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Full text of "Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London"

'^^ 



THIS BOOK VJa NOT BE PHOTOCOPIED 



PEOCEEDINGS 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OP LONDON, 




PART XXVIII. 
1860. 



PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY ; 

SOLD AT THEIR HOUSE IN HANOVER-SQUARE, 

AND BY MESSRS. LONGMAN, GREEN, LONGMANS, AND ROBERTS, 

PATERNOSTER-ROW. 



/z - Jx 



PEINTED BT TATLOH AND FRANCIS, 
RED HON COURT, PLEET STREET. 



LIST 

ov 

CONTRIBUTORS, 

With References to the several Articles contributed hy each. 



Adams, Arthur, F.L.S. page 

Note oa the Fox of Japan J 95 

Adams, Henry, F.L.S. 

Description of a New Genus of Freshwater Bivalve Mol- 
lusca, belonging to the Family CorbuHdce, from the CoUection 
of Hugh Cuming, Esq 203 

Description of a New Genus and Species of MoUusk , . . . 24 1 

On New Genera of Acephalous MoUusks 369 

Deseriptions of a New Genus and Species of MoUusca . . 450 

Baird, W., M.D., F.L.S. 

Description of a New Species of Estheria from Nagpoor, 
Central India 188 

Note on the Genus Cypridina, Milne-Edwards, with a 

Description of some New Species 199 

a2 



IV 

page 

Description of a New Entomostracous Crustacean, belong- 
ing to the Order Phyllopoda, from South Australia 392 

Description of Two New Species of Entomostracous Crus- 
tacea from India 445 

Description of some New Species of Intestinal "VVorms 
(Entozoa) in the Collection of the British Museum 446 



Bartlett, a. d. 

Exhib)tion of the Head of a variety of the Common Goose, 
with the feathers of the back of the head reversed 99 

Exhibition of the Gizzard of a Nicobar Pigeon 99 

Note on some Young Hybrid Bears bred in the Gardens 
of the Society 130 

Exhibition of a series of Eggs of Struthious Birds 205 

Notės on the Reproduction of the Australian "VVattle-bird 
{Talegalla lafhatni) in the Society's Gardens 426 

Note on the Balceniceps rex 461 

Bates, h. W. 

Exhibition of an undescribed species of Phyllostoma, from 
Ega, Upper Amazon 99 

Beardsworth, Rev. G. 

Extract of a letter relating to two Cetaceans killed on the 
North Keutish coast, near Whitstable 373 

Becker, Lxjdwig. 

Notės on the Young of Menura superha, in a letter ad- 
dressed to John Gould, Esq., from Melbourne, Victoria, 
Sept. 24, 1859 61 

Bennett, g., M.D., F.Z.S. 

Notės on the habits of the Brown Coati (Nasua fiisca, 
Desm.) 323 



page 

BUCKLAND, FrANK T. 

Exhibition of the Egyptian Ibis , 184 



CoBBOLD, Dr. T. Spencer, F.L.S. 

Contributions to the Anatomy of the Giraffe 99 

Crisp, Edwards, M.D., F.Z.S., &c. 

Exhibition of specimens of the Cock of the Rock {Rupicola 
crocea) which had been brought alive to aud had died ia this 
country 98 

On the Causes of Death of the Animals in the Society's 
Gardens from 1851 to 1860 175, 190 

Exhibition of specimens and drawings of Coenurus cerehralis 
from the brains of the Common Sheep 185 

Note on the Blood-corpuscles of the Japanese Gigantic 
Salamander (Sieboldia maxima) 203 

On the Structure, Relative Size, and Use of the Tail-glands 
in Birds 254 

Dohrn, h. 

Descriptions of New Species of Mitra from the CoUection 
of Hugh Cuming, Esq 366 

Flower, W. h., F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., &c. 

On the Structure of the Gizzard of the Nicobar Pigeon 
and other Granivorous Birds 330 

Gatke, Herr h., of Heligoland. 

Oa the Occurrence of American Birds in Europe 105 

Goodwin, Wil,liam. 

On an apparently New Species of Paradise-bird 243 

GouLD, John, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., &c. 

ūescription of a New Species of American Partridge .... 62 



page 
Eshibition of specimens of the Chough of the Himalayas 
{Fregilus himalayanus) 206 

Descriptions of Twenty-two New Species of Humming- 

birds 304 

Remarks on a Kangaroo liring in the Society's Gardens. . 373 
On a New Species of Kangaroo, of the Genus Halmaturus 3/5 

Description of a New Species of Hornbill from Western 
Afirica 380 

Description of a New Species of the Genus Moho of Lesson 381 

Description of a New Odontophorus 382 

Exhibition of a series of Penguins, and descriptions of two 
New Species 418 



Gray, g. r., F.Z.S., &c. 

Synopsis of the Species of the Genus Penelope 269 

List of Birds collected by Mr. \Vallace at the Molucca 
Islands, with descriptions of New Species, &c 34 1 



Gray, Dr. John Edward, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., Pres. Ent. Soc, &c. 

Description of a New Species of Cuscus (C. ornatus) from 
the Island of Batchian, with a List of the Manimalia col- 
lected iu that Island by Mr. A. R. Wallace 1 

Description of a Soft Tortoise {Aspidochelys livingstonii) 
from the Zambesi, sent to the British Museum by Dr. Li- 
vingstone 5 

Description of a New Genus of Boidce discovered by Mr. 
Bates on the Upper Amazon 132 

Note on the Species of the Genus Pithecia, with Description 
of a New Species, P. albicans 228 

Description of a New Species of Geoclemmys from Esme- 
raldas 231 

Description of a New Species of Emys lately living in the 
Gardens of the Zoological Society 232 



VU 

page 
Description of a New Species of Blstichopora from New ^^^ 

Calcdonia 

On the African Trionyces with Hidden Feet {Emydd). ... 314 

Note on the Female of Cuscus amatus ^^4 

Description of a New Coral {Corallium johnsont) from ^^^^ 

Madeira 

On the Genus Manouria and its affinities 

On the Genus Hyperoodon: the two British kinds and ^^^ 

tbeir food 

Note on Aspidochelys livingstonu 



GiJNTHER, Dr. Albert, For. Mem. Z. S. 

On a New Snake from the Galapagos Islands 9/ 

113 
On the Reptiles of Šiam 

Contributions to a Knowledge of the ReptUes of the Hiraa- 

.... 14o 
laya Mountams 

Third List of Cold-blooded Vertebrata collected by Mr. ^^^ 

Fraser in Ecuador 

Description of Homalocranium laticeps, a new Snake from ^^^ 

Carthagena 

Exhibition of a dried specimen of a Fish of the Genus 
Centrolophus, obtained by Mr. J. Conch at Polperro, Corn- ^^^ 

wall • 

On New Reptiles and Fishes from Mexico 316 

On a New Species of Fish, belonging to the Genus Pagrm 391 
On a West-African Genus of Snakes {Meizodon) 427 



Hamilton, Dr., F.Z.S., &c. 

Exhibition of large specimens of hybrids between the Phea- ^ 

sant and Domestic Hen "• 

Eshibition of Hen Pheasants in malė plumage 3/3 



paye 
Hanley, Sylvanus. 

On New Species of Nuculace^e in the Collection of Hugh 
Cuming, Esq 370 

Description of New Nuculidce 440 

Hartlaub, Dr. G., For. Mem. Z. S. 

On a New Form of Grallatorial Bird nearly allied to the 
Cariama {Bicholophus cristatus) 334 

Hartlaub, Dr. G,, For. Memb., and J. J. Monteiro. 

On some Birds coUected in Angola 1 09 

JoNES, J. Matthew, f. L. s. 

Estract from tlie Bermuda ' Royal Gazette,' relating to the 
recent capture of a large species of Gymnetrus 1 85 

Leadbeater, b., f. z. s, 

Eshibition of some heads and antlers of the American Wa- 
piti Stag, and three specimens of Buffon's Skua 322 

Leycester, a. a. 

Notės on the Habits of Menura alberti, in a letter addressed 
to John Gould, Esq 113 

Macdonald, Professor. 

Exhibition of Diagrams illustrative of a new scheme of Zoo- 
logical Classification 303 

Martens, Dr. Eduard von. 

On the Mollusca of Šiam (Communioated by Dr. A. Gūu- 
ther, Foreign Member) 6 

MoRCH, Otto A. L., of Copenhagen. 

Review of the Genus Tenayodus, Guettard 400 



IX 

page 
Newton, Alfred, m. a., F.Z.S., &c. 

Note on the supposed occurrence of the Hirundo hicolor 
of North America in Englaud 131 

On some Hybrid Ducks 336 

Remarks on the Anas (Anser) erythropus, Linn 339 

On the recent discovery of Bones, supposed to be those of 
the Dodo 443 



Parker, W. K., F.R.C.S. 

Abstract of Notės on the Osteology of Balceniceps rex . . 324 

Pease, W. Harper. 

Descriptions of New Species of MoUusca from the Sand- 
wich Islands. Part I 18 

Descriptions of New Species of PlanariicUe collected in the 
Sandwich Islands 37 

Descriptions of New Species of Mollusca from the Sand- 
wich Islands. Part II. . 141 

Descriptions of Three Species of Marine Shells from the 
Pacific Ocean 189 

Descriptions of Seventeen New Species of Marine Shells, 
from the Sandwich Islands, in the CoUection of H. Cuming, 
Esq 397 

Descriptions of Forty-seven New Species of Shells, from 
the Sandwich Islands, in the CoUection of Hugh Cuming, Esq. 431 

Descriptions of Six New Species of Land Shells, from Ebon, 
Marshall's Group, in the CoUection of H. Cuming, Esq. . . 439 



Petherick, John, Corr. Mem. Zool. Soc, F.R.G.S. 

Exhibition of the head and horns of a rare Antelope from 
Central Africa 193 

Memoranda on the Hippopotamus and Balceniceps recently 
imported into Eugland, and now in the Gardens of the So- 
cietv 1 !^5 



page 
Pfeiffer, Dr. L. 

Descriptions of Thirty-six Ne\v Species of Land Shells, from 
the CoUection of Hugh Cuming, Esq 1 33 

Prime, Temple, of New York. 

Descriptions of New Shells from the CoUection of Hugh 
Cuming, Esq 319 

Reeve, Lovell, f. L. s., F. Z. S., &c. 

A Commentary on M. Deshayes's Revision of the Genus 
Terebra 448 

Reinhardt, Professor J., For. M.Z.S. 

On the Affinities of Baleeniceps 377 

RoMER, Dr. E., of Cassel. 

Descriptions of New Species of the Genera Dosinia and 
Cyclina from the CoUection of Hugh Cuming, Esq 117 

Salvtn, Osbert, m. a., FZ.S. 

Exhibition of the eggs of the Quesal (Pharomacrus para- 
diseus) 374 

On the Reptiles of Guatemala 451 

ScLATER, Philip Lutley, Ph.D., M.A., F.L.S., Secretary to 
the Society. 

Further Evidence of the Distinctness of the Gambian and 
Rūppell's Spur-winged Geese {Plectropterus gambensis and 
P. riippellii 38 

List of Additional Species of Birds collected by Mr. Louis 
Fraser at Pallatanga, Ecuador ; with Notės and Descriptions 
of New Species 63 

List of Birds collected by Mr. Fraser in the vicinity of 
Qmto, and d>iring excursions to Pichincha and Chimborazo ; 
with Notės and Descriptions of New Species 7^ 

List of Birds collected by Mr. Fraser in Ecuador, at Na- 
negal, Calacali, Perucho, and Puellaro ; with Notės and De- 
scriptions of New Species 83 



page 
Exhibition of a large Horued Owl C^Buho malimus, var.) ^^ 

from Pangkong Lake, Thibet 

Note on the Punjab Sheep living in the Society's Garden 1 26 
Additions to the Menagerie during the months of January ^^^ 

and February 

ExhibitioQ of Oreophasis derhianua ; and announcement of 

the addition oi Sieboldia maxima and Balaniceps rex to the 

^ . , ,_ . 184 

Society's Menagene 

Exhibition of an egg of the King Vulture, and of a second ^^^ 

egg of the Apteryx 

On the Rheas in the Society's Menagerie, with Remarks on 

the known Species of Struthious Birds 207 

On the Black-shouldered Peacock of Latham {Pavo nigri- 

pennis) 

On the Species of the Genus Prioniturus, and on the Geo- 
graphical Distribution of the Psittacida in the Eastem Archi- 

pelago 

Additions to the Menagerie during the months of March 

and April 

List of MamniaUa collected by Mr. J. J. Monteiro in Angola 245 
Notės on Two Struthious Birds now living in the Society's 

Gardens 

Notės on a CoUection of Birds from the Vicinity of Orizaba 

and neighbouring parts of Southern Mexico 2oO 

Exhibition of a specimen of a new form of Dormouse {Plat- 

acanthonujs lasiurus) 

List of Birds collected by Mr. Fraser at Babahoyo in 

Ecuador, with Descriptions of New Species 2/^ 

List of Birds collected by Mr. Fraser at Esmeraldas, Ecua- 
dor, with Descriptions of New Species 

Note on the SkuU of the Red River-Hog {Potarnochcerus ^^^ 

penicillatus) 

Exhibition of a malė example of the Bimaculated Duok of ^^^ 

Yarrell 

Description of a New Species of Manakin from Northern ^^^ 

Brazil 



XII 

page 
Description of a New Tyrant-bird of the Genus Elainea 
from the Island of St. Thomas, West Indies , . : 313 

Eshibition of a dravring of a species of Rock-Kangaroo 
just received by the Society from South Austraha 323 

Additions to the Menagerie during the month of May . . 371 

Additions to the Menagerie during the month of June . . 3/2 

Note on the Japanese Deer living in the Society's Mena- 
gerie 375 

Catalogue of the Birds of the Falkland Islands 382 

Additions to the Menagerie during the months of July, 
August, September, and October 415 

Exhibition of bird-skins from Port Churchill, Hudson's 
Bay 418 

Notice of some Rare Species of Quadrumana, now living 
in the Society's Menagerie 419 

Additions to the Menagerie during the month of November 442 

On the Babirussa and other Suidce, now Uving in the So- 
ciety's Menagerie 443 

Note on Ovis polii of Blyth 443 

Report on the Indian Pheasants bred in the Society's Me- 
nagerie during the years 1858, 1859, and 1860 444 

Characters of Ten New Species of American Birds 461 

ScLATER, Philip Lutley, Ph.D., M. A., F. L. S., Secretary to 
the Society, and Osbert Salvin, M. A., F. Z. S. 

Characters of Eleven New Species of Birds discovered by 
Osbert Salvin in Guatemala 298 

Shortt, Dr., F.Z.S. 

Remarks on the Civet Cats 98 

SiMMONDS, P. L. 

Estract from a letter, announcing the capture of a young 
female Gorilla 184 



XIU 



Stevens, s. 

Exhibition of Birds and Lepidopterous Insects, collected 
by Mr. Wallace in the Island of Batchian 1 



Stewart, t. Howard, F.Z.S. 

Remarks on the Storaach of the Potamochoerus ^enicil- 
latus 



194 



Temple, Robert, Chief Justice of British Hondūras. 

Letter referring to a species of Peccary 206 

ToMES, Robert F., Corr. Mem. Z. S. 

A Monograph of the Genus Epomophorus, with the De- 
scription of a New Species 42 

Deseription of a New Species of Opossum, obtained by 
Mr. Fraser in Ecuador 58 

Notės on a Second CoUection of Mammaha made by Mr. 
Fraser in the Republic of Ecuador 211 

Notės on a Third CoUection of Mammalia niade by Mr. 
Fraser in the Republic of Ecuador 260 

Additional Note on Bidelphys voaterhousii 303 

Wai.lace, a. r. 

Notės on Semioptera ivallaciį, Gray, from a Letter ad- 
dressed to John Gould, Esq., dated Amboyna, Sept. 30, 1859 61 

WlLSON, F. H. 

Exhibition of four exaraples of a curiously coloured variety 
of the Common Mole {Talpa europeea) 206 



LIST OF PLATĖS. 



1860. 



MAMMALIA. 

Plate ^"^^ 

LXXIV. Cnscus ornatus 

LXXV. Epomophnrus frangueti '^■^ 

LXXVI. Bidelphys voaterhousii ^8 

LXxvYn } "^^^^^y °^ *^' ^'"""^^ ^^ 

LXXI.X. Ovis vignii | 12.9 

LXXX. cycloceros 

LXXXI. Pithecia albicans ^^^ 

•" 41 o 

LXXXII. Macams ocreatus ^^'^ 

LXXXII1. Babirussa alfurus '*'^^ 

AVĖS. 

CLIX. Oreomanes fraseri '^ 

CLX. Euchlornis jucunda ^"^ 

CLXI. Pytelia monteiri ^^^ 

CLXII. Egg of Casuarius bennettii 206 

CLXIII. Coccothraustes macuKpennis 250 

CLXIV. Cyclorhis virenticeps 2/4 

CLXV. -1 Structure of the Gizzard of the Nicobar Pigeon and j 330 

CLXVI. J other granivorous birds J 

Sn:W""-^ "^ 

CLXIX. Aquila gurneyi 

CLXX. Tanysiptera sabrina ^ 

CLXXI. Megapodius viallacu f 

CLXXII. Habroptila wallacii 

CLXXIII. Chloephaga rubidiceps 



XVI 

REPTILIA. 

Plate Page 

XXII. Aspidochelys liv'mgstonii 6 

XXIII. Herpeton tentaculutum ,'13 

XXIV. Chrysenis batesii 132 

XXV. Barycephalus sykesii and Tiaris elliotti -■. 

XXVI. Ablapes omenii and A. rappii I . 

XXVII. SpUotes hodgsonii f 

XXVIII. Rana liebigii and Dicroglossus adolji J 

XXIX. Geoclemmys annulatu 231 

XXX. Emys fuliginosa 232 

XXXI. Manouria fnsca 395 

XXXII. Thamnocenchris atirifer and Hyla kolochlora 451 

PISCES. 

X. Pimelodus cinerascens, P. elongatus, and P. modestus. . 233 
XI. Pagrus bocagii 391 

MOLLUSCA. 

y j' j-New Species of Land and Marine Shells 133, 189 

ANNULOSA. 

LXX. New Species of PlanariidcB 37 

LXXI. Nevv Genus and Species of Entomostracans 188, 199 

{Estheria birchii 392 
Strepiocephalus dichotomus 445 
Daphnia neicportii 446 

RADIATA. 

XVII. Distichopora coccinea '. 244 

XVIII. Corallium johnsoni 393 




M S: N Hanhsrt.Im] 



C.USCUS ORNATU 



PROCEEDINGS 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



Jannary Uth, 1860. 
Dr. Gray, V.P., in the Cbair. 

Dr. Hamilton exhibited some reinarkably fine and large speciraens 
of hybrids betweeii the Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) aad the hen 
of the Dotnestic Fowl. 

Mr. S. Stevens exhibited a series of the birds and lepidopterous 
insects contained in Mr. Wallace's recent coUections from the island 
of Batchian. Mr. G. R. Gray was stated to be preparing a list of 
the birds, recognizing eighty-five species, of which about tvvelve ap- 
peared to be undescribed. 

The following papers were read :— 

1. Description of a New Species of Cuscus (C. ornatus) 
FROM THE Island of Batchian, with a List of the 
Mammalia collected in that Island by Mr. A. R. 
Wallace. By Dr. John Edward Gray, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., 
Pres, Ent. Soc, etc. 

(MammaHa, PI. LXXIV.) 
Mr. Wallace has sent to the British Mnseum a series of MammaHa 
collected in the island of Batchian in the year 1859. 

The most interesting speciraen is a new species of the genus Cnscua, 
belonging to the section of the genus which has the iuner surface 
of the ears bald. It may be thus described :— 

Cuscus ornatus (PI. LXXIV.). 

Malė pale golden-brovvn ; back rather darker, with small irregular 
white spots ; crown and back with a narrow longitudinal blackish 
No. 41". — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



streak, which is darker on the back, black on the crown, and indi- 
stinct on the nape ; beneath rather paler, vnth a broad white lon- 
gitudinal streak near the middle of the chest and front of the abdo- 
men ; ears produced beyond the fur, naked internally ; the skuU 
with a very deep concavity between the orbits. 

Hab. Batchian. 

This species is most likę Cuseus orientalis, but in that animal the 
malė is pure white. It differs entirely from O. celebensis (from 
Celebes) in the general colour of the fur, and in having a distinct 
streak on the head and back, somewhat likę the streak on the back 
of the female C. orientalis, but narrower and darker. 

It diifers from all the other species in the nakedness of the inner 
surface of the ears. 

The white streak on the chest and belly is not exactly in the 
middle of those parts, and there is a square white spot on the upper 
part of the right fore leg, not found on the other legs. 

This animal may possibly be the coloured malė of C. orientalis ; 
but all the known malęs of that species are pure white. Can albi- 
nism be the usual, and this coloured malė the unusual, characteristic 
of that species } 

The skull of Mr. "Wallace's animal from Batchian agrees in general 
character with the skull of C. orientalis (sent to the Museum as 
Citscus ąuoyii from the Moluccas), but is yet sufficiently unlike to 
render it very doubtful if it be not a distinct species. It is smaller, 
the impression on the crown is deeper and furnished with a much 
more decidedly raised edge, which is extended behind on the centrai 
line to the occiput, and there is a notch or ridge at the upper front 
angle of the orbit, not to be found on the skull of C. orientalis. 

Some of the converts to the theory of the mutation of species 
may think that this animal is an instance in point ; but such a hy- 
pothesis derives no support from the observations I have made. 

All the difficulties here started arise from the imperfect material 
which the specimen affords for arriving at any defiuite opiniou on the 
subject, and I believe that this is the explanation of nine-tenths, or 
T may say ninety-nine in a hundred, of the cases on which the theory 
is attempted to be established. This is not to be wondered at when 
we consider how very few are the animals, even of our own coun- 
try, and more especially of exotic species and genera, whose history 
and anatomy have been properly studied. Most naturalists are of 
necessity in the habit of describing species from the few specimens 
which are brought from abroad in a more or less perfect statė, with- 
out being acquainted with the changes vvhich the animal undergoes 
in growing from its birth to maturity, and without the slightest in- 
dication of its habits and manners. Now, we know from experience 
amongst the British birds, such as for example the Rook and the 
Crow, and the species of the Willow Wrens, that if we were called 
on to describe them from such materials we might make great mis- 
takes. A mere examination of stuffed specimens might weU lead 
to doubts as to their distinctness as species, but this could never 
be the case if we had seen them alive in their native haunts, and 



observed the extreme difFerences which exist in their habits, food, 
note, &c. 

Judging from analogy, it is fair to believe that many of the spe- 
cies, even among the larger and best known vertebrated animals, 
which are now eonsidered doubtful, and sometimes only regarded 
as slight varieties, if properly observed and described, would prove 
to be quite distinct ; and if this be the case with the larger animals, 
what mušt it be with the smaller articulated and molluscous or radi- 
ated animals, which are very rarely described, except from specimens 
in one condition, often indeed from some isolated part of the ani- 
mal, as its shell or coral, as it is found in a museum ? I cannot but 
think that until we have better materials to work from, it is rather 
rash to theorize on so important a ąuestion as the stability or muta- 
bility of species. 

As regards the animal now before us, instead of knowiug its history 
in all its statės, and having a fuU account of its habits and manners 
(and I cannot conceive that any species is well estabhshed without 
all these particulars), we have only a skin with its separated skull, 
and that of one sex, of a genus in which the sexes sometimes differ 
greatly in esternal appearance, and of which the species are very 
imperfectly known. 

Thus, for example, the section of the genus to which this specimen 
is referable contains at present two species ; one long knovvn, and of 
which perhaps there are not more than twenty-five or thirty speci- 
mens in all the museums in Europe. The malęs in all these cases 
are pure white, and the females reddish vrith a narrow dorsal streak. 

Lašt year I described a second species from a malė, a female, and a 
young specimen in the British Museum, in which both sexes are 
ashy-grey without any dorsal streaks, and which has not been observed 
in any other coUection. Now I have described a third from a single 
adult malė, which is bright reddish-yellow varied with white spots, 
having a very distinct narrow dorsal stripe. I have every reason to 
believe that this is a good and distinct species, but without stronger 
evidence I can hardly say that it is so, particularly as I have no 
knowledge of the female. Moreover, all the malęs of the species 
most nearly allied to it in the different museums are pure white, a 
colour which is very rare in the animal kingdom, except when it 
arises from a statė of albinism ; and the eyes of this animal are 
represented in the published figures as red, as if it were an albiuo ; 
and this malė specimen has a distinct dorsal streak, vvhich is the 
character that distinguishes the female of C. orientalis from the other 
species of the genus. I am therefore induced to incįuire, can the 
malęs which vre have hitherto had have been albinos ? and is this 
the naturally-coloured malė of that species 1 And though I ask the 
ąuestion in order to induce other naturalists further to examine the 
subject, I am myself inclined to regard C. ornatus as a distinct species. 
Whether this be the case or not, I do not think that this specimen 
affords any ground for believing that the three species of the genus 
vėre derived from a common origin, and have gradually separated 
themselves from each other, more especially as they all seem to be 



organized on very much tlie satne plau, and are confined to a very 
limited space or group of islands on the earth's surface. 
With this animal Mr. Wallace has sent 

1. CyNOPITHECUS NIGRESCENS. 

Papio nigrescens, Temm. Consp. &c. iii. 111. 

Three specimens (with their skuUs), two adult and one young, 

The adult agrees well with the specimen whicli the British Mu- 
seum receivcd from the Leyden Museum as coming from Celebes. 
The yoiuiger specimen wants the pale subterminal ring on the louger 
hairs' of the shoulder, vvhich are more or less distinetly marked in 
all the adult specimens I have examined. This species is very nearly 
allied to the C. niger of the Phihppines. 

Mr. \Vallace, in a note, remarks, " These apes are very rare and, 
I think, very interesting, as I expect they are from the most 
southern limits for these animals." 

I think there mušt be some mistake in this, because, first, they are 
more Monkeys than Apes ; and secondly, both Monkeys and Apes 
are found abundantly in Sumatra and Java, much further southwards 
than Batchian, which is nearly on the eąuator. 

The Bats seem numerous on the island, as the coUection contained 
fifty-nine specimens. I have not ventured to name or describe them, 
as Mr. Robert Tomės has now taken up this group of animals, and 
promised to form a catalogue of them ; so I leave their determinatioa 
to him. 

2. Rhinolophus, uo. 1. 

3. Rhinolophus, no. 2. 

4. Rhinolophus, no. 3. 

These species differ greatly in size and colouriug. 

5. HiPPOSiDEROS, no. 1. 

6. HiPPOSiDEROS, no. 2, 

The second species is the smallest of the group I have y et seen. 

7. MiNlOPTERIS AUSTRALIS. 

Peculiar for the great length of the tail and infemoral membrana, 
and for the length and freedom of the hind feet. 

S. Pteropus, no. 1. (Seven specimens.) 

9. Pteropus, no. 2. (Five specimens.) 

10. Pteropus, no. 3. A single specimen, of a uniform reddish- 
browu, rather paler on the head. 

These species differ greatly in colour, and they appear to be very 
uniform, as there are many specimens of nos. 1 and 2, and the indi- 
vidnals are much alike. 





:^ 



Pig2 



ASPIDOC 



I 



Proc.Z.S.Reptiliaini. 




rSTONII 



H^l. 



■Vf.VTest mc 



1 



s^'^^ 



y 



5 

11. ViVERRA ZEBETHA, LuiD. 

Hab. Batchian. A young malė. 

Mr. Wallace names this animal Paradoxurus, but it has noiie of 
the characters of that genus : the scrotum is covered with hair, and 
the tail uniformly hairy. 

12. BeLIDEUS ARIEL. 

Hab. Batchian. 

Two malęs, rather differing in size and colour : the larger is 
darker and greyer, the smaller paler and redder on the back. 



2. Description of a Soft Tortoise (Aspidochelys living- 

STONIl) FROM THE ZaMBESI, SENT TO THE BrITISH MuSEUM 

BY Dr. Livingstone. By Dr. John Edward Gray, F. R. S., 

V.P.Z.S., PrES. EnT. SOC, ETC. 

(Reptilia, PI. XXII.) 

The British Museum has lately received from Dr. Livingtone the 
dorsal and sternal shields of a large fluviatile Soft Tortoise from the 
country near the Zambesi. It was accompanied by the skuU of a 
foetal African Elephant, and some other bones of that animal. 

Some years ago I received through the Earl of Derby a Soft 
Tortoise from the River Gambia, which differed from the genas 
Emyda, to which it was allied, in having no bones on the hinder part 
of the margin of the dorsal shield. I, therefore, proposed to esta- 
bhsh for it a new genus. 

When I described this genus I called it Cydanorbis, but re- 
ceived a note from Dr. Peters, before the account of this genus wa3 
printed, in which he informed me that he had found near Mozam- 
bique, on the River Zambesi, a Tortoise which was called Casi, which 
wanted these bones on the hinder part of the margin of the dorsal 
shield, and which he had proposed to call Cydanosteus fi-enatus, 
on account of certain black streaks on the head. I obliterated my 
name, and adopted that vvhich my friend Dr. Peters has suggested, 
and described the one I had received from the Gambia under the 
name of Cyclnnosteus petersii (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1853 ; Ann. &Mag. 
N. H. 1855, XV. 69; Catalogue of Shielded Reptiles in the British 
Museum, 64, t. 29). 

The animal from the Zambesi which we have received from Dr, 
Livingstone agrees with the animal from the Gambia in wauting 
the bones in the hinder part of the margin of the dorsal shield ; but 
it differs so essentially in the structure of the sternum that it is 
necessary that another genus should be established for its reception. 
Now, it may be the Casi of the natives, but unfortunately Dr. Living- 
stone has not sent its native name, and it may be the Cydanosteus 
penatus of Dr. Peters ; but I cannot find any description of that 
animal. It is not noticed, nor any other Tortoise, in the review 
of the Amphibia collected during his Travels, which Dr. Peters 



published iu the ' Monatsberichte der Berliner Academie,' 1^54, 
p. 614, and which is reprinted in Wiegmann's Arch. 1855, p. 43. 
Uiider these circumstances, as I applied Dr. Peters' name Cyclanoa- 
teus to the animal from the Gambia, and first gavę the character to 
that genus derived from that species, and, as my description of thaį 
genus appears to be the only one that has been published, I think 
that the name Ci/clatiosfeus mušt be retained for the Gambian Tor- 
toise, although probably Dr. Peters in bis note intended it to refer to 
the Mozambique form. If I do so, the reference to Dr. Peters' 
MS. mušt be erased from my account of the animal in the papers 
above referred to, and I mušt give a new name to the genus, to be 
established on the Tortoise from the Zambesi. 

This genus may be considered in some respects intermediate 
between Cyclanosteus and Emyda ; for, though it has the simple 
flexible boneless hinder margiu of the dorsal shield of the former 
genus, it has tbeseven sternal callosities of the latter ; but these cal- 
losities, though they agree in number, are of a much smaller size, 
compared with the size of the animal, than those of the genus 
Emyda. 

It is the giant of the group, agreeing in size and development with 
the genera of this family, which have the legs esposed, and especially 
with the genera Trionyx and Chitra. 

ASPIDOCHELYS, 

Head ? Limbs ? The hinder margiu of the dorsal 

disk expanded, flesible, without any bony platės. The stemum 
broad, rounded before and behind, hiding the feet, with very distinct 
moveable flaps over the hinder feet. Sternal callosities 7, the odd 
one behind the oblong anterior pair, lunar, transverse, the hinder 
pair large, oblong, only united together on the hinder part of the 
mner margiu. 

Hab. Africa. 

AsPIDOCHELYS LIVINGSTONII (PI. XXII. fig. 1, 2). 

? Cyclanosteus frenatus, Peters, MSS. in Gray, Cat. Shielded 
Reptiles Brit. Mus. p. 64. 

Hab. Mozambique in tributaries of River Zambesi ? {Dr. Living- 
stone). 

The dorsal shield is 22 inches long and 1 7 inches wide over the 
convexity of the back. 



3. On the Mollusca of Šiam. By Dr. Eduard von Martens. 

(COMMUNICATED BY Dr. A. GiJNTHER, FoREIGN MeMBER.) 

During my stay in London I have had the opportunity of exa- 
mining several coUections of Siamese shells made by Sir Richard 
Schomburgk, J. C. Bowring, Esq., Dr. Hailand, and Mr. Mouhot. 



The ereater number of them are ia the coUectiou of the Bntish 
Museum. Likę all naturalists visiting this couatry, I feel myself under 
great obligations to Dr. J. E. Gray and to H. Cummg, Esq.. who with 
their usual liberality have given me free access to their collections. 



I. Land-shells. 



The only notice of a Siamese land-shell recorded by earlier authors 
is to be found in ArgenviUe's ' Conchyliologie,' third edition, by Fa- 
vanne. figure C 1 of plate 64 of this work representmg a shell called 
la Siamoise, which it is difficult to indentify with anyknown species; 
Nicolson (Essai sur l'Histoire Naturelle de l'isle de St. Domingue, 
1776) and Lamarck are very probably wrong m ąuotmg it as a Haiti 
sheli; Šefe undulata, Fer. From that time, so far as I know, no 
land- or freshwater-shell has been mentioned as fro°įSiam'™ 
the shells coUected by Dr. House were descnbed by Redfield and 
Haines (in the sixth volume of the Annals of the Lyceum of Natūrai 
History at New York, 1853-1855) and by Dr. Pfeiffer (m the Pro- 
ceedings of this Society, 1856). I shall mention them m the follow- 
ing list at the proper place. 

Helicea. 
Vitrina siamensis, Haines, Ann. Lyc.N. H. New York, 1855. 

vi. p. 158. 

Diam. maj. 30, min. 25, alt. 15 mill. 
Leg. House. 

Nanina distincta. Pfr. Mon. iii. p. 81 ; Keeve, Conch. Ic. Hel. 
no. 465. 

Leg. House et Mouhot. 

This species and Cydophorus siamensis are the largest land-shells 
known at present from Šiam ; it seems to be common there. because 
there are several of this species among the shells coUected by Mouhot. 
and Dr. Pfeiffer had seenand described one some years before House 
or Mouhot were in Šiam. 

Nanina birmana, Pfr. 

Pale yellowish, with a reddish band, the whorls slowly increasing. 

Diam. maj. 26, min. 23, alt. 15 mill. 

Leg. Mouhot. 

Nanina hainesi, Pfr. Mon. iv. p. 61 ; Novitat. pi. 18. f. 7-9. 

This Shell is similar to the preceding, but may be dįstinguished 
by the whorls being more raised, and by the want of any band They 
are both faintly decussated, and their suture is shghtly crenulated, 
and of a pinkish-violet hue. 

Diam. maj. 30, min. 26, alt. 16 miU., 

Leg. House et Mouhot. 



Nanina ? 

There is another Siainese species in the British Musenm most 
allied to N. bistrialis, but distinguished from it by beir^g more flat 
above ; the whorls are much more rapidly increasing, as in the two 
preceding species ; the colour is pale yellowish with a rather broad 
white band, bordered on each side by a narrow brovvn line. As the 
specimen seems not to be perfect, I shall not venture to give it a 
new specific name. 

Diam. maj. 20, min. 17, alt. 17 mill., anfr. A\. 

Leg. Mouhot. 

Nanina siamensis, Pfr. Mon. iv. p. 60 ; Novitat. pi. 18. f. 1, 2. 
Leg. House. 

Nanina (subg. Hesta) vallicola, Pfr. Mon. iv. p. 46. 
■Whorls b\, with radiating strise near the suture. 
Diam. maj. 12, min. 11, alt. 7 mill. 

Nanina (subg. Hesta) splendens, Hutt., Pfr. Mon. iv. p. 1 24? 

Umbilicus very narrow. 

Diam. maj. 13, min. 11, alt. 7 mill. 

Leg. Bowring. 

The two last-mentioned species are very hrilliant, and in this re- 
spect, as well as in their size and general shape. resemble the shells 
of the genus Hyalina more than any true Nanina. It is merely 
on the authority of Hutton and Pfeiffer {v. Malakologische Blatter, 
1856) that I am induced to place them in the genus Naniita. 

Nanina (subg. Trochomorpha), sp. 

There is one specimen in the British Museum, gathered by 
Mr. Bowring, nearly allied to Helix planorbis, Less., and H. acuti- 
margo, Pfr. As Mr. Cuming tells me that he has sent specimens 
of all these Siamese land-shells to Dr. Pfeiffer, I prefer to await 
the judgment of that experienced monographer in determining the 
species. 

Helix tourannensis, Eydoux et Souleyet, Voy. Bonite, pi. 29. 
f. 12 ; Pfr. Mon. iii. p. 137. 

Helix similaris, Fer. ; Pfr. Mon. i. p. 336. 
A rather large specimen, diam. maj. 18, min. I5, alt. 12 mill., 
with a distinct reddish-brown band. 

Helix ptychostyla, n. 

Testą umbilicata, conoidea, solidiuscula, striata,fusca ; anfr. 6\, 
convexiusculi, lente accrescentes, ultimus medio carinatus, basi 
convexus, umbilico lato, pervio ; apertura securiformis ; peri- 
stoma expansum, album, margine columellarifereperpendiculari, 
uniplicato, angulum rectum cum margine b asali formante. 

Diam. maj. 1 4, min. 12, alt. 9 mill. 



Nearly allied to H. tapeina, Bens., from which it may be at once 
distinguished by the fold on the columella. 

BULIMUS PERVERSUS, L. 

I have seen two imperfect specimens only, coUected by Mr. Mou- 
hot ; they may be recoguized by the convexity of the upper whorls 
and the white sutural zone as belonging to B. perversus, and not to 
B. interruptus. 

BuLiMus siAMENSis, Redfield, Ann. Lyc. N. H. New York, 1853, 
vi. p. 15 ; Pfr. Mon. iv. p. 425. 

Leg. Ingalls et Mouhot. 

Our specimens would scarcely be called "obtuse carinati," having 
in fact no keel at all. The largest of the specimens which I have 
seen is 22 mill, long and 1 1 broad, the length of the aperture beine 
8 mill. 

B. siamensis belongs to the group Ena, Leach {=M.erdigero, Held 
^Napceus, Alb.), spread from the middle of Europe to the northern 
and mountaiuous parts of India, and seems to be one of its most 
eastern representatives ; it is particularly allied to the Transylvanian 
B. reversalis, Bietz., by its sinistral whorls. 

Stenogyra erecta (Bens.) ; Pfr. Mon. ii. p. 265 ? 

I am not able to find any reliable diflference between one shell col- 
lected by Mr. Bowring and the above-quoted description ; as the 
measurements, however, and the number of whorls do not agree, I 
subjoin the following diagnose : — 

Testą cylindraceo-turritn, apice obtusa, striatula, nitida, pallide 
lutescens ; sutura mediocris ; anfractus 5^ convexiusculi ; 
apertura ^ longitudinis testce csąiians, tetragono-elliptica ; peri- 
stoma simplex, acutum ; columella antrorsum tortą, obliaue 
truncata. 
Long. 2A\, diam. 9 mill. ; apert. 8 mill. longa, 5 lata. 

Stenogyra turricula, n. 

Testą turrita, imper/orata, subtiliter verticaliter striata, parum 
nitens, sordide fiavescens ; apex obtusiusculus ; anfr. 9, regu- 
lariter accrescentes convexi, sutura profunde discreti, ultimus 
angustatus ; apertura ovato-lanceolata, superne acuta, inferne 
rotundata ; peristoma simplex, margo externus strictus, rečius, 
columellaris adnatus ; columella stricta, elongata, alba, ad 
basin valde oblique truncata. 

Long. 18, diam. 6; long. apert. 5 mill. 

SUCCINEA, sp. 
Leg. Mouhot. 

The specimens are too badly preserved to be identified with any 
known species, or described as a new one. 



10 

Cyclostomacea. \ 



Cyclotus conicus. 



Testu conieo-turbinata, late uynbilicata, suh epidermide sordide 
brunea aureonitens, spiraliter lirata; apex acuminatus ; anfr. 5, 
cotivezi, sutura profunde discreti, ultimus rotimdatus, liris 8-9 
elevatis, mediana nigricante, piligera, basi Icevi ; apertura cir- 
cularis ; peristoma duplex, internum reetum, album, continuum, 
margini columellari appressum, externum interruptum, breviter 
expansum, nigricans. Operc. typicum. 
Diam. maj. 10, min. 8, alt. 10 mill. 

This species comes next to C. tourannensis, Souiej'et, frora Cochin 
China, but is distiuguished from it by the sculpture, by the haired 
keel, and by the higher form of the shell. 
Leg. Bowring. 

Opisthoporus siamensis, n. 

Testą discoidea, late umbilicata, striatula, flavida, fusco-fulgu- 
rata, vertice prominulo ; anfr. 4^, convexiusculi, sutura pro- 
funda discreti, ultimus rotundatus, antice descendens, non 
solutus, linea mediana pilifera, tubiilo recurvo aperto 6 tnill. 
pone aperturam viunitus ; apertura circularis ; peristoma du- 
plex, internum reetum, continuum, externum interruptum, bre- 
viter expansum, superne alatini dilatatum. Operculum calca- 
reum, multispirum, planum, margine incrassato, cavo. 

Diam. maj. 19, min. 14, alt. 7 mill, 

Leg, Bowring. 

AlUed to O. biciliatus, Mouss. and O. euryomphalus, Pfr. 

Pterocyclos (subg. Spiraculum) housei, Haines, Aun. of 
Lyc. N. H. of New York, Oct. 1855, vi. p. 157, pi. 5. f. 12-15 ; 
Pfr. Suppl. p. 29. 

In this species the end of the lašt whorl is separated from the 
preceding ; the operculum is remarkable from its cylindrical form. 

Leg. House. 

Alyc^us distortus, Haines, L c. pi. 5. f. 5-8 ; Pfr. Suppl. 
p. 33. 

Leg. House. 

Cyclophorus siamensis, Sovv.Thes. Suppl.-^l. 31 A. f. 292, 293; 
Pfr. Mon. p. 66 ; Gray, Cat. Cycl. p. 37. 

Operculum cartilagineo-corneum, multispirum, crassiusculum, 

extus concavum, albidum, intus aurantium, nucleo centrali, 

mammillato, sanguineo. 
In our specimen the lašt whorl is rather subangulated. 
Leg. Bowring. 

Cyclophorus floridūs, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1854, p. 300 ; 
Mon. Pneumonop. Suppl. p. 43. 
Leg. House. 



11 

The figure 115 in Sowerby'8 'Thesaurus' agrees more with this 
shell thaa with C. invclvulus, Miill., frora which C. flavidus is distia- 
guished by the want of the spirai ribš, aud by having the peristome 
not double, and coloured white. 

Cyclophorus punctatus, Grateloup ; Pfr. Mon. p. 67; Gray, 
Catal. Cycl. p. 45. 

Diam. maj. 24, min. 21, alt 19 mill. 
Leg. Bovvring. 

Megalomastoma myersii, Haines, /. c. pi. 5. f. 9-11 ; Pfr. 
Suppl.p. 79 ; Novitat. Conch. pi. 18. f. 12. 
Long. 36-39 mill. 
Leg. House. 

Ojuphalotropis maculatus. 

Testą ovato-conica, acuta, striatula, parum nitens, olivacea, ma- 
culis fitscis triseriatis notata ; anfr. S^, planiusmli, sutura 
minime profunda discreti, ultimus ovatus ; apertura oblongo- 
ovata, superne valde attenuata, acuta, peristomate simplice, 
margine externo paru7n arcuato, recto, acuto, columellari bre- 
viter expanso ; umbilicus pervius, angustus, carina alba, fusco- 
limbata cinctus. 
Long. 11, diam. 7, alt. apert. 6 mill. 

The outlines of this shell are somewhat similar to those of Assi- 
minea francisci, Wood, sp. I retain the name Omphalotropis, for 
which Pfeiffer has substituted " Hydrocena " in the Supplement of 
his ' Monographia Pneumonopomorum,' beeause 1 am by no means 
persuaded that the Eastern species with a keel round the umbilicus, 
and with a subvertical aperture, belong to the šame genus as Hydro' 
cena cattaro'ėnsis, Pfr., found in Dalmatia. 

Most of the species enumerated above have as yet been found only 
in Šiam ; but several are spread over a great extent of the large 
eastern peninsula, containing Birma, Assam, Šiam, and Cochin China, 
as for instance, Nanina birmana, Helix tourannensis ; a few others 
seem to extend beyond the peninsula to the neighbouring parts of 
India and China ; but we may remark that these are species belong- 
ing to groups which are spread over most parts of the world, and 
which consist of species to be distinguished from each other only by 
the vague characters of size and proportions. 

The most striking natūrai groups represented in the fauna of Šiam, 
as far as at present known, are exactly those which predominate 
in and are characteristic of the vybole Indo-Chinese region and the 
adjaceut islands, as Cyclophorus among the Cyclostomacea, Nanina 
and the great helicoid Bulimus {Amphidromus) among the Helicea. 
Bulimus siamoisis is the only representative of a group which is con- 
fined to the continent, and is wanting, as far as I know, in the Eastern 
Archipelago. 



12 
II. Freshwater Shells. 

LlMN^ACEA. 

Planorbis coromandelicus, Beck ; var. minor, Dunker in 
Trūster's second edition of Martini's Conchylien.-Cabinet, nl, 6. 
f. 14-16. 

Diam.maj. 14, min. 11, alt. 8. 

The specimens sent by Dr. Harland and Mr. Mouhot agree very 
•well with the figure quoted above. It is another ąnestioii, which, 
however, need not be discussed here, whether they should really be 
regarded as a variety of Planorbis coromandelicus, which is much 
flatter. These shells are very remarkable for their resemblance to 
those of the North American group allied to P. trivohis, Say, exhi- 
biting the obhque shape of the mouth, and the few inflated" whorls 
with a bluut keel near the umbilicus, which is less deep than the 
centre of the upper side of the shell. 

Ampullariacea. 

Ampullaria globosa, Swains. ; var. A. corrugata, Swains. 

Peristome orauge. 

Diam. 63, alt. 59 mill. ; apert. 51 mill. longa, 35 lata. 

Ampullaria celebensis, Qnoy et Gaimard {ampullacea of 
Linn.?). 

Peristome whitish, speckled with dark brown. 

Diam. 63, alt. 63 mill. ; apert. 55 mill. longa, 35 lata. 

Ampullaria polita, Desh. ? 

Spire conic, produced ; the shell of a unifonn black colour ; the 
peristome whitish. 

Diam. 48, alt. 58 mill ; apert. 41 mill. longa, 24 lata. 

Ali these three species I found in the coUeetions made by Mr. 
Mouhot. 

Peristomacea. 

Paludina trochoides, m. 

Testą trochiformis, acuminata, obtecte perforata, obliąue striata, 

striis spiralibus subtilissimis decussata, interdum malleata, 

nitens : spira concava ; anfr. 6, supremi plani, nigricantes, 

medii conveziusculi, obscure virides, ultimus medio carinatus, 

pallide virens, fuscia lata fusca supra carinam notatus, basi 

convexiuscula ; apertura diagonalis, rotundato-cordata ; peri- 

stoma breviter expansu)n, album, margine supero subrecto, colu- 

mellari incrassato, dilatato. Opercidum corneum, concentricum, 

subovatum, extus riigis subtilibus obliąuis sculptum. 

Long. sive alt. 20, diam. 22, alt. apert. 14 mill. 

This species is very remarkable from its form resembling that of 

the trochiform Helix of the Eastern Archipelago (of the section 

Geotrochus) ; the structure and the appearance of the surface clearly 



13 

indicate its affinity to the other viviparous Paludinee, especially to 
the following. The keel, in some of the specimens, becomes alniost 
obsolete near the aperture. 

Paludina cingulata, n. 

Testą ovato-conica, acuta, anguste perforata, obliąue striatula et 
lineis spiralibus subtilissimis decussata, virens vel brunneo- 
niyi-icans, apice violaceo-nigra ; anfr. 6-7, conv€xiuscuH, supe- 
riores lineis elevatis spiralibus, nonnullis obsolescentibus sculpti, 
ultimus cingulo tumido mediano munitus ; apertura parum ob- 
liqua, ovato-rotunda, superne non acuta, carulescenti-alba ; 
peristoma rectum, crassum, obtusum, extus scepius nigricans. 
Operculum corneum, concentricum, late ovatum, aweo-nitens. 
Long. sive alt. testse 55, diam. 31, alt. apert. 21 mill. (in speci- 
mine maximo). 
Leg. Mouhot. 

This species can be regarded as a link in the chain between P. 
oxytropis, Bens., P. tricarinata, AntQn, P. angularis, Miill., and 
our Eui-opean P. fasciata, MūU. {vivipara of Linn.). It is distin- 
guished from the latter by the presence of one, from all the former 
by the absence of the two superior spirai girdles, traces of which, 
however, are found ou the upper whorls. The single girdle is in 
most of the specimens much swollen, and is visible also on the 
penultimate vvhorl, on or a little above the suture. P. japonica, mihi, 
is also closely allied, but its body-whorl exhibits a canthus only in- 
stead of an elevated girdle, and its upper whorls no raised Unes at all. 

Paludina polygramma, m. 

Testą conico-oblonga, imperforata, striatula, fusco-viridis, fas- 
ciolis nigris numerosis (in anfr. ultimo 9) cincta, apice nigri- 
cante ; anfr. 5^, subplani, ad suturatn tumidi, ultimus obtuse 
angulatus ; sutura impressa ; apertura ovalis, superne acuta, 
ceeruleo-albida ; peristoma incrassatum, brevissime campanulato- 
expansutn, nigro-limbatum. Operculum normale, concentricum, 
corneum. 

Long. 20, diam. 14, long. apert. 12 mill. 

Leg. Mouhot. 

Mus. Berol. 

BiTHYNiA TRUNCATA, Eyd. et Soul. 

Testą conico-oblonga, rimata, Icevis, Jlavo-virens, apice truncata ; 
anfr. superiores 4į, convexiusculi, sutura simplice discreti, 
ultimus obsolete fasciatus ; apertura oblongo-ovata, superne 
acuta, margine columellari fusco. Operculum ovatmn, ertus 
corneum, concentrice striatum, nucleo subcentrali, intus testa- 
ceum, homogenmn, margine corneo. 

Long. 13, diam. 8, long. apert. 6 mill. 

This species is in shape similar to Paludina bulimoides, Olivier 
{cleopatra, Troschel), but it is essentially distinguished by the 
structure of the operculum ; the whorls, also, are more flattened. 



14 

Melania, sp. 

There is among the shells coUected by Mr. Mouhot a turrited 
species of this genus ; its chief character consists in the under margin 
of the whorls being swollen and prominent over the following suture, 
in the šame manner as in Turritella imbricafa, Lam. The shell 
is of a uniform ohve-green colour, which becomes in the uppermost 
whorls reddish: it is provided with rather strong vertical striae. 
As Mr. Cuming tells me that he has sent specimens of it to ^Nlr. 
Reeve to be described and fignred in one of the next numbers of the 
' Conchologia Iconica,' I do not give it any specific name. The šame 
18 the case with the two following species. 

Melania, sp. 

rV turrited shell with large dark-brown stripes, a little shorter than 
the preceding, allied to M. testudinaria, Buscli, and M. pieta, Ilinds. 
Leff. Mouhot. 

MeLANOPSIS HELENA, MoUSS. 

Leg. Mouhot. 

Neritina melanostoma, Trosche\ = Neritine indienne, Eydoux 
et Soulevet, Voy. Bonite, 34, 32-35. 

Mr. Reeve is vvrong in uniting this species with N. crepiduJaria, 
Lam., from which it differs in the narrower form of the mouth and 
of the whole shell, and in the blackish colour of the inner lip. 

Naiacea. 
A considerable number of species of the genus Unio, found in Šiam 
by Dr. House, are described by Lea in the sixth volume of bis ' Ob- 
servations on the genus Unio,' 1857. Severai of them are in thecol- 
lection of the British Museum, sent by Sir R. Schomburgk. 

Unio housei, Lea, /. c. pi. 23. f. 3. 

This is a flat shell, with a small wiug before and a large one di- 
stinctly folded behind the summits. Three specimens of different 
ages, sent by Sir R. Schomburgk, render it highly probable that 
U. myersianus, Lea, 1. c. pi. 22. f. 2, is merely the adult of the šame 
species, the wings being gradually lošt with age. 

Leg. Sir R. Schomburgk. 

Unio gravidtjs, Lea, 1. c. pi. 24. f. 5. 

Is a very distinct form, not yet knowu from the Eastern hemi- 
.sphere, similar to U. capace from North America ; the vving, never- 
theless, shovvs some wrinkles at its base, vvhich are elevated and 
anastomosing, as in many of the Eastern species. 

Lao in Šiam ; leg. Mouhot. 

Unio rusticus, Lea, L c. pi. 25, f. /. 

As I am not quite confident in identifying our shell with that de- 
scribed by Lea, I shall add a diagnostic phrase. 



15 

Testą ovata, tenuis, virescens, antice rotundata, postice obtuse 
angulata, margine dorsali postieo convejciiiscuh, ventrali sub- 
stricto ; angulus a vertice decurrens, aream posticam testce 
circmiiscribens ; rugce V-formes in medio testce, ascendentea in 
area postica, utrceque in adultioribus obsolescentes. Dentes 
cardinales tenues, compressi, vix crenati ; lateralis elongatUA, 
arcuatus, in valva dextra duplicatus. 

Long. 51, alt. 29, diam. 14 mill. ; vertices in \ longitudinis siti. 

The other species described and figured by Lea, 1. c, are : — • 

Unio hainesianus. — This is a large, convex, and rovinded shell, 
with the wing well developed and almost rectangular to the longitude 
of the shell ; allied to U. housei, cumingii, and schlegelii. 

Unio eximius. — This has also a folded wing. 

Unio scobinatus. — Allied to U. rusticus, from the šame locality, 
with the corrugations much more developed. 

Unio inornatus. — With two ohlique keels on the hinder half of 
the shell. 

^ Unio tumidulus. — Similar to the European U. tumidus. 

\ Unio sagittarius. — Nearly approaching the Egyptian U. cailliaudi. 

Unio humilis, substriatus, nucleus. — Founded on very small, per- 
haps immature shell s. 

Anodonta (subg. Lamproscapha) schomburgki, m. 
Testą elongata, antice angiistatn, postice dilatata, compressa, 
tenuis, epidermide nitente, virescente tecta ; margo dorsalis siib- 
rectus, postice in alam humilem longiusculam elevatus ; margo 
anticus et posticus rotundati, angulis nullis distincti, margo 
ventralis subconcavus ; cardo plane edentulus ; impressiones 
musculares modicce, accessoria antica modica subrhombea; facies 
interna violaceo-rubens , 
Long. 82, altitudo ad vertices 27, in parte postica dilatata 38, diam. 
15 mill., vertices ante ^ longitudinis siti. 
Misit Schomburgk. 

The thin and very flat shell and the want of edges at the margins 
render it irapossible to associate this species with Spatha rostrata, 
and induce us to search for allied forms in the subgenus Lampro- 
scapha of Swainsou. 

Anodonta callifera, n. 

Testą rotundato-ovatu, crassa, epidermide nigricante, margines 
versus totnentosa ; vertices non prominentes, approximuH ; 
margo dorsalis antice angulatus, postice conve:cus, arcuatim 
descendens ; margo posticus perpendiculariter truncatus, anticus 
et ventralis valde arcuati ; cardo callo marginali inJlexo, in 
valva sinistra prominulo, dentiformi, in dextra emarginato- 
notatus; impressiones musculares anteriores 2, altera (acces- 
soria) minor, reniformis. 

Long. 80, alt. 51, diam. 28 mill. ; vertices in A longitudinis. 



16 

/J »T , Spatha compressa, m. 

Testą oblonga, compressa, solida, epidermide nigricante, sericeo- 

nitente, subtomentosa ; mnbones parvi, approximati ; margo ven- 

tralis rectus, margo anticus rotundatus, posticus perpendicula- 

riter subtruticatus ; cardo edentulus, in valva dextra colio parvo 

prominulo munitus, in valva sinistra j)oulisjier emarginatus ; 

impressiones musculares profundce, anticce duče, accessoria 

magna subąuadrata ; pcstica unica, ovata ; facies interna 

ccerulescenti-margaritacea, cenfrum versus Jlavescens. 

Long. 87, alt. 44, diam. 24 mill. ; vertices in -^ longitudinis siti. 

A specimen purchased for the British Museum from a dealer, 

togetlier with other Siamese shclls, is noted as coming frotn " Khao- 

kho, nortli-east of Pakpriau in Šiam." 

Spatha is regarded by most authors as a genus peculiar to the 
African region ; but there is besides the above, another species in the 
British Museum marked as comiug from Manilla, and allied as nearly 
to Spatha rubens as Spatha compressa is to >S. wahlbergi. 

Deshayes, in the second edition of Lamarck's work, points ont the 
depth and size of the muscular impressions, and more particularly of 
the accessory one on the fore half of the valve, as the only character 
by which the shell of Spatha might be distinguished from that of 
Anodonta. This character, coincidiug with the very striking re- 
semblance to the South African species of Spatha, named above, 
leaves me no doubt that this shell should be placed in the šame 
genus. 

Cyrena (subg. Corbicula) orientalis, Lam. Desh. Cat. Brit. 
Mus. p. 227 ? 

Shell much swollen, subeąuilateral, with regular distant elevated 
ribs, gradually becomingobsolete on the hinder end ; umbones very 
blunt, thick, in great extent decorticated. Teethof the hingesimple, 
lateral teeth nearly equal in length, curved and striated through the 
whole of their length. 

Alt. 20, long. 2 Ii, diam. 16 mill. 

III. Sea-shells. 

We find in the above-named work of Favanne two species with the 
epithet " Siamoise," namely, vol. ii. p. 9, " la Couronne Siamoise," 
without figure ; according to the author's words, nearly allied to 
Turbo argyrostotnus. L., but distinguished by seven rows of thick 
and elevated girdles. The other, ibid. p. 274, " la Natice Siamoise," 
pi. 11. f. D 5, appears to be Natica lineata, Lam. It should be stated 
that Favanne mentions China, not Šiam, as the localitv of both of 
them ; but we may couclude, from the French names quoted above, 
which, without doubt, were then used in the coUections of the 
amateurs, that those shells were originally brought from Šiam to 
France. 

We cannot say the šame of the "Siamoise a collier," the account 
of which immediately follows that of the above species of Natica, 



17 

the name being evidently employed in this case as a generic one, 
signifying a shell of the kind of the Siamoise, distinguished by a 
collar ; and indeed the descriptioa of it seems to be niade from a 
specimen of Natica coUaria, Lam., vvhich oceurs in the Atlantic 
Ocean only. Laraarck, I suppose, intended to call to recoUection 
the above denomination of ante-Linneau conchologists by the spe- 
cific name given by him. At the olose of the past century Brugiere 
introduced the Comis siamensis, which is admitted generally as a 
distinct species, the geographical range of which, however, extend3 
far beyond the limits indicated by the name. 

The following are the few Sea-shells from Šiam which I observed 
in the collections of Mr. jSIouhot : — 

Cerithitjm obtusum, Lam. Zoology of Samarang, pi. 13. f. 3. 

Natica maculosa, Lam. ; Reeve, Conch. Ic. f. 57. 

CYPRiEA ARABICA, L. 

Mytilus smaragdintis, Chemn. 

Arca nodifera, n. 

Testą ovata, ventricosa, cBąuivahis, parum inacuilateralis, superne 
utrinąue obtuse angulata, margine ventrali medio stricto, utrin- 
que rotimdato ; costce 21 distantes, angustee, nodosce ; inter- 
stitia latiora, concentrice striata ; color albidus, zonis nonmdlis 
fuscescentibus ; margo grosse crenatus ; area ligamenti angnsta, 
striis divergentibus sculpta ; vertices parvi, remoti. 
Hab. Bankok ; legit Mouhot. 

This species is allied to A. granosa, Lam. (Reeve, Conch. Icon. 
fig. 15), which is found also in the East Indies : it is distinguished 
from it by the shell being more elongated, and by the ribs, which are 
narrower, and separated by grooves broader than the ribs themselves. 
I have examined three specimens, two of them in the British 
Museum ; they are somewhat different from each other as to the 
outlines of the shell, and I therefore give measurements of them : — 

a. h. c. 

Length 59 50 52 mill. 

Height from the summits to the ventral margiu 42 35 36 „ 

Diameter from one valve to the other 33 32 32 „ 

Cytherea (Meretrix) zonarta, Lam. ; Desh. Cat. Brit. Mus. 
Venerid. p. 38. 

CYTHEB.EA (Meretrik) impudica, Lam. 1. c. p. 36. 

Leg. Sir Richard Schomburgk. 

The posterior area of the shell is in some specimens more pūrely 
white than the remainder, which is somewhat yellowish, speckled 
vvith pure white ; in others the shell is bordered by a pinkish-violet 
stripe ou the posterior margin. The interior surface of the former 
variety is quite white ; in the other it is provided with a dark-brown 

No. 418. — Proceedings of the Zoological Societ\\ 



18 

spot, which is situated just on the niargin of the shell, where the 
e.\terior stripe terminates. 

Tellina (subg. ArĖopagia) siamensis, m. 

Testą ovata, compressa, suhceąuilateralis, lamellis concentricis con- 
fertis et striis radiantibus decussata, antice rotundata, postice 
carinata, lamellis distantioribus, magis elevatis, suleis im- 
pressis 2 ante carinam sculpta ; Jlavescenfi-alba, hand nitens ; 
margo ventralis modice arcuatus, postice valde ascendens et 
subinde subsinvatus ; dentes cardinales valvce dextrcB duo, pos- 
terior bifidus, valrce sinistrcc duo, prior bifdus, posterior parvus ; 
dentes laterales in utraąue valta anticus et jiosticus disfincti, 
triangulares, a cardinalibus remoti ; facies interna alba, sinus 
paUiaris maximus. 

Long. 49, alt. 33, diam. 14 mill. ; vertices in | longitudinis siti. 

This shell is allied to Tellina capsoides, Hanley, and T. concen- 
trica, Gould, but it can at once be distinguished by its form being 
transversely ovate and nearly equilateral, likę that of T. pristis. 

Capsella viOLACEA, ReevB ? 

The Siamese shell is rather stronger than is usual in this species ; 
long. 63, alt. 31, diam. 19 mill. ; vertices in f long. 

SOLF.TELLINA TRUNCATA, Gmcl. ? 

I have seen only a worn specimen, the eud of which was less 
truncate than is usual in this species ; Mr. Cuming therefore thinks 
it distinct. 



4. I>ESCRIPTIONS OF NeW SpECIES OF MoLLUSCA FROM THE 

Sand\vich Islands. By W. Harper Pease. (Commu- 

NICATED BY Dr. J. E. GrAY.) 

Before commencing my descriptions, I should remark that I call 
the hiniler part of the shell (uear the apex) the posterior end. 
Being accustomed to see the animal in connexion with the shell in 
motion, it appears to me unnatural to call the mouth posterior and 
the apex anterior, as some authors do. 

I begin \vith the Opisthobranchiates, the Bullidee, and so on 
through the Nudibranchiates. There is no part of my coUection 
with which I am so little acquainted as the Bullidce, having received 
but few specimens for comparison, and therefore relying mostly on 
descriptions for the determiuation of species. I am often misled 
bv these, in such cases, for instance, as where an author makes use 
of the term strice to mean raised lines, having always considered 
th&t stricB indicate quite another character from raised lines. Again, 
descriptions are drawn up from imperfect specimens, and are copied 
into monographs without alteration or correction. 

Of Bullina ritrea I have lately procured the t\vo largest and most 



19 

perfect specimens I ever found. It does not agree with the Bullinee, 
but I can place it nowhere else, unless with the Hydatina. 

Bullina lauta I have always considered heretofore the šame as 
B. undata (Brug.) ; but on close esaminatioa I find differences 
sufRcient to waiTaiit a separation. With a glass eau be traced the 
longitudinal hiies crossing the trausverse ribs. The ribs of B. un- 
data are described as smooth, and the interstices punctured traus- 
versely, which does not agree with my shell. In B. lauta the apex 
is raore obtuse, and the transverse red lines are regular, in which 
respect also it differs from B. undata. The localities of the two 
shells are wide apart, and I have never received a single specimen 
from the islands south of the Sandwieh, uor ever heard of its having 
been found on them. 

Tomatina sandmicensis seems to approach T, gracilis (Adams). 
It is, hovvever, striated transversely. 

I have another species of Hanūnea which cannot be distinguished 
from n. croeata ; but, not having had au opportuuity of examining 
the animal, I mušt defer its description. 

Atys debilis approaches A. elongata of Adams, but does not agree 
with bis description in several particulars. 

The BuUidce are foimd principally at one locality on the Sandwich 
Islands, where I have collected but one season. 

1. Bullina vitrea. 

Shell ovate, thin, fragile, white, with or without one or two sets 
of two or three fine transverse black lines on body whorl, transversely 
finely grooved ; interstices punctured ; spire obtuse ; apex acute ; 
whorls four ; aperture oval, dilated at the base ; slight fold at the 
base of the columella (not imperforate, umbilicated) . 

Mus. Cuming. 

2. Bullina lauta. 

Shell oval, urabilicate, white, with two transverse red lines on body 
whorl, crossed by irregular longitudinal pink undulating lines, trans- 
versely ribbed, crossed by fine longitudinal raised lines ; whorls 
four; spire a little elevated, nucleus persistent ; aperture elongatelj"^ 
oval ; columella oblicjuely truncated. 

Mus. Cuming. 

3. Tornatina sandwicensis. 

Shell small, cylindrical, shining, white, finely striated transversely ; 
spire elevated ; whorls four ; aperture contracted posteriorly, dilated 
anteriorly ; slight fold on columella. 

Mus. Cuming. 

4. Haminea crocata. 

Shell suboval, thin, fragile, slightly narrowed posteriorly, smooth, 
with the exception of the longitudinal lines of growth ; outer lip 
slightly produced posteriorly, and rounded ; aperture narrowed poste- 



20 

riorly, and slightly dilated at the base ; columella with a light fold, 
wliite and shining. 

Animal. — Ccphalic disc large, oblong triangular, entire in front 
and truncated, bilobed posteriorly and lobes overlapping; lateral 
lobes reflected on the sides of the shell during locomotion, covering 
about one-half of its length, and nearly meeting on the back ; poste- 
rior lobe covering the sph-e ; foot subquadrate, extending a short 
distance beyond the shell posteriorly ; eyes centrai, immersed, black, 
siurounded by white areolee ; colour of the animal varying from grey 
to gTeyish-yellow, and in some nearly to black, being closely mottled 
and freckled with olive or dusky. 

Mus. Cuming. 

Found usually on sand-flats, but occasionally raet witli on sea- 
\veed. They are most abundant on the leeward island of our group, 
from vvhence they become less common tovvards the windward, being 
very rarely met with on the vvindvvard island. 

n 5. Haminea pusilla. 

I- Shell small, cylindrically ovate, rather solid, whitc, surface finely 

cancellated ; apex slightly umbilicated or perforated ; aperture nar- 
ro\v, contracted posteriorly ; slight fold at base of columella. 
Mus. Cuming. 

6. AtYS SEMISTRIATA. 

Shell oval, contracted posteriorly, thin, fragile, pellucid, white, 
transverse raised lines at both ends ; aperture slightly dilated at the 
base ; apex perforate. 

Mus. Cuming. 

7. Atys debilis. 

Shell cylindrically ovate, elongate, narrowed posteriorly, pellucid, 
fragile, white ; outer lip produced and twisted posteriorly ; apex um- 
bilicated, and umbilicus striated or grooved, finely striated trans- 
versely, transverse raised lines at both ends ; columella with a fold 
at the base. 

Mus. Cuming. 

Genus Volvatella. 

Shell convolute, subpyriform ; aperture wide anteriorly, contracted 
posteriorly and produced, forming a circular aperture. 

Animal. — Mantle concealed ; cephalic disc quadrate ; tentacular 
lobes produced from the corners ; anai aperture posterior ; foot small 
and triangular. 

8. A'^olvatella fragilis. 

Shell thin, horny, subpyriform, convolute (finely striated longitu- 
dinally), covered with a membranaceous epidermis; spire none ; 
aperture wide, dilated at the base and contracted posteriorly ; the 
lips thin and entire, meeting at about one-half the length of the shell 



21 

and folding closely one over the other, posteriorly produced ia the 
form of a tube, leaving a circular aperture ; colouv yellowish. 

Anitnal. — Mantle not exposed ; cephalic disk quadrate, slightly iu 
advance of the sliell ; tentacular lobes four, produced from the 
corners of cephalic disk, round, short and bluntly rounded at their 
extremities, anterior pair slightly longer ; foot small, not extend- 
ing posteriorly beyond the aperture, and not reaching in front the 
anterior side of the cephalic disc, of an oblong triangular shape, 
widest in front ; eyes minute at inner base of posterior tentacles ; 
anai opening at posterior aperture ; colour white. 

Mus. Cuming. 

This anomalous animal was found on sea-weed dredged from a salt- 
water pond. It remained alive several days in a glass jar ; it was 
very timid and slow in its movements. The animal would occasion- 
ally protrude slightly from the posterior aperture. 

Genus Philinopsis. 

Animal. — Head-disk large, oblong oval or triangular, not extend- 
ing in advance of the foot. Posterior to the head-disk the body is 
extended in the shape of a couvex fleshy lobe, commencing under 
the head disk (which overlaps it), and reaching to or slightly be- 
yond the posterior portion of the foot ; truncated behind, and the 
truncation surrounded by an undulated or crenated crest. Eyes 
not visible. Mouth proboscidiform between cephalic disk and foot, 
with or without one pair of tentacles on sides of the mouth. Foot 
large, rounded and reflected at the sides. Branchial plume near the 
posterior end of the body, and curving around between the truncated 
end of the foot. Shell concealed in the truncated end. 

9. Philinopsis speciosa. 

Oblong, smooth. Head-disk about half the length of the ani- 
mal, of an oblong triangular shape, truncated iu front, and corners 
obtusely rounded. The mantle-lobe is convex, rather narrowed 
anteriorly and truncated posteriorly, commencing under the head- 
disk and extending slightly beyond the posterior portion of the foot; 
the truncated end is prolonged behind laterally, and surrounded 
by an elevated undulated crest. No visible eyes or dorsal tentacles. 
Orai tentacles small, dilated, truncated, and placed at the sides of the 
mouth. The foot and the head-disk project in advance of the mouth, 
which can be protruded in the shape of a proboscis. Foot broad, 
oval, smooth, rounded and reflected at the sides. Branchial plume 
single, pinnate, arising from the right posterior end of the animal, 
and curving to the left betvveen the foot and the truncated end of 
mantle-lobe. Excretory orifice posterior. Shell concealed in the 
truncated end, Tvhite, thin, fragile, pellucid, subtriangular, with a 
curved callous apex ; surface with furrows of growth. Colour above 
fawn, spotted and speckled with white ; margais more or less varied 
with blackish and yellow ; sides paler. Foot purplish fawn, and 



22 

closely freckled with whitish, and broadly margined on both sides 
with the dorsal colours mtermixed. 

Length 3 inches. 

Station, among sea-weed on the coral reefs. They were verj" 
sluggish in confiuement. One specimen, when placed iu a glass jar, 
voided about a dozen small Bullce, shells perfect. They differ but a 
trifle in colour, some being darker than others. The foot alvvays re- 
mains turned over on the sides of the body. 

10. Philinopsis nigra. 

Oblong, shghtly rugose above. Head-disk rather niore than one- 
third of the length of the auimal, oblong oval, acutely rounded 
in front and rounded posteriorly. The mantle lobe rather wider 
than head disk, of au oblong-oval shape, and the lateral ends of the 
truneation prolonged posteriorly into compressed crenate lobes, 
which are continued over the truucated portion, forming a slight 
crest. No visible eyes or tentacles. Shell buried in the truncated 
end. Foot elliptically oval, smooth, revolute laterally. Branchial 
plume single, situated on the right posterior end, and curving to the 
left. Colour black, with two large white spots on anterior end, 
also two on the head disk and two on the mantle lobe ; sides white, 
and foot vvhite, with three large black spots on each revolute side. 

Found on sea-weed iu the npper laminarian zonc. 

11. DOLABELLA VARIEGATA. 

Oblong, rugose, covered witli small aeute tubercles and more or 
less acute ridges ; the tuberculations are scabrous, and furnished, 
as well as the different portions of the body, with pale, soft cirrhi, 
which are most conspicuous on the head. The posterior portion 
is obliquely truncated, from \vhich part the body gradually tapers to 
the head ; the surface of the truneation is convex, with the npper 
margiu acutely elevated. The lobes of the mantle are closely ap- 
pressed, the left overlapping the right, leaving two openings on the 
back, one a little in advance of the truneation, and the other on 
its centre. Dorsal tentacles stout, decply grooved laterally, and 
somewhat swollen. Head convex above. Orai tentacles short, stout, 
grooved laterally and much dilated outwards. Foot rugose, trun- 
cated in front, and acutely rounded behiud, widest posteriorly. Co- 
lour greenish-olive, variegated with brown, white, and green ; inside 
of the lobes light brown dotted with white ; a stripe of tawny brown 
along sides of the foot. Foot dark orange. 

Length 10 inches. 

12. DOLABRIFERA OLIVACEA. 

Elongate pyriform shape, rounded posteriorly, rugose, and orna- 
mented with small filaments. Back convexly rounded. Mantle 
lobes small, rounded and closely enveloping the body, the right 
overlapping the left, leaving two small orifices ; a groove extends 
from the mantle lobes along Jhe back and right side of head to the 
mouth. Dorsal tentacles grooved laterally and slightly diJating out- 



23 



warcls Orai teutacles longer thaa the dorsal, and curved forwards, 
^roov;d and much dilatel. Eyes small. ^-k d.sUuct sessde nj 
front laterally to dorsal tentacles. Moath with a bdobed veil. Foo^ 
smooth; shape šame as body. Colour vanes ; -^f ^ f^.J^'^S 
olive-ffreen with sap-ereeu margins, and vaned with wh tish anu 
dulk/ iments pdl Foot pale greenish-slate, dotted with dusky 

browu and white. ., i /■ • i *. f« i^ff 

The eggs are deposited under stones, coiled from nght to lett. 

1 13. Syphonota bipes. 

Oblong, smooth, elevately rounded ^1^^%^ TSleTn'th 
the foot Neck long. Mantle lobes ample, thin, half the lengtti 
of the animal and ^rounded in outUne. Dorsal tentacles smaU^ 
erooved, and blnnt. Orai tentacles large strongly dilated, and 
5n°ted in front, forming a kmd of veil, beneath which is the mouth. 
Eye '-all, hlack, somLhat lateral a little i- -<i---^;/,J;^^^^i,^l,"^; 
tacles Head rather flattened m front, convex ^^^ P'-«<i^^' J^ į ,^ 
ioove extending from the mnzzle along its side and over the hack 
Sthe animal Siphonal tubevery large and promment, and expand- 
h I ontwrds. B?anchi3e exposed when the mantle is thrown on one 
Se Foot narrowed anteriorly, widest postenorly. and ronnded 
he foot ?s donhle; the posterior portion (of a circular shape s 
smooth, and projects sUghtly laterally and posteriorly, b5mg qnite 
dTsUnctfromthe'anterior%ortion, which xs į^gl^tlyr^^- Shell 
larffe thin fle^ible. Colour browmsh or brownish-ohve veuied 
iTth dusiy and clouded with white. or dusky shghtly spotted with 

^'VrtpecSl'ntaShtself when handled so as to form a ball. 

^'Th'e^SrpS^^^^^^ is evidently used as a sucker by which 
the animal suspends itself. 

14. Syphonota grandis. 

Body oblong, smooth, elevately rounded above and rather com- 
„ressed alon^ ?he sides. Mantle lobes thm, rounded, much dilated 
S strongl/undulated along the margins. Dorsal t-^-^^-^^^^^^^^^^^ 
Unre nofnted, dilating outwards and grooved. Orai tentacles 
įro'oved^ Sout šame sife as the torsai, with a furrow e.tending^^^^^^ 
beneath the right one along the neck and terminatmg on the back 
between the m^antle lobes. Foot elongate "arrow, corrugated and 
TroTectinK posteriorly, where it is rounded. The siphonal tube is on 
?h?ros erioriateral portion of the back, canaUculated and curved, and 
exteS ng aiove the^back. Shell large, covered by a thm "įembr^ie 
Tvately r'ounded, thin, fragile, with rugose Įmes of g-vU^a deep 
rounded sinus on the right side near the ^Pf ; . j^P^^^^^į'^^l^^ie 
pallous Colour purphsh brown, pale along the flanks, everywnere 
Sve denselv cro'wdrd with minut*^ white dots, -h-^ "ii the šule 
are arranged iu circular clusters, formmg spots. Foot pale. Uit 
young are of a very pale colour. 



24 

This species was found gregarious on a rocky bottom. Tbey gene- 
rally carry the mautle lobes expauded, spreading open and esposing 
the shell and branchise. When confined in a glass j ar, they used tbe 
posterior portion of the foot as a sucker, suspeuding tbemselves from 
the glass, although there was no division of the foot, as in the pre- 
ceding spejies. 

15. Syphonota elongata. 

Form oblong, smooth. Back elevated, so much so as to give it a 
sligbtly compressed appearance. Mantle-lobes strongly dilated and 
undulated, and free nearly the whole length of tbe back. Dorsal 
tentacles rather slender and ear-shaped ; anterior pair large and di- 
lated. Foot narrow and terminating in a point posteriorly, which 
projects beyond the back. Colour of a darker or lighter brown, which 
colour is most iutense on the top of the head and neck. The whole 
dorsal region is clouded and minutely speckled with white. The 
shell is distinctly defined in the living animal, being covered with a 
thin translucent membrane. 

16. ACLESIA AREOLA. 

Elongate, smooth, rounded above, rather compressed on the sides, 
and everywhere covered with small branchial filaments. Mantle- 
lobes elevated, short, rounded, and a groove extending from where 
they unite anteriorly on the back aloug the right side of the head 
to the niouth. Dorsal tentacles elongate and grooved laterally. 
Orai tentacles similar, but slightly dilated. Eyes a little in advance 
and slightly lateral to the base of the dorsal tentacles. Branchise 
large, exposed or covered by the lobes of the mantle. Siphonal 
tube posterior and tubular. Foot narrow, elongated, and projecting 
far beyond the lobes of the mantle in a point. Colour cinereous or 
greenish-ash, densely and minutely veined longitudinally, and mi- 
nutely speckled and clouded \nt\i white. Remote ocellations with 
bluecentres and brown rings on a fawn ground, and scatteriiig simple 
bro\vn spots. 

Length 2 inches. 

Found living gregarious among sea-weed. 

17. Pleurobranchus pellucidus. 

Mantle oval, smooth, convex above, not covering the foot behind, 
and the margins slightly undulated. Tentacles short, stout, smooth, 
truncated and grooved. Orai veil large, broad, emarginated in the 
front, which part is much prolonged laterally, so as to give it a trian- 
gular form. E)-es sessile, immersed at the posterior inner bases of 
the tentacles. Foot large. Branchiae on the right side, tripinnate, 
elongate and exposed. Colour vvhitish translucent, and the whole 
upper surface of the mantle, with the exception of that portion 
covering the shell, minutely reticulated. Shell rather large, oblongo- 
ovate, vvhitish horn-colour, thin, fragile, pellucid, and rather more ob- 
tusely rounded before than behind. Surface above convex, aud 



25 

coarsely inaiked with coiiceutric wrinkles ; nucleus, posterior aud 
lateral, forming a small cavity at that portion of the shell. 
Length 5 lines. 

18. Pleurobranchus marginatus. 

Form oval, smooth, convex above and subpellucid. Mantle widest 
at the middle, rounded behind aud truncately rounded in front, and 
concealing the foot. Tentacles rather long, stout, grooved, truncated, 
and cyliudrical. Orai veil triangular. Foot oblong oval. Colour pale 
lemon-yellow, freckled with white and margined with light red. Shell 
ovate, thin, fragile, pellucid, whitish horn-colour, with a dull red 
tinge near the nucleus. Nucleus subspiral. Strise of growth coarse. 

Under stones in the lower region of the littoral zone. 

19. Pleurobranchus rufus. 

Form oval, smooth, and convex above. Mantle concealing the 
foot, widest at the middle, rounded behind, and somewhat concave in 
front. Tentacles stout, truncated, grooved, and cylindrically tapering. 
Orai veil subtriangular. Branchiae tripinnate, with the pinnse ar- 
ranged alternately. Foot oblong oval, rounded at both ends, Colour 
uniform vermilion. 

Length 1 inch. 

Under stones in the lower region of littoral zone. 

20. Pleurobranchus varians. 

Oval, rather rugose, convex above. Mantle rounded behind, 
deeply sinuose in front, and margins slightly undulated. Ten- 
tacles arising from the head, curving laterallj-, deeply grooved below, 
truncated, cylindrically tapering, transversely lamellated. Eyes at 
their posterior bases. Orai veil large, convex in front, and much di- 
lating laterally, where it is deeply grooved. Month proboscidiform. 
Branchial plume simple, pinnate on the middle of the right side. 
Foot large, reaching the edge of the mantle laterally and behind. 
Colour varying ; some bright red, others lemon-yellow, or purplish 
brown, others again variegated with whitish ; beneath paler than 
above. Shell on the anterior half of the body, concealed, small, fra- 
gile, pellucid, oblong-ovate, convex, and ornamented with wrinkles of 
growth. Nucleus posterior, more or less bro\vnish. 

21. Pleurobranchus reticulatus. 

Oval, convex above, and covered with crowded depressed gra- 
nules, with multiangular bases. Mantle rounded behind aud deeply 
sinuated in front, and repand, rather thin and undulated along the 
lateral margins. Tentacles arising from the lateral anterior portion 
of the head, approximating at their bases, stout, large, truncated, 
slightly swollen, transversely laminated, grooved in front. Eyes 
sessile, conspicuous at their posterior bases. Mouth proboscidiform. 
Veil large, granose above, triangular, and grooved laterally. Branchial 
plume single, simple, pinnate on the middle of the right side, free 



26 

half of its length, along the middle of the plume two rows of alter- 
nate granules, Foot large, oval, reaching the margins of the mantle 
laterally and projecting a httle posteriorly. Colour above pale piir- 
plish, vvith much darker granules, whicli gives it a beautifully reticu- 
lated appearance ; beneath paler than above ; disk of the foot light 
purphsh-grey. 

22. DORIS SETOSA. 

Form elongate-oval, smooth, siniilarly rounded at both extremities, 
and slightly widest a little posterior to the middle. Mantle cou- 
cealing the foot, convexly rounded above and rather densely pilose, 
vvith slender filamentous processes. Branchise rather large, ten- 
pinnate, erect, converging, surrounding the vent, and retractile in a 
common cavity. Dorsal tentacles large, stout, ovate, with their tips 
obtusely mucronated, coarsely and strongly obliquely lamellated, and 
retractile into simple cavities. Foot oblong, rounded at both ends, 
and not projecting beyond the edges of the mantle. Labial aj)pendages 
elongate and cylindrically tapering to a point. Colour yellowish- 
grey, with numerous indistinct black points and abbreviated lines on 
the dorsal region. Tentacles duU yellow. Branchiae šame colour 
as the tentacles. Beneath, the mantle miuutely speckled with dusky. 
Disk of foot translucent, so much so that the viscera are visible, 
slightly tinged with yellow anteriorly. 

Length ^ of an iuch. 

Its pilose appearance and mucronated tentacles readily distinguish 
it from any other species found in these seas. 

23. DORIS EXCAVATA. 

Body oval, rigid, scabrous, convexly rounded above, vvidest in the 
middle, and obtusely rounded at both ends. Mantle concealing the 
foot, margins thin. Dorsal region with prominent, crowded, irre- 
gular acute ridges and granules, several subcircular, large, elevated 
acute ridges, which form deep concave pits. Branchial pluraes small, 
seven, arising frora a prominent circular rim. Dorsal tentacles re- 
mote, mucronated at the tips with blunt papillae, and retractile into 
slightly prominent sheaths, which have crenate edges. Orai tentacles 
small, conical. Mouth prominent. Foot oblong-oval, slightly trun- 
cated in front. Colour light orange-red, with large patches of a light 
vellowish fawu. Branchise light brown, and powdered with white. 
Dorsal tentacles fawn, and densely freckled \vith white ; beneath 
uniform light orange-red. The posterior portion of the body is pro- 
vided with a cylindrical muscular attachment, uniting the mantle 
with the foot. 

Length 2 iuches. 

24. DORIS RETICULATA. 

Body rigid, oval, convexly rounded above. Mantle entirely con- 
cealing the foot, granulose laterally, the dorsal region remotely and 
reticulately ridged ; margins thick, and very shghtly undulated. 



27 

Branchial plumes small, six, tripiiinate, arborescent, retractile, and 
surrounding the excretory orifice. [Dorsal tentacles were concealed.J 
Mouth proboscidiform, vertical, and placed betvveen the foot and the 
mantle. Orai tentacles very small. Foot elliptically oval, truncated 
in front. Colour above dark red, with a few large clusters of white 
freckles. Foot rich orange-red. 

Length 2j inches ; bieadth 1| inch. 

25. DORIS ECHINATA. 

Form oblongo-ovate, rigid, scabrous, rounded above. Mantle small, 
rounded in front, acuminately rounded behind, not covering foot at 
the posterior half. The whole dorsal region covered with spinose 
globnlar granules. The branchial plumes inserted at the poste* 
rior tip of the mautle, five, arborescent, tripinnate, procumbent pos- 
teriorly, encircling the vent and retractile into a common cavity. 
Dorsal tentacles large, ovate, obtusely mucronate, obliqnely and 
coarsely laminated, stoutly pedunculate, and retractile into tubular 
cavities. Labial tentacles small and cylindrically tapering. Foot 
large, oblong, bluntly rounded in front, which is the widest por- 
tion, gradually tapering behind to a tip, vvhich is rudely crenulated. 
Colour light greyish-brovvn, much paler beneath ; a few brovvn dots 
along posterior edge of the mantle. 

This remarkable species was taken on a bed of sea-weed, and, likę 
all the rigid species, is of a sluggish nature. Dnring locomotion the 
posterior eud and sides of the foot are exposed. Dorsal tentacles 
nearly erect, and the branchiee protruding posteriorly. 

26. DoRIS SCABRIUSCULA. 

Form oblongo-ovate, rigid, scabrons and convexly rounded above. 
Mantle, vvhich entirely conceals the foot, rounded at both ends, 
widest in the middle, and the upper suiface covered with mammillated 
conical tubercles, which decrease in size tovrards the margins, and 
are united b}' elevated net-like reticulations. Branchial plumes 
placed far back, of moderate size, suberect, six in number, arbores- 
cent, tripinnate and retractile into a common simple cavity. Dorsal 
tentacles oblongo-ovate, acute, rudely lamellated obliqucly, and re- 
tractile into simple cavities. Labial tentacles small and lobed. Foot 
oval, elongate, and rounded at both ends. Colour above greyish- 
olive, with three lougitudinal series of dusky spots ; dorsal tubercles 
and reticulations whitish. Dorsal tentacles pale, with dusky laraella. 
Branchiae dusky ash. Disk of foot whitish, with a pale yellovvish 
tinge. 

Length 1 inch 4 lines. 

27. DoRIS PILOSA. 

Form oblongo-ovate, rigid. convexly rounded above and pilose. Man- 
tle rounded at both ends, concealing the foot ; margins ciliated, with 
small tentacular processes, and the whole upper surface covered with 
similar appendages, which gives it a pilose appearance. Branchial 



28 

plumes sraall, erect, ten, rudely pinnate, surrounding tbe vent, and 
retractile into a coininon ciliated cavity. Dorsal tentacles rather 
large, ovate, obtusely mucronated, rudely and coarsely laininated 
obliquely, and retractile into ciliated cavities. Labial appendages 
slender and tapering cylindrically. Foot oblong and rounded at 
both ends. Colour ashy-grey, dotted with dusky. Tips of the 
brancbise brown, and also the lamellse of dorsal tentacles. 

28. DORIS VIBRATA. 

The general outline of this species is oblong ; when at ręst it 
assumes an oval form, Mantle smooth, convexly rounded above, 
rounded and somewhat dilated in front, acutely rounded behind, 
margins thin, not concealing the foot behind. Branchial plumes 
small/suberect, seven in number, linear, quadrangular, and ciliated 
on the angles their whole leugth, retractile into a common simple 
cavity. They decrease in size posteriorly. Anai tube prominent. 
Dorsal tentacles short, ovate, obliquely lamellated, and retractile 
into simple cavities. Labial tentacles small and cylindrically taper- 
ing. Foot elongate, nearly as wide as the mantle, obtusely rounded 
in front and tapering to an acutely round point behind, which pro- 
jects beyoud the posterior end of the mantle. Colour above yellovv, 
irregularly spotted witli white, pale towards the margins, which are 
dotted and edged with purple. Branchial plumes edged with violet. 
Dorsal tentacles violet, with uncoloured peduncles. Foot white. 

When in confinement very active, and, whether creeping or at ręst, 
continually vibrating its branchiae. 

The above and tvvo following species form a group, similar in ge- 
neral form, with simple, linear, ąuadrangular-shaped brancbise. 

29. DoRIS PROPINaUATA. 

Form, \vhen at ręst, oblong, substance very soft. Mantle convex 
above and covered with rather distant, depressed, irregular-sized 
vvhite papillse, which do not extend to the margins. Extremities 
rounded, rather wider posteriorly, not concealing the foot behind ; 
margins thin, and much undulated. Branchial plumes large, sub- 
erect, tvvelve in number, linear, nearly quadrangular in their trans- 
verse section, ciliated, decreasing in height posteriorly, surround- 
ing the vent, and retractile into a common simple cavity. Anai 
tube erect and very prominent. Dorsal tentacles rather large, nearly 
erect, elongately ovate, obliquely finely lamellate and retractile into 
simple cavities. Head prominent and furnished with elongate, cy- 
lindrically tapering tentacular appendages. Foot elongate, tapering 
posteriorly to a point far behind the mantle. Colour above bright 
yellow, becoming vvhite at the margins, which are bordered irregu- 
larly wįth purple ; four oblong dots of the šame colour in front of 
the dorsal tentacles. Dorsal tentacles purple on the outer portion. 
Branchial plumes edged vvith the šame colour. 

Length 1 inch 3 lines. 

This Boris possesses the šame habit of vibrating its branchial 
plumes as the preceding. 



29 

30. DORIS PICTA. 

Form, when at ręst, oval ; soft, similarly roiinded at botK extre- 
mities, and convexly rounded above. Maiitle not concealing the 
foot, rather widest in the middle, and the margins thin and very 
slightly undulated. Branchise small, suberect, curving centrally, 
ten m number, decreasing in size posteriorly, encircling the vent, 
and retractile into a common cavity ; each branchia is subąuadran- 
gular, tapering to a point and ciliated. Dorsal tentacles rather small, 
ovate, with short peduncles, obliquely lamellated and retractile into 
simple cavities. Foot elongate, extending beyond the mantle, ter- 
miuating in an acutely rounded point, the margins slightly undu- 
lated. Labial appendages small, cylindrically tapering to a blunt 
point. Colour white, with small irregular white spots. Obsolete 
yellow spots along the margin, which, as well as the foot, is bor- 
dered with orange. The angular edges of the branchiae edged with 
carmiue. Tentacles tipped with orange. 

Length 1 inch 6 lines. 

31. DORIS NUCLEOLA. 

Form oval, rigid, rounded at both extremities and convexly 
rounded above. Mantle covers the foot, mai'gins thin, upper sur- 
face rough, with remote papillae and small laciniated processes, vvhich 
are most conspicuous posteriorly. Branchial plumes small, erect, 
five in number, pinnate, surrounding the vent, and retractile into a 
common cavity. Dorsal tentacles ovate, acute, closely and finely 
lamellated obliquely. Foot oval, rounded at both ends. Colour 
orange, dusky along the dorsal region, and shaded with purple on 
each side of the branchise. 

32. DoRIS DECORA. 

Oblong, smooth, soft, and convexly rounded above. Mantle 
rounded in front, acutely rounded behind. Margins thin and 
simple, not covering the foot behind. Branchial plumes small, 
nearly erect, seven in number, pinnate, decreasing in height poste- 
riorly, surrounding the vent and retractile into a common simple 
cavity. Dorsal tentacles elongate-ovate, obliquely lamellated, pe- 
duncles as long as the lamellated portion, retractile into simple cavi- 
ties. Labial tentacles small and conical. Foot narrow, rounded in 
front, tapering behind to an acuminately rounded tip, projecting 
far beyond the end of the mantle. Colour : Dorsal region pale 
straw-colour, with a medial whitish longitudinal stripe, which is 
bifurcated posteriorly and dotted with purple. The margin of the 
mantle is bordered with white and dotted with purple ; an intramar- 
ginal light red band, contiguous to which is a yellow one, which is 
dotted with purple. Branchise and tentacles pale. Beneath the 
«nantle is coloured as above, but much paler. 

Length 1 inch 2 lines. 

This truly magnificent species was obtained on sea-weed. The 
specimens were very active, and when creeping resemble a Goniodorit 
in outline. 



30 

33. DORIS MARGINATA. 

Elongate, smooth and coiiAesly rounded above. Mantle somewhat 
dilated and rounded ia frout, acumiuately rounded behind. Mar- 
gins thin. Branchial plumes seven, small, erect, pinnate, and re- 
tractile iuto a eoinmon simple cavity. Dorsal teutacles elongate- 
ovate, peduucles long, obliquely lamellated, aud retractile into sim- 
ple ca^-ities. Labial teutacles small and conical. Foot narrow, 
elongate, bluntly rounded and widest in front, tapering to a poiat 
behind and projecting far beyond the posterior end of the mantle. 
Colour white ; mantle edged with light red and au iutramarginal 
tinge of yellovv. 

The above species is quite active, and vvhile creeping, the tentacles 
are inclined forward aud laterally. Wheu placed in a basin of water, 
they suspeuded themselves from tlie surface, back dowuwards. 

34. DoRIS PAPILLOSA. 

Ovai, rigid, rounded alike at botli ends, convexly rounded above. 
Mantle entirely concealiug the foot, widest in the middle, upper 
surface covered with small papillae, not very crowded, and of various 
sizes. Foot oval, rounded at both ends. Colour greyish. Dorsal 
region livid. Beneath the mantle orange. Foot pale grey. 

Length 8 lines. 

Tentacles aud branchise undetermiued. 

35. DORIS ALBOPUSTULOSA. 

"W'heu at ręst, of an oblongo-ovate form, soft. Mantle rounded 
at both extremities, edges thiu and undulated, and concealiug the 
foot ; the upper surface is covered with white depressed, irregu- 
lar-shaped aud unequal-sized pustules, which do not quite reach 
the margins. Branchial plumes six, rather small, erect, incurved, 
piuuate, surroundiug the veut aud retractile into a commou rimate 
cavity. Dorsal tentacles somevvhat large, oblong-ovate, coarsely and 
obliquely lamellate, and retractile iuto rimate cavities. Head is 
prominent, convex in front, and furuished vvith cylindrically taper- 
iug labial appeudages. Foot, wheu in motion, elongate, narrow, 
aud rounded at both ends. Colour above lemon-yellow, pustules 
white, and the margins of the mantle edged with purple. Dorsal 
tentacles reddish-brown, vvith white lamellee. Branchise vvhite. Foot 
and beneath the mantle vvhite. 

Length 1 iuch. 

36. DoRIS GRANDIFLORA. 

Oblongo-ovate, similarly rounded at both extremities, convex above, 
and of a soft texture. Mantle widest in the middle, not con» 
cealing the foot, thin and crisped along its margins. Upper sur- 
face strougly rugose, and covered vvith irregular-sized, prominent, 
rounded tubercles. Branchise very large, procumbent, arborescent, 
five in number, inserted far back, encircling the vent and retractile 



31 

into a common cavity. Dorsal tentacles moderate in size, rather 
sleiider, oblong-ovate, obliąuely lamellated, stoutly pedunculate, aud 
retractile into tubular cavities. Foot large, nearly similarly rounded 
at both ends, projecting posteriorly beyond the mantle, and the 
margins thin and crisped. Labial lobes flattened and dilated. Colour 
above darkish fawn, rather closely veiued with palish. Tubercles 
lighter than gronnd-colonr and tipped with dusky. Margins of 
mantle with dark blotches. Dorsal tentacles fawii, with translucent 
peduncles. Branchiae greyish-fawn, remotely spotted with whitish, 
and the external surface of the branches pale, and the inner surface 
dusky. 

Length 3į inches. 

The spawn, which is deposited under the surface of loose stoues in 
an irregular spirai coil of a few whorls, is of a faded yellow colour. 

37. DORIS RUGOSA. 

Form ovate, rigid, rounded at both extremities and rather the 
widest posteriorly ; above covered with crowded granular unequal 
tubercles, of \vhich some are very large and elevated ; the surface 
on the dorsal region between the tubercles is somewhat rugose. 
Mantle couvexly rounded above, entirely concealing the foot, thiu 
and rugose along the margins, which are somewhat undulated. 
Branchial plumes five, tripiunate, very large and recumbent, retrac- 
tile, surrounding the vent ; at the base and betvveen the branchial 
plumes are five conical elevated tubercles. Anai tube loug, cylin- 
drical, tapering and projecting backwards. Dorsal tentacles piuna- 
tifid, lamellated, and retractile into tubular cavities. Orai tentacles, 
none apparėnt. Mouth simple, betvveen the foot and edge of the 
mantle. Foot narrow, elongate, elliptical, rounded at both ends and 
raargin slightly undulated. Colour above darker or lighter purplish 
brown, some fawn colour. Branchial plumes deep brown, fringes 
paler. Beneath the mantle purplish brown, paler towards the mar- 
gins. Foot pale. 

Length 5 inches ; breadth 3į. 

38. DORIS FCETIDA. 

Form oval, rigid, convex above, rugose and with a few ridges, one 
of which is iu a longitudinal medial line, others transverse, and others 
small and irregular near the margins of the mantle. Margins of the 
mantle thin. Branchial plumes six, tripinnate, and retractile into a 
six-lobed cavity, which has elevated margins. Dorsal tentacles di- 
stant, acutely conic, lamellated, aud retractile in a tubular cavity. 
Foot narrow, elongate, oval, wholly concealed by the mantle. Orai 
tentacles small and dilated. Proboscis lobed ; above purplish brown, 
fawn or yellowish brown, with pale ridges, and generally with the 
edge of the mantle tinged with pinkish. Branchiae pale fawn ; ten- 
tacles pale orange ; beneath pale yellowish. 

This spccies occurs at low water on rocky eoasts. It emits a 
strong and disagrceable odour. 



32 

39. DoRis PRiSMATiCA, var. imperialis. 

Form elongate, smooth, and convex aboTC. Mantle small, narrow, 
dilated and rouiided in front, and more acutely rounded behind. 
Foot much elongated, pointed posteriorly, and projecting far behind 
the mantle. Branchial plumes rather large, ereci, non-ietractile, 
ten in number, the six anterior ones simple, the succeeding two tri- 
furcate, and the posterior pair ąuadrifurcate ; they all decrease in 
height posteriorly, and in structure are linear, quadrangular and 
cihated. Anai "tube prominent. Dorsal tentacles obloug-ovate, 
sHghtly compressed, closely and finely lamellated obliquely and sub- 
retractile. Orai tentacles čyUndrically tapering. Colour pale cream 
white, and spotted above and on the sides with rich yellow ; the spots 
are small, irregular, and very slightly raised, The mantle is mar- 
gined with purple, and there are a few broken rings of the šame 
colour on the sides and upper posterior end of the foot, each riug 
having a yellow centre. The branchise are pale and edged with 
purple. The dorsal tentacles are deep black, minutely speckled 
with vvhite, and marked with two longitudinal white lines, one be- 
hind and the other in front. 

Length 2 inches. 

40. DORIS PRISMATICA, var. L1NEATA. 

Elongate, soft, smooth, couvexly rounded above, rather wider pos- 
teriorl)', portion anterior to the dorsal tentacles somewhat dilated 
laterally and rounded in front. Branchise small, erect, lanceolate, 
pinnate, ten in number, eucircling the vent and retractile into a 
common cavity. Dorsal tentacles elongate, straight, directed forward 
and laterally, "lamellated about two-thirds of their length, and re- 
tractile into simple cavities. Foot elongated and projecting much 
beyond the posterior edge of the body ui a point, rounded m front. 
Colour light greyish-purple, along the back and the remainder of body 
white, irregular, longitudinal, opaque fine white Unes on the dorsal 
region, some of which are coufluent. Margins of foot and body 
beautifully edged with violet. Branchise whitish and longitudinally 
striped with orange. Tentacles white, with an orange zone near 
the tips, and a second near their base. 

Length 1 inch. 

Genus Doriopsis. 

Oblong, or oval depressed ; mantle large, covering the head and 
foot. Dorsal tentacles two, lamellated and retractile, non-peduncu- 
late ; orais none. Branchial plumes disposed in the form of a semi- 
circle, on the posterior portion of the back, and retractile into a 
similarly formed slit, the convex portion posteriorly. 

41. Doriopsis granulosa. 

Form oblongo-ovate, papillose, rather rigid, convex above ; mantle 
similarly rounded at both ends, entirely conceahng the foot, rather 
contracted in the middle, and covered with minute irregularly promi- 



33 

nent granules. Dorsal tentacles small, erect, not pedunculated, ovate, 
coarsely and obliąuely lamellated, and retractile into simple cavities. 
Branchial plumes eleven, large, rudely pinnate, increasing in height 
posteriorly, procurabeut, and retractile into a simple semicircular 
cavity. Muzzle prominent. Foot oblong, rounded at both ends. 
Colour pale yellow, with green papillse. 

At first sight the above species might be confounded with the 
small rigid granular species of Doris ; but the arrangement of the 
branchise and the non-pedunculated dorsal tentacles constitute dif- 
ferences sufficient to separate it. 

42. Hexabranchxjs pulchellus. 

Form oblongo-ovate, smooth, and subpellucid. Mantle depressed, 
convex above, similarly rounded at both ends ; margins thin and 
undulated. Branchial plumes seven, small, ramose, erect, surround- 
ing the vent, and each retractile into a simple cavity. Dorsal ten- 
tacles reraote from each other, ovate, finely and obliquely lamellated, 
and retractile into simple cavities. Orai tentacles large, compressed, 
and strongly dilated outwards. Foot elongate-oval, and projecting 
posteriorly beyond the mantle. Colour pale, with a light yellow 
tinge along the dorsal regiou, where there are also numerous carmine 
dots ; similar coloured dots around the margin of the mantle, which 
is edged with white. Branchise pale and edged with carmine. Ten- 
tacles pale and tipped with carmine. 

43. Hexabranchus nebulosus. 

Body oblongo-ovate, smooth, during locomotion much elongated. 
Mantle rounded above, widest in the middle, rounded at both ends ; 
edges thin, crenate and undulated. Branchial plumes eight, inserted 
far back, large, curved and elevated, tripinnate, and retractile in 
cavities around the vent. Dorsal tentacles large, ovate, stoutly pe- 
dunculate, pinnatifid, lamellate, and retractile into simple ca-s-ities. 
Orais small, scarcely visible. Foot elongate, projecting beyond the 
mantle posteriorly during locomotion, emarginated in front ; lateral 
edges thin. Mouth close to the foot. Colour, above black, mar- 
gined with bluish slate, with numerous irregular-sized round whitish 
dots, which are the most numerous around the margins. Branchial 
plumes pale dusky. Dorsal tentacles darker, tips white. 

Length 1| inch. 

44. Tritonia hawaiiensis. 

Form elongate-oblong, widest anterior to the middle, smooth, de- 
pressed above, and tapering to a point behind. Branchial plumes 
arborescent, irregular in size, opposite and disposed in two rows, of 
eleven each, and extending to the posterior end of the body. Ten- 
tacles cyliudrically tapering, and retractile into stout, tubular laci- 
niated sheaths. Veil strongly digitated. Foot linear, grooved, and 
pointed at both ends. Colour pale, freckled with pale purplish- 
brown ; a longitudinal light band extends from the head to the 

No. 419. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



34 

posterior tip of the body, and lateral bands pass from the medial one 
to each of the branchial tufts. Branchise light purplish-brown, and 
tipped with light green. Tentacular sheath šame colour as brau- 
chise. Tentacles hght gieeu. 

Under stones in the upper region of the laminarian zone. 

45. Melibe pilosa. 

Elongate, smooth, widest anteriorly, and tapering to a point 
behind. Sides convexly rounded, and the back arched. Foot 
linear, grooved, extendmg the whole length of the body, and acute 
at both ends. Six pairs of thick tuberculated lobes along the back, 
the anterior pair opposite, the others alternate to one another, the 
lašt at the tip of the body. These lobes are easily deciduous, con- 
tracted at their bases, truncated above, convex outside, and flattened 
on the inner surface. Frontai veil very large, semiglobular, much 
inflated above ; united beneath the head, forming a continuous mar- 
gin, which is closely fringed. Mouth proboscidifbrm, and the orifice 
Tertical. Tentacles on the posterior portion of the veil rather remote, 
small, ovate, closely and transversely lamellated and retractile into 
long trumpet-shaped sheaths, \vhich arefurnished with laciuiated ap- 
pendages. Everyvehere with small, soft, branched, tentacular pro- 
cesses. Colour fawn, subtranslucent, more or less clouded with 
whitish, which, under the lens, has the appearance of minute dots. 
Body puuctured with brown, which are most conspicuous along the 
flanks. Tubercles on the lobes brown. Foot pale. 

Length 2į inches. 

These animals were found among sea-weed, in the upper region 
of the laminarian zone, and when placed in a basin of water were 
very active, swimming by suddenly curviug the head and tail late- 
rally, so as nearly to touch one another. When slightly disturbed 
they vvould cast off one or all of their lobes. The length of their 
lobes varies much, being in some as large again as in others ; they 
may be consequently reproduced, after being cast off. Their foot 
cannot be used for creeping on a flat surface, but is well adapted for 
clasping sea-weed. 

46. .Solis semidecora. 

Body smooth, hyaline, elongate, narrow, widest in front, from 
whence it tapers to a point behind ; convex above. Six pair of 
branchial filaments, arranged along the sides, hyaline, elongated, 
compressed, tapering to a point, imbricated, and the anterior pair 
remote from the others ; the lašt pair does not reach the tip of the 
body by one-third of its totai length. Dorsal tentacles rather stout, 
cylindrically tapering to a blunt point, transversely rugose, approxi- 
mating at their bases, with small black eyes, immersed at their 
posterior bases. Head convex above, and furnished with elongate, 
subulate, cylindrical, smooth tentacles, vrhich are much longer than 
the upper pair. Foot slightly crenated along the posterior margiu, 
notched in front, and furnished on both sides with recurved tenta- 
cular processes. Colour : freckled with opaque svhite along the 



35 

back, and on the head and upper tentacles. Upper tentacles obso- 
letely annulated with pale fawn, and a vermilion dot at their anterior 
base. Head and front tentacles slightly varied wįth red. Branchial 
tufts freckled with opaąue white, lineated with blackish dotted with 
fawn, and with an azure reflexion. 

Length 1 inch. 

"When placed in a basin of water this Molis suspends itself, back 
downwards. 

47. iEOLIS PARVULA. 

Body smooth, subpellucid, tapering to a point posteriorly. Sit 
pair of branchial tufts arranged longitudinally, the lašt on the poste- 
rior point of the body. Foot furnished anteriorly with lateral auri- 
cular appendages. Tentacles elongate-oval. Labial appendages 
elongato-subulate. Head and body subpellucid, uncoloured, freckled 
with vermilion. Branchial tufts olive, freckled with dusky. 

Length 5 lines. 

48. Elysia ocellata. 

Oblong, smooth, wider anteriorly. Body with a wide expansion 
on both sides, which, when open and expanded (iu their natūrai po- 
sition), are truncated posteriorly and rounded anteriorly ; the surface 
longitudinally and obliquely plaited ; when disturbed they roll to- 
gether, so that their edges are parallel and medial, forming a cavem- 
ous chamber. Beneath and near the anterior end of the cloak is a 
papillary orifice. Head rather large, broad, concave between the 
tentacles, convex in profile, and furnished beneath with a large veil, 
dilated laterally and emarginated in front. Tentacles two, inserted 
at the anterior angles of the head, non-retractile, stout, cylindrically 
tapering to a blunt point, and grooved laterally in front. Eyes sessile, 
on a prominence on top of the head between the tentacles. Colour 
above, when the expausion is closed, cream- colour, and everyvvhere 
crowded with irregular-sized ocellatious, some of vvhich are bright 
fawn with white rings, others green with fawn rings, and the largest 
and most conspicuous bluish-green centres with black rings, out- 
side of vvhich are white ones. The surface of the expansion is 
palish, the plaits deep green, and the posterior margin violet. Ten- 
tacles deep yellowish-fawn, tipped with white, beneath which they 
are annulated with violet, and have the grooved edges of the šame 
colour. Foot pale ash and crowded with ocellations, pale fawn cen- 
tres and white rings. 

Length 1^ inch. 

This is a very active and hardy animal. 

Genus Pterogasteron. 

Depressed, thin, with lateral wing-like expansions, which in their 
natūrai position are turned vertically upwards ; margins strongly un- 
dulated. Neck rather long. Head rounded above, truncated ia 
front. Mouth underneath. Upper lip bilobed. Tentacles two, ear- 



36 

shaped, arising from the angles of the head, grooved laterally and 
divergiug anteriorly. Foot narrow. No distinct respiratory organs. 

49. Pterogasteron ornatum. 

Body sniooth, and when expanded of an orbicular form ; when 
erect, in their natūrai statė, very high and much undulated. Ten- 
tacles grooved their whole length and slightly truncated. Colour 
olive-green, paler along the foot, spotted with faded yellow, and 
dotted with black. Body margined with bright orange-red and 
edged with black, in which are a few white dots. Upper surface of 
the body paler than below, punctured with black and light red, and 
margined the šame as beneath. 

Hab. On the rocky coast, among sea-weed. 

50. Pterogasteron bellx7m. 

Body smooth, when expanded of an oblong-orate form, and when 
in their natūrai position are quite low when compared with prece- 
ding species. The posterior portion is acutely rounded. Tentacles 
stout and truncated. Colour brownish-red, and closely spotted with 
small, irregular, greyish-white spots. Eyes with white areolse. 

Length 1 inch. 

Genus Histiophorus. 

Animal. — Oblong, no distinct inantle. Body rounded ; posterior 
portion prolonged into a vertically compressed tail, furnished above 
■with a membranaceous crest. Branchise three, insertedat the middle 
portion of the dorsal region. Dorsal tentacles, no labial appendages. 
Head furnished with a veil. Foot linear. 

51. HlSTIOPHORUS mactjlatus. 

Form oblongo-ovate, smooth, subpellucid. Three tnfts of filaments 
on each side, disposed longitudinally, and also two on dorsal region ; 
to each of the hinder tufts is attached an oval glandular body. 
Branchise rather large, procumbent, retractile (?), fimbriated, one di- 
rected anterior, which is simple, the remaining two lateral and bifur- 
cated. Anai tube prominent. Dorsal tentacles oblongo-ovate, mu- 
cronate, slightly compressed, retractile 1 and finely lamellated trans- 
Tcrsely. Head furnished with a transversely oval veil, which is 
broader than the body, and fimbriated around the margins with 
small tufts of filaments. Foot linear, extending the ■whole length of 
the body. Mouth simple. Colour pale whitish-ash, irregularly 
dotted with orange above, and four small crimson dots near base^of 
branchial plumes. Branchiae pale and freckled with brown. Dorsal 
tentacles green-olive, tips pale. Veil yellow. 

Length \\ inch. 

An active animal, using its compressed tail for swimming. 



Fi-oc- Z S.Annulosa LXZ. 




EizMVfeįliih 



12Peasia reticulata. 3 4 P.inconspicua 
5 .6 P teaataculata 78PmacuLata 9 l'O Pirrorata 



37 

5. Descriptions of Nevi Species of Planariid^ collected 
iN THE Sandwich Islands *. By W. Harper Pease. 

(COMMUNICATED BY Dr. J. E. GrAY.) 

(Annulosa, PI. LXX.) 

1. Peasia reticulata (PI. LXX. "figs. 1, 2). 

Body oval, smooth, pellucid, no appearance of convexity above or 
beneath. Margins crenulate and uadulated. No eyes visible. 
Dorsal tentacles a little anterior to the middle, small, cylindrical, and 
tapering slightly to an obtuse point, non-retractile. Beneath there 
is no appearance of a mouth ; but in the thin transparent substance 
of the body, centrally, may be seen a set of whitish organs, which 
are delineated in the drawing. In colour this species varies from a 
light yellow to a yellowish fawn, closely veined with light brown ; 
veins ramifying over the entire surface, and spotted with darker 
brown. 

The spawn is deposited on the uuder side of stones, and is multi- 
spiral and closely coiled. The animals are very actire, swimming by 
lateral undulations, and creeping in the šame manner. 

2. Peasia inconspicca (PI. LXX. figs. 3, 4). 

Body thin, flat above and beneath, smooth, elliptically oval, with 
both ends equally rounded. No foot or tentacles. On the anterior 
end is a cluster of minute black dots, which may possibly serve as 
eyes, as they occur in every specimen of this and others observed. 
Colour pale, translucent. 

Length 7 lines. 

Under stones at low-water mark. 

3. Peasia tentaculata (PI. LXX. figs. 5, 6). 

Forra oval, strongly depressed, smooth, thin as common writing- 
paper, subtranslucid. Margins strongly undulated. No visible 
eyes. The anterior end is slightly emarginate, and has two blackish 
contiguous tentacular processes, which are non-retractile. The 
whole upper surface is covered with rather closely set tentacular pro- 
cesses, which are retractile, cylindrically tapering or clavate, and 
mucronated ; the mucronated tips retractile in the large part. No 
foot or appearance of external branchiae. Colour above Ught fawn, 
with pinkish margins and darker processes. Beneath paler thaa 
above. 

This singular animal occurs rarely under stones at low-water 
mark. It swims by the undulations of its mantle, and when creep- 
ing the šame undulations take place. On close examination of the 

* This series of animals appears to difFer from any of the genera which have 
come under my observation, and to forra a group by themselves, to which the 
name Peasia may be applied : the descriptions and figures afford the best 
generic characters. I have added a specific name to each species for the purpose 
of distinguishing them. — /. E. Gray. 



38 

tentacles, I found them ear-shaped, pointed, grooved laterally, and 
the papillae on the surface sub-retractile. When placed in a jar of 
water a tubular whitish organ would protrude frorn the centrai aper- 
ture and act as a sucker. Mouth probably anterior at the base of the 
tentacles. It is very active, and swims rapidly. 

4. Peasia maculata (PI. LXX. figs. 7, 8). 

Body oval, smooth, thin, flat above and beneath. Without foot or 
tentacles. Margins rather thick. At the anterior end there are two 
strong folds of the body. Colour above yellowish-fawn or greenish- 
slate, orange towards the margins, and covered with circular greenish- 
slate spots, encircled with white rings. 

This animal is very active, svvimming by the undulations of the 
body. When in motion it has an oblong-oval form, and when at ręst 
a rounded outline. The folds in the anterior portion of the body are 
analogous to the grooved orai tentacles of Aplysia. 

5. Peasia irrorata (PI. LXX. figs. 9, 10). 

Body smooth, elliptical, thin, flattened, and rounded similarly at 
both ends. No foot or tentacles. The cluster of dots is microscopic 
in size and oblong in shayje. Two orifices beneath, a little anterior to 
the middle ; the anterior one has lateral radiations, or white appen- 
dages, under the surface ; there extends anteriorly from this orifice 
an elongate tube beneath the skin, which does not quite reach the 
anterior margin ; this vessel the animal can retract and extend. 
Colour above pale yellowish-fawn, irregularly dotted with brown and 
white, and densely minutely punctured with fawn. 

Length | inch. 

This species is very active, creeping by very slight but rapid un- 
dulations of the body, and also floating, back downwards, on the 
surface, and moving about in that position. 



6. FURTHER EviDENCE OF THE DiSTINCTNESS OF THE GaMBIAN 

and RiippELL'sSpuR-wiNGED Geese (Plectropterus GAM- 

BENSIS AND P. RUPPELLH). By PhILIP LuTLEY ScLATER, 

M.A., Secretary to the Society. 

The recent death of the malęs of the two species of Spur-winged 
Geese {Plectropterus ganibensis and P. rilppellii), of which I pointed 
out the external differences at one of lašt year's meetings * of the So- 
ciety, has given me the desired opportunity of comparing the tracheae 
and skeletons of the two birds, and showing that these afford ample 
corroboration of their specific distinctness. Before proceeding to do 
this, I should remark that the individnals to be compared are both, 
as we know from their dissection, adult malęs. The specimen of 
P. gambensis is in all probability the older of the two, having been 

* See P.Z.S. 1859, p. 131. 



i 



39 

living many years in the Society's Gardens. That of P. rUppellii 
was received from Eastera Africa in June 1858. 

Comparing, first of all, the škulis of these two birds together. we 
see that the frontai protuberance, which in P. gambensis (fig. 1) is 
hardlv elevated 0-2 inch above the general level, rises to an enormous 
size in P. rUppellii (fig. 2), attaining a height of r05, a breadth of 
0-75, and a length from back to front of 1-65. It may also be re- 
marked, that, from the hard character of the osseous structure in 
the protuberance of P. gambensis, it is obvious that it has reached 
its maximum of development. The outlines of the two škulis are 
represented in the accompanying woodcuts. 




Fig. 1. 




I 



Fig. 2. 

Their conformation is otherwise generally similar, that of P. rUp- 
pellii being slightly narrower, and rather longer. It may be re- 
marked, however, that the skuU of P. rUppellii is broader between 
the orbits ; but that, drawing a vertical hne from the middle of the 
space between the nostrils to a base-line joining the edges of the upper 
mandibles, and comparing them at this point, it is here narrovver and 
more elevated ; the proportion of the vertical to the base bemg m P. 
rUppellii about 3 : 5, in P. gambensis about 7:9. The depressed 
space between the protuberance and the naked part of the biU is also 
somewhat differently shaped in the two birds. In P. rūppelln the 
outline of this space next to the protuberance forms a segment ot a 
circle of which the centre is at the junction-point of the two other 



40 

sides, so that the space enclosed is uearly a ąuadrant. Iii P. gam- 
bensis the corresponding outliue is carried back much further towards 
the protuberance, and formed of t\vo lines, which terminate in a cen- 
trai angle, so that the space enclosed is nearly a rhonibus. 

Dr. Gūnther has called my attention to the fact, that the orifices 
which commonly occur in the skuUs of Grallce and Anatidce, situate 
in the occipital bone on both sides of the foramen magnum, are re- 
markably small in both these birds, particularly so in P. rūppellii. 

The sterna of the two birds, as far as the comparison can be mada 
(that of P. [/ambensis being rather distorted by disease), do not pre- 
sent any material points for comparison. The foramina, which iu 
both species are closed at the base, are rather longer and larger in 
P. gambensis. 

The subjoined measurements in inches of the bones of the wiugs 
show that these organs are comparatively longer in P. rūppellii, and 
the bones are likewise thicker and stronger : — 

P. gambensis. P. rūppellii. 

Length of humerus 7'4 /'G 

of ulna 6*5 6*9 

of radius 6-25 6-6 

of metacarpus 3'8 4*0 

Comparing the posterior extreinities, we tind the tarsi and toes 
again longer in P. riippellii, as the follovving dimensions prove : — 

P. gambensis. P. rūppellii. 

Length of femur 39 40 

oftibia 6-8 71 

of tarsus 4"5 4*6 

of middle toe from base of 

tarsus to the end of the nail .... 445 4'6 

The pelvis is rather narrower in P. riippellii, the distance between 
the trochanters measuring 1"9 in. ; in P. gambensis '21 in. 

The vertebrse are, cervical 15, dorsal 10, sacral 13, caudal 8 ; totai 
40 ; the true ribs 8, the falše 2, in both species. 

The trachese of these two birds, though, as might have been ex- 
pected, showing a general resemblance, present the following differ- 
ences, which are greater than such as are usually found in indivi- 
duals of the šame species. 

When dried, they are of nearly the šame length, viz. about 14*5 in., 
but the bronchial rings are 1 5 1 in number in P. riippellii, and only 
138 in P. gambensis. The tubes are flattened throughout the 
greater part, becoming cylindrical at 15 inch from the lower extre- 
mity. Here they are much compressed, and develope a large osseous 
bulb on the left side. The lower portiou only of this bulb, as 
usual, is completely ossified, the upper part being covered with fine 
framework, which, as will be seen from the accompauying woodcut, 
assumes a differeut pattern in the two species. In P. riippellii (figs. 2 
and 4) the bulb is wider, higher, and much compressed ; in P. gam- 
bensis (figs. 1 and 3) shorter and comparatively much thicker. This 
is particularly observable in the side view, as shown in figs. 3 and 4. 



41 



F'om Mr. Eyton's observations (Monogr. Anatidse, p. 79) it is evi- 
dent that the trachea of the female Plectropterus is, as is generally 
the case in this sex, destitute of the bulba ossea. 



Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 




^mm^ 



Fig. 3. 



Fig. 4. 



I have aiready pointed out the external characters by which the 
two Spur-wiuged Geese may be distinguished, and their synonymy 
will novv stand somewhat as follows : — 

1. Plectropterus gambensis. 

Anasgambensis,'L\\va.—A.spinosa,^'\ei\\.; Lath. Geu. Syn. iii. 
pt. 2, p. 452, pi. 102 ; G. H. x. 241. — Anser gambensis, Benn. 



42 

Gard. Men. Zool. Soc. ii. p. 207, cum fig. — Plectropterus gam- 
bensis, Steph. in Shaw, Zool. xii. pt. 2, p. 7, pi. 36 ; Hartl. Orn. 
West-Afr. (partim) ; Eyton, Monogr. Anat. p. 79 ; Sclater, P. Z. S. 
1859, p. 131, pi. 152. fig. 2. 

Sp. diagn. — Miaor : protuberantia sincipitali maris parva : late- 
rihus colli in utroąue sexu plumosis. 

Hab. In Africa Occidentali, accidentaliter in Europa Meridionali. 

Mus. Brit. 

2. Plectropterus ruppellii. 

Cygnus gatnhensis, Rūpp. Orn. Misc. p. 12, fig. 1. — P.gambensis, 
Denham and Clapp. Travels, App. p. 204 ; Hartl. Orn. West-Afr. 
p. 246 (partim) ; Sclater, P.Z.S. 1859, p. 131, pi. 152. f. 1. 

Sp. diagn. — Major : protuberantia sincipitali maris maxima : 
area ,rhombea ad colli latera nuda, carneo-rubra. 

Hab. In Africa Orientali et Centrali, in Dongola et lacu Tchad. 

Mus. Brit. 

The second species of Plectropterus, given by Stephens (P. mela- 
nonotus, Shaw, Zool. xii. pt. 2, p. 8) and also met with by Denham 
and Clapperton (App. to Travels, p. 204), is Sarcidiornis a/ricana, 
Eyton (Monogr. Anatidae, p. 103). 



Jauuary 24th, 1860. 
John Gould, Esq., V. P., in the Chair. 
The following papers were read : — 

1. A MoNOGRAPH OF THE GeNUS EpOMOPHORUS, WITH THK 

Description of a New Species. By Robert F. Tomes. 

(Mammalia, PI. LXXV.) 

In the Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1835, Mr. Ben- 
nett gavę a short description of a Frugivorous Bat from Gambia, 
under the n&meot P teropus epomophorus, at the šame time suggest- 
ing that the characters appeared sufficiently diverse from those of 
the ordinary Pteropi to warrant generic separation. Under these 
circumstances, Mr. Bennett thought the specific name, epomophorus, 
would not be inappropriate as a generic appellation. A further ac- 
count was given by the šame naturalist in the Transactions of the 
Society, where the specific name lohitei was substituted ; and the 
species is now iisually mentioned as Epomophorns ivhitei. 



a 
o 



D 
o 

O 

'^ 
o 

p^ 
w 



MU£; 




43 



During the šame year, but previous to the commuuication by 
Mr. Bennett, Mr. Ogilby had described a Pteropus from Gambia 
under the name of P. macrocephalus. In the volume of Lardner's 
' Cabinet Cyclopsedia' cTevoted to the natūrai history and classification 
of Quadrupeds, Mr. Swainsou described a Pteropus, and gavę a 
figure of the head, from Western Africa, for which the name of P. 
megacephalus was proposed. The volume bears date 1835. 

Ali these species are now found to be identical, Epomophorus 
tohitei beiūg the malė, and the other two the female of the šame 
species As far as can be ascertained, Mr. Ogilby' s name has the 
priority, and should therefore be made use of ; but, before gomg fur- 
ther into the synonymy of the species, I will give the results of some 
examinations made vvith a view to the determination of the generic 
peculiarities of this and other closely affined species. 

The backward position of the wings, and the length of the face, 
have been already mentioned by the first describers, and the excessiye 
development of the upper lips has been noticed by M. Temmiuck in 
another species called by him Pachysoma labiatum ; but there are 
some other peculiarities (having reference to this lašt character) not 
hitherto sufficiently insisted on. 

The original specimens described by Mr. Bennett and Mr. Ogilby 
having passed into my hands, together vvith a number of other spe- 
cimens of this and two other species referable to the šame group, I 
have been able to examine them Wii\\ exactness, and more especially 
to compare their crania with those of other fruit-eating Bats. The 
result has been a thorongh conviction not only of their generic di- 
stinction, but that the genus is more removed from the ordinary 
Pteropi than is Pachysoma, or even perhaps Macroglossus. 

For the better understanding of the affinities of tbe present genus, 
I deem it advisable first to institute an inquiry into the relation of the 
genera Pteropus and Pachysoma to each other, and afterwards to 
compare with them the various species oi Epomophori. 

M. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, in his 'Lecons sur les Mammiferes,' has 
sepai-ated from the genus Pteropus several species which depart from 
the more typical forms of that genus in being possessed of a tail, in 
having the muzzle shorter and thicker, and the lower jaw provided 
vvith only five molar teeth, that of Pteropus proper having six. 

In the 'Annales des Sciences Naturelles ' for 1828*, M. Isid. 
Geoffroy, after adverting to the establishment of this genus by his 
father, observes, " Le museau des Pachysomes est gros, et leur boite 
cere'brale est tres-volumineuse et sphėroidale ; mais entre ces deux 
parties existe un retrecissement tres-sensible, quoique beaucoup 
moins prononc^ que chez les grandės Roussettes. Un grand espace 
existe ainsi entre les parois du crane et les arcades zygomatiques, 
qui sont d'ailleurs beaucoup plūs ėcartėes que chez les Roussettes ; 
et comme l'etendue de cet espace est en rapport avec le volume du 
masseter et du crotaphyte, nous voyons s'accroitre de beaucoup 
chez les Pachysomes la force des museles elevateurs de la machoire 
* This communication bears date Oct. 1828,whil8t the published volume of the 
' Lpcons ' is dated 1829. 



44 

inferieure ; fait d'autant plūs remarquable que cette machoire elle- 
mėme est courte, et n' a d'etendue que dans la portion qui donne in- 
sertion aux museles, c'est-a-dire sa portion posterieure et son aphyse 
coronoide." 

The peculiarities here pointed out in the cranium of those species 
which have a tail should not be regarded as characters necessarily 
associated with that appendage, but as incidentai to the smaller spe- 
cies of the group ; the tail also iu this particular gioup being re- 
stricted to the smaller species. " The smaller species iu any natūrai 
family of Mammalia," says Professor Owen, " resemble the foetus 
of the larger species in the general proportional size of the brain and 
eyes." This well-known law will, if followed out, explain prettv 
fully the nature of the differences in the crauia of the larger and 
smaller Pteropi. The tail might probably have been either absent 
or present in both, without interfering with the results. Had M. 
Isid. Geoffroy instituted an examinatiou of the cranium of one of the 
common species of Pteropi at several periodsof its growth, hewould 
at once have seen that previously to attaining the fuU size it had 
the cerebral cavity of manifestly greater relative capacity than after- 
wards ; and coincidently with this a greater thickness of the facial 
part is observable, but more especially a greater breadth between the 
orbits. My observations were first made from the examination of a 
series of skuUs of Pteropus poliocephalus ; but I afterwards, to be 
quite satisfied that I was not notiug a mere specific peculiarity, exa- 
mined those of P. edtvardsii, P. edulis, P. rubricollis, P. hypome- 
lanus and P. dasymallus, and met with the šame results. In the 
Pachysomes the šame law also obtains, the skuUs of the smaller 
species, such as P. duvaucellii which furnished M. Isid. Geoffroy 
with materials, having a relatively much greater cerebral region than 
those of the larger ones, such as P. stramineum and P. cegyptiacum. 
These latter, although possessed of tails, do not differ at all materially 
in the general conformation of their crania from the true Pteropi. 

The šame holds good vvith the crania of the Epomophori, but in a 
much greater degree. They vary from an exceedingly elongated 
form, as in E. macrocephalus, which has the facial part half its entiie 
length, to a form vvhich is remarkable for its shortness and convexity, 
and in which the facial part is scarcely more than one-fourth of its 
totai length ; these škulis at the šame time exhibiting no departure 
from the more important details of structure. For instance, all have 
the šame shape and degree of development of the lower jaw, similar 
teeth, both in number and form, and similar modification of the 
form of the supra-orbital process of the frontai bone ; but those 
species in which the facial portion of the cranium is long, are the 
larger ones ; those in which it is short and thick, the smaller ones. 

Genus Epomophorus, Bennett, 1835. 

Pachysoma, Temminck. 

General form of the body rather robust. The vvings, ample in 
relation to the bulk of the body, are broad and rounded at the ends. 



45 

The breadth is in some measure occasioned by the fingers being 
more expauded than is usual in other PteropodidcB, especially by 
the space between the index and longest finger being wider than is 
usual. The thumb, which is long, has its basai half enclosed in the 
antibrachial membrane, which further assists in giving greater 
breadth to the wing. The wings, as noticed by Mr. Bennett and 
Mr. Ogilby, are situated farther back than is usual in the allied 
genera, and the antibrachial membrane, maintaining its full breadth 
from the side of the body to the carpus, contributes also towards 
giving the base of the wings a backward appearance, vrhilst in 
Pteropus this membrane narrows as it approaches the wrist, and 
does not, therefore, bring that part so far fbrward in relation to the 
base as in Epomophorus *. Another peculiarity in the organs of 
flight, remarkable as occurring in the Frugivorous Bats, but usual in 
the Insectivorous ones, is that their membranes spring at once from 
the sides of the body, instead of being attached along the sides of 
the vertebral column, more or less near to it in the difiPerent genera. 

The form of the head varies very greatly in the different species 
of Epomophori, but the lips seem constantly to present that extra- 
ordinary amount of development which induced M. Temminck to 
apply to one of the species the specific name of labiatus. In so far 
as can be gathered from the inspection of these parts in skinned 
specimens, rendered soft for the purpose of examination, they appear 
to be quite simple — the lips of an ordinary Pteropus very much en- 
larged. There is nothing about the form of the nostrils which does 
not occur in the genera Pteropus and Pachysoma. The ears are 
rather small, simple, and ovoid. 

The tail is rudimentary, scarcely more than a mere tubercle, and 
the interfemoral membrane margins the legs and coccyx as in 
Pteropus. The feet moderate, with the wing-membranes extending 
to the base of the toes, and attached to the upper surface of the 
second f one, as in Pteropus and Pachysoma. 

With the comparativėly greater development of the cutaneous 
system in Epomophorus is associated vrhat may probably be regarded 
as a higher degree of development in the membranes themselves. 
Instead of the thick and leathery vrings of the true Pteropi, they 
have membranes more or less translucent, and strongly marked with 
lines and papillae, as in some of the Insectivorous genera. As the 



* I regret that I have not been able to exaraine specimens otlierwise preserved 
than in skin, or mounted. In these it appears to me that the humerus is of great 
length in relation to the fore arm, and this, unless the ■wing be perfecth' expanded, 
mušt bring the elbow in a more backward position than if it were shorter. When 
■we consider that the wing-bones necessarily in all cases spring from precisely 
the šame part of the body, it mušt be evident that the more backward a|)pear- 
ance in one case than in another is due either to some modificatiou in the form 
of the wings themselves, or to the mere elongation of the neck of the animal. In 
the excellent figure given by Dr. Peters of E. crypturus, the length of the hu- 
merus and peculiar form of the wings are ■vvell shown. 

t The one next to the outer one in the ordinary position of the foot of a Bat, 
b'.it in reality the one next the inner one of other Maramalia. 



46 

larger species of Epotnophori approximate in size to the smaller spe- 
cies of Pteropus, a comparison of these parts may be easily made. 

The fur is short and of a cottony texture, with but little difference 
in quality on the different parts of the body, that of the under parts 
beiug soniewhat shorter and rather less soft than that of the upper. 
It is everywhere unicoloured from root to tip, and there are constantly 
two tufts of white fur at the base of the two margins of the ears, but 
not differing in quahty from that of the other parts of the body. 
In some of the species the malęs are furnished with very remarkable 
tufts of long stiff hairs on the shoulders, usually of a yeUowish or 
white colour. 

In an examination of the crania of the several species of this genus 
some great peculiarities appear. If we take the skull of one of the 
most remarkable of them, E. macrocephalus, we shall be struck with 
the excessive length of the facial, and the ex(reme smallness of the 
cranial portions ; but on examining the škulis of the other species these 
proportions are seen gradually to alter, until in the smallest one, E. 
schoensis (Pteropus schoensis, Rūpp.), they are actually reversed, 
whi]st some other characters, more easily OTerlooked, will be found 
to be constant in all the species. 

Mr. Ogilby observes that the upper jaw bas but three molars (on 
each side), and the lower five, and that the first one in the upper jaw 
and the second one in the lower have so much the form of canines 
as to give the mouth the appearance of having four pairs of these 
teeth. On comparing the teeth with those of the ordinary Pteropi, 
the šame prominent molars are easily recognisable in the latter, but, 
being less conical, they have not the canine-like appearance which 
Mr. Ogilby observed in Epomophorus. 

I will now proceed to notice some real diflferences which exist in 
the dentition of the genera Pteropus, Pachysoma, and Epomophorus. 
The skull of the common Pteropus edmardsii will supply all that is 
necessary for the first of these genera. 

Upper javo. — On examining the upper jaw, the incisors and canines 
may be passed by as presenting nothing which is not common to the 
three genera. The next tooth following the canine is extreraely 
small, and can be seen only in crania which bear e^idences of imma- 
turity ; at a more advanced age it is lošt. To this succeeds a large 
and prominent pre-molar, having somewhat the relative proportions, 
and holding the šame position with regard to the following three 
molars, which the carnassier tooth does in the insectivorous genera. 
Then come the true molars, three in number, also as in the insecti- 
vorous species, but the hinder one so much reduced in size and ab- 
normal in shape, as to be merely rudimentary. In Pachysoma the 
dentition of the upper jaw differs from that of Pteropus in the 
absence of the hinder or rudimentary molar, and in having the first 
or small pre-molar retained to a later period, perhaps permanently. 
In Epomophorus, on the contrary, it is wanting ; but in one instance 
I can clearly trace a depression in the alveolus, which probably in- 
dicates the former presence of a tooth there, which, as in Pteropus, 
may be lošt with age. Then comes the prominent tooth or carnassier. 



47 

likę that of Pteropus aud of Pachysoma, but rather more pointed, 
less angular, and having anteriorly a very canine-like appearance. 
The remaining teeth — restricted to two in number — are small and 
feebly developed, the hinder one the smaller of the two. The third 
or hinder one, vvhich in Pteropus was but rudimentary, is here quite 
lošt, and the one nearest to it has undergone a degradation in deve- 
lopment corresponding with that of the one in Pteropus, which ia 
absent. 

Lowerjaw. — In Pteropus we find in the lower jaw, omitting the 
incisors and canines, first a small and tubercular pre-molar, not often 
absent ; second, a large and prominent pre-molar, shaped likę the 
long one in the upper jaw ; and third, another similar in form to the 
lašt, but less prominent. Three other teeth complete the number, 
and they gradually decrease in size to the hinder one, which is a mere 
tubercle with a flattened crown. The fourth tooth from the canine 
or the third one counting from behind, occupies the place proper for 
the carnassier, but that tooth exhibits no peculiarities of form. Re- 
verting for comparison to Pachysoma, as before, the difference which 
we find in the dentition of the lower jaw from that of Pteropus assists 
in the numeration of the different kinds of teeth of the latter. We 
find the small anomalous pre-molar foilowed at a considerable interval 
in some of the species by a prominent and rather pointed tooth. 
Then comes another interval, followed by three teeth, the first of 
which is considerably longer than the other two, and more pointed 
It has somewhat of the carnassial form, and is placed in the position 
proper for that tooth in relation to the two molars, whilst the tooth 
in front of it is here separated from those on either side likę an ordi- 
nary pre-molar. The šame dentition obtains in the lower jaw of 
Epomophorus, with this difference, that both molars are greatly re- 
duced in size, being scarcely more than rudimentary. 

From this it would appear that the Frugivorous Bats form an ex- 
ception to the law which regulates the variation in the dentition of 
the Insectivorous ones, in which the true molars are liable to but 
slight variations in number or form, and in which the pre-molars 
suffer considerable modifications, not merely in the several genera, 
but even in the different species in the šame genus. It is possible 
that the pre-molars may be in reality absent in this group, and their 
places taken by modified true molars, and by this means the proper 
number of the latter preserved. But this is rendered improbable, if 
not actually disproved, by the fact that the absence in one genus 
{Pachysoma) of the third true molar is predicted by its rudimentary 
condition in another {Pteropus), in which the proper number of true 
molars certainly exists. And this partial development of the molar 
series may be traced yet further in those genera which have lošt the 
third molar, and in which the second molar has assumed in some 
measure the abnormal form and size of the third or missing one. 

Besides the abridgment in number, and imperfect development of 
the molar teeth, the cranium of Epomophorus exhibits certain other 
peculiarities worthy of note. It is altogether a fragile structure, 
the upper maxillary bones in some of the species being so thin and 



48 

translucent that it is easy to see through their outer walls the form 
of the enclosed roots of the molar teeth ; and if held up against a 
lamp, the light will readily pass through both their outer and palatai 
portions. A similar lightness of structure obtains everywhere. The 
supra-orbital process of the frontai bone is small and directed more 
backwards than in Pteropiis ; so small in E. schoensis that it ean 
scarcely be called a process *. The zygoma throws up no process 
to meet that of the frontai, so that in those species where the process 
of the latter bone is wanting the orbit is continuous with the tempe- 
rai fossa, as in the generality of the Insectivorous genera, and as in 
other orders of Mammalia. Viewing the skull from beneath, it ex- 
hibits some other peculiarities. The auditory bullse are, as in Pachy- 
sotna, more developed than in Pteropus, and the hinder margin of 
the palate is but very slightly curved, but has the appearance of a 
transverse ridge more or less raised from the level of the palate. 

The lower jaw, besides being exceedingly thin everyvvhere, has its 
alveolar or anterior part extremely narrow in a vertical direction. 
Its posterior part is remarkable for the almost entire absence of 
ridges or other roughness for the attachment of museles, and for the 
form of the angular portion. The lovver margin of each ramus is 
Tery nearly straight from the lower part of the synipki/sis menti to 
the angle, which forms a simple curve up to the condyle. In the dif- 
ferent species this curve is of different degrees of sharpness, most 
pronounced in E. franąueti, n. s., and least so in E. schoensis. In 
none of them does the angular region project so far back as the con- 
dyle. The coronoid process is elevated about as much above the 
condyle as the latter is above the lower margin of the ramus. Its 
anterior boundary runs obliquely forward with an easy descent to 
the posterior molar, constituting, in fact, more than half of the en- 
tire length of the upper margin of the jaw. 

I will now oifer a few suggestions relative to the probable nature 
of the food of the Epomophorus. In the Desmoclus, where there is 
absolutely uo mastication reąuired, the true molars are wholly vvant- 
ing ; and the pre-molars, although not reduced to the minimum 
number, are diminished to a very rudimentary condition. It happens 
that in this genus the zoologist has the opportunity, rarely met with 
in this order, of comparing singularity of structure with habits luiown 
to be of a most extraordinary nature, so extraordinary as to be unique 
among Mammalia, and, as far as I knovv, among the whole of the 
Vertebrata; and he can at once discern the exact adaptation of the one 
to the other. But vrithout Information concerning the habits, would 
he by a mere inspection of the teeth have inferred them ? I think 
not. He would indeed infer, from the absence of molars, that the 
creature did not eat food reąuiring mastication ; and the form and 
character of the incisors and canines would clearly point to some 
food reąuiring to be cut or tom ; but it would scarcely occur to him 
that they were intended to puncture the skin of such animals as 
horses, and enable the creature by a suctorial operation to feed on 

* Being produced iii a backvvard direction, it may be said to be adherent to 
the body of the bone, rather than to be wholly absent. 



49 



their blood. And if, in the absence of evidence of its sanguivorous 
habits, the investigator had compared the dentition of Desmodus with 
that of any of the FelideE, in which the molars are reduced in 
number, and the premolars and canines greatly developed for the 
purpose of tearing flesh, he would very possibly have supposed that 
there was some analogy between the two, and that the one was a modi- 
fication of the other, each being fitted to the insectivorous or carnivo- 
rous type of structure, on which their respective orders are supposed 
to be based. We are in pretty much the šame position with regard 
to the habits and food of the Epomophorus, and can at best only in- 
dicate the kind of diet which would be within the management of its 
teeth. Although there is not, as in Desmodus, a complete absence 
of molar teeth, yet they are so imperfect that we are forced to con- 
clude that they are not fitted for the purpose of mastication, in the 
ordinary sense" of the word ; but we cannot make any use of our 
subseąuent knowledge of the habits of Desmodus as any argument in 
the case of Epomophorus, because the general structure of the latter 
proclaims that it strictly pertains to the Phijtophagous type, whilst 
that of the former is as strictly Zoophagous. Moreover, the habits 
of Desmodus being uuderstood, and the several pecuharities in its 
structure found in perfect unison with them, it becomes extremely 
easy to see that it is only in the one respect of having merely rudi- 
mentary molars that Epomojikurus bears any resemblance to Des- 
modus. Instead of large and trenchant incisors, suitable to serve the 
purpose of lancets, these teeth in Epomophorus are small and blunt ; 
and the premolars, instead of being rudimentary, are, on the eon- 
trary, some of them so developed as to have equal prominence with 
the canines. But, notwithstanding this, we are still precluded from 
supposing that the creature could subsist on food requiring mastica- 
tion, properly speaking ; and the question is, what is the kind oi 
food for which the dentition of Epomophorus is specially ada{)ted ? 

If, in speculating on the uses of the peculiar dentition of Desmodus, 
we happened to make further examination of the parts connected 
with it, we should be able to decide that while the teeth might per- 
form the office of lancets, the hps were modelled to the office of a 
cupping-glass, and that the whole constituted an apparatus admi- 
rably adapted to the sanguivorous habits attributed to the creature. 
The Epomophorus is furnished with lips quite as extraordinary as 
those of the Desmodus. Although simple in form, they are of such 
enormous size as to hang down on each side of the face, almost an 
inch in some of the species ; so large are they, that the mouth may 
be sewn up, and the jaws yet movė to the fuU extent that their con- 
structiou seems to vrarrant • and this, as it appears to me, affords some 
index as to the nature of the food. If for the food of the ordinary 
Pteropi we were to substitute some fruit of an exceedingly succulent 
nature, which would require but a trifliug pressure to yield its juices, 
less strong molars would be needed, and consequently jaws of much 
less strength for their implantation, vvhilst the museles required to 
\vork the jaws would be equally reduced in volume. AU this we 
find in Epomophorus, and much more, contributing to strengthen 
No. 420. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



50 

the suggcstion. The voluminous lips woulcl do good service during 
the squeezhig operation, by preveuting the escape of the juices, and 
very possibly the prominent rim across the back part of the palate 
might assist in constricting the mouth posteriorly, until a sufficient 
amouiit of fluid was collected to be swallowed, the more sohd parts 
being rejected. The only suggestion I can make concerning the 
loug and canine-hke premolars is, that they may assist in gathering 
the fruit ; but it should be remembered that the Pteropi, pioper, 
have these teeth considerably developed, and therefore their pronii- 
nence in Epomophorus mušt not be dwelt upon too strongly. 

Dr. Aiidrew Smith says of Pteropus leachii that it repairs to Cape 
Town and its vicinity when the grapes are ripening, from which we 
are led to suppose that this fruit eonstitutes at that time their food. 
The Epomophori \vould be pecuharly fitted for such a regime as 
this, but we have at present no positive evidence that the grape is 
actually their food. 

1. Epomophorus macrocephalus, Ogilby, sp. 

Pteropus macrocephalus, Ogilb. Proc. Zool. Soc. iii. p. 101, July 
1835 ; Wagn. Supp. Schreb. Saugeth. i. p. 367,1840; Schinz, Synop. 
Mamni. i. p. 13.5, 1844. 

Pt. epomophorus, Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. iii. p. 149, Oct. 1835 ; 
■Wagn. Supp. Schreb. i. p. 367, 1840. 

Pt. megacephalus, Suains. Nat. Hist. & Class. Quad. p. 92, 1835. 

Epomophorus ivhitei, Bennett, Trans. Zool. Soc. v. 2. p. 38. pi. 6, 
Oct. 1835; Gray, Mag. Zool. Bot. ii. p. 504, 1838; Cat. Maram. 
Brit. Mus. p. 38, 1843. 

Pachi/soma ivhitei et P. macrocephala,'Yexam. Esquiss. Zool. Cote 
Guine, pp. 65 et 70, 1853. 

I regret that I am unable to continue the specific name first asso- 
ciated with the generic one novv made use of, but that given to the 
female of the species by Mr. Ogilby has unąuestionably the priority, 
and mušt therefore be adopted. Of the nanies giren by Mr. Ogilby 
and Mr. Swainson it is impossiblc to say which has the precedence ; 
I have therefore chosen that which appears most appropriate. 

Of all the species this one appears to typify most strikingly the 
genus Epomophorus. The head is very long, or rather the face, the 
distance from the eye to the nose being fuUy tmce that of the 
distance from the eye to the ear. The nostrils are somewhat tubular, 
and a deep notch passes vertically between them, dividing the upper 
hp in half. As far as can be gathered from dried specimens, the 
lips attain in this species their full development, being perfectly 
capable, when softened, of distention to fully three times the extent 
of those of Pteropus ruhricollis, a species of nearly similar size. The 
ears are small, ovoid, and narrowed at the tip, and, with the excep- 
tion of two tufts of white hair, naked ; these tufts are of fine short 
hair, and are placed at their two borders, quįte at the root. 

The antibrachial membrane is broader than in the other species, 
being as much as 8 or 9 lines at the elbow, and nearly as much where 



•ii 

it encloses the thumb. The iuterfemoral membrane margins the 
coccyx and legs, and is at the os calcis not more than 2 Unes wide, 
at the coccyx the šame, but at the knee as much as 5 hnes wide. 

Ali the face is covered with very short fine hair, \vith the exception 
of the muzzle, chin, and edges of the lips, which are naked. On the 
upper lip, towards the end of the nose, are a few scattered longish 
bristle-like hairs. The fur of the back extends on to the fore-arm 
for half its length, on to the hinder limbs for nearly the whole of 
their length, and on the membranes of the flanks for the breadth of 
half an inch. Nearly the whole of the interfemoral membrane has 
its upper surface hairy, the exception being at the os calcis. Be- 
neath, the fore-arm membranes of the flanks and legs are similarly 
hairy, but more sparingly so, especially those of the latter. 

Both above and beneath, nearly all that part of the wing-mem- 
branes which is between the lašt finger and the body is studded with 
rows of glandular dots, each bearing a little bundle of short hairs, 
most regular on its upper surface. All the other parts of the mem- 
brane are semi-opaque, and rather distinctly veined. 

The fur of all parts of the body is short and soft, above longer and 
thicker than beneath ; it is unicolour, and of a lightish cinnamon- 
brown, with an ill-defined oval patch on the abdomen of a cream 
colour. At the base of the ears are two little patches of soft white 
fur, just on their margins ; and on the shoulder is the remarkable 
tuft of long white hairs which was first noticed by Mr. Bennett, and 
at that time regarded as peculiar to the species. 

In the following table of dimensions. No. 1 refers to the type 
specimen of E. lohitei, and No. 2 to the type specimen of E. macro- 
cephalus. 



Length of the head and body 7 

of the head 2 

from the eye to the end of the 

nose 1 

from the eye to the ear O 

of the ears O 

Breadth of the ear O 

Length of the fore-arm 3 

of the longest finger 6 

of the fourth finger 4 

of the thumb 1 

of the tibia 1 

of the foot and claws O 

Expanse of wings 22 

* The spread of the vvings is never a very satisfactory dimension in the Cheiro- 
ptera, for in such species as those constituting the present genus, in which the 
wings are broad and the fingers much curved, it is obvious that the real expanse 
of the wings is not given by follovving their curvature. On the other hand, if 
the measure taken be a straight line between the tips of the open wings, that 
line mušt necessarily vary in length with the degree to which they are opened — 






6 


3 





2 


2 


3 


1 


2 


5 





ą 


8 





8 


5i 





5i 


3 


3 


3 





5 


8 


7 


4 


4 


6 


1 


^ 


4* 


I 


3i 


11 





U 


5 


21 


6* 



52 

Some peculiarities are noticeable in the cranium of this species, 
vvhich, if not confined to it, are certainly not extentled to all the 
others, and therefore cannot be mentioned as strictly geiieric. The 
palate in this genus, as has already been stated, is remarkable for the 
prominence of its hinder margin ; this appears to be properly a 
generic character, but it is the present species which possesses it in the 
greatest degree, and with it a great curvature of the back part of 
the palate from side to side also, giving that part of the mouth a 
pretty complete dome-shape*. It is further characterized by the 
presence of very ^videly separated transverse ridges. If the mouths 
of any of those species of Pteropi be examined which are affine to 
the common Pt. edmardsii, they will be found to have ten or a dozen 
transverse palatai ridges ; and in a fresh specimen of Pachysoma 
stramineum, a species more affine to Epomophorus, I have counted as 
many as nine ; but in E'macrocephahis there are not more than six, 
and, if the great length of this part of the skull be borne in mind, it 
will be readily seen that they are far apart. But the deficiency in 
number is corapensated for by their great thickness and prominence. 
The first is straight, and placed just behind the incisive foramen, and 
has a centrai projection ; the second is also straight, but instead of 
a projection has a centrai notch, and is situate between the first pair 
of premolars ; the third is strongly curved forwards, and is a siniple 
entire ridge extended betvveen the first pair of true molars ; the 
fourth is considerably removed from the third, is equally curved and 
projecting, and has a more or less flattened surface ; the fifth is of 
very peculiar form, being lozenge-shaped, with a centrai pit, and placed 
across the palate between the anterior roots of the zygomatic arches ; 
the sixth and lašt is straight and transverse, but little raised, and is 
notched in the centre. Immediately behind this lašt one comes the 
deep dome-shaped hollow already noticed. 

2. Epomophorus gambianus, Ogilby, sp. 

Pteropus gambianus, Ogilby, Proc. Zool. Soc. pt. 3. p. 100, 1835; 
Wagn. Supp. Schrub. Saugth. i. p. 366, 1840 ; Schinz, Synop. 
Mamm. i. p. 135, 1844. 

Epomophorus gambianus, Gray, Mag. Zool. Bot. ii. 504, 1838. 

Epomophorvs crypturus, Peters, Natur. Reise Mossam. Saugth. 
p. 26. t. v. u. xiii. 1852. 

Pachysoma gambianus, Temm. Esquiss. Zool. p. 69, 1853. 

This species differs considerably in appearance from the lašt in 
consequence of its much shorter head. The muzzle is in fact scarcely 
more produced than that of the ordinary Pteropi, and the eye 

vary, in fact, vvith the fancy of the preserver. On the whole, therefore, it appears 
desirable to adopt the first of these methods. The actual expanse of the open 
wings of these speciraens is not more than 17 or 18 inches. Mr. Bennett gives 
12 inches as the expanse of the specimen which has furnished the dimensions in 
Column 1, vvhich, as M. Temminck justly observes, is certainly an error. 

* This peculiar form of the palate has most probably reference to the nature of 
the fnod. 



53 

scarcely more distant from the nose than from the ear. It resembles 
in this respect the vfe\l-kuown Pachi/soma stramineum. In the fonu 
of the ears, lips, nostrils, and indeed of all other parts taken in de- 
tail, this species is so much Uke the lašt that it will be only neces- 
sary to mention a few trifling differences, and then proceed to give 
the more important ones of dimensions. The fur in its general cha- 
racter and quality is similar to that of the lašt species, but it is a 
little more strongly tinged with cinnamon, and rather less spread on 
to the membranes. There is the šame obscure patch of whitish 
colour on the abdomen, and the ears are similarly furnished with 
tufts of white fur at the bases of their two margins, but the conspi- 
cuous shoulder tufts of E. macrocephalus are here very fully deve- 
loped. They consist of a very slight warty excrescence clothed with 
fur, which difFers from that which surrounds it only in being of a 
dirty-white colour. The membranes are a little more translucent, 
and somewhat paler in colour, than those of E. macrocephalus. 

The teeth vary but little from those of E. macrocephalus, but the 
cranium itself has the facial part much shorter, and it is further re- 
markable for the slight estension of the supra-orbital process*. 
Unfortunately, in all the erania I have seen, the hinder margiu of the 
palate has been destroyed in the process of preservation, so that I am 
able to notice only such of the transverse palatai ridges as are not 
posterior to the molar range. These are more simple in form than 
in the lašt species, but are equally prominent, and placed in relation 
to the teeth just as in that species. 

The following dimensions are those of three specimens which 
formerly formed part of the Museum of the Zoological Society : — 



Length of the head and body . . 5 

of the tail O 

of the head I 

from eye to snout .... O 

from ear to eye O 

of the ears O 

Breadth of the ears O 

Length of the fore-arm 3 

of the longest finger . . 5 

. of the fourth finger. ... 4 

of the thumb 1 

of the tibia 1 

of the foot and claws . . O 

Expanse of wings, follovving the 

. phalanges 22 3 22 8 21 O 

Hab. Gambia, Mozambiąue (Peters). 

* For these dctails I refer the reader to the excellcnt figiires of the cranium 
of this species given by l)r. Peters under the name of E. crypltirui. 



9 


6 





5 9 


2 





u 


H 


lOA 


2 





1 11 


11 


1 





I 1 


6 





5| 


4i 


9 





9 


9 


6 





6 


6 


H 


3 


2i 


3 


9 


6 





5 10 


4 


4 


5 


4 .5 


3 


1 


3 


1 4 


4 


1 


4 




10 





m 


101 



54 

3. Epomophorus FRANauETi, n. sp. (PI. LXXV.) 

If the specles in the present monograph took rank according as 
they are more or less typical in form, the present one should appear 
as second, the E. labiatus probably as third^ foliowed by E. gam- 
bianus, and the hst should be completed by the smallest and least 
typical species —E. scho'ėnsis. But the first and most typical species 
is succeeded by the one which was described at very nearly the šame 
time, as being niuch better known than those which were to follow. 

The present one is much the largest species, attaining an expanse 
of niore than 2 feet, and has the šame singular tufts of hair on the 
shoulders as are recorded of the first species in the list — E. macro- 
cephalus, but much more developed than in that species, and of a 
pale yellow colour. The only known specimen -tvas forwarded to the 
French National Collection by Dr- Franquet of the French Imperial 
Navy, and from it I have, by the kind permission of M. Geoffroy St. 
Hilaire, taken the description which follows, and have had a care- 
fully executed dravving made by M. Oudart, from which the illustra- 
tions accompanying the present paper have been copied. Its country 
is the šame as that of the Gorilla. 

The head is not nearly so long and narrow relatively as that 
of E. macrocephalus, but more nearly resembles that of E. gam- 
bianus. The ears, as in the other species of the genus, are of medium 
size, oval, and a little narrowed towards the tips ; they are furnished 
with small tufts of fine white hair at the base of their inner and 
outer margins, likę those of all the other species here described. 
The lips, as far as can be ascertained from the inspection of a 
mounted specimen, are large, although perhaps iiot quite equal to 
those of some of the other species. The interfemoral membrane is 
rather more ample than is usual in the genus. 

The fur extends considerably on to the membranes, above and 
below, as in E. macrocephalus, and it is similarly unicolour, and 
possesses the šame soft cottony texture. That of all the upper parts 
is of a cinnamon-brown colour, brighter and deeper than in the other 
species ; the under parts similar, but the patch of whitish on the 
abdomen, which is faint as in the others, here takes the form of a 
clearly-defined oval space of pure white, as much as 2^ inches long. 

The shoulder tufts are very much developed, and differ somewhat 
from those of E. macrocephalus. They occupy a space on the 
shoulder of as much as lį inch in length, ina descending direction ; 
the lower half of this space consists of fur, which is of the šame 
length and texture as that of the surroundiiig parts, but is of a buffy- 
yellow colour ; whilst the upper part, constitutiug the real shoulder 
tuft, is composed of long yellow hairs, which spring outwards, and 
then curve downwards, partially hiding the short yellow hair already 
mentioned. All this yellow fur, both long and short, has a* clear 
and well-defined outline. All the membranes are of a darkish cinna- 
mon-brown. 

The cranium is much less elongated thanin either of the preceding 
species, and in its general proportions bears some resemblance to that 



65 



oiPachysoma stramineum, especially in the expan9ion of the zygomatic 
arches; but the teeth are of precisely similar number and relative 
proportion with each other. as in E. macrocephahis, although they 
are generally stouter tban in that species. The lower jaw exhibits 
most unequivocally the pecuharities mentioned m ^^ t'.iling the 
generic characters. The dimensions of the cranium will be given 
with those of sonie of the other species, so as to afford a more direct 
means of comparison. 

Length of the head and body 7 3 

of the head 2 S 

of the ears ^^^ 

of the fore-arm ^ ^ 

of the longest finger / -^ 

of the fourth finger 5 6 

of the tibia \ ^ 

of the foot and claws 11 

Expanse of wings, about 30 O 

Hab. Gaboon. 

4. Epomophorus t.abiatus, Temm., sp. 

Pteropus labiatus, Temm. Mon. ii. p. 83 ph 39, 1835-1841; 
Wagn. S^upp. Sehreb. Saugeth. i. p. 356 1840; Less Nouv Tab. Reg. 
Anim. p. 13, 1842 ; Schinz, Synop. Mamm i. V-^^^'^?į^- 
Pachysoma labiatus, Temm. Esqmss. Zooh p. 68, 18o3. 
Epomophorus whitei, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Bnt. Mus. p. 38, 1843. 
Of this species, which has been considered by some zoologists as 
identical with the E. macrocephalus, I can only quote the words of 
M Temminck. since I have not been able to take a descnptioi. ot 
it Judging f om the little that could be learned from an inspection 
ofspecim^enswithoutremoving them from the case, I feel satisfied 
?hat^he species is distinct ; and, in order to make th.s monograph 
as compleie as possible, I borrow the followmg descnption from M. 
Temminck' s ' Monograph': — , . 1 1 .,u r 

S long and pointed ; interfemoral membrane hidden m the fur 
whTch covers a great part of the membrane ; the hps large enoagh 
To hang Severai Les below the lower margin of the jaw anc enurely 
hide the Une of the mouth laterally, as m some of the dog kuid ; the 
furoftheupperpartscovering also in some measure the humeral 
region, and that part of the membrane near the flanks. 

The fur cottony on all parts of the body, especially on the back ; 
more sleek on the tmder parts. That which extends on to the mem- 
brane, and that on the top of the head, short and rongh, and of a 
Sdish-isabelle colour, more reddish towards the ^-k- ^'^^J^į 
mar-ins of the ears with white fur at their bases. Side ot the neck 
Sfsh-brown, with two shoulder tufts of ample s.ze, and composed 
of long vvhL hairs which radiate from the centre of a glandular 
proSnce ; breast. humeral region. flanks. and region of the coc- 



56 

cyx pale rufous ; middle of the belly covered with short hair, smooth, 
and dirty white. 

The female, M. Temminck says, does not differ very greatly from 
the malė, excepting in wanting the shoulder tufts, and in not haviug 
the great development of lips. From this it vvould seem that the 
latter peculiarity is sexual, which appears highly improbable if we 
admit that the greatly developed lips have a determinate function to 
perform, which could scarcely differ much in the two sexes. More- 
over it is further rendered improbable by the facts that in the other 
species of the genus the peculiarity exists eąually in both malė and 
female. 

Totai length (English) 4 4 or 5 

Fore-arm 2 6 

Expanse of wings 16- O 

Hab. Abyssinia. 

My note of the species made in the Leyden Museum is as fol- 
lows : — " Much smaller than E. macrocephalus, and with the face 
relatively much shorter ; shoulder tufts as in that species ; size about 
that oi Pachysoma amplexicaudatuTn." 

5. Epomophorus schoensis, Rūpp., sp. 

Pteropus schoensis, Rūpp. Mus. Senck. iii. p. 131, 1842; Schinz, 
Synop. Mamm. i. p. 129, 1844. 

Dr. Rūppell observes of this species, that he had some doubts 
whether it might not be the young of the Pteropus whitei of Ben- 
nett, the incisor teeth of one of the specimens bearing indications of 
immaturity, but that some disparities in the proportions induced 
him to regard it as distinct. 

At the dispersion of the Museum of the Zoological Society, two 
specimens of a small species of Frugivorous Bat, labelled "Gambia," 
fell into my hauds, vvhich I had no difficulty in identifying with the 
species described by Dr. Riippall under the above name. Aftervvards 
I met with another specimen in the Paris Museum which had been 
received from Gaboon with the specimen of E. franqueti already 
described. These exaraples have furnished the materials for the 
folio wing description. 

It is a miniature of E. gambianus, being the smallest of the Pte- 
ropodida, save the Kiodote, and has a shorter and more rouuded 
head and shorter muzzle. These parts are somewhat similar to the 
šame parts in Pachysoma brevicaudatum, and iudeed the two species 
hold precisely the šame position in their respective genera. E. 
schoensis bears pretty closely the šame relationship to E. franąueti 
as P. brevicaudatum does to P. stramineum and P. eegyptiacum. 

As in those already described, this species has the two ear-tufts ; 
the ears too are themselves so similarly proportioned as to need no 
particular description. The fur, likę that of E. gambianus, extends 
ou to the membranes, and in a perfectly similar manner, and in 
texture and colour agrees so well with that of that species as to ve- 



57 

quire no further mention, except to notice the totai absence of the 
whitish patch on the under parts, where the fur is of a uniform 
greyish-brown colour. \Vith the exception of this difference, E. 
scho'ėnsis might, as far as external appearance is concerned, be fairly 
described by stating it to be a pigmy E. gatnbianus. 

The cranium reąuires special mention. It is short, and has the 
cerebral regiou rounded and devoid of crests or ridges, and instead 
of being, as in the more typical forms, shorter than the facial portion 
of the skull, it is longer, that part iu front of the orbit not being 
more than half the length of that which is behind it. But while its 
general outhne is less typical of the form of cranium which charac- 
terizes the genus, the parts taken in detail are not less typical. 
Thus the small development of the supra-orbital process, taken as a 
characteristic feature of the genus, is more remarkable in this species 
than in any other. It may be said to be directed backwards, aud 
adherent, so that only an extremely small point is free. The space 
between the orbits is much wider in relation to the size of the skull 
than in the larger species. The palate, instead of having transverse 
ridges and furrows, is smooth, with a slight prominence behind the 
canines, of a hastate form, with the point directed backwards ; 
behind this is a shallow depression of similar form, with its point 
extending almost to the hind margin of the bony palate. On each 
side of this point, and just within the raised rim which boundš the 
palate, are two ovoid smooth hollows. 

The following are the dimensions of the two specimeus from 
Gambia : — 

Length of the head and body 3 5 211 

of the head 1 3 I 2 

from nose to eye O 6 O 5į 

from ear to eye O 4 O 3 

of the ear O 6 O 6 

of the fore-arm 2 1 111 

of the longest finger 3 9 3 3 

of the fourth finger 2 9 2 6 

ofthethumb O 10 O W 

of the tibia 10 O 91 

of the foot and claws O b O 7 

Expanse of wings, following the pha- 

langes 14 O 12 6 

Hab. Abyssiuia, Gambia, Gaboon. 

The following table will show the difference in size and proportion 
of parts of the crania of the species described in this Monograph, 
with the exceptiou of E. labiatus : — 



58 



Length from the extretnity of the nasal 
bones to the occipital crest 

Length from extremity of nasal bones 
to the front of orbit 

Length from extremity of nasal bones 
to the supra-orbital foramen 

Length of the nasal bones 

Length of the zygomatic arches, taken 
from the ant-orbital foramen to the 
hiuder margin of the condyloid fossa 1 

Breadth across the zygomatic arches. ..| 1 

Breadth taken betvveen the points ofĮ 
the supra-orbital processes 

Length of the bony palate 

Length from the point of the canine to 
the posterior molar 

Breadth between the two posterior 
molars 

Breadth between the points of the 
canines 

Entire length of the lower maxilla ... 

Height at the coronoid ! O 

Length from point of canine to poste- 
rior molar O 



B, macro- 
cephaliu. 
in. UneB. 



H 



iif 

n 

10^ 



E.fran- 
gueti. 

in. lines. 


E. gam- 
bianus. 
in. lines 


1 11 






9 





10 




1 




1 

9 


10 

1 2 






10 

n 


7 





7 


8i 





8 







4i 


l" "7 

n 




1 




34 

7 
7 


9 





9 



7. schoėnsit 
in. lines. 


1 








3| 






5| 
3 






5« 





« 





H 





4 





3 





2 






3 



2. DeSCRIPTION of a NeW SpECIES of OpOSSUM, OBTAlNED BY 

Mr. Fraser in Ecuador. By Robert F. Tomės. 
(Mammalia, PI. LXXVI.) 

DiDELPHYS W'ATERHOUSII, n. S. 

Fur rather long, soft, and of a cotton-like texture ; general colour 
dark brownish-grey, tipped toith rufous on the sides ; under parta 
broivnish-huff, with a stripe of yelloivish-iohite along the centre of 
the throat and breast. A black mark through the eye, to near the 
end of the nose. 

Muffle of a broadly ovoid form, more deep than wide, the oval figure 
truucated at the bcttom, where the upper Hp constitutes its base ; 
notch of the upper hp, occasioned by the mesial groove of the muflfle, 
deep ; on either side of it, in the edge of the hp, a double cleft. A 
horizontai depression passing through the centre of the muffle, serves, 
with the vertieal groove, to divide it into four divisions or ąuarters, 
of which the two upper ones have a somewhat discoid form, and 
project laterally over the nostrils, partially hiding them. The two 
lower ones are marked, each vrith two obhcjue shallovv depressions, 
passing from near the centre of the muffle to its outer margins, near 
the base. 

Ears,broadly ovoid, hairy on their hinder surface, at the base only, 
and of a dark brown colour, tinged with yellow at the auditory open- 
ing. Feet of a pale fleshy-brown colour, suffused with exceedingly 
fine short hairs, scarcely visible to the naked eye, but becoming 



Proc . z . s . Mammalia, LXXV1. 




MiN Hanliart,Iinp\ 



DIDELPHYS WATEIlHOUSII. 



59 

thicker and longer on the upper surface of ihe fore feet. Nails 
small and nearly white, each with a tuft of straight hairs springing 
from their bases. 

Tail of a uniform dark brown colour for the whole of its length*, 
and with the scales very indistinctly raarked. Hairy portion at its 
base not exceeding half an inch in length. 

The fur of the upper parts approaches to half an inch in length, 
and is of a dark grey colour, tipped with brown, which passes into a 
buflFy-brown on the sides of the body. Outer surface of the limbs, 
the occiput, a space in front of the ear, and the fur on the base of 
the tail, of the šame colour as the back. Around the eye a black 
mark, of small extent beneath and behind it, more extended above it, 
but most so in the direction of the snout, which it approaches very 
nearly. On the forehead the fur is pale brown, having the appear- 
ance of a pale streak between the two black marks. On all the 
under parts the hairs are unicolour, of a pale buff, palest on the 
mesial line, and on the throat and breast taking the form of a well- 
defined streak of pale yellow. Cheeks, chin, and lips buffy-brown. 

Length of the head and body, about 6 O 

of the tail, about 7 6 

of the head 1 ^ 

from nose to ear 1 2 

from nose to eye O b\ 

of the ears O 7 

Breadth of the ears O 7 

Length of the humerus O 9 

of the fore arm 1 I 

of the fore foot O 7 

of the femur 1 O 

of the tibia 1 4f 

of the hind foot O 10 

Totai length of skuU 1 5^ 

Breadth across the zygomatic arches O 10 

From front of foremost incisor to back of lašt molar O 8 

Length of the nasal bones O 8 

of the zygoma from its posterior root to 

the front margin of the orbit O 8 

Breadth of the palate between the canines O 2 

between the two hinder molars. . O 3^ 

Length of the lower jaw 1 O 

Height from the posterior angle to the top of the 

coronoid process O 5 

Length of the dental series in the lower jaw .... O 8 

The young have all the under parts and inner surfaces of the 

* Such is the appearance of the tail after being skinned and immersed in spirits; 
būt Mr. Fraser's nota of this animal is to this effect : — " Nose aud feet pale flesh- 
colour, ears and tail a little darker." The young have the terminai two-thirds of 
the tail of this colour, after having been skinned and sent home in spirits. 



60 

limbs naked, and of a brownish flesh-colour. Ali the upper paits 
dark grey, almost black ; the hairs short, shining, and adpressed. 
Basai third of the tail of the šame colour, and similarly clothed with 
fine hairs ; terminai two-thirds pale flesh-coloured, dusted with ex- 
ceedingly fine wliite hairs, scarcely visible without the aid of a lens. 
£ars darkish flesh-colour, with both their surfaces well clothed with 
short and fine hairs of a silvery-grey colour. Nails white. 

Length of the head and body, about 3 6 

of the tail, about 3 O 

of the head 1 5 

Hab. Gualaquiza. CoUected by Mr. Fraser, Dec. 1857. 

Obs. — This species was first described by Mr. Waterhouse in his 
excellent work on 'Mammalia'*, but without a name, and was com- 
pared with D. cinerea, from vvhich it was observed to differ in haviug 
the hairy portion of the tail of much less estent, in having longer 
fur, and in being itself considerably smaller. The specimen examined 
was a malė, and ineluded in that section of Opossums characterized 
by a pouch " rudimeutary, or entirely vranting ; " but the female 
obtained by Mr. Fraser (evidently of the šame species) unquestion- 
ably possessed a complete pouch, as might be seen from an esamina- 
tion of the skin preserved in spirit ; and Mr. Fraser' s note accom- 
panying the specimen informs us that there were "five young in her 
pouch, each 3 inches long." 

This effectually disposes of the question as to its distiuetness from 
D. cinerea, and in fact removes it to the other section. 

To D. noctivaga, Tschudi, it bears some resemblance, in which 
species, as in D. ivaterhousii, the fur on the base of the tail is of ex- 
ceedingly limited extent, and both agree in having rather long fur, 
although of a different colour. But D. noctivaga is the larger species 
of the tvvo, and is quite differently proportioned. Its muzzle is a 
great deal longer than that of D. ivaterhousii, and the ears are much 
larger. Moreover the female is destitute of a pouch, and has in its 
stead " abdominal folds of the integuments." The eyes too, accord- 
ing to Dr. Tschudi's tigure and Mr. Fraser's note, are of a different 
colour 

Mr. Fraser's note in fiill is as follows : — " $ had five young in 
her pouch, each 3 inches long. Nose, chin, and latter half of the 
tail flesh-colour, ears black. Stomach contained bones of a small 
mammal, hair, and a pulp containing a vegetable substance. Eyes 
black. Xivaro name ' Juichma.' " 

I have named this animal after its original describer, as a tribūte 
to a zoologist who has in such an eminent degree extended our knovr- 
ledge in this branch of natūrai history. 

It is alluded to, but uot described, in my list of Mr. Fraser's Mam- 
mals, given iu lašt year's ' Proceedings ' (p. .548). 

* vol. i. p. 505. 



61 
3. NoTES ON Semioptera wallacii, Gray, from a Letter 

ADDRESSED TO JoHN GoULD, Esa., F.R.S., BY A. R. WaL- 

lace, Esa., DATED Amboyna, Sept. 30, 1859. 

" The Semioptera loaUacii freąuents the lower trees of the virgin 
forests, and is alinost constautly in motion. It flies from branch to 
branch, and clings to the tvvigs and even to the vertical smooth 
trunks almost as easily as a Woodpecker. It continually utters a 
harsh croaking cry, something between that of Paradisea apoda and 
the more musical cry of Cicinnurus regius. The malęs, at short 
intervals, open and flutter their wings, erect the long shoulder fea- 
thers, and expand the elegant shields on each side of the breast. 
Likę the other Birds of Paradise, the females and young malęs far 
outnumber the fully plumaged birds, which renders it probable that 
the extraordinary accessoiy plumes are not fully developed uutil the 
second or third year. The bird seems to feed principally upon fruit, 
but it probably takes insects occasioually. 

" The iris is of a deep olive ; the bill horny-olive ; the feet orange, 
and the claws horny. 

" I have uow obtained a few examples of apparently the šame 
bird from Gifolo ; but in these the crown is of a more decided violet 
hue, and the plumes of the breast are much larger." 



4. NoTES ON THE YoUNG OF MeNURA STJPERBA. By LUD\CIG 

Becker, Esa., in a Letter to John Gould, Esa., F.R.S., 
etc, DATED Melbourne, Victoria, Sept. 24, 1859. 

" In the month of October 1858 the nešt of a Lyre-bird was found 
in the densely wooded rangės near the sources of the river Yarra- 
Yarra. It contained a bird, which seeraed at first to be an old one 
in a sickly condition, as it did not attempt to escape ; but it was soon 
diseovered to be a young bird of very large size as compared with its 
helplessness. When taken out of the nešt it screamed loudlj' ; the 
note being high and sounding likę ' tching-tchi7ig.' In a short][time 
the mother bird, attracted by the call, arrived, and, notwithstanding 
the proverbial shyness of the species, flew within a few feet of its 
young, and tried in vain to deliver it from captirity by flappiiig her 
wings and making various rapid motions in different directions 
towards the captor. A shot brought down the poor bird, and with 
its mother near it the young Menura was soon silent and quiet. It 
was taken away and kept at a ' mia-mia ' erected in the midst of the 
surrounding forest. The foUovving is as correct a description of the 
bird as I can give you : — 

"Its height was 16 inches , the body was covered with a brown 
down, but the wings and tail were already furnished vrith feathers 
of a dark brown colour. The head was thickly covered with a 
greyish-white down of from 1 to 2 inches in length ; the eyes were 
hazel-browu ; the beak blackish and soft ; the legs nearly as large 
as those of a full-grown specimen, but it walked most awkwardlv 
with the legs bent inwards. It rose with difficulty, the wings as- 



62 

sisting, and when on its legs occasionally ran for a short distance, 
but often fell, apparently from want of streūgth to movė the large 
and heavy bones of its legs properly. It constantly endeavoured to 
approach the camp fire, and it was a matter of some difficulty to 
keep it from a dangerous proximity to it. Its cry of ' tching- 
tching' was often uttered during the day time, as if recaUing 
the parent bird ; and when this call was ausvrered by iis keeper, 
feigning the note ' bull en-bullen,' the native name for the Lyre bird, 
and which is an imitatiou of the old birds' cry, it followed the voice 
at once, and was easily led away by it. It soon beeame very tame, 
and was esceedingly voracious, refusing no kind of food, but standing 
ready with widely gaping bill awaiting the approaching hand which 
held the food, consisting principally of worms and the larvae of ants, 
commonly called'an^s' eygs;' but it did not refuse bits of meat, 
bread, &c. Occasionally it picked up ants' eggs from the ground, 
but was nŲver able to swallow them, the museles of the neck not 
having acquired sufficient power to effect the required jerk and throw- 
ing back of the head ; it rarely, if ever, partook of water. It re- 
posed in a nešt made of moss and lined with opossum skin, where it 
appeared to be quite conteut ; while asleep, the head was covered by 
one of the wings. When called ' bullen-bullen,' it awoke, looked for 
Severai seconds at the disturber, soon put its head under the wing 
again, and took no notice whatever of other sounds or voices. That 
the young Menura remains for a long time in the nešt is proved by 
the manner in which it disposes of its droppings : our young captiye 
always went backwards before dropping its dung, as if to avoid soil- 
ing the nešt. It is probable that it leaves the nešt in the day time 
vyhen the warmth of the weather invites it so to do, but that during 
the night it remains iu the nešt ; and if the weather should become 
cold the mother shelters her young, the nešt being large euough to 
contain both." 



5. Description of a New Species of American Partridge. 
By John Gould, Esa., F.R.S., etc. 

EuPSYCHORTYX HYPOLEUCUS, Gould. 

Forehead, stripe over each eye, throat and under surface creamy 
white , head and short crest reddish-brown, minutely freckled with 
darker brown ; round the back of the ueck a series of dark browa 
feathers, tinted with rufous and spotted with creamy-white ; general 
tint of the upper surface grey, mottled and finely freckled with rufous ; 
the centre of the back marked with large blotches of black ; wing- 
feathers freckled with black, and barred on their outer webs with 
black bounded posteriorly with vvhite ; tertiaries bordered with bufF, 
lower part of the flanks and under tail-coverts dark brown spotted 
with vvhite ; tail brown, crossed by narrow, irregular, freckled, grey 
bars ; bill black ; feet light brown. 

Totai length, 7*5 inches ; bill, 0-5 ; vying, 41 ; tail, 2-4 ; tarsi, 1-2. 

Hab. Acajutla in Mexico. 



63 

Remark. — For a knowledge of this species I am indebted to the 
kindness of M. Julės Verreaux of Paris, who has entrusted it to my 
charge for the purpose of figuring and describing. M. Verreaux 
tells ine he has seen a second example precisely similar in colour to 
the one here described, which latter circumstance has mainly induced 
me to consider it a distinct species. In its colouring it is one of the 
most remarkable members of the whole family ; in size it is about 
equal to the Eupsychortyx leucopogon, but the crest is not so much 
developed as in that species ; its white breast at once distinguishes 
it from that as well as from every other species. 



6. List of Additional Species of Birds collected by Mr. 

LOUIS FrASER AT PaLLATANGA, EcUADOR ; WITH NOTES 

AND Descriptions OF New Species. By Philip Lutley 

SCLATER, M.A., SeCRETARY TO THE SoCIETY. 

The present Ust gives an account of the birds in Mr. Fraser's 
second collection from Pallatanga, which were not inciuded in my 
catalogue of his first collection (P. Z. S. 1859, p. 135). Some of 
them were obtained at Chillanes, which is situate higher up the šame 
valley on the opposite side of the Rio Chimbo ; but, judging from 
Villavicencio's Map, not at a very great distance off. After coUect- 
ing at Chillanes during part of November 1858, Mr. Fraser returned 
to Pallatanga, and stayed there until driven out by the rains in the 
middle of December. 

The addition thus made to the Avi-fauna of Pallatanga consists of 
fifty-nine species, and, together with those enumerated in the list of 
the forraer collection, gives a totai of 161 species (a large number 
for a few months' coUecting in one spot), illustrated by about 650 
specimens. 

I have inciuded the names of the birds obtained at Chillanes in 
the present series, though the character of the ornithology is different, 
it being evidently situated at a considerably higher elevation. These 
are— 

Turdus gigas. Elainia ? 

Vireojosephce. Pipreola melanolcema. 

Tanagra eyanocephala. Heliotrypha viola. 

ChJorospingus superciliaris. Aglceactis cupreipennis. 

Zonotrichia pileata. Metallura tyrianthina. 

Grallaria ruficapilla. Lesbia gracilis. 

Margarornis squamigera. Adelomyia melnnogenys. 

Octho'ėca fumigata. Columba albilinea. 



oni. Ortalida montagnii. 

Myiodynastes chrysocephalus. 

Severai of these {Conirostrittn fraseri, Heliotrypha viola, Pipreola 
melanolcema, &c.) have not occurred at Pallatanga. 



64 
I. Passeres. 

1. ThRYOTHORUS MYSTACALIS, Sp. nOV. 

Supra rufus, pileo fusco, alis caudaque nigricanti-fuscis, brunneo 
extus limbatis, rectricum pogoniis externis nigro obsolete trans- 
vittatis : macula lororum et ciliis ocnlaribus albis : regione 
auriculari albo nigroque striolata : gutture albo, mystacibus 
latis nigi-is : suhtus pallide cinerascenti-albus, ventre crissoąue 
cinnamomeo lavatis : rostro plumbeo ; pedibusfuscis. 
Long. totą 6'5, alee 2-6, caudse 2-4, tarsi 1"0. 
Hab. In rep. Equat. 
Mus. P. L. S. 

Two esamples (d"), Pallatanga Nov. 1859. "Irides hazel : bill 
black above, yellowish beueath ; legs and feet dark flesh-colour : 
stomach contained insects." 

This Wren is a close ally of T. coraya of Guiaiia aud T. genibarbis 
of Brazil, belonging strictly to the saine group of species, but dis- 
tinguishable by its larger size, darker colouring, aud -vvell-defined 
moustache. 

2. Catharus maculatus, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1858, p. C4. 

Two ex., Pallatanga and Chillanes. Sexes alike. " Irides hazel ; 
bill orange, with black culmen ; legs, feet, and rim round the eye 
orange." 

I am surprised at finding this bird here, although it is not quite a 
solitary instance of the šame species occurring on both sides of the 
Andes. The birds formerly described were from the Rio Napo. 

3. Cyphorinus griseicollis (Lafr.). — Merufaxis griseicolHs, 
Lafr. R. Z. 1840, p. 103. 

Gizzard contained insects. 

4. Dendroica blackburni^ (Gm.). 
Two ex., d et $ . 

5. Vireosylvia agilis (Licht.). — V. virescens, Baird, Rep. 
p. 333. 

Agrees with Bogota specimens, which 1 refer to this species. 

6. Myiadestes venezuelensis, Sclater, Ann. & Mag. N. H. 
ser. 2, vol. xvii. p. 468 (1856). 

One pair. " Bill black, with under part of lower mandible yel- 
lowish ; legs and feet yellowish." Sexes alike. 

These birds agree with a Bogota skin in my possession. Cabanis 
(Mus. Hein. p. 55) notices the occurrence of M. griseivetitris 
(Tschudi) from Bogota. It is possible that this is the šame as his 
species ; but I should hardly think so from Tschudi's description. 



85 

7. Dacnis EGRE6IA, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 251. 

" Irides orange ; bill black above, blue below ; contents of sto- 
mach, insects ; found very high up in a tall tree." 

8. CONIROSTRUM FRASERI, Sclatcr. 

Chillanes. 

9. SaLTATOR MAGNUS (,Gin.). 

A nešt of this species, taken from an orange-tree by Mr. Fraser at 
Pallatanga in November, is cup-shaped, rather loosely put together, 
built of moss and roots, and lined witli coarse roots. The eggs re- 
semble those of the Blackbird (Turdus merula), being of a pale 
greenish, miuutely freckled with reddish, more particularly at the 
larger end: they measure Tl by 0'8 inch. 

10. Chlorospingus stjperciltaris (Lafr.). 
Chillanes, three ex. " Irides hazel." 

11. Pyranga ^stiva (L.), 
Many examples. 

12. Ramphocelus icteronotus, Bp. 

Many examples of both sexes and nestlings. Called ' Onza.' 
Mr. Fraser says of a female, " Certain it is that I have not seeu 
more than two or three specimens in this livery. This bird was 
extreniely shy. I hunted her for several days ; she was in com- 
pany of a malė, in adult plumage ; he might be coustantly seen 
sitting on the extreme highest point of a young orange tree, a To- 
ronka, or Plantain, giving forth his ' heep, heep,^ she answering with 
the šame note, but in a more delicate key, from below and generally 
at some little distance, but not to be seen ; he I suppose giving 
notice of the approach of danger. This may aecount in one way for 
the apparent scarcity of females. In fine weather the malė exhibits 
the whole of the yellovv rump ; but in the rain the vriugs are 
almost, and sometimes entirely, closed over it. On the vving this yel- 
low mark is very conspicuous. The flight is undulating, quick, but 
laboured. I may have seen as many as a dozen at a time in one 
tree, but in general not more than three or four. I have freąuently 
seen them take insects on the wing and return to the šame spot, likę 
the Solitarios." 

13. Pipridea venezuelensis, Sclater. 

Three ex. " Irides bright red ; bill black above, blue belovv ; legs 
and feet blue; in gizzard vegetable matter," and in another "fruit 
with small seeds." 

14. EuPHONiA NiGRicoLLis (VieiU.). 

Two ex. " Irides hazel ; bill black above, blue below ; legs and 
feet flesh-coloured ; gizzard, green seeds with a pulp." 
No. 421. — Proceedings of the Zoological Societv. 



66 

15. Chrysomitris icterica (Licht.) ? 

The šame bird as described in P. Z. S. 1858, p. 552, but perhaps 
not the true icterica. " Ilguero ; very common." 

16. Spiza ? 

One ex. 6 ■ " Bill įiearly black ; legs and feet dark blue ; food 
vegetable matter." Apparently a new species of this limited genus 
of uniform bluish-grey colouring ; but the bill is rather crushed, and 
I am unwilling to describe it from the present specimen. 

17. Synallaxis erythrops, sp. nov. 

Murino-hrunnea, supra rufescentior, subtus cinerascentior, gula 
albicante : pileo supero et capitis lateribus totis, alis extiis et 
eauda leete rufis : subalaribus cinnamomeis : rostro superiore 
niffro, inferiore carneo, pedibus sordide viridibus. 
Long. totą 5*0, alse 2*4, caudae 2*3. 
Hab. In rep. Equatoriana. 
Mus. P. L. S. 

Five examples, sexes alike. Food *' insects." This species may 
be easily distinguished from its allies by the extension of the red 
head below the eyes, so as to cover the sides of the face. The rec- 
trices are twelve in number. 

18. Margarornis sauAMiGERA (Lafr.). 
Chillanes, one ex. 

19. Dendrocops atrirostris (Lafr. et D'Orb.) ; D'Orb. Voy. 
pi. 54. fig. 1 ; Lafr. Eev. Zool. 1851, p. 466. 

Severai ex. " Irides grey ; bill blackish." 

20. Grallaria ruficapilla, Lafr. 
One ex. " Shumpo : food insects." 

21. Grallaria regulus, sp. nov. 
Brunnescenti-olivacea, pileo cinerascentiore ; dorsi plumis niyro 

circumcinctis ; alis nigricantibus extus brunneo limbatis ; cauda 
brevissima unicolore brunnea : subtus saturate ferrtiginea, gut- 
ture et pectore nigricantiore perfiisis ; torque gutturali pallide 
cinnamomeo, hujus plumarum apicibus nigris : rostro comeo, 
supra obscuriore : pedibus corylinis : tectricibus subalaribus 
ventre concoloribus. 
Long. totą 6-3, alae 4'0, caudse 1"2, tarsi 1*6. 
Hab. In rep. Equatoriana. 
Mus. P. L. S. 

A single specimen of this Grallaria is in the coUection, without 
notes. It is strictly of the šame group as G. varia sive rex, G. im- 
perator and G. guatemalensis, being most closely allied to the 
latter bird, from which it may be distinguished by its dark throat 
and breast, ciearly defined guttural band, and much inferior size. 



67 

22. Myrmotherula menetriesi (D'Orb.) ? 

A malė and two females, apparently referable to this species of 
the section embracing M. axillaris and its allies. " Irides hazel ; 
gizzard contained insects." 

23. Dysithamnus mentalis (Temm.) ? 

Many specimens of this bird, apparently hardly different from 
Brazilian examples. 

24. Pachyrhamphus ? 

A female of a species belonging to the group containing P. mar- 
ginatus, — perhaps of P. dorsocinereus. 

25. Ampelion cinctus (Tsch.). — Ampelis cincta, Tsch. F. P. 
p. 136. 

Four ex. S and $ , •' Irides orange ; bill black above, blue 
below ; legs and feet green ; gizzard contained the bodies of Land- 
MoUusks." 

The malęs of this bird do not quite agree with the esample from 
Bogota, now in the British Museum, from which my figure was 
taken (P. Z. S. 1855, pi. civ.), the head being pūrely black without 
yellow markings, and the wings shorter. The latter is the case in the 
female specimens also. If they are different, it would be difficult 
to decide which is Tschudi's bird without actual comparison of spe- 
cimens, particularly as the females are coloured alike. 

26. PiPREOLA MELANOL^MA, Sclatcr, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser, 2, 
vol. xvii. p. 467. 

Chillanes, one ex. " Esparagun : irides hazel ; bill, legs, and feet 
red ; gizzard contained a small green fruit." 

This example seems to agree with Venezuelan specimens, and to 
be different from the Bogota bird (P. riefferi), though more of a 
local race than a species. 

27. Cephalopterus penduliger, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1859, p.l42. 
Mr. Fraser has now sent a large series of this fine bird, both of 

malęs and females. In the females the throat-lappet is quite small, 
not exceeding \ of an inch in length, and the crest-feathers are very 
little developed. The dimensions are generally smaller. Other 
names for this bird, besides Boeinero, are according to Mr. Fraser's 
notes, Trompetero and Muchilero. One example, "when shot, drew 
the whole of the neck-appendage into one bunch close up to bis 
throat. It was in company with a Caciąue (^Ostinops atrovirens) ." 
Again Mr. Fraser says, " The appendage seems generally held in a 
bunch likę a rose under the throat, and to fall after death." 

28. OCTHOECA FUMIGATA (BoisS.). 

Chillanes, one ex. 



68 

29. OcTHOECA LESsoNi, Sckter. 
Chillanes, two ex. 

30. Sayornis cineracea (Lafr.). 
Patillo, one ex. 

31. Myiarchus nigriceps, sp. nov. 

OHvaceus, pileo nigro : alis caudaąue nigricantibus rufescenti- 
olivaceo extus limbatis : gutture et pectore cinereis : abdomine 
totofiavo : rostro et pedibus nigris. 
Long. totą 6'0, alse 3'1, caudse 2*7. 
Hab. In rep. Equator. 
Mus. P. L. S. 

Severai ex. A typical Myiarchts, distinguished frotn otber species 
in my coUection by its small size and black head. 

32. Myiophobus, sp. 

A bad specimen of a species apparently referable to this division. 

33. Legatus albicollis (Vieill.). 

Seems bardly different from Brazilian examples. 

34. Platyrhynchus albogularis, sp. nov. 

(S . Brunnescenti-olivaceus ; alis et cauda fusco-nigris, brunneo 
limbatis : pileo cristato interne fiavissimo ; regione oculari et 
loris fulvescentibus : siibtus Jlavescenti-fulvus, ventre dilutiore, 
gutture niveo : rostri nigri tomiis pallidis, pedibus pallidis, 

2 . Grista pileo concolore. 

Long. totą 3*7, alse 2'4, caudse r2. 

Hab. In rep. Eąuator. 

Mus. P. L. S. 

" Irides bazei ; found in tbe underwood." 

A near ally of P. cancroma, and of tbe šame size, but distin- 
guishable by its pure white throat, black under mandible, longer 
wings, and more fulvous colouring below. 

35. Elainia ? 

Four ex. Sexes alike. 

36. Elainia ? 

Pallatanga and Chillanes. 

37. Elainia stictoptera, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 554. 
Chillanes, one ex. 

38. EUPSILOSTOMA PUSILLUM, Sp. nOV. 

Pallide cinereum, pileo obscuriore, dorso olivaceo perfuso; alis 
caudaoue nigricantibus fulvo extus limbatis ; illarum tectrici- 



. 69 

bus cervino bifasciatis ; subtm albescens, lateribus, tectricibua 
subalaribus et crisso flavo perfusis : rostro comeo, culmine et 
apice obscuriore, pedibus nigricanti-plumbeis. 
Long. totą 2*5, alse 1"9, caudae 1'5. 
Hab. In rep. Equator. 
Mus. P. L. S. 

One ex. $. " Irides hazel ; in gizzard insects." 
This diminutive bird raay be arranged near Muscicapa obsoleta of 
Temminck from Brazil. I refer them both to a division which 1 
propose to call Eupsilostoma, the type being E. exitnium {Muscicapa 
exintia of Temminck). 

39. Tyrannulus flavidi^rons, sp. nov. 

Olivaceus, fronte et oculorum ambitų fiavidis : alis et caudanigri- 
cantibus, illarum tectricibus flavo, remigibus flavicanti-olivaceo, 
hujus rectricibus olivaceo extus marginatis : subtus pallide 
cinerascenti-albidus, ventre flavicantiore ; tectricibus subala- 
ribus flavidis : rostro et pedibus nigris. 
Long. totą 4*1, alse 2-3, caudae r9. 
Hab. In rep. Equator. 
Mus. P. L. S. 

Many exaraples of this obscure species, and also in the former 
collection. The bird is nearly allied to that described as T. chrysops 
(P. Z. S. 1858, p. 458) from Zamora, but is of larger dimensions, 
has a longer tail, stronger beak, and less yellow on the front. 

40. Tyrannulus cinereiceps, sp. nov. 

Olivaceus, pileo cinereo, loi-is et oculorum ambitų albidis, macula 
auriculari nigra, alis caudaąue nigris, tectricibus albo termi- 
natis, et secundariis externis albo extus limbatis : subtus flavus, 
gula olivaceo tincta, mento albicante : rostro et pedibus nigris. 
Long, totą 3-8, alse 2-2, caudae 1'5. 
Hab. In rep. Equator. 
Mus. P. L. S. 

One ex. " Irides hazel, in gizzard vegetable matter." 
This species is a near ally of T. nigricapillus, but the wiugs and 
tail are shorter, the bill is stouter, and the head is cinereous instead 
of being of a smoky-black. 

41. Leptopogon suPERCiLiARis, Tsch. F. P. p. 161. pi. 10. 
fig. 2. 

Two ex. Seemingly agreeing with Tschudi's characters. I have 
the šame bird from the Rio Napo. 

42. Trogon jcollaris, Sw. 

Mr. Fraser has now forwarded many examples of the Trogon 
sp. 68 of my former list. It proves to be scarcely differeut from 
Trogon collaris of eastern South America. 



• 70 • 

43. Pharomacrus antisianus (Lafr. et D'Orb.). 

Many examples of both sexes. " Pilco real : Irides bright red ; 
bill black, base yellowish ; gizzards contaiued wild Aguacati. There 
were three together : they make but little noise." 

44. Nyctidromus ? 

" Compadre Gaspar : gizzard contained moths." 

45. SCHISTES ALBOGULARIS. 

One ex. C . " Bill black ; feet dark flesh-colour ; gizzard contained 
insects ; fouud iu the underwood." 

46. SCHISTES GEOFFROn. 

One ex. į . " Bill and feet black ; gizzard contained insects. I 
should take this to be malė of 1388 (Schistes albogularis), but for 
the colour of the feet and shape of the tail." 

47. AgL^ACTIS CUPREIPENNIS. 

Chillanes, two ex. 

48. Cynanthus cyanurus. 

Two ex. One, " į by diss. Irides hazel ; bill black j legs aud 
feet brownish, testes very small. Killed fighting vfith one of the 
smaller species." 

49. Lesbia gracilis. 

Chillanes. 

50. PHiEOL^MA ^aUATORIALlS, Gould. 

One ex. Inserted in my former list as P. rubinoides. Mr. 
Gould now considers it different frora the New Granadian bird, and 
proposes to publish it under the new name given above. 

51. Adelomyia melanogenys. 
Chillanes. 

II. SCANSORES. 

52. Rhamphastos tocard, Vieill. ; Gould, Mon. ed. 2. pi. 4. 
Two ex.JetC. " 6 , irides green ; bare space round the eyes green, 

approaching to yellow near the upper mandible ; naked part under 
the lower mandible greeuish-yellow ; lower mandible, and lower por- 
tion of base of upper, deep maroon, blending into a black stripe, which 
succeeds it on upper mandible ; a broad band of yellow from upper 
portion of the base of the upper mandible to the point ; part of cul- 
men greenish ; legs and feet blue : gizzard contained wild Aguacati. 
$ similar in all points." 
" The malęs and females have the šame uote : occurring together 



71 

in twos and threes. The bird is called Predicador (Preaclier) from 
his note, supposed to rfipresent the words ' Dios,' as he bows his 
head, and ' ti de' as he movės it from side to side, thus making the 
sign of the cross." 

53. Pteroglossūsjsrythropygujs, Gould, Mon. ed. 2. 

" Irides deep stravv-colour ; bill horn-colour, sUghtly clouded ; 
blotch at the base vermilion, a narrovv basai Une and toothed mar- 
gins of mandibles white ; longitudinal Une along the lower part of 
upper mandible and a blotcli at the base and apex of the lovver man- 
dible black ; tip of upper mandible orange ; space round and in front 
of the eyes blue." 

These examples differ from the birds figured by Mr. Gould in 
having no black mark on the culmen of the bill ; but there are slight 
traces observable of this colouring, and in specimens more recently 
transmitted by Mr. Fraser from Babahoyo it is fully developed. 

54. Dryocopus SCLATERI (Malh.). — Megapicus sclateri,M^a\ii. 
Mon. Picid. p. 22. pi. 8. fig. \.—B. albirostris, Sclater, P. Z. S. 
1859, p. 146. 

Two malęs and one female of this species, described by M. Mal- 
herbe from a skin which I transmitted to him for examination. 
This specimen, which he considered to be a malė, turns out to be a 
female. This malė differs in having the front and sides of the head 
red instead of white, leaving merely a small round patch of white 
beneath the ear, just as in D. albirostris. But it may easily be di- 
stinguished from that bird by the red front, this part in D. albi- 
rostris being white. 

" Carpintero: usually seen in pairs." Gizzard of No. 1620 con- 
tained " pulpy fruit with small yellow seeds, aud what appeared to 
be insects' cggs." 

55. CONTJKUS ERYTHROGENYS. — Psittacara erythrogenys, Less. 
" Loro : irides yellow ; gizzard contained seedy fruit. Verycom- 

mon and very noisy, but difficult to get at." 

It may be remarked that Lesson's Conurus erythrogenys (pub- 
lished in the ' Traitė d"Ornithologie,' p. 215) is not different from 
Paleeornis malacceiuis. (See Pucheran in Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 
1853, p. IGO.) Mr. Fraser has now sent several good exainples of 
this species. But one imperfect specimen was contained in his former 
coUection from Pallatanga. 



III. ACCIPITRKS. 
56. BUTEO PENNSYLVANICUS (Wils.). 

One ex., S juv. " Irides yellowish-grcy ; cere ycllow ; legs aud 
fcct ycllow." 



72 

57. AcciPiTER piLEATUs, Max. 

A pair. "No. 1404, į : irides orange ; bill black, with yellowish 
bases ; cere between the nostrils black ; in front and under the 
nostrils, face, and space round the eyes yellowish ; rim round the 
eyes orange; legs and feet orange. No. 1511, $: irides deep 
orange ; bill blue at the bases, with black tips ; face, legs, and feet 
yellow ; gizzard contained feathers and the toe of a bird, probably a 
Guan (Ortalida)." 

IV. COLtJMB^. 
!)8. COLTJMBA ALBILINEA (Bp.), Consp. ii. p. 51. 

Chillanes, one ex. " Gizzard contained minute seeds. A flock of 
twenty or thirty was noticed." 

59. Geotrygon bourcieri, Bp. Consp. ii. p. 71 ? 

Many ex., cJ , $ , et juv. " Tortola or Chalana : irides yellow ; bill 
black ; legs in front and toes above red. Found on the ground." 
Food "fruit," and in one case " grasshoppers." 

V. GALLINiE. 

60. Odontophorus erythrops, Gould, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 99. 
Four ex. " Irides light hazel ; bill black ; legs and feet blue : 

gizzard contained shells and grit. Found ou the ground, in one 
instance four in company : Cubalan." 

A white crescentic mark across the throat is observable in three 
examples marked/e/^a/e, but not in that marked malė in the present 
coUection, nor in two malė specimens in the former. I therefore 
suppose it to be peculiar to the female. 

61. Penelope jacucaca, Spix, Av. Bras. ii. t. 69 ? 

Four ex., sexes alike. " Irides, legs, and feet red ; bill blackish 
above, dark horn-colour below ; face blue ; throat red ; gizzard con- 
tained fruits." 

These examples agree with specimens marked P. jacucaca in the 
British Museum. 

62. Ortalida montagnii, Bp. Compt. Rend. xlii. p. 875. — O. 
arcuata, G. R. Gray, in Mus. Brit. 

Chillanes, one ex. " Gizzard contained fruit." 

VI. Grall^. 

63. TiGRISOMA BRASILIENSE (Gm.). 

On ex. C juv. " Paxaro Tiffre: irides yellovv ; legs and feet 
green ; gizzard contained small crabs." 



Proc Z.S.Atbs . CLi 







J . Je.naens,lilli. 



M & E . Kanhart,Iin 



ORE OMANE S ERASERI 



73 

64. EuRYPYGA HELiAS (Pall.), Bp. Consp. ii. p. 144. 

One ex. " Irides red ; bill black above, orange below ; legs and 
feet dirty orange, darker in front, brighter behind. Storaach con- 
tained small bones, apparently of fishes, grubs, and beetles. This 
bird was running about the margin of the river likę a Sandpiper, and 
sitting on the large stones in the water." 



7. List of Birds collected by Mr. Fraser in the vicinity 

OF QuiTO, AND DURING ExCURSIONS TO PiCHINCHA AND 
ChIMBORAZO ; ■VVITH NOTES AND DeSCRIPTIONS OF NeW 

Species. By Philip Lutley Sclater, M. A., Secretary 
TO the Society. 

(Avės, PI. CLIX.) 

After leaving Pallatanga in the middle of January 1859, Mr. Fraser 
retumed to Riobamba. From Riobamba he made an excursion to 
Panza, a place situated on the southern slope of Chimborazo, at an 
altitude of about 14,000 feet above the sea-level, on the route to- 
wards Guaranda. The birds obtained during a short sojoura at this 
spot were of the following seventeen species* : — 

1. Oreomanes /raseri, sp.nov, 10. Myiotheretes erijthropygius. 

2. Diglossa aterrima. 11. Octho'ėcafumicolor. 

3. Zonotrichia pileata. 12, Muscisaxicola albifrons. 

4. Phry gilus unicolor. 13. Oreotrochilus chimborazo. 

5. Synallaxis flammulata. 14- Ramphomicron stanleyi. 

6. Cinclodes excelsior, s^.nov. 15. Ny ctidromus, sp. 

7. albivenf ris, sp.nov. 16. Peristera melanoptera. 

8. Grallaria monticola. 17. Attagis chimborasensis, sp. n. 

9. Agriornis andicola, sp. nov. 

I am not aware of any birds having been collected at a higher ele- 
vation than this series ; and it will, I am sure, be interesting to the 
Society to see the curious forms which compose the feathered inha- 
bitants of these dreary and inhospitable solitudes. They are mostly 
birds of duU plumage, and belong (with the esception of the Zono- 
trichia) to genera peculiar to the South American or Neotropical 
Region ; the greater part of them being characteristic either of the 
more southern portion of the continent, or of the elevated regions of 
the mountain rangės. 

Leaving Panza, Mr. Fraser retumed to Riobamba, and thence 
proceeded to Quito, coUecting on his way such species (^Cathartes 
atratus, Cyanopterua discors, and Fulica chilensis) as occurred to 
him. 

The months of February and March and part of April 1859 were 

♦ A letter fvom Mr. Fraser, giving some account of this excursion, wi]I be found 
in ' The Ibis,' vol. i. p. 208. 



74 

passed at various spots on the western slope of the Andes to the 
north and north-west of Quito. Of the birds coUected there I have 
given an account in a separate paper. But I have added to the pre- 
sent Hst the names of the species obtained at Quito itself, and at the 
following locahties, all of high elevation, and in its immediate vicinity : 
(1) Lloa, a small pueblo situate a few miles to the south-west of 
Quito on the side of Pichincha in a well-wooded district ; (2) Gua- 
pulo, at a somewhat lower elevation, one league to the north-east of 
Quito ; (3) Guagua (old) Pichincha and B,ucu (young) Pichincha, 
the names applied to two of the principai summits of that celebrated 
volcano, to which Mr. Fraser made excursions. 

1. Thryothorus euophrys, sp. nov. 

Supra Icste rufus, pileo summo fiiscescente ; superciliis distinctis 
et elongatis cum macula suboculari albis : subtus pallide ru- 
fescens ; gutture et pectore medio albis, mystacibus latis et 
pectoris plumarum marginibus nigris : rostro et pedibus plutn- 
beis. 
Long. totą 6*5, alae 2-7, caudse 2-2, tarsi l'O. 
Lloa, May 1859, one ex. " Irides hazel ; bill blue ; culmen black; 
legs and feet blue." 

This Wren belongs, hke T. mystacalis, from Pallatanga, to the 
group of T. coraya. It much resembles the former species, but has 
a louger, thinner, and more curved bill, a lighter plumage above, and 
black tenninations to the breast-feathers, which are sufficient to 
distinguish it. 

2. Thryothorus mystacalis, Sclater, antea, p. 64. 
Lloa. 

3. CiNNICERTHIA UNIBRUNNEA (Lafr.). 

Lloa and Guagua Pichincha. 

4. Basileuterus nigricapillus (Lafr.). — Trichas nigricris- 
tatus, Lafr. E. Z. 1840, p. 230. 

Guapulo. 

5. Setophaga rtjficoronata, Kaup. 
Lloa. 

6. Petrochelidon murina, Cassin, Pr. Ac. Sc. Phil. (1853) 
vi. p. 370. 

Many ex., Qmto : " Very common in and about the city." In 
May this Swallow vyas building under the eaves of the houses. The 
nešt forvvarded is a shallow structure, composed of nioss and lined 
with a little wool. The egg is of a spotless white, 0-72 inch in length 
by about 0*51 in breadth, and has the usual character of birds of 
this group. 



75 

7. Petrochelidon cyanoleuca (Vieill.). 

One ex., Quito, May. " Common in and about the city." 

8. Oreomanes fraseri, sp. et gen. uov. 
Oreomanes, genus novum ex familia C^rebidarum. 

Rostrum tenue, vix lonyius quam caput, rectum, compressum, man- 
dihularum apicibus rectis et acutis : alce /ere ut in genere Di- 
glossa, sed paulo lonyiores, ex primariis novem, quarum secunda, 
tertia, et quarta cocequales, prima brevior quintam cequat : 
cauda quadrata paulo brevior quam in hoc genere: pedesfor- 
tiores, tarsi crassiores et breviores, acrotarsiis vix conspicue 
divisis. 




Typ. et sp. unica, O. fraseri. (PI. CLIX.) 
Supra plumbea ; alis caudaque intus fusco-nigris, extus plumbeo 
stricte limbatis : supereŪiis brevibus et corpore toto subtua 
saturate ferrugineo-rufis : facie utrinque, tectricibus subalari- 
bus et tibiis albis : rostro et pedibus nigris. 
Long. totą 6'3, alse 3*.5, caudae 2*4, rostri a rietu 0*8, tarsi 0"9. 
Eab. In Monte Chimborazo, ad alt. 14,000 pedum. 
Mus. P. L. S. 

The general appearance of this eurious form is so much that of a 
Diglossa that I am induced to believe its natūrai place is near those 
birds, although the structure of the bill is rather differeut. Indeed, 
after asccrtaining that the wing has only nine primaries, I know not 



76 

where else it could be placed at all satisfactorily. The bill is straight 
and sharp, and the ends of the mandibles pointed through rather 
rounded laterally at the terraination. In spite of this, and its rather 
shorter and stronger tarsi, I believe it is more nearly allied to Di- 
fflossa and Diglossopis than to any other genus of Ccerebidce. 

Mr. Fraser has sent one skin of this species and one bird iu spirits, 
both obtained at Panza, on the side of Chimborazo. His notes are 
as follows : — " Gorion del Paramo, malė by dissection. Irides bazei; 
bill, legs, and feet black ; in gizzard insects and caterpillars. These 
birds hop about on the ground and scratch in the sand likę the Go- 
rions {Zonotrichia pileata) ; in the trees they are very sprightly, and 
resemble tlie Trepadores {Glyphorhynchus and its allies). Their 
note is ' chip-chip,' about four times in suecession. In fact they 
may be eonsidered the Tits (F arus) of this country." 

9. DiGLOSSA PERSONATA (Frascr). 
Lloa. 

10. DiGLOSSA ATERRIMA, Lafr. 

Panza. " Found on the tops of the stunted trees; exceediugly fat, 
— called Congo." 

11. PSITTOSPIZA RIEFFERI (BoisS.). 

Lloa, June 1859. " Irides hazel ; bill, legs, and feet blood-red ; in 
gizzard a dark purple fruit." 

12. BUARREMON ASSIMILIS (BoisS.). 

Lloa. 

13. BUARREMON LATINUCHUS, DuBuS. 

Guapulo. 

14. Chlorospingus atripileus (Lafr.). 

Lloa, June. One ex. $ . " Irides hazel ; contents of stemach 
vegetable matter." 

15. P(ECIL,OTHRAUPIS LUNTJLATA (DuBus). 

Lloa. Sexes alike. " In gizzard green vegetable matter." 

16. ZONOTRICHIA PILEATA (Bodd.). 

Panza, Chimborazo. 

17. Phrygiltjs unicolor (Lafr. et D'Orb.). 

Panza and Guagua Pichincha, several ex, d et $ . " Pajaro del 
Parimo. Irides hazel ; bill nearly black ; legs light brown ; feet 
dark brown : common amongst the Paja, and runs much upon the 
ground." 

18. Synallaxis flammulata, Jard. Contr. Orn. 1850, p. 82. 
pi. 56. 



Panza. " Irides hazel ; bill, legs, and feet black. Shot in a tree 
under which oar fire was burning." 

19. CiNCLODES EXCELSIOR, Sp. UOV. 

cJ . Fumoso-brunneus, uropygio rufescentiore : linea superciliari 
et ciliis oculorum albis : alis cinnamomeo-rufis, fascia duplici 
et altera terminali nigricantihus, tectricibus minoribus dorso 
concoloribus : cauda nigricante, rectricibus duabus mediis et 
lateralium apicibus cinnamomeo-brunneis : subtus palUde fusces- 
cens, medialiter dilutior, gula albicantiore, colore obscuriore 
nuhilatus : tectricibus subalaribus et remigum (nisi ditarum 
externaruin) marginibus interne pallide cinnamomeis : rostro 
nigro, pedibus obscure brunneis. 

Long. tota8"5, alse 4'8, caudae 3"3, rostri a rietu 1"2, tarsi r4. 

5 . Mari similis, sed crassitie paulo inferiore. 

Hab. In Monte Chimborazo, reipubl. Eąuator. ad alt. 14"000 ped. 

Mus. P. L. S. 

Panza and Guagua Pichincha, six ex. of both sexes. Tungi : 
irides hazel ; gizzards contained " insects, caterpillars, and grubs. 
Found on every part of the Paramo : a very active bird ; tame on 
onr first arrival." 

This apparently new species of Cinclodes is the largest of the genus 
that I am at present acąuainted with, rather exceeding in dimensions 
Upucerthia dumetoria, an aberrant member of the šame group. In 
its thick but curved beak it is somewhat intermediate between the two 
forms. U. andicola of D'Orbigny's 'Voyage' appears to be much 
smaller, the wings only measuring 90 mm. (about 3-0 inches), instead 
of4-8. 

20. Cinclodes albidiventris, sp. nov. 

Supra fumoso-brunneus, uropygium versus rufescentior, linea 
superciliari et ciliis oculorum albidis : alis nisi in duabus pri- 
mariis externis, cinnamomeo-rufis, fascia duplici et altera termi- 
nali nigricantibus, tectricibus minoribus dorso concoloribus : 
cauda dorso concolore, sed rectricum externariim apicibus extus 
cinnamomeis : subtus lactescenti-albus, gutture clariore, pec- 
torefusco variegato : lateribus et crisso fulvescentibus ; rostro 
et pedibus nigris. 
Long. totą 7*0, alse 3*8, caudse 25, rostri a rietu 0'9, tarsi 1'2. 
Hab. In Monte Chimborazo reipubl. Eąuator. ad alt. 14-000 
pedum. 

Mus. P. L. S. 

Panza, Tungi Chico, four ex., all $ . " Irides hazel ; gizzards con- 
tained insects and caterpillars." 

This Cinclodes is of the šame size as C. vulgaris, C. patachonicus, 
and C. antarcticus, and belongs to the šame group. It may be di- 
stinguished by the paler colouring below, being alraost white on the 
belly, and the deeper, almost chestnut-red colour, of the base of the 
intermediate primaries. 



21. Grallaria monticola, Lafr. 

Panza, Guagua Pichincha (1200 feet), and Ruco Pichinclia, four 
ex. " Shumpo : very commoo at Paiiza ; iu gizzard caterpillars ; 
irides liazel ; bill black ; legs and feet brownish. Only seen running 
on the ground." 

22. Ampelion rubrocristatus (Lafr. et D'Orb.). 
Lloa, one ex. 

23. Agriornis andicola, sp. nov. 

Cinerascenti-fuscus, suhtus pallide ochraceus, pectore cinerascente, 
gutture albo nigro striato, ventre imo crissoque et tectricibtis 
subalaribus pallide cervinis : cauda alba, rectricib%ts duabus 
intermediis, sequentium pagonio interno et ceteraruin inactda 
terminali, gradatim decrescente, cinerascenti-nigris : rostri 
nigricantis basi carneo, pedibus nigris. 
Long. totą ITO, alse 6*0, caudae .O'O. 
Hab. In mont. reipubl. Eąuator. 
Mus. P. L. S. 

Panza, one ex. " SoUtario ravo-blanco : irides hazel ; in gizzard 
a large wliite grub : common." 

This is the finest and largest species of Agriornis I have yet seen. 
It exceeds in size A. hvida of the Chilian sea-coast, and possesses 
the striated throat of this species with the white tai! of A, soli- 
taria. 

24. Agriornis solitaria, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 553. 
Quito, May. SoUtario ravo-blanco. Two nests are forwarded 

by Mr. Fraser belonging to this bird. One was taken "from a mud 
wall," the other from " under a bridge passing over the Machangra." 
They are cup-shaped, composed rather roughly of roots and tendrils, 
and lined vrith wool. The eggs are rather rounded in shape, white 
sparingly dotted, principally at the larger end, with red and pale 
purple. They measure 1*15 in long and '85 in short diameter. Mr. 
Fraser says that this bird frequents the tops of the houses in Quito, 
and is said to breed in the church-towers. 

25. Myiotheretes erythropygius. — Tcenioptera erythropy- 
gia, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1851, p. 193. 

Panza, two ex. " SoUtario colorado : irides hazel ; bill, legs, and 
feet black ; food insects." The bill of this species is much more 
feeble than in M. rufiventris and M, striaticolUs, and the primaries 
are not emarginate at the tips. 

26. MusciSAXicoLA ALBiFRONS (Tsch.). — Ptyonura albi/rons, 
Tsch. Faun. Per. p. 167. pi. 12. fig. 2. — Tanioptera alpina, Jard. 
Contr. Orn. 1849, p. 47. pi. 21. 



79 

Panza, several ex. " Solitario blanco: very common throughout 
the Paramo \ irides hazel ; bill, legs, and feet black." 

27. OcTHOECA FUMicoLOR, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 28. 
Panza, one ex. 

28. Elainia stictoptera, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 554. 
Lloa, one ex. 

29. Nyctidromus ? 

Panza. A young hird captured ou the ground by the hand. " Irides 
hazel." 

30. Nyctibius pectoralis, Gould. 
Western slope of the Andes. 

.31. OrEOTROCHILUS CHIMBORAZO. 

Panza, many ex. " Irides hazel ; bill, legs, and feet black. To be 
seen occasionally on the Arhor maria, but feeds generally on a red 
thistle. It is common, and by no means shy, and has rather a pretty 
song for a Qinndi, oft repeated, and to be heard at a considerable 
distance. In bad weather, when the wind is high, this bird is said 
to creep under and into the clumps of Paja (a species of Stipa)." 

32. Oreotrochiltjs pichincha. 

Guagua and Riieo Pichincha (14,000 feet alt.), many ex. "The 
Pichincha Humming-bird, likę the Chimborazo, is found only close 
under the line of perpetual snow ; but this species, according to the 
present statė of our knowledge, is mere widely distributed than the 
latter, being found not only on Pichincha, but also on Antisana and 
Cotopaxi. Upon my first visit to Guagua Pichincha these birds were 
feeding entirely on the ground, hunting the little moss-covered clumps 
as fast as the snow melted. They are not uncommon in this lo- 
cality, but always met with singly. They are very restless, but not 
shy, seldom remaming on one clump more than a second, then away 
to another, perhaps a yard distant. Sometimes they would take a 
rapid flight of 40 or "O yards. On my second visit, the Chuquiragua 
{Chuąuiraga insignis, Humb.) being in flower, they were feeding 
from it likę the Quindi of Chimborazo, but stUl occasionally hunted 
the mossy clumps. They flit with a burr of the mugs, and occasion- 
ally settle, with the feathers all ruffled, on the top of the Chuquira- 
gua or other small plaut. In this respect, so far as my observations 
and those of Professor Jameson go, they differ from O. chimborazo. 
Professor Jameson found this species building hanging nests, in the 
lower compartment df the farm-house on Antisana." 

Mr. Fraser has sent home one of these nests as found by Professor 
Jamesou on the 2nd November, 1858. It was attached to a straw 



so 

rope hanging to the roof of the house *, which is situated at an ele- 
vation of 13,454 feet above the sea-level. It forms a large compact 
mass of wool and hair mixed with dried moss and feathers of the 
curious shape portrayed in the accompanying woodeut. A little 




cup-shaped opening at the top forms a receptacle for the eggs, and 
is balanced and brought into a horizontai position by the weight of 
the mass on the opposite side of the rope by which it is suspended. 

Mr. Fraser again says, speaking of two specimens obtained on 
Guagua Pichincha in June, " From the mouth of one of these fwo 
hirds a quantity of very pale yellow fluid of a slightly sweet taste 
flowed ; but I did not find any in either crop or gizzard. Amongst 
some of those, of the šame species, which I skinned the other day, I 
observed the šame thing. If my memory serves me correctly, it has 
occurred tioice before in other species. 

" I observed three specimens of this bird all of a row, hanging to the 
bare rock, (this now explains the use of those large feet and claws, 
which the species of this group have, and which has hitherto puzzled 
me,) likę Sandmartins ; it was under a ledge, well protected from the 
vveather, conseąuently well adapted by nature for nest-building. 
They would fly avvay and then return ; this was done in my sight 
three or four times in succession. On examining the spot, which 
was almost inaccessible, I found much excrement, proving to my 
niind that they bred in societies. My countryman, Col. Stacey, on 
a visit to this mountain, happened to have on a new bright yellovv 
oil-skin cover to his wide-awake hat, and one of these birds flew 
round and round it for a considerable tinie, as he supposes, mistaking 
it for a flower. 

" No snow on the ground this visit (June 5), and all birds were 

* See'Ibis,' 1859, p. 115. 



81 

apparently scarce and shyer ; these birds in paiticular were chasiug 
each other, in twos and threes, likę flashes of lightning. 

" Had I had a tent, I would have located myself, for some time, 
amongst these little high-minded creatures, and completed the obser- 
vations now commenced." 

33. Eriocnemis i.uciani. 
Lloa, May. 

34. Lf.sbia amaryllis, Gould. 

" Common in and about the houses in Quito, seeking food among 
the flowers grown in pots." 

35. BOURCIERIA FULGIDIGULA, Gould. 

" Quindi ravo-blanco : Lloa, May." 

36. Rhamphomicron stanleii. 

Panza, three ex. " Vary swift of flight ; stomachs contained 
insects." 

37. Petasophora iolata, Gould. 
Lloa. 

38. Agl^actis cupreipennis. 
Lloa and Ruco Pichincha. 

39. Helianthea luteti^. 
Lloa. 

40. DociMASTES ensifer (Boiss.). 
Lloa. 

41. Patagona gigas (Boiss.). 

" Shot about two miles from Quito, May 1859. Common where- 
ever the Aloe (^Agave americana) is in flower." 

42. Lafresnaya gayi. 

Lloa. 

43. CoLAPTES ELEGANS, Frascr. 
Lloa. Gizzard contained "insects." 

44. MiLVAGo CARUNCULATUS (Des Murs). — Phalcobcenua ca- 
runculatus, Des Murs, Rev. Zool. 1853, p. 154. 

One ex., Currieunga, $ by diss. " Shot sitting on a clump at 
the upper edge of the Paramo, on the road to Guagua Pichincha, at 
an altitude of about 14,000 feet. She seemed not easily disturbed. 
These birds soar together iu pairs, They appear to be breeding in 

No. 422. — Prockedings of the Zoological Society. 



82 

the crevices of the nakecl aud abrupt peaks of Guagua Pichincha. 
On opening the body for examination, it sent forth an almost unbear- 
able stench. Bill blue ; naked face ; throat, legs, and feet orange ; 
claws bluish." 

This specimen agrees with those described from Mr. Fraser's 
second collection (P. Z. S. 1858, p. 555), which I there erroneously 
referred to the Milvago megalopterus of Bohvia. 

45. Strix punctatissima, G.R.Gray,Zool.Voy. 'Beagle,' p. 34. 
pi. 4. 

Quito, May 1859, $ . " Said to build in the church-towers in 
the city." Hitherto only known from the Galapagos. 

46. Peristera melanoptera (Mol.). 

Panza, one ex. " Gizzard contained seeds ; bill black ; bare space 
under and in front of the eyes salmon-colour. Appears to be very 
common on the edge of the Pararao." 

A7. Attagis chimborazensis, sp. nov. 

Supra niyer, plumis omnibus lineis ochracescenti-rufis marginatis 
et intus notatis : remigibus alarum nigricanti-cinereis, inargine 
angusto apicali ulbido : subtus gutture ad mediiim pectus ochra- 
cescenti-rufo nigro variegato, abdomine toto pure cinnamomeo- 
rufo, subcaudalibus nigro variegatis : rectricibus obscure cine- 
reis, harum pogoniis externis lineis pallide minamomeis fre- 
guenter transfasciatis : tectricibus subalaribus pallide cinna- 
momescenti-albidis : rostro et pedibus (in pelle) obscure fuscis. 
Long. totą 11 "O, alse 7"3, caudae 30, tarsi TO. 
Hab. In Monte Chimborazo, ad alt. 14,000 pedum. 
Panza, three ex., sexes alike. "Cordoniz: found among the bare 
rocks ; note ' chay-lac, chay-lac, chay-lac ' ; gizzard contained green 
vegetable matter and grit." 

This Attagis is nearly of the šame size and general proportion as 
A. latreillei of ChiH, figured in Gray's ' Genera of Birds,' pi. 125 ; 
but is readily distinguishable by its much darker, blacker colouring 
above, and unspotted cinnamon-brown breast. 

48. Vanellus resplendens, Tsch. 

" Veranero ; very common on all the marshy plains of the table- 
land from May to September." 

49. Gallinago ? 

Panza, one ex. Sumbardor. A fine large Šnipe with fourteen 
tail-feathers, probably of a new species, but requiring close investi- 
gation. 

50. FuLiCA CHiLENSis, D cs Murs. 

One ex., $. " Shot on the settled waters of the Paramo, be- 
tween Riobamba and Mocha ; irides red ; frontai shield delicately 



Proc.Z.S. Avės. CL'A 




•Teiinens , liti . 



M & .A na r 



SUCHLORinS tIUCUNDA 



83 

orange, blending into lemon at the sides and back ; bill flesh-colour, 
point bluish ; legs and feet delicate slate-colour." 

51. Cyanopterus discors. 

One ex., į , in eclipse plumage, from the Rio Machangra, below 
Quito, May 1859. 

52. Dafila ? 

One ex., c^, in eclipse plumage, from the sarae locality as Fulica 
chilensis. 



8. List of Birds collected by Mr. Fraser in Ecuador, at 

NaNEGAL, CaLACALI, PeRUCHO, and PuELLARO ; WITH 

NoTES AND Descriptions OF New Species. By Philip 
Lutley Sclater, M.A., Secretary to the Society. 

(Avės, P). CLX.) 

The localities at which this part of Mr. Fraser' s collectious was 
formed are all situated northwards of Quito at different heights on 
the western slope of the Andes in the valleys traversed by branches 
of the Rio Perucho, which joins the Esmeraldas and enters the 
Pacific. Nanegal was visited in February 1859. Its altitude above 
the sea is about 4000 feet. It lies on the western slope of Pichincha, 
10 leagues from Quito. Many of the birds of Nanegal were also 
found at Pallatanga ; but there are many interesting novelties amongst 
them, such as Basileuterus semicervinus, Pipreola jucunda, Pipra 
deliciosa, and others, which have not been obtained elsewhere. I 
have added to the list the names of a few species which formed part 
of a small series contained in Mr. Fraser's former coUections from 
this šame locality. 

In March Mr. Fraser ascended to Calacali, situated due north of 
Quito, at a height of 8000 feet above the sea-level. Turdus gigas 
was very common here; Agriornis andicola, Poecilothraupis lunulata, 
BiglosscB aterrinia and personata, Phrygilus alaudinus, Muscisaxi- 
cola maculirostrisy Ampelion ruhricristatus, and Lesbia gracilis may 
be considered characteristic of this elevation. 

Perucho and Puellaro, Mr. Fraser's next two stations, lie on the 
further side of the river at elevations of about 6300 and 6500 feet 
respectively. In April he quitted the latter of these places for a 
station on the wooded heights above at an elevation of 8000 feet. 
Of the species met with here, Ampelion rubrocristatus, Octhoėca 
lessoni, Meltalura tyrianthina, and Ortalida montagnii appear to 
have been common. 

In the localities above mentioned 130 species were obtained alto- 
gether, of which I now give the names. 

I. Passeres. 
1. Turdus ATROSERiCETjs, Lafr. 
Above Puellaro. " Costillar : much sought after for its song, and 



84 

kept in confiuement ; bill aud rim round the eyes yellow ; irides 
hazel ; in stomach, green berries of a species of Melastoma." 

2. TuRDUs GIGAS, Fraser. 
Nanegal, very common. 

3. TuRDUs swAiNSONi, Cab. 
Nanegal. 

4. Troglodytes solstitialis, Sclater. 

Nanegal. 

5. Thryothorus nigricapillus, sp. nov. 

Supra castaneiis, alis caudaąue nigro lute transfasciatis : pileo et 
capitis lateribus niyris, loris, ciliis oculorum et plumis auricu- 
laribus albo terminatis : subtus albus, abdoniine rufescente, 
nigro confertim transvittatus ; gutture pure albo : rostra nigri- 
cante, mandibula inferiore plumbescente : pedibus pallide plum- 
beis. 
Long. totą .5'3, alse 2'5, caudse TS, tarsi "95. 
Hab. In rep. Equator. 
Mus. P. L. S. 

Nanegal, three ex. " Irides red ; bill black above, blue below ; 
legs and feet lead-colour; gizzard contained insects." 

This is a typical Thryothorits, resembling in form and size T. ruf- 
albus, T. albipectus, &c., but quite distinct in coloration from any 
species with which I am acquainted. 

6. Parula brasiliana (Licht.). 
Nanegal. 

7. DeNDROICA BLACKBURNIiE (Gm.). 

Nanegal. 

8. Setophaga ruticilla (Linn.), $ . 
Perucho. 

9. Setophaga verticalis (Lafr. & D'Orb.). 
Perucho and Puellaro. 

10. Basileuterus semicervinus, sp. nov. 

Obscure fuscus, svperciliis a fronte, oculorurn ambitų, corpore toto 
subtus et caudce parte basali cum hiijus tectricibus superioribus 
pallide cervino-rufis : caudce parte apicali nigricanti-fusca : 
tectricibus subalaribus fuscescenti-cervinis : rostro nigro : pe- 
dibus pallide corylinis. 

Long. totą 5-0, alse 2-3.'), caudse 1-4. 

Hab. In rep. EquatoriaIi. 

Mus. P. L. S. 



S5 

Examples of both sexes of this apparently new Basileuterus were 
coUected by Mr. Fraser at Nanegal. They are coloured alike. 
" Irides hazel ; bill black ; legs and feet brownish flesh-colour ; con- 
tents of stomach insects." 

This species does not differ in form frora ordinary Basileuteri, 
except iu its rather shorter tail, but is rather abaormal in coiouring. 

11. Basileuterus bivittatus (Lafr. & D'Orb.). 
Cachi-Llacta and Nanegal. 

12. ViREO JOSEPH^, Sclater. 
Nanegal. 

13. Petrochelidon cyanoleuca (VieilL). 

Severai ex., Nanegal and Perucho. " Common, and building in 
the roofs." 

14. Dacnis egregia, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 251. 

Tyro ex. c? . " Irides orange ; stomach contained small red fruit, 
no insects." Nanegal. 

15. Certhiola luteola, Cab. 

Two ex., Nanegal. " Gizzard contained minute-seeded fruit." 

16. DiGLOssA personata, Fraser. 
Calacali. 

17. DiGLOssA iNDiGOTicA, Sclatcr, Ann. & Mag. N. H. ser. 2. 
xvii. p. 467. 

Nanegal, one ex. cJ. "Irides bright red; bill, legs, and feet 
black." 

18. DiGLOSSA ALBILATERALIS, Lafr. 

Examples of both sexes from Puellaro and from above Puellaro. 

19. DiGLOSSA ATERRIMA, Lafr. 

Calacali. 

20. Saltator atripennis, Sclater. 
Nanegal. 

21. Arremon erythrorhynchus, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, 
p. 83. pi. 89. 

Nanegal, four ex. " Irides hazel ; bill red ; legs and feet flesh- 
coloured ; " in gizzards, "grit," " remains of insects," "seeds." 

22. Buarremon latinuchus, DuBus ; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1858, 
p. 293. 



86 

Calacali and above Puellaro, six ex. " Monga : iii gizzard a quan- 
tity of vegetable matter, remains of insects and their eggs." 

23. BuARREMON CASTANEiCEPS, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 441. 
Nanegal, one ex. " Bill brownisli above, blue below ; legs and 

feet brown ; in gizzard insects and vegetable matter." Described 
from a single specimen received by M. Verreaux from the Rio Napo. 

24. Chlorospingus flavigularis, Sclater, Contr. Orn. 1852, 
p. 131, pi. 98. 

Nanegal, two ex. <S and $, seses alike. "Irides yellovvisb ; bill 
black above, blue below ; legs yelIowish ; feet blue." Besides the 
example from Bogota, originally described, I have hitherto seen but 
one specimen of this species, •vvhich was obtained by Mr. Moore in 
bis journey down the Napo, and is now in the coUection of Mr. 
Lawrence of New York. 

2o. Chlorospingus atripileus (Lafr.). 
Above Puellaro. 

26. Chlorospingus superciliarts (Lafr.). 
Nanegal, one ex. 

27. Ramphocelus icteronotus, Bp. 

Nanegal, sevcral examples of both sexes — Platanero. 

28. Tanagra darwini, Bp. 
Calacali. 

29. COMPSOCOMA SUMPTUOSA (LcSS.). 

Wooded heights above Puellaro. " Chucunillo : " in stomach 
"berries" and "vegetable matter." 

30. Pcecilothraupis lunulata, DuBus. 

Calacali and above Puellaro, many examples. " Platero : in giz- 
zard dark green fruit." 

31. Calliste rufigularis (Bp.). 

Nanegal, three ex. " Food minute-seeded fruit." 

32. Calliste aurulenta (Lafr.). 
Nanegal. 

- 33. Calliste vitriolina (Cab.). 

Perucho and Puellaro, many examples. " Frutero : feeding in a 
large Toc^e-tree {Juglans sp.), from which they were constantly 
flying to and fro. These mušt be the Gallinazos {Cathartes) amongst 
the Tanagers, for their heads and necks are very sparingly feathered. 



87 

and were, when I shot them, entirely covered with the pulp of the 
fruit ; so much so, that I only partly succeeded in cleansing them." 

34. Calliste aurulenta (Lafr.). 
Nanegal, four ex. 

35. Calliste lunigera, Sclater. 

Nanegal, one ex. "Bill black ; legs and feet blue ; food vege- 
table matter and insects." 

36. Calliste gyroloides. 

Nanegal. Food "fruit and insects." 

37. Calliste icterocephala (Bp.). 

Nanegal. "Irides hazel; bill black; legs and feet blue; food 
greeu minute-seeded fruit," 

38. DivA vAssoRi, Sclater. 

Above Puellaro, April. " One ex. $ , with two eggs nearly per- 
fect in tlie ovary ; food vegetable matter." 

39. Chlorochrysa phoenicotis, Bp. 

Nanegal, one ex. d • " Irides hazel ; bill black ; legs greenish ; 
feet nearly black ; in gizzard a spider and fruit." 

40. EuPHONiA nigricollis (Vieill.). 

Perucho and Puellaro. " Found in pairs on the tall flowering utems 
of the Aloe {Agave americana) uttering a plaintive įcee-viee in the 
heat of the day." 

41. EuPHONIA XANTHOGASTRA (Suud.). 

Nanegal, many ex. 

42. Phetjcticus chrysogaster (Less.). 

Calacali. Mr. Fraser evidently considers this bird as not different 
from P. aureiventris, for he says, "Commonalso about Quito, where 
it breeds in May." Now the examples from Riobamba, above Punin, 
&c. are referable to the black-headed P. aureiventris. 

43. Phrygiltjs alaudinus (Kittlitz). 

CalacaU. " Not uncommou ; food small seeds and grubs ; lives 
entirely on the ground amougst the heather : when disturbed, takes 
an undulating flight for about 60 or 80 yards." 

44. Phrygilus ocularis, Sclater. 

Calacali. "Food seeds: might be easily mistaken for the pre- 
ceding (P. alaudinus) at a distance, only it pcrches sometimes." 



88 

45. CORYPHOSPINGUS, Sp.? 

Nanegal. Apparently a female of some species of this genus. 

46. Catamenia homochroa, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 552. 

Calacali and above Puellaro. Apparently the females of this 
species ; but one marked S may be a young malė. " Irides hazel ; 
food vegetable matter and seeds." 

47. Spermophila gutturalis (Licht.). 

Nanegal and Puellaro. Rather brighter in the belly than an 
eastern specimen, apparently from Trinidad. 

48. Oryzoborus ^thiops, sp. nov. 

Ater unicolor : tectricibus suhalaribus, sjteculo alari parvo et 
tihiarum parte interna alLis : rostro et pedibus plumheis. 

Long. totą 47, alse 2'2, caudse 2'1, tarsi 0'575. 

Nanegal, one ex. S • " Irides hazel ; food seeds." 

I have a second specimen of this bird, which is very nearly allied 
to my O.funereus (P. Z. S. 1859, p. 378) from Minca in New Gra- 
nada, received through M. Verreaux. It has a smaller bill than the 
Mexican bird, and the tarsi are rauch shorter, and feet smaller. I 
am disposed to consider them as referable to two different species. 

49. OsTiNOPS ATROViRENS (Lafr. et D'Orb.). 
Nanegal. 

50. Cyanocitta turcosa, Bp. 

Above Puellaro and in the valley of Chillo. 

51. Picolaptes lacrymiger (Lafr.). 
Nanegal, one ex, 

52. Dendrocops atrirostris (Lafr. et D'Orb.). 
Nanegal. 

53. Pseudocolaptes boissoneauti (Lafr.). 
Above Puellaro, one ex. " Galeador : food insects." 

54. Margarornis sqvamigera (Lafr.). 
Above Puellaro. 

55. Margarornis brunnescens, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 27. 
pi. 116. 

Nanegal, one ex. $ . " Irides hazel ; food insects." 

56. Synalt.axis pudica, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 191. 
Nanegal. " Irides hazel." 



89 

57. Synallaxis gularis, Lafr. 
Nanegal, one ex. 

58. Grallaria sauAMiGERA (Prcvost). 
Calacali and above Puellaro. 

59. Thamnophilus immaculatus, Lafr. 

Nanegal. " Irides red ; bill black ; legs and feet very dark blue ; 
face cserulean blue ; food insects." 

60. DySITHAMNUS OLIVACEUS? 

Nanegal. 

61. Dystthamnus unicolor, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 141. 

Nanegal, c? et $ . Malė, "irides greyish;" female, irides "red- 
dish hazel." Food " caterpillars, beetles, insects." 

62. Myrmotherula menetriesi (D'Orb.). 

Nanegal. Agrees with esamples of the bird of this genus men- 
tioned in the preceding list, p. 67. 

63. PiPREOLA jucuNDA, sp. nov. (PI. CLX.) 
Psittaceo-viridis ; capite toto et gula nigris : jjectore aurantiaco, 

nigro anguste circumcincto, ventre medio, hgpochondriis et 
crisso Jlavis ; rastro ruberrimo, pedibus cinereis. 

Long. totą 6"5, alse 3'8, caudae 2*4. 

Hab. In rep. Equator. 

Mus. P. L. S. 

Cachi-Llacta, oneex. S . Esparagun. This beautiful new species 
of Pipreola is closely allied to Hartlaub's P.fonnosa (Rev. et Mag. 
de Zool. 1849, pi. 14. p. 275) ; but is distinguishable by the waut 
of white markings on the wings, the black edging to the large orange 
breast-plate, and the sides of the body being green. It forms a 
brilliant addition to this lovely group of birds. 

64. Ampelion cinctus (Tsch.). 

Nanegal, one ex., agreeing with specimens from Pallatanga. " In 
stomach vegetable matter." 

65. Ampelion arcuatus (Lafr.). 

Above Puellaro, one ex. c? • " Sangralluvia : irides greyish ; legs, 
feet, and bill deep red ; gizzard contained dark purplish fruit." 

66. Ampelion rubrocristattjs (Lafr. et D'Orb.). 
Calacali and above Puellaro, several ex. 

67. Chiromach^ris manacus (Linn.). 

Nanegal, examples of both sexcs. " Irides hazel ; bill black ; legs 
and feet orange." 

Agrees with examples from Cayenne and New Granada. 



90 

68. PiPRA DELiciosA, sp. nov. 

c? . Fuhescenti-castanea, pileo antico coccineo : alis caudaąue 

nigris, iiropygio nigricante : hypochondriis et tectricibm sub- 

alaribus albis, margine axillari Jlavicante : rostro nigro, pedi- 

bus albidis. 

$ . Obscure olivacea, subtus dilutior ; ventre, crisso et tectricibus 

subalaribus jlavicantibus. 
Long. totą 3'5, alse 2-5, caudse 0-8. 

Nanegal, three ex. " į . Irides red ; bill black ; legs and feet 
yellow ; testes verv large ; gizzard contained minute-seeded fruit," 
in another " green berries." " $ . Irides bazei ; bill black ; legs and 
feet bluish fiesh-colour; gizzard contained dark indigo-coloured 
fruit." 







This Manakiu is one of the most brilliantly coloured birds of the 
charming group to vvhich it belongs ; and the malė bird is further 
remarkable for the rery curious structure of its wings, which merits 
a detailed description. The ten primaries are of the ordinarv for- 
mation of birds of this family, the first being shorter than the second, 
third, and fourth, which are nearly equal and longest, and of about 



91 

the šame length as the sixth. The first three secondaries are thick- 
stemmed aud curved towards the body at a distance of about two- 
thirds of their length from the base. The fourth and fifth show 
this structure to a greater degree, with some corresponding alteration 
in the barbs on each side, as may be seen by comparing fig. a, re- 
presenting the upper svirface of the fifth secondary of the malė bird, 
with fig. d, which gives a similar view of that of the female. In the 
sixth and seventh secondaries of the malė the terminai half of the 
rachis is thickened to an extraordinary degree, forming a soUd horny 
lump. The external and intemal barbs are also much modified in 
shape and generally curtailed in size. Fig. b gives an upper view of 
the sixth, and fig. c an under view of the seventh secondary. The 
corresponding feathers of the female, representing the normai struc- 
ture, are seen in fig. e and fig. /. In the eighth and ninth secon- 
daries the rachis is still ratlier thickened ; but the barbs (pogonia), 
instead of being reduced in size, are highly developed, particularly 
on the inner side. Mr. Fraser statės that the wing-bones of these 
birds were also much thickened, no doubt in aid of this abnormal 
structure of the remiges. 

The šame deviation from ordinary characters is observable in other 
species of the alUed group ChiromacheBris {e. g. in C. manacus, C. 
gutturosa, C. candcei, &c.). I believe it is this structure which 
enables them to make the extraordinary noise for which they are 
noted. Buffon says that the Chiromachceris manacus is called La 
caisse-noisette in Cayenne ; and Mr. Salvin tells us (Ibis, 1860, p. 37) 
that C. candcei " begins with a sharp note, not unlike the crack of a 
whip." But in no other species is the abnormal development carried 
to so great a degree as in the present. 

69. Masius coronulatus, sp. nov. 

Nigerrimus, plumarum menti parte basali cum plaga magna gut- 
turali, alis infra, et remigum rectricumque mediarum parte in- 
terna vivide luteis : capitis crista, erecta, elongata, pallide 
Jlava, hvjus plumarum apicibus dilatatis et incrassatis, colore 
aurescenti-castaneo : rostro plumbeo, pedibus rubris. 
Long. totą 3-7, alse 2*3, caudse 1"7, tarsi O' 65. 
Hab. In rep. Eąuator. 
Mus. P. L. S. 

Nanegal, one ex. This Manakin is a close ally of Masius chry- 
sopterus of New Granada ; but may be readily distinguished by its 
crest, which is of a paler yellow and terminated with pale golden red, 
the feathers being thickened and flattened at the extremity into a 
horny substance, something Uke that on the wings of the Wax-wing 
Chatterer. One example occurred in Mr. Fraser's former coUection 
from Nanegal without any note attached. 

70. RupicoLA sANGuiNOLENTA, Gould, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 100. 
Nanegal, two ex. This is the Transandean representative of R. 

peruviana, as Cephalopterus penduliger is of C. ornatus. 



92 

71. Cephalopterus penduliger, Sclater. 
Nanegal, two ex. 

72. Agriornis andicola, Sclater, antea, p. 77- 

(^alacali, one ex. SoUtario ravo blanco. Common on the Pa- 
ramo. 

73. Agriornis solitaria, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 553. 
Puellaro, rather common in and about the pueblo. 

74. Myiotheretes striaticollis, Sclater. — Tcsnioptera stria- 
ticollis, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1851, p. \92> .—Tyrannus erythropygius, 
Lafr. et D'Orb. ; D'Orb. Voy. pi. 32. fig. 2 (nec VieilL). 

Puellaro, two ex. " SoUtario colorado : Irides brownish-white ; 
bill, legs, and feet black. Found solitary among the heaths, &c., 
between Perucho and Puellaro on the hill-side. Stomach contained 
insects. Note rather mournful — pee — pee — pee." 

75. MuscisAxicoLA ALPINA (Jard.). 
One ex. Above Puellaro. 

76. OcTHOECA LESsoNi, Sclatcr. 
Above Puellaro, oue ex. 

77. MuscisAxicoLA maculirostris, Lafr. et D'Orb. ; D'Orb. 
Voy. pi. 41. fig. 2. 

Calacali, several ex. " Seen always perched upon the heaths or 
other stunted vegetation : SoUtario chiquito." 

78. Tyrannus melancholicus (Vieill.). 
Perrucho, one ex. 

79. Myiodynastes chrysocephalus (Tsch.). 
Nanegal, one ex. 

80. CoNTOPUS ardesiacus (Lafr). 
Perucho and Puellaro. 

81. Platyrhynchus albogularis, Sclater, antea, p. 68. 
Nanegal, one ex. 

82. Cyclorhynchus fulvipectus, sp. nov. 

OUvaceus; alarum teetricibus rufescente, remigibus fulvescente 
Umbatis, cauda omnino brunnescente : siibfus dilutior, pectore 
et gutture toto fulvescente perfusis, ventre flavescente : rostri 
mandibula superiore nigra, inferiore paUide carnea, pedibus 
plumbeis. 

Long. totą 5*5, alaj 30, caudae 23. 

Hab. In rep. Eąuator. 

Mus. P. L. S. 



93 

Nanegal, oue ex., c? . Irides hazel ; bill black above, reddish 
flesh-colour beneath ; legs and feet blue. 

This is a typical Cyclorhynchus, distinguished from C. olivaceus 
by its smaller size, shorter tail, aud the fulvous colour of the breast. 
It forms a fourth of this section of the group, the others being C. 
brevirostris of Mexico and C. eBįuinoctialis from the Rio Napo. 

83. TODIROSTRUM, Sp. 

Nanegal, one ex., in an imperfect statė. 

84. Myiobius ornatus (Lafr.). 
Nanegal, one ex. 

85. Myiobius villosus, Sclater, sp. nov. 

Obscure olivaceus, aJis nigricantibus plumarum marginibus brun- 
nescentibus ; uropygio pallide limonaceo-flavo, cauda lucente 
nigra : pilei cristati plumis rujis, medialiter aureis : subtus 
fulvo-brunneus, gutture et ventre medio flavescentioribus : rostro 
superiore nigro, inferiore carneo nigro terminato : pedibus 
fuscis. 
Long. totą o'O, alae 2'8, caudse 2"4. 
Hab. In rep. Equat. 
Mus. P. L. S. 

Nanegal, one ex. " Irides hazel ; upper mandible black, lower 
flesh-colour with black tips ; legs and feet brownish ; gizzard eon- 
tained insects." 

I have already one example of this bird in my collection, received 
from M. Verreaux and marked " Rio Napo." This species is nearly 
aUied to M. barbatus of Cayenne and Brazil, but differs in its larger 
and stronger form and darker colouring below. 

86. Tyrannulus chrysops, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 458. 
Nanegal, two ex. 

87. EupsiLOSTOMA, sp.? 
AboTC Puellaro. 

88. Tyrannulus nigricapillls, Lafr. R. Z. 1845, p. 341. 
Above Puellaro, one ex., agreeing with Bogota specimens. 

89. MiONECTES STRIATICOLLIS (Lafr. et D'Orb.). 
Nanegal. " In gizzard, green berries." 

90. Trogon personatus, Gould. 

Above Puellaro, one ex. Pilco. " Stomach contained remains of 
insects." 

91. Pharomacrus auriceps (Gould). 

Nanegal. " Gizzard contained remains of vcgetable matter, and 
a small white stone about a quarter of an inch square." 



94 

92. Phaethornis yaraqui, Gould. — T. yaraąui, Bourc. 
Nanegal, seveu ex. " Upper mandible black, lower deep red with 

a black tip ; legs and feet reddisli." 

93. Heliodoxa jamesoni. 

Nanegal, many ex. " Gizzard contained insects." 

94. Eriocnemis luciani. 

Puellaro and above Puellaro, many ex. Spec. no. 1957 from 
Puellaro " was feeding on a plant in a niorass at the very top of the 
mountain, the place abounding in mosses, orchids, and ferns, and 
made no noise either with wings or voice." 

95. Coeligena ■wilsoni (Del. & Bourc). 
Nanegal. " Gizzard contained insects." 

96. Chlorostilbon atala (Less.). 
Puellaro, four ex. " Gizzard contained insects." 

97. Petasophora iolata, Gould. 

Calacali, Perucho, Puellaro, and above Puellaro. At the latter 
place " common in the upper part of the pueblo and rare in the 
lower." 

98. Adelomyia melanogenys (Fraser). 

Above Puellaro. " Feet reddish flesh-colour ; gizzard contained 

insects." 

99. CAt,OTHORAx mulsajiti (Bourc). 

Puellaro. " On my way here from Perucho I saw three of this 
species feeding together in a row. I have hunted for it every day 
since vvithout success until to-day. It seems to be silent on the wing, 
and in voice, restless, and esceediugly swift of flight." 

100. Lesbia amaryllis, Gould. 
Calacali. 

101. Lesbia gracilts, Gould. 

Above Puellaro and Calacali. At the latter place " not common. 
This species is readily distinguishable from all others by the peculiar 
loud humming noise produced by the wiugs, audible at a distance of 
20 or 30 yards. I did not find it near the pueblo, but at some 
height up one of the hills. Gizzard contained insects." 

102. Lafresnaya gayi. 
Nanegal, two ex. 

103. Amazilia riefferi (Boiss.). 
Nanegal and Perucho. 



95 

104. MeLTALURA TYRIANTHINA (Lodd.). 

Above Puellaro, many ex. 

105. Spathura melananthera, Jard. 
Nanegal, one ex. 

106. Thalurania verticeps, Gould. 
Nanegal (many ex.), and above Puellaro. 

107. Urosticte benjamini (Bourc). 

108. Heliangelus strophianus (Gould). 

109. DoRiFERA ludovicijE (Bourc. et Muls.), 

110. Florisuga mellivora (Linn.). 

111. LeSBIA CYANURA, Gould. 

112. UrOCHROA BOUGIERI. 

Specimens of these six lašt species were in Mr. Fraser's former 
collection from Nanegal, besides examples of others already enume- 
rated. 

II. SCANSORES. 

113. PlAYA MEHLERI, Bp. ? 

Nanegal. " Gizzard contained grasshoppers and maggots." 

114. Rhamphastos ambiguos, Sw. 
Nanegal. " Moledor : gizzard contained fruit." 

115. Andigena laminirostris, Gould. 
Nanegal. 

116. EUBUCCO BOURCIERI (Lafr.). 

Nanegal, two ex. " Bare space round the eye yellowish ; gizzard 
contained green fruit with minute seeds." 

117. PicuMNUs granadensis (Lafr.). 

Two ex. c? . Irides hazel ; gizzard contained caterpillars and in- 
sects. 

Nanegal, two ex. " Irides hazel ; bill black, base of lower man- 
dible blue ; legs and feet greenish ; gizzard contained caterpillars and 
insects." 

118. Colaptes elegans, Fraser. 

Calacali, March, adult S and nestling. " Builds in holes of trees ; 
stomachs contained apparently green vegetable matter." 



96 

III. ACCIPITRES. 

119. CaTHARTES ATRATUS. 

Perrucho, "common in the pueblo, sitting on the roofs," and above 
Puellaro. Not distinguishable from the bird of the United States. 
" Irides dark hazel ; bill and legs bluish." 

120. Cathartes aura (Linn.). 

One ex., S , from Puellaro, agreeing with C. aura of North America. 
" Upanga (Quichua) from Upa — * fool ' ; Gallinazo tonto or G. co/o- 
rado (Spanish). The inhabitants of the jiueblo had not observed this 
species before ; it was one of two amongst a community of C. atratus. 
It does not appear to be common anywhere. In most places I have 
observed it singly or in pairs. In Pallatanga it is called Chalpan : 
mandibles Tery pale yellow ; head of a port-wiue colour, the corru- 
gations from the crown down the back of the neck and coruscations 
before and under the eyes white ; lep:s and feet pale yellow ; gizzard 
eontained short hair and small lines." 

121. TiNNUNCULUs SPARVERUTS (Linn.). 

Calacali and Puellaro, three ex. At Calacali " very common in 
pairs everywhere about the town." Stomachofone eontained "a 
mouse," of another " grasshoppers." 

122. ACCIPITER ERYTHROCNEMIUS, Kaup. 

Nauegal, one ex. " Irides, legs, and feet yellow ; bill at the base 
blue, with the tip black." Stomach eontained " flesh and feathers." 

123. MiCRASTUR GiLVicOLLis (Vieill.). — M. roncenfricus, Auct. 
Nanegal, one ex., adult. " Irides rcddish ; bill black above, yel- 

low beneath ; face, legs, and feet orange ; gizzard eontained grass- 
hoppers aud the lovrer jaw of a lizard." 

124. Strix punctatissima, G. R. Gray, Voy. Beagle, Zool. 
p. 34, pi. 4. 

" Lechusa ; from the roof of the house at Puellaro." 
A young bird, apparently of this species, of which Air. Fraser has 
sent the adult from Quito. 

125. Syrnium albogulare, Cassin. 

Wooded heights above Puellaro. "Adult S and young, taken 
together iu a large tree ; in the stomach, remains of beetles and other 
insects." 

126. Pholeoptynx cunicularia (MoL). 

Calacali. " Irides bright straw-colour ; beak bluish ; gizzard eon- 
tained insects. I saw some twenty or thirty of these birds on the 
side of a hill, mostly in pairs. They live in holes in the ground. 
Their flesh is eaten b v the natives." 



97 

IV. CoLUMB.«:. 

127. CoLUMBA RūFiNA, Temm. 
Nanegal. In the stomach "friiit and grit." 

128. Zenaida hypoleuca, Bp. 

Calacali. " Very common ; stomach contained small seeds and 
grit." 

V. GALLIN.E.. 

129. Ortalida montagnii, Bp. 

Nanegal and above Puellaro. At latter place " common ; " giz- 
zard contained a fruit called Morą, which is a species of Ruhus, 
according to Dr. Jameson. 

130. Rhynchotis perdix (Mol.)? 

Calacali and Puellaro. " Perdiz : in gizzard, seeds of various 
sizes and grit. Said to be common high up in the mounlains, vvhere 
they are taken by dogs ; I have never seen them except in pairs." 

Nearly allied to R. perdix of Chili, but probably of a different 
species. 



9. On a New Snake from the Galapagos Islands. 
By Dr. Albert Gijnther. 

The genus HerpetodryaSy being composed of those Dryadid(B, 
which have the masillary teeth of equal length and entirely smooth, 
comprises snakes from America and from Madagascar. The follow- 
ing species comes from the Galapagos Islands, and appears to be the 
onlj' Snake as yet known to inhabit that group *. 

Herpetodryas biserialis. 

Diagnosis. — Scales in nineteen ro\vs ; eight upper labials, three 
posterior oculars. Light brown, with a dark brown dorsal band, 
serrated on the anterior portion of the trunk, and formed by a double 
series of spots on the middle and on the posterior part of the back. 
A dark brown streak from the eye across the cheek. Belly irregu- 
larly dotted with brown. 

* The first mention of a Snake on these islands seems to be in Dampier's ' Vov. 
Round the World,' ed. 7. vol. i. 8vo. Lond. 1 729, p. 103 :— " There are sonie Gree'n 
Snakes on these islands ; but no other land-animal that I did ever see." 

Darwin says in his Journ. of Research., p. 381, speaking on the Zoology of 
the Galapagos Islands ? — " There is one snake which is numerous ; it is identic.il. 
as I am informed by M. Bibron, with the Psammophis temminckii from Chile." 
Although subseąuently, in the ' Erpetologie Generale,' nothiiig is meiitioned by 
Dumeril and Bibron about the occurrence of P. temminckii, oi of any other snake, 
in these islands, that deterniination of Bibron may possibly be corrcct. If sneh 
be the case, there are two species of Snakes in that group of islands. 

No. 423. — Procekdings of tuk Zooi.ogical Socfety. 



98 

Hab. In Charles Island (Galapagos). Typical specimen in the 
CoUection of the British Museum. 

Description. — The head is rather depressed, flat, aud, hke the 
trunk and tail, somewhat elougate ; the eye is of moderate size, with 
the pupil round. The rostrai does not reach to the upper surface 
of the snout ; the anterior frontais are sąuare, the posterior ones 
about twice the size and subquadrangular ; the vertical is rather 
slender, twice as long as broad ; the occipitals triangular and rather 
pointed posteriorly. The nostril is situated between two shields ; 
the loreal nearly sąuare ; the anterior ocular extends to the upper 
surface of the head, and is in contact with the vertical. There are 
three posterior oculars, the raiddle of which is the sraallest, the in- 
ferior forming a part of the lovver portion of the orbit ; the temporal 
shields are scale-like and rather irregularly arranged. There are 
eight upper labials, the fourth and fifth coming into the orbit. The 
median lower labial is triangular, and of moderate size ; ten lower 
labials, the first of which is in contact with its fellow, behind the 
;iiedian shield. There are two pairs of elongate skin-shields of equal 
size. The scales are perfectly smooth, in uiaeteen rows, rhombic, 
those of the outer series being rather larger. Ventral platės 209 ; 
anai bifid ; caudals 108. 

The ground colour is a light brownish-grey : a Tcrtebral band, 
formed by dark brown spots, begins from the occiput, and is gra- 
dually lošt on the middle of the tail ; it is continuous anteriorly, and 
serrated on both sides, but gradually dissolved into two series of 
brovvn spots, the spots of each series being confluent on the cnd of 
the trunk ; there is a dark brown streak across the temple. The 
belly is greyish, aud finely and irregularly speckled with brovvn. 

inches. lines. 

Totai length 14 3 

Length of the head O 5 

Greatest width of the head O 3 

Length of the trunk 10 O 

Length of the tail 3 10 

The maxillary teeth are of moderate size, of nearly equal length, 
in a continuous series, and entirely smooth. 



February 14, 1860. 
John Gould, Esq., F.R.S., V.P., in the Chair. 

Dr. Shortt, F.Z.S., made some remarks on the Civet-cats of India, 
and the native method of extracting the perfume. 

Dr. Crisp exhibited two stulFed specimens of the Cock of the 
Rock {Rupicola croeea) which had been brought alive to and had 
died in this country. 



/: 



Pro c Z S Ifammalia LXlVilI . 





.-01)010,361^ -JJonaens.liti ^ i. K Hanljart, Imp 

"ACClTIiATED PEYEPIA.N IILAND OF YflūNG &IPAFFE 



99 

Mr. Bartlett exhibited a head of a variety of the Common Goose 
in which the feathers at tlie back of the head were reversed so as to 
form a sort of ruff. It was stated that this variety had been per- 
petuated for several generations at the farm of J. C. Chaytor, Esq., 
at Croft near Darhngton, and if properly treated by a judicious 
selection of breeding birds, might doubtless be made the origin of a 
new domestic breed of geese. Mr. Bartlett also exhibited the gizzard 
of a Nicobar Pigeon, from a specimeu recently deceased ia the So- 
ciety's Gardens, and called attention to the peculiar stony develop- 
ment of the epithelial lining. 

Mr. Sclater exhibited a specimen of a large Horned Owl shot by 
Major W. E. Hay, F. Z. S., upon the borders of the Pangkong Lake 
in Thibet. He was disposed to consider the bird as a pale variety 
oi Bubo maccimus. Mr. Blyth (Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xix. p. 506) 
had noticed the report of the occurrence of this bird in the Hima- 
layas, but Mr. Sclater believed that this was the first recorded speci- 
men which had been obtained and examined. 

Mr. H. W. Bates exhibited a frugivorous Bat from Ega on the 
Upper Amazon, which he believed to belong to an undescribed species 
of Phyllostoma. 

The folIowing papers were read : — 

1. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE AnATOMY OF THE GiRAFFE. By 

T. Spencer Cobbold, M.D., F.L.S. 
(Mammaha, Platės LXXVII., LXXVIII.) 

N otwithstandiug the apparent completeness of that elaborate 
Memoir on the GirafFe by Prof. Joly and Mons. A. Lavocat, con- 
tained in the third volume of the * Transactions of the Strasburg 
Natūrai History Society *,' combined with the more recent ' Osteo- 
logische Bemerkungen ' of Dr. George Jagerf, there are still many 
points of interest associated with the study of the structure of this 
aberrant ruminant which remain to be elucidated. Some of these 
are matters of dispute, and a few have reference to the existence of 
peculiarities not known to occur in any other living mammal. 

The President and Office-bearers of the Zoological Society having 
liberally afforded me an opportunity of examining the carcass of a 

* Recherches historiąues, zoologiąues, anatomiques, et paleontologiąues, sur la 
Giraflfe {Camelopardalis Girąffa, Gmelin), par MM. N. Joly et A. Lavocat, Mem. 
de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de Strasbourg, tom. iii. livr. 3', 1840-1846. This essay 
is illustrated by seventeen platės, many of the figures being borrovced from 
Prof. Owen's Memoirs, published in the Zoological Society's Transactions. It is 
satisfactory to notice, however, that the sources whence they have been obtained 
are carefully acknowledged. 

t Osteologische Bemerkungen, von Dr. George Jaeger, Actą Acad. C. L. C. 
Nat. Cur. vol. xxvi. part i. 1855, Abschnitt 3. Oeffnung auf der Oberflache des 
Stirnbeins einer jungen Giraflfe, p. 99. Bemerkungen iiber die Horner und 
Epiphysen, sowie iiber die Sinus des Schadels in Vergleichung mit andern 
Wiederkauern. Vergleichung der Grossenverhaitijisse einiger Knochen der Giraffe 
mit denen de& fossilen Sivatherium, p. 102. 



100 

young malė Giraffe, I have been enabled to confiim certain important 
discoveries previously made by myself in connexion with the intes- 
tinal canal, whilst, at the šame time, I have some additional facts to 
contribute towards our knowledge of the development of the intra- 
cranial sinuses. The intestinal pecuharities above alluded to had 
been entirely overlooked by the Cuviers, Isidore and Etienne Geof- 
froy Saint-Hilaiie, Home, Owen, and all other anatomists previous 
to the date wheu the facts I refer to were originally made pubUc, — 
namely, at the meeting of the Biitish Association held at Glasgow 
in 1 855 ; and it may also, with equal truth, I believe, be remarked, 
that no one has, since that time, had au opportunity of confirming 
or refuting the statemcnts then and there set forth. The anomalous 
structures in question are briefly described in my article " Rumi- 
nantia," in the supplement to Dr. Todd's ' Cyclopsedia of Anatomy 
and Physiology,' and they have also been specially noticed else- 
where*. 

The young Giraife which so receutly formed an attractive featurc 
in the Society's menageiie was born in the Gardens on the 6th of 
July 1859. From the period of its birth until the day of its death, 
it had never exhibited any symptoras of indisposition, whilst its 
spoitive gambols and rapid growth were the subject of general 
remark. Early in the morning of the 2nd of Dccember, on entering 
the GirafPe-house the keeper observed the animal struggling to raiše 
itself from the ground, but, in spite of timely assistancc, these efforts 
proved unavailing. It soon became appareut that the limbs were 
partially paralysed, and the animal expired in about two hours from 
the time it was first observed prostrate. The young Giraffe had 
clearly sustained some injury, \vhich \vas in all probability occasioned 
by a kiek from the motl\er, when the former was altempting to 
reach the teat. This supposition derives strength from the circum- 
stance that the mother vvould ailow lactation to be carried on only 
at certain intervals, aud therefore the importunate cravings of the 
" fawu" frequently exposed it to rough usage, or even violent re- 
sistance. I am informed by the experienced keeper (on whose care 
the condition of the young animal up to the time of its death reflects 

* Bearing upon this subject, I have contributed the foUovring papers, notices, 
&c.:— 

1. Account of the Dissection of a GirafFe. Physiological Soc. Rep. in Edin. 
Month. Journal for April 1854. 

2. Notės on the Anatomy of the Giraffe. Communicated to the Royal Physical 
Soc. of Edin., and puhlished in the Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist. for June 1854. 

.3. Description of a New Species of Trematode infesting the Giraffe. Read at 
the Glasgow Meeting of the Brit. Assoc. Sept. 1855. See Reports. Also pub- 
lished, witli a coloured plate, in Edin. New. Phil. Journal, Oct. 1855. 

4. On a reraarkable pouched condition of the Glandulee Peyerianae in the 
Giraffe. Edin. New Phil. Journ. for Jan. 1856, with a coloured plate. Also 
noticed in British Assoc. Rep. for the preceding year. 

5. See also, under " Intestinal Glands," additional observations, Article " Ru- 
minaiitia," in Supp. to Dr. Todd's CycIopa;dia of Anat. and Physiol. p. 539, with 
two figures. 1859. 

6. Also a hrief notice (with good fig.) in the Maranaalian Division of the 
" Museum of Natūrai History," in the general characters of the Order Rumi- 
nantia, vol. i. div. i. p. 157, 1800. 



101 

the highest credit) that this resistance on the part of the parent is 
quite natūrai and frequent with girafFes in general ; and this leads 
me to infer, therefore, that the young animal mnst have struck its 
head violently against the woodwork of the stall when in the act of 
escaping from the kicks of its annoyed parent. 

In a formai note addressed to the Secretary, and dated 7th Dec. 
1859, I have already communicated the results of a post mortem 
examination of this animal, made by Mr. Bartlett and myself. That 
dissection has fully explained the immediate cause of the Giraffe's 
death, for, as then observed, "a longitudinal section of the skuU 
showed extensive injury to the vessels internally, the large sphe- 
noidal sinus being filled with extravasated blood. The upper lip 
was rather deeply cut, evidently from sudden eontact with the middle 
incisor-teeth. The vessels of the brain were gorged, but there was 
no laceration of the cerebral substance. AU the viscera were per- 
fectly healthy." The precise locality of the blood -extravasation is 
clearly indicated in the accompanying drawing (PI. LXXVII.). Here 
it will be noticed that the submucous tissues, both above and belovv 
the palato-maxillary bones, are completely eechymosed, whilst the 
large sphenoidal sinus below the basis cerebri is choked with blackish 
clots. Traces of extravasation existed within the cranium, and the 
meningeal vessels were everyvehere unnaturally distended. 

If the drawing be further examined, and a comparison be insti- 
tuted between it and the artistic figure of a similar longitudinal 
section of the dried adult cranium accompanying Prof. Ovven's 
Memoir, published in the second volume of the Society's Trans- 
actions, it will be observed that the relative differences in the dis- 
position of their parts are singularly marked. In the adult animal 
the fronto-parietal air-sinuses extend backwards from the centre of 
the facial region to the occipital border ; but in the young giraffe 
under consideration, the anterior part of the head is only occupied 
by a single frontai sinus of comparatively limited dimensions, the 
cavity being situated immediately belov? the naso-frontal eniiuence. 
In the former, again, the sinuses are complicated by numerous 
lamellar partitious, which in the latter are merely represented by 
curved ridges whose smooth and rouuded borders project iuternally 
from the parietės of the cavity ; two or three of these linear eleva- 
tions are seen in the annexed illustration. Another still more 
striking difference, and one which results from the non-development 
of the parietal sinuses, is that relating to the size and position of the 
brain. In the adult animal the transversal area of the cerebrum on 
section, taken immediately behind the lateral horns, is manifestly 
Icss than half that of the cranium divided at a similar spot ; whereas 
in the Society's young giraffe, a likę comparison will shovy that the 
transversal area of the brain is equivalent to at least two-thirds of 
that of the cranium. And even yet more noticeable is the circum- 
stauce tliat the braiu of the full-grovvn giraffe lies on a plane almost 
level, and continuous, as it vverc, with the uasal passages ; but in 
the J oung individual, the rorebnmi, though nearly parallel in direc- 
tion, is at the samc time placed at a very much higher level. In the 



102 

one the npper border of the nasal passage is oii a line with the inner 
or vitreous table of the fronto-parietal vvalls of the cranium, but iu 
the other the šame hmitiug border of the nasal inlet is almost level 
with the floor of the cerebral cavity. In the young animal the 
cavity of the frontai sinus extends somewhat further backwards at 
the sides than it does in the median plane ; nevertheless, the aecom- 
panying illustration affords a tolerably fair estimate of its capacity. 
The sphenoidal sinus exhibits comparatively limited dimensions. 

In the preseut communication I do not enter into details respect- 
ing the form and relations of the separate cranial elements, reserring 
these (as well as considerations affectiug the dentition, and also cer- 
tain skeletai peeuliarities) for future observation, when I shall have 
had an opportunity of niore minutely esamining the dried bones. 
In the meantime, hovvever, I canuot allow this opportunity to pass 
without distinctly expressiug my adhesion to the early opinion and 
earefully recorded observations of Rūppell, as to the existence of a 
third epiphysial horn in the malė Nubian Giraffe. I have satisfied 
myself as to the substantial accuracy of Rūppell' s views, not merely 
from the dissection of two young malęs, but from a close inspection 
of several adult crania contained in the Museum of the Royal College 
of Surgeons ; and I have been even more persuaded as to the cer- 
tainty of the presence of a third so-called horn in this animal by an 
examination of the admirably prepared skeleton of a malė giraffe 
preserved in Dr. Harrison's Museum at Trinity College, DubUn*, 
together with the skull of another specimen which died in the 
Society's Menagerie about two years ago. I have recently been 
infornied that the animal lašt mentioned was a female, which, if 
true, renders the argument still more interesting. At all events, I 
agree vrith those who, with Rūppell and Cuvier, insist upon the 
recognition of a third horn in the malė, and, although opposed in 
this "persuasion by the opinion of Prof. Owen, I am nevertheless 
glad to observe its existence fuUy corroborated by the independent 
researches of Jagerf . 

* The Dutilin specimen (also lired in the Zoological Society's Menagerie) was a 
reniarkably fine animal. The late Dr. Bali informed me that it died during 
sexual excitement, while in the act of assaulting a sheep which had been placed 
in the šame paddock. 

t Dr. Jager makes the following statement in a foot note to his Memoir pre- 
viously ąuoted : — " In the skull of a young malė in the coJlection at Munieh, 
whose horns are scarcely two inches long, and like\vise separated, there is, in the 
plaue of the third centrai horn, a rather strongly marked elevation of the frontai 
bone, but no trace of an epiphysis. In the skull (19 inches long) of a malė 
received a short time ago from the north of Africa, through Dr. Heuglin, which 
skull we believe to be mature, the suture of the hind horns (14 inches high) is 
still perceptible, but the serrated borders are almost firmly united to the frontai 
and parietal bones. The mesial horn, however, is still ąuite separated by the 
epiphysial caitilage from the firontal and nasal bones, whose suturės are not yet 
obliterated, as also obtains in the other cranial bones. The anterior margin of 
the centrai hom-bone projects about one inch over the posterior limit of the 
nasal bune. From thence the anterior part of the horn rises to the tip, forming 
a very "radual slope, while the posterior inclination is comparatively steep and 
short. "lt results fioni this that the centrai horn unites with the bones much 
laier than the hinder horns, which are commou to both sexes." 



103 

Before passing to the consideration of certain intestinal peculi- 
arities, I cannot omit noticing a few additional points of general 
interest. As in the aged animal, so also in the young individual, 
the cerebellum is situated on a level with, and is not overlapped by, 
the cerebrum. In the Edinburgh specimen I found the rudimentai 
uvula to consist of three small, conical, and closely approximated 
papillse, but in the present example there are only two minute pro- 
cesses of a similar character, united at the base and subseąuently 
diverging from one another at right angles. From former exami- 
nations, I feel quite certain that the fibres of the ligamentum nuchce do 
not exhibit, under the microscope, any transverse striation, neither 
in the fresh statė nor vvhen dried, and I cannot but suppose that the 
appearances indicated by Prof. Quekett mušt have been accidental. 
Except in the truly anomalous instance described by Prof, Owen — 
where a double gall-bladder occurred in a feraale — all previously 
recorded dissections of the giraffe point to the absence of a gall- 
bladder ; and this rule, which also holds good in the case before us, 
very strongly indicates the Cer^dne affinities of the genus. 

Without entering upon a minute deseription of the parasites 
infesting the Giraffe, I may here notice that a careful scrutiny of 
the viscera of the Society's young specimen has enabled me to add 
yet another species to the list of Eutozoa. From the liver and sub- 
lingual cellular tissues of the Edinburgh specimen I obtained nume- 
rous Cysticerci and Cercarice, together with about forty examples of 
an unusually large fluke* ; and though neither of these helminthic 
forms existed in the present instance, the caecum was uevertheless 
abundautly supplied with Trichocephali, markedly different from those 
so commonly found in man. Provisionally, I recognize this nema- 
tode entozoon under the combined generic aad specific title of 
Trichocephalus gracilis^, 

In regard to certain peculiar modifications of structure found in 
the alimentary canal, I have, in the first place, to remark the 
presence of valvular folds at the anterior border of Peyer's glands. 
All the agminated follicles or patches do not exhibit this singular 
folding, only three or four of the glands being thus extended; in 
these, howeTer, the duplication was even more developed than re- 
presented in my original figure in the Article " Ruminantia" previ- 
ously cited. In the Society's young giraffe, also, the lateral margins 
of the glands are more elevated, whilst well-marked transverse ridges 
pass across the follicles from side to side. Morphologically speak- 
ing, these rudimentai partitious undoubtedly represent the lobular 
foldings of ordinary compound glands — a view vrhich is more clearly 
brought out by considering the complexity of that unique differen- 
tiation which I have next to notice. From the juvenile character of 
the Society's animal I scarcely expected to detect more than a mere 

* Fasciola gigantea mihi, in Mem. loc. cit. 

t From other animals which have more or less recently died at the Society's 
Menagei'ie, I have proeured a variety of interesting Eutozoa. See two Meinoirs 
iu the Linneau Society's Transactious, vol. xxii. pp. 155, 363. Platės 31-33, 
and 63. 



104 

tiace of tliose remaikable glaudular pouches which I originally dis- 
covereJ iu a giraffe about two years old ; in this, however, I have 
been agreeably surpriscd, and have found a structure still more com- 
plicated, although the secerning or follicular tissue is so little marked 
as to be scarcely visible to tbe naked eye (PI. LXXVI1I.)*. In 
Wombweirs giraffe, which died at Ediuburgh, only seven of the sacs 
\verc found complete and bordered by very atteuuated walls ; but ia 
the Society's specimen there are at least twenty circumscribed fossae. 
Ten of these exhibit very small outlets, whilst two or three of the 
larger and more pateut sacculi display secondary pouches in tbeir 
interior. As the dravving sufficiently illustrates the relative forra 
and dispositiou of these sacs, it is scarcely necessary to describe them 
more fully ; but no one, I think, can possibly fail to recognize the 
morphological signification of this siugular development in its en- 
tirety. Among the various known raodes of extension of the intes- 
tinal glandular element, there is nothiug comparable to it throughout 
the entire range of the vertebrate series. Special iuduplicatious of 
the ahmentary membranes are here and there produced to meet the 
exigencies of certain mammahan species, but no one, I beUeve, has 
hitherto observed a similar development exclusively involving Peyer's 
patches. It is now, thcrefore, even more perceivable that the com- 
pound agminated follicles may be legitimately associated with the 
highly developed compound lobulated glands, such as the sublinguals, 
the parotids, and the tonsils ; and the latter, again, may be regardcd 
as morphologically analogous, and even serially homologons with 
the highly orgauized liver and pancreas. In the Giraffe, indeed, the 
tonsils display a remarkably capacious excretory outlet common to 
all the lobules — a circumstance rendering the above comparison still 
more significaut. 

There is also yet another aspect in which this honeycombed in- 
testinal gland is entitled to assume especial prominence, namely, as 
a zoological character. Here I am aware that I am likely to meet 
\Aiih opposition from those who ignore the value of anatomical 
investigations ; nevertheless, with all due deference to others, I mušt, 
in the present instauce, be permitted to uphold the validity of the 
persuasion which argues that no viscus or system of tissues should 
be excluded from the characters employed in the determination of 
zoological affinity— certainly not, at least, wheu any marked devia- 
tion from a classic, ordinai, or generic type is sufficient to impart 

* It is remarkable that Prof. Owen should have entirely overlooked this 
peculiar formation, since nothing can be more precise and coįrect than his de- 
scription of the subjacent ilio-colic va]ve. In the Memoir, loc. cit. p. 227, he 
says: — "The termination of the ilium forras a circular tuniid lip ■within the 
caecum, and presents a less efiicient mechanical obstacle to regurgitation than in 
the huiuan subject." 

Prof. Joly and Mons. Lavocat, although they have giveu a coroplete resuine of 
the wiitings and investigations of no less than forty eiuinent anatomists and 
zoologists, thus sumniarily disniiss their account of the csecum (Mem. /. c. p. 35) : 
— " Le c«ecum n'offre lieu de paiticuliei-, si ce n'est son volume assez peu con- 
sidėrable, ąuand on Ic compare a celui dcs aulres ruminants, et siu-tout a celui 
du chcval." 



105 



'distinctive cogency to the balaiice of hypothetical aualysis. I firmly 
believe that the comparative perfection of our knowledge of the 
proper definitive allocation and relative position of orgaiiized beings 
— wliether arranged in groups, species, or individuahties— depends 
solely on the accuracy and grasp which an extended experience and 
observation alone can supply ; and I respectfully submit that no 
structural pheenomenon, great or sniall, external or iuternal, searce 
or invariable, can be too unimportant to be carelessly eschewed. 
We have seen the highest animal existences organically Huked with 
the members of the vegetable kingdom by the discovery of starch m 
the human brain, whilst the abundant presence of cellulose in the 
Tuuicated Molluscs affords a more striking illustration of the funda- 
mentai unity of all organized being. Without enlarging further, 
hovvever, on general facts and principles, I return to the direct 
subject-matter of this paper, in order to enforce more strongly the 
zoological value of the glandular body above described. The giraffe 
is an animal admittedly osculant between the Cervine, Antilopine, 
and CameUne ruminants— partaking of characters more or less com- 
mon to all these groups; and here we have (in addition to the 
peculiar horns, and the partially distinctive crauial, lingual, and 
exterDal modifications subservient to the animal' s mode of existence) 
an entirely unique development counected with the digestive system. 
When, therefore, it is considered that this marked pecuharity is not 
known to be shared by the allied famiUes above referred to, and that 
the complexity of the organ has arriyed at a poiut far beyond the 
ordinary development of Peyer's patches, I thiuk it but fair that 
zoologists should candidly admit the utility of anatomical researches 
and welcome any structural discovery which gives aid to their defi- 
nitions, and which, in the instance under consideration, palpably 
justifies the recognition of the giraffe as the type of a separate 
family. I consider the force of this argument is in no degree less- 
ened by the circumstance, that, on separate and at the šame time 
thoroughly judicious grounds, Dr. Gray and others have already 
advocated this separation, the most striking character which they 
employ for this purpose having reference to the existence of pseudo- 
ceratophorous epiphyses permanently invested by a hairy integu- 
ment. 

In conclusion, I may remark that zoological science should not 
be allovved to resemble an eviscerated carcass, but its proportions 
should be shaped and its constituent parts welded together by data 
gathered from every phase of biological inqniry, though this may 
occasionally involve a prominent recognition of deep-seated ana- 
tomical appearances, and sometimes even extend to pūrely chemico- 
vital manifestations. 

2. On the Occurrence of Ameuican Birds in Europe. 
By Herr h. Gatke of IIeligola^d. 

The routc by which American birds jirocecd to Europc is, as 
Yarrell justly t'evms it, " an interesting problem, of difficult solu- 



106 

tion." For years this solution has occupied my attention, and 
although I have myself always been convinced that such of these 
entirely American birds as occasionally visit Europe do reach us by 
a passage across the Atlantic, this remains a mere opinion, carrying 
no weight if unsupported by facts, or by at least sufficient argument 
to make good the question at issue. 

The mere comparative review of the occasional visitors among the 
birds of Great Britain and of Germany will lead to the conclusion 
that the route of American birds to Europe mušt needs be a voyage 
across the Atlantic, for, almost all the additions to the birds of 
Europe, of species pūrely American, have been obtained in Great 
Britain — which could not have been the case if they had proceeded 
in any other than an eastern direction — whilst the additions by Ger- 
many, furnished to the European Ornis, consist nearly entirely of 
birds belonging to Asia. 

However striking the result of such a comparative review may be, 
one ąuestion will alvvays present itself, namely : — Whether it be pos- 
sible for a bird to sustain an uninterrupted flight sufficient to carry 
it across the wide expanse of the Atlantic. I am convinced that this 
is possible, and shall endeavour to prove such possibility. 

This purpose necessitates a measure for the rate of locomotion of 
a bird through the atmosphere. For a long time I vainly endeavoured 
to obtain reliable data upon which to found an estimation of the rate 
of flight of birds — when at lašt I hit upon a passage in Yarrell's 
• British Birds,' ii. p. 295, where, speaking of the Carrier Pigeon, he 
mentions the fact of one of these birds having performed a flight of 
150 miles in an hour and a half : it was on the 24 th of June 1833 ; 
the Pigeon flew from Rouen to Ghent ; sisteen others flew the šame 
distance in two hours and a half. 

Wonderful as this instauce of swiftness of the flight of a bird may 
appear, it certainly is still surpassed by birds Avhen on their period- 
ical migrations ; for, the above feat was accomplished by an indivi- 
dual hatched and reared in at least semi-confinement, whose powers 
of flight consequently could not be nearly so well developed as in a 
bird grown up wild and free, which nearly every hour of bis life has 
to depend on the utility of its vvings, either for the purpose of over- 
taking its prey, or for that of escaping from being caught. 

Laying down, therefore, 100 geographical miles per hour as the 
rate of flight of birds during distant migration, one keeps — after 
the above — quite within safe bounds, and, at this rate, the 1600 
geographical miles from Newfoundland to Ireland vrould be eff'ected 
in sixteen hours. No ornithologist will doubt for a moment the 
capability of a healthy bird to sustain a flight of that duration ; 
during the long summer days many of the Hirundinidce are on the 
wing for as long a period, and although their flight may be inter- 
rupted by occasional rests of very short duration, it is performed in 
the lower, less buoyant atmosphere, and consists of so many evolu- 
tions, that most decidedly it mušt on the vvhole be much more tiresonie 
than the straight path in the pure upper regions of a bird bent on 
the performance of one long pilgrimage. 



107 



Even supposing that birds become exhausted before accomplishing 
the passage across the oceau. observations I have made in the vici- 
nitv of this islaiid have fully conviuced me that small birds, such aa 
Thrushes, Buntings, Finches, &c., are able to ręst on the sea-even 
when a little in motion-and afterwards to resume and pursue their 
flight with fresh vigour. Of this I shall give the particulars further 
on • but, for the nresent, return to the above question, by giving an 
instanoe of endurance on the wing of a species which with pretty 
good certahity, may be said every spring to perform m the penod ot 
5ne niaht a flight of more than 1200 geographical miles ; namely, 
from Egypt to Heligoland— the bird in question being a particular 
form of Blue-throated Warbler, Sylma ccerulecula, Palias. 

This pretty Uttle bird, noted not at all either for rapidity or great 
endurance of flight, has its summer quarters in the high northern 
latitudes of Sweden, Finland, and Siberia, whereas during the winter 
months it is staying principally in Egypt. Onits spring migration, 
which takes place during the earlier half of May, the first place 
north of Egypt where it is to be found with certamty in pretty con- 
siderable numbers is Heligoland. Nowhere in the whole intermediate 
distance is it met with but as a great ranty-not even on the neigh- 
bouriug north coast of Germany-whilst here m Heligoland 1 have 
oftentimes obtained it in such numbers that more than twenty of the 
finest adult malė birds have been bought by me m one day, and per- 
haps the šame number by the bird-stuffers of the island The fore- 
eoing admits of one conclusion only, namely, that this httle bird per- 
forms the passage from Egypt to Hehgoland m one unmterrupted 
flight, travelling-as many of the oŪx^v ^m^Ą Insectivorce Ao~ 
during the night, starting towards sunsęt and arrivmg here about sun- 
rise, or a little later, the time occupied being from twelve to fourteen 
hours. The distance from Egypt to Heligoland being about 400 
eeographical miles less than that between Newfoundland and Irelaud, 
the rate of flight of this delicate little bird may be put down the šame 
as that rendered by the above-mentioned Carrier-Pigeon, and con- 
sequently furnishes a further proof that a healthy well-flying bird is 
able to cross from the nearest point of America to Ireland vvithout 
ręst or any extraordinary support whatever. , , ■ ^ x.- a^ ^e 

In the foregoing I alluded to the aptness of non-natatorial birds ot 
resting, in case of exhaustion, on tlie sea, and of rising from it after 
having recovered sufticient strength to resume their flight ; and that 
at times too, when the water is far from bemg unruffled. This state- 
ment is based on thefollowing observations. One day, when out in a 
boat shooting, about two or three miles from Hehgoland I observed 
a very small bird swimming on the water. Neither the boatman nor 
myself being able to discern what species it belonged to we became 
very eager to secure the stranger-conjectunng that it would turn 
out to be some vvonderful rarity. When preparing to fire I lortu- 
nately discovered that the expected prize was nothing but a bong- 
rS ! Lnmediately our desire to kili was changed into compassion ; 
the "poor Thrush-m so piteous a situation vvas to be saved 
But how great was our astonishment, vvhen, upon the approach of the 



boat, the bird without any apparent difficulty rose from the water 
and flew towards Heligoland in first-rate style ! Auother time we saw 
a SDow-Bunting, evidently exhausted very much, because it was float- 
ing scarcely 500 yards from the island. At the approach of my 
boat, this bird also very lightly rose from the vvater, but it was so 
weak that it had to resume its unnatural resting-place after proceed- 
ing about thirty or forty yards towards the rocks. We weat after 
it again, and for a third time, but with the šame result, whereupon 
we refrained from all further attempts at forcing our well-intended 
assistance upon so obstinate a fellovv — the more so, as we entertained 
no doubts that after a httle ręst he would obtain a more solid foot- 
ing without any help of ours. 

I will give one more instance of this propensity in birds — in alI 
my experience, the most strikiug : this time it was a Mountain-Finch 
vvhich had been compelled to alight for ręst on the water of the sea ; 
it was about three miles east of Hehgoland. When this bird was 
approached by the boat, it rose very easily, moimted into the air to 
a great height — as birds do when starting for their migratorial ex- 
cursions — and then struck out steadily in a southern direction, rvith- 
out taking any notice whatever of the island, 

Although I beUeve in the foregoing to have proved sufficiently the 
possibility of birds being capable to cross on the wing from the 
United States of America to Great Britain, the greatest probability 
that they do so is still showu by the proportion the number of 
American birds obtaiued in Great Britain bears to that of those ob- 
tained in the whole of Europe. Yarrell, in his ' British Birds,' 1845, 
mentions more than forty instances of that description ; Tringa ru- 
fescens and Scolopax grisea having been obtained six times each ! 
whereas. Germany, HoUand, and France together offer but very few 
instances — some of which scarcely ręst on good authority. 

Heligoland seems to form a happy centre. Here the GuUs of the 
Arctic Sea, Larus rossii and sabinii, meet the Numidian Crane, Grūs 
virgo, Lanius phanicurus, and other African birds ; whilst the United 
States send Mimus rufus and T. lividus, Sylvicola viretis, Charadrius 
i'irginicus, and others, to meet deputations from the far east of Asia 
consisting of Turdus ruficollis and T. varius, Sylvia javanica, S. cali- 
gata, and S. certhiola, Emberiza rustica, E.pusilla, and E. aureola, 
Pyrrhula rosea and a great many others. 

All these birds, together with a great number of acąuisitions quite 
as valuable for the European Ornis, all captured on this island, are 
preserved in my collection — a collection, which, although scarcely 
approaching to three hundred specimens, has, by Blasius, been pro- 
nounced to be "the most interesting between Paris and Petcrsburg." 
Heligoland, January 1860. 




Tj .uermens .lilh. 



M fr N . Hanharl . 



PYTELIA MONTEIR 



109 
3. On some Birds collected in Angola. By Dr. G. Hart- 

LAUB, OF BrEMEN, AND J. J. MoNTEIRO. 

(Aves, PI. CLXI.) 

The twenty-two birds hereiuafter enumerated were obtained by me 
iu Angola, at the port of Ambriz, and at Bembe, about 130 miles in 
the interior, during my residence there in 18.58 and 1859. Bembe 
is a Portuguese settlement, where there are Malachite copper-rnines, 
at present worked by an English Company. It lies in a mountainous 
distriet, belonging to the clay-slate formation, traversed by numerous 
valleys and water-courses, in which the vegetation is very luxuriant. 
Dr. G. Hartlaub, of Bremen, who is our best authority on West 
African Ornithology, has kindly determiued the species. — (J. J. M.) 

1. MiCRONisus MONOGRAMMicus (Temm.), var. Merid. Dif- 
fert a specimine Senegalensi fasciis abdominalibus latioribus ; 
fascia cnudcc media strictiore ; notis longitudinalibus gutturis 
muito striciioribus minusgue conspicuis. 

Long. totą circa 13į", aljE 8" 2'", caudse ą", tarsi 1" 8'". 

I eonsider this bird to be a southern local race of the well- 
known M. monogrammicus of Senegambia and the upper Bahr-el- 
Abiad, where Brun-Rollet and Heughn found it.— (G. H.) Brought 
to me alive at Ambriz on the coast, and kept some days alive.— 
(J. J. M.) 

2. Caprimulgus fulviventris, n. sp. Supra in fundo Imte 
fulvo-rufescente nigricante fasciolatns et vermiculatus ; maculis 
pilei medii subtriguetris nigerrimis, pulchre conspicuis; alee parte 
dorso proxima simili modo notata ; remigibics nigris, macvla alba 
ut in congeneribus notatis ; tertiariis alarumque tectricibus fulvo 
nigroque variegatis ; reciricibus 4 mediis obscurius nigro ru/ogiie 
variegatis et irregulariter fasciatis, binis externis pro maiima 
parte albis, tertia parte basali unicolore nigra ; gutture in fundo 
IcBte fulvo nigro fasciato ; macula gulari et vitta brevi triangulari 
albis ; pectore et abdomine late fulvis, unicoloribus, subalaribus 
et subcaudalibus Icete fulvis ; vibrissis rictalibus brevibus, debili- 
bus, rostri apice nigro. 

Long. 8į", alse 5" 7'", caudse 3^", rostr. a fr. 5'". 

A true Caprimulgus, and very probably a new one.— (G. H.) 
Common at Bembe and on the coast. In flocks of five or sis, hawk- 
ing for flies in the evening close to the ground. Eyes very large. 
Native name " Lubutarubuta." — (J. J. M.) 

3. CORACIAS CAUDATA, L. 

Very common on the coast, but not met with inland beyond twenty 
or thirty miles. Seen flying about with irregular flight all through 
the day, chattering much, and feeding on Orthoptera. One kept 
five months in captivity subsisted on raw beef. Native name " Taca- 
mantaca." — (J. J. M.) 



110 

4. Halcyon cinereifrons, Vieill. 

The first description of this well-known and widely distributed 
species was made fiom an Angolan specimen obtained by Perrein, 
Cassin has indicated it as occurring about Natai. — (G. H.) 

Not uncommon near Bembe in tlie thick woods at the bottoms of 
the ravines, where there is water. Subsists ou insects. Seen sitting 
on a branch, head aloft, whence they dart forth to secure their prey, 
and return. Called " Telampuica." — (J. J. M.) 

5. Nectarinia angolensis, Less. 

6. Nectarinia cyanol^ma, Jard. 

7. Nectarinia chloroljEma, Jard. 

8. Nectarinia cyanocephala, Sh. 

These four Sunbirds were all obtained at Bembe, where this group 
of birds is abundant, both in species and individuals. They are seen 
in the hottest part of the day haunting the flowering plants, never 
settling but hovering, vvhilst they extract the honey froni the flowers. 
—(J. J. M.) 

Three of those Nectariniee, Nes. 5, 7 and 8, were already known 
to inhabit Angola, the fourth, N. cyanolama, had been collected oniy 
in those northern parts of Western Africa, Fernando Po, Gaboon, and 
even as high up as Galam, whence there is a specimen in the Paris 
Museum. Three very fine species of NectarinicB collected by Per- 
rein in Angola, N. erythrothorax, N. rubescens, and N. perreinii, 
all three described by Vieiliot, have never been found again, and do 
not exist in any collection. \Ve call the particular attention of Mr. 
Monteiro to these lošt species. — (G. H.) 

9. Anthus gouldii, Fras. 

Very probably this species. The pectoral spots nearly obsolete. 
The whole colouring singularly uniform. — (G. H.) Very common 
on the grassy plains near Bembe. Rises with a whirring noise 
from the grass when disturbed, but does not sing or utter any note. 
—(J. J. M.) 

10. COSSYPHA NATALENSIS, Smith. 

This fine species was never known before to inhabit Western 
Africa. — (G. H.) Frequents the woody ravines near Bembe. The 
muscular stomach of one specimen examined contained remains of 
insects. Native name " Taranganya." — (J. J. M.) 

11. BuTALis LUGENS, n. sp. Cinerca, subtus palUdior, ahdomine 
imo medio, crisso et subcaudalibus albis ; subalaribus cinereis ; 
gula nonnihil longitudinaliter varia ; alis et cauda fuscescejiti- 
nigris ,• scapis plumarum pilei nigris ; lectricibus alce minoribus 
scapularibusgue nigris, obsolete cinerascente limbatis ; rostro nigro, 
Dcdious TllSCtS » 

Long. 5į", rostr. a fr. 6'", alae 2" 8'", caud. a bas. 2" 3'", tars. 6V". 



UI 

Apparently a true Muscicapa, or, subgenerically, a Butalis, though 
thc beak is rather long. In the Stutgardt coUection there is a spe- 
cimen of this bird from the interior of South Africa. I have tiied 
without success to discover a description of it somewhere. — (G. H.) 
Not very common at Bembe, and, I beUeve, unkuown on the coast. 
Shot in a wooded ravine near a rivulet. Called " Engumbeashedioco." 
—(J. J. M.) 

12. TcHiTREA MEiiAMPYRA, Verr. 

Common in the wooded ravines near Bembe ; native name " En- 
gundoheoli anfinda;" recognizable by its pecuhar cry, but diflficult to 
see, keeping in the densest thickets. — (J. J. M.) 

13. Dryoscopus angolensis, Hartlaub, n. sp. Supra obscure 
cinereus.uropygio pallidiore ; remigibus fuscis , cinerascente mar- 
ginatis ; pileo toto, nucha colloąue postico nigerrimis, nitore 
nonnullo chalybeo, plumulis pilei sericeis, brevissimis ; rectricibus 
obsolete fuscescentibus , mediis potius cinerascentibus, scapis supra 
nigris, subtus albis ; subtus pallide cinerascens, gutture et subala- 
ribus albis; rostra nigro, pedibus fuscis ; iride obscure carulea. 

Long. circa 7f", rostr. a fr. 8V', alse 3" 2'", caud, a bas. 3", 
tars. 9į"'. 

Decidedly new, and not ąuite typical. The characteristic de- 
velopment of the rump-feathers, so conspicuous in all the typical 
Dryoscopi, is very little apparent in this new one, and the structure 
of the curiously short and silk-like feathers of the crown is also very 
peculiar. Beak strongly carinated. — (G. H.) Common near Bembe 
in the thick wood. Stomach very large, and fuU of Indian com and 
seeds. Native name " Entuecula." — (J. J. M.) 

14. EUPLECTES FLAMMICEPS, Sw. 

Angola is certainly the most southern locality of this species on 
the west coast. Its northem frontier seems to be the Gambia. 
Von Pelzeln writes me that there is a specimen at Vienna obtained 
by Bojer on the island of Zanzibar. — (G. H.) Very common at Bembe, 
but not seen on the coast ; found among the high grass. — (J. J. M.) 

15. Spermestes poensis, Fras. 

Seen in flocks in the high grass at Bembe. — (J. J. M.) 

16. Pytelia monteiri, n. sp. (PI. CLXI.) Supra cinerea, 
dorso distincte olivascente ; uropygio et supra-caudalibus obscure 
coccineis, maculis nonnullis albis, rotundatis ; alis et cauda brun- 
neo- cinerascentibus ; macula gulari longitudinali intense cinna- 
harina ; pectore et abdomine dilute et late cinnamomeis, maculis 
rotundatis albis pulchre et confertim notatis ; subalaribus palli- 
dius rufo alboąue v artis ; subcaudalibus brunneo alboąue late et 
conspicue fasciatis ; rostro nigricante ; pedibus rubellis. 

Long. 4y, rostr. a fr. 5'", alae 2" 2'", caudse lį", tars. 6'". 
This beautiful little Finch is the pride of Mr. Monteiro'scollection. 



112 

It is uuJoubtedly new, and I take great pleasure iu naming it after its 
discoverer. May he add many more interesting novelties to our 
knowledge of African ornithology ! — (G. H.) Only one specimen 
was obtained of this Finch. It was brought to me alive, having been 
trapped by a native near Bembe. Said to be found in flocks, likę 
Spermesies po'ėnsis. — (J. J .M.) 

17. Lamprocolitts splendidus (Vieill.). 

Tolerably common at Bembe, and more so near the coast, being 
found in flocks of from twenty to thirty. It has a clear whistle likę 
a Starling (Sturnus) . There is another smaller species of this group 
very abundant. 

18. Zanclostomus ^eneus, Vieill. 

First described by Perrein from an Angolan specimen. — (G. H.) 
Found only in the interior. — (J. J. M.) 

19. Chalcites smaragdineus, Sw. 

Brought to me alive from Encoge, two days' journey to the south 
of Bembe, where they are said to be abundant. — (J. J. M.) 

20. Treron nudirostris, Sw. 

Identical with Abyssinian specimens. — (G. H.) Very common 
both on the coast and in the interior. Fat and good to eat. Found 
generally among the branches of the Adansonia digitata, vvhich is 
very abundant on the coast. This pigeon is called " Encuturuga.'" 
—(J. J. M.) 

21. PORPHYRIO ALLENI, Thomp. 

Differing from Abyssinian specimens only in the rather darker and 
more olive shade of the back. — (G. II.) Very abundant in the 
interior. I had seven alive at one time in my garden at Bembe. 
They are very tame in captivity. In a wild statė, they haunt the 
rivulets and marshes, and are knovvn as " Ensnso en maža,''' or 
Waterhen.— (J. J. M.) 

22. Sula capensis, Licht. 

Seen at Ambriz on the beach, vrhere it is common, and subse- 
quently at Loanda. — (J. J. M.) 

In conclusion, I may remark that the Black-cheeked Monkey 
(Cercopithecus melanogenys) described by Dr. Gray in the Proceed- 
ings of this Society for 1849, and figured Mamm. PI. IX. fig. 1, is 
very abundant at Encoge, three days' journey to the south of Bembe. 
About Bembe I have seen but one species, probably of the šame 
genus, but of much larger size and of uniform colouring. — (J. J. M.) 



o 

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113 

4. NOTES ON THE HaBITS OF MeNURA ALBERTI. By A. A. 

Leycester, Esa. (In a Letter addressed to John 
GouLD, Esa., F.R.S., &c.) 

The habits of this bird are very similar to those of tbe Menura 
superba, as described by Mr. Gould, but, as that gentleman has 
begged for a full description of them, I send all the particulars I 
have been able to collect. 

The Menura alberti is famous for its most extraordinary mocking 
capabilities. It is found only on the Brisbane and Tweed rivers and 
in the neighbourhood of their waters. It inhabits the rushes, and 
generally chooses a sandy soil for its locahty. I never saw more 
than a pair together, malė and female. Each malė bird has bis 
walk or boundary, and gives battle if another malė encroaches on it. 
He commences singing some time before the dawn of day, being the 
earliest of the forest-birds in this respect. His song is much varied, 
as besides his own peculiar note he imitates the cries of all the birds 
in the bush, such as the Laughing Jackass {Bacelo gigas), and even 
the mournful howl of the Owl and the thrilliug scream of the 
Curlew. "When singing and playing about he spreads his tail over 
his back likę a peacock. He scratches and picks at the earth while 
singing, which he generally does until about an hour after sunrise. 
He then becomes silent, and remains so until about an hour before 
sunset, when he again commences, and continues singing and playing 
about until it is quite dark. This Menura feeds entirely upon insects, 
mostly small beetles, mingled with a goodly proportion of sand. It 
has no crop or upper stomach. The malė bird is about four years 
old before he gets his full tail, as I have proved by shooting ex- 
amples in full feather with the tail in four different stages of develop- 
ment ; the two centre curved feathers are the lašt to make their 
appearance. It breeds in winter, commencing its nešt in May, laying 
in June, and hatching its young in July. It generally builds on 
some bare rock where there is a sufficient shelter for a lodgment, so 
that no animals or vermin can approach. The nešt is cohstructed of 
small sticks interwoven with long dry roots and raoss, the inside 
being composed of the skeleton leaf of the parasitical tree-fern, 
which makes an inside lining, and is very similar to horse-hair. It 
is completely rain-proof, and has an entrance at the side. The hen 
lays only one egg of a very dull colour, looking as if it had been 
blotched over with ink. The young bird vyhen first hatched is 
covered with a vvhite down, and remains in the nešt about six weeks 
before it takes its departure. The flesh is not good for food, being 
of a dark colour, tough and dry. The aboriginal name is Colvoin. 



5. On the Reptiles of Šiam. By Dr. Albert Gijnther. 

(ReptiHa, PI. XXIII.) 

There is no part of Tropical Asia of which the Amphibio-fauna 
is so little knovra as that of Šiam. The only Information on the 
No. 424. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



114 

subject mušt be gathered from some old works, and this is scanty 
enough, as we shall see hereafter. And yet, what has beeu con- 
sideved down to the present day tbe scarcest and most remarkable 
species of Snake — Herpeton tentaculatiim — proves now to be an in- 
habitant of this very country. A coUection of reptiles, transmitted 
lašt year by M. Mouhot to the British Museum, contams two speci- 
mens of this Reptile, beautifully preserved in every respect, and also 
twenty-two other species. We thus gain a first step to a fuUer 
knowledge of Siamese Herpetology. I proceed to give an account of 
this collection. 

1. Emys siamensis, Gray. 

2. Calotes versicolor, Daud. 

3. Gecko verus, Merr. 

4. TiLiauA RUFESCENS, Shaw. 

This species varies very much : the posterior frontais form a more 
or less broad suture together in some of the specimens, whilst in 
others they are entirely separated frora each other by the intervening 
medial shield. The black lateral streak is most conspicuous in indi- 
viduals of middle age, and is gradually lošt in older ones ; it dis- 
appears entirely if the epidermis is stripped off. Yonng individuals 
are uuiform blackish-ash, minutely speckled with whitish. 

5. Xenopeltis unicolor, Reinw. 

6. Typhlops diardii. 

7. Calamaria auADRiMACULATA, Dum. et Bibr. 

8. SiMOTES TRiNOTATus, Dum. et Bibr., var. 

Dume'ril statės correctly the number of longitudinal series of scales, 
which is twenty-one. The Siamese specimen, however, differs in the 
coloration, having the belly pure white, the back reddish-olive, some 
scales being blackish, and forming transverse streaks in regular inter- 
spaces, but not three distinct series of spots. 

9. Tropidonotus ciuincunciatus, Schleg. var. F., Gthr. 

10. Hypsirhina AĖR, "Wagl. Variety vvithout series of spots on 
the belly or tail. 

11. Herpeton tentaculatum, Lacep. (PI. XXIII.) 

This Snake is hitherto known from a single discoloured specimen 
only, which has served for all the descriptions published. After the 
account and the figure given by Schlegel, it does not appear neces- 
sary to repeat a description of the form, or of the shields and scales, 
in which our specimens do not shovv any difference. The larger of 



115 

the specimens is an adult malė, 25 inches long, the smaller half-grown, 
13 inches long. The coloration and the dentitiou are as folio vvs : — 

The ground-colour of the broad back is brovvn or olive-brown, 
bordered on each side by a black line, vvhich becomes indistinct 
posteriorly, and is more conspicuous in the youn-g specimen ; those 
black lines are separated from each other by five or six series of 
scales, and shoW button-like swellings in regular interspaces ; black 
transverse lines run oblique]y from one line to the other, most con- 
spicuous on the anterior part of the trunk, whilst they appear in 
the form of specks tovvards the middle of the length, entirely dis- 
appearing posteriorly. A blackish -brovvn band proceeds from the 
tentacle through the upper half of the eye along the side of the body 
to the end of the tail ; it occupies two to three series of scales, and 
is separated from another similar band, running along the lower part 
of the side, by a brownish-yellow band-like interspace. The lower 
of the blackish bands is confluent with the upper on the side of the 
vent. The lower parts are brownish-yellow, with a pair of darker 
longitudinal streaks, flanking the abdominal shields. There is a 
series of white or faint rose-coloured, posteriorly black-edged, spots on 
each side between the ventral and the lower lateral band ; they form 
very distinct and elegant markings in the younger specimen, where 
they are continued to the vent, forming altogether twenty-four pairs; 
some of them are opposite to those of the other side, others alternate 
with them. These spots are less bright in the old specimen, and 
distinct only on the anterior part of the belly. The lower lip has a 
yellowish margin, and there are two wavy yellow lines along the 
throat. 

Dumeril made a mistake in suggesting that Herpeton has a long 
and grooved posterior maxillary tooth, likę the snakes of his family 
of " Platyrhiniens." Ali the teeth are of equal length, and not one 
is grooved. They are of nioderate strength and somewhat closely 
set, and there are ten in the upper, and as many in the lower jaw. 
The series of the palatine and pterygoid bones is formed of fifteen 
or sixteen. Another very remarkable peculiarity is found in the 
structure of the intestines, which in the posterior third of the length 
of the trunk form a big mass of twelve or thirteen convolutions. 
Having found the šame in Acrochordus javanicus, I do not hesitate 
to remove Herpeton from Homalopsis and the genera allied to it 
(vvhich have the usual simple intestinal tractus), and to place it be- 
side Acrochordus. Hornstedt has found undigested fruits in the sto- 
mach of the latter. 

12. Spilotes radiatus, Reinw. 

13. CoRYPHODON BLUMENBACHii, Mcrr. The keels of the 
scales are not distinct in very young individuals. 

14. CoRYPHODON KORROS, Reinw. 

15. Chrysopelea ornata, Shaw, var. /3, Gthr. 

16. Trimesurus albolabris, Gray. 



116 

1 7. OxYGLOssus LIMA, Tschudi. 

18. Rana vittigera, 'Wiegm. 

19. BuFO MELANOSTiCTus, Schncid. 

20. PoLYPEDATEs MACULATUS, Gray. 

21. Hylarana erythr^a, Schleg. 

22. Kaloula pulchra, Gray. 

23. Plethodon persimilis, Gray. 

The earliest notice of Siamese Reptiles is found in Tavernier ('Col- 
lection of Travels through Turkey into Persia and the East Indies,' 
Lond. 1684, fol.). In Part 2, book iii. chap. xviii., speaking of the 
kingdom of Šiam, he says, p. 189, " There are sonie serpeiits, two foot 
long, vvith two heads ; but one of theni has no motion. There is also 
another creature, likę our Salamander, with a forked tail, and very 
venomous." 

We learn more from the Jesuit Tachard, who publisheda ' Voyage 
de Šiam des perės Jesuites,' Amsterd. 1689, 8vo. He mentions, 
p. 15.5, Gecko iierus with the name of Toquet, and describes the 
species as " Lezards fort venimeux, trouves dans les maisons de la 
Tille de Šiam " (Juthia). In his other work, ' Second voyage du pere 
Tachard et des Jesuites envoyes par le roy au royaume de Šiam,' 
Paris, 1689, 4to, he gives a figure of the šame species, and describes 
its anatomy, p. 276. 

P. Goūye (' Observations physiques et mathematiąues, envoyees de 
Šiam a l'Acade'mie royale par les perės Jesuites,' etc. Paris, 1688, 
Svo.) knows two Siamese reptiles : the one (p. 47, pi. 3) is again 
Gecko vertis : " Le toc-kaie est deux fois plūs gros que les lezards 
verts qu'on voit en France," etc. " En criant ii articule tres distincte- 
meut les deux syllabes toc-kaie." The other is a Crocodile (p. 2, 
pi. 1, 2) "trouvėe dans la fleuve Menam, qui baigne le pied des rem- 
parts de Louvo ; nom. Ta-kaie.'^ Cuvier (Ann. Mus. x. p. 51. 
pi. 1, f. 9) has established Crocodilus galeatus, from Goiiye's account, 
and a skuU sent by the Jesuits to Paris. Nothing else is known of 
this species. 

Kūmpfer, who had visited Šiam in 1690, mentions in his ' Ge- 
schichte und Beschreibung von Japan,' Lemgo, 1777, 4to. p. 24, 
venomous water-snakes in the river of Juthia, making their appear- 
auce every seventh or tenth year, at the end of the month of May. 
Severai people, bitten by the snakes, died, and every body was pro- 
hibited, by a royal order, to bathe or to wash in the river. The 
snakes are said to be not longer than a finger, and not bigger than a 
leech, brown- or blue-coloured. This story of small venomous 
freshwater- snakes is not less doubtful than that of the big Sea- 
serpent. 

Craivford (* Journal of an Embassy to the Courts of Šiam and 



117 

Cochinchina,' Lond. 1828, 4to.) observes, pp. 434, 435, that Tor- 
toises and Crocodiles are not so frequent in the Menam as in the 
Ganges, that Lizards and Suakes are very uumerous : " some were 
obtained even in the court-yard of our dwelhng ; among those we 
found no poisonous ones. The Hooded-snake, Coluber naja, is kncwn 
to exist ; also a Python 12-13 feet long." 

From notices made by Sir J. Bovuring in 'The Kingdom and 
People of Šiam,' Lond. 1857, 8vo., vol. i., it is evident that there is 
yet a wide field for the Herpetologist in Šiam. P. 228, " The reptiles 
of Šiam are multitudinous ; Crocodiles live in the rivers frora their 
mouths to their shallows." P. 230, "There are many species of hzards; 
the largest is the Tacimet, the tougue of which is divided in two ; 
the noisy Tookay, destroying vermin ; Chamceleons, Flying-Uzards ; 
Serpents from the most gigantic to the smallest species." P. 231, "a 
snake called ' Sun-beam ' from its very brilliant colours, inert, the 
bite of which is said to be mortal ; an immense frog sings, especially 
during rain." 

We see from the notes quoted that we can add to the above list 
some other reptiles : those specifically determined are Naja tripu- 
dians and Crocodilus galeatus, those generically, Chamceleo and Draco, 
the Tortoises being mentioned in too general terms to admit of any 
further suggestion. 



6. Description of new species of the genera Dosinia and 
Cyclina from the collection of h. Cuming, Esa. By 
Dr. e. Romer of Cassel. 

1. Dosinia erythraea, Romer. D. testą subquadrato-orbiculari 
solidiuscula, medio tumidiuscula, postice compressa et peculiariter 
inflexa, in(equilaterali ; liris crassiusculis, elevatis, sub-irregula- 
ribus, šape furcatis, postice confluentibus et valde sursum flexis, 
his scabris sensini extenuatis circumcincta ; albida, vel sordide 
alba, maculis sanguineis lividisve, prcecipue ad umhones, infecta, 
interdum radiis pallide rubris in extremitate postica ornata ; 
unibonibus vix prominentibus, valde incurvatis, paulo retroversis, 
ienuissime striatis./errugineis, in \longitudinis posiiis ; margine 
ventrali medio dependente, antice exacte curvato, postice subito 
oblique adscendente ; margine dorsali antico brevi, concavo, postice 
subdeclivi et longe curvato, vix in alce formam surrecto ; lunula 
profundissima, cordata, linea argutissime circumscripta, longitudi- 
naliter sublamellosa, fusco maculata; area anguste lanceolata, 
labiis valde elevatis, hiantibiis ; ligamento profunde immerso ; 
intus flavescente ; sinu palliari magno, triangulari, ab initio 
modice lato, superne muito deminuto, in apice angustissimo, rotun- 
dato ; lamina cardinali latissima, dentibus cardinalibus crassis, 
ultimo in valva sinistra pertenui, dente lunulari valido, papilli- 
formi. 

Long. 51, alt. 50, crass. 26 mill. 

Hab. Mare Rubrum (Hemprich et Ehrenberg), Aden (Cuming). 



118 

This is the second example I have seen of this interesting species. 
A year since, I named, but did not piiblish it, after a smaller shell 
thaii the above in the Royal Museum at Berhn. This species is 
referable to the šame section as D. exoleta, and is most allied to 
D. amphidesmoides of Reeve ; but it is very distinct in its form and 
sculpture, in its area, which is more impressed than in any related 
species, and particularly in its produced sniall triangular paUial 
sinus, vvhich is rounded at the apex. The concentric strise are 
elevated and rounded in the middle of the shell, and diminish very 
much near the extremities ; in the posterior part there is a peculiar 
compression of the vai ves, at the pkce where the strise converge, 
whilst the latter suddenly turn upwards and become thinner by de- 
grees. 

2. DosiNiA TENELLA, Romer. D. testą subquadrato-orbiculata, 
vix loitgiore quam altą, tenui, translucida, compressiusculn, iri' 
(Eguilaterali ; lineis transversis densis, regularibus, postice vix 
convergentibus, et vix elevatioribus, superficie proinde serico 
simili nitente ; pallide ferrtigineo-alba, umboiiibus saturatioribus, 
mediocriter prominuUs, acutiusculis, recurvis, longitudinem in 
ratione 1 : 2 dividentibus ; margine ventrali semicirculari, ante 
et pone (cgualiter et valde ascendente ; margine dorsali antico 
perbrevi, subrecto, obliguo, infra rotundalim prosiliente, postico 
declivi, producto, in marginėm ventralem cum angulo rotundato 
transiente ; lunula lanceolato-cordala, impressa, circumscripta, 
medio elevata ; area subplana, angusta, ligamento subimmerso, 
siib labiis hiantibus conspicuo ; intus albida, medio opaca ; sinu 
palliari magno, triangiilari, lineis includentibus rectis, in apice 
rotundato; lamina cardinali tenui, angusta; dente cardinali antico 
in valva sinistra tenui, obliguo, cum secundo, crassissimo complicato, 
dente lunulari mediocri, compresso. 
Long. 22, alt. 20-5, crass. 10-5 mill. 
Hab. Anstralia. 

In general appearance this small shell reminds one of D. subrosea 
Gray ; the shape is nearly the šame, but the augle of the posterior 
end is more rounded than in that species, and the posterior slope 
more descending. The forms of the area and lunula are very different 
from those in B. subrosea, being not so much impressed, and the 
latter, vvhich in B. subrosea is esactly heart-shaped, is in D. tenella 
more lanceolate. The concentric strise are so thin and regular as to 
produce an aspect likę šilk, whilst the strise in D. subrosea are flat 
and much broader. Besides the more solid growth of the latter, a 
most remarkable difFerence exists in the form of the pallial sinus, 
vvhich in D. subrosea is broad and acute at the apex, while in D. 
tenella it is large and rounded at the top. In the latter the plate of 
the hinge is very small and thin. 

3. DosiNiA AMETHYSTiNA, Romer. D. testą guadrato-rotundata, 
solidu, compressiuscula, postice valde compressa, satis inagui- 
laterali; transversim Uratą, liris cegualibus, distantibus, filifor- 
mibus, extremitates versus confluentibus, striisgue transversis 



119 

minoribus cincta ; interstitiis longitudinaliter dense et undulatim 
striatis ; violacescenti-albida, ad umhonum regionem amethystina ; 
umbonibus acutis, subprominentibus, valde antrorsum inclinatis, in 
^ longitudinis collocatis ; margine ventrali medio subcurvato, 
postice subito subrecte, et antice subcurvatim, in utroque latere 
valde adscendente ; margine dorsali antico brevissimo, concavo, 
postico subhorizontali, vix curvato, infra angulo obtuso formante ; 
lunula ovali, lateraliter compressa, medio acute elevata, lamellis 
curvatis obtecta, alba, linea argutissima circumscripta ; area 
lanceolata, ad basin lineis impressissimis constricta, medio in al<e 
formam surrecta, lamellosa, area secunda lineari, ligamento im- 
merso, sub labiis hiantibus conspicuo ; intus amethystina, disco et 
impressionibus muscularibus pallidioribus ; sinu palliari magno, 
triangulari, apice late rotundato ; dente laterali crassissimo, 
papilliformi. 
Long. 30, alt. 28, crass. 14 mill. 
Hab. Australia. 

A very peculiar shell, diiFering from all its congeners. The out- 
line is that of D. pubescens, Phil. {ccelatai Reeye), and the wing- 
like elevation of the ligament-area is also sitnilarly formed ; but in 
other respects there exists no relation between these species. The 
amethystina colour is dark near the umbones ; towards the basai mar- 
gin it becomes lighter, and changes at lašt into a pale bluish white. 
The concentrie strise are small and thread-like, moderately elevated, 
running almost equidistant from each other, and converging at the 
sides. The greatest peculiarity consists in the close undulated strise 
going from the apex to the base, but only in the interstices, which 
are thrice as broad as the concentrie elevated lines. The white 
■wing-like ligament-area and the white lunula, laterally compressed, 
and therefore shaped likę the former, and both elevated on an ame- 
thystine ground, produce a very agreeable aspect. It is a charac- 
teristic sign of Dosinia that the lateral tooth of the hinge is very 
small, shaped likę a vrart, and very near the cardinal-teeth ; in this 
example the lateral tooth is as large and broad as in any known 
species. 

4. Dosinia ovalis, Romer. D. testą rotundato-ovali, solida, 
tumidiuscula, posterius obtusissime angulata, valde inceguilaterali, 
liris transversis densis, sublatis, rotundatis, ad latera, prcecipue 
postice, subundulatis, vix elevatioribus cincta ; pallidissime ferru- 
gineo-alba; umbonibus acutis, vix prominulis, mediocriter reflexis, 
in į longitudinis positis ; margine dorsali postico prcelongo, 
arcuato, declivi, antico concavo, brevi, margine ventrali fere 
semicirculari, in utrague extremitate rotundatim et <£qualiter ad- 
scendente ; lunula cordata, convexiuscula, maxime impressa, argu- 
tissime circumsci'ipta, longitudinaliter striata ; area lanceolata, 
concaviuscula, striata, ligamento subimmerso, conspicuo; pagina 
interna ferrugineo-alba,fere omnino opaca; sinu palliari magno, 
angustissime triangulari, valde adscendente, apice obtusiusculo, 
lineis subrectis incluso ; dente lunulari crasso, lateraliter com- 



L20 

presso, cardinalibus valde accesso ; dente cardinali secundo in 
valva sinistra latissimo, cuneiformi, sensim assurgente. 

Long. 57, alt. 53, crass. 26 mUl. 

Hah. ? 

The Dosinio scalaris. Menke, is a very peculiar shell, and has 
affinities with three species, by which it is connected with other 
groups, at the first sight remote from it. One of these species is D. 
deshayesii of A. Adams ; the second, from the Royal Museum at 
Stuttgardt, named by me D. affinis ; the third is the above. The 
shape of this lašt is nearly the šame as that of JD. scalaris, but the 
sculpture is very different, cousisting in D. ovalis of close-set rounded 
and not elevated strise, which at the sides do not change into lamellse. 
The greatest difference is expressed by the size and form of the pallial 
ginus, which in D. scalaris is very broad and moderately deep, in- 
closed by concave hnes, and with a large rounded apex, whilst in 
D. ovalis it is very small and long, and considerably ascending. In 
the former, the second cardinal-tooth of the left valve is broad and 
thick ; in the latter it is wedge-shaped, and increases by degrees from 
the base to the very sharp and linear top. Accordingly, the lašt 
tooth in the right valve is very remote from the second, and both 
of them are separated by a broad triangular cavity. 

5. DosiNiA EBURNEA, Romcr. D. testą cordato-orbiculari, tu- 
mida, diaphana, postice distincte angulata, antice rotundata, valde 
in(eqmlaterali ; liris transversis, 7nedio latis, planis, densis, ex- 
tremitates versus numero valde decrescentibus et in lamellis tenui- 
bus, sparsis, deorsum reflexis, postice elevatioribus, mutatis ; 
eburnea, nitidissima, zonis transversalibus pallidissime luteis 
ornata ; umbonibus tumidis, valde recurvis, longitudinem in ratione 
1 : 3 discludentibus ; margine ventrali regulariter arcuato, antice 
eximie adscendente, dorsali antico perbrevi, concavo, postice 
producto, curvato, obligue descendente ; lunula late cordata, im- 
pressissima, subplana ; area lanceolata, subexcisa, subltevigata, 
lamellis brevibus, raris, e liris transversis exciirrentibus, cincta ; 
ligamento subimmerso, conspicuo; intus eburnea, nitida,disco opaco; 
sinu palliari mediocri, lingulato, in apice late rotundato, linea 
superiore horizontali ; dente lunulari crassissimo, dentibus cardi- 
nalibus tenuibus. 
Long. 37, alt. 34, crass. 20 mill. 
Hab. lusula Ceylon. 

In the middle of the shell the transverse striae are formed as in 
D. dunkeri, Phil. ; they therefore produce the šame shining aspect 
and interference of light, consistiug in alternately bright and dark 
longitudinal traces. Near the posterior end these strise grow smaller 
and niore elevated, till at lašt the second or third of them remains 
in the form of a thin and bent-down lamella ; near the anterior ex- 
tremity the šame thing is to be seen, but the lamellae are less pro- 
duced. The pallial sinus is tongue-shaped, and its upper line runs 
in a horizontai direction. The valves are tolerably solid, but trans- 
parent, and the teeth of the hinge are verv tliin, except the lateral 



121 

one, which is uncommonly thick and elevated. This very fine species 
is distinguished by many peculiarities from all others I am acquainted 
with . 

6. DosiNiA sPECULARis, Romer. D. testą subcordato-orbiculari, 
vix altiore qtiam longa, postice obtuse angulata, tumida, solida, 
valde inecuilaterali ; concentrice tenui-striata, striis planis, 
densis, ad latera furcatis, elevatioribus et in lamellis brevibus, 
prtEcipue postice terminatis ; strigillis longitudinalibus interruptis, 
irregularibus, extremitates versus evanescentibus ; sordide alba ; 
umbonibus pallide luteis, valde prominulis, recurvisque, in \ lon- 
gitudinis collocatis ; margine ventrali semicirculari, antice et 
postice valde adscendente ; dorsali antico perbrevi, concavo, postico 
maxime declivi, lange curvatim descendente ; lunula late cordata, 
impressa, planą, circumscripta ; area lanceolata, profunde exca- 
vata, longitudinaliter strigillata, marginibus acutis, lamellis brevi- 
bus limitatis ; ligamento immerso, vix conspicuo ; pagina interna 
alba ; sinu palliari mediocri, triangulari, apice acuto, lineis sub- 
rectis incluso, linea superiore horizontali ; dente laterali incras- 
sato, secundo cardinali in valva sinistra crassissimo, irregulariter 
plicato, reliquis tenuibus. 
Long. 28, alt. 29, crass. 16 mill. 
Hab. Malacca. 

In general appearance likę B. adansonii of Philippi (which is 
neither Le Dosin of Adanson, nor D. africana of Gray), but a 
thicker and more obliąue shell, having tbe concentric striae lamellar 
at tbe sides, whilst in D. adansonii tbey are uniformly flat ; tbe 
ligament-area is more excavated in D. specularis tban in tbe latter, 
and tbe pallial sinus is shorter and forms an acute angle, being in 
D. adansonii rounded in tbe apex. The scar of tbe posterior musele 
is uncommonly small and nearly circular. 

7. DosiNiA RUSTiCA, Romcr. D. testą ovato-orbiculari, longiore 
quam altą, postice distincte angulata, tumidiuscula, valde in<equi- 
laterali ; liris transversalibus , subdensis, in(equalibus, elevatis, 
sublamellosis, antice posticeque in lamellis tenuibus mutatis, 
scabra ; sordide alba ; umbonibus tumidiusculis, su9prominulis, 
satis antrorsum recurvatis, in Į longitudinis positis ; margine ven- 
trali semicirculari, postice vix producto, antice rotundato et 
valde adscendente ; margine dorsali antico brevi, concavo, postico 
valde declivi, curvatim longe descendente; lunula cordata, im- 
pressa, circumscripta, subplana, longitudinaliter striata ; area 
late lanceolata, subexcavata, strigillata ; ligamento immerso, vix 
conspicuo; intus albida, medio ferrugineo maculata ; sinu palliari 
mediocri, triangulari, haud aperto, apice obtusiusculo, lineis sub- 
concavis incluso, superiore f ere horizontali ; dente laterali crasso, 
papilli/ormi. 

Long. 28, alt. 26, crass. 14 mill. 

Hab. ? 

The outline is that of D. aspera, Reeve, wbich is a smaller shell 



122 

and has a very different sculpture and pallial sinus. The concentric 
strise are a little broader than the interstices, elevated, but of an un- 
equal height, not diminishing much towards the sides, and there be- 
coming lamellar. The pallial sinus is not vvidely open, is extended to 
the middle of the shell, and included by lines which are a little con- 
cave and form a small round vertex. The latter is marked with a 
pale rust-coloured stain, which is produced upwards, and disappears 
by degrees. 

8. DosiNiA SALEBROSA, Romer. D. tešla ohliąue ųuadrangulari 
rotundata, vix altiore quam longa, antice posticegue obtuse et ro- 
tundatim truncata et biangulata, tumida, valde integuilaterali ; 
lamellulis transversis, densis, tenuibus, irregularibus, ad extre- 
mitutes infoliis sparsis, erectis conversis ; calcarea, opaca ; um- 
bonibus tumidiusculis, prominentibus, recurvis, in \ longitudinis 
sitis; margine ventrali postice dependente, medio subcurvato, 
antice f ere perpendiculariter , postice obligue adscendente ; margine 
dorsali antico brevi, vix concavo, postico valde descendente, longe 
curvato ; lunula triangulari-cordata, impressa, circumscripta, 
longitudinaliter striata, foliis brevissimis circumdata ; area an- 
guste lanceolata, valde excavata, foliis parvis cincta ; ligamento 
valde immerso, vix conspicuo ; intus alba ; sinu palliari mediocri, 
late aperto, in apice rotundato, lineis includentibus subrectis, 
superiore subhorizontali ; dente laterali mediocri, papilliformi, 
secundo cardinali in valva sinistra crasso, tertio in dextra lato, 
producto, profunde inciso. 

Long. 225, alt. 23'5, crass. 13 mill. 

Hab. Malaeca. 

In the outline this shell much resembles D. lucinoides of Reeve, 
but by the sculpture and size can be readily distinguished from it. 
In conseąuence of the straightness of the basai margiu, and the 
rounded truncation of the sides, there are produced four obtuse angles 
on the margins, whilst the posterior part of the basai margiu projects 
a little downwards. AU the surface is covered with fine, close-set, 
slightly elevated lamellse, running irregularly and grovving elevated 
and leaf-like at the sides, particularly ou the hinder part, so as to ter- 
minate the ligament-area with a wreath of short leaf-work. The 
pallial sinus is distinguished by its wide openiug, and by its broadly 
rounded apex. The exterior of this shell is calcareous, without any 
lustre. 

9. DosiNiA TRiPLA, Romcr. D. testą rotundato-triangulari, sub- 
inaąuilaterali, inflata, tenui, vix longiore quam altą ; striis trans- 
versalibus, subrotundatis, vix elevatis, interstitiis ceguantibus, sub- 
regularibus, adlatera tenuibus, non elevatioribus cincta; albida; 
umbonibus acutiusculis, maxime prominulis, incurvis, in ^ longi- 
tudinis positis ; margine vetitrali subcurvato, ad latera vix adscen- 
dente ; margine dorsali antice obligue et subrecte descendente, 
postice ohliąuo, subcurvato, in utrogue latere fere usgue ad basin 
producto ; lunula maxima, totam declivitatem anticam occupante. 



123 

late lanceolata, superficiaria, medio elevata, e striarum transver- 
sarum processu crebro striata, linea subelevata circumdata ; area 
lanceolata, suhincisa, obtuse limitata ; ligamento immerso, sub 
labiis late hiantibus conspicuo ; pagina interna ulba, medio pallide 
luteo infecta ; sinu palliari magno, sublate aperto, apice acuto, 
lineis subconcavis incluso ; impressione musculari antica angusta, 
usgue ad laminam cardinalem producta, postica latissime pyri' 
formi ; lamina cardinali angusta, tenui ; dente lunulari elevato, 
acutiusculo, valde remoto, dentibus cardinalibus tenuibus, secundo 
in valva dextra crasso, tertio permagno, perobliąuo, bisulcato. 
Long. 37, alt. 35, crass. 20 mill. 
Hab. Malacca. 

This fine species beloiigs to the section represented by D. excisa 
of Chemnitz and D. trigona of Reeve ; it difFers from both not only 
iu its thinner shell, the transverse strise of vvhich are much finer, but 
still more in the following particulars. In J). excisa, the umbones are 
situated at ^, in D. trigona at \, and in D. tripla at ^ of the whole 
length, so as to produce nearly the aspect of an isosceles triangle ; 
the hgament-area is very deeply excavated in the first, very narrowly 
lanceolate and but a Uttle hollowed in the second, deeper and less 
narrowly lanceolate, but with rounded limits, in the third ; the 
lunula is flat in D. excisa and trigona, being in the latter much 
broader than in the former, whilst it is swollen and convex in the 
middle, and more lanceolate in D. tripla. The pallial sinus is broad 
and roundly triangular in both the former species, but less opened 
and acute at the apex in the latter, which has also a very thin and 
small hinge-plate. 

10. DosiNiA DERUPTA, Romer. D. testą rotundato-triangulari, 
subin(Equilaterali , tumidiuscula, tenuicula, vix latiore quam altą ; 
liris transversalibus regularibus, rotundutis, elevaiis, interstitiis 
aąuantibus, postice valde confluentibus cincta, interstitiis lirisąue 
tenuissime transversim striatis ; pallide luteo-alba ; umbonibus 
marginibus, lunulague ut in D. tripla; area angustissime lanceo- 
lataį' subexcisa, exacte ut in D. trigona; intus alba ; sinu palliari 
latissime aperto, magno, apice acuto, lineis concavis incluso; 
lamina cardinali angusta, subtenui ; cardine ut in D. tripla, sed 
dente cardinali medio in valva sinistra crassiore, tertio in dextra 
obsolete bisulcato. 
Long. 26, alt. 24, crass. 15 mill. 
Hab. Malacca. 

This species is nearly related to D. trigona ; the outline is almost 
the šame, the extremities being only a little more rounded. But the 
concentric striaj, notvvithstanding the smaller size of the shell, are 
far thicker, as broad as the insterstices, and, both being finely striated, 
produce the eflFect of smaller transverse strise. The ligament-area is 
formed exactly as in D. trigona. The pallial sinus is broadly open 
with an acute apex, the upper line being horizontally directed. From 
this it may be seen that D. derupta unites several of the characters 
of i), trigona and D. tripla ; but the size, the sculpture, the pallial 



124 

impression, and the hinge, prove it to be different from each of those 
species. 

11. Cyclina SPLENDIDA, Romer. C. testą subqiiadrato-orbicu- 
lari, lentiformi, vix altiore quam longa, tumida, subincEįuilaterali ; 
concentrice grosse Uratą, liris in parte inferiore remotis, rotun- 
datis, in medio subregularibus, extremitates versus irregulariter 
confluentibus, bifurcatisque, postice tumidioribus, liris ad umbonum 
regionem sensim densioribus, denique tenuissimis ; interstitiis 
transversim striatis ; nitida, pallide crocea, marginibus albidis ; 
umbonibus tumidis, valde prominulis, incnrvis, f ere contiguis, in f 
longitudinis collocatis ; margine ventrali medio dependente, sub- 
rotundato, tum in utroque Mere obligue et subrede adscendente ; 
margine dorsali regulariter curvato, postice valde prosiliente et in 
utraque extremitate cum margine ventrali angulum vix distinctum, 
rotundatum formante; lunula areaque nullis, ligamento occulto, 
longe conspicuo ; pagina interna luteo-alba, ad marginėm pallidis- 
sime albido-ccernlescente ; sinu palliari magno, late triangulari, 
valde sursum directo, in apice rotundatim biangulato, lineis sub- 
rectis incluso ; lamina cardinali lata, pianissimo, dentibus in valva 
sinistra fere agualiter configuratis, tertio in valva dextra 
crassissimo, subprofunde bisulcato ; margine interiore subdense 
denticulato. 
Long. 46, alt. 48, crass. 27"5 mill. 
Hab. Japan. 

The characters of this pretty shell bear a stiong resemblance to 
those of C.jlavida of Deshayes, and it was after much hesitation that 
I decided to separate it as species. I find it differing, in its more 
ąuadrangular outline, in its more obliąue shape, the umbones being a 
little uearer to the anterior extremity, in the absence of the longitu- 
dinal Unes, which are present at the hiuder part of C.jlavida, in the 
broader sinus of the palHal impression which is biangulated at the 
apex, and in the character of the hinge, viz. the teeth in the left 
valve being all of similar strength, and the third tooth in the right 
valve very much elevated, produced, and deeply divided. 

12. Cyclina BOMBYCiNA, Romer. C. testą fere exacte orbiculari, 
solidiuscula, antice rotundatim productiuscula, lentiformi, modice 
tumida, sub(equilateraU ; concentrice dense Uratą, liris rotundatis, 
ad apices tennissimis, basin versus sensim vix crassioribus, medio 
regularibus, ad extremitatem posticam rudibus, irregulariter con- 
fiuentibus , lineis longitudinalibus impressis, ccerulesceniibus, per 
li7-as concentricas interruptis, medio exilissimis, de7isissimis, ad 
latera, pracipue postice, remoticribus, expressioribus ornata ; 
colore e zonis pallide cecrulescentibus et flavicantibusmixto, super- 
ficie serico simili nitente ; umbonibus acutiusculis , subrecte elevatis, 
incurvatis, contiguisąue, vix medianis ; lunula areaque nullis ; 
ligamento im7ne7-so, conspicuo; pagina interna albida, medio fla- 
vicante, supra pallide c(Ei-ulea, ad margine7n ianthi7ia; sinu palliari 
medioc7-i, sublate aperto, in apice anguste roiundato, lineis inclu' 



125 

dentibus subundulatis ; dentibus cardinalibus anticis in valva 
sinistra superficialiter bisulcatis, tertio pertenui, dente medio in 
valva dextra cuneato, e lainellis duabus complicatis composito, 
tertio curvato, profunde diviso ; margine interno dense et fortiter 
dentato. 
Long. 38, alt. 37-5, crass. 21 mill. 
Hab. Japau. 
Var. Testą tumidiore, zonis flavidis prcevalentibus, liris transversis 

infra remotioribus, lineis longitudinalibus medio obsoletis. 
Hab. China. 

This species is easily known by its being nearly eąuilateral and 
well-rounded, and by the fine impressed lines running from the apex 
to the base, which are scarcely ^isible in the middle, but grow 
stronger at the sides, particularly at the hinder part of the shell, 
where they show a pale cerulean colour. The regular and close-set 
transverse strise produce a kind of silky appearance, which, in con- 
nexion with the pale bluish and yello\vish bands, gives the shell a 
very agreeable aspect. There are pecuUarities of the pallial sinus 
and of the hinge which also distinguish this species from all its con- 
geners. 

13. Cyclina pectuncultjs, Romer. C. testą orbiculari, vix 

altiore quam longa, antice rotundutim productiore, ad marginėm 
basalem posticum vix dependente, lentiformi, valde tumida, soli- 
diuscula, attamen diaphana, modice ineeguilaterali ; umbonum re- 
gione transversim tenuissime striata, striis marginėm, ventralem 
versus crassioribus, et infra in liris rotundatis, irregularibus, 
mutatis ; albida, irregulariter ferrugineo maculata et punctata, 
superficie subnitente ; umbonibus tumidis, valde prominulis, oblique 
incurvis, contiguis, in ^ longitudinis collocatis ; area lunulague 
nullis, ligamento late conspicuo ; intus lactea, nitida ; sinu palliari 
mediocri, sublate aperto, apice expanso, subrotundato, lineis sub- 
rectis incluso ; lamina cardinali lata, dentibus cardinalibus validis, 
medio in valva dextra cuneiformi, subaaito, tertio crasso, oblique 
producto superficialiter bisulcato ; margine interno dense denticu- 
lato. 
Long. 39, alt. 40, crass. 26 mill. 
Hab. China. 

Among the little varied forms presented by the genus Cyclina, the 
species described is remarkable for the elevation of its umbones and 
the produced dependent hinder part of its basai margin. It is there- 
fore not unlike in shape to a Pectunculus, and I know only one species 
in my own coUection, and named by me Cyclina intumescens, with 
which it can be compared. Near the umbones the surface is covered 
with very fine transverse lines, which become stronger by degrees 
and finally change into rude, irregular, thick-set striae. Although 
the valves are tolerably solid, yet they are prettily transparent, and 
produce at the inner part a china-like lustre. C. intumescens is a 
thicker and more obliąue shell, of a rounded ąuadrangular outline, 
presenting fine longitudinal lines. 



126 

Note. — In the genus Cyclina, there are usually placed several 
species with no Jenticulated inner margin, witli thin valves, very fine 
transverse lines at the surface, and which seem to have alwaYS a 
superfieial lunula cireumseribed by an impressed line. These species 
are : — Fenus kroyeri, Philippi, Abbild. etc. iii. p. 26. 78. No. 9. 
t. 7. f. 9 ; Dosinio tenuis, Recluz, Journ. de Conch. tome 3°% 1852, 
p. 250. t. 10. f. 1, \vhich is decidedly no Dosinia ; Artemis inflata, 
Sow., Thesaur. Concti. p. 661. No. 22. t. 171. f- 25 ; Artemis tenuis, 
Sow. ibid. No. 23. t. 141. f. 22 ; Cyclina subąuadrata, Hanley, B. M. 
Maz. Cat. p. 66. No. 91 {Artemis saccata, Gould) ; Cyclina pro- 
ducta, Carpenter, Proc. Z. S. L. 1856, p. 161. No. 6. I thiuk these 
species do not agree very well with Cyclina, and that it vvould be 
justifiable to separate them as a subgenus. These observations show 
the importance of studying the animals of both groups, between which, 
when esaniined, I am convinced there will be found to exist consider- 
able differences. 



February 28th. 

John Gould, Esq., F.R.S., V.P., iu the Chair. 

The folio wing papers were read : — 

1. Note on the Punjab Sheep living in the Society's Gar- 
DENS. By Philip Lutley Sclater, M. A., Secretary to 

THE SOCIETY. 

(Mammalia, Pls. LXXIX., LXXX.) 

In August 1854 the Society received from Brigadier-General Hear- 
sey, of the Bengal Array, and Lieut. Bartlett, a fine living pair of 
Wild Sheep, which had beeu obtained by those gentlemen in the 
Salt-range of the Punjab in 1853, The female has twice bred in 
the Gardens, in 1858 and 1859, and produced on each occasion two 
female kids, so that we now possess a malė and five females of this 
animal, all in a robust statė of health, and likely to continue to pro- 
pagate their species. 

This Sheep has hitherto been labelled Vigne's ■Wild Sheep (0»t» 
viffnii), under the supposition that it belonged to the species described 
under that name by Mr. Blyth in our ' Proceedings ' (1840, p. 70), 
and subseąuently in the ' Annals and Magazine of Natūrai History ' 
(vii. p. 251). My present object is to prove that we have misnamed 
this animal, and that it is really quite distinct from the Shapoo or 
■Wild Sheep of Ladakh and Thibet, which should more properly bear 
the name of Ovis viffnii. 

My attention was first called to this point by my friend Captain 




R 



127 

Speke, who, upon seeing the present animals in the Gardens, at once 
declared them to be rery different from those which he had himself 
pursued and shot in the higher regions of Little Thibet. There 
seems to be little doubt that Mr. Blyth's original name, Ovis vignit, 
comprehends both species. He associates together under the 
šame scientific appellation " the Shd " (Shapoo) " of Little Thibet," 
and the " Koch of the Sulimani range between India and Khoras- 
san*." His description is perhaps rather referable to the latter, 
being the animal which we have alive in our Gardens. Now I think 
that the name Ovis vignii should be restricted to the Tibetan animal 
for two reasons : first, because the Sheep discovered by Mr. Vigne 
in " Little Tibet, where the river breaks through the chain of the 
Himalayasf ," and dedicated to its discoverer by Mr. Blyth, was doubt- 
less the Shapoo ; secondly, because the other animal, the Koch, or 
Oorial of the Sulimani range, has already been well described by, and 
received another scientific name from, Capt. Hutton ; so that by this 
course the objectionable necessity of proposing a new name is ob- 
viated. 

I now proceed to endeavour to show the differences between these 
two species : — 




1. Ovis VIGNII. The Shapoo. (PI. LXXIX.) 

Ovis vignii, Blyth, P. Z. S. 1840, p. 70 ; Ann. N. H. vii. p. 251 ; 
Journ. As. Soc. Beng. x. p. 873 (partim) ; Horsfield, Cat. Mus. 
E. I. C. p. 175 (specimen A, from Strachey's collection) ; Gray's 
Cat. Ungulata in Brit. Mus. (1852) p. 172 ; Adams, P. Z. S. 1858, 
p. 526 (partim).— Shd of Little Thibet (Blyth) .—Shapoo of the 
Tibetans (Speke). 

Malė. — Horns subtriangular, rather compressed laterally, rounded 

* P. Z. S. 1840, p. 70. t P- Z- S. 1840, p. 72. 



128 

posteriorly, transversely sulcated, curving outwards and backvvards 
from theskull, points divergent ; general colour above brownish- 
grey, beneath paler ; belly white ; beard short, of stiffish brownish 
hairs. 

Female. — Very similar to the malė, but with the horas shorter (?). 

Hab. Ladakh, at an alt. of 12-14,000 feet {Speke) (Strachey). 

Mus. Brit., East India Company. 

This Wild Sheep inhabits the elevated regions of Ladakh, where 
it has been pursued and obtained by Capt. Speke, ("lapt. Strachey, 
and others since its discovery by Vigne. There are examples in the 
British Museum and in the collection of the East India Company, 
from the latter of which the figure is taken, being the specimen pro- 
cured in Ladakh by Capt. Strachey. 




2. Ovis CYCLOCEROs. The Oorial. (PI. LXXX.) 
" TVild Sheep of Hindoo Koosh, Capt. Hay, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 
ix. p. 440. — Ovis cycloceros, Hutton, Caleutta Journ. N. H. ii. 1842, 
p. 514. pi. 19 (1842). — Ovis vignii, Blyth (partim) : Adams, P. Z. S. 
1858, p. 526 ; Horsfield, Cat. Mus. E. I. C. p. 175 (spec. B.). 

Malė. — Horns subtriangular, much compressed laterally and pos- 
teriorly, transversely sulcated ; curving outwards and returning in- 
•wards towards the face, points convergent ; general colour rufous- 
brown, face livid, side of mouth and chin white ; belly, legs below 
the knees, and feet white ; blotch on flanks, outside of legs, and 
strong lateral line blackish ; a profuse black beard from throat to 
breast, intermixed with some white hairs, reaching to the level of the 
knees. 



129 

Fetnale. — More uniform pale brown, beneath paler, belly whitish, 
no bearei ; horns quite short and straight, about 3 inches long. 

Hab. Sulimani, range of Punjab, altitude 2000 feet, and extend- 
ing into Aifghanistan ; Kojeh Aniraun, Hindoo Koosh, and Huzarreh 
Hills (Hutton). 

Mus. East India Company (horns). 

Vivario, Soc. Zool. Londinensis. 

The very fact of this animal mhabitmg the lo'vv Salt range of the 
Punjab, at an altitude of 2000 feet, would indicate the probability of 
its distinctness from the preceding, vvhich is not found uuder an ele- 
vation of 12,000. The Oorial has been well described by Major 
Hay, Captain Hutton, and Dr. Adams, as above referred to, and it 
is hardly necessary to repeat the details of its habits and manners. 
The differences in the horns, as well as those of its general external 
appearance, are sufficiently obvious, as will appear on exaniination of 
the figures, to leare no doubt as to its specific difference from the 
Shapoo. The skull and horns from Griffith's Affghanistan collection, 
referred to in Dr. Horsfield's 'Catalogue of Mammalia' (p. 1/5), 
belong to this species. On comparing the skull with that of the 
Shapoo, we observe a general resemblance. But it may be noted that 
the suborbital pits in the present species are smaller, deeper, and 
more rounded, the nasal bones are considerably shorter and more 
pointed, and the series of molar teeth (formed in each skull of three 
premolars and three true molars) measures only 2*85 instead of 3"20 
inches in totai length. 

At least two other distinct species of Wild Sheep are found within 
the limits of our Indian possessions. Through the kindness of Mr. 
Leadbeater, Capt. Speke, Mr. F. Moore, and others, I am enabled 
to exhibit a tolerably complete series of the škulis, the horns of these, 
and those before alluded to, by which the differences of all four 
species are appreciable at first glance. 

1. The Ovis hodgsoni, Blyth, P. Z. S. 1840, p. 65 ; Ovis ammon 
et O, ammonoides, Hodgs. ; Ovis argali, ex Mont. Himalay., J. E. 
Gray, the Ammon or Argali of the higher Himalayan rangės, the 
Banbhera of Nepal, and N'yan of Thibet. It is, I believe, not yet 
quite certain that this magnificent Sheep is identical with the Ovis 
ammon, Linn. (^gosceros argali, Palias), of Siberia. Mr. Blyth's 
appellation appears to be the first given to the Himalayan animal. 
Two fine malęs and a female of this species are in the Museum of the 
East India Company. 

Hab. Cachar region of Nepal (Hodgs.) ; Ladakh {Speke). 

2. Ovis nahoor, Hodgson (O. burrhel, Blyth ?) ; the Burrhel or 
Bharal of English sportsmen ; Nahoor of Nepal . 

I confess I am not able at present to appreciate thoroughly the 
differences between the O. nahoor and O. burrhel as insisted on by 
Mr. Blyth * . There are not sufficient specimens of the whole animal 
at present accessible to enable one to express a decided opinion on 

* P. Z. S. 1840, pp. 66,67. 
No. 425. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



130 

the subject. But, comparing the horns of O. nahoor in the British 
Museum, sent by Mr. Hodgson from Nepal, 'svitli those of the only 
example of the Burrhel in the šame collection (being the specimen 
noticed by Mr. Ogilby in P. Z. S. 1838, p. 79, as obtained by Lieut. 
Thomas Smith uear the Barinda Pass, and referred to as belong- 
ing to this species by Mr. Blyth himself, P. Z. S. 1840, p. 68), I 
can see but shght grounds for distinction, as far as the horns go. 
The specimen in ąuestion is certaiuly coloured in an extraovdinary 
way, being of a " dark and rich chestnut-brown." The ordinary 
Burrhel {Oi-is nahoor), as may be seen by the fine skins of both 
sexes of this species, obtained by Capt. Townely Parker, now before 
us, is of a light brownish ash-eolour, white below, with the breast- 
mark, a stripe ou each side, and a stripe down the front of each leg, 
dark chestnut. According to " jNIountaineer," who has giveu an 
excellent account of the Burrhel and its habits in the ' India Sporting 
Review' (vol. vi. p. lo2), these chestnut markings become black in 
fully adult malęs, and are " most observable immediately after the 
animal changes his coat, which happens in July." "With reference 
to the Ovis burrhel of Mr. Blyth, " of a dark mahogany colour," 
the šame experienced observer rernarks, "Amongst some hundreds 
I haye killed and many thousands I have seen in my excursions I 
have never met with but one variety." This he deseribes nearly in 
the šame terms as I have mentioned above. 

The horns of the Ovis polii of Central Asia are sometimes brought 
to this countrj' from the Himalayas ; but there is no reason to be- 
lieve that this animal occurs nearer to India than the plateau of 
Pamir. 



2. NOTES ON SOME YoUNG HyBRID BeARS BRED IN THE GaR- 
DENS OF THE ZoOLOGICAL SoCIETY. By A. D. BaRTLETT. 

In the Bear-pit in the Gardeus a malė Black Bear of America (Ursus 
americamis) has been kept for a long time with a female of the Eu- 
ropean Brown Bear ( Ursus ardos) . In the month of May these 
bears were seen to copulate, and on the 31st of lašt December the 
female produced three young ones ; whieh, when boru, were naked 
and blind, and about the size of a full-grown rat. 

The mothef was seen to carry one of these young ones in her 
mouth a day or two after they vrere born, and, as it disappeared, it is 
snpposed that she devoured it. Probably it was not healthy. The 
other two remained and continued to grow, and at the age of five 
weeks were as large as a common rabbit. Their eyes began to open 
by this time ; they were covered with a short thick fur, and were 
nearly black. 

On examining these young bears it was found they were malė and 
female, and the number and situation of the teats appears somewhat 
remarkable. They have six teats, four of thera placed in front be- 
tvreen the fore legs, and two of them in the lower part of the abdo- 
men. Another singular fact is, that the female during the time she 



131 



was suckling these young ones fed most sparingly, and rarely took 
any drink. From the before-mentioned observations we may infer 
that the period of gestation of the Bears is about seven montbs. 



3. Note on the supposed occurrence of the Hirundo 

BICOLOR OF NORTH AmERICA IN EnGLAND. By AlFRED 

Newton, M.A., F.Z.S., &c. 

I venture to send for exhibition a skin of the Noith American 
Hirundo bicolor of VieiUot, which was formerly the property of my 
late very good friend Mr. John Wolley, and which there can be httle 
doubt was obtained from a bird killed in this country, though Mr. 
"Wolley, with that admirable caution which distinguished him in re- 
cording the reported occurrence (' Zoologist,' 1853, p. 3806), was 
careful to mention that there was " a possibiUty of mistake " in the 
matter. 

I think that perhaps some members of the Society will view this 
specimen with a certain amount of interest ; but, apart from this, my 
object in its exhibition is mainly to draw the attention of naturalists 
to a matter which is every day becoming of greater consequence to 
those ornithologists who chiefly occupy themselves with the Avi- 
fauna of any one district. I refer to the occurrence within parti- 
cular limits of strong examples of exotic species. It is not only 
"British bird" students who find in these alien immigrants a great 
cause of perplexity. To whatever country we go, we are, perhaps 
before we have well ascertained the number of the hondfide species, 
puzzled by some wanderer turning up exactly where he was least 
wanted. In my owu opinion, the ornithologist mušt accept his 
position with all its responsibiUties ; he chooses to study a class of 
beings, some of whom, for all sublunary purposes at least, are blėst 
with almost infinite powers of locomotion. He mušt, therefore, not 
complain if in the course of a morning's walk here in Englaud, an 
Australian Swift flies in his face, or he picks up a dead Crossbill of a 
Transatlantic species ; and he mušt invoke no I)eus ex machina in the 
shape of an auxiliary-screw clipper or a careless aviary-keeper to 
account for the incident. Facts hke these hardly admit of a doubt, 
and force themselves day by day more and more upon the notice of 
the thoughtful naturahst. For some time, indeed, European orni- 
thologists have been accustomed to regard the properly authenticated 
appearance of an exotic species, which there may be good reason to 
suppose have reached our shores without intentional human aid, 
as sufficient ground for including it in the list of our birds. But as 
observers have of late so largely increased, so have these occurrences 
been more frequently noticed ; and it seems absolutely necessary to 
prescribe some limit to prevent our really native species from being 
outnumbered by these foreigners. The difficulty is to know where 
to draw the line ; and to this point I would invite the careful con- 
sideration of naturalists. It may be all very vrell to "call Thalassi- 



132 

droma toilsoni and Mergus cucullatus European birds ; but because 
a single individual of Regulus calendulus ovDendroeca virens has 
reached the 01d World, it is absurd to include either of those species 
in its Fauna. I cite these instances, because they are all from that 
continent whence most of our occasioual visitants arrive ; so much 
so, tbat one is almost driven to the conclusiou that there is no primd 
facie reason why esamples of the greater number of birds of Eastern 
North America should not, favente zephyro (the prevailing strong 
wind in Western Europe), make their appearance on our shores in 
course of time. Then, on the other hand, the lašt two additions to 
the list of so-called " British birds " have been from the opposite 
quarter. Are Syrrhaptes paradoxus and Xema ichthya'ėhis to take 
their places in the books elucidating British Ornithology by the side 
of the Red Grouse and the Peewit Guli ? It appears to me that we 
gain nothing by deferring a decision on the subject, and I trust that 
these remarks will not be deemed unnecessary by those who are 
competeut to deal with the matter. 
Elveden, 28 February, 1860. 



4. Description of a New Genus of Boid.e discovered by 
Mr. Bates on the Upper Amazon. By Dr. J. E. Gray. 

(Reptilia, PI. XXIV.) 

Fam. BoiD^. 

Chrysenis, n. g. 

Head rather large, rather depressed, covered with scales, the front 
half covered with small symmetrical shields, as follows : — two pair 
in an arched series behind the rostrai and nasal, and four pair formiug 
a ring round the pair of small centrai frontai shields ; loreal shields 
two ; eyes surrounded by a series of small shields, with a series of 
four or five small superciliary shields above them ; forehead, crown, 
and cheeks covered vpith small granular scales ; rostrai plate with a 
pit on each edge ; upper labial shields low, with a large deep pit on 
their hinder edge ; front lower labial shields simple, high, the hinder 
short, with a very deep pit on the hinder edge of each of them ; 
nostrils situate between two moderately sized, nearly equal, nasal 
shields ; pupils erect, oblong ; body conipressed, rounded above and 
belovv ; tail conical, with a single series of subcaudal platės. 

This genus resembles Epicrates as to the shields on the muzzle, 
but differs in the distinctness and form of the pits on the labial 
shields. 

CuRYSENIS BATESIl (PI. XXIV.). 

Pale brown, with a series of oblong subangular black-edged pale 
spots on the hinder part of the back, which become broader and 
more distinct as they approach the end of the tail, and with a series 
of distant small roundish black-edged spots on the lower part of the 




>?iV% 



Proc.Z S.Mollusca 1 




G. B- Soverby.liih. 



kiceni Brooks.lilK 



1 . Cylindrella splendida.-P/r. 2. C.arcLospira, j^/r. 3. C. grandis. Pfr. 
4.Hel3x acmella. i'/^. 5.H. mouhoti. /"/r. 6 . H asc[uatoria , P/r. 
7 H bougainvmei , /'/^ B, M \5\s, Pfr 9. H. apoILo,' P/^. 



Proc. Z.S.Mollusca Ll 




■fecentBiate.IiiĮi. 



G B Sowerby. iith 

iCypraeaconipta.,iW&. 2 Turcica coreensis, /Je. Sueptunea fuscolineata.Pjc. 
4Bulimus colTiLrmus.P/?-. B.B.fraseri.P^. G.B.sataeaius. 7. B.toucardi, 15^ 
8. B stutchturyi, Pfr. 9 . B . schombucgki . Pfr. iO . B . t\jmen , pf'r 



133 

middle of the body, the hinder spot largest and nearest to the edge 
of the ventral shield. 
Hab. Upper Amazon. 



5. Descriptions of Thirty-six New Species of Land-shells 
FROM Mr. h. Cuming's Collection. By Dr. L. Pfeiffer. 

(Mollusca, Pls. L., LI.) 

1. Helix bougainvillei, Pfr. (PI. L.fig, 7.) T. imperforata, 
glohoso-conoidea, solidiuscula, striatula, irregulariter malleata 
et suleis 7ionnullis spiralibus notata, nitida, saturate castanea ; 
spira conoidea, vertice subtili, obtusulo ; sutura pallide mar- 
ginata ; mifr. 5 modice convexi, regulariter accrescentes, ulti- 
mus rotundatus, peripheria obtuse angulatus ; columella lata, 
oblique substricte descendens ; apertura diagonalis, rotundato- 
lunaris, intus nitide ccBrulescens ; peristoma albo-callosum, bre- 
viter expansum, marginibus callo crassiusculo junctis, dextr(> 
regulariter arcuato. 

Diam. maj. 62^, min. 51, alt. 39 mill. 
Hab. Bougainville Island. 

2. Helix apollo, Pfr. (PI. L. fig. 9.) T. imperforata, turbi- 
nato-depressa, solida, carinata, obligue striata et sub lente mi- 
nutissime granulata, opaca, lutea, lineis fuscis irregulariter 
circumdata ; sjjira breviter conoidea, obtusa; anfr. 4 vix con- 
veooiusculi, ultinius acute carinatus, antice leviter descendens, 
basi convexus ; apertura diagonalis, rhombeo-lunaris, intus 
lactea ; perist. crassum, album, breviter rejlexum, margine 
basali dilatato, in regione umbilicali adnato, tuberculo elongato 
prope insertionem prcedito. ' 

Diam. maj. 46į, min. 87|-, alt. 22 mill. 
Hab. Isle of Cuba. 

3. Helix ISIS, Pfr. (PI. L. fig. 8.) T. umbilicata, depressa, 
solidula, striatula, unicolor castanea ; spira vix elevata ; anfr. 
5 vix convexiusculi, sensim accrescentes, tdtimus antice subde- 

flexus, peripheria obsoletissime angulatus, subtus convexior ; 
apertura obligua, late lunaris, intus submargaritacea ; perist. 
album, marginibus vix convergentibus, supero subhorizontali, 
expanso, basali late reflexo, ad insertionem breviter ascendente, 
umbilicum mediocrem lamina dilatata semioccultante, 

Diam. maj. 45, min. 38, alt. 19 mill. 

Hab. Admiralty Islands. 

4. Hehx ^auATORiA, Pfr. (PI. L. fig. 6.) T. imperforata, 
conoideo-depressa, solida, striatula et subtilissime punctato- 
gramdata, subcarinata, saturate castanea ; spira convexo- 
conoidea ; anfr. 5, convexiusculi, ultimus antice dejlexus, rotun- 
datus, turgidus ; apertura perobliqua, sinuato-lunaris ; perist. 



134 

fusco-carneum, incrassatum, reflexum, marginibus callo funicu- 
lari junctis, supero arcuato, intits calloso {callo ad dextram 
abrupte desinente), dextro acute unidentato, basali dilatato 
subappresso, intus medio tuberculo valido compresso munito. 

Diam. maj. 38, min. 32, alt. 20 mill. 

Hab. Republic of Ecuador {Mr. Fraser). 

5. Helix livesayi, Pfr. T. umbilicata, lenticularis, carinata, 
solidiuscula, capillaceo-striata et striis spiralibus obsolete 
gramdata, sericea, corneo-albida, fasciis castaneis svperne 2, 
basi unica ornata ; spira conidea, obtusa ; sutura albomargi- 
nata ; anfr. 5 convexiusculi, ultimus carina acuta, promine7ite, 
alba munitus, aperturam versus superne convexior, inde angus- 
tatus, subito deflexus, subtus scrobiculatus ; apertura fere hori- 
zontalis, transverse subrkotnbeo-ovalis ; perist. continuum, 
album, expansuvi et rejlexum, margine basali intus valide uni- 
dentatum, umbilicum angustum semitegente. 

Diam. maj. 25, min. 21, alt. 10 mill. 
Hab. Philippine Islands. 

6. Helix casetjs, Pfr. T. umbilicata, depressa, tenuiuscula, 
irregidariter striata et sub lente minutissime granulata, dia- 
phana, albido-cornea vel pallide rufescens ; spira vix elevata ; 
sutura impressa ; anfr. A^ planiusculi, tdtiinus superne obtuse 
carinatus, antice dejlexus, basi turgidits, circa umbilicum conicum 
angulatus ; apertura diagonalis, subelliptica ; perist. album, 
undiąue sublate refiexum, marginibus approximatis, basali 
leviter arcuato, juxta umbilicum dilatato. 

Diam. maj. 18, min. 15, alt. 9 mill. 
Hab. Šiam. 

7. Helix albicostis, Pfr. T. sublate umbilicata, depressa, 
tenuis, granulato-rugosa et pilis brevibus obsita, cornea, cos- 
tulis obliąuis albidis mmiita ; spira parum elevata ; anfr. 4 
convexiusculi, ultimus superne subangulatus, supra angulum 
leviter sulcatus, antice defiexus ; apertura perobliąua, ovalis ; 
perist. tenue, marginibus f ere contiguis, supe7'0 expansiusculo, 
basali breviter reJlexo. 

Diam. maj. 9į, min. 8, alt. 4^ mill. 
Hab. Ahmednuggur, India. 

8. Helix hetera, Pfr. T. mediocriter umbilicata, conoideo- 
depressa, tenuiuscula, oblicpie irregulariter rugulata et undiąue 
minute granulata, pallide lutescens, fasciis 3 rufis, 1 suturali, 
2 approximatis periphericis cincta ; sįnra breviter conoidea ; 
anfr. 6 modice convexi, lente accrescentes, ultimus antice vix 
descendens ; apertura obliąua, lunaris, intus submargaritacea ; 
perist . fusco-carneum, breviter reftexum, juxta umbilicum dila- 
tatum. 

Diam. maj. 19, min. 16, alt. \Q^ mill. 
Hab. Unknown. 



135 

9. Helix acmella, Pfr. (PI. L. fig. 4.) T. subobtecte perfo- 
ratą, turhinata, solidula, laevigata, nitida, lutea, sursum palli- 
dior ; spira regulariter turbinata, vertice minutissimo, acuto ; 
anfr. 6 convexi, ultimus non descendens, basi planior ; aper- 
tura diagonalis, subąuadrangulari-ovalis ; perisi, album, re- 

Jlexum, margine dextro subJlexuoso, columellari longe adnato, 

umbilicum canaliformem fingente. 
Diam. raaj. 26, min. 22, alt. 25 mill. 
Hab. Admiralty Islands, 

10. Helix liratula, Pfr. T. umbilicata, trochiformis, tenui- 
uscula, striata et liris filiformibus subconfertis cincta, diaphana, 
oleoso-micans, pallide corneo-lutescens ; spira conica, apice 
obtusa ; sutura impressa ; anfr. 7g convexiusculi, ultitnus an- 
gulatus, non descendens, basi Icevior, convexior ; apertura vix 
obliqua, subangulato-lunaris ; perist. simplex, rectiim, tnargine 
columellari declivi, juxta umbilicum perangustum subdilatato. 

Diam. maj. 6, min. 5^, alt. 4 mill. 

Hab. Ceylon, 6000', under decayed woods {Mr. Thioaites). 

11. IIelix batesii, Pfr. T. umbilicata, depressa, tenuis, dense 
et obliaus plicatula, cornea, pliculis albidis ; spira convexa, 
parum elata ; anfr. 5 convexiusculi, regulariter accrescentes, 
ultimus non descendens, subdepressus, basi convexior ; umbilicus 
latus, į diametri subceąuans ; apertura diagonalis, rotundato- 
lunaris ; perist. simplex, rectum, margine basali arcuato, ad 
insertionem vix patente. 

Diam. maj. U, min. 9^, alt. 5 mill. 
Hab. Upper Amazon {Mr. Bates). 

12. Helix turneri, Pfr. T. anguste et clauso-umbilicata, de- 
pressa, subdiscoidea, tenuiuscula, conferte plicato-costata, dia- 
phana, nitidula, corneo-lutescens, rufo variegata et ad suturam 
distincte maculata ; spira vix elevata ; sutura denticidata ; 
anfr. 4 convexiusculi, regulariter accrescentes, ultitnus, subde- 
pressus, non descendens, loco umbilici lamina vitrea obtectus ; 
aperturafere diagonalis, subtriangulari-lunaris; perist.simplex, 
rectum, marginibus distantibus, supero antrorsum arcuato, 
basali medio denticulo albo munito, ad hisertionem subdilatato. 

Diam. maj. 7\, min. Gį, alt 3 mill. 
Hab. New Caledonia {Mr. Turner). 

13. Helix NAGPORENSIS, Pfr, T. lūtisstme umbiUcata, depressū, 

tenuiuscula, obliąue striata, opaca, carneo-albida ; spira 7nedio 
vix prominula ; anfr. 4 convexiusculi, ultimus subtus vix latior, 
antice deflexus et subtus subconstrictus ; apertura perobligua, 
transverse ovalis ; perist. tenue, marginibus convergentibus, 
supero recto, basali breviter reflexo. 

Diam. maj. 10, min. 8, alt. 4 mill. 

Hab. Nagpore, India {Mr. Jerdon). 



136 

14. Helix TRisTRAMi, Pfr. T. late umbilicata, perdepressa, 
acute carinata, tenuis, oblique plicato-strata, opaca, sordide 
albida, corneo obsolete variegata ; spira vix elevata ; sutura 
carina leviter exserta marginata ; anfr. 5 planiusculi sensim 
accrescentes, ultimus infra carinam compressam, crenulatam 
convexus, antice non descendens ; apertura obliąua, subsecuri- 

formis ; perist. rectum, intus sublabiatum, margine supero an- 
trorsum arcuato. 
Diam. maj. 12, min. \Q\, alt. 4 mill. 
Hab. Interior of Tunis {Mr. Tristram). 

15. Helix mendicaria, Pfr. T. mediocriter umbilicata, co- 
noideo-setniglobosa, solidula, striata et sub lente breviter pilosa, 
cornea ; spira conoidea, vertice subtili nitido ; anfr. 4Į turgidi, 
ultimus vix descendens ; apertura parum obliąua, lunato-sub- 
circularis; perist. simp>lex, rectum, viarginibus convergentibus, 
columellari vis dilatato, non reJlexo. 

Diam. maj. 8, min. 7, alt. 4f mill. 
Uab. Interior of Tunis {Mr. Tristram). 

16. Helix (Nanina) DOHRNiANA, Pfr. T. perfoTūta, depresso, 
suborbicularis, tenuiuscula, sublcBvigata, panim diaphana, lutes- 
centi-grisea ; spira breviter conoidea, vertice minuto, obtuso ; 
anfr. 6į convexiusculi, regulariter accrescentes, ultimus non 
descendens, supra medium obsolete subangtdatus, basi vix con- 
vexior, nitidior ; apertura f ere verticalis, transverse lutiaris ; 
perist. simplex, rectum, margine columellari declivi, levissime 
arcuato, ad perforafionem refle.riusculo. 

Diam. maj. Slį, min. 28, alt. 15 mill. 
Hab. ^i&m {Mr. Mouhot). 

17. Helix (Nanina) mouhoti, Pfr. (PI. L. fig. 5.) T. perfo- 
rata, orbiculato-depressa, tenuiuscula, minute costulato-striata 
et superne lineis spiralibus impressis decussata, superne pallide 
cinnamomea, basinitida, corneo-albida ; spira convexa ; sutura 
rufulo-marginata ; anfr. 6 convexiiisculi, lente accrescentes, 
ultimus non descendens, subtus convexior ; apertura obligua, 
lunaris ; perist. simplex, rectum, margine columellari leviter 
arcuato, ad perforationem apertam triangulatim reflexo. 

Diam. maj. 26, min. 23, alt. 14 mill. 
Rab. Šiam (il/;-. Mouhot). 

18. BuLiMūS SATURANUS, Pfr. T. imperforata, subfusiformi- 
oblonga, solidu, lilaceo-carnea, fusco-flammulata ; spira conica, 
apice acutiusculo, albo ; anfr. 6i summi Icevigati, seąuentes 
oblique striati, idtimus lavior, rarioribus nommllis latis nigri- 
cantibus munitus, spira paulo brevior, basi attenuatus ; colu- 
mella crassa, tortą, nigra ; apertura subverticalis, acuminato- 
oblonga ; perist. nigrum, breviter re^exum, marginibus callo 
nigro junctis. 

Long. 76, diam. 33 mill. 

Hab. Pallatanga, Republic of Ecuador {Mr. Fraser). 



137 

19. BuLiMUS FRASERi, Pfr. (PI. LI. fig. 5.) T. imperforato, 
oblongo-fusiformis, solida, longitudinaliter conferte striata et 
lineis impressis remotis cincta, sub epidermide virenti-fulva, 
non nitente, carnea, /ascitą interruptis sagittatis vel fulguratim 
conjluentibus atrofuscis ornata ; spira conica, apice obtusula ; 
anfr. 6 convexiusculi, ultimus spiram subcerjuans, basi attenu- 
atus ; columella violacea, superne plica valida munita, basi 
subtorta ; apertura obliųua, semielliptica, basi subangulata, 
intus lactea; perist. roseum, hicrassatum et expansum, viargi- 
nibus callo nitidissitno, lilacino, intrante junctis, columellari 
angusto, adnato. 

Loug. 89, diam. 37 mill. 

Hab. Province of Cuenca, republic of Ecuador (Mr. Fraser). 

20. BuLiMUS scHOMBURGKi, Pfr. (PI. LI. fig. 9.) T. subinių 
perforata, dextrorsa vel sinistrorsa, solida, striatula, sub epi- 
dermide viridi, saturatius lineata et radiatim detrita alba ; 
spira conica, vertice acutiusculo, atro-violaceo ; anfr. 7 con- 
vexiusculi, supremi violaceo-fasciati, ultimus spira brevior, basi 
attenuatus ; columella injlata, substricta, violacea ; apertura 
parum obliąua, truncato-ovalis, intus alba; perist. incrassatum, 
rejlexum, lilaceum, marginibus callo nigro-castaneo junctis, colu- 
mellari dilatato, fornicatim refiexo, subadnato. 

Long. 48, diam. 23 mill. 
Hab. Šiam. 

21. BuLiMus STUTCHBURYi, Pfr. (PI. LI. fig. 8.) T. subum- 
bilicata, ovato-fusiformis, tenuiuscula, striata, striis spiralibus 
subtilissime decussatula, nitida, fulva, lineis saturatioribus 
radiata ; spira subregulariter conica, obtusula ; sutura albo- 
filosa ; anfr. 5 vix convexiusculi, ultimus f longitudinis adtB- 
qua7is, antice arcuatim breviter ascendens, basi attenuatus; 
apertura subauriformis, superne acuminata, scepe tuberculo pa- 
rietali nodiformi coarctata, intus margaritacea ; columella alba, 
leviter plicata ; perist. carneo-fulvum vel album, margine dex- 
tro subregulariter arcuato, expanso et reflexo, columellari dila- 
tato, plano, f ere adnato. 

Long. 53, diam. 11 mill. 

Hab. Erumanga, New Hebrides. 

22. BuLiMUS PYROSTOMUS, Pfr. T. profunde rimata, ovato- 
conica, solidula, striata et striis spiralibus levibus irregulariter 
rotata, castanea, saturatius strigata ; spira conica, acutiuscula ; 
sutura mediocris, simplex ; anfr. 5 modice convexi, ultimus spi' 
ram paido superans, viedio infatus ; columella substricta ; 
apertura vix obliąua, acuminato-ovalis, intus igneo-fusca, nitida; 
perist. incrassatum, rectum, igneum, marginibus callo junctU, 
dextro leviter arcuato, columellari dilatato, libero. 

Long. 42, diam. 19 mill. 

Hab. Erumanga, New Hebrides. 



138 

23. BuLiMus TURNERi, Pfr. (PI. LI. fig. 10.) T. imperforata, 
ovato-acuta, succinoidea, tenuis, striatula, corneo-albida,fasciis 
olivaceo-fuscis, saturatius strigatis, ornata ; spira conica, acu- 
tiuscula ; anfr. 4 convexiusculi, ultimus -f lonyitudinis superans, 
basi vix angustatus ; columella compressa, callosa,filaris ; aper- 
tura parum ohliqua, acuminato-ovalis, intus nitida ; perisč. 
simplex, tenue, breviter expansum, margine dextro subflexuo80, 
columellari adnato. 

Long. 32, diam. 17 mill. 

Hab. Erumanga, New Hebrides (JMr. Turner). 

24. BuLiMTJS coLUBRiNus, Pfr. (PI. LI. fig. 4.) T. umbili- 
cata, fusiformi-oblonga, solidula, striata et sulculis obliquis et 
spiralibus irregulariter granulata, nitida, fulva, strigis fulmi- 
nantibus, nigro-castaneis ornata; spira conica, acuminatius- 
cula, superne nuda, purpurascens ; anfr. 5 convexi, ultimus sjn- 
ram paulo superans, basi saccatus ; columella albida, crassa, 
tortą, leviter prominens ; apertura subverticalis, oblongo-ovalis, 
intus ignea, nitidissima ; perist. subiiicrassatum, albido-limba' 
tum, marginibus callo igneo junctis, dextro breviter expanso, 
columellari dilatato, patente. 

Long. 56, diam. 23 mill. 

Hab. New Caledonia (Mr. Turner'). 

25. Orthalicus boucardi, Pfr. (Pi. LL fig. 7.) T. conico- 
ovata, solidula, striatula, striis spiralibus sub lente vix conspi- 
cuis decussatula, opaca, alba, strigis latis fuscis pieta et vari- 
cibus nigris instructa ; spira conica, obtusula ; sutura subcre- 
nata, albo-marginata ; anfr. 5į convexiuscidi, ultimus spiram 
ceąuans ; columella pilaris, alba, stricte recedens ; apertura 
obliąua, angulato-ovalis, intus alba, nigro-strigata ; perist. rec- 
tum, nigro-limbatum, marginibus callo nitido, nigro-castaneo 

junctis. 
Long. 43, diam. 25-26 mill. 
Hab. Mexico (Mr. Boucard). 

26. AcHATiNA GREViLLEi, Pfr. T. ovato-oblonga, solida, stria- 
tula, sub epidermide tenui, fuscula olivaceo-lutescens ; spira 
conica, obtusa ; sutwa crenulata, late impresso-marginata ; 
anfr. 6-7j supremi minutissime decussati, ultimus spiram supe- 
rans, sublcBvigatus, peripheria obsolete angulatus ; columella 
subtorta, purpurea, anguste truncata ; apertura parum obliqua, 
angulato-ovalis, intus margaritaceo-albida ; perist. tenue, ex- 
pansiusculum, marginibus callo purpureo, sursum pallidiore, 
junctis, dextro repando. 

Long. 105, diam. 55 mill. 
Hab. OldCalabar. 

27. Oleacina indusiata, Pfr. T. ovato-oblonga, solidula, an- 
gulis longitudinalibus et striis confertis decussata, fulva, epi- 
dermide castanea, irregulariter detrita, obtecta ; spira conica. 



139 

apice obtusa ; sutura siibcrenata ; anfr. 5į convexiusculi, uiti- 
mus subinjlatus, a medio deorsum striis spiralibus destitutus ; 
columella arcuata, basi late truncata ; apertura verticalis, acu- 
minato-ovalis, intus margaritacea ; perisi, rectum, acutum. 

Long. 43, diam. 22 mill. 

Hab. La Paradą, Oajaca, Mexico {Mr. Salle). 

28. Cylindrella grandis, Pfr. (PI. L. fig. 3.) T. profunde 
rimata, turrita, late truncata, solidiuscula, oblique Jiloso- 
striata, interstitiis sub lente obliąue striatulis, nitidula, fusco- 
rubella ; sutura sub-albo-marginata ; anfr. superst. 8 convexius- 
culi, ultimus basi obtuse carinatus, antice vix protractus ; colu- 
mella subplicata ; apertura vix obliqua, ovalis, superne suban- 
gulata ; perisi, continuum, breviter expansum, vix reflexiuscu- 
lum. 

Long. 56, diam. 17 mill. 

Hab. Juquila, Mexico {Mr, Boucard). 

29. Cylindrella mexicana, Cuming in litt. T. suleato-rimata, 
iurrita, truncata, leviter arcuaio-siriaia ei sub lenie punciu- 
lata, parum nitens, violaceo-fusca ; sutura levis, subalbida ; 
anfr. superst. 10 planiusculi, ultimus infra medium obtuse an- 
gulaius, antice protractus, dorso carinatus; columella plica com- 
pressa, dentiformi munita ; apertura mx obliąua, irregulariter 
ovalis, superne angulata ; perisi, continuum, undiąue reflexum, 
margine dextro incrassato, regulariter arcuata, sinistro sinuoso. 

Long. 55, diam. 15 mill. 

/3. Minor, anfr, superst. 8. Long. 32|, diam. 10 mill. 
Hab, Mexico. 

30. Cylindrella splendida, Pfr. (PI. L. fig. 1.) T. rimata, 
turrita, late truncata, solidula, obliąue filoso-costulata, nitidula, 
carneo-violacea : sutura sub-albo-Jilosa,crenulaia ; anfr. superst. 
8— 8į modice convexi, ultimus obsoleiissime filo-carinatus, antice 
breviter soluius ; columella subplicata ; apertura f ere verticalis, 
obliąue ovalis; perisi, continuum, album, breviter reflexum, 
superne subangulatum. 

Long. 46, diam. 15 mill. 

Hab. Zacatepec, Mexico {Mr. Boucard'). 

31. Cylindrella ARCTospiRA, Pfr. (PI. L. fig. 2.) T. rimata, 
cylindraceo-turriia, late truncata, solidula, confertim subar- 
cuato-costata, subopaca, albida; sutura profunda, subnodulosa ; 
anfr. superst. 1 8, arde voluti, convexi, ultimus angustior, filo- 
carinatus, antrorsum breviter protractus; apertura parvula, 
obligua, obliąue ovalis; perist. continuum, nitidum, undiąue 
breviter reflexum, margine sinistro lateraliter producto. 

Long. 38, diam. 10 mill. 

Hab. Juąuila, Mexico {Mr. Boucard). 



140 

32. Cylindrella cretacea, Pfr. T. rimata, oblongo-turrita, 
cretacea ; spira medio ventrosior, apice suhtruncata, vel in 
eo7ium brevem abiens ; sutura levis ; anfr. 13-14 vix convexius- 
culi, Icevigati, penultimus semiplicaius, ultimus valide costatus, 
basi compresso-carinatus, antice horizontaliter et breviter pro- 
tractus ; apertura verticalis, subtriangularis ; perist. conti- 
nuum, undiąue rectangule patens. 

Long. 24, diam. 7 mill. 
Hab. Mexico. 

33. Clausilia adamsiana, Pfr. T. vix rimata, turrito-fusi- 
formis, solidula, obliąue distincte et confertim striata, oleo- 
micans, diaphana, fusco-cornea ; spira medio subinjiata, apice 
obtusula ; anfr. 8 convexiuseuli, ultimus angustus, solutus, de- 
orsumprotr actus, basirotundatus; apertura obliqua, pyriformi- 
subcircularis ; lamelio approximatce, suhparallelce, superior 
producta, acuta, inferiore minor, profundior ; lunella distincta, 
filaris, arcuata; plica palatalis 1 supera, subcolumellaris incon- 
spicua; perist. tenue,fusculum, undique subcequaliter expansum. 

Long. 18-19, diam. A\-A\ mill. 
Hab. South America. 

34. Clausilia tristrami, Pfr. T. vix rimata, subfusi/ormi- 
turrita, solidula, conferte filoso-striata, opaca, sordide liliacea ; 
spira convexiusculo-turrita, apice cornea, obtusula ; sutura 
levissima, subsimplex ; anfr. 12 planiusculi, ultimus basi com- 
presso-gibbosus ; apertura verticalis, elliptica, intus carneo- 
fusca; lamellee tenues, convergentes ; lunella crassa, albida, 

arcuata; plica palatalis 1 supera, elongata; subcolumellaris 
inconspicua ; perist. album, continuum, breviter rejlexum, su- 
perne adnatum, margine externo intus subdentato. 

Long. 21, diam. 4į-4į mill. 

Hab. Southern slope of the Atlas, Interior of Tunis {Mr. Tristram). 

35. Cyclophorus confluens, Pfr. T. late umbilicata, de- 
pressa, solida, striis confertis conjluentibus et cruciatis superne 
sculpta, lutea, fasciis castaneis, pallide punctatis, superne con- 
jluentibus, subtus distinctis ornata ; spira subplana ; sutura 
impressa ; anfr. 4į convexiusculi, ultimus ayitice ad insertionem 
cucullatim dilatatus ; apertura diagonalis, subcircularis, intus 
albida; perist. subinterruptum, margine supero elevato, si- 
nuato, dextro expansiiisculo, basali reJlexiusculo, columellari 
angusto. Operc. corneum, arctispirum. 

Diam. maj. 25, min. 20^, alt. 9 mill. 
Hab. Borneo. 

36. Partula TURNERi, Pfr. T. profunde rimato-umbilicata, 
ovato-conica, solidula, sub lente spiraliter undulato-striata, 
nitida, pallide lutescens, strigis saturatioribus radiata ; spira 
conica, acutiuscula ; anfr. 5 convexi, ultimus spira vix brevior, 



141 

basi subcompressus ; columella simplex, leviter arcuata ; aper- 
tura parum obliqua, oblonga ; perist. album, nitidum, undiųue 
latiuscule expansum, marginibus conniventibus, columellari pa- 
tente. 
Long. 22-23, diam. 11-12 mill. 

/3. Paulo ventrosior, albido et isabellino radiata. 
Hab. Erumanga, New Hebrides (Mr. Turner). 



6. Descriptions of New Species of Mollusca from the 
Sandwich Islands. By "VV. Harper Pease. (Communi- 
CATED BY Dr. J. E. Gray.) (Part II.)* 

Genus Polybranchia. 

Body oblongo-ovate, provided with several rows of lobes, commen- 
cing at anterior portion of the body, and extending in continuous 
series around the posterior part ; lobes deciduous. Branchise im- 
bedded in the lobes. Cephalic tentacles bifurcate. 

52. POLYBRANCHIA PELLUCIDA. 

^nma/.— Oblongo-ovate, pellucid. Cephalic tentacles long, cylin- 
drical, slightly tapering to a blunt point, bifurcate from the base, one 
part curving slightly anteriorly and the other posteriorly, grooved (?), 
on the iuside, opposite each other. Labial tentacles of šame shape, 
shorter. The body furnished with four rows of lobes, conimencing 
opposite the cephalic tentacles, and passing in continuous series 
around hinder part of the body, leaving a narrow space on dorsal 
region bare ; lobes deciduous, pellucid, of a jelly-like consistency, 
olose, disposed alternately, those on the edge of the mantle smallest, 
increasing in size as they ascend over the sides and back of the body, 
cylindrical at the base, spreading out in a fan-hke shape, overlapping 
each other. Branchise imbedded in the substance of the lobes, ra- 
mose ; the stem commencing at the base of the lobes and branching 
out, following their form, not extending to the edges of the lobes. 
Foot šame size as the mantle. 

This singular species was very active, when handled casting off 
its upper lobes, and when plunged in alcohol instantly detaching the 
whole. 

53. Vexilla fusco-nigra. 

Shell abbreviately fusiform, ventricose, soHd ; spire moderately 
produced, acute, and less than half the length of the shell ; whorls 
six, convex, furnished ■with close transverse granular ribs ; suture 
impressed ; body-whorl large, ventricose, and marked with coarse, 
remote, revolving impressed lines, and fine longitudinal striae and 
wrinkles; canal short, slightly recurved ; aperture oblong-ovate; outer 

* See P. Z. S. for January 11, antea, p. 18. 



142 

lip thick, soraewhat dilated, and furnished with six or seven intra- 
marginal tubercular teeth, sinuated at its junction with body-wliorl ; 
columella-lip smooth, flattened, slightly callous above. Colour 
black or brownish-black, impressed lines on body-whorl light choco- 
late-colour ; lips purplish-brown ; teeth wliite or bluish. 

Animal. — Foot oblong, truncated in front, rounded behind. Ten- 
tacles cyliiidrically tapering. Eyes lateral and sessile, at about two- 
thirds of the length of the tentacles. Siphon long. Colour dark 
greenisb-slate, and jslosely punctured with black and white. Ten- 
tacles zoned witb brown, tips white. 

54. Engina costata. 

Shell solid, fusiformly ovate, attenuated at both ends ; spire 
acute, half the length of the shell ; whorls seven or eight, convex, 
longitudinally ribbed ; ribs coarse, ronnded, and crossed with nume- 
rous transverse spirai ridges, which become somewhat nodulous on 
the ribs ; interstices betvveen the transverse ridges cancellated with 
raised strise ; sutural lines undulated ; canal produced and slightly 
recurved ; aperture narrow, widest above ; outer lip much thickened 
externally ; edge sharp, furnished with five or six intramarginal tu- 
bercular teeth ; columella-lip with a thin callosity, and transversely 
ribbed on the middle. Colour yellowish-brown ; aperture white. 

55. Engina monilifcra. 

Shell solid, ovate, slightly attenuated at both ends ; spire acute, 
half the length of the shell ; whorls six or seven, convexly angu- 
lated, ribbed longitudinally ; ribs coarse, rounded, crossed vvith spirai 
transverse granular ridges, two on each whorl of the spire ; suture 
faintly defined, bordered by a single rovF of goldeu-coloured granules ; 
body-whorl sculptured šame as the spire ; canal short, slightly re- 
curved ; aperture narrow, oblong ; outer lip nearly straight, thick- 
ened externally, and provided vvith four internal teeth, and three 
small tubercular teeth on the lovrer half of columella-lip. Colour 
white, with a broad, broken, purplish transverse band on the body- 
vyhorl, and a narrow one at the margiu of the suturės. 

56. Engina albocincta. 

Shell ovate, brownish red, with a white transverse band on bodj-- 
whorl ; apex acute, longitudinally ribbed, transversely nodosely 
ridged, finely striated between the ridges ; aperture narrow ; outer 
lip denticulated within ; canal slightly produced and recurved. 

57. HiNDSIA angicostata. 

Shell ovate ; spire blunt ; virhorls rounded, longitudinally ribbed, 
and transversely nodosely ridged ; interstices finely striated ; aper- 
ture oval ; outer lip thickened externally ; edge of lip sharp, ridged 
internally ; columella-lip arched, slightly callous, vyrinkled strise on 
upper part ; canal slightly produced and recurved. Colour light 
brown, longitudinal ribs darker, white band on body-whorl. 



143 

^ / 58. BORSONIA LUTEA. 

j2- Shell fusiform, solid, shining ; whorls convex, angulated at the 

suturės, longitudinally regularly and closely ribbed, crossed by re- 
gular transverse ridges ; aperture narrovv ; outer lip thick, denticu- 
lated within ; canal produced aud recurved. Colour light yellowish- 
brown. 

\r^ •■ 59. BoRSONIA CRASSICOSTATA. 

\^lf Shell fusiform, shining, longitudinally coarsely ribbed, crossed by 
transverse raised strise ; whor]s rounded ; suturės well impressed ; 
aperture narrow ; outer lip denticulated within j canal short, slightly 
recurved. Colour light yellow. 

•^ 60. BoRSONIA BIFASCIATA. 

_ Shell fusiform, shining, longitudinally coarsely ribbed, crossed by 

coarse raised strise ; whorls rounded at the suturės ; outer lip thick, 
incurved, aerrated on the edges at the termination of the transverse 
strise ; canal short and slightly recurved. Colour vphite ; two light 
brown bands on each whorl. 

v 61. Clathurella balteata. 

(^l_ Shell fusiformly ovate, longitudinally coarsely ribbed ; ribs dis- 

posed alternately on the whorls, crossed by transverse raised strise ; 
whorls roundly angulated at the suturės ; outer lip incurved, serrated 
on its edge by the termination of the transverse strise. Colour light 
brown, ornamented by one white band on centre of each whorl. 

62. BORSONIA NEBULOSA. 

Shell fusiformly oblong, finely ribbed longitudinally, striated trans- 
versely, forming regular granules ; suturės slightly angulated and 
smooth ; aperture oval ; outer lip slightly incurved and serrated on 
its edges, striated internally ; canal slightly produced and recurved. 
Colour white, marked vrith irregular, interrupted, longitudinal brown 
lines. 

63. Clathurella producta. 

Shell fusiformly elongate, longitudinally ribbed, finely striated 
)2- transversely ; whorls convex ; suture impressed ; aperture oval ; 
outer lip denticulated ; canal short. Colour yellowish-brown ; a 
darker band of šame colour on each whorl. 

e^ v 64. Clathurella brunnea. 

ąy% Shell fusiformly elongate, ornamented with transverse granular 
ribs, and fine longitudinal raised strise ; whorls slightly convex ; aper- 
ture elongate-oval ; canal short. Colour dark brown. 

u 65. Clathurella CYLTNDRiCA. 

M^% Shell cylindrically fusiform, shining ; apex blunt, longitudinally 
strongly ribbed, transversely ornamented with raised strise, forming 



144 

deep cancellations ; whorls slightly convex, angulated at suturės 
aperture oval. Colour white. 

66. Clathurella exii.is. 

Shell elongately fusiform, ornamented with transverse ribs and 

^^ '^ lougitudinal strise ; Tvliorls slightly convex ; aperture oblong-oval ; 

canal short, slightly recurved. Colour white, with irregular yel- 

lowish-brown lougitudinal spots on upper whorls, and two bands of 

šame colour on body-whorl. 

67. Clathurella elegans. 

Shell elongate-pyramidal, yellowish, with chestnut-brown spots ou^ 
the centre of varices of each whorl ; remote varices extending vvhole' 
length of the shell, transversely granosely ribbed, interstices finely 
granulated ; whorls convex, rounded ; suture well impressed ; aper- 
ture wide, ovate ; outer lip acute ; canal produced and recurved. 

68. Clathurella harpa. 

Shell pyramidally ovate ; body-\vhorl ventricose, longitudinally 
strongly ribbed ; ribs rather distant ; interstices finely striated lon- 
gitudinally ; whorls roundly angulated at the suturės ; outer lip acute, 
soinewhat dilated ; aperture large, oval ; columella-lip striated ob- 
liąuely on lower part ; canal short, shghtly recurved. Colour white. 

^ 69. Clathurella pulchella. 

.. Shell fusiform, acuminated, shining, longitudinally ribbed, crossed 

\^^ by transverse raised strise ; whorls rounded ; suture impressed ; aper- 

ture oval ; canal slightly produced aud recurved ; piukish-white, ir- 
regular pink spots over the surface ; apex red. 

70. Clathurella paucicostata. 

Shell elongately fusiform, thin, shining ; whorls ornamented with 
varices, remote, and fine transverse raised strise ; outer lip thin ; 
aperture elongate-oval ; canal long and slightly recurved. Colour 
white, with irregular orange-brovvn spots or blotches ; varices white. 

71. Clathurella fuscomaculata. 

Shell acuminately turreted, ornamented with transverse raised 
strise, slightly granulose ; outer hp thin ; aperture oval ; canal 
straight and slightly produced. Colour white, with irregular lougi- 
tudinal bands of reddish-brown. 

72. Clathurella buccinoides. 

Shell pyramidally ovate, shining ; whorls rounded, longitudinally 
ribbed, crossed by transverse strise ; aperture ovate ; outer lip ser- 
rated at edge ; canal short, slightly recurved. Colour yellovvish 
vvhite. 



145 

73. Nassa microstoma, 

Shell oblong-ovate, rather solid, white, sparingly stained •vvith ferru- 
ginous brown ; spire rather long, acute ; whorls six or seven, strongly 
convex, ribbed longituduially, ribs stout, close set, rounded and 
crossed with numerous close spirai ridges ; aperture small, rounded, 
lyrated within ; outer lip thick ; columella arched, transversely 
wrinkled above, one or two faint spirai plicse near the base. 

74. Drillia nodifera. 

Shell elongate-ovate, smooth, plicately noduled longitudinally ; 
outer lip thin, acute ; canal short ; nodules white, interstices red- 
dish brown, base white. 

i/ 75. Oliva sandwicensis. 

Shell obloug-ovate ; spire somewhat acuminated ; columella-plaits 
few in number, extending two-thirds of the length of the aperture ; 
outer lip slightly thickened internally. Colour minutely freckled 
and blotched with white, reddish brown and cinercous, the lower 
lialf of the body-whorl being tnuch the darkest ; apex white, en- 
circled beneath the suture with a light fawn-coloured or whitish 
band, blotched with dark reddish brown or cinereous ; aperture white, 
two broad, eąuidistant dark brown bands on the interior, reaching 
to the thickened portion of the outer lip. 

5 f1 76. Blauneria gracilis. 

i'?ii'^ Shell elongate fusiform, thin, corneous, fragile, semipellucid. 
Wh6rls seven or eight, flatly convex, finely longitudinally obliquely 
striated ; suture faintly impressed, outer lip thin ; columella-lip 
flexuous ; one obliąue plait near the centre, truncated ; aperture 
oblong-ovate, contracted posteriorly, 

Animal. — Small, subpellucid, uncoloured, excepting a yellotv tinge 
around the mouth. Tentacles short, stout, approximating at their 
bases. Eyes conspicuous, black, immersed at the posterior bases of 
the tentacles. Head deep, narrow above, and rauch dilated below. 
Mouth a simple longitudinal slit. Foot small, short, bluntly rounded 
behind, truncated in front, divided by a transverse groove ; posterior 
portion slightly the longest. 

77. TURRICULA BELLA. 

Shell fusiform ; spire acuminated ; whorls convexly angulated ; 
suturės rather deep, longitudinally ribbed, ribs somewhat angular, 
irregular in size and finely striated longitudinally, also the interstices, 
and crossed by numerous transverse strise ; base slightly recurved ; 
columella four-plaited, a callosity posteriorly ; aperture lyrated within. 
Colour light chestnut brown, with broad lighter or vrhitish bands, 
and spotted remotely and irregularly with reddish brown ; base 
white. 

No. 420. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



146 

/8. TURRICULA APPROXIMATA. 

Shell ovate, turreted ; vvhorls convexly angulated at the suturės, 
longitudinally ribbeJ, crossed by impressed striae ; interstices punc- 
tured ; aperture striated within ; columella four-plaited . Colour 
white, banded and blotched irregularly with chestnut browu. 

79. Mitra pallida. 

Shell fusiform ; spire elongate, slender, pointed, surface latticed 
by fine longitudinal and transverse striae ; columella five-plaited. 
Colour vvhite or light yellow. 

80. Mitra pudica. 

Shell ovate ; spire short, transversely ribbed ; interstices finely 
p'^*' cancellated, longitudinally remotely ribbed, white, variegated \vith 

smoky brown ; columella four-plaited. 

81. Mitra ericea. 

Shell fusiformly ovate, attenuated at both ends, transversely 
ribbed ; body-whorl crossed by longitudinal striae, rather remote. 
Colour light brovvn ; apex white ; columella three-plaited. 

.v 82. Striuatella picea. 

' s^'f^ Shell small, ovate, longitudinally ribbed, row of granules bordering 
' suture, transversely finely striated. Colour dark brovvn ; whorls en- 

circled by a single narrovv light-brovvn beit ; columella five-plaited ; 
aperture purplish vvhite. 

83. Strigatella fuscescens. 

Shell ovate, thick, finely crenulated at borders of suture, trans- 
versely faintly grooved, the grooves becoming more distinct tovvards 
the base ; columella five-plaited. Colour brovvn ; aperture vvhite. 

84. Melampus (Tralia) semipucata. 

, o Shell elougate-ovate, dark reddish brown, with an olive shade ; apex 

\'' acute ; vvhorls eight or nine ; spire and upper part of body-vvhorl 

plicate ; rough striae of grovvth on body-vvhorl ; aperture narrovv, 

acute above ; two transverse folds on base of columella ; one plait 

on the inner lip belovv the centre, and three on outer lip. 

85. Pedipes sandvvicensis. 

Shell ovate globose, brovvnish yellovv ; aperture vvhite, solid, ribbed 

D ' transversely, ribs rather remote and irregular ; vvhorls four, convexly 

i'} ^ angulated at the suturės, the lašt vvhorl ventricose ; outer lip flexuous, 

thickened in the middle ; aperture subąuadrate ; columella-lip flat, 

furnished with three plaits, of vvhich the upper is the largest, and 

slightly oblique ; remaining two transverse, lovver one the smaller. 

86. Erato sandwicensis. 

^^2- Shell pyriform, smooth, shining, vvhite, vvith a broad band of yel- 



117 

lowish brown on lower part of the body-wlioil, and a narrower one 
of šame colour bordering the suturės beneath ; columella and outer 
lip white ; apex and base tinged with pink ; aperture narrow, con- 
tracted ; outer lip denticulated its whole length i inner lip about qn_e- 
half its length. 

87. Marginella oryza. 

Shell small, subpyriform, thin, transparent, white ; aperture nar- 
row ; outer lip deuticulate ; inner lip four-plaited, finely striated lou- 
gitudinally. 

88. Marginella sandwicensis. 

Shell minute, subconoidal, thin, transparent white ; aperture nar- 
row, contracted ; apex obtuse ; inner lip three-plaited. 

89. Cythara garrettii. 

Shell fusiform, attenuated at both ends, longitudinally ribbed, 
ribs becoming nearly obsolete on body-whorl, transversely finely and 
closely striated, a deeply impressed line encircling the whorls just 
beneath the suturės. Colour white, variegated with reddish brown, 
which colour extends over the greater part of the body-whorl. 

90. Cythara varia. 

Shell fusiform, minute, attenuated at both ends, longitudinally 
ribbed . Colour variable, light brown with transverse lines of a darker 
colour encircling the whorls, or with longitudinal undulating lines, or 
ornamented with oblong square brown spots, or light brown dotted 
with white. 

91. Cythara pusilla. 

Shell oval, white, staiued with purplish brown ; whorls longitudi- 
nally ribbed, ribs somewhat oblique, striated transversely, whorls 
augulated at the suturės ; outer and inner lip denticulated ; spire 
short, outer lip thickened. 

92. Daphnella bella. 

Shell fusiform ; whorls augulated at the suturės, nodosely ribbed ; 
body-whorl ribbed longitudinally soraewhat obliąuely, transversely 
finely striated. Colour yellowish brown, nodules white, ornamented 
with a row of dark brown spots between the interstices, encircling 
the whorls, and one following the suturės. 

93. Daphnella interrupta. 

Shell elongate fusiform, thin, yellowish white, ornamented with 
transverse, interrupted, chestnut-brown lines transversely marked 
with interrupted granulose raised lines, finely striated longitudinally ; 
aperture rather long ; sinus deep. 



148 

94. Daphnella sandwicensis. 

Shell ovate ; spire short, smooth or obsoletely striated, slightly 
granulose at the suturės ; aperture long, open, base subtruncate, 
white, stained with chestnut-brown ; body-whorl ornamented with 
reticulated lines of šame colour ; apex reddish brown. 

95, Daphnella maculosa. 

Shell elongate fusiform, transversely and longitudinally finely 
striated, giving the surface a granulose appearance ; aperture long ; 
base subtruncate. Colour white, ornamented with broad, interrupted 
longitudinal lines of a reddish brown. 



7. CONTRIBUTIONS TO A KnOWLEDGE OF THE RePTILES OF 
THE HiMALAYA MOUNTAINS. By Dr. AlBERT GuNTHER. 

(Reptilia, Platės XXV., XXVI., XXVII., XXVIII.) 

The following paper has been suggested by a collection of Reptiles 
made by MM. Hermann, Adolphe and Robert von Schlagintweit 
during their scientific mission to India and High Asia from 1854 to 
1858, and submitted by those gentlemen to my examination. The 
value of the collection is highly increased by very accurate state- 
ments of the localities and altitudes at which each specimen was ob- 
tained, and which were kindly communicated to me for this paper. 
This is the first information of the kind we have received on the 
Reptiles of the Himalayas, and it is of the utmost importance, since 
it not only augments our knovvledge of the vertical distribution of 
these animals, but embraces a larger number of facts, respecting the 
altitudes at which species of reptiles are known to exist in the dif- 
ferent mountainous systems of the globė, than the whole of our pre- 
vious information on the subject. I, hovvever, have thought it ad- 
visable to take this opportunity of giving at once a complete list of 
the Reptiles known to inhabit the Himalayas, and to coUect also those 
notes referring to them, which, if deficient in statements of the alti- 
tudes, yet give much information as to their horizontai distribution. 
In doing this, I have gathered my information from British collec- 
tions and publications only, not finding the slightest data on the sub- 
ject in foreign works treating of the physical history of these moun- 
tains. One of the chief resources for this Ust has been a collection 
made bv Dr. J. Hooker in Sikkim and Khasia, partly described by 
Dr. J. E. Gray (Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1853, xii. p. 386), and 
partly by myself in my Catalogue of Colubriue Snakes. Finding a 
great congruity between the species obtained in the Khasia Hills and 
those coUected by MM. von Schlagintvveit at considerable altitudes 
in the Himalayas, I have not hesitated to admit the former into the 
list, although every other information on their habitat is wanting. 
But I have not admitted the numerous species mentioned by Dr. 
Cantor and others as being fonnd in Assam ; they were evidently col- 



Proc.Z.S.IlepliliaXXV. 






A. BARTCEPHALUS SYKESi; Gthr. B. TIAEIS ELLIOTTl Gthr 
C. TILIQUA SCHLEGELIį^A 



'W;West,iic. 



1-J9 

lected in the plains of this couutiy ; and even those said to have 
been obtaiaed from liills (their height is not stated) beloiig eiitirely 
to the lowland fauna. On the Reptiles inhabiting High Assam we 
have no information whatever. Another contribution to the Hima- 
laya fauna has been given by Mr. Blyth in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 
vols. xxii. and xxiii.*, containing an account of several Reptiles from 
Nepal and Sikkim. Some of the latter have beeu found by Capt. 
Shervvill at Darjeeling, which locah'ty is, as we know, T 100 feet above 
the level of the sea. Finally, Mr. Hodgson has sent numerous 
specimens from Nepal to the British Museum, but it is much to be 
regretted that he has not paid the šame attention to their altitudinal 
distribution as he has done in the higher classes of Vertebrata ; and I 
have been obliged to make a cautious selection from among the 
species sent by him, in order not to admit those which, although from 
Nepal, belong exclusively to the lowland fauna. 

The collection of Messrs. von Schlagintweit is composed of 118 
specimens, nearly all of which are in the best statė of preservation ; 
they have been transferred to the British Museum, together with 
the large Collection of the East India Company. A few only were 
coUected in Ceylon, at Calcutta and Kurrachee, and are not mentioned 
in this paper, with the exception of one Snake from the latter place, 
which, with no other difference than a few very slight variations in 
the small additional shields of the head, so completely agrees with 
Zamenis cliffordii as to leave no doubt as to the identity of both. 
This species therefore appears to be found along all the coasts of 
North Africa through Egypt, and to extend to the banks of the 
Indus ! 

I shall first give the descriptions of the new species f. 



I. Descrijątions of the New Species. 

Barycephalus j, Gthr. 

Head, body, and tail rather depressed, the latter tapering ; tym- 
panum circular ; throat with a deep transverse fold ; prseanal or 
femorai pores none ; head covered above with very small shields ; 
back with very small square, keeled, and imbrieate scales ; sides gra- 
nular, with scattered spines ; belly with small square platės in trans- 
verse series ; extremities aud tail with obliąue transverse series of 
strongly keeled scales ; teeth laterally compressed, triangular, with- 
out lobes. 

This genus is to be referred to the family of Agamidee. 

* I am very sorry not to have had earlier knowledge of this paper, which con- 
fains valuable detailed descriptions of numerous species. So much cannot be 
said of a herpetological paper by another author in the tweuty-second volume of 
the Asiatic Journal, which, in its present shape, is of no value whatever to science. 

t The discoverers of these Reptiles have reąuesled me to dedicate the new 
species to gentlemen who have taken a particular interest in their travels. 

I From į3apvKeipaXoi-, with depressed head. 



150 

Barycephalus sykesii, Gthr. (PI. XXV, fig. A.) 
Bingnosis. — Temple, sides of the throat and trunk, and the poste- 
rior part of the hind legs with scattered spines ; a transverse senes 
in the uiiddle of the belly contains about fifty shields. Upper parts 
dusky, variegated and speckled with black, the lower parts whitish ; 
throat reticulated with greenish. 

The following specimens are in the Collection : — 

a. Adult. Simla, Himalaya ; 2500 feet above level of the sea. 

b. Half-grown. Simla, Himalaya ; 7200 feet abore level of sea. 

c. Adult. Garhval, Himalaya ; 8200 feet above level of the sea. 

d. Young. Balti, Tibet ; 6100 feet above level of the sea. 

e. Half-grown. Ladak, Tibet ; 15,250 feet above level of the sea. 

Descriptioti. — The head is rather depressed and flat, with the 
canthus rostralis distinct, and vvith the snout of moderate length ; it 
is covered above with numerous very small shields ; there is a shield 
in the middle of the occipital region, which is rather larger than the 
others, but it is not present in all the specimens ; a series of slightly 
keeled shields runs along the median line of the snout. The width 
of the space between the bony orbits is one-half that of the upper 
eyelid. The rostrai shield is low, twice as broad as high ; there are 
tvvelve upper labials. The uostril is in a single shield, which is 
situated betweeu the canthus rostralis and the first upper labial. The 
loreal region is concave, and covered \Tith minute shields. The 
median shield of the lower jaw is subpentagonal, and longer than 
broad ; the lower labials are eleven in nuniber, and higher than 
those of the upper lip ; several other series of very small shields run 
parallel to that of the labials, the remainder of the throat being 
covered with minute granules. A low spiny crest proceeds frora 
below the eye to the tympanum, the anterior circumference of which 
also is provided with spinous scales ; several other groups of spines 
are between the tympanum and the fold of the throat, and on the 
sides of the neck, -vvhich is exceedingly finely granulated. 

The trunk is depressed and flattened ; the back is covered with 
small imbricate scales, each being provided with a strong keel ; they 
gradually pass into the granulations of the sides, which, however, 
are intermised with small scattered spines. The belly is covered 
vtith smooth square shields, arrauged in transverse series ; they are 
so small that I count fifty of them in one of the series in the middle 
of the belly. 

The tail is considerably depressed at the base, assumes gradually 
a more conical form, and tapers posteriorly into a fine point ; it is 
verticillated. The scales form rings, are quadrangular and strongly 
keeled, each keel terminating posteriorly in a small spine. The 
scales nhich are the largest and provided with the strongest keels 
are those on the anterior and superior parts of the extremities ; the 
scales rouud the joints and on the posterior and inferior sides are 
smaller, and smooth. The fore leg reaches to the loin, if laid back- 
wards ; the third and fourth fingers are the longest, and equal in 



151 

leueth ; the second and fifth are shorter, and equal each other in 
lenc^th ; the first is the shortest. Ali the fingers and toes are slightly 
compresscd and armed with strong claws. The hiud leg reaches 
to the end of the suout, if laid forwards ; the fourth toe is the longest, 
somewhat louger than the third and fifth, which are nearly equal ; 
the second is considerably shorter, and the first is the shortest. 

The ground-colour of the upper parts is dusky-brown or greenish- 
brown, the back being irregularly speekled wlth black ; two of the 
specimens exhibit also some lighter, indistinct spots ; the lower 
parts are whitish, the throat is reticulated with greenish ; one spe- 
cimen has the breast dotted with bluish-green. 

• inches. lines. 

Totai length 1 1 O 

Length of the head (to the hinder edge of the 

tympanum) '■ "2 

Greatest width of the head O 9 

Length of the trunk (to the anus) 3 O 

of the tail 7 O 

of the humerus O U 

• of the fore-arm ^ ^2 

of the fourth finger O 7 

of the first finger O 42^ 

of the entire fore extremity 2 fi 

of the femur ' ^ 

of the lower leg 1 O 

of the foot 1 3 

of the fourth toe ^ 1*^ 

of the fifth toe O 8^ 

of the first toe O 1 2^ 

of the entire hinder extremity 3 4 

This genus has a reniarkable resemblanee in many points to Mt- 
crophracfus * {Hopluridce), from the Andes ; but there is a genenc 

differeuce in the dentition. The species is naraed in honour ot 
Colonel Sykes. 

Tl VRIS ELLIOTTI, Gthr. (PI. XXV. fig. B.) 

Diagnosis.—Cvt&t of the uape and of the back exceedingly low, 
formed by a series of larger keeled scales ; neither a longitudnial nor 
a transverse gular fold ; a very small detached tubercle behind the 
margin of the upper eyelid, which is not armed ; a series of tubercles 
from above the tyrapanum, bent tovvards the nuchal crest. Above 
brownish, uniform or varied with darker. 

Hab. Sikkim, Himalaya, One adult female specimen procured 
in an altitude of 9200 feet is in the CoUection. Three other speci- 
mens, from the šame country, have been presented to the British 
Museum by Dr. J. Hooker. 

Description.—'lh^ head is rather high, with a sharp canthus ros- 
tralis, short snout, and convex upper eyelids ; it is covered \vitli 

* Cfr. l'rocced. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 00. 



152 

numerous slightly keeled scales, aud one situated in the niiddle 
of the occiput appears to be rather larger thau the others ; the width 
of the space between the bony orbits is very iiarrow ; the canthus 
rostrahs and the margin of the upper eyeiid form one continuous 
sharp edge. The rostrai shield is very low, likę the upper labials, 
vvhich are five in number. The nostril is very small, in a siugle 
shield, which is situated between the canthus rostralis and the first 
labial. The loreal region is a little concave, and covered with small 
irregular shields. The median shield of the lower jaw is subtrian- 
gular and longer thau broad ; there are five lower labials on each 
side, the remainder of the throat being covered with imbricate aud 
keeled scales. There is a small conical tubercle behind, and detached 
from the orbitai edge ; another similar tubercle is on each side of the 
throat below the tympanum ; a series of tubercles proceeds from 
above the tympanum, and is bent iuwards to the nuchal ridge. The 
tympanum itself is small and subcircular. There is no fold across 
the throat, but a transverse band of rather smaller scales. 

The trunk is rounded, in the female depressed ; a series of larger, 
keeled scales runs along the middle of the neck and back to the base 
of the tail, and forms a sort of dorsal crest ; the back and the sides 
are covered with small scales of uneąual size and quite irregularly 
arranged ; tliey are intermixed with scattered, considerably larger 
scales, and these are distinctly keeled. The scales of the belly are 
imbricate, rhombic, more equal in size and more regularly arranged 
and slightly keeled ; the prseanal scales are likę those of the belly ; 
prseanal pores none. 

The tail is very long, slender, rounded at the base, and covered 
on all sides with rhombic, keeled, imbricate scales ; it is not verti- 
cillated. 

The upper parts of the extremities are covered with very large 
and strongly keeled scales ; sorae scales on the hinder side of the 
femur have even two or three keels. The fore leg reaches to the 
loin, if laid backwards ; the hind leg, if laid forvvards, nearly to the 
end of the snout. The fingers and toes are arraed with strong claws, 
and have the usual relative length. There are no femoral pores. 

The ground-colour of the upper parts is brovvnish ; uniform in 
the females, variegated with darker in the malęs. Some of the large 
scales of the back appear to have been iridescent during life. The 
lovver parts are uniform dull-yellowish. 

inches. lines. 

Totai length 6 7i 

Length of the head (to the tympanum). ... O 6^ 

Greatest width of the head O 5 

Length of the trunk (to the anus) 1 7 

of the tail 4 6 

of the humerus O 4 

of the fore-arm O 4 

of the fourth fiuger O 4^ 

of the first finger O lį 

of the entire fore estremitv 1 *^ 



153 

inches. lines. 

Lengtli of the femur O 6į 

of the lower leg O 5^ 

of the foot O 3 

of the fourth toe O 6 

of the fifth toe O 4 

of the first toe O 2 

of the entire hinder extreinity .... I 9 

The species is dedicated to Walter EUiott, Esq., Member of 
the Council of Madras. 

TiLiaUA SCHLEGELII, Gthr. (PI. XXV. fig. C.) 

Biagnosis. — Uniform black. Scales rather large, smooth, striated, 
not keeled, in four or five longitudinal series on the back. Four 
prseanal shields, the two niiddle ones being the larger ; a series of 
broad shields along the lower side of the tail. Ear-opening small, 
deep, round, with smooth margins. 

Hab. Sikkim. One specimen, apparently not full-grown, has been 
found at an altitude of 8930 feet. 

Bescription. — This species does not differ in general habit from 
the other TiliqucB. Its snout is of moderate extent, and not pro- 
duced. The series of shields covering the upper surface of the head 
is as follows: — 1, the rostrai shield is rounded ; 2, the anterior 
frontai is single, subquadrangular, broader than long ; 3, a pair of 
posterior frontais, which are not in contact with each other ; 4, the 
vertical shield is quadrangular, with the anterior angle obtuse and 
the posterior very acute, and with the two anterior sides much shorter 
than the two posterior ones ; the shield reaches backwards to the 
level of the pupil. 5. There are five superciliary shields on each side 
of the vertical ; 6, five occipital shields, viz. an anterior pair, a single 
centrai one, and a posterior pair ; the anterior pair form a suture 
with the vertical, separatiug it from the centrai occipital. The latter 
is ąuadrangular, sirailar in form to the vertical, but much shorter, 
so that the anterior pair of its sides are not much longer than the 
posterior. The anterior pair of the occipitals form together with the 
centrai shield a perfect sąuare. The posterior pair is obhquely 
situated, subeUiptical in form, and larger than any of the other occi- 
pitals ; the inner side of those shields is in contact with au anterior 
and with the centrai occipitaU 

The nostril is in a single shield between the first labial and the 
anterior frontai ; there are three shields between nostril and eye, 
covering the loreal region. Seven upper labials, the fifth of \vhich 
is the largest, and extending upwards to the eyelid. The posterior 
part of the orbit is formed by three small shields, behind which are 
some large temporals. The median lower labial is broader than 
long, truncated posteriorly, forming a straight transverse suture 
with auother single broad*^ shield situated immediately behind the 
median labial. There are five uarrovv lower labials, with an interior 
series of five other much larger shields ; the remainder of the throat 



154 

is covered with scales likę the belly. The opening of the ear is small, 
round, and deep. 

The scales are finely striated, without keels, and rather large on 
the back, whilst those on the belly are of moderate size, and those 
on the sides rather small. 1 count iu the middle of the trunk five 
longitudinal series on the back, seven on each side, and six on the 
belly ; so that that part of the body is surrounded by twenty-five 
series. There are four prseanal shields, the middle pair being eon- 
siderably the largest. 

The greater portion of the tail is broken off ; a band of broad 
shields begins to cover its lower side at a short distance from its 
origin ; the tail is surrounded by eight series of scales, \vhich exhibit 
no keel whatever. The tail itself is rouuded, not compressed, and 
tapering. 

The extremities are covered with scales similar to those of the 
body ; the fore extremity reaches to the anterior margiu of the eye, 
if laid forwards ; the third and fourth fingers are the longest, and 
nearly equal ; then follow the second, the fifth and the first. The 
length of the hinder extremity is rather more than one-half that of 
the trunk ; the fourth toe is the longest ; the third and fifth are equal 
in length, and the first is shorter than the second. Ali the finger?; 
and toes are slightly compressed and well armed with claws. 
The upper parts are uniform black, the lovver ones blackish. 
Palatine teeth none. 

inches. lines. 

Totai length 4 4 

Length of the head (to the tympanum) O 4 i 

Greatest \vidth of the head O 3 

Length of the trunk (to the vent) .... 1 6 

of the tail (restored) 2 O 

of the fore extremity O 6 

r of the fourth finger O l\ 

of the hinder extremity O [>į 

of the fourth toe O 3 

The species is called after Pro f. H, Schlegel of Leyden. 

A.BLABES RAPPII, Gtlir. (PI. XXVL fig. B.) 

Diaffnosis. — Scales in fifteen rows ; six upper labials, the third 
and fourth of which cuter the orbit; Above uniform blackish ; 
below yellowish. 

Hab. Sikkim (5340 feet above the level of the sea). Auother 
specimen, sent by Mr. Hodgson from Nepal, and rather injured, is 
in the Collection of the British Museum. 

Description. — The head is of moderate length, and continuous 
with the ueck ; the body and tail are rather slender. The rostrai is 
a little broader than high, rouuded superiorly, and reaching to the 
upper surface of the head. The anterior frontais are smaller thau 
the posterior ones, which are bent do\viiwards to the side of the head. 
The vertical is not t\vice as long as broad, and has the posterior 



ProcZS.ReptilialIVI 











Ejord 



A a^ ABLABES OWENII, Gthr 
BlD. RA-PPII, Gtkr, 



VnVestuDf 






e. ^ 



155 

angle pointed in the specimen from Sikkim, and obtuse in those 
from Nepal. The occipitals are of moderate extent. The nostril is 
betvveen two shields ; one loreal, one anterior and two posterior oculars ; 
six upper labials, the third and fourth of which enter the orbit ; two 
temporals, one behind the other, the anterior elongate ; seven lovver 
labials, those of the first pair forming a suture behind the triano-ular 
median shield ; two pairs of chin-shields, those of the anterior^pair 
being the largest. 

The scales are rhombic, perfectly smooth, in fifteen rows in the 
middle of the body ; anais and subcaudals bifid. 

Sikkim specimen : ventrals 191, subcaudals 60. 

Nepalese specimen: ventrals 198. 

The colour has been described above. The teeth are small, equal, 
smooth. The specimen from Sikkim is an adult female with mature 
eggs in the oviduct ; its totai length is 1 6į inches, the length of the 
head 4^ lines, that of the tail 3^ inches. 

The species is called after Prof. von Rapp, of Tiibingen. 

Ablabes owenii, Gthr. (PI. XXVI. fig. A.) 

Biagnosis. — Scales in fifteen rows ; six upper labials, the third 
and fourth of which enter the orbit. Greyish-brown, with a broad 
black coUar and many black transverse spots on the anterior part of 
the body. 

Hab. Sikkim, Himalaya (10,200 feet above the level of the sea). 

Description.— The head is of moderate length, flat and depressed, 
not distinct from the neck ; the snout is rather broad ; the rostrai 
rauch broader than high, and not extending backwards on the upper 
surface of the head. The frontais are broader than long, the ante- 
rior ones half the size of the posterior, which are bent downwards on 
the side of the head. The vertical is pentagonal, with the anterior 
margm convex and equal in length to the lateral one, and with the 
posterior angle pointed. The occipitals are of moderate extent and 
rounded posteriorly. The nostril is between t\vo shields. One loreal, 
one anterior, and two posterior oculars ; six upper labials. There 
are two narrovv temporal shields of nearly equal length, one behind 
the other. Six lower labials, those of the first pair forming a suture 
together behind the median shield, which is triangular and longer 
than broad. The two pairs of chiu-shields are of equal size. The 
trunk is rounded, of moderate length, surrounded by fifteen rows of 
rhombic, perfectly smooth scales. Ventrals 200, anai bifid; sub- 
caudals 59. The upper parts are greyish-brown ; there is a broad 
black coUar immediately behind the occipitals, and not extendin» on 
to the abdominal side ; the anterior portion of the trunk exhtbits 
many narrovv aud rather irregular black transverse spots, gradually 
disappearmg towards the middle of the length of the body The 
lower parts are uniform yellovvish. 

Totai length inches. lines. 

Length of the head ' . . o yi 

— of the tail ' " [ ^' 

This spccics is called in honour of Prof. Richard Ovven. 



156 

Spilotes hodgsonii, Gthr. (PI. XXVII.) 
Biagnosis. — Body elongate, slightly compressed. Šcales iudi- 
sthictly keeled, in twenty-three rows ; the fifth upper labial shield 
hardly reaching upwards to the posterior margin of the orbit ; eight 
upper labials, two posterior oculars, anai bifid. Uniform olive, the 
skin between the scales black. 

Hab. Ladak, Tibet (15,200 feet above the level of the sea). T\vo 
other specimens have been sent by INIr. Hodgson from Nepal. 

Description. — This species is closely allied to Spilotes melanurus, 
Schleg., and Sp. reticularis, Cant., which, however, have consider- 
ably larger scales, in nineteeu, and sometimes in twenty-one series, 
and exhibit a difFerent coloration. Sp. melanurus has the sixth 
(fifth) upper labial differently shaped ; but in all have the shields of 
the head the šame tendency to irregularities, two or three being often 
united. This is the case in the Nepalese specimens of the present 
species, whilst that from Tibet has all distinctly separated. The 
form of the head and of its shields is exactly the šame as in the other 
species mentioned. The ante-ocular reaches to the upper surface of 
the head, vvithont tonching the vertical. The scales are small, espe- 
cially those on the neck, where they are arranged in twenty-three 
rows, as in the middle of the body. Those of the dorsal series are 
indistinctly keeled. 

Ventrals. Anai. Caudals. 

Tibetan specimen 256 1/1 90 

Nepalese specimen, no. 1 226 l/l 79 

Nepalese specimen, no. 2 233 I /I 85 

The colour of the upper parts is uniform olive, the skin bet\veen 

the scales being black ; the belly is whitish, and the margin of each 

ventral shield blackish on each side. The tail is coloured likę the 

body. 

inches. lines. 

Length of the head 1 2 

of the tail 11 O 

Totai length 51 O 

This Snake is called after B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Herpetoreas, Gthr. 

Diagnosis. — The posterior masillary tooth longest, in a continn- 
ous series with the anterior ones. Body and tail slender, compressed. 
Two nasals, one loretil, one anterior, two posterior oculars. Scales 
moderately elongate, keeled, in nineteen rows. Eye of moderate 
size. 

This genus is to be referred to the family of the Dryadidce, and is 
distinguished from the other genera by its dentition. 

Herpetoreas sieboldii, Gthr. 

Diagnosis. — Vertical shield five-sided, with the lateral margins 
nearly parallel, and with the posterior sides very short. Scales in 



y^2 



v*» 






i-^ 



H 







t 



■ ^ '^> 



157 

nineteen rows, slightly keeled. Above uniform greenish-brown ; 
below yellowish, vvith a darker stripe on each side, formed by short 
streaks. 

Hab. Sikkim, Ilimalaya (7500 feet above the level of the sea). 

Description. — Although the head of the single specimen sent^is 
somewhat injured, and does not admit of a fully detailed description, 
I do not hesitate to found a new genus and species on it, as those 
parts Avhich are in a better statė of preservation exhibit peculiarities 
sufficient for its recognition. From some few remarks made by Mr. 
Blyth in Journ. As. Soc. 1855, p. 292, it would appear that he also 
has seen this Snake. He, hovvever, describes it as having seventeen 
rovvs, and applies to it the name of Herpetodryas helena, Daud., 
which is entirely incorrect, the Snake of Daudin being a common 
species from Ceylon with twenty-seven rows of scales (Cynophis 
helena). 

The head is somewhat elongate, rounded in front and flat above. 
The rostrai shield is broader than high, and rounded superiorly ; the 
anterior frontais are pentagonal, one-half the size of the posterior, 
which are bent downwards on the side of the head. The vertical is 
pentagonal, much broader thau the superciliary, and not quite twice 
as long as broad ; its lateral margins are nearly parallel, the posterior 
ones very short, and meeting at a right angle. The occipitals are 
slightly elongate and rather narrow, subtruncated posteriorly. Nos- 
tril betvveen two platės ; one loreal, one anterior, and two posterior 
oculars ; eight upper labials, the third, fourth, and fifth of which 
enter the orbit. There appear to be five temporal shields. Ten 
lower labials, those of the first pair being in contact with each other, 
behind the median shield, which has the posterior margin obtusely 
rounded. Two pairs of chin-shields, the anterior being the smaller. 

The trunk is compressed, especially towards the tail, and slender ; 
it is surrounded by nineteen series of scales, those of the back being 
slightly keeled ; they are rather elongate, and assume a rhombic 
form towards the tail. The ventral and subcaudal platės are bent 
upwards to the sides, but not keeled. Ventrals 216, anai bifid, cau- 
dals 90. 

The two posterior teeth are twice as long as the anteriors, with 
which they form a continuous series ; they are not grooved. The 
upper parts are uniform greenish-brown, the lower ones yellovvish ; 
the ventrals have an elongate spot on each side. Totai length 3 feet 
1 inch ; length of the head 10 lines, of the tail 9 inches. + 

This species is called after Prof. von Siebold of Munich. 

Rana liebigii, Gthr. (PI. XXVIII. fig. A.) 

Diagnosis. — Tympanum hidden ; a strong tubercular fold from 
the eye to the axil, another along each side of the back ; sacral re- 
gion tubercular. Head broad ; muzzle obtuse, with the canthus 
rostralis flattened. A slight groove across the occiput, uniting both 
the posterior angles of the eye-lids. Vomerine teeth in two obliquc 
series, convergent posteriorly. The fifth toe not quite one-third the 



158 

leugth of the third and fouith. Metatarsus \vith one tubercle. Tips 
of the fingers and toes truncated. ;^rown, a dark. streak along the 
canthus rostraUs ; the hinder side of t&e thigh with ■n'hite spots ; the 
lower parts brown, or whitish raarbled with brown. 

Hab. One specimen, found hy Messrs. von Schlagintweit in Sik- 
kim (3800 feet) ; another from Nepal is in the CoUection of the 
British Museum. 

Descripfion. — The upper surface of the head is flat, with indistinct 
canthus rostrahs ; the loveal region is obliąue, the snout short and 
broad, the distance between the angles of the mouth being very much 
more than the length of the head. The tympanum is hiddeu by the 
skin, but its outhnes become soniewhat visible in exsiccated speci- 
mens only ; the species may be readily distiuguished by this cha- 
racter. The nostril is situated midway between the eye and the end 
of the snout. The eye is of moderate size, prominent aboAe the level 
of the crown, and with a sHght groove behind. The space between 
the eyes is as wide as an upper eyehd. The inner nostrils are a 
rather narrow transrerse cleft, and in size about equal to the open- 
ings of the eustachian tubes. The lower ja\v without prominences ; 
there are no vocal sacs, both the specimens being females. Two 
tubercular folds arise from the eye ; the stronger one running above 
the tympanum to the axil, the other along the side of the back 
towards the loin ; the back and the belly are smooth ; the sacral re- 
gion, the sides of the body, and the upper parts of the thigh are 
more or less covered with broad tubercles. The toes and fingers are 
truncated or ending ui small knobs. The former are webbed to their 
extremities, the membrane being slightly emarginate. The fourth 
toe is one-fourth longer than the third, which is rather longer than 
the fifth. One metatarsal tubercle. The colours have been stated 

above. 

inches. lines. 

Length of head and body 3 9 

of the head . . . .' 1 2 

Width of the head 1 5 

Length of the fore leg 2 1 

of the hind leg C O 

of the fifth toe 1 4 

of the fourth toe 1 8 

of the third toe 1 5 

This species is called after Dr. von Liebig, jun. 

DiCROGLOSsus, Gthr. 

Fingers free, toes broadly webbed ; tongue rather elongate, deeply 
notched behind ; vomerine teeth none ; eustachian tubes moderate, 
tympanum indistinct ; vocal sacs of the malė external and lateral. 

This genus is to be referred to the Ranidee, and difFers from Oxy- 
fflossus in the shape of the tongue. 

DiCROGLOSsus ADOLFi, Gthr. (PI. XXVIIL fig. B.) 
JDiagnosis. — Skin smooth or įvarty ; toes webbed to their tips by 



ProcZSEeptilia XXVIII 










WWestimp 



A.a. Rana lie'bign,(^Ar B.bDicroglossus adolfi, ^c^- 



1.59 

a very extensiblc menibrane ; a cylindrical tubercle at the metatarsus, 
very much likę the rudiment of a sixth toe. Above greenish or 
greenish-brown, uniform or spotted with darker ; belly with dark 
specks. Size of Bombinator igneus. 

Hab. Kulu and Simla, Himalaya (2400-4200 feet above the level 

of the sea). • . t> r • . 

Description. — In habit and size sotne^hat similar to Bombinator 
igneus, but with the snout more pointed. The skin is in some spe- 
cimens warty, in others smooth. The tympanum is rather nidistinct, 
and not quite of the size of the eye. The inner nostrils are small 
and rather distant from each other, the openings of the eustachian 
tubes larger. The extremities are of moderate length ; the fingers 
Guite free : the third is the longest ; the first is very httle longer 
than the second and fourth, which are equal in length. The struc- 
ture of the liind foot is similar to that in Oxyglossus ; but the tubercle 
of the metatarsus is very much likę a rudiment of a sixth toe. The 
fourth toe is one-fourth longer than the fifth. The species varies con- 
siderably in coloration, and the most constant characters appear to 
be brownish specks on all or some of the lower.parts, and a brownish 

streak on the hiuder side of the thigh. 

inches. lines. 

Length of the head and body 1 7 

. of the fore leg O 10 

, of the hind leg 2 4 

I have dedicated this species to the memory of the late Adolphe 
von Schlagintweit. 



II. List ofHimalayan Reptiles, tvith Eemarks on their Horizontai 
Distribution. 

Those species which, although they extend into the mountaiuous 
regions, are not peculiar to the Himalaya fauna, are marked with 
an asterisk. 

CHELONIiE. 

1. Emyda punctata, Lacep. 

Found by MM. von Schlagiutvveit in Sikkim. 

SAUKIA. 

*1. Empagtjsia flavescens, Gray, Catal. Liz. 
Sent by Mr. Hodgson from Nepal, I strongly suspect this species 
to belong to the fauna of the lowlands, 

2. HiNULiA iNDiCA, Gray, Ann. & Mag. 

Found by Dr. Hooker in Sikkim, by Messrs. von Schlagintweit in 
Sikkim, Garhval, Simla, Kashmir, and in Ladak, Tibet. 



160 

3. MocoA siKKiMMENSis, Bljth, Joum. As. Soc. 
Found by Capt. Shervvill in Sikkim. 

4. Plestiodon SIKKIMMENSIS, Gray, Ann. & Mag. 
Found by Dr. Hooker in Sikkim. 

*5. Varanus heraldicus, Gray, Catal. Liz. 
Sent by Mr. Hodgson from Nepal. 

6. DoPASiA GRACiLis, Gray, Catal. Liz. & Ann. & Mag. 
Found by Dr. Hooker in the Khasia Hills. 

*7. TiLTCiUA RUFESCENS, Sbaw(Gray, Catal. Liz. & Ann. & Mag.). 
Fomid by Mr. Hodgson in Nepal, by Dr. Hooker and Messrs. v. 
Schlagintweit in Sikkim. 

8. TiLiaUA SCHLEGELII, Gthr. 

Found by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in Sikkim. 

9. Argyrophis horsfieldii, Gray, Catal. Liz. 
Khasia Hills. 

10. BiANCiA NiGRA, Gray, Ann. & Mag. 

Found by Dr. Hooker and Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in Sikkim. 

11. Calotes MARiiE, Gray, Catal. Liz. & Ann. & Mag. 

Found by Dr. Hooker in the Khasia Hills, and by Messrs. v. 
Schlagintweit in Jamu, Himalaya. 

12. Calotes tricarinatus, Blyth, Joum. As. Soe. Beng. 18.i4, 
p. 650. 

Found by Capt. Shervdll at Darjiling. 

*13. Calotes versicolor, Daud. (Gray, Catal. Liz.). 
Found by Mr. Hodgson in Nepal, and by Messrs. v. Schlagint- 
weit in Jamu and Simla (Himalaya). 

14. Calotes minor, Gray. 

Stated by Dr. Gray (Catal. Liz.) to come from the Khasia Hills ; 
found by Messrs. v. Šchlagintweit in Sikkim. 

15. TiARIS ELLIOTTI, Gthr. 

Found by Dr. Hooker and Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in Sikkim. 

16. Ipalura variegata, Gray, Ann. & Mag. 
Found bv Dr. Hooker in Sikkim. 



\ 



161 

17. Phrynocephalus TiCKELii, Gray. 

Found by Messrs. v. Schlagintvveit in Tibet. The black bands 
round the tail are not always present. 

*18. Uromastix griseus, Cuv. 

Found by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in Sikkim. 

19. Barycephalus sykesii, Gthr. 

Found by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit at Simla and Garhval (Hitna- 
laya), and in Balti and Ladak (Tibet). 

OPHIDIA. 

1. Brachyorrhos tenuiceps {Calamaria tenuiceps, Blvth, 
Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 1855, p. 288). 

Found by Capt. Sherwill at Darjiling. 

*2. Simotes russellii, Daud. (Gthr. Catal. Colubr. Snakes). 
Found by Mr. Hodgson in Nepal. 

*3. Simotes purpurascens, Schleg. (var. D. & E. Gthr. Catal. 
Colubr. Snakes=Coronella puncticulata, Gray, Ann. & Mag.). 

Found by Dr. Hooker in Khasia, by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in 
Sikkim, and by Mr. Hodgson in Nepal. 

*4. Ablabes collaris (Psammophis collaris, Gray, /. c. ; Gthr. 
Catal. Col. Snakes). 

Found by Dr. Hooker and Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in Khasia, and 
by Mr. Hodgson in Nepal. 

5. Ablabes rappii, Gthr. 

Found by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in Sikkim. 

6. Ablabes owenii, Gthr. 

Found by Messrs. v, Schlagintvveit in Sikkim. 

7. Trachischium fuscum (Calamaria /usca, Blyth. Journ. As. 
Soc. Beng. =: Trachischium rugosum, Gthr. Catal. Col. Sn.). 

Found by Dr. Hooker, Capt. Shervvill, and Messrs. v. Schlagintweit 
in Sikkim ; by Mr. Hodgson in Nepal. 

8. Trachischium obscuro-striatūm {Calamaria obscuro- 
striata, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng.). 

Found by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in Sikkim ; described by Mr. 
Blyth from specimens from Rangoon. 

9. Xenodon macrophthalmus, Gthr. (Catal. Col. Sn.). 
Found by Dr. Hooker in Khasia and Sikkim (4000 feet). Tro- 

No. 427. — Proceedings of the Zoologicai, Society. 



162 

pidonotus macrops, Blyth (Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxiii. p. 296), found 
by Capt. Sherwill at Darjiling, appears to be closely allied to, if not 
identical with, X. macrophthalmus . 

*10. Tropidonotus duiNCUNCiATUs, Schlcg. (Gthr. Catal. Col. 
Sn.). 

Found by Dr. Hooker in Sikkim, by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in 
the Himalaya and Cashmere. The variety T. uinbratus has been 
procured by Mr. Hodgson in Nepal, and by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit 
in Sikkim. 

*11. Tropidonotus stolatus, L. (Gray, Ann. & Mag. ; Gthr. 
Catal. Col. Sn.). 

Found by Mr. Hodgson in Nepal, by Dr. Hooker in Khasia, and 
by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in the Himalaya. 

*12. Tropidonotus subminiatus, Reinw. (Gthr. Catal. Col. 
Sn.). 

Found by Dr. Hooker in Sikkim, by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in 
Jamu, Himalaya. 

*13. Tropidonotus chrysargus, Boie (Gthr. Catal. Col. Sn.). 
Sent by Mr. Hodgson from Nepal. 

14. Tropidonotus platyceps, Blyth, 1. c. p. 297. 

Found by Dr. Hooker in Khasia, by Capt. Sherwill and Messrs. 
v. Schlagintweit in Sikkim, by Mr. Hodgson in Nepal. This species 
has the teeth of the genus Amphiesma, D. & B., and varies very much 
in coloratiou aecording to age and sex ; but it constantly shows a 
dark stripe through the eye, and a black vertical streak on the rostrai 
shield. I have found the eggs of a Lizard or of another Snake in 
the stomach of one of the specimens. 

*15. Tropidonotus cerasogaster, Cant. (Gthr. Catal. Col. 
Sn.). 

Found by Dr. Hooker in Khasia. 

16. Tropidonotus (?) dipsas, Blyth, L c. p. 297. 
Found by Capt. Sherwill at Darjiling. 

17. CoLUBER CALLiCEPHALUS (Coronello callicephala, Gray, 
/.e.). 

Found by Dr. Hooker in Khasia. 

*18. Spilotes radiatus, Reinw. (Gray, Ann. & Mag.; Blyth, 
Journ. As. Soc. Beng.). 

Found by Dr. Hooker in Khasia, and by Capt. Sherwill in Sikkim. 



163 

*19. Spilotes melanurus, Schleg. (Gthr. Catal. Col. Sn.). 
Sent by Mr. Hodgson from Nepal. 

20. Spilotes hodgsonii, Gthr. 

Sent by Mr. Hodgson from Nepal, and found by Messrs. v. Schla- 
gintweit at Ladak (Tibet). 

21. Spilotes reticularis, Cant. (Gthr. Cat. Col. Sn.). 
Found by Dr. Hooker in Khasia, by Messrs. Schlagintweit in 

Sikkim, by Mr. Hodgson in Nepal. 

*22. CoRYPHODON FASciOLATus, Shaw (Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. 
Beng.). 

Found by Capt. Shervvill at Darjiling. 

*23. CoRYPHODON BLtJMENBACHii, Mcrr. (Gthr. Catal. Col. 
Sn.). 

Found by Mr. Hodgson in Nepal, and by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit 
in Sikkim. 

*24. CoRYPHODON KORROS, Reinw. (Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. 
Beng.). 

Found by Capt. Sherwill at Darjiling. 

25. CoRYPHODON CARiNATus, Gthr. 1. c. = Coluber nigro-margi- 
natus, Blyth, l.c. p. 290=Co^MŽer dhumnades, Cant. 

Found by Dr. Hooker in Khasia and Sikkim, by Capt. Sherwill and 
Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in Sikkim, and by Mr, Hodgson in Nepal. 
Wh8n naming this Snake C. carinatus, I was well aware of its iden- 
tity with C. dhumnades ; but I intended to point out that it stands 
in the šame relation to Coryphodon fuscus as Herpetodryas carinatus 
does to H. fuscus. 

26. Herpetoreas sieboldii, Gthr. 
Found by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in Sikkim. 

27. GoNYOSOMA FRENATUM {Herpetodryasfrenatus, Gray, Ann. 
& Mag.). 

Found by Dr. Hooker in Khasia. 

*28. PsAMMODYNASTEs PULVERULENTUS, Boie (Gthr. Cat. Col. 
Sn.=Dipsasferntginea, Cant. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 53 ; Blyth, 
Journ. As. Soc. Beng.), 

Found by Dr. Hooker in Khasia, by Capt. Sherwill and Messrs. v. 
Schlagintweit in Sikkim. 

*29. Dendrophis picta, Gm. (Gthr. Cat. Col. Sn.). 
Found by Dr. Hooker in Khasia. 



164 

30. DiPSADOMORPHUS TRI60NATUS, Schneid. 
Found by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in the Himalaya. 

*31. Lycodon aulicus, L. (Gthr. Cat. Col. Sn.). 
Sent by Mr. Hodgson from Nepal ; found by Messrs. v. Schla- 
gintweit in the Himalaya (2400 feet). 

32. Elaps univirgatus, Gthr. 1. c. 
Sent by Mr. Hodgson from Nepal. 

33. Parias maculata, Gray, L c. (Gthr. Cat. Col. Sn. p. 266, 
where the specimens are referred, by mistake, to Trimestirus macu- 
latus). 

Found by Dr. Hooker in Sikkim, and sent by Mr. Hodgson from 
Nepal. 

34. TftiGONOCEPHALUS AFFINIS, Gray. 
Found by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in Tibet. 

*35. Daboia elegans, Daud. 

Found by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in Kulu, Himalaya. 

36. Trimesurus bicolor, Gray, 1. c. 
Found by Dr. Hooker in Khasia. 

37. Trimesurus elegans, Gray, 1. c. 
Found by Dr. Hooker in Khasia. 

*38. Naja tripudians, Merr. 

Found by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in Sikkim. The specimens are 
uniform black, or with white cross-bands. 

*39. GoNGYLOPHis coNicus, Schueid. 
Foimd by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in Sikkim. 

*40. Clothonia johnii, Gray. 

Found by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in Sikkim. 

BATRACHIA. 

1, DiCROGLOSSUS ADOLFI, Gthr. 

Found by Messrs. v. Schlagintvveit in Kulu and Simla, Himalaya. 
*2. Rana tigrina, Daud. (Gthr. Catal. Batr.). 
Found bv Mr. Hodgson in Nepal, by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in 
Sikkim. 

*3. Rana vittigera, Wiegm. 

Found by Messrs. t. Schlagintweit in Janiu, Himalaya. 



165 

4. Rana liebigii, Gthr, 

Found by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in Sikkim, and sent by Mr. 
Hodgson from Nepal. 

*5. TOMOPTERNA STRIGATA, Gthf. 

Found by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit at Sitnla, Himalaya. This 
species has been described and figured in the Catal. Batr. Sal. p. 20. 
pi. 2. f. A, under the name of SphcBrotheca strigata, from specimens 
in the British Museum, transrnitted by Mr. Jerdon from Madras. 
When, however, during the printing of that catalogue, Sir Andrevv 
Smith presented bis collection of Reptiles to the British Museum, I 
found in it specimens of a Frog, identical with SphcBrotheca strigata, 
labelled " Tomopterna delalandii, Cape," in Sir A. Smith's own 
hand. I did not venture to doubt such an authority for the reptiles 
of South Africa, and accordingly placed in the Appendis, p. 133, 
the new name as a synonym of the older. But the fact of the species 
now having been found by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in the Himalaya, 
leaves us no other alternative than to suppose either that the species 
occurs in South Africa as well as in the East Indies (vvhich is impro- 
bable in the highest degree), or that Sir A. Smith, who has collected 
reptiles from all parts of the globė, has mistaken the origin of bis 
specimens. SphcBrotheca strigata has, indeed, a great resemblance 
to Tomopterna delalandii ; but it is evident, from a specimen of the 
latter which I have lately examined, that both differ in the form of 
the occiput, which is singularly convex and rounded in the former, 
whilst it is flat in the African species. This character is not suffi- 
cient to found a separate genus on it, and SphcBrotheca strigata, 
therefore, is to be referred to Tomopterna. 

6. Megalophrys gigas, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 1855, 
p. 299. 

From Sikkim. 

*7. BuFO VULGARIS, Laur. 

Found by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in Sikkim and Balti, Tibet. 

*8. BuFO MELANOSTiCTUs, Schueid. (Gthr. Catal. Batr.). 
Found by Dr. Hooker and Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in Sikkim, by 
Mr. Hodgson in Nepal. 

9. BOMBINATOR (?) SIKKIMMENSIS, Blyth, L C. p. 300. 

From Sikkim. 

*10. J*OLYPEDATES MACULATUS, Gray. 

Found by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in Sikkim. 

11. Rhacophorus maximus, Gthr. 1. c. 

Found by Mr. Hodgson in Nepal, and by Messrs. v. Schlagintneit 
in Sikkim. 



166 

12. IcHTHYOPHis GLUTiNOsus, L. (Gray, 1. c). 
Found by Dr. Hooker iu Khasia. 



I am well aware that the results of our esamination ręst on 
facts which, for tlie present, depend on isolated, and therefore ne- 
cessarily iucomplete, observations ; and cautiously as the conclusions 
may be drawn, yet they will undergo, perhaps, considerable altera- 
tions, when some future traveller or resident devotes as much at- 
tention to tliis part of zoology as has been given to other branches 
and to botany. "NVith regard to horizontai clistribution, the first 
ąuestion is, whether the Reptiles of the Khasia Hills show such a 
degree of ideutity with those of the Himalayas as to compel us to 
refer them to the šame fauna ; our knovvledge of the Reptiles of High 
Assam being too scanty to admit of any conclusiou as to that country. 
Now, two of the four species of Khasian Saurians are found also in 
the Himalayas and in Affghanistan, but nowhere else (Calotes marice 
and C. minor). The order of Ophidians offers us more facts. Dr. 
J. Hooker was able to collect fifteen species of Snakes during a 
twelve months' sojoum in Khasia. He says* that they are very 
common there, whilst he found them rare and shy in most parts of 
the Himalayaf. In this, however, he appears to be right merely 
with regard to the number of individuals, the Himiilaya showing an 
absolutely greater variety in generie and specific forms ; and the dif- 
ference mentioned by Dr. Hooker may depend on the influence of 
the climate which, in Khasia, is remarkable for the extensive rain- 
fall, the annual average probably greatly exceeding 600 inches|, 
vrhilst 136 only are recorded at Darjeeliug. Tliree of these fifteen 
species {^Gonyosoma frenatum, Trimesurus elegans, and T. bicolof) 
are known from Khasian specimens only ; five are very distinct varie- 
ties and species, confined to Khasia and the Himalaya, and not de- 
sceuding below 4000 feet in the latter {Simotes purpuraseens, var., 
Xenodon macrophthahnus, Tropid. plati/ceps, Spilotes reticulatus, 
Psammod. pulcerulentus, var.). The remainder are found in the 
plains also, but they ascend the Khasia Hills, as well as the Hima- 
layas, far enough to be admitted into their fauna. Thus we find in 
these facts evidence enough to show not only a great similarity, but 
a real unity of the two faunas, extending westwards along all the 
chains of the Himalayas ; and there are not a few Khasian and 
Himalayan species which are found in Affghanistan. 

^\'hen we come to examine the highest zone of the Himalaya in 
which reptiles can live, we find its Amphibio-fauna mixed with forms 
bearing the Palsearctic character. This appears to be not only the 
effect of a climate tempered by the great vertical elevation, but the 
natūrai conseąuence of the connexion betvveen the northern Himalaya 
and Central Asia, or, in other words, a fact of the horizontai distri- 

* Himal. Journ. ii. p. 301. Dr. Hooker is mistaken in believing that none of 
the Snakes collected by him in Khasia are venomous. Trimesurus bicolor and T. 
elegans were described froin his coUection. See Ann. & Mag. /. c. pp. 391, 392. 

t Himal. Journ. ii. p. 49. X Himal. Journ. ii. p. 283. 



167 

bution of animals. Forms belonging to the Palaearctic fauna extend 
from the north into the mountains, as the Indian species do from 
the south, and we may infer that there exists a great difference be- 
tween the reptiles hihabiting the uorthern parts of the Himalayas 
and those found on its southern slope ; — a difference, which, for the 
present, is merely pointed at by Phrynocephalus tickelii, Trigonoce- 
phalus aj^nis and Bufo vidgaris, obtained by MM. von Sehlagintvveit 
in Tibet. The Himalayas, situated ou the border betvveen the Palae- 
arctic and the Indiau regions, offer the šame variations in their 
fauna as the Sahara, which separates the Palaearctic region from the 
iEthiopiau. 

III. List of Himalayan Reptiles according to their Altitudinal 
Distribution, and Remarks on it. 

Chelonia. 

Feet above the level of the sea. 
Emyda punctata 2100 

Sauria. 

Phrynocephalus tickelii 15,200—15,300 

Hinulia indica 5800—15,250 

Barycephalus sykesii 2500 — 15,250 

Biancia uigra 1 1,200 

Calotes minor 1 1,100 

Tiliqua rufescens O — 9560 

Tiaris elliotti 9200 

Calotes tricarinatus 7 1 00 

marise 3900 

vėrsicolor O — 3400 

Gecko verus O — 1600 

Uromastix griseus O — 1 500 

Ophidia. 

Spilotes hodgsonii 15,200 

Ablabes owenii 10,200 

Clothonia johnii 0—9800 

Trigonocephalus affinis 9000 

Tropidonotus platyceps 4100—9000 

Trachischium fuscum 7100 — 8500 

Tropidonotus subminiatus O — 8200 

Naja tripudians 0—8000 

Herpetoreas sieboldii 7500 

Trachischium obscuro-striatum 7400 

Psammodynastes pulverulentus (var.). O — 7250 

Brachyorrhos tenuiceps 7100 

Xenodon macrophthalraus 4000 — 7100 

Spilotes reticularis 4220—6900 

Coryphodon carinatus 5700 — 7100 

Dipsas trigouata O — 6200 

Simotes purpurascens O — 6040 



168 

Feet above the levei of the sea. 

Ablabes rappii 5340 

Coryphodon blumenbachii O — 5240 

Gongylophis conicus O — 4900 

Simotes russellii O — 4100 

Tropidonotus quincunciatus O — 3950 

Ablabes coUaris , O — 3400 

Daboia elegans O — 3400 

Tropidonotus stolatus O — 33 1 

Lycodon aulicus O — 2400 

Batrachia. 

Bufo vulgaris 5900—10,200 

melanostictus O — 9000 

Rhacophorus maximus 5200 

Rana vittigera O — 4900 

Tomopterna strigata (O ? — ) 4700 

Dicroglossus adolfi 2404 — 4200 

Rana liebigii 3800 

Polypedates maculatus O — 2780 

Rana tigrina O — 1 900 

It is not to be wondered at that we do not find any Crocodilian in 
our lists, as those animals prefer the damp and hot climate of tbe 
lowlands, vvith the flat and level banks of slowly moving rivers and 
streams ; but we should have expected to find several species of Tor- 
toises extending upvvards to the subtropical zone. Yet neither Dr. 
Hooker nor Mr. Blyth mentions their occurrence*, and the single 
specimen of Emyda punctata in the coUection of MM. von Schlagint- 
weit is, at present, the only known representative of this order in 
the Himalayas. The absence of Crocodiles and the scarcity of Tor- 
toises appear to distinguish the outer Himalayas from the plains. 

The ratio of the numerical distribution through the various alti- 
tudes is different in the different orders of Reptiles. "Whilst the 
number of the species of Lizards (strangely enough) does not decrease 
between 1000 and 15,000 feet, the number of Snakes and Frogs de- 
creases very steadily with the inereasing elevation. From the above 
list we find — 

16 Snakes and 5 Batrachians at 1000 feet. 

14 „ 5 „ 2000 „ 

13 „ 4 „ 3000 ,. 

13 „ 5 „ 4000 „ 

11 >, 2 „ 4500 „ 

10 „ 1 „ 6000 „ 

8 „ 1 „ 7500 „ 

5 „ 1 „ 8000 „ 

3 „ 1 „ 9000 „ 

2 „ 1 „ 10000 „ 

1 „ O „ 15000 „ 

* Severai fresliwater Tortoises, sent b_v Mr. Hodgson from NepaI, beloiig to the 
lowland fauną, beiiig the most common species at the mouth of the Ganges. 



169 

Three different zones of elevation are very clearly indicated, less 
by the appearance of forms similar to, or identical with, those of the 
subtropical and temperate regions (as is the case in the flora and 
in Severai other parts of the fauna), than by the appearance of new 
species and genera peculiar and confined to the Himalaya, and espe- 
cially by the disappearance * of such species which are abundant in 
the lowlands. The most common species of Lizards in the plains 
south of the Himalaya are Calotes versicolor and Tiliąua rufescens. 
Both ascend the mountains ; but the former disappears at an eleva- 
tion of 3400 feet, the other at 9600 feet. The most common species 
of Snakes throughout the Indian eontinent are Tropidonotus quin- 
cunciatus and Simotes russellii : they disappear at 4000 feet, whilst 
Clothonia johnii, by no means a rare species, extends nearly to 
10,000 feetf. With regard to the Batrachians, we find that Bufo 
melanostictus, the most common East Indian Toad, disappears at 
9000 feetin the Southern Himalaya ; whilst Bufo vulgaris, the most 
common Toad of the Palaearctic region, extends to 10,200 feet in 
Tibet. Thus, although we mušt always bear in mind this fact — 
that chauges in the faunas of the various elevatious succeed each 
other graduaUy, and that these successions necessarily vary at differ- 
ent localities even of the šame elevation — we may well suggest that 
at an elevation of 4000 feet, and again of 10,000 feet, such a change 
takes place, that we are justified in separating the Amphibio-fauna 
of the Himalayas into three divisions, concurring thus vrith the views 
of Mr. Hodgson, who has established the šame zones for the Mam- 
mals and Birds:^. 



1 . The Tropical Zone ; zone of Tropidonotus quiucunciatus {Jrom 
the level of the plains to AOOO feet above the level of the sed). 

The climate of this zone bears an entirely tropical character ; it is 
covered by a very rich vegetation §, with the prevalent timber gigantic 
and scaled by climbing Leguminosse ; bamboo and luxuriant ferns 
abound, and the first decided signs of a change of the flora cannot be 
observed below 3500 feet. In accordance with this, the Amphibio- 
fauna is extremely similar to that of Tropical India ; we find in this 
zone the following species ll : — 

* The upper elevational limits of the land-aniinals are much more distiuct thaii 
the lower ones ; vice versū in sea-animals. See Schmarda, ' Geograph. Verbreit. 
der Thiere,' p. 70. 

t The black variety of the Copra de Capello {Naja tripudians) certainly ascend s 
higher than 8000 feet ; it would very finely illustrate our division if this sug- 
gestion should prove to be true. 

X Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 1850, p. 772. 

§ The botanical characters of the zones are taken from Dr. Hooker's ' Himalaya 
Journal.' 

II In all the following enumeratious of species, those only have been referred to, 
the elevational limits of which have been stated. 



170 



A. Betiveen the level o/the plains and 2700 /eet. 



*Emyda punctata. 
*Tiliqua ru/escens. 
*Calotes versicolor. 
*Gecko verus. 

* TJromastix griseus. 

* Clothonia johnii. 
*Tropidonotus subminiatus. 
* i ąuincunciatus. 

* stolatus. 

*Psaminodynastes pulverulentus. 
*Dipsas triffonata. 
*Simotes purpurascens. 



*Simotes russellii. 
*Coryphodon blumenbachii. 
*Gongylophis conica. 
*Ablabes collaris. 
*Lycodon aulicus. 
*Naja tripudians. 
*Daboia elegans. 
*Rana tigrina. 

* vittigera. 

*Tomopterna strigata. 
*Rufo melanostictus. 
*Polypedates maculatus. 



B. Betiveen 2700 and 4000 f eet. 



Barycephalus sykesii. 
*Tiliqua rufescens. 

Calotes maricB. 
* versicolor. 

* Clothonia johnii. 
*Tropidonotus subminiatus. 
* quincunciatus. 

* stolatus. 

* Psammodynastes pulverulentus. 
*Dipsas trigonata. 

*Simotes purpurascens. 
* russellii. 



*Coryphodon blumenbachii. 
'^ Gongylophis conica. 
*Ablabes collaris. 
*Naja tripudians. 
*Daboia elegans, 

Rana liebigii. 

* vittigera. 

*Tomopterna strigata. 

Dicroglossus adolfi. 
*Bufo melanostictus. 
*Polypedates maculatus. 



The species marked with an asterisk are found also in the plains 
of Lower ludia. 

It is evident from the lists given that we intend to establish two 
subzones for the Amphibio-fauna. In the parts below 2400 feet the 
Reptiles are entirely identical with those of the plains ; there is not 
one species wliich indicates that we are at the foot of the gigantic 
wall which separates the Palsearctic from the Palseotropical region," 
and the totai absence of Crocodiles appears to be the only, but im- 
portant, sign of a coming change. Severai other Reptiles gradually 
disappear : Gecko verus, Uromastix griseus, the true Tree-snakes of 
green colour, Rana tigrina, Emyda punctata, and finally Lycodon 
aulicus. In the upper portion of the zone appear two new Frogs, 
but they are merely representatives of species found in the lower one 
and in the plains, namely Dicroglossus representing Oxyglossus, and 
Rana liebigii, replacing Rana tigrina. Barycephalus begins here, 
and, although a genus peculiar to the Himalaya, it belongs to the 
family of Agamidee, which is chiefly East ludian. The upper limit 
of this zone is remarkably distinct, and indicated by the simultaneous 
disappearance of one-third of the species found within its extent 
{Calotes versicolor, Simotes russellii, Tropidonotus ąuincunciatus and 
stolatus, Ablabes collaris, Daboia elegans, Dicroglossus adolfi, Rana 
liebigii). 



171 

2. The Temperate Zone; zone q/"Tiliqua rufescens. — 4000-10,000 
feet above the level of the sea. 

A great change in the flora takes place at an elevation of 4000 feet, 
and is complete at 4800. Scattered oaks appear in the midst of a 
tropical vegetation; these, with chestnuts, magnoHas, laurels, and tree- 
rhododendrons become gradually more numerous ; at from 6000 to 
7000 feet, plants of the temperate regions blend with those of the 
tropical ; the vegetation yet eontinues to be gorgeous, and is, in some 
respects, not to be surpassed by anything in the tropics. At 8000 feet, 
forests of firs and manysubalpine plants appear; the traveller, who was 
glad to have escaped the leeches, which received him at the entrance 
of this zone, finds himself now attacked by another species, not less 
blood-thirsty : the mean temperature at this elevation coincides most 
nearly with that of London, viz. 50°. A little higher up, the ther- 
mometer falls in nights of the month of November to 30°, whilst at 
9700 feet it reaches 67° in the noon of August. No marked change 
in the flora takes place from 8000 feet towards the upper limit of 
the zone; but at 10,000 feet extensive snow-beds have been found 
yet unmelted in June. We mušt refer to this zone what we know 
of the Reptiles of the Khasia Mountains ; and the fact stated by 
Dr. Hooker, that the temperate flora descends fully 4000 feet lower 
in the latitude of Khasia than in that of Sikkim, though the former 
is two degrees nearer the equator, appears to be fully confirmed by 
a similar modification of the elevational limits of the reptiles. Severai 
species coUected in Khasia, apparently not much above 3000 feet, 
where the tree-vegetation has already disappeared, are found in the 
Himalaya not below the middle of this zone, and spread even beyond 
it ; for instance, Hinulia. Other species show at least a distinctly 
higher range in the Himalaya. It is clear, from what we have said 
above, that all the physical conditions for a rich Amphibian life ex- 
tend through nearly the vrhole zone, but the influence of elevation 
makes itself very perceptible by the decrease of the number of species 
in the higher parts. 

a. Species betvoeen 4000 and 8000 feet. 

Hinulia indica. Brachyorrhos tenuiceps. 

Barycephalus sykesii. Simotes purpurascens, var. 

*Tiliqua rufescens. Xenodon macrophthalmus. 

Calotes tricarinatus. Coryphodon carinatus. 

*CIothonia johnii. * blumenbachii. 

*Tropidonotus subminiatus. Spilotes reticulatus. 

platyceps. Ablabes rappii. 

Trachisc.hium fuscum. *Gongylophis conica. 

obscuro-striatum. *Naja tripudians. 

*Dipsas trigonata. *Rana vittigera. 

Herpetoreas sieboldii. Bufo vulgaris. 

Psammodynastes pulverulen- *Bufo melanostictus. 

tus, var. Rhacophorus maximus. 



172 

h. Species between 8000 and 1 0,000 /ee^ 

Hinulia indica. Trachisehium fuscum. 

Barycephalus sykesii. Tropidonotiis platyceps. 

*Tiliqua rufescens. Trigonocephalus affinis. 

Tiaris elliottii. Bu/o vulgaris. 

* Clothonia johiiii. * melanostictiis. 

Ablabes oivenii. 

The upper limit of this zone is marked by the disappearance of a 
Saurian (^Tiliąua rufescens), of a Snake {Clothonia johnii), and of 
two Batrachians {Bu/o nielanostictus and B. vulgaris). Severai 
other tropical Snakes reach more or less deeply into this zone, and 
their range may help some day to establish two or three subzones ; 
for the present, howeTer, I will merely suggest the feasibility of sepa- 
ratmg the upper part (from 8000 to 1 0,000 feet) from the lower. 

The greater number of the species are peeuliar to the Himalaya : 
the tree-lizards of the Tropical zone (Calotes) are here replaced and 
represented by a distinct species (C. tricarinatus) , the other species 
of Saurians being such as live on or below the ground. As for 
Snakes, the absence of Calamaria and Elaps strikes us first, both 
genera being strictly confined to tropical regions. Tree-snakes are 
scarcely represented by Dipsas trigonata and Herpetoreas, which 
do not extend on to 8000 feet. Ali the others are ground- or 
freshwater-suakes belonging to genera, which, if not confined to 
the Himalayas, are spread over parts of the globė so different, that 
the Amphibio-fauna of this zone is by no means strikingly stamped 
with the character of the temperate regions. Two instances alone * 
remind us of the fact that a great part of the plants and insects of 
this zone are identical with European forms ; namely, the occurrence 
of a Snake at 9000 feet, which is nearly allied to, or perhaps really 
identical with, Trigonocephalus halys from the shores of the Cas- 
pian Sea and Tartary, and which has another congener iu Trigono- 

* It is a pity that a more exact statement of tbe locality of the Kbasia Blind- 
worm, Dopasia gracilis, has not been preserved ; it appears to belong to this 
zone. Dr. Hooker (Him. Journ. ii. p. 301) says that "it belongs to a truly 
American genus," and appears to have been guided in so saying by the opinion 
of Dr. Gray, who, however, after referring it first to the European Pseudopiis, and 
aftervvards to the .American Ophisunis, has founded a separate genus upon it — Do- 
pasia. The occurrence of a form in Kbasia so closely alhed to northein genera is 
remarkable enough ; but if we separate these three forms generically from one 
another (for which, in ray opinion, the difFerences are not importaut enough), 
Dopasia has quite as much resemblance to Pseudopus as to Ophisurus ; the pala- 
tine teeth in Dopasia forming a very narrow band, whilst this band in Ophisurus 
is broad. Another assertion of Dr. Hooker (/. c), " that the Sikkim Skink and 
Agama are also American forms," is not correct. The appellation of " Sikkim 
Skink " can be applied with the šame right not only to Plestiodon sikkimensis 
(probably referred to by Dr. Hooker), but also to Hinulia indica and Tiligua ru- 
fescens ; the two latter genera are confined to the East Indies and to Australia, 
and the former is, it is true, represented by some American species, but two or 
three others occur in different parts of the East Indies ; so that this genus of 
Skinks can by no meaus be called a North American form. With regard to the 
" Sikkim Agama" being called an .\merican form, it mušt be mentioned, that the 
Agamidce are a family confined to the 01d World. 



173 

cephalus blomhoffii from Japan ; and, secondly, tbe presence of ouv 
common toad in Sikkim and Tibet. The latter species is spread over 
all the parts of Europe and Asia belonging to tbe Palsearctic region ; 
it is found also in Japan and on tbe Cbinese island of Cbusan {Bufo 
gargarizans, Cant.), and offers bėre, in tbe Himalaya, tbe example 
of the greatest elevation of a Batrachian known (10,200 feet), lUus- 
trating a law whicb is generally found to be true,— namely, tbat ani- 
mals witb a wide horizontai range have also a great vertical distri- 

bution. . , 1 • • 1 

The number of species rapidly decreases with the nsing eleva- 
tion ; and when we arrive at tbe upper Umit of tbis zone, we find it 
reduced to tbree Saurians, two Snakes, and a single Batrachian ; 
four of these disappear simultaneously {TiHqua rufescens, AUabes 
oivenii, Clothonia johnii, and Bufo vulgaria), and at this elevation 
mark the higbest point to wbicb an otherwise tropical form is known 
to rise. 

3. Alpine Zone ; rone o/ Barycepbabis sykesii.— 10,000-15,000 
feet. 

Tbe lower part of this zone is covered by a vegetation by no 
means scanty, and continuing to be similar to tbat of England, or 
towards tbe middle to tbat of the Scandinavian penmsula, vrhilst agri- 
cultural plants may be cultivated, and tbe different species of Pinus 
form extensive forests, but trees and sbrnbs cease at several locab- 
ties of tbe upper part. Tbe Une where perpetual snow, or a barren, 
frozen ground oppresses tbe vegetative bfe, appears to vary mucb in 
different localities, independently of tbe fact tbat it is bigber on tbe 
northern side of tbe chains tban on the soutbem. Dr. Hooker, for 
instance, found perpetual snow at 15,000 feet in East Nepal, and on 
one side of a mountain in Tibet at 16,500, whilst on the otber 
there was none at 19,000 feet. Meyen * statės the presence of low 
shrubs at 15,000, and of mosses and grasses at 15,500 feet. Tbe 
occurrence of B^ptiles proves at least a local vegetation above 15,000 
feet. Tbe thermometer rises in June and August to 70° in the noon 
at 11,500-11,900 feet, to 43° at 15,700, wbilst it falls in November 
and December to 29i° in the noon in 13,080, and to 12-15° in tbe 
nigbt. Thus the Reptiles inhabiting this zone are subject to tbe 
conditions of a very severe change in the different seasons, and tbey 
fall into a lethargic statė during tbe winter, likę our European spe- 
cies t- The species foimd vrithin tbis zone are tbe following : — 
Phrynocephalus tickelii. Biancia nigra. 

Hinulia indica. Calotes minor. 

Barycephalus sykesii. Spilotes hodgsonii. 

* Wiegra. Arch. 1536, pp. 317, 318. It is not said which rneasurement (En- 
(tlish or French) has been used. 

t The Reptiles which inhabit the upper parts of the temperate zone hybernate 
of necessity : and we have the remarkable fact of species being adapted to pass 
part of a vear in lethargy, whilst other individuals of the šame species Imng in 
a tropical 'cUmate never become subject to an iufluence simUarly depressive of the 
Vitai functions. Is this not proof enough that one and the šame species may 
extend over two or more horizontai regions ? 



174 

None of the tropical species extend iuto this zone ; and, although 
it is not improbable that a future traveller may discover the presence 
of Batrachians, their number will be very limited. The first of the 
species mentioned offers another example of the occurrence of northem 
forms in the Himalaya, the genus Phrynocephahis having its range 
over High Asia to the shores of the Caspian Sea and to Siberia ; the 
species is said to be found also in Affghanistan. Barycephalus and 
Biancia are pecuhar to the Himalaya, and the former bears a striking 
resemblance to Microphractus of the Andes of Ecuador : in fact, 
they do not diflFer in any essential external character, and would 
be referred to the šame genus if it were not for the dentition. A 
single Tree-lizard enters this zone (Calotes minor), replacing Calotes 
tricarinatus of the temperate zone, but it is of small size, and the 
bright green colour of other species is changed to a dull yellowish, 
marbled with brown. Finally, the only species of Snake {Spilotes 
hodgsonii) is a representative of Indian forms — namely, of Sp. reti- 
culatus from the temperate zone, and of Sp. melanurus from the 
lowlands. 

Thus, although the forms of this zone are specifically distinct 
from those without the Umits of the Himalaya, its Amphibio-fauna 
is mixed, and composed partly of species which approach northem 
or southem forms, and partly of others quite peculiar to those moun- 
tains. 

In conclusion, it will be of interest to make a comparison of the 
greatest elevations at which Reptiles have been found in different 
parts of the globė. In the Alps and in the Andes the Batrachians 
ascend to much greater heights than Lizards or Snakes, whilst in 
the Himalaya these latter appear to go higher ; a discrepancy, how- 
ever, which may arise from our present incomplete knowledge, as it 
is very probable, in my opinion, that some species of Toad or Sala- 
mander will be discovered at a greater altitude than the specimens 
of Bufo vulgaris from the CoUection of Messrs. v. Schlagintweit. 
Bufo vulgaris and Salamandra atra live in the Alps at 6000 feet, 
Bana temporaria round lakęs, near the region of eternal snow 
(8500 feet), which are nine months covered with ice ; Triton at 
7800 feet in the Pyrenees. Castelnau* found a Tree-frog at nearly 
15,000 feet (English) in the Andes, and Tschudif Leiuperus viri- 
dis (a species little known) near the region of eternal snow at 1 6,000 
feet. With regard to Snakes, the occurrence of Spilotes hodgsonii 
at 15,200 feet in the Himalaya gives the highest point at which 
an Ophidian has ever been found ; for Vipera bėrus and Tropido- 
notus natrix reach to 6000 feet only in the Alps, and the former to 
7000 feet in the Pyrenees ; Castelnau statės that he met with two 
Snakes only at 7500 feet in the Andes. The Lizards rise still higher: 
three species of them live at 15,300 feet in the Himalayas. The state- 
ments as to the altitudinal extent.of our European species are scanty: 
Zootoca vivipara is known to rise in the Austrian Alps to 3500 feet, 
and Anguis fragilis to 5000. Castelnau merely observes that 

* Comptes Rendus, xx\'i. p. 101. f Tschudi, Faun. Peruan. Herpetol. p. 68. 



175 

Lizards are numerous on the table-land of Peru and Bolivia below 
12,000 feet. At all events, upon comparing these observations of 
Castelnau with those made in the Himalaya, we mušt come to the 
conclusiou that Lizards are better adapted than Snakes to inhabit 
the highest localities in which Amphibiau life is possible. 



8. On the Causes of Death of the Animals in the Society's 
Gardens, from 1851 to the present time, 1860. By 
Edwards Crisp, m. d., F.Z.S., etc. — (Part I.) 

Before I proceed to the immediate subject of my paper, a few pre- 
liminary remarks win be necessary. 

In the earlier Numbers of our ' Proceedings ' several accounts of 
the morbid parts of animals disseoted are given by Professor Owen, 
Mr. Martin, the late Mr. Yarrell, and others ; but I believe no 
attempt has been made in this or in any other country to investigate 
the diseases of foreign animals in confinement, in a eomprehensive 
manner, so as to endeavour to draw practical and useful deductions 
frora them. Such will be my object in the present communication. I 
have made rough sketches in oil-colours of many of the diseased parts 
I shall have to deseribe, so that they may be the better understood. 
In 1851 I obtained permission from the Council of the Zoological So- 
ciety to examine all animals dying at the Gardens, for the purpose 
of physiological investigations ; but in these researches I was espe- 
cially anxious to ascertain the cause of death in all the animals I dis- 
sected, believing that the morbid condition of certain organs might 
throw some amount of light upon their functions. I mention this 
for the purpose of showing that, if I had examined these animals ex- 
clusively for the purpose of comparative anatomy, I should have been 
less careful about their abnormal eonditions. 

In most instances in the examination of the blood, and in the in- 
vestigation of morbid structures, I have been aided by the use of 
the microscope. The large number of notes that I possess would 
enable me to make a very long communication ; but, as my chief 
object in bringing this matter before the Society is to convey useful 
and practical Information in plain and simple language, I shall re- 
serve some of the more minute and scientific parts of the subject for 
the Pathological Society. In addition to these remarks, I may ex- 
press my belief that the nature of the diseases of man will not be 
thoroughly understood, nor appropriately treated, until the devia- 
tions from normai structure are fidly investigated in plants and in 
the loioest grade of animals : a doctrine, I believe, not promulgated 
before, and one that will be laughed at by many; but I have the 
greatest confidence that this mode of throwing light on the dark and 
uncertain nature of the art of medicine will hereafter be adopted. 

For the purpose of pointing out what I beheve to be the import- 
ance of this matter, I trust I may be pardoued for ąuoting a short 
extract from my work on the Spleen, writteu in 1852 :— " Nearly all 



176 

the great discoveries in physiology have been made by experiments 
upon living animals, in a statė of health ; but why sbould not their 
diseased conditions be turned to account ? Why may not brute pa- 
thology hereafter clear up some of the doubts and difficulties of our 
art ? The esamination of one of the lower animals that has been 
kept in confinement is attended with these great advantages : — the 
exact nature of the food, and the deviations from the uatural statė of 
the animal, can be readily ascertained ; and if the animal is small 
(a bird e. g.), the morbid parts are revealed at once, and the chain 
of causes is more apparent than in larger ąuadrupeds, the investigator 
always taking into account the pecuharities of structure." 

I divide my subject into two parts, the first including that which 
forms the heading of this paper ; the second will treat upon the 
best means of preservdng the health of animals iu confinement, and 
of preventing the disorders and diseases to which they are liable. 
The former division I shall consider this eveuing. 

It will be well to remember that most of the animals in question 
were living in an artificial statė, many of them exposed to a tempera- 
ture much lower than that which was natūrai to them ; their food, 
too, generally different frora that which they were accustomed to obtain 
in their native haunts ; and the situation of the Gardens, on a cold, 
clayey soil, is another matter that should not be lošt sight of. We 
mušt also, in estimating the nature of the diseases of ąuadrupeds, 
birds, and reptiles, consider the peculiarities of their anatomy. Thus 
that of the Mammals does not differ very materially, so far as regards 
diseased conditions, from that of man ; many of them have a slower 
circulation, and the complesity of the stomach and the length of the 
aUmentary canal, in the Ruminants especially, are important items 
in the account. 

In birds the temperature is several degrees higher and the circu- 
lation much more rapid than iu ąuadrupeds ; whilst in reptiles the 
blood is cold, and the action of the heart generally slower than in 
the higher classes. 

The natūrai longe^ity of the lovver animals is a point that should 
not escape observation. In the vast raajority we have no means of 
knowing the age which they attain, and even among our British wild 
ąuadrupeds and birds we possess but little reliable Information. As 
regards our domestic animals we are not much better informed, for 
but few of them are allovved to live the natūrai period of their exist- 
ence. The probable average age of some of our British animals, 
judging from my own inąuiries and investigations, is about as fol- 
lows : — The horse 25 to 35 years, ass 30 to 40, ox 15 to 20, goat 15, 
sheep 15, pig 12 to 16, dog 14, fox 14, cat 16, bare U, rabbit 11 ; 
the eagle and many of the accipitrine birds 30 to 60 ; the small 
passerine birds 12 to 16 ; ravens 30 to 50 ; goose 25 to 40. Many 
of the gallinaceons birds, as far as my Information goes, are the 
shortest lived, some of them, the Cochin China cock for example, in 
some localities not living more than six or eight years. Among the 
reptiles, the tortoise is nearly the only one about the age of which we 
possess any positive information, and this animal is said to live a 



177 

hundred years ; and some of the Saurians (Alligators and Crocodiles) 
are probably very long Ii ved. Another remark I may make en pas- 
sant : the old adage " Soon ripe, soon rotten," likę many wise sayiugs, 
so called, is frequently inapplicable, for the raven and the goose in a 
few nionths attain their natūrai size ; whilst many animals that are 
comparatively short-lived are much longer in coming to maturity. 
It mušt be borne in mind, too, that individuals among the lower ani- 
mals, as among the human species, occasionally reach a great age. 
Thus Youatt mentions one instance of a horse that died at the age 
of sixty-two. I know of an instance of a Suffolk cart-mare that bore 
a foal when forty-two years of age ; and I have recently dissected a 
cat that had reached the age of twenty. 

I uow come to the gist of my subject, viz. the cause of death of 
many of the animals during the period alluded to. For the sake of 
brevity and perspicuity, I will speak of the animals in classes accord- 
ing to the Cuvierian arrangement ; one advantage of this method wi]l 
be the consideration of the differences in structure in connexion with 
the morbid changes. 

The deseription of the secondary, or what may be called minor 
lesions, I shall make brief allusion to at the end of my paper, and 
eonfine myself at present to those diseases which, as far as I could 
judge, appeared to be the immediate cause of death. 

I scarcely need say that in many instances it is difficult to ascer- 
tain the exact or immediate cause of death, so that a great number 
of deaths mušt come under the denomination of doubtful. Thus, 
fuUy to explain my meaning, an animal labouring under a chronic 
disease readily succumbs to any depressing cause, such as exposure 
to cold, change of diet, or food of an improper kind, slight extenial 
injury, &c., the vital forces being insnfficient to resist a shock that 
an animal in a healthy condition would bear with impunity. I could 
give Severai examples of this during the late cold weather. An Ar- 
madillo (^Dasypus peba), with a large and fatty liver, became sud- 
denly torpid, and died in a short time. A Wagati Cat {Felis viver- 
rincČ) that had partly lošt the use of the hind limbs appeared to die 
solely from the depressing influence of cold. A Civet Cat {Viverra 
civetta), in good condition and apparently in good health, died in a 
fit, the conseąuence probably of determination of blood to the brain 
from cold. I could mention several examples of birds that died 
from a similar cause, the presence of tubercles on the liver, spleen, 
and other parts, rendering the animals more susceptible to its in- 
fluence. Animals, too, often died soon after a long voyage, the con- 
finement, unnatural food, and other causes producing derangement 
of the vital functions. A Dusky Duck {Anas obscurd) that lately 
arrived from America had no discoverable disease in any part, but 
the sraall intestines contained thousands of entozoa (Liffula), and 
these, combined with the cause above alluded to, were sufficient to 
produce death. A monkey had been two years at liberty ; after a 
few months' confinement in the monkey-house it died, and I could 
discover no sufficient cause of death. Another point mušt not 
escape observation, viz. the impossibility in most instances of exa- 

No. 428. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



178 

miriing the brain, as the specimens were many of tbem used for 
stuffing or for skeletous. I believe, however, that diseases both of 
the brain and beart are comparatively rare in tbe lower animals, 
altboiigh tbeir occurrence is far from uufrequent , — the absenee of 
mental exertion will to a great extent serve to explam tbis. Sudden 
and immediate death sonietimes occurs, but it is very unfreąuent. 

Quadrumana. — Of these I have inspected tbe bodies of sixty-seven, 
and I may remark bėre that I speak in tbis communication only of 
tbe animals dying at the Society's Gardens. Among tbem -vvere two 
Ourangs ( Simia satyrus) and four Cbimpanzees {S. troglodytes) ; tbree 
of these apes died of diarrhcea, two oi pneumonia, and one of diseased 
kidneys. Tbey were between two and four years of age, and all were 
teething. There is, I tbink, but httle cbance of the youug anthropoid 
apes U^nng long in tbis country ; if tbey could be obtained when 
nearer tbe adult period, there would be a much greater probabibty of 
keeping tbem for several years. I have neitber time nor space to 
notice separately the diseases of tbe different animals ; I sliall tbere- 
fore endeavour to classify the diseases as well as I am able, and com- 
ment briefly on the rarer forms of abnormal structure, espeeially 
wben tbey occur in animals that have seldom or never before been 
dissected in tbis country. Tbe supposed cause of death in tbe Qua- 
drumana may be tbus classified (I use the term supposed, because 
in tbis order, as in most of the otbers, I may often have been in 
error respecting the immediate cause of death) : pneumonia 13, pleu- 
ritis and pericarditis 11, tubercles of the lungs 17, tubercles of tbe 
liver, spleen, and other parts 5, diarrhcea 4, atropby 5 ; one of each 
of tbe follovFing: tetanus (from diseased tail), epilepsy, fungus bse- 
matodes of the lungs, fatty liver, diseased kidneys, ruptured stomach, 
and aneurism of the aorta. In tbirteen I could not discover any 
sufficient cause of death ; but in these, as iu most of the other 
specimens, from circumstances before alluded to, tbe brain was not 
examined. 

The above deductions serve to correct a prevailing error, viz. that 
nearly all the Quadrumana in this country die from tubercles in the 
lungs. Iu five monkeys that I have recently examined no tubercles 
were present in any instance. It is true that disease of the lungs is 
tbe most freąuent morbid cbange, and that consolidation of tbe pul- 
monary tissue from inflammation is generally the forernnner of tuber- 
cular deposit ; but a great number, as tbe list sbows, die from 
other causes. As migbt be expected, the diseases of this order re- 
semble more those of man than any of tbe succeeding. In one in- 
stance tbe transmission of tbe tubercular diatbesis was very marked. 
A female Rhesus raonkey that I examined died of extensive tuber- 
cular deposit in tbe lungs and in other organs ; she had borne five 
young ones : two of these wbicb I inspected also died of tubercles 
in tbe lungs, and probably tbe otbers shared the šame fate. 

As I shall have occasion to speak often of tubercle, I may as well 
at once point out the peculiarities of this deposit in tbe lower animals. 
Tbus, large cavities, so common in tbe lungs o f man, are but rarely 
met witb in tbe brute, the extraneous matter having a more solid 



179 

and cheese-like appearance. In birds the deposit is mostlj hard and 
formed in concentric layers, diifering mateiially from that which 
occurs in the human subject ; it is often met with, too, on the surface 
of organs, in the shape of small nodules. This form of tubercle, 
I believe, is often of rapid formation, its structure being more albu- 
minous than that of the other varieties. In reptiles it is generally 
softer and less circumscribed than in birds. Of all the chronie 
lesions to ■which foreign animals in confinement are exposed, this is 
by far the most frequent, although probably in their wild statė it 
seldom occurs. I have examined the bodies of all the British qua- 
drupeds and reptiles, and the greater number of the British birds, 
but, with two or three exceptions, they have been free from this dis- 
ease. One of these exceptions was in a large number of Common 
Sparrows {Fringilla passer) that were found dead some years since 
in the Society's Gardens ; in nearly all of these I found tubercles of 
the liver, spleen, or other organs, — a fact that does not speak much 
in favour of the locality of the Gardens. 

The length of time that some animals will live with extensive 
tuberculous disease of the lungs and other parts is remarkable. In 
1853 I had an opportunity of watching a Patas Monkey (Cerco- 
pitheeus ruber) ; for some time the symptoms were a short, dry 
cough, loss of appetite, dull eye, great emaciation, and a pulse of 140 
per minute. There was scarcely a souud portion of lung in this 
animal, the whole being studded with tubercles in various stages of 
development. The wonder is that life could have been prolonged 
under such a vast accumulation of disease. 

The presence of aneurism in a monkey has not, as far as I know, 
been before observed, and, although I have been especially careful to 
examine the larger arteries in most of the animals I have dissected, I 
have ouly in one instance — an old Capybara {HydrocJicerus) — met 
with ossified deposit, — an alteration so common in the human subject. 
Chiroptera. — Three Pteropi (Fruit-eating Bats) are the only 
members of this order that I have inspected, and, with the exception 
of evideuce of want of nutrition, no sufficient cause of death could 
be discovered. 

Carnivora. — The animals of this order examined amount to more 
than one hundred, and their diseases differ in many respects from the 
preceding. Tubercles of the lungs are much less frequent, but their 
occurrence inthe liver and spleen is not uncommon. Although it is 
said that " a cat has nine lives," many of the Felidce are readily killed 
by a shght amount of inflamraation of the lungs. In several deaths I 
have found the first stage oi pnemnonia sufficient to produce the fatal 
result. Among the Carnivora, I have examined six lions (including 
two cubs), four tigers, two jaguars, and four leopards. One lion had 
a falše aneurism of the lung ; a lioness died in convulsive fits ; I 
found a large ąuantity of hay in the stomach, but could discover no 
lesion of the brain or other organ to account for death, I may 
here mention that I have met with several cases of fatal obstruction 
of the bowels in carnivorous animals from this cause ; large accumu- 
ati ons of hay and straw are matted together in the intestines, ren- 



180 

dering them impervious. The most extraordinary example, however, 
that has come to my notice occurred in a common cat at Barclay's 
Brewery, and in tliis instance, as the case is a very practical one, I 
think I may depart from the plan I had laid down of confining my 
notices to deaths in the Society's collection. The cat in ąuestiou 
had been for a loug time confined in one of the corn-chambers, and 
was unable to procure grass ; she gradually became emaciated and 
died nearly a skeleton ; after death the stomach -vvas found filled 
with a soUd mass, formed of the twigs of birch-brooms. Mr. Braby, 
the intelHgent veterinary surgeon of the estabhshment, gavę me a 
half-section of this mass ; it is now in the Museum of the CoUege 
of Surgeons. I mention the case especially for the purpose of show- 
ing the importance of snpplying carnivorous animals with grass. A 
most remarkable form of disease occurred in 1854 among some of the 
cats (Hons, tigers, and jagiiars), arising, I beheve, from their having 
eaten glandered horseflesh. The animals had most of the symptoms 
of this fearful disease, vrhich is so often transmitted to man ; rabbits 
and cats that I inoculated from the uasal purulent matter of a jaguar 
died in a few days. A short time before this, as related to me by 
Mr. Bartlett, two gentlemen dissected at the Gardens a hon that was 
probably aflFected with the šame disease : one died, and the other vvas 
nearly two years before he recovered from the effects of the poison. 
A remarkable instance of attachment occurred in the Cape hunting- 
dog {I/ycaonjnctus), as I havestated in the ' Proceedings ' for 1855 ; 
after the death of the dog, the bitch pined away, refused her food, 
and died in ten days. Many of the carnivorous animals were exces- 
sively fat, especially the bears. In a Persian lynx the quantity of 
fat in the pelvis and abdomen was very great, and I have seen similar 
accumulations in many of the Felidce. Some writers on fatty dege- 
neration in man have stated that the deposit of fat in wild animals 
is seldom or never met ■vvith ; but this is an error ; in many of our Bri- 
tish wild animals it is very abundant. The body of the Barn-owl 
{Strix Jlammea) now on the table contains a large ąuantity of fat, 
a thick layer of which also existed uuder the skin ; indeed I have 
never seen the šame amount in a graminivorous bird. Lieutenant 
Burgess, some of whose papers are in our ' Proceedings,' informs 
me that many birds which he shot in India were exceedingly fat. 

The chief diseases of the Carnivora may be arranged under two 
heads, viz. the inflammatory and the tuberculous, the latter (as I 
believe) being generally the effect of the former. One bear (Ursus 
americanus) died suddenly in a fit, and it is said that in these ani- 
mals sudden death is not unfreąuent. In one instance I found the 
lung of a tiger emphysematous, the ruptured air-cells forming eleva- 
tions as large as waluuts. 

Amphibia. — In three seals (P. vitulina) and in a walrus {T. ros- 
marus) the cause of death vvas not evident ; the last-naraed animal 
had been fed by the Scotch captain who brought it to this country 
upon oatmeal ! 

Marstipiata. — The marsupial animals examined number about 
thirty ; many of them were very fat ; tubercles of the liver are com- 



181 

mon iii this divisiou, and this organ is often soft and fatty. A 
tree-kangaroo {Dendrolagus inustus) had tnbercles of the liver. The 
most remarkable death among these pouched animals was that of a 
great kangaroo {Macropus major), namely, from bleeding of the 
bowels ; the blood appeared to ooze from a large extent of surface 
of the mucous Hning of the alimentary canal. This membraue wa3 
very dark and ecehymosed. The cause of this \vas not apparent, as 
the animal was in excelleut condition. In two Tasmaniau Wolve3 
(Thylacini) the deposit of fat was very abundant, and in one which 
died in hot weather, and the body of which was exhumed, the oily 
fat appeared to permeate almost every tissue. 

Rodentia. — About thirty individuals of this order have been dis- 
sected, and tuberculous deposits in the hver and spleen vvere often 
present ; several died from inflammation of the lungs. A Cana- 
dian poreupine (Erethizon dorsatum) died of distended stomach, 
having gorged itself with potatoes, after a sea-voyage. A bearer 
{Castor fiber) presented a large amouut of tubercular disease of the 
liver and spleen, although in tolerable condition ; whilst the body of 
the large squirrel (Sciurus maximus), in excellent condition, revealed 
no satisfactory cause of death. The tvfo Capybaras afforded the 
most remarkable deviations from normai structure ; one, as recorded 
in the 'Proceedings of the Pathological Society,' 1854, p. 347, had 
scirrhus of the kidney ; the lašt that died had the liver so softened 
that the bile-ducts, arteries, and veins could be readily puUed from 
the substance of the hver ; both suprarenal capsules, too, were en- 
larged and diseased, — a very rare occurrence in the lower animals. 

Edentata. — The examination of the misnamed toothless animals 
has been very limited, three armadillos and one large ant-eater {Myr- 
mecophaga jubatd) forming the whole. The armadillos appeared to 
die from derangement of the assimilative organs ; in one the liver was 
soft and fatty, but in none of the above was there any active disease. 

Pachydermata. — Although the animals in this section are but fe\v 
in number, the morbid appearances were of especial iuterest. In the 
female Asiatic elephant which I examined the condition of the blood 
was very remarkable ; it was generally tough, and could readily be 
pulled out of the vessels ; one portion from the posterior cava and 
iliac veins measured 4 feet in length. The animal, apparently in 
good heaith, was frightened during a thunder-storm, had profuse 
watery diarrhcea, and died the next day. As these animals are not 
often inspected, I may mention that I examined the viscera of another 
Asiatic elephant that died in Yorkshire from inflammation of the 
lungs after esposure to severe cold. Of three tapirs {T. americanus), 
two died of peritonitis ; in one this was occasioned by a small oblong 
smooth perforation of the stomach from simple ulceration, as exhi- 
bited in the dravving ; in the second the cause of the peritonitis ap- 
peared to be doubtful ; the third had brain symptoms from diseased 
kidneys. The death of two peccaries ŲJicotyles torquatus) was oc- 
casioned by inflamed lungs. An Indian sow {Sus indieus) died of 
abscess of the brain. A zebrą, when apparently in good heaith and 
in excellent condition, broke its neck by striking its head against the 



182 

palings of the paddock. It will scarcely be believed that the colon 
and csecum of tbis animal weigbed 224 Ibs. ; tbe liver, as sbown in 
the drawing, was covered witb large cj'sts (Echinococci) ; one of tbem 
coutamed 8 oz. of yellowisb iluid ; probably tbe fluid contents of all 
tbe cysts amounted to about tbree puits ; but, notwitbstauding the 
presence of these Entozoa, the animal appeared to be in perfect 
bealth. 

In tbe female African wart-hog (Phacochcerus) that recently died 
at tbe GardenSj tbe animal had suffered from peritonitis and perfo- 
ration of the intestine. 

Ruminantia. — The inspections of tbe members of this order have 
been far more numerous tban those of the preceding, including some 
of the rarer species of deer and antelopes ; their diseases too are of a 
more varied nature ; tbe presence of Echinococci in the liver, lungs, 
and other Tiscera, is very frequent. My space wiU not allow of my 
alluding so fully to some of the morbid conditions wbich I have found 
in the ruminants as I could wish. Of two giraffes which I inspected, 
one had diseased liver, and tbe pauneh was enormously distended 
with food ; it probably weighed more tban a hundred weight, and 
tbis distension was most likely tbe cause of death ; the liver and 
spleen both contained acephalocysts tbe size of a ben's egg, and tbe 
buccal glands were filled witb cbalky concretions about tbe size of 
peas ; tbis was an old female that had borne six young ones. The 
second \vas a youuger animal, and appeared to die of inflammation of 
tbe lungs. The alimentary canal of the old giraffe measured 254 feet 
in length, that of the other 209 feet. I mention this, because, as 
these measurements differ materially from those of many \vho have 
examined other specimens of tbis animal, future incjuirers mušt deter- 
miue their accuracy. In three reindeer {Cervus tarandus), all in good 
condition, the deaths appeared to arise from euormous distension of 
tbe pauneh, similar to that which sometimes occurs in sbeep after 
eating colev\orts or other succulent food ; the lichen was probably 
not sufficiently dried. In one of these animais the beat of tbe con- 
tents of the pauneh vvas so great that I could scarcely bear my hand 
upon it. 

In a Harte Beeste {Antelope caama) I found falše aneurism of tbe 
spleen. In a Sambur deer {Cervus hippelaphus), in excellent condi- 
tion, nearly tbe whole of the lining membrane of the small intestines 
■R as covered witb flakes of lympb ; an appearance wbich I never wit- 
uessed iu any other animal. This deer had been lying upon the cold 
ground, and probably tbe inflammation was tbus occasioned. 

]Many of the deer and antelopes died from inflammation of the 
lungs, especially those of immature age. Tubercles of the lungs are 
also very commou among tbem. In tbe old malė leucoryx {Antelope 
lencorĮ/x) tbe lungs were studded with tubercles. A leucoryx a year 
old, got by tbe above, had not only tubercles in the lungs, but the 
wbole length of tbe exterior of the intestinal tube was covered with 
small, bard, semitransparent tubercles, — a disease in tbe buman sub- 
ject called tubercular peritonitis. This is another instance vvhicb 
sbows the hereditary nature of tubercle in tbe lo\ver auimals. 



183 

In a Bubaline antelope (Antelope bubalis), which died of extensive 
tubercular disease of the lungs, I found a Bezoar in the paunch, — a 
concretion that, some years ago in the East, would have realized 
some thousands of pounds. 

In an Addax {Anteloįje addax), besides an estensive deposit of 
tubercles in the lungs, there was a large accumulation of bony matter 
around the air-cells, as shown in the preparation. 

In the old female eik {Cervus alces), whicli died lašt year, portions 
of the lungs were inflamed and in the first stage of consolidation ; 
the blood too, as I have found in many animals, was dark, thiek, and 
treacle-like. The alimentary canai of this animal measured 129 feet. 

Although I have endeavoured to compress the notes before me as 
much as possible, I find the subject has extended to a greater length 
than I expected ; I mušt therefore defer the remaining portion of my 
paper until our next meeting. 



The following list of additions made to the Menagerie by gift and 
purchase, during the month of January, was read : — 



1 Barbary Wild Boar 


Sus scrofa, var 


\ 


['Captain Daubeny. 




1 Bonnet Monkey ... 


Macams radiatus . . . 


^ 


\V. Houider, Esą. 




1 Macaąue Monkey... 


Macacus cynomolgus 


■n 


B. D. Gibbs, Esq. 




1 Indiau Jackal 


Canis 


y c -^ 


J. R. A. Douglas, Esq. 




1 Macaąue Monkey... 


Macacus cynomolgus 


o 


H. Cooper, Esq. 




1 Polecat 


Putorius communis. . . 


a. 


H. W. R. W. Halsey, E 
Sir S. Morton Peto. Bt. 


sq. 
M. P. 




1 Common Hare 


Lepus timidus 


\ 


1 Bonnet Moukey ... 


Macacus radiatus ... 






4 English Sąuirrels ... 


Sciurus vulgaris 






1 Barnacle Goose 


Bernicla leucopsis ... 






2 Golden Pheasants... 


Thaumalea pieta 








Pleroeles alchata ... 


• Purchased. 








Viverricula indica ... 






1 Capuchin Monkey... 
1 Bohemian Chatterer 


Ampelis garrula 






1 Spider Monkey 


Atetes pentadactylus 






2 Touracos 


Corythaix buffoni ... 













The following list of additions made to the Menagerie by gift and 
purchase, during the month of February, vFas read : — 



1 HerringGuU 

2 Virginian Opossums ... 
1 African Leopard 


Larus argentatus . . . ' 
Didetphys virginiana 

Felis leopardus 

Cervus barbarus ... 
Balearica pavonina 
Presbytes entelltis ... 
Cercopithecus pyg- 

erylhrus. 
Thaumalea pieta ... 
Lama huanacos 


-B 
0- 


/"S. Redman, Esq. 
The Smithsonian Inst. 
Her Majesty the Queen. 
Viscount Hill. 
Viscount Hill. 
Capt. Rayner Wallace. 
AFrs. Sweetraan. 


1 Crowned Crane 


1 EnteUus Monkey 




2 Golden Pheasants (fem.) 


Purchased. 









184 

March 13th, 1860. 

Dr. Gray, V.P., in the Cbair. 

Mr. F. Buckland exhibited an embalmed Egyptian Ibis, and made 
some remarks upon the statė of preservation of the animal as ascer- 
tained by dissection, and on the causes of the venei'ation of this 
species of bird by the ancient Egyptians. 

Mr. Sclater exhibited specimens of Oreophasis derbianus, ob- 
tained by Mr. Osbert Salvin, Corresponding Member, on the Volcan 
de Fuego, Guatemala. Of the three examples, two were malęs and 
one a female. The female, which was previously unknown, differed 
from the malė only in its slightly smaller size and the smaller develop- 
ment of the vertical protuberance. 

Mr. Sclater also announced the arrival of two important acąuisitions 
for the Society's Menagerie. A fine specimen of the Gigantic Sala- 
mander of Japan (Sieboldia maxima) had just been obtained from 
Capt. Charles Taylor of the ship ' Tung Yu,' by whom it had been 
brought to England from Japan. Capt. Taylor stated that he had 
purchased the animal in the market at Nagasaki on the lOth April, 
1859, and had since kept it on board his vessel in a wooden tub. 
The second novelty was of a different class of Vertebrates. Mr. J. 
Petherick, H. M. Vice-Consul at Chartoura, had deposited in the 
Society's Gardens that day two living examples of the singular bird 
described by Mr. Gould before the Society in 1851 * uuder the name 
of Balceniceps rex. These two birds,with a young malė Hippopotamus, 
also at present placed under the care of the Society, were the sole 
survivors out of a noble coUection of three African Elephants, two 
Rhinoceroses, four Hippopotami, a Monkey (Colobus guereza), and 
eleven birds, which had been prepared by Mr. Petherick for trans- 
mission to England. 

Mr. P. L. Simmonds stated that he had received that day by the 
West African Mail a letter from his brother-in-law at Gaboon, dated 
January 14th lašt, and begged leave to communicate to the Members 
some information extracted from it, relatiug to the habits and temper 
of the Gorilla in a statė of confiuement. A fine specimen, which his 
brother-in-law had obtained, had died, and the skeleton, with that of 
a large adult female Chimpanzee, had been shipped for England. His 
brother-in-law -^vas now again in possession of a very healthy young 
female Gorilla (the second, he believed, that had ever been captured 
alive). It was tame, lively, sensible, and not near so noisy or dirty 
as a Chimpanzee. It had grown an inch or two since he had pur- 
chased it, and seenied to be thriving well. Many people came to 

* See P. Z. S. 1851, p. 1. pi. xxxv. 



185 



the factory expressly to see it. aud it was one of the " lions " of Ga- 
boon ; 60 little was known, even on the coast, of this animal by the 



natives. 



Dr Crisp exhibited some specimens and drawings of the Ccenurus 
cerebralis from the brains of the Commoa Sheep. One cyst mea- 
sured 4 inches in length, and 2į inches in its short diameter It 
contained about three ounces of fluid. The Eckinococct were all of 
an oblons form ; they varied in size in different cysts, some being 
about -hth of an inch in length, others from ^th to^th of an mch. 
In some instances the parent-cyst was quite covered with them ; m 
other examples they were arranged in groups of two or three hun- 
dred in each, and five or six of these masses were present in the 
šame cyst. For the most part, their size was tolerably uniform, but 
a few were one-third or a half less than the others ; this dimniution 
of bulk appearing to depend upon an arrest of growth from the pres- 
sure of the contiguous entozoa. The rostrura and hooks were seen 
only in a few, and occasionally two heads existed. The body ui many 
was faintly marked with transverse lines, but no trace of generative 
organs or of an alimentary canal was yisible On exposure to gentie 
heat, they became-hard and granular. Dr. Cnsp said he thought it 
somewhat doubtful whether these Eckinococct, as supposed by many 
were the young of a tape-worm ; the matter, he beheved, yet required 
much patient investigation. 

The foUovving extracts from the ' Bermuda Royal Gazette' of 
Jan. 31st, 1860, relating to the recent capture of a large species ot 
Gymnetrus in the Bermudas, were read to the Society :— 

«« To the Editor of the ' Royal Gazette.' 
" My dear Sir,— As the Ichthyological specimen captured by 
Mr George Trimingham, atHungary Bay, has attracted some public 
attention, perhaps a short deseription of the creature m question 
may prove interesting to your readers. I have therefore much plea- 
sure in forwarding the following particulars. 

" Believe me, yery truly yours, 

" J. MiVTTHEyy JoNES, F.L.S. 
" The Hermitage, January 26th, 1860." 

"Order AcANTHOPTERYGii. Family Cepolad^. 
" Genus Gymnetrus. 

.< ? 

" Body attenuate, compressed, naked, tuberculate ; cuticle a silyery 
covering of metalhc lustre ; length from facial to caudal extremities 
16 feet 7 inches ; depth, at 14 inches from facial extremity, 9 mches, 
increasing gradually to near the ventral extremity of the stomach 
where it attained its greatest depth of 1 1 inches, and then decreased 
by degrees to the caudal termination ; width, at the šame distance 



186 

and through the spinal colunin, 2į to 3 inches. (These dimensions 
are in the extreme.) 

"From the frontai extremity of the caput (excepting a slight de- 
pression at the occiput) to the position at which the above dimen- 
sions of depth and width were taken, a gradual elevation of the dorsal 
ridge took place ; and from the capital portion of this ridge arose at 
equal distances from each other a series of ten or eleven erect, quill- 
like, flexile filaments from 2 to 3 feet in extent, gradually tapering 
from base to apex, and possessing in the case of the three longest lan- 
ceolate points. From this series of lengthened tilainents, all along 
the back, from head to tail, extended a series of intermittent fins so 
closely situate to each other as to present the appearauce of a single 
fin, and having the spinose rays of each individual fiu joined by the 
connecting membrane. Filaments and dorsal fin bright crimson. 
The ventral fins were entirely destroyed, save a portion of the right 
ventral, which is sufficient to show that it was coraposed of two con- 
sistent bony rays, which probably extended some distance from the 
body and mušt have formed a powerful eugine of direction. The 
pectorals were also almost entirely destroyed, although the base of 
the light pectoral was sufficiently complete to enable me to statė 
that it contained twelve spines. Anai and caudal fins absent. 

" Head truncated, compressed ; facial outline of a dark colour. 
Mouth so damaged as not to be positively determiuable as regards 
form and appearance, but from the portions of javv still remaining I 
should pronounce it raalacostomous. Eyes, 14 lines in diameter, 
slightly depressed ; irides, 3 J lines m width, of a bright silver, encir- 
cling pupils of a somevvhat oval shape, and in colour a light trans- 
parent blue. Stomach : intestinal chamber exteuding from beneath 
the gills to the anai extremity, 5 feet ; unfortunately this chamber 
had been opened and its contents partially injured before I saw the 
specimen, but a large portion of milt, intestine, &c. has been pre- 
served, includiug the major portion of the svvimming bladder, which 
for so large a fish may be considered small ; its colour a bright 
scarlet ; this swimmiug bladder contained a large amount of oily mat- 
ter, and a piece thrown on the rufBed surface of the water imme- 
diatelv stilled the agitation. Gill-rays eight in number, four to a side, 
crimson, flabellate ; the anterior pairs furnished with double rows of 
flabels, ha\-ing the internals white, and armed on their inner side with 
minute dart-like appendages. Gill-covers bony, radiate, not entirely 
coveriug the gills. Teeth, no appearance of auy. 

" In concluding the above description, I mušt not omit to statė that 
it was a malė fish, and from the extremely fragile nature of its various 
parts I may yenture to express an opinion that it had by no means 
attained maturity. 

" I may also remark that my measurements were taken twenty-two 
hours after death, during which tinie the specimen had remained 
exposed on the rocky shore. 

" Remarks. — This genus of Acanthopterygious fishes is of a form 
so thin and flat in propovtion to its length as to have obtained aiuong 
the ancient ichthyologists the name of Riband Fish. Although several 



187 

species are known to science, yet they are all of diminutive size iu 
comparisou with the individual now obtained. Gymnetrus haivkenii, 
G. banksii, and G. glesne are occasionally found in the British Seas. 

" So little appears to be known of this singular tribe of fisbes, that, 
eveii in the present advanced statė of marine zoology, their habits, 
hauuts, &e. remain blanks in the book of nature, and will probably 
long continue so, unless opportunities likę the present should occur 
to enable us to add new facts to the history of these remarkable 
creatures. 

" The most notable fact, however, in connexion with the capture of 
the present specimen will doubtless be the interest and attraction it 
will produce in the scientific world, for most assuredly we have in 
the specimen now before us many of the peculiarities with which the 
appearance of that hitherto apocryphal monster, the Great Sea Ser- 
pent, as detailed by na^igators, is invested. The lengthened fila- 
ments crowning the caput, joined anteriorly by the connecting mem- 
brane and extending to the shoulders, would, viewed from a vessel's 
deck, present to the spectator the mane so accurately described as a 
singular feature in the gigantic specimen seen by Capt. M'Quhae, 
R.N., and officers of H.M.S. ' Dsedalus.' Then, again, the rapidity 
with which that individual specimen moved through the water would 
coincide with the capabilities of a member ofthis genus, for the mo- 
tive power produced by such an extent of tail, coupled with the ex- 
treraely compressed form of body from the head throughout, mušt 
be immense. 

"Here, then, we have a partial elucidation of the various statements 
which have at intervals appeared in the columns of the united presses 
of England and America, emanatiug from the pens of travellers, and 
usually headed 'Occurrence of the Great Sea Serpent,' criticised, 
however, in an ungenerous manner, and always exposed to an un- 
raerited ridicule at the hands of the many, but nevertheless firmly 
believed in by the few, who have patiently waited to see the day 
when the mystic cloud which has hitherto veiled the existence of the 
maned denizen of the deep should vanish with the suspicion of the 
sceptic, and exhibit more clearly the truth of the assertions of those 
ill-used men, virbo, endeavouring likę useful members of society to 
extend the cause of natūrai knovvledge by publishing candid accounts 
of what their eyes have seen, have always met with an amount of 
eontempt and reproach sufficient to silence for ever the pen of many 
a truthful writer. 

" I am sorry I have not the number of the * Illustrated London 
News ' at hand in which Capt. M'Quhae's graphic statement ap- 
peared, as it would have afforded me an opportunity of particulari- 
zing other features iu counexion with bis specimen and the present 
one. The facts, hovvever, regarding the mane-like appendage, and 
the rapidity of motion to which I have alluded, are still fresh in my 
memorj'^. 

" My best thauks are due to Mr. George Trimingham, the capturer, 
for the generous manuer in which he placed the fish at my disposal." 



188 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Description of a New Species of Estheria from 
Nagpoor, Central India. By W. Baird, M. D., F.L.S. 

(Aunulosa, PI. LXXI.) 

Since my paper containiiig a description of a species of Estheria 
(E. hislopi) in the Proceedings of 1859, p. 231, was printed, I 
have received a short commuuication from Mr. Hislop, enclosing 
a second species of tlie šame genus from the šame locality. This 
species is considerably larger than E. hislopi, and diifers from it 
entirely in shape and markings. The carapace is oval, flat, and 
compressed, rounded in front, where it is most couvex, and consi- 
derably attenuated posteriorly. The umbo is situated near the an- 
terior extremity ; the ventral margin of the shell is rounded, and 
the dorsal margin, from the umbo to the posterior extremity, slopes 
downwards and is nearly straight. The carapace is encircled with 
prominent ribs, which are few in number (about seven or eight) and 
of considerable size. The intervening spaces are smooth, rather 
broad, geuerally conves in the centre, and do not preseut any of 
that elaborate sculpture which the other species from India (de- 
scribed and figured in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 1 849) 
— Estheria polita, E. similis, and E. boysii — exhibit so distinctly ; 
neither do they show the excavated punctations oi E. hislopi. They 
are merely very slightly punctate. The specimens sent being pre- 
served dry, the animal has not been observed. 

•' The specimens now sent," says Mr. Hislop in his letter to me, 
" were obtained in shallow pools at Nagpūr, Central India, about the 
middle of July, i. e. a month after the commencement of the rainy 
season there. If the pools dry up, as they freąuently do, about the 
end of July, when there is a break in the Monsoon, the creatures 
perish, not to reappear that season, however copious may be the 
shovvers ; but they are found in abundauce at the beginning of the 
Monsoon in the following year. The orbicular species {E. hislopi) 
is not obtained along with the one above referred to, but occurs 
about the end of August in a stream which communicates with the 
large tank on the west of the city of Nagpūr." 

The name I propose for this new species, the specimens of which 
uufortunately are not in a very good condition, is Estheria eompressa. 

Estheria compressa. (PI. LXXI. figs. 6, 6 a, 6 b.) 

Carapax compressus, ovalis, convex et rotundatus ad extreini- 
tatem anteriorem, ad extremitatem posteriorem attenuatus. 
Margo ventralis rotundatus, margo dorsalis obliquus, fere 
rectus. Testą costata, superjicie vix punctata. 

Length about 5 lines, breadth 2\. 

Hab. Pools of fresh water at Nagpoor, Central ludia. 

Mus. Brit. 



Proc Z.S Annulosa L' 




c Ws3t Mi sbiiat 



WWest mc 



F:^ 1, la7ld.C]/pridma aJbo-inaculata . 2, Za-2 c, C Godehe-n 3, SaySb.C ovum 
4,4fl-4d,CNorvegica. 5,5a-5c,PMomedeslangicaiiiis 6,6a-6b,£sthena coinpressa 



189 

2. Descriptions of Three Species of Marine Shells from 
THE Pacific Ocean. By W. Harper Pease. 

1. Neptunea fusco-lineata. 

Shell fusiformly turreted, rather thin, shortly twisted at the base ; 
epidermis thin, light, corneous ; spire rather slender. "VVhorls nine, 
convexly angulated, ribbed longitudinally, and crossed by numerous 
transverse raised lines ; ribs olose, swollen, and becoming gradually 
obsolete on the back of the body-whorl ; suturės well impressed ; 
body-whorl convexly depressed above ; canal short, slightly twisted 
to the left, and furnished with a slight umbilical fissure ; labrum 
thin, simple ; aperture oblong-oval, half the length of the shell ; 
columella arched, smooth, glossy, slightly callous above. Colour 
whitish fawn, spariugly streaked longitudinally with brown, and 
ornamented with subequidistant revolving dark-brown Unes. 

Hab. Corea Sea. Dredged from sandy bottom, in 70 fathoms 
water. 

2. TURCICA COREENSIS. 

Shell conoidal, rather thin, subdiaphanous, of a light greyish fawn- 
colour, cinereous at the base, and sparingly marked with oblique 
stripes and small spots of a deep brown. Whorls flattened ; body- 
whorl large, rounded at its periphery, all ornamented with transverse 
rows of close, irregular-sized papillse or granules, which become 
almost obsolete near the base. Apex aeute ; suture canaliculated ; 
base convex, imperforate ; outer lip sharp. Aperture large, breadth 
and height equal, and pearly within. Columella oblique, with t\vo 
obtuse tubercles on its edge. 

Hab. Corea Sea. Dredged in company with the preceding species. 

This species is closely allied to T. monilifera (A. Adams), It 
diflFers in the aperture being smooth vvithin, and the whorls flat. 
The figure of T. monilifera also represents the sutural canal as being 
continued round the body-whorl. In the present species it terminates 
with the suture. The columella is also quite different, descending 
obliquely to the right. 

There was dredged with the two preceding species a single right 
valve of a Nucula, vvhich may possibly prove to be the N. divari- 
cata, Hinds. It diflfers, however, from Mr. Hinds's description in 
being of an oval form, and in having the anterior teeth nine in num- 
ber, posterior twenty-one. The epidermis is brown. Length 14, 
height 10 lines. Shouldthis prove to be distinctfrom N. divaricata. 
■we vvould propose for it the specific name of "sculpta." 

3. Cypr-«a compta. 

Shell oblongo-ovate, rather solid ; colour pale fawn-yellow, orna- 
mented with somewhat remote, round, white spots of irregular size, 
and a flexuous dorsal Une of šame colour ; sides and base vvhite, the 
former conspicuously dotted with dark brown ; extremities produced, 
the posterior curving to the left ; umbilical region concave ; right 
side margined ; aperture narrow, flexuose ; teeth small, even, twenty- 



190 

eight on the outer lip, not extending over the middle ; columella 
teeth twenty-three, not so stout as those on the outer lip, forming 
an even line on the iuner edge of the aperture ; columella smooth, 
sulcated longitudinally, gibbous above and deutated ou the extreme 
inner edge. 

Hab. Jarvis Island. 

The above speeies diifers from C. esontropia in colour, being paler, 
and the spots, though similar in shape, are much more remote, the 
extremities more produced, and the flat depression on the middle 
of the outer lip is wanting in C. esontropia. The character of the 
teeth is quite dissimilar, as they are much smaller, greater in number, 
and do not run over the face of the columella. The absence of brown 
rings distinguishes it from C. cuminyii and C. gaskoinii. 



3. On the Causes of Death of the Animals in the So- 

CIETY's GaRDENS, from 18.51 to the PRESENT TIME, 1860. 

By Edwards Crisp, M.D. — (Part II.) 

In addition to the remarks I made in my lašt communication on 
the diseases of the jVIammalia, I may niention that biliary concre- 
tions in the gall-bladder have not been met with, although they are 
not uncommon in stall-fed oxen and in sheep fed upon much saccha- 
rine matter. Derangements and alterations in the colour and con- 
sistence of the bile, as shown by the specimens exhibited, are very 
common : this fluid was often found thick and treacle-like, and in oue 
instance in an old Leucoryx {Antelope lettcoryx) the gall-bladder was 
much enlarged, and contained 4 oz. by measure of dark-coloured 
bile. Calculi in the urinary bladder I have not met witb, although this 
viscus has generally been exannned. Eye-diseases are not uncommon, 
— cataract is often present. Of diseases of the ear I believe nothing 
is known in the lower animals ; but it is probable that many cases 
of deafness and of disorganization of the auditory apparatus would be 
found, if the subject were inąuired into. 

Blood-diseases in mammals, birds, and reptiles, form one of the 
niost interesting and instructive part of the inquiry ; but my space 
will not allow me to enter fully into this matter. The blood is often 
found thick and treacle-like, the colour mottled, some of it often of 
a pinky hue ; large concretions of fibrine often form in the cavity of 
the heart, and sometimes, I believe, are the means of prolonging life, 
by accommodating the size of the cavity to the diminished power of 
the circulating organ. 

Since our lašt meetiug, the death of the Red River-hog {Potamo- 
chcenis penicillutus) has aiforded another example of the difficulty of 
arriving at a correct inference respecting the cause of death. The 
stomach of this animal vras filled with a mass of short, tough straw, 
which probably the organ was unable to get rid of ; the blood *, 

* Dr. Halford, who took the heart honie for investigation, confirmed this 
statement respecting the appearance of the blood ; he found also some amoiint 
of inflaramation of the lining membrana of the heart. 



191 

however, presented the mottled, pinky appearance before described ; 
under the microscope many of the corpuscles were irregular in shape, 
and soma apparently disiutegrated. 

BiRDS. 

Of these I have dissected many hundreds, but I need not enter 
minutely into the nature of their diseases. Affections of the liver 
and of the alimentavy canal are the most common, and those of a 
tubercular character greatly preponderate. Tubercle in birds, I be- 
lieve, is often very rapidly deposited, especially one form of it, viz. 
the nodular or albuniinous. The Uver, spleen, and intestinal tube 
often contain large masses of tubercular deposit, as shown iu the 
specimens and drawings. This deposit in the lungs of birds is com- 
paratively rare. In some of the Raptores I have found large 
tumours in the chest closely adherent to the ribs, and of a hard, 
fibro-tuberculous character. The viscera of some Wading birds 
{Gralio:), especially the Storks and Cranes, have offered the most 
remarkable deviations from normai structure in the shape of tuber- 
culous and inflammatory products. In some instances I have been 
led to attribute the cause of death to the presence of a quantity of 
tough grass in the gizzard, which so interfered with the grinding 
process of the organ as to prevent a proper supply of chyle ; 
hence the diseased statė of blood and other derangements that fol- 
lowed. Nails, buttons, pieces of wood, and other extraneous bodies 
in the gizzard, are very common, but I have not been able to dis- 
cover any ill effects from them. In a Great Black-backed Guli 
(Larns marinus) that had been some time in the Gardens, a large 
fish-hook (by which probably the bird had been captured) was im- 
bedded in the proventriculus. 

Diseases of the kidneys are very common in birds, the weight of 
these organs in proportion to the body being greater than in any 
other class of animals, — a fact, I Lelieve, never stated before ; but it 
serves to explain, in some degree, the prevalence of morbid changes 
in these viscera. The renal organs in birds in confinement are often 
enlarged, softened, fatty, and granular ; in some cases tubercular : 
but one of the most remarkable changes in connexion with the kid- 
neys of birds is obstruction of the ureters, and occasionally a block- 
ing up of the cloaca with urate of ammonia in a hardened statė. 
This I have often met with, and I believe, combined vrith diseased 
blood, it is a freąuent cause of death. Pericarditis (infiammation 
of the heart-bag) I have observed more frequently in this class than 
in any other ; freąuently complete adhesion of the pericardium to 
the heart from old or recent infiammation is found crippling the action 
of the circulating organ. The internal cavities of the heart, too, often 
bear evidence of infiammation and its conseąuences. 

Dropsy of the pericardium and of the thoracic air-cells, I have 
Severai times seen ; and the legs and feet of the long-legged birds, 
such as the Cranes, Storks, and Herons, are often cedematous. 

Hydatids {Echinococci) of the liver and other viscera are of fre- 



192 

quent occurrence, and sometimes are of large size. Thus in the 
Crowned Pigeon (^Goura coronata) one of these cysts in the liver 
contained more than 3 oz. of serous fluid. Some of them were occa- 
sionally fiUed with concrete biliary matter after the death of the 
hydatids. A good specimen of this was lately seen in the old Hon- 
dūras Turkey {Meleagris ocellatd) which died at the Gardens. Dis- 
eases of the feet, as in caged birds, are of frequent occurrence, espe- 
cially among the perchers. The toes get stiff and contracted, the 
nails are sometimes lošt, and occasionally the feet are affected with a 
kind of dry gangrene. Excrescences from the abnormal production 
of cuticle are hkewise very common. 

Entozoa and Epizoa are very numerous, in diseased animals espe- 
cially : but, as I intend to bring this matter before the Society in a 
separate paper, I need only mention it here. Pediculi in birds are 
often very abundant — these parasites, hke some in human shape, 
appearing to flourish best where corruption is most rife ; but in the 
viscera of birds I have often found a lower form of Ufe, existing I 
beheve long before death, viz. the presence oi fungi. I have not only 
met with the sporules of mould in the tubercular lungs (as others 
have described before me), but I have seen them also upon deposits 
of lymph iu the abdomen. 

Reptiles. 

In the Chelonians it is often difficult to ascertain the cause of death, 
many of them apparently being a long time dying, and frequently 
death not being detected until some days after dissolution ; so that I 
have not been able to arrive at any satisfactory evidence as to the 
morbid changes. In a few instances I have seen small tubercles of 
the liver. 

Saurians. — The šame remark respecting the morbid changes will 
apply to Loricata ; in these, however, I have found more satis- 
factory evidence of disease, the tubercular being the most freąuent 
lesion. As I stated some time since at the Society, in ten AUigators 
and Crocodiles that I examined, the stomachs of all contained stoues 
and pieces of wood, and in two others since inspected I have found 
the šame substances. 

In some of the Lizards I have seen the intestines obstructed vrith 
hard feculent matter. In a large Iguana the intestinal tube was 
blocked up with grape-stones. The death of one of the Lizards 
{lJromastix spinipes) arose partly from bleedingfrom the lungs. The 
reptile in ąuestion, the lungs and liver of which were studded with 
tubercles, was put into a warm bath — rather a strange mode of 
treatment for a cold-blooded animal — and hsemorrhage was the result. 
Let me make one observation about the temperature of the Reptile- 
house. None of the reptiles here are cold-blooded, their bodies being 
of a likę temperature with that of the surrounding atmosphere ; and 
the šame remark will apply to those living in hot climates. The 
time some reptiles will go without food, and without any apparent 
diminution of bulk, is also a circumstance worthy of note. I dis- 
sected a Python (Pi/thon mohirus) that had not fed for ten months; 



193 

and even more extraordinary examples than this could be adduced. 
To return to the diseases of the Lizards, I may add, that the tuber- 
cular are the most common. 

Ophidians. — In this division one of the most reraarkable and pe- 
culiar diseases is found. It vvill be remembered that a few years 
since a great mortality occurred among the serpents ; nearly all of 
them died, and I had an opportunity of examining a great many of 
them. The disease, which I believe is highly eontagious, consists of 
ulceration of the lining membrane of the mouth, and the deposit of 
masses of semitubercular matter in diiferent parts of the intestinal 
tube, but chiefly in the rectum, blocking up the canal, and producing 
obstruction. With this form of disease there is also a peculiar 
condition of the blood. Some of the reptiles dying of this affection 
were very fat, especially the Puff Adders {Clotho arietans). 

Tubercles in the liver, lungs, and other parts in the Ophidians, are 
very freąuently met with. In the Boa which some years ago was 
said to have swallowed a blanket, it will be seen by the drawings 
now exhibited that the lungs and liver were thickly studded with 
small miliary tubercles ; but the immediate cause of death was in- 
flammation of the pericardium (heart-bag) : upon this, and hanging 
from it, were large flakes of lymph partly organized. 

BatracJiians. — I have had but few opportunities of examining 
specimens of this order soon after death, and therefore cannot speak 
of their diseases. 

I may make one observation respecting the reparative power in 
the reptiles. In many of them it is very rapid. In a Boa that had 
its tail accidentally jammed off, the part vras very ąuickly repaired ; 
and I have seen many instances of the šame kind in reptiles ; and, 
if the accounts are to be beheved, the large Salamander (Sieboldia 
maxima) just obtained by the Society will reproduce its extremities 
— bone, musele, integument, and other parts. 

In bringing this imperfect sketch to a conclusion, I may observe 
that my time and space have been too limited to do justice to the 
subject ; but I trust that the Information conveyed Tvill not prove 
altogether unprofitable. 



March 27, 1860. 

Professor Busk, F.R.S., F.Z.S., &c., in the Chair. 

Mr. John Petherick exhibited the head and horns of a rare Ante- 
lope from Central Africa {Antilope leucotis, Licht.,Mem. Acad. Berol. 
1854, p. 99). 

The Secretary exhibited an egg of the King Vulture {Gyparchus 
No. 429. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



194 

papą), laid in the Society's Gardens. This was believed to be the 
first well-autheiiticated specimen known of the egg of this Vulture. 
The shape was oblongo-ovate, considerably pointed towards the 
smaller eud ; the colour pure white ; length 3"7 inches, breadth 2'65. 
As the egg was supposed to be impregnated, it was in contemplation 
to attempt to hatch it under a hen of the domestic fowl. • 

The Secretary also exhibited a second egg laid by the female 
Apterijx mantelli in the Society's Gardens in February lašt. It 
differed but slightly from that previously produced by the sarae bird, 
being merely somewhat larger. 



The following papers vvere read : — 

1. ReMARKS ON THE StOMACH OF THE PoTAMOCH(ERUS PENI- 

ciLLATUs. By t. Howard Stewart, f. z. s. 

The stomach of the Potamochcenis has the usual type of structure, 
such as exists in all the Artiodactyla. It is divided partially into 
three compartments, viz. the cardiac sacculus, situated to the left 
of the cardiac or cesophagal opening ; the cuticvlar portion aronnd 
the cardiac orifice ; and the digestive or pijloric division : these com- 
municate freely with one another. 

This stomach differs from that in the genus Sus in having the 
cardiac sacculus larger, and in the cuticular layer aronnd the ceso- 
phagal opening being somewhat different in arrangement. 

In Potamochcerns the cuticular portion is well defined, and has 
a raised crenulated margin, and its entire surface much wrinkled. 
Microscopically, it shows an epithelial strncture, which is raised on 
the surface into conical papillse, such as are seen on a larger scale 
in the reticulum of Ruminants. 

In Sus the cuticular portion is not so markedly distinct from the 
mucous or digestive portion ; it has, howeTer, a defined and slightly 
raised non-crenulated margin ; the surface is quite smooth, and of a 
white non-vascular colour. 

It becomes a question of interest, in examimng the arrangement 
of the stomach in these Artiodactyles, as to what may be its function 
in the digestive process. I believe that the food, first passing into 
and being mixed with the secretion from the cardiac sacculus, goes 
on to the cuticular portion of the stomach, and undergoes there a 
kiud of maceration, and is then for\varded to the pyloric or true 
digestive portion of the viscus. May not this cuticular part of the 
stomach be analogous to the reticulum or second cavity in the 
stomach of the true Ruminants 1 This peculiar lining of a portion of 
the stomach exists in all the Pachyderms, in the Horse, and in all 
the Artiodactyles, and also in the Kaiigaroo, under various modifica- 
tions. The Kangaroo has beeu known to ruminate when fed on 
hard food ; may not an occasional act of rumination take place in 
this Potamochcerus, and others of the šame class? The cuticular 



i 



195 



layer is more developed in the Potamochcerus than in other aniinals 
of the class I have been able to examine ; from this we may infer 
that this animai is of a more vegetable-eating natuie than our omni- 
vorous Hog. 



2. Note on the Fox of Japan. By Arthur Adams, F. L. S, 

The Fox of Japan is quite a distinct species from that of Cliina, 
specimens of which I procured on the banks of the Wusung River, 
near its junction with the Yang-tze-kiang. The Japanese species, 
four skins of which were obtained by Mr. Bedwell from Niegata in 
Nippon, has black ears lined with white, and a black spot on the 
upper surfaee near the base of the tail. The colour of the fur on the 
neck and back is ferruginous, and is much softer and longer than 
that of the Foxes of Europe and China, and the brush is also longer 
and thicker. 



3. Memoranda on the Hippopotamus and Bal^eniceps 

RECENTLY IMPORTED TO EnGLAND, AND NOW IN THE 
GaRDENS of THE ZoOLOGICAL SOCIETY. By JoHN Pe- 
THERICK, F.R.G.S., H. M. CONSUL FOR THE SoUDAN. 

Since 1853 I have devoted from six to seven months of eaeh year 
to the exploration of some of the unknown regions of Central Africa. 

My starting-point, Khartoum, at the junction of the Blue and 
White Niles, in lat. 15^° N., a town of about 60,000 inhabitants, is 
the Capital of seven provinces depeudent on Egypt, called the Sou- 
dan, consisting of the whole of that, for the most part sandy, di- 
strict between the second Nile cataract at Wadi Halfa and the terri- 
tories inhabited by the naked negro in 13° N. lat. ; whilst its breadth 
extends from the borders of Darfour on the west to the shores of 
the Red Sea and Abyssinia on the east. 

Leaving Khartoum, and navigating the White Nile to betvveen 
9° and 10° of N. lat., a narrow channel, and for the most part over- 
grown with reeds, which by former Nile navigators had been con- 
sidered unnavigable, attracted my attention, and pursuing it, not 
without difficulty finding my way through some narrow openings in 
a forest of reeds, I found this to be the connexion between a large 
lake and the Nile, of which it is one of the most important feeders 
hitherto known. 

This lake, according to the time it occupied me to sail in a well- 
appointed boat with three large latteen sails, from one extremity of it 
to the other, after making allowance for the windings of the open 
passages through the dense vegetation with whioh it is for the most 
part covered, I eonsider to be about 180 miles long, and perhaps 
some 60 miles wide. 

Its waters, ornamented with several promontories and islands. 



196 

more or less woocled with sycamores, acacias, and mimosas, and but 
little frequented by man, literally swarm with Crocodiles and Hip- 
popotami. 

The latter in particular made many rude and uncouth attempts to 
dispute the right of passage over their hitberto secluded home, by 
attacking my boat, battering-ram fashion, both under and on tbe 
surface of the water ; and on one memorable oecasion, to the surprise 
and horror of all on board, a huge beast, suddenly raising half its 
grcat carcass with an agihty hardly to be expected out of the water, 
close under the bows, carried ofF my unfortunate cook from the gun- 
wale on which he was sitting, one bite of the animal's powerful javvs 
sufficing to sever his body in two at the waist. 

It was here, whilst returning in the month of April in the year 1858 
from the regions of the eąuator, where I founded an establishment of 
tvventy-five men (Arabs from the neighbourhood of Khartoum), for 
the barter of elephants' tusks with the aborigines, the Niam Niams, 
that the " look-out " at the mast-head, almost frantie with excitement, 
called out "A yonng Hippopotamus," pointing to the reeds within 
a few yards of which we were sailing. A dozen of my sailors leaped 
into the water, and, disappearing amongst the thiek herbage, soon 
returned, one of them grasping in his arnis a young animal about 
the size of a spaniel, and kept afloat and propelled towards the boat 
with shouts of delight by his companions. 

Fortunately for the safety of the men, the old lady Hippopotamus 
was not at home, and so distant from her charge as not to hear the 
cries of her baby (similar to those of a young calf), or the affair 
might not have terminated so favourably. A piece of the navel- 
string, 15 iuches long, was still danghng to its body, and did not 
detach itself for several days afterwards ; from which I inferred its 
birth could not have extended over a day or two. 

The unexpected but welcome guest was rearcd on milk, and in its 
absence with meal and water, being treated with all the attention we 
could bestow on it, and is now, judging from its thriving eondition, 
as grateful as its owner for the hospitality it is enjoyiog at your 
spleudid Gardens in the Regent's Park. 

So large a sheet of water as the " Bahr ii Gazai " wi]l naturally 
attract great numbers of the feather tribe, and it was in this lake 
that I first made the acquaintance of a very handsome Stork (Myc- 
teria senegalensis) and the Balceniceps. 

Of both thėse rare birds I was fortunate enough to procure living 
specimens ; the former of \vhich, ^ith numerous rare animals, such 
as the Elephant, Rhinoceros, tvyo species of Ant-Bears, a rare Mon- 
key, and I believe a new species of Antelope, unfortunately died 
during the long and arduous journey from Central Africa through 
Egypt to the Mediterranean. 

The skin of the Stork, hovvever, has been preserved, with a few 
other skins of birds, a remnant of a large collection made between 
the 5th and 15th degrees of N. latitude, but unfortunately lošt in 
tlie Upper Nile-cataracts of Nubia. The few skins alluded to as 
having been saved have been examined by your obliging Seeretary, 



197 

Mr. Sclater, to whom I am iudebteJ ibr many acts of kinduess siuce 
my return to England*. 

Two living specimens out of six Balceniceps shipped at Khartoum 
(but perhaps out of a score partially reared, the first, as you are well 
aware, imported into Europe) have, almost agaiust hope, survived the 
apparent insurmountable difficulties of the trying jotirney across 
nearly one-half the contment of Africa, and are at leugth, I am proud 
to say, safely housed in your commodious Gardens. 

The Balceniceps, although foiind only in or near water, is but 
rarely seen on the banks of the Nile, and then only durmg a short 
period of the year, wlien the mterior is dried up, in the summer, 
during the short hot season preceding the rains. 

It prefers the natūrai tanks and niorasses of the interior, where 
the shallowness of the water distributed over a large surface affords 
it greater facilities for wading than the banks of the Nile. These 
freąuently shelve off into deep water more or less abruptly, and thus 
furnish but comparatively few spots favourable to the support and 
habits of the bird. 

For this reason, at about 100 miles west of the Nile, in from 5° to 
8° N. lat., at Gaba Shambyl, -ffhere I have a station of elephant- 
hunters, these interesting birds exist in greater numbers than on the 
Nile, or the comparatively deeper waters of the Bahr ii Gazai, the 
lake to which I have alluded, and of which I have the honour of being, 
if not, strictly speaking, the discoverer, at least the first navigator. 

At Gaba Shambyl, striking off directly west from the Nile, the 
country for the first 30 miles rises with an almost imperceptible slope, 
when it again decreases in elevation for a distance of 60 to 70 miles. 
Here it becomes a large morass, with occasionally dry spots, which 
form so many islands in a sheet of water after the annual rains, that 
from north to south extends probably over 150 miles, having no outlet 
directly to the Nile, but, vrhen the -vvater is at a certain height, 
overflowing into a channel connecting it with the Bahr ii Gazai. 
This reservoir, which is more or less supplied with water all the 
year round, abounds in reeds and thick bush, and is the favourite re- 
treat and home of the Balceniceps. 



* Mr. Petherick's skins are in a condition which renders their specific deter- 
mination rather difficult. The most noticeable are, — 



Haliaetus vocifer, j u v. 
Halcyon semiccerulea (Gtn.) ? 
Coracias abyssinica (Lian.). 
Merops cegt/ptius ? 
Bucoraoe abyssinicus. 
Lanitis macrocercus, De Fil. 
Prionops cristatus, Rupp. 
Laniarius chrysogaster, Sw. 

erythrogaster, Riipp. ? 

Lnmpr Otonus purpuroptera, Riipp. 
Notauges superbus, Riipp. 
Colius senegalensis ? 
Schizorhis zonura, Riipp. 



Pmocephalus meyeri, Riipp. 
Loemodon vielloti. 

leucoeephalus, De Fil. 

(Edicnemus affinis, Riipp. ? 
Cursorius, sp. ? 
Falcinellus igneus. 
Ardeola bubulcus. 
Nycticorax europteus. 
Anastomus lamelligerus. 
Mycteria senegalerisis. 
Parra ąfricana. 
Plectropterus riippellii, Sclater. 
Stema (2 sp.). 

—(P. L. S.) 



198 

The birds here are seen in clusters of from a pair to perhaps one 
hundred together, mostly in the water, aud when disturbed will fly 
low over its surface, and settle at no great distance ; but if frightened 
and fired at, they rise in flocks high in the air, aud, after hovering 
and wheehug around, will settle ou the highest trees, and as long as 
their disturbers are near will not return to the \vater. Their roosting- 
place at night is, to the best of my behef, on the ground. Their 
food principally is fish and water-snakes, which they have been seen 
by my men to catch and devour. They will also leed on the intes- 
tines of dead aninials, the carcases of which they easily rip opeu 
with the strong hook of the upper bill. The breeding-time of the 
Balceniceps is in the raiu)' season, during the months of July and 
August, and the spot chosen is in the reeds or high grass imme- 
diately on the water's edge, or on some small elevated aud dry spots 
entirely surrounded by water. The birds before laying scrape a hole 
in the earth, in which, without any lining of grass or feathers, the 
feinale deposits her eggs. As many as a dozen eggs have beeu foimd 
in the šame nešt. Numbers of these nests have been robbed by my 
men of both eggs and young, but the youug birds so taken have in- 
variably died. After repeated unsuccessful attempts to rear them 
and more trouble than you can imagine, after two years' perseverance 
I at lašt succeeded in hatchiug some eggs under hens, which, at a con- 
siderable distance from Gaba Shambyl, I procured from the Raik ne- 
groes. As soon as I got the hens to lay, and in due time to sit, by 
replacing several of their eggs with half the number of those of the 
Balceniceps, as fresh as possible from the nešt, the locality of which 
Tvas previously knovvn, I eventually succeeded in hatchiug several 
birds. These ran about the premises of my camp, and, to the 
great discomfort of the poor hens, ivould persist in performing all 
sorts of unchicken-like manceuvres with their large beaks aud ex- 
tended wings in a small artificial pool constautly supplied with water 
by several negresses retained in my service for their especial benefit. 
Negro boys of the tribe (the Raik) were also employed to supply 
their little pond with live fish, upon which, and occasioually the 
intestines of auimals killed for our use, chopped into small pieces, 
they v\'ere reared. 

As may be supposed, the birds became the pets of my " Bizouks," 
as 1 frequently called my Khartoumers ; and as they grew up, with 
exteuded vvings aud a rattk-like noise produced by the suappiug of 
their bills, they vvould follovv them round the large enclosure of my 
camp. 

Duriug their journey to England, six mouths' confinenient in a cage 
has greatly affected their health, and I darė say soured their tempers ; 
at least, such to a certainty vvould be the effects on myself if placed 
in a similar predicameut. But, iu common vvith, I venture to say, 
every one conuected vvith the Society, I t rust that my attention and 
trouble, to say nothiug of the expense vvhich I have been put to, — 
although perhaps a more iniportaut feature thau most of you may 
be av^are of, — may be rewarded by their recovery and \vell-being ; aud 
1 hope if, as there vi\\\ be no difficulty ou my part, they become the 



199 



property of the Society, they will long Uve to adom, and perhaps 
enhauce, the merits of the rare coUection amongst which they are at 
present, with their countryman the Hippopotamus, so hospitably 
received. 



4. Note upon the Genus Cypridina, Milne-Edwards, with 
A Desc'ription of some New Species. By W. Baird, 
M.D., F.L.S. 

(Annulosa, PI. LXXI.) 

The genus Cypridina, belonging to the Ostracod Order of the 
Entomostracous Crustacea, was fouuded by Milue-Edwards m 1838, 
in Lamarck's ' Hist. Nat. An. s. Vert.' vol. v., iu a note to the genus 
Cypris. It was afterwards more fully detailed m his 'Hist. Nat. 
Crustac' vol. iii. At the time of the pubhcation of that work only 
one species was known ; now there are about twenty, and m the 
paper now before the Society I propose adding four more. ihe 
species already described are — 

1. Cypridina reynaudii, M.-Edwards, Hist. Nat. Crust. iii. 
409. t. 30. f. 5, 1S40. 

2. C. elliptica. 

Asterope elliptica, Philippi, Archiv. f. Naturg. ^d. 1. p. 186. t. 3. 
f. 9-11, 1840. 

3. C. mediterranea, Costa, Agli Scienz. d'Ital. 57. t. 1. f, 1-13, 
1845. 

4 C. MACANDREAvn, Baird, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 2nd ser. i. 
21.t. 6B. f. 1-7, 1848. 

5. "c. ADAMSi, Baird, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1. c. t. 7, 1848. 

6. C. BIMACULATA. 

Cypris bimaculata, Nic. Gay, Hist. Fisic. de Chile, iii. 294. t. 4. 
f. 6, 1849. 

7. C. C^RTJLEA. 

Cypris ccerulea, Nic. Gay, Hist. Fisic. de Chile, t. 4. f. 66, 1849. 

8. C. BRENDA, Baird, British Entomostraca, 181. t. 23. f. 1, 
18.50. 

9. C. ZEALANDiCA, Balfd, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, t. (Annulosa) 1 7. 
f. 11-13. 

10. C. iNTERPUNCTA, Baird, Proc. Zool. Soc. /. c. 1. 17. f. 8-10. 

11. C. MARI.E, Baird, Proc. Zool. Soc. l.c. t. 17. f. 5-7. 



200 

12. C. GLOBOSA, Liljeborg, Cladoc. Ostrac. Copepod. iu Scania 
occurr. 171. t. 17. f. 2-10, 1853. 

13. C. GiBBOSA, Dana, Crustacea of U. S. Esplor. Exped. xiv. 
1295, t. 91. f. 4, 1853. 

14. C. lORMOSA, Dana, Crust. U. S. Explor. Exped. L c. 1296. 
t. 91. f. 5, 1853. 

15. C. LUTEOLA, Dana, Crust. U. S. Explor. Exped. L c. 1291, 
t. 91. f. 1, 1853. 

16. C. PUNCTATA, Dana, Crust. U. S. Explor. Exped. /. c. 1293, 
t. 91. f. 2, 1853. 

17. C. EXCiSA, Stimpson, Invert. of Grand Manan, Smithsou. 
Contrib, to Knoveledge, t. 2. f, 28, 1854, 

= C, brenda, Baird, \%b\,fide speciraens, 

18. C. OBLONGA, Grube, Archiv, f. Naturg. 1859, 335. t. 12. 
f. 2, 3, 1859. 

Philomedes, Liljeborg. 

19. P. LONGicoRNis, Liljcborg, Cladoc, Ostracod. Copepod. in 
Scania, t. 26. f. 4, 5, 1853. 

20. P, OLIVACEUS. 

Cypridina oUvacea, Dana, Crust. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1. c. 1294. 
t. 91. f. 3, 1853. 

Of the new species about to be described, one is a native of 
Europe, two of tlie Indiau Ocean, and one of Australia, 

1. Cypridina norvegica, Baird. (PI. LXXI, figs. 4, 4 a-4 d.) 
Carapace-valves oval, somewhat compressed, smooth and sbining 

The notcli or sinus at the anteiior extremity is not deep ; the beaks 
are small and somewhat thickened round the margins. The dorsal 
margin is gently rounded ; the veiitral is slightly arched, projecting 
at its upper extremity immediately beneath the notch, and at its in- 
ferior extremity is rather sharply gibbous or prominent, which, seen 
from internal surface, shows a duplicature of the shell. The surface 
is polished, not punctured, and is of a stravv-colour, In shape it 
appears to resemble very much the Cypriditia luteola, of Dana* from 
the Sooloo Sea. The shell, however, is ovaie, not ovoid; and the 
inferior extremity, instead of being rounded, is gibbous or projecting 
anteriorly. 

Length \\ line; breadth 1 line. 

Hab. Coast of Norway {R. M'Andrew, Esq.). 

Mus. Brit, 

2. Cypridina godehevi, Baird. (PI. LXXI. figs. 2, 2«-2c.) 
Carapace-valves oval and ventricose, produced into a point at the 

* United States' ExpIoring Expedition, Crustacea, vol. xiv. p. 1291, pi. 91. f. 1. 



201 

posterior extremity. The auterior extreinity is rather narrovver tliaii 
the posterior ; the sinus or notch is rather deep, the beaks are sharp- 
pointed and thickened along the margins. The surface is marked 
with numerous, minute punctations, and is of a deep yellow or saf- 
fron colour. 

Length 3 lines; breadth 2 lines. 

Hab. Madras, in 8 fathoms. From the CoUection of Mr. Cuming. 

Mus. Brit. 

In the ' Memoires pour les Savans Etrangers,' vol. iii. p. 269, there 
is an exceedingly interesting communication from M. le Comman- 
deur Godeheu de Riville on the luminosity of the sea. In that 
paper he describes and figures a little creature which he found was 
the cause of this luminous appearauce. The body of the animal, he 
says, was contained in a small, trausparent shell, resembling in form 
that of an almond cleft down the side, and which was notched at its 
upper part. This shell, though roughly figured, pretty accurately 
represents this species of Cypridina, and I have little doubt our 
species is the šame as Riville there describes and figures. The part 
of the ocean where he met with it was off the coast of Malabar. 

3. Cypridina ovum, Baird. (PI. LXXI. figs. 3, 3 a, 3 b.) 

Carapace-valves of a perfect ovoid shape, and very ventricose. 
Anterior extremity slightly narrower than posterior. The surface of 
the valves is marked with exceedingly minute punctations, with nu- 
merous, round, quite smooth spots, of a brownišh-yellow colour, dis- 
tributed over it, appearing as if they were excavated out of the sur- 
face of the shell. The notch at the anterior extremity is rather 
deep ; the beaks are somewhat pointed, slightly incurved and thick- 
ened along the margins ; and the posterior extreraity is rounded 
without any appearance of gibbosity. 

Length 1 į line; breadth Ii line. 

Hab. Chinese Seas. Collected by Sir E. Belcher, C. B. From 
the CoUection of Mr. Cuming. 

Mus. Britt 

4. Cypridina albo-maculataj Baird. (PI. LXXI.figs. 1, 1 a, 
1 6, 1 c, 1 d.) 

Carapace-valves of an ovate-ventricose form, rounded on the dorsal 
and ventral margins, and slightly, but distinctly, produced into a 
point in the centre of the inferior extremity. The surface is marked 
with numerous, small, distinct punctations, and conspicuously blotched 
with Severai large, bright white patches, which are slightly raised 
and strongly punctured. There are only tvro large ones on the right 
valve, and three on the left. The notch at the anterior extremity is 
rather deep, and the edges of the beak are incurved, pointed, and 
thickened along the margins. The anterior extremity is rather nar- 
rovver than the posterior. 

Length 4 lines ; breadth 3 lines. 

Hab. Swan River. From the CoUection of Mr. Cuming. 

Mus. Brit. 



202 

5. Philomedes longicornis, Liljeborg. (PI. LXXI. figs. 5, 
5 a, 5 b, 5 c.) 

Carapace-valves of a squarely-ovate sliape, somevvliat compressed, 
and covered with numerous, very small punctations, The iiotch at 
the upper extremity is wide aud deep, and the beaks are obtuse and 
fringed along the margm. The posterior extremity is square-shaped, 
■vvith a slight projection at the anterior corner. The superior an- 
tennse are provided with two Tery long setse. When in fluid, there 
is a small, roundish, black mark visible ou each of the valves, near 
the centre, but a little uearer the anterior extremity. This species 
was taken in the towiug-net, in Whale Sound, by Dr. Sutherland iu 
1852, who remarks in his notes of the voyage that the auimals often 
come springing up from the bottom to the surface of the vessel in 
which they were placed after their capture ; their motions then 
ceased, and they again sank to the bottom. It was described by me 
about the end of the šame year under the name of Cijpridina isabella, 
after the ship in which Dr. Sutherland was, and which at the time 
was engaged iu the unsuccessful searcli after Sir John Frauklin. 
My deseription, hovvever, remained in MS., and my attention was 
some time after\vards called to the work of "NV. Liljeborg ou the 
' Eutomostraca of Sweden,' published in 1855. At page l/G he de- 
seribes an animal which I consider identical with this, found by him 
ou the coast of Sweden, and which is figured in plate 26, figs. 4, 5. 
From its possessiug two very long setae ou the superior autennse, and 
vvanting the appendage on the second pair of maxill8e, he has formed 
a distinct genus for it under the name of Philomedes. 

Leugth ll^line ; breadth ^ line. 

Hab. Wh&\& Sound. lat. 77° N., long. 71° 37' W. {Dr. Suther- 
land). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXI. 

Fig. 1. Cypridina albo-maculata. 1 a. Ventral view. 1 b. One of the white spots, 
magnified 15 diameters. 1 c. Portion of the surface, n^gnified 75 dia- 
meters. 1 d. Dark portion of lucid spot. 

Fig. 2. Cypridina godehevi. 2 a. Ventral view. 2 b. Portion of surface, magni- 
fied 75 diameters. 2 c. Lucid spot, magnified 75 diameters. 

Fig. 3. Cypridina ovmn. 3 a. Ventral view. 3 b. Portion of surface, magnified 
75 diameters. 

Fig, 4. Cypridina norvegica. 4 a. Ventral view. 4 b. Interior of valve. 4 c. 
Lucid spot, magnified 75 diameters. 4 d. Portion of surface, mag- 
nified 75 diameters. 

Fig. 5. Philomedes longicornis. 5 a. Ventral view, 5 b. Portion of surface, mag- 
nified 75 diameters. 5 c. Lucid spot, magnified 75 diameters. 

Fig. 6. Estheria compressa. 6 a. Ventral view. 6 b. Portion of surface bet\veen 
the ribs, magnified 75 diameters. 



203 
5. Description of a New Genus of Fresh\vater Bivalve 

MOLLUSCA, BELONGING TO THE FaMILY CoRBULID^, FROM 
THE COLLECTION OF HuGH CUMING, EsQ. By HeNRY 

Adams, F.L.S. 

Genus Himella, H. Adams. 

Testą tenuis, incBąuilateralis, inceąuivalvis, valva sinistra majore, 
clausa,parva constrictione ab umbonibus ad marginėm ventralem 
extendente, epidermide vestita ; umbonibus tumidis, obtusis. 
Cardo in valva dextra dente obscuro, in valva sinistra fossa 
congruente ; ligamento externo ; cartilagine interna, in carti- 
laginis processu angusto, sub-horizontali in utraque valva re- 
ceptą. Linea pallialis vix sinuata. 

Shell thin, ineąuilateral, inequivalve ; the left valve the larger, 
closed, \vith a slight constrictiou extending from the beaks to the 
ventral margui, eovered with an epidermis ; beaks tumid, obtuse. 
Hinge composed of an obscure tooth in the right valve, with a cor- 
responding cavity in the left valve ; ligament external ; cartilage in- 
ternal, contained in a narrow, almost horizontai, cartilage-process in 
each valve. Pallial line slightly sinuated. 

Himella fluviatilis, H. Adams. 

H. testą transverse oblonga, antice rotundata, postice truncata, 
margine superiore sub-recto ; valvis externe rugosis, epidermide 
pallido-fusca ; umbonibus sub-anterioribus, decorticatis. 

Shell transversely oblong, rounded anteriorly, truncated posteriorly, 
the superior margiu uearly straight ; surface of valves rugose, eovered 
with a light-brown epidermis ; beaks subanterior, eroded. 

Long. 10, lat. 6, eras. 4 lin. 

Hab. River Maranon. 

This interesting genus appears to have greater affinity with Azara, 
D'Orbigny, thau with any other member of the Corbulidce ; but 
differs considerably from that genus in the form and texture of the 
shell, the thinness of the valves, and the dispositiou of the cartilage- 
processes of the hinge. In its habits also it is truly fluviatile, being 
found in the River Maranon, whence Mr. Cuming's specimens were 
obtained by Mr. Bates. 



6. Note on the Blood-corpuscles of the Japanese Gi- 
gantic Salamander (Sieboldia maxima). By Edwards 
Crisp, M.D., F.Z.S., ETC. 

The blood-corpuscles of this animal in their general aspect, irre- 
spective of size, bear a great resemblauce to those of the Water-newt 
(Triton cristatus). They vary much in diameter, some being from 
a third to a fifth smaller thau the majority. They are of a bright 
straw-colour, which colour they retain when dried on the glass ; the 
nucleus and uucleoli being of a lighter hue and more transparent. 
The blood also contains innumerable trausi)arcnt vesicles of an ellip- 



204 

tical shape,about one-third the size of the human blood-corpuscle; but, 
as the skin of the rcptile is abundantly covered with slimy mucus, it 
is probable that in taking the blood (a very small quantity of which 
was obtained) the mucus was mixed with it, and produced these 
vesicles, which differ from any that I have seen in the blood of other 
reptiles. 

With the blood of the Salamauder I examined that of the Water- 
uewt (T. cristatus) and that of the Common Frog {R. temporaria), 
both reptiles being alive. The drawings of the corpuscles which 
I exhibit will give the relative sizes ; they are all maguified 500 
diameters. I have also added a drawing of the human blood-cor- 
puscle, by way of comparison. In these illustrations the largest cor- 
puscles, which are far more numerous than the others, have been 
selected. 

They measure as follaws : — 

Fractions of 

inchin 
diameter. 

Blood-corpuscle of Man "s^ro • 

Long diameter. Short diameter. 

Blood-corpuscle of Sieboldia -^^ to -^j^ t^oTT *° sTU- 

Nucleus of šame -g-jo ThVū' 

Blood-corpuscle of Ti-iton cristatus -gį^ TsVo* 

Blood-corpuscle of Rana temporaria TTrW arVo* 

The most interesting and important circumstance connected with 
this examination, is that this Salamander, a non-perennibranchiate* 
reptile (as I believe), probably has a blood-corpuscle as large, or 
nearly as large, as the Proteus and Siren, reptiles which retaiu their 

In the excellent and original papers by Mr. GuUiver in our ' Pro- 
ceedings' for 1845 and other years, " On the size of the Red Cor- 
puscles of the Blood in the Fertebrata" that gentlemau infers that, 
" although there is no relation between the size of the corpuscle and 
that of the aninial in diiferent orders, in the šame order the largest 
species have generally larger corpuscles than the smallest species. 
Thus in the large Ruminants the corpuscles are distinctly larger 
than in the smaller ; and the šame fact is observable in the Rodents, 
In these examples the gradation in the size of the corpuscles may 
not exactly follow that of the animals ; but none of the very small 
species have corpuscles so large as those of the largest species." 

The examinatioD of the blood of this reptile is probably another 
coufirmation of the general correctness of Mr. Gulliver's opinion ; 
but in my examinatiou of the blood-corpuscles of a great many species 
of vertebrate animals I have found several deviations from this law, 
more especially in the Ophidian reptiles and in the Osseous fishes ; 
among the Ruminants too, many of the smaller Antelopes have larger 
corpuscles than the Giraffe. In some of the Cervidce the size of the 
corpuscle does not correspond to that of the animal. In the Ophidia 

* It has been shown by Van der Hoeven that tlie Sieboldia is a true Pereniii- 
branchiate, although there is no gill-aperture present, or rather it has early dis- 
appeared. See his ' Zoology ' (Clarke's translation), ii. 242. — P. L. S. 



I 



205 

there are likewise sevcral exceptions ; but the osseous fislies, I be- 
lieve, afford numeroiis examples, especially among the SaltnomJee and 
Seomberidce. Thus I have recently exammed the blood of the Com-* 
moii Tunny {Thynnus vidgaris), weighmg abont 320 Ibs., and the 
oorpuscles were rather smaller than those of the Mackerel {Scomber 
scombei"). 

I have also had an oppovtunity of esamining some of the cast skm 
of the Salamander, which has be^n thrown off since the arrival of the 
reptile at the Gardens. The subjoined are drawings I have taken of 
this andof the cast skin of the Triton cristatus : fig. 1 represents the 
former and fig. 2 the latter, magnified 60 diameters. 




It will be seen that the epidermoid cells in both are hexagonal, 
and that those of the Salamander (fig. 1) are more than double the 
size of those of the Triton (fig. 2) ; the former measuring abont 
vjl^fith of an inch in diameter, the latter abont -gJ-ūth. It will be 
čurious hereafter to observe the relative proportion of these cells to 
the blood-globules in other reptiles. 

I purpose placing before the Society at an early period a compa- 
rative estimate of the size of the blood-corpuscles of this Gigantie 
Salamander, and those of the Siren, Lepidosiren, Proteus, and other 
reptiles. 



April 24th, 1860. 
Dr. Gray, Y.P., in the Chair. 

Mr. Bartlett exhibited a series of the eggs of Struthions birds, 
including those of the Northern and Southern Ostrich, the American 
and Darwin's Rhea, the Common and Spotted Emeus {Dromcens 
novce holfandice and D. irroratus), the Common Cassowary, and the 
Mooruk (Casitarius lennettii). The latter had been laid in the 
Society's Gardens on the 21st of April by the bird received from 



206 

Dr. Bennett in May 1858, wliich was thus proved to be a female. 
This egg (see Avės, PI. CLXII.) was of a pale grass-green colour, 
closel)'^ freckled with paler colouring, and much smoother and more 
finely granulated than that of the Common Cassowary. It measured 
6'0 by 3'45 inches, and weighed 22į oz. Its shape was more elon- 
gated and pyriform tban that of the Cassowary or Emeu, 

Mr. Gould exhibited specimens of the Chough of the Himąlayas, 
which he proposed to call Fregilus himaJayanus, and pointed out the 
characters which distinguish it from the European bird {F. graculus). 

Mr. F. H. Wilson exhibited four examples of a curiously-coloured 
variety of the Common Mole {Talpa europced), and read the follow- 
ing note on them : — 

" Nine of these Albinos were caught in the šame meadow within 
a few days, on Mr. Gibbon's farm, Beckenham, Kent. The Mole 
in general has four or five young ones at a birth. It is possible that 
all these were the ofFsprings of the šame parent, but I should think 
they mušt have bred amongst themselves. They were caught 
February 20th, 1860," 

Mr. Sclater announced the arrival of some interesting animals from 
British Hondūras, presented by R. Temple, Esq., Chief Justice of 
the Colony, to the Society's Menagerie. These cousisted of a pair 
of Guans (Penelope pnrpurascens), a pair of Curassows {Crax glo- 
bicera), a CoUared Peccary {Dicotijles torquafus), and specimens of 
a singular breed of the Domestic Fow], remarkable for its bones 
being black. 

Mr. Sclater observed that the following letter received from Mr. 
Temple seemed to indicate the presence in British Hondūras of a 
second species of Peccary, called the ' Warree,' about which more in- 
formation would be very desirable : — 

" 16 St. James' Sąuare, 

Notting HiU, AprU 20th, 1860. 

" SiR, — The Warree, about which you wish me to give you some 
Information, differs in some respects from the Peccary. The latter, 
as I said before, is never seen, except in conples, — the former inva- 
riably appears in large flocks. The head of the Peccary is very 
large and clumsy in proportion to the body. That of the Warree is 
less disproportionate. The coat or skin of the Peccary is covered 
with long hairs, which are darkish at the roots, and lighter coloured 
at the tips. The colour of the Warree is a dirty black, aud the hair 
is long and tangled. The legs of the Peccary are shorter than those 
of the Warree. Both have the šame orifice on the back, from which 
exudes a liquid having a very oiFensive odour. When either of these 
animals is shot for the purpose of being eaten (and they are excellent 
food), the orifice on the back mušt be instantly cut out, or the whole 
of the flesh will become so much tainted, that, so far from being able 
to eat it, you cannot tolerate its vicinity. But if the excisional knife 
has been applied in time, the flesh is sweet, white, short, and tender. 
The Warree is a far more ferocious animal than the Peccary ; but 



207 

his courage perhaps may arise from a principle not quite a stranger 
to the human breast — a consciousness of being well supported ; for, 
as I have said, they are always seen in multitudes. If you meet a 
flock of Warrees in the busli, and you take no notice of them, it is 
probable that they will take no notice of you. But if your intentions 
are hostile, and your design is to transfer one of them from his native 
wilderness to your kitehen, you mušt take care to place yourself in a 
safe position before you carry your design into execution. A gen- 
tleman, not long since, shot a Warree without having taken the ne- 
cessary precautions ; the remainder of the flock instantly pursued 
him, and if he had not inanaged to climb into a tree, he would have 
been tom in pieces. But he was kept a prisoner in that leafy asylum 
for many hours, the surviviug Warrees being bent on revenging the 
death of their companion. Even when the flock went a Uttle distance 
to feed, they left two or three to stand guard at the foot of the tree. 
The hunter has no difficulty in tracing the Peccary and the Warree, 
by the strong odour which prevails wherever they have been. 

" I am, Sir, 

" Your obedient servant, 

"R. Temple." 

The following papers were read : — 
1. On the Rheas in the Society's Menagerie, vv^ith Re- 

MARKS ON THE KNOWN SPECIES OF StRUTHIOUS BiRDS. 

By Philip Ltjtley Sclater. 

In November 1858 the late Mr. Thompson purchased for the So- 
ciety in Liverpool a young Rhea, which now seems to have nearly 
attained its adult growth. It proves to be so remarkably diflFerent 
from the Common Rhea (Rhea amerieana) and the Darwin's Rhea 
{Rhea darivinii), examples of which are kept in the šame inclosure 
with it, that I have Uttle hesitation in characterizing it as of a differ- 
ent species ; and in so doing I believe I have the concurrence of 
Mr. Gould, Mr. Bartlett, and other naturalists, who have had an 
opportunity of exaniining the bird. 

The Long-billed Rhea (Rhea macrorhyncha, as I propose to call 
it) is a much smaller bird than the Common Rhea. The example in 
the Gardens, a malė, stands about 6 inches lower than the two females 
of the American Rhea, which are in its company, and we may rea- 
sonably suppose that the female is proportionately smaller. The 
bill is much longer than that of the Common Rhea, as may be seen 
from the drawings (woodcut, figs. 1, 2, 3), which represent the heads 
of the three species, and the head-feathers are longer and more closely 
flattened down. On the other hand, the tarsi are much more slender 
and the toes much shorter. The thighs are less thickly clothed than 
in the Common Rhea ; but the scutellation of the tarsi seems to be 
nearly the šame in both these birds, and offers a marked contrast 
to that of Rhea darivinii, in which the tarsi are for the greater part 
covered with reticulated scales. The feathers of the body are longer 
in the Long-billed Rhea, and curve round it, hiding the outline, iu 
a manner not observable in the Common Rhea. With regard to 



208 

colouring, the new species is also very different, being of a brownish- 
grey mixed with black, and altogether much darker than Rhea ame- 




Fig. 2. 

ricana. The top of the head and streak at the back of the neck in 
particular are of a deep black. 

The accompanying drawings represent (fig. 1) the head of the new 
Rhea {R. macrorhynchd) and the heads of the two other species, 
Rhea americana (fig. 2) and Rhea darminii (fig. 3), which are given 
for the sake of comparison. 



209 



I am told that this Rhea is already known to some of the dealers 
in living animals as a distinct species ; and I hope it will not be long 
before we obtain further particulars conceruing it, and discover what 
part of South America it inhabits. 




Kg. 3. 

I take this opportunity of bringing before the Society a short re- 
sumė of the present statė of our knowledge of the species of Struthio- 
nidtB, which appear to be more numerous than vvas formerly sup- 
posed. 

I. Struthio. 

The iEthiopian type of the StruthionidcB (the most perfect of the 
kind, as is its type of the Anthropoid Apes) requires our first atten- 
tioa. I have long suspected that the Ostrich of Southern Africa, 
when closely compared with the bird of the Sahara, will turn out to 
be a different species, and I know that many other naturalists share 
my views. The eggs, as Mr. Bartlett has shown in exhibiting his 
fine series of the eggs of StruthionidcB this evening, seem to present 
well-marked differences. That attributed to the Southern bird is 
smaller and very much smoother and less deeply pitted, the granula- 
tions in some specimens being nearly evanescent. But I have reason 
to believe that the Southern bird is the larger in size. Through the 
unfortunate loss of both the young Ostriches presented to the So- 
ciety by Sir George Grey lašt summer, we have missed the opportu- 
nity which we should otherwise have had of comparing them with 
the noble examples of the Northern bird which grace our Mena- 
gerie. But, as Sir George Grey, who is now returniug to the Cape 
Colony, has promised to obtain for us other adult examples, there 

No. 430. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



210 
is every reason to believe that we shall ere lo«g be able to make the 

'the Sch7\be Syriau and Arabian Deserts, -entioned by 
CoT Chesney (Journ. Euphr. Exp. i. p. 588). Dr. Layard (Ninereh 
it sSand other writers. and frequently referred to m the Holy 
ScLLres't sholi also be'carefuii; e.an.ined. It .s x,ot jpro- 
babfe that U may tum out to be a third species or well-inarked local 

"'^ In*the mterior of Africa there is said by some of the older writers 
to exilt V^inutive OstnMJ f truc.on) I ^^^ ^^^dy remv^d 
some informatiou on this subject from Ur. J. l'ethericK, ^■^■' 
CoTsul for Sudan, who tells me that bis hunters have actually had 
this tod alive, and I have requested him to endeavour to procure 
further evidence on this point. 

II. Rhka. 

I have already pointed out above the characters which distinguish 
RLTZcrorhyLha--ihe third species of the Neotropieal type of the 
StrutZrddJ-from the two previously knoy^n, R. americana and 
i f ;rŽ There are exan;ples of all three li.ing m the Society s 
Gardens. 

III. Casuarius. 

of the existence of five species, as follows :— , , , , 

1 Casuarius aaleatus, the Common Cassowary. In the Leyden 
Mu^eum Ire spedmens of this bird from Ceram, the only certain 
locahty I kiL^for it. We have a very fine malė example hvmg m 

our Gardens. 268, pi. 129; 1858, 

2. Casuarius hennetin (P. L- ^- i»3{. P tT,^:;;,,^ „f „hich we 

n. 271 ; 1859, p- 32), the Moor«k of ISew Britam, ot whicn we 

have three examples in our Gardens. 

3 Casuarius australis (P. Z. S. 1857, p- 268), d.scovered by the 

J;^W.lonCąpeYo^^ 

tuna'tely lošt. . ^ ^, -r, i 

^ Casuarius , a species living in the menagene of the Babu 

* t. • .o R«namrtp sūcaks of a S/rutMo epoasticus, Compt. Rend. xliii. p. 785, 

* Prince f«"?f/^;^VtChe refers to either the southern or northern spec.es. 
''"i\''Trrįiii v 2 "//at7«4«n< ibi Struthiones," ir^n.Med m our ver 

• t . « cr^a res^ ' Ak^ LaT»ei.tations,iv. 3. Job, xxxix. 13 et seg., and other 
rssagef Th'osmch .as unclean accordlng to the Je.-.sh law. 
^ Tconfer Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. h. p. 130 (1858,. 



211 

Rajendra Mullick of Calcutta, and mentioned by Mr. Blyth* as 
haying " a yellow throat, a single yellow throat-wattle, and a long 
stripe of naked yellow skin down each side of the neck." I have 
not yet received Mr. Blyth's published description of this bird. 

5, Casuarius bicarunculatus, a name I propose to apply to a Cas- 
sowary of which I have recently obtained a young example for the 
Society in exchange from the Zoological Gardens at Rotterdam. It 
is easily distinguishable by the throat-caruncles being placed far 
apart on the sides of the throat, lighter colouring, &c. As the bird 
itself wi]l shortly arrive in this country, I hope to be able to give fuU 
particulars concerning this new species at the next Meeting of the 
Society. 

IV. Drom^us. 

At a Meeting of this Society in May lašt f, Mr. Bartlett gavę us 
some indications of the existence of a second species of Emeu in 
South Australia, and proposed to call it Dronueus irroratus. I have 
lately had the pleasure of examining two specimens of this Emeu in 
HoUand. One of these, now in the Gardens of the Zoological Society 
of Amsterdam, was brought from Albany in "Western Australia, and 
thus renders it probable that the Spotted Emeu is the western repre- 
sentative of the D. novcB hollandice. The second, novF in the Zoo- 
logical Gardens at Rotterdam, I have obtained by exchange for this 
Society ; and, as we may hope to see it in our own Gardens in a few 
days alongside the Eastern species, I reserve further notice of it 
until I have had a more satisfactory opportunity for its examination. 

It thus appears that there are some grounds for supposing that 
the species of StruthionidcB now in existence may amount to not less 
than fourteen or fifteen in number. 



2. NoTES ON A Second Collectign of Mammalia made by 
Mr. Fraser in the Republic of Ecuador. By Robert 

F. TOMES. 

Since my previous notes on the Mammals collected by Mr. Fraser 
at Gualaąuiza (P. Z. S. 1858, p. 546), a cousiderable number of 
specimens have been received from him, many of them of great in- 
terest. The following is a list of the species transmitted. The 
greater portion of these are believed to have been collected at Palla- 
tanga, on the western slope of the ('ordillera ; but the exact locality 
is not certain, from the specimens having been unfortunately mixed 
together. 

1 . Vespertilio nigricans, Pr. Max. 

V. chilo'ėnsis, Waterh. 

The collection contains four specimens of this species. In my 
* ll)is, 1860, p. 193. t See P. Z. S. 1859, p. 203. 



212 

former list I included V. chiloensis, but find on closer examination 
that the specimcns there mentioned should have been referred to an 
allied, but smaller species, the Vesp. isidori, which is probably iden- 
tical with the F. albescens of M. Geoffroy. The Bat which I now 
instance is certainly identical with the V. chiloensis of Mr. Water- 
house, as I have in my coUeetion numerous specimens from varioiis 
parts of South America, and from Mexico, with which it perfectly 
agrees, and which have been carefully compared with the type spe- 
cimen of V. chiloensis and found to be similar. 

2. Arctibeus lilium, Geoff. sp. 

Phyllostoma liliutn, Geoff. 
Sturnira spectrum, Gray. 

Six specimens have been sent home by Mr. Fraser. It is a very 
common species, and appears throughout the greater part of South 
America, and as far north as Mexico ; but I have not seen specimens 
from Jamaica or other West Indian Islands, although the larger 
species of Arctibeus, common in South America, are also common 
there. 

3. Desmodus rufus, Pr. Max. 

As many as five specimens are contained in the collection, and 
this, as well as the tolerable plenty in which it appears in other col- 
lections from South America, vvould seem to show that it is by no 
means a rare animal. I have also seen specimens collected in 
Mexico by M. Sall^ which were in all respects similar to those from 
South America. 

4. DiPHYLLA ECAUDATA, Spix. 

In the 'Voyage dans l'Ameriąue Meridionale' of M. D'Orbigny, 
plate y, two outline figures are given of the dentition of this animal, 
from which, if we may believe in their authenticity, the Diphylla 
mušt be closely affined to the hugivorous Phi/llosfomidce. It is much 
more probable, however, that these figures escaped that correction 
of the platės which they had to undergo after being executed, by the 
letter-press of the work, as the species is novvhere mentioned in the 
latter. The figures in ąuestion appear to me to refer to the cranium 
of the Phyllostoma (^Arctibeus) lilinm. Excepting these figur^, I 
have nowhere met with any original allusion to the Diphylla sjice 
the account given by the original describer, and it is probable that 
no other specimens have been met with, until the appearance of the 
present one from Mr. Fraser. The improbability of any near alliance 
with the frugivorous Phyllostomidce will be best explained by the 
follovping note appended to this specimen by Mr. Fraser : — . 

" Rio Napo. Murcielayo. This specimen was taken by the son 
of Professor Jamieson in the act of dravving blood from a man." 

Murcielugo is the Spanish name for this Bat. In general form, 
in the shape of the head and face, and in the strength of the claws, 
it bears considerable resemblance to the Desmodus, and I venture to 



213 

predict that when its dentition has been examiaed it will be found 
to differ in no important respects from the dentition of that genus. 

5. MoLOSSUS OBSCURUS, Geoff. (M, fumarius, Spix?) 
This Bat is common over the greater part of South America, and 
one diifering only in being a Httle smaller occurs in the West Indiau 
Islands. Mr. Gosse mentions it as M. fumarius. Specimens from 
St. Croix precisely resembie the Jamaiean ones. 

6. ? 

A small animal about the size of the Water Shrew {Sorex fodiens), 
with external characters and incisor teeth so much Uke those of the 
Soricidce as to have led in the first instance to the behef that it was 
a placentai Insectivore, perhaps in some degree resembling the Sole- 
nodon of Guba. However, the existence of a small and rudimentary 
poueh sufficiently attests the implacental nature of the creature, 
which but for this mušt certainly, as far as external appearances go, 
be regarded as one of the Soricidce. A more ample account of it 
will be given on a future occasion. 

7. SCIURUS ^STUANS. 

The specimens contained in the present coUection differ from those 
in the former one in having all the uuder-parts, -vvhich in them were 
but of a pale rust-colour, of a deep bright ferruginous hue. The 
malęs and females are similar. They are all from Pallatanga ; and 
the native name, Mr. Fraser tells us, is " Ardillo." 

8. Hesperomys renggeri, "Waterh. 

Of this species the collection contains a good number of specimens 
vvhich differ in no important respect from those obtained by Mr. 
Bridges in BoUvia. 

9. H. ELEGANS, Waterh. 

Only two specimens appear, and one of these differs very consider- 
ably from the other in having longer and more pointed ears, and in 
being itself somewhat larger ; but these differences I do not consider 
sufficient to constitute a specific distinction. The crania of these 
examples are similar, excepting a little difference in size, and are both 
remarkable for the great length of the incisive foramina. 

10. H. LATIMANUS, n. S. 

The present species, of vvhich the collection contains but a single 
specimen, a malė, accords vvith moderate accuracy vvith the dimen- 
sions given of the Mus pyrrhorinus of Prince Maximillian, but differs 
so remarkably from this and all other species vvith vvhich I am ac- 
quainted, or can meet vvith descriptions of, in several important par- 
ticulars, that I regard it as nevv, and propose to describe it under the 
above name. 

The face is short, and the muzzle rather tumid ; the muffle very 



214 

sipall, and with two pointed, dowiiward processes beneath the nostrils. 
Fore feet short and broad, their paims with the two hinder tubercles 
rather large, sparingly covered on their upper surface with short 
hairs. Claws small and pale in colour. Hind feet rather short and 
very broad, with the under surface perfectly destitute of hairs for the 
whole of its breadth, with the exception of the calcaneum, which is 
well covered. Their upper surfaces clothed with short hairs, which 
are white on the toes, but nearly black on the middle of the foot ; 
claws short, but rather strong. Tail long, not very thick at the root, 
and tapering insensibly to a thickish point. It is finely annulated 
with scales, and slightly suffused with short hairs, rauch as in the 
common Rat, Mus decumanus, but at the tip there is a small but very 
distinct tuft of hairs. 

The fur is eTerywhere very thick and soft ; that of the whole of 
the upper parts is dark dusky at the roots, tipped with brown and 
intermixed with darker hairs, towards the sides of the body tinged 
with rufou3. Beneath, pure white : on the abdomen and pubal re- 
gion only the hairs are ash-coloured at their roots. The colours of 
the upper and under parts are divided by a well-defined line along 
the side of the body. A conspicuous spot of pure white marks the 
root of the whiskers, which are numerous, strong, and black. 

The specimen is a malė, and the followiiig are the dimensions : — 

in. lin. 

Length of the head and body 4 7 

of the tail 6 2 

of the head 1 <i 

=- of the ear O 6 

from the end of the nose to the front 

of the eye O G^ 

from the end of the nose to the front 

of the ear I 1 

of the fore foot O 6^^ 

— of the hind foot 1 1 

Breadth of the fore feet, nearly O .S 

of the hind feet, nearly O iH 

The cranium lias its nasal part short, scarcely longer than in H. 
loiigicaudatus, vvhich is a smaller species. The zygomas spring out 
at once to nearly their full degree of prominence, and extend back- 
wards in the šame way as in other species of the genus ; but the frontai 
region is rather more expanded than is usual, so that the space 
between the orbits is rather broad, and this gives the zygomas the 
appearance of extending further backward than they rcally do. The 
incisive foramina are very long, occupying nearly the whole of the 
space betvveen the molar and incisor teeth. 

in. lin. 
Length from the anterior extremity 6f nasal 

bones to occipital crest 1 3 

Breadth across the zygomatic arches O 8 

betwcen the orbits O 2^ 



215 

in. lin. 

Length of the nasal bones , O 5 

of the molar rauge O 2š 

from anterior edge of first molar to point 

of incisor O 4 

of lower jaw, from point of incisor to ex- 

tremity of condyle O 9 

of molar range O 2į 

Height from angular process to top of coroiioid 

process O 4 

Obs. This species may readily be distinguished by its short head, 
broad feet, long aud but slightly taperiiig tail with its terminai tuft 
of hairs, and by the clear line of demarcatiou of the colours of the 
upper and under parts. These peculiarities tend to give it less of a 
rat-like appearance than its congeners, and iuduced mc at first sight 
to regard it as referable to some other genus, — an illusion that was 
dispelled by an examination of the cranium. 

II. H. MINUTUS, n. s. 

It is with some hesitation that I proceed to name and describe 
this species, not from any doubt as to its being perfectly distiuct, but 
on account of the only specimen received being a young animal, so 
that the description might not apply with exactness to one perfectly 
adult. However, it is probable that it has attained nearly, if uot 
quite, its full size, as the teeth, although unworn, exhibit a propor- 
tionate degree of prominence compared with those of other species ; 
and its cranium, although rounded posterioi ly as in young Muridce, 
is yet firmly united at its suturės. I find that very nearly fuU- 
grown individuals of H. longicaudatus have more distinct indicatioiis 
of immaturity than the specimen in ąuestion. 

It is a rather remarkable species, scarcely larger than the smallest 
of our British quadrupeds (the Harvest Mouse), but with a tail nearly 
tvvice the length of its own body, and very long and soft fur, in 
colour likę that of the \Vater Vole, both above and below. 

The ears are short, but rather broad, almost black, and a little 
hairy near their margins. The"-vyhiskers are long, fully as long as 
those of H. renggeri, and the upper surfaces of the fore feet are 
clothed with short white hairs ; the nails rather small, and white. 
The hind-feet, including the tarsus, are very long, rauch longer rela- 
tively than the šame parts in H. longicaudatus, or indeed than in 
any other species with which it has been compared. They are spa- 
ringly covered with short hairs of a silvery-white colour, tinged with 
dusky on the middle of the foot, but near the claws very vvhite. 
The tail tapers evenly to a very fine point, and is finely aunulated 
with small scales, and suffused with fine short hairs, much as in the 
Common Mouse, Mus musculus. It is of a dark grey-brov?n colour, 
a little paler beneath* 

On all parts the fur is very long, fine, and glossy, as long as or even 
longer than that of //. longicaudatus or //. renggeri, and it almost 
couccals the ears, giving the creaturc the ajipcarance of an Arvicota. 



216 

In its general colour it greatly resembles some of the more rufous 
examples of Arvicola ampJiibia, the fur being deep dusky at the root, 
tipped with rufous-brown, and mth a slight inixture of black hairs. 
The under parts resemble the upper, except m being a little paler. 

in. lin. 

Length of the head and body 2 O 

of the tail 3 O 

of the head O 9 

of the ears O 3į 

from the end of the nose to the anterior 

margin of the eye ...... O 4 

from the end of the nose to the front 

margin of the ear O 7 

of the fore foot O 4^ 

of the hind foot O pi 

from the anterior extremity of the nasal 

bones to the occiput 10 

Breadth across the zygomatic arches O 5 

Length of lower jaw, from point of incisor to the 

condyloid .process O 5f 

Depth from the point of the coronoid process to 

the posterior or angular process O 2^ 

12. Dasyprocta fuliginosa, Wagler, Isis, 1832. 

D. nigricans, Natt. Wagn. Archiv. Naturgesch. 1842. 
D. nigra, Gray, Ann. & Mag. N. H. 1842. 

Of a specimen apparently referable to this species, but a little 
smaller than the one which furnished the dimensions given by Dr. 
"Wagner, Mr. Fraser speaks thus : — " From Pallatanga ; $ by dissec- 
tion; native name Gtiatusa." 

13. Dasyprocta caudata, Lund. Kongl. Danske Videnscab. 
&c., 1841 ; Waterh. Mam. ii. p. 387. 

In the various works on Mammals of South America to which I 
have access, I do not find this species mentioned, and neither is it 
included in the general work on Mammalia by Dr. Wagner, so that I 
conclude that it mušt be rare. Mr. Waterhouse refers to the original 
description, and to two specimens in the Leyden Museum, a description 
of which he gives ; and as in this, as well as in other cases vvhen pro- 
vided with sufficient materials, he leaves little to be desired, I refrain 
from further description, except to add, that the species may be at once 
recognized by its colour, which bears some resemblance to that of the 
common Badger. The following note accompanying the specimen 
is of interest : — "From Pallatanga, $ by dissection. Native name 
Guatusa. Irides greyish brown. Shot near the house in the day- 
time : two young in the abdomen, one a malė and the other a fe- 
male, quite naked, about 3 inches in length." 



217 

14. DiDELPHYS wATERHOusii, Tomes, p. z. s. 1860, p. 58. 

Another specimen of this species has appeared, likę the other one, 
a female, and resembling it also in all particulars except in having 
the general hue of the fur niore decidedly ferruginous, especially 
on the side of the body and of the neck, and in having the short 
hairs on the region of the pouch and pubes of a brownish-yellow 
colour. The tail is uniform dark brown, without a trace of white or 
flesh-colour. As this specimen is preserved entire in spirit, I am 
enabled to give a very complete table of dimensions. 

in. lin. 

Length of the head and body 5 7 

of the tail 6 9 

of the head 1 6 

from end of nose to front margin of 

eye O 7į 

— from end of nose to front margin of 

ear 1 3 

■ — of the gape-line O 7 

. — of the ears O 7 

of the fore arm O 11|^ 

of the fore foot and claws O 7 

of the free portion of the thumb . , O 3i 

of the tibia 1 3 

of the tarsus and toes O lOį 

of the fore portion of the opposite 

toe of the hind foot O 2į 

of the hairy portion at the root of 

the tail O 7 

Obs. This species appears to resemble somewhat the D. noeti- 
vagans of Tschudi, but is obviously smaller, and has more black 
around the eye. 

] 5. DiDELPHYS • ? 

Very young. Perhaps the young of the lašt species. 

I take this opportunity of correcting an error in my former report, 
and of adding the description of a species which I noticed, but did 
not describe. 

The species of Hesperomys which I referred to H. longicaudatus 
having been removed from spirit, the fur appeared when dried to be 
so unlike that of the species just mentioned, as to stimulate a closer 
examination, when other differences were found, quite sufficient to 
justify the application of the following name and description. 

Hesperomys bicolor, n. s. 

H. longicaudatus, Tomes, " Notės on a Collectiou of Mammalia 
from Gualaąuiza," P. Z. S. 1858, p. 546. 



218 

General appearance somewhat likę that of H. longicaudatus, but 
rather larger ; ears not so broad relatively as in that species, and 
the fur mueh shorter, paler in colour, and more cottouy iu texture. 
Tail relatively not so long. 

The muzzle is rather short and obtuse, and the muiBe, as in so 
many other species of Hesperomys, has two little projections under 
the nostrils, which poiut down\vards. The ears are of the šame length 
as those of H. longicaudatus, but they are much narrower than those 
of that species ; they are naked, with the exception of a portion of 
their hinder surface at the root. The fore feet are rather broad, and 
have their upper surface sufFused with short, fine, pale brown hairs, 
much as in H. darivinii ; the toes themselves are nearly naked to- 
vvards the claws, and are destitute of long hairs around the latter ; 
the claws are short, and of a lightish brown colour. In H. longi- 
caudatus they are white. Hind feet rather short and broad, and well 
clothed with very fine short hairs of a cinnamon-brown colour, 
which are whiter on the toes ; clavvs light browu. Tail annulated 
with exceedingly small scales, much smaller than those of the tail 
of any other species examined, and sparingly sufFused with extremely 
fine and short hairs, forming at the end a pencil of exceeding soft- 
ness. It is everywhere of a uniform dark brown colour. 

The fur of the body is on all parts short and thick, soft to the 
touch, and perfectly devoid of lustre, and it has but a very trifling 
number of the usual longer and darker hairs. On the head and face 
it is no longer than that of the common Shrew {Sori'x vulguris, 
Linn.), and it is nearly as fine as in that animal. All the upper 
parts are darkish cinnamon-browu (the fur being ash-coloured at the 
root), and the brown colour extends along the exposed or outer sur- 
face of the limb. The fur of the whole of the under surface, from 
the chin to the vent, and the iuside of the limbs, uniform yellowish 
white from root to tip. The line of division of the brovvn and white is 
moderately distinct,very much as in adult specimens oi Mus sylvaticus, 
to vvhich animal it bears in general appearance sonie resemblance. 
A pure vvliite spot marks the root of the whiskers, which are few in 
number, very long, and black. 

in. liii. 

Length of the head and body, about 3 9 

of the tail, about 3 6 

of the head 1 3 

of the ears O A\ 

Breadth of the ears O 3į 

Length from the end of the nose to the eye .... O 6 

from the end of the nose to the ear . . . . 10 

of the fore foot and clavvs O 6 

of the hind foot and claws O 9^ 

Cranium. — The skull of this species is a miniature of that of H. 
latimanus, and bears but little resemblance to that of //. longicau- 
datus. It is chiefly remarkable for the breadth of the frontai bones, 
by which the space between the orbits is reudcred much vvider, and 



219 

its narrowest part reduced to a mere poiut in an antero-posterior 
direction ; whereas in all the other species exaTnined, with the excep- 
of H. latimanus, the greater part of the space which Ues between 
the orbits is of equal breadth. In H. elegans this is remarkably the 
case. 

The lower jaws of this species and its fellow, H. latimanus, exhibit 
a difference also from most other species in the comparative short- 
uess of the j)osterior angle or descending ramus, so that the hinder 
tnargin of the jaw, from the condyle to the angle, forms but a very 
shght curve. In most species, and especially in H. elegans, this 
part of the jaw is deeply emarginate. 

in. lin. 
Length from the extremity of the nasal bone to 

the prominence above the foramen magnum . . 11 

Breadth across the zygomatic arch O 7 

between the orbits O 2^ 

Length of the nasal bones O 4 

of the molar range (upper jaw) O 2 

from anterior edge of front molar to the 

point of the incisor O 31 

of the lower jaw, from the point of the 

incisor to the condyle O 8 

of molar range (lower law) O 2 

Height from the angular process to the summit of 

the coronoid process O '6^ 

H. AUREUS, n. s. 

The colour of this species is sufficient to distinguish it from all 
others. It is of a golden-browu colour on all the upper parts, and 
similar beneath, but paler and much duller. 

The muffle has two very distinct points beneath the nostrils ; the 
ears are of medium size, as broad as long, and somewhat hairy ou 
both their surfaces ; the whiskers are numerous, long and black. The 
arms are well clothed with fur likę that of the body, quite to the 
wrists, and the feet have all their upper surface well covered by short 
and shining hairs of a brownish yellow colour. The hinder feet are 
similarly clothed with shining "hairs, those vvhich are above aud 
around the claws long and yellow ; on the calcaneum is a distinct 
tuft of curved bristly hairs. The tail is finely annulated, and suf- 
fused with exceeedingly short hairs, which do not conceal the scales, 
and is of a uniform darkish brown colour. 

The fur is long and thick, but not very fine. Everywhere it is 
dark dusky at the root, with its terminai fourth bright yellow brown. 
On all the under parts similar, but paler and less bright ; and along 
the dorsal line there is a sufficient mixture of longish black hairs to 
conceal the bright colour of the fur. On the liiud part of the back, 
the rump, and back of the thighs, it is bright enough to be proi^erly 
styled a golden browu, somevvhat likę the colouring of the most vivid 
exampk'S of the Agoidi {Dasyprocfa). ^ 



220 

in. lin. 

Length of the head and body, about 6 6 

of the tail 9 O 

of the head 1 9 

of the ears O 8 

of the fore foot and claws O 9 

of the fore arm 1 1 

of the tibia 1 6 

of the hind foot and claws 1 4 

Obs. — The species whieh are here described under the names of 
H. latimanus and H. bicolor do not fall with facility under either of 
the subgenera proposed by Mr. Waterhouse ; and neither do they 
agree with the species vvhich are brought by Wagner and Burmeister 
under the generic or sub-generic name of Holochilus. They consti- 
tute rather a group of themselves, which I will here briefly charac- 
terize. 

But I may premise, before doing this, that it seems to me needless 
to encumber science with another name ; for I am scarcely of opinion 
that this or any other of the groups into which the genus Hesperomys 
has been divided, should be regarded as more than divisions for 
the convenience of description and identification. A group which is 
characterized in as pūrely superficial a manner as are those now under 
re\aew, should, to hold a recognizable place in any system, have a 
well-defined outline : although removed to but a little distance from 
allied groups, the intervening space should be quite clear of outliers 
from either side. There are perhaps but few such groups to be met 
with, but there are some. It is probable that such occur in the Sori- 
cidce, and amongst the Bats I can cite tvvo good instances. The genus 
Nycticejus of Asia and Africa diifers from the heavy-built Vesper- 
tiliones (Scotopkilus) in a trifling but constant manner, the charac- 
teristic differences appearing to be but feeble in a generic signification ; 
but immensely strengthened by their constancy. The genus contains 
Severai well-marked species, all of which possess the šame charac- 
teristics in a nearly equal degree. Another and equally good instance 
is the genus Lasiurus, confined to the New World. 

I have in vain sought for anything likę this amongst the subgenera 
into which Hesperomys has been divided ; I even find suflScient va- 
riation in different individuals of some of the species to endanger 
these divisions. For instance, the difference in the length of the 
tail in adult specimens of H. lonyicaudatus is very considerable, and 
the ears in H. elegans vary in size in a remarkable manner, so much 
so, as to give the idea of two distinct species. But the pecuharity 
is wholly superficial, and is highly variable. By these variations the 
subgenera Calomys and Phyllotis are, as it were, mixed up and' 
blended, and their value impaired. The genus itself — Hesperomys 
— may more properly be likened to the genera of Vespertilionidee of 
which I have spoken, as it is distinct from the cosmopolitau genus 
Mus in one only, but very constant point of dissimilarity — the 
presence of a rather greater number of folds of enamel in the crowns 
of the molar teeth. We do not know the exact degree of importance 



221 

to attach to this chararcter, existing as it does unsupported by other 
associative characters. With the very close resemblance which ia 
other respects obtains between these Old and New World Muridce, 
ought we to consider this one point as indicative of more than sub- 
generic difference ? 

The following are the groups into which the genus has been divided 
by Mr. Waterhouse, with the addition of one for the reception of 
the two species here described — H. latimanus and H. hicolor. 

A. Scapetromys, Waterh. Ex. Hesperomys tumidus, Waterh. 

B. Oxymrjctorus, "Waterh. Ex. H. nasutus, Waterh. 
Q,ĮfAhrothrix, Waterh. Ex. H. longipilus, "Waterh. 

D. Calomys, Waterh. Ex. H. bimaculatus & H. elegans, Waterh. 

E. Phyllotis, Waterh. Ex. H. darwinii, Waterh. 

F. Characterized thus : — Muzzle short and tumid ; ears small and 
naked, but not concealed by the fur ; feet short, broad and strong ; 
claws short ; tail as long as or longer than the body, nearly naked, 
but with ihore or less of a peneil of hairs at the tip, rather thin at 
the root, and tapering but slightly to a blunt point ; fur short, thick, 
soft, and without gloss. ^ ^^ 3^,^^^ ^4,U»lh 



3. On the Black-shouldered Peacock of Latham (Pavo 

NIGRIPENNIS). By p. L. SCLATER, 

The species of the genus Pavo generally recognized by naturalists 
since the time of Linuseus have been two in number — the Common 
Peacock {Pavo cristatus) and the Javanese or Green Peacock (Pavo 
muticus). My present object is to call the attention of the Society 
to what seems to be a third distinct species, in some respects inter- 
mediate between these two, and which, though long since introduced 
into Europe and often bred in our aviaries, appears in some myste- 
rious manner to have almost escaped the notice of naturalists, and 
to have been left unprovided with a specific name up to this time. 

The bird I allude to is the Black-shouldered Peacock of Latham's 
' General History ' (vol. viii. p. 1 14), vvhere its differences from the true 
Pavo cristatus are accurately pointed out. They are, indeed, very 
obvious on comparison of either sex of these two birds, as may be 
seen by any one who will take the trouble to inspect the fine series 
of Pea-fo\vl belonging to C. Clifton, Esq., now under the Society's 
care in the Regent's Park Gardens. 

In the Black-shouldered Peacock of Latham (a term wliich I pro- 
pose to Latinize into Pavo nigripenniš), the metallic green of the 
back, which forms the centre of the train, when expanded, is of a 
more golden hue than in P. cristatus, which it otherwise most gene- 
rally resembles. The whole of the secondaries, scapulars, and 
wing-coverts are black with outer narrow edgings of green, which 
becomes bluish towards the carpal joint. In this particular it re- 



222 

sembles P. muticus, and is very different from P. cristatus, in which 
all these feathers are cream-coloured crossed witli black markings. 
The thighs of P. nigripennis are black, as in P. muticus. In P. 
cristatus they are always of a pale drab. The female of P. nigri- 
pennis is of a much lighter colouring than that of P. cristatus, being 
almost eutirely of a pale cream-colour, mottled with dark colouring 
above, and readUy recognizable at first sight. In this respect, it may 
be remarked that the Black-shouldered Peacock is not intermediate 
between the two others ; since in Paim muticus the female is much 
more likę the malė. 

Nowthe ąuestion arises, What is the Black-shouldered Peacock? 
Is it a domestic variety, a hybrid, or a feral species 1 I cannot con- 
sider it a domestic variety, because the differences in both sexes 
appear to be constant, and to descend to the progeny ; and, indeed, 
are not of that sort that would be induced hj domestication. M. 
Temminck, in bis 'Histoire Naturelle des Pigeons et des Gallinaces,* ' 
considers the Black-shouldered Peacock as the true Wild Peacock, 
and the Pavo cristatus to be a domestic variety of that. But 
this we know is not the case ; the Common \Vild Pea-fowl of Hin- 
dostan being the true Pavo cristatus, and the Black-shouldered 
Peacock being, as I believe, unknown in that countryf. That the 
Pavo nigripennis is not a hybrid between P. cristatus and Pavo 
muticus, is evident from the fact that we have now in our Gardens 
birds produced by this cross, and that they bear different characters 
altogether, as may be seen by the stuffed specimen which I now 
exhibit. Besides, the fertihty of the birds, and the permanency and 
invariability of the differences which separate it from its two aUies, 
seem to be quite conclusive against this view. If, therefore, it is not 
a domestic breed nor a hybrid, we niust adopt the third alternative, 
and consider Pavo nigripennis as a distinct feral species. And I have 
little doubt that when the range of the Pavonidce is more accurately 
known, we shall fiud that Pavo nigripennis occupies a distinct geogra- 
phical area, which will in all probability be intermediate in position, 
as the bird is in characters, betwcen Pavo cristatus and Pavo muticus. 

Attention having been now called to this subject, I hope that no 
opportunity will be lošt of examining the eggs, the osteology, and 
the anatomy of these birds, in order to ascertain whether the extemal 
characters are supported by other grounds of differentiation. 

* Vol. ii. p. 26, Paon Sauvage: Pavo cristatus prirmis. 

f Our Head Keeper, Mr. James Thompson, who was in Calcutta in 1857, 
iuforms me that the Babu Rajendra MuUick, who is the owner of a very fine col- 
lection of living aniraals, had never seen the Black-shouldered Peacock, though 
he had specimens both of the Common and Javanese species in his Aviaries, and 
had bred hybrids betvreen these two. 



223 

4. On THE SpECIES OF THE GeNTJS PrIONITURUS, and ON THE 
GeOGRAPHICAL DlSTRIBUTION OF THE PsiTTACID^ IN THE 

Eastern Archipelago. By Philip Lutley Sclater, 
M.A., Secretary to the Society. 

Having lately examined specimens of all the known species of the 
group of Parrots deuominated Prioniturus by Wagler, I take the 
opportunity of eadeavouring to rectify some errors which have been 
made with regard to their synonymy and geographical distribution. 

Genus Prioniturus, Wagler. 
o. Prioniturus. 

1. Prioniturus flavicans. 

Psittacus platurus, Vieill. Nouv. Dict. xxv. p. 314, etEnc. Meth. 
p. 1367(?). 

Prioniturus Jlavicans, Cassin, Proc. Ac. Phil. vi. p. 373 ; Journ. 
Ac. Phil. iii. p. 155(C). 

"Psittacus discosurus, Vieill.", Temm. in Mus. Lugd. 

Diagn. — S • Viridis, colio undiąue cum pectore toto Jlavicantibus : 
macula verticali ruberrima undiąue cceruleo circumdata : alis 
extus viridibusfere concoloribus : rectricibus intertnediis valde 
elongatis, denudatis, disco terminatis. 
5 . Pileo cyanescente : macula verticali nulla : colio undiąue 
cum pectore Jlavicantibus : rectricibus intermediis paulo elon- 
gatis, apicibus angustatis, et subdisciformibus. 
Hab. Inins. Celebes, regione Boreali circa lacum Tondano (Forsten 
et IVallace). 

Mus. Lugdunensi ( c? et $ ). 

Exaniples of both sexes of this Parrot are in the Leyden Museum, 
obtained by Forsten at Tondano in Northern Celebes, and marked 
' Psittacus discosurus, Vieill.' The bird is not Psittacus discurus 
of Vieillot, but possibly, I think I may say probably, his Psittacus 
platurus. However, as this is by no means certain from Vieillot's 
insufficient deseription, and as the next species is generally con- 
sidered to be the P. platurus, it is better to adopt for the present 
species the \\&mQ Jlavicans, under which Mr. Cassin has accurately 
described the female. Mr. Wallace has lately met with this bird in 
the šame locality as that in which Forsten found it. As he truly 
says *, it is " very distinct in both sexes " from the P. setarius, 

2. Prioniturus setarius. 

Psittacus setarius, Temm. PI. Col. 15. 

Prioniturus platurus, Wagl. Mon. Psitt. p. 523 (nec Vieill.) ; Bp. 
Consp. Av. p. 6. 

Psittacus spatuliger, mas, Bourj. Perr. t. 53. 
Rac/cet-tailed Parrot, Lath. Gen. Hist. ii. p. 167. pi. 24. 
Prioniturus platurus et P. tcallacii, G. R. Gray, List of Psitt. p. 1 7. 

* See ' Ibis," 1860, p. 141. 



224 

Diagn. — S- Viridis ; torąue angusto cervicali postico auran- 
tiaco : macula verticali antice roseo-rubra, postice plaga 
cinerea terminata : alis fascia lata grisea, secundarias occu- 
pante, bipartitis, axillis cyanescentibiis ■• rectricibus interme- 
diis valde elongatis, denudatis, disco tenninatis. 

$ . Macula verticali nulla : rectricibus intermediis brevioribus. 

Hab. In ins. Celebes, reg. Boreali et Merid. (^JVallace). 

Mus. Brit. ( c? et $ ) ; Lugd. ( c? )• 

Mr. Wallace obtained specimens of both sexes of this Parrot near 
Macassar in Southern Celebes, and has also lately met with it again 
in Northern Celebes, near the Lake of Tondano, though more sparingly 
than P.flavicans. I have examinedTemmiiick's type in the Leyden 
Museum, and I can see no difference between that and Mr. Wallace's 
birds. 

This species may be distinguished from the former at the first glance 
(1) by its narrow and distinct hind neck-collar, that in P.flavicans 
being broad and extending all round the neck and over the body 
below ; (2) by its rosy head-spot, bordered behind by a broad greyish 
blotch, the head-spot in P.flavicans being rosy, and situated in the 
middle of a bluish blotch ; (3) by the blue shoulflers and pale greyish 
band formed by the secondaries, the wings in P. flavicans being 
uniform green ; (4) by the elongated under tail-coverts, those of P. 
flavicans being comparatively short. 

įi. JJrodiscus. 
3. Prioniturus discurus. 

Psittacus discurus, Vieill. Gal. des Ois. i. p. 7. pi. 36 ; Enc.Meth. 
p. 1369 ; Wagl. Mon. Psitt. p. 524. 

Psittacus spatuliger, fcem., Bourj. St.-Hil. Perr. t. 53 a. 
Prioniturus discurus, Bp. Consp. Av. p. 6. 

Hab. In ins. Mindanao Philippinensium (VieiU.). 

Mus. Parisiensi. 

The British Museum contains specimens of two nearly allied, but 
probably distinct species of this section of the genus Prioniturus, both 
from the Philippines. They are distinguished in Mr. Gray's Cata- 
logue as P. discurus and P. spatuliger. But as the latter specific 
appellation was used by Bourjot St.-Hilaire for a compound species 
formed by the union of P. setarius and P. discurus, it is a useless 
synonym. It follows, therefore, that whichever of the two Philippine 
species is diiferent from that in the Paris Museum, which is the type 
of Vieillot's and B. St.-Hilaire's figures, will require a new name. 

I take this opportunity also of exhibiting a Table illustrative of the 
present condition of our knowledge of the distribution of the Psitta- 
cidce in the Eastern Archipelago, which I have drawn up at the re- 
quest of Mr. A. R. Wallace. In the Indian Region, which includes 
the great islands of Sumatra, Java, and Borneo, and extends over 
the Philippines, the generic types of this family are few. Palceornis 
and Loriculus are the most prominent. Psittinus consists of a single 
species found in Malacca, Sumatra, and Borneo : and Cyclopsitta, 



225 

with one or perhaps two species, is peculiar to the Pliilippines, where 
also Urodiscus (a subgenus scarcely separable from Prioniturus) 
occurs *. But o\\ crossing the Straits of Macassar and Lombock, 
which, as Mr. Wallace has well showii (Proc. Linu. Soc. iv. p. 1 7'2), 
form the boundary between the Indian and Australian regions, we 
meet at once with a strange contrast. In the islands scattered between 
this limit and the northern coast of Australia, not less than seventeen 
diiFerent genera of Psittacidce occur ; and among them are two very 
peculiar types, the Cacatuince and TrichoglossincE, which, as Mr. 
Wallace has observed, " extend iip to the extreme limits of the region 
without a solitary species passing over into the Indian islands of the 
Archipelago." 

The distribution of the Psittacidce in this region is further of great 
interest as exhibiting numerous instances of that well-known prin- 
ciple of geographical distribution according to which different hori- 
zontai areas are tenanted by closely allied and corresponding, though 
different species of the šame generic type. The Psittacidce, both in 
the 01d and New World, appear to be especially subject to the in- 
fluence of this law f, Scarcely an instance is known of a bird of 
this family having an extended geographical range, and experience 
teaches ns to be very suspicious of any supposed instance of the 
occurrence of the šame species of Parrot in two localities of any 
distance apart. Mr. Wallace tells us that even between the Lorius 
garrulus of Gilolo and that of Batchian " there is a constant differ- 
ence in the size of the dorsal yellow patch |." 

The accurate working-out of the range and localities of the whole 
family would form a valuable contribution to our knowledge of 
zoological geography. There are, however, many species of the true 
habitais of which we are still ignorant. It is with the hope of 
being of some use to Mr. Wallace in his endeavours to increase our 
knovvledge of this subject, that I have draven up the Table I now 
exhibit. It is an extension of a somewhat similar one given in the 
zoological volume of the ' Verhandelingen.' Many additional locali- 
ties have been ascertained by examination of the marked specimens 
in the Collection of Leyden, to which, through the courtesy of Pro- 
fessor Schlegel, I have always had unrestricted access during my 
visits to that city. 

In the following lists of the species inhabiting the different islands, 
I have given the Museums where the specimens are to be found, and 
the names of the collectors, when ascertainable : — 

* 'VVith the exception of Lorieulus, of -vvhich one species (L. stigmatus) has 
straggled over into Celebes, all these types are confiued to the Indian as distinct 
from the Australian region. In the šame way a single species of Cacatua — a 
characteristic group of the Australian region — {C. philippinarum), is found in 
the PhiUppines, and a Tanygnathris, or probably two of this group ( T. lucionensis 
and T. sumatranus), the third species being peculiar to Celebes and Bouton. 

t I have inade some remarks on the exemplification of this law in tlie distri- 
bution of the Psittacidm in the various West ludia Islands, in the ' Annals and 
Magazine of Natūrai History ' (18.59), vol. iv. p. 224. 

% ' Ibis,' 1860, p. 198. 

No. 431. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 



22& 

I. LOMBOCK. 

1 . Cacatua eeąuatorialis. Mus. Brit. Wallace. 

II, SUMBAWA. 

1. Trickoglossus forsteni. Mus. Lugd, Forsten. 

III. Celebes. 

1. Prioniturus setarius. Mus. Brit. Wallace. 

2. P.Jlavicans. Mus. Lugd. Forsten. 

3. Tanygnathus mullej-i. Mus. Brit. Wallace. 

4. Lorieulus stigmatus. Mvis. Lugd. Forsten. 

5. Trichoglossus ornatus. Mus. Lugd. Forsten. 

IV. BOUTON. 

1 . Tanygnathus mūlleri. Mus. Lugd. Mūller. 

2. Trichoglossus ornatus. Mus. Lugd. Miiller. 

V. TiMOR. 

1. Geof rotus jukesii. Mus. Brit. Jukes. 

2. Aprosmictus vulneratus. Mus. Lugd. 

3. Trichoglossus cyanogrammus. Mus. Lugd. Mūller. 

4. euteles. Mus. Lugd. Mūller. 

5. iris. Mus. Lugd. Mūller. 

6. Cacatua citrinocristata. Mus. Par. Hombr. & Jacq. 

VI. Amboyna. 

1. Eclectus grandis. Mus. Lugd. 

2. Geoffroius personalus. Mus. Lugd. Forsten. 

3. Lorius tricolor. Mus. Lugd. Mūller. 

4. Eos rubra. Mus. Lugd. 

5. reticulata. Mus. Lugd, 

6. cyanostriata. Mus. Lugd. 

7. Trichoglossus keematodus. Mus. Lugd. Miiller. 

VII. Ceram. 

1. Tanygnathus megalorhynchus. Mus. Lugd. 

2. Eos squamata. Mus. Lugd. 

3. Trichoglossus hcematodus. Mus. Lugd. Forsten. 

4. Cacatua moluccensis. Mus. Lugd. Forsten. 

• 

VIII. Batchian. 

1. Tanygnathus megalorhynchus. Mus. Brit. Wallace. 

^^Ji^Ul/Vlv- 2. Polychlorus magnus. ^— 

3. Geoffroius cyaneicollis. — — 

4. Lorius gar rulus. 

5. Eos riciniata. 

6. Trichoglossus placensi — — — 

7. Cacatua cristata. -^— 



I 



227 

IX. Ternate, 

1. Poly chlorus magnus. Mus. Lugd. 

2. Eos riciniata. 

3. Trichoglossus placen« 1 

4. Cacatua cristata. 

X. GiLOLO. 

1. Tanygnathus megalorhynchus. Mus. Lugd. ,, 

2. Geoffroius cyaneicollis. ? . iavA-V^'^-^v*..^ H^Jj 

3. Aprosmictus hypophonius. 

4. Lorius garrulus. 

5. Eos riciniata. 

6. — — coccinea. 

XI. "VV^AIGIOU. 

1 . Psittacodis stavorinii. Mus. Par. Lesson. 

2. Chalcopsitta rubiginosa. 

XII. New Guinea. 

1 . Eclectus eardinalis. Mus. Brit. Wallace. 

2. Geoffroius pucheranii. 

3. Opopsitta diophthalma. • 

4. desmaresti. 

5. Aprosmictus dorsalis. 

6. Lorius tricolor. 

7. Eos fuscata. 

8. Chalcopsitta atra. Mus. Par. Lesson. 

9. Trichoglossus nigrigularis. Mus. Brit. Wallace. 

10. placens. Mus. Brit. Wallace. 

1 1 . Charmosyna papuana. Mus. Par. Lesson. 

12. pulchella. Mus. Brit. "VVallace. 

13. Cacatua triton. Mus. Lugd. Miiller. 

14. Microglossum aterrimum. Mus. Lugd. Miiller. 

15. Basyptilus pecąuetii. Mus. Lugd. 

\Q. Nasiterna pygmcea. Mus. Lugd. Miiller. 

XIII. Mafors Islands (in the Bay of Geelvink). 

1 . Lorius cyanauchen. Mus. Brit. Wallace. 

2. Eos cyanogenia. Wallaee. 

XIV. Aru Islands. 

1 . Eclectus eardinalis 1 Mus. Brit. Wallace. 

2. Polychlorus magnus. 

3. Geoffroius aruensis. 

4. Opopsitta diophthalma. 

5. Chalcopsitta scintillans. 

6. Trichoglossus nigrigularis. 

7. coccineifrons. 

8. placens. 

9. Cacatua triton. —— 

10. Microglossum alecto. 



228 

XV, Salomon Islands. 

1 . Geoffroius heteroclitus. Mus. Par. Hombr. & Jacq. 

2. Lorius chlorocercns. Mus. Brit. Macgillivr. 

3. Eos cardinalis. Mus. Par. H. &J. 

4. Trichoglossus massena. Mus. Brit. Macgillivr. 

5. Cacatua ducorpsii. Mus. Par. H. & J. 



5. Note on the Species of the Genus Pithecia, with the 
Description of a New Species, P. albicans. By Dr. 
John Edward Gray, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., etc. 

(Mammalia, PI. LXXXI.) 

Buffon, in his ' Histoire Naturelle,' gives three figures of the 
aninials of tliis genus ; they are uot easily recognized ; and, aecording 
to M. I. Geoffroy, he is said to have figured one species and to have 
taken his description from another (see Cat. Method. p. r>b). 

M. Geoffroy the elder, in his ' Tableau des Quadrumanes,' pub- 
lished in 1812, noticed four species, viz. P. leucocephala, P. miri- 
cjuouina, P. rujiventer, and P. monachus. The specimens then in 
the coUection on which they were established vvere imperfect or 
young, and it has been found very diflBcult to assigu these names 
■with certainty to the specimens which have been receutly oollected. 

Dr. Kuhl, who took the trouble to examine the original specimens 
in the Paris Museum, and to study the species existing at that time, 
viz. 1820, after more carefully describing the specimens named by 
Geoffroy, and those received betvveen 1812 and 1820 by the Paris 
Museum, and also those in the Prince Maximilian's and Temminckian 
Museum at Leyden, added tvfo others to Geoffroy's list, viz. P. ruji- 
barbata, and P. ochrocephala (from a specimen in the Temminckian 
collection). M. Temminck, hovrever, has considered (and Fischer has 
followed his lead) that P. ochrocephala is the fcmale or young of P. 
leucocephala, and P. rufibarbata the šame as P. rujiventer of Geof- 
froy and Kuhl. ,1 think, from Dr. Kuhl's description, that his ac- 
count of the subaunulated hair may probably be correct, — the peculiar 
pointed form of the tail, which Dr. Kuhl says distinguishes it from all 
other Pithecice, being dependent on its having been kept in a mena- 
gerie. But the description of P. ochrocephala does not agree with 
any specimens of the genus I have seen. In the division of the hair 
on the forehead it agrees with P. chrysocephala of Isidore Geoffroy ; 
but then, that species, as far as I have seen, never has the upper side 
of the tail and the outside of the limbs chestnut-brown. Can it be a 
Callithrix 1 

I may here observe that the Pithecia minquouina — which both 
Geoffroy and Kuhl describe from one specimen, if not more, in the 
Paris Museum, and vvhich has been called Simia azara by Cuvier and 
Humboldt, and is referred by Dr. Kuhl to P. adusta of Uliger with 
doubt, and is evidently very distinct, aecording to these authors — has 



. Marouiajia.LiL/.y. i 




PiTHECTA A',"°,"': a;t,s 



M A N .Hanhart, ]Tnr 



229 

somehow droppped out of the modern vvorks. It is novvheie to be 
found in M. Isidore GeofFroy's Cntalogue of the American Monkeys 
now ia the Paris Collection. Whnt is, or was, it? 

Spix, in his large work on the Monkeys and Bats of Brazil, fignred 
and described three species as new, viz. : — 

1. P. hirsnta{^. 14. t. 9), which Fischer (Syn. Mamm.) arranged 
with the subgenus Chiropotes ; but it is evidently a true long-tailed 
Pithecia, and very probably P. monaehus. 

2. P. inusta (p. 15. t. 10 cJ), which Fischer considers as di- 
stinct, and I believe that it is most probably the P. chrysocephala of 
M. I. Geoffroy ; but the line in the centre of the forehead has beeu 
overlooked, if it exists ; otherwise it agrees with that animal pretty 
well. 

3. P. capillamentosa (p. 16. t. 11 $). Fischer considered this 
to be the šame as P. rufiventer of Geoffroy and Kuhl, vvhich appears 
very probable. But they are all so indistinctly figured and de- 
scribed, that it is very difficult to refer them with certainty to any 
of the described species. 

Some specimens of this genus having been obtained by the British 
Museum, I was induced, in the ' Zoology of the Voyage of H. M. S. 
Sulphur,' published in 1842, to describe and figure the three species 
then in the Collection, and to give as correct an account of their 
synonyms as the means at my disposal then allowed. This mušt 
now be corrected by the additional information respecting the original 
specimens given in the Catalogue of M. Isidore Geoffroy. 

In the ' Catalogue Methodique de la Collection des Mammiferes,' iti 
the Paris Museum, published in 1851 by M. Isidore Geoffroy Saint- 
Hilaire, he indicates five species of the long-tailed Pithecice, adding 
to the three species described by his father (viz. P. leucoeephala, 
P. rufiventer, and P. monaehus), P. chrysocephala and P. albinasa. 
The two latter he also describes at greater length in his paper on 
' New Primates,' in the fifth volume of the ' Archives du Museum,' 
giving a good figure of P. chrysocephala. 

I may here observe, that two of the species which I regarded as new 
in the 'Zoology of the Sulphur' — viz. P. poyonias and P. irrorata 
— appear, according to the account of M. Isidore Geoffroy, to have 
been previously described by his father, though M. Isidore Geoffroy 
does not refer to them in his synonyms. Again, that which I have 
considered to be the P. leucoeephala of his father is evidently the 
species which M. Isidore Geoffroy has described and figured as new, 
under the name of P. chrysocephala ; and here also he neglects to 
make the reference to the prior description and figure. 

We have in the British Museum thirteen specimens of this genus. 
They evidently belong to four very distinct species, of which three 
are those I described in the 'Zoology of the Voyage of II. M. S. Sul- 
phur,' and the fourth the new one now first noticcd, as far as I have 
been able to discover. 

The species may be dividcd into t\vo sections : — 



230 . 

I. The head and sides of the face covered tvith abundance of ad- 

pressed hair^ which is longer on the sides of the chin in front 
of the ears ; the forehead tvith a bald centrai longitudinal 
streak. 

1. PiTHECIA CHRYSOCEPHALA. 

Pithecia chrysocephala, I. Geoffroy, Compt. Rendus, xxxi. 1850, 
p. 875 ; Cat. Mamm. p. 55 ; Arch. du Mus. v. p. 557. t. 29. 

P. leucocephala, Gray, Zool. Sulphur, p. 12. t. 2 (head). 

P. imista, Spix, Bras. p. 15. t. 10 d • 

Hab. Brazil? 

The character which Dr. Kuhl gives of the longitudinal line on the 
forehead and the short yellow hair on the head of his P. ochroce- 
phala, which he deseribed from a species in the Temminckian CoUec- 
tion, makes me think that species mušt be very nearly allied to P. 
chrysocephala ; but it differs from it in the upper side of the tail 
and outcr side of the limbs being chestnut : could this have arisen 
from the specimen having been in confinement ? 

II. The head covered toith hair directed forioards ; the face with 

distant hairs, rather divergent from the centre on the fore- 
head, and more abundant, forming a kind of moustache on each 
side of the nosein front of the eyes ; all more or less deciduous 
on the older specimens, which often have a bald face ; fore- 
head toithout any distinct naked centrai line. 

2. P. MONACHUS. 

P. monachus, Geoff. & Kuhl, Beitr. p. 45 ; from a very young 
specimen in a bad statė. 

P. irrorata, Gray, Zool. Sulphur, p. 14. t. 3, adult. 

P. hirsuta, Spisl[ Bras. p. 14. t. 9. 

Black : hair elongate, with elongated white tips ; hair of the head 
rather elongated. 

Adult. — Face nearly bald, /. c. t. 3. 

Young. — Face hairy, black, with white moustache in front of the 
eyes and side of the chin, 

Hab. Rio Negro. 

3. P. RUFIVENTRIS. 

P. rufiventer, Geoff. 1. c. 

P. pogonia, Gray, Ann. aud Mag. N. H. 1842, p. 256 ; Zool. 
Sulphur, p. 13. t. . 

P. capillamentosa, Spix, Bras. t. 11. 

Saki, Buffon. 

Black : the hair elongate, with a subterminal yellowish ring with 
a Tery short slender blackish tip beyond it ; hair of the head mode- 
rately elongated ; moustache bright yellow, verj- distinct, but formed 
of short adpressed hair ; chest and belly reddish ; face blackish. 

Hab. Brazil. 



Proc,Z.S.ReptiliaX('.V 




{^' 



'H 



K 



^'..^ l\ 



G,E l'ord 




Geoclemmvs .Timul.ii 



231 

The four species in the Museum, of different ages, from yoving to 
adult, scarcely vary from one another. 

4. P. ALBICANS. (PI. LXXXI.) 

Hair very long and loose ; that of the head, neck, and upper part 
of the thighs whitish ; that of the shoulders, back, sides, tail, and 
fore legs black, with short white tips ; oii the hind legs, sides of the 
neck, inside of limbs, chest and belly, reddish. The hair of the 
head very long, covering a great part of the face. 

Toung. — Hair of the head, neck, and shoulders very long (longer 
than in the adult), blackish near the roots, and on the under side of 
the body rather more rufous ; the moustaches more distinct. 

Hah. Brazil; Upper Amazon (Mr. £a^e«). 

The followiiig species appear to be distinct from the above : — 

1. Pithecia leucocephala, Geoffroy ; Kuhl, Beitr, p. 45, which 
the latter says is well figured as the Yarque by Audebert (Singes, 6. 
sect. 1 . f. 2), and which he describes thus : — " Nigra ; capite albo ; 
omnibus pilis corporis unicoloribus longissimis, caudalibus prsesertim, 
capitis autem albis brevibus." 

The young malė, adds M. I. Geoffroy, " differe de l'adulte par le 
ventre d'un brun roussatre, le pelage tiquet^ sur les parties laterales, 
et surtout par la tėte revėtue de poil en partie noir. Chez les 
adultes les poils de la tėte sont entierement d'un blanc lav^ de jaune, 
qui passe au jaune sur les joues." 

2. P. albinosą, Geoff. Cat. Mamm. p. 56 ; Arch. du Mus. v. 559. 

•* Espece distincte des le premier aspect, par son nez couvert de 
poil ras, dont la blancheur contraste avec le reste de la face et tout le 
pelage, qui sont d'un noir profond." 

Hab. Para, Brazil. 



6. Description of a New Species of Geoclemmys from 
EcuADOR. By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., etc. 

(Reptilia, PI. XXIX.) 

Mr. Cuming has lately sent to the Museum two shells of a species 
of Freshwater Tortoise, and a younger specimen, in spirits, of the 
šame animal, obtained by Mr. Fraser at Esmeraldas, on the western 
coast of Ecuador. 

Geoclemmys annulata. (PI. XXIX.) 

Shell oblong, subquadrangular, black, slightly and irregularly 
varied with yellow ; the vertebral platės square, almost as long as 
broad, with a compressed flat-topped anterior keel, highest on the 
fourth vertebral plate, which is narrower behind ; margin sub-entire, 
with a triangular yellow spot on the under side of each plate ; nuchal 



232 

plate distinct ; sternum flat, rouuded on the sides, black, with a 
broad yellow band, forming a ring round the margin. 

Hab. Esmeraldas, Ecuador. 

The adult shell has much the external appearance of a Land 
Tortoise of the genus Testudo, but it has the divided caudal plate of 
the EmydcB. The nuclei of the vertebral platės are posterior and 
subtnarginal ; those of the costal platės are placed in the upper hinder 
angle ; the homy shields of these platės are concentrically grooved. 
The sternum is flat, rather suddenly bent up and truncated in front, 
and slightly curved, and with a deep triangular notch behind : the 
broad yellow ring on this part gives it a very distinct appearance. 

The young specimen, with the animal preserved in spirits, is 
black likę the adult, but the back is much lower and rather concave 
in the middle, with a very strong, yellow, rounded keel. The hinder 
margin is slightly, and the front lateral margin is strongly, turned 
up at the edge. The head is rather small and black, the crown, the 
temple, and the neck being varied with broad white streaks or spots. 
The limbs are black, with a few broad white streaks and some white 
spots. The front of the fore legs is covered with cross rows of 
large scales ; the soles of the feet with larger scales ; the ręst of the 
legs is covered with small granular scales ; the hinder edge of the fore 
feet vnth three or four acute shields ; the outer edge of the hind feet, 
marking the rudimentary outer hind toe, is edged with larger shields. 
Toes 5-4, short, thick, conical, only very slightly webbed at the 
base, and covered above and on the sides with three series of rather 
large shields. Tail short, conical, with r ings of small black scales. 



7. Description of a New Species of Emys lately living in 

THE GaRDENS of THE ZoOLOGICAL SoCIETY. By Dr. J. 

E. Gray, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., etc. 

(Reptilia, PI. XXX.) 

The British Museum has lately received from the Zoological So- 
ciety a specimen of an Emys which has recently died in the Gardens. 
It is believed to have been one of five specimens brought from Egypt 
by C. "VV. Domville, Esq., in 1852 ; but this is not certain. It is 
quite distinct from any which have hitherto come under my obser- 
vatiou. 

Emys fuliginosus, (PI. XXX.) 

Depressed, flexible, black. Shields convex, rather irregular, with 
deep, irregular, subconcentric grooves of unequal depression. Under- 
side black, with white blotches on the front margin of the sternum 
and on the inner edge of the centrai marginai platės near the sterno- 
costal suture, and a small irregular white blotch on the middle of the 
under side of the front marginai platės. Head rather depressed ; 
crown covered vvith a continuous, smooth, rather horny skin. Jaws 
mottled with sinuous white lines or spots ; sides of the neck with 








co 

O 
O 
D 

CO 



M 



^:^ni7i75^ 



'^^'?.Au H\sS:^ 



Proc. z. S'. fiscesX. 





G-EFord. 



A. PIMELODUS CINERASCENS. Gtkr. 

B ELONGATUS. Gtkr. 

C MODESTUS. 'Gdir. 



"WWe&,I 



233 

narrow white lines ; the chin and throat mottled with broader white 
streaks, often interrupted or coalescing, or short and sinuous ; the 
temple with a distinct round white spot, with two or three small white 
dots in front of it ; the tympanum with a centrai white spot, and 
edged with a white streak in front. Legs and feet black ; the front 
of the fore legs varied with white irregular streaks or spots, espe- 
cially on the inner side, and with a white streak down the centre of 
the upper side of each toe. Toes distinctly webbed ; claws rather 
elongate, curved, acute, black, with pale edges ; the toes with a single 
centrai series of larger scales above. Fore legs with four large 
conical scales on the outer part of the npper side, and with a cross 
series of three square scales on the under side of the wrist. The 
hind legs and feet covered with equal, small triangular scales. Tail 
conical, black, with two transverse streaks before the vent. 
Hab. North Africa ? 



8. Third List of Cold-blooded Vertebrata collected by 
Mr. Fraser in Ecuador. By Dr. Albert Gunther. 

(Pisces, PI. X.) 

The third coUection of Reptiles and Fishes sent by Mr. Fraser 
contains specimens from Guayaąuil and from Esmeraldas. Severai of 
the species are new ; these are marked with an asterisk ; others have 
been described in the formėr accountsf . 

1. S;peciesfrom Guayaąuil. 

1. Anolis fraseri, Gthr. 

2. Cnemidophoms undulatus, Wiegra. 

3. *Typhlops, n. sp. (a single very young speciraen). 

4. Dryophis (^Coluber) acuminatus, Wied. 

5. *Eleotris, n. sp.J 

6. *Pimelodus cinerascens, Gthr. 

7. Macrodon tareiray Cuv. & Vai. 

2. Species from Esmeraldas, 

1 . *Geoclemmys annulata, Gray. 

2. Ameiva sex-scutata, Gthr. 

3. Basiliscus seemanni, Gray. 

4. Iguana tuberculata, Laur. 

5. Anolis fraseri, Gthr. 

6. Camilia jamaicensis, Gray. 

7. Boa constrictor, L. 

8. *Coryphodon rhombifer, Gthr. 

9. Herpetodryas brunneus, Gthr. 
10. Bufo agua, Latr. 

t Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, pp. 89, 402. 

į The new species of the Gobioidei will be described in my ' Catalogue of Acan- 
thopterygyian Fishes.' 



234 

1 1 . Gobius, sp. 

1 2. Lembus maculatus, Gthr. 

13. Chromis rivulata, Gthr. 

14. *Pimelodus cinerascens, Gthr. 

15. *Pimelodus elongatus, Gthr. 
Ifi. *Pimelodus 7nodestu8, Gthr. 

17. Lebiasina bimaculata, Cuv. & Vai. 

18. *Brycon dentex, Gthr. 

19. Tetragonopterus rutilus, Jenyns. 

3. Descriptiona of the New Species, and additional Remarka on some 
others. 

Ameiva sex-scutata, Gthr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 402. 
Two very fine specimens, and larger than the former, are in tlie 
collection. We see by them that the frontai, parietal, and occi- 
pital shields lose their regular arrangement with age, and are replaced 
by many small, irregular, keeled shields. The bands become more 
iudistinct, though they are visible. In every other respect, especially 
in the number of the ventral platės, these specimens agree completely 
with that described anteh, page 402. 

incbes. lines. 

Length of the head 1 2 

of the trunk 3 4 

ofthetail 13 O 

Totai length 17 6 

Basiliscus seemanni (Craneosaura aeemanni, Gray in Voy. 
Herald, Zool. p. 148, pi. 25). 

Biagnosis. — The basai portion of the crest of the head swollen, 
its upper and posterior profiles rounded ; the crest along the back 
and tail low. Scales of the breast slightly keeled. The upper parts 
greenish or brownish ; the back with irregular brown or ferruginous 
cross-bands ; side of the body vrithout longitudinal band ; two white 
bands, the one from the angle of the mouth, the other from the chin, 
to the posterior extremity of the mandibula ; a black band between. 
Beneath uniforra white ; throat with a blackish streak on each side. 

Hab. Esmeraldas. 

Description. — I abstain from giving a detailed description of the 
general form and of the scales of this species, as Dr. Gray has given 
a very good figure of an old specimen, and as it is nearly allied to 
Basiliscus {Corythceolus) vittatus, from which, however, it may be 
readily distinguished by the occipital crest, which is rounded poste- 
riorly, and not angular, and by its different coloration. This sjteciea 
is herbivorous, as probably all the species o/" Basiliscus are. 

The series of the different ages and sexes being very complete, I 
will point out some remarkable chauges which this species under- 
goes : — 

1 . In a very young specimen — head and trunk 2 inches, tail 4 inches 
in length — the head is very short ; the occiput globular, without any 



235 

trace of a crest ; the dorsal and caudal crests are visible ; the poste- 
rior extremities are comparatively very long, extending far beyond 
the end of the snout, if laid forwards ; the toes are distinctly fringed. 
The bands on the back are blackish ; the streaks on the side of the 
head very distinct. 

2. A somewhat larger specimen— head and trunk 2^ inches, tail 
5į inches in length — agrees with the former in all the points men- 
tioned ; but the occiput is flatter, with a slight transverse swelling 
posteriorly, in the middle of which a feeble and short ridge indicates 
the development of the occipital crest. 

3. In a specimen of 1 1 inches in length— head and trunk 3 inches, 
tail 8 inches — the snout is more produced, and has the form of that 
of an adult ; the occiput is flat, produced posteriorly in a small com- 
pressed protuberance, vvhich is not elevated above the level of the 
crown ; the head, in this statė, resembles somewhat that of Chamą- 
leopsis. 

4. In a mature female— head and body 6 inches, tail 15 inches in 
length — the occiput is produced posteriorly into a flat protuberance 
provided with a low crest, about a line high along its middle ; the 
protuberance and the crest are covered with very small scales. The 
hinder extremities extend as far as the end of the snout. Dorsal and 
caudal crests very low. The head and the neck are ferruginous, 
with the lateral bands yellowish ; the ground-colour of the body and 
of the extremities is of a beautiful grass-green. A series of short red- 
dish-brown bands along the back ; the upper parts of the eztremities 
with cross-bands of the šame colour ; tail with alternate brown and 
green rings ; the lower parts yellowish. No pouch on the throat. 

5. In a mature malė— head and trunk 6 inches, tail 17 inches in 
length — the protuberance is swollen, elevated, and bears a thin, semi- 
circular crest, half an inch high ; the protuberance and crest are covered 
with polygonal shields ; the dorsal and caudal crests are rather low ; 
the hinder extremities extend as far as the end of the snout, if laid 
forwards. The ground-colour of the head and body is dark green ; 
the brown bands on the back are indistinct, those of the tail and the 
extremities clearly visible. A small pouch at the throat. The in- 
testines contained seeds of various plants. 

6. In an old malė— head and body 7 inches, tail 21 inches— the 
basai protuberance is very large, extending over the whole neck ; the 
thin part of the crest is semielliptical, covered with polygonal shields ; 
the scales, by vvhich the dorsal crest is formed, are about 1 line high. 
The ground-colour is greenish-brown, the markings being the šame 
as in the former specimen. 

Anolis fraseri, Gthr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 407. 

The species is represented by several varieties •with regard to the 
coloration. 

Var. a . Nearly uniform greyish- or brownish-olive ; tail with in- 
distinct brown rings. 

Var. /3. Body ferruginous, vdth broad, irregular brown bands 
across the back ; anterior part of the head yellowish, with a brovra 
band round the snout and another between the eyes ; extremities 



236 

light brown, marbled with darker ; joints yellowish ; tail browmsh- 
yellow. 

Var. y. A broad band along the back and the tail reddish-yellow; 
snout, a band betvreen the eyes, and symmetrical spots on the oc- 
ciput brown ; sides of the body and extremities Ught brown, marbled 
with darker shining golden. 

Hab. Ecuador; Guayaquil ; Esmeraldas. 

CORYPHODON RHOMBIFER, n. Sp. 

Biagnosis. — Scales keeled, in seveiiteen rows ; nine upper labial 
shields, the fourth, fifth, and sixth of which enter the orbit. Eye 
large. Brownish-grey : a series of rhombic ferruginous spots along 
the back, each spot having two of the four edges black ; belly whitish, 
marbled with blackish on the sides. 
Hab. Esmeraldas. 

Description. — The maxillary teeth become gradually longer poste- 
riorly. The head is of moderate size, broader behind ; the eye is 
large, its horizontai diameter being two-thirds of the length of the 
snout. Rostrai shield rounded ; the anterior frontais are rather more 
than one-half the size of the posterior ; the vertical five-sided, taper- 
ing behind, with the posterior sides very short ; the occipital shields 
are of moderate size, and diverge posteriorly, forming a rectangular 
notch. The nostril is wide, and situated almost entirely in the an- 
terior nasal. The loreal and anteorbital are large, and the latter 
does not extend on to the vertical ; two posterior orbitals. Three 
temporals, the two anterior of which are in coutact with the orbitals; 
the posterior is rhombic, and equal in size to the two others together. 
Nine upper labials, the fourth entering the angle of the orbit. The 
scales are keeled, in seventeen rows, the outer series being smooth. 
Ventral platės 165 ; anai bifid. (Tail mutilated.) 

The upper parts are brownish-grey ; a series of thirty-four rhombic 
ferruginous spots occupies the back of the trunk ; each spot has two 
opposite edges black ; the spots become more distinct posteriorly, and 
are continued on the tail. The sides of the belly are marbled with 
blackish, as in C. pantherinus. 

inches. lines. 

LeDgth of the head 1 4 

of the trunk 31 O 

of the tail (restored) H O 

Totai length 43 4 

Lembus maculatus, Gthr. Catal. Acanthopt. i. p. 505. 

Severai beautifully preserved specimens are in the collection. The 
fish has a prominent papilla near the vent, and is nearly allied to 
Phihjpnus. The blackish bands appear after the fish has been pre- 
served in spirits for some time. Ali the markings are beautifully red 
during life : the streaks radiating from the eye, the dots on the body 
and on the fins, those on the soft dorsal, anai, and caudal are inter- 
mixed vvith yellow ones. A red spot and, above it, a black one on 
the upper portion of the root of the pectoral. The caudal is cohvex. 

Hab. Fresh waters of Ecuador ; Esmeraldas. 



237 

PiMELODUS CINERASCENS, 11. Sp. (PI. X. fig. A.) 

B. 7. D. l/G. A. 4/9. V. 1/5. P. 1/9. 

The body is somewhat elongated, compressed posteriorly. Head 
broad, truiicated anteriorly, depressed, rather short ; its length is 
contained four times and three-fifths iti the totai length of the fish. 
The snout is short, one-third the length of the head, truncated, with 
the upper jaw slightly longer ; the distance betweeii the angles of the 
mouth is nearly one-half the length of the head. Six barbels : that 
of the maxillary reaches nearly to, or somewhat beyond, the base of 
the ventrals ; the exterior pair of the mandibulary barbels is not quite 
twice as long as the interior, and extends beyond the base of the 
pectorals ; the interior pair are inserted soniewhat before the outer 
ones, and more remote from each other than from the outer ones. 
The eye is distant from the snout two and a half of its diameters, and 
four from the extremity of the operculum ; the width of the inter- 
orbital space is contained twice and two-thirds in the length of the 
head. The head is covered superiorly with a thin, smooth skin ; 
the occipital process is rather short, hidden by the skin, and the 
notches on its side are moderately deep and semicircular. The lower 
margin of the operculum is straight, not notched. The depth of 
the body, takeu above the origin of the anai, is one-eighth of the 
totai length; that of the tail, before the caudal, one-thirteenth. 
The pectoral extends somewhat beyond the vertical from the origin 
of the dorsal ; its spine is stout, compressed, not much shorter than 
the soft rays, and its sharp outer edge is armed ■with recurved spines. 
The ventral, with a feeble spine, is inserted behind the dorsal, and 
does not extend to the origin of the anai. The distance of the dorsal 
from the head (concavity of the notch) equals the length of its base ; 
its spine is feeble ; the margin straight, rounded posteriorly. The 
adipose fin is very long, its distance from the dorsal and caudal 
being equal. Caudal deeply notched, with the lobes rounded, The 
length of the base of the anai eąuals its distance from the caudal ; 
the undivided rays are very feeble, and its margin is rounded. 

Above uniform greenish-grey, beneath white ; the outer parts of 
the vertical fins are blackish, and there is a blackish spot between 
the first and second dorsal rays. 

Hab. Fresh waters of Guayaquil and Esmeraldas. 

inches. lines. 

Totai length 7 6 

Length of the head 1 7 

of the snout. O 6 

Distance between the eyes O 7 

betvreen the angles of the mouth . . O 9 

Diameter of the eye O 2 J 

Height of the body above the anai O II 

of the tail O 7 

This species is distinguished from P. sebte by the position of the 
eyes, shorter maxillaTy barbel, &c. ; from P. j)€ntlandii by a non- 
emarginated operculum. 



238 

PiMELODUS ELONGATUS, n. Sp. (PI. X. fig. B.) 

B. 6. D. 1/6. A. 11. V. 1/5. P. 1/9. 

The body is elongated, compressed posteriorly ; head moderately 
broad and long, depressed, truncated anteriorly ; its length is con- 
tained six times and two-thirds in the totai length of the fish. The 
snout is rather produced, nearly one-half the length of the head, 
truncated, with the upper jaw longest. The distance between the 
angles of the mouth is nearly equal to the length of the snout. Six 
barbels : that of the maxillary reaches nearly to the extremity of the 
pectoral fin ; the exterior pair of the mandibulary barbels are two- 
thirds the length of the interior, and extend to the base of the pec- 
toral ; the interior pair are inserted somewhat before the outer ones, 
and rather more remote from each other than from the outer ones. 
The diameter of the eye is one-fourth of the length of the head, 
and uearer to the estremity of the operculum than to that of the 
snout. The width of the interorbital space is to the length of the 
head as 2 : 7. The head is covered superiorly with a very thin and 
smooth membrane ; the occipital process is long, and extends on to a 
small bony plate in front of the dorsal ; this plate is also covered 
with skin, likę the head. The lower edge of the operculum is straight; 
the spine of the humeral bone is very indistinctly striated. The 
depth of the body, taken below the origin of the dorsal, is one-eighth 
of the totai length ; that of the tail, before the caudal, one-sixteenth. 
The pectoral extends to below the middle of the dorsal fin ; its spine 
is shorter than the first rays, stout, compressed, with the interior 
edge spiny. The ventral has the first ray undivided, flexible ; it is 
inserted immediately behind the vertical from the dorsal, and does not 
extend on to the anai. The dorsal is higher than long ; the length 
of its base equals its distance from the head ; the spine is slender, 
stiff, pungent, pro^aded superiorly vrith a ray-like filament. The adi- 
pose fin is very long, its distance from the dorsal and caudal fins 
being nearly equal. Caudal deeply notched, with the lobes pointed ; 
the upper lobe is longer than the inferior, and its length is one- 
fifth of the totai. The length of the base of the anai is If in its 
distance from the caudal; its margiu is convex. Above uniform 
greyish, beneath whitish ; lateral line blackish ; dorsal and caudal 
minutely dotted with black. 

Hab. Fresh waters of Esmeraldas. 

inches. lines. 

Totai length , 6 8 

Length of the head 1 O 

of the snout O 5|- 

Distance between the eyes O ^^ 

between the angles of the mouth .... O 5^ 

Diameter of the eye O 3 

Height of the body O 10 

of the tail O 5 

of the first dorsal ray 1 1 

Length of the upper caudal lobe I 4 



239 

PiMELODUS MODESTUS, n. 6p. (PI. X. fig. C.) 

■ B. 6. D. 1/6. A. 4/8. V. 1/5. P. 1/8. 

The body is rather elongated, slightly compressed posteriorly ; head 
moderately broad and long, depressed, truncated anteriorly ; its 
length is contained five times and a half in the totai length of the 
fish. The snout is sotnewhat produced, broad, contained twice and 
three-fifths in the length of the head, truncated, with the upper jaw 
longest. The distance between the angles of the mouth is nearly 
equal to the length of the snout. Sis barbels : that of the raaxillary 
reaches to the origin of the anai ; the exterior pair of the mandibu- 
lary barbels are two-thirds the length of the interior, and extend to 
the middle of the pectoral fin ; the interior pair are inserted some- 
what before the outer ones, and rather more remote from each other 
than from the outer ones. The diameter of the eye is one-fourth of 
the length of the head, and equals the width of the interorbital 
space ; it is situated in the middle of the length of the head. The 
head is covered superiorly with a very thin and smooth skin ; the 
occipital process is long, and estends on to a triangular plate in front 
of the dorsal ; this plate is also covered with skin, likę the head. 
The lower edge of the operculura is straight ; the spine of the hu- 
meral bone very indistinctly striated. The depth of the body, taken 
below the origin of the dorsal, is one-seventh of the totai length ; 
that of the tail one-thirteenth. The pectoral extends on to below 
the middle of the dorsal fin ; its spine is not much shorter than the 
rays, stout, compressed, with the interior edge spiny. The ventral 
has the first ray imdivided, flexible ; it is inserted immediately be- 
hind the vertical from the dorsal, and does not extend on to the 
anai. The dorsal is somewhat higher than long, and has the upper 
profile convex ; the length of its base is nearly equal to its distance 
from the head ; the spine is slender, stifF, pungent, rough superiorly, 
and terminating in a ray- likę filament. The adipose fin is very long, 
its distance from the dorsal and caudal fins being nearly equal. 
Caudal deeply notched, veith the lobes pointed ; the upper lobe is 
longer than the inferior, and its length is 4| in the totai. The four 
anterior rays of the anai are short, flexible, undivided ; the margiu of 
the fin is convex, and the length of its base is 1| in its distance 
from the caudal. Above light greyish, beneath whitish. 
Hab. Fresh waters of Esmeraldas. 

inches. lines. 

Totallength 4 9 

Length of the head O \0^ 

of the snout O 4 

Distance between the eyes O 2\ 

Distance between the angles of the mouth . . O 4į 

Diameter of the eye O 2\ 

Height of the body O 8 

of the tail O 4^ 

of the second dorsal ray O 83^ 

Length of the upper caudal lobe 1 O 



240 

Lebiasina bimaculata, Cuv. & Vai. 

This species has, during life, a red spot on the third scale of the 
fourth longitudinal series. 

Brycon dentex, n. sp. 

D. 11. A. 35. V. 1/8. L.lat. 48. L. transv. 9/7. 

Intermasillary with four, maxillary with a single series of teeth ; 
a series of much stronger ones in the mandibula, and a pair of smaller 
teeth behind. The mandibulary teeth correspond to the posterior 
series in the upper jaw, the anterior series being free and not covered 
by the lower jaw. The height of the body is contained three times 
and three-fifths in the totai length, the length of the head five times 
and one-fifth. The interorbital space is slightly convex, and its 
width is one-third of the length of the head. The pectoral extends 
on to the posterior portion of the root of the ventral. The dorsal 
is as remote from the occiput as from the root of the caudal. Sil- 
very ; the lining membrane of the humeral arch and the margin of 
the anai blackish ; the other fins reddish. 
Hab. Fresh waters of Esmeraldas. 

inches. lines. 

Totai length 10 O 

Height of the body 2 8 

Length of the head 1 11 

Width of the space between the eyes O 8 



9. Description of Homalocranium laticeps, a new Snake 

FROM CaRTHAGENA. By Dr. AlBERT GiJNTHER. 

A Snake presented by Capt. Garth to the British Museum proves 
to belong to a new species. It was procured at Carthagena. 

Homalocranium laticeps. 

Biagnosis. — Scales in fifteen rows. Head broad, depressed as in 
Elaps. Seven upper labial shields, the third and fourth of which 
enter the orbit ; two posterior oculars. Above black, with about 
twenty-three narrow brownish-yellow rings, the first forming a collar ; 
belly brownish-yellow. 

Bescription. — This Snake much resembles an Elaps in general 
habit, but there is no fang anteriorly, and the lašt maxillary tooth is 
longer than the others, and appears to be grooved. The rostrai 
shield is rather low, triangular, and somewhat bent backwards on 
the upper surface of the head ; the anterior frontais are much broader 
than long, and only one-fourth of the size of the posterior ; the ver- 
tical is six-sided, not much longer than broad ; occipitals moderate. 
The nostril is between two shields, the anterior of which is the 
largest ; loreal none ; one anteorbital. Seven upper labial shields, 
the second of which is in immediate contact with the posterior frontai ; 
the third and fourth form the lower part of the orbit ; the fourth 
and fifth touch the lower postorbital; the sixth and seventh are 



241 

eąual in size. Two posterior oculars ; two temporals, one behind 
the other. The median lower labial is triangular ; six lower labials, 
the first pair forming a suture behind the median shield ; two pairs 
of chin-shields, the anterior pair being twice the size of the posterior ; 
there are four pairs of scales between the chin-shields and the first 
ventral. The scales are smooth, rhombic, in fifteen series. Ventral 
shields 1 72 ; anai bifid. The posterior ąuarter of the tail is muti- 
lated. The ground-colour of the upper parts is shining black ; the 
anterior part of the snout, a spot on the fifth upper labial, the rings 
of the body, and all the lower parts, are brownish-yellow. The rings, 
in this specimen, are one-fourth or one-fifth of the width of the 
black interspaces, and occupy two or three transverse series of scales ; 
they are sometimes irregular and interrupted ; all those on the tail 
are interrupted, the halves of one side alternating with those of the 
other ; the first ring forms a collar, crossed by a narrow black 
streak. 

inches. 

Length of the head 0^ 

of the trunk 17 

of the tail (restored) 4 



10. Description of a New Genus and Species of Mollusk. 
By h. Adams, F.L.S. 

Genus Acrilla, H. Adams. 

Testą turrita, imperforata ; anfraetibus numerosis, longitudina- 
liter costatis, ad basin prominente, spirali, ad sutiiras vix con- 
spicua lira munitis. Apertura ovalis, antice vix producta; peri- 
stomate imperfecto. Columella refiexa. Labrum simplex. 

Shell turreted, imperforate, many-whorled ; whorls longitudinally 
ribbed, the basai portion with a prominent spirai ridge, which is 
slightly visible at the suturės. Aperture oval, a little produced in 
front ; peristome incomplete. Columella reflexed. Outer lip simple. 

This genus, the type of which is Adis acuminata, H. and A. 
Adams (Scalaria acuminata, Sowerby), appears to belong to the 
family Scalariadce. It has somewhat the form of Turbonilla, from 
which, however, it differs in the nucleus not being sinistral. From 
Adis it may be distinguished by the whorls being longįtudinally in- 
stead of transversely ribbed, and from both genera still further by 
the spirai ridge on the lower portion of the whorls. Chemnitzia 
grandis, Ad. and Reeve, is a second species of Acrilla ; and I pro- 
ceed to describe a third, from the CoUection of Hugh Cuming, Esq., 
which is closely allied to A. acuminata, but is a much smaller and 
more slender shell, with the longitudinal ribs stronger and further 
apart. 

Acrilla gracilis, H. Adams. 

A. testą tenui, elongata, nitida, albida ; anfraetibus rotundatis, 
No. 432. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



242 

longitudinaliter valde costatis, i?iterstitns ItBvihus, costis ultra 

basalem liram extendentihus, anfractibus fasciis pallido-fuscis 

ornatis ; apertura longiore quam lata ; columella vix rejlexa ; 

labro tenui. 

Shell thin, elongated, shining, wliitish ; whorls rounded, strongly 

ribbed longitudinally, the interstices smooth, ribs continued beyoad 

tlie basai ridge, whorls ornamented with two pale-browQ baads ; 

aperture louger than wide ; columella slightly reflexed ; outer lip 

thin. 

Long. 8, lat. 2 lin. 

Hab. Mouth of the Indus. 



The following list of additions made to the ^lenagerie by girt and 
purchase, during the month of March, was read : — 



1 Entellus Monkey 

1 Vervet Monkey 

1 Bonnet Monkey 

1 Ursine Dasyure 

1 Indian Jackal 


\Presbytes entellus Į 

j Cercopithectis pygery(hrvjs\ 


-e 
■f- 


^Capt. Rayner Wallace. j 
Mrs. Sweetinan. i 
Miss Potter. 1 




L. C. Stephenson, Esq. 
Donor unknown. 
Mr. Nelson. 
John Dunn, Esq. 
Ditto. 






1 Piping Crow 

1 Butcher Bird 


.' Gj/mnorhina tibicen 

. ' Cracticus destructor 


1 Common Goat, fem 

2 Rliesus Monkeys 

2 Grey-headed Love Birds 

1 Japanese Bunting 

1 Curlew 

1 Cornelia's Eclectus 

1 Brazilian Maccaw 

1 pair of Siūews 

1 pair of Tufted Ducks 

1 Golden-eyed Duck 


■ Purchased. 




















.Dico tylės torguatus 


] Great Salamaoder 

1 Japanese Ha\vfinch 


. Coccot kraustės melanurus 


1 Ashy-headed Goose 

1 Lemon-breasted Toucan 


. i Bernicla poliocep/iata 

\Ramphastos vitellinus 


' 





Of these, Emberiza fiicata, Sieboldia maxima, and Coccothravstes 
melanurus were stated to be exhibited for the first time. 



The follovying list of additions made to the Menagerie by girt and 
purchase, during the month of April, was read : — 





Dicotyles torguatus 


■a 
" s ■ 


f"Mr. Chief Justine Tem- 
ple of Hondūras. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

M. T. Boswell, Esq. 

S. Pretor, Esq. 

S. Silva, Esq. 
^ Joseph Chapman, Es(|. 






Penelope purpurascens ... 

Gailus bankiva, var 

Calopsitta nova hoUandice 




1 Crested Ground-Parrakeet 




Cebus ? 


1 Bonnet Monkev 


Macacus radiatits 



243 



4 Indigo Buntings 

2 Balaeniceps 

1 Stump-tailed Lizard 

1 Comraon Agouti 

1 Coati-Mondi 

4 American Doves 

2 Red-winged Starliugs 

2 Nonpareils 

1 Common Gnu 

1 Young Lioness 




■ Purchased. 




Trachydosaurus rugosus,,J 




Chamcepelia passerina 






Felis leo ' 


1 Wryneck 




1 'Wanderoo Monkey 




1 Lory ». 

2 Lesser Weaver Birds 

3 Virginian Nightingales ... 
3 Turąuoisine Parrakeets ... 
1 Wheatear 


Lorius ffarrulus 


Hyphantornis 

Cardinalis virginiana 

Psephottis pulchellus 


1 Nuthatch 







Of these, Balcbniceps rex was stated to be exhibited for the first 
time. 



May 8, 1860. 



E. W. H. Holdsworth, Esq., F.L.S., in the Chair. 



The following papers were read : — 

1, On an apparently Ne-w Species of Paradise-Bird. 
By Wilham Good^vin. 

I beg permission to introduce to your notice a Bird of Paradise, 
which I beUeve to be either altogether unknown, or at least hitherto 
undescribed. 

I have interested myself for many years in this branch of Omi- 
thology, and possess in my owu coUection twenty-nine specimens, re- 
presenting all the different species known up to the present time, 
with the exception of Semioptera uoallacii. I have had opportunities 
of inspecting the fine coUections of these birds sent to England by 
that energetic and able naturaUst Mr. Wallace, and have searched 
in vain for any specimen similar to that which I have now the 
honour of introducing to the meeting. I therefore conclude it to 
be in all probability an entirely new and undescribed species. 

The bird now before you, which I believe to be the female, came 
into my possession about twenty years ago, together with another, 
which I have no doubt is the malė bird. This latter specimen is 
now in the British Museum. 



244 

I received them both from Mr. Bartlett, and we then agreed in 
considering them as a young malė and female of the Paradisea 
papuana ; but the numerous specimens which I have examined in 
the coUections of Mr. Wallace, consisting of malęs, females, and 
young of the latter bird, have now convmced me that they belong 
to an entirely distinct species. 

The malė (now in the British Museum) is smaller than the Para- 
disea papuana, the length from head to end of tail being about 
9 inches, bill lį- inch, wings from shoulder to tips barely 7^ inches, 
tail 5| inches. Feathers on the head and shoulders yellow ; back, 
tail, and wings dark chestnut-brown ; the coverts of the wings 
edged with yellovv ; the two centrai tail-feathers have naked shafts 
15 inches in length, terminating with elongated webs 3 inches long ; 
the throat has a small patch of golden green, which surrounds the 
base of the bill ; the lower parts, with the exception of a small patch 
of brown under the throat, white ; side feathers somewhat elongated 
and soft. 

Female : length from head to end of tail about 9 inches, bill 
IJ^ inch. Forehead, throat, sides and top of the head dark chocolate- 
brown, shading to a dingy yellow and cinnamon colour ; tail- coverts 
tinged with yellowish-brown ; tail cinnamon-brown, 4f inches long, 
the two middle feathers narrow, pointed and curved, 4į inches in 
length ; the whole of the under parts from the throat white ; side 
feathers soft ; legs and wings imperfect. 

Mr. Bartlett informed me that these birds came to England with 
other skins of Birds of Paradise, viz. the Clouded (P. magnifica), 
Golden-breasted (P. aurea), and the Ptilorhis magnijica. 

The locality was unknown to him, and is probably one vrhich Mr. 
Wallace has not yet \dsited. Sliould he continue his researches, he 
may yet be fortunate enough to meet with this species. 

In conclusion, I beg to propose that the bird now brought under 
your notice be named Paradisea bartlettii, in recognition of the 
valuable services rendered by Mr. Bartlett to the lovers of ornitho- 
logical science by his very careful researches and numerous observa- 
tions. 



2. Description of a New Species of Distichopora from 
New Caledonia. By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S. 

(Radiata, PI. XVII.) 

The British Museum has lately received several very fine speci- 
mens of a beautiful palmated Coral, belonging to the genus Disti- 
chopora, from the sea near New Caledonia. 

Distichopora coccinea, sp. nov. 

Coral bright crimson, much branched, compressed ; branches 
rather fan-shaped, expanded, placed on each side of the stem ; the 
sides of the branches rather compressed ; the main branches vvith a 



Proc.Z.SRadiatalVII 



G.ttFord 




VrVfestmę 



Distichopora c occizie b. Gra^ 



245 

subcentral series of sinall compressed tubercles, likę the commence- 
ment of new branches ; lateral pores narrow, cells small. 

Var. The upper surface of the stem with many short furcatc 
branches. 

Hab. Pacific Ocean, near New Caledonia, in deep water. 

This species differs from the only other recent species of the genus 
known,viz. D. violacea, not only in the beautiful bright crimson colour, 
but also in the form of the stem and branches, which in this coral 
is much more compressed, broader, and with shelving edges, giving 
it a rather sword-like appearance. The lateral grooves containing the 
cells are much narrovver, and the polypiferous cells much smaller. In 
one specimen the small oblong compressed tubercles on the middle 
of the upper side of the branches are produccd into simple, forked, 
or sometimes more subdivided short branches. The apices of the 
branches, which have been broken and reproduced, are whitish. 

The surface of many of the brauchlets, as in D. violacea, is more 
or less covered with more or less crowded, convex, circular elevations 
or slight tubercles, which appear to be hoUovv and blister-like, with 
rather thiek parietės. 



3. List of Mammalia collected by Mr. J. Monteiro in 
Angola. By Philip Lutley Sclater, M. A., Secretary 

TO THE SoCIETY. 

As so little is known of the Mammalsof Angola, I have thought that 
it might be worth while to record the names of a few species observed 
or collected there by Mr. J. Monteiro during bis recent residence at 
Bembe. Most of the specimens are flat (furriers') skins from the 
interior. They were obtained from the caravans that brought down 
ivory, and belong to animals which are natives of a district lying 
about 300 miles from the coast. 

1. COLOBUS ANGOLENSIS, Sp. UOV. 

Ater: humerorum utrinque pilis elongatis et caudce apice albis. 

Long. totą 240, caudse 240 poli. 

This Colobus is readily distinguishable from other West-Africau 
species by its black tail having only a white termination. Colobus 
guereza of Eastern A'frica has a somevvhat similar tail ; but the white 
extends ai] along the body, over the face, &c. The single skin sent is 
very imperfect, wanting the feet and face, but still affords sufficient 
indication of the distinctness of the species. 

Wagner, in his ' Supplemeut to Schreber's Siiugethiere ' (vol. v. 
p. 36), Pel in the 'Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde ' of Amsterdam (vol. i. 
p. 7), and other writers have, I think, rather hastily reduced the 
species of Black and \Vhite Colobi ; of which there appear to be at 
least five, recognizable as follows : — 

(1.) Colobus URSiNus. 

Colobus ursinus, Ogilbv, P. Z. S. 1835, p. 98 ; Frascr, Zool. Tvp. 
pl.l. 



246 

Ater : facie, mystacihus, et cauda totą albis. 

Hab. In Afr. occident., Sierra Leone. 

Mr. Ogilby's type-specimen of this species is now in the British 
Museum. It is probably the šame as Colobiis polycomos (founded on 
Pennant's FuU-bottom Monkey), but it appears decidedly distinct 
from the next following. 

(2.) COLOBUS VELLEROSUS. 

Semnopithecus vellerosus, Is. Geoffr. St.-Hil. Voy. de Belanger, 
Zool. (1830). 

Semnopithecus bicolor, Wesmael, Bull. Acad. Brux. ii. p. 237. 

Colobus leucomeros, Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1837, p. (59. 

Colobus vellerosus, Is. Geoffr. St.-Hil. Cat. des Mamm. p. 17. 

Atei' : fascia frontali, /acte, barba, mystacibus, natibus et cauda 
longissima albis. 

Hab. In Afr. occident., Gold-coast. 

Mus. Brit. 

Easily distinguishable from the former species by the distinct white 
frontai band, and the white thighs and buttocks. Two fine and per- 
fect examples are in the Gallery of the British Museum. 

(3.) Colobus angolensis. 

Ater : humerorum utringue pilis elongatis et caudee apice albis. 

Hab. In Angola. 

(4.) Colobus guereza. 

Colobus ffuereza, Rupp. Neue 'Wirbelth. p. 1. pi. 1. 

Ater : fascia circa faciem, gutture, prymtice lateruinque pilis 

longissimis, cnudaąue apicem versus albis. 
Hab. In Afr. orient., Abyssinia. 
Mus. Brit. 

(5.) Colobus satanas. 

Totus ater. 

Hab. In ins. Fernando Po. 

Mus. Brit. 

2. Cercopithecus melanogenys, Gray, P. Z. S. 1849, p. 7. 
pi. 9. f. 1. 

A flat skin of this species, which, as Mr. Moutciro informs us, ia 
very abundant at Encoge, two days' journey to the south of Bembe 
(see Mr. Monteiro's note, antea, p. 112). 

3. Felis neglecta, Gray, Ann. N. H. i. p. 2/. 

A flat skin, agreeing with Dr. Gray's type-specimen, which is also 
a flat skin, in the British Museum. 

4. Felis servalina, Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 94. 

A flat skin, agreeing with Mr. Ogilby's type-specimen, which is 
also a flat skin, now in the British Museum. 



247 

5. Nandinia binotata (Reiuve.). 
A flat skin. 

6. Genetta abyssinica, Riipp. Neue Wirbelth, p. 35. pi. 11. 
Aa example of this species was obtaiued alive and brought to 

England by Mr. Monteiro. 

7. Gknetta ? 

Flat skins of a second species, apparently a true Genetta, for which 
I am unable to find a name. 

8. Mus RATTUS, Linn. 

The Common Black Rat of Europe is, as Mr. Monteiro informs 
me, very abundant in the coast region of Angola. 

9. Manis tricuspis, Sund. 

Manis multi-scutata, Gray ; Fraser, Zool. Typ. pi. 28. 

Mr. Monteiro has furnished me with the following note on this 
Manis : — 

"Abundant around Bembe (130 miles inland, West Coast of 
Africa, lat. 7' 22" S.). Said by the natives, to whom it is well known 
there as well as on the coast, to cause considerable damage to the 
plantations, by grubbing up the Mandioca roots, ground-nuts, &c., 
very likely when in search of the ants and larvse said to constitute 
its food. The roots would very easily be exposed by this animal in 
the search for its food, as they are planted in hillocks of loose earth 
thrown up on the surface of the ground. 

" The animal from which this skin was obtained was kept alive in 
a tub, and fed on ants and larvse, for a fortnight, when it died, and 
the skin was sent to me. 

" Its death was very probably due to its having been injured by 
the negroes that captured it, — these having great fear of all animals 
and reptiles, and their first impulse being to give everything alive 
they may see a crack on the head with a stiek. 

" I have often seen the skins in the negro huts, as also in Loanda 
on the coast, the scales being esteemed by the natives as a ' fetish ' 
or charm." 



4. NOTES ON TwO StRUTHIOTJS BiRDS N0W LIVING IN THE 

Society's Gardens. By Philip Lutley Sclater, M. A., 
Secretary to the Society. 

At the lašt meeting of this Society I announced that we were ex- 
pecting to receive two additional examples of Struthious birds for 
the Menagerie, whieh I had reason to believe would prove to be 
distinct from any of the seveu then existing in it. I now have the 
pleasure of informing the meeting that these birds have arrived in 



248 

good healtli and condition, and that au accurate examination of them 
has convinced nie, as well, I believe, as every one who has paid them 
a visit, that they really belong to independent species. We are now 
therefore the fortunatė possessors of no less thau nine difFerent species 
of this important group, of which, until lately, but four were kaown 
to exist in the whole world in a recent statė. 

The newly arrived birds I allude to are examples of the Emeu 
of "VVestern Austraha {Dromeeus irroratus, Bartlett), and the Casso- 
wary with the throat-wattles divided and far apart, which I have 
proposed to designate Casuarius bkarunculatus. 




Fig. a. 

The Emeu of \Vestern Australia maj% as was pointed out by Mr. 
Bartlett, vvheu he first described it at a meeting of this Society in 
May 1859*, be easily distinguished from the well-kno\Tn Eastern 
bird by its spotted plumage. Ou comparing the feathers of the 
two species together, the mode in which this spottiug is produced is 
clearly apparent. The feathers of D. irroratus are barred alternately 
\vith silky wlute and darkish grey throughout their length, termiuatiiig 
in a black tip margincd posteriorly with rufous. Those of D. nova 

* See P.Z.S. 1859, p. 205. 



2-40 

hollandice are uniform blackish-grey from the base to the extre- 
mity, vvhich is black with a broad subterminal band of rufous. 
Ou coniparing the two living birds together, we find D. irroratus 
generally of a much more slender habit. The tarsi are longer 
and thinner, and the toes longer and much more slender. The 
taršai scutes are smaller. The irides are of a pale bazei, instead of 
a reddish brown as in D. novce hollandice. 

The example of D. irroratus in the Gardens of the Zoological 
Sciciety of Amsterdam was brought by a Dutch vessel from Albany, 
King George' s Sound. I have reason to believe that our specimen 




Fig. d. 

is from the šame locality. . As j\Ir. Bartlett's original skin of D. 
irroratus was obtaiued in the interior of Southern Australia, the 
range of this Emeu mušt be supposed to extend over the vvestern 
portion of Australia into the latter colony, where it probably inos- 
culates with D. novce hollandice *. 

With regard to the Casuarius bicarunculatus, I am unable at pre- 

* Two additional specimens of the Spotted Emeu (both immature) have since 
been received by the Society from S\van River. In this siage of phimage the 
bird is decidedlv daikcr than its near allv, D. none hoUandue. 



250 

sent to give any particulars concerning its true hahitat, though iu 
all probability it is the representative of the Coramon Cassovvary of 
Ceram (Casuarius galeatus) in one of the Molncca group or adjoin- 
ing islands. The specimen which we possess is still quite young. 
The casąue is uot developed. Except as regards the complete sepa- 
ratioii of the two neck-wattles, as indicated in the drawings now ex- 
hibited (woodcuts a and b, p. 248-9), where fig. a represents the 
front view of the fore-neck of the Common Cassowary, and fig. b the 
correspondiug part of the new species, this bird might well pass as a 
rather bright-coloured variety of the Casuarius galeatus. But I have 
Httle doubt that the bird, as it gi'ows older, will develope further 
differences, and that, when adult, it will be readily distinguishable 
by other characters from the common species. 



5. NOTES ON A COLLECTION OF BiRDS FROM THE ViCINITY OF 
OrIZABA and NEIGHBOURING PARTS OF SoUTHERN MeX1CO. 

By Philip Lutley Sclater, M. A., Secretary to the 

SOCIETY. 

(Avės, PI. CLXIII.) 

M. Aug. Salle has kindly submitted to my examination a series of 
birds collected by one of his correspondents priucipally in the vicinity 
of Orizaba and the neighbouring parts of the State of Vera Cruz, con- 
cerning which I beg leave to offer the foUovving remarks to the So- 
ciety, in continuation of my former papers on Mexican Ornithology. 

1. TuRDUs piNicoLA, Sclatcr, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 334. 

One example ; a malė. Since I described this species from M. de 
Oca's specimens, I have seen an example in the Bremen Museum. 

2. MiMUS ? 

A single skin of a true Mocking-bird seems to indicate the existence 
of a second species nearly allied to M. polyglottus in Vera Cruz. 
The size is snialler, the colouring above rather paler, and the external 
rectrix has the outer vreb black tovvards the extremity. Before esta- 
bhshing the species, I should wish to see further specimens. 

3. Regtjlus SATRAPĄ, Licht. 
In full plumage. 

4. Dendrceca atjduboni (Townsh.). 
In complete plumage. 

5. Basiletjterus delattrii, Bp. Compt. Rend. xxx\iii, p. 383; 
Notės Orn. p. 63. 

Nearly allied to B. rufifrons (Sw.), which is common in Mexican 



Proc.Z.SAvesCLXI[l 




COCCOTHRAUSTES MACULIPENNIS 



251 

collectious, but easily distinguishablę by the brighter yellow of tlie 
under-parts being prolonged over the belly, and the back being 
olive-green and not brown. The beak of the preseut bird is also 
stouter and the tail longer ; but the form otherwise agrees with that 
of £. rufi/rons. 

The New-Granadian bird which I referred to B. delattrii in tny 
list of Bogotau birds is clearly a distinct species again, distinguishablę 
by its longer wings and the fuller yellow of the body beneath, which 
passes into olive on the sides. I now call this Basileuterus meso- 
chrysus. 

M. Salle's specimen of B. delattrii is labelled ' Uvero : iris brown,' 
and is the only example I have y et seen of this bird. 

6. ViREO FLAVIFRONS (Vicill.). 

In fine plumage. Goes as far south as Guatemala. See 'Ibis,' 
1859, p. 12. 

7. Plectrophanes melanomus, Baird, Rep. p. 436. 

Two specimens, which, with another Mexican bird in my posses- 
siou from M. de Saussure's collection, seem to agree \Tith Prof. Baird's 
characters of P. melanomus. This is the extreme southem point 
that has yet been recorded for a species of this genus. 

8. COCCOTHRAUSTES MACULIPENNIS, Sp. nOV. (PI. CLXIII. 

fig. 1, c?; fig. 2, ?.) 

(S . Flavicanti-olivaceus ; pileo alis et cauda nigris, speculo alari 

et rectricum lateralium macula terminali in pogonio interno 

albis ; secundariis dorso proximis grisescenti-albis : subtus 

pallide ochraeeus, flavicante indutus, crisso albo. 

$ . Brunnescetiti-grisea, pileo brunneo, caudce tectricibus superio- 

rihus albo maculatis : subtus nonjlavescens. 
Long. totą 6*5, alae 40, caudse 2"6. 
Hab. In Mexico merid. orient. 
Mus. P. L. S. et Brit. 

This beautiful Grosbeak forms the third American species of the 
group. It is easily distinguishablę from C. vespertinus and C. 
abeillii by its black cap, white wing-bar, and the white markings on 
the outer tail-feathers. The general stnicture is that of C. vesper- 
tinus ; the three first remiges are nearly of equal length. The bird 
described by Prince Bonaparte (Consp. i. p. 505) as the young of 
C. vespertinus was doubtless of this species, and there is a specimeu 
of it in immature plumage in the British Museum. 

9. CoccoTHRAUSTES VESPERTINUS (Coopcr) : Baird, Rep. p. 409. 
• I did not expect to find this "Western bird ranging so far south- 

wards. 

10. ICTERUS PARISORUM, Bp. 

Three examples, all in immature plumage. 



25-2 

11. IcTERus ABEiLLii, Lcss^ Rcv. Zool. 1839, p. 101. 

An excellent species, allied to Icterus bullockii, but quite distinct. 

12. MOLOTHRUS PECORIS (Gltl.). 

Au undoubted specimea of this species. 

13. Cyanocitta diademata, Bp. Consp. p. 377. 
Two examp]es agreeing witli Bonaparte' s description. 

14. CoRvus CARNivoRus, Bartram : Baird, Rep. p. 558. 

A true Raven, very much resembling tlie European bird, which 
mušt be referred to C. carnivorus as distinguished by Prof. Baird, if 
that species is really distinct from C. corax. 

15. PicoLAPTEs LiNEATiCEPS, Lafr. Rev. Zool. 1850, p. 277. 

I have a second specimen of this bird in my owu possession, also 
from a collection made near Orizaba. M. de Lafresnaye was not 
acquainted with the true locality of this species, vvhich makes a third 
Mexican bird of the genus, the others being P. affinis and P. leuco- 
gaster. 

16. Thamnophilus melanocrissls. 

ThamnophUus melanurus, mihi, P. Z. S. 1857, p. 203. 

A female. This Thamnophilus, as I have lately ascertained from 
exannnation of Mr. Salvin's Guatenialan specimens, differs from the 
true T. »2e/flrHMr!<5of New. Granada in having the crissum black, and 
I therefore propose to call it T. melanocrissus. 

17. CoTiNGA amarilis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 64. pi. 123. 

One female example, which shows that this Cotinga rangės further 
northwards than has hitherto been supposed. 

18. Ceryle alcyon (L.). 
Severai esamples. 

19. MOMOTUS MEXICANUS, Sw. 

Two specimens of this species transmitted are of smaller size than 
the third, but do not appear otherwise different. 

20. CoccYZUS AMERICANUS (Liun.). 

21. CoccYZUs erythrophthalmus (Wils.). 

The collection contains undoubted examples of both of these 
northern species. 

22. Centurus flaviventris, S\v. 

\ female of this species, as described by Baird (Report, p. 110). 



253 

23. Chrysotis guatemal^, Sclater, Ibis, 1860, p. 44. 
A perfect example of this Parrot, as described /. c. 

24. Spizaetus tyrannus (Max.). 

Good adult specimens of both sexes of this species — the first I have 
seen from so far north. 

25. BUTEOGALLUS NIGRICOLLIS (Lath.). 

Already noticed as far north as Guatemala (Ibis, 1859, p. 216). 

26. BuTEO ALBONOTATTjs, Kaup, Isis, 1847, p. 399. 
Three examples of this bird in various statės of plumage. 

27. BUBO VIRGINIANUS (Gm.). 

28. Crax globicera, Linn. 

The Mexican and Central American Curassow appears to be the 
Crax globicera, and not, as I have hitherto considered it, Ci-ax alector . 
In the latter bird the sexes are nearly aUke. In the Crax globicera, 
as may be seen from M. Salle's specimens and from Hving examples 
now in the Zoological Society's Gardens, the female is brown. 

29. TiNAMTJS ROBUSTUS, Sp. nOT. 

Tiriamus major, Moore, P.Z.S. 1859, p. 63 ; Sclater & Salvin, Ibis, 
1859, p. 226. 

M. Salle's present series contains two excellent examples of this 
large Tinaraou of Mexico and Central America. As I had antici- 
pated (P. Z. S. 1859, p. 63), it presents differences from T. major of 
Brazil, such as render a new specific name necessary, and I propose 
shortly to describe it under the above title. 

30. Herodias egretta (Gm.). 
Already noticed in Guatemala. 

31. Demiegretta ludoviciana (Wils.) : Baird, Rep. p. 6C3. 
One immature specimen. 

32. Florida c^rulea (Linn.). 

33. TiGRISOMA TIGRINUM (Gm.). 

34. Nycticorax violaceus (Gm.). 

35. Tantalus loculator, Linn. 

36. Tringa wil30ni, Nnttall. 

37. Symphemia semipalmata (Gm.) : Baird, Rep. p. "29. 

38. ACTITURUS BARTRAMIUS (Wils.). 

39. Gambetta melanoleuca (Gm.). 



254 

40. Tringo'ides macularius (Linn.). 

41. Rh^acophilus solitarius (Wils.). 

42. Erismatura dominica (Linn.). 

43. QuERaUEDULA CAROLINENSIS (Gm.). 

44. QuERQUEDTjLA DiscoRS (Linn.). 



6. On THE Structure, Relative Size, and Use of THE Tail- 
Glands in Birds. By Ed-wards Crisp, M. D., F.Z.S., etc. 

It is strange that all (as far as I know) who have written upon 
these glands speak of one gland only ; but, as I shall show hereafter, 
there are two distinct glands, from each of which proceeds a duct or 
canal for the conveyance of the matter secreted ; and it vvould not 
be more incorrect to speak of the lungs or of the kidueys of a bird 
in the singular number than to describe the oil-glands as one gland. 

As the heading of my paper statės, my first endeavour will be to 
describe the structure of these glands, and then I shall pass on to 
consider their use. 

The only English writers that I am acquainted with who have 
written generally upon the anatomy of birds are Professor Owen 
(article "Avės" in the ' Cyclopsedia of Anatomy and Physiology') 
and Mr. Macgillivray in his ' History of British I5irds, their Organi- 
zation, Habits, &c.' 

The first-named writer speaks of these glands, or rather of the 
gland, as follows : — 

" The unctuous fluid with which birds lubricate their feathers is 
secreted by a gland, which is situated above the coccyx or uropygium. 
This gland consists of two lateral moieties coujoined ; as might be 
expected, it is largest in the birds which frequeut the water. In the 
Swan it is 1^ inch in length, and has a centrai cavity which serves 
as a receptacle for the accumulated secretion ; but this cavity has 
not been observed in other species. Each lateral portion is of a py- 
riform shape, and they are conjoined at the apices, which are directed 
backwards, and are perforated by numerous orifices. The longitu- 
dinal centrai cavities also present internally numerous angular open- 
ings in which there are still smaller orifices. The surrounding glan- 
dular substance consists of close-set, almost parallel, straight tubes, 
and is not irregularly cellular. The tubercles estend to the super- 
ficies of the gland without ramifying or intercommunicating, and 
preserve an equable diameter to their blind extremities. The tu- 
bercles are longest at the thickest part of the gland, and become 
shorter and shorter towards the apex." 

It will be seen presently that my description of these glands differs 
materially from that given by Professor Owen. 

Mr. Macgillivray, in the wark alluded to (vol. i. p. 44), says, — 
"These feathers have their basis suj)ported by the lašt coccygeal 



255 

bonė,. and firmly bound together by a strong ligamentons band com- 
posed of interlaced fibres. On its upper surface rests the uropygial 
gland, celebrated by the field- and closet-naturalists, being oue of the 
few pomts of the structure of a bird accessible to them, and contain- 
ing a quantity of oily matter mixed with an aqueous fluid, while on 
its lower surface is a layer of cellular tissue containing a similar sub- 
stance. Both are apparently destined for nourishuig the feathers, or 
at least are connected with their growth. I have observed that at 
the period of moulting, and especially when the tail-quills are grow- 
ing, they are very highly developed, and, as is well known, sorae- 
times inflame and suppurate in domestic birds ; whereas in birds in 
vvhich the moult has been completed, I have generally found them 
greatly diminished, and frequently entirely shrunk. This fact, ana- 
logous to that of the periodical enlargement of the testicles in birds, 
affords a key to the knowledge of the nature and use of the uropy- 
gial gland which has hitherto eluded the sagacity of physiologists ; 
for the application of the oil contaiued in it by the bill is certainly 
fanciful." 

I mušt express my surprise that such an accurate observer as the 
late Mr. Macgillivray should have confounded these glands with the 
cushiou of fat in which the ends of the tail-feathers are imbedded : 
there is no resemblance in the structure of these bodies, and the use 
of the microscope ■would have decided the point at once. 

I have not observed that the tail-glands are larger at the time of 
moulting, although it is not unlikely, in consequence of a greater 
quantity of blood being distributed to the roots of the tail-feathers, 
that there may be a slight increase of bulk at this period, more espe- 
cially on the fatty portion of the tail. 

Montagu, Fleming, Bewick, Jenyns, Yarrell, and other writers on 
British Birds, I believe, do not mention these glands. I have not 
had time to consult foreign authors, but I assume that if any of these 
had described two glands, the circumstance would have been men- 
tioned by some English vrriters. 

It may be well to speak of the caudal appendage, or rather of its 
motor apparatus, before I proceed to the anatomical description of 
these organs. The tail of most birds, as is well known, is very move- 
able, and consequently requires povi^erful museles to effect this mobi- 
lity. In the Peacock, and other gallinaceous birds with large tails, 
the rump-muscles are much developed, whilst in birds vvith small 
tails they are generally much diminished in size. The tail of a bird 
can be depressed, elevated, moved in a lateral direction, or the fea- 
thers can be spread out or contracted at the will of the animal. I 
need not describe minutely the origin and insertion of these museles; 
it will be sufficierit to indicate their general bearing. The elevator 
musele {levator coccygis) — a strong, powerful musele in many birds 
— arises from the sacrum, from the bodies and sides of the coccygeal 
vertebrse, and is inserted into the spinous processes of these vertebrse, 
and into the base and spinous process of the lašt vertebra. These 
museles not only raiše the tail, but when one acts, it movės it laterally, 

The antagonist to this musele is the depressor of the tail {depressor 



256 

coccygiš), arising chiefly from the inferior and posterior part of the 
pelvis, from the bodies of the coccygeal vertebrse, and inserted 
into their inferior spinous processes, and into the base of the lašt 
vertebra. The action of this musele, siugle and double, is the reverse 
of the last-named. The ąuadratus coccygiš arises from the lateral 
portions of the coccygeal vertebrse, and passes in a somewhat curved 
direction over the fatty prominence of the base of the tail, and is in- 
serted into the fascia below the tail, and into that enveloping the base 
of the tail-quills ; it serves to spread and partly to raiše the tail- 
quills. 

The ischio-coccygeus arises from the ischium and lateral parts of 
the anterior coccygeal vertebra, and is inserted into the lašt vertebra 
and into the tail-fascia. It lowers the tail and movės it laterally. 

The pubi-coccygeus, on the under surface of the tail, arises from 
the posterior parts of the pubis and ischium, and is inserted into the 
fascia of the ąuills. It acts by spreading the quills and by moving 
the tail laterally. 

I have followed nearly the deseription of these museles as given 
by Mr. Macgillivray, Professor Owen, and others. I could make 
many variations in the account when speaking of them in different 
birds, but this digression would be foreign to the object of my paper. 
I mušt, however, allude to two omissions made by these authors, 
vvhich are important, I think, in relation to the function of the 
organs. 

In many birds a portion of the elevators of the tail is inserted into 
the base of the glands, so that when these museles contract, they 
favour the escape of the secretion. But in other birds, the IMoor 
Hen for example, a distinct pair of museles is spread upon the pos- 
terior and inner portions of the glands, vvhich they serve to compress, 
and thus assist in the ejection of their contents ; they also help to 
elevate the tail. 

I refrain from naming these museles at present, as a long series of 
dlssections vcill be required before the matter can be properly deter- 
mined, and the variations of these museles accurately described. 

The above account may by some be thought unnecessarily prolix ; 
but I believe these museles have an important bearing upon the use 
of the glands in question, serving by their action greatly to faciUtate 
the passage of the oleaginous secretion. 

Form of the tail-glands. — These glands are of a rounded, oblong, 
flask-like shape, and v^ould be vvell represented by the junction of 
two Florence flasks at their necks, their bases being somewhat vvidely 
separated. In all the figures now exhibited of the six orders of birds, 
as vvill be seen, there is a general resemblance in their form. In 
some of the smaller passerine birds, however, they are more rounded 
than in the larger species. 

Situation. — In the great majority of birds vvhich I have dissected, 
these glands have been found upon the levatores coccygiš, haviug the 
ąuadrato-coccygei and pubi-coccygei on the outer side, the posterior 
part of the spine of the lašt caudal vertebra, and the šame part of the 
tvFO or three anterior to this, between them. In some birds, in the 



257 

Palmipedes especially, where they are of larger size, tliey exteiid 
more forwarcls ; aud in many of the Accipitriiie birds tliey are placed 
more upou the fatty prominence which supports the cjuill-feathers. 
lu the Scolopacidce aud Columbidce they are seated betvveen the two 
centrai tail-feathers. 

Structure. — Externally the glaud is covered with a fibrous capsule, 
which is extremely vascular. I have failed at present to inject the 
interior of the glandular structure, nor have I succeeded in tracing 
nerves into it. In many birds, hovvever, when examined soou after 
death, the blood-vessels may be seeu running iu parallel hnes vvith 
the tubules, aud ramifying upou theni. The glauds are generally 
thinly covered with short supple feathers of a dovvny character, and 
their flask-hke necks are usually surmounted by a tuft of short soft 
feathers, varyiug greatly in uumber iu the different orders, but more 
abundaut iu the swimming birds. In the PelicanidcB these tufts are 
very large, and \vill hold a great quautity of oil. In other birds, as 
in the Columbidce, the ducts are quite bare of feathers. 

In the centre of each nipple, vvhich is generally encircled by fea- 
thers, is a round, smooth, single orifice, through which a probe cau 
be readily iutroduced, and through which aperture the fluid coutents 
of the glauds, especially in the living birds, cau easily be squeezed 
out. The two glauds are closely united at their posterior part by 
dense fibrous tissue. The interual portion of the glaud cousists of 
elongated cylindrical glaudules or tubules, as described by Prof. 
Owen, which supply the secretion. They pass generally frora before 
backwards, takiug an oblique longitudinal directiou, and they termi- 
nate iu rounded extremities, haviug, I thiuk, a small centrai aperture ; 
but of this I speak with some amouut of hesitatiou. These tubules 
resemble somevvhat the proventricular glaudules. Iu some diseascd 
glands the coutents of the tubules are readily seeu under a low 
power, aud if immersed for some time iu sether, and then dried, they 
are more distiuctly visible. They all terraiuate iu what may be called 
the cavity of the glaud, a small space varyiug iu size in different 
birds, and generally partly filled with the fatty or oleaginous secre- 
tion, but sometimes found quite empty. In some birds thls por- 
tion of the glaud is iuterlaced \vith a netvvork of fibrous tissue, in 
wluch the scipretion is partly lodged. 

In young birds, as shown by the Thrushes on the table, the glands 
are small, semitransparent, gelatiuous, aud very vascular under a low 
povver, aud an abundaut netvvork of vessels is seeu to ramify on the 
surface ; the brush or tuft is indicated by a minute black speck, as 
are also the duct-orifices. I thiuk I have found the glands larger and 
more perfect at birth in feathered birds, as in the Duck and Plover ; 
but niy observations are not sufficiently uumerous to enable me to 
speak vvith certaiuty on this point. 

Nature of the secretion. — It varias much in cousisteuce, sometimes 
being thick and pap-like, aud at other times clear likę pure oil. It 
leaves a greasy stain upon blotting-paper, būrus after a time with 
a brisk flame, dissolves readily iu aether, aiad forms an oily, soapy 
compoimd vvith potash. Under the microscope it presents various 

No. 433. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



258 

appcarances, depending niuch upon tlie consistence of tlie matter ; 
when solid, cholesterine platės are often seen in it ; and when fluid, it 
has mueh tlie appearance of animal oil. 

Relative size. — I bave in numerous instances weighed the bird 
and tbe gland at the šame time, but I will select only a few exaiuples 
from the tables. Tbe birds were in tolerable condition, and many 
of them in a wild statė ; the word ahout mušt be used to all, as I 
have not included grains in vveigbing large birds for tbis purpose. 
Tbe relative proportion of tbe glands to tbe body was as follows in 
tbe subjoined list : — 

Peregrine Falcon. Faho peregrinus 1-2886 

Kestrel. F. tinnunculus 1-1980 

Long-eared Owl. St7-ix otus 1-1840 

Hooded Crow. Corvus cornix 1-788 

Starling. Sturnus vuJgaris 1-700 

Water-Ousel. Cinclus aąuaticus 1-560 

Green Woodpeeker. Picus viridis 1-1026 

Grey Parrot. Psittacus erythacus 1-3420 

Grey Partridge. Perdix cinerea 1-1401 

Red-legged Partridge. P. rufa 1-1 24 1 

Commou Pbeasant. Phasianus colchicus 1-2100 

Sand Grouse. Pterocles arenarivs 1-3080 

Wood Pigeon. Columba palumbus 1-6040 

Domestic Pigeon. C. livia 1-4850 

Brouze-w-inged Pigeon. C. chalcoptera 1-3066 

Crested Pigeon (Australia). Ocyphaps lophotes . 1-5504 

Land Rail. Gallimda crex 1-876 

Oyster-catcher. Hcematojnis ostralegus 1-2343 

Ruff. Tringa pugnax 1-1 960 

Black-tailed Godvvit. Li?nosa lapponica 1-2053 

Whimbrel. Numenius phceopus 1-1 750 

Curlew, N. arquata 1-1608 

Crested Grane. Grūs pavonina 1-21 12 

Black Swan. Cygnus atratus 1-792 

Tame Duok. Anas boschas 1-31 1 

Muscovy Duck. Cairina mosehata 1-296 

Pin-tail Duck. Anas acnta 1-526 

Sboveller. A. dypeata 1-438 

Teal. A. crecca 1-555 

Common Guli. Larus camis 1-364 

Herring Guli. L. fuscus. . . . , 1-563 

Toung Birds. 

Coot. i^M?/ca a^ra (half-grown) 1-245 

Rook. Corvus frugilegus 1-2346 

Tbrush. Turdus musicus (a few days old) .... 1-1320 

Use. — I scarcely need tell tbe members of tbe Society, that, even 
at the preseut time, much difference of opinion exists respecting the 



259 



use of these glands, probably tlie greater number of physiologists and 
ornithologists believing that the organs, as the name implies, are 
Jor tlie purpose of secreting an oleaginous fluid, with which the bird 
lubncates its feathers. Many, on the contrary, are of opinion that 
these glands do not serve for such a purpose, among the latter may 
be included many practical ornithologists ; I need only mention the 
name of Mr. Waterton, and it was in conseąuence of reading the 
tollowmg extract from his 'Essays on Natūrai History,' 1844, p. 130 
that my attention was specially directed to the subject; and durin* 
the lašt few years I have weighed these glands, and taken drawing1 
Hi^^^i^ ™^"^ ^^^^^' -^"^^^^ ^^^ foreign, that I have dissected. 
Mr. Waterton, among the reasons he gives for his belief that 
the glands m question are not used for the purpose of lubricating the 
feathers, says, m the work above referred to, "Again the oil-gland 
in most water-fowls is covered with a thiek tuft of down, not movė- 
able at pleasure ; this tuft would prove an insurmountable obstacle 
to the transfer of matter from the gland through the medium of the 
bill. lt for the purpose of lubricating the feathers, it vvould not 
have been granted by the Creator to one bird, and denied to another " 
Mr. Waterton goes on to mention a Kestrel struck down by lighV 
nmg, m which the orifice of the gland vras covered with a tuft of 
<iown which had the exact appearance of a camel-hair brush, which 
would eflfectually impede the transfer of oil from the gland to the 
biil. 

As I shall not have space to quote other authorities, I may as 
weil answer Mr. Waterton at once. As regards the absence of the 
glands, I suspect it is of very rare occurrence. I have never failed 
to fand them, except on one occasion in a young Ostrich, and here 
they may have escaped my notice. In others of the Struthionidce 
that 1 have exammed I omitted to look for them, my attention not 
havmg at that time been directed to the subject. If they are absent 
in any bird, a ready explanation, I believe, vrill be afforded by its 
pecuhar habits or locality. 

As for any impediment offered by the tuft of down to the egress 
ot the oil, lt is the most beautiful eontrivance to effect this very 
object that can be imagined ; as any one may determine by press- 
ing these glands m any of our poultry, especially in the ducks, when 
the tuft spoken of becomes saturated with oil, and serves as a kind 
of sponge, from which the bird with its beak, sometimes with its 
head, can obtam the fluid. To speak in a plain manner, every bird 
carries not only a grease-pot in its tail, but most of them have also a 
brush in addition to this appendage. 

But let any visitor to the Society's Gardens watch the Pelicans 
when they have had their bath ; the birds, after soaking their fea- 
thers, dry themselves by flapping their wings ; during this process 
the beak is frequently applied to thenipplesof the glands, vvhich, in 
this bird, are so large that they can readily be seen at some distance- 
the beak is then carried to various parts of the plumage, and the 
feathers are well-smoothed and oiled. The crown of the head, too is 
often placed upon the nipples, and in this manner otiier parts are 



260 

lubricated to a greater extent. The šame process may be witnesse(i 
in the Ducks and iii many other birds. As I have stated before, the 
coccygeal museles, I believe, greatly assist in propelling the oleagi- 
nous fluid from the ducts. The secretion, judging from the vascu- 
larity of the glands and from experiments I have made, is very abun- 
dant. During lašt summer, for the purpose of ascertaining the daily 
amount of secretion, I confined a duck and a lien in a coop, aud for 
some time every day I squeezed the glands and expressed a large 
quantity of thick yellow oil, the operation apparently tending to in- 
crease the quautity of the secreted fluid . 

I infer then that, looking especially to the structure of these glands, 
the character and quantity of their secretion, tbeir relative size in the 
Palmipedes especially, they serve for the purpose usually assigned to 
them, viz. that of supplying au oily fluid for lubricating the skin and 
feathers. 

I have not had time to speak of the morbid statės of thėse glands; 
but those organs are not unfrequently enlarged in domesticated birds, 
and the character of the secretion sometimes is much altered. On 
the table are the tail-glands of the Common Goose, an old bird, in 
which it will be seen that the cavities are fiUed with a hard waxy 
material. 

I hope at a future time to bring this matter before the Society, 
and to compare the structure of these glands with that of the anai 
glands of the Viverridce. 



May 22nd, 1860. 

Dr. J. E. Gray, V.P., in the Chair. 

Mr. Sclater exhibited a specimen of a new form of Dormouse 
{Platacanthomys lasiurus), lately described by Mr. Blyth* from the 
Malabar Coast, and presented to him by the describer. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. NoTES ON A Third Collection of Mammalia made by 
Mr. Fraser in the Republic of Ecūador. By Robert 

F. TOMES. 

1. Arctibeus perspicillatus, Geofi". sp. 

2. Arctibeus pusillus, Natt. sp. 

Fhyllostoma pusillum, Natt. Wagn. Weigm. Archiv. 1843, i. 366; 
Tschud. Faun. Peru. i. 63 ; Wagn. Supp. Schreb. v. p. 634. pi. 43. 

Severai specimens of this species appear iu the collection, and vrere, 
* Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vol. xxviii. p. 289. 



261 

I believe, collected on the coast of Ecuador, but no indication of 
their exact locality accompauies them. They are probably the first 
specimens received in this country, and accord accurately with the 
figure given by M. Wagner in the fifth volume of his Supplement to 
Schreiber's work on ' Mammaha.' 

3. NOCTILIO LEPORINUS, Lhin. sp. 

Of this species Mr. Fraser has forwarded several specimens, one 
of vvhich has the following highly interesting note attached : — • 
" Esmeraldas, Nov. 1859; skimming the bank of the river, every 
now and then making a dash along, and actually striking the water, 
catching the minute shrimps as they pass up stream. He had a 
very offensive fishy smell." 

This is the first recorded instance which I have met with of 
any species of Chiroptera being actually aąuatic in its habits. 
From the great resemblance which exists between the fur of the New 
Zealand Mystacina, and that of the Water Shrews, and indeed that 
of other mammalia with similar aquatic habits, I had long ago been 
led to suspect that that Bat might be aquatic in its mode of life, but 
I could never gather direct evidence on the subject. Certainly I 
little suspected that this Noctilio took its food in the manner noticed 
by Mr. Fraser. 

4. Embalonura canina, Pr. Max. sp. 
Three specimens only have come to hand. 

5. Vespertilio albescens, Geoff. 
V. ehilo'ėnsis, Waterh. 

The specimens which I refer to this species differ in a very trifling, 
though constant manner, from the specimens from which the de- 
scriptions of the V. albescens of M. Temminck and the V. ehilo'ėnsis 
of Mr. "Waterhouse have been taken. These are identical, as I have 
recently ascertained by an examination of the originals. 

The chief difference between them and Mr. Fraser's examples 
consists in the greater length and silkiness of the fur of the latter. 
At present I do not feel justified in describiug them as of a new 
species. 

6. Felis 1 

Resembles in size and proportions (including the shortness of its 
tail) Felis tigrina ; but its markings are very likę those of Felis 
macroura. The following note by Mr. Fraser informs us that it is 
young, and this being the case renders its Identification very difficult : 
" Killed on the banks of the Zamora River in January 1858. Young 
malė." 

7. Tafirus americanus, Gmel. 

T. suillus, Wagn. Supp. Schreib. iv. 294. 

A cranium which is ob^iously identical with several, labelled To- 
pinis americanus, in the British Museum. 



262 

8. DicoTYLES TORauATUs, Cuv. CoUarcd Peccary (?). 

A skull, with tlie followiiig note, has been received : — " Esmeral- 
das, Nov. 1859. Tatabara. This is a species of Collared Peccary 
(-D. torqnatus), having the coUar, but is a very difFereut colour in 
all otlier parts. It is more a solitary than giegarious animal ; vvhen 
hard pressed, retreats to its den, whieh is constnicted beneatb masses 
of dead viiies. Feeds ou palm-iiuts, and grubs iu tbe earth likę a 
pig." Mr. Fraser then goes ou to observe, that in couseąuence of a 
strange idea of the natives, that if seasouing were added to the meat, 
or the latter boiled in a pot with a lid to it, their dogs would become 
for evermore useless for the huut, they refused to allow hira any 
part of oue of these animals, excepting the skull, after they had done 
vvith it. 

Mr. Waterton, speaking of the Peccary of Demerara, says, 
" Three or four hundred of them herd together, and traverse the 
%vilds in all directions in quest of roots and fallen seeds." Mr. 
Fraser's note would seem to refer to quite a different animal from 
this. 

9. DicoTYLES ALBiROSTRis, 111. (?) " White-lipped Pcccary . " 
— Fraser, MS. Notės. 

D. labiatus, Schomb. Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 402. 

Of this species, obviously distinet from the lašt, a skull and ac- 
companying uote are the ouly indications. Mr. Fraser says, "White- 
lipped Peccary ; Xivarro name Uncl-paqui, — und mcaniug ' great,' 
and paqui the name of the Collared Peccary, which is found in 
Gualaąuiza." 

10. Tamandua tetradactyla, Linu. sp. 

Myrtnecophaga tetradactyla. Linu. Syst. Nat. xii. 
Tamandua tetradactyla, Less. 
Myrmecophuga bivittata, GeofF. 

The note which accompauies this beautiful specimeu is as fol- 
lows : — "Esmeraldas, Nov. 1859. Aso milero. Said to subsist on 
ants, bees, their honey, and other insects, and to live among the 
brauchesof trees, — not on the ground. It is eateu by these people, 
who are a very distinet race from any I have seen elsewhere." 

11. Hesperomys maculipes, Pictet ? 

I am not able to determine this species with certainty, and prefer 
to leave it undecided for the present, merely noting that it is closely 
related to the H. macidipes of M. Pictet, but nevertheless differs 
sufficiently from it to excite a suspicion that it may prove to be of a 
distinet species. 

12. Hesperomys arvicoloides, Pictet. 

Although ]M. Pictet has hiniself referred this species to the H. 
renygeri of Mr. Waterhouse, I find M. Wagner subsequently giving 



263 

the two as distinct ; aud after the examination of a large nuraber of 
specimens undoubtedly referable to H. renygeri, and comparisoii of 
these with M. Pictet's figure and description, I have arrived at the 
šame conclusion, The species now under notice may be seen iu col- 
lections with the name of H. arvicoloides attached ; and, as it accords 
well with the figure and description of that species (and is certainly 
distinct from H. renggeri), I shall for the present adopt that name. 

13. HeSPEROMYS CALIGINOSUS, n. s. 

The present remarkable looking species takes its place under the 
division of the genus which I have in my former ' Notės ' proposed 
for the reception of two new species forvvarded by Mr. Fraser, and 
which I have called H. latimanus and H. bicolor. Agreeing with 
these species in the more essential points of structure, it yet difFers 
from them in the shortness of the tail, and in the kind of fur. 

Head and face short, much as in the ArvicolidcB ; eyes small aitd 
concealed in the fur ; muflBe very small, and without prominences 
beneath the uostrils ; ears small, ovoid, and naked. Fore feet short 
and moderately broad, with the toes naked, and the claws short and 
rather stout ; hind feet short and moderately broad, with the claws 
rather strong, and the toes nearly naked on their upper surface, the 
tarsus even being only sparingly sprinkled with short hairs. Tail 
about as long as the body, exclusive of the head, sparingly clothed 
with very short and stout hairs. AU the naked parts nearly black, 
claws pale brown. Whiskers few and short. 

The general colour of the fur may be described as black, thiokly 
powdered with darkish chestnut, with a greater mixture of the latter 
colour beneath than above ; on the abdomen slightly tinged with 
greyish. Each hair is blackish grey at the root, and tipped with chest- 
nut ; but therę is an unusual number of rather longer black hairs 
mixed with these, which gives the species the appearance of black, 
finely dotted with rufous. 

The skuU of this species has the šame conformation as those of 
H, latimanus and H. bicolor. 

Length of the head and body 5 O 

of the tail 3 O 

of the head 1 3 

of the ears, behind O 5 

from nose to eye O 6 

from nose to ear 1 O 

of fore foot and claws O 6 

of hind foot and claws I O 

Breadth of ear, nearly O .') 

across the middle of the tarsus .... O 2^ 

Diameter of the eye O 1 

These dimensions, having been taken from a spccimcn prcscrvcd 
in spirits, are pretty accurate. 



264 

14. HeSPEROMYS Al,BIGrLARlS, 11. S. 

Of this well-rnarkecl and apparently ne^v species the collection 
contains two specimens, and one being aduH, whilst tlie other is not 
more than half-grown, I should be able to give a tolerably good ac- 
count, but thatj both specimens being in skin, the dimensions are 
less likely to be exact. 

The general form is very much likę that of H. longicaudatus, and 
it pertains strictly to the šame division of the genus ( Calomys), but 
is a much larger species, and is differently coloured. The head is 
moderately elongated, and the snout somewhat pointed. Muffle with 
two very distinct prominences beneath the nostrils ; ears small, 
roundish, and clothed with short hair externally, and internally near 
the margiu. Fore feet of medium size and proportion, their claws 
short and rather weak, the thumb furnished with a small but well- 
developed claw of a rounded form ; the upper surface of the toes 
almost naked. Ilind feet long, of moderate breadth ; the upper 
surface of the toes nearly naked, excepting at the root of the claws, 
which are hidden by a tuft of curved white hairs ; upper surface of 
the tarsus also but very slightly hairy, its under surface quite naked : 
the claws of medium proportion, and nearly white. The tail, which 
is longer than the head and body, tapers evenly throughout, is naked, 
or nearly so, and annulated with very fine scales. 

The fur is rather long, soft, and somevvhat glossy ; on all the 
upper parts it is dark dusky-grey at the root, tipped with yel]owish- 
brown, and thickly mixed with shiuing black hairs, which are very 
numerous on the dorsal region. On the liead the fur becomes 
darker, and yet more so towards the snout, so that from the eyes to 
the latter it is almost black. Cheeks and sides of the neck yellowish- 
brown, with a distinct line of division where it meets the darker 
colour of the head. The chin is ashy-grey. On the throat is a lon- 
gitudinal well-defined space of pure white (the hairs being white from 
root to tip), which commences anteriorly verj"^ narrow, but, expanding 
as it passes backward, occupies the whole space betvveen the fore legs, 
and passes gradually into the colour of the belly, where the fur has 
the tips only of a greyish-\vhite, which is confined to the mesial line. 
The hair on the ears is black ; a spot of yellowish-brown marks the 
root of the Avhiskers ; the fur, vvhich extends along the outer surface 
of the arm to the wrist, is dark grey, and that on the upper surface of 
the tarsus ashy-grey ; the tail is dark grey above, pale brown beneath. 

The clear line of separation of the dark colour of the head, from 
the paler colour of the cheeks, and the white wedge-shaped mark on 
the throat, equally distinct from the colour of the cheeks, will at 
once distinguish this species. 

A young one half-growu resembles the adults, excepting that the 
fur is shorter, and the white mark ou the throat less pure and not so 
well defined. 

Length of the head and body, about 4 9 

of the tail ' .5 6 

• — of the ears O f>^ 



2(ir) 

Lpngtli from nose to eye O 7 

from nose to ear 1 1 

of the fore foot O 8 

of the hind foot 1 3^ 

The confnrmation of the skull is in perfect accordaiice with the 
extenial characters, and resembles that of //. lonyicaudatus so 
e.vactly, excepting in size, that its dimensions are all that need here 
be given. 

Totai length from the front of the nasal bones to 

the occiput 1 'i\ 

Length from the front of the nasal bones to the 

anterior root of the zygoma O 5-^ 

of the nasal bones O 5į 

from the point of the upper incisor to 

anterior molar O 4į 

of the molar range O 3 

Breadth behind the posterior root of the zygoma O 7 
Length of the lower jaw from point of incisor to 

condyle O 9^^ 

Depth from the coronoid process, vertically .... O 4 

Length from point of incisor to anterior molar . . O 3| 

Mr. Fraser's note of the adult specimeu is, "Takeu en camino on 
my return from Pallatanga." Of the young one, it is added that 
" many dead ones were lying about, but too much eaten by insects 
to be of service." The date of both notes is Dec. 1858. 

15. Mus RATTUS, Linn. 

Severai specimens of this widely distributed species are included in 
the present collection, and some of these have their extremities white, 
i. e. the tip of the tail, and part of the toes of all the feet. They do 
not differ essentially from specimens collected by Mr. Bridges in 
Chili, and others collected in Mexico by M. Salle. 

16. Lepus brasiliensis, Linn. 

One s])ecimen, which Mr. Fraser says is a female, and was with 
young when obtained, which was in March 1858. 

17. ECHIMYS SEMISPINOSUS, n. S. 

In my first notes on Mammals, collected by Mr. Fraser, I included 
the Echimys cayennensis, from the examination of a specimen which 
had lošt the tail, and was otherwise in an unsatisfactory condition. 
Other and better specimens of Echimys having been received, I have 
been able to make out clearly that they represent a new and well- 
marked species, and that the former specimen was similar to them. 

The general form of this species is robust, more so than either 
that of E. cayennensls or E. hispidus. The head is larger in relation 
to thi' size of the animal, the ears are much smaller, and the tail not 
above half the length of the head and body. The head is rather 



266 



broad, and the muzzle obtuse, and the muffle large ; tbe ears small, 
and with tbeir lobular part much less developed than in E. cayen- 
, nensis, and tbeir ends are more evenly rounded tban in that species. 
Tbe fore feet are stroug, and bave long and strong claws compared 
witb tbose of otber species. Tbe claw wbicb arms tbe inner toe or 
tbumb is sbort and rounded. Tbe hinder bmbs are also ratber long 
and strong, witb strong claws. AU tbe members are clotbed with 
hair on tbeir upper surfaces, but the fore feet ratber scantily on tbe 
toes. Tbe spines are confined to the middle of tbe back, beiug ab- 
sent over tbe sboulders and on tbe rump, or at any rate so little deve- 
loped over tbose parts as not to merit tbe name of spines. They are 
sbort and flesible, tbeir expanded portion being sbort and uear tbe 
root, from wbicb they taper regularly, and end in a longisb and very 
fine point, vvbicb is black, and resembles tbe black bairs on tbe backs 
of so many of the smaller rodents. The tail tapers evenly to a fine 





Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 



Fig. 3. 



Fig. 4. 




point ; tbe fur of the rump extends on to its base for a space of half 
an inch, its rcmaining part being pretty evenly sprinkled witb 
shortish hairs, whicb are not on any part thick cnougb to bidc tbe 



267 

scales. There is no indication of a tuft at its extremity, as iu E. 
cayennensis. 

The general colour of the upper parts is very dark brown, being a 
mixture of reddish-brown and black, the latter predommating ; the 
cheeks, sides of the ueck, and sides of the body the šame, but paler; 
around the eyes a narrow circle of black ; fore- and hind-feet and 
under surface of the tail ashy-brown, those on the upper surface of 
the tail black. There is much less naked skin on the inside of the 
thighs and ou the pubal region in this species than in E. cayen- 
nensis. 

Besides its greater size, the skull of this species offers another 
peculiarity worthy of note, as may be seen by the drawings (woodcuts 
1, 2, 3, 4), •ffhich represent the škulis of E. cayennensis and^. semi- 
spinosus. Taking for comparison, as before, the commoner species, 
E. cayennensis (figs. 1, 3), the nasal bones of its cranium are seen to 
extend backward barely as far as to the anterior root of the zygoma, 
and to retain their full breadth for the whole of their length, and 
the intermaxillary bones each to end in a point about one line poste- 
rior to this. In E. semispinosus (figs. 2, 4) these proportions are 
reversed : the nasal bones, extending farther back, become narrower, 
and eud in a point on the frontai region, while the intermaxi]lary 
bones do not reach so far back as the zygoma, and terminate abruptly 
instead of being produced to a point. The orbit also in this species 
is of greater relative size, which is further increased by the backward 
position of the process of the superior margin of the zygoma. 

Length of the head and body 9 d " 

of the head 2 7 

of the tail 5 6 

of the ears behind O 7\ 

Breadth of the ears, nearly O 7 

• Length from nose to eye 1 O 

from nose to ear 1 gi 

of fore foot and claws 1 2 

of the middle claw O 2| 

of hind foot and claws I 10 

of the middle claw O 3 

of the fore arm , 1 C 

of the tibia 2 2 

Totai length of skull 2 2\ 

Breadth across the zygomatic arches 1 \\ 

Length from point of upper incisors to an- 
terior molar O 6į 

of molar range O 4^ 

of nasal bones O lOį 

of lower jaw from point of incisors 

to condyloid process 1 4^ 

Depth from the condyle vertically O 7 

Three specimens of this species have been received in spirits, all 



268 

of which were females ; one of them contained two young. I do not 
find any evidetice, excepting this, of the number of young produced 
at a birth ; but if this be the usual number, it would account for the 
comparative scarcity of the species of Echimys, with the various 
MuridcB, which are usually so abundant. 

18. CiELOGENYS FULVUS, F. CuV. 

C.fulvus, F. Cuv. Ann. du Mus. x. 206 ; Pr. Max. Beitr. ii. 454. 

C. paca of Waterhouse's ' History of Mammalia.' 

Although this is not admitted as a good species, distinct from C. 
paca, I have chosen to insert it under the above name, the better to 
identify it — whether a species or mere variety — vrith that part of 
South America from which it was received, as I do not meet with 
any notice of the occurrence of the commoner species, C. paca, in 
Ecuador. It was taken at Zamora in January 1858, and was brought 
to Mr. Fraser by the Indians, its Xivarro name being Cushshay. 
Mr. Fraser remarks that it was a young malė, and that its flesh 
was white and delicate. 

19. DiDELPHYS AZAR^, Tcmm. Mon. i. 30. 

D. aurita, Pr. Max. Beitr. ii. 392. 

One specimen. It was taken at Cuenca in October 1857. Mr. 
Fraser statės that it was killed in a nunnery, and proved to be a 
female, that it is accused of destroying " fowls, fruit, and grain," lives 
in the roofs of houses, and is nocturnal in its babits. 

20. DiDELPHYS cANCRivoRA, Gmcl. Liun. Syst. Nat. i. 108- 
Temm. Mon. i. 32 (?). 

But one sjiecimen also of this Opossum has been received, and this 
I refervvith some doubt to the above species. It.resembles the spe- 
cimens in the British Museum in all respects, save in being larger 
and in having shorter fur. A skull of D. cancrivora, which formed 
part of the Museum of the Zoological Society, and which, from the 
worn condition of the teeth, obviously belonged to an adult animal, 
is coiisiderably smaller than that of the preseut specimen, but is 
otherwise similar. 

21. DiDELPHYS ORNATA, Tschud. Faun. Peru. pi. 7. p. 146. 
From the great similarity in the colouring and quality of the fur, 

Mr. Waterhouse regards this species as identical with his earlier 
described D. derbyana, notvvithstanding that they are considerably 
unlike in point of size. The specimen collected by Mr. Fraser ac- 
cords well with Dr. Tschiidi's description in this respect, saving that 
the ears are evidently smaller. This general accordance with D. 
ornata has iuduced me to regard the latter as distinct from B. der- 
byana. It is probable that we have several species of these "Woolly 
Opossums, vvhich are at present more or less confounded with each 
other. 



2G9 

2. Synopsis of THE Spkcies of THE Genus Penelope. 
By g. r. Guay, F.Z.S., ETC. 

1. Penelope cristata. 

Nigra aut ferrugineo-brunnea ; colio, pectore et corporis lateri- 
bus albo-limbatis ; tectricibus alarum nitore virescentibus et 
violaceis ; remigibus subpurpuraseentibus ; dorso, uropygio, 
femoribus et abdominis parte inferiore ferrugineo-nigris ; dorso 
uropygiociue ceneo lavatis ; cauda obscure nigra (ex. Edw.). 

Meleagris cristata, Linn. S. N. i. p. 269 ; Edw. Birds, pi. 13. 
Penelope purpurascens, Gray, Knowsl. Menag. pi. ? 
Hab. \Vest Indies (?) {Edio.). 

2. P, MARAIL. B.M. 

Juv. Uropygio, notcei parte reliąua, colio ac pectore ceneo-nigris ; 
plumis cervicis, dorsi supremi ac pectoris albo-limbatis ; abdo- 
mine fusco et tectricibus rufescenti-fuscis nigro conspersis ; 
plumis aurium cano-marginatis (Wagl.). 

Penelope marail, Gmel. S. N. i. p. 734, juv. ; V/agl. Isis, 1830, 
. 1110; PI. Enl. 338, juv. 
Salpiza marail, 'Wag\. Isis, 1832, p. 1226. 
Penelope jacupema, Merr. Beytr. t. 11, adult? 
Long. 24". 

Adult. Nigreacenti-cenea, viridi nitens; uropygio, femoribus, abdo- 
mine tectricibusąue subcaudalibus nigrescenti-eeneis, viridi ni- 
tentibus ; primariis pallide rufescenti-brunneis. 

Hab. Guiana ; Cayenne. 

3. P. PURPURASCENS. B.M. 

Fuliginoso-olivacea, purpurino-splendens, gastrcei plumis, dorsi 
supremi, ac tectricibus minoribus albo-limbatis; uropygio ac 
crisso sericeo-purpurino-castaneis (Wagl.). 

Penelope purpurascens, ^&^. Isis, 1830, p. 1110. 
Salpiza purpurascens, ^agl. Isis, 1832, p. 1226. 
Long. 31i", cauda 15" 7'". 
Hab. Mexico. 

4. P. NIGRICAPILLA. B.M. 

Virescenti-cenea ; colio, pectore, dorsi supremi tectricibusque mi- 
noribus albo-limbatis ; uropygio, abdomine tectricibusąue sub- 
caudalibus ceneo-fuscis ; illis rufo-co7ispersis ; capite colloque 
svperiore nigrescentibus ; plumis pilei cano-limbatis. 

Long. 28". 

Hab. Brazil. 

5. P. LICHTENŠTEINU. B.M. 

Nitide olivaceo-cenea ; crista nuchaque brunneo-ceneis, plumis 



270 

frontalibus albo-limbatis ; superciliis ad latera partis denu- 
datcB juguli extendentilms, et plumis auricularibus ad basin 
majidibuli inferioris, cinereo-albis ; juyuh, pectore, micM, dorai 
parte superiore tectricibnsque albo hite marginatis ; dorsi parte 
inferiore, uropygio et tectricibus supra-caudalibus brunneo- 
ceneis, nigro reticulatis ; abdomine, femoribiis tectricibusąue sub- 
caudalibus brunneo-ceneis fusco irregulariter fasciatis ; cauda 
brunneo-cenea, plumis lateralibus purpurascenti-nigriSy rufo- 
brunneo terminatis. 

Penelope niontana, Licht.?, Pr. B. Compt. Rend. 1856, p. 877. 

Long. 2;")", caudse 11". 

Hab. Venezuela. 

6. P. SCLATERI. B. M. 

Olivaceo-cenea ; crista nigreacenti-eenea, cinereo-albo late limbata ; 
superciliis ad latera partis denudatce juguli estendentibus et 
tectricibus auricularibus cinereo-albo terminatis et late mar- 
ginatis ; pectore, lateribus, dorsi parte superiore alarumąue 
tectricibus cinereo anguste limbatis ; dorsi parte inferiore, 
uropygio tectricibusciue supra-caudalibus ru/o-castaneo-ceneis ; 
abdomine lateribusque ru/o-ceneis ; abdominis parte inferiore 
femoribus tectricibusque subcaudalibus rufo-castaneis ; cauda 
viridi-eenea. 

Long. 24Į", caudae lOf". 

Hab. BoUvia. 

7. P. BRIDGESI. B. M. 

Brunneo-cenea; plumis frontalibus albo-limbatis ; pectore, lateri- 
bus, dorsi parte superiore alarumque tectricibus albo-limbatis ; 
remigibus cinereo submarginatis ; uropygio tectricibusque supra- 
caudalibus purpureo-ceneis ; corpore infra brunneo-ceneo, i-ufo 
nigroque reticulato; cauda purpureo-cenea, brunneo-rufo margi- 
nata nigroque delicatule reticulata. 

Long. 29", caudae 14". 
Hab. Bolivia. 

8. P. PILEATA. B.M. 

Pilei plumis diffractis, albis, occipitis versus apicem isabellinis ; 
pilei vitta laterali nigro-pilosa ; colio ac gastrceo castaneo- 
rubris, ex parte albo-limbatis ; crista nigricante ; dorsi plumis 
<Bneo-nigris albo-marginatis ; remigibus caudaque ceneo-nigris ; 
pedibus flavis (\Yagl.). 

Penelope pileata, Licht., Wagl. Isis, 1830, p. 1110. 

Salpiza pileata, Wagl. Isis, 1832, p, 1226 ; Gray, Knowsl. Me- 
nag. pi. ; Des Murs, Iconogr. Ornith. t. 23. 

Long. 29", caudse 13^". 

Hab. Para. 

9. P. JACUACA. B.M. 

Firescenti-cenea, nitens ; pilei plumis virescenti-fuscis ; nucha, 



271 

pectore, corporis lateribus alarumąue tectncihus albo-limbatis ; 
uropygio, tectricibus supra- et sub-caudalibus abdomineąue fer- 
rugineo-rufis ; cauda supra rufo virescentique cenea, subtus vio- 
laceo-nigra. 

Juv. Pectoris parte inferiore, abdomine femoribusąue ferrugineo- 
brunneis nigro-reticulatis ; pilei plumis griseo-limbatis ; uro- 
pygio tectricibusąue supracaiidalibusferrugineo-ceneis. 

Penelope cristata, Lath. Ind. Orn. ii. p. 619; Wagl. Isis, 1830, 
>. 1110. 
Penelope jacuaca, Spix, Av. Bras. t. 68 (juv.). 
Penelope brasiliensis, Pr. B. Compt. Rend. 1856, p. 877. 
Salpiza cristata,Wag\. Isis, 1832, p. 1226. 
Long. 30", caudse 13". 
Hab. Brazil. 

10. P. OBSCtJRA. 

Pileo ac colio postico nigris ; tectricibus ac plumis dorsi supremi 
nigricantibus necnon pectoris carmelitino-fuscis, albo-limbatis ; 
tergo, ventre, tibiisąue castaneis ; [cauda nigra^ (Wagl.). 

Penelope obscura,\iei[\. N. Dict. 36. p. 343. 
Salpiza obscura, Wagl, Isis, 1832, p. 1226. 
Long. 28", caud£e U". 
Hab. Paraguay. 

11. P. BOLIVIANA. B. M. 

Viridi-cBnea ; plumis capitis, circa partem denudatam colli et 
aures cinereo-albo-marginatis ; colio, dorsi parte superiori, 
alaruni tectricibus, pectore abdominisąue parte superiore albo 
limbatis ; alarum tectricibus majoribus remigibusqiie cinereo 
submarginatis ; uropygio obscure castaneo-csneo ; abdomine, 
femoribus tectricibusque subcaudalibus ru/o-castaneis, nigro re- 
ticulatis et rufo- albo-limbatis. 

Penelope boliviana, Reichenb., Pr. B. Compt. Rend. 1856, p. 877. 
Long. 31", caudse 15". 
Hab. Bolivia. 

12. P. JACUCACA. B. M. 

Fuliginoso-nigricans, ceneo-nitens ; tectricibus, plumis sincipitis, 
juguli, pectoris ac epigastrii albo-marginatis ; vitta superciliari 
nivea, inferius atro-marginata ; aurium plumis nigris, albo- 
variolosis (Wagl.). 

Penelope jacucaca, Spix, Av. Bras. t. 69. 

Penelojie jaciipeba, Spix, Av. Bras. t. 71, juv. 

Penelope superciliosa, Cuv. 

Penelope superciliaris, Gray, Knowsl. Menag, pi. 

Salpisajaciicaca, Wag\. Isis, 1832, p. 1226. 

Long. 30". 

Hab. Bahia. 



272 

1.3. P. SUPERCILIARIS. B. M. 

JEneo-olivacea ; jugulo pectoreąue incanum vergentibus, plumis 
albo-cinctis ; pennis scapularibus, remigibus ultimis tectrici- 
buscĮue magnis rufu-marginatis ; vitta sujjerciliari cano-albida ; 
crisso et uropygio fvsco-rufis (Wagl.). 

Penelope superciliaris, 111. ■Wagl. Isis, 1830, p. 1110. 

Penelope jacupemba, Spix, Av. Bras. t, 72. 

Salpiza su2)erciliaris,Wag\. Isis, 1832, p. 1220. 

Av. juv. Vitta supereiliari rufescente, limbo rufo peanurum sca- 

pularium ac remigum latiore (Wagl.). 
Loug. 24i", caudae 11^"- 
Hab. Brazil. 

14. Penelope nigra. B. M. 

į . Nigra, cyane.o- aut viridi-nitens ; rostro, jugulo, tarsis pedi- 

busipie rubris, 
$ . Fusca,viridi-variegata,plamis singulis fasciis plurimis trans- 

versis ferrugineis ; įjlumis subtus paUidioribus et indistinte 



Penelope niger, Fras. P. Z. S. 1850, p. 246. pi. 29. 
Aburria carunculata, p.?, Pr. B. Compt. Reud. 1856, p. 877. 
Loug. 23", wings 9". 
Hab. Guatemala. 



3. List of Birds collected by Mr. Fraser at Babahoyo in 
EcuADOR, wiTH Descriptions OF New Species. By 
Philip Lutley Sclater, M. A., Secretary to the So- 
ciety. 

(Avės, PI. CLXIV.) 

Mr. Fraser arrived at Babahoyo froui Quito oii the lOth of July, 
1859. This place is also called Bodegas, being the spot where salt 
is deposited and pays duty. It is situate low on the banks of the 
river of the šame name, about 200 miles N. E. of Guavaijuil, aud not 
above 200 or 250 feet above the sea-level. Mr. Fraser remained at 
Babahoyo during the month of August and part of September, when 
he left for Esmeraldas, higher up the Pacific Coast. 

The number of birds obtained at Babahoyo was 395, belonging to 
134 different species, of whichl give the names as follovvs, with 
extracts from Mr. Fraser's MS. notes vvhich accompanied the col- 
lection : — 

I. Passeres. 

1, TuRDUS albiventris, Spix. 

Severai ex. of both sexes. " Consegero or Mirlo." 

2. Campylorhynchus zonatoides (Lafr.)?, Rev. Zool. 1846, 
p. 92. 

Severai ex. " Paxaro tigre : irides reddish-yellow ; bill brownish 



273 

above, flesh-colour beįieath ; legs and feet yellowish. Very noisy, 
but seldom seen, kecping up a kind of cackle. They appear to be 
aUvays in threes and fourS." 

More likę the New-Granadian bird, which is probably Lafresnaye's 
Campylorhynchus zonatdides, than any other described species ; but 
not so decidedly spotted below as in my single specimen of the latter. 

3. Thryothorus albipectus, Cab.: Schomb. Guian.iii. p. 6/3. 

" Irides hazel ; bill black above, flesh-colour beneath ; legs and 
feet blue." 

Nearly agrees with an example from Santa Martha, N. G. 

4. Troglodytes furvus (Gm.). 
One ex., juv. 

5. POLIOPTILA BILINEATA (Bp.), CoUSp. p. 316. 

Two ex. " c? . Irides hazel ; bill black ; legs and feet black. In 
a tree in the bush . 5 . Bill black above, blue belovv ; legs and feet 
blue." 

6. Parula brasiliana (Licht.). 
One ex. " Stomach contained insects." 

7. Geothlypis semiflava, sp. nov. 

S . Olivaceo-viridis : pileo antico et lateribus capitis totis nigris: 

subtus Jlava : tectricibus subalaribus pallide flavis : rostro 

superiore plumheo, inferiore corneo : pedibus pallide corylinis. 

$ . Obscurior, pileo concolore oUvaceo : orbitis et loris Jlavescen- 

tibus. 
Long. totą o'O, alae 2'4, caudae 2'1. 
Hab. In rep. Eąuator. 
Mus. P. L. S. 

One ex. " Bill black ; legs and feet orange." 
Nearly allied to the Mexican G. fonnosa, mihi, P. Z. S. 1858, 
p. 447, but distinguishable by its paler green colouring above, and 
brighter, purer yellow below. 

I have described the female from a specimen since transmitted by 
Mr. Fraser from Esmeraldas. 

8. Basi LEUTE RUS chrysogaster (Tsch.): Tsch. Faun. Per. 
p. 192. 

One ex., S • " Irides hazel ; bill black ; legs and feet yellow." 

9. ViREOSYLViA AGiLis (Licht.) : Bp. Cousp. p. 329. 

One ex., apparently not difFerent from New-Granadian and Brazi- 
lian specimens. 

10. Hylophilus ? 

One ex., in bad condition. 

No. 434. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



274 

1 1 . Cyclorhis virenticeps, sp. nov. (PI. CLX1V.) 
OUvaceus, pileo concolore : fronte et siiperciliis sattirate casta- 

neis : subtus Jlavus, ventre medio et crisso sericeo-albis : rostro 
brunneo, mandibula inferiore plumbea : pedibus carneis. 

Long. totą 6-0, alse 2-9, caudse 2'3. 

Hab. In rep. Equator. 

Mus. P. L. S. 

Four ex. " Irides bazei : found in the large trees in the bush." 
Stomach contained "insects," "a caterpillar." Sexes alike. 

A distinctly marked species of this little group, making the seventh 
in my collection. It is immediately distinguishable by its green 
head — the šame colour as the back. I have given a list of the other 
species of the genus in Proc. Z. S. 1858, p. 448. 

12. COTYLE FLAVIGASTRA (Vieill.). 

Three ex. " Very common." 

13. Dacnis egregia, Sclater. 

One ex. " Gizzard contained seeds." 

14. SaLTATOR MAGNUS (Gm.). 

Severai ex. 

15. Saltator flavidicollis, sp. nov. 

Supra cinereus, nisi in uropygio et cauda olivaceo perfustis : super- 
ciliis et corpore subtus albis : pectore et colio antico jlavo 
tinctis : rostro nigro, apice Jlavo : pedibus plumbeis. 

Long. totą 8*0, alse 3 "8, caudse 3'5. 

Hab. In rep. Equator. 

Mus. P. L. S. 

A distinet species of Saltator, distinguished by the absence of all 
markings below, and the yellow tinge which pervades the throat and 
breast. 

Three ex. " Irides hazel ; bill black, tips and gape yellow. Com- 
mon : very shy and active." 

16. Arremon erythrorhynchus, Sclater, P.Z.S. 1855, p. 83. 
pi. 89. 

Three ex. " In stomach, seeds and insects." 

17. Tachyphonus ltjctuosus, Lafr. et D'Orb. 
Two ex. " Bill black ; legs and feet blue." 

18. Ramphocelus icteronotus, Bp. 
Severai ex. " By no means uncommon." 

19. Tanagra cana, Sw. ? 

Severai ex. of both sexes. "Irides hazel ; bill black above, blue 
beneath ; legs and feet dark lead-colour." 



Proc.Z S Aven CL7JV. 




CYCLOKHIS YIRENTICEPS. 



i^kJ. 



275 

20. EuPHONiA CRASsiROSTRis, Sclatcr, p. z. s. 185f), p. 277. 
One ex. " Bill black above, blue below ; legs and feet blue. 

Very shy and quick : found in moderate-sized trees in the deep 
bush." 

21. EuPHONIA XANTHOGASTRA, Sund. (?). 

A single specimen, differing from the usual coloration of this 
species in having no white on the outer rectrices. 

22. Procnias occidentalis, Sclater. 

One ex. " Irides hazel ; bill black. Three or four were together 
on the top of a large tree in the deep bush. The stomach eontained 
insects." 

23. Embernagra chrysoma, sp. uov. 

Olivacea, axillis et tectricibus subalaribus flavissimis : capite 
cinereo, jnlei striis duabus et vitta utrinque per oculos trans- 
eunte nigris : superciliis et corpore subtus albis, hoc latera-' 
liter cinerascente : crisso flavicante : rostro nigro : pedibus 
clare brunneis. 
Long. totą 7'0, alee 3-3, caudse 2"9. 
Hab. In rep. Eąuator. 
Mus. P. L, S. 

Four ex. "Irides hazel; legs and feet flesh-colour. Comraon in 
the underwood of the deep bush : gizzard eontained seeds." 

This Embernagra is nearly allied to Embernagra conirostris, Bp., 
but distinguished by its larger size, bright yellow axillaries, aud 
olive-green back. I am now acquainted with the folio wing species, 
which I refer to this group : — 

(1) E. PLATENSis* (Gm.) : Bp. Consp. p. 483 ; ex Brasil. Me- 
rid. et Paraguay, &c. Mus. P. L. S. 

(2) E. LONGiCAUDA, Strickl. : Bp. Consp. p. 483. Mus. H. E. S. 

(3) E. CONIROSTRIS (Bp.). — Arremon conirostris, Bp. Consp. 
p. 488 ; ex Nov. Granada int. et littorali. Mus. P. L. S. 

(4) E. CHRYSOMA, supra. 

(5) E. CHLORURA, Bp. Consp. p. 483. — Pipilo chlorurus, Baird, 
Rep. p. 519 ; ex Mex. Bor. Mus. P. L. S. 

(6) E. RUFiviRGATA, Lawrence : Baird, Rep. p. 487; ex Mex. 
Bor. Mus. P. L. S. 

24. VOLATINIA SPLENDENS (Vicill.). 

Two examples. 

* I doubt tbe distinctness of E. olivascens (sp. 2 of P. Bp.'s Consp.) from this. 
E. viridis (P. Bp.'s 3rd species), at least the example in the Paris Museum, seeins 
to be a bad specimen of the sarae bird. 



276 

25. Spermophila ophthalmica, sp. nov. 
(į . Supra coracino-nigra : macula suboculari pnrva, speculo alari, 
nropĮ/ffio et forque cervicaliy postice evanescente, ai bis : subtus 
alba, torque pectorali lata nigra : rostro nigro, subfus corneo : 
pedibus nigris. 
$ . Pallide fusca, subtus fulvescenti-albida. 
Long. totą 4 'O, alae 2 '2, caudse 1'8. 
Jlab. I n rep. Equator. 
Mus. P. L. S. 

Three ex. "Comraon: sometimes in flocks." 
This Spe)-)noj)hita is allied to -S. mi/sia and -S. leucopterygia, but 
has brigliter and clearer colours. It may be recognized by the wbite 
subocular spot. 

26. Oryzoborus ^thiops, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 88. 
Examples of both sexes. $ . Obscure brunneus, subtus magis fer- 

rugineus : tectricibus subalaribus albis. 

27. Oryzoborus occidentalis, sp. nov. 

Nigerrimus : tectricibus subalaribus nigris : primariorum pogo- 
niis internis et speculo alari exiguo albis : rostro albo : pedibus 
corneis. 

Long. totą 5-5, alpe 30, caudse 24. 

Hab. In rcp Eųuator. 

Mus. P. L. S. 

One example. " Irides hazel; bill pinkish fleshcolour ; legs and 
feet brown ; gizzard contained seeds. In the bush in company \vith 
others." 

This bird is a close ally of O. crassirostris of Guiana and Trinidad 
and O. maximiliani of Brazil, but has the under wing-coverts black, 
and the alar spot much snialler, ahnost obsolete. I have another 
example of the šame species, received in a coUection from Bogota. 

28. Coryphospingus CRUENTUs(Less.). — Tiaris cruentajhess. 
— Lophospiza cruenta, Bp. Consp. p. 470. 

Examples of both sexes. $ . Fuseus : alis nigricantibus rufescente 
limbatis, subtus pallide fulvus. " In the deep bush : on one occa- 
sion in a flock of 200 : iiides hazel." 

29. Cassiculus prevosti (Less.) : Bp. Consp. p. 428. 

Three examples, agreeing \vith New-Granadian and Guatemalan 
specimeus. " Irides pale yellow ; bill yellow ; legs and feet blue : 
found in the trees in the deep bush ; by no nieans shy." 

30. Cassiculus flavicrissus, sp. nov. 

Nigerrinivs : dorso postico, tectricibus alaribus dorso proximis, 



277 

crisso et rectricibus ad basin Jlavissimis : rostra plumbeo, apice 
albicante : pedibus nigris. 
Long. totą maris 100, alse o'8, caudse 4*0 ; fceminse 8-5, al8e4'4, 
caudse 3 3. 

Hab. In rep. Equator. 
- Mus. P. L. S. 

Four examples. " Irides and bill blue : not shy ; very noisy, in 
flocks among large trees in the deep bush : stomach contained seeds 
and insects." 

31. IcTERUs MESOMELAS (Wagler). 

Many esamples. " Irides hazel : in the deep forest, and by no 
nieans shy." 

32. Sturnella belucosa, De Filippi. 

Two ex. " Chirote : not uncommon in the plains, and appareiitly 
the šame species as was observed in the corn-fields of Guaranda : 
stomach contained insects and seeds." 

Rather smaller than the specimens noted (P. Z. S. 1858, p. 455) 
from Cuenca, but not otherwise different. 

33. SCOLECOPHAGUS ? 

Two ex. of a species of this genus, said to be "common in com- 
pany with the Garapateros {Crotophaga), and the greatest favourite 
as a cage-bird in the country." 

34. FuRNARius ciNNAMOMEUS (Less.). — Picolaptes cinnamo- 
tneus, Less. Rev. Zool. 1844, p. 93. — Furnarius longirostris, v. Pel- 
zeln, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, xx. p. 158. 

Four ex. " Oijero : irides pale yellow ; base of lower mandible 
nearly white, remainder brown ; legs and feet flesh-colour. Very 
common on the plains in the smaller trees and on the tops of the 
houses, and very noisy. They run, but do not hop. They are said 
to breed in communities, and build in trees, with a roundabout en- 
trance to the nešt." 

35. XlPHORHYNCHUS THORAČICUS, Sp. UOV. 

Brunneus: alis, uropygio, et cauda ferrugineo-rujis : gula sordide 
alba : dorsi superi capitis undique et pectoris plumis medialiter 
ochracescenti-albidis, hoc colore nigro anguste circitmdato, 
plumarum marginibus externis brunneis : rostro rubeseente : 
pedibus f uscis. 
Long. totą 10"0, alse 4*0, caudse S'7, rostri a rietu ad apicem liuea 
directa 2-7. 

Hab. In rep. Equat. 
Mus. P. L. S. 

One ex. " Irides hazel ; bill brovvnish, paler at base of lo\ver 
mandible ; legs and feet green : stornach contained insects. Shot 
running very actively up the trunk of a large tree in the deep forest." 



278 

A distiuctly marked species of this singular group of Dendroco- 
luptince, easily recognizable by the clear elongated spots occupying 
the centre of the feathers of the breast and back. These spots are 
narrowly surrounded with black, and broadly margined outwardly 
with the general brown gromid-colour. Its size is nearly that of X. 
procurvus, but the bill is rather shorter and more regularly curved. 
I may add that I possess examples of all the five species described by 
M. de Lafresnaye in his account of this group (Rev. de Zool. 1850, 
p. 373 et seq.), and two additional, namely the present and another 
which I eonsider new*. 

36. PicoLAPTES souLEYETii, Lafr. Rev. Zool. 1850, p. 276; 
Des Murs, Icon. Orn. pi. 69. 

Severai ex. " Irides hazel." 

37. Dendrocops atrirostrts, Lafr. et D'Orb. 

Two ex. " Irides hazel ; bill black ; legs and feet lead-coloured." 

38. SiTTASOMUS ERITHACUS (Licht.). 

Two ex. " Irides hazel." This bird seems scarcely recognizable 
from Eastern specimens, except by the slightly different tinge of 
chestnut on the rump and tail. 

39. Synallaxis pudica, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 191. 
Severai ex., not in very good condition, but seemingly sufficiently 

likę Bogotan skins. " Irides whitish." 

40. Thamnophilus transandeantjs, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, 
p. 18. 

Many ex. of both sexes. " Irides red ; bill black ; legs and feet 
blue : found near the ground in the deep bush." 

41. Thamnophilus n^vius (Gm.). 

Three ex. " Skulking about in the underwood." 

42. Dysithamnus semicinereus, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 90, 
pi. 97.— D. mentalisl, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 67. 

Three ex. Only diifering from New-Granadian birds in having 
the throat rather whiter : erroneously referred before to B. mentalis. 

* XiPHORHYNCHUs pusiLLūs, mihi. 

Brunneus : alis, cauda, et uropygio ferrugineo-rufis : capite nigricante et cnm 
dorso superiore fulvo longitudinaliter lineolato : gula fulva : suhtus dorgo 
coneolor, sed plumis omnibus linea lata et etongata fulva medialiter notatis : 
ventre imo crissogue immaculatis : rostrn albicanti-comeo, basi obseura : 
pedibus virescenti-fuscis. 

Long. totą 8-0, alae 3'8, caudaB 3'5, rostri a rietu ad apicera liii. dir. 2-0. 

Hab. In Nov. Granada int. 

Mus. P. L. S. 

Obs. Afiinis X. proeurvoidei ex Cayenna, sed minor, et lineis longitudinalibus 
fulvis ventrem occupantibus prorsus notabilis. 



279 

43. FORMICIVORA CONSOBRINA, Sp. IIOV. 

cf . Atra : dorsi postici totius plumarum basihus, maculis tectri- 
cum minorum parvis rotundis, et tectricum majorum et caudce 
rectricum apicibus albis. 
$ . Supra mari similis, subtus saturate castunea. 
Long. totą 4'2, ate TS, caudse TS. 
Hah. In rep. Eąuator. 
Mus. P. L. S. 
One pair. " Irides hazel." 

Allied closely to F. quixensis and F. boucai'di, particularly to the 
former, but differs in its smaller size and the uniform ricli chestniit 
colouring of the female below ; in F. quixensis the female's throat 
being black, and in F. boucardi the female being wholly of a paler 
red below. 

44. Cercomacra maculosa, sp. nov. 

c? . Cinerea : interscapulii macula celata, tectricum alarium ni- 
grarum marginibus et rectricum apicibus albis : giitturis et 
pectoris antici plumis medialiter albis nigro circumcinctis : 
rostro corneo : pedibus fuscis. 

$ . Fuscescenti-olivascens, subtus ferruginea, lateraliter fus- 
cescens. 

Long. totą 6 0, alse 2-5, caudse 2-5. 

Hab. In rep. Eąuator. 

Mus. P. L. S. 

Three examples in bad eondition. " Creeps about in the under- 
wood ; often heard, but seldom seen." 

45. Pyriglena picea, Cab. Orn. Not. p. 212. 

Two ex. " Irides red ; bill, legs, and feet black : creeping about 
in the underwood : stomach contained insects." 

Blacker than the Eastern P. atra, though otherwise very similar, 
and perhaps referable to Cabanis's species. 

46. Chiromach^ris manacus (Linn.). 

Two ex. " Bill black, base of lower maudible pale ; legs and feet 
blue, nearly black : stomach contained insects and fruit." 

47. Pachyrhamphus homochrous, Sclater. 
Many ex. of both sexes. 

48. Pachyrhamphus spodiurus, sp. nov. 

cJ . Cinereus : loris alhidis : capite toto cum dorso superiore 
nigro : alis nigricantibus, albo extus limbatis : cauda nigricunti- 
cinerea, rectricum marginibus pallidioribus et ipsis apicibus 
albicuntibus : subtus dilufe cinereus, remigum pogoniis internis 
partitn albis. 



280 

2 . Castaneus, subtus dilutior,gutture albicantiore, reiniyum po- 
goniis interne nigricantihus. 

Long. totą 5 o, alse 30, caudae 2'3. 

Hab. In rep. Equator. 

Mus. P. L. S. 

Four ex. No. 2270, "c?. Irides hazel ; bill blue ; legs and feet 
dark : in stomach, insects and vegetable matter : found in the top of 
a tree in the thick bush." No. 2152, " $ by diss. ; bill black above, 
blue below ; legs and feet blue." 

Tliis Becard is distinct fiom any of those enunierated in my Syn- 
opsis of these birds (P. Z. S. 1857, p. 67). It differs from all the 
Batitmiduri (Sect. D) in \vantiug the broad white terminations to the 
tail-feathers, and I am incliued to consider P. cinereits its nearest 
ally. The secoud primary of the malė is of the usual abnormal eha- 
racter. It is shorter by 085 (inch) than the first, and slightly bifid 
at the extremity. 

49. Attila torridus, sp. nov. 

Ferrugineo-rufus : uropijgio et corpore subtus dilutioribus et prce- 
cipue in gutture et ventre imo magis citrinis : alis fusco-nigri- 
cantibus rufo limbatis, secundariis dorso proximis omniito rujis: 
cauda unicolore rufa : rostro et pedibue nigris. 
Long. totą 8'0, alse 4'0, caudae 3"5, rostri a rietu 1-2. 
Hab. I n rep. Equat. 
Mus. P. L. S. 

Three ex. " Irides hazel ; bill black ; legs and feet blue. Seeu 
high in the interior of a large tree." 

This Attila is most nearly allied to A. thamnophiloides (Spix), of 
the species with \vhich I am acquainted*, but distinguishable by it s 
longer and rather stronger bill, the much lighter rufous colouring 
above (which in A. thamnophiloides is chestnut), and lemon-vellovv 
belly. The wings are also considerably longer. 

50. Fluvicola atripennis, sp. nov. 

Alba : striga per oculos, alis, et cauda nigris, secundariis alarum 
angliste, rectricibus lafe albo tenninalis : interscaptdio pallide 
cinereo: rostro et pedibus nigris : tectricibus subalaribus albis. 

Long. totą 5-.5, alae 3'0, caudae 2-5. 

Hab. In rep. Eąuator. 

Mus. P. L. S. 

Obs. Affinis F. climacurce, ex Brasilia, sed alis intense nigris, 
secundariis albo limbatis, interscapulio dilutiore et tectricibus sub- 
alaribus albis diversa. 

Severai ex. " Irides hazel ; bill, legs, and feet black. Very coni- 
mon everywhere, particularly on the road, feediug on the grouud 
and perching on the fences. Very sprightly in action, carrjnng the 
liead erect, and constantly wagging the tail up and dowu likę a \Vag- 
tail (Motacilla)." 

* For a list of other species of Ailila, .see P. Z. S. 1859, p. 41. 



281 

51. MusciGRALLA BREViCAUDA, Laff. et D'Orb. 

One ex. 'f Irides hazel ; bill black, base of lovver mandible blue ; 
legs and feet flesh-colour. Seen on some dead brushwood by the 
road-side." 

52. Megarhynchus chrysogaster, sp. nov. 

Megaihyneho mexicano et M. pitanguse affinis, sed ab utroąue 
colore abdominis l(Btissiwe aureo dicersus : quoad rostrum et 
crassitiem his duabus intermedius. 

One ex. A third climatal variety or species, whichever it may be, 
of this genus of TyrannidcB, distinguished by its full bright yellow 
belly. The only specimen is not in very good plumage ; but Mr. 
Fraser has since sent another from Esmeraldas. In accordance with 
M. Heine's ™ws (Cab. Journ. f. Oru. 1859, p. 337), I now employ 
Megarhynchus as a generic name for these birds. But is not this 
species the bird considered by him as Scuphorhynchus chrysocepha- 
lus of Tschudi? Tschudi's figure is certainly detestable ; but his 
species, of vvhich I have specimeus collected by Mr. Fraser at Palla- 
tanga, is well marked, and can in no way be considered as a climatal 
variety of M. pitangua. It is more clo'sely allied, in my opinion, to 
Myiodynastes, though, as I have remarked (P. Z. S. 1859, p. 43), 
"leading off towards Scajyhorhync/ius," i. e. Megarhynchus. 

53. Tyrannus melancholicus, Vieill. 
Many ex. 

54. Tyrannus niveigularis, sp. nov. 

Supra cinereus, dorso oUvaceo per/uso, capitis crista inferne 
flava : loris et regione auriculari nigricanti-cinereis : alis nigris, 
primariis stricte, secundariis et tectricilus late albido limbatis: 
cauda nigra unicolore, rectriciim apicibus et harum externarum 
mūrginibus externis vix albicantibus : caudcB tectricibus supe- 
rioribus nigris, oUvaceo terminatis : s%ibtus pallide flavns, gut- 
ture et colio antico pure albis, hujus lateribus et pectore sum- 
mo cinereo vix lavatis : rosfro et pedibus nigris. 
Long. totą 7"0, alae 41, caud8e3-l. 
Hab. In rep. Equator. 
Mus. P. L. S. 

One e.\. " Irides hazel ; bill and legs black." 
A species of true Tijrannus, looking to its general structure and 
acuminated primaries, distinguishable by its small size, pure vvhite 
throat and neck, and black tail. The primaries of the single speci- 
men are not fully developed ; but the three first are somewhat ob- 
tusely acuminated, quite as much as in T. melancholicus. 

55. Myiarchus ph^ocephalus, sp. nov. 

Pallide olivaceus : capite cinereo, pileo smnmo obscuriore : alis 
fuscescenti-nigris, primariis stricte, tectricibus et secundariis 
latiiis ochracescente marginatis : su.btus pallide /acus, gutture 



282 

toto pallide cinereo : cauda nigricanti-fusca, rectrieum exti- 
marum marginibus et omnium apicibus d'dutioribus : rostro 
nigricunti-corneo : pedibus nigris. 
Long. totą 7'0, alse 35, caudse 34, rostri a rietu 10. 
Hab. In rep. Equator. 
Mus. P. L. S. 

Two examples, not in good condition, of this apparently unnoticed 
species of Mgiarchus ; of the size and general structure of M. ferox, 
but recognizable by its pale, rather greyish, olive back and dusky- 
grey head. 

56. Myiophobus ? 

57. Myiophobus ? 

Two speeies of this division of Tyrannidce (as typified by M. vir- 
gatus) are in the coUection. These, with others of this very difficult 
group, I mušt leave for future deterniination. 

58. Pyrocephaltjs nanus, Gould? 

Numerous examples of a Pyrocephalus, which agree with the 
descriptioa of P. nanus in having the outer margins of the external 
rectrices and tips of all " light greyish-brovvn." It does not, how- 
ever, seem to be inferior in size to the Eastern species, as far as I am 
able to judge by the specimens in my possession. 

59. MviOBirs barbatus (Gm.). 

Two ex., apparently not different from the Eastern bird. 

60. Cyclorhynchus subbrunneus, sp. nov. 
Brunnescenti-oleagineus : alis nigricantibus, fidvescenti-brunneo 

extus marginatis : cauda rufescenti-fusca unicolore : subtKS 
pallide cineraceus, olivaceo perfusus, gutture et ventre medio 
dilutioribus :. tectricibus subalaribus fulvescentibus : rostro 
superiore nigro, inferiore flavo : pedibūs plumbeis. 
Long. totą 7"5, alse 34, caudse 3"2. 
Hab. In rep. Equator. 

Two ex. " Irides whitish." This Tyrant may, I think, be well 
placed in the genus Crjclorhynchus, although not a typical member 
of the group. The bill is much more elongated than that of C. oli- 
vaceus, and not so broad at the base, but does not differ in propor- 
tions from that of C. flaviventris. The third and fourth primaries 
are nearly equal, and longest in the wing ; the fifth is slightly shorter; 
the sixth nearly of the šame length as the secoud. 

61. MUSCIVORA OCCIDENTALIS, Sp. UOV. 

Mr. Fraser has sent three specimens of a Crowued-Tyrant from 
Babahoyo, vvhich will probably reąuire a new name, as bcing distinct 
from the species at present known. It diflfers from Muscivora regia 



283 

of Cayenne and Muscivora swainsoni of Brazil* iii its much louger 
bill, in which respect it approaches M. mexicana. Its crest is of a 
brighter blood-red than that of M. regia ; the back is brown, without 
any olive tinge ; the rump is of a brighter ferruginous, and the tail 
is longer. In a Synopsis of the Tyrannidce which I am now pre- 
paring, I hope to be able to give further details conceming this and 
other groups of the šame family. 

62. ToDiROSTRUM ciNEREUM (Linn.). 
Three ex. 

63. ToDIROSTRUM SaOAMICRISTATUM (Lafr.). 

64. TODIROSTRUM 1 

An imperfect skin of a third species of this genus. 

65. Myiozetetes guianensis, Cab.&Hein.,Mus. Hein.ii. p.61. 

Severai examples of a species which I am not at present able to 
distitiguish from this bird. 

66. Elainea 1 

67. Elainea ? 

Examples of two species of this group of Tyraniiidce. 

68. EupsiLOSTOMA pusiLLUM, Sclatcr, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 68. 
Seyeral ex. 

69. Tyrannulus cinereiceps, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 69. 
One ex. 

70. Mionectes oleagineus (Licht.). 
One ex. 

71. Leptopogon ? 

One ex. of a species of this group, in an imperfect statė. It seems 
to be different from L. superciliaris, and is probably new. 

72. AmAZILIA DtIMERILII. 

Many ex. "Bill red with black tip." 

73. Amazilia riefferi. 

Many ex. " Noticed feeding from the bark of a large tree in the 
forest." 

74. JULIAMYIA TYPICA. 

Many ex. " Irides hazel ; upper mandible black, lower red with 
* Confer v. Pelzeln in Sitz. Akad. Wien, xxxi. p. 326. 



284 

black tip ; legs and feet nearly black. Not very comnion, and only 
fouud in the deep bush, where they feed on the tops of largish trees." 

75. Lampornis mango. 

Two ex. " Bill, legs, and feet black. From a low tree on the 
way-side." 

76. Nyctidromus ? 

One ex., in very bad condition. 

n . Ckryle torquata (Linn.). 

One ex. " Irides bazei ; bill black, with a whitish spot at the 
base of the upper mandible, and the basai half of the lower maudible 
of the šame colour ; legs and feet nearly flesh-colour. Frequents the 
larger trees ; stomach contained fish-bones and scales." 

1%. Ceryle americana (Gm.). 

Three ex. " Irides bazei : very common on the brauches of the 
trees which overhang the river in retired places ; flies swiftly, and 
feeds on fish." 

79. Bucco leucocrissus. 

Similis Bucconi niacrorhyncho ej: Cayenna, sed rostro majore, 
fronte latiore albo, torque pectorah ariį/ustiore et ventre medio 
crissoqi(e pure albis distinguendus. 

Hab. In rep. Equator. 

Mus. P. L. S. 

If Sueco macrorhjnchus of Cayenne, B. swainsoni of Brazil, B. 
hyperrhynchus of the Upper Amazon, and B. dysoni of Central Ame- 
rica are to be considered good species, then this mušt constitute a 
fifth, and another, of which I have two examj)les from the Rio Napo, 
a sixth species of the section. The alternative is to regard them all as 
localized varieties of one vvidely distributed species ; but eveu in tliat 
case they would require separate naines and descriptious. 

80. MOMOTUS ? 

Severai examples of a species most nearly allied to M. microste- 
phanus of New Granada, but perhaps ultimately separable. 

81. Trooon melanurus, Sw. : Gould, Mon. Trogon. pi. 18. 

Severai ex. " Chocota : irides white ; upper mandible with a 
large yellovv spot at the base, lower mandible yellow ; legs and feet 
greenish ; soles yellow. Much more active than any other Trogon 
which I have yet had au opportunity of observing, hopping from 
branch to brandi in the lower part of a large tree in the deep bush. 
Solitary and silent. Stomach contained bcrries of two kinds, and a 
Caterpillar." 

82. Trogon caligatus, Gould, Mon. Trogon. pi. 7. 

" Irides red ; cere yellovv ; legs and feet blue. Stomacii of 



285 

ex. 2279 containcd seeds, and grasshoppers and other insects ; of 
2317, seeds andvegetable matter." 

II. SCANSORES. 
83. PlAYA NIGRICRISSA. 

Piaya mehleri, Sclater, P. Z. S. passim, nec Bp. 

Three examples. I have hitherto considered the New-Granadian 
and Peruvian form of Piaya as referable to P. mehleri of Prince 
Bonaparte. Ilaving lately been able to examine his tjpe in the 
Leyden Museum, I fiud that the locahty given to it mušt have been 
wrong, for the bird in question is the species of the Mexican tierra 
cahente and Guatemala, which I have lately named Piaya thermo- 
phila (P. Z. S. 1859, p. 368). The species of Piaya allied to P. 
cayana in my collection are the follovifing : 

(1) Piaya macrura (Gambel, Journ. Acad. Philad. i. p. 21,5.— P. 
circe, Bp. Consp. i. p. 110), ex Guiana. 

(2) Piaya cayana, ex Cayenna et ins. S. Trinit. 

(3) Piaya nigricrissa, mihi, ex Nov. Granada, rep. Eauat. et 
Peri"' 



!ruv. 



(4) Piaya mehleri, Bp. (Consp. p. 110, mexieana, olim, et ther- 
mophila, nuper, Sclater), ex reipubl. Meiicanae reg. calida et Guate- 
mala. 

(5) Piaya mexicana, Sw. (Sclater, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 368), ex rep. 
Mexicana Oaxaca. 

84. Piaya rutilą (Vieill.) : Bp. Consp. p. 110. 
Three examples. 

85. DiPLOPTERUS N.«VIUS (L.). 

Two ex., immature. 

86. Crotophaga ani, Linn. 

One ex. " Garapatero : irides hazel ; bill, legs, and feet black 
This is the only species of bird I have seen in Ecuador in anvthing 
hke numbers : there mušt be thousands of them. They are ex- 
tremely common round the town and on the plains, in fact near everv 
place vvhere cattle feed. They are generally seen near the nose of 
the beasts, and occasionally flv up to capture insects. They do not 
perch on the cattle. When disturbed they % (with three flaps of 
the wings, then a sail, and then flaps repeated) off to the nearest 
bush, where they sit huddled together in a heap." 

87. Crotophaga sulcirostris, Sw. 

Three examples, agreeing with the Central American and Mexican 
bird. " Garapatero : from the deep bush among the underwood • 
the note sounded to me very different from that of those on the plains" 
(probably C. ani). " Stomachs contained insects and seeds." 



286 

88. Pteroglosstjs erythropygius. 

Three ex. "These birds fly swiftly and heavily, in a straight 
line, and drop suddenly on a brancli likę a Trogon." 

89. Centurus pucheranii (Malh.). 

Four ex. " Irides hazel." Agrees with specimens in my collec- 
tion from Mexico and Guatemala. 

90. Chloronerpes rubiginosus (Sw.). 
Four ex. " Flight quick, but heavy." 

91. Chloronerpes CECiLii (Malh.)? 

Two ex., probably referable to this species, but in a bad statė of 
preservation. 

92. Chloronerpes callonotus (Waterh.). 

Picus callonotus, Waterhouse, P. Z. S. 1840, p. 182. — P. cardi- 
nalis, Less., Echo d. M. S. 1845, p. 9 ; Des Murs, Icon. Orn. pi. 59. 
— Venilia callonota, Bp. Consp. p. 129. 

Three ex. *' Irides hazel ; bill bluish hom-colour ; legs and feet 
bluish." 

Prince Bonaparte, mistaking the true locality of this species, placed 
it in his genus Venilia. There are examples in the British Museum 
procured in the island of Pūna iu the Gulf of Guayaquil by Mr. Bar- 
clay, and Lesson's type is said to have been from Guayaąuil. 

93. Celeus undatus (Linn.) : Bp. Consp. p. 129. 

One ex., $ . Probably of this species, of which I do not possess 
other specimens. 

94. Dryocopus sclateri, Malh. {antea, p. 71). 

One ex. I much suspect that this will turn out to be the Picus 
guayaąuilensis of Lesson, Echo d. M. S. 1845, p. 920. 

95. Dryocopus fuscipennis, sp. nov. 

Niger : linea capitis colUąue laterali, scapularibus dorso proximis 
et tectricibus subalaribus Jlavidoalbidis : remigibus rectrici- 
btisque prcBcipue in marginibus externis fuscescentibus : abdo- 
mine cinerascenti-fusco, nigro macidato : rostra et pedibus 
nigris : cJ plaga malari et capite toto cristaio coccineis : 
$ fronte nigra. 
Long. totą 130, alse 6-8, caudse 5-2. 
Hab. In rep. Equator. 
Mus. P. L. S. 

Four examples. This apparently undescribed Woodpecker is a 
close ally of the Brazilian D. lineatus, but may be distinguished by 
the brown colouring of the wings and tail and the absence of distinct 
markings on the abdomen. The crissum is brownish cinereous, 
edged with white, instead of being distinctly banded with black. 



287 

96. PrCUMNUS GRANADENSTS (Lafr.). 

Three ex. As in a former specimen from Nanegal*, the spots on 
the head of the malė are yellow instead of red, which is their coloiir 
in my New-Granadian examples ; but I do not detect other differ- 
ences. 

97. CONURUS ERYTHROGENYS (LbSS.). 

Two ex. " Catanica : stomach contained seeds." 

98. Brotogerys pyrrhopterus (Lath.). — Psittacu spr/rrko- 
pterus, Lath. Ind. Orn. Suppl. p. xxxii. 

Many ex. " Perico : irides hazel ; bill, cere, and legs flesh- 
colour. Common on the tops of the highest trees : not so shy as 
most Parrots. In Guayaąuil I saw this species in hundreds in the 
gardens of the town-houses." Stomachs contained "seeds." 

99. PioNus MENSTRuus (Linn.). 

One ex. " Loro : stomach contained seeds." 

100. PSITTACULA C^LESTIS (LcSS.). 

Many ex. " Vivina : beak, cere, legs and feet pale flesh-colour. 
Stomach contained seeds : very common everywhere, in small flocks 
in the trees, and noisy." 

III. ACCIPITRES. 

101. Cath ARTĖS AURA (Linn.). 

One ex., $ . " Irides brown ; beak white ; legs and feet white ; 
head and neck red ; corrugations in front of the eyes and three 
transverse platės on the top of the head white. There were several 
specimens about, but not in the town. I have seen three together." 

102. Cathartes atratus. 

Four ex. " Gailina zo." Spec. 2186, "į. Irides hazel; bill 
greenish horn-colour ; legs and feet black. Here in hundreds. I 
am inclined to think this bird distinct from the mountain species." 
Spec. 2329, " $ . Bill black, with a bluish culmen, and a blue spot 
on the upper mandible near the cere ; legs greenish ; feet black, with 
a mouldy appearance between each scale ; no corrugations about 
head or neck ; the feathers of the back of the neck stand reversed. 
These birds are said to scratch away the sand and devour the eggs 
laid by the Alligators, which are here by thousands." Spec. 2384, 
" Beak bluish horn-colour ; head and neck black, with the corruga- 
tions thickenii%'as they get lower down ; legs and feet black, with a 
mouldy appearance between the scales, which I imagine to be dirt." 
" I noticed a Gallinazo in the river some yards from the bank ; he 

* P. Z. S. 1860, p. 95. 



288 

swam bravely and lauded in safety. Others, collected on the bank, 
drank and bathed." 

103. POLYBORUS THARUS (Mol.). 

" Curicinga.'" " Contents of stomach, insects and raaggots. Very 
common on the plains, and by no means shy ; sometimes found in 
high trees." 

104. Urtjbitinga zonų ra (Shaw). 

Three ex. Spec. 2394, " $ . Irides hazel ; bill black, with a blue 
spot at the base of the upper mandible and base of the lower man- 
dible ; cere, face, gape, legs and feet yellow. Killed at the top of a 
tall tree ; not shy ; stomach contained fish and frogs." Spec. 2422, 
" (į . Bill black, with a blue spot at the base of the upper and lovver 
mandible ; cere greenish ; face bluish ; legs and feet yellow, with the 
exception of some blackish scales dovvn the front of the tarsi and 
toes." 

105. BUTEOGALLUS MERIDIONALIS. 

Six ex. Spec. 21/7, " Irides hazel ; bill black ; cere, legs and feet 
yellow : stomach contained hair and small beetles." Spec. 2261, 
" (į . Irides brownish-yellow ; upper mandible blue, with black tip, — 
lower, base blue, then yellow, tip black ; cere and gape yellow ; legs 
and feet orange." This bird is seea sitting on the fences, tops of 
trees, &c., and utters a shrill cry. It is very destructive to the poultry. 
Stomach contained in one example " grasshoppers and other insects," 
in another " liair of mammals." 

106. Spizigeranus unicinctus (Temm.). 

One ex., d • " Irides reddish-hazel ; bill blue, with black tip ; 
cere, face, legs and feet yellow : stomach contained grasshoppers." 

107. Herpetotheres cachinnans. 

One ex. " d . Irides hazel ; bill black ; cere orange ; legs and feet 
orange : stomach contained a snake." 

108. Asturina magnirostris. 
Severai ex. 

109. Asturina nitida. 

T\vo ex. Spec. 2326, " cJ . Irides yellow ; beak black, with blue 
base ; cere, gape, legs and feet yellovv : stomach contained remains 
of a snake and insects." 

110. Geranospiza c^rulescens (Vieill.). 

Two ex. Spec. 2159, " į . Irides red ; upper mandible black, with 
a blue spot at the base ; under mandible blue ; legs and feet red : 
stomach contained grasshoppers : by no means shy ; seen feeding on 
the plains." 



289 

111. ROSTRHAMUS SOCIABILIS. 

One ex. 

112- CyMINDIS CAYANENSIS. 

One ex. S • Found in the deep bush ; a duU bird. 

113. GlAUCIDIUM FERRUGINEUM. 

One ex. " Irides yellow ; bill greenish-yellow ; feet yellow." 

114. Glatjcidium infuscatum (Temm.). 
Two ex. 

IV. CoLUMBiE. 

115. CoLUMBA viNACEA, Temm. 
One ex. " Paloma real." 

116. CoLUMBA RUFiNA, Temm. 

Three ex. " Paloma cuculi : irides orange ; bare space round the 
eye red ; bill black ; legs and feet red. Common, but very shy ; 
found in the deep bush : feeds principally on the ground." 

117. Leptoptila verreauxii, Bp. Consp. ii. p. 73. 

Two ex., agreeing with the Pallatanga bird : the inner webs of the 
primaries in this species are wholly rufous. I am not sure as to its 
distinctness from L. rufaxilla of Cayenne ; but it appears diiFerent 
from the Mexican form which bears the latter name. 

118. Leptoptila albifrons, Bp. Consp. ii. p. 74 ? 

One ex. of a species belonging to this section of the division Lep- 
toptila, perhaps more strictly referable to Prince Bonaparte's L. del- 
busi, haring the lateral tail-feathers black. 

119. COLUMBULA CRUZIANA (D'Orb.) T 

One ex. " Irides white ; bill black, with base of lower mandible 
flesh-colour ; legs and feet flesh-colour : very common everywhere." 

120. TiNAMUS ? 

An imperfect skin of a small species allied to T. parvirostris. 

121. Ortalida ruficeps (Wagler). — Penelope nificeps,M^eig\er, 
Isis, 1830, p. 1111. 

Four ex., seemingly agreeing with Wagler's description. " Gua- 
characa : irides hazel ; bill blue ; face bluish ; throat reddish ; legs 
and feet blue. Very shy, but noisy : always in small communities 
in the high trees : stomachs contain seeds and leaves." Its uote is 
said to be "Trabaja — trabaja" (Work — work), to which the response 
of the answering bird is said to be " i Para que 1 i Para que ? " 
(Wherefore ?) . 

No. 435. — Proceedings of the Zcological Society. 



290 

122. Aramus scolopaceus (Gm.). 

Agrees with S. American examples. " Irides hazel ; bill yellow 
and black ; legs and feet black : from a small lagoon in the deep 
bush, sitting on the ground." 

123. Nycticorax violaceus (Gm.). 
One ex., not adult. 

124. TiGRISOMA TIGRINUM (Gm.). 

One ex. in immature plumage. 

125. Egretta leuce. 

One ex. in bad condition, but apparently of this species. Stomach 
contained " fisb and grasshoppers." 

126. Tantalus loculator, Linn. 
One ex. in bad condition. 

127. HoPLOPTERUs CAYANUS (Lath.). 
Severai ex. 

128. HiATicuLA coLLARis (VieUl.). — Charadrius azarte, Temm. 
One ex. *' Irides hazel ; bill black ; legs and feet flesh-colour." 

129. HiMANTOPUS NIGRICOLLIS, Vieill. 

One ex. 

130. Micro PALAMA himantopus, Bp. 

Two ex. of this species killed in September, — the first I have seen 
from so far south. 

131. Gambetta flavipes (Gm.). 

One ex. " Irides hazel ; bill black ; legs and feet orange. Com- 
mon about the ponds that are left on the plains in the dry season. 
Noisy and shy." 

132. Parra jacana, Linn. 

Three examples in different statės of plumage. " Irides hazel ; 
bill and spurs orange ; cere, wattles, and base of upper mandible 
deep red or lake ; legs and feet bluish. Common about the lagoons, 
but shy : dives well." 

133. Rhynchops nigra, Linn. 

One ex. " Seen skimming over the surface of the lagoons, and 
occasionally dipping its bill in the water." 

134. Phalacrocorax ? 

Two ex. of a species of Cormorant in bad condition. 



291 

4. List of Birds collected by Mr. Fraser at Esmeraldas, 
EcuADOR, VFiTH Descriptions OF New Species. By P. L. 

SCLATER. 

Mr. Fraser passedpartofOctober, November, andDecember 1859, 
at Esmeraldas, on the coast of Ecuador, on his route from Guajaąuil 
to Panama by sea. During his stay he collected about 1 70 speci- 
mens of birds, belonging to 93 species, of wbich I have subjoined the 
names, as far as T have been able to determine them. Many of the 
species obtained at Babahoyo occur again iu the present series ; but 
there are several new and of interest which were here met with for 
the first time. 

1. PoLioPTiLA BiLiNEATA (Bp.) : Sckter, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 12. 
Two ex. "Stomach contained insects." 

2. Cyphorintjs PHiEOCEPHALUs, sp. nov. 

Supra saturate brunneus, pileo nigricante : alis et rauda extus 
nigro obsolete transfasciolatis : subtus dilutior : gula, colio et 
pectore toto ajitico intense ferrugineo-rufis : rostro nigricanti- 
corneo : pedibusfuscis. 
Long. totą 4-8, alae 2-5, caudse 1-3. 
Hab. In rep. Equator. Occ. 
Mus. P. L. S. 

Two ex. " Flying from bush to bush, singing : some four or five 
others near the šame spot." 

Nearly allied to C. modulator, D'Orb. ; but distinguished by its 
dusky head, larger bill, and the deeper brown colouring of the throat. 

3. Thryothorus nigricapillus, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 84. 
Three examples. The specimen preriously described was net 

quite mature. An adult bird has the whole throat aud breast pure 
white, the cross-markings having disappeared. 

4. Troglodytes purvus (Gm.). 
Two examples. 

5. Dendrceca aureola (Gould)? 

Sylvicola aureola, Gould, Zool. Beagle, ii. p. 86. pi. 28. 
One ex., probably a female of this species, which is doubtless the 
representative of D. cBstiva in this region. 

6. Geothlypis semiflava, Sclater, antea, p. 273. 
Examples of both sexes. 

7. Parula brasiliana (Licht.). 
One ex. 

8. Basileuterus semicervinus, Sclater, antea, p. 84, 
One ex. 



292 

9. Setophaga rtjticilla (Linn.). 
Two ex. 

10. Progne dominicensis (Gtn.). 
One ex. 

11. CoTYLE RUFicoLLis (VieilL). — Hirundo ruficollis et H.fia- 
vigastra, Vieill. 

Two examples differing from Eastem specimens only in haviiig the 
rump wliitish. The šame is the case in the young bird noted antea, 
p. 274. 

12. Chlorophanes atricapilla (Vieill.). 

One ex. " From a lofty tree in a Cacao plantation." 

13. Dacnis egregia, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 251. 
C . Dilute olivacea, abdotnine flavo. 

Two ex. c? et $ . 6 , "irides bright orange ; in stomach vege- 
table matter." ?, "irides deep orange; bill black ; base of lower 
mandible blue : killed in the top of a lofty tree : in stomach black 
seeds." 

14. Certhiola luteola, Cab. 
One ex. $ . " In stomach insects." 

15. Procnias occidentalis, Sclater. 

One ex. ? . " Killed in the top of a lofty tree when in company 
with a malė : stomach contained ants and a large green caterpillar." 

16. Calliste cyaneicollis (Lafr. et D'Orb.). 

Two ex. "From high trees:" in stomachs "insects and vege- 
table matter." 

17. Calliste gyroloides (Lafr.). 
Three ex. " From tall trees." 

18. Tanagra melanoptera, Hartl. 

One ex. Stomach contained " a seed and vegetable matter." 

19. Tanagra cana, Sw. ? 

" Found in companies of three or four in the lofty trees in the 
Cacao plantations." 

20. Tachyphonus luctuosus (Lafr. et D'Orb.). 

Two ex. d et $ . " In the underwood near the ground." 

21. Ramphoceles tcteronotus, Bp. 

Many ex. "Common in small parties of from two to six." 



293 

22. Pyranga iESTivA (Linn.). 
Three ex. 

23. Arremon erythrorhynchus, Sclater. 

24. Saltator MAGNUS (6m.). 
Three ex. In stomach "seeds." 

25. PiTYLUS GROSSus (Linn,). 

Three ex., agreeing with specimens from Cayenne. Stomachs 
contained " seeds and vegetable matter." 

26. Hedymeles ludovicianus. 
One ex. 

27. GUIRACA ? 

One ex., a female of a species allied to G. cyanea. 

28. Sfermofhila ophthalmica, Sclater, antea, p. 276. 

Three ex. " Killed on the Cacao plant (Theobroma) : stomach 
contained minute seeds." 

29. Spermophila gutturalis (Licht.). 
One ex. 

30. Embernagra chrysoma, Sclater, antea, p. 275. 

" Found in small parties araongst the fallen underwood in a Cacao 
plantation : " stomachs of two contained " insects." 

31. IcTERTJS MESOMELAS, Wagler. 

" Very^shy ; often heard, but seldom seen." 

32. Cassictjlus prevosti (Less.). 
Two ex. 

33. XiPHORHYNCHUs THORACicus, Sclater, antea, p. 277. 

34. PiCOLAPTES SOULEYETII, Lafr. 

35. Dendrocops atrirostris, Lafr. et D'Orb. 

36. SiTTASOMUS ERiTHACtrs (Licht.) ? 

" Appears entirely red during its short but rapid flights." 

37. Xenops genibarbis, Temm. 

Three examples, hardly distinguishable from ordinary Eastern 
specimens. 



294 

38. Synallaxis pudica, Sclater. 

One ex., agreeing with those from Babahoyo. 

39. Thamnophilus transandeanus, Sclater. 
One ex, Stomach coutained "insects." 

40. Thamnophilus n^vius (Gm.). 

Severai ex., agreeing sufficiently witli specimens from Cayenne. 

41. Myrmotherula ? 

A female of a species allied to M. surinamensis. 

42. Myrmotherula ? 

A single example of a species allied to M. gularis. " S • Irides 
orange ; upper mandible black, lower blue ; legs and feet blue." 

43. FoRMicivoRA coNSOBRiNA, Sclatcr, antea, p. 279. 
Severai examples, not in good preservation. 

44. Pyriglena PiCEA, Cab. ? 

One ex., agreeing with that mentioned in the previous coUection 
(p. 279). 

45. Cercomacra tyrannina, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 90. 
A single malė example, agreeing with Bogotan skins. 

46. Cercomacra maculosa, Sclater, antea, p. 279. 
Examples of both sexes. 

ĄT. Hypocnemis n^vioides, Lafr. 
Found " in the undervvood." 

48. Myrmeciza exsul, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 540. 

Two examples of this bird differ from that described only in being 
rather more ashy-black on the head and breast. " Irides hazel ; 
bill black ; legs and feet blue ; naked space round the eyes ultra- 
marine-blue." 

49. Formicarius analis (Lafr. et D'Orb.). 

Two examples, differing from Trinidad skins only in having the 
head of a darker and more blackish shade. " Irides hazel ; bare 
space round the eyes flesh-colour ; bill black ; legs and feet brownish: 
killed on the ground near a cane-patch." 

50. CopuRus LEUCONOTUS, Lafr. — C. pcecilonotus, Cab. in 
Schomb. Guian. iii. p. 703. 

Severai ex. "Irides hazel: sitting on a lofty stump in a Cacao 
plantation." 



295 

51. Megarhynchus chrysogaster, Sclater, antea, p. 281, 
One ex. 

52. Myiodynastes nobilis, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 42. 

" Stomach contained insects : irides bazei ; bill black ; base of 
lower maudible flesh-colour ; legs and feet blue." 

53. Myiarchus nigriceps, Sclater, antea, p. 68. 

54. CONTOPUS 1 

One ex. of a small species allied in structure to C. virens. 

55. Empidonax ? 

Two ex. of a distinct species of tbis group, allied to E. acadicus. 

56. Empidonax ? 

One ex. 

57. Pyrocephalus nanus, Gould. 
" Not very common." 

58. Cyclorhynchus subbrunneus, Sclater, antea, p. 282. 
One ex. 

59. Myiobius erythrurus, Cab. in 'Wiegin. Archiv. 1847, t. 5. 
f. 1. 

Three ex,, apparently to tbis species. 

60. Myiobius barbatus (Gm.). 

Two ex., agreeing with tbose from Bababoyo. 

61. Platyrhynchus albigularis, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 68. 
One ex. " Found in tbe dark undervrood." 

62. TODIROSTRUM saUAMICRISTATUM, Lafr. 

Two ex. 

63. Myiozetetes columbianus, Cab, & Hein. Mus. Hein. ii. 
p. 62. 

One ex., apparently agreeing witb tbis species, if distinct from M. 
cayennensis. 

64. Elainea ? 

One ex. of a species allied to E. plaeens of Mexico and Central 
America. 

65. TiTYRA PERSONATA, Jard. & Selb. 111. Orn. i. pi. 24. 

Two ex., agreeing witb Mexican specimens. I bave also received 
tbe šame bird from S. Martba and Bogota. 



296 

66. Pachyrhamphus spodiurus, Sclater, antea, p. 2/9. 
One ex., agreeing with Babahoyo specimens. 

67. Chiromach.«ris manactjs (Linn.). 
Three ex. 

Nyctidromus ? 

Adult and young. " The note of this bird resembles ' Who are 
you 1 ' said very distinctly and quickly. On moonlight nights it may 
be heard in all quarters." 

69. Phaethornis moorii, Lawrence. 

One ex. d • " Feeding about some vines at the heigbt of 5 feet 
from the ground in the Cacao plantations." 

70. Glatjcis ruckeri. 

Three ex. Spec. no. 2577, "irides bazei ; upper mandible black, 
lower yellow with a black tip ; legs and feet flesh-colour. Found 
on the edge of the virgin forest : always solitary, generally in dark 
and lonely places, and very restless." 

71. Heliothrix purpureiceps, Gould, Mon. Troch. pt. 17. 
pi. 9. 

Three ex. " Seen flying low at the edges of the forest." 

72. Amazilia riefferi (Boiss.). 

Two ex. "Wheu I arrived in October, this species was by no 
means uncommon, feeding morning and evening round the eaves of 
the house. In November it was very scarce, and in December not 
to be seen." 

73. JULIAMYIA TYPICA, Bp. 

Three ex. Spec. no. 2555, " taken catching flies among the vines 
in the Cacao plantations. In October very common everywhere ; in 
December rare." 

74. JuLIAMYIA AMARILIS. 

Two ex. Stomach contained " insects." 

75. Ceryle americana (Gm.). 

Two ex. Stomachs contained " remains of fishes." 

76. MoMOTus MiCROSTEPHANtrs, Sclater? 
Two ex. " A rare bird here." 

77. Bucco suBTECTUS, sp. nov. 

Similis Bvicconi tecto ex Cayenna, sed colore nigro intensiore, 



297 

tectricibus alarum superioribus immaculatis ; et vitta pectorali 

dimidio angustiore. 
Long. totą 5"8, alae 2'8, caudse 2*1 . 
Hab. In rep. Eąiiator., regione littorali. 
Mus. P. L. S. 
One ex. " Irides hazel ; bill, legs, and feet black." 

78. Malacoptila panamensis, Lafr. Rev. Zool. 1847, p. 79 ; 
Sclater, Mon. Buce. p. 18. 

Severai ex. of both sexes. " Irides red ; legs and feet bluish 
flesh-eolour. Found in the dry underwood where no weeds grow, 
flying from branch to branch." 

The females are paler, not rufous above, and hardly so on the tail ; 
but of a greyish tinge, and with the breast below much paler. 



II. SCANSORES. 

79. PiAYA NiGRTCRissA, Sclater, antea, p. 285. 
"Found in the undervvood." 

80. PiAYA RUTILĄ (Vieill.) : Bp. Consp. p. 110. 

One example, not differing materially from Eastern specimens. 
" Three Guava-trees in front of the houae were attacked by a num- 
ber of caterpillars, which in twenty-four hours stripped off their 
leaves. These inseots attracted two specimens of this bird. They 
were exceedingly active and elegant when hopping or running 
through the branches ; but their flight was heavy and laboured, their 
short heavy wings being in strong contrast with their long light 
tail." 

81. Crotophaga sulcirostris, Sw. 
One ex. 

82. EuBucco bourcieri (Lafr.). 

" Stomach contaiued vegetable matter." 

83. Centurus pucheranii, Malh. 

One ex. " Stomach contained vegetable matter." 

84. Chloronerpes cecilii, Malh. 1 

One ex. in bad condition, perhaps of this species. 

85. Chloronerpes callonotus (Waterh.). 
Two ex. " From small trees near the house." 

86. Dryocopus fuscipennis, Sclater, antea, p. 286. 
Common. 



298 

67. Herpetotheres cachinnans (Linn.). 

One ex. $ by diss. " Crop and stomach ftdl of snakes." 

88. AcciPiTER PiLEATUs (Max.). 

One ex. J . " Stomach contained feathers." 

89. COLUMBA SPECIOSA (Gm,). 

" Stomach contained minute seeds and vegetable matter." 

90. Peristera ? 

A young bird in bad statė, of a species allied to P. cinerea. 

91. Odontophorus erythrops, Gould. 

One ex. " Stomach contained seeds and vegetable matter. This 
bird is found in covies in the underwood, and has a ory, which it 
utters just before dayhght and after sunset." 

92. TiNAMUS ? 

" Killed when in company with some domestic chickens in the 
bush near the house." A small species, aUied to T. parvirostris : 
the specimen in bad condition. 

93. HiATICULA AZAR^. 

94. Tringoides macularitjs (Linn.), juv. 
"Not imcommon on the river's bank." 



5. Characters of Eleven New Species of Birds discovered 

BY OSBERT SaLVIN IN GuATEMALA. B\ PhILIP LuTLEY 
SCLATEB, M. A., SeCRETARY TO THE SoCIETY ; AND OsBERT 

Salvin, M.A., F.Z.S. 

1. POLIOPTILA ALBILORIS. 

Carulescenti-cmerea, pileo nigro, loris albia: r'emigibus alarum 
nigricantibus ; primariis cinereo, secundariis alto latiore mar- 
ginatis : caudee rectricibus tribus utrinque lateralibus albo, gra- 
datim decrescente, terminatis, ceteris nigris, ąuarta utrinąue 
extima albo terminata : subtus alba, cinerascente lavata : 
rostro nigro : pedibus obscure pJumbeis. 

Long. totą 43, alse 1*9, caudae 2-0. 

Hab. In rep. Guatimalensi in valle fl. Motagua. 

Obs. Affinis P. leucogastrce ex Brasilia, sed loris albis facile nota- 
bilis. 

2. Dendr<eca chrysoparia. 

Supra nigra, dorsi pluinis ad margines aurescentibug : superciliis 
et capite toto laterali late aureo-Jlavis, vitta angusta per oculos 
tra7iseunte nigra : alis nigricantibus, albo bifasciatis, secun- 



299 

dariis quoque albido limbatis : cauda nigra, rectricum trium 
utrinque lateralium pagonio interno partim albo : subtus alba 
gutture toto et maculis laterum utrinąue nigris : rostro pedi- 
busąue obscure corneis. 
Long. totą 4*5, alse 2'5, caudse 2*4 . 

Hab. In reip. Guatemalensis provincia Verse Paeis, inter montes. 
Obs. Inter 2). virentem et D. tomnsendi media, ab utraqae dorso 
nigro, abdomine pure albo et capite laterali fere omnino aureo distin- 
guenda. 

3. Hylophilus cinereiceps. 

Flavicanti-olivaceus : pileo toto et nucha cinereis : ciliis oculo- 
rum et corpore medio subtus albis : lateribus et crisso pallide 
flavicanfi-viridibtis, rostro corneo, mandibula inferiore albicante : 
pedibus plumbeis. 
Long. totą 4*1, alse 2'1, caudse 1"8. 
Hab. In prov. Verse Paeis regione calida. 

Obs. Affinis H. thoraeico, Temminckii, ex Cayenna, sed fronte 
pileo concolore et pectore albo distinguendus. 

4. Glyphorhynchus pectoralis. 

Brunneus, secutidariis extus, uropygio et cauda rufis : superciliis, 
lateribus capitis et gula pallide ochracescenti-rufis, plumarum 
marginibus angustis brunneis : subtus dilutior, pectore maculis 
elongatis, plumarum scapas cingentibus, notato : remigibus 
nigris, macula magna ąuadrata in pogonio interiore pallide 
ochracea occupatis : rostro nigricanti-plumbeo, pedibus nigris. 

Long. totą 5*5, alse 2*8, caudse 2*7. 

Hab. In prov. Verse Paeis regione calida. 

Obs. Assimilis G. cuneato ex Brasilia, sed statura majore et ma- 
culis pectoralibus dignoscendus. 

5. Thamnistes anabatinus. 

Thamnistes genus novum ex familia Formicariidarum, Thamno- 
philo generi affinis : characteres generales Thamnophili habet, sed 
rostro crassiore, basi latiore, et ptilosi anabatino differt. 

Typus. T. anabatinus. 

<S . Vix olivascenti-brunneus subtus dilutior : cauda ferrugineo- 
rubra unicolore : alis extus rufescentibus : macula magna inter- 
scapulari plumarum hasin occupante Icete aurantiaco-rubra 
margine subapicali nigra : superciliari striga indistincta et cor- 
pore subtus pallide ochraceis, unicoloribus : rostri mandibula 
superiore nigricante, infenore pallide cornea, pedibus nigris. 

$ . Mari similis, sed macula interscapulii nulla. 

Long. totą 5'6, alse 2' 7, caudse 2"3, tarsi 7*5. 

Hab. In prov. Verse Paeis regione calida. 

6. Platyrhynchus cancrominus. 

Platyrhynchus cancroma, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 295, et Ibis, 
1859, p. 445. 



300 

Similis P. caucromse ex Brasilia, et ab illo vix satis diversus, sed 

gula pure alba et cauda breviore distinguendus. 
Hab. In prov. Verse Paeis regione calida, et in Mexico Merid. 
statu Verse Crucis. 

7. Tyrannulus semiflavtjs, 

Olivaceus : pileo cinerascente : fronte et superciliis albis : alis 
caudague fuscis olivaceo limbatis : subtus pure Jlavus : rostro 
et pedibus nigris. 
Long. totą 3"2, alse TS, cauds9 \'2. 
Hab. In prov, Verse Paeis regione calida. 

Obs. Affinis Tyrannulo elato et T. nigricapillo, et plerumque 
eadem forma, sed corpore subtus flavo, maculis alaribus nuUis et 
cauda paulo breviore distinguendus. 

8. Heteropelma ver^-pacis. 

Olivaceum unicolor, supra infraąue ad medium pectus rufo aut 
ochraceo lavatum : alis caudaque fuscescentibus, extus rufescen- 
tibus : rostro corneo pedibus plumbescentibus. 

Long. totą 6"3, alse 3-5, caudse 2*5. 

Hab. In prov. Verse Paeis regione calida. 

Obs. Affine H. virescenti ex Brasilia et statura eadem ; colore 
H. turdino magis appropinąuans ; attamen ab utroque sane diversum. 

9. LiPAUGUS HOLERYTHRUS. 

Rufescenti-brunneus unicolor, subtus clarior : retnigmn parte in- 
terna et primariorum apicibus fuscescentibus : rostri pallide 
cornei basi albicante : pedibus obscure corylinis. 

Long. totą 8*3, alse 4"2, caudse 3*8. 

Hab. In prov. Verse Paeis regione calida. 

Obs. x\ffinis L. unirufo ex eadem patria, et pietura eadem, sed 
crassitie minore facile dignoscendus. 

10. PlONUS H^MATOTIS. 

Firidis : pileo rubiginoso flavo : hujus plumarum marginibus an- 
gustis et regione auriculari coccineis: gutture obscure plumbeo: 
subtus viridis, pectore aureo lavato : lateribus sub alis late coc- 
cineis : remigibus nigris, primariis supra fulvo anguste lim- 
batis ; secundariis supra et alis omnino subtus ccerulescentibus : 
rectricum basibus intus coccineis, caudce apice ccerulescente : 
rostro flavescenti-albo, pedibus rubellis. 

Long. totą 8'5, alse 5'8, caudse 3'6. 

Hab. In prov. Verse Paeis regione calida. 

Obs. Speeies lateribus coccineis ab aliis hujusce generis speciebus 
primo visu diversa. 

11. CORETHRURA RUBRA. 

Lcete rufa, subtus medialiter dilutior : gula albicantiore : pileo 
toto et lateribus capitis saturate cinereis : remigibus et rectri- 



301 

Cibus cum uropygio obscure fusco-nigris : rastro nigro : pedibus 

olivaceis. 
Long. totą 9-0, alse 3-25, caudae 17, rostri ab aneulo oris O'S 
tarsi 1-3, ' 

Hab. In provincia Verae Paeis. 



6. Note on the Skull of the Red River-Hog (Potamoch(e- 
Rus PENiciLLATus). By Philip Lutley Sclater, M.A., 
Secretary to the Society. 

The present skull of the Red River-Hog (being that of the old 
malė animal, received by the Society from the Cameroons River in 
1852, which died during the late severe winter) is of interest, as 
affording the first opportunity that we have had in this country of 
examining the dentition of this animal, and ascertaining how far this 
part of its structure goes to corroborate its generic separation from 
the true Sues, which has been proposed by Dr. Gray, under the name 
Potamochoerus*. The following notes upon some of the more stri- 
kmg characteristics of the skull of this animal, as observed on com- 
panng it with the skull of an adult malė Sus indicus, were drawn 
up by myself and my friend Mr. W. K. Parker. 





The dentition of Potamochoerus is 

Inc. J. Can. Į=i. p^m. ?=2. Mol. ^E?- 

lif^f^'t^rf P'"''™"^^'" į ^ery small, and appears to be lostin early 
hfe m the lower jaw. It will be observed that the dentition differs 

* P. Z. S. 1852, p. 131. 



302 

from that of the typical Sus m the entire absence of the fourth prae- 
molar from each jaw. The great contraction of the lower jaw at the 
syraphysis between the canines and the prsemolars is Ukevrise re- 
markable. The whole skuU of Potamochoerus is shorter in propor- 
tion to its length than that of Sus, and more Hippopotamoid. The 
pr8emaxillary bones are more expanded. The basis cranii is altogether 
shorter, so that the pterygoids (which are strouger) nearly reach the 
tympanics, whereas in Sus indicus they are more than half an inch 
apart. The most noticeable character, however, in the skuU of Po- 
tamochoerus is the great width and strength of the zygomatic arch 
■which (as may be seen by the accompanying woodcuts), turns out 
suddenly at its anterior part at right angles from the Une of the 
face, and attains its greatest breadth at once, anteriorly to orbits. 
In Sus, on the other hand, it slopes gradually outwards, and reaches 
its greatest width at the junction of the squamose with the malar. 
The orbits are proportionately smaller in Potamochoerus ; and the 
malar bones are of remarkable size and strength. Looking at the 
occiputs, the supra-occipital is wider than in Sus, and more strongly 
ridged. 

At the middle of the nasal bones in Potamochoerus, a rough out- 
standing ridge projects widely on each side to support the large 
warty protuberances which adom the face of the living animal. 
This ridge is about 2 inches in length, gradually lessening towards 
the snout, and projects so far as nearly to meet the rough termina- 
tion of the posterior developmeut of the tusk-process of maxillary, 
and forms with it a channel for the passage of the orbitai nerves and 
vessels. 

Such are some of the leading peculiarities in the skuU of this 
animal which seem fully to justify its separation as a generie or 
subgeneric form from Sus. It is probable that the Southern River- 
Hog {Potamochoerus africanus) possesses the šame diflferential 
characters, and that the isolation of these two species in structural 
characters mll thus be found to correspond with their geographical 
position as inhabitants of a distinct zoological region from that 
tenanted by Sus. 



June 12th, 1860. 

Dr. J. E. Gray, V.P., in the Chair. 

Dr. A. Giinther exhibited a dried specimen of a fish of the genus 
Centrolophus, obtained by Mr. J. Couch at Polperro, Cornwall. It 
had been named by Mr. Couch Centrolophus morio, but Dr. Giin- 
ther regarded it as of a new and distinct species, and proposed to 
call it C. britannicus. 



303 

Mr. Sclater exhibited a malė example of the Bimaculated Duck of 
Yarrell and other British authors, which was now generally believed 
to be a hybrid betvveen Anas boschas or Dafila acuta and Querque- 
dūla crecca. It was shot when in company with other ducks {Anas 
boschas) on the Beauly Firth, Inverness-shire, in January 1860, by 
Mr. W. Lautour. 

Prof. Macdonald exhibited diagrams illustrative of, and made re- 
marks upon, a new scheme of zoological classification. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Additional Note on Didelphys avaterhousii. 
By Robert f. Tomės. 

Since the publication, in the • Proceedings ' of the Society, of the 
deseription of this species, I have had occasion to study the deserip- 
tions of Severai species of Opossums in the 'Fauna Brasiliens*' of 
Prof. Burmeister, and find that he has characterized, under the 
name of GrymtBomys scapulatus, an Opossum, which he considers 
identical with the unnamed species described by Mr. Waterhouse at 
page 505 of his work on Mammalia. Believingin the identity of the 
specimen from Ecuador with the one from which Mr. Waterhouse's 
deseription was taken, and supposing it to be without a name, I called 
it, in honour of its first describer, Didelphys waterhousii. The 
question for solution is, whether Prof. Burmeister and myself have 
referred the šame species to this deseription by Mr. Waterhouse, or 
whether two distinct species have not been thus confounded by us. 
In the first instance, my name would have to give way, that of Prof. 
Burmeister having the precedence by three years ; in the latter case. 




both names vrould remain. I submit the following as an explana- 
tion : — The specimen from which Mr. Waterhouse described was a 
malė, and v?e have therefore no precise evidence of the nature of the 
pouch, although it is placed by him in that section in which the 

* ' Erlauterungen zur Fauna Brasiliens,' &c., in folio, with platės, Berlin, 1856. 



304 

pouch is either rudimentary or wholly wanting. Prof. Burmeister 
places his species in a new genus in which this part is imperfect or 
absent. The specimen from Mr. Fraser, oii the contrary, possesses 
a complete pouch, in which, accordiug to that gentleman's note, 
were several young ones. When it came into my hands, this part 
contained cotton-wool, and was about the size of a large hazel-uut. 
This, as it appears to me, is quite sufficient evidence of the distinct- 
ness of the two species ; but the specimen described by Mr. Water- 
house remains doubtful, since we do not know to which to refer it. 
The accompanying drawings (see woodcut, p. 303) of the skuU of 
Didelphys waterhousii vi\\\ perhaps assist us in making out the rela- 
tionship of these species. 



2. Descriptions of t"wenty-two New Species of Humming- 
BiRDS. By John Gould, F. R. S., etc. 

As my work on the Trochilidce is now fast drawing to a close, I have 
examined with care and minute detail my entire coUection of this 
great and important family of birds, and I find therein more than twenty 
species, which, I beheve, have not yet received specific appellations. 
Many of these I have had by me for years, while others have been 
more recently acąuired. Of the specific value of those described in the 
following pages I am perfectly satisfied ; but in case any doubt should 
be entertained on the subject, my collection is, and will be, at all times 
accessible for their elucidation. 

Grypus spixi, Gould. 

Crown of the head bronzy-brown ; upper surface and all the tail- 
feathers very rich reddish-bronze ; wings reddisii purple-brown ; line 
above the eye buflf; ear-coverts dark-brown; throat, chest and under 
surface deep reddish-buff ; under tail-coverts bronzy, each slightly 
tipped with buffy-white ; upper mandible black ; under mandible 
yellow, with a black tip ; feet yellow. 

Totai length 4| inches ; bill lį ; wing 2f ; tail If . 

Hab. Supposed to be Brazil. 

Remark. — This bird is considerably smaller than G. ncevius, and 
has a less cuneate tail. It is possible that this may be one of the 
sexes of Glaucis dohrni ; many of its colours would induce such a 
belief ; and if such should prove to be the case, that bird mušt be re- 
moved from the genus Glaucis to that of Grypus. I have named this 
bird in honour of the celebrated traveller Spix, in whose work there 
occurs a figure of a bird (G. riificollis) vvhich somewhat resembles 
my specimen : not so, hovvever, the accompanying description, which 
appears to be that of the species so frequently sent from Rio de 
Janeiro, and which is generally known as Grypus tkbvius. 

GLAUfciS MELANURA, Gould. 

Centre of the throat, chest, and under surface buff ; a streak of 
dark brown passes downwards from the base of the lower mandible. 



i 



305 

betwcen which and the ear-coverts is a stripe of buff; there is also a 
line of buff behind the eye ; crown of the head brown ; back of the 
neck, upper surface, and two middle tail-feathers golden-green ; upper 
tail-coverts narrovvly edged with grey ; basai portion of the inner 
webs and the shafts of the four lateral tail-feathers rich reddish-buff 
approaching to chestnut, the remainder of these feathers being black, 
tipped with white ; bill black, except the base of the under mandible, 
which is yellow. 

Totai length 4 A inches ; bill U ; wing lį ; tail 2^. 

Remark. — This species is much smaller than the G. hirsuta of 
Trinidad and the eastern coast of America. It has also a much 
greater amount of black colour in its tail ; this orgari, in fact, when 
closed and viewed from beneath, appears to be entirely black, the 
under coverts concealing the buff colouring at its base. I possess two 
specimens of this bird, one of which, a very fine one, was received 
from the upper Rio Negro ; the other from the Napo. 

Phaethornis zonų ra, Gould. 

Crown of the head brown ; back of the neck, back, and shoulders 
bronzy-green ; rump and upper tail-coverts rich reddish-buff; all the 
under surface buff, palest on the throat ; three outer tail-feathers on 
each side black at the base, with rich buffy tips ; the fourth feather 
the šame except at the tip, where the outer half is buff and the inner 
half white ; the two centrai prolonged feathers black at the base, largely 
tipped with white ; bill black, except the basai half of the lower man- 
dible, which is either yellow or flesh-colour ; feet yellow. 

Totai length 3| inches ; bill 1 ; wing 1-| ; tail 1|. 

Hab. Peru, vvhere it was procured by M. Warszewicz. 

Remark. — This is a fine and very distinct species ; it is perhaps 
most nearly allied to P. griseogularis ; it is, however, a much larger 
bird, and has its tail much more strongly marked. In fact, the tail mušt 
show very conspicuously when outspread, from the strong contrast 
vvhich the black basai portion offers to the buff tips and the rich 
rufous colouring of the rump and upper tail-coverts. It belongs to 
that section of the genus Phaethornis to which Prince Bonaparte 
has given the subgeneric name of Pygmornis. 

AUGASMA SMARAGDINEUM, Gould. 

Crown of the head and throat glittering greenish-blue, imper- 
ceptibly passing into the glittering green at the breast ; back of the 
neck and upper surface golden-green ; upper tail-coverts grass-green ; 
under tail-coverts green inclining to purple on some of the feathers ; 
thighs brown ; tail bluish-black, the two outer feathers on each 
side slightly tipped with white ; bill black, nith the exception of the 
basai half of the under mandible, which is flesh-colour. 

Totai length 3| inches ; bill | ; wing 21 ; tail 1|. 

Hab. Brazil. 

Remark. — This bird is about the size of Thalurania furcata ; it is 
therefore a rather large species ; it is also an elegantly formed bird. 
Those who are acquainted with the T. chlorocephala of AI. Bourcier 

No. 436. — Proceedings of the Zoological Sociktv. 



306 

will find in this a very near ally ; I have not the least doubt, how- 
ever, of its being quite distinct. The only examples I have seen are 
one in my own coUection, and auother in that of M. Verreaux of Paris. 
In M. Verreanx's specimen the white tippings of the outer tail-feathers 
are nearly obsolete, while in mine they are conspicuous ; in my speci- 
men, also, the two middle tail-feathers are marked with green on their 
upper surface, while in M. Verreaux's these feathers are uniform in 
colour throughout. My bird was kindly sent to me by T. Reeves, 
Esq., of Rio de Janeiro. 

EuCEPHALA C^RULKO-LAVATA, Goilld. 

Crovvn of the head greenish-blue, not very brilliant, bu t having a 
few conspicuous small bright-blue feathers intermingled ; throat and 
chest bright greenish-blue, passing into purer green on the flanks ; 
back of the neck, and back, deep grass-green ; wiugs purplish brovrn ; 
upper tail-coverts bronzy-orange ; under tail-coverts bronzy purplish 
brown ; two middle tail-feathers deep purplish bronze ; the next on 
each side is washed with bronze on its outer margin ; the remain- 
ing feathers purplish-black ; thighs greyish-white ; the bill appears 
to have been reddish flesh-colour at the base of both mandibles (this 
colour also pervades nearly the whole of the under mandible) ; the 
remainder of the bill black. 

Totai length 3f inches ; bill į ; wing 2^ ; tail 1^. 

Ha b. St. Paulo in Southern Brazil. 

RemarA-. — I am indebted to T. Reeves, Esq., of Rio de Janeiro, for 
a fine specimen of this new bird, which differs so widely from every 
other knowa species, that I am unable to compare it with any one of 
them. It is a stont and rather large bird, with a well-proportioned 
bill and tail, the latter of which is considerably forked. 

I am not quite satisfied that a place in the genus EucepJiala is the 
proper position for this bird among the Trochilidce, and I feel that 
I might, vvithout overstepping the bounds of propriety, have con- 
stituted it the type of a new genus. 

EuCEPHALA HYPOCYANEA, Gould. 

Crovvn of the head, back of the neck, back and flanks somewhat 
dull-green ; throat and chest brilliant blue, passing into glittering 
green on the centre of the abdomen ; wings purplish-brown ; upper 
tail-coverts reddish-bronze ; under tail-coverts brownish-black, \vith 
bronzy tips ; tail steel-black ; thighs brown ; upper mandible black ; 
basai two-thirds of the under mandible flesh-colour, the apical third 
black. 

Totai length Sį inches ; bill f ; wing 2 ; tail 1|. 

Hab. Said to be Bahia in Brazil. 

RemarA-. — This is a rather small, but distinctly marked species, 
unallied to any other bird. Lesson's Plate 49 of his ' Histoire Na- 
turelle des Oiseaux Mouches,' appears to have been taken from a 
bird of this kind ; but the term bicolor cannot for a moment be 
entertained. 



307 
Erythronota? elegans, Gould. 

Crown and all the under surface of the body glittering light-green ; 
back of the neck and back golden- or orange-green ; upper tail-coverts 
purphsh-red or puce-colour ; tail long, forked, and of a purplish 
violet-hue with green reflexions on the tips of the two centre feathers ; 
wings purphsh browu ; tarsi white ; under tail-coverts grey with 
bronzy-purple centres ; upper mandible flesh colour at the base, and 
black for the remainder of its length ; under mandible flesh colour, 
except at the tip, which is black. 

Totai length 3| inches ; bill 1^ ; wing 2} ; tail 1. 
Hab. Unknown. 

Remarh.—Vi is easier to assign a specific name to a bird than to 
determme to which generic form it is referable ; and if there be any 
bird which is a puzzle to the brain of the ornithologist, this is one. 
lt is a yery elegant species, and quite distinct from every other known 
Hummmg Bird ; in its glittering light-green crown, throat, and chest 
lt looks hke a Chlorostilbon, but the form of its tail and some other 
characters ally it to the Erythronotce, with which I have provisionally 

pifl.C6Q. lt* 

Thaumatias viRiDiCEPS, Gould. 

Crown of the head, nape, and sides of the neck glittering light 
green ; back and shoulders bronzy-green ; throat and abdomen pure 
vvlute ; flanks white, faintly spotted with yellowish-green • under 
tail-coverts white ; the rather short and narrow tail-feathers purplish- 
grey, with an obscure band of purplish ■brown near the tip of the 
three outer ones on each side ; upper mandible black ; under man- 
dible yelIowish, except at the extreme tip, vvhich is black. 

Totai length 4 inches ; bill -A. ; vving 2i ; tail 1|. 

Hab. Ecuador. 

Remark.—0{ this somewhat remarkable species I have two speci- 
mens, •vvhich appear to be malė and female. It is a robust bird, beine 
almost as stout in its bill, head, and bodv as the members of thl 
genus Cyanomyia, while its tail is short and the feathers narrow, as 
in Thaumatias leucogaster and T. chionopectus. 

Thaumatias c^ruleiceps, Gould. 

Crown of the head and back of the neck deep shining greenish- 
blue ; back and shoulders green, passing into bronzy-green on the 
rump and upper tail-coverts ; tail nearly uniform bronze, with a very 
faint indication of a zone of brown across the outer feathers near the 
tjP ; Y"igs purplish brown ; sides of the neck glittering bluish-green, 
the blue tmt predominating on the ear and immediately under the 
eye ; centre of the throat and chest broken glittering green and white • 
flanks bronzy-green ; under tail-coverts grey, with brown centres • 
upper mandible dark brown ; under mandible appears to have been 
yellow, except at the tip, vvhich is dark brown. 

Totai length 3^ inches ; bill j^; wing 2^ ; tail \. 

Hab. Bogota. 



308 

Remark. — This species, which is somewhat allied to the T. milleri, 
differs from that, as well as from every other known member of its 
genus, by the blue colouring of its crown. 

ThAUMATIAS NITIDIFRONS, Gould. 

Crown of the head, face, chest, and breast glittering green ; abdo- 
men and flanks golden green ; back, shoulders, and rump bronzy- 
green ; tail pale bronzy greyish-green, with a zone of purphsh-brown 
crossuig the four lateral feathers on each side near their tips ; under 
tail-coverts grey, vi'\th a patch of bronzy-green in the centre of each ; 
tarsi greyish-bro\vri ; upper mandible black ; under mandible yellow, 
black at the tip. 

Totai length 3^ inehes ; bill f ; wing \^. 

Hab. Unkuovvn. 

Remark. — Nearly allied to the T. brevirostris and T. milleri, but 
differing from both in the glittering green of the face and crown, and 
in the centre of the breast being covered with the šame shining 
colour. The specimen described was presented to me by G. N. Law- 
rence, Esq., when I visited New York in 1858. 

Chlorostilbon melanorhynchus, Gould. 

Bill black ; crown of the head and the entire under surface glit- 
tering golden- green, the golden hue being most conspicuous on the 
crown ; the back of the neck and upper surface are also goldcn-green, 
but less brilliant ; wings purplish-brown ; the short and slightly 
forkcd tail is greenish or steel-blue ; thighs brown ; anai region, and 
a small tuft springing from each side of the body, white. 

Totai length 3f inehes ; bill | ; wing 2 ; tail 1 i. 

Hab. The neighbourhood of Quito in Ecuador. 

Remark. — Differs from C. chrysogaster in its black bill, its 
shorter and less forked tail, and in its being a stouter or more robust 
bird. 

Chlorostilbon acuticaudus, Gould. 

Crown and all the under surface glittering green, the green as- 
suming a golden hue on the crown ; back, all the upper surface, and 
tail rich golden-grcen ; wings purplish-brown ; bill black. 

Totai length 3 inehes ; bill f ; wing If ; tail 1. 

Hab. Antioąua in Columbia. 

Remark. — This very distinct species is allied both to Chlorostilbon 
portmanni and C. alicicB ; but it differs from the former in the greater 
length of its bill, and from the latter in the greater length of its tail- 
feathers. In the preseut species, the outer tail-feather on each side 
is prolonged nearly an eighth of an iuch beyond the next, ^hich 
again is a little prolonged beyond the centre feathers. When the 
tail is closed, the two outer feathers join at the tip, and form a sharp 
point ; in the two species with which I have compared it, the tail is 
more truncate. 



309 

Chlorostilbon osberti, Gould. 

Crown of the head glittering golden-green ; thioat and all the 
under surface glittering grass-green ; wing purplish-black ; tail black, 
the six centre feathers terrninated with a mark of brown, which is 
more couspicuous in some specimens than in otliers ; in some also the 
two centrai feathers are tipped with green ; bill coral-red at the base, 
black at the tip. 

Totai length 2į iuches ; bill -i- ; wiug If ; tail 1}. 

Ha b. Guateinala. 

liemark. — This species, vvhich I have named after Mr. Osbert 
Salvin, and which is an inhabitant of the neighbourhood of Duenas 
and some other parts of Guatemala, has been a great puzzle to me, as 
it mušt be to every Trochilidist who stndies the little green Ham- 
ming Birds to vvhich the generic name of Chlorostilbon has been ap- 
plied. It is, in fact, a diminutive C. caniveti, but too dimiuutive to 
be regarded in any other light than in that of a species. 

In naming this bird after Mr. Osbert Salvin, I feel that a finer 
species raight have been more appropriately dedicated to him ; for 
there is no person of his youthful age who has exerted hiinself so 
praisevvorthily or so successfuUy in collecting facts and specimens of 
ornithology. Mr. Salvin has already traversed a great part of the 
country of Central America, and has also paid a hurried visit to 
North Africa, and collected in both countries an immense mass of 
materials in every department of zoology, which he has liberally 
placed at the disposal of those who have devoted themselves to the 
Severai departments to which they pertain. 

Calothorax decoratus, Gould. 

Malė — Crown of the head, all the upper surface and flanks deep 
grass-green ; throat and sides of the neck very lovely shining lilac ; 
chest grey ; wings and tail purplish-brovyn ; bill black. 

Totai length 3 inches ; bill f ; wing 1|^ ; tail į. 

Hab. Supposed to be Antioqua in Columbia. 

Remark.—Th.\į, species might easily be mistaken for Calothorax 
heliodori; but although closely alJie'd to that species, it differs 
from it in several particulars,— in being much larger, in having the 
frill in front of the throat not so prolonged at the sides (in -vvhich 
respect it more nearly resembles C. mulsanti), the two centre tail- 
feathers finer or more spiny, and the bill much longer. These com- 
parisons have been made with fine specimens in my collectiou of all 
three species. 

Amazilia alticola, Gould. 

Crown of the head and back of the neck dark brown, with very 
slight reflexions of golden-green ; back of the neck, back, and rump 
goldeu- or orange-green ; upper part of the throat, cheeks, and sides 
of the neck hght golden-green ; lower part of the throat, chest, 
centre of the abdomen, thighs, and the thickly clothed tarsi pure 
white ; flanks rich bright buflp ; under tail-coverts \vhite vvashed with 
buff ; tail rich deep reddish-buff, the two centre feathers washed vvith 



310 

bronzy-grey, and the four outer ones, ou each side, washed on their 
outer edges with bronzy-green ; wings purplish-brown ; bill black at 
the tip, the remainder white or flesh-colour. 

Totai length 4 iuches ; bill J-| ; wing 2-| ; tail If. 

Hab. Said to be the Pūna district of Peru. 

Remark. — In its general style of colouring, this bird is very simi- 
lar to Amazilia leucophcBa, but, compared with that species, is a 
giant in size ; it has also less of the glittering golden-green on the 
cheeks and sides of ihe neck. 

I am iudebted to M. Bourcier for permission to describe this 
species. 

PhLOGOPHILTJS HEMILEUCURUS, GouM. 

Ciown of the head brownish-green ; back of the neck, upper sur- 
face, two middle tail-feathers, and the flanks grass-green ; sides of 
the face and ear-coverts greenish-brown ; centre of the throat, chest, 
middle of the abdomen, and under tail-coverts white ; tail rounded ; 
the four Interal feathers on each side white with an oblique band of 
black or blackish-purple occnpying the centre of each, this band of 
black extending along the niargin of the two outer feathers to the 
tip, so that the inner web only is white ; not so on the next, which is 
terminated with a large spot or tip of vvhite ; upper mandible black ; 
under mandible flesh-colour ; feet yellow. 

Totai length 2,\ inches ; bill \ ; wing 2\ ; tail lį. 

Hah. The borders of the Rio Napo. 

Remark. — I have no doubt that the bird from which the above 
description was taken is immature ; when the adult is discovered, it 
\Till probably be found to be a very reniarkable species ; in fact, the 
specimen described exhibits characters differing from those of every 
other known llumming-bird, among which its singularly-marked, 
rounded tail is especially noticeable. 

CaLL,IPHLOX ? IRIDESCENS, Gould. 

The whole of thebody, including the upper and under tail-coverts, 
iridescent, pale green and light coppery-red, most brilliant on the 
throat ; the deeply forked tail steely dark-brown, each feather tipped 
with a more bronzy or purplish hue, vvhich is seen only in certain 
lights ; upper mandible and the tip of the lower one black, the 
remainder of the latter apparently reddish flesh-colour. 

Totai length 3| inches ; bill | ; wing ly^-. ; tail I|. 

Hab. Rio de Janeiro. 

Remark. — If, as I believe, I am right in referring this little bird 
to the genus CaUij>hIox, it is one of the most remarkable Humming- 
birds that it has fallen to my lot to describe. In its size and form 
it is very similar to C. amethystina, but in colouring it is likę a 
Chlorostilbon. The only specimen I have seen was sent to me by 
T. Eeeves, Esq., of Rio de Janeiro. 

Aphantochroa ? GULARis, Gould. 

Crown shining grass-green ; back of the neck, shoulders, back, 



311 

upper tail-coverts, and tvvo centre tail-feathers deep grass-green ; 
under surface of the body grass-green, with the exception of a glit- 
tering patch of lilac on the throat and the centre of the abdomen, 
the thighs, and under tail-coverts, which are white ; primaries pur- 
plish-brown ; four outer tail-feathers, on each side, purplish-green ; 
bill slightly curved and black, with the exception of the base of the 
under mandible, which appears to have been flesh-colour. 

Totai length 4| inches ; bill 1| ; vving 2| ; tail lį. 

Hab. My specimens were procured on the banks of the Rio Napo. 

RemarJc- — In the general style of its colouring, and in the short- 
uess and similar colouring of its tail, this bird approaches more nearly 
to Aphantochroa cirrhochJoris than to any other species ; but it 
differs from that bird in having a much longer bill, aud a bright 
metallic deep lilac patch on the throat, similar to that observed in 
Phaiolaima rubino'ides ; and in having white under tail-coverts. In 
size it is somewhat smaller. 

Eriocnemis sauAMATA, Gould. 

Crown of the head, back of the neck, upper surface, sides of the 
ueck, and flanks coppery-bronze, inclining to green on the back and 
to rust-colour on the upper tail-coverts ; throat, chest, and centre of 
the abdomen hoary-grey with green and coppery reflexions ; in cer- 
tain lights the feathers of the throat and chest appear to be edged 
with grey, giving those parts a scaled appearauce — hence thespecific 
name ; under tail-coverts smoky-grey ; anterior portion of the fea- 
thers clothiug the tarsi white, the posterior portion buff ; tail dull 
steel-black ; wings purplish-brovpn ; bill black. 

Totai length 4| inches ; bill į ; wing 2|- ; tail lį. 

Hab. Ecuador, 

Remark. — This bird is nearly allied to Eriocnemis lugens ; but it 
differs from that bird in its considerably larger size, and in the parti- 
colouring of the tarsi-feathers, in which respect it assimilates to E. 
aurelice. The three species, indeed, viz. E. lugens, aurelice, and 
sąuamata, constitute a minute section of the genus, and all, I be- 
lieve, inhabit very high mountains. 

SCHISTES PERSONATUS, Gould. 

Forehead, face, and throat glittering brilliaut green, in the form of 
a mask, posterior to which is a patch of black, below this spring two 
lengthened tufts of violet-blue feathers, below these tufts a cres- 
centic mark of white ; crown of the head, back of the neck, back 
aud shoulders golden-green ; tail green, each feather crossed near its 
apex by a broad band of steel- or bluish-black ; abdomen green ; 
wings purplish-brown ; bill black. 

Totai length 3i inches ; bill |- ; wing 2| ; tail If . 

Hab. Ecuador. 

Retnark. — This species is nearly allied to Schistes geoffroyi ; but 
it is a much finer bird, the forehead and throat being covered by a 
mask of glittering green ; its bill is also considerably longer. 



312 

Thalurania TSCHU0II, Gould. 

Crown of the head aud all the upper surface golden-green, in- 
clining to brouzy-green on the tail-coverts ; throat beautiful green ; 
abdomen prussian-blue ; under tail-coverts steel-black, many of the 
feathers slightly fringed with white ; thighs, tarsi, and anai region 
white ; tail steel-black. 

Totai leiigth 4į inches ; bill 1 ; wiug 2^; tail 1|. 

Hab. The neighbourhood of the River Ucayali, and the countries 
of Ecuador and Peru. 

Reniark. — The two species to which this bird is most uearly allied 
are the T. furcata and T. nigrofasciata ; but it differs from the 
former in having a more robust body and broader tail- feathers, and 
in having the abdomen prussian-blue instead of ultramariue-blue ; 
and froin the latter in the form of the green mark ou the throat, 
which in this bird is truncate, -vvhile in T. nigrofasciata it descends 
nearly to a poiut towards the centre of the abdomen. This is the 
species mcntioned by Tschudi in his ' Fauna Peruana,' under the 
name of Trochilus furcatus, — a fact of which I am certain, as I have 
received a specimen from his coUection direct from Neuchatel. 

Oreopyra leucaspis, Gould. 

Crown of the head exceedingly beautiful glittering grass-green ; 
back of the neck, and all the upper surface, deep grass-green, vvith 
brouzy reflexions ; throat pure white, contrasting conspicuously with 
the glittering grass-green of the breast ; flauks and abdomen greyish- 
greeu, with brouzy reflexions ; wings purplish-brown ; tail forked 
and steel-black ; thighs thickly clothed with hoary or greyish-brown 
feathers ; behiud the eye, and extending some distauce down the 
sides of the neck, is a stripe of pure white ; bill straight, and both 
maudibles of a uniform black. 

Totai length 4i inches ; bill 1|; wing 2į; tail If. 

Hab. The Volcano of Chiriąui in Costa Rica, where it was 
discovered bv M. Warszewicz at au elevation of from 9000 to 10,000 
feet. 

Bernare. — One solitary individual, and that badly shot about the 
tail, is the only example I have ever seen of this remarkable and 
beautiful bird — a bird which differs so much from every other mem- 
ber of the Trochilidce, that I have been necessitated to make it the 
type of a new genus. 



3. Description of a New Species of Manakin from North- 
ern Brazil. By Philip Lutley Sclater, M. A., Secre- 
tary to the Society. 

Our Corresponding Member, M. Julės yerreaux, of Paris, has 
kindly sent to me for examination a specimen of a Manakin lately 
received by one of his correspondents from Para, which seems to be- 
long to a different species from any heretofore described. Its nearcst 



313 

ally is certainly Pipra filicauda of Spix ; but it is readily distinguish- 
able from that and every other rnember of the group, with which I 
am acquainted, by the form of the tail-feathers. The outer rectrices 
are acurainated and produced ; the second, third, and succeeding 
pairs in a less degree than the first ; the outer pair exceeding the 
niedial rectrices, which have nearly the ordinary normai form, by 
nearly half an inch. In P. filicauda, as is well known, the rectrices 
are nearly of equal length, and terminate in a long hair-like filament. 
Further differences from Pipra filicauda are observable in the crim- 
son colour descending lower down the back above, and pervading the 
breast and upper part of the belly. In the latter respect this species 
approaches to P. aureola and its scarcely separable ally, P. fiavicollis 
of the Rio Negro, an example of which was in the šame collection. 
I propose to call this Manakin 

Pipra heterocerca, sp. nov. 

Felutino-nigra : dorso superiore pileoąue toto cum nucha coC' 
cineis : fronte, ciliis oculorutn et corpore subtus fiavis, pectore 
coccineo perfuso : tectricibus subalaribus et macula in pogonio 
interiore remigutn albis : candce rectricibus lateralibus elon- 
gatis, acuminatis, tnedias valde excedentibus : rostro plumbeo, 
pedibus obscure carneis. 

Long. totą 4*25, alae 2' 5, caudse rectricum lateralium 175, me- 
diarum 1*3. 

Hab. In ripis fl. Amazonum sup. 

Obs. Affinis P.filicaudce et P. aureolce, sed caudse forma primo 
visu distinguenda. 



4. Description of a New Tyrant^bird of the genus Elainea 

FROM THE ISLAND OF SaINT ThOMAS, WeST InDIES. By 

Philip Lutley Sclater, M. A., Secretary to the So- 

CIETY. 

Mr. Osbert Salvin landed at St. Thomas for a few hours on his 
way out to Guatemala in the spring of lašt year, and with charac- 
teristic energy took out his gun for a ramble. The first shot fired 
secured two examples of a bird not previously known as an inbabitant 
of this island*, and, I believe, new to scieuce, — a species of Tyrant- 
bird of the genus Eiaineaf. Mr. Riise, so well known for his col- 
lections in different branches of Natūrai History made in this island, 
baving had his attention drawn to the existence of this bird by Mr. 
A. Newton, caused a search to be made, and obtained six other spe- 
cimens, which I novv exhibit. It is to this gentleman that I propose 
to dedicate this species, in commemoration of his exertions in con- 
firming Mr. Salvin' s discovery, by the name of 

* See Messrs. A. and E. Newton's articles on the Birds of St. Croix and St. 
Thomas in the ' Ibis,' 1859, pp. 59, 138, 252, 365. 

t This genus of Sundeval has been written in many different ways (sc. Eloenia, 
Elainia, &c.) ; but the proper orthograpby is certainly Elainea, from čXaiVos or 
6Xair60s, oleagineus. 



314 

Elainea riisii, sp. uov. 

Fuscescenti-olivaceus : pileo cristato intus albo : loris albescen- 
tibus, alis nigricantibiis, 'priniariis olivaceo stricte, secundarits 
et tectricibus flavicanti-ulbo latius marginatis : cauda nigri- 
canti-fiisca, niarginibus externis olivacescentibus ; subtus cine- 
racescenfi-albus, ubdomine flavido lavato : rostra superiore ob- 
scure corneo, inferiore rūbelio, pedibus nigris. 

Long. teta. alae. cauda;. 

Spec. 



a, 6, 5-4 


3-0 


2-7 


b, 5, 5-0 


2-7 


2-2 


c, 1 6-0 


31 


2-8 


d, 60 


2-9 


27 


e, 5-7 


2-8 


2-5 


f, 5-8 


30 


2-8 


g, 5-8 


30 


2-8 



Hab. In ins. S. Thomse Antillensium. 

Mus. P. L. S. 

Obs. Affinis Elainece pagancB et ejusdem formse, sed rostro lon- 
giore, compressiore, et corpore subtus pallidiore distinguenda. 

I have specimens of two species of this geuus of Tyrannidce in my 
collection from Jamaica. One of them is E. cottce of Gosse ; the 
other, as far as I know, undescribed, but quite different from the 
present. I have also an Elainea from Tobago, which I cannot refer 
strictly to any kuown species. 



5. On the African Trionices with hidden feet (Emyda). 
By Dr. j. e. Gray, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S. 

There have been five species of my genus Emyda, which MM. 
Dumeril and Bibron afterwards most unnecessarily named Cryptopus, 
described as found in Africa, viz. — 

1. Cryptopus senegalensis, Dum. & Bib., from Senegal. 

2. Cyclanosteus petersii, Gray, from the Gambia. 

3. Cyclanosteus frenatus, Peters, M SS., from Mozambiąue. 

4. Cryptopus aubryi, Dumeril, from Gaboou. 

5. Aspidochelys livingstonii, Gray, from Mozambiąue. 

Now it is very doubtful if several of these names are not synony- 
mous, not because there is any doubt as to the distinctness of 
species, as some neophyte belonging to the Darwiniau School might 
suspect, but simply because the materials ou which they are founded 
do not aflFord us sufficient information or means of comparison. 

Cryptopus senegalensis was described from a very young specimen 
in the Paris Museum before it had any of the sternal callosities de- 
veloped. The specimen of Trionyx, with flaps over its feet, which 
we have received from the šame locality, is unfortunately in the šame 
eondition ; and though it affords very good evidence that it is desti- 
tute of any bones on the margiu of the shield, and therefore does not 



315 

belong to the šame genus as the Asiatic animal with which M. Du- 
meril associated it, yet it does not give us the means of knowing to 
which, if to either, of the two African forms, viz. Cyclanosteus and 
Aspidochelys, it should be referred. 

The description of Dumeril, and the colouring of the head, &c. of 
the specimen iu the Museum, show that it mušt be distinct frora 
Cyclanosteus frenatus and from Cryptopus aubryi (which may be 
synonymous), as it has small white dots on its head ; while C. frena- 
tus, as its name implies, and G. aubryi, as its figure shows, are not 
spotted, and have black lines on the side of the head and neck. 

Cyclanosteus petersii and Aspidochelys livingstonii have been de- 
scribed from shells of adult animals only, without any remains of the 
bodies attached to them, so that it is not possible to know whether 
either of them be the adult form of Emyda seneyalensis, or what is 
the colouring of their head, which is a very distinctive character in 
the animals of this family. 

Cyclanosteus frenatus is known only from a note which Dr. Peters ,. * A-fyi 
sent home in 1848, shortly after his return from Mozambiąue. t V* 

Cryptopus aubryi is vvell described and figured by M. Dumeril in ^ -> 

the Rev. Zool. for 1856, p. 374. t. 20, and it appears to be very 
nearly allied to the shield which I have lately described and figured 
in the ' Proceedings ' of the Society, under the name of Aspidochelys 
livingstonii {antea, p. 6) ; but we cannot be certain that the animal 
from Gaboon and that from Mozambiąue are identical, until vce know 
what are the peculiarities of the head of the Mozambique species. I 
may statė that Mr. Cope, in the ' Proceedings of the Academy of 
Natūrai Sciences of Philadelphia ' for 1859 (p. 295), has formed M. 
A. Dum^ril's species into a genus, under the name oi Heptathyra, 
in which he evidently intended to include my genus Aspidochelys. 
As his paper was read in 1859 and mine in 1860, his name ought 
to have priority, uuless it may be found desirable, as there is a con- 
siderable difference between them in the form of the sternal callosities, 
to preserve both the names. 

The African species known in their adult stage may be arranged 
thus : — 

A. Sternal callosities 9 ; hinder pair small. 

1 . Cyclanostkus. The hinder pair of callosities very small, and 

far apart. 

C^etersii, Gray, Cat. Tortoises, B.M. 65. t. 29. Gambia. 

B. Sternal callosities 7 i hinder pair large. 

2. Heptathyra. The hinder pair of callosities rhombic, united 

together by their whole inner edge. , r A i^ fl O^^ / C-a) 

H. aubryi, Dum. Rev. Zool. 1856, 364. t. 20. •^-'*-^ ^/^ ' ' 'fy-i^' n 

Neck with three black streaks, the lateral ones from the eye ; oc^^i-J-^'— '^^^^^^ 
ciput with two short black streaks. Gaboon. ' į XI J-i ^^ ^ 

<~^ -V- ■ A 



316 

3. AspiDOCHELYS. Thc hinder pair of callosities oblong, united 
by their hinder edge only. 

A. livingstonii, Gray, P. Z. S. 1860, 6. t. 22. River Zambesi. 

The only specimen of the Senegal species yet known to rae is very 
young ; it does not show the sternal callosities, and has still remains 
of the umbiHcal slit. It may be described as tbllows : — 

Emyda senegalensis, Gray. 

Cryptopus senegalensis, Dum. & Bibr. 

In spirits. Grey ; beneath, white. Head above with many syui- 
metrical roundish white spots, and a short white streak in the centre 
of the erown ; upper part of the neck with symmetrical white mar- 
blins:. Upper shell grey, with small round scattered blaek spots, 
witir a distinct centrai keel, which is rather broad and smooth in 
front, becomes suddenly narrow, and is converted into a series of close 
tubercles at the middle of the back. Back with rather irregular, 
often interrupted, somenhat concentric lines of small tubercles, which 
converge towards the centrai keel behind, and with a number of 
larger isolated, but rather crowded, tubercles on the middle of the 
front edge ; sternum blackish, white. on the margin. 

Hab. Senegal. ] O a rt 

6. On New Reptiles and Fishes from Mexico. 
By Dr. Albert Gunther. 

^ 7 ^- A coUection of Reptiles and Fishes made by one of the correspond- 

• 7 (Į C^ ^"*^ °^ ^^' ^^^ ^^ Mexico, and purchased for the British Museum, 

Į/O ^.y coutains, besides many other scarce species — as Cubina grandis, Gray, 

" Gerrhonotus imbi-icatus and tesseUatus, AViegm., Geophis (Cato- 

stoma) chalybcea, Wagl. (scales keeled), Conopsis našus, Gthr., Za- 

menis mexicanus, D. & B., Atropus undulatus, Jan., &c., — the fol- 

lowing new species. 

SAURIA. 

Mabouia brevirostris. 

Diagnosis. — The snout (from the anterior margin of the eye) is a 
little shorter thau the width between the orbits. Twenty-four lou- 
gitudinal series of scales round the middle of the trunk, two entire 
and two half series along the back between the white streaks. Two 
large anai shields in front of the veut, with a small additional one ou 
each side. A series of large shields along the lower part of the tail. 
Back brown, separated from the sides, which are black, by a white 
streak, running from the snout, above the eye, to the origin of the 
tail, where it is gradually lošt. Another streak, less distinct, borders 
the lower lip, and the black coloration of the side. Belly whitish, 
the centre of each scale being miuutely dotted vvith greyish. 

Hab. Oaxaca (Mexico). 



1^ 




317 

The general arrangement of the shields of the head being the šame 
as in Mabouia agilis, it does not appear necessary to give a detailed 
description of them. The present species is very similar tothelatter, 
but distinguished by a considcrably shorter siiout. The large scales 
on the back and the large anai shields are sufficient characters to 
distinguish it from M. lacepedii, &c. 

OPHIDIA. 
Leptodeira discolor. 

Biagnosis. — Anai bifid ; scales in nineteen rows. Posterior maxil- 
lary tooth longest and strongest, in a continuous series with the other 
teeth, not grooved. Dirty-white, with numerous black cross-bands 
extending on to the ventral platės ; belly uniform whitish. 
Hab. Oaxaca (Mexico). 

Description. — The head is rather broad and depressed, the snout 
rounded ; the eye is of moderate size, its vertical diameter being 
about one-third the width between the eyes ; the trunk is rounded, 
and, likę the tail, somewhat slender. The rostrai shield reaches 
just to the upper surface of the snout ; the frontais are nearly sąuare : 
the anterior pair are one-third the size of the posterior, which are 
slightly bent downwards to the side of the head ; the vertical is pen- 
tagonal, longer than broad ; the occipitals rounded posteriorly. 
Nostril situated between two nasals ; loreal quadrangular ; one an- 
terior and two posterior oculars ; seven or eight upper labial shields, 
the third and fourth or the fourth and fifth entering the orbit. There 
is one elongate temporal shield in contact with both the oculars ; the 
other temporals, five in number, are scale-like. The medial lower 
labial is triangular and rather small ; nine lower labials, the first of 
which is in contact with its fellow behind the median shield. There 
are two pairs of chin-shields, of nearly equal size. The scales are in 
nineteen rows, sniooth, rhombic, thoše of the sides similar to those 
on the back. The number of the ventral platės varies between 182 
and 179, that o f the caudal between 88 and 87. 

The ground-colour of the upper parts is dirty-white : the upper 
part of the head is brown ; there is a whitish collar behind the occi- 
pitals. Fifty-one or fifty-four black bands cross the trunk and ex- 
tend on to the edge of the belly ; they are broader than the inter- 
spaces between, and become interrupted and spot-like on the tail. 
Ali the lower parts are uniform whitish. 

in. lin. 

Totai length 21 1 

Length of the head O 7 

Greatest vridth of the head O 5^ 

Length of the trunk 14 g 

of the tail 6 O 

This species might be easily taken for a variety of Leptodeira an- 
nulata or Leptodeira torąuata*, exhibiting nearly the šame phy- 
siognomy, and externally dilFering only in its more slender body, 
* Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. March 1860, p. 169, pi. x. fig. A. 



318 

fewer scales, and somewhat modified coloration. Nevertheless, we 
should be obliged to refer these snakes to different genera, if we were 
to adopt the dentition as the chief systematic principle : namely, 
L. annulata to Bipsas, L. torquata to Liophis, and L. discolor to 
Coronella. 

PISCES. 

Chromis nebulifera, sp. nov. 

D. j|- A. į V. 1/5. L. lat. 35. L. transv. 6/13. 

Moutli narrow, protractile ; teeth of the jaws cardiform, in a short 
band, those of the outer series larger, somewhat compressed, brown 
at the tip ; palate smooth. Opercles scaly ; prseopercular margin 
entire. Nostril simple. 

The height of the body is contained three times and one-half in 
the totai length, the length of the head four times and two-thirds. 
The interorbital space is convex, and its width rather more than the 
diameter of the eye, which is one-half the length of the snout. There 
are six series of small scales between the prseorbital and the angle of 
the prseoperculum. The dorsal fin and the lateral line commence on 
the šame vertical ; caudal truncated ; the commencement of the anai 
falls Tertieally below the sixteenth dorsal spine ; the ventral is inserted 
behind the pectoral, and extends on to the vent. Greenish, the 
middle of the body clouded with blackish, in form of indistinct ver- 
tical bands ; a round black spot at the root of the caudal ; the outer 
parts of the fins blackish. 

This species would be placed in the genus Heros of Heckel. 
Hab. Fresh waters of Mexico. 

in. lin. 

Totai length 7 O 

Height of the body 2 O 

Length of the head 1 6 

Diameter of the eye O 3į 

Chromis fenestrata, n. sp. 

D. ii. A. J. V. 1/5. L. lat. 33. L. transv. 6/13. 

Mouth narrow, protractile ; teeth of the jaws cardiform, in a short 
band ; those of the outer series larger, somewhat compressed, brovvn 
at the tip ; palate smooth. Opercles scaly ; prseopercular margin 
entire. Nostril simple. 

The height of the body is contained two and three-fifth times in 
the totai length ; the length of the head four times. The interorbital 
space is convex, and its width more than the diameter of the eye, 
which is one-half the length of the snout. There are five series of 
scales between the prseorbital and the angle of the prseoperculum. 
The dorsal fin and the lateral line commence on the šame vertical ; 
caudal truncated ; the commencement of the anai falls vertically 
below the fifteenth dorsal spine ; the ventral is inserted behind the 



319 

pectoral and extends on to the anai. Blackish-green, with six black 
vertieal bands, crossing a deep black longitudiual band, wbich runs 
from above the pectoral to the root of the caudal. Vertieal and ven- 
tral filis blackish, darkest at the base and margius. 

This species would be placed in the genus Heros of Heckel. 
Hab. Rio de la Lana (Mexico), 

in. lin. 

Totai length 3 8 

Length of the liead O 11 

Height of the body I 5 

Diameter of the eye O 2^ 

Tetragonopterus ^neus. 

D. 11. A. 26. V. 8. L. lat. 35. L. transv. 7/6. 

The height of the body is contained three times or three and a half 
times in the totai length, and the length of the head four and four- 
fifths times. The interorbital space is convex, and its width more 
than the diameter of the eye, which equals nearly the extent of the 
snout. Uniform bronze-coloured, with a browuish spot at the root of 
the caudal. 

Hab. Fresh waters of Oaxaca (Mexico). 

in. lin. 

Totai length 3 5 

Height of the body 1 1 

Length of the head O 8^ 

Diameter of the eye O 2^ 



7. Descriptions of New Shells from the Collection of 
HuGH CuMiNG, Esa. By Temple Prime, of New York. 

1. Batissa unioniformis, Prime. B. testą ovato-orbieulari, 
subceąuilaterali, elongata, fortis, intus violacea, epidermide 
brunnea vestita, suleis remotis, umbonibus depressis, erosis, an- 
tice inclinatis į dentibiis cardinalibus crassis ; lateralibus an- 
gustis, rer/ulariter serrulatis. 

Long. 4|, lat. 3, diam. 1-,%, poli. 
Hab. ? 

2. Batissa gracilis, Prime. B. testą ovato-subrhomboidea, 
depressa, Icevi, inmpiilaterali, epidermide virescente vestita, 
transversim irregulariter sulcata ; umbonibus tumidis, erosis ; 
valvis intus ad margines violaceis ; cardine angusto ; dentibus 
cardinalibus ineBqualibus ; lateralibus elongatis. 

Long. 3, lat. 2i diam. 2|, poli. 
Hab. ? 

3. Batissa fuscata, Prime. B. testą ovato-trigona, oblonga, 
in<squilaterali, in medio tumida, transversim regulariter striata, 



320 

epidermide polita, nigro-virescenfe vestita ; umbonibus tumidis; 

intus coerulea ; cardine angusto, obliquo, inceųualiter tridentato; 

dentibus cardinalibus simplicibus ; lateralibus angustis. 
Long. 3, lat. 2f, diam. \\, poli. 
Hab. ? 

4. Batissa compressa, Prime. B. testą ovato-orbiculari, tu- 
mida, compressa, subčecjuilaterali, intus violacea, epidermide 
polita, atro-virescente vestita; umbonibus erosis, dentibus car- 
dinalibus subcequaHbiis, lateralibus elongatis, serrulatis. 

Long. 2f, lat. 2į, diam. l^J^, poli. 
Hab. Borneo. 

5. Batissa inflata, Prime. B. testą magna, orbiculari, ince- 
ąuilaterali, crassa, solida, obtusa, epidermide rugosa, fusco- 
nigrescente vestita ; umbonibus productis, erosis, oblirpds; valtis 
intus albis et violaceis ; dentibus cardinalibus crassis, subeeąua- 
libus ; lateralibus angustis. 

Long. 34, lat. 3^ diam. 2\, poli. 
Hab. Nicobar. 

6. Batissa MiNOR, Prime. B. testą parva, temti, suborbiculari, 
valde obliqua, subcequilaterali, depressiuscida, transversim re- 
gulariter striata, epidermide polita, virescente vestita, intus 
violacea ; dentibus cardinalibus tribus, incequalibus, brevibus 
subcanaliculatis ; lateralibus elongatis, regulariter et tenuiter 
serrulatis. 

Long. Ij^y, lat. 2-fQ, diam. ^, poli. 
Hab. Feejee Islands. 

7. Batissa fortis, Prime. B. testą orbiculari, oblique ineegui- 
laterali, tumida, crassa, intus violacea, epidermide nigro-vires- 
cente vestita, umbonibus prominentibus, erosis, antice inclinatis, 
dentibus cardinalibus crassis, subceąuilateralibus ; lateralibus 
angustis, brevibus. 

Long. 2-^, lat. 2Į, diam. 1|, poU. 
Hab. New Caledonia. 

8. Batissa elongata, Prime. B. testą orbiculato-trigona, in- 
fiata, sitbcordifoimi, i7i(eqtiilaterali ; epidermide fusca vestita ; 

umbonibus tumidis, erosis; valvis solidis, intus albis ; dentibus 
cardinalibus in(equalibus, prominentibus, duobus bijidis ; denti- 
bus lateralibus brevibus. 

Long. 3\, lat. 2\, diam. I|, poli. 

Hab. New Caledonia. 

9. Cyrena flava, Prime. C. testą orbiculato-trigona, depres- 
sitiscula, transversim incequaliter striata, incequilnterali, epi- 
dermide luteo-Jlavescente vestita, valvis crassis, solidis, intus 
candidissimis ; umbonibus jįarvis, obliquis, erosis ; cardine an- 



321 

ffusto, incegualiter tridentato ; dente laterali postico compresso, 

nntico breviore aciito. 
Long. 1^0, lat. 1-^, diara. 'f^J, poli. 
Hab. ? 

10. Cyrena brunnea, Prime. C. testą orbiculato-subtrigona, 
subinjiata, subceąuilaterali, transversim tenuiter et regulariter 
striata, epidermide fuscescente vestita, valvis crassis, solidis ; 
intus candidissima ; latere antico producto, latere postico trun- 
cato ; cardine angusto ; dentibus cardinalibus subcegualibus ; 
lateralibus subcequaltbus, antico paido crassiore. 

Long. 1^, lat. 14, diam. 1, poli. 
Hab. ? 

11. Cyrena obscura, Prime. C. testą trigona, inflata, cordi- 
formi, solidissima, altą, tumida, inceąuilaterali, transversim 
striata, epidermide fuscata vestita, intus alba ; itmbonibus pro- 
minentibus, erosis ; cardine angusto; dentibus cardinalibus tri- 
bus incBqualib%is ; lateralibus magnis, antico tnajore, acuto. 

Long. l-j^o, lat. 1^^^-, diam. 1^, poli. 
Hab. New Granada. 

12. CoRBicuLA MAxiMA, Prime. C. testą malimą, orbiculato- 
trigona, solida, tumida, ina:quilaterali, compressa, transversim 
tenuissime et regulariter striata ; epidermide Jlavescent e, niti- 
dissima, intus alba ; umbonibus parvis, acutis ; dentibus car- 
dinalibus inceąualibus, divaricatis ; lateralibus elongatis, an- 
gustis, subcequalibus, arcuatis, tenuissime serrulatis. 

Long. 1^, lat. If, diam. 1, poli. 
Hab. ? 

/H 
\'^ 13. CoRBicuLA ovALis, Prime. C. testą eequilaterali, tumidula, 
f^ epidermide fuscescente vestita, transversim regulariter striata ; 
intus violacea ; umbonibus prominentibus, violaceo subradiatis ; 
cardine incrassato, i?i(equaliter tridentato ; dentibus laterali- 
bus crassis, prcelongis, tenuissime striatis. 
Long. 1, lat. ^, diam. ^, poli. 
Hab. ? 

14. CoRBicuLA CYRENiFORMis, Prime. c. testą trigona, 
eequilaterali, subcordiformi, infiata, tumida, crassa, fortissima, 
intus violacea, epidermide fuscescente vestita, transversitn regu- 
lariter striata, rugosa; umbonibus tutnidis, erosis, obliquis, 
dentibus cardinalibus f ortibus ineequalibus, lateralibus subcequa- 
libus, striatis. 

Long. 1^0, lat. 1^^-, diam. -į-^, poli. 
Hab. ? 

15. CoRBicuLA REGULARis, Primc. C. testą ovato-transversa, 
cequilaterali, intus violacea, epidermide viridi-flavescente ; um- 

No. 437. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



322 

bonibus disparibus ; dentibus cardinalibus tribus, ineequalibus, 

lateralibus prcelongis, striatis. 
Long. -j^, lat. ^, diam. -^-^, poli. 
Hab. Deccan, India. 

16. CoRBicuLA TENUiSTRiATA, Primc. C. testū trigona, (Bqui- 
laterali, altą, tumidula, IcBvissima ; epidermide flavescente ni- 
tidissima, transversim regulariter striata ; intus alba ; umbo- 
nibus prominentibus erosis ; cardine angusto, tridentato ; den- 
tibus lateralibus angustissimis, elongatis, tenuissime serrulatis. 

Long. -J-įį, lat. -j^o' diam. ^, poli. 
Hab. ? 

17. Sph^.rixjm iNCONSPicuuM, Prime. S. testą ovato-subrhom- 
boidea, compressa, Icevi, fragili, subincequilaterali, epidermide 
nitida lutescente vestita, transversim tenuiter et Icevissime 
striata; umbonibus parvis, tumidis ; dentibus cardinalibus mi- 
nimis, lateralibus elongatis. 

Long, ^, lat. ^, diam. ^,-,, poli. 
Hab. Lycia. 

18. SpHiERIUM SUBTRANSVERSTJM, PrimC. S. testū OVūtO-ob- 

longa, cequilaterali, temti, fragili, parva, compressa, epidermide 
jlavescente vestita, umbonibus magnis haud tumidis. 

Long. fo. lat. T0-' diam. ^, poli. 

Hab. Tobasco. 

19. PisiDiTJM RETUSUM, Primc. P. tcstū jninuta, ovato-sub- 
rhomboidea, complanata, intequilaterali, tiimida, postice rotuji- 
data, tenuiter striata, epidermide corneo-flavescente vestita ; 
įimbonibus tumidis. 

Hab. Hondūras. 

20. PisiDiuM ANGULATUM, Prime. P. testą minuta, elongata, 
ovato-orbiculari, incEquilaterali postice subtruncata, epidermide 
corneo-flavescente vestita, tenuissime striata, umbonibus parvis, 
tumidis. 

Hab. Valparaiso. 



June 26th, 1860. 

Mr. E. W. H. Holdsvvorth, in the Chair. 

Mr. Leadbeater exhibited some Iieads of the American Wapiti Stag 
i^Cervus canadensis) of vvhich the antlers were of remarkable size and 
strength — one of the heads weighing over 32 Ibs., and three speci- 
mens of Buflfon's Skua (Lestris cepphus), in fine plumage, lately ob- 
tained on the coast of Ireland. 



323 

Mr. Sclater exhibited a drawing of a species of Rock-Kangaroo, 
just received by the Society from South Australia. It was obtained 
by Mr. J. R. Bennett, the importer, from Mount Searle, about 400 
miles north of Adelaide. It appeared to be referable to Petrogale 
xa.nthopus of Dr. Gray (P. Z. S. 1854, p. 249. pi. xxxix.), but did not 
quite agree with Mr. Gould's figure of the šame animal given in the 
* Mammals of Australia,' being more distinctly banded on the tail, 
and the white markings not reaching the neck as there represented, 
besides minor differences. 

Mr. Sclater remarked that the Society had eleven species of Ma- 
cropodidce now living in the Gardens, namely : — 

1. Macropus giganteus. 7. Halmaturus billardieri. 

2. fuliginosus, 8. Petrogale penicillata. 

3. Osphranter-rufus. 9. ocanthopus. 

4. Halmaturus ruficollis. 10. Bettongia cuniculus. 

5. bennettii. 11. penicillata. 

6. thetidis. 

Of these, M. bennettii, ruficollis, and thetidis had during these 
lašt three years bred abundantly under the Society's care. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. NOTES ON THE HaBITS OF THE BrOWN CoATI (NaSŪA FUSCA, 

Desm.). By George Bennett, M.D., F. Z. S., etc. 

A full-grown living specimen of this interesting Plantigrade animal, 
a native of Tropical South America, was presented to me in Sydney, 
N. S. Wales, by the commander of a ship, who had procured it from 
the coast of South America, and had had it in captivity for eleven 
months. It was the size of a very large cat, with hair of greyish-brovm 
colour over the back and sides, the tail long, bushy, and of a dark 
brown colour, and the ears round. The colour seems to vary accord- 
to age. There are two species at present known, the Nasua rufa 
and the one under notice, which I consider the largest. This animal 
bears some affinity to the Racoon, but is distinguished by having 
an elongated, truncated, and moveable snout, with which it roots up 
the earth in search of worms and grubs. The jaws are armed with 
sharp teeth, and the under jaw is shorter than the upper. It preys 
upon small ąuadrupeds and birds. It climbs trees in search of prey, 
and also as frequently seeks its food upon the ground. 

The possession of this living specimen enabled me to observe its 
habits, and, as it was permitted to roam about at liberty, its natūrai 
actions could be better observed than when the animal is kept in 
eonfinement. It would come when called, likę a dog, evincing much 
attachment, and alvvays seemed gratified vvhen patted or otherwise 
caressed, more especially when rubbed behind the ears, displaying 
during the operation as much delight as a cat under similar treatment, 
orouching down, placing the head with the nose close to the ground, 
uttering at the šame time a subdued sharp, whistling cry. If placed 
in eonfinement, it would run round the cage, rapidly biting at its 



324 

tail during its circular movements ; and on any person approaching the 
cage, would spit, growl, and utter loud, sharp, and discordant cries. 
The instant, however, it was set at liberty it permitted itself to be 
fondled eren by strangers. One of its habits was very peculiar : it 
would take glue or any adhesive substance, if in its way, and rub 
some over its tail, and soon after amuse itself by licking it ofiF, or 
endeavouring to remove it by washing its tail in water. It was Tery 
fond of sucking the blood of animals, and, when these were placed 
before it dead, always selected the part in which the blood had been 
retained in the greatest ąuantity before any other portion of its prey. 
I have also frequently seen it eat the fruit of the Moreton Bay fig- 
tree, running about under the tree, and, after selecting the ripest that 
had fallen, opening them and siicking out the pulp. One morning 
I observed it commence a meal upon a rat which had just been killed 
and given to it. The first process on receiving the prey was, as usual, 
to suck all the blood from those parts in which it found any had been 
retained ; it then began rolling the rat upon the ground with its fore 
paws, but for what purpose this operation was performed I could 
not ascertain. After the prey had been treated in this manner for 
some time, it pulled out the intestines and devoured some portion 
of them before eating any other of the fleshy part. On approaching 
the animal at this time, it would dart away \vith the prey, uttering 
shrill cries, and was exceedingly savage if any attempt was made to 
take it away. When running about in the garden, it would insert 
its long, flexible snout into the earth, root it up, and seemed to be 
eagerly devouring worms or any similar food it found there. It evi- 
dently possessed an acute sense of smell, for after smelhng about for 
some time it ■vvould insert the snout to some depth into the earth 
in the selected place, and secure the wonn or grub which it had 
been seeking. 



2. Abstract of Notės on the Osteology of Bal^niceps 
REX. By "W. k. Parker, Memb. Micr. Soc* 

The first view of the li%-ing Balaniceps at once suggests the idea 
of the Boatbill {Cancroma), the Heron {Ardea), and the Adjutant 
(Leptopfilus) . Other large-headed birds occur to the mind on a 
longer observation, for one instinctively thii)ks of the Pelican {Pele- 
canus), the Toucan (Ratnphastos), the Hornbill (Buceros), and the 
Padargus, although these birds belong to distinct and very remotely 
related groups. Nor does the internal structure of this noble, but 
strange and vveird-looking bird, contradict the first exteraal impres- 
sions ; for the very unusual size of the head, and its great strength, 
require certain modifications of a teleological character, such as 
occur in the large-jawed species of other widely separated groups. 
The difference in the structure of the skeleton between the Balceni- 
ceps and its small New World relative, the Cancroma cochlearia, is 

* This paper will be printed entire in tlie ' Transactions,' accompanied by illus- 
trative platės. 



325 

greatly exaggeratecl by the necessary modification of the bones iii 
the giant species, by their thickness, and by the size of the ridges 
and out-standing processes for muscular attachment ; but the tvvo 
birds are, nevertheless, near allies. In the skuU, especially, is this 
difFereuce exhibited ; and any large bird may differ osteologically 
from its small relations from this cause, much more than from any 
necessary specific or generic distinotiou of character. 

Again, any pecuharity of habit in an aberrant species, or genus, 
will make, as it were, large demands upon the structure of those parts 
or organs which are subservient to this (as it regards the group or 
family) eccentric mode of hfe. The Secretary-bird (Serpenfarius) 
amongst the Vultures, the Spoonbill {Platalea) and the Oyster- 
catcher (Htematopus), the Pehcan and the Scissors-bill (^Rhynchops), 
each form so different from its relations, are familiar instances of 
this law. 

Perhaps we ought to expect the skull of a bird to be the seat of 
more extensive teleological modifications than any other part of the 
skeleton, seeing that it mušt perform such varied duties, learn so 
many trades, and be the servant and caterer to the whole body ; 
whilst the hands, which in some of the higher mammals minister to 
the necessities of the creature, are here necessarily restricted to one 
or two functions. If a rule likę this could be clearly made out, it 
would go far to\vards settling many a disputed point of relationship ; 
the Hornbills and the Kingfishers would uot then startle the student 
of the Insessores; and the Flamingo (Phcenicopterus), notwithstand- 
ing its lamellirostral character, might be allowed to stalk amongst 
the Herons. 

The broad expanded occiput of the Balceniceps differs but little 
from that of the Adjutant ; but the upper surface of the skull, instead 
of being generally rough and convex, as in the latter bird, is smooth, 
flat, and even concave at its anterior half. In the Balceniceps, as in 
the Heron and Boatbill, the large eye-ball has elevated the upper or- 
bitai margiu above the level of the mesial part of the skull, whilst in 
the Adjutant that margiu is some distance below. IMoreover, the 
skull of the Balceniceps is very short as compared with that of the Ad- 
jutant, and in density and polish of the bone is more likę that of the 
great Maccaws {Ara) ; its transverse hinge too, with the upper jaw- 
bone, is more likę that of these birds than that of its own congeners. 
There is no bony bridge over the temporal fossse in this bird, in which 
respect it agrees with the Heron and Boatbill, and differs from the 
Adjutant. The eye-ball being very large and the skull very short, 
the anterior orbitai margiu is one-third of an inch in front of the 
great transverse hinge ; whilst in the Adjutant, and even in the 
Heron, it is half an inch behind that hinge. This modification has 
caused a displacement of the lacrymal bones, which, although they 
form the anterior boundary of the orbit, as in other birds, are in 
front of the great hinge, instead of behind it. The nostrils are high 
up on the jaws, two-thirds of an inch in front of the liiuge, and more 
than one inch apart ; at their anterior end they are continuous with 
the deep submesial grooves that mark out the strong bony ridge 



326 

of the upper ja\v, and pass forwards to mark the boundary of the 
great terminai beak. Ou the mid-line, a little behind tbe nasal fossse 
and in front of the hinge, the upper jaw-bone rises into a rough boss. 

Now in most birds the highest part of the upper jaw is between 
the nasal fossse, and not behind, as in the Balceniceps. This cha- 
racter, with the backward extension of the jaw, the shortness of the 
frontais, and the very forward position of the enormous well-margined 
orbits, helps to give a solenin, wise, but somewhat sinister aspect to 
the bird. Looking at him in his paddock, the first impression is 
that we have before us some strangely ancient form with " the breatb 
of life" in it, and " standing upon its feet," concerning which geo- 
logy had taught us that " its bones were dried up, and its hope lošt." 

The marginai outline of the great upper jaw of the Balceniceps 
much resembles that of the leaf of Magnolia grandiflora. Its length 
is more than twice its breadth ; whilst in the Boatbill the breadth 
is more than half the length, the upper jaw of the latter being more 
outspread. The degree of arching of the upper jaw is intermediate 
between that of the Boatbill and that of the Stork (Ciconia). The 
gradual rise of the mesial ridge to form the great terminai hook, the 
crescentic notch forming the inferior margiu of that beak, and then 
the graceful outward curve of nearly the entire mandibular margiu, 
give great elegance to the lateral aspect of the upper javv. At the 
end of that margiu we have the commencement of the great cheek- 
bone, which is nearly two inches long, half an inch broad, and oue- 
quarter of an inch thick. 

Such a magnitude of the zygomatic arch as this is perfectly unique 
in the class of Birds, being more likę the development of the šame 
part in most Mammalia, in the Crocodiles, and in the Turtles. In 
the enormous heads of the larger Hornbills, the cheek-bones are not 
half the size they attain in the Balceniceps. 

The os ąuadratum, or tympanic bone, which forms so beautiful an 
articular medium between the cranium and lower jaw in birds, is 
strong and well-developed. This bone and the little pterygoid, which 
intervenes betvreenit and the palatines, have very much thecharacter 
of the šame bones ia the Heron and the Adjutant ; but the palatine 
bones themselves, coalescing at the mid-line, and seudiug downwards 
a strong keel at that part, are exactly intermediate in structure be- 
tween those of the Adjutant and Pelican. These bones and the 
pterygoid at their point of junction are beautifuUy scooped out to 
receive and glide under the strong beam of bone which forms the base 
of the interorbital septum. 

The great strength of all the bones forming the upper maxillary 
apparatus is in perfect harmony with what is kuown of the habits of 
the creature. In this respect it has no peer amongst its congeners, and 
no superior except amongst some of the larger Parrots. But the latter 
birds, although they possess the most perfect fronto-maxillary hinge, 
have nothiug in their tympanics, or malar bones, at all comparable 
to those of the Balceniceps. Perhaps the most elegant part of this 
bird's structure is the hard palate, formed for the most part by the 
coalesced premaxillary bones ; the masillaries in birds, as in typical 



327 

fish, having a very backvvard position and often inferior development. 
The mid-line of this highly arched hard palate is occupied by a par- 
tially open caual for a large veuous sinus, which receives on either 
side numerous vein-grooves at right angles. This gives a beautiful 
leaf-hke appearance to this structure. 

Just inside the margin of the posterior angle on the under surface 
of this great upper jaw the bone is cut away, as it were, to receive 
the coronoid portion of the lower jaw. This excavated part is conti- 
nuous anteriorly with a deep groove, margined internally by a sharp 
ridge, which gradually rises inside the palate to pass forvvards in a 
sigmoid manner to the base of the great terminai beak, where it 
meets the submesial groove on the upper surface of the jaws. In the 
Common Heron these palatine submarginal lines exist, being covered 
in the horny sheath by sharp ridges. These ridges have their 
fuUest development in the Green Turtle. The occipital condyle is 
hemispherical and large ; and the base of the skuU has a very ex- 
quisite structure, -vvhich deserves fuU description, as it exceeds any- 
thing we have seen in birds, the Heron making the nearest approach 
to the Balceniceps in this particular. Many other birds, however, 
show traces of this peculiar structure. The lower jaw is exceed- 
ingly strong and thick, as compared with that of the Adjutant. 
Less elliptical and more triangular than that of the Boatbill, it 
lias, nevertheless, many of the characters of the latter. Its tip is 
curiously emarginate, as is also the tip of the upper jaw — the bony 
basis of the great hooked beak. The traces of suture between the 
dentary and other elements of the mandible, which are persistent in 
the Boatbill, Adjutant, and most other birds, are all filled up with 
bony matter, as is the case in the Parrot tribe^ in the Hornbills, and 
in the Toucans. The anterior part of the mandible passes vnthin the 
maxilla, the edge of its horny sheath fitting betvveen the marginai and 
submarginal ridges of the latter. "Where the upper jaw begins to 
narrow towards its angle, there the mandible rises high (its height 
or depth here being lį inch), and it is rounded, rough, and strong. 
It then lowers again, and becomes rapidly broader, to form the deep 
and wide articular cavities for the tympanic bone above, and the 
broad flat angular processes behind and below. 

Each ramus of this great inelastic mandible is united to its fellow 
at the symphysis by complete bony uuion to the extent oi \\ inch. 
In the extremely elastic mandible of the Pelican this line of bony 
uniou is cne-eighth of an inch in length, in the Boatbill one-fourth 
of an inch, in the Adjutant 4į inches, and in the Hombill, Buceros 
bicornis, more than 7 inches. 

In the Boatbill and Grey Heron there are twenty-three separate 
vertebrse between the head and the pelvis ; in Balceniceps rex and 
the Adjutant twenty-one, and in the "White Stork twenty. 

In the Boatbill there are nine pairs of free ribs. The lašt, or pelvic, 
does not reach the sternum, nor do the first four, so that there are 
four true dorsal ribs. In the Heron there are eight pairs ; the an- 
terior three and the lašt (which is pelvic) do not reach the sternum,— 
here there are only four true dorsals. The Balceniceps, the "VVhite 



328 

Stork, and the Adjutant have each seven pairs of free ribs, the lašt 
five reaching the sterimm ; in BalcBuiceps and the Adjutant the lašt 
pair are pelvic ; in the White Stork the lašt two pairs. Until the 
birds are adult, the anterior vertebrse of the pelvis are but partly 
united. lu the Storks, Herons, Boatbill, and Balceniceps the dorsal 
vertebrse continue distinet throughout life ; but in many of the Cranes 
the tendons of the dorsal museles are ossified, and fasten the bones 
more or less together, and two or three contiguous centrą coalesce. 
Among the cervical vertebrse of the true Herons and their nearest 
allies, e. g. Arclea, Botavrus, Cancroma, and Balceniceps, there are 
Severai which have elegant bridges under their upper or cranial end 
for the carotid arteries, which bony bridges are not true hsemal 
arches, but are formed by enogenous processes*. In these ver- 
tebrse there are four canals, — the one under consideration, one for 
the spinal chord, and a pair for the vertebral arteries. In the Ba- 
leeniceps, the vertebrse, from the seventh to the thirteenth inclusive, 
are thus constructed. The only Stork in which we have seen this 
structure is the Australian Jabiru, Mycteria australis ; for a know- 
ledge of which fact we are indebted to the kiudness of Mr. Edward 
Gerrard. These pairs of inferior processes meet together in but few 
birds ; nevertheless, this is the case in the White Pelican {Peleeanus 
onocrotalus) and in the Gannet {Sula bassana). In the former bird 
also there is no cup-and-ball articulation of the dorsal vertebrse, which 
reptilian character occurs in the Gannets, Cormorants, and Penguins. 
Notwithstanding their great size, the vertebrse of Balceniceps agree 
better with those of the Heron than with those of the Stork ; but in 
their shortness, better with those of the Boatbill than with those of 
the longer-necked Heron : for the Heron, likę the Giraffe, gains its 
great length of neck by elongation of the individual vertebrse rather 
than by an increase in their number. The ribs of the BalcBniceps 
are lighter, weaker, and more cellular than those of its congeners. 
The oblong, narrow, neat pelvis of this bird is more likę that of the 
Boatbill than that of the Stork, or even of the Heron. It diflfers, 
hovvever, from that of either of these in not being expanded in a broad 
foliaceous manner over the top of the posterior ribs. This part again 
agrees with the pelvis of the Heron, iuasmuch as the ischium passes 
niuch further backwards than the posterior part of the ileum. In 
Ciconia alba these two pelvic bones terminate in the šame vertical 
line, whilst in the Adjutant and Boatbill the ileum projects back- 
wards and farthest. The pubic bones are unusually broad. There 
are seventeeu sacral vertebrse, the first of which has a pair of ribs. 
The caudal vertebrse are sis in number, the lašt being composed of 
eight or ten embryonic vertebrse. 

The sternal apparatus of this bird is very interesting. In shape 
the sternum is intermediate between tbat of the White Stork and 
that of the Cormorant, the keel, as in the latter bird, projecting evenly 
forwards anterior to the articulations with the coracoids, for a greater 

* See Piof. Oweii's article in Orr's ' Circle of the Sciences,' entitled " Structure 
of the Skeleton and Teetli," p. 182, fig. 10. iv. 



329 

distance than in the Stork and Heron. Moreover, the keel is not 
quite so deep as it is in the congeners of this bird. It passes, how- 
ever, to the end of the sternum, as in them ; whereas in the Pelicans, 
Gannets, and Cormorants it scarcely continues beyond the middle of 
that bone. The episteriial process is obsolete in this bird ; it exists 
in the PelecanidcB, Herons, and Boatbill, and is nearly obsolete in the 
Storks. The hyposternal processes are unusually long and arenate ; 
and there is on each side of the end of the keel another rather smaller 
emargination which is obsolete in the Storks, Herons, and Boatbill, 
but is well shown in the Spoonbill and the probing waders, Nume- 
nius, Himantopus, Limosa, &c. The tips of the furculum are sub- 
triangular and rather flat ; the bone then becomes very thick and 
triedral, having at the top of the thick part a large oval facet, which 
is adapted to the under part of the head of the coracoid. This thick 
part is very short, for the bone suddenly lessens, bends backwards, 
and passes on, rounded below and angular above, to thicken again at 
the angle, where it makes a most complete anchylosis with the tip of 
the stemal keel. This structure of the furculum is similar to what 
is found in Pelecanus, Phalacrocorax, and Sula ; but we have seeu 
no such ' merry-thought ' bone in any Ardeine bird. In these, as in 
Balceniceps, the rami of the bone are not only flat as they pass in 
between the heads of the coracoids, but this thin condition of the 
bone is continued throughout one half of their extent. They have 
no such sudden bend at the upper third, the arch being gentie, and 
the lessening size of the bone gradual. Nevertheless, in the Boatbill 
there is a slight tendency to this statė of things. The blending of 
the furculum vyith the sternal keel seldom takes place in the true 
Herons and Storks ; there continues even in old birds a synovial 
gliding joint, and in the Boatbill and some of the smaller Herons the 
furculum does not quite reach the sternum. This articulated con- 
dition is generally found in Gannets and Cormorants ; but in old Pe- 
licans anchylosis of the joints takes place. This occurs too in the 
Secretary bird, which is uniąue among the birds of prey, in having 
a joint there at all, so that this last-mentioned bird is a raptorial 
isomorph of the Cranes. In the latter birds (the Gruidee) there is 
great diflference in the structure of these parts ; for whilst in such 
species as Grūs antigone and G. americana we have in the adult 
bird complete coalescence, in the Balearic Grane, 6?. pavonina, and 
in the Trumpeter, Psojihia (a Crane becoming slightly gallinaceous), 
the furculum does not reach the sternum at all. 

Any lengthy remarks upon the bones of the limbs need not be 
made at present. They are about three-fourths the size of those of 
the Adjutant ; but as the limbs had not enjoyed much liberty of 
exercise, they have not that robustness ■which is seen in the skeleton 
of old wild birds. The humerus is longer relatively, and the fore 
arm shorter in proportion than in the Adjutant ; the thigh-bone is 
longer in proportion to the tibia and tarso-metatarsus in the Balceni- 
ceps than in its larger rclation. The toes are very long, reminding 
one of those of the Jacanas {Pana) ; and the most ridiculous care 
this stilted, stalking bird takes, both in taking up and setting down 



330 

its feet, makes it worth while to compare the length of tbe bones 
of its toes with that of the bones of the toes of tbe Great Adjutant. 

Hallus. Inner toe. Middle toe. Outer toe. 

in. in. in. in. 

Adjutant 2-3 4-15 5-7 4'7 

Balseniceps 3*3 3-8 6-5 6-4 

To eonclude, I may remark, that upon a careful examination of tbe 
osteology of the Balccniceps, after eliminating the teleological from 
the relational characters, I am decidedly of opinion that it is strictly 
an Ardeine bird, and more nearly related to Cancroma tbau to any 
otber known type, 

Note I. — Amongst tbe bones of the limbs, the humerus alone is 
pneumatic ; tbe ca%'ity of tbe os femoris being fiUed •witb meduUa, 
as are all the more distal bones. 

Note II. — Tbe tongue is extremely small, an important Pelecanine 
cbaracter. 



3. On the Structure of the Gizzard of the Nicobar 

PiGEON, AND OTHER GrANIVOROUS BiRDS. By W. H. 

Flower, F.R.C.S., F. z. s., Assistant-Surgeon to the Mid- 

DLESEX HoSPITAL. 

(Avės, Pls. CLXV., CLXVI.) 

At the meeting of tbe Zoological Society on tbe 14th of February 
lašt, Mr. Bartlett exbibited tbe gizzard of a Nicobar Pigeon, espe- 
cially directing attention to two circular bard platės in connexion 
witb tbe lining membrane of tbe organ *. Having bad, through 
Mr. Bartlett's kindness, an opportunity of examining tbese micro- 
scopically, I beg to lay the foUovviiig account of tbem before the So- 
ciety, prefixing it with some observations upon the structure of the 
inner coats of the gizzard in otber granivorous birds. Tbe latter 
were made quite independently of tbe researcbes of Dr. R. Molinf, 
and tend in a great measure to coufirm tbe accuracy of that author's 
couclusions. 

On examining the muscular stomach or gizzard of a granivorous 
bird, we fiud its interior lined by a distinct membrane, of leathery or 
sometimes horny consistence, and which can be stripped off from the 
softer coat below witb the greatest facility, especially if the organ is 
not perfectly fresh. Tbis membrane is thicker and harder at tbe 
middle portion of tbe gizzard than at tbe upper and lower parts, and 
especially at tbe two sides ; where in many birds are tolerably defined, 
more or less circular, flat or somenhat concave titurating disks or 
bosses. In the otber parts of tbe organ it becomes tbinner and 
softer, and tovvards tbe proventricular orifice is of alraost gelatiuous 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 99. 

t Sugli stomachi degli uccelli. Denkschriften d. Kais. Acad. d. Wissenschaft'en, 
zii Wien, 3' Band, 1852. 



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del. Jiliss "^^^V; 



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vy. 










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Hgl. 






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tit ad!,at dej.hliss VTiniKlk 



WWcil:mp 



331 

character. It is to the structure of the denser and thicker parta 
that the following remarks chiefly apply. The free surface is hard, 
generally rough, and always stained of a deep yellow colour. It is 
marked by sulci, usually deep, parallel, and disposed longitudinally 
on the disks, and finer, intersecting, or irregular in the other por- 
tions ; these correspond with depressions in the membrane below, 
but.there are also hnear grooves, not extending through the entire 
thickness, variously disposed in difFerent birds, which add to the 
roughness of the surface. On carefuUy raising this layer, very nu- 
merous minute, delieate, white threads, attached to its under sur- 
face, are seen to be drawn out of the membrane below : these give 
to this surface, when detached, a soft, villous appearance. 

The membrane upon which this epitheUal stratum rests is thick, 
tough, and white, and is in contact externally with the muscular sub- 
stance of the gizzard. ^hen esamined microscopically, it is found 
to consist of two portions— the deeper one composed of fibrous tissue, 
to the outer surface of which the muscular fibres are attached ; the 
other superficial, comprising about three-fourths of the thickness of 
the entire membrane, composed of numerous tubular glands, or fol- 
licles, placed side by side, simple (in all the birds that I have exa- 
mined *), and terminating below in rounded closed extremities ; their 
general shape much resembling that of a chemist's tęst tube 
(PI. CLXV. fig. 3). A fibrous stroma, continuous with the deeper 
layer of tissue, extends between, and supports the tubes. A hori- 
zontai section through this stratum shovvs very well the mode in which 
the follicles are arranged. In some birds they appear closely packed 
together without any definite plan. In others they are disposed in 
lines or linear groups ; this is the prevailing arrangement in the 
passerine birds. In a third series, comprising the fowls, duck, &c., 
they are coUected into definite groups, oval, or polygonal in outline, 
and each containing from twelve to twenty-four tubes (PI. CLXV. 
fig. 1). In these cases a fine fibrous stroma passes between the 
individual tubes, -while a coarser intermediate substance separates 
the groups. Each tube is composed of an outer wall, hned by a single 
layer of nucleated cells, and contains within it a cylindrical, nearly 
transparent, sohd body, which, being attached by its upper end to 
the cuticular layer, is readily drawn out of the tube, and is, in fact, 
one of the fine filaments mentioued above as visible to the naked 
eye. A closer exaraination of these cylinders, when puUed out from 
their folUcles, shows that they have a fibrous structure, with a cen- 
trai axis of a different nature, rather darker, and sometimes distinctly 
granular ; and that their surface is covered by numerous polygonal 
scales, giving it an imbricated appearance, hke that of a young hair. 
On the addition of caustic potash they swell out, become more trans- 
parent, and their structure is rendered distinct (PI. CLXV. fig. 4). 

The horny layer itself presents in all granivorous birds that I have 
examined this common character : it is composed of numerous pa- 
rallel, rod-like, soUd bodies, placed side by side, extending from the 

* Moliu describes them as compound in the Parrot. 



332 

attached to the free surface, imbedded in an intermediate substance 
or matrix, which is of a homogeneous nature, or coutains more or 
less dark granular matter. These rods are prolongations of the 
cylinders contained withm the tubes of the foUicular coat. In the 
deeper portions of the tissue, the matrix is softer, and the granules 
more numerous, darker, and more distmct, often resembhng cell- 
nuclei. The whole structure becomes less defined, and more blended 
together as it approaches the free-surface. 

The further arrangement of this tissue varies in different birds, 
the variations being dependent upon those in the foUicular layer. 
The cylinders are sometimes irregularly scattered, sometimes disposed 
in lines or linear groups, and in other cases collected iuto small 
triaugular or polygonal groups. In the latter, the dark granules of 
the matrix are arranged in distinct intersecting lines, partitioning off 
the more transparent spaces, which eontain the bundle of rods, and 
so definitely disposed as to give a beautifully reticulated appearance 
to a fine horizontai section. 

The foUicles bear so much resemblance in their appearance and 
situation to the gastric glands of other animals, that for some time 
I believed that their object mušt be the secretion of a fluid to assist 
in digestion, and that the cylinders of the epithelial coat were the 
ducts which conveyed this secretion to the free surface ; but having 
failed iu repeated attempts, by every method with which I am ac- 
ąuainted, to demonstrate their tubularity, I am obliged to revert to 
the idea that the office of the gizzard in the digestive process is 
pūrely mechanical. The function of these numerous foUicles appears 
to be nothing more than the secretion of the horny membrane which 
lies over them, a rod being formed in the bottom of each, and gra- 
dually pushed up, very much in the manner in vvhich a hair is de- 
veloped ; while either the upper part of the tube or the interme- 
diate surface pours out the substance which filis up the space between 
the rods, and consolidates the whole tissue. As in ordinary epithe- 
lial tissues, this process mušt be constantly going on ; as new forma- 
tion takes place below, the' surface is worn off by continual frictiou 
with the hard substances taken into the cavity of the gizzard. 

I will next describe the peculiarities of these structures in a few 
particular examples : — 

Thrush, Blackbh-d, Nightingale {Turdus, Syhia). — In these 
birds the epithelial lining of the gizzard is comparatively thin, and 
not very hard ; but yet it presents the characteristic structure de- 
scribed above. A transverse section shows the cylinders arranged 
more or less regularly in lines, but the intermediate substance is uni- 
formly granular, and does not present distinct dark lines partitioning 
off groups of rods, as in the following birds. 

Sparroiv, Bulljinch, Yelloivhammer (Passer, Pyrrhula, Emberiza) . 
— Here the cylinders are more distinctly arranged in groups, each 
consisting of a long single row, generally of as many as six or eight. 

Foįvl, Guinea-foiol, Quail {Gailus, Numidu, Cotuniiv). — In the 
true gallinaceous birds the foUicles are collected into very definitc 
oval or polygonal groups. The epithelial layer is thick and horny, 



333 

and in it each little bundle of rods is distinctly circumscribed by 
septa formed of dark granules (PI. CLXV. fig. 1). In the first named, 
this layer at its thickest part measures ^ inch, and the foUicular 
stratum is ^^ inch deep. 

Duck (Anas boschas). — Although so different in its general cha- 
racters and habits, in the structure of the gizzard the duck closely 
resembles the fowl. A transverse section of either the folUcular coat 
or the epithelial stratum of the two birds would be almost undistin- 
guishable from each other under the microscope. 

Pigeon (Columba livia). — The triturating disks are well-inarked 
in this bird, three-quarters of an inch in diameter, but rather longer 
from above downwards than from side to side. The epithehal coat 
is well developed, being Jq inch in thickness. Its transverse section 
shows long dark Unes, nearly parallel, with occasional cross lines, 
markiug ofF the cyUnders into groups, not quite so regular and elon- 
gated as in the passerine birds, but presenting a greater affinity to 
these in this respect than to the true Galhnaceae. The tubes of the 
foUicular membrane have a similar arrangement when seen in cross 
section (PI. CLXVI. figs. 1 & 2). In Ectopistes migratorius and 
Goura victoricB the structure is precisely similar. In the lašt the 
epithelial coat is very hard, and measures as much as ^(, inch in 
thickness. 

Nicobar Pigeon (Calcenas nicobaricd). — On each side of the in- 
terior of the gizzard (corresponding in position to the triturating 
disks in other birds) is a hard horny body, perfectly circular in out- 
line, f inch in diameter, detaching itself when dry (in which statė 
only I have seen it) from the remainder of the epithelial lining, 
as distinctly as if struck out by a punch. It is concave, rough, and 
yellovv on the free surface, quite smooth and very convex (almost 
pyramidal, the sides sloping up to an apex in the centre) on the 
attached side, where it is imbedded in a corresponding hollow in the 
mucous membrane. When dried it is of almost stony hardness, and 
in section opaque and white. Its average thickness is \ inch. The 
other parts of the gizzard are lined by a membrane presenting the 
usual characters of that found in pigeons. On examiuing the fol- 
licular layer microscopically, it was found to be similar in structure to 
the šame tissue in other members of the family ; but in that part over 
which the disks lie, the follicles appear more evenly distributed, and 
not so distinctly collected in linear groups as in other portions of the 
organ. In the thin part of the epithelial lining of the gizzard the 
cylinders are collected into irregular groups, most of them having 
a somewhat oval or linear form in transverse section ; the interme- 
diate granular lines being dark and we]l-marked. On moistening the 
attached surface of the disk, it was seen to be covered with the usual 
little filamentous bodies drawn out from the follicles. Vertical sec- 
tions showed parallel rod-like bodies with little intermediate or gra- 
nular substauce. Horizontai sections confirmed this view. The rods 
are either round, oval, or of somevvhat polygonal form, mostly of 
nearly miiform size, and showing a darker centrai portion, and closely 
packed together, with little intervening substauce, and not collected 



334 

into groups. These characters are most distinct in the centre of the 
disk, and towards the sides gradually merge into those presented by 
the thin portion of the lining membrane (PI. CLXVI. figs. 3 & 4). 
Thus these millstone-Hke bodies are formed of the šame elements 
as the epithehal Hning in other granivorous birds, merely modified 
so as to give them additional hardness. Perhaps naturaUsts who 
have an opportunity of observing the Nicobar Pigeon in a wild statė, 
may be able to inform us whether any circumstances connected with 
its food or habits throw hght upon the purpose of this peculiarity in 
its structure. I am not aware of a similar condition existing in any 
other bird ; but in connexion with the subject it may be mentioned 
that Carus * has described and figured the lining membrane of the 
gizzard of the Fulmar Petrei (Procellaria glacialis) as studded with 
numerous horny tubercles, or teeth ; no account is given of their 
microscopical structure. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATĖS. 
Plate CLXV. 

Fig. 1. Horizontai section of epithelial stratum of gizzard of Guinea-fowl {Nu- 

mida meleagris). 
Fig. 2. Sirailar section of follicular stratum of the šame bird. 
Fig. 3. Vertical section of tlie lining membrane of the gizzard of the Coramon 

Fowl. 

A. Epithelial stratum. 

B. Follicular stratum. 

C. Fibrous stratum. 

D. Muscular coat. 

Fig. 4. Three of the cylinders drawn out from their follicles : treated with liąuor 
potassse. From the Yellow-hammer (Emberiza citrinella). 

Plate CLXVI. 

Fig. 1. Horizontai section of epithelial stratum of gizzard of the Common Pigeon 

(Columba livia). 
Fig. 2. Similar section of the follicular stratum of the šame bird. 
Fig. 3. Horizontai section of the thin portion of the epithelial lining of the gizzard 

of the Nicobar Pigeon (Calanas nicobarica). 
Fig. 4. A similar section taken from near the centre of the disk. 

These sections are all represented as seen with a ^-inch object-glass, and me- 
dium eye-piece ; veith the exception of Fig. 3, PI. CLXV., wliich is seen vdth a 
1-inch object-glass. 



4. On a New Form of Grallatorial Bird nearly allied 
TO THE Cariama (Dicholophus cristatus). By Dr. g. 
Hartlaub, Foreign Member. 

Professor H. Burmeister of Halle, who has lately returned to 
Europe after an absence of about three years in the southern portion 
of South America, has communicated to me the following notice of 
a new species of Grallatorial Bird, very nearly allied to the Cariama, 

* Tab. Anat. Comp. Illust. fol. pars iv. 1835, tab. vi. 



335 

which he met with in the vvoody paits of the Argentine Republic, 
and vvhich I have tlie pleasure to name after liim Dicholophus bur- 
meisteri. 

This discovery is the more important and interesting, inasmuch 
as the Cariama has, until now, remained rather an isolated type, 
widely separated from even its nearest relatives. 

The Chunga, as this bird is called by the Spanish inhabitants of 
the Republic, seems to difFer subgenerically frora Dicholophus in the 
following points : — The lores are equally and thickly phimose ; there 
is no conspicuous frontai crest ; the tail is comparativelylonger, and 
the tarsus comparatively shorter ; the nails are nearly uniform on all 
the toes, and are stronger, larger, and more curved than in the Cariama. 
A very important difiference, perhaps the most important, consists in 
the totally different habits of the more northern representative. Pro- 
fessor Burraeister proposes for it a subgeneric division, under the name 
of Chunga. 

The Chunga is a large bird, of about 29 inches in length ; it is 
found in the wooded distriets of the province of Tucuman and 
Catamarca ; it nests on the ground, Its eggs are white, slightly 
spotted with rufous. It feeds upon insects, and more especially upon 
locusts. The young have a rufous dress, thickly undulated •vvith 
black : they very soon begin to take care of themselves. The Chunga 
is easily domesticated, and seems, even after a fevr days of captivity, 
attached to its master. Professor Burmeister saw two of them on a 
farm, which were of the size of an CEdicnemus, and still bore their 
downy plumage. They were fed upon little morsels of beef, but 
rejected larger pieces, as well as the entrails of fovrls. They delighted 
in collecting bones, which they vrere in the habit of striking upon a 
stone and breaking to pieces. During the day they stalked gravely 
about, visited the house, jumped upon the tables and chairs, always 
collecting food, and slėpt at night at certain elevated stations, for in- 
stance on the projecting roof of the verandah. Professor Burmeister 
obtained a living bird at Catamarca, and observed it for some length 
of time. He savr it for the first time at the foot of the Sierra de 
AroDguiga, where it ran very ąuickly and shyly over the road and 
disappeared in the forest. In its \vild statė it is very difficult to kili ; 
therefore it is preferable to search for the nešt, and bring up the 
young birds by hand. The cry of this bird is heard very frequently 
in the district where it is found ; it resembles that of the Dicho' 
lophus cristatus, and sounds likę the bark of a young dog, but not 
quite so loud. The internal structure is quite the šame as that of 
Dicholophus. 

Dicholophus burmeisteri, Hartlaub. 

Statura et ptilosi ut inJ). crisi&io f ormatis ; crista frontali vix 
ulla. Totus pure cinereus, singulis plumis annulis alternan- 
tibus albidis et nigrescentibus tenuissime notatis ; striga supra- 
oculari a loris inde ad aures usąue producta alba ; epigastrio 
pallidiore ; abdomine imo crisso et cruribus flavescenti-albidis ; 
remigibus nigro-fuscescentibus pagonio interno /errugineo-/ul- 



336 

vescente faseiatis ; cauda dorso concolore, distinctius transver- 
sitn lineolata ; rectricihus duabus intermediis unicoloribus ; 
reliąuis fascHs duabus latis nigris, ante apicemnotatis, omnibus 
subtus pallidioribus ; rostro et pedibus nigris ; iride obscure 
grisea. 
Long. tot. clrca, 28"; rost. a nar. 13'"; ai. 12"; caud. 10"; 
tars. 5" 2"'; dig. med. 2"; dig. int. 1" 3"'; dig. ext. 1" 5"'; pollic. 7"'. 



5. On some Hybrid Ducks. By Alfred Newton, M.A., 
F.Z.S. 

(Avės, PI. CLXVII., CLXVIII.) 

The phaenomena of Hybridism are in themselves so interesting, 
and at present so little understood, that I venture to call atteution 
to some examples illustrating the subject, which I now have the 
honour of exliibiting to the Society, and to make some observations 
thereon. 

The proverbial fideUty of Pigeons, when once mated, has been 
found a matter of much convenience to at least one gentleman who 
has studied the great question of the "Origin of Species," by en- 
ablhig him to experimeutalize, comparatively vrithout difficulty, on 
the different races, breeds, or varieties which can be produced from 
one common stock *. I would remark, on the other hand, that the 
tendency, under certaiu circumstances, to polygamy which obtains 
among many of the Ducks, combiued with their natūrai salacity, is 
such as to render that family, perhaps, the one of all others m which 
experiments on hybridism can be the most easily tried. 

The frequent occurreuce of hybrids among the Anatidce has already 
attracted the notice of oruithologists, and among them of one of the 
most distinguished European naturalists, M. de Selys-Longchamps, 
who in 1845 enumerated no less than twenty-five different crosses 
produced between various members of this family, and who eleven 
years later was enabled to raiše the number ioforty-four f. Others 
have also been recorded. 

Although by far the greater proportion of these crosses take place 
in a State of partial domestication, there can be, I think, no doubt 
that some occur among birds in a wild statė. As an instance I may 
mention one, the offspring of which has been described, it is true, as 
a distinct and good species under the various names of Anas mer- 
goides. Margus anatarius, or Clangula angustirostris, vvhich I can- 
not but join such high authorities as Naumann, Hartlaub, Baldamus, 
Von Homeyer, Blasius, and De Selys in considering to be the pro- 
duce of Anas clangula and Mergus albellus, though KjserboUing, 
Cabanis, Reichenbach and Hennecke are of a coutrary opinion. 

* C. Darwin, 'On tlie Origin of Species,' London, 1859, p. 42. 

t Edm. de Selys-Lougcbaraps, " Recapitulation des Hybrides observes dans 
la Famille des Anatidees," BuUetins deTAcad. Roy. de Bruxelle3, tora. xii.no. 10 
(1845) ; and " Additions a la Recapitulation," &c., BuU. de l'Acad. Roy. de Bel- 
gique, tom. xxiii. no. 7 (1856). 



Proc.Z 3 Aves.CiXVII. 







anens . Iiiij 



K JtlT Kar.'hart.Impt 



HYBRID BETWEEM FULI&UIJi. COLLARIS AITD F.AMERICANA. 



/# 



.'■er 



7'-' 




anens.i-.'.- 



M ^ li^ . isdimart. Insp' 



'brljs eetvveen altas boschas Ain; dafila agutj 

I Second čsneratiūn.) 



<^\\ V*»li6į 



■^ 
■^ 









337 

The specimens vvhich I beg leave first to subniit to your notice 
were raost kindly sent for my use by Mr. Dauiel G. Elliot of New 
York, one of our Corresponding Members. They have been already 
exhibited at a former meeting (November 22, 1859), but I do uot 
hesitate again to call your attention to them, because on tliat ocea- 
sion the origin of two of them was, iu my opinion, erroneously ac- 
coanted for. They were then considered to have been respectively 
produced by erosses between ( 1 ) the Wild Duck (Atias boschas) and 
Pintail {Bafila acuta), (2) the "VVild Duck and Muscovy Dnck {Gai- 
rina mosehata), and (3) the American Scaup {Fuligula affinis) and 
the Canvas-back {F. vaiisneria) or the American Pochard (F. ame- 
ricana) *. Now, the first of these betrays, to my eye, no sign of 
descent from the Pintail. Indeed it differs in one respect only from 
the ordinary appearance of the common hybrid betvveeu the Wild 
Duck and the Dusky Duck {A. obscura) ; and in this one respect — 
the rufous colouring of the vent — it differs eąually from the Pintail. 
But of this, more presently. The pedigree of the second bird I am 
disposed to think has been correctly suggested ; but it may be re- 
marked that it is uot uulike that curious domesticated variety of the 
Wild Duck which is known to dealers as the " Labrador," the 
" Buenos Ayres," the " Black," or the " Velvet " Duck. The origin 
of the third (PI. CLXVII.) I believe to be due to a cross between 
the Collared Duck (Fuligula coUaris) on one side, and on the other, 
one of the before-mentioned species, but probably the American Po- 
chard. A resemblance to the Collared Duck is observable in the 
tohite spot under the chin, and the grey speculum, — characters which 
are not possessed by either of the Scaup Ducks found in the New 
"World. This lašt specimen is a particularly interesting one. It 
will no doubt be fresh in the recollection of the ornithologists whom 
I have the honour of addressing, that in April 1847, Mr. Bartlett 
exhibited, at a meeting of this Society, three ducks, which he con- 
sidered to form a new species, and accordingly described them by 
the name of Fuligula ferinoides f ; one of them having been pre- 
viously, but erroneously, figured by the late Mr. Yarrell in his 
'British Birds' as an esample of the American Scaup (Fuligula 
affinis). At the time, I believe that some doubts were expressed as 
to the validity of this species, and these doubts appear to me to be 
well-grounded. In the ' Naumannia ' for 1851 (pp. 12-15), Herr 
Biideker described some birds killed near Rotterdam as forming 
a new species under the name of Fuligula homeyeri, and in that 
Journal for the next year two of these examples were figured, vvhich 
were subseąuently exhibited by Mr. Gould at the meeting of this 
Society, March 28, 1854, and by him identified with Mr. Bartlett's 
F. ferinoides X- 

In the ' Revue et Magaziu de Zoologie ' for March 1853 (p. 117), 
M. Jaubert, under the name of Anas intermedia, gavę an account 
and description of four malė hybrids, as he considered them, betvveea 
Fuligula ferina and F. nyroea. 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 437. t Ibid. 1847, p. 48. 

{ Ibid. 1S54, p. 95. 

No. 438. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



338 

Now, both F , ferinoides and F. homeyeri I believe to have beeii 
produced from the cross which M. Jaubert has suggested ; and my 
belief is strengtheued by the perfect aualogy shown by tbe present 
hybrid from the New World. The snbject has been much discussed 
upon the Continent ; aud those who support the view of the validity 
of the supposed species have reUed principally on the assertion that 
birds in a statė of nature do not hybriėlize, — an assertion which I 
venture to believe is not according to facts. 

The specimens which I next have the honour to exhibit to you 
are, in my opinion, of no common interest. The statement has been 
again and again reiterated, with some sUght variation of language, 
but always to the šame effect, that hybrids betvveeu two distinct spe- 
cies are inter se infertile. I presume that no naturahst, whatever 
may be the views he takes of species, will have any hesitation in de- 
claring that the WildDuck {Anas boschas), with all its domesticated 
varieties, and the Pintail {Dajila acuta), are perfectly distinct spe- 
cies. It is TOell kuown that they will readily, in a statė of confine- 
ment, breed together. In the winter of 1855-G I received from a 
fri(;ud a pair of birds (malė and female) which were bred by him from 
a Pintail Drake and a farm-yard Duck. These I turned down on 
my pond. It is fair to say that on this pond were also examples of 
both species. I watched them very closely ; the malė hybrid — as 
hybrids constantly do — at once reigned supreme over its denizens. 
As spriug approached he became a most devoted and at the šame 
time jealous husbaud : not a drake of any description would he allovv 
to conie near his mate ; and in the battles in whichhe engagedin de- 
fence of his prerogative, he invariably came off victorious. I was never 
fortunate enough to obtain ocular proof of the consummation of his 
nuptials, but I most firmly believe that the malė of no other species 
on the water ever had access to his wife. My brother, who was as 
constant in his observations as myself, entirely coiucided in this opi- 
nion. In the mouth of April the female hybrid made her nešt, and 
sat \ipon her eggs, in due time hatching four ducklings, which proved 
to be two females and two malęs. The skins of the latter I now ex- 
hibit (PI. CLXVIII.), and I have no scruple whatever in regarding 
them as actually the produce inter se of a pair of hybrids between 
totally distinct species. In the breeding seasons of 185/ and 1858 
I was avvay from home. Lašt year I was anxious to ascertain if 
these hybrids of the second generation would produce again inter se ; 
and I vratched them narrowly. The result of my observations was, 
that they were probably infertile ; and after their death my suspicions 
were strengthened by the dissection I made. I may add, that in 
the present season the old hybrid female, the mother of the subjects 
of these remarks, has brought out two broods of young ones, which 
I cannot but regard as also the offspring of their putative father, 
but, through other occupations, I have not been able to afTord the 
uecessary time to watch them. I forbear, therefore, to adduce them 
in support of my argument. It, however, appears to me that the 
common assertion to which I have alluded requires considerable nio- 
dificatiou, and that all that can be said is, that though the hybrid 



i 



339 

offspring of two animals clearly distinct may of themselves be per- 
fectly fertile, it is uot proved that this fertility extends to a second 
generatiou. 

Thcre is one other point which I mušt be allowed to mention 
befoie quitting the subject. It will be seen that the two birds ex- 
hibited differ remarkably in plumage, although of the šame parentage, 
sex, aud age ; for they were born and killed within a day or two of 
each other. The larger specimen almost exactly resembles his 
father, but perhaps his colours are not so warm or brilliaut. The 
smaller bird is of an appearance altogether distinct, and the ahnost 
uniform mottled grey of his breast and belly would make it perhaps 
difficult to guess his parentage. I can account for the divergence 
only in this way, that the Domestic Duok from which these birds 
are descended was of that almost whole-coloured variety which is 
not unfrequently seen in farm-yards, and that, while one of her 
grand-children shows nearly the typical plumage of the hybrid be 
tween the Wild Duck and the Pintail, the other takes after some 
progenitor of the variety I have mentioned. Whether this will serve 
to illustrate the peculiarity I have above mentioned, and also a curious 
fact alluded to by our Secretary in a late communication on some 
Hybrid Duokš bred in the Society's Gardens, wherein it is stated 
that the produce of a eross between Tadorna vulpanser and Casarea 
cana present a character " scarcely deducible from either,* " I do 
not say. It is not, however, difficult to see what use may be made of 
this singular circumstance by those who advocate the views of Mr. 
Darwin ; but into any consideration of the ąuestion I forbear to enter, 
eontenting myself merely by noticing the fact. 



6. Remarks on the Anas (Anser) erythropus of Linn^us. 
By Alfred Neavton, M. A., F. Z. S. 

The determination of the species established by Linnasus has 
always been held by uaturalists a matter of so great importance, 
that I have no scruple in occupying a portion of your tini e this 
evening with a fevr remarks respecting the bird which, in the 1 2th 
edition of his ' Systema Naturse ' is designated by the name of 
" Anas erythropus ; " especially also as one of his editors (the late 
learned Professor Retzius), though noticing the "mira circa hanc 
avem confusio," has, in my opinion, failed to give a satisfactory 
solution of the difficulty. It will be, I think, universally admitted 
that the names employed by Linnseus, when, as in the present in- 
stance, they are drawn from any physical character, are remarkably 
apposite. This consideration of itself should have served as a warn- 
ing to ornithologists against their imagining, as many have done, 
that he could possibly mean to apply the name " erythropus" to a 
species likę the Bernicle Goose, with which he was sufficiently 
familiar, and to which it was in no degrec suitable. 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. 185!), p. 442, Avės, PI. CLVIII. 



340 

It will, perhaps, be convenient to examme first on vvhat founda- 
tion "Anus erythropus" was established. 

In the 12th edition of the ' Systema Naturse ' (Holmise, 1766) we 
find (vol. i. pars 1. pp. 197-8) the species as the eleventh m order 
of the genus Anas, and the account given is : — 

"A. cinerea, fronte alba. Faun. Svec. 116." [I omit all the syu- 
onyms borrowed from other authors.] " Rostrum rubrum. Pedes 
rubri." 

Now these latter characters clearly can have no reference to the 
Bernicle Goose, even if that species were not elsewhere included as 
Anas bernicla, var. /3. 

Turning then to the edition of the ' Fauna Siiecica ' eited (Stock- 
holmise, 1761), we have (p. 41) as follows : — 

"116. Anas erythropus cinerea ; fronte alba. Fn. 92 

Anser cinereus ferus, torąue inter oculos et rostrum albo, erythropus. 
W. Botniensibus Fjsell-gas. Habitat in Helsingia, Lapponise alpi- 
bus." 

To this succeeds a descriptiou of the malė, which I admit is open 
to objection ; but the matter, in my opinion, is rendered conclusive 
by the description of the female, which, in the edition of the ' Fauna 
Suecica' here referred to, and published fifteen years previously 
(Lugd. Bat. 1746), is alone given. It is this : — 

" Rostrum sordide carneum, frons alba. Caput, coUum, dorsum, 
cauda cinerea ; pectus et abdomen candida : maculae in sterno ni- 
grescentes : Pedes sanguinei." 

It is, therefore, plain, that by Anas erythropus Linnseus did not 
inteud to designate the Bernicle Goose, but a bird known in bis 
time to the Swedes of Westro-BothDia by the name of Fjaell-gas — 
i. e. " Fell " or " Mountain Goose." It accordingly remains to be 
seen what that species is. 

It appears by the note-books of the late Mr. John "VVoUey, which 
are uow in my possession, that in all bis researches he was able to find 
only two species of Wild Goose inhabiting the estensive district iu 
Lapland which he so carefully explored, and of which part was com- 
prehended in the ancient province of \Vestro-Bothnia. These species 
are known to the Finns, vvho form the great bulk of the population, 
respectively as the "Iso-hanhi" and " Killio-hanhi," the former 
siguifying "Great Goose," the latter "Mountain Goose." Thelso- 
hauhi he had several opportunities of identifying as the well-knowa 
Bean Goose {Anser segėtum) ; the other he found, somewhat to bis 
surprise, to be, not, as he had been told by Svvedish ornithologists, 
the Bernicle Goose, but a bird of about that size, and at the šame 
time closely resembling, in plumage and other physical characters, the 
White-fronted Goose {Anser albifrons). Not to extend the present 
remarks, I may statė briefly that he was not able to discover that 
the Bernicle Goose was known to any of the inhabitants of the 
interior of the country : a statemeut which is singularly corroborated 
by Mr. Dann's note communicated to Mr. Yarrell (B. B. iii. p. 73) 
in reference to the last-nanied species : — "A skiu of this Goose was 
shown me by some Laps ncar Gillivara, \vho were ignorant of the 



Proc Z.S.AT66 CLI! 




JTVolf del 
-J.-iJeniiens,ijLii. 



y[-& h -Kaunart 



ACUILA &URNETI 




■^-If.dei. 
jrciens.kth 



TANYSIPTERA SAERINA 



p'-^^ 




Pro c Z S.A¥es,CL7i: 




,į<«^ 



JTfolf del 
■J-Jenuens litli. 



M. (S- N.Haria; 



MEGAPODIUS IVALLACn. 



^^ / 



rS 



ProcZ.S Avės, CLIII 



iX 





J.TVolf.del. 
-J-Jennens lilh . 



MA T5. Hanharl | 



HABROPTILA WALLACII. 



3-Jl 



bird, never having secn it before. It wa3'shot at Killiugsuvanda " 
Accorįngly. m the Catalogue of his Eggs sold by Mr. Stevens in 
IHob, he stated, under the head of " yhtas albifrons," that " tliis 
mteresting bird is the proper Fjell-gas of the Svvedes, which name 
Jias howev^r, been appUed to the Bernicle m their works on Natūrai 
i!- f I" 1. I^apland specimens seem to be of the small-sized race, 
wtiich has beeu natned Anser minutus. by Naumann." I mušt here 
take exception to part of Mr. Wolley's statement, some Swedish 
wnters being quite aware that the "Fjajll-Gas " was not Anser leu- 
copsts as for mstance, Professor Zetterstedt, in the account of his 
travels m Lapland * (vol. ii. p. 161). 

Tii^'^^y^^^^^H'^^ ^^ ^"^ ^S8^ ®o^^ ^" the following year (1857), 
Mr. Wolley further identified "the only White-fronted Geese which 
breed m Lapland, with the Anser finmarcUcus of Bishop Gunner, 
descnbed m one of the notes (pp. 264-5) of Professor Leem's ereat 
work t, " as distinct from the larger White-fronted Goose " 

*'^"u''"l^/^?..*^,^* ^ ^"^^'■^^y coincide with the views thus ex- 
r^.'^n fe ^/- ^°"^y' ^^"^^ ^ ^^'° ^d«"% the " Killio-hanhit" or 

ijsell Gas, with the Anas erythropus of Liunaeus ; and I here 
subjom a concise summary of the principai synonyms of this bird. 

Anser erythropus (Linn.), 

Anas (Anser) erythropus, Linn. Svst. Nat. ed. 12 (\7&C>') vol i 
pars 1. p. 197 (non Auct.). . "' 

Anser Jinmarchicus, Gunner, in Leemii de Lappon. Comm. notis 
(1/67), p. 264. 

Anser temmincMi, Boie, Isis, 1822, p. 882. 

Anser minutus, Naum. Naturgesch. der Vog. Deutschl ri842^ 
vol. XI. p. 365, tab. 290. ^ ^ 

7. List of Birds collected by Mr. Wallace at the Mo- 

LUCCA ISLANDS, WITH DeSCRIPTIONS OF NeW SpeCIES, ETC. 

By George Robert Gray, F.L.S., F.Z.S., etc. 

(Avės, Pls. CLXIX.-CLXXII.) 

The present list contains an enumeration of the Birds latelv sent 
to this country by that indefatigable coUeetor Mr. Wallace, from 
?«? n/''/'.!, ^'"'''^ ^'i^^J including a few from Kaisa or Kiou 
Island; to these are added those that he had forvvarded on a pre- 
vious occasion from Amboyna and Tematė ; thus embracing a hun- 
dred species found on four of the Molucca Islands. I am therefore 
induced to refer to the names of those species that have been recorded 

TwVvo"X""l u^Tfe'*^ """"""^'^ Lappn.arker, af Joh.Wilh. Zetterstedt.' 
CiL^^Ti^ įl^SS^n^lTr''" Con.,nentatio, una cu. J. E. 



342 

by other oraithologists as coming from the Molucca group, and also 
from the large neighbouring islauds of Gilolo or Hahnaheira, Ceram, 
Bouro or Bourou, &c., which, if taken coUectively with the Moluecan 
specieSj will form the nucleus of an Onūthological Fauna (of iipwards 
of 200 species) of what would be more properly desiguated the Špice 
Islauds. 

I hare been enabled by a very recent arrival from Gilolo and Ter- 
nate, to add to this list some twenty-seven additional species ; they 
are distinguished by au asterisk. 

Falconid.e. 
AauiLA (Heteropus ?) gurneyi. (PI. CLXIX.) 

Immature. — Malė. Hair brown, varied with buffj'-white iu the 
form of bars and streaks ; the head, neck, beneath the body, and tail- 
coverts rufous-white, escept on the breast aud sides, which are ru- 
fous ; this latter colour is also sparingly displayed in patches on the 
head and neck ; the lesser wing-coverts aud scapulars irregularly 
banded with white ; the greater wing-coverts, secoudaries, tertials, 
and tail deep brown, banded irregularly with grey ; the primaries 
deep black. 

Mature bird probably brownish black, with indications of irre- 
gular greyish bauds. 

Length 3.V' 6'", wings 22" 3'", tail 16" 3'", bill from gape 2" 3'". 

Batchian Island {Wan. ColL). 

This fine bird partakes of the form of Aąuila tnalayensis, but it is 
larger and of a totally different colour. I have named this remark- 
able bird after J. H. Gurney, Esq., who is paying particular atten- 
tion to the group to which it belongs, and who possesses one of the 
finest series of them, 

*Haliaetus (Cuncuma) leucogaster. 
Falco leucogaster, Gmel. S. N. i. p. 257. 
Halicetus leucogaster, Gould. 
Gilolo {TFall. ColL). 

Haliastur leucosternus, Tar. B. M. 

Haliaėtus leucosternus, Gould, B. of Austr. i. pi. 
Haliastur leucosternus, G. R. Gray, List of B. B. M. i. p. 13. 
Haliaėtus (Icfinoa'ėttis) leucosternon, Kaup. 

Batchian, Amboyna, and Tematė. 

Rather smaller in all its proportions to the Australian and Loui- 
siade specimens. 

Baza reinwardtii. B.M. 

Falco (Lophotes) reinivardtii, Miill. & Schleg. Verh. Nederi, t. 5. 
Lophastnr jerdoni, BĮ. Journ. A. S. B. xi. p. 404. 
Basajerdoni, BĮ. Cat. of B. p. 18. 
Baza reimoardtii, BĮ. Cat. p. 317. 



MA 

Aviceda reimoardtii, Pr. B. 

Aviceda sumatrensis, Lafr. Rcv. 'Zool. 1848, p. 210 ? 

Batchian. 

TiNNUNCULUS MOLUCCENSIS. B. M. 

Cresserelle des Moluques, Temm. & Schl. Fauna Jap. p. 3. 
Tinnunculus moluccensis, Homb. & Jacq. Voy. au Pole Sud Ois 
t. 1. f. 2. 
Falco tinnunculus, Miill. Verh. Ethn. p. 87? 
Batchiau ; Kaisa Island ; Amboyna ; Ternate ; Djilolo. 
Hierax ccerulescens, Yig. Molucca Jslands. 

ASTUR lOGASTER. 

Falco hiogaster, Miill. & Schleg. Verh. Nederi, p. 110. 
Ejtervier oceanien, <S , Voy. au Pole Sud, t. 2. f. 1 . 
Accipiter hyogaster, Pr. B. Consp. Av. i. p. 33. 
Amboyna and Gilolo (Wall. Coli.). 

AsTUR GRISEOGULARIS. B. M. 

Adult. Greyish-slate colour ; more decidedly grey on head and 
mentum ; nape and between the shoulders tingėd with rufous viua- 
ceous ; beneath the body rufous vinaceous, narrowly bauded with 
greyish-white. 

Young malė ? Head and throat slaty-grey, paler on the latter ; 
nape castaneous ; back and wings brovvn and greyish-black mixed ; 
tail brown, and some feathers greyish-black, banded with darker; 
breast, sides of abdomen, and thighs rufous, barred with vvhite, 
which is margined with black ; abdomen white, broadly barred with 
fuscous; beneath the tail, old feathers rufous-white barred with 
black, new feathers grey barred with black. 

Female. Head, occiput, and ear-coverts black, Taried with black 
and slightly with rufous ; back and wings brown, each fcather spotted 
with white and margined with pale rufous ; upper surface of tail 
brown, banded with black, paler brown betweeu the bands near the 
shaft ; beneath the body white, marked with streaks on the breast, 
and crescent-shaped bands of black on the abdomen. 

Length 18" 6'", tarsi 2" b'". 

Batchian, Djilolo, and Ternate. 

This bird approaches Astur ajįjn-ozhnans (Vig. & Horsf.), but the 
bill is larger ; the head and throat are decidedly grey ; the tarsi are 
much shorter, though the toes are about the šame length. 

*ASTUR HENICOGRAMMŪS. 

Juv. ? Head and back of neck black, varied vrith uhite, and 
slightly with rufous ; back, wmg-coverts, and tertials black, spotted 
with white, the former colour narrowly margined with rufous ; cjuills 
and tail-feathers black and rufous banded ; under surface wbite 
banded \vith rufous, the rufous colour on breast varied with black ; 



344 

under surface of wings and tail rufous white, spotted or baiided with 
black. 

Length 16", vriiigs 8" 9'". 

East Gilolo. 

Probably a very young stage of Astur griseogularis. 

*ACCIP1TER ERYTHRATJCHEN. 

Slaty-black ; lore, cheeks, mentum, abdomen, and under tail- 
coverts slaty-white ; side of neck and nape castaneous rufous ; breast, 
sides of abdomen, and thighs whitish-rufous ; under wing-coverts 
rufous-white, varied with slaty-wbite ; quills beneath banded with 
rufous or s]aty-white and slaty-black. 

Length 11'' 9'", wings 8" 9'". 

East Gilolo {TVall. Coli.). 

MlCRONlSUS SOLOENSIS. 

Falco soloensis, Horsf. Linn. Trans. xiii. p. 137. 

Falco cuculoides, Temm. PI. Col. 110. 129. 

Tachyspiza soloensis, Kaup. Classif. der Saug. und Vog. p. 1 Ifi. 

Mio'Oiiisus soloensis, G. R. Gray. 

Batchian {Wall. Coli.). 

Strigid^e. 

*Athene rufostrigata. 

This bird approaches the Athene connivens in general appearance, 
but it is of a blackisb-slate colour on the upper surface ; the liands 
on the quills and taii-feathers are less prominent, and the white spots 
on the wings are less numerous ; while the longitudinal streaks on the 
white under surfaces are of a rufous colour, slightly varied with slaty- 

Length 17" 9"', wings U" 6"'. 
East Gilolo (^"a//. Coli.). 

Athene hypogramma. B. M. 

Upper surface uniform deep rufous-brown, more obseure on the 
head ; scapulars and some of the wing-coverts banded with white ; 
front and throat white ; under surface entirely white, broadly banded 
with brownish -rufous ; tail banded with palcr colour ; tarsi plumed 
and rufous-white ; toes corered only with strong scattered hairs. 

Length 15" 3"', wings 8" 9'". 

Batchian and Gilolo. 

This bird bears a great similarity to the Athene variegata (Q. & G.), 
but it does not exhibit the marks visible on the upper surface of that 
bird and it also differs in having the barring of the under surface 
extending on the tail-coverts. It is also larger in all its proportions. 

Athene squamipila, Pr. B. Geram. 

Ephialtes leucospila. b. m. 

Upper surface rufous, speckled and irregularly striated longitu- 



345 

dinally with black ; the marks on the head are broader and more 
defined ; under surface varied with rufous and white, with black 
irregular marks down the shaft of each feather; scapulars, wing- 
coverts, outer margins of quills, and of the outer tail-feather spotted 
with white ; tarsi plumed ; toes entirely naked. 

Length 11", wings6" 6"'. 

Batchian and Eastern Gilolo. 

In general appearance this bird is Tcry likę Ephialtes manadensis 
(Q. & G.), but it is larger in all its proportions, and is more promi- 
nently marked with white on the wing-coverts. 

Ephialtes magicus, MuU. Amboyna ; Banda Islands. 

Caprimulgidje. 

Batrachostomus psilopterus. 

Rufous-cinnamou ; front, middle of throat, breast, abdomen, and 
under tail-coverts varied with rufous and white — the latter colour 
margined with black; wing-coverts, scapulars, and some of the ter- 
tials spotted with white, surrounded with black ; a spot behind each 
eye and at the base of mandibles white ; tail irregularly banded 
with black ; quills black, with the outer web cinnamon colour ; 
bristles leugthened and deep black. 

Length 12", vvings 7". 

Batchian and Gilolo {WalL Coli.). 

HlRUNDINID^. 

Macropteryx mystaceus. B.M. 

Cypselus mystaceus, Less. Voy. de la Coqu. Zool. i. t. 22. 
Macropteryx mystaceus, Swains. Classif. of B. ii. p. 340. 
Bendrochelidon mystaceus, Boie, Isis, 1844, p. 166. 
Batchian and Eastern Gilolo ; Amboina. 

COLLOCALIA HYPOLEUCA. B.M. 

Collocalia hypoleuca, G. R. Gray, Proc. Z. S. 1858, p. 170. 

Batchian. 

Collocalia esculenta (Į) . Amboyna. 

HiRUNDO GUTTURALIS. B.M. 

Hirundo gutturalis, Scop. 
Hirundo panayensis, Gmel. S. N, i. p. 1018. 
Hirundo j avanica, Sparrm. Mus. Carls. t. 100. 
Batchian and Gilolo. 

CORACIAD^. 
EURYSTOMTJS OR1ENTALIS. 

Coracias orientalis, Linn. S. N. i. p. 159. 
Eurystomus orientalis, Steph. Gen. Zool. xiii. p. 99. 
Colaris orientalis, Cnv. Reg. Anim. 1817, i. p. 401. 
Batchian and Tematė (IFall. Coli.). 



346 

EURYSTOMUS AZUREUS. B. M. 

Bronzy-black, tinged with green on the back ; the feathevs of the 
wings, rump, and beneath the body broadly margined with deep blue, 
but the latter varying, in certain hghts, to bright cobalt-bkie, espe- 
cially 011 the quills, tail-feathers, and beneath the body ; the throat 
blue, with the shaft of each feather more bright ; the quills near the 
middle vvith a pale verditer spot. 

Bill and feet red. 

Length 13" 6'", wings 8", bill from gape 1" 9'". 

Batchian. 

Eurystomus pileatus, Reinw. Molueca. 

Alcedinid^. 
*Halcyon funebris. b. m. 

Halcyon fimehris, Forst., Pr. B. Consp. Av. i. p. 157. 
Cyanalcyon funebris, Pr. B. 
Djilolo. 

Halcyon collaris (var.). B. M. 

Alcedo collaris, Scop. Del. Flor. & Faun. Insubr. p. 90. 
Halcyon collaris, Swams. Zool. Illustr. pi. 27. 
Batchian and Gilolo. 

The bill appears to be of a smaller size than those of the Iiidian 
contineut. 

Halcyon lazuli. B. M. 

Jlcedo lazuli, Temm. PI. Col. 508. 
Halcyon lazuli, G. R. Gray, Gen. of B. i. p. 79. 
Todiramphus lazuli, Pr. B. Consp. Av. p. 157. 
Amboyna. 

Halcyon diops. B. M. 

Alcedo diops, Temm. PI. Col. 272. 

Halcyon diops, G. R. Gray, Gen. of B. i. p. 79. 

Todiramphus diops, Pr. B. Consp. Av. p. 157. 

Amboyna, Tematė, Batchian, and Gilolo. 

♦Halcyon sancttjs. 

Halcyon sancta, Vig. & Horsf. Linn. Trans. 
Tematė. {JVall. Coli.) 

Tanysiptera na'is. 

Alcedo dea, Linn. ? 

Upper surface black, with the feathers broadly margined with in- 
digo, those of the cheeks, nape, and wing-coverts brighter blue ; top 
of the head margined with silvery-blue ; eyebrows, round the occi- 
put, shoulder of wings, and the narrow centrai portion of the two 
middle tail-feathers verditer-blue ; beneath the body, runip, and 



347 

lengtbened spatular ends of the two middle tail-feathers white ; the 
outer tail-feathers white, broadly margined with blue-black. 

Length 12", wings 4", bill from gape 1" 11'". 

Amboyna {WaU. Coli.). 

This bird, it is supposed, will eventually be found to possess some 
characters distingmshing it from that described by Linnseus, as from 
Tematė, and therefore the above name has been given to it provi- 
sionally. 

Tanysiptera įsisf. B.M. 

Upper surface dull black, with the feathers of the nape margined 
with deep blue ; cheeks and some of the wiag-coTerts margined with 
bright blue; top of head silvery-blue ; eyebrows, round occiput, 
and margins of shoulders verditer-blue ; beneath the body and rump 
white ; tail-coverts deep blue ; two middle tail-feathers verditer- 
blue, margined with bright blue, the inner margiu near the base and 
the short spatular ends white ; lateral feathers deep blue, with the 
ends and inner webs more or less white. 

Length 11" 9"', wing 3" 8"', biU from gape 1" 8"'. 

Batchian and Gilolo. 

This species is nearest to the remains of an example of this genus 
which I described under the name of Tanysiptera nympha ; but the 
middle tail-feathers are of a bright indigo-blue, and not so narrow 
near the ends, which are also not so spatula-shaped ; the outer 
feathers are entirely of a bluish-black ; the crown of the head is also 
of a bright indigo-blue. 

Tanysiptera sabrina. (PI. CLXX.) B.M. 

Upper surface black ; cheeks, nape, and upper part of back deep 
blue ; top of head bright blue ; eyebrows, round the occiput, and 
shoulders of wings, silvery-blue ; spot in the middle of back, beneath 
the body, and lateral tail-feathers, white ; the two middle tail-feathers 
with the basai part and the lengthened spatular ends white ; the 
narrow part silvery-blue. 

Length 12" 9"', wings 4" 3"', bill from gape 1" 8"'. 

Kaisa or Kiou Island. 

This species is Uke Mr. Gould's Tanysiptera sylvia, iii having the 
white spot on the middle of the back ; otherwise it is most likę 
Tanysiptera nais, though the blue is of a different hue. 

The genus Tanysiptera now consists of the following species : — 

T. dea, Linn. Tematė. 

(?) T. ndis, G. R. Gray. Amboyna. 

T. galatea, G. R. Gray {A. dea, Less.). New Guinea. 

T. hydroeharis, G. R. Gray. Aru Islands. 

T. nympha, G. R. Gray. Philippine Islands? 

T. isis, G. R. Gray. Batchian and Gilolo. 

T. sabrina, G. R. Gray. Kaisa Island. 

T. sylvia, Gould. Cape York. 

t This seems to be the bird described by Herr F. Heine in Cabanis' ' Journal 
fiir Ornithologie,' 1859, p. 406, as Tanysiptera margarethce.—P. L. S. 



348 

Ceyx lepida. b. m. 

Ceyx lepida, Temm. PI. Col. 591. f. 1. 
Amboyna and Batchian. 

Ceyx uropygialis. b. m. 

Black, witli the feathers of tlie head and wing-coverts bordered 
vvith prussian blue ; cheeks streaked with the šame colour ; the back 
and tail-coverts streaked with bright ultramarine blue ; the rump 
verditer, narrowly banded with white ; the throat, and spot on the 
side of ueck, yellowish-white ; frontlet and beneath the body ru- 
fescent, tinged with yellow. 

Length 5" 1'", wings 2" 4'", biU from gape 1" 7'". 

Batchian and Tematė. 

Alcedo ispida, var. des Moluques. Bourou or Bouro ; Banda. 

Alcyone affinis, b. m. 

The form of the bill agrees with that of Alcyone lessoni of New 
Guinea, but is rather shorter ; the blue of the upper surface is of a 
paler hue, -vvhile the breast and abdomen are of a more uuiform dark 
rufous colour. In these latter respects it agrees best vvith Alcyone 
pulchra of Mr. Gould. 

Batchian. 

*Merops ornatus. 

Merops ornatus, Lath. Ind. Orn. Suppl. p. xxxv. 
Tematė (?ra//. Coli.). 

Promeropid^. 
Nectarinia aspasioides. 

Nectarinia aspasia, pt., Miill. 

This bird seems to agree with the figure given by Lesson in Voy. 
Coqu. t. 30. f. 2, in its general coloration, but the bUl is much 
longer. 

Amboyna {JTall. Coli.). 

Nectarinia auriceps. B. M. 

This bird is closely allied to the lašt, but the top of the head is 
rich golden green ; and the throat, lower part of back, and wing- 
coverts are of a rich glossy steel-blue. 

Batchian and Tematė. 

Nectarinia frenata. B. M. 

Nectarinia frenata, Miill. Verh. Nat. Gesch. p. 61. 
Cyrtostomus frenatus, Reichenb. 
Batchian and Ternate. 

Nectarinia solaris, Temm. Amboyna. 
Nectarinia zenobia, Less. Amboyna ; Gilolo. 



31!) 

DlC^UM SCHISTACEICEPS. B. M. 

Head, neck, and breast greyish-slate ; the latter with a large spot 
of vermilion ; back, sides, and under tail-coverts olive-green ; upper 
tail-coverts yellowish green ; wings and tail seueous. 

Length 3" 5'", wings 2". 

Batchian and E. Gilolo. 

Dicceum erythrothorax, Less. Bonrou ; Amboyua. 
Dicceum rubrocanum, Temm. Banda. 

mei.iphagid.e. 
Myzomela simplex. b. m. 

Rufous greyish-brovvn ; paler beneath ; quills and tail obscure 
brown, margined with brownish-crimson ; bill blackj feet pale brown. 
Length 5" 2'", wings 2" 3'". 
Batchian. 

Myzomela hoiei, Miill. Banda. 

Anthoch^ra senex. b. m. 

Tropidorhynchu8 gilolensis, Temm. Pr. Consp. Av. p. 390 ? 

Fuscous-black, with the shafts pure white, especially on the throat 
and breast ; wings grey, with the tips and shafts of the feathers pure 
white ; orbits of the eyes naked ; bill and feet black. 

Length 9", wings 4" 3'", bill from gape. 

Batchian and Gilolo. 

Tropidorhynchus subcornutus, Temm. Ceram. 
Tropidorhynchus bouroensis, Less. Bourou. 
Tropidorhynchus 1 molnccensis (Gm.). Molucea. 

luscinid^. 
Acrocephalus orientalis. b. m. 

Calamoherpe orientalia, Pr. B. Consp. Av. p. 285. 
Batchian. 

Acrocephalus fasciolatus. 

Deep olivaceous-brown, with the shafts of the feathers on the 
head and upper part of neck of a pale colour ; the lores and cheeks 
yellowish-white ; the throat and breast yellowish-white, banded with 
dusky ; the abdomen yellowish-white, darker on the sides ; the 
under tail-coverts pale rufous-white. 

Length 7", wings 3". 

Batchian {WalL Coli.). 

Sylvia flavescens. 

Greyish olivaceous-green, •with a uarrow band from nostrils over 
the eyes and ear-coverts yellowish-white ; beneath the body whife, 
tinged with greyish on the throat ; breast and sides with dashes of 
pale yellow; the abdomen and uuder tail-coverts tinged vvith pale 



350 

yellow ; upper niaudible black, lower yellowish-white ; feet pale hoiu- 
colour. 

Length 4" 10'", wiugs 2" 6'". 

Batchiau (/ra«. Coli.). 

ZOSTEROPS CHLORIS. B. M. 

Zosterops chloris, Mūll. Pr. B. Consp. Av. p. 398. 
Ternate. 

Zosterops (?) atriceps. 

Yellowisli-green ; the head, tail, aud qmlls brownish-black, the 
two latter bordered narrowly with yellovvish greeu ; beneath the body 
and under wing-coverts white ; the uuder tail-coverts pale kiug-yel- 
l()w ; the circle round the eyes white ; bill black, with base of lower 
mandible yellowish ; feet horn-colour. 

Length 4" 10'", wings 2" 4'". 

Batchian {Wall. Coli.). 

MOTACILLA FLAVESCENS. 

Timor JVagtail, Lath. Gen. Syn. iv. p. 104. 
Motacillafiava, var. /S, Lath. Ind. Orn. ii. p. 504. 
Motacilla flavescens, Shaw, Geu. Zool. x. p. 559. 
Amboyna and Gilolo {TVall. Coli.). 

Anthus arboreus, var. 

Alauda trivialis, Linn. ? 
Anthus arboreus, Becbst. 
Pipastes arboreus, Kaup. 
Batchian (^Wall. Coli.). 

Turdid^e. 

*TuRDus (Monticola) erythropterus. 

Blue grey, each feather margined with black and then white oi 
dusky white ; wiugs and tail black, margined exterually with blue 
grey and tipped with pure vvhite ; sonie of the under wing-coverts and 
under tail-coverts castaueous rufous, marked with bluish-black and 
margined with white. 

Length 10", wings 5" 3'". 

DjUolo {IFall. Coli.). 

PiTTA INORNATAf . B. M. 

The appearance of this bird is very similar to Pitta mackloti and 
P. celebensis, but it is without any sign of the pale blue vertical 
band, and without the prominent black mark above and below the 
broad blue pectoral band ; the bill is larger, and the tarsus a trifle 
longer, than in either of the above-mentioued species. The blue on 
the lower part of the back and on the wings is less apparent. In size 
it is very similar to the other allied species. 

Batchian and Gilolo. 

t Described by IleiT F. Heine (Journ. f. Orn. 1859, p. 406) as Coloburis ruft- 
ventris. — P. L. S. 



i 



351 

*PlTTA MAXIMA. B.M. 

Pitta mnxima, Forstcn, Verh. Nat. Gesch. Nederi, p. 14. 
Brachyurus maximus, Pr. B. Consp. Av. i. p. 253. 
Gigantipitta tnaxima, Pr. B. 
Gilolo. 

*PlTTA CYANONOTA. B.M. 

Very similar to the former species, but tlie baek and wings are 
entirely of a whitish-blue colour. 
Ternate. 

Pitta cyanoptera, Temni. Molucca. 
Pitta brachyura, Lina. Molucca. 

Criniger flavicaudus. B.M. 

Trichophorus flavicaudus, Pr. B. Consp. Av. p. 262. 
Trichophorus sulphureus, Temm. 
Batchian and Djilolo. 

*Oriolus ph^ochromus. 

Obscure olivaceous-brown ; beneath the body greyish-olivaceous, 
especially on the throat ; wings and tail pale olivaceous-brown, with 
the sliafts of the quills and tail rufous-white ; the feathers are also 
slightly margiued wįth pale olivaceous white. Bill and tarsi black. 

Length 10", wings 5" 3"'. 

East Gilolo {IVall. Coli.}. 

MuSCICAPIDiE. 

Rhipidura tricolor. 

Rhipidura mimoides, Miill. MSS. 

Miiscicapa tricolor, Vieill. N. Dict. H. Nat. xxi. p. 490. 

Muscipeta melaleuca, Quoy et Gaim. Voy. de l'Astrol. Zool i 
p. 180. 

Rhipidura melanoleuca, G. R. Gray, Gen. of B. i. p. 259. 

Saido2)rocta melanoleuca, Cab. Mus. Orn. Hein. p. 57. 

Rhipidura atripennis, G. R. Gr. 

Batchian ; Ternate ; Djilolo ; Anriboyna. 

The specimens from these localities are so similar to those from 
New Ireland, New Guinea, and Aru Island, that it is not possible 
to define characters to distinguish them from one another. I wa3 
induced to separate those of the last-meutioned place, from their wings 
and tails being of a deeper black colour, which may be owing to the 
age of the bird. In Australia this species is represented by R. mo- 
tacilloides, which is altogether smaller. 

Rhipidura squamata, Miill. Banda. 

*MoNARCHA CINERASCENS. 

Drymophila cineruscens, Temm. PI. Col. 430. 
Monarchą cinernscens, G. R. Gray. 
Ternate (Wall. Coli.). 



352 

Monarchą bimaculata. 

Likę M. trivirgata, Temm. (ex Timor), but the bill is very small, 
and entirely black ; the tail has the white only on the end of the 
two outer feathers. 

Length 6", wings 3", bill from 7'". 

Batchian and Djilolo (TFalL Coli.). 

Monarchą nigrimentum. B. M. 

Likę M. trivirgata (ex Timor), but the bill is rather longer and 
more compressed ; the black on the throat only occupies a small 
space beneath the bill ; the tail also differs in not haviug any white 
on the ends of the four middle feathers, but only on the three outer 
feathers, decreasing in quantity inwardly ; bill blue lead ; feet lead- 
colour. 

Length 6" 10'", wings 3", bill from gape 9'". 

Amboyna. 

It may be concluded that each locality has its own peculiar spe- 
cies, as we find that the Timor examples are different from the others, 
in having a greater quantity of white on the ends of the outer tail- 
feathers, and that this colour is even found on the inner web of the 
fourth feather ; while in the Australian examples, the white colour 
is only found on the three outer feathers, and does not extend so far 
up the feather as in the former species ; the bill is also a trifle smaller. 
This latter may be considered as Monarchą gouldii, G. R. Gr. An 
allied species has beeu described in the New Guinean list as Monarchą 
griseogularis., G. R. Gr. 

Myiagra nitens, b. m. 

į . Black, with the feathers broadly margined with glossy deep 
green ; quills and tail black, both narrowly margined with glossy 
green. 

$ , Upper part of head black, with broad margins of glossy deep 
green ; nape rufous-grey, slightly mottled vvith black ; back, vvings, 
and tail rufous ; beneath the body pure white. 

Length 6" 6'", wings 3" 4'". 

Batchian (TFall. Coli.) and Tematė. 

This bird is very likę the M. lucida, G. R. Gr., in its general 
appearances and colour ; but it is less in all its proportions. 

Myiagra galeata. B.M. 

Head glossy greenish-black ; back, wings, and tail grey, tinged 
with glossy green ; beneath the body pure white. 
Length 5" 6'", wiugs 2" 6'", bill from gape 8'". 
Batchian. 
Myiagra manadensis (Q. & G.). Amboyna. 



353 
Ampelid^. 

PaCHYCEPHALA XANTHOCNEMlS. ^ 'u t^' '''*^'**^' 

Olivaceous browa, obscure on the head ; wings fuscous black, 
margined with rufous brown ; tail rufous brown ; ear-coverts pale 
rufous ; beneath the body rufous white, tinged with yellovv on the 
abdomeu ; thighs and under tail-coverts yellovv, slightly tinged with 
rufous ; under wing-coverts white, tinged with rufous, and the bent 
of the vvings beneath yellow ; bill black ; feet fuscous. 

Length 6" 9'", vvings 3" 4'". 

Amboyna {Wull. Coli). 

PaCHYCEPHALA MELANURA. B. M. 

Pachycephala melanura, Gould, B. of Austr. ii. pi. GG. 
Turdus armillaris, Temm. 
Lanius cucullatus, Licht. 
Batchian and Tematė. 

Myiolestes phaionotus, Mūll. Banda. 
Xenogenys azureus (Temm.). Banda. 

C4.MPEPHAGA MAGNIROSTRIS. B. M. 

Graucalus magnirostris, Forsten 1 ; Pr. B. Consp. Av. i. p. 354 ? 
Gilolo. 

Campephaga melanolora. b. m. 

Very likę C. mentalis, Vig. & Horsf. ; but the bill is much larger, 
being 1 " 3į"' from gape ; quills and tail feathers margined, and the 
latter tipped with grey. 

Length 11" 11'"; wings 5" 11"'. 

Batchian and Tematė. 

Campephaga melanotis. 

Blue-grey ; lores, ear-coverts, wings, and tail black ; with the 
margins of the greater wing-coverts and quills and the two middle 
tail-feathers blue-grey, but the latter have black ends. 

This bird is very likę Campephaga tenuirostris (Jard. & Selby), 
but the bill is rather shorter and broader at its base ; the bird itself 
is also less in all its proportions. 

Length 9" 6'", wings 4" 9'". 

Batchian and E. Gilolo (Wull. Coli.). 

Campephaga (Lalage) aurea. B.jM. 

Ceblephyris aureus, Temm. PI. Col. 382. f. 2 ; Voy. au Pole Sud, 
Ois. t. 10. f. 3. 

Campephaga aurea, G. R. Gray. 
Lalage aurea, Pr. B. Consp. Av. p. 355. 
Batchian and Tematė. 

Campephaga atriceps, Miill. Ceram. 
Campephaga novdR gnineee (Lath.). Molucca. 
No. 439. — Procekdings of the Zoological Society. 



354 

Campephaga Įiapuensis (Gmel.). Banda. 
Campephaga bicolor, Temm. Banda. 
Campephaga Jimbriata, Temm. Banda. 
Campephaga ceramensis, Pr. B. Ceram. 
Pericronotus Jlammeus (Forst.). Banda. 

Artamtjs leucorhynchus. b. m. 

Ariamus leucorhynchus (Gm.), Pr. B. 
Batchian and Gilolo. 

Artamus fuscus, Vieill. Molucca. 

DlCRtTRUS ATROCiERULEUS. 

Deep blue-black ; the wings and tail and spots on the head and 
breast rich glossy green, 

Length 13", wings 8" 9'", bill from gape 1" 5'". 

Batchian and E. Gilolo {TVall. Coli). 

This species approaches most to the New Guinean bird in the 
form of its bill, but is larger in all its proportions, and is without 
the chalybeous spots on the back and abdomen. 

DiCRURUS AMBOINENSIS. 

Very likę the D. forficatus ; but the steel spots on the head and 
throat have a purplish hue, and the back and abdomen are less 
glossy. 

Length 11" 9'", wings 5" 8'", bill from gape 1" 5'". 

Irides red. 

Amboyna (JVall. Coli.). 

This bird is most likę the Javanese and Celebes examples in the 
form of its bill, though they all differ in their relative proportions 
from each other. 

Laniid.e. 
lephrodornis gularis (Raffl.). Banda. 



CORVID^. 
CORVUS VALID1SSIMUS. B.M. 

Corvus validissimus, Schleg. Not. sur Corv. p. 12. 
Batchian ; Djilolo and Gilolo. 

Corvus enca. B.M. 

Corvus enca, Horsf. Linn. Trans. xiii. p. 164. 
Kaisa Island and Tematė. 

Corvus violaceus, Temm. Ceram. 
Corvus validus, Temm. Ceram. 
Crypsirina varians (Lath.). Banda. 



355 

Paradisiad^. 
Semtoptera wallacii. b. m 

Paradisea (Semiojafera) toallacii, G, R. Gray, Proc. Z. S. T 859 
p. 130. ' 

Semioptera toallacei, G. R. Gray ; Gould, B. of Austr. Supnl 
pt. 3; Sclat. Ibis, 1860, p. 26. pi. 2. ' 

Bafchian and E. Gilolo. 

The Gilolo examples hare the lateral pectoral plumes longer than 
those procured in the first instance from Batchian ; yet they cannot 
be considered as more than a local variety. 

StURNIDjE. 

Lycocorax pyrrhopterus. B.M. 

Corvus pyrrhopterus, Temm. Mus. Lugd. ; Pr. B. Consp. Av, i, 
p. 384. ^ 

Lycocorax pyrrhopterus, Pr. B. Compt. Rend. 1854. 

Pica pyrrhoptera, Schl. Bijd. tot de Dierk. ii. 

Batchian and Djilolo. 

This species, in the form of its bill, agrees with those birds that 
compose the genus Manucodia, rather than with the Corvidce, among 
which lt is placed by Temmmck and Schlegel. 

CaLORNIS AMBOINENSIS. B.M. 

Calornis amboinensis, G. R. Gray, Proc. Z. S. 1858, p. 182, 
Calornis metallicus, Pr. B. Consp. Av. p. 417 : Vov auPoleSiid 
Ois. t. 16. f. 2. i- f . J' ruieoua, 

Amboyna and Tematė. 

Calornis obscura. g jyj 

Lamprotornis obscura, Forsten ; Pr. B. Consp. Av p 417 
Batchian ; E. Gilolo. 

Sturnia pyrrhopogon. 

Lamprotornis pyrrhopogon, Schleg. & Temm. Fauna Jau. p. 86. 
t. 46. 

Heteromis pyrrhogenys, Miill. ; Pr. B. Consp. Av. p. 418. 
Batchian {Wall. Coli.). 

Fringillid^. 
Amadina molucca. B.M. 

Loxia molucca, L. 
Amadina molucca. G, R. Gray. 
Munia molucca, BĮ. 
Batchian and Tematė. 



356 

BuCEROTIDiE. 
BUCEROS RUFICOLLIS. 

Jiuceros rujicollis, Vieill. ; Temm. PI. (!ol. 557. 
liuceros plicatus, Less. Tr. d'Orn. p. 445. 
Batchian ŲFall. Coli.). 

Buceros luna f us, Temm. Banda. 
Buceros hydrocorax, Liiin. Molucca. 
Buceros exuratu8, Reinw. Molucca. 
Buceros payanensis (Scop.). Molucca. 

psittacid.e. 
♦Platycercus hypophonius. b. m. 

Psittacus (Platycercus) hypophonius, Miill. & Schl. Verli. Nat. 
Gescli. Nederi, p. IHl. 

Platycercus hypdphonicus, G. R. Gray, Gcn. of B. ii. p. 408. 

Aprosmictus hypophonicus, Pr. B. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 185 4, 
p. 15.S. 

East Gilolo. 

Paleeornia cyanocephalus (Linn.). Tematė. 

Lorius garrulus, var, B. M. 

Psittacus garruhis, Linn. S. N. i. p. 115. 

Psittacus garrulus, var. moluccensis y, Gniel. S. N. i. p. IV.iA ; PI. 
Enl. 216. 

Domicella garrula, Wagl. Monogr. Psitt. j). 5/0. 

Lorius garrulus, Stepli. Gen. Zool. xiv. p. 132. 

Batchian and Djilolo. 

The cxaniples from Batchian are uniform in haring a large suh- 
triangnlar spot of yellow hetween (he shoulders ; wliile those of 
Ojilolo have the yellow spots on the back snialler, and the ends of 
tlie tail-feathers of a grcenish-purplc. 

Lorius domicella (Linn.). Molucca. 
Lorius tricolor, Steph. Molucca. 

EOS COCHINSINENSIS. B M. 

Psittacus cochinsinensis, Lath. Ind. Oni. i. p. 1 16. 

Psittacus riciniatus, Bechst. 

Psittacus cucullatus, Shaw, Gen. Zool. viii. p. 461. 

Lorius cucullatus, Steph. Gen. Zool. xiv. p, 132. 

Lorius isidorii, S\vains. Zool. lUustr. pi. 

Eos cochinsinensis, Wagl. Monogr. Psitt. p. 560. 

Eos riciniata, Pr. B. llev. et ^L'lg. de Zool. 1854, p. 156. 

Eos isidorii, G. R. Gray, Gen. of B. ii. p. 4 1 7. 

Batchian and Gilolo. 

Eos rubra. b. m. 

Psittacus borneus, Linn. S. N. i. p. 141. 



35; 

Psittacus ruber, Gmel. S. N. i. p. 335. 
Psittacus moluccensis, Lath. Ind. Orn. i. p. 110. 
Psittacus cceruleatus, Shaw, Nat. Misc. p. 937. 
Psittacus cyanonotus, Vieill. N. Dict. d'H. N. xxv. p. 331. 
Eos rubra, Wagl. Monogr. Psitt. p. 558. 
Lovius borneus, Steph. Gen. Zool. xiv. p. 132. 
Amboyna. 

Eos indica (Gmel.). Molucca. 
Eos cyanogenia, Pr. B. Molucca. 
Eos semilarvata, Pr. B. Molucca. 
Eos sąuamata (Bodd.). Bourou. 
Eos unicolor (Shaw). Molucca. 
Eos ater (Scop.). Amboyna. 

CORIPHILUS PLACENTIS. B. M. 

Psittacus 2il(icentis, Temm. PI. Col. 553. 

Conurus placens, Bourj. Perr. t. 46. 

Psittacus (Trichoglossus) placentis, Miill. & Schl. Verh. Nat. 
Gese. Nederi. Ind. p. 209. 

Coriphilus placentis, G. R. Gray, Gen. ofB. ii. p. 4 17. 

Psitteuteles placens, Pr. B. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, p. 157. 

Batchian and Djilolo. 

These examples appear to be of a larger size than tbose obtained 
in New Guinea. 

Coriphilus solitarius (Lath.). Molucca (ex Voy. Coqu.). 

Trichoglossus cyanogrammus. 

Psittacus haematodus, Bodd. Tabl. des PI. Enl. d'Aubent. p. 4. 
Psittacus heematotus, Gmel. S. N. i. p. 316 ; PI. Enl. 61. 
Trichoglossus cyanogrammus, Wagl. Monogr. Psitt. p. 554. 
Amboyna. 

The New-Guinean examples are smaller than those of Amboyna, 
but otherwise they are similar. 

Trichoglossus hcematodus (Linn.). Molucca. 
Trichoglossus ornatus (Linn.). Molucca. 

ECLECTUS GRANDIS. B, M. 

Psittacus ceylonensis, Bodd. Tabl. des PI. Enl. d'Aubent. p. 3 ; 
PI. Enl. 683 (var.). 

Psittacus puniceusi pt., Gmel. S. N. i. p. 335 ; Brown, Illustr. 
pi. 6. 

Psittacus grandis, Gmel. S. N. i. p. 683. 

Eclectus grandis, Wagl. Monogr. Psitt. p. 572. 

Eclectus ceylonensis, G. R. Gray, Gen. of B. ii. p. 418. 

Psittacus (Psittacula) grandis, MūU. & Schl. Verh. Nat. Gesch. 
Nederi. Ind. pp. 107, 108. 

Kaisa Islaud and Gilolo. 

Eclectus cornelia, Pr. B. Geram. 

Eclectus cardinalis (Bodd.). Amboyna; Geram. 



358 

EcLECTUs poLYCHLORUs, var. 

Psittacus polychlorun, Scop. Del.Fl. et Fauna Insubr. p. 87; Šonu. 
Voy. t. 108. 

Psittacus mugnus, Gmel. S. N. i. p. 344. 

Psittacus sinensis, Gmel. S. N. i. p. 337 ; Edw. Birds, pi. 231. 

Batehian anJ Gilolo {TFalL Coli.). 

Eclectus intermedius (Pr. B.). Molucca. 
Eclectus westermani (Pr. B.). Molucca. 

Tanygnathus megalorhynchus. b. m. 

Psittacus megalorhynchus, Bodd. Tabl. des PI. Enl. d'Aubent. 
p. 4.5 ; PI. Enl. 713. 

Psittacus macrorhynchus, Gmel. S. N. i. p. 338. 
Psittacus nasutus, Lath. Ind. Orn. i. p. 118. 
Tanygnnthus macrorhynchus, Wagl. Monogr. Psitt. p. 677 ■ 
Batehian and Gilolo. 

Tanygnathus gramineus (Gmel.). Amboyna. 

Psittacus (Geoffroius) personattjs. B. M. 

Psittacus personatus, Shaw, Gen. Zool. viii. p. 544 ; Levaill. Perr. 
t. 11.2, 113. 

Psittacus geq^royanus,\ie\\\. N. Dict. d'H. N. xxv. p. 311. 
Psittacus geofroyi, (Vaill.) Kuhl, Consp. Psitt. p. 85. 
Amboyna; Molucca. 

Psittacus (Geoffroius) cyaneicollis. B.M. 

Psittacus cyanicollis, Miill. & Schl. Verhandl. Nat. Gesch. Nederi. 
Ind. p. 108. 
Psittacus {Psittacula) cyanicollis, Miill. & Schl. 
Geoffroyus cyanicollis, Pr. B. Consp. Av. p. 6. 
Batehian and Gilolo. 

Psittacus fuscicapillus, Vieill. Bourou. 

Cacatua cristata. 

Psittacus cristatus, Linn. S. N. i. p. 143. 
Cacatua cristata, Vieill. N. Dict. d'H. N. xvii. p. 10. 
Cacatua leucolopha, Less. Tr. d'Orn. p. 182. 
Kakadoe cristata vel albocristata, Bourg. Perr. t. 82. 
Batehian and Tematė {Wall. Coli.). 

Cacatua molucce^isis (Gmel.). Molucca. 
Cacatua sulphurata (Gmel.). Bourou. 

PiCIDiE. 

Megalaima australis (Horsf.). Banda. 
Megalaima philippensis (Gmel.). Molucca. 
Picua (Hemicircus) concretrts, Reinw. Banda. 



359 

CUCULID^. 

Centropus goliath. b. m. 

Centropus goliath, Forsten ; Pr. B. Consp. Av. p. 108. 
Batchiaa and Gilolo. 

Centropus medius, Mull, Amboyna. 
Centropus bicolor, Less. (ex BĮ.). Gilolo. 

SCYTHROPS NOV^ HOLLANDI^. B. M. 

Scythrops novce hollandice, Lath. 
Cuculus prcesagus, Reinw. 
Batchian. 

Cuculus canoroides. B, M. 

Cuculus canoroides, Miill. Verh. Nat. Gesch. p. 235. 
Batchian. 

Cuculus (Cacomantis) sepulcralis. B. M. 

Cuculus sepulcralis, MūU. ? 
Cacomantis sepulcralis, Pr. B. .' 
Batchian. 

*CucuLus (Cacomantis) tymbonotus. 

Cuculus tymbonotus, Mūll. ? 
Cacomantis tymbonotus, Pr. B. 1 
Tematė {Wall. Coli). 

Cuculus poliogaster, Mūll. Tematė. 
Chrysococcyx lucidus (Gmel.). Amboyna. 
Eudynamys ransomi, Pr. B. Ceram. 
Eudynamys punctatus. Amboyna. 

*EUDYNAMIS PICATUS. 

Eudynamis picatus, Miill. Verh, Nat. Gesch. Nederi, p. 167. 
Tematė {Tf^all. Coli.) ; Amboyna. 

COLUMBIDiE. 

Ptilonopus (Iotreron) iogaster. B.M. 

Columba hyogastra, Reinw. PI. Col. 252. 

Columba iogaster, Wagl. 

Ptilonopus kyogaster, G. R. Gray, Gen. of B. ii. p. 466 

Treron ionogaster, Reichenb. 

Iotreron iogastra, Pr. B. Consp. Av. ii. p. 25. 

Batchian and Gilolo (Celebes, Reinw.). 

Ptilonopus (Cyanotreron) monachus. B.M. 

Columba monacha, Reinw. PI. Col. 253 ; Knip. Pig. t. 53. 
Ptilonopus monachus, G. R. Gray, Gen. of B. ii. p. 466. 
Cyanotreron monachus, Pr. B. Consp. Av. ii. p. 24. 
Kaisa Island and Tematė. 



360 

Ptilonopus (Lamprotreron) superbus. 

Columba superba, Temm. Pig. t. 33. 
Ptilonopus superbus, Steph. Gen. Zool. xiv. p. 279. 
Lamprotreron superba, Pr. B. Consp. Av. ii. p. 18. 
Batchian and E. Gilolo (JTall. Coli.) ; Amboyna ; Ternate. 

The bird from Batchian appears to be a trifle larger tban that 
from Amboyna, and the band on the breast is also broader ; while 
tbat from the Aru Islands is simUar, but altogether smaller. Ptilo- 
nopus cyanovirens į (J), Less., is probably the $ of this variety, 
Kuip. & Prev. Pig. t. 8. The Australian specimens are very similar 
in size to the Amboyna examples ; but the band on the breast has a 
distinct mixture of green within it. 

The Celebes specimens are those of a decidedly distinct species, 
and are at once distinguished by the purplish-grey breast and the 
deep green band on the lower part of the latter ; the female has, ac- 
cording to Mr. Wallace's specimens of that sex, the top of the head 
of a deep purple, with deep bluish-grcen intermixed ; while on the 
head of the true P. superbus it is of the šame colour as the spot on 
the shoulder of the wings. I have named the Celebes bird Ptilo- 
nopus formosus ; the 2 is represented as Columba superba, Knip. & 
Prev. Pig. t. 42. 

Ptilonopus porphyreus, Temm. Molucca. 
Ptilonopus diadematus, Temm. Banda. 
Ptilonopus viridis (Linn). Amboyna. 
Treron aromatica, Temm. Amboyna. 
Treron vernans, Temm. Banda. 

*Carpophaga (Megaloprepia) formosa. b. m. 

S . Emerald green, each feather of the body margined with golden 
and washed with white on the nape and breast ; head greenish-white, 
varied \vith yellow ; lower part of breast \vith a rich carmine spot ; 
abdomen orange-yellow ; lcwer tail-coverts rufous orange-yellow. 

C . Similar to the malė ; but vdthout the carmine spot on the 
breast. 

Length U" 3'", wings 5" 9'". 

East Gilolo. 

Carpophaga (Ducula) basalis. b. m. 

Columba basalis, Temm. 

Carpophaga basalica, Sundev. 

Dvcula basalis, Pr. Bp. Consp. Av. ii. p. 35. 

Batchian and Gilolo. 

Carpophaga perspicillata. B.M. 

Columba perspicillata, Temm. PI, Col. 246. 

Carpophaga perspicillata, G. R. Gray, List of Gali. B.M. p. 6. 

Batchian, Kaisa Island, and Gilolo. 

The Amboyna specimen differs in having the head, neck, and 



361 

breast greyish-white, but is a little darker on the back of the neck ; 
the back is of a more golden-green, vvhile the wings are of a more de- 
cided grey. 

Carpophaga (Myristicivora) melanura ? 

2 • Differs from Carpopkaga luctuosa, as described and figured 
by Temminck, PI. Col. 247, in having the tail of a more uniform 
black colour, with the inner webs of each feather only white ; this 
latter colour decreases in depth to the middle feathers, and the quills 
are of a uniform black. It is of a much sraaller size, but is other- 
wise likę C. luctuosa. 

Batchian and Djilolo {JVall. Coli). 

Carpophaga alba (Gmel.). Molucca. 
Carpophaga cenea, Temm. Molucca. 

*Carpophaga albogularis. b. m. 

Carpophaga albogularis, Temm. 

Janthcenas albogularis, Pr. B. Consp. Av. ii. p. 44. 

Janthanas halmaheira, Pr. B. 

East Gilolo. 

Macropygia amboinensis. 
Columba amboinensis, Linn. 

Macropygia amboinensis, G. R. Gray, List of Gen. of B. 1840, 
p. 58. 

Amboyna (JVall. Coli.). 

Macropygia albicapilla, var. B.M. 

Columba albicapilla, Temm. MSS. 
Macropygia albicapilla, Pr. Bp. Consp. Av. ii. p. 57- 
Batchian and Tematė. 

Macropygia (Reinwardt^na) reinwardtii. B.M. 

Columba reintoardtii. Temm. PI. Col. 248. 
Macropygia reinivardtii, Swains. Classif. of B. ii. p. 349. 
Reimoardtcena typica, Pr. Bp. Consp. Av. ii. p. 59. 
Batchian and Djilolo (Celebes, Temm.). 

Macropygia leptogrammica, Temm. Amboyna. 
Turtur bitorąuatus, Temm. Molucca. 

TURTUR SURATENSIS. 

Columba suratensis, Lath. 

Turtur tigrina, Temm. 

Tematė and Amboyna ŲValL Coli.). 

Chalcophaps moluccensis. B.M. 

Chahophaps javunica, Auct. 

Front white ; top of head bronzy-brown ; occiput grey ; streak 



362 

over eye greyish-white ; cheeks, įieck, and breast, and beneath the 
wings cinnamomeous red ; scapulars and wings rich emerald-green, 
varied in places with golden colour ; back rich bronzy-black, with 
two bands of grey ; rump, tail-coverts, and tail bronzy-black ; tlie 
lateral feathers of latter grey, with black ends and grey margins ; 
under tail-coverts deep black ; vent greyish ; abdomen rufous-brown. 

Length 11", wings 5" 10'", bill frorn gape 11'". 

Amboyna and Batchian. 

Galinas nicobarica. B. M. 

Columha nicobarica, Linn. S. N. i. p. 288. 

Cobimba galius, Wagl. Syst. Av. Col. sp. 113. 

Calcenas nicobarica, G. R. Gray, List of Gen. of B. 1840, p. 59. 

Batchian and E. Gilolo {Wall. Coli.). 

Goura coronata (Linn.). Banda. 

Megapodidjs. 

Megapodius freycineti. b. m. 

Megapodius freycineti, Quoy & Gaim. Voy. Uraiiie, ii. p. 125. 
t. 32. 

Megapodius freycineti, PI. Col. 220. 

Juv. Alecthelia urvillii, Less. Voy. de la Coqu. i. p. /03. t. 37. 

Kaisa Island, Batchian, and Gilolo. 

Megapodius forsteni. B. M. 

Megapodius forsteni, Temm. MSS. ; G. R. Gray & Mitch. Gen. 
of B. iii. pi. 124. 
Amboyna. 

♦Megapodius wallacei. (PI. CLXXI.) B. M. 

Front of head and throat greyish olivaceous-brown ; hind part of 
head castaneous-brown ; nape and upper part of back olivaceous, 
slightly vermiculated with black ; middle of back, greater wing-coverts 
and external web of some of the tertials, deep castaneous, \vith most 
of the feathers margined with slate-colour ; rump, upper tail-coverts, 
breast, and abdomen slate-colour ; lesser vriug-coverts, tertials, and 
tail pale olivaceous-browu ; middle of abdomen pure white ; prima- 
ries brownish-black, spotted or partly margined on the outer vvebs 
with buff-white. Billyellow; feet horu-colour or black. 

Length 13", wings 7" 6'". 

East Gilolo. 

This bird differs frora all its congeners in the variability of its 
coloration, a peculiarity wliich imparts much interest to this new 
discovery of Mr. Wallace. 

Struthionid^. 
Casuarius emeu, Lath. Ceram ; Banda. 



363 
Charadriad^. 

*SaUATAROLA HELVETICA, Var. 

Trimja helvetica, Linn. 
Vanellus melanofjaster, Bechst. 
East Gilolo (^a/;. Co«.). 

Charadrius geoffroyi. 

Charadrius geoffroyi, Wagl. 
Hiaticula inornata, Gould 1 
East Gilolo(7Fa//. Coli.). 

Charadrius cirrhipedesmus. 

Charadrius cirrhipedesmus, WagL 
East Gilolo {Wall. Coli.). 

Charadrius longipes. B. M. 

Charadrius Jluvialis orientalis, Temm. & Schl. Fauna Jap. p. 105. 
. 62? 
B&ichi&n (^TFall. Coli.). 
(Edicnemus magnirostris, Geoffr. Molucca. 
Glareola grallaria, Temm. Molucca. 

*ClNCLUS INTERPRES. 

Tringa interpres, Linn. 
Strepsilas interpres, Leach. 
Strepsilas collaris, Temm. 
EastGUolo (Wall.Coll.). 

Ardeid.*:. 
Ardea typhon. 

Ardea typhon, Temm. ? 
Ardea robusta, Miill. 
Typhon temminckii, Reichenb. 
Typhon robusta, Pr. B. 
Batchiau(7Fa/^. Coli.). 

* Ardea (Egretta) alba? 
Ardea alba, Linn. 
Ardea sysmatophorus, Gould. 
Tematė (JFall. Coli.). 

Ardea (Ardeola) russata. 

Ardea russata, Temm. 

Ardea coromandelica, Licht. 

Ardea coromandelen^is, Steph. 

Bubulcus coromandelensis, J*r. B. Consp. Av. ii. p. 125. 

Batchian (Tf^all. Coli.). 



364 

ArDEA (ArDETTA) FLAVICOLLIS. 

Ardea flavicollis, Lath. Ind. Orn. ii. p. 701. 

Ardea nigra, Vieill. 

Ardetta flavicollis, BĮ. 

Herodias flavicollis, Cab. 

Batchian ( ?r«/Z. Coli.). 

Ardea novce hollandice, Lath. Molucca. 

*Ardea (Btjtorides) viridiceps. 

Ardea javanica, BĮ. 

Ardea scapularis, Schl. 

Ardea chloriceps, Hodgs. 

East Gilolo {JVall. Coli.). 

Argala javanica (Horsf.). Molucca. 

Ibis peregrinus. Molucca. 

*Nycticorax caledonicus. 
Ardea caledonica, Lath. 
Q\\o\o(Wall.Coll.). 

SCOLOPACID^. 
♦NUMENIUS ATTSTRALASIANUS ? 

Numenius australasianus, Gould. 
East Gilolo (?ra^/. Coli.). 

Numenius minor. 

Numenius minor, Miill. & Schl. 1 

Batchian ( Wall. Coli.) ; Araboyna. 

*Ltmosa l,apponica, var. 
East GUolo {Wall. ColL). 

*ToTANUS (Glottis) horsfieldi ? 

Totanus horsfieldi, Sykes. 
East Gilolo (?raZ/.Co«.). 

Totanus griseopygius. 

Totanus griseopygius, Gould, B. of Austr. 

Totanus pulverulentus, Temm. & Schl. Fauna Jap. p. 109. t. 65. 

Actitis hrevijtes (Vieill.), BĮ. 

Gambetta griseopygia, Pr. B. 

Batchian {Wall. Coli.). 

Totanus (Tringoides) hypoleucus? B. M. 

Tringa hypoleuea, Linn. S. N. i. p. 250. 

Totanus hypoleucus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. 1815, p. 424. 

Actitis hypoleucus, Boie, Isis, 1822, p. 649. 



365 

Tringoides hypoleuca, 6. R. Gray, Listof Gen. of B. 1841, p. 88. 

Actitis schlegeli, Pr. B. Compt. Rend. 1856, p. ? 

Batchian. 

Tringa subarąuata, Gmel. Molucca. 

ScOLOPAX tJNiCLAVATUS. 

Scolopax burka, Lath. MSS. 

Scolopax uniclavatus, Hodgs. Journ. A. S. B. 1837, p. 492. 
Gallinago burka, Pr. B. Compt. Rend. 1856, p. . 
Gallinago scolopacinus (Pr. B.), BĮ. Cat. of B. p. 272. 
Gallinago media, Hodgs., Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 86. 
Batchian {Wall. Coli.). 

Palamedeid^. 
Parra gallinacea, Temm. Banda ; Molucca. 

Rallidje. 
Porphyrio smaragdinus, Temm. Banda. 

Habroptila. 

Bill longer tlian the head, strong, with the culmen at the base 
elevated, broad, rounded posteriorly, and gradually descending to- 
wards the tip, vvhich is suddenly curved ; the sides compressed to 
the tip, vvhich is slightly emarginated ; the gonys moderate, slightly 
angulated and advancing upwards ; nostrils placed in a membranous 
groove, which extends beyond the middle of the bill, with the opening 
linear and near the base of the groove. Wings very short, lax, with 
the fourth to the seventh quills eqiial and longest. Tail very short 
and lax. Tarsi robust, as long as the middle toe, and covered with 
transverse scales. Toes rather robust and long ; the lateral toes equal, 
the hind toe moderate and strong. Claws moderate and compressed. 
Plumage in general very lax. The wings armed at the bend of the 
shoulder with a small spine. 

Habroptila wallacii. (PI. CLXXII.) 

Slate-colour, with a mixture of olivaceous-brown on the body, 
wings, and upper tail-coverts ; tail and quills black ; bill and feet 
red. 

Length 16", wings 7" 6'", bill 3", tarsi 3" 2'". 

East Gilolo (Wall. Coli.). 

This curious bird approaches the Ocydromi in the shortness and 
softness of its wings ; the feet are those of a Porphyrio. Yet its 
general appearance might cause it to be taken, at first sight, for a 
species of Hcematopus, 

Anatid^. 

Tadorna radjah. B.M. 

Anas leticomelas, Garn. 

Anas radjah, Garn. Voy. de la Coqu. Zool. i. p. 602. t. 49. 

Radja eytoni, Reichenb. 

Batchian, E. Gilolo (Wall. Coli.), and Bourou. 



366 

The Australian speeimens differ from these in being more rufous on 
the upper part of the back. 

Dendrocygna badia. Molucca. 

COLYMBID^. 
*PODICEPS (SyLBEOCYCLUs) TRICOLOR. B. M. 

Likę P. minor, but with a very slight appearance of tbe black on 
the mentum ; the bill is longer ; upper surface of a deep seneous 
black ; cheeks and front of throat deep rufous ; under surface seneous 
black mottled with rufous white. 

Tematė. 

Larid^. 

Sternavelox? b. m. 

Batchian ; Amboyna. 

PELECANIDiE. 
*SULA FIBER. 

Pelecanus fiber, Linn. 
Sulafiber, G. R. Gray. 
N. E. Gilolo {TFall. Coli.). 

Graculus melanoletjcus. B.M. 

Phalacrocorax melanoleucus, Vieill. N. Dict. H. N. viii. p. 88. 
Phalacrocorax Jlavirostris, Gould. 
Pelecanus dimidiatus, Cuv. 
Batchian. 

Graculus sulcirostris. 
Carbo sulcirostris, Temm. 
Batchian (Wall. Coli.) ; Amboyna. 



8. Description of Ne^v Species of Mitra from the Col- 

LECTION OF HUGH CuMING, EsQ. By H. DoHRN. 

Mitra pi a. Testą fusiformis, costis erebris, spiralibus, subregu- 
lariter distantibus, Jlavis, nitidis, elatis ; interstitia liris mi- 
noribus intercostariis et longitudinalibus angustissimis reticu- 
lata ; alba ; sutura distincta ; anfr. 7-8 parum convexi, lente 
accrescentes, ultimus magnus, subtus attenuatus, vix recurvus. 
Apertura fusiformis, intus alba ; columella 4-plicata. 

Long. 58, lat. 18 ; ap. long. 34, lat. 8 raill. 

Hab. Australia. 

Mitra peasei. Testą subulato-fusiformis, hyalino-albida, spi- 
raliter obsolete crebricostata, subtilissime longitudinaliter 
striata ; sutura simplex ; anfr. 8 planiusculi, ultimus paulo 
ventrosior, subrecurvus ; apertura fusiformis ; columella 5- 
plicata. 

Long. 37, lat. U ; ap. long. 20, lat. 5 mill. 

Hab. Australia. 



367 

Mitra atjttjmnalis. Testą turrita, parum nitida, longitudina- 
liter acute et anguste costata, spiraliter subremote lirata, 
albina, maculis /usnis nebulosa, supra meditan anfractuum 
albizonata ; anfr. 8 subplani, ultimus basi rude plicatus ; 
apertura elongata ; columella 4-pIicata. 

Long. 18, lat. 9 ; ap. long. 5^, lat. 3|^ mill. 

Hab. Nova Caledonia. 

Mitra antonellii. Testą oblongo-fusiformis, fusca, costis 
spiralibus,apicem versus evanescentibus, longitudinalibus validis, 
griseiSyfenestrata, fascia alba supra medium cingulata, nitens ; 
sutura distincta ; anfr. 8-9 vix convexiusculi, ultimus \ longi- 
tudinis cequans, subrecurvus ; labrum callo dentiformi junctum, 
intus crenatum; apertura fusca, dentibus 5 columellaribus 
armata. 

Long. 27, lat. 9 ; ap. long. 13į, lat. 4 mill. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 

Allied to M. obeliscus, Reeve. 

Mitra astyagis. Testą conoidea, leevigata, nitida, sub epider- 
tnide cinereo-viridi ccendescens, apice fuscescente, prope suturam 
subacute carinata, carina ūiterrupte fusco cingulata ; spira 
acuminata; anfr. 7-8 convexiusculi, ultimus latus, į longitu- 
dinis ceąuans, ad basin pauci-liratus ; apertura linealis, callosa, 
intus fusco-ferruginea, labro albo ; columella 4-phcata. 

Long. 26, lat. 10 ; ap. long. 18, lat. 3 mill. 

Hab. New Caledonia. 

Readily distinguished from M. bacillum. 

Mitra cyri. Testą fusiformis, spiraliter late striata, nitida, 
alba, seriatim maculis ąuadratis fuscis pieta ; sutura simplex ; 
spira mucronata ; anfr. 8-9 lente accrescentes, convexiusculi, 
ultimus f longitudinis eBquans, ad suturam subangulatus ; aper- 
tura alba, elongata, angusta ; columella 4-plicata. 

Long. 18, lat. 4^ ; ap. long. 10, lat. 1^ mill. 

Hab. New Caledonia. 

Agrees in some respects with M. fulgetrum ; distinguished by the 
smooth spirai lines, colouring, &c, 

i/ Mitra wisemani. Testą ovato-turrita, longitudinaliter arcuato- 
costata, spiraliter sulcata, interstitiis granosis, alba, fulvo 
medio interrupte unifasciata ; sutura distincta ; anfr. 7-8 
planiusculi, supra medium suhangulati, lente accrescentes, ulti- 
mus basi contractus ; apertura alba, oblonga ; columella 4- 
plicata. 

Long. 2.5, lat. 10 ; ap. long. 12, lat. 5i mill. 

Hab. Sandwicli Islands. 

Nearly allied to M. arenosa, Lam. 

Mitra jud^orum. Testą elongato-ovata, plicis longitudina- 
libus, suleis spiralibus ornata, parum nitida, aurantiaco-fulva. 



368 

plicis et basi columellari albis, varie alho et fusco fasciata vel 
punctata ; sutura distincta ; spira acuminata ; anfr. 8 coni'exi, 
lente accrescetites, ultimus basi vix recurvus ; apertura angusta, 
ceerulescens, intusfusca, crenata ; labrum callo crasso junctum ; 
columella plicis 4 validis armata. 

Long. 22, lat. 8 ; ap. long. 10, lat. 3 mill. 

Hab. RedSea. 

This fine species approaches M. cruentata, Chem., in general 
aspect. 

Mitra Samuelis. Testą oblongo-ovata, solida, fidvo-viridis, 
spiraliter remote fusco Uratą, subtilissime decussata ; sutura 
marginata ; anfr. 7-8 pi ant, ultimus antice ascendens ; aper- 
tura angusta, intus ceerulescens ; labrum incrassatum, album, 
denticidatum ; columella A-plicata. 

Long. 28, lat. 10 ; ap. long. 15, lat. 5 mill. 

Hab, Sandwich Islands. 

Mitra plebeia. Testą elongato-oblonga, apice acuto, subremote 
spiraliter striata, albescens, maculis fulvis vel fuscis nebidosu ; 
sutura simplex ; anfr. 7-8 subplani, lente accrescentes, vltimtis 
basi attenuatus ; apertura albida ; columella 5-plicata. 

Long. 23, lat. 8 ; ap. long. 12, lat. 3^ mill. 

Hab. Saudwich Islands. 

Mitra antoni. Testą acuminato-cvata, nitida, spiraliter an- 
guste sulcata, unicolor flavida, ajnce albescente ; sutura mar- 
ginata ; anfr. 6-7 planiusculi, ultimus ventrosior, ynedio sub- 
angulatus ; apertura albescens, ovato-rhombea, labro crenato ; 
columella 4-plicata. 

Long. 20, lat. 8 ; ap. long. 10, lat. 3 mill. 

Hab, Sandwicli Islands. 

Mitra gibba. Testą acuminato-ovata, solida, lavis, sub epi- 
dermide cornea unicolor fusca, obsoletissime raro Krata; sutura 
crenata ; anfr. 6 planiusculi, ultimus antice descendens, pone 
aperturam gibbus, basi distinctius Uratus ; apertura intus 
ccerulescenti-albida ; labrum callosum, crenulatum; columella 
A-plicata. 

Long. 27, lat. 12 ; ap. long. 14i, lat. 4 mill. 

Hab. New Caledonia. 

Mitra nux-avellana. Testą ovata, solida, alLina, fusco ma- 
culata, spiraliter sulcata, longitudinaliter striata ; sutura in- 
distincta ; anfr. 5 convexiuscidi, apice obtuso, ultimus magnus, 
ventrosus, basi ininime recurvus ; apertura pyriformis ; colu- 
mella A-plicata. 

Long. 15, lat. 8^ ; ap. long. 10^, lat. 3 mill. 

Hab. Sandwich Islands. 

Allied to M. testurata. 



369 

8. On two New Genera of Acephalocs Molllsks. 
By Henry Adams, F.L.S. 
My attention haviug been lately directed to the genera Cultellus 
and Macoma, the former belouging to the Solenidce, and the latter 
to the TellinidcB, both families of Acephalous Molhisca, it inay, I 
think, be interesting to point out two species hitherto included in 
those genera, viz. Cultellus cultellus and Macoma bruguieri, which 
are so aberrant in their characters as to render it desirable that they 
should be eonstituted the types of distinct groups. The former may 
be considered a genus, for which I would propose the name Ensi- 
culus, and the latter a subgenus of Macoma, and be distinguished 
under the name Macalia. 

Genus Ensiculus, H. Adams. 
Testą tenuis, transverse elongata, arcuata, utraąue extremitate 
rotundata et Mante ; umbonibus subanterioribus, interne costa 
brevi curvataque firmatis. Curdo in dextra valva duobus den- 
tibus, in sinistra valva tribus dentibus insfructus. Anterior 
impressio muscularis subtrigonalis ; sinus pallialis bi-evis et 
latus. 

E. cultellus, Linn. 

Shell thin, transversely elongated, arcuated, rounded and gaping 
at each end ; beaks sub-anterior, strengthened internally by a short 
curved rib. Hinge composed of two teeth in the right, and three 
in the left valve. Anterior muscular impression subtrigonal ; pallial 
sinus short, wide. 

This genus is most nearly allied to Cultellus, but differs from it in its 
arcuated and more elongated and parallel form, and in the strength- 
ening callus of the umbo being short and curved. 

The genus Macoma, I would observe, will probably, when an op- 
portunity of examimng the animal of Gastrana shall occur, be found, 
as pointed out by Mr. Clark in his ' British MoUusca,' to have closer 
relations with Gastrana than with Tellina ; and the chief peculiarity 
of Macalia, as distinguishing it from Macoma proper, — viz. the large 
size and strength of the hinge-teeth, which are strikingly similar to 
those of Gastrana, — tends to confirm this opinion. The general form 
of Macalia, hovvever, which is subrotundate and compressed, toge- 
ther with the solidity of the shell, prevents its being included in that 
genus. The entire absence of lateral teeth serves to distinguish the 
species of Macoma and Gastrana from the Tellince. 

I may take this opportunity of referring to a paper by Mr. Pease 
lately read before the Society, in which he describes a nevF Vexilla 
fi-om the Sandwich Islands under the name of V. nigro-fusca ; and, 
as the species hitherto recorded of the genus are few in number, 
this addition is interesting. The shell in ąuestion, hovrever, differs 
from the typical species, in the spire being acuminate, and in the 
aperture being somevirhat contracted or narrovved, and should, T 
think, be regarded as the type of a subgenus, which might be named 
TJsilla. 
No. 440. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 



370 

9. On some New Species of Nuculace^e in the Collection 
OF HuGH Ctjming, Esft. By Sylvantjs Hanley. 

Leda taylori. Testą elongata, antice aliąuantum brevior et 
rotundato-Ianceolata, postice attenuata et subrostrata ; sub- 
tenuis, compressa, nivea, detisius longitudinaliter striata ; strice 
antice concentricce et elevatce, 7nox acclinatce et {certissime in 
valvula sinistra, ubi inferne jirope plicam umbonalem planulatatn 
demumque subicevigatam prorsus dcsunt) įnagis minusve obliqucB. 
Margo dorsalis uterąue vix declicis ; anticus convexiusculu8, 
posticus subretusus. Margo ventralis midtum arcuatus, tttrin- 
que subccqualiter acclivis. Nates vix eminentes. Area dorsalis 
postica a7igusta, playiulata, margine plicce %imbo7iaUs depressce 
crenulato et valde prominente perspicue circumscripta ; area 
dorsalis antica concentrice striata, subinconspieua. 

Long. 1 J^, lat. \ poli. 

Hab. Guateraala. 

Of the only three examples known to me, one belongs to Mr. Tay- 
lor and two to Mr. Cuming. The species approaches L. crenifera 
and L. eleeta. 

Leda metcalfii. Testą elongata, valde inaąuilateralis, 2wstice 
rostrata, compressa, albida, jilicce umbonalis elevatce expers, lon- 
gitudinaliter striata (vel corrugata) : strice denses et argutcB 
aute radium anticum impressum remotiores et lamellosce, postice 
autem elevatce et valde obliqucB. Extremitas lateris antici 
brevioris subangulata, superne eminentior, inferne oblique ro- 
tundata, lateris piostici, sensitn sed valde attenuati, angusta, 
obliqua, subfruncata, recurvata. Margines dorsales paululum 
declives : anticus convexiusculus ; posticus subrectus, denique 
autem incurvatus. Margo ventralis utrinque valde acclivis, 
antice oblique arcuatus, postice convexics. Xates acutce, satis 
promincntes. Areee dorsales sicut in L. crenifera. 
Long. f, lat. į poli. 

Hab. ? 

Mus. Cuming, Hauley. 

This graceful shell, of which only two, and scarcely full-grown, in- 
dividuals are knowu to me, reminds one of Z. crenifera and the young 
of L. eleeta. In the larger only of the specimens do the obliąue striae 
extend to the crenated ridge. 

YoLDiA wooDWARDi. Testa subelliptica, valde ineequilaferalts, 
multum compressa, pertenuis, utrinque {prcesertim antice) kians, 
epidermide tecta valida, nitida, flavescente-olivacea, plicce um- 
bonalis et radii impressi antici expers, sublcevigata, rugis in- 
crementi tantum notata. Eitremitas lateris antici, producti, 
inconcinyie rotundata ; lateris jiostici brevis rotundato-acumi- 
nata, et supra, potius quam infra medium šita. Margo dorsalis 
anticus vix declivis, princijno subrectus, demum convexus ; pos- 
ticus declivis, subrectus; ventralis antice arcuatus et multum 
acclivis, in medio late convexus, postice subarcuatim acclivis. 



371 



NatesparvčB, acutissimte, tamen haud protninentes. Areee dor- 
sales haud cireumscriptce ; antica planulata ; postica labia cari 
nato-protrusa, 
Long. Ii, poli., lat. ^., poli. 
Hab. Apud insulas Falklandicas. 
Mus. Cuming, Taylor, Hanley. 

There are only from eight to ten teeth on one side of the cartilage- 
pit, and from ten to twelve on the other. I have named the species 
in honour of Mr. Woodward, who has delineated the animal (as 
Yoldia,n. sp.) in his admirable 'Manual of the Mollusca' (p. 270). 

The following list of additions made to the Menagerie by gift and 
purchase, during the month of May, was read : — 







"S 


'Mrs. Low. 
A.Arcedeckne, Esą.,F.Z.S. 

Edvvard Vilson, Esą. 

H. E. Dresser, Esą. 
Edward \Vilson, Esą. 
Edward Wilson, Esą. 
A. P. French, Esą. 
Mr. Jamracb. 
H.R.H. the InfantaDuke 

de Oporto. 
Alf. Denison, Esą., F.Z.S. 
C. Pringle, Esą. 
J. Pittman, Esą, 
J. H. Hunt, Esą. 
James Murton, Esą. 
A. F. Hurt, Esą. 
J. T. Sharp, Esą. 
P.Frazer, Esą., Corr. Mem. 
P. Frazer, Esą., Corr. Mem. 
Lady HiU. 
E. Lukyn, Esą. 
Earl of Southesk, F.Z.S. 
Visc. Powerscourt, F.Z.S. 
Edward Wilson, Esą. 

F.Hicarrl \Vil«nn. F.sn. 








r Hoplncephalus miperbus .. 1 i 
\ Pseudechis porpJiyriaca .. J 




2 Kingfishers 




1 Yellow-bellied Snake 


Hoplocephalus superhus 


1 South American Lizard ... 
1 Leopard 


Sceloporus chlorolepidotis ... 
Felis leopardus 

Donaeola castaneothorajo 


4 Chestnut-breasted Finches .. 














I Cat (from Carthagena) 

1 Common Badger 


Felis } 


Meles taxus 


1 Australian Goshawk 




1 Kangaroo Rat 




1 Herring Guli 












2 Philantomba Antelopes 

1 Australian Wild Duck 

1 Australian Water-hen 

6 yellow Wagtails 










■ Purebased. 






3 Red-tailed Finches 




4 Many-coloured Parrakeet... 






1 Red-fronted Parrakeets 

1 Golden Eagle 


Trichofflossus concinnus 


1 Rufous-bellied Wallaby 

2 Spotted Emeus 


















1 Cuban Caprorays 




3 Red Birds 




2 White-winged Doves 




1 Red-bellied Wallaby 




1 Red-necked Wallaby 














1 



372 

Of these, the following species were stated to have been exhibited 
for the first time: — Hoplocephahis superbus, Pseudechis porphyriaca, 
Sceloporus chlorolepidotis, Donacola castaneothorax, Anas superci- 
liosa, Estrelda ruficauda, Dromcsus irroratus, Cacatua triton, Py- 
ranga cestiva, aml Tigrisoma leucolophum. 



The following Hst of additions made to the Menagerie by gift and 
purchase, during the month of Juue, was read : — 







1 

a) 

■ C ■ 


f Capt. 

Sparks Moline, Esq. 
G. Billing, Esq. 

G. Bond, Esq. 

Donor unknown. 

E. Percy Thompson, Esq. 

J. rforde, Esq. 

R. J. Montgoraerv, Esq. 

Col. Charles Ford, R.E. 

Richard Tress, Esq., F.Z.S. 

A.Russell,Esq.,M.P.,F.Z.S. 

J. T. Harailton, Esq. 

Gordon Sandiman. Esa. 


1 West Indian Turtle 

1 Monkey from the Mozam- 
bique. 




Cercopitheeus rufo-viridis , . . 








Canis (from India) 


















2 Carolina \Vater Tortoises ... 








Cynoeephalus hamadryas 




■ Purchased. 
















Dromceus nova hollandi<B 




4 Spotted Woodpeckers 






i Blue-mountain Lories 


Trichoglossus swainsoni 


1 Australian Water-heu 

1 South Australian Lizard ... 
1 yellow-footed Rock Kan- 
garoo. 














_ 
























Acridotheres ginginianus 


















1 



Of these, Cercopitheeus rvfo-viridis, Acridotheres ginginianus, Ara 
glauca, Monitor gouidi, Regenia ocellata, and Petrogale xanthopus 
were stated to have been exhibited for the first time. 



373 

November 13th, 1860. 

Dr. J. E. Gray, V.P., iu the Chair. 

Dr. Hamilton exhibited some hen Pheasants (Phasiunus colchicus) 
which had partially adopted the malė plumage, and pointed oiit that 
they were all affected with disease in the ovarium, and that those in 
which the disease had made greatest progress had advanced farthest 
towards the malė ia external appearauce. 

Mr. Gould called the attention of the meeting to a Kangaroo 
living in the Society's Gardens, generally believed to be Macropus 
rufus, but which he was inclined to consider distinct, and for which 
he proposed the teraporary appellation of Macropus {Osphranter) 



The Secretary read the following extracts from a letter addressed 
to him by the Rev. G. Beardsworth, of Selling, Kent, giving an 
account of two Cetaceans, mother and young (probably Hyperoodon 
rostratus), killed on the North Kentish coast, uear "VVhitstable, 
October 29, 1860:— 

" Dam : extreme length 26 feet ; greatest girth nearly 20 feet ; 
snout or beak 1/ inches long by 7 wide ; pectoral fius 29 inches 
long, dorsal one rather shorter. Tail set transversely, and very 
slightly bifurcated, in fact very nearly straight, 7 feet across. The 
blow-hole set transversely on the crown of the head, a single 
straight line, about 6 inches long, and shghtly behind the eyes. 
Eyes of human shape, about tvvice the size, and furnished with 
eyelids. The pectoral fins set very low, so much so that a straight 
stiek would touch the roots of both without bending. Not the 
slightest traces of baleen or of teeth. Tongue entirely detached be- 
neath, and fringed with a kind of papillse in a double row, about 
I of an inch deep. Forehead rising abruptly to the height of 
1 3 inches from the snout, and very slight traces of any ridge between 
them. T\vo diverging grooves beneath the throat, about 18 inches 
long. The dorsal and pectoral fins divide the whole length into three 
portions, of which the two end ones are about equal, the middle one 
rather longer. Colour, a brownish-black ; quite black on the back 
and tail, shading to a dirty white below and on the cheeks." 

" Young one about 14 feet long, differing only from the old one in 
being slighter and of a lighter colour." 

" One circumstance I think deserves recording. One of the coast- 
guardmenwho killed these animalstold me that the animal 'sobbed' 
very much, but that its only eflforts were to smother itself by push- 
ing its snout into the sand. May not this give some clue to the use 
of the beak 1 May it not be to procure food by suction from the 
sand ? This might shovv some reason for the papillse-like fringe to 
the tongue, which vvas alike in both specimens." 



374 

" As sliowing the nature of the animal, it should also be stated 
that the cub could easily have escaped, and, in fact, went away three 
times, but each time returned from hearing the cries of her dam ; on 
the lašt return, the water had become too low to permit its further 
escape." 

Mr. O. Salvin stated that he had lately receiTed from Mr. Robert 
Owen, Corresponding Member of the Society, speeimens of the eggs 
of twenty-three species of Guatemalan birds. Amoiigst these were 
two eggs of the Quezal, or Long-tailed Trogon {Pharomacrus paru- 
diseus), which he exhibited, as he beliered, for the first time. Mr. 
Owen's note relating to their capture was as follows : — " In an ex- 
pedition to the mountains of Santa Cruz, one of our hunters told me 
that he knew of a Quezars nešt about a leagae from Chilasco, in the 
šame range, and offered to procure me the eggs and one of the birds 
if I would send my servant with his gun to help him. This I ac- 
cordingly did, and my man returned with two eggs and the hen 
bird, which he said that he shot as she left her nešt. He described 
the nešt as being placed in the main stem of a decayed forest tree, 
about 26 feet from the grouud. The hollow or nešt had but one 
entrance, not more than large enough to allow the bird to pass, — the 
interior cavity being of barely sufficient capacity to allow of the 
female bird turning round. Inside there were no signs of a nešt, 
beyond a layer of small particles of decayed wood, upon which the 
eggs were deposited. 

" The mountaineers all say that the Quezal avails itself of the de- 
serted holes of the Woodpecker, probably founding their statement 
upon the uufituess of the bird's beak for boring iuto the trunks of 
trees." 

The foUovving papers were theu read : — 

1. NOTK ON THE FeMALE OF CuSCUS ORNATUS. 

By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., &c. 

On the 11 th of January of this year* I described a new species of 
Cuscus, under the name of Cuscus ornatus, from a malė specimen 
sent by Mr. Wallace from the Island of Batchian. 

Mr. Wallace has now sent three female Cusci (two adults and one 
younger specimen) from Ternate, which appear to be the females of 
the species above-described. 

The older female only differs from the malė from Batchian i n 
being darker. One specimen has many more spots on it than the 
other ; the spots are small, irregular in size, and not disposed sym- 
metrically. The younger specimen is yellower than the others, but, 
still, darker and brovvner than the malė, and only indistinctly spotted. 
The dorsal streak is distinct and well-marked in the whole of the 
three, and disposed exactly as in the malė. 

* See antea, p. 1. 



375 

2. On a New Species of Kangaroo, of the genus Halma- 
TURus. By John Gould, F. R. S., &c. 

Halmaturus stigmaticus. 

Face, sides of the body, outer side of the fore limbs, and the flanks 
rufous, more or less interspersed with whitish-tipped hairs ; outer 
side of the hmder limbs rich rusty-red ; occiput dark brownj inter- 
spersed with silvery-tipped hairs ; ears externally clothed with long 
black hairs, and narrowly fringed on the front edge with white ; 
upper surface of the body blackish-brown, interspersed with nume- 
rous ■whitish-tipped hairs, and gradually blending with the rufous 
hue of the flanks ; down the back of the neck an indistinct hne of a 
darker or blackish hue ; across each haunch a broad and conspicuous 
mark of buff ; upper hp, chin, and all the under surface of the body 
and the inner side of the Hmbs dirty white ; hands and feet dark 
brown ; upper surface of the tail dark brown ; on its sides the hairs 
are less nuraerous, and the scaly character of the skin becomes con- 
spicuous. 

ft. in. 
Leugth from the tip of the nose to the extreniity 

of the tail 3 4 

of the tail 1 4 

of the tarsus and toes, including the nail O 5f 

of the arm and hand, including the nails O 6į 

of the face from the tip of the nose to the 

base of the ears O 4f 

of the ear O lį 

Hab. Point Cooper, on the north-eastern coast of Australia. 

Reinark. — Nearly allied to H. thetidis, but differing from that 
species in being of a somewhat larger size, in the more rufous 
colouring of the fur, particularly of that clothing the hind limbs, and 
in haviug a broad brand-like mark of buff on each haunch. 

For the discovery of this new species we are indebted to the re- 
searches of Mr. John Macgillivray. The typical specimen is now in 
the British Museum. 



3. Note on the Japanese Deer living in the Society's 
Menagerie. By Philip Lutley Sclater, M. A., Secre- 

TARY TO the SoCIETY. 

I venture to call particular attention to one out of several im- 
portant additions made to the Menagerie since the lašt meeting for 
scientific busiuess. 

A pair of a very beautiful small species of Deer, quite new to the 
coUection, were presented to the Society in July lašt by J. Wilks, 
Esq. They were obtained at Kanegawa, in Japan, and brought 
to this country by Captain D. Rees, of the ship * Sir F. Williams.' 



376 

Dr. Gray has described these animals, believing them to be new, 
in a recent iiumber of the ' Anuals of Natūrai History,' as Rusa 
javanica (Ann. N. H. ser. iii. vol. vi. p. 218, Sept. 1860). But on 
reference to the figure of Cervus pseudaxis of MM. Eydoux and 
Souleyet in the ' Zoology of the Voyage of the Bonite ' (Atlas, pi. 3. 
Zool. p. 64), and to the further details concerning the šame animal 
given by Dr. Pucheran in the ' Archives du Museum d'Hist. Nat.' 
(vi. pp. 416, 489), it seems probable that our new acquisition uiay 
belong to the šame species. The locahty of the example figured in 
the ' Voyage of the Bonite ' was not ascertained ; but a second speci- 
men, brought home by the espedition of the ' Astrolabe and Zelee,' 
was said to have come from the Sooloo Islands. This discrepancy 
of localities is a fact which would kad me to beheve that our 
animals are different from Cervus pseudaxis ; but in the structure of 
the horns, in the general colouring of the body, in the elongation of 
the hairs of the mane and throat, and in the disappearance of the 
white spots in winter, our specimens seem to me to agree well with 
the peculiarities indicated by the French authorities ; and the malė 
possesses partially developed eanines, which are likewise spoken of 
in the case of Cervus psetidaxis. 

Mr. Blyth has also recently described a Deer from the island of 
Formosa, under the name Cervus taiotianus (Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 
XXX. p. 90), which is probably likewise referable to this šame species. 
At the time of writing this description, Mr. Blyth was inclined to 
consider the Formosan animal different from a pair of the small Deer 
of Japan, which he had living with him in Calcutta at the šame 
date. This opinion, however, he has subseąueutly modified, stating, 
in a letter, addressed to me, dated July 4th of the present year, with 
reference to the Formosan and Japanese Deer, which he had then 
tumed out together in his garden at Calcutta, that he was " satisfied 
that they vvere of one and the šame species." 

My opinion therefore is — though I do not statė it without hesita- 
tion, agaiust so high an authority on the subject of the Cervidee as 
Dr. Gray — that Rusa javanica is probably a synonym of Cervus pseud- 
axis, Eydoux and Souleyet, and Cervus taiouanus, Blyth. But there 
is, perhaps, a still older appellation for this httle Deer. The figure 
of Temminck and Siebold's Cervus sika, in the ' Fauna Japonica,' 
certainly looks very little likę the malė of this species. The uniform 
colouring and the third branch to the horns are very noticeable 
points in which it differs from our malė Deer. To the description 
given in the šame work I have unfortunately had no access, the 
sheets contaiuing it being deficient in the only copy I have been able 
to consult. But Mr. Bartlett, who has lately returned from Hol- 
land, informs me that a female Deer living in the Gardens at Am- 
sterdam, and there considered as Cervus sika, is undoubtedly the 
šame as ours ; and as the Dutch naturalists have consulted the type 
iu the Leyden Museum, there appears to be little doubt of the fact. 
I am therefore induced to believe that the following may prove to be 
ihe correct synonymy of this species of Deer : — 



377 

Cervus sika. 

Cervus sika, Temm. & Sieb. Fauna Japonica, Mamm. pi. , (fig 
mala). 

Cervus pseudaxis, Eyd. & Soul. Voy. Bonite, Zool. p. 64. pi. 3. 
Buch. Arch. Mus. Par. vi. pp. 416, 489 ; Wagn. Suppl. Schreber's 
Saūg. v. p. 3C4 (?). 

Cervus axis, ex China, Cantor, Ann. N. H. ix. p. 274. 

Cervus taiouanus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxix. p. 90. 

Rusajavanica, J. E. Gray, Ann. N. H. ser. 3. vi. p. 218. 

Mr. Blyth, it may be remarked, is of opinion (J. A. S. B. xxix. 
p. 90) that this Deer " belongs strictly to the Elaphine, and not to 
the Axine group," and statės that its skull "has the šame large 
round infra-orbital foramina as C. elaphus, and its immediate con- 
geners. 



/ 



4. On the Affinities of BaljEniceps. By Professor J. 
Reinhardt, For. m. z. s. 

The majority of ornithologists seem to look upon the Balceniceps 
as approaching nearest to Cancrorna, and to consider it the African re- 
presentative of this South American type. Now it shall be freely con- 
ceded that it indeed appears more nearly allied to the Boatbill than to 
the Pelicans, to which Mr. Gould was inelined to refer this, perhaps 
the most extraordinary of the numerous highly interesting new forms 
introduced by him in ornithology. The Balceniceps seems, further, 
better placed in the neighbourhood of the Cancroma than between 
the Spoonbills and the Flaraingos, as proposed by M. Des Murs, — 
a position admissible, I think, only when the texture of the egg is 
made the ruling principle of classification. But it may be ąuestion- 
able vvhether the large Storks (Leptoptilos) do not make a nearer 
approach to it than the Boatbill ; and I do not hesitate to advance, 
that at all events this last-mentioned bird is not its next of kin. 

When several years ago I became first acąuainted with the de- 
scription and the admirable figures of the bird in question in the 
'Proceedings ' of the Zoological Society of London, I was struck 
with some features in the gigantic new form, recalling to my mind 
another eurious bird, and I wondered why it had not been compared 
with this as well as with the Pelicans, Cranes, Herons, and the Boat- 
bill ; but having no opportunity to examine the Balceniceps itself, I 
could not arrive at any settled opinion. 

The Museum at Copenhagen having lašt year obtained a female 
specimen of this rare bird from the Imperial Museum at Vienna 
through the generous interference of Prof. Steenstrup, I have at 
length been able to substantiate, through immediate comparison, that 
(indeed as I presumed) the equally African Scopus is the nearest 
relation of the Balceniceps. I may be permitted shortly to statė my 
reasons for this rapprochement . 

The Cancroma does not, in my opinion, represent a peculiar sub- 



378 

family ; it is in every respect a Night Heron gifted with a very sin- 
gular beak. The plumage, the feet and their serrated middle claws, 
and further the colour, manifest the affinity. Even in the bill, ano- 
malous as at first sight it may appear, a minute examination will 
enable us to recognise the beak of a stout-billed Niglit Heron {A. vio- 
lacea, for instance), strongly modified, it is true, in shape, but still 
^xhibiting many of the essential eharacters. To the beak of the Balce- 
niceps, on the contrary, it seems to aiford only an analogy (and uot even 
a rery strong one), but no true affinity. Its flattened forra, and the 
slender and pUable branches of the lovver jaw, prove, in my opinion, 
that the beak of the Boatbill is calculated to be rather a very capa- 
cious than a very strong one ; whilst the bill of the Balceniceps, being 
higher than hroad, evinces an extraordinary strength in almost every 
feature, but especially in the powerful hook, in which the culmen 
terminates. In the Boatbill there is no such hook, but the upper 
mandible is provided \vith the usual notehed tip of the Night Herons, 
not separated from the sides of the bill by a well-marked groove, as 
is the hook of its presumed kindred ; and if we carry on the com- 
parison further, we shall find that the lower jaw does not offer the 
truncated apex, characterizing this part in the Balceniceps, and being 
indeed the cousequeuce of the shape of the hook. The different 
form of the nostrils and the diiferent size and extent of the nasal 
groove afford other notable points of diversity betvveen the two 
birds ; and though the skin of the throat may be dilatable in a certain 
degree in the living Balceniceps, I should not think that this bird 
possesses a true pouch likę that of the Cancroma. At all events the 
fact of the mentum being very thick-feathered throughout two-thirds 
of its length induces me to doubt it ; and the stout and apparently 
little pliable under-jaw seems also to make it not very probable. 

It mušt be conceded, that the Balcenicejts approaches much to the 
Cancroma in the general structure of the feet ; but it has not, likę 
this bird, a pectinated middle claw ; and this circumstance affords, 
in my opinion, a strong warning not to class it with the Boatbill, as 
this peculiar serrature never fails in any member of the Heron tribe. 

As to what relates to the nature of the plumage, the Balceniceps 
differs also in not unimportant points from the Cancroma, the downy 
part of each feather being proportionally larger, and genuine down 
being intermixed in considerable quautity among the feathers, as in 
Leptoptilos, vrhile in the Cancroma and the Herons there is hardly 
any down at all amongst thera : moreover the hyporhachis is well 
developed in the lašt, but very small in the Balceniceps, vvhich also 
in this point seems to adhere to the Storks, in certain species of which 
it is even entirely wauting. The distribution of the feathers on the 
body (the pterylose) cannot be accurately studied on a stuffed skin ; 
therefore 1 am not able to give any sufficient account of it in the 
Balceniceps ; but even now I think I may say, that the pterylose 
of this bird, when minutely examined, will probably show notable 
ditferences from that of the Boatbill. It especially appears that the 
neck is feathered nearly all over, while in the Boatbill and the 
wholc Heron-tribe there are large apteria on this part. A point of 



379 

some conseąuence to be cleared up, but about which I can say nothing 
myself, is whether the Balceniceps is gifted or not with those curious 
limited spots, clothed only with a peculiar sort of down (the " Puder- 
dunenfluren " of Nitzsch), vvhich characterize the Cancroma as well 
as the Herons, but are wanting in the Scopus and the Storks. 

If, on the other hand, we now compare the beak of the Balceniceps 
with that of the Scopus, we shall find a very remarkable accordauce 
in nearly all material points. lu both of them the uostrils are shaped 
exactly in the šame way, being uarrow, just perceptible sHts. Inišcoįms 
as well as in Balceniceps the culmen is separated throughout its whole 
length from the sides of the bill by a deep narrow groove or furrow, 
and terminates in a powerful hook, though it is conceded that the 
hooked tip is proportionally not quite so large in the former. The 
very sharp carina into which the culmen is compressed in the Scopiis, 
is indicated by a ridge along the broad culmen of the Balceniceps ; 
the apex of the lower jaw is truncated in the šame \vay in both birds ; 
and notwithstanding the nearly perpendicular position of the sides of 
the bill in the Scopus, the tomia are convex and bend inwards, as in 
the Balceniceps. In a wordj the minute detail of the bills of these 
two remarkable birds is, as far as I can see, very much the šame ; 
and, indeed, if we faucy the beak of the Balceniceps so much com- 
pressed that the ridge along the culmen becomes converted into a 
sharp cutting edge, and the branches of the lower maxilla touch each 
other in the anterior half of their length, it will assume most exactly 
the shape of that of a gigantic, but somewhat short-billed Scopus. 

With regard to the feet, it is true that the toes are connected by 
a short interdigital membrane in the Scopus, while there is no ves- 
tige of it in the Balceniceps. The importance of this diiference niay 
perhaps be diiferently appreciated by zoologists, but I need not enter 
into a discussion as to its value ; for, should the disappearance of 
the interdigital membrane be considered a serious obstacle against 
classing this bird with the Scopus, it mušt likewise divorce it from 
Cancroma, where such a membrane also exists, being only somewhat 
smaller than in the Scopus. For the ręst, there is no material dif- 
ference in the structure of the feet of the two birds, the hind-toe 
even in the Scopus being inserted at the level of the other toes. It 
mušt, however, be confessed, that in this oft-mentioned bird also 
the middle nail is pectinated, though indeed not quite so regularly as 
in the Boatbill. This is certainly a remarkable deviation from the 
Balceniceps ; but it is obvious that this fact, at all events, cannot be 
adduced as an argument in favour of a nearer relationship to the 
Cancroma. 

In the ptilose of the Scopus seem to prevail nearly the šame pecu- 
liarities which have been mentioned as distinguishuig the plumage 
of the Balceniceps from that of the BoatbiU ; and even in this respect 
it certainly proves a nearer relation than the last-mentioned American 
bird. With regard to the pterylose, the Scopus is known in a certain 
point to deviate from, I believe, all the other waders, the feathers 
on the neck being arranged in a manner quite peculiar ; should, 
therefore, the neck of the Balceniceps really prove to be feathered all 



380 

round, there will so far be a difference : but it mušt be remembered 
that a neck feathered throughout might possibly approsimate the Ba- 
Iceniceps to tbe Storks, but never to the Boatbill. 

I believe that a minute consideration of the esternal characters of 
the Balcenicej^s will suificiently enable us to recognise in this gigantic 
wader a near relative of Scopiis ; but, no doubt, new and iniportant 
proofs are to be derived from the skeleton when compared with 
that of the last-mentioned bird. I have, hovvever, not the means of 
making such a comparison, never having seen any part of the skeleton 
of the Baleeniceps. Even of the skeletons of the Scopus and the 
Caneroma I have only more or less imperfect skuUs and some few 
bones at hand. I should, therefore, only wish to mention here, that 
the interorbital septum is entire in the Scopus (as it is in Lepto- 
ptilos and Tantalus), but perforated (as far as I can see, in the muti- 
lated skull now before me) by a large opening in the Caneroma as 
wel] as in the Herons ; and that the zygomatie arch, formed by the 
malar bones, is longer in the Boatbill than in the Scopus, — so much 
so iudeed, that in the shorter skull of the first it is nearly twice as long 
as it is in the longer skull of the Scopus — this bird approaching 
even in this respect to the Storks, -vvhile the Heron type prevails in 
the Caneroma even in this point. It would be very interesting to 
know how the Balceniceps is shaped in these respects*. 

And novv, to put an end to my cursory remarks, I shall beg only 
to advance, as the finai conclusion to which I have been led by my 
examination of the Balcenieeps, that this most curious bird should 
be removed from the neighbourhood of the Caneroma, to constitute, 
together with the Scopus, a small, exclusively African subfamily in 
the great circle of the Ardeidce of Leach, appoaching nearer to the 
Storks than to the Herons. 



5. Description of a New Species of Hornbill from West- 
ERN Africa. By John Gould, F. R. S., etc. 

TOCCUS HARTLAUBI, Gould. 

Ali the upper surface, back, wings, and tail uuiform dark brownish- 
black, glossed with green ; three outer tail-feathers on each side 
tipped with white, the inner one of the three less so than the others ; 
under surface sooty-black, each feather fringed with grey, giving 
these parts, particularly the abdomen, a mottled appearance ; under 
surface of the shoulder greyish-white ; basai portion of the inner webs 
of the primaries silvery-grey ; bill rather stout and deep at the base, 
with a small sharp keel or ridge near the base of the culmen ; basai 
three-fourths of the bill black, apical fourth obscure blood-red. 

Totai length, 14 inches ; bill, 2į ; wing, 6 ; tail, 6į ; tarsi, 1. 

At first sight, the specimen from ■svhich the above description -vvas 

* My friend Mr. A. Newton, to -vvhom I had communicated my opinion vrith 
regard to the Balimdceps duriiig his visit to Copenhagen lašt year, has lately in- 
foimed me that the malar hoiies are enormously large and strong in this bird ; the 
šame cannot be said of them i n Scopus. 



381 

taken, and which is the only one I have seen, would appear to be 
immature; but when the tail-feathers are closely examined, they 
will be found to comprise both old and new feathers of precisely the 
šame character, proving that siich cannot be the case. In the size 
of its body this new Hornbill does not exceed the common Black- 
bird {Merula vulgaris) ; it mušt therefore be regarded as one of 
the smallest members of its group. 

I have named this bird hartlaubi, in honour of my friend Dr. 
Hartlaub of Bremen, a gentleman who has paid great attention to 
general ornithology, but especially to that of Western Africa, where 
this bird is beheved to have been proeured, but from what precise 
localitv is unknown. 



6. Description of a New Species of the Genus Moho, of 
Lesson. By John Gould, F. R. S., etc. 

Moho apicalis, Gould. 

Opposite page 357 of Dixon's ' Voyage round the World,' pub- 
hshed as long back as 1798, will be found the figure of abird under 
the name of the "Yellow Tufted Bee-eater," which appears never 
to have received a specific appellation : this has probably arisen from 
the circumstance of no examples having yet found their way into 
our museums. The description given by Captain Dixon, eopied 
from Latham's ' Synopsis,' doubtless has reference to the bird which 
my late friend M. Temminck called Mohofascieulatus. 

Two examples of this curious bird, malė and female, which will 
hereafter be deposited in the National CoUection, having lately come 
into my possession, I avail myself of the opportunity of characterizino- 
the species, and have assigned to it the name of apicalis, from the 
circumstance of all but the tveo middle tail-feathers being tipped 
with white ; in which respect Capt. Dixon remarked that the bird 
he had figured difiPered from Latham's description of the Yellow. 
tufted Bee-eater. 

Dixon's bird was obtained at Owhyhee, and I believe that my two 
specimens were brought from the šame island. 

This bird may be described as having the general plumage sooty- 
black ; tail brown, all but the two middle feathers largely tipped 
with white ; the two centrai feathers somewhat narrower than the 
others, and gradually diminishing in the apical third of their length 
mto fine hair-like or filamentous uptumed points ; axill8e or under 
surface of the shoulder white ; flanks and under tail-coverts brieht 
yellow ; bill and legs black. 

Totai length, 12 inches; bill, H; wing, 4| ; tail, 6f ; tarsi, U. 

The plumage of the female is in every respect similar to that V 
the malė ; but, as in the Honeyeaters of Australia generally, particu- 
larly amongst the members of the genus Ptilotis, the body is fully a 
fourth less in size. j j 



382 

7. Description of a new Odontophorus. 
By John Gould, F.R.S., etc. 

Odontophorus melanonotus, Gould. 

Throat, fore part of tlie neck, and chest rich chestnut-brown ; ab- 
domen deep blackish-brown, very finely but obscurely freckled with 
chestnut ; lower part of the abdomen, thighs, under tail-coverts, tail, 
back of the neck, wings, and rump uniforra velvety browmsh-black ; 
legs apparently horn-colour in front, with a wash of orange between 
the scales ; bill black. 

Totai length, 1 inches ; bill, f ; wing, 6 ; tail, 2^ ; tarsi, 2-į^. 

Hab. Ecuador. 

There do not appear to be any markings about the face, as is usual 
with the other members of this genus ; but as ray specimen is some- 
what injured in that part, I am unable to speak positively on this 
poiut : the orange colouring, too, between the scales of the legs may 
or may not be natūrai ; it is probably due to some extraneous cause. 

This new species, which I have received direct from Ecuador, is 
in every respect a typical Odo)itophorus, and is very nearly allied to 
O. niffroffularis, O. erythrops, and O. hypenjthrus ; but when the 
four species are seen together, their specific distinctness is very 
readily apparent. 

When shall we acquire a knowledge of the whole of this group of 
birds 1 



8. Catalogue of the Birds of the Falkland Islanos. By 
Philip Lutley Sclater, M. A., Secretary to the So- 

CIETY* 

(Aves, PI. CLXXIII.) 

^Ir. Leadbeater having kindly invited me to examine a very fine 
series of skins coUected in the Falkland Islands by Capt. Pack — 
a gentlenian who has been for several years resident there — I have 
embraced the opportunity of drawiDg up a more complete list of the 
birds of the Falklands than any that has hitherto appeared, chiefly 
with the hope of inducing Capt. Abbott, Capt. Pack, and other gen- 
tlemen who have turned their attention to the oruithology of these 
islands, to continue their researches, by showing them that we en- 
deavour at home to make some use of the " raw material " with 
which they pro^-ide us. 

The Falkland Islands were visited by many of the earlier navi- 
gators ; and several species of birds belonging to its fauna, discovered 
by them, either on the islands, themselves, or on the neighbouring 
coast of South America, are iucluded in the Systems of Linneus, 
Gmelin, and Latham. The Freiich Exploring Expedition of the 
' Uranie,' vvhich was wrecked on these islands in 1819, collected many 
specimens of birds there, and MM. Quoy and Gaimard, who wrote 
the 'Zoology' of the voyage, described several new species which were 
the results of their investigations. But it is to Mr. Darwin, who 



Pi-oc 1. 3 A^refe.CLJ^XiII. 




MA N.Hanhai-Llmp- 



;hloepiia&a rubidiceps 



rttv^H^; 



Są 



383 



passed sometime in the Falklands, when Naturalist on board H M S 
Beagle that we are indebted for the first detailed account of the 
birds of this group. In the second volume of the ' Zooloey ' of the 
\oyage of the Beagle, which is devoted to Ornithology, upwards of 
20 species are recorded as liaving been obtaincd in the Falklands on 
this occasion, and many very interesting details are given of their 
f /i p n ^^^''*;^^ ,M^"y specimens of birds were also collected 
at the Falkland Islands by the officers of H.M. Ships Erebūs and 
Ten-or durmg the Antarctic Expedition ; and though the 'Zooloo-v' 
ot that voyagehas, unfortunately, never been completed, the localides 
ot many of the specimens have been recorded in the Lists of the 
Jintish Museum, m which they were deposited. 
^ ^'J/t^ ^.'"^^^ ^^^^ °^ °"'" ' Pioceedings' for the past year* Mr 
Irould has descnbed the eggs of some of the birds of the Falklands' 
trom specimens collected principally by Captain C. C. Abbott."' 
Mr. bouid s hst notices 38 species as occurring in the group Re 
terence to some other authorities, together with Capt. Pack's 'series 
has enabled me to raiše the number of birds now well ascertained to 
be met with m these islands to 57. 

It may be remarked that the fauna of the Falklands is pūrely 
b.outh American m character, the whole of these 5/ speciesf with 
tour or five exceptious only (3IUvaffo australis, Phrygilm melam- 
derus, F. xanthogrammus, Cinclodes antarcticus, and Muscisaccicola 
machmana), as far as is hitherto known, being also found on the 
neighbounng mainland, and these excepted species belonging to South 
American genera Out of the 57 species. 16 only Ire what are 
generaUy termed Land-birds (Jcd^itres and Passeres), the remainder 
bemg Grallee and Anseres. 

I. ACCIPITRES. 

Gould?R zTlSS^rpt 9^"-^ '• ''™' '■''''- ^'''- ^^«S^^' P- ' ■' 
" Tolerably common " (Darwin). Specimens sent by Capt. Pack 
and Capt Abbott. The egg figured in 'The Ibis,' toI. ii^ pl.^ . fi? 2 
Zfr f Auf ' vanety of M7.«^o australis, belongs to this bird 
&U ?• ^ii^'V ' ^^''' ^^^^' P- 432), so that it breeds in the 
Falklands. Mr. Gnrney informs me that the skins sent by Capt 
Abbott are not, m his opmion, different from North American spe^ 

2 Mij^yAGO AvsTRAi.is(Gm.). -Falcoleucurus, Forster, MS - 
Mzlvaffoleucurm, Darw. Zool. p. 15 ; Gould, P. Z S. 1859 n 93 • 
Sclater, Ibis, 1860, p. 24 (cum fig. ori). ' P" ' 

"Exceedingly numerous, and very bold and rapacious " (Darwin) 
fn^' TbpTK-''"' \ ^'P'- .^''^- ^^' ^gg «f this bird s fiTured 
Capt Ibbott."' '' "^ '"' ^'"" ^"""^P^^^ transmitte'd by 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 93. 



384 

3*. BuTEO ERYTHRONOTUS (Kiiig). — Halioetus erythronotus, 
King, Zool. Jouru. iii. 424. — B. tricolor, Lafr. et d'Orb. ; Darw. 
Zool. p. 26 ; Gould, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 93 ; Sclater, Ibis, 1860, p. 25 
(cum fig. ovi). 

" Preys chiefly on rabbits" (Dartvin). Specimens sent by Capt. 
Pack and Capt. Abbott, and eggs also by the latter, as described by 
Mr. Gould, and figured in ' The Ibis.' There is an extraordinary 
degree 'of variation in the plumage of this bird, and its phases of 
change are not yet well understood. 

4. BuTEO VARIUS, Gould, P. Z. S. 1837, p. 10 ; Cassin, Rep. U. S. 
Expl. Exp. viii. p. 92. pi. 3. f. 1 ; Gould, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 94. 

Esamples trausmitted by Capt. Abbott, as also of the egg, as de- 
scribed by Mr. Gould. Mr. Gurney, who has placed some of these 
specimens in the Norwich Museum, considers this to be a good 
species. 

5. CiRCTJS ciNEREUS, ViciU. Nouv. Dict. iv. 454 ; Darw. Zool. 
p. 30. — Falco histrionicus, Q. et G. Voy. Uranie, p. 95. 

" Very tame, and preys on small ąuadrupeds, molluscous animals, 
and even insects (Darwin)." Specimens trausmitted by Capt. Pack. 

6. Otus brachyotus (Gm.). — Otus pahtstris, Darwin, Voy. 
p. 33 ; Gould, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 94. 

" Amongst low bushes " (Darivin). 

II. Passeres. 
Fam. TuRDiD^. 

7. TuRDUs FALKLANDicus, Quoy ct Gaim. Voy. Uranie, p. 104 ; 
Darwin, Zool. p. 59. — Turdus magellanicus, King : Gould, P. Z. S. 
1859, p. 94. 

Falkland Islands {Abbott and Pack). 

Eggs described by Mr. Gould, 1. c. The skins from the Falkland 
Islands seem to me to be rather larger and more rufescent below 
than those which I have esamined from the mainland. 

Fam. TROGLODYTID.E. 

8. CiSTOTHORTJS PLATENSIS (Gm.) : PI. Enl. 432 : Sylvia pla- 
tensis, Gm. et Lath. ; Darvvin, Voy. p. 75. 

Not uncommon, living olose to the ground in the coarse grass 
(I)arwin). 

Falklands {Pack). 

Fam. MoTACiLLiD^. 

9. Anthus correndera, Vieill. Nouv. Dict. xxvi. p. 491 ; Enc. 

* 3. BuTEO poLiosoMA (Q. et G.). — Falco poUosoma, Q. et G. Voy. Uranie, 
p. 92. pi. 14. 

Falkland Tslands (Q. et G.). A distinct species, unless it be referable to one 
of the stages of B. erythronotm or B. variui. 



385 

Meth. p. 325 ; d'Orb. Voy. Ois. p. 225 ; Darw. Zool. p. 85 ; Goiilcl, 
P.Z. S. 1859, p. 95. 

"Very commoii," and "resembles a true Alauda m most of its 
habits " (Darivin). 

Falklands (Pac/c). Egg described by Mr. Gould. 

Fara. Sttirnid^. 

10. Sturnella MiLiTARis (Gm.), PI- Enl. 113: Sturnus mili- 
taris, Gm. ; Darw. Zool. p. 110 ; Gould, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 94. 

Falklands (Pack). Nešt and eggs sent by Capt. Abbott and de- 
scribed by Mr. Gould. 

Fam. Fringillid^e. 

11. Phrygilus melanoderus (Quoy et Gaim.). — Emberha 
melanodera, Q. et G. Voy. Uranie, Zool. i. p. 109. — Chlorospiza 
melanodera, G. R. Gray, in Darvv. Zool. Beagle, p. 95. pi. 32. — Me- 
lanodera tyirica, Bp. Consp. p. 4/0 ; Gould, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 95. 

Falkland Islands, " abundant in large scattered flocks" {Dano.) ; 
Capt. Pack has sent examples of both sexes. Nešt and eggs, for- 
warded by Capt. Abbott, are described by Mr. Gould. 

12. Phrygilus xanthogrammus (G. R. Gray). — Chlorospiza 
xanthogramma, G. R. Gray, in Darvv. Voy. p. 96. pi. 33. 

Falkland Islands {Darivin). Distinguished from the preceding 
by the yellow superciliaries and white markings of the tail-feathers. 
More examples are wanted to confirm this species. 

Fam. Dendrocolaptid^. 

13. CiNCLODES vulgaris (Lafr. et d'Orb.) : Voy. Am. Mer. Ois. 
pi. 57. f. 1 ; Bp. Consp. p. 214. — OpetiorTiynchus vulgaris, Darw. 
Voy. Zool. p. 66. 

Common in the Falkland Islands (Darivin). 

14. CiNCLODES ANTARCTicus (Gam.) ; Bp. Consp. p. 214. — 
Furnarius fuliginosus, Less. — Opetiorhynchus antarcticus, Darwin, 
Voy. Zool. p. 67. 

Falkland Islands {Darvoin and Pack). 

Probably peculiar to the Falklands, being replaced on the con- 
tinent by C. patachonicus. 

Fam. Pteroptochid^. 

15. ScYTALOPUS MAGELLANicus (Lath.). — Sylviū magellanica, 
Lath. — Scytalopus fuscus,Gow\di ; Jard. and Selb.IU.Orn. n. s. pi. 19. 

Falkland Islands {Darivin) . 

Fam. Tyrannid^. 

16. MuscisAxicoLA MACLOviANA (Gam.); Bp. Consp. p. 197; 
Darwin, Voy. Zool. p. 83. 

No. 441. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



386 

Falkland Islands {Lesson and J)arwin) . Peculiar to the Falklands, 
if distinct from the Continental M. mentalis. 



III. GrALLjE. 

Fam. Chionidid^e. 

17. Chionis ALBA, Forst. ; Lath. G. H. ix. pi. 161 ; Darwin, 
Zool.p. 118 ; Q. etG. Voy. Uranie, p. 131. pi. 30. 

Berkeley Sound, E. F. {Ant. Exp.) ; Falkland Islands (Q. et G.). 

M. de Blainville has given an elaborate account of the osteology 
and anatomy of this bird in the ' Zoology ' of the Voyage of the 
Bonite (p. 10/ et seq.). Its nearest ally appears to be Hcematopus. 

Fam. Charadriid.£. 

18. EuDROMiAS URViLLii (Gam.). — Tringa urviUii, Garnot. — 
Vanellus cinctus, Less. — Charadrius rubecola, Vig. — Squatarola 
cincta, Jard. and Selb. 111. Orn. pi. 110; Darwin, Zool. p. 126; Gould, 
P. Z. S. 1860, p. 95. 

Falkland Islands, freąuenting the upland marshes (Darmin) ; 
Falklands (PacA) ; Berkeley Souud (Ant. Exp.). 

The female is likę the malė, but with less rufous on the breast. 
Called ' Dottrel.' The eggs transmitted by Capt. Abbott are de- 
scribed by Mr. Gould, 1. c. 

19. ^GiALiTES F.iLKLANDicus (Lath.). — Chūradrius fūlklandi- 
cus, Lath. Ind. Orn. ii. 747. — Hiaticula falklandica, G. R. Gray, 
List of Spec. iii. p. 71 ■ — Charadrius annuligerus, Wagl. 

Mus. Brit., ex ins. Falkland. 

St. Louis, East Falkland, and Uranie Bay {Ant. Exp.). Specimens 
sent by Capt. Pack. 

20. H^MATOPus LEucopus, Gamot. — H. luctuosus, Cuv. 

East Falkland (Pack). Egg in Mr. O. Salvin's collection, from 
Capt. Abbott. 

21. HCEMATOPUS ATER, Vicill. Gal. Ois. ii. pi. 230 (part.). — H. 
niger, Q. et G. Voy. Uranie, p. 129. pi. 34, et Cuv. (part.), nec Palias. 
— H. ater, Cassin, Report B. N. America, p. 200. — H. toįvnsendii, 
KuA.—H. unicolor, Gould, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 96. 

Falklands (^i66o#^ and Pack). Egg described by Mr. Gould. 

There appear to be several nearly allied species of Black Oyster- 
catchers inhabiting different regions : — 

1 . U. niger. Palias {H. bachnanni, Aud.),Rep. B. N. Am. p. 700 : 
from the nortli-western coast of America and Kurile Islands. 

2. H, ater, Vieill. (as identified by Mr. Cassin) : from Southern 
America and Falklands. 

.i. H.fidiginosus, Gould, B. Austr. vi. pi. 8 : from Austraha. 



387 

4, H. unicolor, Forster ; G. R. Gray, Voy. Erebus and Terror, 
p. 12.pl. 10: from Nevv Zealand. Perhaps hardly different from 
the Australiaa bird. 

5. H. niger, G. R. Gray, Gen. B. pi. 146 (nec Palias) : from the 
Cape. 

Fam. ScoLOPACiD^. 

22. LiMOSA HUDSONiCA (Lath.). — Scolopax hudsonica, Lath. 
Ind. Orn. ii. 720; Darw. Voy. Zool. p. 129. 

Falkland Islands {Darivin and Pack). 

23. NuMENius BREviROSTRis, Licht. Verz. d. Doubl. p. 75. 
Falklands {Pack). 

24. Gallinago MAGELLANicus(King). — Scolopax magellanica, 
King, Zool. Journ. iv. p. 93; Darw. Zool. p. 131. 

Falkland Islands (Darioin and Pack) ; Berkeley Sound, E. F. 
(Ant. Exp.). 

25. Tringa BONAPARTU, Schlegel, Rep. N. Am. Birds, p. 722, 
— Tringa schinzii, Bp. 

Falklands (Pack). 

Fam. Ardeid^. 

26. Nycticorax gardeni (Jard.). — N. americana, Bp. ; Gould, 
P. Z. S. 1859, p. 96. 

Berkeley Sound, E. F. (Ant. Exp.) ; Falklands (Pack). 

IV. Anseres. 
Fam. AnatidjE. 

27. Chloephaga magellanica (Gm.). — Anas magellanica, 
Gm. ex PI. Enl. 1006 ; Eyton, Mon. Anat. p. 32.— Anas pieta, Gm. 
et Forst. — Bernicla magellanica, Gay, Fauna Chilena, et Cassin in 
Gilliss's Exp. ii. p. 201. pi. 24 ( d et $ ) ; Darwiu, Voy. Zool. iii. 
p. 134 ; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1857, p. 128, et 1858, p. 289. 

Falkland Islands (Danoin, Gov. Moore, Pack). 

The " Upland Goose " vras first received by this Society from the 
Falkland Islands in 1857, through the liberality of H. E. Captain 
Moore, R. N., then the Governor. Other examples have since been 
obtained, and we now possess three malęs aud five females of this 
beautiful species. One of the females laid this spring, but did not 
succeed in hatching her eggs, 

28. Chloephaga rubidiceps, sp. nor. (PI. CLXXIII.) — B. 
inornata, G. R. Gray, Zool. Voy. Erebus and Terror, Birds, pi. 24, 
and Sclater, Guide to Gardens of the Zoological Society, ed. 5 & 6, 
p. 1 6 : nec King. 

Ochracescenti-rubida, dorso superiore, colio undiąue cum pectore 



388 

et ventris lateribus lineis nigns transversim faseiolatis : uro- 
pygio cutn caiida ceneo-nigricante : alis albis, primariis obscure 
fusco-nigris, tectricibus majoribus et scapularibus cinerascenti- 
fuscis, illarum pogoniis externis extus laete ceneo-viridibus : 
rostro nigro, pedibus nigris, extus sordide aurantiacis. 

Long. totą 17*0, alse 13, caudse 4'75, tarsi 2"4, rostri a rietu 1"3. 

Hab. In ins. Falklandicis (Pack). 

Mus. Brit., ex expeditione Antarctica. 

This Goose, of which the Society now possesses living specimens 
of both seses, is most nearly allied to the Ashy-headed Goose (Chlo'ė- 
phaga poliocephala), which lias likewise been called Bernicla inornata 
by Mr. G. R. Gray, and is figured under that name in bis ' Genera of 
Birds,' pi. 165. As in tbe Ashy-headed Goose, the malė and female 
of the Ėuddy-beaded Goose (as I propose to term this bird) are co- 
loured alike. The bird described as "Anas inornatus, mas," by 
Capt. King(Proc. Comm. Zool. Soc. i. p. 15), which is now in the 
British Museum, is decidedly different, in my opinion, from both 
Chlo'ėphaga poliocephala and C. rubidiceps, most nearly resembling 
the malė of C. inagellanica, but being much smaller. The bird 
described as " Anas inornatus, fcem.," by Capt. King, is probably 
C. poliocephala. Specimens of this latter bird in the British Museum 
are from the island of Chiloe, and it appears to be the westem re- 
presentative of the present species. 

Chlo'ėphaga rubidiceps may be easily distinguished from C. polio- 
cephala by the following characters : — The whole head and neck, 
which are ash-coloured in the latter, are, in the former, of a uniform 
buffy rufous : the transverse lineations on the body are much 
coarser and more numerous in C. rubidiceps, and the ground-colour 
is pale ochraceous rufous instead of deep chestnut. In C. polio- 
eephala the belly is pure white, iu C. rubidiceps it is deep rufous, 
and the sides of the belly are barred with pale rufous and black in- 
stead of white and black. The ■wiugs are coloured alike in the two 
species, and the ruuip and tail in both is of a uniform black, with 
duU greenish reflections. The under tail-coverts in both are reddish- 
brown, rather darker in C. rubidiceps. In both species the bill is 
black, and the legs black, with the outside of the tarsus and outer 
edge of the toes orange, giving them a singular parti-coloured ap- 
pearance in the living bird. The size, dimensions, and general 
characters are, as nearly as possible, the šame in both species. 

29. Bernicla antarctica (Gm.). — Anas antarctica, Gm. ; 
Darwin, Zool. Beagle, iii. p. 134 ; Cassin inGilliss's Exp. ii. p. 200. 
pi. 23 (cJetC). 

Falkland Islands (Danoin, Ant. Exp., Pack). 

30. Cygnus nigricollis (Gm.). — Anas nigricollis, Gm. 
Falkland Islands (Pac^). 

31. Cygnus coscoroba(Mo1.). — Anas coscoroba, Mol. — Cygnus 
anatoides, King. 

Falkland Islands (Pack). 



389 

32. Mareca chiloensis (King). — Anas chiloensis, King, P.Z.S. 
1831, p. 15 ; Eyton, Mon. Anat. pi. 21. 

Falkland Islands {Ant. Exp.'). 

33. Dafila TJROPHASIANUS (Vig.). — Anas urophasianus, \ig. 
Zool. Journ. iv. 357 ; Eyton, Mon. Anat. pi. 20(?). 

A pair of Pintails in Capt. Pack's collection are possibly of this 
species in winter dress ; but they do not agree with the figure of 
Mr. Eyton, being nearly white beIow, and having the sides of the 
head under the eyes closely freckled. 

34. P(ECILONETTA BAHAMENSIS (Linn.). 

One example, sent by Capt. Pack ; but the bird is said to be rarely 
met with in the Falklands. 

35. Anas cristata, Gm. S. N. i. 540. — Anas pyi-ogaster, Meyen. 
Berkeley Sound, E. F. {Ant. Exp.) ; Falkland Islands {Ant. Exp. 

and Pack). 

36. QuERauEDULA CRECCoiDES (King). — Anas creccoides, 
King, Zool. Journ. iv. p. 99 ; Eyton, Mon. Anat. p. 128. 

S. Salvador Bay, E. F. {Ant. Exp.) ; Falkland Islands {Pack). 

37. QuERCiuEDUi,A VERSicoLOR (Vieill.). — Anas versicohr, 
Vieill. Nouv. Dict. — A. maculirostris, Licht. — A. fretemis, King ; 
Jard. and Selb. 111. Orn. pi. 29. 

Falklands {Pack). 

38. QuERQUEDULA CYANOPTERA (Vieill.). — Anas cyanopterus, 
Vieill. Nouv. Dict. — A. cceruleata, Licht. — A. rafflesi, King, Zool. 
Journ. iv. 97; Jard. and Selb. 111. Orn. n. s. pi. 23. 

Falklands {Pack). 

39. MiCROPTERus ciNEREUs (Gm.). — Anas cinereus, Gm. S. N. 
i. 506. — A. brachyptera, Lath. ; Q. et G. Voy. Uranie, pi. 39. p.- 139. 
— Micropterus brachypterus, Darwin, Zool. Beagle, iii. 156. 

Falkland Islands {Ant. Exp. and Pack). 

" Loggerhead Duck : malė with the bill orange, irides dark brovra, 
feet olive ; female the šame, but thė bill olive." {Pack.) 

Fam. COLYMBID^. 

40. PoDiCEPS CALiPAREus, Lcss. Voy. Coq. Zool. p. 727, Ois. 
pi. 45 ; Darwin, Zool. Beagle, iii. p. 136. 

S. Salvador Bay, E. F {Ant. Exp.) ; Falkland Islands {Pack). 
" \Vhite Grebe : eye bright crimson " {Pack). 

41. PoDicEPs ROLLANDi, Q. et G. Voy. Uranie, Zool. p. 133. 
pi. 36 ; Darwin, Zool. Beagle, iii. p. 137. 

Berkeley Sound, E. F. {Ant. Exp.) ; Falklands {Pack). 

" Comnion Grebe or Black Grebe : eye bright crimson " {Pack). 



390 

Fam. Aptenodytidje. 

42. Aptenodytes pennantii, G. R. Gray, Ann. N. H. xiii. 
p. 315 (1844).— A. patachonica, Shaw ; Gould, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 98. 

Falkland Islands (Abbott and Pack). 

43. Sfheniscus magellanicus (Forst.). — Aptenodytes ma- 
gellanicus, Forst. — A. demersa, Abbott, Ibis, 1860, p. 336 (err.). 

Falkland Islands (Abbott and Pack). 

44. EuDYPTES CHRYSOLOPHUs, Brandt : Abbott in Ibis, 1860, 
p. 338. 

Falkland Islands (Abbott and Pack). 

45. EuDYPTES CHRYSOCOME (Foist.). — AptcHodytcs chrysocome, 
Forst. : Abbott, Ibis, 1860, p. 337. 

Falkland Islands (Ant. Exp., Pack). 

46. Pygosceles ■wagleri. — Pygosceles papua, Wagl. — Apteno- 
dytes papua, Forst.; Abbott, Ibis, 1860, p. 336; Gould, P. Z. S. 
1859, p. 98. 

Falkland Islands (M^is. Brit., Abbott, Pack). 
The name papua generally applied to this bird requires alteration, 
as the bird is not found in New Guiuea I 

Fam. Procellariid.e. 

47. Pelecanoides berardi (Q. et G.). — Procellaria berardi, 
Q. et G. Voy. Uranie, p. 135. pi. 37 ; Gould, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 98. 

Falkland Islands (Q. a7id G., and Abbott). 

48. Thalassidroma nereis, Gould, B. Austr. vii. pi. 64, et 
P. Z. S. 1859, p. 98. 

Falkland Islands (Abbott). One specimen, picked up dead iu 
March 1858. 

49. Procellaria ? 

Capt. Abbott has forwarded eggs of a large species of Petrei froni 
the Falklands, belonging, as Mr. Gould believes, either to P. gigantea 
or P. conspicillata. 

50. Diomedea ?, Gould, P.Z.S. 1859, p. 98. 

Mr. Gould has described the egg of an Albatros sent by Capt. 
Abbott, which he believes to be either of D. fuliginosa or D. mela- 
nophrys. 

Fam. LaridjE. 

51. Lestris antarctica (Less.). — L. catarractes, Q. et G. Voy. 
Uranie, Ois. pi. 38. — Megalestris antarctica, Gould, P.Z.S. 1859, 
p. 98 ; Abbott, Ibis, 1860. 

Falkland Islands (Abbott and Pack). 

52. Larus dominicanus, Licht. Verz. d. Doubl. p. 82 ; Gould, 
P.Z.S. 1859, p. 97. 

Falkland Islands (Abbott and Pack). 



X 



P-H 

cn 

o 
o 




391 

53. Larus scoresbii, Trail, Mem. Wern. Soc. iv. p. 514 (cum 
fig.) 1823. — L. heematorhynchus, King ; Jard. and Selb. 111. Orn. 
pi. 106. 

Falkland Islands (Pack). 

54. Larus roseiventris (Gould). — L. glaucotes, Meyen, Nov. 
Act.1834, p.l 15 (?). — Larus maculipennisy Licht. (?). — Gavia rosei- 
ventris, Gould, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 97. 

Falkland Islands {Abbott and Pack). 

There is no doubt, I think, that Mr. Gould' s type-specimen, now 
in the British Museum, is in immature (or winter) plumage. The 
adult bird in full breeding-dress, of whicli Capt. Pack has forwarded 
some splendid specimens, has a full dark-brown cap, and the whole 
of the white plumage deeply tinged with a most beautiful rose-colour. 
The egg is described by Mr. Gould, 1. c. 

55. Sterna cassinii, Selater. — Sterna meridionalis, Cassin, Zool. 
U. S. Expl. Exp. p. 385, nec Brehm. — Sterna antarctica, Peale, nec 
Lesson, nec Forster. — "Sterna tvilsoni et S. hirundo, ex Am. Merid.," 
auct. 

Falkland Islands (Pack, Abbott). 

This Tern is stated by Mr. Cassin and Mr. Peale to be diiferent 
from S. ivilsoni of the United States. " The voice, size, and general 
habits are so likę those of its northern prototypes, S. arctica and S. 
hirundo, that it requires comparison to be convinced of the specific 
difference. But the intensely scarlet bill, which has not a black 
point likę that of the northern bird, the lighter-coloured mantle, and 
the length of the tarsus destroy their identity." 

Unfortunately both M r. Cassin and Mr. Peale have proposed 
names for this bird which have been previously used in" the šame 
group. 

Fam. Pelecanidje. 

56. Phai,acrocorax carunculatus (Gm.) ; Bp. Consp. ii. 
p. 176. — P. imperialis, King. — P. cirrhatus, G. R. Gray. 

Falkland Islands {Pack, Abbott). 

57. Phalacrocorax magellanicus (Gm.) ; Bp. Consp. ii. 
p. 177. — P- erythrops, King. 

Falkland Islands {Pack, Abbott). 



9. On a New Species of Fish belonging to the Genus 
Pagrus. By Dr. Albert Gunther. 

(Pisces, PI. XI.) 

Pagrus bocagii, Lowe. (PI. XL) 

D. Į^. A. |. L. lat. 65. L. transv. 7/17. 

The greatest depth of the body is below the fourth dorsal spine, 
where it is one-third of the totai length ; the length of the head is 



392 

one-fourth of it. The diameter of the eye equals the width of the 
interorbital space, is one-fourth of the length of the head, and two- 
thirds of that of the snout. The prseorbital is longer than high, and 
higher than the orbit. There are six series of rather narrow scales 
between the prseorbital and the angle of the praeoperculum. Molar 
teeth in two series, — those of the outer series being conical, pointed, 
and much larger than those of the inner series. The third, fourth, 
and fifth dorsal spines are produced, flexible (in immature specimens) ; 
the second and third anai spines of nearly equal length and strength, 
one-third of the length of the head. The pectoral extends on to the 
vertical from the first soft anai ray, and its length is contained three 
and a half times in the totai ; the ventral reaches to the anai fin. 
Silvery, with red, shining golden stripes along the series of scales ; 
a dark-claret spot on the back beneath the fifth, sixth, seventh, and 
eighth dorsal rays, extending on the membrane of the fin ; a smaller 
spot on the upper part of the axil ; the spiuous dorsal, caiidal, anai, 
and ventral fins with the margin blackish. 

Length 9į inches. 

Hab. SeaofLisbon. 

This fish forms a new addition to the European fauna. It has 
been sent to the British Museum by the Rev. R. T. Lovve in a fine 
coUection of fishes made at Lisbon. He proposes to call it after 
Dr. Bocage, of the Lisbon Museum, in case it should prove to be a 
new forto, and writes : — " It grows very large ; I saw one which 
was 2 feet 10 inches long, and was said to weigh more than 161bs. 
Its head was bright red or vermilion. The elongate dorsal spines are 
only a conspicuous character in young exaniples." 



10. Description of a New Entomostracous Crustacean, 

BELONGING TO THE OrDER PhYLLOPODA, FROM SoUTH Au- 

STRALiA. By Dr. Baird, F. L. S., etc. 
(Annulosa, PI. LXXII.) 

ESTHERIA BIRCHII. (PI. LXXII. fig. 1.) 

The animal appears in all respects to resemble that of the Estheria 
yigas, except that the eye is placed on a more prominent pedicle. 
The specimen examined was a female, and full of ova. These were 
disposed all along the body of the parent, were very numerous, and 
presented a very pretty appearance when seen under the microseope. 
They are small, round, and grooved, the grooves running in a cir- 
cular manner likę those of a rifle. 

The shell or carapace is of a greenish colour, of an oval shape, 
and flattened. The umbo is anterior, situated about 2 lines from 
the margin. The dorsal margin slopes slightly down-wards, and is 
dentated on the edge, in consequence of the ridges, with which its 
surface is Strongly niarked, termiuating at the external edge in a 
prolongatioa or tooth. The ventral margin of the carapace is rouuded 





Proc.ZSAnnulosaLIAJi. 



Figie 





-leEstlienabirclin. 2.2a Streptoceplialus didiotomus 3^3c.Daph 



:ma ne"wportn. 



iel į lith 



WT\'est r 



imp 



iruR'" 




Į^ c- i 




Pro c Z S.RadiataAV'Il 




Corallium ]ohnsom 



393 

anteriorly, and terminates posteriorly in one of the strong tooth-like 
prolongations mentioned above. 

The surface of the shell is marked vvith 13 ribs or ridges, which 
near the umbo are slight, but become stronger, well-marked, and 
prominent as they descend. The surface between the ridges is dif- 
ferent from any previously described ; it is rather opake, not polished, 
and presents somewhat the appearance of groimd glass. 

This species is the giant of the family to which it belongs. Of the 
three specimens in the Collection, the largest measures rather more 
than a full inch in length, and about three-fourths of an inch in 
breadth, the other two being slightly smaller, They were sent to the 
British Museum by Sir W. Denison, Governor of Australia, who in 
a letter to Dr. Gray informs him that they were taken " in water- 
holes or lagoons on the plains, on the banks of the Wamoi, a river 
which discharges itself into the Darling, and ultimately by the 
Murray into the sea in South AustraUa." They were coUected by 
Mr. W. Birch, who in a note to the Governor says : — " My attention 
was first drawn to the Bivalves by observing them in motion, appa- 
rently in search of food ; and until a specimen was obtained, I 
was under an impression, from the rapidity of their movements, 
that they were small fishes. Undeceived in this respect, I deter- 
mined to ascertain, if possible, the means by which the moUusk 
progressed. I observed that the serrated part of the shell was down- 
ward and the valves were in constant motion, and that four antennse 
were protruded from the shell, evidently for grasping food. The 
anatomical structure of the animal appeared so much at variance 
with other mollusks, that I preserved the specimens intact. I found 
by experience that if the shells are immersed in tepid water for about 
ten minutes, the animals will be sufficiently developed for minute ob- 
servation." 

In compliance with Sir W. Denison's request that the name of 
the collector " should be commemorated in connexion with the spe- 
cies," I have named it Estheria birchii. 

Magnitude, 1 inch in length, | of an inch in breadth. 

Hab. Pools of fresh water on the banks of Wamoi River, Au- 
straUa. 

Mus. Brit. 



11. Description of a New Coral (Corallium johnsoni) 
FROM Madeira. By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., 

ETC. 

(Radiata, PI. XVIII.) 

Mr. James Yate Johnson, the author of an admirable * Guide to the 
Island of Madeira,' and who has for years beeu studying the natūrai 
productions of that beautiful island for the purpose of preparing a 
Fauna of it, having kindly given me some specimens of Corals from 
thence, I am induced to send the following description of a very in- 



394 

teresting specimen of this hitherto very limited genus to the So- 
ciety. 

CORALLIUM JOHNSONI. (PI. XVIII.) 

Coral branched, subflabelliform. Branches nearly simple, sub- 
parallel, flexuose, with a few very short ascending branchlets seat- 
tered oii the side of the upper surface. Bark yellow, granular, with 
three or four rows of rather eonvex polype-cells on the upper surface 
of the branches, and with the under side smooth and rounded. The 
axis white, striated. 

Hab. Madeira. 

This coral differs from the Red Coral of the Mediteranean and 
of commerce in several important particulars. That coral, which 
generally grows from the under-surface of ledges of rocks in a pen- 
dent position, has the polypes equally scattered on all sides of its 
branches, and thus the animal can obtain food with equal facility on 
all sides of the coral. 

The Madeiran coral, on the contrary, seems to grow in a fan-like 
manner, spreading out horizontally from the rock or other marine 
body to which it is attached ; and it has the animal placed on each 
side of the upper surface of the stem and branches, as though the 
animal could only obtain nourishment on that part of the coral which 
is exposed to the light, or at least is parallel with the surface of the 
sea. 

This is the case with many, indeed I may say with all the corals 
which grow in this expanded, fan-like manner. 

There is a species of coral which grows, and has the animal like- 
wise distributed in the šame manner, which is found in the seas near 
the Sandwich Islands, and has hence been called Corallium secun- 
dum by Mr. Dana, but it is very different from the species here de- 
scribed. The Madeiran coral is easily distinguished from that de- 
scribed by Mr. Dana by the colour of its bark and axes, and the thick, 
elongated, subsimple, subparallel branches. 

Secondly, this Madeiran coral appears to be normally of a white 
colour, while the Mediterranean coral is of a bright crimson-red, and 
has hence been called Corallium rubrum. The latter is sometimes 
bleached white, or becomes so from some defect or malady in the 
animal : it is rarely found naturally white, or more generally with 
some portion of the coral white. I have never seen it naturally of 
this colour, but I have seen some specimens with white portions ; and 
I have been iuformed that these portions have been bleached by the 
sudden apphcation of heat or some other process. The Madeiran 
coral, on the contrary, seems to be always white. 

The "\Vhite Coral" of commerce is a species of Caryophyllia 
of Lamarck . 

If this coral could be obtained in any quantity from Madeira, it 
would be a beautiful object for jewellers, and I have no doubt fetch 
a good price. 






^ 




395 

12. On THE Genus Manouria and its Affinities. 
By Dr. John Edward Gray, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., etc. 

(Reptilia, PI. XXXI.) 

In the • Proceedings ' of this Society for 1852, p. 133, I described, 
and in the ąuarto Catalogue of the ' Shield Eeptiles in the Collec- 
tion of the British Museum ' I described at greater length and figured, 
the imperfect shield of a Tortoise which had long been in the posses- 
sion of the Society, under the name oi Manouriafusca. 

Dr. Cantor, in his ' Catalogue of the Reptiles of the Malayan 
Peninsula,' describes a specimen of the šame Tortoise under the name 
of Geoemyda spinosa, considering it as the adult of that curious and 
interesting species, and most unjustifiably copies my description of 
the animal of that Tortoise as that of the animal belonging to the 
shell which he was describing. 

Dr. Cantor sent the specimen here referred to, to the East India 
Company, and it has passed from them into the Collection of the 
British Museum, so that there can be no doubt about the identity 
of the two animals. 

Mr. Le Gonte, in the ' Proceedings of the Academy of Natūrai 
Sciences of Philadelphia ' for October 1859, vol. vii. p. 187, describes 
a Tortoise from Java under the name of Teleopus luxatus, which 
evidently belongs to the šame genus, and is probably the šame spe- 
cies which I had previously described and figured under the name 
oi Manouria fusca. 

When I first described the genus from a shell in a very imperfect 
condition, I referred it to the family EmydidcB, on account of its 
" depressed form and the divided caudal plate." 

Dr. Cantor, in the Catalogue above quoted, not only refers it to 
that family, but considers it a species of the genus Geoemyda, and 
describes the animal as having the feet of that genus, which are 
provided with strong, separate toes. 

Mr. Le Gonte seems to have had a perfect animal, for he de- 
scribes the feet thus:— "Toes and claws 5-5; fore-claw long and 
rather sharp : hind-feet clavate ; claws nearly globular, the inner 
one wide and flat, the edge sharp- edged : " yet he places the genus 
Teleopus, in his arrangement pubUshed in the šame volume of the 
' Philadelphia Proceedings,' between Platysternon and Lutremys with 
the true Emydes, observing that " it possesses a strong mixture of 
the characters of this family with those of the next." 

The British Museum has just acąuired from Mr. Gould a very 
fine and perfect specimen of the genus, which he received with a 
series of skins of Kangaroos and other Australian mammaha and 
reptiles from AustraUa, thus enabling me to lay before the Society a 
completion of the character of the genus before estabhshed from the 
examiuation of an imperfect specimen of the shell alone, to correct 
the position of the genus in the order, and to show the geographical 
arrangement of the single species on which it is founded. 

The genus Manouria is a typical Land Tortoise {Testudinidce), 
which verifies the fact stated by Dr. Cantor, that it is " found on 



396 

the great hill at Pinang at a distance from water." Likę the other 
genera of that family, it has very short toes on both the hind and 
fore feet, which are all united together into a club-like foot, with only 
the claws separate, — very unhke the distinct, more or less webbed 
toes of the Freshwater Tortoises or Emydidce, with which it has been 
hitherto united. Its fore-feet are covered with very large, thick, 
triangular scales, hke the feet of the genus Kinixys ; and it has the 
spur-hke conical scale, situated between the hinder thigh and the 
base of the tail, which is found in several genera of this family. 

It is easily known from all the other genera of the Emydidce, and 
from the more terrestrial genera of the family, by the small size and 
position of the pectoral platės and the divided caudal plate. 

The pectoral platės in some genera of the Freshwater Tortoises, as 
in Kinosternon and Sternotherus, are smaller than the other platės, 
and narrowed on the inner edge ; but I do not know of any genus 
where they are reduced to such a small size and removed so far towards 
the outer edge of the sternum as in the one under consideration. 

The separation of the caudal platės, which is universal in all the 
Freshwater Tortoises and Marine Turtles which have come under my 
examination, is not found in any other genus of Land Tortoises that 
I am aware of : but in several species of the true Testudines there is 
a more or less distinct groove, showing where the platės are united ; 
and in Manouria they are quite separate. 

The head is covered with symmetrical small shields. The jaws are 
crenulated on the edge, -vvithout any distinct sharp hook at the top 
of the upper one. The neck is covered with small granular scales. 
The fore-feet are depressed, club-shaped, covered with large, thick, 
triangular, shai-p-tipped shields, forming five rather irregular rows 
on the front or upper surface. The outer side of the under surface 
and the soles of the fore-feet are covered with large flattened platės. 
The fore-claws are five in number, large, thick, conical, acute, and 
nearly of an equal size, the outer one being rather the smallest. The 
hind-feet are large, with four very large, strong, conical, acute claws, 
the outer one on each foot being rather smaller than the others, 
which are all of equal size. The soles of the hind-feet are covered 
with large unequal-sized scales — those on the hinder edge being 
largest, thick, conical, trihedral, and prominent. 

On each side of the hinder part of the body, near the tail, is a group 
of large triangular scales, — the hindermost, nearest the base of the 
tail, being very large, conical, and prominent, forming a large spur. 

Tail short, conical, with three rows of flat shields above, and three 
or four rows of squarer, smaller ones beueath. 

The Manouria fusca appears to inhabit Piuang, where Dr. Cantor 
says it is " found on the great hill at Pinang at a distance from water ;" 
also Java, as I cannot discover from Mr. Le Conte's description that 
there is any specific difference between his TeJeopus luxatus and my 
species from Pinang ; and likewise Australia, for the specimen which 
\ve have received from Mr. Gould is marked the " Murray River 
Tortoise," and it came with a coUection of the skins of mammalia 
and reptiles vvhich are all Australian. There is very little difference 



397 

between the three specimens of this Tortoise which we have in the 
British Museum Collection, two of them from Pinang and the other 
from Austrnlia. They vary a little in the size and form of the pec- 
toral platės, and in the size of the axillary and inguinal platės, but 
not more than is the case with other Tortoises of the sanie species. 



13. Descriptions of Seventeen New Species of Marine 
Shells, from the Sandwich Isi.ands, in the Collec- 
tion OF HUGH CUMING. By W. H. PeASE. 

1. VlTULARIA SANDWICENSIS, PeaSC. 

Shell fusiformly ovate, rather thin, white, with about three trans- 
verse rows of brown spots on varices ; whorls five, sharply angulated, 
body-whorl angulated just below the suture; varices six, slightly 
oblique, wrinkled; aperture white, oblong-ovate, outer lip denticu- 
lated within ; columella slightly arched ; canal short. 

2. Ranella producta, Pease. 

Shell solid, small, depressly pyramidal, sublanceolate, ribbed lon- 
gitudinally, ribs overlapping at the suturės, and cancellated by trans- 
verse granulose ridges, lateral varices compressed, arranged likę the 
ribs by overlapping ; aperture small, oval, coarsely lyrate within ; 
canal short, recurved ; colour chalky-white. 

3. Ranella luteostoma, Pease. 

Shell ponderous, solid, ovately turreted, varices prominent, nodu- 
lous and canaliculated ; spire cousisting of about six angulated whorls, 
girdled with a close series of granular belts, the upper and lower 
generally the most prominent, and the angle traversed by a row of 
bipartite nodules, which latter are continued on the upper third of 
the body-whorl ; body-whorl angulated above, beaded likę the spire, 
and beneath the bipartite nodules are alteruate series of granular 
belts and obsolete raised lines, four rows of the former and five of the 
latter ; columella arched, closely wrinkled, wrinkles more distant and 
larger at the extremities ; outer lip much thickened, flat and coarsely 
denticulated within ; aperture oval, canaliculated at both extremities ; 
colour pale-yellow, variegated wifh more or less distinct transverse 
articulated brown lines, lips yellow passing into white within the 
throat, denticulations and the upper and lower wrinkles on the colu- 
mella white. 

4. Distorsio pusilla, Pease. 

Shell solid, oblong ovate, gibbous, somewhat distorted, four or five 
varices ; whorls beatifully latticed, with rather coarse granular raised 
ridges and fine microscopic spirai strise ; aperture small, narrow ; 
outer lip thick, strongly dentated on inner edge and sinuated above ; 
columella deeply excavated and plicately toothed ; canal short. 

Only a single specimen has been found, too much faded to deter- 
mine its colour. It is pale yellow, with faint traces of brown. 



398 

5. CoNUs NEGLECTUS, Pcase. 

Shell solid, slightly swollen above, orange-brown, girdled with a 
white beit on the raiddle and an obsolete one at the superior angle, 
base purple-black ; surface faintly decussately striated, lower balf 
with small spirai ridges ; spire depressed, its profile very slightly 
convex ; aperture narrow and straight, interior white, tinged with 
orange on the edge, and two large deep-purple spots within ; epi- 
dermis thick, opake, velvety, dusky or fulvous brown. 

7 Y^ 6. CoNUS FUSiFORMis, Peasc. 

..jL>'^ Shell small, fusiform, attenuated at both ends, closely and regu- 

larly grooved spirally, and reticulated by fine irregular longitudina 
striae ; spire acuminate, sharp ; whorls encircled by two granulose 
ridges, suturės marginated ; aperture narrow, rather more than half 
the length of the shell ; colour dark chocolate-browu, with a row of 
irregular white spots on upper edge, margiu of the suturės light 
yellowish-brown. 

1^ 7. FOSSAR MULTICOSTATUS, PeasB. 

I?'' Shell small, thin, globose, of a chalky-white colour, spire small, 

acute, consisting of three or four moderately convex whorls separated 
by a linear impressed suture ; surface ornamented with a nearly 
uniform series of small, rrfther sharp spirai ridges, and the interstices 
decussately striated with fine raised lines, of which the spirai are 
most developed, periphery of the lašt whorl rounded and narrowly 
umbilicated ; columella slightly obliąue, scarcely arched, covered with 
a thin callous deposit and slightly sinuous at the base ; aperture large, 
subcircular, lip thin, crenulated by the extemal spirai ridges. 

■^ 8. TURRTS MONILIFERA, PeaSC. 

Shell fusiform, turreted, light brown ; vvhorls numerous, encircled 
with a row of semitransparent slightly oblong tubercles, disposed in 
a somewhat imbricated manner, with a prominent keel between and 
a lighter one just below the rows of tubercles, interstices coucave, 
ornamented with raised strife, and crossed by oblique lines, lašt 
whorl encircled by raised striae, which are most prominent on upper 
part ; aperture ovate ; canal rather long, slightly recurved. 

9. Strombus cancellatus, Pease. 

Shell solid, abbreviate, some\vhat fusiformly ovate ; spire short, 
acute ; whorls seven or eight, subangulated above, latticed with lon- 
gitudinal ribs (or ridges) and spirai lines, margined next the suturės, 
about three varices to each whorl ; suturės well impressed, lašt whorl 
irregularly verrucose on the back at the upper part, and latticed 
likę the spire ; outer lip thin, slightly thickened behind ; columella 
strongly callused and closely wrinkled throughout ; aperture narrow, 
contracted, lyrate and granulose within. 

AU the specimens found of this species have had the outer lip 
fractured and repaired. The nearest allied species is S. htEmastoma 
(Sow.). 



399 

10. Amathina bicarinata, Pease. 

Shell thin, subpellucid, triangularly ovate, contracted posteriorly ; 
colour vitreous-white ; traversed by longitudinal, diverging, irregular- 
sized ribs, two of which are more prominent than the others, giving 
the shell a somewhat bicarkiated appearance, and crossed by fine, close, 
concentric lines of growth ; spire consisting of one evolution, recurved 
laterally and projecting beyond the posterior margiu of the shell ; 
aperture oval, edges smooth; epidermis thin, membranaceous, covering 
the entire shell. 

11. CORALLIOBIA CANCELLATA, Pease. 

Shell small, rather solid, depressly ovate, white ; spire concealed by 
the upper termination of the outer lip ; surface coarsely latticed with 
longitudinal and transverse ridges, the former disposed so as to give 
the surface an imbricated appearance ; columella smooth, very slightly 
arched, and attenuated below; outer Up widely dilated ; aperture large, 
estending the \Thole length of the shell. 

A singular species, resembling somewhat a minute Concholepas, and 
allied to R. madreporarum (Sow.). Only a single dead specimen 
found. 

12. Rhizochilus exaratus, Pease. Ą ?>^ 

Shell abbreviately ovate, deeply umbilicated ; spire short, acute, 
less than one-half the length of the shell ; vrhorls about six, convex, 
subangulated, the lašt large and gibbous, encircled with small, close, 
irregular, minutely scaled ridges and longitudinal ribs, ribs slightly 
oblique and becoming obsolete or altogether wanting on body-whorl ; 
aperture wide, semicircular, finely and closely lyrate within ; outer 
lip thin ; inner lip produced so as to form an even surface with the 
outer lip, smooth and slightly arched ; canal very short and slightly 
recurved ; colour dirty-white. 

13. COLTJMBELLA PELLUCIDA, PeaSe. 

Shell elongate-oval, turreted, thin, pellucid, smooth, shining ; spire 
prominent, consisting of six or seven volutions ; apex obtuse ; whorls 
smooth, plano-convex, lašt whorl but slightly swollen, and furnished 
with close obliąuely transverse impressed strise on the basai half ; su- 
ture impressed, and margined below with a fine spirai impressed line ; 
aperture about one-half the length of the shell, oblong oval, slightly 
effuse above ; outer lip simple ; columella smooth, slightly arched ; 
whitish hom-colour ; lašt whorl omamented with one or two rows 
of oblong brown spots and an opake white spot, intermediate rows 
extending to and encircling the lower part of the upper whorls near 
the suture. 

14. COLUMBELLA LINEATA, Pcase. 

Shell small, solid, fusiform, turreted, whitish or variously marked 
with reddish brown ; spire acute ; whorls plano-convex, smooth, the 
lašt somewhat ventricose, and spirally striated at the base ; canal 
produced ; suturės faintly impressed ; outer hp thickened by a stout 



400 

outer varix, and dentated within ; columella smooth, strongly arched ; 
aperture small, tortuous. 

15. SCALARIA MILLECOSTATA, Pease. 

Shell small, pyramidal, white, thin ; whorls niue, contiguou3, 
rapidly enlarging, rounded, the lašt one ventricose and perforated at 
the base ; varices numerous, crowded, appearing likę raised lines ; 
suturės deeply impressed ; aperture rounded. 

16. ScALARiA FUCATA, Pease. 

Shell elongate, imperforate, vvhite, with a spirai brovvn band on 
the periphery of the whorls ; whorls 8-9, rounded, separated and 
closely decussately striated -vvith fine raised lines ; varices 7-S, distant, 
compressed. rather large, coutinuous and toothed above ; aperture ab- 
breviately oval. 

T?, r" 17. CiRSOTREMA ATTENUATUM, Pease. 

iCį ^l' Shell small, elongate, solid, imperforate, slightly distorted ; spira 
obtuse ; whorls plano-convex, nodulous at the suture, encircled with 
fine, close spirai lines, upper whorls longitudinally ribbed ; varices 
few, irregular, suture faintly impressed ; outer lip thickened by an 
external varix ; aperture oval. 

14. Review of the Genus Tenagodus, Guettard. . 
By Otto a. L. Morch of Copenhagen. 

■Wonn-tubes, with a branchial slit, were figured by Aldrovandus, 
Buonanni, Rumphius, and Argenville ; but this character, either 
overlooked or regarded as accidental, was first described by the ac- 
eurate Lister in his 'Historia Conchyliorum,' pi. 548. fig. 2 : " Ver- 
miculus fissura ąuadam secundum volutas insignitus." A porous sht 
was first described by Linnfeus, although Rumphius first figured 
the šame species. Guettard, 1776*, in his, for the time, admirable 
treatise on ' Worm-tubes,' first recognized the generic value of the 
slit — a view adopted by Bruguiėre, Lamarek, and most subsequent 
authors, under the new name Siliquaria, preoccupied by Forskal for 
a genus of plants. 

Lamarek supposed Tenagodus to belong to the Annelides. Blain- 
ville brought it first, guided by conchological reasons, to the ISIoUusca, 
close to Vermetus ; but erroneously imagiaed, from the median posi- 
tion of the branchial slit, that it'had affinities vvith the animal of 
Fissurella. 

In the year 1829 Audouinf set the question respecting the mol- 
luscous uature of the genus at ręst ; but it was first in 1836 that Phi- 
lippi, in his ' Enumeratio,' gavę a clear description and figure of the 
animal and its operculum. 

Montfort, too, has given some account of the animal ; but one part 

* Guettard arranged the Tenagodus, figured by Davila, pi. 21. f. L, in the genus 
Tulasodes, because he regarded the septa more important than the pores. 

t Audouin, Societe Philomatiąue, 1829 ; Annales des Sciences, 1829 ; et Rang, 
Manuel, p. 188. 



401 

of his description is taken from an Annelide, and the other part is 
fouiuled on a fragment of a shell found on the deck after a storm in 
the Bornean sea — very likely the lanthina exigua, which, Hke SiJi- 
ąuarius, has a deep notch in the lip, and is of about the šame dia- 
meter as the specimen figured : " II flotte et nage dans la mer et ii 
enfle son manteau en forme de voile." 

Dr. Gray has formed for the genus a section Siliąuarina m the 

family Vermetidce. It seeras to me to have the šame relation to 

Vermetus as Haliotis to Stomax and Belphinula. Tenagodus diifers 

principally from Vermetus in the operculum, which is spirai Uke that 

of Torinia, composed of a spirai band ciliated at the margin, formin» 

a eyhnder or eone the axis of which is filled up by a series of spirai 

radiating cells, and which in the lašt whorl looks likę a Robidina or 

Semen medieaginis (subgenus Siliquarms). In Siliquaria lactea, 

Lam., the axis is filled up with transverse parallel septa without 

radiating cells (subgeniis Pyxipoma, Morch). The marginai spirai 

band appears composed of radiating bristles, united at their base by 

corneous matter, only leaving the points free. Dr. Chenu has figured 

(in his 'Manual,' p. 321, f. 2308*) an operculum quite different 

from those I hare seen, and which, if correct, mušt belong to a distinct 

genus, perhaps to the typical Tenagodi. The foetal shell is wanting 

in all the specimens I have seen, except in Siliquaria lactea, where it 

has the form of AmpuUaria, the under part of the outer lip beino- 

produced, and of a brown colour. Chemnitz has described the 

young shell as Helix incisa, and Brocchi as Serpula ammonoides. 

Sowerby, in his ' Genera,' first showed the real nature of the former, 

and Bronn of the latter. In the subgenus Siliquarius the surface 

of the shell is curiously fissured transversely in a manner I do not re- 

collect to have seen in any other shell. I am very much inclined to 

regard this outer layer as a calcareous epidermis, likę that of Lucina 

pennsyhanica, L. tivela, and Margaritifera. In Siliqnarius lacteus 

this layer is very little developed. The aperture is round and simple 

in all the specimens I have seen. Martini has figured (pi. 2. fig. 13 B) 

a species with the outer lip strongly dentated. Perhaps it is Sipho- 

nium nebulosum, Dillwyn, with rubbed spines, The slit is wanting in 

some species in the first whorls ; in all it becomes closed more or less 

with age. In the subgenus Fyxipoma it is closed by a lamella, hut 

not filled up outside. 

In the fossil species Siliąuaria dubia, Defr., and S. Urna, Lam., 
the slit is very short likę that of Pleurotoma ; in the fossil genus 
Agathirses it appears to be different. 

The typical Tenagodi seem, according to Rumphius, to live ou 
rocks and corals. The subgenus SiUquarius Hves always in sponges 
likę Fulsella. The only affixed species is the fossil 5. floriną, 
Defr., figured by Dr. Chenu on Cerithium gigantenm ; perhaps it 
mušt form a new genus, if not the young of Agathirses, Montfort. 

Tenagodus is only found in tropical seas (East and West Indies) ; 
Siliquarius is subtropical. Pyxipoma is found in Australia, the 
West Indies, and perhaps at the Cape of Good Hoj)e. 
* Perhaps copied from Adams's ' Genera.' 
No. 442. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



402 

The longest species is found in the Mediterranean ; the most pon- 
derous at Port Essington (Australia) . 

DESCRIPTIONES SPECIERUM. 
Tenagodus, Guettard, Mem. 1774, p. 128. 

T. in gyris ohliquis contorta, substantia dura IcBviuscula nitida, 
plerumque sųamifera, striis incrementi simplicibus ; apertura 
postice elongata. Animal et operculum ignota. 

If the figure of the auimal of Audouin (^Chenu, 111. et Lecons) is 
represented of the natūrai size, it belongs probably to this genus, as 
Rang asserts the specimeu was brought from the East Indies by Dr. 
Busseuil of the frigate ' Thetis.' The knovvu species of the follow- 
ing section, Siliquarius, from the East Indies, are all of a compara- 
tively small size. Perhaps it may be the Tenagodus gigas, Lesson, 
brought from the Moluccas by ' la Coquille ' about the šame year. I 
suppose that Rumphius describes the operculum in the following 
passage : " Solen anguinus A'au binnen met diergeylk een slymerig 
Deer, en een getand Mytertye voor in den mond." I suppose that 
the cilia of the operculum are meant by "getand ;" but we canuot de- 
pend much ou the text of Rumphius, it having been \vritten originally 
in Latiu, and translated after the death of the author into the Dutch 
language. 

1. Tenagodus anguinus, (Serpula) Linn. 1758. 
a. Testą semiadulta, typica. 

Solen anguinus, Rumph. t. 41. f. H. 

Serpula anguina, Liun. S. N. ed. 10. p. 700, excl. var. (i.