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Full text of "Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London"

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K 



THIS BOOK IIAY HOT BE PHOTOCOPIED 



PEOCEEDINGS 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETT 



OF LONDON. 




PART XXIV. 

1856. 



PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY ; 

SOLD AT THEIR HOUSE IN HANOVER-SQUARE, 

Ai-D BY MESSRS. LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN AND LONGMANS, 



PATERNOSTER-ROW. 



2 



LIST 

OF 

CONTRIBUTORS, 

With References to the several Articles contributed by each. 



Adams, Arthtjr, R.N., F.L.S., &c. page 

Description of Two New Shells discovered by Robert 
MacAndrew, Esq., on the Coast of Norway 1 

Descriptious of Thirty-four New Species of Bivalve Mol- 
lusca {Leda, Nucula and Pythina) from the Cumingian Col- 
lection 47 

Notice of a New Species of Trichotropis, from the CoUec- 
tion of Hugh Cuming, Esq 369 

Bartlett, a. d. 

Letter addressed to Dr. Gray respecting the Living African 
Lepidosiren in the Crystal Palace 346 

Caupenter, p. p. 

Notės on the Species of Hipponyx inhabiting the American 
Coasts, with descriptions of New Species 3 

Description of New Species of Shells coUected by Mr. T. 
Bridges in the Bay of Panama and its vicinity, in the Col- 
lection of Hugh Cuming, Esq 159 

Description of New Species and Varieties of Calyptrceidce, 
Trochidce and PyramideUidtB, principally in the CoUection 
of Hugh Cuming, Esq 1C6 

Descriptions of Shells from the Gulf of Cahfornia and the 
Pacific Coasts of Mexico and California 158 



IV 

page 
Monograph of the Shells coUected by T. Nuttall, Esq., on 
the Californian Coast, in the years 1834-5 209 

First Steps towards a Monograph of the Recent Speciea 
of Petaloconchus, a genus of Vermetidce 313 

Crisp, Edwards, m. d. 

Observations on Strongylus filaria and Botaurus stellaris 53 

On the Viscera of E80x lucius 106 

Remarks on Mus Musculus 106 

On the Head and Brain of a Monoculous Lamb 149 

DUNKER, Dr. 

On New Shells from the CoUection of Mr. Cuming. . 354, 358 

Fairholme, j. k. e. 

Observations on the Pteropus of Australia 311 

On the Australian Dugong (Hahcore Australis) 352 

The Blacks of Moreton Bay and the Porpoises 353 

Fraser, Louis. 

Eshibition of Birds from the CoUection of T. C. Eyton, 
Esq 368 

Gaskoin, John S., F. L. S. 

On a peculiar variety of Mus Musculus 38 

On some Defects in the Growth of the Antlers, and some 
results of Castration, in the Cervidee 151 

GouLD, John, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., &c. 

On a New Turkey, Meleagris Mexicana 61 

On Two New Species of Birds {Nestor notabilis and Sjia- 
tula variegata) from the CoUection of Walter Mantell, Esq. . 94 

Descriptions of Two New Species of True Cuckoos (Genus 
Cuculus as restricted) 96 

Description of a New Trogon and a New Odontophorus . . 107 

On some Birds coUected by Mr. John MacGUhvray, the 
Naturalist attached to H. M. Surveying Ship Rattlesnake, and 



page 
lately sent home by Capt. Denham, the Commander of the 
Expedition 1 35 

On Two New Species of Humming Birds belonging to the 
Genus Amazilius 150 

Gray, George R., F. L. S. and Z. S. 

On a New Species of Pigeon 6 

On a New Species of Lepidopterous Insect 7 

Gray, Dr. John Edward, F.R.S., &c. 

On the Genus Assiminia (Leach) 20 

Description of the Animals and Teeth oiTylodina and other 
Genera of Gasteropodous MoUusca 41 

On the Position of the Genus Proserpina in the System, 
and a Description of its Dentition 99 

On the Nucleus of the Operculum of Cydostoma elegans. . 147 

On a Monstrosity of Haliotis (albicans ?) 147 

Notice of some Indian Tortoises (including the Description 
of a New Species presented to the British IMuseum by Pro- 
fessor Oldham) 181 

On a New Species of Squirrel (Sciurus macrotis) from Borneo 34 1 

Observations on a Living African Lepidosiren in the Crystal 
Palace 342 

Description of a New Species of Chelodina from Australia 369 

Hanley, Syltanus. 

Descriptions of Four New Species of KelHadce in the Coi- 
lection of Hugh Cuming, Esq 340 

Heddle, Robert. 

On a Whale of the Genus Physalus, Gray, captured in 
Orkney 187 

H0LDSW0RTH, E. W. H., F.L.S., &c. 

Description of a New Species of Actinia from the Devon- 
shire Coast 1 72 



IIoRSFiELD, Thomas, M. D., F.R.S., &c. page 

Catalogue of a CoUection of Mammalia from Nepal, Sikim, 
and Tibetj presented to the Hon. East India Company by 
B. H. Hodgson, Esq 393 

HuTTON, Major Thomas. 

Extract from a Letter addressed to Adam White, Esq., 
dated Mussoree, Nov. 27, 1855 5 

OwEN, Professor, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., &c. 

Ou Dinomis (Part VII.) : containing a Description of the 
Bones of the Leg and Foot of the Dinomis elephantopus, 
Owen 54 

Osteological Contributions to the Natūrai History of the 
Chimpanzees and Orangs {Troglodytes Pithecus), No. VI. . . 369 

Pfeiffer, Dr. L. 

Deseriptions of Twenty-five New Species of Land Shells, 
from the CoUection of H. Cumuig, Esq 32 

Deseriptions of Twenty-seven New Species of Land Shells 
collected by M. Salle in the State of Vera Cruz, Mexico .... 318 

Deseriptions of Fifty-eight New Species of Helicea, from 
the CoUection of H. Cuming, Esq 324 

Deseriptions of Sixteen New Species o{ Pneumonopo>na,{rom 
the CoUection of H. Cuming, Esq 336 

Deseriptions of Nineteen New Species of Land Shells, from 
the CoUection of H. Cuming, Esq., collected by M. Ghies- 
breght at Chiapa, Mexico , 37/ 

Deseriptions of Eighteen New Species of Land Shells, col- 
lected on the Admiralty Islands, from the CoUection of H. 
Cuming, Esq 381 

Deseriptions of Thirty-three New Species of Land Shells, 
from the CoUection of H. Cuming, Esq 385 

Deseriptions of Two New Species of Melampus, from Mr. 
Cuming's CoUection 393 



VU 

Reeve, Lovell, f. L. s. & G. S. page 

Description of Three New Volutes, from the CoUections of 
the Hon. Mrs. Cathcart and Mr. Caming 2 

RiCHARDSON, SiR John, C. B., F.R.S. L. & Ed., &c. 

On some Fish from Asia Minor and Palestine 371 

SCLATER, Philu' L., M. A., F.L.S. 

Note on the Zoological Appendix to the ' Report of the 
U.S. Navai Astronomical Expedition to the Southern Hemi- 
sphere,' and on the Geographic Range and Distribution of 
the Tanagrine Genera, CaUiste and Euphonia 18 

On some additional Species of Bh'ds received in CoUections 
from Bogota 25 

Note on Psaltria Jlavieeps, a third American Species of 
the Pavine genus Psaltria 37 

Synopsis Avium Tanagrinarum. — A Descriptive Catalogue 
of the known Species of Tanagers 64, 108, 230 

Note on Buglodytes albicilius, Bp 97 

On some New or imperfectly known Species of Synallaxis 97 

List of Mammals and Birds coUected by Mr. Bridges in 
the vicinity of the town of David, in the province of Chiriąui, 
in the State of Panama 138 

Note on some Birds from the Island of Ascension 144 

On the Species of the American genus Parra 282 

Catalogue of the Birds coUected by M. Auguste Salle in 
Southern Mexico, with Descriptions of New Species 283 

On a New Tanager of the genus CaUiste 311 

Tegetmeier, W. b. 

On the remarkable peculiarities existing in the SkuUs of 
the Feather-crested variety of the Domestic Fowl, now known 
as the Polish 366 



Thompson, William. page 

Remarks on Niką edvlis, Risso : 102 

TOMES, ROBERT F. 

On Three Genera of Vespertilionidse, Furipterus, Natalus, 
and Hyonycteris, vviih the Descriptions of Two New Species 1 72 

Verreauk, m. Julės, Corr. Mem. 

Note sur un Nouveau Genre des Oiseaux de Proie 145 

Note sur le Messager ou Serpentaire du Cap de Bonne- 
Espdrance (Serpeniarius reptilivorus, Daud.) 348 

White, Adam, F. L. S. 

Descriptions of some Coleopterons Insects in the Collection 
of the British Museum, hitherto appavently unnoticed. ... 8, 400 

Some remarks on Cmstacea of the Genus Lithodes, with a 
brief Description of a Species apparently hitherto unrecorded 132 

Description of Mygale Emilia, a Spider from Panama, 
hitherto apparently unrecorded 183 

W00DWARD, S. P., F.G.S. 

On the Land and Freshwater Shells of Kashmir and Tibet, 
collected by Dr. T. Thomson 18;") 

Exhibition of Preparations of the Mantle and Orai Appa-^ 
ratus of the Recent British Terebratula (T. caput-serpentis) 368 

Yarrell, Willtam, F. L. s. 

Notice of the occurrence of Otin f arda in Berkshire 1 



LIST OF PLATĖS. 

1856. 



MAMMALIA. 

Plate 

XLI. Mus musculus 30 

XLII. Furipterus ccerulescens, Tomės -į 

XLIII. Natalus stramineiis, Gray J "^^ 

YT Y j" Pfiysaltis Duffuidii, Heddle I37 

XLVI. Sciurus macrotis, Gray . , 341 

XLYII. Paradoonirus strictus, Horsf. 

XLVIII. Paradoxurus guadriscriptus, Horsf. 

XLIX. Mustela strigidorsa, Horsf. \ 393 

L. Arctonyx isonyx, Horsf. I 

AVĖS. 

CXV. Calanas {Phlegoenas) Stairi, G. R. Gray 6 

CXVI. Margaromis brunnescens, Sclater 

CXVII. Octkoeca fumicolor, Sclater 1 

CXVni. Euscarthmus agilis, Sclater f 25 

CXIX. Conopophaga cucullata, Sclater J 

CXX. Granatėlius Sallm, Sclater 292 

CXXI. Pipra mentalis, Sclater 299 

REPTILIA. 

IX. "1 

jY * f Testudo elongata, Gray -, 

•yr ' \ Batagur ocellata, Gray Į 

XI. Lepidosiren annectens 342 

XII a r ^^^^^^^^^ ezpansa, Gray 369 



MOLLUSCA. 

Plate Page 

XXXIII. Voliita CathcarticB, V. Americana, V. Africana 2 

XXXIV. Haliotis {albicans ?) 147 

XXXV. I Dr. Pfeiffer's New Species of Land Shells, coUected I 377 

XXXVI. f at Vera Cruz, Chiapa, &c 1 381 

J [385 

ANNULOSA. 

XXXIX. Papilio {Ornithoptera) Victorice, G. R. Gray 7 

XL "1 
^,, ' r Mr. Adam White's Ncw Coleopterous Insects 8, 406 

XLII. Lithodes (Petalocerus) Bellianus, White 132 

XLIIl. Mygale Emilia, White 183 



PROCEEDINGS 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



January 22, 1856. 

Dr, Gray, F.R.S., in the Chair. 

Mr. Yarrell stated to the Meeting that on the 3rd of January of 
the present year 1856, a great Bustard, Otis tardą of Liimteus, was 
taken in Berkshire. It was found about a mile from Hungerford, in 
the direction of Salisbury, by a boy, who observed that the bird had 
a broken leg, and conld not, or did not, raiše itself off the ground. 
He dragged it along by oue wing to the farrn to which he had bet n 
sent, where a man broke the bird' s neck, that the boy might carry 
it back home the easier. The bird is now at Mr. Leadbeater's for 
preservation. It was a malė, and appears to be in its second year. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Description of Two New Shells discovered by Robert 

MacAndrew, Esa. ON the coast of Norway. 

Described by Arthur Adams, R.N. 

1 . ScALARiA LovENii, A. Adams. S. testą pyramidali-turrita 
apice acuminata alba, anfractibus novem planiuscidis, costis 
annularibus subdistantibus, angustis lamellatis recurvatis prope 
suturas latioribus et uncinatis costarum interstitiis valde spira- 
liter liratis, anfractu ultimo Ura valida ad basin cincto ; aper- 
tura rotundata. 

Hab. Ad litt. Scandinaviae. 

2. Triforis Macandr^^, A. Adams, T. testą pyramidali- 
turrita apice obtuso sinistrali tenuicula sordide alba, anfrac- 
tibus ąuatuordecem rotundatis spiraliter liratis liris planis 
ceąualibus subdistantibus {ad anfractum ultimum, sex) inter- 

No. CCCI. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



stitiis sub lente longitudinaliter tenuissime striatis ; apertura 
rotundata, canali brevi aperto. 
Hab. Ad litt. Scandinavise. 



2. Description of Three New Volutes from the Col- 

LECTIONS OF THE HoN. MrS. CaTHCART AND Mr. CuMING. 

By Lovell Reeve, f. L. s. & 6.S. 

(MoUusca, PI. XXXIII.) 

1. VoLUTA Cathcarti^. Vol. testa cylindraceo-oblonga, basi 
recurva, spira brevi, apice papillari, anfractibiis superne con- 
cavo-declivibus, deinde subplanatis ; columella ąnadriplicata, 
plicis basin versus descendente ; apertura elongata, subangiista, 

labio simplici, curvato ; aurantio-fulva, nigricante-purpureo 
trifasciatim interrupte maculata, maculis valde irregtdaribus 
et varie nebulatis, anfractuum sutura peculiariter punctata et 
maculata. 
Long. 3\ poli. ; lat. If poli. 

Hab. ? 

This fine species of Foluta, from the coUection of the Hon. Mrs. 
Macadam Cathcart, will not admit of defined comparison with any 
known species. It has somewhat the tone of colour aud marking of 
V. Pacifica, but is of quite another typioal form. The spire is 
short and largely papillary, and the plaits of the columella, four in 
number, descend elongately to the base. 

2. VoLUTA Americana. Vol. testa subabbremato-fusiformi, 
spira exserta, turrita, apice vix 2iapillari, anfractibus superne 
concavo-angulatis, ad angulum tvberculis rotundatis, interdtim 
in plicis descendentibus eleganter coronatis ; columella superne 
arcuata, deinde callosa et quadrij)licata, plica superna fere 
obsoleta, apertura subeffusa; pallida, fulvescente, aurantio- 

fusco trifasciatim interrupte maculata, etjuxta suturam pieta, 
interstitiis eximie reticulata. 
Long. 1| poli. ; lat. |- poli. 
Hab. Brazil. 

Of very characteristic fonn, faintly banded and reticulated with 
orange-brown ; also in the coUection of the Hon, Mrs. Macadam 
Cathcart. 

3. VoLtTTA Africana. Vol. tcstū ovata, subventricosa, spira 
exserta, apice subpapillari, anfractibus superne concavo-angu- 
latis, ad angulum tuberculato-nodatis, nodis interdum in costis 
descendentibus, columella arcuata, basin versus biplicata, aper- 
tura subeffusa ; fulvo-aurantia, lineis fuscis, punctis hierogly- 
phicis sparsim internotatis, in guaternis, fasciata, columella 
superne intense nigra. 

Long. 21 poli. ; lat. lį poli. 

Hab. East coast of Africa. 

This species, from Mr. Cuming's coUection, partakes of the clia- 



Proc.Z 3 Mdlusca mni 




lr3,Sowo%lrtli. 



12YQl-ukAmericam. 3.4'.Y,Airicaiia.. 5.6. V.Cadicarbse. 



W.W9l!tImf 



racters of V.festiva and V. HebrcBU, but is of a totally distinct 
typical form, especially ia respect of the columella, which is pecu- 
liarly arched, aud has only two plaits at the base. The columella 
is stained at the top with the characteristic black spot of F. festiva. 



3. notes on the species of hlpponyx inhabiting the 

American coasts, with Descriptions of New Species. 

By Philip P. Carpenter. 

The species of this genus have a helicoid apex when young, vvhicli 
is never persistent as in Pileopsis and CalyptrcEidcB proper. In 
many species the shape varies extremely, and is not to be taken 
alone as a specific distinction. The characters of the epidermis and 
basai margiu are among the most constant. 

L HipPONYX ANTiauATUs, Liun. 

Patella antiquata, Linn. Syst.Nat. p. 1259 ; Dillw. p. 1035,no.44. 

Le Soron, Adans. Sen. p. 32, pi. 2, f. 3 = P. nivea, Gmel. 

Pileopsis mitrula, Lam. An. s. Vert. vii. p. 610, no, 2. 

Capulus mitrula, Dunker, Ic. Moli. Guin. p, 36, no. 99. D'Orb. 
Sagra Moli. ii. p. 186. 

Hipponyx mitrula, Sow. P. Z. S. 1835, p, 5. 

Hipponyx antiąuatus. Menke, Zeit. f. Mal. 1853, p. 79. 

Concholepas antiquatus, H. & A. Adams, Gen. i. p. 373. 

Hipponyx Panamensis, C. B. Adams, Pan. Shells, p. 218, no. 328. 

Amalthea Panamensis, H. & A. Adams, Gen, i. p. 374. 

Hab. "West Indies, passim. W. Afriea : Senegaį Adanson ; 
Loander, Tams ; St. Vincent, Sehmidt. W. America : Lobos Island, 
Peru, Cuming ; Panama, C. B. Adams. 

Base rounded, not crenated ; outside foliated, with faint radiating 
strise. Deshayes (from descriptions) doubts the identity of the 
African and Caribbsean shells. Menke and Dunker confirm it : 
*' possidemus hanc cochleolam e remotissimis terrse regionibus alla- 
tam " (^Dunker). Sowerby's species was described from Pacific 
shells. C. B. Adams, for geographical reasons, doubts their iden- 
tity, and names them H. Panamensis ; " the apex being less pro- 
minent, the concentric laminse more numerous, and the radiating 
striae more deeply impressed." AU these are Tery variable cha- 
racters in the true H. antiquata, as well as in the Pacific specimens. 

2. HippoNYx serrattjs, b. m. Cat. Mazatlan Moli. 

H. foliaceus. Menke, Zeit. f. Mal. 1851, p. 36, no. 129, non 
Quoy & Gaim. 

Outside likę H. antiquata ; base flattened, broad, with numerous 
serrated laminae separated by brown epidermis in shreds. Muscular 
scar corrugated. This species is only yet known from Mazatlan. — 
Lieut. Shipley; Bnt. Mus. Coli. 

3. HippONYx BARBATUS, Sow. P. Z. S. 1835, p. 5, C. B. Adams, 
Pan. Shells, p. 217, no. 327. 

Hipponyx australis. Menke, Zeit. f. Mal. 1847, p. 186, no. 38; 
non H. australis, Desh. (= Patella australis, Lamk.) 



4 

Outside with close radiating lines of bristly hairs ; base round, 
smooth, creuated at the outer edge. The shell is quoted with doubt 
by C. B. Adams, because of the difference in zoological province. 

Hab. Society Islands, Cuming ; Panama, C. B. Adams ; Mazatlan, 
Brit. Mus. Coli. ; Atooi, Sandwich Islands, Nuttall. 

3 {b). HlPPONYX ? BARBATUS, Var. COSTELLATUS. H. t. "H. 

barbatse" simili ; sed eostis paucioribus, validioribus ; apice 
subcentrali ; setis minoribus, temduribus, 
Long. -5; lat. '42; alt. -27 poli. 
Hab. 1 Ad iusulas Maris Caribbaei. 

This may prove a distinct species, but is only described from a 
single specimen in my collcction, of which I can give no exact 
authority for the locality. It has the esterior of H. Grayanus, with 
the base of H. barbatus. 

A. HippoNYX (Amalthea) Grayanus, Menke, Zeit. f. Mal. 
1853, p. 115. 

Hipponyx radiata, Gray, P. Z. S. 1835. C. B. Adams, Panama 
Shells, p. 218, no. 329. Menke, Zeit. f. Mal. 1853, p. 79 ; non 
H. radiata, Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 ; nec H. radiata, Desh. 1830, 
{= H. crispa. Menke). 

Hab. Gallapagos, Cuming; Sandwich Islands, on Pinna, iV«<^^a/Z; 
Panama, C. B. Adams ; S.W. Mexico, on Pinna, P. P. C. ; Mazatlan, 
Brit. Mus. Coli. ; St. Vincent (W. Africa), Schmidt, teste Menke. 

Apex subcentral ; ribs fewer, coarser and more nodulous thau iu 
H. barbata, with softer, smaller, fen'er, and more irregular hairs; 
base flat, not very broad, rather rounded at the inner margin, cre- 
nated at the outer, with numerous lamellae, undulated but not 
serrated. 

^ 5. HippONYx SUBRUFUS, Lam. 

Pileopsis subrufa, Lam. An. s. Vert. vii. p. Cl 1, no. 4. 

Hipponyx subrufa, Sow. P. Z. S. 1835, p. 5. (Non P.milifaris, 
Dilhv., ut ?credit Desh.) 

Capulus subru/us, D'Orb. Sagra Moli., ii. 186, pi. 24, f. 24, 25. 

Hipponyx , sp. ind., C. B. Adams, Panama Shells, p. 217, 

no. 326. 

Concholepas subrufa, H. & A. Adams, Gen. i. p. 373. 

Lamarck's shell was described from W. Indian specimens, Sowerby's 
from Peruvian. There does not appear, however, any specific distinc- 
tion between the two. Shell of a piukish red, with full, recurved 
umbo, and finely cancellated surface ; base round, simple. 

Hab. W. Indies, passim ; Lobos Island, Peru, Cuming ; 1 Panama, 
C. B. Adams. 

The figure oi H. subrufus, jun. in Sow. Thes. Conch. pi. 73. f. 21, 
is much more likę the young of H. barbatus. 

6. HipPONYX TUBERCULATUS, n. S. H. t. soUdū, conica, sub- 
rufa; apice subcentrali; eostis radiantibus creberrimis, con- 
centrice tuberculosis, interstitiis minimis ; epidermide incon- 



spicua : basi lata, planata, lamellis creberrimis instructa, intus 
vix undulatis, ad marginėm secundum costas eztemas undatis ; 
cicatrice musculari Icevi. 
Long. -48 ; lat. -43 ; alt. -17 poli. 
Hab. Ad insulas Maris Caribbsei. In Mus. Brit. 
The species is described from a specimen in my collection, but it 
exists unnamed in the British Museum. Outside somewhat likę 
H. Grayanus, but \vith the ribs more crowded, with stronger tuber- 
cles, and without the scaly and hairy epidermis of that species ; base 
broad and sharp at both edges, likę H. serratus, but with the lamellae 
not serrated or separated by epidermis, and with the muscular im- 
pressiou not corrugated. 

7. HippoNYx (Amalthea) effobiens, n. s. U. t. solidis- 
sima, depressa, albida viridi tincta ; irregulari, apice subcen- 
trali, seu vix monstrante ; suleis radiantibus altis, valde distan- 
tibus, circiter xx. ad xxv. ; basi lata, non planata, intus rotun- 
data, ItBvi, extus a suleis dentata ; cicatriee musculari longitu- 
dinaliter tenuissime striata; animali fossam altissimam alio in 
alio excavante. 
Long. -52; lat. '47; alt. -13 poli. 

Hab. Ad insulas Maris Caribbsei, In Mus. Brit. et Mus. Cuming 
repertura est. 

Shell small, but enormously thick, and deeply cut by the few 
radiating furrows. Base rounded, toothed outside. Very deep ex- 
cavations are made in the shells by yomiger specimens. Specimens 
much larger than those described are in Mr. M'Andrew's collection. 



4. EXTRACT FROM A LeTTER ADDRESSED TO AdAM WhITE, EsQ. 

BY Major Thomas Htjtton, — dated Mussoree, Nov. 27, 1855. 

" In a box despatched from this to Calcutta on the 22nd inst., I 
enclosed a small packet for you containing liATug cocoons of Actias 
selene, in order that you may have an opportunity, if they surrive 
the trip, of witnessing'the mode in which the moth effects its escape, 
as I think the proceeding will be interesting to you and to entomo- 
logists generally. I have added two Cocoons in which the pupa is 
dead, in order to show you how distinctly visible are the wing spines, 
which formerly induced me to re-iiame the genus as ' Plectropteron,' 
a term which I still think more applicable than Actias, in which the 
generic characters make no mention of the spine. As this instru- 
ment exists in both the species found in India, you will probably 
also detect it in A. lana, of America : and whether the generic name 
be changed or not, the characters mušt be revised. Before pro- 
ceeding to separate the threads by the wing spines, I have ascer- 
taincd that the Moth ejects from the mouth a few drops of a clear 
colourless fluid, with which the gum is dissolved, and it apjiears to 
use the tuft of down on the front, betwcen the eyes, as a brush for 
the appUcation of the solvcnt. This is a curious fact, as the genus. 



likę Saturnia, is said to have no mouth ! I believe the fact stands 
thus, — there is no mouth orgauized for the receptiou of nourishment, 
though sufficiently so to secrete the fluid in question ; this you can 
ascertain by dissection ; but that a fluid is ejected frotn that organ is 
a fact which I have repeatedly witnessed, and it is probable, there- 
fore, that Saturnia and other genera secrete a similar fluid, and 
similarly apply it to the threads. I have neither eyes nor ylasses 
adapted for anatomical dissection, but you will be able to follow up 
the hint here given. I long since wrote about the wing spine to Mr. 
Westwood, who, I beHeve, doubted the fact of its existence ; but as 
I have here no opportunity of seeing what is said and done on these 
subjects, I know not how the matter ended." 



February 12, 1856. 
Dr. Gray, F.R.S., in the Chair. 
The following papers were read : — 

1. On a New Species of Pigeon. 
By g. r. Gray, F.L.S. & Z.S., etc. 

(Avės, PI. CXV.) 

As I beUeve the members of the Society take some interest in 
those birds which have passed a portion of their existence in the 
Gardens, I am induced to place before them a Pigeon, which I have 
every reason to suppose has remained hitherto undescribed. It be- 
longs to the šame division as the Garnet-vdnged Pigeon of Latham 
{Columba erythroptera, Gm.), which has been placed in Dr. Reich- 
enbach's subgenus Phlegoenas by H. H. Prince Bonaparte ; but I 
think that, considering the numerous divisions that have been 
formed in this class of birds, it might with equal propriety be divided 
from it. 

I am led to consider that there exists some sHght confusion in the 
description of the Columba erythroptera, which is stated by Latham 
(in his History, viii. p. 71) to come from the Isle of Eimeo, which 
he describes as having the " belly and vent black," but I think that 
this is a mistake ; as I find amongst Ellis's drawings, made during 
the voyage of the great circumnavigator Cook in the year 1 777-79, 
a representation of a Gamet-vnnged Pigeon that was found on "York 
Isle or Eimao," having those parts pure white, and that it even 
extends to the end of the under tail coverts and on the thighs. 

Latham has further noticed two varieties, viz. that which forms 
his var. A. is from Otaheite, and the description was taken from the 



£5 




(]rawing of Forster, who also accompanied the satne celebrated 
voyager during the years 1772-74, which eshibits the belly and 
vent as " dusky." Forster had applied the name of C. leueophrys to 
this bird, under which name the description will be found iu his 
' Descriptiones Animalium, &c.,' edited by Professor Lichtenstein, at 
p. 168 ; while the variety B. is stated to be from the island of Tanna, 
and is recorded as having a "reddish black" belly (the šame colour 
as the back). 

From these notices, there appear to be at least two, if uot three 
species of Garnet-winged Pigeons , and may not they, hke the Pti- 
lonopi, be peculiar to the diifereut groups of islands of the South 
Pacific Ocean ? This, however, cannot be at present satisfactorily 
determined, from want of specrmens from the different localities, but 
I have ventured to draw attention to these differences, that it may lead 
to a further elucidation when an opportunity offers. 

I may add, hovvever, that M. Temminck, in his work on Pigeons^ 
(t. 55), figures one that may probably come near to variety B. of 
Latham, but he describes the belly black with purple reflesions. 
The British Museum contains two specimens from Bow Island, 
which approach in some measure to the variety A. of Latham, but 
the belly is of a dusky greyish black. 

The one now exhibited is quite different from those referred to ; 
it may be described in the following terras, with the uame of 

Calcenas (Phlegoenas) Stairi. (PI. CXV.) 

Glossy broMra, with coppery reflexions in some light ; top of head 
and back of neck dark slate, glossy with green ; front, side of neck 
and breast pale vinaceous brown ; throat and a gorget round the 
breast white, which latter is margined outerly with dark garnet 
colour ; abdomen vinaceous brown, dusky on the sides ; ąuUls dusky 
black, slightly margined with rufous ; tail brown, with a broad band 
of black at the end. Bill black and feet pale. 

The specimen is marked as a malė, and I suppose was brought 
from the Samoan or Navigators' Islands, as the British Museum 
was previously in possession of a skin given by the Rev. J. Stair as 
from that locaUty, with other interesting birds. 



2. On a New Species of Lepidopterous Insect. 
By g. r. Gray, F.L.S. & Z.S., etc. 

(Annulosa, PI. XXXIX.) 

Among the various novelties sent home during the voyages of 
H.M.SS. ' Rattlesnake ' and 'Herald' by Mr. MacgilUvray, is the 
splendid Butterfly now laid before the Society. It belongs to the 
great genus Papilio and to the subdivision Ornithoptera, and likę 
the other .known species of that group, its flight is very elevated; so 
much so, that it became necessary to employ powder and shot to 
secure the specimen ; many shots have perforated the wings, and 



have rather damaged tlie specimen, but still not so as to entirely 
destroy the beauty of this remarkable biitterfly. No lepidopterous 
insect of its magnitude has hitherto been known from the locality of 
this species ; which, from the other insects contained in the šame 
box, is supposed (as no memorandum was sent with it) to be either 
Solomou Islands, Aneiteum, New Hebrides or the Fiji group, — at any 
rate from one of the islands in the South Pacific Ocean. 

The figure (PI. XXXIX.) represents it of its natūrai size. The 
general colour is glossy bronze-black, with the two outer rows of 
irregular-sized spots of pure white, while those at the base of the 
fore wings are rich king-yellow, but partly pure white outerly ; the 
anterior margiu of the secondary wings narrowly bordered with king- 
yellow. 

The under surface likę the upper ; but the anterior margin of the 
secondary •vvings broadly bordered, and some of the spots tinged, 
with rich king-yellow. The head and thorax pure black ; the body 
ochraceous yellow above, and black aloug the middle beneath. 

It is a female. The malė remains at present unkuown, but one 
may suppose, by the usual brilliancy of the malęs of this group to 
which it belongs, that it is likely to prove a most beautiful insect, 
eshibiting some gorgeous combiuation of colour. 

The name I propose for this splendid insect is Papilio {Ornitho- 
l^tera) Fictorice, 

3. Descriptions of some Coleopterous Insects in the 

COLLECTION OF THE BrITISH MuSEUM, HITHERTO APPA- 
RENTLY UNNOTICED. By AdAM WhITE. 

(Annulosa, PI. XL. XLI.) 

The number of "new species" of Coleopterous Insects in the 
Museum collection is in relative proportion to the great richness of 
the other brauches. In this paper, some species belonging to the 
fauiilies Prionidce, Lamindce, and CetoniadcB 'vnA be given, as there is 
every likelihood, from the way in which these great groups have been 
investigated by Messrs. Serville, Burmeister, Schaum, Gory, and 
other entomologists, that the species are as yet unrecorded in scientific 
\vorks ; it is to the kindness of Dr. Gray, the keeper of the depart- 
ment, that I am indebted for pennission in laying these descriptions 
before the Society. 

Tribe LoNGicoRNiA. 

Family Prionid^. 
The Prionidce consist of several marked subfamilies, in one of 
which we would place Trictenotoma, G. R. Gray, one of the most 
interesting of the genera of Beetles. This form, which appears to 
me to be altogetlier Longicorn, is chiefly remarkable for its hetero- 
merous tarsi, and for the ninth and tenth joiuts of its anteųnae being 
serrated or produced at the end, ahnost as iu the Lucimidce. It is 
one of thosc "aberrant" forms which naturalists call "anuectent," 



Proc z J.Amnilosa.IL . 





^ 
^ 






1 Tmgocephala Cormtessa. ePeucalianl/Volkstom. 11 Thasdm-us zanthomeks. 

2 „ Chevrolatu. 7. Mcmeilsma, aJbopictum 12Phoebe canaima 

3 "^ ducahs. B.Anisocerus onca įSA^dLasta caUizona 
4- I įemmaria.. 9. ,, capudnus 14- 
5. „ Gueriiru 10. ;, aulcissimus 15 



anaca 
l^evraiaimi. 



■į 1&^4^ 



ProcZ S AnmibscLiLl. 







4', 





I& 



10. 






VVVfest bap 



1 2 Trigonoptorus Hooten J~. c 6 Cetonia procera. 

3. SteOiodesma Senolle} 7 Sduzorbiia Idae, 

4- OmLeria ducalis, 8, „ Bassi 

5. „ HDftmeisteri 9. <( Eimlia., 

10, CetxĮma SchaiitniL 



and which appear to partake of the characters of several groups,— 
for instance, with the depressed form and velvety pilosity of niauy 
Elateridee. it has five joints to the two first pairs of legs, aud four only 
to the hind pair. Its head, jaws, and legs are essentially Longicorn, 
the number of joints of the tarsi being not a necessary character of the 
group ; the tarsi of Parandra are pentamerous, and Dorx pentamera, 
an AustraUan insect described by Mr. Newman, has hkewise five 
joints to all the tarsi. The sternum of Trictenotoma is also pecuhar, 
that of the prothorax being received into a noteh of the mesothorax, 
while the sternum of the metathorax is capable of being firmLy fixed by 
" dovetailing," as it were, into the hinder noteh of the mesothorax; in 
fact, this structure mušt enable the insect, if placed on its flat back, 
to "right" itself,like those Beetles called "Skip-jacks" (Elaieridee) . 
In some species, such as T. Childrenii (G. R. Gray), T. Templetonii 
(Westw.), and T. Grayii (F. Smith), the sternum of the metathorax 
bulges ; in T. cenea (Parry) that part is flattened, and the thorax is 
curiously serrated on the lateral margiu in front, and has a very pro- 
jeeting point on the side beyond the middle, and notched between 
that point and the posterior angle, instead of being nearly straight 
and simply angled as in the other three species. Of these Tricteno- 
tomce, all the species described are in the Museum Collection ; the 
T. Childrenii being the type female specimen from the Tenasserim 
coast, described by Mr. G. R. Gray in one of the two insect volumes 
of Griffith's edition of 'Cuvier's Animal Kingdom' (pi. 5 and 5*). 
The T. Templetonii of Westwood (Oriental Ent. tab. 23, f. 3) is a 
native of Ceylon ; Hke the former, it has a yellowish-grey pilė ; the 
T. Grayii described by Mr. F. Smith in 1851 (Cat. Coleopt. Bnt. 
Mus. Cucujidee, p. 18) is from Borneo, and has a purpUsh base Įpeneath 
the more tawny pilė of the upper parts ; in the Museum there aie two 
females, one from the collection of Mr. Alfred Wallace, who obtained 
it at Sarawak. The T. cenea, the giant of the genus, is of a brassy 
green, shghtly pilose above. The Museum has lately obtained a 
specimen from India ; the specimen was found by a soldier at 
Dhargeehng. 

To the šame family, and not very remote from the subfamily con- 
taining Spondylis and its alhes, belongs, in the opinion of Dr. Bur- 
meister, Mr. Westwood, and Mr. Leconte, the very anomalous Hypo- 
cephalus, of which a fine figure, with some striking remarks, has been 
published by Mr. Curtis in the " Transactions of the Linnean Society ;" 
of this species, three specimens known to m e, exist in this coimtry, 
one in Mr. Melly's great cabinet at Liverpool, a second drawn by 
Mr. Westwood in the ' Arcana Entomologica,' from a specimen m his 
own very curious collection, and a third exhibited at the Linnean So- 
ciety in 1854, from the rare cabinet of Mr. Aspinall Turner of Man- 
chester. This remarkable Prionidous insect, likę the Mole-cricket, 
has been altogether constructed for a subterraneous hfe ; its marvel- 
lously developed thorax, fossorial and burrowing legs, curiously de- 
fended head, abbreviated anteunse, and other characters well sho\vu 
by Mr. Westwood, and particularly by Mr. Curtis, all mark this ; 
jiist as Dorysthenes of the East, a burrovving insect, is shown by 



10 

M. Guerin-Meneville, to have Walrus-like jaws, RsLethrus has incurved 
mandibles and other features useful in supporting the creature iu the 
holes of the ground whence it comes. As aberrant Prioniclee may be 
mentioned, the vary curious genera Torneutes, Reich., described in 
the Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (ii. 9, t. 2, f. 7), of which three species 
are now known, one from Patagouia, described by M. Gueriu, and 
the singulariy interesting Erichsonia of Mexico, named by Mr. 
Westwood, in memory of that most laborious and scientific of all the 
German entomologists, Dr. Erichson. The genus Thaumasua, 
Reich. (Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 18.53, p. 419), founded on what Olivier 
described as a gigantic species of Ips (Ips gigas, Journ. d'Hist. Nat. 
1792, i. 267, pi. 14. f. 6 ; Thaumasus g. Reich. 1. c. p. 422, pi. 13. 
f. 4.), may be particularized as auother aberrant form. In fact, the 
family PrionideB, likę many other great families, is more negative 
than positive, and will be found at its extremities, or at many points 
of its circumference, to lead off to other families, and even tribes : 
so that the naturalist, who wishes to simplify arrangement, however 
much he may split up genera, ought to avoid dividing families. 

It may interest the general reader to tjuote a short passage frora a 
privately circulated paper, written by my friend Mr. Empson of Bath, 
a distinguished natural-history traveller in South America. The insect 
alluded to is the noble Psalidognathns Friendii (G. R. Gray), which 
is named by the natives of Columbia ' Alaja,' that is, ' the jewel.' Mr. 
Empson remarks, " the first of these splendid insects which I ever saw, 
was at a feast given by the Cabildo, at Mariquita; upon that occasion 
Don Domingo Conde had placed one of them as a button to loop up, 
after the Spanish fashion, the broad brim of his Panama hat ; to this 
brilliant ornament a loop of liv-ing Fireflies was attached, in a mode 
common in South America, and which does not injure those dazzling 
insect gems ; thus decorated, the sombrero of the cavalero was more 
conspicuous in the ball-room than the jewelled tiaras of his more 
wealthy neighbours, although sparkhng with the choice emeralds 
from the minės of Muzo. 

" After many a weary search," adds Mr. Empson, " with Don 
Domingo for my guide, in the primseval forests on the eastern slopes 
of the Andes, we captured three of those Alajas." One of those, he 
remarks, " was resting on the perishing trunk of a palm-tree ; in our 
eagerness to secure it, my hand was so much lacerated that I was 
obliged to relinquish my prize, and we saw its gorgeous colours 
flashing beneath the fiill blaze of a tropical sun ; it settled on the 
stem of a cedar, and was then more cautiously transferred into my 
possession." 

With these few remarks, which might be much amplified, a curious 
genus of Prioniclee, allied to Psalidognathus, G. R. Gray, and to 
Prionaealus, figured in a previous part of the Proceedings, may be 
here briefly described. It is strictiy pseudo-tetramerous, and has 
much of the character of Mr. George Gray's fine Columbian genus. 
This genus, for which I would propose the name Psalidocoptus*, is 

* '9a\k, scissors, and kotttio, from a fanciful idea of the waved outline being 
as it were cnt with that instniment. 



11 

tVom Taną, in the New Hebrides, and is one of those fine insects for 
which science is indebted to the researches of Mr. John Macgillivray, 
the late able Naturalist of H. M. surveying ship ' Herald.' The 
sternum does not notably differ from that of Psalidognathus, but it 




diflFers in having very short palpi, much shorter antemi8e,the third joint 
the longest, the eight following about equal in length. Head, exclu- 
sive of the jaws, rather longer than wide, behind the eyes somewhat 
narrowed and without projection. Eyes prominent, transTcrsely 
kidney-shaped, very slightly notched in front. Thorax wider than 
long, but much longer than in Psalidognathus and Prionacalus, with 
three broadish spine-like projeetions on eaeh side, one in front, one 
about the middle, and one before the hinder angle. Scutelluni small 
and vvide, covering the abdomen ; in the malė, considerably sur- 
passjng it. Wingless ; elytra united on the suture, contracted some- 



12 

what at the base, where there is a short spine, gradually dilated 
about the middle, and as gradually tapering toward the end, where 
they terminate in two spine-like pomts, the outer the longest, the 
iuner almost a continuation of the notch, between which would be the 
suture ; the two points curiously rotundate-emarginate. Legs very 
long and strong, particularly the femora, which are compressed. 
Tarsi with small pulvillus on end of three first joints ; tarsi of female 
broader and shorter than those of the malė. 

PSALIDOCOPTUS SCABER, n. S. (Fig. on p. 11.) 

Head between the eyes with a deep line, divided into two in front. 
Thorax surface curiously undulated, and with the head scarcely 
rough, although with small scattered warts ; the elytra scabrous, 
with nunierons small warts ; each elytron with two parallel ridges 
united behind the middle and a sutural ridge ; margiu of elytra 
between warty and serrated. Jaws strong, punctured at the base, 
incurved, sides parallel, inner side short and obliquely cut betweeu, 
the eutting edge sharp ; a curious tuft of ferruginous hair on tro- 
chanter ; legs serrated below on femora and tibia, legs more or less 
scabrous. The whole insect is of a blackish-brown, with ferruginous 
hairs bordering the inside of the tibiae of the first and second pairs of 
legs ; thorax beneath, and other parts, liable to be chafed by niotion 
of joints ciliated with ferruginous hairs. Abdomen somewhat squa- 
moso-verrucose beneath, a pit behind each scale-like wart, with a 
short hair proceeding from it. 

Note. The figures were drawn on wood by Miss E. Wing, and are 
of the size of nature. 

Family Lamiad^. 

Among the Lamioid Longicorns there is a genus containing many 
finely coloured African species. The genus Tragocephala, Dupont 
(Dej. Cat. p. 638), vvas first briefly characterized by Laporte in his 
'Animaux articulees,' tome ii. p. 472. 

Tragocephala nobilis. Lamia nobilis, Fabr. S. EI. ii. 297; 
Oįiv. t. 11, f. 76; also described by Fabricius as Saperda leeta, 
1. c. p. 318. Sierra Leone. (Coli. Brit. Mus.) 

Tragocephala formosa. Cerambyx formosus, Oliv. t. 20, 
f. 153, is another well-marked species from S. Africa, abundant in 
coUections. (Coli. Brit. Mus.) 

Tragocephala pulchella, Westw. Are. Ent. ii. t. 69, f. 4, is 
another species from Sierra Leone. (Coli. Brit. Mus.) 

Tragocephala variegata, Bertolom., Aiin. Sc. Nat. 1845, 
p. 423. S. Africa (luhambere). 

Tragocephala Galathea, Chevr., Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1855, 
p. 184, was procured by the Scottish missionaries at Benin, 01d 
Calabar. 

The Tragocephala angolator^ and T. Lucia, described by 
Olivier and Newman, belong likewise to this genus, biit are aberrant 
fornis, as is the Tragocephala trifasciella, described and figured 



13 

in the illustrated Proceedings for 1850. The latter differs somewhat 
from Tragocephala proper, wliile Lamia angolator, from its short 
wide thorax, &c., may hereafter constitute the type of a distinct 
section : all three are in the Museum Collection. 

In the Museum Collection are some undescribed species, which 
may be characterized as 

Tragocephala comitessa. (PI. XL. fig. 1.) 

T. elongata, nigra ; fronte aurantiaca ; thoraeis laterihus auran- 
tiacis, post tuberculum nigris; ely tris f asciis dualus sulphureis, 
laterihus aurantiacis ; prima continua, secunda angustiore, an- 
tice et postice sinuata ; ely tris singulis punctis tribus albis ; 
sutura apice albo-punctata, ante apicem macida aurantiaca 
margine pallidiore ; metathorace macuJis dualus aurantiacis, 
aliquando olsoletis ; aldominis segmentis trilus basalilus 
lateribus subtus aurantiacis. 

Long. lin. 9į-ll. 

Hab. Africa Austr. (Port Natai). Coll.Brit. Mus. {Guemzius et 
Krauss). 

T.formosa affinis sed distincta. 

Tragocephala Chevrolatii, n. s. (PI. XL. fig. 2.) 

T. nigra, capite aurantiaca, mandibulis basi aurantiacis, fascia 
in genis, fascia inter antennas et vertice nigris; thoraeis lateri- 
bus flavis, tuberculo apice et postice nigro ; dorso nigro, macui a 
parva pallida posticali alteraque antica scepe obsoJetis ; elytris 
singulis nigris ; fascia mediana aurantiaca suboblicpta, ramum 
antice ferente ; maculis duabus aurantiacis soipe obsoletis, ma- 
cula magna aurantiaca ante apicem, punctoąue parvo ad apicem; 
abdominis lateribus aurantiaco maculatis ; pedibus cinereo- 
griseis, femorilus flavo maculatis. 

Long.lin. 8^-11. 

Uab. Africa Austr. (Port Natai). In Mus. Brit., &c. 

In honorem L. A. Augusti Chevrolat, Parisiensis, Coleopterophili 
valde egregii. 

Tragocephala ducalis, n. s. (PI. XL. fig. 3.) 
T. capite aurantiaco, fascia oculari, alteraque verticali nigris; 
antennis crassiusculis, nigris; thorace supra medio nigro, lateri- 
bus aurantiaco late marginatis, pube subvermiculata ; elytris 
nigris fasciis duabus aurantiacis suturam haud attingentilus, 
lateribus latioribus, marginibus pallidis, apice aurantiaco, ma- 
culis tribus parvis inter apicem et fasciam secundam, exteriore 
majore ; corpore sultus aurantiaco, abdominis segmentis, medio 
et lateribus nigris; pedibus ochraceo-griseis, femoribus extus et 
intus aurantiaco maculatis, 
Long. lin. 8-9i. „ , » x 

Hab. Africa Austr. (Port Natai) . Coli. Brit. Mus. {Saunders, &c.) 



14 

Tragocephala gemmaria, n. s. (PI. XL. fig. 4.) 

T. nigra ; lateribus frontis maculaąue genarum et macula inter 
antennas pallide cceruleis; thorace supra macidis novem cceruleis, 
ąuatuor in margine antica, tribus in postica ; elytris singulis 
maculis 12—13 pallide ceeruleis ; thorace subtus et abdominis 
lateribus maculis cceruleis majoribus; pedibus posticis,femoribus 
extus, tibiis basi supra cceruleo-notatis ; antennis articulo se- 
cundo compresso. 

Long. lin. 6^. 

Hab. Africa Occid. (Sierra Leone) {Rev. D. F. Morgan). Coli. 
Brit. Mus. 

Tragocephala Guerinii. (PI. XL. fig. 5.) 

T. nigra, capitis thoracisgue lateribus fasda flava continua, ely- 
tris fascia lata guttacĮue ante-apicaliferrugineo-ochraceis, meso- 
thorace ferrugineo-ochraceo, tnedio nigro-lineato abdominis late- 
ribus subtus fascia fiava extus dentata. 

Long. lin. 1 0. 

Hab. Congo. 

In honorem Guerin-Meneville, entomologi et carcinologi Parisi- 
ensis celeberrimi, naturseąue delineatoris exquisitissimi. 

Tragocephala Buquetiana. T. nigra, fronte macula elongata 
aurantiaca sub oculis ramum haud emittente ; elytris singulis 
basi fascia aurantiaca obliąua, humero et spalio circa scutellum 
nigris ; fascia mediana et macula sub-apicali aurantiacis. 
Long. lin. 8į. 

Hab. Sierra Leone (Rev. D. F. Morgan). 

La honorem M. Buquet, Parisiensis, in Coleopteris CKoticis ditis- 
simi et peritissimi. 

We have also in the Museum the elegant, slim, little graceful 
T. TENUICORNIS, ChevT., from Port Natai, the T. scenica of Dej., 
from W. Africa, and the T. pictor, Klug, a common S. African 
species. 

Tribe Lamellicornia. 
Family Cetoniad^. 

Note. — Mr. Turner of Manchester, the possessor of a very fine 
collection of the larger and more showy Coleoptera of West Africa, 
and of many of the Beetles of other lands, showed me a specimen of 
the (so-called) Goliathus giganteus, of which I once saw the example 
in the Huaterian Museum at Glasgow, and which served to show that 
the sharp and discriminating eye of the able and judicious Dr. Schaum, 
who, with Dr. Burmeister, is one of the best authorities on the subject 
of Cetoniadče, was probably right in regarding G. giganteus and 
G. Drurii as mere local varieties of one species, to which the name 

Goliathus Africanus, Lamarck, may be given. 

Trigonophorus Hookeri, n. s. (PI. XLI. fig. 1 <? . fig. 2 ? .) 

T. Icete viridis, metallico valde refulgens pedibus gracilibus, f emo- 

ribus viridibusflavescenti-rubro lineatis seu lavatis, tibiis rubris. 



\r, 

posticis intus ciliatis, tarsis fuscescenti-nigris ; thorace antice 
angustato, supra dense punctulato, margine postica solum Icevis- 
sima ; scutello fere toto IcBvi; antennis subrufis, capite maris 
in fronte rufo. 
Hab. In India alpina. 

The two figures represent this fine insect of the natūrai size. It 
is named after Dr. Joseph Hooker, F.R.S., &c. &c., author of many 
noble botanical works, and of the ' Himalayan Journal.' During 
his travels in India he found this and many other fine species of 
insects now in the Museum CoUection. We have now all the species 
of this interesting group except T. Delessertii, Guerin-Meneville. 

Stethodesma Servillei. (PI. XLI. fig. 3.) 

S, fusco-subpurpurea, sericea, thorace Jlavo cingulato, elgtris singu- 
lis maculis decem parvis albo-argenteis, uropygio albo-maculato, 
subtus rufo-brunnea, plagis albis lateribus singulis in serie 
duplici ordinatis. 
Hab. In Africa meridionali (Port Natai) {Dr. Krausš). 
The red of the thorax extends on its under side. Mesothorax 
with scattered scales. Head cut in front, and side lobes produced 
shortly and somewhat rounded. Legs uniform in colour. 

Huic insecto nomen Servilleanum, synonymon Entomologise, in 
honorem Audinet-Serville amici dilectissimi, proposuit descriptor. 

Clinteria ducalis. (PI. XLI. fig. 4.) 

This insect, of which the name only appears in the Museum List 
of CetoniadcB, p. 15, published in 1847, is regarded by Dr. Schaum 
as a variety of the very variable Clinteria atra. The present variety 
is of a dull olive-green, and has a patch of golden-yellow about the 
middle of each elytron. The under side is purplish-brown, and the 
sides have two rows of small white spots. The head and legs are 
purplish. 

It is a native of Silhet, and notwithstanding the great authority of 
Dr. Schaum, I cannot help, even now, regarding it as distinct from 
C. atra, 'Wied., of whieh C.funeraria aud C. biguttata of Gory and 
Percheron are varieties. 

Clinteria Hoffmeisteri. (PI. XLI. fig. 5.) 

This very beautiful and distinct species was described in the 
*Annals and Mag. of Nat. History,' vol. xx. p. .341. It was named 
after the late lamented Dr. W. Hoflfmeister, travelling physician to 
H.R.H. Prince Waldemar of Prussia. I well remember this amiable 
and able man during his several visits to the British Museum. He 
was struck by a grape-shot at the battle of Ferozeshah, on the 2 1 st 
December 1845, when in close attendance on Prince Waldemar. 
The shot entered his temple. " He fell forward to the ground. The 
Prince instantly sprang from his horse and raised him, but the vital 
spark had already fled ; at the šame moment the advance of the 
forces rendered it necessary to movė on. The slain were unavoidably 



16 

left 011 the field of battle." He was laid (two days after) in tlie šame 
grave " with several of his friends wlio fell on that bloody day, and 
a simple monument in the burial-ground at Ferozepore, erected bv 
the Prince to the memory of his faithful physician and beloved 
companion, records his tragic fate, and marks his joumey's utmost 
bourn*." 

ScHizoRHiNA Bassii. (PI. XLI. fig. 8.) 

This fine species, described in the 'Annals and Mag. of Nat. 
History' (vol. xx. p. 264), is figured here. The genus Bassia was 
not named after Mr. G. Bass. 

ScHizoRHiNA (Hemipharis ?) Emilia. (PI. XLI. fig. 9.) 

S. {H. ?) nitida, subgracilis, subparallela, ceneo-viridis, thoraeis 
linea laf.erali, maculisąue duabus postice aurantiacis (^aliquando 
subobsoletis), elijtrisųue singulis lineatim punctatis, aurantiaco 
maculatis aut plagiatis. 

Animalculura hoc pulchrum, Febr. 2ndo, a. d. 1856, die nat. de- 
scriptum, Emilise Jalland, fihse fratris mei, dicatum est. 

Head rather closely punetured, very shghtly notched in front, 
above distinctly punetured. Thorax indistinctly punetured, except 
before the hind angles, shaped much as in //. insularis, of a highly 
polished but obscure brassy green, thickened margiu of thorax in 
front yellow, the yellow continuous (beyond the middle of the edge) 
on the inner side ; thorax on each side with a narrow irregularly- 
edged yellow line, almost parallel with the edge, and truncated and 
somewhat dilated behind ; before the posterior thoracic lobe are two 
small triaugular yellowspots. Scutelluni yellow; margins, especially 
at the apex, green ; each elytron is irregularly margined with yellow 
on the sides at the base, and there are six to eight irregular yellow 
marks, one before the apex somewhat transverse ; sides of meso- and 
metathorax yellow ; sides of abdomen with three yellow spots ; 
pygidium with two yellow marks nearly coveiing it, and divided by a 
pear-shaped green spot, or green extended so as to leave only four 
small yellow spots ; tibise and tarsi tinted with purplish ; base of 
anterior femora and cox8e rufous. This species quite connects the 
subgenera Hemipharis and Diaphonia, and shows the accuracy of the 
views of that leamed entomologist Dr. Schaum. The two specimens 
are females, and have short lamellse to the antennse. 

Hab. New Hebrides (Aneiteum). Collected by Mr. John Mac- 
gillivray, the able naturalist to H. M. S. 'Herald.' 

ScHizoRHiNA (Hemipharis) Id^. (PI. XLI. fig. 7.) 
S. (H.) grandis, fusculo-nigra, capitis vertice, thorace supra, elytris 
a basi, usque ultra medium, pygidio, mesothoracis lateribus, meta- 
thorace femoribus posticis infra flavescenti-brunneis. 
S. (H.) Broivnii valde affinis et forsan varietas geographica. Di- 

* 'Travels in Ceylon and Continental India,' translated from the Gernian. 
Edinburgh, 1848. A very grapbic work, consisting of the letters chiefly of that 
talented man, who fell at Ferozeshah. 



17 

catur Idae Pfeiffer, viatricis celeberrimse qu8e in Ceram speciem hanc 
pulchram invenit. 

Cetonia (Prot^tia) frocera, n. s. (PI. XLI. fig. 6.) 

C (P.) supra viridi-subsericea, poroso-punctata, albido paululum 
submaculata in elytris prcesertim, elytris apice spinoso-pro- 
ductis; subtus leete metallico-viridis, abdomine plagis 16 albo- 
pilosis, in ąuatuor ordinibus dispositis. 

In size between P, ferruginea and P. regalis ; above, including 
upper side of legs, it is of a fine dull, dark velvety green, which, 
when rubbed, displays beneath a metallic base, as in many of the 
CefoniadcB, such as Goliathus torquatus ; the edges of the našus are 
metallic. The head and thorax above are thickly and distinctly 
poroso-punctate ; there is an indication of a yellowish-white dot near 
each front angle of the thorax (which dot may vary in size in other 
specimens) ; the elytra have four dots passing into short transverse 
streaks on each side, and a small spot near the suture, about the 
middle, and a short white streak midway between the middle and the 
spine ; three dots between that and the spine, which is longer and 
much more distinct than on the sides of elytra, transversely pitted in 
many shallow short waves ; general surface punetured, the punctures 
chiefly in striae. Head small, shghtly ridged on sides in front of eyes, 
slightly narrower in front, and rather deeply grooved behind front 
margin. Under side and legs metallic green, femora and mesothorax 
acuducted, the latter with two or three patches of isabella pilė ; abdo- 
men irregiUarly punetured, smooth, with eight transverse patches of 
isabella pilė on each side in double columns. Hairs on tibise rufous ; 
fore edge of front tibiae and tarsi of all the legs metallic green. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. (Coli. Cuming.) 

N. B. The figures are of the natūrai size. 

This is alluded to in Dr. Schaum's second list of Cetoniadce, and 
is quoted under the above name. 

Cetonia (Prot^tia) Schatjmii. (PI. XLI. fig. 10.) 

Supra obscure viridis, subtus IcBte metallico-viridis, capite jlavo 
trilineato, linea media latiore, thoracis marginibus anticis late- 
ralibusąue flaviš, plaga transversa subheraldice postica flava, 
scutello Jlavo apice excepto viridi ; elytris Jlavo irregulariter 
transverse trifasciatis, elytris singtilis medio longitudinaliter 
sub-bicarinatis, et 9—l\-punctato-lineatis,pedibusJlavis, extus 
et ajjice articulorum subviridibus, tarsis obscure viridi-fuscis, 
abdominis lateribus subtus punctatis, segmentis ąuatuor late- 
ribus Jlavo-marginatis ; uropygio Jlavo triangulariter biplagiato 
elytris apice suturali acuminato, sterno antice Jlavo producto. 

Hab. Celebes {Madame Ida Pfeiffer). 

Head semicircularly cut in front, the margins trending inwards. 

Seems really to connect Pachnoda with Protcetia. 

Named in compliment to Dr. Schaum, whose name and abilities 
reąuire only to be mentioned when Coleoptera are described. 

The figures are of the size of nature. 
No. CCCII. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



18 



4. Note on the Zoological Appendix to the ' Report of 
THE U.S. Naval Astronomical Expedition to the 

SotTTHERN HeMISPHERE,' AND ON THE GeOGRAPHIC 

Range and Distribution of the Tanagrine Genera 
Calliste and Euphonia. 

By Philip Lutley Sclater, M. A., F. Z. S. 

The second volume of the ' Report of the U.S. Navai Astronomi- 
cal Expedition to the Southern Hemisphere,' of which copies haye 
lately been received iu this country, contains a very valuable account 
of the specimens of natūrai history coUected by the Expedition in 
Chili. Each section of the Zoology appears to have been assigned 
to the person best qualified to undertake it. The Ornithological 
part (by Mr. Cassin) is illustrated by some very nicely colonred 
platės, and contains a list of the Birds of Chili, with many interest- 
ing notes on their native names, habits, &c. 

Wliat I particularly wished to notice, however, was, that there 
are three species of Tanagers — Callistce cijaneicollis and yyroloides 
and Euphonia rufiventris — included in this list, and apparently in- 
tended to be represented as inhabitants of the republic of Chili. 
Now I have always supposed, and still believe it to be the case, that 
these genera of Tanagers do not extend on the western side of the 
Andean range nearly so far south as that country. Indeed Tschudi 
and D'Orbigny assert that they are only found in the wood regions 
of Peru and Bolivia on the eastern slope of the Andes, and I have 
never seen examples of birds belonging to either of these genera in 
Chilian collections ; nor are they, or other similar tropical forms, 
mentioned as occurring there by the several previous writers on the 
zoology of that country. Under these circumstances I cannot help 
thinking there mušt have been some error with regard to the locality 
of the specimens of these Tanagers proeured by Lieut. Gillis's expe- 
dition. 

I may remark at the šame time that the bird figured in this šame 
work, pi. iviii. fig. 2, as a companion to Calliste cyaneicollis, is not 
Calliste larvata (Du Bus), but Calliste thalassina, Strickland {Aglaia 
fVilsoni, Lafr. — Des Murs, Icon. Orn. pi. 56. fig. 2). 

The appended Table shows the distribution of the species of the 
genus Calliste as far as I have been able to collect Information on 
the subject. It will be observed, that only one of this genus has 
yet been found north of the isthmus of Panama, though very possibly 
new species are yet to be discovered in the unexplored parts of 
Central America. The metropoUs of this group seems to be the 
wood regions of New Grenada, Ecuador, Peru and Bohvia ; but we 
require much more Information concerning the local faunse of tliis 
great continent before very accurate statistics can be drawn up of the 
geographical distribution of these and other forms of animal hfe. 



19 





si 
5-c 


■S 


Ui 


Ė 

2 £ 

I; S 
w 




3 
> 


"H 


f i 

s s 


1 

ž 

p 
(C 

* . 


: 1 North Brazil. 
i 1 South Brazil. 
: 1 Paraguay. 


1. tatao 


2. calicolor 




* 












3. yeni 






. * 


* 












4. tricolor 




















5. festiva 






















6. fastuosa 




















* 


7. cyaneiventris 




















8. aurulenta 




* 
* 


... ^ 


K ... 














!). Sclateri 


















10. pulchra 




* . 


. * 














11. Arthusi 








* 










12. icterocephala 








N ... 














13. thoracica 






















14. Schranki ■ 






* . 


. * 


* 












15. guttulata 






* 


* M 


. * 


.... 




16. punctata 












17. rufigula 






... i 














18. xanthogastra 




* 


* . 


. * 














19. graminea 










. * 






20. ruficapilla 




* 
















21. cayana 












... * 


* 






















* . 




23. castanonota 


















24. peruviana 






















25. flava ....'. 






















26. cucullata 












* 
* 










27. cyanoptera 




















28. larvata 


* 


















29. lunigera 




















30. Parzudakii 




* 


* .. 
















31. chrysotis 






. * 














32. gyrola 














* 






33. Desmaresti 




* 


* .. 


. * 


* 










34. gyroloides 




* 


* .. 








35. brasiliensis 




















36. flaviventris 














*? * 


* 


* . 




37. boliviana 




* 
* 




. * 


* 




38. inornata 














39. atrocmrulea 






. * 


* 












40. ruficervias 




* 
* 


... * 












41. atricapilla 








* 










42. argentea 






. * 
. * 












43. nigro-viridis 




* 
* 
* 
* 


... * 

* .. 

* .. 


... 


* 










44. thalassina 












45. cyaneicollis 




* 












46. labradorides 














47. ocanthocephala 






. * 


* 












48. venusta 




* 
16 


* .. 












Totai 


1 


8 6 


12 


7 


7 


3 5 


6 


3 1 


8 2 



20 

5. On THE Genus Assiminia (Leach). 
By Dr. j. e. Gray, F.R.S., P.B.S. etc. 

In a list of some species of British shells at the end of an arrange- 
raent of MoUusca in the 'LondonMedicalRepository' for 1821 (vol.xv. 
p. 239), I noticed a new mollusk under the name of "Nerita {Syncerd) 
hepatica, n. s. The animal of this shell differs from all others of this 
order by the eyes appearing to be at the end of the tentacula, but I 
believe that they are placed on a peduncle as long as the tentacula, 
and the peduncle and tentacula are soldered together." 

Dr. Leach, when he examined the animal of this shell, formed it 
into a genus under the name of Assiminia, and named the species 
after myself as A. Gray ana, described under this name at the end of 
the genus Limnea, in Fleming' s ' British Animals,' p. 275 (1828), 
who observes, " Dr. Leach sent me several years ago a shell from 
Greenwich marshes, constituting a new freshwater genus, under the 
title Assiminia Grayana. The lip is thickened on the pillar and re- 
flected over the cavity, but is destitute of the obliąue fold, and the 
lip does not extend over the body whorl. The colour is brown ; 
whorls six in number, conical, regularly increasing in size, glossy, 
with minute lines of growth. Length about -i^ths of an inch." 

In my paper "On the Difficulty of distinguishing certain genera of 
Testaceous MoUusca by their Shells alone, and on the Anomalies in 
regard to Habitation observed in certain species," published in the 
' Philosophical Transactions ' for 1835, p. 301, I observe : "About 
fifteen years since I first observed in the marshes near the bank of 
the Thames, between Greenwich and Woolwich, in conipany with 
species of Valvata, Bithynia and Pisidium, a small univalve shell, 
agreeing with the smaller species of the littoral genus Littorina in 
every character both of shell and operculum. Yet this very pecu- 
liar and, apparently, local species has an animal which at once distin- 
guishes it from the animal of that genus and from all Ctenobranchous 
MoUusca. Its tentacula are very short and thick, and have the eyes 
placed at their tips, while the LittorincB, and all the other animals 
of the order to which they belong, have their eyes placed on small 
tubercles on the outer side of the base of the tentacles, which are 
generally more or less elongated. The shell in question and its 
animal were described and figured by Dr. Leach in bis hitherto un- 
published work on British MoUusca, under the name of Assiminia 
Grayana, and as this name has been referred to by Mr. Jeffreys and 
other conchologists, it may be regarded as established, and that of 
Syncera hepatica, proposed by myself in the ' Medical Repository,' 
vol. X. p. 239, will take rank as a synonym. A second species of 
this genus has lately been made known by Mr. Benson, by whom it 
was found on the ponds in Ihdia. Its shell is banded likę that of 
Littorina A-fasciata and several other sm9\\a Littorince, and has 
been figured in the Supplement to ' Wood's Conchology,' t. 6. f. 28, 
under the name of Turbo FrancesieB." 

In my edition of 'Turton's Manual,' 1840, p. 88, I characterize 
the genus thus : — Assiminia : Shell ovate, conical, solid ; mouth 



21 



ovate ; tentacles very short, scarcely longer than the tubercles on 
which the eyes are placed, and united to their side, p. 78, f. 4, 5, 6, 
observing, "the animal differs from Littorina in the apparent posi- 
tion of the eyes, which is an anomaly among the water and Cteno- 
branchous MoUusca ;" and after quoting Mr. Berkeley's deseription 
of the tentacula I observe, — " I am indined to retain my former 
theory, for if the pedicel of the eye of this genus is minutely exa- 
miued, it will appear to be formed of two parts united by a suture." 

In 1852, having obtained permission of the family, I printed 
Dr. Leach's ' Molluscorum Britannise Synopsis ' above referred to, 
and he there described the genus — "Assiminia. Testą conica, 
spira mediocris. Animal tentaculis duobus breribus, apice paulo 
angustioribus obtusis, ad apicem ocuUgeris, instructum ; ocuU parvi, 
rotundi ; operculum tenue." 

"From the form of the shell this genus might be considered as 
belouging to the second stirps {testą conica, spira brevis), but the 
animal proves that it is more nearly allied to Sabancea than to any 
other of the British genera." (p, 155. t. 9. f. 4, 5.) 

Lately some doubt has been attempted to be thrown on the 
distmctness of the genus, which it has been proposed should be 
united to the genus Truncatella of Risso. 

Considering the very great similarity which often exists in the 
general appearance of the animals of very distinct genera of MoUusca, 
— a similarity so great, that if a person was to place before me, without 
the shell or operculum, the animal of the genera Murex, Triton, Pur- 
pura, Fasciolaria, Columbella, &c., I should not be able to distinguish 
one from the other without the examination of the teeth or the lin- 
gual membrane, and that would only enable me to separate Triton, 
Cassis and Fasciolaria from each other and from Murex, Purpura a.nd 
Columbella, and not the three latter genera from each other; and it is 
the šame with the animals of several other orders and families ; — 



Fig. 1. 




Kg. 2. 



1 . Truncatella truncatula /3. 

a. With foot extended, in the act of 

drawing up the shell. 

b. Side view. 

c. Seen beneath as crawling up a 

glass, when the muzzle is ex- 
serted. 



2. Assiminia Grayana. 

Uuder side of animal and shell. 

Side view. 

Front of foot, shovving how the 
lower lamina of tlie foot pro- 
jects beyond the upper. 



yet the animals of the two genera Assiminia and Truncatella (see 
figs. 1 and 2) proposed to be united, are so uulike in general ap- 



22 

pearance, minute structure and habit, that it is eztraordinary that 
any person should have made the proposal. 

I think the best way to show the distinetion of these two genera 
will be to copy, in addition to the extract already given, the figures 
(see figs. 1 and 2) and descriptions of the animals given in different 
authors, commencing with Mr. Lowe, who has figured and deseribed 
the animal of Truncatella in the fifth volume of the ' Zoological 
Journal,' and Mr. Berkeley's description and figure of the animal of 
Assiminia ; then the desciiption of the animal of the Indian species 
of the latter genus, both printed in the volume above* referred to ; 
and, lastly, some extracts of additional peculiarity of the genus 
Truncatella, observed by Mr. Clark, and published in his work on 
British Mollusca. 

" 1. Truncatella. R. T. Lowe, Zool. Journ. v. 299. 1. 19. f. 4. 

" Tentacula (2 contractilia) cyUndrico-conica, brevia, obtusa, basi 
distincta, proboscide separata; oculis sessilibus paullo supra basis 
ungulum externum positis. Caput proboscidiforme exsertum. Os 
ad extremitalem proboscidis cylindricce, inter tentacula esserta, 
disciformem, supra emarginatain (sc. bilobam, ob buccas labiales in 
proboscidem ipsam coadunatas vel commutatas). Pallium collare 
siphone nulio; orificio ad dextrum corporis ut in Helice, Melam- 
pode, Pedij)ede, <^c. Pes rotundatus vel ovalis, brevis, minimus, 
posticus. Operculum corneum simplex, i. e. non spirale, ovale, 
aperturam testą omnino claudens'. Testą turrita; adulta cylin- 
drica, decollata vel truncato-obtusa ; anfractibus distinctis, vel 
Icevibus vel transverse costatis. Apertura ovalis, brevis; peri- 
tremate cojitinuo. Labrum simplex. Epidermis nulla. 

Animal littorale, amphibium, sed revera marinum et branchiis 
spirans. Ingredienti, discus terminalis proboscidis pro pedis parte 
antica scrvit; itaque moda f ere larvarum Phalcenidarum Geome- 
trarum gradibus alternis incedit. Testą junior, tereti-acuminata, 
e pluribus anfractibus quam adulta constat; prioribus in plerisgue 
demum {ut in Hel. Bulimo decollato) defractis, truncata cvadit. 

"Itisnownearly three years (1829) since the acąuisition of a single 
live specimen of Cyclostoma truncatulum, Drap., and a long and 
contmued observation of its animal, convinced me that it was eutitled 
to rank as a distinct genus froni any which were then constituted. 
I had accordingly designated it in my MSS. by the generie name of 
Herpetometra ; derived from its peculiar manner of crawling. This 
appellation I had since purposed changing into Truncatella, the very 
name by vehich I fiud the self-sanie species designated by Risso in 
his ' Histoire Nat. &c. de l'Europe Me'ridionale.' In this work, 
however, the genus rests, likę very many others of the šame writer, 
on most unsubstantial ground, the animal being entirely neglected." 

• "Assiminia. Berkeley, Zool. Journ. v. 429. t. 19. f. 4. 

" Voluta denticulata, Mont. {Carychium Myosotis, Michaud, 
Compl. de r histoire de Drapard.), and Assiminia Grayana, Leach, 
abound undcr stones in the salt marshes by the Thames at Gravesend. 



23 

Haviug aii opportunity of examming both iii a living statė in the 
summer of 1832, I was surprised to find maiiifest indications that 
both were pulmoniferous, which were confirmed on a minute inspec- 
tion of the internal structure, as far as perhaps could be expected in 
such.small animals. I was enabled in the former to trace distinctly 
the course of the vessels, and was decidedly of opinion that the hings 
were coustructed for the breathing of air unmixed with water. In 
the other case I was not so successful, though the ntmost pains were 
taken ; but as the animal is only half the size, the difficulty was much 
increased. I am enabled, however, to assert, that I could detect 
nothing likę branchise ; and v/hat is more to the point, that the vault 
of the cavity of respiration was traversed by a multitude of minute 
vessels all tending one way towards a large vessel running down in 
the direction of the heart, which is exactly the structure in pulmo- 
niferous MoUusca. This, perhaps, will be esteemed as decisive when 
the external characters of the animal are taken into consideration." 

" ASSIMINIA GrAYANA. 

" Foot broadly obovate, obtuse, composed evidently of two distinct 
iaminse, the lower projecting beyond the upper, and separated from 
it by an accurately defined line ; above fuscous, beneath olivaceous, 
shaded with cinereous. Tentacula very short and obtuse, fuscous ; 
eyes at the tips. Muzzle porrected, not truly proboscidiform, deeply 
notched in front, fuscous, strongly annulated ; the edge of the lip 
paler ; on each side is a groove running backwards from the base of 
the tentacula. Mantle open behind. Fseces elliptical (as in Ci/clo- 
stoma). Operculum corneous, ovate, spirally striated. The most 
remarkable circumstance in this animal is the position of the eyes, 
at the tips of the tentacula, as in Helix and its allies, and not at 
the base. It would appear as if there were in reality no tentacula, 
and only the tubercle common to many MoUusca at the base of the 
tentacula a little more developed than usual. The shell is so likę 
that of some species of Rissoa, that it is quite surprising that in 
Dr, Fleming's ' British Animals,' and in Mr. Jeffreys' paper in the 
' Linnean Transactions,' it should be placed in, or close to, the 
genus Limncea. Dr. Leach seems to have formed his conclusions from 
an actual iuspection of the animal, and consequently made a distinct 
genus for its reception. In many points the animal resembles very 
much that of Cyclostoma, and is perhaps a step nearer than that and 
Helicina, which have the mantle open behind to the pectinifera. 
Its nearest ally, however, amongst the pectiniferous MoUusca I 
should conceive not to be Rissoa. 

" The animal and shell are figured in Forbes and Hanley's ' British 
MoUusca,' iii. 70, t. 71. f. 3, 4, and t. H.H. f. 6. 

" Mr. Benson, at page 463 of the šame volume of the Zool. Joum., 
has given the followuig description of the animal of Assiminia fas- 
ciata {Turbo Francesii, Gray, in Wood's Supplement, t. 6. f. 28) : 
— " Animal : Head with only two short, thick, subcylindrical ten- 
tacula, with the percipient points placed at their summits. Snout, 
hke that of Paludina, transversely corrugated and bilobed, or rather 



24 

emarginate at tlie centre of the extremity, the lobes rounded. Mantle 
free, and branchial cavity open. Foot with a spirai horny operculum, 
angular at the upper part." 

I may add to these descriptions that Mr. Clark has lately stated that 
the teutacula of Truncatella Montagui are " short, flat, broad, triangu- 
lar, and diverge greatly, scarcely forming an angle of 25°. The eyes 
are large and black, and have white prominent pupils, which visibly 
dilate and contract. I have never observed such in any moUusk, 
though similar ones may have escaped uotice ; they are plaeed a 
little nearer to the base than the middle of their lower half, not on 
pedicles, but quite flat on the centre of seniicircular expansions of 
the outer side of the tentacles, with an external tendency. The 
branchial plume is single, of an elongated, kidney-shaped figure, and 
has the usual constriction or sinus at the end nearest to the heart ; it 
can be deteeted with high povrers in sunlight, through the body 
volution of pale, clear, thin shells." 

The eyes of Truncatella littorea " are precisely those of T. Mon- 
tat/ui, and a similar white pupil is a singular coincidence." 

In conclusion, I may observe, that I regard the general form and 
organization of the animal and shell of Truncatella as so peculiar, that 
I have long considered it the type of a peculiar family, characterized 
by the form of the lips and feet, the mode of walking, the short, 
broad, diverging tentacles, the position of the eye and its pecuhar 
form, and the tnmcation of the shell. 

On the other hand, the general form of the animal, the manner and 
habitation of the genus Assiminia are so likę those of some of the 
smaller species oiLittorina (which Dr. Leach uamed Sabancea), that 
if it was not for the peculiar position of the eye on its long pedicel, 
I should have been inclined to have considered it as a subdivision of 
that genus, with very short tentacles and elongated eye-peduncles. 
But Mr. Berkeley's observations have set that at ręst, as well as the 
distinction between it and Truncatella ; for he shows that Assiminia 
has lungs likę Cyclostoma, or rather Helicina, while the Littorinee 
and Truncatellce have well-developed gills for respiration, likę the 
greater part of the marine genera ; but the gills of Littorina and 
Truncatella are very unlike one another, the gills of the former being 
broad, short, laminar, and of the latter, single, ovate, and pectinate. 

P.S. — Messrs. H. and A. Adams, in the number of their work 
issued since this paper was read, are so impressed with the pecu- 
liarity of the combination of characters that the animal presents, viz. 
a pulmonary respiration, spirai operculum, and terminai eyes, that 
they have formed for the genus a suborder named Prosophthalma, and 
a particular family, Assiminiadce : see Genera of MoUusca, 313. 



Proo K S. Avės C: 



-^^v^ijĮgS'- 




J.Wolf, lifJa 



,y ii.iM;ilLc?rf .ii:^" 



lytARGARORNIS BRUNNESCENS ^^/«7V5?/- 



^^• 



# 




!;: 4 if H. 



-liOECA FUV. 



Proc Z SAvea.Cr/i: 




.Wolf. lllk 



l,fii7 Hdni.. 



EUSCARTHMITS A&ILIS 



Proc.Z.SAv-es. 




I woir Btii , 



M&EHanhart.Imp^ 



CDNOPOPHAGA CJJCULLATA. So^a/^-^. 



25 



February 26, 1856. 

Dr. Gray, F.R.S., in the Chair. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. On some additional Species of Birds received in 

collections from bogota. 

By Philip Lutley Sclater, M.A., F.Z.S. 

(Avės, PI. CXVI.— CXIX.) 
MM. Verreaux of Paris, knovdng the interest I take in New 
Grenadian ornithology, have most kindly transmitted to me some 
specimens of birds from a coUection lately received from Bogota, 
which did not appear to them to be included in my list, pubhshed in 
in this Society's ' Proceedings' for lašt year. I have also myself 
noticed a few others, which I.had not previously remarked in coUec- 
tions from that locality. From these sources I am enabled to lay 
before the Society a list of twenty-two species, which, added to those 
given in my former catalogue, raiše the totai number of birds now 
ascertained as belonging to this peculiar fauna to 457. 

1 . Nyctale harrisi, Cassin, Pr. Ac. Sc. Phil. (1849) iv. p. 157, 
et Journ. Ac. Sc. Phil. N. S. ii. p. 53, pi. 5. Ciccaba gisella, Bp. 
Consp. p. 44. Gisella harrisi, Bp. Compt. Rend. 1855, Oct. 22nd. 
' Nyctalitinus albipunctatus, Kaup,' Gray, Cat. of Gen. of B., App. 
p. 135. 

Dr. Hartlaub writes me word that the Bremen Museura has a 
Bogota specimen of this pecuUar Owl, and the example in the Norwich 
Museum named by Dr. Kaup Nyctalitinus albipunctatus was received, 
I beHeve, from the šame locality. 

2. Synallaxis elegans, sp. nov. 

S. pallide murino-brunnea, infra medialiter albescentior, ventre medio 
candido, crisso et [atsribus dorso concoloribus : pileo toto, nisi 
fronte, alis extus et cauda rufis : loris albescentibus. 

Long. totą 6 '4, alse 2 '2, caudse 3 •7. 

This Synallaxis isverylike a commonBrazilian species, S. ruficapilla, 
Vieill., which it resembles in having the head, wings and tail bright 
rufous. But in the present bird the rufous colour does not extend 
over the front, which is brown likę the back, there are no yellowish 
superciUa, or at least the very faintest traces of them, and the under 
plumage is not cinereous, but brown likę the upper, only paler, and 
medially passing into white, which colour is quite pure in the middle 
of the belly. The tail is longer, and the webs of the rectrices are 
not so broad as in the Brazilian bird. 

This species, likę other true Synallaxes, has only eight large 
rectrices and an outer pair abnormally small. Other birds, often 
placed in this genus, have twelve, which is the number given by 



26 

Vieillot in his generic characters, but I consider this erroneous, aud 
believe the former number to be the normai one. 

The present bird seems not uncommon in Bogota coUections, but 
has probably been liitherto confounded with its several allied species. 

3. Synallaxis mcesta, sp. nov. 

S. olivascenti-brunnea, suhtus paulo dilutior : alis intus nigris, extus 
castaneis : cauda rufa : loris et gutture albidioribus : tectricibus 
subalaribus pallide fulvis ; rostro vulido, nigro ; mandibula in- 
feriore basi albescente : pedibus pallidis. 

Long. teta 5'2, alae 2'5, caudse 2*5. 

The single specimen which I possess of this bird was received frorn 
MM. Verreaux. It is of a nearly uniform olive-brown, rather Ughter 
below, particularly on the throat and sides of the head. The chestnut 
margin of the quills grows narrower towards their apices, learing the 
dusky black appareut, but at their bases extends through both webs 
and shows itself underneath. The tail is pure rufous and very 
short, but I am not quite certain that it is of its normai length in my 
specimen, there being indications of a statė of moult. The bill is 
rather stronger and more conical than in most species of the genus. 

Out of the six SynaUaxes described by M. de Lafresnaye (Rev. 
Zool. 1843, p. 290) as frorn this covmtry, I have as yet only met 
with three, namely, S. gularis, cinnamomeus and unh-ufus, which I 
have been able to identify with certainty. I have, however, speci- 
meus of a Bogota bird of this genus ^vhich I think may possibly 
be his (S. fuUginosus, and there are examples of the šame species in 
the British Museum. If I am correct in my conjectures, I may 
remark, that the description he gives of this bird is hardly sufficiently 
accurate, and I can only refer my specimens doubtfully to his species 
with the following characters : 

4. Synal,laxis fuliginosa, Lafr. R. Z. 1843, p. 290 ? 

(S. supra rufescenti-brunnea, alis extus paulo clarioribuš, cauda adhuc 
clariore, pure brunnescenti-rufa, scapis plumarum nigris : rectri- 
cibus decem, angustissimis et tenuissimis : loris et superciliis in- 
distincte albidis : infra obscure cinerea, mente summo et ventre 
albescentioribus : rostro nigro : basi mandibula inferioris albicante ; 
pedibus validissimis clare brunneis. 
Long. totą 6'o, alae 23, caudse 3" 75. 

The tail of this bird is of a clearer and more reddish-brown than 
the back, with the shafts of the feathers black. The outer pair of 
rectrices are abnormally small, measuriug only one iuch in length, 
the next pair about double that length. The webs of all are ex- 
ceedingly narrow, in particular the outer ones, and growfiner towards 
the extremities. 

This form of SijnaUaxis shows evident rapprochement towards 
Sylmorthorhynchus. 

5. Anabates RUFICAUDATUS, Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. in Mag. 
deZool. 1838, p. 15. 

I possess a Bogota skin, received frorn MM. Verreaux, which 



27 

M. de Lafresnaye has kindly identified for me as being of this 
species. 

The apical portion of the outer primaries in this bird is black, 
which colour gradually diminishes ia exteat m the succeeding feathers, 
and is reduced to a minimum in the secondaries, where it only forms 
a blotch at the ends. The first quill is nearly wholly black, and in 
those next succeeding the šame colour advances far up the stems, being 
broadly margined outwardly with chestnut, and inwardly with paler 
cinnamomeous. 

6. Anabates erythropterus, sp. nov. ? 

A. supra pallide brunnescenti-cinereus ; alis extus et cauda totarufis, 
remigum exteriorum parte apicali nigra : loris oculoruM ambitų 
et gula cum tectricibus subalaribus cinnamomeis : corpore cetero 
subtus pallide cinnamomescenti-albido, lateribus olivaceo tinctis : 
rostro albido, culmine nigrescenti-plumbeo : pedibus pallidis. 
Long. totą 6 •2, alse 3' 6, caudse 3'1. 

The only Anabates I know of likely to resemble the present species 
is A. guianensis (PI. Enl. 686, fig. 2). I have never seen that bird, 
but if it has been correctly deseribed, there is no doubt that this 
species is distinct. 

7. Xenops rutilans, Temm. PI. Col. 72, fig. 2. 

A Bogota skin received from MM. Verreaux seems referable to 
this bird, though there is rather more black in the tail than m my 
Brazilian specimens. 

8. Margarornis brunnescens, sp. nov. (Plate CXVI.) 

M. umbrino-brunnea, capitis dorsigue siiperi pennis obsolete et an- 
giistissime nigro marginulatis : infra pallide ochracescenti-albo 
guttulata, his guttulis nigro cinctis et deinde umbrino-brunneo 
terminatis : loris et gutture medio ochracescentibus, nigrescente 
paululum variegatis : rostro superiore nigro, inferiore flavido, 
pedibus clare brunneis. 
Long. totą 5-5, alse 2-5, caudse 2*5. 

MM. Verreaux have transmitted me a single specimen of this bird, 
which forms a second species of the genus Margarornis,^ instituted 
by Reichenbach for the Anabates sąuamiger, Lafr. & d'Orb. M. 
de Lafresnaye has also coined the name Anabasitta for the šame 
form, but I believe the first-raentioned term has a sUght priority. 
The type of the genus is very common in coUections from Bogota. 
The present bird may be distinguished from it at once by the want 
of the bright chestnut colouriug on the back and tail. In form, 
however, there is not much difference. In M. brunnescens the beak 
is rather longer, and the first two primaries proportiouately rather 
shorter. The elongation of the naked stems of the rectrices is carried 
to a greater extent in the present species than in the other. There 
are tvvelve tail-feathers, and they all termmate in a similar hair-hke 
pomt. The plumage of the two species below shows much similarity, 
but in the "brunnescens" the tear-like spots are yellowish. 



28 

I may remark that Reichenbach has kept the Bogota and Bolivian 
Margarornithes apart, but M. de Lafresnaye, who knows both species, 
considers them identical. It is with Bogota specimens I have been 
comparing the present bird. 

Alectrurin^ ? 

9. OcTHOECA FUMicoLOR, sp. nov. (Plate CXVII.) 

O. supra fumoso-brunnea, dorso imo rufescentiore : alis caudacue 
nigris : tectricibus alarum rufo bivittatis, et secondariis ultimis 
extus rufescente marginatis : superciliis latis et fronte ad nucham 
ochracescenti-albis : subtus brunnescenti-murina, ventre medio 
albescentiore, gula quasi dorso concolore, sed pallidiore : rostro et 
pedibus nigris. 
Long. totą 6'0, alse 3*5, caudse 30. 

This bird appears to be naturally placed in Dr. Cabanis' genus 
Octhoeca, of which the type is Octhoeca oenanthoides {Fluvicola 
(Btianthoides, d'Orb.Voy. pi. 38, fig. 2). 

Other species belonging to this šame group are Octhoeca leucophrya 
{Fluv. leucophrys, d'Orb. Voy. pi. 38, fig. 1), which the present 
bird most resembles in colouring ; Octhoeca rujipectoralis {ibidem, 
pi. 37, fig. 2) ; Octhoeca Lessoni, mihi {Tyrannulus rufpectus, Less. 
Deser. des Mamm. et Ois. p. 296) ; Octhoeca albidiema (Setophaga 
albidiema, Lafr. R. Z. 1848, p. 8), and, perhaps, Setophaga cin- 
namomeiventris, Lafr. R. Z. 1845, p. 80. The three species figured 
by d'Orbigny are from BoUvia; the three latter, likę the present, from 
Bogota. They all offer considerable similarity in colours, and pre- 
sent, so far as I am acąuainted with them, the šame stnicture. M. 
de Lafresnaye has indicated the existence and affinities of this group 
in bis article in the ' Revue Zoologique,' 1848, p. 8. All d'Orbigny's 
species inhabit his third zone of elevation, that is, above 1 1,000 feet 
above the sea-level, and it is probable, therefore, that the New 
Grenadian Octhoecce are likewise from the higher regions of the 
Andes. 

10. EuscARTHMUs AGiLis, sp. uov. (Plate CXVIII.) 

E. supra nigro et pallido brunneo mixtus, pennis plerumęue nigris 
brunneo marginatis : crista capitis tolius medialiter nigra, late- 
raliter autem et subtus pallide brunnea : alis nigris, tectricibus 
rufescente terminatis, secondariis extus palies centibus : cauda 
unicolore nigra rectricum mediarum apicibus et omnium margi- 
nibus exterioribus pallescentibus : subtus pallide fulvo-Jlavidus ; 
capitis lateribus et gutture toto albis nigro variegatis ; pec- 
tore longitudinaliter nigro flammulato : rostro nigro, mandibula 
inferioris basi alba : pedibus nigerrimis : tectricibus subalaribus 
pallide f ulvis. 

Long. totą 4-6, alse 2 '2, caudse 2' 4. 

This bird much resembles Euscarthmtis parulus and E. albicristatus 
in general appearance, and may, I think, be safely placed in the 



29 

šame genus, though the bill is slightly broader, and the tail is propor- 
tionately rather longer, and has the rectrices more graduated, 

The only example I have seen of it was transmitted to me by 
MM. Verreaux. 

In the markings of the lower part of the body it is not unlike 
E. parulus, but the ground-colour is more yellowish, and the striae 
less distinct on the throat and more marked on the breast. Above 
these two species are easily distinguishable. The present has the 
back brown, mixed with black blotches, and not uniform cinereous- 
olive, and the crest is shorter and differently formed, the whole of 
the head-feathers being moderately lengthened, not a few of the 
centre feathers only, as in the older species. 

PlPRIN^. 

11. PiPRA CORACINA, Sp. nOV. 

Pipra leucocilla, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 152. 

Pipra coracina, J. et E. Verreaux, MS. 

S coracino-nigra: pileo nuchague albis: rostro nigrescenti-plumbeo: 
pedibus nigris. į junr. viridescenti-cinereus, pcme unicolor, alis 
caudague intus nigris. 

Long. totą 3-5, alae 2 '8, caudse 1'2. 

MM. Verreaux have transmitted to me an adult and young malė, 
and their MS. description of this species of Manakin, which they 
consider distinct from the well-known Pipra leucocilla, and I am 
inclined to think they are right. The black colour is generally more 
intense in the present bird, the white extends further back down the 
head, the wings are longer, and the bill rather shorter. They remark 
that the Peruvian bird (which I have not yet seen) appears to lie 
the šame as this species.. 

FoRMICARIINiE. 

12. CoNOPOPHAGA cucuLLATA, sp. nov. (Plate CXIX.) 

c. supra brunnescenti-olivacea, alis caudague nigricantibus brun- 
nescente marginatis : capite toto et cervice postica cum gula et 
tectricum alarum marginibus clare rufo-castaneis : plaga pectorali 
alba : abdomine dilute cinereo, ventre medio et hypochondriis roseo 
aut rufescente tinctis : tectricibus subalaribus flavicanti-brunneis : 
rostro ^avo: pedibus pallidis. 
Long. totą 4*0, alae 2*7, caudae 1*1. 

The single specimen sent to me by MM. Verreaux is the only 
example I have yet seen of this Conopophaga. It is not hkely to 
be confounded with any other species of the genus that I am 
acquainted with, its bright chestnut head and throat and white 
pectoral patch rendering it eminently distinguishable. 

IcTERINjE. 

13. Sturnella ludoviciana (Linn.). 

A single bird transmitted by MM. Verreaux seems to beloDg to 



30 

this species. The yellow belly is rather brighter than in U.S. examples, 
but at present I can discover no essential difference. It is singular, 
if this is the North-American species, that the Mexican bird (Stvr- 
nella hippocrepis, Wagl.) is usually considered distinct. 

EmBERIZINjE. 

14. Emberizoides macrurus (Gm.). Fringilla macroura, 
Gm. S. N. i. 918. Tardivola macroura, Cab. M. H. p. 135 (note). 

A Bogota specimen of this bird which I have lately acąuired agrees 
with the true E. macrurus from Cayenne, and seems to be quite 
distinct from the Brazilian E. marginalis (Temminck), with which it 
is generally made synonymous. 

Tanagrin^. 

15. Chlorospingus xanthophrys, sp. nov. 

C. brunnescenti-olivaceus : loris nigricantibus : svperciliis curtis a 
fronte ad oculum summum et corpore mediali subtus Jlavis: rosiro 
nigro : pedibus pallide brunneis. 
Long. totą 4' 7, alse 2'5, caudse 2*4. 

Obs. Similis C. superciliari, sed minor, et superciliis brevioribus 
et flavis, capite non cinerascente, lateribusque olivascentibus digno- 
scendus. 

I possess a single example of this bird, and have seen others. 

16. Chlorospingus Lichtensteini, sp. nov. Nemosią rer- 
ticalis, Licht. in Mus. Berol. (partim). 

C. supra cinereus, alis caudaque nigricantibus; pileo atro : vitta 
mediali verticis ochracescenti-albida : subtus albidus .- lateribus 
cinerascentibus. 
Obs. SimiUs C. verticali, sed major, gula ventre concolore, nec 
nigra. 

There is a single eiample of this bird in the Berlin Museum, 
received from M. Boissoneau of Paris along with speciraens of 
C. verticalis, and not distinguished from that species. 

CoLTJMBjE. 

17. Chlor(enas bicolor (Vieill.). Col. bicolor, Vieill. N. D. 
d'H. N. xxvi. 345. C. vinacea, Temm. Pig. t. 41. Mus. Brit. 

18. Zenaida ruficauda, g. R. Gray, MS. Bp. Coup d'oeil 
sur l'ordre des Pigeons, p. 42. Mus. Brit. et Paris. 

19. Zenaida pentheria, Bp. Coup d'ceil, p. 42; et Consp. ii. 
p. 84. Mus. Brit. 

20. Cham^pelia amazilia, Bp. Coup d'oeil, p. 38, et Consp. ii. 
p. 84. Mus. Brit. 

GALLINiE. 

21. Cham^epetes Goudoti (Less.). Ortalida Goudoti, Less. 



31 

Man, d'Orn. ii. 21 7; et Tr. d'Orn. i. p. 48 1 . Chanuspetes Goudoti, 
Wagler, Isis, 1832, p. 1227. 

22. Gallinago nobilis, sp. nov. 

G. supra nigro-cinereo et brunneo (^sicut in plerisgue hujus generis 
speciebus) variegata: pileo summo nigro, vitta mediali irregulariter 
cinnamomeo-hrunnea : capitis lateribus et cervice postica pallide 
cinnamomeo-brunneis, minute nigro punctatis ; his punctis intra 
rictum et oculum lineam formantibus : scapularibus nigris cinna- 
momeo vittatis, plaga subterminali nigra prceditis et extus iterum 
late ochracescenti-albo marginatis : remigibus omnibus pure et 
pallide nigricanti-cinereis, secondariorum et alulce spurice apicibus 
extus pallescentibus ; tectricibus albido et cinereo variegatis : 
subtus, gutture albicante, pectore toto cinnamomescenti-brunneo, 
nigricante flammulato ; ventre toto albo, hypochondriis et tectri- 
cibus subalaribus albo nigrogue regulariter transvittatis ; tectri- 
cibus subcaudalibus albis cinnamomeo tinctis et nigro obsolete 
transfasciatis : caudee rectricibus sedecem; harum octo mediis nigris 
daro rufo late terminatis, hoc colore rufo iterum sub margine an- 
guste nigro vittato ; una utringue proxima pracedentibus assimili, 
sed colore nigro ochracescente maculato et terminatione rufa non 
eegue lata ,■ tribus autem utringue extimis ochracescehtibus nigro 
irregulariter transvittatis : rostro longissimo, brunnescente, apice 
nigra, basi pallidiore : pedibus nigro-fuscis. 
Long. totą ll'O, alse 5*7, caudse 2"2, rostri a rietu 3"7, tarsi 1"5. 
There is au example of this fine large species of Šaipe in the 
British Museum, from Mr. S. Stevens's Bogota collection, and 
MM.Verreaus have also lately transmitted a single specimen to rne. 
It is of about the šame size as Temminck's Scolopax gigantea, but 
that species appears to have the wings banded. In the present bird 
the quills are uniform slaty black. The spurious vrings and second- 
aries are edged with buflfy white, and all the wing-coverts are termi- 
nated with the šame colour, forming irregular barrings. 

23. Rallus SEMiPLUMBEUs, sp. nov. ? 

R. supra brunnescenti-olivaceus, nigro flammulatus ; alis caudague 
nigricanti-brunneis ; alarum tectricibus rufis : loris nigris : capi- 
tis lateribus et corpore toto subtus plumbeis ; mento et gulari stria 
albis : tectricibus subcaudalibus albis nigro mixtis : rostri cul- 
mine et apice nigris ; mandibula autem inferiore ruberrima : pedi- 
bus pallide brunneis. 
Long. totą 8*5, alse 4-4, caudse TS, rostri 1'7. 
This is a true Ralius — near R. virginianus of the U.S. — of which 
MM. Verreaux have sent me a single specimen. I have tried in vain 
to make it agree with any recognized species, and therefore provided 
it with a (temporary ?) name. 



32 
2. Descriptions of Twenty-five New Species of Land- 

ShELLS, FROM THE CoLLECTION OF H. CuMING, Esa. 

By Dr. L. Pfeiffer. 

1. Helix exserta, Pfr. H. testą vix perforata, conoideo-lenti- 
culari, tetiui, obligue rugosula, pallide cornea; spira conoidea, 
acutiuscula ; anfr. 4į regulariter accrescentihus, svperne tumidu- 
lis, ad suturam. carina rotundata, exserta marginatis, ultimo non 
descendente, basi convexo ; apertura ohliųua, depresse angulato- 
lunari; perisi, simplice, recto, marginibus remotis, columellari 
brevi, subverticali. 

Diam. maj. 6, min. 5, alt. 3 mill. 

Hab. Saūdwich Islands (Dr. Nevocomb). 

2. Helix coagulata, Pfr. H. testą anguste perforata, conoideo- 
depressa, tenuiuscula, arcuatim striatula et ad peripheriam obUque 
malleato-rugosa, alabastrina, fascia 1 pellucida prope suturam 
omata ; spira brevi, conoideo-convexa ; anfr. 5 vix convexiusculis , 
ultimo obsolete angulato, basi convexo, nitido ; apertura obliąua, 
rotundato-lunari, vix latiore quam altą ; perist. simplice, recto, 
margine dextro dcclivi, columellari superne vix refexo. 

Diam. maj. 30, min. 25į, alt. 18 mill. 
Hab. Amboina. 

3. Helix Hainesi, Pfr. H. testą aperte perforata, depressa, 
tenui, subltBvigata, diaphana, parum nitente, pallide cornea ; spira 
brevissime conoidea, obtusa; sutura levi, submarginata ; anfr. 7 
vix convexiusculis, sensim accrescentibus , ultimo peripheria sub- 
angulato, basi convexiore, nitido ; apertura vix obligua, depresse 
lunari; perist. simplice, recto, marginibus vix convergentibus, 
columellari declivi, vix incrassato. 

Diam. maj. 29. min. 25, alt. 12 mill. 
Hab. Šiam. 

4. Helix Siamensis, Pfr. H. testą perforata, depressiuscula, 
solida, superne arcuato-striata, striis spiralibus granulato-deais- 
sata, pallide cornea ; spira brevissime conoidea ; anfr. 6 lente ac- 
crescentibus, vix convexiusculis, ultimo latiore, infra peripheriam 
leviter radiato-striato, nitido, albido ; apertura obliąua, lunari; 
perist, simplice, recto, marginibus vix convergentibus, columellari 
superne brevissime reflexo. 

Diam. maj. 25, min. 22, alt. 12|^mill. 
Hab. Šiam. 

5. Helix omissa, Pfr. H. testą umbilicaia, depresso-turbinata, 
tenui, ruguloso-striata, diaphana, cerea; spira breviter turbi- 
nata, apice acutiuscula ; anf 4 convexis, ultimo non descendente, 
supra peripheriam subangulato, basi convexo ; umbilico ^ diametri 
f ere <Equante ; apertura diagonali, lunato-rotundata ; perist. sim- 
plice, recto, marginibus approximatis, columellari subpatulo. 

Diam. maj. 4, min. 3\, alt. 2 mill. 
Hab. Juan Fernandez {H. Cuming). 



33 

6. Helix MiGUELiNA, Pfr. H. testą angustissime umbilicata, 
depressa, tenui, striatula, peUucida, nitidissima, cornea, strigis 
distantibus fulvis radiata ; spira parum elevata, convexa ; anfr. 
5|- vix convexiusculis, uttimo latiore, 7ion descendente, depresso- 
rotundato ; apertura magna, f ere diagonali, lunato-rotundata ; 
perisi. simpUce, recto, marginibus conniventibus , columellari ar- 
cuato, superne vix patente. 

Diam. maj. 11, min. 9\, alt. 5 mill. 
Hab. Sau Miguel, Azores. 

7. Helix volutella, Pfr. H. testą umbilicata, subdiscoidea, 
tenui, striatula, pallide cornea, lineis rvfis subconfertis radiata ; 
spira planą ; anfr. 5 vix convexiusculis, lente accrescentibus, ul- 
timo non descendente, peripheria rotundato ; umbilico aperto, \ 
diametri subaguante; apertura parum obliqua, lunari ; perist. 
simplice, recto, marginibus remotis, basali substricto, columellari 
vix patente. 

Diara. maj. 7, min. 6, alt. 2f mill. 
Hab. San Miguel, Azores. 

8. Helix alata, Pfr. H. testą anguste umbilicata, depressa, 
membranacea, oblique irregulariter striata, oleoso-micante, peUu- 
cida, f usco-cornea; spira subplana ; anfr. S^ celeriter accrescen- 
tibus, ullimo angulato, carina alceformi tenui decidua cincto, antice 
dilatato ; basi convexo ; apertura perobliqua, securiformi ; perist. 
simplice, recto, margine basali perarcuato. 

Diam. maj. 8|, min. 6, alt. 3 mill. 
Hab. Sandwich Islands (^Dr. Nemcomb). 

9. Helix angelica, Pfr. H. testą subaperte perforata, depressa, 
tenui, superne subconferte striata, pellucida, nitida, virenti-cornea, 
varicibus castaneis, favo-marginafis, irregulariter notata ; spira 
parum elevata, vertice prominulo ; sutura anguste albido-mar- 
ginata ; anfr. 7 sensim accrescentibus, convexiusculis, ultimo 
latiore, peripheria rotundato, basi Iteviore ; apertura f ere diago- 
nali, lunari; perist. simplice, recto, castaneo-limbato, intus callo 
crassiusculo albo labiato. 

Diam. maj. 31, min. 27, alt. 13y mill. 

Hab. Thibet and Punjaub, India (Conwag Shiplay, Esq.). 

10. Helix binaria, Pfr. H. testą umbilicata, lenticulari, arcua- 
tim obtuse costata et striis spiralibus obsolete decussata, cornea, 

fusco maculose strigata ; spira convexa, obtusula ; sutura mar- 
ginata ; anfr. 5\ convexiusculis, lente accrescentibus, ultimo non 
descendente, subacute carinato ; umbilico pervio, -j diametri sub- 
aquante ; apertura diagonali, rhombea, lamellis 2 acutis albis 
parietalibus, intrantibus, denticuloque obsoleto columellari coarc- 
tata ; perist. simplice, recto. 

Diam. maj. 4į, min. 4, alt. 2 mill. 

Hab. Saiidvvich Islands {Dr. Netvcomb). 

1 1 . Helix fanulus, Pfr. H. testą umbilicata, turbiniformi, 
tenui, superne confertim obligue plicata, diaphana, cerea; spira 

No. CCCIII Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



34 

convexo-conica, acutiuscula ; anfr. A\ converiusculis, ultimo non 
descendente, subacute carinato, basi radiato-striato, circa umbili- 
cum angustum excavato ; apertura obliąua, subsecuri/ormi į perisi, 
simplice, recto, margine basali breviter reflexo, 

Diam. maj. 3į, miii. 3, alt. 2\ mill. 

Hab. Port Natai. 

12. Helix UNDiNA, Pfr. H.testa imper/orata, globoso-turbinata, 
tenui, lavigata, nitida, alhido-hyaUna ; spira convexo-conoidea ; 
anfr. 5 convexiusculis, ultimo spira breviore, antice vix deflexo, 
peripheria obsolete angulato, basi planiusculo ; apertura perob- 
ligua, truncato-elliptica ; perisi, tenui, marginibus subconnivenii- 
bus, dextro expanso, columellari leviter arcuato, planaio, appresso. 

Diam. maj. 23, min. 19, alt. lA^ mill. 
Hab. ? 

13. BuLiMUS D/VRNAUDi, PtV. B. tesiu compresse subumbilicaia, 
conico-ovata, tenui, subdisianter cosiata, striis spiralibus sub lente 
obsolete decussata, virenti-fulva ; spira conica, vertice obtuso ; 
anf. 5|— 6 convexiusculis, ultimo spiratn paulo superante, basi 
subcompresso ; columella substricta, leviter procedente ; apertura 
vix obligua, elUptico-ovali, basi subangulata ; perist. breviter ex- 
panso, tenuiter albo-labiato, margine coluinellari dilataio, sub- 
plano, patente. 

Long. 23, diam. 12 mill. 

Hab. Sennaar, interior of Africa {Mr. Darnaud). 

14. BuLiMUS CoRDOVANUs, Pfr. B. testa subrimata, fusiformi- 
turrita, solidula, confertim arcuato-costulata {costulis subdecus- 
satis, breviter pilosis^pallide fusco-cornea ; spira elongata, apice 
obtusa; anfr. \0, superis convexis, seguentibus sensim planioribus, 
ultimo antice soluto, descendente, dorso acvte carinato, basi cristato 
et scrobiculato ; apertura integra, ovali, quinquedentata ; dentibus 
2 lamelltąformibus in parte sinistra, 3 inagualibus in dextra ; 
perist. continuo, expanso, albido. 

Long. 23, diam. 5 mill. 
Hab. Andes near Cordova. 

15. BuLiMUS CYATHOSTOMUS, Pfr. B. testa obligue rimata,fusi- 
formi-cylindrica, solida, longitudinaliter confertim striata, albida; 
spira cylindraceo-turrita, apice acuta ; sutura submarginata ; 
anfr. 7y planiuscuUs, ultimo \ longitudinis vix attingente, latere 
dextro profunde bisulcato, basi subcristato ; apertura verticali, 
cyatkiformi, ringente ; columella profunde bidentata ; perist. con- 
tinuo, expanso, ad parietem aperturalem appresso et juxta mar- 
ginėm dextrum laminam validam, securiformem immittente, mar- 
gine dextro superne sinuato, profunde et ineegualiter trilamellato. 

Long. 2Q\, diam. 7 mill. 

Hab. 01d Calabar, West Africa. 

16. AcHATiNA Shuttleworthi, Pfr. A. tcstū ovoto-conica, tc- 
nuissima, submembranacea, confertissime chordato-plicata, sericea, 
cornea, maculis rufis ad suturam et ad peripheriam tceniata, cate- 
rum pallide rufo strigata ; spira conica, obtusa; anfr. b\ convex- 



35 

iusculis, ultimo spira paulo longiore ; columella substriata, com- 
pressa, basi obliąue truncata ; apertura obliąua, tnincato-ovali ; 
perist. simplice, tenui. 

Long. 34, diam. 1 7 niill. 

Hab. Grand Bassam, Africa. 

17. AcHATiNA CORROSULA, Pfr. A. tcstū turritū, soUdula, sub- 
l(Evigaia, punctaiim corrosula, pallide cornea ; spira convexius- 
culo-turrita, apice acutiuscula ; sutura levi, subcrenulata ; anfr. 
9 vix conveiiusculis, ultimo y longitudinis vix aąuante, busi rotun- 
dato ; columella perarcuata, obligue distincte truncata ; apertura 
parum obligua, sinuato-semiovali ; perist. simplice, tenui. 

Long. 15, diam. 6^ mill. 

Hab. Neilgherries {Convoay Shiplay, Esq.). 

18. AcHATiNA PALLENS, Pfr. A. testū turriiū, tenuiuscula, sub- 
Icevigata (sub lente minutissime decussatim striatula), semidia- 
phana, pallide corneo-cerea; spira regulariter attenuata, apice 
acutiuscula; sutura levi, anguste marginata ; anfr. 9 vix convesis, 
ultimo y longitudinis subceguante, basi subatterMato ; columella 
parum arcuata, abrupte truncata ; apertura parum obligua, sinu- 
ato-ovali ; perist. simplice. 

Long. 16, diam. 4f mill. 
Hab. Moely, East Africa. 

19. Pupa bacillus, Pfr. P. testą profunde arcuato-rimata, sub- 
cyUndrica, solida, perobligue costata, alabastrino-alba ; spira sen- 
sim in conum obtusulum attenuata ; sutura mediocri, costis excur- 
rentibus coronata; anfr. 9 conveiiusculis, ultimo antice alte 
ascendente, basi subcompresso ; apertura verticali, truncato-ob- 
longa, dente intrante parietali prope angulum coarctata ,• perist. 
breviter expanso, margine dextro intus crasse labiato, columellari 
simplice, patente. 

Long. 13, diam. vix d mill. 
Hab. Mauritius. 

20. Pupa teres, Pfr. P. tęsia breviter rimata, cylindracea, tenui- 
uscula, obligue pUcata, diaphana, corneo-albida ; spira cylindrica, 
in conum brevem, obtusum terminalą ,■ sutura impressa ; anfr. 8 
vix convexis, ultimo non ascendente, basi obsolete gibbo ; apertMra 
verticali, ovali; perist. tenui, eipansiusculo, marginibus callo, 
dentetn breviter intrantem emittente, junctis. 

Long. 10, diam. 3| mill. 
Hab. Mauritius. 

21. Pupa Sennaariensis, Pfr. P testą perforata, oblongo-tur- 
rita, tenui, levissime striatula, parum nitente, fusco-cornea ; spira 
subregulariter attenuata, apice obtusa ; anfr. 7 convexis, ultimo ^ 
longitudinis subceguante, circa perforationem imperviam com- 
presso ; apertura vix obligua, truncato-oblonga, lamella unica 
parietali intrante, f ere ad angulum marginis deitri posita, coarc- 
tata ; perist. tenui vix patulo, intus sublabiato. 

Long. 4, diam. \\ mill. 

Hab. Sennaar, intmor of Africa (Mr. Darnaud). 



36 

22. ToMiGERUS Venezuelensis, Pfr. T. testą subflexuose ri- 
mata, compresse conica, tenui, striatula, pellucida, oleoso-micante, 
pallide cornea ; spira conoidea, obtusa ; siitura rufo-marginata ; 
anfr. 4 convesis, ultimo inflato, latere aperturcB vix planiore, an- 
tice vix ascendente, profunde scrobiculato et arcuato-cristato ; 
apertura vix obliqua, subtrapeziformi, septemplicata ; lamellis 3 
in parietė aperturali (angulari maxima, intrante, mediana pro- 
funda, minima), S subacualibus in parte basali, 1 valida, angula- 

tim intrante in margine deitro ; perist. tenue, acutum, expansum, 
intus albido-labiatum, margine supero brevi, cum dextro ungulum 
obtusum formante , basali stricto, declivi, longissimo. 

Diam. maj. 6\, min. 4i, alt. 5 mill. 

Hab. Veuezuela. 

23. Clausilia Sennaariensis, Pfr. Cl. testą subrimaia, fusi- 
formi, tenera, dense capillaceo-costulata, oleoso-micante, pellucida, 
cornea ; spira gracili, apice obtuse conica ; sutura simpUce ; anfr. 
8 vix convexiusculis , ultimo basi obtuse bicristato ; apertura sub- 
obliqua, oblonga ; lamellis convergentibus, infera valida, subra- 
tnosa ; lunella imperfecta, punctiformi vel rarius lineari ; plica 
palatali 1 supera, subcolumellari inconspicua ; perist. continuo, 
breviter soluto, expanso, albido, margine externo intus subincras- 
sato. 

Long. 10, diam. 2f mill. 

Hab. Sennaar, interior of Africa. 

/^ h <^f3 24. Megalomastoma complanatum, Pfr. M. testą subobtecte 
' ' umbilicata, pupceformi, solida, obligue levissime striatula, sordide 

violacea, absque epidermide ; spira suhcylindrica, apice attenuata, 
breviter truncata ; sutura impressa, pallida ; anf superst. 6, su- 
peris convexis, penultimo vix convexiusculo, ultimo angustiore, 
latere aperlurm subplanato, antice pallido, circa umbilicum crista 
pallida, circumscripta munito ; apertura verticali, circulari, in 
fundo castanea; perist. albo, perincrassato, supertie breviter ad- 
nato, margine dextro expanso et reJiexo, sinistro dilatato, patente, 
superne subauriculato . Operc, ? 

Long. 32\, diam. 14 mill. 

Hab. Cuba. 

25. Rhaphaulus LoRRAiNi, Pfr. Rh. testą perforata, gibboso- 
oblonga, solida, conferte striata, sub epidermide f ulvida saturate vio- 
lacea ; spira irregulari, inftata, in conum brevem desinens ; anfr. 
5į convexis, penultimo gibbo, latere apertura subplanato, ultimo 
attenuato, antice subascendente ; apertura circulari, basi axin sub- 
excedente ; perist. calloso, albo, continuo, expanso et refleiiusculo, 
limbo interno cum exteriore connato ; foramine supero parvulo, 
oblique sursum spectante. Operc. 1 

Long. 15, diam. Smili. 

Hab. Pulo Peuang (Dr. Lorrain). 



37 



March 11, 1856. 

Dr. Gray, F.R.S., in the Chair. 

The foUovving papers were read : — 
1. Note on Psaltria flaviceps, a thirp American Species 

OF THE PaRINE GeNUS PsALTRIA. 

By Philip Lutley Sclater, M.A., F. Z. S. 

In describing a iiew Conirostrum in these ' Proceedings' for lašt 
year (P. Z. S. 1855, p. 74), and giviug a list of all the species of 
that form with which I was acquainted, I took the opportunity of 
noticing some birds which had been referred to the šame genus, 
which I had not then met with. Among these latter was the Coni- 
rostrum ornatum of Lawrence, described and figured in the Annals 
of the Lyceum of Nat, Hist. of Ne\v York for 1 85 1 . It is only lately 
that I have been successful in meeting with a specimen of this, I 
believe, rather rare species. As I had always supposed, I find it has 
nothing to do with the genus Conirostrum, but has been much more 
nearly rightly placed by Sundevall, who described it as Mgithalus 
Jiaviceps the year before Mr. Lawrence's name appeared. In my 
opinion, however, this latter position is not perfectly satisfactory for 
it. This little bird in fact seems to me to form a very natūrai 
member of the Parine genus Psaltria, 'of which some Asiatic species, 
including the type, are figured in the seventh Number of Mr. Gould's 
great work on the Birds of that continent. 

Mr. Cassin, in a very useful Synopsis of the North-American 
Parince, given in his excellent volume on the Birds of California, 
Oregon, &c., p. 20, mentions two North-American species of this 
genus, Psaltria minima and P. melanotis, but says nothing of the 
present bird, with which he seems to have been unacquainted. Ex- 
amples of both the former species are contained in the British Museum, 
and upon comparison agree in every essential character with this bird. 
It is true that its yellow face and chestnut bend of the wing are quite 
different in cast of colouring from what we meet with in the other 
species of this group, and I have little doubt that some naturalists 
who are fond of coining new names would consider this fact a sufti- 
cient excuse for making it the type of a new division. But I do 
myself think that generic characters ought only to be founded upon 
differences in structure ; and as in the present instance there appears 
to be none such, I think we shall be quite accurate in registering the 
present bird as a third American species of the Asiatico- American 
genus Psaltria under the title of 

Psaltria flaviceps. 

JEffithalus Jiaviceps, Sund. Ofvers. af Vet. Ac. Forhand. vii. 
p. 129 note (1850). 

Conirostrum ornatum, Lavvrence, Ann. Lyc. Ne\v York, 1851, 
p. 113, pi. 5. fig. 1. 



38 

P. fuscescenti-cinereus, subtus dilutior : pileo et yutture fitives- 
centibus: campteriis clare castaneis : alis caudaąue intus nigri- 
canti-brunneis : rostro et pedibus nigris : tectricibus subalaribus 
albis. 

Long. totą 4-2, alse 2-1, caudse 1*9. 

Hab. Texas (Laivrence). 

Note. — Since writing the above, I have been enabled through Mr. 
Gould's kindness to coinpare Psultria flaviceps witb the type of the 
genus, Psaltria exilis, from Java. It certainly offers a inorc pointed 
beak and wing not so rounded as the latter bird, and raay be cou- 
sidered as rather aberrant in form. Any naturahst, therefore, who 
is unwiinng to class it with true Psaltria may use for it the generic 
term Psaltriimrus, that name having been bestowed b)' Prince Bona- 
parte (Conipt. Rend. Ac. Sc. Par. xxxi. p. 478) on Psaltria mela- 
notis (Sandbach), with which species this bird agrees in every 
respect. 



2. On a peculiar Variety of Mus Musctuhjs. 
By John S. Gaskoin, F. L. S. 

(Mammalia, PI. XLI.) 

Mus MuscuLUS. Var. Mus nudo-plicatns. 

I have thus designated this strange and novel form of the genus 
Mus, to give the more importance to the singularity. 

In the spring of 1854 a labourer in the employ of Mr. \Vebster, a 
tenant on the Taplow-court estate, observed several little white crea- 
tures running about a stravv-rick in the wood at the back of the lodge 
near Taplow paper-mills, Maidenhead Bridge, and succeeded in 
securing two of them ; — the following day, on moving some of the 
straw in search of more, he disturbed two others, which he also cap- 
tured; and disposed of the four to Boud, the Maidenhead Bridge boat- 
mau, for five shilliugs. Two died during the first night, probably from 
the rough usage they received when taken ; there reniained, to use 
Bond's expressiou, but " the old buck and a doe big with kit." In 
seven days she brought forth five young ones ; and the next day 
removed from the uest two that were dead ; the remainder were 
reared. One of the existing five was aftervvards lošt or killed. 
These little aiiimals were readily recognized as a form of uiouse, but 
of so extraordinary a conformation in their external structure as to 
attract the curiosity of the immediate neighbourhood, and obtained 
the not inappropriate name of the rhinoceros mice. The surmise 
of the people on the spot is, that they had escaped from one of the 
numerous barges which are constantly arriviug at the paper-mills 
laden with rags, &c., principally of foreign importation. Bond 
having possessed them four months, offered them for sale to the Zoo- 
logical Society of Loudon, and the purchase beiug declined, I bought 
them, lest so singular a form in natūrai history should be lošt to 
science and pass into oblivion ; and it is to prevcnt this, that I now 




v I 



39 

beg to record their characters in the ' Proceedings ' of this Society, 
They were sliown at the meetings of this and the Linnean Societies. 
and to many other naturalists ; and fiually, were exhibited during 
four months m the small-qnadruped house in the gardens of the 
Society, with the view of eUciting information respecting them, as to 
any siniilar conformation in the species or genus having before been 
observed ; and expressions of surprise at their novelty of form were 
in every instance the only remarks obtained. At the period named of 
their exhibition all had died (threeof them are nowshown in spirit). 
Unfortunately they did not breed, although three of them were born, 
iu captivity. 

In size these animals somevvhat exceeded the common mouse, 
measuring from the tip of the nose to the base of the tail 4Y^o^ths 
inches ; they were totally destitute of hairs, excepting some two or 
three dark-colouredlabiaihairs, orwhiskers; the external integument 
pinkish white, and formed into coarse promiueat pUcse, or dupUca- 
tures of itself, transversely traversing the body in an undulated shape, 
and increasing in width and projection as they descended from the 
dorsum to the most depending Une on either side of the thorax and 
abdomen, and there forming pendulous flaps, extending from the arm 
of the fore to the thighs of the hind legs ; so that all the legs being 
stretched asunder, as when on the wires of the cage, these flaps 
became expanded in the manner of the flying squirrel. The plicae 
or dupUcations of the skin were on the sides of the body in a degree 
symmetrical ; and on the face and head, particularly so, as will be 
observed in the plate, which represents the old malė animal, very 
faithfuUy delineated by "Wolf, to elucidate this paper ; the ears of a 
dark or blackish eolour, the tail ash-coloured, and the eyes black, 
indicating they were not albinos of the species. It was curious to 
observe the quickness and dexterity with which their little paws 
opened along the furrows formed by the phcse or folds, to clean 
between them. So dissimilar, it vvill be observed, from the cha- 
racters given, is the external formatiou of these animals from that 
of the domestic mouse, that opinions were risked as to their con- 
stituting a different spežes, but on investigating the teeth of the 
first one that died, and they proviug identical, it was inferred they 
are a lusus naturcB of that species ; — if such, however, be the fact, 
I believe this will prove the first instance on record in which the 
whole litter or brood of animals or birds, hare all been in exactly 
the šame statė of abnormal condition, and that condition becomiug 
permanent, and eontinued through successive generations ; of which 
we have here the example of two or more generations, and have 
no knowledge whatever of when this abnormal statė may have be- 
gun; — for, as in this exemplification, "likę begets likę" — " similia 
similibus gignuntur" it is fair to conclude that the t\vo parents 
whose progeny resembled them, had also progenitors similar to 
themselves ; especially as they in their breeding, hke genuine species 
in the wild statė, associated only with those of their own kiud ; 
thus, if the race be not extinct, successions vvith the šame pecuhari- 
ties will be produced, and givc rise to a remarkable example of the 



40 

origin of a new species, or variety of a species, in the genus. I have 
made inquiries about the locality \vhere these animals were found, 
as to whether others had ever been observed tliere before they were 
discovered, or have been met w'ith since, and find these to have been 
the only known instances of their occurrence. 

I am not a\vare that in the nests of the Rook, Corvus frugilegus, 
or the Black-bird, Merula vuJgaris (whieh I mention as being those 
in w]iose productions lusus naturce are the niost freąuently noticed), 
or in the nests of any other bird, more than one individual of a 
brood has been found, constituted in the healthy condition, and 
ha\-ing the plumage vvhite, and the red eye of the true albino ; but 
variations in colour, &c., may occur in any number, as the resnlts of 
physical impediments, and not natūrai production ; however, \vith 
iucrease of strength and health, these generally obtain afterwards 
their proper-coloured plumage, and are not therefore true lusus 
naturce. To quadrupeds I believe the rule eąually applies. 

In couseąuence of the interesting conversatiou which followed the 
reading of the foregoing paper, 1 think it proper to subjoin a few 
other observations. 

The excellent condition and clean appearance of the animals, and 
their well feeding, and activity, left no doubt as to their healthy 
statė during the six months they were alive in my possession and 
during the four months they were in that of Bond. A member 
present stated, that while they vvere in the gardens he had mi- 
croscopically examined the lamellae or branny scales which are 
ever separating, in larger or smaller particles, from the epidermis of 
animals, and found them the natūrai and healthy production. My 
own examination of these exfoliations had led me to the šame opinion. 
I had the opportunity, and carried my inquiry still further ; I care- 
fully examincd the surface and sections of the dermoid coveriug with 
low and with high microscopic povrers, and vath. transmitted light, 
and as opake objects, ^vith a view to discover any hair follicles or 
glandular bulbs from uhich hairs might have emanated, but could 
not discover a single indication of either, uor any recognizable vestige 
of their obliteration ; — 1 therefore believe the organs for pilous pro- 
duction were absent, and ab initio. These little animals haviiig been 
found in a straw-rick, I conclude, will sufficiently indicate their habits 
and general resideuce to be similar to those of the common mouse. 

Note. — Having recently heard that a specimen of the šame variety 
of Mus that I have described is preserved in the Museum of the 
CoUege of Surgeons, I compared it with the examples I possess, and 
found it precisely the šame in every character ; it was caught by 
the late Mr. Clift in the fire-place of a room in his house in London, 
and is eutered in the Catalogue of Monsters — " No. 121 . A common 
Mouse {Mus Muscuhts), full-grown, which, from its birth, had not 
tlie slightest appearance of hair on its skin, being perfectlv naked. 
Presented bv Mr. Clift, 1820." 



41 



3. Description of the Animals andTeeth ofTylodina and 

OTHER GeNERA OF GaSTEROPODOUS MoLLTJSCA. 

By Dr. John Edward Gray, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., P.B.S. etc. 

In the following paper I forward the description of the animal 
and the teeth of several genera of Mollusca which have not yet been 
recorded. It is interesting to find that the examination of the teeth 
justifies the position which was theoretically assumed for the genera 
in the different faraihes before their teeth were known. 

A. Proboscidifera Hamiglossa. 
Fam. MuRiciD^. 

Fusus PALLIDUS ("F. turbinelloides=:Pį/rula lignaria, Reeve"). 

The proboscis elongate, cyhndrical, subclavate, entirelv retractile ; 
the lingual membrane elongate, narrow, yellow ; teeth in three 
longitndinal series, 1 • 1 • 1, the centrai transparent, provided with a 
rounded front edge, armed with three rather elongate, conical, sub- 
equal denticles ; the lateral teeth yellow, versatile, straight, with two 
compressed arched processes, the terminai one largest, the basai 
rather smaller, and with a small tooth on its outer edge. The oper- 
culum is horny, thick, ovate, subtrigonal, anuular, as large as the 
mouth of the shell ; the apex blunt, rather worn ; the nucleus api- 
cal, scar large oblong, with a thick callous exterior margin. 

Typhis tetrapterus. 

Operculum horny, ovate, blunt, laminar ; nucleus anterior apical, 
as large as the mouth of the shell, rather broader behind. 

PiSANiA ELEGANS. Panama. 

The animal pale brown (in spirits) ; the foot folded up and across 
behind, and together longitudinally in front, leaving a jL-shaped 
groove ; tentacles very small ; proboscis elongate, thick, clavate, en- 
tirely retractile ; lingual membrane elongate, thin ; teeth in three 
longitudinal rows, 1 • 1 • 1, centrai far apart from each other, and the 
lateral teeth, lunate, with a slightly denticidated, nearly straight, 
front edge, and a rather strong concave tooth at each end ; lateral 
teeth versatile, large, with a nearly equal basai and apical, conical, 
curved process. Malė organ slender, elongate, tapering, yelIow, 
compressed. Operculum ovate, acute, thick, horny, annular, nucleus 
apical. 

Triumphis distorta. Panama. 

Lingual membrane elongate ; teeth in three longitudinal series, 
r r 1 ; centrai teeth very small, far apart ; lateral large, versatile, 
with tsvo basai uneąual, and one larger terminai curved process. 
Operculum ovate, acute, very thick. 



42 

Cyclope (Nassa) neritinea. 

Nucleus prominent above the surface of the apex of the semi-adult 
shell, turrited, spirai, dextral, of three or four transversely sulcated 
flat whorls, with a blunt tip, at length deciduous, leaving a flat, spirai, 
rather callous scar. The vvhorls of the shell of the hatched auimal 
suddenly enlarged, thick ; sniooth,spotted, formiug a suddea contrast 
to the whorls of the nucleus. 

Risso formed a genus, name Nanina, from the young statė of the 
shell. 

Fam. BucciNiD^. 

CUMA SULCATA. 

Operculum horny, ovate, triangular, with a deep notch on che 
middle of the broad side, with a broad callous margin on the inner 
angular edge of the inner surface. Body and foot with a deep groove 
on the inner side, formed by the fold on the inner lip of the shell, 
likę the notch in the opercuhmi ; foot folded up behind and together 
in front, forming a ^-shaped groove, with a cross groove in front ; 
tentacles close together at the base, divergiug, short, compressed,. 
sharp-edged, eyes on the outer side near the tips, which are more 
slender and acute above them ; proboscis moderately elongate, cylindri- 
cal, subclavate, completely retractile ; lingual membrane very narrow 
and elongate, horny ; teeth dark-coloured when adult, in three longi- 
tudinal series, 1 • 1 • 1 ; the centrai teeth broad, transvcrse, about 
half the width of the lingual membrane, with seven distant couical 
denticulations on the front edge, the centrai denticle forming a con- 
tinued centrai ridge, the lateral denticulations uuequal, the centrai 
of the three larger, the outer one on the outer margin of the tooth ; 
the lateral teeth small, couical, curved, acute, versatile vrith a simple 
rather elongate base. 

B. Odontoglossa. 
Fam. Fasciolariad^u 

Fasciolaria šalmo. 

Operculum ovate, acute, smooth, slightly concentrically wrinkled ; 
apex of this individual reproduced and rather rounded. Animal bright 
red ; foot, when contracted, folded together transversely behind and 
longitudmally in front ; tentacles small, compressed, subulate, united 
together at the base, forming a small veil ; eyes on the outer side, 
rather above the base, with a conical tentacle only slightly produced 
above the eyes ; proboscis very long, slender, entirely retractile ; lingual 
membrane very long, slender, with three longitudinal series of teeth in 
cross lines, 1 • 1 • 1, the centrai teeth narrow, square, with three small, 
subequal, acute denticulations, the centrai one rather the longest ; 
the lateral teeth very broad, shghtly arched, and more arched at the 
outer end, with a series of twenty-five or thirty equal, regular, 
elongate, subulate teeth, somewhat likę the teeth of a coarse hair- 
comb ; the centrai teeth are opposite the space between the lateral 



43 

teeth, that is, alteniating with thein. Malė organ elongate, subcylin- 
drical, compressed, of the šame diameter the whole length, rounded 
at the end with a slight groove on its outer edges, which is not con- 
tinued up the body as in Malea. 

Leucozonia angulata. 

Animal red ; the foot, when contracted, folded up across behind, 
aud lougitudinally in front, leaving a j^-shaped groove ; tentacles 
close together at their base, diverging, flat, with the eyes on the 
outer side rather below the tip, which is narrower and acute ; pro- 
boscis completely retractile, clavate ; Ungual membrane elongate, 
rather narrow ; teeth in three longitudinal series, the centrai series 
rather narrower than the lateral ones, square, with a rather arched 
anterior edge, with elongate, conical, acute denticulations, the centrai 
denticulation being the largest and longest; the lateral teeth bandlike, 
rather oblique, front edge with several distinct, conical, acute den- 
ticulations, the one at the edge of the inner margins near the centrai 
tooth being much the largest and longest ; operculum ovate, acute, 
thick ; nucieus apical. * 

C. TjENIOGLOSSA. 

Fam. DoliidjE. 

The proboscis of this family is very long, large, and more or less 
dilated, with an open rather trumpet-like mouth at the end. 

Malea ringens. 

Animal likę Bolium. Lingual membrane narrow, elongate, wider 
in front ; teeth in seven longitudinal series, dark red, in each cross 
series, 3 • I • 3 ; the centrai teeth broad, lunate, thin, with a centrai 
recurved apex, and sometimes a small denticle for each side, halfvvay 
between the tooth and the end ; the lateral teeth subulate, curved, 
acute at the top ; cervical collar of two ovate, horny platės, covered 
with crowded converging subulate teeth; foot short, truncated in 
front, rounded behind ; proboscis cylindrical, large, retractile into a 
sheath uuder the tentacular veil ; mouth open at the end ; tentacles 
subulate ; eyes on short tubercles at the outer hinder side. Malė 
organ very large, compressed, with marginai groove on the outer side, 
continued up the right side of the body by the side of the rectum, 
and vdth a sleuder filiform appendage near the tip. Operculum 
none. 

Fam. Tritoniad^. 

The animals of this family are intermediate in character between 
the ProboscidifercB and the Rostriferee. The proboscis is larger and 
thicker than in the other famihes of the Proboscidiferce, is not so 
much retracted, and is coutained in a more free sheath, and the end 
of the retracted trunk is often partly exposed beyond the margiu of 
the sheath, giving the animal somcwhat the external appearance of 
the Bostri/eree, and explaining why some of the Freuch figures of 



44 

the auimals of Triton, Ranella, &c. are represented as if they be- 
longed to that division of the Gasteropods. 

Ranella celata. 

Tentacles lateral, separated by a short, rather broad, truncated 
tubular veil ; eyes on the outer side rather above the base ; proboseis 
short, very large and thick, retracted to the edge of the veil, leaving 
the tw-o rounded pale processes of its apex exposed, fortning with the 
veil a rostrum-like projection, very unhke the elougate, slender, 
cylindrical retracted proboseis of Murex, Purpura, &c. ; hngual 
iriembrane narrow, elongate ; teeth in seven series, 3 • 1 • 3, close 
together, rather crowded, the centrai rather narrow, with a centrai 
prominent denticle, ha^-ing a smaller one on each side of the base ; 
the lateral teeth subulate, curved. 

Scctibranchiata Rhipidoglossa. 
Fam. TuRBiNiD.E. 

Imperator, n:s. ? Panama. 

Eve-pedicel thick ; tentacles elongate, slender, frontai lappets trun- 
cated, broad at the base, about \ the width of the forehead ; foot 
folded longitudinally behind and transversely in front ; lateral fringe 
of the right side most distinct; muzzle produced, annidated ; lingual 
membraue elongate, rather narrow, linear, dark brown ; centrai teeth 
5- 1 -5, the middle one broad, the side ones narrower, square, all mth 
a recur\ed tip ; the lateral teeth numerous, hairlike, the inner one 
•wider. 

Callopoma saxosxjm. Panama. 

Foot folded across in the middle ; back with a hoodlike process 
coverino- the front part of the operculum, and depositing the external 
callosity of it ; eyes on short thick pedicels ; tentacles linear, at the 
npper edge of the eye-pedicel ; frontai lappet truncated, narrow at 
the base, at the inner side of the base of the tentacles ; lateral fringe 
on each side, vaih three beards on the middle of the edge ; lingual 
membrane broad, elongate ; centrai series 5 • 1 • 5 ; the centrai broad, 
with a recurved tip, the lateral one more narrow, equal ; the lateral 
teeth numerous, hairlike. 

Fam. Trochid^. 

Tegula pellis serpentis. Panama. 

Operculum horny, thui, orbicular, of many narrow, gradually en- 
laro'ing whorls ; foot folded together longitudinally when contracted ; 
eyes on thin elongated pedicels ; tentacles linear, sheathed at the 
base bv the mner part of the base of the eye-pedicels ; frontai lappet 
none / lateral fringe of left side distinct, with three beards just be- 
neath it ; lingual membrane elongate, broad ; teeth in ten longi- 
tudinal series, in archcd cross ro\vs, elongate, with a rounded apex ; 
lateral teeth hnear, crowded, arched at the end. 



45 

Order Pleurobranchiata. 
Fam. Aplysiad^. 

Aplysia depilans 1 Geuoa. 

The small, polished, subglobular spirai (sinistral ?) nucleus or 
apex of the older shell is, witli the subapical part of the sliell, co- 
vered with a membranaceous reflection of tbe inner lip over its sur- 
face, which is only slightly adherent to the surface of the shell aud 
nucleus, and easily removed from it, but whįch gradually become 
thicker ; the top of the shell appears to be absorbed, or more or less 
obliterated iu the older specimens. 

According to Mr. Woodward, Mr. Hancock has observed in the 
adult specimen two or three shells one within the other, likę the Loli- 
gines or Sea slaves. 

Fam. Tylodinad^. 

Tylodina punctulata=7'. Rafinesąuįi, Philippi. 

Lingual membrane very broad, brown ; teeth small, uniform, very 
numerous, in very numerous longitudinal lines, forming straight con- 
tinued uniform lines across the membrane, with an indistinct centrai 
line ; the tentacles subulate, slit on the outer side ; the lips are 
produced and aoute on each side, and twisted, leaving a slight 
cavity on the outer side of the tip ; the mantle is thin, free all 
round the edge and slightly thickeued just within the margiu, 
rather thicker aud more ffee over the frout of the back ; the gili 
is single on the hinder part of the right side just under the mantle, 
attached the whole of its length on the inner side by a centrai ridge 
to the side of the body ; the outer side is furnished -vvith a rather 
thick, rather zigzag centrai vessel, giving out pinnated vascular 
brauches, nearly alternating with each other on each side of the great 
vessel; the footis largerthan the mantle and shell, expanded, rounded 
behind, truncated in frout aud slightly emarginate in the centre 
under the mouth ; the sexual aperture not visible in the specimen 
in spirits. Shell conic, patelloid, thin, slightly pearly -vvithin, with a 
thin, hard, liorny periostraca^ which is produced beyond the edge of 
the shell, and radiately coloured, in the dry statė brittle, hard, and 
f ontracted ; the apex (of the shell) subcentral, mth a rather pro- 
duced polished top, nucleus subglobose, -ffith a slightly convex spire 
of one and a half or tvro rapidly enlargiug subconvolute whorls ; 
aperture ovate, rather irregular, slightly dilated on the right side ; 
cavity simple ; muscular scar subanuular, Avith an angular inflection 
rather behind the middle of the right side, the form of the scar is varia- 
ble, sometimes square, broad all round ; in the larger more developed 
specimens the scar is rather horse-shoe shaped, being rather dilated 
at the front part of each side, and the frout portion over the back of 
the head is narrow, linear, aud transverse. 

The genus was first established by Rafinesąue in 1 8 1 4 ; Blainville, 
who ouly knew it from Rafinesąue's imperfect descriptions, referred 
it to the PateUoida, but Menke, Philippi aud Cantraine properly cou- 
sidered it allied to Pleurobranckus, and especially Umbrella, and very 



46 

lately Dr. Loveu stated that it was allied to Turbonella (Index Moli.. 
Scand. 1 9). The examination of the teeth shows it to belong to the 
typical Pleurohranchiata, and the form aud position of the gili its 
affiuity with the geuera Pleurobranchus and JJmbrella ; indeed it 
chiefly differs from the former genus iu having an extemal conic 
patelloid shell, aud from the latter iii the head being produced and 
the mouth uot sunkeu in a deep anterior pit. 

In the British Museum there are two species of this genus. 

1. T. punctulata, Rafin., T. Rajinesquii, Philippi, T. citrina, 
Joanuis, Guerin, Mag. Zool. i. t. 36. 

Shell thin, whitish ; periostraca hard, opake, with dark brown 
rays. Mediterranean. 

2. T. atlantica^Umbrella Mediterranea 1 MacAndrew, Ann. 
Nat. Hist. 

Shell solid, bright yellow ; periostraca — ? N. Atlantic, Madeira. 

Fam. Umbrellad^. 

Umbrella mediterranea. 

The nucleus of this genus is very hke that oiTylodina, subglobose, 
polished, sinistral, of one aud a half or almost two subcylindrical, ra- 
pidly eulargiug whorls ; the adult shell is irregular iu the outline 
and rather expanded on the hinder part of the right side, over the 
gills ; the muscular scar is annular, coutinued, and of nearly uniform 
breadth, but slightly iuterrupted in various parts. The chief dif- 
ference between the shell of Ti/lodina and Umbrella is, that the shell 
of the former is more elevated, very thin, covered with a hard, rather 
paleaceous periostraca, aud the muscular scar is furnished with au 
angular inflation on the hinder parts of the right side ; a sinistral 
nucleus is fouud on several others ; shells as the geuera of Pyra- 
midellidcB. 



Fam. Proserpinid^e. 
Proserpina. 

Respiratory cavity open ; mantle free from the back of the ueck, 
with a double edge, the outer one rather reflexed ; foot moderate,* 
truucated iu front, acute, and keeled above behiud ; niuzzle short, 
truucated, aunulated, with a triangular iuferior mouth ; teutacles 
2, lateral, far apart, taperiug aud acute ; eyes moderate, sessile, at the 
outer side of the base of the teutacles ; the front part of the back of 
the foot coucave, surrounded by a continuation of the mautle, form- 
ing a fleshy sub marginai fringe, which is fuller (when contracted in 
spirits), crumpled and folded on itself on the left side. Operculum 



v 



47 

4. Descriptions of Thirty-four New Species of Bivalve 
MoLLUscA (Leda, Nucula, and Pythina) from the Cu- 

MINGIAN COLLECTION. By ArTHUR AdAMS, F. L. S. ETC. 

1. Pythina ARCUATA, A. Adams. 

P. testą transversa, elongata, ineeąuilaterali, triangulari, latere 
antico breviore, subtruncato, ad umbonibus angulato, postico lon- 
giore, rotundato ; margine ventrali arcuato, in medio sinuuto, 
irregulariter Mante ; alba concentrice striata, epidermide fusca 
radiatim striata induta. 
Hab. Isle of Zebu, adhering to LinguJa anatina at the upper 
edge, sandy mud, 3 fathoms. Mus. Cuming. 

This is an arcuated triangular species with the anterior side of the 
valves angulated, and the surface covered with a fuscous epidermis 
striated towards the ventral margin. 

2. Pythina Ctjmingii, A. Adams. 

P. testą tenui, elongato-transversa, subtrigonali, cequilaterali, um- 
bonibus acutis medianis, epidermide tenui virido-fusca induta, 
concentrice striata, radiatim sidcata, suleis ad marginein ven- 
tralem distinctioribus, umbonibus Icsvigatis, corrosulis, margine 
ventrali in medio sinuato, intus inciso-crenulato. 
Hab. Gindulman, Isle of Bohol, sandy mud, 8 fathoms ; Him- 
mamailan, Isle of Negros, sandy mud, 3 fathoms. Mus. Cuming. 

This is the largest species of Pythina yet known, the transverse 
diameter being about oue inch. The shell is thin, nearly smooth, 
and covered with a brownish-green epidermis, and with the surface 
oear the beak eroded. 

3. Pythina paula, A. Adams. 

P. testą parva, transverso-elongata, trigonali, ceąuilaterali, adum- 
bones subangulata, latere postico angustiore, antico rotundato ; 
concentrice striata, albida, epidermide tenui fulvicante induta ; 
margine ventrali sinuato, in medio excavato. 

Hab. Raimes Island, Torres Straits {Capt. Ince). Mus. Cuming. 

This is a small whitish species angulated near the beak and covered 
with a thin, pale yellowish epidermis. 

4. Pythina peculiaris, A. Adams. 

P. testą parva, transverso-elongata, cequilaterali, triangulari, 
flexuosa, alba, concentrice striata, umbonibus minutis, medianis 
acutis, latere postico plica angidata obliqua instructo, margine 
ventrali medio valde sinuato. 
Hab. Ceylon {E. L. Layard, Esq.). Mus. Cuming. 
This species is of a very remarkable form, being shghtly twisted 
laterally, and so deeply sinuated in the ventral margin as to appear 
bent on itself. 

5. Pythina triangularis, A. Adams. 

P. testą parva, cequilaterali, trigonali, alba, in medio linea impressa 



48 

divisa, concenfrice striata ; umbonibus perparvis medianis ; 
margine ventrali Mante, rectiusculo, medio subsinuato. 
Hab. Bay of Manilla, sandy mud, 5 fathoms. i\Ius. Cuming. 
This is a small vvhite triangular shell with an impressed line in 
the centre of the valves, and with the ventral margin gaping and 
nearly rectilinear, although it is slightly notched in the middle. 

y^ 6. Leda electa, A. Adams. 

L. testą elongato-transversa, compressa, vix eequilaterali, lactea, 
solidiuscula, utrinąue Mante ; latere antico acuminato, rotun- 
dato, postico attenuato, rostrato, oblique subtruncato ; concen- 
trice tenuissime plicato-lirata ; plicis posfice evanidis, distan- 
tioribus, margine ventrali arcuato. 
Hab. Santos, Brazil {Capt. Martin). Mus. Cuming. 
This is a very beautiful milk-vvhite Leda, partaking, in many 
particulars, of the character of F. crenifera and L. costeUata, 
Sowerby. 

7. Leda siLiauA, Reeve. 

L. testą ventticosa, solidiuscida, subeequilaterali, epidermide nitida 
fusca indata, concentrice tenuissime sulcatu ; umbonibus pro- 
minentibus, latere antico rotundato, postico subrostrato, obliąue 
truncato; area postica angulata, et carina obtusa ab umbonibus 
ad marginėm ventralem extendente. 
Hab. Arctic Seas {Sir E. Belcher). Mus. Cuming. 
This is a fine pod-hke Arctic species, covered with a dark fuscous 
epidermis, with the hinder side angulated and obUquely truucate, 
and with an obtuse ridge exteuding from the beaks to the ventral 
margiu. 

8. Leda concinna, A. Adams. 

L. testą tenuiuscula, compressa, lateribus Mante, pallide fusca, con- 
centrice lirata, liris angustis, regidai-ibns, subdistantibus; latere 
antico breviore ac rotundo, postico longiore ac rostrato; rostro 
producto, tenui, subrecurvato, truncato; area lanceolata, an- 
gusta, carina crenata utriusąue instructa. 
Hab. New Zealand. Mus. Cuming. 

A rather thin eompressed species slightly gaping at both ends, of 
a light browu colour, concentrically Urate, and with a slender beak 
truncate at the end. 

9. Leda inornata, A. Adams. 

L. testą transversa,triangulari,ovata, gibbosula,fusca; umbonibus 

albidis, erosis; concentrice valide sulcata, latere antico breviore 

et rotundato, postico acuminato, subrostrato ; area lanceolata, 

lata ad lateribus angulata, margine ventrali regulariter arcuato. 

Hab. New Guinea. Mus. Cuming. 

This species is founded on a small, rather gibbose shell, covered 
with a fuscous epidermis, from New Guinea, coarsely sulcate and 
slightly beaked posteriorly. 



49 

^ . 10. Leda fastiuiosa, A. Adams. 

L. testą transoersim ovata sordido albido-fusca concentrice lirata 
fusca, nif.ida, concentrice ienuiter et regulariter sulcata ; latere 
antico subproducto ac rotundato, postico angulato ac rostrato, 
rostro acuminato, margine ventrali postice suhsinuoso et in 
medio subproducto. 
Hab. Ne\v Zealand. Mus. Cuming. 

A shiniiig, pale fuscous, ventricose species, very gibbose in the 
middle, and beautifully grooved transversely ; the beak slender, 
pointed and recurved. 

11. Leda bellula, A. Adams. 

L. testą transversim ovata, sordide albido-fusca, concentrice lirata, 
' liris elevatiusculis subdistantibus, umbonibus prominentibus ; 
latere antico rotundato, postico rostrato ; rostro acuto, atte- 
nuato, recurvo ; area lanceolata, valde impressa, liris confertis 
marginata. 
Hab. Australia (iii?-. Strange). Mus. Cuming. 
This is a duU dirty white or light lirovvn shell, concentrically lirate, 
and with a somewhat curved aud pointed rostrum ; the lauceolate 
area is deeply impiessed, aud has a promineut ridge on eacU side. 

12. Leda inconspicua, A. Adams. 

L. testą transversim ovata, ventricosula, nitida, fusca, concentrice 
subtilissime sulcata; latere antico breviore et rotundato, postico 
longiore, subacuminato ac oblique subtriincato ; area lanceolata, 
obscura, nymphis prominentibus, margine ventrali regulariter 
arcuato. 
Hab. AustraUa. Mus. Cuming. 

A shining light-brown species, rather ventricose concentrically, 
very finely sulcate, with the posterior side produced attenuated, aud 
with the end obUquely trmicate. 

13. Leda lugubris, A. Adams. 

L. testą solidu, subgibbosa, triangulari-ovata, nigro-fusca; latere 
antico declivo,lunula lanceolato-cordata, impressa; latere postico 
acuminato ac breviter rostrato ; area lanceolata, lata, Icevi ; 
concentrice lirata, liris validis distantibus postice Jlearuosis ; 
margine ventrali simplici. 

Hab. ? Mus. Cuming. 

A dark, fuscous, solid shell, having very much the aspect of a 
Crassatella, with a broad impressed lunule and strong flexuous 
plicae. 

14. Leda lepida, A. Adams. 

L. testą transversim ovata, ventricosa, nitida, pallide fulva, con- 
centrice tenuiter sidcata ; latere antico breviore et rotundato. 

No. CCCIV. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



50 

postico longiore, superne subangulato, inferne obliąue rotundato; 
area lanceolata, utrinque carinata. 
Hab. Philippines. Mus. Cuming. 

This is a shining, pale fulvous, finely sukate species, with the 
hinder side rather acutely angulated above and obliquely rounded 
below, and vi-itb the lanceolate area lidged on eacb side. 

15. Leda decora, A. Adams. 

L. testą transverso-oblonga, crassa, solida, utrinque subhiante, 
sordide alba,conferte et valde concentrice sulcata; latere aiitico 
rotundato, postico rostrato; rostra recurvato et obligue subtrun- 
cato; area lanceolata, depressa, carina valida crenata utriusąue 
instructa. 
Hab. West Indies. Mus. Cuming. 

A transversely elongate species, with a strong crenate keel on eacb 
side of the lozenge, and somevvbat resembling iu appearance the 
L. crenifera of Sowerby. 

16. Leda fulgida, A. Adams. 

L. testą transversim ovata, Icevi, pallide fusca, micante, perventri- 
cosa; antice breviore et rotundata,postice acuminuta et rostrata; 
rostro subrecurvo, margine ventrali regulariter arcuato. 
Hab. Port Essington. Mus. Cuming. 

Tbis is a smootb, shining, pale-brown sbell, very ventricose, 
rounded and sbort anteriorly and rostrate posteriorly, and witb the 
rostrum rather recurved. 

17. Leda semisulcata, A. Adams. 

L. testą transversim oblonga, compressiuscula, lactea, nitida, con- 
centrice sulcata, suleis ad partem posticam obsoletis; umbonibus 
acutis, subcentralibus ; latere anfico breviore, rotundato, postico 
acuminato, non producto ; nymphis prominentibus, obligue sul- 
catis ; margine ventrali regidariter arcuato. 
Hab. Borneo. Mus. Cuming. 

A shining, rather compressed, milk-white shell, with the sulci 
obsolete on the posterior half, and witb the hind side acuminate but 
not produced. 

18. Leda pmcifera, A. Adams. 

L. testą transverso-oblonga, alba, nitida, subventricosa, oblique 
sulcata ; latere antico rotundato, plicis 3-4 validis radiatitibus 
instructo, latere postico carina obliqua ab umbonibus ad mar- 
ginėm ventralem extendente ; area lanceolata, carina crenata 
duplici utrinque instructa; margine postico truncato et valde 
emarginato, margine valvarum siniplici. 
Hab. China Seas. Mus. Cuming. 

Strongly notched at the hind margin, and with three or four plicse 
at the anterior part, and with a double crenate keel on eacb side of 
the lunule. 

19. Yoldia lepidula, A. Adams. 

T. testą transversa, oblonga, utrinque Mante, tenui, inceąuilaterali ; 



51 

latere antico breoiore rotundato, postico lonyiore, subangidato; 

2)aUide fusca, nitida, tenuiter concentrice sulcata, margine 

ventrali regulariter arcuato. 
Hab. Coast of Borneo. Mus. Cuming. 

A thin pale-bro\vn species, with the liiudside rather augulated, but 
not distinctly rostrate. 

20. NucuLA BELtiOTii, A.. Adams. 

N. testą oblicįue ovafa, ventricosa, valde i)ieequilaterali ; latere 
antico breviore ; lunida cordata, conspicua ; umbonibus erosis ; 
epidermide crassa, nitida, olivacea induta, concentrice plicata, 
2)Hcis validioribus ad marginėm ventralem ; area postica et 
antica pallidis. 
Hab. Arctic Seas (Sir E. Belcher). Mus. Cuming. 
The beaks are much croded, and the valves are strongly pUcate 
towards the ventral margin. I ha ve dedicated this fine Arctic species 
to the memory of the galiant Bellot, who unfortunately lošt his life 
in the search after Sir John Franklin and his brave companions. 

n ,v| 21. NucuLA NiTiDULA, A. Adams. 

iV. testą perobliąua, gibbosa ; latere antico obliąue subtruncato, 
postico rotundato, producto; nitida, obseure sidcata, sub lente 
radiatim striata ; umbonibus subacutis; pallide fusca, margine 
valvarum tenuiter crenulata. 
Hab. New Zealand. 

A very obhque gibbose species, radiately striated under the lens, 
and produced and roanded posteriorly ; it is obscurely concentrically 
sukate. 

22. NucuLA Layardii, A. Adams. 

N. testą transversim ovata, compressiuscula, nitida vix Iceoi, ob- 
solete concentrice sulcata ; umbonibus margaritaceis ; latere an- 
tico breviore excavato, ad partem ventralem subproducto ; pal- 
lide viridi-fusca, margine valvarum simplici. 

Hab. Ceylon {E. L. Layard, Esq.). Mus. Cuming. 

A pale greenish-brown Nucula, with the anterior side short and 
excavated, and the surface obscurely sulcate. 

23. Nucula margaritacea, A. Adams. 

N. testą transversim ovata, sublcevi, nacrea splendida tenuiter 
concentrice obsoletim striata; lunula et area lanceolata in 
medio prominentibus ; latere antico subangidato et producto, 
margine valvarum simplici. 

Hab. Malacca (Br. Traill). Mus. Cuming. 

This is a rather smooth ovate species, glistening with a nacreous 
lustre, especially towards the beaks. 

24. Nucula Paytensis, A. Adams. 

N. testą perobliąiia, transversim ovata, gibbosa; latere antico 
brevissimo ; epidermide fusca induta ; lumda et area lanceolata. 



52 

valde transversim sulcatis, concentrice sulcata, decussatim stri- 
ata,umbombus erosiusculis, margine ventrali tenuiter crenulata. 

Hab. Payta, Peru. Mus. Cuming. 

A very oblique, ovate, gibbose species, concentrically grooved and 
decussately striated. 

25. NucuLA GiBBA, A. Adams. 

N. testą perobUqnat solida, gihbosa, jyaUide fiisca ; latere antico ab- 
rupte truncato; lutmlalata, cordata ; area lanceolafa, utrinąue 
serie tuberculorMtt transversorum instructa; Icevi, nitida, obso- 
lete radiatim striata, margine valvariim valde cremdato. 
Hab. Australia {Mr. Strange). Mus. Cuming. 
This is a very oblique, solid, gibbose species, with a wide cordate 
lunnle, and ^vith a row of trausrerse tubercles on eacli side of the 
lanceolate area. 

26. NucuLA CRENULATA, A. Adams. 

N. testą perobliqua, transversim ovata,fusca; latere postico pro- 
ducto, rotundato ; area lanceolata, transversim valde sulcata ; 
concentrice valde sulcata, interstitiis striis radiantibus crenu- 
latis, pallide fusca ; margine crenulato. 

Hab. Guadaloupe. Mus. Cuming. 

27. NucuLA siMPLEX, A. Adams. 

N. testą obliąue ovata, temti, compressa, pallide olivacea, vix Icevi, 
concentrice obsolete striata ; banda lanceolata ; nymphis pro- 
minidis ; latere postico producto, rotundato, margine valvarum 
simplici. 

Hab. Sydney {Mr. Strange). Mus. Cuming, 

Likę N. Strangei, but with the auterior side sborter and more 
truncate. 

28. NucuLA Strangei, A. Adams. 

N. testą oblique ovata, inceąuilaterali, sitbcompressa ; epidermide 
nitida, aureo-viridi induta ; latere antico breviore, ad lunulam 
excavato, 'postico longiore rotundato ; area lanceolata, elevata, 
superficie obscure concentrice sulcata. 

Hab. New Zealand {Mr. Strange). Mus. Cuming. 

29. Nucula paulula, A. Adams. 

N. testą perobliųua, gibbosula, latere antico declivi, umbonibus 
erosulis ; fusca, concentrice irregulariter sidcata; latere postico 
rotundo et producto, margine ventrali cremdato. 

Hab. Japan. Mus. Cuming. 

A small brown, very inequivalve, solid, gibbose species. 

30. Nucula striolata, A. Adams. 

N. testą comprešsiuscula, oblique ovata, umbonibvs subacutis, 
pallide olivacea, obsolete concentrice sulcata, valde radiatim 
striata ; margine ventrali crenulato. 

Hab. China Seas. Mus. Cuming. 



53 

31. NucuLA suLCATA, A. Adams. 

N. testą valde convexa, ohliąue ovata, umbonibus prominulis, latere 
antico hi-eviore rotundato ; pallide olivacea, concentrice valde 
sulcata, radiatim striata, striis ad marginėm valvarum validi- 
oribus; margine valvarum crenulato. 

Hab. New Zealand. Mus. Cuining. 

^./^. 32. NucuLA CASTANEA, A. Adams. 

N. testą ovali, perobliąua, subcompressa, castatiea, latere antico 
breviore truncato, lunida In medio prominenti, latere postico 
declivi, rotundo; vix Icevi, obsolete concentrice sulcata, obscure 
radiatim striata ; margine valvarum creberrime crenulato. 
Hab. New Zealand. Mus. Cuming. 

An oval, very oblique, rather compressed Nucula, with the anterior 
side truncate and the luuule prominent in the middle, nearly smooth, 
but obsoletely striated, and \vith the margin very finely crenulated. 

33. Mactra Mari^, A. Adams. 

M. testą ovato-transversa, compressiuscula, aolida, incequilaterali, 
later^e antico paulo breviore, epidermide olivaceo-fulvicante 
induta, maculis rotundatis conglomeratis et distitictis rufo-fuscis 
irregulariter pieta, umbonibus albidis, transversim sulcata, 
suleis postice corrugato-plicatis ; lunula areague stdcatis; intus 
alba ; pallii impressione margine inferiore remoto, sįnu profundo, 
oblique triangulari. 

Hab. ? Mus. Cuming. 

This is a large and handsome species of Mactra, omamented with 
rounded, distinct, and oblong conglomerate spots, which are most 
uumerous towards the beaks. 

34. ScROBicuLARiA Seychellarum, A. Adams. 

/S. testą transversim ovata, inceąuilaterali, latere antico breviore 
rotundato, postico longiore declivi, subattenuato et rostrato, 
utrinąue vix jlexuoso, lactea, nitida, stdcis concentricis posticis 
et obliquis anticis divaricatim sculpta ; cardine ligamento ex- 
terno, cartilagine interno in fossa obliąua prominenti posito ; 
sinu pallii impressionis valido et profundo. 
Hab. Seychelles ( — Riclcetts, Esq.). Mus. Cuming. 
This is a very peculiar shell, with the generic characters of Scro- 
bicularia, or rather those of the subgenus forming the Capsa of 
Bose, or Scrobicularia b. of Schumacher, and which are usually re- 
• garded as Telliuas. 



.5. ObSERVATIONS ON StRONGYLUS FILARIA AND BOTAURUS 
STELLARIS. By EdWARDS CrISP, M. D. 

Dr. Crisp exhibited specimens and drawings of Stro7igylus Jilaria, 
which he discovered had lately proved so destructive to lambs in 



54 

many parts of England. lu several lambs examined by Dr. Crisp 
millions of these eutozoa and their ova were found in the bronchial 
tubes and in tbe intestinal canal, and he believed tbat many of 
the ova of these worms had been mistaken for Cysticerci ; but the 
various stages of development could be readily traced nuder the 
microseope. Dr. Crisp had tried many expenments on the hving 
worms as to the eflFect of poisons and other agents, and he beheved 
that salt or sulphur given \vith the food, and the inhalation of sul- 
phurous gas, under proper superintendence, would be the most 
Ūkely means of destroymg these parasites. 

Dr. Crisp also placed on the table some parts of the anatomy of 
the Common Bittern {Botaurus steUaris), two of which birds (no\v 
comparativcly rare) had recently been shot on the eastem coast of 
SufFolk. The bird from which the speeimens were taken was a fine 
malė, measuring from the tip of each wing 4 feet 1 inch, and from 
the point of the beak (\vhen extended) to the lower part of the 
tarsus 3 feet. Among the peculiarities alhuied to, tvas the smallness 
of the sternum, which measured only 3 inches longitudinally ; the 
depth of keel only į of an inch, and the lateral margius the šame. 
The trachea nieasured twelve inches in length, and consisted of 198 
imperfect rings ; the bronchi of 20 semicircular elastic cartilages, 
readily approximated, and hence the production of the peculiar 
šound from which the bird takes its name. The stomach which was 
exhibited was large, and contained near its cardiac orifice a circle of 
gastric glands. A roach, weighing abont four onnces, Avas digested 
at this part, but the tail, which was in the oesophagus, was intact. 
To show the voracity and capacity of swallow of this bird, Dr. Crisp 
said, that Sir W. Jardine and ?Jr. Yarrell had both taken a Water 
Rail from the stomach and oesophagus, and in ^Ir. Yarrell's speci- 
men there were six small fish in addition. The pectiuated claw was 
also exhibited, Dr. Crisp believing that it served for the purpose of 
cleanine; the beak and mouth of the bird. 



April 8, 18.56. 
Dr. Gray, F.R.S., in the Chair. 
The follovving papers were read : — 
1. On Dinornis (Part YII.) : containing a Description of 

THK BONES OF THE LeG AND FoOT OF THE DiNORNIS ELE- 

PHANTOPUS, Owen. By Prof. 0\ven, F.E.S., V. P. Z. S., &c. 

Mr. "VValter Mantell having, on his recent return from New Zea- 
land, provisionally deposited his very extensive collection of remains 
of Dinornithic and other birds in the British Museum, I have gladly 



acceded to the wishes of that successful and enterprising coUector, 
and of my friend the able Keeper of the Mineralogical Department 
of the Museum, to devote the leisure at my command to the exami- 
nation of this interesting and valuable collection. 

I had advanced as far as the determiiiation of the bones of the leg, 
and their classification according to their species, when the distinctive 
characters of one series of these bones irresistibly brought a convic- 
tion that they belonged to a species of Dinomis that had not pre- 
viously come under my uotice, and a species also which, for the 
massive strength of the Hmbs and the general proportions of breadth 
or bulk to height of body, mnst have been the most extraordinary 
of all the previously restored wingiess birds of New Zealand, and 
unmatched, probably, by any known recent or extinct species of this 
class of birds. 

I was so much struck by the form and proportions of the meta- 
tarsal bone described in the memoir read to the Zoological Society, 
June 23, 1846, and fignred in pi. 48, figs. 4 and 5, vol. iii. of the 
' Zoological Transactions,' that I alluded to it as " representing the 
pachydermal type and proportions in the feathered class*," and the 
bone unquestionably indicated at that period " the strongest and 
most robust of birds." By the side of the nietatarsus of the species 
which I have now to describe, and for which I propose the name of 
elephantopus, that of the Dinomis crassus, however, shrinks to 
moderate, if not slender dimensions. But the peculiarities of the 
elephant-footed Dinomis stand out still more conspicuously \vhen 
the bones of its lower limbs are contrasted with those of the Dinomis 
giganteus. 

I propose, in the present memoir, to combine with the account of 
the leg- and foot-bones of the Dinomis elephantopus, that of the 
bones of the lower limb of the Dinomis crassus, which had not pre- 
viously been described, and to bring out their characteristics by 
comparison with the bones of other species, especially those of the 
Dinomis robustus. 

Commencing with the femur, I shall premise the following table 
of admeasurements of that bone in Dinomis : — 



Dimensions of the fenmr in B. robustus. 

In. Lines. 

Length 14 2 

Transverse breadth of proxinial end 6 O 

Fore-and-aft breadth of do 5 O 

Transverse breadth of distal end ... 6 O 

Fore-and-aft breadth of do 4 3 

Circumference, least, of sbaft 7 10 



D. elephantopus. Į 


In, 


Lines. 


13 





5 


10 


4 


5 


5 


U 


3 


9 


7 


9 



T), crassus. 

In. Lines. 

II 10 

4 5 

3 9 

4 7 
3 5 
6 O 



The above comparative dimensions bring out the characteristic 
proportions of the femur of the Dinomis elephantopus, as shown by 
its greater thickness and strength. As compared with the femur of 
the Dinomis robustus, this character is remarkably exemplified on a 
comparison of their articular extremities. Had these parts alone 
of the Dinomis elephantopus been preserved and submitted to me, I 

* Ib. p. 325. 



56 

should have scarcely veutured upou a couclusion as to their specific 
distinction from the Dinomis giganteus or Dinomis robustus, the 
coįrespondence of configiiration being so close, and the difference of 
size so slight. 

The articular surface is contiuued from the head upon the upper 
part of the neck, expanduig as it approaches the great trochan- 
ter, along the summit of which it is terminated by a ridge. In 
both species the surface for attachment of the hgamentum teres is 
formed, as it were, by a portioii of the iuner aiid back part of the 
hemisphere ha^dng been cut oflp obliqiiely with a sUght excavation. 
The correspoūding hgainentous surface in the head of the femur of 
the Dinomis crassus is relatively smaller, less depressed and less 
defined. The upper and fore part of the trochanter is less produced 
relatively to the breadth of the supra-trochanterian articular surface 
in the Dinomis elephantopus. In this species the sub-circular rough 
surface for the attachment of the iliacus intemns musele is relatively 
nearer to the head of the bone than in the Dinomis robustus ; the 
rugged and thick fore part of the great trochanter desceuds lower 
upon the shaft ; indeed, the shortuess of the entire bone seenis to 
depend chiefly on the shaft being relatively shorter in the Dinomis 
elejihantopus. The intermuscidar ridge continued from the tro- 
chanterian one seems to bifurcate sooner in the Dinomis elephantopus. 
The depression behind the trochanterian ridge is less deep in the 
Dinomis elephantopus. The oblique rotular channel is relatively as 
vvide and deep as in the Dinomis robustus, but the inner boundary 
formed by the fore part of the inner condyle is shorter. 

At the back part of the shaft the medullo-arterial foramen is 
relatively nearer the proxinial end of the bone ; the two tuberosities 
belovif this are closer together. The two sides of the fibular groove 
are at a more open angle, and the groore is less deep in the Dinomis 
elephantojjus, the outer side being less produced. 

The antero-posterior breadth of the outer and inner condyles is 
ecįual in the Dinomis eJephantopus as in the Dinomis i'obustus ; but 
in the Dinomis crassus that dimension of the outer condyle exceeds 
the šame dimension in the inner one, and the fibular groove is more 
open or shallow than in the Dinomis elephantopus. 

The generic modifications of the femur are, however, very closely 
preserved in each species, being strictly of the type ascribed to the 
genus Dinomis in my origiual memoir, Zool. Trans. vol. iii. p. 247. 

Dimensions of the tibia in D. robustus. D.eUjthantopus. D. crassus. 



Ft. In. Lines. 

Leiigth 2 8 3 

Trausverse breadth of proximal end 7 6 

Fore-and-aft breadth of do 4 9 

Leastcircumferenceof shaft 6 9 

'Iraiiiverse breadth of distal end... 4 4 



The «.\tiemes of size in a series of several bones are here given. 



In. 



r2 O O \ 

tl 9 6* J 

{? n 

f 4 6*1 

14 3 I 



6 5 



Ft. In. Lines. 

17 6* 

16 6 

6 2 



3 6 

4 10 
3 3 



0/ 

The characters of the upper end of the tibia of the Dinomis 
elephantopus closely accord with tliose of the Dinomis robustus, 
and the difference of size, as exeniplified in the foregoing table, is so 
slight, that had this extreinity only of the boue reached nie, I should 
most probably have lefeired it to the Dinomis robustus. The 
almost flat articular surface for the iuner condyle of the femur is 
somewhat less in its shorter diameter ; the epicuemiai ridge is less 
extended transversely ; the ectocnemial ridge curves more strongly 
outvvards ; but there are individual varieties in all these characters in 
the tibiae before me. All the tibise, hovvever, ditfer iu the earlier sub- 
sidence of the ridge continued dowuwards from the procnemial plate, 
which ridge is continued in Dinomis robustus uninterrupted by that 
above the inner division of the distal trochlea. The space between 
the ecto- and pro-cnemial platės in the Dinomis crassus is relatively 
greater than in either of the above larger species ; the ridge con- 
tinued from the procnemial plate is interrupted as in the Dinomis 
elephantopus. The fore part of the tibia internal to the procnemial 
ridge is impressed by irregular vascular grooves. The fibular ridge 
is interrupted by a smooth tract, in or near which is the orifice of 
the canal for the obliquely descending medullary artery in all the 
species of Dinomis. The upper division of the ridge is shorter in 
the Dinomis elephantopus than in the Dinomis robustus, and rela- 
tively shorter than in the Dinomis crassus. The surface between 
the fibular ridge and the inner border of the shaft at the back part 
is concave transversely in Dinor?iis elephantopus, not merely flat as 
in Dinomis robustus and Dinomis crassus, and, as it descends, it 
continues louger a flat surface before it changes gradually to a couvex 
one. The oljlong rough insertional surface above the inner condyle 
is relatively shorter and better defined in the Dinomis elephantopus 
than in the Dinomis robustus. On the characteristic fore part of 
the lower end of the tibia, that bone in the Dinomis elephantopus 
repeats all the modifications ascribed to the Dinomis in my memoir 
on the Gastornis, or large fossil bird from the Paris eocene*. 

The teudiual canal inclines obliquely iuvvards parallel with the 
inner border of the expanding end, near which it is placed ; the bouy 
bridge spans across it from a flattened tubercle developed from the 
lower part of the outer pier. The outlet of the canal is as wide as 
in the Dinomis robustus ; its aspect is obliquely forvvards and down- 
wards. Exterual to the tubercle is an obliąue rough depression, 
relatively narrower and better defined than iu the Dinomis robustus. 
The iuner condyle is relatively narrovverand more produced forwards 
than iu the Dinomis robustus, resembling more the proportions of 
that part in the Dinomis crassus. The general form and obliąue 
direction of the wide distal trochlear articulation are closely repeated 
in all the species, the canal being rather more sharply defined behind 
in the Dinomis elephantopus than in the Dinomis robustus. The 
depression on the entocondyloid surface is less deep in the Dinomis 
elephantopus than in the Dinomis robustus. 

The above-specified differences, as well as all that I have noticed in 
* ' Proceediiigs of the Geological bociety.' 



58 

the tibise of other species of Dinomis, are so inferior in degree le 
those wliich I have ibund in closely allied genera, and even in dif- 
ferent species of the šame genus, of otlier large land- and vvading- 
birds, as e. g. in species of Ciconia, and in the existing Struthious 
genera, as to leave a strong impression on my mind of the generic 
affinity of the species which I have referred to Dinomis and Pala- 
pteryx, and which species have been divided, with a more liberal 
imposition of terms, by Dr. Reichenbach into the nominal genera 
Anomalopferijx, Movia, Emeus, Syornis, &c., no additional facts or 
characters being given by that nomenclator than are to be found in 
the pages or platės of my own memoirs. 

The fibula of the Dinomis elephayitopus remains, as in other 
Dinornithes, and as in the existing struthious genera, permanently 
distinct from the tibia ; as a general rule in birds, it soon becomes 
anchylosed to that bone. In the species now defined it is a straight 
styliform bone, 14 inches 6 lines in length. The head is subcom- 
pressed and produced, as if slightly bent backwards ; the upper arti- 
cular surface is convex from before backwards, almost flat trans- 
rersely. The head of the bone is flatteued on the inner side, almost 
flat, but a little convex on the outer side. The fore-and-aft dimen- 
sion is 2 inches 9 lines, the transverse diameter 1 inch 3 lines. Be- 
low the head the bone assumes a trihedral fonn, with the sides 
convex, gradually tapering, and blendiug into a shape elliptic in 
transverse section, and ending in a point about 9 inches above the 
ankle-joint. The outer surface of the shaft of the fibula is impressed 
by two oblong rough surfaces for the iusertion of museles, the upper 
one 2 inches 9 lines in length ; the inner part, which is ridge-like, 
dividing the fore from the back surface of the bone, presents a rough 
surface with a median interruption, for the ligamentous attachment 
to the fibular ridge of the tibia. 

Dimensions of the Metatarse of B.gignn- D.robustus. D.elephan- d. crasms. 

teus. topus. 



In. Lines. 

Length 18 6 

Transverse breailth of proximal end ... 4 3 

Transverse breadth of (hstal end 5 4 

Least hreadth of shaft 2 3 

Fore-and-aft breadth of proximal end... 3 2 

Circuraference of ditto 12 O 

Least circuraference of shaft 6 3 

Breadth of middle trochlea 1 10 

Length of do. following the curve 5 9 



In. Lines. 

15 9 

4 6 

5 3 

2 O 

3 2 
12 9 

5 3 

2 3 

5 4 



In. Lines. 

9 3 

4 5 

5 4 
2 5 
2 10 

12 O 

6 6 
2 2 
5 3 



In. 


Linet. 


8 


8 


3 


3 


3 


9 


1 


9 


2 


5 


9 


3 


4 


6 


1 


8 


4 






I had hitherto regarded the metatarse of the Dinomis crassus 
(Zoological Transactions, vol. iii. pi. 48, figs. 4 and 5), as presenting 
the most extraordinary form and proportions of all the restored 
species of huge wingless birds of New Zealaud ; but it is strikingly 
surpassed in robustness and in great relative breadth and thickness 
by the šame bone of the present species, which chiefly on that 
account I have proposed to name elephantopus. Only in the great 
Maccaws and Penguins do I know of a metatarse with similar pro- 
portions to that of this most robust-legged of birds. But the Parrot 



5!) 

tribe present those peculiar modifications of tlie distal trochlese, wdth 
the strong articulation for the back toe, which relate to the scan- 
sorial modifications of the bird's foot ; and the Penguins associate 
with their broad and short metatarse a characteristic retention of 
much of the primitive separation of the three constituent bones. In 
the Dinomis elephantopus these elements have become as completely 
coalesced as in any other species, and the general chavacters of both 
proximal and distal ends aceord with those in previously described 
species. On a more special comparison of the metatarse of the 
Dinomis elephantopus with that of its nearest congener, the Dinomis 
c}'assus, the following differences present themselves : — The ento- 
condyloid depression is deeper, its fore-and-aft diameter is greater, 
and its transverse diameter less, than in the ectocondyloid one ; but 
the breadth of the entocondyloid depression is relatively greater, and 
its depth somewhat less in the Dinomis elephantopus than in the 
Dinomis crassus. The transverse convexity dividing the two con- 
dyloid depressions is relatively broader in the Dinomis elephantopus ; 
and the rough surface external to the anterior intercondyloid pro- 
minence is more strongly marked. The two calcaneal ridges present 
an eqnal prominence in Dinomis elephantopus ; the ectocalcaneal 
one is the more prominent in Dinomis crassus. The anterior surface 
of the metatarse differs chiefly in the proportions indicated in the 
table of admeasurements from that in the Dinomis crassus ; likę 
most of the metatarses of that species, one or more vascular foramina 
oceur above the subcircular rough surface of iusertion of the flexor 
pedis, which occupies the lower part of the shal]ow depression in 
the upper and fore part of the shaft. Along the lower half of the 
shaft, the median longitudinal, and progressively widening pro- 
minence, due to the middle of the coalesced metatarsal bones, is 
rather more marked than in Dinomis crassus. The inner side of 
the shaft is marked at its upper half by the obliąue rough tract 
indicative of the insertion of the powerful aponeurosis of the gastro- 
enemii museles. At the back surface the upper part of the middle 
metatarsal is relatively less prominent than in Dinomis crassus. 
The two vascular foramina occupy corresponding relative positions. 
Ali other notable differences are those of size and proportion. 

From the metatarse of the Dinomis robustus that of the Dinomis 
elephantopus differs most strikingly in its proportions of length to 
breadth, being little more than half the length, but of nearly equal 
breadth ; the distant trochlese, however, being relatively less ex- 
panded than in the Dinomis robustus. 

The anterior vascular perforation is less than in the Dinomis ro- 
bustus ; the insertional roughness for the tibialis anticus below the 
foramen is of equal size. The upper half of the fore part of the 
metatarse of the Dinomis robustus is longitudinally channeled in the 
Dinomis robustus, not in the Dinomis elephantopus. The corre- 
sponding part of the back part of the shaft is much more prominent 
in the Diliomis robustus. The characteristics of the metatarse of 
the Dinoriiis elephantopus are more strongly manifested in the 
comparison with that of the Dinomis giganteus, of which bone 



60 

it has oiily half the length, other dimensions being equal or even 
greater. 

Of the depression, whicli is very faint, in the Dinomis rnbustus for 
the hgamentous attachment of the rudimentai back toe there is no 
trace in the metatarse of the D. elephantopus. 

The bones of the foot I shali compare with those of the Dinomis 
robustus,* to which they make the nearest approach in size. Equal- 
ling, or nearly equalHng, the phalanges of that bird in breadth and 
thickness, they diflfer chiefly in shortness, but in a less degree than 
the metatarsi differ. These proportional characters of the species are 
best and easiest given in the platės. A few minor differences, how- 
ever, may be noticed : the outer portion of the proximal end of the 
first phalanx of the inner toe is broader in proportion to its fore-and- 
aft diameter in Dinomis elephantopus. The inner portion of the 
proximal end of the first phalanx of the outer toe presents the hke 
difference : the general form of that artieular surface is less triaugu- 
lar and more oval in both the specified phalanges of the Dinomis 
elephantojms, one, the under side, being indented as usual in the 
proximal phalanges of the inner and outer toes. 

The modifications in the other phalanges, besides those of size and 
proportion, are not greater or other than might be expected in dif- 
ierent species of the šame genus. 

The first evidence of the Dinomis crassus reached me from a tur- 
bany deposit at Waikawaite, in the Middle Island ; it formed part of 
the coUection there made by Mr. Earl. I have never received any 
evidence of the species from the North Island. 

In likę manner the bones of the much larger bird, which I have 
called Dinomis robustus, and which I was formerly inclined to regard 
as a variety of the Dinomis giganteus, appear to be peculiar to the 
Middle Island ; or at least have not hitherto been found in any 
locality of the North Island. 

The richer senes of illustrations of both the Dinomis robustus and 
Dinomis crassus in the collection of ^Nlr. "\Valter Mantell are from 
localities in the Middle Island ; and the abundant illustrations of the 
Dinomis elephantopus are exclusively from one locality in that island ; 
they were obtained at Ruamoa, three miles south of Oamaru Point, 
or that called the ' Vast Rocky Head ' in the new Admiralty map. 
This fact might give rise to the idea that the origiual range or locality 
of the Dinomis elephantopus had been a restricted one, unless, at 
the period when the species flourished, the geographical extent of the 
Middle Island was vvidely different from what it now is. Yet Mr. 
W. Mantell has obtained strong, if not unequivocal evidence, that the 
Dinomis elephantojms and Dinomis crassus existed contempora- 
neously with Maori natives. Tlie bones described in the foregoing 
pages are in a recent and most perfect condition. They retain the 
usual proportion of animal matter and have undergone no mineral 
change. 

From the sum of our present Information respecting the localities of 
the several species oi Dinornithidce, we may infer that most, if not all, 
* See Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. iv. pi. 1. 



61 

the species of the North Island were distinct from those of the South 
Island. To birds that coiild neither fly nor swim — at least swim well, 
— the channel called Cook's Straits would prove an efFectual bar to 
any migration from oiie island to another. With each successiAe 
addition of mateliais for a complete history of this most remarkable 
family of birds, I feel, however, chiefly impressed with the con- 
viction of how little comparatively v/e still kriow respecting them, 
and how much more is likely, through the enlightened co-opevation 
of active, resolnte, and accomplished explorers, likę Mr. Walter 
Mantell, to be, hereafter, contributed towards a perfect history of the 
New Zealand -^vingless birds. 

Of the very remarkable species of Dinomis based upon the 
povverfully developed limbs, the bones of which are deseribed in 
the foregoing pages, Mr. Mantell' s collection includes right and left 
femora, right and left tibise, right and left fibulse, right and left 
metatarsi, and a considerahle collection of toe-bones, from which, 
probably, other entire feet might be reconstructed, in addition to 
the one of the left foot now submitted to the Society. There are 
also the t\vo femora and the two metatarsi of an immature bird, 
apparently, by their proportions, from one iudividual, to which niay 
also belong the proximal end of a tibia, wanting the articular epi- 
physis. The femora, as in the other birds, retain the tvvo articular 
ends, which are simply rougher than in the adult, having been 
covered by a thicker cartilage, but are uot developed upon distinct 
osseous pieces, as in land mammals. The proximal epiphysis is 
wanting in both the immature metatarsi, exhibiting the separate ex- 
panded ends of the three constituent bones terminating in the three 
prominent trochleae below. The length of the femur of this young 
bird is 11 inches, that of the metatarse 7^ inches. They already 
present the characteristie robustness of the adult bird * . 



2. On a nem"^ Turkey, Meleagris mexicana. 
By j. Gould, Esa., F.R.S., &c. 

In the lapse of time the origin of several of the aniroals which man 
has subjected to bis dominion, and which are of the greatest service 
to his necessities or his pleasures, has become involved in obscurity. 
As instances in point we may cite among quadrupeds the Camel, the 
Horse, the Dog, &c., and among birds the various Gallinacece, Ana- 
tidcB and ColumbidcB, all of which were derived from Asia. The pro- 
ductions of the New "World have not yielded such ready obedience 
to his sway, since no one of its ąuadrupeds has yet been domesticated, 
and only one of its birds — the Turkey ; but a likę fate, if I mistake 
not, has attended the origin of this solitary acquisition, which, 
although the bird has not been known to us more than 300 years, 
is equally wrapped in uncertainty. 

* This paper will appear in the Transactions of the Society, illustrated with 
figures of the bones. 



62 

" So involved in obscurity," says Mr. Martin, " is the early 
history of the Turkey, and so ignorant do the writers of the six- 
teenth and seventeeth centuries appear to have been about it, that 
they have regarded it as a bird kuown to the ancients by the name 
of ' Meleagris,' namely, the Guinea-fowl or Pintado, a mistake whieh 
was not cleared up until the middle of the eighteenth century. The 
appellation of Turkey which the bird bears iu our country, arose, 
according to Willoughby, from a supposition that it came originally 
from the country so called. Mexico was first discovered by Grijalva 
in 1518. Oviedo speaks of the Turkey as a kind of peacock abound- 
ing in New Spain, vvhich had already, in 1526, been transported in a 
domestic statė to the islauds and the Spauish Maiu, where it was 
kept by the Christian colonists. It is re])orted to have been intro- 
duced into Eugland in 1524, and is enumerated asamong the dainties 
of the table in 1541. In 1573 it had become the customary Christ- 
mas fare of the farmer." Every author who has written on the subject 
since the days of Linnaeus has cousidered it to be derived from the 
wen-known wild Turkey of North America, but on account of the great 
differences \vluch are met with among our domestic Turkeys, and 
the circumstance of the wild Turkeys recently imported from North 
America not readily associating or pairing \vith them, I have for 
sonie years past entertained a contrary opinion. This opinion may 
be met by sonie persons with the remark, that similar and even 
greater differences occur among our domestic poultry. True — but I 
believe that these differences are due to an admixture of two, three, 
or more species, and that in no case wouId the domestication of a 
single species produce characters so decided as those exhibited by 
the two birds now on the table. 

In Canada and the United States the Turkey is partially migra- 
tory, visidng those countries during the summer, for the purpose of 
breeding, and although some ■vvriters statė that it is a native of 
Mexico, I can hardly think it likely that it rangės very far south in 
the latter country, for, from the southern boundary of Canada to 
Mexico is nearly 2000 miles, and it is unlikely, I think, that a bird 
of the cold regions of Canada should also be indigeuous to the hotter 
country of Mexico, whence, and not from North America, the Turkey 
was originally introduced into Europe by the Spaniards early in the 
sixteenth century. 

Belienng this bird to be distinct from the North American species, 
it becoraes uecessary that one of them should receive a new name, 
and a ąuestion then arises to vvhich of the two should it be given. 
My opinion is, that it \nll be better to retain the term Gallopavo for 
the North American species, and to call the present one Mexicana, 
after the country of vvhich it is a native. Linnaeus' Meleagris Gallo- 
pavo is founded upon the Gallopavo sylvestris of Brisson's ' Ornitho- 
logie,' vol. i. p. 1 62, and upon Ray's Nevv England Wild Turkey, both 
of vvhich names appertain to the North American species; consequently 
the term Mexicana vvould be a fit appellation for the present bird. 
I may mention, that it is the only example of a Turkey I have ever 
seen from ]Mexico, and that it vvas brought to this country by the 



63 

late Mr. Floresi, a gentleman wliose energy as a collector was only 
eąualled by the honourable career of a moderately long life, during 
which he was conuected \Yith the Real del Monte Minės i n Mesico. 
Mr. Floresi travelled himself, and kept coUectors, who penetrated 
into the remotest parts of that country ; and many were the fine 
species he by this means comniunicated to the world of science. I 
may mention the splendid Picus imi^erialis, Calurus neoxenus, and 
many Humming Birds, as some of the species which but for his 
researches -svould have been unknown to us. 

In size this new Turkey exceeds that of the largest specimens of 
the North American species ; but it has shorter legs, a considerably 
larger and more broadly expandedtail, conspicuously zoned with brown 
and black, and terminated with \vhite ; the tail coverts are very pro- 
fusely developed, largely tipped with white, and bounded posteriorly 
with a narrow hne of black, their basai portions being lich metallic 
bronze. The šame arrangement of colouring also prevails on the 
feathers of the lower part of the flanks ; and on the under tail coverts, 
vvhere it is particularly fine ; the centre of the back is black, with 
green, purplish and red reflexions ; the back of the neck, upper part 
of the back, and shoulders, are in some hghts bronzy, in others the 
colour of fire ; the greater wing coverts are uniform bronzy brown, 
forming a conspicuous band across the vving ; all the primaries are 
crossed by mottled bars of blackish brown and white, freckled with 
brown ; all the under surface is fiery copper, intensely brilliant in 
certain hghts, and becoming darker towards the flanks. 

Totai length 4 feet 4 inches ; bill 2| inches, -vving 21| inches, tail 
16 inches, and when spread about 24 inches across ; tarsi 6f . 

In the Report of an expedition down the Zuni and Colorado Rivers 
by Captain L. Sitgreaves, lately published in America, the following 
passage occurs at p. 94, in reference to Wild Turkey s : — 

" They are also found in New Mexico, in the neighbourhood of 
the copper-mines. I am told by our officers that those found there 
are of enormous size. Mr. Leroux, ourguide, informed me that the 
Turkeys of the Gila River were different from those found east of 
the Rio Grande, and that they have much white about them." 
These are doubtless identical with the bird under consideration. 
Since the above remarks were in type, I have been informed by 
J. H. Gurney, Esq., M. P., that he some years since received the 
skin of a Wild Turkey from the neighbourhood of the Real de 
Monte minės in Mexico, vvhich he considers to be the šame as the 
bird above described ; this specimen is now in the Museum at 
Norwich. 



64 
3. Synopsis Avium Tanagrinarum. — A descriptive Cata- 

LOGITE OF THE KNOWN SpECIES OF TaNAGERS. 

By Philip Lutley Sclater, M. A. F. Z. S., &c. 

Part I. containing the genera Pitylus, Orchesticus, Diucopis, Sa.l- 
tator, Psittospiza, Lamprospiza , Cissopis, Oreothi-aupis, Arremon, 
Phcenicophilus, Buarremon and Chlorospingus . 

Genus I. Pitylus. 

Pitylus, Cuv. Regn. An. 1829, ii. p. 413. 
Cissurus, Reich. Av. Syst. Nat. pi. 77. 
Periporphyrus, Reich. 1. c. 
Caryothraustes, Reich. 1. c. 

Rostrum maxinium, breve, altum, latum, quasi coccothraustinttm; 

mandibulcB superioris marginibus fortiter sinuatis et mandibulam 

inferiorem tegentibus ; culmine multum iticurvo : alce modiccB, 

remigibus tertia, quarta et quinta longissimis : cauda plūs minusve 

elongata, pleru7nque rotundata : tarsi robusti. 

The birds of this genus are the most finch-like of the Tanagers, 

and I have some doubts vvliether they are not as closely allied to 

Guiracu, Hedymeles, and other Coccothraustine forms, as to the pre- 

sent group. We want more information as to their habits and in- 

ternal structure before this poiut can be satisfactorily settled. 

a. Pitylus. 

1. Pitylus grossus. 

Coccothraustes americana carulea, Briss. Orn. vi. App. p. 89. 
Grosbec bleu d'Amėriąue, Buff. Pl. Enl. 1.54. 
Loxia grossa, Linu. S. N. i. p. 307. 

Pitylus grussus, Grav, Gen. p. 362; Schomb. Guian. iii. 6/7; 
Bp. Consp. p. 503; Cab. M. H. p. 143. 

IVhite-throated Grosbeak, Lath. G. H. v. 268. 

Cano-ctsrulescenti-schistaceus ; facie, gutturis lateribus et cervice 
antica nigris ; gula media alba. ? minus ccurulescens et nigro 
colore carens. 

Long. totą 7'2, alae 3'7, caudae 3*3. 

Hab. Cayenne; British Guiana (Schomb.); Bogota; Pebas, Upper 
Amazou (Castelnau et Deville). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., Derbiano, &c. 

2. Pitylus fuliginosus. 

Loxiafuliginosa, Daud. Orn. ii. 372 (1801). 
Coccothraustes cceriilescetis, Vieill. Nov. Dict. xiii. 546 (1817), et 
Enc. Meth. 1016. 

Fringilla gnatho, Licht. Verz. d. Doubl. p. 22; Mas. Beit. iii. 552. 
Pitylus atrochalybeus, Jard. et Selb. 111. Orn. i. pl. 3. 
Tanagra psittacina, Spix, Av. Bras. ii. p. 44, pl. 57, fig- 2. 
Pitylus erythrorhynchus , Sw. Class. ii. p. 282. 
Pitylus gnatho, Gray's Gen. ii. p. 362; Bp. Consp. p. 503. 



65 

Saltalor psittacims, Bp. Consp. p. 490 ; Gray's Gen, ii. p. 363. 

Pitylus cmrulescens, Cab. M. H. p. 143. 

Sooty Grosbeak, Lath. G. H. v. p. 269. 

Carulescenti-niger, gutture et pectore antico intensioribus, nigris : 

rosiro rubro. $ unicolor, magis fusca, neque ccerulescens. 
Long. totą 9'0, alse 4'1, caudse 4"3. 

Hab. South-east Brazil, Rio di Janeiro {Spix) ; Bahia {Max.). 
Mus. Brit., Paris., Derbiano. 

b. Periporphyrus. 
3. Pitylus erythromelas. 

Loxia erythromelas, Gm. S. N. ii. 8.59. 

Coccothraustes erythromelas, \iei\l. N. D. d'H. N. xiii. 547; Euc. 
Meth. 1017 ; Gal. des Ois. i. p. 70, pi. 59. 
Pitylus erythromelas, Gray, Gen. p. 362. 
Periporphyrus erythromelas, Bp. Consp. p. 503. 
Black-headed Grosbeak, Lath. G. H. v. 237, pi. 88. 
Ruber, capite toto cum gutture nigris : rostro plumbeo. ? brunneo- 

flava capite (sicut maris) nigro. 
Long. totą 7'6, alse- 4*0, caudse 3"8. 
Hab. Cayenne; Para (PFaZ/ace). 
Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 

.4. Pitylus CEL^NO. 

Fringilla celceno, Licht. Preis-Verz. d. S. u. V. no. 72 (1831). 

Pitylus atro-purpuratus, Lafr. R. Z. 1838, p. 224 (<?); Gray's 
Gen. p. 362. 

Pitylus atro-olivaceus, Lafr. R. Z. 1838, p. 224 (?); Gray's 
Gen. p. 362. 

Pyranga mexicana, Less. R. Z. 1839, p. 41 ; Gray's Gen. p. 364 ; 
Bp. Consp. p. 241. 

Caryothraustes atro-olivaceus, Bp. Consp. p. 503. 
Periporphyrus atro-purpuratus, Bp. Consp. p. 503. 

Niger : torque cervicali postica cum lateribus pectoris et ventre 
rubris: tectricibus subalaribus roseis : rostro plumbeo. ? olivacea, 
subtus Jlavescentior ; pileo toto et gutture nigris. 

Long. totą 8"4, alae 4*0, caudse 3*5. 

Hab. South Mexico, Papantla (Deppe). 

Mus. Paris., Lugdunensi, Berolin. 

c. Caryothraustes. 

5. Pitylus viridis. 

Coccothraustes canadensis, Briss. Orn. iii. 229. 
Grosbec de Cayenne, Buff. PI. Enl. 152, fig. 2 (fig. pess.), 
Loxia canadensis, Linn. S. N. i. 304 ; Gm. i. 856 ; Lath. Ind. 
Orn. i. 379 ; Daud. ii. 373 ; Shaw's Zool. ix. 269. 

Pitylus canadensis, Gray, Gen. p. 362 ; Schomb. iii. 667. 

No. CCCV. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



66 

Coccothraustes viridis, Yieill. Euc. Meth. p. 1017. 

Caryothr austės viridis, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 144; Sclater, Tan. Cat. 
Sp. p. 3. 

Caryothraustes cayanensis, Bp. Consp. p. 514 (partim). 

Pityluspersonatus, Less. Rev. Zool. 1839, p. 42; Descr. d. Maram. 
etOis. p. 344. 

Canada Grosbeak, Lath. G. H. t. p. 382. 

Supra flavo-olivaceus, pileo flavescentiore ; subtus flttvus : loris et 

gula totą nigris. 
Long. totą 5 '9, alse 3*5, cauda 2*5. 
Hab. Caycnne {Buff.) ; British Guiana (Schomb.). 
Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 

6. PiTYLUS BRASILIENSIS. 

Fringilla viridis, Max. Beit. iii. 555. 

Fringilla cayanensis, Licht. Verz. p. 22 (excl. Syn.). 

Caryothraustes brasiliensis, Cab. Mus. Ilein. p. 144. 

Similis Pitylo ^dridi, sed major, rostra fortiorc et nigredine gulari 

magis extensa. 
Long. totą 6"8, alse 3'7, caudse 3"0. 
Hab. South Brazil, prov. Bahia (P. Max.). 
Mus. Berolin., &c. 

7. PiTYLTJS POLIOGASTER. 

Pitylus poliogaster, Dubus, Bull. Ac. Brux. xiv. pt. ii. p. 10.5 
(1847) ; Rev. Zool. 1848, p. 245 ; Gray's Gen. App. p. 16. 

Pitylus Jtavocinereus, Cassin, Pr. Ac. Phil. iv. p. 47 (1848). 

Fringilla episcopus, Licht. in Mus. Bcrol. 

Caryothraustes episcopus, Bp. Consp. p. 504. 

Canada Grosbeak, var. A. Lath. G. H. v. p. 282? 

Olivacescenti-fiavus : tectricibus alarum dorso proximis, dorso pos- 
tico et abdomine cinereis : loris et gula nigris. 

Long. totą 7"0, alse 3*7, caudse 3-0. 

Hab. Mexico, Cosamaluapan (Deppe) ; vic. of Cordova (Sall^) ; 
Guatimala (Dubus). 

Mus. Berolin., Lugdunens., Philadelph. Academ. et Bruxell. 

Genus II. Orchesticus. 

Orchesticus, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 143 (1851). 

Rostrum modicum, breve, altum, latum, tumidum; mandibulee supe- 
rioris marginibus non sinuatis, culmine incurvo ; ala modica, 
remigibus secunda, tertia, guarta et quinta longissimis : cauda sub- 
rotundata. 

1. Orchesticus ABEiLLii. 

Pyrrhula abeillei, Less. Rev. Zool. 1839, p. 40. 
Tanagra occipitalis, Natt. in Mus. Beiol. 
Orchesticus occipitalis, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 143. 



67 

Diucopis leucophtEa, Bp. Consp. p. 491 (excl. syn.). 

Schistochlamys abeillei, Sclater, Tan. Cat. Sp. p. 4. 

Tangara roux, Less. Tr. d'Orn^p. 464. 

Olivascenti-cinereus, pileo plumbescentc, fronte, alis caudague rufis : 
subtus dilutior, ochracescenti-rufus ; lateribus obscurioribus : 
rostro plumbeo. 

Long. totą 7"4, alse 3"4, caudse 3' 5. 

Hab. South Brazil, Bahia (/. Verreaux). 

Mus. Paris., Brit., Berol., &c. 

This curious bird lias long beea common in European collections, 
being often transmitted from Bahia. From its appearance one would 
suppose it to be a female, but M. Julės Verreaux (who has himself 
shot it in the island of Itaparica) infornas me that the natives con- 
sider it a distinct species. 

Lesson's description of his Pyrrhula abeillei " corpore isabellino : 
occipite, dorso et cauda supra brunneo-isabellinis : infra fronte et colio 
Itete isabellinis : alarum pennis nigris extus rufis," is, I think, suffi- 
ciently accurate to warrant us using his specific name for this bird. 

2. Orchesticus capistratus. 

Saltator ruficapillus, Vieill. Nouv. Dict. xiv. 108 ; Enc. Mdth. 
p. 793 ; Puch. Arch. Mus. Paris. vii. 355 ? 

Tanagra capistrata, P. Max. Reise n. Bras. ii. 500 (1821), et 
Beitr. iii. 500 ; Spix, Av. Bras. ii. p. 41, pi. 54, fig. 1. 

Pitylus capistratus, Sw. Class ii. p. 282. 

Tachyphonus? capistratus, Gray's Gen. p. 365. 

Diucopis capistrata, Bp. Consp. p. 491. 

Schistochlamys capistrata, Sclater, Tan. Cat. Sp. p. 4. 

Tanagra leucophcea, Licht. Verz. d. Doubl. p. 32, 1823. 

Schistochlamys leucophcsa, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 141. 

" Tanagra conspicillata. Mus. Paris." Bp. Consp. p. 491. 

Schistaceus, pileo brunnescentiore : rostri ccerulescentis ambitų nigro: 
subtus pallide ochraceo-rufus, ventre medio albescente, lateribus 
schistaceis. 

Long. totą 6-7, alae 3*3, caudse 3*0. 

Hab. South-east Brazil, prov. Bahia, et Minas Geraes (P. Max.); 
Rio (Spix). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 

3. Orchesticus ater. 

Tangara d. cravatte noire de Cayenne, Buff. PI. Enl. 714, fig. 2. 

Tanagra atra, Gm. S. N. 898. 

Saltator ater, Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. in Mag. de Zool. 1837, 
p. 36 ; Cab. in Schomb. Reis. iii. 677. 

Nemosią atra, Bp. Consp. p. 236. 

Diucopis atra, Bp. Consp. p. 492. 

Schistochlamys atra, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 141 ; Sclater, Tan. Cat. 
Sp. p. 4, et P. Z. S. 1855, p. 154. 

Tanagra melanopis, Lath. Ind. Orn. i. p. 422 ; Max. Beitr. iii. 504. 



68 

Saltator melanopis, Vieill. Nouv. Dict. xiv. p. 103, et Enc. Meth. 
p. 790 ; d'Orb. Voy. p. 291 ; Tsch. F. P. p. 210. 

Le Camail, Dešra. Tan. pi. 42. • 

Black-faced Tanager, Lath. G. H. vi. p. 12. 

Cinereo-griseus, subtus dilutior : pileo antico et capitis lateribus cum 
gutture totojuguloque nigris. Junior ex cinereo olivascens unicolor, 
nigredine vis perspicua. 

Loiig. totą 6-2, alee 3-3, caudse 2-9. 

Hab. British Guiana {Schomb.) ; Cayeune ; Trinidad ; Xew 
Grenada, Bogota ; North-east Peru, wood-region {Tsch.) ; BoliA-ia, 
Moxos and Chiąuitos (d'Orb.) ; Goyaz and Alhuąuerąue, Rio Para- 
guay {Cast. et Dev.) ; South Brazil, prov. Rio and Espiritu S. 
{P. Max.). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 

Genus III. Diucopis. 

Diucopis, Bp. Consp. p. 491 (18.50). 
iichistochlamys, Reich. Av. Syst. Nat. pi. 77 (1850). 

Rostnim subexiguum, rectum, conicuin; al<e brevissinKE, remige prima 
secundam subaguante, huc cum tertia, quarta et quinta eequalibus 
et longissimis : cauda modica, subquadrata. 

1. Diucopis FAsciATA. 

Tanagra fasciata, Licht. Verz. d. Doubl. p. 32 ; Max. Beit. iii. 
493 ; Bp. Consp. p. 238. 

Tanagra axillaris, Spix, Av. Bras. ii. 41, pi. 54, fig. 2. 
Tachypho7ius axiUaris, Gray, Gen. p. 3G5. 
Diucopis fasciata, Bp. Consp. p. 491. 
Schistochlamys fasciata, Sclater, Tan. Cat. Sp. p. 3. 

Schistacea, subfus albescentinr : loris, regione ocvlari et tectricibus 
alarum nigris : gutture et ventre toto cumfascia alari albis. 

Long. totą (J-9, alse 2'9, caudse 26. 

Hab. South-east Brazil, prov. San Paolo (Licht.) ; Minas and 
Bahia (P. Max.). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., Derbiano. 

This bird differs from the members of the genus Orchesticus, with 
which it has been lately associated, in the smaller straighter bill, very 
short wings, and more squared tail. 

2. Diucopis speculigera. 

Schistochlamys speculigera, Gould, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 68, et Ann. 
N. H. XV. p. 345. 

Nigra : speculo alarum, tectricibus subalaribus et macula siib nuchce 
pennis obtecta cum corpore subtus albis : lateribus et dorso postico 
schistaceis. 
Long. totą 6/, alse 31, cauda; 2*8. 
Hab. East Peru, rivcr UcayaU (Hawxwell). 
Mus. Brit. 



69 

Mr. Gould's types are the only specimens I have seen of this 
peculiar bird. They were coUected by Mr. Hawxwell in August 
1852 upon the Ucayali, and are marked " Irides red." I rather 
doubt this being the true place of this species, but at present I am 
unable to indicate a better one. 

Genus IV. Saltator. 

Saltator. Vieillot, Analyse, p. 32 (1816). 

Rostrum forte, elongatiim, incurvum, vix sinuatum sed apice den- 
tata: alce rotundat(E,remigibus tertia, ąuarta et quintafere aqua- 
lihus et longissimis : cauda admodum longa et plerumque rotun- 
data: pi Uosis oUvacea, schistacea.fulva, brunnea : sex^us similes. 

1 . Saltator atriceps. 

Saltator atriceps. Less. Cent. Zool. pi. 69 ; Gray, Gen. p. 363 ; 
Bp. Consp. p. 489 ; Cab. M. H. p. 142. 

Arremon giganteus, Bp. P. L. Z. 1837, p. 1 1 7 ; Gray, Gen. p. 361 . 

Pyrrhula raptor, Cabot, Boston Jouru. v. p. 90. 

Saltator raptor, Gra/s Gen. App. p. 16 ; Bp. Notės s, 1. coli. 
Delattre, p. 23. 

Flavo-olivaceus : capite toto cum mento et vitta cervicem anticam 
cingente nigris : superciliis a fronte curtis et plaga gulari media 
albis : abdomine cinereo, crisso ochraceo-rufo. 

Long. totą 9'o, alse 4-7, caudae 4-7. 

Hab. South Mexico, Papantla (Deppe) ; vic. of Cordova (Salle) ; 
Guatimala (Bp.) ; Escuintla {Mus. Brit.) ; Yucatau (Cabot). 

Mus. Brit., Parisiensi, &c. 

This is the largest and finest species of the genus. Prince Bona- 
parte (Notės Orn. s. 1. coli. Delattre, p. 23) seems to consider Dr. 
Cabot's Pyrrhula raptor distinct, but Mr. Cassin, in his commu- 
nication on Dr. Cabot's birds given in ' Jardine's Coutributions,' 
1852, p. 96, States it to be identical with the present bird, and the 
description given by Prince Bonaparte is applicable in every respect 
to this species. 

2. Saltator magnoides. 

Saltator magnoides, Lafr. R. Z. 1844, p. 41 ; Gray, Gen. App. 
p. 10; Bp. Consp. p. 489. 

Saltator gigantodes, Cab. M. H. p. 143. 

Supra olivaceus ; capite cinereo, pileo viridi mixto : sultus schis- 
taceus, mento albo, gutture et crisso ferrugineis : vitta lata gut- 
turem undique cingente nigra. 

Long. totą 7"5, alae 4'0, caudse 3*6. 

Hab. Mexico {Lafr.) ; \\c. of Cordova {Sallė) ; Coban {Mus. 
Brit.) ; Chiricįui {Bridges). 

Mus. Brit. et Heineano. 

The S. magnoides is very hke the preceding species but inuch 
smaller in size, and with but slight supercilia. Besides, the chin is 



70 

white and the throat brown likę the crissum. I have seen the type 
of S.gigantodes in Herr Heine's museum, and considerit the šame as 
magtioides. 

3. SaLTATOR MAGNUS. 

Tangara des grands bois de Cayenne, Buff. PI. Enl. 205 (fig. pess.). 

Tanagra magna, Gm. S. N. p. 890; Lath. lud. Orn. i. p. 422; 
Max. Beitr. iii. 525. 

Le griverd de Cayenne, Buffl. PI. Enl. 616 (fig. pess.)? 

Coracias cayana, Bodd. Table d. PI. Enl. 

Coracias cayennensis, Gm. S. N. p. 381. 

Saltator virescens, VieilI. Nouv. Dict. xiv. 104, et Enc. Meth. 
p. 790? 

Saltator olivascens, Vieill. Nouv. Dict. xiv. 108 ; Enc. Meth. 
p. 794, et Gal. des Ois. p. 103, pi. 77 ; Tsch. F. P. p. 209. 

Saltator cayennensis, d'Orb. Voy. p. 290. 

Saltator magnus, Gray's Gen. p. 363 ; Bp. Consp. p. 489 ; Cab. 
Mus. Hein. p. 142. 

Supra Jlavescenti-oUvaceo-viridis, capith lateribus cinereis, super- 
ciliis ante oculos curtis albis : subtus fulvescenti-cinereus : gula 
media alba, zitringue nigro-marginata, cervice antica crissoque 
pallide rvfis : rastro nigro. 

Long. totą 8*0, alse 4*0, caudse 3*7. 

Hab. Cayenne {Poiteau in Mus. Paris.) ; British Guiana (Sckomb.) ; 
Bogota (Mus. Brit.); East Peru, wood-region (Tsch.); Pintobamba 
{Cast. et Dev.); Bolivia, Yuracares (d'Orb ); Brazil, Rio (P. Max.). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 

This Saltator seems very widely distributed orer the South Ame- 
rican contineut, and is in that respect different from the ręst of its 
congeners. It may be at once distinguished by its uniforra bright 
olive-green upper plumage (not of so yellowish a tint as in Saltator 
atriceps), and the brownish blotch on the foreneck : from S. mag- 
noides it diflfers in the want of the black throat-band. 

The Brazilian skins are of rather larger dimensions than the 
Cayenne birds, but do not otherwise differ. 

4. Saltator icteropygius. 

Saltator icteropyga. Dubus, Esq. Orn. pi. 13 ; Gray, Gen. App. 
p. 16. 

Supra saturate cinerascenti-fuscus : superciliis, mcnto et gutture 
albis : pectore et epigastrio fulvescenti-cinereis : ventre dilute 
fulvo : hypochondriis cinereo-fulvis : crisso citrina: remigibus 
fuscis, extus cinereo Umbatis: rectricibus supra Jiigris viridi-eeneo 
submicantibus cinereoque extus liinbatis: lateralibus quatuor utrin- 
que macula magna alba in medio pogonii interni notatis : rostro 
corneo : pedibus fuscescentibus, 

Hab. Mexico. 

The Vicomte Dubus has given the above dcscription of this curious 
Saltator, of which there is a specimen in his coUection. Prince 



71 

Bonaparte, iu his * Conspectus,' statės, on the authority of Barou de 
Lafresnaye, that it is merely the common S. magnus supplied with 
the tail of a Ptilogonys. But Dr. Hartlaub, who has lately inspected 
the bird, is quite convinced of its being a good and distinct species. 
(See Journ. f, Om. 1854, p. 255.) 

5. Saltator similis. 

Tanagra superciliaris, Max. Beitr. iii. 518? 

Saltator similis, Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. i. p. 36 ; d'Orb. Voy. 
p. 290, pi. 28, fig. 2 ; Gray, Gen. p. 363 ; Tsch. F. P. p. 209? ; 
Bp. Consp. p. 489 ; Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 143. 

Saltator gutturalis, Licht. in Mus. Berol. 

Supra cinereus ; interscapulio et alarum marginibus olivaceo-vi- 
ridibus : superciliis longis albis : subtus albido-cinerascens, me- 
dialiter fulvo tinctus : gutture toto pure albo, utringue nigro 
marginato : crisso rufescente : rostri inferioris basi alba. 

Long. teta 9*0, alse 4*0, caudse 4'0. 

Hab. South Brazil, Corrientes (d'Orb.) ; Peru, wood-region and 
coast (Tsch.). 

Mus. Paris., Brit. 

This bird is common among the collections of Brazilian skins so 
frequently imported of late years. Comparing it with 5. magnus, we 
find the olive colour, which there pervades the entire upper surface, 
confined in the present species to the middle of the back and edgings 
of the wings, the ręst of the upper plumage being cinereous. The 
throat too is pure vvhite, and wants the rufous blotch on the fore-neck. 

6. Saltator olivascens. 

Saltator olivascens, Cab. in Schomb. Reise, iii. 676 ; Bp, Consp. 
p. 490; Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 142. 

Saltator plumbeus, Bp. Notės Orn. p. 23. 

Fusco-cinereus unicolor; superciliis ante oculos curtis et gutture 
albis, hoc utringue nigro marginato : subtus albo-cinereus,pectore 
cinerascentiore ; ventre medio albescentiore, inferiore cum crisso 
pallide rufescenti-ockraceis : rostra nigro. 

Long. totą 8-0, alae 3"75, caudse 3'3. 

Hab. British Guiana (Schomb.) ; Cayenne (Mus. Paris.^ ; Vene- 
zuela, Cumana (Mus. Eytoni) ; S. Martha (Bp.) ; Trinidad (Lord 
Harris) . 

Mus. Bremensi ; Eytoni ; Berolin. ; Heineano. 

There is no trace of green colour on the plumage of this Saltator, 
the upper surface being uniform blackish-cinereous, as in Saltator 
grandis, to which it is very closely allied. But the latter bird may 
be distuiguished by the blacker sides of the head and ear-coverts, and 
the greater breadth of the stripes on each side of the throat, which 
leave only a narrow longitudinal white band in the middle of it. 
And in the Central American bird the ochraceous colour of the 
crissum extends all over the abdomcn more or less, vvhile in the 
present species the middle of the belly is nearly white. 



72 

I have Prince Bonaparte' s type of S. plumbeus in my possession, 
and eonsider it clearly the šame as T)r. Cabanis' species. 

7. Saltator grandis. 

Tanagra grandis, Licht. Preis-Verz. no. 67 (1831). 

Saltator rufiventris, Alg. BeecLey's Yoy. Pac. p. 19 ? 

Saltator vigorsi, Grav, Gen. p. 3C3?; Bp. Consp. p. 489 ; Cab. 
Mus. Hein. p. 143 ; Bp. Notės Orn. p. 23. 

Saltator icterophrys, Lafr. Rev. Zool. 1844, p. 40; Grav's Gen. 
App. p. 16 ; Bp. Cousp. p. 490 (juv. ?)?? 

Saltator grandis, Licht. in Mus. Berol. 

Saltator nigrigenis, Sclater, MS. 

Supra nigrescenti-cinereus, lateribus capitis nigris : svperciliis 
albis : gutturis stria mediali alba, utringue late nigro marginata : 
ahdomine cinereo fulvo tincto : ventre imo et crisso rufescentibus. 
Junior (S. icterophrys, Lafr.?). Supra olivaceo indutus, 
superciliis et campterio Jlavidis : ventre ru/escentiore. 

Loug. totą 7 '75, alse 4 'O, eaudse 4*0. 

Hab. South Mexico, Jalapa (Mus. Berol.) ; Orizaba (Boteri) ; 
vic. of Cordova (Sallė); Guatimala (Constancia). 

I have already stated the characters which distinguish this species 
from the preceding, which is its representative in the more northern 
portions of the South American continent, vvhUe S. azarce seems to 
take its place in Bolivia. 

I am glad to be able to adopt Lichtenstein's name for the present 
bird, because I can only very doubtfully refer the other synonyms to 
this species, and in this statė of uncertainty have occasionally applied 
to it the MS. name nigrigenis. But since I have seen the types of 
S. grandis at Berlin, and have ascertained that they are really the 
šame as my nigrigenis, I have adopted Lichtenstein's name, which 
was published, although with rather insufficient specific characters, 
in 1831. 

8. Saltator mutus. 

Tanagra superciliaris, Spix, Av. Bras. ii. 44, pi. 57? 

Saltator superciliaris, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 142, certe. 

Saltator cterulescens, Tsch. F. P. p. 209 ? (teste Cab.). 

Tanagra muta, Licht. in Mus. Berol. 

Supra nigricanti-cinereus unicolor ; subtus albescenti-cinereus : 
superciliis ante oculos curtis et gutture viedio albis, koc nigro 
marginato : ventre medio albescentiore, crisso pallide rufescente : 
rostro nigro. 

Long. totą 8"5, alae 4"3, caudse 4*0. 

Hab. North Brazil, Lower Amazon, island of Mexiana {Wallace). 

Mus. Berol. 

The description and figure given by SpLx of his S. superciliaris are 
as applicable to this species as any other ; but without examining the 
type (vvhich I vainly sought for the lašt time I was at Munich), it is 
impossible to be sure of beiiig right in using his name for the present 



73 

bird, and I have therefore adopted for it Lichtenstein's term mutus, 
by which it is known in the Berliu museum. In fact, the names 
superciliaris and carulescens have been applied to so many of tbis 
group of species, and the original descriptions upon wbich these 
terms ręst are so indefinite, tbat it only produces further confusion 
to continue to employ tbem. 

The Saltator mutus is rare in coUections. Besides the example at 
BerUn I have only seen the specimens coUected by Mr. "Wallace in 
the neigbbourhood of Para, from one of wbich my characters are 
taken. It is distinguished from all its aibes by the uniform blackish- 
gray colouring of the plumage, the šame below as above, only much 
Ughter and more white, witbout any tinge of green, brown or rufous, 
€xcept 011 the crissum. The snpercilia only extend to the top of 
the eye. The bill is deep black and more elongated than in its 
congeners. 

9. Saltator azar.e. 

Saltator azarte, d'Orb. Voy. p. 287 : Bp. Consp. p. 490. 

Supra nigricanti-cinereus, dorso virescente tincto : alis nigricantibus 
cinereo limbatis : superciliis curtis et gutture medio albis, koc 
anguste nigro marginato : abdomine summo albescente, cinereo et 
ochraceo tincto, imo autem cinnamomescenli-ochraceo. 

Long. totą 9'0, alae 4*3, candse 4*3. 

Hab. Bolivia, prov. Moxos and S. Cruz de la Sierra (d'Orb.). 

Mus. Brit., Paris. 

The closest ailies of tbis bird are certainly <S. grandis and oJi- 
vuscens, particularly the latter ; but it is larger than eitber of tbem. 
From S. olivascens it may be also known by its cinereous back, 
having ratber a greenish than a brownish tinge, and a deeper cin- 
namomeous colouring extending from the vent up to the middle of 
the belly, which in the S. olivascens is nearly wbite. From 
S, grandis it differs in its shorter bill and narrovv throat-stripes, be- 
sides its superior size. 

10. Saltator cerulescens. 

Habia ceja blanca, Azara, Pax. i. p. 344. 

Saltator ccerulescens, Vieill. Nouv. Dict. xiv. 105, et Enc. Meth. 
p. 791 ; Hartl. Ind. Az. p. 6 ; d'Orb. Voy. p. 287. 
"Saltator superciliaris, Spix," d'Orb. ib. 

Fusco-brunneus, virescente paululum tinctus, alis extus olivaceo 
marginatis : subtus cinerascenti-albus : gutture medio albo, utrin- 
que nigro marginato : ventre et crisso rufescente indutis, crisso 
saturatiore : superciliis a fronte ad nucham albis. 
Hab. Paraguay (Azara) ; Corrientes in rep. Arg. (d'Orb.). 
Mus. Parisiensi. 

I have only seen one specimen of tbis species, wbich is in the 
Paris Museum, and was brought by d'Orbigny from Corrientes. It 
is certainly very closely allied to the Bolivian 'azara.' But the bill 
is shorter and thicker, and there is a greenish colouring on the back 



74 

and wings, of which there are no traces in the other bird, though I 
have some doubt whetlier this may not be due to the individual not 
being fuUy adult. 

U. Saltator gularis. 

Loxia gularis, Less. Tr. d'Orn. i. p. 448. 

"Saltator ccerulescens, Vieill.," Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 142. 

Saltator superciliaris, Licht. in Mus. Berol. 

Saltator gularis, Lafr. in Mus. suo. 

Supra nigrescenti-plumbeus, superciliis longis a fronte ad imam 
cervicem albis : subtus fulvescens, gutture utringue nigro mar- 
ginate ; pectore et cervicis lateribus cinerascentibus : ventre medio 
alhescentiore : rostro brevissimo, crassissimo, nigro, apice uncinata : 
mandibula superiore juxta nares aurantia. 

Long. totą 8'5, alse 4-0, caudas 4'0. 

Hab. Mente Video (Cab.). 

12. Saltator maxillosus. 

Saltator maxillosus, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 142 (note). 

Similis S. gulari, sed rostro adhuc majore, subtus minus ferrugineus, 
et alis olivaceo perfusis : a S. muto autem gula non alba sed 
sordide flavescenti-grisea et crisso darius f errugineo , necnon rostro 
forti dignoscendus. (Cab. 1. c.) 

Hab. Monte Video {Cab.). 

Mus. Berol. 

I examined the type of this species when at Berlin, and was rather 
doubtful about its real distinctness from the preceding. I possess a 
specimen very much resembling it, as far as I can recollect and can 
gather from Cabanis' description. The bill of this exainple is not 
thicker than in one specimen of S. gularis, but is uniform black, and 
the back and wings are olive-green as in that in the Berlin INIuscum. 
But I think it is probable that this may be an immature stage of 
-S. gularis. 

13. Saltator rtjfiventris. 

Saltator rufiventris, Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. in Mag. de Zool. 
1837, p.35; d'Orb. Voy, p.289, pi. 28, fig. 1 ; Gray's Gen. p. 363 ; 
Bp. Consp. p. 489. 

Saturate plumbeus : superciliis elongatis albis : abdoinine castaneo. 

Long. totą 9'0, alse 4*4, caudse 4*0. 

Hab. Bolivia (d'Orb. et Bridges). 

Mus. Brit. et Paris. 

M. d'Orbigny found this species very common in the environs of 
Enquisivi, in the province of Sicasica, and near Palca, in the province 
of Ayupaya in Bolivia. Mr. Bridges' specimens in the British 
Museum are also from Bolivia. It is a well-marked bird, and not 
likely to be confounded with any of its congeners. 

14. Saltator aurantiirostris. 

Habia pico naranjado, Azara, Pax. i. p. 349. 



75 

Saltator aurantiorostris, Yieil\. N. D. d'H. N. xiv. p. 103, et Enc. 
Meth. p. 789; d'Orb. et Lafr. Syn. Av, in Mag. de Zool. 1837, 
p. 35 ; d'Orb. Voy. p. 288 ; Gray, Geii. p. 363 ; Bp. Consp. p. 490. 

Supra cinereus, pileo obscuriore : capitis lateribus, vitta subguttu- 
rali conjunctis, nigris : superciliis postice dilatatis et gutture 
albis : abdomine ochracescenti-albido : cauda nigra, rectricibus 
lateralibus albo terminatis : rostro aurantio. 

Long. totą 8*5, alse 4'0, caudse 3'75. 

Hab. Paraguay (Azara) ; Corrientes, La Plata (d'Orb.); Bolivia, 
Sicasica, Mizque, Valle-grande, Ayupaya, Cochabamba and La Paz 
{^d'Orb.) ; Peru, Echarate (Cast. et Dev.). 

Mus. ]3rit.. Paris. &c. 

This species, which may be always recognized by its bright orange 
bill, seems rather variable in some respects. There is a fine series 
of specimens of it in the Paris Museum, coUected by d'Orbigny and 
Castelnau and Deville. In what seem to be tbe fully adults, the 
front sides of the head, throat and breast, are all deep black, a 
post-superciliary stripe and middle of the throat only being white. 
Others, which I suppose are immature, have the white space on the 
throat much larger, the black guttural band being confined to a 
mere ring, which in some specimens is hardly apparent. 

15. Saltator albicollis. 

Saltator albicollis, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xiv. 107, et Enc. Me'th. 
p. 793 ; Gray, Gen. p. 363 ; Bp. Consp. p. 489. 

Fusco-olivaceus ; subtus albo-subvirescens fusco maculatus : super- 
ciliis gulague albidis. (Bp.) 

I have examined the type-specimen at Paris upon which Vieillot 
founded this species, and from which Prince Bonaparte took the 
short characters above given. It seems to be an immature bird, and 
T think the locality, Cayenne, is most likely wrong. I suspect it was 
probably from Trinidad, in which island there is a Saltator belonging 
to this section with the flammulated under-plumage. Of this I 
possess an example which may be described as follows : — 

" Above greenish-olive ; head darker, uropygium more cinereous ; 
small yellowish supefcilia before the eye ; wings bordered with bright 
olive-green ; tail brown likę the wing-feathers inside, rectrices edged 
basally with cinereous ; under-surface white, regularly flammulated 
with olive-green, middle of the throat and belly nearly all white, 
just the shafts of the feathers only being olive ; under wing-coverts 
white; bill black, with the apex yellow. Whole length 7*5 ; wing 3'5, 
tail 3-3." 

There is a peculiar twist in the commissure in this bird which 
seems to agree with what Vieillot says of his S. albicollis ; and I 
think it very probable that it is this Trinidad species that ought to 
bear that name. 

But until an accurate comparison can be made between a series of 
individuals of each of the five members of this section of the genus, 
I think it almost hopeless to determine the species satisfactorily. 



76 

16. Saltator striatipectus. 

Saltator striatipectus, Lafr. R. Z. 1847, p. 73; Gray, Gen. App. 
p. 16; Bp. Consp. p. 489. 

Supra olhaceus : uropyrjio caudaąne cinereis : linea a naribus ad 
oculos, palpebrisgue pnlUde sulphureis : subtus albus, pectore 
parum ochraceo tincto et striis fusco-olivaceis flammulato : gula, 
ventre et ano albis : gutturis albedine lateralitcr vitta fusca mar- 
ginata : rostro nigro-corneo , apice pallescente . 

Long. totą 7"4. 

Hab. Caly in New Grenada {Lafr.). 

Mus. Lafresnayano. 

17. Saltator maculipectus. 

Saltator maculipectus, Lafr. R. Z. 1847, p. 73; Gray, Gen. App. 
p. 16; Bp. Consp. p. 489. 

Suprafusco-griseus, dorso supremo parum olivaceo tincto : remigibus 
fuscis olivaceo marginatis : macula ante oculos, palpebrisgue vix 
conspicue albescentibus : subtus albus ; colio antico pectoregue 
maculis sordide griseis, qu<B supra ventrem et hypochondria in 
strias angustas mutantur, variegatis. 
Long. totą G"8. 
Hab. New Grenada {Lafr.). 
Mus. Lafresnayano. 

M. de Lafresnaye says of this species, that it differs from the pre- 
ceding by its smaller size, grey and not olive tinge on the head and 
neck, belly white and not washed with olive, and beak shorter and 
yellow at the point. 

18. Saltator GUADALUPENSIS. 

Saltator guadalupensis, Lafr. R. Z. 1844, p. 1G7; Gray, Gen. App. 
p. 16; Bp. Consp. p. 489. 

Supra olivaceus ; uropygio caudaųue sordide griseis ; vitta super- 
ciliari angusta a naribus ad occiput ducta albido-viresccnte : subtus 
griseo-rufescens ; hypochondriis griseo-obscurioribus ; ano pallide 
rufescente ; pectore et ventre fammulis obscurioribus parum con- 
spicuis variegatis : gutture colloąue antico albis, utringue vitta 
nigra marginatis : rostro basali et medio brunneo-nigris, apicali 
albido-jlavo . 

Long. totą 7' 9. 

Hab. Islaud of Guadaloupe (/žicorrf). 

Mus. Parisiensi. 

" 19. Saltator martinicensis. 
Saltator martinicensis, Bp. Consp. p. 489. 
Similis S. guadalupensi, sed rostro minus robusto (!). (Bj).) 
Hab. Island of Martinique. 
Mus. Parisiensi. 
There are six specimens of this Saltator from the island of Mar- 



17 

tiniaue in the museum of the Jardin des Plantes, presented by 
M. Alexander Rousseau in April 1842. I camiot see any specific 
difference between them and the Guadaloupe bird. 

20. Saltator orenocensis. 

Saltator orenocensis, Lafr. R. Z. 1846, p. 275 ; Gray, Gen. App. 
p. 16 ; Bp. Consp. p. 490 ; Cab. M. H. p. 143. 
Saltator genalis, Licht. in Mus. Berol. 

Supra griseo-plumbeus ; alis caudaųue nigris, remigibus primariis 
strictissime secondariis et tertiariis late cinereo terminatis : tec- 
tricibus omnibus ejusdem coloris : rectricihus supra basi et extus 
griseo quasi vittatis. infra grisescentibus : vitta lata superciliari, 
gutture, colio antico, macidaque parva ad mandibula basin niveis: 
genis cum capitis, colli et pectoris lateribus atris : subtus pallide 
ochraceus, hypochondriis et subcaudalibus ferrugineis : rostro 
nigroaut nigro-plumbeo: pedibus fuscis . 
Long. totą 6*8. 

Hab. Venezuela, Angostura {Mus. Bremensi) ; Trinidad {Mus. 
H. E. S.). • 

Mus. Berolinensi, Heineano. 

21. Saltator ATRicoLLis. 

Habia gola negrą, Azara, Pax. i. p. 348. 

Saltator atricollis, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xiv. 104, et Enc. Meth. 
p. 790 ; Less. Descr. d. Mamm. et Ois. p. 344 ; d'Orb.Voy. p. 288; 
Gray's Gen. ii. p. 363 ; Bp. Consp. p. 490. 

Tanagra atricollis, Spix, Av. Bras. ii. p. 43, pi. 56, fig. 2. 

Habia robustona, Azara, Pax. i. p. 350. 

Saltator validus, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xiv. 106 ; Lafr. et d'Orb, 
Syn. Av. in Mag. de Zool. 1837, p. 35. 
' Tanagra jugularis, Licht. Doubl. p. 31. 

Fringillajugularis, Max. Beitr. p. 558. 

" Loxia capsicum, Vai.," Less. Tr. d'Orn. i. 448. 

Saltator sordidus, Less. Echo d. M. S. 1845, p. 295. 

Fusco-rufescens : alis caudaque et pilei pennis subtus nigricantibus : 
capite laterali et gutture toto nigris : abdomine albo-rufescente, 
ventre saturatiore : rostro aurantio, culmine nigro. 

Long. totą 8-0, alse 3*75, caudse 3*75. 

Hab. Eastern Brazil, prov. Minas Geraes {Spix) ; San Paolo 
{Licht.) ; Rio; Bolivia, Chiąuitos {d'Orb.) ; Paraguay {Azara). 

Mus. Brit., Berol., Paris. &c. 

Genus V. Psittospiza. 

Psittospiza, Bp. Compt. Rend. xxxi. p. 424 (1850). 

Chlorornis, Reichb. Av. S. N. pi. 77 (1850). 

Rostrum rectiusculum, elongatum, culmiiie incurvo, gonyde ascen- 
dente,dente finali distinctissimo . alce elongattc, remigibus secunda, 
tertitt et guarta longissimis: cauda quadrata: ptilosis nitide viridis. 



78 



1 . PSITTOSPIZA RIEFFERI. 



Tanagra riefferi, Boiss. R. Z. 1840, p. 4. 

Saltator riefferi, Gray, Gen. p. 363, pi. 89 ; Tsch. F. P. p. 210. 

Tanagra prašina, Less. Echo d. M. S. 1843, p. 947. 

P sittospiza prašina, Bp. Consp. p. 492. 

Chlorornis prašina, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 141. 

Saltator elegans, Tsch. "VViegm. Archiv, 1844, p. 288. 

Latissime viridis, lateribus capitis et gula summa cum ventre inio 
castaneis : rostro aurantio : pedibus Jlavis. 

Long. totą 7*2, alse 4 ".5, caudse 3' 5. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota ; Ecuador, forests of the Andes near 
Quito (Jameson) ; wood-region of East Peru {Tsch.). 

Mus. Brit., Paris, &c. 

Genus VI. Lamprospiza. 

Lamprospiza, Cab. "VViegm. Arch. 1847, p. 246. 
Rostrum Saltatoris, sed debilius : alcB elongata, remigibus quatuor 
primisfere <Equalibus : cauda modica, quadrata. 

1. Lamprospiza MELANOLEUCA. 

Saltator melanoleucus, Vieill. Nouv. Dict. xiv. 105, et Eac. Meth. 
p. 791. 

Divaricated Tanager, Lath. G. H. vi. p. 40. 

Tanagra duplicata, Lath. in Mus. Derb. 

Psaris kabia, Less. Cent. Zool. p. 186, pi. 59. 

Tityra kabia, Gray, Gen. p. 253. 

Lamprospiza kabia, Cab. Wiegm. Arch. 1847, p. 246 ; Bp. Consp. 
p. 492. 

Tangara double croissant, Less. Tr. d'Orn. p. 379. 

Lamprospiza melanoleuca, Sclater, Tan. Cat. Sp. p. 4. 

Supra aneo-niger ; subtus albus ; gutture toto et vitta utringue 
a medio pectore ad latera transeunte cum tibiis et cauda totą 
nigris, dorso concoloribus : rostro rubro. ? dorso toto pallide 
cinereo. 

Long. totą 6'0, alae 3*6, caudse 2*5. 

Hab. Cayenne. 

Mus. Brit., Paris., Derbiano. 

Genus VII. Cissopis. 

Cissopis, Vieill. Analyse, p. 40 (1816). 

Bethylus, Cuv. Regn. An. (1817). 

Rostrum altum, compressiusculum ; culmine multum incurvo ; dente 
finali indistincto : alcB modicte, remigibus tertia, ąuarta et guinta 
longissimis : cauda longissima et multum rotundata, rectricibus 
gradatim crescentibus : ptilosis albo-nigra : sewus similes. 

1. Cissopis leveriana. 

Magpie Skrikc, Lath. Gen, Syn. i. p. 192. 



79 

Lunius leverianus, Gm. S. N. i. p. 302. 

Lanius picatus, Lath. Ind. Orn. i. p. 73. 

Corvus leverianus, Shaw, Mus. Lever. p. 241. 

Le pie piegrieche, Le Vail. Ois. d'Afr. ii. p. 33. pi. 60. 

Corvus collurio, Daud. Orn. ii. p. 246. 

Cissopis leverianus, Gray, Gen. p. 362. 

Bethylus leverianus, Bp. Consp. p. 491. 

Albus, capite toto undique cum colio ad medium dorsum triangu~ 
lariter descendente et pectore simili modo triangulariter termi- 
nante splendenti-violaceo-nigris : alis caudague nigris : tectricibus 
alarum minoribus albis, majoribus autem et secondariis albo extus 
limbatis ; rectricibus omnibus albo termįnatis : rostro et pedibus 
nigris. 

Long. totą 10"5, alse 4*3, caudse 6"0. 

Hab. South East Brazil. 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 

2. Cissopis media. 

Cissopis bicolor, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xxvi. 417, et Enc. Meth. 
p. 750 (partini) ; Vieill. Gal. Ois. p. 226. pi. 140 ? 
Cissopis minor, Cab. Schomb. Reis. iii. 677. 
Bethylus medius, Bp. Consp. p. 491. 
Cissopis media, Sclater, Tan. Cat. Sp. p. 5. 

Medius : dorso dimidiato albo : rostro crasso incurvo. (Bp.) 

Hah. British Guiana (Schomb.). 

Mus. Paris. 

The Guiana Cissopis is rather smaller than the common Brazilian 
species, and the steel-black colour does not exteud so far down the 
back. The Paris Museum specimen of this bird seems to want the 
vvhite wing-spots. I am not confident as to the correctness of sepa- 
rating this and the Brazilian bird. 

3. Cissopis minor. 

Saltator bicolor, Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. in Mag. de Zool. 1837, 
p. 36? 

Bethylus picatus, d'Orb. Voy. p. 269 ? ; Tsch. Wiegm. Archiv, 
1844, p. 288. 

Cissopis minor, Tsch. Faun. Per., p. 21 1. 

Minor : dorso omnino albo : rostro minus valido, brevi, rectius- 
culo. 

Long. totą 9 '5, alse 4*2, caudse 5*2. 

Hab. Bolivia, Yuracares (d'Orb.) ; Eastern wood-region of Peru 
(Tsch.) ; New Grenada, Bogota. 

Mus. Brit., Paris. 

The Bogota Cissopis seems distinct from the Brazilian, having 
merely the upper neck steel-black, and the back all white. I am 
not quite certain vvhether d'Orbigny's Bolivian examples are best 
referable here. They seem to comc pretty uear the Caycnne bird. 



80 

Genus VIII. Oreothraupis. 

Rostrum validum, tomiis mandibulce superioris medio turgidis et 
mandibulam inferiorem tegentibus, sicut in genere Lanioue, sed 
brevius, altius, latius et medio minus uncinatum : alee breves, ro- 
tundatce : cauda sicut in genere Arremone. 

1. Oreothraupis ARREMONOPS. 

Saltator arremonops, Jard. Ediiib. N. Phil. Journ. 1855, ii. p. 1 19; 
Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 84. pi. xcii. 

Rtifo-brunneus, olivaceo parum tinctus ; pectore muito clariore et 
rubescentiore : capite toto mentogue nigris ; vitta mediali verticis 
et superciliari utrinąue postice elongalis cum medio ventre cine- 
reis : alis intus et cauda nigricantibus : rostro et pedibus nigris. 

Long. totą 7'25, alse 3'2, caudae 3*5. 

Hab. Andes in the vicinity of Quito (Jameson). 

Mus. Gul. Jardine, Baronetti. 

This peculiar Tauager in style of plumage and general habit cor- 
responds mest closely with the members of the genus Arremon, but 
the bill is altogether abnormal, the upper mandible swelling in the 
middle and overlapping the under, as in the genus Lanio, thougk 
not developed into a decided hook : but it is much shorter, broader 
and deeper than in the last-named genus, and has more general re- 
semblance to that of some of the Saltatores. 

Genus IX. Arremon. 

Arremon, Vieill. Analyse (181 G), p. 32. 

Rostrum rectum, altum, breve, conicum, apice vix dentata : al<B 

breves, remigibus guarta, ųuinta et sexta longissimis : cauda 

breviuscula, rotundata. 

1. Arremon silens. 

Le Tangara de la Guyane, Buff. PI. Enl. 742. 
Tanagra silens, Bodd. Table de PI. Enl. ; Lath. Ind. Orn. p. 432; 
Max. Beit. iii. 507. 

Arremon torguatus, Ene. Mėth. p. 794, et Vieill. Gal. Ois. p. 105. 
pi. 78. 

Arremon silens, Gray, Gen. p. 361 ; Bp. Consp. p. 487. 
L'oiseau silentieux, Desm. Tan. t. 38, 39, 40. 
Silent Tanager, Lath. G. H. vi. p. 22. 

OUvaceus ; capite et vitta pectorali nigris : tcenia verticali cinerea : 
superciliis a fronte ad nucham, cum gutture albis : abdomine 
albido, lateribus cinerascentibus : campterio flavo : rostro nigro. 
$ Supra mari similis : subtus fulvo tincta nec cinerascens : torque 
gutturali vix apparente. 
Long. totą 50, alse 28, caudse 2*4. 

Hab. Cayenne ; North Brazil, Capin river {JVallace) ; South East 
Brazil (P. Max.). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 



81 

The Brazilian specimens of this bird are slightly larger in size 
tban those from Cayenne, and of rather a more yellowish green on 
the back. This species may be distiriguished from all its nearest 
allies by its black bill. 

2. Arremon d'orbignii, sp. nov. 

Embernagra silens, Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. in Mag. de Zool. 1837, 
p. 34 (partim). 

Arremon silens, d'Orb. Voy. p. 281 (^partim). 

Supra olivascens : tania verticali cinerea : superciliis a fronte in- 
cipientibus cum corpore subtus albis ; koc nigro torquato : rastro 
flavo ; mandibulce superioris parte culminali nigra, 

Hab. Bolivia, pro v. Yungas (d'Orb.). 

Mus. Parisiensi. 

This Bolivian species comes nearest to A . flavirostris, but there is 
more black on the upper mandible, and the superciliary stripes begin 
from the front, as in ^. silens. 

3. Arremon flavirostris. 

Tordo de bosque torgūato, Azara, i. p. 331 ? 

Arremon silens, Hartl. Ind. Az. p. 5 ? 

Arremon flavirostris, Sw. An. in Men. p. 34/ ; Gray, Gen. p. 361 ; 
Bp. Consp. p. 487. 

Supra olivascens : tania verticali cinerea : superciliis ab oculo in- 
cipientibus et corpore subtus albis ; hoc nigro torguato : lateribus 
cinerascentibus : rostro flavo : ipso culmine tantum nigro. 

Hab. Brazil, Cameta {Mus. BeroL). 

Mus. Berol., Derbiano. 

4. Arremon devillii, sp. nov. 

Arremon devillii, Bp. in Mus. Paris. 

A. schistaceus, olivaceo paululum tinctus : tania verticali dorso con- 
colore : superciliis ab oculo incipientibus et corpore subtus albis, 
hoc nigro torguato : tectricibus alarum superioribus olirJaceis : 
rostro superiore nigro, inferiore flavo. 
Long. totą 6'0, alse 2-2, caudse 2'1. 
Hab. prov. Goyaz in Brazil (Cast. et Dev.). 
Mus. Parisiensi. 

This bird is intermediate hetween A. flavirostris and A. polionotus. 
Unlike the latter, it has the whole upper mandible black and the 
back tinged with olive, and is besides of smaller size, and possesses 
a vertical band. From the former it appears distinguishable by its 
differently coloured bill and less olivaceous back. 

5. Arremon polionotus. 

Arremon polionotus, Bp. Consp. p. 488 

Supra plumbeus : capite et torgue angusta pectorali nigris : super- 
ciliis postocularibus et corpore subtus albis ; lateribus cinerascen- 

No. CCCVI. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



82 

tibus : tectricibus alarum oUvaceis, ipsa flexura flava : rastro 

albo, mandibulcE superioris culmine nigro. 
Long. totą 6*0, alse 29, caudse 2' 7. 

Hab. Corrientes, La Plata {Bp.) ; Brazil, Cuyaba (Natt.). 
Mus. Paris, et Vindob. 

This species may be distinguished from the A. silens by its cine- 
reous back, narrower throat-band and differently coloured bill. 

6. Arremon abeillii. 

Arremon abeillei, Less. R. Z. 1844, p. 435 ; Gray, Gen. App. 
p. 16. 

Schistaceus ; capite toto et torque gutturali nigris : superciliis et 
corpore subtus albis : rostra nigro ; pedibus luteis. 

Hab. Guyaquil (Less.). 

Mus. Baronis de Lafresnaye et Princ. Gar. Bonaparte. 

I have seen specimens of this species in the collections of the 
Baron de la Fresnaye and Prince Charles Bonaparte. It appears 
very likę the preceding, but has the bill black. 

7. Arremon sEMiTORauATUs. 

Arremon semitorguatus, Sw. An. in Men. p. 257 ; Gray, Gen. 
p. 361; Bp. Consp. p. 488. 

Supra olivaceus : capite et plaga utringue cervicali (guasi semi- 
targuem formante) nigris : vitta mediali verlicis et cervice postica 
cum lateribus corporis et crissa cinereis : superciliis elangatis, 
gutture et abdomine medio albis : tectricibus alarum dorso conco- 
loribus : mandibula superiore nigra, inferiore flava. 

Long. totą 6*0, alse 2*9, caudae 2*9. 

Hab. South Brazil. 

Mus. Brit., &c. 

8. Arremon axillaris. 

Arremon axillaris, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 97, etTan. Cat. Sp. 
p. 15. 

Supra olivaceo-viridis ; capite atro ; superciliis productis albis ; 
vitta verticali et cervice postica cinereis : subtus niveus, lateribus 
cinerascentibus ; plaga utringue cervicali (viltam guasi imper- 
fectam formante) mentoųue summa atris ; remigibus rectricibusgue 
nigricantibus : tectricibus alarum majoribus flavo-olivaceis.mino- 
ribus et campterio late flavis : mandibula superiore nigra, in- 
feriore flava : pedibus clare brunneis. 
Long. totą 3'8, alse 22, caudse 1*4. 
Hab. New Grenadian Andes, Bogota. 
Mus. Brit. et Paris. 

This species very much re?>em\Ats A.semitorquatus,h\ii has the 
bend of the wing bright yellow, instead of olive-green. I have only 
seen it in collections from Bogota. 

9. Arremon spectabilis. 

Arremon spectabilis, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 114. pi. 67. 



83 

Suprn aurescenti-olivaceus ; capite nigro, vitta verticuli cinerea : 
superciliis albis : axillis latissime croceis : subtus albus ; mento 
summo et torque gutturali nigris, lateribus cinerascentibus : rostro 
flavo. 
Long. totą 5-8, alte 2-8, caudse 2-5. 
Hab. Province of Quixos in Cisandean Ecuador. 
Mus. Britannico ; Gul. Jardine. 

This beautiful species is from the Upper Rio Napo, where it tra- 
verses the province of Quixos on the eastern slope of the great 
Andeaii range. Specimens in Sir William Jardine's coUection are 
labelled as liaving been prepared by M. Villavicencio, a Spanish 
naturaUst resident in that locahty. 

10. Arremon erythrorhynchus. 

Arremon erythrorhynchus, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 83. pi. 89. 
Olivaceus ; capite nigro; vitta mediali verticis, nucha cervicisgue 
lateribus cinereis : superciliis et corpore subtus albis : iorque gut- 
turali angusta nigra : lateribus cinerascentibus : campterio flavo : 
pedibus albis : rostro elongatiore, incurviore, rubro. 
Long. totą 5*8, alse 3-0, caudae 2-7. 
Hab. New Grenadian Andes, Bogota. 
Mus. Brit. 

This Arremon, of which I have only yet seen one example — a 
Bogota skin, forraerly in Mr. Gould's coUection — may be distinguished 
froni the preceding species by its more lengthened, incurved and 
brilliant orange-red bill, and the yellow bend of the wing. 

11. Arremon aurantiirostris. 

Arremon aurantiirostris, Lafr. R. Z. 1847, p. 72 ; Des Murs, Icon. 
Orn. pi. 55 ; Gray, Gen. App. p. 16 ; Bp. Consp. p. 488. 

Brunnescenti-olivaceus ; capite et vitta lata pectorali nigris : vitta 
mediali verticis dorso concolore : superciliis elongatis cum gutture 
toto et ventre medio albis : campterio flavo : rostro albescenti-au- 
rantio. 

Long. totą 65, alse 2-9, caudse 2-5. 

Hab. Isthmus of Panama (Delattre). 

Mus. Brit. ; Derbiano ; Acad. Philadelph, 

This bird may be distinguished from its congeners by the broad- 
nesa of the pectoral band, and its large wholly yellow bill. 

12. Arremon schlegeli. 

Arremon schlegeli, Lafr. M. S. ; Bp. Consp. p. 488 . 

Supra cinereus, dorso et tectricibus alarum superioribus flavescenti- 
olivascentibus .- capite toto et plaga utrincue gutturali (quasi 
semitorquem formante) nigris: carpo flavo : subtus albus, latera- 
liter cinerascens: rostro flavo, culmine vix nigro. 

Long. totą 5-7, alae 2-8, caudse 2-3. 

Hab. Littoral of New Grenada, S. Martha {Verreaux) ; Cartagena 
and Caraccas (Mus. Paris). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., Lugdunensi. 



84 

This fine Arremon is at once recognizable by its black head, which 
is witbout the usual supercilia or medial band. 

Genus X. Ph(enicophilxjs. 

PhcEnicophilus, Strickl. Cont. Om. 1851, p. 104. 

Rostrum Buarremonis, sed elongatius ■ ala elongata, remigibus tertia, 

quarta et quinta longissimis : cauda breviuscula, quadrata, rectri- 

cibus inter se <Equalibus. 

1. Pn(ENICOPHILUS PALMARUM. 

Le palmiste, Briss. Om. ii. p. 301. ( ? •) 

Le palmiste ii t^te noire, Briss. Orn. ii. p. 303. (<?)• 

Turdus palmarum, Linn. S. N, i. 295 ; Vieill. Ois. de l'Am. Me'r. 
ii. p. 16. pi. 69 <? /O ?. 

Le palmiste de Cayenne, Buff. PI. Enl. 539. fig. 1. 

Tachyphonus palmarum, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xxxii. 359, et Enc. 
Meth. p. 803. 

Arremon palmarum, Gray, Gen. Suppl. p. 16. 

P hcenicophilus palmarum, Strickl. Cont. Orn. 1851, p. 104. 

Dulus palmarum, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 7^, et Note s. 1. Tang. p. 29. 

Dulus poliocephalus, Bp. R. et M. de Zool. 1851, p. 7S, et Note 
s. 1. Tang. p. 29. ( ? .) 

Phcenicophilus poliocephalus, Strickl. Cont. Orn. 1851, p. 104 ( $ ). 

<? Jlavescenti-olivaceus : cervice postica et corpore subtvs cinereis : 
gutture toto et abdomine medio albis : pilco nigerrimo ; maculin 
utrinque, alia in fronte, alia supra oculinn et alia sub oculo, 7iiveis : 
rostra nigro. į . pileo plumbeo ; gutture fere omnino cinereo. 

Long. totą /•5, alse 3' 7, caudae 3'0. 

Hab. Island of S. Domingo. 

Mus. Brit., Paris. 

Genus XI. Buarremon. 

Buarremon, Bp. Consp. p. 483. 

Chrysopoga, Bp. Consp. p. 480. 

Pipilopsis, Bp. Consp. p. 485. 

Rostrum rectum, plūs minusve elongatum, coniatm ; apice vix dejitata • 
a/<E longiores, remigibus quarta, quinta et sexta longissimis : cauda 
elongata et multum rotundata : ptilosis olivascens : sesus similes. 

a. Buarremon. 

1 . Buarremon TORauATUS. 

Embernagra torquata, Lafr. et d'Orb. Svn. Av. in Mag. de Zool. 
1837, p. 34. 
Arremon affinis, d'Orb. Voy. p. 282. 
Buarremon torquata, Bp. Consp. p. 483. 

Clare olivascens: capite nigro, tcenia verticali et cervicis lateribus 
cinereis : superciliis ab oculo incipientibus et corpore subtus albis : 



85 

pectore nigro torguato : lateribus et crisso viridescenti-olivaceis ; 

cauda cinerea,viridescenti-olivaceo limhata: rostro nigro : pedihus 

clare brunneis, 
Long. totą 70, alse 3'1, caudse 2'9. 
Hab. Bolivia, prov. Yungas (d'Orb.). 
Mus. Parisiensi. 

This bird is very likę the B. assimilis so cotnmon in Bogota col- 
lections, but distinguishable by its black collar and white supercilia. 

2. BUARREMON PH^EOPLEURUS, Sp. nOV. 

Clare olivascens : capite nigro, tania verticali et lateribus cervicis 
cinereis : superciliis a fronte incipientibus et corpore subtus albis .- 
hoc nigro torguato : ventris lateribus et crisso brunnescentibus : 
cauda brunnea, olivaceo tincta : rostro nigro : pedibus clare brun- 
neis. 
Long. totą 7'2, alse 3'2, caudse 2'8. 
Hab. Venezuela, Caraccas (Levraud). 
Mus. Paris. 

I have had a specimen of this bird in my possession for some 
time, but only lately discovered its distinctness from the preceding 
species, on comparing them together at the Jardin des Plantes. The 
Venezuelan form may be distinguished by the brown colour on the 
flanks and crissum, the browuish olive tail, and the commencement 
of the supercilia frora the front. The examples of this Buarremon 
at Paris were sent to the Museum from Caraccas by M. Levraud. 

3. Buarremon assimilis. 

Tanagra assimilis, Boiss. Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 67. 

Arremon assimilis, Gray, Gen. p. 361. 

Buarremon assimilis, Bp. Consp. p. 484. 

Olivaceus ; pileo nigro : capitis viltis tribus cum cervice postica et 
laterali cinereis : subtus albus, lateribus et ventre ima crissogue 
cinerasce7iti-olivaceis : rostro nigro : pedibus brunneis. 

Long. totą 7'0, alae 3'3, caudse 3'3. 

Hab. Bogota ; Western declivity of Andes near Quito (Jameson) . 

Mus. Paris., Brit. 

4. Buarremon virenticeps. 

Fringilla ąuadrivittata, Licht. in Mus. Berol. 

Buarremon virenticeps. Bp. Compt. Rend. Oct. 22, 1855. 

Similis Buarremoni assimili sed capitis striis et cervice totą olivas- 

centibus, dorso concoloribus : rostro nigro : subtus magis cine- 

reus. 
Hab. Mexico. 
Mus. Berol. 

5. Buarremon brunneinuchus. 

Embernagra brunneinucha, Lafr. R. Z. 1839, p. 97; Boiss. R. Z. 
1840, p. 68 ; Gray, Gen. p. 361. 



86 

Arremon frontalis, Tsch. Wiegm. Arch. 1844, p. 239 et F. P. 
p. 213. 

Buarremon brunneinucha, Bp. Consp. p. 484. • 
Buarremon xanthogenys, Cab. Mus. Hein. p, 141. 

Olivaceus: alis caudaque brunnescentioribus : pileo postico et nucha 
castaneis, striga utrinąue cinnamomea : fronte et lateribus capitis 
nigris, illa albo trimaculata : subtus albus, nigro torguatus : 
lateribus et ventre imo cinereis, olivaceo indutis : rostro nigro, 
Long. totą 70, alse 3-2, caudse 3*2. 

Hab. Mexico (La/r.) ; Guatimala ; Bogota ; East Peru (Tsch.) ; 
Venezuela, Caraccas. 
Mus. Brit., Paris. 

I have seen the type of B. xanthogenys m Herr Heine's beautiful 
collection of birds at Halberstadt. I think it is only an accidental 
variety of the B. brunneinuchus, because other examples from the 
šame locality — Caraccas — seem perfectly identical with Nevv Gre- 
nadian specimeas. 

b. Chrysopoga. 

6. Buarremon chrysopogon. 

Zonotrichia 1 aureigula, Bp. M. S. 
Atlapetes chrysojmgon, Bp. in Mus. Paris. 
Chrysopoga typica, Bp. Consp. p. 480. 

Brunnescenti-griseus, subtus dilutior, ventre medio cinereo-albescen- 
tiore : capite nigro, vittamedialialba: gutture Jlavo : rostro nigro, 
pedibus brunneis. 
Hab. California ? 
M%is. Parisiensi. 

This bird, of which I have only seen the specimen in the Paris 
Museum, resembles the better known C. albinuchus, but has only the 
throat, and not the whole under-surface, yellow. 

7. Buarremon albinuchus. 

Einhernagra albinucha, d'Orb. et Lafr. R. Z. 1838, p. 165; Gray, 
Gen. p. 361. 

Buarremon albinucha, Bp. Consp. p. 484. 

Atlapetes albinucha, Cab. M. H. p. 140. 

Embernagra mexicana, Less. R. Z. 1849, p. 42 ? 

Supra cinerascenti-olivaceus ; capite nigro, vitta mediali alba: subtus 

flava, lateribus et crisso olivascentibus : rostro nigro. 
Long. totą 6'5, alse 3"0, caudse 3"2. 
Hab. Cartagena {CandA). 
Mus. Paris. 

8. Buarremon gutturalis. 

Arremon gutturalis, Lafr. R. Z. 1842, p. 9"; Gray, Gen. p. 361. 
Buarremon gutturalis, Bp. Consp. p. 484. 



87 

Olivascenti-fuscus : capite nigro, vitta mediali ftavescenti-alba : sub- 

tus grisescenti-alha, gutture flavo : rostro nigro. 
Long. totą 6-5, alse 31, caudse 3-4. 
Hab. New Grenada, Bogota. 
Mus. Lafresnayano. 

c. Carenochrous. 

9. BUARREMON LATINUCHUS. 

Arremon rufinucha, Tsch. Consp. Av. in Wiegin. Arch. 1844, 
p.289; Tsch. F.P. p.212? .. 

Buarremon latinuchus. Du Bus, Bull. Ac. Brux. xxu. p. 1 54. 
Schistaceus : pileo toto et cervice postica castaneis : lateribus capitis 

nigris : subtus flavus, lateribus et crisso cinerascentibus. 
Long. totą 6-5, alae 3-1, caudse 3-3. 

Hab. Vicinity of Quito (Jameson) ; Eastera wood-region ot l'eru 
{Tsch.). 
Mus. Jard. 

M. DuBus considers this bird, which has been generally con- 
sidered as the šame as the Bolivian rufinuchus, distmct from that 
species. The principai difFerence apparent from d'Orbigny s figure 
seems to be tbe want of the lateral gular stripes, but I have seen 
indications of these in some Quitian specimens. 
10. Buarremon rufinuchus. 

Embernagra rufinucha, Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. in Mag. de Zool. 
1839, p. 35 ; Arremon rufinucha, d'Orb. Voy. p. 283. pl.27. fig- 2 ; 
Gray, Gan. p.361 ; Buarremon rufinucha, Bp. Consp. p.484 {partim). 
Supra nigra; subtus flava, lateribus et crisso olivascentibus : macula 
ante oculos sulfurascente : pileo et nucha cinnomomeo-rufis : 
lateribus capitis et vitta angusta utrinque ad latera gutturis nigris: 
rostro nigro. 
Long. totą 6-3, alse 3-0, caudae 3-0 (d'Orb.). 
Hab. Boli\da, {d'Orb. et Bridges). 
Mus. Brit., Parisiensi. 
U. Buarremon leucopterus. 

Arremon leucopterus, Jard. Edinb. N. Phil. Journ. n. s. iii. p. 92. 
Buarremon leucopterus, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 214, pi. 109. 
Schistacescenti-niger, alis caudague obscurioribus : capitis lateribus 
nigris : pileo ochraceo-rufo : macula utringue ante-oculari et spe- 
culo alari cum corpore toto subtus albis, lateribus in cinereurn 
trahentibus : tectricibus alarum inferioribus albis : rostro pedi- 
busque nigris. 
Long. totą 6-2, alse 2-8, caudae 2'7- 
Hab. Western slope of the Andes near Quito {Jameson). 
Mus. Gul. Jardine, Baronetti. 
12. Buarremon pallidinuchus. 

Arremon pallidinucha.Boiss. R. Z. 1840, p. 69; Gray, Gen. p. 361; 
Bp. Consp. p. 484 ; Less. Descr. d. Mamm. et Ois. p. 351. 
Buarremon pallidinucha, Bp. Consp. p.484. 



Atlapetes pallidinucha, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 140. 

Olivascenti-fuscus, alis caudaque nigricantibus : cap'Ue nigro : vilta 
lata a fronte ad nucham anlice latiore cinnamomea, postice an- 
gustiure alhescente : subtus flavus, lateribus et crisso olivascen- 
tibus. 

Long. 6"3, alae 3*2, caudse 3"1. 

Hab. Bogota. 

Mus. Brit. 

13. BUARREMON ALBIFRENATUS. 

Arremon albifrenatus, Boiss. R. Z. 1840, p. 68 ; Gray, Gen. p. 361. 
Buarremon albifrenatus, Bp. Cousp. p. 484. 

Arremon mystacalis, Sclater, R. et Mag. de Zool. 1852, p. 8; Cont. 
Orn. 1852, pi. 99, p. 131. 

Olivaceus : pileo castaneo : fronte et lateribus capilis tiigris : subtus 
flavus : gutture et mystuce utrinųue ab hoc linea nigru divisa 
albis : rostro nigro : jjedibus rubellis. 
Long. totą 6*3, alse 3 0, caudse 3"0. 
Hab, Bogota. 
Mus. Paris., Brit. 

14. Buarremon schistaceus. 

Tanagra (Arremon) schistaceus, Boiss. R. Z. 1840, p. 69. 

Arremon schistaceus, Gray, Gen. p. 361. 

Buarremon schistaceus, Bp. Consp. p. 484. 

Atlapetes schistaceus, Cab. M. H. p. 140. 

Nigricanti-schistaceus, subtus pallidior, albescentior ; alis caudaįue 

nigris, speculo alari albo : pileo intense castaneo : gutture albido ; 

capitis lateribus et stria utrinųue gutturali nigris. 
Long. totą 6*5, alse 3'0, caudse 3'1. 
Hab. Bogota. 
Mus. Brit. 

d. Pipilopsis. 

15. Buarremon semirufus. 

Tanagra (Arremon) semirufus, Boiss. R. Z. 1840, p. 69. 
Arremon semirufus, Gray, Gen. p. 361. 

Pipilopsis semirufus, Bp. Consp. p. 485 ; Cab. M. H. p. 139. 
Olivaceus ; capite et colio undiąue toto cum pectore cinnamomeis : 

abdomine flavo : lateribus olivascentibus : rostro plumbeo : pe- 

dibus rubellis. 
Long. totą 6*5, alse 3*0, caudse 3'2. 
Hab. Bogota; Cumana (Dyson). 
Mus. Brit., Paris. 

16. Buarremon fulviceps. ^ 

Emberiza fulviceps, Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. in Mag. de Zool. 
1837, p. 77 ; d'Orb. Yoy. p. 362. pi. 46. fig. 2. 

Pipilopsis fulviceps, Bp. Consp. p. 485 ; Cab. Mus. Hcin. p. 138. 



89 

Olivaceo-viridis : capite et slria laterali gutturis castaneis : macula 
utrinque ante-oculari et corpore subtus ad medium ventrem flavis : 
lateribus olivaceo-viridibus. 
Hab. Bolivia, prov. Mizque (d'Orb.). 
Mus. Parisiensi. 

This bird very closely resembles the B. semirufus in colour, but 
has the lores, middle of the throat, rictal strise and breast yellow, the 
chestnut occupying the sides of the throat and dividing it from the 
strise. The bill is rather more finch-Uke than in the former species. 

17. BUARREMON PERSONATUS. 

Arremon personatus , Cab. in Schomb. Reise, iii. 678. 

Pipilopsis personatus, Bp. Consp. p. 485. 

Pyrrhocoma personata, Cab. M. H. p. 138. 

Fusco-cinereus : dorso subolivascente : subtus flavus : pileo, gula 

collique lateribus rufis. 
Hab. British Guiana, Roraima Mountains (Schomb.). 
Mus. Berolinensi. 

Genus XII. Chlorospingus. 

Chlorospingus , Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 139. 
Hemispingus, Cab. 1. c. 

Rostrum Buarremonis sed tenuius, debilius, dente finali pane obso- 

leto : ala longiuscula, remigibus tertia, guarta et quinta agualibus : 

cauda elongata et rotundata : ptilosis olivacea et schistacea : sexus 

similes. 

This group forms a series, the first members of which are closely 

allied to the Buarremones, and have the bill nearly as strong, and of 

the šame form as in that genus. But they grow gradually more 

tenuirostral, and ultimately show striking affiuities towards Trichas 

and other forms of the Mniotiltince, with which they might at first 

sight be easily confounded. 

a. Chlorospingus, 

1. Chlorospingus ophthalmicus. 

Arremon ophthalmicus, Du Bus, Bull. Ac. Brux. xiv. pt. 2. p. 107 
(1847) ; R. Z. 1848, p. 247 ; Gray's Gen. iii. Supp. p. 16. 

Chlorospingus leucophrys, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 139. 

Pipilopsis albitemporalis, Bp. Consp. p. 485 (partim). 

Supra brunnescenti-olivaceus, pileo et lateribus capitis obscure nigri- 
canti-brunneis : palpebris et macula postoculari albis : loris, gula et 
abdomine medio albis : pectore, hypochondriis et crisso flavescenti- 
olivaceis. 

Long. totą 5*25, alse 2-75, caudse 2-25. 

Hab. Mexico, vic. of Jalapa {Cab.) ; Cordova {Sall4). 

Mus. Bruxell., Beroliu., H. E. Strickland, 

2. CnLaROSPINGXJS ALBITEMPORALIS. 

Tachyphonus albitemporalis, Lafr. R. Z. 1848, p. 1 2 ; Grav, Gen. 
Supp. p. 17 ; Bp. Consp. j). 237. 



90 

Chlorospingus ophthalmicus , Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 139 (note). 
Chlorospingus albitemporalis, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 155 ; List 
ofBog. B. p. 27- 

Svpra leete oUvaceus : pileo et lateribus capitis nigricanti-brunneis .- 
loris subobsolete fulvescentibus : pennulis oculum postice tangenti- 
bus albis : gutture pallide fulvescenti-albido, striis minutis nigris 
asperso : pectore aureo,fulvo tincto : abdomine medio pure albo ; 
lateribus et crisso viridescenti-JIavis. 
Long. totą 5*2, alse 2*75, caudae 2'25. 

Hab. Bogota (La/r.) ; Venezuela (Levraud) ; Bolivia (Bridges.). 
Mus. Britannico. 

This South American species may be distinguished from the 
Mexican C. ophthalmicus by its rather brighter olive colour above, its 
lores and throat tinged with fulvous-brovra (in the other bird these 
parts are nearly pure white), and the fulvous-yellow breast, which iii 
C. ophthalmicus is greenish yellow likę the sides. 

3. Chlorospingus flayipectus. 

Arremon favipectus, Lafr. R. Z. 1840, p. 22" ; Gray, Gen. p. 361. 

Tachyphonus flavipectus, Lafr. R. Z. 1848, p. 11; Bp. Consp. 
p. 237. 

Pipilopsis flavipectus, Bp. Consp. p. 485. 

Chlorospingus flavipectus, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 139. 

OUvaceus ; pileo et cervice postica nigrescenti-cinereis , lateribus 
capitis saturatioribus, loris pallidioribus : gula albida, fulvescente 
tinctn : abdomine viridescenti-flavo ; ventre medio albo. 

Long. totą 5 '4, alse 2-7, caudse 2*6. 

Hab. Bogota. 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 

This is a very commou species in Bogota collections. 

4. Chlorospingus canigularis. 

Tachyphonus canigularis, Lafr. R. Z. 1848, p. 1 1 ; Bp. Consp. 
p. 237 ; Gray, Gen. App. p. 17- 

Pipilopsis canigularis, Bp. Consp. p. 485. 

Chlorospingus canigularis, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 139. 

Hemisjiingus Veneris, Bp. Notės Om. p. 22. 

Similis C. flavipectori, sed rostro breviore, maxilla alba nec nigra, 
gula cinereo-alba nec brunnescenti-alba, capite nigrescentiore. 

Long. alse 2*9. 

Hab. Bogota. 

Mus. Paris. 

Prince Bouaparte's Hemispingus veneris, of which the type is in 
the Paris Museum, seems to me to be the šame as this bird. It is 
certainly very closely allied to the common C. flavipectus, but I have 
no doubt it is really a distinct species. 

5. Chlorospingus olivaceus. 

Poospiza ! olivacea, Bp. Consp. Av. p. 473. 
Chlorospingus olivaceus, Sclater, Tan. Cat. Sp. p. 6, 



91 

Brunnescenti-oUvaceus ; capite nigricante ; vertice et nucha palli- 
dioribus, cinerascentibus ; macu/a postoculari candida ; loris et 
lateribus cervicis gr išeis : subtus pallide flavus, gutture et ventre 
medio grisescenti-albis. 
Hab. Ceutral America ? 
Mus. Paris. 

This bird is of exactly the šame cast of plumage as C.flavipectus 
and canigularis, but may be distinguished by the colouring of its 
head, which has a broad longitudinal paler band, and is darker, 
almost black, over the eyes and again beneath them, and by the 
white postocular spot. A specimen in my possession seems to be of 
Delattre's preparation, and agrees with that in the Paris Museum, 
upon which Prince Bonaparte estabhshed his Poospiza olivacea. 

6. Chlorospingus flaviventris, sp. nov. 

OUvaceus ; capite cinereo, viridi paulum apparente ; gula albescenti- 
cinerea : abdomine toto flavo : rostro nigro, mandibula inferioris 
basi albescente. 

Long. totą 5*5, alse 2"5, caudse 2*25. 

Hab. Trinidad {Mus. Jard.) ; Bolivia ? {Mus. H. E. S.). 

I have seen two specimens of this apparently unrecognized Chlo- 
rospingus, which agrees in form with the preceding species, but is 
distinguished by its whony yellow abdomen. One of these speci- 
mens is in Sir WilHam Jardine's possession, the other in the collec- 
tion of the late Mr. H. E. Strickland. 

7. Chlorospingus spodocephaujs. 

Chlorospingus spodocephalus, Bp. Notės Orn. p. 22. 
Flavo-olivaceus, subtus aurantius: capite toto cinereo, gula dilutiore : 

rostro nigro : pedibus ruhellis. (Bp.) 
Rab. Nicaragua {Delattre). 
Mus. ? 

8. Chlorospingus flavigularis. 

Pipilopsis flavigularis, Sclat. R. Z. 1852, p. 8; Cont. Orn. 1852, 
p. 131, pi. 98. 

OUvaceus : gutture flavo : abdomine et mento cinereis ; ventre medio 
albescentiore ; crisso flacescente : rostro plumbeo, basi albo notata į 
pedibus plumbeis. 
Long. totą 5 '5, alse 3 '25. 
Hab. Bogota. 
Mus, Parisiensi. 

I have never seen any specimen of this bird except the type ia the 
Paris Museum. The "bill resembles that of C.flavipectus, but is 
rather stronger. 

h. Hemispingus. 

9. Chlorospingus atripileus. 

Arremon atripileus, Lafr. R. Z. 1842, p. 335 ; Gray, Gcn. p. 361. 



92 

Pipilopsis atripileus, Bp. Consp. p. 485. 

Chlorospingus atripileus, Sclater, Tan. Cat. Sp. p. 6. 

Olivaceus ; pileo nigro ; superciliis longis a fronte ad nucham antice 

fiavidis, postice albis : subtus dilutior ; gutture, pectore et ventre 

medio sordide flavis . 
Long. totą 5-9, alse 2-8, caudas 3-0. 
Hab. Bogota ; vicinity of Quito {Prof. Jameson). 
Mus. Brit., Jardinii, &c. 

10. Chlorospingus melanotis. 

Chlorospingus melanotis, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 158. pi. 68 ; 
1855, p. 155. 

Supra nigro-plumheus, dorso imo bmnnescentiore : alis caudague 
hrunnescentibus, illis penitus nigricantibus : loris et capitis lateri- 
bus cumTegione auriculari nigris : subtus pal/ide ochraceo-riifvs : 
mento summo nigricante ; ventre medio dilutiore : rostro nigro : 
pedibus pallidis. 

Long. totą 5-25, alae 2*5, caudae 2-25. 

Hab. Bogota. 

Mus. Brit. 

This little species, of which there are two examples in the British 
Museum, both apparently Bogota skins, differs from all its congeners 
in the colouring of the lower surface of the body, vvhich is of a pale 
reddish buff, grovving much whiter in the middle of the belly. Above 
the i)lumage is lead-coloured, with a greenish tinge superinduced 
towards the lower part of the back. The \vings and tail are brown, 
with slight greenish edgings ; the ear-coverts and whole side of the 
face are black. In the second specimen, ajtparently not so mature, 
there is a hght-coloured spot on the front, just above the nostrils. 
The bill of this species agrees with that of Chlorospingus atripileus 
in size, but is rather straighter in form, as in C. verticalis. 

11. Chlorospingus RUBRiROSTRis. 

Arremon rubrirostris, Lafr. R. Z. 1840, p. 227; Gray, Gen. p.361 . 

Nemosią rubrirostris, Lafr. R. Z. 1848, p. 11. 

Pipilopsis rubrirostris, Bp. Consp. p. 485. 

Hemispingus rubrirostris, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 138. 

Chlorospingus rubrirostris, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 155. 

Olivaceus, capite cinerascentiore : gutture toto pallide cinereo : ab- 
domine flavo, lateribus olivascentibus : rostro rubro : pedibus pal- 
lidis. 

Long. totą 5-7, alse 3-1, caudse 27. 

Hab. Bogota. 

Mus. Brit., &c. 

12. Chlorospingus superciliaris. 

Arremon superciliaris, Lafr. R. Z. 1840, p. 227; Gray, Gen. p. 361. 
Ne7nosia superciliaris, Lafr. R. Z. 1848, p. 227. 
Piįulopsis superciliaris, Bp. Consp. p. 485. 



93 

Hemispingus superciliaris, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 138. 
Chloronpingus superciliaris, Sciater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 155. 
Hylophilus leucophrys, Lafr. R. Z. 1840, p. 227. 

Olivaceus : pileo antico cinereo : fronte et superciliis cum macula 
suboculari albidis : subtus Jlavus : rostro plumbescente : pedibus 
pallide brunneis. 

Long. totą 5*2, alse 2*7, caudse 2*5. 

Hab. Bogota. 

Mus. Brit., &c. 

13. Chlorospingus xanthophrys. 

Chhrospingus xanthophrys, Sciater, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 30. 

Brunnescenti-olivaceus : loris nigricantibus : superciliis curtis a 
fronte ad oculum summutn et corpore mediali subtus ^avis : rostro 
nigro : pedibus pallide brunneis. 

Long. totą 4*7, alae 2'5, caudse 2'4. 

Hab. Bogota. 

Mus. P. L. S. 

I possess a single example of this small Chlorospingus. It is 
closely allied to C. superciliaris, but is inferior in size, has short 
yellow instead of longer whitisli supercilia, and the body beneath only 
yellow quite in the middle, the sides being oUve. Its olive plumage 
is also of a more brownish tinge, and the feet are pale brown or flesh- 
coloured, not plumbeous. 

14. Chlorospingus verticalis. 

Nemosią verticalis, Lafr. R. Z. 1840, p. 227 ; Bp. Consp. p. 236 ; 
Gray, Gen. p. 366. 

Chlorospingus verticalis, Sciater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 155. 
Cinereus, subtus dilutior, ventre medio albo : alis caudaque nigri- 
cantibus : capite toto cum gula nigris ; vitta lata a fronte ad nu- 
chamfumoso-brunnea : rostro et pedibus nigris. 
Long. totą 5-0, alae 2'8, caudse 2'8. 
Hab. Bogota. 
Mus. Brit., Berol, 

15. Chlorospingus lichtensteini. 

Nemosią verticalis, Licht. in Mus. Berol (partim). 

Chlorospingus lichtensteini, Sciater, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 30. 

Supra cinereus, alis caudague nigricantibus : pileo atro, vitta me- 
diali verticis ochracescenti-albida : subtus albidus, lateribus 
cinerascentibus. 

Long. totą 6-3, alse 3*0, caudse 3-1. 

Hab. New Grenada. 

Mus. Berolinensi. 

One specimen of this bird, which I observed in the Berlin Mu- 
seum, was marked as having been received from M. Boissoneau of 
Paris, along \vith examples of the preceding species, from which it 
appeared not to have been distinguished. It is closely allied to that 



94 

bird, but may be recognized by its rather larger size, and the black 
colouring of the head not extending round to the throat, as in C. ver- 
ticalis, but the whole under surface being cinereous, growing white 
in the middle. 



April22, 1856. 

Dr. Gray, F. R. S., in the Chair. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. On Two New Species of Birds (Nestok notabilis and 
Spatula variegata) from the Collection of Walter 
Mantell, Esq. By John Gould, F.R.S. 

Mr. Gould brought before the notice of the meeting two species 
of birds from the New Zealand group of islands which he conceived 
to be new to science ; one, a magnificent Parrot, pertaining to the 
genus Nestor ; the other, an equally interestiug species of Duck, 
belonging to the genus Spatula. Both these birds had beeu placed 
in bis hauds for the purpose of describing, by Walter Mantell, Esq. 

The Nestor, which is called " Keu" by the natives, is by far the 
largest of the three species of the form now knowTi, and is certainly 
one of the most interesting of the ornithological novelties lately 
discovered. It not only differs from its near allies N. hypopolius 
and N. productus in its greater size, but in the greater uniformity of 
its colouring, in the yellow toothed markings of the inner webs of 
the primaries and secondaries, and in the orange toothed markings 
of the inner webs of the tail feathers ; the yellow colouring of the 
under mandible is another of the peculiarities by which it may be 
distiuguished. 

Mr. ]\Iantell informed Mr. Gould that he first heard of the exist- 
ence of the Keu about eight years ago from some old natives whom 
he was questioning as to the birds of the Middle Island. They said 
the Ked somewhat rcsembled the Kdka {Nestor hypopolius), but 
that, unlike that bird, it was green, and added, that it used formerly 
to come to the coast in severe winters, but that they had not seeu it 
lately. Mr. Mantell has only obtained the two specimens exhibited 
of this fine bird ; they were shot in the Hūriliiku country, and for 
one of them he was indebted to Mr. John Lemon of Murihiku. 

The follovving is a description of this new species, for which Mr. 
Gould proposes the name of 

Nestor notabilis. 

General hue olive-green ; each feather tipped in a crescentic form 
with brown, aud having a fine line of the šame colour down the 
shaft ; feathers of the lovver part of the back and the upper tail- 
coverts washed near the tip with fiery orange-red ; primaries brown, 



95 

margined at the base with greenish-blue ; tail duU green ; inner 
webs of the lateral feathers brown toothed on their basai two-thirds 
with orange-yellow ; all the tail-feathers crossed near the extremity 
with an mdistinct band of brown, and tipped with oUve-brown ; 
feathers of the asillee fine scarlet ; under wing-coverts scarlet tipped 
with brown, the greater ones banded with brown and with yellow 
stained with scarlet ; basai portion of the primaries and secondaries 
largely toothed with fine yellow, which is uot perceptible on the 
upper surface unless the wing8 are very widely spread ; upper man- 
dible dark horn colour ; under mandible yellow, becoming richer 
towards the point ; feet nearly yellowisholive. 

Totai length, 18 inches ; bill, 2^ ; wmg, 12į; tail, 7i; tarsi, 1|. 

Hab. The Middle Island, New Zealand. 

The Shoveller forms the fifth species known of the genus Spatula, 
and is distinguished from the other members by the dark crescentic 
markings which decorate the feathers of the breast, sides of the neck 
and scapularies. The species of this well-defined form previously 
described are Spatula clypeata, -TOhich inhabits Europe, North 
America, India and China ; S. rhynchotis, which is found through- 
out AustraUa ; S. maculatus, the habitat of which is Chili, and pro- 
bably the ueighbouring countries of Peru and Bolivia ; and iS. ca- 
pensis of South Africa. For the fifth, or New Zealand species, Mr, 
Gould proposes the name of 

Spatula variegata. 

Crown of the head and space surrounding the base of the bill 
brownish-black ; on either side of the face between the bill and the 
eye a lunar-shaped streak of white, bounded posteriorly with speckles 
of black ; cheeks, sides and back of the neck dark grey witli greenish 
reflexions ; front of the neck dark brown, each feather narrowly 
fringed with white ; back brownish-black, the feathers of the upper 
part margined with greyish-brown ; feathers of the breast, sides of 
lower part of the neck, the mantle and scapularies white, with a 
crescent of blackish-brovm near the tip ; under surface dark chestnut 
blotched with black ; flanks lighter chestnut barred with black ; 
lesser wing-coverts dull greenish-blue; greater wing-coverts dark 
brown, fringed at the tip with white ; first elongated scapularies blue- 
grey, with a conspicuous line of white on the outer web next the 
shaft, bounded posteriorly with black ; the next blue-grey, margined 
on the inner web with white ; the remainder greenish-black, with a 
lengthened lanceolate mark of dull or brownish-white down the centre 
of the apical half ; speculum deep green ; primaries dark brown with 
lighter shafts ; under surface of the shoulder white ; on each side of 
the vent a patch of white freckled with black ; under tail-coverts 
black, tinged with shining green; tail dark brown ; irides bright 
yellow ; bill dark purplish-black, the tmder mandible clouded with 
yellow ; legs and feet yellow. 

Totai length, 16^ inches ; bill, 3; wing, 9t; tail, 4|; tarsi, 1|. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

Eemark. — This is by far the handsomest species of the genus. 



96 

2. Descriptions of Two New Species of true Cuckoos 

(Genus Cuculus as restricted). 

By John Gould, F. R. S. 

Cuculus strenuus, Gould. 

Crown of the head, back of the neck, cheeks and chin dark grey; 
all tlie upper surface, including the upper tail-coverts, olive-brown, 
with shining purplish reflexions ; tail olive-brown, crossed by four 
bands of darker brown, and tipped with bufiy white ; throat white, 
pashing into the chestnut, which forms a band aeross tlie lower part 
of the chest, each feather also has a double mark of black and chest- 
nut dowu the centre ; breast and upper part of the abdomen wliite, 
crossed by semicrescentic bands of very dark brown bordcred with 
pale chestnut-red ; edge of the shoulder, lower part of the abdomen, 
vent and under tail-coverts white ; upper mandible olive ; lower 
mandible yellow ; irides and feet rich yellow. 

Totai length, lo| inches; bill, lį; wing, 9|; tail, 9. 

Hab. Manilla. 

Remark. — In outward appearance this species so nearly resembles 
the Cuculus sparverioides, that one description w'ould nearly sers'e 
for both ; but in size it so far exceeds that bird, as well as every 
other true Cuckoo I have yet scen, that I have no doubt of its being 
distinct, and I have therefore assigned it a separate specific appel- 
lation, and have selected the term strenuus, as indicative of its great 
size and strength. 

The specimen from which the above description was taken now 
forms part of the collection at the British Museum. 

Cuculus hyperythrus, Gould. 

Crown of the head, all the upper surface and wings dark slate- 
grey ; spurious wings white ; lores, ear-coverts, moustache, and a 
spot on the chin black ; throat white, with a fine line of brown down 
the shaft of each feather ; under surface dull rusty-red ; tail grey, 
crossed by two narrovv irregular bands of black bordered with brown, 
and by a very broad band of black near the extremity, the tip being 
reddish-brown ; upper mandible black ; lower mandible and feet 
yellow. 

Totai length, \\\ inches; bill, lį; wing, 8; tail, 6^. 

Hab. China. 

Remark. — In size this species is rather less than the Cuculus 
canorus of Europe, and is altogether less elegant in its general con- 
tour. The rufous colouring of the breast and under surface, and the 
black marks on the cheeks and throat, characters seldoni seen among 
the Cuculidce, are the features by which it may be distinguished. 

The specimen described, likę the preceding, is deposited in the 
National Collection. 



97 

3. Note on Buglodytes albicilius, Bp. 
By Philip Lutley Sclater. 

Prince Bonaparte, in his " Notės Ornithologiąues sur les collec- 
tions rapportėes par M. A. Delattre,^' read before the French 
Academy in 1853, has iustituted a new genus, Buglodytes, allied to 
Campylorhynchus, Spix, and described but one species as belonging 
to it under the title of B. albicilius. 

Having had an opportunity of examining this type (which is now 
in the British Museum), I have to statė, that I beheve that it 
is the šame bird as was long ago named by Mr. Svvainson " Fur- 
narius griseus,'' and is the type of Cabanis' genus Heleodytes. It 
has, however, nothing to do with Furnarius, and seems, as Prince 
Bonaparte has remarked, intermediate between Campylorhynchus 
and Donacobius. These forms appear to connect the American 
Mimince very closely with the Vrens, and to render the position of 
the former group among the true Thrushes rather doubtful. The 
synonymy oi Buglodytes albicilius will stand as follows — 

Furnarius griseus, Sw. An. in Men. p. 325. 

Campylorhynchus griseus, Schomb. Reise in Brit. Guian. iii. 
p. 674. 

Heleodytes griseus, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 80 ; G. R. Gray, List of 
Gen. and Subgen. p. 26, no. 404. 

Buglodytes albicilius, Bp. Notės Orn. p. 26 ; G. R. Gray, List 
of Gen. and Subgen. p. 32, no. 499. 

My specimen of this bird is from Trinidad. Schomburgk's were 
coUected in British Guiana. The examples upon which the name 
Buglodytes albicilius was founded were obtained by MM. Verreaux's 
collector in the vicinity of Santa Martha, on the north coast of Ne\v 
Grenada. 

From Trinidad also I possess a bird which seems to be the 
Heleodytes minor of Cabanis. It is so similar to Heleodytes griseus 
in every respect except in size, that I ąuestion whether it may not 
be a variety of age or sex of that species. 



4. On some New or Imperfectly-knoavn Species of 
Synallaxis. By Philip Lutley Sclater. 

1. Synallaxis ruficapilla. 

Synallaxis rufcapilla, Vieill. N. D. d'H, N. xxxii. p. 810 ; Enc. 
Meth. p. 622 ; Gal. Ois. pi. 174. 

Sphenura ruficeps, Licht. Doubl. p. 42. 

Synallaxis cinereus, Max. Beitr. iii. 685. 

Synallaxis olivascens, Eyton, Cont. Orn. 1851, p. 150. 

Olivascenti-brunnea, pileo toto cum nucha, alis extus et cauda 
rufis : striga superciliari Jlavida : loris et regione auriculari 

No. CCCVII. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



98 

nigricanti-cinereis : suhtus albicanti-cinerea, hypochondnis et 
crisso brunnescentibiis, ventre medio albicantiore cinereo. 

Long. totą 6 0, alae 2-\, caudse 30. 

Hab. Brazil. 

2. Synali.axis Spixi, sp. nov. 

Parulus ruficeps, Spix, Av, Bras. i. pi. 86, p. 85 (<?.). 
Synallaxis rtijicapilla, Reich. Handb. d. Sp. Oru. p. 158. 

Supra oUvaceo-brunnea, pileo et alis extus ritfis, cauda dorso con- 
colore sed minus oUvascente : capitis lateribus et corpore subtus 
cinereis : gutturis pennis intus nigris, extus argentescenti- 
albis : ventre medio albo : lateribus et crisso brunnescente 
tinctis. 

Long. totą 6'5, alse 2"1, caudae 3'5. 

Hab. Brazil. 

These two SynalJaxes, whicli appear to me to be very distinct 
birds, have always hitherto been confounded together. Specimens 
of S. Spixi are rather the most abundant iu collections, and are 
usually marked ruficapilla or ruficeps, names both originally applied 
to the former species. 

The S. Spixi may be distinguished by its brown tail, nearly the 
šame colour as the back, not rufous likę the head, as is the case in 
S. rvficapilla ; by having no traces of yellowish supercilia, the 
whole sides of the head being uniform grey likę the breast, and by 
its smaller and shorter bill, and longer, narrower and more pointed 
tail-feathers. The throat-feathers are black, finely edged with silvery 
white, which gives an appearance of a black pateh on the throat when 
the plumage is slightly raised. In S. ruficapilla the throat and 
breast are uniform cineraceous white, and there is more olive-brown 
on the flanks than in the other species. 

Another bird, very closely allied to these two, is S. elegans, which 
I have lately described in these Proceedings *, from Bogota. S. pal- 
lida, Max., is also very similar to S. ruficapilla, but has conspicuous 
white supercilia, and the under parts pale brown. S. albescetis, 
Temminck, (which has been also united to iS. ruficapilla by Prince 
Bonaparte and other writers) is likewise different, and more closely 
resembles S. Spixi, from which, however, it is to be distinguished by 
having only the back part of the head rufous. A sLxth nearly allied 
species is the Bolivian S. Azarce, d'Orb. 

3. Synallaxis caniceps, sp. nov. 

S. dorso, alis caudaque cinnamomeo-rufis : capite toto cervice- . 
que grisescentibus, pileo albescentiore : subtus lactescenti-alba : 
rastro et pedibus pallidis : remigibus intus nigricantibus : rostro 
elongato, parum incurvo, flavicante : pedibus pallide brunneia. 

Long. totą 5-5, alse 2*3, caudse 2'1. 

Hab. Brazil. 

Mr. Eyton was obliging enough to send me his specimens of 

* P. Z. S. 1856, p. 25. 



99 

Synallaxes for examination a short time since, and most liberally 
offered to allow me to describe any I might think new. A single 
example of the present species which was in the collection seems 
different from any previously named. I have therefore taken advan- 
tage of Mr. Eyton's kindness to give characters to it under the 
specific title of S. caniceps. There is no other member of the genus 
that I am acquainted with that much resembles it in colouringr The 
rectrices are ten in number. 

Mr. Eyton's jS. modesta, described in ' Contributions to Ornitho- 
logy' (1851, p. 159), of which the types are in his collection, is one 
of a small group of species from Bolivia, Chili and Patagonia, con- 
sisting of S.Jlavigularis, Gould, S. sordida, Less. and S. brunnea, 
Gould ; but I am doubtful whether all the four are really specifically 
distinct. 

Professor Reichenbach, in his ' Handbuch der SpecieUen Ornitho- 
logie,' has chopped up the genus Synallaxis into seven or eight 
different sections. Some of these ought no doubt to be adopted, 
but the Professor has unfortunately referred some of the most closely 
aUied species to different sections, and I think it better therefore to 
continue the employmeut of the old name for the whole of them, 
until a more accurate revision and arrangement of the whole of the 
species can be made. 



5. On the Position of the Genus Proserpina in the 
System, and a Description of its Dentition 
By Dr. j. e. Gray, F.R.S., P.B.S., etc. 

In the Synopsis of the British Museum for 1840 (p. 129), I 
mention amongst the genera of Helicidce which have a thin edge to 
the mouth of the shell a genus named Proserpina. It is peculiar 
amongst land shells for having a series of laminse revolving in the 
throat, and the outer surface of the shell polished. This genus has 
been adopted by Sowerby, Pfeiffer, Jonas, and most other authors. 

Mr. Duclos referred the species to the genus Caroeolla ; Adams, 
Pfeiffer, and Jonas in some of their earlier works having considered 
them as species of the ektended genus HeUx. 

M, d'Orbigny in his work on the MoUusca of Guba, renamed the 
genus Odostoma, and referred it with doubt to the family Cyclo- 
stomideB. 

Though the shell is far from uncommon in the West Indies, Guba, 
and some parts of the American continent, the animal escaped the 
researches of Guilding, Adams, Chitty, d'Orbigny and other observers. 
In 1854, when in Berne, my friend, Dr. Shuttleworth, informed me 
it had two subulate tentacles, with the eyes sessile on the outer side 
of their base ; and Mr. Bland has mentioned that the animal has no 
operculum, and absorbs the septa between the upper whorls of the 
spire, likę some species of the genera Neritina, Auricula, Helicina, 
Stomastoma, and a few Helices. 



100 

These observations induced me to place the family in my most 
modern arrangement near OligyradcE. 

Mr. Cnming has kindly brought to me a specimen of the genus, 
with its animal, which Mr. Salle discovered under leaves in the moun- 
tains of Mexico, some distance from the sea. 

The species is aUied to Proserpina eolina, but differs in the spire 
being mueh more convex ; I hence propose to call it P. Salleana. 
Likę P. eolina, it differs from all the others I am acąuainted with in 
the upper surface of the whorls being rugose, and only smooth on 
the lower surface, as is the case \^ith many Nanina, showing, if the 
smoothness and poUsh of the surface depend on the extension of the 
mantle of the animal, the extension in this kind is coufined to the 
under surface of the shell, as is proved by the examiuation of the 
animal itself. 

This being the case, I am inclined to form this shell and P. eolina 
into a new genus under the name of Ceres, characterized by the 
roughness of the upper surface and the non-dilatation of the front 
edge of the mantle, which is believed to be dilated in all the other 
species of the true Proserpince. 

It will be seeu that most authors have placed these Mollusca either 
with Helices or Oligyrce, and I was much iuclined to follow their 
example, even after a cursory esamination of the animal itself. It 
has much the external appearance of the animals of the lateral family, 
having a short, broad, anuulated muzzle vvith a triaugular mouth, two 
subulate lateral tentacles, with the eyes sessile on the outer side of 
their base ; a moderately short foot, truncated in front, acute and 
keeled above-behind, without any appearance of beards or any mem- 
branous ridge on the sides ; the shell is slightly sunk into a cavity 
in the front of the upper keeled part of the foot, as if it possessed 
an operculum ; the edge of the mantle is free from the back of the 
neck, producing an open nuchal respiratory cavity likę Cyclostoma 
and Oligyra, and other operculated and unisexual land shells. 

"When the animal is more closely examined, it is found that there 
is no operculum, the concavity on the front part of the foot into 
which the under surface of the shell fits is furnished with a con- 
tinuation of the mantle, having a raised crumpled edge evidently 
capable of being expanded over the under surface of the shell, and 
explaining the polished surface of this part of the shell ; — a structure 
I have not observed in any other Mollusca. This extension of the 
mantle might be mistaken for the mantle of the operculum, which, 
as far as I know, is always quite distinct and separate from the 
mantle of the shell, but in this animal the fringed edge of the con- 
cavity is iu direct continuity with the true or shell-forming mantle, 
both at the columnar and the outer external angle of the mouth of 
the shell. 

The teeth of the lingual membrane are unlike those of Cyclostoma 
and Helicina, which agree with those of Littorina and other marine 
Rostriferous miivalves. The teeth resemble those of the ty picai 
ItiphidoglosscE, as in the families Neritinidce, Tnrbonid(E, TrochidtB, 
Roliolida, &c. All the Mollusca hitherto known belonging to these 



I 



101 

families are aąuatic, and all but the genera Neritina and Navicellus 
are truly marine. They all have vrell-developed gills, and the 
greater part have a more or less developed lateral membrane on each 
side of the body, furnished with three or more beards on its lower 
surface, and almost all have the eyes placed on a more or less distinet 
peduiicle at the outer side of the base of the tentacles, all characters 
absent in Proserpina. But notwithstanding all these peculiarities, 
I am inclined to arrange the family Proserpinidce (including Proser- 
pina and Ceres) in the order Scutibranchia, section Raphidoglossa, 
and to form a suborder for it under the name Pseudobranchia, in 
the šame manner as the families Cydophoridce and Helicinidcs form 
the suborder Phaneropneumona of the order Tiostriferce. 

It may be thus characterized : — 

Pseudobranchia. Gills vascular, branched on the inner surface 
of the mantle ; body and shell spirai ; eyes sessile ; operculum none. 

The open respiratory cavity, the separate sexes and the form 
of the teeth, preclude its being arranged with the Pulmonobran- 
chiata, with which it has been hitherto placed on accomit of its 
terrestrial mode of life ; but as our knowledge of the structure of 
Mollusca extends, it is found that some Piilmonobranchiata are 
marine, as SiphonariadeB and AmphibolidcE, in the šame manner as 
the terrestrial Cydophoridce and Oligyradce are properly arranged 
in the marine and fluviatile Rostrifera. The ProserpinadcB might 
be arranged with the latter families, as was proposed before the 
teeth were known ; but there can be little doubt that the animals 
which have the very numerous rows of such peculiar-formed teeth 
as the Raphidoglossa, mušt have very different habits and modes of 
life from those which have only seven rows of nearly uniform teeth, 
of the Tcenioglossa or Rostriferous Mollusca. 

And though the animal of the Proserpinadce diiFers from the 
more typical Raphidoglossae, yet all the peculiarities, except the 
vascular organs of respiration and terrestrial mode of life, are found 
in some of the genera of the suborder. Thus the eyes of Fissurella 
are sessile on the outer side of the base of the tentacle ; the whole 
family of Neritinidce and some of the genera of FissurelladcB are 
destitute of any lateral fringe or beards ; so that though these organs 
are the usual characteristic of these animals, their absence is no 
proof that the family does not belong to the group, especially -cvhen 
we consider that the teeth have all the peculiarities, indeed, are per- 
fectly typical in form with this well-marked and very peculiar tribe, 
and very probably it may prove that many terrestrial Mollusca may 
properly belong to the order. 

The lingual membrane elongate, broad, with numerous longi- 
tudinal series of close-set teeth ; the centrai teeth in 1 1 longitudinal 
series, 5 . 1 . 5 . the two outer teeth on each side being large and irre- 
gular ; the lateral teeth are numerous, crowded, compressed, linear, 
nearly equal, transparent, with recurved tip. 

In Ceres Salleana the lingual membrane is broad, elongate, with 
close-set teeth. Teeth .00. 5. 1. 5.00. in numerous longitudinal 
series ; the centrai tooth is oblong, with a smooth recurved tip, the 



102 



Ist and 2ad lateral teeth rather broader than the centrai, with tliree- 
toothed recurved tip, the 3rd narrow, elongate, with a slight recurved 
end, the 4th and 5th much larger, oblong and irregular shaped, the 
4th about half the width of the 5th, with 3 or 4 denticles on the 
inner side of the upper edge ; the 5th very large, broad, with a 
large subcentral reflexed lobe ; the lateral teeth are very numerous, 
subeąual, compressed, transparent, with a recurved tip, which in the 
inner teeth of the series is bifid. 



3 Ii. 







Teeth of Ceres SaUeana. 

1. Ceres Salleana, Gray. 

Shell yellow, upper surface conical, convex, rugulose, with nu- 
merous close, parallel, granular concentric strise ; lower surface 
smooth, polished ; keel acute, expanded. 

Hab. Cordera, State of Vera Cruz, Mexico, in dense woods, under 
dead leaves (M. A. Sallė). 

2. Ceres eolina. Proserpina eolina, Duclos, Mag. Zool. 

The shell orange ; upper surface flat, rugulose, with numerous 
short, parallel, diverging, narrow, sharp ridges ; keel very acute, bent 
up ; lower surface convex, subhemispherical, polished, orange ; axial 
callosity thin, semitransparent, whitish. 



6. Remarks on Niką edulis, Risso. 
By William Thompson. 

The possession of a healthy specimen of Niką edulis has enabled 
me to offer the following remarks, which, I trust, may add some- 
thing new to what is already known of this species. 

The first specimen I obtained by dredging on the 2ud July, 1853. 
I find by my notes, which were made at the time, that it was a 
female, and in spawn ; the ova were darkish green, the animal itself 
was of a cream colour, and spotted with red dots ; the spots were 
of different sizes, perfectly round, and rather thickly and regularly 
placed. This specimen was dead before I examined it, and this will 
account for the difference of colour as contrasted with the specimen, 
the more immediate subject of the present paper. I had previously 
obtained one specimen, and a third specimen, also in spawn, was 



103 

brought to me on the 20th July, 1855 ; the ova were bright green, 
and the animal of a cream colour. This specimeu was dead wheu 
exammed. 

The subject of the present paper was brought to me alive by my 
dredger on the 21st February in this year, aud lived three weeks. 
It was dredged in Weymouth Bay, near the month of the harbour. 
The colour in this hving specimen was very different fioui that of 
the dead specimens I had previously obtained. When first brought to 
me, the whole animal was a Ught greenish-drab, irregularly and thinly 
sprinkled with pure white stars ; the carapace and covering of the 
abdomen were ahke transparent, and the intestines could be easily 
seen beneath. I could also detect the breathing apparatus placed on 
each side at the back of the mouth ; the movement was similar to 
that of a long rope when gently waved at one end. After a few days' 
confinement it changed colour, five or six broadish bands of a lovely 
rose colour appeared, the bands of colour being restricted to the back 
portion of each segment of the body ; the tail also changed to the 
šame rosy hue, in the course of two or three days the animal again 
assumed its original colour. I have noticed this change of colour in 
many of the Palcemonidce and CrangonidcB, and I believe it to arise 
from the transparency of the cuticle enabling any change in the body 
itself to be seen through it, and that the change of colouring of the 
body is occasioned by fear or some instinct. In all the specimens of 
Niką I have obtained the shell is soft as in a new-moulted Prawn, and 
in piercing them with a fine pin for preserving, the shell bends before 
it. Is this of any value as a generic character ? M. Milne-Edwards 
says they resemble ^<Aa«as "in possessing but a small rostrum ;" 
they also resemble them in their mode of locomotion, as they then 
carry the external pedipalps and first pair of feet extended before 
them in a line with their body ; their movements are also slow and 
deliberate, and they appear to progress by vvalking and not by 
swimming ; when alarmed they shoot backwards by striking forward 
with their tail, as is the habit of all the long-tailed Crustaceans. 

I now proceed to lay before you the Information I have obtained 
as to its habits. 

I may assert that Niką is essentially a burrowing genus. I wa6 
not prepared to find it so, as I considered its slender limbs and its 
prominent eyes but ill-adapted for the purpose ; however, we live 
and learn, and I have learned that practice is far better than theory ; 
had I relied on the latter I should have insisted that Niką edulis was 
not a burrower. 

In accordance with a plan which I have formed of attempting to 
study the habits of any of our rarer marine animals I may have the 
good fortune to meet with, I placed my prisoner in a vase with ą 
few weeds and some pebbles, that being the nature of the groimd on 
which itwas dredged; 1 left it in this vessel for two days, and found 
out it was not at home, and, in fact, that a pebbly bottom was not 
its choice. I therefore removed it to a large earthenvvare pan in 
which I had previously placed a few weeds, having filled it also to 
the depth of three inches with coarse gravel ; I then left it for an 



104 

hour, and on exaniining the vessel I could not fiud my frieud ; I 
gearched on tbe table, thiuking it might have thrown itself out, but 
it \vas without success ; I turned over tbe stones and weeds, and with 
tbe likę result. I tben commeuced turning over tbe gravel, and at 
lašt found tbat Kika edulis yvas a burrowing Crustacean. I aceord- 
inglv trausferred it for facility of obsenration to a vase, and placing 
in it tbe šame material, namely, tbe coarse gravel and weeds, in this 
gravel it buried itself tbree several times. Burrowing in tbis loose 
material was evidently a difficult matter ; it required great patience 
and perseverance to overcome tbe ditficulty occasioued by tbe loose 
gravel constantly falling in on tbe excavator ; it took tbe animal ten 
minutes to burrow to about tbe deptb of tbree parts of its lengtb. 
I afterwards transferred it to a vase witb sand to tbe deptb of tbree 
or four inches at the bottom ; in tbis it quickly disappeared, tbree 
minutes sufficiug to com pietely cover itself. In tbis vase it was tbat 
I made tbe following observations on it. 

Its mode of mining is extraordinary : lying at the bottom of tbe 
rase, it commenced proceedings by probing tbe sand around witb its 
third pair of feet, and inserting them to some deptb in it ; wben it 
found a spot suited for the purpose, tbat is, free from any large 
stones, it at once commenced excavating. These operations were 
carried out by tbe external pedipalps, whicb are very long and 
strong, and also by tbe first, third and fourtb pairs of legs ; tbe 
second pair of legs, as may be supposed, are for this purpose per- 
fectly useless : tbev are as mucb as possible placed out of the way, 
being bent up snugly •n'itb the band tumed backwards : tbe only 
motion I could detect was a nervous action in tbe moveable finger, 
constantly attempting to clutcb objects, but not seizing anytbing. 
The fifth pair of feet have a simple thougb useful office assigned 
them : it is to support the body in the proper position until tbe 
burrowing bas progressed sufficiently to enable the burrower to do 
ivitbout thcir support ; tbey are tben immediately called into more 
active employment, and assist in the work of excavation. Tbe spot 
for burrowing baving been selected, the little animal steadies its 
body by means of its fiftb pair of legs, and this allows the greatest 
free'doin of action to the body. The pedipalps perform a prominent 
part in the burrowing ; tbe nail on the lašt joint is curved sbgbtly 
forward, and tbe advantage of this is clearly seen, as in digging, the 
l)edipalps are forced into the sand or shingle, and are thus forced 
forward and outvrards, and tbey prevent tbe side of the burrow from 
falling in ; tbe third and fourtb pairs of feet are in constant motion, 
probing tbe sand and loosening it, thus hghtening the labour for tbe 
pedipalps ; all these movements take place very regularly and at the 
šame time. A small bollovv baving been made, the animal raises its 
body by means of its fiftb pair of legs to nearly a right angle with 
the bottom ; its eyes, uliicb are very large and carried at right angles 
with tbe body, are thus suddenly tbrown forward witb a spring in a 
line w-itb tbe rostrum, and the hollow is surveyed; sbould it not be 
of a sufRcient deptb tbe body is again lowered and tbe buiTowing 
continues, tbe eyes resuming their original position ; when tbe hole 



105 

is sufficiently deepened, the eyes are again brought forward, the 
antenose are thrown back in a line with the body, and the animal 
fsrces its head in the hole it has made ; this is facilitated by the 
body being gradually raised by means of the fifth pair of legs ; the 
head being inserted, the burrowing continues with inereased energy, 
and the animal assumes the position as in photograph No. 2 ; thi3 
view shovTs the sand which has been thrown up accumulated in a 
heap under the body. 

I have occasionally found it continue in this position, but gene- 
rally it burrows perpendicularly, until only the tips of the antennse 
are visible. 

I placed my captive in a glass vase, and he having selected the side 
of the glass for burrowing (probably from the glass forming one firm 
side to the work), enabled me to watch every moveraent ; the sand 
appeared to be passed to the mouth of the hole by the legs and falše 
legs, when it fiUed round the body and filled in as the animal passed 
downwards. The antennse are delicately sensitive. I believe this 
sensitiveness depends on the seuse of touch : the slightest contaet 
•with them sets the animal in motion (and this when it is buried 
Bome depth), using every exertion to burrow deeper. It is evidently " 
a night-feeding genus, as it remained buried and inactive during the 
day, but the statė of the sand in the tank in the moming proved 
that it had not been idle during the night. 

From these facts I am justified in stating that NiJca edulis is a 
burrowing species (if not of a burrovving genus), and that its bur- 
rowing is only by day to hide itself from its enemies, and not to 
procure food. 

The description I have given of the colouring of this species will 
be found to be different from that given by Risso, as stated by Mr. 
Milne-Edwards. I should have great diffidence in differing from 
these eminent naturalists had I not imagined that their descriptions 
might have been taken from cabinet specimens. Had I waited to 
describe my specimen until after its death, I mušt have described it 
as it now is, namely, Jlesh-red ; I find all the thinner-shelled Crus- 
tacea change more or less of a flesh-red, with the exception of the 
Crangonidce. 

The different plaus of burrowing in the different genera are very 
interesting, and may probably be given in another paper. 

The photographs to illustrate these notes represent 

No. 1 and No. la. — Niką edulis (natūrai size) taken from a 
living specimen (on a collodion plate) in two different positions. 

No. 2. — The šame (natūrai size) when partially buried. This 
view shows the sand accumulated under the body of the animal. 

No. 3. — A view of a portion of Weymouth Bay, taken by a col- 
lodion negative. The camera being sunk in tvvo fathoms of water, 
the line of demarcation between the water and air is here plainly 
visible. 

No. 4. — A photograph of Aphrodita aculeata taken (in two dif- 
ferent positions) from a living specimen two-thirds of its natūrai 
size. 



106 

Dr. Crisp placed before the Society drawings of the viscera, of tlie 
size of life, of a large Pike {Esox lucius). The subjoined are the 
dimensions of the fish and the weight of the body and of the 
viscera : — 

\Veight of body, 28 Ibs. ; leugth, 3 feet 7 inches ; largest circura- 
ference, 23 inches. Weight of heart, 160 grains ; of Uver, lOoz. j 
of kidney, 1 oz. ; of spleen, 171 grains; of brain, 75 grains. The 
diameter of the eye was 13 lines, and the largest tooth (maxillary) 
was 7 lines in length. 

Alime7itary canal. — CEsophagus, 6 inches ; stomach, 9 inches ; 
intestines, 3 feet 3 inches. Totai, 4 feet 6 inches. 

The kidney, which was very thin, measured 1 9 inches iu length ; 
the air-bladder, 18 inches. 

The gall-bladder, seated at the upper part of the unlobed liver, of 
a pyramidal shape ; it contained about 3 drachms of bile. 

Portions of a carp were found in the stomach, vfhich, judging from 
the scales and some of the cranial bones, mušt have been of large 
size ; probably 2 or 3 Ibs. The most interesting fact, however, that 
presented itself was the large size of the oviducts. These weighed 
■ 7 Ibs., and measured 22 inches in length. As near as could be 
computed, the number of ova amouuted to about 700,000. The 
fish was taken m HoUand about the 8th of the present raonth, April, 
and the ova appeared to be matured. 

The diameter of the blood-corpuscle of this fish was the šame as 
that of the blood-corpuscle of smaller specimens. 

Dr. Crisp had not been able to find any account of the dissection 
of a large Pike, and for this reason he had placed an outUne of the 
visceral anatomy before the Society. 

Dr. Crisp exhibited the drawing of a hairless Mouse, with the skin 
corrugated in the šame manner as in those exhibited by Mr. Gaskoin 
at a recent meeting of the Society. The specimen, No. 120, is in 
the Museum of the CoUege of Surgeons ; it was found alive in the 
kitchen of the late Mr. Clift, and is thus described in the CoUege 
Catalogue under the head Monstrosities : — " A common Mouse, 
which from its birth had not the shghtest appearance of hair upon 
its skin, being perfectly naked." 



107 

May 13, 1856. 

Dr. Gray, F.R.S., in the Chair. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Description of aNewTrogon and a Ne-vv Odontophorus. 
By John Gotjld, F.R.S., V. P. Z. S., &c. 

Trogon aurantiiventris, Govdd. 

Malė : Forehead, face and chin dull black ; head, sides of the 
neck, breast, back and upper tail-coverts golden-green ; wmgs slaty- 
black, the coverts and secondaries finely freckled, and the primaries 
margined at the base with white ; two centre tail-feathers bronzy- 
green, narrowly tipped with black ; the two next on each side bronzy- 
green on their outer webs, the inner webs and the tips black ; three 
outer tail-feathers on each side black, crossed by numerous narrow 
bars of, and narrowly tipped with, white ; under surface rich orange, 
separated from the green of the chest by a semilunar mark of white ; 
thighs black ; bill orange ; feet dark grey. 

Totai length, 10 inches ; bill, | ; wing, 5f ; tail, 6. 

Female : Head, all the upper surface and breast orange-brown ; 
\ving-coverts brown, minutely freckled with brownish-black ; abdo- 
men pale orange ; two centrai tail-feathers reddish-brown, narrowly 
tipped with black ; the two next on each side brown on their outer 
webs, the interior webs and tips black ; three lateral feathers black 
at the base, their outer webs and apical portions white, minutely 
freckled with black, and a narrow irregular band of black near the 
tip. 

Hab. near David, Veragua. 

Remark. — This species is very closely allied to Trogon puella : 
being precisely similar in every character, except that of the colour- 
ing of the breast, which is orange instead of scarlet ; both these 
species are remarkable for the regularity of the markings of their 
tail-feathers, and for the markings extending to the tip. 

Odontophorus veraguensis, Gould. 

Malė. Crown of the head and crest dark rust-red ; throat black, 
with a line of white down the centre of each feather ; back reddish- 
brown, freckled with black, and a faint line of white down the centre 
of each feather ; wings brown, mottled and freckled with black, and 
with a small indistinct spot of buflF near the tip of each of the coverts ; 
scapularies brown, with a light stripe down the centre, and with a 
large blotch of brownish-black near the apex of the inner web ; rump 
pale brown, obscurely spotted with black ; under surface light cho- 
colate-brown, with a spot of white more or less encircled with black 
near the tip of each feather. 

Female : Differs in having the forehead and upper feathers of the 



108 

crest slaty-brown ; and the spots on the breast smaller and less con- 
spicuous. 

Totai length, 10 inches ; bill, į; wing, 5f ; tail, 2|-; tarsi, 1|. 

Hab. Veragua. 

Remark. — This species is nearly allied to Odontophorus guttatus, 
but differs in the lighter colouring of the breast and the redder hue 
of the crest. Specimens were procured bj Dr. Seemann at Panama, 
and by Mr. Bridges from near Da^ad in Veragua. 



2. Synopsis AviuM Tanagrinarum. — A descriptive Cata- 

LOGUE OF THE KNOWN SpECIES OF TaNAGERS. 

By Philip Lutley Sclater, M.A., F. Z. S., &c. 

Part II. — containing the genera Pyrrhocoma, Nemosią, Cyps- 
nagra, Tachyphonus, Trichothraupis, Encometis, Lamo, PhcenicO' 
thraupis, Lamj)rotes, Orthogonys, Pyranga and Ramphocelus. 

Genus XIII. Pyrrhocoma. 

Pyrrhocoma, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 138 (1851). 

Rostrum breviusculum, incurvum, dente finali subobsoleto, mandi- 
bula superiore tumida : alcE subbreves, rotundatce, remigibus 
ąuarta et ąuinta tertiam superantibus et longissimis : cauda 
viodica. 

1. Pyrrhocoma ruficeps. 

Tachyphonus ruficeps, Strickl. Ann. N. H. 18-10, p. 419; Gray, 
Gen. p. 365 ; Bp. Consp. p. 237. 

Pipilopsis ruficeps, Bp. Consp. p. 485. 
Pyrrhocoma ruficeps, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 138. 

Sckistaceus, capite toto et gutture castaneis : fronte, loris et 

mento summo nigris. 
Long. totą 5 '6, alse 2' 6, caudae 25. 

Hab. Brazil ; S. Paolo {Sw. in Mus. Cantab.) ; Paraguay (^Nat- 
terer) ; Ypanema ( Von Olfers). 
Mus. Brit., Paris., Berol., &c. 

Genus XIV. Nemosią. 

Nemosią, Vieill. Analyse, p. 32 (1816). 
Hemitkraupis, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 21 (1851). 
Thlypopsis, Cab. INIus. Hein. p. 138 (1651). 

Rostrum tenue, elongatum, incurvutn, acutum, dente finali fere 
nulio : alce elongatce, remige prima longa, tribus pro.vimis 
paulo longioribus, ceąualibus et longissimis : cauda modica, sub- 
guadrafa : se.tus dissimiles. 



]09 

a. Nemosią. 

1. Nemosią pileata. 

Tangara h coiffe noire de Cayenne, Buff. PI. Enl. 720. fig. 2. 

Tanagra inleata, Bodd. Table d. PI. Enl. ; Gm. S. N. 898. 

Nemosią pileata, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xxii. p. 490 ; Enc. Meth. 
p. 787; Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. in Mag. de Zool. 1837, p. 28 ; 
d'Orb. Voy. p. 261 ; Gray, Gen. p. 366 ; Bp. Consp. p. 236. 

Hylophilus cyanoleucus, Max. Beitr. iii. p. 734 (t?_). 

Hylophilus cceruleus, ib. p. 731 (?). 

Tangara a coiffe noire, Desm. Tan. pi. 41. 

Hooded Tanager, Lath. G. H. vi. p. 13. 

Pico de punzon negro asui y blanco, Azara, uo. 105 ((?). 

P. d. p. asui y blanco, id. no. 110 ( ?). 

Plumbescenti-ccerulea, pileo supero cum capite et cervice late- 
rali nigris : sfriga prcBoculari et corpore subtus albis : rostro 
nigro : pedibus flamdis. — ? supra minus ccerulescens et nigro 
colore omnino carens ; subtus minus pure alba. 

Long. totą 4'7, alse 2'8, caudse r8. 

Hab. Cayenne ; Brazil, Para (TTallace), Mexicana (JFallace), Ba- 
\a&(P. Max.); Nauta (Cast. etDev.) ; Bolivia, Chiąuitos (d' Orb.) ; 
Paraguay (Ašara) ; Venezuela, Caraccas {Levraud). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 

b. Hemithraupis. 

2. Nemosią guira. 

Sylvia brasiliensis viridis, Briss. Orn. iii. 533. 

Motacilla guira, Linn. i. p. 335. 

Tang. olive a gorge noire de Cayenne, Buff. PI. Enl. 720. fig. 1 . 

Tanagra nigrigula, Bodd. Table d. PI. Enl. 

Tanagra nigricollis, Gm. S. N. p. 894. 

Hylophilus guira, Max. Beitr. iii. p. 736. 

Netnosia nigricollis, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xxii. p. 491 ; Enc. 
M^th. p. 788; Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. in Mag. de Zool. 1837, 
p. 28 ; d'Orb. Voy. p. 261 ?; Hartl. Ind. Az. p. 7; Gray's Gen. 
p. 366. 

Nemosią guira, Gray's Gen. App. p. 1 7 ; Bp. Consp. p. 236. 

Hemithraupis guira, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 21 ; Bp. Consp. p. 312. 

Pico de punzon amarilio barba negrą, Azar. Pax. no. 102. 

Guira Warbler, Lath. G. H. vii. p. 193. 

Flavescenti-olivacea ; superciliis longis et vitta gutturem nigrum 
undique dngente flavis : pectore et dorso postico cinnamomeis : 
ventre cinerascenti-ffavido, crisso saturatiore. ? Jlavieanti- 
olivacea, uropygio clariore : subtus valde dilutior. 

Long. totą 50, alse 2-6, caudse 20. 

Hab. Cayenne ; Brazil, south-eastern provinces (P. Max.) ; Bo- 
Uvia (d'Orb. ?). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 

There are slight variations in colouring between the Brazilian and 



nu 

Cayenne examples of this species, but not sufficient to lead me to 
consider them distinct. 

3. Nemosią guirina, sp. nov. 

Nemosią guira, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 155. 

Flaveseenti-olivacea, superciliis longis cum plaga cervicali utrin- 
que conjunctis Jlavis : giitture et capitis lateribus nigris : dorso 
postico cinnamomeo, pectore item cinnamomeo sed saturatiore et 
magis castaneo : abdomine cinerascenti-Jiavido, crisso Jlavicante. 

Long. totą 50, alse 2'9, caudse 2'0. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota ; East Peru. 

Three specimens of what woiild at first sight appear to be N. guira, 
iu my possession, two of which are from New Grenada and the third 
from Peru, offer such a marked differenee in tbe length of the wing 
on comparison with specimens from the eastern coast, that I cannot 
avoid separating them specifically. They are also distinguishable, as 
the yellow colour is more developed on the sides of the neck, but 
does not form a band between the breast and black throat, as in 
N. guira. And in the N. guirina the breast has more of a deep chest- 
uut tinge, which extends quite up to the black throat. 

Perhaps d'Orbigny's Bolivian N. guira may be rather referable to 
this species than to the previous bird. 

4. Nemosią flavicollis. 

Nemosiu flavicollis, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xxii. 491 ; Enc. Meth. 
p. 788 ; Gal. Ois. p. 99. pi. 75 ; Gray, Gen. p. 366 ; Bp. Consp. 
p. 236. 

Tanagra speculifera, Temm. PI. Col. 36. fig. 1. (? . 2. ? . 

Sylvia melanoxantha, Licht. Verz. d. Doubl. p. 34. 

Hylophilus melanoxanthus, Max. Beitr. iii. 736. 

Hemithraupis flavicollis, Bp. Consp. p. 312. 

Hemitkraupis melanoxantha, Cab. M. H. p. 21. 

Nigra, dorso postico flavo : speculo alari et corpore subtus albis : 
gutture aureo : crisso flavo, dorso concolore. ? supra brun- 
nescenti-olivacea : subtus flavida, medialiter clarior : alarum 
marginibus flavicantibus. 

Long. totą 5"1, alae 2" 7, caudae 2-1. 

Hab. Brazil (P. Max.). 

Mus. Brit., &c. 

5. Nemosią insignis, sp. nov. 

Nigra, brunnescente tincta : speculo alari et corpore subtus 
albis : interscapulio et dorso inferiore cum gutture et crisso 
flavis. ? brunnescenti-olivacea, alarum et caudce marginibus 
flavescentibus : subtus flavida, lateribus obscurioribus. 

Long. totą 5*5, alse 2'9, caudse 2*1. 

Hab. South Brazil. 

Obs. Similis N. flavicoUi, sed crassitie majore, dorso flavo altius 
ascendente et gutture pallidius flavo, dorso /ere concolore, 
distinguenda. 



111 

I possess three specimens of this Nemosią, malė, female and young 
malė, out of a coUeetion formed, I believe, iu the southern part of 
Brazil They are certainly larger in all their dimensions than the 
N flavicollis, besides showing the other differences above noted, and 
I think can hardly be passed over as merely a local variety of that 
species. 

6. Nemosią auricollis, sp. nov. 

Nemosią flavicollis ex Cayenna, auct. 

Saturate nigricanti-brunnea ; speculo alari parvo albo : dorso 
postico, gutture et crisso aureo-flavis, abdomine albido. 

Long. totą 4-6, alse 2-7, caudse 1-9. 

Hab. Cayenne; East Peru, river Ucayali {Eawxwell). 

Mus. Brit., &c. 

Obs. N. flavicolli simillima, sed ėolore brunneo, et dorso postico 
aurescentiore flavo, necnon speculo alari magis celato, distin- 



7. Nemosią peruana. 

Hemithraupis peruana, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 173; Note s. 1. Tang. 

p. 24. 

Nemosią peruana, Sclater, Tan. Cat. Sp. p. 7. 

Nigra, brunnescente tincta ; speculo alari albo: dorso postico 
toto, gutture, crisso etmaculis in tectricibus alariim aureo-flavis : 
abdomine albo : pectore paululum nigro variegato. ? ohvas- 
centi-brunnea, uropygio et alarum caudaąue marginibus flavi- 
cantioribus; subtus flavida, ventre dilutiore, crisso saturatiore. 

Long. totą 50, alse 2*6, caudse 2-0. 

Hab. East Peru. 

ilfMs. P.L. S. ^ J. 

Obs, Species maculis alaribus aureis tnter affines dignoscenda. 

8. Nemosią albigularis. 

Nemosią albigularis, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 109. pi. xcix. et 
p. 155. 

Nigra ; dorso postico et crisso cum macula collari utringue et 
plumis narium ąuibusdam aureo-flavis : speculo alari albo : 
subtus alba, pectoris et laterum plumis nigro vanegatu. 
Long. totą 4-2, alse 2-5, caudse 1'8. 
Hab. New Grenada, Bogota. 
Mus. Brit., Joh. Gould, &c. 

9. Nemosią rtjficapilla. 

Nemosią ruflcapilla, VieUl. N. D. d'H. N. xxii. p. 493 ; Ene. Mėth. 
p. 788 ; Gray, Gen. p. 366 ; Bp. Consp. p. 236. 
*į^ia ruficapilla, Vieill. Gal. Ois. Suppl. pi. 3. 
Im^ilus ruficeps, Max. Beltr. iii. p. 725 ; Gray, Gen. p. 200. 
HmMtraupis ruficeps, Cab. Mus. Hein. p.21 ; Bp. Consp. p.31 1. 
Olivaceo-viridis ; capite et gutture undiąue castaneis : pectore 



112 

et dorso postico cinnamomeis: macula ceroicali utrinąue aurea : 
ahdomine cineraceo, medialiterjlavo-virescente, crissoflavicante. 
Long. totą 5-0, alse 2-6, caudse 2-1. 
Hab. Brazil, Rio ; Bailia {P.Max.). 
Mus. Brit., &c. 

c. Thlypopsis. 
10. Nemosią sordida. 

Nemosią sordida, Lafr. et cl'Orb. Syn. Av inMag. de ZooL 1837. 
p. 28; d'Orb. Voy. p. 261. pi. 18. fig. 2 ; Gray. Gen. p. 366 ; Bp. 

^"^NLošia fulvescens, Strickl. Ann. N. H. (1844), p. 420 ; Gray, 
Gen. p. 366 ; Bp. Consp. p. 236. 

Thlypopsis fulvescens, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 13». 

Nemosią blanda, Licht. ia Mus. Berol. 

Brunnescenti-cinerea ; pileo cinnamomescenti-castaneo : capitis 
lateribus et gulaflavis : abdomine dilute brunnescenti-ochraceo, 
medialiter albescentiore. 

Long. totą 5-0, alse 37, caudse 3-1. 

Hab. Bolivia, Yuracares {d'Orb.). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., Berolin. , . , . • 

I have compared a specimen of this bird, wbich is in įny own pos- 
session, wįth d'Orbigny's type in tbe Paris Museum and the example 
oi N. fiilvescens which is in Mr. Strickland's coUection. It seems to 
agree with both of these nearly enough to induce me to regard the 
Severai appellations given by these writers as probably synonymous. 

11. Nemosią RUFiCEPS. 

Tachyphonus ruficeps, Lafr. R. Z. 1848, p. 173. 

Thlypopsis fulviceps, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 138. 

Cinereus, capite toto cum gutture undiąue castaneis, gula dilu- 

tiore : abdomine medio albesceyite. 
Long. totą 50, alse 25, caudse 2-0. 
Hab. Caraccas in Venezuela (Lafr.). 
Mus. Parisiensi, Heineano. 

Genus XV. Cypsnagra. 

Cypsnagra, Less. Man. d'Orn. p. 460 (1831). 

Leucopygia, Sw. Class. Birds, ii. p. 285 (1837). 

Rostrum tenue, arcuatum, acutum, dente finali obsoleto ; gonyde 
vix ascendente : alce modica, remigibus secunda et tertia longis- 
simis: cauda modica rotundata: pedes robusti, unguibus acutts. 

1. Cypsnagra ruficollis. 
Tanagra ritficollis, Licht. Verz. d. Doubl. p. 30. 
Tanaara hirundinacea, Less. Tr. d'Orn. p. 460. 
Leucopygia ruficollis, Sw. An. in Men. p. 312 ; Cab. Mus. Hem. 
p. 137. 



113 

Tachyphonus ruficollis, d'Orb. Voy. p. 2/7. 

Cypsnagra ruficollis, Gray, Gen. p. 167; Bp. Consp. p. 232. 

Tanagra fumigata, Temm. in Mus. Lugd. 

Supra niger, uropygio, speculo alari cum primariarum mediarum 
marginibus et tectricibus alarum majoribus (^oittam formantibus) 
albis : snbtus albus vix ochracescens, gutture ferrugineo. 

Long. totą, 6 •2, alse 3 "2, caudse 2*5. 

J^aS. S. Brazil, Bahia (^Sw.) ; Rio ; S. Paolo (Licht.); Bolivia, 
Chiquitos {d'Orb.). 

Genus XVI. Tachyphonus. 

Tachyphonus, Vieill. Analyse, p. 33 (1816), 

Pyrrota, Vieill. ibid. p. 45. 

Comarophagus, Boie, Isis, 1826, p. 974. 

Rostrum subconicum, compressum; apice incurva, acnta et dentata ; 
commissura plūs miniisve sinuata et lobą mediali interdum in- 
structa : alce modicce, paulum rotundatce, remigibus tertia, 
quarta et ąuinta longissimis ; secunda breviore quam ąuinta : 
cauda elongata, rotundata : sexus dissimiles : ptilosis marium 
nigra, fxminarum brunnea. 

1. Tachyphonus melaleucus. 

Oriolus melaleucus, Sparm. Mus. Carls. pi. 31 (1787). 

Tanagra noir d^ Amėrique, Buff. PI. Enl. 179. fig. 2 ( (j). 

Tanagra roux de Cayenne, ib. pi. 711 ( ? ). 

Tanagra nigerrima, Gm. S. N. p. 899 ; Max. Beitr. iii. p. 534. 

Tanagra rufa, Bodd. Table d. PI. Enl. ( ?). 

Oriolus leucopterus, Gm. S. N. p. 392. 

Tachyphonus leucopterus, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xxxii. p. 3.58 ; 
Enc. Meth. p. 803 ; Gal. Ois. pi. 82, p. 1 13 ; d'Orb. Voy. p. 277 ; 
Gray, Gen. p. 365. 

Pyrrota leucoptera, Bp. Consp. p. 238. 

Tachyphonus nigerrimus, Sw. Q«art. Journ. Sc. 1826, p. 62 ; 
Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. in Mag. de Zool. 1837, p. 29 ; Schomb. 
Guian. iii. p. 669. 

Tordo de bosąue negro cobijas blancas, Azara, Pax. uo. 7&' 

Tangara noir, Desm. Tan. pi. 45 ( c? ) et 46 (?) . 

White-winged Oriole, Lath. G. H. iii. p. 125, pi. 42. 

Tachyphonus beauperthuyi, Bp. Compt. Rend. xxxii. (1851), 
p. 82?. 

Sericeo-ater ; tectricibus alarum summis et tectricibus inferi- 
oribus albis. ? rufescenti-brunnea ; subtus paulo dilutior. 

Long. totą 7"0, alse 3*4, caudse 3'0. 

Hab. Cayenne ; Guiana (Schomb.) ; Venezuela ; Trinidad ; To- 
bago (Kirk.) ; Bogota (Lewy in Mus. Paris) ; Pintobamba in Peru 
et Goyaz in Brazil (Cast. et Dev.) ; Brazil ; Pernambuco (Sw.) ; 
Bahia (P. Max.) ; Rio Grande doSul (Plant.) ; Paraguay (Azara); 
Corrientes (d'Orb.). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 
No. CCCVIII. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



114 

This seems one of the most common and widely distributed species 
of birds in Cisandean South America. There is some variation in 
the length and thickuess of the bill, and amount of white on the 
wings. Prince Bonaparte has nanied a Yenezuelan bird exhibiting 
some differences in these respects, Tachyphonus beauperthuii, but I 
have not recognized that species as disrinct, because I have observed 
such differences in specimens brought from the šame locality. 

2. TaCHYPHONUS VALERU. 

Pyrrota valeryi, J. et E. Verr. R. Z. 1855, p. 351. 

Unicolor ater : campteriis item aigris. 

Long. totą 2-1, alse 4-1, caudse 3-9. 

Hab. Central America. 

Mus. Paris. 

I have not seen this species. 

3. Tachyphonus luctuosus. 

Tachyphonus Juctuosus, Lafr. etd'Orb. Syn. Av. in Mag. de Zool. 
1837, p. 29. 

Pyranga luctuosa, d'Orb. Voy. p. 263, pi. 20. fig. 1 <? . 2 ? . 

Tachyphonus tenuirostris, Gray, Gen. p. 365 ; Bp. Consp. p. 240. 

Lanio tenuirostris, Gray, Gen. App. p. 16. 

Ater : fectricibus alaru7n minoribus mediisque et tectricibus 
subalaribus albis. ? supra virescens, uropygio Jlavescentiore, 
pileo cinerascentiore : subtus flavescens, gula pallide grisea. 

Long. totą 5"0, alse 2*5, caudse 2"1. 

Hab. Bolivia (cTOrb.) ; Eastern Peni ; prov. Quixos in Ecuador ; 
Bogota; S. Martha; Trinidad ; Tobago {Kir /c.). 

%Ius. Brit., &c. 

4. Tachyphonus coronatus. 

Tordo de bosąue coronado y negro, Azara, Pax. no. 77 . 

Agelaius corotiatvs, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xxxiv. p. 535, et Enc. 
Meth. p. 711 (1818). 

Tanagra coryphtmis, Licht. Verz. p. 31 (1824). 

Tachyphonus coryphaeus, Gray, Gen. p. 365 ; Hartl. Ind. Az. p. 5. 

Pyrrota coryphceus, Bp. Consp. p. 238. 

Tachyphonus vigorsi, Sw. Quart. Joum. Sc. 1826, p. 63 ; Jard. 
111. Orn. pi. 36. fig. 1. 

Tachyphonus coronatus, Sclater, Tan. Cat. Sp. p. 7. 

Ater : vertice medio ruberrimo : tectricibus alarum sumtnis et tec- 
tricibus inferioribus albis. ? rufescenti-brunnea ; capite magis 
fusco : subtus paulo dilutior. 

Long. totą 7" O, alse 3*2, caudse 3*0. 

Hab. Paraguay (Azara) ; South Brazil (Sw.). 

Mus. Brit., Berol. 

5. Tachyphonus sukinamus. 

Merula surinamensis, Briss. Orn. Suppl. vi. p. 46. 



115 

Turdus surinamus, Linn. S. N. i. p. 297. 

Tachyphonus sumiamensis, Lafr. R. Z. 1846, p. 202 ; Bp. Compt. 
Reiid. xxxii. p. 81. 

Tanagra cristata, Gm. S. N. ]>. 898 (partitn). 

Tachyphonus cristatus, A'ieill. N. D. d'H. N. xxxii. p. 356, et Eiic. 
Meth, p. 802 {partini). 

Tanagra martialis, Temm. Analyse, p. lxv. 

Tanagrų desmaresti, Sw. Quart. Journ. Sc. 1826, p. 67. 

Tachyphonus ochropygos, Cab. Schomb. Reis. iii. p. 668. 

Lunio cristata, Bp. Consp. 241 (partim). 

Tangara huppė de la Guyane, Buff. PI. Enl. 301. fig. 2. 

Le Houpette, adulte, Desm. Tan. pi. 47. 

Surinatn Thrush, Lath. G. H. v. p. 150. 

Sericeo-ater : tectricibus ulurum minoribus et tectricibus sub- 
alaribus albis : fronte nigra : pileo medio cristato aurescenti- 
fulvo : dorso postico dilutiore fvlvo : hypochondriis imis custa- 
neis. ? supra olivucea ; eapite cinereo : pileo medio olivaceo : 
ciliis et regione ocnlari Jluvis : subtus puUide fidva, crisso 
flavescentiore. 

Long. totą 6 'O, alse 3 5, caudas 3' 2. 

Hab. Cayenne ; Brit. Guiana (Schomb.) ; Guia on tlie Rio Negro 
(Tfallace). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 

6. Tachyphonus cristatus. 

Tangara hupe de Cayenne, Buff. PI. Enl. 7. fig. 2. 

Tangara Cayennensis nigra cristata, Briss. Orn. Supp. p. 65. 

Tanagra cristata, Gm. S. N. p. 898 ; Max. Beitr. iii. 474. 

Tachyphonus cristatus, Vieill. Nouv. Dict. xxxii. p. 356, et Enc. 
Me'th. p. 802 (jmrtim) ; Sw. Quart. Journ. Sc. 1826, p. 66; Schomb. 
Guian. iii. 668 ; Grav's Gen. p. 365. 

Lanio cristatus, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. 1846, p. 203 ; Enc. Mėth. 
p. 740 ; Lafr. R. Z. 1846, p. 203. sp. 2et 5 ; Gray, Gen. p. 364 ; 
Bp. Consp. p. 240 {partini). 

Tanugru brunnea, Spix, Av. Bras. ii. p. 37. pi. 49. fig. 2 (?). 

Tanagra gubernatrix, Temm. Tab. Meth. p. 30. 

Lanio vieillotii, Lafr. R. Z. 1846, p. 204. 

Houpette, jeune dge, Desm. Tan. pi. 48. 

Crested Tanager, Lath. G. H. vi. p. 11. 

Ater : pileo toto cristato ruberrimo : g%da et dorso postico 
pallide fidvis : tectricibus alarum minoribus et tectricibus infe- 
rioribus albis. ? cinnamomescenti-brminea, subtus dilutior. 
Long. totą 65, alse 3'1, caudse 3*0. 

Hab. Cayenne ; Brit. Guiana (Schomb.) ; Brazil ; New Grenada, 
Bogota. 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 

7. Tachyphonus rufiventer. 

Tanagra rufiventer, Spix, Av. Bras. ii. p. 37. pi. 50. fig. 1. 



116 

Tachyphonus rufiventer, Strickl. Cont. Orn. 1850, p. 49. pi. 50. 

Tachyphonus serrirostris, Strickl. MS. 

Ater : pileo medio et uropijgio flavescenti-brunneis : gulari stria 
et abdomine toto pallide brunneis, hoc medialiter in castaneum 
transeunte : tectricibus alarum superioribus et inferioribus 
albis. 

Long. totą 6*5, alse 3*2, caudae 275. 

Hab. Eastern provinces of Peru, Sarayacu (Cast. et Dev.) ; Cha- 
micurros (Hawxwell). 

8. Tachyphonus delattrii. 

Tachyphonus delattrii, Lafr. R. Z. 1847, p. 72 ; Gray's Geii. 
App. p. 17 ; Bp. Consp. p. 237. 

Fusco-niger : crista verticali nitide fulvo-aurantia. 

Long. totą 5 '8, alse 2*8, caudse 2"5. 

Hab. North-westem coast of New Grenada, S. Bonaventūra {Be- 
lattre), Gorgona (Capt. Kellett). 

Mus. Brit. et Acad. Philadelph. 

9. Tachyphonus phceniceus. 

Tachyphonus phmnieeus, Sw. An. in Men. p. 311 ; Gray's Gen. 
p. 365 ; Bp. Consp. p. 237. 

Tachyphonus saucius, Strickl. Ann. Nat. Hist. xiii. 419. 

Tanagra leucocampter. Licht. in Mus. Berol. 

Chahjbeo-niger: tectricibus alarum superioribus albis, rubro mar- 

ginatis, inferioribus omnino albis. ? supra nigrescenti-brun- 

nea, subtus clarior, cinerascens. 
Long. totą 5*5, alse 2*9, caudse 2-6. 
Hab. Interior of Brazil, Borba (Natterer). 
Mus. Berolinensi et Viudobiensi. 

10. Tachyphonus xanthopygius. 

Tachyphonus xanthopygius, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 158. pi. 69 
(?), et 1855, p. 83. pi. 90 ((?). 

Lanio auritus, DuBus, BuU. Ac. Brux. xxii. p. 153 (1855). 

Niger : tergo flavo : fascicula post-sujierciliari coccinea : carpo 
summo dihite Jlavo : tectricibus subalaribus albis. ? nigro- 
cinerea, subtus dilutior, tergo Jlavo : carpo summo et tectri- 
cibus subalaribus albis. 

Long. totą 6'1, alse 3*5, caudse 2"5. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota. 

Mus. Brit. 

Genus XVIL Trichothraupis. 

Trichothra%ipis, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 23 (1851). 
Rostrum Tachyphoni sed haud sinuatum, basi dilatatd, dente 
finali minus distincto ; rietu setoso : alce modiccB, rotundatce. 



117 

remigibus tertia et quarfa lonffissimis, secunda autem guintam 
superante : cauda tnodica, rotundata. 

I. TrICHOTHRAUPIS dUADRlCOLOR. 

Tachyphonm ųuadricolor, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xxxii. p. 359 ; 
Enc. Mėth p. 803 ; Gray, Gen. p. 365 ; Bp. Consp. p. 237- 
Lindo pardo copete amarilio, Azara, no. 101 (unde). 
Muscicapa melanops, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xxi. p. 452, et Enc. 

M(5th. p. 827. / s o / ^ 

Tanagra auricapilla, Spix, Av. Bras. u. pi. 52. fig. 1 ( <? ), 2 ( ? ;, 
p. 39 ; Max. Beitr. iii. p. 538. 

Muscicapa galeata, Licht. Doubl. p. 56. 

Tachyphonus suchii, Sw. Quart. Journ. Sc. 1826, p. 66. 

Trichothraupis quadricolor, Cab. M. H. p. 23. 

Supra brunnescenti-olivacea, pileo cristato medialiter fiavo .• 
fronte, oculorum amhitu et alis caudaąue nigris : vitta alart 
interna rectricum basin transeunte et tectricibus subalaribus 
albis : subtus pallide rufescenti-fulva. ¥ mari similis, sed 
cristaflava etfacie nigra carens. 

Long. totą 6-2 ; alse 3-2, caudse 2-9. 

Hab. Brazil, Bahia {Max.) ; Rio (Spix) ; San Paolo (Licht.) ; 
Paraguay (Azar.). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., Berol., &c. 

Genus XVIII. Eucometis. 
Comarophagus, Bp, Compt. Rend. xxxii. p. 81 (nec Boi^). 
Bostrum Tachypliom sed commissura vix sinuata : alce elongata, 

remigibus tertia, ąuarta et quinta longissimis : cauda elongata, 

rotundata : ptilosis olivacea : sexus similes. 

1. Eucometis penicillata. 

Tanagra penidllata, Spix, Av. Bras. ii. p. 36. pi. 49. fig. 1. 
Tachyphonus penicillatus, Gray, Gen. p. 365 ; Bp. Consp. p. 237. 
Flavo-brunnescenti-olivacea, uropygio clariore : capite toto cine- 
rascente, crista elongata, alba, cinerascente marginata : sicbtus 
saturate aurantio-flava ; gutture albo, cinereo lavato : rostro 
pallide cornto : pedibus brunneis. 
Long. totą 7'0, alse 3"5, caudse 3"1. 

Hab. Brazil (?) {Spix) ; Cayenne ; Surinam {Mus. Senchenb.). 
Mus. Senckenb. et P. L. S. 

This seems to be the species of this curious form which has the 
crest most developed, and from its locality the most likely to be what 
Spix intended by his Tanagra penicillata. 

I have seen several examples of it, which I have no doubt from 
their preparation were Cayenne skins. 

2. Eucometis albicollis. 

Pyranga albicollis, Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. in Mag. de Zool. 1837, 



118 

p. 33 ; d'Orb. Voy. p. 265. pi. 26. fig. 2 ; Gray, Gen. p. 264 ; Bp. 
Consp. p. 241. 

Trichothraupis albicollis, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 23 (note). 

Olivacea, uropygio Jlavescente : capite et colio sordide gnseis : 
gutture alho : abdomine fiavo : mandibula pallida : maxilla 
cornea. 

Hab. Bolivia, Chiąuitos {d'Orb.). 

Mus. Paris. 

3. EUCOMETIS CRISTATA. 

Pipilopsis cristata, DuBus, BuU. Xc. Brux. xxxii. p. 154 (1855). 

Trichothraupis penicillata, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 156. 

Flavo-brunnescenti-olivacea, uropygio clariore : capite cristato 
toto cum gutture cineraceis, sed gula dilutiore : abdomine au- 
rantio-flavo : rostro nigricanti-corneo, pedibus pallide brunneis. 

Long. totą 70, alse 35, caudse 3'0. 

Hab. New Grenada, S. Martha {Ferreaux) ; Cartagena et Carac- 
cas {Mus. Paris.) ; Nicaragua (Delattre). 

Mus. Paris. 

Tliis bird seems to differ from the one I have called penicillata 
in its shorter crest, wbich is iiot vvhite at the base, darker cinereous 
throat, rather more yellovrish belly and blacker bill. In my list of 
Bogota birds I called it penicillata, not having then noticed its 
apparent distinctness. 

Genus XIX. Lanio. 

Lanio, Vieill. Analysc, p. 40 (1816). 

Pogonothraupis, Cab. iu Schomb. Guian. iii. p. 669 (1848). 

Rostrum rectum, compressum; mandibula superiore dentata, forti- 
ter uncinata et lobą mediali instructa : alce elongatce, remigibus 
tertia et quarta longissimis: cauda elongata, rotundata : ptilosis 
marium aurantiaca et nigra, faminarum brunnea. 

1. Lanio atricapilltjs. 

Tang. jaune a tdte noire, Buff. PI. Enl. 809. fig. 2. 

Tanagra atricapilla, Gm. S. N. p. 898. 

Lanius aurantius, Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. p. 79 ? 

Lanio atricapillus, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xxii. p. 305 ; Vieill. Enc. 
Mėth. p. 741 ; Gal. Ois. pi. 138. p. 223 ; Gray, Gen. p. 364 ; Bp. 
Consp. Av. p. 240. 

Pogonothaupis atricapilla, Cab. in Schomb. Reis. iii. p. 669. 

Ferruginolento-fiavus, pectore in castaneum transeunte : capite 
toto et cervice undiąue cum alis caudaąue nigris : tectricibus 
alarum minoribus et tectricibus subalaribus albis. ? fitsco- 
bru?inea unicolor ; subtus paulo dilutior. 

Long. totą 68, alse2'7, caudse 2'1. 

Hab. Cayenue ; BritishGuiann (Schomb.) ; New Grenada, Bogota. 

Mus. Brit., Paris. 



119 

2. Lanio versicolor. 

Tachyphonus versicolor, Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. in Mag.de Zool. 
1837, p. 28. 

Pyranga versicolor, d'Orb. Voy. p. 262. pi. 19. fig. 1. 

Lanio versicolor, Lafr. R. Z. 1846, p. 203 ; Gray, Gen. p. 364 ; 
Bp. Consp. p. 240. 

Flavus, dorso brunnescentiore : capite toto et gula cum alis 
caudaque nigris : tectricibus alarum superioribus omnino albis. 
$ flavo-brunnea unicolor, cauda rufescente : venti e Jlavescente. 

Hab. Bolivia, Yuracares {d'Orb.). 

Mus. Paris., Lafresnayano. 

Obs. Affinis Lauioni atricapillo sed statura minore, dorso imo et 
colli lateribus jiavescentibus, tectricibus alarum om?iino albis, et 
corpore subtus jlavescentiore distinguendus. 

3. Lanio aurantitjs. 

Lanio aurantius, Lafr. R. Z. 1846, p. 204 ; Grav, Geu. App. p. 1(); 
Bp. Coasp. p. 240. 

Flavissijnus : capite toto cum gula et alis caudaąue nigris: tectri- 
cibus alarum minoribus albis: plaga magna pectorali ferruginea. 
? supra brunnea, uropygio flavicante : capite et colio postico 
ochracescentibus : gulafusca: abdomine Jiuco ; crisso brunnes- 
centiore : tectricibus subalaribus griseis. 

Long. totą 8*0, alse 3*9, caudse 3" 5. 

Hab. Hondūras (Dyson) ; S. Mexico, Orizaba (Sallė). 

Mus. Brit., Lafresnayano. 

Genus XX. Phcenicothraui'is. 

Phcenicothraupis, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 24 (1851). 

Rostrum forte, elongatum, rectum, subconicum, cotnpressum, com- 
missura non sinuata ; dente finali distincto : alce longce, remi- 
gibus tertia, ąuarta et guinta longissimis, se.vta secundam supe- 
rante : cauda longa, rotundata : ptilosis marium rubra, fosnii- 
narum brunnea. 

1. Phcenicothraupis rubica. 

Habia roziza, Azara, no. 8.5. 

Saltator rubicus, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. siv. p. 10/ ; Enc. Me'th. 
p. 792; Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. iu Mag. de ZooL 1837, p. 36 ; 
Gray, Gen. p. 363 ; Hartl. Ind. Az. p. 6. 

Tanagra fammiceps, Temm. PI. Col. 177; Max. Beitr. iii. 597. 
Tanagra porphyrio, Licht. Verz. d. Doubl. p. 31. 
Pyranga rubica, d'Orb. Voy. p. 265. 

Phanicothraupis rubica, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 24 : Sclater, Ann. 
N. H. xiv. p. 24. 

Fusco-rubescens fere unicolor : cauda clariore : pileo cristato 
medialiter coccineo : capifis lateribus obscurioribns : rastro 
nigrescenti-plumbeo : pedibus pallidis. (?) pallide fvsco-brun- 
nea unicolor ; subtus dilutior. 
Long. totą 72, alse 39, caudse 3*7. 



120 

Hab. South-east Brazil {P.Max.); Paraguay (^zara) ; Bolivia, 
Guarayos and Yuracares (d'Orb.). 
Mus. Brit., &c. 

2. Phcenicothraupis rubra. 

Tachyphonus ruber, Vieill. N. D. d'H.N. xxxii. p. 359; Enc. 
Meth. p. 804. 

Phoen. rubica ex ins. Trinit., Sclater, Anu. N. H. xiv., p. 24. 

Fusco-rubescens ; subtus clarior ; abdomine et cauda roseo in- 
dutis : crista mediali coccinea : rostro fusco-plumbeo : pedibus 
pallide brunneis. 

Long. totą 6*8, alse 3'7, caudse 3*0. 

Hab. Trinidad. 

Mus. P. L. S, 

This bird is rather smaller than the South Brazilian species, and 
may be distinguished from it by its brighter and more rosy colouring 
below, shorter tail and paler feet. I have only seen specimens from 
the island of Trinidad. 

3. Phcenicothraupis rubicoides. 

Saltator rubicoides, Lafr. R. Z. 1844, p. 41. 
Phcenicothraupis rubicoides, Cab. M. H. p. 24 ; Sclater, Ann. 
N. H. xiv., p. 25. 

Pyranga ignicapilla, Licht. in Mus. Berol. (<7). 
Pyranga lĮuajacina, Licht. in Mus. Berol. (?). 

Supra fusco-rubescens, cauda dorso concolore : subtus pectore 
toto muito clariore, ruberrimo : crista mediali verticis coccinea : 
rostro nigro-plumbeo : pedibus pallide brunneis. ? pallide 
fusco-brunnea, subtus dilutior, gutture pallidiore.j 

Long. totą 7'5, alse 4"0, caudse 3*75. 

Hab. S. Mexico, Papantla (Mus. Berol.) ; Cordova {SalU) ; 
Guatimala {Mus. H.E.S.) ; S. Martha (Verr.). 

Mus. Brit., Berol., Lafresnayano, H.E.S. 

This bird may be recognized by its tail being of the šame colour 
as the back, not brighter, as in the Brazilian species, and the scarlet 
breast. My examples were coUected by Signor Constancia in the 
vicinity of Guatimala. Specimens received by MM. Verreaux from 
S. Martha, New Grenada, to which I have seen the MS. name 
" P. erythrolaimus, Bp." attached, appear hardly different from the 
Mexican bird. 

4. Phcenicothraupis gutturalis. 

Phcenicothraupis gutturalis, Sclater, Ann. N. H. xiv. (1854), 
J). 25. : P. Z. S. 1855, p. 156. 

Niger : vertice cristato cum gutture medio coccineis : rostra pedi- 

busgue nigris. 
Long. totą 7'25, alse 38, caudse 3*2. 
Hab. New Grenada, Bogota. 
Mtis. Brit., Paris. 



121 

Since describing this species, I have seen several other specimens 
of it in the Paris Museum, transmitted from Bogota by M. Fon- 
tanier in 1853. 

Genus XXI. Lamprotes. 

Lamprotes, Sw. Class. Birds, ii. 283 (1837). 

Sericossypha, Less. Echo d. M. S. 1844, p. 382. 

Rostrum Orthogonydis sed paulo fortius : alce elotigatce, remige 

prima longa et vix breviore quain sequentibus : cauda brevius- 

cula, rotundata : tarsi breves et sicut pedes robustissimi ; 

ungues acutissimi : ptilosis aureo-nitens, marium rubro varie- 

gata, foeminarum unicolor. 

a. Lamprotes. 

1. Lamprotks loricattjs. 

Tanagra loricata, Licht. Verz. d. Doubl. p. 31 (1823), (?) ; Bp. 
Consp. p. 237. 

Saltator niger, Vieill. Enc. Meth. p. 794 (jun. 1). 

Tanagra rubricollis, Spix, Av. Bras. ii. p. 43. 

Tanagra rubrigularis, Spix, ib. p. 43. 

Lamprotes rubrigularis, Sw. Class. ii. 283. 

Lamprotes rujicollis, Gray, Gen. p. 362. 

Tachyphonus loricatus, Gray, 1. c. 

Tanagra bonariensis, Max. Beitr. iii. 530. 

Lamprotes loricatus, Sclater, Tan. Cat. Sp. p. 8. 

Fulgenti-ater, gutture et jugulo medialiter rubris. ? unicolor 
atra, gutture concoJore. 

Long. totą 8 "5, alae 4-6, caudse 3'0. 

Hab. Soutb-east Brazil, Bahia {Alax.). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 

b. Sericossypha. 

2. Lamprotes albicristatus. 

Lamprotes albocristatus, Lafr. R. Z. 1843, p. 132; Lafr. Mag. 
de Zool. 1844, pi. 50 ; Gray, Gen. p. 362. 

Sericossypha sumptuosa, Less. Echo d. M. S. 1844, p. 382; Less. 
Descr. d. Mamm. et Ois. p. 354. 

Velutino-ater : alis caudaque ce7ieo fulgentibus : pileo niveo : 
gutture et jugulo sanguinolente purpureis. 

Long. teta 9"3, alse 5*5, caudse 4*0. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota {Lewy) ; S. Martha (Fontanier). 

Mus. Brit., Paris. 

Some examples of this splendid bird have the throat much more 
red, almost scarlet. I have not yet seen the female, which Mould 
probably have the throat black. 

Genus XXn. Orthogonys. 
Orthogom/s, Strickl. Ann. Nat. Hist. xiii. (1844), p. 421, 



122 

Cyanicterus, Bp. Consp. p. 240 (1850). 

Rostrum elonyatum, com]}ressiuscv.lum, culmine obtuse carinato et 
regidariter curvato ; gonyde rectissima nec ascendente : alce 
modicce, remigibus secunda, tertia et ąuarta fere cBąuaUbus, 
prima breviore quam quinta : cauda rotundata : tarsi breves. 

1 . Orthogonys viridis. 

Tanagra viridis, Spix, Av. Bras. ii. pi. 48, fig. 2. 
Orthogonys viridis, Strickl. Ann. N. H. xiii. p. 421 ; Bp. Consp. 
p. 531. 

Lamprotes viridis, Gray, Gen. p. 362. 
Tanagra vegeta, Licht. in Mus. Berol. 

( ^ et ? ?) Supra olivaceo-viridis, subtus fiavus, lateraliter olivas- 
centior : rastro nigro, pedibus pallide brunneis. 

Long. totą 8'0, alse 3'7, caudse 3"5. 

Hab. South Brazil, Rio {Spix). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 

I have seen mauy exaraples of this bird, all similar, from Brazilian 
collectious, and therefore conclude the sexes are alike, altliough the 
colouring is what one would suppose to be that of a female bird. 

2. Orthogonys cyanicterus. 

Pyranga cyanictera, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xxviii. p. 290 ((? jun.) ; 
VieUi. Enc. Meth. p. 798 ; Vieill. Gal. Ois. pi. 81. p. 112; Gray, 
Gen. p. 364. 

Pyranga icteropus, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xxviii. p. 291; Vieill. 
Enc. Meth. p. 799 ; Puch. Arch. Mus. Par. vii. p. 356. 

Tachyphonus chloricterus, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xxxii. p. 360 
(9) ; et Enc. Meth. p. 804?? Puch. Arch. Mus. Par.™. p. 379. 

Tachyphone a ėpaulettes bleues, Less. Tr. d'Orn. p. 463 (?); 
Puch. Arch. Mus. Par. vii. p. 378. pi. xxii. 

Cyanicterus venustus, Bp. Consp. p. 240. 

Orthogonys cyanicterus, Sclater, Tan. Cat. Sp. p. 8. 

Supra Icete cceruleus : infra gutture toto ad inedium pectus 
ccendeo, ahdomine jiavo : rostro nigro, pedibus Jlavis. ( ? ) supra 
viridis cceruleo tincta : corpore subtus cum loris et oculorum 
ambitų jlavis : rostro paJIido : pedibus Jlavis. 

Long. totą /•75, alse 3" 5. 

Hab. Cayeune (Poiteau, 1822, Mus. Par.). 

Mus. Brit., Paris,, Lugdunensi, Lafresnayano. 

There are pairs of this singular Tanager (marked 6 and 2 ) in the 
Paris, British, and Leyden Musuems, but I have rarely met with it 
elsewhere. I consider it certainly congcneric with the Brazihan 
O. viridis. The only question is, whether that may not be the 
female of a corresponding brightly-coloured species. I may observe, 
that if the birds had not been marked as pairs in the collectious 
above-cited, I should probably have considered the female as speci- 
fically distinct. 



123 

Genus XXIII. Pyranga. 

PĮ/ranįfa,\iei\\. Aualyse, p. 32 (1816). 
Fhoenisoma, Sw. Class. Birds, ii. p. 284 (1837). 

Rostrum subrectiim, subconicum, cylindricum, culniine modice in- 
curvo, apice dentata, ma.villa lobą mediali plerumque instructa : 
alcB elongatcB, remigibus ąuatuor prinūs fere ceąualibus, sed 
secunda et tertia paulo longioribus : cauda modica,siibqiiadrata : 
ptilosis marium coccinea, fceminarum flava ant fiavo-virens. 

1. Pyranga rubra. 

Tanagra rubra, Linn. S. N. i. p. 314 ; Wils. Am. Orn. i. pi. 11. 
fig. 3, 4 ; Aud. Orn. Biogr. iv. p. 388. et Am. Orn. pi. 354. 
fig. 3 c?, 4 ?. 

Pyranga rubra, Sw. North. Zool. ii. p. 2/3 ; Aud. Syn. p. 136 ; 
Jard. Wils. Am. Orn. i. p. 192 ; Aud. 8vo. ed. iii. p. 226. pi. 209; 
Gray, Gen. p. 364 ; Bp. Consp. p. 241 ; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, 
p. 156. 

Pyranga erythromelas, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xxviii. p. 293. et 
Enc. Meth. p. 800. 

Pkcenisoma rubra, Sw. Class. ii. p. 284. 

Tangara du Mexique, Buff. PI. Enl. 127. fig. 1 (<?). 

Tangara du Canada, Buff. PI. Enl. 156. fig. 1 (<?) ; Desm. Tan. 
pi .34. 

Red Tanager, Lath. G. H. vi. p. 5. 

Coccinea, alis caudaque nigris. ? olivacea, subtus flavescens, 
alis caudaąue fuscis. 

Long. totą 6*7, alse 3 "8, caudae 2*8 . 

Hab. North America from Texas to Lake Huron, summer migraut 
{Aud., JVils.,&c.); Tex&s {Sitgreaves) ; Mexico (Bullock); Antilles, 
Cuba (d'Orb.) (Poey) ; Jamaica (Gosse) ; New Grenada, Bogota. 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 

2. Pyranga ^estiva. 

Muscicapa rubra, Linn. S. N. i. p. 326? 

Tanagra cestiva, Gm. S. N. 889 ; Wils. Am. Orn. pi. 6. fig. 3 ; 
Aud. Orn. Biogr. i. p. 232. et Am. Orn. pi. 44. c? et ? . 

Loxia virginica, Gm. S. N. i. p. 849 (?). 

Tanagra variegata, Latb. Ind. Orn. i. p. 421 (<? juv.). 

Tanagra mississipiensis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 889. 

Pyranga cestiva, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xxviii. p. 291. et Enc. 
Meth. p. 799 ; Aud. Syn. p. 136 ; Jard. Wils. Orn. i. p. 95 ; Aud. 
8to. ed. ui. p. 222. pi. 268 ; Bp. P. Z. S. 1837, p. 1 1 7 ; Gray, Gen. 
p. 364 ; Bp. Consp. p. 241 ; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 156. 

Pkcenisoma cestica, Sve. Class. ii. p. 284. 

Tangara de Mississipjii, Buff, PI. Enl. 741 ; Desm. Tan. pi. 32 
et 33. 

Summer Tanager, Lath. G. H. vi. p. 8. 

Rosaceo-coccinen, dorso toto paulo obscuriore ; rostro pallide 



124 

corneo, toniiis et apice pallescentibua. ? olivacea, subtusflaves- 
centior. 
Long. totą 65, alse 3'8, caudse 2'8. 

Hab. North America, from Texas to Massachussetts, and in the 
iiiterior to Canada {Aud., &c.); Texas (Sitffreaves) ; Mexico, Cor- 
dova (Salle) ; Guatimala {Constancia), {Bp.}; Antilles, Cuba {de la 
Sagra), {Poey) ; Jamaica (Gosse) ; Cliiriqui {Bridges) ; New Gre- 
nada, Bogota. 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 

3. Pyranga saira. 

Hahia punz6, Azara, Pax. no. 88 (unde), 

Saltator ruber, Vieill. Enc. Me'th. p. 793 {i). 

Habia amarilla, Azara, Pax. no. 87 (unde), 

Saltator Jlavus, VieUl. Enc. Meth. p. 791 (?). 

Tanagra mississipiensis, Licht. Verz. d. Doubl. p. 30 ; P. Max. 
Beitr. iii. p. 521. 

Tanagra saira, Spix, Av. Bras. ii. pi. 48. fig. 1. 

Pyranga mississipiensis, Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. in Mag. de Zool. 
1837, p. 31. 

Pyranga azarce, d'Orb. Voy. p. 264 ; Bp. Consp. p. 241 ; Gray, 
Gen. p. 364. 

Phoenisoma azarce, Tsch. F. P. p. 206; Schomb. Reise, iii. p. 668 ; 
Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 25. 

Rubro-coccinea, dorso toto et cauda obscurioribus : rostro cyanes- 
centi-p/umbeo, tomiis paUidioribus : pedibus nigris. ? fiaves- 
centi-olivacea : superciliis et corpore subtusjlavis. 

Long. totą 8*0, alae 39, caudse 2'9. 

Hab. British Guiana (Schomb.) ; Brazil ; Rio ; Bahia and Minas 
(Max.) ; S. Paolo {Licht.); 'Pa.r&gna.y (Azar.) ; Bolivia (d'Orb.); 
Buenos Ayres (d'Orb.); Ėast Peru (Tsch.). 

Mus. Berol., Brit., &c. 

This bird is clearly distinct from the North American P. cestiva 
upon an accurate comparison. It is of quite a different red, being 
much brigbter ; the bill is larger and of a dark plumbeous, not horn 
colour, and the feet are nearly black. 

As I find that Spix's T. saira, of which I have seen the type at 
Munich, is the female of this bird, I have thought it right to use that 
name for it, as first given, instead of the usually adopted azarte. 

4. Pyranga hepatica. 

Pyranga hepatica, Sw. Phil. Mag. 1827, p. 438. 

Phoenisoma hepaticum, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 25. 

Pyranga dentata, Licht. in ]Mus. Berol. 

Pyranga azarce, Sitgreaves' Rep. Exp. p. 82 ? 

Supra cinerascenti-rubra ; capite summo et corpore subtus coc- 
cineis, lateribus cinerascentibus : rostro nigro-plumbeo, pedibus 
nigro-brunneis. ? olivacea: pileo Jlavescentiore : subtus flava, 
lateraliter olivascens. 

Long. totą 80, alse 4'1, caudse 3'0. 

Hab. Mexico, Real del Monte (BullocA) ; Orizaba (Botferi). 



125 

This Mexican species is quite different from the saira and cestiva, 
being larger in size and greyish-red above. I have never observed it 
except in collections from Mexico. I tbink the P. azarte, noticed in 
Sitgreaves' ' Report of the Zuni and Colorado Rivers Expedition,' is 
very hkely to be this bird, as the saira {azarce) does not range nearly 
so far north. 

5. Pyranga ludoviciana. 

Tanagra ludoviciana, Wils. Am. Orn. pi. 20. fig. 1 ; Aud. Oru. 
Biogr. iv. p. 385. et v. p. 90 ; Am. Orn. pi. 354. fig. 1. 2 (J), et 
400. fig. 4 (?). 

Pyranga ludoviciana, Bp. P. Z. S. 1837, p. 117; Aud. Syn. p. 137. 
et Am. Om. 8vo. ed. iii. pi. 210. p. 231 ; Gray, Gen. p. 364 ; Bp. 
Consp. p. 241 . 

Tanagra columbiana, Jard. Wils. i. p. 317. 

Pyranga erythropis, Vieill. N. D. d' H. N. xxviii. p. 291. et Enc. 
Me'th. 799. 

Flava, interscapulio, alis et cauda nigris : alis flavo et flavicanti- 
albo bivittatis : capite et gutture undique coccineo indutis. 
? olivacea, subtus Jlava, alarum vittis et secundariorum margine 
externa apicali alhis. 
Long. totą 6" 7, alse 3'9, caudse 2*9. 

Hab. North America, Platte river and Columbia river {Aud.) ; 
Mexico, Orizaba (Botteri) ; Guatimala {Constancia) (Bp.) ; San 
Blas (Kellett). 

Mus. Brit., Derbiano. 

6. Pyranga erythrocephala. 

Spermagra erythrocephala, Sw. Phil. Mag. 1827, p. 437. 

Pyranga cucullata. Du Bus, BuU. Ac. Brux. xiT. pt. 2. p. 105 
(1847) ; R. Z. 1848, p. 245 ; Bp. Consp. p. 241 ; Gray, Gen. App. 
p. 16. 

Pyranga erythrocephala, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 178. et Note s. 1. 
Tang. p. 29. 

Olivaceo-viridis, subtus flavescens: capite toto et gula coccineis: 
maxilla medialiter lion dentata. 

Long. totą 6"0, alae 3'Oy caudae 2*7. 

Hab. Mexico, Temiscaltipec {Bullock). 

Mus. Derbiano. 

7. Pyranga rubriceps. 

Pyranga rubriceps, Gray, Gen. p. 364. pi. 89; Bp. R. Z. 1851, 
p. 178. et Note s. 1. Tang. p. 29 ; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 156. 

Pyranga erythrocephala, Gray, Gen. App. p. 1 6 (err.) ; Bp. Consp. 
p. 241. 

Pyranga pyrrhocephala, Massena, MS. 

Supra olivacea; alis caudaąue nigris, cauda et secundariis 



126 

olivaceo limbatis : tectricihus superioribus Jlavis : capife toto 
C2i7n cervice undique et pectore coccineis : ahdomine Jlavo. 

Long. totą 6'7, alae 3'7, caudse 30. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota. 

Mv^. Brit., Paris. 

8. Pyranga erythromelana. 

Tanagra erythromelas, Licht. Preis-Verz. d. Saūg. u. Vog. no. 69 
(1831). 

Pyranga leucoptera, Trudeau, Journ. Phil. viii. 160. 1837; Bp. 
Consp. p. 241. 

Pyranga bivittata, Lafr. R. Z. 1842, p. 70 ; Gray, Gen. p. 364. 

Coccinea : fronte et lateribus capitis cutn tnento summo alis 
caudaąue nigris : interscajmlio partim nigro : alis a/bo bivit- 
tatis. ? Jlavo-olivascens, subtus flava, alis et cauda 7iigris : 
illis albo bivittatis. 
Long. totą 5" 7, alse 2 '9, caudse 2-2. 

Hab. South Mexico, Lagūnas {Deppe, in Mus. Berol.) ; Orizaba 
{Botteri, in Mus. Brit.) ; Xalapa (Cab.) ; Cordova (Salle) ; Guati- 
mala {Constancia, in Mus. H. E. S.). 
Mus. Brit. Beroliueusi. 

9. Pyranga ardens. 

Phoenisoma ardens, Tseh. Wiegm. Arch. 1844, p. 207- 
Phcenisoma bivittatum, Tsch. F. P. p. 207; Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 24. 
Pyranga erythromelas, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 156. 

Coccineus : loris, alis et cauda nigris : alis albo bivittatis. 
? Jlavo-olivascens, subtus flav a : alis {albo bivittatis^ et cauda 
nigris. 

Long. totą 5"7, alse 3*0, caudse 2*4. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota ; Venezuela, Cariana near Cariaca 
(Dyson) ; north-east wood-region of Peru (Tseh.). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., Derbiano, &c. 

This South American bird has not the black front and chin of the 
Mexican P. erythromelana, with which it is generally united, and has 
less appearauces of black between the wings. If these differences 
are constant, as they appear to be in all the specimens which I have 
access to at present, the two species niay be rightly regarded as 
distinct. 

Lafresuaye gives no locality for his P. bivittata, but his descrip- 
tion is rather more applicable to the Mexican bird, and Tschudi's 
' ardens' seems the only term left for the South American form. 

10. Pyranga bidentata. 

Pyranga bidentata, Sw. Phil. Mag. 1827, p. 428 ; Gray, Gen. 
p. 364; Bp. Consp. p. 241. 

Pyranga sang\iinolenta, Lafr. R. Z. 1839, p. 97; Gray, Gen. 
p. 364; Bp. Consp. p. 241. 

Phoenisoma bidentatum, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 24. 



127 

Dilute coecinea : interscapuUo pallide flavescenti-brunneo, nigro 
variegato : secundariorum et tectricum alarium apicibus albo 
tnacu/atis, his maculis sa7iguineo tinctis. 

Long. totą 7-5, alee 3-75, caudse 3-25. 

Hab. Mexico, Temiscaltepee {Bullock) ; Xalapa {Mus. Berol.). 

Mus. Berol., Eytoni. 

Genus XXIV. Ramphocelus. 

Ramphocelus, Desm. Tang. et Man. p. 5 (180,")). 
Ramp}iopis,'V'iei\\. Analyse, p. 32 (1816). 
Jacapa, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 178. 

Rostrum subbreve, mandibulce inferioris basi dilatata et quasi 
ąuadriformi : alee breves, remigibus tertia, ąuarta et quinta 
longisshnis : cauda rotundata: ptilosis marium velutino-coecinea 
aut jiurpiirea, foeminarum brunnea, aut olivaceo-fiava. 

a. Ramphocelus. 

1. Ramphocelus brasilius. 

Tanagra brasilia, Linn, S. N. i. p. 314 ; Max. Beitr. iii. 515 ; Du 
Bois, Orn. Gal. pi. 124. 

Ramphocelus coccinens, Vieill. Enc. Meth. p. 796. et Gal. Ois. 
pi. 79. 

Ramphopis coecinea, Sw. Om. Dr. pi. 18 ({?). 9 (?), 

Ramphopis brasilia, Gray, Gen. p. 363. 

Ramphocelus brasilius, Bp. Consp. p. 242. 

Tangara du Mexique appellėe Cardinal, Buff. PI. Enl. 127. fig. 1. 
S (Jig.pess.). 

Ramphocele scarlatte, Desm. Tan. pi. 28 ((?). 29 (?). 

Brazilian Tanager, Lath. G. H. vi. p. 3. 

Velutino-coccitieus ; alis, caudaąue et tibiis iiigris ; rostra nigro- 
plumbeo, mandibulce inferioris basi alba. ? fusco-brunnea ; 
uropygio et abdomine erubescenti-brumieis . 

Long. totą 7-o, alae 3-2, caudae 3-2. 

Hab. South-east Brazil ; Rio ; Bahia, comraon (P. Maa-.). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 

2. Ramphocelus dorsalis. 

Ramphocelus dorsalis, Bp. MS. ; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 97. 

Coccineus : dorso inter alas obscuriore : alis caudaque nigris : 
tibiis brunneis: rostro nigro-plumbeo, mandibulce inferioris basi 
alba. ? fusco-brunnea: uropygio et abdomine' erubescenti- 
brunneis. 

Long. totą 7*5, alse 3*2, caudae 3-2. 

Hab. South-east Brazil, Rio and Peruambuco (J. Verreaux). 

The characters that separate this species from the lašt are cer- 
tainly slight, but I think it is rery possible that thev may be reallv 
distinet. j : } 



128 

3. Ramphocelus nigrigularis. 

Tanagra nigrogularis, Spix, Av. Bras. ii. pi. 47. p. 35. 

Tanagra ignescens, Less. Cent. Zool. pi. 24. 

Ramphopis nigrigularis, Sw. Orn. Dr. pi. 17; Gray, Gen. p. 363. 

Ramphocelus nigrigularis, Bp. P. Z. S. 1837, p. 121 ; Bp. Consp. 
p. 242. 

Coccineus : regione oculari cum gula summa, interscapulio, alis 
caudaąue, et ventre medio cum crissi dimidio inferiore sericeo- 
ttterrimis : rostro nigro-plumbeo, mandibulce inferioris basi 
alba. ? mari similis sed valde obscurior et colore nigro 
brunnescente. 

Loūg. totą 67, alse 3'2, caudse 3*0. 

Hab. Upper Amazon (Spix) ; Barra do Rio "Segro {JT^allace) ; 
Sarayacu on the Ucayali (HawxweU). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 

b. Jacapa. 

4. Ramphocelus jacapa. 
Tanagra Jacapa, Linn. S. N. i. p. 313. 
Le bec d^argent, Buff. H. N. iv. p. 259. 

Tang. pourprė de Cayenne, BufF. PI. Enl. 128. fig. 1 et 2. 

Tanagra albirostris, Bodd. Tabl. d. PI. Enl. 

Ramphocelus purpureus,\'\e\[\. Enc. Meth. p. 796. 

Ramphopis atrococcineus, Sw. Orn. Dr. pi. 20 ; Schomb. Reise, 
iii. 668. 

Ramphocelus jacapa, Less. R. Z. 1840, p. 132; Bp. Consp. p. 241. 

Ratnjjhopis jacapa, Grav, Gen. p. 363. sp. 1 . 

Ramphocele bec d^argent, Desm. Tan. pi. 30 (<?). 31 (?)• 

Red-breasted Tanager, Lath. G. H. \-i. p. 2 ; Edwards, Glean. 
pi. 267. 

Sericeo-ater, capite toto et corpore subtus sanguinolente pur- 
purascentibus : dorso eodem colore tineto : ventre crissoąue 
obscurioribus : alis caudaque nigerrimis brunneo f indis : rostro 
et pedibus nigris : mandibulce inferioris basi argentescenti- 
plumbea. 9 fusco-brutmea, alis caudaąue obscurioribus : uro- 
pygio et corpore subtus erubescentibus : rostro toto brunnes- 
centi-corneo. 

Long. tūta 6'5, alae 3'1, caudse 2*9. 

Hab. British Guiana (Schomb.) ; Lower Amazon ( TFallace) ; 
Cayenne. 

Mus. Brit., &c. 

5. Ramphocelus unicolor, sp. nor. 

Sanguinolente purpurascens fere u7iicolor : alis caudaqūe nigris 
brunneo tinctis : rostro nigro, mandibulcB inferioris basi plum- 
bea : pedibus nigerrimis. 

Long. totą 6*0, alse 3'1, caudse 2'9. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota. 

Mus. Brit. & P. L. S. 



129 

I have two Bogota skins of this bird. It comes very close to 
R.Jacapa, of which it is doubtless the New Grenadian represen- 
tative. But it is of the šame dark sanguineous purple above as 
below, while R.Jacapa has the back almost black, just glossed with 
that colour. Its bill is of the šame size as in the Jacapa, but tlie 
base of the lower maudible is not so bright. 

6. RaMPHOCELUS MAGNIROSTRIS. 

Ramphocelus magnirostris, Lafr. R. Z. 1853, p. 243. 

Similis R. jacapae, sed crasmtie paulo majore, rostro majore, 
longiore, et colore pectoris clariore diįfert. 

Hab. Trinidad. 

Mm. Brit. 

I have seen many examples of this bird from the island of Trinidad. 
lt certainly seems to have the beak always larger than the Cayenne 
bird, but this feature varies a little, some individuals being particu- 
larly remarkable for the size of the beak. The breast is also rather 
brighter than in R.jacapa. 

7. Ramphocelus venezuelensis. 

Ramphocelus venezuelensis, Lafr. R. Z. 1853, p. 243. 

Valde affiiiis R. jacapse, sed pileo, colio, dorso uropygioque totis 
nigro-granatinis, et subtus riibedine paulo intensiore : media 
parte abdominis nigra : mandibida inferiore breviore, retro 
minus producta : nigredine alarum et caudee intensiore. 
Hab. Venezuela {Lafr.). 
Mus. Lafresnayano. 

I have not yet seen any bird answering to this description of 
M. de Lafresnaye, 

8. Ramphocelus dimidiatus. 

Ramphocelus dimidiatus, Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1837, pi. 81 ; Bp. 
Consp. p. 242 ; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 156. 
Ramphopis melanogaster, Sw. Am. in Men. p. 359. 
Ramphopis dimidiatus, Gray, Gen. p. 363. 

Corpore supra ad dorsum medium et gutture cervicegue antica 
obscure coccineis, pennis subtus nigricantibus : dorso imo et 
abdomine coccineis, dorso clariore; ventre medio tibiisųue 
nigris : alis caudague nigricantibus: rostro nigricanti-jylumbeo, 
sed basi argentescenti-alba . ? obscurior, capite toto et gut- 
ture nigricanti-fuscis, interscapulio erubescente : tergo et ab- 
domine brunnesce7iti-coccineis : alis caudaqiie fuscis. 

Long. totą 6-5, alse 3*2, caudse 3'0. 

Hab. Carthagena (^lus. Paris) ; New Grenada, S. Martha {Fon- 
tanier) ; Bogota j Chiriąui {Bridges) ; Nicaragua {Delattre) . 

Mus. Brit. 

No. CCCIX. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



130 

9. Ramphoceltjs luciani. 

Ramphocelus luciani, Lafr. R. Z. 1838, p. 54 ; Mag. de Zool. 
1839, pi. 2 ; Bp. Consp. p. 242. 

Ramphopis luciani, Gray, Geu. p. 363. 

Similis R. dimidiato, sed dorso superiore atro : capite purpuras- 
centiore nigro. 

Hab. Cartliagena {Lafr.). 

Mus. Lafresnayano. 

I am not well acquainted with this bird, havirig seen only one 
example, and that several years a^t), in the coUection of Baron de 
Lafresnaye. 

10. Ramphocelus uropygialis. 

Ramphocelus affinis, Less. R. Z. 1840, p. 1 et 133? ; Bp. Consp. 
p. 242. 

Ramphopis affinis, Gray, Gen. p. 363. sp. 4. 
Ramphocelus uropygialis, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 1/8; Note s. 1. 
Tang. p. 29. 

Velutino-7iiger, dorso medio coccineo tineto : cervice et pectore 
antico obscure coccineis, pennis stibius nigris : uropygio, abdo- 
mine laterali et crisso vivide coccineis, ventre 7>iedio et tibiis 
nigerrimis : alis caudaąue fusco-nigris ; rostra nigro, basi 
argentescenti-plumbea : pedibus nigris. 
Long. totą 6'8, alse 3*3, caudae 3"1. 
Hab. Guatimala. 

I have in my care at present the type of R. uropygialis. It is the 
property of i\Ir. Edward AVilson, and will eventually, I believe, go 
to the Museum of the Academy of Natūrai Sciences at Philadelphia. 
I have never seen a secoud specimen. 

11. Ramphocelus ATRiSERiCETJS. 

Ramphocelus atrisericeus, Lafr. et d'Orb. Mag. de Zool. 1837, 
p. 34 ; d'Orlj. Voy. p. 280. pi. 26. fig. 1 ; Tsch. F. P. p. 206 ; Bp. 
Consp. p. 242. 

Ramphopis atrisericeus, Gray, Gen. p. 363. 

Ramphocelus aterrimus, Lafr. R. Z. 1853, p. 244 (avis junr.). 

Sericeo-aterrimus : capite supra ad nuchani et lateribus obscure 
purpureis : mento, gula et pectore antico coccineis. Junr. 
nigerrimus unicolor. 

Long. totą 6'5, alse 3'1, caudse 3-0. 

Hab. Bolivia (d'Orb.) ; East Peru (Tsch.). 

Mus. Brit., Paris. 

I have seen several speciraens, clearly showing by their intermediate 
plumage that Lafresnaye's R. aterrimus is nothing more than the 
present bird in its immature statė. 

12. Ramphocelus passerinii. 

Ramphocelus passerinii, Bp. L'Antologia, 1831, no. 130; Less. 
R. Z. 1840, p. 133 (excl. syn.) ; Bp. Consp. p. 242. 



131 

Ramphopis passerinii, Bp. Notės Orn. p. 52. 
Ramphopis Jtammigerus, Baird, Stansbury's Exp. to Gt. Salt Lake, 
App. p. 36? 

Velutino-niger : dorso postico toto rubro-coccineo. ? Jlavo- 
brunneo-olivascens ; dorso postico hnmnescenti-Jlavo : capite 
toto etgulafusds : alis intus et cauda nigricantibus. 
Long. totą 6"3, alse 3'1, caudae 2* 7. 

Hab. Colombia river, Oregon {Baird) ; Mexico, Guatimala, 
Nicaragua (Delattre) ; Chiriqui (Bridges). 
Mus. Paris. 

This species may be at once distinguished from R. flammigerus, 
with wliich it has been generally confounded, by its smaller size. 

13. Ramphocelus flammigerus. 

Ramphopis Jtammigerus, Jard.and Selb. 111. Orn. pi. 131; Sclater, 
P. Z. S. 1855, p. 156. 

Ramphocelus varians, Lafr. R. Z. 1847, p. 216 (partim). 

Velutino-niger : dorso postico toto ruberrimo. 
Hab. New Grenada, Galy {Delattre) ; Bogota. 

14. Ramphocelus chrysonotus. 

Ramphocelus varians, Lafr. R. Z. 1847, p. 216 {partim). 
Ramphocelus chrysonotus, Lafr. R. Z. 1853, p. 246; Sclater, 
P. Z. S. 1855, p. 156. 

Ramphocelus aurinotus, Sclater, Tan. Cat. Sp. p. 9 (err.). 

Velutino-niger : dorso postico toto aurantiaco-fiavo. 

Hab. New Grenada, Jiintas {Delattre). 

Mus. Aead. Philadelph. 

This orange-rumped bird is scarcer than the other two species, 
R. flammigerus and icteronotus, which it so closely resembles ; and I 
have some doubts as to its real distinctness from the former. 

15. Ramphoceujs icteronotus. 

Ramphocelus icteronotus, Bp. R. Z. 1838, p. 8 ; P. Z. S. 1837, 
p. 121 ; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 156. 

Ramphopis ictei'onotus, Gray, Gen. p. 363 ; Dubus, Esq. Oru. 
pi. 15. <? & ?. 

Ramphocelus varians, Lafr. R. Z. 1847, p. 216 {partim). 

Velutino-niger : dorso postico toto flavissimo. ? pileo, cervice, 
interscapidio, campteriis et alarum tectricibus minoribus 
flavo-olivaceis : alis caudaąue obscure fuscis,illarum tectricibus 
mediis et secundariis flavo-olivascente marginatis : rostri am- 
bitų sordide fuscescenti-flavo : corpore subtusflavo. 
Long. totą 6 '8, alse 3 '6, eaudse 3*0. 

Hab. New Grenada, western coast, S. Bonaventūra {Delattre), 
Choco Bay {Capt. Kellett) ; Guyaquil {Dubus) ; Ecuador, western 
slope of the Andes, near Quito {Jameson). 
Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 



132 

16. Ramphocelus sanguinolentus. 

Ta7iagra {Tachyphonus) sanguinolentus, Less. Cent. Zool. p. 107. 
pi. 39. 

Tachyphonus sanguinolentus, Gray, Gen. p. 365. 
Ramphocelus sanguinolentus, Bp. Consp. p. 242. 
Velutino-ater : pileopostico,nuchacum cervice laterali et pectore 
conjunctis necnon tectricibus subalaribus et uropygio crissocjtie 
coccitieis .• rastro albo : pedibus nigris. ? nuiri similis, sed 
coloribus obscuribus. 
Long. totą /"S, alse 37, caudse 3"3. 

Hab. South Mexico, Valle Real {Deppein Mus. Berol.); Cordova 
(Sallč) ; Coban (Delattre, in INIus. Derb.) ; Hondūras, CamalacaB 
river, near Truxillo (Dyson). 
Mus. Brit., Derbiano. 



3. SOME REMARKS ON CrUSTACEA OF THE GENUS LiTHODES, 

WITH A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF A SpECIES APPARENTLY 

aiTHERTO UNRECORDED. Bj AdAM WhITE. 

(Annulosa, PI. XLII.) 

Having laid before the Society a description of the interesting Li- 
thodes ( Echid7iocerus) cibarius, of which a very excellent figure is 
published iu the Proccedhigs for 1848, drawn by the late W. Wing, 
F. L. S., I conceive that a brief account of anothcr very curious 
Lithodes, of which a notice was given at a meeting of the Linnean 
Society, may not be without interest to some of the members. 

The group Lithodes, founded by Latreille upon our well-known, 
though not very commou, spine-covered, empty-bodied Lithodes 
Maia, bcgms now to become better kuown. Of the excellent figure 
of this type of the genus, published by Dr. Leach in bis ' Malacostraca 
Britannica,' it is sufficient to say that it was drawn and engraved by 
the late James Sowerby, F. L. S., and coloured from bis pattern. 

A very young specimen, proeured by R. ISPAndre^v, Esq., F.R.S., 
during his late Norwegian cruise, shows that in the young statė the 
asperities are rather sharper, and the carapace is decidedly longer in 
comparison with its breadth, than in the adult statė ; the arrested 
development of the pieces forming the tail is characteristic in the 
adult as it is in the young specimen, 1 inch long, dredged by Mr. 
Barrett, and presented by Mr. M''Andrew to the Museum. 

Seba (vol. iii. pi. 22. f. 1) has figured a specimen with longer and 
more divergent terminai horns to the rostrum. As a bad specimen 
exists of this variety in the Paris Museum, Prof. Milne-Edwards 
fancies, and with good reason too, that it may prove a distinct species ; 
he has provisionally named it Lithode douteuse (Crust. ii. 186); 
at all events, it is a Aariety which research may find in this coimtry, 
for different specimens differ in their degrees of divergence in the 
horns of the rostrum. 

Haan, in his 'Fauna Japonica,' 217. t. 47, has figured the malė 



Pr oc. Z. .") Annulosa^P] HE. 




4- 



* 



t^^ 



%^ 



3 >it 




A'j., 



FofduWeat,lmp. 



LlTnODES(PETAl,OCL:RlTSjBELi.IANUS. 
Wh:\e 



133 

of Lithodes Camschatica, a species first described as Maia Cams- 
chatica by Tilesius in the ' St. Petersburg Memoirs,' v. p. 336. pi. 5. 
& 6, the female (1812). This species is named by the Chinese 
Sima-ffani — that is, the Insular Crab. 

Tilesius tells us that it is foiiud on the shore of Kamschatka, 
among the rocks, where it conceals itself and keeps sedentary, living 
upon cuttle fish- {Sepia octopodia), and snaring Starfishes and 
Mollusca. Ile records that this Lithodes fixes itself so firmly and 
resolutely in a hole of a rock, that you could not draw it out without 
breaking its shell. He compares the tenacity -vvith which the Lithodes 
is held in the hollow of the rock to the fixedness of the Echinus 
mmnmillaris. 

The šame learned naturalist has figured another large species frotn 
Japan (218. t. 48) as th^Lithodes hjstrix ; it is one which Siebold, in 
his ' Spicilegia,' p. 15, had only ventured to regard as the coramon 
L. Maia {Lithodes arctica, Lam., Sieb.). The L. hystrix, Haan, is 
a beautifully distinct species very thickly covered with sharp spines, 
named by the Japanese, Jeara-yani, the prickly crab, or Aka-onigani, 
the Devil's red-crab. 

This list completed the number of the group found in the northern 
hemisphere, up to the publication of L. {Echidnocerus) cibarius, 
before alluded to. The species to be described in this paper was 
found by Mr. Lobb cast ashore after a violent storm on the coast 
of California ; and as it has some peculiarities of structure in its 
legs, antennee, carapace and abdomen, distinguishing it from any 
other, it may be named Lithodes (Petalocerus), from the beautiful 
petal-like lobes of the antennse. Before describiug it, it may be well 
to review the species of Lithodes found in the southern hemisphere. 

Messrs. Hombron and Jacąuinot, on D'Urville's 'Voyage au 
Pole Sud,' discovered a fine species which they named Lithodes an- 
tarctica, pi. 7-8. f. 9, jun. Dana, too, has described and figured 
this in the ' Crustacea of the United States Exploring Expedition,' i. 
427. pi. 26. f. 15. $ . He found it at Nassau Bay in Fuegia, where 
he tells us it grows to a very large size ; the esuvise of one, obtained 
by Mr. Dana, were 8 inches long, and the longest legs were 15 inches 
in length. He describes the species as abundant in water 6 or 7 feet 
deep, •' where it is observed to creep aloug the bottom with sluggish 
motion ; they have no legs or appendages fitted for swimming. Co- 
lour, dark cherry-red, the carapace with a shght purphsh tinge. The 
long spines that cover the carapace and legs are longest proportionally 
m small individuals ; the right hand is much the stoutest, the 
second basai joint of outer antennse with a single longish spine on 
the outer side" {loc. cit. i. p. 428). 

We hope that Mr. Despard and his noble band, who are now, or 
will shortly be, in these seas, will find this and the other, and perhaps 
new, Fuegian species. Specimens of the young are sometimes found 
in the stomachs of fishes, as in the case of the half-digested Li- 
thodes Maia sent to Dr. Leach by the late Dr. Patrick Ncill, and 
now in the British Museum. It vvould be well to keep some spe- 
cimens likc this. 



134 

Gay in his ' Chili ' mentions it (iii. 182) as a native of Chili. 

The Lithodes granulosa, Honibron and Jacquinot, ' Voy. au Pole 
Sud,' pi. 8. f. 15, has the beak scarcely projecting at all beyond the 
extra-orbital angle, the carapace and upper parts of its legs are 
thickly invested, as in some of the Cancerid(e, with olose strawberry- 
surfaced granules, closely pressed together. It is a small species, 
evidently very distinct from Lithodes and more allied to Lotnis — it 
may be called Paralomis granulosa. We have it in the British 
Museum. The figure in the ' Voyage au Pole Sud,' is estremely 
bad, not at all giving correctly the surface of the carapace and legs, 
which are closely matted with the vvarts. 

Messrs. Edwards and Liicas have published the description of a 
fine species, said to come from the Southern Pacific, in the Archives 
du Museum, ii. 46.5. pi. 24-27, and given ample details of it. It 
is named, from its short legs, Lithodes brevipes ; its beak is short. 
I n the British Museum we have a specimen. 

The Lithodes verrucosa, Dana (pi. 26. f. 16. vol. i. pi. 428), was 
found by that able and active naturalist in Fuegia. The carapace 
is verrucose throughout. 

The Lomis hirta of M. Edwards, founded on the Porcelianą hirta 
of Laraarck (Anim. s. vert. v. 229), is an interesting generic form, 
to which Lichtenstein, in one of his catalogues, had applied the 
name Thylacurus. De Haan, who quotes this, has figured a second 
species in his 'Fauna Japonica' (219. t. 48. f. 2. & t. Q), under 
the name Lomis dentata : — " totą tomentosa, setis brevibus densis ; 
thoracis margine medio 8-spinoso, pedibus secundis, tertiis et quartis 
margine antico 15-spinosis, spinis cristam subcontinuam formanti- 
bus." 

Lomis hirta is abundant on the coast of Tasmania. 

Lithodes (Petalocerus) Bellianus. (PI. XLII.) 

The first feature of the curious crab here figured is the straw- 
berry-like surface of its carapace, and of the bhmt spines with which 
its legs are covered ; the next feature is the subequilateral triangular 
figure of that carapace ; this part is produced above the eyes into a 
notched projection, wdth two slight promineuces down the middle ; 
this covers up the front part of the head, and conceals a wart-covered 
spine above the base of the pedicels of the eye, which pedicels are 
spiny above. The carapace has 3 spines on each side, and 2 tuber- 
cles ; the first spine is directed forwards, and has one or two indi- 
stinct spinelets at its base, the second and third are separated from 
the first by a considerable sinus, and are near each other ; tliey are 
directed laterally, but slightly inclined forwards likę the other two, 
and indeed likę the whole of the carapace and the spines on the legs ; 
they are covered with the close wartiug so characteristic of this 
species ; the two tubercles on the lateral border, but at its end are 
. united at the base ; the anterior is the larger ; the hind part of cara- 
pace is straight, bending round tovvards these tubercles and thick- 
ened on the edges, one of its monticuli being conneeted with the 
hindmost lateral tubercle ; the stomach, genital, and cardiac regions 



135 

are covered by a projecting portion occupying a considerable part of 
the back of the carapace and raised above it ; tbis projecting part is 
environed by a somevvhat lyre-shaped wall, pinched in front on the 
sides and somewhat notched bebind with two deep fossae placed 
transversely and connected by a short eanal, the base of which is 
smooth with only a few groups of warts. 

The abdomen is very regular and complete for the group, and when 
additional specimens will admit of its being dissected, its structure 
promises to be curious ; the various parts of it are hardly perceptible 
in the individual examined ; a tolerably regular series of strange, close- 
plaeed appendages on its edges, seem, on cursory observation, very 
curious : there are about 1 2 deepish fossse over it, the 2 deepest in 
the basai portion close to back part of carapace, and almost at right 
angles to the ręst of abdomen, 3 on each side diverging into smaller 
fossulee toward8 the edges, and four down the centre. The figures, 
drawn by Mr. Westwood from the specimen, before it came into 
Mr. Bell's possession, show asmuch as can be shownwithout injuring 
the rare example. 

I exhibited a drawing of this crab at a meeting of the Linnean 
Society some two years ago, and not having the specimen by 
me, concluded, as Mr. Westwood's dravping showed it, that there 
were no visible traces of the imperfectly developed leg-appendages, 
so prominent in some species of Lithodes. A subsequent examina- 
tion of the specimen kindly sent me by Prof. Bell has shown me I 
was mistaken ; and on removing the carapace, vvhich Mr. Westwood 
did, they are to be seen concealed as represented in the figure. There 
is, however, no outward opening. 

This fine species is named Lithodes {Petalocerus) Bellianus in com- 
pliment to the ablest of our British carcinologists, the learned and 
scientific President of the Linnean Society, Professor Thomas Bell ; 
in whose :fine coUection it is preserved. It is to him I am indebted 
for the loan of the specimen. 

The plate represents — 

1. Lithodes {Petalocerus) Bellianus, of the natūrai size, viewed 
from above. 

2. The šame from beneath, showing the pitted abdomen. 

3. Rough sketch of carapace in profile. 

4. Profile view of rostrum, with eyes, antennae, &c. 

5. Outer antennse with petaloid processes. 

6. Inner anteimae. 

7. Hind pair of legs, concealed under the carapace. 

8. Jaw feet. 



May 27, 1856. 
Dr. Gray, F.R.S., in the Chair. 
Mr. Gould brought under the notice of the Meeting a portion of 
the Birds coUected by Mr. John MacGillivray, the naturalist at- 



136 

tached to H. M. Surveying ship Rattlesnake, and lately sent home 
by Capt. Denham, the Commander of the Expedition. They were 
obtained on the Fijis, San Cristoval, Isle of Pines, and otlier islands. 
Perhaps the most remarkable of these birds is a species of Cen- 
fi-oj)us, which exceeds in size every other member of the genus Mr. 
Gould has yet seen. The single specimen sent home is not fuUy 
adult, as is evidenced by some freshly moulted feathers of the tail 
aud wings differing in colour from the older ones. On account of 
its large and robust form, Mr. Gould proposes to call this species 

Centropus Milo. 

Head, neck, mantle and breast tawny-white, remainder of the 
plumage mottled brown and green ; some of the feathers being browa 
indistinctly bauded with green, vvhUe others are entirely green, the 
mottled hue being that of immaturity, and the green the adult 
livery : bill black. 

Totai length, 26į inches ; bill, 2\ inches long by \į deep at the 
base; vving, lOJ; tail, 14į; tarsi, 3. 

Hab. Guadalcanar Island. 

Remark. — The specimen is a malė. Uulike the other members 
of the genus, this species has bare orbits, with the colouring of which 
Mr. Gould is not acąuainted. 

For a fine species of Fruit-eating Pigeon from the Isle of Pines, 
Mr. Gould proposed the name of 

Ianthcenas hypcenochroa. 

Head, neck, breast, and under surface vinaceous brown, with 
glossy purple reflexions on the back of the neck, and a slight gloss 
of the šame hue on the sides of the neck and breast ; chin, sides of 
the face and throat white ; all the upper surface, wings and tail dark 
slate grey, the margins of the wing-coverts and the feathers of the 
back and upper tail-coverts glossed with bronzy green ; bill scarlet 
at the base, yellow at the tip ; orbits naked and scarlet ; feet red- 
dish flesh colour. 

Totai length, 16 inches ; bill, l^ ; wing, 9 i ; tail, 7 ; tarsi, 1. 

Hab. Isle of Pines. 

Remark. — This is a fine species, about the size of the common 
Pigeon of Europe. It pertaius to the subgenus lanthcenas, the mem- 
bers of which are very uearly allied to the birds constituting the 
genus Carpophaga. 

Another pigeon from the šame locahty was named 

TURACOENA CRASSIROSTRIS. 

Head, all the upper surface, mngs and tail dark slaty black, 
the feathers of the back margined with a deeper black ; a broad 
band of grey across tlie lateral tail feathers near the base, and the 
outer feather on each side tipped with darker grey ; throat greyish 
wliite ; imdcr surface sooty, washed with grey on the sides of the 
neck, the breast and centre of the abdomen. 



137 

Totai length, H^ inches ; bill, lį ; wing, 7| ; tail, 7 į ; tarsi, 1. 

Hab. Guadalcanar Island. 

Remark, — This is a smaller bird than the Australian Macropygia 
phasianella, has a much thicker bill, and a shorter tail, vvhich organ 
is moreover of a graduated forai. 

A fine Lory from San Cristoval was named 

LORIUS CHLOROCERCUS. 

Head, nape, and a patch on each side the neck black ; plumage 
of the whole of the body fine scarlet, with a broad crescentic mark 
of rich yellow across the breast ; tip of the shoulder silvery blue ; 
wing-coverts yellowish green ; outer webs of the primaries aud se- 
condaries dark grass-green ; inner webs duU black, with a broad 
obloug mark of scarlet along their basai portions ; basai half of the 
tail scarlet, the remainder grass-green ; under wing-coverts and 
thighs fine blue ; bill orange ; feet dark brown. 

Totai length, 10 inches ; bill, | ; wing, 6 f ; tail, A\ ; tarsi, f. 

Hab. San Cristoval. 

Remark. — This is one of the most beautiful species of the genus, 
and difiers from all its congeners in havong the apical half of the tail 
green. 

A new Hirundo from Moala, one of the Feejee Islands, was cha- 
racterized as 

Hirundo subfusca. 

Forehead, chin and throat rufous ; crown of the head, all the 
upper surface, wing- and tail-coverts steel black ; wings and tail dark 
brown ; under surface of the body and under wing-coverts dark fus- 
cous ; under tail-coverts steel black, margined with light brown. 

Totai length, 5 inches ; bill, ^ ; wing, 4į ; tail, 2 ; tarsi, \. 

Remark. — This is a very remarkable Swallow, resembling in the 
colouring of its back, throat and forehead the common Swallow of 
Europe ; it is also very sirailar in size, while it has a much larger 
bill and a very diminutive and but slightly forked tail, the outer 
feathers not beiug produced as in the European bird. 

The five birds above described are now deposited in the collection 
at the British Museum. 

Mr. Gould also described a new and very beautifiil Pigeon from 
the Solomon Islands as 

lOTRERON EUGENI.E. 

Crown of the head, cheeks, upper part of the throat and ear- 
coverts white ; centre of the throat and chest of the richest crimson ; 
upper surface and wings green washed with orange ; along the 
shoulder a mark of light grey, and a large spot of grey near the tip 
of each of the tertiaries ; primaries dark slate grey tipped with 
orange-brown ; sccondaries slate grey bordered with orange-browū, 
and with a very narrow edge of yellow along the apical portion of 



138 

the external web ; under surface of the body greyish green ; under 
surface of the wings grey ; vent washed with yellow. 

Totai length, about 8 inches ; bill, | ; wing, 4į ; tarsi, f. 

Hab. The Solomon Islands. 

Remark. — The only specimen I have ever seen, and which is un- 
fortunately imperfect, being destitute of tail, was sent to me by Mr. 
Webster, who had visited the above islands. This beautiful" little 
Pigeou, certainly the most brilliantly coloured of the entire group, 
has been named in lionour of Her Imperial Majesty the Empress 
of the Freuch. 



2. List of Mammals and Birds collected by Mr. Bridges 

IN THE VICINIT\ OF THE ToWN OF DaVID IN THE PrO- 

viNCE orCniRiaui in the State of Panama. By Philip 

LUTLEY SCLATER, M.A. 

The town of David lies in a beautiful plain on the left bauk of the 
river of the šame name, about twenty-five miles above its exit into 
the Pacific at Boca Chica. On the west of the town rises the extinct 
volcano of Chiriqui, a peak 9000 feet iu altitude, and on the north 
the Sierra de Choreha, a flat table-mountaiu, which here forms the 
watershed between the two oceans. 

Mr. Bridges arrived at David in the month of January in the pre- 
sent year, and stayed there until the middle of the foUovring March. 
He was principally eugaged in coUecting the magnificent Orchids of 
that country, of which he succeeded in obtaining a considerable 
series. During his leisure momeuts, honever, he procured about 
fifty species of Mammalia and birds, of wliich a list is subjoined. 
These were principally collected uear the town on the banks of the 
river, or betweeii that and the ' Boqueti,' — an elevated savannah of 
about 4000 feet above the sea-level, lying ou the western slope of 
the volcano of Chiriąui. 

This locaUty is very interesting to uaturalists, being a stage in the 
passage between North American and South American zoology, which 
has not, as far as I am aware, been hitherto much explored. M. 
\Varszewiz, the well-known Polish collector, was resident in David 
some time in 1849, but did not turn his attention much to birds 
except TrochiUdte, of which he discovered the six very mteresting 
new species which were described by Mr. Gould before this Society 
in 1850. 

Mr. Bridges has very greatly added to the value of my list by sup- 
plying me with notes upon the exact spot in which he found each 
species and upon what he recollected of their habits. 

The nearest Bird-fauna to the present of which any detailed 
accounts have been published are those of Nicaragua, as given by 
Prince Bonaparte in his catalogue of the Birds brought from that 
country by Delattre in the Comptes Randus of the Academy of Paris 
for 1854, and of the interior of New Granada, as shown by my List 



139 

of Birds received in collections from Bogota read before this Society 
lašt year. To both of these papers I have freąuently referred in the 
following list in order to show the geograpbic range of the species, 
and to avoid the repetition of synonymy already given. 

Mammalia. 

1. Saimaris sciurea (Linn.) ? 

Forests near David. A skeleton only of an animal probably of 
this species. 

2. SCIURUS ? 



A black species, difficult to distinguish. Mr. Bridges statės that 
it is common in the immediate \-icimty of the town of David, and 
between that and the port of Boca Chica. 

3- SciuRus ^STUANS, Linn. 

This seems to agree with Bogota specimens so rnarked in the 
British Museum. It is from the Boąueti at the base of the volcano 
of Chiriąui. 

4. Cyclothurus didactylus (Linn.). 

From the vicinity of David. Also seen near Panama. A strictly 
uocturnal animal. 

5. ChOL^PUS DIDACTYLUS. 

From the forests near David. I believe neither this Sloth nor the 
Littie Anteater has been hitherto observed so far north. 

AVES. 

1. Pharomacrtjs mocinno, De la Llave! — Trogonresplendens, 
Gould, Mon. Trog. pi. 21. 

From the dense forest on the Boąueti ; only three specimens seen. 

2. Trogon aurantiiventris, Gould, sp. nov. See antea, 
p. 107. 

Inhabits the šame locality as the preceding, and is more common. 
Also fomid farther down towards David. 

3. MoMOTUS LESsoNi, Lcsson, Icon. Orn. pi. 62. 

Agrees with Guatimala specimens. From the ^dcinity of David in 
the thickets. Stops during the day in the shady imdervvood, and 
seeks its food tovvards evening in the open spaces on the banks of 
the river. 

4. Ceryle americana (Gm.) — P. Z. S. 1855, p. 136. 

On the banks of the river David. Its habits are the šame as 
those of our Kingfisher. Mr. Bridges also observed a large species 
more common than this, probably C. torąuata. 

5. Galbula melanogenia, Sclatcr, Cont. Orn. 1852, p. 61 et 
93, pi. 90. 



140 

On the banks of the river David, rather uncommon, only three 
or four times observed. 

6. Campylopterus cuvieri. — Trochilus cuvieri, Delattre et 
Bourc. R. Z. 1846, p. 310. 

7. Heliomaster longirostris (VieilL). — Gould, Mon. Troch. 
pt. 5, pi. 9. 

8. Lampornis veraguensis, Gould. 

These three Humming-birds are found in the outskirts of the town 
of David, feeding among the flowers of a large arborescent species of 
JSrĮ/thrina. 

9. Amazilius RtEFFERi (Bourc), R. Z. 1843, p. 103. 
Found feeding on a malvaceous plant near the Boąueti, at an ele- 

vation of 4000 feet. 

10. Satjcerottia niveiventris (Gould), P. Z. S. 1850, p. 164. 

11. Satjcerottia atala (Less.). — Bp. Consp. p. 77. 

12. Hylocharis (?) C.ERULEIGULARIS (Gould), P. Z. S. 1850, 
p. 163. 

Ali these three short-billed species are found in the very town of 
David feeding on the Tainarindus indicus and orange-trees. They 
are very pugnacious and constantly fighting together. Besides the 
seven Humming-birds here given, Mr. Bridges observed three otbers 
of which he did not obtain specimens. One of these (probably 
Heliomaster constantii) was feeding on a beautiful blue species of 
Salvia on the Boqueti. 

13. CiEREBA CYANEA (Liuu.). 

Already noticed as far north as Nicaragua (Bp. Notės s. 1. Ois. 
Coli. Delattre, p. 50), and lately brought by M. Salle from the vici- 
nity of Cordova in Mexico. 

14. PiCOLAPTES .' 

Vicinity of the town of David on the large forest-trees, with the 
habits of our Creepers. 

15. Thryothorus rufalbus, Lafr. R. Z. 1845, p. 337 ; P. Z. S. 
1855, p. 143. 

In the dense jungle near David. 

16. Rhodinocichla rosea (Less.), P. Z. S. 1855, p. 141. 
Mr. Bridges only procured one specimen of this singular bird — a 

malė. It was hopping about in the thicket close to the ground in 
the flat land between the rivers David and Chiriqui, uttering a very 
peculiar note, by which his atteution was called to it. 

17. Mniotilta VARIA (Linu.). 

A North American species, ranging as far south as Bogota (P. Z. S. 
1855, p. 143). Mr. Bridges says it has the habits of our Creeper, 



141 

running up the trunks of the trees and searching for insects in the 
bark, He found it in the town of David. 

18. Rhimamphtjs ^stivus (L.), juv. 

Mr. Bridges found this bird not uncommon in the town of David 
m the fruit-trees and Erythrince. 

19. Tyrannus melancholicus, Vieill. P. Z. S. 1855 p 150 
Margius of the plains near David, very common. 

20. MiLvuLus TYRANNUS (Liun.),— " Tijerita " 

Rangės from the Southern United States as far south as Bogota 
(i'. L. fc». 18o5, p. 150). Very common in the plains near David. 

21. TODIROSTRTJM CINEREUM (LinU.). 

See my remarks on the range of this species, P. Z. S. 1855, p 148 
Mr. Bridges found it amongst the trees in the vicinity of David. 

22. Tyrannulus elatus (Spix),— P. Z. S. 1855, p. 150. 
On the trees in the vicinity of David. 

• oo^' '^^'^^^^ mexicana (Less.). —Paan* mexicana, Less. R. Z. 
1839, p. 41, et P. tityroides, Less. R. Z. 1842, p. 41. 

I consider this bird probably distinct from Tityra semifasciata of 
Bolma and East Peru, to which it is generally united. It has all 
the rectrices banded across with black ; while the other, speaking from 
the specimens I have seen of it, has the inner web of the outer pair of 
tail-feathers white. Delattre procured this bird in Nicaragua (Bp. 
Notės Orn. p. 88) ; M. Salle' has lately brought specimens from Cor- 
dova in Mexico ; Mr. Bridges' examples are from the forests on the 
Boqueti. 

24. Chiroxiphia melanocephala (Vieill.). See P. Z. S. 1855, 
p. 151. 

In the bushes on the margins of the rivers near David. 

25. Thamnophilus doliatus? 

26. Thamnophiltjs bridgesi, sp. nov. 

T. fumoso-brunneus : capite nigro, plumarum rachidihus albis : 
alarum tectricibus nigris macidis apicalibus rotundis albis : re- 
migibus et rectricibus fumoso-nigricantibus, harim trium utrin- 
que extimarum apieibus nigro marginatis ; Ularutn marginibus 
exterms brunnescentibus : gula et pectore toto ad siimmvm 
ventrem nigricantibus, longitudinaliter albo striatis : tectrici- 
bus subalaribus albis. 
Long. totą 67, alae 28, caud^ 2-5. 

This is a typical Thamnophilus not very closely allied to any 
described species, but to be placed near nigrocinereus, maculipennis, 
&c. {vtde Edinb. Phil. Journ. n. s. 1855, i. p. 226 et seq.). Mr 
Bridges found these two Bushshrikes in the thick bush on the mar- 
gins of the river David. The first species was very common, but of 
the present only one individual was seen. 



142 

27. Thamnophilus melanurus, Gould ? 

A female specimen, probably referable to the New Greuadian 
species. 

28. Sturnella ludoviciana (Linn.) ? 

" Paxaro Savanero." Amongst the grass on the plain near David. 
Very tame, and when disturbed does not fly far, but runs much. 

29. Yphantes baltimorensis (Linn.). — Bp. Consp. p. 432. 
Already noticed as far south as Real del Monte in Mexico by Bul- 

lock (Sw. Phil. Mag. 1827, p. 436), and Guatimala by Prince Bona- 
parte (P. Z. S. 1837, p. 116). 

30. Saltator magnoides, Lafr. 

31. Ramphoceltjs dimidiatus, Lafr. Mag. de Zool. Ois. pi. 81 
(1837). 

32. Ramphocelus passerinii, Bp. 

Both these Ramphoceli are tolerably eommon, and generally met 
with together iu the bushy underwood on the margins of the rirers. 
They feed on the fruit of a small species of Ficus. They are always 
seen near the water. 

33. Pyranga ^stiva (Linn.), P. Z. S. 185.5, p. 156. 

" Sangue del Toro," Not uucommonly met with near the Bo- 
queti on the tops of the trees. 

34. Tanagra diaconus, Less. 

" Azulejo." The commonest bird in the country. Very abun- 
dant in the town of David. 

35. Calliste gyroloides (Lafr.). 

Tbis is a wide-ranging species, extending hence to the head-waters 
of the Amazon in Bolivia, where specimens were obtained by d'Or- 
bigny, that is, from 8' north latitude to 18' south latitude. 

Mr. Bridges says it was not eommon at David. It is fomid on 
the high trees near the town, and feeds on the fruit of the sraall- 
fruited Ficus. 

36. Calliste francisc.e (Lafr.). — Aglaiafanny (! !), Lafr. R. 
Z. 1847, p. 72 ; Des Murs, Icon. Orn. pi. 56, fig. 1. 

Tbis species appears distinct from Calliste larvata of Du Bus, to 
which it is usually united. The general colouring is pretty much 
the šame, but the tints are still brighter in the present bird, and the 
head in particular is paler. 

Mr. Bridges obtained a single specimen only of tbis beaufiful Ta- 
nager, from the tops of the high trees on the banks of the river 
David. 

37. Euspiza americana (Linn.). 

Already noticed as far south as Nicaragua, and lately received by 
MM. Verreaux of Paris from S. Martha on the north coast of New 
Granada. Found in small flocks near David. 



143 

38. Embernagra conirostris (Bp.). — Arremonl conirostris, 
Bp. Consp. p. 488. — Embernagra striaticeps, Lafr. R. Z. 1853, 
p. 62; P. Z. S. 1855, p. 154. 

I consider M. de Lafresnaye is quite right in placing this bird in 
the genus Embernagra. It is, at least, certainly no Arremon. It 
is found, likę the lašt bird, in small flocks near David, feeding ou the 
grass-seeds in the savannahs. 

39. Melanerpes formicivorus (Sw.). 

Agrees with Mexican specimens. Not rare in the forests of the 
' Boqueti,' found on the evergreen Quercus. 

40. Centurus subelegans, Bp. P. Z. S. 1837, p. 109; Consp. 
p. 121 ; P. Z. S. 1855, p. 162. 

Seems to agree with Bogota and Venezuelan specimens. 

41. Chloronerpes cecilii (Malherbe) ? 

Both these Woodpeckers are found on the trees in the outskirts 
of the town of David. The first is the more common, only one pair 
of the latter having been observed. 

42. Geotrygon CHiRiauENSis, sp. nov. 

G. pure castanescenti-brunneus : dorso medio purpurascente : 
pileo ctjerulescenti-griseo : subtus dilutior, abdomine albescen- 
tiore : mento gulaąue lactescenti-albis, rufeseente tinctis : re- 
migibus et rectricibus nigricanti-schistaceis : caudce apice brun- 
nescentiore : rostro nigro : pedibus rubris. 
Long. totą irO, alse 5*9, caudse 3-5. 

Both Prince Bonaparte and Mr. G. R. Gray, who have lately paid 
great attention to the Columbce, consider this species as new to 
science, and it is upon their authority rather than my own that I 
have ventured to name it as undescribed. 

43. Chloroenas rufina (Temm.). — Bp. Consp. ii. p. 52. 
From the dense forests of the Boqueti at the base of the volcano. 

44. Odontophorus veraguensis, Gould, antea, p. 107. 
From the Boąueti, where it is found in coveys running on the 

ground in the forests. The malęs have a peculiar call-cry. 

45. Aramides cayennensis (Gm.) (PI. Enl. 352). 
In the bush on the banks of the river David. 

46. Parra hypomel^na, G. R. Gray, juv. 1 

Found in the shallow waters running amongst the stones. 

A young bird, white underneath, probably of P. hypomelcena, but 
it would be hazardous to decide positively without seeing adult spe- 
cimens from the šame locality. 



144 



3. Note on some Birds from the Island of Ascension. 
By Philip Lutley Sclater, M.A. 

Dr. Acland, of Oxford, haviug lately placed in my hands, for 
naming, a small collectiou of birds from the Island of Ascension, I 
think it will be useful to record a list of them, although uoue of 
them are of great rarity, in order to make some contribution, how- 
ever small, tovrards a more aecurate knowledge of the geographic 
range of species. 

Mr. Darwin (Zool. Beagle, p. 133) tells us that there are no abo- 
rigiual land-birds on this island. The only bird he mentions, which 
might claim that name, is a Porpkyrio (P. simplex, Gould), which 
hovvever, we are informed, wasevidently a straggler not long arrived. 

But recoUecting the beautiful Thrush {Nesocichla eremito) lately 
described by Mr. Gould from the Island of Tristan d'Acunha, there 
is certainly no primdfacie reason vvhy the Island of Ascension should 
not also possess peculiar land birds. 

The specimens in Dr. Acland's collection are all Natatores, be- 
longing to the following species. 

1. Onychoprion ftjliginosus (Gm.). 

Latham (G. H. x. 102) has recorded the existence of this Tern 
upon the island in " prodigious numhers.'" It is found also on the 
American coasts from Texas to the Floridas. 

2. Phaethon ^thereus, Linn. (PI. Enl. 998). 

Visits Tobago, whence Sir William Jardine received the eggs of 
this species from his correspondent Mr. Kirk. See Cont. to Orn. 
1852, p. 351, pi. 84, where the eggs of all three species oi Phaethon 
are figured. 

3. Phaethon flavirostris, Brandt (PI. Enl. 369). P. cethe- 
reus, Audub. nec Linn. 

Mr. G. R. Gray has rejected Brandt's excellent appellation for 
this species in favour of Brisson's candidus. But Brisson was no 
binomalist, and has no claim to bestow specijic names in a binominal 
system. This Phaethon breeds on the Bermudas (Cont. Orn. /. c), 
and visits the coast of Florida ( Audubon). 

Professor Brandt has written a good Monograph of the Phaėthon- 
tincB in the Transactions of the St. Petersburgh Academy. These 
two species, and the P. phoenicurus from the Indian Ocean, appear 
to be the only three well-distinguished birds of the genus. 

4. Tachypetes aguila (L.). 

This name ought, I think, to be retained for the Atlantic bird. 
Mr. Gould has described and figured a smaller species from Australia; 
but he has also a larger bird from the coasts of that country, which 
appears different from the present. 

5. Sula fusca, Vieill. Gal. Ois. pi. 277 ; Gould, B. Aust. vii. 
pi. 78. 



145 

6. Sula piscatrix (L.) ; Gould, B. Aust. vii. pi. 79. 

Besides these two Gannets I am acąuainted with five other ap- 
pareiitly well-distinguished species, viz. S*, bassana of Europe, S. ca- 
pensis of S. Africa, -S", australis and S. cyanops of the Australian 
seas, and S. variegata of the Pacific coast of S. America. 

4. Note sur un Nouveau Genre des Oiseaux de Proie. 
Par Julės Verreaux. 

Genre Urubitornis, Verreaux. 

Bec beaucoup plūs haut que large ; tres comprim^ ; le'gerement 
smueux sur le bord, qui est un peu rentre vers la base ; a courbure 
tres sensible et a pointe longue et ac^re'e ; angle du bec atteignant a 
peine le niveau de la partie ante'rieure de l'oeil : cire large et lisse, a 
narines rondes et percees en avant ; face en partie deuude'e et garnie 
ca et la de poils noirs : tarses assez longs, robustes, et fortement 
reticulds, exceptd sur la partie posterieure oii se troūvent des larges 
plaąues au nombre de neuf ; ąuatre a cinq scutelles sur les doigts, 
dont l'interne est le plūs fort, le me'dian plūs long que rexterne qui 
est le plūs court de tous ; le pouce e'galement robuste et arme d'un 
ongle aumoins aussi fort que l'interne. 

Ailes longues, amples, depassant la queue de plūs d'un pouce, a 
3me gį 4,„e r^miges_ Ics plūs longues; toutes les primaires ėchancrees 
sur leurs barbės internes. Queue moyenne, carre'e et le'gerement 
dchancre'e au centre, composee de 12 rectrices, barre'e transversale- 
ment comme dans les vrais Urubitingce. 

Dans son ensemble, le genre tient des derniers par la coloration et 
par la bandė transversale de la queue, mais ii s'en distingue sous 
d'autres rapports indique's ci-dessus. Les tarses surtout ne permet- 
tront jamais de le confondre. Sa taille est aussi beaucoup plūs 
forte. II semble tenir le milieu entre le genre Harpyhaliaėtus et 
Urubitinga. 

A ne eonsiderer que le plumage du jeune de cet oiseau, on le 
prendrait pour celui du Geronoaėtus aguia, tout ii y a de rapport, 
voire mėme dans la queue qui ne laisse voir aucune trace de bandė 
transversale, mais qui a la mėme motelare comme dans les jeunes 
des Urubitingas. 

Nous ne sommes donc pas e'tonne's que Tschudi ait fait de cet oiseau 
un Circaėtus en egard a ces tarses, et que d'autres auteurs en aient 
fait un Urubitinga en ne considė-ant que la couleur. Nous pensons 
donc que la place que nous lui assignons est plūs naturelle en ce 
qu'elle lie les deux genres qui ont taut de similitude entre eux. 

Sp. typ. et unica Urubitornis solitaria. 

Circaėtus solitarius, Tsch. Av. Consp. no. 14 ; Faun. Per. p. 94, 
t. U.— Gray's Gen. p, 13, sp. 6.— Lafr. R. Z. 1849, p. 101. ' 

S adulte. Couleur ge'nerale, noir-plombe', exeepte sur la tėte, 
rextremite' des r^miges et les rectrices, qui sont d'un noir plūs de'cid^ ; 
une large bandė blanche traverse la queue, qui est e'galement ter- 

No. CCCX. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



146 

minee d'un rubaii etroit de merae couleur ; ou remarąue sur les cou- 
vertures, taiit superieurs qu'inferieurs, des traces de bandės blanches 
au centre de quelques plumes, aiusi que quelques bordures vers leur 
extremite. Les barbės des remiges primaires et secondaires ont 
comme des raies mal accusees d'une teinte plūs noire, et qui parais- 
sent d'avantage en ecartant les plumes : eiles sont chinėes et laissent 
voir ca et la, quelques teintes brun-roussatre de la livree precedente. 
Longueur totale 70 cent. 

į d'une annee plūs jeune. La coloration noire plūs lavee de 
brun que de plombe, laissant voir ca et la quelques parties fauves, 
surtout sur le cou ; la bandė mediane de la queue chinee de cendre, et 
la petite qui la termine plūs otroite et d'un blanc moins pur que dans 
le prece'dent ; taille un peu moindre. 

Tschudi dit que l'iris est d'un brun tres fonc^ ; que la cire, la 
peau nue de la face et les tarses sont jaunes, le bec d'un brun- 
noiratre, et les ongles d'un brun-grisatre sombre. 

Jeune $ dans sa 3"" anne'e. Partie supėrieure brune, plūs ou moius 
parsemee de plumes plūs foncees et bordees de roussatre ; tėte et cou 
d'un roussatre plūs ou moins fauve ; dessus et occiput a plumes brun- 
noinltre tres legerement bordees de roussatre ; des lignes longitudi- 
nales plūs ou moins larges sur le cou et ses cotes ; iine bandė brune 
prenaut du dessus de l'cjeil, passant en arriere et descendant sur les 
parties latėrales du cou : gorge et joues d'un fauve clair avec des 
lignes etroites et brunes au centre des plumes, devenant plūs larges 
sur le haut du cou ; poitrine brun-noiratre, les plumes plūs ou moins 
bordees de rousstltre et toutes de cette couleur a leur base, reste des 
parties inferieures d'un roussatre pins ou moins vif avec des taches 
plūs ou moius larges, sur les parties latėrales surtout. Cuisses brunes 
avec des bordures rousses peu visibles a rextremite des plumes, mais 
comme rayees de fauve sur la partie cachee de chaque plume. Cou- 
vertures sous-caudales comme la poitrine avec des raies plūs ou moins 
bien marquees de brun-noiratre ; les sup^rieures de mėme, mais plūs 
brunes. Queue brune avec une le'gere teinte grise et chinee comme 
dans le jeune aguia, d'une teinte blanchatre en dessous avec les 
taches brunes plūs multipliėes ; ailes brunes, les plūs grandės cou- 
vertures chinees de fauve. Remiges brunes, les primaires noires sur 
la majeure partie de leur longeur, quelques unes de ces dernieres 
les plūs courtes terminees de blanchatre ; convertures inferieures 
roussatres variees de brun-noiratre ; dessous des remiges fauve a partir 
de leur base jusqu'au trois quart de leur longueur, tachees ca et la 
de brun et chinees sur le reste. Mėme grandeur que les precedents. 

Nous avons recus cet oiseau de S'* Marthe, Nouvelle Grenade, en 
1843. Notre voyageur marque qu'il fre'quente les grand bois, ou ii 
chasse les moyens mammiferes et les oiseaux, voire mėme les Hoccos. 
Son naturel est farouche et d'une m^fiance estreme. 

" Mr. Bridges que j'ai vu ii y a peu de jours m'a affirme avoir 
rencontre ce mėme oiseau {TJrubitornis solitarius) enBolivie dans la 
province de Moxos par les 20° Sud le long de la riviere Urumose. 
C'est donc une localitė nouvelle a ajouter a l'habitat de cet oiseau." 



Proc Z S Mollusca XXXIV, 





HALIOTIS ALBICANS Vai- 



147 



5. On THE NUCLEUS OF THE OpERCULTJM OF CyCLOSTOMA 

ELEGANs. By John Edward Gray, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

la my various physiological papers I have attempted to establish 
the fact that the opercula of shells are analogous to the second 
valve of a bivalve shell, and are in fact a counterpart of the other 
valve. I have shown that they are formed at the šame time on the 
body of the Mollusca ; that they have a peculiar mantle, similar to 
the mantle of the spirai shelį and that they are inereased in size in 
the šame manner, 

On lately examining the operculum of Cyclostoma elegans, I was 
struck with the fact (which might have beeu foreseen when the first 
formation is eonsidered) that they have a somewhat irregular nucleus 
or first-formed part, likę the nucleus to be observed on the apex of 
the spire of raost univalve shells, as shown in the accompanying 
figure, drawn and engraved by Miss Jessie Dunlop. 




I may further observe, that the operculum of this shell is formed 
of two shelly platės, separated from each other by arched laminse 
coucentric with the outer edge of the lašt whorl, placed under the 
concentric grooves of growth on the outer and inner surface, leaving a 
series of pores on the circumference in the groove between the two 
platės. 



6. On a Monstrosity of Haliotis (albicans?). 
By John Edward Gray, Ph.D., F.R.S., P.B.S., etc. 

(Mollusca, PI. XXXIV.) 

Mr. Cuming kindly showed to me a series of four specimens of 
Ear-shells, which he procured in Paris, and of which he has some 
other examples. 

The four specimens are all peculiar for having an elongated con- 
tinued slit occupying the place where the series of perforations are 
usually situated, — this slit extending more than one-third of the 
length of the spirai ridges on the outer or left side of the whorls ; 



148 

but it does not extend to the margin of the shell, and there is 
generally a more or less deep pit on the ioner surface, in front of 
its extremity. 

"Wheu I first saw ttie shell, I was inclined to regard it as a mon- 
strosity ; but ^vhen I considered the uuiformity of the peculiarity 
in the specimens which I possess, and in those which Mr. Cuming 
had seen, I thought that it might be the type of a new form, for 
which Schismotis excisa would be a good name. 

But a comparison of the shell with the specimens of Haliotis al- 
bicans in the British Museum from Van Diemen's Land, has induced 
me to believe that they are only varieties of that or some very nearly 
allied species, and that the peculiarity of their structure is produced 
by the locality they inhabit, the absence of the shelly matter on the 
branchial ridge being probably produced by the continued abrasions 
to which the shells have evidently been exposed, either by some che- 
mical peculiarities in the water or the attack of parasitic animals. 

Ali the specimens are in a very eroded condition, and two of them 
are very much pierced with a minute vrorm, and they all have the 
under valve of a Hipponyx attached on the left side near the circum- 
ference of the shell ; one of these shells (which is generally the 
largest of the series) beuig placed in front of the sht between its 
termination and the front margin of the shell, covering the space 
which in the normai shell would be the place of one or two perfora- 
tions. 

If the exterior surface of a good specimen of Haliotis albicans is 
examined, it will be found that there exists a distinct narrow straight 
groove continued from one perforation to the other, and to the margins 
of the outer lip, which I have not seen so distinctly marked in any 
other species of the genus, indicating probably the suture betvveen 
the overlapping of the two sides of the slit in the mantle of the animal, 
and this suture is marked but by a slight line on the inner surface 
of the shell. The šame suture is to be observed in most other 
Haliotidce, but they are generally not so distinct as m H. albicans, 
and much more sinuous. 

I am inclined to beheve that the slit in the specimens is to be 
considered as the imperfect filling-up of the shelly matter between 
the usual perforations, caused by the eroded and evidently diseased 
State of the specimens. 

The interior of the shells is marked with a very rough tubercular 
muscular scar, which is not to be observed in perfect specimens oi Ha- 
liotis albicans ; but this will be found to be uniformly the case with 
most specimens of Ear-shells which have an eroded or worm-eaten 
outer surface, even in species which have a scarcely marked scar in 
their perfect or normai condition ; so that this difference, likę the 
slit, appears to depend on the statė of the shells and the animal 
which formed it. 

The interior of the shell presents a further peculiarity, but this is 
evidently caused by the šame effects as the roughness of the muscu- 
lar scar and slit on the branchial ridge, viz. there is a more or less 
deep broad groove on the inner surface between the slit and the sub- 



149 

centrai muscular scar, which is more or less marked with regular 
cross grooves, and they are evidently impressions of the outer surface 
of the two branches of the gills. 

Onlj^ one of the specimens I have seen show8 any indications of 
the outer surface of the shell, and iu that it only forins a band about 
one-fourth of an mch wide on the edge of the outer Up ; it is pale, 
greyish, and coucentrically striated, likę the surface of the normai 
specimen of Haliotis albicans. 

This kind of monstrosity was to be expected, as the mantle of the 
aniraal is slit under the perforations on the shell ; and we have in 
Scissurella and in several fossil genera the perforations replaced 
by a more or less continued slit over the mantle ; but I have never 
before seen an Ear-shell with more thau two holes united into a short 
slit by the absence of the shelly matter between them ; but when we 
exaraine the Haliotis albicans, the existence of the more distant ex- 
terior groove renders it the species in which one should more readily 
expect such an abnormal formation to occur. 

I have seen two specimens of two species of Haliotis, which ex- 
hibited just the couverse deformity, that is, beiug without any appear- 
ance of the series of perforations, the place of the holes being occupied 
by a continued convex spirai rib, likę the second rib in Padollus. 
Most probably in this individual the mantle of the animal was without 
any slit, and hence the malformation, the water being admitted to 
the gills by the slight notch in front of the ribs, as in some Emar- 
ginulee or Scuta. 



Dr. Crisp exhibited the brain and a sketch of the head of a mon- 
oculous Lamb. It vceigbed 4į Ibs., and was born alive at the fuU 
period of gestation. There was one large eye in the centre of the 
forehead, and the nostrils were absent. 

The orbit was formed by the os frontis above, by the malar bones 
on each side, and below by the superior maxillary bone, the lachry- 
mal, nasal, turbiuated bones and part of the os frontis being absent. 
The greater part of the interior of the cerebrum veas absent, the cavity 
being occupied by serous fluid. The thala7ni, corpora striata and 
corpus callosum were deficient. No olfactory nerves existed. The right 
optic nerve only was preseut, and this entered the eye in the usual 
situation ; the other pairs of nerves were in their normai positions, 
but those to the museles of the eye could not be clearly traced. 

The humours of the eye were apparently natūrai, but the cornea 
was rather opaque ; the diameter of the organ was 14 lines ; the 
weight of the humours 40 grs. ; the crystalline lens large and well 
formed. 

In Vrolik's ' Tabulae ad illustrandum Embryogenesin Hominis et 
Mammalium,' a case is related and drawings given of a somevvhat 
similar monstrosity in a lamb. In this instance, also, " the greater part 
of the cerebrum vras wanting, and no olfactory nerves were present ; 



150 

the two optic uerves appeared to unite without decussation ; the eye 
was large, and tOTO pupils existed ; the nostrils were absent." 

Dr. Crisp remarked, that although the Cyclops variety of mon- 
strosity was not very rare, but few cases were on record of the dis- 
section of the brain. 



June 10, 1856. 

Dr. Gray, F.R.S., in the Chair. 

1. On two New Spkciks of Humming Birds belonging to 
THE GENUS Amazilius. By John Gould, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., 

ETC. 

Amazilius cerviniventris, Gould. 

Head, all the upper surface and wing- and upper tail-coverts 
bronzy-gieen ; wings 2)urplish-brown ; tail dark chestnut-red, each 
feather narrowly bordered and tipped with a bronzy lustre, which is 
of greatest extent and most conspicuous on the two centre tail- 
feathers ; throat and chest luminous green ; under surface of the 
shoulder and flanks duU green ; abdomen and under tail-coverts fawn- 
colour ; thighs white ; upper mandible yellow at the base, merging 
into brown and tipped with black ; under mandible pale yellow, ex- 
cept at the tip, whieh is black. 

Totai leugth, 4 inches ; bill, \į; wing, 2i ; tail, If. 

Hab. Cordova, in Mexico. Collected by M. Salle. 

Remark. — This species is about the size of A. Riefferi ; but its 
bill is less robust ; the wings, as in that species, are uniform pur- 
plish-brown ; the chestnut colouring of the tail-feathers and the 
under tail-coverts is of a somewhat lighter hue. 

Amazilius castaneiventris, Gould. 

Crown of the head, upper part of the back and shoulders reddish- 
bronze ; rump and upper tail-coverts greyish, with a bronzy Austre ; 
wings purplish-brown, with the exception of the basai portion of the 
primaries and secondaries, which are rufous ; tail dark chestnut, 
tipped with a bronzy lustre, of greatest extent and most conspicuous 
on the centre feathers ; throat, fore part of the neck, breast, and 
upper part of the abdomen shiniug golden-green ; under surface of 
the shoulders, lower part of the abdomen and under tail-coverts fine 
chestnut-red ; thighs white ; upper mandible brownish-black ; under 
mandible fleshy-yellow, except at the tip, which is brownish-black. 

Totai length, 3į inches ; bill, |; wing, 2^^ ; tail, 1|. 

Hab. Santa Fe de Bogota. From the Collection of Mr. Mark. 

Remark. — This species differs from A. cerviniventris in the much 
greater depth of the chestnut colouring of the abdomen, under tail- 



151 

coverts and tail ; in size it is considerably less than that species, 
being even smaller than A. Arsino'ė, to which it ofFers an alliance in 
the colouring of its wings, but from which it diifers in the colouring 
of its abdomen ; the white feathers of the thighs are much developed 
and very conspicuous. 

2. On SOME DiiFECTS IN THE GrOWTH OF THE AnTLERS, AND 
SOME RESULTS OF CaSTRATION, IN THE CeRVID^. 

By John S. Gaskoin, F.L.S. etc. 
The imperfect growth of one antler, or horn, in any species of the 
Deer tribe, the other being fully developed aecording with the age of 
the animal, I find has been, from time immemorial, popularly attri- 
buted to some disease or ailment of the testicle, or kidney, or even of 
a limb, of the side on which the defective antler may exist ; so that 
to doubt its truth now would, to the uninąuiring, seem to be mock- 
ing experience. Some time ago, a member of this Society exhibited 
at one of the scientific meetings the head of a Fallow Deer (Cervus 
Dama), which had been killed in Richmond Park, for the table, and 
selected, of course, from its mature age and fine condition ; one antler 
of which was of ample growth for an eight years old animal, while 
the other consisted simply of the brow tinę or antler and a short beam, 
each about eight or ten inches in length ; and the park-keeper had 
ascribed this deficient development to disease of the kidney of the 
šame side. No light was thrown on the subject at the time, and 
members, to whom the opportunity might occur, were invited to in- 
quire into the correctness or otherwise of the attributed cause in 
other instances. It vras the first occasion on which I had heard the 
ąuestion mooted. The deduction given, as to cause and effect, was 
obviously at variance with sound physiology. That the growth of a 
horn on one side should be impeded, and not that on the other also, 
when disease of a kidney, a tęstis, &c. is the cause of arrested pro- 
duction, mušt be from some accidental circumstance, and cannot be 
incidentai to any such derangement ; for organic disease of the viscera 
named, or of any other viscus, always deteriorates more or less, 
aecording to its severity and duration, the general constitutional 
health, and not that of a particular part only of the animal economy ; 
— and moreover, the disease of no organ in a more remarkable manner 
influences by depressing the powers of the system, nor tends more 
sūrely to a fatal termination, than organic disease of the kidney ; — 
whereas, in the case adduced as having arisen from such a disease, 
the animal was, on the contrary, in excellent health and admirable case. 
A paradox so apparent induced me to desire to investigate the subject, 
with the view of setting aside a popular error, if such, and substi- 
tuting a rational deduction from facts ; and having communicated 
my wish to Colonel Francis H. Seymour, deputy-ranger of Windsor 
Great Park, in which a larger stock o f deer is kept than perhaps in 
any other in the kingdom, he most readily bid me furnish him vdth 
a written list of what I might require to prosecute my intention. It 
enumerated, — the head, with the antlers attachcd, of any buck that 



152 

might be shot, having one horn only, of defective development ; the 
kidneys, and the testes with their appendages, of the šame animal ; 
denoting the side from which each organ had been taken. This he 
very kindly immediately forwarded to John Cole, the head-keeper, 
with orders to carry out my wish on any opportunity occurring ; and 
during the autumu of 1853 I received three cases, each containing 
all I had solicited, and the several parts tiuly labeled, as I had re- 
quested * . The antlers attached to the skuUs of two are now on the 
table, and the other pair of antlers, which were detached. All these 
bucks were over eight years of age. I carefully examined the several 
organs belonging to each individual, having the advantage of the 
assistance of my friend Dr. Crisp in the first and the third examples; 
and I claim credit from the Society, on the part of hoth Dr. Crisp 
and myself, for knovvledge of the difference of healthy from diseased 
structure. We found that every organ examined of each of the three 
animals was perfectly healthy, normai, and in every respect fully 
developed, as were all the animals from which they had been taken 
in most miexceptional health and in high condition ; in testimony 
of which they had been killed for the table. 

I will now give the measurements of the antlers, and the vyeights 
of the testes and kidneys, of all the three animals, designating the 
side from which each had been taken respectively. 

Measurements of the Antlers. 

Developed Antler. Defective Antler. 

in. in. 

No. 1 . Beam, to the anterior A simple bifureation. 

point of the palm . . 22|^ Beam 10^ 

Brow tinę, or antler . . 8 Brow tinę, or antler . . 7 

Bis tinę, or antler .... 4|- 
Vide fig. 1. 
No. 2. Beam, to the anterior 
point of the palm . . 
Brow tinę, or antler . . 
Bis tinę, or antler .... 
No. 3. Beam, to the anterior 
point of the palm . . 
Brow tinę, or antler . . 
Bis tinę, or antler .... 
Vide fig. 2. 

TVeights of the Testes. 

Side of the developed Antler. Side of the defective Antler. 

No. 1. 2 ounces 210 grains. 2 ounces IGOgrains. 

No. 2. 2 ounces 140 grains. 2 ounces 155 grains. 

No. 3. 2 ounces 128 grains. 2 ounces 138 grains. 

* I niust here offer to Cole my thanks for the intelligent care ■with which he 
fulfilled the directions, and for the interest he took, and is still taking, in assist- 
ing me in these inąuiries. 



21i 
5i 


Bifurcate. 

Beam 

Brow antler . . . . 


.... 10. 
.... 10 


22 
6i 


Bifurcate. 

Beam 


6 


3f 


Brow antler . . . . 


8 



153 



The spermatozoa of each exhibited, when magnified 250 diatneters, 
perfect similarity and fuU and healthy development. 

TFeights of the Kidneys. 



Side of the developed Antler. 
No. 1. 4 ounces. 
No. 2. 4 ounces 30 grams. 
No. 3. 4 ounces 63 grains. 



Side of the defective Antler. 
4 ounces 65 grains. 
4 ounces 10 grains. 
4 ounces 32 grains. 




Such a similarity of results, from the investigation of two bucks 
only, might have occurred as a mere coincidence ; but a tkird, when 
all liad been selected for another purpose, having no reference what- 
ever to this inquiry, and having been taken consecutively, will esta- 
blish, I think, the fact, that defective growth of one antler only, 
in the šame buck, is not caused by an unhealthy statė of kidney, of 
testide, nor of any other organ, nor ailment of the animal. That a 
defective horn and a diseased organ may be coexisteut, and even on 
the šame side, there can be no question ; but that would be a mere 
casualty, a "non sequitur." Arriving at this obvious conclusion, I 
decUned imposing further on the kindness I had received, and the 
trouble I had given, by reąuiring other examples of the sort for in- 
vestigation. 

I have, however, placed on the table three other pairs of antlers 
attached to their respective škulis, in which the disparity of each 
antler with its fellow {vide figs. 3 & 4) is scarcely less remarkable 
than those I have just described ; and the bucks which produced 
them were in every respect in equally perfect health and excellent 
eondition, and were, in consequence, chosen for the Royal larder. 



154 



I could place before the Society parallel instances without eud, but 
I have considered it unnecessary to offer more. 




There can be no doubt tliat the growth of both antlers may be 
simultaneously impeded, by a statė of geueral ill-health of an animal, 
from whatever cause it may have arisen, a diseased organ, or other 
ailment ; it remains to be accounted for, how one horn only should 
so frequently be affected in animals possessing perfect constitutional 
health. No' one, I imagine, can have observed the herds of deer in 
parks, without noticing always several among each, having one more 
or less incomplete antler, and sometimes both ; and if these were 
caused by any disease, the cireumstance would indicate an unwhole- 
some condition of the stocks of all parks in the kingdom. From 
the conversations and correspondence I have had with most expe- 
rienced park-keepers, and others well versed in knowledge of deer, 
and fi-om niy own observations, I have no doubt that the occurrence 
is almost invariably from external injury to the hom itself during 
the time of its formatiou, or to the hairy vascvilar integument, or 
"velvet," by which it is invested during that period. An instance 
illustrative of this opinion I witnessed in our Gardens some two years 
ago. An Axis Deer {Cervus Axis), whose antlers were about half 
produced, was required to be caught, and in making resistance, it 
sprang up, and being in a small pen, struck one horn against the 
roof, by which it was fractured, about three inches from its extremity, 
without rupturing or injuring the velvet covering; and the brow- 



155 

antler, at the šame time, had a considerable portion of the integu- 
ment forced off, so that it bled profusely, and I stopped the hsemor- 
rhage by tying the part with twine. The fractured part svvelled, and 
although uot displaced from its natūrai position, it did not reunite, 
and in ten days separated ; and in about the šame period the portion 
beyond the ligature became dead and also fell oif, or more probably 
they were rubbed off instinctively by the animal ; — from neither of 
these points did any inerease of growth afterwards occur. Thus the 
fracture of the horn in the one instance, and the destruction of the 
" velvet " in the other, equally incapacitated Nature to repair the in- 
jury, or to continue the growth. I may observe that the boras of 
the CervideB during their formation are to a certain degree flexible, 
and may be broken as short and as easily as a raw carrot. Accidents 
similar in result to those I have now described, from the pugnacious 
disposition of bucks tovvards each other, are frequently occurring ; 
and although, during the time of the production of the horns, they 
will not use them either for attack or defence, they are not the more 
peacefuUy disposed on that account ; but their attacks and defence 
are then carried on by their teeth, or by the employment of their 
sharp, wedge-shaped hoofs ; striking sometimes with one, or by rear- 
ing the body, greater force is given and both are brought into action ; 
— and the head being the part usually aimed at, the soft horns are 
liable to be fractured, or the investing vascular integument to be 
tora ; in the former case it never again unites, and the extreme part 
falls ; and in the latter it may be such as to destroy the capability 
of further production, and that especially if the injury be at the 
points of the growing antler. Of the power and precision with 
which the Cervidce are able to strike \vith their hoofs, Gilbert White 
relates a remarkable example in a hind, which, to protect its fawn 
from an approaching lurcher, " rushed out of the brake, and taking 
a vast spring with all her feet close together, pitched on the neck 
of the dog and broke it short in two." That the popular error I 
have endeavoured to refute should have arisen cannot be surprising, 
when we reflect how common was the eustom, in the "olden time," 
to emasculate bucks to become "hevers," or "heaviers," that the 
board of the epicure might teem with "good fat venison " all the 
year through ; and the modes too, or rather degrees of completeness, 
and the age of the animals when the operation may be performed, 
being followed by different, and by almost uniform results in each 
instance, were so likely to impress on the minds of those witnessing 
them a notion of some marvellous relation of the horns with the 
testes. 

I will conclude this paper by cursorily stating the effects of perfect 
and imperfect castration at different ages of the animals. Sir Philip 
de Grey Egerton, Bart., informed me by letter that, " In order to tęst 
the accuracy of a vulgar notion, that a relation subsisted between the 
testicle and the horn, and that an injury to one of the former caused 
a corresponding deficiency in one of the latter, 1 had two buck 
fawns deprived, one of the right, the other of the left testicle. The 
result was that they nevertheless put up horns, and, as far as I could 



156 

judge, without any discrepancy between the right and the left horns." 
Fawns, when cut prior to the formation of any horn, that is witliin 
a Aveek or so after birth, both testes being wholly remoTcd, witb a 
portion of the cord (vas deferens) also, will never bear horns, how- 
ever long they may hve ; but if the bodies of the testes only be taken 
away, the "knob" (epididymis) being left attached to the cord, the 
aniraal will have horns, and renew them annually ; the shedding 
being always rather later in the season, and the velvet covering re- 
maining for a somewhat longer period on their surface than with the 
entire buck ; and further, they will be more slender in the beam, 
and more porous in their internal structure. These semi-castrated, 
if I may so style them, animals will go into rut, but not to the 
degree which produces emaciation ; nor does the great thickeniug 
of the neck occur, which is so characteristic in the perfect animal 
during that peculiar season ; nor are they capable of procreation. 
When the adult buck is castrated, the horns are shed shortly after- 
wards, and renewed ; but the persistent periosteuni, or "velvet," 
never separates from their surface, and the horns do not again fall, 
but remain attached during any period the animal may survive. 
These permanent antlers are often more developed than those pro- 
duced by entire bucks of eąuivaleut age, which I think may be well 
accounted for from the fattened statė, and the longer influence from 
the continued adherence of the vascular iutegument by which the 
horns are formed. I may here observe, that circulation continues ia 
the bone or horn after the periosteum has separated, and that, di- 
minishing by degrees, first from the points, the vessels become obli- 
terated, and vitality therefore ceasing, it is cast off. Redi, in his 
' Experimenta Natūralia,' on the castration of deer, says, " Si cervus 
juvenis castretur, nondum emissis cornubus, cornua nunquam emittit ; 
si castretur jam emissis cornubus, cornua nunquam mutat ; sed quae 
dum castretur habet, castratus semper retinet. Et hac in re verior 
est Aristotelis, Plinii, et Solini, quam Oppiani sententia, libro se- 
cundo, de venatione versu." (16/5, 12mo. p. 162.) Redi is right 
enough in his first proposition, but, with his ancient authorities, sadly 
out in the two latter. Nature seems to employ different modes to 
cause the shedding of the antlers in the entire and in the gelded buck 
(I am alluding principally to the Fallow and to the Red Deer) ; the 
former being by secretion, the latter by absorption mainly. In the 
perfect animal the base of the horn is separated from its circular 
adhesion by a secretion from the conjoined surface of the cranium 
of a thin brownish fluid, which will even exude below the burr ; and 
which is, in fact, the humid incipient process set up to form the 
succeeding antler ; and the former bony union being thus detached, 
the horn falls. In the castrati the horn is divided from its attach- 
ment by absorption of the base of the antler, soraetimes only hori- 
zontally {vide fig. 5), at others forming a coucavity, or even a deep 
and irregular excavation (fig. 6) ; and occasionally the burr will be 
partially and sometimes entirely absorbed before the antler is shed 
(fig. 7). The rapidity of this process is the more remarkable after 
castration of adult bucks, it being in proportion as the operation is 



157 

performed nearer the natūrai time of detachment of the semi-dead 
bone ; thus, if it be about the end of March or so, the horns are cast 
iu a fortnight ; but if done shortly after the " velvet " has separated 
from the newly perfected antlers, in the month of September or 
thereabouts, they are shed iu a month afterwards. Specimens of 
these absorptions, and also examples of the bases of the horns shed 
by the entire animal, are here for the exaraination of the Society*. 




I have purposely avoided citing authors, and have sought to relate 
facts only ; my sole object in pursuing the inquiry I have detailed, 
being to endeavour thereby to expose the fallacy of some of the tra- 
ditional vulgar errors respecting deer, and especially that of lateral- 
ity, whether the influence be inferred to be exercised from the one 
side or the other, which have been handed down from, and are only 
worthy of, the remote ages whence they emanated. 

P. S. — Within a few days, and since my having written theforegoing, 
a paper has been published in the ' Proceedings of the Linnean So- 
ciety,' " On the influence of the Sexual Organs in modifying External 
Character," by my friend Mr. Yarrell, from whom I am estremely 
sorry to be obliged to differ as to some of the conclusions he has 

* Figiires 5, 6 and 7 are from specimens, Nos. 

" 3558. Shed antler of a Fallovr Deer, from wliich half of each testicle 
had been removed soon after birth, 

3563. Shed autler of a castrated Fallow Deer, 
3565. Shed antler of a castrated Fallow Deer," 
in the Miiseum of the CoUege of Surgeons. 



158 

drawn from circumstances he has related, but which, nevertheless, 
I mušt not allovv to pass unnoticed as they bear upon the immediate 
object of my paper. The author statės, that " a red hind in the 
forest of the Duke of Gordon was observed to carry a single horn on 
one side of her head, — such a hom as the malė red deer bears in bis 
third year." She was shot. " And on iuternal examuiation by tvvo 
competent persons, she was found to have a scirrhous ovary on the 
opposite side to that on which she bore the horn." Here we have 
a lusus iiaturcE, and an organie disease, coexisting in the šame ani- 
mal ; and there can be no physiological reason why such might not 
be the case, and certainly there can be none that they should. The 
author proceeds : — "A red hind, in the park at Holkham, was ob- 
served to carry one horn of some length To add to the 

interest in this case, this hind dropped a calf ; we may therefore 
suppose, the cornua and ovaries being double, that one side was 
healthy and perfect, and the other side probably diseased." 

I think, however, it would be more within the range of pro- 
babiUty, and more natūrai, to suppose, as this hind had borne a 
calf {malgre the horn), that both her ovaries were sound, since the 
healthy exercise of the sexual functions, and also the fecundating 
powers of the ovaries were perfectly undisturbed. The deduction, 
that because a diseased ovary was once found to exist in a hind bear- 
ing a horn, that therefore all hinds bearing a horn mušt necessarily 
have a diseased ovary, caunot ręst on the slightest validity ; and all 
general conclusions, drawn from individual instances, mušt ever be 
the causes of error ; and they are but too frequently errors in them- 
selves. There are freaks of nature (lusus naturce) which cannot 
physiologically be accounted for. " Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere 
cansas." Hinds may be furnished with a horn, and entire stags be 
destitute of antlers, &c.* Colonel M'Doual, late of the 2nd Life 
Guards, related to me, that while deer-stalking on his grounds, and 
being concealed from a herd that hadgently approached him, — with 
hinds only, as he believed, — within range of his rifle, his keeper urged 
him to shoot one among them vvhich was larger than the ręst. He 
would not, however, do so, and when too late, he was assured that 
the animal had been long known to the keepers as a polled stag ; of 
which he too was presently satisfied, by observing him advance 
towards some other stags, attack them, and drive them to some 
distance, and then return to herd again with the hinds. The author 
relates also a similar experiment, excepting the difference of age, to 
that given in a former part of this paper, of the removal of a tęstis 
from each of two bucks, Cervus Dama (four years old), the one from 
the left, the other from the right side ; and observes : " Neither 

* The human hands are sometimes bestrewed with vvarts ; the human frame 
totally denuded of hair, pubescent and other ; and the hair becomes more or less 
suddenly perfectly white ; but no diminution of vronted health, moral, physical, 
or sesual, precedes, accompanies or follows these States ; although often during 
future esistence, not a vestige of the pilous covering recurs, nor is the colour of 
the hair restored. Two instances of such albinism have occurred in our gardens 
in Barbary Mice {Mua Barbarus, Linn.), where one may still be seen. 



159 

of these bucks cast either horn, nor was any lateral influence ob- 
servable. They shed their horns as usual in the following spring, 
the new homs coming in due course ; but in the autumn, when the 
horns had ceased to grow, and [had] become hard, all four horns were 
those of the third year, and not those of the fifth year : no lateral 
influence was observable, but it was plainly shown that the dimi- 
nished sexual pomer, conseąuent upon the operation, had produced 
a corresponding diminution in the size of the horns in both cases." 

That any " diminished sexual power" existed^er se, as the cause 
of the deficient size of the horns in these instances, is, as in the case 
of the hind which dropped a calf having a diseased ovary, quite con- 
jectural ; but the horns not being fuUy developed, according with 
the age of the animals, after such an operation as the removal of a 
testicle, I conceive may be satisfactorily esplained on more likely 
and on reasonable grounds, viz. the conseąuent deterioration of the 
. general health which ordinarily would follow such a shock to the 
system, which in the adult animal is often severe, and the local dis- 
turbance very great. During ill-health and debility, secretion is im- 
peded and absorption increased, the body becoming lean and the 
museles losing their volume, and the secretion of horny (bony) sub- 
stance, in common with that of all other solid secretions, would partake 
of the lessened action of the produeing ąuality of the blood. It is 
from few facts that sexual power can be estimated ; and I believe the 
loss of one testicle no more impairs that power than the loss of one 
eye impairs the vision of the other ; — of course I speak of animals 
in perfect health. In the human race I know two examples, where 
marriage, after extirpation of one tęstis, was followed by a fine, and 
a resembling progeny to the malė parent. It is much to be re- 
gretted that the further observation of these two bucks was prevented 
by the sale of the Society's stock at the farm at Kingston, as, on the 
recovery of their health and strength, I believe the horns afterwards 
produced would have borne testimony of the increase of their age. 

3. Description of New Species of Shells collected by 
Mr. t. Bridges in the Bay of Panama and its Vicinity, 

IN THE CoLLECTION OF HuGH CuMING, Esū. By PhILIP P. 

Carpenter. 

Note. — Mr. Cuming, knowing that I am now engaged in working 
out the shells of the "West Coast of North America for a Report at 
the forthcoming meeting of the British Association, has most kindly 
sent me all the shells lately collected by Mr. Bridges which he 
regards as new, ■with a request that I should describe them for him ; 
at the šame time enclosing the published species which he regarded 
as bemg the most alhed forms. I trust to his well-known accuracy 
for the fact of their not being as yet described. Unfortunately 
many of the specimens had gone through the acid process, which has 
destroyed much of the microscopic markings which often furnish the 
best guide for the discrimination of species. 

Warrington, June 9th, 1856. 



160 

1 . Strigilla disjuncta, n. s. S. testą satis magna, alba, tenui, 
planata ; incBąuilaterali, postice jjroducta ; marginibus dor- 
salibus subrectis, ad angidam 120°, aliis bene arcuatis ; lineis 
incrementi vix monstrantibus ; lineis undulatis exiUiinis, antice 
concentricis, umbones versus ascendentibus, sinu angustiore ; 
dein ad marginėm ventralem rapide descendentibus ; dein subito, 
angido acuto, circiter 20° liostice rursus ascendentibus ; lineis 
angularum in valva utraque haud convenientibus ; margine 
postico sinuato, sculptura postea fortiore ; margine antico 
quoque sinuato ; himtla distincta, sinuata ; ligamento sub- 
elongato ; dent. card. valva altera uno parvo et uno magno 
bifido ; altera uno parvo bifido ; dent. lat. acutioribus, haud 
distantibus. 

Long. 1-35, lat. 1-54, alt. -54 poli. 

Hab. In Sinu Panamensi ; legit T. Bridges. (Mus. Cuming. sp. 
duo.) 

Allied to S. sincera, Hanl. ; remarkable for its large size and rery 
fine markings, and named from the lines of markings in the two 
valves not agreeing at the edges. 

2. Tellina Deshayesii, n. s. T. testą "T. exili" simili, aed 
muito magis inceųuilaterali ; ligamento solido ; postice vix ros- 
trata. 

Long. -56, lat. -9, alt. -26 poli. 

Hab. In Sinu Panamensi; legit T. Bridges. Sp. un. in Mus. 
Cuming. 

3. ? ScROBiCTJLARiA viRiDO-TiNCTA, U. S. ? S. testa " 1 S. pro- 
ductae" simili; sed latiore, ovali, tenuiore, magis planata, 
a7itice haud producta, alba ; umbonibus viridi tinctis. 

Long. 1-42, lat. 205, alt. -65 poli. 

Hab. In Sinu Panamensi, una cum 1 S. producta ; legit T. Bridges, 
Sp. un. in Mus. Cuming. 

Another of the species intermediate betvveen Tellina and Serobi- 
cularia proper, and apparently nearer to the former genus. 

4. Semele PLANATA, U. S. S. testa subtriangidari, margine 
ventrali valde excurvato ; cinereo-albida, circa luiiulam mini- 
mam et aream ligamenti roseo eleganter penicillata, intusflavido 
tincta ; rugis concentricis subdistantibus, irregularibus, parum 
elevatis ; striulis creberrimis radiantibus, valde irregularibus, 
rugulosis sculpta ; postice maxime sinuata ; valva una magis 
quam altera planata ; fossa ligamenti recta, angusta ; sinu 
pallii modico, lato. 

Long. 1-4, lat. 1-56, alt. -47 poli. 

Hab. In Sinu Panamensi ; legit T. Bridges. Sp. un. in Mus. 
Cuming. 

DifFers from S. jmncfata, Sow., in the absence of punctures, in the 
triangular dorsal margins, uneąual flattening of the valves, straight 
narrow hinge-pit, and the much smaller size of the pallial sinus. 



1«1 

5. Mactra (Mactrella) lacinata, n. s. M. testą parva, te- 

nuissima, cmerea, ventricosa ; postice angulata, carina modica, \> • ^'^ ' - 
fimhnata ; lamori, concentrice vix undulata, rugvHs epider- — /m. ^ 
midis tenms suhdistnntibus ornata ; subceąuilaterali, umbonibus ' *- 1 \ 

prominmtibus ; dent. card. parvis, lat. acutis, haud diatanti- 
bus; sinu pallii parvo, subangulato. 

Long. •:,%, lat. -69, alt. -4 poli. 

Hab. In Sinu Panamensi; legit T. Bridges. Mus. Cuming, sp. 

Has a general similarity to M. angulata and kindred species. Re- 
markable for the epidermal fringe ou the keel and regular concentric 
wnnkles. 

6. Cyclina prodtjcta, n. s. C. testą tenui, ventricosiore, alba, O. V'^ 
ventraiiter producta ; concentrice tenuissime striata ; margini- 
bus subregulariter arcuatis ; umbonibus eleganter ineurvatis ; '%-\C'^ " '"' 
lunula nulla, linea cordiformi vix monstrante ; area ligamenti 
elongata; dent. card. valva altera postico bifido, anticis ii., 
contigttis; altera posticis ii. acutis, elongatis, antico acuto] 
sinu pallii subangulato, umbones versus fere dimidium ascen- 
dente. 
Long. 1-62, lat. 1-58, alt. 1-05 poli. 

Hab. In Sinu Panamensi; legit T. Bridges. Sp, un. in Mus. 
Cuming. 

In shape somethiug likę Cgrena maritima, C. B. Ad., but in 
habit resembliug Cyclina subąuadrata, Hanl. (=Artemis saccata 
Gould). * 

7. Melampus Bridgesii, n. s. M. testą parva, ovali, nigro- 
fusca, nitida; anfr. viii., sutura haud impressa, in spiram 
tenue spiraliter striulata ; marginibus spiree regulariter excur- 
vatis; apertura pyriformi, labro acuto, nec calloso nec dentato; 
columella triplicata ; plicis, antica spirali, obliąua ; media 
ttcuta, transversa, subparietali ; postica parietali, parva. 
Long. -28, long. spir. -08, lat. -12 poli., div. utraoue parte vari- 
ante. 

Hab. Ad ora Sinus Panaraensis; legit T. Bridges. Sp. tria in 
Mus. Cuming. 

Has the general appearance of M. Adamsianus, Pfr., from N. 
Ireland, but is much more slender, with a simple labrum. 

8. Umbrella ovalis, n. s. U. testą " U. Indicse" simili ; sed 
margine haud undulato, regulariter ovali; apice spirali, sub- 
prominente, minus inceąuilaterali ; epidermide tenui, haud 
nitente ; adulta intus aurantia. 
Tęst. jun. long. 1-93, lat. 1-58 poli. 

Hab. Ad ostia fluminis Chiriqui, in Sinu Panamensi; legit T 
Bridges. Sp. duo in Mus, Cuming. 

Conceming this remarkable shell, hitherto only fouud in the old 
world, and, in spite of the bulk of its animal, not observed bv either 
^M ^'i^l?,^' ^™^" ^^«"^S' «•■ ^'r. Hinds, Mr. Cuming writes that 
No. CCCXI.— Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



162 

it was not ouly brought by "Mr. Bridges, but also by a gentleman 
iu Paris, who collected it exactly in tbe šame place. Two specimens 
are in Mr. Cuniiug's coUection, of whicb one, very much thickened, 
appears to have formed part of a much larger shell. 

9. Pyrgula auADRicosTATA, n. s. P. testą ovali, alba, spira 
haud acuminata, marginibus ezciirvatis ; carinis iv. acutis 
cincta, ątiarum ii. in sjnra extant, tertia vix siipra suturam 
impressam apparet, rpiarta circa basin ; aperturam verstis, 
costulis incrementi decussata ; apertura lata ; labro fenui a 
plica ąuarta parietali interrupta. 

Long. -28, long. spir. -16, lat. -15, div. 40°. 

Ilab. In ? flumina Sinus Panamensis ; legit T. Bridges. Sp. un. 
in Mus. Cuming. 

This pretty little shell is the Pacific analogus of the Swiss species 
for which the genus was constituted ; differing, however, iu form 
and number of keels. The specimen has been tenanted by a hermit 
crab, and has Bryozoa near the mouth. 

10. Erato ? Maugeri^, var. Panamensis. E. testą " E. 
Maugerise " simillima, sed majore, vix graciliore, apice minore, 
spira plerumque extantiore. 

Long. -28, long. spir. -03, lat. '18, div. 130°. 

Hab. Iu Sinu Panamensi; legit T. Bridges. Sp. tria in Mus. 
Cuming. 

The differences are so very trifling between the specimens exa- 
mined from the Pacific and West Indies as not to justify (without 
further kuonledge) a specific separation. They do not appear con- 
stant in either type. The first whorl in the Pacific shells is some- 
what smaller, while the shell is larger. 

11. ? CiTHARA siNUATA, U. S. C. testū trūpezoidea, spira sub- 
elevata, marginibus excurvatis ; albida, rufo-fusco varie tincta ; 
anfr. ix., subrotundatis, sutura parum impressa, ąuarum iii. 
nucleosi, diaphani, Iceves, dein liris spiralibus et radiantibus 

fortiter cancellatis ; normaliter liruJis radiantibtis et striulis 

spiralibus tenue sculptis, in anfr. uit. subobsoletis ; apertura 

lineata, canali anteriore haud profundo, curtissimo ; labro 

acuto, ad dorsum calloso, sinu antico pai'vo, postico angusto, 

profundo, intus haud denticulato ; labio parietali haud calloso. 

Long. -43, long. spir. -18, lat. -17, div. 43°. 

Hab. In Sinu Panamensi ; legit T. Bridges. Sp. tria in Mus. 

Cuming. 

Closely related to Pleurotoma concinna, C. B. Adams, Pan. Shells, 
No. 167, from the description of which it differs in the whorls not 
being angular, and the sculpture on the spire being coarser, instead 
of finer, than the ręst. 

12. Mangelia acuticostata, n. s. M. testą parva, turrita, 
albida, rufo-fusco tincta; marginibus spira excurvatis ; anfr. 
vii. subtumentibus, superne obtttse angulatis, sutura impressa; 



163 

costis radiantibus acutis, angustis, circiter ix. subobliąuis ; in- 
terstitiis latis, confertissime et minutissime spiraliter striulatis; 
apertura subelongata ; labro acuto, simplici, sinu rotundato, 
aperto ; ad dorsum varice acuto, extante ; labro tenui, 
Long. -32, long. spir. -16, lat. -12, div. 30°, 
Hab. lu Sinu Panamensi ; legit T. Bridges. Sp. un. in Mus. 
Cuming. 

Intermediate between M. rigida, Hinds, and M. striosa, C. B. 
Adams. 

^J 13. Man GELI A ? rigida, var. fuscoligata. M. testą "M. 
rigidse" simili; sed graciliore, costis acutioribus, lineis spi- 
ralibus miltus expressis, fascia rufo-fusca super suturam plūs 
minusve conspicua. 
Long. -27, long. spir. -15, lat. -08, div. 28°. 
Variat t. plūs minusve elevata, seu latiore. 
Hab. In Sinu Panamensi ; legit T, Bridges. Mus. Cuming. 
As far as can be judged from a comparison of nine specimens 
brought by Mr. Bridges with two of M. rigida, Hinds, tbis is a 
very variable species, differing in colour, strength of sculpture, 
solidity, or spirai elevation. M. negieda, C. B. Ad., four specimens 
of which were found to vary, may also prove a brown variety of the 
šame species. 

14. Defrancia intercalaris, n. s. D. testą graciliore, pal- 
lide castanea, fascia circa peripheriam pallidiore, spira elevata, 
marginibus rectis ; anfr. x. rotundatis, suturis parum impressis; 
costis radiantibus supra circiter xi. rotundatis, interstitiis 
latis; infra aliis intercalantibus ; lirulis spiralibus, subdis- 
tantibus, in spira plerumąue iii., ad basin crebrioribus ; rugulis 
radiantibus minutissimis totą superfcie sub lente confertissime 
ornata ; apertura ovali, canali brevi ; labro margine acuto, vix 
serrato, intus denticulato, ad dorsum varice prominente, latera- 
liter compresso ; sinu postico rotundato, aperto, sutura vix 
attingente, callositate parietali parva. 
Long. -64, long. spir. -35, lat. -24, div. 25°. 
Hab. In Sinu Panamensi; legit T. Bridges. Sp. un. in Mus. 
Cuming. 

With some of tbe characters of Drillia, and a loose resemblance 
to Pleurotoma gracillima, this sbell seems to bave most affinity with 
Defrancia rava, Hinds. 

15. Defrancia serrata, n. s. D. testą parva, turrita, mar- 
ginibus spirce excurvatis ; albida, rufo-fusco fasciata ; fascia 
aream sinus implente, dein circa basin continua ; anfr. viii. 
convexis, costis rotundatis xii., circa basin obsoletis, et lirulis 
spiralibus costarum apiees serrantibus, iii. in spiram monstran- 
tibus, eleganter instructis ; apertura subąuadrata ; labro ad 
marginėm serrato, intus tuberculis v., ad dorsum varice valde 
prominente, ornato ; sinu rotundato, lato ; labio subrugoso. 

Long. -3, long. spir. -18, lat. -12, div. 28°. 



164 

Hab. In Sinu Panamensi ; legit T. Bridges. Sp. un. in Mus. 
Cuming. 

Has the general aspect of Mangelia rigida, var. fuscoligata ; and 
also resembles D. rava, Hinds. 

16. Drillia punctatostriata, n. s. D. testą intense pur- 
pureo-fusca, gracili, spira acuminata, marginibus excurvatis ; 
anfr. x. satis rotundatis, suturis haud impressis ; lirulis spi- 
ralibus acutis, distantibus, ąuarum iii.-v. in spira monstrantur, 
supra costis radiantibus inconspicuis circiter xx. obliąuis, no- 
dosis ; juxta suturam carina haud extante ; area sinus lineis 
incrementi costis convenientibus vix decussata ; apertura elon- 
gata, intus haud denticulata, canali minimo ; labro margine 
acuto, haud serrato, ad dorsum tumente ; sinu antico minore, 
postico rotundato, profundo, faucibus coarctatis ; Idbio haud 
calloso ; totą superficie sub lente minutissime et confertim 
punctatostriata. 

Loiig. '/S, long. spir. '4, lat. "26, div. 27°. 

Hab. In Sinu Panamensi ; legit T. Bridges. Sp. un. in Mus. 
Cuming. 

17. ? Pleurotoma GRACiLLiMA, n. S. 1 P. tcsta gracillima, 
pallide castunea, spira acuta, elevata, marginibus rectis ; anfr. 
xii. rotundatis, sutura impressa ; costibus radiantibus sub- 
declivibus xviii., ad jugum acutis, interstitiis parvis ; lirulis 
spiralibus acutis, ąuarum iii. sive iv. in spiram monstrantur, ad 
intersectiones nodulosis ; carina infrasuturali haud extante ; 
area sinus latiore, sublcevi ; totą superficie minutissime spi- 
raliter striulata, in spira radiatim corrugulata ; apertura 
ovali, canali subelongato ; labro margine acuto, vix serrato, ad 
dorsum valde calloso; sinu antico parvo, postico rotundato, 
aperto, suturce contiguo, haud attingente ; callositate parietali 
vix monstrante . 

Long. -83, long. spir. '49, lat. -24, div. 20°. 

Hab. In Sinu Panamensi ; legit T. Bridges. Sp. unicum in Mua. 
Cuming. 

Has many of the characters of Drillia and Defrancia ; but the 
canal appears long enough to give it a place among the true Pleu- 
rotomce. 

(7 (^ 18. ScALARiA REGULARis, U. S. jS. tcstū parva, turrita, alba ; 
anfr. ix. parum attingentihus ; costis x.-xii. validioribus, ex- 
tantibus, lineis subspiralibus apicem versus contin^is ; striulis 
spiralibus subobsoletis ; umbilico nulio. 
Long. -27, long. spir. -19, lat. -13, div. 32°. 
Hab. In Sinu Panamensi ; legit T. Bridges. Sp. tria in Mus. 
Cuming. 

The ribs are stronger, more projecting, and the spirai sculpture 
fainter than in S. Mindorensis. 

O n 19. ScALARiA TIARA, n. S. S. tcstū obcsa, IčBvi, albida; anfr. 
vii. parum attingentibus, rapide augentihus ; costis xii. acutis, 



165 

valde extantibus, infra suturatn parum alutis, attingentihus, 
lineis rectis ad apicem continuis ; umbilico nulio. 
Long. -27, long. spir. -16, lat. -16, div. 48°. 
Hab. In Sinu Panameiisi ; legit T. Bridges. Sp. un. in Mus 
Cuming. 

Distinguished from S. obesa, Sow., by the small size of the cor- 
responding whorls, slightly winged shoulders, and want of įimbilicus. 

20. ScALARiA SUBNODOSA, U. S. S. testū turritū, alba, gracili, 
leevi, anfr. xii. haud separatis ; costis xiv.-xvi. plemmąue 
acutis, huc et illuc latis, subdeclivibus, superne vix alatis ; um- 
bilico nulio. 

Long. 1-4, long. spir. 1-06, lat. '5, div. 23°. 
Hab. In Sinu Panamensi ; legit T. Bridges. Sp. un. in Mus. 
Cuming. 

21. ScALARiA CuMiNGii, n. S. S. testū "S. mitrBeformi" si- /b tU T< 
mili, sed paullum graciliore ; anfr. x. quarum iii. primi Iceves ; 

costis paucioribus, viii.-ix., minus coronatis, haud acutissimis, 
haud rejlexis, striulis incrementi minutissime sculptis ; anfr. 
valde separatis. 
Long, -35, long. spir. -25, lat. -14, div. 30°. 
Hab. In Sinu Panamensi ; legit T. Bridges. Sp. un. in Mus. 
Cuming. 

The lines of growth ou the varices show that the coronations were 
never so sharp and elevated as in S. mitrceformis. 

22. ScALARiA HiNDsii, n. s. 5. testą "S. Cumingii" simili, Bh-T^ 
sedmagis elongata, majore, anfr. x. haud profunde separatis ; 
varicibus acutis viii., acutius coronatis, lineis regularibus, ad 
marginėm alteram spirce parallelis, ascendentibus. 

Long. 1-04, long. spir. 79, lat. -4, div. 25°. 
^Hab. In Sinu Panamensi; legit T. Bridges. Sp. un. in Mus 
Cuming*. 

23. Natica EXCAyATA, n. s. N. testą " N. Broderipiause " si- 
miii ; sed callositate parietali maxime elongata ; regione spi- 
rah umbilicari valde excavata ; albida, rufo-castanea lineis 
irregularibus radiantibus penicillata ; striulis radiantibus cre- 
brioribus. 

Long. 1-45, long. spir. -3, lat. 1-5, div. 130°. 

Hab. In Sinu Panamensi ; legit T. Bridges. 2 sp. in Mus. 
Cuming.— S.W. Mexico, P. P. C. 

This shell resembles N. lineata (Philippines) in colouring ; but 
that shell is smooth, while the Panama shell has distinct, though not 
deep, radiatmg furrows, ending in a circum-umbilical line. 

24. ? Triton crebristriatus, n. s. ? T. testą "T. picto" 

* The above species are published ^ith doubt, as Scalaria are seldora seen in 
sufficient uumbers to ascertain tbe limits of specific variation Species described 
from one or two specimens mušt always be regardert simplv as " provisionallv 



166 

plerumque simulante ; sed striis crebris spiralibus cincta ; al- 
bida, rufo-castaneo dense maculata ; apertura vix varicosa, 
i7itus simplici. 
Long. -58, long. spir. '34, lat. -24, div, 30°. 
Hab. Iii Sinu Panamensi ; legit T. Bridges. Sp. un. ia Mus. 
Cuming. 

Is destitute of the espressed spirai ribs of T. pietus (s. g. Epi- 
dronius, H. & A. Ad. Gen. i. 103). The only specimen seeu has no 
teeth in the aperture. lt may be only on the verge of maturity, or 
it may belong to a Bucciuoid genus. 

25. Phos BiPLiCATUS, U. S. Ph. testą subelevata, anfr. viii. 
parum rotundatis ; costis radiantibus circiter xi. rotundatis, 
interstitiis coneavis ; liris spiralibus extantibus aeutis, supra 
costas castaneo tinctis, quarum iv. in anfr. penult. videntur ; 
apertura contracta ; labro intus dense Urato, labio interdum 
rugoso ; columella plica acuta, canalem definiente, altera ob- 
tusa, vix bifida, superante ; canali acuto, recurvato, ad dorsum 
nodoso et infra carina acuta ornato ; colore albido, purpureo- 
fusco tincto. 

Long. r05, long. spir. "6, lat. '64, div. 50°. 
Hab. In Sinu Panamensi; legit T. Bridges. Sp. un. in Mus. 
Curaing. 

26. Latyrus tumens, n. s. L. testą " L. gracili " simillima, 
sed costis maxime tumentibus, attingentibus, suleis spiralibus 
crebris ornata ; plicis columellaribus iii. quarta obsoleta. 

Long. 2-78, long. spir. 1-57, lat. 1-44, div. 50°. 

Hab. In Sinu Panamensi ; legit T. Bridges. Sp. un. in Mus. 
Cuming. 

In L. gracilis the spirai lines are few and raised ; in this species 
numerous and impressed. 



4. Description of New Species and Varieties of Calyp- 

TRiEIDiE, TrOCHID^, AND PyrAMIDELLID.E, PRINCIPALLY 
IN THE CoLLECTION OF HuGH CuMING, Esa. By PhILIP 

P. Carpenter*. 

1. Crucibulum violascens?, n. s. Cr. t. solidiore, conica, albida, 
fusco maculata, intus violascente ; vertice nucleoso conspicuo, 
adunco, anfr. ii. subtumentibus, apice planato ; superficie rugis 

* Mr. Cuming, having most obligingly lent me (for comparison wth Mazatlan 
species) his type-specimens of various genera that cannot weU be identified 
merely by descriptions, has asked me at the šame time to describe certain forms 
which appeared to have escaped the notice of previous -vvriters. Of the group 
here named Chrysallida, the Vitrinelloid forms allied to Cyclostrema, and the West 
American species of Calyptroeidoe, details will be found in the Catalogue of the 
British Museum CoUection of Mazatlan Shells, now in the press. 
Warrington, June 9th, 1856. 



107 

plurimis parum irregularibus instructa, haud magnis, rotundatis, 
marginėm huc et illuc pectinante ; interstitiis variantibus. 

Long. -94, lat. -78, alt. -48 poli. 

Hab. Ceylou ; legit Capt. Templeman. Sp. unic. in Mus. Cuming. 

Comp. Calyphcea maculata, Qaoy (non Brod.), Lara. An. s. Vert. 
ed. Desh. p. 628. 

The cup is unfortunately broken in the solitary specimen ; but 
the attachment continues for įrds of the height of the shell, with a 
very strong rauscular scar at its side. It is distinguished by the 
close rounded ribs of the exterior and the rich Ariolet of the inner 
surface. 

2. Crucibulum spinosum, var. compresso-conicum. Cr. spi- 

nosum abnormale, testą valde irregulari, conica, apicem aduncum 
versus lateraliter compressa, postea tumente ; superficie haųi 
spinosa, albo-fusca,fusca varie maculata. 
Long. -9, lat. "95, alt. -75 poU. 

Div. apicem versus, longitudinaliter 90°, transversim 40° ; postea 
100°; in adulta 15°. 
Hab. California. In Mus. Cuming. 

This most abnormal specimen by itself would never be taken for 
Cr. spinosum ; nevertheless the intermediate forms in the British 
Museum Mazatlan Collection, betvveen this and the flat and spiny 
states, are so gradual and numerous, that I feel compelled to affiliate 
it to that most variable species. 

3. Crucibulum ?? imbricatum, var. Cumingii. Cr. t. conica, 

tenui, albo-fusca, rubro-fusco varie maculata seu lineata ; vertice 
....?, satis adunco ; costis numerosis, šape intercalantibus, usque 
ad xl., haud valde expressis, haud acutis, interstitiis tenue cor- 
rugatis ; margine acuto, šape a costis palmato ; cyatho albo, per 
duos trientes affixo, ad marginėm interiorem subplanato. 
Long. 1-95, lat. 17, alt. 1-05 poli. 

Hab. In Sinu Callaoensi, ad Peruviam ; idem, Valparaiso. Mus. 
Cuming. 

The shell differs from the non-pitted forms of Cr. imbricatum, 
Sow. (described as C. dentatum by Mke), in being very much thinner, 
with the ribs much finer and more numerous. The cup also is not 
fixed quite so far. 

4. Cr. ? Cumingii, var. Caribbeense. Testą tenuissima, super- 

ficie ?haud corrugata, cyatho f usco tincto. 

Long. 1-1, lat. -95, alt. -5. 

Hab. In iusula " St. Thomas " dieta, in Mari Caribbeensi. Mus. 
Cuming. 

A beautiful young specimen, in the Cumiugian collection, differs 
from the Pacific form (1) in being thinner, which may be a peculi- 
arity of growth ; (2) in the want of corrugation of the surface, which 
may be the result of acid ; (3) in a coloured stripe near the margiu 
of the cup, which may be an individual idiosyncrasy. 



168 

5. Crucibulum PKCTiNATUM, u. s. Cf. t. coiiica, auranlta. tenut- 
ore ; vertice nucleoso subadunco, pane separato, anfr. ii. sub- 
tumentibus, sutura profunda, apice planato ; dein superficie lavi, 
seu striis incrementi ; dein rugis radiantibus eztantibus, peracutis, 
ad periodas incrementi laminis concentricis irregularibus inter- 
ruptis, interdum valde distantibus, interdum interstitiis parvis ; 
margine a rugis cavatis stellato ; cyatho {testą 1 adolescenti) 
haud continuo. intus indentato, marginibus ad ang. 50° distantibus. 
Long. M4, lat. -97, alt. -6 poli. 
Hab. Peru. Sp. un. iu Mus. Cuming. 

This specimen is distinguished at once by its golden-orange colour, 
rather thin growth, and by the characters of the ribs and cup. 
The ribs are generally distant, always sharp, resembling a young 
Siphonaria gigas ; and as the margins of growth are often left likę 
cąves, a series of irregular pits are then formed as in Cr. imbricatum. 
On one part of the shell are diagonal furrows, as in Cr. limbricatum, 
var. Broderipii ; but įhis may be an accidental pecuharity. The 
shape of the cup is as in the very young statė of the other species, 
beiug a simple plate bent at an angle of 50° and there fastened at 
the two extreniities to the inner surface of the shell. Other spe- 
ciraens are in the British Museum coUection. 

6. Crucibulum AURicuLATUM, Chemu. 
Patella auriculata, Chemn. Conch. Cab. 
The Chemnitzian species is difficult to recognize. It is, however, 
most probably the West Indian form, answeriug to Cr. umbrella, 
Desh. (=C. rudis, Brod.). Perfect specimens are extremely rare in 
coUections. Ou comparing a rather young shell in Mr. Cutning's 
coUection (iu which the finer markings have beeu removed in the 
beautifying process) with a series of Cr. umbrella from S.W. Mexico, 
I can scarcely find a single point of specific diflference. The cup is 
attached only at the base, is white throughout, angulated in what 
would be the line of attachment, and indented along the inner 
margin. The outside has about thirty rather irregular ribs, which 
are neither sharp nor rounded. Colour whitish, speckled with brown. 
A large series from each side of the continent should be compared 
before the identity (or othervvise) of the species is decided. The 
comparative uumber and sharpness of the ribs are the principai points 
of difference. The colour varies greatly in the Pacific shells. 

7. Crucibulum ? imbricatum, var. Broderipii. 

= Cr. imbricatum, Brod. in Mus. Cuming: uon C. imbricata, 
Brod. in Trans. Zool. Soc. pi. 27. f. 7. 
Cr. 1 imbricatum, t. albida, solida, subcompressu, conica ; interstitiis 

costarum et laminarum incrementi interdum magnis, profundis, 

haud regularibus, interdum evanescentibus ; superficiei parte rugis 

diagonalibus crebrioribus instructa. 
This shell, which has borne the name of Cr. imbricatum in the 
Cumingian coUection, may not improbably be only a variety of that 
species ; but as it offerš distinctive characters in its remarkable 



169 

diagonal furrows, a name has been given to it iu remeinbrauce of the 
author of the Mouograph in the Proceedings aud Transactions of the 
Zoological Society. The shell tigured as Calyptrcea imbricata iu the 
Transactions exactly accords with the young statė of the ordinary 
thick, ribbed, and often pitted species of the W. American coast, 
figured by Sowerby under the šame name in his ' Genera,' f. 5. An 
attempt to remodel the synonymy of this shell will be found in the 
British Museum Mazatlan Catalogue. 

8. Cyclostrema excavata, n. s. C. t. margaritąformi, nitidiore, 

alba; unfr. nucleosis i\.,lcevibus ; dein anfr. uno et dimidio striulis 
minimis radiantibus, excurvatis ; dein anfr. ii. et ditnidio norma- 
libus ; totą svperjicie minutissime spiraliter striatis ; basi regione 
umbilicali malime excavata ; umbilico profunde spirali, anfractus 
ultimi dimidio solum monstrante ; apertura subrotundata. 
Long. -16, long. spir. -08, lat. -24 poli., div. 130°. 
Hab. In Mari Sinensi. Sp. unic. in Mus. Cuming. 
This shell appears glossy to the naked eye, and escapes from the 
fingers likę a Zonites, but under the glass is beautifully sculptured. 
The first normai whorl appears as though engine-turned. 

9. Cyclostrema octolirata, n. s. C. t. parva, alba, anfr. v., 

ąuorum duo et dimidium nucleosi sunt ; liris acto validis spiralibus 
cincta, guarum duo in spiram et una vix intus umbilicum maxime 
apertum sitee sunt ,• sutura profunda ; apertura circulari, anfr. 
penult. vix attingente. 
Long. -4, lat. -6, div. 155°. 
Hab. In Mari Rubro. Sp. un. in Mus. Archer. 
The umbilicus is so wide as clearly to show the junction of the 
apical whorls at the top. The species appears too strong, and the 
adult portion too large in proportion to unite with Vitrinella, with 
which it agrees in many characters. 

10. ? Cyclostrema pentegoniostoma, n. s. 1 C. t. subdiscoidea, 
parva, solidiore, alba ; anfr. v., quormn ultimi duo normales sunt ; 
carinis quinque cincta, una in spira, una valde prominente ad 
peripheriam, tuberculis obscuris undata, una in basi, duabus infra 
umbilicum maximum ; totą superficie minutissime et creberrime 
transversim striata ; apertura circulari, parum attingente, a 
carinis angulata. 

Long. -04, lat. -065— -09, div. 165°. 

Hab. In Mari Rubro. In Mus. Brit. repertura. 

Known at once from the tricarinate Vitrinellce by its strong growth, 
the undulating periphery of the principai keel, and the very minute 
radiating strise. 

11. TViTRENELLA SPIRULOIDES, U.S. V. t. hyalina, diaphan'a, 
minima, tenuissima ; spira planata, anfr. vix attingentibus, haud 
rapide augentibus ; liris acutis subdistantibus radiantibus, circiter 
XX. cincta ; interstitiis tenuissime spiraliter striatis ; peritremate 
continuo, circulari. 



170 

Long. (circiter) -075, lat. •025--02, div. 180°. 
Hab. Australia. In Mus. Brit. repertura. 

This shell may be a Cyclostrema, but its texUire agreesbetter with 
ntrinella ; it seems to be young, and differs from all other recorded 
species in the principai sculpture being transverse instead ot spirai. 
TJnder the microscope, its beautiful sharp ribs remind the observer 
of the chambers of Spirula. 

12. Odostomia (Chrysallida*) crebristriata n s. Chr. t. 
ovato-oUonga, solida, alba; vertice mcleoso parvo, declivi, in tntn- 
catione spira haud magna immerso ; anfr. normahbus vi. planatis, 
suturis parum impressis ; clathrulis transversis circiter xx. rectis, 
haud declivibus, sibi subparallelis , obtusis. circa basm rotundatam 
ad rimulam umhilicalem continuis, labrum adultum versus ere- 
brioribus. tenuioribus; interstitiis latis, planatis, creberrime 
spiraliter striatis ; apertura contracta.ad basm late effusa ; phca 
columellari conspicua, transversa, obtusa. 
Long. -132, long. spir. -087, lat. -053 poli., div. 23°. 
Hab. Sual, insula Luzon, Philippinarum. Legit H. Cummg ; 
sp. un. in Museo suo. i ^ „ „„ 

This shell is probably not qnite, though very nearly mature ; as 
the parietal lip is scarcely formed, and the labrum is not so thm as 
usual in the adult. The aspect is quite distmct from that ot the 
Mazatlan species. 

1 3 Chemnitzia Cumingii, n. s. Ch. t. valde elongata, turrita, alba. 
subdiaphana, interdum fusco lineata, seu maculata ; vertice nu- 
cleoso helicoideo, parum prominente, anfr. m. verticaltter sitis, 
apice conspicuo, marginibus spira rectis haud superante; anfr. 
xviii. normalibus, subrotundatis . suturis distinctis ; lirulis trans- 
versis circiter xxviii. acutis, subrectis, subdeclivibus, circa periphe- 
riam truncatis ; interstitiis concavis, latioribus, a sulculis spiralibus 
vi. decussatis, in basin crebrioribus ; apertura ovata, labro tenuis- 
simo, columella vix intorta. ^ 

Long. -55. long. spir. -47, lat. -1 poli., div. 13 . 
Hab. In Mari Sinensi. Sp. un. in Mus. Cummg. 
Known at once from C. grandis by the spirai strise m the concave 
interspaces. 

14. Chemnitzia polyzonata, n. s. Ch. t. haud parva, turrita. 
alba ■ vertice nucleoso tumente, helicoideo. anfr. m. subverticaliter 
sitis', apice conspicuo ; marginibus spirge rectis, satis divergenU- 
bus superante ; anfr. x. normalibus. satis tumentibus. suturis tm- 

* Siibgenns Chrysalmda. 
Testą uiringue constricta,pnpiformi8 ; peritrema continuum, ad basin undatjcm; 
labrum juxta aperturam tenue, intus solidius ; phca columelarts dechvts, 
' celata ; superjicies plerumque cancellata. Operculum {specie typica) radta- 
tim corrugatum, tenuissimum. 
Sp. typ. Chem7iitzia communis, C. B. Ad., Pan. Shells, no. 223, pp. 166. 31? 
Partiį^lars of this group ^vill be found in the British Mnseum Mazatlan Cata- 
logue, with descriptions of sixteen species from that place. 



171 

pressis ; costis transversis subexpressis, tatioribus, rotundatis, in 
anfr. penult. xx., ad basin rotundatam continuis, postea evanidis ; 
interstitiis minimis ; lirulis planatis latis spiralibus, et costis et 
interstitiis superantibus, in anfr. penult. ix. ,• apertura vix ovata ; 
labro ucuto, ante peritrema tumente et postea contracto ; columella 
valde intorta ; regione urnbilicali valde indentata. 

Long. -37, long. spir. -3, lat. -1 poli., div. 18°. 

Hab. Cagayan, in insula Mindanao, Philippinarum. Legit H. 
Cuming ; sp. un. in Museo suo. 

15. Chemnitzia BiCARiNATA, n. S. Ch. t. eloncata, turrita, alba, 
huc et illuc varicosa ; vertice 1 . . . . ; anfr. normalibus xii. + 
?...., planatis, suturis valde impressis ; liris transversis acutis, 
rectis, circiter xxv., haud declivibus, li?ieis ad apicem vix con- 
tinuis ; carina valida, extante, rotundata circa peripheriam, ad 
suturas vix monstrante ; carina altera in basin minore ; totą 
superficie minutissime spiraliter striata ; apertura a carinis angų- 
lata ; columella intorta ; regione umbilicali maxime indentato ; 
varicibus intus dentatis. 

Long. -42, long. spir. -36, lat. -07 poli., div. 13°. 

Hab. Cagayan, in insula Mindanao, Philippinarum. Legit H. 
Cuming ; sp. un. in Museo suo. 

In its remarkable base, it resembles Ch. turrita, C. B. Ad. 
(Panama) . 

16. Chemnitzia rubrofusca, n. s. Ch. t. rubro-fusca, elongata, 

turrita ; vertice nucleoso discoidali, anfr. iii., apice conspicuo ; 
parum prominente, marginibus spira vix rectis haud superante ; 
anfr. normalibus ix., quarum iv. primi subrotundati minus diver- 
gentes, alteri planati ; lirulis transversis rectis, acutis, crebris, 
xxvi., circa basin evanescentibus ; lineis haud declivibus apicem 
versus declivibus ; circa basin rotundatam, haud umbilicatam, et in- 
terstitiis lirularum concavis, suleis minimis ornata, in anfr. penult. 
circiter viii. ; columella vix intorta. 

Long. -27, long. spir. -204, lat. '065 poli., div. 16°. 

Hab. In Mari Sinensi. Sp. un. in Mus. Cuming. 

17. Chemnitzia Bittiformis, n. s. Ch. t. valde elongata, tur- 
rita, alba; vertice ?.... ; anfr. normalibus xii., subplanatis, 
suturis distinctis; lirulis transversis circiter xxx. vix expressis, 
latissimis, rotundatis, attingentibus, circa basin rotundatam evanes- 
centibus ; lirulis spiralibus minoribus, in spira vii., in basi cre- 
brioribus, interstitia minima decussantibus, lirulisgue transversis 
superantibus ; apertura ovata ; columella vix intorta ; huc et illuc 
varicibus tumentibus. 

Long. -43, long. spir. -36, lat. -08 poli., div. 11°. 

Hab. Cagayan, in insula Mindanao, Pliilippinarum. Legit //. 
Cuming ; sp. un. in Museo suo. 

Although the nuclear whorls have perished, the point of junction 
bears testimony to its sinistral character, while the general aspect of 
the shell is Cerithoid. 



172 

5. DeSCRIPTION OF a NeW SpECIES OF ACTINIA FROM THE 

Devonshire Coast. By E. W. H. Holdsworth. 

When contracted, the body forms a rounded button about | of an 
inch ia diameter, but ia full expausioa it is generally elongated to 
the extent of 2^ inches, aud terminates ia a somewhat cup-shaped 
disk about Ii inch wide, and having its extended edges frequeutly 
thrown into irregular festoons. The tentacula, about 150 in number, 
are arranged in four or five series, as in most of the group to which 
this species belongs ; the first row contains twenty-five arms, about 
half the length of the diameter of the disk, and moderately stout ; 
the others gradually diminish in siže as they proceed outwards, their 
numbers at the šame time increasing ; but the irregular manner in 
which they are placed renders it difficult to enumerate the contents, 
or to determine the limits of any one of the series. The disk is of a 
uniform olive-brovvn without any superficial markings, — the appear- 
ance of radiating lines, sometimes visible, being only the upper edges 
of the internal septa showing through the transparent skin ; the 
mouth opens transversely, and displays a regular crenation of its 
pink lining membrane. The tentacula are of a reddish purple, and 
entirely destitnte of rings or other marking ; they present a remark- 
able contrast to the body of the animal, which at its upper part is of 
a dark orange colour, gradually assuniing a paler tint tovvards the 
base ; numerous white sucking-pores are disposed over the upper 
surface, and afford points of attachment to surrounding substances, 
when reąuired to conceal the body ; they also give exit to the con- 
voluted filaments, which are abundantly thrown out from them, and 
the mouth, when the animal is irritated. Its natūrai haunts appear 
to be narrow crevices of rocks, into which it can retire when alarnied, 
and I was prevented obtaiuing many specimens by their having 
chosen such inaccessible hollows for their residence. Four or five 
examples were, however, procured at extrenie lo\v-water mark, from 
the very productive rocks outside Dartmouth harbour, and, excepting 
in size, presented no points of difference. I propose for this species 
the name of vinosa. 



June 24, 1856. 

Dr. Gray, F.R.S., in the Chair. 

1. On three Genera of Vespertilionid^, Furipterus, 
Natalus and Hyonycteris, with the Descriptions of 
TWO New Species. By Robert F. Tomės. 

(Mammalia, PI. XLII., XLIII.). 

The genus Furia was estabUshed by M. F. Cuvier from the exa- 
mination of a single example taken at Mona in South America, by 
M. Leschenault. 



173 

Linnseus having previously made use of the name in another branch 
of zoology, it has been proposed by Prince Charles Lucien Bonaparte 
to substitute that of Furipterus. The latter name will be here 
adopted, and as the opportunity of examining a second species has 
occurred, it will afford the means of confinning the generic characters 
given by the original describer, and also supply some additional pe- 
culiarities. 

Genus Furipterus, Bonap. 

The top of ihe head is very much elevated, leaving a deep hollow 
between that and the end of the nose. The muzzle is very short, 
rather sinall, and abruptly truncated at the end. This gives the end 
of the nose something the appearance of that part in the genus Sus, 
and the similarity is increased by the superior margiu being produeed 
in an upward direction, as iu that genus. The end of the snout may 
properly be called a disc, vvidest at its base, and having a slio-ht 
eraargination in the middle of its upper boundary. In this disc the 
nostrils are placed, small, directed straight forvvard, and nearly 
round. Between them is a narrow vertical groove, continuous from 
the emargination of the upper border of the disc. 

Ali the face is densely covered with soft long hair, only the flat 
end of the nose and the extreme margins of the lips being naked. 
Near to the edges of the lips, and about the corners of the mouth, 
the fur assumes the aspect of a beard. Around the upper margin of 
the nose-disc is a friuge of fine short silky hairs. 

The ears are rather large and broad, directed forward, and deeply 
concave within. Their inner margins project inwards and forvvards 
over the forehead in the shape of a rounded lobe. Their extremities 
are rather acute and directed outwards. 

The tragus is shaped somewb.at likę the head of an arrow, sup- 
ported on a narrow foot-stalk. It is short and rather broad, with a 
descending barb or point on each side, the outer one being the ionger 
and more acute. From these it tapers rapidly to a narrow, but 
rounded tip, directed a little outwards. 

The most remarkable peculiarities in the organs of flight consist 
in the excessively small size of the thumb, and the shortness of the 
middle phalange of the longest finger. The thumb has the basai 
joint much Ionger than the terminai one. It is wholly engaged in 
the antibrachial membrane, the nail only being free. The phalange 
of the finger, above alluded to, has its length contained three and a 
half times in that of the terminai one, and six times iu that of the 
basai one. The middle phalange of the third finger also is somewhat 
shorter than is usual in most VespertilicnidcB. 

The wing-membranes extend to the distal end of the tibia. The 
legs are loug and slender, and the heel cartilage very long. Ali the 
membranes are thickly marked with fine dotted lines, the interfemoral 
having not less than twenty-five. In this respect they bear consider- 
able resemblance to those parts in Rhinolophus and Nycteris. 

The cerebral part of the skull is excessively elevated, quite dome- 
shaped, and the facial portion very much depressed. 



174 

From the extraordinary elevation and expansion of the parietal 
bones, the frontai bone is reduced to unusually small dimensions. 
Its posterior portion rises nearly at right angles from the termination 
of the nasal bones, is narrowly triaugular, and ends m a point near 
the top of the elevated part of the cranium. Its anterior portion is 
nearly horizontai in position, and is deeply cleft in the middle by the 
nasal bones, which extend backwavds as far as to the ascending part. 
What may therefore be called the facial part of this bone is divided 
into two forks, extending one on each side, between the nasal and 
maxillary bones. Each of these forks is somewhat swollen, and 
this, with a great depression along the line of unicn of the nasal 
bones, gives a deep longitudinal groove to the facial part of the cra- 
nium, which however becomes nearly obsolete at the nasal opening. 

A great peculiarity consists in the development of the intermaxil- 
lary bones. These are not cleft in front as in Vespertilio (leaving 
obly space enough for the incisors to be placed olose to the canines, 
and in a line nearly contmuous with them), but are united, leaving 
only two small incisive foramina in the anterior part of the palate. 
Also they diifer materially from the šame bones in the genus Vesper- 
tilio, in having the upper free margins, forming the walls of the nasal 
opening, continued without any diminution of their depth to their 
most anterior point. The upper margins of these bones are usually 
very much sloped in the genus Vespertilio. 

In conseąuence of the great degree of development of the inter- 
maxillary bones, abundant space is allowed for the incisor teeth. 
Accordingly there is a considerable interval on each side between 
them and the canines, and they are arranged, not in a line with the 
ręst of the dental series, but vertically and in a regular cwrve across 
the extremities of the above-mentioned bones. There is however an 
interval in front, between the centrai ones, though not so consider- 
able as the space contiguous to the canines. 

Their form is that of a short eone, the inner pair with their points 
directed somewhat inwards. 

The canines are of a very remarkable form — a form, so far as I am 
aware, not hitherto observed in any other mammal. They present 
four points : a centrai cusp of the usual canine form, a lobe acces- 
sory to this, and situated about the middle of its posterior edge, one 
at the base of the šame edge, and one of a very pointed form at its 
anterior base. The remaining teeth in the upper jaw do not differ 
materially from those of Vespertilio proper. 

The lower incisors are uniformly arranged and bifid. The canines 
are small, with an anterior and posterior spur at their bases, the an- 
terior one being the longer, and appearing . likę two additional inci- 
sors. There are three premolars on each side, conical, and increa- 
sing in size as they approach the true molars. These latter resemble 
those of Vespertilio restricted. 

The formula of dentition may be thus expressed : — 

In.H. C.H. P-M-B M-Htotali- 
On examining the under surface of the skull, we find that the bony 



175 

palate does not extend posteriorly beyond the lašt molar. In this 
respect it resembles the genus Miniopteris, whilst in Vespertilio the 
palate extends as far backwards as to the tniddle of the zygoma ; in 
Vesp. (Kerivoula) pieta, nearly as far back as to the condyloid fossa. 

The lower jaw has, at the lowest part of the symphysis menti, a 
prominent tubercle, directed downwards, and projecting below the 
level of the lower margin of the jaw. It is probable that this may 
be equivalent to the spince mentalas. From this, the margin of the 
jaw curves very evenly and moderately to the posterior angle. The 
ramus is very high, and the coranoid process, the condyle, and the 
posterior process, are arranged in nearly the šame horizontai line, the 
condyle being a little elevated above the other two. The posterior 
process has a peculiar outward direction. 

Such are the characters derived from the examination of seven 
examples. They do not include some peculiarities mentioned by 
M. F. Cuvier, viz. the presence of a series of warts on the upper lip, 
and under the chin, the prominence of the eye, and the cartilaginous 
condition of the terminai half of the tail, I have failed to detect 
any warts, nor do I perceive that the eye is more prominent than in 
other Vespertilionidce. As, however, I am describing from dried 
specimens, too great reliance cannot be placed on the apparent ab- 
sence of these characters. 

With respect to the tail, in the seven examples examined, five^ve \ Cj ^i 
it_jyholly withdravirn from the membrąne, and the remainmg two ' f"^^^^ 
o nly pa rtialĮs, wįthdrawn, the terminai vertebrse being left in the 
situation proper for tlie basai ones. This may possibly have been I 
the case with the example mentioned by M. F. Cuvier, as suggested 1 
by Dr. Gray. ' 

It may not be amiss to remark that this genus resembles the genus 
Kerivoula of Dr. Gray (as illustrated by Kerivoula pieta) in the 
form of the ear, but in no other respect have I found them similar. 
The crania, although greatly elevated in both, differ in othet respects, 
and even in this they by no means closely agree. 

The genus Miniopteris approaches most nearly to Furipterus, in 
the characters exhibited by the cranium. They somewhat resemble 
each other in the elevated form of the vertex, in the length of the 
bony palate, and in some measure in the form of the posterior por- 
tion of the lovyer jaw, and the development of the intermaxillary 
bones. 

1. Furipterus horrens. 

Furia horrens, F. Cuv. Mem. du Mus. xvi. p. 150. tab. 9 ; Fischer, 
Synop. Mam. Addenda, 352 ; Temm. Mon. ii. p. 264 ; Wagn. in 
Suppl. Schreb.Sauge.i.p. 549 ; Schinz. Synop. Mam. i. p. 207; Less. 
Nouv. Tab. Reg. Anim. p. 22. 

The eyes prominent and large. The nostrils apical, and separated 
only by a margin surrounding them, forming a groove at their upper 
part. Lips entire, the upper one with four or five warts along its 
side. The lower lip has eight warts, conspicuous from being of a 



176 

vvhite colour, amidst the surrounding black fur. Ears large, nearly 
as broad as long, simple in structure. The tragus is of a peculiar 
form, having three points arranged likę a cross. 

The fur is soft and thick, exeept at the muzzle, where it is longer 
and coarser than that of the other parts. 

The colour is a fine uniform black. 

Length of the head and body (English) 1" 7'" ; espanse 6" 4^'". 

Hab. S. America, Mona. 

2. FtJRIPTERUS C^RULESCENS, D. S. (PI. XLII.) 

Top of the head very much elevated, face depressed, excessively 
hairy, only the end of the nose and the extreme edges of the lips 
being naked. Ears as broad as high, roundish, with the tips angular 
and directed somewhat outwards. Tragus short, supported on a nar- 
row foot-stalk, iramediately above which is a descending process on 
each side. From these it tapers rapidly to a narrow, but rounded 
point, which is directed a little inwards. About the middle, between 
the tip and the inner descending process, is a slight angular pro- 
jection. 

The fur is everywhere long and silky. That of the upper parts is 
slaty-blue at its base, slightly tipped with dusky-brown, but not suf- 
ficiently so, as to appear bicoloured. On the head it is somewhat 
paler than on the back. The long fur of the face is darker and not 
quite so blue. The fur margining the lips is of a silky ash -colour. 
The chin is of a uniform grey-brown, the breast blue-grey, the fur 
tipped for a third of its length with whitish-grey. On the belly and 
pubal regions it is nearly uniform whitish-grey. 

Of the specimens esamined, two are malęs and the remainder 
females, and all are obviously adult. The sexes are similar. 

The great similarity in the size of the examples renders it unneces- 

sary for me to give the measurements of more than one. For the 

purpose of comparison I add the dimensions of the figure illustrating 

M. F. Cuvier's memoir. 

F. horrens. F. cesrulescens. 

Length of the head and body 1 6į 1 3 

i-ofthetail 1 1(?) ? 

of the head O O O 6 

of the ears O A\ O 3^ 

of the fore-arm 1 5 1 4 

■ of the longest fiuger 2 7 2 2 

of the fourth finger 1 7 1 9 

of the tibia O 7 O 6^ 

of the foot O 4 O 3i 

Expanse, following the bones, of the wings 9 3 8 9 
Hab. St. Catharine, Brazil. 

Genus Natalus, Gray. 
The forms of this genus bear considerable resemblance to those of 
Furipterus. The crown is very much elevated, and a deep depres- 



177 

sion separates it from the nose. The latter is broad, but notbulging 
at its sides, as observable iu some Vespertilionidce (such as Scoto- 
philus, Gray). The top of the nose, in front of the eyes, is rather 
promineiit, and rounds down evenly on all sides to the edge of the 
upper lip, which if seeu from below would describe a half-oval figure. 
The above-mentioned prominence is furnished with a centrai longi- 
tudinal ridge, terminating between the nostrils, These are apical, 
approximated, and of an ovoid form. They are placed so near the 
margin of the hp that they might almost be described as situated in 
it. They do not interfere with the curvature of the outline of that 
part, being simple perforations. 

The lower lip is furnished with a broadish, naked reflexed edge, 
divided by a vertical groove in front. Below this is an irregulav 
semicircular double row of warts, studded with bristly hairs, and a 
larger one beneath at the symphysis menti. 

The ears are rather large, broadest at two-thirds of the distance 
from their bases. They are furnished with a descending free lobe at 
the base of the outer margiu, which is unattached to the side of the 
face, somewhat likę the lobulus of the human ear. Their extreme 
tips are directed outwards. 

The tragus is of very peculiar form ; it is supported on a distinct 
stalk, which springs horizontally from the inside of the auditory 
opening. From the extremity of this, the tragus rises vertically, 
and occupies the usual position in the ear. It is short, broad, and 
somewhat fleshy. The two margins curre to a rather acute tip, 
which is directed a little inwards. At the outer edge, towards the 
base, is a*descending angular projection. About the middle of the 
ascending part, the tragus is tvvisted upon itself, in such a manner as 
to present only the edge of the upper part to the eye, whi]st the 
basai portion presents \tsjlat surface. From its tip spring a number 
of fine bristly hairs, straight and long. 

The legs, feet, and os calcis are long, and the toes oceupy about 
one-half of the length of the feet. The tail is very long, equal in 
length to the head and body ; it consists of seven joints, the terminai 
one being small. The wing-membranes have a singular mode of at- 
tachment to the tibia. Viewing the animal from the under side they 
are seen to proceed from the base of the os calcis, in the form of a 
narrow rudiment of membrane, extending up the inside of the tibia 
for a fourth of its length. At this point they cross over the tibia, 
and pass outwards, forming the posterior margins of the wings. The 
thumb is rather small, but the wings do not present any other great 
peculiarities. All the membranes are thickly marked with dotted 
iines as in Furipterus, the interfemoral membrane having between 
twenty and thirty. 

The upper incisors are four in number, in pairs, separated from 
the canines by an interval, and with a space in the middle between 
the pairs. They are small, of nearly uniform size, and obtusely 
conical. In the space betvveen them is a prominent horse-shoe- 
shaped cartilage, a little in advance of them, being a prolongation of 

No. CCCXII. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



178 

the anterior boundary of the palate. Behind this is a transverse 
prominent palatai ridge, divided in the tniddle by a notch. 

Natalus stramineus, Gray. (PI. XLIII.) 

Natalus stramineus, Gray, Mag. Zool. & Bot. ii. p. 496 ; Cat. Mam. 
Brit. Mus. p. 28. 

The face is very hairy, particularly along the median ridge, and 
on the upper lip, where it takes the form of a thick long moustache, 
extending the whole length of the lip. This rises on each side over 
the top of the nose, meeting in the middle, and forming a kind of 
transverse ridge of hair. Immediately in front of the eye is a naked 
space. The ears when held up to the light, present a singular dotted 
appearance, and resemble in this respect the Vesp. papillosus of 
Temminck. The extreme tip of the tail is exserted. 

The fur is of medium length and substance. On the upper parts, 
of a uniform brownish-yellow ; on the under, the šame but paler, 
The membranes and naked parts are reddish-brown. 

The whole of the above has been taken, by the kiud permission of 
Dr. Gray, from the two examples mentioned in bis Catalogue, and 
the following are their dimensions. The first column refers to the 
specirnen in spirit from South America, and the second to the one 
from St. Blas, North America. 

No. 1. No. 2. 

Length of the head and body 1 9 IH, about. 

of the tail 2 2 2 O, nearly. 

of the head O 9 O ,7^ 

of the ears O 5 O 4 

of the tragus O 2 O If 

Breadth of the ear O 6 O 4f 

Length of the fore-arm 1 5į 1 4i 

of the longest finger 3 O 2 9 

of the fourth finger 2 2 111 

of the thumb O 2 O 2^ 

of the tibia O 9i O 8 

of the foot O 4 O 4 

Expanse, following the bones, of the wings 10 6 10 

Genus Hyonycteris, Licht. et Peters. 

Incisors four above, in pairs, separated by a space in the middle, 
the apices bifid ; below, six, contiguous, trifid. Canines, distinct, 
long, ccnical, surrounded by two rings or collars. Molars above and 
below, six on each side, the upper anterior ones separate, the three 
posterior ones close together and Wshaped. Tongue medium ; 
snout elongated beyond the lips, with a discoid end (somewhat as in 
Furipterus). Nostrils below, ensiform. Lips tumid, the margins 
broadly reflected. Ears separate, broad, and furnished with tragus 
and antitragus. Wing-membranes broad, extending the whole length 
of the leg and foot, quite to the base of the nails. Interfemoral 



179 

membrane entire, completely enclosing the tail, the lašt joint only of 
which is exserted. Thumb free, nailed, and with a broad suctorial 
disk attached to it. Index finger very short, scarcely a fourth as 
long as the basai phalange of the longest finger ; all the remaioing 
fingers with three phalanges. The feet with five toes, furnished with 
a suctorial disc. All the toes composed of only two phalanges, and 
united by a web. Os calcis lobed and long. 

1. Hyonycteris discifera, Licht. et Peters. 

Hyonycteris discifera, Licht. et Peters, Neue merkw. Saugeth. 
1855*. 

The upper parts cinnamon-brown, beneath paler ; wings dusky- 
browii. 

Length of the head and body. ... 1 7 

of the tail 1 3 

of the head O 7 

of the ears O 5\ 

of the tragus O 2 

of the fore-arm 1 3į 

of the longest finger .... 2 6 

of the fourth finger .... 1 S^ 

of the tibia O 7 

of the foot and claws. ... O 3 

Expanse of vrings 8 3 

Hab. Puerto Cabello, Central America. 

2. Hyonycteris albiventer, n. s. 

The specimen from which the present description has been taken 
has lošt some of its parts by accident, and with them some of the 
pecuUarities described by MM. Lichtenstein and Peters in the paper 
already alluded to. Thus, the tragus has been eaten away from each 
ear by insects, the nose-disc apparently so much rubbed as to ha ve 
lošt its original form, and the thumbs are entirely wanting. In other 
respects the specimen is in suflficient preservation to confirm the cha- 
racters given by the above-mentioned authors, and also to furnish an 
additional peculiarity not given by them in their description of the 
genus. This will be hereafter indicated. 

The crown of the head is very considerably elevated, the face very 
concave, and the muzzle rather elongated. The ears are scarcely as 
broad as high, the inner margiu (towards the top of the ear) is very 
much rounded, and the extreme tip is conspicuously directed out- 
wards. The outer margiu is considerably hollovved outf for nearly 

* Gelesen in der Druckerei der Akademie der AVissenschaften, am. 22 Juiiil854. 
Berlin 1855. 

t It appears desirable to statė that the expression " hollowed out " mušt be 
taken in its literai sense, as the form here attempted to be described is very dif- 
ferent from what is usually called " an emarginate ear," in the genus Vespertilio. 
In this genus it is a distinet " notch '" in the outer margiu of the ear : in Hyonye- 
teris it is simply a shallow piece scooped out of the margin, — at least such is the 



180 

the whole of its length, but with a rounded prominence at its base. 
The face is very bairy, and the upper lip has a distinct moustacbe of 
long hair. 

On the whole of the upper parts the fur is of a reddish-brown 
colour, uniform in tint from its root to the tip. On the under parts 
it is pure white, tinged with rufous on the humeral region and on the 
chin. 

This species appears to differ from the lašt in having the ear much 
more hollowed out externally, in being somewhat larger, and in 
having the under parts pure wbite. 

Length of the head and body 2 O 

of the tail, about 1 2 

of the head O 9 

of the ears O 3|* 

of the fore-arm 1 5^ 

of the longest finger 2 6^ 

of the fourth finger 1 10 

of the tibia O 8i 

of the foot and claws O 3 

Expanse of wings, foUovving the phalange. .10 6 

Hab. River Napo, near Quito, where it was coUected by Mr. Bates. 

In addition to the generic characters given by the authors already 
quoted, the very peculiar form of the claws of the hinder feet may be 
mentioned. These are rather long, have a small degree of curvature, 
are very slender, and not compressed laterally as in other Bats. 
Their under surface is rather deeply hollowed out ; in this respect 
they bear considerable resemblance to the clavvs of some Rasorial 
birds, such as the genus Tetrao, but they are relatively more slender. 
From their form they could scarcely be used as organs of suspension, 
and it is not improbable that the conspicuous discs attached to the 
thumbs and feet may answer the šame purpose that claws are knowa 
to do in the ordinary Bats. 

The elevated form of the cranium deserves special attention, as 
indicating an affinity in this particular with the genera Furipterus 
and Natalus. 

The peculiarity of having the wing membranes extend to the 
claws is not restricted to this genus, as I have observed it in the 
Vesp. sidllus of M. Temminck. This species has been considered 
by Dr. Gray to be sufficiently dissimilar from other examples of the 
genus Vespertilio, to merit generic distinction, under the name of 
Murina, Another species from Ceram {Vesp. vulpinus, Temm. Mas, 

case in the speciraen I possess, but in the figure already referred to, this is less 
conspicuous. 

* In taking the measure of the ear, it is my custom to consider it as a simple 
projection, and to measure along the line of greatest convexity of the hinder sur- 
face. This imaginary line will proceed from that part of the base nearest the 
crown, to the tip of the ear. A line along its anterior or posterior raargin would 
be rather an indication of form than of absolute length, and should therefore be 
given additionally if the form of the ear seems to reąuire it. 



'BE 



r^> 



?roc Z S. FepLila, IX 




TESTUDO ELONGATA.Gray 



Proc. Z. S. Reptilia.. IX.a 




TtlSTUDO ELONGATA Graj 



Proc Z S Reptilia., X 




BATAGUR OCELLATA Gray. 



W'Wė9tImp 



#■ 






Proc Z S Reptiha. Xa. 




BATAGUR OCELLATA. Gray 



181 

branes. Not haying carefully exammed either of these, I am unable 
to offer any positiye opinion respecting their affinity wi h the senera 
above descnbed. If appears, howeverrprobable that other ohafacters 
would be d,scovered common to HyonycterU and Murina Ta Toli 
examination were mstituted. 



2. NOTICE OF SOME INDIAN ToRTOISES (iNCLUDING THE DE- 
mZ?.^''"' "^ v ^^^ ^^^"^^ PKESENTED TO THE BrITISH 

(Reptilia, PI. IX. X.) 

InSn rTl >*"''"«*^°S ^P^"™^'^ «f the verj curious senes of 
Indian Tortoises presented to the British xMuseum by Professor 

re ei\?r 'S'l""" '^'T''' «^^ «P-^- -hich^o strong y 
co ours h«t^. \^'"'T1^'*'^^^ '^^"^'^^«' i" «i^«^ fo™ and 

^S'^^a^t^^ss.^ z^z ii: -r B^r 
bXTiroSr;;;iis^^^^^^^ ^-" ^^^ ^™-^- ^^^ 

First It belongs to the Old World divisions of the genus or true 
genns Testudo characterized by the lašt vertebral pTarLeing as 
wide on y as the caudal, and the hinder half of each of the Snder 
marginai platės instead of being of the width of the cial ani the 
hinder marginai platės, as is the case with the American "GoTkers' 
mcludmg the species Testudo tabulata and Testudo gopher' 

Secondly. It has a large, elongated, well-marked nuchal plate 
which is never found in Testudo tabulata. ^ ' 

Thirdly. The hinder notch is more angular and acute 

The specimen sent from India has the deeply concaye sternum 

specimens of T tabulata. It is sent under the name of ' Testudo 
e/o«,a «/ which I ^illinglyadopt; as it may have been noticed 

1. Testudo elongata. (PI. IX.) 

bin^^M^'' J'^'T-^'iT^'^n' 'i^P'-essed, truncated in front, rounded be- 
S f '. '^'''•^1 yf "ow-edged. Sternum rather narrow, trun- 
cated m front, angularly notched behind, yellow, largely black/varied 
Nuchal plate elongate. The hinder vertebral plate as wide Is the 
caudal and the hinder half of the hinder marginai platės. 
JJao. India, "Mergui." 

iSTo^e.— Since the above was writteii, I have received a Part of 
the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for 1856, and I find 



182 

the following obsen'ations on this species, which appears to have 
been mentioned* in a preceding volume : — 

Testudo elongata, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, xxxii. 639. 
Vol. XXV. 1856, lxxviii. 712. 

Mr. Blyth statės, " a number of living specimens have been re- 
ceived from Captain Berdmore. 

" Colour of naked parts olive-grey varied with dull yellow, and 
with black head conspicuously dull yellowish white." 

Mergui, Tenasserim River. 

2. Testudo Horsfięldi, Gray, Cat. Tort. B. M. t. 1. 

There is a fine large specimen of this species, showing it is very 
distinct from the T. grcBca of Europa. The upper jaw has a small 
notch on each side of the tip. 

3. EmYS CRASSICOLLIS, Bcll. 

The Collection contains three adult specimens of this species, which 
are marked "Emys nigra, Blyth." 

The adult examples are rather broader than the younger specimens 
in which are usually found a raucro, and the dorsal keels are almost 
entirely obliterated ; the hinder edge of the thorax is acutely dentate ; 
the sternum is pale grayish, with black areolse and rays. It is probably 
the absence of the keels in the adult statė that induced Mr. Blyth 
to regard it as a distinct species ; but the keels become generally 
more indistinct in all the species which are keeled in their younger 
condition. 

The specimens are marked as coming from " Mergui." The jaws 
are even, and not notched in firont. 

4. Emys nigra, n. s., Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, lxxviii. 712. 

Mr. Blyth obserses on the affinity of this species with E. crassi- 
coUis, but he does not appear to have the means of comparison. 

The Collection contains two species of the genus Batagur : — 

5. Batagur baską, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. t. 16. 

There is a very large adult shell of this species, which is marked 
"Emys tentoria, Blyth," It measures 21^ inches over the back, 
19į along the sternum, and is 18 inches across the back aud 21į 
over the convexity of the back. The jaws of the species are very 
strongly dentated, the upper one is toothed on the edge with two 
angular series of pits ; the lower jaw is furnished with two concentric 
series of acute spinose tubercles, those in the outer series the largest 
and very acute, the centrai one in front horny, very large. 

6. Batagur ocellata, Gray, Cat. Tort. B.M. t. 36. (PI. X.) 

There is a beautiful specimen of a species of this genus from 
Mergui, which I am incUued to beUeve is referable to Emys ocellata 
of DumerilandBibron(Erpetologiegenerale, ii. 329. 1. 15. f. 1); a spe- 
cies which I have not before seen in any Enghsh collection. I should 



IV 




■,3 Spooner.litli. 



183 

have no doubt of its being that kind from the description ; but in the 
figures the dark spots on the costal platės are represeuted as being 
nearly regular, circular, broad riugs round a pale circular centre, 
while in the specimen received from Professor Oldham the dark 
mark on the costal plate is an irregular oblong or square mark only, 
partly surrounding the paler centre of the shield. 

Mr, Blyth in the šame paper observes, " Emys ocellata would 
appear to be the commonest species in the Burmese rivers, and its 
naked parts are olive-grey, the crown blackish, with a yellowish-white 
V-like mark over the snout, continued as a supercilium over eacli 
eye and back upon the neck, another straight line behind the eye, 
and both are often more or less broken into spots. 

" Carapax dusky mottled with yellowish, a great black spot sur- 
rounded with a pale areola upon each discoidal (!) plate, dorsal ridges 
blackish with pale border, and lovver parts wholly yellowish-white. 

" Some are brighter coloured than others, and the ocelli become 
proportionally smaller as they inerease in size. 

" The carapax of our largest specimeu measured 9 by 6^ inches, 
but it probably is not nearly full-grown.' ' 

Hab. Burmah. 

7. CisTUDo DENTATA, Gray. . . '-''^ '' 

There is a fine adult specimen of this species in the CoUection, 
also from Mergui. 



3. Description of Mygale Emilia, a Spider from Panama, 

HITHERTO APPARENTLY UNRECORDED. By AdAM WhITE, 
ASSISTANT IN THE ZoOLGGICAL DePARTMENT, BrITISH 
MUSEUM. 

(Annulosa, PI. XLIII.) 

The large Spiders of the New World, though generally sombre iu 
hue, are occasionally varied in colour. The Mygale versicolor de- 
scribed by Baron Walckenaer (Apt. i. 211), has the cephalothorax 
covered with down-like hairs of a metallic green lustre, and some of 
the hairs of the body have in certain aspects a violet reflection. The 
Mygale rosea described by the šame author from the collection of 
M. Guerin Meneville, who procured it from Chili, is deserving of its 
specific name. The Mygale Zebrą, figured in the fourth volume of 
the * Annales de la Soc. Eatomologique,' pi. 19, has the abdomen 
strikingly striped. Generally speaking, however, these large Mygales, 
whether from the 01d or the New World, are rough, plain brown, or 
black creatures, with greyish scattered hairs. Since Walckenaer's 
work was published in 1837, several species have been added to zoo- 
logical science, especially in the 8vo German work of Koch. The fol- 
lpwing species, pre-eminent for its striking beauty of colour, was 
obtained by my friend Dr. Berthold Seemann, the distinguished na- 
turalist who succeeded Mr. Edmonstone on board H. M. S. HeralA 
under Capt. Kellett, R.N., C.B. 



184 

I have but ouce seen a Mygale alive ; the specimen was sent to 
the late Mr. John Doubleday by post, and when it reached London 
\vas evidently much shaken by its transit frora Liverpool. The day 
iifter its arrival he gavę it cockroaches. They were put into the small 
box along with the Mygale. It apparently at first did not see them, 
but on these " Cursorial Orthoptera" runuing about Mygale' s legs, 
the great spider drew itself up, and darted its chehcera into one of 
them, tearing its intestines with its fearfully armed hook. The Blatta 
was soon devoured, and the spider, evidently an invaUd after its 
lough journey, died next day. 

Mr. H. W. Bates, who has for the lašt eight years so successfully 
ooUected Annulosa, and observed tlieir habits at various points on the 
Amazou, in a letter to me, dated " Santarem, 30 April, 1855," 
written on the eve of starting for " the wonderful country of the 
Upper Amazons," remarks : — " With regard to spiders, I have ob- 
served many curious points ia their habits, but I cannot communi- 
cate them until I can send specimens, with numbers attached, to 
\vhich the notes can be referred. There is one observation I made, 
howe\ er, which I am sure will be of the highest interest to science. 
It is with respect to the habit of the Mygales to prey on birds. Now 
I have deteeted them in the fact as far back as 1849, but thought 
little of it at the time, as I had the idea that it was a well-known 
and undisputed fact in science. Lately, however, I read an account 
(I think of Langsdorffs expedition in the iuterior of Brazil), where 
the fact is considered to ręst on no fouudation, and to be one more 
of the fables originated by Madame Merian. Now I will relate to 
you what I saw. lu the month of June 1849, in the neighbourhood 
of Cameta, I was attracted by a curious movement of the large grey- 
brown Mygale on the trunk of a vast tree. It was close beneath a 
deep crevice or chink in the tree, across which this species weaves a 
dense web, open for its exit and entrance at one end. In the present 
instance, the lovver part of the web was broken, and two pretty small 
finches were entangled in its folds ; the finch was about the size of 
the common Siskiu of Europe, and I judged the tvvo to be malė and 
female : one of them was quite dead but secured in the broken web, 
the other was under the body of the spider, not quite dead, and was 
covered in parts with the filthy liquor or saliva exuded by the mon- 
ster. I was ou my return from a day's excursion by land, at the time, 
with my boxes iuU of valuable and delicate insects, and six miles 
from my house, and therefore could not have brought the specimens 
home, even had I wished, which I did not, as the species was a very 
common species, easily to be procured nearer home. 

" If the Mygales did not prey upon Vertebrated animals I do not 
see how they could fiud sufEcient subsistence. On the extensive sandy 
campos of Santarem, so bare in vegetatiou, there are hundreds of the 
broad slanting burrows of the large stout species (that fine one, dark 
brown, with paler brown lines down the legs). The campos, I know, 
from close research, to be almost destitute of insects, but at the šame 
time they swarm with small lizards, and some curious ground-finches 
of the Emheriza group (one of which has a song wonderfully resem- 



185 

bling our Yellow-bunting of England), besides which vast numbers 
of Caprimulgi (C. psaliirus, Azara) and ground-doves lay their eggs 
ou the bare ground. I believe this species of Mygale feeds on these 
animals and their eggs at night. Just at close of day, when I have 
been hurrying home, uot liking to be benighted on the pathless 
waste, I have surprised these monsters, who retreated \Tithia the 
mouths of their burrows on my approach." 

Mygale Emilia. (PI. XLIII.) 

M. nigro-fusca, cephalothorace, duobusąue articulis singulorum 
pedum IcEte flavescenti-rubris. 

Deep blackish-brown ; the basai joint of cheUcera with some scat- 
tered red hairs in frout ; the cephalothorax of a rich yellowish-red, 
the hairs short, close and velvet-like ; the fourth and fifth joints of 
the legs clothed with yellowish-red hairs, the end of the fifth joint 
with many brown hairs ; fourth joint of the first pair of legs, with 
the curiously hooked process near the end, also eovered with red 
hairs, the under side of the fifth and sixth joints and the tarsi 
clothed with a close, dense, velvet pad. Body brown, with longish, 
scattered red hairs, which are deeper in hue than on the other 
parts. 

Nomine Emiliae dilectae filiae Henrici Verney, Eąuitis Baronetti 
de Cleydon, in comitatu de Buckingham, araneara hanc spectabilem, 
in America Centrali a Bertholdo Seemann, Botanico celeberrimo, 
detectam in expeditione recenti, sub Henrico Kellett, Navarcho, in- 
signire vult descriptor. 

The figure, which is of the natūrai size, was drawn by Miss Spooner 
of Kentish Town. 



July 8, 1856. 
Dr. Gray, F.R.S., in the Chair. 
The following papers were read : — 
1. On THE Land AND Freshwater Shells of Kashmir and 

TiBET, COLLECTED BY Dr. T. ThOMSON. 

By s. p. Woodward, F.G.S. 

These shells, which I received through Dr. J. D. Hooker and Sir 
Charles Lyell, were collected by Dr. Thomson in 1847-8, when he 
accompauied Major Ounningham and Capt. H. Strachey in "one of 
the most adventurous journeys ever made in the Himalaya*." 

The shells of coutiuental ludia are nearly all distinct frora those 

* \Vestern Himalaya and Tibet ; a Jouniey through the Mountains of Northern 
ludia. By Dr. Thomas Thomson. 8vo, London, 1852. 



186 

of Europe, and although far inferior in beauty and variety to those 
of ihe Asiatic Islands, have yet a marked character, owing to the ad- 
mixture of tropical forms and especially to the great development 
of the operculated genera (Cyclosfomidce), which are almost unknown 
m our quarter of the world * . 

It was, therefore, a matter of considerable interest to ascertain 
what land and freshwater shells occur in the remote regions of Kash- 
mir and Tibet, and somewhat surprising to find, that of about 22 
sorts coUected by Dr. Thomson, one-half were British species, and 
the ręst of the commoaest and most widely diffused Indian forms. 

The species marked * are European. 
*Helix pulchella, small var., subfossil. Iskardo, Tibet (Europe, 
N. America). 

* costata, large var., recent. Iskardo, 7200 feet. 

*HeliceUa nitida. Near Iskardo (Europe, N. America). 

Bulimus candelaris, Pfr. Takht i Suliman, Kashmir. 

segregatus, small var. Kashmir. 

*Zua lubrica (subfossil). Iskardo (Europe, N. America). 

Pupa Huttoniana, Benson. Iskardo (also subfossil). 
*Succinea Pfeifferi, var. (longiscata, Morillet ?). Kashmir. 
*Limn(Ba stagnalis. Kashmir (Europe ; N. America, Oregon). 
* peregra. Pitak, Tibet ; Kashmir. 

, var. Hookeri. Iskardo and Nubra, Tibet (18,000 feet). 

* auricularia. Iskardo; Thogji Lake («i<J/o««27). 

, sp. Kashmir (resembling the Australian L. simulatd). 

* truncatula, Miill. Iskardo, in damp mOss (also found at Can- 

dahar, Aifghanistan ; at Madeira, and in the U. States). 

luteola, Lam. {succinea, Dh.). Islamabad, Kashmir (also 

Prome, Burmah). 

acuminata, Lam. Jamu hills. 

Planorbis Coromandelicus, Fabr. Jamu hills ; Islamabad, Kashmir 
(also Ceylon and Malacca). 

nanus, Benson ; subfossil. Tsoral Lake, Tibet (Capt. H. 

Strachey) . 

, sp. Pitak and Iskardo ; Tertse, Nubra, in lacustrine clay. 

Paludina Bengalensis, var. Jamu hills, Kashmir. 
*Valvata piscinalis (subfossil). Kashmir ; Tsoral Lake, Tibet. 
*Cyrena fluminalis, Miill. f (Cashmiriensis, Dh.). Avantipura, 
Kashmir. 
Cyclas (Pisidium), sp., subfossil. Thogji Lake, Tibet. 

These specimens have been submitted to the esamination of Mr. 
W. H. Benson, who is misurpassed in his critical acąuaintance with 
Indian shells, and especially those of the Western Himalaya. 

* Mr. Benson States that Helic Bactriana (Hutton), found iu Affghanistan, is 
closely allied to the European H. strigella. 

t Varieties of this shell are found in Sicily, Palestina, the Nile, and aU the 
rivers of the East. These varieties have been regarded as constituting about 
twenty distinct species ; e. g. C. Euphratica, Bronn ; ambigria, Dh. ; Cor, Lam. ; 
consobrina, Caill. ; trianyularis, Dh. ; Panormitana, Bivon, &c. When fossil, 
it is the C. tru/onula, Searles Wood j C. Gemmellarii, Phi. 



fa? ^ ■-. 






Proc. Z. S Mammalia. XI. v 





MJ 




1 



J-Jennaas JitK. 



PHYSALU5 DUGUIDII Heddle 

IBlcmholes 2.3.Blowk)les 8cPad 

4-5 Blovvlioles closed side-vvays. 

6 Jaws. 6PL'cae cantracted & stretched. 



187 



nelix pulchella and Zua lubrica were only obtained in the condi- 
tion of " dead shells" from the aliuviai plains of Iskardo and Kash- 



mir. 



The Pupa and Bulimus candelaris, Limncea auricularia and Val- 
vata piscinalis, were found both recent and subfossil. 

LimncBū auricularia occurred in prodigious abundance in the aliu- 
viai clay around the salt-lake of Thogji, at the height of 150 feet 
above its present level. There are no longer any living shell-fish in 
its waters, and Dr. Thomson remarks, " it may fairly be inferred 
tbat the lake was quite fresh at the time when it was inhabited by 
Limnaa." The increase of the height of the surface of the water 
to the small amount of 150 feet, appears to have admitted of its 
discharging its waters along the course of an open valley into one of 
the tributaries of the Zamkar river (p. 173). 

Everywhere to the northward of Tibet, from the Arai sea to 
Chinese Tartary, is a country of small salt-lakes having no outlet ; 
and this region divides Northern India from the Siberian steppes, in 
which land and freshwater shells of Germante species are known to 



occur. 



■Westward, however, the rangės of the Hindoo Koosh are prolonged 
through Persia to the Caucasus, and form a continuous route to the 
Lusitanian region. 

Since the shells which have been mentioned as English species 
occurring in Tibet, are also common to the South of Europe, they 
are rather to be regarded as Lusitanian than Germanio species. 

The land species (Zua, Helix, Helieella and Succinea) are, how- 
ever, amongst the most ancient inhabitants of this island, being found 
in the newer-pliocene deposits of the Thames valley, associated with 
the šame Valvata and the šame species of Cyrena, and vyith remains 
of an Elephant {E. mendionalis) and a Rhinoceros (R. leptorhinus), 
VFhich are no t only extinct, but were succeeded by other races of 
the šame animals {Elephas primigenius and Rhinoceros tichorhinus), 
before they finally disappeared from this portion of the globė. 

If,. therefore, the small land shells of our newer tertiaries originally 
migrated into this country from the East, we mušt ascribe to their 
occupancy of the lofty plains of Kashmir and Tibet a very high 
antiquity compared with any of the monuments which Man hiraself 
has reared, even in the country most usually regarded as the cradle 
of his race. 



2. On a Whale of the Genus Physalus, Gray, captured in 
Orkney. By Robert Heddle. 

(Mammalia, PI. XLIV. XLV.) 

A "Whale of the genus Physalus of Dr. Gray was stranded on the 
small island of Laman or Lambholm in Orkney on the 9th of March 
ultimo. 



188 

It was afterwards towed from Laman, and beached upon the shore 
of Scapa Bay, about two miles from Kirkvvall. 
The individual was a female. 

The following measurements were made with the greatest care by 
Mr. George Petrie and myself : — 

ft. in. 

Lengtb from point of lower jaw to notch in tail . . 50 O 

Girth beneath pectorals 23 6 

„ at 20 feet from point of lower jaw 19 3 

„ close behind dorsal 11 7 

„ 7 feet behind dorsal 6 O 

,, close to tail 5 O 

Depth at 3 feet from end of vertebral column .... 2 O 

„ at 9 feet from end of vertebral column .... 310 

Thickness at 9 feet from end of vertebral column. . 1 6 

Thickness vvhere thinnest O 10 

Between upper angles of pectorals (over the back) 10 O 

Keel estending above from commencement of tail. .16 O 

Keel e.Ktending below from commencement of tail. .10 O 

Point of lovrer jaw to termination of plicse 26 O 

„ of lower jaw to reproductory orgau 30 O 

„ of lower jaw to umbilicus 24 6 

Length of pectoral from tip to anterior junction 

with body .•■.•• ^ ^ 

Length of pectoral from tip to posterior junction 

with body 4 9 

Breadth of pectoral 1 7 

A.ngle of mouth to anterior junction of pectoral 

with trunk • • 4 6 

Centre of eye to anterior junction of pectoral with 

trunk 5 3 

Tip of upper jaw (snout) to anterior junction of 

pectoral with trunk 14 4 

Posterior curve of dorsal to posterior junction of 

pectoral 23 O 

Base of dorsal. . • 2 9 

Height of dorsal (perpendicular from its tip) 1 9 

Anterior of dorsal from snout 35 9 

Posterior curve of dorsal from tip of tail 14 O 

VVidthoftail 10 3 

Depth of notch in tail O 5 

Between angles of mouth round the throat 1 1 O 

Point of lower jaw to angle of mouth 11 3 

„ of snout to angle of mouth 9 O 

Depth of under jaw (including lip) where greatest 1 8 

„ of under jaw 3 feet from tip 1 2 

Projection of under jaw from beneath the snout . . 6 
Across insertions of baleen 7 i feet from snout. ... 34 

Length of longest or " sample " baleen 1 8 

of baleen at snout O 6 



189 

ft. in. 

Breadth of sample at base O 9 

Projection of sample over upper lip O 6 

Centre of eye to snout 9 5 

„ of eye to posterior angle of blowliole 3 5 

Posterior of blowholes in advance of a line joining 

the eyes O 9 

Eye to eye 6 10 

Centre of eye to base of nearest baleen 1 8 

Snout to spiracles 7 9 

Each spiracle in length O 10 

Length of blind slit between spiracles O 8į 

Betvveen near points of spiracles O lį 

Between divergent points of spiracles O 9 

Ear behind eye 2 9 

Length of depression of external ear O lį 

Breadth of depression of external ear O į 

Diameter of perforation of ear O ^ 

Length of reproductory organ, including anus .... 3 O 

Length of mainmary sUts O 10 

The accompanying drawings, in which every point was deter- 
mined by the measurements, give a perfectly correct idea of the pro- 
portions of the animal. Consequently, further dimensions may be 
taken from them, due allowance being made for the eurves. 

The external ear, which was difficult of detection, consisted of an 
aperture capable of admitting a quill, situated in a Tery shallow 
groove of the dimensions given above. When the blubber was re- 
moved, the aperture was continued, in the immediate vicinity of a 
strong glandular substance, of a cylindrical form, 2 inches in dia- 
meter, passing into the skull. 

The bloįvholes were situated in a hoUovv on the summit of a low 
rounded eminence, immediately in front of a depression directly over 
the eyes. When first seen, this latter depression was hardly appa- 
rent, and seems to owe its existence partly to the falling in of the 
integuments after death. The relative position of the spiracles is 
given in PI. XLV. fig. 1 . Betvveen the spiracles was a shallow groove, 
at first sight resembling a third opening, beginning 1 inch before the 
anterior commissures of the spiracles, and continued to an imaginary 
line joining their posterior extremities. 

The sides of the blowholes, which lay in close juxtaposition, could, 
from the elasticity of the parts, be separated to the extent of 3 or 
4 inches, without affecting the extremities of the openings. 

PI. XLV. fig. 2, shows a section of one of the spiracles, laidopen 
through the commissures, together with the retracted pad or valve, 
which, when set free, closes the nares, as represented in fig. 3. The 
pad consisted of a tough, fatty substance, and was retracted bv a 
strong musele, which had its attachments in a deep grooye in the 
bone of the upper jaw. When the spiracles were partially excised, 
the working of this beautiful apparatus was easily exhibited by 
grasping with the hands the strong musele, and drawing out the 



190 

pad, which, on being set free, returned to its place in the nares with 
a very audible " thud." The nares, each 4 inches in their hori- 
zontai diameter, were protected above and at the sides by cartila- 
ginous arches, which extended nearly to the surface of the spiracles 
posteriorly, and united at a point a little anterior to the section 
shown in figs. 4 and 5, cut transversely to the spiracles ; fig. 4 re- 
presenting the dilated, fig. 5 the closed access to the lungs. 

The whole lining of the spiracles, breathing canals, and bronchial 
cavities, was of a deep black. 

The septum immediately between the'two nares was membranous, 
attached to the line of union of the cartilaginous arches before men- 
tioned. 

From the blowholes a ridge composed of a tendonous fatty sub- 
stance extended, gradually disappearing ere it reached the snout. 

The eyes were situated on bony prominences, which projected 
outvvards and downwards from the line of the head and npper jaw. 
The external opening of the eye was about 4 inches. The ball 
5 inches. The conjunctiva whitish, and the iris very dark brown. 
The excised crystalline lens measured two-thirds of an inch in dia- 
meter. 

The bones of the lower jaw were covered to nearly half of their ap- 
parent depth by strong, firm lips, turned inwards superiorly. The 
jaw at no point projected much over the folds on the throat, and be- 
neath the eye passed away imperceptibly into the neighbouring sur- 
face. The rounded npper surface of the lips fitted accurately, when 
the mouth was closed, into corresponding retuse hollows in the upper 
jaw, extending two-thirds of the distance from the eye to the snout. 

The baleen extended from within 4 inches from the snout to the 
interior angles of the mouth. The platės were largest halfway be- 
tween these points. Their exterior outline was considerably falcate, 
causing the points of the platės to project, where longest, 6 inches 
past the edge of the upper jaw. 

The back part of the mouth, in the neighbourhood of the throat, 
was thinly covered with soft white hairs, inserted on the plaited and 
wrinkled skin. 

Fig. 6 represeuts an ideal section through both jaws, partially 
opened, showing the palatai ridge, the projecting baleen, and the 
overlapping imder-lips. 

The tongue is represented lying in the distended pouch, and by 
the red lines as seen in the šame pouch when drawn upwards to the 
jaws. 

The baleen towards the snout gradually gavę place to narrower 
platės, tbree or four occupying the place of one. This change of 
form commenced at the inside. At the snout, the platės were still 
more broken up, there assuming the appearance of small rods of 
baleen, of the thickness of a crow-quill, slightly compressed, and 
each tipped by a tuft of long white bristles. The baleen completed 
the circuit of the snout, at a distance of 4 inches within the upper 
lip. At the snout, the base of the baleen was 1 inch in width, gra- 
dually increasing until, where the largest platės were inserted, it at- 



191 

tained the breadth of 9 inches, whence it decreased to a rounded 
point at the interior angles of the mouth. Here the baleen was 
entirely resolved into white hair, which took its rise from the 
gum, without the intervention of the quill-like rods of the anterior 
extremity. 

The surface of the platės was longitudinally striated : their colour 
for one-third of their breadth from the outer margin brown, some- 
times in one broad shade, sometimes more or less banded lengthwise, 
in either case leaving the interior surface of the platės of a yellowish- 
white, tinged slightly with green, occasionally dashed with pale rose- 
colour, with here and there a stripe of brown. From the outside no 
colour but the white was visible, except at the snout, where the platės 
and tufts, even to the outer margin, were in some places a dirty white, 
in some almost black. 

The whole inner edges of the baleen were split up into coarse but 
pliant white hair. 

The gum (" cheese " of the whalefisher) was from 2 to 4 inches 
thick, between which and the bone of the jaw intervened a strong 
callous bed of muscular substance, two-thirds of an inch thick. 

The tongue was above of a flesh colour, and beneath, where its 
substance united with the lining of the pouch, of a leaden grey. It 
had no edges, the colour being the only means of distinguishing its 
upper from its under surface. The looseness of the tissue on its 
lower side enabled the animal to sweep the whole under surface of 
the baleen with the tip of the tongue, carrying any adhering food to 
the throat. The actual tip was not free for more than 10 inches; 
but, as when drawn back towards the gape, it was impossible to de- 
fine the limits of the lower side of the tongue and the lining of the 
pouch : it seemed to be of much greater length. When retracted the 
tongue fiUed with its huge rounded mass the posterior cavity of the 
mouth, the tip projecting upwards, and the substance of the under 
side tightened from the base of the'tip to the point of the under jaw. 

The throat easily admitted the closed hand. 

The trunk joined the head with no perceptible line of union, and, 
with the exception of a slight depression behind the spiracles, and 
the protuberance of the dorsal fin, the outline preserved an even and 
beautiful curve from head to tail. Beginning 2 feet before the dorsal 
fin, a strong ridge passed along the back, gradually diminishing till 
it reached the end of the vertebral column. A still bolder ventral 
ridge commenced 10 feet from the tail, and terminated at the šame 
point. 

The expansions of the tail were continued 2 or 3 feet along the 
sides of the trunk, there passing away, and giving along with the 
dorsal and ventral carinse a rhomboidal form to that part of the ani- 
mal. These keels consisted entirely of a fatty tendinous substance, 
each permeated through its entire length by strong round tendons 
1 inch in diameter. On the removal of the ridges, the body beneath 
became of the šame rounded form as the ręst of the trunk. 

The epidermis was -į^^^ of an inch thick, easily tom, and finely 
striated, except on the fins and tail, and on the jaws, lips and such 



192 

parts. Where black, much of the pigraent could be removed by 
washing, and frora the inner surface was readily communicated to 
the fingers. 

The true blubber on the back and sides measured on an average 
2 inches in thickness. On the throat where the plicse occurred, it 
became tendmous and tough, and, though removed, was not expected 
to yield much oil. 

The whole posterior part of the body was beset by strong round 
tendons, about an inch thick, originating as flat tendons within the 
museles above the pectorals. 

The extent and direction of the plicce on the throat and abdomeu 
are shown in the drawings of the animal. PI. XLV. fig. 8, represents 
sections of the stretched and unstretched surface of the plicce. At 
those portions of the throat and belly which required more capability 
of distention than the ręst, farrows supplementary to the general ar- 
rangement of the plicce were introduced. These however invariably 
disappeared ere they reached the termination of the regular plicce, 
and were insertedunsymmetrically. The furrows continued of their 
full depth to their termination on the abdomen. 

Where the body of the animal was black, the furrows and their in- 
terspaces were black also, being there covered with skin of the šame 
texture as that of the body. Where the black of the body began to 
wash offmto the white of the lower parts, the furrows were black 
and the interspaces pure white. On the lovver surface, again, where 
the sole apparent colour was white, the plicce were found on separa- 
tion to be lined with a rosy, longitudinally striated, transversely 
wrinkled epidermis. The depth of the furrows varied escessively, 
being, in some parts, when the pouch was undistended, nearly 
\\ inches deep, while on the jaws and between the eye and pectoral, 
they were so shallow as hardly to bear measurement at all. \Vhen 
the pouch was distended, the plicse were partially obliterated, their 
hollows becoming nearly as high as the surface of their highest pro- 
minences. 

The normai breadth of the interspaces between the furrows was 
about 2 inches. Near the chin, however, in some places three or 
four occurred in the space of an inch, the skin being there very soft 
and pliant. The ridge between the two furrows which passed mesially 
along the throat and abdomen was broader than the ręst, the furrows 
diverging slightly towards their posterior tennination, vvhere the 
scarcely perceptible umbilicus was situated, thereafter converging as 
shown in the figure. 

The reproductory organs were situated 4 feet behind the termina- 
tion of the plicce, and immediately between the slits into which the 
mammce were retracted. The mammce were of a yellowish flesh- 
colour, 1 1 inches long and 4 inches in diameter, ending in lax nipples 
2 inches in diameter. 

The uterus extended in the body of the Whale 5 feet forwards 
from the opening. It did not contain a foetus. The anus was 
2 feet 1 inches behind the anterior commissure of the reproductory 
organ. 



193 

Decomposition preventcd such a careful examination of the inte- 
rior of the animal as might have been desired. The heart was 4 feet 
m length, 3 feet at its greatest breadth. The vence cavce 4 inches 
in diameter. The aorta 3^ inches thick. The liver resembled in 
consistence that of the terrestrial Mammalia, and was of great size. 

Near the base of the tongue lay two large bodies of glandular ap- 
pearance, much resembUng the salivary glands of quadrupeds, each 
of which would have filled a bushel measure. The lungs did not 
appear of great proportional size ; the bronchial tubes were lined 
with black membrane. 

Near the vertebral column could be imperfectly traced the plexus 
of arteries which forms the reservoir of blood during the prolonged 
divings of the "VVhale. Much extravasated blood and hastening de- 
composition interfered with a proper investigation of its course and 
structure. 

The vertebral formula was as follows : — 

Cervical 7, Dorsal 15, Remains 40. Totai 62. 

Circumstances prevented me from distinguishing the lumbar from 
the caudal vertebrse, but the nnmbers above given are absolutely 
correct. 

The lašt vertebra was not larger than a walnut, and part of its 
bulk was cartilage. Its articulation was, hovvever, very distinct. 

The lašt six vertebrse diminished in size very rapidly, much more 
decrease taking place in their dimensions than proportionally in any 
other part of the spine. 

There were fifteen pairs of ribs. The first pair simple, the second, 
third and fourth with necks, directed tovpards, but not reaching, the 
bodies of the vertebrse. The ręst simple. 

The greatest length of the cranium was 11 1^ feet. The greatest 
length of the bone of the under jaw 1 lį feet. 

From the tip of the pectoral to the head of the hiimerus mea- 
sured 6 feet 3 inches. 

The colour of the back of the head and of the sides to a line 
passing from the tail beneath the pectoral, black. 

The jaws, and upper and under sides of both pectorals and tail, 
also black. 

The black washed off at the sides into a brilliant white, of vi^hich 
colour were all the other parts, except, as before mentioned, the 
hollows of the plicce. 

Scattered irregularly over the back were greyish spots, from three 
to four in a sąuare foot, much resembling the appearance that would 
have been produced by touching the skin with a slightly whitened 
finger. Their shortest diameter vyas transverse to the body of the 
animal, and towards their anterior end they exhibited a nucleus whitcr 
than their geueral hue. It mušt be noted, that these spots, though 
sufficiently obvious under certain lights and on close inspection, were 
not apparent at a little distance, and did not in the smallest degree 
interfere with the general intense black of the upper parts. 

When viewed obliąuely, on the other hand, the whole dark por- 
tion of the animal seemed a duU leadeu grey ; a deception arising. 

No. CCCXIII. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



194 

uo doubt, from the refraction of the light from the polished surface. 
Even when near to the object, those parts not directly opposite to 
the eye seemed much paler than they really were. 

As a species oi Physalus has been described as " slate-grey," aud 
as, despite its real jetty hue, casual observers who had seen the 
Laman WTiale, špoke afterwards of its grey colour, I have thought 
this circumstance worthy of meatiou. 

Since this paper was read, the folio wing additional notes have been 
addressed by the author to Dr. Gray, under the dates of July 16, 
Aug. 16, and Sept. 24. 

16th July, 1856. 

Oddly enough, I had not been two hours in Orkney ere I heard 
of another whale being ashore. On the first oppoitunity I started 
for Copinshay, where I found it had beached itself a week previously. 
The finders had already flensed it, and it was lying in a position 
most unfavourable for examiuation. The back was down, the tide 
alongside the body, aud it was impossible to get at the dorsal fin. 
It is a malė, and I feel sure the šame species as the one I described ; 
most probably the mate of that indi^-idual. 

As it mušt be of great importance to compare a specimen from 
the šame locality as, and probably the mate of, the lašt, I send you 
the only measurements I could make. 

I would respectfully direct your attention to the fact, that in both 
this and the female formerly examined, the pectoral, measured from 
tip to head of humerus, is exactly ^^ths of the whole length of the 
body. This should be the length taken from the pectoral, as it is 
impossible to know where the true union with the body is, there being 
of course an anterior and posterior junction. 

The head in each bears very nearly the šame proportions to the 
vvhole length. 

You can imagine with what keenness I made the lašt few cuts in 
the putrid mass of carrion, which exposed clearly the mass of cervi- 
cal vertebrse ; — two whales from the šame station, of nearly the šame 
size, at nearly the šame time, alike in external appearauce and in the 
exact proportion of pectoral, one a malė and the other a female. 
And there the bones lay — so likę, as I said, that a drawing of the one 
would do for a likeness of the other. 

I feel sure that you will agree with me, that the variations before- 
mentioned do not vveaken the identity of these individuals. 

As soon as the bones are clean I shall pack them carefuUy, and 
send them up. I regret that the fearful statė of the carcase pre- 
vented me from counting the ribs or vertebrse. Indeed it was with 
the ntmost difficulty that I could get any one to lend a liand in se- 
curing the bones, so avvful was the smell and condition, and so huge 
was the mass of decomposed flesh to be removed, — the whale, unfor- 
tunately, lying on its back, while no power on earth could have 
turned it in its then condition. However, my own repugnances 
vanished at the call of Science, and example works vvonders. 



195 



16th Aug. 1856. 

After an unusually hard day's work, I succeeded in safely detach- 
ing the cervical vertebrse of the whale ashore in Copinshay. They 
are at present safely lying in the sea within a tidal enclosure at 
Kirkwall, till the crabs and gamniari, and such influences, remove 
the lašt portions of musele from them. I shall take the whet off 
your curiosity by telling you that a drawing of the cervical vertebrse 
of the whale I formerly examined would do for these bones. Though 
there are some minor differences on a close examination, these are all 
on the lower side of the bones, viemng them from the direction 
opposite to the spinous processes. And I think, when you get 
the specimen, you will feel convinced, on comparing it with that 
of a Laman whale, that these minor differences are unimportant, and 
cannot be allowed to interfere with the specific identity of the two 
whales. 

These differences are as follows : — In tlie Laman whale the supe- 
rior and inferior transverse processes of the 5th cervical vertebra are 
united, and the lovrer process of the 6th short; whereas, in the 
Copinshay whale, the transverse processes of the 5th are not united, 
and the lower process of the 6th is as long as those of the 3rd, 4th, 
and 5th. 

Still, with deference I submit, that when all the other resem- 
blances are taken into acoount, these variations cannot be considered 
essential. I think it will be more easy to point out specific charac- 
ters in the bones by the union or disunion of the processes of the 2nd 
cervical vertebra ; by the comparative length of processes as regards 
the body of the vertebrse, and by the form and angular aperture of 
ring, than by the circumstance of the lateral processes after the se- 
cond being united or not. At any rate, I cannot readily imagine 
that the union or separation of the 5th, and still less so the length 
of the lower process of the 6th, can be of great value. In this lašt, 
the specimen in the Zoological Gardens of Edinburgh and your own 
set up in the Museum differ, while they certainly resemble each 
other in every other way, and are evidently of the šame species. 

I feel sure, that drawings of the dorsal aspect of all these bones of 
all the species knovm to you will show considerable and tangible dif- 
ferences, especially in the comparative spread of flie processes as 
you approach the dorsals ; in their varying progression in thickness, 
— gradual in the Laman and Copinshay whales, sudden from the 
7th cervical to the Ist dorsal iu P. antiąuorum. 

Our Orkney whales seem to resemble your P. boops in sonle re- 
spects, but then the processes are 
longer, and the veing of the 2nd 
cervical in the Orkney vchales with 
its perforation is very different from 
the short development of the 2nd 
cervical vertebra in P. boops. In 
P. antiąuorum again, the processes 
rise from the plane of the body 
of the vertebrae somewhat thus : — 




196 

in tbe Latnan and Copinshay whale, they /all soinewhat thus : — 




In fact, in some points our Orkney whales seem to connect the cha- 
racters of the two sections of your genus PhysaJus, resembling, how- 
ever, P. hoaps more than P. antiąuorum. In my poor opinion, 
nevertheless, there are amply sufficient characters for separation, and 
I feel that, wlien placed side by side, the two specimens I have been 
so fortunate as to put into your hands will help much to clear up this 
cetacean mystery, as well as to show what characters are permanent 
and worthy of selection. 

I have some platės of whalebone, which you shall have by and by. 
It varies sHghtly in shape and colour from that of the Laman whale, 
and indeed there is danger, / think, in forming a specific character 
from the baleen. 

The colours on the whale were, according to the description of the 
finders, identical with those of the Laman whale ; the under jaw a 
little wider. I shall make a sketch of the form from the measure- 
ments, and trausmit it to you. 

ft. in. 

Tip of under jaw to notch in tail . . 45 6 

Tip of upper jaw to eye 8 2 

„ „ to anterior of pectoral 15 O 

Tip of lower jaw to genital (penis) 28 O 

„ „ to anus .c 31 5 

From pectoral to pectoral under belly 8 O 

Length of pectoral to anterior junction 4 6 

Breadth of pectoral 1 O 

Length of pectoral (tip to head of humerus) .... 5 6 

Width of tail 9 6 

Length of cranium (as nearly as possible) 10 4 

" Back black ; belly white." 

The description of the cervical vertebrse would form a useful 
appendix to that of the Laman whale. The measurements may be 
meantime useful, as shovving the similarity of proportion. I feel 
convinced that the two iudividuals belong to one species, and hope 
that the neck vertebrae will bear out that opinion. I shall be 
delighted to hear j'our wishes in the matter, and to carry them out. 

Sept. 24, 1856. 

I propose despatching and booking by first packet the cervical 

vertebrae, &c. of the Copinshay vvhale. I am on the point of start- 

iug for Canada, and I trust they will reach you safe. They are in 

capital condition and keepiug, and will, I am sure, give you assistance 



197 

in re Rorqual. I enclose herewith some notes regarding the Caith- 
ness (Nybster) whale. 

As regards the ribs of Rorquals, as exemplified in the Copinshay 
and Laman whale, allow me to call your own attention, and that of 
cetaceologists and others to the followiug fact. 

The first pair of ribs is not articulated to the first dorsal vertebra, 
nor to any vertebra whatever ; but the first ribs have their ends buried 
in a mass of ligament, which connects all the upper lateral processes 
of the cer™al and the first dorsal vertebrse together. 

No articulating surface exists on these processes on the first dorsal 
vertebra ; the articulating surfaces are on the other hand well marked 
on all the other dorsal vertebrse. 

I am certain that you will perceive some value in this observation, 
of the accuracy of which I am positive, being put on the alert by 
observing it in the first specimen I esamined. One sees the use of 
the lateral apophyses and their great development in some species. 

Notes on Nybster JFhale. 

I was unable to do more in the examination of the neck \hanfeel 
for some of the characteristic processes. The broad wiiig of the 
second cervical was perforated by a hole as in the Copinshay and La- 
man whales, and ui every particular that I could ascertain the ver- 
tebrse corresponded with those of these individuals. The external 
characters, colours, &c. also corresponded. The whale was afloat, 
being in a creek where the tide did not leave it. Its length, which 
I was too late to measure in person, was, I am assured, 65 to 68 feet ; 
its pectoral /ro»j the head of hicmerus (the only Msę/M/ measurement) 
uearly 8 feet. The length of the cranium was 15 feet. The whale 
was for a finner exceedingly fat, the blubber or "speck" being 8 to 
10 inches in thickness. These were aU the measurements I could 
make, from the condition of the carcase. 

On my passage home, amid the thousand herring-boats of Wick, 
lying becalmed in a glassy sea, we were exceedingly interested by the 
movements of a very large Finner, apparently of the šame species as 
the one I had just left. It rushed round us in every direction with 
its upper jaw above water, blowing with great violence and noise, and 
diving, sometimes tranąuilly, sometimes in a seething wave, created 
by its fins and tail. 

It was evidently feeding on herrings, as every now and then it 
would rush headlong into portions of the sea where the smooth sur- 
face was broken by the shoals of fish. 

The bloįvholes toere at timesfiat and unprojecting, at other times 
boldly protuberant, the animal evidently having the power of raising 
or depressing these organs. As the protuberance of the spiracles 
has been thought characteristic of species, this is worth noting. The 
dorsal fin was exactly outlined likę those of the Rorquals previously 
examined. The contour of the snout or upper jaw also exactly 
resembled that of the Copinshay, Laman, and Nybster whales. This 
whale was comjmted by the boatmeu and myself to be at least as 
large as the Nybster whale. I have no manner of doubt but that 



198 

these four whales were of one species. Certainly the Nybster wliale 
was not Physalus antiquorum, therefore P. antiąuorum is not alone 
ia exceeding 60 feet in lengtb, a dimension supposed to be confined 
to that species. 

The fin-wliales of Orkney and Caithness, every season observed in 
pursuit of herrings, would seem in all probability to be of the species 
of which you bave received portions. They are not P. boops, for 
three out of four specimens captured (and the fourth was not killed) 
agree with each other, and differ from P. boops in the upper and 
lower lateral processes of the second cervical vertebra being nnited, 
lea\-ing a subcentral foramen. 

They will no doubt prove to be of a new species, though unex- 
amined individuals may have doubtless come ashore in Orkney over 
and over again. 



3. Descriptions of Shells from the Gulf of California, 
AND THE Pacific Coasts of Mexico and California. 
Part II. By a. a. Gotjld, M. D., and Philip P. Car- 

PENTER. 

Dr. Gould, the well-known author of the Rep. Invert. Mass. and 
the U. S. Exp. Shells, having most obligingly sent over the ■ffhole of 
his collections from the Pacific shores of N. America, in order to 
fumish materials for my Report to the British Association, there have 
appeared among them several shells not to be identified with re- 
corded species. Of some of these Dr. Gould enclosed names and 
diagnoses. For the remainder of the follovdng paper I am alone 
responsible. Most of the new species in this coUection ■were de- 
scribed by Dr. Gould in the Proceedings of the Boston N. H. So- 
ciety ; and have been published in a separate form with three platės. 
I have therefore regarded this communication as a supplement to 
that paper, and have adopted the šame title. The references apply 
to it, unless otherwise expressed. 

P. P. C. 

Bristol, June21st, 1856. 

1. Pholadidea ovoidea, Gould. 

Pholas ovoidea, Mex. & Gal. Shells, pt. I. p. 15. pi. 15. f. 1. 
Hab. San Diego (Lieut. Green). Mus. Gould. 

2. Petricola robusta, Sow. 

Petricola bulbosa, Gould, p. 16. pi. 15. f. 5 ; B. M. Mazatlan 
Cat. p. 17. no. 24. 

3. Corbula polychroma, n. s. 

V. t. ffibbosa, transversa, solidu; postice angidata, carinulis 
duabus, altern ad marginėm ventndem, altera juxta cicatr. 
muse. adeuntibus ; siib superficiem externam concentrice suka- 



199 

tam, griseam, aurantia, purpureo radiata ; intus purpurea, 
dent. card. obtusis, cicatr. muse. distinctis, sinu pallii minimo' 
Long. -37, lat. -53, alt. -27. 

Hab. lu Sinu Californiensi (Lieut. Shipley in Mus, Cuming') • 
Sta. Barbara {Col. Jewett m Mus. Gould). ' 

Of the general appearance of C. bicarinata, but much less cib- 
bous, less angulated, and highly coloured. It resembles, but ap- 
pears distinct from, one of the CIaiborne fossils in Mr. Nuttall's 
collection. Col. Jewett's specimens were all dead valves. 

4. Lyonsia nitida, Gould. 

Osteodesma nitidum, Gould, p. 17. pi. 15. f. 6=(probably) Lyon- 
sia Cahformca, Conr. jun. J ^ i/ 
Hab. Sta. Barbara (lAeut. Green). Mus. Gould. 

5. Semele flavescens, Gould. 
Amphidesma flavescens, Gould, p. 19. 

Semele proxima, B. M. Maz. Cat.p. 28. no, 40. Mus. Cutn. pars, 
non C. B. Adams nec Mus, Cum. pars. 

The Mazatlan species was identified from the supposed types in 
the Cummgian collection. Ou fiuding Dr. Gould's shell identical 
lt appeared extraordinary that he should have re-described one of 
l'rol. Adams species. In another dravver of Mr. Cuming's oabinet 
however, appeared another shell, also named Semele proxima C b' 
Ad which is probably the real type. It is larger and more pointed 
at the beaks than the present species. Severai of the described spe- 
cies of Semele are extremely similar. So long, however, as they are 
kept distmct, the Mazatlan shells mušt rank under the present name 
and not under that of Prof. Adams, under which they have been 
Ireely distnbuted. 

6. Sanguinolaria miniata, Gould, 

Tellina miniata, Gould, Proc, B. N. H. S. Nov. 1851 : Mex &c 
p. 24, pi. 16, f. 1. , . ., 

Sanguinolaria purpurea, Desh, P, Z. S. 1854, p. 346. no 137 • 
B. M, Maz, Cat. p. 31. no. 46, 

Hab. San Juan {Lieut, Green). 

Although I have not seen the type of Dr, Gould's shell, there can 
hardly be a doubt that it is the šame as that of Desh., and therefore 
has pnority over the name adopted in the B. M. Cat. While the 
eariier sheets of that work were passing through the press, I had 
only the advantage of Dr. Gould's platės, vvithout print or dates. A 
more rapid intercommunication of materials between naturalists in 
different countries is greatly to be desired. 

7. Tellina tersa, Gould, p. 25. pi. 16. f. 2. 
Hab. Panama (Jewett). Mus. Gould. 

8. Tellina ptjra, Gould, p. 25. pi. 16. f. 3. 
Hab. Panama (Jewett). Mus, Gould, 



200 

9. Tellina gemma, Gould, p. 26. pi. 16. f. 5. 
Hab. San Juau (Green). Mus. Gould. 

10. Strigilla CARNARiA, Linn. 

TeUi7ia {Strigilla) fucata, Gould, p. 26. pi. 16. f. 4 ; Proc. B. S. 
N. H. 1851, p. 91. 

Strigilla {Tellina) carnaria, B.M. Maz. Cat. p. 39. no. 66. 
Strigilla miniota, Gould's Platės, MS. 

11. DoNAX FLEXuosus, Gould, p. 21. pi. 15. f. 8. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jeivett). Mus. Gould. 

A comparison of types proves that this is distinct from all varieties 
of D. punctato-striatus. From the figure alone they were supposed 
identical ; vide B.M. Maz. Cat. p. 44. uo. 73. 

12. DoNAX Californicus, Conr. 

I>onax obesus, Gould, p. 21. pi. 15. f. 9. (Non D. Californicus, 
Desh., vide B.M. Maz. Cat. p. 47. uo. 76.— N.B. The D. culmi- 
natus, no. 72 of the šame catalogue, is proved from types to be the 
D. rostratus of C. B. Ad.) 

13. Gnathodon mendica, Gould. 

Mactra mendica, Gould, Proc. B. N. H. S. Nov. 1851 ; Mex. &c. 
p. 20. pi. 15. f. 4. 

Gnathodon trigona, Petit, B.M. Maz. Cat. p. 52. no. 81. 

14. Mactra exoleta, Gray, B.M. Maz. Cat. p. 50. no. 78. 
Lutraria ventricosa, Gould, p. 17. 

15. Mactra undulata, Gould. 

Lutraria undulata, Gould, p. 18. pi. 15. f. 7. 
This shell is most closely related to M. elegans, Sow. Tank. Cat. 
App. ; but I do not venture to unite them, without seeing the types. 

16. Tapęs gracilis, Gould, MS. 

^'T. t. liarva, tenui, transversa, elongato-ovata, incBąuilaterali ; 
albida, obsolete fusco radiata, et ad aream dorsalem posticam 
fuseata, concentrice striulata ; extremitatibus rotundatis ; intus 
candida. 

" Long. -75, alt. '5, lat. "12 poli. 

"Resembles T.florida and T.geographica, but is less angular and 
less insecįuilateral." — Gould, MS. 

Hab. Sau Pedro ; legit W. P. Blake *. 

17. Tapęs tenerrima, n. s. 

T. t. tenerrima, albido-fusca, obovali, compressa ; marginibus 
tegualiter excurtatis ; striulis radiantibus ereberrimis, antice 

* Mr. Blake's collections, along with Dr. Webb's, do not appear to have been 
made duiing the Mexican war. 



201 

et postice fortioribus, etlirulis acutis concentricis, plūs miniMve 
distantibus, eleganter ornata ; lunula vixstria majore definita ; 
intus, dent. card. iii. radiantibus, ąuorum valva in altera ii. 
altera i. bifidi sunt ; sinu pallii maximo, elongato, lateribus sub- 
erectis, parum divergentibus, apice cicatr. ant. contiguo, sub- 
rotundato ; margine vix crenulato. 

Long. -94, lat. 1-13, alt. -38. 

Hab. Panama ; legit Col. Jeivett. Mus. Goiild. 

Of this extremely degant species, the two specimens sent were 
broken in transit. It is recognized at once by its fragility and delicate 
sculpture. 

18. Trigona tantilla, Gould. 

Venus tantilla, Gould, p. 33. pi. 15. f. 10. 
Hab. Sta Barbara {Jeicett). Mus. Gould. 

19. Cyclina subqtjadrata, Hanl. — B.M.Maz.Cat.p.66.no.91. 
Arthemis saccata, Gould, p. 23. pi. 15. f. 2. 

20. Cardium luteolabrum, Gould, Mex. &c. p. 28. 
C. xanthoeheilum, Gould, MS. Cat. 

21. Cardium cruentatum, Gould, M. S. 

" C. t. parva, tenui, transversim rotundato-ovata, ventricosa, in- 
cequilaterali ; levi et nitida ; straminea, et ad aream dorsalem 
posticam rufo tincta, lineis radiantibus crebris vix insculpta ; 
umbonibus elevatis, obtūsis ; extremitatibus rotundatis ; intus 
citrina, rufo-sanguineo conspersa ; margine concinne crenulato. 

"Long. -62, alt. -62, lat. -42. 

" Compares with C. Elenense and C. Mortoni." — Gould, MS. 

Hab. San Pedro ; legit W. P. Blake. 

[Probably=C. substriatum, Gonr. J. A. N. S. p. 228. pi. 17. f. 2.] 

22. LuciNA Artemidis, n. s. 

L. t. alba, solidiore, subrotundata, subplanata ; marginibus ven- 
trali antice producto, postico subplanata, dorsali subangulato ; 
umbonibus appressis, haud prominentibus ; superficie suleis con- 
centricis crebris ornata ; lunula parva, vix excavata, in valva 
altera omnino šita, altera margine incurvata ; intus, dent. 
card. ii.— ii. divergentibus, lat. ant. i. -ii. prominentibus, distan- 
tibus, post. i. -ii, valde distaiitibus, parvis ; cicatr. muse. ant. 
elongatis, serratis, post. parvis ; linea pallii a margine haud 
distante. 

Long. -75, lat. -84, alt. -57. 

Hab. ? Acapulco, teste Gould ; Mus. suo, sp. nu. 

Found in company with Tellina ricina, C. B. Ad. Has the 
characteiistic shape and interior of Lucina, with the sculpture of 
Dosinia. 



202 

23. DiPLODONTA ORBELLA, Gould. 

Lucina orbella, Gould, p. 22. pi. 15. f. 3. 

? = Biplodonta semiaspera, var. : v. B.M. Maz. Cat. p. 102. 
no. 1.50. 

Hab. Santa Barbara {Jeioett). Mus. Gould. 

24. Cyrena Mkxicana, var. altilis, Gould. 

Cyrena altilis, Gould, p. 27. pi. 16. f . 5 ; vide B.M. Maz. Cat. 
p. 115, no. 165. 

Hab. Mazatlan. Mus. Gould, Brit. 

25. Anodon cicoNiA, Gould, p. 29; B.M. Maz. Cat. p. 117. 
no. 166. 

26. Mytilus glomeratus, Gould, p. 29. pi. 16. f. 8. 
Hab. San Francisco {Maj. Rich.). Mus. Gould. 

27. MODIOLA NITENS, n. 8. 

M. t. tenui, gibbosa, maxime elongata, striis incrementi cotispi- 
cuis ; epidermide olivaceo-cornea nitente induta ; parte antica 
angusta, umbonibus obtusis, spiralibus, terminalibus ; parte 
postica maxime producta ; angulo diagonali indistincto, ma.vime 
tumente ; marginibus, ventrali incurvato, dorsali plūs minusve 
angulato ; intus purpurea, parte ventrali albida, translucida ; 
linea cardinali tenui, edentula. 

Long. 1-05, lat. •2--45, alt. -38. 

Hab. California, teste Gould. Mus. suo. 

Has the shape of Mytilus multiformis (B.M. Maz. Cat.), the in- 
ternal colouring of M. Braziliensis, and a glossy epidermis over the 
irregular lines of growth of a lustrous olivaceous hue. 

28. LiTHOPHAGUS FALCATUS, Gould. 

Lithodomus falcatus, Gould, Proc. B. N. H. S. Nov. 1851 ; Mex. 
&c. p. 30.pl. 16. f. 9. 

=i. črrMwm, Phil. (New Zealand). Mus. Cum. 

I do not know which name has precedence ; but a comparison of 
types of these most remarkable shells affords no opportunity for 
separating the species, widely as their habitats are removed. 

Hab. Monterey {Rich.). Mus. Gould. 

29. Byssoarca pernoides, n. s. 

B. t. subquadrata, planata, albida, epidermide spongiosa fugca 
induta; striis eocilibus radiantibus, confertissimis ; minutissime 
tuberculosis ; umbonibus obtusis, antice sitis, area parva ; 
intus linea dentium tnaxime arcuata, dentibus extremis validis, 
interioribus parvis, confertis, ąuadratis ; cicatr. muse. rotun- 
datis, politis ; pagina interna, intra lineam pallii, radiatim 
striata ; margine simplici ; ligamento fossis quadratis minutis 



203 

confertis, haud dentibus convenientibus, šito, aream quoque 
teffente. 
Long. -68, lat. -53, alt. -32. 

Hab. San Diego (Dr. Webb). Valv. imic. in Mus. Gould. 
Somewhat resembling the fine variety of B. solida, but squarer, 
and known at once by the teeth and ligament. This is (under the 
glass) in minute pits, as in laognomon, but with an extra layer cover- 
ing the whole area. 

30. AvicuLA STERNA, Gould, p. 31. pi. 16. f. 7; B.M.Maz.Cat. 
p. 148. no. 203. 

31. Lima tetrica, Gould, p. 32. pi. 16. f. 6. 
Hab. La Paz {Riek). Mus. Gould. 

32. BULIMUS PALLIDIOR, SoW. 

Bulimus vegetus, Gould, p. 2. pi. 14. f. 2. 

33. Bulimus vesicalis, Gould, p. 2. pi. 14. f. 1. 

" Probably immature." — Cuming. 

Hab. Lower Califomia {RicK). Mus. Gould. 

34. Bulimus excelsus, Gould, p. 3. pi. 14. f. 3. 
Hab. Califomia (RicK). Mus. Gould. 

35. Physa elata, Gould, p. 6. pi. 14. f. 4 ; B. M. Maz. Cat. 
p. 180. no. 237. 

36. TORNATINA CULCITELLA, Gould. 

Bulla (^Akera) culcitella, Gould, p. 4. pi. 14. f. 8. 
Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jeivett). Mus. Gould. 

37. ToRNATINA CEREALIS, Gould. 

Bulla (Tomati7ia) cerealis, Gould, p. 5. pi. 14. f. 9. 
Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jeioetf). Mus. Gould. 

38. ToRNATINA INCULTA, Gould, MS. 

" T. t. minuta, ebumea, solidula, elongato- ovali, longitudinaliter 
minutissime striata ; spira elevata ; anfr.iy. tabulatis ; aper- 
tura ^ longitudinis testce adeeguante, antice dilatata ; labro 
infiexo, postice rotundato ; columella arcuata, callosa, unipli- 
cata. 
" Bulla (Tornatind) inculta. . May be compared with B. fusi- 
formis, A. Ad., and B. constricta, Gould. The spire is sometimes 
scarcely exserted." — Gould, MS. 
Hab. San Diego ; teste Gould. 

39. Haminea vesicula, Gould. 

" H. t. parva, fragili, ovato-globosa, pallide citrina, postice truti- 
eata ; apertura corpus testce duplo excedente, spiram superante. 



204 

postice et antice late rotundata ; columella valde arcuata, vix 
callosa. 
"Bulla (Haminea) vesicula. About the size and general appear- 
ance of B. rotundata, A. Adams ; not so large a body ; aperture 
larger." — Gould, MS. 

Hah. San Diego ; legit W. P. Blake. 

40. Nacella dkpicta, Hinds. 

Patelloida depicta, Hinda, Ann. Nat. Hist. x. p. 82 ; Voy. Sulph. 
Moli. p. 53. no. 217. 

Acmcea paleacea, Gould, p. 3. pi. 14. f. 5. 

41. Omphalius Pfeifferi, Phil. 

Trochus marcidus, Gould, p. 8. pi. 14. f. 1 1. 

Comp. Chlorostoma maculosiim, A. Ad. — Philippi's name is giveu 
on the important authority of Mr. Cuming. Dr. Gould's shell seems 
more likę that of A. Adams ; whįle his Trochus Montereyi, Kien., 
appears to be T, Pfeifferi, Phil. 

42. OsiLINtrS GALLINA, vaf. 

Trochus (Monodonta) pyriformis, Gould, p. 9. 

43. LivoNA PICA, Linn. 
Trochus picoides, Gould, p. 8. 

This species is said to have been taken alive at Santa Barbara by 
Col. Jewett, who brought home five specimens. Dr. Gould, for 
geographical reasons, describes them as a distiuct species. The exclu- 
sive pecuharities assigned to the Pacific shells are often seen in the 
very variable W. Indian specimens. The dead shell sent by Dr. 
Gould was unhesitatingly prouounced by Mr. Cuming to be the true 
Trochus pica, Linn. It did not occur in the Mazatlan coUection, nor 
has it been found by Messrs. Cuming, Hinds, C. B. Adams, Nuttall, 
Kellett, Belcher, Chiron, Shipley, Hartweg, or any other of the care- 
ful explorers of the Pacific coast. 

44. Phasianella compta, Gould, MS. 

" Ph. t. parva, solida, ovato-conica, imperforata, polita, cineras- 
cente, lineis minutis olivaceis, oblique volventihus, ornata; anfr. 
iv. rotundatis, ultimo ad peripheriam subaiigulato, et interdum 
tessellatim fasciato ; apertura circulari ; labro tenui, albo ; 
columella planulata, alba ; faucibus callo incrassatis." 

Variat t. rubida, ut in Ph. perforata pieta. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara (^Col. Jemett) ; San Diego {Br. Webb, W. P. 
Blake). Mus. Gould. 

For the differences between this species and the equatorial Ph. 
perforata, vide B. M. Maz. Cat. p. 225. no. 284. 

45. Crucibulum corrugatum, n. s. 

C. t. compacta, conica, solida, alba ; costis irregularibus angustis, 
haud acutis, primumpaucis, postea plurimis, corrugatis ; inter- 



205 

stitiis quoque corrngatis ; cyatho (ut in C. spinoso y?<more) 171- 
completo, duabus marginibus affi,xo, intus planato et angulato ; 
margine a costis crenulato. 
Long. -7, lat. -68, alt. -48. 

Hab. Mazatlan {Col. Jeiveit) ; sp. unic. in Mus. Gould. 
It is hazardous to describe a Calyptrseid from a single specimen. 
This has the general aspect of C. violascens, with sculpture resem- 
bling C. imbricatum var. Broderipii, and a cup, which, although the 
shell has an appearance of normai growth, preserves the incomplete- 
ness which is characteristic of the genus in its early stage. The 
yomig statė seems to have been externally likę that of Siphonaria 
gigas, with few, narrow, projecting ribs. The apex is rubbed. It 
resembles Calyptrcea striata, Say. 

46. Crepidula explanata, Gould, p. 4. pi. 14. f. 7. 
Crepidula perforans. Vai. Voy. Ven. Moli. 
Crepidula exuviata (quasi Nutt.), Jay's Cat. no. 3027. 

This shell, remarkable as is the form of the adult, is normai when 
young. Specimeus of C. nivea were found in the Mazatlan coUec- 
tion of similarly distorted form, from living in the holes of Litho- 
phagi; but they never displayed the cancellations between the 
laminse which appear in some specimens, but not all, of the present 
species. The prior name of Valenciennes is rejected, as implying an 
untruth. 

47. MODULUS DISCULUS, Phil. 

Modulus dorsuosus, Gould, p. 10. pi. 14. f. 12. 

48. FossARUs (IsAPis) ovoiDETJS, Gould. 
Narica ovoidea, Gould, p. 7. pi. 14. f. 10. 

Comp. Fossar reticulatus, A. Ad. ; vide B.M. Maz. Cat. in loco. 
Hab. 1 Mazatlan (^Col. Jevoett). Mus. Gould. 

49. ?Lacuna tjnifasciata, n. s. 

? i. t. parva, solida, conica, ad basin angulata ; anfr. v. leevibus, 
parutn convezis, sutura distincta ; rufo-fusca, linea intensiore 
ad carinatn sutura convenientem, interdum maculis adjacen- 
tibus ; rimą umbilicali a labio subcelata ; apertura ovali ; 
apice regidan. 

Long. -23, long. spir. "ll, lat. '15, alt. '45°. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara {Col. Jewett). Mus. Gould. 

This shell has the shape of Littorina angulifera, the general 
aspect of the small Phasianellee, and the chink of Lacuna. Its 
operculum is unknown, all the specimens in Mus. Gould being dead. 

50. Cerithidea albonodosa, n. s. 

C. t. solida, C. varicosse simili, compacta, fusco-purpurea, va- 
ricibus et nodulis albis, fasciis spiralibus intensioribus stepe 
ornata ; anfr. xii. parum convexis, sutura impressa ; liris 
spiralibus iv. in anfr. penult. et liris creberrimis transversis 
vix undatis, ad intersectiones nodosis, ornata ; varicibus iii. in 



206 



anfr ii.; apertura mbąuadrata, sinu minimo, labio haud ex- 
panšo; operculo subplanato, nucleo mucronato anfr. plunmvs 
indistinctis,fusco, ad marginėm tenuissimum diaphano. 
Long. -8, long. spir. -57, lat. -33, div 20 . 
Hah San Dieeo ; legit Dr. Webb. Mus. Gould. 
f iafromC ^-arfco^a var. Mazatlanica, by the light purplish- 
brown dugel the colour of which wears off at the vances and nodules, 
and by the details of sculpture. 

51. Cerithidea (Tsacrata, var.) fuscata, Gould, MS. 
Cerithium {Potamis) sacratum, Gould, Exp. Shells, p. 60. 
Pirena Californica, Nuttall, MS. 

" C t. turrita, gracili, sofida, rudi, fusco-cinerea; anfr. ad x. 

convea^iusculi^ plicis circiter xvi. longitudrnahbus arenoj 

compressis, instructis, et filis ad v. volvenUbus c^ncHs^ ultj^H 

iii. varices ferentibus ; apertura parva, subcirculan, basi vtx 

effusa vel contorta ; labro expan80, nitide rufo-mgncante. 

"Long. 1-25, lat. '4 poli. , , .^ v 

" Potlmis fuscata. Distingvushed from P sacrata by its much 

more slender form, small size, colour of aperture, and longitudinal 

Ss. It varies įreatly in proportions, and sometimes displays a 

delicate, ochraceous revolving line."— GoM^rf, M!i. 

This shell is regarded by Mr. Nuttall and myself as a variety ot 
the very variable C. sacrata. ^ u 

Hab. San Diego ; legit W. P. Blake. Mus. Gould. 

52. Erato ?columbella, Mke. Zeit. f. Mal. 1847, p. 183. 

no. 26. f on 

Erato leucophcea, Gould, p. 13.pl. 14. t. M- 
Hab. Sta. Barbara {Jewett). Mus. Gould. 

53. EURYTA FULGURATA, Phil. 

Terebra arguta, Gould, p. 7. pi- H. f. 19 ; vide B.M. Maz. Cat. 
in loco. 

54. CoNUS RAVUS, Gould, p. 13. pi. 14. f. 21. 
Hab. Sta. Barbara {Jevoett). Mus. Gould. 

55. CoNUS PURPURASCENS, SoW. 

Comis comptus, Gould, p. 14. pi. 14. f. 23. p„ .„^ ^„ u. „ 

Dr Gould' s type specimen is pronounced by Mr. Cutning to be a 

worn young spedmen of that previously described. t is probably. 

^ Drf G. supposes. the C. achatinus of Menke's catalogue. 

56. CoNUS pusiLLTJS, Gould, p. 15. pi. 14. f. 22. 
Hab. Mazatlan {Jetoett). Mus. Gould. 

57. Obeliscus achates, Gould. 
Odostomia achates, Gould, p. 12. pi. 14. f. 13. 
Comp. Obeliscus clavulus, A. Ad. 

Hab. Mazatlan {Jevoett). Mus. Gould. 



207 

58. Odostomia gravida, Gould, p. U. pi. 14. f. 14. 
Hab. Sta. Barbara {Jewett). Mus. Gould. 

59. Chemnitzia tenuicula, Gould, p. 10. pi. 14. f. 15. 
Hah, Sta. Barbara {Jewett). Mus. Gould. 

60. Chemnitzia TORauATA, Gould, p. 11. pi. 14. f. 16, 
Hab. Sta. Barbara {Jeivett). Mus. Gould. 

61. SiGARETUS DEBILTS, Gould, p. 6. pi. 14. f. 17. 

Hab. La Paz {Lieut. Green). Mus. Gould. 

62. Fasciolarta bistriata, n. s. 

F. t. regulari, tenui, aurantio-fusca, epidennide fenui induta ; 
anfr. ix. quorum duo nucieosi Iceves, ajnce mamillato, subdeclivi ; 
normalibics convexis, sutura distincta ; costis tfa7isversis (in 
anfr. penuU. xvi.) tumentibus sed planatis, attingentibus, in- 
tershtns parvis, ad basin evanidis ; lirulis acutis spiralibus 
{in anfr. penult. vi.) et inter eas striulis crebris, costis trans- 
euntibus, eleganter ornata ; apertura ovali, albida ; labro 
acuto, secundum liruJas intus sulcato ; parietė secundum lirulas 
plicato; labio ad basin parvo, mx plicato ; canuli elongato, 
subrecto. 

Loug. 1-07, long. spir. -42, lat. -48, div. 50°. 

Hab. Panama, teste Gould ; sp. unic. in Mus. suo. 

The columellar folds in this very elegant and delicate shell are in- 
distmct, but are compensated by the continuations of the spirai 
lirulse over the bodj whirl. 

63. Olivella intorta, n. s. 

O. t. parva, ovoidea, subfumenfe ; sutura vix sukata; albido- 
gnsea, fascia indistincta siibsuturali olivacea, Jlammulis et ma- '^ '^ ■ 
culis purpureo-fuscis plūs minusve ornata ; apertura antice 
aperta, postice angusta ; callositate parietali ad suturam pen- 
ultimam producta ; columella maxime intorta, plica ad basin 
acuta, in parietė duabus seepe indistinctis ; extus, linea spirali 
antica unica. 
Long. -52, long. spir. -17, lat. -26, div. 60°. 
Hab. San Juan ; legit Dr. Green. Mus. Gould. Item, loc. in- 
cert. Mus. Cuming. 

A well-marked species, resembling the West Indian O. buUata, 
on a much larger scale. The specimens vary in tumidity and height 
of spire. The panetal callosity extending over the penultimate 
whirl hides the colour of the spire. 

64. Marginella Jewettii, n. s. 

M. t. parva, alba, ovoidea ; spira depressa, sutura celata, antice 
angustiore, postice tumidiore ; labro via: incrassato, medio in- 



208 

flexo, supra calloso, callositate suturam et anfr.penult. tegente ; 
labio iv.-plicato, et supra dentato. 
Long. '18, long. spir. (super suturam) '03, lat. '12, div. 120°. 
Hab. Sta. Barbara, rarissime {Col. Jeuoett). Mus. Gould. 
Closely resembling the small white species from the Panama, W. 
ladian and N. African provinces ; but distinguished from all in 
shape and plications. 

65. CoLUMBELLA Santa-Barbarensis, n. s. 

c. t. elongata, subconica, fusco-aurantia, albido varie pieta ; epi- 
dermide tenui, transversim striata, munita ; anfr. vii. sub- 
planatis, suturis distinctis, spiraliter striatis, striis distantibus; 
apertura subcĮuadrata, inttis violascente ; labro acutiore, vix 
sinuato, vix denticulato ; labio parvo, plica unica canali con- 
tiffua ; anfr. j^rimis scepe decussatis. 
Long. -30, long. spir. '18, lat. -l.i, div. 40°. 
Hab. Sta. Barbara {Jewett). Mus. Gould. 
This elegant species is known by its faintly striated surface, violet- 
tinted, open niouth, and the extremely minute labral denticles. The 
discovery of this and other species of the genus in the Upper Cali- 
fornian province, corrects the error as to its northern limlt in Forbes' 
Zoological Map. Tlie markings of the two specimens sent vary, as 
in the next species. 

66. ?NlTIDELLA GouLDii, n. s. 

N. t. parva, elongata, conica, Icevi, circa basin spiraliter striata ; 
anfr. vii. subplanatis, suturis distinctis ; albida, aurantio varie 
pieta ; apertura subąuadrata, labro sinuato, subacuto, intus 
conspieue dentato ; labio parvo, Dix crenato ; apice interdum 
decollato. 
Long. -32, long. spir. '15, lat. -15, div. 37°. 
Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jeivett). Mus. Gould. 
Closely resembling N. cribraria ; distinguished from C. Sta.-Bar- 
barensis by the smooth vrhirls and apex, and the conspicuous labral 
teeth. The two specimens examined differ too much from each 
other in colour-markings to found specific characters upon these fea- 
tures. 

67. Fusus AMBUSTUS, Gould, p. 12.pl. 14. f. 18. 
Hab. Mazatlan (Crree«). Mus. Gould. 

68. Purpura patula, Linn, 

Purpura pansa, Gould, p. 33. 

This shell, occurring unexpectedly to Dr. Gould on the Pacific 
shores, was, according to his theory, described as a fresh species ; 
the few, poor, young specimens at his disposal affording him supposed 
points of distinction. These however do not apply to the fine series 
which has been examined from the Mazatlan coUection. Vide B. M. 
Cat. in loco. 



209 

4. MONOGRAPH OF THE ShELLS COLLECTED B\ T. NuTTALL, 
ESQ., ON THE CaLIFORNIAN CoAST, IN THE YEARS 1834-5. 

By Philip P. Carpenter. 

The following shells were collected by Mr. Nuttall at various sta- 
tions from Oregon to San Diego. Most of them were deseribed by 
T. A. Conrad iii the Journal of the Academy of Natūrai Sciences of 
Philadelphia, vol. vii. part ii. 1837 (Read, Jan. and Feb. 1837). This 
paper is accompanied by four coloured platės ; but the descriptions 
are in English. References are now giveu as far as known, and descrip- 
tions of a few overlooked species. The types are destined ultimately 
for the British Museum, where many of them are already to be 
found. They are at Mr. Nuttall' s residence, Nut Grove, near Rain- 
hill, Lancashire. Severai of the species are only known by references 
in the Catalogue of Dr. Jay's Collection, U. S. A. 

Philip P. Carpenter. 

Bristol, June 1856. 

Genus Parapholas, Conr. 

" Testą Pholadiformis ; marginihus dorsalibus supra valvis lafe 
expansis ; valvis accessoriis ii., subcequalibus, elongatis, altera 
ab umbone ad marginėm posticum directa, altera ad basim 
affixa ; area cardinali solida ; cicatr. muse. adduct. valde 
elongatis. 

" Distinguished by the accessory valves, which appear soldered to 
the shell, elongated muscular irapressions ; form of the pallial sinus 
and valve on the base." — Journ. 1849, p. 214. 

It is difficult to know what limits Conrad intended for this genus. 
It is used in the B. M. Maz. Cat. for tlie tripartite Pholadidece with 
persistent cups, on the authority of Woodward's Manual ; but Con- 
rad uses it, besides the following species, in Journ. Jan. 1850, for 
Pholadidea melanura, which he calls Parapholas bisulcata ; while 
the Parapholas acuminata (vide B. M. Maz. Cat. p. 12, no. 18) he 
calls Penitella JVilsonii *. 

— 1. Parapholas Californica, Conr. 

Pholas Californica^ Conr. Journ. p. 236. pi. 18. f. 5, 6 ; Sow. Thes. 
Conch. in loc. 

=Pholas Janellii, Desh. Rev. Zool. 1839, teste Gould. 

Parapholas Californica, Conr. Journ. 1849, p. 214. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara, rupibus argillaceis. Mus. Nutt., Cum., Brit., 
Jay. 

* In the sarae paper is deseribed a genus Solecardia (species) ebumea ; and 
theii occur the following additional synonyins : — 

Petricola sinuosa, Conr. = P. robusla, Sow. 

Pholadopsis pectinata, Conr. = Triomphalia, sp., Sow. 

Triton perforatus, Conr. = T. Chemnitzii, Oray = Argobitccintim nodo- 

gum, Cheran. 
Oliva propatula, Conr. = O. iesiacea, Lam. 

No. CCCXIV. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



i 



210 

The aiiimal forms a tube of indurated clay, represented at f. 6 
( 7, err. typ.), extending nearly to the surface of the bed in which it 
burrows. 

2. Parapholas penita, Conr. 

Pholas penita, Joum. p. 237. pi. 18. f. 7. 

Parapholas penita, Conr. Journ. 1849. 

= Pkolas concamerata, Desh. Rev. Zool. 1839. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara, una cum P. Californica. Mus. Gould, Jay. 

Is much smaller than P. Californica ; without an internal callus 
at the posterior hinge margin ; and with a differently shaped apo- 
physis. 

Subgenus Platyodon, Conr. 

Testą Myae sitnili, sed dente cardinali tninus prominente, magis 
dilatata ; linea p)o.llii sinu antlce angusto, postice profundo. 
Animal siphonibus duahus haud divergentibus, valvulis quatuor 
testaceis extremitate8 claudentibus. 

3. Platyodon cancellata, Conr. Joum. p. 236. pi. 18. f. 2 ; 
H. & A. Ad. Gen. vol. ii. p. 354. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara ; inter paludes limosas, et rupes. Mus. Nutt., 
Brit., Jay. 

Subgenus Cryptodon, Conr. 

Testą Lutrarise simili, sed margine cardinali profunde canalicu- 
lato. Animal siphonibus duabus haud divergentibus, valvulis 
corneis duabus extreniitates claudentibus. 

4. Cryptodon Nuttallii, Conr. Journ. p. 235. pi. 18. f. 1. — 
(Non Mactra Nuttallii, Reeve, Conch. Ic.pl. 21. sp. 125.) 

Hab. Sta. Barbara, in paludes, inter fluxum maris. Mus. Nutt. 
1 =Cgpricia Nuttallii, quasi Conr. B. M. 

5. SpHiENiA Californica, Conr. Joum. p. 234. pi. 17. f. 11. 
(1834). 

=zCryptomya Californica, Conr. loc. cit. 1849, p. 208 ; H. & A. 
Ad. Gen. vol. ii. p. 359. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara, inter paludes, infrequens. Mus. Nutt,, Jay. 

Conrad describes the pallial line as " without a sinus, but fonning 
a right angle posteriorly ;" in Mr. Nuttall's specimen, however, the 
siuus may be traced, though very faintly marked. 

— 6. Thracia ctjrta, Conr. joura. p. 248. pi. 19. f. 8. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara. Mus. Nuttall. 

A fine pair (not a single valve only, as stated by Conrad) is in 
Mr. Nuttall's cabinet. It is remarkable for its great squareness at 
the posterior end. 



211 

Genus Mytilimeria, Conr. Journ. p. 246. 

Testą cequivalvis, subovalis, tenuis ; umbonibus subspiralibus ; 
cardine edentulo, cavitate parva, lineari, sub umbonibus šita ; 
cicatricibus muscularibus ii. minoribus ; sinu pallii lato, ob- 
tuso. 

Apparently a subgenus of Lyonsia, with the regular form of 
Crenella = Mytiliineria, H. & A. Ad. Gen. vol. ii. p. 363, pars. 

7. Mytilimeria Nuttalli, Conr. Journ. p. 247. p. 19. f. 5. 
Hab. California, inter spongias et radices fucoruni, mari pro- 

fundo. Mus. Brit., Jay. 

8. Lyonsia Californica, Conr. Journ. p. 248. pi. 19. f. 20. 
(nan 21.) 

? = Lyonsia nitida, Gould. Mus. suo. 
Hab. Sta. Barbara. Mus. ? 

9. Periploma argentaria, Conr. Journ. p. 238. pi. 18. f. 8. 
Hab. In limine Stae. Diego, inter paludes limosas. Mus. Cuming, 

Jay, Gould. 

=^Periploma planiuscula, Sow. 1834, teste Gould. 

10. Pandora punctata, Conr. Journ. Phil. 1834, p. 228. pi. 17. 
f. 1. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara ; valvae solitarise. Mus. Cuming, Nutt. 

Genus Mach^ra, Gould. 
=^Siliqua, Megerle : = Ze^MTOrean'a, Schum. 

11. Mach^ra ltjcida, Conr. 

Solecurtus lucidus, Conr. Journ. p. 231. pi. 17. f. 8. 
=/S. radiatus, Gould, non Linu. (teste Conr. 1849). 
Siliqua lucida, Conr. Journ. Aug. 1849. 
Hab. Sta. Barbara, rarė. Mus. Nutt., Brit. 

Closely resembling the European species ; but, according to 
Conrad, differing from this, and agreeing with that of New England. 
The rib is seen through the shell, resembling a yello'vvish ray. 

12. Solecurtus Nuttallii, Conr. Journ. p. 232. pi. 17. f. 9. 

Siliqua Nuttallii, Conr, Aug. 1849. 

= S. maximus, Gould, non Wood (teste Conr. 1849) = Wood, 
pi. 31. f. 3, teste Gould, 1855. 

=S. splendem, Chenu (teste Conr. 1849). 

Hab. In aestuario fluminis Columbise, "near Point Adams," palu- 
dibus. Mus. Nutt., Jay. 



212 

Subgemis Cultellus, Conr. 
" T. convexa, marginibus ventrali et dorsali parallelis ; niargi- 
nibus antico et postico subcequalibus, valde hiantibus ; dentibus 
plerumąue ii. in utraąue valva ; costee internce carens." 
Ex. S. caribbceus, S. Dombeii, S. strigillatus, &c., Journ. p. 233. 
pi. 17. f. 10. 

13. SoLECURTUs suBTERES, Coiir. Joum. p. 233. pi. 17. f. 10. 
Hab. Sta. Barbara. Mus. Niitt., Brit., Jay. 

14. SoLECURTUS Californianus, Conr. Journ. p. 233. pi. 18. 
f. 3. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara, inter paludes limosas ; frequens. Mus. Nut- 
tall, Brit., Jay. 

15. Sanguinolaria pacifica, Conr. 

Psammobia pacijica, Conr. Journ. p. 241. pi. 18. f. 13. 
Hab. San Diego, inter arenani, mari subprofundo. Mus. Brit. 
The figure displays no radiating lines, a thin cardinal margin, and 
a solitary tooth. It appears to be a tbin Tellinoid shell. 

16. Sanguinolaria Nuttallii, Conr. Journ. p. 230. pi. 17. 
f. 6. 

Hab. Sta. Diego, in paludibus. Mus. Nutt., Cum., &c. 
= Psammobia decora, Hinds, Voy. Sulph. MoU. in loco. 
This very well-niarked species, approaching Solecurtus, was over- 
looked by Mr. Hinds, notwithstanding bis usual care. 

17. Sanguinolaria Californiana, Conr. Journ. p. 231. pi. 17. 
f. 7. 

Hab. In sestuario fluminis Columbiae, paludibus limosis. Mus. ? 

S. Californiana, var. A, Conr. 

Testą alba, ceąuilaterali. 

1 An eadem species. Mus. Nuttall. 

18. Sanguinolaria rubro-radiata, Conr. [?ubi.] 
Appears allied to Psammobia. 

Hab. California. Mus. Nuttall. 

19. Semele rubrolineata, Conr. 

Amphidesma rubrolineata, Conr. Journ. p. 239. pi. 18. f. U. 

=: Semele simplex, A. Ad. 

This species, of which Mr. Nuttall had not retained a specimen, 
fortunately reappears in Dr. Gould's collection, and is pronounced 
by Mr. Cuming identical with Mr. Adams's shell. 
' Hab. San Diego, mari profundo. Mus. Cuming, Gould. 



213 

20. Semkle decisa, Conr. 

Amphidesma decisa, Conr. Journ. p. 239. pi. 19. f. 2 ; Rve. Conch. 
Ic. pi. 4. sp. 24. 

Hab. Uua cum prsecedente. Mus. Cuming, Nuttall, Brit., Jay. 

Of this very characteristic shell, the length is stated by Conrad 
(probably erroneously) to be 5 inches. It grows however to a large 
size. 

= Amphidesma roseum, Brod. & Sow., teste Gould. 

21. CuMiNGiA Californica, Conr. Journ. p. 234, pi. 1/. f. 12. 
Hab. Sta. Barbara, infrequens ; Mazatlan, do. Mus. Cum., Brit., 

Jay. 

— 22, Tellina altą, Conr. Journ. p. 258; Hanl. Rec. Shells, 
p. 71 ; Jay's Cat. no. 520. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara. Mus. Jay. 

According to Conrad, this shell has the outline of a Capsa, Enc. 
Mėth. pi. 231. f. 1. Mr. Nuttall and I, however, mayhave erred in 
regarding the shell described in P. Z. S. 1855, p. 230, as 1 Scrobi- 
cularia biangulata as being distinct. 

23. Tellina edentula, Brod. & Sow. Zool. Journ. iv, p. 363 ; 
Zool, Beech, Voy. p, 154. pi. 41. f. 5, et pi. 44. f, 7; Mid. Mal, 
Ross. p, 62. 

This species grows to a very large size, and is eaten by the Chin- 
hooks at the estuary of the Oregon. 

Hab. Oregon. Mus, Nuttall, 

— 24, Tellina nasuta, Conr. Journ. p, 258 ; Hanl, Rec. Shells, 
p. 71 ; Sow. Thes, Conch, p, 314, pi. 64. f. 224 ; Middendorff, Siber, 
Reise, p. 256, no. 5^^. pi. 23, f. 6-11 ; Jay, Cat, no. 633. 

Hab. San Diego {Nuttall), teste Conrad ; Tugurbuseu, Okotsk 
Sea {Middendorff). Mus. Jay. 

25. Tellina secta, Conr. Journ, p, 257; Hanl. Rec, Shells, 
p. 67. 

= T. ligamentina, Desh. in Guer. Mag. 1843, pi. 81, teste Jay, 
Cat, no, 633. 

Hab. San Diego, inter paludes limosas. Mus, Nuttall, Jay, 

26. DoNAX Californicus, Conr. 

Donax Californica, Conr. Journ. p. 254. pi. 19. f. 21 (nonD, Cali- 
fornicus, Desh., vide B. M. Mazatlan Cat. p. 4/. no. 7G)- 

Hab. Sta. Barbara, inter arenam. Mus. Nuttall, Brit., &c. 

This is a small, gibbous shell, resembling D. punctatostriatus, but 
without the dots. The D. Californicus of Deshayes is the young 
State of the vvhite variety of the D. Conradi of the šame author. 

=: Donax obesus, Phil, 



214 

27. Mactra Californica, Conr. Journ. p. 240. pi. 18. f. 12. 
Hab. la paludes limosas, inter fluxum maris, Sta. Barbara, varius. 

Mus. Gould. 

Allied to M. exoleta, but much smaller, flatter, and more trans- 
verse. 

28. Mactra planulata, Conr. Journ. p. 240. 
Hab. Uaa cura prsecedente. Mus. ? 

29. Petricola Californica, Conr. 

Saxicava Californica, Conr. Journ. p. 256. pi. 20. f. 9. 

Petricola Californica, Conr. Journ. Aug. 1849; Desh. B. M. Cat. 
Ven. p. 208. no. 3. 

= Petricola arcuata, Desh. Rev. Zool. Cuv. 1839, p. 358. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara, San Diego, &c. Mus. Gould, Cuming. 

Var. = Saxicava carditoides, Conr. Journ. p. 255. pi. 20. f. 8: 
=. Petricola carditoides, Conr. Journ. Aug. 1849. 

Conip. Petricola cylindracea, Desh. Rev. Zool. Soc. Cuv. 1839, 
p. 358 ; B. M. Cat. Ven. p. 208. no. 5. 

The S. carditoides, constituted by Conrad for a single valve found 
near Sta. Barbara, is regarded by hitn as identical with the P. cylin- 
dracea of Deshayes. After a comparison of a large series of speci- 
mens belonging to Dr. Gould and Mr. Cuming, I have, with Mr. 
Nuttall's consent, united Conrad' s t\vo species ; retaining the latter 
name, though least expressive, because already adopted by Deshayes 
for his own P. arcuata. Dr. Gould regards both the P. arcuata 
and P. cylindracea of Desh. as being identical with Conrad's P. car- 
ditoides ; but I have not sufficient confidence that such is the case 
to venture on uniting them. 

30. Rupellaria lamellifera, Conr. 

Fenus lamellifera, Conr. Journ. p. 251. pi. 19. f. 19. 

= Venerupis Cordieri, var. /3, Desh. B.INI. Cat. Ven. p. 191, no. 1, 

Petricola Cordieri, Desh. Rev. Zool. Soc. Cuv. 1839, p. 358; 
Mag. Zool. pi. 18. 

Hab. San Diego. Mus. Cuming, Nuttall, Gould. 

On comparing the solitary vai ves on which Conrad's species was 
founded, with a series of very variable specimens in Dr. Gould's and 
Mr. Cuming's collections, there appears scarcely a doubt of its iden- 
tity with that of Deshayes. 

31. ? Tapęs TUMiDA, Conr. 

T. t. subąuadrata, valde inceąuilaterali, alba, huc et illuc aurantio 
punctata ; postice latiore, tumente ; costulis plurimis rotun- 
datis radiantibus, haud e.vtanfibits, interstitiis subceąuantibus ; 
liris concentricis satis confertis. rotundatis, secundum costas 
pectinatis ; liyamento haud conspicuo, area minima, suleis dua- 
bus circumeuntibus ; lunula minima, pai-um d ejinita ; dent. card. 
in utraąue valva iii. valde divergentibus, cjuorum centrales, et 
in valva altera posticus bifidi sunt ; margine cardinali interno 



215 

excavato ; sinu pallii haud parvo, rotundato ; maryine tenue 
crenato. 

Long. -62, lat. 74, alt. -4. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara, iegit T. Nuttall; sp, unic. Museo suo. 

Mysia tumida, Conr., Nutt. MS. 

This shell has the general shape and aspect of a Tapęs, -mth a 
sculpture resembling Venus {Chione) (jnidia and its congeners, and 
a hinge not exactly corresponding with any of the defined genera. 
The anterior teeth are short and divergent ; the centrai teeth are 
bifid and interlock ; the posterior tooth is bifid iu one valve, single 
m the other, with an obscure lateral tooth inside the almost concealed 
ligament. The pallial sinus is not so large as in Tapea. 

" 32. Tapęs straminea, Conr. 

Venus straminea, Conr. Journ. p. 250. pi. 19. f. 14 (non 15). 

Tapęs straminea, Sow. Thes. Conch. p. 699. pi. 151. f. 151. 

Chione straminea, Desh. B. M. Cat. Ven. p. 141. no. 66. 

= Venus dispar, Gould, MS. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara et San Diego. Long. I -5 poli. Mus. Brit. 
Nuttall, Cuming, &c. 

This belongs to a group of closely allied species intermediate be- 
tween Venus and Tapęs, and is replaced in the Mexican fauna by 
Tapęs histrionica (B.M. Mazatlan Cat. p. 7Q. no. 109). 

Genus Saxidomus, Conr. 
Saxidomus, Conr. Journ. p. 249 ; Desh. B.M. Cat. Ven. p. 186. 
" Testą cequivalvis, postice hians ; cardine, valva dextra dentihus 
compressis iv.-v., valva sinistra iv. y cicatricibus muscularibus 
ii. magnis, rotundatis ; sinu pallii profundo. 
"Differs from Tapęs in its gaping extremity and rounded pallial 
sinus." This description is enlarged by Deshayes so as to include 
eight species. 

33. Saxidomtjs Nuttalli, Conr. Journ. p. 249. pi. 19 f 12- 
Desh. B.M. Cat. Ven. p. 188. no. 4. 

This species inhabits the Californian coast as far as San Diego ; 
where it is found burrowing into soft clay-stone, along with Pholades, 
Cuminįfice, &c. The differences between this and the sub-boreal 
species, iS. giganteus (Desh. B.M. Cat. Ven. p. 187. no. 2 ; quoted 
by Middendorff from Sitka and Kamtschatka), appear extremely 
shght. They are uuited by Jay. 

Genus Trigona, Megerle. 

Trigona, Megerle, Desh. B.M. Cat. Ven. p. 45. 
= Trigonella, Conr. : indicated in Journ. 1837, p. 253 ; described 
in Journ. 1849, p. 213. 



216 

- 34. Trigona crassatelloides, Conr. 

Cytherea {TriyoneUa) crassatelloides, Conr. Jouni. p. 253. pi. 19. 
f. 17 ; Hinds, Voy. Sulph. Moli. p. 65. pi. 21. f. 1. 

Trigonia crassatelloides, Desli. B. M. Cat. Ven. p. 46. no. 1 ; B. M. 
Mazatlan Cat. p. 58. no. 86. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara, San Diego, &c. Mus. Gould, Nuttall, Cuming, 
Brit. &c. 

This shell attains the length of 7 inches, and is found about a foot 
deep iu the sand. 

35. DosrNiA CALLOSA, Conr. 

Cytherea callosa, Conr. Journ. p. 252 (non Chione callosa, quasi 
Com-., Desh. B. M. Cat. Ven. p. 135. no. 48). 

" D. t. subovata, subdepressa, alba ; costis concentricis, confertis, 
planatis, huc et illuc antice et jtostice bifurcantibus ; intus 
irregulariter callosa, margine tenuiore ; sinu pallii valde im- 
presso, profundo^ 
Long. 2 poli. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara. Mus. Nuttall. 

Mr. Nuttall found numerous valves of this species ; but, although 
so thick, they were alvvays broken by guUs. It is said by Conrad to 
resemble the fossil C. erycinoides. 

36. Venus Nuttalli, Conr. Journ. p. 250. pi. 19. f. 15 (non 14); 
Hanl. Rec. Shells, p. 113 ; Wood, Suppl. pi. 16. f. 46. 

Chione Nuttallii, Desh. B. M. Cat. Ven. p. 135. no. 47. 

+ Chione callosa, Desh. loc. cit. no. 48 (pars quidem Californi- 
ensis) : — non Veniis callosa, Conr. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara et San Diego. Long. 2 poli. Mus. Brit., 
Nuttall, Cuming, &c. 

37. VENtrs CaliIforniensis, Brod. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1838, p. 43; 
et auct. 

= Venus Californiana (qua8i Sow.), Conr. Journ. p. 251.pl. 19. 
f. 16 (non 15). 

Chione Californiensis, Desh. B. M. Cat. Ven. p. 133. no, 44. 

Hab. San Diego, inter paludes limosas. Mus. Brit., Cuming, 
Nuttall, &c. 

= Venus leucodon, Sow. teste Desh. loc. cit. 

38. Venus simillima, Sow. Thes. Conch. p. 708. pi. 153. 
f. 17, 18. 

CJdone simillima, Desh. B. M. Cat. Ven. p. 133. no. 43. 
Mus. Nutt. California. 

39. Venus (Chione) excavata, n. s. 

V. t. cordata, subtumida, solida, alba, ud umbones antice incur- 
vatas, appropi7iquantes, fusca ; costis radiantibus, rotundatis, 
interstitiis (Bąuantibus, postice parvis, acutioribus, antice con- 
fertis, rotvndatis ; lamellis concentricis nitentibus, crebriori- 



217 

bus, ehyanter crenatis, ornata ; lunula tumente, radiatim coa- 
tata ; area magna, planata, excavata ; carinis acufis definita ; 
intus alba, postice fusco-purpurea ; dent. card. ii. -iii. validis ; 
sinu pallii minimo ; epidermide tenui, sericea. 
Long. 1-34, lat. 1-5, alt. -9. 

Hab. San Diego; legit T. Nuttall; sp. unic. in Mus. suo. 
This exquisitely beautitul species belongs to the group of V. ama- 
thusia, &c. Although only one specimen is known, its characters 
are not such as to accord with the uumerous similar species already 
described. 

40. Cypricardia Californica, Conr. Journ. p. 236. pi. 18. f. 4. 
Hab. Sta. Barbara et San Diego ; rupibus argillaceis, inter flux- 

um maris; una cum Pholadibus. Mus. Nuttall. 

= Cypricardia Duperryi, Desh. in Guer. Mag. 1841, teste Gould. 

41. Chamą exogyra, Conr. Journ. p. 256 ; Reeve, Conch. Ic. 
sp. 38. pi. 7. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara, San Diego, &c. in rupibus, glomerantes. 
Mus. Nuttall, Gould, Cuming, Brit. 

One of Dr. Gould' s specimens, probably belonging to this species, 
is dextral. 

— 42. Chamą ? frondosa, var. ?Mexicana, jun., B. M. Maz. Cat. 
p. 87. no. 121. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara. Mus. Nuttall. 

One fine young specimen appears to belong to this species. 

43. Chamą pellucida. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara. Mus. Nuttall. 

One very fine specimen in company with the other species. 

44 a. Cardium Nuttallii, Conr. Journ. p. 229. pi. 17. f. 3. 

Hab. "Straits of San Juan da Fuco," paludibus luteosis. Mus, 
Nutt., Brit. 

The natives cross a little peniu sula to get to the place where this 
fine species lives, which they use as food, being of flavour superior 
to the English kinds. It grows so large that Mr. Nuttall found a 
squaw baling out a canoe with one of the valves. 

44 b. Cardium Californianum, Conr. Journ. p. 229. pi. 17. 
f. 4. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara ; valvae solitariae, rare. Mus. 1 

= C. Nuttallii, var. teste Mid. ; non C. Califomiense, Desh. ^ 

4.5. Cardium auADRAGENARiUM, Conr. Journ. p. 230. pi. 17. 
f. 5. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara, rare. Mus. Jay. • 

1=. C. luteolabrum sive xanthocheilum, Gould. 



218 

46. Cardium substriatum, Conr. Journ. p. 228. pi. 17. t'- 2. 

Hab. San Diego, paludibus luteosis. Mus. Nutt. 

Closely resembles the young of C. elatum : differs from C. Mor- 
toni, Conr., in being less ventricose, and in its striae and serrate 
margin. 

47. LuciNA BELLA, Conf. Joum. p. 254. pi. 19. f. 11. 
= L. pecten, var. teste Jay. 

Hab. San Diego, in paludes limosas, haud rare. Mus. ? Jay. 

48. LuciNA Californica, Conr. Journ. p. 255. pi. 20. f. 1. 
Hab. San Diego, una cum prsecedente ; rare. Mus. Jay. 

- 49. LuciNA NuTTALLi, Conr. Joura. p. 255. pi. 20. f. 2. 

Hab. San Diego, una cum praecedente. Mus. Nuttall. 
This beautiful species is recognized by its winged growtli. 

— 50. DiPLODONTA ORBELLA, Gould. 

Lucina orbella, Cal. & Mex. Shells, p. 22 ; vide B. M. Maz. Cat. 
p. 102. no. 150 ; P. Z. S. 1856, p. 202. 

Hab. Santa Barbara, in sestuario limoso. Mus. Nuttall, Gould. 

51. Anodon NuTTALLiANA, Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. vol. vi. 
pi. 20. f. 62. 

Hab. In flumine Wahlamat, Oregon, Mus. Nutt., Jay. 

52. Anodon Oregonensis, Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. vol. vi. 
pi. 21. f. 67. 

Hab. In flumine Wahlamat, Oregon. Mus. Jay. 

53. Anodon Wahlamatensis, Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. vol. vi. 
pi. 20. f. 64. 

Hab. In flumine Wahlamat, Oregon. Mus. Jay. 

54. MoDioLA CAPAx, Cour. Journ. p. 242; B. M. Mazatlan Cat. 
p. 120. no. 170, q. v. 

Hab. San Diego, inter paludes limosas. Mus. Brit., Curaing, 
Gould, &c. 

55. MoDioLA RECTA, Conf. Journ. p. 243. pi. 19. f. 1. 

Long. 2-1, lat. -94, alt. '8. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara, rarius. Mus. Gould. 

The measurements are taken from a very fine specimen in Dr. 
Gould' s collection, in \diich the epidermis is posteriorly clothed with 
squamose hairs. 



219 



suo 



56. Mytilus edulis, var. latissimus. 

M. e. t. curta, triangulari, latissima. 

Long. M, lat. -77, alt. -5. 

Hab. California Superior ; legit T. Nuttall : sp. unic. in Mus. 



Among the specimens of this species brought by Mr. Nuttall, some 
appeared exactly likę the normai European type ; oue presented the 
--well-knownthmstnpedvariety; and that above indicated presents 
the extreme broad stunted form occasionally seen in this countrv 
Ali the specimens present the subepidermal apical denticles noticed 
by Middendorff as (i. e. in form and number) characteristic of the 
species. 

57. Mytilus Californianus, Conr. Journ. p. 242. pi. 18. f. 15. 
Godd* Ja^"*^ Barbara, Monterey, San Diego, in rupibus. Mus. 

58. Mytilus bifurcatus, Conr, Journ. p. 241. pi. 18. f. 14. 
Hab. 1 California. Mus. Gould, Jay. 

This shell is stated by Conrad to inhabit the "Sandwich Islands 
lUuau, &c.), attached to rocks bare at low water ; " but his authority 
when unconfirmed by the notes or remembrance of Mr. Nuttall is 
not binding, as one shell which he assigns to the Sandwich Islands 
he calls Penia Caiyornica (p. 245). It occurs among Dr. Gould's 
Mexican War Shells mth the unsatisfactory reference "Californian 
coast, somevvhere." 

59. ISOGNOMON COSTELLATA, CoUT. 

Perna costellata, Conr. Journ. p. 246. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara, sub saxis. Mus. jay, Nuttall, 
^7n habitats of Conrad's Pernce are not satisfactorily ascertained. 
Ut P.incisam. Nuttall (whose specimen has 6, not 5 teeth) con- 
firms Conrad s locahty, viz. Sandwich Islands. Of the shell called 
P. Laliformca, Mr. Nuttall has no specimen, but beHeves Conrad is 
right lu statmg that it " inhabits with the preceding," i. e. in the 
Sandwich Islands. The third species, described above, is also assigned 
by Conrad to the Sandwich Islands, but Mr. Nuttall, who retains 
his specimen, distinctly refers it to the above locality. 

~~i, ^^^- PfCTEN LATiAURATus, Cour. Joum. p. 238. pi. 18 f 9- 
Rve. Conch. Ic. pi. 1. sp. 5 ; •Sow. Thes. Conch. vol. i. p. 57. * ' 

Hab. S&n Diego et Sta. Barbara; sub effluxum maris. Mus 
iNutt., Lum. 

60 5. Pecten MoNOTiMERis, Conr. Journ. p. 238. pi. 18. f. 10. 

Hab. Una cum prsecedente. Mus. Jay. 

Mr. Nuttall considers that this shell is probably a variety of P 
/atiaiirafus. The young are occasionally found attached to Fuci bv 
a slenuer byssus. •' 



220 

61. OsTREA coNCHAPHiLA, B.M.Cat. Maz. MoU.p. 161.no. 214. 
Hab. Oregon, San Diego. Mus. Nuttall. 

62. BULLA NEBULOSA, Gould. 

— Vide B. M. Maz. Cat. p. 1/3. no. 225, 

Hab. Sta. Barbara. Mus. Nutt., Brit., Cuming. 

63. Helix Californiensis, Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. vol. vi. 
pi. 23. f. 79, 84 ; Kūst. Conch. Cab. pi. 5". f. 14, 15 ; Rve. Conch. 
Ic. pi. 115. f. 661 ; Pfr. 890. 

Ą-H. NicMiiiiana, Lea, teste Jay, Cat. no. 3452. 
Hab. Columbia River. Mus. Jay. 

64. Helix Columbiana, Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. vol. vi. 
pi. 23. f. 75 ; Rve. pi. 118. sp. 692 ; Pfr. 897. 

Hab. Califomia. Mus. Jay. 

65. Helix FIDELIS, Gray, P. Z. S. 1834, p. 67 ; Rve. pi. 1 14. 
sp. 657 ; Pfr. 888. 

=^H. Nuttalliana, Lea, Trans. &c. pi. 23. f. 74. 

Hab. Oregon. Mus. Jay. 

66. Helix Oregonensis, Lea, Trans. &c. pi. 23. f. 85 ; Pfr. 
1121. 

Hab. Oregon. Mus. Jay. 

67. Helix Vancouverensis, Lea, Trans. &c. pi. 23. f. 72 ; 
Rve. pi. 116. sp. 669; Pfr. 519. 

Hab. Oregon. Mus. Nutt., Jay. 

~ 68. Helix Townsendiana, Lea, Trans. &c. pi. 23. f. 80. 
Hab. Oregon. Mus. Gould. 

69. SucciNEA Oregonensis, Lea, Trans. &c. 1841, p. 32; 
Pfr. 34. 

Hab. Oregon. Mus. Jay. 

70. LiMN^A Nuttalliana, Lea, Trans. &c. 1841, p. 9. 
Hab. Oregon. Mus. Jay. 

71. Physa, sp. ind. 

AUied to Ph. elata, Gould, B.M, Maz. Cat. p. 180. no. 237; P.Z.S. 
1856, p. 203. 
Hab. Oregon. Mus. Nuttall. 

— 72. Planorbis subcrenatus, n. s. 

P. t. fumida, tenuissima, cornea; anfr. vi. rotundatis, suturis 
impressis ; lii-ulis radiantibus acntis, siibconfertis, interdum 
minutissime crenulatis ; apertura rotundata, panete parva. 



221 

anfr. penult. parum attingente ; labro parum deflecto, intus 
fusco ; umhilico profundo . 
Long. -95, lat. -8, alt. -36. 

Hah. Oregon ; legit T. NuttaJl ; sp. unic. in Mus. suo. 
" Differs from P. trivoUs, Say, in the acuteness of the ribs, and 
in their being more distant." — Cuming, MS. 

73. Chiton Nuttalli, Cpr. P. Z. S. 1855, p. 231. 

74. Chiton acutus, Cpr. P. Z. S. 1855, p. 232. 

75. Chiton ornatus, Nutt. P. Z. S. 1855, p. 232. 

This may be the Chiton armatus, Nutt. of Jay's Cat. 2678 ; and 
if so = Ch. tnuscosiis, Gould, Exp. Shells, p. 6. The descriptions 
do not however exactly correspond, 

76. " AcM^A patina, Esch. Zool. Atl. ed. Rathke, 1831, p. 19. 
pi. 24. f. 7, 8 ; Mid. Bull. Ac. St. Pet. vol. vi. no. 20 ; Sib. Reise, 
p. 187.pl. 16. f. 1 a-d, 2 a-c, 3. 

+ A. scutmri, Esch. loc. cit. p. 19. pi. 23. f. 1-3 ; teste Mid.loc. 
cit. et Phil. in Zeit. f. Mal. 1846, p. 107 ; ?D'Orb. Voy. Am. Mėr. 
p. 479 (excl. fig.). 

= Fatella viammillata, Nutt. in Jay's Cat. no. 2839 ; Rve.Conch. 
Ic. pi. 42. f. 140, a, b. 

+ Patella tessellata, Nutt. in Jay's Cat. no. 2885. 

+ Jun. Patella f enestrata, Nutt. in Jay's Cat. no. 2815; Rve. 
Conch. Ic. pi. 38. f. 121, a, b. 

+ Patella verriculata, Rve. Conch. Ic. pi. 31. f. 87, a, b. 

+ Patella cinis, Rve. Conch. Ic. pi. 24. f. 60, a, b. c. 

? + Patella Nuttalliana, Rve. Conch. Ic. pi. 30. f. 80, a, b. 

1 + Pateliu Cumingii, Rve. Conch. Ic.pl. 16. f. 37, a, 6 (Valpa- 
raiso, Cuming). 

1 + Patella diaphanūy Nutt. non Rve. {v. supra, p. 203). 

= Lottia pintadina (pars), Gould, loc. cit. inp. 203. 

Hab. Sitcha {Eschscholts, JFosnessenski) ; Kenai Bay {do.) ; 
Aleutian Islands, Unalashka {Kastaljski) ; Tugur Bay, Schantar 
ls\a.nds (MiddendorJ') ; Ca]i{orm&,Tpass\m{Nuttall) ; Monterey, San 
Diego (Ideut. Green) ; Mazatlan, 2 fresh sp. (L'pool Coli.) ; (?) Chili, 
Bohvia, Peru (D' Orbigny) ." — B.M. Maz. Cat. no. 265. p. 207. 

77. ACM^A PELTA, Esch. 

= Patella leucophcea, Nutt. MS. (non Gmel.) ; Jay's Cat. no. 
2827; Rve. Conch. Ic. pi. 34. sp. 101. 

+ P. monticola, Nutt. MS.=P. monticolor, Jay's Cat. no. 2844. 
+ P. strigillata, Nutt. MS. ; Jay's Cat. no. 2881. 

78. " AcM.EA PERSONA, Esch. Zool. Atl. p. 20. pi. 24. f. I, 2; 
Mid. Mal. Ros. pt. ii. p. 36. pi. 1. f. 3. 

+ Jun.=^. radiata, Esch. loc. cit. p. 20. no. 8 (teste Mid.). 
+ A. ancylus, Esch. loc. cit. p. 20. no. 10. pi. 24. f. 4 bis, 6 (do.). 



222 

= A. scutum, D'Orb. loc. cit. pi. 64. f. 8-10, excl. diagn. (teste 
Mid.) non A. scutum, D'Orb. MS. in B. M. Coli. 

1z=Lottia punctata, Gray (non Quoy & Gaim.), teste Mid. 

—PateUa Oregoną, Nutt. in Jay's Cat. no. 2852 ; Rve. Conch. 
Ic.pl. 36. f. 112, a.h. 

+ P. umbonata, Nutt. loc. cit. no. 2887; Rve. loc. cit. pi. 35. 
f. 107, o, b. 

+ P. pileata, Nutt. loc. cit. no. 2861. 

Hab. Sitcha {Eschscholtz) ; Mouthof Columbia River (Nuttall); 
Sta. Barbara (Col. Jeioett) ; San Diego (Lieuf. Greeii) ; Mazatlan, 
1 fresh sp. {Vpool Co^^.)."— B.M. Maz. Cat. no. 266. p. 208. 

79. " ACM.«A SCABRA, Nutt. 

Lottia scabra, Jay's Cat. no. 2907. 

PateUa scabra, Rve. Conch. Ic. sp. 119. pi. 37. f. 119, a, b. 
Non PateUa (Lottia) scabra, Gould, Exp. Shells, p. 10 = PateUa 
spectrum, Nutt. 

Hab. California {NuttaU) ; Monterey and Sta. Barbara {Col. 
Jeivett) ; Mazatlan, 1 sp. only {L'pool CoU.) ; S.W. Mexico, 1 sp. 
(P. P. C.)"— B.M. Maz. Cat. no 267. p. 209. 

80. AcM^A SPECTRUM, Nutt. Jay's Cat. no. 2877 ; Rve. Conch. 
Ic. pi. 29. sp. 76. f. 76, a, 6. 

= PateUa (Lottia) scabra, Gould, Exp. Shells, p. 10. 
Hab. California. Mus. Nutt., Cum., Gould. 

81. SCURRIA MITRA, LcSS. & Esch. 

PateUa scurra, Less. Voy. Coq. 1830, Zool. p. 421. no. 198. 
Acmcea scurra, D'Orb. Yoy. Am. INIer. p. 478. 
PateUa (Acmcea) scurra, Mid. Mal. Ross. ii. p. 34. 
= Acmcea initra, Esch. Zool. Atl. 1833, p. 18. pi. 23. f. 4. 
+ A. mammiUata, Esch. p. 18. 
+ A, marmorea, Esch. p. 19. 

= ? Lottia paUida, Gray, Zool. Beech. Voy. p. 147. pi. 39. f. 1 . 
^Sciirria scurra, Gray, olim. 
=Scurria mitra, Gray, Gen. 1856. 

Hab. Valparaiso, abundans (Cumingr) ; Monterey, haud rare 
(NuttaU) ; Sitcha (Eschscholtz Ę- JVosnessenski). 

(//A j •/'--'- — 82. FiSSURELLA ORNATA, Nutt. MS. 

F. t. ovata seu elongata, plūs minusve elevata ; costis rotundatis, 
subtuberculosis, haud extantibus, haud eeąualibus, confertis, 
interstitiis parvis, et striulis exiUimis concentricis confertis- 
si))iis ornata ; epidermide tenui, subnitente, adhcerente ; aper- 
tura subcentrali, normaliter tripartita, plūs minusve elongata; 
colore, extus griseo (t. jumore rosaceo), radiis plūs minusve 
latis, xiii.-XAi., fusco-purpureis seu roseis, eleganter pieta; 
intus, superficie alba, porcelianą, margine viridi-cinereo, ra- 



223 

diommfinibua penidllato ; eallmitate parum rugosa, t. ju- 
more htiea rosea ctrcumetmte. ^ ' y 

^Z)/!^^^''^''^' ^''"^V- '""^'^t^^data, conica, radiis peni- 
cilahs, apertura normali rotundata ; apertura altera abmr- 
^Ifjnimma, extm alteri adjiciente, intus distante, callositate 

Hah. Califomia Superior; legit T. Nuttall. Mus. suo, B.M. 
long. long.apert. lat. alt. 

Sp. normale .... 1-6 -2 1.12 -42 0011. 

bp. elongatum .. 1-09 -2 -63 -23 

Sp. monstrosum . 1- -j .75 .5 " 

a^f\^c^'''t^- ^f "'^^"' 'P'"^' ^""^^ ^^™''«t ^« "^"<=hl F. ru- 
gosa, 55ow. A similar monstrosity occurring in F. virescens Sow 
is descnbed m the B.M. Mazatlan Cat. p. 214. It s bv au ovl;' 
sight, asszgned to St. Helena as a habitat/by Dr Jay, Cat L 3003 

83. Glyphis * ASPERA, Esch. 

Fissurella aspera, Esch. Zool. Atl. pt. v. p. 21. pi. 23 f 5 

—F. densiclathrata, Rve., teste Cum. MS. 

=F. exarata, Nutt. MS. 
^mb. Sitcha {Eschscholtz) ; Sta. Barbara (Nutialf). Mus. Nutt., 

84. LUCAPINA CRENULATA, SoW. 

Fissurella crenulata, Sow. Conch. 111. no. 19. f. 31 38 • TanV 
Lat. App. p. vi. ' ' ***"'^- 

Sf "n ^f? ?T- .^^^"«- Nutt., Cum., Nat. Hist. PhUadelphia. 

Mr. Nuttall describes the ammal of this beautiful shell to be 
nearly as large as a cheese. He presented his specimen to the Mus. 
Nat. Hist. Phil. m hopes that the authorities there would describe 
lt ; m which he has been thus far disappointed. 

85. Haliotis Californiensis, Swains. Zool. 111. vol. ii. pi. 80. 
H.db. San Diego. 

86. Haliotis Cracherodii, Leach, Sow. Conch. 111. pi. ;. f. 23. 
=H. glaber, Schub. & Wagn. pi. 224. f. 3086-7. 

Hab. Monterey.. Mus. Jay, Nutt. 

87. Haliotis splendens, Rve. Conch. Ic. pi. 3. f. 9. 
Hab. San Diego. 

The black animals of one of these species adhere with such tena- 
J^^Subgenus Glyphis = ^«c.;„W, H. & A. Ad. Gen. i. 447, inaxiina pars, non 

kmmal margine palliifimlriato, marginėm test<2 superante. Testą mveriirie 
cancellata, margtne crenuMo, callositate smpe tmncafa, interdum Z^a- 
testą jumort R.mulaeformi, spira in apertura crescente abso^ia '^'""^^''' 

uZilnril'"^-''''-^-'''- ^^^-7X.0i..anotchortriglyph, from the sculp- 



224 

city to the rocks, that a clasp knife is brokeu iu endeavouring to 
loosen them. The natives reraove them with bayouets and eat 
them. 

88. PoMAX)LAx UNDOsus, Mawe. 

Trochus undosus, Wood, Suppl. pi. 5. f. 1. p. 16. 
Hab. Monterey. Mus. Nutt., Brit., Cuming. 

— 89. Trochiscus Norrisii, Sow. 

Hab. Monterey. Mus. Nutt., Brit., Cuming. 
The young shell (teste Nuttall) has scarcely any umbilicus, and 
has a small tooth m the mouth. 

— 90. Trochus filosus, Wood, Suppl. pi. 5. f. 23. 

= Trochus ligatvs, Gould, Exp. Sh. p. 55. 

= T. castaneus (Nutt. MS.), Forbes, P. Z. S. 1850, p. 271. 

Var. = 2'. doliarius, Gould, MS., non Chem. 

? Var. = Ziziphinus annulatus, A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 164 = 
Trochus virgineus, Gould, MS.,non Mart. hi Lam. An. s. Vert. vol. ix. 
p. 144. no. 51. 

=:Trochus virgineus, Chemn. 

The Laniarckiau species are said to come from New Zealand, and 
are probably allied forms. If that should prove incorrect, the name 
of Wood will give way. As it is, so indifferent a figure scarcely 
deserves precedence of the described species of Gould. Mr. Nuttall 
considers the two Californian forms conspecific. 

91. Omphalius ater, Less. 

= T. gailina, Forbes, P. Z. S. 1850, p. 2/1. 
Hab. Cahfornia. Mus. Nutt., Cum., Brit., &c. 

92. Omphalius fuscescens, Phil. 

= Trochus luridus, Nutt. MS. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara. Mus. Nutt., Cum., Brit. 

93. Omphalius marginatus, Nutt. 
Hab. California. Mus. Nutt., Brit. 

-- 94. Omphalius aureotinctus, Forbes. 

Trochus aureotinctus, Forbes, P. Z. S. 1850, p. 271. 

? =Trochns pallidus, Nutt. MS. 

= T. cateniferus, Poliez, teste Gould. 

Hab. California. Mus. Nutt., Brit., Cum. 

~~ 95. Crepidula rugosa, Nutt. MS. 

Cr t. " Cr. onici" simili, sed epidermide nitente, tenui, adhce- 
rente ; vertice nucleoso Velutince-formi ; t. Jumore intense atro- 



225 

fttsca ; septo subdiaphano, margine mayis declivi ; intua et ad 
apicem atro-purpureo ; margine acuto. ^,,^ 

Long. 1-97, lat. 1-26, alt. -54. 

Hab. California Superior ; legit T. Nuttall. Museis suo, Jay, 
Cuming. 

This shell is regarded by Dr. Jay as identical with Cr. onyx, Sow. 
{^=Cr. hepatica, C.B. Ad.? non Desh.), which it resembles in the 
character of the spire, aud in the general appearance. The specimens 
examined differ in colour, which is not so lustrous ; iu habit of 
growth, which is not lamellar ; in the sepium, which is rather less 
opaque, particularly in the young shell ; and especially in the epi- 
dermis, which is glossy, and only interrupted by the wrinkles of 
growth beneath. Whether these differences are of specific value, 
mušt await the examination of more nuraerous specimens. Vide 
B.M. Maz. Cat. no. 340, p. 278. 

- 96. Crepidula , sp. ind. 

Crepidula navicelloides, Nutt. MS. in Jay's Cat. no. 3035. 

Comp. Crepidula minuta, Mid. Mal. Ross. pi. U. f. 6, 7. p. 101 
(Sitka). 

Comp. Crepidula nummaria, Gould, Exp. S helis, p. 15. 

Hab. California. Mus. Jay, Nutt. 

From the very imperfect materials, it is impossible to determine 
this species with confidence. It has a great resemblance to C. nivea, 
Tar. squama (v. B.M. Maz. Cat. no. 341. p. 280), but the apex appears 
distinct both from that and C. unguiformis. Middendorffs young 
shell is probably eonspecific ; and the species may hereafter include 
the following. 

97. Crepidula explanata, Gould, Mex. & Cal. Shells, p. 4. 
pi. 14. f. 7 ; P. Z. S. 1856, p. 205. 

= Crepidulu exuviata, Nutt. MS. in Jay's Cat. no. 3027. 

= Crepidula perforans, Vai. Voy. Ven. 

Hab. California. Mus. Jay, Gould, Cuming. 

This shell appears an aberrant form of the lašt species, caused by 
living in the hole of a Lithophagus. The young shell is normai ; 
the nucleus is large, smooth, not imbedded as in Cr. unguiformis^ 
nor stflnding out as in Cr. nivea. There is only one large spirai 
turn. The most peculiar character of the shell is the cancellation 
between the laminse, but this only appears in some of the specimens. 
Distortions occur of the true Cr. nivea, almost equally aberraut in 
form. Vide B.M. Maz. Cat. p. 284. 

- — 98. Crepidula aculeata, rar. 

= Crepidula Californica, Nutt. MS. B.M. Maz. Cat. p. 268. 
no. 334. 

Hab, Sta. Barbara, freąuens. Mus. Nutt., Brit., Warrington, &c. 

99. Crucibulum spinosum, Sow. B.M. Cat. Maz. Moli. 
no. 344. p. 290. 

Hab. Monterey, rarissime. Mus. Nuttall. 
No. CCCXV. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



226 

100. HippONYX Grayanus, Mke. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1856, p. 4 ; 
B.M. Maz. Cat. no. 350. p. 299. 

Hab. California, rarissime. Mus. Nuttall. 

101. Spiroglyphus , sp. ind. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara, Crepidulam aculeatam erodente. Sp. jun. in 
Mus. Nuttall. 

102. AlETES* SaUAMIGERTJS, n. s. 

A. t. majore, fiavido-albida, solute spirali, plerumque glomerata ; 
superficie costis spiralibus, sųuamis instructis ; costulis phiribus 
intercalantibus, squamuhs minoribus ; sąuamis et sųuamulis im- 
bricatis, arcuatis ; interdum aperturam versus sculptura obso- 
lėta. 
Hab. Sta. Barbara. Sp. magn. glomer. in Mus. Nuttall; San 
Diego, Mus. Gould. 

A fine group of this shell is in Mr. Nuttall's collection. It agrees 
in the main with the Mazatlan species, but differs in colour and 
sculpture. Mr. Nuttall believes that he found another species with- 
out scales. 

103. Petaloconchus macrophragma, n. s., B.M. Maz. Cat. 
no. 359. p. 309 ; et Monogr. Petaloconchorum (Proc. Z. S. postea). 

Hab. San Diego, Euraphice Hembeli adhserens. Mus. Nuttall. 

Of the remarkable Cirripedi to which this shell is attached, only 
two specimens were found by Mr. Nuttall, and described by Conr. 
Journ. p. 261. pi. 20. f. 13. 

104. Cerithidea sacrata, Gould. 

Cerithium (Potatnis) sacratum, Gould, Exp. Shells, p. 60. 
= Pirena Californica, Nutt. MS. 

Hab. Monterey, Sta. Barbara, &c., aąuis mixtis. Mus. Nutt., 
Brit. 

— 105. Litorina planaxis, Phil. 

= Littorina tenebrata, Gould. 
Hab. California. Mus. Nutt., Brit. 

* The genus Siphonium is thus characterized and divided in the B.M. Maz. 
Cat. p. 301. 

Genus Sifhonium, Bronne. 
Testą valde irrecularis, juniore haud turritelloidea. Operculum terme, con- 
cavum, simplex. 

A. Species typici. Operculo valde concavo, vix spirali. 
Oceanis Indico et Atlantico repertae. 

B. Subgenus Aletes (aXįr»/s, errator). Operculo parnm concavo, multispi- 
rali,fere ut in Turritella/or»ja<o. 

For further information on the opercula of Fermetidce, v. B.M. Maz. Cat. 
pp. 300-312. 



227 

106. Natica? Maroccana, var. Californica. 

iV. ?M. t. aurantio-fusca, labio intus suturam calloso ; operculo 
extus solidiore, margine minus extante, ad nucleum magia cal- 
loso. 

Long. -88, long. spir, -22, lat. '72, div. 100°. 

Hab. California Superior ; legit T, Nuttall, Mus. suo ; legit 
Lady K. Douglas, Mus. Brit. 

The specific identity of shells belongiug to this type frotn different 
faunas, is not yet decided. As compared with the W. Mexican 
shells {N. Pritchardi, Forbes, = N. Chemnitzii, Pfr.), the Califor- 
nian specimens are rather more coarse-grained and solid, with the 
parietal callosity stronger under the suture. The operculura is 
thicker, with the margiu less turned-up in proportion. Colour 
orange-brown, sometimes obscurely banded. 

-■ - 107. RANELIiA TRI<aUETRA, tCSte Nutt. MS. 

Hab. San Diego. Mus. Nuttall. 
Exceedingly likę a young Vitularia salebrosa. 

108, Mitra maura, teste Nutt. MS. 
Hab, CaUfornia Superior. Mus. Nuttall. 

109. Olivella glandinaria, Nutt. 

Glandinaria Californica, Nutt. MS. 

O, f. bulbiformi, in medio injlata, utrinąue regulariter constricta ; 
spira satis elevata, acuta ; haud polita, purpureo-fusca, in 
spira aurantia, circa basin violaceo tincta ; apertura antice 
dilatata; columella ad basin biplicata ; labio calloso, Icevi ; 
callositate basali haud lata. 
Long. -88, long. spir. -29, lat. -47, div. 70°. 

Hab. In California Superiore; legit T. Nuttall. Sp. unic. in 
Mus. suo. 

The genus Glandinaria appears to have been proposed (not pub- 
lished) by Mr. Nuttall, in ignorance of the establishment of Olivella 
by D'Orbigny, with which it exactly coincides. The name is re- 
tained for the very well marked species, in preference to the ill-used 
Californica. 

110. BUCCINUM POULSONI, Nutt. MS. 

Hab. Upper California. Mus. Nuttall. 

111. Purpura aperta, Blainv. var. 

Purpura aperta, Kien. leon. Conch. p. 81. no. 51. pi. 20. f. 59, 
et var. pi. 22. f. 64 ; Rve. Conch. Ic. pi. 3. sp. 15 ; Jay's Cat. 
no. 8942. 

Purpura macrostoma, Conr. Joum. p. 267. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara. Mus. Jay. 

Conrad says this species may be readily distinguished from P. 
aperta, but does not say how. Dr. Jay considers the two identical ; 



228 

and as he seems to have the tvpe, his opinion is followed. Mr. 
Reeve's reference to the Nouv. Ann. Mus. cannot be verified. It 
appears to have been pubhshed by Kiener from a manuscript name. 

112. Purpura harpa, Conr. Journ. p. 266. pi. 20. f. 25. 
Hab. Sta. Barbara. Mus. Nuttall. 

— 113. Purpura emarginata, Desh. 

= P. Conrndi, Nutt. :MS. ; teste Jay, Cat. 8972. Mus. suo. 
Hab. Califomia. 

' 114. MONOCEROS ENGONATUM, Conr. 

P. (Monoceros) engonata, Conr. Journ. p. 264. pi. 20. f. 17: 
diagn. auct. 

"M. t.fnsifonni; anfractibus superne angulo saliente carinatis, 
spiraliter sulcatis, striis incrementi vix decussatis ; anfr. tertio 
longitudinaliter costellato ; pallida, maculis fuscis, intensiori- 
bus, angulatis, ornata ; intus aJha, maculis jta^'cis purpureis ;" 
apertura valde elongata ; canali hand parva ; labro intus den- 
tibus plurimis ; " acanthina tenui, gracilUma." 

Hab. Sta. Barbara, Mus. Nuttall, Brit., Jay, 9067. 

^ Monoceros unicarinatum, Reeve, Conch. Ic. sp. 1 : diagn. sol., 
syn. plerumąue excl., pi. 1. f. 1, excl. : non M. unicarinatum, Sow., 
nec Desh. 

Comp. Purpura spirata, Blauiv. Nouv. Ann. Mus. vol. i. 1832, 
pi. 12. f. 8. p. 252. no. 105 ; Kien. Icon. Conch. p. 121. no. 76. 
pi. 38. f. 90. 

= Monoceros unicarinatum, pars, Desh. in Lam. An. s. Vert. 
vol. X. p. 124. no. 10, syn. Angį. excl. 

The shell figured by Conrad aud found in Mr. Nuttall's collection 
is very triangular, with a pointed base. The P. spirata of Blain- 
ville (deseribed and iigured \N-ith his usual accuracy, for which credit 
has not been given to him by some authors, who, wanting it in their 
own works, have added great labour to students) is a Sandwich 
Island shell, brought by 5l. Botta, very obtusely angulated, with a 
swonen base, scarcely acanthoid, and a canal long enough for Chorus, 
Gray. It is remarkable for the scaly keel of the upper whorls. This 
shell is reproduced by Kieuer in a different form, who affiliates 
Sovverby's species (apparently constituted from aNuttallian specimen 
received through Dr. Jay by Mr. Cuming) to that iu the Paris Mu- 
seum. Deshayes, copying this error, aud not eveu adopting Blainville's 
earlier S])ecifie name, gives the name and reference of Sowerby, with 
a deseription iu the niain belonging to the Blainvillian species, although 
perhaps \vith some additions from Sowerby's figure. Mr. Reeve 
completes the confusion by describing a shell, " anfr. superne angu- 
latis," verv probably the true P. engonata of Conrad which he 
quotes ; at the šame time quoting the tvvo different shells above 
named (one of them under two names, P. spicata and P. spirata), 
and figuring a very diiferent shell, not angulated at all. To mere 



229 

leamers, likę the author of the present paper, such ditferences are 
exceedingly perplexing. 

115. MONOCEROS BREVIDENS, Cour. 

p. (Monoceros) brevidens, Conr. Joum. p. 264 : diagn. auct. 

"M. t. fusiformi, solida, spira curtiore ; anfr. superne angulo 
haud saliente munitis," tumidioribus basin versus ; " acantha 
curtiore, solidiore ; spiraliter sulcatis," suleis interdum obso- 
letis. 

Monoceros unicarinatum, Sow. Conch. 111. no. 14. p. 4. f. 5 ; non 
Reeve, Conch. Ic. sp. 1, nec Desh. iu Lam. An. s. Vert. no. 10, diagn. 

= Monoceros, pi, 1. f. 2 (non sp. 2) ; Reeve, loc. cit. 

Non Monoceros brevidentatvm, Gray in Wood, Suppl. (1828) 
p. 12. no. 10, p. 43. pi. 4. no. 10 ; Sow. Conch. 111. f. 4 ; Reeve, 
Conch. Ic. pi. 1. sp. A. L A a, b; Desh. in Lam. An. s. Vert. vcl. x. 
p. 123. no. 9=Purpura cornigera, Blainv. Nonv. Ann. Mus. vol. i. 
p. 213. no. 28. pi. 9. f. 10 ; Kien. Icon. Conch. p. 123. no. 78. pi. 39. 
f. 92=Monoceros maculatum, Gray ipse m Zool. Beech. Voy. p. 125. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara. Mus. Nutt., Cum., Jay. 

The exact date of Sowerby's species, which is generally referred to 
the P. engonata of Courad, but differs from the figure of that shell, 
and agrees much better with the description of this, is difficult to 
determine. The volume bears date 1841. lt differs frora P. engo- 
nata in being swollen at the base, with less sculpture and apgulation. 

116. Monoceros lapilloides, Nutt. 

P. {Monoceros) lapilloides, Conr. Joum. p. 285. pi. 20. f. 18 
(1837). 

"M. t. fusiformi, curta, solida; anfr. superne vix concavis ; suleis 
spiralibus obsoletis; pallida, maculis fuscis quadratis seriebus 
spiralihus ornata ; apertura et columella purpureis ; labro mar- 
ginėm versus albida." 

= Monoceros punctulatum, Sow. Conch. 111. p. 4. no. 13. f. 3. 

= Monoceros punctatum, Gray in Zool. Beech. Voy. (1839), p. 124; 
Reeve, Conch. Ic. sp. 2. pi. 1. f. 1 (non f. 2). 

Hab. Sta. Barbara (Nuttall). Is. Cocos, in rupibus (Capt. Col- 
nett). Mus, Brit., Nutt., Cuming, &c. 

The differences betvreen the specimens of Californian Monoceros 
are so numerous, and similar species from other ąuarters are so vari- 
able, that the three species here repeated from Conrad are given with 
very great hesitation. That the forms figured by Sowerby and Reeve 
are conspecific, is by no means improbable ; the form engonata is 
the most aberrant, but it is by no means unapproached. 

MuREx, Subgenus Cerostoma, Conr. 
Murex ; labro ut in Monoceros (Acanthina) dentato, dente erecto. 

117. Cerostoma Nuttalli, Conr. Joui-n, p. 264. pi. 20. f. 22 ; 
Jay's Cat. no. 8298. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara. Mus. Nuttall, Jay. 



230 
5. Synopsis Avium Tanagrinarum. — A descriptive Cata- 

LOGUE OF THE KNOWN SPECIES OF TaNAGERS. 

By Philip Lutley Sclater, M.A., F. Z. S. etc. 

Part III. — Containing the genera Spindalis, Tanagra, Dubusia, 
Compsocoma, Buthraiipis, StephanopJiorus, Pcecilothraupis, Iridor- 
nis, Calliste, Diva, Pipridea, Chlorochrysa, Tanagrella, Glossiptila, 
Chlorophonia, and Euphonia. 

Genus XXV. Spindalis. 

Spindalis, Jard. & Selby, 111. Orn. n. s. (1836). 

liostrum Tauagrse, sed basi latiore et culmine incurviore : alce 
modicce ; remigibus tertia et quarta longissitnis, secunda quin- 
tam eeguante, prima sextam paulo superante : cauda modica, 
ąuadrata : se.vus dissimiles. 

1. Spindalis nigricephala. 

Serinus jamaicensis, Briss. Orn. iii. 189 (unde), 
Fringilla cana, Gra. S. N. 290 (?). 

Tanagra nigricephala, Jameson, Ed. N. Phil. Joum. xix. 213 ; 
Gosse, Iii. B. Jam. pi. 56. 

Spindalis bilineatus, Jard. & Selby, 111. Orn. n. s. pi. 9. 
Tanagra zena, Gosse, B. Jam. p. 231. 
Tanagra senoides, Des Murs, Icon. Orn. pi. 40. 
Spindalis nigricephala, Bp. Consp. p. 240. 

Olivacea : uropygio flavicante : capite toto cum gutture nigris, 
superciliis latis et stria rictali cum gula summa albis : abdo- 
mine aurescente, pectore aurantiaco, ventre imo et crisso albis : 
alis nigris albo marginatis : cauda nigra, rectrice una utrinque 
extima albo extus limbata et intus terminalą : tectricibus sub- 
alaribus albis. $ . Olivacea, capite cinerascentiore, uropygio 
flavescentiore : subtus cinerea, abdomine medio aurescente : 
ventre imo crissoque albidis : alis caudaque nigris, illis albo 
limbatis. 

Long. totą 7*5, alae 4-2, caudse 3*2. 

Hab. Jamaica (Gosse). 

Mus. Brit., &c. 

2. Spindalis multicolor. 

Tanagra multicolor, Vieill. Enc. Meth. p. 776 ; Gal. Ois. i. p. 100. 
pi. 76. 

Spindalis multicolor, Bp. Consp. p. 240. 

Capite nigro : stria utrinque superciliari et maxillari albis : cer- 
vice postica aurantia, interscaptdio olivaceo, dorso imo aures- 
centi-castaneo : alis nigris albo limbatis : tectricibus alarum 
minoribus castaneis : subtus, mento albo ; gula media flava, 
macula utrinque magna nigra ; pectore sununo castaneo, infe- 
riore cum ventre aureis ; ventre imo cum crisso albis ; rectri- 



231 

cibus niffris, duahus utrinąue eztimia albo variis ; rastro et 
pedibus niffris. ? . Supra olivascens, uropygio Jiavescentiore : 
subtus albescens olivaceo indutus, ventre medio albo : alis niffris, 
albo limbatis. 
Long. totą 6*2, alae 3*2, caudae 2-8. 
Hab. S. Domingo {Fieillot) {Salli). 
Mus. Brit. 

This is a smaller bird than the S. niffricephala, and has the lesser 
wing-coverts chestnut and not black. From the true zena it may be 
distinguished by its smaller bill, the more extended and brighter 
yellow colour on the belly, and by its having the whole back of the 
neck bright yellow, not dark chestnut. 

3. Spindalis zena. 

Frinffilla bahamensis, Briss. Orn. iii. 168 ; Catesby, Car. i. pi. 42. 

Frinffilla zena, Linn. S. N. i. 320. 

Tanaffra zena, d'Orb. in Sagra Hist. Cub. p. 74. pi. 11 ; Gray, 
Gen. p. 365. sp. 13 {partim). 

Tanaffra pretrei, Less. R. Z. 1839, p. 102; Cent. Zool. p. 122. 
pi. 45 ; Gray, Gen. p. 365. sp. J4. 

Spindalis zena et pretrei, Bp. Consp. p. 248. 

Spindalis pretrei, Cab. Journ. f. Orn. 1855, p. 4/6. 

Supra niffra : cervice postica et dorso imo brunnescenti-castaneis : 
stria siiperciliari et maocillari utrinąue albis : alis niffris albo 
limbatis : mento summo albescente : ffula media flava, laterali 
utrinque niffra : pectore summo castaneo, inferiore aureo : 
ventre cinerascente, crisso albo : rectricibus niffris : haimm 
utrinque extimis albo variegatis. 

Long. totą 5*8, alse 2"9, caudae 2*6. 

Hab. Guba (JRamon de la Sagra) ; Bahamas {Catesby). 

Mus. Brit. 

Genus XXVI. Tanagra. 

Tanaffra, Linn. S. N. i. p. 316 (1766). 
Thraupis, Boie', Isis, 1826, p. 974. 

Rostrum subincurvum, tam altum quam latum, modice elonffatum 
et dente finali instructum ; culmine incurvoj ff07iyde paulo 
ascendente : dlce modicce ; remiffibus secunda tertia et ąuarta 
louffissimis, prima paulo breviore : cauda modica, ąuadrata : 
ptilosis ceerulea : sexus plerumque similes, sed avės juniores 
diversce. 

1. Tanagra episcopus. 

Episcopus avis, Briss. Orn. iii. p. 40. 

Tanaffra episcopus, Linn. S. N. i. p. 316 ; Strickl. Ann. N. H. xx. 
p. 332 ; Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 170 ; Note s.l. Tang. p. 21 ; Sclater, 
P. Z. S. 1855, p. 157. 

Gracula fflauca, Sparm. Mus. Carls. pi. 54. 



232 

Tanagra gi auca, Gray, Gen. p. 364. sp. 5. 

Tanagra serioptera, Sw. An. in Men. p. 313 ; Schomb. Guian. 
iii. 670 ; Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 28. 

Ccerulescenti-eana ; dorso obscuriore ; uropygio cyaneo lavato : 
alis caudaąue nigris caruleo limbatis : tectricibus alarum mi- 
noribus albis, nitore cyaneo ; majoribus autem eodem colore vix 
marginatis, 

Long. totą 60, alse 35, caudse 24. 

Hab. British Guiana (Schomb.) ; Cayenne ; New Grenada, Bo- 
gota. 

Mus. Brit., &c. . 

The T. episcopus of Linnseus depends upon Bnsson's ' Episcopus 
avis,' and from Brisson's description and locality I think there can 
be little doubt that the present species with white shoulders and 
uarrow edgings to the greater coverts was intended. 

The only bird hkely to be confounded with it is the next following 
species T. coelestis, whieh has a regular white bar across the wings 
formed by the pure white terminations of the greater coverts. 

2. Tanagra ccelestis. 

Tanagra coelestis, Spix, Av. Bras. ii. p. 42. pi. 55. fig. 2 ; Bp. 
P. Z. S. 1837, p. 121 ; R. Z. 1851, p. 169; Note s. 1. Tang. p. 20 ; 
Sclater, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 115. 

Tanagra sayaca, Tsch. Wiegm. Arch. 1844, p. 286 ; F. P. p. 203. 

Thraupis episcopus, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 28 (note). 

CcBrulescenti-cana, subtus dilutior : alis caudaque nigris cąruleo 
limbatis : tectricibus alarum minoribus candidis, majoribus 
quoque albo late terminatis. 

Long. totą 6-5, alse 38, caudse 2-/. 

Hab. Upper Amazon, Fonteboa {Spix) ; Pintobamba {Cast. et 
Bev.) ; prov. Quixos, Ecuador. 

Mus. Parisiensi. 

3. Tanagra can a. 

Tanagra cana, Sw. Orn. Dr. pi. 37 S (aduH); Strickl. Ann. N. H. 
XX. p. 332; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 157. 

Tanagra coelestis, Sw. Orn. Dr. pi. 41 (juv.)? 

Tanagra Swainsoni, Gray, Gen. p. 364. sp. 7. 

Thraupis cana, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 29. 

Tanagra episcopus, Schomb. Guian. iii. p. 670? 

Tanagra sayaca, Bp. B. Z. 1851, p. 170 ; Note s. 1. Tang. p. 21. 

Ccemlescenti-cana ; dorso obscuriore : uropygio cyanescente : alis 
caudaąue nigris cceruleo limbatis : tectricibus alarum minori- 
bus violaceo-cyaneis : majorum autem marginibus angustis in- 
tense cceruleis. 

Long. totą 6-4, alse 36, caudse 24. 

Hab. Venezuela; Trinidad ; Tobago (^jVA.) ; New Grenada, Bo- 
gota; British Guiana (Schomb.). 

Mus. Brit., &c. 



233 

These blue ' Bishop ' Tanagers are very puzzling, and I confess I 
am as yet quite unable to arrange them satisfactorily. After sepa- 
rating the true * episcopus ' and * ccelestis ' (which are clearly di- 
stinct) and the large South BraziUan ' cyanoptera ' (which may also 
be recognized without much difficulty), there remain four or five 
birds with different names attached to them varying a good deal in 
the amount of blue on the wings, but not othervpise presenting very 
appreciable differeuces. At present I am inchned to refer them to 
two species — a South American bird with the lesser wing-coverts of 
a more or less violet tint — and a Central American and Mexican 
species with these parts deep blue — likę the South Brazilian T. cya- 
noptera. The former bird is common in collections from Bogota 
and Trinidad, and seems to range so far south as the Amazon at 
Para. The latter extends from the north coast of New Grenada 
through Central America as far north as the province of Vera Cruz, 
whence specimens have lately been brought by M. Sall^. 

4. Tanagra diaconus. 

Tanagra {Aglaia) diaconus, Less. R. Z. 1842, p. 175. 
Calliste diaconus, Gray, Gen. p. 466. sp. 29. 
Tanagra episcopus, Bp. P. Z. S. 1837, p. 116. 
Tanagra diaconus, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 142. 
Tanagra cyanilia, Bp. Notės Orn. p. 62 ? 
Thraupis glaucocolpa, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 28 ? 

Ccerulescenti-cana : dorso toto obscuriore : uropygio vix ceerules- 
cente : alis caudaąue nigris cceruleo limbatis : tectricibus ala- 
rum minoribus leetissime cceruleis. 
Long. totą 6*2, alae 3*5, caudse 2"5. 

Hab. South Mexico, Cordova {Sallė) ; Guatimala {Bp.) {Con- 
stancia) ; Nicaragua, Realejo (Less.) ; Chiriqui (Bridges) ; New 
Grenada, S. Martha {Verreaux). 

5. Tanagra cyanoptera. 

Tanagra brasiliensis varia, Briss. Orn. iii. p. 18 (?). 

Tanagra sayaca, Linn. S. N. i. p. 316 (?) ; Max. Beitr. iii. 484 
{certe). 

Loxia virens, Linn. S. N. i. p. 303 (?). 

Tanagra virens, Strickl. Ann. N. H. xx. 332 (certė). 

Lindo saihobi, Azar. Pax. i. p. 370. 

Saltator cyanoptera, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xiv. p. 104 ; Enc. 
Mėth. p. 

Tanagra episcopus, Hartl. Ind. Az. p. 6 ; d'Orb. Voy. p. 274 ; 
Sw. Orn. Dr. pi. 39 (adult). 

Tanagra inornata, Svv, Orn. Dr. pi. 40 (juv.) ; Gray, Gen. p. 364. 
sp. 8 ; Bp. Consp. p. 238. 

Tanagra argentata, Gray, Gen. p. 364. sp. 6. 

Tanagra preelatus, Less. Tr. d'Orn. p. 463. 

Tanagra cyanoptera, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 1/0; Note s. 1. Tang. 
p. 21. 



234 

Thraupis cyanoptera, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 29. 

Thravpis sayaca, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 28. 

Major : supra virescenti-cana : subtus grisescentior : alis nigria 
virescenti-ctBTuleo limhatis : tectricibus minoribus intense cceru- 
leis. 

Long. totą 6'5, alae 3'8, caudse 2'8. 

Hab. South-east Brazil {Mux.) ; Rio Grande do Sul (Plant) ; 
Paraguay (Az.) ; Corrientes and Buenos Ayres (d'Orb.) ; Bolivia, 
Cochabamba, Valle Grande and Yungas (d'Orb.). 

Mus. Biit., &c. 

G. Tanagra ornata. 

Tanagra ornata, Sparm. Mus. Carls. pi. 95 ; Sw. Om. Dr. pi. 42 ; 
Gray, Gen. p. 364. sp. 2 ; Bp. Consp. p. 238 ; R. Z. 1851, p. 470 ; 
Note s. 1. Tang. p. 21 {partini). 

Tanagra archiepiscopus, Desm. Tan. pi. 17 ; Spix, Av. Bras. ii. 
p. 42. pi. 55. fig. 1 ; Max. Beitr. iii. 481 ; Schomb. Reise, iii. 6/0. 

Thraupis ornata, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 28. 

Archbishop Tanager, Latb. G. H. vi. 16. 

Olivaceo-viridis : interscapulio obscuriore : pileo cceruleo : subtus 
Juscus cceruleo lavatus : alis caudaque nigris olivaceo limbatis : 
campteriis ccerideis : tectricibus alaruin minoribus Jlavis. 

Long. totą 65, alse 3'8, caudse 28. 

Hab. Soutb-east Brazil {Max.) ; British Guiana (Schomb.). 

Mus. Brit., &c. 

7. Tanagra palmarum. 

Tanagra palmarum, Max. Reise, ii. p. 76 (1821) ; Beitr. iii. 489. 

Tanagra olivascens, Licht. Doubl. p. 32 ; d'Orb. Voy. p. 274 ; 
Sw. Orn. Dr. pi. 38 ; Sebomb. Reise, iii. 670. 

Thraupis olivascens, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 28. 

Tangara Eveque, femelle, Desm. Tan. pi. 16 ! 

Tanagra ornata į, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 170, et Note s. 1. Tang. 
p. 21 !! 

Tang. de Cayenne, femelle, Buff. PI. Enl. 178. fig. 2? 

Intense oleagineus : interscapulio obscuriore : tectricibus alaribus 
capite fere concoloribus sed paulo clarioribus : remigibus et 
rectricibus cum alula spuria fusco-nigris olivaceo-viridi mar- 
ginatis : remigum basi albescenti-olivacea, vittam indistinctam 
transalarem formante. 
Long. totą 7 0, alae 37, caudse 2-7. 

Hab. Brazil, Para (/ra/;«ce) ; Rio Babia, &c. ; Bolivia (cT Ori.); 
British Guiana {Schomb.) ; Cayenne ; Trinidad. 
Mus. Brit., &e. 

Prince Bonaparte, in bis ' Note s. 1. Tangaras,' has followed the 
example of some of tbe older autbors in considering this bird as tbe 
female of T. ornata ; but I have not tbe sbghtest doubt that it is 
quite a distinct species. See d'Orbigny's Voyage, p. 274, and P. 
Max. of Neu Wied's Beitrage, iii. 489. 



235 

8. Tanagra melanoptera. 

Tanagra olivaseens, Tsch. F. P. p. 204 ? 

Tanagra palmarum, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p, 177? 

Tanagra melanoptera, Hartl. R. Z. 

Similis T. palmarum, sed paulo minor et coloribus Icetioribtis, dorso 
et ventre purpurascentioribus : alce dimidio apicali nigro, plu- 
mis non viridi limbaf.is. 

Long. totą C'7, alae 3"7, caudae 3'3. 

Hab. East Peru {Hartlaub) ; New Grenada, Bogota. 

Mus. Bremensi. 

This is perhaps a local variety only of the common T. palmarum, 
presenting no greeu edgings to the primaries or secondaries beyond 
the green bar. I have birds from S. Martha, Trinidad and Bolivia, 
which seem intermediate between this and the former species. 

9. Tanagra abbas. 

Tanagra abbas, Licht. Preis-Verz. no. 70 (1831). 

Tanagra vicarius, Less. Cent. Zool. pi. 68 ; Gray, Gen. p. 364. 
sp. 4; Bp. Consp. p. 238; P. Z. S. 1837, p. 116 ; R. Z. 1851, 
p. 171 ; Notės. 1. Tang. p. 22. 

Thraupis vicarius, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 29. 

ž . Pallide olivaseens : capite cceruleo, gutture ceerulescente : 
interscapulii pennis medialiter nigricantibus : alis caudaque 
nigris : speculo in basi primariorum et secundariorum Jlavis- 
simo : teetricibus ularum majoribus olivaceis, minoribus cceru- 
lescentibus : rostro et pedibus nigris. 

? . Mari similis, sed coloribus paulo dilutioribus : gutture vix 
ceerulescente. 

Long. totą 7*0, alse 4*0, caudse 2' 9. 

Hab. S. Mexico, Cordova (Sallė) ; Orizaba {Botteri) ; Hondūras 
(J)yson) ; Guatimala (Constancia). 

Mus. Brit., Derbiano, &c. 

10. Tanagra striata. 
L'Onglet, Buff. H. N. iv. p. 256. 

Tanagra striata, Gm. S. N. i. p. 899 ; d'Orb. Voy. p. 275 ; Bp. 
Consp. p. 239 ; Hartl. Ind. Az. p. 6. 

Le Noir-souci, Buff. H. N. iv. 150 ? 

Loxia bonariensis, Gm. S. N. p. 850? 

Lindo celeste oro y negro, Azar. Pax. i. p. 375. 

Tanagra chrysogaster, Cuv. Reg. An. i. p. 366 ; Puch. Arch. Mus. 
Paris, vii. 344. 

Aglaia striata, Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. in Mag. de Zool. 1837, 
p. 32 ; G. R. Gray, Darvvin's Voy. Beagle, p. 97. 

Tanagra darwini, Bp. P. Z. Š. 1837, p. 121 (?) ; Darwin's Voy. 
pi. 34(^). 

Tanagra frugilegus, Tsch. Av. Consp. in Wiegm. Arch. 1844, 
p. 286 ; F. P. p. 204. pi. 1 7. fig. 1 ; Hartl. R. Z. 1849, p. 286 ( ? ). 

Calliste frugilegus, Bp. Consp. p. 236. sp. 41. 



236 

Chrysothraupis frugilegus, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 143; Note s. I. 
Tang. p. 22. 

i . Niger, dorso postico et abdomine aurantiacis, ventre imo in 
flaviim transeunte : capite et gutture undique cum marffinibus 
alarum et caudcB ccerideis : rostri ambitų nigro. 

? . Mari similis, sed dorso et scapularibus olivaceis, abdomine 
toto auresce7iti-flavo. 

Avis iunior. Fusco-olivasceyis subtus grisescenti-albidus : capite 
ecBridescente, iiropygio fiavido tincto. 

Long. totą 6'8, alse 37, caudae 28. 

Hab. Southern Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul (Plant) ; Uruguay, 
Maldonado {Darwin) ; Montevideo, Buenos Ayres, Corrientes, Peru 
and Bolivia (d'Orb.); Paraguay (Jzara); Western Peru, Lima 
(Tsch.) ; Western Ecuador, fruit gardens of Lima (Tsch.). 

Mus. Brit., &c. 

I believe now that there is little doubt that the olive-backed bird 
named T. darivini by Prince Bonaparte, and afterwards T. frugilegus 
bv Tscbudi, is really the female of T. striata, though at one time I 
thought otherwise. I have not yetseen the black-backed malė from 
the westem side of the Andes ; but d'Orbigny's Bolivian coUection 
in the Paris Museum contains examples of botb sexes from the 
eastern side. 

If the birds from all the localities given are identical, which I be- 
lieve to be the case, this Tanager presents an instance of a remark- 
ably extensive geographic range for a bird of this family. 

11. Tanagra CYANOCEPHALA. 

Agluia cyanocephala, Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. in Mag. de Zool. 
1837, p. 32. 

Tanagra maximiJiani, d'Orb. Voy. p. 276. pi. 23. fig. 2. 

Tanagra cyanocephala, Gray, Gen. p. 364. sp. 11 ; Bp. Consp. 
p. 238 ; Tsch. Wiegm. Arch. 1844, p. 286 ; F. P. p. 205 (?). 

Thraupis cyanocephala, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 29 ? 

Supra flavo-olivacea : pileo cceruleo : nucha viridescente ; capitis 
lateribus nigris : subtus cinerea : ventre imo crissoąue fiavia 
viridi tinctis : tectricibus subalaribus pure flavis. 

Long. totą 78, alae 3"5, caudae 3*1. 

Hab. Bolivia, Sicasica (d'Orb.) ; Western Peru, Lima (Tsch.). 

Mus. Brit., Paris. 

12. Tanagra auricrissa. 

Bubusia cyanocephala 1, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 157. 

Dubusia auricrissa, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 227. 

Supra Jlavescenti-elivacea : capite toto et nucha ceeruleis : loria 

nigris : subtus ceendescenti-cinerea : tectricibus subalaribus et 

ventre imo crissoųue cum tibiis Jlavissimis. 
Long. totą 65, alse 36, caudfe 30. 
Hab. New Grenada, Bogota. 
Mus. Brit., Paris. 



237 

13. Tanagra olivicyanea. 

Tanagra olivicyanea, Lafr. R. Z. 1843, p. 69 ; Bp. Consp. p. 238. 
Tachyphonus olivicyaneus, Gray, Gen. p. 365. sp. 1.5. 
Dubusia olivicyanea, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 157. 

Supra flavescenti-oUvacea : capite undiąue et corpore subtua 
cceruleis : ventre imo crissoque olivascenti-flavis : tibiis et tec- 
tricibus subalaribus Jlavissimis : loris nigris. 

Long. totą 7'3, alae 25, caudse 28. 

Hab. Venezuela, Galipan alt. 8000 ft. (Dyson) ; New Grenada. 

Mus. Brit. 



Genus XXVII. Dubusia. 

Dubusia, Bp. Compt. Rend. Ac. Sc. Par. xxxi. p. 424 (Sept. 1850). 

Rostrum elongatum, incurvum, compressiusculum, dente finali 
distincto ; gonyde recta : alcB^ modicce, rotundatce, remigibus 
quarta et ąuinta longissimis : cauda longissima et rotundata : 
ptilosis nigra, ccerulea, et flava : sexus similes. 

1 . Dubusia t^eniata. 

Tachyphonus teeniatus, Boiss. R. Z. 1840, p. 67; Bp. Consp. 
. 237. 

Arremon teeniatus, Gray, Gen. App. p. 16. 

Dubusia tceniata, Sclater, Tan. Cat. Sp. p. 10 ; P. Z. S. 1855, 
. 157. 

Supra ex nigro-ccerulescens : alis caudaque nigris, ceerulescente 
limbatis : capite toto cum colio undiąue et gutture nigris, su- 
perciliis in collum utrinąue elongatis et tectricibus alarum 7ni- 
noribus argenteo-cyaneis : abdomine Jlavo ; pectore sumnio et 
crisso pallide ochraceis : tibiis nigricantibus : rostro et pedibus 
nigris. 

Long. totą 7*3, alae 3*7, caudae 3*7. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota. 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 

2. Dubusia selysia. 

Tanagra selysia, Bp. Consp. p. 239. 

Dubusia selysia, Bp. Compt. Rend. xxxii. p. 81. 

Supra excinereo ccerulescenti-viridescens : capite toto cum gutture 
nigris : fronte et sujierciliis latis et elongatis, collum posticum 
cingentibus, cutn tectricibus alarum minoribus argenteo-cyaneis : 
remigum et rectricum marginibus ccerulescentibus : abdomine 
Jlavo, pectore summo brunnescentiore, crisso ochracescentiore : 
rostro et pedibus nigris. 

Long. totą 7'7, alae 3-5, caudae 3*4. 

Hab. Vicinity of Quito, forests of the Andes (Jameson). 

Mus. Lugdunensi, Joh. Gould et Gul. Jardine, Bart. 



238 

Genus XXVIII. Compsocoma. 

Compsocoma, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 140 (1850). 

Rostrum rectum, elongatum, subconicum, dente finali indistincto : 
alcB elongatfB, remigibus secimda, tertia et ąuarta fere cequa- 
libus et longissimis : cauda longa, subrotundata ; pedes validi : 
sexus similes : ptilosis nigra, ccerulea et flava. 

1. Compsocoma viCTORiNi. 

Tachyphonus victorini, Lafr. R. Z. 1842, p. 336 ; Gray's Gen. 
p. 365. 

Tanagra victorini, Bp. Consp. p. 239. 

Compsocoma victorini, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 140. 

Tachtjphonus elegans, Less. Echo d. M. S. 1844; Descr. d. Mamm. 
et Ois. p. 349. 

Tanagra flaviver t ex, Lafr. MS. 

Olivascenti-viridis : tectricibus alarum minoribus ceemleis : pri- 
mariis et rectricibus thalassino marginatis : capite nigro, tcsnia 
lata verticali cum corpore subtus Jlavis. 

Long. totą 7"0, alse 3"8, caudse 2*8. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota. 

Mus. Brit. et Paris. 

2. Compsocoma sumptuosa. 

Tachyphonus sumptuosus, Less. Tr. d'Om. p. 463 ; Puch. Arch. 
Mus. Par. vii. p. 379. pi. 23. 

Tanagra somptuosa, Bp. Consp. p. 239. 
Tachyphonus flavinucha, Tsch. F. P. p. 208. 
Compsocoma elegans, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 140. 
Tanagra chrysocome, Licht. in Mus. Berol. 

Atra ; dorso imo olivascente : humeris ceeruleis : primariis et 
rectricibus thalassino marginatis : macula nuchali lata et cor- 
pore subtus Jlavis. 

Long. totą 6-5, alse 3*5, caudse 2*8. 

Hab. Ecuador, vicinity of Quito (Jameson) ; Peru (Tschudi et 
Philippi in Mus. Berol.) ; Venezuela (Levraud). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., Berolinensi. 

This bird has been confounded both witli the preceding and with 
the riext foIlowing species, but may be easily distinguished by its 
black back and olivascent uropygium. 

3. Compsocoma flavinucha. 

Tachyphonus fiavinucha, Lafr. et d'Orb.Mag. de Zool. 1837, p. 29; 
d'Orb. Voy.p. 280. pi. 21; Gray's Gen. p. 365. 
Tanagra flavinucha, Bp. Consp. p. 239. 
Compsocoma flavinucha, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 140. 

Niger : humeris et dorso postico cum rectricum marginibus an- 



239 

gustis cceruleis : primariis externe thulassino marginatis : vitta 
nuchali media et corpore toto suhtus Jlavis. 
Long. totą 6'7, alae 3'(), caudoe 2'8. 
Hab. Bolivia, prov. Yungas (d'Orb.). 
Mus. Parisiensi et Derbiano. 

The blue on the rump at once distinguishes this Bolivian bird 
from ils three congeners. 

4. COMPSOCOMA NOTABILIS. 

Tanagra notabilis, Jard. Edinb. N. Phil. Journ. n. s. ii p 119 • 
Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 84. pi. 91. • i- > 

Compsocotna notabilis, Sclater, ib. 

Flavo-olivacea : capite undique et mento nigris : nucha triangu- 
lariter Jlava : alis nigris, ceeruleo marginatis, tectricibus autem 
šunimis dorso concoloribus : cauda nigra, marginibu^ vix cceru- 
lescentibus : subtus aurantio-flava. 
Long. totą 7'2, alse 3-7, caudse 3-0. 
Hab. Ecuador, vicinity of Quito (^Jameson). 
Mus. Gul. Jardine, Britannico, Joh. Gould. 
Since Sir William Jardine received his first examples of this beau- 
tiful species, which -vvere transmitted by Professor Jameson from the 
Eastern Cordilleras near Quito, Mr. Gould has obtained other spe- 
cimens from the šame country. Some of these latter are now in the 
Britisb Museum. 

Genus XXIX. Buthraupis. 
Buthraupis, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 29 (1850). 

Rostrum forte, subincurvum, breve, altum, compressiusculum, dente 
finali distincto : alce longce, remigibus tertia et guarta lon- 
gissimis : cauda longa et paulum rotundata : pedes validi : 
tarsi longi: sexus similes : ptilosis ccemlea, nigra et Jlava. 

1. Buthraupis MONTANA. 

Aglaia montana, Lafr. & d'Orb. Mag. de Zool. 1837, p. 32. 
Tanagra montana, d'Orb. Voy. p. 275. pi. 23. fig. I ; Gray, Gen 
p. 365 ; Bp. Consp. p. 239. 

Buthraupis montana, Sclater, Tan. Cat. Sp. p. 10. 

Supra ccerulea ; cervice postica valde dilutiore, argentea : capite 

toto undique cum gutture atris : abdomine fiavo. 
Long. totą 9*0, alse 5'0, caudse 3*4. 
Hab. Bolivia, prov. Yungas (c?' Or 6.). 
Mus. Parisiensi, Britarmico, Derbiano. 

2. Buthraupis cucullata. 

Tanagra cucullata, Jard. 111. Orn. n. s. pi. 43. 
"Tanagra montana, d'Orb.," Less. Descr. d. Mamm. et Ois 
p. 348. 



240 

Dubusia gigas, Bp. Rev. Zool. 1851, p. 171, & Note s. 1. Taug. 
p. 22. 

Buthraupis eucullata, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 157. 

Supra Icete ccerulea : capite toto cum gutture atris : abdomine 
flavo. 

Long. totą 8'2, alse 5*2, caudse 3"6. 

Hah. New Grenada, Bogota; Ecuador, vic. of Quito (Jameson). 

Tliis is a common species in Bogota collections. In Gray's Genera 
and Prince Bonaparte's Conspectus it is erroneously united to B. 
eximia, from which it is quite distinct. Sir William Jardine pos- 
sesses examples transmitted by Professor Jameson from the forests 
of the Andes near Quito, which are rather larger than Bogota skins, 
and have the bill stronger and are less black on the throat. 

3. Buthraupis chloronota. 

Buthraupis chloronota, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 97. pi. 64 ; Tan. 
Cat. Sp. p. 15. 

Supra viridis : pileo ceeruleo : alis caudaque nigris, illarum tec- 
tricibus minoribus cceruleis ; majoribus et secundariis viridi 
limbatis : subtus flava, crisso saturatiore : gutture toto atro : 
rastro et pedibus nigris. 

Long. totą 8*8, alse 4'6, caudse 3"8. 

Hab. Ecuador, vic. of Quito (/a»ie5ow). 

Mus. Gul. Jardine, Bart., et P. L. S. 

4. Buthraupis eximia. 

Tanagra eximia, Boiss. Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 66 ; Gray's Gen. 
p. 365 ; Bp. Consp. p. 239. 

Tanagra [Saltator) eximia, Less. Descr. d. Mamm. et Ois. p. 346. 

Buthraupis eximia, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 29 ; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, 
p. 157. 

Supra viridis : pileo, tectricibus alarum minoribus et dorso 
postico cceruleis: capifis lateribus, gutture et cervice antica 
nigris: abdomine Jlavo. 

Long. totą /•2, alse 4-6, caudse 3'5. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota. 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 



Genus XXX. Stephanophorus. 

Stephanophorus, Strickl. P. Z. S. 1841, p. 30. 

Rostrum breve, altum, latum ; mandibulis intumidis ; culmine multum 
incurvo, gonyde ascendente ; dente finali indistincto : alee modicee, 
rotundata, remigibus tertia ąuarta et ąuinta f ere (Bųualibus, ųuarta 
paulo longissima : cauda longa, rotundata : ptilosis ccerulescens : 
sexus similes. 



241 

1. Stephanophorus leucocephalus. 

Lindo azul cabeza blanca, Azar. Pax. i. p. 375. 

Tanagra leticocephala, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xxxu. p. 408 ; Enc. 
Meth. p. 774. 

Tanagra diademata, Mikan, Fl. et F. Bras. pi. 4 ; Temm. PI. 
Col. 243. 

Pyrrhula ccerulea, Vieill. Gal. Ois. p. 61. pi. 54. 

Nemosią diademata, Steph. Zool. xiv. p. 5. 

Stephanophorus cceruleus, Strickl. P. Z. S. 1841, p. 31 ; Gray, 
Gen. p. 365 ; Bp. Consp. p. 234. 

Stephanophorus leucocephalus, Hartl. Ind. Az. p. 6. 

Niger, sericeo-ccerulescens: fronte loris et gutture cum alis caii- 
daque nigris : alarum tectricibus cceruleis, remigibus et rectri- 
cibus cceruleo anguste limbatis: pileopostico albescenti-cceruleo: 
vertice mediali igneo-rubra: rostro et pedibus nigris. 

Long. totą 7'0, alae 4*0, caudse 3"4. 

Hab. South Brazil, S. Paolo (Natt.) ; Uruguay ; Paraguay 
(Azar.). 

Mua. Brit., Paris., Berol. 

Genus XXXI. Pcecilothraupis. 

Pmcilothraupis, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 30 (1850). 
Anisognathus, Reich. Av. S. N. pi. 77 (1850). 

Rostrum Tanagrae, sed rectius, brevius et basi dilatata, culmine 
minus incurvo : alce longee, remigibus tertia, quarta et ųuinta 
lotigissimis, secunda sextam cequante : cauda longa quadrata : 
sexus similes : ptilosis nigra, rubro aut Jlavo varia. 

1. P(ECILOTHRAUPIS LUNTJLATA. 

Tanagra lunulata, DuBus, BuU. Ac. Brux. vi. pt. 1 . p. 439 (cum 
fig.) (1839) ; Esq. Orn. pi. 4 ; Bp. Consp. p. 239. 

Tanagra {Euphonei) constantii, Boiss. R. Z. 1840, p. 3. 

Aglaia erythrotis, Jard. & Selby, 111. Orn. n. s. pi. 36 (1840). 

Tanagra erythrotis, Less. Echo d. M. S. 1843, p. 947. 

Tanagra igniventris, Tsch. Wiegm. Arch. 1844, p. 287 ; F. P. 
p. 203? 

Tachyphonus lunulatus, Gray's Gen. p. 365. sp. 18. 

Poecilothraupis igniventris, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 30. 

Niger : uropygio et alarum tectricibus minoribus cceruleis : ma- 
cula auriculari magna et abdomine rubris, crisso nigro, interdum 
rubro variegato. 

Long. totą 7'0, alae 3*8, caudse 3*4. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota ; Ecuador, elevated region of the 
Andes near Quito (Jameson) ; Peru, Cordilleras, alt. 10,000 feet 
(Tsch.). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 

This species appears certainly distiiict from d'Orbigny's P. igni- 
ventris, vrith which it is sometimes united. In that bird there are 

No. CCCXVI. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



242 



t:v*:rrS;S»rtrr of ««= marUngs ou *e ™g. o.- 
tail. 

2. PtECILOTHBATJPIS IGNIVENTRIS. j ,7 l , S^7 

J,?«ia ^^«.-..«^m, d'Orb. & Lafr. Syn. A., m Mag. de Zool. 1837, 
''- Tanagra igniventris, d'Orb. Voy. p. 275. pi. 25. fig. 2; Bp. 
^XJ^!ŽL1^U Selate. Tan. Cat. Sp. p. H. 

ruberrimis. ,00 

Loiig. totą C-5, alae 3-3, caudae 2 8. 
Hab Bolivia, prov. Apolobamba (d Orb.). 
Mus. Brit., Bremensi, Derbiano. 

3 PcECILOTHRAtFPTS LACRIMOSA. 

Tachyphonus lacrinosus, DuBus, Esq. Orn. pi. 10 ; Gray s Gen. 

App.p. 17; BP-<=^°°%-P;'^^^-z 1847 p. 71 ; Gray's Gen. App. 
Tanaffrapalpebrosa,L&tT. a. L. ifi^/,V- ^ ' ^ 

J„!,«aco-ni«er : nrcpygio, teetricibus alarum mmonbm et tec- 

cum corpore toto subtus aurantm. 

S-'C'G-ai^'P-'A^^-)^ «°^'" **"• '""■^- 
Eastern Peru {BuBus). 

Mus. Brit., Derbiano, Bruxell. 

Genus XXXII. Iridornis. 

Iridosornis, Less. Ecbo d. M. S. 1844 p. 80. 
Pcecilornis,U^rt\.n. Z. 1844, ?-fĮ- 
Euthraupis, Cab. Mus. Heni. p. 30 (i850). 

^Sis niteni nigra, purpurea, flava : se.us simdes. 

1. Iridornis DTJBTJSiA. 

Jn.e,«on r«/ž.er<e:., Lafr. R. Z. 1842, p. 335 (err.) ; Gray, Gen. 
p. 361.sp. 3. 



243 

Iridosornis rufivertex, Less. Echo d. M. S. 1844, p. 80; R. Z. 
1844, p. 431 ; Descr. d. Mamm. et Ois.p. 350. 

Poecilornis rufivertex, Hartl. R. Z. 1844, p. 3G9. 

Tanagra dubusia, Bp. Cousp. p. 239. 

Euthraupis dubusia, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 30. 

"Tanagra chrysolopha, auct.," Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 131 ; Note s. 
1. Tang. p. 6. 

Iridosornis dubusia, Strickl. Cont. Orn. 1852, p. 127. pi. 94. 

Iridornis dubusia, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 157. 

Nigra ; dorso toto cum tectricibus alarum minoribus et pectore 
purpureis ; abdomine sensim obscuriore : ventre imo et crisso 
castaneis : pileo medio nuchaąue cristatis, aurantiis : alis cau- 
dague extus purpurascente marginatis : mandibula inferiore 
albicante, superiore cum pedibus nigris. 

LoBg. totą 5*5, alse 3 'O, caudae 2' 6. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota. 

Mus. Brit., &c. 

2. Iridornis analis. 

Tanagra analis, Tsch. in 'Wiegni. Arch. 1844, p. 286 ; F. P. 
p. 205. pi. 18. fig. 1 ; Gray, Gen. App. p. 16; Lafr. R. Z. 1847, 
p. 71 (?). 

Calliste analis, Bp. Consp. p. 236. sp. 42. 

Euthraupis analis, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 30 (note). 

Supra ex cinereo-viridescens, alis caudaque nigris viridescente lim- 
batis : fronte et capitis lateribus nigris : pileo plumbescente : 
subtus ochracea, mento summo nigro, gutture toto aureo : crisso 
castaneo : rostro albicante, culmine nigro. 

Long. totą 6*0, alse 3*3, caudae 2'5. 

Hab. Western Peru, fruit gardens of Lima (Tsch.). 

Mus. Bremensi. 

This species and the next follovving are certainly not very typical 
Iridornithes, but without creating a new generic appellation for them, 
I hardly know at present wliere to place them more satisfactorily. 

3. Iridornis porphyrocephala. 

" Tanagra analis, Tsch.," Licht. in Mus. Berol. 

Iridornis porphyrocephala, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 227. pi. cx. 

Supra purpurea, dorso imo et alarum caudcBąue marginibus viri- 
descentibus : fronte, loris, mento summo et regione auriculari 
nigris : gutture late et Itete aureo-flavo : pectore summo pur- 
purascente; ventre viridescente, medialiter rufescenti-ochraceo; 
ano intense ferruginescenti-castaneo : tectricibus alarum in- 
ferioribus viridescentibus : rostro superiore nigro, inferiore 
albo. 

Long. totą 5*6, alse 3 0, caudae 2*2. 

Hab. New Grenada ; Ecuador, vic. of Quito, 

Mus. Berol. et Joh. Gould. 



244 

This bird may be distinguished from the preceding species by its 
purple head and upper back, and the greenish tinge of the lower 
plumage. 

Genus XXXIII. Calliste. 

Calliste, Boie, Isis, 1826, p. 978. 
Aglaia, Sw. Zool. Journ. iii. p. 347 (1827). 
Calospiza, G. R. Gray, List of Gen. 1840. 
Tatao, Bp. Compt. Rend. xxxii. p. 80 (18.51). 
Chrysothraupis, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 142. 
Ixothraupis, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 143. 
Gyrola, Rchb. Av. S. N. pi. 77 (1850). 
Euschemon, Sclater, Cont. Orn. 1851, p. 95, 
Euprepiste, Sclater, Cont. Orn. 1851, p. 95. 
Procnopis, Cab. Wiegm. Arch. 1844, p. 284. 
Chalcothraupis, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 144. 

Rostrum rectmn, breve, tenue, compressiusculum, culmine incurvo, 
gonycle paulum ascendente, dente jinali distincto : alee elonga- 
tiores, remigibus secunda, tertia et quarta longissimis, prima 
breviore : cauda modica, ąiiadrata : pedes plerumque debiles : 
ptilosis nitidissima : sexus adulti plerumgue similes : juniores 
colore obscuriores. 

a. Tatao. 
1. Calliste tatao. 

Tangara du Bristi, Buff. PI. Enl. 127. fig. 1. 

Tangara, Buff. PI. Eid. 7. fig. 1 (fig. pess.) ; Briss. Orn. iii. p. 3. 

Le Septicolor, Buff. H. N. iv. 278. 

Tanagra tatao, Limi. S. N. i. 315 ; Kittl. Kūpf. d. Vog. pi. 31. 
fig. 3 ; Vieill. Euc. Me'th. p. 778 ; Hayes, Osterly Park, p. 32 ; 
d'Orb. Voy. p. 270? 

Aglaia tatao, Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. in Mag. de Zool. 1837, 
p. 32? 

Aglaia paradisea, Sw. Class. Birds, ii. p. 286. 

Callispiza tatao, Schomb. Reise, iii. p. 669 ; Cab. Mus. Hein. 
p. 26. 

Tatao paradisea, Bp. Note s. 1. Tang. p. 15; Rev. Zool. 1851, 
p. 141. 

Calliste tatao, Gray, Gen. B. p. 366. sp. 13 ; Bp. Consp. p. 234. 
sp. 13; Sclater, Jard. Cont. Orn. 1851, p. 50. 

Tangara septicolor, Desm. Tan. pi. 1 . 

The Paradise Tanager, Latb. G. H. vi. p. 27. 

Titmouse of Paradise, Edwards, Glean. t. 349. 

Supra velutino-atra : dorsi postici parte superiore coccinea, infe- 
riore aurea : pilei smnmi et capitis laterum įiennis coarctatis et 
squamatis, colore Icetissime viridibtis : fronte et oculorum am- 
bitų anguste nigris : tectricibus alarum summis et corpore sub- 
tus splendide cceruleis ; gutture et pectore summo cum tectrici- 



* 'aurZ' '^''' ""^ ""^""'^''' ""^"^ '''''^' dorsopostico omnino 
Long. totą 47, alse 27, caudse 2-0. 
lace) ^^^'""' ' ^"'- ^""^^^ ('^^^^'"^•) ' Upper Rio Negro {JVaU 
Mus. Brit., &c. 

2. CalLISTE CtELICOLOR. 

^^ Calliste ccelicolor, Sclater, Cont. Orn. 1851, p. 51 j P. Z. S. 1855, 

riore aurea : pilei uaque ad nucham et cupitis laterum pennis 
coarctatts et squamatis, colore Icetissime iiridibu^l7IuZ 
gusttssima et oculorum ambitų nigris : tectricibus alarumJm 
mrs etcorporesubtus splendide cceruleis : gutturecumte7tH. 
cum alarum mediarum et remigum externarum marglZusZr 
pureis : ventre medio et crisso atris. rnargimbus pur- 

'n^ojav^^^' *'^ ""^""'^''' obscurionhus et dorso postico om- 
Long. totą 5-0, alae 3-1, caudse 2-1. 
Hab. New Grenada, Bogota. 
Mus. Brit. 

3. Calliste yeni. 

n. i^^į^t^'"^''' ^'^- ^- ^ ^- ^^^2, p. 3 ; Jard. & Selb. 111. Orn. 

^5'^a*«y.m,Įafr &d'Orb. Syn.Av.inMag.de Zool. 1837 p 31 
Tanagra yem, d'Orb. Voy. p. 270. pi. 24. L 2 '""'^'P-'^^- 

p. 2S1 '^'^"' y''''' '^'*=^- ^^^S™- A^'^h. 1844, p. 286 ; Tsch. F. P. 
Calliste chilensis, Gray, Gen. p. 366. sp. 14 
Calhste yeni BpConsp. p. 234 ; Sclater, Cont. Orn. 1851, p. 51 
Tatao yem, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 141 ; Note s. 1. Tang. p. is 
Supravelutino-atra : dorsopostico toto ruberrimo : pilei et eapi- 
viricUhJrJT'" ^"^^-^^'^^ '* squamatis, colore Utisshne 
r^ll ;■ '''''^'*'-^'^ «'^^^t^ <^nguste nigro : tectricibus alarum 
summis et corpore subtus splendide cceruleis; gutture et tectrt 
cum alarum mediarum et remigum externarum marginibus pur- 
pureis : ventre medio et crisso nigris. ^ 

Long. totą 5-2, alse 2-9, caudse 2-2 

rr^fi-^SrlT^'^T/^ "°^ ^"Sas (d'Orb.); Eastern Peru 
K-isc/i.) ; Hiver Uca.yah (Hawxwell). 
Mus. Brit., &c. 



246 

b. Calliste. 

4. Calliste tricolor. 

Tang. cayanensis varia chlorocephalos, Briss. Om. vi. App, p. 59. 

Tancj. variė a t'ete verte, Buff. PI. Enl. 32. fig. 1 (<?). 

Le Tricolor, Buff. H. N. iv. 276 (partim). 

Tanagra tricolor, Gm. S. N. i. 891 ; Vieill. Enc. Meth. p. 779 ; 
Teinm. PI. Col. 215. fig. 1 ( ? ). 

Tanagra tatao, Max. Beitr. iii. 459. 

Calliste tricolor, Gray, Gea. p. 366. sp. 1 ; Bp. Cousp. p. 234 ; 
Sclater, Coat. Om. 1851, p. 51. 

Callispiza tricolor, Cab. Mus. Heiu. p. 26. 

Tatao tricolor, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 141 ; Note s. 1. Taug. p. 16. 

Tatao tricolor mdle, Destn. Tan. pi. 3. 

Green-headed Tanager, Lath. G. H. vi. p. 24. 

Lcete viridis : rostri ambitų et colio antico interscapulioque nigris : 
capite U7idique et vitta gulam siimmam transeunte lcete cceru- 
lescenti-viridibus : pectore cceruleo : dorsi postici parte supe- 
riore flammea : tectricibus alarum superioribus purpureis : 
rostro et pedibus nigris. 
? . Mari similis, sed coloribus omnibus obscurioribus ; dorso pos- 
ticojlavo. 

Loug. totą 5'2, alse 2-7, caudse 2"1. 

Hab. South-easteru Brazil (P. Max.). 

Mus. Brit., &c. 

5. Calliste fastuosa. 

Tanagra f astuosa, Less. Cent. Zool. pi. 58. p. 184. 
Calliste fastuosa, Gray, Gen. p. 366. sp. 20 ; Bp. Consp. p. 235 ; 
Sclater, Cont. Orn. 1851, p. 52. 

Tatao fastuosus, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 142 ; Note s. 1. Tang. p. 16. 

Fronte, mento, gutture medio et interscapulio velutino-nigris : 
dorso postico aurantiaco : capite et cervice totą cum vitta gu- 
lam transeunte Icetissime cceruleo-viridibus : alis caudaque 
nigris, jjurpureo marginatis : tectricibus alarum minoribus 
Icetissime cceruleis : secundariarum trium ultimarum margini- 
bus externis pallide aureis : abdomine toto purpureo, pectore 
lilacescente. 

? . Mari similis, sed coloribus obsciirioribus. 

Long. totą 5'5, alse 2-8, caudse 2*0. 

Hab. Eastern Brazil, Peruambuco. 

yius. Brit., Paris., &c. 

6. Calliste festiva. 

Tang. cayanensis varia cganocephalos, Briss. Orn. vi. App. p. 62. 
Tang. a tėte bleue de Catjenne, Buff. PI. Enl. 33. fig. 2 (c?). 
Le Tricolor, Buff. H. N. iv. p. 276 (partim). 
Tanagra tricolor, var. /3, Gm. S. N. 892 ; Don. Nat. Rep. pi. 23. 
Tanagra festiva, Shaw, Nat. Misc. pi. 537. 



247 



Taimyru cyanocephala, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N xxxii d 425 • Fnn 
Meth. p. 780 ; Temm. PI. Col. 215. fig. ?( ? ^' ^^ ' ^"'• 

Vogl'pL ?1 ^fi'^T"' ^''^*' ^"■'- '^^ ^°"^^- P- ^^ ' ^^^t'- Kupf. d. 

"Tanagra rubricollis, Temm.," Max. Beitr. iii. 456 

Aglniu cyanocephala, Sw. Orn. Dr. pi 5 

Callistefestiva, Gray, Gen. p. 366. sp.'2; Bp. Conso d 234 ■ 
Sciater, Cont. Orn. 1851, p. 51. ^ P' P" ' 

Callispiza festiva, Cab. Mus. Hein. p -^G 

7;a^«o/e*^ū-«, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 142 ; Note s. 1. Tang. p. 16. 

I angarą tricolor femelh, Desm. Tan. pi. 4 

Green-headed Tanager, var. A, Lath. G. H. vi. p. 25. 

LcBte viridis : rostri ambitų et interscapulio nigris : piko toto 
nuchaque cum gutture cceruleis : oculonim ambitų et pilei ccb- 
rulet margine antica thalassinis : regione auriculari cum colio 
laterah et postico late rubris: alis caudaąue nigris viridi lim- 
oatis; tectnctbus alarum minoribus nigris aurantio terminatis : 
aus caudaque nigrts. 

?. Marisimilis, sed coloribus dilutioribus ; dorso viridi niuro 

vanegato. ^ 

Long. totą 5-0, alse 2-5, caudse 1-9. 
Hab. South-eastern Brazil (P Max ) 
Mus. Brit. ''' 

7. Calliste cyaneiventris. 
^T^agracyanoventris, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xxxii. p. 426 ; Enc. 

Tanagra elegans, Max. Reise n. Bras. i. p 187 

Tanagra citrinella, Temm. PI. Col. 42. fig. 2;' Max. Beitr. iii. 

Aglaia citrinella, Sw. Orn. Dr. pi. 6. 

Calliste citrinella, Gray, Gen. p. 366. sp. 3 ; Bp. Consp. p 234 

Lalhspiza citrinella, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 26. 

Chrysothraupis citrinella, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 142 ; Note s. 1. Taug. 

Calliste cyanoventris, Sciater, Cont. Orn. 1851, p. 54, 
Supra aureo-Jlava; dorso superiore et medio nigro varieaatis ■ 
ahscaudaquemgris viridi limbatis: infra nitide cyanea,mento 
summo et colio antico nigris: vitta gulam summam transeunte 
aurea, capite concolore : ventre medio crissoq_ue ochracescenti- 
flamsviridiperfusis: rostro nigro : pedibusfuscis. 
? . Man similts, sed coloribus dilutioribus 
Loug. totą 5-25, alee 2-7, caudse 2-1. 
Hab. South-eastern Brazil (Temm.). 
Mus. Brit. 

8. Calliste thoracica. 

Tanagra thoracica, Temm. PI. Col. 42, fig. 1. 



248 

Calliste thoradca, Gray, Gen. p. 366. sp. 4 ; Bp. Consp. p. 234 ; 
Sciater, Cont. Orn. 1851, p. 54. 

Callismza thoradca, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 2b. , ^„ „ ^ , 

Chrysothraupis thoradca, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 142; Note s. 1. 
Tang. p. 17. 

Supra nitide viridis nigro variegata : fronte nigra : regione ocu- 
lari et vitta pileum anticum transeunte thalassino-cyanets: 
gutture et pectore toto aurantio-flavis, plaga in gutttire medio 
cum mento summo nigns : alis caudaque mgris viridi hmbatts ; 
tectricibus alamm summis nigris aurantio terminatis : abdo- 
mine nitide viridi, hypochondriis cyaneo tinctis : ventre medio 
et crisso flavicantibus. 
? , Mari similis, sed coloribus dilutioribm. 

Long. totą 5-5, alae 28, caudse 2-4. 

Hab. South-eastern Brazil (Natt.). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 

9. Calliste schranki. 

Tanagra schrankii, Spix, Av. Bras. ii. p. 38. pi. 51 (<J) et (?) ; 
d'Orb. Voy. p. 2/0. pi. 24. fig. 1. 

Aglaia schrankii, Lafr. & d'Orb. Syn. Av. in Mag. de Zool. 1837, 
p. 31; Bp. P. Z. S. 1837, p. 122. 

Aglaia melanotis, Sw. An. in Men. p. 355 ( $ ). 

Calliste schrankii, Gray, Gen. p. 366. sp. 17 ; Bp. Consp. p. 23o. 
sp 18 ; Sciater, Cont. Orn. 1851, p. 54 ; P. Z. S. 1854, p. llo. 

Callospiza schrankii, Tscb. Wiegm. Arch. 1844, p. 286, et F. P. 

^' Chrysothraupis schrankii, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 143 ; Note s. 1. 
Tang. p. 17. 

LcBte viridis : interscapulii et seamdariarum idtimanim pennis 
nigris, viridi marginatis : alis caudaqae nigris carulescenti- 
viridi limbatis : fronte lata et capitis lateribus nigris : pileo 
postico aureo : dorso imo cum pectore et ventre summo media- 
literflavis: rostro et pedibus nigris. 
? . Mari similis, sed coloribus fuinus vividis : capite viridi : uro- 

pygioflavicante. 
Long. totą 46, alse 27, caud« 1*7. 

Hab. East Peru {Tsch. ^- Hawxivell) ; prov. Maynas (Poppig) ; 
Ecuador, prov. Quixos ; Bolivia, Yuracares (d'Orb.). 
Mus. Brit., Paris. 

c. Ixothraupis. 

10. Calliste punctata. 

Tangara viridis indica punctata, Briss. Orn. iii. 19. 

Tang. verd tachetė des Indės, Buff. PI. Enl. 133. fig. 1. 

Le Syacou, Buff. H.. N. iv. p. 288. 

Tanagra punctata, Linn. S. N. i. 316. 



249 

Calliste punctata, Gray, Gen. p. 366. sp. 12 ; Bp. Consp. p. 234. 
sp. 8 ; Sclater, Cont. Om. 1851, p. 55. 
Callispiza punctata, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 26. 

Ixothraupis punctata, Bp.R. Z. 1851, p. 143; Notes.l.Tang. p. 18. 
Spotted Green Tittnouse, Edwards, Glean. vi. pi. 262. 
Tangara syacou, Desm. Tan. pi. 8 et 9. 

Supra leete viridis : capitis et dorso superioria pennis media- 
liter nigris viridi marginatis : alis caudaque nigris viridi lim- 
batis : loris nigris : fronte angusta et ciliis oculorum albescen- 
tibus: subtus alba, viridi tincta et nigro guttata, lateraliter 
paulum flavescens : ventre medio albo : hypochondriis viridibus : 
crisso Jlavicante : rostro et pedibus nigris. 

C . Minor et obscurior : guttis corporis inferi pcene obsoletis. 

liong. totą 4'6, alse 2'5, caudae 16. 

Hab. Cayenne {Buff.). 

Mus. Brit. 

11. Calliste GUTTATA. 

Spotted Emerald Tanager, Lath. G. H. vi. 19. 

Callospiza punctata, Cab. in Schomb. Reise, iii. p. 669. 

Callispiza guttata, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 26. 

Calliste guttulata, Bp. Compt. Bend. Ac. Sc. Par. xxxii. p. 7() ; 
Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 157. 

Calliste chrysophrys, Sclater, Cont. Om. 1851, p. 24. pi. 69. fig. 2, 
et p. 54. 

Ixothraupis guttulata, Bp. R. Z. 1 85 1, p. 1 44 ; Note s.l. Tang. p. 1 8 . 

Supra aurescenti-viridis : capitis totius et dorsi superioris pennis 
medialiter nigris, viridi marginatis : fronte et regione oculari 
aureis: alis caudaque nigris, hac viridi, illis autem ccerules- 
centi-viridi latius marginatis : loris nigris : subtus alba, 
ccerulescente tincta et guttis rotundis preecipue in pectore per- 
fusa : his maculis in gula minoribus : ventre medio albescente : 
lateribus et crisso flavo-virescentibus : rostro et pedibus nigris. 
o . Paulo minor et coloribus minus claris. 

Hab. British Guiana (Schomb.) ; "Venezuela ; Trinidad ; New 
Grenada, Bogota ; Ecuador (Bourcier) . 

12. Calliste xanthogastra. 

Calliste xanthogastra, Sclater, Cont.Orn. 1851, p. 23 & 55 ; P. Z. S. 
1854, p. 115, et 1855, p. 157. 

Ixothrnupis chrysogaster, Bp. Rev. Zool. 1851, p. 144 ; Note s. 1. 
Tang. p. 18. 

Late viridis : capitis et corporis inferi ad medium pectus pennis 
medialiter nigris, viridi late circumcinctis : interscupuUi, alarum 
et caudte plumis nigris, ceerulescenti-viridi late marginatis : ventre 
medio flavo : lateribus viridibus : tectricibus subularibus albis : 
rostro et pedibus nigris. 

Loug. totą 42, alse 25, caudae r5. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota; Eastern Peru; Ecuador, prov, Quixos. 



250 

13. CaLLISTE GRAMINliA. 

Tang. tachetė de Cayenne, Buff. PI. Enl. 301. fig. 1. 

Le Syacou, Buff. H. N. iv. p. 288 (partim). 

Tangara petit Syacou, Less. Trait. d'Orn. p. 462. 

Tanagra graminea, Spix, Av. Bras. ii. p. 40. pi. 53. fig. 2 ( ? ). 

Calliste virescens, Sclater, Cont. Orn. 1851, p. 22. pi. 69. fig. 1, et 
p. 56. 

Ixothraupis pusilla, Bp. Rev. Zool. 1851, p. 144 ; Note s. 1. Tang. 
p. 18. 

Calliste graminea, Sclater, Tan. Cat. Sp. p. 11. sp. 17. 

Viridis : alis caudaąue nigris ; harum marginibus externis cum inter- 
scapulio toto carulescentibus ; ventre medio vix flavescente. 

? . Viridis f ere unicolor : alis caudaque fusco-nigris , viridi lim- 
batis ; ventre flavescente. 

Long. totą 3'9, alae 2*3, caudae 1-5. 

Hab. Cayenne ; Lower Amazon. 

Mits. Brit., Bmxell. 

14. Calliste rufigularis. 

Tanagrella rufigula, Bp. Compt. Rend. Ac. Sc. Par. xxxii. p. 77 ; 
Rev. Zool. 1851, p. 130; Note s. 1. Tang. p. 4. 
Calliste rufigula, Sclater, Cont. Orn. 1851, p. 55. 

Supra niger : interscapulii, alarutn et caudae pennis anguste viridi 
marginatis : dorso imo pure pallido viridi : subtus virescenti- 
albida : pectoris et laterum pennis nigro guttatis ; gula cupres- 
centi-rufa : abdomine medio albido ; crisso ochracescente : tec- 
tricibus subalaribus albis : rostro nigro, basi plumbescenti-albida : 
pedibus nigris, 

Long. totą 4-5, alse 2*7, caudae 1*7. 

Hab. Ecuador, vic. of Quito (Bourcier) (Jameson). 

Mus. Paris. 

d. Chrysothraupis. 

15. Calliste aurtjlenta. 

T. (Aglaia) aurulenta, Lafr. R. Z. 1843, p. 290, et 1854, p. 207. 

Calliste aurulenta, Gray's Gen. App. p. 17; Bp. Consp. p. 235; 
Sclater, Cont. Orn. 1851, p. 52 (partim) ; P. Z. S. 1855, p. 157. 

Chrysothraupis aurulenta, Bp. R, Z. 1851, p. 142 ; Note s. 1. Tang. 
p. 16. 

Aurea, pileo aurantio tincto : interscapulio nigro variegato : loris 
et regione auriculari nigerrimis : alis caudague nigris : alaruni 
tectricibus omnibus et secundariis viridescenti-aureo limbatis ; 
rectricum marginibus externis eodem colore vix tinctis : subtus 
aureo-flava : rostro et pedibus nigris, 

Long. totą 5'0, alse 2*8, caudae 1*9. 

Hab. Nevv Grenada, Bogota. 

Mus. Brit. 



251 

16. Calliste sclateri. 

Calliste aurulenta, Sclater, Cont. Orn. 1851, p. 52. 
Calliste sclateri, Lafr. Rev. Zool. 1854, p. 207; Šclater P Z S 
1855, p. 157. , . . . 

Supra latissime aurea, regione oculari citrino-flava : loris et re- 
gione auriculari nigerrimis : dorso nigro variegato : alis cuudaaue 
nigris: alarum tectricihus omnibus et secundariis viridescenti- 
aureo hmbatis : rectricum mediarum marginibus externis eodem 
colore vix tinctis .- subtus saturate brunnescenti-aurea : rostro et 
pedibus nigris. 

Long. totą 5-5, alae 3-1, caudge 2-1. 

Hab. New Grenada, Begota. 

Mus. Lafresnayano. 

17. Calliste pulchra. 

Ca/os^/za ;jM/cAr«, Tsch. Av. Consp. iu Wiegm. Arch 1844 n 28^- 
F. P. p. 200. pi. 18. fig. 2; Gray, Gen. A^p. p. 17'; Bp. Consp' 
p. 235. sp. 32 ; Lafr. R. Z. 1854, p. 206. ^^ ^ ' ' ""P* ^°°'P- 

Aureo-flava : interscapulio limonaceo-flavo et nigro variegato .fronte 
angusta. mento summo, loris et regione auriculari cum alis cau- 
daque nigerrimis : alarum tectricibus et secundariis viridescenti- 
aureo anguste limbatis : gutture et cervice antica castaneo-aureis • 
rostro et pedibus nigris. 

Long. totą 5-75, alae 3-3, caudse 2-4. 

Hab. Easteru wood-region of Peru (Tsch.) ■ Quixos iu Ecuador. 

Mus. Neuchatel et Joh. Gould. 

This bird may be distinguished from the two precedine bv its 
larger size and chestuut throat. ^ ^ 

18. Calliste arthusi. 

Tanagra arthus, Less. 111. Zool. pi. 9 ; Gray, Gen p 21 
Calliste arthusi, Bp. Consp. p. 235. sp. 36; Sclater, Cont. Oru 
I80I, p. 53. 

Chrysothraupis arthus, Bp.R.Z. 1851,p.442; Notes.l.Tang. p. 16. 

Supra l<Btissime aurea, rostri ambitų et regione auriculari nigris ■ 
interscapulio nigro variegato : alarum tectricibus et secundariis 
mgris virescenti-aureo limbatis: subtus castanea, gutture aureo ■ 
ventre medio pallide flavo. 

Long. totą 5-7, alse 3-0, caudže 2-3. 

Hab. Venezuela; Cariaco {Byson), Caraccas {Levraud^. 

Mus. Bnt., Parisiensi. 

19. Calliste icterocephala. 

Calliste icterocephala, Bp. Compt. Rend. Ac. Sc. Par. xvxii n 76 • 
Sclater, Cont. Oru. 1851, p. 53. pi. "JO. fig. 1. ' ^' ' ' 

Chrysothraupis icterocephala, Bp. Note s. 1. Taug. p. 17; R. z. 
1 80 1, p. 445. 

Flava : interscapulio et tectricibus alarum summis nigro variegatis : 



252 

alis caudacue nigris aurescenti-viridi limbatis : gutture et torque 

cervicali undigue pallide virescetiti-argenteis. 
Long. totą 5 "O, alae 2*8, caudse 19. 
Hab. Ecuador, valley of Punta playa (Bourcier). 
Mus. Parisiensi. 

e. Euschemon. 

20. Calliste vitriolina. 

Callispiza vitriolina, Cab. Mus, Hein. p. 28. 
Calliste ruficapilla, Sclater, Cont. Orn. 1851, p, 61 ; P. Z. S. 1855, 
p. 158. 

Calliste vitriolina, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 159 ; Note s. 1. Tang. p. 13. 

Ex griseo nitenti-viridescens : pileo rufo : capitis lateribus nigris : 
alis caudaque nigris ccerulescenti-viridi limbatis: subtus dilutior, 
ventre albidiore : crisso pallide ru/escente. 

$ . Mari similis, sed coloribus dilutioribus et marginibus alarum 
viridescentibus. 

Long. totą 5-3, alse 3* O, caudse 2' 2. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota. 

Mtis. Brit., &c. 

21. Calliste cayana. 

Tang. cayanensis viridis, Briss. Orn. iii. 21, 

Tanagra cayana, Linn. S. N. i. 315 ; Vieill. Enc. Meth. p. 777. 

Fringilla autumnalis, Linn. S. N. i. p. 320 ? 

Calliste cayana, Gray, Gen. p. 366. sp. ; Bp. Consp. p. 234. sp. 1 ; 
R, Z. 1851, p. 140; Note s. 1. Tang. p. 14. 

Calospiza cayana, Schomb. Reise, iii. p. 6/0. 

Callispiza cayana, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 27. 

Calliste chrysonota, Sclater, Cont. Orn. 1850, p, 50. pi. 51, et 1851, 
p. 62. 

Moineau O, t^te rousse de Cayenne, Buff. PI. Enl. 201. fig, 2 {fig. 
pess.). 

Tang. d, t^te rousse de Cayenne, Buff, PI, Enl. 290. fig. 1. 

Le Passevert, Buff. H. N. iv. 273 ; Desm. Tau. pi. 10, U. 

The rufous-headed Tanager, Lath. G. H, vi. p. 30. 

Flavescenti-ochracea : pileo cuprescenti-rufo : capitis lateribus ni- 
gris : alis nigris ccerulescenti-viridi limbatis : gutture toto ceeru- 
lescenti-nigro perfuso. 

? . Obscurior : marginibus alarum et cauda viridescentibus. 

Long. totą 4 '8, alse 2 '7, caudse 1*5. 

Hab. Cayenne. 

Mus. Brit. 

22. Calliste CYANOLiEMA. 

Calliste cyanolaima, Bp. Note s. 1. Tang. p. 14 ; R. Z. 1851, p. 140. 
Calliste cyanolama, Sclater, Tan. Cat. Sp. p. 12. sp. 21. 

Nitentissime flavescenti-ochracea : pileo cuprescenti-rufo : capitis 



253 

lateribus nigris ■ alis caudaque nigris viridescentuc<eruleo Hm- 

batis : gutture toto cyaneo relucente. 
? . Obscurior .• marginibus alarum et caudee viridescentibus. 
Long. totą 5*5, alae 2'8, caudae 2*1. 
Hab. Interior of Venezuela, Rio Negro; Trinidad (?). 
Mus. P. L. S. 

Obs. Vix a Calliste cayana distincta, et crassitie paulo majore et 
coloribus clarioribus solum dignoscenda. 



23. Calliste cucullata. 
Aglaia cucullata, Sw. Oru. Dr. pi. 7. 

Calliste cucullata, Gray's Gen. p. 366. sp. 9 ; Bp. Consp. p. 234 ; 
Sclater, Cont. Om. 1851, p. 63 ; Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 14 ; Note s. 1. 
Tang. p. 14. 

Supra flavescenti-ochracea, viridescente tincta : pileo nigro-cinna- 
momeo : infra rufescentior ; pectore carulescente : alis caudaąue 
nigris viridi limbatis : rostro validiore. 
Long. totą 5*0, alse 2*9. 
Hab. Venezuela, Angostura. 
Mus. Parisiensi, Stricklandico. 

This is a searce bird in collections, but I have no doubt about its 
being a good species. It is distinguishable from all its affines by its 
peculiar dark cinnamon-coloured head. 

24. Calliste flava. 

Tang. brasiliensis flava, Briss. Om. iii. 39. 

Tanagra flava, Gm. i. p. 896; Latb. Ind. Om. i. p. 431 ; Max. 
Beitr. iii. 467. 

Lindo bello, Azara, Pax. i. p. 387. 

Tanagra f ormosa, VieUl. N. D. d'H. N. xxxii. p. 407 ; Enc. Mėth. 
p. 773. 

Tanagra chloroptera, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xxxii. p. 407. 

Aglaia flava, Sw. Zool. 111. n. s. pi. 

Calliste flava, Gray, Gen. p. 366. sp. 15 ; Bp. Consp. p. 234 ; 
Sclater, Cont. Om. 1851, p. 61 ; Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 140; Note s. 
L Tang. p. 14. 

Callispiza flava, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 27. 

Yellom Tanager, Latb. G. H. p. 22. 

Clare ochraceo-flava : alis caudague nigris ceerulescenti-viridi lim- 
batis : corpore subtus a mento ad ventrem medialiter nigro. 

? . Ochraceo-flava, obscurior : dorso viridescente tincto : alis cau- 
daque nigris viridi limbatis : gutture et pectore mediali albidis 
nigricante mixtis, 

Long. totą 5*8, alse 29, caudse 2*0. 

Hab. Soutb-eastem Brazil (Max.) ; Pernambuco {Sw.) ; Para- 
guay {Azara). 

Mus. Brit., &c. 



254 

25. Calliste pretiosa. 

Lindo precioso, Azara, Pax. i. p. 381 . 

Aglaia cayana, d'Orb. et Lafr. Syn. Av. in Mag. de Zool. 1837, 
p. 32? 

Tanagra cayana, d'Orb. Voy. p. 272 ? 
Calliste cayana, Hartl. Ind. Az. p. 6. 

Tanagra gyrola, Max. Beitr. iii. 471 (partim) ; DuBois, Orn. Gal. 
pi. 87 (J). 

Callispiza preciosa, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 27. 
Calliste castanonota, Sclater, Cont. Orn. 1851, p. 63. 
Calliste pretiosa, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 159 ; Note s. 1. Tang. p. 14. 
Nitenti-flavescenti-ochracea : capite toto cum cervice postica et 
dorso summo cuprescenti-rufis : remigibus rectricibusąue 7iigris, 
cceruleo limbatis : loris nigris : subtus viridescens, abdomine me- 
dio ccerulescente, ventre imo, crisso et tibiis pallide rufis. 
? . Viridescens, plumarum marginibus obscurioribus : alis caudague 
nigris viridi limbatis : pileo cuprescente : subtus dilutior, crisso 
rufescente. 
Long. totą 6'3, alae 3'3, caudse 2*3. 

Hab. Southern Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul (Plant) ; Paraguay 
{Azara) ; Monte Video (Selloe) ; Curytiba (Natt.) ; Corrientes 
(d'Orb.). 

Mus. Derbiano, Heineano, Bruxell., Vindob., Berol. 

26. Calliste melanonota. 

Tanagra peruviana, Desm. Tan. pi. 11 (<?) ; Vieill. Enc. Mdth. 
p. 778. 

Tanagra gyrola, Max. Beitr. iii. 471 (partim) ; DuBois, Orn. Gal. 
pi. 87. p. 134(?). 

Aglaia melanota, Sw. Orn. Dr. pi. 31 ( <? ), 43 ( ? ). 
Calliste peruviana, Gray, Gen. p. 366. sp. 8 ; Bp. Consp. p. 234 ; 
R. Z. 1851, p. 140 ; Note s. 1. Tang. p. 14 ; Sclater, Cont. Orn. 
1851, p. 64. 

Nitenti-flavescenti-ochracea : capite toto cum cervice postica saturate 
cupreo-rufis : interscapuUo nigerrimo : remigibus rectricibusque 
nigris ccerulescente limbatis : loris nigris : subtus clare viridis, 
ventre vix ccerulescente : ventre imo, crisso et tibiis pallide rufis. 
$ . Supra viridis, interscapuUo vix obscuriore : pileo et cervice 
postica cuprescentibus : loris nigris : subtus viridescens, ventre 
medio flavescenti-albido, imo cum crisso paululum rufescente. 
Long. totą 5 8, alse 3'0, caudse 2-0. 
Hab. Soutli-east Brazil (Max.). 
Mus. Brit., &c. 

I have not continued to employ Desmarest's name for this bird, 
because it is not found in Peru — but in South-easteni Brazil — a very 
different zoological province. 

27. Calltste cyanoptera. 
Aglaia cyanoptera, Sw. Orn. Dr. pi. 8. 



255 

Tanagra urgentea, Lafr. R. Z. 1843, p. 69. 

Calliste cyanoptera, Gray, Gen. p. 366. sp. 10 ; Bp. Consp. p. 234. 
sp. 15 ; R. Z. 1851, p. 140; Note s. 1. Tang. p. 15 ; Sclater, Cont. 
Orn. 1851, p. 64. 

Callispiza cyanoptera, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 27. 

Argentescenti-ochracea, viridi micans : capite undicue cum gutture 
alis caudaąue nigris : harum marginibus angustis clare cceruleis. 

C . Viridescens, uropygio et ventre subtus flavescentioribus, capite 
obscuriore et ccsrulescente tincto : gutture albido : alis caudaąue 
nigris viridi limbatis. 

Long. totą 5*5, alse 3 'O, caudse 2'0. 

Hab. Venezuela, Caraccas (Levraud). 

Mus. Paris. 

f. Gyrola. 

28. Calliste gyrola. 

Tang. peruviana viridis, Briss. Orn. iii. p, 23. 

Tanagra gyrola, Linn. S. N. i. 315 ; Lath. Ind. Orn. i. 427 ; VieilI. 
Enc. Meth. p. 778. 

Aglaia chrysoptera, Sw. Aii. Men. p, 356. 

Calliste gyrola, Gniy, Gen. p. 366. sp. 5 ; Bp. Consp. p. 234 ; 
Sclater, Cont. Orn. 1851, p. 67. 

Callispiza gyrola, Cab, Mus. Hein. p. 28. 

Gyrola chrysoptera, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 139; Note s. 1. Tang. 
p. 13. 

Le Rouverdin, Buff. H. N. iv. 286. 

Tang. du Pe'rou, Buff. PI. Enl. 133. fig. 2. 

Tang. rouverdin, mdle, Desm. Tan. pi. 6. 

Red-headed Greenfinch, Edwards, Glean. pi. 23. 

Red-headed Tanager, Lath. G. H. vi. 15. 

Clare viridis : capite et mento summo castaneis : campterio aures- 

cente : abdomine medio ccerulescente : tibiis pallide rufis. 
Long. totą 4*5, alse 2*7, caudse 1-8. 
Hab. Cayenne ; Brit. Guiana {Sw.). 
Mus. Brit. 

29. Calliste gyroloides. 

Aglaia gyrola, "Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. in Mag. de Zool. 1837, 
p. 32. 

Tanagra gyrola, d'Orb. Voy. p. 272. 

Aglaia peruviana, Sw. An. in Men. p. 356. 

Callospiza gyrola, Tsch. Wiegm. Arch. 1844, p. 286 ; F. P. p. 202. 

Calliste cyanoventris, Gray, Gen. p. 366. sp. 19. 

Aglaia gyroloides, Lafr. R. Z. 1847, p. 277. 

Calliste gyroloides, Gray, Gen. App. p. 17 ; Bp. Consp. p. 234 ; 
Sclater, Cont. Orn. 1851, p. 67; P. Z. S. 1854, p. 115; 1855, p. 158; 
Cassin, Rep. U.S. Astron. Exp. ii. p. 182. pi. xix. fig. 1. 

Gyrola cyanoventris, Bp. R.Z. 18.51, p. 139 ; Note s. 1. Tang. p. 13. 



256 

Clure viridis : capile et mento sutnmo castaneis : torąue nuchali et 
campteriis aurescentibus : dorso postico et abdomine toto caruleis : 
tibiis pallide rufis. 
Long. totą 5-0, alse 2*9, caudse TS. 

Hab. Chiriąui, vic. of David (Bridges) ; New Grenada, Bogota ; 
Ecuador, prov. Quixos ; Eastern Peru (Tsch.) ; Bolivia, Yuracares 
(d'Orb.). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 

30. Calliste desmaresti. 

Tang. rouverdin, femelle, Desm.Tan.pl. 7 (?). 
Tanagra gyrola, Sw. Zool. 111. n. s. pi. 28. 

Calliste desmaresti, Gray, Gen. p. 366. sp. 6 ; Sclater, Cont. Oni. 
1851, p. 67; Cassin, Rep. U.S. Astr. Exp. ii. p. 182. pi. xix. fig. 2. 
Aglaia viridissima, Lafr. R. Z. 1847, p. 277. 
Gyrola viridissima, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 139 ; Note s. 1. Tang. p, 13. 
Calliste viridissima, Bp. Consp. p. 234. 

Clare viridis : capite toto et mento summo castaneis : tibiis pallide 

rufis. 
Long. totą 5*0, alae 2-7, eaudse 1'7. 
Hab. Venezuela ; Trinidad. 
Mus. Brit., &c. 

g. Euprepiste. 

31. Calliste brasiliensis. 

Tang. brasiliensis ceerulea, Briss. Orn. iii. p. 9. 

Tang. bleu de Brėsil, Buff. PI. Enl. 179. fig. 1. 

Tanagra brasiliensis, Linn. S. N. i. p. 316; Vieill. Enc. Meth. 
p. 780 ; Max. Beitr. iii. p. 477- 

Tang. barbadensis ccerulea, Briss. Om. iii. p. 8 ? 

Tang. bleu de Cayenne, Buff. PI. Enl. 155. fig. 1 ; H. N. iv. p. 282 ? 

Tanagra barbadensis, Kuhl, Ind. PI. Enl. p. 3 ; Temm. Ind. PI. 
Col. p. 31 ? 

Calliste albiventer, Gray, Gen. p. 366 ? 

Calliste brasiliensis, Gray, Gen. p. 366. sp. 1 1 ; Bp. Consp. p. 234 ; 
Sclater, Cont. Orn. 1851, p. 68. 

Callospiza barbadensis, Bp. Compt. Rend. Ac. Sc.Par. xxxii."p. 80. 

Callospiza brasiliensis, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 468; Note s. 1. Tang. 
p. 19 ; Cab. Mus. Hein. p, 27. 

Nigra : capite antico et laterali cum gutture, pectore et lateribus 
necnon dorso postico alarum tectricibus et remigum marginibus 
esternis caruleis : rostri ambitų, torgue gutturali interrupto, et 
maculis in lateribus pectoris et ventris nigris : abdomine niedio 
et tectricibus subalaribus albis. 

Long. totą 60, alae 3-3, eaudse 2'2. 

Hab. South-easteru Brazil, Rio (Max.), 

Mus. Brit., &c. 



257 

32. CaLLISTE FLAVIVENTRIS. 

Tang. cayennensis carulea, Briss. Orn. iii. p. 6. 
Tang. tachetė de Cayenne, BuflF, PI. Enl. 290. fi». 2. 
Tang. cliable enrhume. Buff. H. N. iv. 27 ; Desm. Tane;, pi 2 
Tanagra mexicana, Linn. S. N. i. 315. ^ v • • 

Tanagra faviventris, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xxxii. p. 411 • Euc 
JMetli. p. 774. ^ ' 

Calliste mexicana, Gray, Gen. p. 366. sp. 21 ; Bp. Coasp. p. 235. 
Lallospiza mesicana, Schomb. Keise, iii. 670. 
Calliste flaviventris, Sciater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 69. 
Callispiza flaviventris, Cab. Mus. Heiu. p. 27. 
Callospiza cayennensis, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 169 ; Note s. 1 Taii<r 
p. 20. ^' 

Black and Blue Tanager, Edwards, Glean. t. 350 ; Lath. G H 
VI. 35. 

Nigra : capite antico et laterali cum gutiure, pectore et lateribus 
necnon dorso postico et tectricum. alarium majorum marginibus 
externis cceruleis ; rostri ambitų, torąue gutturali interrupto et 
macnhs in lateribus pectoris et ventris nigris : tectricibus alarum 
mmoribus turcoso-caruleis : remigum externarum margine angusta 
cyanea : abdomine niedio cum crisso et tectricibus subalaribus albig 
sulphureo tinctis. * 

Long. totą 5-4, alse 27, caudse 1-8. 

Hab. Cayenne ; Upper Rio Negro ( TVallace') 

Mus. Brit., &c. t> v / 

33. Callistk vieilloti, sp. nov. 
Tanagra flaviventris, Vieill. Enc. Me'th. p. 774 (partim). 
Callospiza mexicana, Bp. Compt. Rend. Ac. Sc. Par. xxxii p 80 • 
R. Z. 1851, p. 169 ; Note s. 1. Tang. p. 20. " ' 

Nigra : capite antico et laterali cum gutture, pectore et lateribus 
necnon dorso postico et tectricum alarium majorum marginibus 
estėmis caruleis : rostri ambitų, torgue gutturali interrupto et 
macubs in lateribus pectoris et ventris nigris : tectricibus alarum 
viinoribus turcoso-caruMs : remigum margine externa anguste 
viridescente .- abdomine medio cum crisso et tectricibus alarum 
in/erioribus clare flavis. 
$ . Ventre pallidiore. 

Long. totą 45, alae 2*9, caudse 1-7. 

Hab. Trinidad. 

Mus. Paris, et P. L. S. 

This Tanager was first well-distinguished from C. flaviventris o{ 
tayenne by Pnnce Bonaparte, who proposed to retain for it the 
Linnsean name mexicana. This I eanuot assent to, as the bird has 
nothing to do with Mexico ; and moreover, if that name is used at 
all, lt mušt be applied to the Cayenne bird, as Linn^us's species 
was grounded pnucipally ou Brisson's Tang. cayennensis ccenelea. 

The Calliste vieilloti is eommou in collections from Trinidad, and 
No. CCCXVII.— Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



258 

may be readily recognized by its bright yellow belly and under wing- 
coverts, which in C.Jlaviventris are creamy white tinged with yellow. 

34. Calliste boliviana. 

Aglaia mexicana, Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. inMag. de Zool. 1837, 
p. 32. 

Tanagra flaviventris, d'Orb. Voy. p. 270. 

Callospiza boliviana, Bp. Compt. Rend. Ac. Sc. Par. xxxii. p. tiO ; 
R. Z. 1851, p. 169; Note s. 1. Tang. p. 20. 

Calliste boliviana, Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 69. 

Nigra : capite antico et laterali cum gutture pectore et lateribus 
necnon dorso postico et tectricibus alarum minoribus cum mar- 
ginibtts tectricum majorum cceruleis : rostri ambitų, torque guttu- 
rali interrupto et maculis in lateribus pectoris et ventris nigris : 
remigum margine externa anguste cyanescente : abdomine medio 
crissogue cum tectricibus subalaribus flavissimis . 

Loiig. totą 50, alse 2*75, caudse 1*9. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota ; East Peru ; Upper Amazon, Ega 
{Wallace) ; Bolivia, Guarayos and Yuracares (d'Orb.). 

Mus. Paris., Derbiano. 

35. Calliste inornata. 

Calliste inornata, Gould, P. Z. S, 1855, p. 158 (note). 

Supra nigro-grisea : alis caudague fusco-nigris : alarum tectricibus 
minoribus turcoso-cceruleis : subtus pallidior ; abdomine toto 
crissogue et tectricibus subalaribus lactescenti-albis : rostra et 
pedibus nigris. 
Long. totą 4"75, alee 2*5, caudse 1"75. 
Hab. New Grenada, Bogota. 
Mus. Joh. Gould. 

This curious little bird, of wbich Mr. Gould possesses a single 
specimen, appears to me to represeut an immature statė of some 
species of true Calliste, probably as yet undescribed. 

h. Procnopis. 

36. Calliste atric^erulea. 

Procnopis atroccBrulea, Tscb. in Wiegm. Arch. 1844, p. 285 ; 
F. P. p. 199. pi. 13. ng. 2. 

Calliste atroccerulea, Gray, Gen. App. p. 17 ; Sclater, Contr. Orn. 
1851, p. 59 ; Bp. Consp. p. 235. 

Chalcothraupis atroccerulea, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 144; Note s. 1. 
Tang. p. 19. 

Ccerulea : interscapidio nigro : capite toto ex cinereo ccerulescente : 
nuchali macula dilute straminea : alis nigris cceruleo limbatis : 
gula et pectore cyaneis. 

Hab. Eastern Peru (Tsch.) ; Bolivia (Bridges). 

Mus. Neucbatel, Derbiano. 



259 

37. Calliste ruficervix. 

Aglaia ruficervix, Prev. Voy. Venus, Ois. pi. 5.fig. 1. 

Arremon rufivertex, Gray, Gen. p. 361. sp. 3. 

Procnopis atroccerulea et Tanagra ruficervix, Bp. Compt. Rend. 
1851, xxxii. p. 77. 

Chalcothraupis ruficervix, Bp. R. Z. 1855, p. 144 ; Note s. 1. 
Tang. p. 18. 

Calliste leucotis, Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 58. 

Calliste ruficervix, Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 58 ; P. Z. S. 1855, 
p. 158. 

Ceerulea : dorsi plumis medialiter et intus nigris : alis caudaque 
nigris cceruleo limbatis : pileo et cervice postica purpureis : vitta 
lata trans nucham aurescenti-rufa : fronte, mento et loris nigris : 
ventre medio crissogue ochraceis. 

Long. totą 4'5, alse 28, caudse 17. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota ; Ecuador, vic. of Quito (Bourcier). 

Mus. Brit., Paris. 

38. Calliste atricapilla. 

Tanagra {Aglaia) atricapilla, Lafr. R. Z. 1843, p. 290. 

Calliste atricapilla, Bp. Consp. p. 235 ; Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, 
p. 59. 

Chalcothraupis atricapilla, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 144 ; Note s. L 
Tang. p. 19. 

Procnias heinei, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 31 (jun.) ; Bp. R. Z. 1851, 
p. 134 ; Note s. 1. Tang. p. 8. 

Ccerulescenti-argentea : alis caudaąue nigris eodem colore limbatis : 
pileo toto nigerrimo : gutturis totius et pectoris plumarum basibus 
nigris, apicibus autem acutis et colore clare viridibus. 
C . Viridis : pileo obscuriore : gutture mari simili, sed pallidiore. 
Long. totą 4-8, alse 2 '8, candse 1*7 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota; Venezuela, near Caraccas (D^son) ; 
Popayan (Mus. Derb.). 
Mus. Brit., Derbiano. 

39. Calliste argentea. 

Procnopis argentea, Tsch."Wiegm. Arch. 1844, p. 285; F. P. p. 199. 
pi. 14. fig. 2. 

Calliste argentea, Gray, Gen. App. p. 14 ; Bp. Consp. p. 235 ; 
Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 60. 

Chalcothraupis argentea, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 145 ; Note s. 1. Tang. 
p. 19. 

Supra cinerascenti-argenteo-cyanescens, pileo nigro : gutture aures- 

centi-stramineo : pectore et ventre medio nigris. 
Long. totą 5'5. 
Hab. Eastern Peru {Tsch.'). 
Mus. Neuchatel et Derbiano. 



260 

40. Calliste nigriviridis. 

Tanagra nigroviridis, Lafr. R. Z. 1843, p. 69 ; Mag. de Zool. 1843, 
pi. 43. 

Calliste nigro-viridis, Gray, Gen. p. 366. sp. 23; Bp. Coasp. 
p. 235 ; Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 56 ; P. Z. S. 1855. p. 158. 

Callispiza nigroviridis, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 27. 

T. (Aglaia) nigroviridis, Less. Descr. p. 348. 

Chalcothraupis nigro-viridis, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 145; Note s. 1. 
Tang. p. 19. 

Nigra : pileo cervice et dorso postico cum corpore toto subtus ar- 
gentescenti-cyaneis, plumis subtus nigris argentescenti-cyaneo 
terminatis : fronte, loris, regione oculari et mento nigris : abdo- 
mi?ie medio albicante : remigibus reclricibusgue nigris cyaneo mar- 
ginatis : tectricibus alarum minoribus intense cyaneis : majaribus 
autem argentescenti-cyaneo marginatis . 

Long. totą 5-0, alse 2"9, caudse 1'8. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota ; Ecuador, prov. Quixos ; Western 
Ecuador, Calacali {Bourcier). 

Mus. Paris., Brit. 

41. Calliste cyanescens, sp. nov. 

Nigra : pileo, cervice et dorso postico cum corpore subtus argen- 
tescenti-cyaneis ; plumis subtus nigris argentescenti-cyaneo ter- 
minatis : fronte, loris, regione oculari et mento summo nigris : 
abdomine medio crissogue albis : alis caudague nigris cyanescente 
marginatis, campteriis intensius cyanescentibus. 
Long. totą 5"0, alse 3*0, caudse 1*9. 

Hab. Venezuela, Caraccas (Levraud) ; Colonia di Tovar, alt. 8000 
feet (Dyson). 

Mus. Brit., Paris. 

Obs. Affiuissima C. nigriviridi et crassitie paulo majore, alse 
totius marginibus cyanescentibus unicoloribus et colore pectoris cya- 
nescentiore, veutris autem albidiore, vix distinguenda. 

I have seen many specimens of this bird, vvhich is the Venezuelan 
representative of Calliste nigriviridis. It is certainly very closely 
allied to tliat species, but presents as good distinctive characters as 
many other birds vvhich are now generally allowed to be independent 
species. 

42. Calliste larvata. 

Calliste larvata, DuBus, Esq. Orn. pi. 9 ; Gray, Gen. App. p. 1 7 ; 
Bp. Consp. p. 236 ; Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 64. 

Tatao larvatus, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 142 ; Note s. 1. Tang. p. 16. 

Capite collogue toto cum gula nitidissime cuprescenti-aureis : rostri 
ambitų nigro ; vitta ultra frontem et capitis lateribus ceeruleis, 
hujus coloris margine posteriore in viridescentem transeunte : inter- 
scapulio, alis caudague cum pectore toto nigris : tectricibus alarum 
minoribus ceeruleis ; mediarum autem et majorum marginibus cum 



261 

dorso postico cyaneis : remigibus et rectricibus aurescenti viridi 
limbatis : abdomine medio albo, utrinque caruleo, lateribus viri- 
descentibus : rostro et pedibus nigris. 

? . Coloribus minvs claris. 

Long. totą 5 "O, alae 2 '9, caudae TS. 

Hab. Southern Mexico, Tabasco (Ghiesbregkt) ; Chamalican river, 
Spanish Hondūras (Di/son). 

Mus. Brit., Derbiano. 

43. Calliste francisc^. 
Aglaiafanny (!), Lafr. R. Z. 1847, p. 72. 

Calliste f anny, Gray, Gen. App. p. 17 ; Bp. Consp. p. 236. sp. 38 ; 
Des Murs, Icou. Orn. pi. 56. fig. 1. 

Calliste francisca, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 142. 

Capite colloque toto cum gula nitidissime virescenti-avreis : rostri 
ambitų nigro, deinde caruleo et in virideni transeunte : intersca- 
pulio alis caudacue cum pectore toto nigerrimis : dorso postico 
et tectricibus alnrum mediis viridescenti-cyaneis ; remigibus et 
rectricibus eodem colore anguste limbatis : tectricibus alarum 
summis cceruhis : abdomine medio crissogue albis, lateribus viri- 
descenti-caruleis : rostro et pedibus nigris. 
Long. totą 50, alse 2*8, caudse 1*6. 

Hab. Veragua (Delattre) ; vic. of David, prov. Chiriąui, Panama 
{Bridge.^). 

Mus. Acad. Philadelpli. et Joh. Gould. 

This beautifully coloured bird, which was first discovered by De- 
lattre in Veragua, has been generally supposed to be the šame as the 
C. larvata, and it was only upon a close examiuation of the specimen 
lately procured by Mr. Bridges, and comparison of it with indivi- 
duals of the other species, that I was enabled to recognize its dif- 
ference. This Calliste is slightly smaller than the larvata, and has 
the head of a mueh lighter golden green, in sonie hghts pagsing 
almost into pale green. In the other bird these parts are more of a 
coppery brown. In this species, also, the lower back and edgings 
of the middle and greater wing-coverts are of a much greener tinge, 
and there is more white in the middle of the belly and crissura. 

44. Calliste nįgricincta. 

Aglaia nigro-cincta, Bp. P. Z. S. 1837, p. 121. 

Calliste nigro-cincta.GTRj, Gen. Tp. 366. sp. 16; Bp. Consp. p. 235; 
Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 68. 

Chalcothraupis nigro-cincta, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 145; Note s. 1. 
Tang. p. 19. 

Calliste thalassina, Strickl. Ann. N. H. (1844) xiii. p. 419 ; Gray, 
Gen. p. 366. sp. 30 ; Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 57; P. Z. S. 1854, 
p. 115, et 1855, p. 158. 

Aglaia wilsoni, Lafr. R. Z. 1847, p. 71. 

Calliste tvilsoni, Gray, Gen. App. p. 17; Bp. Consp. p. 236. sp. 37; 
Des Murs, Icon. Orn. pi. 56. fig. 2. 



262 

Chrysothraupis thalassina, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 143; Note s. 1. 
Tang.p. 17. 

Calliste larvata, Cassin, Rep. U.S. Astr. Exp.p.l82. pi. xviii. fig.2, 

Capite et cervice undiųue cum gula thalassino-cyaneis, regione auri- 
culari cum mento pallide viridibus : /oris, interscapulio et peclore 
toto nigerrimis : dorso postico late caruleo : ahdomine medio albo, 
lateribus carulescentibus : remigibus et rectricibus nigris cceru~ 
lescenti-viridi marginatis : tectricibus alarum šunimis late cceru- 
luis, mediis et majoribus viridibus. 

Long. totą 5-0, alse 2'8, caudse 1"8. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota ; Ecuador, prov. Quixos ; Eastern 
Peru, Guaunco (Delattre) ; River Ucayali (^Hawxweli) ; Marabitanas 
011 the Rio Negro (Natt.). 

Mus. Brit., Derbiano, Vindobiensi. 

45. Calliste cyaneicollis. 

Aglaia cyanicollis, Lafr. et d'Orb. Mag. de Zool. 1837, p. 33. 

Tanagra cyanicoHis, d'Orb. Voy. p. 271. pi. 25. fig. 1. 

Callospiza cyanicoHis, Tsch. WiegTn. Arch. 1844, p. 286; F. P. 
p. 202. 

Aglaia cceruleocephala, Sw. An. in Men. p. 356. 

Calliste ccBruleocephala, Gray, Gen. p. 366. sp. 18; Bp. Consp. 
p. 2.S5.sp. 19. 

Calliste cyanicoHis, Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 115 ; P. Z. S. 
1854,p. 115, etl855, p. 158; Cassin, Rep. U.S. Astr. Exp. ii. p. 181. 
pi. xviii. fig. 1 . 

Capite toto et gutture vndique Icete cyaneis : gula purpurascente : 
loris interscapulio et abdomine toto nigerrimis ; hoc caruleo la- 
vato : dorso postico et alanim tectricibus pallide viridibus, tectri- 
cibus alarum sutnmis aurescenlioribus : remigibus et rectricibus 
nigris viridi anguste marginatis. 

Long. totą 47, alse 26, caudae 1*7. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota ; Ecuador, prov. Quixos (Gould) ; 
Eastern Peru (Tsch.) ; Bolivia, Yuracares (d'Orb.). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 

46. Calliste labradorides. 

Tanagra (Aglaia) labradorides, Boiss. R. Z. 1840, p. 67; Less. 
Descr. p. 347. 

Aglaia labradorides, Prevost, Voy. Venus, Ois. pi. 5. fig. 2. 

Calliste labradorides, Gray, Gen. p. 366. sp. 25 ; Bp. Consp. p. 235; 
Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 57 ; P. Z. S. 1855, p. 158. 

Chalcothraupis labradorides, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 144 ; Note s. 1. 
Tang. p. 18. 

Nitenti-viridis cceruleo vix tincta, capite aurescenliore : fronte, loris, 
mento summo, nucha et cervice postica cum scapularibus nigris: 
alis caudaque nigris ceerulescenti-viridi marginatis ; tectricibus 



263 

alarum summis ceeruleis : ventre imo crissoqite pallide ochra- 

ceis. 
Long. totą 4-5, alse 2-6, caudce l'Z. 
Hab. New Grenada, Bogota. 
Mus. Brit., &c. 

47. CaLLISTE PARZUDAKIl. 

Tanagra parzudakii, Lafr. R. Z. 1843, p. 97 ; Mag. de Zool. 1843, 
Ois. pi. 41. 

CalUste parzudakii, Gray, Gen. p. 366. sp. 27 ; Bp. Consp. p. 235. 
sp. 26 ; Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 66 ; P. Z. S. 1854, p. 115, et 
1855, p. 158. 

Chrysothraupis parzudakii, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 143; Notės. 1. 
Tang. p. 18. 

Nigra : dorso postico cum tectricibus alarum minoribus et tectricum 
majorum apicibus externis argenteo-cyanescentibus : pileo toto 
cum nucha et colio laterali flavissimis ; fronte et regione oculari 
ruberrimis : loris nigris : subtus argenteo-cyanescens ochraceo 
tincta ; gula nigra ; ventre medio crissocue ockraceis. 

Long. totą 5-5, alee 3-3, caudge 2-0. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota ; Ecuador, Quixos. 

Mus. Brit. 

48. Calliste lunigera. 

CalUste lunigera, Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 65. pi. 70. fig. 2. 

Nigra : dorso postico cum tectricibus alarum minoribus et tectricum 
majorum secundariarumgue marginibus argenteo-viridescentibus : 
pileo toto et capilis lateribus aurantiacis, macula magna auriculari 
cum gula nigris : pectore argenteo-viridescente ; abdomine rufes- 
centi-ochraceo. 

Long. totą 53, alae 2"8, caudse 1*8. 

Hab. Western Ecuador, vicinity of Quito (Jameson). 

Mus. Gul. Jardine, Bart. et P. L. S. 

49. Calliste chrysotis. 

Calliste chrysotis, DuBus, Esq. Orn. pi. 7 ; Gray, Gen. App. p. 17; 
Bp. Consp. p. 236 ; Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 66. 

Chrysothraupis chrysotis, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 142 ; Note s. 1. Tang. 
p. 17. 

Supra nigra: dorso postico et interscapulii alarumgue pennarum 
omnium marginibus clare viridibus : pileo nigro : fronte aures- 
centi-viridi : regione auriculari cuprescenti-aureo : subtus clare 
viridis ; abdomine medio crissogue castaneis, 
Long. totą 5 "5, alse 2-9, caudse 1'9. 
Hab. Eastern Peru (DuBus). 
Mus. Bruxell., Derbiano. 



264 

50. Calliste kanthocephala. 

Callospiza xanthocephala, Tsch. WiegTii. Arch. 1844, p. 285 ; F. P. 
p. 200. pi. 17. fig. 2 {fig.pess.) ; Gray, Gen. App. p. 1/ ; Bp. Consp. 
p. 235. 

Calliste lamprotis, Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 65. 
Chrysothraupisoranthocephala.Bf. R. Z. 1851, p. 443 ; Note s. 1. 
Tang. p. 17. 

L(Ete caruleo-viridis : interscapulii, ulurum et cauda plumis nigris 
eodem viridi Umbatis : fronte, loris, gula summa et cervice pos- 
tica nigris : pileo toto aurantiaco : capitis lateribus et regione 
auriculari įiuvissimis : ventre medio crissogue pallide ochraceis. 
Loug. totą 5 3, alse 2*9, caudse 19. 
Hab. Eastern Peru {Tsch.) ; Bolivia (Bridges). 
Mus. Brit., Neuchatel. 

51. Calliste venusta. 

Calliste xantkocepkala,Sc\&teT, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 58 ; P. Z. S. 
1854, p. 115. 

Calliste venusta, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 248, et 1855, p. 158. 

Leete candeo-vtridis : interscapulii, alarum caudccąue plumis nigris, 
eodem viridi marginatis : fronte, loris, gula summa et cervice pos- 
tica nigris : pileo lateribusąue capitis flavis : ventre medio crisso- 
que pallide ochraceis : rostro nigro : pedibus pallidis. 

Long. totą 4"5, alse 2'5, cavidse \b. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota ; prov. Quixos in Ecuador. 

Mus. Brit., Berol. 

Genus XXXIV. Diva. 

Procnopis, Bp. Compt. Rend. xxxi3. p. 80 (1851), nec Cab. 

Diva, Sclater, Tac. Cat. Sp. p. 16 (1854). 

Forma Callistse, sed rostro breviore et basi dilatata ; dente finali 
obsoleto : alce longee, remigibus secunda, tertia et quarta longis- 
simis, prima breviore quam guinta : cauda modica ąuadrata : pti- 
losis carulea, unicolor. 

1. Diva vassori. 

Tanagra (Euphonel) vassorii, Boiss. R. Z. 1840, p. 4 ; Mag. de 
Zool. 1841, pi. 23. 

Aglaia diva, Less. Echo d. M. S. 1844, p. b7 ; Descr. d. Mam. 
et Ois. p. 347. 

Calliste mssorii, Gray, Gen. p. 366. sp. 26 ; Bp. Consp. p. 235. 
sp. 25 ; Sclater, Contr.' Orn. 1851, p. 60. 

Procnopis vassori, Bp. Compt. Rend. xxxii. p. 80 ; R. Z. 1851, 
p. 134; Notės. 1. Tang. p. 9. 

Diva vassori, Sclater, Tan. Cat. Sp. p. 13 ; P. Z. S. 1855, p. 158. 



265 

Lucide cąrulea : loris. alis caudaąue nigris : tectricibus alarum 

minoribus et tectricum mnjorum marginibus caruleis. 
? autjunior. Griseo-cineracea : subtus clarior. 

Long. totą 47, alae 2-8, caudae 17. 

Hab. Bogota. 

Mus. Brit., &c. 

The bird which I formerly described as Pipridca albiventris (Coiitr. 
Orn. 1852, p. 131. pi. 100. fig. 2), and atterwards made a second 
species of this form, is, I now think, tbough somenhat intermediate 
iu characters, more strictly referable to the neigbbourhood of the 
genus Dacnis va. the family Carebidce. 

Genus XXXV. Pipridea. 

Pipraeidea, Sw. Zool. Journ. iii. p. 1/3 (1827). 

Procnopis, Bp. Compt. Rend. xxxii. p. 80, nec Cab. 

Rostrum Callistae, sed brevius, altius, basi diktatą, rietu plumoso : 
al(B modica, remigibus quatuor primisfere ceųualibus sed secunda 
et tertia paulo longioribus : cauda modica subquadrata : ptilosis 
ccerulea et rufa : sektis dissimiles. 

1. Pipridea melanonota. 
Pico di punzon azul y canela, Azar. Pax. i. p. 413. 
Tanagra melanonota, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N, xxxii. 407, 
Tanagra melanotha, Vieill. Enc. Me'th. p. 773. 
Tanagra vittata, Temm. PI. Col. 48 (e? et ?). 
Pipraeidea cyanea, Sw. Zool. Journ. 1827, p. 173 : Bp. Conso 
p. 231. f i- 

Aglaia vittata, Darwin, Voy. Beagle, p. 98. 

Calliste vittata, Gray, Gen. p. 366. sp. 24. 

Procnopis vittata, Cab. in Wiegm. Avch. 1844, p. 284. 

Procnopis melanota, Bp. Compt. Rend. xxxii. p. 80; R. Z. 1851, 
p. 134 ; Note s. 1. Tang. p. 8. 

Calliste melanonota, Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 61. 

Piprccidea melanonota, Sclater, Tan. Cat. Sp. p. 13. 

Supra carulea : interscapulio toto valde obscuriore, nigricanti-cceru- 
leo tincto : alis caudaque nigris nigricante ceeruleo limbutis : 
campteriis Icete caruleis : vitta lata frontali per oculos utrinąue 
transeunte nigerrima : subtus ochracescenti-cinnainomea. 

9 . Obscurior : interscapulio fusco : alarum caudceque marginibus 
viridescentibus. 

Long. totą 5 8, alae 3*1, caudge 2 0. 

Hab. Southern Brazil ; Uruguay, Maldonado (Darwin) ; Para- 
guay (Ašara). 

Mus. Brit., &c. 

2. Pipridea venezuelensis, sp. nov. 

Supra late ccerulea : interscapulio alis caudague nigris, caruleo 



266 

tinctis: campteriis late ceeruleis : vitta frontali per oculos utrin- 

que transeunte nigerrima : subtus ochracea. 
Long. totą 5-1, alse 31, caudse 1-9. 
Hab. Venezuela, Caraccas (Levraud). 
Mus. Parisiensi. 

Obs. Affiriissima P. melanonotas, sed paulo miuor et colore cseruleo 
clariore et rostro breviore distinguenda. 

3. PiPRIDEA CASTANEIVENTRIS. 

CalUste castaneoventris, Sclater, Contr. Oni. 1851, p. 60. 

Pipraidea castaneiventris, Sclater, Tan. Cat. Sp. p. 13. 

Supra fusco-ccsrulea : alis caudague nigris fusco-cceruleo Umbatis : 
loris et regione oculari atris : infra brunneo-castanea : rostro 
elongatiore, mandibula inferiore brunnescente, superiore cum pe- 
dibus nigris. 

Long. totą 6 '4, alse 3' 15. 

Hab. Bolivia (Bridges). 

Mus. Derbiano. 



Genus XXXVI. Chlorochrysa. 

Chlorochrysa, Bp. Compt. Rend. xxxii. p. 7& (1851). 

Calliparaa, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 129. 

Rostrum tenue, elongatum, mandibula superiore paulum incurva, in- 
feriore rertissima : dente finali f ere obsoleto : alce elongata, re- 
migibus guatuorprimisfere cequalibus et longissimis : cauda brevi 
guadrata : ptilosis nitentissime viridis : sexus similes. 

1. Chlorochrysa callipaRjEa. 

Callospiza calUparaa, Tsch. in Wiegin. Arcb. 1844, p. 202 ; F. P. 
p. 202. 

CalUste calliparaa, Gray, Gen. App. p. 17 ; Bp. Consp. p. 235. 
sp. 30. 

CalUste bourcieri, Bp. Compt. Rend. Ac. Sc. Par. xxxii. p. 76. 

Calliparcea bourcieri, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 129 ; Notės. 1. Tang. p. 3. 

Chlorochrysa calliparcea, Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 99. pi. 73. 
fig. 1. 

Lucide viridis : regione oculari dorso inferiore et ventre ccerules- 
cente tinctis : gula nigra : regione auriculari castanea : uropygio 
croceo. 

Long. totą 4'6, alse 2'8, caudse 2'0. 

Hab. Wood-regiou of E. Peru (Tsch.) ; Valley of Banos, Ecuador 
(Bourcier) ; Anolaima, New Grenada {Chapoul). 

Mus. Berol., Parisiensi. 

2. Chlorochrysa phcenicotis. 

CalUste phcenicotis, Bp. Compt. Rend. Ac. Sc. Par. xxxii. p. 76. 
CalliparcBa phcenicotis, Bp. R. Z. 18 o\, p. 129 ; Note s. 1. Tang. p. 3. 



267 

Chlorochrysa phomicotis, Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 100. pi. 73. 
?. 2. 

Lucide viridis : tectricibus alarum minoribus, tlbiis et macula altera 
suboculari et altera pone oculum utringue splendenti-olivaceo-brun- 
neis : his secundis maculis corallino-rubro versus nucham termi- 
natis. 

? • Mari similis sed minor. 

Long. totą 5"0, alse 3*0, caudse 1'7. 

Hab. Ecuador, Nanegan, north of Quito (Bourcier). 

Mus. Paris, et GuL Jardine, Bart. 

Genus XXXVII. Tanagrella. 

Tanagrella, Sw. Class. B. ii. p. 121. 
Hypothlypis, Cab. in Schomb. Reise, iii. p. &67. 

Rostrum tenue, elongatum, mandibula inferiore recta, superiore in- 
curva, dente finali indistincto : alte longce, remigibus secunda et 
tertia longissimis, prima guartam ceguante et illis vix breviore : 
cauda longa guadrata : ptilosis nigro-aerulea : sexus similes. 

1. Tanagrella VELIA. 

Red-bellied Blue-bird, Edwards' Glean. pi. 22. 

Motacilla velia, Linn. S. N. i. p. 336 (partim). 

Le Pipit bleu de Surinam, Buff. Pi. Enl. 669. fig. 3. 

Le Pitpii varie, Buff. H. N. v. 341. 

Tangara vari^, Desm. Tan. pi. 2. 

Tanagra velia, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xxxii. p. 424 ; Enc. Meth. 
I. 780. 

Tanagra varia, Steph. Zool. xiv. p. 7; Cuv. Regn. An. i. p. 367. 

Hypothlypis iridina, Cab. in Schomb. Reise, iii. p. 667? 

Tanagra iridina, Hartl. R. Z. 1841, p. 105 ? 

Tanagrella iridina, Gray, Gen. p. 366. 

Tanagrella velia, Bp. Consp. p. 236; Sclater, Contr. Om. 1851, 
). 97. 

Red-bellied Tanager, Lath. G. H. vi. 34. 

Nigra : gula^ capitis lateribus, alarum caudeegue marginibus et caudce 
tectricibus superioribus cceruleis : dorso postico viridescente ar- 
genteo nitente : pileo antico viridescente cyaneo, versus rostrum 
ceerulescentiore : loris et narium plumis nigris : subtus carulea, 
colio antico nigro : pectore lilacescente : ventre medio et crisso 
castaneis : tectricibus subalaribus albis : rostro et pedibus nigris. 

Long. totą 5*4, alse 29, caudse 20. 

Hab. Cayenne ; British Guiana (<ScAom&.). 

Mus. Brit., &c. 

2. Tanagrella elegantissima. 

Tanagrella elegantissima, J. et E. Verr. Rev. Zool. 1853, p. 195. 
Nigerrima : gula, capitis lateribus et pileo antico cum fronte et loris. 



268 

alarum caud<Eque marginibus et tectricihus caudce superiorihus 
latissime cceruleis : dorso postico viridescente argenteo nitente : 
subtus ccerulea, collari interrupto 7iigro : pectore paululum lila- 
cescente : ventre medio et crisso castaneis : tectricibvs alarum in- 
ferioribus nlbis : rostro et pedibus nigris. 
Long. totą 5'o, alse 3'0, caudse 1*9. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota ; Eio Xiė (Natterer) ; Porto Cabello 
{Mus. Hein.). 

Mus. Ileineano ; Yindob. 

This species, of which I have seen many examples in the most re- 
cently imported Bogota coUections, is very closely allied to the T. 
velia of Cayenue ; but in the present bird the front lores and throat 
are of the šame fuU blue as the wing-edghigs, and there is no tinge 
of greenish colouring on the head as in its Cayenne represeutative. 
The whole colouring is also genevally more intense, and the black 
collar on the throat is narrovver and less defined. 

3. Tanagrella cyanomelas. 

Sylvia surinamensis carulea, Briss. Oru. iii. p. 536 ? 
Motacilla velia, Gm. S. N. i. 991 (partim). 
Tanagra cyanomelas, Max. Beitr. iii. 453. 
Tanagrella mullicolor, Sw. An. in Men. p. 313. 
Tanagrella tenuirostris, Sw. Class. ii. p. 121. 
Tanagrella velia, Gray, Geii. p. 366. sp. 1. 

Tanagrella cyanomelas, Bp. Consp. p. 236 ; Sclater, Coutr. Orn. 
1851, p. 97. 

Nigra : gula, fronte, capitis lateribus, marginibus alarum et caudee 
cum tectricibus cavdcE superioribits cceruleis : pileo antico supra 
frontem et dorso postico viridescenti-argenteis : subtus late cteru- 
lescenti-grisea, ventre medio et crisso castaneis : collari interrupto 
nigro : tectricibus subalaribus albis. 

Long. totą 57, alse 3*0, caudse 2'2. 

Hab. South-eastem Brazil (^Max.). 

Mus. Brit., &c. 

4. Tanagrella calophrys. 

Hypothlypis callophrys, Cab. in Schomb. Reise, iii. 668 (note). 
Tanagrella callophrys, Bp. Compt. Rend. 1851, p. 77 ; R. Z. 1851, 
p. 130; Note s. 1. Tang. p. 5 ; Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, pi. 74. p. 98. 

Supra nigerrima : fronte angusta, capitis lateribus cum marginibus 
alarum et caudce et tectricibus caudce superioribus cceruleis : pileo 
mediali cmn superciliis latis et elongatis et dorso postico virides- 
centi-argenteis : subtus ccerulea, ventre imo et crisso nigris : tec- 
tricibus subalaribus nigricanti-cinereis : rostro et pedibus nigris. 

Long. totą 5-4, alse 3'0, caudse 20. 

Hab. Ecuador, prov. Quixos (Bourcicr) ; East Peru, river Uca- 
yali (Hatvxwell). 

Mus. Berol. 



269 
Genus XXXVIII. Glossiptila. 
Neornis. Hartl. 1846, Nachtr. z. Verz. Brem. Mus., nec Hodgs. 
Rostrum tenue, elongatum, incurvum, commissura arcuata, aonvde 
recta, dente finah nulio : ala longa, remige tertia et ouarta lon- 
gissimis et secundam paulo superantibus. prima paulo breviore 
quam ąuinta: cauda breviuscula quadrata : aexus dissimiles ■ 
ptilosis mascula candea, fceminea grisea. 

1. Glossiptila ruficollis. 

Motacilla campestris, Linn. S. N. i. p. 329 (?)1' 
Rufous-throated Tanager, Lath. Svn. ii. pt 1 p 241 
Tanagra ruficollis Gra. S. N. ii. p. 894 ; Edwards, Glean. pi. 122. 
Tanagrella ruficolhs, Graj, Gen. App. p. 17 j Bp. Consp. p. 236 • 
Gosse, B. of Jam. p. 236 ; 111. B. Jam pi. 58. ^ ' 

Tachyphonus rufigularis, Lafr. R. Z. 1846 p 3^0 
Pyrrhulagra ruficollis, Bp. Consp. p. 236Vexcl. svn.). 

nuHaT"'^ ''"'''^'"' ^^'^^' ^^''^^'' ^' ^'""'" ^^'''" ^'■'^°^- P- ^ (d^^'^'-- 
Rufous-chinned Finch, var. A, Lath. G. H. vi. 126. 

^TJerSl"^^"'"*'"'-^''"^ ^e^-^'^an^e; plaga magna gutturali cas- 

?. Capite colloque viridescenti.griseis : dorso olivascenti-bmnneo ■ 

subtus cmerea, medialiter albescens. 
Long. totą 4-8, alse 2-8, caud* 1-8. 
Hab. Jamaica (Gosse) ; S. Domingo. 
Mus. Paris., Brit. 

Genus XXXIX. Chlorophonia. 

Chlorophonia, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 137. 

Triglyphidia, Reich. Av. Sjst. Nat. pi. 73. 

Genus vix ab Euphonia diversum : rostrum minus altum et basi maais 
ddatata : ala longcB : remigibus 4 primis inter se fere aaualibus • 
cauda brevissima : tarsi breves : ptilosis IcBte viridis.flavo varia '■ 
sexus dissimiles. 

1. Chlorophonia viridis. 

Tanagra viridis, \i^{]{. N. D. d'H. N. xxxii. p. 426; Temm. PI. 

1^01. OO. Dg. 3. 

Pipra chlorocapilla, Shaw, Zool. xiii. p. 255 

Euphonia viridis. Gray, Gen. p. 36/. sp. 10; Tsch. in Wiegm. 
Arch. 1844, p, 284 ; Bp. Consp. p. 233 ; Sclater, Contr. Om. lįt\, 

p. OO. ' 

Procnias (!) viridis, Cab. in Tsch. F. P. p. 107 

Chlorophonia viridis, Bp. R. Z. 185 1, p. 137 ; Note s. 1. Tang. p. 12. 

Clare viridis : ciliis oculorum et dorso toto caruleis : abdomine 
jlavo. 



270 

? . Clare viridis ; cervice postica et uropygio caruleis : abdomine 

flavescenti-viridi. 
Long. totą 4*5, alse 2*5, caudse 1"4. 

Hab. S. E. Brazil (Temm.) ; S. Joao del Rey and Ypanema (Natt.) ; 
Eastern Peru (Tsch.). 
Mus. Brit., Vindob. 

2. Chlorophonia longipennis. 

Euphonia longipennis, DuBus, Bull. Ac. Brux. xxii, p. 156 (1855). 
Clare viridis : cervice postica et dorso imo cum ciliis oculorum ccerii- 

leis, interscapulio eodem colore lavato : abdomine Icetejlavo. 
? . Viridis ; uropygio cd'vulescente : abdomine Jlavescenti-viridi. 
Long. totą 4*5, alse 255, caudse 1*2. 
Hab. New Grenada, Bogota. 
Mus. Dubusi, et P. L. S. 

3. Chlorophonia frontalis. 
♦ Chlorophonia frontalis, Bp. MS. 

Euphonia frontalis, Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 89. 

Clare viridis: cervice postica et uropygio toto cum ciliis oculorum 

caruleis : fronte et abdomine toto f avis. 
Long. totą 4*5, alse 2' 7, caudse 1*5. 
Hab. Venezuela, Caraccas (Levraud). 
Mus. BeroL, Paris., Heineano. 

4. Chlorophonia occipitalis. 

Euphonia occipitalis, DuBus, Esq. Orn. pi. 14 (?); Gray, Gen. 
App. p. 17 ; Bp. Consp. p. 233 ; Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 90. 

Chlorophonia occipitalis, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 138 ; Note s. 1. Tang. 
p. 12 ; Cassin, Rep. U.S. Astr. Exp. ii. p. 182. pi. xx. fig. 2 ( J ). 

Clare viridis : semitorque angusto postico et vertice summa cteruleis : 
vitta pectorali nigro-caslanea : abdomine flavissimo, lateribus 
virescentibus. 

? . Firidis, macula verticali et semitorąue minus conspicua caruleis : 
abdomine Ji av o, lateribus virescentibus. 

Long. totą 5'5, alse 2'8. 

Hab. S. Mexico {DuBus). 

Mus. Brit., Parisiensi. 

5. Chlorophonia pretrii. 

Tanagra (Euphonia) pretrei, Lafr. R. Z. 1843, p. 97 ; Mag. de 
Zool. 1842, Ois. pi. 42. 

Euphonia pretrei, Gray, Gen. p. 367. sp. 19 ; Bp. Consp. p. 233 ; 
Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 89. 

Chlorophonia pretrei, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 138; Note s. 1. Tang. p. 12. 

Euphonia pyrrhophrys, Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 89. pi. 75. 
fig. 2(?). 

<? . Clare viridis : pileo cceruleo : fronte angusta et linea super- 



271 

ciliari nigris : fascia uropygiali et abdomine flavissimis : hujus 
media parte cum crisso castaneis : torąue pectorali angusto nigro . 

? . Viridis : pileo cceruleo : fronte et superciliis castaneis : uro - 
pygio et abdomine flavicantibus. 

Long. totą 4-5, alse 2' 7, caudse \'&. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota. 

Mus, firit., &c. 

Genus XL. Euphonia. 

EupJionia, Desm. H. N. des Tang. (1805). 

Cyanophonia, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 138. 

Pyrrhuphonia, Bp. Compt. Rend. xxi. p. 423 (1850). 

Ypophtsa, Bp. Ann. d. Sc. Nat. 1855. 

" Acroleptes, Schiff.," Bp. 1. c. 

Iliolopha, Bp. 1. c. 

Rostrum breve, altum, dilatatum, culmine incurvo ; gonyde ascen- 
dente ; commissura ad apicem dentata et plerumque serrata : alce 
longeB : remigibus 4 pritnis inter sefere tegualibus sed secunda et 
tertia plerumgue pauto lorigioribus : cauda brevi quadrata : sexus 
dissimiles : ptilosis marium nigra et flava; faminarum olivacea. 

a. Cyanophonia. 

1. Euphonia musica. 

L'Organiste, Buff. H. N. iv. p. 290. 
L'Organiste de S.Dominge, BufF. PI. Enl. 809. fig. 1. 
Pipra musica, Gm. S. N. 1004. 
Tanagra »iM5žca, Vieill. Enc. M^th. p. 787. 
Euphonia ceruleocephala, Sw. Class. ii. 286. 

Euphonia musica, Gray, Gen. p. 367. sp. 1 ; Bp. Consp. p. 232; 
Sciater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 82. 

Euphone musica, Lembeye, Avės de Guba, p. 42. 

Supra nitenti-nigra : pileo cceruleo : fronte aurea, postice nigro- 
marginata : uropygio et abdomine toto fulvo-aurantiis, gula nigra. 
Long. totą 4'4, alse 2'5, caudse 1"5. 
Hab. S. Domingo {Buff., Sallė) ; Guba {Lembeye). 
Mus. Brit. 

2. Euphonia flavifrons. 

Tanagra flavifrons, Lath. Ind. Orn. Suppl. p. 47 (?); Vieill. Enc. 
Meth. p. 775. 

Emberiza flavifrons , Sparm. Mus. Carls. iv. no. 92 ( ? ). 

Euphone organiste, Desm. Tan. pi. 19 J', 20 ? ; Vieill. Gal.]|Ois. 
Suppl. pi. s. n. ((? et ?). 

Cyanophonia musica, Bp.R. Z. 1851, p. 138; Notės. 1. Tang. p. 12. 

Euphonia sclateri, Bp. in Mus. Paris. 

Euphonia flavifrons , Sciater, Tan. Cat. Sp. p. 13 et p. 16. 



272 

S . Supra nitenti-nigra : pileo cceruleo : fronte aurea postice nigro 
marginata : uropygio et corpore suhtus flavo-aurantiis . 

? . Olivaceo-v iridis ; uropygio et corpore subtus Jiavescentioribus : 
gula flavicante : fronte aurea postice angustissime nigro margi- 
nata. 

Long. totą 4'2, alae 24, caudse \-4, 

Hab. Porto Rico (Mauge) ; Trinidad ; Cayeune ? 

Mus. Parisiensi, 

This is tlie species figured by Desmarest and Vieillot as the true 
musica, and considered by me in my Synopsis of this genus, given in 
the ' Contributions to Ornithology ' for 1851, to be that bird in an 
immature statė. But on an examination of Desmarest' s types in the 
Paris Museum, I agree with Prince Bonaparte (who has done nie 
the honour to call this species E. sclateri) that it is apparently 
distinct. 

A specimen of the female of this bird in the Derby Museum at 
Liverpool bears the label " Tanagra flavifrons, Latham ;" and as 
Latham's descriplion and Sparman's figure agree sufficiently well 
with it, and this specimen is probabiy the type of Latham's deserip- 
tion, I feel bound to employ the term flavifrons as the first-given 
appellation of this Euphonia. 

3. Euphonia nigricollis. 

Pipra cyanocephala, Yieill. N. D. d'H. N. xix. p. 165 ( 9 ) ? 

Tanagra nigricollis, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xxxii. p. 412; Enc. M^th. 
p. 782. 

Lindo azul y oro, Azar. Pax. i. p. 390 (unde), 

Tanagra aureata, Vieill. Enc. Meth. p. 782. 

Tanagra chrysogastra, Cuv. Regu. An. i. p. 366. 

Euphonia nigricollis, Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. in Mag. de Zool. 
1837, p. 30 ; Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 83. pi. 75. fig. 1. 

Euphonia aureata, d'Orb. Voy. p. 267 ; Gray, Gen. p. 367. sp. 9 ; 
Bp. Consp. p. 233. 

Cyanophonia aureata,^\).Vi.7j. 1851, p. 138; Notės. 1. Tang. p. 13. 

Purpurascenti-nigra : pileo cceruleo : fronte et gula nigris : uropy- 
gio et abdomine toto aureo-flavis. 

? . Olivaceo-viridis, subtus flavescens : pileo cceruleo : fronte cas- 
tanea. 

Long. totą 43, alag 2'6, caudse 1*5. 

Hab. Trinidad ; Venezuela, Caraccas (Levraud) ; New Grenada, 
Bogota ; Westeru Ecuador, ^dc. of Quito (Jameson) ; Brazil, Rio 
(P. Max.) ; Paraguav (Azara) ; Rincon de Luna et Corrientes 
(d'Orb.). 

Mus. Brit., Paris., &c. 

4. Euphonia elegantissima. 

Pipra elegantissima, Bp. P. Z. S. 1837, p. 112. 
Euphonia calestis, Less. R. Z. 1839, p. 42. 



273 

Pipra galericulata, Giraud, B. Texas, no. 10. pi. 5. fig. 2 (1840). 

Euphonia elegantissima, Gray, Gea. App. p. 17; Bp. Consp. 
p. 232 ; DuBus, Esų. Orn. pi. 8 ; Baird, in Stansbury's Exp. to Utah, 
p. 330 ; Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 83. 

Euphonia tibicen, Licht. in Mus. Berol. 

Purpurascenti-nigra : pileo cceruleo : fronte saturate castanea pos- 
tice nigro marginata : gula nigra : abdomine flavescente-fulvo. 

C . Olivaceo-viridis, suhtus flacescentior : pileo ccBruleo : fronte 
castanea, nigrescente postice marginata. 

Long. totą 4-3, alae 2-G, caudae 1-6. 

Hab. Guatimala {Bp.) ; S. Mexico, Oaxaca (DuSus), Xalapa (Mus. 
Berol.), Cordova (Salle) ; Texas (Giraud and Baird). 

Mus. Brit., Berolin., &c. 

b. Euphonia. 
5. Euphonia chlorotica. 

Tang. cayennensis nigro-lutea, Briss. Orn. iii. 34. 

Tang. de Cayenne, BuflF. PI. Enl. 114. fig. 1, 

Tanagra chlorotica, Linn. S. N. i. 317 ; Vieill. Enc. M^th. p. 782. 

Tanagra violacea, var. /3. chlorotica, Gm. S. N. i. 890. 

Euphone chlorotique, Desm. Tan. pi. 24, 2.5. 

Euphonia chlorotica, Licht. Verz. Doubl. p. 29 ; Gray, Gen. 
p. 367. sp. 5 ; Bp. Consp. p. 232 ; Sund. Vet. Ac. Sv. 1833*, pi. 10. 
figs. 2 & 3 ; Sclater, Cont. Orn. 1851, p. 84 ; Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 136, 
et Note s. l.Tang. p. 10. 

Golden Tanager, var. «, Lath. G. H. vi. p. 28. 

3 . Atro-nitens ; capite, gutture et dorso superiore violaceo-purpuras- 
centibus : pilei dimidio antico usgue ad angulum oculi extremum. 
et abdomine toto aureis : macula magna ovali in pogonio interno 
rectricum duarum utrinque extimarum et alis subtus albis. 
?. Olivascens: alis caudague intus fuscis : subtus flav esc ens. 
Long. totą 3*4, alae 2-1, caudse 12. 
Hab. Cayenne. 
Mus. Brit. 

In this Euphonia the lores and nasal feathers are black, and the 
yellow on the head reaches up to a straight line between the farther 
corners of the eyes. 

6. Euphonia serrirostris. 

Euphonia serrirostris, Lafir. et d'Orb. Svn. Av. in Mag. de Zool. 
1837, p. 30 ; d'Orb. Voy. p. 267. pi. 23. fig. 2 ; Gray, Gen. p. 367 ; 
Bp. Consp. p. 233 ; Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 90 (?). 

Euphonia chlorotica, Tsch. Av. Consp. in Wiegm. Arch. 1844, 
p. 284, et F. P.p. 197? 

Similis E. chloroticse ex Cayenna, sed forsan distincta : major : 
nucha intensius violacea et rastro magis serrato : hujus basi 
quoque albescente. 

Long. totą 4 '4, alse 2*25, caudse 1*5. 
No. CCCXVIII. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



274 

? . (E. SERRiROSTRis, Lafr. et d'Orb. !) Supra fiavo-olivacea : 
subtiis flavescentior : pectore et ventre mediis cinerascentibus . 

Hab. Bolivia, Guarayos {d'Orb.) ; Eastern Peru (Tsch.) 1 

Mus. Lafresnayano, Brit. 

The Euphonia serrirosfris figured by d'Orbigny seems to be no- 
thing more than the female of a species very closely allied to the 
Euphonia chlorotica. As bowever I thmk it possibly distinct from 
the E. chlorotica of Cayenue, MM. Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny'sname 
can be retained for the BoUvian bird, until further examination of a 
series of specimens can be made — by vvhich means only the ąuestion 
of their ideutity can be determmed. 

7. Euphonia trinitatis. 

Euphonia trinitatis, Strickl. Cont. Orn. 1851, p. 72 ; Sclater, Cont. 
Orn. 1851, p. 84. 

S ■ Atro-nitens sedmagis viridescens quam E. chlorotica : capite et 
gutture purpureo tinctis : fronte angusta nirjra : pileo supero toto 
postice rotundato et abdomine aureis : macula magna ovali in 
pagonio interno rectricum duurum utringue extimarum et alis sub- 
tus albis. 
?. Supra olivascens : subtus flava. 

Long. totą 3-9, alse 2-2, caudse 1*3. 

Hab. Trinidad. 

Mus. P. L. S. 

I have seen a good many examples of this Trinidad species, which 
appears correctly separable from the Cayenne bird. 

8. Euphonia affinis. 

Tanagra {Euphonia) affinis, Less. B.. Z. 1842, p. 175. 
Euphonia affinis, Gray, Gen. p. 367- sp. 20 ; Bp. Consp. p. 233. 

(? . Atro-nitens : capite et gutture purpureo tinctis : fronte an- 
gusta nigra : pilei dimidio antico usgue ad angulum oculorum ex- 
trenmm et abdomine toto limonaceo-favis : macula magna in 
pagonio externu rectricum duarum utrinque extimarum et alis 
subtus albis. 
$ . Supra olivascens, pileo postico et dorso superiore cinereo tinctis : 

subtus flavescentior, abdomine medio clariore. 
Long. totą 3'0, alse 2*1, caudse 1"3. 

Hab. S. Mexico, Orizaba {Botteri) ; Guatimala; Realejo, Central 
America {Less.). 
Mus. P. L. S. 

In the amount of yellow on the head, and geneval appearance, 
this species comes very near the true chlorotica. But it may be 
Fecognized by the paler tinge of the yellow and the absence of the 
violaceous colouring upon the back. 

9. Euphonia minuta. 

Euphonia oUvacea, Desm. Tan. pi. 27; Gray, Gen. p. 367. sp. 2 ; 
Bp. Consp. p. 232 (?) ? 

Tanagra olivacea, Vieill. Enc. Meth. p. 782. 



275 

Euphonia minuta, Cab. in Schomb. lleise, iii. p. 671 ; Sclater, Tau. 
Cat. Sp. p. 14 (O). 

Euphonia strictifrons, Strickl. Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 72; Sclater, 
Coritr. Orn. 1851, p. 84. 

Euphonia pumila, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 136 ; Note s. 1. Tang. p. 10. 

Euphonia leucopyga, Natt. in Mus. Vindob. 

Atro-nitens ; dorso viridescentiore, capite et gutture purpurascen- 
tioribus : fronte lata et abdomine aureis : crisso, tibiis et rectri- 
cum triuin utrinque extimarum pogonio interno fere toto cum 
tectricibus alarmn inferioribus alhis. 

? . Supra olivacea : subtusflavescens, abdomine medio grisescente. 

Long. totą 3'4, alse 1*9, caudae TO. 

Ilub. Cayenne ; Brit. Guiana (Schomb.) ; Barra do Rio Negro 
(Natt.) ; New Grenada, Bogota. 

Mus. Brit., Vindob. 

This speeies is very easily distinguished among its olose affiaes by 
tte narrow yellow head-band and white crissura. 

I have seen the type of Cabanis' E. minuta, and have no doubt 
it is the female of this bird, the malė of which was aftervvards named 
by Prince Bonaparte and Mr. Striekland alinost simultaneously. 

I have little doubt that Desmarest's Euphonia olivacea is also the 
female of this bird, but the name is hardly sufficiently applicable to 
warrant its adoption. 

10. Euphonia concinna. 

Euphonia concinna, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 98. pi. 85. fig. 2, et 
1855, p. 159 ; Tau. Cat. Sp. App. p. 16. 

Euphonia hirundinacea, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 156; Note s. 1. Tang. 
p. 10? 

Supra nigro-violacea : vertice summa flava, fronte et linea supra 
oculos nigris : gutture violaceo-nigro : abdomine aurantiaco : 
cauda subtus immaculate nigra. 

Long. totą 3"8, alse 2 '2, caudae \'A. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota. 

Mus. P. L. S. 

11. Euphonia xANTHOGASTRA. 

Euphonia xanthogastra, Sund. Vet. Ac. Handl. 1833, pi. 10. fig. 1 ; 
Gray, Gen. p. 367. sp. 22 ; Bp. Consp. p. 233 ; Sclater, Contr. Orn. 
1851, p. 85; P. Z. S. 1854, p. 115, et 1855, p. 159. 

Euphonia brevirostris, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 156, et Note s. 1. Tang. 
p. 10. 

Nitente-ccerulescenti-nigra, cervice postica molacea : gutture nigro : 
pileo supero tolo postice rotundato cum fronte et narium plumis et 
abdomine aurantiaco-Jlavis : macula in rectricis uncB utrinque €x- 
tim(B pogonio interno et tectricibus subalaribus albis. 
Long. totą 4'0, alae 2"4, caudae 1*3. 

Hab. Southern Brazil ; Ecuador, prov. Quixos ; New Grenada, 
Bogota. 
Mus. Brit. 



276 

I can find no difference between the Brazilian bird and the Bogota 
specimens {E, brevirostris) sufficient to warrant their separation. 

12. EUPHONIA RUFICEPS. 

Euphonia ruficeps, Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. At. in Mag. de Zool.1837, 
p. 30 ; d'Orb. Yoy. p. 268. pi. 22. fig. 2 ; Gray, Geu. p. 367. sp. 18 ; 
Bp. Consp. p. 232; R. Z. 1851, p. 136; Note s. 1. Tang. p. 10; 
Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 85. 

Nitenti-ccerulescenti-niger, cervice postica intense violacea : gutture 
nigro : pileo summo cum fronte castaneis : abdomine aureo me- 
dialiter aurantiaco : macula in pogonio externo rectricis uncB 
utrinque e^timce et tectricihus subalaribus albis. 
Long. totą 4'0, alae 2'4, caudse 1*2. 

Hab. Bolivia, Yuracares (d'Orb.) ; Venezuela, Caraccas {Lev- 
raud) . 

Mus. Parisiensi, Lafresnayano, Derbiano. 

A bird iu tbe collectiou lately transmitted to the Paris Museutn by 
M. Levraud from Caraccas, difFers from the true Bolivian ruficeps 
only in having rather more chestnut colouring on tbe head, and tbat 
of a lighter and more orange-coloured tinge. I should be unwilling 
to separate it specifically without seeing more specimens. 

13. Euphonia fulvicrissa, sp. nov. 

Supra nitenti-cEneo-nigra, pileo postice rotundato flavo : gutture toto 
cum cervice versus ventrem in semicirculum terminata aneo-nigris : 
abdomine aureo, medialiter aurantiaco : crisso fulvo : rectricis unce 
utringue estimce macula in pogonio externo et tectricibus subalari- 
bus albis ; kis flavescente tinctis. 
Long. totą 3* 7, alse 2-0, caudse 1'2. 
Hab. S. Martha in New Grenada. 

I possess a single specimen of this Euphonia wbich was received 
by MM. Verreaux from their collector at S. Martha. It appears to 
me to constitute a new species of this genus, distinguished by the 
way in which the black throat is produced toward3 the breast and 
rounded at its termination, and the peculiar colour of the crissum. 

14. Euphonia chalybea. 

Tanagra chalybea, Mikan, Faun. et Flor. Bras. pi. 3. fig. 1 <? , 2 ? . 

Euphone cenea, Sund. Vet, Ac. Sv. 1834, p. 309. pi. 11. fig, 4; 
Less. Descr. d. Mamm. et Ois. p. 348. 

Euphonia mnea, Gray, Gen. p. 367. sp. 21 ; Bp. Consp. p. 233; 
R. Z. 1851, p. 136; Notės. 1. Tang. p. 11. 

Euphonia pardalates , Less. Echo d. M. S. 1844. 

Euphonia chalybea, Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 85. 

" Euphonia pyrrhuloides , Natt.," Gray, Gen. App. p. 16. 

Euphonia chloritica, Licht. in Mus. Berol. 

Corpore supero cum gula summa intense aneis : vitta frontali et ab- 
domine toto flavis, rostro crasso. 



277 

C . OUvacea : subtus grisea, lateribus et ventreimo cnssoque flaoes- 

centi-oUvaceis. 
Long. totą o'O, alae 2'6, caudae 16. 
Hab, Southern Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul (Plant). 
Mus. Brit., Paris. 

15. EUPHONIA VIOLACEA. 

Tang. brasiliensis nigro-lutea, Briss. Orn. iii. p. 31. 

Tanagra violacea, Linn. S. N, p. 315 ; VieilI. Enc. Meth. p. 783 ; 
Max. Beitr. iii. p. 441. 

Tang. de Bristi, Buff. PI. Enl. 114. fig. 2. 

Le Teitė, Buff. H. N. iv. 295 (partim). 

Euphonia violacea, Gray, Gen. p. 267- sp. 3 ; Schomb. Reise, iii. 
671; Bp. Consp. p. 232; Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 86; Bp. R. Z. 
1851, p. 136 ; Note s.l.Taug. p. 10. 

Enphone teitė, Desm. Tan.pl. 21. 22. 23 (?). 

Golden Tanager, Lath. G. H. vi. 27. 

Nitenti-cceruleo-nigra ; cervice postica violaceo tincta : fronte totą 
et pileo antico a mediis oculis cum corpore subtus aureis ; rect. 2 
aut 3 extimis in pogonio interno albo maculotis. 

? . OUvacea, subtus dilutior, viedialiter fiavescens. 

Long. totą 4*0, alae 2*3, caiidse \-'6. 

Hab. Trinidad ; Cayenne ; Brit. Guiana (iScAomJ.); South-eastern 
Brazil (P. Max.) ; Southern Brazil. 

Mus. Brit., &c. 

16. Euphonia laniirostris. 

Euphonia laniirostris, Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. in Mag. de Zool. 
1837, p. 30 ; d'Orb. Voy. p. 266. pi. 23. fig. 1 ; Gray, Gen. p. 367. 
sp. 17; Bp. Consp. p. 223; Rev. Zool. 1851, p. 136; Note s. 1. 
Tang. p. 10. 

Major : nigro-violaceo-nitens : pileo summo postice rotundato et 

corpore subtus aureo-flavis : rastro maximo, crassissitno. 
C . Viridescenti-olivacea, uropggio flavescentiore : subtus Jlavescenti- 

viridescens. 
Hab. Bolivia, prov. Yungas Guarayos and S. Cruz de la Sierra 
{d'Orb.). 

Mus. Parisiensi, Lafresnayano. 

17. Euphonia crassirostris, sp. nov. 
Euphonia f ortirostris, Lafr. in Mus. suo? 

Nitenti-cčEruleo-nigra, nucha vix violaceo tincta : pileo summo pos- 
tice rotundato jlavo : linea angusta supra oculos et narium plumis 
nigris : subtus IcBte flava : rectricum duarum utringue extimarum 
macula longa in pogonio interno et tectricibus subalaribus albis : 
rostro forti, crasso. 

? . OUvacea, subtus flava, lateribus olivascentibus. 

Long. totą 41, alse 2*6, caudse r6. 

Hab. New Grenada, Bogota. 



278 

I had formerly thought this Bogota bird might be the šame as 
the Central American E. hirundinacea, but I have lately obtained 
other specimens, and find that such is not the case. The upper go- 
louring of this bird is not of the pecuUar green shade wbich existsin 
the true hirundinacea, and the yellow head, instead of being eonfined 
to the frontai half and terminated by a straight line, extends further 
back and is posteriovly rounded. The bill of this bird is also thicker, 
broader and stronger, and shows more approach to the true Boliviao 
laniirosti'is. 

I am not now certain whether it is this species or the hirundinacea 
to which the Baron de la Fresnaye has giveu the MS. name forti- 
rostris. 

18. EUPHONIA HIRUNDINACEA. 

Euphonia hirundinacea, Bp. P. Z. S. 1837, p. H"; Gray, Gen. 
p. 367. sp. 4 ; Bp. Consp. p. 232 ; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 98. 
pi. 8.5. fig. ] (Ji g. mala). 

Euphonia luniirostris, Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 86. 

Viridescenli-teneo-nigra, cervice postica aerulesceniiore : pileo a 
fronte ad initium oculorvm et corpore subttis flavis, macula in 
ventre imo alba : rectricum duarum utrinąue extimarum macula 
ohlonga in pagonio interno et tectricibus subalaribus albis. 
Long. totą 4*2, alse 2*5, caudse 1*3. 

Hab. Guatimala (Bp. et Constancia) ; S. Mexico, Cordova {Salle). 
I had not very good specimens of this bird when I described it in 
P. Z. S. for 1854, and the figure there given -vvould suit better my 
Euphonia crassirostris. M. Salle', howeTer, has lately brought some 
beautifully prepared skins from Southern Mexico, which have enabled 
me to determine the species more satisfactorily. 

I have seen specimens in which the white belly-spot, which is per- 
haps produced by abrasion of the feathcrs in the most adult birds, 
was scarcely apparent. 

19. Euphonia melanura. 

Euphonia melanura, Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 86; P. Z. S. 1855, 
p. 159. 

Nitenti-violaceo -nigra : j'i^^o siimmo cum fronte et corpore subtus 
aureis : rectrictbvs immaculate nigris. 

Long. totą 4'0, alse 2-3, caudse TS. 

Hab. Barra do Rio Negro {JVallace) ; New Grenada, Bogota? 

The Bogota birds have the bill rather stronger and the yellow 
on the head more extendcd than the specimens from the Amazons. 

c. lUolopha. 

20. Euphonia cayana. 

Tang. cayanensis nigra, Briss. Orn. iii. 219. 
Tang. de Cayenne, Biiff. PI. Enl. 1 14. fig. 3. 
Tnng. negre, BuflF. II. N. iv. 297. 



279 

Tanagra cayana. Linu. S. N. i. p. 14. 

Tanagra cayennensis, Gm. S. N. ii. 894. 

Euphonia cayennensis, Gray, Gen. p. 367. sp. 6 ; Schomb. Reise, 
iii. 671. 

Euphonia cayana, Bp. Consp. p. 233 ; R. Z. 1851, p. 135 ; Note 
s. 1. Tang. p. 10; Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 88. 

Euphone negre, Desm. Tan. pi. 26. 

Atro-violaceo-nitens : macula niagna utrinįue pectorali Itete flava. 
Long. totą 4*0, alse 2-5, caudse \3. 

Hab. Cayenne ; Brit. Guiana (Schomb.) ; Lower Amazon (JVal- 
lace). 

21. Euphonia rufiventris. 

Tanagra rufiventris,^ mlV N. D. d'H. N. xxxii. p. 426 ; Euc.Meth. 
p. 781 ; Gal. Ois. Supp. pi. 24. 

Euphonia rufiventris, Gray, Gen. p. 367. sp. 12 ; Bp. Consp. p. 233; 
R. Z. 1851, p. 135 ; Note s.l. Tang. p. 10 ; Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1851, 
p. 87; Cassin, Rep.U.S. Astr. Exp. ii.p. 182.pl.xx.fig. 1. 

Euphonia bicolor, Strickl. Contr. Orn. 1850, p. 48. pi. 49. fig. 2. 

'' Tanagra chrysogaster, Cuv.," Less. Tr. d'Orn. p. 461. 

Atro-nitens : ab domine toto rubrescenti-aurantio, lateraliter flaves- 

centiore. 
? . Olivaceo-viridis ; subtus medialiter cinerea, lateraliter Jlaves- 

centi-oUvacea. 
Long. totą 4-5, alse 2'4, caudse VA. 

Hab. Eastern Peru, prov. Maynas (Poppig) ; r. Ucayali {Hawx- 
well) ; Rio Negro, Barcellos et S. Carlos (Natterer). 
Mus. Brit., Derbiano, Vindob. et Lipsiensi. 

22. Euphonia pectoralis. 

Pipra pectoralis, Lath. Ind. Orn. Supp. p. 57. 

Euphonia castaneiventris, Vieill. Gal. Ois. Supp. pi. 

Tanagra rufiventris, Licht. Doubl. p. 30 ; Max. Beitr. iii. 447. 

Tanagra chlorocyanea, Vieill. N. D. d'H. N. xxxii. p. 427 ; Puch. 
Arcb. Mus. vii. p. 355. 

Euphonia pectoralis, Gray, Gen. p. 367. sp. 7 ; Bp. Consp, p. 233 ; 
R. Z. 1851, p. 135; Note s. 1. Tang. p. 10; Sclater, Cont. Orn. 1851, 
p. 87. 

Euphonia umbilicalis, Less. Tr. d'Om. p. ( ? ) ; Bp. Consp. p. 233 ; 
R. Z. 1851, p. 400, et Note s. 1. Tang. p. 11. 

Atro-violaceo-nitens : plaga utrinque pectorali flava : ventre toto 

satvrate castaneo : tectricibus subalaribus albis. 
? . Olivacea : pileo postico griseo : subtus flavo-olivacea : pectore 

et cervice cinereis .• c7-isso castaneo. 
Long. totą 4"0, aire 2*5, caudse 1'5. 
Hab. S.E. Brazil (Max.) ; Goyaz {Cast. et Dev.). 
Mus. Brit., Parisieiisi. 



280 
d. Pyrrhuphonia. 

23. EUPHONIA JAMAICENSIS. 

Fringilla jamaicensis, Briss. Orn. iii. 166. 

Grey Grosbeak, Brown, Illustr. pi. 26, 

Fringilla jamaica, Linn. S. N. i. p. 323. 

Euphonia jamaica, Gray, Gen. App. p. 17 ; Gosse, B. Jam. p. 238 ; 
111. Orn. Jam. pi. 59 <? et ? ; Bp. Consp. p. 233; Sclater, Contr. Orn. 
1851, p. 91. 

Pyrrhuphonia jamaica, Bp. R. Z. 1851, p. 157; Note s. 1. Tang. 
p. 11. 

Euphonia cinerea, Lafr. R. Z. 1846, p. 277; Bp. Consp. p. 235 ; 
Gray, Gen. App. p. 17. 

Bananą Finch, Lath. G. H. ri. 125. 

Ccerulescenti-grisea : subtus dilutior, ventre flavo, crisso albido. 

$ . Mari similis, sed uropygio virescente, ventre non flavo. 

Long. totą 4*3, alse 2'5, caudse 1'5. 

Hab. Jamaica {Gosse). 

Mus. Brit. 

24. Euphonia plumbea. 

Euphonia poliocephala, Natt. in Mus. Vindob. 

Euphonia plumbea, DuBus, Bull. Acad. Brux. xxii. p. 156. 

Griseo-plumbea, viridi micans : ventre et c)-isso flavissimis. 

? . Grisea, olivaceo tincta : gula grisea : ventre flavescentiore : 
crassitie E. minutse. 

Hab. Rio Negro (Natt.). 

Mus. Vindob. 

There are specimens of botb sexes of this somewbat abnormally 
coloured Euphonia in tbe Vienna Museum, coUected by Natterer on 
the Rio Negro, and numbered 967 in his coUection. 



281 



GENERUM TANAGRINORUM 

DISTRIBUTIONIS GEOGRAPHICiE 
SCHEMA. 





•i 

< 

o 


•c 

•a o 

!l 

g c 
Su 


•3 

a 
< 


'O . 
c'a 


S 


2 

c 

1 
« 


i 

^"2 


II 


21 


n 

"o 
■3 
2 

•2 


■o 
a . 

c g 
■3 rt" 

00 


3-3| 

>3o 


-a 
1 


Iš 




1. 


2. 


3. 


4, 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


11. 


12. 


13. 


7 


1. Pitylus 




2 




1 




1 








2 


3 




2. Orchesticus 








1 




1 




"i 


i 


3 


1 


"i 


"i 


3 


3. Schistochlamys ... 




... 






... 


1 


... 






1 








2 


4. Saltator 




3 


2 


"3 
1 


i 


2 
1 




"5 


"e 


4 


2 


2 


3 


21 

1 


5. Psittospiza 


6. Laraprospiza 






















i 






1 


7. Cissopis 








"i 




"i 




i 


i 


'*] 


1 






3 


8. Oreothraupis 










"i 










... 








1 


9. Arremon 




1 




"2 


1 


i 




"i 


"2 


3 


"i 


i 




12 


10. Phoenicophilus ... 






"i 






















1 


11. Buarreraon 




"3 




"ė 


2 


"2 




"3 






i 


3 




17 


12. Chlorospingus 




2 




11 








1 








1 


"i 


15 


13. Pyrrhocoma 










... 








1 










1 


14. Nemosią 


... 






2 




"3 




"'3 


2 


4 


"3 


"2 


i 


11 


15. Cypsnagra 
















1 




1 


... 






1 


16. Tachyphonus 


... 






"5 




4 




1 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


10 


17. Trichothraupis ... 


... 
















1 


1 








1 


18. Eucometis 










... 






"i 






i 


i 




3 


19. Lanio 




1 




i 








1 






1 






3 


20. Phoenicothraupis... 




1 




1 








] 


"i 


i 




i 


"i 


4 


21. Laroprotes 








1 












1 








2 


22. Orthogonys 




















1 


i 






2 


23. Pyranga 


3 


7 


2 


"4 




2 


... 


i 


i 


1 


1 


'2 


i 


10 


24. Ramphocelus 




4 




5 




3 




1 




3 


1 


2 


1 


16 


25. Spindalis 






"3 




... 


















3 


26. Tanagra 




2 




"4 


i 


"3 


2 


"4 


'2 


4 


"3 


"3 


2 


13 


27. Dubusia 


... 






1 


1 














... 




2 


28. Compsocoma 


... 






1 


2 


i 




'i 












4 


29. Buthraupis 








2 


2 






1 












4 


30. Poecilothraupis ... 








2 


1 




i 


1 












3 


31. Iridornis 


... 






1 


1 




1 














3 


32. Calliste 




"3 




17 


6 


12 




"7 


"3 


"9 


"7 


"s 


3 


51 


33. Diva 








1 


... 


















1 


34. Pipridea 


... 














"i 


"i 


i 




i 




3 


35. Chlorochrysa 


... 






i 


"2 


i 
















2 


36. Tanagrella 








1 




1 








"1 


i 


i 




4 


37. Glossiptila 






i 












... 










1 


38. Chlorophonia 


... 


i 




2 




i 








1 




1 




5 


39. Euphonia 




3 


"3 


6 


i 


4 




3 


1 


4 


5 


3 


3 


24 


40. Stephanophorus ... 






12 










40 


25 


1 








1 




3 


33 


84 


22 


45 


4 


50 


37 


35 


19 '272 



282 

6. On THE SPECIES OF THE AmERICAN GENUS PaRRA. 

By Philip Lutley Sclater, M. A., F. Z. S. 

The American birds of the genus Parra, together with their repre- 
sentatives in the Tropics of the Old World belonging to the genera 
Metopidius, Hydralector and Hydrophasianus, constitute a very na- 
tūrai group, aUied in many respects to the Rallidie, but remarkable 
for the extreme elongation of the toes — a formation beautifuUy 
adapted for enabling them to walk upon the floating leaves of the 
numerous water-plants of these countries. 

MM. Verreaus of Paris have kindly furnished me from their 
well-stored magazines with a series of specimens of Parra, which 
enabled me to point out to the Society the distinctions between all 
the hitherto known species of this genus, and to indicate one cer- 
tainly new, and a second, which although not so obidously distinct, 
has some claim to be recognized as an intermediate species. 

A. Species caruncula frontali bilobata et caruncula rictali utrinąue 
prtedita. 

1. Parra jacana. 

Parra jacana et variabilis, Linn. et Gm. 
Parra nigra et brasi/iensis, Gm. 
Parra jacana, Max. Beitr. iv. 786. 
Parra jassana, Schomb. Reise, iii. 759. 
Jacana du Mexique, Bufif. PI. Enl. 322 (adult). 
Jacana du Bresil, BuflF. PI. Enl. 840 (juv.). 

Capiie toto cum cervice supera et corpore infra nigris : dorso, alis 
caudague clare castaneis : tectricihvs caudčB siiperioribus pvrpu- 
rasccnte tinctis : remigibus Jlavescenti-viridibus, nigro extus 
partim marginatis : hypochondriis et tectricibus subalaribus in- 
tense castaneis. 
Hab. South-eastern Brazil (P. Max.) ; British Guiana (Schomb.) ; 
Cayenne ; ins. Trinidad. 

The examples of this bird which I hare seen from Guiana and 
Cayenne appear to be considerably inferior in size to the Brazilian 
specimen, but I am not yet certain how far this may be due to sexual 
differences. 

2. Parra intermedia, sp. nov. ? 

" Parra intermedia, Bp.," J. et E. Verreaux, MS. 

Capite toto cum cervice supera et corpore infra nigris : dorso, alis 
caudague obseurius castaneis, purpurascente paululum tinctis : 
hypochondriis et tectricibus subalaribus brunnescenti- castaneis : 
remigibus Jlavescenti-viridibus, nigro extus partim marginatis. 
Hab. Venezuela ( Verreaux) . 

This bird is hardly distinguishable from the P. Jacana, except by 
the browner and more purplish tinge of the back, in which respeet 
it seems intermediate betvveen that species and P. melanopygia. 



283 

I should hardly have venturcd to separate it specifically ou my 
own authority ; but, as the MS. name has attained circulation, I 
tlimk lt nght to point out the apparent differences. 

3. Parra melanopygia, sp. nov. 

Capite toto cum cervice supera et corpore infra nigris : interscapulio 
alis caudague purpurascenti-brunneis : dorso imo et tectricibus 
cauda superiorihus nigris : hypochondriis et tectricibus sub- 
aiaribus nigris : remigibusflavescenti-viridibus, nigro extus partim 
margtnatis. 

Hab. S. Martha in New Grenada {Verreaux). 

MM Verreaux's specimens of this bird are labelled P. hypomeUna, 
but that name is properly applicable to the next species. 

4. Parra HYPOMELiENA. 

Parra hypomelana, Gray & Mitch. Gen. of B. pi. 159. 

Nigra : alis fusco -nigris purpurascente tinctis : remigibus fiaves- 

centi-viridibus, nigro extus partim. marginatis. 
Hab. New Grenada, S. Martha {Verreaux) ; Bogota (Mus. Brit ) • 
Cartagena {Mus. Paris.) ; Chiriąui, Panama (Bridges). 

B. Species caruncula frontali trilobata : carunculis rictalibus 
nullis. 

5. Parra gymnostoma. 

Parra gymnostoma, Wagl. Isis, 1831, p. 517. 
Parra cordi/era, Less. R. Z. 1842, p. 135 ; Desmurs, Icon. Orn. 
pi. 42. 

Capite toto cum cervice supera et infra ad medium pectus nigris 
(Eneomicantibus: dorso toto alisgue castaneis : uropygio purpuras- 
cente : abdomine purpurascenti-brunneo : remigibus flavescenti- 
viridibus, nigro marginatis. 
Hab. Southern Mexico ; Mazatlan (Mus. Brit.); Acapulco (A 
Lesson);^eyv Grenada, S. Martha (Verreaua:) ; Hondūras (Dyson). 
VVagler s accurate diagnosis of this bird has been generally passed 
over, and Lesson's more recent appellation is generally employed for 
this species. ^ *^ 



7. Catalogue of the Birds collected by M. Auguste 
Salle in Southern Mextco, with Descriptions of New 
Species. By Philip Lutley Sclater, M.A., F.Z.S., etc. 
(Avės, PI. CXX., CXXI.) 

M. Auguste Sall^, one of the most active and successfui of the 
present generation of traveUing Naturalists— on his recent retuin to 
Lurope from Southern Mexico, brought \vith hira a very fine col- 
lection of birds obtained principally near the town of Cordova in the 
State of Vera Cruz, and partially also in the vicinitv of the peak of 



284 

Orizaba in the State of La Puebla. Wlien in Paris a short time 
since, I had the pleasure of looking through this collection in com- 
pany with Prince Charles Lucien Bonaparte ; and at his request, 
and that of ^I. Salle, who offered to place a series of the birds in 
my hauds for that purpose, agreed to endeavour to make a coniplete 
catalogue of the species. Although I have not been able to devote 
all the time I could have wished to this object, I have succeeded in 
ascertaiuing, without much doubt, the names of the greater part of 
the known species ; while there are fourteen or fifteen birds in the 
collection which may be considered as probably unknown to science, 
and for which I have accordingly proposed new specific appellations. 
It is ąuite likely that some of these may have been already named 
by the American Naturalists, who have recently done so much to 
extend our knowledge of the Fauna of the northem portion of the 
New World ; but I have been unable to find any notice of them in 
the publications of the Scientific Societies of the United States or 
other works, as far as they have been received in this country up 
to the present time. 

Although we have a pretty good general knowledge of Mexican 
Ornithology — many coUections having been made in that country — 
there has been, as far as I am aware, no attempt made to form any 
detailed accountof the birds inhabiting it, except Mr. Swainson's im- 
perfect Synopsis published in the Philosophical Magazine in 1827, 
and Wagler's paper on Mexican Animals in the Isis for 1831 ; 
and the notices of more recently discovered species are scattered at 
random through the scientific publications of Englaud, France, Ger- 
many and America, to the great perplexity of the naturalist. So I 
may hope that the present list of 233 species found by M. Salle in 
Southern ]Mexico, will be of some use as an Index to the Ornithology 
of that country as far as it goes, and form a foundation on which a 
more perfect work ou the šame subject may some day be raised. 

I may remark, that there are examples of many well-known South 
American forms in the present collection (such as Nyctidromus, Pipra, 
Anahates and Formicarius) which have not hitherto been noticed so 
far north ; the zoology of the bot eastern sea-board, which M. Salle 
explored, being, as might have been expected, much more tropical 
in its character than that of the high table-land of the interior, 
whence most Mexican collections have hitherto been brought. 

The occurrence of the examples of the pūrely Boreal types Cer- 
thia and Parus so far south (below the parallel of 19' N. L.), is also, 
I believe, hitherto unrecorded. 

A notice of these collections of birds by Prince Bonaparte will be 
found in the Comptes Rendus of the French Academy of Natūrai 
Sciences for the month of May of this year, and some of the new 
species are there shortly indicated. 

ACCIPITRES. 
1. TlNNUNCULUS SPARVERIUS (Liiin.). 

Salle, no. 8. Cordova. 



285 

2. Hypotriorchis femoralis (Temm.).— PI. Col. 121 et 343. 
Salle, no. 11. Vera Cruz. Hypotriorchis aurantius, Heerman, 

Pr. Ac. Phil. vii. 177. Observed by Dr. Heerman in New Mexico. 

3. ASTURINA MAGNIROSTRIS (Gm.). 

Salle, no. 5. 

4. MiCRASTUR CONCENTRICUS (LcsS.). 

Sall^, no, 7. 

5. Geranospiza gracilis (Temm.). 
Salle, no. 9. Cordova. 

6. ICTINIA PLUMBEA (Gm.). 

Salle, no. 6. Cordova. 

7. BuTEO iNSiGNATcs, Cassin, B. Cal. pp. 102 et 198. pi. 31. 
Salle, no. 7. 

Both Prince Bonaparte and INI. Julės Verreaux (who are well ac- 
quainted with Accipitres) agree in considering a single specimen ob- 
tained by M. Salle as referable to this curious species. It appears 
to agree sufficiently with Mr. Cassin' s description and figure of the 
malė bird of B. insignatus. 

8. Syrnium virgatum, Cassin, Pr. Ac. Sc. Phil. 18. iv. p. 124 ; 
Joum, Ac. Phil. iv. pi. ii. pi. 3. — Syrnium squamulatum, Bp. Consp'. 
p. 53. — SyrniJim zonocercus, G. R. Gray, List Accipitr. p. 103. — 
Macabra sąuamulata, Bp. MS. 

Salld, no. 3. Cordova. 

9. Athene iNFUSCATA (Temm.), Strickl. Orn. Syn. p. Ifi3. 
Sall4 no. 4. Cordova. These examples seem to agree with South 

American speciraens. 

Caprimulgid^. 

10. Nyctidromtjs americanus (Linn.), Cassin, Pr Ac Sc 
Phil. v. 180.— iV. derbianus, Gould. 

Does not seem different from South American examples. 
Sall4 no. 10, ^ et ? . Cordova. 

HlRUNDINID^. 

11. CoTYLE SERRIPENNIS (Aud.). — Hirundo serripentiis, Aud 
Orn. Biog. iv. p. 593 : B. Am. 8vo. i. pi. 51. 

Salle, no. 137, <? et ? . Cordova. 

MoMOTIDjE. 

12. MoMOTUS LESSONi (Less.). — M. brasiliensis, Cassin, Pr Ac 
Phil. iv. 89 ? . , . c. 

Salle, no. 48. Cordova. 



28G 

The specimens of this northern representative of M. brasiliensis 
show some variation. M. Salle's exainple has a sraaller bill, less 
black on the head, aad less rufous tiage on the breast than a Guati- 
malaa bird, which I refer to the šame species. 

Alcedinid^. 

13. Ceryle AMERiCANA(Gm.),Cas3in, B. Cal.i. p. 255; P. Z. S. 
1855, p. 136. 

Salle, no. 68. Cordova. 

Trogonidje. 

14. Trogon caligatus, Gould, Mon. Trogon. pi. 7. 
Salle', 110. 71, <? et ? . Cordova. 

15. Trogon puella, Gould, P. Z. S. 1845, p. 18. — Trogon xala- 
pensis, DuBus, Esq. Orn. pi. 5. 

Salle, no. 69. Cordova, <? et ? . 

16. Trogon AURANTiivENTRis.Gould, P.Z.S.1856(May 13th), 
p. 107. — Trogon sallcei, Bp. Compt. Reud. May 1856. 

Salle, no. 70. Cordova. 

C.£REBID^. 

17. C^REBA CYANEA (Linn.), v. p. z. s. 1856, p. 140. 

Salle, no. 113. Cordova. Seems to agree quite sufficiently with 
South American species. 

18. Certhiola mexicana, sp. nov. 1 

Nigricanti-fusca : capite, alis caudaąue nigris : superciliis et speculo 
alari albis : uropygio flavicante : gutture cinereo : abdomine 
flavo ; crisso albidiore : rectricibus extimis albo terminatis. 

Long. totą 3'8, alse 2-1, caudse \2, 

Salle, no. 114. Some of the various local races of Certhiola fla- 
veola certaiuly show such differences as entitle them to specific sepa- 
ration. The'present bird does not appear to be quite the šame as 
any of the nine giveu by Prince Bonaparte in his ' Notės Orn.' p. 51. 
It is very closely allied to the Bogota species, which I believe to be 
the C. luteola, Cab., but niaj be distinguished by its duller back, 
less brightly-coloured uropygium and belly, longer bill and shorter 
vrings. 

19. DiGLOSSA BARiTULA, Wagl. Isis, 1832, p. 281 ; Gray, Gen. 
B. pi. 42. 

Salle, no. 116, <? et ?. 

Trochilid^. 

I have not myself examined J\I. Salle' s collection of Trochilidce, 
but he has kindly furnished me with the names of tweuty-five species, 
which he obtained, as determined by himself and M. Bourcier. 



287 

20. Phaethornis adolphi. —Py^mom^ adolphi, Salle, MS. 
Mr. Gould will shortly publish a figure of this new species. 

21. Lampornis prevosti (Bouic. & Muls.), R. Z. 1843, p. 99. 

22. Campylopterus pampa (Less.), Ois. Mouch. Suppl. pi. 15 : 
Bp. Consp. p. 71 ; Gould, Mon. Trochil. x. pi. II. 

23. Campylopterus delattrii (Less.), R. Z. 1839 n 14 • 
Gould, Mon. Trochil. x. pi. 10. > V- ' 

24. CoLiBRis THALASsiNA (Sw.), Phil. Mag. 1827, p. 441 • Bp 
Consp. p. 69; Gould, Mon. Trochil. v. pi. 5. ' 

25. Heliomaster constantii (Delattre), Gould, Mon. Trochil 
v. pi. 10. 

26. C(ELiGENA FULGENS (Sw.), PhU. Mag. 1827, p. 341.— Orn 
nvolii, Less. 

27. Myiabeillia typica, Bp. ; Gould, Mon. Trochil. viii. pi. 7. 

i^r^^rP^^^T^V^ HENRici (Less.), Bp. Consp. p. 70; Gould, 
Mon. Trochil. viii. pi. 14. r r . 

29. Delattria rhami (Less.), R. Z. 1838, p. 315. 

30. Delattria clemenci^ (Less.), Gould, Mon. Trochil ix 
pi. 10. 

31. Cyanomyia auADRicoLOR (Vieill.), Gould, Mon. TrochU 
IX. pi. 9. 

32. Amazilius arsinoe (Less.), Bp. Consp. p. 77. 

33. Amazilius dubusi (Bourc), 1852, ubi? 

Ts this species really distinct from A. riefferi (Bourc), R. Z. 1843 
p. 103? I cannot see any difference in Mr. Gould's examples of 
these two species. 

34. Amazilius cerviniventris, Gould, P. Z. S 1856 
June lOth. ' 

35. Sporadinus caniveti (Less.), Colibris, Suppl. pi. 37. 
Perhaps this may be S. auriceps, Gould (Cont. Orn. 1852, p 137) 

which appears to be the Mexican representative of S. caniveti. 

36. Thaumatias candidus, Bourc. Ann. Sc. Lyons, 1846 • Bp 
Consp. p. 78. ■ ^' 

37. Basiunna leucotis (VieUl.). — Orre. arsenii, Less. Ois. 
Mouch. pi. 9, Suppl. pi. 27. 

38. Trochilūs colubris, Lmn. 



288 

39. Selasphorus platycercus (Sw.), Phil. Mag. 1827, p. 441. 
— O. tricolor, Less., Gould, Mon. Trochil. iii. pi. 7. 

40. Selasphorus helois^ (Less. & Del.), R. Z. 1839, p. 15 ; 
Gould, Mon. Trochil. viii. pi. 2. 

41. Calothorax lucifer (S#.), Phil. Mag. 1827, p. 442; Bp. 
Consp. p. 85. 

42. Calothorax eliza (Less. & Delattre). — Tr. eliza, Less. & 
Del. R. Z. 1839, p. 20. 

43. Thaumastura duponti (Less.). — Tryphaena duponti, 
Gould, Mon. Trochil. i. pi. 14. 

44. LopHORNis HELENA (Delattre), Gould, Mon. Trochil. x. 
pi. 6. 

Certhiid.e. 

45. Synallaxis erythrothorax, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 75. 
pi. lxxxvi. 

Salle, no. 109. Cordova. This is the only bird of the genus 
which I have as yet seen from north of the Isthmus of Panama. 

A&. Anabates RUBiGiNosus, sp. nov. 

Salle, no. 102. Cordova. 

Saturate brunneus ; pileo obscuriore : alis extus, uropygio et cauda 
totą cum pectore saturate ruhiginoso-rufis ; gula clariore : ventre 
dorso concolore sed medialiter pallidiore : tectricibus subalaribus 
clare rubiginosis : rostro forti, crasso, recto, nigricante, basi 
pallida : pedibus nigiicanti-plumbeis. 

Long. totą 8'0, alac 3"7, caudse 3*3, rostri a rietu 1*2. 

This fine Anabates is of the šame strong form as A. ferruginolen- 
tus (Max.), but has shorter wings and rather a stiffer tail. I know 
of no species that resembles it much in colouring. 

47. Anabates cervinigularis, sp. nov. 
Salle, no. 104. Cordova. 

Supra saturate brunneus ; pileo nigro : dorso summo nigricante ad- 
umbrato : plumis medialiter pallidioribus : loris, superciliis longis 
et cervicis lateribus clare rujis : gutture dilutiore, pallide cervino : 
abdomine flavescenti-brunneo lateraliter obscuriore : alaruni pennis 
nigris estus brmineo limbatis, subtus autem cum tectricibus sub- 
alaribus clare rufis : uropygio et crisso cum cauda totą saturate 
rubiginoso-rufis : rostro validiusculo, recto, corneo, basi autem 
flavicante : pedibus pallide brunneis. 
Long. totą 7"5, alae 3"6, caudse 3*0. 

This species is not quite so strong in form as the lašt, and has not 
so thick a bill. In colouring it somevvhat resembles A. atricapillus, 
but is much larger than that bird. The sexes are coloured alike. 



289 

48. Anabazenops variegaticeps, sp. nov. 

Sall4 no. 204. Cordova. Sexes alike. 

Supra brunneus : pilei pennis olivaceis, nigro angustissime circum- 
cinctis et scapis plumarum Jlavicantibus : superciliis longis rufis : 
loris et regione auriculari nigris : mento et gutture toto ochra- 
cescenti-albidis : abdomine pallide brunneo : cauda clare rubigi- 
noso-rufa : tectricibus subalaribus flavicanti-ochraceis : rostro 
pallide corneo, basi flavicante : pedibus pallide brunncis. 
Long. totą 6*0, alse 3'3, caudse 2*7. 

This bird closely resembles Anabazenops rvfo-superciliatus (Lafr.), 
but may be recognized at oiice by the darker, browner back, and the 
variegated head, which in the latter species is of the šame greeniah 
brown as the back. In the present bird also there is not that decided 
mottled plumage on the breast observable in the other species, 
although there are slight indications of it on the sides of the neck. 

49. Xenops mexicanus, sp. nov. 

Rufescenti-olivaceus, capite obscuriore, uropygio rufo : loris albi- 
dis : slria superciliari angusta ochraceo-flavida : regione auricu- 
lari ochraceo-flavida, nigro mixta : penicilla utringue sub re- 
gione auriculari alba : subtus dorso similis sed minus rufescens, 
mento et gutture medio ochracescenti-albidis : alis nigris : vitta 
lata per remiges cum secundariarum interiorum marginibus et 
terminationibus necnon secundariis dorso proximis rufis : cauda 
rufa : rectricibus duabus utrincue submedialibus omnino et rectri- 
cum kis proximarum parte basali nigris, duabus mediis et una 
utrinąue extima omnino rufis : rostro nigro, basi inferiore albi- 
cante : pedibus nigris. 

Long. 4"6, alse 2"7, caudse 2'1. 

Obs. AfRnis Xenopi genibarbi, sed crassitie majore et colore sub- 
tus olivascentiore necnon gula ochracescenti-albida distinguendus. 
J et ? simUes. 

Salle, no. 115. Cordova. 

50. Dendrornis flavigastra (Sw.). — Xiphorhynchus flavi- 
gaster, Sw. Phil. Mag. 1827, p. 440. — Kasica flavigaster, Lafr. R. 
Z. 1850, p. 383 ; DesMurs, Icon. Orn. pi. 52. 

Sall4 no. 97. Cordova. 

51. Dendrornis triangularis (Lafr.), R. Z. 1842, p. 134, 
1850, p. 418, et Mag. de Zool. 1843, pi. 32. 

Salld, no. 99. Cordova. 

52. Picolaptes affinis, Lafr. R. Z. 1850, p. 275? 

Salle', no. 98. Cordova. M. Salle has brought home a single 
bird of this difficult group which I refer with some doubt to P. affi- 
nis, Lafr. 

No. CCCXIX. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



290 

53. SiTTASOMUS SYLVioiDES, Lafr. R. z. 1849, p. 331, et 1850, 
p. 590. 

Salle, no. 100. Cordova. 

54. SCLERURTJS MEXICANUS, Sp. DOV. 

Salle, no. 101. Cordova. 

Brunnescenti-olivaceus, pileo paulo obscuriore ; uropygio cum cer- 
vice et pectore antice saturate rufis : mento albescentiore : alis 
nigris brunneo limbatis, rectricibus nigris, marginibus exiernis 
hrunnescentibus : rostro nigro ; basi inferiore albicante : pedibus 
nigerrimis. 
Long. totą 6*5, alse 3"2, caudse 22. 

M. Salle's collection coutains four examples of this interesting bird, 
wliich has never j)reviously conie uiider my uotice. One marked as 
a female has the bill rather longer than the others, but does not 
otherwise difFer from them. It may be at once distinguished from 
tbe Biazilian (S. caudacutus (to wbich it sbows great general resem- 
blance) by its smaller size. Hartlaub's S. fuscus (R. Z. 1844, p. 3/0) 
seems to be larger, and differently coloured. 

55. Certhia mexicana, Reich. Handb. d. Sp. Orn. p. 266. 

Salle', no. 106. Ranchos de Snapam. 

I haA'e not yet had an opportunity of comparing this bird with 
specimens of C. americana, 

56. SCYTALOPUS PUOSTHELEUCUS, Sp. nOV. 

Salle, no. 112. Cordova. 

Supra brunneus, dorso rufescente : superciliis longis albis : lateri- 
bus capitis nigris albo variegatis : subtus albus ; lateribus cinera- 
ceis, ventre imo et a-isso rufescentibus : alis fusco-nigris extus 
rufescenti-bi'unneo transvittutis : tectricum apicibus albo macu- 
latis : cauda totą nigricante et ru/escenti- brunneo tessellata : 
rostro nigro : pedibus brunneis. 
Long. totą 3*8, alse 2'2, caudse TO. 

This Mexican species nmch resembles in colouring a Bogota bird 
in my collection, which I somewhat doubtfully refer to S. griseicollis, 
Lafr., but differs from it in having the lower parts cinereous and not 
white. 

57. Troglodytes palustris (Wilson), Am. Om. pi. xii. fig. 4. 
Salle, uos. 107 et 210. Romatlan. 

58. Troglodytes hyemalis, 'Vieill.,"Wils.Am.Om. pi. 8. fig. 6. 
Salle', no. 108. EI Jacale. 

59. Thryothortjs maculipectus, Lafr. R. Z. 1845, p. 338. 
Salle, no. 111. Cordova. 

60. Campylorhynchus zonatus (Less.), Cent. Zool. pi. 70. 
Salle, no. 59. Cordova. 



291 

Mniotiltin^. 

61. Mniotilta varia (Linn.). 

Salle, no. 128, (? et ?. 

62. Helmitheros solitarius (Wilson), Am. Orn. t. 15.fig. 4. 
Salld, no. 125. Cordova. 

63. Helmitheros rubricapillus (Wilson), Am. Orn. t. 27. 
%• 3. 

Salle, no. 126. Cordova. 

64. Helmitheros .■' 

Sall^ no. 123. Cordova, <?. 

Olivaceus : pileo cinereo : capite laterali et gutture toto cum pectore 
et ventre medio albidis : lateribus flavescenti-olivaceis . 

Long. totą 4*2, alse 2 2, caudse 1-6. 

This bird seems iu plumage rather to resemble the female of Tri- 
chas inaegillivruii as figured by Audubon (B. Amer. 8vo. ii. pi. 100. 
fig. 2), but certainly in my judgement belongs to this genus. 

65. Rhimamphus coronatus (Linn.). 
Salle, no. 120. Cordova, av. juv. 

66. Rhimamphus pensilis (Gm.). 
Salle, no. 211. 

67. Rhimamphus virens (Gm.). 
Salle, no. 118. 

68. Rhimamphus olivaceus (Giraud). — Syhia olivacea, Gi- 
raud, B. Texas, p. 14. pi. 7. fig. 2. — Sylvicola tceniafa, DuBus, Bull. 
Ac. Brux. xiv. p. 104 ; P. Z. S. 1855, p. 66; Cassin, B. Cal. i. 
pi. 48. p. 283. 

Salle', no. 191. 

69. Myiodioctes mitratus (Lath.), Bp. Consp. p. 315. 
Salle, no. 121. Cordova. 

70. Myiodioctes pusrLLUs (Wilson), Bp. Consp. p. 315. 
Salle, no. 122. 

71. Euthlypis lacrymosa, Cab. Mas. Hein. p. 19 (note). — 
Basileuterus, sp. 10 ; Bp. Consp. p. 314. 

Salle, no. 131. Cordova. 

72. Basileuterus rufifrons (Sw.). — Setophaga nififrons, Sw. 
An. in Men. p. 294 ; Bp. Consp. p. 314. 

Sall^, no. 124. 



292 

73. Basileuterus brasiert (Giraud). — Muscicapa Brasierii, 
Giraud, B. Texas, pi. 6. fig. 2. — B. culicivnrus, Cab. Mus. Hein. 
p. 17 ; Bp. Consp. p. 313 ; P. Z. S. 1855, p. 66. 

Salle, no. 127, d' et ? similes. Cordova. 

74. Setophaga ruticilla (Linu.). 
Salle, no. 174. 

75. Setophaga picta, Sw. Zool. 111. n. s. pi. 3 ; Bp. Consp. 
p. 312. 

Salle, no. 188. 

76. Setophaga miniata (Sw.). — Muscicapa miniata, Sw. Phil. 
Mag. 1827, "p. Z&S. — Muscicapa vulnerata, Wagler, Isis, 1831, 
p. 520. — Muscicapa derhamii, Giraud, B. Texas, pi. 3. fig. 2. 

Salle', no. 81. 

77. Granatellus Sall.«i (Plate CXX.). — "Setophaga sallcei, 
Bp. et Sclater;" Bp. Compt. Rend. 1856, May. 

Salle, no. 129. Cordova. 

Caruleo-plumbea, superciliis vix obscuriorihus : litura postoculari 
alba : genis gulague plumbescentibus : pectore et abdomine medio 
cum crisso rosaceo-coccineis : lateribus posiice albis : alis cauda- 
gue nigricantibus, plumbeo extus marginatis : rosiro crasso, pau- 
lulum incurvo, nigricanti-plumbeo ; vibrissis f ere nullis : pedibus 
pallide hrunneis. 
Long. totą 5-2, alse 24, caudse 23. 

This very pretty bird, of wliich M. Salle only procured a single 
specimen, is, I think, upon reconsideration hardly to be placed in the 
genus Setophaga, although so closely resembling many species of 
that genus in its style of colouriug. The bill is cjuite different from 
that of Setophaga, and is niore likę that of Nemosią, being even 
thicker than in some species of the latter form, but rather more in- 
curred. The characters given by Prince Bonaparte for his genus 
Granatėlius (founded upon a bird figured in an unpublished plate of 
DuBus's Esąuisses Ornithologiques) seem to agree better with this 
bird, and from the description of the only species of that genus 
(which I have never seen) I cannot help thinking that it may have 
something to do with the present bird. I therefore place them for 
the present in the šame genus. 

78. Cardellina rubra (Sw.). — Setophaga rubra, Sw. Phil. 
Mag. 1827, p. 368 ; Cassin, B. Cal. pi. 43. p. 2G5. — Pariis leucotis, 
Giraud, B. Texas, pi. 4. fig. 2. 

Sall^no. 119. ElJacale. 

79. T«iCHAS MARiLANDiCA (Linu.), Wils. Am. Orn. pi. 6. fig. 1. 
— Trichas personatus, Sw. Phil. Mag. 1827, p. 433. 

Salle, no. 130. 



'F 



>f 



Woli\ iiVij 



M 5 :T Hi- 



CtRAITATEILUS SALL^I . Sdati^r. 



293 

80. Trichas DELAFiELDi, Audub. Om. Biogr. v. p. 307; B. Am. 
8vo. ii. p. 81. pi. 103. 

Salle, no. 209. 

M. Salle's specimeiis seem to agree with Audubon's figures and 
d.'scriptions of Trichas deląfieldi. 

Erithacin^. 

81. SiALiA wiLsoNi (Sw.), Wils. Am. Orn. pi. 3. fig. 5. 
Salle, no. 85 bis. Cerro del Gallego ; Cordova. 

82. SiAHA MEXicANA, Sw. North. Zool. ii. p. 202 (note). — S. 
occidentalis, Townsh. Joura. Ac. Phil. vii. p. 188 ; Aud. B. Am. 8vo. 
ii. pi. 135. — S. cceruleicollis, Vig. Zool. Beechey's Voy. Pacif. pi. 3. 

Salle, no. 85. 

Parinkę. 

83. PaRUS MERIDIONALIS, Sp. nOV. 

Salle, no. 167. EI Jacale. 

Supra cinereus : alis caudaąue nigricantibus brunnescenti-cinereo 
Umbatis : pileo toto cum nucha, gutture et cervice antica nigerri- 
mis : genis et capite laterali albis : abdomine cinereo bmnnescente 
tincto į pectore et ventre medio albidis : rostro nigro : pedibus 
plumbeis. 

Long. totą 4'8, alse 2-65, caudse 2-3. 

This Titmouse is a very close ally o{ Parus atricapillus and Parus 
carolinensis. I am sorry I have not been able to compare it witli 
authentic specimens of those species, but, as far as I can judge from 
Mr. Cassin's excellent synopsis of American Parinae given in his 
' Birds of Califomia,' it would appear — as by the locality it comes 
from would seem most probable — to be distinct from either of those 
species. 

From P. carolinensis it appears to differ in its greater size, being 
nearly half an inch longer than the dimensions assigned to that bird 
by Mr. Cassin. It would hardly seem likely that it is the šame as 
P. atricapillus, which is an inhabitant of the more northern statės 
of the Union, and the slightly inferior size and white medial line 
on the lower parts seem to distinguish it from that species. 

SiTTINiE. 

84. SiTTA CAROLINENSIS, Latham. 
Salle', no. 199. 

MOTACILLINiE. 

85. Henicocichla auricapilla (Gm.), Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 15. 
Sall4 no. 59. 

86. Anthus ludovicianus (Gm.). 
Salle, no. 200. 



294 

87. Anthus ? 

Sall^, no. 201. 

TURDIN^. 

88. TuRDTJS MiGRATORius, Linn., Sw. Phil. Mag. 1827, p. 368. 
Salle, no. 54. Rotosinapam. 

89. TuRDUS TRiSTis (Sw.). — Mevulci tristis, Sw. Phil. Mag. 
1827, p. 369. — Turdusffrayi, Bp. P. Z. S. 1837, p. 118; Consp. 
p. 272. — Turdus helvolus, Licht. in Mus. Berol. 

Salle, no. 53. Cordova. 

90. Turdus mustelinus, Gm., Wils. Am. Ora. pi. 2. fig. 1. 
Salle, no. 58. Cordova. 

9 1 . Catharus AURANTiiROSTRis (Hattlaub) . — Turdus aurantii- 
rostris, Hartl. R. Z. 1850, p. 158 ; Cont. Orn. 1851, pi. 72. p, 80.— 
Catharus immaculatus, Bp. Consp. p. 278. 

Salle, no. 164. Cordova. 

I have not had an opportunity of comparing these specimens with 
Venezuelan examples, but, judging from the published figures and 
descriptions, I can detect no great difference. 

92. MiMUS CiERULESCENS (Sw.). — Orpheus ccerulescens, Sw. 
Phil. Mag. 1827, p. 369 ; Temm. PI. Col. 498. 

Salle, no. 56. Cordova. 

93. MiMUS CAROLiNENSis (Linn.), Wils. Am. Orn. pi. 20. fig. 3. 
Salle, no. 57. Cordova. 

94. MiMUS LONGTROSTRis (Lafr.). — Orpheus lonyirostris, Lafr. 
R. Z. 1838, p. 54 ; Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 81. 

Salle, no. 93. Cordova. 

FoRMICARIIDjE. 

95. Grallaria guatimalensis, Prevost, Zool. Venus, pi. 2. — 
Chamceza guatimalensis, Bp. Consp. p. 204. 

Salle, no. 52. Cordova. 

Tliis fine Grallaria is a typical species of the genūs, a striet 
uorthern representativc of Grallariee rex and imperator, and by no 
means to be placed aniong the Chamcezce. 

96. Formicarius moniliger, sp. nov. 

Supra brunnescenti-olivaceus, colli lateribus et uropygio rufescen- 
iioribus, pileo nigricantiore : macula in loris triangulari alba : 
gutture toto nigro, infra vitta angusta rufa cincta : abdomine toto 
nigricanti-griseo, lateribus et crisso olivaceo per/usis: regione 
oculari nuda : tectricibus subalaribus ochraceis, nigro variegatis : 
caiidce parte apicali nigra : rostro nigro : pedibus clare brunneis. 

Salle, no. 105, ^ et ? similes. Cordova. 



295 

A typical Formicarius, a close ally of F. cayanensis, analis, &c., 
but distinguished by its black throat, bordered beneath by a narrow 
band of rufous ; white triangular spot on the lores ; and other dif- 
ferences. It is the first of the form found to occur so far north. 

97. Thamnophilus doliatus (Linn.). 
Salle, no. C5, <? et ? . 

Tyrannid^. 

98. todirostrum cinereigulare, sp. dot. 

Olivaceum : alis caudaque nigris, flavicante olivaceo Umbatis : orbi- 
tis antice nigricantibus : loris albidis : subtus gutture et cervice 
cinereis aut potius albis cinereo dense striolatis : pectore olivaceo : 
abdomine toto et tectricibus subnlaribus flavis : rastro compres- 
siusculo, crassiusculo ; culmine carinato, incurvo ; colore nigri- 
cante, tomiis pallidis : pedibus pallide brunneis. 
Long. totą 3'G, alse 1'7, caudee 1'2. 
Salle, no. 89, <? . Cordova. 

This Todirostrum differs slightly in the form of the bill from 
the ordinary members of the genus, that part being rather thicker, 
and vvith the culmen elevated and more incurved than in the typical 
species of the group. 

99. MuscivoRA MEXiCANA, sp. nov, 

** Megalophus mexicanus, Kp.," Bp. MS. 

Brunnea: uropygio, cuudn totą et corpore subtus flavescenti-ochra- 
ceis, gutture albidiore : alis extus ochraceo punctatis et subtus 
(nisi primariorum apicibus) omnino ochraceis : crista ampla, 
aureo-flava, ccerulescente aneo terminata : rostra productiore 
quam in M. regia; pedibus flavidis . 
Long. totą 6-0, alse 3-3, caudse 28, rostri a rietu 1-3. 
SalM, no. 78. Cordova. 
_ M. Salle's coUection contains a single example of this interesting 
bird, which however was not procured by himself, and is unfortu- 
nately not in very good condition. It is probably the Mec/alophus 
mexicanus of Dr, Kaup, which I have seen indicated in Prince Bo- 
naparte's MS., but which I believe is merely an unpublished name. 
From the common Muscivora reyia, to which it offers a close general 
resemblance, it may be distinguished by its longer bill, and having 
the base of the crest of a paler yellower tint, and the tips with less 
purplish colouring. 

The Muscivora castelnauii {Onychorhynchus castelnaui, Deville, 
R. Z. 1849, p. 56), the only second member of the genus hitherto 
known, from Eastern Peru, on the other hand appears to have a 
shorter bill and more reddish crest than the typical species. 

100. Platyrhynchtjs cancroma (Licht.), Bp. Consp. p. 183. 
Salle, no. 90. Cordova, J et ? similes. 

I can find no difference between these and S. American specimens. 



296 

101. Cyclorhynchus BREViROSTRis, Cab. Orn. Notiz. in 
Wiegm. Arch. 1847, p. 249. 

Sall4 no. 82. Cordova. 

This bird is readily distinguished from the Brazilian C. olivaceus 
by its shorter and more rounded beak. 

102. Pyrocephalus rubineus (Bodd.). — Tyrannula coronata, 
Sw. Phil. Mag. 1827, p. 367; Cassin, B. Cal. pi. 18. p. 127. 

Salle, no. 94, <? et ? . Cordova. 

103. Tyrannula sulphureipygia, sp. nov. 
Salle, no. 84. Cordova. 

Olivacea : pilei crista mediali fiava : uropygio pallide sulphureo : 
alis caudague nigris, secundariis extus brunnescente limbatis : 
subtus flavicanti-brunnea, gula et ventre medio flavis. 
Long. totą 5'2, alse 2*8, caudae 2*3. 

Obs. Aff. T. barbatce ex America Meridionali, sed statura majore, 
colore uropygii pallidiore et corporis subtus bruunescentiore distin- 
guenda. 

104. Tyrannula ? 

Salle, no. 88, <J et ? similes. Cordova. 

105. Tyrannula ? 

Salle, no. 92, ? . Cordova. 

106. Tyrannula ? 

Salld, no. 83, S . Cordova. 

107. Tyrannula 1 

Salle, no. 95. 

These little Tyrants are in such a sad statė of confusion at present, 
that it only makes matters worse to attempt to describe uew species. 

108. MioNECTES OLEAGiNUs (Llcht.), Bp. Cousp. p. 187. 
Sall^no. 91. Cordova. 

M. Salle's specimens seem to agree with South American examples. 

109. Sayornis nigricans (Sw.). — Tyrann. nigricans, Sw. Phil. 
Mag. 1827, p. 367. 

Salle, no. 86. Cordova. 

110. Myiarchus mexicanus (Kp.), P. Z. S. 1851, p. 51 ? 
Salle, no. 77. Cordova. 

111. EljENia texensis (Giraud). — Muse. texensis, Giraud, B. 
Texas, pi. 1. — Tyr. cayennensis, Sw. Phil. Mag. 1827, p. 367. 

Salle, no. 76, (? et ? similes. 

Hardly distinct from Elcenia cayennensis. The back is rather 
more tinged with green, and there is more white on the front than 



297 

in the South American bird. The dimensions are perhaps sUghtly 
larger, and the bill longer. 

112. Eli^NIA VARIEGATA, Sp. nOV. 

Salle, no. 80. Cordora, c? et ? similes. 

Supra hrunnea, olivascente tincta, marginibus plumarum pallidiori- 
bus : alis caudague nigricantibus, illarum tectricibus extus albo 
marginatis : pileo et capitis lateribus nigris : crista mediali flava : 
superciliis a fronte circum nucham conjunctis, albis : subtus pal- 
lide flava, gutture albo, striga utrinque rictali nigra : pectore 
nigricante flammulato : rastro et pedibus nigris, 

Long. teta 6"2, alse 3*7, caudse 2"6. 

Obs. Affinis Elcenice alhicolli (Vieill.) ex America Meridionali sed 
crassitie majore : coloribus laetioribus. 

113. El^nia ? 

Sall^, no. 93. Cordova, ? . 

114. MiLvuLus TYRANNTJS (Linn.). 
Salle, no. 79. Plains of Vera Cruz. 

1)5. Tyrannus melancholicus, Vieill. — M. furcata, Spix, 
Av. Bras. ii. p. 1.5. pi. 19. 
Salle', no. 208. 

116. Tyrannus audax (Gm.)? 

Sall^, no. 87. Cordova. 

M. Salle' s examples of this bird are much more brightly coloured 
than any S. American specimens which have come under my obser- 
vation. The belly is also wholly of a pale sulphur-yellow, instead 
of being only tinged with that colour. When the group is properly 
worked out, this will probably be found to constitute a sufficiently 
distinct species. 

117. Tyrannus cooferi (Nutt.), Aud. Orn. Biogr. ii. p. 422? 
Salle', no. 207. 

118. PiTANGUs derbianus (Kp.). — Sūuropkagus derbianus, 
Kp. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 44. pi. 36. — Saurophagus rufipennis, Lafr. 
R. Z. 1851, p. A7\1. — Saurophagus sulphuratus, Gambel in Journ. 
Ac. Sc. Phil. i. p. 39 ? 

Salle, no. 75. Cordova. 

Tityrin^. 

119. TiTYRA mexicana (Less.) : antea, p. 141. 
Salle, no. 67. 

120. Pachyrhamphus aglai^e (Lafr.), R. Z. 1839, p. 98. 
Salle, no. 96. Cordova. 

i adult. Niger, crislatus, uropygium versus schistacescentior : 



298 

subtus pallide schistaceus, colio antico late roseo : scapularibus 
intus, et remigum primariarum (rasi duarum exteriorum) basibus 
internis albis. 
S immat. Brunneus nigro mixtus : capite cristato nigro : alis ei- 
tus rufis : subtus pallidior, colio rosaceo imbuto. 
? . Rufescens : alis i)itus nigris : harum marginibus et cauda totą 
late rufis : capite cristato nigro : subtus albescenti-cinnamomeus : 
tectricibus subalaribus cinnamomeis. 
Long. totą 6 "5, alae 3 '5, caudse 2' 6. 

I think that some recent Naturalists have acted ratlier bastily in 
uniting together the various rose-necked Becards into one species. 
The present bird appears to me to be sufficiently distinct from P. 
pectoralis of Cayenue, and M. de Lafresnaye has already pointed 
out its difference from the BoHviau P. roseicoUis. From my spe- 
cimens of the former it may be recognized by its hgbter colour 
below, and the broader rose-coloured bar on the throat. Besides, 
the second abnormally short primary of the adult malė has not the 
large white blotch on the interior web which is observable in the P. 
pectoralis. 

121. Pachyrhamphus MARGINATUS (Licht.) ? 
Sall4 no. 184. 

A single specimen of a bird of the general appearance of the 
S. American P. marginatus, which has been divided into several 
subspecies by Dr. Kaup (P. Z. S. 1851, p. 48), but showing rather 
broader white margins to the wings and tail. 

MuSCICAPIN^. 

122. POLIOPTILA ? 

Salle, no. 1 1 7. Cordora. 

Three specimens all alike (one of which is marked 'malė') seem 
to agree with the female of the bird figured by Mr. Cassin, Birds 
of Cal. pi. 27, under the name of C. mexicana. The specimen 
marked ' mule ' is possibly therefore not adult, as there are no traces 
of the black cap. 

VlREONIN^. 

123. ViREO soLiTARius (Wilson), Cassin in Pr. Ac. Phil. v. 150. 
Salle, no. 133. 

124. ViREOSYLViA GiLVA (Vieill.), Cassin in Pr. Ac. Phil. v. 153. 
Salle, no. 123. 

125. ViREOSYLViA FLAVO-viRiDis, Cassin, Pr. Ac. Sc. Phil. v. 
Salle, no. 205, p. 152. pi. 11. 

126. IcTERiA VELAsavEZi, Bp. P. Z. S. 1837, p. 117 ; Consp. 
331? 



P 



Salle, no. 204. 



Proc.Z.S.A-ves CXZ: 




"A'olt'.iiUi 



M. U K.Ha:.,, 



PIPRA MENTALI 3. Sc-lai^ 



299 

The Mexican Icteria seems distinct from the black-billed I. viridis 
of the United States ; but I confess I am wholly unable to decide 
whether it is the second or third species of Prince Bonaparte's Con- 
spectus. Are there really two Mexican species? and what is the 
CaUfomian I. longicauda ? 

127. Cyclorhis flaviventris, Lafr. R. Z. 1842, p. 330. 
Salle, no. 1 62. 

I have examples of this species from Guatimala. 

PlPRIN^. 

128. Manacus candei (Parzud.), Bp. Consp. p. 171. 
Salle, no. 170. Cordova. 

M. Salle obtained only a siugle specimen of this beautiful Manakin, 
which was originally brought from Hondūras. 

129. PiPRA MENTALIS, sp. nov. (Platc CXXI.) 
Salle, no. 171. Cordova. 

Nigra : cupite toto cum nucha coccineis : mento summo tibiisque 
plumosis et tectricibus subalaribus flavis. 

? . Pallide viridis, subtus pnulo dilutior. 

Long. totą 4-0, alse 2*3, caudse Tl. 

This Manakin is a beautiful Mexican representative of P. rubri- 
capilla and P. chlvromeros. From the former it may be distin- 
guished by its yellow thighs, from the latter by its yellow chiii and 
under wing-coverts. 

AMPELINiE. 

130. Ampelis cedrorum (Vieill.), "VVagl. Isis, 1831, p. 528. 
Salle, no. 134. Cordova. 

131. Ptilogonys cinereus, Sw., Bp. Consp. p. 335. 
Salle', no, 185. 

132. Myiadestes tjnicolor, sp. nov. 
Hypothymis ccesia, Licht. in Mus. Berol. ? 

Schistacea unicolor, subtus pallidior, ventre albicantiore : remigibus 
niyris, harum autem (nisi trium extimarurn) basibus (dūla spuria 
purtim celatis, cum marginibus ipsarum et secundariarum apicem 
versus externis brunnescenti-oleagineis ; hoc colore intus sub ola 
albidiore : cauda nigra; rectricibus duobus mediis schistaceis, 
harum duarum utritique extimarum parte apicali pallidiore et api- 
cibus ipsis cum margine interna apicem versus albis : rastro et 
pedibus nigris. 

Long. totą 7*5, alse 3*8, caudse 3-4. 

SaUe, no. 150. Cordova, c? et ? similes. 

This bird is certainly quite distinct from Lafresnaye's M. obscura, 
of which I possess examples from Guatimala. Judging from Audu- 



300 

bon's plate and description it likewise would seem different from P. 
townshendi, which has been united to Lafresnaye's species, I believe 
quite erroneously, by Prince Bonaparte. 

My impression is that the Berlin Museum specimens, marked 
" Hypothymis ccesia," are identical with the present bird ; but as I 
have no means of verifyiug that fact, and the name is merely in MS., 
I think it safer to give it a new appellation. 

Lafresnaye's M. obscurus (R. Z. 1839, p. 99), of which I have 
examples procured near the city of Guatimala by Signor Constancia, 
may be recognized at once from the present species by its brown 
back and rufous wing-edgings. 

Garrulin^. 

133. PsiLORHiNus MORio (Licht.), Bp. Consp. p. 381. 
Salle, no. 12. Cordova. 

M. Salle has procured a fine series of specimens of this bird, show- 
ing every variety in the colouring of the bill from black to yellow. 

134. Cyanocorax Ltixuosus (Less.), DuBus, Esq. Om. pi. 18 ; 
Cassin, B. Cal. pi. 1. p. 1. — C. peruvianus, Cassin, Pr. Ac. Phil. iv. 
p. 89, nec auct. 

Salle, no. 47, (? et ? . Cordova. 

135. Cyanocitta floridana (Bartram), Bp. Consp. p. 377. 
Salle, no. 186. 

Prince Bonaparte identifies a somewhat immature bird in M. Salle's 

coUection as belonging to this rare species. 

Sturnid^. 

136. QuiscALUS MACRTJRUS, Sw., Bp. Consp. p. 424. 
Salle, no. 130. Cordova, ^ et ? . 

Maris long. totą 19'0, alse 8'9, caudse 9"0 ; fceminse long. totą 
14*5, alse 63, caudse 6*8. 

137. QUISCALTJS ? 

Salle, no. 29, ^ et ? . 

Nigro-nitens unicolor, rostro et pedibus nigerrimis. 

Long. totą 10'8, alse 5"2, caudse 5"2. 

138. MoLOTHRUS ^NEus (Wagl.), Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 192, note. 
Salle, no. 28. Cordova, <? et ? . 

139. Cacictjs montezum^ (Less.), Cont. Zool. pi. 7. — C. bi- 
fasciatus, Spix? — Ostinops bifasciatus, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 187. 

Salle, no. 26. Cordova, ^ et ? . 

Castaneus : capite toto cum corpore subtus nigricantibus, hoc colore 
ventrem versus in castaneum transeunte : tibiis et alis subtus 



301 

nigris : cauda flavissima : rectricibus dmbua mediis solum nigris: 

rostro nigro, dimidio apkali ruberrimo. 
Long. totą 17-0, alae 9-3, caudse 7-0. 
? . Mari similis, sed minor. 
Long. totą 14*0, alae 7-6, caudse 6-0. 

140. Cassiculus prevosti (Less.), Bp. Consp. p. 428. 
SalM, no. 27. 

141. Sturnella hippocrepis, Wagl., Isis, 1832, p. 281 : Cas- 
sin, Pr. Ac. Phil. iv. p. 90. 

Salle, no. 135, ?. 

This bird is clearly distinguishable from the S', ludoviciana by its 
smaller size and the smaller breast-mark. But the name hippocrepis 
was established upon Cuban specimens. Are thev ouite the saree as 
this Mexican bird ? 

142. IcTERus MELANOCEPHALUS ("Wagl.), Cassin, B. Cal, pi. xxi, 
p. lo/. 

Salle', no. 60. 

143. IcTERTTS MESOMELAs (Wagl.), Isis, 1829, p. 755.— J. atri. 
gularis, Less. Cent. Zool. pi. 22. p. 73. — Oriolus musicus, Cabot. 
Boston Journ. N. H. iv. 465. 

Salle, no. 61. Cordova. 

144. IcTERUs cucuLLATUs, Sw. Phil. Mag. 1827, p.436 : Cassin 
B. Cal. pi. 8. p. 42. -o r . , 

Salle, no. 63. Cordova, (? et ? . 

145. IcTERUs PROSTHEMELAS (Strickl.), Cont.Om. 1850, B. 120 
pi. 62. ^ 

Salle, no. 63. Cordova. 

This species has the under tail-coverts yellow. I think the bird 
resembling this, but with these parts black, which Mr. Strickland 
mentions in his description of /. prosthemelas, is probably a distinct 
species ; but the whole group reąuires to be thoroughly revised and 
worked out before additional names are given. 

146. Bananivorus AFFiNis (J!ovmskmA).—Xanthornusaffinis, 
Townsh. Ann. Lyc. N. Y. 1851, p. 113, cum tab. 

Sallė, no. 146. Cordova, <J, <J juv. et ? . 

CoCCOTHRAtJSTINiE. 

147. Hedymeleb ludovicianus (Linn.), Wils. Am. Om. pi 17 
fig. 2. ^ • 

Sall^, no. 154, (? et ? . Cordova. 

148. Goniaphea cerulea (Linn.), Wils. Am. Orn. pi. xxiv.f.6. 
Salle, no. 155. Cordova. 



302 

149. GoNiAPHEA PARELLiNA (Bp.). — Cyanoloxia parellina, 
Bp. Consp. p. 502. 

Salle, no. 159. Cordova, ?. 

S . Brunnea unicolor : alis caudaque intusfuscis. 

Long. totą 5"0, alae 2*6, caudse 2-0. 

The bill of this specimen is slightly larger than that of a malė 
G. parellina in my coUectiou, but it otlierwise agrees witli it in di- 
meusious. 

150. GoNiAPHEA CONCRETA (DuBus). — Cyanoloxia concreta, 
DuBus, Bull. Ac. Brux. xxii. p. 150(1855). 

Salle, no. 1/5. Orizaba. 

M. Salle' s coUection contains a single specimen of this rare species. 

151. Cardinalis virginianus, Bp. Consp. p. 501. 
Salle, no. 152, <? juv. Cordova. 

152. Spermophila morelleti, Bp. Consp. p. 497? 
Salle, no. 165. Cordova, S juv. et ? . 

? juv. Supra rufescenti-cinereus : pileo summo et capitis lateribus 

cum alis caudaque nigris : tectricum alarium fascia duplici ctim 

speculo primariarum basali et tectricibus subalaribus albis : sub- 

tns palUde rufescenti-ochraceus, gutture albicante. <? junior 

aut ? rufescenti-olivaceus, subtus dilutior, ochracescentior : alis 

caudaųue fuscis, ochraceo bifasciatis. 

My belief is that these are both youug stages of a black and white 

species of Spermophila, probably Sp. morelleti, of vrhich I have an 

adult specimen from Hondūras. I have an example of the šame 

bird as M. Salld's, showiDg more black on the back and traces of the 

pectoral baud, from Orizaba, coUected by Botteri. 

Mr. Lawrence's Sp. albigularis (described in the Aunals Lyc. N. Y. 
T. p. 124) is also probably referable to this šame species. 

Tanagrin^. 

153. PiTYLUs POLioGASTER, DuBus : antea, p. 66. 
Salld, no. 151. Cordova. 

154. Saltator atriceps, Less. Cent. Zool. pi. 69 : antea, p. 69. 
Salle, no. 49. Cordova. 

155. Saltator magnoides, Lafr. : antea, p. 69. 
Salle, no. 50. Cordova. 

156. Buarremon BRUNNEiNtrcHus (Lafr.) : antea, p. 85. 
Salle, no. 66. Cordova. 

157. Chlorospingtjs ofhthalmicus (Dubus) : antea, p. 89, 
Salle, no. 132. Cordova. 



303 



158. Lanio aurantius, Lafr. : antea, p. 119. 
baile, no. 158. Orizaba, ?. 

159. Phcenicothraupis rtjbicoides rL»f^^ v^u^* r- 
cus, Cassin, Pr. Ac. Sc. Phil. iv. 90 : a^! p 1 20~ '"*" 

Sallė, no. 141. Cordova. 

bir3^-sh:wt'et7v'2:;oft; '■f-'"' r" '' ^P-™-« «f tl^is 

rather variable in size. " ^^^^ ^PP^^'' *» ^^ 

160. Pyranga ^stiva (Linn.). 
Sall^, no. 139. Cordova, c? et ? . 

163. Tanagra abbas, Licht. : antea, p. 235. 
SalIe, no. 142. Cordova. 

164.^ Tanagra diacomtjs, Less. : antea, p. 233 
Salle, no. 140. Cordova. 

Giill.'lX!727r^'''"''"" (Bp.).-Pe>.« galenculata, 
Salle, no. 147. 

166. EuPHONiA AFFiNis, Lbss. : antea, p. 274 
Salle, no. 213. Orizaba. 

167 EuPHONiA HiRUNDiNACEA, Bp. : antea, p. 278. 
Salle, no. 148. Cordova. ' V 'o. 

168. EūPHONIA ? 

Salle', no. 187. 

°t:r;Lf *,i/*° """ ^'° •• *-•- -*•» " -» 

Long. totą 3-7, alae 2-4, caudse 1-2 

This seems to be a female of an undescribed Euphonia. 

Fringillin^. 

169. Chrysomitris mexicana (Sw.), Phil. Mag. 1827 d 4'^^ 
—Fnngilla texenm, Giraud, B. Texas, pi. 5 fig i ' P*^^^' 

Salle, no. 149, <?. Cordova. 



304 

170. Chrysomitris notata (DuBus), Bp. Consp. p. 516. — 
Carduelis magellaniea, Audubon ? 

Salle, no. 198, (? et ? . Orizaba. 

171. Carpodacus h^morrhous (Licbt.). — Carp. frontalis, 
Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 166. — Fring. hcemorrhoa, Licbt. Preis — Verz. 
1831, sp. 57; Wagl. Isis, 1831, p. 525. — Pyrrhula frontalis, Sw. 
Phil. Mag. 1827, p. 435. — Pyrrhulinota hcBmorrhoa, Bp. Compt. 
Rend. 1856. 

Salle, no. 181, <7. S. Andrės Gorion. 

There is not the least doubt about the perfect distinctness of this 
bird from Carpodacus rhodocolpus, Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 166 {Carp. 
familiaris, Mc Call, Pr. Ac. Sc. Pbil. vi. p. 61 ; Cassin, B. Cal. 
pi. xiii. p. 73), but to which species is Say's name frontalis really 
applicable ? It appears to me, and I believe Prince Bonaparte is 
also of the šame opinion, that tbe latter bird is that which ought to 
bear Say's name. These two Carpodaci may be distinguished by 
the following diaguoses : — 

C. H^MORRHOUS, froute et superciliis latis cum gutture toto 
coccineis. 

C. RHODOCOLPUS, patdo minor : capite toto et gutture cum pec- 
tore rosaceo-coccineo perfusis. 

A fourth or, if C. obscurus is a valid species, a fifth Americaa 
bird of this genus has recently been described by Baird under the 
name C. cassinii (v. Pr. Ac. Sc. Phil. vi. 11 y). 

Emberizin^. 

172. Spiza ciris (Linn.). 
Salle, no. 145. Cordova, ^ et ? . 

173. Spiza cyanea (Linn.). 

Salle, no. 166. Cordova, Ž juv. et ? . 

174. VoLATiNiA jacarina (Liim.). 
Sall4 no. 163. Cordova. 

175. Phonipara pusilla (Sw.), Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 159. 
— Tiaris pusillus, Sw. Phil. Mag. 1827, p. 438. — Tiaris olivaceus, 
Cassin in Pr. Ac. Phil. iv. p. 91, et ai. auct. nec Linn. 

Salle, no. 172. Cordova. 

176. PiPiLO MACULATUS, Sw. Phil. Mag. 1827, p. 434. 
Salle, no. 144. Maltrato. 

177. PiPiLO Fuscus, Sw. Phil. Mag. 1827, p. 434; Cassin, B. 
Cal.pl. 17. p. 124? 

Salle, no. 168. San Andrės Chalchicomula. 
Dr. Baird has recently separated a bird from this species under 
the name of P. mesoleucus (Pr. Ac. Sc. Phil. vii. p. 119). The 



305 

present examples do uot exactly agree with the characters assigned 
by him to either of the species, but iVoin its locality there is little 
doubt of its beiiig the true P. fuscus of Swainson. 

1/8. AiMOPHiLA RUFFSCENS, Sw., Bp. Coiisp. p. 486. 
Salle, no. 156. Cordova. 

179. AiMOPHiLA suPERCiLiosA, Sw., Bp. Coiisp. p. 486. 
Salle, no. 158. Cordova. 

180. ZoNOTRiCHiA MYSTACALis, Hartlaub, R. Z. 1852, p. 3. 
Salle, no, 192. 

181. ZONOTRICHIA ? 

Salle, no. 194. 

182. Passerculus alaudinus, Bp. Notės Orn. p. 18; Conipt. 
Rend. May 1856. 

Salle, no. 169, S . Cordova. 

183. Passerculus zonarius, Bp. Compt. Rend. 1856, sed 
DESCRiPTio NULLA ! (=Peuceea lineolni, Aud. ?) 

Salle, no. 177, <? et ? . Cordova. 

Supra fuscus nigro striatus, pileo utrinque rvfo, medialiter autem 
(sicut superciliis) fusco : subtus albus. vitla lata pectorali et hy- 
pochondriis cuni crisso pallide 7'ufescenti-fuscis, nigro striatis : 
gutture quoque albo, nigro sparsim striato : loris albidis : rostra 
pallido : pedibus fiavidis. 

Long. totą 5'0, alse 2-3, caudse 2*2. 

184. Passerculus 1 

Salle, no. 202. 

185. Passerculus -? 

Salle, no. 196. 

186. Spizella socialis (Wilson). 
Salle', no. 1/9. Orizaba. 

I have a spechnen of this šame bird procured near Orizaba by M. 
Botteri. 

187. CoTURNicuLus HENSLOwii, Audub. (teste Bp.). 
Salle, no. 161. Cordova. 

188. CoTURNICULUS ? 

Salle, no. 1 76- Orizaba. 

189. COTURNICULUS ? 

Salle, no. 195, 

These two birds are both rather obscure in plumage, and are not 
very good specimens. 

No. CCCXX. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



306 

190. JuNCO ciNEREUS (Sw.), Phil. Mag. 1827, p. 435. — Junco 
phceonotus, Wagler, Isis, 1827, p. 526. — Niphcea rujidorsis, Licht. 
Nomencl. p. 43. 

Salle, no. 157. EI Jacale. 

There is no ąuestion, I believe, tliat this bird is strictly congeneric 
viiXh. NiphcBa hyemalis and N. oreyona. And all three species ought 
to bear the generic name Junco, established byTN'agler in 1827. 

191. Embernagra rufivirgata, Lawrence, Ann. Lyc. N. Y. 
1851, v. p. 112. pi. 5. fig. 2. 

Salle, no. 153. Cordova. 

192. Geospizopsis melanotis, Bp. Compt. Rend. May 1856, 
note. 

Salle, no. 193. 

This is certaiuly a remarkable bird, and I hardly know what to 
make of it. The single specimen obtained is immature, and the 
\vings are unfortunately imperfect. In niy opinion, however, it has 
nothing to do with Passerculus geospizopsis, Bp. (which the author 
now considers the type of this genus under the name Geospizopsis 
ti/pus), that bird being, I believe, nothing more than the female of 
a species of Phrygilus allied to P. unicolor (vide P. Z. S. 1855, 
p. 160). 

193. Otocorys chrysol^ma, "Wagl. Isis, 1831, p. 525. 
Salle, no. 

The American species of this genus require a searching revision. 
I have not access to specimens of the other species except the South 
American O. peregrina. 

PsiTTACID.ffi. 

194. PioNus SENiLis (Spix), Av. Bras. i. pi. 31. fig. 1. — Ps. 
leueorhynchus, Sw. Phil. Mag. 1827, p. 438. 

Salle', no. 1. Cordova. 

Though this bird is figured as Brazilian by Spix, I believe Southern 
Mexico to be its true habitat, and that it does not range south of the 
Isthmus of Panama. 

195. PsiTTACULA LINEOLATA, Cassiu, Pr. Ac. Sc. Phil. vi. p. 372. 
— " Myiopsitta tigrina, Souance," Bp. Compt. Rend. May 1856. 

Salle, no. 2. Cordova. 

This is the only example I have yet seen of this interesting Parrot. 

PiCIDjE. 

196. Dryocopus scapularis (Vig.) {teste Malherbio). 
Salle', no. 17. Cordova. 

197. Dryocopus erythrops (Cuv.), DesMurs, Icon. Orn. 
pi. 37 (teste Malherbio). 

Salle, no. 18. Cordova, S . 



307 

198. CoLAPTEs MEKICANUS, Sw. Phil. Mag. 1827, p. 440. 
Sallc, no. 19. Suapam, ?. 

199. Melanerpes formicivorus (S\v.), Phil. Mag. 1827, 
p. 439 ; Cassin, B. Cal. pi. 2. p. 7. — M. melanopogon, Bp. Consp. 
p. 115. 

Salle, no. 22, ^ et ? . 

Mj^ belief is that Malherbe is quite right in separatiug this species 
from the South American M. Jlavigularis (3/. formicivonts, Bp. 
Consp. p. 115. sp. 5, nec Licht.). The two species are rightlj di- 
stinguished by Prince Bonaparte (Consp. p. 115), but his synonymy 
and localities are both vvrong. Both the ternis melanopogon and 
formicivorufi are primarily applicable to this Mexican species, and the 
other from the northern portion of S. America raust be calledy?ai>j- 
gularis, Malherbe. The female of the present bird has the nape red ; 
in the other female this part is black. 

200. Centurus santacruzi, Bp. P. Z. S. 1837, p. 116. 
Salle', no. 20. Cordova. 

Agrees ^ith Guatimala specimens. 

20J. Chloronerpes yucatanensis, Cabot, Bost. Jouru. N. H. 
v. p. 92. — P. ceruginosus, Licht. in Mus. Berol. 

Salle, no. 21, c? et ? . Cordova. 

Clare olivaceus : alis extus et caudcB marginibus aurulente brunneis: 
subtus fluvidus, olivaceo transversim dense vittatus : pileo nigri- 
cante : capite laterali et gula albidis, hac olivaceo striata. 

<? . Stria superciliari et nucha lata cum macida rictali coccineis. 

? . Nucha solum angustiore coccinea. 

Long. totą 9'0, alse 5*0, caudee 3'4. 

This bird is distinguishable at a glance from the southern C. rn- 
biginosus (with which it is sometimes united) by its larger size and 
clear olive-green back. It is commonly known by Lichtenstein's 
MS. name. 

202. Chloronerpes oleagineus, Reichb. Handb. d. Sp. Orn. 
— P. oleagineus, Licht. in Mus. Berol. 

Salle, no. 189, ?. 

Ex olivaceo-brunneus, dorso aurescentiore : capite et cauda nigri- 
cantioribus : capitis lateribus albidioribus : alis subtus nigris albo 
vittatis. 
Long. totą 5"5, alse 3'9, caudse 2'4. 

This !Mexican species is very closely allied to, if not identical with, 
C. fumigatus of South America. 

203. Picus scALARis, "Wagler, Isis, 1829. — Picus parvus, Cabot, 
Journ. Boston N. H. Soc. v. p. 92. 

Salle', no. 25, <? et ? . 

Tlie bird figured as P. acalaria in the Journ. Ac. Sc. Phil. (vol. i. 



308 

pi. 9. p. 55) is, I belieA'e, not this species, but Picus nuttaUi, Gambel 
(Picus tvilsoni, Malherbe, R. Z. 1849, p. 529), distinguishable from 
the present by its larger size and purer white below. 

204. Picus varius, Lina., Wils. Am. Orn. pi. 9. fig. 2. 
Salle, no. 24. Cordova, S juv. aut ? . 

205. Picus jardinii, Malh. R. Z. 1845, p. 374 (teste Bp.). 
Salle, no. 23. EI Jacale. 

206. Picus cancellatus, "VTagl. Isis, 1829, p. 510 (teste Bp.). 
Salle, no. 23 bis. San Andrės, Snapam. 

Ramphastid-^. 

207. Ramphastos carinatus, Sw., Gould, Mon. Ramph. pi. 7, 
et ed. ii. pi. 2. 

Salle, no. 14. Cordova. 

208. Aulacorhamphus prasinus, Gould, Mon. Ramph. ed.ii. 
pi. 47. 

Salle, no. 13. Cordova. 

CUCULID^. 

209. Dromococcyx mexicanus, Bp. Compt. Rend. May 1856. 
Salle, no. 209. Cordova. 

I agree with Prince Bonaparte tbat there is little difference between 
this and the Brazilian D. jikasianellus. But M. Salle's specimen is 
not quite adult, and, as the bird is not known to occur in interme- 
diate localities, I think the species are likely eventually to turn out 
distinct. 

210. PiAYA MEXiCANA (Sw.), Phil. Mag. 1827, p. 440 1—Piaya 
cayana, Cassin, Pr. Ac. Sc. Phil. iv. p. 91. — Coccyzus viridirostris, 
Hartl. in Naumannia, ii. pt. vi. p. 55. — Piaya viridirostris, Bp. 
Compt. Rend. May 1856. 

Salle, no. 44. Cordova. 

Mr. Cassin seems to cousider this northern representative of P. 
cayana "precisely similar " to the S. American bird. Prince Bona- 
parte says it is an excellent species, and applies to it a name of the 
Prince of Wurtemburg, to which, I believe, no description has been 
attached, except that it is " certainhj distinct from the cayana." 
According to what I consider P. cayana (i. e. Cayenne specimens), 
this species differs in its rather larger size, lighter throat, more cine- 
reous chest and darker belly. The under surface of the tail is 
blacker (and not more rufous as Mr. Swainson says) than in the 
S. American bird. 

I possess a similar examp]e from Guatimala, and another, barely 
separable, from Bogota {P. mehleri, Bp. ?). 



309 

211. Crotophaga sulcirostris, Sw. Phil. Mae. 1827. p 440 • 
Anim. m Menag. p. 322. ^ ' 

Sallc, no. 46. Cordova. 

This bird is badly characterized in Swainson's original description, 
but well distinguished .n the third part of his 'Animals in Menageries ' 
It may easily be recogiiized by the longitudinal grooves of th? beak. 

COLUMB^. 

212. Chlorcenas flavirostris, Wagl. Isis, 1831, p 410 • Bp 
Consp. u. 52; Lawrenee, Ann. Lyc. N. Y. v. p. 115. ' 

Salle, no. 31. Cordova. 

213. Chlorcenas fasciata, Say, Bp. Consp. ii. p. 183. — CoL 
momhs.YigorsmBeechey'sYoy.-pl.io. 

Salle, no. 183, 

Coni^" iJ^"''^^'^''^^ 8PECIOSA {Gm.).—Lepidwnas speciosa, Bp. 

Salle, no. 32. Cordova. 
p. VI' ^^^""^^^"^ RUFAxiLLA (Rich. & Bern.), Bp. Consp. ii. 

Salle', no. 33. Cordova, ^ et ? . 

exJr^nl?Pf r™'°^ '^v,''"* Pf^'"*^^ ^S^'^ ^*^ t^^ S°"th American 
examp les of L. TxĮaxūla m the British Museum. The nape is much 
bluer, the grey descending over the nape and the neck, which has 

sor.;r{ ftr"^- . T^ ^^^^^ ^^ *^^ ^'^'^ ^^^ P-J^^- «"d shoulder 
soinewhat lighter, and there is rather iTiore white on the tail The 
whole size is somewhat larger, and the wings and tail longer. 

216.^ Geotrygon MONTANA (Linn.), Bp. Consp. ii. p. 72. 
Salle, no. 34. Cordova, <? et ? . 

217. Peristera cinerea (Temm.), Bp. Conso. ii. p. 75 
Salle, no. 37, <? et ? . Cordova. 

218. Zenaida leucoptera (Linn.).— C. trudeauii, Aud. 
Salle, no. 35. Cordova. 

^i^if/"'^^'?,''''^ carolinensis (Linn.), Wils. Am. Orn. v. 
pi. 4d. tig. I ; Bp. Consp. u. p. 84. 

Salle, no. 36. Cordova. 

220. Scardafella inca (Less.), Bp. Consp. ii. p. 85. 
Salle, no. 38. Cordova. 

Odontophorin.e. 

221 Odontophorus guttatus, Gould, Mon. Odont. pi. xxviii 
fealle, no. 40. Cordova. 



310 

222. Odontophorus thoracicus (Gambel). — Ortyx thora- 
cicus, Gambel, Pr. Ac. Phil. (1847). — Odontophorus lineolatus, 
Gould, Mon. Odont. pi. xxxii. 

Salle, 110. 41. Cordova. 

Mr. Gambel's name for this bird has every claim to preference 
over Natterer's unpublished MS. title. 

223. Ortyx pkctoralis, Gould, Mon. Odont. pi. v. 
Salle, no. 43. Cordova. 

Penelopin^. 

224. Ortalida foliocephala, Wagl., Cassin, B. Cal. p. 267. 
pi. 44. 

Sallt^, no. 42. Cordova. 

This seems to be the bird fignred by Mr. Cassin as O. polio- 
cephala, but is it not more likę Wagler's O. vetula t Of this latter 
the describer says, " cum specie prcecedenti (i. e. O. vetula) simili 
non confundenda " ! Vide Isis, 1830, p. 1112. 

TlNAMIDJS. 

225. NoTHOCERCus SALL.Ei, Bp. Compt. Rend. May 1856. 
Salle', no. 225. Cordova. 

Ardeid^. 

226. Butorides virescens (Linn.), Bp. Consp. ii. p. 128. 
Sall^, no. 16. Cordova. 

227. BoTAURUs LENTIG1NOSUS (Mont.), Wils. Am. Oru. pi. 65. 
fig. 3. 

Salle', no. 15. Cordova. 

ScOLOPACIDiE. 

228. Gallinago wilsoni (Temm.), Wils. Am. Orn. vi. pi. 47. 
fig. 1 ; Jard. Wils. Orn. ii. p. 220. 

Salle, no. 72. 

229. Totanus soLiTARius (Wil3.), Am. Orn. pi. 58. fig. 3. 
Salle, 110. 74. Cordova. 

230. Tringoides ? 

Salle, no, 212 bis. 

An imperfect skin of a bird in immature statė. 

231. Tringa pectoralis, Say, Bp. Am. Orn. iv. pi. 23. fig. 2. 
Salle, no. 73. Cordova. 



311 

232. Tringa pusilla, Wilson, Am. Orn. v. p. 32 ; Aud. B. Am. 
8vo, v. p. 280. pi. 337. 

Salle, no. 212. 

233. QuERQUEDULA CYANOPTERA (ViciU.), Cassin, B. Cal. p. 82. 
pi. 15. 



July 22, 1856. 

Dr. Gray, F.R.S., in the Chair. 

1. On a New Tanager of the Genus Calliste. 
By Philip Lutley Sclater, M. A., F.Z.S. etc. 

Mr. P. L. Sclater exhibited two specimens of a new Tanager of 
the genus Calliste (making a fifty-second species of that form) which 
he had just received from MM. Julės and Edouard Verreaux of 
Paris, and characterized it under the name of 

Calliste rufigenis. 

C. carulescenti-viridis, interscapulio obscuriore : loris, capitis la- 
teribus et regione auriculari cum mento summo rujls : alarunt 
reinigibus fusco-nigris, citprescenti-viridilimbatis : caudafusco- 
nigra virescente marginata : subtus virescentior quam supra, 
abdomine medio, tibiis et tectricibus subalaribus albescenti- 
ochraceis : crisso rufescenti-ochraceo : rostro et pedibus nigris. 
Long. totą 5 'O, alae 2" 7, caudse 1-7. 
Hab. Venezuela {Ferreaux). 

Remark. — This Calliste is rather noticeable for showing less de- 
cided tints of colouring than is usual in birds of this group. It may, 
I think, most natuiaily be placed next to Calliste labradorides 
(Boiss.), but it is readily distinguishable from that species and its 
congeners by the rufous ear-coverts and want of black colouring on 
the back. 



2. Observations on the Pteropus of Australia, 
By j. k. e. Fairholme. 

The acąuisition of a Flying Fox to the Gardens of the Society, 
induces me to bring before your notice a few observations I have 
made on the habits of this animal in the country about Moreton Bay, 
on the east coast of Australia, about lat. 27° south. 

The flying fox is well knovvn even in the southern parts of Au- 
stralia in the summer months ; but by far the largest flights are seen 
in the vvarmer latitudes. The attentionis generally attracted to them 
(just as daylight disappears) by the heavy flapping sound of their 



312 

wings, as they fly iu great numbers overhead, all iu the šame direc- 
tion. These flights often continne to pass for many hours together oii 
tlie vray to their feeding-places, generaliy about the bauks of rivers, 
■ffhere the tree known as the Flooded-gum grows, on the leaves of 
whieh they feed. Though scattered over a large extent of country 
v\hile feeding at iiight, they all contrive to assemble again to spend 
the heat of the day together, and when the flight is large, the scene 
of congregation is most extraordinary. I am fcrtnnate enough to 
have known twn of these places of assembly — one on a small islaud 
in Moretou Bay, covered with dense scrub or jungle ; another in the 
scrub, close to my former residence, about forty miles iuland from 
the Bay. In the latter spot the scrub cousists of the usual under- 
growth of smaller trces, mixed ^ith bush ropes, or lianes, and over- 
topped by enorraous Moreton Bay pine-trees {Araucaria Cunning- 
hami). On the nearly horizontai branches of the pines, as well as 
on the lower trees around, the flying foxes hang in %"ast numbers. I 
can nerer forget my astonishment as I approached this spot for the 
first time, being taken to it for the purpose of shooting some of the 
animals for the natives. The space occupied by the flight was, as 
near as I could judge, about 400 or 500 yards scjuare, aud in this, 
every tree was more or less loaded with them, all hangiug with their 
heads downwards, and uttering a sound ditficult to describe, but 
not imlike that of young rooks when crying for food. All that were 
not snarling and fighting for places, were steadily fanning themselves 
with their wings half estended as they hung. On our approach, 
most of those nearest to us took to flight, only to alight again on the 
next tree, or to wheel roiind and romid in the air above the spot. 
On my firing a shot, the din increased, and contiuued to such au ex- 
tent, that after I had sliot what the blacks recjuired, I was glad to 
get away from it. Many had young ones clinging to them, and 
suokling at the breast. This flight met in the šame spot for several 
days, and then disappeared. The flesh of the flying fox is likę that 
of a rabbit in appearance, but is strongly flaroured by the food ou 
whioh the animal feeds. 

Ou the coast of Moretou Bay the uatires live principally on fish, 
and the arrival of the flying foxes on the little island of St. Helena 
is hailed by them as a cbange of diet. The flights only appear in 
the warmer months of the year, evea in lat. 2^'^, and most likely 
migrate into the tropical latitudes during the colder months, likę 
many of our Australian birds. 

At Moreton Bay there is uo difliculty in procuring auy number of 
young flying foxes, as the island on \vhich they congregate is close 
to the anchorage for ships. 



31.S 

3. First Steps towards a Monograph of the Recent 

Species of Petaloconchus, a Genus of Vermetid^. 

By Philip P. Carpenter. 

Genus Petaloconchus, Lea. 

H. C. Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 1843, vol. ix. p. 229 ; Woodw. 
Man. Moli. pt. iii. p. 4&2 ; B. M. Cat. Mazatlan Moli. p. 308. 

Animal ignotum. 

Operculum (speciebus ii.) parvum, cornenm, diaphanum, tenuis- 
simum, pariim concavum ; cicatrice centrali ; anfractihus paucis, 
cix apparentibus. 

Testą extns Bivonise similis ; intu» fransversim rarissime sep- 
tata ; anfractihus medianis laminis elonyatis spiralibus varie dispo- 
sitis, cameram scepe pcene secantibus ; plerumųue duabus, plica 
columellari una. 

Hab. Mare jMediterraneum ; Oceanum Atlanticum, Pacificum, 
Indicum. 

Shell of corkscrew gro^th, glomerate, or single, affixed by one 
side of the whirls ; earlier and later whiils open ; middle whirls 
di\"idcd by spirai laminse, often of complex structure, which gra- 
dually pass away at each end ; generally two, nearly meeting, ^^•ith 
a third rudimentary, forming a columellar plait. 

The eliraiuation of the species is a work requiring great care ; as 
some outside exactly resemble certain species of Bivonia ; and as 
the intemal structure varies according to the position in which the 
shell is broken, a few whorls often altering the character rery deci- 
dedly. The structure was first observed by Lea in fossil species ; 
it was not noticed, howeTer, in subsequent works till the publication 
of the third part of Ayoodward's Manual. In the mean time, having 
carefully observed the structure in the Mazatlan species, Dr. Gray 
kindly allowed me to examine the specimens in the British Museum 
collection, and Mr. Cuming entnisted to my care the suspected 
specimens among his invaluable stores. The result of these inqui- 
ries is now offered, simply as a provisional introduction to the sub- 
ject ; in the hope that those who have the means of lapng open 
specimens from top to bottom will do so, and especially that those 
who have access to them iu a living statė will inąuire what pecu- 
liarity in the animal is co-ordinate with so remarkable a structure 
in the shell. 

A. Laminis ab axi procedentibus. 

I. Petaloconchus macrophragma, n. s. (fig. 1.) 

B. M. Mazatlan Cat. no. 359. p. 309. 

P. t. parva, dextrali, dense purpureo-fusca ; cijlindracea, solute 
spirali, niarginibus spirte stepe subparallelis ; plerumrpie ylome- 
rante, interdum solitaria ; basi ad conchas, seti altera ad al- 
feram, constricte adheerente, scepe erodente ; superfcie rugis 



314 

irregularibus spiralibus haud extantibus, et rugulis incrementi 
ornata ; intus, anfr. primis et ultimis quoad iv. apertis ; 
mediis laminatis ; lafnina svperiore muito majore, prius con- 
spicua, a columella extunte ; prinmm simplici ; dein angulo 
recto rejlexa, extus carinis i. -iii. guarmn ii. acutissimcB ; la- 
mina inferiore simplici, a columella extante, alterre juxta 
carinam f ere attingente ; lamina tertia minima, intercalante, 
inferiori pcBne attingente ; laminis tetiuissimis, albis, diaphanis, 
lineis incremetiti conspicuis ; pagina interna maxime nitente, 
transversim haud septato. 
Diam. spirse •23, aperturse '07. 
Hab. Mazatlan ; haud rare Uvanillis, Curais, Muricibus, &c., 

adhserentes ; Reigen. Panama. Mus. Cuming. 

In this little species, the structure is the most delicate and com- 

plex of any of the species examined. For particulars v. B. M. Cat. 

2. Petaloconchus cochlidium, n. s. (fig. 2.) 

P. t. irregulariter spirali, glomerata, anfr. pluri7nis confertis ; 
spirce marginibus f ere parallelis ; dense rubro-fusca ; rugis 
spiralibus iii. in basi aliis, interstitiis cancellatis, profunde in- 
terpunctatis ; sculptura scepe obsoleta ; intus, laminis duabus 
ab axi procedentibus, tenuissimis ; superiore majore, ad angu- 
lam obtusam curvata, carinis duabus validis labrum versus in- 
strueta ; inferiore tninore, alteram versus procedente, interstitio 
satis magno ; lamina tertia parva intus super inferioreni šita. 
Diam. spirse "2, aperturse "08 poli. 
Hab. Australia. Mus. Cuming. 

This species is known from P. macrophragma by the upper 
lamina being bent at a more obtuse angle, and by the third lamina 
being proportionally large, growing out of the second. The shell is 
of a lighter colour, and of larger growth. Occasionally other small 
keels and plaits are seen. In one specimen (near the attachment of 
the locality ticket) occurs the extremely unusual appearance of a 
septum traversing the laminse. Sometimes there is a falše appear- 
ance of septa in shells of this genus, from other Vermetidce growing 
in the šame group, or from adveutitious matter. 

3. Petaloconchus flayescens, ? n. s. (fig. 3.) 

P. t. irregulariter spirali, glomerata, parva ; anfractibus maxime 
confertis, marginibus spirce s^ibparallelis ; rubido-favescente ; 
rugis sjnralibus iii. -iv. validis, transversis minoribus, confertis, 
interstitiis parurn punctatis ; sculptura interdum obsoleta ; 
intus per maximam partem laminata, laminis duabus ab axi 
procedentibus, tenuissimis; superiore majore, f ornicata ; infe- 
riore recta, interstitio magno ; per atfractus paucos lamina 
superiore bicarinata, per anfr. pauciores lam. inferiore bifur- 
cata, laminulis subparallelis. 

Diam. spirae '14, aperturse 06 poli. 

Hab. Sicilia. Mus. Cuming. 

This shell may have been already describedby Phil. as a Vermetus, 



315 

but as the Bivonite can hardly be discriminated from the Petalo- 
conchi by external characters, it seemed presumptuous to attempt a 
uuion. Shell external]y closely allied to B. subcaneellata, Phil., 
from wbich it is principally known by the smaller size and stronger 
sculpture. Internally it mest lesembles P. cocklidium, from which 
it may be distinguished by the absence of keels ou the upper lamina 
during a large part of the length ; and by the geueral absence of the 
third plait, which, when it appears, is likę another fold of the lower 
lamina in the šame direction. 

B. Laminis a parietibtia procedentibus. 

4. Petaloconchus varians?, D'Orb. (fig. 4.) 

? An Vermetus varians, B. M. Cat. D'Orb. Moli. p. 47. no. 405. 
P. t. nUjro-fiisca, irregulariter spirali ; scutptiira rugis spiralibus 
et rugulis transversis, plerumque haud valde escpressis, vari- 
ante / intus anjr. plurimis plicis solum instructa ; in medio 
laminis duabus tenuibus a parietibus superiore et inferiore, 
parte axin versus, arcuatim procedentibus, ceąualibus, haud 
valde approximatis, rarius extus reflexis ; plica columellari 
centrali parva ; pagi7ia interna maxime nitente. 
Diam. spirae -3, aperturae -08 poli. 

Hab. St. Yincent's,W. I. (TF.B.Carpenter) ; Hondūras (Dysora) • 
"orsizils {D' Orbigny). 

As far as can be judged frora a partial examination of D'Orbigny's 
type specimen, this is bis Vermetus varians, in which Dr, Gray 
found two opercula " orbicular, thin, nucleus centrai ; " apparently 
paucispiral, likę that of Serpidorbis made nearly flat. At the šame 
time lt is not safe to speak of shells of this genus without an exa- 
mmatiou of the \vhole length. The lamina appear to degenerate 
mto plaits during the principai part of their growth, but when deve- 
loped closely approximate the next species. 

5. Petaloconchus renisectus, n. s. (fig. 5.) 

P. t. irregulariter spirali, axilata, nigrofusca; anfractibus rugis 
spiralibus et mgidis transversis, seepe ad intersectiones nodosis, 
varie ornatis ; laminis per anfr. plurimos continuis, duabus] 
aąuahbus, tenuioribus, a parietibus, parte axin versus, proceden- 
tibus, arcuatim medium versus continuis, interstitiohaud parvo, 
extus, labrum versus carinatis ; camera externa majore, reni- 
formi; plica una centrali, columellari. 

Diam. spirse -4, aperturae -1 poli. 

Hab. In Oceano ? Indico. IVIus. Cuming. 

Variat (a) t. eleganter rugis spiralibus nodosa. 

Variat (b) quoque sciūptura pcene obsoleta. 

Hab. In Insulis Philippinarum ; legit H. Cuming. 

The species is described frora a large group of very regular growth 
of which the accretions warrant its being supposed East Indian! 
Specimens from the Philippinesalso appear notseparable specifically! 



316 

It is known from P. varians by the much greater length of the 
laminse, and, in its most developed part, by a stropg keel ou the 
outer edge of each, not seen iu the portion sketched. 

5 (c). Petaloconchus? renisectus, var. Woodwardii. 

P. t. P. renisecto simili, sed muito miiiore, confertissima, am 
compacta ; vertice nucieoso Bissoideo ; opercido parvo, dimidio 
aperturcB cEquante, corneo, tenuissimo, extus parutn coticavo, 
paucispirali, cicatrice centrali. 

Diam. spirse '15, aperturse "06. 

JJab. ? Sp. glom. m Mus. Cuming. 

This specimen has the habit of a distiuct species : nevertheless as 
the inner structure appears exactly the šame, and as the shells are 
most compactly crovvded, it appears probable that the sraall size is 
due to the circumstances of habitat. It will be observed that the 
cperculum presents a type of structure very distinct from that of 
Bivonia glomerata aud its congeners, as well as from Vermetus, and 
much more nearly related to Siphonium. As it agrees with that of 
P. varians, it is fair to conclude that the other species are not 
unHke. Theopercula were so very frail, thatafter digestionin weak 
alkaU to remove the animal matter, it was not found practicable to 
preserve them. This accounts for their absence from the other 
species. 

6. Petaloconchus nerin^oides, n. s. (fig. 6.) 

P. t. P. renisecto simili ; sed rubro-fusca, rugulis spiralibus plu- 
ribus ; intus solida ; laminis ut in P. renisecto sitis, sed 
validis, labriim versus scepe biangulatis ; catnera eztema 
minore. 
Diam. spirse "3, aperturae '1 poli. 
Hub. Australia. Mus. Cuming. 

Although the plan of structure is the šame as in P. reni/orinis, 
yet the remarkable strength of the laminse, smallness of the outer 
chamber, aud difl'erence of colour, appear to justify at least a tem- 
porary separation. Iu Mr. Cuming' s group, the creatures have 
stretched their tubes so long that even the straight part is often 
found laminated ; and transverse septa are seen at the other end. 
In some parts the body only occupies about a third of the section 
of the shell. 

7. Petaloconchus cereus, n. s. (fig. 7 .) 

P. t. haud parva, irregulariter spirali, cerea, solida, albida, au- 
rantio tincta ; anfractibus planatis, ad sedem angulatis, 
nodosis ; laminis parietalibus tenuibus, curtis, in medio sitis, 
subperpendicularibus, parum arcuatis, interstitio haud parvo ; 
camera externa majore ; plica una parva columellari, in medio 
šita. 

Diam. spirse '56, aperturae '18 poli. 

Hab. In Insulis Philipinarum ; legit H. Cuming. Sp. unic. in 
Museo suo. 



;n7 

This is the largest species as yet found, and very remarkable for 
its waxen aspect. 

8. Petaloconchus octosectus, n. s. (fig. 8.) 

P. t. irregulariter spirali ; albida, seu Jlavido tincta ; rugutis 
spiralibus et transversis vix sculpta ; basi haud planata, haud 
nodosa ; taminis ut in P. cereo sitis, sed camern externa mi- 
nore. 
Diani. spiree "38, aperturse 'lo poli. 
Hab. 1 S. Africa. Mus. Cuming. 

The section of this species (as of the lašt) resembles a figure 8. 
It difFers from P. cerens in the absence of the remarkable structure 
at the base, and in the comparatively small size of the outer chamber. 

9. Petaloconchus, sp. ind. 
Hab. Tahiti. Mus. Cuming. 

This specimen is sufficiently perfect to prove its genus ; but not 
to describe as a species. 

P. P. Carpenter. 
July llth, 1856. 

Sections o/" Petaloconchi generally at greatest development. 




1. macrophragma. 2. cochlidium. Z.flavescms. 




I. cereus. 8. oclosectus. 

..I^^ *wr ^7 *^^'° from sketches drawn by the eve ouly under the raicro- 
scope. \Vherelarge groups had to be held in strange positions, it was not found 
practicahle to use the camera, nor did I feel at liberty to break specimens not my 
o«n to obtain a favourable sechon. The figure of No. 5 contains the finest. of 
»!;«>. ''°^'x^'^ |""^,"i-= ^""'^ occasionally approaches the other. The differ- 
ence betweeu Ivo. 7 and No. 8 is lather exaggerated in the latter.— P. P C 



318 

4. Descriptions of Twenty-seven New Species of Land- 
Shells, collected by m. Salle in THE State of Vera 
Cruz, Mexico. By Dr. L. Pfeiffer. 

(MoUusca, PI. XXXV.) 

1. Helix Cordovana, Pfr. H. testą umbilicata, depressa, 
tenui, undiąue subgranulata et breviter pilosa, cornea, superne 

fasciis 2 angusfis, rufis cincta ; spira planą ; sutura profunda, 
canaliculata ; anfr. A\ tvrgidis, sensini accrescentibus, ultimo 
supra peripheriam obsolete sulcato, antice descendente, subtus 
rotundato ; umbilico \ diametri subceąuante ; apertura perob- 
lupia, lunato-circulari ; perist. tenui, marginibus conniventibus, 
supej'O expanso, basali reJle:ciusculo. 

Diam. maj. 12A-, min. lOi, alt. 5 mill. 

Hab. Cordova. 

2. Helix Veracruzensis, Pfr. //. testą umbilicata, depressa, 
tenerrima, striatula, pellucida, nitidissima, pallide rubello- 
cornea ; spira parum elevata, vertice subtili; sutura subcrenu- 
lato-marginata ; anfr. 5 vix convexiuscidis, ultimo lato, non 
descendente, depresso-rotundato ; umbilico pervio, ^ diametri 
vix cecpuante ; apertura obliąua, lunato-ovali ; perist. recto, 
aeuto, marginibus subconniventibus, columellari arcuato-declici, 
vix reJlexiusculo: 

Diam. maj. 12į, min. 10|^, alt. 5 mill. 
Hab. Cordova. 

3. Btilimus sulfhureus, Pfr. (PI. XXXV. f. U.) B. testą 
a7iguste umbilicata, ovato conica, tenuiuscula, striatula, striis 
spiralibus confertissimis decussata, nitida, pallide sulphurea ; 
spira conica, apice acuta, concolore ; anfr. 6 Į convexiusculis, 
ultimo spira breviore, basi rotundato ; columella subrecedente ; 
apertura oblicjua, ovali ; perist. simplice, tenui, margine dextro 
breviter expanso, superne sinuato, columellari triangulatim 
dilatato, refle.vo. 

Long. 29, diam. 12 mill. 
Hab. Cordova. 

4. BuLiMus CORIACEUS, Pfr. B. testą anguste perforata,ovato- 
conica, solidula, sub lente obsoletissime decussatogranulata, 

fusco-cornea, haud nitente ; anfr. 6 convexiusculis, summis 
nigro-fuscis, seąuentibus castaneo-fasciatis, ultimu spira bre- 
viore, obsolete angulato, basi subattemiato ; columella arcuata ; 
apertura parum obliqua, elliptico-ovali ; perist. simplice, recto, 
tnargine columellari albido, nitido, fornicatim reJlexo. 

Long. 18, diam. 9 mill. 

Hab. Cordova. 

5. BuLiMUS Martensi, Pfr. B. testą subperforata, turrito- 
oblonga, tenui, striatula et distanter chordato-costata, diaphana, 
albido-hy alina ; spira turrita, obtusula ; anfr. 6 convexis, idti- 



Proc.Z S.Molbsca.. HM. 










I ^ 




^ 










^^ 



GB Scrvverfcy hih 



319 

mo į longitudinis vlx cBquante, rotundato ; columella medio 
subdentato-pUcata ; aperturaparum obliqua, elliptico-ovali ; pe- 
risi. simpUce, recto, margine columellari late reJlexo, sublibero. 

Long. 9 J, diam. A^ mill. 

Hab. Cordova. 

6. BuLiMus cosTATO-STRTATUS, Pfr. B. testa imperforata, tur- 
rita, tenui, conferte striata et costulis irregularihus munita, 
diapliana, cereo-hyalina ; spira regulariter attenuata, acutius- 
cula ; anfr. 7 convexiusculis, ultimo ^ longitudinis formante, 
basi rotundato ; columella substriata, filari ; apertura vix ob- 
liqua, oblonga ; perist. simplice, recto, marginibus subparallelis, 
columellari simplice. 

Long. 7\, diam. 2\ mill. 
Hab. Cordova. 

7. BuLiMus DROuiiTi, Pfr. (PI. XXXV. f, 12.) B. testa sub- 
obtecte perforata, ovato-conica, tenui, ruguloso-striata {striis 
spiralibus obsoletissime decussata), pallide straminea, strigis 
et fasciis latis spadiceis interruptis ornata ; spira conica, acu- 
tiuscula ; anfr. 6 convexiusculis, ultimo spiram vix superante, 
antice subvaricoso ; columella substricta, compressa ; apertura 
obliqua, ovali ; perist. tenui, expansiusculo, margine columellari 
dilatato, abrupte reflexo. 

Long. 24, diam. lOį mill. * 

Hab. Cordova. 

8. Btjlimus aurifluus, Pfr. (PI. XXXV. f. 10.) B. testa per- 
forata, ovato-conica tenui, sub lente minutissime decussata, 
nitida, albida, strigis angustis flexuosis fulvo-aureis ornata ; 
spira convexiusculo-conica, acuta ; anfr. 5|- convexiusculis, 
ultimo spiram paulo superante, juxta perforationem angustam 
subattenuato, unicolore lutescente ; columella intrante, leviter 
arcuata ; apertura vix obliąua, oblonga ; perist. tenui, bre- 
viter expanso, margine columellari compresso, superne dilatato, 
ref.exo. 

Long. 22, diam. 10 mill. 
Hab. Cordova. 

9. SiMPULOPSis Salleana, Pfr. (PI. XXXV. f. 15. 16.) S. testa 
subsemiovata, solidula, striatula, lineisque spiralibus impressis 
obsoletis notata, nitida, corneo-straminea ; spira parvula, ob- 
tusa ; anfr. vix 2\, ultimo magno, inflato ; columella arcuata, 
subacuia ; apertura perobliqua, lunato-rotundata, intus mar- 
garitacea ; perist. simplice, marginibus callo tenuissimo junctis, 
dextro expansiusculo, antrorsum dilatato. 

Diam. maj. 15, min. 12, alt. 7\ mill. 
Hab. Cordova. 

10. SiMPULOPSis CoRDOVANA, Pfr. S. testa subsemiglobosa, 
tenuisaima, levissime striatula, pellucida, nitidissima, virenti- 



320 

cornea ; spira minuta, vix prominula ; sutura canaliculata ; 

anfr. 2\, ultimo inflato ; columella teilui, papyraceo-marginatd ; 

apertura jJerobliąuu, f ere circulari ; perisi. simpUce, recto, 

margine dextro superne antrorsum dilatato. 
Diam. maj. 15, min. llf, alt. 7 mill. 
Hab. Cordova. 

11. Spiraxis Shuttleworthi, Pfr. (PI. XXXV. f. 8.) Sp. 
testą oblongo-glandiformi, tenuiuscula, Icevigata, lineis im- 
pressis irregularibus notata, lucida, corneo-Jtavescente, strigis 
variciformibus virenti-fulvis notata ; spira conica, obtusula ; 
sutura levi, sublacera ; anfr. 7, superis vix convexiusculis, ul- 
titno antice descendente, -f longitudinis fere cequante, basi 
subattenuato ; lamina columellari leviter tortą, subincrassata, 
dasi vix truncatula ; apertura anguste setniovali, superne longe 
acuminata, intus nargaritacea ; perisi, simplice, marginibus 
callo ienui junctis, dextro medio dilatato. 

Loug. 33, diam. 13į mill. 
Hab. Cordova. 

12. Spirakis turgidula, Pfr. (PI. XXXV. f. 9.) Sp. testą 
ovato-coniea, tenuiuscula, striatula, nitida, pallide Jiavescente, 
strigis variciformUms, subitnpressis, jjellucidis notata ; spira 
conica, obtusiuscula ; sutura crenulata ; anfr. 8 infra suturam 
furgidulis, ultimo j- longitudinis subcequante ; lamina columel- 
lari crassa, alba, leviter tortą, basi truncata ; apertura subver- 
ticali, sinuoso-semiovali, intus albido-margaritacea ; perist. 
simplice, margine destro medio antrorsum dilatato. 

Long. 31, diam. 12^ mill. 
Hab. Cordova. 

13. Spiraxis auriculacea, Pfr. Sp. testą fusiformi-oblonga, 
tenera, Icevigata, pellucida, nitida, rubello-cornea ; spira elo7i- 
gato-conica, obtusula; sutura marginata ; anfr. 7 convexius- 
culis, ultimo spira vix longiore, infra medium dilatato ; lamina 
columellari parum tortą, alba, filari, tninime truncata ; aper- 
turą sinuato-semiovali, intus leviter margaritacea ; perist. sim- 
jdice, margine dextro medio fere angulatim producto. 

Long. 16, diam. 6 mill. 
Hab. Cordova. 

14. Achatina (Varicella) Orizab.e, Pfr. (PI. XXXV. f. 6.) 
A. testą oblongo-conica, solidula, longitudinaliler striata, ni- 
tida, olivaceo-fusca, varicibus subprominulis pallidis irregu- 
lariter munita ; spira elongato-conica, apice obtusula; sutura 
levissime marginata ; anfr. 7i convexiusculis, ultimo spira bre- 
viore, deorsum Iceoiore ; columella subcallosa, arcuata, obliąue 
truncata ; apertura verticali, sinuato-ovali ; perist. recto, mar- 
gine dextro obtuso, vix fiexuoso, pallide limhato. 

Long. 42, diam. 18 mill. 
Hab. In Vulcano Orizaba. 



321 

15. AcHATiNA (Varicella) speciosa, Pfr. (PI. XXXV. f. 7.) 
A, testą eonico-ovata, soUdula, longitudinaliter conferte plicata, 
nitida, carnea, varicibus sulciformibus, albidis, subJlexuosis, ir- 
regulariter distantibus munita ; spira conica, apice acutiuscula ; 
sutura eleganter nodulato-crenata ; anfr. 8 vix convexiu8- 
culis, ultimo spiram paulo superante, prope suturam turgidulo, 
deorsum sublcevigato ; columella arcuata, late truncata ; aper- 
tura verticali, sinuato-semiovati ; perist. recto, margine dextro 
flexuoso. 

Long. 29, diam. 13| mill. 
Hab. Cordova. 

16. Achatina (Varicella) Cordovana, Pfr. A. tes tatur- 
rito-oblonga, solidula, longitudinaliter plicata, nitida, alaba- 
strina; spira elongato-conica, apice obtusa ; siitura marginata, 
conferte nodulata ; anfr. 7\ paruni convexis, ultimo spira paulo 
breviore, varicibus nonnullis impressis, ohsoletis munito, basi 
vix attenuato ; columella substricta, transverse truncata ; aper- 
tura subverticali, sinuato-semiovali ; perist. simplice, margine 
dextro mediofere angulatim producto, subinflexo, 

Long. 20, diam. 6 mill. 
Hab. Cordova. 

1 7. Achatina margaritacea, Pfr. A. testą oblonga, tenui, sub- 
IcBoigata, siib lente levissime et irregulariter plicatula, pellu- 
cida, nitida, lutescenti-hij alina ; spira brevi, conica, acutiuscula; 
sutura subcanaliculafa, marginata ; anfr. ^\ convezivsculis, 
ultimo į longitudinis superante, basi vix attenuato ; columella 
lemter arcuata, abrupte truncata; apertura verticali, acumi- 
nato-semiovali ; perist. simplice, margine dexfro leviter antror- 
sum arcuato. 

Long. 9į, diam. 3į mill. 
Hab. Cordova. 

18. Achatina ambigua, Pfr. A. testą imperforata, ovato- 
conica, solida, Icevigata, opaca, albida ; spira conica, obtusida; 
anfr. 7 convexis, ultimo spira paulo breviore, basi rotundato ; 
columella verticali, subintorta, subtruncata ; apertura verticali, 
trapezio-ovali ; perist. recto, margine dextro subrepando, colu- 
mellce parallelo. 

Long. 22, diam. 10 mill. 
Hab. Cordova. 

19. Cylindrella Boucardi (Salle, MSS.), Pfr. (PI. XXXV. 
f. 1.) C. testą arcuato-rimata, clavato-cylindracea, truncata, 
tenuiuscula, costulis capillaribus, confertis, subarcuatis munita, 
in interstitiis sub lente transverso-striata, corneo-fuha ; su- 
tura levi, vix inargittata ; anfr. siiperst. 9-11 vix convexis, 
ultimo antice soluto, obliųue descendente, dorso angulato, infra 
mediiim obtuse carinato ; apertura angulato-oblonga, plica 

No, CCCXXL — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



322 

valida, tortą cohnncUa: coarctata ; perist. albo, brevifer ex' 

panso. 
Long. 52-56, diam. 13 mill. 
Hab. Coitlova. 

20. Cylindrella apiostoma, Pfr. (PI. XXXV. f. 4, 5.) C. 
testą subrimafa, subidata, subarcvatim striatula, diaphana, 
albido-cornea ; spira reyulariter attenvata, apice integra, acu- 
tiuscula ; anfr. 22-2Aconi'exiusculis,u1timo breviter protracto, 
dorso angidato, antice distinctius striato ; apertura subverti- 
caU, obliavę piriformi ; perist. albo, undique rejieriuscido, mar- 
gine dextro snperne subsinuoso. 

Long. 17, diam. 2^ niill. 
Hab. Cordova. 

21. Cylindrella polygyra, Pfr. (PI. XXXY. f. 2, 3.) C. 
testą profunde rimata, subulata, gracili, costulis filaribus, con- 

fertis, leviter arciiatis sculpta, opaca, cornea ; spira regulariter 
attenuata, apice integra, acutiuscula; anfr. 24-2/ convexis, 
ultimo breviter solufo, dorso et basi s^ibcompresso ; apertura 
vix obliąua, subcirculari, in fundo subtriangulari ; perist. un- 
dique ex2}anso et reJ{exiusculo. 

Long. 17^-2 Ii diam. 2\ mill. 

Hab. Cordova. 

22. Proserpina (Ceres) Salleana, Cuming. (PI. XXXV. 
f. 21, 22.) Pr. testą iniperforata, conoidea, soUdula, snperne 
striis incrementi et granulis niinutis exasperata, hitea vel rosea, 
epiderniide opaca, albida, decidua, partim obducta ; spira con- 
iexo-conoidea, vnicronata ; anfr. 8 vix convexiusculis, ultimo 
non descendente, medio compresse et acvte carinato, basi con- 
vexo, Icevigato, callo nitido, lufeo įnagis minusve obducto ; aper- . 
turą perobliqua, subtriangidari, lamellis 6 coarctata ; parieta- 
libus 2, columellori 1 subtorta, 3 in parietė hasali, mediana 
maxima ; perist. luteo, subincrassato, obtiiso. 

Diam. maj. 23, min. 21, alt. fere 12 mill. 
Hab. Cordova. 

23. Helicina Helois.e, Salk', MSS. (PI. XXXV. f. 17.) H. 
testą turbinato-globosa, solidida, levissime striatula, striis spi- 
ralibus sub lente obsolete decussata, nilida, subunicolore lutea 
vel cingulopurpurascente, sursum dilufo ornata ; spira convexo- 
conoidea, acuminata ; sntura pallida ; anfr. 6 convexis, ultimo 
peripheria vix subangulato, basi planiusculo, callo vitido, eir- 
cumscripto munito ; columella arcuata, filari ; apertura dia- 
gonali, subsemicirculari ; perist. tenuiusculo, expanso, margine 
dextro leviter f exuoso. 

Operc. ?— Diam. maj. 9|-11, min. 8\-9\, alt. 7-8 mill. 
Hab. Cordova. 



32:5 

24. Helicina notata, Sallė, MSS. (PI. XXXV. f. 18, 19, 20.) 
n. testą globoso-turbinata, solidida, striata et liris subdi- 
stantibus, lei'ibus circumdata, curnea vel straminea ; spira con- 
vexiuscuIo-conica, acuta ; a)i/r. 5^ vix conve.viusndis, vltimo 
spirom subeEquante, convexiore ; columella hrevi, basi tubercu- 
luta, calluni crassum, circumscriptuin retrorsuia emittenfe ; 
apertura fere diagonali, subsemicirculari ; perisi. caUoso, in- 
crassato, albo, angulatim patente. — Operc. fenite, margine 
externo purpureo. 

Diani. maj. S\, niin. 7, alt. 7 mill. 
Hab. Cordova. 

25. Helicina Cordillerje, Salle, MSS. H. testą depresse 
globoso-conica, solida, striatula, opaca, albida, fascia 1 rubra 
supra peripheriam, nonnuUisųue pallidioribus, obsoletis cincta ; 
spira conoidea, svrsumfusco-carnea, apice acuta ; anfr. a\ vix 
convexiuseuUs, idtimo depresse rotiindato ; colmnella extus vix 
impressa, callosa, basi in nodulum terminata, calliim emittente 
crassiuscultnn, circutnscripfutn ; aj)erfvra dingonali, triangu- 
luri-semiovaU ; perisi, calloso-incrassato, angulatim patente, 
margine basali in tuberculum columellce trunseunte. — Operc. 
corneum, castaneum. 

Diam. maj. \'2\, min. lOf, alt. Smili. 

ft. Paulo major, unicolor fusco-carnea, impressione columellari 

distinctiore. 
Hab. lu moute Orizaba, 12,000' supra Oceaiium. 

26. Cyclostoma (Cyclophorus) Boucardi, Salle, MSS. 
(PI. XXXV. f. 2.5.) C. testą latiuscule umbilicuta, conoideo- 
depressa, solida, impressionibus malleatis vndique tubercidato- 
7-ugosa et liris obsoletis distantibus mitnita, epidermide fulva, 
saturatius faseiata vestita ; spira breviter conoidea, obtusa ; 
anfr. 5 modic.e converis, celeriter accrescentibus, ultimo ro- 
tundato, antice interdum breviter soluto ; apertura parum 
obliąua, subangvlato-ovali, intus margarifacea ; perist. sim- 
plice, recto, continuo, supterne obsolete angulato, margine co- 
lumellari leviter arcuato. — Operc. tenuissimum, fulvum, pla- 
nvm. 

Diam. maj. 30, min. 30, alt. 18-19 mill. 
Hab. Cordova. 

27. Cyclostoma (Chondropoma) Cordovanum, Pfr. Ch. 
testą rimato-perforata, turrita, integra, tenui, longit udinaliter 
confertim plicata, haud nitente, pallide fulca, fasciis interrup- 
tis castaneis ornata ; spira regidariter turrita, sursum plerujn- 
que violacea, apice submatnilluri nitida, cornea ; anfr. 7-7\ 
perco7ivexis, ultimo non soluto ; apertura verticali, orali ; jiei-ist. 
duplice ; interno albo, breriler jJorrecto, externo subdilatato. 



324 

horizontaliter patente, concentriee striato, castaneo maculato, 
superne producto, ad anfr. penultimum 8ubexciso. — Operc. albi- 
dum. 

Long. 13-15^, diam. 6-7^ mill. 

Hab. Cordova. 

DESCRIPTION OF PLA.TE XXXV. 

Fig. 1. Cylindrella Boucardi, P/r. 

2, 3. polygyra, Pfr. 

4, 5. apiostoraa, Pfr. 

6. Achatiiia (Varicella) Orizabae, Pfr. 

7. (Varicella) speciosa, Pfr. 

8. Spiraxis Shuttleworthi, Pfr. 

9. turgidula, Pfr. 

10. Bidimus aurifluus, Pfr. 

11. — — sulphureus, Pfr. 
12. Droueti, Pfr. 

13, 14. Helix caduca and var., Pfr. 

15, 16. Simpulopsis Salleana, Pfr. 

17. rielicina Heloisse, Salle. ■ 

18, 19, 20. iiotata and var., Pfr. 

21, 22. Proserpina (Ceres) Salleana, Cuming. 

23, 24. eolina, Duclos (for comparison). 

25. Cyclophorus Boucardi, Salle. 



5. Descriptions of Fifty-eight New Species of Helicea 

from the collection of h. cuming, esq. 

By Dr. L. Pfeiffer. 

1. Vitrina Flemingi, Pfr. V. testą suhdepressa, peripheria 
auriformis ; solidula, superne plicato-striata siriisąue spiralibus 
sub lente notata, ceneo-micante, oUvaceo-fulva ; spira pariim. elata ; 
suttira anguste albomaryinata ; anfr. A\ convexiusculis, vlthno 
magno, infra medium obsoletissime angidnto, busi Icevigato, niti- 
diore ; apertura diagonali, lunato-ovali, inttis margaritacca ; pe- 
risi. simpUce, margine dextro subrepando, columellari arcuaio, 
superne triangulatim reJlexo, adnato. 

Diam. maj. 33, min. 24, alt. 17-18 mill. 
Hab. Scinde, India {Dr. Alex. Fleming). 

2. Vitrina Planti, Pfr. V. testą depressa, ambitų subauri- 
formi, tenuissima, lavigata, nitidissima, pellucida, albido-hyalina; 
spira parvula, planą ; sutura vix impressa, submarginata ; anfr. 
vix 3 planiusculis, nltimo magno, snperne vix convexiore, ad 
suturam striatulo, subtus inflato, membranaceo-marginato ; aper- 
tura magna, diagonali, lunato-ovali ; perist. simplice, margine 
dextro antrorsum arcuato, columellari tenuissima. 

Diam. maj. 12, min. 8, alt. 6 mill. 
Hab. Natai (Mr. Plant). 

3. Vitrina Borneensis, Pfr. V. testą depresso-globosa, tenuis- 
sima, striatula, striis spiralibus nonnullis impressis notata, pellu- 



325 

cida, pallide corneu ; spira ■ brevissime conoidea, albida ; sufura 
submarginata ; anfr. 4 celeriter accrescentibus , superis vu' con- 
vexis, ultimo subdepresso-rotundato , basi oblique ruyuloso ; aper- 
turą obUqua, lunato-rotundata ; perist. simplice, levissime inflexo, 
margine columellari brevi, strictiusculo, filari. 

Diam. maj. 15, miu. 11|^, alt. 9 mill. 

Hab. Borneo. 

4. Vitrina Celebensis, Pfr. V. testą helicoidea, solidula.stria- 
tula, nitida, coffeacea ; spira breviter conoidea, obtusula ; sutura 
pallide marginata ; anfr. 4 convexiusculis, sensim accrescentibus, 
ultimo basi parum convexo, pallido ; apertura diagonali, lunato- 
rotundata ; perist. simplice, recto, marginibus subconvergentibus, 
columellari arcuato, subcalloso. 

Diam. maj. 11|, miu. 9, alt. 7 mill. 
Hab. Celebes {Mrs. Ida Pfeiffer). 

5. Vitrina Id^, Pfr. V. testą depresso-globosa, ambitų subovali, 
tenui, arcuato-striatula, nitida, pellucida, lutescenti-cornea ; spira 
via: elevata ; sutura levi ; anfr. 4 convexiusculis, ultimo mugno, 
inflato, basi non impresso ; apertura diagonali, rotundato-lunari ; 
perist. simplice, marginibus conniventibus , regutariter arcuatis, 
columellari brevissime recedente, subcalloso. 

Diam. maj. 14, miii. 11, alt. 7f mill. 
Hab. Celebes (Mrs. Ida Pfeiffer). 

6. Vitrina 1 Comorensis, Pfr. V. testą subglobosa, tenui, ru- 
goso-striata, vix nitidula, diaphana, virenti cornea, punctis et 
strigis luteis variegata ; spira convexn, obtusa ; anfr. 3 convexis, 
rapide accrescentibus, ultimo inflato ; apertura fere diagonali, 
lunato-ovali, intus margaritacea, albo variegata ; perist. simplice, 
recto, marginibus convergentibus, reguluriter arcuatis, columellari 
filari. 

Diam. maj. 21|, min. 16į, alt. 13-14 mill. 
Hab. Mayotte, Comoro Islands {Mr. Clouė). 
Shape very similar to that of Helix aperta, Boru. 

7. Vitrina Darnatjdi, Pfr. V. testą semiovata, pertenui, sub 
lente irregulariter striatula punctisąue impressis notata, oleoso- 
micante, pallide virenti-cornea ; spira convexa, obtusa; sutura 
anguste marginata ; anfr, vix 3 convexis, rapide accrescentibus, 
ultimo magno ; apertura subdiagonali, sublunato-ovali, intus le- 
viter margaritacea ; perist. simplice, brevissime inflexo, margini- 
bus approximatis, dextro antrorsum dilatato, columellari arcuato, 
anguste membranaceo-marginato. 

Diam. maj. 16, min. 12, alt. 7i mill. 

Hab. Senuaar, Interior of Africa {Mr. Darnaud). 

8. Vitrina Sennaariensis, Pfr. V. testu depressa, tenui, ob- 
ligue rugosa, nitidula, pellucida, corneo-virente, plerumųue hiteo 



326 

nigro obducta ; spira sublm-binata, mucronata ; anfr. 3 convexis, 
sensim accrescentibus, ulthno depresso, peripheria obsolete angu- 
lato ; apertura perobliąua, lunato-circulari ; perisi, te/iui, subiri' 
flexo, marginibus convergentibus, columellari vix dilatato^ 

Dinm. maj. 6f, min. 5\, alt. 3 mill. 

Hab. Sennaar, Interior of Africa {Mr. Darnaud). 

9. Vitrina leucospira, Pfr. V. testą depresse subglobosa, am- 
bitų ovali, tenuissima, striatula, peUucida, nitida, lutescenti- hya- 
lina ; spira parum convexu, alba ; sutura vix submarginata ; anfr. 
4 convexiuiculis, penultimo sensim pellucido-radiato, ultimo ro- 
tundato ; ap'rtura obliqua, lunato-subcirculari ; pcrist. tenui, 
marginihvs conniventibus, subinflexis, dextro antrorsum valde ar- 
cuato, colinnellari substricto, brevi, filari. 

Diara. maj. \oh, min. IH, alt. Bį- mill. 
Hab. Australia. 

10. SucoiNEA Planti, Pfr. iS. testą conico-ovata, tenuiuscula, 
rugulosa, diuphana, sordide cornea ; spira brevi, subpapiUita ; 
anfr. vix 2į, penultimo convexo, ultimo f longitudinis superante, 
niedio turgido ; columella subsiricte recedente, superne levissime 
calloso-plicata ; apertura fere diagonali, tibigne incumbente, acu- 
minato- ovali ; perist. simplice, margine dexlro regidariter arcuato. 

Long. 5, diam. 3Į, alt. 2f mill. 
Hab. Cape Natai {Mr. Plant). 

1 1. SucciNKA ASPERTJLA, Pfi". S. tcsta ovato-co/iica, tenuiuscula, 
striis 7'ugosis sabasperata, diaphana, corneo-ruhella ; spira turbi- 
nata, acvta; anfr. 3i convexis, ultimo ventroso, į longitudinis 
formante ; columella leviter arcnata, compressa, albida ; apertura 
oblique, vndique incumbente, subregulariter ovali, intus marg..ri- 
tacea ; perist. simplice, marginibus subsgmmelricis. 

Long. lOf, diam. 6|, alt. 5 mill. 
Hab. Flagstaff Hill, St. Helena. 

12. Helix Kkrmandeci, Pfr. H. testą impeiforata, turbinatu, 
tenui, superne subdistanter striata, /įgalina ; spira convexiusculo- 
turbinata, subacuminata ; anfr. 5-i— 6 convexis, lente accrescenti- 
bus, ultimo suhanyulato, antice rotundato ; apertura vix obliąua, 
lunari ; perist. simplice, recto, marginibus distantibus, columellari 
superne subreflexo, adnato. 

Diam. maj. 3f , min. 3į, alt. 2i mill. 

Hab. Siinday Island, Kermandec Group (Lieut. Chimmo, R.N.}. 

13. Hii:Lix Ophiria, Pfr. H. testą subperforata, depresse turbinato- 
globosa, tenuissima, membranacen, radiato-rugata et lineis spira- 
libus minutissimis sub lente sculpta, pellucida, virenti-cornea ; 
spira subcojioidea, superne alba ; anfr. 5 convcxiusculis, sensim 
accrescentibus, ultimo peripheria subangulato, antice rotundato, 
basi inflato ; apertura fere diagonali, rotundato-lunuri ; perist. 



327 

simpllce, marginibus ded'tro et basali subinfleiis, columellari /'ere 

vert kali, superne svbrefiexo. 
Diam. inaj. 20, niin. 17, alt. llįmill. 
Hab. Moimt Ophir, Malacca(/>. Traill). 
Vitrina heliciformis, PfV. 1854, is an imperfect form of this species. 

14. Helix Shiplayi, Pfr. H.testa pcrforata, subturbinata, soli- 
dula ; superne arcuato-plicata striisque spiralibus eleganter (jra- 
nulata, isabelUna ; spira convexivsculo-cotiica, obtusula ; sutura 
subcanaliculata ; anfr. 6 convejcis, lente nccrescentibus, ul/imo 
pcripheria carina acuta, compressn, antice evanescente muiiito, 
basi convexo, l'evicre ; apertnrn diagomili, subangulato-lunari, 
intus margnritacea ; perist. simplice, obtiisuh, margine columel- 
lari f ere verticali, supei'ne triangulatim reflexo. 

Diam. maj. 20, min. 18, alt. 1 1^ inill. 

Hab. Neilgherries, ludia (iVfr. Comuay Shiplay). 

15. Helik acalles, Pfr. H. testą vix perforata, turbinata, 
tenui, obUque rugosa, diaphana, pallide cornea ; spira conoidea, 
acutiuscula ; anfr. 5į convexiusculis, sensim accrescentibus, ultimo 
peripheria carinato, antice non doscendente, basi convexiore ; aper- 
tura obligua, subangulato-lunari ; perist. simplice, recto, margine 
columellari superne anguste reflexo. 

Diam. maj. 13, min. 11, alt. 7^mill. 

Hab. Neilgherries, India (Mr. Conioaij Shiplay). 

16. nELix Calabarica, Pfr. H. testą perforata, turbinai o- len- 
tiformi, tenui, lavigata, superne liris 6 argutis. fiUformibus cincta, 
diriphana, cornea ; spira conoidea, acutiuscula ; anfr. 6 convexius- 
culis, sensim accrescentibus, ultimo non descendente, acute cari- 
nato, busi convexo ; apertura parum obliųua, angulato-lunari ; 
perist. simplice, recto, marginibus vix convergentibus, columellari 
arcuato, superne vix reflexo. 

Diam. maj. 9|-, min. 8į-, alt. 4^^ mill. 
Hab. 01d Calabar, Guiuea. 

17. Helix Darnaudi, Pfr. H. testą perforata, depresse co- 
noideo-globosa, tenui, rugoso-striata, cornea, f asciis opacis albidis 
notala ; spira conoidea ; anfr. fere 5 vix convexiusculis, sensim 
accresrentibus , ultimo non descendente , rotundato ; apertura vix 
obligua, rotundato -lunar i; perist. simplice, recto, marginibus 
subconvergentibus , columellari superne dilutato, patente. 

Diam. maj. 8, min. 7, alt. 5 mill. 

Hab. Sennaar, Interior of Africa {Mr. Darnaud). 

18. Helix arguta, Pfr. H. testą subclause perforata, depressa, 
tenui, superne argute et confertim arcuato-striata, corneo-fusca ; 
spira parum elevata, obtusa; sutura subcrenulata ; anfr. 4 5 cele- 
riter accrescentibus, superis vix convexiuscuUs, ultimo peripheria 
carina f usiformi cincto, antice non descendente, basi laviore, luteo- 
virente, medio excavato ; apertura diagonali, ampla, lunato-ro- 



328 

tundata, intus margaritacea ; perist. simplice, recto, vtargiiiibus 
conniventibus , columellari snperne in laminam brevem. callosam 
rejlexo. 

Diam. mąj. 36, min. 29, alt. 18 mill. 

Hab. Tenga Hills, Ja^a (C. Shiplay, Esg.). 

19. Helix Chimmoi, Pfr. H.testaumbilicata,convexo-depressa, 
tenuiuscula, confertim plicato-striata, cornea, riifo irregulariter 
maculata ; spira parum elevata ; anfr, 5 convexis, sensim accres- 
centibus, vltimo non descendente, subdepresso-rotundato ; um- 
hilico conico, ^ diametri subcegmuite ; apertura parum obliqua, 
rotundato-ltinori ; perist. simplice, recto, marginibus conver- 
gentibus. 

Diam. maj. 3f, min. 3, alt. 1^ mill. 

Hab. Suuday Island, Kermandec Group (Liettt. Chimmo, R.N.). 

20. Helix conferta, Pfr. H. testą vmbilicata, conoidea, solida, 
striis incrementi irrcgvlaribus et cop/eriissimis spiraiibus decus- 
satula, sericea, fvlvida ; spira conoidea, obtusa ; sutura pallide 
marginata ; anfr. vix 5 convexiuscnlis , sensim accrescentibus, 
ultimo peripheria angulato, ad suturam ttirgidvlo, basi convexo, 
juxta umbilicum. angustum compresso ; apertura perobligua, svb- 
tetragono-lunari ; j)erist. obtuso, margine supero recto, basali 
incrassato, reJiexiiiscvlo, columellari declivi, subdcntato, superne 
triangulatim rejiexo. 

Diam. maj. 34^ min. 30, alt. 20 mill. 
Hab. ? 

21. Helix Damahoyi, Pfr. H. testą imperforata, globoso-de- 
pressa, tenuiusaila, obligiie striata, parum nitente, saturate 
fusca,fasciis latis nigris, vnica lutea mediana et superpositis non- 
nullis hydrophanis albidis ornata ; spira vix elevata, obtusa ; anfr. 
4 convexiusculis, rapide accrescentibus, ultimo infato, obligue 
malleato-pUcato ; columella declivi, cojtipressa, dilatata, alba; 
apertura obligva, truncato-ovali, intus albida ; perist. albo, late 
expanso et reįlexiusculo . 

Diam. maj. 4", min. 37, alt. 28 mill. 
Hab. Philippine Islands {Mr. Damahoy). 

22. Helix Meobambensis, Pfr. H. testą obtecte umbilicata, 
conoideo-depressa, solida, subdistanter rugoso-striata, undigue 
minute granulata, cinnamomea ; spira conoideo-convexa, obtusa; 
anfr. 5 planiuscuUs, lente accrescentibus, ultimo antice descen- 
dente, peripheria subcarinato, utringue conveaiore ; apertura per- 
obligua, tetragono-lunari ; perist. albo, reJiexo, marginibus callo 

junctis, columellari dilatato, adnalo, stricto, ad dextram uni- 

dentato. 
Diam. maj. 32, min. 26, alt. 15 mill. 
Hab. Meobamba, Peru (il/r. Porte). 

23. Helix ammiralis, Pfr. H. testą umbilicata, turbinato-de- 



329 

presstt, soUdula, vndigue subruditer striata, fulva vel lutescente, 
plerumque fascia vnica peripherica nigro-castanea ornala; spira 
regulariter conoidea ; unfr. ū\ vix convexiusculis , lente accres- 
centibus, ultimo antice vix descendente, peripheria carinato, basi 
convexo, circa utnbilicum angustian, castaneum subcompresso ; 
apertura obligua, liinari ; perist. hepatico, breviter expanso, mar- 
gine columellari supcrne fornicatim reflexo. 

Diam. maj. 36, min. 33, alt. 20 mill. 

Hab. China {Admiral Cecille). 

2-4. Helix mucida, Pfr. H. testą umbilicata, turbinato-depressa, 
tenuiuscula, striatula, saturate rttfa, quasi mucore obducta ; spira 
conoidea, obtusula ; anfr. 5 convezis, sensim accrescentibus, ultimo 
rotundato, antice descendente, circa umbilicum infundibuUformem 
subungulato ; apertura f ere diagonali, rotundato- lunari, intus 
nitida, carnea ; perist. breviter expanso, marginibus vix.convergen- 
tibus, columellari superne triangulatim ailatato, patente. 

Diam. maj. 20, min. 16f, alt. 11 mill. 

Hab. Percy's Island (Lieut. Chimmo, R. N.). 

2!). Helix Gueinzii, Pfr. H. testą umbilicata, depressa, cari- 
nata, tenui, plicis subdistantibtts retrorsum descendentibus sculpta, 
pellncida, pallide cornea, seriebus macularum rufarum ornata ; 
spira vix elevata ; anfr, 5 sensim accrescentibus, prope suturam 
turgidis, ultimo superne subacute carinato, antice non descendente, 
subtus perinflato, circa umbilicum (^ diametri occvpantem) coni- 
cum lavigato, subangulato ; apertura vix obligua, subangulato- 
lunari ; perist. tenui, undigue breviter expanso, margine columel- 
lari superne dilatato, patente. 

Diam. maj. 20, min. 16, alt. 9 mill. 

Hab. Meobamba, Peru (Mr. Gueinzius). 

26. Helix basidentata, Pfr. H. testą umbilicata, conoideo- 
subsemiglobosa, solida, obligue striata, alba, fasciis 2 castaneis et 
1 angustiore aurantiaca prope suturam ornata; spira convexo- 
conoidea, obtusa; anfr. 5 convexis, sensim accrescentibus, ultimo 
carinato, antice perdeflexo, basi planiusculo ; umbilico angusto, 
pervio ; apertura horizontali, elliptica ,■ perist. continuo, undigue 
reflexo, margine basali medio dente 1 valido, obtuso armato. 

Diam. maj. 26, min. 20. alt. U mill. 
Hab. Philippine Islands. 

27. BuLiMus PHJKOSTYLUS, Pfr. B. testū imperforata, oblongo- 
ovata, tenui, obligue confertim striata, pallide fulvescenti-carnea, 
fasciis 3 nigricantibus (1 suturali, 1 infraperipherica, tertia co- 
lumellari) ornata; spira convexo-conica, apice obtusula, nigro- 
violacea ; anfr. 5 modice convexis, sensim accrescentibus, ultimo 
spira paulo brcviore ; columella compressa, planą, fusca, basi 



330 

subtruncata ; apertura obligua, truncato-oblonga ; perist. cas- 

taneo, anguste reflexo. 
Long. 37, diam. 24 mill. 
Hab. Philippine Islands. 

28. BuLiMUS iN^auALis, Pfr. B. testą anguste umbilicata, ob- 
lique fusiformi, tenuiuscula, lavigata, nitida, alba unicolore vel 
strigis latis ramosis violaceo-nigricantibus pieta ; spira gracili, 
conica, acuta ; anfr. 6 vix convexiusadis, vltimo spira longiore, 
antice subascendente, latere aperturali planulato, basi subatte- 
nuato ; apertura subverticali, elongato-auriformi, intus violaceo- 
litnbata ; columella violacea, superne obligue plicata ; perist. albo, 
late expanso, margine columellari plano, patente, svperne flexuoso. 

Long. 43, diam. 13 mill. 
Hab. Banks of the Maranliou. 

29. BuLiMUS GuEiNZii, Pfr. B. testą profunde rimata, oblongo- 
conica, tenui, sub/avigata, Jiitida, albida, strigis angustis fuscis, 
basin i'ersus nndulatis, ornata ; spira conica, acutiuscula ; anfr. 6 
convexiusculis, ultimo spira vix breviore, basi subattenuato, ad 
rimam violaceo ; columella compressa, subtorta, violacea ; aper- 
tura vix obligua, truncato-oblonga, intus lilacina ; perist. tenui, 
margine dextro superne valde curvato, late expanso, columellari 
patente. 

Long. 23, diam. 10 mill. 

Hab. Meobamba, Peru (Mr. Gueinzius). 

30. BuLiMus CLARUS, Pfr. B. testą r imato -umbilicata, ovato- 
oblonga, tenui, Icrvigata, nitida, diaphana, sub epidermide fugace 

fulvescente-albida ; spira elongata, convexo-conica, obtusula ; 
anfr. b\ modice convexis, ultimo ^ longitudinis subceguante, basi 
rotundato ; columella leviter arcuata ; apertura obligua, truncato- 
ovali ; perist. tenui, marginibus conniventibus, dextro breviter ex- 
panso, columellari dilatato, patente. 

Long. Iti, diam. 7į mill. 

Hab. jVIeobamba, Peru {Mr. Gueinzius). 

31. BuLiMUS LACTIFLUUS, Pff. B. testa breviter rimato-perfo- 
rata, fusiformi-turrita, tenuiuscula, sublccvigata, cornea, strigis 
lacteis subso-ratis notata ; spira turrita, apice acutiuscula, scepe 
nigro-cornea; anfr. 10-11 convexiusculis, ultimo ^ longitudinis 
subceguante, basi attenuato, compresso ; columella leviter arcuata ; 
apertura vix obligua, ovali-oblonga ; perist. tenui, margine dextro 
anguste expnnso, columellari a basi dilatato, f ornicatim reflexo. 

Long. 16i-17, diam. 4| mill. 
Hab. Chili. 

32. BuLiMUS Floridantjs, Pfr. B. testa anguste perforata, 
ovato-turrita, sublievigata, griseo-hyalina, strigis et maculis opa- 
cis, albis notata ; spira elongato-canica, acutiuscula ; anfr. 6 j 
convexiusculis , superis interrupte fusco-fasciatis, ultimo ^ longi- 



331 

tudinis subagitante, infra medium subangulato, basi attenuato ; 

columella suhtorta, recedente ; apertura parum obligua, ovali ; 

perist. tenui, margine dextro anguste eipanso, columellari dila- 

tato, rejlexo,fere adnato. 
Long. lo|-17, diani. /i mill. 
Hab. Florida. 

33. BuLiMUS DiSTANS, Pfr. B. testa compresse umbilicata, ovato- 
conica, tenuiusada, costis snbarcuatis, chordce/ormibus subdistan- 
tibtis scvlpta, subdiupkana, albida ; spira elei-ato-conica, obtusida; 
anfr. 7 conveais, uHimo f longitudinis subcequante, basi rotundato ; 
columella profunde subtorta ; apertura parum, obligua, acuminato- 
subovali; perisi, tenui, marginibus coniergentibus, dextro breviter 
espariso, columellari dilatato, patente. 

Long. 22į, diam. lOį mill. 

Hab. Isle of Karah, Gulf of Persia. 

34. BuLiMus jESTivus, Pfr. B. testa umbilicata, oblongo-turrita, 
soUdula, irregulariter striata, albida ; spira elongata, convexius- 
ailo-conica, acutiuscula ; anfr. 6 modice convexis, ultimo ^ lon- 
gitudinis subffgtiante, basi vix attenuato ; columella subrecedente ; 
apertura parum obligua, acuminato-ovali ,- perist. tenui, margine 
dextro anguste expnnso, columellari dilatato, fornicatim refiexo. 

Long. 17, diam. 7\ mill. 

Hab. JMeobamba, Peru {Mr. Gueinzius). 

35. BuLiMUS Charbonnieri, Pfr. B. testa profunde rimata. 
ovato-conica, tenuiuscula, confertim costulato-striata, diaphana, 
corneo-albida ; spira elevato-conica, obtusa ; anfr. 6 convexius- 
culis, ultimo spira paulo breviore, juxta umbilicum rimaformem 
subcompresso; columella svbstricta ; apertura parum obligua, 
elliptico-ovali ; perist. temti, marginibus approximatis, dextr'o 
perarcuato, breviter expanso, columellari sursum dilatato, patente. 

Loi\g. 15, diam. 8 mill. 

Hab. Isle of Karah, Gulf of Persia. 

36. BuLiMUS TiBETANUS, Pfr. B. testa profunde rimata, ovato- 
oblonga, pupteformi, solidula, striatula, albida, strigis et maculis 
corneis irregulariter notata ; spira subcylindrica, sensim in conum 
obtusulum attenuata ; anfr. 8-8į vix convexiuscvlis, ad suturam 
plicatulis, ultimo ^ longitudinis subaguante, antice ascendente, 
basi compresso ; columella subplicata ; apertura verticali, sinuato- 
ovali ; perist. albolabiato, expanso, marginibus callo subjunctis, 
columellari reJlexiusculo. 

Long. 32, diam. 1 1 mill. 
Hab. Tibet. 

37. BuLiMus CocuiNCHiNENSis, Pfr. B. testa imperforata. 
fusiformi-ovata, solida, l<evigata, nitida, pallide sulphurea ve'l 

albida ; spira convexiusculo-turrita, apice obtusula ; sutura levi. 
pallida ; anfr. 6-7, stiperis planiusculis, seguentibus convexiori- 



332 

bus, ultimo ^ longitudinis subeeguante, basi attenuato, subcom- 
presso ; columella funįformi, leviter tortą ; apertura parum obli- 
qua, elliptico-ovali ; pcrist. subincrassato, margine dextro breviter 
espanso, columellari dilatato, adnato. 

Long. 39, diam. 17mill. 

Hab. Cochin China. 

38. BuLiMUS CHiON, Pfr. B. testą perforata, oblonga, solida, 
striatula, alba ; spira elongata, in conum acutivsculum terminata ; 
anfr. 7-8 modice convexis, ultimo \ longitudinis paulo superante, 
antice subascendente, basi rotundato ; apertura verticali, ovato- 
lunari ; perist . calloso, marginibus callo junctis, columellari brevi, 
substricto, dilatato, patente. 

Long. 12, diam. 5^^ mill. 

Hab. ludia ; Punjaub, Kurrachee, mouth of the Indus {Mr. Con- 
way Shiplay). 

39. BuLiMus Kanaiensis, Pfr. B. testą subperforata, conico- 
ovata, solidula, striatula et irregulariter malleato-impressa, ulba; 
spira conica, sursum interdum grisea, apice oblusa ; anfr. 5 con- 
vexis, ultimo spiram vix superante, oblique descendente, basi ro- 
tundata ; columella vix arcuata ; apertura obligua, truncato-ovali ; 
perist. simplice, recto, margine columellari dilatato, reJlexo, sub- 
appresso. 

Long. 14, diam. 8 mill. 

Hab. Kanai, Sandwich Islands. 

40. BuLiMUS LoRRAiNi, Pfr. B. testą subperforata, ovato- 
conica, tenui, rugata, subepidermide fulvida, glutinosa, alba; spira 
convexiusculo-conica, obtusula ; anfr. 4 convexis, ultimo spiram 
paulo superante, basi parum attenuato ; columella compressa, levi- 
ter arcuato ; apertura obliųua, acuminato- ovali, intus margari- 
taceo-albida ; perist. simplice, recto, margine columellari anguste 
reffexo, subadnato. 

Long. 2{\, diam. 9 mill. 

Hab. Isle of Penang (Mr. Lorrain). 

41. Btjlimtjs WooD-WARDi, Pfr. B. testą perforata, ovato-tur- 
rita, solidula, striata et submalleata, nitidula, fulvido-alba ; spira 
elongato-conica, acutiuscula ; anfr. 8 convexiusculis, ultimo spira 
pauto breviore, basi subattenuato ; columella recedente ; apertura 
obliąua, ovali-oblonga ; perist. simplice, recto, margine deitro 
leviter arcuato, columellari sursum dilatato, fornicatim refleio, 
perforationem angustam semitegente. 

Long. 31, diam. 13| mill. 
Hab. Andes of Peru. 

42. BuLiMUS Castelneaui, Pfr. B. testą subperforata, fusi- 
formi-turrita, tenuiuscula, striatula (sub lente decussatula), nitida, 
griseo-albida, punctis raris pellucidis conspersa ; spira elongato- 
conica, apice acuta, cornea ; anfr. 7^ convexiusculis, ultimo į lon- 



333 

gitudinis subaguante, basi attenuato ; columella substricta ; aper- 
tura oblicua, oblonga, hitus carnea ; perisi, simplice, recto, mar- 
gine columellari sursum dilatato,fornicato-reJlexo. 

Long. 20, diam. S^ inill. 

Hab. Rio Pampas, Bolivia (^Mr. Castelneau). 

43. BuLiMUS NiGROAPiCATUS, Pft". B. testū perforata, ovato- 
conica, tenuiuscula, striata, nitida, albida, fasciis nigricantibus 
crebris, superioribus moniliformibus, ornata ; spira conica, apice 
acutiuscula, nigra ; anfr. ^\ parum convexis, ultimo spira paulo 
longiore, ventroso ; columella levissime arcuata ; apertura obligua, 
elliptico-ovali ; perisi, simplice, recto, margine columellari auperne 
late reflexo, subappresso. 

Long. 22, diam. Iii mill. 

Hab. Rio Pampas, Bolivia (3/r. Castelneau). 

44. BtJLiMus STENACME, Pfr. B. tcstū umbiUcūta, ovato-turrita, 
solidula, ruguloso-striata , albida, strigis angustis pallide corneis 
variegata ; spira elongata, apicem versus acutiusculum attenuata ; 
anfr. 7 convexiusculis, ultimo |- longitudinis subaguante, juxta 
umbilicum angustum subcompresso ; apertura obligua, oblongo- 
ovali, intus fusco-carnea ; perist. simplice, recto, margine colu- 
mellari superne dilatato, fornicatim reJiexo. 

Long. 20^, diam. 9 mill. 
Hab. BoliTia. 

45. BuLiMus MONACHUS, Pfr. B. testą anguste perforata, ob- 
longo-turrita, tenui, striatula, diaphana, sordide cornea ; spira 
co?ivexo-turrita, apice acutiuscula; anfr. 7\ vix convexiusculis, 
ultimo ^ longitudinis subceguante, basi parum attenuato, rotundato ; 
columella recedente ; apertura obliguaj oblongo-ovali ; perist. 
simplice, recto, margine columellari sursum dilatato, reflexo. 

Long. 31, diam. \\\ mill. 

Hab. Meobamba, Peru C\Ir. Gueinzius). 

46. Partula pdrpurascens, Pfr. P. testą perforata, ovato- 
conica, solidu, obliąue striata striisgue spiralibus confertis di- 
stincte decussata, nitida, purpurascenti-fusca ; spira convexo- 
conica, acuta ; sutura levi ; anfr. 5\ vix convexiusculis , ultimo 
spiram subeeguante, peripheria subangulato, basi rotundato ; colu- 
mella leviter arcuata ; apertura parum obligua, truncaio-oblonga ; 
perist. fusco-violaceo, undigue patente et reflexiusculo. 

Long. 22, diam. 14 mill. 
Hab. ? 

47- Partula callifera, Pfr. P. testą umbllicata, ovato-conica, 
solida, sublavigata (sub lente punctulato-siriata), albida; spira 
convexiusculo-conica, obiusula ; sutura levi ; anfr. 5 convexius- 
culis, ultimo spira paulo longiore, inflato ; columella subverticali, 
superne tuberculifera, intus plicata ; apertura vix obligua, sinuato- 
oblonga, dente profundo parietali coarctata; perisi, incrassato. 



334 

dilatato, marginibus callo junctis, dexlro supra medium callo ob- 

longo intus munito. 
Long. 19, diam. U inill. 
Hab. ? 

48. Partula l^vigata, Pfr. P. testą profunde rimata, ovato- 
conica, solidu, Icevigata {sub lente vix striatula), nitida, lutescente ; 
spira conica, obtusula ; sutura mediocri ; anfr. 5 convexiusculis, 
ultimo spiram subeequante, prope suturam tumidiore, basi rotun- 
dato ; columella supra medium introrsum nodoso-plicata ; apertura 
vix obligua, oblomja, tuberculo prufundo anfractus penuUimi co- 
arctato ; perist. crasso, albo, undique patentu, margine columellari 
superne dilatato, adnato. 

Long. L'O, diam. 10 mill. 
Hab. ? 

49. Partula LiLACiNA, Pfr. P.testasubobtecte perforata.ovato- 
conica, solidu, sub lente spiraliter striuta, nitidula, lilucina ; spira 
conica, acuta ; sutura levi ; anfr. 5Į vix convexiusculis, vltimo 
spiram subaquante, rotundato ; columella superne tuberculo sub- 
circumscripto munita ; apertura obligua, truncato-oblonga ; perist. 
incrassato, albido, breviter eipanso, margine columellari fere 
adnato. 

Long. l/i, diam. 10 mill. 
Hab. Marąuesas Islands. 

50. AcHATiNELLA (Achatinellastrum) ovum, Pfr. A. 
testą sinistrorsu, imperforata, globoso-cunica, solida, ruguloso- 
striata, nitidula, albida ; spira concaviusculo- conica, apice acuta; 
sutura profunde maj-ginuta ; anfr. b\, superis planis, seguentibus 
co?ivexis, ulUmo infuto, spira vix breviore ; plica columellari 
crassa, tuberculiformi, puUide lilacea ; apertura diagonuli, sinuato- 
semicirculari ; perist. recto, nigro-fusco, limbato, intus crenato- 
labiato. 

Long. 19|, diam. 13 mill. 

Hab. Oahu, Sandvvich Islands (J)r. Newcomb). 

A^y^ 51. AcHATiNELLA (Laminella) farcimen, Pfr. A. testu si- 

nistrorsa, subperforuiu, oblongo-conica, solidula, 7'ugulosa, sub 
epidermide nigricante albida ; spi)-a superne in conum acutum nu- 
dum terminalu; anfr. 7, superis planis, 2 ultimis perconvexis, 
ultimo į longitudinis paulo superante, medio subangulato ; plica 
columellari compressa, obligua ; apertura obligua, semiovali, intus 
alba ; perist. simplice, recto, margine columellari subpatente. 

Long. 19, diam. 9 mill. 

Hab. Mani, Sandwich Islands (Dr. Newcomb). 

52. AcHATiNELLA (Labiella) callosa, Pff. A. testa imper- 
forata, dextrorsa, fusiformi-oblonga, solida, leviler striatula, sub 
epidermide tenui fulvida alba ; spira elongata, ventroso-conica. 



335 



aptce obtusula; sutura sublacera ; anfr. 8 planiusculis. ultimo \ 
longitudinis puulo superanie, basi attetmato ; plica columellari 
acute dentiformi, alba ; apertura vix obligua, acuminato-elliptica ■ 
penst. calloso, obtuso, margine dextro intus obsolete dentato 

Loiig. 16, diam. 6 ir.ill. 

Hab. Oahu, Sanclwich Islauds (Dr. Neivcomb). 

53. AcHATiNA (Varicella) Guadeloupensis, Pfr. A testą 
oblongo-turnta, tenui. Icevigata, nitidissima. pellucida. virenti- 
cornea. varicibus arcuatis, vix prominuUs, castanco-marainatis 
passim viunita ; spira regulariter attenuata. apice obtusa ■ anfr 7 
convexiusculis, ultimo \ longitudinis submquante. basi attenuato ■ 
columella perarcuata, basi anguste truncata ; apertura vix oblioua 
acurmnato-ovah;perist. tenui. margine dextro antrorsum diktato 
rvjo-limbato. ' 

Loug. 14, diam. 4į mill. 

Hab. In insula Guadeloupe {Mr. Caillet). 

54 Spirams Sandjvichensis, Pfr. Sp. testą subperforata, ob- 
longo-turrita, soltdula. cerea ; spira turrita, obtusula- anfr IX. 
plamuscuhs. infra suturam plicatis, ultimo į longitudinis paull 
superante ; columella compressa, tortą; apertura vix oblioua 
ovali; penst simpUce, marginibus callo tenui junctis, dextroan. 
trorsum subdilatato, columellari subreflexo. 

Loiig. 9, diam. 3 mill. 

Hab. Saudwich Islaads {Dr. Netvcomb). 

55 Spiuaxis OBSOLETA, Pfr. Sp. testą subperforata, oblongo- 
turrita, tenui. levissime striatula, pellucida, nitida.palUde cornea ■ 
spira convexiuscdlo-turrita, obtusa; sutura marginata ; anfr d 
convexiuscuhs. ultimo | longitudinis formante; columella aėuta 
medioleviter tortą ; apertura vix obliqua, elliptico-ovali ■ perist 
simplice margine columellari brevissime reJlexo, subadnato ' 

i-toug. 8, diam. 3 mill. 

Hab. Sandwicli Islands (Dr. Nemcomb), 

56 ToRNATELLiNA GouLDr, Pfr. T. testą ovato-conica, tenui. 
sublm^igata, pellucida, cornea; spira elongato-conica, apice obtu- 
sula; anfr. ^ convexis. ultimo ^ longitudinis subaouante. rotun- 
dato; apertura obligua. erectclunari. lamella valida intrante va- 
rietatt et phca crassa triangulari columella: coarctata ; verist 
recto, tenui. ^ 

Long. 4, diam. 2i mill. 
Hab. ? 

57. TORNATEI.LINA Newcombi. Pfr. T. testą perforata. ovato- 
turrita, tenui. sublcevtgata.parum nitida. diaphana. pallide cornea ■ 
spira subrectihneari. conica. obtusula; anfr. 7 subplanis. ultimo 
^ longitudinis vix formante, basi convezo; apertura obliqua ro 



336 

tundato-lunari, iamella mediocri parietali et plicis 2 parallelis 

columellm coarctatn ; perist. simplice, recto. 
Long. 4, diam. 2į mill. 
Hab. Sandvvich Islands (Dr. Netocomb). 

58. TORNATELLINA PERFORATA, Pfr. T. tCStū perfoTūta, OVūtO- 

turrita, arcuato-striata, tenui, albido-hy alina ; spira elongata, 
apir.e acuta ; anfr. 7 convexis, ad suturam distanter plicatulis, 
ultimo \ longitudinis paulo superunte ; Iamella parietali minuta ; 
apertura vix obliįua, sinuato-ovali, acuminata ; columella lamina 
tortą munita ; perist. tenui, margi/ie dextro recto, superne antror- 
sum arcuato, basali eipanso, columellarifornicatim reflexo, patente. 

Loug. 18, diam. 7\ mill. 

Hab. Venezuela. 



Descriptions of Sixteen New Species of Pneumono- 

POMA, FROM THE CoLLECTION OF H. CuMING, Esa. 

By Dr. L. Pfeiffer. 

A. Opisophthalma. 

1. DiPLOMMATiNA Cantori, PtV. D. testū suhrimata, sinis- 
trorsa, ovato-oblonga, tenuiuscula, eonfertim et ohligue plicata, 
albida ; spira ovata, in conum acutiusculum terminata ; anfr. 
6 convexi2isculis, ultimo ascendente, \ lo7iffitudims vix siiper- 
ante ; apertura suhverticali, circulari ; perist. subsimplice, con- 
tinuo, superne adnato, cceterum breviter expanso. 

Long. 2, diam. I mill. 

Hab. Lord Howe's Island, New Hebrides {Mr. Maegillivray) . 

2. Truncatella Ceylanica, Pfr. Tr. testą subrimata, atte- 
nuato-cylindracea, striatula, pellucida, nitida, corneo-rvfa vel 
favescente ; anfr. svperst. 4, supremis 2 rotundatis, religuis 
planioribus, omnibus ad suturam j^Ucato-crenatis, ultimo basi 
non compresso ; apertura verticali, ampla, anyulato-subovali ; 
perist. continvo, margine dextro tenui, expansiusculo, columel- 
lari leviter arcuato, appresso. 

Long. 6, diam. 2 mill. 
Hab. Ceylou. 

3. Trtjncatella teres, Pfr. Tr. testą vi^ subrimata, cylin- 
drica, tenuiuscula, longitudinaliter magis minusve distincte 
costulata, j)ellucida, nitidu, rufo-cornea ; sutura marginata, 
valide plicato-crenat a ; anfr. svperst. 4 subceąualibus, convex- 
iusculis, ultimo basi breviter cristato, calloso, albido ; aper- 
tura verticali, late ovali, superne angulata, ad dextram dila- 
tata ; perist. simplice, continuo, margine dextro expansiusculo, 
columellari adnato. 

Long. 6, diam. 2 mill. 

Hab. Isle of Mauiitius, and Trinity Bay, Australia. 



337 



1. Truncatella Barbadensis, Pfr. Tr. testą mbrimata, 
cyhndracea sursum via: attenuata, solidula, costulis confertis 
obtmis, subrectj^ regulariter sculpta, sericina, rufo-cornea • 
sutrira profunda ■ anfr. superst. 4\ perconvexis, lente accres- 
centibus, vlttmo basi crista albida, antice peristoma cinaente 
muntto: apertura verticali, ovali, superne subrotundata, bad 
subeffusa ; perist. continuo, margine dextro exaanso et reflex- 
luscuto, perarcuato, columell^ri mbadnato. 

I^ong. 6i diam. 2 mill. 

Hab. Island of Barbadoes, "VVest Indies. 

B. ECTOPHTHALMA. 

5. Cyclostoma (Cyclotus) daucinum, Pfr. C. testą umbili- 
cata, depressa, solidula, subangulata, daucina vel albida : spira 
parum elevata ; sutura simplice ; anfr. 4| convexis, sensim ac- 
crescentibus mperioribus spiraliter striatis, ultimo ruaoso, 
canna medtocri, antice evanescente munito ; umbilico conico 
4 diametn paulo superante ; apertura parum obliaua, subcir- 
culan; perist. simplice, recto, ad anfr. penulthnum breviter 
mterrupto. Operc. anguste et obsolete spiratum. 

Diam. maj. 12, min. 10, alt. 6 mill. 

Hab. Salomon's Islands. 

6. Cyclostoma (Opisthoporus) Cochinchinense, Pfr C 
testą late umbihcata, discoidea, solida, vix striatula, sub epi- 
dermidefulmda alba, radiis pellucidis notata ; spira subplana, 
medio vix elevata ; anfr. 5 convexis, ultimo terete, antice soluto 
pone aperturam spiraculo versus anfr. penultimum curvato mu- 
ntto; apertura circulari ; perist.subsimplice,vix expansiusculo, 
supeme levtssime tneiso. Operc. ? 

Diam. maj. 20, min. 16, alt. 7 mill, 
Hab. Cochin China. 

7. Cyclostoma (Opisthoporus) euryomphaltim, Pfr C 

testą late umbihcata, depressa, subdiscoidea, solidula, striatula 
lutescente, strigis angulosis castaneis, supeme latis, subtuslinea- 
nbus, pi€ta ; spira planą, vertice nigro vix prominulo ; anfr 4i- 
prope suturam canaliculatam subangulatis, ultimo antice vix 
descendente, 4 mill. pone aperturam spiraculo brevi retroflexo 
munito ; umbilico dimidium diametrifere occupante ; apertura 
diagonah subcirculari ; perist. duplice, interno breviter ex- 
panso, ad anfr. penultimum subinciso, externo superne alatim 
dilatato, latere dextro patente, sinistro obsoleto. Operc. caU 
careum, angustispirum. 

Diam. maj. 15, min. 12, alt. 4 mill. 

Hab. Borneo. 

8. Cyclostoma (Cyclophorus) Shiplayi, Pfr. C. testą um- 
bihcata, depressa, temiiuscula, membranaceo-striata, fuha, cas- 
No. CCCXXII.— Proceedings of the Zoological Society 



338 

taiieo oblique strigata ; spira vix ehvata ; anfr. 4 convexis, 
ultimo terete ; %tmbilico \ diamefri vccvpante ; apertura obli- 
qua, subcireidari ; perist. svnpliee, reeto, ad anfractum conti- 
ffui/m vix interrvpto. Operc. ? 

Diam. maj. 7, min. 6, alt. 3 mill. 

Hah. Neilgherries, India (3/r. Conioay Shiplay). 

9. Cyclostoma (Leptopoma) signatum, Pfr. C. testą per- 
forata, globoso-turhinata, tenui, sub lente decussatula et lineis 
filaribus, subelevatis, subdistantibiis cincta, diaphana, lutes- 
centi-cornea, strigis confertis rufs fulgurata ; spira turbinata, 
acutiuscida ; anfr. 5 convexis, ultimo spiram subceąuante, 5- 
lirato ; apertura diagonali, subcirculari ; perist. subincrassato, 
patente, marginibus fere contiguis, columellari angustiore. 

Operc. ? 
Diam. maj. U, min. 8f, alt. 8| mill. 
Hab. Borneo. 

10. Cyclostoma (Leptopoma) duplicattjm, Pfr. C. testą 
avguste umbilicata, globoso-turbinata, solidula, undiąue confer- 
tim spiraliter striata lirisųue fliformibus distantibus cincta, 
fulva, strigis fulguratis nifis ornata ; spira elevata, acutius- 
cula ; anfr. 5 convexis, ultimo superne turgido, infra medium 
carina levi munito ; apertura obIiqna, subangulato-circulari ; 
perist. subcontimio, a/bo, duplice, interno vix porrecto, externo 
expanso et reflexinsculo, latere sinistro quasi abscisso. Operc. ? 

Diam. maj. 10, miii. 8, alt. 7 mill. 
Hab. ? 

11. Cyclostoma (Cyclostomus) Boivini, Pfr. C. testą ob- 
tecte perforata, globoso-turbinata, tenuiuscula, spiraliter obso- 
lete Uratą; griseo et fulvido variegata, spadiceo multifasciata ; 
spira turbinata ; anfr. fere 6 turgidis, celeriter accrescentibus, 
ultimo r en troso, j)erij)heria carina 1 compressa, albida munito, 
circa umbilicum confertim spiraliter Urato ; apertura subverti- 
cali, oblongo-rotundata, intus nigricanti-sanguinea ; perist. 
tenui,' a d anfr. penultimum subemarginato, superne producto, 
margine dextro et basali late patente, columellari angusto, supra 
timbilicum dilatato, adnato. Ojierc. ? 

Diam. maj. 29, min. 23, alt. 25 mill. 
Hab. Nos-bė, Madagascar {^Ir. Boivin). 

12. Cyclostoma (Cyclostomus) microchasma, Pfr. C. testą 
umbilicata, depresse turbinato-globosa, tenuiuscula, spiraliter 
confertim Uratą, striis incrementi vix decussatula, albido-lutes- 
cente ; spira turbinata, obtusula ; anfr. Ą\ convexis, ultimo 
terete, infra p)eripheriam fascia latiuscula castanea ornato ; 
umbilico conico, \ diametri fere occupante ; apertura parum 
obliqua, parvula, fere circulari ; perist. tenui, vix expansius- 



339 

culo marginibmfere contiguis, ad anfr. pemdthmm callo hrevi 

junctis. Operc? 
Diam. maj. 18, min. laĮ, alt. 12 mill. 
Hab. Madagascar. 

13. Cyclostoma (Cyclostomus) sarcodes, Pfr. C testn 
nmbthcata turbinata, solidula, liris obtusis subconfertiš striis^ 
que illas transgredientibus creberrimis sculpta, carnea fusco 
molaceo uni- vel plurifasciata ; spira turbinata, acutiuscula s 
anfr. 5 convexis ultitno circa umbilicum angustum, subpervium 
Itrts angustionbus, protmnentioribus munito ; apertura fere 
verhcah, ovalt-rotundata; perist. anguste expamo, breiiter 
adnato, superne subangulato. Operc. '^ 

Dmm. maj. 17, min. 14, alt. 14 mill. 

Hab. Madagascar. 

'^^f-^''"'''''/?'','''''''/' ^^- ^- *''*'' ^^'^ '•"««^«. t^rrito. 
fustformt sohdula, subgranulato-strtata, daucino-fusca ; snira 
eonvexo-turrtfa,apice acutimcula ; mtura mbmarginata ; Lfr 
« vix convextusculis, pemdtimo convexiore, ultimo attenuato 
yfaxm vix excedente ; carina nmbilicali compressa, albida 
angulaUM patula ; penomphalo mediocri, turgido, distincti^l 
stnato. apertura subetradan ; perist. aido, continuo, incras- 

Hab. Ceylon {Mr. Thwaites). 

^^^.S'^'i^^ ^f-^'-^^'- • f- *''*'' oomideo-depressa, tenuius- 
S« / f ' r''' 'P"-''^'^'^ impressis distantibus scrdpta, 
nttida, lutea vel carnea ; spira conoidea, acutiuscula ; anfr 5 
plamuscHhs, ultimo peripheria subangulato, basi conveio're ■ 

dllVfT T' T"°^"Z' '"^"^^^^'^ f^revi,antrorsumsub'- 

dentata; apertura diagonali, subsetnicireulan ; perist acuto 
breviter expanso, intus labiato. Operc. ? ' ^ ■ "''^^O' 

Diam. maj. 8, min. 6^, alt. 4į mill. 

Hab. Ceram (Mrs. Ida P/eiJfer). 

et sub lente minute spiraliter striata, carinata, nitida, alhido- 
mrente; spira convexo.conoidea, apice acuta ; mtura marai- 
nata, canna tnterdum prominente ; anfr. 6 mx convexiusciL 
summis tnterdum mfo-fasciatis, ultimo antice vix descendente 
penpheria aeute albocarinato, basi parum convexo ; apertura 
dtagonah, subtnangulari-semiomli ; columella brevi, superne 
leviter impressa, callum emittente circumscriptum, luteum sub- 

VaTeHm ' ^'"''*- '"'"'"' ''^^'' '^-^""*"- ^P'"'' ^^"^' '^«*- 
Diam. maj. 1 Ii min. 10, alt. 8 mill. 
Hab. ? 



3-40 
7. Descriptions of Four New Species of Kelliad^ in the 

COLLECTION OF HuGH CuMING, Esa. 

By Sylvanus Hanley. 

1. MoNTACUTA CoauiMBENSis. M. testū ovūtū vel obovata, 
inceąuilaterali, antice obtusissime angulata, postice longiore et 
late rotundata ; teiiui, subpellucida, maociine compressa, infra 
epidermidem lutescentem albida {intus albo-submargaritacea), 
concentrice et argutissime rugulosa ; margine ventrali integro, 
convexo ; margine dorsali utrinque, prope nates acntissimas, 
subretuso vel subrecto, antice subdeclivi, postice vix declivi, 
lunula angustissima pJanulata impressa ; fossula ligamentali 
apicali late trigona inter dentes duos laterales (altera in valvula 
subobsoletos) breves divergentes prominentesque occlusa. 

Lat. ^ poli. 

Hab. Coąuimbo, in fine sand, 6 fathoms {H. C). 

The cartilage-pit is attached to tlie umbo, and edged below with 
a eurved rini. The lateral scars are large, and well raarked ; the 
pallial line is perceptibly simple. It is a somewhat aberrant species. 

2. Kellia tellinoides. k. testą rotundato-ovali, varius 
subrhombea, subcecpiilaterali, solidiuscula, haud pellucida, ni- 
tida, candida, Icevi, subventricosa ; margine ventrali intus 
simplice, postice arcuato, antice subrecto, ascendente ; margine 
dorsali utrincue subrecto et vix declivi ; unibo7iibui prominulis ; 
natibus acutis ; superjicie interna submargaritacea ; impres- 
sionibus muscularibus magnis {prcesertitn antica) ; linea pal- 
liari simplice ; in utroque valvula dentibus lateralibus duobus, 
validis, subcequidistantibus et dente unico apicali antico. 

Lat. I poli. 

Hab. Baclayon, Isle of Bohol, Philippines, under stones. 

The shape, as in most of the Kelliadce, is wont to vary. It is 
obtusely rounded behind, and in front is either very bluntly peaked, 
or obliquely subtruncated at the ventral corner. 

3. Pythina mactroides. p. testą transversim subtrigona, 
(Bquilaterali vel sub<squilaterali, utrinque rotundata, magis 
minusve solida, compresso-convexa, extus albido-lutescente, intus 
alba, nitida, Icevi {sub lente minutissime punctulata) ; margine 
ventrali integro, subrecto, in medio subretuso ; margine dorsali 
utringue subrecto et subcequaliter declivi ; natibus acutis, pro- 
minentibus, haud recurvis ; cardine utriusque valvulce dentibus 
lateralibus duobus, solidis, subtrigonis, approximatis, in v. si- 
nistra cum cardinali unico obliquo, acuto, angusto, et in v. 
dextra cum tuberculo dentiformi ad basim d. lateralis antici 
superimposito. 

Lat. -^ poli. 

Hab. Cape of Good Hope. 

The muscular impressions are well developed, and the simplicity 
of the pallial line clearly perceptible. Allied to Bornia corbuloides 
of Philippi. 



341 

C v, 4. Pythina nuculoides, p. testą ovata, obtuse subcunei- 
formi, valde inaąuilaterali, postice duplo longioreet rotundato- 
auhattenuata, antice rotundato-subtruncata ; solidiuacula, con- 
vexa, Icevi, ej:tus intusąue albida, nitida ; margine ventrali 
crenato, convexo, postice acclivi ; margine dorsali antice ab- 
rupte declivi et (vix siibconvexo) postice convexo et inodice declivi; 
natibus subacutis ; superficie interna suleis obsoletis inferne 
ornata : cardine valvulce dextrce dente laterali flexo, solido, 
breyi, prominente, approximato, postice subtruncato, et dente 
apicali valido, trigono, prominente, unico ; valvulce sinistrce 
dente laterali longiore, solidiusculo, postice truncato, et car- 
dinalibus duobus, quorum apicalis obliąue prominet, minoraue 
contiguus est sublaminaris. 
Long. \, lat. I poU. 

Hab. Huacna, Society Islands, under stones on reefs (Cumins). 
The shape resembles that of Nucula nucleus. The iiarrow carti- 
lage is attached to the front of the lateral tooth ; the hinge-margin 
exhibits a minute shagreen-hke crenulation ; the muscular impres- 
sions are strongly marked, and the palUal Une perceptibly simple. 
Recluz s descnption of his Erycina donacina would apply to this 
shell, were it not for the dentition. 



November 11, 1856. 

Dr. Gray, F.R.S., in the Chair. 
The following papers were read : — 

1 . On A NeW SpECIES of SaUIRREL (SCIURUS MACROTIS) FROM 

Borneo. By J. E. Gray, Ph.D., F.R.S. etc. 
(Mammalia, PI. XLVI.) 
Among the specimens of animals vvhich the British Museum has 
lately received from Mr.Wallace from Sarawak, is a large, well-marked 
species of Sąuirrel, particular for having very large, longish pen- 
cilled ears hke the European species, with a broad white streak on 
the upper part of each side, and a very broad full tail, grisled, with 
large white tips to the hairs. 

SCITJRTJS MACROTIS. (PI. XLVI.) 

Ears large, with large pencil of elongate hairs. Dark chestnut- 
brown very nnnutelygrisled with pale tips to the hairs. Rump, out- 
side of thighs and base of tail redder ; point of thighs bright bay : 
feet. blackish ; upper part of the side with a broad pale streak ; 
cheeksand mner side of legs paler; chin, throat, and beneath white; 
tail very broad, with very long white-tipped hairs. 

Length 13, tail 11 = 24 iuches. 

Hab. Sarawak {Mr. TFallace). . 



342 



2. ObSERVATIONS ON a LiVING AfRICAN LePIDOSIREN IN THE 

Crystal Palace. By J. E. Gray, Ph.D., F.R.S. Accom- 

PANIED BY A NoTE FROM Mr. A.. D. BaRTLETT. 

(Reptilia, PI. XI.) 

This animal has been exhibited for some months at the Crystal 
Palace, appears to be in good health, and has iucreased in size. 

Mr. \V. Hawkins, iu the ' IHustrated News''(Supp. 20 Sept. 1856), 
vvhich gives a very good figure of the animal froni life, observes : — 

" The three living specimens of this animal were brought to En- 
gland from the Gambia, enclosed in balls of hard clay, where they 
had been for eight months without showing any signs of life, until 
those balls of hard clay were immersed in water, which caused the 
clay to crack and break up, discovering dark-coloured egg-Uke forms, 
vvhich also presently burst, hberating their inmates, which briskly 
swam or rather dashed through the water, showing unmistakeable 
signs of Hfe by feeding voraciously upon very large worms, small 
frogs and pieces of meat that were presented them." 

The Lepidosiren uses its tail to propel itself forward and upward 
towards the surface of the vrater. The subulate hmbs are very much 
elongated ; the front ones are furnished with a narrow membrana- 
ceous margin of nearly equal width the whole length of the hinder 
edge ; the hinder one has a narrovv membrane on the middle of the 
outer side ; they are exceedingly mobile and flexible, and are used by 
the animal to direct its motions, and are more likę feet thau fins, 
especially when they are within reach of some fixed body which the 
animal can use as a fulcrum. 

There are two processes ou each side over the base of the anterior 
members, which have been regarded as gills by some authors * ; they 
are coloured hke the ręst of the body, and I could not discover, even 
when examined by a hand-magnifier of one inch focal length, that 
they were pervaded by any peculiar vascular structure, or furnished 
vvith any cirri or other processes usually found on the extemal gills of 
Batrachia. They scarcely moved during the time that I was exa- 
mining the specimen, except when the animal was swimming, when 
they Tfvere used likę the larger members, apparently to assist in di- 
recting its motions, and they evidently form part of the anterior mem- 
bers. They are placed rather close together somewhat above the 
base of the elongated finned filament. These limbs are used to sup- 
port the animal some height above the surface of the gravel when it 
is at ręst. 

Indeed, all the motions of the animal much more resemble those 
of a Triton or Lissotriton than of an eel-shaped fish. 

The upper and lower surfaces of the head are furnished with lines 
of mucous pores placed in a symmetrical manner on the two sides, 
similar to the pores observable on the head and chin of different 
kinds of fish, and of Tritons and Lissotritons : and there is a distinct 

* See Peters, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. xvi. 348. 





I 




343 

contiuuous line of pores, likę the lateral liue of fish and Trituns, 
vvhich is continued on the tail some distance beliind the base of the 
hinder members, but becoming less distinct at the hinder part of 
the series. 

The eyes are of modeiate size, scarcely raised above the surface, 
round, without any eyehds ; the pupil is black, small, circular, less 
than one-third the diameter of the globė, with a narrow golden iris. 
The Mud Fish is generally to be observed swimming about uuder 
the water, or resting at the bottom of the tank, supporting itself by 
its members, an inch and a half or two inches above the surface 
of the gravel, with its nose generally in the corner, bent down and 
partly hidden in the gravel. 

The mouth is firmly closed by the overhauging upper lip, except 
in front, where there is a small oblong, transverse, horizontai open- 
ing on the outer edge of the lips, admitting the water to the small 
open external nostrils, which are on the middle of the under side of 
the upper lip. This opening does not extend to the hinder part of 
the lips, which are closed behind it, so that water cannot enter the 
mouth in that direction except through the nostrils. 

In this quiescent statė the lateral gill-opening is generally closed, 
but sometirnes it is slightly elevated, and a small current appears to 
be emitted now and then from it, as if a small ąuantity of water were 
taken in by the nostrils and emitted by the gill-flap ; but this action 
is not coutinuous nor very distinctly visible. 

While remaining uuder the water the animal sometirnes opens the 
mouth to its full extent, leaving it open for some time, dilating the 
throat by the action of the os hyoides ; when fuUy dilated it closes 
its mouth, opens the gill-aperture, and contracting the throat emits 
a strong current of water through the lateral gill-aperture. 

It occasionally but at uncertain periods rises perpendicularly to the 
top of the water, until the front part of the head and the whole 
mouth are exposed above the water ; it then opens its mouth, which 
it retains open for a time, dilates its throat, as if taking in all the air 
it can contain, closes the mouth, descends under the surface and con- 
tracts its throat, as if it were foroing the air into the lungs (sometirnes 
during this action one or two very small bubbles of air are emitted at 
the gill-aperture), and then the animal takes up its old position near 
the bottom of the vase. 

I once saw the animal asceud and so take in air almost imme- 
diately after it had been passing a fresh supply of water to its gills, 
When I have been observing it, it appeared to take in air more fre- 
quently than water *. It often rises with its body perpeudicular, as 

* Mr. W. Hawkin8 in the ' Illustrated News ' observes : — " It is seeu habitually 
to rise to the surface of the vvater for a larger supply of atmospheric air, thrusting 
its open mouth above the surface." 

Dr. Holbrook appears to have observed the šame habit in the Necturus macu- 
loms (whicli is probably the lar\a of the Hell-bender or Protonopsis horridd). 
He States that that animal in confinemeiit " asceuds to the surface (of the water), 
taking in a raouthful of air, and sinks again with it to the bottom." — Amer. 
Herpet. i. 113. 



344 

if it were going to take in free air, but descends agaiu without reaching 
the surface of the water. 

The organs of respiration of this animal are twofold : — 

1 . Well-organized gills on the inner edge of the branchial arches, 
as in fishes, and a regular gill-cover with a small oblong aperture ia 
front of the base of the anterior members (see Owen, Trans. Linn. 
Soc. xviii. t. 25. f. 3, t. 26. f. 1). 

2. Two well-developed cellular lungs of nearly equal size (see 
Owen, Trans. Linn. Soc. xviii. t. 25. f. 3, t. 26. f. 1, 2). 

3. The uostrils are olose together, situated on the under side of 
the inner lip, with their internal opening on the side of the mouth 
between the hps and the outer edge of the large inner series of teeth ; 
the passage is short, as a probe is easily passed from the one open- 
ing to the other, and the inner nostrils are very evident in the Uving 
animal when it opens its mouth to take in air. 

M. Bischoff observed these interior nostrils also in the Curamuru 
or Lepidosiren paradoxa of the Brazils. 

The animal is, therefore, provided with well-deTeloped organs for 
both aerial and aquatic respiration, and its manner of breathing is 
perfectly conformable to this organization : it is conseąuently the 
most perfectly amphibious animal, equally adapted for living on land 
or in water, that has come under my observation. 

The character which best separates the Batrachian — as the Toad, 
Frog and Salamander — from the Fish, is, that in both the larva and 
perfect statė they are provided with an external and internal nostril, 
and it is through this nostril that these animals take in or emit the 
air which they respire ; while in fish, the water which they respire 
is taken in by the mouth, and after passiug over the gills is emitted 
by the lateral aperture of the gill-flap ; the nostril being only a sac, 
without any communication with the cavity of the mouth. 

When a Batrachian respires, the mouth is kept closed, the throat 
being used likę a pair of bellows to force the air into the lungs ; and 
if the mouth is kept open, the animal dies for want of the power 
of respiring. In fish, on the contrary, the mouth is always more 
or less open, the fish either constantly gulping in the water, then 
closing the mouth or lips, and emitting it by the lateral opening ; 
or the mouth is partially open, and the animal uses its tongue 
and the hinder internal edge of the lip as a kind of yalre, by which 
the cavity of the mouth is closed and the water is forced to pass 
through the gills. 

The Lepidosirens appear to take in Avater by the nostrils, and at 
the šame time to respire both air as Batrachians and water as fish. 

The generality of the Amphibia, as the Toads, Frogs, and Efts or 
Salamanders, are organized for aąuatic respiration in their young and 
lower statė, and for aerial respiration in their adult condition ; but 
this animal has both kinds of organs in a statė fit for perfect use at 
the šame time, and the animal evidently uses them simultaneously. 

It appears to me that the Mud-fish is much more nearly related 
to the Amphibia than to any fish that I am acquainted with ; at the 
šame time it evidently forms a particular group in that class. 



345 

Dr. Daniel, who has lived for several years on the Gambia and on 
Macarthy's Islands, informs me that the Lepidosiren, likę the Mud 
Eel or true Siren, is only found in the rice-fields, which are for more 
than half the year under water, and that they are only proeured by 
the natives towards the end of the dry season, when they are dug 
out of the nearly-dried mud. They are eaten fried, and likę Eels 
have a rich oily flavour. 

The habit of living in the mud is common to several Amphibia ; 
thus the Mud-eel, or Siren lacertina, which has lungs and extemal 
gills, lives chiefly in mud, being dug out when the ditehes of the 
rice-fields in Carohna are cleared. The Hell-bender or Mud-devil 
(Protonopsis horrida) and the Congo Snake (Amphiuma), which 
have internal gills and lungs and a small lateral gill-opening, live 
sunk in the mud often to the depth of 2 or 3 feet, especially in winter ; 
and they and the Siren lacertina will live for some time out of water. 



of 
tie 

re- 




*«v*^ 



<-i,it4^v^W^ ^•-C^Vv^Vt^^ ^^Ky^^y-- '^^ ar- 

/ -\ sar 

ns, 

jvill 

,ys. 

jf a 

tvvu-puaeu iiziaiu: tuey projecc tnemselves forward on their bony 

arms by the elastic spring of the tail exserted sideways ; their pro- 

gress is nearly as fast as a man will leisurely walk."— Zool. Joum 

iv. 243. ■' 

"The Indians say that these fishes carry water within them for a 
supply on their journey. There appears to be some truth in this 
statement, for I have observed that the bodies of the Hassar do not 
get dry likę those of other fishes when taken out of the water ; and 
if the moisture be absorbed, or they are wiped dry with a cloth, they 
have such a power of secretion that they become instantly moist 
again ; indeed it is scarcely possible to dry the surface while the fish 
is living." — Loc. cit. 243. 

Dr. Hancock further observes, that a fish which he thinks is Lori- 
caria pleistotnv.s "is not only furnished with the common appendages 
for svvimming, but also with four strong bony supporters, one attached 
to each of the pectoral and belly fins (i. e. constituting the first ray 
of each), by which the animal creeps on the bottom of the river, and 



344 

if it were going to take infree air, but descends again without reaching 
the surface of the water. 

The organs of respiration of this animal are twofold : — 

1 . Well-organized gills on the inner edge of the branchial arches, 
as in fishes, and a regular gill-cover with a small oblong aperture ia 
front of the base of the anterior members (see Owen, Trans. Linn. 
Soc. xvm. t. 25. f. 3, t. 26. f. 1). 

2. Two well-developed cellular lungs of nearly equal size (see 
Owen, Trans. Linn. Soc. xviii. t. 25. f. 3, t. 26. f. 1, 2). 

3. The uostrils are close together, situated on the under side of 
the inner lip, with their internal opening on the side of the mouth 
between the hpsand the outer edge of the large inner series of teeth ; 
the passage is short, as a probe is easily passed from the one open- 
ing to the other, and the inner nostrils are very evident in the Uving 
animal when it opens its mouth to take in air. 

M. Bischoff observed these interior nnafr^io oi^-^ ;- ..i- - /^ 
or 7 

1 
boti 
peri 
mos 
or ii 

T 
Fro{ 
perf 
and 
air T 
is ta 
bytl 
with 

beinj 
if th 

of ret,^ o- — ■ •>■ . . v ^- """- 

or less open, the fish either coustantly gulping m the water, then 
closing the mouth or Ups, and emitting it by the lateral opening ; 
or the mouth is partially open, and the animal uses its tongue 
and the hinder internal edge of the lip as a kind of valve, by which 
the cavity of the mouth is closed and the water is forced to pass 
through the gills. 

The Lepidosirens appear to take in water by the nostrils, and at 
the šame time to respire both air as Batrachians and water as fish. 

The generality of the Amphibia, as the Toads, Frogs, and Efts or 
Salamanders, are organized for aąuatic respiration in their young and 
lower statė, and for aerial respiration in their adult eondition ; but 
this animal has both kinds of organs in a statė fit for perfect use at 
the šame time, and the animal evidently uses them simultaneously. 

It appears to me that the Mud-fish is much more nearly related 
to the Amphibia than to any fish that I am acąuainted \vith ; at the 
šame time it evidently forms a particular group in that class. 



345 

Dr. Daniel, who has lived for several years on the Gambia and on 
Macarthy's Islands, informs me that the Lepidosiren, likę the Mud 
Eel or true Siren, is only found in the rice-fields, which are for more 
than half the year under water, and that they are only procured by 
the natives towards the end of the dry season, when they are dug 
out of the nearly-dried mud. They are eaten fried, and likę Eels 
have a rich oily flavour. 

The habit of living in the mud is common to several Amphibia ; 
thus the Mud-eel, or Siren lacertina, which has lungs and extemal 
^lls, lives chiefly in mud, being dug out when the ditches of the 
rice-fields in CaroUna are cleared. The Hell-bender or Mud-devil 
(Protonopsis horrida) and the Gongo Snake (Jmphiuma), which 
have internal gills and lungs and a small lateral gill-opening, Uve 
sunk in the mud often to the depth of 2 or 3 feet, especially in winter ; 
and they and the Siren lacertina will live for some time out of water, 
and are said sometimes to leave it voluntarily. 

Aąuatic animals much more frequently būry themselves in the 
mud than is generally supposed. The common English Frogs and 
the large Efts būry themselves in the mud during the greater part of 
the winter, and this also is the case with Dytisci and other aąuatic 
insects. 

But some fish also, which have only gills adapted for aąuatic re- 
spiration, have the šame habit. Dr. Hancock observes, " When the 
water is leaying the pools in which they commonly reside, the Yar- 
row (a species of Esox, Linn.), as well as the round-headed Hassar 
{Callichthys littoralis), būry themselves in the mud, while all other 
fishes perish for want of their natūrai element, or are picked up by 
rapacious birds. The flat-headed Hassar {Boras costata), on the con- 
trary, simultaneously quits the place and marches overland in search 
of water, traveUing for a whole night, as is asserted by the Indians, 
in search of their object. I have ascertained by trial that they will 
live many hours out of water even when exposed to the sun's rays. 
Their motion over land is described to be somewhat hke that of a 
two-polled lizard: they project themselves forward on their bony 
arms by the elastic spring of the tail exserted sideways ; their pro- 
gress is nearly as fast as a man will leisurely walk."— Zool. Joum. 
iv. 243. 

" The Indians say that these fishes carry water vdthin them for a 
supply on their journey. There appears to be some truth in this 
statement, for I have observed that the bodies of the Hassar do not 
get dry likę those of other fishes when taken out of the water ; and 
if the moisture be absorbed, or they are wiped dry with a cloth, they 
have such a power of secretion that they become instantly moist 
again ; indeed it is scarcely possible to dry the surface while the fish 
is living." — Loc. cit. 243. 

Dr. Hancock further observes, that a fish which he thinks is Lori- 
caria pleistomus " is not only furnished with the common appendages 
for swimming, but also with four strong bony supporters, one attached 
to each of the pectoral and belly fins (i. e. constituting the first ray 
of each), by which the animal creeps on the bottom of the river, and 



346 

perhaps where there is little or no water, also being as it seems partly 
amphibious." — Loc. cit. 243. 

From this account, it appears that the habits of these fish bear 
very little relation to those of the Mud-fish . 

It is well known that many freshwater MoUusca which respire free 
air, and I believe some of those which are furnished with pectiniform 
gills for aquatic respiratiou, as Paludince and Falvatce, in the warmer 
climates, such as India, where the waters of the streams or ponds are 
dried up, būry themselves in the mud to a considerable depth likę 
the Mud-fish, and likę them remain in a torpid statė imtil the return 
of the rainy season. 

Sir William Jardine has described the kind of cocoon in the clay 
in which the Mud-fish are brought to this country ; but I am in- 
formed by Mr. Bartlett that the cavity is alvvays furnished with a 
small aperture opposite to where the nose of the animal is placed. 

In referriug this animal to the class of Fishes, authors have laid 
great stress on the fact of its being provided with a lateral line. 
Thus M. Dumeril, in the lašt essay on the subject, notices the line, 
" vvhich is ramified on the sides of the head as in Chimera," over- 
looking the fact that the Triton cristatus, the conimon Eft, has 
similar lines on both the sides and head. He compares the gill-rays 
and branchial aperture to that of Mormyrus and Cobitis, but they 
are equally likę those of Protonopsis ; and he compares the nostrils 
to those of the Lamprey, overlooking the fact that the animal is 
provided with nostrils communicating with the cavity of the mouth. 
See Erp. Ge'nerale, ix. 213. 

I have been informed that this genus is found in other parts of 
Africa, as Senegal, where it is called Tobal, and the White Nile, 
from whence M. Armaud sent specimens to the Paris Museum in 
1843 ; and Dr. Peters found a species in Quillemanes, which Peters 
and J. Mūller have called Rhinocryptes amphibia. 

In reply to a note I had addressed to him, I have received the 
following interesting communication from Mr. Bartlett, who at the 
šame time informed me that he intended to have communicated it 
to the next meeting of the Society : — 

" Crystal Palace, Sydenham, 

November 17th, 1856. 

"Dear Sir, — In reply to your note respecting the living Mud- 
fish, I beg to say that in the month of June lašt I received from 
Western Africa a case containing four specimens of this animal ; each 
specimen was imbedded in a block of dry hard muddy clay, about 
the size of a quartern loaf ; these blocks of clay were each sown up 
in a piece of canvas to prevent the clay crumbling or falling to pieces. 
According to the instructions I received from Capt. Chamberlayne 
(the gentleman who sent them), I placed them in a tank of fresh 
water at the temperature of 83 degrees ; in doing this a portion of the 
clay crumbled off one of them and partly exposed the case in which 
the animal was contained ; I was watching the operation when sud- 
denly the case or cocoon rose to the surface of the water. I at first 



347 

thought the animal contamed in it mušt be dead, but I shortly after- 
wards observed a slight motion : appareutly the animal was endea- 
vouring to extricate itself, and tliis it soou afterwards accomplished 
by breaking through the side of its tough covering ; it swam about 
immediately, and by diving iiito the mud and clay, which by this 
time had become softened, rendered it difficult to make further ob- 
seryations ; I removed the case or cocoon, which still floated, and 
which I now send t'or your examination. On the following morning I 
found that two more of the animals had made their appearance ; their 
cases however were not to be seen^they evidentlyremained imbedded 
in the soft clay. In the course of the next day the fourth animal 
suddenly floated to the surface enveloped in its case ; as it showed no 
signs of life I removed it, and found the animal had been dead some 
time, as it was much decomposed. At the time these animals first 
made their appearance they were very thin, and about 9 inches long ; 
they began to feed immediately upon earth-voorms, small frogs, fish, 
&c., occasionally taking raw flesh. I saw them sometimes attack 
each other, and one of them (I imagine in endeavouring to escape) 
leaped out of the tank into the large basin in the Crystal Palace in 
which the tank was standing (this specimen is still at large among 
the water-lilies, &c.). The remaining two lived together for some 
time, apparently on good terms ; but in the month of August the one 
now remaining in the tank seized its companion and devoured nearly 
half of it, leaving only the head and about half the length of its 
body. In feeding, this creature masticates the food much, frequently 
putting it forvvard almost quite out of its mouth and then gradually 
chewing it back again, and often (when fed upon raw flesh), after 
liaving so chewed it for some time, it will throw it out altogether. 
The growth of these animals is most extraordinary : in June, as I 
have before stated, they were about 9 inches long ; in three months 
they attained their present size, which cannot be less than 18 inches 
in length. It rises frequently perpendicularly to the surface to 
1)reathe, and at other times it supports itself on its fin-Uke append- 
ages, and with the aid of its tail raises its body from the ground, 
the fins being bent or curved backwarSs. The movement of this 
animal is generally very slow, and would give one an idea that it was 
very sluggish ; this however I have good reason to kuow is not the 
case, as in attempting to capture the one at liberty in the large basin 
it darted away with the rapidity of an arrow. I have reason also to 
believe the animal finds its food as much by seent as sight. "With 
reference to the cocoon which I herewith send for your exaraination 
the end covering the nose of the animal is rather pointed, and has an 
aperture about the size of a pin's head, which I have no doubt enables 
the animal to breathe through during its statė of torpor. The ani- 
mal when in its case is coiled nearly twice round, and I observed in 
each of the blocks of clay a small hole about the size of a mouse- 
hole, -ffhich was quite smooth on the inside, as though the animal 
had crept through it. 

" I am, dear Sir, 
i " Faithfully yours, 

"A. D. Bartlett." 



348 



Cocoon of the Mud-fish (Lepidosiren annectens;. 




A. Breathing-hole at nose. 

B. A thin partition. 

C. An attacbing band that passes throiigh the space 

•vvhere the animal bends, as in a, fig. D. 

Fig. D. 




D. A sketch of the animal in the cocoon. 
The position of the band C. h. The head, nose and eyes. 



3. Note sur le Messager ou Serpentaire du Cap de 

BONNE-ESPERANCE (SeRPENTARIUS REPTILIVORUS, DaUD.). 

Par m. Julės Verreaux. 

»■ 

Tous les naturalistes moclernes s'accordent aujourd'hui a regarder 
l'oiseau dont ii est question comme un vrai rapace, etilsont d'autant 
plūs raison, qu'il ea a tous les earacteres ; seulement c'est un de 
ces types representant daus cette famille la mėme place qu'occupe le 
Cariama cristata, Cuv., daus celle des Gralles. 

Cette question ^tant completement elucidėe, nous allons donner 
sur cette espece des details de mceurs plūs exacts que ceux donnes 
par devanciers, ayant ete favorises, mieux qu'eux, non seulement par 
un sejour de plūs de viugt ans, mais encore par les Toyages con- 
secutifs que nous avons entrepris dans l'interieur des terres, la ou 
peu de naturalistes avant nous araient ete a mėme de penetrer. 

Reconnaissant comme tout le monde que les Cathartes et les Vau- 
tours sont des oiseaux de la plūs grande utilite, nous avions pense 
ii y a bien des annees que le Serpentaire etait aussi un de ces oiseaux 
qui, apres eux, etait destine a rendre d'immenses services a l'hu- 
manite. 

Nous commencerons donc par dire que bien que cette espėce de 
rAfrique Australe soit re'pandue sur presque tous les poiuts de cette 



349 

partie du monde, eile n'est nulle part aussi abondante que sur la 
cote est en partaut de la ville du Cap. 

On ne la trouve que par pairę, et l'on peut dire qu'ši partir de 
quelques lieues de la ville, ii n'est guere d'habitation qui ne possede 
son couple, qui parait mėme faire partie integrante de la propriete 
dont ii ne depasse pas les limites s'il n'est pas d^range ; du reste, 
les lois et les colons leur accordent toute leur proteetion, ils ne sont 
nullement inquietes ; cela tient aux services qu'ils rendent en dė- 
truisant chaque annee une immeuse quautite de reptiles de toutes 
espžces qui font la base de leur nourriture, et sartout des serpents 
excessivement venimeux. 

Comme la nature est prėvoyante dans tout ce qu'elle fait, eile a 
donne a chaque ėtre ses moyens de eonservation. Aussi le Serpentaire 
a-t-il ete modelė sur un moule approprie a son genre de vie ; c'est 
donc a cet efiFet que les jambes et les tarses ėtant tres-allonges, son 
oeil percant peut decouvrir a uue tres-grande distance la proie qui, 
ne se doutant guėre de son apparition, est souvent etendue sur le 
sable ou sur les plantes grasses qui tapissent le sol. 

La forme elegante et majestueuse de cet oiseau devient en ce mo- 
ment surtout plūs gracieuse encore ; c'est la qu'il dėveloppe toute sa 
ruse afin de surprendre le reptile qu'il veut attaquer ; aussi n'ap- 
procbe-t-il qu'avec la plūs grande circonspection, les plumes du col 
et du derriere de la tėte dressees en avant annoncent le moment 
de la lutte : se ruant d'un bond sur l'animal, ii le frappe du pied 
avec tant de force, que souvent ii le terrasse du premier coup. 

Cependant, s'il n'a pas reussi, et que le serpent furieux se dresse 
en epanouissant la peau de son cou comme cela arrive pour les espėces 
les plūs dangereuses, 1' oiseau force de retrograder, fait un bond en 
arriere en attendant qu'il puisse saisir le moment opportua de re- 
commencer. 

Dresse en partie sur lui-mėme le serpent furieux fait mouvoir sa 
langue avec la dexterite de l'ėclair, et pousse des sifflemens aigus 
qui retentissent au loin et semble tenir en respect son ennemi ; mais 
celui-ci dont le courage redouble a mesure que les difficultes aug- 
mentent, entr'ouvre les ailes, et revenant sur le reptile lui assene de 
nouveau de ces coups de pied terribles, dont personne ne peut se 
faire une idėe, et qui ne tardent pas a le mettre hors de combat. 
Cependant, nous avons vu quelquefois de ces serpents s'elancer sur 
le Serpentaire, mais soit en ouvrant les ailes dont les premieres re- 
miges seulement servent en quelque sorte de bouclier, soit en sautant 
en arriere, ou sur les cotes, ii est certain d'eviter par ce mandge la 
morsure de son antagoniste, qui, ėpuise de fatigue, retombe toujours 
a plat sur le sol, — moment que choisit 1' oiseau pour redoubler ses 
coups de massue qui, en lui mutilant la colonne vertebrale, acbevent 
de lui retirer toutes ses forces. 

C'est alors que le Serpentaire victorieus s'flancant comme une 
flėche et posant le pied sur le cou du serpent, juste derriere la tėte, 
commence a Tavaler, cbose qu'il pratique en prenant la queue 
d'abord ; et comme cette operation n'est pas de longue duree, mėme 
pour des reptiles de 5 ^ 6 pieds de longueur, sur plūs de quatre 



350 

pouces de diametre, des qu'il arrive a la tėte, ii ne manąue jamais 
d'en briser le crane par plusieurs coups de bec qui le mutilent com- 
pletement. — L'operation faite, l'oiseau reprend sa course lentement 
jusqu'au lieu de son domicile, ou ii reste des heures entieres repu, 
la tėte rentree dans les epaules. — Comme la majeure partie des 
oiseaux de proie, le Serpentaire rejette, sinoii les plumes ou les poils, 
du moins les ecailles des reptiles qu'il avale, et cela par pelottes 
comme les autres. II est etonnant de voir la prodigieuse dilatation 
de la bouche de cet oiseau, car nous avons ete temoin qu'il pouvait 
avaler des reptiles de plūs de 6 pouces de circonference. — Bien que 
le couple ne se quitte jamais, ils ne se secondent pas mutuellement 
pour terrasser une proie, et chacun chasse pour son compte. 

Levaillant, qui le premier a donne une bonne figure et une exacte 
description du plumage de cet oiseau, ayant, comme nous, eu le 
malheur de perdre ses observations, aura sans doute fausse ses sou- 
venirs lorsqu'il tenait la plume pour en decrire les mceurs, car ce 
qu'il dit au sujet de l'aile de l'oiseau qui lui servirait de massue, 
n' est pas exact, puisqu'elle ne lui šert que de bouclier : c' est avec 
la plaute dupied qu'il terrasse ses ennemis. Nous en somme d'autant 
plūs persuadė, qu'ayant suivi pas a pas le savant voyageur, mieux 
que personne nous avons ete a mėme de lui rendre cette justice con- 
sciencieuse que peu de personnes avant nous s'accordaient a lui allouer. 
— Puissent les voyageurs suivre son exemple ! et la science d'obser- 
vation, celle que nous regardons comme la clef de toutes les sciences 
naturelles fera plūs de progres. — Nous ajouterons que c' est en juillet 
que le Serpentaire a son plūs beau plumage. Le malė, qui est un 
peu plūs petit que la femelle, a une coloration plūs pale, plūs grise 
et plūs blanche. C'est aussi vers le milieu de ce mois que commen- 
cent les amours, et tous deux travaillent a la construction ou au re- 
platrage du nid oii plutot de l'aire qui doit contenir la nouvelle fa- 
mille. Cette aire est presque toujours place'e sur la sommite d'un 
buisson fleve et tres-touffu, le plūs souvent un Mimosa. Eile est 
composee de bucbettes et de terre, le centre en est garni de substances 
moelleuses, soit de plumes ou de laine, quelque fois mėme du poUen 
des plautes ; ii est faeile de compter le nombre d'annees par les diverses 
couches qui la composent, comme pour les Aigles chaque ann^e ap- 
porte au nid une couche nouvelle. — II arrive souvent que les branches 
qui l'eutourent poussant sur les cotės des jets, le cachent completement 
a la vue, ce qui devient une securite de plūs pour la famille. — Nous 
avons observė que dans les pays boises, le Serpentaire faisait son aire 
sur les grands arbres. Du reste, n'importe oii ii se trouve, le couple 
s'y retire chaque soir pour y passer la nuit. — C'est en aout qu'a lieu 
la ponte, eile est gen^ralement de deux ceufs, quelquefois trois. 
Ces derniers sont a peu pres du volume de ceux d'iine oie, mais d'une 
forme plūs ronde d'un bout ; leur couleur est d'un blanc pur sans 
aucune trace de taclies. Au bout de six semaines les jeunes eclosent ; 
ils sont alors recouverts d'un duvet blanc, qui au bout de cinq a six 
autres semaines laisse poindre ck et la des plumes ; ces dernieres ont 
a la teinte pres la mėme coloration que celles de l'adulte. 

Ce qu'il y a de plūs terrible et de plūs fatigant pour les parents. 



351 

c'est que la faiblesse des pieds des jeunes les forcant de rester au 
tnoins six tnois daiis leur aid, ils sont tous deux obliges de chasser 
sans relilche pour assouvir l'appetit devorant de leurs enfans qui ab- 
sorbent une quantit(i si considerable de reptiles, ąu'elle surpasse de 
beaucoup celles des adultes. Ce qui oblige les pere et mere a des 
courses lointaines et a avoir recours, soit aux tortues, aux lezards, et 
mėme a de gros insectes comme des Sauterelles quand la disette des 
premiers se fait sentir. Mais la becquee ne se donne qu'avec des 
objets qui ont deja subi une preparation dans le jabot, du moins, 
lorsque les jeunes sont encore trop faibles pour manger d'une autre 
facon ; car une fois assez forts pour avaler des reptiles complets, les 
parents ne se donnent plūs cette peine, et les apportent tout entiers 
en ayant le soin de les choisir d'une taille proportionnee, ou eu les 
morcelant pour en faciliter la digestion. Rien de plūs curieux que 
de voir ces oiseaux qui ont acquis tout leur ddveloppement, se mou- 
voir sur leurs tarses a l'aide de leurs talons, ce qui leur donne une 
tournure fort originale. 

Nous avons remarque que pendant la couvaison, le malė seul etait 
chargė de nourrir sa femelle qui n'abandonue jamais ses oeufs ; aussi 
est-il facile de reconnaitre par la pre'sence des debris d'ossemens le 
local choisi pour l'habitation de ces oiseaux. 

Comme presque tous les grands oiseaux de proie, le couple Ser- 
pentaire ne souffre aucune autre espece dans le canton qu'il a choisi 
pour son domaine, mais en revanche les petits oiseaux, et principale- 
ment les diverses especes des Cisserins, choisissent-ils le voisinage 
de leur domicile pour y construire leurs nids qui sont suspendus 
tout autour de cette aire ; ii semble que ces freles creatures cherchent, 
en agissant ainsi, a se mettre sous la protection des hotes qui habi- 
tent le palais du canton. Chose etrange que la domination ! le droit 
du plūs fort semble toujours ėtre le point de ralliement de toutes 
les craintes. II faut dire qu'en cette circonstance ces petits oiseaux 
devinent juste, car les serpents sont si nombreux que souvent ils sont 
victimes de leur voracite, tandis qu'ils ne redoutent en aucune facon 
celle des Serpentaires qui s'enorgueillisent en quelque sorte de leur 
superiorite tant ils laissent approcher d'eux ces petites creatures. — 
Nous avons possėdė pendant notre sejour au Cap de Bonne-Espe- 
rance un grand nombre de ces oiseaux, et depuis bien des anne'es 
nous avions forme le souhait de voir introduire cette espece dans nos 
colonies, lorsqu'en 1826 a notre retour au Cap, nous dėcidames M. 
Freycinet, ex-gouverneur de l'fle Bourbon (aujourd'hui de la Re'- 
union), a prendre plusieurs de ces couplęs pour en faire l'essai a 
Cayenne, ou ii se rendait pour prendre le mėme poste qu'il venait 
de quitter. — Pendant longues annees nous avions cru cette tentative 
en plein succes, lorsque nous apprimes que par la faute mėme des 
colons eile n'avait pas re'ussi, ceux-ci ayant detruit volontairement 
une des choses les plūs utiles a leur conservation. Enfin comme nous 
venons de le dire, ayant eu en notre possession un nombre considera- 
ble de ces oiseaux, et ayant fait toutes les etudes possibles sur leurs 
mceurs, nous pouvons aujourd'hui r^pondre de la reussite de leui 
acclimatation, non-seulement dans les colonies d'Amerique et des 



352 

Indės, mais encore daus celle de l'Algerie ou ces oiseaux rendraient 
un service immeuse. Reduit a l'^tat de domesticit^ le Serpeiitaire 
se contente de viandes de toutes especes ; ce serait un excellent ser- 
gant de ville pour les basses cours, car comine l'Agami ii raettrait 
l'ordre des que quelques combats s'engageraient. Malheureusement 
le nombre considerable d'especes d'animaux que nous tenions en- 
semble nous ont toujours empeche de voir cette espece se reproduire 
chez nous. — Nous avons eu la preuve que s'il avait ėtė possible de 
les tenir dans un espace plūs grand et plūs isolė, ces oiseaux auraient 
produit comme en pleine liberte ; les trois oeufs non a terme que nous 
avons trouves nous ont fourni cette preuve. 

Nous pensons donc que si on voulait introduire en Alg^rie d'abord 
un certain nombre de ces oiseaux on rendrait k cette colonie et aux 
autres un service reel, car le Serpentaire se chargerait de purger le 
sol ou on le transporterait des reptiles nombreux qui causent chaque 
jour tant de calamites. 

Nous recommandons aussi de porter la plūs vive attention sur les 
diverses especes de Grues, et principalement sur la Caronculėe, qui, 
comme le Serpentaire, detruit un nombre infini de reptiles. 

Comme ce dernier eile vivrait dans les mėmes climats et s'y repro 
duirait : celles que nous avons eues en notre possession se nourris- 
saient de viande, de reptiles, d'insectes et mėme de grains. 

On la trouve daus les plaines arides surtout sur la cote est, presque 
toujours isolee excepte vers la saison des amours. Mais, des que 
les jeunes sont en etat de reproduire, la famille se disperse. II en 
est de mėme des jeunes Serpentaires qui sont chasse's par leurs parents 
lorsque l'age leur permet de s'accoupler, ce qui n'a lieu qu'a la se- 
conde annee. Comme ii y a generalement malė et femelle dans la 
mėme couvee, ils ne se quittent pas et imitent leurs parens en se choi- 
sissant un domaine convenable, souvent a une grande distance du lieu 
de leur naissance. 

Nous saisissous cette occasion pour signaler aux Ornithologistes 
la diffe'rence que nous avons observėe dans les Serpentaires de la partie 
orientale de rAfrique, car ici ils sont d'une taille inferieure et d'une 
teinte beaucoup plūs pale en tout, difference qui nous semble par sa 
constance devoir former une espece distincte, pour laquelle nous pro- 
poserions le nom de Serpentarius orientalis, si eile ėtait veconnue 
comme telle. 

Paris, le 9 septetnbre 1856, 

17 Kue St. Louis, aii Marais. 



4. On THE Atjstralian Dugong (Halicore australis). 
By Mr. Fairholme. 

Moreton Bay, on the east coast of Australia (lat. 27° S), is a re- 
gion of great interest to tbe zoologist. The southern end of it is 
formed by two long islauds, extending together about sixty miles, 
witliin whicli the Bay is studded with a number of beautiful islets. 
On the small island of St. Helena, one of those vast congregations of 



353 

flyiiig foxes takes place, which I have endeavoured to describe in a 
fornier paper. 

Tlie Dugong {Halicore uustralis) is stiU found there in consi- 
derable nurnbers, thoiigh I fear it is rapidly decreasing, as the chase 
of it in vvhale-boats manned by natives forms one of the great 
attractions of the Bay. 

The bJaeks prefer the flesh and blubber to any other food, and the 
white people have found in its oil qualities similar to those of cod- 
liver oil, having used it successfully in some cases of consumption 
or debility. The native name for the Dagong is " Yungan." It is 
about 9 or 10 feet long when full-grown, and contains fiom five to 
eight gallons of oil. It feeds on a grass-like sea-weed growing on 
the large flats of the Bay, some parts of which are exposed at low 
water. As the tide recedes, the Dugongs retire into deeper water 
from the feeding-grounds. The natives tell us, that before vrhite 
people eame amongst them, and introduced boats and harpoons, they 
used to eatch " yungan " by placing large nets aeross the channels 
through which they knew the animals would pass from the feeding- 
grounds. Since the establishment of a Pilot Station at Moreton 
Bay, the blacks have acquired great dexterity in the use of the whale- 
boat and harpoon, and are now constantly employed in the pursuit, 
either for themselves as food, or for Europeans, who collect the oil 
for sale. The chase is conducted with great cantion and silence. 
The harpooner stands in the bow, and directs the steersman by the 
movement of the hand. As the Dugong mušt rise at intervals to 
blow, he endeavours to calculate the exact spot of rising, and launches 
the harpoon as it reaches the surface. Having only a short rope to 
the harpoon, the Dugong often drags the boat with considerable ve- 
locity, but is very soon exhausted. 

The blacks have a grand feast over one, stripping off the whole 
of the flesh and blubber in one large sheet, leaving the carcass entire. 
Thus anyone wishing to procure skeletons entire could do so by 
going amongst the natives with a supply of tobacco and a little flour, 
as the Moreton Bay tribe has always been very friendly with the 
whites. 

I regret to say that some entire skeletons which were being sent 
to England by a friend of mine, were placed with a large collection 
of shells in a v«ssel which was unfortunately burut. 

I have no doubt that the Dugong abounds in the bays and straits 
north of lat. 27° ; but in none of these will the šame facility be 
offered of procuring specimens as at Moreton Bay, where the blacks 
are so friendly, and are so well acquainted with the habits of this 
animal. 



5. The Blacks of Moreton Bay and the Porpoises. 
By Mr. Fairholme. 

Between the two long islands which form the south part of More- 
ton Bay, is a passage known as the South Passage, formerly used 
CCCXXIII. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



354 

for ships enteriug the Bay, but uow given up. Near the deserted 
Pilot Station at Amity Point, some of the uatives may constantly be 
found during the warmer mouths of the year fishing for "MuUet," a 
very fine fish about the size of a mackerel. Iii this pursuit they 
are assisted in a most wonderful mauner by the Porpoises. It seems 
that froin time immemorial a sort of understauding has existed be- 
tween the blaeks and the Porpoises for their mutual advantage, and 
the former pretend to know all the Porpoises about the spot, and 
even have names for them. 

The beach here consists of shelving sand, and near the shore are 
small hillocks of sand, on which the blaeks sit, watching for the ap- 
pearance of a shoal of Mullet. Their nets, which are used by hand, 
and are stretched on a frame about 4 feet wide, he ready on the 
beach. On seeing a shoal, several of the men run down, and with 
their spears make a peculiar splashing in the water. "NVhether the 
Porpoises really understand this as a signal, or think it is the fish, 
it is difficult to determine, but the result is always the šame ; they 
at once come in towards the shore, driviug the Mullet before them. 
As they near the edge, a number of the blaeks with spears and hand- 
nets ąuickly divide to the right and left, and dash into the water. 
The Porpoises being outside the shoal, numbers of fish are secured 
before they can break away. In the scene of apparent confusion 
that takes place, the blaeks and Porpoises are seen splashing about 
close to each other. So fearless are the latter, that strangers, who 
have expressed doubts as to their tameness, have often been shown 
that they will take a fish from the end of a spear, when held to 
them. 

For my own part I eannot doubt that the understanding is real, 
and that the natives know these Porpoises, and that strange Por- 
poises would not show so little fear of the natives. The oldest men 
of the tribe say that the šame kind of fishing has always been carried 
on as long as they can remember. 

Porpoises abound in the Bay, but in no other jmrt do the natives 
fish with their assistance. 



6. MOLLUSCA NOVA COLLECTIONIS CuMINGIANiE, DESCRIPTA A 
GUILIELMO DUNKER, MaRBURGENSI. 

I. Trochtjs FLAVIDUS. 

Tr. testą conica, soUdula, unicolore pallide Jlavida, nitida ; apice 
acuto, granoso ; anfractibus Icevigatis planis 10, in/era siipera- 
que suturfB parte cingulo elevato instructis ; striis incretnenti 
tenerrimis ; anfractu ultimo obtuse angulato ; basi convezius- 
cula suleis guinis notata ; apertura subtetragona. 
Patria ignota. 

Species Trocho dubia, Phil., affinis est, qui vero colore olivaceo, 
pictura albo vel rufo flammulata, testą majore et latiore, anfractu 
ultimo magis angulato statini dignoscitur. Specimen, quod esset 
unicum .5 lin. altum, Ah latum est. 



355 

2. Trochus pallidulus. 

Tr. testą coniea, Icevigata, in apice acuta ibiąue granulosa, Jiavidu, 

yfri* ', lineolis^pallide luteis pieta ; anfractibus 10 planis ud suturam 

prominulis ideoąue subimbricatis, supeiioribus cingulo obsoleto 

notatis, ultimo in circuitu rotundato ; basi convexa, in medio 

suleis nonnullis spiralibus arata ; apertura subtetragona. 

Patria ignota. 

Altitudo testse 7 lin. ejusque diametros 5 lin. Species nostra a 
Troeho Laugieri, Payr., iu primis diifert colore, testą tenuiore et 
majore. 

/fij ({(<"• 3. Trochus flammiger. 

Tr. testą eonien, solida, glabra, flam-albida, lineis nndidatis vel 
flammulis luteis pieta ; anfractibus pi ano-conveons 10, sutura 
distincta divisis, idtimo in eircuitu obtuse angulato ; basi eon- 
vexiuscula unicolore lutea, in medio alba, suleis paueis umbili- 
caribus signata ; apertura rotundato-tetragona. 
Patria ignota. 

Species forma sua Troeho, qui antecedit, similis, pictura ėt testą 
solida differt. 

Hae tres species ad genus Leachanum Zizyphinus dictum — idem, 
quod Calliostoma, Sow., — pertinent. 

T^ji /},,-Z 4. BULLIA CUMINGIANA. 

- B. testą angusta, subulato-turrita, flavo-albida, partini subcceru- 
lescente ; anfraetibus 10-11 convexiuseulis, sutura satis pro- 
funda divisis, superioribus longitudine costatis tj-ansversimque 
caneellatis, inferioribus ohsolete striatis, infra suturam creni- 
feris, ultimo subinjlato f totius testce ceąuante ; labro externo 
suleis striisque incrementi notato ; columella areuata ; fauei- 
bus albis. 
Patria ignota. 

Hsec species, psene 13 lin. longa, Bullice turritce, Gray (Zool. of 
Beechey's Voyage, p. 126), peraffinis, ad genus Leiodomus Swain- 
soni pertinet, quod vero non satis firmatum esse videtur. 

5. BULLIA ELEGANS. 

B. testą solida, pallide luteseente, elongato-turrita, in apiee ob- 
tusa; anfraetibus S pla7iiuseulis, lcBvibus,polifis,suturaprofunda 
callosa interdum eastanea disjunctis, in superiore įjarte plici- 
feris, plieis albis sidco spirali caneellatis ideoque nodulis gemi- 
nis instruetis, ultimo tenuilirato ad basin earina pallide fusca 
notato, dimidia totius tesfcB parte paidlo breviore ; labro in- 
crassato leevissimo eolumellaąue parum sinuata albis ; faucibus 
fuscis. 
Patria ignota. 

Haec BuUiarum species elegantissima Buccino Natalensi Kraussano 
certe peraffinis, statura majore, testą solidiore, labro incrassato intus 
Isevissimo plicisque sulco spirali quasi binodoso distinguenda est. 



356 

6. Pleurotoma concinna. 

PI. testą acute-turrita, suhfusiformi, solidula, v.nicolore rufes- 
cente, in rostro rosea, costulis lineisque elevatis cincta ; anfrac- 
tibus circa 10 perparutn convexis, sutura haud distincta se- 
junctis, ultimo spirce altitudinem peBtie ceąuante ; canali suhoh- 
liquo ; labri incisura profunda, 
Patria ignota est. 

Testą circiter 12 lin. longa, 3f lin. lata, elegantissimarum una est 
sui generis ; anfractus ultimus costulis multis Talidioribus et subtilio- 
ribus cinctus est ; costa, si a sutura inde numeras, secunda, qu8e labri 
fissura terminatur, tuberculorura undulatorum serie duplici cingitur. 
Costularum interstitia sub vitro obliąue clatbrata vel reticulata ap- 
parent. — Cochlea nostra ad Pleurotomas proprie sit dietas pertinens, 
habitu psene Pleurotomce virginis, Lam., sed muito minor, colore ru- 
fescente et imprimis rostro roseo ab aliis speciebus primo obtutu facile 
distinguenda est. 

7. Trophon Morrisi. 

Tr. testą solida, ovato-fusiformi, in apice acuta ; anfractibvs eon- 
vexis longitudine plicatis transversimque tenuicostatis et liratis, 
ultimo subventroso ceieris longiore ; labro sulcato ; cauda 
brevi, subnmata ; canali aperto, paullum incurvo. 
Patria ignota. 

Testą 14 lin. longa, 7^ Hn. lata, ovato -acuta, subfusiformis. An- 
fractus 7 convexi sutura profunda disjuncti, plicis vel costis 1 8equi- 
distantibus et liris transversis cingulisąue elevatis instructi. Aper- 
tura ovata in canalem brevem apertum sensim transit. Color totius 
testse albus ; apicem versus flavescit. Fauces fasciis tribus fuseis 
notatae sunt. An Murex costularis, Lam. Enc. Meth. 419. f. 8? 
Varices 7 indicat auctor : in figūra 10 numerantur. Species Fuso 
cinereo, Say, Amer. Concb. t. 29, sane peraffinis, testą muito majore, 
anfractibus tumidioribus ideoque sutura profundiore et sculptura 
distinctiore satis discrepare videtur. 

8. COMINELLA ELONGATA. 

C. testą ovato-aciita, subfusiformi, costis inceųualibus subnodosis 
lirisųue subtilioribus cincta, griseo fuscoqtie variegata ; anfrac- 
tibus convexis ; labro sulcato ; labio superne uniplicato ; canali 
longiusculo, paidlulum incurvo. 

Patria ignota. 

Hsec species magnitudine et statura elongata fusiformi insignis, 
22 lin. longa, 9 lin. lata est. Anfractus 7 convexi infra suturam 
haud profundam paullo appressi, costis numerosis plūs minusve di- 
stinctis subnodosis cinguntur : ultimus eorum circiter f totius testse 
adseąuat ; apertura angusta ; labrum intus incrassatum et sulcatum ; 
labium superne plica vel potius costa unica valida in tuberculum ob- 
soletum exeunte instructum. Pictura parum insignis : fundus albi- 
dus et lutescens strigis maculisąue irregularibus variegatus est ; fauces 
fuscescentes ; labrum album. Fusorum genus plica columellse defi- 
ciente satis distinctum est, ne dicam de ipsius animalis natūra. 



357 



9. Adamsia typica. 



A. testą crassa, ponderosa, ovato-acuta, stibturrita, longitudine 

plicato-costata, costulis tninutissiniis conferlis scabris subsąua- 

mosis aiquidistantibus cincta, albida, passini subrosea, fusco 

cinyulata, cingulis in costarum interstitiis magis consjncuis ; 

anfractibus 7 convexis, ultimo circiter f totius testee (ECĮuante ; 

cauda brevi, truncata ; labro acuto, pauUulum expanso, intus 

sulcato et incrassuto ; apertura angusta ; columella Icevissima ; 

faucibus lacteis. 

Patria : ad Philip pinarum insulas habitare dicitur hsec cochlea. 

Species 15 lin. longa, 8 lin. lata, ad hoc usqvie tempus certe raris- 

sinia, ad Cominellas maxime accedit, a quibus vero aperturse indole 

valde differt, cum costa valida in labii superiore parte insidente, qua 

Co7nineJl(B insignes sunt, hsec cochlea plane careat. Prseterea sculp- 

tura et totus testae habitus tam singularis est, ut eam pro novi generis 

typo habendam esse putaverim. 

10. Purpura fasciata. 

P. testą ovata, solidiuscula, subgrisea fusco fasciata ; spira exser- 
tiuscula, acuta, subgradata ; anfractibus tumidis, supra carina- 
tis, transversim costulatis, costulis aperturam versus subimbri- 
catis, anfractu ultimo ceteris pcene triplo majore, tumido, bica- 
rinato, carinis nodiferis ; apertura pallide fulva ; labro acuto, 
intus sulcato, suleis in margine f uscis. 

Patria ignota est, 

Species elegans 12 lin. longa; prsesertim fasciis vivide fuscis in 
fundo griseo-rubeute insignis, ab omnibus quas novimus Purpuris 
veris satis distincta est. 

11. CyTHEREA SUBTRIGONA. 

C. testą solida, ovato-trigona, modice convexa, concentrice obso- 
leteąue striata, pcene Icevi, inceąuilatera, antice brevi subtrun- 
cata, postice producta, cuneiformi, carina obtusa ab umbonibus 
prominentibus ad latua posticum decurrente ; lumda lanceolata. 

Patria ignota. 

Species subtrigona, circiter 2 poU. longa, antice brevis, altą, pos- 
tice producta et attenuata. Margo cardinaUs anticus et posticus 
pseue rectiHnei et valde decHves sunt ; margo basalis anticus linea 
psene orbiculata terminatus est. Umbones subacuti se invicem fere 
taugentes valde porrecti sunt. Area lata subcordiformis, lunula lan- 
ceolata fossula levi circumscribitur. Ligamentum crassum breve. 
Cardo dentibus validis munitus est; deutes mediani vel primarii 
longiores sunt ut in Cythereis solent ; dens lateralis posticus subti- 
liter granulato-striatus. Impressiones et linea palliaris ut in Cy- 
therea lusoria psene se offerunt. Color internus albus in dorso vio- 
laceus est. Statu integro testą ab epidermide comea tegitur. Loug., 
alt. et crass. ratio hsec est : 100, 86, 48. 

12. Pectunculus Grayanus. 

i', lesta suborbiculari, convexa, solida, inceąuilaterali, subglabra. 



358 

alba, pallide rubente et carneola, Jlammis rufis lineolisųue nu- 
tnerosis acute angulatis varie pieta, epidermide villosa induta, 
intus sordide alba, musculis paUioque fuscis ; umhonibus tu- 
midis. 
Longitudo speciminum majorum 25 lin. Long., altit. et crass. 
latio haec est : 100, 88, 62. 

Patria Nova Seelandia. Attulit clar. Earle. 
Testą hujus speciei transversa, suborbicularis antice rotundata 
brevis, postice paullum atteuuata et longior, conceutrice obsoleteąue 
striata, liueis radiantibus subtilissimis confertissimis instructa paene 
glabrata ; urabones tumidi. Color et pictura aliis Pectunculis re- 
spondent, flanimulse lineseąue acute angulatae rufae in fundo albido et 
rubente umbones inflatos versus sensim clariores fiunt. Color inter- 
nus albidus in regione pallii et niusculorum fuscus est. Musculi in 
speciniinibus adultis valde elevati apparent. Crense in valvarum 
margine -basali crassse utrinąue sensim minores evadunt, in regione 
niusculorum plane evanescunt. Cardinis dentes laterales crassi, me- 
diani obsoletissimi vel evanidi. Epidermis villosa plurimam partem 
detrivit. Liganienti area parva. 

Inter Pectuneulos, qui nobis innotuerunt, heec species ad Pect. 
Jlammei(m, Reeve (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1843), maxime accedit. 



7. MyTILACEA nova COLLECTIONIS CuMINGIAN.E, DESCRIITA A 
GuiL. DUNKER. 

1. Mytilus splendens. 

M. testą elongato-ovata, co7icentrice striata; epidermide splen- 
dente fusca et niyricante in mediis valvis viridi ; pagina in- 
terna livido-rubente, marginėm inferiorem et posticum versus 
albida, margaritacea ; umbonibus tumidis, gibbosis. 
Hab. Ad litus Peruanum. 

Concha magnitudine Mytili edulis ambitų variat, nam modo est 
elongato-subtrigona, modo ovata. Umbones valde tumidi et gibbosi 
sub epidermide rubentes. Epidermis nitida maximam partem ob- 
scure fusca, in mediis valvis vivide viridis vel e viride nigricans, inter- 
duni zonis fuscis et virescentibus variegata. Sub vitro lineolse sub- 
tilissimse undulatse ab umbonibus radiantes conspiciuntur. Cardo 
prorsus edentulus, margo totus simplex, ab epidermide late involutus. 
Fossula ad ligamentum recipiendum haud profimda. 

2. Mytilus rostratus. 

M. testą ovato-acuta, ventrosa, soUda, u?iicolore fusco-violacea, 
longitudinaliter cosfata, costis mature furcatis ; epidermide 
nigra ; apicibus rostriformibus extrinsecus curvatis; cardine 
dentibus tionnullis munito. 
Hab. In litore insulte Van Diemen. 

Testą 20|^ lin. longa, S^ lin. altą, 7 lin. lata. Altitudo maxima 
in mediis valvis šita est. Valvarum ambitus plūs minusve ovatus, 
ita ut nuUibi angulus distinctus sit et margines unus in alterum sen- 



359 

sim transeanf. Pars media basalis semper est ventrosa. Costse ab 
apicibus acutis rostriformibus exeuntes, in omni incremeuti stadio 
pluries diffiuduntur marginėm posticum versus ssepius evanescentes. 
Totus margo crenulis circumdatur. Cardo deuticulis duobus vel 
tribus in utraque valva munitus est ; interdum denticulus unus dex- 
trse valvse a tuberculis duobus sinistrae recipitur. Ligamentura 
crassum et latum satis profunde immersum, est. Pagina intema 
parum nitet. 

Species nostra Mytilo purpurato {Modiolce, Lam.) affinis, qui 
testą minore, solidiore, apicibus obtusis, cardiue tenerrime crenato, 
costis crassioribus aliisąue notis differt. 

3. Mytilus horridus. 

M. testą magna, crassa, obliąue ovata, postice dilatata, modice 

convexa, concentrice plicoso-striata, alba, epidermide fusca 

lamellosa, postice horride barbata vestita ; umbonibus magnis, 

obtusis, curvatis ; dorso et latere postico cBįualiter arcuatis, 

basi antice valde sinuata. 

Hab. lu litore Norae HoUandise septentrionali. 

Concha magna, crassa, 60 lin. longa, 32 lin. altą, 20 lin. lata est. 

Margo dorsalis arcum eeąualem formans, in marginėm posticum 

psene circularem sensim transit. Margo ventris antice valde sinuatus 

est. Umbones obtusi, inflexi et disjuncti, setate progrediente erosi. 

Epidermis crassa lamellosa in postico concbae latere pilis et setis hor- 

ridis obducta est. Ligamentum crassum pro magnitudine testse 

breve. Cardo prorsus edentulus. Coloi ^jaginse internse sordide 

albus languidus, omni paene nitore margaritaceo caret. Species bsec 

magnifica a Mytilo torto, Dkr., prsesertim rimą recta distinguitur. 

4. Mytilus atropurpuretjs. 

M. testą oblongo-ovali, subtrigona, modice eonvexa, purpurea, epi- 
dermide atra obducta, concentrice striata, suleis radiantibus 
subtilissimis confertissimis exarata ; dorso subcompresso, in 
medio fBąualiter curvato, interdum angulato ; umbonibus termi- 
nalibus subtumidis, incurvis paullulum distantibus ; margine 
basali anterius plūs minusve sinuato ; cardine utriusque valveB 
denticulis nonmdlis munito. 
Hab. In Africa occidentali. Suspicor hanc speciem in aqua dulci 
vel semisalsa vixisse, nam ejusdem byssus contexta est cum Melania 
cujusdam fragmentis. 

Concha adulta 15 lin. longa, 9 lin. altą, tenuis, habitu inconstans, 
formam Mytili edulis junioris interdum refert. Testą totą purpurea 
aut fusco-purpurascens, intus iridescens, epidermide nigerrima nitida 
vestita, sulcisąue radiantibus plurimis confertissimis 150usquead 160 
instructa est, qui quidem sulci in regione apicum partim dichotomi 
sunt et valvarum marginėm versus validiores" fiunt. Apices in speci- 
minibus adultis decorticati et erosi, margarita splendente insignes 
sunt. Quot sulci, tot crenulis margo circumdatur. 

Mytilus niger, Gmel. p. 3362, le Botel Adansonii (Hist. du Seneg. 
J). 211. t. 15. f. 3) certe species peraffinis est, sed illius testą sub 



360 

epidermide nitidissime lactea vocatur. Praeterea " le Dotel " major, 
minore sulcoruni numero instructus est, nam centenos tantum sulcos 
in eo numeravit auctor. — Clar. Sylv. Ilauley in describendo Mytilo 
rtigro (An lUustr. and Descr. Cat. of Receut Shells, pt. ii. p. 245 ?) 
nostram ipsam concham aute oculos habuisse videtur. — Mytilus 
striatidus, L. Sehiot. Eini. toI. iii. p. 449. t. 9. f. 16, statura aliena 
striisque in latere basali deficiendibus impiimis distingucndus esse 
videtur. Mytilus tenuistriatus, Dkr. Moli. Guin. p. 47. t. 9. f. 1, 
2, 3, species muito minor, ad Fohellas paene accedit. 

5. Mytilus Morrisi. 

M. testą ovato-trigona, modice convexa, fuseo-purpurea, epideV' 
inide cornea vestita, concentrice striata, costulis confertis gta- 
nosis mature furratis sculpta ; dorso parum cumpi esso, suban- 
gulato ; umbonibus termiyialibus incurvis ; margine baseos fere 
recto ; cardine utnusque vulvce denticulis 7ionnuHis instructo } 
marginihus crenis jtarvis circumdatis. 
Hab. Ad Guineam. 

Testą formam Mytili atropurpurei psene refert, sed habitu minore, 
costulis granosis mature furcatis et epidermide obscure cornea facile 
distingui potest. Mytilus senegalensis, Lani., valvis angustis et mar- 
gine dorsali postico basi subparallelo imprimis differt. 

6. Mytilus Adamsianus. 

M. testą ovato-trigona, utrinąue obtuse carinata, solidula, costia 
mature bijidis eleganter granosis sculpta, fusco-purpurascente 
et albida ; epidermide cornea vestita ; umbonibus terminalibus ; 
margine crenato. 
Hab. Ad Isthmum Panamense {Cuming). 

Testą parva lOlin. longa, 5^ lin. altą, 4^ lin. lata, Mytilo Magel- 
lanico juvenili similis est, sed costulis confertis altioribus, distinctis- 
sime granosis facile distinguitur. Margo basalis psene rectilineus. 
Color utriuque fusco-purpurascens, venter albidus. Facies iuterna 
albida, marginėm versus livida et vivide margaritacea. Fossula ad 
ligamentum recipiendum satis profunda. Apices acuti terminales. 
Cardo in vai va sinistra deutibus duobus, in dextra unico tantum in- 
structus. 

7. Mytilus obscurus. 

M. testą ovttta, parva, solidula, concentrice obsoleteque striata, 
albida, aliąuantulum rufescente, epidermide obscure cornea 
opaca vestita ; apicibus obtusis incurvis scepius decorticatis, 
paullo distantibus ; facie interna parum margaritacea ; cardine 
prorsus edentulo ; extremitate aiitica intus paullulum exca- 
vata. 
Hab. Ad Sydney urbem Novse Hollandiaj. 

Concha parva 10^ lin. tantum longa, 6 lin. altą et 4^ lin. lata, 
Mytilo edidi nondum adulto, qui pellucidus Penn. dicitur, haud dis- 
similis est. 



361 

8. Mytiltjs curvatus. 

M. testą parva, solidula, subtrigona, rufo-violacea, in dorso uita, 
in basi valde arcuata, costidis dichototiiis instructa ; epider- 
mide fusco-cornea vestita ; umbonibus parvis injlexis ; toto 
margine excepta jissura crenulato ; cardine in vulva vtruąue 
denticulis duobus vel tribus munito. 
Hab. Ad Philippinarum insulam Luzon. 

Conehula parva, vix 6 lia. longa, 4 lin. altą, 2^ lin. lata, forma 
psene trigona insignis. Margo cardinalis declivis leviter arcuatus 
cum margine posteriore alto angulum obtusum format ; margo basalis 
in fissura, cjuae ad byssum emittendam destinata est, valde curvata. 
Umbones perparum recedentes. Costulee furcatse marginėm versus 
posticum distinctiores evadunt. Fossula ad ligamentum recipiendum 
satis profunda. Pagina interna marginėm versus vivide iridescens. 

9^ VOLSELLA GUBERNACULUM. 

V. testą ovata, valde fornicata, utrinque subangulata, concentrice 
rugoso-striata, pallide flavescente, virgis inceąualibus violaceis 
radiata, epidermide cornea vestita ; umbonibus prominentibus 
incurvis violaceis perparum distantibus ; ligamento brevi. 
Patria ignota. 

Testą subsolida, antice attenuata, postice lata et rotundata, 18 lin. 
longa, 1 1 lin. altą, 8|^ lin. lata, praesertim dorso valde fornicato et 
basi parmn sinuata psene recta insignis est. Umbones incurvi violacei, 
nitentes, glabrati marginėm anticum previssimum eminent. Ligamen- 
tum pro magnitudme testse breve, pauUo immersum est. Color val- 
varum internus pallide luteus, umbones versus violaceus. 

10. VoLSELLA ARATA. 

V. testą elongata, subrhombea, tumida, liris costisgue postice 
crassioribus arata, colore antice lacteo vel pallide rubente, 
postice fusco-violaceo, epidermide crassa obseure cornea. 

Hab. In Novse Hollandise litore septentrionali. 

Concha 29 lin. longa, 12 lin. altą, lOį lin. crassa, quoad formam 
FolsellčB rliomboideee, Hanl., affinis est. Valvse linea obliqua pallida 
ab umbonibus tumidis ad posticam baseos partem paullo sinuatam 
decurrente et colore duplici in duas partes dividuntur. Strise inere- 
menti, et parte fissae, inde a linea illa obliąua validiores fiunt, ita ut 
testą suleis exarata appareat. Facies interna nitorem margaritaceum 
languidum prsebet. Ligamentum angustum longum totum psene 
marginėm cardinalem tenet. 

1 1. VoLSELLA FORTUNEI. 

V. testą parvula, ovato-oblonga, subtrigona, utrinąue obtuse cari- 
nata, concentrice rugose striata, svperius violacea, inferius al- 
bida, epidermide virente obducta ; margine baseos subrecto ; 
dorso subangidato ; umbonibus parvulis prominulis. 

Hab. Mare Chiuense. Attulit clar. Fortune. 

Conehula parva, b\ lin. longa, 2J lin. altą, 2 lin. lata, habitu My- 



362 

tili minimi, sed umbonibus recedentibus magis ad Volsellas accedit. 
Strise concentricse antice rugosse. Cardo plane edentulns. Liga- 
mentum longum et tenue. Pagina interna superius pulcherrime vio- 
lacea et margaritacea. 

12. VOLSELLA SUBPURPUREA. 

V. testą elongato-ovali, angusta, tenui, subpurpurea, epidermide 
cornea nitida induta, concentrice tenerrimeque striata, striis 
obsoletissimis ab umbonibus radiantibns marginėm posticum 
versus evanescentibus instructa, antrorsum angustata, posterio- 
rem partem versus parum dilatata, in medio dorso subfornicata 
pmdlulum angulata, margine baseos subsinuata ; umbonibus 
parvis, in speciminibus adultis decorticatis parum prominen- 
tibus. 
Hab. In Senegallio flumine. 

Testą 15 lin. longa, 5f lin. altą, 5^ lin. lata, sculptura, colore et 
cardinis structura Volsella: tristi affinis, prsesertim margine cardinis 
muito longiore, basi subsinuata et valvis tumidioribus differt. 

13. Volsella tristis. 

V. testą elongata, recta, tenui, fusco-purpureo et albido cariegata, 
concentrice obsoleteąue striata, pane glabrata, suleis ab apici- 
bus radiantibns confertissimis, tenuissimis, sub vitro tantum 
perspicuis, instructa ; epidermide nitida cornea vestita ; facie 
interna albida et Jivida marginėm versus iridescente. 
Hab. Ad Chusan teste Benson. 

Concba forma angusta, longe porrecta insignis, 15y"' longa, 6į"' 
altą et 4į"' crassa est. Altitudo ėjus maxima in ^ longitudinis vel 
eo in loco šita est, ubi margo dorsalis anticus, quem ligamentum 
breve et tenue occupat, finem habet. Margo rentralis perparum ar- 
cuatus psene rectus, antrorsum pauUo adscendit et muerone vel potius 
ala parvula parum ultra apices prominente terminatur, in qua cos- 
tulse nonnullse observautur. Prseterea monendum est, marginėm 
dorsalem plicis nonnullis obsoletissimis instructum esse. Internus 
testae color livido-albus parum margaritaceus. Cardo utriusque 
valTPe sub apicibus dentibus parvulis -1—5 munitus. Prseterea in fine 
ligamenti, quod fossulam haud profundam tenet, crenarum 10-12 
series observari potest, quse Nucnlarum cardinem in mentėm vocant . 

14. Volsella perfragilis. 

V. testą elongata, recta, compressa, tenerrima, subdiaphana, pa- 
rum splendida, pallide cornea, postice virescente maculisgue 
minimis pallide fuscis aspersa, striis incrementi concentricis 
tenuissimis instructa, costa obsoletissima recta ab umbo7iibus 
prominulis ad posticam baseos partem decurrente, margine dor- 
sali recto longissimo, margine ventrali antice ascendente ; liga- 
mento perlongo, angusta, margarita marginėm posteriorem versus 
iridescente. 

Hab. Ad insulas Moluccenses. 



363 

Species singularis sesquipollicem longa, dimidium altą, 3į lin. 
crassa, ModiolcB eleganti,Gv&y (Spic. Zool. t. 6. f. 14; Wood, Ind. 
p. 235), affinis, margine dorsi recto, umbonibus miuoribus, testaąue 
compressa prsesertim differt. 

15. VOLSELLA UNDULATA. 

V. testą oblonga, fragili, concentrice tenuissimeque striata, glahra, 
nitida, pellucente, albida, picturis undulalis varieyata lineisque 
riifis ab umbonibus minutis ad latus posticum decurrentibus 
oi-nata, ventre plerumąue unicolore ; epidermide tenera virente ; 
margine baseos postice aliąuantulum sinuato, pcene recto ; dorsa 
postice fornicato. 

Hab. Ad iiisulas Moluccenses. 

Testą 1 1 lin. longa, 5 lin. altą, 3 lin. lata, ad Volsellam Japanicam 
proxirae aecedit, sed statura breviore et basi subsinuata imprimis 
differt. 

16. VoLSELLA JaPONICA. 

V. testą oblonga, recta, convexa, tenui, nitida, concentrice tenuis- 
simeąue striata, pcene prorsus glabra, alba, tnaculis undulatis 
et angulatis rujis varie pieta lineisąue ab umbonibus gracilibus 
prominulis incurvis ad latus posticum radiantibus ornata, mar- 
gine dorsali et basali f ere rectis ; ligamento longo, angusto ; 
epidermide tenera pallide cornea subvirente. 

Hab. In Ii tore maris Japonici. 

Concha gracilis 15 lin. longa, 7 lin. altą et ^ lin. crassa, splen- 
dore et pictura elegantissima insignis est. 

17. VoL,SEI.LA GILABERRIMA. 

V. testą oblonga, recta, tenui, convexa, nitidissima, subpellucida, 
concentrice obsoletissimeųue striata, glaberrima, fusco-cornea, 
subviolacea, picturis undulatis fuscis, zonis concentricis lineis- 
ąue gracilibus pallidis ab umbonibus prominulis ad latus posti- 
cum radiantibus ornata ; epidermide tenui virescente vestita ; 
margine carditiali recto ; ligamento longo, angusto, immerso ; 
margine basali leviter arcuato. 
Hab. Mare Australe prope urbem Sydney. 

Species Vols. Japonicce affinis, sed valvis majoribus et latioribus 
vel potius altioribus, margine ventris magis arcuato et lineis radian- 
tibus pallidis in fuudo obscuriore satis diversa. 

18. VoLSELLA INCONSTANS. 

V. testą tenui, ovato-oblonga, antice ventrosa, lateribus obligue 
obtuseąuė carinata, concentrice idąue tenerrime striata, pcene 
Icevi, albida, in dorso interdum violaceo lividove macvlata, vel 
totą violacea, epidermide cornea, tenui, nitida vestita ; umbo- 
nibus tumidis, scepius decorticatis. 
" Hab. In litore insulse Van Diemen. 

Concha pro aetate variabilis. Testą enim junior brevis pleruinque 



364 

marginėm basalem rectura vel adeo leviter arcuatam ostendit, setate 
vero progrediente valvse marginėm baseos posticum versus extendun- 
tur, quo fit, nt venter sinum levem formet. Pars valvarum antica 
umbonibus rotundatis valde produetis habitum Lithophagorum prse 
se fert. Garina obtusa ab umbonibus ad latus posticum decurrens, 
in adultis speciminibus distinctior esse solet, quam in pullis. Liga- 
meutum tenue et angustum. Testą si epidermis detrivit, splendorem 
margaritaceum ssepius ofFert. Gardo denticulis plane caret. Speci- 
men quod exstat maximum 13 lin. longum, 6 lin. altum et 5 lin. 
latum est. Valvse nonnullae antice costulis duabus obsoletissimis 
notatse sunt. 

19. VOLSELLA STJBSULCATA. 

V. testą ovato-oblonga, tutnida, alba, in dorso livido- vel rufo- 
fusca, utrinųue costulata, costulis granosis, nonnullis furcatis, 
in dorso obliąue divaricatis ; ejndermide fusco-cornea, postice 
setigera ; carina obtusa ab umbonibus imrvis ad latus posticum 
deeurrente. 
Hab. Ad Philippinarum insulam Manilam. 

Haec eoncha 13 lin. longa, 6^ lin. altą, 5^ lin. lata inter Volsellam 
setigeram, Dkr. et sulcatam, Lam., quasi intermedia est species. 
Testą habitu varians carina obtusa ab umbonibus deeurrente plūs 
minusve conspicua instructa est. Umbones plerumque decorticati, 
parvi, obtusi. Costute granosse in dorso et latere postico magis per- 
spicuse sunt, quam in latere ventris, ubi sensini evanescunt, excepti3 
iis costulis paucis, quae aute umbones jacent. Testą semper est du- 
plici coloris, dorsum livido- vel rufo-fuscum, venter paullo siuuatus 
albus. Facies interna in speciminibus adultis impressioues muscu- 
lares fortes ostendit. Gardo denticulis nonnullis munitus est. Ex- 
cepta baseos parte aliquantulum sinuata totus margo crenis parvulis 
circumdatur. Ligameutum crassum profunde immersum est. 

20. VoLSELLA SETIGERA. 

V. testą ovato-oblonga, tumida, subcylindrica, concentrice striata, 
antice et postice tenuiter sulcata, alba, epidermide viridi-cornea, 
postice setigera induta, setis brevibus sparsis ; umbonibus tu- 
midis, incurvis ; margine utrinque crenato. 
Patria ignota. 

Testą 12 lin. longa, 6 lin. altą, 5 lin. crassa est. Margo dorsalis 
paullo declivis postice in arcum levem sensim transit, margo ventris 
paene rectiliueus. ValviE costulis subgranosis ab apicibus utrinque 
decurrentibus instructse sunt ; epidermis posticum valvarum latus 
versus, ab ea inde parte, ubi costulse incipiunt, setis sparsis tegitur, 
quas quidem setas plerumque mutilatas invenies. Valvarum pars 
media transversim striata, basin versus subrugosa est. Haec species 
forma haud insolita, costularum structura ad Lanistinas aecedit. 

21. VoLSELLA FLAVIDA. 

V. testą oblonga, tenui, injlata, liaeis concentricis tenuibus eleva- 



.365 

tis sculpta, flavida, linea ab umhonibus ad basin obliąue decur- 
rente colore pallidiore signata ; umbonibus (umidis; margine 
ventrali postice sinuato. 

Hab. Iii sinu ad Manilam. 

Testą tenuis et convexa, 16 lin. longa, 8 lin. altą, 6i lin. lata est. 
Margo dorsalis anterior rectus, antrorsum paullo inclinatus, posticuš 
arcuatus in extremitatem posticam basin versus productam seiisim 
transit ; margo ventris postice simiatus, antice ieviter arcuatus ; ex- 
tremitas antica rotundata ultra apices parom prosilit. Strije concen- 
tricsB graciles distantes et elevataj lineas concentricas subtilissimas 
sub vitro tantum conspicuas iucludunt. 

Species Modiolee vestitce, Phil. (Enum. Moli. vol. ii. p. 51. t. 15. 
f. 12), affinis, testą paullulum longiore, tenuiore, parum sple.idente, 
epidermide pallidiore, forma graciliore postice magis producta, um- 
bonibus minoribus striisque concentricis elevatis difFert. Prasterea 
nostra species tegumento tomentoso, a quo Volsella vestita includi- 
tur, prorsus carere videtur. Exstat varietas colore obscuriore, testą 
postice magis producta insignis. 

22. Volsella splendida. 

F. testą oblonga, inflata, alba, epidermide obscure castanea splen- 
dida obducta, concentrice striata ; margine dorsali arcuato, 
subangulato, ventrali postice sinuato, extremitate antica parum 
producta, latere postico subdilatato rotundata j sulco levi co- 
lore pallidiore terminalą ab umbonibus tumidis ad sinum baseos 
decurrente. 
Patria California. 

Testą 14 lin. longa, 8 lin. altą, totidem crassa, Volsellce vestitce 
nec non f avides affinis, valvis latioribus, colore obscuriore et sulco ab 
umbonibus decurrente imprimis differt. 

23. MoDioLARCA (Volsella) stjbtorta. 

F. testą parvula pane incequivalvi subtorta, ovata, subtrapezina, 
concentrice striata et rugosa, fusca, epidermide sublamellosa 
induta, dorso parum arcuato, basi antice parum sinuata, umbo- 
nibus parvulis recedentibus statu integro iftcurvis, extremitate 
antica producta. 
Hab. In Novae Hollandiae litore septentrionali. 
Species parvula angusta 4 lin. longa, 2 lin. altą, 1^ lin. lata, ha- 
bitu et prffisertim formatione extremitatis antic« Modiolarcam tra- 
pezmam m mentėm vocat. Valvute psene in^ąnales subtorta epi- 
dermide partem posticam versus sublamellosa teguntur. Apices in 
specirainibus a<Jultis erosi sunt, imo specimina exstant, magnam par- 
tem decorticata. Ligamentum tenue profunde immersum est. Im- 
pressiones musculares fortes et pro exiguitate testą? magns sunt. 
Species nostra generi Grayano Modiolarcce ut adnumeretur necesse 
est. 

24. Lanistina nana. 

L. testą minima, ovata, concentrice striata, pallide cornea, rufo 



.366 

variegata, pellucida, sulco ab umbonibus parvuUs ad basin de- 
currente insigni. 
Hab. Port Lincoln. 

Testą minima, vix 2 lin. longa, tenuissima, pellucens, lineis rufis 
undulatis et reticulatis pieta, antice et postice tenuiter costulata. 
Pagina interna margaritacea ; margo cardiiiis tenuissime crenulatus. 

25. Lanistina concinna. 

L. testą parvula, fragili, ovata, modice convexa, flava lineis non- 
nullis preBsertim apices versus undulatis et angulatis fuscis 
pieta, epidermide viridi pellucente vestita, suleis ab apicibus 
parvulis ineurvis utroque latere radiantibus instrueta. 

Hab. Ad Philippinarum iusulam Zeba (^Cumitig). 

Species 7 lin. longa, 3^ lin. altą, 2| lin. crassa, antice angustata, 
postice dilatata, pauUulum compressa. Margo dorsalis seąualiter 
parumque arcuatus, basalis psene rectilineus. Extremitas antica an- 
gusta arcuata, costulis nonnuUis signata, ultra apices minutes incur- 
vos prominens. Costulae planse marginėm versus ex parte furcillatse 
in latere postico 20-24 numerantur ; interstitia earum latitudinem 
non excedunt. 

DiiFert haec species a Modiola strigata, Hanl. (Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1844), testą minus convexa, postice magis dilatata, umbonibus haud 
tumidis costulisque latioribus planis partim dichotomis. 

26. Crenella bulla. 

C. testą fragili, oblique elliptica, bullata, alba, striis tenerrimis 
confertissimis ab umbonibus radiantibus sub vitro tantum eog- 
noscentibus undique instrueta, epidermide tenuissima pallida 
obducta ; umbonibus ineurvis gracilibus anticis ; ligamento 
brevi ; toto margine intus subtilifer creiiulato. 
Hab. Ad Philippinarum insulam Luzon. 

Testą tenuissima, perfragilis, pellucida, totą alba. 5 lin. longa, 
4 lin. altą, 4 lin. crassa, subglobosa vel bullata, ambitum fere exacte 
ellipticum refert, si modo angulum obtusum, quem margo cardinalis 
posticus cum latere postico format, uou respicis. 



November 25, 1856. 

J. S. Gaskoin, Esq., F.L.S., in the Chair. 

Mr. Tegetmeier brougbt before the notice of the Members living 
specimens and preparations illustrating the very remarkable pecu- 
liarities existing in the skuUs of the feather-crested rariety of the 
domestic Fowl, now known as Polish. In these birds, the anterior 
portion of the frontai bone is expanded into a large spherical tube- 
rosity or cyst, which is partly osseous and partly membranous ; the 



367 

anterior portions of the brain are entirely contained in this tuberosif y, 
being protected from external injury solely by the feathers of the 
crest and the integuments ; the posterior portions are situated, as 




No. 1. — Skull of Crested Hen (var. Golden-spangled Polish), showing sphe- 
rical tuberosity and deficient intertnaxillary boues. 




No. 2. — Longitudinal vertical section of the skull of a Crested Cock (var. Silver- 
spangled Polish), showing the shape of the cavity containing the encephalon. 

usual, in the cavity of the cranium : as the communication betweeu 
it and the tuberosity is eonstrieted, the brain necessarily assumes 
the form of an hour-glass, the anterior being the larger portion. 

This very extraordinary structure, which is well developed eren 
before the escape of the chick from the shell, was noticed by Peter 
Borelh in 1656, and again described with many errors by Blumen- 
bach in ' De Nisus formativi Aberrationibus,' 1813. Blumenbach 
statės that it is confined to the females, which is incorrect ; that the 
fowls are remarkably stupid, whereas their instiucts do not appear 
to diflfer in the slightest degree from those of the other uon-incu- 
bating varieties of domestic fowl ; and lastly, that the tuberosity is 
caused by a tight eonstrietion of the integuments, which however does 
not exist. 

Palias, who also notices the peculiarity, erroneously attributes it 



368 

to a cross with the Numidian meleagris ; and the description of a 
very old specimen in the Catalogue of the Museum of the College 
of Surgeons, statės it to be the result of disease, whereas it is the 
normai condition of all largely crested fowls. 

An intimate connexion exists betvreen the size of the tuberosity 
and that of the feathered crest, so that those chickens niay be se- 
lected at birth that will eventually possess the largest crests. 

The intermaxillary bones are usually more or less deficient in all 
the varieties of crested fowls, the nostrils arched, and the comb when 
present is crescentic or bicorned. Severai of the varieties of crested 
fowls are destitute of fleshy wattles, their place being supplied by a 
ruff or beard of feathers ; there is, however, no corresponding alter- 
ation in the lower masillary bone. 



Mr. Woodward exhibited preparations of the mantie and orai 
apparatus of the recent British Terebratula {T. caput-serpentis), 
specimens of \vhich had been forwarded in a linng statė from Oban, 
Argyle, by J. Leckenby, Esq., of Scarborovigh. It appears that this 
shell, although a uative of the deep sea, can live a week out of water, 
if placed in a bottle or tin-box with moist sea-weed. The valves are 
so accurately adjusted as to prevent the escape of the contained 
fliiid. The mantie, arms and cirri of this spccies are frosted over 
with radiated spicula, composed of carbonate of lime, as described 
by Oscar Schmidt, and form a beautiful object for the polariscope. 
To the palseontologist this structural peculiarity is extremely inter- 
esting, as it explains the preservation of many parts of the internal 
organization, including the delicate cirri in fossil Brachiopoda. 



Mr. Fraser exhibited a considerable number of Birds, from the 
coUection of T. C. Eyton, Esq., and more particularly drew attention 
to a singular variety of Ramphostos discolorus, Linn., in which the 
blood-red colouring of the abdomen and upper tail-coverts was re- 
])laced by chrome-yellow. 

The specimen was procured from Rio de Janeiro. 

He next directed attention to a species of Trogon, which is so 
nearly allied to Trogon collaris, Vieill., that by most writers it might 
be considered as identical with, or a mere variety of that species. 
This bird, for which Mr. Fraser proposed the name of Trogon Eytoni, 
differs, however, in having the mandibles larger and more robust ; 
the plumage of the neck and breast of a fine coppery bronze, instead 
of green ; the centrai tail feathers bronze instead of green ; and the 
barring of the wing-coverts and lateral tail-feathers broader, and 
consequently more distinct. 

Totai length, 9 i inches ; bill, \ ; wing, 4į ; tail, 5f . 

Hah. Rio de Janeiro. 

The third specimen was a fine species of Juida (which Mr. Fraser 
proposed to call Juidu Eytoni), nearly allied to Juida longicauda. 



Proc. Z. S^ Reptilia XII 




CHELODINA EXPANSA 



Proc, 1- S Re.pt m. XII a. 




CHELODINA EXPANSA 



369 

Swaius., but differing from that species in having the vvhole of the 
body and wings of a fine oil-green, instead of bluish-green, and in 
having the velvety-black marks near the tips of the wing-coverts and 
scapularies more conspicuous than in that species ; the lower parts 
of the back and upper tail-coverts of a lovely purple, changing into 
green on their edges and tips, in lieu of dark bronzy-purple ; the 
band across the abdomen dark coppery-brown. 

Totai length, 19^ inches ; bill, lį ; wing, 8 ; tail, 14 ; tarsi, If. 

Hah. "W. Africa : precise locality unknown. 

The Secretary read the following — 

NoTiCE OF A New Species of Trichotropis, from the Col- 
LECTioN of Hugh Cuming, Esft. By Arthur Adams, 

F.L.S., ETC. 

Trichotropis 6ouldii, A. Adams. 

T. testą ovato-fusiformi, vix rimata, alba, tenui ; spira elata ; an- 
fractibus septem convexis, liris elevatis, spiralibus et lamellis 
tenuibus longitudiiialibus concinne cancellatis, interstitiis trans- 
versim striatis; apertura ovali, antice producta, canali obsoleta; 
labio Icevi, rotundato, antice subrejlexo ; labro margine simplici, 
acuto. 

Long. l^ poli. 

Hab. Chiriqui, Veragua (Mr. T. Bridges). Mus. Cuming. 

I have much pleasure in naming this degant addition to the genus 
Tnchotropis after the distinguished American conchologist Dr. 
Gould. In a recent statė the shell is probably covered with a thin 
light-brown epidermis. It differs from the typical genus in the 
canal of the aperture being almost obsolete. 



December 9, 1856. 

Dr. Gray, F.R.S., in the Chair. 

Professor Owen read a paper entitled "Osteological Contributions 
to the Natūrai History of the Chimpanzees and Orangs {Troglodytes, 
Pithecus), No. VI.," which will be published in the Transactions of 
the Society. 

The following papers were also read : — 

1. Description of a New Species of Chelodina from 
AusTRAiiiA. By Dr. J, E. Gray, F. R. S., etc. 

(Reptilia, PI. XII.) 

Mr. Stutchbury, who has recently returned from Australia, 
No. CCCXXIV. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



370 

brouglit \vith hira a series of animals ishich he coUected during his 
geological researches. 

lu e.vamining this coUection with the intention of selecting those 
specimens vvbicli will be interesting additions to the very ricii col- 
lection of Australian animals in the British Museum (including al- 
most all the species described by Mr. Gould and other recent writers 
on the fauna of that continent), I was pleased to discover what ap- 
pears to be a very distmct species of the Australian genus of Long- 
necked freshwater Tortoises (^Chelodina). 

To the description of this species I have added a short note on 
the peculiarities of two other species. 

Chelodina expansa, n. s. (PI. XII. adult and young.) 

Shell oblong, rather depressed, broader behind, brown ; platės 
thin, with short, narrow inoseulating grooves ^ the margins flat- 
tened, expanded ; the side of the back regularly convex ; the lateral 
marginai platės rather broad, notrevolute. The steruum flat, bluntly 
keeled on the sides, yellow. Head, neck and Umbs dark oUve 
above ; chin, throat, and under side of the lirabs whitish. 

Shell, length 11, breadth 8 inches. Neck 8 inches long. 

The young shell is likę the adult, but the lateral margins are 
shghtly revolute on the edges, though the platės are broad likę the 
adult. The under side of the margiu yellow, with a triangular black 
spot on the front edge of each shield ; the dorsal shield thin, with 
three distant concentric grooves, with a rather rugose, moderate- 
sized areola ; the areola of the costal plate subcentral ; the areola 
of the first vertebral plate is subcentral, of the second, third, fourth 
and fifth vertebral plate it is on the middle of the hinder margiu ; 
the areola of the marginai plate is on the hinder outer margin. 
The front vertebral shield is large, and as broad as long ; the others 
are much broader than long, the third being the shortest. 

This species differs from Chelodina longicolHs, C. oblonga and C. 
Colliei, in the generally expanded form, and especially in the breadth 
and non-revolution of the lateral margin, and in the side of the 
steruum not being so sharply keeled as in the two latter species. 

It differs from Chelodina sulcifera in the membranous character 
of the shields, and also in the sternum being narrow in front, likę 
that of C. oblonga and C. Colliei, and not expanded and broader, as 
in C, longicoUis and C. sidcifera. 

Chelodina longicollis. 

A fine shell of the adiUt animal of this species, larger than any I 
have hitherto received, was in the collection. 

The shell is rather convex and 3wollen on the sides, with a deep, 
broad, rounded coucavity along the centre of the second, third and 
fourth vertebral plate, about two-thirds the width of the platės. The 
black sutural liues on the sternum are iiarrow and uniform. 

Length of the shell 8i ; width 6 inches. 



371 

Chelymys Ma(JQUARIA. 

Two adult specimens of tliis kind were also in the series. They 
are both much darker than the two specimens in the British Museum 
Collection. They are also peculiar for having a very distinct, deep, 
narrow, interrupted groove along the vertebral line, deepest and 
widest on the fourth vertebral plate. The discal shields are also 
marked with rather deep distinct radiating grooves, which are evi- 
dently indentations in the bones of the animal, only covered by the 
very thiu skin-like shields. 

Shell, length 1 1, breadth 8 inches. 



2. On some FisH from Asia Minor and Palestine. By Sir 
John Richardson, C. B., F.R.S. L. &Ed. etc. 

Through the kindness of Dr. Gray of the British Museum, I have 
been permitted to examine a small collection of Fish made by H. 
Poole, Esq., in Palestine and Asia Minor. Though they do not pre- 
sent to the ichthyologist any novel generic forms, they are interest- 
ing on account of the localities in which they were found. 

Cyprinodon Hammonis, Cuv. et Vai. xviii. 169. 

This small fish was taken in a raarshy spot, on the immediate 
beach of the Dead Sea, at Usduni, the supposed site of Sodom. The 
marsh, which contained some very small puddles of salt-water in 
which the fish were swimming, and from whence they v?ere scooped 
out with ease by the hands, is fed by a saline spring which issues a 
little higher up, and is so little above the level of the sea, that Mr. 
Poole believed that the fish were washed into the pools by the waTes. 
The opinion that the exhalations of the Dead Sea are immediately 
fatal to animal Ufe, and that not even a bird can fly over it, has long 
been exploded. One of Mr. Poole's companions bathed in it daily 
with impunity, and even fancied that in diving he had discovered 
the remains of a ruined city under its waters, opposite to Usdum. 
Mr. Poole also observed ducks diving in it, and concluded, justly we 
think, that they mušt have found something edible to induce them 
to repeat that act, vvhich they did freąuently. 

Lieut. Lynch of the U. S. Navy examined the water of the Dead 
Sea (Exp. to Jordan, &c. p. 377) with a powerful microscope, and 
found that it contained no animalculse and no vestige of animal 
matter. Its specific gravity was T 1 3, compared with distilled water 
as 1-0, while water of the Atlantic from lat. 25° N. and 52° W. 
longitude was 1"02, Another examination of the water of the Dead 
Sea, ąuoted on the lašt page of Lieut. Lynch's book, gives its spe- 
cific gravity as 1-227 at temp. 60°, and the solid saline matter as 
267 in 1000. Specimens of the water taken up by Mr. Poole have 
been deposited at the Geological Society, together with examples of 
the water in which the fish were found, and of the salt apring vvhich 
fed the marsh. 



372 

With respect to the Cyprinodonts, several of the species inhabit 
salt and fresh waters indifferently, the C. Hammonis being one of the 
number. It was origiually discovered by Ehrenberg m the springs 
of the Oasis of Jupiter Ammon, and subsequently in great plenty in 
other districts of Egypt and Syria. M. Eloy found it in the waters 
of Damascus, and Riippell statės that it is an inhabitant of all 
parts of the Red Sea, and also of the fresh-water springs at Tor, 
which have a temperature of 26į° of Reaumur or 91°'6 of Fahr. 
This is also the temperature of one of the hot springs of Cannea in 
Ceylon, inhabited by the Amhassis thermalis. M. Renaud, on seud- 
ing examples of this Ambassis to Cuvier, stated that the heat of the 
spring was 115° Fahr. ; but there is reason to infer, either that his 
thermometer was incorrect, or that he took the temperature of the 
feeding spring only. 

When Dr. Davy visited the springs in October 1817, the hottest 
well raised the thermometer to 107°, but he was told that the heat 
fluctuated, and had been observed as high as 110° F. There are in 
all seven węlls, their temperatures being various, and that of one of 
them as low as 86°. In one only, in which the thermometer stood 
at 91°, did he observe fish. He thought it probable that all the 
wells were supplied with water from the šame source (Davy's 
Trayels in Ceylon, p. 44). 

In an exeursion from the south side of the Sea of Marmora to the 
Asiatic Olympus, Mr. Poole obtained several Cyprinoids and soma 
Gobies chiefly from Lake Apollonia or Apollonitis near Broussa, and 
from the River Gemlek that falls into the Sinus Cianus. He also 
caught some Trout on the summit of Olympus itself. The specimens 
are unfortunately so much decayed that their original forms cannot be 
ascertaiued with sufficient precision, but they have much resemblance 
to the common Sahno fario of Linnseus, and likę it have two longi- 
tudinal rows of teeth on the vomer, without a cluster on the front 
of that bone. The Cyprinoids and Gobies are in good condition. 

Cyprinus Bithynicus, Ričhardson. 

The Cyprini resemble one another so closely, that it is matter of 
extreme difficulty to determine the species when unaided by correetly 
labelled specimens. One of Mr. Poole' s fish, caught in Lake Apol- 
lonitis, has the four minute barbels of Cyprinus carpis, but differs 
from that typical form in the great compression of its body, while 
it does not agree so perfectly with C. elahis, hmtgaricus, Nord- 
manni, and other species with deep bodies, described and figured 
in the ' Histoire des Poissons,' as to be referable with confidence to 
any of them. In general form, the origin of the barbels, position of 
the fins, and numbers of their rays, as well as in the outline of the 
preorbitar and ręst of the suborbitar scale bones, it corresponds more 
closely vyith C.Jfavipinnis than with any other member of this group 
noticed in that work ; but as Jlavipinnis belongs to the Indian Ar- 
chipelago, a mimite comparison of specimens is necessary to esta- 
blish their identity. Hence I have designated Mr. Poole's fish by a 



373 

geographical appellatiou, and shall proceed to mention the propor- 
tions of its various external parts. Its rays are, D. 4|I8 ; A. 3|4o, 
the last one divided to the hase ; P. 19 ; V. 9 ; C. I9į. 

Head a very little less than a fourth of the totai length, measured 
to the tips of the caudal lobes, or a third of the length measured to 
near the end of the scales on the base of that fin. Ileight of the 
body greatest at the front of the dorsal, and equal to a third of the 
length measured to the tips of the centrai caudal rays, and conse- 
ąuently sensibly exceeding the length of the head, The greatest 
thickness of the fish is in the temporal region at the upper anterior 
angle of the operculum, and the length of the trausverse diameter 
at that place is contained two and a half times in the height of the 
body ; but posterior to the head, the thickness nowhere exceeds a 
third of the height. The body thins off from the lateral line to the 
aciite edge of the back, and the sides below are also flattened in, but 
the edge of the belly is flat to the width of the transverse insertion 
of the ventrals, or about equal to the diameter of the eye. 

In profile the fish resembles, as we have said, C. flavipinnis, as 
represented by pi. 457 of the ' Histoire des Poissons,' but the scales 
are probably smaller, there being thirty-seven in our fish on the 
lateral line, which runs perfectly straight at mid-height throughout. 
Snout obtuse. Barbels likę those of the species just referred to, 
but more slender and considerably shorter. Eyes close to the pro- 
file, about a diameter and a half of the orbit apart trausversely, one 
diameter from the end of the snout, and one and three-quarters an- 
terior to the gill-opening ; the diameter being to the length of the 
head as 1 : 3"75. Length of the dorsal equal to the vertical distance 
between the upper surface of the ventrals and the summit of the 
back. The first ray of the fin stands midway between the endof the 
snout and the base of the cavidal ; the ventrals being attached imme- 
diately beneath the second soft ray. The fourth stiff ray is as usual 
robust and denticulated posteriorly, while the three shorter, gra- 
duated, anterior stiff rays are incumbent on its base. The third 
anai ray is similar to the fourth dorsal one, and stands directly under 
the last two branching rays of the dorsal. 

Teeth. — The lovrer pharyngeal bone is on the whole crescentic, 
but of irregular form. With its fellow it embraces the lovver part of 
the gullet in nearly a half-circle. On its interior edge there is a row 
of about twelve small, acutely subulate teeth. At its middle there 
are three larger obtuse teeth, which stand one before the other in au 
antero-posterior (or dermo-central) direction, and are contiguous or 
incumbent on each other. The most interior one is obtusely conical, 
with a minute centrai cusp : the next, which is slightly the largest 
of the three, is worn on the exterior side ; and the outer one is worn 
on both sides, but still blunt on the summit : besides these three there 
are two much smaller and more chisel-shaped oues, abreast of the' 
second of the larger ones, and on its mesial side. There are thus 
five molar teeth on each lower pharyngeal bone, and a row of aci- 
cular or subulate tooth-like rakers on its inner bordcr. 



374 

Leuciscus Apollonitis, Richardson. 

The difficulty of grouping and describing tlie numerous species of 
this genus is acknowledged by all who have made the attempt. M. 
Valenciennes has shown that the labours of Agassiz, Bonaparte and 
other first-rate ichthyologists on the Leucisci have been by no means 
successful, nor has he himself been more fortunate in his endeavours ; 
the smaU groups of species described in the ' Histoire des Poissons ' 
being far from suificiently precise to do away with the necessity of 
revievving almost the whole genus before any member of it brought 
from a new locality can be rightly placed. The entire question of 
geographical distribution rests on the correct recognition of species ; 
and a great advance in ichthyological science willbe made, when the 
Cyprinoids of Asiatic Turkey, Persia, and Affghanistan shall be col- 
lected and described, so as to complete the missing hnks between 
the European and Indian forms. Enhghtened travellers, therefore, 
Hke Mr. Poole, who bring home specimens of fi'eshwater fishes from 
these countries, merit a grateful commendation from a Natūrai 
History Society. The specimen that we have now particularly to 
notice has a strong resemblance to the English Red-eye or Rudd, 
the Rotengle of the French, and the Leuciscus erythrophthahnus of 
Cuvier, which is the type of the subgenus Scardinius of Bonaparte. 
In this group the mandible ascends obliquely in front of the upper 
jaw, so that when the mouth is shut it forms the most anterior point 
of the fish. It happens that Mr. Poole's specimen is exactly of the 
šame size with the figure of the Rudd in Mr. Yarrell's beautifui 
work, so that au exact comparison can be made between them, and 
the most striking difference is that the Rudd has a sHghtly greater 
height of body. The length of the head, the position of the dorsal 
fin, the decurvature of the lateral hne, and the numbers of rays in 
the fins, are the šame in both. The ventrals, hovvever, are a little 
further forward in L. Apollonitis, so that the tips of the pectorala 
overlap them a Uttle, and the scales are a trifle smaller, numbering 
two more on the lateral line. In the Asiatic fish, moreover, the pro- 
file from the point of the snont to the dorsal is less arched, being 
uearly straiglit ; and the number of the pharyugeal teeth being dif- 
ferent in the two species, we obtain a precise distinctive mark. Those 
oi Apollonitis number five in the inferior or exterior row, all denticu- 
lated within and hooked at the point ; while the three forming the 
interior row are very short, and are likewise denticulated on their 
interior sides. L. erythrophthahnus has only four teeth in the in- 
ferior row. 

As in most Leucisci the second dorsal ray is unbrauched and 
tapering, and the first, which is shorter, is applied closely to its base 
•without the intervention of membrane. In this species the second 
. ray is the tallest in the fin, and it is perfectly flexible, without any of 
\hat stiffness which is characteristic of Agassiz' genus Rhodeus, in 
which moreover the pharjmgeal teeth are chisel-shaped, The first 
rav of the dorsal stands on the highest point of the back, and exactly 
midway between the tip of the snout and the extremities of the 



375 

middle rays of the caudal ; while the middle of the dorsal is iii the 
middle of the totai leugth measured to the points of the caudal rays. 
The insertion of the ventrals again is midvvay between the poiat of 
the snout and the base of the caudal. 

Rays: — Br. 3-3 ; D. 10; A. 13, lašt ray deeply divided; V^ 9 ; 
C. 19|; P. 15 or 16. 

Body much compressed, thinning off rapidly towards the belly : its 
greatest thickness is cousiderably above the middle, aud is equal to 
between a thivd and a fourth of its utmost height. Laterai line 
traced along the lower third of the height, parallel to the curve of 
the ventral edge, aud couseąueutly very concave upwards. It is 
composed of forty-two scales. Under the front of the dorsal, where 
the body is highest, there are seven rows of scales above the row 
which forms the laterai line and four below, or twelve in all. The 
scales are dotted with black on the edges, and traversed by about 
four radiating hnes on the exposed disk and two or three shorter 
ones on the covered base, all issuing from the šame point. Head 
small, its length being contained four times and a half m the totai 
length of the fish, measured to the tips of the caudal lobes, aud being 
couseąueutly perceptibly less thau the height of the fish. Its breadth 
between the eyes is a very little in excess of the diameter of the eye, 
and is greater than the thickness of the body. Preorbitar seale bone 
nearly rectangular, with the corners rouuded off, a little longer than 
high, and traversed by au unbranched muco-duct, which is continu- 
ous with the muciferous tube of the other suborbitars : the second 
of these bones is narrower than the third one. 

Mandible ascending and shutting against the front of the upper 
jaw. Its joint is directly beneath the anterior curve of the orbit. 
The eye is nearer to the tip of the snout than to the gill-opening, 
and its diameter rather exceeds a third of the length of the head. 
First ray of the dorsal standing midway between the tip of the snout 
aud the extremity of the middle caudal ray ; while the middle of the 
fin is eąuidistant from the tip of the snout and the distal points of 
the caudal lobes. Tips of the pectorals slightly overlapping the base 
of the ventrals, which lies midvvay between the end of the snout and 
the base of the caudal. The greatest height of body is at the front 
of the dorsal, and rather exceeds one-fourth of the eutire length of 
the fisb. 

M. Valenciennęs remarks that descriptions, even vchen aided by 
good figures, do not suffice to discriminate the nearly resembling 
species of Leuciscus ; hence this or any other proposed new species 
cannot be considered as properly established until it has beeu com- 
pared with authentic specimens of the known forms. 

Leuciscus Cii (Richardson). 

This Leuciscus was caught by Mr. Poole in the River Gemlek, 
anciently named Cius, which falls into the Propontis near the pro- 
montory of Posidiuni. Likę the preceding one it belongs to the 
group of species which have the dorsal placed over the space bctvveen 
the ventrals and anai, but in this instancc considerably ucarer the 



376 

fornier. Its pharyngeal teeth are in two rows, viz. five inferior taller 
ones, and two interior shorter ones, all incurved at the tips, and some 
of thein distinctly denticulated on the iuner edge, others only obso- 
letely so. 

Rays : — D. 10 ; A. 11, the lašt one deeply divided, and the front 
one short and incumbent ; V. 9 ; P. 18 ; C. 19. 

In general form this fish resembles the Leuciscus Baldneri more 
nearly than it does any of the other species figured in the ' Histoire 
des Poissons,' but the head is a little longer, and the snout does not 
bulge out at the nostrils ; the lašt ray of the dorsal also stands a 
little before the anus, and the anai does not occupy so much space 
as in L. Baldneri. Of the figures given by Yarrell, it has most like- 
ness to the Graining or L. Lancastriensis, 

Length of the head coutained four times in the length of the fish 
up to the base of the caudal, or four and a half times in the length 
when that fin is included. The form of the head is conical. The 
eye approaches the upper profile, and its diameter measures about a 
fourth of the length of the head ; it is situated a little more tlian a 
diameter froni the tip of the snout, and nearly two diameters from 
the extreme edge of the gill-cover. Preorbitar subtriangular, with 
its corners irregularly rounded off, and its orai border traversed by 
a muciferous tube having short lateral branches. The remaiuder of 
the suborbital chain unitas imperceptibly with the silvery integument 
of the cheek, but is indicated by its muciferous tube skirting the 
under curve of the orbit. When the head is allowed to dry, hovvever, 
the second and third suborbitars are perceived to be very narrow, and 
the fourth one much broader. 

The height of the body is about one-fifth of the totai length to 
the tips of the caudal, or, more CKactl)', a fourth of the length up to 
the end of the scales on that fin. It is a very little less than the 
length of the head. The thickness of the fish is greatest at the nape, 
which is much rounded, and is equal to half the greatest height of 
the body. The back is more obtuse than the belly. Lateral line 
decurved, running more than a third of the height from the rim of 
the belly, and traced on forty-seven scales. There are seven rows 
above the lateral line at the ventrals, and four below, making with 
the one contributing to form the line, twelve in all. Of these, two 
scales are below the upper ventral ray. There are about seventeen 
short lines on the base of a scale, and twelve or fourteen longer ones 
on the esposed disk, all radiating from one point. The concentric 
lines of structure are crowded, but very evident. 

Appendix. 

Museum of Practical Geology, 
Jermyn Street, 

November 27th, 1856. 
My dear Sir Roderick, 

I hasten to give you the results obtained in the exami- 
nation of waters vvhich were forvvarded to me by Mr. Reeks : — 



■.eRŽr?^ 




ProcZSlMkLsca-inyi. 




ICylmiireila. Gliiesbr-egtiii pr 2 C tarrisPf'' 3.C.cl87/aPP 
4 b.Vdiy -iuBte-Ef^an-oL var. 6, 7 K LombeiPf- axiA var 
aEGreviIleiPr 



GBSoirerWaele^ii. 



W;We8tIm{!. 



377 

1. Brine spring near Usdum with fish. Temp. 90° F. Spec. 
grav. 1-035. 

2. North End near Jordan, Temp. 83° F. Spec. grav. 1-196. 

3. Dead Sea, Usdum, South End. Temp. 83° F. Spec. grav. 
1-204. 

4. EI Lisan (Peninsula), North End. Spec. grav. 1-200. 

No. 1 smelt strongly of sulphuretted hydrogen, and contained a 
good deal of suspended matters. No. 2 pretty clear ; less sulphu- 
retted hydrogen. Nos. 3 and 4 clear, and no sulphuretted hydro- 
gen. 

I remain, 

My dear Sir Roderick, 

Yours very sincerely, 

A. W. HOFMAN. 

Sir Roderick Murchison, 

Calculated evaporation from the area of the Dead Sea at temp. 
84° F. (58-6 dew-pomt) 1,500,000,000 gallons, or 6,500,000 tons. 
Assumed area 320 square miles (H. Poole). 



3. Descriptions of Nineteen New Species of Land-Shells, 
FROM Mr. h. Cuming's Collection, collected by m. 
Ghiesbreght AT (Jhiapa, Mexico. By Dr. L. Pfeiffer. 

(MoUusca, PI. XXXVI.) 

1. SiMPULOPSis Chiapensis, Pfr. 5". testą depresse globosa, 
tenuissima, confertim striata, nitida, pellucida, cornea ; spira 
minuta, parum prominula ; sutura canaliculata ; anfr. 2\ con- 
vexis, ultimo magno ; columella tenui, arcuata ; apertura dia- 
gonali, lunato-circulari ; perisi, simplice, recto, margine dextro 
superne subrecedente. 

Diam. maj. Sį, min. 6^, alt. 4^ mill. 

2. Helix helictomphala, Pfr. II. testą umbilicata, depressa, 
solidu, obligue costulata, nitidula, pallide hitescenti-cornea ; 
spira vix elevata; anfr. 5\ convexiuscuUs, ultimo antice sub- 
dejlexo, supra medium siibcarinato, basi injlato, circa įimbili- 
eum, i diametri fere cBąuantem, scalariformem subcompresso, 
antice constricto et scrobiculato ; apertura diagonali, rotun- 
dato-lunari, dente linguceformi, sublibero parietis coarctata ; 
perist. albo, angulatim rejiexo, margine supero subhorizontali, 
dextro et basali acute unidentatis. 

Diam. maj. 12, min. lOi, alt. 5\ mill. 

3. Helix Chiapensis, Pfr. H. testą umbilicata, depressa, 
solidula, striata, nitida, albido-cornea, ad suturam fusculo- 
fasciata ; spira breviter conoidea ; an/r. 5h convexiuseidis, 

ultimo antice defiexo, superne turgido, subtus constricto, basi 



378 

inflato ; umbilico purvo, subregulari, pervio ; apertura diago- 
nali, magna, sinuato-lunari, dente parvulo, tenui, obliąuo, libero 
parietis subcoarctata ; perist. albo, breviter refiexo, marginibus 
conniventibus, mpero subascendente, dextro dente descendente et 
basali denticido obsolefo munito. 
Diam. maj. lOį, min. 9, alt. 6 mill. 

4. Spiraxis etjptycta, Pfr. Sp. testą turrita, solidula, plicis 
compressis, sujierne distantibus, deorsum confertioribus sculpta, 
nitidula, cereo-albida ; spira regulariter attenuata, acutius- 
cula ; sutura plicis excurrentibus crenata ; anfr. 9-9į convexis, 
ultimo I longitudinis vix cBquante, rotundato ; lamina columel- 
luri leviter tortą, subreflexa, non truncata ; apertura vix ob- 
liqua, oblonga ; perist. simplice, margine dextro antrorsum 
subarcuato. 

Long. 9i, diam. 2% mill. 

.'). Spiraxis dubia, Pfr. Sp. testą turrito-oblonga, solidula, 
plicis confertis, validis, obtusis inunita, nitidula, corneo-albida, 
strigis castaneis in medio anfr. ultirni evanescentibus irregu- 
lariter pieta, subvaricosa ; spira elongata, apice acuta ; anfr. 
9 convexiusculis, ultimo į longitudinis non attingente ; lamina 
columellari teimi, tortą, ad basin apertura subverticali, sub- 
rhombeam canalem formante ; perist . simplice, marginibus callo 
tenui junctis, dextro antrorsum leviter arcuato, basi recedente. 

Long. 9\, diam. fere 4į mill. 

6. Spiraxis biconica, Pfr. Sp. testą subfusiformi, utrinąue 
conico-attenuata, solidula, Icevigata, nitida, pallide rubenti- 
cornea ; spira conica, acutiuscula ; sutura marginata ; anfr. 7 
vix convexiusculis, ultimo spiram paulo superante, basi valde 
attenuato ; lamina columellari callosa, tortą, non truncata; 
apertura subverticali, angustissima, acuminato-oblonga ; perist. 
simplice, margine dextro valde antrorsum arcuato. 

Long. 13į, diam. G mill. 

7. Spiraxis catenata, Pfr. Sp. testą subfusiformi-oblonga, 
solidida, nitida, irregulariter striatula, corneo-lutescente, fascia 
castanea suturali, alteraque maculatim interrupta supra me- 
dium anfr. idtimi ornata ; spira conica, obtusula ; anfr. 6 
modice convexis, ultimo spira paulo longiore, basi subattenuato ; 
lamina columellari callosa, tortą, non truncata ; apertura ver- 
ticali, angusta, acuminata, sinuato-semiovali ; perist. simplice, 
margine dextro superne sinuoso, tum antrorsum arcuato. 

Long. 11, diam. 4 mill. 

8. Spiraxts oblonga, Pfr. Sp. testą oblonga, solidula, Icevi- 
gata, nitida, cornea ; spira elongato-conica, apice obtusa ; 
sutura levi, late marginata ; anfr. 5 planis, ultimo spiram vix 
superante, basi minime attenuato ; lamina columellari com- 
pressa, alte tortą, basi non truncata ; apertura verticali, an- 



379 



ffuste ovali, lonye acuminata ; perist. simpUce, margine dextro 
levtter antrorsutn arcuato. 
Long, 9f, diam. A\ mill. 

9. Spiraxis PARVULA, Pfr. Sp. testū subfusiformi-oblonga, 
tenui, hneis impressis irregulariter notata, nitida, pellucida 
cornea, obsolete 7-ufo-strigata ; spira conica, acutiuscula; su- 
turą rufo.margmata ; anfr. 6 convexiusculis, ultimo ^ longitu- 
dims formante, basi attenuato ; lamina columellari subincras- 
sata, tortą, non .truncata ; apertura anguste semiovali, longe 
acuminata; perist. simplice, margine dextro valde antrorsum 
arcuato. 

Long. 8, diam. vix 4 mill. 

10. AcHATiNA Chiapensis, Pfr. A. testą cylindraceo-turrita, 
solidula, conferte plicato-striata, nitida, pellucida, cerea • 
spira gracili, apice obtusula ; sutura subcrenulata marginata'; 
anfr. 9-10 convexis, ultimo \ longitudinis subcequante, basi 
rotundato ; columella subcallosa, strictiuscula, basi obliaue 
truncata; apertura subverticali, tetragono-ovali ; perist. sim- 
plice, recto. 

Long. 16, diam. 3i mill. 

11. AcHATiNA TRYPANODES, Pfr. A. testa cylindraceo-turrita 
solidula, conferte plicata, nitidula, subdiaphana, albido-cerea • 
sjnra subregulariter attenuata, obtusula ; sutura subcrenulata '■ 
anfr. 12, superis perconvexis, seąuentibus planioribus, ultimo i 
longitudinis vix ceąuante, basi rotundato ; columella brevi 
lemter arcuata, oblique truncata ; apertura subobliqua, ellip'. 
tico-ovali; perist. simplice, margine dextro leviter antrorsum 
arcuato. 

Long. 13, diam. 3 mill. 

1 2 ACHATINA (Oleacina) pulchella, Pfr. A. testa oblonga, 
tenuiuscula, sublcevigata (siib lente arcuatim et irregulariter 
striatula), nitida, corneo-albida, obsolete luteo-strigata ■ spira 
convexo.conica, acutiuscula ; sutura anguste marginata '■ anfr 
b modice convexis, ultimo f longitudinis vix ceąuante, basi sub- 
attenuato;. columella substricta, anguste truncata; apertura 
verttcah, sinuato-semiovali, longe acuminata; perist. simplice 
margine dextro antrorsum vix dilatato. ' 

Long. 10|, diam. 3| mill. 

13. Achatina (Oleacina) Ghiesbreghti, Pfr. A testa fu 
siformi, tenera longitudinaliter conferte plicata, striis tenuiš- 
simis undique decussata, sub epidermide pallide fulva albida ■ 
spira concaviusculo-conica, apice obtusa ; sutura crenulato- 
Jilomargmata ; anfr. 7 convexiusculis, ultimo spiram pauto su- 
perante, supenie tul-gido, basi valde attenuato ; columella ad 
basin aperturce transverse truncata, prope basin plica obliqua 



380 

munita; apertura angmta, acuminato-semiovali ; perist. siin- 
plice, rufulo-lhnbato, 
Long. 52, diam. 19 raill. 

14. Cylindrella Ghiesbreghti, Pfr. (PI. XXXVI. f. 1.) C. 

testą arcuato-rimata, cylindraceo-turrita, truncata, solida, 
nigro-fusca ; spira sensim attenuata, torte truncata ; anfr. 
superst. 10-11 vix convexiusculis, superis conferte striatis, in- 
ferioribus leviter fexuose pHcatis, ultimo antice soluto, striato, 
dorso angulato, infra medium obtuse carinato ; apertura ob- 
liąua, subangulato-ovali, basi subeffusa, intus i)lica valida, covi- 
pressa columeUce coarctata ; perist. continuo, flexuoso, albido, 
undique breviter reflexo. 

Long. 82, diam. 22 raill. 

/3. Testą tenui, cinnamomea, anfr. superst. 13-16. 

I.*). Cylindrella turris, Pfr. (PI. XXXVI. f. 2.) C. testą 
profunde subangidato-rimata, cylindraceo-turrita, truncata, 
tenui, confertissme sv.barcuato-striata, diaphana, oleoso-micante, 
rufa velfulvida ; spira sursum valde attenuata, magis minusye 
truncata ; anfr. superst. 1 8-24 subplanulatis, ultimo antice 
soluto, dorso et basi carinato, medio angulato ; apertura parnm 
obliqua, rhombeo-ovali, plica levi columeUce basi canaliculata ; 
perist. continuo, albo, undiųue expanso et refleiiusculo. 

Long. 68-72, diam. 14 mill. 

16. Cylindrella clava, Pfr. (PI. XXXVI. f. 3.) C. testą 
profunde arcuato-rimata, turrito-cglindracea, truncata, tenui- 
uscula, confertim arcuato-striata, diaphana, parum nitida, 
fulva ; spira sursum parum attenuata, latiuscule truncata; 

anfr. superst. 16-21 modice convexis, ultimo breviter soluto, 
dorso et basi carinato, latere filocarinato ; apertura rhombeo- 
ovali, plica levi profunda columeUce coarctata, basi canalicu- 
lata ; perist. continuo, albo, undique expanso et reflexiusculo . 
Long. 42-57, diam. 9-10 mill. 

17. Helicina Chiapensis, Pfr. H. testą globoso-turbinnta, 
t'nui, striatula et sxib lente magis minusve distincte malleata, 
rubello-cornea, obsolete saturatius fasciata ; spira turbinata, 
acuta ; anfr. 6 convexiusculis, ultimo spira fn ceąuante, peri- 
pheria obsoletissime subangidato ; columella brevi, antrorsum 
in denticulum desinente, superne callum crassiusculum, circum- 
scriptum emittente ; apertura ohliąua, acuminato-subovali ; 
perist. albo, late expanso, ad insertiones angustato. — Operc. 
tenue, nigro-purpurascens, nucleo pallido. 

Diam. maj. 12, min. 10, alt. 9 mill. 

18. Helicina BREViLABRis, Pfr. H. testą globoso-tvrbi^iata, 
solidida, striatula, striis spiralibus confertis sub lente decus- 
sata, parum nitida, fulvida vel lutescente, interdum fascia 1 
1-ubra cincta ; spira convexo-conica, acuta ; anfr. 5 vix con- 



6 



381 

vexiusculis, ultimo rotundato, spira breviore ; columella leviter 
arcuata, basi subsimpUce, callum emittente tenuem, diffusum ; 
apertura obliąua, f ere setnicirculari ; perisi, undiąue brevissime 
expanso. 
Diam. maj. 7, min. 6, alt. 5 mill. 

19. Helicina Ghiesbreghti, Pfr. H. testą conoidea, soli- 
dula, acute carinata, stj'iis incrementi et antrorsum deseenden- 
tibus sub lenfe decussatida, sulcisque spiralibus remotis sculpta, 
pallide liitea, ad suturam et carinam albo-fasciata ; spira con- 
vexo-conoidea, submucronata ; anfr. 5į vix co7ivexitisculis, ul- 
timo utrinąue convexiore ; columella brevi, superne impressa, 
basi tuberculata, callum emittente nitidum, diffusum; aper- 
tura perobli(iua, fere triangulari ; perist. calloso, late expanso 
et reJ{exiusculo, ad cariniam subrostrato. — Operc. solidtdum, 
nigro-castaneum. 

Diam. maj. 19į, min. 16, alt. 10 mill. 



4. Descriptions of Eighteen New Species of Land-Shells 

COLLECTED ON THE AdMIRALTY ISLANDS, FROM THE CoL- 
LECTION OF Mr. H. CuMING. By Dr. L. PfEIFFER. 

(Mollusca, PI. XXXVI.) 

1. Helix meta, Pfr. (PI. XXXVI. f. 4, 5.) H. testą subobtecte 

, nir\ . perforata, cnniformi, tenuiuscula, vix striatula, nitidu, colo- 

({( - ( ' ribus varia ; spira turbinata, acutiuscula ; anfr. 6-G|^ convex- 

^■f^įj.-/ iusculis, ultimo infra medium obtuse subangulato, basi modice 

■'■ ''- '■ convexo ; apertura diagonali, rhombeo-ovali ; perist. rejlexi- 

usculo, margine dextro subjlexuoso, basali reJlexo, cum colmnel- 

lari suhverticnli, triangulatim supra per/orationem reJlexo, an- 

gulum indistinctum formante. 

Diam. maj. 23, min. 20, alt. 26 mill. 

a. TJnicolor vitrina, perist, albo. 

/3. Citrina, f ascia suturali et vitta purpurascenti-nigra pone pe- 

ristoma nigro-violaceum ornata. 
y. Nigra,fascia 1 suturali pallida ornata, perist. nigro. 

. 2. Helix plagiostoma, Pfr. H. testą obligue umbilieata, 
vi • ' ^ irochiformi, tenuiuscula, leviter striata, nitida, fulva ; spira 

^..\} conica, acutiuscula; sutura submarginata ; anfr. 6 convex- 
iusculis, tdtimo antice vix descendente, carinato, basi plani- 
usculo ; apertura perobliqua, subrhombea ; perist. simplice, 
marginibus convergentibus, dextro late expanso, antrorsum 
arcuato, basali reJlexo, cum columellari triangulatim dilatato, 
libero, umbilicum non claudente angulum obtusum formante. 
Diam. maj. 23^, min. 19, alt, 21 mill. 

3. Helix majuscula, Pfr. H. testą umbilieata, depressa, 
suborbiculata, solidula, oblique striata et irregulariter malleata. 



U"^' 



382 

nitida, purpurascenti-fusca ; spira vix elevata, medio planą ; 
anfr. 5f parum convexis, lente accrescentibus, ultimo antice 
vix descendente, peripheria obtuse angidato, basi circa umbi- 
licum infundibuliformem, magnum subcompresso ; aperdura 
diagonali, lunari, i?ifus margaritacea ; perisi, calloso, albido, 
reflexiusculo, marginibus callo tenui junctis, basali perarcuato. 
Diam. maj. 44, min. 39, alt. 16 mill. 

4. Helix auERCiNA, Pfr. H. testą umbilieata, globoso-conoi- 
dea, solidu, obliąue striata et impresso-punctata, rufo-castanea ; 
spira conoidea, acutiusctda ; dnfr. 5 modice convexis, idtimo 
rotundato, untice vix descendente, juxta umbilicum angustum 
leviter canaliculato ; aperturafere diagonali, rotundato-lunari, 
intus ccerulescenti-albida ; perist. calloso, albo, brevissime re- 
fiexo, margine columellari triangulatim dilatato, libero. 

Diam. maj. 36, min. 31, alt. 23 mill. 

5. Hel.ix Hombroni, Pfr. //. testą angustissime utnbilicata, 
conoideo-subglobosa, tenuiuscula, oblique striata et pilis brevibus 
rigidis obsita, saturate castanea ; spira breviter conoidea, acu- 
tiuscula ; anfr. 5|- convexiusculis, lente accrescentibus, ultimo 
vix descendente, peripheria subangulato, basi inflato ; aper- 
tura fere verticali, subauriformi-lunari, intus albida ; perist. 
albo, marginibus remotis, supero brevi, subhorizontali, expanso, 
basali subjlexuoso, breviter reJlexo, ad umbilicum dilatato. 

Diam. maj. 34, min. 29, alt. 18 mill. 

This is prohably the H. Fanellei, Hombr. & Jacq., figured in the 
Voy. au Pole Sud, Atl. pi. 4. f. 15-18, but the name has been pre- 
occupied by Le Guillon, 1842. 

6. Helix Lombei, Pfr. (PI. XXXVI. f. 6, 7.) H. testaimper- 
. !' : forata, depresso-turbinata, tenuiuscula, striatula et striis le- 

"k *" vissimis antrorsum descendentibus decussatula, albida, fasciis 

, '" 2 latis fidvo-fuscis, maculisąue variis nigy-icantibus notata ; 

. r I spira conoidea, acutiuscula ; anfr. 5 convexis, ultimo depresso- 

rotundato, antice descendente, peripheria subangulato (angulo 
antice evanescente) ; columella intrante, declivi, lata, excavata, 
alba ; apertura perobliqua, lunato-ovali ; perist. albo, margi- 
nibus conniventibus, dextro late expanso, basali lato, plano. 
Diam. maj. 31, min. 24, alt. 17 mill. 
/3. Lutescens, nigro late bifasciata. 
y. Albida, strigis obliquis diaphano-griseis pieta. 

7. Helix rLEXiLABRis, Pfr. H. testą imperforata, turbinata, 
solidula, striolis obliąuis et levissimis antrorsum descendentibus 
subgranulata, fulvido-albida, fasciis nigro-castaneis latis vel 
angustis ornata ; spira turbinata, obtusula ; anfr. 5^ convexi- 
usculis, ultimo antice descendente, peripheria obsoletissime sub- 
angulato ; columella intrante, compressa, subarcuato-declivi ; 
apertura perobliąua, lunato-elliptica ; perist. late expanso, 



383 

marginibua conniventibus, dextro flexuoso, reflexm8culo, colu- 
mellari sursum adnato. 
Diam. maj. 27, min. 21į, alt. 23 mill. 

Nearly allied to H. coniformis, F^r., from which it differs by its 
whorls being less convex, tbe aperture elliptically produced, and the 
peristome. 

įĮ^i'l I 8. Helix PHTHisiCA, Pfr. H. testą imperforata, trochiformi, 
^^jLU^ solidula, striatula et rugis distinctis subdistantibus, antrorsum 

\jSP' ^ descendentibus sculpta, opaca, sordide alba ; spira regulariter 
conica, acutiuscula ; anfr. 5 planinsculis, ultimo vix descen- 
dente, paulo convexiore, subangulato, basi virenti-fulvo, radiato- 
striato, suleis nonnidlis spiralibus notato, nitido ; columella 
declivi, compressa, strictiuscula, lata, subexcavata ; apertura 
perobliqua, truncato-eUiptica ; perist. subincrassato, margini- 
bus mx convergentibus, dexfro breviter reflexo, antrorsum ar- 
cuato, basali lato, patente. 
Diam. maj. 23, min. 18, alt. 20 mill. 

This sbell differs from H. vexillaris, Pfr., by its solid structure, 
the spire being highly conical, the distant folds, the peristome, &c. 

9. Helix xiphias, Pfr. H. testą umbilicata, depressissima, te- 
nuiuscula, oblique striata, albido-cornea.fasciis 4 angustis casta- 
neis, medianis 2 earince acutcB, albce contiguis, ornata ; spira 
vix elevata vel subimmersa ; sutura carina marginata ; anfr. 
5 convexiusculis, lente accrescentibus, ultimo non descendente ; 
umbilico į diametri ceąuante ; apertura perobliąua, angulato- 
lunari ; j}erist. simplice, recto, marginibus subconvergentibus, 
dextro antrorsum arcuato, columellari subincrassato, basi no- 
duhim callosum gerente. 

Diam. maj. 18, min. 15į, alt. 4^-5 mill. 

/3. Paulo minor, fusca, fasciis ohsoletis. 

To be compared with H. entomostoma, Jacq. Voy. Pole Sud, Atl. 
pi. 7. f. 22-25. 

10. Helix SEBACEA, Pfr. H. testą umbilicata, conoideo-semi- 
globosa, solidula, substriata, parum nitida, sebacea ; spira 
convexo-conoidea, obtusa ; sutura submarginata ; anfr. 6 con- 
vexiusculis, lente accrescentibus, ultimo 7ion descendente, ob- 
solete angulato ; umbilico aperto, \ diametri vix reguanfe ; 
apertura perobligua, lunato-ovali ; perist. subsimplice, margi- 
nibus convergentibus, dextro recto, antrorsum arcuato, basali 
subincrassato, ad umbilicum vix dilatato. 

Diam. maj. 17^, min, 15, alt. 10 mill. 

11 . H. EUSTOMA, Pfr. H. testą umbilicata, depressa, striatula 
et quincuncialiter punctata {pilosal), aurantiaco-fusca ; spira 
planą; anfr. A\ convexis, ultimo alto, injiato, antice sensim 
descendente et rufescente, basi circa umbilicum infundibuli- 



384 

formem aubangulato ; apertura obliqua, elegantissime rotuti- 
dato-lunari ; perist. subincrassato, undique breviter ręflexo, 

fusco-carneo, marginibus conniventibus, callo junctis, columel- 
lari vix dilatato. 
Diam. maj. 21, min. \1\, alt. 11 raill. 

12. Hel,ix URSiNA, Pfr. H. testą umbilicata, depressa, tenui- 
uscula, striatula et sublente punctulata, vix nitidula, saturate 
brunnea ; spira brevissime conoidea, vertice subtili ; anfr. b\ 
modice convexis, ultimo majore, inflato, non descendente, circa 
umbilicum angustum, pervium subcompresso ; apertura dia- 
gonali, lunato-ovali, i?itus lilaceo-rnargaritacea ; perist. tenui, 
marginibus distantibus, dextro arcuato, breviter expanso, co- 
lumellari declivi, reJlexiusculo, ad umbiJiciim dilatato. 

Diam. maj. 20, min. 17, alt. \Q\ mill. 

13. Hklix murina, Pfr. H. testą iimbilicata, depresse turbi- 
nato-globosa, tenui, ruguloso-striata, granulato-subasperata, 
saturate rufa ; spira breviter conoidea, obtusida ; anfr. f ere 5 
convexis, ultimo injlato, antice vix descendente, circa umbilicum 
mediocrem, j)ervium subcompresso ; apertura diagonali, lunato- 
rotundata, intus submargaritacea ; perist. fusco-carneo, undi- 
que breviter e.tpanso, marginibus subconvergentibus, columellari 
superne dilatato, fomicatim reflexo. 

Diam. maj. 15, min. 12, alt. 9 mill. 

14. Partula strigosa, Pfr. P. testą perforata, oblongo- 
conica, solidula, obsoletissime decussatula, subopaca, albida, 
strigis irregidaribus fidvis vel rufs ornata ; spira conica, apice 
acuta ; anfr. 5 subplanis, ultitno spira vix breviore, basi sub- 
attenuato, rotundato ; columella superne subtorta, basi subno- 
dosa ; apertura vix obliąua, truncato-ovali, interdum callo 
nodiformi parietis coarctata ; perist. albo, calloso, undique sub- 
eequaliter patente. 

Long. 17-18, diam. 9 mill. 

15. Partula minuta, Pfr. P. testą perforata, globoso-conica, 
tenui, striatula striisque spiralibus subgranulata, pallide ful- 
vescente, diaphana ; spira brevi, conica, obtusula ; anfr. 4 
convexis, ultimo globoso, į longitudinis formante ; columella 
subsimplice, leviter recedente ; apertura parum obliqua, ovali; 
perist. tenui, albo, marginibus approximatis, dextro superne 
perarcuato, expanso, columellari latiore, patente. 

Long. 10|^, diam. 7 mill. 

16. Cyclostoma (Leptopoma) Hanleyanum, Pfr. C. testą 
vix perforata, globoso-turbinata, tenuiuscula, striis spiralibus 
confertissimis subundulatis, lirisque nonnullis levibus obtusis 
cincta, fulvida, Jiammis angulosis fuscis marmorata ; spira 
turbinata, apice acutiusculo, nigricante ; anfr. 5 convexis, 
ultimo inflato, circa perforationem subclausam pallide ; aper- 



385 



turą obltąua subangulato-circulari ; perist. subduplice interno 
v^.^nterrupo, adnato, e.terno patente, concentrfce stiatuo, 
fulZn " "'"' ^'-'^'"*"" refle.o.--Operc. planum, 

Diam. maj. 12, min. 10, alt. 10 miU. 

17. Helicina gratiosa, Pfr. H. testą suhgloboscturbinata 

^r ll "'Tl''' *'"■"'" *^^''-«^^'^«* obsoletissi..e Zata, 
nitida, pelucida fuscescenti-rubra vel lutea ; spira conoidea 
acut^scula; an/r. 5conve.iuscu/is, ulthno subcLnato antte 
9otundato; columella subrecedente, alba, callum emittente 
amdum; apertura oblUua, subtriangulato-semicirculari Tpe- 
7eum '^''' '" '"^P^'^'^—Operc. tenue, solidum, oar- 

Diam. maj. 9, mia. 7h alt. fere 6 mill. 

\ča'^T''^ '""f ''; V'- ^- ^''''' t^rbinata, teaui, nitidis- 
ZhJll^iTi '''"*''^'' *^""'^"" spiralibus conferte notata, 
rubella albido-marmorata, vel lutea aut carnea nallide rubro 
vanjata; sp^ra conoidea, acuta ; anfr.fere 5 cinve.iul^l 
ultimocompresse et acute carinato, basi conve^iore ; columella 
brevi basi subdentata callum emittente crassiusculum diffusum; 
apertura obhciua, subtnangulari ; perist. albo, margine supero 
breviter expanso, basali reJlexiusculo.~Operc f 
Uiam. maj. lOi min. 8f, alt. 6f mill. 

Besides the described new species, there were in the šame collectiou 
from the Admiralty slands, Helix Novce Hibernic, Quoy,>° S. 
Pfr. (beautitul and large varieties), migratoria, Pf?, Sachalenl' 
Pfr., motacMa,Vi, Cleryi, ^.c\.,helicinoides, Jacą. pglisuS 
Grimardi, Desh., bretipila, Pfr., Pfeifferi, Phil., &c. ^•/^'*' '^'°'^'' 

5. Descriptions of Thirty-three New SpįciES OF Land- 

&HELLS, FROM THE CoLLECTION OF H. CuMING, EsQ. 

By Dr. L. Pfeiffer. 
(MoUusca, PI. XXXVI.) 

'■™'' Gi-ORIOSA Pfr. H. testą imperforata, depresse ovata. 
aassa.ponderosa. oblicue conferte plicato-striata lirisaue crebriš 
obtusis subregularibus cincta, fulvida, strigis singulispallidis et 
saturatonbus notata; spira convexa. obtusa. nuda. sub lente 
granulata, apice subtilissimo ; anfr. 3^ rapide accrescentibus, ui- 
timo perinflaio ; apertura diagonali, lunato- ovali, inius rubella- 
perist. crassissimo breviter expanso. marginibus callo crass'o 
junctis, columellar i adnato. 

Diam. maj. 64, min. 50, alt. 39 mill. 

Hab. Madagascar. 

2. nELix DUCTiLis, Pfr. H. testą umbilicata, discoidea, tenui 
No. CCCXXV.— Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



386 

sub lente confertim striatula, albido-hy alina ; spira planą ; anfr. 
fere 5 suhplanis, sensim accrescentibus, ultimo non descendente, de- 
presso, peripheria rotundato, basi vix convexiore ; umbilico per- 
spectivo, i diametri superante ; apertura obligua, late Itinari ; 
perist. simplice, recto, marginibus vix convergentibus, columellari 
brevi, certicali, cum basali subangulatim juncto, 

Diam. raaj. 6^, miu. 5į, alt. 2 mill. 

Hab. Drayton Range, Nortli Australia (^Mr. Stutchbury). 

3. Helix Stutchburyi, Pfr. H. testą sub obtecte perforata, 
tvrbinato-globosa, tenvi, superne sub lente minute granulata, pal- 
lide fulva, ad suturam et supra medium rufo-fasciata ; spira 
convexo-conoidea, obtvsula; anfr. 5 convexiusculis, ultimo rotun- 
dato, c.nlice vix descendente, basi lavigato ; apertura diagonali, 
rotundato-lunari ; perist. tenui, marginibus subco7ivergentibus, 
dextro vix expansiusculo, basali breviler reflexo, columellari for- 
nicatim dilatuto, umbilicum angustissimumfere tegente. 

Diam. maj. ITii min. 13į, alt. 10 mill. 

Hab. Drayton Range, North Australia (Mr. Stutchbury). 

4. Helix DELTA, Pfr. H. testą sub obtecte perforata, trockiformi, 
tenuiuscula, striatula et foveolata, opaca, carneo-albida ; spi7-a 
regulariter conica, apice acuta ; anfr. 6 planis, ultimo non de- 
scendente, subacute carinato, basi conveziusculo ; apertura fere 
diagonali, angulato-lunari ; perist. simplice, margine dextro recto, 
basali reflexiusculo, columellari supra perforationem dilatato, pa- 
tente. 

Diam. maj. 8, miu. 7\, alt. Oį mill. 

Hab. Drayton Range, North Australia {Mr. Stutchbury). 

5. Helix pliculosa, Pfr. H. testą umbilicata, turbinato-globu- 
losa, tenuiuscula, superne confertim plicosa, dinphana, parum ni- 
tida, rūbelio- cornea ; spira conoidea, vertice subtili; anfr. A\ 
convexiusculis, ultimo supra medium subangulato, antice rotundato, 
vix descendente, basi injtato, circa umbilicum angustum, pervium 
subcompresso ; apertura obligua, lunato-rotundata ; perist. albido, 
marginibus subconniventibus , dextro expansiusculo, columellari 
sursum dilatato, cum basali angulum obtusum formante. 

Diam. maj. 16, miu. 13, alt. 10 mill. 

Hab. Drayton Range, North Australia {Mr. Stutchbury). 

6. Hel,ix castrensis, Pfr. H. testą imperforata, conoideo- 
semiglobosa, solida, rugoso-pUcatula et irregulariter subgranulata, 
pallide fulvida, strigis fuscis crebris regulariter radiata ; spira 
convexiusculo-conoidea, obtusula ; anfr. 4 vix convexiusculis , ultimo 
medio subacute carinato, antice breviter descendode, inflato, basi 
pallidiore ; apertura perobligua, subtriangulari-lunari ; perist. 
albo, margine dextro arcuato, breviter reflexo, basali dilatato, ad- 
nato, introrsum dentibus 2 obtusis plicaformibus munito. 

Diam. maj. 25, min. 21, alt. 15 mill. 
Hab. West Indies. 



387 



7. Helix Lindstedti, Pfr. H. testą sinistrorsa, perforata 
conoideo-lenticulari, carinata. tenui, diaphana, superne undulato- 
striata et mtnutissime granulata, parum nitida, rubello-lutescente ■ 
spira regulariter elevata, obtusa ; sutura lineari ■ anfr 6 via 
niuscubs, sensim accrescentibus, ultimo non descendente. sLra 
medium acute carinato, basi conveoco. nitidissimo, non decussato 
circa perforationem non apertam albido ; aperturafere diaaonali 
securiformi; perist. simplice, recto, margine cotumellari in lami- 
nam drevėm revolutam dilatato. 

Diam. maj. Zh\, min. 31, alt. 14 mill. 

Hab. Malacca {Rev. F. W. Lindstedt). 

8 Helix Bourguignati, Pfr. H. testą umbilicata, globoso- 
depressa, tenm, mmutissime malleato-striata, parum nitente dia- 
phana carnea ; spira breviter conoidea, vertice subtili, lute o ■ 
anfr. 6 convexiusculis, regulariter accrescentibus. ultimo rotun- 
dato, anttce vix descendente; umbilico angusto, vix pervio ■ aper- 
turą obliqua, rotundato-lunari ■ perist. intus albolabiato. maraini- 
bus vixconvergentibus, deMro recto, basali refle^iusculo, ad umbi- 
hcum dilatato, patulo. 

Diam. maj. 19, min. 16, alt. 11 milI. 

Hab. Crimea. 

9. Helix Adelaide, Pfr. H. testą umbilicata, depressa, cari- 
nata. tenuiuscula. striata, alba. fascia fuscula supera ornata ■ 
spira vtx elevata, vertice obtusiusculo , corneo ; anfr. 4 convexius 
cuhs. ultimo non descendente, supra peripheriam subacute carinato 
basi inflato; umbihco perspectivo, J- diametrifere aouante ; aper- 
tura f ere diagonali, lunato-rotundata, ad carinam vix angulafa ■ 
perist recto, mtus levissime labiato. marginibus conniventibuš 
cotumellari subpatulo. 

Diam. maj. 6, min. o, alt. fere 3 mill. 

Hab. Adelaide, Australia. 

10. Helix chionodiscus, Pfr. H. testą subobtecte umbilicata 
conoideo-lentiformi, carinata, solida. rugoso-striatula. opaca 
nivea ; spira convexiusculo-conoidea, nucleo laviusculo, obtuso '■ 
anfr. 5 vix convexiusculis, ultimo antice breviter deflexo infr'a 
suturam Imearem turgidulo. peripheria magis viinusve, acute cari- 
nato, basi convexo ; apertura diagonali, rhombeo-lunari ; perist 
subcalloso, marginibus subparallelis, dextro recto, basali per 
arcuato, reJtexo, versus umbilicum sensim dilatato, lamina lata 
adnata illumfere claudente. 

Diam. maj. 26, min. 23, alt. 13 mill. 

Hab. Crimea. 

11. Helix Grevillei, Pfr. (PI. XXXVI. fig. 8.) H testą 
imperforata, conica, solida, striatula et plicis validis obliaue an- 
trorsum descendentibus , interdum malleato-interruptis munita 
castanea. strtgis sparsis nigricantihus notata ; spira conoidea 



388 

apice rosea, acutiuscula ; an/r. 4\ convexiusculis, rapide accres- 
centihvs, penultimo suhtus albo-calloso, ultimo antice descendente, 
peripheria obtuse sed distincte angulato ; apertura perobligua, 
truncato-oblonga, intus pallide ceerulescente ,• perist. nigro, ex- 
punso et reflexo, marginibus parallelis, callo nigro junctis, colu- 
mellari dilatato, plano, adnato, dextrorsum subdentato, ad axin 
albido. 

Diam. maj. 49-58, miu. 36-42, alt. 32-39 mill. 

Hab. Ceylon {Mr. Thicaites). 

12. Ennea iNSiGNis, Pfr. E. testą breviter rimata, ovato-oblonga, 
tenuissima, obligue confertim striata, striisque spiralibus versus 
basin evanescentibus decussatula, nilida,pellucida, cereo-hyalina ; 
spira ovoidea, apice obtusa ; sutura submarginata ; anfr. 7 con- 
v€xiusculis, penultimo supra aperturam subplanato, ultimo y lon- 
gitudinis formante, antice arcuatim ascendente, juxta rimam sub- 
compressu ; columella recedente, dentato-plicata ; perist. tenui, 
albo, undigue expanso, margine columellari dilatato, patente. 

Long. 37, diam. 20 mill. 

Hab. Gaboon, Africa (Mr. Auboy). 

13. BuLiMus Palavanensis, Pfr. B. testą imperforata, ob- 
longa, solida, striatula, epidermide fusco-cinerea, castaneo varie 
strigata, sv.rsum detrita munita; spira convexiusculo-conica, apice 
obtusula ; anfr. 5-5i modice convexis, ultimo spiram subaguante 
vel breviore ; columella substricta, albida ; apertura obligua, trun- 
cato-ovali, intus griseo-carulescente ; perist. calloso, nigricante, 
breviter reflexo, 

Long. 48-49, diam. 27 mill. 
Hab. Palawaii (Dr. Traill). 

14. BuLiMUS LiBROSOS, Pfr. B. testą imperforata, ovato-oblonga, 
solida, striatula, epidermide subhydrophana, Ubro-cinerea, fusco 
irregulariter strigata et ad suturam ocellata obducla ; spira con- 
vexiusculo-conica, obtusa ; anfr. 5į planiusculis, ultimo spira vix 
breviore, epidermide decidua circa columellam palUdam, comprcs- 
sani, substrictam saturate castanea, nitida ; apertura obligua, 
ovali oblonga, intus ceerulescente ; perist. castaneo-nigro, subin- 
crassato, revo'uto, margine dextro leviter arcuato. 

Long. 40, diam. 21 mill. 
Hab. Palawan {Dr. Traill). 

15. BuLiMUS LiNDSTEDTi, Pfr. B. testą sinistrorsa, imperfo- 
rata, ovato-conica, solida, striatula, nitida, candida ; spira elon- 
gato-conica, apice obtusula ; anfr. 6^ convexiusculis, ultimo ^ 
longitudinis subaguante, obsolete angulato, antice rotundato ; co- 
lumella subverticali, vix tortą ; apertura f ere diagonali, subsemi- 
circulari ; perist. leviter incrassato, expanso, marginibus callo 
concolore junctis. 

Long. 39, diam. 1/ mill. 

Hab. Malacca (Rev. F. IF. Lindstedt). 



389 
16 



6 BuLiMUs PARALLELus. Pfr. B. testū compresss umbilicata. 
fusi/orrm, temiuscula, striatula.fulva, epidermide albida subreli- 
culata; spira elongato-conica, obtusa ; anfr. 7 modice convexis, 
ultmo spira paulo breviore, basi compresso ; columella superne 
leviler torto-phcata ; aperturu verticali. oblonga, lateribus parai- 
lehs. basi effusa utruiįue fusco-slrigata ; perisi, tenui, albo, ex. 
panso, margine dextro supramedium impresso , columellari latiore 
sulco arcuato ab anfractu contiguo separato. 

Long. 22, diam. 7 mill. 

Hab. St. Catheriue's, Brazil. 

17. BuLiMUS Catharin^, Pfr. B. testą breviter rimata, sub- 
perforata, fusiformi, soUdula, undique leviler punclato-rugulosa. 
albida, punctis corneis substrigatim conspersa ; spira ventroso-tur- 
rita, apice aculmscula ; anfr. Si convexiusculis. ullimo i lonai- 
tudmis vtx atlingente. basi crisla valida, compressa ei pone žilam 
minore munito, antice interneet exlerne interruple mgro-strigato ■ 
apertura obliąua, subseptemdentala ; plica 1 lamelllformi in pa- 
viete, secunda subquadrangulari ad coltmellam, tertia oblioua in 
lateresmislro baseos effusce, 3 subcegualibus et 1 minula in mar- 
gme dextro; perisi, albo, undique modice expanso. 

Long. 23-25, diam. 7^-8 mill. 

Hab. St. Catherine's, Brazil. 

18 BuLiMus suGiLLATtis, Pfr. B. lesta anguste umbilicata, ob- 
longo-turrita. lenui, zrregulariter plicato-striala, cornea, strigis 
subpunctalis opacis albis, singulisgue rufis notata ; spira elon- 
gato.conica, acutaj sutura levissime crenulata ; anfr. 9 convexis 
ultimo ^ longitudims submquante, basi subcompresso ; columella 
leviler et stricte recedente ; apertura parum obligua, oblonga: 
perisi, simplice, margine dextro recto, columellari sursum dilatato 
fornicahm refiexo. «'«tw, 

Long. 24, diam. 9i mill. 

Hab. Bolivia. 

19. BuLiMus Gayi, Pfr. B. testą subobtecle umbilicata, conico- 
ovata,sohdula,fusca fasciis angustis albis vario ornala ; spira 
conica, obtusa; anfr. 5 modice convexis. ultimo spiram piuh 
superante basi rotundato ,■ columella leviler arcuafa ,■ apeHura 
parum obhgua, truncato-ovali, inlus albida ,■ perist. simplice mar- 
feZtelZV'"' '"^"""'^^''^ P'^dilalato, umbilicum\nguslum 

Long. 27, diam. 1 6 mill. 
Hab. Bolivia. 

20 BuLiMus Sabatieri, Pfr. B lesta subperforata, ovato-ob- 
longa tenuiuscula subUvigala. irregulariter striatula, strigis un- 
dulatis pallide lutescentibus et saturate brunneis alternantZs 
pieta; spira conica. sursum pallidiore, apice obluso ,■ anfr (y 
parum convexis, ultimo spira paulo breviore, infra mediumobso- 
leleangulato; columella stricta, violaceo-fusca' apertura parum 



390 

obliqua, angusle elUptica ; perist. simplice, recto, margine colu- 

mellari sursum dilatato, reflexo, subadnato. 
Long. 22, diam. 12 mill ; ap. 11 mill. longa, 5^ lata. 
Hab. Banks of tlie " Fleuve blanc," China ? {Mr. Sabatier). 

21. BuLiMUS DuTAiLLYi, Pfv. B. testa subperforata, oblongo- 
turrita, temti, confertim plicatula, nitida, albida, fasciis 6-7 iri- 
terruptis spadiceis ornata ; spira elongata, apice acuta ; anfr. 7 
conveociusculis , ultimo | longitudinis subceqnante, basi attenuato ; 
columella vix arcuata, subrecedente ; apertura vix obligua, ellip- 
tico-oblonga ; perist. simplice, recto, margine columellari papy- 
raceo, superne reJlexo, subadnato . 

Long. 31, diam. 12 mill. ; ap. \Z\ mill. longa, 6į lata. 
Hab. Brazils {Mr. Dutailly). 

22. BuLiMUS PLicuLATUS, Pfr. B. testa umbilicata, ovato- 
conica, tenuiuscula, plicis levibus, subvariciformibus sculpta, haud 
nitente, pallide grisea, strigis angustissimis nlbis etfuscis irregu- 
lariter pieta ; spira conica, acuta ; anfr. 7 convexiusculis, ultimo 
spira paulo breviore, basi circa umbilicum mediocrem, rotundum 
subcompresso ; columella substricta ; apertura vix obliąua, ellip- 
tico-oblonga ; perist. simplice, recto, margine columellari a basi 
dilatato, subfornicatim reflexo. 

Long. 23, diam. llį mill. 
Hab. Bolivia. 

23. BuLiMUS Clouei, Pfr. B. testa perforata, ovaio-turrita, so- 
lidula, striata et interdum submalleata, alba, strigis, maculis et 
punctis corneo-fnscis irregulariter notata ; spira elongato-conica, 
acutiuscula; anfr. 7 modice convexis, ultimo f longitudinis vix 
(Equante, subangulato, circa perforationem non perviam corneo- 
areolato ; columella breviter recedente ; apertura obligua, sinuato- 
ovali, intus fuscula ; perist. breviter expanso, margine columellari 
superne dilatato, reflexo, tuni angulo obtuso ad basin descendente. 

Long. 22, diam. 10 mill. 
Hab. Brazil (Mr. Cloui). 

24. BuLiMUS PUNCTICULATUS, Pfr. B. testa profunde et com- 
presse umbilicata, ovato-conica, tenuiuscula, sublcevigata, nitida, 
albida, punctis pellucidis raris conspersa ; spira elongato-conica, 
acutiuscula; anfr. 7 planiusculis, summis lutescentibus, ultimo 
spira breviore, antice ascendente, basi levissime compresso ; colu- 
mella subrecedente, leviter arcuata; apertura subverticali, ob- 
longo- ovali ; perist. simplice, margine dextro breviter expanso, 
columellari perdilatato , subflexuoso, patente. 

Long. 29, diam. \2\ mill. 
Hab. Bolivia. 

2.5. PARTUI.A ALABASTRiNA, Pfr. P. tcsta compresse umbilicata, 
oblongo-conica, tenui, levissime striatula, vix nitidula, lutescenti- 
nlabastrina ; spira conica, obtusula ; anfr. 5^ convexis, ultimo 



391 

spiram vix superante, basi attenuato, subcompresso ; apertura 
parum obligua, obligue truncato-oblonga ; columella substricte re- 
cedente ; perist. albo, marginibus callo tenuissimo junctis, dextro 
late expanso, columellari latissimo, patente. 

Long. 23, diam. 1 1 mill. 

Hab. Salomon's Islands. 

26. Cyclostoma (Cyclotus) Lindstedti, Pfr. C. testą um- 
bilicata, depressa, subdiscoidea, distincte striata, strigis fulguran- 
tibus nigro-fuscis et luteis, superne latis, subtus Unearibus pieta ; 
spira vix elevata ; anfr. 4 convexis, celeriter accrescentibus, iiltimo 
terete, vix descendente ; umbilico lato, \ diametri superante ; aper- 
tura obligua, subcirculari ; perist. breviter adnato, duplicato ; in- 
terno expansiusculo , externo albo, undique subaąualiter patente. — 
Operc. Cycloti. 

Diam. maj. 11, min. 9, alt. 4 mill. 

Hab. Mount Ophir, Malacca (Rev. F. W. Lindstedi). 

27. Cataulus h^mastomus, Pfr. C. testą breviter et profunde 
rimata, ovali-pyramidali, tenuiuscula, conferte striatula, parum 
nitente, diaphana, citrina ; spira convexiusculo-turrita, apice sub- 
acuta ; sutura submarginata ; anfr. 8 convexis, ultimo vix atte- 
nuato, basi axin excedente ; carina umbilicali valida, compressa, 
antrorsum vix dilatata ; periomphalo lato, costulato-striato ; aper- 
tura subcirculari; perist. fusco-sanguineo, simplice, ad anfrac- 
tum contiguum angustato, lateribus rectangule late patente et re- 
voluto, basi subproducto, canali mediocri perforato. 

Long. 27-28, diam. 11-12 mill. 
Hab. Ceylon {Mr. Thwaites). 

28. Helicina (Alcadia) rhamphostyla, Pfr. H. testą co- 
noideo-globosa, solida, sublcevigata, albida vel lutescente ; spira 
breviter conoidea, obtusula ; anfr. 4^, superis vix convexiusculis, 
ultimo magno, rotundato ; columella luta, superne in callum cras- 
sum, semicircularem dilatata, basi dextrorsum curvata ; apertura 
obligua, subsemicirculari ; perist. expanso, tenui, intus calloso, 
margine dextro subrepando, basali sinu profundo ab eictremitate 
rostriformi columellce disjuncto, praterea plica pone columellam 
intrante munito. — Operc. ? 

Diam. maj. 15^, min. 13, alt. 12 mill. 
Hab. ? 

29. Helicina NoRFOLKENSis, Pfr. H. testą depresso-turbinata, 
solidula, leviter striata, albida ; spira conoidea, versus apiceni 
minute papillarem lutescente; anfr. 5 vix convexiusculis, ultimo 
antice rugoso, peripheria subangulato, basi planiusculo, callo gra- 
nuloso nitido circumscripto et epidermide fulva decidua obducto ; 
columella brevi, arcuata; apertura f ere diagonali, subtriangulari- 
lunari ; perist. simplice, recto, margine basali subincrassato. — 
Operc. testaceum, pallidum. 

Diam. maj. 14, min. 12, alt. 8 mill. 
Hab. Norfolk Islands. 



392 

30. Helicina pictella, Pfr. H. testą conoideo-depressa, tenui, 
suh lente tenuiter et subconferte Uratą, parum nitida, diaphana, 
pallide cornea, ad suturam rubro-maculata ; spira breviter conoi- 
dea; anfr. 4 convexiusculis, ultimo subangulato, basi callo tenui 
subcircumscripto obducto ; columella brevissima, simplice, tenui ; 
apertura parum oblicuu, semiovali ; perist. simplice, recto, mar- 
gine basali anyulmn rectum cum columella formante . — Operc. ? 

Diam. maj. 4, min. 3^, alt. 2 mill. 

Hab. Norfolk Islands. 

31. Helicina Draytonensis, Pfr. H. testą conoidea, solidula, 
ruguloso-striata striisgue spiralibus nonnullis notata, parum nitida, 
carnea ; spira conoidea, apice mucronulata, lutea ; anfr. 4^ pla- 
niusculis, ultimo subcarinato, basi convexiore, callo tenui, subdif- 
fuso obducto ; apertura diagonuli, triangulari- semiovali ; perist. 
albo, breviter cjcpanso, margine basali teviter arcuato, angulatim 
cum columella brevi, simplice juncto. — Operc. ? 

Diam. maj. 5i, min. 4į, alt. 3\ mill. 

Hab. Drayton Range, North Australia. 

32. Helicina Heatei, Pfr. H. testą subdepressa, tenuiuscula, 
strialula et subgranulata, parum nitida, f asciis latis saturate pur- 
pureis et albis pieta ; spira brevissime conoidea, mucronulata ; 
anfr. 5 vix convexiusculis, ultimo lalo, peripheria subcarinato, 
basi circa callum fuho-avrantiacum, circumscriptum albo ; aper- 
tura perobliqua, triangulari-semiovali ; columella brevi, perar- 
cuata ; perist. refiexo, Icete uurantiaco, margine basali levissime 
arcuato, immediale in callum basalem continuato. — Operc. P 

Diain. maj. 14, miii. 11|^, alt. 7^ mill. 

/3. Lutea, spira et fascia unica anfr. ultimi supera purpureis, callo 

basali et peristomate igneis. 
Hab. Island of Granada, West Indies (named after R. IV. Heate, 
Esq., Lieut.-Governor of the Island). 

33. Helicina rufa, Pfr. H. tešla subconoideo-depressa, soli- 
dula, subrugoso-striata et pu7ictulata, nitida, rufa ; spira subco- 
noideoconvexa, vertice subtili ; anfr. 4į, superis planiusculis , 
ultimo luto, depresso, peripheria subrotundato ; apertura diago- 
7iali, lute semiovali ; columella verticaliter ab anfr. penultimo de- 
scendente, leviter curvata, atitice in tuberculum desinente, callum 
basalem emittente subgranulatum, circumscriptum ; perist . bre- 
viter expanso, albo-limbato. — Operc. concolor. 

Diam. maj. 13, min. 11, alt. 6f mill. 

/3. Pallide straminea, perist. intus pallide uurantiaco. 

y. Minor, rufa. 

Diam. maj. 10, min. 8f, alt. 5| mill. 

Hab. Haiti (Mr. SallS). 



393 

6. Descriptions of Two New Species of Melampus, from 
Mr. Cuming's Coi.lection. By Dr. L. Pfeiffer. 

1. Melampus oblongus, Pfr. M. testą subrimata, oblonga, 
solidu, lecvigata, fulvido-carnea, albido obsolete fasciata et stri- 
gata, strigisgue variciformibus irregularibus fusculis nota ta ; spira 
convexo-conoidea, apice imicronulata, plerumque fusca ; sutura 
lineari. lacera ; anfr. 8-9 vix conveximculis, ultimo | longitu- 
dinis formante, prope suturam subangustato, basi saccato ; aper- 
tura verticali, angusta, callo profundo nodiformi parietali et plica 
columellari oblicua, compressa coarctata; perist. fusco-limbato, 
margine destro acuto, intus callo albo, subplicifero munito, colu- 
mellari incrassato, adnato. 
Long. Iii, diam. 6 mill. 

/3. Paulo minor, gracilior, castaneus, albo-trifasciatus. 

tlab. Island of Bermuda. 

Habitu similis M. cingulato, sed evideiiter affinior M. angiostomo. 
Desh., a quo differt statura, numero anfractuum et callo mamnis 
dextri non denticulato. 

2. Melampus (Ophicardelus) Stutchburyi, Pfr. M. testą 
subumbilicata, fusifomii-ovata, solidula, striatula, superne liris 
obtuse elevatis circumdata, opaca, nigro-fusca, albo trifasciata ; 
spira convexo-conica, apice acvta, interdum suberosa ; sutura 
lineari, deorsum sublacera ; anfr. 7 planis, ultimo f ere f longitu- 
dmis formante, infra medium obsolete spiraliter striato, basi 
parnm attenuato ; apertura subverticali, semiovali; plica parie- 
tali 1 compressa, alba, intrante, extus in carinam subacutam, peri- 
omphalum infundibuliformem cingentem producta ; plica columel- 
lari compressa, obligue vix ascendente ; perist. acuto, margine 
dextro inermi, superne repando, columellari f ornicatim refiexo. Ii- 
bėro, umbilicum simulante. 

Long. 16, diam. 8 mill. 

Port Curtis, Australia {Mr. Stutchbury). 



7. Catalogue of a Collection of Mammalia from Nepal, 

SiKIM, AND TibET, PRESENTED TO THE HoN. EaST InDIA 

Company by b. h. Hodgson, Esq., in 1853*. By Thomas 
Horsfield, m. d., F.R.S., etc. 

(Mammalia, PI. XLYII.-L.) 

1. Semnopithecus schistaceus, Hodgson, J. A. S. Bene ix 
p. 1212 ; Horsf. Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. d. 
PresbT/tes Entellus, Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 1. 
Langur, Hodgson. 
Hab. Nepal; Hills. 

* Those niarked %vith ari astcrisk were discove.ed siuce the publication of the 
Catidogue of Mammal.a presentrd to the British Museum l.y B. H. Hodgson E?q 



394 

2. Macacus Rhesus, Desm., Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 2. 
Macacus (Pithex) oinops, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. ix. p. 1211 
Hab. Nepal; Hills. 

*3. Megaderma schistacea, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. xvi. 
p. 889, with a figure (1847) ; Horsfield, Ann. Nat. Hist. n. s. xvi. 
p. 101 (1855). 

Megaderma Lyra, Geoffr. apud Kelaart, Prodr. Faunse Zeylanicse, 
Mammalia, p. 11. 

Hab. Sikim Tarai. 

*4. Rhinolophus perniger, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. xii. 
p. 414 (1843), xvi. p. 896 ; Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xiii. p. 484 ; 
Horsfield, Ann. Nat. Hist. n, s. xvi. p. 102 (1855). 

Hab. Central regions of the Sub-Himalaya. 

5. Rhinolophus tragatus, Hodgs. J. A. S. Beng. iv. p. 699 ; 
Gray, Catal. Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 22 ; Catal. Hodgsou's Coli. p. 2 ; 
Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xiii. p. 484 ; Horsfield, Ann. Nat. Hist. 
n. s. xvi. p. 102 (1855). 

Hab. Central liilly regions, Nepal. 

6. Hipposideros armiger, Hodgs. J. A. S. Beng. iv. p. 699 ; 
Gray, Catal. Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 24 ; Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 3 ; 
Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xiii. p. 488. 

Hab. Nepal ; Central hilly regions. 

*7. Vesperttlto Siligorensis, Hodgson, Horsfield, Ann. Nat. 
Hist. n. s. xvi. p. 102 (1855). 
Hab. Nepal ; Central Hills. 

*8. 'Vespertilio Darjelingensis, Hodgson, Horsfield, Ann. 
Nat. Hist. n. s. xvi. p. 102 (1855). 

Hab. Nepal ; Central Hills. 

" Differs only from the English V. mystacinus in having the tips 
of the fur of the back brighter."— R. H. Tomės, Ann. N. H. 1856, 
p. 27. 

*9. ScoTOPHiLus Coromandelicus, f. Cuvier, sp. 

Vespertilio coromandelicus, Lesch. & Cuv. Nouv. Ann. de la Mus. ; 
Schinz, Syst. Mamm. p. 171 ; Horsfield, Ann. Nat. Hist. n. s. xvi. 
p. 103 (1855). 

Hab. Nepal. 

*10. Murina suillus, Temm. sp. 

Vespertilio suillus, Temm. Monogr. ii. p. 224. t. 56. f. 4, 5, 6. 

Murina suillus, Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist. 1842, p. 259. 

Hab. Nepal. 



395 

*11. Barbastellus Daubentonii, M^m. Acad. Par. 1759, ii. 
p. 8 ; Bell, Brit. Quad. 

Barbastellus communis, Gray, Mag. Zool. & Bot. ii. p. 13. 
Hab. Nepal. 

*12. Plecotus homochrous, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beug. xvi. 
p. 894; Horsfield, Ann. Nat. Hist. n. s. xvi. p. 103 (1855). 
Hab. Central regions of the Sub-Himalaya. 

*13. Plecotus Darjelingensis, Hodgson, Horsfield, Ann. 
Nat. Hist. n. s. xvi. p. 103 (1855). 
Hal. Nepal ; Central Hills. 

*14. Lasiurus Pearsoni, Horsfield, Catal. Mamm. East India 
Comp. Mnseum, p. 36 (1851) ; Ann. Nat. Hist. n. s. xvi. p. 103 
(1855) ; Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xx. p. 524. 

Hab. Darjeling. 

*15. Nycticejus nivicolus, Hodgson; Horsfield, Ann. Nat. 
Hist. n. s. xvi. p. 104 (1855). 
Hab. Nepal. 

16. Felis Tigris, Linn. ; Horsfield, Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. 
p. 43. 

Hab. Tarai of Nepal. 

17. Felis Uncia, Erxleb. Syst. Mamm. p. 508. 
Leopardus Uncia, Gray, Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 41. 

Uncia Irbis, Ehreub. sp. ; Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist. xiv. p. 394 
(1854). 

Felis Uncioides, Hodgson, MSS. List of Mamm. presented to 
E. I. C. Museum (1852) ; Horsfield, Ann. Nat. Hist. n. s. xvi. p. 105 
(1855). 

Fker of Tibetans, Hodgson. 

Hab. Tibet. 

18. Felis macrosceloides, Hodgson, Calc. Journ. N. H. iv. 
p. 286; 111. P. Z. S. 1853, Mamm. t. 38; Horsfield, Ann. Nat. 
Hist. n. s. xvi. p. 105 (1855). 

Felis macroscelis, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. xi. p. 275. 
Felis, n. sp., Tickell, J. A. S. Beng. xii., with a figure. 
Lamchitia of Tibetans, Hodgson. 
Hab. Bengal; Tibet. 

19. Felis Murmensis, Hodgson, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 10. 
Varietas nigra, Horsfield, Ann. Nat. Hist. n. s. x>'i. p. 105 (1855). 
Murmi Cat, Hodgson. 

Hab. Hilly regions. 



396 

*20. Felis Charltoni, Gray, Brit. Mus. 

Uncia Charltoni, Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist. xiv. p. 394 (1854). 

Felis Duvancelli, Hodgson, MSS. 1852. 

Hab. Hilly regions. 

21. Felis pardochrous, Hodgson. 

Felis pardochrous, Hodgs. Calcutta Journ. N. H. iv. p. 286. 
Felis {Leopardus) pardochrous, Horsfield, Catal. Mamm. Mus. 
E. I. C. p. 47. 

Hab. Hilly regions. 

22. Felis (Lynx) Chaus, Gūldenst. ; Horsfield, Catal. Mamm. 
Mus. E. I. C. p. 50. 

Chaus lybicus, Gray, Catal. Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 45 ; Catal. 
Hodgs. Coli. p. 7- 

Bovobhov), Nepalese, Hodgson. 
Hab. Hills and Tarai of Nepal. 

23. Prionodon PARDicoLOR, Hodgs. Calcutta Journ. N. H. ii. 
p. 57 ; J. A. S. Beng. x. p. 909 ; Horsfield. Catal. Mamm. Mus. 
E. I. C. p. 52. 

Lhisany pardicolor, Gray. 
Hab. Hills of Nepal. 

24. ViVERRA ZiBETHA, Linn. ; Gray & Hardw. 111. Ind. Zool. 
U. t. 5; Catal. Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 52 ; Hodgs. Catal. p. 7 ; 
Horsfield, Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 54. 

Hab. Nepal ; Hills and Tarai. 

25. VivERRicuLA Indica, Gcoffr. sp. ; Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. 
X. p. 909 ; Horsfield, Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 58. 

Viverricula Malaccensis, Gray, Catal. Maram. Brit. Mus. p. 48 ; 
Hodgs. Catal. p. 8. 
Sayer, Hodgsou. 
Hab. Nepal ; Tarai. 

*26. Paradoxurus strigtus, Hodgson (PI. XLV1I.) ; Hors- 
field, Ann. Nat. Hist. n. s. p. 105 (1855). 
Hab. Nepal; Plains. 

*27. Paradoxurxjs qxjadriscriptus, Hodgson (PI. XLVIII.) ; 
Horsfield, Ann. Nat, Hist. n. s. xvi. p. 106 (1855). 
Hab. Nepal; Hills. 

28. Paradoxurus Grayi, Bennett, P. Z. S. 1835, p. 118. 
Paguma Grayi, Gray, Catal. Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 54 ; Catal. 
Hodgs. Coli. p. 9; Horsf. Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 66. 
Paradoxurus nipaleiisis, Hodgson, As. Res. xix. p. 76. 
Hab. Nepal; Hills. 



397 

29. HyjEna striata, Zimm. 
Hycena virgata, Hodgson, MSS. 1852. 

Hycena striata, Horsfield, Ann. Nat. Hist. n. s. xvi. p. 107. 
Lakerbayha, Nepal, Hodgson. 
Hah. Tarai of Nepal. 

30. CuoN PRIM.5EVUS, Hodgson, Calcutta Journ. Nat. Hist. ii. 
pp. 205, 412 ; Gray, Catal. Mamm. Biit. Mus. p. 73 ; Catal. Hodgs. 
Coli. p. 10 ; Horsfield, Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 7^. 

Hah. Hills and Plains. 

31. Canis aureus, Linn. (Catal. Hodgson's Coli. p. U ; Hors- 
field, Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 80). 

Sacalius inclicus, Hodgs, J. A. S. Beng. x. p. 918. 
Siyar of the Nepalese, Hodgson. 
Hab. Nepal; Plains. 

32. VuLPES Bengalensis, Shaw, sp. ; Gray, Catal. Mamm. 
Brit. Mus. p. 61; Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 1 1 ; Horsfield, Catal. 
Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 84. 

Vulpes inclicus, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. x. p. 918. 
Lotner of the Nepalese, Hodgson. 
Hab. Nepal ; Tarai. 

33. Vulpes montanus, Pearson, Beng. Sport. Mag. iv. p. 126 
(1836) ; Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 12; Horsfield, Catal. Mamm. 
Mus. E. I. C. p. 87. 

Wamu of the Nepalese, Hodgson. 
Hab. Tibet. 

34. Vulpes ferrilatus, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. xi. p. 278, 
fig. (1842)^ Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 12. 

Iger of Tibetans, Hodgson. 
Hab. Tibet. 

*35. Lupus laniger, Hodgson ; Horsfield, Ann. Nat. Hist. n. s. 
xvi. p. 107 (1855). 

Changu of Tibetans, Hodgson. 
Hab. Tibet. 

36. Herpestes Nyula, Hodgs. J. A. S. Beng. v. p. 236 ; Gray, 
Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 8 ; Horsfield, Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. 
p. 92. 

Hab. Plains of Nepal. 

37. Urvą cancrivora, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. vi. p. 561 ; 
Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 8 ; Horsfield, Catal. Mamm. Mus. 
E. I. C. p. 93. 

Hab. Tibet. 



398 

38. Martes flavigula, Boddaert, sp. ; Gray, Catal. Hodgs. 
Coli. p. 12 ; Horsfield, Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 98. 

Hab. Nepal; Hills. 

39. MusTELA CANiGULA, Hodgson, J. A, s. Beng. xi. p. 279 
(1842); Calcutta Journ. N. H. iv. p. 287 ; Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. 
p. 13. 

Hab. Nepal; Hills. 

*40. MusTELA STRiGiDORSA, Hodgson (PI. XLIX.) ; Gray, 
P. Z. S. 1853, p. 191 ; Horsfield, Ann. N. H. n. s. xvi. p. 107(1855). 
Hab. Sikim. 

41. MusTELA (PuTORius) Kathiah, Hodgs. J. A. S. Beng. iv. 
p. 702 ; Horsfield, Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 102. 

Mustela Kathiah, v. auriventer, Hodgs. J. A. S. Beng. x. p. 909 ; 
Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 13. 

Kathia Nyul, Nepalese, Hodgson. 

Hab. Kachars. 

*42. PuTORius TiBETANTJS, Hodgson, J. A. s. Beng. xviii. pt. 1 . 
p. 446 (1849) ; Horsfield, Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 105. 
Tibetan Stoat, Hodgson. 
Hab. Tibet. 

43. Helictis Nipalensis, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. v. p. 237 ; 
Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 14 ; Horsfield, Catal. Mamm. Mns. 
E. I. C. p. 108 ; Gray, P. Z. S. 1853, p. 191. 

Oker of the Nepalese, Hodgson. 

Hab. Nepal; Tibet. 

*44. Arctonyx Isonyx, Hodgson, MSS. (PI. L.) 
? Arctonyx coUaris, F. Cuv. 
Hab. Nepal ; Tarai. 

This species was discovered by Mr. Hodgson seven years back in 
the Tarai of Nepal, and is eonsidered by him to be distinct from the 
A. collaris, but, upon comparisou with specimens of A. collaris at 
the British Museum and the India House, its value as a distinct 
species requires more specimens for comparison. 

*45. Meles leucurus, Hodgson, sp. ; Gray, Ann. N. H. xii. 
n. s. p. 221 ; P. Z. S. 1853, p. 191 ; Horsfield, Ann. Nat. Hist. 
n. s. xvi. p. 108 (1855). 

Taxidea leucurus, Hodgs. J. A. S. Beng. xvi. p. 763 (1847), with 
a figure. 

Pseudomeles leucurus, Hodgson, MSS. 1852. 

Tumpha of Tibetans, Hodgson. 

Hab. Plainsof Tibet. 



399 

46. LuTRA Chinensis ?, Gray, Ann. N. H. 1836 ; Catal. Mamm. 
Br. Mus. p. 71 ; Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 14 ; Horsfield, Catal. Mamm. 
Mus. E. I. C. p. 116; Ann. N. H. n. s. xvi. p. 109 (1855). 

Lutra Tarayensis, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. viii. p. 319 (1839) ; 
Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xi. p. 99. 

Udh of Nepalese, Hodgsou. 

Hab. Nepal ; Hills and Tarai. 

*47. Ao]SYx SiKiMENsis, HodgsoD ; Horsfield, Ann. N. H. n. s. 
xvi. p. 109 (1855). 

Hab. Nepal ; Hills and Tarai. 

Aonyx sikimensis : — Snout to vent 24 inches ; tail 13 ; head 4| ; 
paima 2f ; planta 3^. Colour : a medial earthy brown, paler below, 
especially on head and neck. — Hodgson, MSS. 

48. Helarctos Tibetanus, Cuvier ; Gray, Catal. Mamm. Brit. 
Mus. p. 73 ; Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 15 ; Horsfield, Catal. Mamm. 
Mus. E. I. C. p. 124. 

Bhalu of the Nepalese, Hodgson. 
Hab. Nepal ; hilly regions. 

49. AiLURUS FULGENS, F. Cuvicr ; Hardwicke, Trans. Linn. Soc. 
XV. p. 161 ; Gray, Catal. Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 75; Catal. Hodgs. 
Coli. p. 15; Horsfield, Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 126. 

Ailurus ochraceus, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. xvi. p. 1118. 
Hab. Nepal. 

50. Talpa micrura, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. x. p. 910; Gray, 
Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. p. 75; Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 16; Hors- 
field, Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 129. 

1 Talpa cryptura, Blyth. 

Puriitm of the Nepalese, Hodgson. 

Hab. Nepal; Hills. 

*51. SoREx MURINUS, Linn. ; Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 16 ; 
Horsfield, Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 134 ; Ann. N. H. n. s. 
xvi. p. 110 ; Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. 1855, p. 28 ; Tomės, Ann. N. H. 
n. s. xvii. p. 15 (1856). 

Chuchunder, Hodgson. 

Hab. Nepal ; Plains. 

*52. SoREX SATURATTOR, Hodgson ; Horsfield, Ann. N. H. n. s. 
xvi. p. 110 (1855) ; Tomės, Ann. N. H. n. s. xvii. p. 22. 
Hab. Nepal; HiUs. 

*53. SoREx LEUcops, Hodgson ; Horsfield, Ann. N. H. n. s. 
xvi. p. 111 (1855) ; Tomės, Ann. N. H. n. s. xvii. p. 22. 
White-lipped Shreiv, Hodgson. 
Hab. Nepal; Hills. 



400 

54. SoREX PYGM^us, Hodgsou, J. A. s. Beng. x. p. 910; Ann. 
N. H. XV. p. 2G9 ; Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 16 ; Horsfield, Ann. 
N. H. n. s. xvi. p. 111; Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. 1855, p. 32 ; Tomės, 
Ann. N. H. n. s. xvii. p. 20. 

Hab. Nepal ; Central Hills. 

55. SoREx NEMORTVAGUS, Hodgsou, Calc. Journ. N. H. iv. 
p. 288 ; Ann. N. H. xv. p. 269 ; Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 16 ; 
Horsfield, Ann. N. H. n. s. xvi. p. 111 ; Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. 
1855, p. 31 ; Tomės, Ann. N. H. n. s. xvii. p. 18; 

Hab. Nepal ; Central Hills. 

*56. SoREX soccATUs, Hodgson, Ann. N. H. xv. p. 270; ? Blyth, 
J. A. S. Beng. 1855, p. 30 ; Tomės, Ann. N. H. n. s. xvii. p. 17. 
Hab. Nepal ; Central Hills. 

*57. SoRicuLus NiGRESCENS, Gray, sp. 

Corsira nigrescens, Gray, Ann. N. H. x. p. 261 (1842). 

Soriculus nigrescens, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. 1855, p. 36. 

Sorex Sikimensis, Hodgson, Ann. N. H. iii. n. s. p. 203 ; Hors- 
field, Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C, p. 136 ; Ann. N. H. n. s. xvi. 
p. UI. 

Sorex soccatus, Hodgs. Calc. Journ. N. H. iv. p. 288 (not de- 
scribed). , 

Sorex aterrimus, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. 1843, p. 128 ? 

CAiVi-aof the Nepalese, Hodgson. 

Hab. Nepal. 

*58. Corsira (?) caudata, Hodgson, sp. 

Sorex caudatus, Hodgson, Ann. N. H. n. s. iii. p. 203 ; Horsfield, 
Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 135 ; Ann. N. H. n. s. xvi. p. 111. 

Corsira (!) caudata, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. 1855, p. 37; Tomės, 
Ann. N. H. n. s. xvii. p. 27. 

Hab. Sikim and Darjeeling. 

" After a very careful comparison of two specimens of C. caudata, 
in the Museum at the ludia House, with a specimen of the C. alpina 
of Europe, I concluded that they were very closely affined, if not 
perfectly identical. The naked compressed tip of the tail in the 
last-mentioned species, as remarked by Mr. Blyth, also occurs in one 
of the examples of C. caudata ; indeed, were this specimen to be 
placed aloug with the Europeau species, it would be almost impos- 
sible to distinguish them." — R. F. Tomės. 

59. Mus NiPALENSis, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. x. p. 915 ; Gray, 
Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 19. 
Hab. Nepal; Hills. 

*60. Mus Tarayensis, Hodgson ; Horsfield, Ann. N. H. n. s. 
xvi. p. 112 (1855). 

Hab. Nepal ; Tarai ; Plains. 



401 

*61. Mus MoRUNGENSis, Hodgson ; Horsfield, Ann. N. H. 
n. s. xvi. p. 112 (1855). 
Hab. Nepal, Tarai, Plains. 

*G2. Mus PLURiMAMMis, Hodgson ; Horsfield, Ann. N. H. b. s. 
xvi. p. 112(1855). 

Hab. Nepal, Tarai, Plains. 

Remark. — This species, according to Mr. Hodgson, has eighteen 
teats. 

*63. Mus ^auiCAUDALis, Hodgson, Ann. N. H. n. s. iii. p. 203 ; 
Horsfield, Catal, Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 144. 
Hab. Nepal; Hills. 

*64. Mus CAUDATioR, Hodgson, Ann. N. H. n. s. iii. p. 203 ; 
Horsfield, Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 144. 
Hab. Nepal; Hills. 

*65. Neodon SiKiMENSis, Hodgson, Ann. N. H. n. s. iii. p. 203; 
Horsfield, Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 146. 
Phalehua of the Nepalese, Hodgson. 
Hab. Sikim, 7000 to 15,000 feet. 

"Snout to vent 4f inches ; head \\ ; tail If; paima ^V^^s ; 
plauta įths. Weight l^ oz. Teats six in number. Intestines 30 
inches ; sniall 16 inches ; great 14 inches. Csecum 6 inches, sacced 
and banded. Stomach bagpipe-shaped, with slight medial constric- 
tion and prosimate orifices. 

" Breeds iu hollow decayed fallen trees, or roots of trees. Nešt 
saucer-shape, madeof soft grass. Young three or four." — Hodgson, 
MSS. 

66. Arvicola ?Myothrix, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. x. p. 915. 
Mus 1 Myothnx, Hodgson, Ann. N. H. 1845, p. 267 ; Gray, Catal. 
Hodgs. Coli. p. 15. 

Hab. Nepal ; Central Hills. 

*67. ? Hystrix leucurus, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 103 ; Grav, 
Catal. Hodgson's Coli. p. 20. 

Hystrix Alophus, Hodgson, MSS. 1852. 
Sahi of the Nepalese, Hodgson. 
Hab. Nepal ; Hills and Plains. 

68. Lepus pallipes, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. xi. p. 288. 
Lepus Taloi (Palias), Gray, Catal. Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 127; 
Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 20. 

Rek, Rigong of the Tibetans, Hodgson. 
^a6. Tibet. 

No. CCCXXVI. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society 



402 

69. Lepus macrotus, Hodgson, J A. S. Beng. ix. p. 1183 ; 
Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 20; Horsfield, Catal. Maram. Mus. 
E. I. C. p. 147. 

Lepus rujicaudatus, Is. GeofJroy. 

Hab. Nepal ; Plains. 

*70. Caprolagus HispiDUS, Pearsoii. 
Lepus hispidus, Pearson, Beng. Sport. Mag. 1843, p. 131. 
Caj)rolagus hispidus, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xiv. p. 248 ; Hors- 
field, Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 148. 
Hab. Nepal; Tarai. 

71. Lagomys NiPALENSis, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. x. p. 854 ; 
Gray, Catal. Hodgs. CoU. p. 21 ; Horsfield, Catal. Mamm. Mus. 
E. I. C. p. 148. 

The Ahra, Hodgson. 
Hab. Tibet; Nepal. 

72. SciuRTJS MACRUROiDEs, Hodgsou, Calcutta Journ. N. H. 
1841, p. 220 ; Gray, Catal. Hodgs. CoU. p. 22. 

Salheu of the Nepalese, Hodgson. 
Hah. Nepal; Hills. 

73. SciURUS LoKRiAH, Hodgs. J. A. S. Beng. x. p. 915 ; Gray, 
Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 23 ; Horsf. Catal. Mamm. Mus. E.I.C. p. 153. 

Hab. Nepal; HUls. 

74. SciURUS LoKROiDES, Hodgs. J. A. s. Beng.v. p. 232 ; Gray, 
Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 23 ; Horsf. Catal. Mamm. Mus. E.I.C. p. 153. 

Hah. Nepal; Hills. 

♦75. SciuRUS M'Clellandi, Horsfield, P. Z. S. 1839 ; Catal. 
Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 151 ; Ann. Nat. Hist. n. s. xvi. p. 113. 
Sciurns Horsfieldi, Hodgson, MSS. 1852. 
Striped Sguirrel, Hodgson. 
Hab. Sikim ; Assam (M'Clelland). 

76. Pteromys nobilis, Gray. 

Sciui-opterus nobilis, Gray, Ann. N. H. 1842, p. 263. 
Pterumys nobilis, Gray, Catal. Hodgs. CoU. p. 22 ; Horsf. Catal. 
Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 160. 

Sciuropterus chrysothrix, Hodgs. J. A. S. Beng. xiii. p. 67. 
Puruj-blakut of the Nepalese, Hodgson. 
Hab. Nepal; HiUs. 

77. Pteromys caniceps, Gray. 

Sciuropterus caniceps, Gray, Ann. N. H. 1842, p. 262. 
Pteromys caniceps, Gray, Catal. Hodgs. CoU. p. 21 ; Horsf. Catal. 
Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 160. 

Sciuropterus senex, Hodgs. J. A. S. Beng. xiii. p. 68. 
Suraj-blakut, Hodgson. 
Hab. Nepal; HiUs. 



403 

78. Pteromys magnificus, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. v. p. 231 ; 
Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 22 ; Horsf. Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. 
p. Itil. 

Svrajblakut, Hodgson. 
Hab. Nepal; Hills. 

79. SCIUROPTERUS ALBONIGER, Hodgsoii, J. A. S. B. V. p. 231 ; 

Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 22 ; Horsf. Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. 
p. 163. 

Hab. Nepal; Hills. 

80. Arctomys tibetanus, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. xii. p. 409 ; 
Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 24 ; Horsfield, Ann. N. H. n. s. xvi. 
p. 113. 

Jabra, or Kadia-peu, of the Tibetans, Hodgson. 
Hab. Tibet. 

81. Rhizomys badius, Hodgs. Calcutta Journ, N. H. ii. p. 60 ; 
Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 24 ; Horsf. Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I, C. 
p. 1G5. 

Hab. Nepal and Sikim. 

82. Panthalops Hodgsoni, Abel, sp. 

Antilope Hodgsoni, Abel, Edin. Journ. Sci. 1827, p. 16.5. 

Panthalops Hodgsoni, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. xi. p. 282 ; Gray, 
Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. (1852) p. .53. 

Kernas Hodgsoni, Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 26 ; Horsf. Catal, 
Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 166. 

Cheru or Chwe, Tibetans, Hodgson. 

Hab. Tibet. 

*83. Procapra PiCTicAUDA, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. xv. p. 334 ; 
Horsfield, Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 169 ; Gray, Catal. Mamm. 
Br. Mus. 1852, p. 55. 

Hab. Tibet. 

84. Capricornis bubalina, Hodgson, sp. 
Antilope bubalina, Hodgs. P. Z. S. 1832, p. 12. 
Capricornis Thar, Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1836, p. 139. 
Capricornis bubalina, Gray, Catal. Hodgs. ("oU. p. 27 ; Horsf, 

Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 168. 
Hab. Nepal; Hills. 

85. N^MORHEDUs Goral, Hardwicke, sp. 
Antilope Goral, Hardvv. Linn. Trans. xiv. p. 518. t. 14. 
Nemorhedus Goral, Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 27 ; Catal. 

Mamm. Brit. Mus. 18.52, p. 112; Horsf. Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I, C. 
p. 168. 

Hab. Nepal; Hills. 



404 

86. Hemitragus Jemlaicus, H. Smith, sp. 

Capra Jemlaica, H. Smith, Griff. An. Kingd. iv. t. 194 ; Horsf. 
Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 170. 

Hemitragus Jemlaicus, Hodgson; Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 28; 
Catal. Mamm. Brit. Mus. 1852, p. 144. 

Hemitragus quadrimammis, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. v. p. 254. 

Hab. Nepal; Hiils. 

87. Ovis Aries, Limi. 

Yar. Ovis Hoonia, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. i. p. 348 ; Gray, 
Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 30 ; Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. 1852, p. 166. 
Hab. Tibet. 

*Var. Ovis Changlul; Hodgson, MSS. 1852, 
Changluk Sheep, Hodgson. 
Hab. Tibet. 

Var. Ovis Barmal, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. x. p. 913 ; Gray, 
Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. 1852, p. 165. 

Ovis Ammondides, var. L, Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 29. 
Hah. Nepal ; Hills. 

88, Ovis Ammonoides, Hodgson, sp. 

Ovis Ammondides, Hodgs. J. A. S. Beng. x. p. 236 ; Grav, Catal, 
Hodgs. Coli. p. 29. 

1 ^gaceros Argali, Palias, Zool. Ross. As. i. p. 231. t. 20, 21. 
Caprovis Argali, Gray, Catal. Mamm. Brit. Mus. 1852, p. 174. 
Ovis Argali, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. i. p. 347. 
? Ovis Hodgsonii, Blyth, P. Z, S. 1840, p. 65. 
Nyen or Bharal, Hodgson. 
Hab. Tibet. 

89, Ovis Nahoor, Hodgson, J, A. S. Beng, iv, p. 492 ; Gray, 
Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 29. 

Pseudois Nahoor, Gray, Kuowsley, Menag. p. 40 ; Catal. Mamm. 
Br. Mus. 1852, p. 177 ; Horsf. Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p, 176, 
Na, or Nawa, or Nahur, Hodgson, 
Hab. Tibet, 

90. MoscHUS moschiferus, Linn. ; Gray, Cat. Hodgson'sColl, 
p. 30 ; C.ital. Mamm. Brit. Mus. 1852, p. 244 ; Horsf. Catal, Mamm. 
Mus, E. I. C. p. 177. 

Kastury of the Tibetans, Hodgson. 
Hab. Tibet. 

91, MoscHus leucogaster, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng, viii. 
p, 203 ; Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 31 ; Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. 
1852, p. 245 ; Horsf. Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I, C. p. 177, 

Kastury, Hodgson, 
Hab. Tibet. 



405 

*92. ? BiBos FRONTALis, Lambcrt, sp. 
Hab. Nepal ; Tarai. 



93. POEPHAGUS GRUNNIENS, Liun. Sp. 

Jios ffrunniens, Linn. S. N. 12. i. p 99 

Voephagus grumtiem, Gray, Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. p 153 • id 
Ung. Furcp. p. 40 ; Ho.sf. Catal. Mamm. Mus. E I C.' p 184 
BisonPoephagus, Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 25. ^ 



Hub. Tibet. 



u 65''t'*r'"'r^,'"'r?f',?'-°"' H°''S'™. J- A. S. Bepg. 1850, 

Nemorhoidus taxicolor, Turoer, P Z S 1849 

ra/{-?«, Hodgson. 

Hab. Eastern Himalaya (Assam), 

95. Rusa Dimorphe, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. 1844, fig. ; Auo 

B. MuriS5Į';. ?oT '^*^^- ^''^'- ^«"- P- '^ ^ Ca'tal^MaZ: 
Sėchiff, Hodgsou. 
Hab. Lower Hills and deep valleys of Central Nepal. 

*96. Cervus affinis, Hodgson, J. A. S. Bene 1841 n 791 • 
Gray, Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. ?852 p 199 ^' ' 

Cervus tibetanus, Hodgs. J. A. S. Beng. 1850, p 46G 
Siarnpchu or Shou, Hod-^sou ^ 

/^a6. Tibet. 

97. Rusa Jarai, Hodgson. 

Cervus Hippelaphus or P/««r*a J^^ff?, Hodgson. 

Rusa Hippelaphus, var., Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 34 
p.fr ^"*'^^^^"*' ^^''•' Gray, Catal. Mamm. Brit.^Ius. 1852, 
Jarai, Hodgson. 
Hab. Nepal ; Tarai. 

98. Cervulus moschatus, De Blainv. 

Stylocerus Rattva, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. x p 914 

Muntjacus vaginalis, Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p 31 ' 
r., 'p r, "!f,*^^«'«*' Horsfield, Catal. Mamm. Mus. E.I.C. p 190- 
Gray, Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. 1852, p. 218. 

Rathiia, Hodgson. 

Hab. Nepal; Hills and Tarai. 

Var. Entirely blaek. 

f/T'^v'^T' ^M''^'' ^'- 2- S- in Royle's Hiraal. p. 73. 
Hab. Nepal ; Hdls. i ' ■ 



406 

90. Hyelaphus porcinus, Ziium. sp. 

Cervus porcinus, Zimnierman, Schieb. t. 251. 

Hyelaphus porcinus, Sundevall, Pecora, ftS ; Horsfield, Catal. 
Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 189 ; Gray, Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. 1852, 
p. 215. 

Axis porcinus, Hodgson, Gray, Catal. Hodgs. Coli. p. 33. 

Laghiind, Hodggon. 

Hab. Nepal ; Tarai. 

*100. AsiNus KiANG, Moorcroft; Gray, Knowsley Menag. p. 72; 
Horsf. Catal. Mamm, Mus. E. I. C. p. 190. 

Asinus Hemionua (Palias), Gray, Catal. Mamm. Br. Mus. 1852, 
p. 272, 

Kiany. 

Hab. Tibet. 

101. Sus iNDicus, Gray, Catal. Mamm. Br. Mua. p. 185. 
Sus Aper, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. x. p. 911. 
Sus scrofa, var. Indicus, Horsf. Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. p. 193. 
Hab. Nepal; Tarai. 

*102. PoRCULA Salvania, Hodgson, J, A. S. Beng. 1847, 
p. 423 ; Horsfield, P. Z. S. 1853 ; Mamm. pi. 3/, 
Pigmy Hog of the Saul Forest, Hodgson. 
Hab. Nepal; Tarai. 

103. Manis pentadactyla, Linn. 

Manis pentadactyla, Linn. ; Horsf. Catal. Mamm. Mus. E. I. C. 
p. 196. 

Manis crassicaudata, Griffith's An. King. iii. p. 507. 
Bajarkit, Hodgson. 
Hab. Nepal; Hills, 



8. DeSCRIPTIONS of CoLEOPTEROU.S InSECTS IN THE COLLEC- 
TION OF THE BrITISH MuSEUM, HITHERTO APPARENTLY 
UNNOTICED. By AdAM WhITE. 

(Annulosa, PI. XL.) 

In addition to the species described in my previous paper, read on 
the 1 2th of February lašt, I have reason to believe that the following 
are also new. 

1. Deucalion Wollastoni, n. s. (PI. XL. fig, 6.) 

D. aterrimus, capite post oculos in mare elongato, thoruce frevi- 
gato, lateribus inermibus, elytris dorso depressis, a basi ultra 
medium punctato-impressis, singidis lineis tribus Icevibus longi- 
fudinalibus. 

Hab. Lord Hone's Island. 



407 

Although this Longicorn differs in some particulars from either of 
the species of Mr. Wollaston's most interesting genus, I am unwilling 
to form another genus for its reception till the group has been more 
studied. The antennae in the female are considerably longer than 
the elytra : in the malė they are very long ; the head in the malė is 
considerably produced behind the eyes ; the thorax is twice con- 
stricted : above the surface is smooth, beneath before the fore legs it 
is delicately and closely transversely striated. 

2. MONEILEMA ALBO-PrCTUM, n. S. (PI. XL. fig. 7 .) 

M. aterrimum, thorace ehjfrisąue pilis a/bis variegatis ; ocuHs 
antice pilis albis marginatis, capite inter oculos pilis alhis 
ornato. 

Long. lin. 8|. 

Hab. Mexico. 

3. MoNEILEMA L^VIDORSALE, n. S. 

M. aterrimum, supra Iceve, elytris latei'ibus valde compressis, basi 

punctatis, dorso carina separatis. 
Long. lin. 8. 
Hab. Mexico. 

4. MoNEILEMA 1 LONGIPES, n. i. 

M. scabriuscule punctatum, aterrimum, pedibus elongatis crassis, 
thoracis lateribus obsolete tuberculatis ; tarsis subtusfulvis. 

Long. lin. 8. 

Hab. "China.?" 

This species differs somewhat in form from the others ; it is longer 
and less squat ; the spine on each side of the thorax is almost obso- 
lete ; the legs, especially the femora, are longer and thicker ; the 
coxae have no spot of hairs. It is rather coarsely and generally 
punctured, even on the legs and the antennae ; the tibise of all the 
legs are considerably bent at their origin. 

This was obtained on the voyage of H.M.S. Sulphur, and is more 
likely to be from the west coast of America than from China. 

5. Anisocerus onca. (PI. XL. fig. 8.) 

A. pallide ochraceus rvfescenti tinctus ; capite thoraceąue nigro 
maculatis et fasciatis ; elytris singulis 17-18 maculis nigris ; 
corpore subtus nigro fasciato ; antennis articulo tertio apice 
nigro-fasciculato ; tibiis tarsisque pallidis, tibiis apice nigris. 

6. Anisocerus capucinus. (PI. XL. fig. 9.) 

A. ater, genis miniaceo vittatis ; scutello nigro ; elytris miniaceis, 
fasciis tribus transversis et macula ante apicem nigris, sutura 
nigra. 

7. Anisocerus dulcissimus. (PI. XL. fig. 10.) 

A. ater, genis miniaceo vittatis; elytris sulphureis seu albido- 
flavescentibus ; fascia basali angusfa et scvtetlo miniaceis, 



408 

fascia lata ante medium ohscure miniacea ; marginibits apicali 

et laterali miniaceis ; punctis quatuor nigris in i^arfe postica 

elytrorum. 

These three fine species of the peculiarly Brazilian genus Aniso- 

cerus are described in tlie second part of the Museum Catalogue of 

Longicom Beetles, pp. 405, 406. It is just possible that the two 

lašt so-called species may eventually be found to be one. We have 

two specimens of the lašt which differ from each other in coloration, 

and probably connecting varieties may yet be sent to our collections 

from the bauks of the Amazon. The A. capucinus vras first ob- 

tained at Para by J. P. George Smith, Esq. of Liverpool ; the A. 

dulcissimus was found on the Tapayos, a tributary of the Amazon, 

by Mr. Bates, who also sent the A. Onca from Ega, a locaUty on the 

šame great river, which has proved to be very prohfic in insect life. 

8. Ph.edinus xanthomelas, n. s. (PI. XL. fig. 11.) 

P. niger, abdomine subfus jiaUido, ehjtris sulphureis, apice macu- 
laųue ante medium nigris; femoribus subtus ultra medium 
ciUatis. 

Long. lin. 6į. 

Hab. Villa Nova, in ripis fluvii Amazon {Coli. Bates). 

Head wideish, black ; eyes ferruginous ; a yellow mark on the cly- 
peus, with many scattered punctures. Antennse ■nith the two basai 
joints shining, the others dull ; joints from the third to the tenth 
dilated triangularly at the tip on the inner edge ; terminai joint ob- 
long, sides parallel, tip pointed. Thorax densely punctured and 
liairy, a smooth spear-shaped space on the back in the niiddle, pointed 
in front, a tubercle on each side ; scutellum black. Elytra rounded 
at the tip, of a sulphur-yellow, each broadly tipped with black, and 
having a subtriangular spot just before the middle ; each elytron witli 
two parallel costse, evanescent about the middle just behind the black 
spot which lies across them. Under side of abdomen pale ochra- 
ceous ; legs black ; femora grooved beneath at the base, edges of the 
groove ciliated with pale hairs. 

Having only seen a single specimen of this curious species, I am 
uuwilling to give it a new generic name, although its short form, 
šimple sternum, grooved and ciliated femora, and the soft under side 
of abdomen, with other characters, show that it considerably differs 
from Phcedinus. 

9. Phoebe concinna, n. s. (PI. XL. f. 12.) 

P. albido-pubescens, thoraee postice pallide violaceo, ehjtris pallide 
violaceis, fascia latiitscula ante apicem alba, pedibus pallide 
flavis, antennis basi Jlavis, apice fuscis, capite bicornuto. 

Long. lin. 5-5^. 

Hab. Ega, on the banks of the Amazon (Coli. Bates). 

A most delicately coloured species of the genus Phoebe of Serville. 
The head, thorax, and body are clothed with a deuse white pubes- 
''ence ; the hinder part of the thorax has a ])ale violet band with a 
projecting lobe in front. The elytra are covered with a most deli- 



409 

cate pale violet pubescence, passing into white at the tip, and with a 
rather wide transverse white band before the tip, widest at the suturės. 
The antennse spring from a portion of the head, which divides each 
eye into two portious ; the first four joints are pale yellow, the others 
are brown ; the face has two projecting uptunied horns, which are 
sharp and brown, and whea viewed in frout have a semicircular out- 
line. The abdominal segnients beneath in the middle and at the 
end are tinged with yellovvish-pink. The legs are of a dehcate 
yellow- 

10. Agelasta callizona, n. s. (PI. XL. fig. 13.) 

A. tiigra, supra^iube curta griseola re.ticulata; elytrisfascia trans- 
versa mediana ruhescente ulbo-reticulata, apice rubescentibus ; 
femoribits supra tibiis basi rubescentibus, tibiis apice niyro- 
fasciculatis, tarsis aurato-fuhis, articulis basalibus supra 
nigris. 
Long. lin. 6-9Į. 

Hab. Sarawak, Borneo {Coli. A. E. JVallace). 
Blaekish, with scattered punctures ; the head, thorax, and elytra 
reticulatcd all over vvith a short griseous pubescence ; the elytra at 
the tip and a transverse band across the middle of a pinkish-red, re- 
ticulatcd with white ; sides of thorax, plate above, middle legs, and 
band behind base of hind legs pinkish-red ; femora on the upper side 
and tibiee, escept at tip, pinkish-red ; tibise at the ends black, and 
clothed thickly Avith hairs. Tarsi of a tawny gokIen-ycllow, the 
base of the lašt joint above and the upper side of other joints black. 
Antennae blackish-brown, basai joint the longest, reticulated vrith 
griseous pubescence, five terminai joints short brown-black, the others 
ringed, the sixth joint pinkish-grey, except at the tip, which is black . 

11. Agelasta Wallacii, n. s. 

A. capite nigro-fusco, ochraceo vittato ; thorace nigro-fusco late- 
ribus albidis, dorso ochraceo quinque-lineato tribus lineis abbre- 
viatis ; elytris nigro-fuscis, fascia lata alba transversa ; ely- 
tris singulis basi ochraceo uni-guttatis, apice qiii7iqve macidatis 
pedibus ochraceis, tarsis sujjra nigris. 
Cat. Longicorns, Brit. Mus. pt. 2. pi. 10. f. 10. 
Long. lin. 6-8. 

Hab. Borneo (Šarawak) {Coli. A. R. JFallace). 
Head blackish-brown, cheeks iind face banded with ochraceous 
pubescence, cro\vn with three ochraceous lines ; antennse dark ferru- 
ginous, outside of first joint and base of the four succeeding joints 
pale ochrey. Thorax blackish-brown, sides margined with whitish 
pubescence ; the back vnih five longitudinal ochraceous lines, tuo 
extending from front to hind margins, the alternate three abbreviated. 
Scutellum of a deep blackish-brown. Elytra deep blackish-brown, 
with a very wide white pubescent biind, which is continued on the 
underside of the thorax ; au ochraceous spot at the base, a little 
white spot on the suture behind the scutellum ; each elytron with 



410 

five ochraceous marks ou the apical half, three on the suture. Legs 
ochrey ; femora subferruginous ; tarsi above black ; claw, except at 
the base aud tip, ochrey. 

12. Agelasta amica, n. s. (PI. XL. fig. 14.) 

A. nigrescenti-fusca, capite thoraceąue albo-lineatis elytris rufo- 
fuscis cinereo polystictis, punctis majoribt/s nigris, fasciis duo- 
bus subundatis nigris, anteriore interrupta. 

Long. lin. 6-6i. 

Hab. Borneo (Saravvak) (^Coll. A. R. TVallace). 

Blackish-brown ; head lineolated longitudinally with white. Tho- 
rax above with about ten white Hneolets arranged longitudinally. 
Seutellum blackish. Elytra mostly covered with a light reddish- 
brown pubescence, varied with many small black dots, and with two 
transverse, somewhat waved, black bands, the anterior ones inter- 
rupted. Abdonien black, sides with white pubescence, edges ciliated 
with white ; undersides with greyish pubescence ; middle black, sides 
spotted with black. Legs cinereous ; tarsi aud tips of tibite black. 

13. Agelasta Polynesus, n. s. 

A. nigro-brnnnea, capite thorace(pte cinereo lineatis ; sctitello ci- 
nereo ; elytris cinereo irregulariter lineatis et notatis ; pedibus 
cinereo-pubesceti tibus. 

Cat. Longicorns, Brit. Mus. pt. 2. pi. 10. f. 9. 

Long. lin. Ci-7\. 

Hab. Borneo (Sarawak). 

Of a very dark fcrruginous brown. Head with five cinereous lines 
and a short one behind each antenna. Thorax with seven cinereous 
pubescent lines, the centrai one the slightest ; seutellum cinereous ; 
elytra covered with many irregular pubescent cinereous lines and 
marks, vvell relieved hy the dark blackish- brown background ; 
under side covered with whitish pubescent hairs ; ahdomen down the 
middle nearly bare of hairs ; legs with cinereous pubescence. 

14. Agelasta Ne\vmanni, n. s. (PI. XL. fig. 1").) 

A. ccBvulescenti-cinerea pubescens, thorace nigro transversim uni- 
fasciato, elytris nigro bifasciatis et maculatis. 

Long. lin. fi^. 

Hab. Borneo (Sarawak) {Coli. A. R. Wallace). 

The greater part of the insect covered with a bluish-grey pubes- 
cence, the head with some black marks, the antennae black, the five 
basai joints bluish-grey at the base ; thora\ above with a transverse 
black band, the front and hind margins running into the greyish 
pubescent part. Seutellum covered with grey pubescence. Elytra 
with two transverse black bands, one before the other behind the 
middle ; the parts clothed with greyish pubescence have a few black 
spots, those between the bands arranged transversely, t bose at the 
apex triangularly. 



I N D E X. 



The naraes of New Species, and of Species newly characte