary Commission by 

Dr. Lyall, and a smaller one, from Palliser's British 

I th American Expedition, by Bourgeau. 

Of our own naturalists, Mr. Charles Wright, who has 

herborized, with an eye open for Lichens, in perhaps 

more countries of the globe than any other botanical 

ler, was the earliest to attempt any special collec- 

:n California, and though much limited (as botan- 

N jrth Pacific Expedition,) in time, suc- 

d making several important additions to what 

:nown. i'endler had before communicated 

ries of Lichens collected by him 

was followc : 

the valuable contributions to our knowledge of the 
Lichen-Flora, as well of the coast as of the interior 
mountains, made, during the Mexican Boundary Sur- 
vey, by Mr. Wright and Dr. C. C. Parry ; for which, as 
for many other, long continued favours, I am indebted 
to Professor Torrey. Alectoria Fremontii is a memori- 
al of the celebrated expedition of Capt. J. C. Fremont. 
Other naturalists who have contributed to the extension 
of our list are. Dr. F. V. Hayden (Miss. & Yellowstone 
Expedition) who collected in some of the eastern Val- 
leys of the Kocky Mountains ; and Mr. E. Hall. To 
the careful observations of the latter, and to those, a 
season more recent, of Dr. Parry, almost the whole of 
our scanty knowledge of the important alpine Flora is 

The Coast-Flora, especially of California, is however 
still more interesting than the alpine ; and if we except 
some small collections by Professor Newberry, and, at 
San Diego, by Dr. J. G. Cooper, it remained still almost 
unexplored, when Mr. H. N.Bolander, who had already 
devoted himself to the Mosses of the region, collecting, 
says Mr. Lesquereux (Calif. Mosses, in Trans. Amer. 
Phil. Soc.) ' in less than one year . . as many species 
as all the other collectors together, ' turned, happily, his 
attention to the plants before us. 

The intention of this publication is to shew, at the be- 
ginning of careful exploration, exactly what is known 
of the Lichen-Flora of the west coast, south of Van- 
couver's Island ; and of the great, western system of 
mountains, within the same range of latitude. Of the 
very extensive alpine districts embraced, nothing is in- 
deed ascertained, illustrating their lichenose vegetation, 
except in the interior ranges ; but it is likely that these 
represent, in this regard, those nearer the coast. Though 
the deficiences of the list are almost surprising as the 


■• not 
n. Wi ' Mr. Bolai 

^*ati n the geological' conditions 

tie climatal limitation - | , r a. 

* : : some niodificat-: 

parent in ti. \ f the writer's 1 . 

conceptions of the System, to state briefly 
at apprehension of it. Of late long-occupied 
with a tropical Lichen-Flora, I have found great ad- 
vantage in consulting, and to some extent, have foil, 
the method of, the learned memoirs of Dr. Nylander, 
who has added more to the sum of knowledge of t: 
cal Lichens than any other writer, and whose opinions 
derive indisputable weight from the universality of his 
star • '.ever one thing to follow, in a new 

field, the track of a method already indicated, and an- 
other to accept the .System which lies behind ; nor is 
thing more certain than that the long-continued, 
sufficient investigation of particuki . . implies, 

and ought to imply re-tatements of our general notions. 

pie of the illustrious 
s then my full persuasion that his sy 
interpretation of nitiee of Lichens, taken gen- 

erally, or in all its larger features, is still adequate to 
the phenomena; and that succeeding expositions, far 
from supplanting, have derived already not a little of 
their vitality, or nire to seek it, from the pro- 

fou:. jf the botanist of U] 

But science does no: till. The observations of 

• 1 in particular of Fee 
Moir. | up the fresh 

uon, which De Notaris, Leighton, Massalongo, ana 
Koerber have so sincerely cultivated ; and a new con- 
tent was added to' the conception of species. These 
groups of individuals derive all their value from their 
ideal centres, from the idea, which they more or less 
imperfectly exhibit ; and every advancing approxima- 
tion to completeness in our apprehension of this idea ia 
most obviously important, and may be expected to be 
felt throughout the System. How far, and in what 
manner, the present writer's studies incline him to ap- 
preciate the sporal phenomena of Lichens, will be seen 
from what follows. (*) 

I conceive then, that while less weight than has been 
often assumed should be given to spore-differences of a 
merely gradal character, or such others as depend only 
upon mensuration, more than has sometimes been al- 
lowed should be yielded to those that seem to be typi- 
cal.J Analysis appears to me to indicate two well-de- 
fined kinds of lichen-spores, complemented in the high- 
est tribe only by a well-defined intermediate one. In 
one of these (typically colourless) the originally simple 
spore, passing through a series of modifications, always 

(*)A11 consideration of the notion of 'species' is embarassed 
by the different and uncertain values which (he word is used to 
express. We must distinguish in order to combine. And so 
short is lite, that a generation may be employed in separating, 
What it shall 'fall to another to bring together again; and yet 
the whole honesc concern of both have been the determination of 
'species.' Large views are only possible as the results of much 

Silent work, either of successive enquirers, or in nature, 
for vs possible to avoid the construction of 'species' 

from which we must be well aware is inadequate ; such 

ii s being in fact parts ot quantities, the real extent of which 
is unknown to us. 

(t)The question here touched upon will be considered more at 
in a work upon the Genera of North American Lichens, 
now in preparation, 

in o:. • 


ly colon- 

no doubt that tl: re- 

quire m in the S; 

foliaceous groups. X '. o ' 

ftomParmclia, or 5 from 

-.nuent from such foliaceo : 
ana'. perhaj 

not':. -ine inferiority of tl: 

seen to be not the - 
in the process of differentia- 
tion of these -lue of such graded (biloc- 

.ctions should be 

. exhibit the ultimate 

: . of their . 3 here taken, exhibit also, 

the pre rocess of 

nion. T r seen in larger natural 

groups, as ( : - L. E., 

exp: with general congruity of structure, the 

:olourless spore. And the ?; 
not a long one from such groups to natural gener 

■ ees of the same B] 
i what is other v 

genus.* The consideration of the numerous, sometimes 
sufficiently significant instances, in which nature ap- 
pears to point in the direction we have taken, must be 
left for another place. Let me however be permitted 
at least to say, that if no lichenist would venture to 
separate generically the two forms of Arthonia cyrtodes, 
of the present writer, (Wright Bich. Cub. n. 245,246) 
the way then is plain ly open for the whole of the argu- 
ment! Thellp*ore-oharacter of Biatora, Naeg. & Hepp 
(Hepp Abbild. Sp. t. 1) is in entire accordance with the 
view here taken of the spore-characters as well of 
Biatora and Bccidea as oiBecanora; but I am unac- 
quainted with any writer who has touched the instan- 
ces alluded to in a really appreciative way beside Dr. 
Th. Fries (Lich. Arct. p. 137, 185, 226,) though except 
in a very few, isolated examples, as Gyalecta and Bhi- 
zocarpon (Gen. p. 91) the reasoning suggested by his 
observations has not as yet appeared to modify his con- 

According to these views Barmelia proper, Ach., will 
fall into Theloschisles** Barmelia, and Bhyscia ; and 
Lecanora into Blacodium (DC.) Naeg. &. Hepp, Becan- 
ora, and Binodina. Excluding the biatorine forms of 
Blacodium from the Becideei, the latter will have no 
examples of the polar-bilocular sub-type ; but BTetero- 
thecium, corresponding to Bhyscia and Binodina, will 

(*) "Respondent plene" {Patellar ice, Fr.) "Lecideis Lichenum, 
in quibus, ut Caliciis et omnibus naturalissimis generibus, spo- 
ridia simplicia et eximie septata variant." Fr. Suram. Veg. 
ficand. p. 366, not. 

(**) Equivalent hereto Xanthoria (Th.Fr.)Stizenb., and only 
preferred to the latter on account of its priority : the section of 
Parmelia called, at one time, Xanthoria by Fries (S. O. V. p. 
246) having never been taken by him in any higher sense. 

be distinguishable from Biatora : and fiucltta* similar- 
. '.ho whole Class m:iv bo con- 
ceiv ia like mann« passing into 1, q I 

ft* 1 ■ . Seal of the higher tribes; 

» mi - : I ^ .....' us almi isient 

>n l,ie ' hf tabulamed, so as to exhibit 

m1 analogies, will be found perhaps significant 
as well of the relations of the genera, as of the syste- 
lue of the sp 
A ' :i. necessarily much-limite.l point 

of view, the difficulties of this sketch of a method ap- 
pear to be overbalanced by its advantages. G>ju 
as reconstructed, in at least the spirit of these observa- 
tions, by the • Fries, oi ■ dirncul- 
but no other instance has occurred to me, in true 
Lichens, of muriform spores in a genus belonging ap- 
•itly to the Colo-.: group is a small 
one, and its relations to Thdotrcma may be nearer than 
has been suspected. In the last-named large, mainly 
tropical, and protean natural genus, and in Graphis 
enable from Opegrapha than Gyalccla from 
there is certainly, at first sight, as great ap- 
parent confusion in the spore- features, as in the external 
conditions of the apothecia ; but the species are hero 
happily so numerous, that uncertainties of the latter 
sort are, in the widest, view, perhaps readily explaina- 
ble ; — and so, if I mistake not, with those of the former : 
both groups being typically referable, and as entire: 
to the Coloured Series. There is moreover, to be ad- 
mitted generally, a possible distinction between colour- 

(*;Earlier t> tarpon, Massal, which name can scarce- 

ly derive precedence from its use in a wholly distinct manm-r 
(as including nam* of three ponera as undorstoo 

the Italian lichenograph- .Ale. 


less types and decolorate conditions ; and vice versa. 
The anomalies of Collemaceous Lichens must be con- 
sidered by themselves, and in another place. And to 
this, which is now offered, for what it shall prove to be 
worth, I venture only to add the expression of my 
earnest conviction, that with all the new light which 
the researches of the last thirty years have thrown upon 
Lichenology, this study has not yet advanced so far as 
safely to neglect the wide views, divinations as we now 
know they often were, of the elder lichenographers : — 
or, in other words, that no structural detail, of whatever 
apparent value, can safely assert itself in defiance of the 
argument from general structure ; or otherwise than as 
elucidated by the subtle mediation of Habit. 

Fam. 1. Usneei, Fr. 

Roccella leucophcra, Tuckerm. San Diego, on Obione; 
Dr. C. C. Parry. 

Ramalixa Moment, Tayl. Coast. Monterey ; Menzies. 

Sta. Barbara ; Dr. Parry. Vancouver's Island ; Dr. 

R. leptocarpha, Tuck. Coast. Monterey ; Menzies. 

Alcatraz ; Mr. Wright. San Diego ; Dr. J. G. Cooper. 
R. lavigata, Fr. {Farm. Eekloni, Spreng.) New Mexi- 
co ; Mr. Wright. 
R. tenuis, Fr. & Tuck. New Mexico; Mr. Wright. 
R. cahcaris, Fr., v. fraxinea, Fr. New Mexico ; Mr. 

Fendler. V ar . farinacea, Schoer. Coast ; Mr. Wright. 

Rocky Mountains ; Dr. Hayden. 
R. pollinaria, Ach. New Mexico ; Mr. Fendler. 
R. homaha, Ach. Coast rocks, Calif. ; Menzies. San 

Diego ; Dr. Cooper. 
R. ceruchis (Ach.) De Not. Coast, on trees. Alcatraz ; 

Mr. Wright. San Angelo ; Russell herb. San Diego ; 

Dr. Cooper. 

Dactylisa ramulosa (Hook.) Tuck. Rocky Mountains, 
Hook. Herb. 


D. madrcporiformis (Wulf.) Tuck. Rocky Mountains - 
Dr. Parry. 

•Cetraria Californica, Tuck. Monterey (on trees) 

•C. Islandica (L.) Ach. Rocky Mountains ; Dr. Hay- 
den, Mr. E. Hall. 

C. cucullata (Bellard.) Ach. Rocky Mountains ; Mr. 

C. nivalis (L.) Ach. Rocky Mountains ; Dr. Parry. 
Mr. Hall. 

C. glauca (L.) Ach. Coast of Calif. ; Mr. H. N. Bolan- 
der. Vancouver's Island ; Dr. Lyall. 

C. lacunosa, Ach. Coast. Port Wentworth ; Menzies. 
Calif. ; Mr. Bolander. 

C. ciliaris, Ach. Coast of Calif. ; Mr. Bolander. 

C. soepincola (Ehrk.) Ach. Pend Oreille r., Oregon ; 
Dr. Lyall. 

C.juniperina (L.) Ach., a. Monterey ; Menzies. Van- 
couver's Island; Dr. Lyall. Var. terreslris, Schser. 
Rocky Mountains, alp., Dr. Parry. Var. pinastri, 
Ach. Rocky Mountains ; Mr. Hall. 

Evernia vidpina (Wulf.) Ach. Coast of Calif. ; Men- 
zies. N. W. Coast; Douglas. Rocky Mountains; 
Dr. Hayden. 

E. prunastri (L.) Ach. N. W. Coast; Menzies. Rocky 
Mountains ; Dr. Hayden. 

JE. divaricata (L.) Ach. Rocky Mountains ; Mr. Hall. 

E.furfuracea (L.) Mann. New Mexico; Mr. Fendler. 

Usnea harhata (L.) Fr. florida, Fr: Lower Calif.; Mr. 
Xantus. New Mexico, Mr. Fendler. Var. hirta, Fr. 
Rocky Mountains ; Dr. Hayden. Coast (f. rubiginea) 
Mr. Bolander. Var. ccratina, Schtcr. Coast of Calif. ; 

r. herb. Var. Fr. Coast ; Mr. Bolan- 

der. Vancouver's Island : Dr. I. vail. 

.. Washington Terr. ; Torr. herb. 

: [Ehrk. 1 ) N7I., a. Oregon; Hook. 
rb. Var, \ Nyl. Oregon; Dr, New- 

berry. "\ Terr., Torr. herb. 

A. V , Tuck. (*) Nevada; Capt. J. C. 

Fremont. Northern Oregon : Dr. Lyall. Rocky 
Dr. Harden. 
L.) Fr., var. imphxa, "Fr. Washington 
Terr. ; Torr. herb. 

Fani. -. r.irmcUei* 

Theloschistes chiysophthahnus (L.) Norm., a. Coast 

of Mr. Bolander. Rocky Mountains; Mr # 

Hu'.l. Var. fubi no, Wallr. Monterey; Torr. Herb. 

New M 1 Mr. Wright. 

T. pariettHU,- rm., var. polycarpus, Fr. Coast of 

:.:'., Mr. N. Mexico ; Mr. Pendler. Var. 

hj Sohao N. Mexico; Mr. Fendler. Var. 

nulosus, Tuck. Mare Island, Calif., Mr. Wright. 

r. Fotmarkicut, Ach. Rocks on the coaat; Mr. 

Bolani . 

Parhelia perlata (L.) Ach., var. flav leans. Coast; 
Mr. Bolander. 

(*)A Bryopojon, as understood by several receDt writers, but 
name, because the spores of , 
Thulentis, Tli. Fr. (.1. nigricans, Nyl. Lich. Seand. p. 
; by Ny lander, appear, not- 
heirwantof colour, fully to confirm the near 
affinity of this lichen to A- ochroUuca ; and to suggest, in con- 
L sulcata, Nyl., that decolorate spores are insuf- 
ficient to justify the separation from A'.ccLorla of species other- 
wise agreeing with it. 


P. perforata (Jacq.) Ach. Coast ; Mr. Bolander; 

P. tiliacea (Ehrh.) Floerk. Rocky Mountains (trees) 
Dr. Parry. 

P. saxatilis (L.) Fr., a. Oregon ; Dr. Lyall. Rocky 
Mountains ; Dr. Hayden. 

P. physodes (L.) Ach., a. Coast; Mr. Bolander. Var. 
enter omorp ha, Tuck. Monterey ; Menzies. North 
West Coast ; Douglas. 

P. olivacea (L.) Ach. Coast; Mr. Bolander. 

Parmelia Pendleri, Tuck, in I'M., <£ in Nyl. Enum. 
Gen. p. 105, thallo pusillo orbiculari microphyllino ex 
olivaceo fuscescente subtus pallidiori glabro fibrilloso, 
laciniis substellatis linearibus planis mullifidis denta- 
tis, subinde congestis complicates ; apotheciis confertis 
castaneis margine crenulato. Sporce octona, ellipsoidcce, 
simplices, diam. dein duplo longiores, incolores. Plaiy- 
sma, Nyl. Syn. Lich. p. 309. Trunks, Santa Fe, 
New Mexico ; Mr. Fendler. Has occurred to me (on 
old rails) in Maryland and Massachusetts ; in Penn- 
sylvania (Dr. Michener) and in South Carolina, on 
trunks of Pine and dead wood (Mr. Ravenel.) Sper- 
mogones now submarginal, but never in the strict 
sense in which this position is characteristical in Ce- 
traria ciliaris ; nor do they appear to me to offer any 
important differences from those of Parmelia stygia. 

P. stygia (L.) Ach. Rocky Mountains ; Dr. Parry. 

P. caperata (L.) Ach. Coast ; Mr. Bolander. N. Mexi- 
co ; Mr. Fendler. 

P. conspersa (Ehrh.) Ach. Coast; Douglas. Mr. 
Schott. N. Mexico ; Mr. Fendler. 

P. molliuscula, Ach., e Nyl. (P. chlorochroa, Tuck.) 
Rocky Mountains; Dr. Hayden. 

Physcia erinacea (Ach.) Tuck. Coast. Monterey ; 
Menzies. San Diego ; Dr. Parry. 


P. yulverulenta (8chreb.) Nyl. N. Mexico; Mr. Fend- 

ler. Rooky Mountains, (muscic.) Dr. Haydon. 
P. apeciosa (Wulf, Fr.) var. hypoleuca, Ach. Valley of 

Rio Grande ; Mr. Wright. Var. galactophyUa, Tuck. 

With the Last Var. kucomcla, Eschw. Coast of 

Calif. ; Menzies. New Mexico ; Dr. Parry. 
P. tlellana (L.) a. Coast; Mr. Bolander. Rocky 

Mountains; Dr. Parry. N. Mexico; Mr. Fendler. 

Var. (tribacia) Tx. Coast ; Mr. Bolander. Var. Au- 

pida, Fr. With the last. 

PtXOT Cocoes (Sw.) Nyl., var sorcdiata, Tuck. Rocky 
Mountains; Hook. herb. 

Fam. 3. Umbilicariei, Fee. 

Umbilicakia flocculosa, Hoffm. Rocky Mountains ; 
Hook. herb. 

U. hyperborea (Ach.) Hoffm. Rocky Mountains ; Hook. 

U. cylindrica (L.) Delis. Rocky Mountains; Dr. Hay- 
den. Dr. Parry. 

U. proboscidea (L.) DC. Rocky Mountains ; Dr. Parry. 

U. phoza (sp. nova) (hallo caridaginco monophyllo Icevi 
fuscescente, subtus papilloso nudo nigro ; apolheciis ap- 
pressis dein prominulU gyroso-prdiferis, margine ienui 
subevanescente . Spora minutce, c globulari ovoideo- 
rll'psoid&B, rimp See a , subincolorcs, diam. fere duplo 
longiores. Rocks on the coast ; Mr. Bolander. Com- 
parable as respects size with U. crosa. 

U. murina, (Ach.) DC. 1 Rocky Mountains. Mr. Hall. 

V. hxrsula (Ach.) DC. N. W. Coast ; Douglas. Rocky 
Mountains: Mr. Hall. 


V. angulata, Tuck. Syn. N. Eng. (Gyroph. pelliia, Hook, 
lib.) Monterey ; Menzies. N. W. Coast ; Hook. herb. 
To be further compared with the last. 

U. pustulata (L.) Hoffm., a. New Mexico; Mr. Fend- 
ler. Mr. Wright. 

Fam. 4. Pcltigcrei* 

Sticta fuliginosa (Dicks.) Ach. Coast of Calif. ; Mr. 
Bolander. Vancouver's Island ; Dr. Lyall. 

S. anthraspis, Ach. N. W. Coast ; Menzies. Coast of 
Calif. ; Mr. Bolander. 

S. pulmonaria (L.) Ach. N. W. Coast ; Douglas. Cal- 
ifornia ; Mr. Fitch. 

jS. scrobiculata (Scop.) Ach. Coast ; Dr. Lyall. Mr. 

Peltigera aphthosa (L.) Hoffm. N. W. Coast ; Scou- 

ler. F. rnarginalis. Kocky Mountains, alp. ; Mr. 

JP. canina (L.) Hoffm. Vancouver's Island ; Dr. Lyall. 

N. Mexico ; Mr. Fendler. Var. membranacca, Nyl. 

Coast ; Douglas. Mr. Bolander. Var. sorediaia. 

Coast; Mr. Bolander. 
.P. rufescens (Neck.) Hoffm. Coast ; Dr. Lyall. Mr. 

P. polydactyla (Neck.) Hoffm., a. Coast; Douglas. 

Var. scutata, Fr. Coast ; Dr. Lyall. Mr. Bolander. 
P. venosa (L ) Hoffm. N. W. Coast; Menzies. Sierra 

Nevada; Mr. Bolander. Bocky Mountains; Mr. 

Hall. N. Mexico ; Mr. Fendler. 

Solorina crocea (L.) Ach. Oregon ; Dr. LyalL Kocky 
Mountains, alp. ; Mr. Hall. 


Fain. 5. J'a/utartci-* 

pANHABIA I Yahl.) Delis, Rocky Mouih 

tains, alp., Mr. Ball. 

a - ) Massal. Coast; Mr. Bolander. 
N M i Mr. Fen i!er. 

fa, Tli. Pr. Coast; Mr. Bolander. 
Pakkab /_ a tp.nota) thaUo e granul • / 

tnera a s hupothal o obsolescente ; apothi 

tmrnUis biatorinis rufcynigricantUmt, disco convexo 
mn <r octorue, ell ,obtusm, 

sr Kam.2-2hj>lo longiofes, in- 

/ -. On the earth; 'clayey Boil near the North 
lerican rirer, Auburn ;' Mr. "Bolander. Compara- 
with /'. nelnttosa (Hoffm.) Nyl. (Lich. Par. it. 
114) which appears quite the same with I ,, ro - 

(Hook. Br. FI.) but the minute, steel- 
blue granules of the present BCarcely coalesce into 
and the apothecia differ. The simplification 
of internal thalline structure corresponds here with 
the reduction of the thallns, as in other Bpe 

. 6. L 


Dirixa CUtforniea (ep.nota) i&katmtm rugoso- 

I a : apathecuA mediteribm earner- 

'** sc - nulo 

fi'- - 6 >ra in !'■ 


. l I 

"' Trunk* of 

in the \| . 

• ndi- 

/ «, and comparable 

with L , , 


Well with such European specimens as I possess of 
Dirina Ceratonice ; which differs also in its much 
larger, broacU fusiform spores, 

Placodium coralloides, Tuck. (*) Coast ; Mr. Bolander. 

P. cladodes, Tuck. Rockv Mountains; Mr. Hall. 

P. elcgans (Link) DC. Rocky Mountains; Mr. Hall. 
2)r. Parry. 

P. callopismum (Ach.) Merat? Coast ; Mr. Bolander. 

P.fulgens (Sw.) DC. Rocky Mountains; Dr. Hayden. 

Placodium bolacinum (sp. nova) thallo squamuloso 
fulvo, squamis glebulosis rotundatis lecvigaiis subindc 
crenatis ; apotheciis mediocribus zeorinis subplanis disco 
aurantiaco. Sporce octonoe, polari-dyblastaz, diam-sub- 
duplo longiores, inolores. Sandstone bowlders, on 
the coast, Mr. Bolander ; who finds a similar lichen 
on mud walls. 

P. cinnabarrinum (Ach.) Anz. Coast; Mr. Bolander. 

Placodium luleo-minium (s/;. nova) thallo crustaceo 
gb'buloso lutescente ; apotheciis mediocribus biaiorinis ex 
aurantiaco miniatis, disco piano, marginc ruguloso. 
Sporat 8-lGnce, oblongce dein fabecformes, dyblastx 
sporobl. approximaiis isthmo deficiente, diara. 21 plo 3 2 
plo longiores, incolores. On the earth, San Diego,; Dr. 
J. G. Cooper. Spores larger and more regular than 
those of the next, from which the colours sufficiently 
distinguish the present. 

(*) Adopting here, as already in Obs. Lich. (1. c. 6, p. 266, 
287) the genera! views of Dr. Slizenberger (Beitr. I c. p. 135) 
as to the systematic value of the efHgurate type of thallus, I can- 
not hesitate to arrange with this last its fruticulose exaltation, 
so remarkably exhibited on the west Coast. The only known 
example ol this type, was Lecanora fruliculosa Eversm (Sphcero- 
thallia, Fr. Nees, pro p. ) but this is distinguishable, as a mem- 
ber ot the section Aspicilia, from L. Bolanderi, &c. ; and the 
latter cluster may lake the sub-sectional designation of Clado- 
dium : as Placodium coralloides and cladodes 0: Thamnoma. 


I . I 11. pp Coast , Mi Bt - 

lander. R intaina; Dr. Parry. N. M..\ 

. 1 epp., a. ( lo 
Mr. Bolander. 
P. ccnnum (Hedw.) Naeg. A II-pp, a. Coast, Mr. 

Wright. Rooky Mountains; I>r. Parry. 
P. . rtMH (Huds.) Hepp. New Mexico; Mr. 


mum (DO.) Hepp. Rocky Mountains; 
Mr. Hall. 

Pew Nyl.,f.? Rocky Mountains (a frag- 
ment i I)r. Hayden. 

■vora 2? Tuck. Coast ; Mr. Bolander. 

. nova)! I 

leuco, ramis tcretibu a I 

• -. ' - a ■//,,- 

///iws 8essilii 
pro dificum carneo-lutcolum primitus yruinosum vix 
superantc, d <o-lobatis. Sporce octonce, ob- 

longa, simplices, sporobl. variobili, diam. 3-4 plo Ion- 
piores, incol On sandstone rocks, coast; Mr. 

Bolander. The roundish patches often two inches in 
diameter, and the branches occur an inch long. The 
diameter of these is from half to three quarters of a 
line ; and of the larger apothecia from one to two 
lines. I have indicated some apparent differences in 
the apothecia from those of the next following spf 
and Z. pinguis, but the fruit of all three of these 
lichens is externally similar, and comparable at once 
•-cies of the raWa-group, u also with 
that of L. rub' . 


Lecanora thamnitis (sp. nova) tkalh papillato-fruliair 
■foso, truncis pluribus iereliusculis fastigialo-ramosis in 
crustam vcrrucosam viridislramincam cwspiloso-s/ipa- 
hs ; apoihcciis majusculis tcrminalibus subpodicrlfatis, 
disco pallidoluteolo, margine demum crenato. Sporoc 
■ex ovoideo <>Uipsoidece, simpUces limbatoe I. (sporobl. 
dein disrupto) sub-dyblastoe, diam. 2-2* plo longiores. 
Sandstone rocks, with the last; Mr. Bolander. Evo- 
lution of the thallus, which rather exceeds a quarter 
■of an inch in height, comparable with that of Cladonia 
papillaria. Apothecia not unlike those of L. pinguis, 
and in some respects similar also to those of L. rubina ; 
the largest having a diameter of two lines. The 
papillose crust of L. aipospda (Wahl.) Ach., and that 
oiL.pdliophoza (Wahl.) Ach., pass into aflat, more or 
less radious, common margin, of which there is no 
trace here. 

L. rubina (Vill.) Schaer., a. (L. chrysoleuca , Ach.) Rocky 
Mountains; Dr Hayden. New Mexico; Mr. Fendler. 
Var. opaca, Ach. Rocky Mtns ; Dr. Hayden. 

L. muralis (Schreb.) Schaer. (L. saxicola, Ach.) Coast; 
Mr. Bolander. 

L. pinguis, Tuck. Coast; Mr. Bolander. 

L. varia (Ehrh.) Ach. Coast ; Mr. Bolander. 

L. pallescens (L.) Schaer. Coast; Mr. Wright. Dr. 
Lyall. Rocky Mountains ; alp. ; Mr. Hall. 

L. pallida (Schreb.) Schaer. (Z. albella, Ach.) Coast; 
Mr. Wright. 

L. glaucoma (HofTm.) Ach. Coast; Mr. Bolander. 

L. Ccnisia, Ach. Coast ; Mr. Bolander. 

L. subfusca (L.) Ach., ff. Coast ; Mr. Wright. 

Z. atra (Huds.) Ach. Coast ; Mr. Wright. 

Lecanora fccunda (sp. nova) thallo conliguo diffracto- 
rimoso albo (detrito chrysogonimico-aurantiaco ;) apoth- 


tenui ini 
i tAcois conftrtia v - 
■■n. i2-3i 
tfia acicularia, a 

injixa. On ! ag- 

.vhitish appearance,' 
r. With the : a com- 

mi i and really cJ mi- 

ght. Paraphyses scai 
5 rm.iti.i agreeing with ti. 
of the gron; nted by Z. .-«/»''" 

Dub., Nyl. San Diego ; Dr. Cooper. 
■:. Il.ivJen. 
. ■• .h. Valley of Rio Grande; Mr. Wright. 
Sommerf. Mr. Bolander. Rocky 

Mountains : Dr. Parry. 

Mr. Bolander. 
'..h. Southern ranges of Rocky 
Mr. Wr.. 
L v Nyl. Rocky Mountains- Mr 


y - ■■ '•• (L. eftryaqps, Tuck.) Coast; 

Mr. Bolander. 

-sal. Rocky Mountains; 

b.) a, &. ff. Coast ; Mr. Bolander. 

".vii thail ;. in eoTitiffuo 

; apoi 

plo longio On 

gravelly earth, near the ocean ; Mr. Bolander. The 
two central sporoblasts of the at first regularly quad- 
rilocular spore passing into four, and all the sporo- 
blasts broken at length into smaller ones. This in- 
teresting modification of the spore- type of Rinodina 
looks evidently beyond the quadrilocular condition. 
The genus is represented very commonly on the rocks 
and trees of California, mostly in states not widely 
divergent from the type of R. sophodes ; but no trace 
has appeared of R. Ascociscana (Lecanora, Tuck. 
Suppl. 2, p. 204.) 

Pertusaria pertusa (L.) Ach. sub Porina, var.areolatu, 

Clement. Coast ; Mr. Bolander. 
P, Wulfenii, DC., Nyl. Coast ; Mr. Bolander. 

Urceolaria scruposa (L.) Ach., terricola. Coast ; Mr. 
Wright. Rocky Mtns ; Mr. Hall. Var. parasitica, 
Sommerf. Coast (on thallus of Cladonia) Mr. Bolan- 

Tiielotrema lepadinum, Ach. Oregon; Scouler. 


Fam. 1. Cladoniei, Th, Fr. 

Stereocaulon tomentosum, Fr. Rocky Mountains ; 

Mr. Bourgeau. Mr. Hall. 
S.paschale (L.) Fr., f. Coast; Mr. Bolander. 

Pilophorus acicularis (Ach.) Th. Fr. N. W. Coast ; 
Menzies. Rocky Mountains; Hook. Herb. 

»ia turgida (Ehtk) Hoiliu. N. W. Coast; B 

v Tack. C iast ; Mr. Bolan . 

. (LJ Fr. Coast: Mr. Bolander. Rocky 
kftns; Dr. Hayden. X. Mexico; Mr. Fendler. 

L.) Fr., ft. Coast; Mr. Bolander. R,>cky 
. Dr. Fairy. Var. kybrida, Sehar. X. W. 
k. herb. Rocky Mtns ; Mr. Hall. Var. 

Mlh.-, M 

fimbriate (L.) Fr., a. Coast ; Mr. Bolan.ler. Van- 
couver's Inland : Dr. Lyall. X. Mexico ; Mr. Fendler. 
'. h. Vancouver's Lland; Dr. Lyall. 
C. / -chreb.) Fr., ./. X. W. Coast, and Rocky 

untams; Hook. herb. Varr. root mosa, Fl., <k tufa- 
:>. W. CVast: Douglas. Rocky Mtns; M r. 
' %U» (L.) Fr., v. adanccL, Ach. Vancouver's 

Dr. Lyall. 
' tommcopioidea (L.) Fr. Vancouver's Island; Dr. 

C. beBidtJIora [Ach : I Douglas. Mr. 

r "' 0- 1: • ; ta;ns; Mr. Hall. 

Fain J Lecideei* 

trvginomu Scop.) DC i Surf, icmadophtla 

Oregon ; Dr. Lyall. 

Biatoea /.' Zu, Tack {Lecidea, Oba. Lick.) 1: 

Mountains ; Dr. I 
Ii. ffbbi/t n< Ah.) Fr. Auburn : Mr. B .lander. 

D. IwridOUx, Tock. (/.< cieUo, Ob* Licfi.] X. M j 

Rockv Mv; Dr. Ha-. 


B. crenufa (Endocarpon crenatum, & E. speireum, Tayl., 
e Nyl. Lecan. chonion, Tuck. Suppl. 1.] Valley of 
Rio Grande; Dr. Bigelow. 

B. clecipiens (Ehrh.) Ff. Coast ; Mr. Bolander. Rocky 
Mountains; Dr. Hay dew. 

Biatora scotopholis (sp. nova) thnUo areolato-squamoso 
nigro castanco; squamidis aggregatis tcnuibus rotunda- 
fis mow crenato-lobatis, hypothallo nigro ; apotkeliis 
adnatis plants margina tenui obtuso, dein convexis, 
fuscoatris, intus albis. Sporoe parvoe, cllipsoidecc, 
simplices, diam. subduplo longiores, involores. Sand- 
stone of the coast ; Bolander. The irregular thallus 
appearing black to the naked eye; by which the 
minute scales are scarcely appreciable. 

B. icterica, Mont. (Lecid. endochlom, Tayl., e Nyl. 
Lecan. Wrigldii, Tuck. Suppl. 1.) 

B. coarctata (Ach.) Th. Fr. terrestris. Coast ; Mr. Bo- 

B. glebulosa, Fr. Coast; Mr. Bolander. 

3. castanea, Hepp. M'ocky Mountains, alp. ; Mr. Hall. 

B. sanguineo-atra (Fr.) Rocky Mountains, a]p. ; Mr. 

B. cinnabarrina (Sommerf.) Fr. Pend Oreille r., N. 
Oregon ; Dr. Lyall. 

B. russrda (Ach.) Mont. Rocky Mountains; Dr. Parry. 

B. erysibe, Fr. Rocky Mountains; Dr. Hayden. 

Lecidea enteroleuca, Ach. Coast ; Mr. Bolander. N 
Mexico ; Mr. Fendler. Var. theioplaca. Coast ; Mr. 

L. vitellinaria, Nyl. Rocky Mountains; Dr. Hayden. 

L. insularis, Nyl. Coast; Mr. Bolander. 

L. fusco-atra, Ach., Fr. Rocky Mountains; Dr. Parry. 

lu atrobrunnca (Ram.) Schser. Rocky Mtns. ; Dr.Parrv. 


on a thallua no! ill- 

witb t: 

, brown-; 

/ „ 

' ' : ible 


m ' 

Man. 1 

adrilocular, the 


Z.morio .: . - : •;■. i; by Mountains; Dr. Parry. 

nc<» will, I hp • 




disco piano- convexo nigro albo-pruinoso, margine ienui 
ihallo primihis coronaio. Sporoz ocloncc, parvce, c sub- 
ro'.undo brcvi-cllipsoidcce oltuscc, clyblastcc, fotsecc. 
Rocks on the coast; Mr. Bolander. Thallus of young 
plants contiguous, the circumference obscurely effig- 
urate. In older ones the lobation of the margin isnot 
very unlike that of states of Lecanora ciranaia. 
Apothecia generally comparable with those of L. alio- 
atra; but the spores differ. 

B. lactea (Massal.) Koerb. Coast; Mr. Bolander. 

B. stellulala (Tayl.) Coast ; Mr. Bolander. 

Buellia pullata (ftp. nova) thcdlo areolato obscure fusco, 
arcolis confertis minutts concavis angulatis crenatisquef 
apotheciis sessilibus,disco nigro opaco margin em obtusum 
demum excludente. Sporaz octonoz. obtuse ellipsoideoe, 
(h/blastoe, diam. 2-3] plo longiores, fuscoz. Bocks on 
the coast ; Mr. Bolander. Scale-like areolea compara- 
ble with those of conditions of Lecidea fusco atra, but 
minute. Spores with approximated sporoblasts; the 
isthmus obsolete. 

B. halonia (Ach.) Coast; Mr. Bolander. 

B. parasema (Ach.) Koerb. Coast; Mr. Bolander. 
Rocky Mountains; Dr. Parry. 

B. papillata (Sommerf., Nyl. B. insit.nis, Th. Fr.) 
Rocky Mountains: Dr. Parry. 

B. albo atra (Hoffm). Th. Fr. Coast ; Mr. Wright. 

B. parasitica (Floerk.) Th. Fr. Coast ; Mr. Bolander. 

B. oidalea, Tuck. (Lecid , Obs. Licit.) Alcatraz; Mr. 
Wright. Mendocino city ; Mr. Bolander. San Diego ; 
D'-. Cooper. Oregon ; Dr. Newberry. 

B. Montagnaii (Plot., Koerb.) Rocky Mountains; Dr. 
Hayden. , 

B. geographica (L.) Rocky Mountains; Dr. Parry. 
Coast; Mr. Bolander. 

Tribe III. GRAPHIDA , Xyl. 


n trees ; Mr. 
Dr. Lyall. 
ruck. (T 1 ch.) 

i) thaJlo arc ' <ro$o 



•ie rocks on t lie 

like an :ie l 

un«l ol crennlate at the circumference ; but 

there is no at to the i ml tabulate 

Hus of The apotheuial 

gth a line in 

Those of the 

' are rather smaller, the larg at- 

_• to a line of height or diameter. Internally 

(*) Of • iiu'p :hc Tri 

rophoraeci r>{ authors, Aero ', i| ie 

■ v - !>v no 

■ - 

ihH l\|ie ps frnii 



defiLite statement of the genus, as now understood. 


the structure of the npothecia is generally similar in 
both ; but A. Bolanderi offers the first known instance, 
in Acolium, of spherical spores. Spermatid oblong, 
nor unlike thoL-e of A. tympancllum (Nyl. Svn. t. 5, f. 
32) the length from thrice to thrice and a half ex- 
ceeding the diameter. 

Acolitm cMoroconmm (sp. nova) thallo tcnui plictofo-ver- 
ruculoso glaucescente ; apotheeiis innulo-prominulis 
nigris disco flavovirid'-pulverulenta marginem flarican- 
lemdein nigrum supemnte. Space in thecis cyl'mdra- 
eeis octonce, parvce, obtusissime ellipsoidece medio mn- 
striclce, diam. ri.r duplo longiores, fuscce. On Oak- 
Lark (Quercus ugrifoliti) in company with Bucllia 
oidalea, California; Mr. Bolander. Thallus compar- 
able, except in its minuteness, with that of A. tym- 
pancllum. Apothecia agreeing better with those of 
A. sligonellum- from which the present differs in 
possessing a proper thallns, in its greenish-yellow 
bloom, and smaller spores. (*) 

Calicium subtile, Fr. Dead-wood, San Diego ; Dr. J- 
G. Cooper. 

Tribe V. VERRUCARIACEI (Fr., 1821, Fee) StizenK 

DERMATOCARroN miniatum (L.) Eschw. Coast; Mr. 

D. Gucpini (Moug.) Coast (infert.) Mr. Bolander. 
D. rufescens (Ach.) Th. Fr. N. Mexico; Mr. Fendler. 

{*) Ofolher species, A. Jaranlcum (Mont. & V. 'I. Bosch) 
Strzenb {Tradhyha. Nyl., Tuck Obs Lidi, Pi/rgi/lvs,T$y\ Syn) 
foundry ihe hue Dr. Hale in Louisiana, is perh tips hardly to 
be expected. Acroscypkus however, {A sphcerophor aides. Lev) 
-collecied by Humboldt and Bonpland near Perote in Mexico, 
may not impossibly occur farther north. 


/•. Vh ) Th. Fr. Rocky Mountains; Dr. 

II ij ;• ■:. N. M \ Mr. Fendler. 

Hedw., Th. Fr. (J2. pallidum, 
' .: N : i Mr. Wright, 

- Lichens are but ill represented in the 
coll -. Hh - are all that have been de- 

yph or m»j, Tuck. N. Mexico ; Mr. "Wright, 

fl> Mfl//u subcjTuso olivacco-nigro e 
'. <culis compicatis 

medic -rilus plano-con- 
tenui ciranuli'to-crcnato. 
7 • tlo irregulariter pleio- 

3 4 ]'!o I 5, ■■/•>. Ou the 

in grave 3 ata Fe, New Mexico; Mr. 

idler. Comparable with, but I think a distinct 
t from the European C. < . Sell a? r. 

C 7 ,T k. Valley olTiio Grande; Mr. Wright. 

New Mexico; Mr. Fendler. 
Mr. Bolander. 
Ach.) Fr. X. Mexico ; Mr. 
: ler. 
L. n (Hud-. M ".. Coast: Menzies. Mr. 

■n (Ach.) Nyl. Rocky Mountains ; Hook. 
N. Mexico ; Mr. FendT 
uscicola [Sw.j Fr. Coast ; Mr. Inlander. 


The Lichens, of which characters are here subjoined 
. occurred in the regions embruced in the 
above li 


GyaleCta rddiatilis {up. nova) lhaUo tcnui conliguo 
irnequabili gJauccscentc, hypolhallo albo; apolhcciis 
minuliasimis emcrgcnlibus thnllo adscendentc margina- 
tls, excipulo connivente urceolato radiato-striato niaro. 
Sporee in thecis subcglindraceis oclonce, ex elllpsoideo 
oblongo-cllipsoidcoz, simplices, diam. 2-} — 3} plo lon- 
giorcs, incolorcs. On bark, South Kingstown, Rhode 
Island; Mr. J. L. Bennett. The very minute apothe- 
cia are distinguishable, by the contrast of colours, by 
the naked eye, but require a powerful lens for their 
(external) examination. They are much more evi- 
dently gyalectine than G. epulotica, Ach., a lichen 
which I am now inclined to consider as best placed 
by Koerber, together with G. odora, Schser., under 
JLccanor a sect. A <j> : <di /, and are comparable rather 
with the Cuban lichen (Wright Lick. 1. c. 5, p. 414.) 
described by me as Gyale ta asteria (Obs. L:<-h. I. c. t 
5, p. 414.) From this the present differs in its black 
exciple with a constantly pore-like aperture, and 
especially in the interesting point that the spores are 
always simple; thus completing the sporal history of 
the genus. It now appears impossible to doubt, that G. 
asteria is identical with Parmelia (Urceolaria) Valen- 
zuehana.'M.ovt. PI. Cell. Cub. p. 205 ; and the Cuban- 
species must therefore take the name of G. Valenzue** 
liana. Samonia, Stizenb., founded upon this lichen 
(Beilr. z. Flechtensyst. p. 1G8) was probably a syste- 
matic consequence, due to Montague's reference of his 
plant to Urceolaria. But it is even more difficult to 
follow Nylander (Obs. in Pot. Zeit.)\n subsuming such 
structure as this under Lecanora. — One word here of 
respectful homage to the memory of that genial cryp- 
togamist who first illustrated the plant we have been 
considering. If a reverent handling of nature, and 


an ndly sympathy with al! who sought like 

hii . s, add anything to the worth 

of what a man I ' si I, they may well em- 

Dame ol Montai n . 
Biai thallo tehuissimo contiguo 

■ rimuloso cii 

: apotheciis mediocri- 

>planorufo hypothecio paHidoim- 

mtegro dt mum nigro. 5j 

'" ' j>'i- 

• i - tores. On trees, 

H China (U. B. X. Paeif. Expt Exp.) ' Mr. 

Wright. A rable with those of forma 

of the group repre- by B. awl e) from 

! separate 1 by its pale hypotheci- 

Ives, the biatorine types 

<■ >' well appear too intimately akin 

to the lecideine to i rical separation. In 

however it is sufficiently evident that 

I in the family before 

•i may be a I ns most 

convenient, if not, with Fries '7. gfam ulcalitcr 

learly nei essary. In ac- 
co: I regard 

is exhibii 
■ment of the colourless spore-type, and 
11 I, an i Baettia, ol the 






Buellia inquilina (sp. nova) apotheciis in thallo apothe- 
ciisque Pertusariarum eortkolarum parasitantibus, 
minntis sessilibus atris intus cinerascentibus, margine 
tenui prominulo discum plano-convexum opaciim cin- 
gente. Spores octoncv, cllipsoidecc, dyblastce, diam. 
2 — 24 plo ravius 3 plo longiores, fuscescentes. On 
eorlieoline Pertusariac, North Carolina; Rev. Dr, 
Curtis. South Carolina; Mr. Ravenel. Texas (spores 
not seen) Mr. Wright. Appearing to represent here, 
in some sort, the pertusariicoline Acolhim stigonellum 
of Europe ; and the lichen is,- with little doubt, the 
Calidum stigonellum of Muhlenberg's catalogue. 

Opegeapha oulocheila (sp. nova) thallo tenui contigua 
glaitcescente ; apotheciis minutis superfieialibus rotun- 
dato-difformibus oblongisque nigris, disco dildtctto 
piano, margine persistente rurjuloso. Sporoz brevi- 
ellipsoxdeoz , dyblastx, fuscescentes. Salem, North 
Carolina, on granitic rocks ; Sehweinitz. Apothecia 
and spores, in the single specimen, from Schweinitz's 
herbarium (Herb. Acad. Sci. Philad.) before me, but 
half the size of those of 0. cerebrina ; from which 
species- the present also differs in its crisped margin, 
and habitat. 

Opegrapiia prosodea, Ach., thallo dein compacto lozviga- 
to e viridulofusccscente nigrc-limitato ; apotheciis super- 
ficiaibus (rassis cWpticis I. oblongis stcllatisquc obtusis 
disco aperto I. clongalis subramosis disco angus/ato 
demum rimecformi. Spores in thecis clavato-oblongis 
octoncB, fusiformi-oblongce, 6 — 14 blasts;, diam. 5 — 9 plo 
longiores, ineolores. 

a, notha; apotheciis rotundatis ovalibus oblongisque 
planis, disco dilatato fus~o marginem obtusum sub- 

b, diaphora ; apothc^'ds clongatis c^lindraccis subcJau- 
sis. Occurring commonly on various barks, in East- 


ornCuba: Mr. Wright In defining the spores of 0. 
/>•"■ Nylander p. 213 note) 

compares t he lichei presented in tho 

tei ■ the 0. .-, \: 

bich be has since indicate I 
l ' 10 (> - also, in part, of 

Fl rbarium. I am inclined to consider this 

a happy comparison, in view ol (tension of the 

aarian species above-proposed ; and to regard our 
remarkable a as related to b much in the same way 
lll " : • ' • Wallr. l- to the more narrowed forms 

(as Zw. ess. n. 8 : Stenh. Lich. Suec. n. 119, ^ro mm. 
of 0. uiridia. Tho spores of the two northern 
srred to are as similar as those of the 
I above, and Scharer well 
united the northern forms in his n. 'JO ; the left-hand 
Epceimen. in my copy, ofFering the short, often con- 
cave, thick-margined fruit of 0. involuta, and tho 
-:it. the more elo: lerer apothecia ofO. 

nibella, Nyl. Prodr. The now rounded apothecia of 
our above-described v. notka accompany sometimes, 
significantly resemble Lccaiv aca. 

OpEGRArn.v aatra ova) thalto compado cincras- 

" • ' ; npothecus 

tupcrncialilua ■ / a!is s ; mm 

■ ndi- I. rim- 
(cformi ma / . Sporainlhc- 

4— Sbtaatce 
eporolt. quadrcUia, d « ». 5—7 p !o longiorca, plerugtque 

rotunda ebngolia aim- 

• nijro av 

'.cllolia .- . I'xjvcslifts. Qro- 



phis astrcea, Tuck, in litt., (£ in Nyl. Enum. Gen., 
Suppl. Upon, Elm, Maple, and Bald Cypress, 
in the low country of South Carolina ; Mr. Ravenel. 
On various barks, in Cuba ; Mr. Wright. In one of 
the Cuba forms the apothecia are curiously rounder! , 
suggesting a comparison with Acolium leucampyx 
(Trachyl.a, Tuck. Obs. Lich., & in Wright Lich. Cub. 
n. 21.) This state passes into an elongated one which 
is sometimes, as it were, torulose, ihe apothecinm ap- 
pearing to break up into smaller ones, as in many 
tropical Bialorcc (apolh. prol/fcris.) Thecee abundant 
in all the forms, but the spores very rarely perfected 
in the extraordinary Carolina one distinguished as b, 
and I consider this a less typical state. It has much 
of the aspect of Grapkis Afzclii. 
Graphis culectra {ftp. nova) thallo hypophlozode ; apoihe- 
ciis sparsis oblongis Unearibusque flexuosis subsimplici- 
bus, disco rimcpforrni dehiscenle, marginc excipuli nigri 
ivjlexo albo-pulverulcnto, strato thallode concolori mar- 
ginanle immcrsis. Sporoz in thecis ventricosis Q>-B>ncc, 
crvcccformcs, 12 — \ii-blasloz, diam. G-Spl) longiores, 
incolorcs I. dilute fuscidulcc. — Trunks, in the White 
Mountains. Illinois, Mr. Hall. Spores taking a 
claret colour, at length violet, with iodine. The di» 
versify in the spores from G. scripin, is corroborated 
by the remarkably dilated, stromadike, accessory ex- 
ciple, which is comparable with the accessory margin 
of Opegrapha herpetica. v. subocellata, but more pro- 
nounced ; and sufficiently indicates the lichen to the 
naked eye. 

Collema nigrescens (L.) Ach., ryssoleum (sub-sp. nova) 
thallo suborbiculari macrophyllino mernbranaceo lozvi 
lacero-lacinialoolivaceo-viridi, lobis irregularibus mar- 

m \ undulatis complicate supra rugoso-pa i - 

I , 

rotunda ' 

a gine 

tenut inU rcrrim - - '■' ' - '-'" 

LI . . ._ . / / Gi nitie 

:;ioii iii New England, and in the Bluo 
Ei Ige of Virginia ; and perhaps throughout the Ap- 
palachian chain. New Jersey; Mr. CL A. Austin. 

Dr. Curtis. C. 

. ither monopbyllons, and confined to 

trees; but its lobation may conceivably assume t lie 

form of that of the present, whi< h lly differs in 

its fusiform-ellipsoid, or broad 

COLLF.MA micropl'ichiuiil | pitlvi- 

nato tubmentlranat 


oclona, *te, diam. 6-10 

— Elm trunk- :ii Amherst; 
common. Readily recognizable, especially when in- 
fertile, by the erect, rounded, plaited lobules which 
coustitnte the minute, pulvinate fronds. These 
I a quarter of an inch in diameter. The 
spores are smaller than those of C. Icptalcum (OLs. 
Lick. 1. c. 0, j>. 238) but evidently associate the lichen 
b it. The lattc rer sufficiently diverse in 

. i best, and appears to be always distinguishable in 
its minutest conditions. 

Hollinger G 
P H8.5