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01 ft ot 

Mrs, L- B. Tlnfl 









^ an Aumhio^fQphimJ CJxtfMt^r 


IN P' iiHtS 

D, Ar- 

. coitfAi«r 




Including an Auiobtographkal Chapter 




■ , ' ' ' * ' * X 



J $98. 




iti rfioo^niT trtlcrs lor puhlirnlinn I hnvr hfc*n 
larRfly j^uidcd bv iVir wish to illu^rral^ my fflthcr's 

ol wortc, that n hxittiry ot thi' m;in could luit btr writ- 
Tcri ivithnut fnlbwinp cinsciy the career of the nulhor 
Thus i: corner .ibvHil lli.ii the chief [ nf the book 
fall» Liitti di^iilcrs vrhoM titles corrc«podij to Ihe 
names of hi^ books- 
lit ^rruuging the letters ] h^vc adhered as I^ir a» 
|>06sJblelo dironolngical scctuotuxr. Uit the character 
add vuiictv o( hbi researches make a iiri<nl.v chranu- 
hiffica] <»rdeir an impuwtihilily. tt nus his hnbit i» 
work m*>rc nr Irs?; sinrnhnnE^nij^Iy ax ftcvcml Mil>jert)i- 
F-Kj>rrinicnial work nas aiivii carried on bs a refresh- 
mmt or viiriciy. vhilc bcx^ki entailinj; reasoning and 
the iDanthjilUne of lar^fe bo<JLc^ of ficts ircrc btinK 
nrittcn. Mofcover, cnaiiy of hj6 icfcL^jrchcs were 
allonud to drop. aii<] only rt^timed aUer an jiitcrval o£ 
yrcaJH^ Th;is u rigidly t:hrt3ntdofr^t:;d Nt-rieMil Itilten* 
wouM present a p.achwitrk (rf snhjcrts, mch (ti which 
wrnild be di^ictill lo follow* The Table of Contents 
will show III what way I havcaitiTupted to avoid this 

In printing th«- Irttcrs I have followed (except In n 



few CABcsi ihc iisu:»l i>lnn of InJIcaiing ilicc:cUCciiCC (A 
vmiMioi)!! ur ioMiitiOLi^. M>' father'^ Icitcia^ ^ivc fre- 
quent cvidciKi: of having been wnltco wlitn he wai 
tirc4 or hurrkd, and thc^^ bear the morkfi ul thU cJTb I 
cumsUiiicc^ In wriling to a friend, or lo one of btt 
laiLLiIj', Uv lrt-ijLiciRJ>' uniillcd Ihc ailicicv: lUvsc b.ivi: 
be<in inserted wilhoni ihr usmilI indinition^ cKccpc in 
a ffw i»4tancc» ►»' i'. v<»l, i. p, r^jf, wIhtc it i» ol *.pr- 
ciid inicrt*l to preserve intuct the hi^rricd character 
oi the letter. Other small word&i £ucli a«^/iM&C'. 
hii\t been inst-'tltd iistuilly withiti bracked. T have 
iKbt foHfiivi'd ibr originals ^h rc^|>nr<U ttie tiitcUiii^ of 
nanic-«, the tjsc r>1 capil^t^ or in ihe mailer of piinctu- 
aiion^ My fathrr iimiiTlinrd nmny wor<is in his let- 
tera: ihene huve not always btcn ^ven in iKiUc^, — 
a rpndcrin^ which wauH unf^iirly cxnggcratc ihcir 

The Diary or Pocket'lyiok. frtwu which qvoiulionii 
Dcciir ill the EiilUjwiii^ p**!^^^' ^*^ been *ti val je an Kiip^ 
plying a franK^-work of fads ro^ind which IcUcrs may 
be;;nn:pfd. It is iinforiiinnTrU- uritlen with ^'reat 
brrvity. tht hiM^iry ol n year btjnj; compressed ntui a 
pngeorle?«; nnd rontairm b'nlr nirtrr Thaa fhr dares 
of The prindpnl events of his lifo, rorjeihf r wuh enTrioa 
ns to hh work, and ai io tht' diization of hi» ninrc 
>cnou!i iUnc»e«, Me nrely dated hi» kuen, i^ that 
but for tht IViari' it ucxild hax'c been all but impowi- 
ble to imraveL the liistory id his books, ft has alto 
enabled me t<» assign dates to mat^y leltcrs whicb 
WL^ild othei vviitc have beer slioin of half their vabie. 

Ot leltent addle^>cd to my father L have nut ntadc 
much n«. It was hi» cuMom to file nil 1ctlcr<i re- 
ceived, and when his slender slock of riles*" spits" as 
Uf- called them) n-as eiihausted, be woidd bnm thu let* 
tcr» of wvcrai! year*, in order that he might make um; 


ot IItg liberated " »jitU/' ThiK praccsf^, cnrricd on lor 
j*ai>, dcslroycd iicarh all hltcr> rcoeivc-d bHorc i*J6j. 
Alter likai datr lie a^ib jitrsiiiidf^d ii> kt-cp ih<' ninnc 
■lomUii^ Ictlcibi lIihI Uiru: are prcM-r^'ud in an oc- 

I huvc^ifrcmpfcd la give. \n Chapter III., *on>c ac- 
count oi his mnnnr.f nf uorkinj;. During ^'^^ I'l&l 
H^hf years of hk» Uk I aacdl a» bis aFAisUiil. .^Jid tiiuh 
had an oppurt\inilj Dl knowtn^ ^nmcthiiig oi hib hal>- 

I have tcctHved nnw-h tiHii fnim my Jriendftin ihc 
oatmtt*ii my work- Tosnmc I am indnhtod fr>r rcm- 
iniscGoccs ot my (aihi-r loutiirfs lor informrLtkm. crit- 
Icisms and :idvicr Tf> all Thc*st kind cufKljiilnrt I 
gbdtv acknowledge my indcbtcdncvt. The names of 
Aocnc occur in c<>micctitjn with their contribi-ilions- but 
I do U'jI immc tho^c to wWn I am indebted i'.»r criti- 
Cwns or correct ioniL, b«;cau%e 1 should wUh tn be^tr 
akmc the Tond i>l m^ f^hurt-uimm;;}^, rather (h^n ui It-l 
anv t>i il tail oji tlMjsr whci li.ivc done their br^l To 
li)cMca it- 

II will ht. Kvn how lar^ijy I am indebied In Sir 
Jft^eph Hooker for ihc^ rnean^ ui illusir^Lrin^ my 
faiher"* life. The render* <if these pages will, I think, 
be grntehil to Sir Joseph 1o» the rnrr with uhirh he 
ban pre*en-ecJ hin valuable collection of Irirers, and I 
vhotild wi*h lo ndd my acknowledgment of the j<eo- 
croHty njth ulitch he h-it placed il nC my di^pntaln 
And fi>r the kindly cricouragcnicnt ^i\en ihrnu^bouL 
my work. 

To Mr. Huxley I f>wc a debt <>l thanks, nol i»nly 
for much kind help, but lt>r hi* willing cumplintKe 
with mv ncniiest thai he should conlribnlc a ch^tpter 
im the rrcc])tion ai the • Ohffin of Species." 

Kinally, It i« a pl&mirc tu acknowled^^ tlic cactr- 



Icsy of ihcpiiblishcrsof ihc ■ Century Mn|;:A£inc ' who 
have freely giver me the use of (heir illuitraiionii. To 
Mcwrt. M^ull and Fox and Mcmrs. EIIloII and Fry I 
am also indebted for their kindnc^K in Allowijkg mc the 
uno itl lepjoductjoiis of ihcir pliotogr.tptis. 

Francis Darvtw. 

Oilofirr. t6l7. 


(HAPTm P*'^* 

1, — The Darwin Family ' 

n. — AUTOBIDGBAFIIV ......■-' 35 

III. — Rehimscences .,,....,. B7 


IV.^Caubbxdcf. Li ff— 1828-1831 i3q 

V. — The Appoistmext to the 'Deacle' — 1831 . ^ ^ 160 
VL— The Vovaue— 1931-1&36 ....... H)i 

VIL — LoflPON AND CAHUBIDCE— 1836-1843 243 

Vin. — KrLiLiioN 274 

IX. — Life at Down— 1641-1854 287 

X.— The Gbowth of the 'Origin of Spfcies' .363 

X[. — The Growth of the "Origin or Species' — Letters — 

18J3-1856 380 

XlL — The Unfinished Book— May 1856-JUNE 1858. , . 42b 
XIIL — The Writing of the 'Origin of Species'- June 18, 

j8sS-Nov. i85g 47a 

XIV. — Professor Hoxlev on the Reception of the 'Origi> 

or Species' ......... sjj 




Chakles Dakwen" IN" 1S74 (?). Fkom tke 'Centukv Macaztke-' 

The photocbaph by Captain L. Dakwin, R. E, . Fnmtiipine. 
The Hqusk at Down. Fbom the 'Centukv Magazink' Kice p, 87 
The Study at Down. Feoh the "Century Magazine' . . 101 
The Beagle laih asiiore .-,,,... 160 




Thi rtriirtt rcconii &f ihc family show ihe I>flr-vji.i> W 
have been lubataoiial ycfimcn rcMVlmK "n the mirthtrti V^r- 
dcr% of Uno*tn»hirc, r\inv ty Vi>rkhhifi'. The nann; m now 
very imu«uAl &n KnifUntl. but [ bctievc IhJit it U not unknown 
In tlir McifthlHUirhofHl uf Slicffitld and in LuncishiK. U<>»ri 
Lu thv jv^ii iboo ia« TiTid the iiAdic ^(jcIi in it vi^riciy of iriyi 
'^Dvr«<(U, Ddjwcn, Dirwynn<, Ac- It i« putBible, therefore. 
ihM the Cubity onKniied ai somt unknove iIjtc frtim York- 
■Mrc Cunbcrlaad, or Ocrbyihirc!, whvru Dcrwcnt ^xvunt ■« 
thctiaoMofa river. 

TUe ftnX ^iimlot of wliom wc know wu one Wlllum 
Dtfrnn, Mho tivrd, aIiouc ilic st^ii 1500, j( Maiton. ocAt 
Giiaiborough. IIh ^«di grandton, KuchuiO Daiwyrj. in- 
betiird bn<l M Marion nnd d«cwhvrr, and in hn ivilL, <1iUd 
tJJ4."bcqurtith<'d rhc 4iitn of ^ 4J. loHnrdtthctctlyQgcup 
of Iht QUpceilc'fi Majcinir's armct over the riucati:' (rhoir) 
Aoon in th< pwisJieclmichtf of M*noii/'* 

Tb« eon ol thin RkIimiJ, aamcd WOliuin Danvia, and 

" Wt tmt ■ llmwinlte ^ ih«te tvAtt «taibvEi of Hh ihviily ia ■«• 
*ai«icM tli««)^Uii UriouLn, m«d« I7 ili< imI UkuHm £«bt*1<»< 
'VhL CslweT Cbwvi- 


docribed as ''g«ntit[ii:Ln.".ippcan lo have been * tuocct^ful 
man. Whil^ rtuininj Xiif ntur'entrnl bnd at Ma-rion. he m-- 
4UIKCI throii)th hU wtEc^uti^-tiy ]iuri:h:uc ah ctUic Jt Ckil' 
m, in Ihc pArith o( Sj^nEon, near Kiiion Lindaey, and 
)t«l hi* re^idcQCr Ih^rbV' This <riUt< rrmainrri in (he fjimiTy 
down to thr year i^fl* A miITuj;** wiili thirit wall*, some 
Fdh'i^ftndi imd olifVcos, nnw alone shnw Lvh<a' tht "' OlJ 
HiU" once HQ'jfl/^nd i fidd b Mill locally known ja ikff 
" Ojrwm Clurjl^,'^ Troti) bf itiK subject to chirac m U\<ms 
uF Uic I'U^t {j^ MiEtijn. WiUiAia Ujt^vir man. it least in 
pjitUhjve t>A'bd hit rise in lUnooio bisipiJointfocnT in rfii^ 
bf Jiinc»rjv TO thr pod of Vcoman of ihr Rnyal Armnury of 
Grtcrnrift Tho^rftw apitcars lo h*ve liccn worth onty ^^jj 
ft yca^ d'Ad ihcthitin were ^iol>ab]y olmoit nomimLl ; he 
held t^'poit d<jwu to hi> death during the Civil Wars, 
.'.'^hcfjct Ih^^l thbWillijtin wa»* royal «r* am may ctplain 
•trj hii non, nlno namrd WillUm, served when almoat a boy 
for the King- as '■ Capiain-Lieiiienflftl ■ in Sir WiHlam FV?- 
ham's troop of horstf. On rhc partial di^pf r*ion of iht trtynt 
ftmiiirH, and ihc relrrar of the rnnjiimlvr ici ^iJutLinJ, the 
hoy'A tKiaic^ wtrc tpfqae^Erjtod by the E^arliameEiU buE Lhey 
■crv tedcemeJ on hi* ipigaiii^ (he Solemn League and Cove* 
nauf, and on hi^ p^T^^jE * fine which nin*f hnx^ «nirk hi» 
linnn'^c-a *rvcrrlj ; for in a prTirirtn rn rhnrtfi 11. he speaks 
nf his nlmoal srEer nitn from hii>ing adhered to the tuyaX 

DujLLic lilt Common wealth. VVflliam Purk^'in btrcaine A 
LiirTEiiler ul i.iiiLu![j''i Inn, jind (hibCirrJuniFttm^c (iiotiftbly led 
lo his marriage wlih the diuiihicr o[ Ewmus Eftcle, scrj«int- 
*l-Inw ; hcnci- hii*on. F-fiimm Harwifi, ihc Pi 
derived hi* Chrifltinn n.imr He iiliimBtoly beramcRi 
ot the city oif Lincoln. 

The eldm ton of the Rccotder. aptin called Wilh»m, w«t 
hofn in 1655, and nurrird thr hritew of Robert \S^arin|;, * 
member of a fiood Staffordihire famUy. This lady inherited 
from the family cjf l^iwll*, or UiHtelle*^ ihe manor atn\ hall 
of tJiton, neai Ncwaik. whith hoii lemainvii cvvi tJace m ibe 



him as a gooil- looking ^un^ Dum m 2 iali'bMtofttLd wi^. 

Thii thiTiJ William hjvtl l»o Mn», WiHuiD, Aod Robert who 
wnt cdiirifpf] ftfi Ji hftfrisicr. Thr Clirathum prc»|icrTv was 
left to WiUinnijbiuon ihp fpfminnlion of hia Um- in drti'jthttTH 
r«%fned to tht" yoLingct bfoThtr, who had rerriiTrt KUton, 
Ua bM muUivr^ dcAih Kubi^rt ^;ivtf up hin [>rof«i^iinii atkI 
resided «Tcr jItcfw»<JK ut KLiiluri H^l, Uf this Robrri, 
C*i«Tlf » iJatwin write* } :— 

" He i^cm* tii havi.' hn^J ?oinc uit* for science, for he vatt 
*n culy member or thr ivrll^kftf^tm S|jn1ding Club ; and the 
cHdiniird antiqvi.iry Dr Jiciikdcy, in "An Vivinni t4 the 
alnost oitirc Scdcton of a lar^iu Aiuiiia],' A.*:, [lubliahcil In 
the 'PbUowiAic*! Tfimacijtms/ Apn! and M.^ 1719. bct^int 
lh<: |)*rirr a\ fuUow*; 'Hjvjn|; nn attc>iiiil from my fTicnJ 
Kot>cri IlMwifi, EbCi, of loim^Pn"* Inn, n i^nirjn uf tuiio^Jtj, 
of a human *cc1eion ImprrMccI in itdtie, found Ulcly by the 
rector of EKion,' &(. Siufcdcy ihcn spcalt* of it laa j;rcii 
rarity, *tbp like whereof has not bnn observed bcfoiv in this 
itbnd to my ^nowk^gt.' JudK^njE from a nori of Ht«nr 
vriitcn by RoWft. und hoiuk-tl Jo^n m ihc f.imity, he wu a 
Uiomg ailvocaif cf (cm]>4:raocc. whiL.^ his son rvci itlcrudrds 
•o rtn^ngly idwocaied : — 

Fnmi abuy Oi»l 'Ir'^ptVrih wlnr> 

Tma * aifc lIik Utlkrfli Lfltiikc, 

G006 LoolfUlitflr BMJ 

Ucok, Dili^ cf Albtrntrto, dtcinif ttie Civil \V«il A Tviicr **>luiifc of 
WOigt haokc. r<nin['^1ci^«<l ^n miny pluf« by Mwih, v,rt n^vui iTw 
pi^ioiWriB id my mo^m f mndi Dinrln, Tbw iccDiinif mif hr pmlbly 

tAiB«lkik femwur. aiitinieli ucd jconeiioitn ki aTvlieiy-tAri^ii }>yvrtm 

tfntll l»y> n' OBI dini«. vitt nfti irrtTfiitt^T r^iKcJ- 

I MHLif f<iU>>*« i< niL..'-' rimn i~hnrtci liuiiln'B tuofnr''^ ^^ ^'* fan4- 
btl'v. fLWi]ji|[ (he [ir--liik"i'"#j tt-'int: Ut Kni«< KmnHt li^itiviltn^' 
* EitMHiv Duwia/ lJ3»An\, 1970, p. A. 


''Il » lUBPtfcttiJ ittx ihv third }fn<r mAy bt ace^untad For 
by hi* wife* ihc moihrT of Knumtrn, having ttftn A very Icomcd 
Inrly, Thr i-Mcfct ion ni Robcrc, cbrinfrncd Robert Waring, 
viuocccflcd 10 (he csutc of EliiPii, and died <hcrc ai ilic age 
of ninriy'two. a baLhrlui. Hr had il airun^ L&aev for pueUy, 
Utv liLH yutJri^ol briHlpL-T hij^mu^. Kuljcrc jIho cullivALcd 
buiiny, And, when in <ddk»h ntan^ he published his ' I'HncipJA 
DotULica.' Thzi bock in MS, w<ti b«n\ii[fir1ly wriricn. Hnd 
my Uthrr [Dr R. \V. Ilarwin) drclflf^d that hf bplit^vofl It 
»n* iMibUhhc'd hoffltjso h\^ ciM urrjp rotild not en<turr thot 
fliifh fine caligmphy should be wflstcd, Bm ihit was. harilly 
jutt, at thff Murk vonuina DiiLny cunmis nutt» vn biulu^y— 4 
■ubjrct whnUy nimlfrlcJ in Eni^Und in lUr U« ccniUTy. The 
publico, rnorenvcr. jipj^rcciatfid the book, at ihe copy in my 
posacsrion i* the third ^diiioo," 

Thr icrond ^n, Wtillnrn Alvey, inhtritcii EtWon, and 
lfan^mi:n:d ii la hn icraniliUugbltr, the Ijec Mr*. Dan*'in, M 
EJfiton and Crretkeli). A third «on, John^ tiecamc rector of 
KJmdh, till: lJviT>;i bring in Lli? gift of the faiaily. The Fouilh 
ilOi^- ■L"d }in)Eij[ciii cl^ild, v.i>< t-r.ihmuh OapTwin^ Ihv poci and 

The ia>ilc on p.tge 5 irhov^ Charl^ Darwia*4 dncpnt fram 
Hobcri. and hit rtLulionxhip to lomc other mrmbcrs of th« 
family, wh^ihc i.i:uiiea (Kiur in luB cotrtspondenci.-. Aiuoqji 
thoc arc included ^ t^jiMvin Kon. one of hit eirlitht 
corrripondeniv and Fraii«;u. Galton. wuh «hom he mnin- 
lained a *flrm fri<;nd^h»p for many» ffete A\va otran 
tike n-Lme of FTanrii Surhrvefcl Djitwin^ who inhcriti^d a \t>vt 
ot HALural history item Rr^tmui, and trjmnmiiied it 10 h» »on 
l-^wj<rd Uafwin. amhor (uadvr Ihc lumc of " High Kbrin*'! 
of a 'Gunckctvcr'i .Muiiul * (4^ K61L i4f6jt, ivhich aji^w* 
ItMfl oibscrvarion oi the hAblti ot various 

U ii aWayi intefciting la tec how far a man's p^nonj 
i^barac.irri»iif 1 can be iraced ~m hii for4rrathcr<t CharlA Dni 
via inherited ths ull itAiart* but not ihc bulky figurv 
firaamus; but in hi* feature?- thcrt iw no irace.ibk reici 
bUnc<r lo thovc of hm gundtathct. Nor. it appeoitt 


V. — 



Emimuit the ^o^cof cicfcitcancicif fLcM^vporti, «i> ctunctcr' 
iitit of Chflfld Darwin a% A youftif man, thonjih he hoA, like 
hitt grandstm. m indon^iioblc love <jf bard menial work. Be- 

pCHiejifeilH in the highctt Je^e> ilidi " vividnvu of inugifiA- 
li&n" of whifh he ii>ea]u u itrongly chAncicriilk of En^- 
naui, and a» IcJidmg "to hi* ovcrpowcfinij; U'niJmc.-y ro rhi-^i- 
Hue and jEcrH^nline " Thi* tendency, in the ease of Charles 
Diirwin, vas fully kepi in c.\iet\ hy the deicrminDiioQ lo test 
hU thcoriifs to th<? utniuit. KnaitiLi!! bad a sirung love i;f all 
kindh ol me^.tMhiftEi]^ fuf which Chjikn LJjf>«]ii h^ nu tft»ic. 
Neither bod Chftdrif |>.irwin iFic litcfiiy lemperJiraent which 
made Rrosmui a poei oh h^II at a phlloiophcr He nriic* ot 
ErnmitJ : • "■ Throughoui hii IcTttn I have hccn Blruck vilh.-: 
hi4 mdifferrnre lo f-rnitiand the complete ^bfcnccor all ufiii 
of nnjr ovet'T^ttiMation of hi* own a^ihtie*, or of the vucccv 
of hifc wtjrlii/' 'l']ic>-c, imicedj liecm indkauont of trjiil» mMt 
tirikintcl}' pronimcni in hit own cliifJtter. V*'t we Kti no 
evid«nire tn EcajHrnntof ihe mlenftc modcM/and i.]ni]>lkit]r 
that matked ChAfki Uaiwin"* whole naiLire. But hf ihe 
qukk bursUtjf anger i-pfovoked in Erawiiu^, at the fcigh: of 
■njr inhifniAnify or inju&dcc, 1^ UV uht^"' remuidcd of 

On the vhole, howwer, it *ccm* to me Ihal we do noi 
know eQough of the et*»;rtial pertonal tone nf Rmhmus Du- 
win'* chjiraatr lu altcmpt more than a iiii^erfir-ial compari' 
v»i ; jfvil I am Icfe with *o impcfwion thai, in »piie uf tumy 
retenbliaccf. the iwo mrn werr i^f a diffcrrnt tyv^' It his 
bcea ihown ih-ir Mi»t Si-wnrd and Mr^, ,S<-hnnfiielpenmnck 
hivc mwfiiffwtitod Erosmu* Darwiti% ihajj':«er.f U i\ 
however, erifcmtly probaljle Ih^l ii«c (Jiult* wbirh ihi-y mag- 
gemtt were to some ei'cni i hsra^terUiii: of (he man; im 
tlut Ie*Jfc mc to think [h,\t F-nimu* had ■ CL-rtain acerbity 
trrciity of temper vhich did nai exi*t ia hi* grandton- 

• * ur< cf i:™*ni"i" uw*in/ ^ w. f ih^- pp. it. to. **- 

KRA<*ML'S l>ARV\-|\. 



The vona of Enirintui Oarwin inhtrfted in some dcgriv hh 
imclkctml iMlcf, Tor CJiatIca Darwin nntc^ or ih(,-m a^ (61- 
lowf : 

" HU ddcfi *oTi, Chiilc* (bom September j. (JiS), wa» « 
young iiiJTi of vxtmordin^n^ promise* but died (M^y i$. i;;B) 
bvfor« Ik w«* rw.-nty-on,- yrnn oM, trnm thr cfTcci* i»f a 
woitnri rivdTcrf whilst fli^lc^l^na ^h*^ brain ofnchiW, He 
inbcriud ffom hii faihtr a lUonj.^ laiip foi variou* brjncht-i 
of fcicBiT. f<jJ wrJLinf; vvrivi, jod £or mvLUadm. . . . Hv 
ahu inJit'fiU'il »Uiimii'iLftj[. With ihv hu|Jt «f cuiiiiji lii^, Ua 
fitlbcf Kill hjm lu I'Vanccj when ibuui ej[iht vcii* old (1766- 
*07), uiih a private euIot. ihinlccng ihai if he waa noi fllloiri-d 
to BpC'L Rn^ii^ fora time, t^c hftTnt of 8i.tmtnrriri|t mi^c 
be I'lf E : .ind It i» % rMeitnih Tacl* in o.Uci yi-jir>>, nlu-ti 
sprtiking Fccnch, he never njinincrtd- At a very ejily J-ge 
he coQcctcd «<Jccim?Q5 of ill kitidt- When ibtlcen ycjm old 
bf WM »m< for A jviir lo [Chri>il Thiirrh] Oifi^rcl, but he did 
ftoi like the pUce. ncci ihmighr (in rhi: uonU of hii Ucher) 
thoi Ihe * vigour of hisminfl hngui.shfd in the punuil of e:la*» 
VBcsl de|>ance like Hcrnilen at ihe diHt^iff. nnd Mjchod Eo bf 
rctBOVOil tij th^' robumcf exeririki: t*l llie mv^diral ^chiicjl nf 
Edinl'irgh/ He Mjycd three ycArs Jt tidinbu i0;K. working 
lurd ii hii mcdka] iludics, juid oUending ' with diligence all 
the *iek poi>rof the pifiih r-f Wjterlcich, iind tupplying ihcm 
with ihc nrvv^intjr medic im-^ ' The .' Soridy 
«v«r<kd him iu firu jjfAtl mvt\id for An nprrimenul irtfpilry 
on pu» and mmrut^ N<Jticci of him jppenrrd in vntioui jour- 
njLi ; add Hii Ihe vnlr^r^ J|£m- Jibuut his uncominon energy 
Aod abilities. He uxm« like hi>i f^jlhcr l^j liitve e^ciU'd (h« 
nana affc^ion of hit fiientU. Profeuor Andrew' Duncan 
... - bpoke .... nho'tt him wrih ^ht wanneit i^i^ction 
fofty-fcven vium afcrr Kit death whr^ I n-.ix a ymitijc nicrliral 
Mfldt*! Bi Edinburgh . . ^ . 

" Ahoul ihe eharjctef of his second ion, Ei;iimui (born 
175^)1 I have little Iu »y. For though he trtnlz y^etry, h« 
««cmi Ut b^itt had nnne of ihr other Ufttci of hU fithcr, M« 
had, howvTer, hu own prndiar t;isie\ %ii^ ideology, the col- 

Tin: UAkWtK rAHlLV. 

led^g of coini, iii4 itiiiACicM. When ai boy he counted all 
the houKft Id tUf <-riv of LivhricUL xnd round ciii the ouo»- 
bcr of inlutbltjinit jk as mAnjr n« hi* rnuM : he ihiiA mode ft 
ccnvufi, and when a real one wjw ^m m44c, hU csiiadEiir wa* 
fguntj Lo Lc iinrly ai.>:urat«> Hta diapDHliud was (luivl ujid 
rtfEiriiitp My falln:! h.iJ awry hijih 0|Jiajvn of h:» iiUilitiw. 
and thu wa& probably )uii, lot he would not ulliciwibc huvE 
bvrn rnvitrd lo trnvul with, and paf lonj^ vinii t^f, men so dii- 
linj^iiihlw-il in dtfTc-rcnt ways am Roullon ihr cnx^nfi'i^r, nsd D^y 
thr moijiliist anil novdiii," HU dcnih hy ^(Jiddr, Jn i^^. 
aecms to h-ivL- tikrn ploi^v in n succ of indpitnt inuiiuiy- 

Rnbcrt W.iring, the fjiht-r of CLiuiJci^ Dai^iii) #a% bom 
May 30. i7&^f "^^1 roicTxd rhc mrdital |jMrvi;on IikD hit 
fiEhrr He itudkd lor r ^cw nionthi ai liCydcn. JinJ lAok 
hi* M, D-' Mfhjit LTnivcr«iyon F*:b, 36. tjSs- '" Htn father " 
(Rm^miit) "btcughtf him lo ShrtiW!i]>Liry before he vat 
iwcTHy-onc year* uld (17*7)1 f"^*^ ^*^^^ I"'™ jC^^^ tayinji, ' L« 
mu kn'iv whrn yuii wnm iii^irr, ^nd 1 will »r[vd ic you/ Ui& 
nndct the ii^cittjrol KUton, afirn^iuiU al*o hem biro j£fO, dnd 
ihiij wu the »ob pecuniary pJd Bliich he t><r rvcdved . - . 
Erasmii* rdU Mr Edgcworih tUm hi» son Robcrri. afier' 
bcifttf iculed m Shrewsbury for only ti^ monihu. ' jd«jidy 
hid between forty and Jifiy pailentv' By <he necond yriU 
he wi* In eonnidcfohlp, anti ever afterwuds in very IttffCt 

• J nar i1ti« mAvmtliiHi 10 the htadncis «f PrOfcMOV R«il*«ntioA. Oi- 
recfui uF (Tie A^hvm 4i I jry.iiTBL Hf i|Ul>Io fiaui the etil*laKti7 uf'-iuf- 

t'tit in t1« SciiiiLf * l.»rh**Tf*(ioo ft* ihr mtom^ ^mc^i;'^ v«fl nffpr 
Tr»l"ne ai > hiichl ul>iti*, au-k "' S1«Jfi:iiiv T>«».<jh <f»*rn» mt ji rlnr. Vnta* 

KaqveAhofT U abit ia '#ll m^ ih*i mv BrwiJ/ntiici H'?J tiuvrTu?* "■11I1 a 
finiia "Pttmi 0«mj|Mi>ii. AiulIuv" 'ij Jo4i;*nc* in ih* AjKWhcUTvlijL 
IlT, |[JAnv|a'' l-4yilvLi diiMriAiivh "m {luMt^licit \a iIil- ' I'hLlaopliicfll 
THii*«cUoot.' anil lay faihcr iit,ed Iq >*y ili4t Lhe «oik wj\ In f«i Ou* iq 

1*lJfeorEn«nwPti«iv; p. Af^ 




Robert IVoHng Danv in inirrif(J(Aprn tS. 1796) SuMcnnh, 
the Jsii^htn oi hit lirhcr't fcicn'l, Joftuh Wcdfwoodj of 
Kfnirix, (hen itt her (hirif-sfi'onil y»r- Wc hnve^ n miniattirr 
of her, wiih 4 remarkably iwpcl nnd happy farc^ hearing some 
membbaci; iu \he jKinr^it by Sir Jutliua Rvj'nulJb vf livr 
f^ithcr; ii i^uunuiiULL^r vLjjm^ivvol Lliv uu^i(.tc ;<.iiil hydi^jathctit; 
lUAUTC wbKb Mifa^ Mcic^T^iil jAcnbes lo her * iihc dtcd July 
'5t »ft>7. lhiitT'l»o years before bcr huibind, whose de*ih 
OrcufTcd on Nov^mhfT i^^, 1S48. !Jr Dnrwin Jitcd iKfore 
hi< xnAirijiffe for Iwfi or lhr« yr-tra i^n St. John'* Hill; after- 
var<U 11 t\uf Cntrtni, where hit eldest riatighier Mnri.innc 
vis bora ; huxlj at the " Mijiinl," in ihe piti uf Shri^wsbiiry 
known 11 KfBnkifcll, where Ihe uthtr cbiMi^n »-c(c bijin. 
Thift houiie ffu built by \>t. Ddruin nbonl rSoo, 11 u now in 
the p^sses^inn of Mr Spencer rhillipf, and hn? undctsr^ne 
but Itttlf alicrution. I1 is a hr^i^, jil.ini, ht^ii^n;, re<bbrJtk 
hov^ of which the meal ottracuvc kaiure l§ iho prctiy 
grccQ-lrauiw, oi^etun^ out uf the morning-roLmi. 

The h<mvc U t.haijJiin^l^plo4.fij. on Lhe lop of Aitc^ h^nk 
kddinK down lo ihe Severn. The icrnced bink in trnvcnfid 
by A lonf wM^ Ujdintc frf>m T^d ed mc), siill enlled "the 
Doctor's Witlc" At on^ paint in iht^ udllt ^ruws a Spanish 
ebcvtHMt. the bnnches of which b<rnd back paruiliei lo thcm^ 
«cJvv* m a i:ifiiuu-i mar:nvr, :irid thi* wu« Churk-« l^^rwiu'a 
iutoutiEc Inc fu a lioy, wlicic he and his siilcr Ciibcrinc haiJ 
dcb ".tieif spceij] seaL 

The iPorlor tOi^k i gwnt plca*iiw in bin jpird<^n, planting 
tl with orruitneniii tree* ^nd ithnilM, AnA hrin^ rapccially mc- 
coAful in fraiMrvcs : and thii love of pUnu wof, I think, ihc 
only last« kindr«d 10 nuLural histury which he poue'sed^ Of 
llM-''Moont pig*oii«,"whidiMii^McicyiiJ debv.nbe«it*iJ1u»- 
Uttlixtg Pr. DjTvin'« nilLirjibhJsEory Utie« I hjve not been 
4l)l« 10 heir from those mosi rApable of knowing. Uiu 
Mcloyjird's Jtocounr of him h noi {jiiilv ftccnrutc in a. few 
jwintih For in«idn«v if is Ineocrcfjt 10 doicnhc Dr. D^rwJn 

*'AOr«iipDfl En|;litliiui'ii,' I'f Miu MttvjinJ. 1(71- 





Sivun to ilcuit, a.nil noL (o gvncTo^Uiiag, A^ain, thohc who 
knew him inlimjidy dcaciik- him aa cntibg rtiuaikiUy IJUk, 
Vo tluLt he wn« not " » j^rral feeder, c)Llinj( n Rciote for hi« din* 
nrr, .ii cn^ily n* n!hi?r mi-n dn * pntit'o^^c "* In ihe niAtu^r 
of dii!M he was conservative, and wore lo the end ftf hii life 
kncc-bftcLhes und Jr^b gaiters, whith, liowevrr, ^jcrumly Jid 
noL, atf Mi^tk MetcyuiJ «jyb, buLto» jibovij (he Lne^— i flonu 
ol cubLumr i:]i]eM)' kfiiiwii iv at. in |jfen:idiv(it o| (^ucen Annc'« 
dfty> and in modern ^vood'CuUcn and ploiighboyi. 

Chjilci Darwin ti:id the »l:ron^4l ferlm^of lui-c if^d re* 
aptrl for hN father"* memory. Hi» rcrollcciidn of cvctyihing 
thjt wui^ cannvc tf d with him woi peculiarly diuincT, and he 
»pokc of lijm fre^iuciitly; gener-iny ptcfiang an anecdote 
wiih iDinc auch i>hra>c ;li, " My fAlher. who * st the wi««»t 
man 1 oer knew* &-i:, . . ." it wa* JUHloninhinrt licjw dearly 
he ftrnt^mbcrnd hjh father'^ opini4>n». to thit hewatiblclo 
quote «fime mAxtmi or him of hit in mo^E CA*e« of i11ncM». 
A^ LI Tuk\ hr put ^null fiith m dorfon, nnd Ihti!^ hit urtlim- 
heil hL'li<;r in i>r iMrwiaV meijR^] Lnstinci and mclhodi of 
irc^Umeni wan all iht- more lAiriking. 

Jtii reverence for him wa* bi>ut\dlcH* anrl moBl lonehmg. 
He woiild have wiiheJ to Judge everything else in ihv world 
(liipMticmaiely, but Anyihlnic hn father had uid tvu reLeived 
with fllniosr implirit fmrh. Hi* flifjjchter Mri. Lfichficid le- 
mcmbera him tiying thai he hoped none of his r.on* wouid 
ever beL»ve itnylhiu;; beeauic he wid it, ijn1e«4 ihey were 
thcmtclvch ronvinted of itv tnilb.— a feeling in iirJItbg rem- 
tr±9t wilh hii owtt majmci *tf inilh. 

A vi<(i( wh;eh Ch^rlei Darwjn made to Shrvwbbury in t$6p 
left on the miml ^f his djughler who aocomiJiinivd him a 
rtfonj imprc^ion of his Imt- for his e»]d home. The then 
lenint of the Mount thtiwud them over Ihe hna^e. Arc , and 
wilh mistaken hwpitalicy remained wilh ilie p^irty Jurin^' the 
whole xiiiii, A» ihcy were leaving, Charlei' Duivm said, with 

'■ACraupof t^nfitWubffn,' |t aoj^ 


rut. R, W. I>ARWrN. 


ipdlMic look of rvffrrt, " U 1 foiilit havp tipcn left nfonc m 
llhil grctti-houw for five minufca, 1 know I shotiliJ h.iVL' b^cn 
aUe 10 ivc my fitllicr in Kk wkecl-chuii aa vividly ja if he 
kxl bcftt titer? brfutt; mi;-" 

rciliil't thi% iru:tijent iXmwt. wUnt I think is the tTUth, llul 
Ihc nonory of hi* fAther he loved the br*t, wa» thai of him 
a.1 xn oLd nan. Mrt. 1>rl<'hjicM hA» noTcd down a few wordi 
whiih ltlu«iMEr wril hia ft'flifij{ irn^orda ht* fafhcr, Sh^ ilr- 
ftrhbe* him m saytng wiih the mosi lender rcq>cci. " ) ihJnfe 
my f^lher w«s a Utile unjust to mc whm 1 wat, yDun^. but 
afttrwArdb ] am thu^iklul l<} Ihink I hci.amc a ^jrimv lAvoutJli; 
whh him.*' She h^^ a vitLil recollection of the cKpretiion of 
tiApftT reverie llui ari!0(npani(^d iht^so n'^rfli, as if he were 
TYiirttinK ihf whole rHnirun, anr) (he r:mtmhrnnr.'tf kfr ji <1eq» 
bcntc cif pf^aoc Anti grfiEiiuikt 

Whai fallowt W4< ^dded hy Chafic* Dojrwtn lo hit luto- 
lito(raphJc«l ' RecoUealonv/ aad wai wriUcn about 1^77 
or 187S. 

" ] miy here jidfl a few pA|ei about my father, who wu 
in tnsnjr ways a rrmarkable mctp. 

" He wa* abi.uit 6 f«l J inrhc* in hL'it;1»t, with l»t"acl 
«liou]derf« and very cor|'u1rni> to ih^l he YfOtt die bigeitl 
m.jn whom I over uv. Whtn he Uil weighed himtelfi be 
WAA 3^ Kte}i\<'-, hilt afteroarJi torrC-Mcd murh in wnj;hr Hih 
<hief mental ehjfflrtrrirtl.'i woro hi* power* of oljsrrrotinn 
and hiAaympaihy, neither nfwhkh hnvc I ercf sci-n cscei^led 
or rtxA e^iujilk'd. Hit f»ytnputhy w^v nul only wnh the lUs' 
treuei of oihcrt, but in a iircaier i]i:};rcc ^vilh the pk^bLireA 
of ill amund him. This led him lo be ilwayt tcheming to 
jjivc p^*iir^ to others and, ihon^ch h-ittnp fTiirarjijtinre, to 

perform many goner^tTt arrtlotiL For ^nutanre, Mr. B , n 

tmiW minkjfaciurei in Shrcwfrbuxy, rjamc lo him one day. jnd 
uid he should be Ijanluupt ui3lt« he could at once borrow 
jf ic\ooo, h\jl thj*l he *'*> nniMf lo ijive jtiy iegdl Mrorily, 
My faihet he.iTd hit reot^ns for liflicvinn that ht c:fMild iiUi- 
aiaidy rtfpay (he m'Miey, and from [hi»] iniuUive perception 



of chamvcet tvU tuic xUat he- ^m to \k uusivd. So h« ad* 

vanccil thiii ttiin. which «u jl very Urge oiiu for him while 
foOQg. 4nd wm jftrr a lime rcpaJd- 

" I *iipjit>*<c thnt it wft^ hia xympjilhy ivliii h i;ffve him im- 
hoirnil^fl i>owrT of winnmj^ ron^rlrnro, jtn'l nt a trMxcr^iirncc 
mnric him highly sutcuiifd as a physititin. Hr h/rg^ti to 
[imciEsc- bvfuri? lie win i*ttTii^y-o\\e yvdn u[d, and hU fcc« 
Juruii; Lbc Tint >;':U j^jliiI fi>r the Wvt'iJ uf twcj huinCK ood a 
ncrvant. Oii the following ycJr hit pntciitc wa* \aift, and 
%o cominucd for aboiii sixty vc»t*, when he ttJscd 1o JUtnJ 
c«n any oiir. Hi* fjtM *i.ic':«5 a* a doctor was the moie 
rrmjtrlc.'ihU', »« he Lnfd mc thm he At f%mi hntnl hi* ^rofe^ion 
»o tniKh thill if hv hud hern sure of tht- ^nvilh'hi i.iitancr, or 
if his father hjd giv^n huTi a.ay i-hQice, notbtn^ i^houhl Xxuvc 
induced hitn to follow it. To the end of Uh Ixi^ (he thou|Eht 
of ill 'jpcntion ilmoBt hiclifncd hjm. jnd he ^ould scucely 
vndtitc 10 >cc a pcnon hied — a honar whioh he hx% it«nft- 
miucd tome — and I remember the horror whith I felt «t a 
achuolhoy in reading Ahoul Pliny (I think) blefdtiiE to deuh 
iti a vraita bath, , > . 

"Orting lo my falhcr'^ power of winning conAdenci', inanf 
|i.itieiitt, eiipecijtiy Udt?ii consulted him i^hen tujfering (tow 
.iny mi^ory, a? a unit of Fhlh^-'ConfrMnr, Pit li>ld me thit 
ihi y ftl^vay* hfji^an hy romplnining in n v.^gin' munni^r alwnt 
their hcillh. irnX hy pracike h? toon guessed Tihat was reallf 
the mutter- Ho thi^rt BU|:j;i-«lnl thut ihi^y had been hvffering 
in their inindn, ami nuw Ehty wuiild pour out their IronUka* 
and he heiid ni^tlhing mor- aboiii the body, , . . Outing to 
my father's skill in Mrinninf[ eoinlidcnee he received minjr 
Himniti' cnnfcwinnt of iriwry and KUill, Hr ctfierk remnfkrd 
how many miserahlL' wivo he had known. In several in- 
ilanta huBband^ and wiven hul ^ui^v on pretty wqII lo- 
Kcthcr for hrtwecrt livcnty and thirty yrhrt, .ind then 
hAied each oiher bitterly: thi* he jtlitibified to ihcir hav- 
ing Tott a rommon hond hi Their young children haWng 
(rown II ji. 

"But the luoht remarkabk j'Q^ter which my fatlicr pos- 

Mt. R. W. I>MIWJN. 




M«ftCd viift thut of rradinR the charaoiLr^r aid even the 
ihoughts of thme whom ttv ttnv evtn tot a ihqit lime. Wc 
Ivftd Buny in>(anr-f:( t>i tli« power, wmc of which seemed 
atniMt hU|>crnjiiFM]. li wed idt F^rlicr fn^m Tvtrr niALin^ 
{atth one CKcptTOn, And the f-hnrA^ier Tit itil* man wni ibcinn 
diitovrrv'!) ^n unworthy fripnd- A flirange clctgymtin came 
tf> Shrtwfcbury, ami acrmcd (« be a rich iiUQ ; ev^rryhody 
dlled on hrm, and ho ^h*l invited iv inaTiy huuoi'd. My 
laikcr cnllifd. »ni\ vn Uia cclucn home Lolct my »t»teift on no 
aocvuTil It* invite htm or hU family to ouf hoiT*p ; ht he felt 
4mc th^t the man vjls nol to hi: ini^rrd, A^cr n fi-w mrjnihn 
he ludtlenly l>ohr(4. Iipjnf[ hi^avily in licbt, and wsa^ Tountt out 
lo be fitiic tif'ttcr than on hahilud swmd]t!r. Hccc Vi a caste 
of trvttfutaeii* which noL inAny men wuuld have veaiured aa. 
Ad Iriftli geiaTlcTnan, * ir^mpletc i^rranK^^r, calkd on my fiithcr 
<K>c ikr, And laid ihAt he had loit hti pane, and thai it 
voald be i uriouit incotivenii^n^i? io him to wnit in Shrem* 
Inry oolil he could tecrive a reroiitanrr U\*m Irel9nd. Mt 
then a>ked my father tn lend htm ^7o, whLch woji immedi- 
*ldy done, At my father (ell certain that the sloiy wa* a true 
fl(i«. Ai BOon I* a Mlcv trf»ld Ari^vi- from IrelitnUt onr f.mie 
viih th< moii f^rfjfune tha^ki, and encrn«ing, a> he laid, 4 
jQtQ Bank of EngLind noie, but n^ niMc wji ene1o«p(L T 
^<d my rather whether this did nui ata^^Fi hitii. l>ut he an- 
iwcrcd 'not in the I«kiL' Oti the n^it day ^ttiuthei kttcr 
came with muny ap»!o^e» for hjving forgotten (like a true 
Ihihmm) to put ihe uote into his Letter of the dav beforc- 
* . . [A jpci*tlcmAn] brr>jL^t hj* ni^(>hir«, whn wa.^ ini.ine hut 
<]uiie gentle, la my faihrr ; and the ymmjf mfin'* ifn.intty \v<\ 
bJm td accuic himself of all the ^-timtui untUi hiyl^■en- When 
my faihtfi afterwards talked *}\Mr ihf^ matter unb the uncle, 
be HiJOi * 1 UTi) %urc thji yowr uephuw it italJy jtutlty of . . . 
ft heinou* crifae.' WhcrcuiJi^n (the ucntlemon] »iid, 'itood 
God. Dr Ddrwin. who told yrtii ; wr^ thmi^Til thiit no hnmAn 
beinKkncwihe fa* r ex<.cpt ouTidv«!* My fnthrr tolJ mi? 
the fitory many yc:ar& a.Hvt the irvcni, and I linked him how 
be diMJaifui&hcd the true from Ihe fal^ fcii-occusiiuont ; And 



it wan vrry rharac1rh>uc of my fachei ihni he tnid be GOuM 
not cKpUin hu^v ii u-ii, 

"TTn- ffilluwinu ♦Jrtry iihciwt whar jjnfKl jpjffUBc* riiy father 
could make. Latd ShL-Umrnc. afterwards ihe flrst Mnrquit 
of LajlHtownc. Mm famous las M'lcaulay tomcwhijrc icmait*) 
Ibi hib kiiDwWd);« of itic airiirbuf IvuEupv, un which he ^icul- 
iy piidcil liiiEihctf, He c^rnkultcd uiy l^Uivr ukvil^i-jJiMy, and 
aflt^rwjrdt ^nf^ingucd him on the sUtc af ]1qI]ai>i9, My 
fmhi^r hnd ^itiidk-d mtJitiDr :il Lrydcn, ami onr tiay [*hilc 
Ehrrr| xrc-nt n lon^ walk inu> ihi^ country wjih a frirnd i*ho 
look him lo iht boufic ci( a dergym^n [wii will say tht Rev. 
Mr. A , for t have f>Jt^DtU-n hit ULiunr), who liad mariLcd 
an h:nftlii,hwym:in. My father wum very btjnu'yi ivr»i Ihcrc 
WBS lililc for luncheon circcpi rhcc*f, which he could never 
cat. The did IflJy was lurpriw^d and grWcd ai rhin, ond a?i- 
re] my r.uh^T thnt il w:ih un I'^iellcut rlicehc^ j4»<1 Imi) bciu 
t her frnni Bawotid, thi; teat of J^rd :?ihe1btjmc. My 
Tmhcr woiuieied uhy :Lclicefe ih<-tLiM be irnt hei fruni llowood, 
buMhotij^hi iicitlii»K iTiurv ^bniji it until it lUvhcd j^.t-eibi hia 
mind many year^ afrerwafdt, vhtUi Lord Shelburnc «rn talk* 
ingnbouT Itolland. So he an^wrred, 'T ahoultl think from 

what 1 s:iw of [ht! Rev. Mr. A , thjtl he wuk i very abJ« 

mjiD, ami wvll acquainted with the ttatv of Holland.' My 
fuhcr taw that ihc Karl, wKo imLAedidlcly ehanged the COQ- 
TCnation, wnb imirh ^tarllcd- On iJir next murmn^ my 
father rei^cived n rii^ie ftnta the Kni\. inytnj^ihMhehad delayed 
nnrtitig on hit Jckurnry. o-nd wiihcd patliciiUrly to see my 
father. When Kp calk^. tht Earl niiid. ' Hr. Djirwin, n i» uf 

ihc utmOBl impurlunijv tu mc aad to the Kev. Mr, A to 

Icaru h(;w you hiie dticovcred flijit he it Ibe Mutcc of my 
informaiion about Holland-* So ray fjiibcrhod loeipbin the 
ttaie of Ibi' t-n\<:. ^nd he iiii[ipniKd ih^ti l.nrd Shclliume was 
nnich «iritrk ^ith hix dipbiuatic; i^kill in j^iiei^sijtgr fat durniE 
many ytun afiurwardt he received many kind itiesui^es from 
him thiOQgh v^tiouK fnundi^ 1 think thjt he m\}^i Kit-e told 
the (kiory to hjh t:hiM(cn ; for St C- Lydl iskci\ me manv 
yean ago why the M^rqult of I^nidowne (ihe 40ii or grand- 

DR. It, W, IMItWIV, 




•OD oE Ibe Uni m^rquiit) Felt to much intercut iboul tucv wboni 
be hail n<\cr sccn^ *ntl mv fnniily. When lony Dew ncmlicr* 
(ihc forty lhi»'n a ihry were Ihcn cAllirrlJ wvn a6dtA to the 
Aihc'iuvum Otib, there «;ki much t^i^^jaem^ lu bt i>n? ot 
thriu; itui\ A'tiln'iii ttty havm^ J%Lri) J-Viy i^uv, Luril l^aiiH- 
dowDC piQj^oicil mc and ^oi luc elected, II J jm rtgEiE in my 
nppotitioQ, it wat a que<r concatmAtion of civnti ihai my 
fitllK^ nit dlitij; rhrrw hAll'^MTntiiTy Wore [n ITdland k-d 
ID my ekction as j injmbt-r c*tf iht Aihcn.riim. 

"Th* iJianiiwss of \m ubttcn-aiion M \x\ia xa predict with 
rcOkU'liLhk hlill the tijutiiir o[ .iiiy i1]iu^m<» ujiO lir hUioicMcJ 
codlctt itnatl deujit of rclid, 1 tn> Euld Nut a juucig Uui lur 
in ShfcKibiiry. who diilifctd my raih<r, u»cd lo wy Ihai he 
wTis wholly iJD^ricnlifir, hiHt ownttl thjT hi-* powor of prcdirr- 
Idf; tbo end »f 4n Ulncbk h,ih unpur.ilkiv'd I'Dmu'rly vrhca 
h« thought that 1 thoulcl be a doctor, he ulked mm K lo me 
Abovl tu paticntv In iUv old days the prAi:Cicv of blci^ding 
lartrlf wxt uoivrni.aU btJt my f.ilhrr mami^iLixril iKjiE fiir nuirc 
«iil u j» ihii* cju*cd than good done : and he fldviwd mc if 
evtr I vai mywlf ilL not lo allow any doctor lo U\z more 
thm an cuirvmclr tmnll (|ii;iniiiy of ['Utod. tonji 1rt'for« ly- 
p^id fnvr waL rcotif nirieict -is dtf-ttnclt my father told rae that 
t«o utldLy duimct kind) of iltoev were confounded under 
the naroc of typhut fever. He wa* vrh^mi'nt ajcnlnM drink- 
tn(C and wnt mnvinii'd of both thr dirrrt and inhcrired evil 
cRbciA of alcohol when habuiully dkuti cvuii in inudcmiu 
quttiMiiy oi (L *eiy laijEe majority of casc^. Uiit hu u JmiLivd 
aad Ailvinced imtJtrKvt ul icrUir^ peittmh ^ho could dnnk 
brgd^ during their whole live* without appar^nily intlVrinR 
4By<v3 etfecisi, and he believed that ht c"Mld ofifn hefnrr* 
fund ccU«hownidd ihit* not ALiffrr Ht' himK^lf never dmtik 
A drop of any ilcohoUr iluul. This rcmatk reminds me of a 
cave thowing how a wiine» under Lbe iiio«t bvuiii^Ue th- 
ct3m«ttncc« may be utterly niibt^kcn, A j(cn E lemon* fumcr 
wfti ttrongly urged by my fjther not lo drink, and A-an on- 
courai^xl by bcinic i^^hl MiaI he hmihelf never tL>ui bed arty 
•piiitjoi^ iHfUor, WhcreujKin the ^cntkraan uid, 'Comc^ 



coiTic, I>orli>r, Ihit vfon\ do^thnugh it U very kind of jrmi to 
ifl) ]<o for my lAk^^^or 1 koo* t^jat yuu Ijkt a ^rry Urgi 
g|as« of hot uin iintl w:i(cr rv.'ry fvrninf; n/lrr your iJinm-r,'* 
So my fnthcr Aftkcd him how ht knew ihiiw 'J'hc mun an- 
iwrrr<l, " My ccwjk wor, >t»uc kitthpn-maid for two or three 
ytan, and the t-iw (tie bmlt^r t'vtry il^^y pri'p;ircaniJ l^Kt; lu 
you the j^ii uxmI watvt.' 'i'tu: cji|?ljLiiuticiii twiiH tlui my lithcr 
b«J the udil hatiii of drinking hot w:iitt in a very lall and 
ffljgc g[u* aflrr his dinner : nnd lEi^ btillcr nncil l^nt lo |»)t 
9omc cold wnivr ^n th« ^b««» whjl^h ihf pri mi^Took for i^n, 
and then Ailed il up wilh boiling ^aier from the kjuhen 

" My faiher used ti'p tcH me many liule thing* wh^h h< 
h^d found tiAcfid in hii mcdio-l pracik«. Thnt bdlct ofrcn 
cried much whUc t*Uing him their iroubks, jind thun cauwd 
much lofi of hih pkthki'^ time, He hoon fdimd Ihni ]K't:tsi"g 
IherD (u i;uuiinand -itiiX ruhuain ihi^nii^t^lvtrB. nlw.'Lyt jtiiieJi' Ihrm 
weep the lUOFe, w that afterwards he alwayt encouraged them 
ti> go on cryinw. liiyi^'K tJiat Ihii vroiild relieve them ujoie than 
aaylhiDg cl»e, und with the mvAn^tlilc rcauli Lhat ihey wnn 
ceased to cry, and he could hear vhar ihey had lo uy and 
give hii advice. When paifentf whti wcne ttry ill cra^-ed for 
KCimc strange and vrinaturul fur^d. my fjlhei ackcd ihem what 
had put H^di :i;i iilcj intij IhcJr hcud»; il they jiiiBwered that 
ilicy did iicil know, he uoiUd ^Ioh (hem to try ih? food' ufid 
odcen with snrci:^, a^ hr rrviilcd to their hating a kind of 
initinrtwe drMirr ; hut if (hey an^w^rrd ihM they had beard 
ihnt thi^ (oaA m <]iic?rion had dnne good in siwnr unc ehe, 
hr firmly refused hii assent v 

" He ^avtf uiic d^y iM odd Jitilr t.fil'L' Linen i;f hanian na- 
lu^^ When a vciy younA m^n he wnt, t.jtkd in Lv ttmsull 
wUh the family phpkiJin in the caw of j gentleman ot much 
du(incL(oa in ^hiop-ihiic. The old docioi toM [he wife 
Ihil Ibc dInt'Ki was d{ «u<:h a n4(me that il must cud f^tailj. 

* Thl» iteUtt MU tiiivi'#H d-thI *r4* ei«iiloned M aty bnnlier Eu t>l« 
by 4h ulii Jakit'itaiiL oT ^^^Jfiuy.^K. t>. 

DR. R. W. nAltWlS. 


Uy ruber look a difl<^rpnt view ixai mainuincd Ihat vb? 
^nddiua vouU recover: he vrai* proved qviitr wrong in >l1] 
rr4p«ct* (1 think by JuiopAy) Jind he owned hi^ error He 
«rA« ihcfl cr-invtncf 1I thnii he shoiilil never ognin be rjontuhed 
by ihit family ; but idui a few niuntha ihc w iilow icnt for 
hu% luivirig iJiBmiwcO llie L»]d l.iujity iJui^tut. My lulJi<'r wjji 
>o iDucli kuriiiit«d tf Uii>, thAi he ;uke(i j friend ul ihc ^idotf 
ti> And 0^1 vhy he was again coniuUcd. The wMow an- 
sirered her friend. Thai "^h^- veoith] ntvcr .iipim ?*cc Ihf wlioim 
old dofiorwhrititd from ThcAni that her hukhnnd vroDid die, 
whUc l>r. I>»™-in »ilw4fs mainiamed thai he would m:ovef ! ' 
Id Anotliri n^bc in; laihetiuld a bdy ihnt hvr hiiLbumJ wuld 
cvrlainty die Suinc iiioaihh Alicrwardi) hv huw ihr widuw, 
vhpiTAt J very «n.ii1j|c rtomaft, and »he *iid, * You arc a very 
yMing man, aod alloiw mc ta adviv? you alwnyt va t;it«. .u 
\anf tu jod poutbly cna, h(i|H.' 10 uny nejir rrhlivi* nursmg a 
piAiivnL Vou mmic me di^i^pa^r, and ijoiu thni riioment I Ujht 
ftUer>£Ltt.' My inhtt Mid vhat he Jud oficn i-incc teen Ihc 
paruDotint impurtancc. for the ^V< oi the paiient. of keeping 
the hoi>e .-tnd with >1 the ttrcnjtth ^4 ilie mine in chaijic- 
ii he tocbefimciL found dil!icL[k 10 do rompj^iihly with iruih. 
old gCnddiuinf however, caused him no suth perpleiiiy. 

He was lenl for hy Mr. P , who NaiJ, * From all Ihat I 

bjtiY teen And hcitid af you I bcbeve thil yuu urt Ihc kt:^C 
^ mun whi> ^ill tpc-ik (he truth. Jud if I atk, yuu frill ivU 
me wh<Q J lai dyin^ Now I mucli doire ihai yon ^ould 
«ttf&d m^lf yow win t>'o<"i«'p whMcvtr 1 may uy. always 
lA dctbrp (hfli [ 4m UfA ^mng to die." My fafhcrneqiiieifed 
ov (he uadi^nundrng thai hift wuidti should in fact have ncr 

'' Uy father poucfcii^d jin cxtraocdinary niemc>r)i. ctpcciaUy 
for datei. » thjt he knew, when he mm very old. the day of 
Ck^ (lirrh, mAfrijtjt*;. *nd death of a mullilui^r of pcr><ons in 
SIkroiAhiiv; and he onec taW me th^t ihi>i |io«^ annoyed 
butt; fot if he «nee hcird ;i dale, he <:oa\d nut furi;et >t: and 
(hu> the deaths of many fntnda weie often recalled lo hH 
raisd Owin^ lu hit »tron^ nienwry he knew ia eMiaordi< 





nary niimbtf of turiouiiiofTci* whicTi ht tiknl tci ull, ai he wia 
a i^rc^iE tfitkcr ^W wh4 gmrrally in bigh tj^itUi« ^tntJ Uugl^cd 
Aiiil Jnkfii with every aac — ofim with hi» iwrvfltitfr— with iho 
urmaii freedom: y<t he had ihc art of maktrig everyone dicy 
hliii to tiie luttcr. Mftny pvtbtiiib ^vtfq much afraid uf hirn. 
1 rcmctnbcr m> fftihet telling tit one Ojy, with a bu^li, thit 

MvcraJ pcr^oni had tttkd him vhclhei Uiu , a gianO 

old ^ady m ShropthifT. h^d <ilkd on him. lo ihal a1 Uit he 

enquired why rhcy ;thki'd him ; and hi' wm luld Ibal Miu , 

whom my father liad ■nmchnw mfin4l]y nffendrd, wbr ttllTng 
everyliody ihat she would c^dl and tcU 'ihui fat old doctor 
very phinly wlmt she thought vf htm/ She had alr^djr 
C'tllrd, but her cniirJK? had Tiilcd^ ant\ no o>nc <Jou1d fuK 
hccTi moTT courCf ftut und friendly. Ai a hay, 1 iwrnt to Hfly 

DC the hoii<ie of -, who*e wife vat m*juic; And ihc poor 

creiiiuiv, lu lOon a< ifho taw mr. wak in thr mmt abj«cr slate 
of Cefri'>r Chui I rtvrfrikv, urqrinjf liillerly nnd AikmK me ovci 
and over again, ' U your father coming?' but wu trkon paci- 
fied. On my rciurn hom?^ I aited tny father why »iic waa w 
frtghCened, and he Jintwncd he vat very glad lo hear It, ■> 
he liad fnt:h(ened her on piirpofc, feeling lUte that she u<mld 
be kepi in ufeiy ind murh hi(^pier without any rniiaini, 
it her htiitbJinU cuuLJ jitdueute her, whenever Uio beeame 
At jiLI viUctit, by proposing lo lend for I)r. Darwin; and 
ihcie word* lucceetlcd perfeedy durinj; Ihc r."*t f»f her long 

" My fjither wn» very scnsilive, lo ihai many smaU rrents 
annDjcd him or pa-intd him mucli, 1 unci? abkeU hiin. when 
he wofl old and tould not walk, why he Uid not drive oui for 
exerLite ; >ind he atiiiwcreiL ' Kvciy road out ol Shfemhury 
» OJ^oeialed in my mind with tome painful c>~civL' Vet he 
Wilt generally in hj^h *pirin, He w:<» ej«Hy madff very 
angry, bui fai* bindnehiwa* imtwundcd. He wu widely mid 
(teei'ly loved. 

" fie «ai a cautiout and good man of bniinnv vi XhtX he 
hardly ever loat money by An investment, and left lO hit 
children a very Itrge property. « I KRvember a atovy !ihowing 

I>B. K. W. iMttVL'lN, 





how tttiVj tutctlr f«T»c bchrfb orj^mAtc imJ cpreid. Mr. 

£ -, 1 ^ulfc of one of the oldeit funflic* in ShrQ|ihJ\ir«i 

4fid head pormrr in 1 bank, ccmmiUefT sLiLciJc, My father 
V4S lent foi is a tnalifrof furni, ^nd fouad hiindcdd, ] muy 
xnirnikin, bf ihe way> to iho# liow maiU'rv were ]umi^;;?U in 
Ifurtv old d;);^*, thjt bcciutc Mr. E wjt ■ fjitlicf iiri-^l 

mm* uid ufiivcnAlly a-^pircTcd. no toqu^i wu held over U\% 
body. My fjlh^r, in rHumiriK homf, thm)|efiT it pmpcr to 
cbU it the bdTik (wHcr? he had «ji Accoiinil to lell the^ 
log pSkTUivrs uf th« cvniti jk ii uus not improbable ihuf ]i 
would cjEJiiv 1 tuii UI1 llii: L>^»k. Well, eCk.' ?i(ury »Mfi tfpfeud 
|» mil >vide, thjtt my laihec wca; inio chc bank, diew out aJl 
b» □hOtfiey* left ihc bank, (rarnebickngAin^JiadiAid, 'Imay ju^l 

tdl jxni thai Mr. K hni kilW hmiKclf," und then dtimricd. 

Il ^ccttV Ib.l1 H wMh Ibcd II r^immi^n bdii'f tliaE iiioiK'y wtth- 
drtwQ from a bonk wast not »jfc uniil the pcuon J;ad iuhaciI 
0«t throa|-h the du^^r ni Ihc batik. My father did not beat 
tht* ilQfy till «imr brtic time *ftcrwj4riU, when the managing 
pufaef idld IhAl be had depafCcd from hit mvAruNfr ruk 9l 
n«Ter ntloA^mf: any onir <n hl'o the arrotmt of another tnan^ hy 
haWng ^Jftiwn thu kdgirt wuh my faibor'a nrcouol lo airvcrnl 
IKMOtti, OH thi« pro^'ctl that my fothtrr had rifii <lr.iivn mit a 
pvnAy Oft that day. U vould have been diahonomble m my 
fftther to havr iiied hii pmfnRton^ knowErd^c (qi hh |mva(« 
Adranl'-igr Nrvfrthclr^ thf tiLpiWMt'd iirl w:m ^[rcitlv jid* 
enircd by sonn' pcraons ; nnd many yean nfrirw.ifd*, n k^ n- 
llccun rimiarkcd, * Ah, Doctor. wb;it i splendid man of hiT^i- 
Qm you wen.' in to ctv>'tr)y K^Ltiii|t idl your money >tafc out 
oi thAt b^nk 1 ' 

" Uy fathff'i miod vm not actcntilic, and he did aot try 
to grtierali^c h(« knfiwlrdK^ HrnV*r [irnr'fal I.iw* ; yet h* 
formed ft theory fur .ilmosT eTerything which ijrfMrmt, I 
do not think I gained m^ich from him tnieUE^cnidJIy ; b»t 
hi« eiamfiTp ijuj:ht Eu have been cf much monl »ctvice to all 
hi* children. iJitt- of lii^ jcDhlcit riUfJt (a bard one to follow) 
vUft * Never l>ecome the friend of nny one whom yoa cAcnut 



Dr. nandn hid »ix children:* Mftrimnc, nnrrkd I)r, 
lU-nry Parker; Cjnolmct nurriH Joiiah Wed^ood; Era«- 
iiiuh Alvcy ; Sunaii, iJicil uiimdrned; QiirlvA Kotivrl ; CaihV' 
rinCf niUficd Kcv, Choilct l^T^utoti. 

The «Mc-r wo, Erdimus, wAt bom iu 1S04. and died ua- 

He, 3(kc his brorhor, wn* cctucuK^d at Sbrrw»huTy fifhodl 
and at Ctiritils Colkgri Cambnd^. Hv sunWed meclizine m 
Kdinbur^ uud in L<jnJon, jind luok Iht dej^i^t: vt Badiclui 
v! McOicmu ut CftULhriiJiic. lie iicvt:^ lO^ilc any jJTciCfLi-i" <■■! 
firacl^ting as a doctor, ;ind, alicr kjving Cambridge, tivcU ^ 
quLft life in hondnrL 

1*htrc w:»s Homelliing pathtftii: in Charlf* DfirwJn'* affcc- 
Lion for his brother Cro-tinuis ai^ tf he always rvco^lci.tvd hi« 
loliLiry life, oad the louchlng ppLiencc ami awccinca of hlr> 
aaturc- He odcn (poke vt liitn m " i'oof gld Rai," or " Poor 
dear oLd Thiloi " — I ini3j;mc Phtlci^ (l^ilohojihcr) wit a rrlic 
of the d^yn when Ihcr worked at chcmi«zn^ in rhc tool.houic 
at Shrewibury— A time ef tpfari^h h? nlwjiyi preserved a plcjv 
am memory. Kr3vnii» biding rathvr nn>re (hwi fijur ycir^ 
older than Churlci D:'T^vin. tluT ivrrr ni^t k*njf lojcrfthcr .it 
Cambrid|:r, but prcumthly n Kdinhiir^h thty liscil in the 
ttuxie Jodi^iiip. nod After ihe VoyA^e they liifcd for a time to* 
geihcf ill CrnmiuV house in Grrni ^fflTU>nT^>u>Ih Stnrt At 
Thi< Itme fllxn he ofTcn hpeHW^ ivirh miirh fllTri-luin of KrBi- 
mni iti hit letters 10 Ffiv, nstn^ wordn surh iu "my dear good 
M brother- ' In later years Erasmu*; Dnnoin cjmt to Dowix 
uccuionally, or juined his 1.irolhf:r*B fiUJiily in a Biitniiii-r I10I1- 
dty, Hill %t2iiuA]]y tl c»me al>EJUl (hat he '.OLild nnt, llui' li 
in health, mike up h\% mind lo Jeave London, and chea iher 
only B.iiT pjrh other nhcn C7har1i!< Darwin went for a u-eet at 
a rimr Ta hl^ liroihrr"* hminf hi fjnern Anrio Slfti-t* 

'I'hi! ftillowin^ n^iic iin his ^Toihei*« ciharac^rcT vas writleo 
by Chark-i Darwin at ibout ihe t^mv lime that Ihc sketch ol 
hi* father iv.-ti added 10 th<; ' Recoil ettiont ';*- 

or Lheic M rk Wf d j-iTDod u i»iw Lhc wle Hfnrltvr. 


** M^ broUicr ErumiB ptA^t^v^ 1 rc">arlLilj]r c\t*t mitid 
wub cxtrnuiv and ilLt-cThiricd iA»tc« ji"4 k»oH]«<l^r ri Fiirii- 
1uK'> ui. and even in i^icnfc, For « lUorr time he collected 
flDrl <Jrir<l pUnci, and dunng a comcirhai longer lime cxpcri* 
taenied in c:hrniisti7> He vast txiiKtaviy a^tevah]^, and liis 
wa oUku ttitii;idcil ini; of Uul iu lIic kucnt »uU works uf 
OurJet l.irok He nrai verr kind-heoned. . . . Hit hcjjJEh 
from hii bofhow^ K.-id br^n rvcnk, and :ti a eon«equmce he 
failed in enenry. Hi« a|imN ivrn" ti/it high, *j>mr(i-nn Tnw, 
more c4peebUy during etrlf and middk manhood. He rend 
mai^li, even whiLn a liijjv md ai school i^ntouragtd mt- w 
read, lendinf^ iDv buukK. Oer minds i^nd l^ie? ucre. hu^wver* 
u> diSeicnti that 1 do iiut think I owv much to him intellectu- 
ally. I nm ificlmcd 10 jgree vi:h Fr^^ncii Gslion m hellov- 
mg, tlyit education and environniL'nt prj«liiec only a -ietiliII 
effeel on the nund of Any one, ^nd ihax moat of our <iualii]c» 
Aire isnatc." 

Ermniii Dinvin's lume* ihoush nut knuwn Ic the gi;ncn] 
]itthl>c. my be rernemUi^rcd from the hkctch of liii chur.i^-ier 
in Caitylc'i ' RcmiaiAc?ncc\' which I hrre cvpr^dwre m 

"Erasniiii Dumin, a mu«t divriTie kind o\ isiorUl^ cjme (o 
tk UA out tvr; ><i)on ('lud licird cif Carlyle in Germ^inf, 
\') tnd eondnnct ever imci: to be n quccE bouK-^ncnd^ 
honeilly atUeh«d ; ihonf;h hi« vi«it> laftnly have lieen rarer 
And rarer, hwlth si^ piirtr, 1 «^ orruiJTrd, itc , Sft lie had 
«OMeihing nf ori^nnl and snrc attic ully inj;enious in liLni. on« 
of Ibr vineeresi. n^itunlly Imissu afid nioht modi'it oE mm ; 
elder bTuthffEuf Cliailch lUrwm (Uic Uifird Darwin on Spccki 
of ihat day*) tt/ whom 1 rachct pn-fcr him for in»Hleeif lind 
E>ot hii health ctuire ^oomi^d him to ntenre an<1 patlmt idle- 
nr*v ... Mr dpir oiu- had a icre^il favour for this honL-^ 
l>af«in alMujs ; nuny a toad, to ihcif^v And ihc like, lie droiv 
ber inhUcab(Darwini;mmCabbum «:gm|iar;il]k to Oeori:"i"i 
Sid'in] tn thoto varly dayi wliun even the rhAr|£[^ cf omnibuhc* 



WM a cnnisidcrallnn^ and hi* iparsc urtrnnffri, urdonk oflMi, 
w^rc a grcai nraan^mtnc to her 'A perfi-ct ^L^rillnn:tn/ wbr 
ui once dittc«ravd him lu bir, uiC uf MUiiU woiili inO ki»tlJi- 
new in tbv uighl un^Llfcctcil fuiin/'* 

Ch«rlci Darttin did doI appred^iic thh %)tt^teh mf hii 
bT9lh<rr: he ihoviitKi C*r1yic hnd mitfr?^ t\\c c*jKncc t>t hU 
roohi lovable nature 

I am icmptcd by ihr winh of ilUisirating fHrlhcr the 
chnrackr of unv ho wni*fdy lieloved by nX] Clii^ilch U^iitin'h 
diiidrcMt (u fi'pniJifirC % IcLltrr Ui Ihc ^itti/p> (Sept. j, I^l) 
by but cotum Miit JuUii Wedgwood, 

"A iiorlrait Utvm Mr, Carlyltr's punfolio nol PCffrnU'd by 
any who Lovi-tl Lbc original, «urc1y coofeti •ul^idknt (tiilLBJc- 
linn to warrani a lew wotdi trf notice, wbcn ihc cb;iractcr 
it dcpitls ii withdrawn from mortal k"^:. Ki.v.mos tbc only 
brothrr i»f Cbntk-^i Uarwin, and ilxc faiihful nnd jfTc^ftionnie 
old fncnd of both the Cnrlylci, hn* left a ciTdc of mourner?* 
who need no iribiti^ from ilUiitrioun |H.'n (o ombuLiri the 
memory »o (kar (o Iht'ir hcnrrt ; fujt a widn cif<'lr muiit 
liAvo fv'lt «omc i.ntriL;:)4t cxi^ltcd by thai tribute, and may 
receive wilb a certain aiEention the record of i unique and 
indelible frnpri:«i'>n, e*-en fhcmKli it V m.idr only on the 
heAfUcif thnur who cnnnot hcnucflth it, -in<t with whom, thf^re- 
forej it musi sppcdfly pim away, Tbcy rememher it with the 
lame dialinr:tne«s at. they itmember a i-icaiion uf |:ernu>i ; it 
\iuh in ULe iiuuitvr oarulicd ^rid bttcrU'mrd life, lortii^J a 
common mceling-point for iliutc ^bo had no ollaef ; and, in 
it* stfonx fr^f^rxnco of in d it-id nab ty, enforiced thai TV«peci for 
the idioflynrroriet of humjin ^hjir^irtrr tvirbont vhirh moral 
^dfcmrni In alwayi hard and KhaMow, nnri oif^rn unJiiEi. 
Cirlyle wa» one to find a peculiar enjoyment in the combina- 
tion of livcbnc**and fcjiosc- «hitb i^iie hi* friend's sovieiy an 
tollucnce ^t tttice itimufACing Und lOfjihing. aii<t Ihe warmtb 

'CarlxlcV'ftcmiiuiccnen,* vol il, jl »& 



of bis ii|iprcciiiiion w** n-^E made ktiuwn hjtf in it* poilliu- 
iDoui eftimuion; hit IctitfrKOfattxiciy ncArly IhitiT)^^'^ o^gfK 
vbcfk rhrlrati life »hkh hjis been protongi-d to old ngf was 
ihr*--»icnc/l hvserioii« illnysi^ are Mill fresh in my mvawty. 
The fricr)dbliit> was (^|u^U]r warm with bolh liutb^ud >uid w;/& 
t rtt(n^-sit>i:r acII :« |ialt)Ctii: lilEEc rcir^oiLitiancc Irom her 
c>iciud by *n jivowjI (ram ILjiimu* Datwin. iKii he picf^frcd 
OiU to do;^ •bith ihc ffll a slur nn hrr liJtlr * Nrm; ' and 
the tonfft in whirli 4hc vuitd^ ' OK, hut ynu arc fand of dogn f 
yi>u *rr too kind not lo he,' sjiokc "f tt long vista of itnall, 
fftaaat kindnnn^ rciziicmbprc-d wiih fi lendet iiruluude. 
He was jQtiJiutc ;iJKr with * purion whtjui: f;i<.-iKK IlLl' liiusa 
of Mr. Oilyki hu>c nul ulw^yh had cjtuw to coiiKfJ^tul^Ec 
ihcHnclvct on rhcJr \tUcc in her jiJillcry.— II-irnL'i Mnftinc^^iu, 
I lure hcvd htm tnorv Ihan once caU her a f^ihful frit^nd^ and 
it ilwap Bcrmtrd lo me a curious Iributp to trimcEhinjiE ^^ ^'^^ 
(tWndhliip ihnt hr atonc sitpphcd ; biU if hIic had wricicn of 
hiin Ji -ili, I hdicvc iltc roeniioii, in it> hcnrtinv»» uf ajiprccia' 
tion, kvuld have afforded a ran and cuiioui rnccling^pQirtt 
with the other ' R^minisccncvi.' to like and yet bu unlike. It 
U tioc pOwiWc to tni»».fcf ihf im|>r<;*»iion of a ■'hiracicr; we 
c<i& OfDif Miggeil it hy mcini of nome icicmblancr ; and it ii 
a KtnfEutAr fllnntr^Tion of thai trony which rhortct or dircrls 
OUT tyjtip^llue^, (h;tl in ir>m^ tu t^ivt; t^jme nolwn ol Ihe "un 
vbooik^nunK ihiut? who were ntii hiii ktiidri-d, l.'arl^Ie upiw-tra 
to hivt mo*i l>5vcd, J tan *iy nothing more dcicripth* thflO 
thjiL he Bcrm* to me 1<> hfl»if inrnfrhirn; in common with 
the man whom (.Jirlylr len>-c wpTireciJiird, The lorieiy of 
Eraim«» Uorwjn had, lo my mind, much the utmc charm u 
the writings of Chnrlcs I^amb. There was the same kind of 
pla^fulno*^ ihc h^iiiic li|;h|iiL*>« of louch, (h« bftmt tonderncH, 
pcrtapt die i^uK limitationt. On mother «ide of hii nature, 
I have often been reminded of him by Ihe quniat, dcUeate 
hurAonr, tho MjfM'ffii'ial intoleranfLV Ihe deq" iprinj^ r>f pity, 
the pveuhar rnritiiifv of Mmvihinjc (laiJicth with a unt of |[ay 
Kcanw cntLicIy remote from contcmpl. which distinguish the 
l£l(eu&eE9 of Six Arthur Helps* caiUer dialo^cs. TcrhapA 


we TfcaW *!irh niifiirvt motl tliitim^tly, when mch » fcttHU 
hL-mct: if ill thut h It-ri of them. TherhAraclcf it out rnt^r^cl 
\n xhv crcatiun ; uid ivlijt wc loiit in ihe power lo i^ijiiimusj- 
cjic our imjjfWLOiL, wv wi^iu to ie^ih Ui iib vitidnrH». ErjM- 
mui iiAiwin h;ii pjucd -i^Ay la old iigc. yd lnh iiiciht^ry 
rcvjiint tomtthin^ of a yoTithful frjgrancc ; hU influence gtve 
much h-'ijk|»inci«^ of a kind u^UAlly oi^ih^iAtrd wllh yrtiilh, lo 
many live* hc&id?* fhr illtifitrinui one- whour record* JiiKtify, 
LliuLL^h uf^rtably the/ ilu not inspifc, tliv tvith iv place tUi> 

Thf forcgoioj? |wiKr» givf, in a fragmcncnry manti<f, at 
iTiijtIt fjcith.iiis as need be told of ihc family from whkh 
Chajtii* Darwin caxac, and muy fccrw a& ^n iniroOuciion lo 
the AUlobiggtapliJcal simpler wJiich Tgllow*. 



[Mv fjithcr'i flurohiogrxphkiJ recolkctinn^. ^vcn in the prMcnf 
chiptFr. wrrr wnr<*ft (or h'» chiMrcn,— jnd wnittn Wflhoui sny 
thooijht liui ihqr would <tn ti4 pul>]»^inl, Tn many ihib iiiiiy hrtfin 
tti hapdaaiib^ity : hat thou ivh& kriirw ^»y fiiihcr will unilm(.-Lr;d huw 
tt win noi onTv powihlc, but nniMTal. Tlir auiohir-i;*r.iphy briiff ihc 
bteidBK, ' Rccollrrlitin* of the UirvrJnpnH'dl «i iny MmJ .&»([ CHjrar- 
fer/ and ff^fl wiib thr followinj; nntc;— "Au^' 3, 1S76, Thi» lAcIcb 
fli niy life wu btgtjn iboul Mjny JSlh At Hupcdcuc,' Mid iititc [hen T 
turn BriU«ii fi^ ncjriy an liour on mote aftenioon*." Ii wdl fuily 
be iinrlmiOAcI ihaf» jn a n^trmtiTe of a pnsona] nnA intimnir kind 
n-rt'-^ fnf hi* »ifc »fni tlirhlfcn, p.i«:%.t^4'ii ^h^ulrl nctur wliu'lt niimt 
hm be uniitTril; Jmil I hj,vc nut Uiuuj;ht il nrccuary to jndlcjiv 
vArir uich r^mri^Lnni atr mnrlr. [| hhii bcrn found nrcr^iiTy to 
nukf A fc* cmrTcTionK ol nbiimw vrih-il ^lip*. biit t^f number of 
VidiiJuraiJant lun bccii kept iJuwn tv llic iniinmui]]4->^F. D-] 

A GcwwAS Editor hiving wrifien lo mc for an acccmnt of 
IIk d*irtloj>fnont of my mmd ;ind rhararicr with ^omc ^lictch 
d mj niitobiogmphyt 1 hAve thotight ibhii ihr atlnmiif wniild 
amiiii- mc, and might iioMibly inicre!ii mychiMrcn or their 
chtlitrtEi- 1 know ihji it w-juld buvi? iiiUu'ct^d mc grrntl^ tu 
baiY rciid even to thcrt And dull a tkrLch of Ulc niijid «if my 
gratidnthcl. written by himtcir, Jnd what lie Ihouylit jmS 
dill, and ho* he workwl. I haiv lUli^mjiU-d lo urito the fol- 
■ lowiait oxxount of taynciit «> If I were a cL-tuI iiinn in Another 
I vcuiii looking hack oi my ovn HCe. Nor have 1 found this 

H ■ Mr- llmi]ii£ti Wedewwit'i ^o^v In SuncT* 



difficult, foT lire U Mat\y <t\tt villi mc. I hjvr tnki-n no 
jiAinit ahoMt my tiylc of writing. 

! wi* bom ai ShnrwtbutT on F<tiniarr i«h, i*!09, and 
toy earlitil rccoilcttion K<nt» Kick (inly tn when I waft .n f<Tw 
mnnlhn ov<^r Cnitr yrfln oM, wh>'n wf wrni m near Alicrgcle 
for sca-liathing, and I rec-ollcrt some events tnd ['lacrs tbcre 
with mint! IJlOt di&lincEnt-M. 

My mutUtrr dit-^ m July iHij^ when I w;» s little uvvt 
etlt'^i yv^r> olj. intl it Ih odd ihat I j;jii rcmcmttcr hju4ty 
Bnylhmg aboui hrt except her dcath-bcd, h<r black vtlvtt 
gcnrn, And her curiousty ron^rnicfcd vfork-|*Wf. In the 
«1>ring of ehU Komr year I wOA «cni tr) A (1«y-«:cho(kl in ShirWK- 
\}a!v, where I tiaycd -i year. I have been lold tlial I was 
much slower in ]c>uiiiDe than my younger t-isiKi LnUvsi 
uid I believe t]uc ] wj* in mjiny way* a nstighly hoy. 

By !hv time I wi^ni ta ihi» flay-ichool' my U»(c for n 
ral hurory. and more c-tprciajly for eoUccitng. vras viA\ di?*cl- 
oped. I tried to make ooi ihc naiae«of pUnc4|f and voU 
Icrtcd nil tortft nf ihins>s i^hHlji, lenh. franks, caitiff and min-^ 
eraU. The pa^ion for colTccting whinh le4<U a nun to be a 
syilcmiitic nalUMli^l, a virloo«>. ur a mi»er, wat vciy Vtio&g 
in me. :iE)d was t k^rly iTinatc, u§ i:<inG of aay itiitetl or brother 
«vcT hnd rhih usie. 


firivrt. Mr>. ttfivio »«i 4 UijirArtui «iif1 ^MPH'Ir^l Mr C4te'« (iMk^. n^i 
fiuy f^llirr 4* 4 hllkr ti'-f htmI ilirir ^ih \i\% rCiliri ^itln^ Hut boib hr 
uid 1ii» bii-rilwr w*(e vUfuli^iici] H"t1 tJiicudciJ c-j Wltuju lf> I)m Clivivlii of 
HniflaJiU ; anJ ^flir bii m!)- Ijcnliuixl he <wm< tihuollf r« have tfvnc lo 
eharch aitil ncn eu Mi. Cav^^, Tt fp^wm (-^. /j^tr/ dntttr, Dec. tf, 
ll^lK^kii a mural c&IjEa hv t»p«i^ vrtdtcl io hii Tiipcnory In the dtapcl, 

f IUy. W, a. Lei|hlan. ivhu *ii a ithiwTfrflo* of my faibrr'* m Mr. 
Caw't tchiwl. mirmbfn hU bringiq^ 4 fl^ircr lo ichuul imd iayiet; (1u( 
fall BOLTiri tioil TAuctii bkm how by Inolfing al 1K0 tn«kd# of lh« blonom lb« 
PBdac Af ihv plariT cnuM be Hlacorfml. Mr, L.iifhion £0* 0% ~Tbt» 
entity rautft my Afiont^on ■n't <urtr>tity, «nd I tnqiMix^l <4 htn repMU^ 
ly he« Ojit coahl be done ? "—•but hks kson vtb laUirLlly coou^h bu 

IflBHIIIHjbtC-^r, I\ 

no V noon 




Oot IJIlle event clnrjiijt ihli yru ho^ Axed luclf very 
Amij m m^ mbd. and I hnpe ifaat it haidone sa from my 
cDiucitnce having been a Fir rw arils ^ordj troubled by it ; it 
it curiuiii at^ ^bowing itiAl ui^pHivn^Ey I wm> iniirrcdrvil ai (hit 
early age tn tlii; vanabiliiy of plant*! 1 loLd another IjliIc 
boy U bdicvc il was L^rg^iloo, who aftcrw.irdi bcciitot' n vim]]- 
ItDOvn ti'^hrnoEri^Ht ami bfildni^i), Ihnl f nvihl pn'nliirr vnti' 
tnudy c^li^ured finJyinthiiAci iftd primroau by watering them 
with ceroin coloured fluielk, which was of cduih: a motjittous 
fable, asd had ttcnrr l'c<;n tried by ini'. t in^y her? uIad cc^n- 
f«M that ui a link boy l wu« much i^iven to Liitcnlmg iJclib- 
vrate fjtiiehaod)^ and thiL wot alwaji done fur the %s.kc of 
Cjuting eccLiemrtil. Fnr inili^ncr, 1 once gutherrd much 
valiiil4r fnitt frtim my farbirr'& uvea ami hid it in The ^hrviU' 
bory, «n<1 Ehcn rin in breat]i1r4» h.istc 10 «i/read ibc ne«'i 
tkM ] had ilixcovcred a hoj-fd of *lokn tniil. 

I nwi have bceo 1 very timple litOe (kUow when I firvt 
weal (0 Ihe Khool. A boy of ihe nirne ol Ginieit loi^k me 
iiuo a eftfce thop one d.iy. md bought lomc cube* for whEeh 
hr did not pay, as the shoT^man trusted htm. When we came 
out I vitcd himnhy hv did nol (loy for thcm,»nil l.v inMJnt- 
1y uuwefed, "Why, do you not know thai roy unck left 
a great tarn of money to tbe lo^n on condition ihM every 
tradesman ihould i^vc u-K'it^vrr wat vrnnted wirhndi |>ny> 
nent 10 any one who wore hh old hat und movrtt !»] in a 
fiartlcuUr mftnner*" ami he thk-'n showt^d mc how ii wai 
tnored. Ht Ihpn went into anathcr ihop where he ^la 
tmtted, and asked for tonk' ^iuaII arlEclv, muviii^ Ua hat in 
Ihe proper ntLinner, and of courte obtained it wilhoul pay* 
meat When we cxme out he *iid. '"Now if vou like to go 
by yourtc^f into Ibnil eike->ihop (how tvHI 1 rfmembcr it* 
eiaet piMition) 1 wiTi Tend T^> my h.itn -irul yf^n ena icet who-t- 
ever Y^ii like if ynii move the h-it on your head projirrly/' 
I gladly Accepted the ^^efous olfefp and went in and aikcd 
for some cal^e*. moved the ofd bat and Has vnilkinj^ out of 
Ihe i)hi3]\irhen the »hO|nnan msde J n)«h at me, an t dropped 
the cakea aad faa for dear bfe, uid was aitoniihed by 



l>ctng greeted uitfa »hout« uf Uiifihtei bf "^F ^*^ fHceid 

I ran *ay En my own favoiir ihat I wm is a Ixiy humnnv. 
TiiK t owed Ibis dilirdx (<> t'^^ iriBlrurliun and ?ijLnpk of my 

nuif quuliiy. 1 w:t» very fond of coLlcctrng eggs tiui I never 
look. iHoic tlian a linglc egg out n* s Urd'i n*:M, cxccpi o« 
one linglc occiiicn, irhcn I tot»t All, not for thcif value, bl 
from a wrt of bravftcln. 

T hml a atmnR taMr for angling, und would ait for any" 
number of bourvi un the bank uf * riv^r oi pond waLi.hin|E 
the flout; wh(-n al Matsr* I »;» lold that I couid kill the 
irorm* with «ji|t ^nd **ter, and from iKni day I n«irer »pitied 
■ li^ifiK worm, thcmgh Ji ihc tii^nsi: probably cf «omi loM 
cf !|ilf c«>f. 

Once ^K n vt^ry H(T]i; hi>y whilst at the day xJiool, or bis 
fort thai (ime, 1 acicd cnivlly, for I hcJl a ptJp|>yk 1 Urlievc, 
simply from enjoying ihc icimc of jKiwer; but Ihc beating 
iiould nut haw been kcvcrr« for the pnppy did nol howl, uf 
which I ir*:l niirr, i* llic ififJt wat near the lioiitc Th» act 
lay heavily on my ronicicncc^ £li ii 5ho«n by my rememher- 
ing the cKJci ipoi where the <:Time wan eommirted. It prE>h- 
ably lay all the heaviLT from my luve of ilcgv being then. an<l 
lot a |(}nu timi: ;il(4'rwu^(d)s J iiAMU'n, l>Ok>i hceined to know 
this Cor 1 wu OD oilept in robbing their love from ihcir 

I rrmrmVr rkurly only nn^ otVr incident dnrinji this 
year whilst nr Mr- Our's d.iily nch nol,— namely, (he bumi of 
a dragoon soldier ; and it a i^urprinng how clcnrly I ean mill 
avh iJif^ hureu with iUv matd empty baoLs and carbine suft* 
(Jciidcd Co the saddle, ^HL I {hii firing uver Ihi; grave, Tbi> 
>cenc deeply uirrcd whatever poetic fancy theic wa& i» me-^ 

In the mmmi-'r cf i8i8 1 weni to Dr BnTli^r't grc^r *< hool 
In Shrewsbury, and remainetT therv for stvcn yrai* til! Mld- 
vummer iHsj, whrn L yvat «itteL-n years old, I liojnied at 

* Thff huine vf hit iincLc, Joiub WcJgWDoJ, 




this «chAol, 10 thai f h«i! ihe t^tit AdvfimAgc <t( living the 
tite of a tmc schoolboy; buc ai iHr dbtinri^ va« hnniEr more 
th&n a Enik lu my l}o;i^ir, ] vciy often ran ihcic in ihc longt^r 
jsitvrv;ib( brtwcrn Ihc LaUmjft 4t>vr j-inl UcIujc JotkinfC n|J at 
iu|^. Tfctit« I think, wu in mjny wayt JulvarLldgcuuh lu inv 
by keeping t>p homf aUcctinn^ nnd ifircrcstv I rrmcmbcr 
in thr f^dy fMin of my M-hool Iifi^ ihjil I nfrrn hafi tfj nin 
t«ty qsieU^ CO be in umc, nnd from being :t fleet ranrtc-r woa 
gmeralljr woccwfkih but whvn in cJoubi I jjr^ypJ earni^Kily 
to Gvd to hd[j eiiCh •tiiJ I ivtil rciiii^iiibrr tliui I HttnbkjivJ tny 
kticccu lo the priyen jnd nut to my quick lunning, lattX 
tta/\t]M how gtnerallT I was aided. 

r have heard my fAlhei and rider n^tcr nay rhat I hndn n% 
a rtry jtiurt^ hi>y, a Hlii>n|t Unle for l{>n^ ^nhUiy wjilk;^; but 
»h£t I ihou|;hC jEmiui I knuw not. I uftcn bt'caciic qulic 
ah(i>rt>eJ| ^nd once, whilst rrlurning to ichuol *m the summit 
of the old loiCi&calioQi round ^hrewi.buryt which h.'vd bi^cn 
cxmrertcd iau> a public foui'|>alh wiih no pjrppet on one 
Mr, ] wjilkfd off and fell to the i;rtjui)dt btrc the height wj« 
OhlyaevcD ordshi feci. Ncv^rthelcM ihc oumbcr ol ih*»ught* 
hich pa^ied throagh my mind during ihb very thon, but 
vndden and whoHy oEii^iperti'd fjll. vu aAtonivhing, and 
lufdiy coT"t''>E<Me wiih what i»hy?<iologUtt have, I bt' 

t. pTavcd abijut ?jch tboD^Kl rcqiiiriii); quite an ipi^rviN* 
able amount ot rime. 

Nn*^in< eotild h-ive bc^Ti wor^i? for the development of 
tny mind th-in Dr. HtiilirrS irhuol^ m \i wm ^iririly rlmftirali 
nothing else being anghr, cxc^jn a littte nnrfeni f^eoj^nphy 
a&d hi^mry. The H-hocrT js j means of educjiion zo m? hiis 
ttmpl} ft blank. l>urin|; my i^'tivle life 1 Ijuvv bcfii liiijfuljHy 
mcapobte ol maitermg uky linguAgc, Etpucial itEention w» 
paid to Trne-mnkin^, and thi« 1 could never do well. I h-'id 
tmuny frienrK and got loifi^ther a g<vid eolk'clion of riM 
vcfKli whlrh by fijiIrliiniE logL-lhrr, 'Kiinetinivs jiilcil ^y ulhrr 
bof^ I fould *otk una any »ubjt:ci. Much aiterrtion was 
paid tt karnitig by li«n ihe leawni^jf ihe pfirioui day; 



I vnddi 



11n«« of Virgil T»t KiiiTic^ whiNt 1 w.ts in itinrn in): chapcl : but 
ihifl ^xercisjc wm. utLcdy u»pult:^h, Uts tvtry vctsc wiu foigoiti'n 
in forty*cigh[ haun, 1 wo^ not idle, and with the cxccpljon ul 
vcniRcntion. l^ncTJitly worked cofix:ifznfioH»ly Jt my cU»icv 
not ining I'rilVi- The vilc plrninrc I rvrr r;'f t'lvci.! fnrtm anch 
iludics, was from ujmi^ nf the adca of Horarc, which I aH- 

Whirii J left Ihtf B<:houJ 1 wa* for iny ag« nvahtfr bi|;h Dot 
low jn it ; und I believe Lhal 1 wu by All my [iiOh- 
leri and by tiiv fjih^f m a very ordinary boy. raihci below 
tbc coTTimon ^l^nfLinl m inlclUrt To my deep moruficatiori 
my f>thrr nncc snt*l fo me, " \an i arc for nnthlng hut *hcK>f* 
if^ dogt, !tad rat- catching, and you will btr a KUi^ncn lo 
your»ri( and ail your family." Bin my fjcher. whv wju (he 
kiiidehl man I <-¥ct knew iind ivho^c iiicii]i>rv 1 love wiih uli 
my heart, rniiii have been Angry nnd Anmewh^l unjuM ivhcn 
he astil mch VDrdi. 

Loofcing biifk ai- wdl a% I ran ii my irharacler diifinf; 
Tny whoo] lifi-. (hi* only ipiditieh which iil Ihix (Jcriud prymUcd 
well fiir ih^' fiiiufe, were, that I hod ^irong and diveniAed 
taf»(e^ much xeal for whaibever inkrvtied me. and x keen 
picjiiure iju undetttandinK Any r^'mpki ^ulijeei or ihmic. I 
wM Uughc Euclid hy a privnie tuirrr, nnd I diatlnf dy ri^mrm- 
hrr fhp Jnicn*** sntisfneTion wbii.h the cleat geometrical proofs 
^ave mc. I remeittI>eE. with vi-^ual diishnLiii»-it ili« delight 
wliich my unijlc itavc mc (llic £allu,-t uf Francis GalU>u) liy 
ejiplauung the jirinLiple of Ibe vemlei of a tMUometer. VViUi 
retpect to dlverii^ed Uite*. md^ip^ndcutly of leience, I w,it 
fond of re-idinil vajlou* bdokt, And T ii*ed to •it for hniiti 
reading the hiAloricU pbysof Shakespeafe, generally in *n 
olil window m lixe thick walh oftheschuol, 1 n;nd alMUiher 
IMn'Uj, fudi ti<t ThumNun't 'Si.%tfluns' ui^d Ihv icixntty pub- 
Itihcd [Hjcint of Hyron and Sf<i[l. 1 mention thia becjtutc 
Uter in \iir r wholly lo»i, tn niy grpur regret, all pkware from 
pociry Oif nny kind. inr]iK]Jnj( Shdke^pear-f. In conneetion 
wiih plejtHurc from (loetry. I mny add Thai in iSit n vivid 
ddighl in icenery wu (i\n awakened in my mind, during a 



mr on the btfdcrt nf Vr'^iTu, AnO iluM hai JoiFcd longer 

Ejiflf m my icfiocl 6ay% a hoy had fl ifpy nf X^t ' Won- 
den <i( Ihti Worfd/ wbich I ofti-n rvud. an<] drHjiuivd wtili 
OtlifT tx>y>i about chcvejJi.iLyc>t «umc uf the hiAlciiirnLh ; and 
I tri:lLcvc thai tliit book hni g.kvc loc a with to Iravd in ic- 
iiMte countries «hkh vr.Ti u|tim:iie1y fuEfillfd bjr ihtr iciyage 
of the Sf^fU. In ihr liElli''f p;iTT Af my Hihrjol iSfi^ t hcrimc 
pOMloffiAttfly fond ai ihooting ; I ^a no\ b^Eiovc ihaL lOny nr-c 
CpOuM have shovo more xcol fc»r ihc moit haiy tause lh,in I 
did fof Hbooiing bitdi. Ho^v «eil I rvrncinbci killing n\y TcbL 
bDipv. and my i'xltiUiikiiL ujh mj i^c^l that 1 had tiiiiLh dilli- 
cuhy ta reloailiiig my gun U^m (he trembling of my hnadft. 
TliK utic long ci^tiiiftued, and I bi^rame a vi-ry pjod »hot 
When at (ZamlirvdiEe I u^i^d ta prai'ti^i^ thiowin^ \%\* my i;im 
10 my ^houldrt t-cfufi^ a loolEinif-^lauit to KC th:ii I threw ii up 
«iraighr. Anothtii and better t^lan wa^ lu get a friend tc>«,ive 
about a lighted cjadk, and Ihen to tire at it with a cap on 
ibtf Dippki 4ttd il tbc tjcn wa?! accurjiic the little pudT of Jir 
wnld ^low cMii the caadle The eKplotiim ot the ■ ap rau«eil 
i »harp crack, and 1 wu edM thai the tutor of ihc college re- 
inatkcd^ "What an eitraondiiiiiry thin^ it is Mr. Dar^tin 
*cmM bo spend hoiir^ in (ir.'H'kttij; a h<irni.'-whTi» jri hm rnnm, 
foiT I ofwn hear the cr»tk when 1 \nii>h under liih windgwh." 

I hod many frrcnd» ^^mongil ihc (fhoolboyi, whom I Loved 
iScuIyi and I think ihat n^y diipo^iriorj wm ihtn very aRec- 

With fe^pect to wfenoe, I mminiied follfc^ting minerals 
with much Beal, but ijuite un&ciemifituEly—an that I cared 
about wai a Dewrumi/./ mineral, urnJ L hardly attempted ta 
clakbify them. I m»i4 have o1ji<ecvcd iriMxth with tocue litlLv 
4iXt^ for when Een yeait old (i^i'^k ^ wenl Lor three wcekt to 
1*1** Ed» Ards on ihc iea-coaiT in W-itci, t was very much in- 
terested aod surprised at hecinx ^ l^^v lilat^h and scarlet 
Hrmipieroua in«iecc, many mcihs (Zyguna). and 1 CiemdeU 
vhu'li -krc not Tound in Shropbhiie^ 1 aIii>o»t nude up my 
m^nd io \>z^Ki colliMtin;^ all the tii»L'L'^ ^'ht^h I i.<.'Lild find 



dradi foi on fyininiUinit my tUfer 1 vf>nrlu<lcd that it msti not 
right to kill inicctii for ihc «ikc of nmkinit i coili-ttujn. 
From reading White's "Sclboinc,' I took much pleasure in 
HJidiin^ ilii- liibiti of bindft. Mid vvL'ti niadt* nuii:^ on ihc 
tiibjcCL III tay tiiti|;Li<:U]r I rvmcidbt'i wullJitili|c why tvcT)' 
Kcntlciikftn did not become xn ornilholonLtt. 

Towards the close of m^ ichool life, mj- brother worked 
hAnI JtX ctirmhrry, and maile a f»iir Ijih/tratory with ^^miK^r 
iifrjmrarus in xhc tanl-hoUHc tn iKc garrlen, nnd I wot alh^wi-d 
ID aid him u a servant m man of hia experiments. He mado 
all tlie ^diftiB and nmn^ coinpuunde, and J rtod liith greut 
tjre '^evrinl htJiAn i^ii thrniivlryf fcucli lU Hviiiy und Paiken' 
'ChcnmrtI Catcehiwn/ The nubjecl tnterrtlcd rae grcatlyj 
and vfc often n*cd to go on working rill rAlher tAle u nighi. 
Thiswa5 thi- btMil partuf my edneaiiDn at fchoul, for if ihoved 
mn praciicniljr (he meaning of experimt^ntJil stJcince. Thtr 
f:irt Ihut wc wofked ai ehemistry fioinehow giu known ai nchuciL 
jjnd j^ it wah an unjtrci ed^nted (;t<:i, 1 wv. nickn^inied 
'' (Jjiv" I \t js alio once publJcEy leliuked by tUi; hoid-mjlMeT, 
Dr Boiler, for ihut wa&tjn^ my lime on luch uwleu tuhjecii; 
and he called me very unjuaily J " pucci cnramc," .ind »» I 
did not undcrsumd whiii he, it seemed to mc n fearful 

An \ wdft rioing no good a\ *rhooK my fflthcrr wisely took 
me uwuy m a rather earlier a^v thun obual, ;ind »:iiL iiic ^dut, 
itfjff) to KdinbuEjib University with my brother, Mhere I 
itaycd for two yean or turioni- My broLhei w» completing 
hi* mcdirnl 5ti.fdic*, tliongh T do not believe he ever r«illy in- 
[endrd m pmrriHf, Jinil I w!\\ tj-nt there to enmmenee them. 
bm Roon after ihia period I l>erame eonvinced from various 
idnnll eifcumsianees that my faiher would leave me ptofietty 
vnou^h to 9i]b>tJat on ULvb somv coinfoit, Itjou^h I newt 
inkj}ime4 th^t I thoiiM Ivc y>o rich % ntan u I Jim; biu my 
belief WM luffideni to check any nrenuoui rflort* to Icajn 

The inMnieiion •! Kdhhnrtih w.ih ali^jiclher by lectuA'S 
and thoc were loioler^bly dull, w;th the cxccpLion of thoK 




cm chfiniury tty Ho\n: : bui it> ray mind there ^re no advan- 
ugv& and xtuny diudv^inofjPK in Irctiiiri nompjcvd niih jciid* 
inj^ Dr Uuf}CJLn'& IcciLirct un MjtcrU Mt-dJtiA -tt S o'clock 
OS a wUicr's mnming irt (nmrthing fcarfuS to rcmcmlicr, 
Dr ^^~- insdc ha kciuii?^ on hmniin itiaiatny at dull a» he 
w^A hiitv>Tll. udd dio bubjeci dibguHlcd i\w. ti lifiA piovcd 
VDc ol thi gicjtcjil cvilt» iri my life thjil J wjh iii't urged tu 
pr»L(ite diktcctionf for 1 liiould kioei luve roI o^ci my d;*- 
gM : a.nd the prjt^ikc would hnve been inviliijiblc fov all my 
Jaturc work, Thi» hit* tn:co *ii irrctncdiaMc cvW. an well u 
my iwapEidlj lo dr^LW. I aho nitcT\d^d rc^ulnrly the chiiii^al 
wofdft in fhc hoxpiul, Some n£ the cases didrcsitcd m^ a 
gcwd deali and 1 vtill have vivid pi<:iuie» before me <jf some 
of them ; Ijiit ] wAt not *k> fooliRh ^^ Eu allow Ihu to lcH?i?n 
fny aJleodaiiff. I cahnot underfinnd why thii pan of my 
mcdicA-l courip did nf>t inicrirtii mr ir> a grcntrr degree: ; for 
during ihr summer li^fore roimri^ Ui KdinlnirKli I Ijl'j;;;!]! rit* 
Undiiij^ tijjuv i>1 ihc poor people, Lhivrly thililteii uiid womm 
b Shrewsbury : 1 wrote dowD a» lull ao account o^ 1 could 
of tW c^c viih all the »ymptoni% ^nd read thcui afond t'> 
my falher, who fu^«(cd furdwr and nlvihcd me 
•Jul mwlitmc* lo flivc, winch I majc up mysplf. At one 
tinv I had At Iraii :l doirirn p^itient-i, .-ind I felt .i kiren iniercsi 
in ibe work. My fiiher. whu wjh liy Iai Ebe bnt juj^ ^ 
cl>uacl<v whom l ever knew, dnlxivd that 1 hlmifLd tujkv a 
ttKxvuJu] pby»ician,^mcnnioj' by thii one whc* would get 
miny pilie&tK. He mainrained that ihfr chirf elem^riF of ^ur* 
COM Win rxrili"(( rrtnfidlIJ5<''- - ^"' what he a,^w in mi' wliifb 
ciMviruvd him thai 1 should croite confLdenee ) know noL 
I &b« attended on l«^ Dcea^iuns Lhv opvruling Ihcatrv \n the 
btiipiUi at Hdinbur^li, und >»iw l*v vcjy hatl upt^r^iionai vwt 
ua a ebdd, but I rutlu-d ^iwjy bcli^rc lliey were eoiikplrted. 
Mov did I ever aileod again, for hardly any ioducement 
would hare been (ironf; i-nciujch to mnVe mo do 90: Ihii bemg 
kiilg before the blessed dnyx of rhkifoform, Thi; |wi> cauia 
fairly hjiunttd me tot many a Umg year. 

Uy broiJict aiayed vnly one year .xx the University, io that 



during the ftrcomi y^r 1 vvt \cU to mj own rcMnrcft ; And 
ithis vm iin ndvanlj^c, /6r t Wrdmt^ well ocqiuifitcd wiih 
[vcvrra! yuunt; men fontd of DJtlurj] Kiunce. Ouwf tlicaf 

n^ riii ; he wit* a XVcincruu gcologiil. and kntw a btllc about 
many nib)«cti, Dr. Coldstream wai a very [Itffrrrnt young 
man, prim, formal, highly rdij;i<>ii«f and fiiotit kiiKJ^^hcfutfil ; 
lir :ifrrrw,inli4 pdhlnhnl lomo ^nnd xnolnpcal ankle*. A 
vMrd young man «ns Hardir. who would, J thint, htt%-c nmde 
a. good botaniit, Imi died rurly in In^u. i:itbt\y. Dr. GtAtii, 
my senior by ^wcfiil yi-ur*, but Imw I Ijcuarnc ati^uaiiilBU 
wttU hmi I i.amiLiI [ciitcmbtr j he ]jub|ii,[ieii tomt firfW^tc 
loobfical p«pcri. hni after coming to I^ndon .if Prof«0or 
in Univer«ty Collcg?, he did nnthing nincr iri wcienri:, a fnci 
whi* Ii hnfi iilwityi bton int"X]»lir jililc lo nic I knew htm wdl ; 
he vatt dry and Ti^rniiil m miuincr, with tnuih tnihuhuum 
beneath thid 9iitcr crust. He one day, whea wi; were walk- 
tnic ii-uviher bnni furth in hij;b jdniiration of Lunirck ind 
hj» virwi on rvobiTiAn 1 Jinrrncd in HitenF AitonMhmrni, ind 
u fir as t can judge wiiboiit any ctfeci nn my mind. I had 
prcviounly ft'itd Ihc * Zjonomin " of my t;rnn4ir[nhcT, in which 
similar vicwi^ arc niaini,iined| hut wiihinii |midncin|[ Any ellW.'l 
on mc. NevcrthelcM iL i* probable Chat Ibc hc«rinK ratbef 
<ar]y in life iii<h vltvft mainuined and praiied m^y haie 
fAvotJTod my upholdin)! Ihrm nndrr .1 dtffirncnr form in niy 
•Origin of Species.' At ihts time I admired j^ady the 
'Ztxjnumia^" but on reading it a srcond time iftrrr on inici 
vjI af i«n i?t lifircn years, 1 wax much diaappoinied : il 
piopoflkm nf '.|H-i:ul»l)tjn Ui')tii; bo brifp lo (he iatlB nivenn 

Uriv Uiant and Cohiwireaiii uLlcniUd much to maiiOie 
^oolopyi nnd f i^iftcn accompanied the former ta ccllcct jini- 
m.ih in the tldnl ponH. whirh T div^^ctc^d a^ well ai T cfiali 

,i,dMi becJme fric-nd)^ uiih fiionic of the Newluivcn fifihermen, 
lometiifiei accompanied them when they ttawlcd foe 

"Offlen, And I'uin ij^c ni^ny spcLimens^ Hui fic^m n-?\ hAvinj; 
hud iny feRubr f.fittiec in disKciion, itiid frvm i.Ki*^e*iinj[ 
only a wreichtd microfcopC) my a.itrmpit were v^ry puor. 



tievvrtMw I niAcJo one in Li-rc4iiiig Tittli; rli«covory, and read, 
abnul the bcginnrng of ihe vcai i526>jthcirt paper l>1^ ihe 
Htbjvct bdore Ihc Hinun Sgdcty. This wai Lhfil ihc ao- 
CjaDcd ovii of Fliitfrn h;i(! flu' pcnn'i" of indrpcnck-nt mMve* 
oicni by rafjin* of < {Tin, ami wirrt* in fa*t Inrvir. In flnoihrr 
khan paper I nhowcd that the Ihile globular liudics which had 
bvcn Kipt>Dai-d lo be llic youn^ iiaie uf /Imvj j^r^uj wirre the 
Cgg-ow^ oi \he wi^miikc i'^nt*tbiif!iA murttaSa. 

The flinun Society wa* encouraged Jinil, 1 bdicvci 
fooMkii by ProfnioT J.ime^on : it coniuied of tiudcDit ind 
fn^t in in im^liTjEtJiii'id nmni in ihc Univcrxily for the nke 
o^ rcidinB ^lain^m on naEoritI firicnf* and di^cHSAlng fhcm. I 
ascd rvguUrljr to ailcnd, and ihe mcccingii had ;i ^nnd <>lTcct 
«]Q foc m ttimuUung iiiy «rjJ and giving mc nuw congenial 
9c<|<citnUncn, One evening j pour young m^t ggi ii|t, and 
AflM KUmTDcrinf for * pradiRiOL» length of titnCi bluihing 
crioMon, he 01 lui itowly gm aui the wordi, " Mr, Prciiden^ 
I hive foritotien wh-it 1 w** B'*>'»K *'* *^y-" I'he ^loor fdlokv 
h>okrd cjAiiTe overwhelmed, and tW the mcmbctt vcre *o suH- 
priftcd Lhflt no ont' r^ould rhmk of a word ro niy to eovrr M« 
Canfutu>n, 'I'hr p|ri^n whiih w^^tv rr^d En our littli.' »oci(jly 
wete not priaied, u» that I hod not the tatii^fii. hon of Kcemj{ 
mjr piper in print ; bui I believe iJr, Grant noticed my tmall 
duoAvrry in hin eTccllirnf rnernoir on Flustrs 

I wji* ill*o \ mrrnhrf flf (hi- Royil Mc^^uhT So-^kty, J^nrf 
sttcodcdiireuy rrgulsrly: bui fti the subjects were e»rlusivcly 
loedut^i, I did not much can- itbuut them. Mucli rubbisli 
wai talked there, but tlu-rc ttere^i;i»e ^'ood bpr.ikui)»» uf ivhom 
tlw bete ffJii ihc p^eieni titf J. Kiy-ShutlJcworth. iJr, Gf^uiC 
look me o^cjiticiaally to the merdnitt of the WemFriiin So- 
ctetf) where vurimn* |ijii»rrH ftn nshiral hi^inrv wen' rr^rl, din- 
cBsied, jnd literwirdt published in ihr 'Tranaaninns." I 
bcaxd Audubcm deliver there mmc intcrcniog dltmuncs on 
the lubit* of N. Ainencin bL^J^ tnt'eHnu toinv-wh.-it uii|ustl/ 
JIt WfltcflfrTi. * Hy tbr wny, ■ negro tivnt in iMliiibiirnh, who 
hul tfa«rllcdv with W'-ierion, 4nd S'^incd hii livelihood by 
kUtffiag binH vhirh he did nt^^cUcnOy : he gavemc Lcnonii 



ii>i paymeni, Jtttd 1 iii«d of1«n lo ill with bim, lor he vu a' 
yviy frlcfLiunt and lolcltigiTEit in^xL 

Mr. LfonArd Tloffif^r ».hn UK>1e mr once ta » mrciiriK <*( 
ihf Rfi^-nl Society of Edinburg^v, where I lav Sir Wnkcr 
ScoH b the chair as PenidFiH, and he apoltij^iwd to the 
meclifij; iiu nul Icelini; (luvd tor such a pmiticn. I louked m 
hii» a[id :tl Llic whtjlc tit'ciic with firjmc Jwc uad tcvvrcjiLc. 
Add 1 ihtiib it w-ts vwing to thi^ Vihii during my youth, and 
!t» my having aitended ihe Royil Mcdic;i| SocittT. thftt I felt 
(he honour of b*.-inj( H-^rlfd .1 few yt.ini ■(■'^ ^n honoiiry 
mcmhiT f]f Uilh Ihrs*' Snrii^tk"^ morr Ihun jiny oihir timilar 
hnnnur If \ h,id hc^on tnlrl j9T thjii time thiit E shoiild one 
day have heeu ihutt honouie^l, I declare that I ihQuld have 
thuU);lu il as tidiculgus and inijitububle, m Jl~ J had been told 
that I i>h<ji]Ld be elected Kinie vi KTiKKmJ^ 

lliiring my scconrt year a[ Fdinburgh I aticnded '* 

Iceturei on (Ecology nnd Zoology^ bm they wrn* incredibly 
diiU The wk cITl-l-i ihcy |in>du':eiJ tm mr wju rhi' dcEcnDi- 
tuition ni'vcr as lonR n* I livvd to rvud a bouk un Clcolo^y, 
or in any way to atudy the science. Yet 1 feel sure ibAi i 
**ajt preparer! (i>r a |>hi]obO|]hiLj]l trejimentof the atibici:! ; 
for in old Mr, CoUoTi in Shropibire. whc kne* u iichw deal 
MhtiMi rock!c, had pijinted out to me Iwn nr thfcr ycjir* ptcvi- 
nmly ■ Wfll-Vrifiwn larjite errntip h<»Mldfr in the lawn a( 
^hrcvsXmry. fa\]oi\ ihr 'hill-^ionr"; be toM mc ihiil there 
itas no Tock of the Kuac kind ticaxer than (^uiiibtrtaDd <jr 
Scottuid. iLHil he ftolemnly oraured me that ihe world wuuld 
dome lL> an i:^id hi^ftire aoy utK' wvttld be; able lu explain bow 
Ihii »tOine cjnie where n now l*y. This pn>duced a d«ep 
impfc*«on on mc, and I mcditatpd over thU won'k-rfnl *(fQite. 
Kci ihnt ] frll the kcenoir delight wbrn T lint rend nf the 
ttCMian of ireheri^i In iranaimning baulderi, and I gloried in 
the fjiogrcti oi Geology. t^t|UiXliy striking a the fai:l (hat 1, 
though «(»» oiity sUiV'^even ye^rt old, heard iKc I'rofctiort 
in a field leetrfrc tt S^iibury t.>dij^ diiEOnn^mg tva a trai>- 
dyke, with :imf gdaloitUI roarginA and the itrntj indoratrd on 
each ude, wtvh volcanic rocti a]] irotind hh, «iy ihai it vji» 4 



irc fiLIH With tcriimirnT fram nbovtv adding wtlh n ineer 
Ibir th^Tf wrrc men who mainTaincd thai \i had l^-rn Liijci:ti;d 
fniia briidh in a moUcn condition. Whc» 1 ilimk oi xhn 
kLtutVt 1 du not wonder (HaI I dctctnimcd never to Jtltcnd 
to Cacology. 

From nitrtidinic > hTdirr*, I Wr^nn' nrqunifirrd with 

the <:nntM of ihc muwum. Mr. MarHiUivrnv. whn jiCicrwnrdfl 
publiAcddlafgE^anil ticdltrnt bouk cin the biidtotf Stioibnd. 
I had muth itil«rv'iting n;ituNLl'iii*>iury ulk with Inni, and he 
wu vri) kifiJ tu inc. He i^ive luc honic rurc hhtll^ (t^r I il 
ikit lime collccled maunc molluican f>ui with no great icoX. 

Mj summer vjcjicon? during These tno yean wcte whtiily 
givtik up to ■minemrni*, ihmi^h I Alwjiyi had wmc hiyak in 
b^nd, which I rcuil wiEh intcnriit. During thf Miinmif of 
tttC 1 look X long ujliciny I'^ut with two ^noml^^ ^iih knnj)- 
ucks on WX1 biuki thraui;h Nurtb Walct. Wc walked Ihiriy 
miio moit Ofiirs mcludnt^ tjne day the oNcenl of SnoAvdon. 
I aUo went tvith my Mtlcr a riding tour in Ncirlb Wale*. « 
fterrukt with isddlir^ba^t carrying out cfothe*. The fluhimnii 
w*re devotc<I to nhcKilinj^ ohicfly iit Mr. Owtn'a, ai WoodliouEic, 
and *l my Undc J(i*'s*ai Mncr My «yji| ir^'i lo ^rent that I 
afcd lo pUce my ihuoiirF^-bo<;t« open by my bcd-tidu when I 
veni to b«d, BO i« not to love half a minute iu iimting them 
ein in ihe morninj^ ; nnd on lytM^ ocCntiion t reached a dittant 
pan ed the Mder e^imc, nn xhe soih or Aiiiiii^t fi>r bUilt^KAine 
ihoi^iTOg, bcibre I could tux : 1 then toiled nn vrith ihr j^mr- 
kvqtrr (he ttholv d^y tlirough thick heiith and young SrntrJi 

1 fcepi an «iucc record of every bird whivU I thut throuj^h- 
out the vhole season. One day whea ftbooiinjc At WoL>d- 
bovtr *ith Capui" 0*i-n, ihe clde*i son. nnd M^i^or IMI. his 
coLiiJn, afictwarcis Lord Rcrwii-k, both nf whotn t bkcd very 
iDiidi. I thought myKK f^hamdulEy iivd, for ev^ry timer after 
I hdJ fired and Ihoujchl th^t 1 bad killed a bird, one of tho 
two*cLcd A* if loading hjtj^un, and i;ricdouti "You mu*l not 

*J«hh W«d£v»I. theun«rifc£fuiiiir!eiartrKCiruruWarLi, 



etmnt that Mr^, for I ^re^ ai thr ^omi' lime," and tht ^am?^ 

hoiif* ihvy told mc ll^c JoIlc. bui i( wtu no )i>Lc ta inc. tot I 
had %UoX fl Ufgc number of birds bui did noi know how 
many, and could not Add ihnu to my litt, Br1:iich I wd to do 
by Rinktti^ A Icnm In n picrc of flHn^ llt^d to n biilton-hole. 
Thii my wicked fHcnds hnti pcrc:civcd_ 

How I did tfnjoy dhooting! bui ] ihlnk thui I miisi have 
Lcirn h^Ef-cunscioubly uhlij^iiicd uf iny £c;d, fvr I lri«d 1o pur> 
ku.idc myAcH tE]:Li tihtioitng «,a& almoi^t ah iMLcltci:lual ccnploy- 
mcnl; it rtquircd «o much «ki1l to judge where to find mom 
ItJimr ]in<! in h^ini the dni^t wHl, 

One of my nuiuiu[i:tl viMts lo Maj^r tn 1837 was memora- 
b)c from meetmg there Sir J, MacLioto^h, who ;vat the beet 
convener J cvi.-t listened IOh J he^rd afltrruards with a 
j|]rjw '>f pride thr;; he hid H&id, '' There is laonKEhing tn thM 
yoimg iiijin Thai iniereiti mc " Thi* miut hflvr been rhif fly 
due 10 hii perceiving thai I li!iicn('d witli much LniFri.'4( to 
everything which hti ^id, for t was as ignoranl as n pigaltnuT 
hts «ubjei't» of hikEory, (tolilic^f and moral fihilni^fjhy- To 
hear of praiJ^c uom an eminent jun^on. though no doubt api 
or ccruin :o cwilc vanity, i5» L thmfc. good lor a y^nn^ man, 
at it hclpii TO kei-p him in the Hghi rouMC 

My vi^it^ TO Mner diifin;^ thcsi? two or ihfrp ^iirrcerfing 
yean were ciniip detighiful, independently of (he auiumniil 
■hootiAg, Life there vms pcrft'cily free; the countty was 
v«Ty pleavmil fot vuJkmu or liJin^ ; »"<J in the cvi*Mtng thcrv 
wat much very agreeablf convent^Eiiou^ n»t hci perfonoJ a* it 
i/finttA\\y is in large family partin. loj^cllter with musie. In 
the summer the whole family used often to fcit nn iV «rp» ftf 
Ihe old |>oftirot with ihe fiower-jpirden in fronr, ttrnt with the 
Mfep wooded hank opjinsiie the houw reflected in ihe lakt", 
*itli here a.nd there a fish riiing or a WAter-bird paddling 
abouL Noihfnj h»t lefl a more vivid pitlure on my mind Thi'*f <V4-nJnjj* at M^er I wan a!tc niLiehed 10 aud 
greiily revered my Uncle foti he wni nilcni and rc.vrved, TO 
n.t to be a rather awful man ; bat he HomelLuic^ talked openly 



with Tnc. He ttAi th« very type of An upright mAti, hii1i ihc 
ckU¥«i ^dgmcnt. I do noc bcHcvc that iny paw^r on earth 
ciMid hdi% ma^e hun vhtrrvc an inch from wh^ii he ton«id' 
cfvd th< nj^K tvurrc, l uvcJ to '^[''^1}' tv hjitt in ui)- ntind 
thtf wvlt'Litvwu ixlc ol Hi:>iftce, nutf fof ^Qllcn li>' luc. in wfLicli 

tr^ C^m^iJx^ (8j8- 1^31.— Afttrr hjvinj; *|icnt two WMii>n* in 
Edinliurjch, my fslhff prrrrivnl, ftr hr hrJinl frnni myiiircrA, 
ihAt [ rlid not Ukc ihc rhoughE of being a phy^imn, u-» he 
pfoFOacd iZiat t ahuitlj bcconiL- a tOcrgymaii. Ili;^ wm irry 
pTiO(<i1y icliaui^ni >i^«iniil my lurturij; intij iin idle ^[jurtiEie 
nin* which then iKiucd :n>~ Tifott^l>ft; detuitaiion. 1 asked 
Im some tiint^ co consider. jtH frorn whut lUtl? I hfid heard or 
thnu^i iin iTic Hiibjcci I h;id hr mpW aWjiif clorhring mf 
liditft in III] the dogEn;^! af itic Chun h nl Kn^liLud; thrmgb 
oUict»iv I Ukcd the Thought of bvmg a counuy dergyman. 
Ai:cord>n^lf 1 r«il with care ' TejirKin on the Creed." jnti a 
lc« o4htf book« on dmnity: -ind -t^ I did not then in the 
lc>4t doubc the 4irici anri Ui^aI tniih of every word in the 
ILibk, I soon penuodcd nywlf that out Creed mu^ be fuUy 

Considering how hcrccly 1 have been atiitkcd by the 
orthodox, <1 vcenu lutjirrodt ihM I ontr iijlcndcii to be a 
clergyman. Sitr *fl* ihU inirmmn unri my fafhct'twi^h ever 
fnfnally given u^h hut die<l a naiUMi d^-itK when, rn h-avin^ 
Cambridge. I joined the Staxlr as nalundisL If the (ihre- 
iMiloptts are tu hie tnitnl, t ^rj4 ^eU littrd m one retp^t to 
tie a elotKV^-i'L A lew ycar« ago the hCMcUvifh uf :« Ger- 
fnan ptychologicaj aociei}^ aiked me eanieiity by IcEter for 
a photograph of my«Hf ; and fome Time i^cnaardi I received 
the pfoecrvl tnj(t of one of iHc nieeiinj(\ in whiefk tt tei^mrd ihAi 
tbe shape of my bead had been Ibe »ubjeci of « pubhr discoid 

Nob f itlnof ftTtAt fivata )ub«niiunh 
Xf>n vnliut inXiutii* lyiuirrk 
Mcitlc qqjdt i-iUdl- 



tion, and OM oC the ipcik^n ifcj-ljircd thkt T hTid Ihc budp 
of reverence developed enough tor ten prie^c* 

Aft it wu decided lliul I thoutd be i vlirrgyman. ti *u 
nec^bsarv liutt J Miould b;i> lo iinv uf ihv Knglntli uiiiv«TbJEiri 
;Lnd 1;lKc a ilcgrec ; tmi ai 1 lidil ncvei o|ivned a lIoi^ii^ 
book liiKC kavrns Khool, t found to my diiouy, lh»l in Ihc 
iWQ itircrvrning yean I hid jirrn-ilfy forftoriro. incredible Jsit 
m«y Ap]>cnr, Almoht rvrryrhing whii^h I hrni Ir-irni^ even to 
vimc tew o( ihc Greek Irtcen-, I diil net ihcrefnre prorocd 
lo Cam^jTidi^ ^t the usufil liinr in OLiubcr, but worked ^iih 
a private tutur ia Shmvtbury, »uii wvut tu Cambridge after 
th« Christmuh vdu&iion, cuily in iSiS. 1 voon reiorfnd my 
wbwsl tundard at knowledge, and eotild inn^htc cjiiy Grcvk 
bookv. iLieh Jis llomrr and [lie (Irt-L-k Tc^i,Lment. wiih iiHHief* 
ate factlily, 

During the ihree year* wbith I -ipent at Cambridge mj 

I timu wa» wii^Ee J, xt far j» ibe ^ademicAl *1tidie« were COB- 
irrncd. jih compleiely u ai Fdinbiirj^h ^ind at tchooL I M- 

Itempjcd m« he malice and even went during the lummcr at 
iXt^ n-iih a private tutor ({^ very dull mnn) to Hnrmouih, but 
] )COl 4jn very ^iluwlyt The work wat rrpu^ant eii me, chieljf 
IfOLu my not iK-in^ aljlc to tee aay mcAnLng tn (he i:arJy &(«|m 
in aluebf'!- Thii impAticnee wu very fbali^, and in aitet 
yrj»r» I hjivc deeply reRrrtied that T did not pnoeCfd fat 
rnrinKh J^' lea^T (ri und^^ncand «onif'Thin)C of the grcti lending 
printiplcB of maihcmaiirs, for men ihui endowed seem ti> 
have an extra icnse. But I do not brieve ihnt I ^liuuld ever 
haw Buctorded beyond a wry luw gi-idi'. WMJi rrspecl to 
Clajrtict I did nalJiijig except attend a few <iom]juliory tulleKe 
lecturev uid the atiendauce wu almott nominal. In my 
vftond yenr I h-id lo work for a monih or tvo ]o pa» the 
ritlle'C'O, whieh I did e^atly, Afiin, in my bM yc3r I 
tvnrkcd with Mime carnemncu for my Anal de|f ree of Kh A.* 
and brushed up my Cbtiict, together with a liitlc Algebra 
a-nd Butlid, which Lnttcr gave tue much pleJiure, « it did at 
aehool In order to pau the i(. A. exAminjition, it wu alft> 
nceeuary to ^i up Paley'« ' Evidences of Chriilinnity,' and 




hit * MorjiT PhtloAOphy.' Thii w>t done in i thirtrougK mfin- 
nrr, and 1 am co1lvin(^{frl I conM havrr «ritt<:n aut the 
whole uf ih; ' Evidences' wHh pi-rfcct <:um;clnc->i. huE not of 
coui^ III Ibc ckar bui^MJ^^^C vl V-thy. Tlit; lui^ic ul ihia 
book uid, 4« 1 nujr add, of hit ' N^furftt Ihcology/ gave mc 
AS nittfh (! flight at did Euclid, Tbf cirefiil itudjr cf thciC 
work*, vrlt^EMll ftEt^OipTinj; to Icam Jiny pArt Ity rotf.', wi44 ihf 
only purr ^r the acAdcmirdI courAc whtch» «fl ] then ffrli 4i\d 
n I itill believe, was of ih*? leasi use to mc in tht- cilucaiion 
vf ray inmd^ L did nut at xlmt uma ItuxthW itipetf iibuul 
Pale^) '» pf tmiiiei ; Anil t.tkinj£ ihotc on uud. I w:ni t-EiArmcd 
and convinced by xht loDg line of mgumcnution., Byan- 
svcTtnj^ ficll Ihr cxsminjiiion i^ut'^tronb in PAloy^ ]>)' dmng 
Euclid wt\lf nod ity not fu^lin^ rMiAE.-rnl]|y in Cnasiii^:;, 1 ^nt;d 
d good pidce among Ihc ol nA\u< or t:Towd of men who do 
not go in for honoun. Oddly cnouj-h, L cinciji urmcinbcr 
how high I itiiod, And my mcmc^ry l1ui,LUiilc>f between the 

^firlh, tfJiTh, or twclfth.namc on ihc Hit,* 
Public ledum on «ei'E.'nJ bmnchA were givin in the 
U|tiref^(I)r, 4ltrndarn::r ^mn^ ii^*''"^ volmifary ; but I wiih so 
ifckcncd vriih Ivtiurcs M Kdinliurgh [hat 1 di*i noi even 
■Itcnd ScdgvIcX't eloquent OJid iotercittng ledum. Had I 
dottC so I iliould ijrohablT have biftoEiLc d ^olo^i^t ea/licr 
i)un I did. I nitcndrd, however, Hfn0.iw\ hrlnrvt on 

(BotUkT, jjid Hkcid them murh for ihrir cvtri^mr rlcArncm, 
aad ibc admirable illnttrations : but 1 did not study l>oiiiny- 
Itaitlow UM^d to take his pupils, includinij bc^vcfd of thr 
oldci memliert of the Unurrviiy, fidd irxuiiinjon^i, on loot or 
in codchefi, to di»Lint plxco; or in a bAige down Ihc rivcf, 
4ind lectured on the nrer planii Jind AnimAU which were 
<>l>fc*rred. The** rinu«ioni vft*' f^rUK'^'ful. 

Althotigh, M we shall prcMTiily ice, there wt-ne lonie re 
dc«ni*ng fe^Liiief in my life at Cacnbridge* my limc wst budly 
watted th<r«, and worwj thin u.wl^^ From my [-jfcwyo f"t 
ahooung isd tot htutlofr and, when thi* tailed, for riding 

* T«iilb In Ifaf IM at Jinuary it}L 



actrat taunliy, I goi into a <iparting ict, (nrluding «>me df* 
vipjit<<d lowmiiKlccI yoiin^ men. We mod oftirn to dinf 
t<JUct^(^^ 111 llic cvviijiiu, thowjili Ibem <tinncn ciftvn miluJed 
meii) ct <! hivrhci ^dimpt »ipi] wo komttimc* dra&k too mudi, 
vith joUy irnj^mg diid plnyini; ni cirdi aflcrwxidi. 1 kno» 
that r Qughi 10 kcl nHhAmfd of 6%Yf> and rvcnin^ thiib ^in^nt, 
hni « *omi' tsi my frirnd^ wi^rs vrry jilp^in-nnf, and wt were 
nU in th^ higheM s|iiTUN, I conngt hc^j> looking hack to ihc«f 

times with tnllth lAtJtJUTV. 

Hm; 1 iiii [fUd Iv think iU;it I hiLd iiuay (rtlicr fMc^nds uf 
wiildy different qaiuic- 1 wiu very iniimHic wiiU WUitteyi* 
who wat afictnardi Senior Wrangler, and we u»cd contiou* 
itlly 10 lako lonjt wnlk« logrtbirr. Hf inocuiaroil mi; with i 
C:Lh1e for pLCtiirvi^ and ^ood engravjnjCHt <'F whu'h i brru^hC 
tonic, I I'le^ucntly went lo ihc Fiuwiltmm <!a]lery, and my 
lABU miisl hiive been fjiirl^- good, for I certainly Admitvd tfae 
iHTftt pictures whii'h I dtacuMcd with (he old ( ur^Lt^r. I rrad 
jilio with miifih mtercsT Sir Jcpihtu HcynoLdi' book, Thii 
Uatc, though not nrtiiiral to mi-, Irutcd for levcral y«r», nnd 
many of the picdirt-H in Ihe Nnfional (-olk^ry in lyindon ^vc 
inc mnrh plru^oTX' ; th.ii oC Scbu^imn del Piorabo cxdlinft >» 
nic a BcriBi' of sutrjimiiy, 

1 iiX),ti i^oL into a muncol let, 1 believe by tn^jni of my 
wiTTO-^icirlcd friend, llerbeftHf who took ,t hjjih »T,ii>j;lrr't 
drifTor. From JNtofijiiirig with fhcv men, ^nd h4''ifinjt them 
pifly, I a<^qufred a ttron^ lastc for music, and used very often 
to lime my walks so as tn hear on week day* ihir anthttn in 
Kiiig'it Colle^ ChajH.-!. I'ZiLf gjvc me InlvUNe |>lej«ure, tc 
thai my backbone uould sometimes shiver. I am suce thai 
there w,i4 no j.fTcrtation or mere imitation in this ISEtte, for I 
used generally to go by inyirif (o ICin^'h Coll^iic, anil 1 fiomC' 
times hired the ehori^ier boyit Ui ainx lii n^y rfiomii. Ne:(e> 

* Kr^. C Vi'hlftffH Htm. Ctnw i>r Durhtm) fvmierly K<Aii(r In N»n- 
ral PhfldMfihj in Durham I'oivirr^ily^ 

f Tlie ]*U JoJin >|Aiincc ElccbcTC, CtfuiiL^ Caurr Judge fll t^^rUi? U>d 
Lhc Uonnunith Cucujj. 





fWrn I «m KO viccrly (JcAthutc of on cAr, that I i:jLnnol p«r- 
ceire a discord, ov keep time «nd hum a tunc correctly ; and / 
it u A mrUcry how ) c-juW ponibly h»vc derived plciaurc 
frotfn mijwC' 

%ij tattiXcaX fH^ndfl noon perceived my filntCf ftnd mmc- 
tiBcs junuftcd thcmTidvs by making me paa ^n exninTnadun* 
which cvasiated ax aicvrtuinin^ haw imny Iui^b I cuulJ ive^ 
o^ibf when Ihcy were plHyuil ullurr tuurc tpiickJy t^r i-I<jw|y 
IhaA UMud. 'Gcd «ave the King^* whcri ihui [<lnytd, ^vu- a 
lore puifle. There wai :inorh<?r mnn with dlmovt Jif bnd An 
rar ■» T hAil, nri'l ^rrAnj;? to tny hr pinyt'd a liirte on the Aiiii;. 
€)nc<- I hftrl the iHumph tti healing hinvin ane nf our mn«ieid 

Bui no ]>ur(uu at C«uQbrtdge wAt folla^xd with nearly k) 
mQch cagemm or gtiie me lo much pkuLiie » goU»ti;ig 
i)«eite4> ll *>u the mert jixtiori (or collrclinK> f^^ 1 did not 
tliuecE ihcm, .ind fjfcly compjifcfl their asternal rh!ir*cte» ' 
vilh published dcicripttanip bni got ihem named anyhow. 1 
will ghv * TJnmf of my zeal : one day* on It^aringoff iomc<^ld 
barfc* I WW two rjifc beerk«, ami aciioil *mc m ea^'h ham] ; 
llwik 1 uw a third and new kind, whuh I could not hear to 
Ime, HI ihAt 1 popped Ihc on<- which I held in my nghi hmtd 
info my mouih. Abitf ti ejected some inlemely *crid fluid, 
wblch burnt my Eon^iic- v» That I wM farced to Jtpit the hf ctle 
miU whith was lo^t, at was the third one. 

t wAti vtfry tuccc^ful in oull?ct{ng) and invfnied c^o new 
TnethoJ*: 1 employed a Ubunrvr tr^ utrai^c during iht winU-r, 
mott all old tre« ind pU-ice it in a 1;irg? bAi;* jnO like^ liig to 
fotlett the rubbish m the bottom of ihc hATj^i in which reed* 
ire brought fmm the fenn. ^nd thun I gpl *oinc vt-ry rirc 
Its. N'j pwt e»et fdi more dL^lifititr-d at iccing hlii Ural 
1 |iubbfthrd tlraa 1 did j; teeing in Stephenfi' 'IILustro- 
lioai of Urittfii 1d*cci»/ the mai^t wrjrdKi "cMplurciJ by C. 
Dorwis. Ea<i,*' 1 WAS iniraduced to entomolofty by my ■?«• 
OTuI cousin. W. Dancin Fox, .\ clevrr and moti picftianr nun. 
■bo WW then ■! ThrittH CoHejce, u.nd with whom 1 became 
eiLlreiiKity ittttjmte. Aftcrvjrdt I bvcamc well aci^uaiDtfiit 


H fotle 



And went rnu foUocimjr, wiTh Albert W*y of Trinity-, who in 
aiui yKitn become a wdl^known uchKologist ; a]Bi> ^viitt H, 
Thompion of tht iAFn« College, afr«rurjird« a kidiag AgriculU 
Uri»f. rhnimiAn of -i (trcAt TJiilway. nnd Mrmbcr oF PrtrJia- 
in^nt If ii^cmii flicrcCrift that o tn*lc for c:r>t|fcring Itcctlc^ n 
same Jndic^tJDn ai future lucccts in life I 

1 am fiiirpnqc-d whiAi an iaMihiv itnprcnLun many of <hc 
Lceik'h wliu;h I I ;(ugliL iJi C-iiiUjiiJ^t- hnvt Ml uii my mind. 
I cjui remember Ibe cxaci appearance of certain potu. old 
IrtM And bank* rt'h<!r(! 1 mjidf a Rood capture. The preUy 
Piiiut/^iTut i-rax-jna/ar w m ii tTCA^uj-f in thonr djiyt^ and here 
At l)oMn I SJ.W 1 beetle tunning acmt^xawalk, Jtnd on pi<^tln|[ 
it up intuntly perceived Ihat it dilkrcd KligJilly from /*. frvi- 
majvr. ind iL turned nut (o be P- tutai/rifumtatui, which 1% 
only A fjvricty or clnnely Alhcd ^|.c<. i*^*, diflermp from it very 
itighlly in ouitine. t had never lecn in iliotc old d:jyf Liei' 
nuialivi", whk-h to an uncducmtd eye hardly diRcrs from 
m.inycif (ho blitck Caiabidou^ beei^K; but my ?^oni found 
here a ipcriincn, and I inHtiinlly recogniwd that it w« nc* 
to me : yet I had not Looked at a britUh l>ci:t]e foi ihr \^M 
Ivh-enly year*. 

I hare ncit a« yet mentioned a circuraitance which JnflU' 
«need my whole earcer more tbin any other, Thii va« my 
fric-mlhhip wrth Pmfcunr H^nalow. BffoTr; rnmtnjj vi|> lo 
Ombriilgc, I hnd hcnrd of hlni from my brother n* a mnn 
who knew every branch of Btieni'et and I was accordingly pre- 
pared lu rrvervnve hhn. Hu kvpt open huube oncv rvery 
ifveek when all vndrr|[TaduALcH> ftnil i^ume older lueinbei^ <A 
the Univeriity. who were attached to tcience. uiicd to meet 
in the evrnin)^ T «L>nn flot» Ihroujih Fov. :tn iniitaiion, and 
w-'nt fh^'fc rcKiilarly Bi^fore long T her^me wcH Ari]viainicd 
wrvh Hcn^lriw, nnd during the 1atti*r half of my time at Caiii< 
bindjfe took long ^alkt ividi birti on n\ofct d:iy» : %u that 1 was 
caUed hy iome (»f the dons '* the man nho w^lki with Hent- 
low ;" And in the evening I ^was very <^ften iskeJ t<i join hia 
fjuslly dinnrr. Hi« knowledge kai jifreAr rn l>ouny, ento- 
mology, chemiitry. miTkcralogy, and geology, \\\% iirongexl 


laAlc va> to di^v/ concfuvLviu (torn lung-continuErd miTSuic 
obacmtJoiu. His judgment wm excclki^L an<l tiii wliole 
foind veil li^ilLinrrd; tiOt 1 do n-it vippnNrthAt Mnyikdr MOUld 
*ny Ihot he |K».^.cv£d much ariginol genius. Hr nfiii deeply 
reiitcioiu. and uj uitliodox th^il b« luld mc one d^iy be sTinuld 
be gricvctl if a hinnk m.»fd \»1 liir "ninly'tnne Artnk* ufre 
Altered. liLt mora^L qunUlick wcie in every mj^y udmuulAv^ 
Hr «»free from evprytingeofvanftyor other peuy feetmg: 
■nd t never ^w .1 m^n who thnii|r1ir w lillE-r ^ibfiiil liimself 
or hi* flwn c'(inr.!fn)u Hi* temprr was- iir\\icniir\ni]t\y Rood, 
«BlJi the mcnt winning and ci^uncouii monnen^ ; yet> an I have 
wen, he could be mused by any bad acLLoa to ihe warmest 
iii4j«(iuEit>Ti and pcomjjt ^cliun. 

1 omce M"f in hE« company m (Tie ftlfcct? of C*iiil>ridue 
■Imoii a» horriii j »/ene iteonld have been wiincAted iJLirtnjc 
the Freneh Revolutii^n. Two body-^nnieheri hnd hccti at* 
tttU-di and vhiUi bi^in^ Mkin (o prison hrtd Wen torn from 
live GostiAhk- by a crowd uf tJie rouj^hchii iiiirn, who dr,i|^riJ 
them by theii legh «]ong the muddy and lEony rocid- They 
tttre cohered fn>m head I0 fuDt uiik mud. jnd ihcir facn 
were bleeding either from Kjivin^ b^vri kicked or from t\\a 
ttonei : they Ivilted like corpses buf the croird wa» ia denie 
thai I got only *» ft* momfntary glimpst^ of the nrt^tthcri 
dtaturcv Never in my life Hiive J mcei ftuth vrutb [ramkil 
on A mftn'f fjtce a» wa* ihowu by Hen^low he tht« horrid 
i«ne- He tried repeatedly lo penetrate ihc mob; b«i it 
wM »irnj>Iy imponible. He then rushed .»wny to the mayor, 
telLinjt me nni lo follov him, biit to ^r more poUremen, I 
iatjgft the iiftne» except thai the two men were got into the 
Itci«<fn tvitbvLJL beiniiilk'iJ, 

Hendi^w'ik bene\'okuce wjt unbounded, ** he proved by 
Ills many excellent t-chtmn for hit poor |>nri5hionef^ when 
>n after yt\n he hchl \hc livingf of Hitrham. My Eniimary 
itith itoeh Jk i»-an nii|,'hi 10 have ^ren. an<1 1 liojje w!l^,, an 
inestimable benetu. ) c^naot ic»iit mi^nLioaing Ji trifling 
incident, vhkb rhowcd hU kind eonv^der^tiga, W^liiUC ex- 
uiilnlDg Komc poUen-^ramt on a damp turfieet I iav the 



tuliCH CiSorMd,4nil latitantly rushcil ail to t^ommuAlcAie BSy 
f^LirprJKiiig diiccvery Co him. Nqw 1 do n»l tujipoM any 
olhi-T piofc»sor of botADV could have helped Uughing Jt my 
coniTng in vurh n h»rry |o niiikr Knrh a rrim[iiijniral(r>n. Hut 
hffljjfocfl how intrreitinj^ ihc ^jhi^nomcnon was, an<1 cxplnmod 
iiL manning, but mudc in<? clcirly uiidcrstanJ how wdl it w:ui 
known: 'io 1 \<ii hirn nul in th« lea^^ iiiur1i5tfd, but wdl 
]rl«Liiioi] :u huvitiit di»ck)vcicd fuf myself ho rL'iiiHflc^tili: n rLiL:c. 
l^ui di^Ecfniincd nat to be iq fuch a hufry again 1o comnkum- 
caic my diicovcric!. 

Dr WhrwHl wju ont^ of the oMrr and 'IlMJnjciiUhcd mpn 
who MmclimcK vj^c<^ H«i>iilnw, and on bcvctaI occaiiionii I 
ujikud home wuh him ^t nighl, Ncxi to Si; J. M-iclintosh 
he «'U!» Ihc btftt i:ont«ibcr on j^rjive buLijti:it to whom I ever 
lUtcncd. Leonjifd Jcnyns" y^^a afi^rwariU published *ome 
good ciiay* in PfntTirnl Hiiiory.t often utoycd with llcntlow. 
who wa> hii brolhcT-in-lnw. I vi-sitcd him at hi!i pcinonagc 
on the hordcrii of the I-Vn^ [SwJifThtim niilhi^kj. and had 
many a gGod walk and Ulk with him aboui KatiiraT HiMory. 
I birc;unc jIso acquainted ^ilh ivveral other men older than 
mc. uho di'l not c^re nuicEi Jibout iiU-nce^bul were fnrndt 
of llennlow. Oncwiifc a S<:ot< hman, brother t»f Sir Alexjnder 
Ramiflv, and iviinraf JcmRCoHegr ■ he *aa a drUgihtftd mnn, 
but did noi Vive for many yearKn Anoihcf w^k Mt, Davri. 
altciwajO» Dc'-m of lU'rcford. and famoui for hin siicccn in 
the education at iht poor, I'hctv lur^n and othctb oF ttkc 
»ine 5iJindin;[fH log;cthcr with Hentbw, un;*l »omettni<« to 
tjike dUtanr rtmrtion* into The coimtry, which I wa^ aIlo»rd 
ia Join, and they wen mofti agreeable. 

Lookiiii; b!Kk» 1 infrr that there muKt have been mme- 
IhiT^tL I" me a Ittll? itit]Krior tu the toiriHion run eiF yiMillit, 
oihcrwi^r the above-mentioned mefi, *o mnch older than inv 
and hiichcr ifi acadrmic«l position, would never have attowed 

• The wpH-knowB SoMifr /*nyn' wit «Hjtln tn Mr Jciij-ni" fnllicr. 
f Mr, Jtiifn^fiiow RlODiCllf Mj iltK^llwl tht fith fot th« /aulofy of 
llie iiM/ftf,- and n Uilknr nf « lung wrin of (U[irrv ihirFI^ /cujdguL 




me » usofiAtf With them. Certainly I vrat nol ay/utt of 
any feuth »u|>rriciritf, and I remember one of rny tjjortSn^ 
Trioidit TumcT, who saw mc it ■w'ork wiih my bccilc?, saying 
lh*i I itwultJ lOiiw d*Y Lu a t'tUuw uf ilic KuyjU ^civty, and 
ibc notion stcmed to mc prepottrrouhp 

Durisg mjr Jau year ai Cambridge. I n^i wjib care Mid 
prafovnd ii«<r*ii IlHmliiildi'* 'Pcrwnal PJ*rrfliive/ Thii 
vDik. umI ^ir J. Hcrfrhd's Mniroductfon to the ^tudy of 
Nuura] PhiEoiaphy." iiirttd up ?n mc a SurnioK wral m aM 
CTvs ih« mm! humble contribuiion tn the noble sitrtiriiirc of 
Njtuul ;^-L(jncc No one or a du^en otlii^r buuk:^ inllucnt^cil 
me flCJLrly »o tnu^b it^ IbcKc ivrgi. J coi^ictl oul Iniiu Hum- 
boAdl Jong piituget aboitE rcnrrille, anU rrAil ihrcn algui] 
on one of the flboi-e-mcniioned eitunic-ni, tojl tMnh) Hem- 
low, Ramny, And Dawn, tot an a prtvioui otcasion ) hud 
taUrd vbwii Ihe ^totiee of T^^rn^riffc, and '■otnr of thr iiorly 
declared tbey would endeavour to jc" there; hui I ihinit tlui 
they ivcre only half in cdrnvt^ I wai^ hoivevct, quiic in tat- 
De«t, an<l ftx an intnntiii tii>n to a merchniil in London co 
eM|uirc about iUiyt-i but iheicbctne "as of ooun^, ktio«:kfd 
00 tbc bei^ by the vuyAge *>i (be ifotx^r. 

Vlf tumaer vuationK were j|Wcn uji co i^ollccting becilctk 
la toror raiding, und ihori rout". In the jitttiian my whole 
tine was dciroicd to shooting, i:hiefl>' oi Woodhousc and 
Hatr. aivd somelime* wivh younjj Eylon of Eyion. Ui>on 
the nhola Ihv (bf*c years wbkli I -\n:\\\ a\ Ciim bridge wer* 
ihc lucQl Joyful ui rny hajipy hfe ; tor I n^t Ih^n in excellent 
bralih, jod al-mott alw^iys in hig>i i;^riits. 

Ai I h4d JiT Am rnrnr itji to ramhrii?}!'- at CHnitm^i^ I 
wAi f(»<red to keep IaO (erm^ afti^r pouing my An;^] rinmi- 
iMiion, At the rommmrcmeni of iSjr ; uid HeoMow theo 
pcnm^ded me 10 begin the ttudy of [i*!'jlo(;y. Thtrrfore on 
my rdum ti> Shropahiie I exitmiiii'd ^dions'i^d colouitd 
ft mJtp of paft* round ShrcwJiiiry. Profcuor Sedgwkk fn- 
lefided to I'iiii Nonh WaTc4 in the bepnnmgol Angvitt 10 
purtue his famous i;t^olripe.'Ll invt;»ti|£Jiiinn>i amon^Bt the 
oldoT rocks and Hvnslow a^ked him to allow me to nCGom- 




puiy Mm,* Accordingly he came and tivpi tl my bthpft-*! 

Anhnrt convctiatinn vnth htm during thU crrning firb- 
duci<J a suung iinjircEuun on my mmd. Whitsl riarnining 
lUi ulii giJivd'|iLi livitt ^Ltcw>»t>u ry, it lAbuufcr told mv that htf 
h«] found iTi it A Urge worn tropkjJ V'uluie hhdl, (Uch A 
may btr seen on (he <:h]nincy-V'"^* ^^ coliigci; «nd u he 
wo»l(l noi iidl ihr shfH, ! wnt convim^d thAt he had ncally 
found ii in the pit. 1 iiild Scdgwif^k of thir fjtri, Jkn<l hr jiv 
oacc sail! (ou duuLt inily) (hat ii muM have h«n (hTown 
Away by bomc on*.' intu ilic |)ii ; but then added, if really ciH' 
bedded ihcie tt wuuld br tlii; g^'^^^cat mjftfurtua? (o geulogy, 
AK ii would ovcnhrow sdl ihM wc Lnow *Wui llic Mijicditijl 
di^poflits of rho Mii^bndCfmmicL Thctc gravd-bcda bclopji 
in fuct to 1\k Klaci^l period, and in after yeori I found in ihem 
biakun jroiic Hhdh, lUit T wns then titicrly aiAioni«hfd at 
Sedgwick ik-ji bidng ddJj;lii<:d ai ho iscjriderful a fact u a 
Uup^^'^ B^^cll being fduad ticoc the ^otliKc lA the middle of 
Eagland- N»Ihin|£ before hud ever made me thoroughly 
realise, thuugh I had tend rxr'nutti «cicniific books l^i^t 
icience ccniins in grouping facts lOihAt grncral bvtiurcon* 
chkiiooi may he drawT^ from them, 

Nctl iiiornju^ *c ht^fled fur Lbii^ulkn. t^n^ay, tiin| 
and Capel Curi(^ J'hift ivur Vfut of dcLiJed use in tc^hiog 
me a hlUc hi>w t» make out the geology of a ^ouucry, Sedg- 
wick often ifcnt me on a line pnrnUel to hi», telling me to 
bring l-ijick hpt-HmenK n{ (he n^kv jind to mArk the sirAtilira* 
mn an A mfip- I hnve little dmibt ihjii he dM ihU for my 
goud, iia t w;iA lou igitur^Di tu have aided him, Un thb tour 

* !n fiinncrlion #ilH th'i lavr fny f^lbfr a^l fa Icll ■ aHWy al 
ttdlfwlrk LKfj hvl <i'ii:4 tniin Thcii inn nnc nrnmin^, ud bid will 
4 mill or IwiK whrii SpI;;h'jp^I< ^u-Mcnly ^Ei^jipiJ, *n*l i>«Hr?j1 rhfti he wnuM 
rvTurn. 1jriiij( cf rcain " Mill 'fjiiikrjc-i ^I'lirnlrel ~ \ll\t: yixifct) IuliI if ki-v^ii 
the chainiicrinjjcl ih* liiji^uc^ inimitcU Id him i-it ihr pmpotc. lU **f 
ulljmafffly jx'nuiili'il (a ^itt ttp ihr piojrrr, ■fvjnjj thti Ut<*iv w no 
iTuon for «n«pffiln|f ibt imilrt »rf ^pfr^l ptrftdy,- R IX 




1 Iku] ji nHliog InitajQce o( how easy it h lo overlook phe- 
DoukeML however t^ntpi(:ofli]*,ticfore ihcy ^a*c ln'cn giW'ivecl 
bj any fmr. Wr *pcni miny hr^iiTi m Cwm MwaT, c^,^min- 
in^ alt tbc reicki wiih cxircmc i:are, us St^dgn'ick u jiti aniLDUi 
u> ted fuf»flH ia them ; liut neitlifE uf u* saw d trjce (jf the 

notice the pbiaJ>' ii-<rrcd rocki, (he penihcd bouEdrfs <he 
Livenl ind trrminAl mi^nine*. Vet thnr phcnommA ^rt to 
noatpfiioiL4 rhjii, (lA I Atc]M\7d In a paper pnbliKhrnl mjiny 
jrcar* «f(crtvard& in the ' Phiiniophicil MflffKtnc/ • a house 
buroi down bjr 6re did doc tell its itury moTK pUmly than did 
thb tMllej' If It h^d hiili bvvn Titled by ia gJ.Lcirr, Chi; pHe- 
iioiueni wunlil hjn' lern lr^)i d)><iinct ilun ihc^ nn^^ uie. 

At Cipel Curig I Wi SodgwiV.k and went in a iiriiKhi Une 
b)r com'viu ind map jcro» thf mountim*! Lo Bjirmou;h, 
aci*r foUowinji jiny truck mtjIl'hb il i.'oimiidol with mJ■cm^^s^^ 
I lJlu« cjmc un Mine hivan^i; wiM phiccs. and t^Jtrycd iTiuch 
thn macQcr gf imcllin^ i visited Uanuuuih to bcc lome 
CiEnbriil)(e fric&di wli<> were reailLog there, jitid Ebencc re 
turned to :^hrci4'itinry nml ti» M^cr fijr MumtinB; '■*' at that 
rime I ihould hJTc thought ni>ie!f mnd to give up ihc flrfl 
day) of jidrtridge-^hoollng lor geolo^ or ncjr other stienoe^ 

ffffiagif ^ iJif' SMg^' /rem DftemUr i-j. i^y^ la Oifi^r 3, 

On ivtununii hijrnc Trvm ui>' ^huit ^i^olugic^ Eour in tCurih 
W^lci, J found A Ecttcr from Itviudowt inf^rniti^^ me (hut 
ChptJin I'iti-Roy wj» willing to give up pan ot Uii own 
r^bin 10 ftfty yiJ*in|; tnun who woiiJd volunteer to go with him 
pfly Bi nnturollut xa tho Vi»yj^^:«' of rhe ft/^l^ \ 
ivcn, aa I helieve. in rny MS- Jonmal an nccount of 
all the cirednsBlJinceii which tlien uccurr4;d ; t will hero oalj' 
*a]r that 1 wi* trutjntly cajEcr lo au;tcpf the 'ifTer, but m^ 
fjjher strongly i^bjeciedr idding the words foriunatc for mc, 

* * rh UavvMi^ MAfulDc' iS4»- 



^If you c«n fintl taj man <tt common wnic who advim you 
lo j/p [ will Rivf my ocnvnt " So I wroie th«l ctYoinfE 'nd 
rcfimeil ih*: offcf. On ihc nt:xt mominj I went to M*cr to he 
redely for ScpECttiber itu jind, whilsit oui fhoulin^p my uack* 
Bt^nt fur IMC uffcnai; tu dnvv mv over Ev Slircvibury itntl 
UJk wilh my fuilier, ut my uni;[c ihoughl it uuultl bu wuk in 
mc to accept ihc ofTct- Myfjth«c Dlwiys mniivtJincd Ihnit he 
wjii one of the mo»i seniiblc men in thf n-orM, and he at 
nncr cynsct^tcd m thr tifirlo*! miinnrT T h.til licm mrhcr 
f:itFnvnj£jint ai Cnmhrid^o^ find to cnnsnir my fnihcr, uid, 
"jhnt I iihoiiM be dcu«:cil clcvpr lo spend more than tny 
ollowancp whilst en board ihc Beaaiti" l>m he nnswervd lilh 
a iinik, " But they tell mt you 4ic very cltver." 

Neil d^y 1 tUrtcd for (.aniMdgc to KC Hcnulow, iind 
thence IE> l^ndon lo wr Fiu-Roy, and all was toon Jifruigcd. 
Afrctwi^f<1», on bccfiming vtry intimate with Fhr-Roy, I 
heard lh«t I had run u very nJirrow nsPt of bcinx rcjoiied. on 
account of Ihc shape of my nohc! He wu an ardent div 
ciplc of LaV3tcr, and wu convioted that he could judge of a 
man') chantctct by the outline of hin r«MurT4 \ anct hcdoulxcd 
whether iny oav with my noic could pu»e« sufficient cncrffy 
ftnd det^rmiruiion b^i the voyage. But T thLnk he wni afl«f' 
wards well satisfied thni my nose had tpoken fAlscly^ 

FiU'Roy'i character was a ainguUr one, with very tnosy 
noble featim;* 1 he wxh devoted to hitL duty, ]i;vn*">ub to a 
fault, bold, dctertnjucd, 4uJ iriUuMiiubly cnerneticp nnd uk 
Ardent friend lo jvll under his t»jy. 11c wonld undertake 
any lort of trouble to MH'^im Those whfim he IhnnKliil detfrvrfl 
uiistatiee. He was a handi^omi- m,in, tirikiniily like a genilc- 
mim, with higMy courteous manners which resembled tho»d 
of hit RtAternjt uncle* the lamous Lord Cx^ilctcagh. as 1 was 
told by the Minuter al Kio^ Nwvrihclv-* he niusf have 
inhcriied murh tn hi\ appearance from Charles If., for Hr 
WiJJich g!tvc me a eollL"i:tirjn of phot ogr phi which be had 
made, and I waii struck uJth iltc retnnhUnce of one to Pitt- 

■ jAiidh WfdfWKd, 





Roy: and on looUng jt the oainc, 1 found ii Cb- E. Sobioki 


Fkz-Roy'% tetaprr vas x most unfortunate one It vets 
iisudllr warn in the caily morning* jind ^*ilh hi* rogfe eye he 
I utikl j^iivraily (liMrci tvmif ilitn^ JdiriiDk i^IkkiI thi" *iln|>. Anc! 
■*u tbco tTn»|>jiiing m hih liUitic. He #u vciy kitiJ Co i»c, 
but «i« J taa.n very <lilBcvU lo live wiih on the intinuEe Icrmi 
wlijcti TirrcvuiTJly foHoiKL'd frrim our mriiTtin by oimclvc* in 
the «ame <Mbin. W« hAri ^vt^rnl i^tiJiifi^lk ; (at WMarttr, turly 
in die voyg^ di Bohia, in Bnxil, he defended and pmiscd 
tiarcfy. which I abominnicd, and cold mt? thai he had jtiAt 
vWlci' ■ N'^-)^ bUic- owner. iA'ho hail culWd up rn^iTiy uf hi% 
tUrei And liked Ihcni whether they were hapyy, And whcEhci 
they wiihcil to be &ee, <Lnd ^1 an&wered " So." \ ihen jukcd 
hcfni pnhai^ iriih a ini^cr, vhciher he ihou^i thai the 
ftiMtf er of I vc^ in ihi; prr^nccof th<<tr tviAhluT wan A'onh 
anything? U» made htrn eice^Evvly utj^ry, ^nd ht uilil 
tbit «& I Litrleil his wofd «ic could not live any loader 
ic(cthpfr. . ^Sought that 1 ihould hjivc been ^^^"^►cllrd to 
katc the ibL . but ai soon 44 the news Bprend. which il did 
quickly, a* i^ ■ iffiim fccni for the ^nt lleuienjinl lo aitujige 
hitt *sg«r •^\j_,"*>ng "TIC- I WW deeply gratiiiL'it by roccivrnj^ 

invtuiiun ,.fin all ihe gun-roooi ciOii:?n lu uir« with 
&iE ^»^i^ fc"' lioun FitJ Kuy tho^cd biK ii^»»\ ma^< 
Qjuumity by kciiuiiii^ j« oltkct i<> mc with an apology and a 
rfqiie«l ihal I hould ^onEioue to Vise wuh him. 

HU ch>tftcCef w« in ftevoral rr^perti^ one nf ihe mont 
notilc ivt:irLh I hAvo rvvf known^ 

The voyage of the tfw^/f has been by hx iUk most impor- 
tant eicnt in my life, und haa di'tennined uiy wbul* L«rTcr; 
yei it dtfpniili;d vn *o small j circumttAoce » my uncle offer- 
ing to drive rat thirty mjlci to Shrewnbiiry, vbkh icw nnrlei 
vould have don^.-, and on MJch a trifli; >ift tin: sh^yn.^ ^f my 
novc I have alwayt frll lh;t[ 1 owe to the voyajjc the Ar»t, 
real Imininff or education of my mmd : 1 waa led (0 attend 
cJo«cly 10 KvcraJ branches of naturii history, i^nd ihuK my 



powcn of obiccvaiioii were inipiovcd* though they w«re 

The tnvc-fLtijipitJon of Thr gtolo^y '^^ ^'' ^^^ ptacrt vJiiiie<l 
was fAT more imponatit, as rcaHoning hcr^ comes into phy. 
Oa first i^KaminiTig ik new disirict nothing can n|ip(;;ir jiKire 
hupvlvide thiin lUv diuus uf rotke ; but by rr^urdin^ tUn hlrjii- 
bcauun and nAEutc ol the rock» uid iix»ilh ri mAny point*. 
alvayt rcAioDing and predicting what will be found rhc- 
vhfTC^ h)(ht «non hrnint in dnwn on the diatriri, and the 
Hnieture of the whole bec<iiiic!i marc or Icis JniclUgible^ 1 
.had brought with me the first vutum« of Lyell'i^ 'Prmti^jlcs 
■ of t_^i^lui:y.' wliLLft I iiluJied ^iltccuivdy ; itnd the IXH^b a^ 
of fhc hittlu'*! iCTvifi; (o cue iii mjtny w*y». The vcty fir»t 
plnre whit:h I citiimined, nitndy St Jnpo in iht/tape d< 
Vcrdc islands, 5hoKi::d mt? rkarly the wondcrfin su|tcnonty 
of l.yrLIV nkth^cr of [ruaimg gi^uLogy, crrmparcc^ vith ihaL of 
any other author, whuac woik^ I huil with me "jifnfvei Alia' 
waid* read- " Tr 

Another oi my uccupatiuns w^iis ccjlkcting^'^dun^'k of all 
rbncx. hru'ny dricf Lbin^ Jnd rou|thty JJh^etiii'^'^ iiny of the 
marine one*: but from not being flble to dra**« '|> ^ , f rom not 
having sufficient anAiomiczkl kno'A'Icd^e, a f}^^^c <"* ^' WS, 
which I made during the voyage hm prove-' 'j» ^j^ iiseJes*, 
1 Ihutt lobt Miuch Umr, with ihv eneci'tion^ "^ t* «ppnt in 
acquiring >.ome knowledge of the Cruiucc-^'y' Er-thi>wuvf 
service when in jrier years I undertook a torffi^^iph of il»e 

Durinjf ifitaf pan of Ihe day T wroie ifly Journal, ttnd 
look much pflin* in dcicribing carefully and i-ii idty all that 
! had i^een : and thii was guod practic^n My Journal served 
al»i>. in pafi, av lifilcrs tL> my hunie. and ]XJiliuuK wcr^^ bent 
li> hn^Und ivhenvttr (here wii an opportunity. 

The above various special »iudic-s were, however, t>i no 
importance cf^mpnred with the luibii of coergt^tic industry 
and of concentrated ntientjon to whatever I w;lh L.-ngU|^ in, 
which 1 then acquired. Kvciything about which 
or lead waj tna<^c to bear directly on what I had 

ich 1 thouglil^^l 

;d seen or wat^^l 

Till: TOVAoe. 



bkd? lo Mc ; aod thn liabil of mind vvam cgolinucd during 
IhcfivQ yvin of the ^oy^g.K. I frcl »urc Ihiiii ii wjid thii triiiii' 
ing vhirh hx* cn:i!t1c<l me to do wh«tf vcr 1 Kavc iJunc m 

Looking backwardfl, I tan now percent how my love for 
aci«EK« grjUutfUy pic|HJ(t<Jcr4lril over tvery uthrr U^[l?^ Our 
uig [he fiitl tvo yefiu my old puAion for tltoiJttnii tuivivcd 
m Dcirly fdl- force, and 1 shot myidf all the bird* and ani* 
nut* iWr my collation ; bur KT^dtuOly 1 jE'ivr uj> my jj^m more 
umI mofr, siinl rtnnlly ilrogrih^r, to my MrrvarK, n* *ihofitin/ 
interfered with tny work, mort' cspccmlly with making out Ihc 
geological btEucLure of u country. I di^t^ovtircil, iliougli uu* 
^ cOnKiuunljr »»d i[ih^»ib)y, i\vM the: ['Iv^ttut^i vi r>L>4Civiii)( j.ud. 
rciio«iiig wu Jt raurh higlicr ^^ni^ than rbai of tktll and ijxin, 
Thfl my mind bceamr dcV1^l<^[>cd ihrough my f>ur>iuiii di:iring 
(b< voyage Is rcndtrtd probalk- liy a rcmjrfc m^i'JL- liy my 
£*lhor, wbo WAb thi: mo!<C ^^^ute ob^rvcr whtim I cv^rr nnw, Ljf 
a sceptical dUpoiniEioTi, and far from being a believer in i>hic- 
ftologj^; fOT on fini seeing mc after ihc vo^aye, he tumed 
toumJ to my titiirrv, aad cxcUi^^d, " ^^hy. the «hu[)c of hii< 
hcKl ifr quite altered " 

To rtium to the voyage f>n ScpicmWr nth fiSjt), I 
|Mid 1 Hymj; xnit with Fit^-Roy to \\\v /iraj;/f iic Plyimmlh, 
Thtocv (0 Shfvtt4ht;ry (o with my f.uhcr jujd nivicr^ a Tcjiij; 
QfewcJL On October t^tU I tuok. up my residence Jil I'h lU' 
OVth, and n^miinrd th<le imtil nti:r:tnber >7lh, wbc-n thn 
AivgU finally left ihr ^hoir* nf Kuirljind for hf^r rlrrLinmavI- 
l^ii^jo of the world- Wc made iwn eariicf ftiicmpU i(> mil, 
bui ttttr drivvti back ^-'iich time by htavy gales. These iwg 
aiOCLht Ht Plymcjuili UL-rr llii: muni m^et^ruble wbkli I evvr 
fpcoli ihoufih t exerted myicif in vjriout ^ayiL i w^ oul 
orT «fririu il the Ihounht of leaving ill my fjLtniJy ind fvieridi 
for «tt IfiPji a timr. and th<^ w<**ihrf ner'mcd lo me iurxpr*Mi- 
bly gloomy, 1 w:Lh aXm troubled wtth palpiuiion And pain 
about the hcati, ind like many a young ifinorani man, eip^ 
cially ^inc with a imatlermg 'jf mcJirjl knonltilgc, was con- 
vinced thai I hdd h<an d^^c^hc, 1 did not confuU aoy doc- 



tor, At I fully Fipircird io hear thf i-erdlci ilut T n'u 
nat fit for ihi! voyage, and I waa rc^tolvcd |ij ^> «t Alt 

I tiffcil not Kcfc fclcr lo the evenis of the voyage— where 
wc went and what we did— a* X have givi^n a tufficitntly fuU 
accnnnt in rny juihlUhi^d Jrtnrnnl. The glarlcn of ihe vcgc- 
Eftiinn of ihe Trnpics riwf bcfoTP my niind at the pfenirnt ifmc 
more vivUUy than anyibing elie ; Uiough tliv bvn'^ of stib' 
limily, ivhicli thtf ^nuX tlcserlt of PAtji^nijt uiiU iliv (orcftt- 
tUU imninUiUh of TieirA del tuegO cxcJIed in me, hot left 
an mdclibtc impreiiion ^n ray mind. The li^hi of a naked 
Mvajp? in hii TiHlive liinJ in an event whuOi rnn nrver Ti^ for- 
goitens M*ny <>' my vxcutiiani. on hoTbi^back. thrauyh wild 
coLmtriei, or in thv buats* ioine of which lj»tcd i«vcTal week^ 
were deeply inteieiiing; their dincoinfort And tome degree 
d[ dAii|i;er were M IImC lime harrtly a drawback, and none *t 
all afieTw*rd«, I .ilso reflect with high intisfnrrion on umc 
of my urieniilir work, ?iuch as lolvin^ the prohlcm of lonil 
uludit Jii^d making out the geolofjicnl HtruUure of corioin 
ieUndai tot inHtjuicet Si. Helena. Nor mu&C 1 |rft» over 
tbe diiuioveiy of the sioguUr reUiions ol the amm*ls and 
pUoti intut-iiiri^ the several itbndB dt Iht GiLUiiafEOfc arthi- 
pelAfpi, «Tid of alt of them to thp Inhnhiwnt* orf South 
A mcricn, 

Ak for as I can judge of myself, I worked to the tttmosi 
during the vpyagc twm the mere pleasure of investigation, 
and from my f^tron^ dcHiTe to add a few (n^i^it to (1i<r|;rt-iL lujto 
of (iL.u in N jEorj.[ Seicnve^ Hut I wa» alwombiEWm let uke 
a fair place among icienUfic men. — whether more imbitiom 
or lew TO ihiin moil of my fellow- workers, I c^n ff>rm no 

The Keologyof Sr Jjgo in very ntfikin^, yei simpler a 
fttrejim of lava formerly l^Ciued ovei the bed of the seB* foinied 
of tntuiaied re<.eni shelU and tonkls. which it hai baked itito 
A hard white rotk, Since (Ken the whole wbnd h;L« been up- 
hcnvccL Bnr the line of white roek revrjlcd to me a neva&d 
impoTianT imt, nnmely^ that (hrrc had be?n afterwords mbir 



<lcaco round the craurn, which h^ linec been lb Action, Jind 
HmA pouted forth Uvn. It then Ar«t dawned an mc ihai I 
nj^t periu|K write a book on ihc geology of th<: varioiii 
coMiiUin tiMird. md Lhn outJr nic ihnU wiLh ddi^lit, 'I'b^t 
WM a a)ciiM>r>tJjIc huuf lo iiic, and how diitinctly t c^n calt io 
vidd (lie low diS of Uvji beneath which I teiied> wiih the 
%nm gbring hot, n fi?w ^Trjkn^E^; dc^Ti pUnEh growing n^Ar, And 
wilVi living ronln in ihr tida! pooh ai my fccL 1-iCer in the 
Toyjij*«, Kiti'Roy asked mc to read Bocnc or my Joumul, and 
dcdxrrd it would b« wurth ^ublibhmg ; so here wjs a lecond 
tMNA io prmpiTct ! 

T«jiirvd« (he cTo^tc oE uur voya^ 1 retctvrj ;t kUt r whilal 
di AiCdiMoiit 111 which my tiitcrt lold me thot bedguti-k h^d 
cMBcdon mrf«i>)<^r.ind4Aid thai I ihouM tnkcapbccamnn^ 
tbf leading scienti^c men. I trmkl not ui the titnr undcr- 
BTond how he rou^d h^ve IrArnt anything at my iirot-cvdrngi^ 
but ] kcjrd (I bclicvv jfLcrwardt) Uiat Hcnfilow had read 
»omc of the leUers whitli 1 wrote lo hini before Ihe Phdo- 
toffhicaJ Sociifty uf Combridgc,* ind had piinCed them for 
|tfiT«Cc di^iri^juiion. My collection of k"Pi] bones which 
hMd bccAKDi to Henslnw, oUoeiciTcd contidcrnUc alien- 
dofk unongst palRoniofogiiESL Afii^T rc^ading this letter, t 
cUnbcn-d over the mounuin^ of AncimMon wiih a bounding 
tlV|Pi Aiid nude tUc voUdiuc racLt rch;>uiJil uruicr my i^coEagr- 
cat hanuQcr. AU (hit ihoi^s how jmbitioui [ wj4 ; l>ut J think 
thlt T can ay wiih truth thai in irter year*, chough I cired 
iff Xh* hixhrkt 'Ifpctcc for Thr ^ippnib^ri'in of hiirh mm n* 
f.ycU and Honker, who wrtc my friends, I did not cnrc mm h 
aboac ifkc ^ncral public J do not ini;an to viy thai j favour- 
able cwM* or t lia^e «ak uf my bookii did not pk^^e me 
gicitly. hut the |jl«a«ure v^a\ a rtcctiuu one, Jrid I am ^iiie 
ttuT i hai'e never tuned one inch oat oF my counc to gain 

B ■ Rfltd al die mrctinf he-W Kovmlicr tA, t^t, lUht piinKd ^n ■ |wifr 



Frum my rttHtn ffl En^famf {O^/a^r i, 1S36) At my marriage 
{January 19, lSj9). 

Thp« **o ycdr* ntirt Xhrct months irrrf thr motl arlivfr 
onrs whioh I fvi^T ^rn:, ihnngh I wjit ocf,i»ionally imwHl, 
and ID lost some liin<;. Aflcr going backwards and forwards 
bifvcral Im^vi brlwecu Shrcwtbuxy. Marrt C^nibiLdgv. anil 
London, I icltlcd in lodging at Cjnit>ri<[gc* on llc<:cmbcr 
131b, where all my toHcciiorn wcrt under the ^Jrc of Hcd»- 
ldw> I stayed here ihrce mortihft) *fid icftt tny minciah and 
rorku cn.imlned hy ihr Jiiil of Prnfowor Miller. 

I began [ifc|mimg my ' Jourftnl of TrnTclii,' which was noi 
hard woik, ii-^ rny M^. Jotirnal had been written with eare. 
;ind my chief Ubtmr ivas unfcing an »b*tnict of my more in- 
tereMinfi ncieniiAi: rii^suhj- I £cnt jiIm, Jt ihc re^^ucitt of 
LyeL1| a ihori oerauni of my abirrvAtianft on ihe elevation of 
the con^it <if Chile to the flt'oTcigioiil Switty.f 

On MarL'h 7lh, 1^37^ 1 tuok ludgm^rit iit Grvai NUrlbiiruu^h 
Screet in London, jnd icmauied there for nearly two yean^ 
until J vras mArni^iJ. During these (wu yean I liniibed my 
Joiiiti;il» rcivd *cverjl |iAper« bcfoie the Geologic*! Society, 
ticti^n prcfunng the MS. for my ' CicoloaitJl ObiierrMioniv' 
and jrrjing*^ for the pubUr^Tion of the ' Zoology of the Voy- 
age of tbc Bfstxff-' In July I opened my first noleboot for 
TdcU ill idiiiiExi \ij the Urijein uf Specieti, ^tbout wliic-h 1 hod 
long receded, and never ccjued workiiig for tlie next i«eniy 

Piirinji lhr*r ivn ycflr* I i\\o wcni n Hide into tociety, 
rnd acted o.i ancnf ihc honnrsry scrrctitrirncif the nc^lofiiral 
Society, I saw a great deal of Lyrll. One of hi« chief char- 
juLivriitiu ytM b}» synipjiiiy with the work uf othen^, und I 
«u M much jtiionikheiJ u^ dvlighied ^iC (lie interc*! which he 
flhowcd when, on my return to KnuUnd, 1 explained to hkn 
my vicw^ on t'oral reef*. Thii encouraged mc grcady, nnd 
his oxlviee Ahd exnni]»h< tiud much influence on n;e. During 



rlhll lltnc I MW oIhO ft S^f>d <lcftl of Robcit Ihown; 1 ii»cd 
often la c^T ^nd lit wiih him during hii bmWfui en Suadny 
fnomingt. and hv poured forth a rich treasure of curioui nb» 

tvcnratiobB iiid u^utc rvinirkb;, but lhi:y uJiuobl ^.Iiyiiys rdaicd 
lo OMDUt* pwDtt. AnO he tievvr with iiic discuh^ird hrg« or 
fcacnl qucitiont in ucjcncc- 

During thcT€ two ycari I look ^^vcfal ihort excursions as 
arcbuiion, anri one longcronrt'> tKr PiiralM Roads of Gltn 

tR^y, an account of which was publUhcd in the ' Phibsnph- 
j<d1 TnosictionL' * Thib paper Yt-itt a ^re;iL fajluip, jnj I 
ant atbuiivil uf iL H^vibk bctu OcqiJy im]jri:»i&cU ^^'i(J; * hat 

§1 hod lecn o1 the ckvaliim of the l^nd of ^outh Amcrka, i 
Attribnled the parallel lin» to the .i^tion oi the wa ; but I had 
to giire up ihiH view wh<^r A^i><^i3^ pfopoundod ]\h glacier- 
Ukc ihtory. BccAUAi; no oihrt i-x|]lan;iiE»n wa^ pos^lEtlc under 
our then ttatc of Knowledge, C argued in fiivoc of tea-uciion ; 
osd Pfc}^ «noT hu bren a good IraoEi to mc never to trust in 
_ Kknce to the principle of rxcliiHion. 

B A« 1 was not able to work Ml diynt science, 1 read a 

I fiood dc4t duriap ihne two ycan on various sribjcirti. tnclud- 

m JDf Mme metaphyiiciLl ImmUh: hui t wav nol wdl l^ttod for 

such ttudin. About thi« lime I took [iiuib ddit^hi in H'ard^ 

«Ortb'i md Coleridge's poctiy ; ond can bo^si thm 1 read the 

'EvGunton' twkc through^ Formerly Milion'* * PAradi9« 

■ Lo<|*hid been my chief favourite, Jind tn«ion« dur» 

^ iDig the vnyjigr of the P'o^Jt, whi-n f rould take only a itngle 

volmic, I olwayK chose MiUc^n^ 

frvm my marrfag^. /anuaf\ aj, 1839, anJ rrsi^emt in VpfifF 
G^ttvr Sfre^/, (a fur ftrffrHj^ LfmUn utnl t/fffin); oi Difwit^ 
Sffftmbtr 14, 184*. 

AIIpCT tpr^UniE ul hit hiippy in^rnril Tiff:, uid uf tiit (hitdrcri. hv 

Durinf the three yean «nd ei|[hi momht «h£l«t we rriided 
in Lorvdoa, I did leu *cicnriflc work, though 1 worked «s 

' rt3^ V? 3g-*3- 



hard AH 1 jvuBsibly could, than (liirixi^ nnjr oihcr «qi.iAl U-tif^ih 
nf lime in my tile. Thi^ naa owiag lo trcqucnily iccuiring 
uiiwciluchii, jnO (o one long and 3i:tious iUnoi. 'l he greater 
part of my linn^, when I fouM do .inythjng, was drvotttl lo 
my work cin 'Coral kccfa," which I had begun bcforr my 
marrbj^t, and of wlufh the lost iironf-shctt was corrected on 
Mdy 6Lh. 184J. Tlib book, though a briuill oni.-, cvhi ruu 
twenty nionih^ of hjirU wurk, ^ 1 h<id to icAd every work un 
ihc ifcUndi of the PadAc and to coasuU many chart*. It vim 
thought hifthly of l>y Kientific men, anJ the thcoiy therein 
given i% I think, now wcM c^tsbhi^hf^, 

No (irher work of ntinc wns hfgun m t^o deductive a ipiHi 
05 thii, for ihc whole iheoiy ^*^ Ihonght out on the uc« 
coabi of SouEh America, befoie I had seen a true coral recf> 
t hid tlierclore only to verify and extend my vicvva by ;i care- 
ful eiAminaEion M living feefs. But ii should be obierved 
that I hdd during the two previous yean been incesfnntly la* 
tending to the effects on the ahor«a of South Amorica of the 
JniennittenE elevaLtan of iht; land, together with denudation 
And the depabUJon of ^edimcni. Thi± necessarily led mc ia 
reUccl much on die cfFet'tt of aubaidencE, and n wi6 eaiy to 
rrpl4i:c tn imnginAlioti (he contmued dcjioai^on of sfdrmenl 
hy the upward jt'f**^l* ^^ cocaU. To do ihis w.« to form 
my tbvoty of the formation of barrier-reefs and fllolla. 

Uchidet luy w^rk ou eorjl reefs, during my residence in 
London, 1 read before the Geological SocJ4.'ly p4]atb 011 tlie 
Erratii Houlders of South America,* on Enrihi|uakc9^»f :iiid 
nn thr rnrmj^tion by ihc Agency of Earih-woTms of Mould-I 
J aUo continued in Mtperintcnd ilie puhllt-aiic^n nf the 'Zoolo^' 
of the Voyage of the fieagijr.' Not did V rvcr intermit rol» 
kxtmg fAiA^ bcdriug on thi? origin of species ; and I could 
■ometimtt do thib ^hvn I could do nolUmg viae from illness. 

In ihc summer of \^^i I wan hrronjjrr tliAn I h^d been for 
aome lime, und look j Jittl^^ cuur by my>elf tn North W^lcft, 

•-Gfloloc^&K, Pim'ULiBiv. t'CeDkt|.TnniL'v. laiO. 

] * G<Atot ti«c Pnc' iL iSja. 





for tbc uke of obwrving the c^ccU of th« oM gTaclcn wliich 
ftjtmtitly fjlicd ill ihf larger vjJIcjrt. I published » ih^rl ac< 
couot oJ whai I *aw in ihc ' Philoaophical M-ij^fljinc," ■ Thii 
cxruftion inifrrfttcct mc grcaily^ and ii wtu, ihc b&i limr I 
wu Fvcr nrang enough to climb xnuunuiitE ur to ukc lung 
walli BU4:h JB aic nccvsiarjr fur tfifdogi4:al wuik. 

tJurif^tt \\iK mtly |iArC uf (jur life in LoodoQ, ! mui tLrong 
enough lo i^ Inio grocrAl to^icly, o^nd »aw ^i gi>od dpal oE 
t^reral Ki^nTftic men, and ofhtr morr or l^'i* [limiftjtiii*hfd 
Mm. I oil! i;ivr my Imprrii^ionA iviih rcnpr^ct to some oi 
ihcm. though E have tirttc 10 iny worib aaymg, 

I sov more of I,y«U than u£ any oihvT man, Uulh before 
iikd «Jter nay En»rji4|jitf. Hlm mind wm^ diuiaclcribtfd, us it 
AppCWtd 10 xnc, by crcimm, f^urion, haiini:! judiEmcnt, jind 
1 food d«A] of ori^nality. When I made any remark to h[m 
Oft Ocolofly* he nercf rcaied until he mw ihc whole cose 
clculy, and often mudr me see it raotf di::Li1y (hjn T hnd 
dont liefore. Hck-ouM aJ^-anccallpoMiblct'l^pctiona tu my 
ftUfjcMJon, md even after ibeii« were exhauitci] would long 
canaiD dubious, A second ^hnr'irU-ri!k(ic viAt hU hearty 
vynfWfcy with ihe work ol othtr stitntific men.f 

On my rciam from the voyage of ihc Ji^f^fe, I explained 
to Mm my views on foni-r^eft. whi<^h dilTered from ha, and 
I Tu grciiLy surpriied iind T^ntour^j^vrcl by the vi%-id mteiefii 
which he shwed. Hi& delight hi hi;jenoe win axdctit, jnd he 
fdl tbc kccncki interetc in the fuiufe progicsf of mnnkmLl. 
He »as very kind'heanedj and Ihoronghly liberal in hn 
reliieiout belief*, or rwllicr diibcliffs : bn^ he w.ii a strong 
thr^f. Hi« rAndmir wtis highly rennet rk^ SI t-, He evhibitcti 
Mi by becoming a mnvcft (o the Descent theory, chough he 
tubd ^ned much fame by uppoi^inf; Lainnmk'E vk-wa. and 
tbb ^t€s be hdd ^tuwii old. He reminded me th^tt I bad 

on LycQ- J^., htWnjf been adJcd in A^^rilp iSSl. a tew yean ann the m> 



many ymn btfon inid lo hinip when dJHCiinin^ Ihr oppMirion 
of thu oLJ kHooI of geologii^i^ to his nc^ vicwv, "What a 
|[0Di1 Ehing i1 would b; if cvcfy scientiiU imn wjk tu Uiv wbcn 
■ixij" yean old, as afterwardi he would be lupe to oppose ill 
new dot^trin^n" But he hoped dtat now he might be allowed 

Th^ *dcnce of flcoTogy is tnormously mrfoHicd tn T.ycH — 
mortf so. ii 1 bdLE^vc, than w any other nun whu fvcr Uvcd- 
Whtn [I wan] Biarliiig on the loyi^gt; of ibu Sfo^fe^ ihc taga- 
cioub HiriJHiuw, wlio, likv all oilief ^oloBUie, believed uL lliM 
lime iri fcucccuive catarlyima^ advised roe to gel Jnd study 
thi? firit volume of th*^ ' Principles,' which then juint bctn 
ptibliRhi-'d, lull on no arcouni to acrcpt the view* therein ad» 
votiatedn How <ltff«f(rntly would sny ooc now apcjik of i^c 
^Principles' ! 1 am proud to remember Ehal the A»t p!a<:e, 
namely* St, Jago, in the Cape de Vcrdc ar<;hipdago, in whith 
1 gct»log[§cd, convinced me of (he infimlc lUpcrionty ol 
LycU') view* over those adio^aiod in any other wotk known 
to rae. 

The powrTfuI effects of Inyell's work* could furmrrty be 
plainly seen Ln the different [trogre^s of the scienec* m France 
and EngUnd, The prc&cnt \m\3X oblivion of Elio de Be.m- 
monfi wild hypotheses, such a» his ' Craters <rf tievation * 
and ' Litj« of Elevation* (which lairer hypothcsi* I hc.ird 
fifdjpviek at ihc Gcologic,tl Society Intiding to the sUtfi), may 
be largely aitribuied to I.ytlL 

I saw a good deal of Robert Brown, " fadle Princcp* B&» 
tuiicorumt" a& hv w^h Chillcd by Humboldt, He ueeiued to 
me to be cbieAy remaikj]>lc lor the minut^neht ol hJh obhvf' 
vfllion*, and their perfect accuracy- Ilii knowledge wa* 
rxttaordinnrily great, and much died with him, owing lo bis 
ciccsaivc fear fif ever making x m[^fAkr. He ponrcd out hii 
knowledge tn mc in the mo»t unre«ervr<l manner, yet uu 
vtrangeljr jr^ous ijn lomc pointi. I called on him two ot 
three time" l»cfow the voyajc: of the Beaait. and on one o<? 
caiion he uked me to lotnk through u [uictovopc and dc 
Kribc what 1 aaw. Tbit I did, Aad believe now ih» iz 





lh« nurv«t1ou« cnrrcDli of picEoplism ia igmc vtg«t:ible cdL 
I tt^c nikud hjm whAl J hod i»»n; but he uHwcrcd mc. 
"T^u U oiT litik- WTTft " 

1J« wfli rfli>!(Mc of the m^^ci generous ociionx. When »Ld, 
much out of health, and c|uhe uD6t Tor any intrtiori, h« Jaify 
Tiiieol (u lloaket tuLd mc) uri uM muii'bvfvitnt, wlio }ivc<] jt 
a dbuace (and whijin he tupportcdK ^nd ic&J jiuud lo hLm. 
ThiK b vraou^h to iuaLc up for a^ny degree of acientific penuTi- 

i nuy here m^niion » few oThpi cmtncnf men, whom I 
kitftf occi«on--i]]y leen. bur I have little xa my ;)ttoiit ihcm 
vonb uyrnji;. t felf n hij^h tevcr^re for Sir J. Herr^hcl, 
Attd tru delighted ti> dene vtiih him .ii hn L/h^ruMLtK liuiisi- it 
Ul« C«ptf of Good Hope, .uid iflcrwJirdk *t Kei l-otidon houae- 
J law hjni, iIm, on i Tew oihcr occatiDni, 51c never I,il1ied 
nufh, but ei'CTy word whii:h he nitcrod wm worth liilcn- 

I onee met «i tirenkfam ul Sir R Mur('hi&on*s hdu.s^? the 
illu«i/ioi]& Humbofdi, who hciniHiTL^iI mc: by e\['icfi&ng a wish 
to KCRie, I was ii Uu3e diiappoiniL:!^ w;th the great mo^n, but 
mf inticipatioQV pTobiibly were Ioq high. [ iijui remeinher 
nothing diitinclly about our interview, except that Humbuldt 
vr-M rery rhecrful and ulkrd mii^h. 

— ' reminds me of Biiclile whom I f»nee met nt Hon** 

leig!* Wedgwood"*. I was very glad to learn from him hi% 
lyMem <-'i co]14^i.1iei^ fjct^. He tuld itiu that he bought all the 
booki nhiLh lie rcAd. j.nd lOAde j full mdci, lo T^iii:h. af tlie 
foictsvhicb he thought might prove serviceable to him. juid 
llui he could always remember id what book he had rea^J 
onythinfE, for hiit memory vr:LS wonderrnl. T .ihkpd hrin how 
U Am he could Judge whni fnrtn would he lerviec^ble, And 
heaasv^Ttd that he did not know, but that i inrt of In&tinci 
gaidod him. Froui (his habit of umkiu^ mdii:es he wm na- 
■litcd CO Rive tbc HiEoninhtng nnmlicrof refcrcnirc* on jdl Mrta 
of *Lihjecc», which may l>e found in his ' Hinory of Civilisft- 
Clon^* This book t ihouf^i mmt intrrc^stinp. and read it 
i«ice, but I doubt vhirlh^^r hi^ ^^ticriilihaiionii au- worth ^ny- 



Ehinn;. Buulitc was a gicM uXktr, And I IlKicncd to hun My> 
trig hardly .t w^rd^ nr»r indeed cGuld I have done «ft for h< 
Itft no gjips- When Mn. Farrtr btgan lu sing, I jumped up 
and B^ikd that 1 luual liBtcn to her : dflcr 1 hjid niuved awa]r 
h« turnvJ jiround lo a fricmj ^nd »iaid |^» »;!» uiiThvard bj' 
my biiziilici), '* WctJ, Mr- iJarwin'^ boolu jrc muctL bclicr than 
hifi conversation.'^ 

Of olhfP grcfli Mtcmry mrtii T onco met Sydney Smith 
at Dc!tn Mitmnn'4 hr»iiiir_ Thcrr w^a •omeihinR incxplicAhljr 
Amusing in every vatd whi*:h he uiicred. Perhaps (his was 
p;:irily due tij the cupcctuti'jn uf l>ring Jimuiii-d- Hv vra» ulk- 
m|^ jIioiu Lajy Coik, wh<j w^ lIicu cxucmuly uld. This w» 
the Udy whu, at he uitL, wm <jnoe so much Aflfertcd by one 
of hii chariEy icrmoDK^ that ihc borrvtv^J a guinea from a. 
friend to put ID the plate. He nowwid "It ii generally bc» 
licvcd rh:i[ my di^i dd friend Lfldy Cork h*8 been OTcr- 
looktd.' ' and h? kOJii Lh» in fjuch jl manner that no one e^iild 
for ft momvnt doubi ihjt he meant thai liit dear oJd fiiend 
had bevn overlg^ked by the devil. How he managed lo ex- 
prc«« thiq \ know not. 

I likewiie once met MAcaiUay at Lord Stanhope's (the 
hiRtomn'^l hnuie^.ind as ihetf wu only oine other maft at 
dumer, I hid ii grand opponunity of hetinng him coov«r»a 
jkTid hv wu tery ^iKn-iuble^ He did nut ulk ;it iJI Ico mucli ; 
nor indeed could luc h a nun talk too much, j& li^ng at he al- 
lowed oihen to turn the iireAtu of hit cofiveriAiic^n, and thi« 
he did nllow. 

Lord Suiihope orirc gave me a friATion:* \\x\\c prrtnf of the 
aecuTdcy und fulne»s of Mnrftulny's memory : many hii- 
IvriauB Ubed often to meet ai Lord Stanhope'i house, ^ud in 
ditcuKMEig Vitiiuub kuhjci:ti they «uuid Huiiiultmeh diHer Iruin 
MacauUy, and foiimrly they ofUu icfencd to tome tjook to 
see who will ri«ht - >jiit latterly, o* Lord Stanhope noticed, 
no historian ever toot this trouble, and irhaicver Macaulay 
«jid w«i finaln 

On JAiiuther MxaAion I met at Lord SUnhopc'« houtc, 
one of hit ]jjLrti«t ol hiatoriana and oihei liLcrary men. and 




AoioafE^ thc^ ^^^ MAtky juid Grotc. After luncheon 1 
wnlkrd tUvMii Chercning Park for nccLfty in hour wLih Oro^e, 
and vos tQutrh inun.-:t{:d by his convcnation ;\nil picutd by 
Uie unipbcilj iin<} -iliM^ticc ot ;iJ] jrfclenuon in Ikd iiLiuiK^n, 

Long Ago I dioed occMionaUj with the old Kail, tlic 
toher oj ifcc hiitotian ; he w^t a itr^insL- man. but what tilllc 
I knrvr of bim t liked miu h. He wai* fmnk, griiMl, and 
pirsujDL He hud fttrnngly mnrkcd fcAinrcit, with ft brnvn 
GOdqilction, nnd his cloihea. when I snw hitn, were flll hrown- 
He Ncnwd to bdicve in rvcr>thmg p-'hidi was to Dthm uttcr- 
Ij iacitrdible. H« tmjd one d^y Co mc, " Wtiy dori'E yuu give 
up youf AjttlC'EAjclIc of gi:oli>^y O-iid xoulo^y, and turn TO tliv 
OCCUll trjencd T' The hji-iorun, then l.oiii Mnhon, nn-mcd 
ihoekcd at lurh a cpccch to me, and his charming wifr murh 

The laiit man whom T will nirntiun ik Carlylc, svcn by mo 
fcvcril time* at tny brothc'i^ houte, and twoorthicc times 
at my own houte. His idk wu very lacy and iniciotisg, 
jiul fike hi\ writing}, but he wmiftimcv went on tun l^n^ (iii 
ihc %amc *Hl»jrci I j<mcmlu:t a funny dinner o-i my broih- 
et'i, TheTt. Binongit a fc* oihcni, were Bnbbagc and LycIT, 
bnih of '^hom fiked loinlV- Cajlyle, howcvpr, ^ienccd rvr^ry 
DM by bar.mguing dcirmg ihe wlio1cdinni-f on the aclv.^ntjk^e» 
of lilentr. Ahcrdirmci Kabb-ti^r, in liih ^^iinmul mAnner, 
IhAAkcd Culylc lor his very inlcreiting lecture on lilenec 

Orlyltf tnecrcd nc almost et^ry orn." : one ^ny in myho"*e 
the ealled Crotch 'llUiory* "a fftiil i^un^mErr, with nnrhing 
(piriinal ahoHi ii.'* [ always thn 11 f^ht, until hii 'Rcmimrk 
ceneer ' api>r:jtred, that hin snctn wen- partly jakeiti but ihia 
M)w sevens ratht^i ^uubrf^il Hi« i^nprcsiiion wjiK Ih^i of a 
depreued, almost Joiic-mk-i'Ll yet benevolent, mi^n ; and it 
notcHoiii how hc:irtity he laughcd^ I believe lh.\t hfii 
bcmevolen<:e was rtal. though »t&ined by not a bitte jcalnuay. 
Ni> one c«n donbl ahim\ hix ottraordmary |iowcr nf drawing 
pieturet of things and men — far more viviJ, u it jppcats to 
me, than any drawn by Macaulay, Wheilicr hi* pictur« ol 
men were true one* It another qneition. 



Ht h(w been ft1T'pi>*-crfiil in Impreuing some gnnd moral 
iniihg on ibc minds of men. On the other handi hin views 
aboui slaver)' wvr« revuliing. In h^b ^yea (TiighL W4h ngliL 
Ht^ miitd qcemcd i^ mc a very narrow one; <\cn if aII 
branches of bctencc, whkh he dcspi*cd, *fc cscluded. I( 
is [L5tr>ni»hing to me that Kin^ilc)' hhaLilct hj^vc »|'Okcn »f him 
A5 ^ man wdl fitfrtl ii jidv.^nize science. He liughed to 
Hf^orn The idea \hM a mnthcmaiidanr auch a£ Whcwcll, could 
judge, 09 ! maintained he could, of Gorlhe's views on lighL 
He thought ii a must ndiculuus (liing Lhal ^nj one «houli| 
carif whvlht-i a glii;ici moved a hlltc tjmckcE ut a hlllc 
»[ower» or moved at aH, At fir as 1 could judge, 1 never 
met a man *ith a mind so ill adapted for ^entilic re* 

Whiht living in Lundon, 1 attended da regubTlyii^ I could 
the meeiingi^ of Aevcrul ^i^ii-ntiOi: socitivA, and uclcd a^ Kecre^ 
lary lo the Cieulogical Society. But auih attendance, ind 
ordinary Bo^-'iety, suucd my heaUh «o bijdly we resolved 
to hvc in the cotmiry, which wc both preferred and hjive 
never repented of. 

After several fruitless searches in Surrey tnd cliewiiefe, 
we found this hfiune xruX ]>urchA!^d it. I wu pti^a^ with 
tla* dtvi^rsiricd JVjipearftni.L- of vc^'crHtion |>ro|»CT (o a chsilk 
diBtiic-t, ftnd so unlike whni 1 hud been acftisioined to in rhe 
Midland counties: and filiU more pleased with the exinrme 
quie(ne^ and rubticit^ uf ihc pbce, Ii is nut, huwc:rer, 
cjuitt; M^ ivtiiL'd a |>l^c an a writer in ai Uerman ircuodiud 
makes it, who fi3ys that my houM can be approaclicd only by 
a miilc^track ! Our Axing ounc1vL'» here hns answered ud- 
mir^Lldy in on« way, which wc did not vniicipatc, nameJy. by 
being very convenient for frequent visits from our chtl< 

Fev pcrson« <Mt have lived n more retired life than we 


H &&d CM 




hiTO done. BeeU1c4 thort vj»iu lo ihc houses ur rtbttonsi 
&&d occasionally to the scjiidc ac clitcwhcrc. we haic gone 
omihcrc. During the fim (wft of out rciidence vrc went a 
UriLc inio WKrirly, *nd re<^nTtl * frw frit-ncis hi:rc ; bul my 
bcallh dlmntt always luffcrcd from Ihc cidlcmcni, violent 
shivering iuid vaiT;iiing aitucka being thuK brought ah^ I 
hiTt IhcEvforv tjttn compdJcd lur lo^^iy yoarK lo give vp all 
(liimcr-p4ilLc» ; jinU UiU bu been tomcwhAL uf a depcivjdLiun 
10 mc; at »uch parties jIwavi piii me inEo high tpirltt. Frgro 
ihc tame cam? 1 have Lifcn ahW to inviu here v^ry few ici* 

My r-hicf cnjoymeni and tde fmploymcru ihro"j*hr,ut Hffi 
h^ been vcieatiAc: vork ; ood the excitenicni from inch work 
nuko me for (he lime f^get. or drives quite away, my daily 
dittomforl. I h^tre Ihcivfote nothm^ ro record during 
the fcit of my lire, except chc puhlicaTion <if my vevcrjiL 
book*. Perhjtp a few details how rhey Aro»c may be wotzh 

.Vj- fftfr^ /^Miz-a/i/mr. — fn fh*.- early patt of 1844, my 
obtervAlinnK £>n Uie vokMnit; i-tla^iiL ^ i: id durtn^ thi:: voyage 
of the BtiigU were ptihhthcd. \\i 1^45, 1 lo^^k much poini 
ia corroding a nc* ednion of my 'Jouriul 'jf Re^archcc/ 
*hkh Mfju riTij;in:^ny piiWi^hnJ in 1*1^(9 !\* jrMi of Ftti-Royt 
work. Thp turrcM of ihin, my firai litcrnry child, alway.i 
tickles my vanity more than thai of any of my other bookfi. 
Kttii to Ihift day it ;«!U steadily in En^Lind und thi: United 
SfilOt M)d hw b««n ttimnUtcd fur ihe tL^i^oiid lime itiio <.!<?' 
imo, and into French and other langaagea. This »ucceu of 
ft bocV of iraveli. «pf<:iAlly of !v ^^dcntiAc one, w many yean 
■ftvr iit ftrbX jiublicatTim, is Burpri^iin^ Ten thouiJind <'opic« 
hiivc been ix^ld in Fri^lAnd of ihr i«eeond edUSon, In ifl4fi 
my ' Ooo1qk'''J^^ Ohacrvannna on RotitK Amerif^ " were puh- 
lished. I reeord in a litlle diaiy, Hhlch I have alwjy* kept. 
Lhit my thrw geological booki (' Coral Rcrfi* mcludod> con- 
sumed four and a half year^' ite«ity work ; " and now il in 
Icn ye^rt linre my relurti la KnyKini. TTi^w much lime have 
I 1o«t by illness^" I have noihtng lo «ay about thew three 



booJct rJKtpt thit lo tny wirpfiic a<-w nittunu hjtve Uldj 
bc*n tailed fdf.* 

In Ociobci, 1S4S. 1 began to work on 'Citripcdb,' When 
<m tXw tiKk^l of CUik. I found a must cunous furm. which 
buffuwcU into tlic thclU vf Cu»c:1iulc|>:t», Unci ulnth differed 
to much from iJl oihcr Cinipedcs thai 1 h^ lo lonu a tteiv 
sub-order for iii fti>k TCc^plion. LatHjr an allied burrowing 
ItmuA hM bcrn found nn the ihorrn of PotiuKAl To ufider- 
suad the structure of niy ncv CirTi|kcde T had ia rt*mm« 
end disnecc many of the common formK : and ihh grndiuilly 
Jed mv on to uku up die whoJi; gruup. I worked iieadily on 
ihib $ubjci;t fur ihc ncxl «w^t ytrjrT^ajid ultitu^icty published 
tao thick volumctjf dcifttUng aW the knoun Iivi»k tpecict;. 
nd two thin quartoi on ihe entinft specie*, I do not doubt 
Ihai Sir E. Lylion Bulim hfld me in hii mind when be ini 
itaced in one of hi^ novrt^ t\ Vrof^s^or tnn^, who had vrlttcn 
lao huge votumci on JunrfCti. 

Although [ wji employed dunng eight yv^n on Ihu 
irork. yd ] record in my diary that jiTfoiil two years out of 
tilts time wA* IoipI by illneu. On thii> aecoum 1 ivent in 1S48 
for M>mc mouTha to MaUern foir hydropjuhic irratmenT* vhich 
did me muf^h good, «o that on my rrlvim bomr I xpoa able to 
retume work. Sij rnueh ^va» i i»iiL 0I bi^atib thjt tvhvn my 
Ctir lulhft dieiJ 01^ NovcmLwr 151b, 1U4S, 1 w«s unable (o 
aiLcnd hi* funeral or to act as one of his eifcurom. 

My work on the CirripediA jiownftats, T ihink, considera* 
ble (~a1ue, as be^idri dcviihmg hevcrnt new and remnrkabla 
fotms I made nut the homohgios of ihe vatinus |>niis — I dii- 
eovflrcd the ccmcTYtinj? appMams. though 1 blundered dread- 
fully about che rcmem ghmdi^'— and lastly 1 I'lovc'd Iht: txht- 
ence in certain gcueru of uiinuti: males ooiuj'lcdicntat to and 
paruAJiic on lb«' h(;rmapbrodUr&. Vhh laiier discovery hat 
ai lane been fully conArmed ; though al onr time a Cemaa 


**CBoWiaIOb«?titttiohs' itvl EiUi, iK^Cl 'Conl HcFfv' tod Edit 
i Viit^UtbH bi the Kay SodoE^ 


irrtc«r wa^ jiltucd to aitributi: the whole aciouni tu my ftr- 
bk inia|^Q.kiion. The CiiH]iciic« f^nn 4 highly >aTying and 
difficutt ijrwip d' »pcfic5 to clin ; and my wQit vjt of con- 
lultr«blc Q4P to mc, uhcn I h^d in rlii^nnn In Iht *Or^n of 
Sp««ic« ' Ih? prtnripIrA nf a nntiiriil fbiAiArjitlon, Ncvfrth^ 
\ea^ I ilriubl whcihcr ihc work was vvorih ihc cc^nKumplinEi of 
»i> anch limc 

mif mj h»|io pile uf U4>Ic(f tu obitcrving, auiJ tu cxpcri[Tai;m< 
lag id leUtioin to Ihc I fdnimu lotion of spccict- During the 
Toyace of Ac StiMftf I bad bcrn dv'cply imprcticd \>y diKOv- 
rrin^^ in tho ?*mpf4n fnffn,iT»on grcit fowH snimnli fm-trc*) 
ivjth nrmour like thai on the* ciiiEmg armadlllrt!^ ; liciomtlyj 
by Ihc manner in which closely allied animal* icpEacc one 
anolhrr in proceeding kouthw^rd* over the CoTiiintnt; i^tX 
thirdly, by ihe Souih Amcriojn f huratlcr of mo*t of the pro- 
dnttictrti of ihe Gabpagoi archipcbgi^, and moic r^ceinlly 
by ihe manner in whieb they differ sllgTitly on enrh island of 
Ihe S")ujr : none of Ihe i!(]>^iidb uppcnrin^ to bo very jif)c rent 
ifl X iceoloipral ten^c, 

\i WM ci'idenl IhcLl *uch fftcli as thei-c. as well as many 
Oth<rv, could only be etplaioed un ihe nupfx^iilicn that 
»pcrie« KTAdiially become tnodificd \ .md the milijrrt h^iinird 
me. ^(11 it was equally evi^lcni thnt n richer Ihe action of the 
MTTOunding rotiditioni, nor the will of the organisnit (espe- 
cUil^ in the caac of phnl^^t cuijld ntcount r<jr tlii* innrimtra- 
blt cut* in which 0'||A'ttHinh ul ev^ry kind jre be^utirijlly 
jbdopfled lo Iheir habiti of life— for initanf e> a woodpecker oc 
1 iree-fro^ 10 cLimb l^«e^ nr H «pcd for dtiperij] by hook> or 
plome*. 1 had alirayt hi^m miit'h Htnuk hy swvh adaptAttonit 
And until thetc coulrl be explained il seemed 10 me atmoAC 
nicies to endeavour to prove by indirect evidence that 
ipvcici have been tuodiFlcd. 

Afitt my rcMirn 10 Knjtl^od it Appeared (o me ihai by 
foUoning the eiimple of \,ftM in Genlagy, Jtnd by cotler ting 
■11 facii vliich bcrc in any way on rhc variation nf antrnih 
and planta under domciTicaiion and niture, aome tight mighc 




[K'rhAj)« he thrown on ihe whole auhjecL My fiMi niitr-hook 
WJ& o^^icni^d in July iSj^^ I woikcU on true boconian [tfln- 
tiplct. and vruhaul iny Ihcftry collected fact* on a nbo^cule 
■iTrtle, more rspccially with rcspt^cf to domcitical^ii prcwluc- 
litMTis, by i^rinEcd cnf^uirii^f, hy convrriuttinn with Kleil/iil 
btocdcra anti gnrdcnciM, and hy cxtennivc r?jidin^ Whm I 
sec ihc list of boolis of all kinds which i re^id and abstracted, 
lucLudiii^ whulu serltTb uf Juumal^ anti TrunbaLtioDb, I am 
Hurfinaeil Hi stty mdiit»liy. I wi>u pciccivcJ lliai fcckci^on 
wa> Ihc kevtiunc of iiun'» >uccc»> in making useful racci ot 
flnlmjis And plaots. Cut how lekctioo could be applied to 
chrguninms living In ■ vialc of njiturc iYin«in;i1 for «omr lime 
A niy^Etiy tc7 mti- 

[n October i8j8, that it, fifteen [nL>nih)i after I hoid begun 
my sysleoijitic cni^uiry, I happened Eo read tor unius«nieDt 
' MaUhus on Popubiion," and beitm well ["rtpjirtJ lo apprc- 
fUte the sIrtiKgle for *Tii*tencc which everywhere goa on 
from long-condnued observation of the habits of animali and 
plantS) It at onre DinK'k m^ that under their cirocimvlanm 
fjii-ouTablP varialions wouU lend In bi" pre*frvrd, anil wnf.i- 
vourable ones to be destroyed. The reauti of ihjs would be 
ihc formation uf new specii^s. Here then I hjd at U^l got x 
theory by whkh to woik ; but I Witi so antiout to avoid 
prejudice, thflt T determined not for v)me lime to writi? even 
the briefest skeirh of it, In June 164* I fir^t nlloweil myself 
the sutitfaction of writing a very htu-f abstroci of my Theory 
io pencil in 33 pci^eb ; and this wa^ enlarged during the sutn- 
tner of 1K44 iiJto one of 2jo pa^ei, which 1 bad fairly copied 
out and still poitcii. 

Rut at thai Time T ovrrlookcd one problem of gre^r imiwT- 
tnnrr; and it i\ attnnliihinK to me, e^rept on the prinripic of 
Columbus and bis egg, how I could have overlooked il and 
ill lolution. Th[i problem if the tendency in organic bciiip 
dtvccnded from Ehf lame ftiotk to direifiv in chartclff t$ 
Ihey become modiAed, ThAi ihey have diverged gre-ailjr Itt 
obvioiu from the manner in which species of all kinds can be 
clA9Md under gt^oera^ genera under famUie^n families undtr 

'ORlGt!( OF SPEtlE-V 




mb-cfdcrr and «o forib ; and 1 cod remember Lhe very ipoi 
tn th« road. vhiJit m my ciirriagv, when Ic my Joy the solu- 
tloa OccLtn^I Ir> nir ; anil thih wd» Irjn^ After I h;4d ccint ttj 
Down. The noluuon, u I bdirvp, ia ihAt the mortified ofi- 
fpriog of ill dumin&nt and int^rvaiing formn irmd Tr> became 
Adapted to manf and highly dtv«infii;d pbccs in the econfimy 
<4 axurc 

Eu^T ia 11(56 Lv?LI JidvtMd me lo wntc uut my viifwfi 
prtfty fuHy, and 1 began al once to do 10 on a si.ak ihrc^; or 
foor Irmr* u riim^ive m ihflt wbkh wa» aderw.-itdi followed 
in mf 'Origin of Spfcic* ; " yri (t w** only an abslraet of the 
nawriilt vrhtch t had collected, and l got through About 
lulf the wvtk on ihis scale. But my plans were over- 
ihrovTi, for nrly in thir summer oE 1^58 Mr. W^llACr, ^ho 
wn» ihcn in the MaUy orchipclago, sent rac an essay *' On 
the Tmdency of VaHciici ta depart indefin1ll^]y from Ehe 
Original Typ^ ; " and thr? es'sny roniaincd exactly the 
fflMe Ihcfjry jla minL-, Mr. Wallucu cxprebtitd the wijth Ihnt 
if 1 thought wcU o£ hit e^say. I should tend il to LycEl (of 

The circumBtanM* wndcr which 1 consented at the te- 
qne«r of l.yell and Hooker to allov of an abatrd<^i from my 
HSl. together with a letter a> A« Gray. dafi?d Sr^ptember 5, 
1857, tu be publifthvd at the zainv timt? with Wiilbce's Essay, 
are pven in llw * Jourtial of the PtitccediiigB ol Lhe Linne^in 
Society,' 1^5^ p. 45, 1 wai at Ijnt very unwilling 10 content, 
a* t thought Mr. ^^allace migtit consider my doing to nn- 
juififiaMe. for I did not thrn hnov hitw fjcneroiu ^nd nftblc 
was hi» diftpo%Jti<^n Thr MTtftri fri^m my MS. nnil the Icrict 
to Am Cray hud neither been iniended for publication, and 
vrre badly written, Mr^ Wallace's esBay, on the oIIkt liund, 
VM admjriibly expreuvd and iiuitc ckur. Nevcnhekii, our 
ioiM productiona vxcitrd very Little attention, an<i the only 
puUnhed Dot(^« of thtm whirh I can r«memtjiT va^ by 
Frofaraoi Haujchtun of Dublin, whoflc verdict w>u that all 
that vas new in them was falK, tmd what wai true wat cild. 
This ihowft how necesury it i« Chat any new *icw should be 



i:xp1iiin<d aX coniidcrRblc knjph in order tAamuHc public 

]n S4?ptcmbcr 1858 I sel to wttk by tlu ttiong jiJvkv ut 
Lydl anil Huoker Eui^rvpnic :& vuluntcoii LhcUauhniLKALkuii c>f 
Hpeciett. bin w.14 ulicn inlcrriiptcd by lU-hcAlth, andshon liiitt 
to Vsv LacLc'i ddigtilful hydropailik cfiAbliibtncm at Moor 
Park, 1 abitraclcd (he MS. brgim on .1 miic h Urjtcr *mli: in 
iiji6, 9r\A coinplcfird ihr vnliimi? on the %nmc reducer] icalc- 
tt roKt me tlilrie'T months and len dap' hard labour li vriH 
published under ihi: liilc of ihc " Origin uf S;n'ci(r»,* in Nuvi-ii^ 
ber 1859, Though cutLbiderJibly «ddt;<J tu wid coir^uvd in the 
Jjili-f cihti(m», ft hjfe rciuiiiiiud ftubaUDlially the ume bixiL 

U 15 no doLiht [he chief work of my life. It was from the 
first highly sucfrttefiiL Thi^ fli-^i iimall cdi(ii>n of 1150 copi« 
wub sold on the day of imbbtation, and A srcond edition of 
jooo copies soon afierwnTds, Sixivi'd thciiisafid i^o[iics have 
aov ([S76) bc«n u)ld i^t England ; and cons^idcfing how ttiff 
1 book h Sn, ihit h r ]atgi eak. It hu been itin^Utcd into 
almo*t every Eitrtipriin ronjpjc. even into *uth bnguagrt ■» 
Spnnish, ItoheniiAn, roliah, nnd ttuHJAn. It h*» ;iIki, atwrd- 
ing lo MitH Bird, brrfn translntcd into Japaneic,* «nd a there 
nnnh Htudit'd. Even an vswxy in Hebrew ha.'t appeared an 
IE, thowin)! (h^t the theory th contnLned in the Old Trila- 
mcnt T The reviews were very numcitms ; for ^umv lime I 
collccird all thnt appeared on the * Origin ' and 00 my reUled 
booki, And thci^r iimonni (exeluding newtp^per reviewi) to 
965; but after a time I gnvo up thi' nxtrr^pi in dei^pAir 
Many leparate- csiap and hooks on the fiiibjrfi hjivr- »p- 
pcitrcd ; and in Oennatiy a catalogue or bibliography on 
" Uarwinifcrnu* " hjh appeared every year or two, 

Thf «uece» of the ' Qngtn ' m^y* 1 thjiik, bcr Attributed in 
large part to tny having long before wrillco two coodentcd 
aketthts, and t<y my hjiving finally abstracffd a mu<fli Inrgcr 
nianuicrLpE, which wjs h'nM an abatrart. Hy thiti mrunb f 
woA enahkd to select th< mote striking factsond eoncEuKiona. 

* M^« Dlrd li toiiLaku^ ii t kam tnm Vn(. UiltukarL^F. D, 





th4t Dfhc&cvfT ■ pabtiihcd tkcU » new obftcrvAiJon or thotight 
£«nic icroti lAf, which was oppa^rd 10 my genfrnt rcr^ulti, to 
nuke 1 uiviuoi^udum (»f Jl wiihout f^il jjiU ut oqcl' ; flur l 
bad f'juud by c-ipcrtcncc Ihat luch lien «nd th^u^hu were 
iat mor« Jipt lo «»i:-kpc ffom (he memorr th^n favourable 
ooci. 0*irig (O lhi» hibil. very few objections were riiiscd 
J^inft my vi<^wft which 1 had not ftt IfAKt Etcitiri'<1 And Jit* 
tenptcid 10 -uihiincr. 

It hoi somciiinc^ been said ihat the s^iccets at the *Ori* 
ipa' pravvd " iliat xiw tuLrject w:io in the air," or " ihai racn'fl 
mindi wtre prvpoftd Tor it." I do nol think th^iL ihiit i« 
fttricity iruc, fvi I vi;tuiotu|l¥ i^^unUcd nut ^ (ew ii^CumIikIv, 
ftfkd never hftppcficd ro tome icrom « iipigk i>nc ^ho ircmid 
10 dottbr ibouc ihc pcfnuwcoc* of spccici. Even LycH rtnd 
Hooker, though ihqr would Listen wtrh intrrc4T to me, ncvrr 
U-vnied lo agrte. I tried one* or tvice to rvplain lo iihle 
nun whjt I ni«j;nl by Nfttnral Soleciion, but wj^nally fnilci 
What I believe wii ttnctly iruc U Ehni inninni'mbltf wi^H- 
observed facU were tiiztred m the tnindii of n.iLurunlihU ready 
to Ukc their proiier places as tnoon ai ^ny theory which h ould 
rccdTc them wan sufficiently e^pJain^d, Another elcinctit in 
ihe «weeM of the hook wa* it* modcMte n"«; jind this I uwe 
to tlie Appearance of Mr. WDl1jice'<i cs^y ■ hnd I pnhhalu-d 
oa tht ^-ale in which ! began to write it) TE$it> the hook 
would ktrc tKTtti fviur ijr five times na large as the ' Orl^n/ 
«m] Terj few would h^vc h>ul (he pjiivuti; lu read it, 

t gained much by my dcl^y in publUbtng from ;iboul 
13*39, when the ihcory wn% clcjrly conceived, to 1*59 ; and 1 
knt nothing hy it, frm I CJirrd very little H-Hcther men st- 
irAiuCcd most odginnliry to me ar WnMnrc ; and hi« e^^ay no 
doubt aided in the reception of die theory. I wbs forestalled 
10 only on* iniiJoitajU point, which my vanity has always 
tnndj^ me regret, t^amely, the etphnAiion by nie^int r>f th« 
Glacial period of the p-restoce of the snmc speeiei of rjlanta 
And of virue firw animah on diftant monnuin lumniiis and 
in the jrctic retfion^- Thifi view pleaded me ho much That I 



wrote it out in extcnsr^uid 1 believe ihnf it wm foul by 
Hooktrr vmm ytran bc^fon E, Forboi |iubhiihc<l hia wlrbnfe^ 
iiictnuir* un tUv suljjc^rt. tn Ihv icry few |ii>uaU ia which 
wv Jiflvrcii^ 1 hlilt Ihink cb*l I vi»i in the tt^hL t h»vc 
never, ol count, aUudcd m priai to my tuvlng mdcpcndenily 
worked out this view. 

Hnr^lTy any 7>f»lni j^av^ mt w wrnch n.itUf^rtirpn when T 
wii'' it work art the 'Origin/ Jix ihe cjijibnoijiin cif thr widr 
difference in miny doaiws b<-iwecn the embryo and the adult 
ammal) itnd of the vTu»e n-bttubbnce uf the vmbryuv wilJim 
thv Btfiiie cUhx Nu nuIJctf of Lhib I'viiit *ab Ukrui ab f;ir ju 
t remeraher. in the cuiy review* qF the ' On^rt/ itnd I recol- 
lect eipreuing my lurpriu on thii hfid in a letter to \i^ 
Gmy. Within late year* wvernl reviewers have i^iven the 
whole credit lo FnU Mailer und Hilikcl, who umloubtcdZy 
have worked il out much more fuUy, ;uid in some rrspccU 
mute concctly thjn 1 dld^ 1 had maleiialt for a whole chap- 
ter 00 Ihe subject, anJ I OLi^hf to hjivc mAde ike dLiiciit^ron 
lonfCGF ; for it it cIm^t ihctt J f-iilcd lo imprtv my rcide^rii ; 
ond he who luccc^di m daing lo detrrvo. in my opinion, ill 
the ere d it. 

This leads me to remark that [ have Alfno»l «Iwayft been 
treatfd honestly by iny rcviifwerH, pabMuK over thotc without 
hcicniifjc kfiuwlcUiic ^% not worthy ol uoticc. My viewi have 
often been grossly roisrcpresented, bitterly opposed and ridi- 
culed, but this hat been genemlly done, a» 1 believe, in good 
faith. On the whole I do noi dmibt ihm my work* have been 
over and over agnln prrxEly ovcrprfliwd, 1 rejoice that I hiivc 
avoided controversies, ortd this 1 owe to Lydl, who many 
ycaiB ago, in reference to my geological wL■rk^ stron|cly ad- 
vi«ed me uevvr Xv ueE entangled m i cuntrovcthy. as it rarely 
did any good and catiited a mth«rAbLe loss of time and temper- 
Whenever I have fctiind out Thai 1 hive blundered, or thai 
my work hab been tmpfrft.-et. ^T\r{ when I have been c«n- 
taoptuoiuky critieiaed, and ewn when t have been over* 

-Gcoluf, Svirty Men,,' IB4& 






pfanrd, vo thai I hive Mi mortiA^d, il has been my gre^ttfit 
comfort to My hundrcilB of (inic* to myself eKaC '' L h:ivii 
ttorkfil &^ haril (iiul v wdl a* I couM, Ami ruri man cun rio 
moTT ttufi ihit/* I Tcmemhcf whcft in Goad Siicrpa* Bay, 
m Ticrr* del Fucgo, thinkin}- (and, I bdicvc, ihat I wioic 
hoAtf to thff tfE(*cif thai I <uii1d nui criipluy my life bc!iLifT 
t^n in ^kilding a link iu NaiuijJ t^ucriLLv J hih 1 U^ms tJu^itr 
10 the hat of m>- abiliTk** and cniics may wy wlul tJlcy Jtkc, 
but ihcy canrtoi dwtroy [his convirlicn 

IlurmK 1^^ '^^ '''*' months of tB$^ 1 w»4 fully n<:rupicd 
bi jircptmng a tcronti ciliiicin of the 'Origin,' rniii by an 
enonnouft carrciiWEuleacc^ On January nt. i860, I hcpan 
amDfuijE my not^ lor my y/oti. on the ' Varialii^n of Ani- 
mall And PlanlL andrr ndmctiicstion; ' but it wjt» net pub- 
lished uftiil the beici"Ti"»K <jf '^^^ ; the dt-lny having; been 
fauietl pnrilv bT frec|iieTi1 Ulneuei. one of whirh Inur^E icven 
mooihii, and panly by bdnft rtmptcd to publiah on othcir %uh* 
jecU irhich si the umv infefiMt-d mi' more. 

On May i^ih, iN^t. niy ItLiI^ bunk i;n the ' Fvrtiliwiuvn erf 
Orchidt,' which coil me ten monlbV woik, vat> publiHbod: 
Mott of Ihc fact* had been bfunly accumuUied during tevcrat 
prvrfotu ycdrv Hiifinic Ibe ^uininrr of *8ig» inJ. I bcJi^v*, 
during llic prciioiis i»ummer, I> Ird tn Aiiend in ihc i^msx' 
fcnjhmion of floircrft hy the aid of 3nr>et:t5, frnm bfLvinfc f omc 
to Ibe cuncEunon in my a|>ecu1utjcnt on th? origin of ipe^ieii, 
that tro^inu pl.iyi:d an Jcii]iori:ml part in kf^rping njwdlic 
toritti cOQiunl, 1 Jitendvd lo lUc suhjaX moic or ltf» dui- 
inj; <iyrf »nh4i?fioenf *nmm*:p^ inr! my imercit in Ll wui 
£r**A'>y enhanri-d by h-ivm>f {nitexin-d and rcjid in November 
■&41, Ibmnjglj the advice ci Robert Bfown, a copy of C K. 
Sfirrngerv Kondertul book. ' I3at entUei.kl? OpbfmmitB der 
Nator.' For M^mc year^ before iS6s I had ipci^iaHy ailrnded 
10 l&e fcnilitauon of am British ofchidfi ; And ii >^'i.'fn4:ii in 
noe the beet plan 10 prepur? x\ complete a trcali:<c on ihifl 
(roup oi placln a* well ai 1 could, lathcr than to utilite the 
grcti AM* of maiur whLch ] h;id ilowly collected with le* 
■pcd to other plan El. 



My resolve prOTTfl awiwono; fot fcSnr« Ihe api*t-iiT4Tic« 
of my bookk a «urt»fUin[t number of papcn aikI »cijar>t« 
wuikh 4iu till- Icitiktallon ot all iiadt of f|{>«tn hjte ap- 
pexrcd ; ii.n6 thei« .tr? far bcti^r done ihjin I could po»iW^ 
have effected The merit* of noor old S]/rrnjfrl, so ]on|iE 
overlooked^ ftrr now fully rfc^ofnifiod many years after hi« 

During the same year I publisliiM in the 'Jtiurnul of the 
Linripflti Society * a pif\}rr " On ibt 'l'w*j Koniii*, oi Uuiior- 
phic Cuuditjun ol fiiniuJ^" ami iluiLiiy llic niril Ave ycjirt. 
live tiihff paper* on tlinHtTithlc and inmofphic pianti 1 do 
not chjnk jiny thing in my icientifir hfe Has given me tomurh 
tjiiiif&tiion Hi milking <mt the meaning iif the ^iruciiffe of 
the^c plnnK I h.nd noticed m lAjA or tJtj^ (hr dimorphiiin 
of /jKtim Jttij-UM, o^mJ h^Ld 01 fiiM thought ibat it wai merdy 
a caie of unmtancnu ufMbility. Dut on exiiiiiininK Ihc com- 
mon ipet^ehuf pTtniuh I (onnd thM ibc twu fvimit ircrcinueh 
too TCfEulAr and cotiAtiini ta be ilui« viewed, t therefore b^ 
came j)mo« convinred thar the common covilip and prim- 
mic weri? on ihe high roud lo btTOrntf diujcinut i*— (hat the 
Bbon pi»lil in lb* onv form, and the short Klamena tn ihc 
othvr furm #rrc [ending tonuidt abortion- The planu ver* 
therefore iuti|rcted undrr ihii point of tiev to rrid ; but ai 
noon a* Ihf flowCTi with ^hort pistil* fertilised with pollen 
from the ahort siametii. were found to yiehl mnrr ncrdK than 
•ny other of the four pottlblc unions, the abortion-iheory m% 
knotted on the hi'ud. AFt«r tome addilionil etptnmcnr. il 
IfccMinie evident that the two formi, tlinu|tb both were perfet;! 
fcermaphrodiicv bore ilmoii ihe i.ime tcbiion lo one anoihc 
V do the ivi vTrt of an ordm,ir\' animal. With Lythrum 
we have the *t»ll more vonil^rfiil r,f three fnrms Maiding 
fn a s\mi\at relation to one another. I afierwnrdit fnnnd Ch4t 
Ibe offspring from the natvn of iwo plants betongrng to ihc 
tame formi preienied i done 3Tui c\ttwt analog mtU by* 
brldi from ihf union of ih'o ditiincc ipcciei 

Tn the autumn of ifKi4 1 finished a long psiper on 'Climb, 
ing Plants,' aad acnt it to the Linnean Society, Thv vrtdng 

K orcb£ 





Ofcbii paptr coitmc font moni^ib: buL I wiu no unwell when 
I rccciTrd the priftorf-ih«<i (hni I w»i forced to Irivc ihcm 
vcjy liadJjr itid often obscurdy ciprcuscd. The piptr iva* 
liiUc iiQtic^d, bul whvn in i^;5 it u:ib gofffcieti and pubtiahcd 
u 4 KfUMic book Li «t>ld welL I Ha» led to ukc up thiv sub- 
)t<i hy mdiTi^ a ihon phip^r by Aui Gfiiy, picbb'thcd in 1K5H. 
He k^nf mo vrd*. iitm\ an rnmnif M>m^' phnr* I w;ii to much 
CtBdootrd and pcrrplcrtcd hy ihe rtvotving muvc^cntt cf thr 
tcnilrib and sicm^ which movcmcnu nrc rcaWy very *implr, 
though a^pcarui^ ai Cunt ^l^ht wry complex, ihnt 1 procured 
v^iuu* othvE IciiiOn of i;liJribLU|ji pbn1?t> and Btudicrd Llie whole 
•■b)cct- I w^ -til Ihc tnorc attrai^tcd Lo it, from uttt being :iL 
ill Mlrtfied writh the c3(planaiioH which UenAloft- gave u* m 
hi* W'^turrtki u(H>ut mining plants, tiamt:]y. ihai ill cy had ri 
njlu»l Ecndcn^iy ta ijfu* iip in a hpirtv TM5 j^nplun-nion 
l^rovcd <iLii:c crioncouii. Same uf itir dil^iu^LiiuEta dttj^Liyeil 
l>r ClLDibing PUnU aic « beautiful v Ihoic of Orchids for 
cwufiDC croB»-fcriilLUition. 

}lv ' Vfth^iton of AnimaU and PUnt^ under Domeuici- 
lion' wai bcgun.iU already sliTcd, in tht bcginaing of r86o. 
Iittt wju not publifhrd unlil ihp br^nnmg of t86S, It was :i 
htz bowk, «a<1 roAt nc four yciirH and two months' hurd labour 
li i;ivc-4 all my obwirrvdtLant and an minicnsv number of facEt 
c^oNected irom voiiout Knircen. about our domctlic produc- 
Iktnfc Fn the tecond volume the causcvand IawsoF i-Amiion, 
InberitAnrf, Sic, arc di«f imv^d sl^ (nr n« oitr prr'icnt Mn%c oS 
knovlcds? permit- Townrds ihc end nf iht work I give my 
velt'abusvd hypothrii« of Pun^ncEdB. An unverUicd hypothe- 

iii (if little or no value : but if any one should hereafter be 
10 nak€ utntrvutioiik by wbicti ^tume lueb hypmihi'tin 
co«ld be CKUblitrLicd, I hhaXi havz diin« i£u^)d be'viu:, un xn 
attonhhi^ number of uoUted facU ran be Ihuv 4:onnei:ted 
Mf;iethcr and rendered inHligibte. In 1875 a second and 
U'lJfly rfiirrcted edilion, whkhcoftl mi:a|;»<>d d^al of labour, 
vtas bra^ithL ouL 

My 'Dncent of M«q " woi pubb»hed in Februoiy, iS?'- 
Aa toon ft> t had become, in the year 1S37 ot i^jfii conviiiced 



tVijI >pefic4 vrtTt niula1>t(- productionn, 1 could not avoid th« 
bdirf Thai mnu rrni*! romo un^Ji-rthe haine law. AL\-.f>id\n^\y 
I lullcutcd anlv* va l^c itdbjc^t for my own ^jIufAClion, and 
not (i>r ft longtime ^vith nny ioicniion of f^ublithing. Although 
iiilhc'Origiii of Specie** ihc dfrivuiion of snj- pnrlkiibr 
*pi:cic» U ntvcr <1inriis!,f<1, yri [ (HoufthE it Vm, in order thai 
|io hnnniirnhlr mnn ihcuW accust im? ofcnnccaMng my virn-i, 
^ add thjit by ihc wcrk " light wuulii be ihro«n on thv origin 
of man and ha hUtory." It would iuvt Ireiru ubi-T(^%b a»d in- 
jurious cu the aucvviv of tbi; book lo hiivt: jjurjijed, without 
l^vini; my cvidcni-c. ray tonvktion »i:li icspcct to hi« ori^n. 

But when 1 fciaid that manrnat'^rilist* fully icc^ptcd the 
dnrtnne of the cvoliHion of ipcci«, h wcmcd lotncadviBiblc 
(o w-nrk up Buch note:? as I i^o^t^'^i^cdp.ind to piiblUh n K^Kud 
Ucatisi.- on the ori];in fif matt, 1 was xhv more glad to do 90, 
Ai it i^nve mt^ an opporiui'itty of fully dUcus^mg hc.\ual (elec- 
tion— a subject which had alw^-iys grcatiy inlct«ti'd nic. This 
*ubj«clt and that of the v«rUlion orourdomratn. iiioductionA, 
Icg^thrr with Ihc tailor* ,ifid laws of vamiion, inhcrirjnic, 
and The intLTerosiing of plantii, arc the hiIc lubjecis which I 
hiLvv btr^n ahk To write about in fijll, u as to uae all the naa- 
tcruK which I havt i:oHi^etrd. 'The * I>cK'Ont of MJin ' ("cik 
mc thiec year* Ut wtittt t>ut tJien u uhual ayatc of VhiH ttijic 
»at lost by iti bcalth. and lomc wiii consumed by ;>reparin 
nc# tdilion* rtnd oth<:r mmor work* A «i:onJ And largclf^^ 
correeicd edition of the * Drsrcnt ' appcnirrd in Ift7^- 

My book on thv ' R^pruAJon of the Kmofii^nA In Mm and 
AiuEnalb' wat ijubhibrd in the aunimn of 1K77. I had in- 
tended b> vivc onfy ;« cbapEcr on (lie subject in the ' Descent 
o5 Man/ bul ai loon a* I ^c^Ean lu pul ciiy notrs Uijtclhvt, 1 
taw tbjit ii would re-iiiire a icparjtc ircaiuc- 

My firtt fhihl was bom on December ajth, tSjtg, and I it 
once commenced to mn;^' noit\on the firet diwn of ihc-rari' 
cu« »i>Tesiiona which be exhiburd, for I ff.'U convmeed* even 
tl ihii early period, dial the ino»l cottiplca ind fmc thodet of 
ekfifi^ulon miiil atl have hjd a giiiduoJ and natural origin 
During' Iht^ >iummer of the following year, 1840, I icad Sir 



BtU'tadBiniblc work on cipictAiun, 4ind UiU greatly incrcaiijc<l 
(he iiucrol which 1 fcU m die 3ubjtcl, Ibgu^Ii 1 i:oi.iLd ngt ai 
■Ilagi*e*i1h bis belief ib^t varioiii imiKk-t hj^ tcvn »pt:- 
cbHy crtAM for thr ukr of cxprc«»<j(in. Frotn ihifi tirtii! for- 
««fd 1 oecAAOiutly oiicnded co the liUbject. both with respect 
10 nun ODtl our domcuioicd ;imniaUH My book urld brKcly; 
5367 copies but iiig bf HI tli'4[JVi;rd tA ^n th? duy ol publi^Aliou, 

In the tumnier of iHOc J wo&idimg ^nd rcitmi^ neir Il;trt' 
icM, tfbere tno ipedci of l>roicr:i abound : and I noticed 
tlut nuincroiu in«crt» hjid Wen cnirjjj'iprfl by Ibr k.ivc«, t 
cKrnrd h^vmr AOrrtc^ plAntt, and on giving (hem insect'^ T4V the 
mnvfrornti of the icuLiclea, and thT» made mc tlnnk it probm- 
bic ilut the innccis «i;rr caugbt Jor Hinic ipcci^l purpmo. 
^Oliunitdy a Efuciil t»t occurred to mc* Thut i.prpb< tn^ 4 
'^sffi number of teavet in v«riout miru^tcnou* jni non-nitro- 
ipeneiut lluidn of cigukl dcniiiy : «Ad at loon ai I found ihu 
the foinner alone exif iied cni^r^lie Tnr>vpm?nt3, il wan obvious 
that heri* was 1 fine new ^ild {^\ mvr^ti^lion. 

Durin;: Bubw<iuen( y^^r^^ whea<*vcr 1 huci leisure, [ pnr- 
ipd my cxpcrinirnt9» ^nA my btnrk r^n ' Inhi:' livot^mi Pljinin' 
pubJithcd in July i^t5— Eh^ is ^uivcn yeart after my 
fir^t otHcr^'j-tionb The dcbiy in ihU C4se, ai with all my 
tfbcT bouki, hot been 1 ^rcai advaiiLjge lo me; for a inin 
ilttr * lonjt intenjJ can criticise his nwn work, ilmovi %\ well 
AA il k were thar of Another pervin. The lA^t thu d plunt 
■hould lerreie. when properly eielicd, a fluid eomaining an 
mciil and fcrmeni, closely analof^out to the di^c-«tivc tb^id xA 
•O animat, wja certainly a rem:irk:ibU- discovery. 

Puniig thit niiiumn of ift;& Uh^tll publish on the 'Effect* 
otfCio^i ind Srtf- rertiliHiion b ihe Vegei*hle Kingdom/ 
TW» book wili form a complcmeni to th.ic on fhf " t''crTili«a- 
riofl of Orirhi[I*,' In whifli 1 ^ho^e^ how perfect were the 
mcoK for cross fcruIiajiTJon, and here 1 shulL *lww biiw im- 
portaol are the letuk^, J was led id make* daring elevm 
ycfttii, the aumciwi* cipcrimfnE* recorded m this volume, by 
■ mere ucidenul obtervaiian; ind ind^fd it roqu^d the 
Bccidcni 10 be repeated before my ntlentbn trAk thoroughly 



aruuacd Xq Ihc remaJk^iblc fad that ■eedlingi of idf fcrtiliieil 
parcmjiKC irc infctior, even m (lie firtc g|vii«r^iioil, in height 
ar<t vigour to «AMtlmi{i eit r^rovt'ftriilbcd pftnenuig(!# I hope 
alio 10 rrpubhfih a rcviacil cdirbn of my book on Orrhich, 
And hrrcjfier aiy papers wi dinvjt[>hic latX inmi^rpULc pbnti, 
lo^ctficr Willi «oiuc aJCttii>L^al uliHcrvAliuii* vn d.lEi«d puitiN 
which ] ncvci h»vc hjd lirac to aniugc. My i-Ltcngih *d\ 
then probabTjr be vihouaicd, and 1 shall be tctdy to cxdAim 

tVniifH Afay Mt, ia«i,— "Tlie Fffrrts fif Ttobi iiml Srif. 
KrtliUsmion ' T«tii publiihcd m the nummo of ifijft ; and Uic 
rt<«ulLE th«rc arrived at explain, a& I belieic, the eniUcM And 
H^ndcrful c>TOtriv«ncc« for ihc of iiotlcn frum one 
pbnt 1^ another of the umc itjK'i;c». L niitv hclirvc, however, 
cbicllyfnim the obiery«tioni oif KermAnn Maller^ihdi laii^ht 
to have inntitrd more firon^y ihon I drd on tlie many adipn- 
tiyns for tcif- fori ihtai ion ; thoii^-b I ivih well uware of mnnf 
iUch jidfiptauonA, A mm h t-nl^r^^d nhiion of my ' Fcrtihiu< 
lion ol Orchids ' tva» published in iH?;. 

In ih;* lamc ycjr "The Uiffcrenl P'ormt of Floucri, *it.,' 
a|>|ieir«d, And m iS8<> a snond edition. ThW bnok coEniait 
chiclty of xhit tevcriil pjpirrH on Hctcroitykd ilottcn originjUly 
puM])ihc<1 by x\\r l.lnnc^An ^cirty, rorrt^cicd, with nnich new 
maiLvr added* (ogcih^r with ob&ervaiions on votov c-lhrr c 
in tvhitli Ibtr Kitne plant bears im-d kindt of iJi/Hcrt. Ak 
fore rcmRikeU, no littlv diHttrvriy of nunc ever gnve mc to 
much plejmre a» the m^lmy out the meaning of heteroilyM 
ft*»i(r(.T»i. The r«u1li of cios»ing mch flower* in An illc|^l^ 
roiite mannrr, I lirlieve to be rtry jmporiuiL, as UeJTing on 
the iimlity of hybrids : ofrhnngh thc&e rcau^ls hai^c been 
nohced by only a few perwins, 

tn 1379, [ had a lrantla:ioA of Dr. Einht KrAutc'i *LiJ«of 
Krjumui l>:irwtn' pubtiHhed. and I Abided a nkeD^h of hi« 
vhnncitfT and habil« from material in my possaiion. Many 
prnranA have bc(?n much int«rcsTed by ihi-i Kitir life, And I 
Am furfiriKd thni only Soo or goo eopie» were i^old- 

In i88g 1 pubUihcdp wiih (my *an] Fiank't Av>i>Uncc, ouf 




'Po<«r o( ilov<m«« in Plnnii" This w^? » lough piece g[ 
ihttk. Ihe book bMn sotncivhii the feirae rcljiivoii 1o tny 
litilc book on ■ Climbing PUhei/ iwhich 'CroH-lcriili^tion ' 
did 10 tli« ' K*iliL>4lion ul Uichidt;' for in aroordnnrc wilh 
ihv |irincTpLe of tt«lu?ion h wah Impo^iihlc u» account (ot 
dimtung plants hnrinjc Iwrn developed in su inaiiy KidcLy 
diffnvnt pT^^'p^ iinlou nCI klndt of piiinti vi»<«» touic >li)^t 
p^ywvTOf movciacnt of on analo^uun kiud, 'Il«i* I proved to 
be thecnw t and Iwuifuilhcr kd to x uih** *idc Ri-nerjil- 
isukrL vit ilm: Iht* |t' *:id imporiim <:l«vi o( move- 
iDCDt^ exuUd U> lutht, [he iH/aclion of i;"vity, Ust:^, arc all 
nkodified fornu of the fund.imi:Tit,il mfnTmcr^t cf cirLumiwU- 
utn. U hut alwfly* plcft«<:cj mc Ki csali pUiih iik ilic ^cileo* 
orgaonrd boiair^ ; And I thcrcfoic fcU ;in c^ipctiii plca'^utc in 
tltavinic how mnny and whit jbdmirably welJ adApicd tnoro- 
BKM* the lip of » root pinv^ti. 

i have no*r (Miy t. iMXi) ^pnt to the printers lUc MS. of 
■ UttU book on ' I'he Fonnotion of Vegetable Mould, tliri>i^t!'^ 
ihe AciioQ of Worn*.* This b a lubteec of bui smnH im- 
pnrtjmcc; a&d 1 knownol whi'ihcr i1 will jntcrnr any read l^^i.* 
bnr it has intemtrd tnv. It ih (hi! oompkiion of a i<h'itt 
paper reoid licforc die <^ologicid Sot^ieiy more c^an forty 
yc^n afio, «nd h>s Tcvii^ old ^crilogtc^l ihi^iUBhti. 

1 lure QOT m>?nfi4>ni:d all Ihe bookt whieh I have pub* 
Inbed. nnd thev have h^n ihe mileitonci in my life. m> 
lh*l tillte remoh.^ la lie viid. I nm t^ol ron^rioii^ ■>£ nny 
rhkafie in my mind duHng ihc UaL thirry ye-in, eieepiing in 
one point prviendy to he mentioned; nor. iodecdi could any 
clumge lutY ber» eipccied unlets one <jf Keiitfral dtfierioruiton, 
Uai my father lived to Uh citthiythird ycur ^ ith Uu, tnmd Ji 
Jivdy as ever il wm. and All hii facullici un<^immed : and I 
bo|>e rhal I may die before my mind fj*iN to a sensible ex- 
lent. I think that 1 hnve hc-<:omc a hide raorc itkilful in 
pirariiH^ right explanation* and in devising exj>t-rT mental 



icsis ; but tLit m^ij piobably be ihe remit oJ mere practice, 
jndof .1 Urj^cr *t.r»fco( knowlcilgt!. I Imvc ji louth diSiiiull/ 
jw ever m cxpr«smg myself clearly and ronnarly ; and this 
lifl^culiy has caused me a very grtm low of lime ; U\tt it hn* 
lud the cum|;(^nBali]ig jdvuuugu v( furcmg iiiu lo ihiak long 
dtid intently -xboixt every wnieiice, :ind thtjk I h^vc bevo kd 
Li> tec crfon in rcAu>nio^ jmd in my owi\ oLiterv»tioii^ oe 
those erf other*, 

Th«iv »cf m« 1A be A 4i>rt or fttAlLrj in mjr mind l«»ding 
mc- to [>iit nf flpit my «-itrmrnt nr propoa[ti<>fi in n ivmng nr 
a«fkvatf\ form, Form<:Hy I ll^cd to think nliovit my »cn- 
tencct before ^^ riling them doiva; but for scleral yean I have 
fdtiiid th:(l it 1MVC4 iimf? tu sc ribbic in a vile bund whole pign 
U (juickly Ok 1 prjiAiI^ly i:An, ci;>niMc1Jn|j '^"'^ '^'■^ wurdt; and 
thva correc;! delibcrjiu-ly. Senictive* thui «cribtikd dow 
Arc oftcti better one* than C conkl have wrtllen delibcr^ifdy. 

Having ^nn\ thu^ much nbnut my iTLinner of wriiift^ I 
wilj Add that with my tn^rge booki I ftpi^nd a gnod deal of 
time over the geri^rAl flrrnngcmcnf of thtr milter. I 6nl 
make xh'^ rudest omline in \wit or thrrt jajjcrt, and then A 
larger one in wv^rn] pagei. n few ^vdul^ or cm* i*or*I atnirf 
inff far a whoh di^ci-i^ioti i>r hericK of focU, £acb ouectf 
thc»e hc;[Llint^» n a^x\u enluri^i'd and often trantferred b^ 
tore I tie^ftin to ^vTite I'w M/irm^'. A* in tevetil of my boolti 
facf9 observed hy oihefi lidve been vtry eiteiwivel^r used^ 
Jind 01 I liLtv? AlvJiyt h^d nrverMl ^inlr dlntirvft luhjeet* in 
hand Jit ihe same time, I mny menrion that 1 keep from 
thirty in forty large portfolioft, in cjibinetj with labelled 
ihel^chi ititp ivliicl^ J ciiA M once put a deidiclied tefcrrai-s 
or ntemcirjtndUEn- I K^ve thought many booLv and at iheij 
rnd* I makt an index of ill the f»et» thar roncem my work ; 
eir. if the book i» noi my own, write out a vriinrAte ab«r«l. 
and (f( lueh nbMrar th t h»ive a larKe dr.twer Ml, Rcfore 
beginning od <iny futtject 1 iook to ill the bhuii imleAes sad 
make a jceneral snd clayjitlied index, and by taking the ouv 
or more proper portfolio* 7 have all the information col]cci«d 
during my life ready for use: 





T have witt [lint in one rt^pt'ci my minti hu fh^ngrd 
duriau the lut tuc^icy ot ihiriy yeat^ Ufi lo the age af 
Ihirtf^. PI ttc^odij ]:« pcciry of ni4ny kind^ tuch J^« Uic ^urka 
of Milton, Gr*y, Byron, Woidsworih. Coleridge, *n*l SlicUcy, 
pvc mc fcr^Ai pl&MiirCi flnri fven a^ a iic^ujolbov I took 
ialfTt<ic delight m Shaltc^pcarc, cspefinlty in Thr liiHtrkTJr:i1 
pUfv. 1 hare also stkid ihai formcrlj' pictures pavo mr <^>n. 
itdcriibl*, jtnd niuvic very jpvui di;li^hc. I)ui now for many 
fCJfi 1 caanoi cndufr Ui icjid ;■ ^jiic uf |iijftry: I lijvc< itied 
bidyto read Shikopcarc. and iound ii m> inii^k-idtjJy dull 
Ih<t it naiivraitd vat, 1 have a]»o almost lo»t my U*ie Toi 
pifturti^ nr mtmr Mufcir itrnfrnlly *rU mf rhmkini^ loo en- 
cTgcucally oil what I Live hc^cn -it work fin^ inrtU';Ld of giving 
me pl«i»urv. I retain K>me U«tc for fmc tccucry, l>ui ii does 
not cauAT rac the eii^Liiiiic dcligbt wh^^h ii formerly did. 
On ihc other h4nd, nov^L^L uhith «re worVi of the im:Lg]na- 
lioe, though not of n very hi^h order, have hern for yirars 
• vond^til relief and pltJiute to me, and 1 often Wen alh 
novclistt, A AiErpriftJng numlx^T hive been read aloud to tnt^ 
gad i Irke all if moUtraidy %tnn\, and if Ihty Jo Hot oid im» 
happily — a^ ^vhM h ;i law ouifht in he ^uisal-lL A ni^ivvl, 
aecording to my t4Mc« does not <.ouLe into iIk ftrit cUnk 
•aliCv it conuini some per«JD whom one (<in thoroughly 
love, and if a pretty woman ^11 ihf brtttf- 

Tbi« ennouEp and lammt^hlc Im of the higher rmHc tie 
UHcs U !ill the nd<leT, a» hook* ori history, biographic, aivd 
ivrli (indepetideniiy of any HtitniiFit Uith whitU thvy n^ny 
lUiJii and cuayt on all wru c>f subjecti interest rnc aa 
"nroi^h at ffvcr ihty dul My mind icem* to have berome a 
krnd oif machine (or ^tiding general law? oni t>( br|^ roileir- 
tioni of faeis, bwt why tht* should have Cflnaed the mmiihy 
at ih-it part of the brain nlonr, on whlrh the higher tmtvs 
(kjKttd, I cAnnot cnnccirc- A man with a mind nioje IiiKldy 
Ofgaftiud or better connlituted than mine^ wciuki no^ i tup- 
poie. have thu« luflried ; and if i had to live my life again, 
T would have made n lule to rcarl Mate poetry und Vawn to 
lOAne muuc at least once every wvek ; for perhaps the p&rl» 



of my brain now atrophifd tfi>uld thu» \\%vt txtn litpi a^iie 
rhruu^h ukc. TIi? I(>h4 «f ihcM uiici iu lou of happiTtfii, 
And iTi'ty |]i\shiMy \>e injurious fo (he illId1cc^ &nd man 
pmbahly lo the monil charof tcr, by. cnfptbling the tmoiioniU 
pan of rjur n^tutc 

My li»ukH ^j(vc hulO iHitcWy in Hn^Und, have bo:u tiuiR- 
IjtciI into many Ungujgti, and pitied tbrouah 9cr«nl 
cdhiont in foreign couniricit 1 havo btrtrtl ii Mi<T lh«t 
the RiircrH^ iif ii work nhrriAd U the hc^Ht ten ot lEAcndnr-^ 
ing vfllur t itoiibi whether thin is m all iruitttftflhy ; but 
judgT^d by (hin standard my name ought to Ijbi fur d few 
yi:;irB, 1'hricrori.' it ituiy bv worth wIUIc Lu try t*j .inaXyttf 
the TAcnul qualrlicK ^ai the cnnclitionii on wMth my mi<- 
feu htfii depended ; (hough I on; avarc thai no moii cjq do 
thii corref tly^ 

I huvc no gmit quIdcACW of ftppr«h«iaiDa or wii w*iirh i* 
(ii? rcinurkJt1ri<; in tomt clwer mcA, far imnuici-, iluitlcy. I 
ftm therefore a poor criiic : a piiper or book, when tint read, 
generally e\ciici my admiration, and il i^ only ificr coiafLLder- 
Mc rel1c<ti(jn thuc [ [ttrccive the weak [lomli. My power (o 
Follow a lonn And pnrely Abtirjet train of thought ii very 
limited: jind Ihercforc 1 could never have ttiecccdcd with 
mtiaphyaica or maihematicL My memory is enentlvc, yet 
haey ; it 9utliiu» tv make me cautious by vaguely telling me 
E-hat I have oljhcivcd itr re^d tvriielhing oppoited to thv con- 
duiion which I am dnwing, or on the cjthcr hand in favour 
of it : ind after a lime I can gencTilJy recollect where lo 
•enreh fi>r myanthoriiy. So ywor iti one s^-nie a my memory, 
ihnt I hnve nevrr been aWe in rrmpmher Tor more than » few 
day* a ningk date or a line of poctry. 

Somt of my critici have -laid, " Oh, he U n good obteTver, 
Uut hv hitb wi yovrtt of reLiaonirt/; V I df> not think that ihi* 
tin he t^e^ frjr the *<lrin»n of Spetie*' i» oflie tong ^ncuiaeiil 
from the beginning to (he end. and i( hat convinced not a 
few able men. No erne eould hove written it vithoui having 
iome power of rvAw^nin^ V huv^ n fair shsue of invention, 
and of tommoQ »eit»e or fudgmentt luch a« every fairiy Mlt^ 



ceuful U«y«« &r dodormufl have, but not, I bclievf, in any 
higher degree. 

On the favourali^ iWe of the bfliincir, I think that ) itn 
fcu|j«r»r 1v \lic cummon <ua of av:t^ in n<ji)cLiig things »hlch 
Ol4y tMd^c ultcutJud. and in uLnrivjn^ ibrni LjirtrFuUv. 
U]r indmity hu t>eciv neaily ai K^"^ '^ i^ could h;ivc been 
in ihe obvcrration and <ioili^.-iii>n of facts. What Li far more 
knponaai, toy Ian at natuij] idcncc hdK hcct^ Miii6y Ani\ 

Thb pure lovv hv, hwrerrr, been mui^h aided by the 
atabition to Le nU«nwd by my Evllu^ naluruJisU* Ftodi my 
cvly yifuib I bhw had itic ttirun^visi dc^ijc iu urL<.l(;rtitiknd or 
explain wharfTcr I obsfi-ved.— ^thoi ii. to grouii jll lAct* 
under *Moe general \av% The»c eamps combined h*ve 
ghtfi tne ihc [KLtienre tu reflect or ponder for any number' 
o* year* ovcrMiy nnvxplainvil probkm. A* (ar itt I lat 
)udgCt I un not apt to follow blindly tbc lead of other mrn 
] have Mcadily cml{^dvi]nrtd la Ukv^i my mind free >o at> u 
gi*e up »ny hypothesis ho-vever much beli^vci] liind I ^ann^ji 
tciiM forming; one otk every tubject). (" Koon a> CftcCi are' 
>h<i«n to be oppo«c<t lo ii^ Indeed, I have h^d no dinice 
bwl lo act in ihu [njnn*r, for with the enrcptn^n of the ''oral 
kecf*, I rannoi Pfmrmhcr a idnflTc flmr-fOTmcd hypothesiii 
vhich had no: offer ,i time to be given up or grpadymoiiifiotl. 
Thii has naiuriLlly led me lodiiimit i;re^t[y deductive reoson- 
iog in the nitEvd acieneet. On dir utUvr ^iiid. 1 »m not 
very we^Hicali-'a fiaine of iitind which I bcbcvc to tic inju- 
riona to the pro^w of »fienoc. A (cood deal orf wepiiritm 
in .1 virntiftr man it ■dvitibli' to Avoid mnrh low of time, 
but 1 haic met with not J few men. w]io. ] feel sitfc, have 
often thu« been deterred froin eapeiiment or ^btervalionBt 
nhiUi wouJd h^vi: [iruvi'il «tircctly vr tTtiJirCLlfy Kei^iixabJc, 

In tlbmraiion, I wiiJ ^ivc ihe fxldc*! ease whirh I have 
tnovik. A gentleman (ivho. m I afterward-- heard, is a ^noil 
local botini4i) wroic tu mc; Trmn thr F.u^iiTn <x»onlieft that 
llw seed ot beam od ihe common fidU-bejn had tbii year 
trt r ywfatre povn oa the wrong We of the pod. 1 vrotc 



bockf juking for further InFormaiinn, m I dtd noi nndendnc! 
what wai inco^nt; but I tlid not icccivc j.ay anawcr lor a »xry 
long tim^. 1 then mw tn two n^^wipAprr*. oni^ pnbli^ihccl in 
Kent find thf! lUhcr irt Vorkthirir, p».r.i^riip1is ^tatin^ ihil ii 
w,is a mo^t remjirkablc foft thni "iht bcnns thi^ ycnr hjid aIJ 
(;iowii on iFic wtong mcI*;." So I ihought iXktc iiiusl be lornv 
foun^Uiion iot so genvr^iL :i bt»iKLtii<^nL Accord Jriizly, 1 Mvnt 
to my HHriEcE]t<r« au uhl Rcniiiih injui, inil risked liim whcihcr 
he had heafd anylhing about JI, iftd he aniwcfcd, *" Oh, oo, 
air, it mwtit hf ^ mUi.ik^;, for rhr b^ramt ^^ow nn thr vronji 
aWc only on Icip-yrrtr, unil tliin ii4 not lojip-ycnf." I (hen 
tukcd him how ihcy gtcv in cotntnon years and Uovt on leap- 
ycjrt. but vtoa found thji he knew abiolutcly noihitig of hvir 
they ^rcw «( >iny Itmc. buL he blUi:k to hu bvlitf, 

After A rime t heatd fi<cm my firit inrcurmcint. who, with 
many apolo^^iei, «iid that he should not have wriif ^n lo mc 
bad he noi hcrird the ^utcmL'nt frnm several intetlijEcnt (arm- 
en* 7 bill thai lie had s;nce *poki;n agnin lo tvcry ««<■«( iht-m, 
and not one kncn in the leo^t vthat he had Inmhelf mc^ni. 
Sq thai here a. bebef^f indeed ll ilaiiment with no detiniie 
idea aUathed to it tin be called ix beljef— U^d "^preid mcr ah 
miMl Ihc whok <3f Kn^l^nd withoiil any vcMi^c of evidtncr- 

I hRVf lrnf>^rT» in the ronrsc of my life only chicc mien- 
tionally falsified itaiementi. and one of these may have been 
tL hoax (and there have becrn seveul ^ientilic; hoaxes) viliicb« 
however took in an Amencun A^tncuUural Joutn^L It le* 
luted It the Eurm:[tiui] in HolUnd <il a ne« breed of oien bj 
the cTOMin^ of di*lincr tpeciet of Doi (»ome of which 1 hap- 
pen to know are sterile together), and Ihc Author ihr im- 
pndenre to ^^»le tlmt \\r- hud ^rvrr^^iirtndM willi mr, and fhat 
I hjd been der-ply Lmpri^«cd wkh ihe importances of hU re- 
sult. The article vras sent to me hy the editor of an EngHsli 
Agricultural Jourual, asking foi my opioion befure republiih* 
iof ir. 

A leeond elite was an aeeounc of leveral rarietin, raised 
by the mithor from several ipecir»^ of Primi.da, wtde.h had 
■poDiancouttly yielded a full Lom^letucnt of Mfcd. aJiliou^ 



ihc patent pttinti had bivn rjir^ftjlly protectfil from tlu- ai> 
rtitoi insccii^ Thn arcouni wiin publivlif*! bvfyrc t Und dis- 
covered ihe inr«njiif[ of huiUfOM>lii-m. and ihc whok suie- 
mctti auu have E>ccd Iriudulcn^ or there wn* ncgkct in cx- 
cliuiiriK imccCs » fiTOM 13 to bo nfjinr^lv f r*^\h\t. 

Tht third r^Af u'ai more i~rtrlnii<4 : Mr, Hiith ]inh1i&lu'cf in 
hi% ImoIe nn ' Con!tAn|;iim<-oij:t Marnjij;^' uimc long c^ttmrts 
from a Belgian aiuhar, wha ?iUUrd that he had inicrL^red rub- 
bats in itiF closest mafLncr fur viTy maay j^'iL<^rutiu[i9. uithout 
Ihe tcaal injhirioujt rrftctH* 'I'lic :tixvuTjL w^h |iubhhhi?(l m a 
moi fCApvcLiblc Joumjd. ihai of Ihc Kcryal Society' of tid- 
gium ; but I coTitd not :ivi>id feolinii doirbt^ — I hardly lt/>ow 
rhf. exci-jjl thAi ihrrr were m>acridontfi of any Liml.nnd my 
«ftpcncnc« in breeding jj^irnoU made mc ihinlt thL& veiy ini> 

So wHh much hoit^lion I vrfolc i^ Pntfc^sor Van Hen* 
<den« Asking him whcih^r chc jinrhor ^n^ a ifu&Eworihy man, 
I iMin heard in answer thiit tht Society hud been grcoily 
ihocled by diftcoverinji th.'tf tht whole account was a fraud.* 
The «nt«rT had bcvn publicly chnllcrngi;d in the J^hum;!] To 
My vhcTc he had midcd and kept hii Large Ktuek of rabbiiK 
■bile carrying on his tfjtperinicntS) which xautt have con- 
tllabrd neveTfll ywr*, and no jinh'hvrr could be cx(rac:(cd from 

lly habits are melhoditJl, and ihts has brcn of not a Utile 
u»e for my parlKuUr line of work, Lflttly^ I have had ample 
leimrc fioni not havnij: lu v;im iny own brea<l, Kvi:n llt- 
healih, though ii has innthiliitcd wvvr^l yuiirt uf my life, ha» 
uved nif from the dliiraetion'i of sovivty anil ati)u»emenl. 

Thcfrfnrr my tueteii ji a man of Kicnte, wh^ticvei Ibi* 
may hdre ftmormird io, h^* hfta delermincd, u fjr ah i tan 
judge, by romp W and divrr^ificfl mi:nf»l 'pMlilioi and con- 
dilkm*. Of theK, the most imponanr hnv« twtn— 'ihe love 

bfl< tfccB i^iEiEed DUE ly himkf H ifi a iMp I0i«rl«d In iU the fi4|jic» of bn 
b«oL whjcli theii Kmaiooi DUKld. 



of BcicDcc-^-nnhouDflcd patience in lutij rrGvtMing oirr iny 

HUliject — iniluAtry in oWrving and coJIccihtj^ facu — and n 
iMt lUiic of tnvcnlicm 4* well oi oi cooinion ttrnc- ^\uh 

such inridt^nrt flbiliiici .i» I []o»c», it is ifuly ^nfprisinR that 
I ^houJil have inihtrT\cri\ lo a ronhidcrnMc k^'&Tcni ihc hclici 


«iati3(ucx3(cu or kv rA-frtut'« svRitviJAr life. 

It U nif'with in the prctcnt HiHpfcr in Rivr ^omc idea of 
my faUicr'» cvcrydiy life. It ha.'. Accmcd ift mc th*l 1 miRhi 
cdtiy out ihU object La tht form of a rough 8ktli:-h <tf !i t\iiy\ 
lile M Down, mtcr^pcfied wuh sucii rccuUc^tiuasi at oii: c^k-J 
Up by Ihe rcrord. Mi^ny of llu'im woolkciions, whkh hjve a 
moaning for thti«c Aha ktfv my fj^EhtT, nil] ttcm coTouxIch 
or ihllukg to Ktrsngcn, Ncvcrlhdc-H, I give ihcin in rhc hope 
tlukt (hey may help to presirrw ihai imprr^sion *if hi'i persono-t- 
tty which rtfcnaiiu on ihc vnind» of thci^c vho kn<^w .md Icvl^cI 
bi« — an itufittvion ai fini.c ao vivi^J und «o uniranhlai^ibk- 
into wnrilft. 

Of hii pcraon:i] «(>pra(3i3ci? (in Ihnt duyi of imilt^plicd 
phoCOCrAphi) 11 K hnfilty nfrr^^Ary Iij Hiiy miu'h, Hi* wnt 
■boui BiJE feci rn hclfihr, bui scarcely fonkort no tnll, ftn he 
tiOApril 4 gf>M ^L'fll ; in btcr dayt he yielded in the. tiaop ; 
but 1 atn rcmcmlirr »c«m^ hhn bng ago nwinRing hh aimi 
bu^k lo open ODi his chest, a-nd hddinjt himself upright with 
a jerk. Hv gave onr the idea thsii hv lud bvcn m-Ai^c rjihcr 
than »trong: luf vhcuMi-n wi:r;,- nuC bri>^ loi Itit hrighE. 
lhou|^ cvrtjiinly imi narrow, A% a young rnan he muit hnvc 
bul inL:ch endurance, for on one of lh<^ ?horr r»riiT»iiiim frnm 
the A^t/Z-f, •'hen all wcrf inlTiTLni* frnm want f*f water, he vMi 
o>hP flf the two ^ho wrre better able than the ie«t to ilruggldi 
on Iq warrh of it. At 4 boy he wa* active, and could JLinjp 
a bar placed it ihc height cf the " Adam't apple" in hl< 



■hod wjih inoni whkh hr Mruck lotidly spam^t ih« groundi 
l>rotlucing u h« went rouiail Ibc " SjnJ-iVAik " al Down, ji 
rbjrthmJbJ click wlii^ti ib wjlh all 04 ui a vciy Ci»(inct tv- 
raeTiibran^;^. At he tciumcd Irom the midd^j^ vftJk, often 
carrying the wAietpri^of or cWk vbkh lud proved loo hot, 
on? eouM Ve that Ihc t«rinpn|( «Erp w:ih krpt itp by u>tiic- 
ThinK <^f An efTtrri. Indrion hi4 itep «^« nfli^n «I(i« and 
bljouroiL^ and as he went upstain in the afternoon he mishl 
ht heard monniing the stam with d heavy fuDLfalJ, oi if eick 
»lcp vcTv un t'lftirt. When inleic^tcd in Un i*vik hv iiivttd 
abutit qu»i;kty ^iid eahily crti/u^iTi, uiid often in ihe iniildk vf 
dicUlinii he wcnf eagcrty into the hall ta f^l i. pinch of 4tud^ 
IcAvin^ the inTudy door open, and colling out the lavt wonb at 
hu «enien<!C a* he went. Indoors he w>m«[inieE» lued »a u«k 
viiirk hke a little alj^cnAock, and this wAi a ti^ ihil he felt 

lb tfiile of hit «trenglU and activiiVi I think he must 
■Invyii have h^ii a dum^nns of moiemeDL He waa notU' 
riUy jwkwjid With hi-^ hM<U, ^nd wj4 unable lo draw at jJI 
wrn* I'hU he olwMyi fejiretied much, and he freqweatly 
urged the pifimoiint nccetitiy ci n young nnitUfllltt making 
htm^lf u guod dfJLE^humja. 

HtT LOuhl Lti^Kcct MTcJ] utiUcr the Mimpk microicope, 1>at I 
think ii w*» by dint of hit ttreat paiienee und carefulnf^v It 
woi chsMrleriiiir of him that he thought luaoy lilllu bil» of 
akilffil i1lx«mi<in ifim^ihfrtj; Almost lupcthnnjan. He uhvd to 
]i|wak viih admiration ot the hkill wiEh whith he uw Xcw. 
pen disoi^cL a humble bee, geitinx out the ri^rvoiit lyitem 
with i fow tuEh of » Hne pair of sctHors held, » my futher 
aacd tu *how. viih the etUuir r-imcd. and in Ati JittinKle vhtirh 
cenainly vould render great fticadinei^ nieonaryp He uied 
to consider miiinR ft<!<tionii a great, rtid In Ihc U^i yrai 
of his hfr. wELh wijuderful energy, look the pftioi to Jcaxa to 



cot wccioai of rooci and Icvvce HJ« h^r^d vrj& not iit^tdy 
cftougib lo hold the ohjc>-'i lo be cut. >nri he employed A 
tOAincm micrototne. in whirh tlic piih for Ki>tiltn^ die al>ji?ct 
wn clittiii>ed, 4iiJ Ihc MJUi did oi> 4 j^um ^utfjLii: in making 
Ibc K'ttiuci, He utcJ to laugh «t himicir, ind at hix uwa 
thUlintcciion-cuUiog. 11 which he would ay he w.ii ''ipeech- 
ICM inth »dKiirjit>nn,"" On Ihc other hiinil, hi- muni linvc had 
ftccuraey etf eye and powrr of co-aMinntin^ hU movvmfMs, 
HBce he vin a good Snhoi with a ^un ah a young min. and a& 
boy was skilful iri throwing. Hi; uncc killed u hari; sluing 
tbc flcr"«t-ieiird«(i M Hhiewhlmry by tblriwin); a umtblc dl 
It indtf 4U JL nuu, he once killed Jt croi^beAk ntCh a «Lone. 
He 9i% to unha[>py 4t having UfeTeifly killed Ihe en^B.beak 
that he did not mention it for yv»n^ und ihcn cx|>hined that 
In tkould ncvei have thruwn ar \t if he had not (cIl tiutv Ihui 
hw old ikiU bad gone Uum bii^^ 

Wben walking he hjd i fidgeting movirraenl tvich hi% 
fingen, which he ha% de»cribcd in one ot hit buoki ^i lh« 
bibi: tif jn 0I4 rnan^ When he ui sidl lie uftrn \u^k holcl uT 
one wn^i with the oEher hand ; he Mt wiih hit W^ crotied, 
A«d from being «<i thin they coutd be rroiwd very fjf, is 
nuy be leen in orie of ihc phciognphi. He had hU chair in 
the btudy and m Ihe drawing-room raised >o a* Eo be much 
liigttff thm ufdinury ch^in > 1)lu was dune Ijvianie KttUng un 
a km or even jn oiJinary chair canted him iciine diicorofort. 
We nved to bu^ at hifn lor mnkirig hi* tnU drawing-room 
ebfcif will hi([her by pwHing foomuoK on ir» and Ibrn nen- 
iraliiiag the result by re.tiinii h1« feet on another rhair 

Hk bcftrd w(w fuU and altnmi umrimTni^dH the hair being 
frry and whicr, litie raihet than i'lanc. and wavy vi frtfded, 
Hi« motthtache wa» hoinewhut Ol^^ltiLJ^ed by bviog cut thori 
and tquare ocititt. He t?ccjinc very bald, hAVing only A 
fringe uf dark h^ir bebind- 

HiA face va.1 mddy in notour, and thii iicrhaf/i mad« 

people think him len cif an Ln\idiil than he; wat. He wrote 

to Of. Hooker (June ij, cH49>> " ^>erv one telU me that I 

look qu>Ec bigomifkg and beautiful ; and cnoil tbinli 1 vm 




hhammitig, bii( voy have ntvor hetn onif ortliiMe.'* And II 
nMs.1 be iciiicmtiuicd that ox ihia lunc he was. mitcrMy ill, 
tar wcrne ihsin in Utcr y«fi- Hi* o^c* vcrc blutth grey 
und^r <lcc[) ovcrhanginfi liruw*, witli thiolt Im^hy projpctini; 
eyebrows. His high forebtiicl was much wrinkled, bui other- 
wise hifi iace ^m not uiutti lu^^kcJ or liiiv^d. Hik ctprotion 

When he wjh cictlcii ^^tlh plcj»4]il tulk lia wh{^rf ni.innot 
wai wonderftLlly brighT and aaimjicd, tnd his Ucc »b;ired to 
Ihc full in ihc ^<Ticnl uiinsjtion. l\a taugh «jV4 a fm ind 
^oundinj^ pi-'*^ l'^*' 'hnt of a mnn who p*CTi htm'tcK itym|!4- 
thfiLTJilly and wiih rnjoymtnt lo the |tmnii nnd iht thing 
v>hii.h have AmuAud hini. lie often uipcd tonic tori of geiture 
wiiJi his laugh, hftiRgujj hit handi ur bringing cnc down wiih 
a lUp^ I think, gcucr^ly ip«akin^ he wu given to gnture, 
and pitcn n^cd hiq hands in c)([>l:ihiing anything (^/, (he 
trrlili^Jtitiii vi n (lower) in ft w,Ly llui kccmcd fJEhef Aa aid 
to him»clf ihofk to the liitcncr, ffc did thi^ on ofculMi* 
when nioiT people would illtistrate their cxjilanaiiont by 
meant of a rough [jvnril iLeich, 

He wore dwk clothci. of a Ic-ose anil easy fit. Of tale 
jtat% he gave up ihe lill hat even in l^indoa. and wore a 
MOtl bin It unc in winter, and i Uifi straw hM in dimmer, Hi> 
uiual oui-of'doors drrn wa* thr ^hort Honk in which F.lliot 
and ¥Ty\ y>hoTi>KTapb rqircurnu him h^anm^ againn the 
ptlliur of (he vrranilah. Two pcculinnt-ici of his indoor dres4 
were thai hr limt^itt always won; :i ilmwl ovet his shouldci^ 
and that hi' had ^iviit loose cloth hooti hned wiih fur which 
he could ^i\> on ir^KT hi% mdoor ^bueA. LiLc "unt dedicate 
people he sulftred irom \xat »% well a* from chiUinevi; il 
was A* if he could not hit the balance bfrwecn ton hoi and 
too coldl often a naenMl cMt^r wonUI miLlte htm too hot* to 
[h4l he woiilil taktf uiT hi'4 coat if anyiliiny went wrong in the 
coune of his work. 

He rote early, chiefly IjecauM he could not li« in bed, and 
I ihink Kr would hjve liked to fict up carliet than he did^ 
lU tor>k a short [urn before bfeakfasr^ a habit vhich befUk 



when he wmt far the fint iTmi* lo ■ vst^r-curv «stabliihmntt. 
Thib KkUt hi- LrpI u(> lilt ftlmoit the end of hit lifv. t uvmI, 
u A litilc boy, 10 like soiog oul vith him, and 1 hare ■ v^i^uc 
t«ii«e of the red of chc viaicr »uanv. jad j rccolltxtion oT 
die piranot fompuiJonihips '^^^ -i rrri.^in honour ^nd glory 
io it. Hr u^^ Ui A<hg'ht mr as> a boy by fi'lling tvif how, in 
fill] rarllrf wilkfi, nn dork wittier mamings, he had onrc ot 
tvifc mef futcs tmuing houic at the downing. 

After bivjikfv^ikn); alontf aWut 7'45, lit? ^cnt lo w<jrk at 
mcv, toQ4i«J?itn|£ ihe i4 houf L>ctwccn S flnU 9'j° Ih'iiv of hia 
bes; working timc^ At 9'jio ht caiQc inio the drawing-rooot 
for hii ktrc'*— re joking tf the pMC itai a light 00c ^wd being 
ftomcltmc^ much wcrrt^tl if ti w,is nm. Hr would thtrn hear 
Aiij- fflnuly ]etl«n read aIolieI a>i he liy nn (he WEifa, 

'f^ reading aLoud. vhich jl»o indnded (lan ai ,1 novel, 
la&ted lit! about half-pant icn, when he wcqi back t^ work 
liU Iwelie or 0, quarter pi^t- fiy Ibia time he eoiiKi(jE:red hJ« 
d*7'* work over, nml Aotild o<ien «ay» in Ji uiUfied voice, 
" J'tr done a good day^i vork-'* He then Wfni 0111 ot doort 
whether il was wet or 6ne ; PoUy. his while lerricr, went with 
him in f^ir wcAihirr, but la fjin »Tti: rKvi^^d or might be i^ern 
hcnloci^g ill the verajidab* with j miiLi^d i;xpre«hion of ditgiiiit 
ind ihame at her own wani of courage ; ftencraJly, however, 
her rnn^eience rarrir*! rhe d.iy, and m soon ai he wa» cvi- 
deaily fane the roiiM not brnr to il,ty hrhmd. 

My ffliher was alwjiyi fond of dop,*, and ak a yoiinit man 
h»d the |Kiwer of BtetiUng away ihe jffcctiojis of hh siMcr"* 
1>rl»; at CaiobnUiie* he wl^o ihc luve of h\s tcuitn W, D, 
f oi's do& and this may pi! rhjils hiive been thv Titllr beaht 
wckh tiKd to rreep <town in^idrf hii bed and ihcp at the 
foo< every nli^hi. My fitthrr had a turlv do;;, who wa-i de- 
voted TO him. but nnfrif-ndly to every one clflc, anrt whrn he 
came bock fioTo the SengU ^oyaiji::, the dog remembered 
blur, but i& a cuiioui way, which my lather was fond uF telU 
ta%. He went mtu ihr yjir<1 and shtiijicd in hit old manner; 
the dog Fushi^d out uti] «rt off wiih hini on hit wilh, ihow- 
bg no more emotion or eKcitement than if the sime thing 



h.od hAppcni^rl tlicr dty h^roTE^, m«irad of (ivf yean ago. 
'i'hii Atoiy ih mnUi: uw of iii the ' Hcwcni of M^n/ ind Edit^ 

r"^ In my m^mdry ihtrc mcrt only two dogt whicH hnd much 
rr>nnrMif>n wUh iny fjilhcr. Oni.- *,i»i a Inrift' Mjirk and white 
haJf'brc*! Tciricvctf mlkd Boh, to whu h wi:, .iiichildrcn, wrrc 
niucli ilcvcjtcd. Hi was the da|; of wlinm the ilory af the 
" |ii>t-tiuu)fC Euct: " IB luld m thv ' Exiiruuiun o{ thr t^Miutiuns,' 
Uut the d»g iDOBt OuHtfJy iih«uci4icd wjlh my r^JlUci was 
the above- mcaiioned Tolly* a tough, wbilc rox-ienier, Sh« 
>t&i 9 Khitrp 'Willed, dflccHoDate dog; when her rriHict wji 
going awEvy on a JoLkrni.7, vhe Btway» diitco^-rrrd the Tart by 
the tignK of packing ^oi^g on in the iiudy. Jiml Iwc^mc ]««^ 
tpinrcd accoidingly. 3hc btgin, tgo, to be cscjttd by *ecir»a 
the ^ludy )>rcijaicd Cur Hj^. rcTuni hume. She ^u a ciinnLuy 
lilEle crcjaiufe, nnd uaed to ircinblc or ptii on An atr vi mitcty 
when ny faiher posted, whtlc she wjia w«iiing ior dinner, ion 
a< if !ihe knev rhat he would «ay (a^ he did often t,aiy) thut 
"Vhc wii fritniihing," My faihef u*cd to nuike her fitrh 
bihcuii!! olT h(?r nove> nnd hiid an nETrfrtionait and mork- 
tolcmn way <>f c-KpLuinin^ to ht-r bcfnri'-linnd thii ^h^ mun 
" be n very good girl-" She hfid 3 m^irk on her back 4her« 
she hjd been b^tni, and where the hftJr had Tc-gtown led 
instejid nf white, and my father used to commend her for 
thia mfi of h.iiT ii« being in nccfhrtlnnfr wiih hi* theory of 
fmngenir^lK ; her fjiihcr had been a fed bulUtcrricr, thus the 
red hm appearing' after the burn shonrcd the presence of 
blvnt red jfcnimiikB. He w;[^ duhghtfulty tender tv Polly, 
and never showed any Impaiivnci; at the ^mcntiunt ^c re- 
iinired, «ueh ai <o be lei m U the door, or out it the veran- 
dah wind-Jw^, to birk at "nJHijihty people," a lelf-imposed 
dtrty iTie mneh rnjnyed, She died, or r.ithcr had to be killed, 
a few dayvi afLrr Wu death.* 

■ Thf baiLil Ir ^hich >hi umilly lay curled u|> nur tha fin in h^i 
llfedy ^ fqiEhfully frprfvnied id Mi, t^anqq^ dnvdn^ '■ Tbo Study u 





My fafh*r'< midday wilk generally began by a call ac (he 
ITrcnhouw, whuTv he louki;<] ui any ^rrminjiiing ftt'ffdu or 
cxpcfiiDcaul planu wluch rci)Litri:ij .1 cisual vKtiioin4lLon, bill 
be hjirdly ^cr did any icrioui ubtcrving 4t tJia linic. 'i'hcn 
hf w^ni on for hu con atiiutionil— cither round the " Sand* 
»lJfc," Of DUtmidc hi* fiwn RTfiiinfli* In Mir iimo^tlNirr nriph- 
boarlwod of the housr The "SLimt w.ilk " w.ih ii muruw 
lUip of Und 1 4 ocn? in cxieni, wiih a gmvc^wnlh round it. 
On on« tid« of it wfut 4 bruad old sha«i' with fjjr :^i£?d oiki 
is it, which nude a fhcJicrvil iili:j<iy wjilk ; ihe oiher aiilc trua 
Kf jfjicd (ron 1 neighbouring grait licM hy u Ww qLLickhct 
Wd|Ee, ^vrr whit^h 700 cowld looli at ivhat view thepc wai, a 
quLct liitlc valEcy losing Ir^lf in thi^ iiplsi^l c;o^mtry towArdsi 
the edge of iha Westcrhtun hiJl, wnh h.iKcI Lri|'{nc:L- am] lurch 
wood, the trmnjuti of wh^t was gncv 4^ b^^i: ^otiU^ uiuuh-^ 
tnjt «**>y to the Wc^tcrh^im load. I kivv heard my father 
Mj thjf the fharm of ihi* umplc litilc v.dky h«]ped to m»ite 
Ikiniveille ai Down, 

The Sand^wallc wni planted by my father wiih n variety 
of tneft Mich flh ha^iO, alder, limoj hornlM.'jim, Uirrlv [»fivct. 
ftul dogwood. j.nd wiih a lon^ tine of h[>Uiv» ail itowii thu 
cxpntcd tide^ In earlier limes be took ^ certain numijer of 
lorn* every day, ind ntcd ia count them by me^n^ of a hz>,\t 
of flints* one of which he kicked out on the pnth raeh limt^ 
he parsed. Of bte yean ) think he did not keep to any 
fined atifnlitfr of lijrnu. hnl (<JOk art E»;jny ;ib he fell strength 
fot. The Sn^nd'Wjlk wai our pUy-gr<:mnd u^ <hihiiciu jdJ 
here we conimiiaMy mw mv father u he w»i1kecl round. He 
liked to *ee what we wcrr lining, and nr**! ever icidy to lym. 
paihiie in nny fun ihoi was ffoing on, 1i ia curimiA if> think 
how, wiTb K'gard to the Sj.nd-W4lk in fonncotion with mf 
faihvr. ray enrlirat n^collt^Ltionb cuLUi:Ldc with itiy Litnt ; it 
thuivh buw unv'iryinit hi* hibUh have been. 

Son^time* when alone he vood *lill ot walked ileallhily 
10 obierre birdi or bciUt)^ It was on one of thcfi? occjiinn^ 
that tf>nie young M|iiJrrd» ran up his boj^k and lei;H, while 
tht^i iDoihcr baiLcd at theni in an agony from the tree, He 



ji!wj^y!>< found hinU' nan even up to llic Ijui jcast of hit l^fe^ 
and V.K, a* i^httdr^n* constidctcd thai Uc h^ i special (j^niu* 
in ihii dir^ciiori. In his quk'l prr>*T* he- < Amp ju ro*? the k'« 
rommon hird^, hiit I fftnry hr ittrd tn i^onrcil it fTom mr. la 
a luflp liny, bpr-nH4i^ he ntisorvcd ihc agony of ojind whith I 
cnduri-d at not having ^cvu the ^iF(km vr ^uldfmch, or whui- 
evi;r it int^^t Imvc btftn> Hv u^^O ti^ IcH u^ Iiow. vfhm li« 
was ctL^qjing noi^dchvly alot^u in the " Iti^-IVootb," he i^Aiav 
upon A foK JsJccp in Ihc dayiuiic, which wat w much nalon- 
ishcd that rt took ,i j;nnd ntarf nl him before it ran ofT A 
Kpir/ do^ whic^h flrrompftnii'-d him showed nn vgn of dtur- 
tncni at Ihc fox, ^nd ho iiM^d to end the Kxaiy by wondering 
how Ibc dog could hjivi; Lccri i j tdint-hcatlcd^ 

Another fivourjlc |>U[;e was "Otchin," above the 
qnici Cudhara valley, where Ay- and imndc-orchJA gtryr .ini(in|c 
ihi* JLmiper^. ir\d CrphAhoFherLi and Neoim under ihc beech 
Iraughh : lh(^ lUilc wuod " Mangrove,"' just above ihi*, he was 
d»o fond of, and heri; 1 remcmbur hia coUeeiinK fETMAeir 
whi-n ht^ ttiok a rcincy to make out (Jie natne« of all the com- 
mon kmdt. He wit foud of quoting Che sayijjg of one of 
hin liitLe bof%, who, haviriK f^^tmd fl jpnu that h;# father h«d 
not «cn before, had ir laid by hj* i^wn pJAEe dtiring dinner, 
rcmiiiking, " I are an extiaordinnry grass finder V 

My luiher mui;h enjoyed wandeiin^ tlowly in thtf garden 
with my mother or tome u1 hi>i chiLdrerii or muLiiijE one of a 
parly, sitting out on a bench on the lawn ; he Hcncr^Uy *au 
lii>wever, on rhe |tr:i*n,flnJ I remember him often lying under 
one of Ihe big lime rrres, with hia head oti \h : Rnri-n mnnnd 
al ilfi foot. In dry summer weather, when we often t-nt o\n, 
tlie UtE Hy-iwheel of the well wm toinmonlf htard spinning 
round, Hid «o the tound trecjine aMocL»Ued w)ih tliobe ptniB' 
Mit days^ lie u»ed te* like to watch ut pUyinti at Ixwn-Cvn* 
nil, and often knocked up a «ray hall for ut wiih the curved 
handle of hi?» Mick. 

Though he took no jieraonal nh.^Tv in Ihe management of 
the garden, he lind great del ighi in ihe beauty of flower*^ 
for inttantc, m ihc rn>4k» of Aiiileas ^hich gencrully ilood in. 

^^hc df 




c dravrng-rootn. I thiiA h« sometimct futcd leather hia 
ai^iaiiAljon gf Iht MrtKlucV of >[ HLk^vci t-nd of iIi inliinMC 
brAuiy ; fnr inAUnrr, in the coac <ii rhi^ )n^ {li-cirliilmiH pink 
hbA vhitc flnwcn at IlidyTm. In the umr way he hnd an 
aficclitm, lulf'ariifiiic, bull Uounital. for iliu liuk blue Lo- 
brills In xdmiring nuwvt^. hchuulJ olltfu biigti ut (tie dm^ 
hi^<ari uolvtjr«, xiid conifOhl them with the Mi^k^it lutlh uf 
ciaimp, I ufcd to like lo heir him admicc the beauty ot x 
f1a»«r: it wjv a kind fff jcrrilTiitflr lo Ih( Movor ilidf. and a 
|H'nK>nAl \avi- far iu dclit^ati^ form and colour, I AC^m lo 
rfmcmhcr him gently touching a flower he delighted in ; it 
W4U the samf simpk- idinjraiLun thut a cEiilil might have. 

He coulkl not help pcj^onifyjiig njtufiil things, ThU feci' 
\ti% cttav out in alnisr a* well Ai in praise— ^.r. of om* iced- 
linfpi — "'J'hc liiilc ticiui^nn arc ^loing )a*x *vhai I <!oii'r 
ihem Xti.^ He would ?ipejk in :i hnlf^ provoked, hat f.nd miring 
wiy of the ingmoily of a Mimfi^ k%tf in 'icr^wing itself oirt 
r>r :l bAf^in of vvaHt in wlinh he hnil (ric(T ti) fix ir. One 
mijchi w>r (he ^iiHT 4i[>irit in hi>i way or «pv:akin|! t»f SiiiTdrw, 
carth'W/>fmb, Src* 

WUhin my memory, hii only outdoor r^emtion, beiideit 
«aiking. *Ak riding) vrhiih he i^ik Eo un ihe rritortimonditioEi 
of [Jr, Kcncc Jonr^^ nnd wc lind the lui^k in l^nd fi^r him ih« 
tMcn kxiA quieicsl cnl>in the world, named "Tomtny." He 
mjojed these ride* nirrmely,und deviBcd a numhe» of short 
niu9(la which l>njLii£hl Uiiti htune m Umr l^r kicich. Our 
coiinirf ih good lot ihU puT,ia(e, owing \o ihe nunibci vf 
nna|] %'j]lev> whi^h pve a vArirty lo whit in a Hjti cCKtnlry 
would be -1 dull loop of toad. He wan n^*t, 1 (hmk, naniraUy 
fottd of hOT«e\ nor hflyl he a hi}^ opinion of ihdr inli^llj- 
fffinctj and Tommy wds often laughed nt for the aUrm hr 
»hDw«d at pwnng And rc|Nuiiiig thv tmine heap of hcdgi^ 

•CC Lcalf* ■Hrphen'* 'Swlfl/ iMt. p. wo. *HdTff Swlft'i intpwilon of 
llic rB4nn#n aid cu<ronh afunanlh nv mnip>r«t mmy fmlicf'iDtacm* 
iiinq 'Ml wDrmt. " I'lic *iil\t77tm t<" *ny\ Mi, Mfpljaii, " ihKE Paivrjn fi4d 
mflnc btti LLnd)f Ceding* hti vioim\ " 





dippings oi he %-^nt mund the ftdd, 1 ihink he uwrl to fc«^ 
fturptlwi'd Jt htin^df. when h« rcinnnbcrcd hnw Imhl Ji rukr 
lie h:ifj Ocvc^ uuit huw tiUfily (jUI ^ijc ^iiU 1;jO kc-^Ith lud 
likcit jw4y hit nerve JJc would uy Uiai riding pic^vnlcd 
him IhtnkiriR murb nior« dTccmailjr than walking— -tluc h^v* 
\r\^ to Jiitctirt ti) 111^ hAT!4<- ic^vc him on-ufkAlicin «i)ffidcni to 
prevent any r^^ally h4>d ihiriking. AM the change of ict 
which it gLitc KUn was gpmJ for apinis md hiraUh* 

Unluckily, Tummy i>nc d-iy k'li licuvily with bUn on 
KckCoii cijLiimvii. I'hit.And xn Accident utih jat>lhcr honi 
upKt hii ncrvein *nd Iw was adviied (o girt- up tiding. 

If I go beyond my own experience, j^nd tci:»\\ whu I 
havi bourd him ^ay of hin love fc^r upon, ^1^, 1 nAn ihink of a 
good dealt but much nf ii would he a re[ietitioD of whjii it 
contojned iQ his ^ Rci;olJccti4^ni-' At Bchgol h« wai food of 
bjit-fivcB, And ihU nii» thi: only f^Jine ;ii which he w;i» bkilfuJ. 
He w.iiT fond tjt hill ^im 4h t^tiiK^ J 1i<iy, »iml hceune n good 
Mhol : he u«cd to tell how m South America he killed t*eniy- 
ihrei* snipt tn t wen Ty>f our shot ». [n tellinj^ the ixntj he wa» 
cnn-fiil to a<M tbjl he ihoii^hL ihey were not igiLitc i^o wild ts 
Engtihh ani[ie. 

Xunchcon m Down came after his midday walk; ind 
here I may *av *** word or two flhmir hi* me»K RenerftUy. He 
h/i[l a iK>V"liki^ Javfr of uttiriii^ unlurkdy for hinnelf, *inee he 
v/n^ cf>nncantly fcirbidden lo take them. He wtu noi particu- 
latty succotbful in krirping thc"vuwt."ai he cjlkd them, 
whKli he made u^ainriL ?:iiinK F^wcetv and nwer coiwdcred 
diem YiinJing uuJcs^ tic made thciii aJuud. 

He drank very liltlc wine, but enjoyed, and wai reiivcd 
by, Ihc hfiU hi: rlid drink. He hjid -^ horror of ilrintmj;, 
iind ronsr.jmly wnmetl his boys thfii any one miEhi he ltd 
into drinking too much. I rdneniber, in my in!iDceni:e »s a 
■mall boy, aiking him if he had been «vcr lipjy; and he 
uilwcfed very )(r;tvrly that he vitiA abhamed lo %siy he had 
once druair ion mueh a< Cambridge, t wni mudi imptcisf^d* 
M that 1 know now ihr pbre vhL'te the <tui;3Tirin wa» atkt4. 

After hiJ^ lunch, he lead Ihi' ciewhp.'k^^rtr lying on ihctofft 


m iht drj»iTifi-roorrL I ihink iht paper was (he only non- 
w:iimttiic mnilCT «hicl] ]^c read to himwlf. Ev^^rvihlng f\%t,\ 
noT«b, inifds, history, wjb rc^iU slr^ud lo him. He took tn 
ttide ui tnlcfc^l iti iilc- that Ificfc it^h iiuiih lij occupy hitfi 
lit ncBipapcr^ lh<?ugh Kc bughcd al tUc wojdinc&t (jf tha 
<lcbal»; reading ihem, I rhink. onEy in abitri^t- lli« inter- 
on In poUtlc^ wa«E n^mitlrrATiU', hiil hit opinion i>n their 
numri Bit Tonned »ihct by ihn way than with nny arrinun 
amount oi though u 

Arier i\K Jiiid n:»*l h\t pa\tet, camt- hi& Eimv fur wfidog 
Jcitgri. Th?te, u ^c3L u the M^^ uf liih boofcb, weri- writun 
by him oi he mc in a hu^ hor»c-lkair thaii ty the lire, hit 
pApcr suppcrifd on j linixd railing on ihe nrmf of the rh.iir. 
(Vlirn ho hAd munyorlon^ IcIIctbIo writi*. hi? would dlciaic 
tlmn from a riHiifli ropy ; ihvb^ ruiij^h cnpk'*^ wm' wTj(U'n on 
ttw backs of manuhcript or ot piotif-fphc-iiih, unil Wi-ri: ulniunL 
illrpblff, toDKtimtfB even tQ biuibcir. lie made » rule of 
kerpiaitd^lriTcnt Ihnt he rC[;t'ivcJ; ihjs wA« a habi* which 
he Icimc from hit U:hcT, and whi>;h he %^\d hid been of 
^rtM ute 10 him. 

Hr rerf iri'd mnny lc«i.'r*h ftfim fw>hhh,unBcrupoloiiwpfople, 
ami all ol thvw rtti.'ivt'd (c|'hc-. Hl^ Uht-d to j^v thut if he 
did not inttter ilicm, he hud ii oD tif conhiience jfterw^rdi, 
and no doubt ir wii in great me.iiiure the courfei^y viih whjch 
hr amnrffcd every one. u-hirh prmhicc^d the Hnivfr»»l Jtnd 
widtiprcad «enie of hi& bindne«4 of natitrc. whkh wm *o 
evidenc on bii dea;h^ 

H« wao coniideral« tu hb eorre^pon^ems m other and 
Ihmns (tir inst*Hi.e *heii ilHt:ilm|i ^letter to n furciit^er 

hardly ever Jjikd tu My to mt, " ^ ou'd better try and 
writ< well, at il'i to a foieign«r," Hit tetter* wrre generally 
written on lhea**t»mptinn ih-ir ihry aoiitd V rar-'lf^iuily rrrtd ; 
thvft, wbvti hi? va« diciAtingn he v^af« careful to tell me tn make 
an impoiiint datitc begin vn;h an obtious par^gmph *'lo 
catth hia eye." aa he often laid. Hew n:iiic;h he thought of 
the (rouble he ji;avc oLhert by ntkinff qLtentirxih, will be well 
enough ahown byhUlcitcrv It in di$cu1c to ay OQjLhing 




about ihr Kcnt^ral tnrii' of his le«efs,*h(-y will »pe*k for 
sclvc*. Tht Kiivuiyinu ttmru-sy of ihcm » •«^ tmkint I 
hjd jpfoof of ihii quaJuy in ll'ie frclingwilh which Mf, IIkoQ, 
hh itoliciior, rrgAr(l<d hJna. He h^d never wen my f:ithcr, 
Vt'f hfk^l A linfvrr frrlinjc of frirnilftliip f^r him, anit fc|JOko 
fap^f (flUy of hlfc lecicrt M bctnj^ such a* a «ct4f>m rw civc* 
in ihp way of business r—"Evrryihins I did wat right, and 
tfvi*rytlijuj; wuB fruFuBvly ltnnk<U (oi." 

He h^ ^ |jruilcLl torriL ti> be utcd tn replying lo trouble 
Mine twrctpondceil*. buc he hjrd[y ever uied it ; I suppose 
he ncTcr foHod an ocrj^Birin lhi"» stcmi-d [-liflc'tly wittibliv | 
retnomhcf an octwion on which ii roighi have been uacd wiih 
ftdvantiigt. He received a leltei frum a iiranget dialing thai 
the *Mler hid tmdeil^lien to uphold KvuJuiion nl « debiting 
Mciety, and fh^t hemtt * buKy young niAo, withCHil time for 
rendingt he wUhcd to have a sketch of my fathrr't vicwi. 
Even chit wonderful young nuin got a cLiil <inii«cT, though J 
think he did nol get riiuch-mutrrial tor hift ftijeoch, Hw mle 
woh to ihAnk the donitrt of Ixjokit* bui not oi pa.m\A\\cX^. He 
someiimei eiipreiiurd buijirjjic that to few people Ihanked him 
for hb books which he gave away Liberilly ; the IcIUri that 
h< did rccein' Raw him im,ch plewure, bccaniw he hlhilUJUy 
fnrrofd no humble -tn csumMc of the vahie of «l] h\% work*, 
thai he was* generally surprised ai the interest wWch ihey 

In laonry jnd buhinehs m4tte'M he wat remarkably carvful 
■nd cxM^. Jfo kirpr ^rcounr* with t^v^i cjpc, d-uiifyini 
them, and hatrtneing m t\u- etit\ nf the yr;ir like n merchant. 
I remember the t\n\ck way in which he would renrh out for 
hi* account-book lu rnter ejch thpjuc paid, an Ihouj^h he 
were in a lunry tu ijel it entered before he hiid forgoiicn it. 
llift father inubt luve allowed hirn to believe that ha wmiM 
be poorer than he really wm. for some of chc diiRfnUy tx\ 
ricnced in findinj; .1 house in iht- roimtry rau5i have ari*eii^ 
from the modeiii fum he felt prepared to ||!vo. Yet he knew, 
of oume, ihal he would be in easy circuinf^ianeet, for in hi^ 
* ReiuHeel ions' h? menlioni thU a^onc of the reaioni for Im 

^^TCt ha' 




haviii^ workdl 21 nirtlH.irici^iih lio much icoX m he would 
hiTC done if he ttu^l bcvn ol>tJg?iJ to ^in hL> living. 

U< had A pet economy \n p»].i«r, hut it w:i» nthrr a hobby 
thaa a wmI wftnomy All Ihc hl*nk nhiTls of Ipiit'c* rcrHvrd 
vrre kept in it pnrtfnlici Fa he ii&cd in making n^lcs: it wok 
ha retpecc for pnpcr EhaT maic him wriu no muth un the 
Iwckicf his o1(J MS., iind in \hiB wuy, unfotlunaldy* ho di'- 
BltuyrLi Im^k j^itb u( Ehc ufii^iiiul MS, of his hookt- Ki« 
fccltat; about p^pcr cKtendcd u> paper, an<l he objccicd, 
half in £un, to the circlcii custom of rhroving a spill into the 
fipc after it h*d been uicd for |i)(hiin(E a cJindlr 

My father wai wonderfully Uheml nnd gencmus Xf\ s\l his 
children in the maucr of money, and 1 bavi; bpeciaL uauuc to 
remember his kiudncB *hen I think of the way in vhich he 
pjid bonnr CambrifljEc ^L'bEt of nunc — iiuiliing it iilmcitl tcfni 
A vinac in me to have (old him of thrni, In ]iia Uter yean 
h€ had the kind and gcncroii* plan of divi<ling hi» snrphia 11 
the year'v end jjmoD>* hi^ children. 

H* hsul a gtcM l<.-i[m:l f'tr pure bu^intfts Crtpaciiy, and 
often tpoke viih admiraEioa of a rebtivc who hod (Lciubled 
hii foeiune. And of himself would ofLtn a^y in fun that 
•h*l he really jttat proud of wa» the im>ncy he lind ^;ivcd, 
He alflo felt KitisFacfinn in the infinity he mnrlf- by hi>t hook^ 
His anxiety tn tave came in a great measure from his fnin 
thjii hjH children would not havv heu.Uh enough to earn [heii 
Ovn htmgh, a lurebudinj^ whith Uidy haunted hiiiL tut nuiiy 
year*. And 1 have a dim re<;ollcction oi hu uying^ "Thank 
f'.od, ftjxt'W haifc bread and chee*e."' when 1 wn so yoim^ 
that [ w:is mihtr inclinrd in mke it Ufeially. 

Vi'hcti letter* were finished, flhnti: three in the afternoon, 
be re%tnl ID hio bcdroum. lying on the sofa and smokii^u a 
etgafette, ind linteninK ^^ ' ni'vel or olher buck not ^-iniiwic 
lie only imoked when retitnK^ »hcreM tnull wat a LTimulani, 
and tva« taken during workinc^ hours. He took.&nuHT for 
iKUty year* of hi< life, harinji Icamt the hnbft at Edir>btir>;h 
Bi a fluilent. Hi- h,4d a ni(« !i<ilvtr sitnufr-ln^t givi-n him by 
Ur», Wedgwood of hiact, which he valued much— but he 



t:tTciy co^tncd tTh br^niuc it icm^^icd liim in tAke loo ttiAoy 

pmchf^v In OTK- ihf lii» i-arly U-iU'm he speak* of having given 
up sniiFl k*T A HiLmUi, ^tiij iJUb^ubv) hmiiieEf ^^ feeling "m^jsl 
lu(h»b:K-. hiLipiJ. uid nidAiidioly/* Our furtucr iK'it^M^uur 
Arui t-lcrj^ym^nt Mr^ Unxltc lfinc><» EcLU irtE ihai Al uiic liiiie 
(iiy lather made i rts<>lvc ool to takp iim.ff^i«pc ii^'^V from 
hom?, *" a moHt BJiri*fj»rEor^ Jirrrtnecmcnt for mt." he ftddi, 
"an I Isi^pt. * brn jn my flfmly tr» which thrrt- w^a sc^t** fwim 
Ehr pink-n wii^miit Kummiining arrvanti, antX I had more fre- 
quently, than might hnvc been oihcrwUe the r.ase, ihc pHvLlcj^e 
of a fe!W miQuiei' tunvcriiiJEiun with aiy ilt-ur frii^mL'^ He 
genr;ru]|y iook snuQ' Frum a jar un the h^l UtUu^ Lrcc^tstc 
hjhving to ^u rhi« di4l.^Ti<;c for A p'^''^ *J^ ^ slight check ; the 
clink of the bd of the mutf wan t »cry familiar sound. 
Someiime^ wh«n he wai in the ffrawing-mom^ it would oceur 
to Uim lliJjt Uii' Miidy lirr mti\[ hi- liurning lo*, LnU when 
icimc (if ua orfere{l lo hi-u .du^r it, H wifulJ tura aul thftt ho 
aHio wUhcd lo gci a pinch of ihQu^. 

Smoking h? only look to ptrman«ntlf ot Utc fcaitp though 
on hin I'Adipiih ridc« he le^Tncd to tniake with thv Gaucho«, 
«ad ] hai-e heard him ^KAk of the grejt comfon of Ji cup of 
JHO'/ and 3 ci^iirvlte vrhrn hi' halted ificr a long ride and 
wM uEi^tile tij i^el ItfoJ tor huiiiir time. 

The r?;idLng aloud often leni Ktra to (kcp, und he ui-ird to 
regrc* Jn^inK jmrt* of s noi-cl, for my moihcf went »tradily on 
le«r the rr.-Kaiinn of the sound mi^^ht wake him- (ie came 
doH'n at four o^clock lo dtcis for hm walk, ,tnii hi^ wjii *o rt(r 
ular that one mLgkt be quite certain it wo* within a ft^vr nun- 
utm of four when hii» JescciLidin^ tteps were heard. 

From aljoiit hal(»pa»t ftiur t<j h;jllpjst five he worked; 
then hf cinvt t« the drawinf;-ioom. lad w3h idle till it wi9 
time (about t\%) to ffo np for nnoTher rtvt with notvl-readi&j[ 
and a (■ipfciie. 

Latterly he gave up late dinner, and hod a Mmpit Icfl 
hu|f>patt leven (whilv wc h^d dinner), wiih an qu or a small 
picc^e of meal- AlLcr duinei he never luycd in the rooi 
And uicd :o apojagiie li> uying hv iraa oA old woman, wl 

THK fllTnV MT (WW*. 

[nirrihfViTj- nf^JaJm 





iDhi be it^Dwcd 10 leave with ih<? UJict. This wai one of 
ih< mil)- ligns jnj iciuUi of'tiuVonBt/rtt wtrjkii«i and ill* 
heahh. \\»h *Ti hoiir innrc t^r fcM-ConvcrhATmn woiikl mAkc 
to htm ihr difTe^rcnre of a ikeplr.U night, anfl of the Irn^it 
pcrhdiH of hflK <hc next i\^^y\ worV. 

AJiCf drnni.'r be jjlayc^ bucL^jintnnLj mth my mMhvr^ tyro 
^mc!> brmi; liUycil ctrry LitghL^ Igr at»ny yi'^i^ i )«;urr i>f 
the ^»»i<;^ whjch cjch wun wjs kcpE, And i^i'tf^Li tcorc he louk 
ihc grciiol inlcr^H- lU hccame cxttcmcfy ^nimntcd over 
ihcic garnet bitU'rly lAmrnfing hU bad Imk iinfl riiploiJinit 
wSlh ci(i)CArrflird nioeli<9ng4:r ai my moihcr'ii jp'^od fofiunc. 

Aftrr hjirkpmnion he fcad some scktiTifir boik co liini' 
»dU. eiibei in Lbe iii4wini;toomiOr, if much lolkmg ^i^ gating 
tntt it) the frtudy^ 

In the rvrni:t[i» lIiHl is, jifter he liaxi rr-ul jih mmh ftk hi> 
tircDgth would »]low, «n<L betc>rc tFif reading jUociiL beg!aii,'he 
would oficn lie on the lofj an<l liHr^n to my itiDthtr playing 
rhr piano- lU ba<t nof :i gixid vur, yet in vjtltr of Ihia hi- had 
a tmr \ovr of fini: nuixii:, He used lo lament that ht* tnjuy- 
Bcni oF niuftir had bmiTm- dulled with age. yei wuhtn my 
ref^ollc^^iion, hi> love or i g*>o<l tune was Birong. I never 
bcud bim ham mote thu^n unc hiDc^ ihe Wehh B<>nK " At hyd 
J WMfT Mfhkh he w<-ni throuith roTrcMly ; he xi^cd also, I be- 
Dcvr, to htim n bTtIr nmhrttnn tonp, Frnm hit wani of ear 
he ttj* Mnnble to rer-n^iie a tnnc when ht heard it again, but 
fat remained conitAtii lo what htr liked, and wnuld often say, 
wbto An uld fai-ouiiie wds pUyt; J, " ~J1u[~?i j line lhiti|i ; what 
ii it?" He liked esiJe*;ially |Miit ui Hcelhoven't lymphome*, 
ai^dbitlol Handel. He made n hcrie litt of aII the piete^ 
whkh he efpecialjy liked BTnon^ (ho4e n-hio.h my tntMher 
pUy<y| — gJvfnfE in n few wnnU the Imi^rcnsion that enrh imt 
nude on him— brir thcv notes are unfonunnicV \a-.i. He 
wan «cnutive to dilTeientei in nyle. And enjoyed (br late Mtt^ 
Vernon Luahinirioa'i pLiying inti'mely, and in Juno iS8i« 
when Hans Rirjirer i^M a iihI at Tlnwn, he wsih roohed 10 
Mnmn enthmiaim by hin mngnifl-Teni pcrformatioe on the 
piana He much enjoyed good n'ngini;, and ^aEfmovcfl al* 



iDOBt to Xv$.u by gtAnd op-, jiiibeik •oog*. Ilii niece Li6j 

Farrer'B Mn^n^ fif SulliifVi'i " Will he ticmi " w»^ a rirvcr- 
railing cnjoymcni ii> hlia.. He wat h^imhk In ihc riirrmc 
ELtKiut his own loftit, A^d^currvaputidingJj' pJt^istfii when be 
f^jiin^ that utlieis a^^'ijl'Wtth Jiiiii. 

H« bccamt mudk tiicd in the cvroiogs. opc^iilly ol late 
jvtn^ whtu ho kft rte dr,iwing-r«om aboHT i4rn, uoin^ to bed 
il hjt]f'[MAl (rn, -/His nij^hr^ were gc^nrfally bjid) And he ofrcn 
lay *wfll<p at Cirfiji in htt1 for hours, sufffntig mui'h dUfom- 
fori- He wii* trbubkd al night by ihc utiit-iiy of hjs thoughl^ 
ond woul^ liVeLjmc ckh-tuhk'd by his mjnd nurkmg ut ikomo 
Ifrubleiip^fiSL^^ lie would willingly have JihtiuitevJ, Al muhl. 
loo, Jifiytftftg which had Vi-\i?d or troubled him in Ihc djy 
wouy Kiuft'. him, ind I think it wn ihen thai he luJfcTed if 
hi^_^ii^ not answered Bomr Imubleionit; pcnon'4 letlcr. 
■/'i*he fi't'iilAT rv.tditi;c*- wh"'h I hnve iikenLioncit, t'OnEinui.'d 
'fOr«-ii many ycarh, cnjib]<:il him tu gzl through a great tical 
of Ihe bghicr kind> ol liiciaturc lie wa^ turemety fond q1 
ncri'Vls. jad I remeuiljer well Iho w^y in which he would an- 
ticipite Iht fltMitn of h^vmg j nt^vd rctd to him, u he br 
down, or lighted hi* cigKrclEc- Uc took 1 vivid intcreii both 
in plot ind ehArae(4?nH and would nn no aeroiint know before- 
hand, how J fito'y fLiiiiihvd ; he tuii^idvird Luukin^ al tht end 
of a nuvvl an u feminine viec^ Hi; could not enjoy any ttory 
with a (rftgical end, tot iWi* reuon he did not keenly apprcci- 
ale Geocffc Eliot, thoafzh ht ofTcn ipoke warmly in prai«c of 
'Sibi M*rnrr/ Waller Srnir, Mk^ Aii*itrn, and Mm (•eihkfll, 
wcrt rfad and re-Tead till (hey could be rend no more. He 
hfuUwooT ihicc book!^ in hand at the mme lime — a novel 
and ptrrhap^ a biu|i:iupby und a lH>ok l»E tnivvlx. He did XttA 
oUvix read out-oMhe-way or old htjridaril book*, but gener- 
ftJIy kept lo the booki oi Ihe day obtained from a circulating 

] do not think that hif Iiierary l^lcft and opinions were 
t>a » tcvd wiih lb? reu of hit mind. He hjmtelf, though he 
wa« clexi at to what he thought gowl, considered that in 
matters of bumjr tatCe, hv wa« quite oiiE^idv the pale, and 




o^flcn ipoke of «hjit lUotv within it likvcl Of dwLikcrl, » if 

ihvy fvrincd a rlut lo vhicli 1i; bftd no Cl«im to bclonff. 

tfa aH nillcn of 4n he w,vt inrEincd lo kugh at prcfcucd 
orilic*taiHl BAf tbiu ihcvt upiniuns n-tirf funiicd by fuiliErjn> 
That in p;uDliiig, h« wuultl say hi^w in hiB dfty wviy oii« 
Jidiaueil matlcT^ vfht? mc nuw nc^lcclcd, llii love of p!c|* 
UK* Ai a fouDg uuQ U jJmofl a proof thM he mtjit have h^d 
in ipprpdatfon of a porirait »% n wuric ot ftrt, not ah a like* 
IK«. Yi't h^' ofk-n T.ilkrpl Iflughtngly of rlic fiiTiflll »nfih of 
pofiniiK, ftnd mid thai a photograph woi worth 4ny numhrr 
of piciUTCt, Sis a he were Idrnd to ibe inivtk quallcy m a 
painleil portraiL But this vMi j^viKuWy said in hh -.\Htni\His 
%Q Jienuadv uk lo ^livv up Ihv itlv-i ljI Juviiij^ liia ;<uitnyt 
pilaicd, 4A operation very irkhoiric to him. 

Thi.t way of looMnji Jil himsrlf u an ignoramut in all 
miiicn of arc. m^ !&ircn^h<rncd by iho abvnizc of prcirnor, 
vbich »'ai part of bis rhnrju for With roijard lo inK^^tiont of 
Mtcrr 31* wd3 3« to more hvriooa Ihiriit^^ hi; Alv^y^ Lid the 
cDBraKr of hit opinion*, I icmumocr, howtver, an tniui^oe 
thjt b^Linds like 1 contradictiotk to thif : whrn lie w:Lt look- 
ing at the Turnvrt ifi Mr. Ru<ikm'» tcUtuom, lie did nor con* 
(e«ii XI he did iflcrtwanJu. ilut he ■ I'^nld mAke out atitftlutcly 
MOtbinf of what Mr. Ruikin iaw in them. Bui Ihit litllc 
prHencc «jii not (or hh own ukc. bui for ihc sake of coun 
Iray to hib hosL He va^ plv^vrJ «rid uftmbL'U when eubte- 
qacnEly Mr. Kiikkin bidtj^lu hioj toioc irhi^tnjjrapht of |JVe;I< 
Uf«i think Vandyke jofti^-iiti). and courlcouily secmrd Co 
valttc my filher'i opinion .ibnnt Ihnn. 

Muoh nf hh in-ivTitiAr tt-n<\\n\i wna jn r^rrmjin, and tbrit 
VM i great labour tn him ; in rending a book after him, T 
WM oAen iiruck at sevinj^ frum ihv pmdlmarkft made edch 
lUj where hv l«fi if(T, how IjiLk lie i^ould rtud ai a Ijmiv H< 
utcU to ciLlI GeioUE; the " Verdammic," itr^monrLCcd i^v if in 
£ni£lUh. He wi* e*ptfcially indignnnt with Germnna, bfc-iu*e 
be W(U ronnneed that thoy could writif limply if they rhoii\ 
and often pfatfcd Ur. K Hildebmnd for wHttn^E <n-rm:iQ 
which wu u clear as l-'icnch, lie Hometimes gave a GcrroAB 




KcnTcncc td ft Friend, * pAtriattc OrTRiAc Udy, and uvf d to 
Itiugh flt hrr \t she dM not tfan^lu-tc h flu^nriy. He himsHf 
Icamc (icmun simply by bammtcmg aniy witba dkiiooaTy; 
he wvuJd Buy tluc hit only >vuy wa* to Kud Ji Mntcncc a 
^ri'^Jl Eimtiy Uriir- mn, mid :tt Uvt ihc mr^nttig <H;cufT«il lu 
JmiK Wliuii lie Jjcyun Cjccmu-Li long ago, he boasEcd Crf Uk: 
fdct (» he u»ed lo icJI) to Sir J. Ilooher, who replied, 
"Ah, my dtar ffllow, (hM'* nollimg; I've brgun il many 

In ipfic of hiii vam of grammar, he mimaged lo i^ on 
wondijrfully wiih (rcrman, and iht aenieacw that he failed lo 
Miukc (iLii \yzrv itrncully rculiy d^flicult oni-«. He t^vstr 
pricmpicd to upCAk Gcrrun cntre<:Ely, tint pntnodnct^d Ihc 
trordsiia [hough ihcy were EnglUh; and thii made il no< a 
Litttc difficiilt lo hrlj] him, when he rmd out a Gcrmfm ten- 
tetuK And (Uikt'd Tor a trdn^^lntirrn, He cvn^unly h;Ld a bad 
tjr liit vocal 740iin[|ii, «o thaL Tic found it mki>iih9^ibl( lo |iCT- 
ceive imaU (Ji^t^renije^ in pronundation- 

His *idc inicfrst in bnnclies of science ihiii were nd 
i]je(ially hik gwn wj^ reiuaik^blv. In the bioToiELfal tcicncei 
hi* docirinet make iht^mtclve* fdt to widrly That there wm 
somcihifie tnccrcsting m him in mont depJirimcni* of it. He 
rend J yood deal of owny quite ipccinl vfot\a. atid Urge puns 
of leat btfokst nuch aa Huicky'v ' Jnvprltft/rMff Aoatoiuy,' or 

^h a boiik a^ h.tUK)nt\ ' KiabryiAu^y^' ivhcrc ihe deUtI, 9t 
fjJc. wa* noi »pc';m11j in Un own Une. And in the f**c 
fif rlflbornie liookt r>f Ihe monograph Eyprr, though he did not 
make a Htudy Af thrrrii yet he felt Iht- «rorim*it admlrstiion for 

In the nonbiolagic^tl tcienccx he feU keen nympithy vfhh 
wurk of which he couM not n-atly judjj^' Fur iniun^r* he 
ii(ed rn read iii^^uily llie aIitjIc tjf 'Nature/ (hounh v> much 
of ii df j-lf HiEh mathematin and phyiifv I have oticn heard 
hint viy that he got a kind of ijifi^tfafilon in rradirkg artid«s 
whioU 4acc;ordin|E to him^tlf) he could noi iindervcand. I 
with 1 cguid rcproduc;c the manner in which he would lau.j{h 
ai himaclf for iu 



It W9» rvmarkible^ lou, hov/ he kept up hU intcresl in 
Mbjeeit At which he hid fbrmcrly worked, ThJi wAt Mrik- 
In^Ljr the caw xviih gvrology. In one of hU Ifiicn 10 Mr, 
JockL b« b«(;ii him iu pay him a v^aitt sjyini; thjt ttlncv LycUi 
dc^lti he hatUly ever ycU ^ j(eolu|{iia1 u!k- Hjv ulHL'tvj- 
lioa», mikdc only « fcv yean bctotc hi% (icjih. on the u]rri|;lit 
pcltbk^ in Ac drift ax Southampton, And ditcuiieil in :i ktlct 
10 Mr, Gcikic. ^ffitr*! itnnthcr mnianrc. Ajpiin, in the Iclten 
to Df. Oohrn, htr &hoHS how hlA inicrchf In iijirn^rlr* remjimc^H 
■live 1 think ii wofi all due lo the viraJiiyand pctiiifi(en<^r nf 
liie mind— a (luulily I hLive hcsLirJ him spdk of js if ht^ fell 
1h«l he vjb iiiiui;|tJy Ki'te^ m th^il ti'apccr. Nui ihai ht^ used 
any tuch phra^ct at thchc >tUoui liuiihtMl, but be would buy 
thai ht ha-d ihe power of keeping Jt «ubject or quchtion more 
or lo?f Wfore him for a gi^ai many ycan^ The citrnt to 
w&ioh hv pOASPM^ Ihi4 power appi^in wh«n we contiiin ihe 
number of dilTert?nt proUernH ivhicli hr holvi-d. Jind the curly 
period »t which wmc of thvm ti^uan tc) orjcupy him. 

It wu » «ure lign lh;it he wa« noE wcU whcm he war idle 
ai anylimrt olber than lii» legtihir rc^iin|; huLin ; for.ailofig 
■4 hie remiiined moiJcr.itely wd\^ lUcrc w^lii no break in the 
rcgdtmty of hit life. Wcck'dflyi and SnndAyt prttecd by 
alilce, ejirh with their ftCatrd inter vaK of work and tc^L It 
»ali:ii^itl impumblet rhc;epl lur thu^e ivhu wjtitiied hm daily 
Lfe. ID rrdLihc how ctAcnii^ to hih tvdl^beiti^ wju the nriEuLir 
routine thai I have sketched : and wtih what pain and ddli- 
oilty Jinyihin;! beyond it wa* attempted. Any public appwt» 
Ance, Mrn of Ihp moar m/xlr^l kind, w,i% nn effort to him. 
In iS;i he went to the Utile vilUpc rhurj^h for the wechlinji: 
cf his older dauphler, but he could hardly Twar the fatigue erf 
b^irtji pic^'ni ilnuLijib the *bori KTvitc. Tht sumv injiy be 
Mid of the few ciilier oLtuiojib on wh^h hu wu pr^-^eiil *t 
■imilir ceremonici- 

t remember him many yenn agn at a eTiriiTenlnK ; > 
nwskory vibich has n:miiined with me, becauBe 10 u<i rhildren 
ii »ocnied an txcraordinnry and abnormal ocf^uirenee, I 
nneBber hu look must disktinctly ai ha brother Rntemub'a 



funKF.xl, All he %UsQi\ in (he scattering of snow, nT-ipped in % 
lonf black luucriil do4kt wuh » ffuva look of tad reverie. 

When, iUvT an inltrrvil of many yCAn, he a^xin Mlcoded 
a m^ctinjE nf ihr I.irtnriLn Soi'fiTty, \t wlia fell Ifl be, *n4 irxt 
in fari, a nL-rioii!^ iindcruking ; one not to tie decctTTiined nn 
without much ainking uf he;irt, and hurdly to be carried into 
vfTccI wiChvut v'yLJig .1 ['zm.hy of hubhc^fuciU kuUmEi^, In 
the same way A bfcakl ail- party at Sir Jjmci Tagct's, with 
i9me of the diBrfnflui*hcd i-iMiors to Ihc Mcdiol Congrr^i 
(TflSt)^ w;iH m him a severe excrilon. 

T!u' cnrly mnining was ihc only time ftt which he couW 
make any effort of the kind, with coinpanvtivc imimniiy- 
Thui ii ^ame about ihjt the vni^^ he paid to hi& tdeatiJio 
friend* in I.oodon *cre by jiief<:Tvrirt.' iiidJc is early Xv ten it% 
the morning, 'for the ^mc fcn^on he iiart^d on hi* (onrneyi 
by the drlidl pcisibic irnin, an<i uwd to Arrive at ihe houici 
of reUiires in l,andon when Ihcy vvrt beginning their 

He kepi un ittxurale journal nf the day* on which he 
woifkod and those on which hi& dl htroJth prevented him from 
vorkii)^ so ti^at it would be pgauUe lo tell hovt many vixre 
idle dny^ in my given year. In ihi& journal — a liule ycllov 
Letl4"a Diary, which lay open an hU mA nirU pier r, piled on 
Ihf diarica at previous years— 'he alno entered the day on 
which he HUrted for a hr>IUIay and that of hit return. 

The ino6t fiti^i^ecii hoLid-tys wviv vibi(» vi a v,-txL to Lon^ 
O01I4 viihcr to hit brolherS hovnc (0 Queen Anne Siret-t), ov 
lo hii daughter's U Bryan*ton Street). lU wo» general! 

maded by my mother fn take thc^ thori hoUdayi, when 
hcrnme t:1car from ihe frequency of "' bad day*," or from 
the swimming of bin hoad^ that he was bein^ uvtrrworked. 
Hl <^ mi iiFLWilUn^ly, ami tiled tu diivc h^rd tiurj^ains t'^pU' 
UiiiiM, ii<i inttancr, that he ihouM come hotnc In Ave ^yt 
initead of tit. Even if he were leai-ing home for no tTLon 
than ti wi^-L'k, Ihe packinK had to be begun early on the pre- 
viouh iL'^y, and the chief part of it he would do htm^elf- Th« 
diiCk)mfort of a journey to him <vas at [eaal latterly, chiefly iti 




datidpotiQA, And in the miwnibic linking freliag from 
which lie suff«fcd immcduicly before ibc »urt ; even xiusly 
loo^ tcraniejr, such nt xhM 1o Coniston. lircd him wonderfully 
Htllr, oinnM^inK h^w mtith •(! invulirt be wns ; *oi1 ho cr- 
timlj f njoytd tt in -in ainusi boyiih way, and tc acoriou* 

AlthiTu^k u hif b>B sii J, Kmiv uf hi« atHlhclit Ubtts bad 
vulercd a grkdeal decAy^ bit love uf tcenery icnuiacd Ire^h 
Mtd firoQg, Evcfy «Akk at Conuioa wu a freih delight, and 
h« ira* nnrer tirod of praiiinji the beauty nf Ihc bfolern hilly 
f^inrry at the h«ftd Cii Ihr bbr. 

One of the hapjiy mcmorJf?fi nf thin rime [>J*79l is thni of 
m deh^lful viut lo Gtatmeic : " The petfcti djy," my Mtler 
vnicv "and my fath^r'a vivid cnjoymcnl and How of spiriu. 
r-^itn a jijcturc fa my mind that I lik? ID think ot He coukl 
lurdl^r *^( ^^11 ■'^ 'he c.itm^ for iiiming round and Rtrrins 
up lo admire the view from rach fmh point. an<1 even in n.-- 
tnr&in^ hr wan full of Ihir UMtity of Rydal Wati^r. Ihoiigh hi? 
voold nol albw thai Gtaunerc At all cqudied hj» tirlurcd 

Bttidc* thc*e Innger holiday*, there wjrc lAioRer vinlu lo 
vsriom Tflativc*— io hi« brother- in-Uiv']i hoitie^close [i> Ij^iih 
Rn, ukd lo hii Non rkeor Sourhampioo. Kr always panicu- 
Urif enjoyed rambling over rough open cuuniryr tucb aa (he 
conoiunB noar LeiLh HlII jLnd4>rjut1i:imjjL[>ii, i^c hvaih-c^overed 
waaCci of Aihdowu Komi, or Ibe delighiful " Rcugh " near 
the booftc oi hia friend Sir Thomji Farrfr. Hrnirverwa» 
quite idk rv^n on thes^ holidays ami found rhinjcii to o1i~ 
•erve, Ai HarifiHcl hr wairhrd DroRj^rci raichmg insccu. 
&C. ; at Torquay he ubwrved (he fertiUuiiun ctf an uicliitl 
{^rasUfi), and -ilw iluJc ooi tlic leUliuna nf the wie« m 

Ke w*i a)wAy« Tejoiced to ^t home after hi* holiday* ; 
he ated grea[1y lo enjoy Ihc wtkomc he gut from hit dog 
Polly, »hii would yst wild wiih cxciEemL'Ot, panimg. tiiurak- 
ia^ fuihin^ rounLl the room, and jmnj>lns on and o^ the 
chain ; and he u^ed lo itoop do^in, prvming her face to his, 



IciUft^ liL'r lick dim, anil speaking Ui her with a pvculiafly 
Icniler, careuing voice. 

M^ UiKcT had ihc power of pvioi^ to tlic»e lummcr holi- 
d»y» ■ charm which wM itTonjsly felt by ail hi» fjimily. The 
prc^mirc of hiH w^rk at hnmr kff»t htm af ihc iitmu^r ^trrt^^h 
of hifi pi>w(!fft of cruiHTnincc, anii when rclfMcd from it. he 
4»at«rtfd on a holiday with a youihTulavw of cajoynipni ihai 
mndc hta (.oinpuaiuiiahip ddij^htitil ; ^v fdl Ihjil wc saw tnuic 
ol hiiik m A wcck'i hoJiiliy ihixa m j luirnil^ jt home 

Some of ItKK jbbitfnccs from home, bowevct, hftd a de- 
prc«in^ effect on him ; when he had been previouily mueh 
ovcTwark<:(t It 4ccmod aft I hough ihc atiAoncr of ihf cii%lom' 
djy htram olb^vi-ii him lu fiU inio a iwcaliar condliion of 
mi%v tabic heakh, 

bi'iUlci Ihc holidayi which I have mentioned. Ihere weie 
hit visit* (o wflTcr.fnrt' cnuhltuhmcntt In 1H49, when very 
nip lufrL'rin^ from frnn^tani ^icknciv he wm nTff^d by a friend 
lo uy thtf watcr-cinv". and at Xatt n^rced lo gt» to Dr Hiilty't 
MtabJishmi^ni m Malvern, Hl^ It-tit-ni to Mr ?\w show how 
much i^ood Uic rfculmcnt dtd hini ; he hn-mh la have thoufthc 
Ihal he hid found jx <ure for h'n irouble^i bu[, hkc all oiher 
remedied, it hid aniy a ir.kmient effect on hiin. However, he 
found it, at firBt. ^0 Rnod fOf him thjt when he fjime home 
he built himwlf a dourhebaih, and ihc bntlcr leantc to hr 
hti bnihman. 

He piiid many tibIU to Moor Park, Dr Uine^i wiier-cure 
citdMLthiiient in Surrey* not F^r from Aldcrthot. These viiuls 
were pleaiant one*, and he always i<>iikcd hack 10 ihpm »iih 
p1c!i»iirc Dr l.-inc hai given hti recoiled ion* ot my father 
in Dr. RichflTdnrm'a 'Lecture on CharT« Darwin,' October 
i», iS8b, from which T qitoic ■ — 

" In it pnblie intttitulion like mine, he wjli vurrounded, of 

conrie. by muhifationt iy|>et of ehjintter. by pcMont of both 
6CKCT, mostly virry diffcreni from bifflielf—commonikljiee |>co- 
pUi in fthori, at the majority are cverywhcT?. bui like to him 
ftt leail in (his 'hai ihry wgie fi;Uow-c:rcalure* and fellow- 

WITH Ills citiLr>iteN. 



pMlnU. And nticr wa* xay cnc mon gcniaJ* mori: con- 
lidcnc^ more friendly, more idift^thcr Hi:4iiitinj( t)i^n he 
umrcnalljr irai" . . . , He " never Aimed, ai too Mirn hflp- 
\ita^ with BOoU uUri*. ^L iituEiotJolibiii]; ih<; i:onvc!r«ui':in. [i 
»a> Ikih pleasure rtther to gjVc and ukv. And lio wat ^ gcKid 
■ ti«t«ncr 1'* a ftpexkcr He never prcachtd nor proictj, Tjui 
lih U&f whtfthfr ^fnvr or j^iiy {nni] ii w^t e-irh by lorn*), wji 
full of life and viSt — racyt brighi^ and An^maircf," 

Some idea of lij» relation tu his fdcnjlf and his friendi may 
be fithered from wli^i ha* goni bvfuiir ; il would be impuA- 
ftiblc io AitempC a conii>lclc jcenunt of Ibeic [clationhliiiiii, 
but a ilightly ftillcr ouiUnc may nol be out of pUce. tJl hit, 
Di«rrt«(l life J eflnnol H|H'uk. S3\^ in tht- briefest mnnncr In 
bi» letilionahtp towardH my mother, hii* lender and sympa- 
thcitc niLuie »a( fhowQ m tiA mcibt bciiutiful a^peci. In her 
prrsmi:« he fonnd his happincis and through her. ha Uicy — 
which ini([hl have beeti oi^r^h^dowcd by gloum,— ^Lict^me 
OTIC Oif conieni and qiitei gUdne«v 

The ' EKpTe«ion of the KmoTian*" nhowi how iiloiely he 
witichcd hjs t'hildri!n ; ir vmn rharjictemttc of him thai {an I 
h4vc heard hin» lell), atilicm|£h hv wan «ri jnuiijuA to uburrvc 
tccnrjtely the e^jjreition of a crying chibl, hih tym[jachy with 
lb< giief spoiled hii obiervjiion. His note-bock, in which Arc 
reccrded lAyinjci of hii y^oim^ chiMren, ihowt hiv pleisitre in 
lh«m. Hr irrmed to reinin n unri f^f Ti'ijrrlful mrmr.ry of the 
childhoodK which had faded awny. and ihus he *piitr in bin 
'Rccolkcitons":— "When you were very young i: wa* my 
Might to iiUy with you stW. and 1 think with i bj^h thai such 
dim can never return," 

I may qvoCC!, a» iliowing [he tendemcts of hi* nBlntc, tome 
t^cEcncri from an Ac<oim^ of hh Mtxit daughter Annie, writ- 
ten a few days after her death i— 

"Our poor child* Annie, wjii bom in Gowcr SzrecE, on 
Much 3, 1841, and iKpirtd al M^vein at mid-day on Ui« 
V3rd of April, 1H51. 



*' I wril« Lhn« f«w pjigts, 9% I think in »hrr yruii if ^fc 
IW, Ihc imprcMiont new piil down will rccAll more vividly 
her chief *:haT4ctcrisiitTi. Ftorn whattrvi-r pimi I look bkck 
at her, the aiiun ivilixn in her diBpoiiuon which ai once rise* 
beforv ttw, IB hvr buoyant juyoumtcu, tirnfjJL'rud by iwo otlitfr 
chitiui |c:i^licSi (iiiniciyt bci ftcEJhjtLVcnc»b, vhJch tai0il cJ^ily 
h^ve been overlooked by « siringer, ind hct ilrong jjreciton. 
Her joyousnn* and nnimfll 1|li^^r^ radtaTi'd from ht-r whole 
rftimichrtn^'c, iithI fc-Jidorcct ovrry movcniMif clrt^lk and inU of 
Uiv nnd vigour. It was dclighcful and rheprful lo hrhotd her. 
Her dear face now risci birfore nic, aa the used mmciime* la 
cctine runmnf; downbluirb wiih n biol^n pinch uf tnuff fur m« 
ht^T tvhok form Mdi.tni utih Ihc plr-'i^iirr ol kC^vir^K I'leiiure. 
Even when playmfi with her couiins when her joyoumes* 
itlnwftt pn&^ed inio 1xtiiirrou4nntt a linglr glance of my eye, 
noi of disjili^.-mriTi.' (fir 1 ihjink ('oc] I h:irdly evtr i:a^t OQc o& 
liL-i)« bLii i>f wAni uC y^inji.tiby, wiiljEtJ ftjr «omc nimuici alter 
bef whole tounienance. 

" The olhiT piTint in her chiracler. wbkh rudv bcr joy- 
fiuincm and «piritt to dclighiful, wat Iict ^tnonn ilTectioni 
which wM af A rnOKE elingine» fondling niture. When quite 
A biby, ihi« showed iTwIf in nrvc r being c^^)' w^ithour lottrh- 
in^ hcf moihL-rn whvti in bed with her ; and i.|ujte btdy she 
wchjIJ, when ikhjiIj, funJIe fur ;i[iy Itinjlli of tim« one of ber 
mother's flrmv When very uTmdl, liei molher lyina down 
he*iitk hfr ttrrmed lo soaihe hct in .1 manner quite different 
fff»m whai it wotjld h:ivr rirrne to any ff our oThet rhildrenn 
So* flgnin, she would at -ilmoit any iinie«pmd half an hm^r in 
arrninging my half* 'making it/ at she called it. 'bcmitiftjl.' 
or lu ?r»uuthing, (he ^ui dear drilling, my cO'lUr ot md^—m 
ihc^ri. m (uadlJr:g me. 

" Deiidei her jc»youtnei« thus teoipcred, the w0« in her 
manners rcm.irkably coirdinl. frink. open. *Tniphffor*nrd, 
njtufil, ixnil witbovJl any hSJuk of rctrrve Her wbole mind 
wjs pure an*l transparent. One fcU one knew hrr Ihnrougbly 
»nd could trust her. t always thouj^t, thai come: what might, 
vc should have had in our old age at kul oiw Iovioje m>u1 




itpch noihing could have changctt. All her movcmcnEE 
w«e vi^^rousv iKinv, iinO usually gfattiui. When jpoinj; 
raund Ihc SaniJ-v«rk with mr, althoujcb I xvaitrd fmt, yfX *hc 
offon uatd lo lip hcfotr, fnfoiiftEirifH in tKi^ moil clrjjnm 
ir*y. hrt deaf fare hfighi all ihe linif wiiii the Jw<:oic« *mi!i.'ii, 
OccasoiuUv ^^ ^^ ^ prcuy coqiKftiiah icdnn^r lowjrdt mp, 
tiM memory of which it cluiininK, Shi^ uf(t:n u-it'd L-\!ig|^T' 
Ucd linguage, and vthzn i ijuujic^l her b^ cx?^^cr;iUn[^ wti^tl 
ihc had wid, how dearly cia I now »ee Ihc litile tow of the 
hc*(l, iinri iMrNmarion of ' Oh, pjtpa whfll a *hamc ct ynn I ' 
lb the ]ns.i shurf illnew h/r conduct in simple Tmih wiia an* 
gelic. She nei-cr nncc comiJlnincd : never bi^ciime fretful; 
warn ev^r conbidti^te of uihcttt ^nd vrai thhtnVfuT m ifie mo^; 
gCQilCt paihrho EiLiniiet far everytliinji dot^ for her. Whrn 
lo exhausicd Ihrn ihc cimld hardty *pc.ik, she ptniscJ every- 
thing that waa giirpn her, an<l said some Ten * wn» bejiutifully 
gDixl,' When 1 j^nve her wme v^att^r Hhe K^tiil, ' I r|uik' tU^nk 
jMMi/ and these, I Ijelivve, were the laat pfccious worcU ever 
■ildfcMcd by her dear Ll|^» to me. 

"Wc bivt loil itiF juy of the hou»«hoid, and the tuUca 
of our old xgt. She rmttt h,ivc knr^wn ho* ive Ifjvfil hiT, 
Oil, Ihot »hc could now know how deeply, how renderly, 
we da iiili and shall ever love her deivr joyous fate t Bles*- 
injift '?n hei I 

-April so, '»i' " 

Vit'c hif chitdrm <i11 look c«t*^^a' plruunt in the aimes b« 
pUyrd at vith »n, hiil 1 dn nrki think hi- rmnpr-d much wirh 
iM ; ] Kupp<K(^hii health prrvirmed any roiijth play- He !is<'d 
tocntnimcs li> letl irs atoricf » which were com^idered npcdully 
ddiiihtful, p«riLy un aeti^unt uf then rarity. 

The *vAy hv bTouuht uk up iii hhcmn liy i lutk :«lOry Jboul 
(By bfcther Ijonjrd, whieh my father was femd of ccllinft, 
llr cune Into thtf Hrawing-room nnd found Leonard dannng 
abnui on ihe vifa, whirh wa* (orliiddenH for thf *akr of Ihe 
springi, and said, '* Dh, I^nny, f .cnny, that'» aflairit all rutet^" 
wl r«cvivrd for Answer, " Then I think you'd bctt«t gc out 



of the foom." 1 i!o noi Lclicv< he cv<r vpotr m &n^ty word 
loany^r hi« rhijdrfn in hi^i HU; but I ntn cc^ that it 
twvct cnictv6 out tieids lo clinol>cy him. I well rcmtmtiri 
one ui:t;JiBLun wlit^n my fjtht^r rt^provffd mr fi>r a pii?cc o( Ciirc- 
Lc>nnt:AB : tf-ui] I t-in >lt1l rci^^JL Ih^ fcHiiihEu' dcprr^WLoa whkh 
cjme over mc, and llic uirc wh^ch he louk Lif (li»]j(;itc il by 
npcikipg to mc noon a(ti:rwartl» wiih especial ktnOncu, He 
Itrpi i:p hii JcUnlilfiil, rtfTof lionaf c manntf Toward* ii* all hi* 
life, I sr»m«imr* wfinflf f he- coiilrt <[t> nn, with *$irh nn 
undcmnnntrntivr race ah wr arc : but 1 hope tic knew how 
much wc ddighipd in his Icvrngword* and mann«. How 
ofEcn. whva ji mun, 1 fuvi; wiihcd when my father viit bchin J 
my trhftir. Ih4l hv would ii!k)i^ hia h«nd over my hair, at he 
iiicd to dn when 1 W14 » hf>y. He nllowcd hiK grfjwn-i]|> chtL- 
drcn lo Ijiiigh with nnd ai him, (nd wtu, generally tpc«lcint(, 
on tcrmi of perfect e<i^iJiiity wtih ui. 

He w;i8 Jilwayn full if inlcivW jlIkhH ruch "nc'» ]iUi» '>r 
suct^emiien. We ur^ed lo lAugli at hmi. »nd i^y ikc voi;hl nt>t 
believe in \»\ ion*. beciUie, for intUnce, he would be a Utile 
doublful i^toni (heir tjking somr: hit of n-ork for which he dij 
not fed ftuic Eh;tt they h,nJ knowkd^ie en£>H)(h, On Iheolhcr 
hand, he wa^oniy loo much ini'lincil to inkc a favoiif^hlf vrrw 
of oTir work- When I d»QH*;^h'- he had set inn high j value on 
finyihitig that I had iutte. he used to be indignant and inclined 
to eupbdv 111 iii'xk an^trr, Hi» doi^bls were pdrt oMiit hu' 
mility conccr'.my what wJh m any ^ay <:oiiiit:uted with 
himielf ; hi* too favourable view of our work »,« due to hU 
*ympathrf ic mture, whith made him Imierit to every one. 

Hr k'pt lip rowAnUhi^ rhddrcn hii dcli|;htf<il mAnn^r of 
«xprr"log hiiB thaaks: and T nevrr wr^ir a Inter, or rwul ■ 
page idoud to him, without fcccivbff a ievr kind words of 
recoijT'itJon. His loie and gogdnc** lowjni* bis Uldc graod- 
■on Bernard were greiat ; and he o^en ipoke of [be iileuurt 
ic w.'n fri him tfun- " hinlittlr fa<* op^Mniiiciuf him " .it lunc h- 
eon. He and Ijemard used to rompnre rhcir i»tes : / 
liking brown sugar Iwlter than white, Ssc; the result b^in^ 
" Wt dwayB agree, tlon'i we J " 

My Ator write* :— 


'* My ftf«i rcmfmbtaTiccfi cif my ftihc^ arc cf the (^Hightn 
of hb |iiaT<"8 ^^^'^ "^ ^'^ ™^* pastiunaicly Jiuchcil :a his 
oirn thtUrvn, jthhou^h Ik #** nut uu lEiUihtrtniicui* cfiilO> 
lover, Tv ;tll ol uh he w^ki- ihc niokt iJtUuliLful iiby-fctJotr. 
Bad tfac mod perfect sympMhiiicr, Indeed tt b imp«»A]Ue 
adcquiEeljr to dncribc hdwtlcliA'itfiil a n-btigri hi«wai io hU 
famflf* whrlhcf A.^ chWAtTti ttt in (hdr InTrr tiff'. 

" Ii t( a proof of ihc i«rm« on whkh war wvro, and ti\u> ai 
ha-K much be wju vALucd ox a pUy-fcllow, ihai otic d^ hit sonn 
vbca Jbuvit four yr^is oM ir^eJ lu Uiibc him viih lUpence 
to cornc and play m w^fkinj[ houn. Wcall knew Lhc Mtrcd- 
ncu of frork-ing'Umc, bin thai any one jihouM retiiii ftixprncc 
iccmrd an impoi^ibiliir. 

"Hv mu^t hnvf* tioL'n Ihr most p,iti^ni and dclighcfulof 
auncv I rememb^^^ the hawa of ptjUe and romfor tt 
■crmnl to me wbcn I wm unwell, to be lucked up on iho 
tiady tofo, idly cuiuidcting the old theological m\i\t bung on 
lh« miXL Ih44 tnusi have beeo io hi» working honn, for t 
ahriT* picture biro liltinij^ in \he hor\chaJr iknn-cha-if by (he 
coiTTicr of ibr ftrr. 

"Anftrhcr m.irk nf hia iinSrHmdfH pfllirn^r w-n thr way m 
vhirJi wc were suffcrerl lo m^l;crn.ids into the Mody when wo 
tod an abioluie need of slick in g- pi a si cr, siting, pin'w wiswts 
kUiiojit, fcioI^rttU', or li^iiiinvr. Tbi'ie jnU othrr sui-h neces- 
uhci weie alwayi fo be fi^iund in Ihc hlu^Iy, j[id il vtj* thu 
oaTf pUce wberr ihii wa* i cerfainfy. Wc uied to led i( 
wroou lo (CO in durinj t«orl:»timc ; 5(31, when lh« ruicrtiity 
wu |:Tcat vf did to. t rem47nibcr hia pafirni Ifiok whi^n h<^ 
MJd oneci ' Don^ you think jon could nor como in again, 1 
haTe been iniemipttd very ofien.' Wr uiied lo dread goin;^ 
in for »tif:kiQg'pbkicr, becaiiM be dmlrkeJ to mc that wc b'd 
e«t ounetfci, both for out t>x\t% And on account of hit acute 
•enniivfnm to the ^i^hi of blood^ 1 well remenihi-r lurking 
ahoul Ibo panagr idl \w wai safe swJiy, and tb^n iii:ahng in 
fo* ih< p^ur 



" I.ifc Rctmg tn mc. am I look l»ck upon it, ui have brni 

very icguliir in iho«c ciuly dnyt* and except tclAtuxib Und a 
lew intimau fncndi), 1 do noi think Any one came to Ihc 
hou>ic. Aflcr Ifwrrns, wc wirre alwayi frrc ir» ^i<> where ur* 
would, iinti ihnt wns r.hicfly in the draivmg'romn and jihoul 
(he Burden, ^o dial wc were very much wah boiii my father 
and moLher. Wis untnl to (bnk h hkjhI delightful when he 
tuld us uny AloTic*i ^bitut [he ^tanif, gr iiboul mrly ShrcuB- 
tjury <lays<— litU? biu about itchogl-Ule jiind hih b^iyihti u^iex 
Sometime? too he rend aloud to his children kiich boolu u 
ScoU'& norvfb, And I rcmcmhcr A fpw liillc leclom on the 

" I wa& roi^rc or lefs iJI iluring the five yrani between my 
IhirlcenlU xnil eighteenth jcaxk^ and for a long Lime (yem it 
Henif to tucj he uHcd tit pJny a ran pie of itnncs of Imrk' 
nammon wnih me every nftcrnoon- He played them viih ihe 
grcnictt spirit, and I remfi^mbcr we used at' one time to keep 
nccouni nf rht yainca, and as* this record came oul in fatoiir 
or him, we kept a hsi of ihr itouMctii thrown hy each, a» I 
ttaA convinced that he thiew helter than myielf, 

" Hi& patience and tym pa thy were buiindleH during (his 
wcsfy illneM, and *omcrimci when mri*i mitcMMr I fdi hi* 
sympathy to be almost loo keen. When ai my wofit, ire 
went to my aunt'ii houKe <tl Huitheld, in Subu-k. and an voon 
av we had lOiidc the nuivc hJiJcty he ^cnl yii ly Muvr Vaik 
li>r a EortDighi'i water-nnre. I cjin recall now hov on hit 
return 1 could hardly bear to have him in Ihe room, the 
cipfeMior; of teni.1irr *ympiithy am^ rmoiinn m hi* tacf wa* 
twi apiHiing, tiixiwii^ ftehli upon me after his little absence. 

"Heeafedfnr all our pursuits andi(i[crc!sli,and lived our 
llvetwithns in a way that very few fathers do. Bui I am 
teruin thai none i.if y* felt Xh-W lhi» mtim^ y Lrttcrlered the 
lea*t <riih our re*|n:' i ot (jbedlence. Whatever he uid ir*i 
ahiolute iriilh And l4w lo UK. Healwayt put hi? whole mind 
into ansisrrinj! any of o«;r que^tionH. CW trifling insupioc 
makea me feel bow he C4pcd for whLii we careil for. Me had 
110 ipecial tojte for ealii though he adiniieti the pretty wayk 



H klllcn. but yd Ue knew njni rcincmbcrcd ihr individu- 
He» of my Udny ^ali, and would t^iik dboui tbc habiU Mnd 
chArjrelcn or the more r^iDArkablc onc4 yrJiM jificr ihcy had 

''Aiiothcrcharjcierifttir of hit ircaimtrnt of hfs rhildrcn 
w« hit *vsj>ecl for Ihcif Uberly, and Utr llwir pcrwnjliiy. 
Ht«n an ^ui(e Jii Kill, I remi^inbt^r rcjuiL-iiig in tbia ^tin^iT: vf 
freedom. Ouf fitbcT and mother k^ould not c»en *^ifih lo 
Eoow wbAl ve v<<re doing cir Thinking unlc» wc wiihcd 1o 
'IcU. Ht .il*,iy* mfldp its fttrl thai wc wt-rt rni:h rrf ui crr*!- 
iirm ivho!4c t^pinlnnn imd thoughts were valuable lo him, la 
thai whfliFver thcr*; was hvsi Jo us cime out in ihc sunshine 
ci his preiCDce. 

" I du not think hla C3:igg<?ralcd licnsc of our good quili- 
1»rs init^llcctiLftl or moTil, ivijiJe ti% i^onceiiod. as rr.igbr prrhap* 
have been etpccicd. bill mihrr more humbli? ^nd giAidul to 
him. The rcascm lining i^n rioipbi that the influence of hi* 
lAmrU'r* of hin Ainc^tity And ^reulnc^s iiT naruri.-, liad >t 
'mich deeper and more lasting tlteci than any ±i:iail exoliQ' 
lion which bir» pnim or udmimtion may have caused to our 

\* heAdfif nhouKehntfl hr was murh loved nnd respfreted; 
he always spoke lo wtv-ints with poIiteTieun, using the esprr*- 
tmn, "^liuld yvu i»: t,ti guuiL." in ^ivkjo^ for anyihmg' Hi 
wAt hudly ever ingry mith h\% servants ; it thows hi>w seldom 
llu» occurred. Ih^t wh^n, jh a «ma1l boy, T overheard a lervint 
hcmg uroLded. nnd my fnthi^r t^pra^inic nn^ily. il imprt'ined 
»r 'lib An appalling circum^^TiinCL'. and I remember runninj^ up 
tain out of a gMuvr;d ^vuhe >*f awv. Hv did not trouble bim- 
m1' abijut The man^M'^mviit oE the garden, li/wi^ 6h:. Hv 
cofikidcied the horsetto bttle ha concern, ibal be used to otk 
doubtf iiMy whether- he might have n hor^e iin<t can io tend lo 
Reiion fur Dro^era. or to ihc WfTBierbam nur^'riet for plantar 
the hke. 

A» & bosi my father had i petuljar charm : the pretence 
of vi»ilort excited him, and mide him appeat tu hit best 



::ilv:tniage. At Shrew^tnify, hu uacil to tuy, it wat hia fathvr^t 
wjbh thdi ihe giiirsU hhoulU be aitcndcd (i> constantly, and ift. 
□QC u| the leiEt^rs io Tox he ipc^k* (j1 the imjrc»hitjiiiiy of < 
writing a letter while the bouie vms fiilJ of companjr. I ibink 
he aIw^tb fi-'lt uneasy at not floinn more for Ihc rntrflnlnmcnl 
of his gviostg, but the n^AulE won qurrrKioful ; ani\ (n make up 
for any \os^ there wiu the gain that the gucsi? kit perfectly 
free to ilo as ihry likvd. The rauvi utuLfl vJBiiuo wer« tbotMi' 
wliu it^ye^ fiom Salr^riJ^ty (ill Mumi^y ; lliuht- nho iccajrnoit' 
longer were |ji;ni:u]ly rctj(ivc«, and ^vcre con«idcicd to be 
rather more my motlicr'^ Jiffair rhan hi», 

Bc^idcA ihtse vUiton-, ihtTf were forciRncrs and oth* 
tiUjngera, who cart^e duwn for limLhcon and went away in 
Che afternoon. He u«ed cona^LicatioujJy lo lejirrAcnt to them 
th« enormous dituncc cif Down from LonOon, and the labour 
it ttouki be tL> come there, unton^iuuftly lakin|t fur ((rarited 
that they wonltJ find Ehr jaurney nt loilnumc u he did htiii- 
tclf If, however, they were not d|['lcrrL.'d, he u^ed Eo arran^ 
iheirjnurnryi fof tbcni.trUing rhem when W rome. 2r>il pri*.- 
IrcjilJy when U> go. It wns plei*ant to we ihe way in whieh 
he *hi>ok bund* with u Rue*t who wa* bnng wekomed for rhi* 
Am timr; hiK h.inj uncd ti> fihoot (mt in a way tb«l jcav? one 
Ihe fcehng ihM it was hftitening to meet Ihe gucM'n handik 
With old frci^ndh his band c^ime down with a hearty twing 
Ito ibr otbrr ban<1 ttt n wjiy T* hjid Hnlitfjiiiion in tee- 
Hi* yond-byc aia rhielly rhnrnriori^ed by the plesArtni 
way ia vhi<:h he iboAked Uh guesi^ as he i:iocd at ihc dnor,| 
for having comt lo st-e bim. 

TheHc lunf:beoni wure very sucocttful enierEuininienta^' 
there wtu no Or^iu or fl.Li:]^ng «troul ihvRi. my fithci W4» 
bngbt And excited ibtou^houi the whole vUit. J'role^ior Ue 
Cundolle hji« dfictihed i visit lo Down, in hii ndmiubLe and 
ftympalhetie skcloh nf my faibi-r,' Hr Bpcak* of hi^ mann* 
U rcwniblian ibfti 5f n ''iiavam" of Oxford or Cambridg& 



Thb Joe4 not <trilG« nx* ^ ^jiiitf a ^ofsA romji^irUifn : in hia 
anil n^ilEiraTnL'M tltcru wu^i miiTi: uf Ihe nunnct of eC)Itiv 
•oldiert; a inAnncE acising from lotal ab«cn^c of ]:it'cti:ncc or 
AlTcciiUQa. Ii viOit ihU absfncc oi po^c, And Cht oatural and 
fttfnpl? «iy Ln which hr bcgnn tjilkin^ to his gmr^ttk io as to 
jtri ihfiri on thfir rtwn lines, which nifn^c him sn (jliarioing A 
Hmi cn D fiirnngor, HU hoppy choice of niaticr inr talk 
•■>em«d Eo fluw vtit of hU syinp^ithvtic nature, and htiiTiblc, 
I viitd tnlvri^Bt in other |]tu]rlc'i worL 

To *omv, I think, hv c^ui^cii jj,Lual pain by hi4 niudvBty ; 
I ha¥« lecD The Utc FtAncii lidfour quite diicomptHcd by 
hiving kttotttedgic Jicritxd to himself en j point about whkh 
BDy fiihor claimed to bi: utrrrly ij^noTunt. 

Ii U diSicuJl to tic'ita on the char.ii.'If.Ttslicd erf my fathcT'ft 

He had more drwd than have moat people o£ rcpcatiag 
hi* »(oKe«, >nd i:i^nttEnL'4l]y uLld, " Vou must havf hord me 
leU," *»r " I dafc wy I've told you." Otic pcfnlintity he had, 
which piYC a turiou* ^fftfci lo his ronvcrs.ition. The fint 
few woriU of a ewnicnct! would often rcmiTid Mm nf some 
euc^tjon to, or toan^ rvacin againnl, vthm he witb going ta 
Mv : and thii again bioughl up «iiiic olhei point, io eUuI the 
•cntcncp would hemme ii syitem of iiLirenthfsis wtthin parcn- 
1hci»f Anii it WAS (ifrm rmpo^^iblc lo undcrsund ihc dvift of 
vhju he wta saying imtil kc nunc to the end of hi^ nfntmce. 
He uwhI iu say uf hiinu'lf dial he wan not (]ukk cn<^Ligh lo 
hoM xti Af^vtanut wiih nay *ji\i\ vnd I Ihuik this woa true. 
Unle«A it WM a *ubjcci on vt hi^h he iru JuKt then at work, 
he could not get ihc train of aigumeni into woiking order 
qiiifkly enoujth, Thi* U *>io«n even in hii leEleri ; thus, in 
rhc raie of two Ictiem lo Prof. Srmpcr almut ihc eiltex of 
koloiion. he did noi recall the ^etiLi at (act^ he wanted unrU 
tome days after the firtt l<:tle( had been veni off. 

When puicled in lalking, he hftd a i*ecuhar ir^mmer on 
the ftiil word of % «enienrr, I only rc<:«l! thii ofromnjf with 
wordi bcgiininp ftuh v/ ; i^nnibly he had a jpecijl diffiimUy 
with this letter, for I ha^e heard him My That at a hoy he 



rould not f>Tonr>(inr<? vr. an<l thar viKpmcir wn^ ofTcrrrd him If 
lit couUI »ay '* wIjiIu win«;." wUkh ^ic prXjnuucccO "rite Hnc/' 
Po*Mlily he niay have inhEriieU thii tcndcni:y Iruni Ei^hnjui 
Unrwin. who srammcfc<l-* 

Jic hfjmctimc* romUncd his mi^M|»hoT5 in » cufioua way, 
DninjE tiTr.h a phrnnr oa ''hrddmg on liki? life/' — a mi»tiir^ of 
'' holding an for hiu life," ar\d " holdinf- on like grim dc4ih/' 
U catnc from hi^ eager vay of puuici^ cmphasii law whai b« 
w«G sajrJDg. ThL« ipm«t(moft |fav« in air of «JU£);Friitigp 
where it wku not intended; tint it gave, too, * noble air of 
strong and grncrous conviction; ai, for iniunce, when he 
g»ve hUcvidencc httcite the RoyM CftEfimiuion on vivtH-crioa 
jLnd came out mili hJH W4>fd> .ibout criidty, " li ^k'fcrvcv 
deccGtation and a1>horrenc;e.*' VVJirn he i<\\ strongly about 
any ajmilar question, he eouM hardly iruat him^vEf lo ipcak, 
at he then easily brraroc nntfry, » Ihiriji which he dit»hkcd 
exf^ettivdy. He iv.i* conihciDui ihai hin jiniicr had a tendency 
to miildjilyir^elf in rhe iirirr^nret and tar ihis rctfuin, dreaded 
(lor t!cam]jle) liavin[( Ui M-nh] a ^crvunt. 

It wat a great i-rovf of the modesty of hit ttyle of talking 
that, wlicn, foi insuneif. >1 number ot viiitor^ eame over froitt^ 
Sir Jijhn LL;}>hock> for a SimO^ty iiflcrnooii call he ncYfT^ 
teemed to be preaching ar ^ci^uring, althoiij^h he had vi much 
of the talk to htmsrlt He wjs particulnrly rhnrmfng whi'n 
"chulfm;:" atiy one. and in high KpiriLa fjvei it Hia arann^r 
Al Buch innea wst^ light- hearted and buyihh, ani-t hiit refmo 
ment of nature came out ni'ti&t sironf;Iy Ha, "hen he wu 
lalkinjc lo » Udy #ho plen^izd .md :imii«c;d him. ihc eombina* 
il^n of raillery nnd defc^rencc in lii» nunner wa* <1Hij£hEfid 
to $ec. 

When my father had several guesis he mnnagcd ihcm well, 
ttvtttng a toJk wilb nch, oi bhnginjf two or threr; together 

My tath#r rtUttdd JnhniADiDn tnvwrr nf KruBiiwa T>iTwn*t: "Doo't 

UnA U *trj lacariwnifni -i i i;, Ur l>4iAJnV "Sf^«^b^J 

t luvt rtiiM to IhlnJi bcfuj c ] j''-*^ ^udilvu'i aUl innptniuot qB«Mi 



round hi« <lLiir. Ill thctc cunvtreutiont therv wis aXwa-yn 
a good detl of (un, ani), speaking jtcneraliyt there w«q rjthrr 
4 bunorous turn in hU i.ilk. or a sunny gf^ni:i]iTy ivhieh 
tcncd instead. Perhaps my rtt-ollcLiion of a pcrviuling cU- 
meni uf humour is tho mure vividt btii::iuvi} the be^t lulkfi were 
wjtk Mfr HuKtuy, tn ^vhmii tlKr« iit [he *j>L»tvt which jd ukin 
Eo hupiour, cvcD when Uumour ittcU I« noi Ihcic, My (.ttlicr 
enjo^tf Mr Hoxky'i humour eKcc^dingiy. and would often 
luy, ''What *plrn<lifl fun Huiclry u I "' I ihink hr I'lrobiibJy 
hod mofc jficmittc argLjmcni (rjf tlit^ nature of tv fight) with 
L)cll and Sir Joft;]]h Hooker, 

Htf uBcrd (0 my th-iL ix ^ri«v«d hiui ii> fiud ihui fur [he 
fncndl of hih latet hie be had nut Lhi; warm AtlcclLun of 
hk joulh- Cefiflinly in his I'arly Icttors from Cflmbtidfic 
he ^TFi proaft oi VL-ry fiirong friendship far JlrrbcTt and 
Foa ; bill no one cxcqit himself would have ^id that bitt 
ftflcction fur hit fra-nds was not, (hrouj-houi ht^i, nf (he 
■viBni I'Oiuble kind- In serving a. Iripud he ivouM not 
spare himself. 4nd precious lime and ^iren^th were wilhn^ly 
given. He unduuMcdfv ha^. to an mniHual dc^ur?^. thr powvi 
of auaching hi^ friend* Ici him. Me had many w,arTn fricnd- 
ihipt, but to Sir Joic^h Hooki*T be was bound by ti<*s of 
ftlTeclion atrong^'r than we oficn hec among men. He wrote 
in hi4 ' E<cconei'lLO[-iH.' *^ I huve ^ui^^ u haf illy any luan mure 
JofabTc than Uuokcr/' 

JI>i relKioDibLp to the village people was » pleftiani one : 
he treated them, orn: iinri .ill, wiih rourte*y, when he r arne in 
eontari with iherflf an^t look an inierejii in all relating to 
their welfare. Some limi- after he came to live at Mown he 
helpeij to found 3. KriE^udly CJubi and served as treo&urer frjr 
thirty ycitti,. He iook nuir.h tfuithle uboui die Unl, kee|>- 
iiig lift iccOLtnIs with minute and icmpulout cxoctne«s. and 
taking pleasure in its profperou* ronditioo. Every ^liit* 
Monday ibe clubiined it* martb round wlih bnnd and lianoer, 
and {"ir^ided i>ti the lawn in from of the houHc- There he met 
them, and explained Co ihem their financial portion in ^ liltJe 
:li leaioned with a few well worn jokctn He wji» often 



unwdl enough Xq make tivpn ihii UltLe ceremony an n^rtlon^ 
but 1 Ihmk hv nctcr f;iUcd Lo tn«l them. 

Hf was al«o Irc^^urcrnf the Coal Club, which fijtve hJm 
^fimc wfjfk, i^nil he urted for some yctn m a Coiraiy Magi*- 

With regard lo my fither's inicrcit in Ihc nlfuni nf vhc 
viUogVt Mr. Brodic laavt, haa hKvn bo good Js to give me hk 
recollcGiioua : — 

"On my becoming Vic it of D&wn in cK^fi, hc hecAmc 
fnVndH.nnfl Tin condniir^d (ill 1ie« d^aih, llisconduct toivardi 
mil and my fariiiy *ii* nnr of imvaryina kindni;«s» md wc 
repaid ii by warm jfTctiron, 

"Jii nlL porith maitcDi he uaa an aciivc Mtitiant ; ia 
matlcn connoclcd with ihc BchwiK, tharicieiv and uihcr bu»i< 
ncKV hiit litK-ril cDQlributiun wiu «x<cr rci^dy, and in Ihv 
diflt^rcncci which nt drnc* orcurtert in thfti, « li other 
|hiriihr?> I wa^ alwAyn sure or hJi mppori. lie held UiJlE 
whf.TO ihere w.*^ really no imjwrUnt ul>jeciicin, his ju^Liilancir 
shoLilil lie ^iveTi til Ehe eLcr^^ymitu, who OUf>hE to know ihe 
ciicomsunc < <<i :, ixnd woi chielly retponiiiblu-" 

Tlis interconnc with stinger? irns marked *iTh icTUpnloiia 
And rarhrr Tornvil {K>l]fr^nc», but in fncit hc hnd few oppor- 
tunitici of meeting sirnngeTS. 

Dr. L^nis hu4 dew-rlbi^'d * how. on ihtj rare pccu«ion of 
my father altcmlin^ a ki^tuu^ iVt. Sundcrton'h) M the Koyil 
IriKtilulion, "the ^rholc jucmUy . . . totv to tbcir feet to 
welcome him/' whik he teemed "scirccly comcioui that 
aiich «n oiirhiiTHi of nfipbnm- rmitd jina^ihly ha inrendMl for 
himBclf." The quiet life hc led at hnwn made hira feel con- 
fused in a large society : for inimnce, ai ihc Royil Sotiety"* 
mr^t he feh oppreaKd by the uumbcrfl^ The feeling that h« 
OUfCl^I to know iieOj>Le, Ai'id the difTifUlty he hxd in fetuembcr- 
lug fAceft in hii latter yc«fi, «Ud added to hi* dlKeomfbri on 

* iMLufv br Dr n. W, KlcbmUon. la Sl Qv^i^\ Hill, OcL »«, %U% 




•Dcb 6f«iiioni Hr di-i not rrali^f XhM hr vtoa\i\ \k «cOfi- 
niicd frori) liif phAlOi^nipliH, uni! I ririnviubcr tit> bring unciiy 
at bcinf obviuualy citogiikiNciI by a itl.iogcr ai the Cry*lJl 

] mint uy furueihinji oF hi» mdntifT r>f working: one 
fhiractcriitic of il ivm hi* rt-Apcct TiarTimc: h« n^^vcr (^tgni 
hnv iinc!n\>s it w.r*, Thli wiK ihnwti^ fur inBliinLi^ in ihc 
my in tthkh hr tried U> ciirtjil Inn huliUct)'^ ; iiU^ And more 
deirly, with rtsp«i to bIwtict iicriodi. lie would ofien ^Ay, 
thai *aimK ihc mmnliH w** jUc wny lo get work done ; ho 
ihowed ihik Ilhc ul uving the mlnutn In th^ fllffcrcncc he 
(«ftl bctvccQ a ciujrtcr of an hnur nnd rcn Tnmnies' work ; he 
never Vp-AtiM i few spare minjiet from thinking ihat it ww 
nui worth b'hilf la hiH I'J wi^rk. 1 woi ofun tUuck by bis 
vay of nvorking up lo the ^ery liniEt ut hiti iiirTi]£lh, »o chat 
hemddtnly stopljod in dif;Ulitig. «iiU ihc word^ "I believe 
] mti^n't d(> 4n) more*" 'I'hc *amc c,i|[eT de«re rot lo loac 
limf wjt* scc" in hin tjHu k movement* when m vrmk. I 
pifiictibrl^ remember noticing thi^ wht^n he *.i» making an 
cxpcfi'rncni on the nrrftt of l><r:int, i^hJch rcrjuffed somr rari" 
iTia;iipulalion ; rH^ninj^ tine luile btn nf v^til \\\n>n iJir 
■iH w,t« dt'ni; cir^fnlly .ind ncee«AAii!y Uowly, l>ui Ehc in- 
termediate movcmenLi were All t{nKk : ukJng ji fmh bean, 
M«ing that the ro^i w-i^ he:ilrhy» impaTini; il no hI pin. filing 
h on a fork, and leiing fh.\r it wnn vcrtiral, &c. : nil thcac 
procrstciwcre pcrfofmet! with a kind of (c^tmiaed eagernc^, 
H? always ifhivf.- oir- tli? imprvi^ion of working iwitb plt-a&urrt 
dud nul with Jiiy tit^^^ J haw jin iiiLn|;o, Liiu^ uE hir[i3h be 
recorded the rnuk of tome experLment. looking eagerly at 
eflth root, Ar«., and then wrifinc ^'ith cquni «gcm*-i(i | 
retnL-mtjTf thr <ihnrk mov^nii;"? nf hi*, head »p and i1nwn ila 
he Inoked from the object to thr nntr^ 

He uved a great dul of time through not having lo do 
Ihiiii^ twicv. Although he wotild patirnily p> oo rcpcAting 
etprrimrnt* where Ehcre wa inv guod t^j be fl-iinnl, Itv eould 
nor cn*!ute hflving to reiienf an rifpctiment which oughr. if 
rompktr cire had bcL'n taken, to have iuc':eedcd ihe Hril 



tlmc^ind thit ^^rt him a continual aniiclf ihjt thr «xpcH- 
mcni »1ioiii*l no! lu" w-attcd; V- (dl ihc ciiwiinirnJ to lir 
uicTcd, howciicr aUgUt a oiio it wal. He wtiihcd Ui Wm a« 
much as poiGftibIc (mm an cKpcrimcnc, so that hi; did not con. 
fine htmnrir tn obi.vivin^ itit^ vwgW ytwnx Kit which liip ex^ri- 
saftiX ivnb litres Lodtiii;iI hjh ikjwvj <d fpucuii^ aouiiiLrvr mI uthvr 
tlkingi woA wonLlcrtuL 1 do oot think be <arcd fof pretimi- 
nscy or rough <^bicrvaiion tnti^ndcd lo «crv? >i guidrfi and 
to be rrpcnfcd. Any npcrimenE donr 4.11 ir> Ih* of some uhc, 
And bi thU ronnrction I rcmcmbrr how irrongly he urged the 
nccdsiiyoT keeping the notes of ci£perJm(.'niE( whith failijti, 
and ic diih rulo hv alwuyi :Lillktttid. 

In the literary part ijf hit work hi^ the ft^mc horror of 
losing lime, and the lAme jca\ in what he uai dotng at the 
moment, »nd ihu made hrm careful not to tit ot>ligod unnwcs^ 
«an'ty lo redd anyThirijf a u'coiid umr. 

Kis natuml ii-ndcnry was nt m«i* wimple inollu^db ftrd few 
m,^irum(;ntiL The mm *)f ihc comitimnd microscope has much 
incmued »ncc hi« yonih. nnd ihit :it ih^^ cvpemc of ihe 
■impk onc^ It strikes us nowadays at esunordinary that he 
■hould have hati no compoimd microti: D]>e vrben he went hift 
Jifiy^/f vayAnc, hut in ihi* he follo*cd ihf advice of Kobt. 
Bfovm. nho 4;is an nuthoriTy in suth ninttrrs. He *1wny4 
had a givdi Likinf- for :he simple microtrope. and mainlined 
th^t oowjiiayn jl wjih lqo nmcTi ncglcLtpd, dad tlut vnn uu^ht 
oJvayt 10 tec at much ^h punKibli; wjLh th« hmijilc bcfvic 
tnkin^ to the compound mkrascopc In one of hU lellen 
hr kpcnim on rhit point, and rrmarkt thaE he aTtrayt m«- 
pei'ti the work of ^i n\Ar» wHit never oies the »im|ifr nurnn 

His dlsieciing table vas a thif^k bond, let into a windav 
of Oh- iiudy; it wj« lower ih^iii nn ordinary i^ble. iio tfwi fce 
cotdd not hAte noiLed at it stJtndiafc : hut lhi«, from withinf 
to save his iiienjEi h. he «oi]1d nut havr done in ^ny cow. Me 
*ac AC hih dim^rTin^;' tabic on n rnrious lov xiool vhkh had 
bclonjjLcd 10 hi* fnTher^ wirh a ic^at rcrcilring on vt^rtii'al 
spindJe, Hind mouniej Lrn large (^«torS| M> thai he rotdd turn 




ttiUf from Mt to iidt III* -jrxliiiflry tot»l», *;c,> were lying 
■bout on the T4l;ilr, Imc ii<y»rdci Uic^c ■ niimljcr of oddk »nd 
ends vcrc k(pi in a TAtind lahlc fviU of roilJatirg dr.iwrn, nTvd 
luming on a vcnic:i1 axifl. vhid) ihIduiI datic by hi» kfi side, 
u hir ut Jt hii mi(:ru!iou|w-ubW- T!if df^iwirnt were labdlrd, 
"bc«l 1«ickl>,*' ''fough Ivuh," *'ft|ii;H..iJii<ii«," " [Ji«|>iir;ttiuua (or 
ipcciRkcni*" &C- The mtfii marked pcculmiily uf ll^c loei- 
tcoii of thcie drnucTi wai the care with whkb tittle «crapi 
and ^ilnimi tm*U'»* Ihlnf;* wcrr jircicrvcd; ho hcM the wdl- 
knnwn belief, that if ymi ihfi-w a thin;- Awny ynii wfri^ Mire 
lo wjni it ijirrotly— sine] -ld ihing:^ jtrumuUtcd. 

If jny Ejnc ii>i(i l<KJkcd at Wn tciclat &r,. lym).- urt tk^ t^Uc. 
he moHld h%\c Iwco nry< k by 4ii air v( *imj>Icnci*, (ujkc-fchifr, 
and oddnns. 

At Tut ri^hi hand were ihclves, wlih a number of oth^r 
odJn and enJ^ ^las^-s lauccn, tin hivuit Imjkes fftr ifcrnii- 
oaauigKvdt, ami: lobrU, (taL]Cv;r> fnll i>F Hund, &C', &c. Con* 
tUlenng bow liily and mi^itcididl he wiLii in vk'-chIljI ihin^i, 
ii i« curiqtuk ihai he bore with »u nuny nukc-ibifti : fur m- 
itanci*. inftt^id of hivin]^ $, bo\ nude of a deaired ihjp;, and 
■tii&«ij bUck inside, he W4>iild huni up tomedking like what 
h*f w»fttcd and get ir darkened itiiide with «hoe-1>lackiii|- ; 
he did not can lo bare gliuii cxit^rs rnadi- Cor tumbUiv m 
which tie gcrmilUtiKl Modt. but imed brijkvri Ul* of iriegubr 
•Kapc. wiih perhapa a narrow anglv fcticking u*cl«i*ly oqi cm 
one tid«. But (to mucii of l^it cxpctirneniing wai of a simpk 
kind. Ilut htf hid na need for anr claborAiion, and I think 
hn habil in ihii rc*peet wo^ in j:feat mr^anrt due Uk hil 
(l^irc T4^ huibAnd hn vTrrngth, Jtnd not wnic h nn ineBt^tial 

H'-i way of m-itking objecli may X^vjt t>c meniL^rtc^I. If 
he had a number of things to diaiind^i^b, such .i» kavci, 
Hovers S;c., be ti«J threads of diffvreni eoLoura wnind (hem. 
In |iartif^uUt hir uted ihU method when he had cinly two 
daisei ot objeott to dLtiinf(ui)^h : ihui in tbo caac of cio»ted 
litnd tc If' fertilised flo*eTi^ one net would be marked with 
Uack and oni> wiih whiii: ihtrad, tied rvund the tuLk of the 



flowcT- 1 rrmrnktcr ifcM ihc look d iwo wlKof capiiiilcx 
KJihticd ami wjiiinft lo l>c wcightd, coun'ctl. &c., wiih piece* 
of bUcIc atidol while Ittmd to diiCing^iih ihc tr*yi in wZiicib 
they by. When he haJ to crtm|wrc iwtt tri* <if nfctflinjElt 
sftwi'<l irv ihtf ^iTif poi, h*- iicpft^nifft thrm by a paTmion o( 
linc'plaic; anrt ihc tine Ubcl, whicK guve ihc nccrsary de- 
tails abuui the tfxpcrlmcQt, tvas aLway* pl^cvJ on a ctrtnn 
)>lilc, no lh:il It bot^iuif.- iiiHiiiu'li*'? wil^ hiiu Co knL>w w^hout 
rejUing ihc ULicl fthtLh *t-fc Ihc '"cioiacd " and «hii;b wet* 
Ihc "^clf-ferHlited." 

Hit Ifivr M rflfli pflTtirMliir ^pcnmrnf^ ar\<\ hi* rajcer £rit 
fioi 10 loisc the fruit rrl i(» cAme ou: markedly in ihe<« crois* 
bfl cK]>c<inicQt» — m (he claboiiic circ be took not to make 
snv confiwon in putting i:aptnl?« into wrong L(J|k Acc^ &C> 
I can rerjU hh k\t[tta.t*acK >* he t'OLirUed %ce^i under the 
lin^plc mil" rio«H>pc with An fllmneu nrjt ii:qtijitly ch^rof lerinfig 
such merh^inrral work at eminiing: 1 think li<? (wnonificd 
Gtch wed a* u ^rmtW di^mon tryrn^ to elude htm by gtlling 
tntii ihi^ wrofix hfnp, at jumpiTi^ Liway jlLogviher ; ickI tbift 
gAt-7 la the ivork the cxcuemeni of i gainc^ He ba^ gieal 
f,iith in inttr\imcn(f, und t do not think li tvaiursLly occurrcid 
10 bim tj^ di^iihi thr arr israf^y nf j vile nr nifakurtni; f;Uti, 
6cc- Hi^ VA% asraniAhcd when we found that one of hii mi- 
cnnneien diffen-il from ltr« other He did not require uiy LLCCUTJty m iiii^L vi hit nlviAufvinriib. >nd ]>*d not 
g>»nd ffiLc^: he had xn old tbre^faot rule, Hhith wnt the 
rr>mninn prDpt-rty of (he boiiiehold,and vas eonilaoily bctng 
horrosifil, biTfliiie it wm Ihi; nnly one which w»i rtrt.tin tn 
Jjc itl ill pUcf. — ^Linleu. ini!eed, ihe InM tinrrower htn\ fofj;t'-T- 
icn to put it back. For measuring the height of ploniK he 
bad a Mven-fout *^vs\ rud. graduated by the vifbge carpcnicr^ 
i.AiErrly Tie icKjk Ui UHiiig v^i>er u^c^ frjduxied to xniUi- 
mffen. For until oTjjccti he uied a pair ai t (»nipauc< aail 
nn ivi^ry prolra^'TdTr U wat charart^nilic of him that he took 
fit;rupuloub jyiins ia making incd!tuidLrnt» with hi* *ottoe«1iat 
rough tcalc^ A trifling eKami>lc of hi» faich in a;iihomj' i* 
that he took his " ioch in term* of milUmeicrb" from aa M 


hoak, *o which ti mmcil oiii to he ioaccurardr given lU 
had i rhcmic:il lialancr which diiErd from the days when he 
wc>rkcd *X chmituy wuh hii Uruihcr EriiamuL MtfHsure< 
Encntt of cjpiiaiY vctc mpdc wiUi itn apothtcRr)''h mi:Jk.utin|> 
glkif : I remember well iU rough look and btul ^radujiun. 
W^b thLi, iofi| t rrmcnihcr lUr fiTfai cjik- hf louk in letting 
xht. I'.-iict-Iinc crn tn the gmduaiion. 1 dn noc mean hy thu 
acco'int of hit inatnimtnis shut any of his cxperimtnis suflcrcd 
from vrjnl of occurucf ld mr.iimri.'iTtriiti I |[iv« Ihtfin ;is eiam- 

teji4 in iQ«ttui»cni-nu.kcr». whotc uhoLt u^d? wai x n]j>U-fy 

A few of ^i^ mrntal chvarttrriTLticf, bearing Hprci^ly on 
hih nuid? of wivrking, ijccur ta mic- 1 here #.14 one iiuj^lily of 
mod which »ei;m?d to be ^f »|)edal and extreme ftdtjntajfv 
in Iriding him to tna]i<i diicuvL'He*. It w» the puwei or nerve; 
tritin^ etccption* \yiSh unnoti<^^ iCvcryhody noikrv n f*rt 
A* An rK'Cplinri when tl i* tirikinii nr frciiticrit^ bur he >i 
sporul in«lin<t for arxeuiBg an enreption. A (toint ni^ixr- 
cnti)- iliphT and unevnincrTtcl wilTi his preicnt work it p.i»ed 
orer by mnnf -1 mnn almnjt unconwionnly with lome half- 
coniidem) e^iiUnuium, Mhich is in fnct no eii^lunaiion. It 
wMt ffua tbne thingt thfti be cebed on tr> make a sian from, 
fn a c*Hhim *env ihi^re it nmhinjt !ipcd:n in Ibii proeedurt, 
nuny cliir^^vrriv'. Iifinji; marlr hy mcn»* ftf if, I <^'rt1y mention 
ilbecftuv, u I watched him ai irotk, the value ^^f ihb 
poBer xa 4n eiperiioenicr wai so airotigly impreiVed upon 

A&oibcf i|uaJiLy «hicb -vm thown in hi.i caprriinenUl 
vroirkt vas hit po^er M sticking lo a subject : he uil^iI abi^oti 
tn apolopie Cor Mi [>a(inkc^, uyina thir h^f t<*ul-l nu< lic^r 10 
br IrtTAicn. a« tf rhit were mvhrr a HijE^ of wrAknr*A on hn 
pdrt. He often (junied the ia>in£, "It'f^ ilotfi^d ai tloa. i1 :" 
md 1 ihink dog^ilnvih cipre^wi his frjmc of mynd ahnott 
bvKcr than pervoi;tanc<. Pcivvve ranee te<:m« hjrdly (o ci- 
preit hit alTnott fierce drtirr to forre tlic trutti 10 retical it«cN. 
He often uJd thai it vts important thai a man should know 



the right poiat a.i which to give up an inquiry. And I lEiink 
IE wa^ his tendency (o pan thii point ttiJit inrlinfd him te 
npnlfiijinc for hfs p?-MrVi'rjincc,and RHvr ihc *"rof doRK"!'^"'' 
to hi» wcifk. 

Ht* t»rivti fiujj thai no one could be J guo(] (;Liin:rivr imltHe 
hi: vfUh Mi flLlivc lUeuiiwr- TIil* Uiiii£h tac Liik tu wliui 
1 »id about hin inftlinct for nrreningcxccpliom : ii wu d,t 
thoufth ht wt'Tir ch^rgrd wiih thcort^ing power ro.iJy to flow 
into nny rhxnfifl on thi' Miighit^vr '1ihturhnnc-f^ kc thAt no fact* 
hnwcvcr imnll, muld avoid Tclco&mg d nircam of Uicory. and 
lhU9 ihf! fact bci:;in]c mof^mlipd into inipurt:Lnt:c. In this way 
il naturally hi^>pvneU (hat many untenable theorK^ oct-itned 
to him; bi>t toriunatcly hi* richnen of itnaginAtion whm 
efiUAllcd by hii power of judging and <rcndcmning the 
thoughfa thai occurred to him He ^m ju«i lo hin Theories, 
And did not condemn thvm unheard ; and no ii happened 
lUai he woh wilting^ Eo tchC ^^hai would vcvm to niof.i people 
nut It ^li HL^rti] tci-tmg. Thei^ raiher wild iruls he cilled 
"fool's enperimenttj" and tniuyrd cx^cmdy. .\* an cMim- 
pic I may mention ihai Andin^ the eotykdoni of Biophyinm 
to br highly «eniitivf cr> vihrniion« of (he table, he fancied 
Lhut ihi:y might |Teietive the vibratiuoH of soundi and there* 
fvire aiuJtf me yiay my b^Kiuii ilote to a pUnL * 

The Ir/ve of experiment wot very itroftg ''^ him, and I can 
remember the way he would lay, " \ «han'i t>e eny till t have 
[riod it," tm if »tt oui^fide force were drivinjE him. Ho enjoyed 
enpirrirneTiting mLirh more ihan work whirh only entailed 
reu-^uning, and ivhen he wai engaged on one of hin bmlct 
whiL'h Tequiced aigumeni and the miirnhaULng uffacls be felt 
Qnpenmenul work lo be a rest or huljcjay' 1'hus h bile work* 
ing upi^n the ' Vafit-iciont ai AnimaEt and Phnr^/ tn 1860^1, 
he made out the fertilisation of Orrhidii. and thought himftdf 
idle for givi&g M much time to ihem, II ]« intercLiing 10 
think that » iinporioxit a piece of reihearch riiould hAve been 

*Thb ii titu 4 mflch ununplcaf mpcfabundiLni ihcan>Eac iRmi a 
upaII came, bsi oiiLy oif bit iviih lo mt Thi- mma imprababLa tdeoL 



undvitjik(o And I'rKcly worked f)\n »* x pAttim^ fn pf.icc of 
mcife ifriotit work- Tbr IttCcn lo Knokcr of ihU period con- 
tain EMprrsioQs such £15. *'God furgivtf mi- for bring sa Idk: 
! atn quite ^i11lt}r iiiiurcMiJ in linn wurk-i" The mlt'iiK (jIi^b- 
nre ht ttji'k in utiikihuntljii^ ihv jKl^tpUEionii (or iVnilibJiiua 
i* fclionjtly fthown in (hc»? Mien. Uf ipc^kiia one at his 
tellers of his int^niJun of Mforkin^; ai DroMrrn ii> a rc^E from 
the •DcsTfTii nf Man," He hfu fItsrHhril in his ' Rccnllco- 
tiofii ' ihp fctroTiK ■uiifsfactiflft hr fell in solMng the problem of 
,heicrcKtyIiitn- Ami I have heard Iildi ineniion thai the Guol- 
of South Amtrioi gi>v« liim a1niv«t mure pkoHute llun 
AnylljiRi^ flMT. It wM pcrh«p« (hi» duhghl im wurk icciuirnig 
tecti otMCiuari&n that Mftdc hirn value prijuc giveri m hit 
ob«etvins powcn almost mon; than ,-ip[>rL-dntii>n of his orher 
quo 1i ties. 

Fur t>DOk« he hjul no rcRpcci^ but merely cont^Lclerci! Ihcui 
as tools 10 he worked with. Thus be did not bind them, and 
even when ii piprr book fell to piccet from ute, jk liappened 
to MUlkr'k ' iiffrucMunji' he f»rc«rKd it from toni|»icle di>- 
ululioo hy pxilting i metnl clip over it' bnck In the same 
mxy he would cut j. heAvy hunk in half, [o mnkc ii morif ron-| 
veaient to hold- Hi: iinfd to laKiyt ihitl he inadr l.ycll piib- 
lUh the (lecood ediiLcmof one of ha bi>nk^ in l^^o tolumcK in- 
»iead ol in one, by lellmg him how be hsd been obliged to 
cut it in half. Pamphlfii **cre often ireflfed even more levere- 
ly than ^nnV*. f^r hr woiih! tcir nnf, f<ir Ihr wfcr of *Avinj( 
Moea, all the pflK''* except the one th»l inieretted him. "I"he 
ooniequence of 4II this it:li, ihai hit- bbmry wat& not omo- 
mciMiilt but w;iB ^ulrikini; frum beiniE vu e^idvnlly Jh working 
cutkctioEi ol boiAA. 

lie vkt methodical in hit manner of rc-idmg book* ind 
pamphUti bcjiinit on hi» ovr\ wo:k. Mr h:t'\ one *hdf on 
■hich wer^ pilrd up ihi; tiookft he b,irt not yvl rt*ad, and an- 
other to which they verr iraniJerrcd after having been te^, 
utd before being caialof^ued. He nonld often t;>cuii aver his 
uoremJ boi^ki, betaow ihere ^*ef< »o many which he knew he 
thouM ntvcr mxd. MJDy a book wa» at once tianBfeifTd to 



the ether hcapi cilhrr mailicd ^iih a cypher ai ihv vni], to 
TLh»«- t];Jl ii Louuinci] iki morkciJ poaAjgei, ot mvcribttJ, per- 
hnpv "^"«t r^'flJ/" «r "only »Wniinrd." The book* attumti- 
\au^ iti rhe '^rcad" hMp uniil the %hfiUct ov^ilnwi^d. iiad 
th'-Ti, ffiih mnch LimonEmg. a riny wns given up iftthL-tjURi 
lopiin^. Hi! (Ii^liUd ihii WDtk, andaiihcni'tfsfi^ijof uodr-i 
Ukin)( th« wcirk L>L<^^ti]e impiirutivif, huuU oEUd uv. Ul a 
vokc of dcftpAir, " Wc fc^lly miiiii lIo ihchc boolLi ii>o»." 

In o«h boultn a* hc fcit! it, he mjirkcJ pj»igci bcaimg 
on hi* *r>rk In TTfliling ■ book or |iAniph]ct. A'C-, he 
pcnrU-lincK m thr liifLj- or ihr jiagi^i often mli^ii^jK ihort 
rctntLrki, And it the end mode i list of the pngct marled. 
When it fji to be catalogued iOil put away, the ratukcd 
pAj^ck «vre ^ouked jlI^ Jind vj a rouj^h Jibvltact of the b<h>k 
Wfti niadr. Thii jLttAtract would |wrh-ipA l>f ivritten under 
thrire or four hcidm^* on dil^frrcni *hccts. ihc imrri tieirm 
M>r(4!d OUT and added to the jirt-viuuily coUteiod f.-ic (* m djf- 
fifrenl tuhjecis. He hail othrr f«ta of otnttrMiA artun^^, not 
ncd^rdinic Li> t»ubjvctt but m cording Eo periwlicol- When col- 
leding fjctt on j brgc u^^lc^ in C'J.tUci yean<, Jie a«cd to read 
through, and make jkhtXn-cl^ in Th» wjiy, of whoJc icric* ol 

In Annir nf hU cnrly Ifiifn he lipc-Likfl nf Ailing kvcmI 
DoiC'books with ficu (ot hit book on «pectes: but k wi4 
crrtJirrdy cji'ly that he adopted bis |jhn of uning ponfolio4 
w> dcfcciibed III the * Ktt-jllritiwnh,"* My UlUvt and M. i5e 
C'^ndoUe ^vcmi? muiually pkaicd to dihcotcr that they bjtd 
adopted t>iF *inii>r pUn of riasiifyin;; facts, De Ciuadolle dc 
ftcrilirt ihr rarthod in hU ^ rhytoU^^ir/ and in hh sketch of 
my fjihcT tncndnn& the iftiiitfiLclfon h« felt in ftectn}[ it in 
ijciion at Down. 

fiesidev theae ponfuliosi of which iht^rc arc some doicnR 
full of Dotc*, there ire Urge bundtc» of Mi>' caarkvd " tucd " 


■ Til* ncUonwhUh ilie p.nfitUin uve pliuced uethown in tb« UUfc 
/pMlon, " The *i(ujy of [lowii;' fuinf |i. loi, in Olv nufrh M 1li«ri^t- 



•fid pvi av*v. He Tfrlt the vilu« of hJa noltfc, And liad s 
horrof oi ihctr de^ErLir ijun Ijy lire. 1 ic-mcmbtr, ivhcn nomc 
fl]jrm of ftrr had hQ^^pi^nrdp hb begging me in be c«pecutl]y 
cartful, adJiflg icfy camoily, ihat iht! rrst of his hfc would 

lEc 9»]iowh tbi: ii^iiiv lecbi)i iii wnliiiu dboii: Ihu Juiiih uf n 
manuHfipr. Ihc puipt^rt ol hii worda being. " I bave a copy, 
or ihf \<ytt wmild have Itiilcd mt." In wniinii n book h.- 
wo«ld ftprm! mi>di iimr Jind LiMmt in mnlini' a -ikWrion or 
plan o' ihc whoir, ami in enlarging nnd sulu-claf^^ing each 
htraoiriBi a* described in h'n ' ReL-nllctiiotw" I Uiitik IhU 
C^rHul :t^i4^]]>:cmcfiL uf tbc i^Uii w»i^ n^\ 4l ull r^cnlinl Itj ib« 
buiJdmg up t>^ hi» arpimenf, bat iLff it% prcicniincntj and lor 
the flrraftgcmcni of hw factv In hU'Lifcof Erninsuf* Danvin/ 
111 it wn* fir^l pfintrd in ihpi, ihc growdi nf the book from a 
hkvK'lon w;ih p1:tin1y vittbkv Th<r jtrrhirigi^iDL'sE wjh abcrrd 
Aftetwsril*, becdutc it vat Eoo formal and caiegoricil. and 
teemed io give the charatiei of hii grindfjitlicr talhet by 
meant of a lust of igunliiit^b th-m a« a cumplfic piclLir^ 

h ivuonly with in ibe Iah few yean^ he Jidfipli^d i (ilan 
of *riiingwhifh he was convinced luiccd him hcM^md which 
i-i df-fcnhi*cl in ihe ' Recolk-rtions ; " namely, writing Ji rough 
coi7 »iu)jfht off without ib^ ibghitfti iitremion to tXy\v. It 

VJ» <haractcTihlii. of hita tliai he ttrli uiiable to write with 
nifficicnt wmt of cue if he uud bit beit pafjer. ^rnJ Uiu^ it 
wu thav h^r wrot? on ihe hi^lu of old prcM>fi or tnanu^cripL 
Th<^ rfiiigh cii;»y w?ii ihm ri:i:«n«d*fr(1 , and a fair cn|>y w>b 
madf. For thi« putpoic h^ had fooltrnp paper ruF[>d at wide 
intervals the line-; hdng needeil lo prrvcni him writing so 
closely that f^oimtion becanie difficult. Tlisr fait cujiy wa» 
then conecied, uid wba retopicfl bvfuie being fteal to the 
prinlcfi. The copying was done hy Mr. E- Norman, who 
Li^K'"! thi^ work many yrar?>a^o whon villnge 4choolrnattcr at 
JJowri My faihor bwawie tto used to Mr, .Vorman"* hand- 
wrjtiac ihai be coLitd noi Eorrnt m^anufpt ript. cv<^ when 
clrjriy vrilien oui by one of hi& (hildren, until it bad bcu; 
rtopicd by Mr. Nurman. The M&.|On returnoi^ from Mr 



Komiiin. vu once nior^ corrected, nnd ilttn $cM olT to ihc 
pTinTrt*. Thru i-»mf rhc work of reyiiing ftrd rntrcfting the 
l»tf)rtf*, which my (4Hhcr found c*pcciaHy wcirisomc- 

h was at ihin siage thai he fmi icnouslj- conMdcn'd \\w 
mylc of whui be tkud wrttlcn, W^icii iliiii wuh iiOLng on lie 
itti.iu]])' bUttcft M/nkc oilkcr piece of woik at « rclicL The 
coireciioD of slip* -coniiiicd in fact of (wo procfftef; for (he 
correction were fim wriHm m yi^nfil, »nd i!i™ rc-rrtiniidcrfj 
*nd writli.-T> in ink, 

Wht^n rhr book wjvi pjtsiing UirtJUgh ihc "sUp" fitagr he 
ir3£ gbd in havr 4:'3^rcvtion^ and ipU^jj<.*Kttoni from oihers. 
Tima mj' (nolhc't lookvJ uv«r the pruoU cjt Che 'Oiikh^ ' I'l 
itijint; fif thr later vorki 111^ !hi«trr, Mrt> l.iuhAcd, did much 
of ihc corrcciiofi. After my ii*ter'i m«rrUgc pcrhap* moot 
of the work fell TO my share. 

My i»LBler. Mn Lilrhftrld, write* r— 

" Thti work wju very inlerctiing in i(»dCaad it wM inck^ 
irci^Uy cxhddraiing lo work for him. He ujt aUayi to 

\y Eo be convinced thAi Any hu|uie«ie(l Alimiion wiu jin 
fmprovcment, and *o foil of grarittide for the iroLLblf laken. 
1 do not (hink that he ever umhI to fr^tfct 10 tell me what irC' 
pcoveinenL he thoLL|[ht that I lijii uijkIo, and ho uKd *hiiObi 
Ii> cxcuu bimi«If if h^ did noi Agree with Any ^omciii)^' 1 
tUnk 1 Uh the ringubr m^deily xnd gmcJovincft of bb 
TiAturc through thus workioK fov him in a v-ar I never should 
oihrrwiw have done. 

" He did not write with cjtip, nnd wrts api to inveri Tin 
unlenceih buili in writing and s^eiking, pulling the qualifying 
cUuM before a wui ck'ar wh.ii it wjh to iiunlify. Ho corrected 
31 grcAE deal, ^nd WJ4 cAg?r lo vxpict* him>cU U well a^ he 
[jOBJbly could." 

PerhapA the rrnnmonc»i rotfc^-tionn nei?ded were of obictn 
ritici due to the omiu.i<jn of a nec«(ury link tn thr reuot)tnf» 
something which he had evidently omitted through famjli^rity 
with the ftubjcct Not tiul there wiftany Uuh in the sequence 



of tW tbougtitl, but ilul front familianty Hith hit atgiimfint 
lie dill nut ncilv:c when ihc wotlU f.iilciJ m rcproilu^ c tiift 
ihnu^Tif- Hr Jitu> frcitucniW piiE too mur-h matior inio one 
R^ntencr, 90 ihii ii had id be cut uji jrtiu iwu. 

On ihc whirEif) t diink llie pmuK which Tiiy F^Llber Look ovvt 
Ihc iitcriiy t»JJt <;i tUt wwik kj^x very icnuikiibK". Kc ijflvu 
lAUf^ctl or ^umblccl M htton:\i (or Ihc di^iculty wLiich he 
Found in wrcing Engliih. lAvin^ iiyt iotiicicc* ihji if a bad 
(rranirmcnl Of > *.'n<cncr w^* pOrtiblr.', hr nhniikf be nuic lo 
iidnpi It, H^ tjjicc fioi mnrh nmtiArmi-nt aXiA aaii^iafixftn ant 
<t( ihc rtilficulty whirh cine of ihc family found in wriiing a 
^OTt circubr. Hv had the pk^uurr of corrt^cLint; and kii^h< 
ing At obscurities, involved icntcncrt, and nihcr iJcfcuE^ iind 
ihUA look hit rcvcnfc for atJ Ihc critii Urn hr hid himscJf 
to b«ar widi. Re used to qdote with ^[onishmcni Mitu 
iTlincau'!! advioc to young nnrh<jpi, to wrJic iiraight off 
d »end Ihc MS lu Ibe [HfTiU-r without rurrnJiun, Kul rn 
tocBe cnicfi lie aeicd in a li^oincwh^ «;mikr manner. ^Vhetk 
^ vmtrr^ce gnt hopeWttly involved, he would Jsk himself, 
"now »hA! ^£1 y<m u'j<ot 10 wy?" »fid hii xn»wcr written 
do»n, ifould «fWn d^tennnf^te the eonfitiion. 

Hit sTyle his hern murh priiird: on the nther hand, nt 
leaii one goud jud^ ]i;la rein.iiked tu inethut it u not a good 
II5I0, JE i% Abov« iJI lhmki». dtreel And cicu ; jnd it i> 
charAClcrihti:: of himhetJ in ii'* tinifilkjEy, brjrJeriii|;<ju iiuEvrli, 
xnd m ilsatrtcnce of pretence. He had the slianf;cit diibdief 
in the common idea (hflC a rlawo^ vchoUr nitj»t vrilz grjod 
Eoflikh ; indeed, hr thtm^l thM ihe rontr^ry win the raM. 
In wfiUng, he inmorimM ^owcd the came tendency to itfong 
tvprtwiiona u he did in convi-racLtion. Thi» ia the ' Origin.' 
|i. 440, there iH a di^Kiitftion of a Urval ciiciiJcJe, '" witJi 
six |jain ol twauiifnlty codhtrticivd niiiAiory lef[«, a pair of 
m*Raiflcentefimpsundei'e*,jndcKirerrreIf eomplexioicrinjt." 
We uieti to Ifliigh ai hi-n for thi* ^L^ntcnoe, which we com- 
jtMtd 10 »n £idverti^i.-mfnE. Thii iend«aty1c ]^*f himself 
up to the ciithiTi^iaHiic. turn of hih thoat;ht. without fcai of 
bcJD|; ludiijrouit, jjfpi-iiti cl;»cwbeit: to hit viciuo^ 



KiH c4urti:i>u:4 and concilia lory lone tov.-ifiU hU IcmIvt i« 
TCmnrktiblr, mA it mnii be j>iTtly ihit tivality uMch rervalcd 
hii pcTwn^l iwecrinvM uf chaiucti^r tu m inan^ who had 
atvtr hcva liuii. I luvc lUwuys fcU il to Ic j Lurmus fact, 
ttiut he v^Uo tidj Altered the lace of HiologicA) Science* 
and in in thU tcipcci the clncf of tht modcroa^ thould 
have wriltrn andworlcL'd in *o rsM-miaJly ■ non-nnidcrn iprrJt 
and manner. In rrodJn}; hu hnokfi tmr ia rrniindcd of Ehe 
nldcT nfltufolisti tathct ihnn of ihc inodt-m »rhaol of writtn. 
He wii a Njturaiist In tJie old senst of the wordi thai ». t 
man who vorki al mjiiiy |jruiit:h«9 uf the Bciirncv, net iiivrriy 
Ik >i>«ciAli»( in one, I'hus ii i>t, thAt, ihoH|[h he fuiindcd whole 
ntw dbikioni of >pcd»l subjcija — ittch m the (erriLitriimn at 
tiotrcu, inic^livotous planra. dimoqihi'sm, *jc — )?« even in 
treating these vefy subj^i:!* he dijus not uTrifcc ihi; rridcr u a 
Bin't-ialiHl, The rtitArr keU like a frjcnd vrhc) i» l»fmj[ LUkrd 
to Uy a counecuH t(eniL(;m:in, noL hkc a |ni|)tl being leeiured 
by a profiruor. The Lone of such a t>Qok Jit the ' Ongin ' n 
charming, and almost fialhrtk-: it n the ten? of <i man ttho^ 
convinced of the truth <ri hm own vicwt^ h.iidly cx]>rcC« 1o 
coitvmce othern; it \t juti (he rev one of the ityle of i f^n^tic^ 
whowflnu 10 forr e pcoj^lc to Iiclicvt The teadrr is nci-cr 
Kcomrd far iny amuunl of doulii which he toAj be inuicmed 
In feci, jn;] hiH fcET^>lit;i»m ifc Ircalvd uUh |mIk-iiL reaped. A 
KC^tKjl reader, or perhap* even an unreatonablc readt«« 
Kcm« to have be^n genrraily pretent to hii thoughts. It ^r)3 
in consequence of thU fcclmt f'^rhaiis, that he took mnch 
Uoabtc ovrr pointfl which he imagined would tirike 1 he reader, 
crauve him uonblc, and to tempt hun 10 read. 

For ihe same Tcaton he look much inlertisl in iht iltutrtra' 
Uumiof hittbouk^ jud 1 Ihiak rated rather luo lii||h]y tlieir 
value, Thr iUuitrationt fftr hi* cOflicr book* were Anwrt by 
profcisiannl .iriisii Thit was the ca'^t rn V\nimaN and 
Pbnis/ Ihe'DcKent of Mjn/ and Ihc ' Knprcvixm of ibv 
Kmotionv' {>n ih; ether hancl. 'Climbing Hantis" Insec- 
tivorous Plants/ tlxc ' MovemenU of ]*lants,' and ' Forms of 
riowen>* were, to a large catcnl, illuvlraicd by tomf of Ul 



chiMrrti— my brothor Gt'OrjiL* having" i!ri*n by f^r thv most. 
U w» tldigl^iiiil Ui drnw (ur him. ha liv vat, cnthuitM&lic in 
feb pntitc vl vciy (uoduiaie pciformanccK. 1 remember well 
Mschunung mpioncr ot tecr'ninji the dmvinf-i of onr of hii 
dfiighlfn-in-lAWfADil hn«r he kvmild t^ni^h hU worrit r-f prnJnc 

by A)rta^ "'Tdl A , Michflcl Angclo U tiiJthJrg to u." 

Thougti hv pnised so ^enviuu&ly, bfr alwuyi )cokcd cIuql'I^ aI 
tliu dt^winjj, ;Lnd VM«tly JvIeckiJ mihUki/a ur i-iiidc^Mivxii. 

He IiaU a liuiTOtf ol t>eLii^ lenglhy, and tevmv lo hftve 
been icjH)' m«th annafed and dittfMicd when he foi»nd how 
the *V*rijIinQs of Animal* .ind Plnnu' v,-iit growing nn*ltr 
hh hnn-d^ I rc-mL'inhi-r hi^ cordbl^y AjCTceitifC wlih 'TrtKTriun 
tihanily'«* woi^^ '* l^tl no man »ay» 'Comi:, I'll write a 

duodLfiLRlOi.' " 

ihi coniiderdliDH for other auiUo» wj«u niafked a chir- 
actrtiitic ** hi} tune tciw:int» his rc^idcr !!«; tpeakv of u-Ll 
oih^T nulhoT« X* pcT«an( dcvrvinjc of rctpcci. la r.JAe» 

irhtfti-, js in the ciK otf ■"■ expt-rim^fiii an Droicra, he 

thou)^ h^Jy of the auihor, he i|ie.ik5 of him to tuch a way 
ll^E no <>nr wnnld 4iik|ircC it ]n f>th«r cukm h« treatt th(T 
mnfu^^l wntiitfi of ignrrrsnt T>rnbonh an though the lanLi Uy 
piili him^U for noi a|}jjreci4CiDg or undcr»Uiidiiig them. 
tciiiJei ihi« general rone of rQ£CClt He had a pkauni way of 
r^lirr-ninc hin opinion on rhr vaIiip fif rt qiTOf^d wort, Af hi* 
ohli^fitirtn f[if A pierr at privntr infnrmnUiin- 

H» nspcciful fcrliftg was not only mnrally licauiifti), but 
WM I think of praetical ii«- in mukin}: hitn rrady lo con»dei 
the ideu and o^netv^itivus of .iW lu^nncJ *.'f iitt'ijle^ Kr u»«d 
stlDMl 10 JpuloiEiw '<'r (hit, utd would %xy th^iC be wJi At 
fin! incliited lo r.i1e ever^iin^ loo hi;-h1y. 

It <rai a ^rtit m«rit in lie* mmd, in ^yitf r>i hnrmj; so 
dtiong fl wj.per(fid fool i tiR tn wards what he re.^d, he hart the 
fceeneu uf intiinctK at. to whether a mon ^jk tnitivorthy or 
pol, Jle (cemed to lorm a very definite opinion at lo the 
acrutacy of (be mm lelio^e lK>oka he reJid ; and made uie '^f 
ihU jndKnitni in hU choice of iattt taw trie (n arnnnieni or 
u ILIuntmioru, I i;Aincd the inprouon ihai he fi^lt th» 




[ii>Mcr of }u(l|*ing of a mjn't iriiftivurtliincu lo be oi much 

Ue had J k^n fci:]ing of the 4cnie of honour IhaE ought 
to ni^n among tioih'>ft. unit hAd a horror of aoy kmd of ha- 
ncm in quoting lU Imd a conicmiit for the lover oi honour 
and glory, and in his Ichvn often bLimcs hJruBdf for the 
pLcfliufG Eic took 10 ihc tui-cjcu of h» bouk%, ait though b« 
were dcpATiing from hi» ideal — j. Imc of unth «n<l (ATcIch- 
nem aIjouf farat. Often, whrn writing to Sir ]. Hooker whit 
he vulU ji hi^mtlinK Irtirr. hi.'' ]:LLi^h« nt hiroPiHf lor hU corriifil 
and want ai modesty, There iTt a wonderfully inierobog 
letter which he wrote to my mother hequcjithiDg to her, in 
ctw of his dealh, the care of puhUalung ilie inaouvcript cf hi* 
JiFhE c^kAy on evolution. Thii IclTct hcemit eo mc full of the 
inceime de«irc thar hi* ihcary ihomd succeed ai a fonmhu- 
tion to Icnowl^iJt^c. and apnri fn^m any d^^ire for pL-rtonal 
fami". Ht reriMoly Imd llu- hofiUhy Jeoiri; for i»cceM whirh 
man of Ktrtmg fcuhnut aught to liaw- Ititt at ihc tJmc of 
the putilicaiion of The 'Origin' it i» evidrni thjt he wan ovrr< 
whclmjcif^ly uiiitied with the adherence of luch mzu ei» Lyell, 
Hooker, flutlcy. and A«a Gmy, and did not dream of or 
dcdrc any tui:h wide And general f^mc lu he attained to, 

Connef^tcd wiih his eoni^mpe for the undue love of fame. 
was an wiiiully wrong diilikc of jH questions of priority^ The 
lutlvit to Lyi.'I1, -.11 the lime of thr * Origin/ show the ungvr bv 
fctt tfith himhclf for not l>cing able Eo rcprvM s fvchng of ttiv 
appointment nt what hi; thought »j> Mr, W.-Lllace*» (oie*taU' 
ingof all hin ycar^ nf wort. Hii icnsc of iiterary hnnonr 
rom^ out ftirongly In these leiicn; anil hiii feHlng aliout 
priority is ng^tin •.hown in ihe admiration eipreucd in his 
'Retutlleciions' of Mr. Wallarc'i »<! if annihilation. 

Kb fveling ahuul rfdumvliuns indudLOi; aokwers lo ai- 
EftCkl aod all kindiL vi diMHiuionis mt ttrr^it It l» limply 
npreurd in a k(rcr to fileoner (iS6j?), "If I cter fdi 
angry towards yoti, for whom I havi* a iinc«re friendship, I 
ahonld beRin to su^prcr that I «n» n Iitde mad- 1 ttat very 
Kiri> about youf rciUamation, aa [ think U \t m every ta«c a 



iiaukc an*l iih«3ul(l Im Trlt in 'jihors. Whether I should ?o 
CI Bvsdf umlcr provoi:ttlUMi m a ^i/Tcrcril qiii^sliuii.*' h vrnn 
ft feeling p-itily dktiicii l>y inninttivc dclitaty, and parUy 
by A stmnR vrnnc of ih-.* w-iiro of time, energy, and Icmpcr 
llivi t'AiMfd. He ujd rhflt he owed hi^ ^TrttrtninrJlion not t^ 
gel into ditt^UBiionji • to \hc advice of.I-yrll^ — ail*" c which 
he tnuiamtae^ to tbcx auwnj bxu (ricndii who ncri- ^vcn to 

If the ehaT4clcr of tay fathcr*« worLing lite iii to be tmder- 
I, the fondition* ijf ilUhenlih, under whieh he worked, 
Iw cflnntAnily homi' H» rnind, Hr ht>ri^ In* iMnrs* with 
such ufiConi|jlainJng patience, that 4-ven bit children can 
hftrdly, L believe, realue the exleci of hit habiluil i^LLffexinfi, 
In their c»e the <)jfricu1[y ik heightened by (he fact that, 
in>m Ihc dftyi of theif cMrhvil reooHcoitonH, iJify mi* him in 
cortium ill-heolTh, — and «w him, in npite n| ir, ftill or ^ikAiu 
lire in what pleased them. Thin, in lutef life. Ihcir percep- 
tion of what hv e^ndtirvd hud lu be diftmtan^kd fvotn the 
Lm|>rv4>Hin |irodiii.L-d in i-liddhjxid hy constant kiriil- 
ncfi under conditioiu c>l uniecogniied dithcutly. No one 
indeed, except my mother, knows ihe full imoiinl of sufEcrmg 
he endnri.'d, oi the fnll uiiiimnt nf ht« wrmdi:rFtjl (uilit-nce. 
Fnr hH ihe bttrr years of hih life shr never left him (itf s 
night: nnd her day^ were lo pbnned thai all hfi refltinK 
houri mtghl be shnied wiih her. She nJiieWed him from 
vvvry aioJdible Annoyaiii-e, -ind omitted uolliing that mi^Ut 
»AVC bim Ifiiublci or prevent him hci:uniia|e overtired, or th^t 
might aUe»"iate the m^iny ditcomforii of hi« ill-health- 1 hcii* 
lato lo »peflk thun ff*:clv of a thme so sabred « ihi: lifel 


* llr dffofiA! fmni hiR n»lr tn hn" Sore fm the UiinuM ihe PampM 
Ww>4|K<icv. Trii^/' <w«/f jfi '*," ' PriK Zool, SoCh" 1^70, p, TOji ■!« la 
■ letler imbliibbl io Ibe *AtEkrnErum' ('8Ay p^ 554}. In ^^4^ «h hc 
■fiemntk rffiallc-J ihal ht IiaiI lur rctnuiiiH tilenT, Hit rrpUrv lo critu 
nvrtH. 14 Ihc l'[0i cdi[iua> d Ihc 'OHpn/ tvt Mmtl\y becliBcd «> infest- 



devoiioa which piompicd nlJ thi« cantUiU and U'nclrr curt. 
But it i\, 1 rcpv;Ll, n jiriticipdl fc^CUre vf h\s Jjtc, thai for 
nearly forty yt-nr*. he ovvor Itc^fw ont (by ol Ihc h<nlth o| 
orillauT men, ami tbit Ehii« hb life waii cinr Innp nitiif^h^ 
ogninsi iht^ iVL'^rinca^ and iir^in r^t iicknnt. And this «--innrit 
Iw loiU wiihoui iptMkLiiK or (lie une i^ondiiioa which enabled 
him iu ln;«r tlie «UBij3 Aad h|^l uui iht ttruggLe (o ihrj end. 


The earliest letters to which 1 have access are those 
written by my father when an undergraduate at Cambridge. 

The history of his Life, as tuld in his correspondence, 
must therefore begin with this period. 




fMV fnJhpT'* Csmbrnl^ life crtmprises (he fimi.' between 
|ViC I^cnt Tctm, iSiA, whtn lie came nyi ^ ii Frtshman^ an'l 
iVic rnd ot ihe May Term, iKji* ^hca he IuoJe hi& decree ujul 

11 Appears fn>m the College b9o1ui,that myfdthei "admis- 

^■uH eiE pcnnonnrjus minttr tub M^Ki^tro Slijiv" on Ott. ij, 
i«TT' i'c did noi come mio residence til! rhc Ixnt Tenn, 
iSiS, so thai, AlEhough he pA(!4ed his ciaminjiiion in due ^ea^ 
MHT, he W9A t^ruible ti> Ukc hi^ device ai rhc ti^ua,] nutv, — lh« 
bc)rinn[nK of thv Ixtit Tfrra» 1^31^ In aiich 3 cj^ u man 
um^Jly Utok hit dtgiec before Aili-Wcdntwlay, when he wiu 
called *' HacciUurcus ad Diem Cinerum," and cankcd with 
the B A /» of the y<ar- My father'* ramc, hawpver, occhm 
in ihc hn of BarhelofK*'a[l Eaprbum." or those admitted 
ieiwecn A ih- Wednesday und Si, John Bjptibt*!i Day tjune 
J4lh) ;* ht thrreforu UiuL tank ajnnng Che H;uhe[ura of iSj>, 
He " kcj^i " fof a ic*m c>r l«*i> in lodgings, ever Ui-iiion Ihe 
llobac^oniit'i : not. however* over the shop in (ho Market 

■piAce, now B»> well known to Cimhridge men, hnl in Sidney 
fitrecF- For ihc re«t of h'lt^ lime ho had plrasAnt rooms on 
the ioaih side of the Qrti court of t^rig^s. 1 

* " Od Tmt^iaj luc Chtrlci Dv* Ln« <W Chrlii't CoUcvr, w)» iilmiUf U 
B.A.' — Ct^rfiffr Oi-iiVfr. TrlJA^. April Og, 1I31. 

t llie mont trc on the Am Hoar, on the wnlllda of ihflfniddlciitair- 
cWr A mr^lnllkfin I'flTin by m; brDLhsi) has ncenily botn l«t into ibt 
Kftilaf lift •Ititng-Kwnih 


CAMURIDGi:. *TAT. tr^. 

What ileicrmincd the chok« of iWn coUc|S« for his brother 
Erji&muK and htmsclf I hnvc nt> mcinH of Vnavfing Eraimus 
Ihe dd«, Ihcir grand r.ichrr, Kjid brro it St. J**hn'*, Jiml ihi* 
rollcgtf might hn^c ticcn reasonably sdctied for Ihrm. hting 
ronnfcjcd with Shrewsbury SchogI, Bui th* lif« uf ain und<;r' 
gmduQlc at Sl John 'a ^cvtnb, in iho^c ilayt. |g have been a 
tioublud onu, d I iiuy jLidge from the fict thdi a relative of 
mine migruicd tlicncc to ChrUr's to cicapc Ihc hiif^i»ing dii- 
ciplioe ol the pUce, A story tobJ hy Mr. Hf rlx-rc * tUmtfaic? 
the same stxtc oi things : — 

" In the beginning of the October Tertn of iS^c. an tnci- 
dent 04:cuEicd which wait attended with »ij[ue^«iiui dibagrce- 
ftbl«i though ludicroui con sequences to myielt thttwin itknl 
mc to l*kc a long w:tlk with hini in ihc Feni, to »eafch for 
•omc nAturat oUjccit be wn« dci^irou* of having. After k 
very long, faiiguing dny'i work, we dined together, late in the 
evening, at his roomt tn Christ's College ; and .14 v>on at oui 
dinner wa* over ^c threw uur>j:lvct into fit^j chatrh and fell 
Round o&Ic^Pp 1 wjH (he fit^t to awak«, jbont thrrc ia Iht* 
morning, when, having looked at my wjtch, and knowio^ t1 
tincc luk of St. JohnV tvhk-h rrquijcd Enea ii sfain fv/f/Ut 
10 come into rnllPijc before midnight, I ru*hcd homo*ard 
the QtmnKi speed, in feat of the ronnequencet, but hoping 
ihiit the Dea[i would accept the excuse ns sufficimi when 1 
told hiui the (cal f;t<:t*. He, liowt^ver, v-iui ineiorable. and 
refused to receive my expUnaikmh, ot any evidence 1 ^vidd 
bring; and although during my undetgradoaie^ip I had 
never hcfTi rcporrtJ for c<>inipg Ute intn CoUcgj;, now. when 
[ WA« a hnrd-nrorkinj; R, A,, and had five or lix pupiTt. h« 
ttenienced me to confinement to the CoTlege wiills for ihi' rttl\ 
of ihe term. Darwin's indignation knew no boundnH and the 
siLjpid injusliLcand tTrannyof the Dc^n laisedac^t only a per- 
fect fenncnc among my friendvtiut wattheiubjectof^apovtu- 
Ifltion from some of the leading member* of ibc Univcrtity "' 

My father lecms 10 have found no difficnhy in living at 




pftUc tt-iih 4]l men in ukd om of offi^^c ii Lmdy- Marjai^t'* 
tithct tonndMicn. Thi? ialIkTv^Mon of it contem{ior;iry of 
my faiHcr** it thai Christ's in ihci* Jay wasa ijiciisiuiU f*nljr 
quWi ccit]tf('i\ AitU tviEiv :ciukncy loward^ *' hoitinct* *' ; ruiiiy 
ol llic iiicd mjjic d cuhlom of going loNcwni^ikct during the 
raccf, thougji betting tvainoV 9 r'KuIat prariifr. Tn <hU Ihcy 
WCTC bjr no mrnn» diiiri^utiijtcti hy Ihf Smi<:ir TiEJftr, Mr, 
ShAtt. who wjt* himiHf ficner,illy 10 be stcn on ihc Heath on 
ihcM nccjaionv There was u sum^nUat high propunion of 
FclloiT-CouiiU'jnen.— ^lijtM or utnc, iij bi^iy or totfrnj' Pen- 
UOiK>«.ariU thjh wviiM miLicacc itiAi u \v^ not .in urtplcuunt 
college for men with moncy^ to ipcnd and with do great love 
of cirici dUciplinc. 

'i'btf vrny 111 which llir nvrvkc wm rondu<:tcd in chatxrl 
Ahowt that Lhc Dean^ ;j1 Icoi^l wu nol over fcalouiL J have 
beard my f^iihei icU bow at evening chitpel [be Uexa i»ed tu 
read «ltemal« verKi of the J'volmB, nith^^ut making even a 
preUrice cf vaiting for (he tongrtjt^tiijn iv xtkv Iheir ahw. 
And «vhcn the i^cn^n wa» 1 kiiKlhy one, he woiilJ ri«C And 
go on with the Cantkle« afici the ^cholir hitl fifteen or 
iwtrtty vcTnet. 

U a curioiii tlui my fftihef oflen <t[okc of U'a Cimbridge 
iifp JUUtJl. ^^ l>cc" " mufh limcjmstcd. forgetting thfit, 
dlEbough tbv «et ilu^tcs ot the plu'ie nrii' b^trten rnuugh for 
bim, he yet giaincd in the hi|£he¥t ^I'^rtw Ihc bc^t iJirantagex 
of A Univenily life— 'Ihc conui.i wah men and an opportunity 
for bii mind to grow t-igarou9!v. Ii ii inie ih^t he valued 
U iti highest thr? advjinc^i ;;;£'!% which he eaintd frnm aMMH^Alinj 
with PfOfcMOf Htnsl<>w anti unmr othir*, Inii hr seemed to 
coQsider thi> a» a chance uuTEomf nf hh life at CDmbrid^r, 
aot Mi u|v«ntilg9 for which A/ma M^trt could claim anf 
cmlii^ One of my fjOn-r's (Jintbixlge fnenJi^ wa* ihe late 
Mr. J. M- Herbert, Connly Court Judge for Sciuih Wales, 
from whom 1 wa* fnrtunare enough to obtain feme notes 
which hdp WB to K'Hn "n idea of how my father trnjirracd 
hit coaEem|x>rarieit, Mr, Uerhcrt writea: " t think it wu in 
thtf BpHng of i%i% Ihal 1 Jirtt met Iljrwin, either at mj 



CAMBRIDCe. ,€TAT. iq-n 

cousLn Whiili:)r'» rnomb in Si, John's* or at the rooma of tomt 
oihci ol hi4 old Shitwsbury schoolfellow*, with many uf 
wJlom 1 wis on Urms of gtf Jl TOlimacy. But JC ctrUinly WJ* 
in tht; wimTncr of ycflr ihAt out arfjiiaminncc ripened 
tnto inrimary,*hcnwp happrncd (n he logHlitr .if Rarmnuth, 
for the Long Vocaitoo, rending nilh priv^rc lutars,— he with 
Boitcnon o{ Si. JohnV hi> Cluiit'al and Mithf^EOAiicd] Tutor, 
and 1 with Yate uf St, John's."' 

1 hi- tL;U<rU'Nt^ between Ehcui practicJIy cctotd in 1831, 
when my faihcr Mid goott-byc 10 Herbcri at Cinil>rklge, <tti 
flUrting oa hit S/^tt voyage. 1 once met Mf. ll^rbcrr, ihra 
n]mo4t an oM man, and I was much ^Inick by the evident 
wtrmth nnd frc«hnoM of Ihi? affcct&on vriih which h« rcmcm* 
bcred iny father. The noit-b from whkh I (luole end wiih 
thb worm-hcartcd eulogium : "It would be idle (or me lu 
fipvak of his vist intellectiial powen . , . but t cinnoi end 
thU curu>ry And rAnibl>n(r sketch without Fcttifpng;, «nd I 
doubl not nil his n:fvivinft <olkge fnend' would <o*icuT wiih 
mfr^ thAt be WAS ihc lEio^l f^ninl. w^trni-hrirtcd. grni^rout, and 
alTe^^t^onatr of friends : that hi« lympalhiti^ ^rrre vriih aII (hjjc 
van }r>od V'^d trut;; And that hi: had a cordial hatred (or 
cvcrylhin^ faUL% or vile, or i:ruvL, or nie^n. 01 dubon durable. 
I{e wai not only greir. but pxc-ciainfDily gnodi Jnd jiut, 4ad 

Twrt jinrrdotn inld by Mr. Merbcrt ihow thai THy farhf'r'f 
feeling fof auffc^ringt whether of mon or bt^asl, was as strong 
in him M « young man « it was tn later yriii» : " Before he 
Mt Catnbrirjgi' hr lulJ me IhaL h< h'AiX ixud« ii|i bit uiind not 
1u tiivoL any mr^rc ; thjL he hud had two difa' ahooimg At Ink 
friend'a, Mr. Owen of Woodhouw : and that on ihr wcond 
day. wheT> going orrr lome of the gronnd they h^d beaten 
on the day beforfv hcf fiirlced up a bird not quitf dead, but 
lingering from a 4hot it had rccreivcd on ihe previoui day; 
vid that it had mode and lefL i>i>ch a painful improtioa on 
hia mind» t^iai he i:ould not leco^cJle it to hit conicifnGc I0 
continue to derive plca«nro from % »port which inflitled wch 
cruel luffcring." 



To rti'dliic lh<^ strength of the f(!rling rhnl l(d to this re* 
koJve, tvc mn^r rrmomber ho* jiiissiomik' wuif hik love of sport 
Wc! mu»C rvt^ltl the boy ^hL'ulmu Uit> tir«( ^iiiipv,* and trcuiUling 
mlh vtc-ilvmcni to iltRl he could luiijly rdomi l,i( ^aa. Or 
lliiok uE \ui.h A Knicnce ai. " L'pon my soyL, it ii only about 
A fotlnight to the * Hm/ then if ibcrc is .1 bliaf on cArtfa that 

Another ftnct'ftnte told hy Mr, Herbert illusirait^ again 
hi* lendcmpfl* of hcAri: — 

''\Vhcn at HnTxnaaih he acid 1 wi^m tg na v-xhibLiiun wf 
*lt^uIlFd dop/ In I lie middle ui the ciitcitiiinjucni oiiv tjf 
thf du|ih fJiicd in i'C'rfuni|tU|c the tnck hiii iiLUlcr tcttd him lu 
do. On the man reprovinK him^ the dog put on a. moil 
pilrouK eipresiion* n* if in fear of the whip Darwin *tcing 
11. a-^\^6 mc to leave with him, uying, 'Come aloni:, I can't 
ftEftnd ihjK any lui>j|:«r -, how tliuse poor dogk niubl Juivc bcuA 

It It cudoui that tht? umie feeling recurred (a my fnthiir 
more thiin fifty ycart AftcrA'Ards, on seeing tonic tierfunnmg 
dogn »t ihc W<»iniin«cr A<|iJiirium ; cm ihi* QCi-;tiioi-i he w»a 
TCAfiured b^ the manjuer fcUinB him Th»t rhc f\o^ were 
taught more by rrwjind than by puniithmcnr. Mf, Merbcrr 
gorv on :— "Jt tti;ied one'* iamoal depth of ferling to hew 
him deicAnt v^rit and giusn wvr, (lie burrur^ of tlie olave- 
tr»idc, f>r ihe cracUiet lo «hkb the kuftcrin^ I'ole* wei« tuU- 
i^otcd to iit War***, - , , ThcK, and other like proof« hive 
left on my mlrnl the canv[rilon that s more humane 0* tender- 
hcflUtd man ncvpr I i veil," 

Hii otd coHtg? frimUt Jgrce in speaking tviih jJTef-tEonaie 
wjnnth of hib pk-iAqjinu genial leinprr Ji ayaung man- From 
tfhjl Lhey have been able to lelE mc, [ g^axn the ii'ipieMiun of 
1 yoimj; mAn overflowing with anim^ »pirii«-He«iding j;l VMicd 
healthy life — not ovet-mdiiiiriouu in the r*t itudid of they 
|>l>ce. but full of other pun^uitt, whic:h wcrv fciMowrd with ■ 

•■lte«]l«ciiaas*|h 31, 

f L«ILerfrani C, Vwtn to W. I>. fn. 


CAMfiaJDC£. /ETAT. Jft-to, 

rcjokcfng cnthuihium. EniomolQgyp Hding, *hw>liiig iit the 
Ecus, mippcM and c-ird- playing, mure ai Kin^'i Chjipcl, cn- 

grJivings it lh« FifiwHIinm Miiifiimn wjillii wrth ProfcHor 
IIcdbLow — aH combincil fn fill ji|» .1 h-ipj»y lif^ Mr ncfm^ to 
h«vc Infi^rio^ othcn wifh hii^ enlhuiiosm- Mr, Heibcn rc- 
Ifticft ho«, during Ihc same Barmouih Mimmer, he was r*****^ 
inio the icf*'icc of " ihc idrotc "—at my fLiihcf cdHcd tol- 
Icciing bccUviki Tlicy Un^k lUtir daily WLtlki lugcthvi umoLt|; 
the hJlU bdiinj tiariiiuuih. uc boAtcd in the Mjiw^d^th v«tu- 
tfry. OE (iiJci^ 10 Situ Uadug lu Uixd there Jil E^w waicc, or 
wffiii fly-Jrthing in the Con-y>gcdol Uke*, " On lhc»e <>cc4- 
(ioni DAnrin t-nTomnlnpird mofil indiifLtrioii^lyH pirklng up 
creatures a* he walkol iilonjCn ami lJ:*BJii"i; everything whith 
eecmrd worthy of being (lunued, or of fuiEher cxaminatinn. 
And very won hcirmcd mi^wiih 1 boltk of alcohol. Id whic 
I had to drop »u> ttvUe which tliuck mc itn nol of » ccuiimDii 
kind* I perftjrmnl thit duty with lome diligence in my con- 
«(1iuiiona1 w«lki: hur alas! my powers or dUcrtminiiion ht-l- 
dom enahUd mr (o sc<:LLrc a prlfc— the uiual result, on his 
ennmining the contenw of my bottle, being in cicln.mation, 
' Wdl, old Chcrbiiry"* (the nickname he gave me. and by 
wliiUi he imujlly addrrwed me)> ' iiiine of thew «iU Uo-"' 
Again, the Xcv, 1'. Bailor, who wai one uf the Karmouih 
rcadmg'party in iSt9, laj^i : " He ioocubted mc triih a lavlc 
for BfilAny whirh hn^i Viirk hy me nil my life/' 

Archdenron Wftikmi, another cA*\ follrxp fiirnd <if nrijj 
(jihf;r"i. rcmcmberri hrm unearthing beetle* m the wil 
belweron Oambridj^L' Anil Ormtthesler. and tj^TrakEofa certii 
beetle Ihc rtfriH'inbunce fiT whohe njiiie it"Crujt iD-tjof."f 
}lf>w enthn>uitic4ll>' mukt my Uihcr have exulted over this 
beetle to have impreued its name on a companickn m> that he 
iH^nKmberrt il nfterhfllf si rentury! Archdeacon Watkins 
on : "I do not fE>r):i-i the h>n|! and very intvrminft ronv 
lions thai we had abotii BriuiUan (tcenery nnd tropical vege- 

* Ka dnvbc rn alluiiM id Eh« this of Lofd Iferbnt of Cler^vr- 



tuioa or all «afte. Nor do 1 ToricuE th« way tnd ihr rehc- 
ta^aai: wULi which he Tut>|jcd hn chtn when he gnt tn.iEcd 
on *iKh fcubjecti, and di»cour*ed duqucntJv of litmus, or- 
chWs Ar/' 

Ho bceftmc tTirirnat« wiih Ht;n«low, the Profevor of 
BoEaofi and through him wiih «amc iiihrr nidfr mcmben of 
the Untvenity. " Bui/" Mr Herbert wriiea, " he alwny* W^pt 
up thctltjMAt cuunccOon u^ich th< fricndsof hUnwn uamltng^ 
and ai OUT Irefiiicnl hucul u^iificfiiiK*— 'i** bn-akfasl, wine or 
«ii;»ptfr p*rtic»— he wai ever vne oJ Lbv inufci thecrftil, ihd 
most pof^uUr, »nti ihi moil wekamc, " 

My fathf'T f<>rmt'f| one c»f a club for dining onct a wctk, 
called Ihe tlf.urract* 4^|iih, the ra*;mlicrs. |>?sidM himiclf and 
Mr, Hcrbcn (from whom I (iuou-)> l>^<"iC ^''"^^^-'y uf .St. John'i^ 
new IIoDormy Canon of Durham ; f Heavi)<td<; Crf Sidncr, 
□&vC«non of Norwich; LovcU Cimcron of Trinity, now 
vi«r of Slidrcham; Blanc of Trinity, who httd a higH povt 

^during ihv Crimean wm; II. I^wcJ (now ^hrrbronkr) of 
*rinily Hntl ; and Watkina of Emmnniii!|. now Archdeacon 
of Voik. The orijjEin of Ihc dub's nunc 4crm» already 10 
LJlvc bcconkt involviiil En olmcurity, Mr. Hrrheri K\y% ibiii it 

'vrat choftcn in dcrinioii ol anuthur " wt of men who cuilud 
lhcmic1vc»byaIong Greeic name signifying 'fond of dainiict/ 
but ttho faLsi6ed their claim to lunh n d^ii^nniion by their 
weekly pratliri* of dining nJ lomc r<i:" Jtidc mn, »is mile* from 
C*mlifidjp', fin muiron chopt or hfiim* and h*con," \norhcr 
oUl member of the eh:h telK me that the name nrosc hcraunc 
lh« members were gtven lo makinj^ expcrimenii on *'birdn 
■nd beuitf^ which wvre Ij^^fore unknown to buouin pLibte/' 
He uyi ihAl Wi-wk iLnd bitCcin vruie liiid. and thai their jcal 
broke down over «n old bit-wn owl, ** ohich was ind«s*rrib- 
able." At any r:ite. the qiectbgi itemed to have b«m me* 
cenfuliandlohavecxkded vrUh "a gamo of mild vLn^-vt-un." 

* Mr n^ibeil mrDTioiii the tiat'ie u ' Tlic {JlirlUjit Clit1>.* 
t Jtr«luraf I'Ont ?ili«<r1iignk4. 


CAMBRinGK. «TAT. t^^. 

Mr Herbert f^ivrt to amusing Mcocnini of ih^ muucal 
VJiaminaTTunTi Jot(;cib«0 by iHy fiLh?r in hj» ^Rtxijlloclivna/ 

Mr, Hcrbcit hfie^tkh iirongly of hit tovc ol lELUhic^ jnU aO^Mp, 
" What gjvc him t^c grcntnt d^li^l^t w^i lomc grand lynM 
phony or overture of Mo*Atr* or Beethoven"*, with their full 
hnrmonicn, • On nnc ocranon Herbert Tcmcmtirri ** Ajrom- 
panytfig hitn to the rftcmoon service ai Riog'^. when wc htdrd 
a very btauciful inthcm. At Ihv uud uf one of th« p:irtt| 
whj(;li WAS ntcecdint^ly impri-4»;vc. hv tUTncK) lumid to m« 
:(nj MkL uith 1 ()(;cp Hi^h. ' Itow't youE hicLitronc? ^ " Mv 
oflCTi ipolce of -I feeling of coldncii Oi shivering in hia back 
on he^riof; beautiful mu^'f!. 

Br^j (left * love of miiftic, he had ccrtiiinly at thi» limtr ft 
love of Ane literature ; and Mr, C;tmeivu lelli me that he iisedj 
to read Shaketpeue lo my father in hi« rooov al Chtut'^j 
who look much pleasuie in it- He alio i|>eik« of his **| 
Jikm^ for firAt-cl:thv Imr engtivinj£%. ct|iccialty ihoie of Ra- 
phael Morghcn and Mtiller ; and he spent houn in the Kiu» 
willinm Museum in looking over the prinii in Ibai cotle^tion/' 

My father's k-ttert to Vox thow ho* iiorety opprc^wd 
he fdi l>y the readiog tii on examination; ") am reudmg 
very bard, and have ipiriti (or nothing, I acnully have nijt 
stuck Jibeeilc thtitCTfo."* Ilitddpair ovcrmaFhematicimmt 
hnvr Itcvn pr/ifoiind, wht-n he eiprc^fed a hope that Fo»*» 
silence is due to *" your bcin/ fen f.ifhomii dcrp in ihe Maihr- 
maiiei ; und if you arc, fiod help you. for w am T, only »tth 
this djftrrvuce, 1 stick fast in the mud at the boiutm, and 
there 1 hUall remain." ^t, Hetbert uys ; "He had. ] im- 
agtiir, no nature turn ft>r inaLheiualiuit and he ]£ave up hu 
mathematical reading before he had Eiiai>itercU (lie iir«t part 
nf Aljietir*. h:*ving had a special quarrel with Surd» and Ibe 
lainoiiiial ThcorenJ." 

Wc get Rome evidence from hU Icllent to FoK of my 
father's intcniiun of goiog into the Chuieh- "1 am glad," 
he write*," " lo lieir %h*\ you are tcadtng divinitr. 1 ihould 

M«Hti tl. ]f>^ 

■w. R rOK. 

1ik« Xa know w^Af hoolcn yoti art^ rimdiri^ and your r>pinionK 
oWut Clirm; yoii weed nnt K- -ihixiA of preaching to mt pre 
iit^LiurcIy," Mi. HciUciI't hkclch ttiywh Imw Jwubii arotit; in 
my tathcr*» mbd afi lo itic |^i:^ilttlity uf liJh Ltkjiig OrJur^ 
He wrii«."Wc had in tarnciT convdaation ibtmi going iato 
Holy Onlcn; jir<1 I rrtncfnbrr hU unking mr, with rFE«r«i>c« 
to ihc qucr.iion put by the BUbop in the ririlinrttlon *rrvir(, 
'l>u yuu tTU>(i thit )uu ure Lnw:irdLy moved by Xhc Holy 
Spifit. &u»' wliotEicr I tuuM unnwtfr iti ibi; uBimuCive, and on 
my fiyicg t c<tuM not. he taid, ' Nctih^f ^ah t, hhiI (bcrvfuni 
I cAiinot lake order*'" T hi i c^nvc nation appear* w have 
rnkr-n plAr^ in iS^^, ind if »o, the doubts here ciproKd 
mii»t[ hav« been quivlcl. for in M^iy i^3D» hr^ »peaks of having 
Lomc [houghti of ri;aJm|» iliviniiy with Hrn:ilo«i'. 

The gredUr nmubcr oi the foJlrjwmg leuer> are /Edtlrrbsi-'d 
by my father <o hii cousin, WEilium Uarwia I-'ox. Mr, Vax'n 
reUtionship lo my iithcf is ihown in the itcdigri-c given iii 
Ch.tprct I, The degree of kinship appeart lo have remained 
A problcra lo niy father, ai he ii\gat biniiqeir m one letter 

'* — T— Their friendship wm, in incl. due to their being 

undrr£raduflicn together. My fathcr't letters ibow clearly 
eouu|;h how genuine (he friendship wa». In nfttr yc*n, dii- 
Ulice, Urge famiHe«iH and ill-hrj^lrh nn hnTh sTd^, chrck^d Thr 
inlerconnc : bui a w»rm feeling nf frinndnhip remained The 
correiipondmre wuh never <|iiitc dropped and EOHTiniied riil 
Mr. Tos'^ dcELlh in ;8So. Mr. Ko\ luok urdtfrB* and worked 
as a country cTurgyuiun iJntil foiced by iJUhtfulih tv Ivava 
llii Jiving in t>rUrncic KoreiL Hii love of natural hL«1ory 
feniaiacd tirong, and he became i tkllled fiincier of msaj 
kjnd^ of trirdv *Cf The indm lo ' Animalt *rd Plant*,' *nd 
my father's later oorrrsjiond*rnee, tthttv hnw mneh help he 
rvt^cived frnm hi* old College friendj 


CAMBKIDCS. ^TAT. i^-oa. 


TUtdidajr F.tvning 

My nFiAH oi.n CitV(«nirnT» 

1 am dhouc lo fulAl m^ prnmiftc of vriring ta yavi. but 
T am rjoriy to add thtfn- is a very ndfish mouvp m th*- boitoBL.. 

how luuUi 701; Vfill uliligc mc by jirijcurtnif honu; niorc hpc^i- 
mcQi uf lume iaflct;ti whirh [ due t^y I can dcKiribc- In 
the firtl pl'KFp I muiI inrorm you that I have taken tome of 
Thr Mrr^r nf (hc^ ItirLifsh Iniicu, And ih<|r bdng fmind ncjir 
13armL.>uth, ia quite unknown to the GnLamo^oKii a1 worhl : I 
think I kh4ili wiite and tnJorm tome of the cfjck tntoiOiol- 

But iii;iw for bna^ncM. Sr^-zr^I mOTv' Specimen*, ;f you 
procure them nithont much lrouti]e,nf the folloningtnieciB:* 
The violei'bUck colowrcd beetle^ found on Craig Sl*>mi,t 
undrr Mtrnev 3la'> a larj^i.- tE;Tiooth black one vtry like it ; « 
blulrih nictallic-i.obured dung-bi;cl1e. whUh U fvry cominoi 
ori the hill-^idi:a; aj«>, if you uimU be to very kind lu to 
cfiou the feriy. ;ind you will iiod a great number under the 
flooei on the wMte l^nd of a long, smooth, jet-bbrk beetle 
(a KTCAT mAtiy nf tboKe); Jilao, in the umr &i(iiaiinn, a vtrjN 
flmotl pinkish trifiivij with Uln^k sp^t^ ^^^b 4 cuned thi 
prajecitng beyond the head; oUo, u^Kin the mar^yland ovrr 
the ferry, neiir the cva. under nld ^ea-weed* titones. &c., you 
will find a biujtll yellnwihh lJ.Liihj>areiil Wctk, with tw<>or fuur 
blicfcifih marks on the bocL Under the»c »tone« there ire 
two «ort», one muc^h darker Ihan the other ; the lighter-col- 
oured 11 xYv^X whkh 1 w:if;t The^r UhI two Inirfl* are ^1^ 
ifirtfrrJy rare, and yoti will really ^xfrm/fy nbbgc mc by iftkJtig 
all ihi» trouble i>retiy «ood. Remember mc moii kindly toj 

'The prKmurk bflne HfrbyMCV to '^hnw tfutiint Ifttcriru^vriiLaii 

IfOm hH fob-vldt W, fj, Foi't hABiFt Ofinntron, ix-aj I>pfhy, 

(Tbe rop of Ih; hill Immfilidlvly bdund BuniwulTi wu ulltd Cnlg- 
Starni, a hybrii] Ccnibro-t.ii£]i>h word. 




Iluilcr, icll him ftt my »i3i^rc»9, nnd I <!ar^ ny both of you will 
cfliily rccogritsir thev^ m^^rW. I hoju.- his ratuq^Hlan ];;o on 
wdl. I think many of tlic ClirytnlihrB «nj wtU wurlh keeping. 
I rt^jJIy uiii ijuilt; ^KliAnicd [tif] ao loog a letter uU al^oul juy 
o» n ^onccrnt ; but do leturn ^od foi evil, aod Knd mc a 
long Account of all your pri>f[:L'din^. 

In the fir4l v/cfV t killed sevc^nty-fivc head of Rom^^t 
▼cry conifmpiililo mimljcr— bui there are very few hirds, I 
killed, howcTci. a brace u( Uljck t-umc. Si(ite tlnjn I have 
btvn sbiying at Ihc Fox\ ne^r Ucrliy ; il t^ a wry plcj»;uiL 
houbT, and the mutii: Dii^vuti^ went uG vcty >vclL i wjnt Lo 
hcii huw VjtcA likc« hv> gun, ^nU what u«c be ha made of it. 
If the honlc is not^ you can buy another fct me, 
ond wh^n )~ou pnis through Shrevaliury ycku can kJivo thrae 
tre?i«urcN JinJ I ho]H', if you potHihly curj. you will May n day 
or two with luc:, itA 1 hi^ijc 1 need not my how glntl J t-lmll hn 
U) »c« you dgam. Fox remarked whal diruced guud-nalured 
jfcllowK your frieniU it H^rrnouth mvinl be : ;iiiO if I did not 
'know Ihat yen and Bullcr were to, I would nijt thLnk of Kiviog 
you 40 much troiibli?. 

Believe m?, my dear TTerberr. 

YouTi*, must sinrrrcly, 

Kemcmbcr me (o UhLI rrn^ndv. 

Jin the folfowtng Januarv we fiud him lijcking forward 
[fh plwiiur*' to lh<? besinnintf of anglhei yeai of hit Cim- 
bridBc life: he wr][ct to Fox — 

"J wjiicd liM to-day tor the chance of a Iciter^ twtt t 
•rOl voit no Longer, ] muitl inubt Bioctitelf and cordially 
ron^rntulalf yoii on having finished »]\ yciur bliour^. [ think 
your pl.ii:c a wry gttfij one coniidering hy bow miKh you 
have 1;caten nu^y mrn who had thr Aton of you in rMdinu. 
1 do >o *iiih I were now in CimTiTidjit* fa »ery wtiiih wiih, 
however, ju I wai n^t with you in aU yi>i,ir iToiibte^ nnd 
i»S«eiy). lo join m All the gbiy and hai>pine«s, which danjfrrif 

1 50 

camuaiih;?, ^.taT. »9-a. 


gon( by can give. Kow wc wciul<I ulk^ w«Ik, and cntomolo- 
gE>c I Sappho 6houM bv ih« btHcrf bilchct, tnd na«h» uf 
do£« : ihcn ihould be * pcai. c on earth, goud will lo men/— 
which, bf the way, I alwoj-i thbk the mo« perfect dcKrip* 
tion of happincn th^t wotcU ciq ^vc-"] 

C. Dafwftt to ir A J^itx. 

My dear Fox, 

When [ arrived here att Tuesday I found lo my gri^ai 
grief and surprise, a. Iclter on my ubie whichlh^id wriUca to 
70U about 3 forini>;lil o^ the »tupjd porter never i(?ok <ha 
trouble oE gclltng ihe letter forwAided^ 1 kiipptnc you have 
been ibusing mcfora mcii ungrateful wreich ; but I »jn sure 
yon will piiy mc no?, asi nothing \t 10 vcXAlioui it having 
written a kitcr in vain. 

Lflbi Thursday 1 k-ft Shrew«biiry for London, and stayed 
there till Tuc&day, on which L c^rac down hcrv ty thv ' Tiincv' 
The fint two diyt I ^pent entirely with Mr. Hop?,* and diJ 
little cUe but talk about and look at in&ccl& ; his coUectiQTi 11 
moiX mngnilKent, and he himicif 11 ihc moti gcneroui of 
rnti'.molo([i»ln ; he hji* icivcn mc abont ifio ne* speiitv and 
aciujUly often wanieii to give mc (he rnrrai mneru of which 
h« had only two sprcimenii. He made many civil ipcce1ie!Sv 
and liL>|icJ yi^u wdl un him wtutr time with me. whenever 
wc should happen to be in Loiiilt'ii. He gicaUy Lani|ibmcnu 
our ex^tiona in Entomology, pjid uyt we have taken a von* 
drrfnlly number of jEOod Lnsccli, On Sunday 1 ftpeni 
the day with HoJUod, who lent mc a horw to ride in the Pork- 

On Monday evening t drank tea with Sicpheni ; | hia 

t r P- Sitphvqv tutttar of ' A Kiniul of Urlllib ColtopteM,' ttn. 




ICJii cuuJtl dream of ; hv aj/iicars lo Im a very good humuured 
plcuam liiUc man. Whilnf in lown [ went Lo the Rt»yal 
IcititatiOD, Linn^an Society, and ^of^logirjil Gardtni* and 
m^ny mhcr (ilxcci whrre naiLir«liiiii xie- gTcgarious. If you 
bud been wuh mc, I think London would be a very ddighlful 
p|jw:c ; M thingB were, u was much pltfaKinier ihao I could 
havt buppoBfld Buch a dreary witdemvss of houai^a to b#. 

I fthuL vliilht LEI Shnwaljiiiy a Dunilivtrr (fcrnalc Goo- 
hjukdcr, ;u 1 ftuiipotc yoii knoHr). Shdw hn sEuKcd kt, ^nd 
whca 1 Kave in opponuaiif I will «cnd it to Osma^[c>ti- 
Thcr*" hai*v been *hoi alw five Waicn Ch ml ertfi, three o( 
wW'b Shnw hu for fjile ; woLiid yoLt h\tc lo ;iurch«M a 
ipccinien? 1 have not yd Ehankcd you for your la^i very 
loag and igr<-cibl« leticr- U would h^ive been fttiU mgte 
agreeable had il ccinuincd Ibe joyful iiitelLijEcntc thjE you 
were coming up here; my ii^o Mliury break f^hr« huve dlre:uly 
nude mc aware hov very very much I iTiaII miii yoo. 
• ■ • • • 

HcIjcvv inc, 

My dear oJ<l Vox, 

Mo» »inctfrcly your*, 

C lUnwiN. 

[LtlcT on in ihc Lent icrm he wrirr* to Poif t — 

" 1 am Icixding a iiuici everyday sort wf » life ; a littk of 
Gibbua'sk History in the fuorniuKi ^"^ ^ food deal of t'tin 
/ffkn in ibe <vi;niii[t; ibjh, with ^n occuionil ride with Sim- 
cox ud conititutional with Whitley, mflke* up ihc TV(r*lM 
routine of my day). T w<r n i^oaJ f1r,nl both of Herbert and 
Whiilcy, snt) rhc more T ncc rtf (hem incrcasei every day the 
rcspoct 1 have fof their eLucelleni urtdursUndingd ami di4|J0ti> 
tioni- They have been giving aomc vcty H*y P"tic», tiearly 
sixty men there buth e*<nini5*."T 




C. I>artvin tti IK D. Fax^ 

Chrlrt'i CttUfffe [C^inbrldiie], April i [•<*})- 
Mv iJLAh KoXt 

In your letter lo lloldcn you arc plcaicd toob«T»c"lh« 
tyi dik thd tiiackguifdi you cvtr met wilh E aid (hr |«L" 
Upon (hi* o!i'<'rfcnrion I ihntl mijJic no rcmnfli^ exi^rpting 
that I fn\\%i give you oil due credit for actirig on it moii ng- 
idly. And now [ ibould like lo know in what cfn« |»rticular 
arc you ksi of d bbtkj;ii:jrd Eh^n 1 Ain.' Vou ^dlv ulJ w^rruhp, 
why liuv« yuu nui aimwcrcU my Lul Icltcr, vfrhcch J :i|ji eurv; 
I for^t'irdcd to Clilion ncjxriy (hr«c w«vks ag^^ H I was not, 
Tcfilty very ^niioi^ lo hcaiwhdt you ir<f dmng, I should hftve 
a]lciw<.<d yon io rt-mutn Till you (houghl ii worth wlnlc to trfat 
me like A ^ntlcniAn, And now having venlcd my fiplcco in 
scolding you, jnd luving lotd you, whit you must know, hoir 
ycjy much and how amioualy 1 wani lo hear how jou and 

r family arc Etttinjt on at Clifton, the purport of Ihii letter 
finished. If you «1td bur know hov oficn I rMrk of yon,, 
and how oft™ I pcgtirt your abicnr^c, I am sure 1 should have^ 
heard from you long enough a^to. 

1 find C.imbtidiirfathci hiujiid, and an I know tcarcelyuijr 

Jonr Ihjt wjEk-t, and thit joined mth my li^')^ not iHjmK tjuitff' 
■0 wcll-h^w rtduHied mt ta i lott ol hybernaiion. . - , I have 
caujihT Mr. Harliour lulling—- have the fira pick of the 
bfctio* ; arri^rtlin^y we h^vc m,ir3f our fin-il xdicn*^ my part 
in (he atTcciing ircnc c^nn^iiTi^d in lelhnjc him hv witi ^ d — d 
^rascal, and tignifying I ihoidd kick him down ihc stair* if 
vvcr he Hp|iv;ircd in my roomn again. It teeme<l altogether 
mightily lo *arpri*e ihe young genUcman- I have ny tiewa 
to tell you ; itidctd, when a correspondence ha* bcefl broken 
off like onm ha^ be^TN. \i it difficult (o make the AtM slatt 
again, l.aul night there wa^ n tcrrihk' f\tt at IJnton, eleven 
mile* from Cambfidgc. Seeing the re flue lion no plainly in 
the «ky. Hall. Woodycare. Turner, and myielf thotighi we 
wou3d ride wvd »oe it. We mi out *t hxlf-|uLtt nine, *nd rode 
like incarnatf devib Ihere, and did not recutn ilU two in Ihe^ 




motcing, Aliogctbrr ii wa» a moit iwful »ighf- f cannot 
coUE'ludc wilhnut idling you, ihut of alJ Iho black gu'Jii^i I 
wcr luvt WLih, you ate tliv |£ic:iLcbt an^ liic btftli 

C Darwin. 


! have Jclaycd aftiwrrinft your Usf letter for ihcsc few 
dayiL, a« I thought thnt under Ki]ch melancholy drcum^liiQcu* 
roy wrihng to you would be jifobably only giving yoa truubJ** 
T^ii* invramg 1 rtcci^ttl n kUtt tfi^tii Cither mc informing mc 
ol thjr ctfcnt^* whiili, iniitctl, ^rom your letter, J had hftrdJy 
darted to hopi? would h.-ivi.- happened othcrwiHr. I feci most 
sincerely and deeply for yrrii and utl your fnmily ; but &t the 
MAic liino, as Hx ah uny cmc c;uii, by hia own ^uud ]>riDciijLe»^-4 
and rcTiK^on^ b( fiU(»^jortcd undcE &uch a mi«foiLunc> you, I J f 
am uiurcd. wiU know whciv I0 look for »uch support. AiuJ 
after bo (fure and holy j tuinEurt ill ihn h'ih\t aEforU\ J am 
C<lualLy a^hiirpd how uiclt't^ t1i? Kyinp.ithy of all friendft mufcl 
oppejtr, ahUona^ '* be /i* bicartfelt and imterc, aa T hope yon- 
betieve Ff\c cap^bU of irelinft. Ai such fl time M deep dif 
Uc» I will wiy nothing more, eicepling (hat t irust your father 
3Ail Mrs. Fox bear thia blow jit wl'U ii«, und<;r xudi lircum- 
tUncv^t mil l»t liopcU for. 

] am alroid ic will be a long time, my dear Fox, before 
>re mcft : till then, believe me ax oM timri, 

Vfiur^mont flffertionattly, 

(^i^Ri-i» DaiiwtN. 

C. Ihritin t^ W. n. Fex. 

Mv DEak Ft>x« 

I tliould have wrhccn to yoii before only that whilst our 
expedhion lilted I wo* loo much cngag^, and the ccinrlu- 

■ Tin iiath uT F«'i tiAUr. Mn Brutooft 



CAMUKIIX;!;. .fiTAT. t^-^t. 


»Lcui WAS *o unfoitucatCp ihat i wa« loo uahipjvjr to wriic to 
you tin thin wcck"« quiet « bomf. -Thir thoiijt3^t« of Wood- 
hoM^e ncit wr^U hu ai lft«l ^vfn mc cfruragc 10 relate mf 
UhfotlUnatc CIST, 

I «urLe4 from lliiit plice Jtbuul a furtnigUt ago ta ube iin 
«ntOQMlogk«l trip with Mr. Hope through ^11 Nurtli Walv«; 
and Uormouth wi.« our lirsl dcBtinotion The iwo Lirsi day> 
I wcn( on prrily well, taking several jp>ocI tnicrt* : bwt for 
thi: rr.^ of ihai wcok my fip became suddenly bo tifid^* and 
I mystclt not vpiy wcEl, that I wns unable lo Icsve (he mom, 
■nd on the MonJ-iy" t rclnr-iti^d with grirf and *o*ri>w bar.k 
agiin 10 SHrowtbury. The Aril two d^yn I look Mmc food 
Jntedi, , - , )iul ihe dayi ih^i I waa unAl>lc bo go out, Mr. 
Hoje did wonders , . . . and lo-day I have rcceiiM another 
parcel oi inHccTv from hjm, sueh Co1yjnbc!Eex 4Uf h Carabi, and 
such niagni^kcQt Elaieni (iwo ipecicM of ih^ lirighl arajirt 
mtt), 1 am lUte you will proiwriy sympalhite with my un^ 
fortunate iituntiou : 1 Am cfetcfmin^d 1 wl|1 go over the ume 
ground thai ht doe« Mote auiumn comrn, and if working 
hard will procure iof^cti I will bring home a g\or\ovt> Ktnck. 
My dear Fojt, 

Yourk inofel lincprrlyt 

ChaIh U Alt win, 

T am (otng to Macr nc^i week in ni.-lcr to cntomnlogM 
osd ihall stay there a week. Lind fur the re»i of ihii Kummi 
I intend tu lead ^ perfectly idle and ^utidcrin,^ liff. . . , 
You bee I uni lUuib iii the turn? tuic that you arc, with thia 
difference, you make good rciolutiom and never keep ihetn ; 
T never make them, sc cannot keep them : it it atl very well 
wri[infc in ihin manner, but 1 tniiHl t\-.\t\ for my IjII|c-|^ 
Griiham imdcd and bowed *o very ctvilJy, when be loJd ve 

* Pnb«bly niEb coema, ffom wMch h« ofto* aulTcnd. 

thni ht?w» on«of the six ajijirtinrcd to m-ik^ thv ^lamiriHlion 
ftlrirUrr, .inil thai ibey were iteitT mined Ihih woukt make it a 
vciy JjfkicUL ihtHg TTuni ^ny prcvjoui duminalkon^ thai itota 
aU ibu 1 jm sure it uitl b« the very devil to pay amongit iUl 
idk men and entomotcigi^t*. Erasmus, »r eijicrt homo in a 
fe* wrck^' time : he ifitcnda posting nent winicr in Parin- Be 
sure ya;i nrrler the two ti^t^ of inr^ecis published bfSlcphcni, 
one printed on both sides, and th<; other only on on*- ; yon 
will finU liiem very Uhtlul in maiy poiutk of vicw- 

De»r old Fox, youn. 

C AdirtW /a iV. D. F&x. 

ChrlM'i Ccjllfi^. TLiuivIity (Oclcibtr lO, tAs^t 

1 flin jff.iid you will be very Angry with me Ua not having 
writlen during the Mii<ii« H^^eting, but really 1 wu!) worked 
•o hnrd Ihnt t hnd no \\\v£ ; ! arrived horc on Mun<1ay and 
foi^nd Miy rwinih in divadful confai^ioni at Lhcy have been 
taking up the door, and you may igppodt iKaI 1 have had 
ptenty lo do foi ihcsc iwp dayi^ The Mu>ic Mcclmg* wa* 
the mo*t (loriou* thina I *ver c^pericncerf ; .ind ft? for MaJi* 
b^r, words r^nnftt praii^f her rn'^iiKh, hhr in quite the mOit 
eharmiTiR pcr^nn I rvrr aaw \Vp had cutr.ici* nii( nf nr vefal 
of the he*t operas, flcled In charncTcr, nnd you cflnnetc imo^ne 
how very superior it made the concerts to any T ever heard 
bttfvre. J. do Begntsf aclvd '11 Panaijco ^ m character ; bt- 
inig drcfcKxl up an <xtr^ijrdin£ry figure givct & much greaUr 
effect to hii acting. He kept the whole ibeMie in joaJi of 
laughter. 1 liked Madime I^UsLl v<?ry mut:h, btil nothing 
w{tl do after M^ilihrtn. who vung «i>me romi^ "f^g^ *nd [a] 
pctionV he^t mu^i h^vr been made of atone not to have Ion 
It 1o her. I lodged very the Wedgwoodt. and lived 
^brrly vtth them, which vaa very pleaiant, and had you 

* Ai fiiimlni^SuEi t ^^ BcgnuV ChHilkn nuAC MM Giueppa, 


CAMltRlIX:i£, .EtAT, l^-it. 


^K*ti (here It wouM Vlavc l>ccn quite pcrfci^r li knocked mv 

i:p mOEt dreadfully^ ;incl 1 will never aiccm[if aptn rn do tiro 

Mv UEStt FOK, 

I Jim thmiij(h my LUtlc-Go! \\ I nm too mucb e united io 
humhli? mysrlf hy npologising for noi hflving ivriltcn licfftrc- 
Bui I assure? j'oii before I went in» and when my nvrvcfi were; 
ic a tEiiUcrt'd und weak cotidilion, your injuted penou oftcii 
to»e before my cye« And UUDtcd mc with my idknvt>« Hul \ 
am throii|jjh, ihrough, through. I eonld wriic ihc whole *hert 
full with ihi^ dcHghtfiiJ word, 1 went in yeVcfday,ftnd have 
ju}i heard the joyful netvft, I ithall noi know for a week 
which doKft I am \t\. 'I'hcwhok etani^naimn iheurrinl on in 
ii diScjcnt tyitlGLn. It h^it one giaud Jil v an v^ge— being over 
in onv day. Ibcy lk raihvr airict, ind i^k a wmderful 
number of qucitioniL 

And now I wani lo know icitnetbint; ibuul your pljinM; of 

cftunw you inlctid rfrfniin Hp here : wh^i Inn wc wiM have 

logcther; *hn( hcrfl^i wo will cjitch; it will do my heart 

good to go once moTc logether to some of our old hauntB, I 

hJive Iwu v«ry prutuismg pupUs in l^iUouic^lojEyr J^nd we will 

) r make rcguUr cimpui^s mlL> the Fenii. Heaven protect Ihe 

. / bcellei arrd Mr Jcnyns, for we won't leave him a pair in the 

ll whole conntry. My n^w Cabinet is come dnwn, an^l a gay 

*^ little a rrair it L«, 

And now for ihe time— 1 think I ahull go for a fe* diiya 
In lowti lo hear ao opera and see Mr Hoiw , w^A lo mention 
cay brother alno, whom t tliould ba^r no ■>l>jri^tion to u^c. 
If I go prctly aoon, you i.^^ come afterward^ but if you will 
si^llTc yoTir pinosi definitely, T will arrnngt ininej so send me a 
leltcr hy rffum of pout. And I i-hargi' you Ivt it Uc favour- 
able — thai \ii to my. romo directly. Uolden hot been or* 
diiiued* and drove the Coach out on the Monday. I do not 




thin% he » Iftaking very vfll. Chnptnan wanti you ftnd 
myii^lf io ^uy him a vblL when you come up. and bcp lo be 
tcmcmbirrvd W you. \'<j\a umM i'xc;uhL' IIilil blivrl Loiter, ha I 

have no end mort to send oft by this diy'« poii. 1 long to 

ftr« you Agftin. And till Ibrn. 

My dc*r i^noil old hVix, 

Vouw mo« sincerely, 

C. Dauwjh. 

[In AugUttI ?!<■ wilt in Norlli Wileii and wrotu !■; Kox:-* 

"J have been inicndinft to write every hc5ur for the lAit 

forlniKM.but rr/t//j hn*c hnd no time. [ kfl Shrewsbury ihis 

day (bfinighl ago« and have since (hat time been working 

FrofD lUOfDing lo ni^hl tn rsLrTiin]^ finh Ot bccl1c«> Thik h 

Lcr*lly Lbc fir^t idlt; d^iy 1 liavL^ lud lomysdt; for on the 

days I go bshing. on the good onc« catomolcigibing, 

'OU m;ty recollect ihut for the fortnight previom to «11 th{K, 

you told tnc not lo writt^ so (IiaI I ho|K I hrivc msi^c our 

imc ftori of defcni:e for not having looncr answered your 

■twi> long ind very ngrcraUlc letters,"] 

[ bjivc «n linlc time at pretcnt. and am so diHgustcd by 
rv)ding that I have doi the heart lo *ritv lo anybody, 1 
h4*e only written once liomr hiiitc 1 came up- This mail 
cxciitv iiitf for not having aniwcied your three letters, for 
whieh ! am rcitly very much obliged. . . . 

I hj^ve noi «jck ad imect tHii tfTin, and ncarrcly opened 
a CAK. If I hid time I would have iicnt you ihc insects which 
I liAve «o long promised; b»t really 1 buve not ipirit^or timr 
to do EiEiyihiiijt Kc-iding makct me i|uitt desfierate; the 
pjague of getting up all my subjccti ii neil thing to inioleiN 
able. Hcti^low n my tutor "^^ * m^ti itJmi'raUt one he 
Bkaket ; the hour with him ii the pleuAHitfiii iti tbe wholo day. 


CAMRRtDGE. jfiTAT. to^n. 


1 tliink he i» iiultc ihc nio«t perfect maLn t over mcl wiih. I 
have been Eo tookc hi:ry pka^ani pAiu^ thcrv thih term. Hii 
good-nature is unbounded 

I Am sure you ivill be sorry to hear poor old Wbitley'c 
fAlhrr 14 clrHd- In n wnrldly ftraint of virw ic [* nt grt.'^t con* 
M:qiiencc lo him, ik Ji will prrvcriE him going to the Bar for 
nunc irmc. — (Be aurc aniwcr thU :) Whai did you ]:ay for the 
iron hnop you had made in Shrewsbury ? Bectiuse I do not 
in«iiii Vt {tay ihu nUoin ui the CjnibrLiJ[(e m^tn'i bill. Vuu 
ovud imt truubk yourttdf jiLoul Lhe Hlialiuh. lu I ti»vc bou]^ht 
up Itoth fit'^i:iei. 1 hnivc heitid mvn My Ihai llentlnw hj« 
»ome curious idigiom dpinTcnt I never perceived anjihmg 
of it, hdvu you } I am very glad to hi^ar, after oil yuui dt-hyH, 
you h.ivir heiirj of :i eurary where you itiay rend all the t'um- 
maudrufjttfc w'khuuL i:ndju^eting your ihrOitE- ] am alwi Alill 
tnorc glad to bciii thdt your mother coniinuca sie^dily to 
improve. I dt> Irnnt lh:i( you ^iU have no further f-au^e fur 
uncatinCM. Wali ever) wi^li Cur yout h^ppincw, my dNif 
old Fon. 

Btlicve me youra luosi sincerely, 

a l>arwm h W. D. /ar. 

Mv DC** Ft>x, 

I do hope you will excuie my not wHtiag bclor? I took 
my dr^free. T felt a quite ineJEplkabk Avcnion to wrile 
to rtnyhndy Bii! miw I Jf> molt heariily congratulate you 
LipDD piL'^aing your oinniinAtion, and hnpe you fJnd your 
cunuty cohfortoble. If il i« my Iaai AhiUing (1 hnve not 
m:iny)> I will come iind pay you a viiiL 

I du not know why the decree thoulU make one «o 
miKernblc, borh before nnd afierwjird^ 1 recollect you nf re 
sufficiently wretched beforehand I ejin Awurclyou] I am now, 
and what m^ke^ ft (he more ridkulou* ii. I know not whai 
ahout. I believe it 1% a bcjmiiful provinion of nature to make 
one regret ihe lesi le^vln^ lo pleai^^uit .i phice a« C^imbridgc ; 




n&^oniztpt aX\ itn jhlcd&urcii — 1 say it for once and for all— < 
cone *o grcAl at tE]> fricn<l«liip witU you. 1 sent you a new~A> 
ptkprr jrAlrnUiy, in winch you will see what a grind place 
[TOihl ] have got in thv Poll. As for Chriht's, did you ever 
sec nich a college for piuducing CiLptciiQ!^ and Apnralc^?* 
Tfii-f* ini" lilt niCH vilhei al Emmanud or l^'hriBla jjluckctl, 
Cimcriin ti gulkd, Logcllicr wiltj oihcr thicc Trinity BthoUml 
My pbni arc noi ai all letrlcd. 1 think 1 iholl keep thii^ tciin, 
(hen gp *nd ceonomi*c ai Shrewsbury, return and ukc 
ly degree 

A man may he ckcu!^ for writing ra mur h nhotit himidf 
rheo he has jusi \niiied the cTt^minaiion ; i<i ynu mwat ckciwp 
!]. And on the prmctpic do you write a lecicr 
brimful uf youivtrU and ^rbn?^. 1 want to know something 
about yuuT cn'tm I nation. Tell mc about the iUta of your 
nerve* ; what booki yon pot up, and ho* perfect. I taVc an 
interest about that son of thing, m the time will eome when 
I rami suffer, Yonr tutor, Thompson, be^^vl In bf rfmem» 
bcrcd to you, and so doea Whitley. H ytm YiU aniiwcr thia, 
1 BfiLI send u many stupid ani^werb o^ you can destte. 

Believe mc. dear Koi, 

Cha?. D ah win. 

•Thc-CB|kA^n"ua[ ihf lit^d of Ihr'l'oll"- ih* " Aportle* " ire 
|b« lul t»vlv« 111 llic Mjltieuialiiid Tiipn. 


flH a Iflter iiddrcucd to CAfitain Fiu-Rof, before Ihc 
Bf^tf ^ailtd, my faih<^r wrote, *"What a gTorious day tKe 
NovrmlKr* will br tn mr — my second life will Ihcr* 
ICC, anij ti t\\i\\ hv ah ^i LjiiLluLuy for tlit ickt of my^ 

The dfcumitaticc* which led to this second biith — »o 
nuLch iiiciit importpiDE thin my fither then imiginciJ— ^rc ron- 
nccecd vt\0\ hih CAmCiridgc Hfc> t>ut ni«y he more «pproi>r>- 
fltcly toM in the prcicfti chnpFcr. Fofemo^c tn ihc chain of 
":ireumsianm which \cA xa hi« appointnu-nt to xhc fintjf//, 
was my father's friendship wilh PiofeBin.-! HensJow. He 
wtotv in it pocki'l-^jook ijr iltusy^ vfhuAi tuntuin a Wivf r^LOiJ 
of dftlcs, Sic., thioufthotti hU life .— 

"lAji. CAra/mat. — PAsiif^ my c««m1iiJi»IoA for R, A. dc' 
grce and kept ihc two following terms. 

" During ih«r raoriThs lived tnuth *ith PniHwaor Hens- 
Juw^ <;f{cii dining with him and u diking vtlh liiju ; became 
bliKhlfy ucquainicil with ^cvctAl of ihc leuncd men in Cun- 
bridg«, which much quickened 1h< ttii which dinner partici 
and hunting had noi destroyed. 

" In the spring p^id Mr. Onwvh a vi«it wLih K^jmsay and 
Kirby, and talked ovci an cxcunion to Tencritfc. In Ihc 

Tlu Mfo^ dtd nnl howtYU iriBkir ])«r liiud ind nccouful Btart utilU 




iprmg Hcnitlow periUJukd mc to think of GeologXrAm] intrrt- 

Little JQ Shr<i|j»liiTv- 

"A¥gt^- — Went on CjeaL^fflical tout* by LUngolUn, 
Rulhin, Conway, Uangor, and Capcl Curi«. wlicrr I le/t Pro- 
kv^r ScOgwick, and crtHScd fhi; moimUin i« lluimouth." 

[a ■ Tetter to Fot (May, il^at). my father wficc* :— " I am 
Tttj Ua%y , . - iind sec a great ikal of HcnJow, wh^^iji 1 du 
I Mil fcfiQw whether 1 lov* or fcij^eul nw^r" Hi^ fcdmi; fot 
ihit [uimiriiblc man ia Hudy t'Ki»ie»AetJ in a letter which he 
wrote to Rev. t., Kloinclidd Uht^n Kcv F.- Jc-nyns), when the 
tflttrt vjii engaged in hii 'Memoir of ProffMwr Hen^loH' ' 
(publUhed iS6f V The paiB^ig« + hav been rwi Jc (i?m* of in the 
ftrii of (he memorial notice* wrUtcn Tor ' Nature/ and )t|r, 
RomAncfc pointu out (Kal my father, "while dctcribing the 
chuacler of inotheri it unconaciouily gtvinjj a moat ai;c;JUtc 
deicnptioaorhii tivrn": — 

" I irctit toCtinliridac CArly in Ihr year iSjH, and won 
became ati|u{iintcd, through lome of my hroiher cntomolo- 
pm, with Profc?»or Hccilow, for all who «itre4 far any 
bnnch of nitur^ history vrvrc rqually tncouragcd by him. 
Nothing; tuub] be mor« Minpic, cardial, ,ind tjri]>rcletidin|; 
than the encouriL|[ement which he alTordcd to «ll younK 
tkAtiiralist*^ I ioon I)«ainc intimate with him, for he lud a 
rCmarijNc |MH*(^rfif ifl.itin^ Ihc young fed compleicly alciie 
wkh h£m ; though wr wrr^ .\l\ avrc->irriirk wilh (he amount of 
U» kncrwledge. Bcfon- I sow him, I heai d onr yrmng man 
torn up hi« aiminitucnti by -.imply raying ihat be knew everj'- 
th it^ Whcia I icrtct : how iinintdfstrfy wv fcU at |H-rfei;t caae 
»ith A man older, J.nd in every way u> minieriihvly our »i]i«rior, 
] think it waa as much owing to the lunipareni lincerily of 

« il^hiifinnlhyKadpirffli |nH« firrflicv rrt SilKr^i 'CAtalngiic orCan- 
I'Mtfif-jir of (lie RcT. J.jftii SJ-?«rn llemlirtr, MA, "by Iht iUr, 


his cfaATuicr >a t*^ bis kinitneva of heart ; ao^, pcihjijn. eircn 
^lil] inorTi to a hix^ly rnnfirlcAMc Alf4rncr in him of all telf* 
conKrlniniiiTiA. Onr prrrcivcd ni oner thai hr nr**^ fhoiiaTil 
of hk& ovn varied knowledge or cl»i imdlociT t>i* solely nn 
the sLib}f;i:i in liaatL Aooiherchami, vrfakh must have»cruck 
evi-ry ut^v. h;i9 Lhal hit manner <u uld und dittingtiislicd 
pi^rHJriH :JaU Eij the yoiin^c*! tludcni vhah «^t|y the Mme ; 
and lo all he ihovcd the mmc umning courEei/, He wuulU 
receive viih intrrfit the caoit uiAinj^ obfcrvaclori in apy 
branf^h of nnturaJ history ; and however >h»urd A blunder one 
might makr, he poinrcd if ont »o elearly rtnd kin<1ly, that one 
led him no way d»hcjrlened, but ooJy daennineil to l>e 
more accaratv the next time. In ihott, do man could be 
belief fornicd lo win the entire conlidrncfl of the youn^i and 
10 encou'Ajie them in thdr piirtuita. 

<* Hii leccurca o«k Boiaiiy were univervTIy |wpnbr, and aa 
clear n« <tay1rght. So |>r>pular were they, that wrrol of th( 
oldijr im-mJn^' uf tbt Univcr^nj Atlcndfid tuecmive couree^.' 
Ohce eveiy week hr; kept oj^en linubc in ihe evonia^ an<t all 
wlio cartd for oatund history 4Ltended theic pariict. which, 
by thus favouiing inteT'Comtnunicitioo, did iht unk? good in 
Ctmbriflge, in a very plejvvaht manner, at ihe Seicntific So- 
cictiei d;> in Londrin. Ai ihcw. panics mnny of thr moac^ 
diwinguisbed member* of ihe Univcnity ocefliionnlly ailcnd* 
ed ; and uhcn only a fe* wi-rt; prc^wnt. 1 have li&teneO to 
Ihe grc4t men of ihi^^e dayi^ tonverMnii on JlII tO:U of huh- 
jeeti, with the mott varied and brillianr potveri, Thii wa4 
no *m^ll adv,infHEc lo lome of the youngicf men, ai it »(innt- 
laLed their men [;i1 acrlvky and am^iition. Two or three t[mc« 
ID euch session he look eicuniohf^ wUh hh hotaniral class ; 
eithtfr a (ung walk to the habitat of some rare planr, or in a 
bar|(c di>*i\ Ihe river to Ihc f«ny or iQ coaches to tome 
mare diiuni place, aa io Gamllnjtay, lo ace the wild lily of 
the valley, and to cntch on (he heaih the r,irc nattef-Jaek- 
TheMr eKfuraronA have left a delightful hnj^ruiiori on m.^ 
mind. He vm, on 9uch occaaionH. in a^ |>ood npiriU av • 
boy, and laughed at hcwtily ai a boy at the miMdvcnture* 



or ihwe vrho chutd Ihr tplcndiU awallovuil buUcrflres 
Acrcni the brukcn iuid trc.icltcrOMii fens. He ii&vd lo pauM* 
every Dftw ntiil I hen fo lecture on wmi? plant rtf othrr olijt'rt; 
Ljnd lonitthmg ht? could idl uu nn cvcrry insi^ct, ahcW, ^ir foAi^il 
4Xil]ccied, for hi faad ;Liii!ndcd to ci^ry brunch oi' natural 
hiitoi^. Aiwi u\iT Oay'b wurk vrc Maed to cliac il wiin? 

ftll vho joined thcic ^xciirsioni will 4grce wiLh me lUaE 
IhcT have left in enduring imprcuion of delight OD our 

"At time pnnacd on At Cambridge 1 hmimc vrry Fnii- 
matc wiih ProfHsof Hi-nslow, and hia kindnc&« vor un< 

bouoded ; he coaiLiiuaJIy ^tskcd me to hii houte, and allowed 
■1n« to jU'^omjMny Uun ia hh -viiUi, He t:tlkt^d ijn ull sub- 
ject*, including hit deep scnac of religion, and wh^ entirely 
ic-a. I owe more Ihnn I can express re thh citcllcnt 

"Duritifit the ycnri^ when T nssoriated so much with Pro- 
tttiu>r HenMow, 1 never aacc &aw hh t^nkfjer even niffled. 
He never iQok a.n ill-natured view ni any one't churacttr^ 
though very Tar from blind to liie foibL-soE olliert. It alwajPS 
airucL me lliiil hi» mind coLild not lie even lourhcd by anjr 
paltry feeling of vanity, e^nvy, or jenlnu'v. With all Thit 
equ.thiliiy of temper nnd remarkable benevolence, there w»* 
DO in^iipidity of chflracter A m;in niusi have been blind noi 
lo tuve ptrvcivcd dut beutfuth Ihi* placid entiatiur there wax 
A vi)^orou» And dcicfmincd wdl- When ^jriiiciple cnjue iniu 
plijr, no power oti eitith could hive turned hiai one hatrV 
bmdih, , , , 

' Reflecnng ovef hi!i eharnrter wuh Rrariiudc And icver- 
ICC, hifi mural aitrihuies is (hey fthould do ia the 

hcvt chAiact^r, m pre-emini.'riie ovvr his intellect." 

In k leller !■> Rev. I,. HlumcricM (J^'^V"*). May »(, i86>, 
my lather wrt>ie with the «mc feeling* that he had cxprctted 
in hi* letters thirty yean before :— 

*' flhJink yoii moNl ninrercly for yonrkind prewnt of your 
Memoir of Hennlow. 1 have lecid about half, a)^d ix htu 


interei^tvd nic much, i did oal think ihAL J could hav« 
vencrjicd him more thxn 1 did ; but yQtiT book hu even 
txaltcd hw chirBcl^r m my rjrct From rtirnlnu ovi.t !hc 
pji|Co f>r thr latter half, I >hoiild think ymir if^oimi woiikl 
bf invahinhlc lo any clergyman vha wUhcd lo fallow poor 
drar Hcnslov's nuhTc cumplc- What an aiimixal>lc man he 

^I'hr |£CD]<7gititl work iiicriUontrd in ihc ijuoiation from my 
f^ll^cr'fi (roLket-took wu doubcUv of imporUnce at living 
him some prxctical experience, ind pcrhAps of moic impor- 
Uncc in hclpinK M fiiv^ bim <i<tmc conAd^rcc in hrmBcir. In 
July of ihz tame yt-uT, 1S31, he wa* '^worhinji like a liipT 
it CicoUigy, And crym^ (i> aistkc a map of ShfLfirthtrc, tmi noti 
AndJng it *'at ea«y u I tiprcfed." 

In writing to Henittow about tlic sicic Limt?* h« givei lome 
account uf hi* work ;^ 

" I fchouM U^xc vtTtitcn xn yiiu u>mv tinif iffo, only I *a% 
determined to wnit for the : linometer, and I Am very glad to 
uy t (hink i( will amn'^rr adnkiMbly I pin nil the UUei tn 
my ]jcc1ri:>r>m at c^'L'ry rnnceiv,ilj|<; Jtngk ind ilireclion. I nilt 
ventufc to any I have- mcuuicd ihcm u accurately ns Any^ 
gtfologiht going could do .... I have bceti working at hO 
m.-vny fhinp (hii I have not got on much with gcirtojj'- I 
tOhjiprf thr first riprditiftn I take, clinomctcf and hammer in 
hand, wR] Hcnd mc bock rcry bale wivr and a itood dfdl 
mwc pufiled than when 1 sUrted- At yei I hctvc only in- 
dulKCd in hy^{^|ht-)iL-'>, but Ihvy are such powerful oaa Ihal 
I ftupprpM, if they were put inlo aclion for but one day, thv 
world would come 10 an end,'" 

He was tvMenrly molt keen to get to work with Sedgwick. 
for hf fl-rfttp 10 H<-nibiw ; " I hj^vc nof bcatd from Profettor 
Sedgwick, >o ] nrri afinu! he will nrjl pay the Severn form** 
tioni a vitir. I hojic 2nd trud vou <liJ your hehL tu urge 

My father ha» given in bi» Retollectioni some account of 
thj« Tonr. 

There too wt fcad of the projected exfunion to the Car 

nAric^ ftf which sligKt mpnibn occun in kttcm lo Foi and 

IcL Ajjtil jSji lie wiitcs to Fun; ** At i^rtsenl I t:i1k, 
thinlL And drtjm of j Khcm? 1 huvt: ulmual hatched nf gvm^ 
to the Canary IsUndi. J have long had a wish of Ktiiig 
|TOl»ir.Jx! ^rrncry .in^l vrj(Hi»t(on, nn^. .ir rnnUng Tn HumMdC, 
Tcneriffc is a vtty prcEiy spcdmcn '* And again in May; 
" As for my Caniiry sclicnie, ii is ta^h of yuu Lo asW niiicstiom; 
niy olhtff I(ie)i<Ja must sincerely wi&ii mc there, I pliiguc them 
flo with ulLing -ibout tcopiuir auenccy, &c- Eyton will go 
next £ufnm?T, tind 1 acn I^Aining Spanish," 

I-attr on in th'_' summer Ihc tchcmc took more dtnnit* 
form^ ftad the dale seems lo have been fixed for June, i8jB, 
He ipjt information in London hIiqliI paH^age -money, and in 
July mat working M Spanish and Ciitling ¥<i\ " un grandftimo 
leltron/' in prooE of hi^ knoA'lcdge of the Un^uagc; ; which, 
however, he touad "iniensdy stupiJ/' Bui even then be 
Kemfttohjtvc hAd wmc Joubit abcut his comp^nionA' (CaT, 
for he wriict to Hcniilow (July xj, i^^i) ; ^' I hope yoa van- 
tinue to fan your Canary jirdoLir. I md and re-rciitl Hum- 
|boldt : do you do the s.ime ? I am sure noihlnK *itl prevent 
Ui weing the Git^t LlM^n I'rec," 

Genlo^'rjil work and TcneTiffcdream^farrfrd hlmthrauifh 
the Knmmer ttll on irmrning from Rnnnmilh for thr ^crcd 
r« Oif ScpTrmbcr, he received the offer of appoinimeQi as 
NaiuraJiM lo ihe Sfti^U. 

Tike fijllowiLijj; extract from the pockf t-b;^k wilt tur a help 
in JCJdjfij^ tUe leiU'ri ; — 

''Returned to Slutfw»bury at end of AugusL Refuied 
offer of *oya(;c. 

" S^/ttirm^r. — Worn lo Mncr, returned with Uncle Jo»- lo 
Shrewsbury, thence lo Cambridge- London. 

** tiA4,— Went with Cdpljin Kitx-Roy in ♦Icamir lo Plym- 
outh to see ihc fff^x^f. 

*' stnJ.—RttarnrA fo I^hrewibtiry, paaiing through Ctn- 
t) ridge. 



£TaT, 9>. [iri}i. 
Si ays J in 

"Ottobtr swj/,— Took leave of my liomt-- 

"74/*.— Reached Plymoulh. 

" Ofiahfr ttHit XfJt^mhr. — Theae mnnihs very rrlicrable. 

*' Dciem/vr i^th. — Snilcd, ha% were obliged in ptil haft, 

"titf.—V\.\i tj sen :ieiun, and wcfc driven back, 

" 17/4^ — SiikJ truiii Kn^unii ua our Citcumniivigniigii." 

7 5;iSvIk Sut«(, P«U Man Em. 

My dfar Henslow, 

Captain Kit£'Ki>v in going out to lurvcy ihc louihcrn 
ctjaat i]f Tierra dtl FufgOj and afli^rwiirds to vtrit many of 
the South Sea l&ljin<|H, and to R-Tnm by ihe Indian Archi- 
pd^go. The vessel j» Ailed oui rxjireihly for acirniific ym- 
pij«es« cotnbmcd with the lUrvcy ; il wiU (uraish, thcfefore, a 
ra/c opportunity for a lUtnnlial, and it would ht a. gte^i nii>- 
forrune rhnt it >ho(tld he b*t. 

An offer ha» been mndc lo me to recommend a proper 
|»cr^n to go out ok a nuiumlist with this enpedition \ he will 
be treated with ewty cuubideiallun. The Captain in a young 
man of very pleasing jiiuniiciT< (a nephe^^ of the liuke uf 
Grftfton). uf gival nal 111 hit profcuioa, and who ifl very 
highly ipoken of; if Leonard Jenyns could go, whm treasures 
he Tnighl hrinjt home mith him, A?t Ihr »htp would be placed 
M his dispo^jil whenc^ver his mqutrlrA made i( nrrcusjiryor 
desirable. In the absence of so nccompLi^hed a nainraJiat, « 
ih^fD any \}vt^i>u ^vhom you eould 5tro>ng]y tecum ULt'od ? he 
mueC be &uch u person 4^ would do credit to uitr iec;ominenda- 
cton, Do think of th!« iLiiltject, it would he a lerioiit Ioh ca 
the cflu*c of niicural science if lhi» rtnc opportunity wni lost 
• • * • • 

* Fomtrly Dmi oI Ely. ind LaMrndHn rpafrtHr of AittOiKiVT 




The »hip fifiil* ahoxn the <?nH of Scpti^mh^. 
Writ? imnivdiutcljr, .-ind lell mo what cui h<? dont. 


My dear HcilhIow, 

Mott Iruly ycunt, 

^. 5, JftHs/tfw ill C. Darvfin, 

My DBA* Davwim^ 

B«forc I totcr upon ihc immediaic buBitn?» of ihii Ict^Pt, 
kt Ui condt'lc logclher up>?n Ihc lots of oui iiii^siiinabk friend 
fNwr Rttniay, OE wIton;: d<:Ath you h^ve undoubtedly heard 
lonit before Ihi*. 

1 will not now dwell upon <his painful lubjf^r, ni ! ahfiU 
hope to <i» you nhurtly, fulTy fupcciing thut you will rag^rly 
(^alch ai Ibf t»f!cr whiiJi ta Itkdy lu bt? madr yi^iu of a. triji to 
^Tlcfm d{:l FuL^g^r, anil liomi: by the EasI Inilii^s. I liave tjcen 
ikcd by Peaiiock, who will read and fotwurd iKii to you from 
London. 10 Ttrcommmd hini H N^iluMlidL xt compAnton to 
C^ttiain titi-Roy, employed hy (iaverntnent lo uirvty tht 
miithenx cutfcmiiy of Amcricji. I h.ivp alnierl thirt I rnntirlrr 
you 10 be the bvst qujUficd pcraon I know of who tit likely ro 
u&dvrluke such 4 eivii^tiun. J bUEc ihi» not in the supposi- 
tion ot youT being a fimiA^if n^tuiAliU, but u» imply c)uvti(Led 
ior coUccTmj(, obNcrvinu, snd nolitig. Anylhinfl worlliy lo he 
noted in S^Uirnl Hi*iory. Prnrcnk lh<: uppoinimi^ni Jt 
hii diiposal, and if bv cjntioi find a man witling tn lahc the 
oiFicr, the ^ppurLuuily vdl prubably be Ivit. Cdp1;iin Filt- 
Kvy wanu a ma.u (I undcThUud) more jlh a couijmiitifn than 
A mere coUe^tor, and would not Uke any one, however good 
n naiuniH^U who was not rrcommc^ndtd to Mm lik^wiii? 11 a 
grMUman. PftTiicuTari of ftiliiry, ifc, I know noih[r>^. The 
voytgc is CO ljt»t iwo ycarK, and if you takv plenty of boEikt 
vrith you, anything you please may be dune^ You ivitl have 
Ample opportunJiiei at i;om[nand- In shoti. 1 suppose there 

l68 AlTO|JlTME>rr TO THP. 'BCaGLE.' -fiTAt. aa, Eiiji. 

sff^T vas a finer cl)anc:c for « mnn of jc^I aikI tpirii ; C«i>- 
uin Fiu-Roy tt a young ma[L What 1 ^ibli you 1o do is in- 
suotly to 4:ome and consult wflh Pcarork (nt Nc>. 7 Suffolk 
StT«t. Pjxl! Mail Riisi, OT cltt at ihc UnivcMiiy CUiU), and 
karn funhof pariiculara. Don't pui on any mo^icflt dnubt* 
nf ftirj :ibout yum disqu^ilili^uliudbr for I JUttLirr you I think 
you ate xU<i very muu ihcy 111: ui hc-irUi uf 1 bo cunucivc yc>or- 
mU 1o \tc tapped on the shoulder by your bum-batlid xad 
ifTcctionatf frii^nd, 

J- S. Hbmslow. 

The cuprdition is to sa.i1 on }5th September (at cArlicAt). 
so thifte 19 no time to txr lo»L 

Mr i>TAii Su. 

1 rcctircd lli^nilow':! letirr bat nrght loa Uu to forward 
it to you by the ln^^^ ; a eirGumttanc:c which I do nut re^^n^t, 

il biut ]£ivcn mc an opj^orcunity of uri^inn; Capuin Heaufoft 
the Admiralty (llir Hyijroitr.iphcr), and of to him 
tlic offer which I hjive to make to you. lie entirely approve! 
of iif and you may comidcr the lituation as at your abwhitc 
di»po?iil I tniHt ih^i yoM wHl arrcpi if, n h i» ftn rtpj>oTiu- 
niiy whkh fltioiild not hi^ lom. and T look forward with great 
inicreni to the henclit whkh our colLpcctioiu of Naiurul His- 
lory may ri-ctfive from your lubors. 

Thu tircHiiihlJEltri* iiri." Iln'hir ;— 

Capuin Fitx-Koy {a nephew of the Dukeof Grafloo) >aiU 
U tb* end of Scpiembcf, in a »hip to lurvcy. in the lirsi in* 
stance, th<r South CoJi»r of Tierra del Fnrgo, nftcnvardu to 
vibil the South Si.-a thlandh. and to return Uy ihi^ Indian 
Archijwlago to Kngland- The enpedition '» er^lirety fed *L-i- 
catiti^ purpO!4e^, and ihv ihip will genrtAlly wait your Irinure 
(or rc«e-^rche« in N:iliiral Lli^l^ry. A:^:- OpUni Kit*»R*iy i* a 
publir-flpmted and icalouA oMecr, of ddijChiful mannerly and 
gireaily beloved by all his brother oAiceri. He vent w^th 





Capinin Bect^hcy,* nnd tptfnt^jfoo m linnging oVL'r and 
education at his dwd i:h.iTi;« ihtcc tijiivtb of ?^uginiia- He 
CDfjilEOi M hii n*n <')ijH*niir nn anifit Jii j^sof^ a yc^r to fCO 
wJlh hiffl. You m^iy hp mf^» Ihrrrfnrc, nf having a very 
iplcAULnt compinifin, who will enter hcamlj- into nil your 

Tlic «liiji *ixih 3I.HK11 \1iL' t'tifl of Svpleiubcr, ancl yau must 
loM: no lime I'l m.ik.iLig l.ium[] vour uccvpluiKt' Lo C^ipl^iin 
fieiuEoit, Admirahy llydroguphcr. I liavc liLtd ^t );wKt dral 
of correspondence abom th[» matter [wiJh Ucnilow?), who 
frcl\ in common wifh niy»clf, the ^ititeil anxiety that you 
flh»Lil(4 go. I hojii< ihai no other nrrnngeirtenu ore IJkdy to 
interfere with it, • • • * 

The AdiiiirAlty are not <Iifpoaed lo give > salary, though 
they ^ill furniih you whh stn oITicIa] .tjipoinlmrnt, asd every 
imodaiion. U a vibry ihniild be rei)ulrcil, hcri*cver, I 
uK'lineil to think ihai Et would hn granted^ 
BgIlcvc me, jny dvjti Sir, 

Very truly ycnitt. 

Mv DCAiE Six. 

Mr. Prflcoek'a Icnrr omvcd on SolurOay, and I rtwrcived 
loic yesterday evening A% Tar m my r^wn niiiid h con; 
^ccrned, I shruMi I think c/rtittn/y, touitL j^laUly Unw uticiilud 
Ihtf oiJiiurlunily wlwi.]i you <o iLtndJy have offered me. But 
mj r«tbcr, Jilihough he do" not decidedly "cfw'^e m*?, ^ivn 
nub itronp; advice ^|E;.iin«t J^oin^, Ibnf T nhouM not he com- 
fortaibte V T diet not rollo# It. 

My f:uher'b ol>]ei:(lonR are thoe; the unlittini; me to 

■ Poi'lkHhvjr' mU 'Kiflff-' I Ju bdE find ihe nooif Fili-IUjr in tJic 
Ihi &f Unchcj't rtHi<0rk Pie Pucj^iitt wen bnughi back tf^m Cnpiiirn 
Kl>^« V4yifiv . 

1-0 APIXJlNTHfrtfT TO THE 'BltAGLE/ *TAT », [rtji, 

ititTo down an a Clcrirymftn, fny littlf liftliic of MufiirinR, M^ 
^At?rJtMsj *>/ iAe rtwir, jinj tlic thfliiccfjT my nui fcuiliim Ca;»Uin 
til«-Kvy, ii ii certainly a very kHoui aI>)cclion. the wry 
fthori lime (or all tay prcpJtraHon^ iv nnt only body bin mind 
Viinis making up Jot ^iirh an HnflfTiaPiinj;. Uni if jr had noi 
hi^^ fctr my fnthcr I wouM hnvc laknn -ill riAki). What wa* 
the fcnson thni a Nammlin wn:i not long ngn fined upon ? 1 
am very xnnch obliged for iht; iroublc you huvi; had ahaut if; 
IJi^rtr cvminly cuulJ n*ji h.ivc 1>dc(i u b«ltvf up^ituniiy, 
* * * • ■ 

My trip with Scita*i*^k ^nnwcfcd mosl perfectly. ) did 
not hrar of |H)r>r Mr^ REiiiiA-tyV lo^a till a fi-w d:iyo bcfun* 
your Irttvr. I b^vc b^cn tucky hubl^^lc> tn never luhmg any 
person for wtHjm I ha*! any c^^tecm or aHeciion. My dc> 
quamt;inrv. aUliougTi virry sbori, wai »if]ii;icnl 1o girc me 
ihijAc fcrrlin^K in :i grn-iT degree. I can hardly tn^Lv myself 
believe he a no more. He wiu the fjneAl chusccer J ever 

Your* moat tinccrcly^ 

My deaf Sir, 

Ch. DAitwrv. 

I hnw wriUun to Mr. Pi-acutt, and 1 mrniioned that I 

have wkcd yifu ty tonj t*rie line m itic uhunt-c of hi* not 
p^lTinjii my leUer, I hjvc alto i^kzd hiin t<t evnimMnrc^U 
with t*;i]-iiftin Kit f -Roy. Kvcn if I wai to go, my fjEhei di*- 
liking would Eftk^ .iw^y aM rnrrj^y* «nd T tliriuld iranE a p:tod 
rtotk of ihflr. Agnin I mu*r thjink you, Jt ndrt^ a lirtlc w th* 
h^jyy buL plvfuant load of ^ratiiudc whicti I nvre ta you. 

C. Darufin i» /?. Jr. Dartt'/'i. 

Mv PIT*!! FaTHUB, 

I am ofMid I am ^iriK to make fou afain very tineonw' 
fottable^ Butt ii]ion confidcraiion. T ihmk yon will eifu»c 
me once again, «iaiin( my opbloni on ihf offer of the 




vo)a]£«. My cxcure and rmvon in the dtfFercnl «ay aX\ 
Ihc WcdguojJi view Uic tubjfct frotP whul ;?oa autl my 

1 kftw given Undc Jon' whar I ^cn-cnily rnin in an 
WTCuroKUirlfLjIHtitoif youTobjcciiunif. intl he h kind cirfiugh 
hftgiif lii^ o|f]in<^ii>i irii aU, Th« Ijkt stti^ hih uiihwi-r>i wtll btf 
cndoi^J. Hut in^y I beg of you one favour, tl vnli be dtmig 
me Ihc gwiilnl fcindncsi, if you will itnJ mi' a decided 
An^Nvct. yri or fio ^ If ihr I^IIct, T -hmilcl hf? mo*l nnyratcfHl 
if 1 did not implififly ylM to your bcu^r jiidgmi-ni, Hti<! ia 
the kindtf^i indulgence you have ftlicmn mc bU ih rough my 
lifr ; end you may rely upon it I will tn-ver mcniion ihe sub- 
ject «j|EJiin. If yotir ;i»b'Mr4'r should be yo%; 1 niii jju difecLly 
tu Hcnilow and uinKult duUbcr^tcly w^h him, uiiti then couio 
ta ShrcH'hbiiry. 

The dnnger appcir* xo mc and all ihe W^djvvoodt not 
gmL The cript.'nie cannot be lerioiii, and thu limt? I cIa 
col ibink, anyhow, would bt ntorv thrown away than if ] 
Uaycil at hoint". lUit jiray do no! ron'^Mf r that 1 nm vi bent 
Ml foing that ] wutiEd for oni: Af>iiji'f> mamrrU hi-'^il^klr;, if yi)u 
tboufihi chat after ii diurt period you thould continue un- 

I miifli JiKftin «Fjiir T c^annoc Ihink >t would unfit mo here* 
iftef Cor B. Ktcody life, I dn hopo thin Irttcr wit! not gfvr ynu 
Btuch uQeafiinesis. I send it l>y the car tomdrtowmAminfi; 
if yDu iiu1(c up your minil ditvitly wdl you send me an answer 
on thclolJowmndjy by Ihc^jruc tiivi^nnf If Unnliftter diiiufd 
not Find yoH Jt home, I hope >ou wdl anhwci x^ Mtx'ii ^« you 
ronvfrii^ntly ran. 

1 do not kru^w what (n *fty nhntir ITnclc Jo»' kindncsi; I 
never cin forget htiw he intcrcstfi himwif nfioui me. 
Btfheve mc, my dear father. 

Vo^t ifleciiocuCe &on. 

* J«i4h tVfd^jwocJ, 


[Hcip foUofM the lilt of objcftionn whith are refcitnt lo 
in the follovrins Idler ;— 

(r) DiHiBiJuUWc lu my thiractcr ak > Clcrgyniin hero* 

{3.) A wild schcmc- 

(^i) Thjtr thry miint hnvc rtffrrM in many nihrni before 

mc (hp plant of Natiirnhsl. 
(4.) And from tti not being actrplfJ tlK^rt muBl be some 

Bcnoiib ubjtiUiijii lu the VL'Vbcl ur cxiJirdiuon, 
(S^) TEiat 1 tihi>uld (iGVCf MctlLc di^wn (0 a steady life tirit* 

(6.) Th.iT my acccnnniodntions would be mosi uncomfon* 

{7.) That you [f>, Dr. Darwin) ithould tonMclcr it u again 

cliangiitg my protwiun- 
(S,) Thai it woulU hv A uidcn uadciUkmj^,] 

I fed ihtf rcHpoi]?»tlility or your applicaiiun to mv <iii ihv 
oflcr Ihat hai been made lo Charlet at being weifthiy^ but j» 
you \\yit d^iited Chorle* to coniulE me, 1 c.innot rtfuie to 
|[ltc iht rcAulror anch eori«idcmi^on a« I have liccnnhleio 

Ch.irlri hai put doM-ti whm he conceiTe* 10 be your prin- 
U|>iiL cibj;^tma-(, und t Ihmk the bt-cl courve 1 can Ukc wiU 
be 10 iitalc whiit vi;i;iir^ tu iiiv upotJ eiu:U trl IliviiV 

I. I ihouM tioE ihint Ihat it would be in any degree di<* 
rrpiiuble ro hU f^hArnrtcr hi j1 Clcr]^inAn. I flbniiM on the 
contrary thmk the onvf hononmblv to him ; and ihe punuitof 
Naiuni History, though certainly pot prodeuiutiAl. \\ icr^ 
iniUUe Id A clefg)Tnan- 

±, I hardty know hour to meet ihi* objection, but be would 


' lo C. Dwwln't vTllInit 





have deflnucobjecU upvn whkU lo employ hiiu^elf, and might 
ftoqiurcAod iitengtb^n h^Uu »fup[ilii:aiJoiit;tn<I t should think 
vould be a* IJkcly 10 do lo -n in fln>- w,iv in whkh he is Ukcly 

3. Thf n<^iion did not ornir 10 mc \r\ reading ibc Icifcraj 
And on reading ihcm again with that objcn in my mind 1 son 
no ground for il 

4. 1 ^«ni]ut i;oi]cmv0 ih^i the Admiralty wuultl bcnd uut 
« biuL vchtcL on fru<h a service. ,li Lu ubjcciioiii^ 1<t the expc- 
dilkm, they wjII diffci in each taaa'i c^sc, and DOThing would, 
I thJnlc, \k infrrrcd in Charlci's cast, if it v/ftc known ihjtt 
olhr»hAd objmcd. 

J, Vi»i are a tnuuh hietltr jyilgi: u[ Charles's <:liaraoicr 
thici I can Lfc. Jf on comparing tUis mode of fci^ending ihe 
next two years with tht wjy in whkh he will prc^bably spend 
then:], if fic tXoei not ai^repC \]\h oRcr^ yon thitA him mure 
likely ro bf? rcnder^^d unsteady and iinnble to ieltk» k is 
undoubti^dly a WL'igHty obji^rium. Is it not lh<^ cast: that 
toififrs are prone Irj iieltJc in domestic and quiet babi^^ ? 

6, I can form no opmion on lht& further than [hat ifap- 
fwinl^ by Ihc Adminlty he wdl Imvc h clhiim lo be at well 
ACcommodHiled 4& the ve^tcE will aIIow. 

7. If \ saw ChorioH now flbsotbod in prrtfirmSrtn*! «iidiM 
I should probably ihint ii would not be advisable foinicrnipi 
them : but this n nui. ami. I think, will nol be the case with 
bhn. Hift picheni punuii otknowlrdg? 15 in the mine tiiK'k 
M be would biJve to follow in the cipcMiititrn. 

Jk The vmdrrthikinft would b« Ufclcii as regards hit pro- 
CrMlon^ but lookinj; upon him an a man of enlflfged L^iTii^iriiy, 
u aflfordK hitn such nn oppormniry of riceing men iind ihin^ 
«s hJppetiH to few. 

You will beu in mind that I Jiavr had vvry tilde time 
fof eoni ^deration, and th^t you jnd Charlcft arc chc pcnoai 
who must dcfidc- [ am. 

Uy deaf DoctoCr 

Affectionately youn. 

Ij^ APPO!NT«EWr TO THE 'IIE.MiLK; .^TAT tt. pSji. 

C. Darwin fti _/. ,S". /^/iw/tW, 

[fiepi flj. rtji. 

1 .ini jii&t acrivcd ; you will gueu ihr rc^oti. Mf 
farhcr h/ii 'hiingfd his mirnL I ttu^l the pLicr i* not ipvrn 

r am vpfy rnTjcU fn^iigiicd, nnd om going io bi^I, 
I dure? T^uy yuu havt not yci gui tiiy scfjond kiEcr. 
How koon kholl 1 come <d you in the morning.' Send 
a vcrbd answer. 



As JL Itttcr would not have goni; yei>[crday, J put otf 
writing till lo-day. 1 had r;ith?r a wcariion^c JournGyt but 
got inlu Ciimbfidgc vvry frvsli' 1bv whi;i[? ol y»t«rid«y 
I tiiWTit wirb Urnilnw, thinkmR nf what in to he done, and 
thfll T finfl in n ^vni ftcal By ^rcAL ^jood luck t knnw a trtiin 
cf ihc name of Wood, nrphcw of Lofd liOndnndcrry, Hr !a 
n great UIkM uf Cttplain Fiu-Ray. and has vrittcn to him 
about mu. I bvurJ « purl of Captixn Fiu-Roy'« kttvr. daicd 
touic Itiiic J)(o, It] M'hicli \\ti hiky% -. " 1 have a riblbt good hct of 
oihccTi, and mod of my men have t>ecn Ihcie l>cfC'T«." It 
sttras hr Tin been thcfc for ihc U»i few yean : he was then 
second in roinm:ind with the mith- vmnel th*t he hai now 
fhoAcn, He ik nnly tweniy-ihrcc yeftr« aid. hui [htis] f»ctn m 
deal oE srrvicei and won the gold medal iit Porumotith, I'he 
Admimlly lay his map aie mo»t perfect. He had choice of 
Iwtt tetneU, ;ind ht clioie the smallest. Heiialow w-ill give 
me lericrt (■> all tfavelieri in town whom he lbLnk« may 
atm\ me. 

Peat-oelE haa sole appoinrmeni of Naiuralitt The 5nt 




pcnon ofTcrtd ira» LconArO Jonyni, who was $o near dcccpt- 

ing il iJiar he pcitkf^l Hp hi* clorhc*, Hut having [a] IJviijg, 
he did noi think it right to knvc ii— » the grent rngtct at 
all hU family. Hen slow himself was noi very fnr ffom acct-pf' 
ing it, foi Mrv HcDilow mo-st gi^ncrourJy, and wjihnui hdnjt 
atltcJ. yavc her con&^nt ; but aha looktd w misvrnblc (hat 
Jlcntli^w AL UJice KE^UEcd iLtc |juini. 

* * • « * 

I Ma Afraid thcrr will be a good deal uf ctpcniic flt fir»t, 
Mi'TuJiiw i* much rtjpiinitt f-tlcina many things; it "■ [ihc] 
miftuikc nil ymmg travdh.T» fall Inio I wntr ^* if Jt wah 
sciilcd. but Htnalow iclla mc *v (V m/any lo mnkt up my 
mind till i have had long cotivctiaUon> with OpUiin^ Beau- 
fort and Fiu-Roy. C«»I-t>yc. You will hc*r from mc con- 
Kawly. Diicct ij Spring Gardens. ?W/ n^My in S>hro[i- 
Mrt jtl'L Be 4ure not 

C. Dakwiw. 

I wii «o lired ih^i cwtning 1 w« in ShrewnUity that 
1 tbji>l£i:it Tinno of you for your kindni'SA half ao much as 
I f*-TJ 

l.ovi- 10 my father. 

The rcaum I don't warn people told in Shropihirc: in 
case T should not go, it will mirke it more f^at. 

I havtf fu litlT^ ttiiiv to ipare that I have tioii* iv wau^itr in 
re-wnlinti Miurx, «u (h^t you munt cxcuie my tmrtginji uji the 
other with me and altering it- The liut letter wai written it^ 
the raornioR. In f^hcl middle '>f [fht'l Jny, Wnod received 
letter ffom Captaiiv Hi:»^ftoy» whirh I must aay waii Wiu/ 
ttraij^htforvafd and aentUmaaiilt^ but m> much AgitiQ«t oiy 
gtring. thai I immcdiitcly gjve up the scheme ; and Hcnblow 
did the •^vax. kaym>z iIiai he thought Pi-Jicock had acted Virj 
nwi^ in mi>rcprc«rniing t^in^ fto much. 


I ttcarrdy itioii^hc of goinfE ^ lown, hut here I am; and 
now for niorv dcuil^ utiJ much more promi^tn); anvs. Cap* 
Uin Mtr-Roy^ is [in] town, ai>J 1 [\i\e bcirn him; il l« no ut* 
atitmptinjE fo jiniUn him a^ min h a!i I feci indincd to d»>, for 
\iixt wrtnid nnt hi?lic*c me. Onr lhiii|{ I jim (vrrain, n^rhiTig 
crruld be more o|icn and kind than he vfnt in met. It Acrmih 
he had promised id uke a friend with him, wha U it) offline 

and cJintiot go, untl he only rret^iVL-d ihi: letter fiver minmci 
hcfotv 1 Kuuv in ; And Ehib iit;ikt's iIuji^k nniuli brUiT fuf jiie» 
oi wAtni of room wai one of Fux-Koy't greoiciE objeiiiion^ 
lie Ktiftn tnc to tp> fihsrc in cvfrything in his cabin if [ like to 
cnnK, iind I'vcry «i>ri of accommodation thai 1 can hn\-r, but 
thry ^ill not be nuaieroui. He tayt nothing would bv 80 
rajserable lor liim at having me ^vilH him ii 1 wot uncom> 
fortablc. ab in ja *m.i]{ vc»«?l wc m^jii be thrown togeiher. 
■nil th^iiiKht it htK duty Ut V^tc cvcrythuiK in the wor^t point 
of view, t Ihink I ahall go oq Simday to ]']ymouih to kcc the 

Tbcfp IS something moni txtrtmtiy af^rijiriive in hi< man. 
ntTK iind ^viiy of i:uming ^ttULghl lo llie jujini. Tf T Iivi^ wJEh 
him, he Anyh 1 mu*l live poorly^no wme, ind ihc |»lainc*t 
dinners. The Milu.'me i* nr>T tertainly "hj good at Peacock 
dc9rTi?H'V ('Ai>tain Fit' Roy ttdviacn mr nor |ro] mnkc up 
my mind quue yeE, but that, seriously, he thinks Ji will havi; 
much more pleuhute than piitn for nie 'I'he vnsel dnes noE 
Bikil tdl Lhv loEh of IJctobet, It ii^nUinii >,\\ly nient five or 
lijt oihcer*, &C-, but U a sinaU veucl- It will probi^ly beouC 
neftrty ihret ye.i", T ih.ill p.iy lo ^hr mew the nme m [^hel 
Cnptain dnci hlm*rlf, ^jo prr nnnom ; urn! Filr-Roy wys if 
I spend, tnr-luding: my outfimng, ^500, it will be beyond the 
ntrrmc- But now for siill worse n^ws, The round the 
worUl it not f/rAirk bu( the rliance iiioit ttttUenL Till thit 
point i% decided, I will not be «a And y<>u may belic^v, 
after the mtiny change* I have made, that nothing but my 
leamn «hsl1 decide me. 

Fiu-Roy uys tht* ilormy wa U exajq^ernicd : thu if I ^ 
not chno5r to remain wilb dirm. 1 can at any lime ^I't bome 





lo England, *o mciny vcsirltiflil ttiniway, and thni dsifinp batl 
wcAth[:r (probably twi> moT1lh^). if I Ukc X ^hall be Tcfl in satnc 
tv^ihyi tufv and iijttt! country; tiiuE J ?hall always have asaii^t' 
ani^K ; UlxI Ijc h.iB m-iuy tichfk^ iLI inHlrudicnCs Eun^ iU my 
tcfvKc; that the Icwci and chcjpci cli>titu« I lake the tjt^Ut'j^p 
Thcmannctof proc«dingwiH ju»tsuiimc. Thcyinthor the 
«b»pH ■>'><i then rfm^in f^r x foKiiighi ^1 a pbt«. 1 have made 
CiiplJiin Btaiifnn pcffcTlly iimWHlflnd mr. Hi' *jiy* if I *t»rl 
fltiii dn not go TOLind ihc world, f ihal) have f^tiod tt-Afon to 
ihinV my^eTf fkcdiTtl. I am f 'J call ihir rby after la-motrnw, 
u)id> il pUBibltJt to ruceivtf laott cvnain in^triKtiunfi. The 
wjint ot i^xjm h t1ecitliiT<Uy Llic tnOMi ^vriiuim objtrtiiou ; but 
CjtptJin ^ill-Roy (fifobaMy oivin^ to Wufjd'n Jptlcr) nctm* 
dricmmfd lo mnkc mr |a^| fomforfablc j» he pouibly caiu 
T like his mann4*r of procfcding. He asked me at once, 
**ShAll yoii bcHF Winn toli that 1 vraat thf e:ibm fo myiclf 
— iibco I want to be alonef If »l' rrtvii e:i»-h o(htr this 
way. I hcjpc wc «hall »iit ; if noL, probably we hEiouLd wi«th 
«Aeh oihcT Jtt thv dcvU-" 

We itop 1 week at [the] Midcira IiUttda, and ihaLI icc 
mmt of |thc| brs ciiit* in Smith Amcrk*, CapUin BcjLifijil 
i* dnwinp up the traeic Ihfough Ihe South Sex T -im wrll- 
in(iii [a] gfpathurry : I do nol know whether yomakc inter- 
«t cikou|(li tu extuHc XtvhXe puatuj^tf. 1 hope I judging 
reasonably, and i^oi IhrDU^h prcjudirxi ubuut Ctpl^irt KiU- 
Roy ; if to, I am »ufe we shall *uit. I dine wiili h^m lO'dfty, 
I rnutd vfTitf [*! Ru-M morr if I thoMftbl yon liked il, 
and I had at prcsfnt time There in indeed * tide in Ihc 
arFuin of tnan, oj^d ] have experienced il, and I hod AvA'n^ 
givvn it up liil line lo-Jay. 

l^ve to my father. Dcirat Su»a, good-bye. 

Cm. Da«w]m. 

173 AIPOINTMBNT TO T»ie "BKAGLE.' ^TT AT. t> Il»Ji. 

C DariBtia to J. S. //f^Aii-, 

Mv DKAU 5lK. 

Git^rm lu ^jte/fiii ik the mtii.1 iiiu^Icralc |jc|finninj[ I cm 
think of. Thinjtn iirc nii>r« iirij*ptn>n> ihfln J ihoultl have 
Ehoiighi ftnuihlc, i'njitAin h-iir.-1i\>y U c^vrrythmK thM is 
UcUkIiIJuI. U I ^n>i lu praiBV lijlf tiv tnut-b jk I f«d in- 
clined, you tti^uld K^y li via jX>i<^td, unlytmco icriii|t liim. I 
iMnk W rcnily ^iihc* to have me- Itc oHcr* me lo roir*i with 
him, and he wiii lake caic I have mrh room u ii poitihle. 
BuE tbtiut the L'iv^'H hi* vnp t niiiiLt Hmil mjrurif ; but tbm he 
thinki like a nnilor oIjoul hU^t. CijilLLin Hi;:Liil<iri ^ayn I hUjiU 
be upiiu ihi; b{>»rd». anJ (hen if will only i-Oit inc Uke oibt^r 
ttfficcn, Shij^ iiilft loth oi October, Spends a week at 
Madeira I^bndtt ; and th^n Rb <Ie Janeiro, They jU (hink 
mobl extri'iricly t^robaMc, hijnif by Ihe Indiin jwhipcbj^'*; 
but till thai ii derided^ I will not bt la 

WhAl hii induced Cnptnin Fiif-Roy lo lakr a liett^r 
view of the cair is IhaE Mr Chi'Niet, whu wu« ji'imj; Ah 4 
frirnd. tannuc t'O- 1^ ^^'^^ ' ^^^1' ^^^^ ^^>^ (jbiLe in every re- 

CApuin Fiu*RoT hai {a] gocd ttock of booki, many of 
vhich were in my li it, and rifle*. At, *(* ihat rhe c^Htflt wUI 
bf much Ten eniientivr thitn I mpposcd 

'T'hc^ vcnc\ will he out ihrec yean. I do cot objed «o 
ihoi my faihcr tioe^ nr>L On Wednnday [ have anothct^ 
iniciview with CapULin Beaufurt, MTid vu Sunday nie«i hkct 
gn wiDj Cttftaia TiU-Roy lo VlymKtuih, So I liope you vj 
Lecp on thinkina on ibc luhjcct, and iiiM keep tn^aroi 
of what may itrike you. 1 will cnll mml probably on 
Burrhell and irtiroduce mytrlf, T am in lodginftt at 17 Spring 
Oatflcnv Vo^i cu^nnoi imftKine anything more pluntnli kuid. 
and upcfi than Cjpuin Kiti-Roy"» niannvri Vierv to rne. I 
lun »ure i1 will be my fault if we do not »uii. 

What chanpt 1 have had. Till one lo^d^y ! w«i bnllding 


w. n. fo\. 


cititlvA in the ait aboiiE hiintirig fonts in f>hro]whinri now 
Uamaa in ^outh America. 

There it iadced i tide k the afipin of men. It you hc« 
Mr. Wood, rcmrmbrr mr vpry kindly lo him. 

My dcflf Hcnslow, 

Your mosi tincctc frfcrifl, 

CiiAt Dakw^w. 
iCxctiftC iTiJk ktlcr ID sm;h a hurry. 

17 Spilng DAiilrnv London, 

• • » • • 

Voiir k'Tter k?*^"^" n»t' grrai pk-aaure. YotJ canooi Inufhie' 
how murli yinir funncr ieltci aiiifcijyeii unU hurt me,* But, 
Ihonk heaven, 1 rirmEy believe ibii it was my ^'ff tntirt bull 
in HJ itircrpretin^ yuur letter. I loai a IrienJ Ihe dhcr iJay. 
And I ;1oijt>i wh^ihcr (he niorjU death (a« ) then vt-ic kf.-(lly 
jiuppoicd) of ouf fficndshipdid not grieve irnr is mufh u ihc 
Teal nnd sudden d<^flrh of poor RamiiJy. We hjiv*.- known 
ejeh other tui? lung tE> iicied) 1 trust) Ai>y muie rtpbnoiiunk 
llul I w^l iiiciilicjn JusL une thiii^ — IhuL ui^ iity dci^th-bcJ, I 
Ihint I could wy I never tticcred one iniintcfe (which at 
the lime I did not fully feel) expression abo'ii my r^jprd for 
yoil On !hin);[ irn>rc— lliL- tending imm/iUiitflv tbr Insi^rti^ 
on my honflur, wns nn unfatrimfltf roinridtncc. I forgot how 
you tiatutally would lalse ihem. When you look at them 
now, I hui'L' iK> mikmdly fevhni;^ wiD Hhc in youc miAd, Jiui 
thai you wiJL bcLicic thai you h.ivc olujiyK \\^<^ in me a 
•mcere, and I uiU add. in obhged fr:>nd. The very many 
plejuunt minurrs thai we spent trt^f'ThcT in Cijnbridj{C lot* 
lihv dcL?aned ^piritt in judgment ;t£<tin«i nic. Mjiy #c tuve 

Hr had fniiartilcnUMl t ttrTtf of Pax'i u luplflA^ ft <tiftis« of ftlifr 


l8o APPOINTMENT TO THE HEAGIJ!:.' ^TAT, tr ti*3r- 

xttany mor^ luch, will he one of my last wi!th04 in kaving 
Kngland. Ouii bim yuu, d<^ur old Fot. May you aJwuys 
l)(J happy, 

Youra Uuly, 

Chai. Darwin. 

I have Ivfl yom lctii;r behiiidi no Oo nut knuw wticihipx £ 
direct TLKltL. 

C DarK'ifiifi Mils Susan />ari^'/i. 

17 2?pi4nf Ctrdcn^ Tuc^jiy< 

MV l>fLAft SUVAN, 

Ajj^m I am goiog lo troubk you, 1 suspectiif I keep 

on ■; tliii rate, you trill vimcrcly wish me jL Ti^rrra del 
KLie£<>, Cir any other Tcf'ik, tmt hn^tlAod, pTrti J will give 
my commiHir^tn, Tell N*ncy lo maVc me *otnf twelve 
initcnd of righi Abirif. THI Kdwnrd 10 sentl mr up Jn my 
carpvl-bng (lie ciin iili[i thf kt'y in the boig tied 10 sumc 
»t<ing)> my «Upperij a |iair of Li|£litUh w-ilking-fthoea, my 
Spanish bookie, my new microscope (j.baut &ix inches long 
ud ihree or four dce^*)- which mu&t hive ccUon stuffed m- 
lidf ; my gfolngjiMl compn^t ; mv f^Ehcr knnw« thaE i a liltlt* 
book, \i I have f>ftC Je in my bedroom — 'Tflxidenny.' Ask my 
father if he thinks there would be any objection to my taking 
arseaic fov a IlIIEc time, n my hands are ttoi quite well, and 
I have uUiiyn Dbwived that if I once ^'t thtin: wkU, Jiit.1 
chMnfte my (u.iiincr of iivja^ HbouL the vatae lime, they will 
generally rcnjAJn wdl, WluE it. the dote^ Ted Edward my 
gun U ditiy, Wh.ii i» Erjsmus'i direciion ? T^U me if you 
Mitrilc fhoir i< time to write and rereivc an Annwef before I 
nan^ .11 t ahmild Ifkr pjirti/nUrly itt know what he thinka 
about iL I Kuppoie you do not know Sir J. HaduDtotb*> 
direction ? 

1 wnf? :in ih(i M if it was leidfd. but It i* n**' ^0^ *»" 
it was. eiceptirig that fr&m Capuin Flti'Roy withing me ?o 
much to go> and. from hvs kindni^«i, I feel a pr«de«tinjcion I 
ihaXi start, t fipeni a very ploaiatit evening with him yetter- 





d^. Ho tniiiit 1iL~ nkr>r\f thuE) iweTity-lhtei; y<:afb olj ; hif in 

Kynditon, and, ai^cording it» my notwni. prc-emincnlly good 
mAVincn. Hr la nil for cronomy, fxcpuHrig on one poim^ 
vit, rtrc-flrmv He recommends mc arron^ly to get i\ t-i??; of 
pi^ioU likt his. which tawt ^60 1 1 ami never in j^ on *horc 
iHiywh*fH! wittiuui loulcd um:^ and he b doubling abmit a 
tLftc; he rjy« 1 cunnul upjjrccmt^; ihc luxury of frci^li mcni 
here. US u'uim: J hh-'ili buy uuthiti;; iill tvvryiliing 15 titled ; 
but I work all (Uy luny Jl my iJ!>U, pultin^ in und striking 
oul arridci. Thii ii !hc finsl really ohetrful iby J have spvni 
linrr I KTcivrd ihc kticr, and it aJ] iii o^ma lo ihe *on «f 
invduEiUiy (confidence I pluec in my ^u ;</<'d/ of a Captain. 
Wc hU>p at Tcneriffe. His objerl is to stop a.t as many 
places a fi pohhiblr He Uki.*! rjtit iwerly rhmnomeltTN, »nd 
it wilJ be J. " ftin " nut to ictttv tlic Um^iiuUc. He eHU me to 
gei it down in writinf- ni the Admiralty Uiat I hdvc Uic free 
choice lo kavc aa «uu;i ind nhcncver I like- I dart tiy you 
cvpecc I uliall turn l}ar k Jt tlu- MaiJcim ; if I huve a moiicl 
of ilomiK^h left) I nnn't give up. Excuse tny w often troub- 
ling nnd writing : the one is of gn^fit utility, the other a grrac 
omust'TTH'nt to me. Most likt'ly I &hL>ll wrik' to-morrow, 
AuBwer by tctiirn of pact. Luvt to my fj/llicr, di.';4rvTt Suwuu 

A^ n-iy tnHErnmrnr^ viint ^hcring, Mc-nd my thtn^A by the 

'OTonian ' the Mtiw msbt. 

C DarU'ift ft' Afni Suian D^ififin. 

Lirtiduu, Friday Muntiiiu, SL-piEtj^lirt g^ iSjI. 

T have just rercivc^i thf |viTrcl. 1 4up]iMr it fn^y not d^» 
livered yc^tL-nlAy owinfi 10 the 0>Tonftiion, I -tm very murh 
obliged lo my father, and everybody eUe. EvetythinE \% done 
quite ripbt- I aupptite by thi* lime you hive received my 
Jellcr written next ^^y. ^ind J hupe will «cnd olT the Ihinjci. 
My ftffAin rcmntn ttt ttalu ^v. Captain EkAufort uyi I am 


on ihc l]<>ok« for vlrtuila, And he ihinkt ! tKill have no UlffU 
cnlty nboui m^ collcetions when I come homc_ Uul 1m b too 
deep d fi&h for mi: tu MOdLc him uui, Thv only thini^ llui 
noA i^rcvcnll luv dn^iMy ii^ukiiiH up iv.y iiund, it ihc vJiiil c>f 
t^cit-uniy jit>oul iFic SoulU Sea liUndi ; AlthoiDgh morjjly I 
hjve n<i doubl we sboiuld ro Ihrrr nrhethor or no it U put rn 
Ihc iofrimetion*. CApt^in Fk>>Koyuiy« I do j;;rind by pln^* 
ing Optain Hc'Jiufcrt, it tri» him up with x Innjj pale. Cjqi- 
Uffi Fliz-Roj sayx he ii sure he hu inicnttl cnou^ {puUca- 
larly if this Adiuinit^tnlutfi in nut everla»t(n|;— J thaill aoon 
turn Tory !), ;iuyS"». rtcn when tiut. lu [iia ihr ttiip «idcr*ij 
homt by whixlcvet trn:k he iik«i, From what Wood »iyi. 1 
prttnmc (he Diiicci of Grafton nod llkhmond inicrc« them* 
hc1t« flbont him. Bjf the way. Wtx>d has Wvn a( ih^' jtreBt- 
fit »sc! to tnr ; nnd I Am iiirr hih j»rrbOiliU iniiuiluciiun <A 
mc inc|inc>d CapLain KiE/:-Hoy to Uuvi: me^ 

To exptkm ihingt from the >'rry beginning : Captain Fiti- 
Roy Tint wished lo [uvc ^ Naturaliil. and then he xetna to 
have taken a audtlm horror of ihf chance* ot having iome- 
hof!y he thoidd t^Qi like on hoard Ihe vcucl He ronfffitiea 
hit letter to Cjmtifid|pe wai to throw coM wjitcr on Ihc tcheine. 
I ihMi'i think we ihall quarrel about polai«- aUhougti Wood 
(at mi);ht be txpcrtted Truiti a Luiidondrrry) s>lemnly warned 
KiU-Kcjy ChJt I wjiK a Whi^, Ciptiun Kili-Roj wub bcfutc 
Undc jot,., he taul, " now yout tuvtuit wiJI icll yiju a wa- 
capUin ii the grcait^ii bfijie ct) the (ace of the t:rcJtioD- I do 
not knciw how to hdp yon in \hU c^c. evcepi by hoping you 
will j[lvc me Atrial " Mnw one dor* rhanfcr? I actnnltr now 
wiih the voyage frn& longer before we lourh land- I frcl my 
blood run cold at ihe quantity I hai« to da. ETCtybody 
suciinH rc^ikly lo .iakUi me- I'htf ifw^logical want Id make me 
a corrnponding member aU (hi* I fi4n contiruci without 
rroifing ihir Er|uator. But one fritnd i; quite invAluabk:, vik.^ 
X Mr, Varrelli n a&tl4.invr, anij exoHIeni natUTJd[«t.* He gOM 

*Wi|llun \'Atn% vrill Intnm tot hi^'UMOtjnt Uriliib HLtdt' «nil 
'Hlitorj of Pl/lTtJi I'iiJirv' ^n boTO *fi 17*4. Il« lohcrllcd ffi^ro hit 




lo Ihi- (hopii with mc and bullies jhout prices (qdI itk^t I yd 

Ye>Ltcrrliy -ill Thrhhnph wtrr ahnt, no thAt 1 rnutcl da noTh- 
Injt; ani! ! wai ihild enough lo give ^i u, for an cxcdlcni 
»cat to aci^ ihe Proccicbn.* And ii ttfcuuniy w^ts vt^ry well 
wnnh aeL'iD^> I was auri^rievd tliAt 4i;y i|U4tittly of )[ulJ cuuM 
make a. Ion]/, tifw uf jjcujik' i[mte gluicr. II *m like ifttly 
what oni: *cci in j^ictuEC'lJooks of Ejsiem procc^ionf^ The 
King looked vciy veil, and seemed popular, bul (here w«» vcrjr 
;lin|« enthuiisNin; ly little lliat 1 tMn hardly thiule tl\crv will 

ft roFAnation thji time UUy ^C'sn. 

The Life (lunrdt pleaded mc as much us nnylhinj— ibcj 
are qulle mugiutkeni: 4nd it is beaiiiiful to *ce ihem clear 
I cTawd. Vuu Ihink lKa( Ihry mii«t kill * ti:vXK at leait, 
«nd api^AreMly Ihry renlJy hurc nnboily, htti nio«i dciiccdty 
frighicn ihchi- Whenever a crowd wu «> den^ie ihnT the 
people were f<>irrfd off the ciku^ew.iy, one of Ibcst? iix-fc«t 
gi-nik'nuHi t}n it bbrk hiirve, ttn\c niraiKhl ai tliu place, nuk- 
ing hih hormr riMT very Ui^K ^^t^ '^IL o» ihv ihiekuL hpou 
Vou wnuld bu^jp^c men were mode of tponi^c lo kc tlicm 
»htmk away- 

In Uic cveniiig there wai jq illuni.inatron, and much 
ICVjtndvr iban ihc one on the Reform Bill. All fhe principal 
Kfi^ru were cro»i5tfd ii.iil Ukr i nct'^ronnd. Cirndfi^i 
fnctally being clit nbrrn^E, and I will venrurr lo qay nni RW 
iDg one mile an hour. The Duke of NonhiimbeTlflnd le.imi 
tiiiKin luHl time, fur his hoiise wa-i very grand : much more 

than tlic uLhci ^reat iiitt^ilily, uud irt mui.'h twltet (Jik; 
tvtry windottf in hii home wa» lull of tuai^ht Imch ol Uilli:int 
|4f;hi«, Jind from their entr^mr regularity jnd number hjd ■ 

miiftil eff^i'l. The paUiiTy of invrnlicin wax very htriltinK, 
crowns^ nnrhors, and "U". R-"s " were repeated in endh-M 

btfior unewugcnr* faiudiici*, r& which he *1<*lilir fldheirj up Lu bu drMlk. 

■■ In hi* 7j[i! yea$-' Mr nm* b intn of « lUnniii|;*ifT amiJibEr And hDii-inn, 
fiblr rhamrir-^, unit ^^a a viliftil a'Hrf'beirFi of trvpnl of ilia Inmfd 

* riieCotODUicaivrVJiliJuiilV. 

1R4 ApmtS'TMTiNT TO TUB 'nEAUl.i:.' -tCTAT n, Ti^Jt. 

feucccviiod, Th« [ir«tLint wcrv g^vpipct wub muMX liolf* ; 
thry wrrf jtlniosi |>,4infiilly liDlli.ini I h-ivt- miifi^n id^ mm h 
Ahom the Cofonaiinnr that 1 think yti\t witl hive no ocaujun 
lo read the Mitrtiag HeraH. 

Fur JibouL Ihc fir^l tiniL' m my life J fiml I.ijHdnii viiy 
|>lca^Jn^; hiiriv, buhilc. xwS \\\i\\^ ^ic oil m uitihun t^iiii my 
fcclingt. And I h^vc plenty lo do in »p£i re momently I work 
IE AWTonomy. ^^ \ Mij^pow il would nslnunrj -» fisilor if nnr 
flEd nni kno^v hdw t'^ rinH T^ttiiiido ^n<l l.nn](iriiiTr. 1 ,im 
now going lo Captain FitJi-Roy, nod will kcjrp [ihi*] k:ter 
0|ivn ii!l evvnip.^ for^myibin^ chat m^iy occur. I will pv« 
you uni; proof of Kit^'Kuy being a goud oilic^r'-ull the ofli- 
ccf* arc the lamc *i» Ucforc ; two-lhirds of hU crew and [ihc] 
eight Tnarnc* who ufnt hcfore «U odcrnl to c<»mc Ag,iin. to 
the spfvifc cnnnoi he m vfry hjid. The Adinir'lty have ju« 
imucd ordurs for a Inr^f ^inck of fanislef-mcai dnd It'TTinn- 
j'uiec, \.'c. \r. 1 hav^ \\vr\ returned from s|>(-nding a lonjc 
day with CajitJin Kiiz-Riiy, driving ahout in hi& gig* un<l 
ihopping, Thit letter \i. too laie foi lo-day'a pmt. Vou 
tndy Lonaider it fictllcitl that 1 A^* Vrt there ii loom for 
change if any unif>wArd ji;i;idcnt ahoidd happen ; thn I e&l) 
»ce no rtnison to cxpi^n I fed cnnvinccd norhing ehc will 
alter my wish of going, 1 have begun Do ordti things I 
have iirocuftfd a caw cf ^oud airung pLtlols and an i^xcel' 
lent rifle h>\ ^50. there \^ -^ huvmit ; <( Kitud tdoi.upc, wiihc 
compau. j^5. ftcid thchc ace nearly t^ic c^nLy expeniive initru- 
mentB T ihalt wani. Cnprain Fiu-Roy hv cveiylhjn^ t 
ni?ver «aw *ri { 1 iihoidil rail, hv wfs not) cvtrftvoiE&iit a 
man. ait regards himu^lf, Inn a« cronomical lowarib me. Hi^v 
he did order ihingi ! His fire'iirmti will coil p£4<w ai Uaat. 
i f<JimU Ihi' i.':Lrj>c-L b^tj; H'ht'n 1 .irrivi<d all nb^ht. Hnd iiiut h 
ohlifitd- t <ki not tliink I ^hJll l.ikt itny Htwiiic ; nhall hcud 
panndge^ rr> Mr. VaTrelE ; much oldiged Aik Edwjird to 
AffrxJin ff'/A* Qcm^on to mnVt for my gun— /»« jr/^r/ ham- 
mera or cotk^ tu™tn^in-jipring^(wo vrt-tipring*,f(iurntpplei 
Of ptu^t — J moan one li>r eicb barnrl, except nipple*, of which 
there inuEt be two for eath, all of excellent quality, and set 





ithout (hem immedimcly: t^ll Edfltard to irakr Liv]Liirict 
about pritcft, I g9 OK Suintjty per p:ifkci tt> Plymomb, >.hi\\} 
bijiy 4>ni: nr nn> Hap, thirn rctiim, and hope in And a ktrcr 
from ynu; a frw rf.iyn in 1-ondon ; then Combridgt-, Shrcwi* 
bury^ l.onrlon, Plymouih, Mndeini, is my roui«. )t U & gitMt 
borr iny wHlEQg BO nm<:]] iiLi^mi the- U'^ioiiHtiun; I cuukl I'jII 
.inothri hlicctn I have jUht liocn with CJpuin Km^ tui- 
Koi't icrtior officer l»sl «ipediiion ■ he think* Ihat th<f rx- 
pcditinn will mir mo^ Unitkcl, hr nniil Fitf-Roy"* (frrifUT 
wan jicrfi^rt IV nm4* hi« «wn *f>n wiih him nt mid^ihip- 
man l^hi' ki>y of my mir-rn«:cipc vas forgoticn ; ii is of no 
con^icqiicncc. Love \c all. 

Chaa Uaswui. 

t; Sptibit UncOint {md hcrr 1 4»ll rrniaiii liH 1 «<*ftj 

Mr nrxn Fox, 

1 returned from my c^>cditii)n ca vc ih« Btai^lt at Plym* 

oulh cm Sitiurdfly, nnd found yrnjr moftl wdcomf lcTt« on 

my uLrlc- li is ipiitc iidiculou^ what a wry litn|- pcriinJ 

ihcir l.ibi mcitiy diyi have Ji>pc;L['i:d to me, certainly muc h 

moif thin Ai many wrcki on ordinary occ;i(ioni; ;his >vtU 

trrroiinl for my not Tccolbciini^ how much I lold you of my 


• • « o B 

KiLt on thf* whofc il L4 4 gnnd »nd forttinjilc opporhinity ; 

there Till lie *ri many ihlnf;^ to tnlcrrtf mc — finr irtTicry And 

iLn I'adlnooL'tjLipation an*! jmnscmont in fhcdiflVrcnt branrhM 

ol jNuei^iaL HiHlviy > tli'^o ngain ni^igitiun nnd inctcorDlogy 

wjU amoM tnc on th? viiyu^, jujncd lu thc' uruiid ntjUJBilv of 

Ih^r? being « plcJiual tcl uf oAir«n, jnd, sl Far u I can 

jitflii"^, Thu in ^crurn- On rh« orhcr hnnd Ihcre 11 very too* 

tidc^r.tblc rtsk to onc'4 Ijff nnd hcalih, and the lMtinf( for ^ 

veiy long a time «i mnny (ic-nplv whom 1 di-.^rly lovr, i» oflc-D* 

tkuei A fvdmg «o painiul ih»it it rcquirci .ill my uflojiitign to 

orricom? it Bul cveijUiinjj » now iinUcd, and before ttic 


186 AVTOINTMK\T TO THE -nKAGl-JL' .tTAT. n. h»J'- 

9olh ol Octo1>rr 1 tmii to be on the brood «c«. My obJcctEnn 
If! ihr vr«rl ii it* nmnUncM, which f mtnpi one >o for room 
for jiflckina my own body and oil my cast** &c., &i:. Ati to 
iu Kift^ty. I ho]>c Ihv AdmirdUy arv the ImkI JuJ^L't^ lu a 
|jiiKthm»it~8 eye tlic l<^i>k.i vc:v hiuitlL Tshc i* a tcn-|jun Ehici;* 
iiijhlcJ tiTig, bul^ I believe, an cicclkoi tc»kI, So muth lor 
my future pbai, and now for my |irr<mt. f jpo (o-nijthl by 
tht' m-iil 10 Cjimhrida*-! *nj! fntm ihcnff, nftrr anrting my 
Attain, pmr^rd m Shrcwibnry (mnr.i likdy on Fmlny ajrd, 
or perhaps before) ; there I shall siay a few tlays, nad he 
m London liy ihe itt uf Oi:(ubcr, .uid tUn lor ?lymuutli on 
itie ylh. 

And now for ihc prineipfll pan of my letter. I do not 
IcTiow how to tell you how very kmd I ftr] youi offer of com- 
ir|i to iiv mt Uforo' f kavc Kny'^nd. IndveJ I slioiihl like 
ii vKTy mill h ; buL E inuhL icll yuu dcddcdty th-it I tUaJl h^tc 
very lilC^;: time to i^paie, iinJ that liUle t^im: will be almott 
Kpoilt by niy hjun^ bo indth to ihink iAtoxil ; unA vtcondly, 
1 can h.irdly think il woiEh your *Uik (o Icjv: your |>ariph 
fyt micK A <xn»c- lint I ih.ill never forgci meh gcneroui 
kindnetv Noh' t knov yon vill Jtct ]u*t an yoit think right ; 
bvtt do not camtt up int my «kf- Any lime it the lamc for 
me. I think from this Ictlvr you will know ns much of my 
lilnats u« 1 do myiitlft ^nd will jud|£v acL'ordin^ly tlic whvnr 
4nd ftNC]] tii wittc to inc. Kvciy iiuw And then I ho^vc mo- 
menta ol glorious er^thn^iim. when 1 thick of ihe date ind 
roroa-lfers, the [inlms ind fern? so lofty And heauliful, Cvery- 
ihinR Rtrv. everything sublime. And If I live to nee ycnrt 
in :iflef life> how grand mU'ii Mich recollections be ! Do you 
know Humboldt? {if you don't, do ^ duc]i;Uy>) With what 
intvt)>ir tiU':(>iLjr« ho appeunt always to louk b-Ji^k on the lUyk 
tpeni iu ihe Ifopii^jd countncA. I ho|Kr when you next «iiie 
<o OBmn«r>n. [you »ill | Tell them my scheme, and give them 
my kiHdrst regard* ;iT)d fniTWclN. 

Goodbye, inj' dear Hex, 

Vcur* ever ninoercly, 




1} SprifTK Gflitlrnt [October ifM^JJ]' 

Vciy tnony thaaks for your tcitvr; ii tuts mode mc mmi 
oomCorUbli;, fur u woutii liavc l>L-vn h«a|(-b^<^ilking hi have 

o( teniling Ehingt tiy tome other vcitcl. Thii Idler will, L 
truit. ^company wmc tulc I rrad yo^ir k(l«r wJihoui il- 
|irn<1ir>g In the hamr Bill 1 YiH\t aoiw |>r<K*i.iir<t v^mr frtun 
Jonri, whif-h appears very gond. nnrt [ will aoml it iUkt, rvc n- 
ing by the mail. Vou will be curprtscd ar not sceinit inc 
frsprid ft'sp'iJ inblcjd ol my hdndwiiimg, llul I haul jukt 
l0i;nd out (hit the lA-ryc (li<J not intend to sjiil 
Ml Sunday, Jtnd t w» piciiiring to rxiytcU 1 tmAll, (tiity caI^lti, 
with <hc prnprjruon of jQ^oihn of the paawnger* very tick, 
when Mr. Barl cam? in anil tuM mc the /^a^/*' would nut <a\\ 
liltlhv bfifinnrn^uf Novcnihrr. Thin, of course, ncttlcil the 
point; io that I remain in Lr>n(loii one work more. 1 hholl 
then icnil he.iv> goodi by >tciim« and ttiti myself by the 
coach on Stindjy cvcnioK, 

Wiks'ii you % good wt of mountain boMm^^iew .' Several 
grcfli ([lin* m ihc uricnilflc world hjvt told mt tomi? pointK 
in geology 10 uacerinin which i-ncii«ly depend on thifu rtlotivc 
Jioighl. If you huvr not ;l ^imjlI ktuck, 1 will kdJ (m^;- more 
1i> Uio liht, I {mjihl to Lc jkhamcd lo trouble y!>u hO murht 
buc vtll you i^M// cfff //i^ to inform me ? I am djiily becoming 
tnoft jjnxiouf to b< olT, «ji<i. if I Am to. you mutt be in a pc:r* 
fcri fcti^r, U'tiAi Ji KtorloiM 4lAy the 4th i:>f Nnvcmlwr will 
be to me ! My lec ond life will ihcn commence, and ii jhall 
be OS > biithdiiLy for ihe rett of my life. 

Believe me, deur KiU'Rwy, 

VouM mmt tincereli', 

CuAJt Daiewik. 

MtHtifay. — I hope t hai"e not put you to much incouven* 
hnc« by ordtrnng the room In readifletf, 

iSM APrOlNTMF.NT TO THE *BEAGC.£.' iKTAT- ». (1831, 

C Dnrtiifr iff /. S- /fftuMf^ 

DcvDAport. Xovvmber 15, ity, 

Thtr urdCTH arc Lumc i1(>vti frcrni the Admiulty. Ami Fwry- 
lliini; i» fin4Hy iL-lTk'd. Wc poiitivclv MlJ the bit day of ihn 
monlh. and I [hmk before thnf tinic thr vrMcl will Iw rt.ijy. 
Sht tooVs mo^t beaiidfiil, i^vrn a InnftiiFmnn m^^m mlmirr firr. 
FK- All think her iht most perfi.*cl vessel ever lurred qui of 
the Dockyard- One thing u cvrtuin. du vctisvl han hrcn liited 
out vt eJCptntLively, mid ^rlh ao much ciirr. Evt^ryl^inu tlkit 
t.iT] be midf; ai> li df m^ognny, Mid ntilhtn>[ (:Jin eu red Lha 
ncaiTiett and bcmiiy of nil the flrcmnmodntionii The in- 
itriicHons ure very gmfrrnl. iind Ifuve a great dcnl Id ihe 
Captnrn^ iliscR'tion a.ncl jud£Tm-ni« piiying n tubMflntiil » 
well AS A vuthjil i:omplimifnt to hiinn 

• « ft « * 

No vn«rl ever left 1^n|;l3nJ wJiii mch a tet of Chrgnom- 
«ttr4. vii, Twcnty-foiiT, all very good one*. In shurt, cvrry- 
ThinK U wcTl, nnd I hn*c only now to yfTiiy for the sieknru 10 
nindcraie irs firrccrew, nnd I ^bflll do very weTK Yet 1 
Khonld not vaW h onv of Lh« v«ry bevt up^iorlunilit* fur natu- 
ral \ihUify Khm hji ever 0L:eurrc<]. Vhv ninvUtlQ *'^ii( ^f 
room 11 jn evff thL-it nothing can sunnoniiL I think L- Jcnyikfa 
did very wixrly in not rtjming, that n judging from my own 
feeling*, for 1 am wirr H I had li-ft rollfjr^ virae few ye*", of 
been those ycar^ older< I Hrt^r mnM hove endured It The 
uffiLcrs [vxcepting tbt- Caplnlnl are like ihe fnsheit fre«h- 
nien, iKai ih lei ihcii m^nner^ m weryllitng el&t widely differ" 
cnt, Rcrncmber me moil kindly U> liiiii, »iid leTI hiin if ever 
he dre^imi in [he night of pjlr^'lrecs, he may in the mutning 
<;omrorl himfti'If vM\\ ihi- o^Hurani'C thut thcvoyoge would doe 
hAvc Auitvd him- 

] am muth obliged for your advice, (/<* JIathematiets . I 
Bu»p<i:t when I am iirugghug with A LriaRglc. J thaJl often 
wi«h mytclf in your room, and a% for thuse wicked ndky turds, 
I do nol know what I shall do wiihoul yon 10 conjure them. 





My time poiics Ava.y very plcnsantly, I fcnov one or twa 
pltuant pfOf>T(^p forcinn^iT of whom in Mr. Thiinder-nnd'tighi' 
niQg H-krns* whuui 1 li^rc Kty yuu Iiavv Lururd uL My t-iuvt 
^at^iloytatai ■>■ to go tin boarJ ihc Jira^Ut And try lu tuuk a^ 
imitch like a wUor 2t I cAn. J have no evidence of hiiving 
lalcea in man, womnn or thtld, 

I .tm j;i>mj; (o ask. you to do nne mort 1 ontEni^iifonp iintl I 
tnijH ic will he the Inat. When 1 wai in Combridge^ 1 wrote 
\o Mr. Ash, asking him lo send my College aixouni to my 
iJLtlier. iiftFt Eiuvin^ &ul>tracU'd jLbout ^30 for my {utniLUTe. 
'Vhis he huA Eorgc>Ucn in do, ^nd my fathuf h^ ^i^ul the LfilJ, 
And 1 want to have the Curnltu re-money tran^mttleil to my 
fiochcr Pechaps you woutd ht.- kind enough to iipenk to Mr, 
Ash. I hiive cost my fathtr »o much monty, I am quite 
ftghjtnicd of iTiy»el(, 

I will write once jgnin before s^ailiug, and (lerhaps you 
will wiiie to me Irefoie ihini. 

Remember me lo Profeuor Sediswick dind Mt> PcJitcock. 
Belief me, youn afTeciionately, 

CuA% Dak VIM. 

C Dartt'in lo J. S. ///R^fffw. 

Mv tiVAR Hcsst-nw, 

It ii now late in the evening, und tn-nlght I am going 
In ^eep c- boaml On Mondjy wc uiu^t c.-erinin]y »utl« w 
you m^y i^CBif in v/U-A * deJtfieiitEe htjic ut uonluLiun vfc me 
lU in. If you were to hear the vfltioui exclamAtiani of th« 
officer!, you would mppoie we had srsrrHy hsi*! n week"^ 
DOfice. lam jnsi in Ihe wmc wny tnkcti nil *iVji'-*, :ind in 
KUfiih n biiAtI? T hardly know what to do. The niunher of 
thirt^H to Le ditrie t\ infiintc. I look forward even to »ea-»ick- 
ne*4 with lomcdiiijy Uke sitiifjciion, anyihing must be bctur 
tlMQ Lhit lUte of Jtkxiety. J jin very mueh nbli^cd Tor yonf 

WUlJua Sddw Hvrii, the ElMlKctiuu 


kind and alfNtioimtc ktt«c. I >lwAfs like Advice froto 
you, and no one whom I have the lui'lc tn know li more capji- 
blr "f fP^^^K ^' **^'*'^ yr»nMcir, H^wolWi, when you writt; 
tliAt 1 amft«onof/r>tf^/of yourt, and UmI il is yourbound^n 
duiy tci lecture me. 

I will now give you my din^liuti ; U u jlI first. Kio; but 
if yuu wilL qt.'ii<l luc ft leiivt on tlic fn>l L lecvOj) {wJini ibv 
picket sjuU) m Fcbni^rj, diTccted lo M<>nic Video, it will 
give me vrry gr^Jiil ptnuurc : T thall ^o much ^njoy hearing a 
little C-imlifKlK^ new*, P«t>r tlL-Uf fUd Jimtt AfirUj'/ I am » 
very vftrthv *nn in a* faras affcrtjon Riioi- I have Ifiite more 
to write ablaut .... I c^aimot end ihi» without tdFmg yoU' 
how cordially I feel urAicful fur itic kindne^t >cii have ^jhovn' 
me diuinn my Caml-ridi^ hk. Much of ihc jiTeL^^iirc fliiij 
uriJIty which C mAy hiivc tlcfivcd from ii is cwing to yoo, f' 
long for the time when wl< shall A|;ain meet, and till ihcn be* 

re me, my d^-ar H<.-iii|nw, 

Vuut j^tlccuonate nod obiiged friend, 

CiL Uarwjs. 

Remember me mont kindly to those who lake Liny inteteil 
tn me. 


rwt vov*fi<. 

" TtlFRi! 14 a njluixl )fi]<ifl-liuirinure<l rnerjjy in hh Wttirn just 
like himwU-' — Fnjm a ivllrr gf Dr. R. W. Darwin* W Prof. Hens^low, 

[The ol>)eri of rhc Ben^h' voya-ac is briefly ilwcrlbttl ts 
my fjtlb^r K " Journal of Rc»<;aitli«,' p, i, ns being "to com- 
pile the S"rver,ijf PausjuniA and TicTti Jd KucKO com- 
mcntcd under Caprain KJnn in tf;& lo rJljo; lo *;irvcy ihc 
*hdrc* of Chile, Peru, nntl !iomc i<bnd in ilic Paril'n ; and 
(0 carry a chain of chronoiTH.'trk'ai mi^rarturemcntt round ihc 

'lU^c /Jeaji/f JK Ue»cril>cd ai a tvdE-builc liLtk vc«rl, ot 
^35 tODi, rifgcd OS il barque* ^nd canying «ix Hfini, She 
bfJonRcd to the oM duM of tcn-gitn brip, whic^ were nkt- 
n^mcfl "c'offinii/' fmm lhi*ir 1iil>]]Lty to pi down in Bi^vcrc 
weather. rhf*y wrro vr^ry '^ Arcyi-vtMhXri\," ih.if in, ihHr Iml- 
w^uki wcfp high in propnriion to ihcir »iw, m thii a hcftvy 
fri breaking ovf:r ibiTii miglit hv highly dangijru us. Nwc^ 
llittni. she livvJ Lhr^'ii^li l^ii' fivL- yi-;ir>«' xvork, in the iuohL 
«lonDy rctjiont tn (he world, iinder Commanded Siokcs juid 
Fitt'Roy, without n serious .decider t. When rr-commiMioncd 
in tRjt for hrr ^i-ronrl viiyjijui:', nhc wa^t fonTnt (.in I learn rr»in 
Ailmirjl Sir J:imt.'»» 5(iliv;tn) to be t.u riJttcn that she had 
proctii^lly lo be rebuilt, and U wa« tbi* that caused the long 
i3cUy in rctitiin^. The opiicr dvtrk W34 ni«cd. malting htt 
much ulcr in tif.i\y vrriiher, and ^ving her fjti more coe^ 




fortahle acciommmbtinn hulov. Bf thew dtcration» And by 

the lUocig lUcJihifjg addeJ to huf holtuTii *hc wu* tiroughi 
;ip to 141 lon\ burthen. U hn proof of Ihc ipLcadid icditlAn- 

wkhoHi having earrxed away a »pnr, anU thni m nnly one 
of [ht? heavy stomu that fhc cncaunLcrcd wa« «hc tn gnat 

She w^tlittcil uul foTlhr evpv<!ickTn wilh >t]l tJutaiblcr cu^j 
being tupplicil with CArcfuEly i-UofFcii tpitrk itnij iijpci, lij 
boau.and a "'■ dinghy :" iigliTnmg conducion/Mnvcnrcd by 
Mr. H;irri^, wtTf fini'i) (O all tho tHS«B.thc bd»"i]^Tifv ,in[i rrfn 
in liif llyinic jJMjoom," To quatc my fMhor « drtfnpikhn, 
whilcn fiQm DevDn|jort, November 17. tfi^ji : "Kvcrybody, 
wbcica^i judge, sj^t it h unc of [hp t;r4nd«t vuydgL-i Ehjt 
hii alrDDbl ever bci-n scnl gut.. Evcr>ibiji^ i^ 0:3 n. grand 
tcalc. Twcncy-four 4: hrunomcic-rB. The whole »hip it fia«d 
up with mahngAny: khc U ihc admirAiion vi \\ic wliok' pU^c. 
In short, cvf^ryihing it u \yrc-t\Kiom aa hitnun iiic^^n* cin 
maku it" 

Owmp to the flnnllnc*! of (hr vcmcI, cvcty one on board 
was cram^iL'fl for room, And my fatheT'iaerommod^tion fcfms 
to liave bi'en *tnjdl enough : " I liavfr just room to turn rouodi" 
he >vfil» U> Hcnhltj^v, " and llut lm .tlL" Adniirul Sii Jamet 
SulivAb write* lome: "The Oiinow Rpace aI the end ol Oic 
e>iiri*t»bU' ttJii hi? only arcommodfllfon for working, dfei*- 
ing, and •la'pin^; the hAmmork brin^ lefi h^njEin^ over hil 
head \rf diy. whrn Ihe tejt »aii Af all rough, that he mifht lie 
on it wiEh a IkkjU in bin bnnd when he <:otiId not ii^y longer 
vil uE ttiv (xbli;, Hjh only ituwuge fcr doih» bein^ tt^veial 
KmaLI (JfAivcri in the ivtn«r, reaching front deck t*t detk ; Xhm 
top one being inken on I when the hamniock a»i hung up, with- 
out which (hrre wnt not 1enf;T}i fnr tt, to then the foot-clewi 
took the t^uce of the lop drawer. For iperimcn* he hnd a 
very amali cabtn untkr the fotfrcASllc." 

Vet of tbn futrrow tootn he wrote enthuAiattically* Sep- 
tember 17, iBj) :—*' When I urrvfe Tavi [ wu in gr«J>t aUrin 
Aboiu my rjbin. The cabins were noi then mArkcd oiil, bni 



whrn I left ihpy were, and mine i« a r4pua1 one, cctuloly 
ncxi Lttfst 10 ilir^ C:iiJiJim*i^ and rf^markahly light My com* 
liauica moat Luckily, I thuik, will turn oul 14 bv Uiv oJ^i^cr 
toham I shftU Ukc bctc, Cjptjiii l'i(/-R<iy r^ays ht; will U}&r 
c4rc that one isomer U aa tilled up ilui 1 hhall be ^um- 
foitAhV in ii nnd «hdl ronsJdrr it m/ borne, but thM d»o I 
shall hnvc the run nf ht», My t.ihbi ia thr c!rawinji cnc : 'irid 
in the middle it. a large table* on whirh vt*- twti ilfc^j. in ham- 
iiiockb BuL for \\iii ftrsi luu mun^L-s ihtrc will be nndrnwing 
Ur Lie dime, tu t\\M it wUl hv i^iiUe u lujiuiioU!!^ routa, and t^t>d 
deal tugcf :haii [lie O^'Uiink utbiu.'^ 

M) fttiher iiied to t,.\y ihat ii wat. ibe iibhcjluie ntteftBJty uf 
i]dine» tn the cramped »pflce of the Btaj^i/' ilur helped '(o 
lELVe him hiA i»e(lif>'1ir:)t hnbJIs of wcrrking.' On ihc Bfa^U, 
EoiA be woul^t i&y. itui ht' U-iLrneil whj4i ht ron«idercd the 
golden rule for uvmg :inic ; f,f., lohing k:^rc of ihv miiL' 

Sit J.Lmn Sultvui ulh mo Ihdit the chi«< fault in the outfit 
of itjF c\pediiion wfti the want of a :«f;c'und tm^ljcr t^ttd (o 
act 01 Eendor. ThU wani «;^ lo much fell by Capiftm Fiic- 
Roy ihai he hired twa dix^kcd bonii to survey the eoAil of 
Pai^l^onb. at n tmx of^i loo^ a sum which he had to iupi>ly, 
alLltoujfb x\\e boLits bAvod «u«Trui thou^iad puuitdb to thi; 
coLtnlry, He .liicrwJcdL bi^uglit a iLhooner to act at Ji tender, 
thil« saving ihe country a further i^rge ■imohint. lie wnt 
uliim.itcly ordered to *cU the nchooner, and »a* com^lTcd to 
heir the Inv^himsHf^ jind it waa onlyaficr hii^ de^ih that 4ciinc 
inadequate mmpen-uiiiriit wns made for all the lai^F^a vhif:h he 
suffered through his «al. 

Kor ^VJJnt j?F ii ^luper tender much of Ihe work bad lu lj« 
clone (11 huiull o|>en whjk bo^iti^t whith wtie vmt jjwav Iroiii 
the »hip (or wtcki together, and \Wm in a climaie. where 
the creirs were expoied to arvcrt haTdhhips from tJit alaiU»tt 
conitant tMX^%. which »oiTiiMiiH<in c:(/fttinued for 'A'cek* toeeiher. 
The eom|ileten«tt of the equipment vtai .iUo in oilier reipcctt 
kr^iy due to the public njirii of Capuin Kiti'Roy, He 
provided >1 hit own co^t in Aiti*t, and n skilled initrumtnt- 




makcf 10 look after the chronometer*,* Cipuin Piu-RoyV 

wifth woj to uke "fiomc wdl-cdnc^aicd und icicntiliir pcrsoti* 

3IB hiE priv:Ltrf f^utrtt. IfUt Lliib gent'iuub uJlr*r wa^ only ULicTpUd 
by my UlIjit uii <,i;iiJirLijfi iJl Imn^ alluwcU lu ]ji> ^ Tutr ihurv 
of [h? cxt'cnii? of the CapLiin'^ Ubk; he ivat, moreover^ uq 
tbc ihip's boQki for vJcEual^. 

Tti 1 leHcr lo his M*lfr (J"'y '^3') ^^^ *ritn conitnicdl^ 
tit his manner of itic at sen: — "i do noi Ihink T h.ivr r\-re 
given you iin account of huw ihc,(ky pasie^i. Wc brc:Akfnfit 
»t ffigliC o'clock. Tlie invariable indxim it tu thfuw jwuy ttll 
poll Tcnctt— that it, ncvei ro wail foi each other, nut} hah vffj 
the miniit? ono hn^ clone i^:iTJngi £<'c. Ai sci, »hcA the' 
wi'aibiT i? rahn, I wyfU iH Triiirirn' animylTi, with whirh the 
whole oc<:an Hihoun>l»- If ihcrc \> any ftca up I dm tiihi-r tivk 
or ccnlmc lo rend some toyjgc or travdi- Al one we dmc. 
You «hore'£i>mg |>c»|ili- jic bnimrably mUuken about the 
mAnner of living on bonrd. We hHvr nevrr yet fnor ahdU 
wc) dined off snli ment. Rice flnd pew ind I'd/irran/rj ire 
cxri^Ment vi^geinhlo^ and. fvhh good bread, who could wint 
moTi? * Judfo Alderwjn t'Oiild nnf bi: moiv Irmperate, j« 
noihttii^ but water coinvM on Lhii- tiibk'. Al Ijvo wr^ have ita, 
The mJdhhEi>men*s berth have all iheii mealr^ an hour bufor^ 
ui, and the giin'room an hour aflerwjrdL^' 

The CTCwof the fi<fix/f ron*ifitrd of Cnpurin FjEf-ftoy, 
*' Commander .ird Siirvi^ynr," iwo liriitrnjini\ one of whom 
(ihc firii Ucuicnatii) «ai the late Copiflin VVi.^khnm, novemnr 
orQuec!nbbnd : the pieBcnt Admiral Sir JameiSuJii-an. K^CB.. 
wa* thf AWond bcuLVnaut Bt^idc'a the iiiuhtvi j^iiU Iuo nuii'h, 
|hcr« wjs jui athiiiiftnc-turveyor, the pretenl Admiral i-ort 
Stoket. There were alio a sargeon, oMHCant-iurpjeoo, two 
midi^hipmen^ m.iiJiT'* mflTc, n voliintrcr (nt Ha4^), ^iiir»irr, 
wrpcmcT, tkrk, boAUw.iin, eight niarincn. thSrty'four ^cAinen, 
utd %i^ boy%. 

Thercarenoinow(j88;)maTiy«urvivcmcif mj^ father'* old 
fhip'miile«4 Admiral Mellfr^K Mr. Hamondtand Mr, Philip 

* KH!irr one or bell) were oa iht bookt for vinuvli. 


King, of the Lpgitljiivc CouiiuJ oi Sydney, arid Mr. Usboftic* 
tie amon^ (ht; numUcr. Admiial juhiiaon 4li^<l .ttinoM al the 
*»mc time na my father. 

He reuincd xo (he lasi a most plcasam rceollcaioo ftf Ihc 
voyage vl thi.' Iffit^U. und of ihr fncndis be uiude on bourd 
hei, rn liih ctiddrL'n ihcir njmc^ ivcrc fftinjliar, Irniu hut 
iik,jny ttoricK cif the voyage, And wc cjughl hit feding of 
friendship Tor m.iny who wrre ro us nothing more rh^n namcL 

It i» [jlra^Jirr to know how ji'TtTtionj«idj'hi»old comimniooa 
fcmcnitirrrd him. 

Sirjamci Sulivan remained, chroughoiut my faEhcTR lirc- 

imtf, ouv uf luB beat ^^od Irueisl TrietidB. He writuH :^^' 1 can 

confidenily cxjinr^s my btUti th?ir dur^i^g the fivr ycat« m lh« 

S^^/ft he wni never known to be out of Temper, cit to say one 

unkind or hiuiy word if^/yr to any one. Vou wJU therefofe 

r*dily UTidtrstnmi ^lr)w ihis, cnmbined with llic rifimiriTion 

hJa cTirrj^ and jlhiUty, fed tu u^ir givm^ hnn Lhe niirni; of 

'the dcir old Philosopher.'"* Admirul Mpllcrih wrLtc!> to 

It t^" Your father is ns vividly in my mind'i eye lis if Ll 

ru only j week ago lh;iL I was rn the Bra^^ii with him ; hr< 

{[enitl unide and c-^nvei^ntion can n^^ver lie for|£otten by uny 

rho taw thfm and heard Ehcm. T n'A3 feni <^n iwo or Ehree 

xuionv uway in u boat with him on wtne of his sticniiJir; 

excuiMunH, :(ud ^Ihavs looked forward to the^e txipv wiLh 

gfeal pkiuurc, an ^iiliti^i^ilnjn th^t. unlikr many othcim w:ih 

atw:Lys realined, I think he wat the cmly niuu L i^vcr knew 

ftfliamKt whom r never heard a word *aid ; and a* pcopl< 

vhcn *hnt np m ^ ihif* for fivir yeat^ art apT to Rtl rrosswith 

each other, that it mytng a prioiT deal, (Vrtairily •ttta were 

alwciys lo hard nt work, we ha<} no timr tn <|imrTo1, but if we 

had diiQL- to, [ fed biLte yofir fuihrr woLikl h^tve tried (and 

have bcru hiuxo-hftjl) (o cIitow ud s^w the Irmibled waten." 

*1(Uotfiei nlckn«ne wu"T1ieFf^e«|cViet.'' Ihivt tean] myfartirf 
itlLliow he uvcrhnni the boalSivjilTi of die ^nli^ khowing a»olhvr b«U 
HWiiiii (»vef the iJiip, and painim^ out thd olflcvfh - " Thnl'i nur iSrtT lt»- 
UnanL ; thai' » our ftcciQf ; itijit i niir 11)»ifhcr^" 




Ai^mLraJ Stokes Mr KmfC Mr Uibome^ and Mr. Ha- 

mond.iill Bpcokof thcif fricndihipwilh hire lo [hci«mcwflrra-j 
hearted way, 

Uf the life oa houTd and on sliurc hU Li-'Ucrs ^ve notne 

«cl' thorougtity cciptclcd both by ol^LCcrb itud (iicn. The 
<kocuioiuL vcveriiy cf hli manner «ai borne with because 
every one on boiinl (tnrtv (hut hU firnt tho(i)tViI wa^ hin 
duty, and thcit he would sacriA^^i^ nnyihtn^ i>^ ihc r^al welfare 
of the Khip. My father writer July jA$4, " ^c all jog oa 
very welJ logtlher, Iheri; ib no quirrelling un board, wliJth ii 
■utui-'thing t<j Kty. Tbr CaptJ^ipi kr^t^ nJI tniuuih by rowin)) 
everyone m turn," The licut proof that Fir*- Roy wju valued 
u a CDtnmandti ii given by the fnci that many * of the crew 
hnil nailtfd wiih him in Iht' SrirnWt former vay»^, and Ihirr* 
wert « few i»fhiJ^r4 av wdl uA vc.imcn unct mirinrJii who \\niX 
served in the Adi^ntiiK or litofiit during the whole dC that 
dp edition. 

My fdlhtrr «p<;^ikif of Ihc i>Hic(?rs at i fine diricrmiiicd act 
of men, anil f^pfdally of Witkham, ihc lirtt Ucuec"An(, aft a 
'^((loriouH fcLlow." The Lxtier being tei|tonuble for the 
imnrmess nnd appearance of th« ship strongly obj^eted to 
p-Jiis liuericig the dei-ks ami 'ipukr uf B|Kvinienb iu *'d— d 
tlly duvitineni," aiitl uaeJ Lo odd, "* If J wete kLipper, 1 
would soon have you and aU your d— d meu out of the 

A MTt of halo of ^an^'tjiy wan given to my father by ihe 
face of his dining in the Capioin's cabin, u) thai the nL^iUhip- 
men uwd a: first lo call him "Sir," a form ul ity, how ever» 
whkh did not prevent hi» becoming fabt fnvnJb wiih iho 
youn^'^r iifli' rrtL, H« wfote ahciul tlic year iM^i 01 iS6j to 
Mr V. it. King, M, 1~ C, Sydney, who, .1% before »tated, wni 
a midihipinati on hoard the SeagU ^—^^ The remembrance of 
old days, whrn wc; mwl to 4it and t«Ik on ihe Imtimn of the 
Jlfo^ti, will alwayh, to the (lay of my death, make mc glad t<^ 

* ' VdjiieG of Ibc ^^tvH'm Bod Bmxtf' ^^ \^ P< *«* 

fiEA &K:K?4£SS. 


h*ar of your hap^vlnc^s and prOTp^iiy/' Mr, King deMTibc* 
ilhc pk-TLbiiTG my Tjitihcr bccniL-d 10 t^kc '* in primcing out (o mc 
a yinjnki*[cr Che ^IcligTUi ii( the IiojjiLii! lugh'*, wiTfi Ihcir 
b43my bretzci ^dying oiit of ihc ssJU above u*. and Ihc spcm 
llghlrd up hy llu" |in*vTjp" o' ibc" nUip thmii)jh Lhc nL'vfr-co<l* 

I1 ha^ been as^um^d that bin iU'he«Uh in later ytan wu 
due to hhs hiiv'tn^ fufScrvd tn> rriuch from »c3-hii:lcue»h. Thiit 
b< did not hiiiihcll bdtk!vc« liul r^ihct Mciibcd hit bad health 
to the hereditary laull which cimeout ai gout in *omc of the 
past generahoni. I nm noi ijuiltf ckiir .i» ro how mtirh ho 
iirtLLally Buffcivd fmm ^m-Mrknt-w ; my imprcsfiion ia rfi\iinrt 
ihai, ftoronlJEig to his irv/A avacnoTy, he woa not KiLiuidly dl 
after the I'trsl three wceki, but cooiuntly uncomlorijibk w hen 
the vesiel piulied at aII heavily. Bui* judging from hiB let* 
And from the evi<ientc o£ ^omc of the oflitcr*, it would 
that in later jthn he ff>t^fll the eictcnc of the di^comfori 
fiom which he wiffercd. Writing June j, rSjS, from the 
iCape ^( Good HtiM^ h^ 'Uiyi ■ " It ii a Imky ihing for mp 
'Chftl the voyage" ]>- diawiny [o its close, for I positively sitlT^T 
more from seasickness nctw than three years ago/' Admiral 
Lor! StcWe* wrote lo ihe Ti/Hfi, April Jj, iSSj. — 

"May I beg a romft for my feeble lestim^ny 10 the 
mnfvelloH* pcru'vcring endnrane^ tn the cftDse of wienre of 
that grciit naiuridAiH my oTd and lost friend, Mr, ChiitW 
Durwia, wboii^ retrains ire so very justly to bchnnaiircd with 
a rwtiiiij-pla'.e 10 W^'tliruiist^r Abbey? 

'* Peihapi no one cjri tictlcr tcfUiy to bi^ c^trty and auyni 
Irying labnur^ [hnn myi^ir Wc worked togctht-r for tcvcral 
"yraM at rhr Minr tdde in ^he p^cp ritm of the Bt^Jf during 
her eclebratcd voyi^tc. he with his mirroscopp and rn)icM at 
Ibe eharti- It wok often a very bvidy end of the ]jitl« craft, • 
^«Bd diitresininglT »o to my old frTend, who suffered greatly 
im «en-u<kncH, Allcr pcfli^pi an hour'i work he would 
to mc, "Old 'cllow, I fflLim tik-: Ihr Kiriionril for \\; th»t 
the be«t relief poftition from ship moiion ; aatrctch 




nut on one side of the lable for «omc lime would enitile 
hiin lo trsumc hi* hbouf* for 4 while, when ht had og^r^, 
to U« tlown. 

"It wfl^ ilii4(rrA«ing tn wunMs (Ills cnriy M^^riflrp of Mr, 
llnrwmV. health, who ever aficrwatds EwriuuHily fell ihc ill- 
cflccu of ihc ^fitgJiU voynf^v." 

Mf, A- B, Usborne wrik», "He was a drcitUful hiifftrcr 
from ic:i'^icknc»t .ind aI limci, when I >uiy« been ol^ker of 
the wntch. and teducfd ihr DflilK, making thc^ Khip mortf rAAy, 
iiftj Thus felicving him, I have hrcn |)ronourn:ci1 by him rn he 
'a good officcT,' and he would K'liuiiie his raicro6(:opic ob- 
servAtiout m the poop cabia/' Tht? ai^mount of work thai he 
gol through on thc^/tv// fihowt thai hi- wih hjibjEu«1ly in full 
rigonr i he h,id, howcvrf, one stvcTc illfiet^, in Houlh Amcf* 
id, whfn hf was retrivrd mto tht^ house of An (englishman, 
Mt, CnrrtcUl, who It^ndcd him with i:aii;fii| kindii<riH. 1 huvc 
hoard him hny th^i in thiA iUnc&:> every Keciciicin i>f ihc hod/ 
wu aflfcctedf and that when he described the symptoinh [u ha 
father Vx. Darwin cutiid niAko no gucai ai to Ihe n-Jlure of 
Ihe diieiue- My father wjb bometimca inchntHl bo think ih^it 
the breaking tip of hi* hcAlih wji* lo iiornc eictenE rfiic lo (his 

The ffmj^lf Mtor* Rivf jimpic pTOof of hifl uronp; love of 
homp, and /ill mnnrrrcd with it, from his fnihiT down ta 
Nanty, hi;^ old nutac. lo whom he sometimtB send?, hn luve. 

His delight in honic-klEvn isHhown inbuch pAM:Lgt«su. — 
"BuEifyou koe^ thr iibtwirijiiH untpeAkable delight, which 1 
felt at being ceruin ih.i< ray Tithcr and nil of yno w*rr wdl, 
only four moTiEh^ ngo, you *c»uld not (rtidgr the labour loar 
(n keeping dp Ihc rcKidur wrlf.^ at IfUcn." 

Or agjin^iifl longing lo return in word* bte Ibew^ 
*'Il ifi too delightful to think that I ahali sK the Icivn W\ 
lod hev the robin ting ncKC lutumn at Shrewsbury. My 
feetingl an iho»c of n «c:hoci1hoy co the inudtctl potni: I 
dcubc irhcthcr cvrr boy lon^td for hU holidays an murb ni 
I do to SC4' yon all nguin. I am at |>rc4rnt, alihnu^h nearly 




lialf Ihe world h bctnrcn mc nnd h:>mc, bc^nning \n iirranjir 
what ] ftlihiH do, whfnc [ khaJf fty during iht first week." 

Ancihfr frntUTr In hln t^itcru iA fVtr QtrrprL^e and delight 
wirh which he hear* of hin ctill^tiDns nnd f*l>sc^rvaiii>ns hcEnc 
<jf iuint; Ub(j It Mtms only lo have gradujlfy <x-ciiTri:d m 
hint thil Uc wuuEJ ovrr Lh; mi>re tLian a cultectoruf specimens 
And f-tcU, ol which Ihc hfchIL mm wu/u ki luukc uvc* And 
pivn <» to Ehe value of his colkciions he kceiui^ to h^ve h;td 
murh (loiihr, for hp wroic to Hcnalow in 1834:^"! TztMy 
begfLii to ihink :hn: my rollcrrioris werr nfi fimw th^t you were 
pLi,(/k-d whiE 10 uy ; the cjue is now cjuite on ihc rk[ipn«Jte 
la^k, for 3'uu atv guiliy of exciting all my vain ftclingn ir> 
inixi oomlofUblc pitKh ; if Lud work will nlonc for there 
thoughts I vow it shall not br nifrtrtd," 

Aftor his tviurn and ictclf mcnt in Inondon, he begun 
to ti^aliii! (he vnloe of what ht.* had done, cir*d wrote to Cap- 
uin Fiti-koy— ■' Hu^rvrr i»thrr* mny iotik bark to Ihe Bi^tj^s 
voyage^ now that thi^ AiniiEl dihagr«<rablc p.^fU .irc w^ll-niKh 
forBotieii, I ihiiJt it fjr the most jttrtaiMtc drsvmifarhe in 
w^iiff thai the chanoe jEIordcd by your offer uf taking a 
Nj[ur:iliitt fell on mc. t often have the moit vivid jmd 
delightful i>iriurc» of whar I «iw on board the Btofif pftu 
before my eypft. These recolletiiuns, and whai J Icoint oti 
NjLura] History. 1 would nul Lxth-iu^ for Lwi(;cLcn thoub^od 
a ydr." 

In idecting the following feriei of letlen, 1 have been 
fpiidcd by the wUh to pvo a* much iH-Tmnul detail ni po** 
ipihlc. T hJivf ftWrn only a ft'w f,c\{-T\x\ftt- leiicrs, fo llloftiratc 
the way in whieh he worked, nnd how he regnidtd bis own 
result?^ Ln hi« ' Jouruul of KeiH-arthi.-<f ' In- \i\vvi uiciJeiiljIly 
wmo i<liH ol bib ptirwnal ch^iut Icr ; the Ictlvrt i^tvuri m Uiu 
prelum chapter kcfvc 10 ^implily in fieiher and more sjjon- 
tmneotii nvord^ ihar imptmion of his perv^nality which th« 
* Journal * htt4 given to so many reader*,] 


THE ^-OTt'ACE. .CTAT. ij. 



C Z^ani^ff /tf A'. It'. DarwtH. 

Rabji. or ^an Salvador. DrAtElt 

10 my \\iUf\. 

I &ta writing this on the Sili uf K«br»jiiy. cjnu djy'b uit 
JJttsl Si. Jfl^o |Cj]>c <.lc VciilK i-^il iiiirriil Lakuiu ibc iibiinur 
oF mcclJTig viLh J Zioiiicward-bouTiJ vc»c] tomcwherc About 
the equator. The date, hotrcver, will \t\\ r>ii> whcocTcr 
the opptsTtonity occur?. I w\\} now brain from Xhe day of 
kiving England, arJ gpve a short aixotint of c»Hr progrcn. 
Wc nailcdt a!4 ytfu know, on ihv i7ih of F>cccintrert and h^ve 
been foiiuii3.[? cndugh 19 have had fiuni that itmc lo the 
pcvM-nr a fair Mid inudmLc btecxi?^ It iTtcrwardt prov^U 
thAt wr had CHLU^H-'d A lic:ivy jpLc in the Clunnd, anoi^icr 
«t Madeira, anrl ,'inolhcr on [the] Conit of AfrlfiL Bui in 
eacapinR the gj^t, wc felt iM conncquencrt — a hcnvjr *ca. In 
Ihc Bay of Hi*r'.ij' iVi-t*: wnt i\ limj^ and ronlinuout mtcU. lUtd 
ihe misery I cntlurt'd frtim hea-bii^knt^iH i» fai hcyond what L 
cvcrguv^^cd at, I hdicveyou AitcunouK abuuE il. i will 
you all my dcur-bougbl experience. Sobgdy who ha^ 
been to wa for twenty-four hoiir^ hsiii s H^ht lo ^y that *e»- 
•tr.kaei* ia even uncomtfrinabtc. The real misery only he- 
pnii when you arc so cibausied thai a liidc cienicm m.ike* 
a feeling of fainmeiB cume tin. 1 fuuiid nudiirhg buL lymg m 
luy hainnrjck did me itny jjuud. 1 muhl vAjivcixtly excvpE 
yaui receipt of ramiu. which itihc only food that the ttompi-Ui 
will bear- 
On the .|th of January ve verc not mnny milt* fmra 
Madeira, hut as chere wit a hi^avy tea running, and ihe 
»laod Uy to windward, it wu nut thrjughl worth while to 
bejt up to il. It a^erwaid* \u\\ turned out it wa* luf ky we 
«iTEd oiiFtelvcs the trouble- 1 w^imurh too tick eeen io gel 
up [□ trc t^e di^Tnni outline. On the 6lh, in the evening, wfl 
fdJIcd inEii the hurlKiiir of SAnta Criif. I nuw firu felt erei| 
cnoderatdy well, aiul I waii picturinj^ to mytctf all ihedelighfs 

■at \^m 






oi fccsh ftuJii gtowing in bcjutif at vjillcyi, and t«rjding Hum- 
boldl* dci*''!]**'"^^' "' *^^ (uliiniJS jikifiijiis views, whcu p<:r- 
h.iiiA yiiiJ may nr.itlj' j^ic-M nl <mr ch^.ipjKMnrn^L'nri when n 
Amall pale man informed uk vc muai prrform a 1atic^ qitAran- 
iincoi ivdvc days. There wj^o ckath-Ukc liuUncss In ihc 
Ihit^ till tlitf Cupuiin cntfd " up jib/* iiud wi- \cU i\\h lung- 
wiitbot] fur |jb<:«. 

Wc wcic bccjImcJ tor a. day bclivecn Tcncririe JtniJ ths 
Gfiiid Canary, and hcie 1 first experienced jnyenjoymenL 
The vie* w»5 gJoriouB. The Pfak of Tencnffc ira* *cen 
imnng^I ihi- t-EEiiic1i lik.« AnALhcr world Our i^nly (Irnwlmrk 
wat the extreme wish of viiitting thit (^lorimiin ii^bnd, TV/ 
£y/oa Hner to J^if^tUti/Mf the Cantiry Jitaniii fir ^ufh Amtrt.'a: 
that 1 am sure it will wdl repay ;hc ncccsiuty Uuable, but 
chat he muvt nuke up hit mind to (ind J gugd deJ] of (he 
Uittf. I (eel ceruin hr will Tpjirct lE if he <|oc* not make 
The aitcmpi. From Tcncriffc to St. Jago the xoynfte win 
OKtrf^mcly plra^anT. I hnd a net astern the ve&^l which 
caught jtTfJit numlHTii cjf inrrjyui* nnirnfllc, and fully oi:rtrpii:d 
my time m my i ifiLn, ;Lnil on dct^k ihv wriuher wjih au dcli^hi' 
fill and clear* thai the fky and waLer together m*dc a picture. 
On (he i6Lh we jtrmeil at Tcirt Vruyi^. the capital nf the Cape 
Ac Vrrds i""'! ihorr wr TCfnitirnd rwrrity»lhn."c dnyn, vijc., liU 
ycsrcrdny, ihr ;rh of Fehnisry. The time hw nown away 
moil delightfully, indeed nothing can he pka^nnTct ■ mireed' 
iagty busy, and IhJl buMnesfi both a dutvind a gieai delight, 
I do not believe L h»vc ipnil uiw huEC-hoi^r jJly nnce TfaviEL^; 
Tenenfle. ^i- J ago ha^atrorded me an cxc^din^Iy ii^li har- 
vest in wvtral hrfln^hc* of Natural HiiTory. 1 find the de- 
scription:! ncaTrvIv worth anything of mflny nf the rommoner 
animals that inh;ihit the Trnpitii, t nlluch', of eoumc, ii> those 
of the lower claaf«s. 

Gei>luKitifik2 in a ^vk^nic CQuntiy \% moll delightful; 
beiidu the interrtt ^iitachcd to itself* it Iradn yon into moi^t 
b^antifut and retired ipoiL Nobody hnt a penon fond of 
NaiUTjt TTi^roryc^n imagine ihc pluninre of sirolling under 
ooooa'TtLit« m a Ihukel of b:tnaauK and 4'0frce-|i1ailUi *°^ ^ 




cndkit numbrr of wild Aoircra. And ihji ihUnd, lh>l h 
given roc ^a much Jn^irnction und driighi, i^ rcrkoncd !hc 
moHt unlni cradling place that wc ptfhaps shnll lourh w diir- 
QK uuf vuya^-e, U ct^rumly Is gcnt'iiilty very barren, Uui the 
valLe/t arc r»<jrc cA^uibUely bt.':iiinlijT. fiuia the very vunlraaU 
ll ii titterly Qiekn to »y uiyUtintj alioiii tlic tcrncry ; Lt 
would be Ai pro^Lable to explain to a blind man ccLouis, is to 
A prficin who hfl4 nol bern out of ?»un.^p<r. fhc tolal diwirni* 
Iftfiiy of a tropiffll vil'W- Whenever 1 CTi|ny anyihinf;. T .aJway? 
vilher look iatwaxd lo wrictng it Afmti^ (tEher in my log-book 
(w'JiJcli lIlctoB^'^ m bull;), or ia a letter; to you niu«t excaie 
rjiplurch, And (hose r.i{>tifri:? b^dly expresied. I Hud niy tola 
lecMoniare inctcfliing wonfjerfulty, nncl fram Rio 1 think 1 
ahjilJ be obli^d to Hnd a rnfgo homr. 

Ail the cnilLe^ dehyn whicJi we i'Mperienc«iJ dt Plymunili 
]ui%'e been rao»i foiiunatc. aii 1 verily believe no pcnon cvct 
went out bdicr providcii for collcctng ind ©btcrving in the 
d&ncrerit UrAni:hcf of NjturAl History. In a tntiUitude of 
<ouniellonp I certainly foun^ ^tiod. i And to my urcil tur* 
priu thniaKhipii lin^iilarlycomroTtabie for all lorttor vrorL 
Evcrything in so clcuc it hand, and being cramped mnkn one 
SQ methodical, thut in the end 1 hnvc been u gainer. I already 
have got to look at Koing to tiva ih » leifuhi i^iiiei ^Ulc, liLe 
going back to home Ar:er slaying away imm lL In ihott, 1 
find n *hip a very ^-omfortJiMi: hou^e, with cverythinji you- 
Vflnt, and if it wai not for &oa-Aiekn^.u the whole world would 
be nilon. 1 do not ihinfc ibere h much danger of Erasmtis 
HtttiiiK the exjiiiiple. but in cabv there ibouid be. he nuy id/ 
Lipun il be ducfit iioi Lnvw vne-tcnlb uf tb« luftciingjfc of m 

T like the offieen much more Ihan T did ^t firtt. rtpi.'rinl]y 
Wfckham, and yoitt?^ Kinj^ j>nd Stoke«, and indeed nil of 
tht-ra. The (laptain cortitnui'4 ^te^ily vory kind, aikd docs 
etxTythin^i in bit |jowcr lu auj»t me. We te« very httle of 
each other when in harLtouf, our pur4uu« iead ui in «uch dif- 
ferent trocki, I never in my life met with a man who could 
endure nearly to great a ihare of faiiguc^ He workb ini;e»- 






taMly, an(l when apji^rcnily not employed, be it thinking H 
he tloa DUE kill 1iim&L<lf, Uv will ilurmg tliis voyigi- tirj a vtoD' 
derful i^iTflnliiy of worlc t finil t »m vrry wrtl^ ^nil nfjinc] 
thr \itt\t henc wc have hn/1 0;^ yet nj* well as nnyhnjly. Wc 
shall snon havf h id rc^ vitinc^t. Wo arc now Milling for 
Feirnandu Nvruuhii, vft tlii? lu;lhI -jI Biui'.]!, whcrer wc iijiull n^jt 
»t;L]r vny Imibf' ^tttl then ciJiaiEi^c the hhojU beUnn tZiciv 
ami Riu^ iDiiching perhaps at Dahia, 1 will fiiiiih Ihii kUec 
tvhcn an opportunity of sen Jmj( il cirrnn. 

/■'r/iruisry jfiM — Abotif iAo miki fmm Hnhla. On the 
loth ftp ipok<* rhc j>cirkci Lvri>^ on hei voyiigi: lo Rio. I tent 
a thon letter by her, lo Lh- &t;nt to I^ngU/id un [tbvj firvt 
opporinniiy. Wc h.^ic bt:a» wogiilarly ufilotky m not nitct- 
injC "ritb any homch.iril-boimd veuels, but J tiippoitr |ai] 
Bahift we ccfljinlf thall be nbk- to write to Engljind. Since 
«Titing the fir^t part cf li^*"*) l<^^Tcr nothing biii* ocrurrcd 
txcL'pt crossing <he Ecjuutor, and hcin^ sbuvcd, TbU loo&t 
[IthaK^t'eablr^ operation conKiMs in having your fact rubbed 
wuU prtini and tjr, which forms a luthcrfor a. ww which ri-prc- 
B^tiLsthi; ta.101. and [ben britijj haU dru^-n^d in a taxi hhed with 
nU water. About 50 mil» north of the hnc wr touched at 
the rock* nf St, Pniil ; ihli littte nyieck {About J of a mile 
acTOts) in the Att.iniic li.ii ^eMom been vistted. Ii is lotJiUy 
}ra.tna, but is covered by hosts of birds ; they vrtrv so un- 
used lu men tlut wc found «c i-ould kill plt^nty with stones 
and ^titks. Alter rcin^nnmg ttOiiic liuurv vu tlic ikIjehI, uc 
retomed on board with the boat loaded with our prey, i'lom 
xh'vt we went lo Ftmnndo Noronha. a »mill iihncj where the 
(BrarEliani] nend their etilf!*. 'rheJjindinnihrn- was .iitrndcd 
wiih sri miK b difficulty owing (lo} a hf.ivy r.Mi( that the Cap- 
lain delermmcd to tail Iht next day ;jfler aifiridj:. My one 
day on tfhorv vati cxccediniEly iiitcTc^tniK, (Jie whole isUnd is 
<»ne ♦iciglc wood *o mailcil toacrher by creepers tt is very 
difllenit to move ont of the iKifcn path. I find the Natural 
Hi^ory of a!1 theae iinfrcqjenEcd KpotA moM exiecdini:ly 
inCortfilin^H c^fieitiilly the ^colo^y. 1 liave wtitlcn thi^ mut^h 
in order 10 ijvc time at Bahia. 




Decidedly ihc mohi striking tiling in the Tropics is the 
novcKy of the vegetable form*. Cocoa-nuU could well be 
im^gini^d fram drawingi, if you add to thcTn a graceful lii^ht- 
n?M which no Kiii^^pr^n trrr ^^rtakr^ cf- RtnRnAMncI itlnn- 
t^lnn arc f^xar ily ihi? name ni ihotc fn hnEhoiiHcii, thr jrjKmii 
nr UTHJirindfi urcsiriking Uom the bluencraof^hpir folbpc; 
b^t of the gluriuus oran^r irevsi nu dcBcri]jliDii, no draivjiL];% 
will gtvtf any just i<it"a; ifiMi'ad t>C ihe sukly grccH of our 
oranges^ the native <Jiiet exceed the Poitiigul Jaufel tn the 
du1cn«5s of thdr tint, and mEiiiitcly exc^vd it in btjuty of 
f^rm. CdroH-nitU, fi-t^iaw*, fhr lighl grci-n bananA^. And 
oranges, loiided wllIi fruit, gcnuriilly ^tirrt^uncl Lbe uioic hixo- 
riant vdhges. VVliiUi vjening tuch icenet, one feelt the ini- 
pu«5Jbib[y that any description should come near the mark, 
much ]c» be ovfrdrfLwn. 

Jifar^Jk isf-^Oihiit, dr San Stlvador, f irKved «t thi* 
plice on thr aSfh of F^^hruflry, and nm now writing thit l^tfcr 

world. No jieraon could imagine jULything f^o beautiful at the 
andcnt town of B-ihia. it i^ fdirly embohcm^d in a luxuriunt 
v,oitd of be^uiiful vree>, and situated on 4 iteep bank, and 
overlooks the ealm Wiienof the great bay of AllSaintfl. The 
lioiiscs J<re white iind lofty, nnd, from the wHndnw* hrinj{ 
njkffow nnd tong. h.iVL' a xcry light an<1 oli?ii;anr npprnTnnre. 
Cnnveni*, porticos, and public ImiMingi, vary (he uniformJiy 
of thi; lioDvm ; the L»y is B<;utteitd over wiih lur|*e vhrpK i in 
fchorl, a^td ivha: can be tj^d more, i[ ii^ one (>! the Tineit views 
in ihellrwili. Due the ex-iuiiile glorious plcjaiiie of w^illting 
amongit luch fliwers, and wch trecv cannot he rnmprch^nded 
bill by thruif who havo evpt'Htnrfd it. AUhnugh in v> tow A 
latiaide the localiiy h not diisajTrpciihly hot. hut at prrwnt it 
h very damp, for ii i> the rainy Kuon- 1 find the chinatc lU 
yet agree* admirjb'y with me; it make* mc lonj; to livv 
quietly for wmc lime tit inch a eoimtry. If yvia rrJlly want 
10 have [an idea] of trapicol tountriei, study IfumtxrldL 
Skip the Bcieniifie jwirt*, and commence after IrATin]^ 'I'cncr- 
llTr^ My ft-vlingii amount tn admiration [he more I read hito. 

Lire AT S£A. 


THI Eyton f I fin<t 1 am wriEinj( to my si&tPTs [) how csrccd- 
in^y 1 cnjuy Amcffca. and iKai 1 Am »urc it wit] br .i ^rvrtx 
pity iiht doct not ni-xkv a ^urt. 

This kttcrwill goon ihc ^(h, and I am afnid will be some 
lime brfi^rc \t r<'A<-\ir% ytiTi ; it mii^ii Ik* n »:irninjE bnu-Ln o<li?r 
juitUi of the worki yon may bo n lon>? time withimt hi'jirfnE, 
A yew might by dtcidtnt thus pass. Altout (he isib wc 
■U-rt fur Kio, bul we ncma^» wmc umc un th<f way in wund- 
ing the AttroMiu)! tnW^^, Tell l-lyitm at Ur U4 my tfA[^rricnro 
goci kt him iln Jy SpanUh, ifcnch. drawing, and Humholdt- 
I do linccrdy ho|>c to hrar of (if noi to sac him) in Sourh 
Anicrir*. T look fi-»rw*rfl lo the IrtlctH in Rio — t'iW e^ch one 
U ai^kricrw1(^(]^t^<Tr iiLt^ofiun i[« dait in thtr nritt- 

Wc hjve heat jII the tJ^ipt in manccuvfingi to much *o 
thit thv CDmrninding ulhtcr tay», we need mjl follow his 
eiainiilc; bcciuac we do tverylhing bctlcf Ih^n hii Rfrtl 
■hip I bogjn to Tftkc j^rvai inc^rcat in njivAl jjoinfj-t more 
eftpecially now, a^ I tmd ihcy nil lay wp arc the No, t in Somh 
America. I suppose iht CiptJiJn i^ a niont tfK<-<' 11 cnt officer. 
It waa iliiilc i^hJfLoitb ro-iliy hciw wf hcM Ihi; Siimanitt^ in 
fniliiiU yx\h- It jk quite ii new thing for a "mounding &hip " lo 
bcjt a regular iniin of'*ai ; and yet the /hasl< is not at all a 
particutar ship, Er?irnu» will iTcnrly pcrrcivc it when he 
hear« th^i In the ni^hi [ hnvr netiinlly 9At down in ihf «ai-rcd 
pref moi» of the quarter deck. Vou must cxcu^ie these queer 
letleri, ai>d rccotlcct lhc;y ire g«ntrully writiEn in the vveninjj; 
oiitct my day'i work. 1 t;tln.- mt>re puinh ovti my hjn-lHJoL, *i> 
llul eventiiuJLy you %viL[ hjve i ^L>od account of all the placci 
I viiit. Hitherto the voyige ha* aniwcred a^mjr&hiy lo me. 
and yet I am now mnre fully awafe of yoMt wisdom in rhrnw- 
ing if>ld wj*tcr on thr whole nchrmc: the chance* are so 
nnmerouji of turning out quite the revene ; lo such an relent 
do I feel this, Ihm if my advit? wji« Jftkcd by a^y |>rnon on x 
«imilar ticcision. I »boHld bt' very t-autiom in encAura;[ing 
him. 1 h»rc not time to write to anybody elic. vo 9atA to 
Mder to lee them knaw, that \r\ the tqI'Ni of the i:lnriou)i 
tropical K^ncry, 1 do not forget hvw inhtruincaial Havy wcfE 


THE TCiYAGlt. ^TAT, t^ 


m plaining mc IhL'rc. 1 will not ntptufiu* Again, hut [ gtvc 
mysL-li grujit i:fcdil in aot bcin^ craiy oiil uf pur^ tleU^hL 

(^ivv my love to every »oul at home, mil Lu (Lc Uwrm. 

I lUink oTic'i affcctioDii. like oihcf good ibing^ ll<Jucjiih xn<l 
incrcflw it) thc^c Impirsl vuii^n*. 

Thr ci^nv^i-tlAn vhot I am Wiilklng in ihc New World is 
«rcn ypt marvcllftut in my own eves, and I Ann «iy It i« liMfe 
let* BO <(j you. iht receiving a lcu<fr from a wn of T*>wf* "*> 

Uclievc mCf my dear KlLheri 
VouT rooiE jfFcctionatc Min. 

C Dara/ia ie W, A /at, 

Uoiofofo lljiy, Dc*r R^o ■!« Juirira, 

My dkar Fox, 

I have delayed writing to you aad jill my olher lriend> till 
I arrived hciic irid h;!LO v;mi: Ivtik ipiire tunc. My tn[^id ha* 
been, Binto Itfitifinu Khijlanil, in ;i pcrfct E kurtit^ta of ddJiiht 
and Jtntonithmcni, and lo this hour urarcely a mtmiie haq 
pnMcd in id^cncM, . - . 

Al Suja^mynatur-il hintory and mosi delighlful labours 
cuminv^ucrd. Uurinu tlw three weekv 1 wl]««:l^ a hoi»1 of 
marine HinimfLlt, And en]d>~ed maTty a good geological nalk. 
Touehin^ '^c ikomc^ iiLindn, wir snilrd tfi Hjtl^iii. nnd from thrnre 
10 Rio, where I havr already heen some weekly My (^ollcf- 
tinni go on admirj^ttly in ulniukt every branch, Ai for in- 
jCCU* 1 iriiHt 1 hhaLI h<nd a bu^t of iinOnvt.iiljcd »|;ireicii Ig 
I behcve they have no >mjll oaet tn the colkc- 
ind here (hi» mominK T have inki^n minute llydropori, 
NoieruB, CnOlymbi-rrt, Hydro|>hiUis. Hydrobiun, GTamhin, &c.. 
&c., JM )ijiEci[nen4> (}f fr^hh-tratifr htctlca, I am entirely orru- 
pied with land anLinalt<, ai the beach is only tjind, Hpiclen 
And the adjoinJniE tribti bave perhnps jj;iven inc, rtoQi their 
nnrelty, the mnhC pleAi^ure- I think I hjLvc alrcvly taken 
ACTcril new gcncn. 



Rut Geology (uirricH ihc day: it it like the plcaiurt of 
g4ml>ttng, Spc cub ting, on finl arrivbg, vthil thr roi:k« m^y 
bf, I often moniiilly rr^ (»iil ,5 fn t toriijify ,i)trtinai primitive I 
but thr lAtFi^r hnvi' Mihcrto won aW ihc bcis, So muck for 
the KTjml end of my voyDgc; in oihct ftipecu thirip are 
ci]uaLly Anuiitilim]^, My life, when ^t sea. i(» vo (jujvtp Itmt lu 
a |)L'r3u" wUu cur^ oinpJoy Imn^'If, Jiuthitij; n-^in bti jjli-tf^antcr ; 
the Uvuuiy vt the »ky ;LtL(l Uriifi^ncy of ihe iX.«aii Eogcthct 
mj-he a picluie. liul when on ihorc, and wandering in Ihc 
■ubiimc fofots. 9urroundr(l by views more porgcnus than 
even GauiJc ever imaglin'J, T v^njtyy .1 dclL^ht wfiirh none hnc 
thoB? #ho hjivc experienced li can iindi^mand If 11 U tn be 
done. Ll mubt bL^ Xty tiutlyin^ HumlmlilL. Ai nur ancient 
laug breokfUitEi, fit Caml>ri<l^e, I liltic ihcjugbi ihjt ih< wide 
Atl^miic would ever w|>arjte UHi but tt is 1 r^tre prmk^e Hut 
with Ihc body, llir fcctiiitr* .ind memory nrc not dividnl, On 
the «>ntr.iry, the pleamnicut «cne* in my life, mnny of which 
hive been in Cambridge, rise from (lie (^onirnst of rhe pri'ient, 
the more vividly in my imaxinatinn, Yhj ytm (htnk any 
diamond Wile will i:ver give Liic bo much pLcoi^uruasour old 
friend tm^x ma/i^r . ... It h one oi my mqwl consent 
dmuicments lo Jr^tv pKlur» of rhe i^^^i-. ;md in ibem I 
of*fn sef yon arid pofir Ufde Kan- Oh, Ij>rd, nnd Ihfn old 
Dfi*h, poor rhing I Do you recollect how you nil rormenrcd 
ate about his beautiful tail ? 

t t , m Think whun yon »n (jicking intiifcti ofT -jl Iiulw- 
thom-hedifc oij ;t fine Mayday (wrctthvdly c.u1d« I have no 
doubl), think of me collecting amongti pinc-nppTeund oiJioge* 
trees; irbiirt staininjc your fipgcn wilh dirry l>lacltb<;rrie^, 
think and T>C envioHS of ri[ie orange*. This th n |im]>er \nvrc 
of brimdo, for I would wilk through many a mile of tleet, 
ftiiuw, ur riLia lo ihnke you by the liitndH My dear old Von, 
Uod hWs* yon, Jirlicve me, 

Voar* very affeeitnTiBitely, 

Chasl Dakwin. 




C J>artein ft* / 5. Htusr^K 

Mv DKAH HKSr.|.(*W, 

Hia Aw Jwif Jn^ M^y iS, ilja. 

Till uriving at TcncrJdtr (uv UitI nul luiali it Mudvirn) 
I was icari^cly gni of my hammock. x\\A ically huffcrcO jiioec 
ihJin you can wrll imagine from such a caiiie, Ac Sjinii 
Crtin, whilst IrtokmK M*nonK<t the rloudi lor the rtjk, ind 
repeating CO myAolf Hiim1>oUlr% snbnmc rle4rripi^:ins, ir w^« 
tnnounced wc mtiM perform twHvtf^ rtftys' strirt *iiiflr?rntmr. 
W« \iiinl matle a sliort paaaag"!, lo " Up }ih," and away for %x. 
J^^fj, Vou will \!\y jJl ttiU fuunds >ery bnJ, jnj u> it wjji ; 
hue from thai lo ihv |>r(;ticnc lime it \\il\ bren nearly one vccne 
flf contintial enjoyment. A net over ihc iictn kcpi me ai full 
»rk III! we arnet'1.1 M S< J*^K"- l^>--re wc sprnt ihrec most 
ihghtful wttta. The JioTony Tva* pre-ernintnlly vniereir- 
in^, dud I believe qniic new ; ihcre arc wmc faciM on a 
lafgr scale ©f uprjised cojii (which u an excellent epoch for 
Jill Ehe vok;inif: lucJu (o d^ie from), thai wgiild inteieti Mr. 

One frreAT lourf^e of perplexity to me Ik an ntler Jji^oTiifiice 
irhethpr I note the righl fftcts, and wheihfr they nrc of suffi- 
cient impurtancc to inicresi oihcn^ In the one ihini; cr)1tect> 
inn I E'^JinoL %^ ^ron^ Su Jugo it singularly banen. and 
producer fcM plaiitii cji inhtt^lt, etj (l^it tny hiiniinvr w»>i iiiy 
usual eompatticin. And in \\> company mobi deliuliEluJ houiiH I 
BpenC. On the roait T collected nany manne animatv thicAy 
gflrttctopodouE (I ihittlt 5umc tii-w). 1 exatnint^d pretty ac- 
CUf;Lldy a Catytt/])i!iti, and, i( my cyet me noL hcwiU-hvO, 
ii^rnicr dcscripiioni have not Ihi: ilighlc^ reKmblance to the 
nnimnl. I look tcvcrnl ^[>cci^1en>^ of nn Or (opus which pov- 
wued atnortt mjJnclloLLH power cif i:h;tivpn^ iL>»<-uIolii\ rqnaU 
linjc atiy chanie1er>n, xui\ vvidenUy a^ cDmmiiduiini: ihc changes 
IP the colour of Ibe ground which it poised over Vellowi^h 
grv'cii) <iatk brownn and red. vrvrr the preiroiling coLout> : thi» 
Utt appear* lo be new, jkfar ji» 1 can find uuL <-co]ogy and. 


thf inY««bral* anim-il» will be my <hii-f object of punuit 
Iftrnugh Ihc whole viiyajte, 

Wc Ihrn i>»\ltni icT \iaW\a, and tOHfhcd M the tork of SL 
PjiuL This is a scriictiEinc fc»nna(ion, U it nor thr an]y 
bbnd in the n^AtUniiL wliicti in nut vokonif: ^ Wc Kkcwj4<; 
ftiuyEfd a ffiw bovjra nX Fcrriaii<]u Nun^nhd : i crinnvniicJUh surf 
wjh fLtniiinu iMi thai ft thAti w-Mt iiWdmpvii. uiiO ihc Ojitum 
■O'uld Qoi « ait. 1 find my lUc on board when wc s-it on blui; 
n»itcr nio«t dcJighcfuJt 10 vrry rr>tnforla.hlc and quict^t h 
ilmi*^T imprmiWr tn Iw ivllr, nnd ihjit for nw 1» dayinjE a gotvl 
deal. Ncibndy 1 r>Lild ^fowiJily he bt^ttcr ftltcd m every wupcrr 
for coUcriing than T am : man^ t^ooki have not ipolkd the 
broth ihii limf- Mr. BioUTt'i liitlc hinti ubovit microEw^opct, 
Ar<:.. hiTtf brcn invuLuiMc I am AdL ulT in Lioukt, lh« * Dk' 
fionnxirc CliMlque' it imni $iaf/iJ. If you ihould lh!nk of 
any ihinK or booV that would be Mtviai to me, if you woubl 
irritronc litxr, E. Darwm. Wyndham t'lub, St. Jamc»'!i Sirvtt, 
he w][t firurure ihcm. nnd «end thrm with nomc oihcr ihingi 
to Mnntv Viijtru, which for the ncit y«»r wi!l Ih: my hi^ad' 
quart er«, 

Toucluiig ai thi; Abrtilhm, wc arrived here oa April 4ih^ 
whi'n Jimonttsl othi'f» E letci^Td your mo*t kind letter. You 
mny rrly on \t during rhc cvrmrijf I thrtufthi r*f \he many moit 
hajjpy hours I have fi|)eni with you m Cnmbrxdgc- 1 am now 
livio^ M Hutofogu. a vilbgu abtiut a lejj^uc from ihc i:iiy, and 

back 10 BihjiL, and ^dl }>kL me up on ith return. There is =4 
wOTt irnpr^rtini <rror In the bnginadc ol Sou:h America. 10 
icttlc whirh (hi4 itrnnd trip ha« been undtrijlien, Our 
chronotnctcr^ Jii TrMi niKirf rt Af chrfn^ nrr jpitnjc Aiip^Tldy ; 
nuite on rceord have ever gun? ni alt like ihcm. 

A fvw dayn afi«r arrit-tng 1 siaried on in trkpedition pf 
15(1 (nU<t to Rio M;k4o. which Ubicd eighlern djiys Hero I 
fir^r \nw a tropicAl fnrcU in aW \t% tuTdimc itrandcur^nolhing 
but the reahty enn give any idea how wnnderfut hftw mngniA- 
ccni ihr wt*z\f it. If 1 wi« (o iipccify any onf^ thing I «honLd 
give the piT«-cimnrnLC In thchoM of para^ilicAl planEK Your 




cngrjiving i^ fxxclly tnir, but unttcmtcft rjLliirr ibjin TKag- 
KL-rntc4 the liivuriancc. 1 never i^i^prhcni^rd hik li inirdt^i 
fidight, [ formerly admired Humboldt, 1 now nLmoar adore 
him: 1i« olonv giws any nuiion gf ihv feifliagi which ore 
faJstd tn Ih*; niinJ vt\ fiibt entcrmg ihc 'iro^k's. I am now, 
Cullc^ciiig Iichli-watrr urid land Jniiii^idh ; if wuai wuh tvld mv 
b Londoti ii irtK, viz., ihar ihcrc bjc no «null intcctb in liic 
collection* from Ihc TTopif-v T 'd1 Fninmotogists to look aal 
iin<1 hjivc ihiriT jicnik tt'july fnr dcvrthinj;;. l h.\vc tnlcn :iit 
minmc 4if not morculju in England, Hydropori, HygFfMi, 
Hydrobii, Psdaplii, Stapliylini, CurtuUo. &t. &c. li i^ eir.ccd- 
ingly init^rvtimg unnerving Ibc dilk'ieiicc uf gcnvra .ind 
tl>^nes from thosf HrhicK 1 khow; lE i^ hfiwcvcr much Jen 
than C had cxpcrtcd- I nm at pt«cnl tcd-hoi wich npidcm; 
they arc- vrrry tntcrcsttng, and if 1 am not miitaki-n I have 
already Euki-n some ih^'a- ^L"S)erx I ahajl h.ivi; u la^)^ box (o 
(vml very suua tcr CambndgCp and with thai I utll mcntida 
tvmc tuurc tiutiiMj hisKiry piirli<:u]jiTS. 

Ihc tlipirtin dQ« c%'f-iy«hmg in hit power to aMiat m^, 
nnd wo gci on very wcli, but 1 thank my bcHcr fortune he hot 
not made mc a rr^ncgade to IVhig printipln. E woidd not bf 
n Tory, if it wu tncK-1y on atxounc of their cold hc.irc^ about 
thai !9Cjndul tv ChribLiau ndtionrf<— gluv^tj/. I Am very good 
fhvrid^ ttitJi all thu olheen. 

I have juhi iciurned from a walk, and i* a ipccimen, how 
ItHlc the in»ecli arc known. Norrni*. Acvnr^in^ ta Ihr " Jtic- 
tionnHirc CUwf]Mc,' r.tmia\ni i^nicly three European flpcdei. 
T {n one haul of my net took Civt- diBlinct spevivs : iv tbiv nut 
(^uiie extraordinary? .... 

Tell Praf«9Hor Scdjtwitk he doct nui know how much I 
am indebted to him for tl)c Welsh Expedition ; it has given 
iiicain iiiEcrcAi in lieology which I would not ^ive up for any 
cankiderMion- 1 do not think I ever ipcnl a more deKiehlful 
three weeks than (Mounding tUv North-w<r*i Motinmni. 1 
look forward lo th? geology abi>ul Monte Video a» I hear 
there are %lmci Iheie. u> 1 pmume in that district I thjil find 
the JunciionE of the L^lmpa&, ,i.nd the enurmous granite forma- 





lion of BrucLJ^. Al Baht^i the pcgmiiiJtf md t^nctitA in bvds 
J itic same ilircfiioft, a* iibxcrvcO by Humboldt, pri:>jitin|f 
CT Columbia, distum tjoo miles — U It not wondcrliit .■ 
Monic Vidc^D will be for a long timt my dircr.tinn. I hfipc 
you will wriii;; uyjiu lu nic> Tbi;ri; ib aulx^dy from uhom I ILkc; 
rc^?Lviii|j 4Livic:c *'j uiuih a» I'luni yuu. . , . Tannic ihiit 
alnioii unintelligible Idler. Jdd bdicvc loc, my clear Hcuilow, 
with the wflfoocst t'cclinga o( pcapect Jtod dritnd»Iii|j. 

Vourt afl«ctiQQacrly, 

Chah, DASwm. 

C. Darwia h / U. Iltrifrt. 

Jun« t»jl. 


VoLir Ictiei nFfivcil here i»'Ticri I had given up aW hopc» o^ 
recfivinK anoihcr, Jt K^ve mc, therefore-, un xiJdiuunal dtgre* 
of plcuute. Ac luch an interval nf lime jind f»fi4c< one doc« 
learn to fc^el truly obli^fd to those wha do not fotgcT cttie. 
Th<? mcmr>ry when rerAllinj^ Kcen*?s paKt hy. jj/TordH ro us 
cn/zi one of ihL^ grc-uicsl pkohUfcs- Often and urU'it whi^Mt 
wandering uuiongist ihcK hiili do 1 thlnL of liarjii<juLli« aiid. i 
may add, a& oficn wish for iu<:h .1 companiori, Wh.iT a eon- 
IrAit d^>cs a walk En thcw two place? afforrl ; hert hibrupl and 
ttony peat^ are to the very »nmmie iTielniMrd hy ItiiLiriAnt 
«rocid»; the vbolc lurfoi^c of the tcmniry, cicfpring where 
civartil by min* is one impeneltablc EurL'tt. How dLffeit-nt 
from VVileM, villi itt idopmg hillti covered wiih luff, and Lt> 
open vdlle^v 1 wan not previitutly A^ue how inlimaicly 
whi( miy be called the moral p^rl U eonneedid with the 
enjf^ymonl of ^rrnrrj' ' mean vir h idran, as (he history of 
the coLioiry, the uiiliiy of thr prmlu^e, and vi\^j^ ti.\iVi,\i3Mj 
the happine»b of iht^ people living vith ihem- Change the 
English labourer inio 4 poor riave. woikiQB for Jiuother, aad 
you wdl hardly recognise the umc view. I am mitc you will 
be glftd to hc«f how very (vcM every pjtrt (Heaven forefend^ 




except aea-sickn»4) of ihc CKpcdilion Im* answered. We 
hiivc ftlrcaily seen Tcnt-Tiffc nnd Ihc f-fvAl CVinaiy ; S|. Ja^o 
where I 6|fcnf Ihrre mftM ilL'lighTfiil wcrlts Ti^virllrna in the 
dolighit of ti»l naturalising a troptcal «Y>t(!ctn[f UUnd, And 
bcMdcB othpi islands, tht two ct^kbmted porlt in Ihc Bnuiln, 
viz. Bjhiu and Kiu. 

] w:4h ill my hjuimock tdf wc airivcd M the C^nHivfi. jind 
I ihaJl never futg^:t Ihc lubHmc irapicwion Ihc fini view of 
Tencriffc made on my mtnd. Thr fint arriving into *iirm 
wi'MhT wi* mmt IdKiirii^iialy [ifciiflnt ; the dent hliiv *ky of 
ihcTrofiien was no ecnnman change after those jiijcurwd smith' 
wcit j:ali^fi at Plymijiilh, About ihc Line it betume wcllcring 
hut. We tpent one ilfiy at ^t. E'luVi. a Utile- Krvn]> uf rockv 
about 1 i|Lt)irlcr of A mile tn ciTcurnference, peeping np in the 
mfdnt of Ihc Atlantic, There wM <ueh a iccne here. Wick- 
ham (isl lirUTcnanl) nnd I wefe the rtMj- two who landed 
with giin-i and Kt'ol*'gic»i1 hammtT^ ^r. The lii:d»il»y myriuds 
weie t(M cln:iir to »thooi ; we then tried sEones, but at luC, firtfM 
pinff/ ' II'. - 'lagical hammer wai Ihc insirumenL »f death 
We «<.r'»M lii.jiL^d \{\t hoaX with birdi aitU CKg*. Whdkt w 
were ftO engtiped, the nicn in the boat wrne fairly fiphtin 
wiih the iharlti for mirh magniftccnt fith js yon could not lee 
in the London market. Otir lioai would have ma<ie a fine 
feubjvi:! for Snyderv, bucb a m«dky of gami; It cuntaint^d. 
We have been here ten weekt, And khull fi^iw ulurt fui MunlC 
Vidto» whi-n I look forward to many a gallop over ihe Pam- 
|MI. 1 nm A&hnmi'il a{ AfTkt\\f\^ \\ie^\\ .1 M-rnmlding 1i*l1cr, hut 
if JTOJ were lo sec (he heaf* o( Iciter* on my table you would 
und«ni;md the rviiion. ... 

I 3.\\\ ghid lo hear iiiuhil- ^ou^i^b?D mj ^«<1I in Cimibridgir; 
bul It [i)i] Oh bAitiar<Jtjft ro talk to ine \ii *' telenlul uineef t» " 
u 10 A penoin in Arabia oE cold water. In a voyage of thia 
«ort, \( one gain? mnny new and ^rcai pleasurv% on ihe oilher 
side the Ion 11 not rncomidr Tabic. How should you likf- EO 
t)« suddenly debarred frnm feeing cvrty perwn and ('lace, 
h yo" have ever known and loved, for five yean } 1 do 
tc you I am oct:a»ona1]y " lakeu aback " by this rellccr 




tion ; and ihi^n for mun or «bip \t h r>oi vf> raty Ui Hght fi^iin. 
RtruK-mbef me mtni umviely to ihc rvmn^Di of ma*i tivcl- 
kn( IcUow* whgm 1 hnvc th? good tuck to know in Cojnbrid^ 
— I m*fln Whirk-y jif"! Warkini. THI Lnwc T *m even be* 
ftr«lh hi* ron(rmj»f, 1 fnn rnt snJf hcci ond mn«y bisrulm 
lor dinner, ^c what a latl man may comv lo ! 

My dJFeciion (or th« ncxi yi'ir and a luJf will bt; Monte 

God b)«» vouj mv very dciir old !lcrb*rt. Mny you d* 
r^yv be hnppy iLnd [iroK|H-rnLifl Ii4 my tnam eorrlljtl witih, 

Youm affirriontiHy, 

CitAk Dahwik. 

^, DarwM iff F. Wntiiins. 

MofiW V'ideo. Ri«f PlttU. 

My DBak WATitm'fl, 

1 do nui foci v('T>' Mure you wCII ihink u k-ltor from one so 
far iJ^ifUnt ^-ill K' wcirih having; ] wrili- ihrreforc on the 
ftrLfifih n^nru'iplc of gcMLng an answer In ihe diflcrcnt u^un- 
iriei we visit the eniiit ncwncii and diffenrntc from tngbnd 
only lervn ti^ m^kc morr kern the reco^U'ction of \H tccnei 
And dflijCHK In cnnite^iienre the plt-Miirr nf lhinktn;Eof, 
and hcAflnjt frfim nne't former friends, dnc* indeed horoinf: 
great- Rct-oUcct this, 4nd some ^uog winter's evening iit 
down and send i\\< J long wtcaunE uf yuufsclf and uur friends ; 
bolh wlut yoii hiv*, anO what (jou) inU-nd iKuriu ; othtrwirt 
lA ilirce or four more ye*r» when [ return you will be -xll 
ftirangen to me. Considering hovmnnymonlMhiee pisied, 
^^i* h.ivf not tn x'hf ff/d.v''' niadi- mueh way frtiind thi- world. 
Ilitherro everything h^L^wcll reiuid the ncr-CAsry trouble and 
buof comfort. Weviayed thi<e« iveck* at the C^pedcVerdt; 
it wu no otdinuy plej>Tun; ran^blinu over the pUins of Uva 
under a Iropicji] tun. biLF whf-n I Tirtl enivred ori and bcbcTd 
the InvurUflt vegetitian in FirAEll, it wjii reiliiing the Wtiont 
in Ihe 'Arabian Nighti/ The brillianirv of the icenerf 





throtfi one Inio j d^lirtum of dcLi^hi, And » brtHe hvntrr b 
not likely aoon n> tiwakcn flora it, when whichcvef way he 
turtiB irvsh trtOBEirft (nvut ZtJs ryv. At Rio dir jAnrifo three 
iiiutiOiH i>Ltu»cd an ,4) like *o in^iiy wevkh, I m±d«: -t iiioat dti< 
tighiful cxctinlon during (hti iui>c of J50 mtlcb luui iktr i-rjuii- 
try, 1 atnycd a an inxaK which is the lati of the cl^jrcd 
fCrnimd, behind ittme vast impcnrlrjibK- fontl. U h jifmoit 
im|kMifiihli? to imnginc ilie qaiciiifk of !*Hi-h a lift' Noi ft 
human being wiihm somt miles inicrrupti; the ^ohiiidc. To 
leul ozitj^df amiOat ihe glouni of «uch a forcil on a decaying 
trunk. ;Liid then think vi humci ie a pltswure worth tuking 
some tr^jublf (or. 

We are At prcicnt in a much le^i inicre*ring country. 
One lin^k' walk fiv<:r the undiilatory liirf plain ahdW5 ^^very- 
thing whirh i^ 10 he sl-cii. Ii is not at all unliki- CnmHridKe- 
dhite; only that «very hed^e, :ive and hill iniisi lie ttftEllctl^ 
aodar^hteUnd lurn^d into pLulure. All South Amerti:! it 
in such in un^etilcd sute thju we h^ve not rnicrcd one port 
wilhoul ftomr «ort of dii^liirbAncen At Uurno^ Ayrc« a ^hol 
camt ^ihintlinn ovfr finr head*; it i» ■ noi*c I h,id never 
befoFfr heard, but 1 found I hnd nn intiinttive knou-]edgr of 
what ][ tneani, Th*.- oiher day wc landed our men htit. andi 
took pUBW!tBiun, al the ioijulsL of the iiahubtt^utk, i>E tht; cen- 
tral foiL Wc pliilc^uphcrL do nut bai^itiu for this toil of 
work, and I hope there will be no more. VVc *ail Tn the 
CouTK of » day orlHO to «urvry Ihr i:o»(it of rniJiKoniji ; nt 
It It cniirdy unknown. 1 rxpc^t a ^nod denl of inierc^- Btu 
Already do I perrpive the ^[cvom diffcfrnce between iJiiling 
an theiic leas and the Equinoclial ot^ean. In the " Ludu's' 
Gulf>*' IB the Spuiurd'H call it, it it bO luxurious to hit on 

:k Hnd enjoy the coolneu of the night, And Admire the new, 

tiireKniioni of ihe South. , , . I wondcrwhen we ihall evft 
meet again ; but be it when it nuiy. few things will j(ivc rac 
greater pleasure iK&n 10 »oe yoit ^igcLin, and talk over the bog 
time ve have pofled together. 

If you wete to meet me M pieient I tcrlainly *hoiihl b« 
looked at like 1 uiEd bcskt. ^ i^rcat gtiii}y beard And Hushing 



I Jjickcr would disHgtirt? an an|;cl. Believe mc> n^y dear Wat- 

■ iiimtj with the wafiiiu«C IcElingi of friendship, 

I liver yoiiri, 

H CllAtttJTfl Darwih. 


C Dartvlit to J. S. HtrtslBUP. 

April II. [Bi3- 

Wc arc now njnnifiR np ffnni thf Falkland Inlands lo iho 
Rif» Negro (or Colorado). The A^/^will ptut«d lo Moiiic 
Video; but \i ii tan t^e managed I intend lUyiog ai the 
formtr pUcc. El i« Qow tvmc nionths (ince we have been at 
a civLIiflcd pOTl ; nearly aII ihis lime hfts been spent in the 
mtrtt »<>uEhc(n part oJ Ticm del Fufgo. Ir k n cletesuble 
pUee ; gnlci succeed galc^ with nuch ^hort incurvala iIijlI il is 
difficult lo do anyrhmiE. Wc wcru iwLTity "three doiys off 
C.ljiL* Hurn. iirn\ coiiM hy nc> niean& get to Lhc w^lwaid. 
The last jiml fmal yalc t^r/oic wt ^avt up ihe attempt w» 
unu&u^Lly severe, A te^ itove one oE ihc boMi. ^ri<1 tKcrc 
wa* &o mu'jti wiileT on Oie daks ihul every place wa* niloot; 
nrflrly all ihe paper for dTyinj^ plants is spoiled, ind half of 
this rnrinii* cnllectioo. 

We at last ran inia harbour, and m tht boats got lo.ihe 
well by the inland chanutslB. An I was one uf thiB purty 1 
w^h very iflad f)i it. WjEh twu huatB wr tvenC at>Oul 300 
milc«< and thns 1 had on excellent opportunity of geologtsiag 
and teeing much of the lavagc^ The Fuepana arc in & more 
misembfr^ ttate or harh^iribm thnn I h,nd CTpcrled ever 10 
have wen .1 hnmran hein^ In this inrlcmcnt roumry rhey 
irr dhsoluiely nalted. and their (emporary honses arc like 
what children nuke in lummct with bought of trce^. t do 
not think .tny hpi-c 1c c ,^n he more ifiirr»li»|j than the firtt 
«igh( r>f man in hi> primitive wiLdncu, It 11 «n inicreil 
which cannot well he imagined until it 'm ciperient^ed, I 
KhjiJi never fotgct tM« when enterttig Good Sucocvi Bay 




ihc yell vhh which a pany received «». They were icaicd 

on a rot:ky pciinc. Kurroumtud by thr; d^rk forest ot tieech; as 

thi'y Ihruw lhi'ir;4ri]]» wddly Euuiid Uiirir liti.4jl>^ ^iid llie^r ]<jnjf 

liiir Uii;i4nijng, ihcy hirccticd thtz iruulilcd fj«((it» of ani>lher 

world. The climaic in some rcipccts is a curious mixture 

oi wvfrny and mildiK^sa; ns fir aK rtgflrdw Ihc inimjil kinji^ 

diTOj Ihc fnrmrr eharacccr prevails; I hnvc in ronserjiienef 

not added much to my cnllccitona. 

The Cacology of thi^ juirt of Tierra del FuegD woa, uk in* 

deed every place h, tu inv very iiitercblinj^ T'hc country in 

iicn-foivLldcrouh, und j i Lnriciioii-t-tjujv ^^u^i^chtion of i^i»R~ 

ix'ic rocki jnd slnies; aUem|iting to mnke out the relation 

of cleavage, ilraEo, &e., &c., wu my chief amuM-inent. The 

TnifHTitl«|;y, h£>*'rvtT| nf scmic of t^o rockft vUl, I think^ 

be eurjcrui^ from thi-ii rvhemUUntc to thou of voktUiic 


• • • • • 

After leaving Tierra del Tuego we sadcd to the FAlklindft. 
I fofK"! lo mention the fate of the lueKiriHH whum ive look 
hack to their coLmtry. They had become entirely Kuropcan 
in their habrii and wiihcf, so much »o thai the yownger one 
had forjiotten hw own Ungtiagc. and their coLintrymtT p/tid 
but vi-ry Kltlti aUvniiun to thvm, \V*t bmll buiibv^ tut Lhciu 
xa*\ plnnicd lEJaidtfjin. but by thi; timv we return -igiiii on our 
pAMnigc round the Horn, I think it will be very doubtful how 
miirh nf ihcir property will be left iipttolcn, 

. . . When ! am Kca-tlek and miacmbK it i» one oF my 
highest cuntolaiionfi to puiiure the future' M'lien wc ui^um ^lull 
bv jULeing lutik'ibcr tiiv nnnXt ruund CLiiil/aili^r, llm d^y 
it a tfcAty \oug ryxy uJi, Wc hive another ctuiac to rnike 10 
Ticrrfldel l'<i<^ ncU summer, and then our voyage round 
the world will reiiUy commenrr. Captain Fiu-Roy has pur- 
ch^Lxt'd ;t lorK^" schooner *if 170 tons. In vnAny respect* it 
will \>i: a iircat advjtniuKc^ hhvio^c a contort — pcrhapi it may 
lomewhiit Khorti-n our 1. ruUc, which I mo&i coidinlly hope it 
may. I truat, however, ih^t the Corjl Rcrft and T«nou* ani- 
mtli of the I'Actfii; xan} keep up my letolutioD^ Rcamnber 




nic moil kindly tc Mn, Htrnilow and all other fricndt; 1 am 
a itUL- LuvLT ijf A]r»:t Matter and all its inhftbiUnU. 

YouT jQc£tioTiatc and mo«t obliged frirad, 

r, Danvfa to Miss C. Danoln- 

, . . The (ollowtiiK buitjdcu [licijc ih Uj my faLlkcr, Uhv- 
ing n tcn~*nl of my o«h wculd be 4 rc.iily grtit addilioo lo 
ttiy romfoTL For [hrt<; Iwo rt:aftOQ« : a« Jit present ihr C^ip- 
u!n haft opjjomtori ono of Ihc men *Kayn to lii; with mr, but 
I dn not thmk \\ jmi thu'* lu ukc n Kcaman cue of ihi? ithip; 
and. i^cuDdly, when ai ac^ J Ain latUcE baUly olT fuj any unc 
to wjLi uQ mr. Ttio (iipin is wiUitig to bi; my lurv^ntt 
and nil thir cifi^n^ct ivoiild lie under /f&o pri Annum, I 
hflvc luught him lo ihoot ^nd *km birdi, w ihat in my nmin 
abjc!iri hi- 14 vfry uiutful, t b.Lvr now lefr Er>»»lnnd nearly a 
year And a huir> jtnd ] Hnd my cijit-nsva are noL above ^Joo 
per annum; m> tfikic, it. \fv\\%i bnpcku (fioiii Unic) lo vviiic 
for pcrraiiiitJn, 1 have come lo Ihe tomlusion That you wou^d 
alio* m« thi» ciipi?Qi«. Out [ hav(? not yet n7»o1vcd to **h 
thi; f'.ipT.iin, J<nd rhf rhnncc* >irc rvcti th/tl hi! would t\o( he 
wjlhng tn hnv(^ ;in Adnicmnnl mnn In ihr shi|>- I hate men- 
tioned ibis became for a long lime 1 huvr been (liiziking 
about it. 

Junf.—l h^w ju6t receivi-d a bundle more letter*, 1 do 
not know bow to Lh^nk you ;tJI kutficicntly. One from Cath* 
crinc, Feb. ath, anoihcr from Sutin^ M^rcb jird, lo^fchfr with 
note* from C\irobn^ and from my fnlhrr; pve my Ui-H love 
to my father \ nlmmt (^rird fiir ptciiurc at receiving \l \ it 
wftfi very kind ibinkms of wriim^ to me. My lctiT;r« jiro both 
few. ihuii. and ^IiJfJjd in return for all youn ; but I ]il«ays 
fl4*C my cooftcicDce by cumidrriuft the Journal a* a lon^E let- 
ter. If I can man,t|^ ii. I will, bcf'ive douMinR the Horn* 
»cnd the re«l- I Am i^uitc lielightcd lo And the hide of thf 


THK VOYAGE, -fiTAT. >|. 


MrKLLihtrrtum hu given you all «>me titlle LnicTc«l In my 
cnip^oymcnU. Thcic lui^incntt flfr ooi, howtvcr, by ^nf 
mc'*nj The m<nt v.iJu.iWc nf the ^rologjc^l rolirv 1 truil 

fnr ah other rcsflo^tr^ will producr m full wnrth in N'aniriil 
IlKiary; nnd u a|ipcurH |« ai; the UoiTig whai/jJYXr wc fan 
lo incrcfUEtr; ihe gvn«rj^1 }»tock <jf knowleii^c is jlh rtapvi^iabte 
an objca of Jil« JM oQc cjin in any liktOihixtil purtuc. U in 
more the letMlc of »uch rellentiont Ui 1 hiw already *xld\ 
than miiirh immi^iliaiir plr^fiirc which now n^ikci me con- 
tinue l3u' vf)y:igr, lOjCi-lhcr wilh ihe |ilnrimi4 pmi<|trrt o( the 
fuciirc, when pasting the Scratta of M'ijfc1liTi. wc hjivc in 
Ituth the world before us. Think o( ;he Aiii]c«. iUk: tuxurijuii 
i'>tni ot tiuAyaqw). the itbada of the Suuth Sea. aaiI New 
SoLLlh Wale*- How many mAgniAcent and chmctcriAtic 
view*, hoifr many And cnritnn ttibct of mt-ii «c ithall kc I 
What :ine opporTu[iilie» for scotogy and (or (Eud/ing Ihc in* 
finite hoot of living Iwingi ! U not this a pro»pecc to keep 
up the tno»t fl^itumK **['irit? Tf I wo* t'l ll^row it nvay, t 
don't ihmk ] hiKjiiEd i-vcr ii-ht iiuiei in my j^ravc, I ccruinly 
thould be ghosl und haunt Ihe BriiUh Mu&eiun, 

Mow famijusly ihc Miniiicn .ippnr lo be ijcing on, 1 
■Twrtj? miirrh enjoy polttiC'il goi«p jfld whAt you at home 
ihlnk will, k<t.f &r_, lakp plarf, 1 Wwdily read up the weekly 
paper. Uui it it noi sufHcienl lo giildr nnr'i fi|iinif>n : a-nd E 
find il a vpry piinTuI iiate not !□ he a& oS%linaie n.t n pig in 
politicv- 1 liJvc watvhv^l liow iltfuiJdy the ^nrrjl Cvelin;^ 
^owQ at cki^tioni. hai been tihinjf .i^Jinii SUvcfy. Whul 
krodd ihing for England if ihe is tbe tint Kitropean nation 
whirh ntriTly flhrtJishr'i iM I watlold before leaving England 
tlur afirr living in tl.nve roimiri':* all my opinirint would be 
ohorcd ; ^e only alteration 1 am nwnrr ol i» forming a much 
higher ettimate «if tbe negio i.haracicr, h h im]io%ubU lo 
aee a nt-^^ and not feci kindly towards him ; luch chc^^ful, 
open. hone*c ekpTeuion* and tueh finv mnicutai bodiM- 1 
twver WW any of ihe dimintjtiTc Poriugneie, with iheir mn^ 
dcTOua eoununft;)ceis wiiUoul almotit wi^hisg for BraaU to 


Gocm srccEfifl bav. 


follcw the ciiimpltf Af Hflvii; and. cotnidcring the tnormoui 
hrallhy-lnolcbs hbck populiLtion. it will lie wonderful if, itt 
pomc future day. ii tloes nul lake plutir. 'J'lK*rc ib jI Kio a, 
man (1 know nuE \m tiik) whu ha*^ J Jargc lAlury iv prc-vcnl 
([ bvli^-vc) iIjc btiiling of hlavM ; he iUt* AC Botofogrj, and 
yd Ui4l w:ii t}tF bay where, duKng my rrtideDCC, the grcnter 
Ttumber of ^muj^glfd ilsvn were landtd. Same af the Antl- 
SljSKory pf^ipilt oiiRhi tn i^iication obnui hU office; it va* the 
Kuhjcu of r.anVtirimionatliJoiunongril ihebuecEQgliBh. . . « 

C Dan/in to / ^f. Mer^^. 

M uliU^Mtdo. Rfo l^u, June <. Itj^ 
My i;iiA» Herbprt, 

T havT^ been con lined fur the last threi' dayH to u miKt'ruble 
djirk riroiii* Jn un old S[ia[ibih hnuto, (rocu the torrenUof rain; 
1 ani ntit, cheicfi^rv. in very good iriin i<M writing; but, defy- 
ing thi: blue tleviti* 1 will ^end yoii ji few lincv. if lE ib merely 
\<i thjnk yo'j virrj' wnijcrcty (or writing to mc. 1 received 
yoUT letter, Lifted December isl, ,i ihort lime iiDce. Wc are 
now pai^mK part of ihe wiMer in ihc Rio P^atJ^ after h^i-Ing 
had X hflfit ftiimmfi'H work to ihr *o«th. Tieru dri Fiicgo 
\% indeed n mirnrriiblc pbcc ; the tcn*4Jwi fury of the galci 
is quite IreiuenJouB. One evening we «iw old Cape Hum, 
and lliit^i' wcrkh uftcru jr\lk wi; ncrv imiy tKiily iiiilctf to wi»d- 
v^d of El, It II a gtji^d hpecUi.Ie to hcc all naiuie thui 
rai;iag; but Heaven Iinom every one In the BfH\'It hut seen 
l|lh ir> IhU f>nc hiimmcr l<i Isnt them Ihrtr nnt»ri1 liijjf^. 
'The flrat pUer we landed 4t wfts Gfiorl Jiin^cr*«i Bj»y, It 
VQs here BnnhiandS^kUnderniotBiicrh «tiiaKten«inan:cndiitg 
ijne of tiir mi?untainiL The wi-ather wu ttilpubly fini;, and 
J cniijytrj Hnmr w.ilki in 4 wild covinlry. liln: Ilial tieliind Hwr- 
moLuh. The tnllfv* flfe impcnetr.ible fmm Ihc tntanglcd 
WchxIb, but the higher |>;irt% nt'nr the limit* of per|H*hHil mow, 
•fe bare- Fmm lomi^ of Ehejio hdla thv ^eenery. frum \\% uv- 
nge^ i^oliiary chanicicr, wji mosi lublimi:. The only inhabi* 
l4nl of Iheie height! t> Ihc gLtuntco, and witli iu tlitill neigh- 




ing it oflcfl breaks Ihc tlitlhcvA. The rcniictciiiftncH that no 
Kuroppfin hot hcul ever ttod much of ihis gmund added lo 
the OcU|-ht of th»t^ rumbli^tt. How oiivn und huw^ vividly 
liavt; riijirjy uf vliu liOLir^ h|>vciC ui l^riimuiiLli cmiic bufi/ic my 
mmd ! J Utok bsnk to [hAl lime with no common plejuurc : 
at this moment 1 can lec you »e-tt(rd on the hilt behind ihc 
inn, almoM n» yjlninly .v if yoH were re*lly there. It IE necci" 
anry lo bi^ sepflrflt^-ri from nit nhich one hjia been flcnui- 
lomcd lo» to know how pr*»|)*;rly lo treasure u|t such tccnllec- 
livnv^i^d Hi iliiH dLhlJOcr, I niuy add. how pruperly to vatvtm 
lui'h m youcveir. my dcjr old Herticrt, I ^uiidci when 1 
■hflll ever wfe you agiin. I hope h mny be, cia ynn any, <ut- 
rouodod with hca.p»of parchm^rnt; but Ihtfn iher« must ht, 
lOOner or later* a dprat LilCle bdy to [:ike care of yoil And y^Mir 
houiMr. Such a dehghtful ms\or makeK me quite enviouk. 
lltii is a curious UXc for a rrguUr >h<jrc'eoing per»oa tuch u 
mytvK: the wortt part of ii is itt eiLreme lenj^th. There iti 
^crtumly ^ givat deal of hi)(h cnjoymcni, und on Ihe contrary 
■ tolerable fthnrc of vei*Tion of spirit, Kietyfhmg, however, 
»hall bend to Ihe plea.*^iire of grubbing up fild bcme?) nnd c^i^t- 
li%'^Iin|C new nnimalv By thr w.iy, y<Mi r.iHt my Naiiifiil 
History libntirt far loo hij^h, I am nothinii more tlian « bont' 
provider : I do not fed M all lurc that they will not ^owl ;tnd 
finally deslruy me- 
lt Jurt one** heart anml tn ho.^r how things ate going on 
in Engbnd. Ilumib for the honcai HTiFpi i I IrLiBl Ihcy will 
lOOO attock thrtt monitmu* sUiiu on out bojMed liberty, Colo* 
nial ^Uvcrf. I hare ttvn irnouah of Skvcrj' and the di*- 
poJiiiions of the negroes, lo be tboroujthly JifRUstnl wiih the 
lies and nonH-uiK one heart on the stibjcri in Kntd^nd. 
Tliank liud, the cold-heattcd Toricn, who,** J, Mackinio«h 
iiHt J to lAv, hnve rLO~fmthusin.«m, tTtcepc Agunkt i-nthuviaitm. 
haw for the pr*^B(^rl run their race. I am lorry. by yout let- 
ter, 10 Jieiir you have not been well, md th*r you pertly at- 
iribuie it to wunt vf exerti^e. t wmh you were here mnonpl 
Ihe Kfcen r'liini; we would take walk* which wnitid rivid ibc 
Dolftelly onet, and you should fell ^tori<:«^ whu h I wouhl be^ 




liovt'p cvm tti ^ mbtr /at/ton 0/ pHitJiag. Imii^ad T Piu*l Mkc 

my hoJitMy MmMC) think of Cambridge day^ nnd pick up 
iniku. IcvtEcA untl lu^tUa. Excuhij tliiti itliurt kllcr (you 
know I never iiudjed ' i lie CojiipluLc Lirtlcr-wnLci '], and bv* 
lievG CDC, my dc^r licrbcn, 

CKAKLkct Darwin. 
C. Damt'tt fo /. S. //tHi/ou: 

* . , . . t iiiii i^uiCv cbunucd with (rtfulu^, but tikf? The 
friiAkDmisI between EwLi buTiUk'H uf hay, L <li> iiul kcion which 
To tike ihc hcst ; Ihc nid cryiinllmc K"-*^'!* of rc)tk%» <>r thv 
«ofTer and fi>«^i]ir<*rou4 beds. When piifiling .-iboiii itfiiliA- 
cations, ^c„ \ fed inrbni/il 10 cry " a fig for yowr big oyster*, 
anil your biggtr megaihi^riiim^." But thi^n when ctig{;in^ out 
some fine bfnc*, I wuudcr how any nun can lire hih arniH 
wiih hjmHienng gfanitc> By Ihc *»y 1 have not one tiear 
icIrA abriui < k.iva^e, ^intiEirLation, hn» ipE ii]iH»v»|, I luive 
no books which lell me much, and wh»t tlicy do I c.innot 
aji].ly l*j I wc. In eonm'']u<.-nr** I dmw my i>wti cnr»- 
clubion&, .mtl inoH[ ^orioniiily ridjeuloun antrt^ Ehcy art;, I ntime- 
ItmcK laiLty. , . . C«n you throw any bght mio my mind by 
teUing me what rrbtion cIcAvige and pUnes of deposition 
b^jrr lo each olhrr ^ 

And now for my wromi ifffraa, Zoftlopy. I hnvp rhielly 
Tiern employed Jn preparing mysHf fnr the SoTtth Sra by 
cianiirim^ the poly]ti of the smaller Cnrallijic!^ in Iheie ]au- 
liuk*. Many ui tlL^rfriKvlveK arr vfrry curiouH. onO 1 think irv 
quite undeccribcd ; there WAt one liLppaUin^ one. Albcd to i 
fiiitstra, which I dare ftdv 1 m^mionerl h-i^nie found to tbe 
Dorlhwflrd, whrre the rclK hav** a mnvaMc nrji'tn (like ft visit- 
ure'q hrradi with a dibtAbk beak), fiitcd on [he edgtr^ Hut 
what U of more fjeneial interest U the iinqueiiionable fat it 
Appcari to tne) exiilenvc of anoihcr ipeciei uf oitrkh. beside* 
iitv S/rjtfAio rAfn. All the C;*uf.hi>« and indiann ^late it is 
the ca*c and 1 pLice the grcitieii faith in their obAerracionk 




i hiive Ihc lirad. neck, piece of ikio, fv^ithen* and Jcg» <>f 
i>nv- Tlic diffcErnccf ore chjc^y in the colour of thr fcuih«i» 
Hnd sc.iU't on io^fjii, Ivtnn frathi'i^'d hclflw ibn knro^, nidifi- 
cciEion, and gcogra|]hkjU distnhiiiion. So much forvhai I 
hivu lalf^ly done : ibi^ j.troHiH-ct bdoru t»c n futl uE vunvhuiei 
'iiic m;jjlh(;r iflofiijut twdcy, tlu- ucoU-g) t^l ihc Anticft. pUin« 
dboiiziding with on^nic reniaini {which pcrhjpi I miy hj^c 
the goorf luck to catch in ihc very arl of mi^Wnj^, and b^rly, 
an nr-cflFit itn fthf>rrt Ahmindin|£ vilh lifr, so, if nmhin^ 
unfnreu^^n hajippn^ C will Hiick lo ihc vnyogc, aUhough fat 
whixt I can !-ix ihi? io:ij- lafit tUl w<? rKlum a fine jcl uf irhitr- 
hcjidcd uld ucn LtoiiK'M. 1 }Luvr lu tbauk yuLi mu»t ci^rdmlly 
for lending mc ihr: booltv I »n\ novf lendtag iW Qnford 
" Report ; ' * the whole nccouni of your proceedings is nio« 
^oriuuH; you rfmaining in England unnot Up'dl imagine how 
cvi'Va&ivtrly inlcrfiliii^ J lind i\n.' rrpoftt, I it\T\ buir frvnn 
my v*n thidling hi-rkAaiuiiix wtu<n [Lading ihem, lliai flicy 
tinpoi Ejiil Lo have an excellent vQecl upon all tboic rcsidiniE 
in dUt jnC colonies. ,inj vtho Unvt little opporUnhy of iweinfc 
ihc period LI a! 4- My lunirner hAH t\'>*Ti with rcdoiiMcd forL^e 
on the di^voTed blocki ; a* ! rliougbi over Ihc eloquence of 
the Cambridge Pr^-M(1cni. t htf harder and hardor bluwr I 
hojtr to uivv my iraitstren^h fut tlic Cur\lilli*riij!i. Yuu wUL 
lend mc tliTuui^h Cj^jI, Beaufort n copy of ihc CAiubiidue 
' Report," 

I have forpiltcn to mi^ntion that for ^om? time pirt. And 
for the fuitirci T will p«f ,j pcnrll rfoii on rhc pill^hoxes con- 
taining in»i:;i. an ihef>e Monc ^vill requiEv being kept |>artii:ii- 
latl)' dry: it may perbupi &uvv j-on vomc itoubk. Whrn tliiv 

lately been eniLcudcd by a dieidful tcenc of murder, and »X 
l^eient there are more prUoaen than inhabitant*. If a mer- 
chant vcKcI is ch'irtirrcd lo Ukr ih«m lo Rio, 1 will Hfrnl 
wrae Ripcciincn& (I'^praatly my few pUnU aiiJ vueda)- Kc- 

• Th* iw"Ht nifriifig M iW Mriii^ri AwtvUiion wni held at OnfoTil hi 




member mc to sH m^ C^imbndgc frlt'nds, I Icve and treasure 

TjjJ every fivullcciion 'jf d-.-ar oTJ dmbridpr. I um muL:h 

monumcni ; 1 never think of Kim wilht>ut Ibc Hamw^i auJnii- 
rition. F^rrwt;]!, my dcvr llcn>]oq'. 

Believe tat yuviT most obligi."J unrl jilTtrtionfltc friend. 

Euc h'^Ekl^ud hluiii). April G. iBll- 
tT MAS CATHrKirft, 

Whott iliiK k'liTT win n^iich yon I Lhuw nm, Sut urcbahly 

Mni« tnan-of-war will cnlL liete bf;fore, m the coranion cuurtcr 

tt{ events, 1 ihoultl buvc jn^rlher opporiumiy of writing. 
• « « « ■ 

Aft*fr TisUing some uf llie louihcm isbnds* we beat up 

through ihc magrLLficenl ftccnrry of t\vt tiejtgk Clumntl to 

Jemmy UMUan's" coonity. We coiiM h-iedly fctoffniiic pijor 

Jemmy. InstMid of thv <^]cAii. wd^drtsied sIoue Ind wc left 

him, wf fmind Tiim a naked, rhin. tiiuultd navagc. York 

and Fue^ia liad muvcd Eti thvn uwii country wjinc monthii 

atEo. the former hjiving tiolcn hJI Jcmmy't clollieii. Notf 

he had nothing escepl a bit of WinkeC round hi* nattu 

Pnor Jemmy was very glad lo *[ee nw. *nd, m-fth hi* usual 

|nnd ffdinK, Tjmiij;hf ^cvcr:! pfi'hcnln [iitt<'f"'<kini4, \vhn:h jre 

mctst vjilunhlc to ihcm^Wc^f for his old frirnda. The Cnpuiin 

offered to uike hjm to England, but thin, lo our tiurpriitr, h(* 

al uiictf refused, [n th« evening; hj» yuuni; wife came ulon^ 

tide And tiht^wed uv the lejidUTt- Kv wa^i i^unt: cmilcnted. 

1*4*1 yenr, in the height of >it« inUignation, he %aid "hh 

coufiTrr people no mAt nothing' — 'limned foolj "— ^ow they 

were vfry good pPOfde. with Aw myrh (o eat. and all the 

luaiirics of life. Jemmy jind hh w^fc paddled away tn their 

"Jvmmy UMTti->i^< Vvrk MlnOer. ftn'l FoeEla BcUtfi. wen lUE^tn of 
Ti?rrs d<l Km~|{ii| t'^^■l;f)l Lu Kij|(1.iiif1 liy d^'liiii rU<>Bn]r iii h» fbrmrr 
Toyijiet and ictton-'J td tfavr couplty lay hin lil Tfl^. 




canoe loaded wilh prcsctiu, And rery tuppy. The mosi 
euriouti thing i\ chit Jcnitny. instead of forovpniig hit own 
lAnjcnaer. h.i\ tJiUjchr.iLl hU frii^nd>t a liEltr Rn^tiAh, "). BuF- 
loa'n cAnoc " and *' J<mimy"i wiA: roiiic/'"Civc mf kriif^," 
B:c., was ^id by ^eveiiii uf thcin. 

Wo then byff iivay fvr ihi* nJjiul'— th<K liuk misetubJe 
veal Ejf diALutd. Wc iouikd IhM l\\c UjucUus, under iiictpnue 
ol a. revolution, hnd murdered ^nd plundered all ih? lingii»h' 
men whom th<^y L'ould cal'.h, and lomi; of Ihcir own ronntry- 
rocn. A.II thr coonnfny .ti lininc makr^ (he foreign niovrmrnt« 
nf r.ngltind mopE rontcmpiibic- How riiffcrtnifromoJri Spain, 
llcie we, dog-m-dic-mangcrfaAhion, icUe AnbUnd^and le^ve 
to protect It t Uoioi Jack ; Ihc [lOMc^trirbAt^or coiiric, been 
miirdrrcd : wc now tcni n licDicnLini wiih TAur o[Ef>tf« wiih. 
out aiuhDriry or in^tiMf lions. A man-of-wnr, bown-cr. t-en* 
turfd lo kavc n party vt inafinc)i,itnd hy their aH^iHiJin^'d ^"d 
Elicr ircaLhery tif «omi: of the |]uriy, the miirdcrcn hive oJl 
been ukvn. ihcic bcm^ nuw ^» nuny |jrttoncn^a» inhjibiunU. 
Thih ibiAnd nunL qome day become ;l very imporuat hiklttng- 
pUci^ in the moti lurbntrfli ncn in ihe worltL li n mid-way 
bi:'tw<^n Au^Tralia anii the SniiTh Sen to Rnfclftfid ; heiwrcn 
Chili, IVfii, &c. and the Rio Plati and the Rio de Janeiro. 
TlHTtf AlU fuie h:iiI]JJLii«. plenty of frfth wjter. and ^uod 
beef- It would doiibtleu pioditcc the co-^rtKr vegetibtn. 
In othrr respect* it i^ .1 wrctthed plntc- A little time lince, 
I node AcrriM the iiil.ind, nnd retiirnt;d in fniir djyi. My ri' 
curKion woidd have been lonifer. but dLiring the whnic lime <l 
Mew a (jale of Kind. *ilh halt and inow. There b no fire* 
wuud biggtr ihiXM hv^aih. amd tlievliule i:ounLiy ib, mure or 
lekSr «a ciutk pcit-bojt Sleeping out al ni|{hl wai^ too 
mi»crab1e work to endure k for all the roclu ia South 

Wc ihall leave ihU ^cvnr of iniquity tn two or three daj\ 
and ito to the Rii> dc la Sia. Crni. C>ne of the objircl* h t*> 
louk at the «l>ip'» botloni- We iiruck father he-avily on an 
unltnown rock oH Port Ueiire, and wtne of b?r copper i* torn 
off- After ihti ii repaired the Captain ha^ a gturioui Khemc ; 




it 14 to go to ihcTcryhcad of th\^ rivfr. ihai i? proljoMy lo the 
Andri^ Vi it qtiui.' uoknown ; liu' tnilianH icU Uh il ia Iw^ 
orihrrv hundrtril yuiili bruad, uiid huisuuii; n(jwh«n; lord iu 
1 cimiot iiiiu^Liu; ujiythuia mote jtiEcictling. Our (ibns ihm 
are to yo to tori F.iminc^ and ihtfc wc tih:c» thi: .-hht^Kfurt^ 
who U employed in m»l:inji ihr Chsirr of Ihjr KftlklancU Thifl 
will be in (he mifUlli? of wintprn flf> I nhnll spcTicrra dri Fucri* 
In her white drnpcrj-. Wc Icovc ihc siraitu lo ijnicr ihc 
Pacific by ihc Burbarj Channel, one very link kno*n, anU 
wbkh pxntfb k\o^k l(j iHc 10i>E *>i Mount SaiiiLirnto ((he Ixi^h' 
CHi muuEitain in the tcmlh, mccpting Ml-! ! Uaruin* !). Wc 
then ihiU icud aw.iy for Conrcpcion in Clulr. I believe the 
shjp nm>i( om;i* n^ain alj^^r jmifhwaTd, bul if any *>^e eairhc* 
mo Ihcrc AKuin^ I will ^>ve him Ji:av(? lu li^ni^ lUt: up a.\ a 
fturacrow foe jII futut? □ftlurfLtmk- 1 Jong (o be ^i wark in 
the ConliLkrai) the geology of Uilbp ifirie* whkEi 1 nntJ^T^Und 
prtlly weM i^ hO intiii'ialelytonnei-Utl with i^rriodt of violence 
in th»i i^reni t h.iin o( mniminifit, The furufc Ui, indeed, to 
jnc a briUiani proipcci. Von ^ay its very brilliancy frighteoi 
you; but rwilly T om virry cjirpfnl ; I m*y meniicin »1^ n proof, 
in ,1)9 my rambkr^ I hurr never \\a.K\ ,iny one aeciUcni or 
scrape, . . y Continue in ^our]^ood miCoia of nnting plenty 
of ^uip ; ] much like hearing akl iibont :iU thingi. RetDem* 
l>er me m^^^l kindly ift Un^lc }<>*, iinfl m all ihi- Wi'i1j;^o<HK, 
Tell ChArlotte (rbeiT ninmeil nomca sound downright un- 
natural) I should Like lo have writleri lo her. (o have lold her 
how vvdl everything itt going on ; hwi iX wouTd ouly have be«n 
1 t»iiM:ni>t irf i\\\'% lellct, uiid I li:ivt' it liOfrl of jruiiulii u.1 tlixH 
nkiAutc tuTiotinding me which all require crabilming ind 
numbering: I hflve nol forjjotten the ':omfort 1 reeeived that 
fUy 11 M^t-r. when my mtnd 'has, hke ii fwiDjti'ng p^nrtiilnm. 
<li« my heti love to tny fmher, I hope he will forgive all 
my ciirAvdgance, but nut u a Cbriitian, for then 1 lUppotc 
he would ii:ad me no more raoncy- 

tiood-bye, <Jear, lo yon, jnd jUI your goodly aimerhood. 
Vour affect ianaie broEher, 

Cius. Dahwik. 




My love to Nancy : * tell her, if the wo*^ now to hcc mc 
vilh my great Iw:liiJ, ihc would LhinW I woi tome worthy 
Sobioon, come to nc-ll iht; triaketi. 

1 luvu Juii^ iiiti:ndcd wrJimg. JUEI to put yuu in mind tbar 
there it t ceiLtio iiuuter ul beetle^ Jtnd jjoundei al rotlcH' 
itill in cxiitcDce, Why I have not done w bciotc I know 
noi, but it wil) atrvc me right if yon have quite forgoiten mt. 
It IS livery lonj^ lirnL' !iinc<; I haw h<^arJ Liny t.'amt»ridjH" news; 
1 neither kiiuw where you jrv living or what you ate (loihK. 
1 ukv your iiAtne down a» one of the Ln[lct«liy:it>1e jjujiJijn* 
of the eighteen hundred ]rhilciiuphcr«H I wab dehbthied to 
IOC thi£, for when we Ubl left C^nihiidgc you arcfC at had 
variance with poorsfien4:c; you aecincd to think her A pubHc 
pfosiUuie working for popnlaHiy If your opinLoni are ihe 
lame as formerly, you would dgree rni>M itdrnirAbly wiih 
Captain Fit^-Roy, — thcobj^t of hih ii»o»i devout abhuircnco 
It one of the d^-d scientiljc >Vhijt^< Ah tapLains of roen-oif- 
war arc the greatett imn ^^otng. \at grolcr than klngt or 
tchoctniiiiiers, 1 am obliged to tell him everything in my own 
fuvonr. 1 hiixT often wid T oner hnA a vrry jtood frienil, ,in 
ftut',inrt-out Tory, and vc manflgcd lo ge: on very well to- 
geihcr. But he is very much inclined to doubl if vver 1 ttiUy 
wu so much hunourvd ; at prrnvnt we heaT i>cari:crly aoyiliiiiit 
About pohlKJv; thiH M^'Ci a great deal of tiouble, for we ^L 
■lick to our tormef opinions rather tnore ob»linj(cly than be- 
fore, and can give rjthei fewer reatons for di^in^ ^■ 

I do hope you will write to mc : (' H. M S. /frttgU, Su 
Amcrirjin ^taijon 'will find me). 1 (thould much liku to hear 
La what hUtc you are both m body and mind. / Qui/rr Sa^f 
** the people uy here (and Gwl kn^^wi they well may, for 

* Hit old noFHk 




ihcy (to know little enough), if you arc not a mELrticd man. 
Dlid may be nunmg» ja Mi» Austen uys. litlk olivr branchcb, 
link pTcdfir* of miitii.jl iiffcchrm. Kh<^ii ' Khru ! thih puts 
mc m mimi of rornuT viniona of gUmpscs into fummy. where 
I fancied I r.,iw leliremcQt, gfi^tn colta^L-i. antl wliiltf pi'Ui- 
c&aa, What will br^cuuie of mc hero^flvr J know not ; 1 fed 
like a ruintid uijin, wlio <lo(^4 not ncc ui laic how to ctUKj^tc 
hiraiclt. Thai thii voyage must come to i conclusion my 
tci;»on Iclli me, but orhcriiins<f 1 see no end to it. Ii Eh im- 
poMibk nol bilicrly f(> regret the frit-ruls anrt oihcr aonivf a nf 
plr3i«ii)rr nnr Ic-ivt* hrhmd in England ; in ploiCr of it there 
Ik murh mo1i<l enjoyincnt, some pr^wnt, but moire in anticiiu- 
lion, when the ideas gained duimg ihe voyjge can \k tom- 
paicd to fieihonci' 1 find in Geulo^ya iievei'fdilin^ inlereitl, 
U It bji4 bctfn remarked* St crejiteii the name grand ^dect5 rc- 
tpoelinji ihit world whtrh A«imnomy does for Ihe universe, 
Wf have *cm murh fint -iconery : that of ihe Tropir* in its 
iiloryand lusurjnnc* encetd* wan the Inngijagc of KumboJdl 
to dcupritii;. A Pertmn writer could alone do juttice to ii^ 
oj; J il be succeeded he woutd In Kngland be calicid the ' Giand- 
falherof ail han."' 

Rot 1 hare «cen nothinij whirh more completely avton- 
Uhrd me timn the fitu itghi of n f^ivagc. ft w.i« ft naked 
Fnegian, hit long hair blowing about, hii face besmeared 
with paint, TlitTR- ]s in their counteiiuni;es on c^reuion 
whKh I behave, lo thoAc who have not wen il, must bo in- 
IIl^GivAbly wdd* SUodMiy on ft rock lie iitlvfed tijom and 
idc gdlicuUiioni, than which the crLei of domcttiL AnJmiLU 
arp far more intdllipblr. 

Whrn I rrriim fft KfiKlanil, yon mithX tntu- mr In liBhit 
with reipirrt m Jhe fine iirit I yet rerolleei ihert; wo* a 
nun tjiliecl Kaffaelk SanotUB. Huw delt^hlCul it will be 
once a^tvn to wc. in the FitfwiltUm. Titian'^ VenuK. Kow 
muc'.h more than ilrbgliriiil to go TO home good concert or 
fine opera. Thev rerollerlioni wtU not do. I ahalE nor he 
ab1i!' to-mi^rrow to pji:1( out the entratli of lomc small aninul 
with half my usual ^usto. Pray tell mc icme news about 




Cameron, Watkin*, Manntlin. Ihc two ThoTn|j*on» of Triniif, 
Lowe. HcjiviMtJc, M.irih^w, Hcrbcrl I hnvv hc.ird from, 

dear Cambridge? Oficn and often do I Ihink over ihottc 
m huuiti nu miny tif ^hkh have be«u [i;i«M;d in your cmH' 
vjny. Sutli ciiji ju-vtir h'Iuiu, buL thvir ncoUccuon uin 
never die 3tw*y. 

Gcd blcH you. my dwr Whilley, 

Bclicvr rifi:, yournoM Abcerc frirnd, 

Chas, Darwik, 

C. Pafww fa Miss C. Danpfa. 

VAljtanlH. Vovrrobcr B, iB^t. 

My bsE jL'Ui:r vm rallier a glQomy *}nc, for C waa noi 
wry well when J wrvlc it Now cvfrylbin^ is ai IjHghl ^ 
mnjihinc 1 4fn quite wt-EI Again Afrtr bcifig a »cguiid tune in 
b«l for n ft>Ttmght. Cflptain Fi'ti-Roy very grneroutly hAi 
dclayi^d thi* ship ten djiyi on my Accoani, 4nd wiihouc ai the 
time icHing me for what rcaion. 

We hixvc had some «mnge prftceediftKT* an bonrd the 
fifa^Ie, bill which have enclcd mo-il cnpiully for all hinds. 
CnptaitL FJu-Koy hai for Ihv last iwu monchH bven working; 
M/rtmic(r tu^rd, iind ul the hJiJiie limi- cunuunlly *nt5oyed by 
inivrruplionh from ciriitx'rfi of Olhvi Uiij^th; the idling the 
»cl)'3Dnec And ili condcqucnceft were very veXAtioui ; the coJd 
mAnner ihc Admiralty (solely T bdicvtf bwat^r he i* n Tnry) 
hvff IrrAted him, Hnd :i Ihotiuind orhff^ Arr, /fr.'v hnh mndr 
him vrry thin nn^ unwell- ThU wni nrrAmpAnIrd hy a 
morhid depreiiion of ipiril*. and a lo4*of all derision and 
rc-iolution, , . , AH Lhat Bynuc |[he Suigeun] could mv, ihiil 
It was merely Ihe effect of bodily hedlh ind vih.-iusEion iFcer 
tuch ^pplkAiJon, would not Co\ he irivAbdcdi and Wirkhjim 
wAi Appointed to ihc ^ammAAd. Tlythcinntrutrinn* Wirkham 
rnuld only finish the lurvry of the southern part, nnd wniild 
Ihen have hnen oblijted \o return direct lo England. Tho 




.{Hef on board the B^agU nXtoux the Capuin'v fli.'i:i»inn wjih 
uniTf:r«3l And deeply fcU : one great lourcc of hiit anaayijicnt 
Wte ihc fctling Bt imjKVrtible to fulfil the whole iiuiruc- 
licins; from his Male nf mirnl It nftrr (Ji^tiirrcd lo him that 
the Y(ry insiructions nrdcrrd him m do aa mm h of ihc 
Wcfti i.:u**t at A/ Ajj //w/ /tw; and ihtn pror:ccd arroui ihc 

Vicltham (very dismicrciiicUij Hivuiit u|> hia own promO' 
lion) i\tp^i\ ihNmo^t itrongly, lUtcd (hai wlicii he Eouk Uiv cum- 
mnn^l nnthinB ^hoiiM [ridurc him to go 10 licrraild Fucgo 
again ; and (hr?n o-tbcd the C'i]>l:iin vtho-X would be gained by 
h» rnignaiiun! why not do the more Htffiil \\\Tt^ and rrlurn 
as conmundpd by lUc I'jKific, The Ciiitjin ai last, to 
every CTJt* joy. ccavcnted. and die rciiignulmti wns wiih- 

Hurrnh t hurrah! it U fixed the ^-^-A* ihall not flo one 
mite «outh iyl CapL* Trvs Moi^tcs (about 300 milci loniK of 
ChUocJf and fiimi (hii[ poini to V.ilpnnii^n ^\\] he finishtd in 
About five mornhh, W:- nhall ciiiiinimu tht'Chunoi: Arihipda^Of 
vniirEly unknown, and the curious inland sci b<^hniJ Chilot 
Foi mc \l i% glorifFun. CapcTrct Montc^ is [he nioet southern 
^^int where there "is mnrh ftcolo^jicat inlcreiil, as Iherc the 
mudem beds end. The Captarn then lalka of cioasing the 
Faci^t; but 1 think we shLill pL-r&uud? him ti> tini&li the CiKist 
dI Fvru. where \\\v iliinaltr i£ deh^htruL, (hi: cuunlryhidouiiBly 
ktcrik', l>ui abounding with the higlie&t inlere&t to h ncotugiflL 
Fot the hr*t time *ince leaving England I now iee a *:lcar and 
not 10 diflimt pToipect of leturnlng to you »\\ : cro^\\i\g 
the pAti^c, ind fnm Sydney home, will not CAkc mnrh 

As Mwn n.'! the Captain invAlid^d I at once dctennined to 
^lectve the S^agU^ but it w^ls \\a\iii. jbburd ^vhat a lewlution in 
fi^ rainulei wai effected in nil rny T'Cehnj^v I h.tvc \t>w^ been 
fheved and ' mfjil sorry At the interminable length of the 
voyAge (although I never would hnvc quitted it); hul (he 
minute it was all over, I ^-oirld noi make up my mind to return^ 
1 rouhl not ^ivc njj jdl itic ifeulL^^ie^l e:i»idcfc in the air which 




I had been buiUing up for tbe lut Iad y«an. One vhole 
night I triffii To (limit ovrf thr plrjfcunrc tit urging Slirri*'*bijry 
fcjyiin, bill thr barrrn pirtins of Peru gained ihc day, I made 
ihi; following ichrmc (1 know ygu will abuv mv. and pcrhnEUi 
if t hud put it i\\ I'hi'L LiiLun, (iiy fjiiLbi-r woiilJ Uavk Mut a 
mutid^iEii I] ^ nH^i 111^); It «■)> lo pHAiittriv ll>(; Cvrdiili'i^ ijf 
Cbili during ilii^i summer, and m wmter go tfom porE to port 
OD the co«ai ol Pi^ru ro Lima^ n^iurmnf; this timi; acKl year lo 
Valparaiso, cro« Ih*^ Cnrdilkras fo HHcnoi Ayrr*, and Ulcc 
Khip to KngbDd. WAuld not thin have heon n Anp evrandoiK 
unci In lixiccn monihfl ( iihojM have been Mfiih you oJl ? Tft 
have endured Ti«rra dd Fut^gu and noL Kt?cu (he Pacific WQuld 
h4vc been miieraljl^. • . , 

I |£0 on br>ArJ 1o-inorroir; I htw bvtn for lh; lail tix 
week* in Torfidd** hO'.i«- You ctnnoi troasine whii a kmd 
friend 1 havt found hint. He » univftially Hkoi^ nnd re* 
ipcrttd by (he nativoi and forifigncr^- St^toral Chiltrno Si^ 
noTiti« nrt vtty obliKi^fily Jinxtouh to lircnnnf tht ri^uons of 
Ibiii hauw- Tdl my faihrr I have ktpi my immiixo of ^King-- 
eviravLignni in Chili. 1 h:ive drawn a bill of ^loo (had it m 
better be nuilfied to Mcitrt. KubLiJia & Co.) ; ^50 goet 
thr CnplBin fr>r thf ensuing year, and ^.jo I Ukc (o w.i for the 
»mal! port* ; Bo ihai ^v&rf .y?Vr I have not *peni ;C«^o diirmj[ 
Uioe lost four moniha, I hopt noi to drjxw nnother bill fo? 
jiU monthfti 4^11 ibe forcguin^ particulifii were only nclUed 
yevlcrday- it ha done rac mifit g»>od than a pint of lucdi* 
^e, a,nd [ have not been 10 happy tor th« la«1 ye»r. U k 
had not hi'en for my (I1ni:«% ihet*! fouT monlh* in Chili would 
hjivi- liccn very pIcAftinr I hnvr had ill Ixnt. however, in' 
only one link carih(|i.inkc having h;tpp<-ncil- I vim lying in 
bed when there wu a party at dinner in the house ; on a 
(Hidden I heard vicH 1 hubbub in the dining^iuum ; without 
A word l>^ing apoken, it wa^ devil uke (hi^ hjudinfiitt who 
should gel out firil ; at the lamc moment 1 fdr my ttcd j/fj:*'/j* 
vibrate in a lateral tllrFriion^ The party were old itaj^en, 
and henid the noise which :ilway» pnvfdot a [iho*;k ; and no 
old itager lovkt ai an cnrtliqijakc with philowuphit^^t vye&. , , , 



Coo^^byc 10 you *l] ; you will not have another teller for 
My dc-M CtttherinCp 

My beat \ovk tu roy father, And all i>i yva. Luvc I'i NaiH-yf 

VilpHmiio, Aprils]) IBJ5. 

I received, a few day^ wncu, your Iclter or Nuveinbtii; 
the three k'ltert wIikIj I Urfurt iiienticneil ^ix yet JUintimi;, 

bttt I do noc douhi Ihcy will zntac to life, I rrtnmcd a week 
ago from my rxcursitm .ii:t4?5!i (he Andt-i to Mfmdorii. Since 
leavini* EnicUnd I hjuv tifynt made jtu lurcesifiil a journey; 
it hjh, howL^vi;r, hccii vciy exjH.-nAiv<:. I am Mir*: my father 
would iioE regiel il. if lie could kiiow how iti;c|jly I have en- 
joyed H: il wan aomc thing more ihan enjoyracnl ; 1 cU)n<jC 
Lprrti Ihe delijthr xthiih 1 fi^k at ^u;:h a fimuiu winJrn^-up 
sW my iJ^eoligy in South AmeriiA. ] Lilcfftlty rouM hjinlly 
llcep at nijtht* for thmkinn over my Jay'i. wprk. The *cencry 
WM « new, Lind so miijc«ir ; everything .it an elevniion of 
la.ouo fui-t bean so difletBnl an aiperi from th« in b Tower 
country. 1 havo «(.'cn nurty views more bcduiiful, but none 
Willi BO ^trongEy matU'd a eliiaucier. To a gvologist, alsoi 
there ire »uch manifeil ivroof* ol cxcci»tvc violence; the 
sirat? of the hijjhe^t phnj»Ho* arc tossed about like the cru« 
of ji bmkiTi pic- 

I ewmed hy rhe PortlUn Paa*. whieh m ihi* fimr of the 
ycnr is av^ lo he dangerou-^, so (^ovild not afford 10 dday 

^thc*re> After ?(i^ying a 'lay in the stupid town of Mcndoia. I 
in my return by Uh|ja]late, whivh I did vrry Lejeurc-Iy^ 

Tifv whole trip onty iool( up Ikvcnty-lwo dayv I !r*rcllfd 
with, for mi*, uncommon <:omfori. at T carried a ^d^y My 
party rnnM«cd Df lwi> Pton* -ind ten mideij iwo of whieh 
were with lu^age, or lather fuod, in caj<e of bemji iinoired 
up. KveryihiUK, hoivevci.fiivouicd me ; not even a *peck of 



TfIB TOTAae. M7AT. f^ 


thi» ytstr'% inow hud fallen on the road. I do nm luppotc 
any of ynu can be much interested m getilogical (lur:Li1i. but 
1 will jubt utirntiun my princip;!! roiulib : — Ij^^i^trb un4<;r- 
hUndif^if tu A ccTLaJn c\(cni tlic UchcriptJOfi And manner of 
(he (incc which has tfkvaicd ihi» gtcftt line of mouniiin*, 
I can '.'Icarly Jt'trionnTTjUc thai ono j«rt of Iht doubk Imc is 
of dii ny^f If^iijc pvi^tCTkor ro ihr othc^r. In ihikmuri! nnrirnt 
line, which is the true chain of the Andcs^ 1 can dearribr the 
sort and order of the rucks which compose it. These arc 
(jhicNy rcmu[li-.iblc Ly CLtui4iinmj 4 bt-'d of gyjihufii Jic^tiJy 
3000 leec thick — a qujuiitf ^i IhU «ub«un(:e 1 «hould think 
unparsllHcd in thr world. Whit i9 of much grracer conic* 
*liK"ni (1, [ hiLWi; [wornftid fo^isd xhi-ll^ (from iin rlevalion of 
i2,ooQ feel), I chink an cuii-ininAiion at iKe<(? will |[i^e ah 
A|iproKim.itc igc to th««t mouTiiains, u comjjared to ihc 
«trAl2 of KuTOjic. Inlhcothk-r line of the ConiiJJoriti (here 
Ift ft i^trong i>n^hiinDptHjn (iti my vwii mind. i^oEivLcttoiAj thu 
the cnormoui miui of monmainf, the peaki nf which rUe to and 14,000 fcru aiv !n^ v^ry modern fL« ro be con* 
iLMiiLroraneoua wilti thu ploinh c>f KiU^tjnii; (or oiiout with 
the aj^prr titUi of the Ule ot Wight), U Ihil reauk ihuU be 
con\i Jcrv^ at prot-cJ.* Jl if a very imiioitant Fact in the theory 
of ihr formnrion of the world; becjmJiC, iF mifh wondrrfiil 
cihangea have taken place m rccefiily in the crti*t of the fll-^the^ 
there can be no rei^on for ?iupj)D5ins former epochs of ex* 
cebivc violeoie; Thehe riiudern atralJi ate very fviiidrkablv 
by b;ifig ihreiJed with nii:La!Ui. veins of (iiUcc, gold, copper, 
Sk. • hitherti^ iheif hav^ been comidered a% appertaining to 
oMer formfitions. In ihcue wime hed^> and cloM to % ^M- 
mine, T found i\. rlnmp of prtrifled irff*, uTandiilfi Tipri;;hf, 
with Eayen of fine fandanac depoiited foHnil ihem, bearing 
the imi^reBiWon of their bark. These iree* urc covered by 
other *iiid«taDe« and ttruim vS Uva to Ehe thicknew of ^ev< 
eral thouund feet. Thcae rocki h*re beta depodted be- 

* Tlif imiwmpn td ttit^ raiilF> hit be ea fully ic mg iiifrf liy grdiv 




nrAih vatct ; yet il I* ficar Ihc »poJ where ihc tfcc* grew 
muai i>n<^c have been nbove the kvel oF the ^ea, so th.iT it is 
ccTtiiin the bbd must havv hcan dvproii^eiJ l>y at loust mt 
uninj' thuubifii] fceL ua lKi; hij|jcriui-uniLcnt. subai[UcuUi^ (lc> 
pomt arc thjck- JtuI I ato ainid yciu will lell mc I am proty 
with my geoLogicii dctcnpiioiu and theories. . . . 

Vonr acrounr of Erssmu^" vl*ll lo CambrMgt^ has marie 
mc lonK to he J'ft'^k ihorc. 1 f nnnai fancy anything more ttc- 
lightful ihan hi* Sunday round of Kine'i, Trinity, atid ihosc 
Ulking giaJ^t^. Whcw^n and 5etljj;ivick ; I liope your mubiiiil 
UvteH cobliuuc- in Ju« fixer. J hluU b^ lavenuua lui Lht: 
piauofotlc . . . 

1 have not i\^ikt dctetniined whether I will sleep at the 
' Lion ' ihc fiT%t night when I arrive per ' Wonder,' or disturb 
you all in the dcud of the night ; rvcryiliin^ short of ihaL is 
ahAohiidy pliimciL KvrryEhtEi)£ about Shren'±l>uiy Ugrowin^; 
in my mind higgvr and more bciutifat ; 1 am ccitsiu Ihe 
acacia atid cjpper bvech are twu luprrb Creei : I shall knt^w 
evety bu^b. Aud 1 wdl Iruulrk- yyu young ladies^ when e.ich 
<d yrni cut down yonr tree, to »p*rc a few, A» for Ihe view 
behind ihc home. 1 have sr^cn nothing like it. It x* ihe aarne 
with North Wal^^Tj i Sno*don, to my minri,look% much higher 
dnd much more UcJiutilul than ^ny peak in the Cordillermi, 
So you will uy, with my benighted \m tilticv, it U itmc to re- 
turn, jT>d Id it L\ ^nd I loMg to be with you. Whatever the 
tnrtt are, 1 know what I «hall find all you. t P.m writing 
nnnocnse, «o f^rcwctl. My mn:4t nfTreilAnste love to all, and 
I pray (orgivcness from my fnthcr 

Youn mQst affeciionaicly. 

Chable« Uakwen* 

Uuh, lafy, \^y 
Mv DPAft Fox, 

I have lately received Iwu of yniir leftrri4^ oni; dated June 

and the othei Novc^mhtr. 1S34 (they reached mc. howcvrr. 

in an in^'tricd ordci}- * "is ^^J^y s'^d to fcccive a history 




ol ih'n most uaporLiut yeu ia your life. Previously 1 bad 
only heard the j]]flin farl that you were mftrrirr! Y(»i[ JifP Jt 
rnic (^hrJAiinn and rcdirn gond for evil, to i^cml t#o »ui^h Ict- 
ten TA so )^acl n cortcipondcnc as t have boen, CIckI blciifl 
you for writing bo kindJy i&nd ullticlicnutciy ; if it is a plf^aa- 
urtf to have iiLcriUb in Eci^Und^ jL e» UkMjIjly ao lo (Jimk lad, 
kn<jw tltit one i» nol (orgoUen bccBci&e abucnL I'hiv voyi 
ii lembly long, I do *o rnmcsdy desire to rciuenj yci 1 dare] 
hdrdly look fori^nni to ihc fuEurc, for I do not know whal 
wUI bt^^omc of mc- Vour aiiua[ion La above crivy : ] do not 
venture even lo frame such happy visions. To a person Af lo 
lakv the oAicv, ihe Lift ol u (Jlt^rgynuo is u type of 4]] ihcit is 
retpccUbk and b»ppy, Vou tempt mc by tjtking of youi 
lidc, wherc;is it i& a sort of scene I nf vi^r otighi to thrnkj 
ut. I mw the other day a vessel *iiil for Kngland ; it w: 
quite danyfroiis to know how en ail y I might lurn deserter. 
A« fi>r ^1 English iLtdy, I have almost forgulEca wh:il she ir 
sottttfthing %'ory ongdic and good, As for th^- women in rhe^ 
COtinlrk'S, tbcy wcni f 3(^5 and pi^tticoati, and a very few hai 
pretty facei^, iind Lht^n itW \n iiAjlI. Bui if wc Art' not wmked 
on some unlucky reef. I will tit by tbii lainc firctidc in Vftic 
Ciitr-^R'.- and tell tome of the wonderful itoriei* which you 
WcfU l[> anticipate andt T presume, Arc not very rrddy lo be* 
licvc. Graiiiu a Mftf ihc prMpert of irorh timen \s «ther 
Eboficf ihiiu formerly. 

I'roin ihiB moBt wretched ' City of Uie Kinga * v/e sail in 
a fu(tni|[Ut, From ihcnce Lo GujLyjitquil, GaUpa^Ob» MirqucOilfli 
Society Itbndi, &<-, kr.- I iotjlt forward (o the Uilapigoi 
with moTt! intere»it than any other pari of the Toynge. They 
abound with utivc volcflnoei^, iind, I nhould hop«, contuii 
Tertiary ttrati. 1 am glad to he^r yi^u have some Ihnujchtf^ 

Lofbtfginnitig Geology. 1 hope you will : there 11 so much' 
Ijirjcer J Udd for thought than in the other bm^hei of Nat- 
urAL Hiitory- f ^m bcromc n icjlIol^* ditcipk of Mr. Lyell's 
viewi, a* known in hji ndmirahle book, Geologiting in South 
Amerii:^. [ um tempted to earry parti to a greater evieni 
even llion he docji. Ofology h a c.ipiiid irienee to begin, as 





it rciuirc* nothing bui a lillJ? icadinKi tbinkinj^ und IiAmm?r- 
ing, I have a considcTjbtc body ol ni.i\{s toKclhcr ; 1>uc il i* 
A ponsmni tuhjpci of pcrplmity m rac, wliothiT ihey an- of 
»ufficiifnl v^lIuc for oil i]i« Lime 1 huvv spent nbout thrm, 
or wlKthcr Jinimal^ wuuLd avi have bi*tn uf Jiic^rc c«Tl^in 

I ihitl indeed be glad on<e a^in lo see you And tdl you 
how ftrMrful I frri for yoijr slcady friendihip. God Mc« 
lUg my very doar Fax. 

Believe mc, 

Vouu afFcciionaieljr, 

C. Dar^i'ift fo J. S- Hfnstffw. 


Thtfl if< ihc Iiwi Opi^oriunily nf i-ommuniriifmy with you 
before llmt joyful day whtn I uhiJl Tt^ji4:h Canilii iil^t^. 1 haw 
very UltLc tu suy^ but I iiiuki write if it !!> ciily ta cxprefs 
my joy thai the 1a£t yeai ii concluded* ^iid that the prceoni 
one, in whidi the fftagk will return^ l» ifliJing onwartls. We 
wvc ill been d»app<jmlcd httt in not finding even a single 
ritcr; wc arc, indcl^dJ irtihcr befisrc our expet^ied time, 
ilhcrwiac, I dart! *iay, I should have seen yuur hundwriimg. 
1 niu*>t feed upon ihi: future, .uid it t6 beyond Imundu dtf' 
hi^Utful lo fi-i'l ihij i.i^rlvtE)[y wiihiti eluht iiionihh 1 dhidl 
be reiidLti^ once ^fljiu moftt quietly m OfAhridge. Ccr* 
toinly. I never w^i intended for a trnvcll^; my thoughu 
Mt *lway» rambling ovtr pii4t or future wf r»r-4 ; T rannot 
enjoy the* prei^fne hAp[>inesA for antJdpattng the furure, which 
\% about or. foolith as the dog who dropped the read bone for 
il» shadow. 

• * » V * 

In our pawaAc Acrou the Paciflf we only touched at 
Tahiti and New Zealand ; at neither of thc«c placa or a1 aea 
I much opportimriy of working. Tahiti is a most charm- 
flpoL Everything which fortust aavigaton havKwtitlcQ 




i "Baft- 

it irac, ' A new CyihcraM ha* riicn from tht ocean/ De* 
licioub ic^ncry, climate, manners of the peojjlc aTt all in bar- 
iitun}% h L^t mori:uvi'r, aditiJrjLiIc lu lichuld vrhM t^L' miB- 
i^ionarie* UuLh licfc j)iJ hi New XtAUud h^vc cUcctcJ. 1 
(irmly bcHcve ihcy arc good men working (oi the lake of a 
good Ciiu&ir 1 much siisitect fb;it fhose wlio have abused or 
uneered af the miaaionariea have gcneniJIy hn'n Mirh ai were 
nnt very on^iiotii to find the natives moral and inti?lliii<^ni 
bein^. During the n-mamder of our voyage wr ihaJl only 
viait pkiLtvs gvneially ackaowU'Jged an tivil»ed. and ne-^Hy 
aXi undcT the UrnitFt fl»^, Tliciic udT be a pjur dM fur 
Nftttifil History, and wiihoui it I hnve Intdy (lt»covcre*J thni 
the plcaAure of seeing new place* is as nothing, I must 
return ro my old rc»OLirce and think of the futiirt.', hut thut I 
mny not b^conic morE |>iosy, 1 will bjiy fitvwcU iilJ the duy 
UTLvei^ when I khall »?e my Mulec in Notuial Htsiory, 
and cin tell hitn howgrjiLetu] I feel foi hit kibdne^ «nd 

Believe Hje, tkai llenilow. 

Ever yoim, inoit f.klEhfulIy, 

114^14, Bt3fil, Auguit 4 [il]6^ 
Mv t>i:AJi Svu^f. 

1 will jusi wiiic a few lines to eKpIain the cauw of th« 
letter being dn-ttd 'm the coast r>f Sfiwih AmerirA, S^me 
•ingular disflgrccmcno in [he longiriidcR mndi* CiFimin Fiu- 
Rojr annidus tn complete Ihe circle in the jiOiilhetn bemi- 
sphere, and then retiace our eleps by our Am line to England 
Thifi zig^Hi^ manner of proceeJini^ h very j^ravijuK; it has 
put Ihe lirn4hTn(j stroke tii my feeling* I lonihf, I nbiiof the 
Kffl a-ti^ ill ihtpc whjizh -^all <tn it. Bui I yet belicTe we shall 
reach England in the iMkr hnlf of Oi^tohcr, At Atccuition 
[ received CathcriDeV letter ol Uctober. and youn of Novem- 
ber ; the letter aX the Cape wai of a later date, but letteti of 
all loria are inniiinxble treiaurct, and I thank you both for 




(heat. The dcKTt, volcanit rockn, and wild wn of Asrcnnion, 
AS soon ■» I Vntw there was news from home, suddenly wore 
n, pleading nbTfUitit, ami 1 bcL lo wurk with a guud-wiJl at my 
old ituik cir Ciculugj^. Vou would be Huri>riM:d lu kii^w liow 
^cnrircly Ihi: plcL-imrc in atriviog ai ^ new place dcj>cndt on 

rtlcn. \\i: only stayed four d^tyt ae Ascension, and Ihcd 
m^e A very giHid pa^fngi.- to Bahio. 

I little thought to have i^ui my fooT ftn Souih Ampric*n 
cojui agnin. Ii has bctn almost p^iinful to find hov raurh 
Bccd vnthusidfitn has been evaporated during the last four 
yciLr«. I can nou* walk soberly Ihiuu^h n. Braiiliun furo»i: 
laoi but what ^( is viijutfriEcly bcautitu], bui now* iithlcftd of 
tcf^kitfg for splendid eoniraats, I compute ihc surely mnngo 
Ircre with thr hnrsr^-the^inuis of Knghud, Although this 
figjtog hAA luiii us .-tt li^iasi a forinij*ht, in kum<- cvi^ijceia I am 
gUd of iL I tUiikk t iball be atjlc lo carry uwjy one vivitt 
pittureof inlet- tiopicaJ »ecne»y. We go ttom hence to (be 
Cipo dc Vcrds; thdt iti if the winds or the Ec^uiLtvn^il cALtns 
tri]] .ill^w u«, 1 have some fainE hopc« IhJit a AleAd> Eoul 
wind might induco ihe Ci]iiain ro proceed direct to the 
Amftj. For which most uniowird event I heanily pta^y. 

Boih your Ivtiers were full of good news; especially the 
'43(pr«&^ions ivhich you UiLl iiie Prufe^vr Sedgwick u^d al»out 
m>' collctlionBH [ Li.mEe«a they are deeply gratifying — I UUM 
one pJtit it least will mm out true, ond that J shall aci u I 
'BOW (hSnk — at a man who dare? to wfl*tc one hour of lime 
hsm not dJHi ovcred the vnhie at life- Frofe»aor Seclgt^irk men- 
;tiomn|t my name ai Jtll ^vc* me hopeh tliAt he will m^im me 

rilh his advice, of which^ in my geologioil questions, I stand 
muL-li in need- JL m ubele» to tell you from the fihamefiil 
«Ut^ oF thiA kcrjbblc that I aiii tkittiniE agJiinsI time, having 
been out jII moniin|{, ,ind now there ^rc sume itianners on 
bonrd tn whom I must go down .^nd talk civility. Moreover, 
n this letter Roes by n foret|;n ship, it is dowblful whether it 
will ever arrivu' Kvcwcll, my very dear iju^in Atu\ .ill uf you. 
Good 'bye:. 

C. DAkwur. 





Si. KelciM, July9» iSjA^ 

Mv nxAft Hn^Kt^w, 

] iim ^ing 1o iL-ik you to do mc a fav'>iiT. 1 nm very 
atik.Lgu5tu lidoQ^ to the Geologioil Society. ! ^r>Tti\\ Icnov, 
but 1 aiippose \\ \^ Qtrcoftsary lu bt propowd aomc limn be- 
fore being bolloitcd lui ; if itucJi \h l^l- ciiKi?, wxiuM you be 
good enough to XzMt ihc proper prepai*(L>fif hCci^ ? Vmivwui 
Scdgwirk very tindly offtwd lo propose mc bcitire Icjiving 
id^ if he should hnpp^'Pi lo bt" ir> London. 1 dare uty 
Id yet do so. 

I have vciy luile to write about Wv h^yti noilher wvn, 
donif. or ht^irj of anyrlibg (lanicular for a long tiniv \ja>i \ 
uid inJrctl tf ai pjr»cni the wonders of wiolher plancL ci>uM 
be dUpbyed before ua, I bclicvr we ihould uninimou^ly 
excUim, whji « cAnsunimaie pUgu^, No hc hcKilboyt ever 
sung ihr half scntim^ninl and half jovial jplmin of ' dulce 

lum ' with mort' fervour, than wc all fct-l inrlincd to da- 
it ihe whole subji^ci of *dulre dorm im," and the ddighl uf 
seeing one's friend^ is inobL dnEigtroua, ii masx infill) bty make 
one very pro»y or very boislerou*. Oh. ihe degtce to which 
1 long lo be once .igaiQ living quietly uirh not one sJiiglc 
novtl ohjerF neiLT me! Xo on? mn im:4^tnF if lilt he haft 
betn whirlL-d roHnd (he ^orld during 'ive long yeors in a 
len-gun^brig, I am ac present MvinG in a small hau%e (araongit 
the cLouds) in rhe centre of the isfand^ and within stone's 
thru^v of Nufh^lcon'h lumb* \X ib blowing a gak of uriud with 
lic.ity jx\a afid wfctchcdly cold ; it N^pulconV ghoBt haunu 
hU dreary plaee of confinement, thit wonld be a mo4l excel- 
lent night for snrh wandering iqiint* Tf the wcmhtr i-hoo»ei 
to permit mc, I hope lo te>e a Utile of the Geology (*o ofi«n 
p&rtially deaenbed) of ihe ifttand. I »ui»pecl that dilFercntly 
from most volcanic itkndi its mucturc it rather complicated, i 
It avems nlrtnge ihal this little centre of a distinct creation 
fhould, 1)1 it DKhcrtcd, brar marlu of recent elevation. { 

The Seaile procecdi from thi* place to Aaccmion, ihen to 




the Ope dc Verdi (whal mUcubk plaf;c« !) to the Aiotci to 

riymouchtand ihcn tg home. Tliat mnst j^torimtkof all d^iy* 

jn my Viie will nor, hnvrrvrr, arnvr till thi- laiildlrof Ortobcr, 
;6onic tiTTic in ihijf mfinth yoii wi]| act? me nt Cambridge, 
hrhcre I muht dirccdy come to rcpon myscU lo you, 4S ray 
[firat Lord of i\n: Admiraliy. Al th? Capv uf Good Hupe vre 

>1i on board suflL^rvd a liiUer di^rnpiJoinlmi^iiL m miti^ing nine 
mu»tli»' klU-TH. which J4rc chostLiig ui Lrom one side ol The 

globe lo tliB olhcr, 1 dftfc ny amongst them Iherr win a 
?tlcr from you ; il is li^ng *'nct ' have seen your hand- 
itirg, bur J ^hjill iu>on wc yon ymitwM. which is far bectcr. 

Aii ! am your pitplL, you ar^ bound to undertake the taak o£ 

^firiticifing ftnd acoULing me foi jII the thingt dl doae and not 

Lone at ill, which I lou 1 ^luU need mui:h ; biit I hope for 

the bvit, ind 1 atu fluie 1 h^ive a good if not km «AKy tAnk* 

Al the Cape Cipcain Fitt-Roy and mpclf cftjcyed a mem- 
OTiible piece of good fortune in me^rting Sir J. HL'rv:;hel. We 
dined *t hi» hou«o *nd saw him n h-w time* btsiJn. Ho 
*^a% exceedingly |[nod ujtured^ Liui Wit, manners at firti up- 
pearcd to mc r;iihcr awfuL tJe i^ living in a veiy eomforta- 
bir <oiintry Uou^e, itirroumJed by lii und u^ik trec»> which 
ftlone En no open aeouniry, jtlvi: n motit rhirming ;iir of ^erln- 
lion and fomfort. He npprar^ to find time for everything; 
h« showed us a pretty garden full of Cape bulb* *'f his own 
<ol]cctii;|i. and I aflviu-drdE undf^rstood that evtrryllimg wdj» 
Ibe work ol hift own luiitlh. , . , 1 ;i.iii very t^tupid, ^nd I have 
nothing moifc to «:iy ; the wind 1% whihilm^; so moLiri^fuUy 
over the bleak hilt% that T iholl go to bed ind dream of 

Good night, my dcjir Hrn*l/iw, 

Vuuifi most truly obliged njid afTeclionatdy, 

Chas. Dahwim, 




C DsntrSn f» /. S. Mfnthtt. 

Siirffwibur>. ThuivUy. Octftl<r ft. (iBj6]. 

My tiitA* ITeNslow. 

T ftm fturc ynii will fangratuUtr mr on rh<- ^IrU^^hf of oncv 
A^nin being bomp, Thr HfiigU nrrivcd nr Ffllmrmrh on Siiti- 
day evening, and ] rwLchcd Slirewsbury y^tcrday moming. 
1 aid f KCCtfdiEijjLy iinxiuuia Ei> vi-e yuu, and tx6 it will bv necev 
nary in Iuue <>r five tS»^s Eu rcluni U> Ltiniioii (o ^^l iity puoili 
dDii chAtlcls ou: of the Jf^it^ft, il appciifK lo mc tiiy Ucn [tUn 
to pAS) through Cambridgr^ 1 want your advice on many 
lis; indovrl I am tn Ihu doudrir ^ind neither know what 
lo Of where io go. My c hicf pux^tc iii abtiiit (he ^ct^logi' 
cal spcu^imens — 'who will iiiive Ihe chiirily to help mc in de- 
vcribing dicii ri]tiiGruTujj;ii:4] nature ? Wiil you l>e kind cnou^ 
(O wtiie to me one Jinc by rrturn i>/ /wjf. »aying whelhci 
you nrc now nil Cimhridgc ? I am dou!iUul Till I hcu from 
Capiain Hu-Roy whelhcr C ihoM nai be ohliactl to st*ri be- 
fore the answer can arrivL-, hat pray try the chance My 
dear Hennlow, I tin ]im^ lo Btr yow ; you have been the kindest 
fiicnd to me that ever ni^n pohge»be<l, I can wriiv no more, 
for 1 am giddy tvilh joy and conlubion. 

Farewell for the prcienc, 

Vour* most truly obligfd, 

DiAnt^M Darwin. 

C Darttin ft- M^ Pift-Roy. 

fOUTtnlwryp Tllurvlay luuniiii^ Oi:lMbu 6, |lS^]. 

Mr PKAB Pht-Rov. 

I 1 ;irrived here yevicrday moraing at brcfakfait-timv, and, 

■ thank God, found all myde4ir it'J^ ki»(er« and fnihcr quite 

H well My father npiiear* more rhc-erfiil and very Utile older 

H than when 1 left. My M^icrt auiire me T do not look the 

I \v^^X diflfcreni, nnd 1 am able to rcliim the coniplimenL In- 

H deed, all England aitprurs chan>;ed execptrng the %<yod old 


lo«n of ShrcwBl>Liry and \tn inhahitunU, which, for all I can 
Me Do the conir-Liy. m^y go on ^^ ility now ^ic tQ t>a;nuad;iy- 
1 wUh with ixll my hcntx I w.i» wrihnu to you amonj^Rr ydur 
fricnrh tnitlc-Jid of nt fhnt horrirt Plynmuth. Hul the (\My vlll 
loon crtmr, anf! ynii wiH he ns hnppy ot [ nnw am, I do 
assure you ] aeq a vvTy grc^il man at homi- ; the five year*' 
wyagt hu certainly mnfU mt; i hunUivd pvf Lviit, 1 fw 
»uch grcatncM^ fnuM c:tpcricncG a fall. 

1 am thoroughly aihamcd of myidf in what a dcad-and- 
ha]f-ativc slJtr I ipcnt the ^cw UbI dsp on l«)rtrtl ; my only 
finite U ihAt rrrninly 1 wa* nni ^luifr ivi'll. The ftnt dfty 
in (he mnil tircrt m^i but ay I drew nt'^rcr to Shrewsbury 
c^^eiyEhmg looked nnQrc 1>rauiLfirl and chcciful. !□ jjauing 
Glcruci'ilcrshirc And iVu recti rr^h ire I wi»h<d rnueh (or you 
10 admire the ttcld*, wood*) and orchnrdu The tlupid people 
on the coAfh did oot «cem to Think tb« Mdt one liit ^cncr 
than usual ; hut 1 a.m sure wc ihouM have thoroughly uj^rccd 
ihai the wide world dotrH not conub %o h:\ppy a protpcci 
Nt the rirh culriv^lrrl hmrl of f^Ini^lnnd- 

I hope yoLi Mill n^H Imj-et to kcqJ me n note telling me 
hoKT you gu on» 1 do indeed hope all your vexations and 
[Crouhk wiih Tc«fiei:t to our voyage, which ire new* know )ia« 
end, have roTTte lo a rtoflc- Tf you do not receive miich 
tiilaction fnr all ihc mental and bodily energy you hare 
[txpeTided in Hii M.ij»Iy's svrvict;. you will be inu^t h^trdly 
^trtaUd. ] put my rj^tiijal Ttihlvm into An uproar at tome of 
the prudent (it tbcy »*re not honeil Whig*, I would hj 
thabhy) proceeding* of our Goverament. By the waf, [ mu»l 
tril you for the honour and fc^ory of ihf fjimily thai my fnilvef 
has a large enprflving of King George IV. put up tn hii 
kitting' rotim. But I am no ri^ucgade* and by Ihv time wc 
nivei my jAilitic* wtW be a» ftimly tined and ai wi*dy founded 
as ever they were 

I thought when I bef^nn ihif letter I would convince you 
whdt a ttcady and lober frame of mind I wm in. But 1 find 
.1 am writing moHt preriouit nonacnse^ Two or three of our 
jlabotirerf yciicrday iinmcdutcly Kt to work and gut nxml 




exccHtvely drunk In honour of the arrival of Mulct ChjtrlcH. 

Who then shall gainsaj t{ Ma*icT Sharks htmiicK rhoflwn tfi 
make bUiifiiflJ a JuuJ. Guud byc^ CuJ bkia you! I hope 
yoii 4f« aa hup|jy, bui much wuvr^ lUuu your niuMt aniLrrv but 
unwoflhy phiioiophcr. 



[TkS period illuAlrjttCil hy tht folJowitig lcltvr» mcludo 
the yc*r» between my father'* return from rhc voya^ ot 
the B^a^/e ind hii «ct|Ung at Down, It in marked by the 
gra4.lud ufipi^nrdnce of thai weoktir^b of honhh vhifh ulti* 
mntcly fari:*:!] liiTn lo fcavc London and Inlce iifi his qIkmIv 
for Ihc ccAl of hh Ufe En a rjwict [:ourL[ry hriii^o. Tn June. 
1841. he wniK% ti> Lycll: " My fattier ACMcdy s&^tnti Ut i^n- 
pc«L ihut I hh-il! become KtTong for icmc ycart; \t h»vs hcen 
« bitter men ill tji I ion for mr to dij^rrnt the conclusioii ihaE the 
'rjiof is for the Mmnn/ anJ thai I ^hf^\] probably do little 
more bm be corticni to nf^mire the Errklcs olheni malcc I& 

Thcrv id no evLdi-nee of any intendon of entering n profea- 
ftidn after Mh rtLurn from llic voyaf^-r, and rurly m 1S40 h« 
wroie to riti-k»y ; *' ! liiHf Jiolhmj; lo wi^b fuf. e*<,"jplmp 
■tronger health lo gc on with the hubjectf to whah I have 
joyfully riirlrnnined to devoff my life " 

These two fonjlifjon* — pcrmnnrnt iiUhcalth nnd a panBion- 
Btie love of idrnrifif work for it% own »nke — dcterrmincd thn* 
early iobia career, the character of hi* wbole future life- They 
bapefliMj him to Wad ;i r:tirciJ, life of conaunt lab^^ur, mrried 
■OA 10 the ulmoit limits uf his phy^ici) jiowrr, x life which 
rigniJU' fjl*iA[*cl hi* mrTiineholy prophecy. 

The end of ihc \nM chapter lav my father tifely Arrlired 




ZLE Shrcinbury on Orlober 4^ iftjiS, ** after an *b*rnco of five 
jreiiFB .ind two dny^." He *JOlc to Fox; "You caunot 
ima^ioc hi:'w jluuciuily UcJjgJiiZul mj» fifit visit vi% ^i horoc ; 
is vtai worih the bDnuhmcni.'* But it wu a |>lca*iurr that 
he ro«Ul nnr InnR rniny^ for in tlir iMt diiy* <^f Orfohtr he 
¥inn ax Crt-cnwlch Lmpackin^ spcrimctiK from ihc ff^U. An 
10 the detiinniign of the coUcciions he wtltcs^ t^jmrwhat dt- 
B^midiDgly* Lo HvnKJow :->- 

"J h,ivc niA E]j,ije mudi jirogTc^s wilh the jtrcat mvn, 
X find, at you zotd mc. Ilui ilicy arc all ovctwhcliacd with 
their own bu^tncw. Mf. Lyrli hai entered, in the r^'tf g<iod' 
natvirrJ manner, fln<l almost without being A»ikcd, into all vnj 
plans, Ht; Idlb me, b(iWL.'VL'r, the bami; titory, that I mu«l do 
all myself- Mr Uw;n seems ani[ouB to dissect Bome of lh« 
animals m spiriLt, .ind, be«icfet Ih^^e two, I h.ive trantely met 
any one who secim ro H-J*h to pobsou any of my ipccimenn* 
I rnusi eieepr Dr, Grant, vho is willing to ciiminc ncmc of 
th; cornllines. 1 nee it is quii« unri^aBonaMe to hope for ■ 
~ UniiEe thai any man will und<;rtake the cxamin^Ltion ui a 
lole uider ii io clear the t:ollcClor« *o much outnumber 
the leal natUTolisLs that the btier have no tim? to apart. * 

"I do not even find Ihal the Cflllctiion^fjire for r^tetvinn 
the unQAfn^d sptL-imtn*. The Zoological Museum ' U nearly 
fu1t| and iiiiward4oFaihoi]iuitd«pecimcnK remain unmfiunied. 
I dare say the DHiUh Museum would rcttive them, but I can- 
not ft«l, fruiti all I Ijeur, any ^rv;il leopect even fvr the |jtcB' 
oni aute *f( lIiM dtiabli^hmeni, Vour pl^xn will be not only 
the bctf, but the only one. namely. ti> come down to Cam*^ 
bridge, arrange and Ifroup top-thcr the rfifferrnl famllira, arid 
ihcn *Ait till pmjilf, who arc already working in dilTcreni 
hranrhei, may want isjieriment. Bui il a.ppe[Lrs to me [that] 
10 do ihia it will be almojit neeesiary to retide in London. 
As tat 4U 1 an yet «e my be^t plan will be 10 >p«nd ftevcral 
months in CAmbrid}^, and then when, by yonr auUtancc, I 

rbc cgrUftiji^n n-» 101116 yttn laffr broken up an^l ditpctit^ 



fcoow on tih'it grounii t «U(id, to «mi^raCo to LondoOn where 
1 t'J.n cnmpklo injr Gcoloj^y and try ia pii*.h on ihe Zooloj^^ 
I Msorc you ] grieve in And hov muny rhings nxake me ace 
the nrccflsiiy of living' for liomc time in <hU tlinyj ortbusi 
l^ondon, Fur irvvn m CtuELjgy 1 «uapw:l muth as^istBUcp 
coritnmnicatiun will be nccc*>:^'y in Ihih i|uaftfrT tot jn- 

'ituicf^iit foiiKil bono, of ^hkh nont ciccpling the fragnicnU 
of Megilheriunri havt b^cn lookrd jit. and I clearly lec it;at 
trithout my prc^enw they hi^vlt wonld lie. . , . 

"t only winh f lijitl known the UoisnisT* tareil flo much 
for *prdmi''ns ■ ninl the Zoologists so UhIc ; the proponionfll 
number of specimens in thi- tw-o bratitlwa should have had 
A very difllcTcnt apprnMime. I am out of paiicnct' with the 
ZoolcgiilB. nol bccJLisc thty Arc overworked, but (or their 

^■np«n. qmrreliomi: *pJriL 1 wenf the other evening to the 
Zoologiul Sofiery. where the speakcrii wenf fQarling at tnch 
oiher in a manner anything but like of j;i:'ntlrinT:Ti, Thank 
Hcavcris '. as long Jtfi T n-niain in Cnmbriiliir [hrtc will not be 
any dan);L-r uf railing into any HUi:b cuutemptiblc quarrcU. 
whJjtt in London I do not wc how it lk to be av^idvd. Of 
the Niiyrnlisa. K Hoi^c i» out of London ; Westwood I have 
not stKJi, %o abmJt my Jn&CGta I kti'jw noiliing, I have »ccn 
Mr Vnrrcll Iwice, bnt he in *o cvideni^ ojipre^vd with b"«i- 
Tii-i^ thtir \r is too nelfiAh tn plopic him with my eoncerriA, 
He hns n!ikcd me to dine with the Linncan on Tucidny, and 
on Wedneadu) 1 dine wiih ihv Oeolugjcal. ao that 1 shull ^w 
»]1 Ihe ^t\'Jl men. Mr, ilull, I liar^r, ib to much octujjicd 
that thcEc ii no ch<icc« of hi» wikhiag tox f^cimcn* of le^ 

• A fiMwa^ In D Biilnp|«fiii Ipinrdinwpi l1uLltl> pTunhialKupivflliim 
■dnc nuielj'^ **] ntrl Mr Utown ■fewdoyt Aftti ynu bad ^allt^t on h\mx 
pLc ftikcd mc in rather nn otDtaotti manrier ivhu 1 mcAiic 14 do wiih ny 
"plftntK In iSa {ynifH^ nr »iinnattoi Mf. Rioderip, «Uv wik prtHnl. cr- 
nurked fr> him. ' Vou fotn^E how Img U ttibot Captain Kinc'i ««pce1t. 
Ikm.' He irinkvewd, ' liid^cl, I fiave »i»thlnj[ Hi Iht ihripr tkf Ciprakn 
KfaK^iBQilrtcdlml plnnUlDinaleiDtf rnriUenl 11.' CoiiTfl i bcMei tmntn 
be fflvFn, If I thbl bf«n a^ktd, Tiy mf. fur eic>| gl'ifig The ^\xnt* ta the Bri^ 




i\[e*. I }\xvc totgottcn Lo n^^ntioc Mr. Lont4lii]4?,* wfio gave 
mf Amoif (TorfJioJ rt'ccptiwn, and wirh vhom I hjiil ninth mt>*t 
JLiLpr^ftting ronvcrftVLLivu. 1( 1 vtt. am much mote inclined 
f^r gcolv^ Lhun ihc other br-inchCK of NatUTii lltitory, I am 
«(irc Mr- Lydi's and Lonsdale'* kindncsi ought to Ak mt 
You CAnnoi cooccfve anything more lh<5rougMy jp^tod-nahircd 
the hcBTf-ancI-nouI TViflfircr in whic-h hf ^lut hlmwlf in 

plftrr *nfl ihmiflht whoc would be best to do- At first he 
w4a all for l.ondon versus Cambridge, but ac bit ! made him 
CunfcKs ih.iC. Iqt suiiitf Lime at iuasL. the lutlcrr would be (ur 
ii\t much ditf WhL Then: j^ nut iLnuihvr kdul whuin 1 could 
a^k, vice]! t NIK youncll'r lo w^dc through And criticise »o«M 
of thfrtc papfT* which I biivi' U(t wiTh ynu. Mr. Lycll owned 
that, vcond iCf London* thiTc was tio phLti.' in England 4o 
p5<?d for a NiCufAliM oa Ciniibriijg*\ U|H>n my wurd I am 
.tHli:inu-d of writing bi^ many foulish dctaiU ; no young \ady 
ffvirr dciLribcd her (ust ball with moic pariicuUmy." 

A few days Inter he tvntci m<jre ihecrfully : " I became 
acquainted with Mr. BcEl. t who to my huri>riie exprc»cd a 
goud deal or inlcfcit iSboul my cruiitacea ^nd repliki, ind 
teem« willing to work At ihcm. 1 aho heard that Mr Hrodcrip 
would be H'^d to look over ihe ^nurh American ihdis, to that 
Ehingit flourish well with mf " 

Abovi his plants ht writra with chiiracicrifttic openness aa 
1o h]£ uwn ignorance' "You hjive made me knuwn umoopl 
the boliiniBis, liul I fcH very fouhdi when Mr, Uon remarked 
on the bcAunful appearance oi tome plant with ;Ln astounding 
long ntime. und asked me about its habitation. Some onr 
el^c seemed qufle aurprUrd that 1 knrw nothing about a Citret 

* tVniliiAi LaTiidale. b i79<. iIj ift?!, w«i otis^tlly In the amyp Md 
servci! ai the iHtrLen aS Si]&mucs and WarctlaOi* Atttt the wir be left 
(he iisrvioe uid ^vc himself up 14 nclencd^ He acted n Bclkiaiit 
larr la thp t;cn[<^i;icJ Snclrtf from iKjq^l, wh«n bf mtBTifttt owlnf la 
111 htjilib. 

f T. BfIT, F R,S„ formerly Prof. ofZoolilfyln K in|f * C«l1tg«. Vmd^ti, 
and lom^imer wcntiiy fo rhe Ha^l HocJet]' He Bflcrwarrla i1«eribe4 
Ihr Kfiiild fiK the tv6\(i^ qI Ihv vnjiigff of iK* fftagh. 



freni T do not know n'hcrp, 1 voi at Inn fofced <n plead 
moit cncirv innoct:iic;T, iimi ihii; I kncA nu more fiboui rhc 
plinth whkh 1 had colli^cicd ili^ii tlic uij^ei m xUv moon/' 

As lo patT 0* hi* Gcijlogkj] L'ul!ccttun l»c wa* touQ ihlr 
towriJc ; " I [h.AvcI d"*pi>«d of the most imporUtii j^art [yf] 
my collections hj-jtivinu jill thr fo«r| bones to the College 
^^f SoTgpnnrs casts of <hrm will hr <ll*irn]niEcfI, .mJ descrip- 
tions pnliluhcd. Tliry are \ejy carinus Aful vxhiaMe ; one 
h«ad bvl^ngvtl tu wmt gaiLwing ammal, bui cpf ihc iiJKe nf 
HippoiJOUniuh ! AnuLlict Lo an unlvaier cf lh« liac of a 
ll h worrh noting that s.t Ihit time tlie only extijvtL uum- 
nulia from South America, which had been dchtribccj. wcnr 
Mj|»todon (thret sin'cie?) and Megatherium. The Tcmainsof 
the other extinct fidcntaia from Sir Woodbine Partah's fol- 
lectiob bad not bccii do^ribed, My father'? spcn'mens ni< 
eluded (bcftldc» the alovc-menUoned T<iiodcn and Scelido- 
therium) Ihc rcMiaim of Mylodon, Glossoihetium. aiu^iher 
ippintic nnimnl Allied to the anf-eiter, and M;ici.iu< hcni*. 
His discovery of thcw teraains is a mflttcr of mtcrcst in itself, 
bwi it hn^;! nptdal in,port:intf asa point io his own life, since 
it wn^ Ihc Vivid iiiipft"4&uin ptoijuced liy cxcavAiing tlteni with 
hit own hftndt * that formed one of the chief sUrung-poinl* 
his ipetubtion on the C>MgiQ of ipectrs, Thi» !i shown 
the following extract from his FoekeT Boole for this ycjj 
{tAUt)' "In Jnly opened fit»t notp-book i>n Tr?n<imiirMion 
of Specie^ Had been ffffatly '<(nirk from nboiit ihf month 
of previous March on chamcter of Souih AmtricAn fosiili, 
a.nd ttpecict on Gal^ipugui Aichipubgo. Thci»tf fjcit [eapc 
ciilly Ul(er)< "t^iiin uf *ll "^y Tivwi."] 

* I tiAvv ufteu hiani tiini tpvah vf llie dopoir villi wliidi b? hud la 
bmli fiS tht ptajrccmg tftticcnilf of j hug*, parUy uoriud boiv, «Ti«ii 
'^* boai n iitiiif^ (iiT him TOuld will no tonj^VL 


r.ONr>0\ ANfJ L'AMBRtDGB. JKTAT. t?. Ii*j0. 

Mv bfaAk Fox, 

1 hdvc lakcti a khamefully long time in 4.yiiver)ng yuur 
tetter. Uut the buticit tjni? o1 the whole voyage hai been 
tranrjitillil/ iltrlf to this lasi moslh. After pftying Hcnvlov 
A sh"Tt !>uE v**ry plravint vinit, T came np \n trt*n tft haU for 
ihf /i^iis^/'i flrrivni. At IflU I hflvc rcmmtrt nil my proipcriy 
from on board, and sent ihc ipccimem of Natural Hbiory to 
Cambridge, to tli^t I am ngw a free man^ My Landcn vi^il 
\\x\ been *\inX<; iJlc a^i far ^b Natutat llisbory go^*' 1-*"^ ^^^ 
been poued in mo«E cKcJtin)| dix^ipauiun ftmcngvl the Doni 
\n icicncp. Atl my flffaif*, indcd, arc moit protpf roui ; I 
finH «Krfi' .irr i«lrniy whti *iH rmdcriakp the ilcu'^riplion <>f 
whok tribcii of AniiiMh, of which I know nothini;. So lliat 
about iJiit day month I hope to hct to « ark coolh and nntl 
at the i^«i\o^y, utti^ih 1 iball pubinh by itietf, 

l\ i« quite ndJculoua whai an im m crate ly long period it 
appeAn to me »inrc TArnJin^ at FaliiioLiih. The fact i> I have 
talked and laughed enonj^K fnr yean va»rJtd of weeko, vt 
[thit] my memory is ^juiie confounded with ihc noi*c- I Dm 
delighted to hear you ure turned fzeulogjtl : when I pay the 
Uk of Wjght « vuii. which 1 am delunniued >hall somcliow 
come to pjiM, ynii ^ill be a capital cicerone to iKp famon* 
line of dislocation- I really nuppouc theT<- *te frw ptirtu of 
the world more imeresiing to a geobgia than your istand. 
Amungtt the greai H-icnti'ic iritn. no one has bopti nearly bij 
friendly und kind -Ui LyvU, 1 have htvei lum vc^rral tinitx 
and feel inclined M like hi«a much- You cAnnot imagine 
bow good naru redly he rniefed inio at] my plani- ] speak 
uov only of the I.ondon men, for Kcnslow «aa jun bke hiA 
Conner (clf, and thercfoire a moi^t cordJAl and nffcriionate 
friend. When you piiy lj>ndcpn n TiKit t (hall be very prourl 
to take yuu to the GcologLcal So<:iciy> lor be it knovn, 1 uaa 




ptopoicfl to be J F. G, S. Ual Tuc«Jay» It is. howevtr, a grcai 
piiy ihflt nnrl the oihcr Icrters, eaprHnlly F, H, S,, arc so 
Very fnponsiv*!, 

I do not scrupk to ask you to write lo mc in n wcck'u rime 
in Shrrwftbuiy. lor you are a ^lood kttcr wcU-c, und if people 
Will have tuch ^oad chiLiai:^Eer» Ihcy luuil pjiy tin: j^cuaUy, 
Ut^gd-b^e, d«ar Fok. 


C. D, 

[Ris affairs teingtbui so far pToisperounly manae^d he wan 
able Ig put bio eaetuiion hvs plan of living ai Ciinibndge, 
whew he Ktlfed on D^cmber loih, 1836, He «aB jit fint 1 
g[ic«l in Ihc comforlfltJe home of the HetialovB, but 4ftct- 
wards, fur il^e ankt? of undislurbod work, he movril into lod^- 
ingfl. He thus writer tu h'ox, March 13th, 11^37, trom !^n* 
drwi: — 

"My rrudence ai Cjinbridge was rather longer iban 1 
Mp{:cte<t. owing to u job whit;!] 1 drlvrmincd to finish Iherf, 
namdy, looking liver flII my gc ological ^pccimcni, Cflrnbritlgc 
yet continue* d v*?ry pleasant, hui not half so merry fl place 
s» before. To walk through the courts of Christ's College, 
and not know la mliabitunt uf a «ng]e rootD. gave fine a 
feeling hdlf m<:lunch<ily. The only uvjl L found in Cambridge 
vfti \U being too plcasint; there mi bome agrcenUe parly 
or another t^vcry evening, and one cannot tAy one i% engaged 
with W) much impunity there a* in lhi» ffrcmt city." 

A mfijng record of rny father's pftHenCf in CamhTi<Jgc 
occurs in the book kept in Chrisi's College <^nrabi nation -room, 
whcrt nn«i Linil bets vert recorded, Ibe earlier entries ^viog 
4 Curiouh Jiupri/itBion ol the afti^r-diniurr fr-tnie irf mind ni the 
fellotts. The Ijcts wctv not allowed to be made in tnoneyj bUT 
Ktvrc, like the fine&, paid in wine^ The b<*t whith my father 
made and lout is ihii* rei'ordcd '— 

"/V^. 3 J, iSjy. — Mr. D.arwin ;■. Mr. Haines, that the com- 
bin-LtioQ-toom mea&ures from the ceiling to the lloor more 
than (1) fett. 1 I^otlle |>ud uune day. 





"N.Bv Mr> Darwin innjT mtiSAurf at any pan of th« room 
he pleases/' 

HiTDidi:! Amngin^ rhi: gra!ogital ^nd mintfialogic^il sped- 
mens Lie ImO luh 'JciumdJ liF Rraf^vchtrb' lij wuik JL. which 
occupied hit cvcninji at CftmLrid^c, He «Ui> reftd a thorl 
pjkprf lit the Znr>ln|ciV.iT Society,* and another at Ihc Gcolo^ 
cnl Soririy,f fin ihr Tpr<:nr rU^variftn of the rcwwr nf Chili- 
Early in ihp «^prin|[ of iSjj (March 6ih) he If ft rimhridsr 
for LontJon, and a week later he Wa^ atUkd in lodging! U 
j6 C!rc>il M^irlburvugh 3tn:et; ind cxcejit (bi a '' thori liiil 
to Shrewsbury " in June, hv «urk*d on till HvpEcuihcr, beinf 
Ummi entirely employed on hk'jDumaL' He found time, 
howrver, for two p»iperi ai the neclogicd Sociel)\I 
Hv wrtlen wf hi* wort to Foi (Msiri'h, ifij^): — 
*' In ynur Uitt ktier you urge me to ^c1 ready tAt I>&oIe. I 
na now hatd at wml oAd give up tv^rything else For rt Our 
pluk i« Ai follows ; C^jfUin Fiti-Koy writer l^o vo'Uim» oul 
of the mjilfTi^tln rnllciteii Jurinif the lui voyjge under V»\>t. 
King to TicTTft del Cucno, and during out eircumnaTigjition- 
1am to hitre the third ivhimr, in vrhioh 1 inlmd ^ving a 
kind of journal of i naturalist, no! fol!owinj{, h»wctvr> ajH.-Lyi 
iJio order uf time, but tJtber tliv order of po«)[ion. 'I'he 
habiu oi jniiiulh will w <- LLpy a l^r^c jHtrtion, ikei<^hct of the 
geology, the *ppeaiance of the fountty. nnd peT*onal dc(ji;I» 
■Hll make the hodge-podg* eomplele, AfifnrarA* V nhoU 
write *n occouDi of the geology in detail, and drair up >um« 
«o<jtugical pap«iH. So thai I hav« jj^enty ol w<iik lor tho 
next ycKT u' Iwu, and (ill thtt i« hoithed I uill have no hofi- 

* " NdUd npAn Uir* Anvrteaba," * 7mL SM, PBK * T^ l*^, f^ Jl^ 


f'rful. S«. iVut.' ii. iSjR. pp. 44A-s|4i> 

t "A tlctEb ol ihf ite|u«iik fvEiiaiiiuig frriTiei muimt^U kn tli« tn\^- 
of iVit I'UiV'''>hI :fr>cProt'iM«>».|>I- H>-f*4'*^"<^ 
larMsoftlrmk-Fi toJ tahddviKtlD ib*i'*cifie ±tiA Ir^liu oamms 
M doiudPil (wn iliv Mv4y d cvril fannBttAK" ' <S*i4. Hoe- Pnx,' Ti. >»>». 




Another Iciicf Kt Vox iJi^ly) p;ivci An Hcroui^E of Ihr pfCg* 
rcfl< fif his work t — 

" 1 ^avc EiiyBtflf a hutiduy jnd a viiii lo 3hr<fwsh(iry [in 
jLiur]j iit t hail liiiiftbcU my JuiiNiaJ. 1 UialL now lie ver)' 
bot^ in Jilting up gjpi j^nd gcltmg il quite leady M the jrrvhh 
bj' the fftt^ of AiJgiiiL I itiAll alwayi fcti respect for every 
one who hn^ wntirn a Fioolci IrE il l>c what tt mty. for 1 hnd 
no Ulca of ihr fmuWr ivhi.'li trpn^j to wriic common English 
could cQ!i: one. Ami, aJn.i, ihcrt yet Jcmaina ihc worst part 
of all, <:oTrvctin^ rhe pnu. A& soon as wvt thut ig done I 
tnuitt jiiit JM^ fihuulikr ti> tlic ^hrcl ^iiul ct>inniencc al the 
Geology. 1 have re^ul some short pupera to the Gcologiral 
Society. Bfid they were favounbly refieivcd by the gfeni giini, 
and thifi K'^f^' ""^ much cnrfidtfncr, and I hope not a very 
ftzM ilfal of viiniiy, though I confess I feci too oUcn like a 
peacock julmiring h^s uil. I never expected ihat my Geology 
would ever have L>een worth the comideiatkia of ^uch men as 
Lyell, who ha^ tK^co t? me> !iin<:c my returOp a most active 
ffieod. My hie !& a very huay one n1 prffcut^ mid X hope 
may ever remain so ; thoogh Heaven knowi there ate many 
neriniif draw'wirk^ to riich a life, and chit:f amongst them ii 
(he Itlllc time it alloua om; for seeing one's natural friends. 
Kof the last three yea;*, 1 hate !>een longmg and longing to 
be living at Shrewsbury, Jnd after all now in the courie of 
((.■vi^r.'d month^j 1 sec my de^r good people ,it ShrcwsbHfy for 
a ^I'Ci'k. Silvan snd Calhrrim' hflvi', howcvr.T, bi'cn stiiying 
with fny brother here for »nnic weeknj but they had Teiiimctl 
home Ijcfore tny visit," 

HcAidct the work Already mt-DtioDvd h« had much Eo bevy 
him in making Jtrangemenu for the puLilic:4lian of Chtt 
■ Zoology of the Voyage of the Be^U.' The following kriern 
iUuBtriile this subJecL] 




C IXtrvt'i'v fif /.. /fjtyns,^ 

AprU idh. |»3^ 

Dkar Iv^y-x^t 

Durmi; the b»t week h[^vt:ra] or tbe fOoloi^ivlK vf lli^ \'\ac^ 
have been urging me to cooHdcr the pouibiljiy of publishing 
the ' Zoology of Ehe //ri^l/t Voyi^ * on >om? untfonn plan. 
Mr M^rlfjiyt l%Vfn a j^cat AcaX M intrtt-tt in thf siih- 
Jcrt, and mainumA Ehot ittich a publicaiicrn is very dcr-ir^blc, 
bectitift? II keeps lo^irther a scrip* of obscrvaiiotii maiv re- 
ipetling aniinak mb^bLliiig the liiinc pAii t^t [lie KurKI. Jintt 
Allow* any fiiiud: tf^vcJlvr ukiri^ ihrta wt\h him. How fir 
rhU fju:itiiy of reference i* of uiy coiucf^nencc I -tm r^ry 
dAiiMful ^ Sui if mch it ihc ^atr, it wcuUI Th^ mi:ire Kitis- 
faciory to mynclf lo hm' thf gltjninjjs <if my hanjn, ufl^r bnv- 
in^pofised 1brou|;h the hrtinA of other n:it(in>liAUj colLrctrd 
logeiher in oni^ uurL Bui i\i(h (^utMdctkUon* ought not to 
hnve much wck(;ht- The nholc sch<'mc it tU ptVKJi; niciely 
Aoiiiing in the uir ; but I was detcrmineil lo k-t you kQow, a« 
t vhfjuld niLKh likr lo know «rhj( yi>ii (bink aIweiC it, ind 
whcthfr yoii w^nM oUJftt in iBitpiily ilti«rTi[ilion4 of the fi*h 
to luch a wort iniicad of to * Traa^actionv' I (tpprchcnd 
the whole will bi; impraccic^ible, vUhout Government will aid 
in engavxnu Hik |jbL«n, Jind ihiii J tvnj i* a mure ehaac*. unly 
I think 1 can put in x tironfi cl^m, imd net rayuEf well 
backed by the natunlii^ of this place, vho ncaiiy oil take a 

t Williftm Shift* M"inr uv* ih- t^^q vr A)r«»ri-lF> MidHf, fjniivrtr 
CatanU] :^«rturT of S<* S*>mli Wa1«*, uiJ fur tfintiy rciri Snirrcavy of 
ibf LlnuAJi Stic^fiy 'I'h* uiii, wita "• ■ inotl mlcut NmiffelMn And 
laid kahrr^lfd fioai bi> ftalfiw a ^rrr Iv^v fiifviml «pll<ill<'i) vf L>t4VK 
madv CnLomvlvsiy hi< ehfcf kuilk, And Bibud prabi nuiurieiy by bU ftuit 
fpf^nTirn (^mJU0ry ifttm. kI foiih Sp iW Sicmd Pidl of hh ' Itnnv Bn- 
lAiriiilocto.' jiiLblltbiil Ib lAJi^f tm ladCiblnJ m Kev. U- filomcfifld 




QfjQd dco] of inicrctl h\ mj coLlccdons. 1 mcuMi lo-morruw 
1o wi Mr. YarfcJE ; jf he app»rov», I ihiLI bi^^iEi and ukc 
mnrr activi- Mqis ; fi-iT I hi-Ar hr k mani iimJcnr itnt! miiht 
wile. Il Id ftcarrcly nny \t%c spccubtiiig jiboul Any plan, but 
] thought of |^-iiing vuburltit^rt and pulilibhing ihe work in 
p;tr(v (ji lijNg AH Cuuds would Uhl, fui 1 mytvlt mjU nut lu«v 
money by ii\. In such cut(\ vhucvci had hih uun i^^rt rc-^idy 
cti uiy order mighT pubJUb ti K^j^raLcly Uud iiUimatdy the 
pfliiH mi^jhr Jic noM 3tfpafat«ly>, 40 that no otic should be de- 
layed by the other. Tlic p[^ii wnuld resemble, on J humlde 
sfole, Ruppcl'% 'Alias,' or Hnmboldrs ' ZooTngJc,' where 
Laifdik. Cuvier, &:c., wrote diffcTcni parts. I mysdf ^nhould 
Imvc hillc^ (■> du with lE: ciccplizig in sonje orders nJditt^ 
hflbiu .ind r.THRes, 5;c , and gtogruphical sittkhca, and per- 
hupi Afterwards some drscripcionn of tnvrricWaic iimi- 
idMb .... 

1 am working at my Journal - ii gela on alawly, though f 
am nol idle. I thuughl ran]hnd^<; a bad plaicE from good 
dinners and other tempiaiions but 1 find London no bcUer. 
i;id L fear ic may sIu^ wot^e, 1 hive a capital fikiid in 
Lycll, jind see a great dc^l of him, t^blch i!» vc^y udvAn[;t- 
gcou< To me in diM^n&iing much Sonlh Americnn geology. I 
miis a walls in ihe country very much ; this London b ix vd« 
Miiuky plocQ, whvre 1 man lou^s a great part of Ihi be«t vo' 
joyntenib in lili;. Hul 1 ^e no ch^incr of cscAjung, even lur 
a wecit, frcnrn ihU piiiou I'yf j long lime to come- I fear it 
will be <Lome [inic before we ^ho\\ meet i T^r I »up|iotC yi»\ 
will nol eume up herf during the ispring, and T do not think 
I shnll be able to go down to C»mNridge, How 1 should 
like lo have a good walk nlong the Newmarkf^l road lo- 
mcFTJoWi bm Oxfoid Su<:ei miisi do Instead. I do huLe the 
bifC7L« oi London. Will you Led Hi^nelow lu Uv caivfitl with 
the fJjA/i- funHi from Tieira ^Itl Fucgo, fur 1 shnll w.mi some 
Sipcoimens for Mr, Brown, who seems /(jrfrcH/Jr/v imcr<:Tik'd 
about ilu-m. Tell Henslow, T think my Bilioified wood haa 
unBintifjed Mr BrownV hciitl, for he wo-s very |,;tacLOUS lo me, 
knd talked About ifje GaUp^gos plaiUi ; but tietoie he nevet 




would uy Ji woiiL It U juit itrilung twelve o'clock; kO 1 
will Vf'uh you a v«ry guutt TiFg)>i.. 

VouT* moi" I'uty, 

C. Da h WIN. 

[A few wcckn later ihc pton wcm* to ha^T liccn man^rcdf 
and The idea of seeking (rovcmiaeDt aid u> have been 


C. liarwi/i f^ /, S //fts/atei. 

litib M.>, 1*3? J. 


I wii vcr^ ](l;ifL lo ricccive four kiier. t wnntccl miu^h la 
hear how yon were gciciriE On with your manifold liliouri. 
IndtfCfl I do not wvndrr your hcid began lo tchir: it i» dl> 
mo*t ft wondtT you hnve any heiid kft. Vour nccunni of !h« 
Gamlingay c^jiedLiJon ttan cntctly templing but I cannoi 
dnyhnw icarVt London, I vinted lo piy my good, detu peo< 
]>le at SbrcA'»bu'y i visit of > few diyi, but [ fuund 1 cuulJ 
Pol minaKC it; at jirr*fni I am wailing lor thr v^iuturci of 
<hc llulcc r^f Homcrvt, ,u Prdidcnt of ihc 1/mnMn. And of 
!,ord Dcrhy ind Whcvcll, lo n »tAtemen( of thr ralar nf tny 
coll«clion: the iniiant I gcl (hi* l tholk apply to Gavrrnrntnt 
for uuktJiiKc jii cDgruving, onU »o publish Uiv ' ZcHtIo|Ey ' on 
tatac nniform plan. Il h quite ridicakui the lime uiy 
operation rcquirr* which d<ptnd^ on tn»ny people. 

I hav< brcn wnfkinK very «i:a<1ily, brjt hivr nnly uoT two- 
ihirda lhr<)ii]^ the Jotirnftl pan alone I And, thoiigh I tv> 
mitn liftily mAny hours u voit, the progrMA ii very ilow t it 
il an 3.w(ii] thing lo nj to onevelfi evny fool nnd every 
clever man in Engtuidt H hf chooM«t rnay moke at many ilU 
natured rcnurka »t b« Jit^ on thJt onfommAic lentcncr, 
• • • • « 

(In AiigUKt he mrXf% lo Hen«low to announce the iucccm 
of Ihp Bchirmt fur Ihc piiblicutio>n of th« *ZimIo^ of (he 




Voyage or the Beagit,' thiough tbc pfombe of A gmni of 
^IWQ Uom the Ttca^ury : '' [ h;ivc ddaycJ wfitiog to yoU, 
to thank yo" mnul *inr^rrly for havin|( nn rPTivhi-nlly mnDajE^d 
my ftffair. f wjiitfji fill I had nn mtcrvifrw with \\\r: Chjinrcl- 
]f>r af tho Rtrhwjncr* He tippotmed 10 set mc ihw moTH- 
jng, and I had a I«ng ccrnvi-nailon with him, Mi- Pi^ocotk 
btiuig ])TV«eni. Nutliiti^ cuuld b« mure 1hurvu|;b]y obliging 
an<I kind ihsn hiii wh<jk nuniicr He mjiiJc nt> ftorl of re- 
jirktion, but only lold mc lo make Ihc mt>il of [ihel money, 
wbifh of courtc I am right willing to do, 

*' I cxy^crtcfT Tathci fln awfnl interview, l>Ht ! never found 
nnychmjJE ^*^^ ^^ ^ri my life- It will he my f^ulr if I Jo not 
m;)kt! a good woik ; IjuI I somciinies ttLke an JwfLiI fright 
tliat J hiivc not matrri^itt cQuUgb. Jl will bv etcci&ivdy 
MliiF«CCOTy at the cniJ <rf tome two yean to find JiTl m^tcrtjla 
mjdt the mtMit ihey *rfc iiif>ablc of/' 

Later in the auitimn he wrote to Henilow : " I have not 
bt^f^n vrry w^ll of lait, with an uneomfortnblf pnfpilation of 
tlu' hcjirl, ■-\x\i\ my doilorii uriii: me strijn^Iy to Vnork <ilT all 
work, and go anil \\tv in the country for a few w^ck V He 
oiccoiilinBly tofii a holiday of about a month at Shrcwibury 
and Udcr. iind paid t'ox a vmt m (he l^le of Wi^ht H i<j»t 
I helievFt diirirtg this vi^ltr ftl Mr. Wi^%w»f)it'4 hnt^Nt^ hi 

M^cr, thai be made his (irxi obumttioni on the worit done 
by earlhwumiFSi [ind Ijie in the jutumn h« rcud a. p^per on 
the tubji^et at the Gcolngical Snaely.t Dufiny thcuc two 
months he was aho busy pre paring ihc tcheme of the ' Zool- 
ogy of [he Voyage of the /t^iixiir,' nnd in tn'^inning 10 put »n- 
gcihcr the GcoloEienl reiulls of hh travel*. 

The folluwing lett<:r refers to the ijropOMLE that he should 
take the iivcitfl4LfyabLv of ihe Uvolefiica] Sud<ty-] 

4 " Ob the fmnUhm of nouU,' 


■ GnL 9dc Fnie.' U. tfl^S, pp 374- 




> . . I Am rnuch oblifrd to )rav 'or ^onr mri«^ iboul 
the SorfetJiryihip. ! an rjxei^^tinfly Mniiivn f<-^T ji>u lo h»r 
mf sideof Thcqtic«iioD,udwill you be 10 kind «& tftcrvud*: 
Ui ifLvc mc your fan )u<l)pncnL The »ubjec( ^is haunicd mC' 
All mumer ] »ii u»*i]lti)g lu undcrUic ch< vfHcf for Jm 
fulkntin^ fcuOQ*; Fittt. my cTilttc igDuumc gJ K»ic1^ 
Geolo^, 1 knowledge of iihich would be Almct&i necciiary iv 
order lo ihortcn many of the pspcn before rtadiog Uirm be- 
fore thv Sodcty, or rather to know vhat pam to skip. Ag«iii» 
my tgDorancc of aS languagcv aod noi knowing how 10 pco- 
Dounce a aj^it wvjt6 of Freocb — a laagua^ m per|»clttally 
quoted- It would b« ditgraceful lo th< 5<KLvLy to hai-« a 
Sfcrttaa? who covld not retd French, Secondly, the 1ot« of 
lime ; pray eoniider vhu I >hould have do look tkfiet the 
aniftti, sLiperinieTtd U)d fumUh mACrriilt for ibe CotcTTLmeni 
wmrk, which wiJl tiomt oui in \>o.x\■^. tind vrhirh mu»i a]>i>ev 
rrjfularly. AH my Geolofic^l noteji are in a very rougb »tale ; 
iiOTve of my fouil i^hellt worLcd up ; and I have mucii lo rrad. 
1 have had hopes, by Rivinp »p todtty and not waiiinj; «q 
hoiir, that I th^v^M finish my Geology in a yr^r and a half, by 
whkh lime the deib^nption of iht higher jninuilx by others 
vonTd be compleied, and my irholc time would then Drcti- 
sarily bo mjuinrcl lo coruplcU my^cif Xh-v detcriplKm t:4 Ihf 
int^i-rtcbrilo onet^ I) iJim pUn IjiK at the OnvcniiueEii work 
muKi go on, the Geology would ne<c»arilyb« deferred KU 
probftbly at leul three yean from ihi^ Hm^. Tn the prrwnt 
•tale of th« Miencc. n p^ai |iart of ihe miJiiy of the little ! 
have done would be \ii%% and all fre^hnni and pk«»utT quite 
tAken from me. 

1 kn<7w from exprrieacc the time required to make ab* 
«Traet« /fv« of my ow» pupcr* for the ' Proceeding^.' If I wm 
Secreury. and had tonuVe double ab^ir.Lcts of each paper, 
atndyiog ihem before reidiflg, and aticod-uicr would tf/ itatt 





coit me thr«f day* (^nd cfern niorc) in thv fortnighi There 

arr hkcwiftC other nrciflcnial md ramingenc lontri of ii[nc; 
1 know Dr. Rcylc found rhe office consumed much nf hi* 
time^ If by mrrefy gL\ia^ up any a'tia^n-OiKai, oi l>y workm^ 
hiEiIer tlua I Iiuvv tlone, I lvuIJ Viitc tiuh% 1 wuuld utidei- 
|jk( lUc ^ci'fcuryilup ; but 1 appeal lo yuu wheihci, wiUi rity 
»Io« maonci ot wi rrling, wiih I wo work* in h,-ind, jnd with 
Ihe cCTt.iinTv, if 1 mnnot rompl^tc Ihc Gpolofjirjil pari wilhin 
1 liirj pcriort, thai iti. piiMication must he rrttiTtM for i 
very k>nR time,— whcihrr any Society whaici'ef hji.'; any dflim 
on incrorihrceilayjs'dixagrera.b[e work every formighi, I can- 
not \i^v thit it is a duly vn my jj;Lrl, i»b a, Mluwer i>f tcii^nce. 
ai long as I devote myb^H to the lomplciion uf the wgv k J 
tiAve in hand, to dcUy ihAt, by imdcruking whAt nay tw 
done by any pcmon wh& happcni to have more *parc timr 
ihjin T have it prcMnt. Moreover, w early in my «^icriTinc 
life, with w> very tnuoh oj* I have lo U'um. the oflire, rhiugh no 
doubt >i i^rr^l Uondiirr &c.i for me, wmiUI (i<^ the more riurdijn- 
totat. Mr- Whvwell (I know very welJ), judgmg frgm him- 
teli. wilt think I exaggerate the time the SecrcUryahip would 
rvt|uire; but 1 ab^^jluTely know the time which with me the 
«irnple4t writing rona^umcL I do not at all like Appcarinfi to 
selfish P3 to rcfiiw Mr. Whewcll, more c*\wch\fy a% he ba% 
always iihown, in thi^ kindr^l m:in(ier, mi inti^ml in my affairs, 
But 1 c^nnol l<rok Ii^rtiJiid wiifi even t^k'nblc lvuiIijM I(J un- 
dcrtakmy ;in otl^cc without enierint; on Ji heart jnd »oul. and 
(hat would be impqiiiblc with the Government w»rk And the 
Gef»logy in h^nd. 

My lAftt obji^tlon ta, f rlnnht how fxt my hrfilth will 
Stand ihe conflncmcni of what 1 h:ive lo do, without any ad- 
ditionai woik- ] [Dtfrdy repeat, th^i you may know I am not 
sjxLikiiijt idly, that whtn 1 tun&Li[ii,'d iJi, t-faik in tnwn, he 
ai riftr ufflrd me t<t jfive \.t\t entirely atl wrifing and even cor- 
recting pre** for lome week*. Of laic anyihmg which flurriei 
me completely knock !( me u|> afterwards, md brin^ on a vio- 
lent palpitation of the htf:Lrt. Now the Scereiary^hlp would 
be a periodical source of more annoying trouble to me than 





all lb« rcil of ihc f^^jtnighii put tQgcihcr. In Cicc, tiU I rctum 
l9 iti'H'n, <i(}d vc< b<>vT J f^K on, if I wuhvcl tht gffitr ever bo 
mu^h, 1 ruitfJ^/ n«l *:iy [ would poiilivdy nniJi-rtakc \t. I beg 
of you idcKciuc ihU very long prose ollftboui ro^lf,hui the 
pfhiftt a one of great iriErrcM I can ndthcrlienr to think 
mysclE vr^ry telfish uiU lulky. ntx laq I aw llic pusMbitity of 
my Ulciog the Stft:ral4ryFhhi|itti(htiut iD»kiD^ a kttnfice of all 
my ijlunv jtrtU J ijixjij Jeal of o>mlofl. 

II yuu »pcc WEicMclL »ould you tell bim the iubiunce of 
thi« Ictlcr ; or, if he will tai* (he trouble, he may read it. My 
de*r Ifcnilow, I ap^n-il lo yoii ik Ix^ far^utii. Pnty tell mc 
irhai you Think? Km Jo not Jud^c mc by ihc actiHty o* 
mind which you amt « few others jhiu^l-Us for in [hat c^i^e 
tb<; more (liflicuU ihingi In lund the pleJtutier the work \ 
but. though V hope I ni'vef tiioll be idle. 40ch i« not the cu« 
with me. 

Ever, dear Hendow, 

Your» moin trolly, 

\Hi tillimitely aocepied the pom, ind held ti for (hre« 
Tear*— from februjiry i6, iSjft, to February 19* 1*4"- 

After being nitiurcd of the Grant for the publication of 
ihe * Zoology of the V^iyajje of (he /frtv/i%' there wa* much 
to be dune LU arruigin^ the «t:heme of ^lubltcaiion, and Ihit 
occupied him during pnrt of October and November.] 

[«ifc NoTCBbcr- ttj^l 

Mv U&AR HtKSI-^W, 

. . - J*ray tcU Leonard* ihaE my GoTemmeat work H 
going on imoothly, and 1 hope *ill he pmperouL lie mrill 
•M^r* in ihe Proipeciuf \\\^ name aitathcd to ihr fiih : t tiCt my 
«huutdcrs to the wofk with a good heart, I am very much 
belter than 1 vra» dtrring ;he btt month before my ShrewiM 





hury vUit. I fear the Geology will rake mc n great dcil of 
time ; I wai looking ovor onr? st^t of notc^^ ^tnd th^.- qunn:iiy 1 
found I b;ul to riy^^i^ loi lluL uiiv |>Ucg wmii frij^liiful. If I 
liv« till 1 HEU i-ii^hiy )c^t<iLJ J thiUI uol ccuhLj w m^rvvl at 
liDfJiag myicll aq auihoc; ia ihciUtnmcT heioie t »ur(C4Ji if 
any one had told ni« th^t f should have been an «ngcl by ihU 
jlimff, I ihouM hsvL' ihoMghi it an equal impoitibiliiy, Thij 
rnArrdlocK irjinn formation i^ all owing ta ynu, 

I am Kfirry tn linrl ihaT n gocid many crmia are left in the 
par of my voJumt, which h printtd. Durfng my nhsL^noc 
Mr Culbijrti i-inpluycd ^omr goust- Lo tvvistp and hv has mul- 
liljlitfd, inbU'od oi ilimiahhinz my ovcr^ighL^; but for aU, the HhkHUh ^iflpcr an<l ilciir Syf>p h,iiia th^TiTimit »jhp^iir- 
ftrtcc, and I sfll the other evening anting in iiterr ndmir.»tjon 
at Ihc fint page of my own volume, when I received ii from 
the printcnl 

Good -bye, my tlcnr Hcnslow, 

C. Dahwen. 

fFtism Iht bvgCnillng i>f this yeartn nearly tht end of June, 
he *a-i hnsil/ employed on ihc zooJogical and geologtcnl fc- 
i&uEls of hi'i vwyuge. This spell of woik wis interrupted only 
by n ri!tii of ihrci^ duyn to Cambridge, in M»y; und ev^n thii» 
bhoil holid;ty xim XaXca ^~n consequence uf I^Euii( health, 14 
■we may as*mnc from the entry in his diary : '* May tit, un- 
y*ct}," and fmm -i letter lo his sister (May i6, iSi*), when he 
wrote ^ — 

" My trip of three days to Cambridge has done mr aiieh 
ivondurful g<jud, iind filled rny IJmbe with Midi oUMtciiy, ihat 
1 inuU ^ni A ti[[|e woik t/a\ of my body bcfofc another holl* 
d»y. " This holiday «cm* to have been thoroughly enjoyed ; 
he wroif to hin staler :— 

*'l4tjv fur Cimbridfij; [ :»(ayod at HtnslowS hoo&o and 
t&joyvd my viKJt extremely. Nfy friendi^ gave nic a most 
cortUd wdcoTne. Indeed, 1 wa^ quiie a lion there- Mn, 
H<n»]<iw unfortunalely was obljgcd Xq go on Friday for di 

vuit in the country. TKai c-vcninii wr tixd »1 Hmsbft'i a 
brlUbni party of a\\ The gi^niutcj. in CAmbridgc, Jind j moni 
reinarkflblt w< 0/ men [hey most oBufcdly arc- On Saitirilay 
[ roilc ovtr tu L Jtruyns', anil tj^cut Ibc morning wiih him, 
I fuuQiI Umi very chrcrlul. but biltorly Lum^jUinLii^ of hia 
hoUtudc; On Salurday evening dined jli one of the C^Dllvfatrv, 
pl«ycd at bowl* on the College Green ifler dinner, 4q<J "is 
deafencrd wirh Tiia:Htin;4-i!c»*imn'"R' Sunday, dined in Tiinitj; 
CitpiUl dinhi'T, and wntVi-ry^Ud to vl by Prnfeswr* - . .^ 
T And him n, very pleuani r.h.itiin^ nun, and in high Kplrftt 
like a boy, at having btely returned from a Irving or j curacy, 
fur tfvun yejtri m Simicnclbhirtf. M civiliied Aocivty tnd 
orivnul iiianui^ri|itv lie h^d cxehinged hin living 1'^ one 
vithin fourteen miln af Cambridge, and ucmed perfcnly 
happy. In (he vvrning attended Trinity ChjiftclH and heard 
"Hvc Hcav^nTi are telling ihc Glory o( God," in majfnifiMnl 
ityk : the laiil charuit kecmcd to ^halLe the very volTii at the 
College. AfLcT ^bjpcl a lar^ poity in SeJgwicW'a roanUt 
So much hs^ my Annah." 

Il« ttarttfd. lowjrdi the «nd of Jane, on his capediiion Xo 
Olvn Roy, of which he *»tie* lo Tox ; " I have not been very 
well of late, which has suddenly determined me to leave Lon- 
don eaflier than t had anticipated. I ro by the tteam-pArliet 
to Kdinburglu— Uke a lulil^iry walk on SnAitbufy O^ii^^ and 
CLtU up old Ihuughlft oC 1vini':i liitict, i1i«d go on to Gljiigow 
and the gfc^ valley of Inremcfia, near which J flittnd tuty^ 
ping a week to a? olosiw the parallel roadi of GIe» Roy, thence 
to Shrrwdiurv, M.-vrr fr^r imc day, and London ft»r imoke. ill- 
iKalih anrl hard work " 

He spent "'cighi good days" over the Parallel Roadt. 
Hia EiMyonthiB mbjert waa written out during (he *amc 
aummer. jnd puMiblt^d by the Kuy^il Socielj.f He wrote in 
hU t^Kkvt Buok: "Sq)tcttiher6 [lajSl- Fiauhcd the paper 

'SuBMll.flw.c'QuHiLt' WA% PMivorof AnLkfRMD ElrflQlftai. 
■lid Rcfilv Pmrawt of Iltt>rtvfi« il5t«» Ift^l. 
t *nmTnD^'ll>»,ppL3>49. 




00 ' Glen Roy,' one or fhe ino&i dilticult and instructive toslu 

1 WB* evet engaged on/' It will In: rt^niembctcd (hal in hU 
* Recollect iorii ' he ^pcakt of this pAp<:r an Jt f:i;lurC| c>f which 
he H'a5 aihimcd. 

At (he time nt i#hich he wrote, the latesi'thonry of the /or- 
maiinn ai the ParnUd RoAdswA^i thai of Sir Lnmler Dick 
and Dr Mact-ulloth, who believed that lakes had j^ticnll/ 
tiiflttsd in Gkn Roy, Chiiigcd ty dams d( fock oi allu* 
riujn^ In arguing ag^in&i <hi^ theory he concaved that 
be had disproved the Admissibilliy of anjr U^c theory, 
ttu in tl>i5 pninf he w.j= mUf^lecn He wrote (fiten Rjiy 
psper, p. 49 J ^'rhe conrhi^mn i'l intvitah^ that no hypo- 
ttHCAiA foundifd on the ?up^£cd existence of a sheet of 
woiet coftfincd by barritrs, that ib a lake, tio be admitied 
a) wiving ihe prv!jlcm:4tk;d cngiti u£ the potJlkl toddb of 

Mr Archibald Gcikic has been sa gooJ an m allow mc to 
qui)Ec a pisiflj^c from a jeller nddreiiH 10 tn? (Nov. 19, 18S4) 
in cumpTianci? wfE>v my retpti^st for hi? opinion on the charoC' 
lerofmy father"* (ikn Roy work: — 

"Mr. Dirwin'* "Glen Roy' paper, I need not tixy^ is 
murlttfd by ill hii chAriLrienstR' .-ici^tcnri^ of ob-^crvatioa and 
dettrtninnrifin to conhidcr nil possible objections, II is a 
ourSouj* ennmplc. ho'i^cvcr, r»f the danger of rtflsoning by A 
melhnd of c\Hn«on in Narnral Soienrc. Finding ihal the 
waicr* which formed the ictfu-ccr, in ihc Glen Roy region 
c:ouliI not posKibly hhive bcvn dainuied back by barriers of 
lOck or of dt;lritiis, hu aaw nu allvrnJtive Iml to regard them 
as the work of the aea, ilad llic ulca t>i tfansion: barrier* 
oTldAtifHcc occurred to htm, he would have friund the diffi- 
c^iittle* vanish from thf liikt-lht'nry whUh he oi>jH>*ed, ftnd hc 
would tioi h;ivt l>een tinconscioudy led to minimise the alto- 
gether overwhelming objct:tion& to the suppofrilion that tho 
terraces ATt of marine origin." 

It m-iy Ijl' *;lLlr\l tb;it the \6i» of the barrien l>elng formed 
by gUcicn cottUI hafilly have occurred xa him, coniidcting 
what was the ftare of knowledge ai die lime* and hearing in 



mind hit wvd of cpp(»tm>tie» of obMcciing gUciil Mciion 
on ft l**K^ «aTc. 

Thp Ijitrr half of Jnf^ wtA pA^t^ Jt SltrcHilmry and 
Mocr. The only cnity of any inicmt tM nnc nf l>cln|c " Trry 
idle " It Shrcvtbury, lud of opening " a notc-boofc cotibcctcd 
wiiEi aurta)7h>^ic2| 'imituna" In Augott be rccordi ihaC he 
rvid *'i KuvU JimI of i4xiou« amuttiiif; books ^md paid usmc 
atlcntioa lo itieuphy>icAl ftub)cL-tk." 

The irork done during the rcniimdcr of the ywj comjirt*rf 
thj; hoot an cnral rech (begun in Ociob<^, and lome worit 
on the phcnnmcna of rlrvntinn in S Arnrric*,] 

jb Gr«i M^rlboinifh mntc. 

A«f»ii oih [fB30]. 
MiT \y^\n Tvtru 

r did no! urttc lo you ni NonrkJi, tot I ihoujchi I «liou1d 
have more to uy, if I w^tcd a few inofe d«ys. Very inatiy 
thanki fLjr ihe ptoeQl of yout * Elcmcnti/ ^ich t received 
(■ind I bchcvc tlic PfV7 ^/^^ copy diit'ibifEcd] logifther wjih 
yottT noi*. I hftve read it throuftx trety word^ and am fnil 
of adinirAliDn M il, and, Aft I now itec no gcologift, I muil 
talk TO yoLE alioiti xi. There tt no picuure in reading a book 
if one uLnnct hare a good tjJk over it : 1 rrpi<ftt. 1 nm full iif 
adniintM^ uf iii it it aa c'ru^ vt daylii^hl, in fact I l«U in 
many paru >onic luortiJitAlion at thinking how soolog»ia 
have Uboured and itnif^gled K provTn^ vh^T ti:ein% at you 
havtr ]i»t ilt W cvidrntly pmbaSK-. ! read with murh int^mt 
your tk^tt^h of t1^e trcond^iry di^po»ts : ymi have contrived 
10 make \\ ijuilc " juiey," u wr nud lo my ju cAiildren of % 
good siory. There ikjls alv> omch n^w to trie, and J have 
10 GOjjy out *oine tiHy notct and rcfetcncvt- It musi do 
good, ihe hcTctici n^iainil common »en« mmf yjclfl . . . 
By the way, do you tcoollcci my tclting you hoi* much T 

diitikrd tbt manntr reftrrrrd to hit oi^rr workt, aa 

mu{ K A% to «ay, " Von muti, ought, and fthall buy cretTthuig 
I Ikive wiillen." To my taifid, you h^vt wmchow i^uilo 




avoiLletl this ; ynur rcfciencci gnly »eero U> tayi " I can't tell 
yuu Jill m (his work, dsc 1 would, 60 you muni jio to iKp 
* Principles '" ; anil many a oncj I imhl, yoii will hrnd Ihtrc, 
■nj mak<; them, like me, ftdorcra of ihe gond «lcni» of TO^.k- 
Vou wUI sec I am in a fil of enthusiasm, qikI good 
have to be whcD I finii yuu hdvv mjtl^ iu<:h mfim^dy 
oiutv usv of my Juuinul flun 1 cuuld hHvt; Arilii^ixjJAturil. 1 
wjJl i^jy nci inijrc ubuuL tlic bocfk, lor U it all [>raj:kc^ 1 itiuHlt 
Ill/wcvct. uJiiiiEc (he dAboiTALc Honcily wiEh nh^ch yim tjuoEc 
ihc woidi of Jili living And ddd g^ologistn. 

My Scotch f^ipcdlHon jimirercd hnlfiiintty ; my irip in 
the fttcam-packci wm abw>lutdy pIcflSAiit. nnd 1 enjoyed the 
spectoclE, wreich that I urn. of two ladu'S. and some srnalt 
Qhildfcn quite aca'sick, I being well. Moreover, on my lelurii 
fiouL C/Easgow to Livcrpoul, 1 triumphc'd in a «imiUr munn^r 
over J,i>mc full'grown mm, T iiayed one whole day in Edm- 
burgh, or mort truly on Solisbuty Cmigs ; I warn to hear 
vomo day what you ifijnk about Ihat du^icat groun<1,— ^the 
Mru<-tiirf wa« to mt- new and father c:urii.hU:^,— that is, if T 
undcrhUjiLl it rij;ht, I rfofised from Kdmburgh ia gigb and 
caiix {find c;i.[ti without springs, a^ 1 never «hH[| forget) to 
Loth l.evcn, J "fU* disappr"iik-d in Ihc ettfiicry, snd rtachtrd 
ni£'» Rfiy ''fi Snnifdny cvt-ning, fine week sUcr }t.a\hig Marl- 
bnron^h StrccrL Here \ enjoyed five [?] Jays of ihc mo« 
bt:iiiuful weather with gorgeous sunspt*. and all nature look' 
iiig aa iMppy Ub 1 felt, J w^ndrieiJ jvti thi: mouniMiuB in 
ill di[ei Uunh) And exjiniueU tlui muhl c xCi .10) din jry li^hlticL 
t think, without any cxccpiiont, not even the ficfct vokdnic 
iaUtid, ihe first etevfltcd bcflch, or the pa*w^ of the Cor- 
ditlern. wan to intcrr'ilinjt in mr ah thit ivcfk, ll f* fjir Ihe 
mos( femnrkflblL' anc.t ] cvef esiflmined, I have fully con- 
vinced myself f:i.rier some doubting at Jin^t) thai the shdvcs 
«fe srji-b<achcs, although 1 could not fmd j trace of ^ shdl: 
arnd I think I etplain away moBl, if nol all. the difficiil- 
lleft- I fotmd A picee of a road in another vnlley. not hith- 
erto nb*LTVcd, which ia importnni ; itni\ T have some euriou^ 
fai:EB abuuc errutic blockS) gae of vhii;h won perched tip OQ 


ft peftk Aioo feci Jibove ihc tea. I Jiin rvaw cmrilaycd in 
writing a pnptr on ihc lubjc^t, which T find vtty amuting 
vurlt. excepting thai I cannol mytiow <:uiiJ«ntir il into rca- 
Moiiablv liiiiiU. At ivumc tuEufc clAy 1 hope lo ulk vvcr 
fiouic of ihe conclutiont with you, which the cxjinmatLon uf 
Gkn Roy hu led mc to^ Noa' J have bad my Ealk our, 1 
nm mtirh CBsicr, for T c«n WBurc you Ck-n Roy how aston* 
ifthcil mc. 

I am living very quietly, and therefore plea!annily. and nm 
crawling on sluwJy hul steadily w^iih my work- I hnvv ccime 
tu ojic tLri^cIu^iuu^ inhnh yua will ihi»k provip'i am lu tw 
a very tetisiblc man, nAincly« that whatever ^ou My j>iovc« 
right; and n^ a proaf of th.\\ I nm coming inco your way of 
(inly ii'Orkknj* alwul two hi>ur> «! s. «pcll ; I Ihirn go out and 
do ray buKineu id the uttMis* return and «t to work, 
aitd thu« molEc two seiutiic dip out of one The new |i1an 
antwen capiuify ; zUct the wcond half Jay » j^nuhcrcl I go 
And dine >c the Athen«um like a gentleman, or mthcr like a 
lordt for I ammrr (he firti rrening I at in thai ^f^it drawing- 
TCiom, all on a lofa hy myielf, I felt jubt like i tliikc, 1 am 
fvillofadmiraiionat<heArhenKum,onemceia to many people 
there thai one liket to vec. The very Am lime [ dined there 
(i>. Uft MTvek) 1 iJii'L l>r. Kilion* al th« dooc, and lie itvi to- 
geihci quite a party— Robert U^own. who a gone to Tarit and 
AuTericne, Macleay {>] utd Dr. Boott.| Vour bdp^nK ni« into 

• W. M. Fjlttfn (b Ijl^ d- ifl6n«m« i |ilr»»lfi« ni»1 troE^ifi*!, tint 
KumcCimr pr^ilff-nl of ilie G«u](^icil SuiirLy lie nlnljlidjnt Ibc ^ {"riv 
cn^jni;^' a mihlc (iT pMliticttiiin ^ItDrwanf^ tduplvJ 1;jy othei wdctiih 

1 FrancL AiiXKi lb, irr)>4- il6t] » cMfltr knnirn u a t>DiAiilii ihnuch 
Ui work on dir frtiiu C«el Me wuilu wt|] known In caDBKCJonvlib 
ibc t.mneiA Sdciny nf which be wu for mvtj jtv* an offict-bcBirt. He 
U r1(9er1hfit('n m blOsnphifllUlCl(^pl■hh>t]rd ia ibt titfAiiv*j' Ciifmieip. 
lH4)vllAir^e |irrB«nrof iht llni |>h>iliTlAA» IB l-AtdoB who B>va up 
fliefriKfiniAry blieli cnar. Lnrebftflic* unl «Llk itnchLnfi, anii tdopud 
Ihe unliiuF^ drv*ft ul llir jkctK^d. ■ Mdg Eoat wilh brtw buElun*. aitd a bqff 
wtikcot^, A AnTame vhich h« oofLEihud fd vrir f-» Ihr luT. Al^ef eIt^ic 
ap [jTatlLcf , irlucb III did 'Illy bi IJ0. he >pciif atDch ot lila IiBie in4(tio1 
kApMtndlng phiUnihrvp]', 




tbt AthcOASUro ha> noi bcvii ilirown .'iw.iy, iinJ I enjoy it the 
morcbft^u-c I tully ctpiMl«d to iJcli:&T JL 

T am wTirin^t ymi a mo^c ^nmcjciJui klEcr, bul I thill ^ci 
Owen to »kc it 10 NcwcdAile. Tf you hare :l mbd lo be a 
very (jtneruus man you will write to tnr frnm Kmnordv." nnd 
Icll (uc luiiK- \<WL-iillp iicwa, a^ well aa Ab<>iit ihi" Crsijt,nnJ 
about yuuihtll ^[)d Mfv iydl, and everything cIsp in ihc 
world. 1 ftiUitnd [j> HAl Uiw' Eiitomologitfll TtanmctioriB,' 
which I have borrowed for you ; yuu wj[l be iiiiaj^pQimvd in 

't p.'ipcri, ihal it if yoH »uppo*c tuy Uear iHrnd ha* a 

single cleixr idcta up^n r\ny ont lubjccL i(e h-u lo involved 
rectnt insetrt^ and true fo&sil iriHc-cH in one talik thai I fear 
you will not miike much out of ii. Though [( is a iiibjcct which 
ou^U 1 9hoLi[d think lo come into the ' Friniij^li^t,* Yuii will 
be iiTHuwd It Borac of the ridiculo-iublJme passages in [lie 
papery -ind noilynblwdl fed atutely a incvr (bejc is a1 your- 
telf- J hxvi: htini in?ta mon; lli:in one (judrtrr tlut (lujrrcl- 
ling IK expected ai Sewtulie ;t I Jim torry toliciu it, I met 

old ' [hi* evening ai the Aihcnjctim, (ind he mullered 

something nhour wrtiing to you cpt suttic one on the subject ; 
T am however all in the ilatk, ] suppose, however, I shdlJ he 
ilium in.i led, Ut I am yomi; co liinc ivith him In a few dayt, as 
ray uivcEitEvc i»r#QJt failed m making any cxtUKC A friend 
Df mine dined witfi him tht other day, a party of four, and 
they lioiitieJ <en boftWof winr-.i plrrinjini prospfcT forme; 
hut I nm ibiirrmined niM even to tasti' hir*winf, pctitly for the 
fun of fleeing fain infiniie dingust and aorprise. . , . 

1 piry you the infliciion i>f this ino-^t unmcceifLiI letkr 
Pruy riimfmber luc nic^i kini]3y to Md Lyell when juu ^irrivc 
at Kinnordy, I hjw her name in Ihe Jaudiord't IiouIl ul In- 
veiorum. icll Mri- Lyell to read the nccond lerie* of ' Mr- 
Slick of Slickvillc"* Sayings." . . . ITL"j*I[nofllbejLtfi''Sami¥eI," 
thnt prince of heroes. Good nijilii, my dear t,yirll ; you wili 
ihink I have been tlH&kJ^g sgmc strong drink 1e wme ao 

•The tioutf c-r [-ycir* fiThef. 

t At tlif ii>«liiif( of Ehe Dii(iih i^nariMloa. 




much nonfcnic, bur I did noT ^'<n one Minerva's amaB bc«r 

Mv rJF*k I.vw.T, 

1 wjL« flfiTrjnifchcd and dvlit^ht^d it your gloriou^y long 
teller, i,nA 1 am %aiv 1 «"i very mudi <rtjli|LC\l (v Mm. Ly^dl 
for bftving ijikvti ihc ttouble lo wriie lio uucii-* 1 ::ricftn to 
\MLSt u uuuiJ hour'ft cii|oyzn«ni and trribbic Ji*rdf lo you, who 
have !u> much grologiral lyiDpalhy thai I do noE tirr how 
rgociitiCA]ly I vrriEC' . . . 

I h'lvr pit t-a iHLith to i^^y about ail sort* <if triAtnjE thjn)>B-j 
(hot 1 hatilly know what to be^n about. 1 ni2cd not >Piif i 
hQW picucd I un lo hcjr th^t Mr LxcUf Ukei my Jgurnol. 
To hcai auth liclmK\ i« :L kiAd of vMUKrvctiurL for 1 feci 
lowardH my ftmt-born child %% it k had k>njt tince been dc^d, 
buried, ;ind foieoftcs : hut the paiE ii nnihing And ihc (uiurv 
everything to ui gcologiiti, ai you ihow in your cipitjl moEio 
ta the ' El^menlv' By th^ kvay, hxve ^xiu npod thr irLiclc^ in 
the' Edinbur^'h Review,' on M. Comif, 'Cburf de li Philoso- 
jjhie' (ur »omv tui:h Liikt ^ It m tipililt thvtc irc tome finv 
tent^nce* aboui the T«tj ei»encc of »cirocc bcin^f picdKtion, 
whiVh rrminded me of " iti l*w htin^ progr^v/' 

1 will now bt'^in and jto throuf^ yotir l«Cfr trHaiim. 1 
dare uf your plan of puuiugihc Elicde Bcaumom'iichaptff 
ac'^jjirately and early w III b« wry ^ood ; onyhotv, ii is ^omingit 
a bvid front in (he tir^x eduion whLuh is to hi* tunKlatet) imo 
Frcticb. It wiU be a curiouH jjoint lu fi:oluKiM* h«i«aftei lo 
note how long ■ man'i name will tapporl a theory to lon- 
pJetdy rtpo^ed <u That of Df iieaumoni'i bai been by you ; 
you My you "bt^in to )\iy\ye that ihr greit 7>rirttrple5 iberc 
inuei?d on will iiiind lh« Ml of tim«/' Btgin Jtf Af" why, 

* LyeU dictiled fniich of hn coimpDntftfncA 
f fiiiict *i (he g^[0|^ 




tL)« fiMjrdiiify uf 1 Ooubt hiH never cronrd my mind T^t miny 
n dfly> Thw m^y he vi*Ty urtjihiloiifipHiea], Tint my ({cnlnfcimJ 
iwlvjitinTi U Atal^tEl on U. A(tct having Ju^t v-nmc- hick fmm 
Clkii Ray, fltui found how difliculniN s-iiooih away unilcr 
your prmcipJt'5, it makvs me 4iLiitc indignant that you should 
ulk of Ai^/nHf . With Jc^iiui t tu ihtf i|uci>IitJi>, hyw fur my curiU 
tlKOry bcLtrii 1^11 Uc ticauin-jritV Llicory, i think it riuuld bv 
pnitlcnt to quote tat wiih ^rcal cAuiion until my whok J4_- 
count 11 publiithf^d, And iKen you (ind othcn) e^n judge how 
far f here ii ffumd^ilii^n (nr 4iirh i^rncrftliiiAtirin, Mind, J do cot 
danhl Sw truth ; htn rh^exien&ion of any view nvfr :«m'h Inrfjc 
«pa<xt, from i^ijni]:ataikvi:ly few faciSf muhC Le rci^dvud with 
much cautioji. I do oot niytclf the lc4Ul doubt Ihj; wilhm 
the recent {m as you, miicK to my aan^ymcnt, would call 
ir, "Srv.- Pliycrnv") i.K"ud, i<irtuous tsnds— injl fU ihc 
band* pafallcl lo each other— hftve btcn elevated and cor- 
feipondtng onet lubsided. though within the lam? period 
snmc p^rtt probably mriiitned for n lime !iUriErjnnryr or even 
ttuh^&dud* I do not believe n mort^ uLledy fnlv; view c:ould 
hiivit liirt^n invented than gtvai ^ttratghi linca l>eLng Auddcrnly 
thrown up. 

Whi^n my book on Volcatwcs md Coral Reef* will be 
piiblUhcd I hsri3ly kno* ; 1 fear ii wJll he ac Ie-i« four or 
f^vp monthk; thonjjh, mind, llir grcnicr p*rt ii wriitrn I 
find so mwch limc h la-^t in cattt^iiinj* dctaiU arid asrcriain' 
lixii Eheir uceuncy. The Guvi^rnment Zaclugjc^l work is a 
md^ione rciumi lUy nwk, and the Glen Ruy pa^ivt h-M lutil 
iDe lix weekA. 1 will not, huwEver, *ay kiM ; r<ji, hu ppuhinii 
ran pro»"e to othen' utiifaction what I have iionnnced 
lytdf iH the caHf. the inference I think you wilJ iiltow In be 
importanr t rannm d-^ciht thnr iht- multrn mjtirrr lic-nrath 
the earih'i emit po»c«>e& a high dL^ycce of fluidity^ Ahnont 
lite the »<« beneath the block ice. By ihc way, 1 hope you 
will ipve mr nime s^vcdi^li ea*c to iiuoie, of rhelU bdng pre* 
■erved om the mrf.n^e, Imt nof in eocteropi^raneou^ bed* of 

JfMVirl, . , , 

Rcmtmbur ivhat 1 havr oft*n heard you say : the country 




IK very bad iot the inttLkct* ; the Scocch ntit-Ei will i>ui out 
some vukdjik ■pvcabiiona^ Vuu ivc I am afEctiiog lo W- 
come vrr)- C<H'Vni:ynrrt, jiml v> doipitc fhr poor covintry* 
fi^lV, who breathe irvih ait intrcail r>( imnlw, nml *<t rhc 
goodly fiekU instcxd of ihc britk houses in MaiEhorou^h 
StrvcL, ihc ^Ki^ light of wliich I L'onfi'ti J abhur. I am glad 
lu Uv.V wb;tt ;i f^tvuuruMc tc|juit ynn i^ivc uf tlic Bril^&h 
At^uLiuiii^n, 1 ^u ihc mcic [ilciscd bcL^uic 1 h^vc l/ccn 
Itehling iu battles with Basil lInU> Sicukci, md ftcvcml otbem, 
hnvin^ mnJe up my mtml, from ihr rqinri tn tho Afk^rtirftnr^ 
thai jt must hnvn hi^rm nn mrfllcnr m{rcitnj(, t hflvr brcn 
much imuiied with an dci^ount I have rccciTcd of the vAri of 
Don RodcritK" and Bjl>bage. What a giievoui pit/ it (a 
that the latter sliould bv h> imphcablr . . . Thii ik a moiC 
rigmarole Ictt^r^ for after ea^h tentenec I take brraih^ aad 
you will have need of Iv in rcjiding it_ . . , 

t vvsh. with all tny hoan thtit my (rrnlogiea] hcmk wai out. 
I have every cnolive to wj>fk lirtTtl, .tn<l wil^ following your 
«lcfiH« u^'jrk jiut th:kt deitrce of hart1ni;i]^ to krc'E- wrIL I 
tbould kke my volume lo be out before youf new nlition of 
' Principles * appear*. Brsidei Lhe Coral theory, ihc volcanic 
chapters writ, 1 think, contain some new fact*. I have lately 
been Mdly tempted tfl l»p irtir ihai \\ k.% tar jui purr gi^ology 
Ia fofli^rmt'd— by the delightful numbk'f nf new views whifh 
h*ve been eotning ift ihirkly and iindily, — on the rJaiaiflca- 
tioQ and affiniti«« ind ttMmLta uf iinimaK— bearing on ihe 
qumtitm of apvciei^k NuCe^U^uk aller ntjlcbi/vk h>iB bvrn 
Ailed with fact* which begin to group ihcmiclvei d^ar/y un- 
der nib-lavK. 

CrnoA night, my dwi I.ydV T htve fillpil my Irfic'r jtnti 
enjoyrd »iy talk to you js mmh rt I tJ.n wilhnut h.ning yon 
in f<pfHJ ffri^iJ. Think of the bid eflvcti of :hr country— 
to ODce more good night. Ever youn. 

Cm A*. DAHwtM. 

Pray agua give my beet thank* (o Mrv LyriL 





[The recottl of wh*i he wrote during the year dor* poc 
l^vc a true IdJca of Ihc meal imporEani work thai w.ia [ti 
ljruigic*i,— 'Ihc laying of the (oundfllioQ'itouci o( whjt ft4> to 
he thf achievement of hit Jife. Thi^ i* ihciifln in Iht fore- 
^ninjt klter ro Lyell, whrri* hf apcuk* of liping ' itllcr," ami 
fhc following from ;] ku*?r lo Fon. wriiuti in June, k 
oJ interest in ihis point of view ; 

" J am delik^litr^d tu [>?iir you ^re hucli a good indri u nol 
to Luve for];uUuit my iiursIii^Tih vlrout the i;ro4«ni]|E uf •unmulH. 
Jl 111 my (Kimc huMiv, ami t [caH^ think htitnc day I nhjll be 
abli? lo (to something in th,i1 most intncAie vibjeci, ^pccici 
«nd ^arittSc*."] 

i8ji) to 1841. 

{In ihe wbicr or 1839 (Jan. ay) my fjiihcr wft* married to 
hii cou(io< Emma Wodgwood.* The house b which ihcy 
Vivzd for ihc firtt fvw year* of their married life, Na, 1? 
L'piicr Oow^^f Strrctj was a *nijU cOinnioti'pUce London 
houtc, with % lirtwin^-ttiom in Ir^ni, and a »nuJI Toora be- 
hind, in which (hey livtd for the vnkf of quictntM, In later 
ynari my fath*:r iiied (o liugh over the Mjrprtfiiing uglinci!) of 
the futiiiturc- n^tycu, &c., of the Qow«r Street houH?. The 
only TedceniiEui fejiturc was ;i belter gaiden than matt Ij^tif 
don houm havc^ n itrip m wi<1<f ^s ihc house. .ind thifCj 
yards lonft Even tliih ttnnll ^i>.irv of 1)1^];^ JC^^^** ninde their 
!.ondnn honw mnrr t*il<?niblr to its two oonntry-hfcJ in* 

Ul hih JiK' in Loiidun he wrilt'v tu foK fCM^jbcr i8jg) ; 
"We JTC living a hie u1 eiiircruc quictneM ; UcUuLvtc itht;||'. 
whieh yi>i] drscribe at bo lecluded a ^poi, is. I wHX fiiuwer 
for ir, i^uiK' di«i*i|i.H^f| comparril wilh tlowrr Strr*rr We 
havf itiven ii|} uti {juriipn, for Ihey agri^e v'nh neither of m; 
and tf One it ipiici in London* there it nothing liVe \a c|uiet- 

* FHuighDtr of JnlAh Wfttcwood «f Mur, and gmndJaughter of [be 
lovfi^r of iTie KirurL4 Pciircry Werltt. 




nt^i — there ih a lErAntitnir 2tioui ith «iiioky fojts 'nU tliv 'lull 
<l]^tdn| «ound» ai cab» And coiicho^ ; in fact you may [xi- 
ccivc I am becoming j iho rough '(laccd Cockney, and 1 
glory in tboughi« Ih-il I ^b^ll be hrrc Cor xht nnl six 

Thr cntrciflf ni hcftllh in ihc Diary mrmuc m numbcf 
dutinB ^htav y«us,antl tu a con*cc|iicnct ihe hotidayi hc- 
cumr^ luQ^jtir and mt^ic fr^quunt' Fium April j6 lu May 13, 
i!fj9i he wii at Mier ind Shicvrhbuiy, Agjju, trtnn Auguht 
3j to Ocliibcc i he wii« anay from London at bl-icr, Shrcwi- 
bury, ittd at Birintn|;ham for the mectiDg of ihc British 

The vniry under Augutl tftj^ i»: "During my vliill to 
Mur, icid 1 little^ «1LH much unireU ami uandalouily idii:. 
J have (IcHvcd this m^ich good, thai ^sfJattf b M intolriabic 
*» idJcne^v" 

Ai ihc end of 1839 hi^ <]dc«l «htU1 wm bom, and il va* 
Ihcn That he began Inii obtcrvailnni uliimcLiely pttblL^bcd in 
X\\c ' Expreiiion of ihe Emotionv' Hi» hook on thii iub)cc% 
and the short pap<r published in ' Mindj' * show how tlowly 
he obflmrd his ehiTd. He *reins ti} htve \trcn «i)rT>ri^t'd at. 
hh ti'vtt (vchtij^ for a ycung bdby. for he wrn(« Ui Vat (July 
]A4{>) ; '* He [i. /, tlie baby] 1* »o charmiog lliat 1 CAfintjl ]j«e- 
tend lo any mod^ity. ] dcly anybody lo floKcr u» on oar 
baby, for X defy any one to My anyihini; in ili praite of 
whieh we arc n« fully co"«-iou\ . . - I had not ihc ^matlo*! 
rftnception ihrre *at in miirh in n flvt-month baby. You. 
will iKTccive by thks ihal I h:trc a Ane degree of paleraalj 

During UiAO yean he worked intfriniticntly al 'Corj 
KcvtV being constantly )ni7rrii|4cd by ilT hcatth. Thui ht 
speak* of '"reconuneticing" the wbjert in Febffuiry 18J9, 
and o^atn in the O4:tober of the inme year, inil once more in 
JoJy 1S41, "^fier inote t^Lin iliLrictn months' iniennl." llii 
other fcicnEillc vork ooniislcd of 1 contnbuliou lo the Gro- 




tO^CaJ SociMyi* on tbir houMirn nnri " Till '* of South Americn, 

Aft well M a tevf other Miini>r |>a^)crh on gt:o]ogtcul bubjociM. 
He also worked buAJly ;tt Ihc oinitholo^jcal p^rc of Hi? Zool- 
ogy of the Bfftf^if. r. r. the notice of the habits 4iid ranges of 
the birrfu whirh w^rrc dwcribcd by GciwlJ.] 

C Dxirv>in t& C. I-y*^li. 


Many thanks for yt»ui kind nolc- I will send for the 
Sf&ttmaft. r>r Holl^irul ihinlf* hi' hAH foiinH ilnt whAt i* the 
mntler ^ith mc* Jind nov hopi'» he hliall he able lo set me 
going again. Is it not moitilying, it i& mjw nine weeks iince 
I have dune a whole diy's ivorkn ^ind not more iluin four hjjf 
dftyt. Bui I mon*% grurabk my mucr, tho^iHh it U hjird work 
to prevent doin^ so Since retciiing your note ! have rcid 
nvcrtny chaprer on Corn), and find I am prepared To?innd by 
almost c^-crythmg ; il is mueh mnrp rautiou^ly arnJ a^^uurately 
wriiun ih jr I ihfjoghi, T hacl act my hi'ittt upon having my 
vt'iuini.' f-uiiipltEL'd befcifc youi ntw cdiliun, bui 1101^ you may 
believe me. for you lo notice anything new in il (for there \% 
.very little Tjctide* dcUilb>,bui you «<' the one man in Hurofte 
^hnic fipjnitin of tbc gc-nt^Kil irtith of a ioBBhi»h nrgumi;^nE I 
Hbould be always tncEt ojixiuutt lo hear. My MS> ia in 9U<:)i 
GO n fu BL Dn. o1 lie revise I JU1 Ei.irv you bhtjulij moi^l wiltuL^ly^if it 
had Le^'ij wurtb yi^ur whik, have looked iL ^uy part you 

[In a letter to Fo« (January 1841) he ihowi that his 

''SpCftr^ worli " »,iH xtill rimipyinii hi« mind \— 

" If yaij nctrnd at all to \aiurflt History I send you this 
?.S.a% a memenio, that I continue to collect all kinOtof factv 
about * Varieties and Species* for my aom«-day work 10 be«o 
et^lilled ; the MnaUett ron1ri1>utionK thankfully ac:rep1cd ; de- 
■criptioni of olT*prinfl of all croHei tctwccn all domestic btrds 

*'G«ol 80c Pink' 111, i«4a.aiid-C«»hSov.TraDl>'v|. 

3^2 L0N'r>OK AND CAUBRlDCl!, ^TAT. j), (l>^ 

jai<! animal*, dogt, tat*, Ac, &c., very nluabl^. Don't for- 
gel, if >-oui halMucd African cat should die ihni I ilioiilJ bo. 
very much oUigcJ ioi rU ■.j;i;uw vent up in n liuk hamper 
for the (kelcion ; il, or «viy crou^brcd pigcr>n>, f owl, duck, 
&c,, &<!., hIU be more xcrptabL? than the Uncni hiuncb of 
venison, or ihf finril tHrtlc." 

I.fttrr in the year (ScpEcmbrr) he write* to Foil about hw 
h^ih, aiid aUn with rcrcrcncc iu hit plan of movmg into the 
country :— 

" I luve htcadily tnrcn lEAinina i^ound, *nii iviily believe 
now 1 (hjll lomc day he quite siroDg. 1 write dnily for « 
i:j:juplc of hntirs on in> Coral votume, and lake a little WAlk or 
ride everyday. 1 |:mw vciy lifrd in IW evening*, and am 
not abtc to jfu ouL ai that lime, or hardly to receive my ncnr- 
eat re]atian« ; but my life c&uei lo be burdentciiLe now thit 
1 can do somethmi;. VV> are uking ttf{'t lo kin: London, 
and live iboul twcaty miJu from ^E on tome MJlvsy/'] 

[The record of vxrrk intrudes hii volume on 'CorM 
Recfi,'* the manuseripl of which wait at lait tent to The 
printen in January of [hi» year, tad the hst proof comcicd 
in May. He Oiui% wtitu of Ihc wotL ui hu dtHiy j^ 
^ "1 commenced ihiftvork three ycuw and (et«nmonCh« 
■ga Out of thi* |>eriod about twenty monTh* <|b«itlci *ofk 
dnnOK ff^^I^'i vayaicc) Hu brrn ^jx^ni im it. ^tnj Vviites It, 
I have only compikd the fijrd put of Eoology; AppcndU 
10 Journal, paper on Boulden* and corrected papers on Glen 
Rr^ and ir^thqitxkear rtfadm]; ojj bpccie*, unJ rest all lu»( by 

In May an4 June he wa* at Shrcwibury and Mrtcr.whcntc 
hcwmt on to make the little tnurin Wales of which ^^ i|K)ke 
in his ' Recoil wiiorv*/ Jnd of whirh the rewoh* irrre published 
U " Xot« on the cflTecu produced by the aBcient gl^^ien of 

* A iiAlWf ni %ht Conl llc<f ««k «pp««rtd to (Tw G«Dsr4|4. Sdc. Jouf- 
sil, uL, |L ft}. 




CaemaTvonshire, and on the Boulders transported by Aojtting 

Mr, Archibald Geikie Speaks of this paper as standing 
" almost at the top of the long list of English contributions to 
the history of the Ice Age." f 

The latter part of this year belongs to the period including 
the settlement at Down, and is therefore dealt with in another 

* * PhilosopTiical MaguiTic,' 184a, p. 351. 
t Charlds Damin, 'Nature' Series, p- 33. 



[Tui htftovy of thU pah of my falhcr't life may t"<^tly In- 
clude lomc mcAtica of bii t«ligioui ttcws. Vat ilihonghn as 
Jie pomU OUT, ^c did not ^\-c continuous fy^itenutic thotr;;1il 
religiOOB c|untioni, yc< wc know frrim hi* own wortJn thai 
i\ tWm time (i3j6-jo| thv hu!)]ct!t wu much before Jiii 

Jq bii publUhcJ work* he wai irticcnt on ihc mnltcT oE 
rrhi^cm, and what hf ItM left on ihc mbjcf t wAt oo« writun 
whh A view fo puhlicjTion-* 

I btlitvc thn: hi* reticence nro»t from leveral fau^n^ He 
felt ¥tti>nj^y Ihut a niitn'n rvhjfiun i« an «t«enijjlly priiaie mat- 
ter, Jiail one t.onccniing himhclf alone. Thii it iibdicjiltd by 
ihc foUowing c*lfic[ from a Itttcr of 1879 :^# 

"\Mirt| my own vicui may he ift * ^iicilJon of no com 
qnrnce to any one hut my.ieir. Hut, ni you nifc, \ may 4U11 
ihnt my Jurfgrnenl often fluccuaiei ... [n ray muii curcme' 
nu^-tuationi 1 have never Wvn an Athrtol m the lense of 
iknymg ihc cti^Lence ol » Uod- 1 ihtr^k ihal getxcrally (and 
more and more at t gn^w older), but not «lwayi. that 
Agnotlic would be tlie more correct detcnption of my bIM 
of mind." 

* A» ■■ vmpeica may be mvAiatirA, ■ frv woidi DranvmnrrKC wiib 
Dii Atta** 'Tniibi til i1i# TinAk' vlitcTi my brimallawvd M bvpuU 

tAiMre««ltoMt.J. Fonlyc«.i»tpiililbbf4byUi«la bU ■ 



He natumlly «hnui1t from wounding the scnKfbi[itict of 
ofhi^ri in rcligiont mAritrv ami he wiu nl-ic* inf^iitm^cd by the 
Eomc:ioujni.-B^ thai d iimn uugFiC nut lo publitli vti u bubjecl 
to Khii;h lie liUh noc gixcii ^^^cci^L and cuiilifiudUh Ih^fu^Ul, 
Thjf he fell tbii «AUtit>n Lo apply lo himsclE m the iii^iitci ot 
Million is shown in a letter lo Dr. F. E_ Abbot, of Cam- 
briflffc, V. 5, (Srpt. 6. i^T')' After t'si(*laiiiing that rhc 
wciltni'u nrii4in|; from hi& had hc^dih prcvcnicrd him from 
fcdiftg "equal m deep rcflftfibn, on Ihc ilec|>c£t Mjbjccl 
ttbkh nn fkll i man's mind/' Iil- gcJt£ on to ^^ : "With 
mpcct lo my Ec^rmei huKh to y<jti, I i^uilc Jorg^'l llieif CUU' 
teniL 1 have to write m.)ny Iclici^ and can tellccl biit liUle 
on what ] write btii 1 fully believe and bcpE [hat 1 have 
never written a vfortf, which iii ihr <imo 1 <b'l not think ; but 
1 think yoLi will a^ffKiG with mc, ihM BnyihinK whirh it Lu l^e 
given lo the puIiJic ought to be maturely wciglied am! cau- 
tiously put. It never occurred \9 mc th^t yuu wvuld wish to 
print any citrjtcE from rny notra ; if it hid, t would have kopC 
A ropy, 1 puc ' prit jrc ' from h,i1i]i, only ju yit pATti«l1y Ac- 
quired, from some hafity notei oi mine hnving been prinied, 
whieh were wn in the least decree v/oiih prinfia^^ tbough 
otherwiiic unobJei'tionaUTe U \» nimply riilif.idouH tii 4iipi>oM 
Eliai my Eormer note tu you wuliIiJ be north umUng lo me, 
with At>y part mark*;d which you detire lo print; but if joa 
like In do 10, I wiU nt cnre »Ay whctlier 1 should have Any 
obji-elion. [ feel in somr ilcjtrce unwilling; to cxprr^S niy*clf 
publicly on rcli^noK KuKjcr-u, jia 1 do not feel that T have 
thuu^ht deeply enough to juitify any puhTieiiy." 

I muy ihit ijuuEf from jnocher letter to Dr Abbot (Nov. 
lO, iS;ik. in *vhiUi my fjthvr |[Lve« uiJjtc [ulLy \in rca-tOiih Iue 
not feeling competent to write on reirgiouk and moral sub- 

'* 1 cjin A.iy with crntir« truth that I fcwl honoured by ymir 
rcquviii th,it I hhould becnmc a contributor to tbc IniUj^, and 
am much obliged for the draft- t fully, also, BUb«cribe to 
tb« protKnilion thai ii ii the duty of every one to spread 
whit he believe* to be the iruih ; ud 1 houout you For doing 



v>, vrilh 10 much dcvoiioD utd zeal. But I cAnoni rompJy 
with youi rcqucil for die following rcasom ; jnd cilum nn 
fo( giving lh«m in tome dcl.ii1« .-i^ 1 *h»iild Ijc vviy torry to 
ap|irar in your tjei un|[nHoui, My hi^jlih i^ vrrrwcak: 
I ivtvr pau ^4 hnuK uLthouT rruny hoiinof diKcomf'^ft, whrn 
I can dn noihing whntcvur. I have ihua, jho. Ion mo u hoir 
ccQKCitlive nionthfi this »cJaun. Owing tu ih'a wvukucvt, 
anJ my h^'Jid bving ofUn siddf, t ^u utublf Lo niJAlcr o«w 
tubjccu requiring m^ich thought, vid on deal only with olcj 
mJEcriiK AC nottmr «m I a i^uicW thinker or vriier : what- 
ever I htvc danc in acirncc hot solely been by long ponder- 
ing. pLLtienc^ AtiU indusiiy. 

'* Now I have never tyitem^ucally though: mu^h on relifi- 
ion in frUiion (o bcicnr^ or on mond* in rebtiOD Id wjcii^ty ; 
jind Htthoui bodily keeping my mind on «uch •ubjecu for i 
IffMg period, I Jim really ineapahlc of writing Anything worth 
Kniling to the /nA^T." 

He wa» more ihtn niKc atkcd to fpw hit viow» <in relig' 
io^ jnti he hod, w a rule, no objection to doing hO in a yti' 
vale letter, J'hui in answer to a Dutch student be nroic 
(April 3. iSjj) , — 

" ] am kurc you will cxcubv my writing M Imgib, when t 
tell yoD thai I have lonjc breti fniieh out of heaJth, tnd &m 
now ftUyrng iway from ny home tat reac. 

" I: « irapotiiLle lo aniwer your <iu*inon brwflj; and I 
am n^t hijre th^t I couJd do so, i^Tti if J urolv at tumr kngtb. 
Biit I ta^y uy ilkAl the inpoiAiULity of conceiving tkil thi« 
gr^nd jrd wondnoutuniTcrK, with oitr convcioui selrev ari»e 
thfoujcb ehihcx, ternw to me the ehicf argtimenl for the emt* 
enctf of God; but whriher thl« li an nriEumeni of res) value, 
I have never been Mc to decide. T am aw^re th;it if we ad- 
mit a fint lauBc, the nvind sliU craves to know wbrnee it 
came, and haw ti arute. Nor can 1 overlook the difTn ulty 
from tKe ijninente mount of taJrring through the uorld, I 
40^ aJ*o, induced lo def«r lo a certain etienil to th« judg- 
ment oS ibe mjihy sMe men who hire fully beiit^ted in Cod : 
hut here iffun I u^ bow poor on o^gsmoni ibit i^ The 



Mfc4l ci^Aclufiion Mcma to mc ihat the whole subject ti be- 
yond :he wopc<jt man's btellct;!: but man tan tlo hi> July." 

Agfiin 10 tW7*> he wa» -ipplied to by ■ Hlmlcntj in 
a limilar mJiTinrr The ^ct(er wna .innivcrcrt by n member nf 
my fnthfr'n family, who wrote : — 

" Mr, Dflfwin bcgi me m sny ihat be iccciveu so many let- 
iej%, thai hv <iiinnoC answer ilii'in ull, 

" Hr conaiUetD litat Llic tht^ufy uf Evoluiion ift quiEe com- 
jJuUble «^)il] the belief in a God: but lli;tl ;rou musi remember 
\\mjX Jiltcicni persons have differenf definitions of whfll Ihcy 
mean by God," 

Thist however, did not satisfy the Clcrmnn yAiith, whA 
■^n wrote to TTjy Faibuft Jinct Ecctived from him the follovr- 
«ft i^ply ;— 

"I am much engaged, :lii old man. itid out of hcJiUh. uid 
jcannot *pnre lime to -m^wcr your rjuntions fully, — nof in- 
an they lie answered. Science hfls nothing to <lo with 
Christ, except in «o far m the hnbit of icienrifie n-w/irch 
malies a man cnutiou& in admitting evidence, For my^rlf^ \ 
do not bclit've thjit thi-'re I'ver has bci-n :fcny icvdiiEion. A» 
for a futuTL' lift'i tvcty iiiari must judjje for himiclf bvtween 
convicting vague probabiiities ' 

The pai*Ai;c'» whirh here follow are ^mnwlft, ^otflewhac 
xbbrrvint^il, from « pj^rt at the AuTribiogrnphy, wtiUcn in 
if'l^t in whir-h my father gives ihe histt»fy of his religious 
view* : — 

"■ During these two years • X was led lo Lbink niti*;h about 
f«l-.gion, WhiUi on board ilie BfvxU I »*iifc i|uitff orthodox, 
and I ivincniber bcin^ heurtily 1auBl]e<i Jt by leveral of the 
officers (though ihumteUet ortliodon) for qnaTing fhe Bible 
Skt an unanswrra^blr auihorny on ^omc jvoint of moTflliiy, I 
fluppow Si wat ihc nnvchy of the nr^meni chnt atnu^d them. 
Bui 1 had gradually come by thii time, i,e. 1S3& to LR39. to 
•n ihM the Old Tc»umcnt wai no more to be trusted thnn 
the sacred bool< of the Hindoo*, The quesfioin thfro eon* 



tf&ujJIy ra$c before xnf mind ind wr^uld noc ht banUhcd.-* 
11 tl credible that if Cod were now to make a rcvdJiUon to 
itie Hiaduos^ Uv wuulJ perinJl ii lu Lc^ t^oocu-vLcd with the 
]xM in Vikhnu, Sivj, &i;,, !« Chimuuily ii confic<:icd with 
the Old reMament? ThU «pi>ear«d to mc utterly Incred* 

'' By further r^RKtin^ ihai ihc rlrtrcit evidence would M 
rciim-iTe to mflltn any sane man bolJcre tn th* mirnrtci hy 
which Chri^iianity ti supported, — and ihfll the mote we know 
of the f]JLf^d lavs of DjUurc lh< more incrviliblg Jo luindtv 
tMXDme,^tt)<it ihif men 4C tVut iirne werv ignorant ^nd credu- 
]ou« lo ii dcgrev J^tmovl 1 111.0111 (jfehemi hie hy u«,^lhDt iht 
(:<Kpdi cannot he proved 10 h*vc been wriiicn limuliAneoun. 
}y uriih the tvent%^|hai ihej dilTcr m many imf)ortan( de- 
laiK fsr too inifiort^nt, *^ il hvcmed lo me, lo bi: udntiiicii -.19 
ihc iivuaI inAt-cur&frvH of cyr-witnvMt;* ; — 117 «ufli rcDeetionn 
At the»e, which I ^ve net at having Ihe Icatl novelty m vjUuc, 
bul di they influenced me. 1 gradually carac to diibdicve in 
("hiiwtianiiy » a divine revelation. The fj^r lh*l miny fa*»e 
rehgifvni hAve aprcod over large ponionK of rhc Cftfih like 
wild -fire hud >ome weight wiih me- 

" Dui 1 was very unwilling to give op my iHrlief ; I fe*l 
wtt vl Tlii>, fw J ean n-rll remember oftc-n and uften tnveui' 
ing diy-dreimi of old Icllerii between diiit>n|Eui»|icd Rvrnvii, 
and mann«rri]>t« being ditcovercd at Pompeii of eltewhere* 
wh^ch ronKrmed In Ihe natt iiKking mjnrirr all that w^s 
wrltleo in the Cmpcli^ But I found it mnre anil more diffi' 
rfilr, with free toopc ^vcfi 10 my imafpnArimi, m inveivi rvi< 
drnte which would >uffc« to convince mc. Thui disbelief 
crrpl over me at a very Uow rate, bui wa» at Int rompletCi 
The rale wja v) *^ow that 1 tv\i no dukireM^ 

" Allhoup[h I did not Ih'mk miich jbont the cmienee of 
a p«raona1 God until a eon.iiderably l.-iter period of my hfr. 
t will here icivi; the vagtie e<mrhisi«nH tn which 1 have hern 
dfiven. The old arfumcnt from design in Nature, a* given 
hf Palcy, which forenerly veemed to ni« «o doncluiive, foil*, 
nov that tlie law of natural »elKiioQ baa been ditcovcwd. 



Wu cjin ni> Ir^gvr *t^c thau ft^r iniiancc, \he be-auiifnl hmgc 

of d bivalve shdl musi hjvt been made by an intelligent 
btiriKp '*^*^ ^'^^ hinge of o door by man. Then; wtJtufk to be 
nrr TOoti! ilcBBgn in the varjuUiUiy t>f o;'|A;<mc bi.'iii^?k, and in lh« 
ac:ttun of n^luia) sclcclion, Ibin in the coune whkh the wind 
bbwh. liul I have di^ituned thk >tiib}ci^t nl Ihe end of tny 
book on the 'Variations of J)omf:ktlcjtlf:d AmmaTa nad 
rinnTu/* .tnd ihe .irgtimeni there given has never, as far d« I 
etn hi-e, hccn anawercd- 

" But parsing over the endless beauLiful adapt Jtions which 
we everywheie i»e€t u itJii it miy be ^ked how L-:Ln tlic cen- 
trally Uenvf^cenl irrau^tmcnt of Ihc world be uctuimtetl for? 
SottK wrilci* indeed nrc sc miirh impressed wiih ihe flmouni 
of iLiffering in ihe wo'ld, that they doulii, if w look to ail 
senitent hoin^ whethc-r there is more of misery or of happi* 
nt-4H ; whether the wofM as a whole a a f{i>rjd <it \ta.i\ onv. 
AQi.i/nMti^ to my JiLd^enc hii[ipiniTs» decidedly preV'tiJ&t 
though this WQuld be very dJfl~^culE to prove. )i Uie tiuth of 
thji cx>Dclution be gtaQ^edtit harn30iiize$ wvU MfiLh the elTerl* 
which w* iiUfciht eipett from naiurnl Sf^ction, If jU the 
individuals of any niicci^t were habUublly to luffvr ta An ex- 
treme degree, they would neglect fy propogat* their kind ; 
bui we have no re^Lhon to beiieve th:iL this hoa ever, ur m Ivus; 
9ften occurred. Some otlii^r coabiderutions, mort^i^trr, tvjd 
to the behef thai uU t^uUenl beiri|;« hive been forna-i! <.ti .iv 
to CDJoy, ai 1 general lute, happinets. 

• lly hihoi fl-k^ wlii^ilitf wv lire |o Lclh^ve iTiiU ditf fittu* urw p«nf- 
jilnadof ckg brokirk rc^TjianU u( iw^ inmhtid (ran, t yrv:\i-ii-i which sr* 
flllvij lo^vthei by n»n m t-utld htn hoiktn. If Oot. vhy ithnatd vjf tvUrt* 
ifiM [hf virtkiktni fjf ilvmcM^ anlniAb or jtianta an pveortLilded for ti^f 
vAt af Lhc brmlCE? " Btf I if active up the prlndplc In ono me. . . ^ 
no du^Hjw nf rcABii e&a ic uiiifn^rl for tht belluf iTut vahtlioiUi olUie in 
nWure »il TNt rfiuh t^ribfidnvffCiTnfn] Uwa, irhic-h have been rhe gmunit- 
wirrti lfrM«uh nAtu^dt »<'lri^ir>ri nf iJn frjrTii#ll<in of [ftp miwi jirTfryily 
■dnpltd nnimali in Iht ivuilil. triAn itichidoiH wrrt^ iDlenhuniH^ uiJ y^V" 
dully i^kIviI "— ■ Tlic VjmrMTi of AcuiBAJa mbJ ridiiti/ Vat Kdil, ^^ ih 



" Every one «bo beKerci, «« I da, tkti Ul the oorporeal 
3fi<l mmtal org^DA (cxcrpling thoic whiVh art nHlHrr advin- 
tjgtfuu* nor dibatlt jniogwat fu thu puHi'bMvr) vS all tiding* 
have been <1c«'r]o|}eil ttirouj^ nalurjU itclcctioD, or tlic survival 
of the fittciT. tcgcchcr wLib u>c or h^bil, vriU admh ih^t Uicw 
ori^nv havr );i:«ii fornK!^ m that f heir poMciwTs nu7 com- 
1>e(tf birrrMfiilly wtih oihcr bem|^ and Ihut iocr^air In nun* 
bcr Nn^v an animal mny li(^ led to piimn^ ihAi roi^rtr of 
iciioa whTch is moit bcndicUl to the species by ioUcHnf^ 
luch Ml paiu. hu£i>^j iliint, md ivtr ; oi b) [Jtusun-, as in 
e^iiny jukd (iriiikLiis, aiiU in the |>rtjj>a|pttiuii uf the v^kwich 
tec; or by both mcftni combined, at m the (euch Cor food. 
But pain nr sufTefing of an^ kind, if long roniin lu-cl, came* 
cW[>rv«nion and In^rnk the poiwer of aetioo, yd Is w^W jtlapted 
lo make a cTeatuic |£iiArd it^lf aiEiiniit any ^tcu on «u<ldcn 
vtil. ricaturj^ble icniatfonfLH ovt ihe oihcr lucd, maj be lon^ 
continued wilhuuL any dcpieuin^ elleel : on Ibe contrary, 
ihey ittimularc ihc whole >)tlcm lo increMcd adion. Henc* 
it hAi coTTie to pou ih:ii mnit or All lendent beings Katc been 
dcveTopcd in inch a manner, ihroHgh naiural leltetion^ xhti 
[f\eimnh\v ?Mfn4ations acrvc as tbcrir hAbitiul guidn. We se« 
this in the i^Jeavrirv' from exeriion, n-en ovcafioQaJl^T 'ran 
greitl exertion 'ji tUe Iwidv ^r miiiil,— in the picanrc g| our 
ilaJy mcab. and MfjetiaUy in ihe plea^turc derived Itom tooa^ 
bilily, jnd from loiing our families Tht ^um of iturh pleav 
ure»in thcw^whii'h .tre habitual or freqiwnity™, 
as I can hnrdli' doubt, ri> mo«F it^ntieni bcin^ an e^iecu oC 
fikppinm over misery* JiUhoiigh ia4iny occosEonally suffer 
inuchH Sazh anfTviing in ijuite tompaiible with die belief ni 
Natural SckUion, irhuh it net pctfrct m itt 4<tion, but land* 
only to tender cjcb tpcciei ftt uicccuful as pouibk rn the 
batik for life with other «pccie«t in wondeH^II)^ eomjilex and 
chAngiag f i^^unl^TnBce^ 

" 'J'hat iborc i\ CBuvh suJTering ia ihc vnrld tio one dift- 
puEci^ Some have alicin|il<d to explain thU with leferrncc 
10 man by imagining Ifaal ja lerves fue hu moral improvcincnt 
But the nui»b«r of men in the world i> u noib^r^g eompired 




with IhftI of &U Othcf *cniicni bciiiai, flnrf ihey ofleP suflct 
Kri;3tlf without Mny momi imprcucmcnt- 'I'his vciy ol*! .irgti- 
nimi fjAm ihc existence of suffering agninsi tUu txhtt^ucc of 
Lin inldUgcni V'tux C^iu^v sc:i:itiii Lu me jl bLioag otie ; «-lii'tvan, 
Ofi ;USL rrt»^(k?(lT IIk' i^rcKcuit oi ciiu(;h hulfcnn^ iij^rec^'i weJl 
with Ihc view ilml «I1 organic bcingi h^vc been developed 
through vorihiiioii and naitiial icleclion, 

" At the present <Jny (he most mufti ar^Tumcnt for the e<* 
uCrnrc of An TntdHKi'Ot (^nrl k rimwri f mm the,' dorp tniran] 
CDnvlciion nnfl ffpUngs which nrce\pericncc(i Uyrnnat prnonfl, 

" Fomtctly J wns led hy fedingt^ Tiu<:h us those jur.t rcfnrfcil 
CO (olihough I du nut lEiiub that the? religious sFntimcnc v^e 
c*tr ktrongly <Icvelopcd m me), lu the firm convic^titm of the 
cxihEencc of God, Jind of the immortuliiy of the *i«ijI. In my 
Journnl I wrote thiil vrhiUi standing in ihi? mid4i of the grdiid- 
tnt of a KfAjilian foicx^ *' it fa nf>t prjKsiblf to pw h>:i ndc- 
■[uaic idi:;i oi ihe tiighei leeliiigs ol uuiiJ^r, admiraliim, ;mJ 
devotioD. which fiU and elev^ite ihe tniiiil " I well remcinlicf 
my convjction that Ihcfc isiHore in mutt lh*n the mere breath 
of hU body, Hvit now the grandest acnes wonkl not cauw 
any infh convictions and feelings tc me in my mtnd. It 
may bv truly suid that I am tilce a man who hits bcoomc 
coluui-Lilind. 'ind iUts uiiLterevI belkf by meti of the existence 
of fvdiic«» mukch Illy present lo&« uf j>rrr.e]j[iuT] of uut Ihv 
leul viluc u ct'ident-e. 'I'tm argument would b>e a v^liU oni; 
ttaJi men of all races had the same inwud conviction of ihc 
ciiWcTioc nf one Gffil ; but wr linnw thM rh!* i»very far from 
t>ein|[ Ihe ra*r. Then^forc [ cannot ilc (h?rr inch inwjird 
convictions ami feelings ate of ony weight n^ evidence of whiit 
ttaWy exisrs. J'he stale of mind whkh ^mnd scenes fnimerly 
CA^jLcd ill me, and whir^h wag mLJiiuu^Ey tonn^ted with CL 
belief in Lrod, did not cucnvia,tJy diUcr from thiLi which is 
often cillcd the "en sl- of 4iib!iiTiiry : nnd however dllHiuU it 
maybe to explain thi? K*:ne?i^ of ihis stfnse^ if can h.7idly lie \ 
advanctti M im arf-umenl (or the cuisieoce of God, any more 
than Ihc powerful though vague and bjcnilar feclin^^K excited 
by mutic. 



"With re«p«Gl lo immobility, nothing ihowt me [to 
c\ntly] Ui>w tirmig >nd a|(uo«i innlmriivc « btUtf it is v th« 
conhidi^Ttitiurt tjf thi: vicv now hclil liy moAt phyBidbH, n^ttnclv, 
ihot the* Aun n'lih dJl the plnnrci uill \n rim> ^roir too cold 
fur lifv. unln<i inJcvd Bpomv gr?a( Ijodf il^i» into <hf sun, 
and tliUA jfivc* it itvsU \\^v. Hvlievmg ;i>i 1 di> ihot tn^n m 
the diftUni future »i]l tie j fjr imjrc jhtFclL crcdtuiv tbjn Eii- 
now tiv ^r ii an iniolcrabic thought rhat he ami uM (^heiKOtj- 
cnT Iwinp aic doi:»mod to rympfcltf Jnnihjlnlion aflcr luch 
Ion fi-iion tinned idow propr**. To Ihnnc *ho fully jidmit the 
immoritLlity of ihi.' human ilouI* <he d^Itucuon of our world 
ivill not uppeur v> dicndful. 

"AiiOlI^cr triiirce of cuaviclion in the cxiit^Tice ijf God. 
connccied vn'nh the re«hun^ And not with the fceltnin, im^ 
prct^t mc Ai hAvirtg murh more wcighr This foSiowi from 
the «?(trrmc diftimlry or r^Thcr impoHiUdity of conceiving 
thia immcm? and wonnlrrfut timvcrtc. influding man with ha 
capacity of looking far liOikw^TilH and far into fuiuriiy, ax iho 
rcvuk of blind chance or ncccuiiy. When ihiLt reflecting 1 
foe) compelled lolmtk l>> :i Kinti Cauac hjtitng jtn ratellt^nl 
miod in lomc degree anAEngnm (■> that of man : iind I de- 
<jer\'t' to Iw cdllc-d a ThriiL Th» concTnnon wa^ strong m 
my lumd ihoul [he firvtr, a» Jjr a4 I c4n icmt'UkZrijrr when I 
vrole the * Origin of Spccio ; ' and it i* ftoicc ihtl lime that 
it hii vcrj^ ^dually, with many Surluationii, be^^ome neaker, 
Kul then .trinev the doiiUl, can rhr mind ofmnn, whirh ha*, 
iji I fnUy believe, been devfloped from a vntnd at low ia lEue 
posseted by the lowcn oaimali. b'^ trusted when it drav» 
i»nch grand oundntions^ 

"I cunnoi prviirnd to throw live \*:3M light on tuUt ab- 
ilnifc problenu. 1 he mytptcry uf the beginning of ^L thtn^ 
i> insoluble by ui ; and I lor one mait be comeni Xt> remaia 
Mn Apnostic,** 

Ihe following lettcn repeat to some extent what In* 
been given from th* AutOblosriphy. The fiml one t<Un to 
' The Boundaries of Krietii^e^ a DiaJngue/ publitheil in ' Mae- 
mitlaa'a MagfiJJne,' for July iS6r,] 

C. Danvi'm hf Miss J^ia iVfifgtt'^. 

Some nnp hns acni us * Mjr.miUHin ' ; ^-nd T muat tpII ynu 
how muth 1 admire your Anidi:; though ni the aflmi; lime I 
riiubL confegb ihul 1 fJOirVj not ckarly follow yuu in sumv 
[HiTtt, whiuh irr^bubJy t^i in m;<i[j pari Uuc li^ tijy nuL bviriu ut 
all iiccualomcd to mi?L.-tphvMC4L ir^ms oJ thought, 1 think 
Ihji you undcritand my boot * perfectly, and Ihai I find A 
vcfy rare evml with my critics, Th<; idcM in The Imt pfl((c 
haTP several rimo* vngiicly I'tos^cd my mmd. Hwinj^ lo »cv- 
eral c oricspontlcntft I hikvi; Lecii led laidy to thinlc, or rather 
to try to thiak over some oE the chief points discuttcd hy 
y<*\x. But the iVEult hat bci^n with me « maxe— ^omdhing 
thinking on ihc origin ^rf evil, to whkh you ^Ifude, The 
refuses 10 \aok at this universe, beioft whai if ii, with* 
having been doRi^ned; yet. whciv one would most ck- 
pect (Icbigii, vjz. in (lit- r^KuuIun: of u bt^iUient tieing, the more 
I think an the subject, Ihc li»« 1 cau >cc proof of design. 
Aam Gray and 4ome ullifia look at ejLch vumtinn, or mt Icnat 
at Cfli-h ticiiclifwl ^ari.ititm (which A. Oray would eompflrc 

with the tnin dmp^ * whi<-h do not fall on the sea. but on to 
lh« bnd Lu firnilize it) as having; httty providciitiidly dcst^ned^ 
Yvl whvn I jLiik \\i:n lihuthvr lie \wA% aV cjb;li vuriution in 
the rock<pig?oQ, by whitlx xwxn \\*t lu^dc by accumuUtioo A 
poutci or fjintail pigeon, oi provideuiiAlLy designed fbi mut'i 

* Tiic ' Oiiijin uf sptti*v' 

t Dr (■iny\ iniii'Uiup EiiFuphDrDCcnn in ihi Rsuiy ' Darwin «nd hit 
R««lfwen' r Ik.^rwlntano.' p, l^jji ''The vTio^e ui^iiuLc Uf« of a countijr 
depirnib abMluwly ii[wii [he irc^flftlion. the Teirpi«|pft upon At rain, 
Thf niAttfiiK b fumi-hrd \>y the ocan. » ntivd b)* ibf Hiin'i hfat fmn 
tin occu'i "iiHjvrt Anil U wtftH InlinH l^y [h« mmU Hut vha[ itiahl- 
tndetof rferfk-dntp full liuh (nu ihcoccin — nic as mucFi wlihnm a i^nii 
□ti;>«it> UiLT inapiribf miEritt wlndi coitic tu iii'llijii^ I fJocv il ibrTffdrr 
fbLlov Ihi: Ihtf isJith wbicb an; Iic^iuh'l.J dpun rhr t<nl «t(b kucb nik tncL 
FraEa recjiiiiidly wan nW doi|Ettcd to ntppoit Yr£Tl4b[* siiil iRimiLl 





nmucvmc-ni, he Aoc% nor know wh«i to aniw^f : ivii! ir hr, or 
any one, admiti [thatj Ihfw variation* \n atcidcnial, oj fir 
AS pur^gBC II cunvcnirJ (of course nut dc^Jidudlul 14 to th«r 
t^juvc or uti|^n) : then 1 an tec no rcjhon why he (huulil 
fjrjL ihc fltciimulaicd urialiom by which ;hc beautifully 
idnprcd wotKlpfclscr ha* bfi"n formrfl, Jtt proiridfntiflHy <le- 
Hixi^nl Tor It vortld be ruy ro iniA|^nc ihr rnl.irj^c-'l ^^^t 
of the pLiiUcr, or tail of th4? fiintail^ ai of «imc use to hirdi, 
In a state of aaturv. harmj; pv<:uJi^r habits uf life- These 
*JK th« cuntiOci^iUum whith ^rer^lcx mc atjo^ft dv^i^u ; bui 
whether yoLi will oare to hc*j Ehcm, 1 know not, 

• « » • A 

[On tht' HiTijcfiofdwign. hF*Totc^)i]l)- i86f^) lo Dr. (im^: 
"On<r word morr on 'dmpicd iaw»' and " onciuiigncd 
tv^uIIh.' I 4oe ft bird which 1 vnia tin foml, ta\ir my Run 
and kill it, I do this deiigiKiUy. A& lonoccM .ind good man 
sUndx under a In.-e nnd 14 Ltlled b? a Aaah of HghlninK. Do 
you believe [And t re^ly thouM like 10 h«v) that God ifl^ 
sfgHt^fy killed this man ^ Mnny or most pcnom do believe 
t>ii5; t can't and don't. Tf you belirvt lo, do yon bcTicv^ 
thai when a hwallcrv unapx n]i ^ ^imi Ihal Ccd ihugiied ihHt 
that piirticulftr twallokv thoutd tnop op Ihal pariicuUr gnat 
at <hjt particular instant t I belieirc thai ibe man and the 
gnftl arc in ihc R'tinr prtdir-nnirnt If thr death of n^'iibrr 
man nax jfnnt nre ileKit^cd, T ue no good rcaivn to brlif-ve 
that l})cir/n/ birih or produ<:iion rinvid be nccesunty de- 

ZXiirn, July I'd. lUi. 

I hope that yon will not think it inrrutivo ^-n tay part to 
thank you heartily for the pteature which I ha^c derived 
from leaUing >oof jdmirably writien 'Creed of Scicnre>' 
Ihfjugh I have not yet quite £ni>hed iC aa no* thai 1 am old 
I read very alovly. It ii a very long x\mt iint« any other 
book hin interested me w much. The vofk muit have co«t 
>ou tcveral yean aod mdch hard labour wilb toXi leisure for 




"work* Vou would nor protmbLy expect Any one fully to Agree 
wlih you on iQ rrtany al^-itruiir subjcfiti ; And ihcr^ -ire lome 
poinu in yuur bouk whii:h 1 cannoL digcM, The chi<!f one i% 

I tan n 01 «ce ihU. Not lo mention <hat many t-nj^ccE llidl 
ihc several grcJl law* wili aonw diy be found to luUow 
mcvit^bly from tomi? on<^ stng^lc l<7n-, y?t taking the tniv* » 
«« nftw know them, and kn-.k ar the m*>fin, whtrc the law of 
[gmvitaiion — and nn doiibt of ihe cnnacrvaiion of cntrj^y — ^nf 
■the aiomic rhcory. &c- kc... hold good, and T cnnnnl sire thftt 
therv IB ihtn oecet-sajily any paipubc. \S'ouId llicre he ptir- 
pi;i»e d thi- towvHl orgjnu^ms alone, dedtJIutt; of coD^ioufiQewf 
cxUtcil in Ihc moon ? Hut I h^ivc had no [rrnclicc in ;tb«1iict 
rcnionJtigi And I may be astray. Nevctihelca yon (have 
CKprtned my inwarfl ccmviciion, though far more vividly and 
clisuly (ban I ^ oiild huve lii^ni?, (hat iht^ Universe U not <he 
result ol ^hiMcc* iJut Lhi:a wnh me thchoirid doubt always 
arisev whclhvr the convictione of man'i mind, which has been 
[iJ<v«lopcd from the mind of the luwer animAlf. i»« of *ny 
rAluc pr Ai all trualwonhy. Would Any one trunT in the eon- 
victions of a monkey's miml, if ihcre are any f^onvCctioQX in 
inch amii'-d? Sec^inclly. I ihink I irould mnke some- 
whAt of a Cdsc ^jt'iintt the enormout icnpDftjrui: wlm h you 
Attribute <o out grcaEL'M men; I have been aecuhtoiiicd to 
think, »erond, third, mtxd foiirrh r^lr men of very high \tn* 
porrjtncE^, at Iohh in ihc cue of Scirnci*, I-:i:^tly, T could 
«how iighi on natural selecdon having done And doini; more 


•Tbu DukcMf An^ll r'*"""! WmhI*,* Ap. tS5^, p X41)* biu rocmlvd 
■ lev wwiUmi UiJA lubjcv^i, vpuVcii Irf my failitfi la ibr UhE vnrofhu bft. 
* . , . Jd tba counc ?l diJt osnvTr'ailun I <aLi1 ('3 ^1i, T>;irv^lii,iilih rgfrf- 
«anu>«iineafhuownren)arkAhi]e\wi>rk«nn the - Tf nd^ilon of OrchiOC 
•nd npoA'^rhe Euihwvmu,' nn>l v^ritius mb^r ob'^rv^kmi br mailK of 
tbe WDnilcrful pjnlfirtnco fdi^cruiii Niir^jujci in ikaiun— t iaiU ii wn* 
flnpo^Lblc la InrjV Ai ihnc vrilhaui i,<i;kni: lUar EKc;r were Ihc t^avl ofitt 
ibfl oup'mLf^A of mtiiit, I <linU nrvcr fLir^nl Mr- HarirlrL't aiifwtrF He 
lookvi'l 41 mr vrrjr birtl >n<l 4ti], ' WtH, ihn iHTn t^t^niioi <fV(r nir w^lh 
cnrmvlir I riling fnixe ; bill tl iflhFr limek' afnT br tliu^ hin h^ati iit^iic\y, 
a(3diiig, 'if >hiii> lagu nvii]'/" 




for ihc pmgrcm of tM'uauatt chAn you iiccm jmlincd to 
Admir Rcmcmhi-r what risk the nationi <^f Europe wn, not 
to tninj' LvnlutKs agu uf bvJng avt-rwUdined by the Turbv, 
itntl huw rKiicuIutih huiih Aii i<:lEM iiuvr ib ! Thv iLion^cmli^^d 
«(X4iLed CftucaiUn ricct hive bcJitcn the Tuikuh hi:Tlioiv in 
Ihc vtruggli? for cviitcn^f. Looking to the vofld «l oo very 
dittant 6»f, what sn rntlk«ii mimhcr cf Ihr TowYr rAC«i wiU- 
hftve been dim tn.itfd by (hi' hi^jhi^T civil i(ed rjif^* tbmiiglw 
out the wofld. Bui 1 wilt write no moTc^ and not even men- 
tion the manj- |iomi» in ygiir wort which have murh inter- 
etLvtJ mv. I hitvv tnJeeii cT^u^e to jpk>Lo};ui: fur truublii 
you ifith my impre»tiont, Aiitl myhvUcACUnc ia the f uiU- 
in«ni ID tny mind vhkh yifmr book hiu iroDKd. 
I beg li*ave to rrmuin, 
Vtit Sir, 

Vour^ fiiihfiiJ3y and obli^edt 

CirAR:aj Darwln. 

[My father »poke little on thtsc lubjccii, and 1 can con- 
IribuTc injthjrijt (fuiii my uwn rect^UcttJun of hi* convcfullon 
which (jri ;tf1d 10 the imprebion here giien of hit atljiude 
toward* Reli^oii- Some fuJihe r icli.-a of hi« i'lirvn^ 
ercf, be gmherecl frwm oct-Luiooal rrin^irkfi in ha Wtitr^] • 

■ Dr. Atdine bat imbliihed «a BCivuni of ■ QBnrenaifoiv «4lb my 
hlhrf. I think ihil lh« tt^Otr^ of ih:^ pamphlet y* lUr HtUffiotm Vktr* 
of (^Iwrkt Daivlil.' Vnc Efxiughl t^ihh>hm|f t^»fn|«h), Uttjl nuy 
nnlnl inin u^i(\|[ mnr* irw mliEiiiiif rtin retllir ?4l«1«al J*pT*«n lli# 
tiiiortk f/t Di; faOm aiiil l>f. Avrtnij; . avd 1 bijr ihj* in «|fi(e vf nr/ rh- 
Ti4:iiudi >hi[ Dt, AnJinit ^tvi i)uiL* faiilx tiih ;ni(iHti«iutit of 10} faibn*! 
riem. |>t.Ave1m[; hic*! Io^Iiuh [Ixsl A* Icrm " AiEm^ik" iu^ " AElieitf" 
nr* pfw:Ei[3l>T iijuivalcbL-— dut in Uholat b and i>hi\ *ii^tDal Jmftng 
thf viL^itn^f of t'-n'U it without ( ioA. hudmcb ■* h* U nncDti'inErJ (4| 
lbs viUlEiH* of A l>clry. My falticr'* r<-pll«4 Impllid hi« TirtffPnrtt^ 
hn^^rvwl** UiiLuJc uf hil Aciimlic. Df, Avcltii; Kcito (y. $) to 
inl ibfl ftbtcBc* af licn*"^^™'^ ^" ™y fiMhcr'a victvi w dluLncif^iftJnf 
tbrm tn in utm*«iita1 nuiicr fno lilt d#ii. Kmt, In Bjr jvdfpnvni. In U 
pi¥^4Jy >liiT<<Tiim cf ihh kin^irfiirh dniitifulth him id fcnplddy fnttt 
the <Uh vf lhtftV«ii to whtcb Ilr, AttILilc br^on^ 



1 542-1854. 

" My life ipA on likv divkirark. 4dJ T vm nud WD Ibv f|K4 ^hvlC I 
(Jull cud ii.'^ 

L^rivr laCiLpEaEii Fiu-Ray^ OciotvT, 1K46- 

[WlTH the view nf giving tn the Following dnjilcri a cqq- 
necied ii*:crnmt of ihe growih of ihc 'Origin of ^i^edcs" I 
hjiv« Uik^^n the moK' imporiunT Itttf^rs bcnring on thnt fiibj«i 
out (rf ihcir proper rhrnnologir.'il ftosttion hcrt, nnJ pJaifi-d 
tticcM witli ihc r4!St uf thti i^orrcapondenLC tmaring dh the same 
iiabJ«L-| ; Ml tUal in ihtr prt^nt group of IcLLei'* «r uiily ^et 
ccc*sionaJ hint* of ihc growth of my father's views, and wc 
may tiipjii^^er otir*clvc^ m l>c linking af his lik'. fl* it might 
hjivc been Ifiofct'd m hy ihrj*c who hjiri no knowledge of 
ihc qiiici dcvdopraeiil of his theory of cvolutinn during this 

Uti St\>l. M^ t^4Vf my fjiUcT Ivfl London with hts faintly 
And hCltled -It Down,* In ihc Autiibicr^EipbiLAl i'hj[r(cri liiij 
motivci for taking lhi» step m the country are brielly given. 
He !kpMlt< of Ihr Jiftrnilnnrc at »cienlific locielUi. and ordi' 
nftry uricinl dnrii'B, v suiting hh henlth ^o " bJidly that wr 

* 1 nutr not oip]i to mcniian * ificmbcr of rht TioutchofrE who ircorrw 
fMnjetl hiiTL Thh wai hii Irullcr. J^^trjih I*rn1iiw, wlin rciiirtrii^Ll m Ihr 
Ciim»l;f, a Talaftl frunul anil Rcr>*"i. W fimv fesn, and IwnAnie, at Sir 
Jiatnph Itc^tLtr ojicx r^markni 10 imr^ " an Infcgr^] purl of the famiry, iti^ 
tth 10 ^' tath by aIE viiliun a.' th* hniue." 



UFE AT DOWK. .tTAT- »sv 

revived 10 live in the founEry, trhifh v« both pftfcired uhd 
hive nev-tr rtj-cntcrl of Hi* micnlion of k«ping up wiih 


" I hope by going up 10 l*j«n (or a night ct-cry fortiugM 
<»r (hr« •rccki, to I(«|» up my cmnitiMnirafioTi with u icniific 
mm an^l my own xtilr and so not to cum tnta Jl rmmplcie 
Krnfiih hog," 

VUilsio Tendon of tbi»kinilivi-rckcpt ut> ^dt some yc4n 
At die cusL (?f tnu^h ifxeitiun on hia putl. I liavt^ cilkcn heaid 
hiiii ipc:tL vJ ihv H-cajiMjmc (Jrucv of ten ntlr« cv orffuni 
Croydon or Sydenham — ibe ffcAfeit sUiionc-— with an 
gardener acting » coDchmin, who drove with grcni caniioA 
and ^ovneu up ond ilowa the many liilln. In Tatcr yrars, 
all regubr tdcntific intercourav wiih LonJun Wc^kiiie. aii be- 
fore mentioned, jq impossibility. 

The thoicv uf Duvb vai rather the revolt of de^pajr ibaB' 
of Jkcluil prcfercticc ; inf fither and oiuthcr »i*rc ncary of 
ho<t*c-himtinj^, and the aiitacfive jkomit ahout the pljc« Ihua, 
Kccncd 10 ihcm to counicrbaUnftf itt lomcwhaE more obvh 
faulu^ It had at least one deiidcinium. nimdy [(tiiriani,. 
Indnd K wnuhl have liecn diffi^-idt (o fiod a mmc retir«4 
plac-c Vi iirai ti> t^uJon. In 1^3 a lOJ^h drj«c ol Kimtf 
l»enCy miLci wat the on!y nieani of ac(e» to Down; and 
even now that riiFlway* hare ctrpt i-lo*rr to it, it ii tinpilj^ly 
out of ihr tfE:iThl, wUh nmhin^ ta Kugfcit ihc nd|:hbour-' 
hood of I^ndon, unlcu it l>c the dull haie ot smoke tbil 
tometimn cloudt the tkj. The viJb^ ttandt in an aaglt. 
between two of (he Ur|{ei hii^h-roddx vi tin* cutiniiy, ono 
kadinft to Tunbndgc and the oiber to We^^eth^im -utd £den< 
bridge. It 11 cut off from ihe Wpald by .1 line of iteep chalk 
hilb on the sotitl^ and an ahrupt hllt now wnoothed dovn 
b; a Glutting and enthanltmrnt, mu«t fonncrly have been 
UoitfChteg of a bariier agunM encroachmenU from the ttde 
of London. In wch a diujlton, a vJllajt?, <ommunicatias 
«iih Ihe miiin line* <>f traffic', only by «tony rornoua lan«4^ 
may well hahe hr^n enabled to preaenre ju retitcd chanclef. 



Sot u it bard to bclicr? in th« amugglcit and :hcii ttringt 
of |WCk-hnT>r\ mukmi^ rhrir way up tiom Ihe lawlc« old 
vilUiect of the Wrald, ai whkh ihc memory t^iiW cxi»t?d 
whc^ my £aihcr ivtikd in Don-n. The viltn^ vtanfU on 
wliury upland cuunuvr 5K> lu 600 itct ahovc the »c<l| -A 

Lhacm in ihc «hauf, or stro^Liny unpA o[ wood, c^iifiiiK (h« 
choUcy banVi and locking donn upon iht quid plc»ua;lwt| 
|«n^A csf thf vfllk-yii. The villa^i*, of tUrrc nr fimr hundred 
mhAbimnu> cnntisi.t at Ibrce «malJ KtrccTs of t^ilafcct mci^iing 
in fTont of ihc little fiinLbiiilt church. It h 2. place vlicre 
Dew-eoturn are icldoin tmu. and thtf ziiiiiici occmnng far 
b«ck ifi the old church icgUten Are «liU well known in the 
TiTUge. The fwa<:k-fm<^k h not yet rju^rc ritinct. though 
chiefly Hied nil a eoremoninl dm> by ihe "bcflrcrti" ai funcr- 
rtU : btii Li! .1 boy I rcmL-inbtr Ihi" r'^'H'^^*^ ^' green smarki o( 
thf nn:n .it thurrli, 

The «idnil» j <|i):jrier of a mi\t froni (he vlMukC) und 
» built. Like 10 m^ny houses of the bvc ccniJuy* a£ near mt 
pQfpkible to the rodd^a nariow bnc nindmg awa^y to the 
^Ve^TCrham hinh-roJid. In iK^t. it wat dull niiit tiLk^ltrjiKitivc 
vnoiigb : A *qimfc brkk building of three Morcya, covered 
wteh shabby whitewash nitd hanging tilcsL The ^irden 
had none uf Ihe shrubbencB ur uuUn that now give shelter ^ 
It WAV ovL'iloi'kcd Itoiii thr Ldrac> ^nH waa ojien. Litjk, and 
dcholale. One ol my father'^ firit under lakjri^iii wjs tu luwcr 
ihe bne by About twofect.aad to build 1 Hint wpiII it\vus i]i»t 
part of i( whirh T»f>r*1rTed flur garden. The c»rth thut. cxca- 
valfil WAI4 UAed in mnkinj; hnnk« And mmindt round (he 
lAwn; thcie were planted with erergrieenv, which now g^t 
10 the garden ite return! und ibdtered charj.cter- 

Thi? houM" wa» made to \"'tk iir-ulrr by being covifred With 
Mucoo. but the chief impiovcmnni elTcetrd wi« The building 
of a Inrpc bow entending up through three sicrcyfl. ThU 
bojr becAine covered with n [jin^le of iTtt'in'ruMind pleuamly 
varied ihe nourh tide cf the house. The Jrjt^injj roonij with 
iit verandah opening iulij Ihc garden, aa ucU as Lhe Atudy in 



which my itithct workc^l during ihc U»r y^An of hi> life, 
were added at lubitqatfrii dat**. 

Bighii^tn jcrffe vi f jnO uviv wl;! with ilic liuu«i\ of which 
tuclv« iu;i«« vn i}yc »i>ulh (ids i-f Ihc houfpc formed a plciftant 
Jjtfid, *caucfcil »ilh Oiir^iucd ojVi and aihc^ rrc'in (hit, 
l^cld a feljip wji cut oft and tonvi^ncd into ^ kvtchcQ girdcnj 
in which the expcrimenlal plot r>f ground wv biIliaIc). and 
whrrc ihf nrrrnhrtiiHfi w^rc ullimai^ly pHT up. 

Thj- /ollowiTiB IrtU'f to Mr Foi (March jSth, 1*^3) giv« 
Among oihcrihtng^ ray f«hpr"i i-iirty imprvuioni tyi Itown; — 

" I will tvtl yuu jll llic trllmic piirlicuUrt jbc^ul iny-clf that 

I can (hidk of. Wc mc now eiicerdingly Imiy with ihf Tint 
brick Uid down yciicrdtty to an idd^iion to our houic : wilh 
ihix with almost making 1 nrw kitchrn gardm and lundry 
other projccli'd Mrhvim-it my dap are irery full. I find alt 
Um vtfry bjul tot jE(;c>lc)|Ey» hu! I »m very «1f>wly progrci^ftinf | 
wiib A vDliimt,Oir lailkcr pamphl^, on ihtf voli;jinir i»1and« 
vhich wc vi^tcd : I manage only a i^auplc of hourt per day 
and thit not veiy rir^UrJy. It i& uphdL work wruing 
wbich i;o»1 moni-y in puUiBhing) 4nd wbLvh ATf not tcAd evcq' 
by gcoloaiKU, I tot^ct whether I ever dftcTiWd thu place; 
)li> A gnoi.1, very ugly hou«c with ifl Afrct, titnirrd on ft ch.ilk 
Oat, 5^ feci abuvc wa^ There arc pcvpi of fu distant 
coiiiiliy and tii« icr;ivry ia moderately prvily : rla chief merit 

II ill ciiTcmt nifitity- I ihink I wj* never in i mote per- 
fectly quiet country. Three mtlci louth of vt The grc;it chalk 
eAcarpmrnI r|iiite riila im off from the low eonntry ^f Kent, 
nfid bctwDcn us oiu) thf c^L^Jiriiini-ni iherr h not a Tillage or 
^tMl«n«n*» houtxvbut only great voodt and iirable field* (the 
hUter in anUy prepondeunt nvuubers). so that u-e are abto 
hiiely at the ciircmv v«!(ge <4 Lhe wurld, The m hole ciiuniry 
it intcrtccrcd by fnot-FiSlh^ ; but the mrfacc ovct the rhalk a 
ciayey and ittcfcy, which is the woni feature in our punrhnsc. 
The dintcltH and banks ufieri remind me of Caanliridfe&birQ 
and wjdkfi with you to Cherry Hinton, and othei placei, 
I'-tOUgh the general A»pe^l of the country i> i'cry dtntreDl, 1 
via looking ^tr my arranged cabinet (the only remnant I 



have pre^rved of lU my English iti^cU), and was ;ulmirLng 
I*aft^gifus Critx^ma/ffr ^ it it curiua^i Ihc livId maimer in 
which thi^ inHi'tr rjilis ii]> in n^y nifml y^tur nfYfU'iinrkrc^ ^Ith 
little Fah trotting nftrr, vhcn I was tm Inirotlufcd co fdu. 
Th«e emomological rlnyr. were %-riy plciu;ani onct 1 am iwy 
nuch slr<jn(i«T t^orixirctlly, IiliI am hlOc Udlct lb Uitlhii wUv 
to tUnd muiiAl l4tiguC) or f&ihcr CAUtcmcnl, lo itmi I cannot 
dine oui OT r^ctivc viiilor*. cic<;i>l relation* with whom T can 
pfl** 4ornr Hmr aflct rfintn^r in Mk'nct." 

I fniiM hsvo wlfthf*! lo give hf^fc same ictfaof ihi' poiiiion 
which, ai this period of his life, my father ncciipitd among 
scientific men nnd iht reading public k^^'-''^^^^/- '^^^ *^"ti- 
tempor-iry nuTn-Cs ire i^Vi und af no purtitulai vii\n< for m^ 
purpose, — whi( h theiclvrc imii*I, in Bpilc o* a good Jcal of 
pAina, remain tmfultilled- 

Hii ' Jonmal c»f Re«car«hc« ' wm ihrn the only one of hi* 
hooks Avhith hari any chinrc of bting commonly Itnown. But 
Ihp fact ihai it wa.s pubUshcd with thi' ' Voyages ' of Cflploin* 
King JoJ hil/-K»y prohaWy mfcifi'rr*! wnh il^ general popu- 
Jwily- 1 has LycJI wrcic \u him in iSjS \^ Lydl't Life,' ii, p, 
43]^ "I anuTQ yoa my father i> quite cnthukiaitic Jibout 
your lounul .... Mid \\t aK'^e^i wilh mc that U would have 
a largi? sale if puhlkhf d M-jhjjrjiirly. Hi* W(vs di-^oppointcd 
at hearing that ii was to he fettpfod by ihc other volumts-for, 
althcLijili lie ^Tmuhl vquutly buy i^ he feared su many uf tTit! 
pubhc wijuld be tligijkcd ffum domy ^o/* lu a nulitc of die 
three voyagci in ilie * KdinL»u<gh Review " (July, I'^jy), there 
in nothing Iciiding ;i veaiier to i«?licvc ih,ii he would llnd it 
more attTflrtivc il5 fellow- volum^i. And, ,i» a fad. tt 
did not horomc wldi*ly knrnvn until it *:n ^cpnrnlJ^ly pwh- 
lished in 1S43, Ii mny he nottd, howevi-r, ihat the "Qaftf' 
Icrly Ktfview ' fDwrembct, 1*39) called the attention of its 
fcaders to ihc merits of the ' journal ' at a l>ook cf tnvclk 
The revit-wcr *ptraki of the ''charm arihinn from the frcih- 
ik«as of hcnn which i* ihTown over thenc virgin pigei of a 
«trong intclfi^ctiiivl mnn irtd nn rn"\iti- nnd drcf* rib^crvcr " 

The Gtrmnn u-mvlation (1344) ;>£ che ' JuurnHt ' rifcclvcd 



I.IFE AT DOWN. .liTAT, 33-4;, 

a rivoitrabJe noiicc In No. it of the * Hcidclbirrgcr JjUir- 
bUcticr dcr LUtratur/ T847— irhcrc thr RcvJrwrr k|.c-iki of 
Ehc author's " vaxmd ^Any.n, uti which hi: ikcichi^ in livrly 
colours Ificmiit|tci:utf1um4 i^f thoK:(Ji»(unl regiuns with their 
rcinafkablc fAiinpvHora arnJ g^^giud pctuLiJifiiin,'* AILudiag 
U> Ihc tmnjlahcin, my lather write* — " Dr, Dicllcnltfttli , . , 
hM imn'^brcrd my * JournA-l ' inio Gcrmio. JUid t mutt, with 
unfur<Ti>nAli1r- vanity, br>,iii rhnr it w;l» at <hc isitigation cf 
Licbig Jnd Humbolfli." 

Thv geobgicol wurk of which hcipcaU mthca^fivp Ictlcr 
to Mr. t'uK occujiii'd him fc-r thv whole oi 1S43, and kv«i pub- 
Uihnl in Ihc sprinji »( Ihc fi^Llu«fcing y4-;ir. h «^» entitled 
' Geologic tU Obvrvaiiont an ihe VolcanJr J^lindt, vi«Uvd 
during Ihe vojrugc ot H. M, S^ A^A-^ logeihei wtlh«oin« brief 
nci|K'«i4 Oft Eho i:co1ogy of Au^iralm nnd tti« Cape of Good 
Ilopi"'; u foTuu'd the wc tin J ]wi« of the 'C^eolojiy iif ilic 
Voyji|£c of li>e Jt/n^lt,' (luhliihcil " with the ApprovAl of ihc 
Lord* Commiiabnccs of Jlcr Majcity't Tresuury." The 
volume on 'Coriil R^clt' lormt^ P.irl I. oE Ihc Mrieir and van 
published, M wc hatv necn, in tA^;, I^ot the utke of ih« 
non»geoTtigi«al re-idcr, I may here quote Prafeiior Gcikic'* 
irords* on iheie iwn volumcB — which were up bs this lime 
mf CaCher's chief gTOlogical «ork«. S|icakmg vf die 'Coral 
KceK' he fc«y)t:^-p, 17, " Thia well-known tre:ai(>ic, Ihe moti 
origmal of aJI iti author'* geologkil tnemoiri. hu become 
one of the cbtsici of gcolo^irnl liWratore. Th<r origin of 
those remarkable rmgt of rond-rm^k In mid-oC(;an haa j[iv<« 
me to much ipccoUiion, bui no AAtiifartnty soluiion oF the 
probtem hafl been propcHed, After visiting mvny of ihenii 
and cajinimin)E iJbo cvral recfb that friniic ibLud^ dud cou- 
tinetiU, he udcred 1 theory ^vhith for i-jinptkity and gfandcui 
airikei every rt^pr with laEonisbmrnr \x i^ plciiant, after 
the l■|l^e of m.iny yeortv <■"» remll ihc deliuht wiih which one 
dtsl read (he 'Oiral Kcc'h'; bow one watched the f^i^tt oetng 
manhalled into iheir placei, nothing being ig^uofcd «i pauod 

* ChKic* Dwvk> * Kiiwe' St«kK >»>. 



lightly over; anil how* step by icep, one #/a% led Ui the gnind 

coneluMon of wide c^lcjihc subiidemc. No aiotv idmirabk 
example of (cicniifur mcThrnJ wm ever given to rhc world, 
and even If hp \\-.u\ written nothing elae, tht trcntisc alono 
wnulil hnvc pitimi Dnrwin in Ihe very from of invcstigiiiors 
of nfltufp." 

LyvU'a kitcfh" hvft warmly ^uU Tcadily he embraced the 
theory- The exiracC «l$o givei bddcntilly iomc idn of the 
theory itiplf. 

" r *m very full nf Ilnrwin'^ nrvf thfory of Cordl Tilomll, 
and have urged \Vhe^veU to iTiakc him read il nt out nexi 
meedng. 1 mu^t give irp my vokLinic craier theory fat ever, 
thctugh itcoft mi; J pmg ^1 firttt, fui it ;ii:L:oi.inted for si? much, 
the jinTiuUr form, the renlrdl kgoon» Ihe «t)dden rising of ftft 
iwlrticd mountain in a dctp sen ; aH went fi.^ wcH with ihfr 
notion of submerged, cmtcriform, ami conicnl volcanocEf . . . 
nnd Mi(;n tht focL tU^il in the Si^uth Pacific we h;ul bcarcdy 
any io<;k^ m the regions of coral iiilandt, save iwo kinds roral 
Ume^lone and volcanic j Yet spite of all this, the whole 
theory is knoi:kcd on the head, and the annuUi thape and 
eentral lagoon h-tve nothing to do with volcanoes not J^vcn 
with a crareriform botiom. Pcrhnpa Parwln told yotj when 
at the Cape what he cDnsidets the imc r.nime? Lci ftny 
invLiQtaiji ht submerged gtuduiiUy. and coral grow in the sen 
in which it ih >inkin^, mid there will [k a ting vt cumL. and 
Andly only a liigoon m the ecnirc- Why ? Kor ih? »»uia 
rruon that n barrier reef of cofal grow* idong terijin cutt*tf : 
Aiii«Mlia, ter, ComI hlanrl* nre the Tast dfforii of dtownmg 
<-ontini!nta to lift thi'ir headK above WArrr. Rtginns of eleva- 
tion and subaidenee in the ocean moy be iT^ierd by the state 
of th« coral rrefb," Then; it little to be Si^d a^ id published 
co&tcmporar^ cnticvtn. The book wiia not reviewed in the 
'"'Quarterly Review' till ti^^, when a l^vonrabk notice wa* 

*TdBii Jolin HertcM, M>y if, il3?. •UU of SI' Chikilvt I^IL' 
■alp h, p. tl 


LirB AT bOWV. ,tTAT. ^-4$. 

given. The t*vw*fcr «pMV4 of ihc ''bold and sanling" 
ch:iracUT of the wc*rk. Iiul it^cms lo rccogniff ihc fa<:t thot 
th« Views are ^ni^riilly ^tci^vpK'U hy Ktrulogi^^lh. iJy tlMl Itin* 
the miiitU nf riicn were becoming more rmdj 10 leceive kvoI- 
ogy o( tLiIii type- Even (en j-e^r* before, in iSjj. LycU • 
«y», *' people are now much bc'fer i»rnkxred lo believe Dir* 
win when hir ^dvnnec^ preiofii of th^ slov^ t\w of ihe Anctci, 
than They wptp in ifijo. when I fim aunled (hem v\tU ihflt 
doettinc." Thit M?nicni:e refetH lo the ihcory cl^Loraltd ttt 
my father's geolugicul ubiieTVAtiuiiv on SuuUi Aiiurric;* (1846)^ 
but the gr^Jual ijuii^e Lri recc]}tiri(y of the ncologicAl micd 
muii hAve been tavouuhlc lo aU hit g^ologicnl aork- JJerer* 
lhelc»r f'yell wemn fli fiMt noi to hnve expectod any ready 
Mxriilance of the Coral Ihi'ory ; ihun he wrote to my fAtbtr 
la 1837:—** I cuLild think of nothmg for fifty* aft«r youf 
loMnt on KorH retdit ^'^^ ^ ^^^ '^P* ^^ submerged ^onlinenu, 
ll i* all ifue, bin do nol fl.iltef youradf tJiui yu-j will be be- 
lieved till you are j^wiog b-M like me, with hard work 3n<3 
vcuiion tt the incredulity cf the world," 

The Bceond pan of ihe "Gtology of the Vftyage of ihe 
BfogU* i. f. ihf vnlvne on Vokanic 1^1cind% *hich tpeeiafly 
conccrna \ii now. cannot be bt'IliT de'^tritwd than by a^tn 
{jVOtiDg from Proiesvar Geikie {p. tW) ; — 

" Put! of Uvi^deU obtervftlioni, thit work Mltl rcrooint the 
be^l aiithorty on ihe gti^eral geological ttructvre of moot of 
%hi region* it deicribei At Ihe time il wrilieo Ihc 
'cnti^r of elevation iheory/ though opposed by ConMani 
rr*vQ«, Scropc. and rydl, vm generally accepted, ai Icui 
on the Caniintrni. Darvin. howi^Vf-r, couliJ nol receti'V it » 
a valid vKplatiatiun of the facts; and Ibough be did not thai9 
the vitrw of iU ^hief opponent*, but wntur^O to pn^jiove a 
hypotht%tfc of hii num, the obiervatiani impftftijlly m^de and 
deicribed by him in iViii volumr mii<if be regarded ai having 
eoDiribuird tc»wnrdb the Anal ftolulionof the dilTtetilty," Fro- 
feuor Gcikic continues ip. >i) : " He i» nn< of the oarLicn 

•'LifeafSirQwfn Ljdi; f«1. ii. p. C^ 







writff* 10 rero^nist the magriiudL" of iho dunuda^ion tc whirh- 
even rvceni ^eulogioil iitiuitiuiaduns have been MitjjotiodH 
One ot the mosi imjjrcwvc ic*soiis cc» be k^m( from his ac* 
roitnr of ' Volranif libnd?' h ihc T>rDdi'giou*i cit^Dl to whkh 
ihty hjive been di-fiLideJ, . . . He was diH[ioK(!*:1 (o .itf rihufr 
more <ti fhis work to the seo ( mosf gcoTogima ivo^ild now^ 
atlmii; bm hi; lived himself lo modify hifl aeiginal t^icws^and on 
this ^ubji^ct hib hlcbt uiUranccv urv i^uhir ubrt^ut uf thr Umc" 

An c^lTJU Irijm :& lt;ilcf i>l my [rilh«rV CO LyvW kUotvs bin 
<*[imjLtc of hit own wc>Tk. " Vou have pkawd me muth by 
nflying that jrou intend looking through my "Vokajik UU 
and^': \t ro*t mr eighteen monthi! f I and t hive heard of 
very few wliu have rea*i if Now I shnll fful, whatever lirtle 
<and hide it l^} ihcri; ib Lunfirm^Lury uf old work. i>r ik'v. 
will work ii5 c2ecl and not be ]o«/' 

The tJiird of hi* geoingical Looks, *Gi?o1ogicjl Obsctvj- 
llOTLt on South Anicrit.V nuy be mciilroncd hi:r?, ihlmuj^h Jt 
wai not putjlhhcd until 1S4&. " In this work the author em- 
bocli<-<:l nil l^u materials folleetcd by him for the LlhislTJtiori 
of Siiuih Amtricon Gt^ology. sjve some whirh have In^vn pub- 
lished eUEWIxere, One of llit mn^l imiioruni fe;jlure& of [he 
book wu the evidence wbjch 11 brought foiwmd Lo (irove the 
*low mJcTnjpted elevation of the South American Continent 
(Juring J rert'nl gtv.ilogkJil period/'* 

0( ibi^ Iviok my faihcr wtOTC to Lyell :— ** My vobtmc will 
beubout 340 pages, dreodfnlly dull, yc[ mu*:li condensed. I 
think Hhetivver you have time to look through it, you will 
IliJi^k the collEctiui) of hii:i^ on ihu tlevAtiun u( tkv land and 
OR the formitJon of tciracci^ |)rcUy giiud." 

Of hik ipeciol geological woik .i* a whole, Profeiior Ocikie, 
while pointing out that it wjh not "of rhc tixmc e[Kirh-mflkin|5 
khtil a4 bin biological reHcnrc^hei," rrmarka that be "gave a 
powerfiit i[iipuli4c to" the gener:il iCj:e|Hir>n of Lyell'f leach* 
ing " Liy the way in which he gathered from oil parts of the 
wgrld fact^ in ils luppori." 

* Cnkis, ^e. eiL 

Lira AT DOWS, *TAT, »-4S 

WOKK OT tat PkhtoT) 1841 TO 1854, 

Th« work of <hc«c yean nuy be roxishly divided inro a 
period of j^cologx from 1^41 to 1^46, and one of zoology fiom 

1 cxiDd from hU diary □a(icc« of the time sfieni on hU 
gpoltigical booka und an hit ' Juuroikl/ 

' Volcanic Khindu/ .Suiniucr <if 1S4J W JanuArj', t$44. 

' GcotofLy <>i South America/ July, 1K44, i*j A]"il, 1141 

Sctand KdilLon of 'The Journal,' Ociobcr* i'S4$^ to Octo-'^ 
bcr. 1846. 

Thr rimr hriwiyn Ortobrf, i''4'». nnH Odolwr, 1854. was 
pracLu^jJiy given up to working at iKc CirTijtfdid (TlamAcIc^) ; 
the rcmll* wcrt pnUli&hcd in tvo vglumr* iy the lUy Society 
JQ tB5i and 1^54- Hi» toZumei on ihc Fowl Cirtijiedeij 
wtrv iiubtiaficd by the PxlAontoitrApliical Sociviy in k95! 
And aK54- 

Somc ntf ounr of (hctp ^-olumei will he Kivm IflBtl, 

The minor vrorks nuy ht jilacrd logcihct, imlqiandently 
of *uhjecl mfllCCT. 

" Obm-'rvntionft on the SCrucrure, &*:., of ihe gcnu4 Sjgjitfl,'* 
Ann. Nbl Hi»C ftiii., 1&44- PP< i-<^< 

'■ Hnef De»criplion» of ffverit Tcn«triai PUnin;e, Stc^ 
Ann. Nftt, Hi«, tiv ^ 1A44, pp. t4i-;5T. 

**An Arrouni of Ihr Fine Dusl • vrKii-h fifttn YaIU an 
V«*»el* m the Atluiuc Ocean." GcoL Soc. /num. ii-h i.*4fi, pp. 

"0-t the <H^loey of Ihc tj^lkUnd Ulindi" GeoL Sac. 
|ouna. ii., r?*46, p(v J&j-i;*, 

""On the Tnniii'oriM of ?^miic Boulders* Src TGeol- Soc 
Jowm, iv. iS4«, pp. 3>5-3>J'f 

* A iMlMft Moa^ ^n ibUp4pfrAf iottrFtr.i««h«vlfiKil!if>CTi«nrl»r 
#gk nlin fu the iBpavMnOi at lOH atun^ bT <1&b(nbuEicri n.^" Thr fnet tbat 

f As cHuki fnun A kUtr |t> Lyell. iB^?,!"'^ jMerralhrainf-Tin* vi>% 
jih •■■f ^-" Would y« W tD EQrtJ(if yi7q bnov ^) at ii> pal V ilUkf'* 



The *Jlicl(r " Gcijlogy," in Ehc AdmifjUj^ M^nt^Hl of Sci- 

''On BrimJi FubbeI L<*pu]idx/' ' Gcnl ^oc. Journ.' vi., 

" Analogy of (he «(ruc(ur« of some VoIcamIc Rvckk >f Uh 
that oi Glucicn," ' Edin. Roy. Soc- Pfoc/ ii., 1851, y^ ij-iS. 

PfoffiiMfir (irtkif hns hct^n bo goorf a^ in j^ivr inr (in t 
Ictlcf doled Nov, ifiM5) hia imprcasion:) of my faihrr'* nriirk 
iQ the ' Admiral t J- Manual." He mtmioni the folbwing 
jKjinls aa durutlvritlti: uf tliu work :— 

*^ li iir^-iX l>rg;idl|] (ff view. So one whu hid nut |irac- 
lif ally «Tildied and profomidly Teflccied on Ihc questions dia- 
cuucd could have wricien it. 

"1. The insight so rL-markabk in all that Mr. narwiri 
did, Thi: way in which W points out lines of cnquify 
Ehst would cliu'idulET g^uLogiu^U piotjlc^ma is onuncnily ivpit'dl 
o[ hini. Some of thc£c hncs have never yui Eic^en jute^uaEcly 
fdltrwcd: io with ic^ard Ut lUvia he wu in advance vi hi> 

'' i- Inrrnr^tinn; ind lyinpachctic ireatmcni, The authoi 
«t once [utB hi» ieJidcr» inlij haimony wilh him. He [^iveii 
Ihem rtioiiKh of infftrtnation m thow how dclj^rfid thL' fidd 
1< 10 whf^h he invkrA thf-m, pnd how miirh they might afi- 
complisih In ll There ia a broad sketch of the subject 

}§d6jtu an Ibc i^nFlrrtcd Lclfcr sqd put IE. U \t chiefly u^enqulK In whet 

Lfiappr ho lut> ilbfiHltnl rh« Tloiildm on Arthur'KScut- Mr. D. Milncm 

[Mc lut Minhurgh ' Srv/ Phil. JnumAL ' |rA47j, hv 4 lang paper on it 

llfi uyti 'SnmF j-hi-iiiJ|hEi Nair vEnliircil In tiplain Iho fran^ilnlii^ of 

ihry \vcra Irntikpaned tm ice Unv^.' &11. }lr irt^l* ilui •ti-^n, ami 'iJic 
ftcitrchin^nf rocLtby Icphfrui. osaloiit^l tlnurcl , - h? 1ifl« riiuilly attried 
na up 10. ihiL (iJ^ilhuuI yuu wua!i1 uiikwrr hiin^ I ihink I will «(]ul 4 pjipffi 
In opp^ltJoii lu thchame /dumaL I «ji tTidB Enimifurt hoim^nlU rtmaTki 
'mill?, mri*.! kmk now, and will lnii]i»l on yttn VpUnl uTjicrvutitmi lb K- 
'AntdcjL h 14 a bon lo hk^ cmtt'Bwork, bui hg hu made at quits 





which wcryhody cad MIuv^ and there it enough of detail lo 
uu1tur.l jnd guj<jc A bcgtnnvr and iUtc him oti the Ti]{bt 

^Of <^Dur«Or gcnTnfly hai marlc gtoic atric^cs vincc 1^49, 
snd Ihi? artirlir. if wiiucn now, would navd to lakv nutirtf af 
oihCT bTMiKhr*! uf irnt^ijiry, uud lo mudify hiAicuv^itU wJuvh 
ate not T\ow t.|utlc 4i:i:uriilG ; but mokt of the Jidvk« Mr, Dar 
■'in gives U as needful aad valuable new n» wht-n ii wa* 
l^vcn, It 11 riiriuiiv (■'i v^ with vhat unrrTin^ tc^flinrr he 
ncomii in hnvr fiutcncd on thf; pdnciplct thu would itxnA 
the test of lime/" 

lu a Ititter tc Lyell hS5j) my father wrott. "1 weot up 
Ibr a paper hy the Arctii. Ilr Sulherland. 00 ice action, read 
only in abiiract, hur 1 ihould think with much good matecr, 
ll wa» very [iTpaunt lo hear that il veat writtm owing 10 Ihc 
Admiralty M.inual." 

To Give Kcpmc idea of the retired hie which oow began for 
my fathei a.i Down. 1 have noted from his diary Lbe dioct 
perioiln duriiiit ithich he wa^ away from home betweea the 
aaiumn of tS^3, whfr^ he eamc lo Down, iind ihc end of 

1S4J, y«{V'— ~Werk al Ma<;r and Shreusburyp 

„ OfMer.^^'laKivc dayn at Shrvvahury. 

TB44. yf/H/-— Week at Maef and ShrewtUuty. 

,^ /ufy.^Twt\rr dfly* at SlirewhlmTy. 
tS45, .Vf^Mmiv^ <5,— Sit week", "Shrrw*hiiry, lii 

Aiire, York, ihc Dean of Matichciier, Waiertoi 

1546, /^f^narr, — Kleren d^y* at Shien p,liuiy. 
K jM£j.—'V<a Jayi Mt ^hrcntbury. 

,, Sffiim^^'^Ttn daj» at Southampton, tec., for the 
Bnikh AuoriatiuTL 

1547, /WrJW/7.— TwiUe day* ai Shrewtbttry. 

« yiuv. — Ten day* at Oxford, 4Cc-, for ihe BrkiJih A«- 

H OfAdrr. — t-'ortmght at Shrenvhu ry. 




184^ Jfa^. — tottnlghtat Shrewsbury, 

„ CWrf^/,— Formight ai Slirpwshury. 
,. A^flwm/^r-— Eltvcn days ai Shrcwibury. 
1849, ManA ti> /vrr.— 'Sixteen w«ekt dt Mnlvem. 
„ Sepltm/xr. — tvlevcii daj'b 4t JiLULUfigliaiii foe th« 

1850* yi»rtf.— Week al Mjlvem- 

„ Auxuit. — Week M Lcith Hill, The houM of a rclstiv<L 

„ Oetober^ — Wirc< :it thr huttnc of another reTflnvP: 
iRji, .lA/r-'j*,— Wctk at Malvom, 

„ J^h/.—Wnt day* ai Nblvvm. 

IT /*6'' — Twdvcdayi in London* 

1853, Murth. — Wtck jil Kuicby and Sbicw*l>ury. 
„ SfptfmhEr. — Six dayn jil ihe houiic of a telAtivc. 

1855, /h/v,— Three week* ar Eaiibonrne. 
J, Anj^usf. —Five clays ai the miliiary Camp ui ChoU- 

1854. MartA-—¥ivc djyt at the houhe of a rclaiit^. 
„ yff/v-^Thrcc day& al tlie douse of a relative. 
„ Ociffbfr.^^n days at xhc hoiite uf a relative. 

If will hf sn'n he wai alh«nr fiotn home flixXy we^lr^ 
iti twdvf y^afs, ftiit it musi be remembered thni mufh of 
the rvmixining lime spent at Dawa wa« lost through ill- 


Down [Mireh jiit, 1I43V 

Dear FitX'Kov, — [ rc:id yesterday with tucprite and the 
greatc%t intereilf your appointraei^t .11 Governor of New Zea- 
land. I drt noi kncjw whcihcr to congratuble yo(» on it, but 
I am iiure t may the Colony, on po&i^^bin^ your fi^al And 
encfgy, I Jm moht ^kiouf^ to know wheltitr Ihe rej>ort \% 
true, lor J tannul bear On: thouyhtt of your leaving :hc 
country wtthout seeing you oncf again ; Ihif past is often in 




my lucmoiy, snd 1 feci that I o#c Co you iuat:h b>y[one cQJoy- 

inrnl* ind ihc «hi>le dcstm^- of my Life, whklx Ihud my hc^th 
brtn stronger) would have been one full of larijif.if.lion lo mc. 
During ihr la«i three months I hjivc nrvcr oner fonc up io 
l^rtndnn withAui imcnding lo caX) in ihr hiiptc of (ccmg Mm, 
Kiu Roy and yourself: imt I finil, moiL un/onunat«ty for 

inyBcIf) that lh« JitlTi* cxcit4:rti«n( uF biTukm|; out of my mi 
ijuicl routine wj iicnrrjlly knocks mc U|>, ih-tE I am ahit to 
■carcdy iinyihing vhen Id London, and 1 hare fiot eren 
able to ailend ono evening mcrttng of the G«ciTo]pcJ>] Socirly, 
Othcrwriir. t »m vt^ry wfll, oa arc, ihjink E^nd, my %Jfr and 
two childrtm. The extreme reltrcmcnt of ihU pUcc ruici ivt 
aII very well, iind wv enjoy our coumry life much- But 1 am 
wrtlictjL triflei about myMll, when your mmd uiiJ time mn«| 
be fully occupied- My object in ivritLn^ m lo bei of vou ov 
tin. Fiti-Roy lo have (he kindneii to «end me one tine 
>ay whether tt h ttac, and whether yon lail aoun, I ^a1 
come iTfj nrxi week for one or two dap : rould you ^rt me 
For even five minutes, if 1 t:jl\cA ejtrly oa Thundiy mnminjf, 
v'u. ai nine or ten o'i;lock, or M uhaievei hou< (ii you keep 
c^ly thip houri) you fiulsb your breakfast. Pray remember 
me very kindEy to Mn. Kiiz^Roy, >*ho I irutt ie able lo look 
at her long voyage with boldneM, 

Believe mc, dear FiuRoy, 

Yvur 9i«r truly i:>blij^> 

CiiARLM Darwik- 

[A <iuo1atioii from inolhcr letter (184^) to Ftlx-Koy mvf* 
ht worth Ri^iiJ?' ** showing my fnther'i afleciionaite remem- 
brance C\t hin iilt\ C.iptnin 

"Farcwdl, dear Fiu-Roy, I often think of yioar thany 
acta of kindneu lo me> and ctoi seldomeii on the time, no 
doubt quite forit^jlten by you, vbeu> before makrnc Uadein 
you (arm- And jrrin|-rJ my biimmock wilhi your own httfidV 
and vrhich, ju I afiefwxrdK hcAFd, brought teart into toy 
father** cyeau"] 


'VliSriGKfi or CREATION," 


C Darwin fn It'. D. Fffx. 

[iJoim, ScpTembtf 5. lft|S J 

Monday nit>rningr 

Mv j>CAii Pnx, — When I «cnt off ihc gbricr paprf, I wm 
just going cmi and so li^d no timir to write. I hoiic your 
frkntl will enjoy (^nd t wUli you were ifoiiig iJitre witfi hiuO 
hiH lour a» miu h ^b I djd. It wa« a k.iiiU of ^colugiml mrvt'1. 
Ilul youi friend muil Kjvc patience, for he '^ili r&l gel a, 
aood g/ao'tf ^yr for a few <I.iy5- Miirrhiion and Count Key- 
nrrlifig rmhiii ihiongh N*wrh Walca (he sflme aummn jinc! 
eonlt! gee nothing exrcpi the fffccis of tain iricMing over 
ihe (ocka ! 1 cTot^-e^jmineti MurcEiibon a tiiile, and evi- 
denUy »w he liAd lucked tarefulfr aI m^thmg, 1 f(?cl tftf^in 
flbiMH the glncitr-cffcf t5 in Norih Wales. Oct up your «reAm, 
if lhi» weather lasts, and have a ramble in Wale* ; it% £loriou<i 
flccrnvry mufll do tvcfy oni's heart and Itody jt*^''- ' ^''^'^ I 
hod cncigy to ccitne lo Dchinc^rc: ami go with you ; but a* 
you observe, you m^ghi ^t wcil jsk Sl i'lul*. Whenever I 
giv« mysetf 1 trip, tl flMll fie. I think, to ScoUand, tu hunt 
for mote p^iralld rond:^. My mArme iheory for these raul» 
was for a ilme knwked on the hca^J by Agri.*i-iTZ irc-wcrk, but 
11 ii now reviving again, . . - 

Fuft'itdl, — weaKgcllirn; nearly 'in whed — almost aH Ihc 

iwc;rkincn tl^oe, anJ Il\c firAvd Uymg down oa Ibc walkv 

,ve Maria! how the money does go. There nfc twice *■ 

"mjny Jemptnlions to tutrrtvagarn-e in the (oiintry rompurcd 

with London. Adloa, 


C- D Ah WIS- 

C Darwin io /. D. ffaokffr, 

. , . . I have jUm> read the ' VnntiKrV * but have b«m 
Mmwhst ]«>« *[nn««d &i ii thuii yoLi uji^it^ar to ImTc been: 


Lirt AT DOWN. .1,TAT. whI- 


Ihc writing and »rrftnKffiirnt arc crtuinly jdmiiaUe, but ht« 
BCOIOkEV sinkcf mc cu hnnX. ami ht& loclggv '^' «<>ric. 1 
ihhould lie vety much oliligcd, if it nny fumrr or Irinure timt 
you coutd tcLl IDC oa wh«t yon gmund your doiihtfitl l>ctic( 
in tmnKin.ition of a mothrr affi-rlinjt hrr ofTipring * 1 hi' 
ati«ni1i-il m ihe icvcni iioitincnEs Kuuicrcd abcui, bm Hoitt 
believe in more than ocddcnni coinddeacrs- W. Hunier 
totd my (athci* ihtn in a lyinj;-iu hi^^iUl, (lisi tn iiMny 
tboiDiand uurea* lie biiil -.i^)nri\ llic ni^jUtcr, Ar/crf 'i^/ ■'(urjtuir- 
jiui-A/, whether injtlitng hcul a^ecied het im^ginAtion, and te- 
rgrded the answen: And Jbiohitely not on< rj^te C'lme rigbi, 
ihotigh, when the chiM was Anything Tell^arkAbk^ ihcy i/icr- 
waid^ mnjc lUr cip cn A(. Kef'ioduciJon hceniA governed liy 
>uch limilji law* ia ihe vhole animal kingdom, ih^t I am 
moM lolh [to believe]. - - , 

Mv DtAK HKitRFur. — \ WW very alad :o *ee your hand- 
vriiing «nd hear a bii of ntwt about you Though you ran* 
not come here Ihit iiiiumr^, ! do hope you and Mn, Herbert^ 
will coTa< in ilie winter, aad we will hat-c lolh <;f Ulk of old] 
limeii &nd lot* of Itecihuven. 

lb* laxn Robrn ^hdrnhrn M<r ^^Hn't e<^T £**•' "Jena of buins b*« 
cutf^jlly rtfi^. < i--'i,' i< : <>' rauWj] I4b-A;e^ l*rinE p^<inf<t In •( tht eiidi 
One mcfuL Ic <ii Fv: V'::ji]^ i<> hiTic IcAfiKi] frtiin ll. He VTJI«t ■ " ne 
■dra q' ft h^ih fjuhin^ inio a fr^iiif. monxUvnL I wi\] ut >pef Ify >ny 
gi«AHra£te*— oiHcti TcHi hutr Lnotrn jit |H<ck<nl,' lie icfen i^p [a the 
ttotfk in » leTlPi in Vok, f^liiqar). iK^f ' " *'"' T™^ ''*! ^'''' •'""C*' 
un|>hil(iiu|>litnT, but tftf^rUllf-vriilvB boo4L, tfw 'VftrJgr*' M hM mvt( 
nwre UlV iban uif ■'oeU of Iklc. mJ hv Iwm by kftinr •nrlhoiM Up nr-^ 
tt trliidi 1 odi^E la b* ipiich Ailldvl mJ LmdalEtml " 

* TbU nfen m ihf nc« of > r*tDTl» i-f Mr J- llaok«i\ tJha imiiCol 

•poa bcncLf on bt^inif, bcfare [lie Ivirib uf ihc f biM. blouvJ wtt Btpl* 
i»PX of Tumct'i ' Libv StBdionni * lliai fi*d b«ntc(ii i« bci wtdiipc- 

Ctai lajHBCtl^l in 1>* 




I have little or rat hoT nothing lo-'aynbonr myself; vc Wvd 
-Bkc clock' wo rlc, anJ at vrLtt mu8i p«:ui4« would cunatdcr ihi: 
duUcift pw^^'Uc niAtiticr. L Luvc oS late beta kLLvirij^ cilru 
hud, to the greiii dlKom^iurr of wretched dig;slive orgAni, 
at South Atncricfl, and Ihnnk all the fat^» 1 have done Ihrcc- 
foiirihH 4^f \t. Wriiinjr plnin tlngti^h grow& wEih rat marc 
and more difliruttr and never JitlJiinQbla M (or ynut pre- 
tending thai you will ri^ud ^uiyLlilug i<j dull lu my jjurr gttc^- 
logii:al debcripLioub, fjjy noi audi li flolLCEiug un^uoti on my 
bUuL* for U a mcrcdiljlC' i hdve loa^C dLbcov-cied (hut gcoiu^ 
ipbt* iLcvcr re;Ld Cnsch other's worlca., and thai the »nly objecL 
m writing 3 book i^ :l proof of carntMr)<:iiS, and that yon do 
not form your o|iinioii'i wilhr>iit iindt-rgoing liAb'»ur of iomf 
kind. C*<.*ol<fgy is ut ijci^ecnt vtziy urul, and xvIilj.! 1 hrrc say 
la to a grtat extent quite true. But I aju giving you a dJH- 
CWtton as Igiig u ;i chajiter in (he tidioui L>ook it^f, 

I haw bEcly b?c:n to Shrewsbury, ^nd found my father 
vurpnaingEy well -ind chL-LThi] 

ficlt«vc me, Diiy dear old ftieod, ever youn, 

C- Darwih. 

Mv liS*K HfXiiiT-B, — I am much nbli|(.:d for yr»uf very 
aiff^jibli- Inter; ii rtos vrry pom^-njitufrd, in the midar of 
your STJiL-ntiflc and theatrical disjiip-itinn, to think of writing' 
so lang a leUer tu ine> I im Ubtonubed Jl yuur ne^vr, and 1 
muitt condole wilh yijii in yuur/rfjiw/ »icw of lUt ProfesBOT' 
»hii3,tand moKl heartily deplore it on ntyown account I'hen 


* Dp [h? mmoubjcell? wrote t4 Fiff-Rcy: " I hiive Knt my ' -Saolh 

AlVBflun t^al^cy' In rriTVrr Srrocl. anH you will ^i" I t[» no rlnuhl. in iTie 
■ COilne nf Timf- Vnn i\fi noi k^L1^T i^'har ynii Elirf^lrn ivti^^-n ti?ii (MTifio^r ir> 
.read it — U i» I'Lirrly (■c-ilnjiictl I *ftirl IrT my hrtyy\\cr. ' Voii ivi]] of i^ninr 

reid i1.' ani) In* it^iwrr wd^^ ' ITpun niy UfCn [ mTiitit ^pwjnci cvpn Ituy ii^"* 
f Sir J- 11. Ilookr-r wd> b cnq^ditv R>r ihe l^ftmtanhip cf J^otany ■! 


Ur^ AT DOWS. ^CTaT. j>-*5. 


b fLOmtflhing ?io t:hllHn)C in a Mparfllion of m tiiuny hundi 
(nik-)s Ehoutth wc 4I1J noE «cc mcich of c^cti other when ncjrerj 
Vtiu will hirdJy bclicTc how deeply I rcgrei for */w// y<n 
prtf4cnl pro»p-ctt- 1 )^ail look<!<I forwiKl to [our] «cHn^ 
mnrh r>f i^Jirh other rlurtnjf tmi Mvk^. \t \* .\ \\<-a\y ftiaBj 
pDinimt-ni ; and in Ji mere bclAih point of view, u aiding me' 
io my work, your loni in in<Iccd irr«ptir:ible' But, on itm 
othvi liand. 1 <:ii[iuot dcfubt Ih-il you Uke At presciii A de- 
t[jt>Rdin|£. itihU^d of trriglii, <icw of youf protpctu : fUtely 
there arc gte^i adviQU^^*, as well as diudvanragri. The 
pljL« i* one of cmiin'mT: flnd rtftlly it n;t|ic:in Io mt' rlirfc 
arc fto many indiffj-rrni workers, and no frw rcddcni that it 
th a high advantage, in a purely uiieiiiiflc point of viev, for a 
good wi^rkci tv hi^ld 1 poaiiion which kdd« otbcrt lo alter 
lo hi? work^ i forget whether you attendeJ ICituiburi^U, ai 
»tudcEit, bill in my time thcri; wok a knot of nicr who were 
far fmm being the indifFrreni >ind dufi li«ienen which you 
enpect for your nudjenire. Rcdert vhnt a latlifjclion And 
honour it would W to «**' a gT>r»d botnniHi— with y<"?r di*H 
po«itioa you will be to rnAny what HenKtow wa% :i[ C^iinbridgC 
to mc and other)^ j in^H^i kind frjtnd an<l gui<le, TUrn what 
ft fine fiardvn, ^nd how good 1 Publtc Libnry! why, Forbi 
alwjya regrcci The MJrjnt^gei of Edmburgh for work : thinlf 
of Ihr inrntiroAblc adv:inlAjQt of jCTtling within a hhnrt \r*\V of 
thOKc noble rocki an<l hilli and landy ihoremcor Fdinhufgh 
liulcedp I cannot piiy you much, though I pity myself &«•■ 
c«edtai;ly in yo-r loss. Surely Itfciuring wilL in a ytnt oc 
Inxj. with y i/iit j;rfiit capacity fvr work fnhuttver you nuy \iv 
pkMied to tif to the contrary) bcioii»e cAiy. and you wdl 
hare a f^ir time for your Ancarctic Finn and getieral riewt 
nf di*Tribi]tI»n. If I thnii||lit yoitr rrofrKWiT^hip would tti 
your wotk, 1 should wifJt ii and all ihe f^ooii worldly fcni 
<|uefKei at t/ Diatieit^. \ know I thtUl \\\k to tc^ you llie 
fint authority in Europe on thai grand subject, Elut aloKWtj 
Lrytlonc of the lam of tmtion. Geographical Diiiributiiniv' 
Well, there in que comfovt, you will b«at Krw, oo doubi. 
rrery year, ^ t shall Aniih by fordng down youf throat my 




ainccre coneruiu1at]i>fkfii. Thank« for all your news. T jfrkve 
la hvfti HucjiUdIOi ii f^iLmy ; on? c:innol hcl^j tfcclint^, Ih^mgh 
imiighiry, thai tiich jn end it htimiliaEin^! : pvcn when J %jiw 
him htf talked licyi^nd aU rr^inrin Tf yrm iw him fls^in, pray 
Uiirc him my n\cM respfrifHl nnd kind compllirn^nw, and 5uy 
ihnr I novcT forget that my whclc course nf life ia due to 
having r^ad and rc-rciid uk a youth hrti * PcrcDttd Karraiivc' 
Hou- Etuc and pka^ing ait: alT yniir rL-niarkh on hib kin^titjEfK; 
ihjnk huw m^riy opporttiaiiics you will have, tn your acvi 
jilitiit:, of Ljting -1 Humbotdt to olheis. Atk him alx^iiL Ehc 
river in N. E, Europe, with flu: FIom very ditfcrcnl on iu 
oppOiiTo bankt. I have Rt^t And rr-od yfiiir WtllifK; whAl a 
fcvTilt' tionk m mLkUev and irylc. and hiiw hpU-mTidly ^ot up ^ 
Do ^vrJIt- ini- u line froiT> Dcfliii, Ado thanks fyi the proof- 
»heeis. 1 diJ not, however, mean prwof pUl*B ; I value them, 
a^ »ving mc copying citncis. Fjrciv'dK r"y dear Hooker. 
with a heavy heart I wish you joy of your proipccr*. 

YouT ninccrp friendj 

C. Darwin, 

[The second edition of ihe 'Journa].' 10 whirh the follow- 

Iciter refers, y\A*. fompL'Icd between AprCI 3$th and Axi- 
It a5th, h wni pulltuhei] by Mr. Murray in iht 'ColonuU 
and Homv Library/ anil in Ibifi morv ;u;i;cWTiblir ri>rm «Mon 
had a Jarge sak. 

Up [o Ihe lime of hU Lir^l negi^tijtliont with Mr. Murray 
for Its pTibhVation in Ihi? form, he had rt-cetvcd |>aymenr nnly 
in the fonn of a large number of prcicmntlf»n fopirn, jncl hi* 
scemi; to have btcn glad to sell the copyright of the second 
vdttioD to Mr. Murruy for 150/, 

'rh« potnU of OiifeT^nic bclvrctn it unti the liri^t cJiLion 
ar* of interest ehiclly in connection with the (growth of the 
author'i views on ei-olution, and wiW br considc^itd Inter.] 


LirK AT DOWN. .ftTAT, jy-i%. 


I>?WB [July, itiil. 

Mv i>R*« T.VTii-,— 1 scn<l you ihc flrt( p.-iri • nf ihc new 
edition [irf ihp 'journal oi R«ejKh?s'], which I » cntircif 
owe to jrou. You will ^tt that I ha»r vuntuitii |u dtdicait it 
to yn\u\ au<1 J tniBl ifa^ thiH lamiul W iliugrccjtflci J hnvj 
lodg wiiliciifUvt tv uiuctk li>f youELAihC,^ for my own feeltni 
of hooetljF, 10 jkclLAowlcd^ mort pliioly <bio bf mere refer- 
enfe> how much I geoloftirall/ owe fou. ThoK nuthon, bow- 
ever, who likt you, ed<»*-jiir people"* mift<t4 ■< well A> tc«:h 
them upecUl fMei>,can nrvrT, ! f^hould think, hare i\x\\ juMice 
(lone Ihem Gxcc|>t by potteiilyf iot Ihe mind ihu* ifKeniiifaly 
jmpnjvcil can hAiJly jiprceive iit own upitard asccot- I had 
inl«ndcO putting tn ihe (ircicnt A^knowlctliEmcnt in the thir^i 
pan of my Geoloey, but iu uk ii 10 eicecdingty imjill th^r 
I should not haiT had ihe lUti'sfDciiori of thinking ihii an fir 
u lay in mypowrr 1 hud tiwn<rt1. thmi|:h [mprTftTTly, mydrbt, 
Pr^y do noi think that t im tti> >itly, ji» to »i)^r[rii«G ihai my 
dedication cad any ujiyt gratify you. encfpE to far ah 1 trumt 
you wUl receive it. u a mo«t »ncci« marit of my giatiTude 
and frirnLiihip. L tiiink I have im|>n>t-ed ihii edition, cipe- 
oalty the vrond part, which I have jiiit finished, I have 
addrd \ ij^ood AttA A\\oitx the Fnrgiafki, and mx <U>wn jqml 
half the mercilcnlr tong ditrottion 00 dimatc and gliderii't 
4c. J do not recolleti anyilung added lo the lir^t part* li 
enuujEli l<» ^^^ y^^i' atiefitiuii to; therr ii a px^e uf dcvcrip' 
lic^n of A very curiao^ hcecd uf oxen in Bindi OnrotftL 1 
5houkl like you to r«ad ihe few lait page^: thcrcit a IjtcLc 
difOUMion on eattmrcion, whidi will not perhaps strike you 

* Ktr dnulil pn»r-4htila' 

4 Ttit 4cdk*iigii «f ibv hoaH fdhlon of ibt'Joanul of Itt4«uc4jn/ 
knfbilQinL— "ToOulv Lrttl t:«-|. F. K.S. Lh^ Kbfl4 cilllivo V 
dcilicttitd wlLh fnlrfvl ptcuitrt— u tn ockno#t«tt;niii-i that the cbref 
pfcrt uf wbiic¥ff ■cimrlfic ravHt ttiU Jcmnal ud ihe Dthc r worict <rf tha 
AuLliot mif p<*aea^ liu botn ddflvfd froB 4lud/inj fh« wwtl-lianwn knd 
ftdnlnlitc * PriQdpt«* ef GnIocj/" 




au n«w, though ii tiJit «o lErack me, And h;ii plarcd in my 
tnind aU th<^ diftkuUJc^ wiih re^pi^^t 10 thc^ cuo^l'v of CKtinc- 
lion, in iht same chi& w'nliothvt ditficuLuea whkti aii: ^c^cr- 
ally quUcoveilooked ii\d aiy*^'cfyj.\ut:tl \>y njiufj^htU; I uu^liti 
^Jivwcvei, to have miiXt my tltSQumoa longer and hhewn hy 
iictif as I easily could, how ^Icadily every ipccici muti be 
checked in it! niimliL-rq. 

I rcrcivcd your Trai'ds • ycsTcrdiiy ; *nd t lik<* linfi^rd' 
InfiJy ill external and interntil apptiiranrc ; I read only nboui 
M i^ozeii piigc-^ last tii^lu [iot 1 was litvd v'nh h:iyonijkm^)^ 
but 1 s:x^ ^luie enougli ti> fri^rcrivtr how iTfi iiiuUi il will iih 
Ifrv^L mc, und how^ many p3?pULg» will be uored, 1 am 
plcA&cd ro fmti n good iprintlfng of Nzinirnl History: i ihjdl 
be astonished if I'l dots not Hell very largply. , . . 

How sorry 1 atn Tv think tfiat wc »lidl not »ve yt>u hcra 
Affiiin Tor fiu lon;^; I #iflh ymi may kiioi-h yc^itradf a little hit 
up Iri^lure you Mirt and rc<|uiic a dixy'i IrcsU ajr, bcfure Ihc 
ocean b(ccie» hWw un you. , . > 

Ever your*, 

C. Darwiv, 

C. DMrrvfn iff C. IvfU, 

Mt riKiu LvtUL,— Ihnvcbeen wlithing tt» wriu to you for 
ji w«ek |iiivt, but evtry fivtr mii.iutf»' woitJi of slrcngLh hah 
been e)tt«nded in getting out my iccond pnrt.f Youi no^e 
pleased mc :» gpod deal more I darr ny than my dedicrition 
did yot. Hnd I thnnk y^uJ mtirh for it. Vniirwork hjit in- 
tcrcHicd mc murh. and I will pvp you my impresnionSn 
though, aa I never thought you would I'^re t-j hear what ] 
thought of lh(3 non-HCLOEitirib puUi 1 UMdc uu not». nor 
to^ plint to rcmcnibc' ^ny pAftuntbr imjircfiaioit of tvO' 
thirdai of Ihc i^rit valumc, JUc Lirn im^rc>Mon I ihouLd uy 





wi>ulil br with rnokt (though 1 hivfl literally ttcn tioi one 
»aiiL lincc nndinK lE) rricret «t Ihrrc noi being more of the 
ncn^^nrntir^t' [par[i|- I iun not a gncxi Judge, for 1 have 
read nAihing, /, f. non-Kieniific about North Atntrici, bui the 
whole struck me ua very new, fiesh, and Frtlciettini-. Vout 
iJi9t'iiB»Lon« LoEc to Illy min\| Lht cvtdciit vl^inp ol maEufcd 
thijitjhi. AT\d of condition* drawn from fjcti obicricd by 
yoUTielf, and not fri>ni ihe opinions of the pci;>ple f»hom you 
mcl; and Ihi? I timpcrr in c^raptrnxivcij tart. 

Votir fllavr <1ivii»*ion diiiiurbcd mc murh ; but 4» you 
iFoulit c4rc no more for my oj>mmn on ihii hcdU ihjn for the 
uhc) of this letleri 1 wiJl •ay notliLng r^tepE thai il icJive mt 
ft^me tkeplcu, fiio«r unc^KiiforiJibk hour^ Yuur arcmini of 
the rcHgloui %ia.ic ol the Sratci parckulofly ii^ferotcd tne : I 
un Mirpri««d throughout ni yoor very proper boldnc** flgamrt 
the Clprf*y. In yonr Univmity thupier iht ni."n;y, and n 
the S( Ik' ^hI KdmMion, ate r"Wt *cverely ami jiinily handle^' 
And thifi [ think ii very Ltold, for I conceive you might crush 
■ leaden headed old Don, u j Don. with more ufciy. thui 
touch ilie ftnger of ihii CurjKi'i^^c' Amrnil, the Clergy. What 
a contTAH m l-MucJiiion doci Kfi^land Khrw iiKlf! Vour 
Apoloj^ (txilnfi the lertn, like the old feljgionittt »ho meant 
onything b;ir an apology) for kcturca. nmck mt as very 
clerer : but all the argunifrnts in (he world on your Bidtp ue 
not r^Ltj^t to 00? courte of Jamidoii'* Lej:tuie« on the other 
side, whi^h 1 formcrlf for my »m» eupcricnt^d. Although 
T had read about Ihr 'Cottfieldi m North America.' I nercr 
in Ihc fmnllr^ dr^rf^ rcftlty rEimprrhfndi^d ibrtr area, thti 
thii l(nc!« «nd ffvoumble position ; nothing hardly adoun 
me more in your book. 

Seme few parts struck me as rather hetrronEeneciutt but I 
not know wfiethrr to an extent llMt at all fti^fieit ) ml» 
hrifrevrr, ■ gaoH dcjl, *fHne gi^nrril heading to ihe fhapr^n. 
luch ai the two o« three prtncipaJ places vUtted. One has 
no right cntxpect an author Ut write dowa (o (Im tero of geo- 
gtap^ican^omnce of the fditcr : but t n<ri knowingasi 
pUcc, was DCCAiionally rather ^pla^u^d in iiacing yoar 




Socnctimct in tbc beginning of a ch^sptert in one panLgfaph 
yoHT course wa* iTvired thrcrugh i luJf ilo/cn pLii-'Ct- anyono, 
ai^ ignoranf as mywM, if he could he f^^und^ wouW prefor such 
a dbiUTlnng pAragtaph left nut. I cut your map Iuoav, and I 
found ttiui n ^TViit cuinforl: t cuuld not fdJow your cii^ravcij 
Ifavk. I IhiiiL ill j ^i^ci^ciJ cdiltun, iiitcf^pucc^ hi^t-e ujul llicrc 
of one \mv o;ji:TX, wuuld l>e an imptovcracnL \Sy Ihc way, I 
laV^ crcdU lo myself in giving my JonmaJ i k« icirnlifjc nir 
in haring pnnicrl all njimcs of specie* and ffCncTH m Rfjm^nn; 
ihr firintin^ looks, aho, bi^iicn AM fhc^ HhisimtionK KCrilic 
mc 4^ capit^, and tht map is an admirable volume in itsc\t 
If yuuf * Frinciplve* hatl nol met with tuch uQi%-vr«a| udini- 
ri^lion^ 1 should linvt fi^.ir^d Iherr would have been Eo4:> mt^h 
neology in this for the general leader ■ cenainly a.11 thjt ihe 
ino«t clear and l^ght style could do. ha^ bei^n ^ne. To my- 
wif llie j^ewlogy was an rHtfllfnt, wcll-condt-nwdi ivi-ll *K- 
^eslcd r/fjum/uf dl thai Ttiii^ lieeii iii^ide out in NurEh Amer^ 
ic^ and every gctjlogisi ought to l>c gmicful co you. The 
iumming up qC the Nia^^ru chapter appearc^L u> me the 
gnnde^t part: I wjs 11I90 il;i:ply inlereslrd hy yuiir diKUftiiun 
on lh< origin of the SJEurian formations. I have made icorvft 
of lioffi marking p.i5!5n.gc« hp^eaflcr u*cfii! lo mc, 

All 1 he coal iheory apptored lo mc very good ; but it lb 
no Ubi^ going Of} enuineralLng in iWn nunner. I wibh tiicrc 
Im4 been mote PJaLuruL Ilifitury : J hkcd ■;// Ihc tcalEcted 
fragments, 1 have now gitcn yoti an ejiatt liaQiciipl of my 
ihoughts bat ihcy an: hardTy worth your reading, . . 

Mv urah Lv£.LL,—'rhi)k i« literally the firtt day on which 
1 hjtvr had any time to spare; And 1 will amuse mv^lf by 
beginning a lcTli:r to you. . . . 

r wae delighfcd with your letter in which you (ouch on 
Slavirry; 1 wish Ehc ^juut; feelings had been apparent 111 your 
published iliiicuwii^n. UuC 1 wiW not write on tiijit aubjecit t 


LIFB AT DOWp'W. ^TKT. »^5- 


fthouLd pTThA|>» jTiUDj' fgu. »ad mo»t cerUJnIy my>cLf, 1 
havic exh^kct myiclE with a paragraph or Iwo in my jQumol 
on (hf 'in of Brnfilinn "thvrry ; you pcrh,tf** wiU Ihink that 
It 14 In .in^wcT let ynn; bui au^h in nat rhcr cakc, t hvrt 
remarked on noihing whkh E did not hear on the coa*t of 
Suuih Aini-r<:a. My ftv: si;nt«n(^«} however, arv [uvrcly an 
fxpfuftiun gf fvcltn];. Huw coulU you irUtv v> pUciJly thai 
atrciciuut tcnlimcDi* about icparacing childr«n from their 
parcnif; and in ihc ncK( pa^c syjuk of bcJn^ dnifc^tcd at 
the wliitn nol havinfi proljlcrcd ; I awirr y" the corirra*t 
meutr mi? cxc^laim oitt. Hiii I havr broken my mieniion^ and 
so no more on Ihit odious deadly subjccL 

Tlicic 11 a Uvourabk, bui not strong enough review oa^ 
you, in ihc GarJ^nfri' CArpntW^. I am lony tu svc that LtniS> 
tey aindft by the carbonic add gib theory, Ity the way, I 
WM mirch pl^scd by Lindlcy picldng oat my cvrim^iion parj- 
gI^ph^ nnd givinjc ihcm uncurtailed. To my mind, putting 
(h« comparative ruriiy of caistini^ ^i^ccLai in the mnc cacc* 
gl>ry with extinnion hat icmovc^l a great ^rcrighi ; thouj^h of 
course it doefc not <:i;>lajn anytbinB^it ^bowctliiit unltl wc can 
explain cooiparaiiTE rariiy, we ougbl not to fed any lurpru* 
U not TXpbining cuEinciioa. . . , 

T i.ra mii«h p1ci«ed io hear of ihc call for a n^vr edition of.' 
the ' Prinrifilca '; whai glonout good thu work hai done. I 
fear tbii time you wilt noE ht amongst ihe u]d rucki ; how \ 
thSkU rqoJE:e Eu live Lo Me you publtah und difrcover anoibcr 
■tagc below the Silucian^l would be the (randeiii »lep poc- 
fiblc. I ibink. I am rery f^lad to hcarvhai progrm Bunbucy 
» mjkinj; in fnwil BoTany : thrre i^ a fine biiitn^ fnr him lo 
111] lip In xh[% roimtry. I v^tll rertninly roll on hiB ihU winter. 
^ . . Ffom what liiile I saw of him, I con quite believe every* 
thing which yoti My of hb talentH. . , > 

* fn Ibc pamBr rcfEntd to, L^ ^hf* nol fliv* hb wwn *!««% 
those «f a fUnirt. 



C. Dartcfift to /, D. J/Mfr. 

Mv DEAft Hooker.,—] Iiuve ]ufX receivifil )'0(M nuiCt whic:H 
hji iitloniihcd EiK, AL^J huL^ mosi liuly gricvi^d iitc, I ttcver 
for one minute doubled (»f your success for i mo>t«rrone- 
Oiiily imj^mcij, that merit wn siirr to (piin the Jfly. I f«l 
mo-flt aUff! Ihar the day »viU cninr Hrton, wh<?n Ihosc who have 
voipjl fl^uingi yLiii, if (hry have nny slinmc or conscience in 
ihcm, will be nslumcd w hiving allowed jxilincs to blind their 
cyett lo yuuf (juahQcuLiunfi. and tho«r i|uuUricJtiun5 voui:hed 
l\jj \>y Humboldt and Ijruwii I Wdl, Ibtnic te^iLinonials muM 
he 1 cons4>laiion to yG\^ /'rt/h puJ^trf I am wied .ind indig- 
nant by turns. T f antiot'evf!n like romfdn in thinking that 
I shall ace more of you. and fKJriicE more knowledge from 
your wtU-artftnt^ed atiiuk, I am iili'aspd lo Ihink. ihat after 
having read a few of your letters, I never once douUied ihfi 
pofrUion yon will uUfmatdy hold imong^t Eutop^jti BuLuniEts. 
I cxn think ijboul nothing el^Ci othei wise I ihould like [loj 
diicii5H 'Ciiimos'* with you- I Ifum you «ill pay me Jind 
niy wife n vi^t ihi!^ mritimn ai Dawn^ I ihaU be at Down on 
llu' 34ih. jind nil then moving; about. 

My dear Hovk^r, ahuw uic lo tdl mystilf 

Vcur wry Uue friend, 

C- Dahwih, 

C Dttruffft to C. lyfiL 

t huve \axcly been hikinf* ;l little tour to we a fdrm 1 
tiATc purdiA&t'd in LLnc;o][n(hirt:,f ^ud Ihcn to Voik, whvre I 

• A tinnilB[Jnii Af IfumboWi ' Ko«in<n.* 

t II« >|i»Lt 4jf hit LliiualD»furc fum in u loUe' tcr llcnkluw (J^l^ 
4lb) " — " i liav* Ifou^ht B farm in l-incola^hlKp %iA ivLnJii I |,"» thcrt iliii 
dutufim. I mran In iPc ivhnl 1 coCk do in pfovictlng any coEU^cDn myflnall 
ciititt vilh e^ritrni. ][ i^ a ho^^I'*^ ihiiL^ En lonl^ En. l>iir 1 IxlJfif kv 
LluDg^ wnkilJ il<r ihtt fouiiliy nv<*. |>ii-y] in Tulurc i^tlliAU Chr Jnlrui-lLUiL 


Lire AT DOWS. .eTAT. jj^f. 


vitltrti iIm D4NUI of Mandkehtcr.'* tbc grcxi maki-t ol H rti^^tlVk 
wlu> gave mc much curwui^ iiifo«iniiioii- I j\n> vn 
Wfttenon at W^ion ITill. jod vfti citrcmHy tmnird tnKik 
vv»X there. H<r it an amiu^mj* vrinj£r frilnv: at mir cai 
dinner, our parry cow^lor^ of twa Cathalif prifi^i and twi^ 
MuLuirr^tc^! He i«pasi litiyyouiold. and the day licfore 
run duA-Q icd caught ^ Iwrrct in u lurnip-fidd. li ti a fine 
oliJ huuai-, j;iJ thtf l^tlcc t^imiK *ilU vrilcr-foul J (hcii Mw 
ChaunorLh, uid waj in traiujKfrl with tlic great liolbuuhc ; 
it IS 1 perfect frjLgrocut of a tropica] foreit* and the tight] 
tnade me Think vrilh d«t>ght of old recol1«ctioTM, My bttlc 
ten-day loiir mad-r mc feel wnnderfully fitrnn^ at the time, 
but the gooil eflccu did not hst. My wife, f .im torry 
t^y, doc» nol get icty strong, and the children ate the 
of Ihc famil)', for they arc ail happy, hfe. aad vpttitv 1 have 
I<cn TRticb internlcd wiih 3cdg«tck'i revic*;f tbou^ 
find ii (xi Uciia pojmbr with our tcicnEific rc*d':rv. 1 tl 
tome fctf pAiMj^ aarour of ihcdogmitiim of the pulpit, rather 
thnn of the philowj^hjr of the Vnitt*u>T'tt Chnir ; and lomc of 

the wit !itrik« me at only worthy of in the ' Quancrly.' 

NrvrrihcLe*«k it Eh a |;rand piece of ar>^menl ap;ain«t muia* 
bility uf ijMrrici, and 1 re^d it wiih fear and tri^mtiling, but 
wu vdl pk^ued 10 find IIiaI I had not overltwLed xaj of the 
nr^iirnenti, chouf-h t had put tbem U> myMlf ai feebly aa 

of prioi*iicciUu*t. w atio Irtieii tttt Jiflefcnw m Und-vniili. ud 
mufc fbiull fffrimlilciv How ■[(ociwikEv uiimE in i)i« blunp lairi. 
nn J<r U vj tipfmivi foi ili« poor idau id buy hiki quan*/ of u acia i 
Bi4kn oAv'i bWl hum vtih bdlgnuloiL' 

• IIoiIh ihhI k**. W. IIrrt«iL Thd it* fa mcnritw«c4 !■ • Uttn to 
t)r, HuoLfr: — "' t h*v< fcoefl 1*liin( ■ Irtllf tour. ptrlTy on bqitnv^ Jin4 
viutnt tbf [rc«n»f MincbciT'-r, m^i h^fl viy murh ■n]r-h^tii|> rhil <iLth 
bin on hyhi]i)4, aTriiblyt aM vitHUrm, a£^ Ir ]l< tt fnJJ fj( t<lf-^»ifi(i1 
b-nnwlv«l£0^ tm knn«'«iarpr^«intfT,v]lrik wh4r itlhtn lutT'lvaiCfio iLc hok 
labjMrL ffc i« AVjr firtcnlr^h on 'ipnict' : r"i1 iinfcb Ii«i1cr i> ni'rti 
rAlflfiilJkti itmI-I nfrctfi it, rhtn {4^f Mr, Vr«t»^T-> " 

I 5<»!(^rA't «!>*« ol ll« "VcrtifCT flf Cmiiaq' in the ' Fdmburgl^, 




mUk and witer. Have you read *Co»mo% ' yet? The Hog- 

flr^criplionA in Ihc fir*il f^jirl ,iTf birrly infcnigiblc; bill I 
[hink the volcanic di.wnflsiori wdl worth yonr niif^niion, it hnn 
aaiunished mv l»y iis viguur itiil infotmaiion. I grirvc u> find 
HitEjiL»oldl an adorcf of Vuj] Buch. with hii; rIaEsification of 
vokjDo&, cr^iei^ of cJcv^iun^ &i:.t ftt . anU cLjrbonir u'ld ga 
atmoiphcFC' lie is iDdced a wondcdul m^it, 

1 hope to get home in a fortnight jind irick lo my weary* 
M South AmcriCA c[1l I fiai*M il. I >ihHll be vrry aniious to 
hear how ymi get nn fmm the Homers, hut yon must Tiot 
think of wasting your lime by writing to me- We shall miaa, 
m(J«cd. your viiits to Down, and J shall feel 4 lo&t man 
in I.onJun wiihoul my rn^roing " fiousc of tall" at Hart 
Street . . * 

Believe: iiic, "ly dcjir Lytll, ever youri, 

C Darwin fa /. D. Ho^ktr. 

Down, FEiiiil»i^iigLt, Kfliit- 

Mv UUAR HooKKR,—! hope this ItfLter will caich yod at 
Clifton, but 1 have I>L-en prevented writing try being unwell, 
jknH having liad Thi llomcri here as viiitor*. which, with my 
ahominjiMi' firoi^'worl:, h.n* fully Dccupk-d my limt'. Il ik, 
indeed, a long time sinre w<^ wrnT<' 10 ench oihcr; thotif^h, I 
beg tu iL'U you, that I wrote lasi, but what abotit I c:innoi 
fi-tnvtnbcr. vxcvpt. 1 know, it was aftt^r n^adins youf lail 
auuiL>tr»>* und 1 smit yvu a uni(]ud>' TaudJlory qiihlTe. cuU' 
sidering it w^m Irum a man who hardly knuwt ft Uai«y front 
n DiindeUon \i> a prolesicd Hotiinitt, , - - 

I r^innot remember whfll [wpcri have given mt the im* 
predion, but 1 hnve IhBl, irhieh jroii ntolo to be the c»h^ 
Arinly )i\cd on my Tniiiib namely, the Utile chrmjeal impor- 
IdnLv of the toil to its vegi-tation. What a »ion^ fad it iiif 

*fi]r J. I*. I!ook«r'i Aniircik BoEAar* 



It. Brow once rrmtrkcd Id nc, of ccrtun pUnu 
eilfAtnitt oiK« hcfc. tt hich uc nof ft> mdcr * mawp iatour- 
Able cSmaCtf on the Coaiincnc, or ihe nrvcnc (or I forgtl 
which ; but yiM, nu duub:. viU kaow u> nhn t t^ftr. Bjr- 
thv-v4j, ifecrc irc kvnie hucli «'a«ct ni Hcibcirv |iA|Mr in till 
' HoTlicullural jounuJ/* J lave you rud ti ; it itruck me 
extremely orginiU and bcin Ar/fCh on your prfMni rr* 
•vaX«liC3.t To A OM-Mami/ the chAlk hjt* the iWMe prnahAr 
a«p<!irt of uny flora in Rnj;ljuid ; whj wilJ ynu cnr come here 
lo make your ob»crv«tiocis? IfV go lo Southdatptna. if mj 
courage iml «lan)n4:h 60 nol faU. for tbt tirii^ Aavoc. (Do 
you not conMdci tl four <Iuly tu bv there ^) And wLyej^atH 
you come here alte^nruU utij avrir . . . - 

Tiic Mo»ixiiFap» or mi: CtBra-irxpix, 
OfUhr 1846 ^ OftfiSfr tSS4. 

{WHling 1o Sir j. D, Hooker in 1845* my fithcr uyi; ^T 
hope lhi» next Mimtncr 10 finkth my SoiJth (;r<iIofty, 
then to get 0(11 a little ZooTogy, atid hurrah for my tpc^iei 
vork, . .** ThU pAaiagc irrvrt to ^ho'er thai be had at ihb 
time no mtcnrion of m.iktnj; an nhtu^tiiT Rlnily of the Ctr- 
ripfido}' Indeed it would 4Ctni that hii oTiifioal inienikiltj 
wa», jtt I learn from ^ir J. D. Hooker, merely 10 work out 01 
special problem, Thii is quite in keeping with the follontni 
patiaRr in Ihi- Antohi<>jir*phy : ^' Whi-n nn Therojisf of Chile^j 

1 found a ino«E rurioni form, which hurroivcd into the theUa 
of Concholepju. and which differed so raurh fmtn oJI other 
C&nipedeft th«t 1 had ;p furm j nem' ml> urder for ib «ote 
rrcepUoiii , . • Tu undcrttimd ihet^rudun: uf m; newCir> 
ripede 1 had to examine And rlift^cci many of tlic corainon 
fonn»; aod thi* gradually led me on lo take up the uhoZc 
IPOiipl" In Imer y^Mri ht seema Co hive frit 40me doabi n 
10 Ihe v.-ilite of Ehe-^e cifht ycari of work. — for inrtance when 

■'lomol of tbd lloitkAllunt !iDcictT; i^(t. 
tl^iTj. D. Mwktrw^Bt iholiiHmnrDd&^iainlfnMfhkia^Tii 
Willy. Ac 



hi u-rotc in his AuEobiogr,i|.liy — " My work vtt of coniidor* 
»blt u^ to me. when 1 had to dUciiM in the 'OriKin o! Spe- 
cies/ ihc pfindplcs of j naiuraJ clawificJdon- Ncvcnhclcs* 
I Uyubl whether the work wat wtjrih thv L-oaHurikpLitm of »u 
much lini*;," Vui I kiim Tfom Sif Jh D. H«olt^'r thu-t ht ttji- 
t^Lifil^ rci;^>|^ni<ti:d ui Lh? (iiriLMlb value li^ hiiiihclf ii% tyalriii' 
atic iriining Sir Joseph writer U> mc : " Your father rccog- 
TxitH three sijgcs in his cafecr as a biologist; ihc mere 
rf)Hc<!tor al (.Jtmbridgc ; the toUcclor and ob»Cn-fr in the 
H/^it^f, and for sooie ycnrs flfrcrwards; nnd ihe fmincvl nntw- 
ralist after, nnd only iifter The Cirripede work. I'hoi he waft 
a thinker ^lU alunj; lb tfuv rnou^h. und (here is J I'ust (koL 
in hi« writmys previous to ihe CininedcA thxt j trained natu- 
ralist could but crnubEO- , , , He often alluded lu ii j)« a 
Viilued discipline* and added that even the ' hoieful ' hork of 
fl'KKing nm Hynonyms. find of describing, not (inly improved 
ln« mj:Lli4>i)s but opi-ncd Ltit eyta tri ihe difli<:iilta's .ind muf- 
iti of t}ie work* of the dullest ol catdoguen. One resuU 
w» that he would never allow a. liirpreriatory itfiajrk lo |ka« 
unchalltfrvgvd on the pooncfil t^bihh iLif iit'ienl ifi*'^ wurken, pri>- 
vidcd ihfli fhcir work Wp» honest, and good at iu kind, I 
hiiTe fllwiiy* regarded ii as one- of ihL' fincsc irairs of hi* 
charai:ter'ihiE generous j^>pfw:iiitjun of ihe hod-men erf 
ttuicnct, ;ind of their luboun . . . uT^d it waa muiio^aphjng 
thv JIamadcA that brought ii abtiut." 

Frofehtor Huxley iLlout ice to quote \\\% opinion ts to the 
value of ihe eight year* given to the Cirripede* — 

" fn my rt|iinion yrtiir mij^ju irnin f«lhi*r nrv(!T fti<1 jl wiier 
thing than when be ritvoccd himself to the years of paiictM 
toil which the Cinipedehook cust him, 

" Like Lbf reit of uo, he hod no |iri>iJ« tiitmiiiif in biolu^i- 
cal teieitee^ ahiI it Kha *lwayi (truck me a* a remarkable m* 
ittnce of hii sctcnnfie intight^ thai he saw the nt(^c»ity cf 
girLnjc himtt^If ^uch framing, and of hia courage, chlkt he liid 
ILOI »birk the labour of ohiaininn iL 

"The great (Unger which bctcii oil men of large ipeculii* 
tire fuulty, is the temijtatiou to Llcal with the actepLed Ktate- 


J,rF£ AT VOVIS. ATAT. J1-«f, 

meotM of facb in natural tctence. » If tUvy Kfre not mAf 
ffiTtriri. l«H riih»u»i)vc; ** if (hey mijchi be rlwit with <lc' 
clucnvf1>', in ihr lAmc w^y ns pfopoaiiinni in Kudid may be 
dcall vkh- In rc«liEy, every such tiaietncni, however tmc ir 
mjy be. is irup on!y rthtivcLy to the monns of chservfttkin 
xtiiS llie ^wini uf view uf thos« who lidvc t;iiunciat?d iL So 
fftr it may be OcpcniJcU upon. But whclhei ii will bcir tvny 
specubtive conclusion xUskK miy tie logically deduced Irom iit 
1^ tf^uLle another qiiniion 

■•V(ni*fMher wniHiiildiiiK ji vaM si)p<-r«tnithirr vpon the 
fmin^lAMOnii fuminhcd by the rrroKniifM iAct^af jpi^lojfir*! 
and biologioil icicikcc. In Phytical Geography, in Geology 
proper, ia UcDgtAphlcal PittribuEiom, iud m Palnoniology, 
he hAt\ »r<]uircd Jn mtenvivc practical training <t»nng ihe 
viydge of The flf^fc^r Hr knew of hw own fcn*jwlcd;' the 
way in which the nw maleriah of lhe*c hmnchc» of vcicnee 
■rr accjuirv'l, and w»i therefore « mo«l <:on]prren| )udEP of 
the Ni>r('ii|aEuv Mruin they wLiuhl hear, TImt whirh he 
ncedvd, after hi> icturn to t^nghnd, w4A a conctponding 
atfiuiiniancc with Anatomy and Dcvclopmei^t^and iJbcir rd** 
liun iu TiAoaomy*-jind he OLcquired ihia by hit Cirrip«de 

"Thuft, in my apprchenitonf the vjilue of the Cirripedc 
mono^ph Ijvs not merely in the fiet that it ii u vvty odmi- 
ruLile piccv ol work, :ind cuimtitutcd a %n^\ addrliun to iKnt- 
tive kDowJedge, but *till more in Ihe ctrcuro«i4n<,e ihjti it »■» 
a piccf of <ritical telf-^lisaplme, the effect of whkh mjmi- 
fcaied iNelf in evfrylhing your faiVr wrote nflf rwardi, and 
ntcd him from en4lr« error* of rtrialL 

*'So far from luch work being a lov of time, I bcUeve 
it would have bevn w«II worib hix while, had it bei^n pracii- 
c^ble. to have »upii]en)«nEecl il hy a ^iiccihI ttudy ^if em- 
bryolof^v and physiology, Kis handi would have br^ri lErc^rly 
ttrcn^henf^d iherrby when ht rame lo write om sundry 
chaiitcrk of the ' Ori]^ of ::ipec:ie«/ Bui of coune in thoae 
diy« it wumlmoM imffoitittk (or him to lind fAEilinchfoi >iic;h 



No one can look a\ the two i-olume^ on tht rcceni Cirri- 
ped^ff ^^ 309 ^^'^ ^^i pogct re?jkPC lively {not to %pcak of ih* 
volumt^s vn ihti fowU !ipi^i'j^)> wtihuut hvian «trtick by the 
iuiLLicftW umuuni qI dcUikJ v&tk ithich Ihcy i.onuln, TAv 
toity plaic», IODIC of ihcm with thirty figuw?, ,ind (he !our- 
t(?cn piigc* of m<1ci: in thr: two volumes logcfhirr, g\vi^ some 
rniiKh iHta of rhe bbfiitr apcnt on eKp work* Thi^ i-tme nf 
knowlc<igc» p-i regards ihe Cimpcdei, was most un^ousfjictory 
ax ihv liinc? that my faihrr bv^uu (u work at thciin. At an 
illuBtrahon i>l Uii^ fa^l* ii muy Ix ii]cniion<?d that ho hud 
«vc» Lo iC'Uf^aDiiic: llic QuEncEiddlUfC ol the |;roup> i>r, ^b he 
expressed it, he "unniUineLy found it indbpcuKAblc to give 
nnnie^ lo several valves, and tn ^oniu few of rhi- softer paru 
of Cirripcd<."B."f ll is interesting U» learn from his diary rhc 
Amount of time uhich he gave lo dLFFereiiE genctn. Thutt 
the genus Chihamalf^a, the dcittiption of wPiidi otcupieft 
Iwcolytwp pages, ottopied him for ihirly-six days; Coro- 
nulx took nmeteen i.l'iy*, and is de&cribcd ia liventy-bcvcD 
p^K'^jt. Wfifing lo Fii/-Roy. he speaks of heiim "'for the 
Iaii half-month daily hard ai work in di^eciin^ j IJEile ani- 
mal about IhQ ^liV of a pin\ hcod, from the Chi>no« arehi' 
pe1>ig(\ anij 1 ::oulcl spend another mi^nih, ^nd daily si:e more 
be^ulilul 9^111:1111?." 

1 hough he be<:amc rxecisiveiy neary of Ihe wort hcfon 
the end of the dght years h^ h,id mvMih keen enjoyment in 
the rourse of iL Thna he wrote to Sir J. V}. Hooker (r847 ?) ; 
— *' Aa you any, ihepc h an extraordinary pleasiin- in pure 
observation : not but whjt I buspeei the pleasure in chia caac 
U rather derived from coniparisoni; furciin^ in onv'^s mind 
vith allied structures. MLer Imvlh^ l#en *\t long employed 
in writing my old geological obKrvationin it is delighllul to 
tise one** eyc4 and finger* a^in-" ft yro\ m (act. a reium to 

*The tftAvr wntc^iitivttA vliTt 7^t<tgy vUl fjiiil inihr Arcmmlof iht 
nore inteir^ling rr^all-^ in Mr, TtomaiifV 4rliolc itj% "CliarJn TMnrin" 
C Niiliin ' Scrici, tflfiflj^ 

i VoL i, p. J. 


UFR AT DOWX. .ETAT. »-|«, 

thr ttOtk »litdi ncciipied «a mudi of hL» time when at tea 
<iurinii hi* ^oyjgc. Hi* zooloiiicJT nolo of thai i»;tio<1 ^ire; 
an irapitMioQ tyt *igorou» *ork, himpcrrd hy ijsnrffamT and 
want of Jipplirint'ct ; and hiii uniirini^ inilLntry in The i1iHci^< 
tion of marine jnimnls, especially of CnisLairin muM hure 
hpco of viJuc to him ai training for bis CirriprOc *tirk, 
Mi>st of hift woik uas Uone with the tmiplc ditwtUiiii imcn^ 
wujx:— 'Imi it wJb the lived whif h hi- tijum) f<->r higher powcn 
thiX induced him. in |!^46, lo t»uy ii compound lTli*:ro^C0[><^ 
He wrote to Hooker ;—'* When I wm dr:AwinR wilh T*, I 
wA% «n dHi|;htriI withthpapprariniT M the nbjm*, r^pecJAll] 
w^th thcLT pciKpecDvc, ati Acen ihrough the weak powers of 
goQd cDibpound microKOpe. that [ >Pi gcvng lo unlet one; 
indeed, I uften har« atrucinrti id whJch (he ^ ia noE power 


iJiifing pArt of the time covered by ihc pf«cnt chapier, 
my fi;hcT ii^iffcred pcrhapi more from tlUhralth than at tiT\y 
other tin\e cjf hii lift. Ht Felt severely th<; JcpTfttmn influ-1 
vntt; of ihr^ lonji yearn at itlncv^ ; thua as ejriy as 1^:40 he 
wrote to Foi : " I iim grown a. dull* old, ipindctt dog to vbit 
f uaed Ig be. Ottc ^neis stupider 11 <?xit gTowi older I think." 
It n nor wonderful tHjI he i!n?nlil ho hiti: wiit(rn. it \% rjithrr 
(n lie irrinilercd ic ihftE hi\ »pirii wirhAinoil ta great and 
conKtanc a tin'tn. He vrotr to Sir ]. D, Hooker in 1R45 : 
" You arc vijry kind in your enquirici about my hcalUi : Ii 
hftve nothing lu uy jboui [t| being zdwap much ihif raaM^' 
•ome diy% bciur und iioiue wotw. [ twiivva 1 have &ui 
hod one wbolc d*y, or rather night, without my ttooucb 
hftving been grcAilf di«ordcred. during the last three ycMt, 
and moHt day* gtrjit pmstraiion hf vrmglh : ihank you for 
your kiiidn^4t; many of my friend*, 1 ticlievcp think me n 

Again, in 1^49. he nolo in ha diairy: — " Januaty i«i to 
March loth, — 'He^th rcvyhad, with much fidnvu and fid- 
ure of power. Worked on all well daj'*." Thw wa* ^Hkc^ 
JHM before hn fir^t ririt to Dr. Gnt1y> Water-Ciire Eiiablnhi 
mcni ii Malvern. In ApnE of the ume year ho wrote:—" 




believe I «m going on very well, but I am rather weary of my 
preienC mafiire lifv, anil the wiitrrtiin^ has (ho mo^t rxlra- 
Ordinary ctfctL m I'tudiicmu LiiiJivknEX ^Lik^i MiL^uj-tion of 
tntiid : till <;X|jcricni;iii|i it, 1 Lould no! hi\c b?ucved Jt po«ht- 
blc. I now incrciic m wctghl, have cicapcd lickneii for 
ihirfy dayi." He rciurncd in Junt^ affrr iix(«r utcki' al>» 
tencc, miich improved in hrnllh, nml, il« Alrcitcly lifti-rihcrd (p. 
loH), continued <ho wiitcM urc nt hnmc for lomc limt?,] 

C. Diinvw to J. I). JfM'krr. 

nawn [Octohirr, iftq^]. 

Mv IMIAB HonKKfl,^! hnvc nriT hcnrd fmm Sulivan* 
lAiely : when he In^r wtoCc he narncJ from Sih to lorh as the 
mobt likdy lime. Immediately ihat I ht-nr. [ will fly yuu a 
linr, fL>E thi; dii^nLL; of your Winjj able to conie^ I {uf^T;X 
whcilicr you know hit», buL 1 suppose %o ; he » ;i real ggwl 
fellow. Anyhow, if yon do not cohjc then, I am very n-tad 
th:it V^i' pruj^Ki^e conning vxin after. . . . 

J A1I1 gn^ng in begin lomr paper* on ihe lower marine 
aniT^aK whirh will laii me some munihs, perhaps a year, and 
Iht'Ti 1 ihaH ln-'gin loting i>v(f my icii-year-lotiiL; airumu- 
1;lEjoij oi ii'Jtus oii ^pccieh und V4riclK:s. whii:]j, niih wijt> 
injj, 1 lUic uy will take me five, jE^d then, when puti- 
|j«hed, 1 d.^re My I ihjill tUad inRnitdy low la Ihe opmion 
of -ill iound N^turalisU-^to this is my prospect for the fu- 

Arc you a good hand At inv^niina nnmr-i, I hnve a qnhr 
new and curious genu* of Bamncle, i»hich I wjnl lo name, 
jind ho^v irj invent a njmij cuutpletely pn^deii nLe* 

Ity Lhe w^iy, 1 h.ivc ti^ld yiju iiuiliiiij^ abuut SuutliAmptoD, 
Wc enjoyeij (wtfe and niyHcll) ouf wvck beyond mr^iurc ; 
fhe pnptrs were Ml dull, bnt l met so mnny friend* and 
made *.o many ne* a^^ipiainianrcs (especially sonn." of The 
Irifh NaiLinslistfi), and look «o rnuny^t cucnt^onft. \ 

' Advlnl ti4r D. Jp £iUt«A, torntfly n ofllcer of Ac Oi^CJk 


LIFE AT UOWN. ,£TAr ^yt\. 


winli you had bircn thcr?. On Sund^iy wc hid » pkunt a» 

Dr. Ki^hmson^l nnd iirhrn. I ncvrr enjoyed A day mnre iftj 
my life. I miucd haTing j look ai K. Wauon.* I »up| 
you heard thit he mcl t^orho mid told him he had a icvrre 
iuiidfr in thtf ^mm. J uadvriiuud thai FuiLi;) cji].'Jjii;vd ii> 
him thjE he h^ no t-naw to cvm[j|jiii, but ^h the orlidc wa> 
prinicd, he would not withdraw if, bui olTcicd U lo Forbes 
for him »o ippcnd noic» to it, whtch Forbcf citurally dc» 
elfncd, . , , 

C Dantfiir Sff /. D. ffaitk^. 

Deim, Apiil rihIlB47>l- 

Mv MAft HooKtii,— I should hflve writicn before now, 
IIh) 1 noL hpcn Almnir ifonitnudlly unwell, and at prrtimi I am 
nfTcrinjc from four bcitK und »wel!ing«, one of vhkh hArdlsr 
aIln»K mc (he.u«e of my riKht Arm, And hu itop[>td s.\\ my 
work. And dam |)cd all my KpiriTn. I «jt« much diioppiHnied 
at EntAing my uip to Kcw, and the more lo, as I had torgoUen 
you irould br awJty all Ehia monih ; but I hid no choice, Atid 

in bed neArlya-U Friday And Saiurd^y. 1 eonfCtAlDlAFe 

^ Hn^h FkJmicr, twm I'^or^ dird tVb}. Chiefly knoirD u a p«LnaimU 
dput ahhouf b ^mplojrd «• « (inlink^ 4iinh|> hit whAir »n«' iit Inilu. 
where lid *>» ilvi a nxtfLril '■IKlvi ^ If E. I. C S«fvic- < l)r wt mptr* 
mrenilrnT al rhv l/onktifn^** i^hkIcii, lirri ai SdluruiiimTv, ■u-l eIkh aI Ctl- 
cull*. Ife ^AuiLcuf ihrhfaT buEajiiCAl ti^tiincEicir KdklEmii F"liwac»'» 
<jH<u*crii> of %fju(ri»4 iiixiiiinalLiii fviiiam^ m ihr Sf vritiL 11LIK«vr«tDl 
HnK tjQirt p?r]Lap'' ibv cra[<\] "linili" wbuh hid btrn itiidc. WU book 
« lh« lubjKt, 'FuDfl Anltqus Shdenkih' RmAinr-J unfishhtO si the 
dai« of bk OcaUl 

\ The faie £ir Edwikn) AehiTie, tfiramly I'mmlnil cf rhe Ro^ ^ode ly> 
uiJ oEjtliH of sloag *«iet 4f morncif r\ nn T'trrritri*! Mi^fibw. 

] Tli« Ula Dl Tb«fDU Kpiuicjr Kai^lnv*n. of iht Aiins^h 0^4«tS* 

The Iste Hatti CflifnlE W-1hiiih uiharoF ihe 'CjIhI* DnmnicV 
ti\tM I nuhf tDli»r]|c t^nnnf HGrLk dEi |lic Eajncnphf mnd gvOgi^hicsl 
dfdiifamlDn t>l Uw plaata of ilia AiL(i*b ItlmadL 




you ovct yam fropmvcd proipccis Skhcmt Tndirt,* bui «l ihc 

Mine time muM sincerely groan ovei ii, I 5ha][ feci qmTc tost 
withudt you iu (Jiscuss miJiiy po;m& wiihi and Iq point out 
(lit-Tuck tu you) dilUcullici .ind objccliona tu luy bpcLLGii liy- 
polhcscs- It hill be s^ horrid shame if moQcy stops yi>ut cxpc- 
dUioD ; but Goremment will eur^-l;^ hdp you to $o(tic rxtmt. 
. , , YfJUT prracnt irip^ with ymir new views, H.inorig*l rhr 
fMl-pIflnK, AviU be very inicTC9Mnj»- If you have spare timr, 
]*«/ ffd/ unthotii, I should etijay having some ncw^ of ynUT 
progress. Your present iripwiU workwdl in, if you go to 
uny of the coal diMrict^ in Jtidia. Would ihi-i not be i good 
uJijecl l(j |>aradt before Gwcrnujenl i ihi: utJuarian &oulb 
would comprehend thi*. Uy I he way, 1 will g^K loine woik 
out of you, iiboui thcdomciticrneciof ammaiiin Jndio- , . , 

C Darwin ft* Z, /rarns {BlamffiflJ). 

Down 1 1*47], 

DFfci Jir%"vyfa, — T flm very mueh ohHRe'^ for Ihe fyipilol 
\%X\W Almaaaok ; | it «n hap]hi!ntMJ thai 1 was wii^hmg for ont; 
lo keep m my portfolio- 1 hod never seen tht^ kind before, 
and »hall ccriainly get one for ihe future I think it is very 
amtising to' have a list before one's tycs of the order of np* 

"Sir J- Hnofccr \i^ P^nglinrl fln Nfi^mSfl* It, 1S47, Fnr hii ITimV 
l#y*ff inrl Tilvlari journi^y TKc «i|ipilirinn vdi titj^portr*! by n t.iuAl] 
(jfiAUl fium ihfl Treuury. vfid thuLU*unip] ihr thii»vlct uf ' C wvnuncnt 

. 4 " Thii IPliPF felaics lu n \inall Almanack rtnl pUhJishfld In l943. 
Qbder ih* nunc r\i -The ^^ iiiii»1uu' Vochti Almanack,' hy Mr, ViLn 

who inl*rt^ Hitm^f Ivc* in die (icriotlk plipnainnid of aniraal* *ml pbnl^ 
of ^hicli A vicci liFt WK-f^vfli uii'lcr CAch iDcinLh i>f Lhr ycir 

"The Piif*it( Afmariftcki crintakncH, nifuvovrr, mi^crltiictc^m ihrDrmi- 
tion TvlatifiK ^'* ^<v^lo^y Anil iMenj' ; in Naruful lEiilchry nncl nrilirr vcieo- 
liCic un-irrjfB; lu |>uljli[ ^1 u:>pufn> And Ginlcn^, in .iddtriari fa tti« aicU- 
J>ary crtf^ujl phannmHiB fLiiuiil i]> moil oEhi'r AfrLtaitsi^kf, U nii>iJnu>A 
10 beUu^cil llll rl'jT^ i»'t" wTiirli yrut ih* [iLililkailifit wjt AbiruluLiviJ'"— ^ 
Fwfti K kUtr frjjru Rffv. L, Ulurnvfivlil w P. thknvin. 


LIKE Ar nOW\. ifTTAT. Jji-if, 


peaTanrir uf thi? planii an6 animals arannd one; it give* ft 
frtth li^IltcsI ii> cat;h fine d.iy. There tB one poinE 1 iJioiild 
like l^ «cv j lictic iiiii^vvcU, vii., the corrvcivjn for the clocfc 
ai vtvotur ;n(crvd]i. Mo>r people. I «Ufpc<1, vho like myttit 
hftvc diiU, will wi»h to be more iirtri^i; than with a miinin 
of thr^o RifniUrt, I Always hiiy it ihillinjc Mtnanjick for ihis 
*(S/f end- Ujp ihe way, ,w*rf, /. ^, Van Vmnt'ii Almanark, l« 
wry dear: it oughl, ai least, ui hv advcrnscd post-free for 
1h« tMElinj;. Du you ncii think a ubic (not rulci] of i;uai-eT- 
«ioii of t'rciiUJ iiiio Kni^tUti meaturehi :iml pctbM|j« wei^hlii 
wouiil be enccedingty uieful ; Jili»o centigrade tuEo fahreiK 
htii.^nia^ifying [mven according id focil diiianeet^— in 
f'^t:t yuu mi^ht f^^^\t il ihr mml uMful publication of the a^ 
I know what I HhiiuUI l)kr Ik-m nf all, nam?1}\ eurretii metco- 
rological rvmo^ikt lor cacli month, with sLiivmeni oi ivertige 
cnurse of windit ^ind {jrtdiction of we»lherp in aiccordan^e 
with moftmenii of Ihiminclcr. People, 1 ^ht»k. 4rc Alvjty* 
imiincd jii knowinfc the entrcmei^ Jind meant of ictnperature 
for (-aneiponding lime* in <Mhfr yean, 

t hope yon will go on with ii anoiber year. Whh mvnj 
thAnhfl, my <Iear }cTtyn\ 

Youn VC17 tmly, 

Vimn, ^Dilay |A|>iil itih, it47^ 

Mv rvRAR KnoHRR, — T return with many thankt Wa]«on*« 
letter, which I bnvc hjid copied, Ttisa capital one, and I am 
extremely ub1l^e<l 10 yau f^r obtaining ate such valuable 
"inforuiatigti, Surely he n nihei in a hurry vben be M] 
tnteniivdialc vjirictin ruuiit xJmi/ti be octeM^rdy ijtc, oihci 
wise ihcy would be uLcn t^ tht typei of the iperiei; for hi 
overlookfl numeriral frotucnry ^^ an ciemmL Surely tf A, 
B, C were three varieties, AmJ if A were a goo<\ deal the com- 
■noncAt [thcrelorr, al'o. ftrtt known), it would be lafceD «s the 
type, without regarding «licthei B ttii» 'juite inteinediate or 
not, or whether U wn tire ur not- Whit caj^iial etftip W. 


%i C. WATSOV. 


tfou\d wriie : but I ^Lippose he htJi written jl good dril ia 
rh^ ■ Phytobgisi,' Yi^u ought ro cnc-oHMgc him m |*iihli*h 
on varmuon ; it 1^ a shatt^e that such fdcir; on iho^c m h;& kl- 
ICT should rtmain unpuUtibtirJ. 1 must gvl yau to introJuce 
inc IQ litiLi ; ivuiild ht; he u ^ooil afid aijiijtblc iu±n hn Urcp- 
niuic'* thiiunh \i he toinci. I'orbcs mu*f not find I think 
you ulkcd of inviting Forbes), or wc shalJ hAVf a g1orioii« ba(< 
tl*. I ^hiuld liler tn *cr snmi.'limt' the »:ir roTrc^jinn^rnrr. 
Hnvf yon ihf ' Phytolofiisr,'and coutd ymi v-miMinn' spnrc »t ? 
I would gn ihrougb it i^uickly. . . , 1 have read your \ej>x £vc 
nutntiert.f and a^ unual huvc hixn much intdrcfijle^ in *:!L'v«n1 
points c«<pa tjilly »jib yoLit dit^cu^fioiiii on ihc bt^rch <tml 
patira 1 icc you have ininodilf^rd iirvera] ^rtenee; tigainir 
u4 TrU-n^mitiHilinni^ls 1 hiixv flImo hrvn loi'rkiii^ rhrimgh ihc 
litter V4iltimcb or Lhi: ' AnniiK of NmLtral liiM>iry/ and hive 
read 1*0 *uch souUesit pompoufi pjpcr> of - - > quite woithy 
of thi; -lUthor , . . , Thi- i:unir3»E of lh« p^peti m iht AirMJt 
with those in the Anmtirv ih nlhcr humili^tmg; «o many 
pipcfi in the former, wjih iJicin dcirriptinns of speeics. kvUh- 
cmi one word on ihcir dffiniiie?^, inrcrnal Aimrtitre. rn^ngc or 

h&bin, I am nov readinjj , and 1 hsvr pirktrd out some 

ihlnp which 'lavc intert^stcd me ; h\\x hv ttrik^ tnc aa raiJior 
dullish, ftnd with aU tiU Materia Medina keticII* of thr doetor'a 
>hop- I ihall ever hate the name of the Materia Medico, 
fcince hrAfir^ fJiiTirflft'y lerMirt's a' eight oVlcrl: on a wEnlerV 
mnming — q whole, cold, hri-nkfastlrw hnnr on ihr projwrrirt 
of rhubarb \ 

I hope your jounicy will Iw very proeperoti*. Believe me, 
iijy dear Huokcr, 

Ever yoursi 

P-S. — I think I have unly mode one new acquaintance 
Of U(e. that i». R, Ckambets; and I hiivc juit received a 

*A fniJch cnf^e^ ctpcdltwn uiflJe from Ocford— when ihe Brhilh 

AkhoclfLCiun mrr tUcm in 1.^47, 

+ Of ihc Boianyof HQoVcr't " AoUrtOc V^jyage.' 




prriienution copy of the tiilhfditidn of the ' VnligefH* 

how I now ti-el pcrfcrily rotivinrcil he is the AUihor, He » 

in FriLace, and has wniicn to mc ibcncc 

C- Danr'i* tff /. D. H^ker. 


. . I Km tlditEhtfcl tu hcu lliat BTongnun Ihou^ht 
^ij^ilUiiA A(](]XtiL, <ind ihal Uinncy contiitcr» coi^l a «oct of 
uibmarinc peat I would twi s ^^ ' 'h>it in tw^ruy j'cari (hi> 
will bl generally admitkd ; * and 1 do not rate for whsicvirrj 
Ihc botanicAl difflcuhlcn or impof^tibilmc* mny he. H I couh 
hui persuade: raytelf thai l!tigillana and Co. had a ^oud urigc 

depth. /, i., could Ijie fium 5 to too UthoiTLt ujidei itaLei, 

difiicuUie« of nc>f]y nU fcind-i would be removed (for (he 
simple fAc.1 uf muddy vrdiii.iry ^hriJIow «ci implies proiiniiiy 
of land), [N-D, — I am chu<:kUnK to think how you jue 
meerini^ all thU time,] It jinot mueh of 1 dinicultjr, there not 
beins shelUwiih theco^l. considering h[>w urLfavmintMe deep 
mud U for moat MoIIuki, nnd thui >ihdii« would pn>bably 
decay from ihv hiiinic ndd. an wenu to ukc place in pcAt 
and in the hiaik muuldi (at Lyell Eelb me) of the MiaiuEppi. 
So coal que»li'>n leitled^-Q. F, D. Sneer »w»y * 

Many thnnkt for yoitr wrkr^oie tk^xt fmm CAmbrirffce^ %\ 
1 am glad you like my ittma mjfFr. which I dcipisi." heartily 
K a plac:e of educjiion. but love from many mott pleasant 
recullectjonb. . ^ . 

Thanki lor y<iuf on?r oE Ihc ' Phytol0||iitl; ' I kb;iJi bf 
very tnuch obligetl for t(, for 1 do not ^uppokc I (hould be 
ible to borrow ir from any other quarter. ! will not be 
up too much by ynnr pmUOi hut \ An ni>i believe I rver lof 
A book or forgot to return tt durmj^a 1on£ lapic of tiinc. 
Vour 'Webb* is veil vroppcd up, and irtih your naaiE in 
lar^e Ittlers amtaJt. 

My new mkroicope %y eomc homo (* ''aplcndid pbtj" 





thing/' fl-s old R- Bmwn called U), and I am dflighied with 

it; it rcnil} U 3 fi|ik'n<lki jiljiylhing. I huve been in London 
for (lirtc djy^ unO huw n];ii)y ijl uur Fnr^uJb. ] wj« cjt- 
Ircmeiy sorry lo ht^r >1 nu \~cry gaod Account of !>if WiUiaiii, 
FarewtfUn my dear Hooker, jnd be a good boy, and mate 
Si^illdTSa a submarine 'M^:L-wccd. 

Ever yowT*. 

Mr PEAK HoQKER, — Vou have iTirtde u savj»gc on^luiight, 
and 1 muBl try to defend myieir But, first, kf iric say ihnx 
\ never wfHt to you eii:c(H for my own gor-d pkasiire ; now 
1 fear thitr ymi answrr mc vhen bu^y and withovil inf^lini^tion 
(and \ -im ^ure I shoitld have nnnt- if \ t/i^.'^ as bu^y as you). 
Pny du QUI Jo !iO, ami if I ihou^ht my wniin^ cniLiilt^J an 
•iQiiikver from yoj aV^wj ft^rm, \t would destroy lili my pfedv- 
wv in wrJLinLE. Firady. 1 did not canudvi my kltv m 
rroioniaj;, or even aii iftfttt/afii'ic, h\\\ iiinDply ;Jii mental noting; 
A»d ai I wa« icnilinj! Utnncy'i paper, I poured out lo you (he 
re*nli of rending it. Secondly, you nre right, indeed, in 
Ibinkin^ cnL' mad, if you Ffu^puxi; tliul I ivoultl cl;ifiB any ferns 
ax marmL^ planL^ ; buL Aurdy IlicK is it mJe distinLlion be- 
tween the plants found upright in the cod-beds and tbosc 
not uprightn and whkh might havf been drifted. It it nol 
jMSttibk" lh.1t the liimc circnmsiances wfuch hsvc pnrserved 
ihc Tegctfltion m situ, should have preserved drifted pUnin? 
I know Cnlamites i^ found upright ; but I fancied ici affini- 
Un were very obsrufe, like SicdUrJ;i. A* iox Li-pidoden- 
dron, 1 Cort;ot U!» cAidcncc, u tiappcn-> wlieu one ^oo riot, 
and now Xnow neither what tt is, or whether upright. If 
thc^e planln, 1 f. {^ilumitc* ntid Lciiidndendrfin, have very 
tltar rttatiam to EcriCiUial vegctAbli^s ^^^< 'be fcrn^ haw, 
>nd are found upright r^i ji/tf, of coutse I muit give up the 
|Lhi>itt. But surely ^igillinriji \^ the m^m upright plant, and 
on iU obicurc afAniLes L have heard you enlarge. 


LtPE AT DOW*K. *TAT. S^-44, 


Thirdly, it ncvci cntcrrd m; h&id lo itniJcn-ilu*: lwi«n>cat 
relaiivdy toi'jolut^ic^ c^itlcricc ; cxcqjl ia w futn I ihtin^i 
it wn« jiilmiEii'il ilui Ehi^ vr^-urivc iitricmrr seldom yielded 
Any eridcncc of Afflniiy nearer than l1i4t of bmihe*, and not 
aEttiys io much' And ri h not in pt^nEst u cvnainly it ib in 
uitjntali. ddngtTuub \v i^mJ^e uf iuttCt wriii^ui ^«iy nesr 
aHmity, (JuuM 4 BtIU^Li^( icU Ifom (Uuciurc alone thai tbt 
Mangrove family, 4lmoii or quilc aiont In. Dicriiyledonk^ 
could lixc in Ihr kj, ^nd ihc ^j»teTA family tdmoKi «lone 
amunj; The Monnrntylo.lrtnh ? h it a uift- argumntt, thaf bc- 
rnuM? a1^;e are oimost the only, or the only iubtner|»ed aea- 
plonu, that fortncrty other grouptt had not nt-uiLvrv «ith 
luqh hibiU? Wilh ininidln snch in arguneni wuuld D»1 bt 
COnnLuhivc* K t could liluhiuie by tnsnf euiiipk'k; but t am 
fofgcirin^ myteJf ; I wane nnly tt> tonic degree to defend my> 
tcK« and not bum my fingeM by ailnckin|( y<ro^ Th(^ fbundo* 
lion of my IrKcr. »nd wlini ia my dirlibcrate ojiinioo, lhou|fh I 
dAfc Aay yoir wiJI ihitik ii a]>4nrd, n ihai 1 wmild oiher iniai, 
ttttrrif fiifihut, jiure gouloj^i.^l eviJcnee ihatv richer tuolojcicil 
or boUDii j| evidence. I do not uy that I would sooner tnitt 
/ivr geologic^] evidence ihfui ; aV organic J Ihink tbe ba«i» 
of pure ^cAo^xci^X rejuoning in simpler (c Lin'J^iinK ehieAy o(j 
the ac;ion of vnier on the cru«t of the ranh and lU ■(! 
down iiiuvenientBl ttian a basil duwo from the difficull *al 
Ject ol atlinitia and of »iruviuriJ in reblio^ to faabitB. 1 
hiirdJy atiAlyie Ihc facti on ivhich I hate c^oiue (o lhi» 
clukion : but 1 can iJluKtriie it PalWi account would 
%uy onr to ^uppoAc Ihat the Siberian itnu, whh the frojccn 
urcft^tcs had Iwt-n qtilrUly drf»otiTrdv *n<l hence (h*f th< 
embedded Animili had lived in the nrijchttnufhond ; but oui 
Krolo^ul knovled^ of thirty ycAn ago led r>ety one f^ltel 
10 leject tin* condutton. 

Tell me thai an iipright fcra rm itfm utmr^ wilh 5i|rilUri» 
and SriiTRijrij, or thit ihc oAinitie* of Calami rei and l-cpido-, 
dmdron (mp(%Min2 ihni ihcy ^rt found £9 sttm with SJglQirij 
MO w ^//i«^ thai they could not Kaiy been marine, b'ice. bol 
in ft greater degree, ilun the xoftngrovc and Mft-vrack^ aad 




will humbly apolosiiic to you and all DoUniiU for Ucivinc kt 
my mjnd lua riot uii <i -lubjcct on vhkh Jimirrdly I knuw 
nothing, Bur lill T hvar ihit, t nhnll farcp finvaioly «i my 
n*n f»|>inUn wiili the lixmp prninonty ond, ns ynn will rhmk, 
with the f^omt philunoiiliLcil spirit wiTli wlikh Kuccig main- 
tains ihai Ch*?LraliiFrmni-ruut4tt'j»'!i oit TucLh 

WheditT linn lclU'( *ill *iii^ iiic fciiU Uj*t^ u; >uur v|"iiiion. 
ml luc a litlk- ri(;htt 1 knew nut, bui bopc Itic kllEi, Any- 
r, 1 have revenged myKlf with boring you with j very long 
"ej^tU' pArcwcll* and be forgiviTiR. KvtTyoiir». 

P.S, — When will ypii return to Kew? I have forgotten 
one nmin uLije*;! oT my letter, lo tluink yuu '"wf^ Tc^r youc 
offer or the 'Hurt, Juurnal,' but I have ordertJ the Itvo 

[The two fnllowing exirocts I1S47] E"ve the conttnuntion 
and marlifMon nf [ht rnjl liattk'. 

" ]iy ilic way. a* iulin^rinc coal mudc you ii> wraiU, I 
thought I would experiment ite on Fakonc J*nd Elunbury* 
togelK-r, and it made |thci"| even more mvh^c ; * %nch mfcr- 
nAl ni-mhrnnr on^hi to \>p ihrAAhcd out of mta' Unn\nny wns 
more pnlirr nnd ron tern pm our, So 1 now know how id »ir 
up .-ind ihovi off any Botanist. I wunder whether ZuuTo^tBU 
iiiid Geoluj^Lbtb liuvt' ^ul Ihcir Li:-nder ptmiln ; i wi^h 1 i.uiiid 
hnd oui/~ 

" I cannot rcii»t thanking you for your rao*t kind note. 
Vrny dn not think T was rtnnoyi'd hy your leMtr: T per- 
mvcrt thai you hnil been thinking with animation, nnd ac- 
cnrdingly ctpnrwi;d yourself strongly, nnd 10 I undcr^htood it. 
Fotfend me from a man who wuigliH every ext>re»iu]i with 
Sc:olch priidenLC, I heailily with y«ti ■!! fcucte** in your 
noble problem, >nd 1 thall he very curioiu to have tome iftilc 
with yoH ind hear ynur ultimfltum."] 

*TbiUt« StrC- lUvnburrp w«|l knoAbua [Almb^qiiii^- 




T congratulate you hi-.irtily nn yrmr ^tminKrmcnti being 
Completed, with inmc prof^pccf for ihr fmurc It will be ■ 
noble vuyagi; md journey, bui [ winh it was over, I shall mis* 
ygrii ni-lfUhly imJ j]E wHyb fu ;i drvadfijl citi-nt - ^ - I 4Lm ld 
great perplcxuy huw wc -trc to incci ... J tin wirll uiiji^r> 
Hand how dreadfully bu>y roti muit be. If you ^'diMti/come 
hrrf, yon m&i/ \rX mr rnmc to you for a night; k»r I muil 
have one more ch-it and one more fiuatrd wiih yon over the 

By the way^ I oiid«avcnircd to iiir up Lycll (who ha> ht en 
viiyinff here aona* diyi ti ilh luc) Ilj (hcohse on the coij : hi* 
oolttic i^igAt RquUetiim» are dreadful for my tubmarine 
flora. I should die much easier if v>mf one would soJtv mc 
Ihc coal <]ue4tion. 1 nomirtimirf ihink it tould nol hav« bten 
formed at aJL Old Sir AaiTiftny Caftihk rjntrx «flid I0 nir 
gravely, Ibat he supposed Megjthcnum and tucli cattle were 
jkut 101 down livm h»vcn [d ttcc whether the earth would 
«upiH>Tt ihcm: ^ud 1 bup|iotr The coxil w.ih rained dova to 
puulc mOTtalL Vou ntunt work the c-aak >veU in India. 

Ever youfs. 

C Dahwlh, 

C ZJd>i«fl /# J. IX timht^, 

Hv KAiE HooKiA,— I have jmt received your note with 
lincefe flnef ; there is no help for it I ihall Always took at 
your inicnlion nf romtrj; hrr^, tender ^urh rirfumMancrS) as 
thi- jttrft'<^ proof of frtfndthip [ ctitt received fram mortal 
roan. My conscience would have upbt^ided me in not hav- 
ing come to you on Thuntddy, buL i^ il liimrd oiil, I ei^ulil 
noi> for 1 wn quite unable to leaire Shrevibury before thAt 

• PstooftvolcUoB. 




day. jtnd T n':ich(.'<1 home only last nighi. much knofki^d up, 
Withijui 1 hear to-ranrrow (*hifh IB hanUj- ]rfjHflil)k"), .imt if 
J uiii ^^^c]|Qg [jri^tly ivc]i» i wfll ijnv{: uv;;r lu Kcw oil Mi>mJjy 
morQiog. Ju<t to »fly-fArcw«U, 1 will stay only an hour, . , , 

C. Dar^ to /. J>. ffffinirr. 

[November, tA4T-] 
Mv D%A% MooKEu, — I am very unwell, and incapable of 
dAiTijc Afiyihinj^ I lUi hojiL T ha\e nol inconvcnifrrL'tj you» 
] wnb so unwdL aII ycst^rdtiy. iha( I was rcjoJrlng you were 
not hcrt: for Ji would have been a biltti moriificaiion lo mc 
to h.ivc hiid ygu here and not cnjgyed your last day. 1 
thill not now Bcc you, FarvivcLl nnd (iud ble^s you- 

YoUf AfTccEionHlf frirni!, 

C, Darwiv. 
J will write 10 yau m India. 

[In 1^4? appeared a paper by Mf. D- Milne," in which 
my faiher's Gk-n Roy tvnrk i* <^ritiri4T?d, and whi*:]i it tt'fcnrd 
to in ihe following ih/iratk'nHlir r^iratt from a Icil^r to Sir 
J, Hooker :] ^' 1 have hcen bad enough fi>T ilicbt: few la&t day»i 
hivin^ hjd tc think and wrilp loo muLh dbuuE Gkn Key, . . . 
Mf Milnt' havrng .ilMr.kcd my Ihcory, which madr^ mc horri* 
biy aick." t hjivi^ nor hccn aMc FO fmd any puMUhcd reply 
to Mr, Mihf, so ihni I imnsinp the "writing"' mentii>ncd wjw 
confined to letters, Mr. Mitnc's paper wdB not destructive 
to Lhtf Oka Koy paper and Ehla my father rei:ugrtiBrJi in the 
following enlraLl fiont a ktlir U> Lyrll (M;ir<:h, 1847)* Th* 
refciencc to Chanibcn ih explained hy the l^ct Itul lie av- 
companicd Mr Milne in hri viw: lo Glen Koy, " ) got R, 
Chambcr^i TO give mr ;i *keTrh nt Milnc'i Glen Roy viewn, 
4nd t have my pAprr, nnd nm, now th^t I have heard 
what is to be taid, not even lUggcrcd. ll it provoking and 
bumiliUing lo fitid that Oumber^ not only had not read 

* Hon Mr- Milhc Uot^te Ttjc f^ty »u pdblblicil la TmntacUcu 



LIF8 AT IlOVrN. jKTAT. 3|n*- 


with jiny carctny ptpw On Lhl* tubjcct, or wen iuctkcil at th'« 
fotoufc4 Tn*p, ioihAt ihc tjc* »hrlf ileifrlhcd by nw liad aoE 
been n'ifchvd for, iind cny orgumtnti and facis of dctaiJ not 
in lli« It-'UKl ultf-iidtid Iol 1 ifiitLirly gave up ih« ghi»ii and 
W2h rjutLc Llitckcn-hcaitcd At l^ Civu^ugKal Society, till you 
ECii>«u[cd And rcmmdcil me of Ihc maa ticu mibc whole 

The iwofun<iwiug Idtcrt to I-ydl, though of Ulcr diba 
(June. iH^a), bcj-r on the wme lubjcii :— 

" I var- M ihc rvenitig mccung |.o( the Orolneiro] Sntficty]^, 
but did not get within hiii\ of you. What a iofA (though I 

moit wy 4 very jnni*ing mie) ^ did nuitc of htmsdf. 

Your i.pecch wju refrcfthing aficr u, and vrahudlchiirActcrueU 
by Fox (my couiin) in three wonis — " Wbat acoainutr That 
fltruek tnc aa a cnpiinl spctulation about thr- Wralden Conii* 
□cnl gaitig down, 1 did mit hfjir whul yun Ktikd a1 \\te 
Coundl; I ua*quituweari^d out andbL'wiLdKtnl 1 Antf Smith, 
of Jordtn Hill, hu* a much wcirhc npimoDcrf R. Chamlwr*** 
bonk ihan <rven I have CliiimhtTk ha^ pifjued mt a Httlt :* 
he layii 1 ^ propound ' juid ' profeia my bclwf ' that (»l?n &<iy 
it marine, jind lh»ii the idea wu accepted liei-jusc the * mo- 
bility of the Und ^Ji [be J»con<l,ini idea oi' the dny/ l*c 
addfi fome v«ry faint ii;ft^^r Mnn tn Gl«n Sp^aa (»em. by the 
WAV. Hy j\|CAL«Ljr), ami hnt ihovn iKac Mllrtr And Kemp uv 
right in there being hori/ortuil ■<]neoii« maikmip* (w^at eo> 
inciilcnt l«vel« with those of den Roy) iii other pant at 
,Sti>Iland d£ ureal hci|£faiv Jnd he adds &i*vrral oUirr taMi. 
Thit ib the «hof? of liih j<t<Jitioii lo thtf <Jal:i, He not only 
uket my Line ol irifvmenE fri^ni Ihc bvliretiet and lenacct 
below the lower »helf nnd lonie other argumenit (laSlhout 
»rkQOwlcd|;Tnent), b'»t be Rncris at all hU prcikcesMra HOT 
hakinjc perceived the inifortanceuf ihehhurt poriiontot Unea 
iatciracdiatc bdwccn Ihc diicf unca in Ulcn Roy; »b<m» 

■ 'AncJcnl Sta Urr^i^AA, i&|l' th* wortli qiiDlAl hysry^chrtiliaald 

Ifc " ihe mabiliry of tht iim6 wi4 an Atcvhdvni i^amT 




1 commence the dr«cnpli<>n of Uictn with hvi"S> ^^^^ *P*^ 
LViving their impotuncch 1 ctjiminrd Ihcm witfi M.mpit]o«» 
rflrr/ Ani\ cipaiioi^ iiL ri>n!^i{1orjihh' trngrh on Ehtrm, I havr 
iTtdircclly iM htm 1 dA nAC think he has quite c\a\mfi t« 
conaider ihai he alone (which he prttty dirtcUy aw-crt*) has 
fiolvcd liir^ problem [>f Uifn Kuy. Wich resp^svt lu the ler- 
rucea ut l<jwur kvdv (;»iiKjUctil in lifji^ht all ruuiid SiijlUnd 
auO KixgUnd. I Ain mdincd To bcUcvc he nhowt tiomc liulc 
pTobahiUty of [here being wnic leading ones coincident bul 
much niovf vxnri cviLlcncc in rcqiirwd. Would you bdicvc 
ilcrcdihh'? h(! fldvnnrrH nt a pmluiMe ^ohilton to ar-courM 
for the Tim: of Great Britain llint in i.omc grcni occnn onc^ 
twentieth uf the boUoin of the whole aqueous surface of the 
glubc hftA «;ink iti (he dijc« nut ».\y where he puts it) For u 
Ihif knr^fi cif EmU a mile, .ind Ihia he h:is cakularcd would 
make ^n A\tp»Tc\\t riic of i^ feel.*' 

C Dttnttm M C. LytlL 

Dawn[JuDf. IMI- 

Mv iiCAR LvKVL, — Out of juiticc to ChumbeTi I muKt 
trouble you with one line lo «ity, a>^ Far x\^ I am periotiilTy 
cnncerstjd tn Gkn Koy, ht' hix rnridr the acTirndr hnnoriihlc^ 
and plfjadfl guUiy ihrnugh mrtdvcrtcncy nf OtkinR my two 
Unt* nf argument anrf fafw without *cknowledgrntnt- He 
concluded by ^aying hi:! "llliuv tu the same poinL by an lO' 
depcodcnl cimfftc ol tnt-tULfV, wLiiLh lii Ji small dc|^cc txcuu;* 
this inadvenen<:y-" Ilii Icitcr altogeihet thowi a very good 
di^powtion. -ind *ayi he i^ *'mvich *;ratii'n:d with thf mtaturtd 
^f^ptoli.itiori whirh you tH-stftw. frr " I am hcarrilv glad I 
wofi able to my In truth choi I rhoughr hr had done good 
service in calling more aiientii7n lo the subject of tlie ler- 
race>- He protests ir ii iinf«iT la tntl Iht »iinkii»ji of the sei 
hU theory, for Ihii hcuiih care alwayii «praktof mere change 
of level, ai^d thU u quite mie ; bui the on*^ leclion in which 
he jihow^i how hi^ ^^onecives (he Tii-a might link ii so mton- 
ishing, chat I liclievv it will with oifa«r6«aH with mo, more Than 

333 tJFE AT DOWN. ^:TAT. jj-4*. UU^ 

cttamtthMUnce his pi^riaut caution> I hop« thxt yon mayj 
think bfttcr of the book Ihun I do, 

Voan mubC truly, 

. . . T bAve lanljr been bying to ^t up on dGUation (but 
t shall noc sQcctwd, and iadvtd doubi whetbvr 1 hivv tiiiie 
And Blrtfn|;lh tv no c>ii #iib t|), Ju;ainKt the (micIlcc uf Naiu- 
rali-tt ftpptoiHTig for perpcitiiiy the name of Ihc fi^tt dcicribcT 
to spnrid, I Inok JT \\\U its a direct i>refniuni to hasty work, 
to 'bimi/tf; inftlcfttl oF dtifrtMnj;, A lpc;:iw ought lo have a 
tutmc fto well kno^vn thai the add t (ion of the ;m<horfc name 
would be tupcrfluout. and i [pit?<^?] of empty vanity.* At 
prtic&tt U woilI<1 not do lo give mi-rr bpeciAt nxmn ; but I 
think /uoloKiKt* inij{ht open Ihc roid ic :he omitKLonn by 
referring to good lyrtemaiic wriicr* instead of to fim dc- 
■cnben. Boiany, I faney< hAs noc s^ifTercd v> nurh ai 
Zooloify from men; naminfi the duractcn, Corlvn^lrlyi t^t 

* Hli OHiLemlri fi>' LliC wlf-F<|l«nt^riu >pLril m 1 nATuriliit n Uliwautdt 
bx »ii BnecduLf, (or vmch I jun indcbleJ in Ktt. L. ItLamc1i«H^ Aftff' 
ifiMliiniE ol n;r l«thef'i LuTCflf KEHannliqey ji Cinlirtit|^e, Bit, lUnAAlifM 
eaariniLfl4 -^" Up (vnunntlly c-aint ovvi fiom Cambi iJue lo mj Vtc*ricf 
U SutTlhAnt Uullip4'b, AJiil «Pc omT out ii:^il)c< lu cell«< lUMVlt til the 
««Dib it BvliikTfii llill, i.l:ae AL liui^l, ur mulr lun^Bt cinEFiJcjji In lb«. 
Fab*- On QDCUCCtu^jii !■« ca(i(U(nl m i tiTyt bK^'^**^'^ nhi^iTj h« in*4 
Ti(oroD«1y tVkVfp (hi wv«J( »n<1 l->n£ fr&Uk 1 rtrc E«lf^|4if roui liir«t, 
one of the £jfnvid-r, uhlc?i t mvirlr hi'l itrvrr laLcn rn CdinLnJfnhiTCh 
He wu plcMtdvlfh lii> cpiurr. Aihl of counf omnl ii li£ir]i«-iii inunfih, 

iriTfriin, tallt;^^ frrfr nM tifnn ^irlt hm. 1 fT*<ftn1 Iv lit ti lii LvuitlAore, 
«^atWI if Tif MnwabcifiJ \l. "Oh >«^" [ht •iJjM KBicinbei it *t]J i 
And 1 vu W^Ji^h chDugli Jo ]E(«p thr Bptcimio, wticti vmi vvrr coUcdinf 
AitefiAVk frff 4 yaniLfl of V'tjTibriHJifvahjn, «Mt fbi t tgtml mii*mH ht thff 
niilowphjcj iiodrty" II* fntkkPi^l lUtiipviili war n»iiil»»on rbepvt. 
(ati'u uf cotlvdin^, vlio unu^ ai naiUn|[ h*)rwi] fiUinf; d|«ir oblBtVtt 
»ilFi ran i1*ii>i;l" 




more abttuTt. Have you ever thought on ihH poim ? Why 
should Naturjlist-i ippcnd ihi^ir ov^n namctio new fipmcs, 
hJurt Mmei!ik>^i?l> dii'J ChtriuiM^ Jo nui Jl> tit;^ L4> ntw »ub- 
lUnces? When yon wrilc tu I'alIuiiii;! iiiay reagnbcr ni9 
affc<:lionatcly lo him. I giicvc lUoit iinccfd>- tc hear ihat 
he- h.-is l>rfn ill. My dc*r Hooksr, Cc»il IjIcj™ yotj, and farr 
yoii wclL Yotir sincere fricnil, 

C, Da It WIN. 

C. IhnpiH to Hugh StnrJt/and.* 

, , . Whit a labour you have undtrlaken : 1 do fioiutur 
devoted leal m the good caciscof Natural Science. Do 
luppcn (n have a i/tT/r ropy of iht' N'omeiiclAlure rule! 
pnUuhvd in iht-'Bruish Assoti^iTJon Transaciions ^' if you 

* Jlbgh l-.(1wtn SiTtcVland, M 4^ < f^ l< S,, «tA Itnm ^1] nf Mirebu 
1811. II nd ceLticilnl il1 Kii^Uy. iind^Tr A.eiiii]J, n\'\ flT Oriel O illcu^. Oalord. 
In t^%\ AEul iHj(> he liAv«llri] iTiiuu^h lLiinj;« iv tliJ: l^irVifH wiTh W. J. 
llimillLMi, %\tc ^ilo^iki. wiiiUnniE m A«ia Mjnm- [n la^i lif Nnrnghl 
thv tultjFL'l '>f NFiturAl lliiito'y Nomi^nrLiliinr hffori' lltr llr'ilL«li Au>iria. 
tion. JLiiil j>rrfvm1 ihe t:nil<* nf KiiIpt^ lor /nnlOj^br*! NiiqKnrtitivfc, ito* 
Viu*i*n tif hi« H'liir — 'ilw |jrijicj|rlrt ol wKil)) trc vrvy KriTrinlTr jblu^riri]. 
In 11I43 lie ibv fflic i>f Ills fininiJvri f'lf niM eEii; uHulhaI pmlBCicnt nf thr 
1U) Society, In Jf4^ l>e manLotl ihe kcranJ (JiuEhlei of Sir Willivn 
iJMtline^. Bait- In ri50 ht wu ipiwinleil. In vonvequcnue of Bucldnnd't 
'ffliWflt. I>e<])UT)r Mr-iftrr in t^rna'agir >■ ■ tilonl- IIj^ |jirpniii;'k]i ^.m^rr vrJit 
•iiilifrnry I iiT «h>4rl "n, S^^jiE^mlir' 14, ■'^cj, wN>-m, ivliilr |;F'tili*j;>tri4i|i iit « 
nilinr cudinij tiriwi:viL RatfupJ uiiJ Gai]i-1:»iiruHiili4 Th^ aiu (iin uvci by P 
tiain arnl jn^UnllT hLUiid, A invULoji n' him and 4 itfptial cf hi« pnncipal 
eon[ilhiiHa» MjouniiLLt vu puMlAtied by SJt WjDEnm JiiJIq^ in iKjM ; 
tiui h« wu Alto the HLiibar of * Tbe Dodo and Ut KindiviJ' fiM^I^: *lllbl|- 
ijrhb Zua1otEi>v' [the IsLlcr In cnnluucttuu ivilh Lvu]> Ai^autr. And 
ibH by ibt Rfly Sotialyl ; ' O»nil]toli>cl(al iynonymi ' Icnc volume rnilj' 
fiEihlfcihcil. imrl ilial pnMhiiimimlyi, A rqlfll^ii" rhf h;i omuliii toxical rnU 
Ii^u^jiIh ^ivm liy Vik* "■irli'<* to ifi^ L'oiwmlfy rif t^BmlTlrtjn. win I'nmpHe*! 
by Mr Sn)vm, and r>iit>]ithed m rSHk (1 tm iftdcMH 10 Trof Sewioa 
Jmi ibc ihovF noiE.i 


Ltre AT DOWN. ^TAT. 3^^, 


have, and u-onid givr il lo mc. I should W irufy nbti^d, for I 
SriKlKvbuyuiiEtbv vuIl^^^c for it. 1 hive found itic ritl«f very 
umIuL. it It i^u-Uc a c^CLiCoft 10 have tomcthtnit to rcn on in 
thi; turbnicnf ocean oE nomenclature Und ann accordingly 
|(Tntrfii] ro yon)) rhmijcK I find it viTv iliritnill lo nlirf 'i]wAy*. 
Mctc U a <'A.«<' {cind I ihinh ir idimiM have bei'n noiECt-d in ihr 
rule^J, Coronub^ Oncnu and Otion, aw namcit adopted by 
(Juvitfr^ lwinun:k. <.>wrii. aii<l aT[iiciil rrm wlL-known writer, 
but 1 find ihM .ilJ thrvc ii4ni(;>i were ^Titicijjitlcd byaOrriiian: 
now 1 believe if I were lo folbw the icrict rule ol prioiiiy,] 
iT^ore harm would be done Ihan good, and more cspecLjllv u 
I fod ».ijr<- that th« arwty fi^hrd-up naine« would not be 
■doptedv 1 havL- alnuiht imidf: Qp my EninJ (o rejrct tho rula] 
of prioiiiy in ihi^ cute ; vould you |frud;fc ihe iiLiuble to Mnd 
m< your opimtin T X have been led of lute to iijikm much on 
the lubjecl of oAiritn.|[, and J h,*vt tonic lo 1 l^ned opinion 
llut the pljin of the Am dc-VTJhcr'it namc» txr'mn ippmdcd 
for pcfpefuity TO a *pcricii, had been ihe grcJieii iur*c it> 
Natural Mi-nlory. Some monihi iince, I wrote ouc the en- 
ck«ed bwlly drawn*ii|i paper. Ihinkinj* thai T'^^hapi I would 
ojitflie the ftuljjeci ; huE the lit han pAMvd, ^nd I do not itup* 
po«c I ever i^uU ; I leiid ii you lor the iAii/ii't of your cirinE 
to see my notions^ I have been ^urpnved to lirid in con- 
vcnanon thftt tcvrrat natnraliii were cif nearly my way af 
thinking- I feel sure as long a* Bperies-mongers hove theit 
vanity litkled by teeing iheir own njimeft ai-'prndtd to » 
■pnivs bccMiiMf Ihvy miserably d^fftcnbcd ii m iwv or three 
line's we ithulj hjvc Ihc Kline Ei/ji' urnuunt uf L.t<:lnorkdi 
ppekeni, and which ii enough to dtihcinen an) min who il 
willmg to work out any branch laiih care and fioir. I find 
every i^miix of Cirrrpcdiii h%* hAlf -^-^Initen nnnietf und not 
one careful dcxeripiion of any one i»pcci» in any one genu*. 
1 do DOl bcliere that thia would have been tb« cn»c if 
tann knew that the memory of hii ova naoc dcpcodcd on hb 
doiiifl hit wojk well, and not upon merdy appendtf^v a nunc 
with n few wrctcHrd hnei ;ndir&iin^ only a few pfomtni 
eaicmjl (haracierv Hue I will not weary you with nni 




Iftn^er tinde, UenA my pApcr or iKf, )uit &« ycM likr, nnd 


'I'Tir l-ixt|^, 'If^kr^hnlj, JvTir yia. IK^I^, 

. . , , 1 huvc ne\l lo notice y^^ur fCLond objcLlJon'^'CK^ 

reiiining ihc name ^i ihc /f//dcKtibcr 'm pfif^ftuam along 
ttilh that of the !lpl^d4.'^ \< j^ priMnium on hasly <in6 L-arfiM» 
wovIe, Thb h quite a ^lillori^ntfjtir^tionrrnm thAt of the Ihw 
of priority Hfttlf, mul U iit-vuf ont urrcdto mc befurt, tliougTi it 
tcem« bjghly piob;iLlv thai thv gcQvrak rc^oj^nhion of \\iA\ Luw 
mfty [iroducc auch / icfdtl, W« mubl tiv lo 4;cateract ibii 
evU tn Kimc f»thcT wny. 

The objwi of Appending ihc name of d man to Ihc n*me 
of a upcirLn is not rri gratify the vanity of the man, but to (n^ 
dirat« morv pr^-rim-ly The species. Somciimc^ two men will, 
Lrf acctdi^nt, givt? (ht; Aomi; name {initc|ri:mliTn[ly) Eo two xpt^ 
dec of the same genui. More fretiucntly a bier author wit] 
iniupply the specific name of ,in older one. Thus the Ifc/tji 
ytiflfru of Mnntngti ini not //, /^c'rw ftf T.irntif'S 'hough Mon- 
njTie supposed it :o be no. In siirh a case »c eannni drfinr 
iht species by //fAj /^/r« alone, but tnuKt append the name 
of the LLuitior whr?rn we ijitute. But hhen i cpecitfs bus never 
Ijoniu btii one iii4i"t fi* CrTT'ftj' /rijj,'iy*]t j^i), mid no other spe- 
cies ut CorvLu hni bome ihe »ame name, it it, ot cuui»g, uu- 
neeeisiry to 'idd the nmhor'n ndme^ Yet «ven here I like 
the form {'I'rvu* /rttfi'/^^vx^ /j'mh , ik it r^mtriH* iix thM thi* is 
one of the aid ^peeiet) long known^ and to he fmind in the 
'SyBWmu Ndtu^a^' fii*:. 1 ftLir. therefore, ihflC {it lensii uniil 
our mil "end II In rr ii more definitely settled I il will be ini|rt»i- 
Hl*\c to indicAEc tperiet with «cIentiAeajrLjrjc-y, withoLLl jdd- 
ft^g :he name o/ their firtt AuihoT. You niflj, indeed, do it M 
jo\t propose, by -nyinK ia Ajw. Ail /mfrf.,<S'e, hui then thit 
ivould be incomp^Libk ivith the Uw of priority, for where 




Limnfck h«K violated (hJi law, one cannot adopt hh name 
li 14, ne^enh«Icts Jii^hTy conducive lo acciituc jadkatioii to 
Apj^nil TO the (oMcil) siKc^^i hamp ffnv gcKnl rcf<ricn>~< lo 
»tind:ir<l work, cipcriatly lo a fyttrr, with on accofnpAnyii 
synnnym if n<*cr»ary- Thu mfthnd may be rumbiout, hut 
cmnbrf>iir>ni^» h a tar Jcai c*il ihan unctrurnty. 

ll, tnorvovrr. (cnnn hardly p(j»ibJ« to citiij out itt%i 
fn'tfnn piitici|jlf, wiUioui tli« hLfcLuiujjJ aid iifluiii^d by ap- 
|>c(iding tlic ijueIiui'« ndiiic (o Ihc tpccihi: one, l( f, ^^ritfti/y 
■Wff, called a ipccici C- />., ii implies that C O. ic ihe oldest 
nAcnc IhjiJ I know of ; but in ordtr thai yo« »nd oihrf* m*/ 
Judjtc of Lhc proprkty of that namci you miisi afonuiin when, 
and by uhom, the nitmc wai fjrM corned, No^. it lo the 
vpccilit name C D., 1 ap|ivnd ihe name A. \k. of Us Ant 
dctcribcf, J Ai once fnrnibh yon with Ihe ^Uic lo the d^tet 
when, and the book in inhich, thi* description wai gnen^ and 
t thill HAvx^i you in d«icrminJng vhether C D. be really ihi 
oldtfi^t, i^nO ihereforv the correct, de«ignaiion- 

I do, however, admJi that the priority principle (eiirdlent 
ik% II ilk bat a tendency, when (he authot'i name it added, lo 
tncoutaiee vanity antl tlovenJy worfc. 1 think, hoitevcT. that 
much mighi be done lodiiKoutj^e thORe obici^rcofid uaiaiia- 
fanoiy definitiont of wbif h youio fuatlymmplfun, by nv^]«^ 
di^wf Ibv practice- Lei thi bvtler dUpCJwd Dalu»lisi|> com* 
bine to make a formal pioLetl nm^tirikt all v^kug, tooM, 4Qd 
inildeqiiM<: deJinitioni <A (luppoiedl new tpecieL Let a 
fommitiee (nity of <he BHtiih Auorhition) be jippointed io 

lare a «in nf Ctais IMt of the v!tHoii« modem wnrlta In 
Itch new ipccics we described, armngrd in ordcT of meni. 
The loweil cUu would cunlajn tht.- ^i^t\X eumples of the 
kind, and iheii auihor^Hvuld 1hi» be eaptwrd \a the oblotjuy 
whi<:h they deiefi«, and be gibbeted r« terttfrtm lor the cdtfi- 
cation of iho«p who miy eome afier^ 

I hflvr iliuv enndiJIy )dncd my \wm% (I hope iaiclli^ly) 
ti whtU tccmi beM to be done in the pretent irani^iiioiud ^nd 
dangctoui itati? of M^^m^tii: aoulo^. loDumcuble labour- 
en, many of (hem ^rotcbeiy and half-«ducai«iJ, ktv njiltijaig 




into the 5eld, and il depends I think, on ihc pici^cni (cncriL' 
tion whfElicr the vcicncc it to dc«c<:nd to poblcrity n choiotic 
znO-iit, ctt po«pr*Bcd of anmi' Uiups of law iind or|;,inJiMtion, If 
wv could only gvc acangri^isof deputies from the chief ii^It^- 
tific bodi«Bof Luru|w imd Americop sumt^ihing might lip dontf, 
but«u the cue iiunil^ I ujiilc>b 1 do iwi ctt.irly vco my vcni; 
biywid humttly cndcdvouring to rttonn JV^mher Ont. 

Voufi ever, 


Down, Sundiy l^cK jlh, rfi^t^]^ 

Mt dear ST»iCKLA»if»,^l ajn, in lT\ith, jitfttt/y obli|];ed to 
you tor youT \oagy moKl iniicrefriinK, nnd ticar leiier, And the 
Repori. I will considL-T your argiimcnr*^ whifh arc of ihc 
gTf'atoi wdghft hut t conftf^a [ cannot yet 1>ring myfu^'If to 
rejeoi very nr/A'tn^Hvr name^ not in d^w countTy, but over the 
worldp lor ulj&cure ones,— sinjply on the t;;i(iun<I l]iii[ t do not 
believe J nhould be lultowcd. Pray believe th.ll I «ti<juld 
brtJ*k the la* of priority only in r»re «*«• ; wi[] you read ihc 
enclosed hnrf icTiirn it), nnd tell me whcihcr h d^e» no! 
ttagger you ? (N. R, 1 promtn thai I will not give you any 
more trouble,) I want »iitiple iin&werv, ^ncl nut for you to 
wu»ie your time in rCA4un» ; J am Lummb fm your ankwcr in 
regard to ilabnui- I put the cjie ol OtioHt &'c,, to W, 
Thompson, who i» firrec for (ht la* of priority, find he gave 
il up in nrh welNknnwn n^iTint. 1 nm in % |ierfrc I xwatt nf 
donhr nn nomrnc-lnTurc- In noi one lar^ genua of Cirripedia 
ho.'i any ont specie? been conecily defined ; il ii pure ^uera- 
wtjfL Ibcing ^Lijdcd Liy riiiKc ^ind <.ominonncfr» and habiis) lo 
recognise any Af^cies : thus I can mnke out, from plates or 
dttcriprions, hardly .my of thi' Hririnh sessile nrrip<?dc;s. I 
GJinDOt hz'Ai to pv<.' nrw nAEne>» ti' ■>!! (hif bjiec^if^, and yet 1 
iholl perhapH do wrong to attach old names by liille bettct 
than gucH; I cannot at present lell the le^&L which of titxf 
tpecies all »iiter« have trnraui ty the c:Cimmon Anau/tra 





Afwy I have, ihcrcfove, given (hat name tA the one nhkh t« 
rftihrr rhc dCimmoncii. l>iR-ralljr. noi oiif ajtrtie^ b proper! 
(feAncd: not onv naturjlcni Eiaa cvi^' ukcn thvttuutik tooptuf 
lhc»hcll uf anjr vpetio (oOcfL-ribe il Kii;ntifii;ik]!yr «nd )tI jUJ 
the fEeaera Unw li^ll-a-ilojiGn tynonyniK 1 or arfium/Kt't ^tak* 
Huj>puM: I lit' my uork Ehoroughly wdl. djij one uhi» ha^|>cni 
tcr liAvc the origins) ipcnmcns named, 1 aill iay by Cbenu, 
who ha* figured ind tijimcfl hi[n<1*i-i!s fif »p(s i<^^, will litr vbk 
to lipwl -iH my niimrx Hitviriing to ihc b« of priority (for he 
niA)rni]tinuinhudc«criptJoa« arc sLiflicicnf^ <io }yia ihinh h 
advnniflEcous to iciencc that this shuuld be don«: I thini 
joi, jnii ilui cLjnicniencr anU htgh iinfil 0*">^ P"* i*» tnei 
im?nt) h^ tftCter com« into *omc pl^y. The tul>ject 
iCJn-brtJk in ]i 

1 hope yrtti will 6cci*ionilly turn in your mt%d mj ttrffa- 
ment &f ihc evil d'lnp by ihr "mihi"' aftathcd to spixii 
name*: I canmutt i.l<;i»rly wf^ the f-rr/i^y evil ii hasriimed ;" 
in i[iiner.iU>yty E have myiiicll' found IhtTc ih nti r^r to iiicrdy 
i^amc ; a pcnon Uurt nut Ukc up the subject mUiouE he in- 
tends Ut work it QUI. as he knuwi thai lik» fv/r cldifn lo mrrit 
rt4la on hi» wuTk tieini; .ibly ilonc and h» no rclaficn> whJi- 
*TTf to mimiftj;. I pivc up <^np painip *nd gfin] tHermne 
lo dtm dcicfibcr'i npnie should btf given in all lysfcniiuaj 
workd^ but I Ihink Bomeihin^ would be ttiiincd if a rcfereni 

vi» ^ivini x^ilTivul the 3uthiji\ lujmr Nri"|£ aitniMy npfirndMl 
Ai [>art ol (he btnombl mmt^. arid 1 ihmL, ciLrpt m «yk- 
lemitic work*, a refcrcncc, *ueh 4w 1 propo*e, would dump 
TUiity mii''h 1 think a very wron^ 4|iirtr rum thrott|^ aH- 
Niiund History, lU it iomcmcfij «n^diit> iojifn«n formmlyi 
WLming and defining a ip^io : 1 ihink tcircelr imy, of 
& dcicL if he ^c(lrkft out miamfrh and dDJiiomitiflj any one 
t;»rc»f\ u: tyncmai.c *!ly ■ nbole yiX^mw a trdil »«. dor, bu< I 
muii think the mere defining ■ tperie* U nothing Jtnd Uiit 
no injutii^f i^ d'>n« Kim if it be nrirrtooked, Thou|-h a grtJtl 
£nixin*enfcnoe to Naiural Htitoff U ihu* ranged- I do not 
think more credit it due lo a m«tt for deltnin^ a nijcriei. (ban 
to 1 carpenter for oukia^ a bw. But 1 am fcxi^h and rabid 




flgoinat specic-s^mongtM-^ or rathtr against their vnntty ; it is 
uiicfuj and necesBory work whidi tjuj^i hn dr»r»c : bu! ihty irni 
juj il Iht'y U;iU uc:Lii;illy luudc itic «|Jt;l'li-^ ^ntl il mjv iIjc'u vwa 
propel iy. 

J use AgosiifS ni^mrnclitor ; ,-it Teait (vo'thtrdi of The 
ilatrt in ihp Cirri|icdia nn." icrom^lj' wronjf, 

I shnll do whni 1 ran in foiiqil Cirripcifin. anri Hhoiild be 
very grateful for spt-f imens ; bui I do not believe that sjieric* 
(jinJ haiiJIy ijcoc'i.'i) iuii be di^j'intd by siiiglv valvi^s ; jk in 
O'Tcry n;ci:nt 6i>et:i<:a jel vxiinHiici! their iQt\i\t vitiy i;nM\y : 
to describe i ![jec:i» by valves alone. i» the lAJiie » to de- 
scribe a crjb fmm jwa// ponioni of il3 carapace alone, these 
portions hrrn^ highly vaiiJiUlo, and not, a^ in Cnii^tacf'a, 
moddloJ uvL'T vihi'errt, 1 hiiit^^-icly ajHjiogiit' firr Thi.- trouUlu 
which 1 havo givctk yoUp buL inikcd 1 wiU give m^ more, 

Your> moKi sincerely, 

C Darwik, 

P S, — In convcrnntion I found f)wen nnd Andrew Smith 
much inclined to throw over the jinu'lirt' of aibaching au- 
Ihorfl' Ti^iniL'^ ; 1 bebevc if 1 j^iuttd 1 acuiil get a Ijr^c 
patiy to Join. W. Thomiisun ^tgrccd sinmc way with mc, hut 
wau iiol prepared to go nearly as fn ai I ^m. 

C Dan^'n ta Hush Strifkhnd. 

Mv DP*k STftTrsi.A*(ii,— I hive again fc ihanli you cot- 
dtoJLf for your Idler. Vour rrmart* shall frtjciify lo nome 
cximt, atid 1 will try tu be mure faiUiful lo ri|;id virltiu an<i 
priorly ; but uh for cillinK IUla.iiiu> " Lepat" (Ahich 1 d^ 
not think of), I eannor do it, my petl won't write it — il is /w» 
prysubif. 1 have ^efll hop« 4ome of my diffieuhin will difr- 
■ppMir, owing lo livron^ iJaieft in Agnsf^it, and to my hjivinic 
to iLifi fLE;vond K^ncr:!. intri one. for I have » yel gone, m but 
few cike«, to original toiincei. With respect to ado|iting jny 



LIFE AT DOWJ*. *TAT. sjs^ 


own notiuns in (□) Ciriipcdia book, L vhouM coL like to do 
hO tvirhottt 1 foimd othrn appTO^Td. and in komc public 
w^y — ^nor. mclccrt, i& ti well irfflpted, >ii I cun newr trrog- 
nite a g^cics without ] have Ihc original specimen, which, 
furLuDAldyj I hdvr in mdity CAbn in the british &lu«pum. 
Thiu fat 1 im';i» Lo U^|>t my iluUl>[i, ah tiorr |'ULtinj|| niihi 
or " Uartvm " jficr my own ipccLck* imL in ihc Aniiuiai<r^ 
tFxt giviog no authon' mmn a oil, as the syit^mauc Pari 
will itTvt for thfisc *ho w.inl to kncsw Ihc HLiiorjr of a 
qwdes aji far DA I can impc-iffvily work li aui. . . . 

Much >»ih, 1*4^] 

Mv 15P\» UofiKrr, — Vour Icttrr of the ijih of October 
Hai rcm^iiDrd uDunaweri-d (ill xhv\ day I What an ungrateful 
rrtnra fur a kllur which intvrcuKd mc lo much, and which 
conuincd Uf much and curioub infotnuiion, Hui 1 have 
had A had winter. 

On Ibc tjth cE Scttcmbet, my pour di^ar father died, and 
QO onr who did not know hint would Ix^licic that a man 
above eighty -chrcc yean nid coutd have Trained u> cendrr 
and aHeciionaie a di^t'^'^i^'o- *ith >iJI '^J'^ sagacity nnclimded 
to the bht. I WHM ut Ihc time ho unwell, ifaal I wm unable W 
travel, whii^h added to my mitcry, Inderd* ^Jt ihiR winter i 
liAve becT^ bad crujugh . . . and my nervouif syiiem began lo 
b* Jiffertedf «» that my hAndt trembled, and head wm oft«ik 
ftwlnmlnfl. 1 wai nor able to do nnythtng one day oM nf, 
three, and wai uliogeiher too d^piritcd to write to you. or na, 
ilo anything but what ] wu tcmprllcd. 1 Ihuughl 1 waa 
rapidly going tbc way of all Ar«h. Hating hr^fd, accidtiM- 
illf, of two penbon* who hnd received Diiiirh heneAi from the, 
wa4eT*cure, T got Df GnlE^S book« and mrjde further fv^ 
qnirjira, and at latl atarted here, trith wife, chUdreo, and all 
our teriantiii- We have taken a bou^e fi>f two tnonthv and 
Jia«G been here a fortiiighE. 1 am already a litilc »troDj£et 




, . , Di. Gully fccU piflty «urc he tan do me fpxtd, which 
moat ct^rtqinly the rcgLiUr duttorE <:ou]il not, . . , 1 fed Ctrr" 
Liin ihni The wntcr-cure ia no qn-itJttry, 

How I shall enjoy getting bork lo Down «uh rcnrtvfltrd 
hcilih, if such ife to be my goytl foriuni;, iind resuming ihc 
Lclovfii Harnni'kij, Now t liopc Vhal yuu w^ll furgivtf oiv for 
my negligence m not hjvin^ ^ouncr answered your Letter. 1 
»a» uncommotily inicrealcd by Ihe steUh you give of your 
IfjEcndrd gr-ind ^xp^dition. from which I suppMC you will 
snon be roinrning. How o.irnc^tly I hope thai ii may prove 
in every wny succcsafviL , . - 

lWhi;u my fath*-r w^ at the Water-cure Estaljli^hmeni ai 
Milvern he wa* b*yughl mlo contact with tUirvnyantc- of 
which he wDtcs m the [uJlowm^ extr^j-l ftom a Jctler to tox, 
Scptcmbct, iSsol 

"You fipeak about HomrBojuthy. which is a subject 
vhieh »ii^k{:b tae mure wtalh, even than doe:^ ClAirvoyanee- 
Ctairvoyan^e ^c) irAU:«ccnJ£ bel Left that one's otdmaty ittcuU 
lieft Arc pui out of Lhe i^ueilioti. but in homoeopathy coiamrjn 
leriic and tommoii ijbscrvalion come mlo play, and both 
these m^iit gi> to the <^[ogt, If (he iniinitesimal doaei hnve nny 
effccj whatever, Hnw true is n femnik 1 saw the other day 
by Quetelei. in res|>i-E:t to eridtnttf of curative protctaes^ vjjt., 
ttiit ng mie knowb lii dti^eatke ^hjit is the «iLn|jLe resuU of 
notUmu being done, 44 ■ stondaid with which lo compare 
homwopAlhy, .ind all other such things. It is n lad flaw, I 
onnoT but think, in my bcWtd fJr, GiilJy. ih^r ht bdicve* 

hi everyfhinK- Whrn Mii* w,is v<!ry ill, he hml a cXalr- 

voynnt girl lo report on internal changes, a mcsmeiitt lo put 
her 1(1 nleep— An hotiKCopaihibt, yu. Vt. t ^^^ hiniBelf >i« 

hydfopathiht I and the girl lecovcfcd." 

A passage out of an earlier letter to Vox (Drccmber, 
1844) shown thnt hf wns enofllly acqjtical On thr mihjett of 
meAmvri^m ; "VViih respeLt tn mL-snitmm, the whole country 
rewuads with wonderful faLU or i^ks ... I have ^lut beoid 


LIfE AT DOWN- -CTAT. Jj-j*- 


of A chill!, three or four ycart old (whutc patcnti and iclf I 
wd! knpwj mc-MnvtUccJ by his fith«r, whkh [» llie firtt fact^ 
whii:h hn% ttji^mnc^l tnc T ^hjilL mil Ijt-lirvr fullj till 1 
or hrJif fntm utitui cvfdimri: nl nmmaU (*a hofi been iiatcd u 
povLJblc) not dniggcdn being {lut tn stupor; of cuutie the im* 
poisihility would not ptow (ucsmcFism faUi-; but n ib Ihc 
only i:UAr tJ^ttimttiSum (rutu, AUi\ I jiii jhttjuihlitd it liMj 
nuL bccu ty»iciiiatitalJ V iticd. \\ nifiincrikm was mreili*^ 
llAicd, like A science, thJi could not hjivc Iwcn kft till Ihe 
preterit d,iy to l»c titrn^ sten/'srenrxh^ tkf* it hrt* bfrn 1 Jn'Iievc 
lelt, Krv|i wmr mth yotrrholf, an^ do gel «oroe tneKmeriicr 
ic attempt It- One man told me be had iucccc<Icd, I>ui hu 
Fxpcruiieois were mo»i v»guc. at wuk lilieTy from u nua *hi 
»4iLd cata wrte iii^rc c-.ikily Jonc Lhaa utbti Asiinali, bccti 
th<y were \q flccukal I "( 

C Darm'ti fy C- ^taV. 

Doivn* D*f«(Dl*r «Lh [1*44]. 

Mr DBAR T-YriL.--^Thii ktter rrquires no aniwer, and 1 
write from eiiTbc^ranor of v;LTiJ(y^. nana hnt icnl m« ^ 
Gmlogy or the Uoitrd SlJTc« Knpudition* and 1 hair J11A 
rcoO Ibtr Coral jj^tit- I'o bct;in with « intxichl k|>cceh» / om 
atttmiifrrti af my oaw a^vnuylf li I were lo le^rtlc no<r mj 
CoriL book there jt l^irdlf a ten(«nc< t ihoitid hai« li> alter, 
Kee^t Ihai I fittj^hf (It hj^vr ittrihutrd more rff^n in rrcent 
volrjinir flftion in rhrrking growlh at forjL When T tiy all 
thU t ought to ailcl rhnil the taaif^afatei at the theory tm 
■rvMof aulnidenri.- ure Irv^tted id a ^paruEc cbapin tu vhicll' 
f hav« tkoi come, And tis thi*, I Mih|>ccl, we hhall diflcr ravrv. 
lJ«Qa uLlcM o( agreeing with my thei>ry m mptf/vtitt/ i I eao 
fin^ out not one in whiefe he difFrr^ CoAiidrrin;^ hov In* 
fmiTr.'ly moTv he «w f»f Cot;j1 Reef* than l did> tbii i» won- 
dctf^tlv miftficiury en me- He imt« me moM cCuncoHfljt 
fhctt DOW. my vaaiiy is i>reliy well laxUficd. . . 




M^Wm. April Qth) 1^49. 

Mv T^EAR HooK-Es,— The vciy nc^i racming iittcr iioiung 
my liist Icilcf (I think on j.^rd of MarchjTj I received your iwo 
inl^rc^line gossiiiantoii* flnj gcfilfj|;ii"*l kricr-i; atnl Ihc bttrr 
1 hav« smcc c^thanged with Lycll fnr hifl, I will wriic 
higftlpiy-iiifigicty juit us subjects occur. I >iiw Ihe Review 
in Lhv ^ Ailivnjsum,' it wax wfiu«n in ao iJJ-Dulured ipirjt ; but 
tlitf whulc viruH cunkihLed ici s^uymg X\\xi^ h^ nut ncrvcLty 
enough m your [cinarlcj (or publEc;iUon. No one. nowiday*. 
earn for reviews, 1 may jusi mmtioa Ili4t my Journal got 
ftumer^o/^f'fli/abuse, " prc*umpli<>i»," Ace;— onded wUh saying^ 
thai ihe vuUijn{f Uf^pejtrtr^.! " i»a<k' U|i i>f Lhu scrapa jnd lutj- 
bi«h of the ;juthor'« [portfolio." I mc4t inily enter inio what 
you suy, ifld quite Ichcvc you ihJt you t:irc unly fc^r ilie re- 
YLcw with rc6poct EO your Ulhcr^ aatj tluLl t'lU ir/^'tf'^ w^yld 
rntke you like (e> «cc eitraclt from your leili^rs more: properly 
rkoiicf^d in this sfirnf prnoiljcal ! hnve considered to the 
irery best of my judgment whether nny portion of your presunt 
lellrr? ^tt Adnpled for ihe ' Athenietim ' (in whteh J have no 
iniervM ; the htsa^ts not hjvm^ even a&Utttt my rhree gcologi- 
cal vohimei which I had ^enl lo iheml, and 1 hjvc come 
to The eunrlii^on it i» better no( to ^rnd them. I feel inre, 
considerJnjj iitl the r^irtunislsrice?;, thai without ymi toftk pnfnji 
and vfote ^'ith mr^^ n rondensfd and finished sketch of some 
strik-ing feature in your iinveK it is better noi lo send any- 
thiit|;, Thesif two letters are. Enoreover. rather tuu );eologi- 
CuL fur the ' Athciiaiutii/ iiitd ;LhTiokt require: w 01 jdcii La, On 
the oihcr han<I, there mc hirdly enough detnils (or a commu- 
nil flfUin t<j the Ge0l0gie.1l Society. J have not ihr unaiiat 
rhubi ThAi your fjict* *rc of ihe highetl interc^i wtih regard 10 
igUcul ariliLiri in the HimaUya ; but It struck Ix^th Lyell and 
nyBeJf that ]out eviiii:a(:e ough< to have been given ojore 
diBtinciiy. ... 

I hive wnttrn 40 \!^Wly ihat I have nothing to ^Ay ibout 
myielf J my hc^Ub i^nevented nie going on with a crusade 


IJFE AT DOWN. -tTAT- )|-«' 


igALn»t "mihi " and *' nobi*,"' of whirh you w*rn me of the 
dangers. I ftb<^w(?d my paper to ihr«c ur four NatorilUu. 
and thvy ili j^ivci) lA'iih an :o j {.eiUni e^tciu ; with health 
and vigour, 1 would noi luvc thown i white tcjthcr, [and] 
with lid oi half-a-d<»;cn rvaUy good Nituiiliiti, 1 bcU< 
toincihinjc might h^vt been done Agnin'fi the miKnblc Jiod 
dqt™'^''^fl pauinn nf mrrc spr^Tn nixming. In yonr Icttcf 
you wonder what "Omamenul Poultry" hM to do with 
BarniLL-les ; but du not fljiitrr yountlt that 1 Hlidll not jtt live 
to Htiish lliti BdrinKkTkt ;Lnti tlivn make jt fuol ul niytvlfon the 
Kubjci.L cjf h(ji7i.]c>, unilcr which head omjinicMlal l*oukry are 
very micre»[ing, . . - 

C JXtruin ttf C. Lyfil. 

Tbc DmI^. Mfl^^m fjtmt, 1S49I. 

... I hftvcgof your book/ and have rAid all th^ firat and 
Ji mftll part of ihi? >rcond volume (readinji 1*1 thr hardest 
vOT^ allowi'd hero), And greatly 1 have tK;en i»ti.-reftttd hy \\. 
It nukct nic long to be a Yankee- E, dviiirc^ mc to lay ihAl 
ahe quite "g1o:iled" over ihc tnith oi your Teniiirkt <m re- 
ligiDua (jjugreii ^ ^ , I delight to think ho^ you will diaguM 
■omc of ih« bigott And «diirational don«» Ki yet there hto 
not l>orn mutk (loology or Natural Hi<Liorv, for which I hope 
you feel a little ashamed Vour remarki^on all tocial ■nibjccta* 
ulrike me oa worthy of the aulhof of the ' Prinrif-lM.' And 
yet (1 knuw It ih |>(cjudii.-v and |iride) if I had wrticn the 
rrinciple*. 1 nc^ef would have *niiru uny traveli; but I 
Ixlicvc I am more jetloua about the honour aniJ glory of Che 
rrinci;ilc^ th«n you %\t youncif- . . . 

C D^rtit'^ fff C ^cff, 

. , I go on «riih myaf|iveonsfrroce«tn,and veryhtejLdily 
but a1o*lyg«m health and itrength. Against all rule^ t dined 

' * A »t»nd Vim 10 <bc Uuikid bwm,' 





ax Chovc^ing with \,^iA Mahoa. itbn did m^ the gn^al honour 

of riillin^ cm 11)^, anil how liv titfttd cif mv I lan'L gu^M. ] 
wan c-hiirmcd n\lh L^dy Mahon. and .1115 unc might have been 
prgud ai the pkccs of agrecabkn^H whkh came from her 
bciutifli] lip* with rr'H|UTt to jTfJiL 1 h]ir nU) l,r>rd ftIJlnilf>J^(^ 
very mnrh ; ihoii.fih he ohuscd Geology Jind Zonlogy htnnily. 
*' To ^uppiiiic ihai Xhi; Umnjjjoivni Gud imnlv a wurld. fuund 
lE a r^iluiu, anil broku it upland llurn lu^iJc U ii|^iii, iu^d 
aiiam bioke it up, aft ihE C(n>J<JgL&l!» ii^Ly, iit d^ll lidJIJ iuiUlIc, 
DescTibing Spcde» of birds and ihcUi, &c,, &» oU hUdk 
fmJdk. . . / 

[ Am hearHly glnd uc ih.ill mcE^t jl BirininghJim. as I tiuit 
ive ahjiiM, if my licuLih wtll Imt ket^p 1}^)' I ^rtrk nuw ovcry 
d.^y ax Lht; Lirnix^lia foi 7^ hatifii^ and m^ ^vt ^u m liJLlc, L>iit 
very »l9Wly, I sgrncllmca, JifLci being 1 whole week employed 
and having dts<:nhcd pcr^A]>3 only two sptfdci, Agr^e naeo- 
tally i»ilh L<Jrd ^Mnhopt, Ih^tl it [k all fiddk fafldlc; how- 
ever, the otherdiyl got a curious tstit of 4 LiniiduJiL instead 
of liermaifhrodit^ cirripcdc, in which [he female had the com- 
ninn cirfipcdml chanLiur. jind in two v^lvc* cf her ihcll had 
twa hide pockeH, rn ^^A cf whirh ^he kept a lltt\v hupiband : 
I do not know iif Any olher t:asv where .t frmnle invariiibTy has 
Iwci huiTuriElh. I U!:LVe One ^Idk odder f;tci. contoiiOD lo >ever»ll 
ipecieh, Qamely, ihai though ihey are hermaphrodite, they 
have «m All additional, or at I shall call Ihem, romplomoniHl 
matrs '^Tje mj-e< imrn itJielf h^rmnphrodiie had tn* le*is ihAft 
jrr/tfr *^' '**i"ae romplt^mentJil moles mtwhed to iL Tndy the 
ichemes and wonders of Xacurc ire ilHrniiahl^n But 1 am 
running on as badly alnuil my cirripediu -ts about Geology; 
El luake-i mc groan Co Ehink that probably 1 tihall never Jig^iit 
h;ivc the c^quiiJte pleaiure t>f making om &oiQe new district, 
of cvolvinfT ^pdogical light out of i<ime troubled da^k rcgioti. 
So I mubt makti (he bt^al of my ClrripedtA^ . . • 



LIFE AT IX>W». ATaT> ^y^/%. 


Down, Ofifllicr igih. i^ 

. . By ihf w«y, one nf tbf plrtnnir*f pflm of th« Brit* 
iDi .^iioi'iation ttu my Jnumcy down to HirmmfthiUTt wtcl 
Mn. Sabine. Mix Rccvc, and ihc Colond ; oXaa Col Sykcfl* 
und Portur Mrs, Sabine and mytctf igrecd vandcrfulty on 
iik^uiy |Mi]]L9. xnJ in iwar mure »inccrvTy than ab^utyou. ^V> 
ipokc A^guL y<iui kitcn ftom ilic Kfcbut : ind >»bc ;|ut1« 
Dgr««d with me, ibAC you and Ihc twiAvr^ of Ihc i5uc.rtpt£Ofl 
Of the cAltIc huntinfi in the FAlklinds. would hlf« mAit« a 
Cipical book lojcrther ! A very ni<r uoTnJin ihr it^ and w it 
beiitaarpand s^agaciont nioihcr. . . . Btrininj^nm woivery Oat 
compared to Oiford, ihough \ liJid my«Lfrwi(?i nic, Wc 
tjw a ^ood dcul uf [Ikc K>dli aiul Horncn and Rnbiownii 
(the Fmidrni) ; buE ibe place wa^ diflmal, uid I wa* pre- 
vrntcdn by bcinij uni«'dU ftum jfoinfi lo Warwick, though thai, 
f\A,lhc p*rty, by «ll accounii, waft wrjnderfiilly tnfchor to 
Bten^tfim, not lo «4r Anything of ihAi htnircnly d^y at Drop- 
move. One gcU wear) of all Ihi^ spouting. . . . 

You nit about my (ijld-waU'f run;: I am goi'ig on very 
veil, and am C(;rUin1> a IjIiIv betier ivcry inonih. my nights 
mend much vluwrr Uian my d^yk 1 h^vc budt x doufihe, and 
am Iv uu UE1 Uituugh «ll th« winier, Eroii or nofioit. Mj 
trejtmcnl now i» limp fi*'f limei ptr wcel. and shallow badi 
fiw fiv* minute* afr<^nrard" ; douche daSly for five mEnutesi, 
ftnd HrEppIrjt nhofi rjajly. Tbi^ (Tcnnncnc iswnndcrfnUytont^ 
and T have hnd m^re betrcf eonstftiiivc d:iyt thii month 
di«n on any previous orwt . , . I ^[n allowed lu wwk now 
two and a lialf huun daily, and I find it a?t much a» 1 Cftn do; 
for ch« cohl-walvr ^rirc. lo^rllier wilh three (hori iv^ISli. it 
eummly ethauttin^ ; *nii I ±m arluflUy /i^rvtJ to go lo bed 
II eight o'clock eompUrrly liried. T ifcadily gain in weight, 

• 8W J- lloolief '■tul* tbe •inriiE^d daeriptioo of ulllf hubtifC in Sr 
J. RomV < Vomft oT Diiccvny in Ihc Houtbcfn Kcv^m,' i^Jr ^ 



a[^d «at iiamenitiy, jnd am never 9ppri-^6cd with mjr fcrod4 
I Uavv )□£( the iJivoliLdUTV U'^tching uf Iho muacltf. ancJ aU 
ihr JjEnrinj^ EcdmgSf &c — liljii'k iipcitu hcfore eyes, &c. Dr, 
CiLtlJy thinks he 5h4U quite cure mc in nix or nine moi^thii 

The grtidte^t bom, which 1 RnU in thv wuler-cure* is the 
hj4viri]^ lifcn compelled t>> i^ivc U[j alt redUmg, cxcqjl the 
ncAipapei^ ; lor my djuly two and a halt hours a1 the iiu- 
naclei is fully as much as 1 can do of anything vhkh occu* 
piVx tht' mmd ; T am c-onscTuenllv fcrriMy iNrhtnd in oil v\- 
ca\i(ic. books- I have of loic been iii woik aT mere apocii-s 
rifHrribing, which is much more diffictdl than I cupccted, and 
hai inuth the lame »ort of inleresi a^ a |ju£<t]c ha& : bui [ 
conk^s i uften (eel weatiird with ihe workj and caniigl help 
Mmeiimes A&kin}{ myieLf what t« the jgood o£ &i)ending a week 
or ff>r(nighi in n^cct Mining rhat eeruin Just perceptible dif- 
fercnec* blend togL'lhrt and cnn^liliirc varictici and no* 
upetits. As lon^ as J am on anatomy I never fed myself in 
ih;Lt di&guicing, homd, £m ttrmt, ini^utrmgt humour. What 
minciable ^^o^k, agJin, U i& st:Ji<:huig (or piLociLy of nameK. 
I have juHl finished livo ^pvrifs, *liith posicrt stv^n gencri<;, 
and twentV'four apcfifio njjmesf My ihief eomfott is, \\\-a\ 
the work must be someilme done, and T may as well do ii, ns 
auy ntne else. 

I have givtn up my agitation aj^^LmsL miM and nc^ij : my 
paper ii too long to &cnd to you. i^o you must :?ev lE, if you 
earc lo do 90i on yo^it return. Dy-the-wjy, you »ay in ytiur 
leKfT that yon rare more for my species work thuiii for the 
Bnmocte^ ; now this is ton bad of you, for I deeUre your 
derided approval of my plain Rjimnrle wi>rk over llienrerit 
hpi-i.Les work, had very grtjt mllutnce in deciding mc lo go 
on with the Eormctt and differ my Bpcr^^ieB pjpvr- . • • 

[The followinn IcMlt fcfurs to the death of hin liltio 
daughter, which icok place at Malvern on April m* ^^%^ 'A 

LltB AT DOWS. ATAT jj-**- 

r £}an»'ix to IC /J. /**. 


Mv vK\it Foit'^l iJo nui tiUfj^iuhc you will hate hv^M 
of uur biEtcT ftjiJ vruel ]ot», I'oor dcu little Annie when 
going Oil vcrv w<\i ni Malrrrn, was Ukcn with a tomitiog 
4tiack. whkh yrA* M ftr«iT Ihfm^hr of ihr ^fnAl1c\T tm^MWlJiniee ; 
liiit i( rflptdly ^uLLincil ihc forn of a Inw ami dreadful fcvcT, 
whirh (tarried her off in lert days, Thcmk God, ihc Auffci<ed 
liardly ai all, and expiri*d lu InnquiJIyaif 2 liUtc ><cigtL Uur 
only i^^iihuUtiuii i» itiAl hhe pftU^ a thoit^ Uiougfi joyous liic 
Stic wis my favourite child ; h«r cordiilrty, opconcM, buofuit 
joyotlBnL■^^ «nd ^rrunjf afff^nons n>sdr ht^r rnMC lovaUe. 
Foot dvar huk auul. W^U it u jUI ovcc . , . 

C ZAjnwn iP i*'. Z>- Tar. 

ItowiL, MardtTlbfllts]. 

Mv urAK FoK. — 1l n indeed xn age «ini:e we have hud 
any commnriication. and very gUd t wji» lo reccirc your note. 
Our |»ng nilencc 01:1:0 rf^-d tf> me a few wctki ainrr, And [ 
then thought ci writing, lint v/aa idle, t rongraiuUte uii 
condole wiib you on your tfmlk i-liild ; but pIciiM to 0I 
when I have » tenth, vnd only condolences to mc. ^Vp have 
no* wvcn ehiMrcn, ■!! wfTI, thank God, oa well a* their 
mtilhcr i of ihcfic seven, Ave ore hoy* ; and iny fmhrr u«od |a 
My thji il was ctrtBin iha: a hoy gave as much trouble 
three giiEh ; »i> IhM /ftrnJ _fi^ w have seventeen thildrvn. 
make* mc lick whenever 1 think of pro(i'DbL^>n«; »lt 
hopeleiily bad, and u ye: I caunul tee a ray of lig^L 
*hf»Hld very murh like to talk o»ef thi> (by the three 
bugbeon are CahfomtMn and AusirAlian K"ld, lieRu^^'V 
by mating my money on mori|^»ge worth toothing: the Krcnch' 
cotumg by the Wcblerhatn and Scvenoiakt roads, and there* 
#orc fnt tmiiig Down ; and thirdly, prvfesiioni foi my boys)« 
and I ihoLiltl hkc to calk about education, on which you adti 
HK what «c are doinjt N*> ^^^ <'->'^ ^<>*^ ^ruly de^lw tht 

P old At 



oM ftti^n'olypi?<t titupid ctn«siru1 educntion than T do; liui ycl 
1 havu not had conTHgv (o Irt-ak ihrotigh lIk- lrmmiu<lii> Afler 
nuny di>ubt» wc Uavc ji]}<I tcnl uur cUlci^L iaty lo Ku^by, 
irhereforhiiage hchftsbtfcn very wcU pUccd - , , llnfttoui, 
adrainr, and envy yon foir tdoriiiirig your bc»yi Jt home. 
What on mrih nhali you do wilh yoi^r lx>y^> Tywnr<Uthr 
end of this month we go to see W. at Rii^by, and thence for 
five or ail dayc to Susaii* ill Slircwsbufy ; I then ft-iiini 
home to bufc niiti \\vs babiut. and E- goes tn I". Wtdgwond's 
of ElruriiL for a wecL Very lUAiiy thuiks for yoaw iwnK kinU 
ind large inviuiion to hctamecc, bui I Icm we cfin hardly 
comp^asi U. I dread going anywhere, on areouni cf my 
■tomach so eaisily faQing under any cKcitemi^nt, 1 rarc^ly 
JO now go lu London ; not ihflt T am iil jdl wwnr, ]tiTlia|i» 
hei belter, aud lead a vrry t:ijm[orLah]c lifv wilh my lliice 
h^uit ur diJy work, but it is the life of n bennit. My aighiv 
arc ff/u^j'f bad, and LtiaL slo^i cny hcconiing vi^ourous. You 
atk nboui wntcr-nufc, J lake ni inltrvaU of [wo or ihree 
months, five ot site wcclts i>f mudtralHy ntvcrc tTearmcfti, ami 
Iwayti wirh gi>od effci i, Oo yai^ come here, I pray and bc-g 
whenever you ran find time ; yoii rannol X^W htm much 
plta&uru i{ wuuEd givt; me and K, 1 have Tinithcd the isl 
vol, lot the Ray Sticieiy oi PcduncuUted Cirripedev whi^h, 
aft I think you are a nkcmber, you will !ioon ^\. Read wh^t 
I ie^r'ribe on Ihe ^exev of tbijt and Srrt]|tr]luEi^ I ;iin nair 
at work on ihc >ie:^ailc Cirripcdes, and am wood erf ully wed 
of my Joh : a man to t>c a syat^'mnTir. naturalist ought to work 
at Icasr ei^hl houri per day. You saw ihrough uiti, vvh^n 
you hnid thai 1 un^^t fijvt: wi&h^d lo h;^ve sera Itic cttecU od 
(he [word illegit>tc] Ucbacle, ftir I was uiying a week ago to 
F.| Ibat I be^n a* I was in old d.iy». T woiiM hiive been 
certainly off that hour. You ank nrtt^r F.ra5mM^ ; he is much 
as utufti, and ^^onHfanily mcirc or kss unwell. Susan * is mu^h 
better, and very flouftshinii and ha|i|)y- Catherine* w at 
Rome, and Ua» enjoyed it in a degiee thai is tiuite nioniah- 



I-IPS AT DOWH, jfiTAT. syii- 


fnfl lo mr old dry bonc«. And now 1 ihmk I h«i'e told yot 
enough, ind more than enough about the houic of Darwin; 
io my tltaa old fri«i3j, firr^ell. What j>Le3banE timti w^ ha<l 
ia ilimltinii collcc tn yu^t rofinihat ChriHt'^Cvllvifc, uiU ihink 
of Uic jfloi ict of Crux major.* Ah. m ihotc dayt tbcrt were 
nc» prof^Hions for soxit, no ilhhrilih Io fear for ihcm, no Cali* 
fdmiM gold, no Krench iova«too». How j>Araninunl ihe 
fnlHrr h to ihe prrjieru whon on? fa nurrouTidrd hy rWl* 
drcn. My <itcst(\ is hcrcdiiary lU-hralih. Even death h bci- 
l« foe ihem. My dear to*, your sincere fiiend, 

P. S. — Suun liAA laidy been working in a way which f 
think truly heroic about the tcondalom violation of the At^ 
a^inttt i^hildien tlimbin^: chimneyi. W« h»e set up a Jiule 
Society in ShrcwftbuTy to proncctJie ihoic who break the bw. 
It h all SoAAn'ft doing, £hc hai hod very nice IciEcr^ from 
T-ord Shifretbury and the Hjki- of SaihrrtnrLiI, bill the brutJd 
ShfopiHirir 'U|Mirc'4 arc :ib hjrd an itonn to mow. The Art 
oul of l.ijniU'n sceins^ mo&t lojumonly violAieJ. lE rnakci on« 
(huddcT itt f:xncy one of onc'i own children at (e%'en yeaf« 
old ]ji;:ing forced up a cbiiiiiicy<— to say nothing of the contc 
qumf lojilhwme diicA^e and idrernied Hinb% and utter moral 
degradation, tf yau think atrongly on thi:4 4iih)rr(, ^o rnatc 
■ome enquiries; udd to your many good work*, thii other 
ant, ^ind try to itir up the aiaj^iiirafei^ There arc sevvml 
l>eu[jlc nunkiji^ a hlir in ddfercf^t \ntiU vt Kii|c4ju)d on Ihik 
ftubject, 1i U not very likely that you would v\%U for **v:h, 
but 1 could wn<i you ft*>rne eiuyi and information if you lo 
likodi either for yonnwlf or to give Awiy. 

Dawn (OstoUr 14A. t^ij, 

Mv PKift Fox,— T received your Ionic and moat vtJcome 
!cTtcr ihi* morning, nnd irill an»weT il ihi* evenin^^ ui. I *hall 
be very buty with an ai1i»L» drawing Cimpedaa. and much 

* TYic b«l1i /i pu v ^mr ^nD-dR^br, 


OtD PA\'& 


ovctwotked toi the n«t fortnight. But firal yon deserve 10 
tr vretl ibuB^d— 'AjiJ pt^y cunaidct yourtcif well Abu^d — tor 
IhfnHnK i^r wrinriK tIiai I rmiKI frtr one miniilc br bored by 
any Amount of detail nboni ynuriieir and tic^tangings. It n 
jiuttvhnt 1 like heDcing: UcUeve xnt ihat I ofEon think of a\i\ 
dAy* «]K]v( w^lIi yui), dnJ lomtfiiiLii!! cum hmdly brtic^'r what a 
Jolly caielcu iiulit iduid uiie w^h in UiObt' old liuyL A Lrti|j[ht 

^tuiiimii evening olien brings lo niiod »oinc thoociriM cxijorniuo 
From Onm-islon. I do mdc<!d rr^ret ihdT wc live *o far oil 

(«Bch fither, ^ml That I Am itn link Trtcomorivc. J hpive beeo 
unusually well of laur (00 wciirr-nirc), hui 1 do not find (hnr 
1 can stund any change btuer than formerly. . . The other 
d^iy I wt^TiE to London ^^nd b.vrk. jnd the fatigue, IhoLi^h «o 
irirlin^) bmughr on my b^ form of vorniTjrt^^, I ^jcve to 
hear thni your chax Ka^ been ailiyig, and mont tiUHerfly d^ 

.1 hope That it h only Ihe niUKrl» ; how IrequcniJy the voice 
fatlft wirh ^he der^, I fan well undtirstind your ri^lnctnncc 
10 brvnk up your lar|L;c and h-ippy pnrty nnd go abroad ; but 
yonf life is virry v^hi^tlik^ sn yi>ii rtii^hi lo be vrry f nutious ia 
goiji] time. Vuu niik ul>ou[ aW nf ilh, now fiv« boy« loh F Ihr 
profcifioHEi ; oh! the gold ; and oh! the French — ih<:s(T thrvc 
ih'* all rank as dreadful bugbeais) and two girU , , . bol 
WiOthtT and the worM of my bugbears is hcrcdiury wcakoe**- 
AW my liflltrtj arc wcW except Mrs. Purker^ who U much out of 
health : and so is Em^jmu'i q: hh poor avcrdgf! : he hns Idtdy 
moved into Quveo Annv^tri^ot. 1 had heurd o( die intended 
DlaFri:igt: * o( yoLir si^tcc l-ran<i<«. I bchcvc I have hccn her 

^■incc, biTt my memory tako5 me back loine twenty-five yeari^ 
rhcn 5hr war lyin;^ rlown, I TememK'r wrll ihf dflijihtfid 
cxpfession of her rounienance, I most iitirrroly wiah her aII 
hap(ji ■]<;»» 

J aee I hive nol uoKW^rrd hair your qurrtea. Wc liktf very 
well nil that wr hA\c «cen and ht'Ard of Rngby, unti have 
never repenttd nf iL-ndin^ [\V-| there. I feci inne tchooU 
h.ivc greatly improved linoe our dayv ; but I hate schools and 

•TotheRvw.;. KuRtii 


Un AT tOfVrS. MTAT. UMj. 


tbc whole iptfiti t>r brcaluDg ihraugh the affccliLiinfc of |h« 
Umily liy vrii^rjiiinK th* l»oy» w <'Wly in life ; but I tee no 
hrl|s ftn^ darr not mn ihi^ ri^h of a youib hiding eipnicd li^ 
die temputionr; of the wurld wiihont hiving undergone th« 
nuldt* ordL-il of a^n-jE uh4H>1. 

I ac* >'y« ofu rt»k jiflcr t»ui |ic^rt> Wc hive loE« of 
ikurifei U'ArcinLjt'iit. ^^'inicE Nclti, M^ric Louiic. md "Ne 
plus Ultra," but oil off ihc rati ; the iiMidard dvarfi tuv« 
borne a fea, but t ht^t ni> tnam for inorcr trrr4, ta ihcir 
ouurt iro»td he atc\ea ut mr. Voii rrally mii«r moke 
holidAy And pay us « vfaii sometime : nawht^to <:ould j-ou bfll 
more heojidy wetcome- I itm at work at the ti-cond tolun 
of the Gt;i|i('L|]ji, of wbich <;rcnturet i am wonderfully lirrd. 
I hale a l4:iTTiA4: lc An no man ever did before, not c\ta « uJlor 
in a ilow-aaiiitig ship. My fini volume b oot : the only part 
worth looking ai ti on thi^^ciLeaof Ibia and Scnipeltnni. I 
ho]>e by next hUJiimrr tv have done mlh my Ici3uruh work. 
t'arvweU, — <tn c:oinc wtirnwtr you can j'i>vubly manage ii. 

1 cannot but hope ihai the cirbuncle may iiauibJy do you 
good : I have heaid of all 3uri» uf wrakncMo diaappearin^- 
aJTcr a taibxinclc, I fkUftpoK tbc pain » dreaijful. I aifroe 
ma%t rntirdy. what a blrucd dikcovtty it chloroform- \^'hen 
one rhinki at onc'i children, ii makes quiie a bitle difFermcc 
in one's bappiaeei^ The other day 1 had hfx grindeii |t*i> 
by the etev^itur) out at a kiuiug unJei tlus woiidcrful «utK 
iU&ce, and felt hardly anylbuig. 

My dear old friend, foiin very affectimuiely, 


C J3^r«iW A- rr Z), /Ur. 

I>awii. jBUHiy aglh [ilij^ 
Mv DRAK Fox,— Your lau iiccount toonr irifintht ago "aa 
u little utbfACtory thai t have ofietx b»n ihmking of yon, 
and Kbontd he really obliged if you vouTd give me A few Mty^ 
And ip]l mr how your mice and i:be«i are, I mo&t nnrerdf; 
hu^c that your tepoti ujLI be good- . . . Our tcixind lad haij 





a Atit>n^ mechumcal lum, nn*] wc think of m.ilfin); hin^ ^n 
engiiicrr. t shall cry jntl find oue for him «omc Ivf* claA^c^itl 
fchool, perhati* BriKc Ca«lc. i ccrtjinly ihpuld like lo *« 
more diversify in rHun^ticrn than thcrr i» in .iny ordinary 
Hrhcvil — no c^cfcis^Tig <rf the nbscfving or rrnsoninj- f ic'iiIticB, 
no gcncrnl knowlcidgc acquired — I mvist rhink it a wicKhctl 
ayitcm^ On ihc oihcr hund, a buy who has Itarni lo stick u 
Latin ind ^o[1(4ui.t iIb diRicuJiirHi, caught to Ix^ ablt! (u siLk al 
»iiy ULicmr, I fihould ulway^ be gUd Ui Iicjr anylliin^ abuut 
sclitHjLt or education frcim you. 1 am ^t my old, ncver-i^nd- 
ing ii)b]ccr» bM tn.i»i 1 shiill milEy g^ to prc«$ in ;l kw months 
with my si^rnnd vi^umo rm IjrripedesL 1 hnvt b<?cn mni^h 
pU-AB^d by finding Mome odd facta fn fny first voUimi' bHkvcd 
by Owcii jnd a few oilicrs. »hii*e jjood ojjimon I regard ah 
fiai]. .,.!>□ write pKUy loun. 4ind IcU inv all you con 
about youibdf ^nd fimily ; jnd 1 tru&t your report of your- 
*cir may be imiih Ltttcr (ban your lasL 

, . . I finvc bcrn very liirlc in London of Ute, *nd have 
not *cffri Lycll since hi^ rcliirn from America; how lucky he 
was to tf<hiimo with h" own hum] |>:iri!i of tlirtir ikrTetOTi* of 
rvpitic*! out of ihif Cart»im/froui straij^, ;jiid uur of (hi^ inside 
of >t toi^til tree, which had t>ecn hoMuw wuhin. 

FflreweU, my dear Fox, youii jffcciionaicly. 

\U^y lyh} lanl- 

Mv D£j4H t'oXt^Hrre wv Hre in a mUIc uI prufuiinJ idk'' 
lkC». which to me %i. 4 luxuf> ; and we should utl, 1 tiehct'e^ 
hflVC bton in a «aie of high t-njoymcnt, hnri it n^l bc^^n for 
the dcl(?«Calil« rold R;Lk> jind muib ruin« which alw.iy* f;]vc« 
mui:h entiui ru rhJMfen away frtjm their honie^- t rei:^ived 
yijur letter of itih Jtint\ when working btc a sljve wuh Mr 
Sowcrby at drawing for my second volume* ftnd m put ott 
«n(«eti(iA it Lt11 wbcn 1 knew J i^lioiild be At lel«utc. L wm 


LirE AT DOWJtf. ^TAT. 3J-4*. 


cxtMmcly gbd to gcE ymur Icltcr. 1 had intended a cvupfa 
erf mi'iithx Hii/i thcnihnj: y\ii u *jTv;iijtf ot wpjilHaTiDg jotutioi 
to linr>w hotv yrjti wnv. wh/<n 1 mt-l Hir P, Kj^rrion, whi) l<ild^ 
mc yotj were wdt, imfl, a& usufll, ciprcwd hia ndmiratimi <if 
your doingib, nptdAllf your farming, and ihr number at aiu- 
m$.ht including chiJiImit which yuu krpE un yuur Und 
LJcvcn chiliirtni, avo Mxriji! tt it a mmiuip- look^oul fur you. 
Iiidcc(t< t k>ok M my five boyi J> lomcihing Jiwfuf» mii Uaiv 
the very tliQUghti of profe»ion», &c. If one could iniUTe 
moderate br.iJrh for (hem il irould not sifcnify »a mv^^h, for I 
rannni huT hnjir, with rhi- rnfirmouii cmlgnilinn, |»Tof<^kjitlnnit 
will u>mcwhai improve. Bui my bugbedf u herediury w^^k- 
nen. 1 particukriy like (o hear all that you can uy about 
education, and yOU dtiervc 1o be acotdcd fur MyinK " you did 
fiOB mc^n to ArrwAT/ me wilh a long yiun,'' You sUc i^wut 
Rugby. T liVc ii very well, on th: same principic ju my 
neighbour, Sir J. Lubbt>ck, ItkM Eton, vis., thai it is not 
wor^e than any i>ihcr fttho<>l ; xht enpfnut-, Tf/M *// iSv., ^w.. 
in( luding wmo clothvt, travdlinft cuin-nai-*, 3^i-„ iw from /"ii^j 
10^120 |>cr annum. 1 do not think ichoaU ajc mi wu ked M 
Ibcy were, nind Uv more induitrtouv The boyv, 1 think, live 
Xoa icduded in thrir icpar^ie i^tiidieft ; and I doubl trhcliiec 
they will get «o mueh knnwlfdge of c-haracrer at boyft wed kr 
da; and thifi, m my opinion, it the jw good of public uhoola 
over vnuU Gchook I thould ihink the on])- iLipcrioriiy of Ai 
tinail ichool v^r bum« *Miii (urcH rcgulirily in :hetr worlE« 
which your l>oy> perhapt gel at your home, but whjch I do 
not Iwlievc my boy* would get at my home. OEherwiic, it i» 
qu^tr lamrn'Abk' ^cRilin^ boy^^o early in Life from ihrir hornf. 
. I . To miirn to »rhnola. My main objcciion lo tbom. 
m ptact« of rdLianiont h ike cnormnua proportion of time 
tpent over duties. 1 fancy [though ptfhap* iit a oitly fancy} 
ihil 1 can ptrccivv th« ill as d contracting effect on niyeldot 
hc^« mind, m checking intereti Ln anything in which r^aaoa- 
ing and observation come into play. Mere memory teerat to 
be k^orhrd. 1 Khali ccrtAinly took out fnr some ichooJ with 
mote di\cTi4Acd hibdictt for ray youn^et l>oy», I wxj* talking 

I lately 



lately to the Dean of H«rf^ford» who taVa mott itronf^ly th» 
vLCff ; and he tells me tliai there is a 'school Jt Ht-rvfurd i:oRt- 
ilicdvinu on thiti iJbn ; mtd thM Ur, KciifLciiy a1 Shrewsbury 
u going 10 bcein vigorously to modify thai ichoo]. . . . 

I sm f\-/rfmf/y gT^d to hear ihat you approved of my cirri- 
pCfJiftl voluiriL.^ I \\Avc vpenr an almost rjdjf:ii1aui amount of 
Ifl-hoiir on the siibjcci, and rcnainly would never h4vi? undc^ 
liken it had I foreseen what n joii it *as- I ho'v (a hove 
Dibht'd by tlie end oJ' thij yvLir. Do ivnte a^in Lcfur^ a very 
long IJmc : XI i& a real pleasure lo me L^ hear Ifom you, 
Fkir^wdlt wiih my wife's kriulefl rcmcmbrADccs lo yourtclf 
&nd Mrs, Fox. 

My dear old friend, yours affcclioriiiroly. 

C ZJu/wia to fK A /«w- 

Mv RE*n Fox, — 1 thank you iinccrdy for writing lo mc 
BO soon after your mo^ii heavy misfoniine. Your lrt:cr 
■Lffeetifcl mt s<-i mueh. We Ijolh inn&t (nily sympdthi&j with 
you jud Mrs- Fox. H'e loo IciiiL, a^ you may reintml>tr, not 
eo very long ago, a moii dear child, of v^hom I can hardly yet 
bear lo think iranniimy; ycl, ai you mij^t know from your 
I'Dwn mn5[ painful evpericni^e, lime softtna and dcadena, in a 
^Bunner truly wonderful, &nc'fi fccUngs and rcETcia. Ai first 
it i» indeed tnUer. 1 coa only hope ihnt your health and 
thjl ul pour Mrh, V*.*% uiny be j^resciveJ) and (hat Irnie Mdy 
do a> work toflly, jnd bring you ull Ir^i^Lhei, ocice again, ut 
the happy family, which, ok I can well believe, you so Ulely 

My de»r Yo\t your affccilonair fri«Dd, 

Ouni.t^ Darwim, 

[The ffjllowmg fetter refers lo the RoyjJ Society's Meda^ 
irhich w)i» jtrardeti to bini in Novcmbcri I&5J :] 


LIFE AT UOW\. ,€TAT. 3^-45, 


tioiMi. November jth [i3s3|, 

morning* 1 opened fiiti one from Colonel ^antiiiiv; tl]« znn- 
tcnu i^cHiinl;? mrpciicd mc very nmch, but. ihough the letter 
wAi a. rvrt kit.i ffttf, nomrhniv, t cared verj- Irltlc iadced for 
[hf ■nnfiuni^fnirnr it tonmijic-t. 1 then "lirnrd yon r>, nod 
»uch la ihi- effect of « arm ih, friendship, and kindnc» frum 
91U1 Lh«t ifc lovedr ih&i the vvry »jiuir (icti iuUJ ^» jrcu laid it, 
mjdc me gfow wilh (ilcuuic till my very bdit Lhiobbed, 
Jiclit'vc mt^, I shall not »oon forget ihc pleasure ol jrour letter. 
Such hirarly, afTecrionat^ *ympj<hy i« worth more th«n tUi 
the iHiidftls ihai ci^irr w^rt or will be t-ompri, Agiin, myi 
dc;Li llookvf, i thoikk yuu. 1 hoj'v hmdlcy* kvill ncvrr Taecir' 
Ib^t he woJi a c<?mpelitgr .igaind mc ; loi mVLy U ix nlmoAt 
ridtiwiom (of course you would never repeal Ihai I i*iJ thin, 
for \\ wi>Lild be lliouj(ht t>y other*, tliuugh not, I bcheve. by 
yoLt, ro be AlTectaiion) hU not h^vm^ the med^l lonfl before 
me; I muM fed/«r^th«t )rou did quite right 10 propote hkm; 

* Jflhn Lindtey Ih. ||qo. d. [M5) «it the ma of a PDrwryntii near 
Norwich. Uinufb who*? fulitrc in hqticu^t hf wai rhmn tl ihi: ngf «# 
twni/ an hiKivm K«aiiiav ||< v(U l-rfricnitprf hy '^ir W- lla<4rr. mid 
ftDplitjT'd jk ak>|q|iiDE ]i]ar4naq hy^rj Uankv |ir «rrm« m &■»« hid 
fm*iri«ipu« r*|ijirkir <■( wi3fl, »iiil h MfJ lu liiiv« inrikULed RiJiArd'i 'Aiw- 
])«w-U Trutl^ Hi uue uUrnu uf tvu^i>« fttnl ihm niulkU. II4 bccana 
AiHaUiil-Sc^tetttf lu ibe HQtii4,viuj:«l -4«ifi]', kitd in tS jg v>i tppolrjMd 
rrD^tnor oT UDuny u b'aiTi^nit? CaUv^tt 4 pun vhkh he br'-I For up- 
trirda a/tUriy yvan, llii «riilni:i v«atfin«Dut- ifccteH kb«rn bc^og 
pfihipi \A% ' VegeUbie Kifri^orii,' pulilAlicd In I&i&l Hia Innvcnec irt 
hcEpiiif ba inTrcidiicit tH< nsluiil iTnTem ot dumttrilinn wfl> tMUUdcnJilc, 
■net fir hn-rki^kl "ill ihi< nfiglkE nf hii (ncb^|£ *n<1 a1| Lhr l<«r' of hl« 
mUn^efv&l privrr^ lo Mifip»fl It.' to ^i^lritl Ibr Linntan tv^dvfn vnit'Cr* 
feaify iRghl III rlic nilkr part of hh «r«r SatJu itajai^ «ii1 {'.■^Bfhkchtc 
drr Baltmkn li^^S- p- 1^1 k thil ihnu^h I-indlor uK-iprol m \\t inain ■ 
koniid cl>A*lfmEnn nl plant*, hr only did vi hj AhaadoiLitiii hit oim thfr 
otrUnl pHndpIr ihai (b« fili>i»kiglal iMpvtliBM o' u Wf^Ji »■■« 
m «f lu lUiilfiwJ«>y viIm< 




■n4 whaE a g(H>d, dear, kind (cUqw you arc, ncvcichdc^t, lo 
rcjoictr in Lhii hoQuur bcinfj- b(;»EuK^fld □□ mc, 

WUnX ^ra/arf I h>tv« fr-ll on the octa&ie^n, t o'*rt ilmoat 
Vtitrrrly tti yniK 

Farcffcll, m/ dear MAoker, yourit afibctu^njitcly, 

C Dahwim. 

P.S. — You may belii-vt wlui u surprise ii was, for I had 
n«vc-r hcrtriJ iZiat the mcd^Lla cmiid btr given ciuvpl fur pajJtra 
i^ ihc ' Tf >in*idclL0Ei4.' Atl this will iiukc mc i^urk wiih bulkf 
hcirt at tini^hing Lhc second volume. 

C. i?*j/WM /it C. LyeiL 

Down, February iSch Ei^&4)- 
Mv DiiAR t,VRl-L) — 1 should httvt: wficicn before, had it 
not leemed doubUal whethei y^ju would gQ on to IVntfniTc, 
but now J Am citrvmely glid lo hear your further piogreft U 
certain ; not th4t I have iiiuth of any sorl to uiy, a* you may 
well believe when you hear ihAt I have only once been in 
Tendon ain^e ymi M^rl^tl. 1 w<v partimliirly gbd lo see, iwo 
d^ya since, your letter \m Mr, Hornrr^ wiLh ili ideological 
ni?w5 ^ how ti^rlun^Ii; tor you that your knees :ire recovciett, 
I am -iiloQWhed *l i«hjt you say f*f ihe beauty, though 1 h-id 
fancied il areaL It rciiHy iriLtke* me quiie enviou* lo think 
'^f yoii' cUm^vrJng up anrl f!(}vi'n thone 9tfr]i vsEIey4, \tA 
what a plcnsnnt ptiriy on yo«r miirn from your eiipcdiiionR. 
I oftcti think of the delighi whith I fcU when examimtig vol- 
canic islands, and I can a'tnember even puTLiooUr roc:ks 
which I stfutk, and the imdl of the hoi, bl.ick. ^coriaceous 
cUffs : but of those A^tf »mdl» you doociisecm ro have had 
mnch, I do quite envy you. How I should like lo be with 
yoUt aed iLpeculaie :>n the deep Jind nArrov valli^yi. 

How rcry nnguUi Ebc f^ttt is which ycu menlton about 
the indiii;iUon of the strata being greater vuund the cireum- 
fcrence lhJ*n in [hf middle of the iiUnd ; do you tuppow the 
elcvAtion h^i had the form o( a tlat dtomc^ I remember in the 




Cdrdnicrx bem;; t//^« ilrucL with ih« t^reitcr ibruplnvu of 
Ihr MrntJL in ihr /«' f^rrrvrr niLtrimoM MnjtC4, ccmjisrcil 
vith ttic great mvi nf innt^r mouni^iinB. I Aatc tay you wiW 
havv thought of mcaBuring exactly the width of ftoy dikes 
M tlir li^ir uiid bt^ItuiLj o1 jiiiy Kii'iL eliff (which ^tab dorit* by 
Mr. ?3Cjrlc [i] »\ Si. lldcn-i), tuf it h.i> olieii ttrutlL iiic ii4 
ff^ rii/f/ (hai the cracki did n^t die out oJt/<ttir upw^id*. 1 
crtn think of hardly any new* to tell you, m 1 hsvc icco no 
oni7 s\ntt bring in I.nmlon, when I wns dHijchEcrl tc) s^ 
Farbci loakmjc in wdl. quite hig and budy. J luw at the 
MuiFuni <ii>m(! of (hi; lurj^tiiingly rich (fuld on- from North 
W»[c\, R'tiuHhiy hUo tuld nii; th<i( hir hiu» hluly turned a 
jcoud dcj>1 of New kcii SiindiLtonc inio ycrmiao^ lotfciher 
wilh the I^yiinthodon- N'o doubt you >rp ncwsp^pcr^ and 
know rhst E. dr Boaumont i^ [^rrpcTuul StfOrciary, and will, 
I Huppoke, t>r inori: pt/wi-rful than cvci ; and L^ Vviricr bait 
Ara^*« plate in the Ob*en'iiiory, There wa* « meeting 
lately Jt the Gei;ib^ical Society, it tt-hich rrnlwich [juOgiDg 
froni wbji k Jonc* luld int) brought fcrwaid your cixci 
theory, vi/, tJut the whole red cUy and flinr* over^the chAlk 
pbliedu hercabouia i« the residuum from the »low di»o1utioft 
of ibi; chalk! 

A^ rc^-t'dn ui]rvelvc4» wc bave nij ncwv, and sr« aJI vrlL 
The Hooken, lomeiime ago, iiAyed i fortnight with u». And, 
1o fsWT ettrem*? delight. Hcnilow e^roe down, and vu tnott, 
quiei and fomforiablt here. It doc* one ki>wI to *te to com- 
pCMcd, beitevoleni, And inielJremal a rounii^nnnce. There 
hast; been great fcin that hk hcan ir, affo^ted ; bnt, \ iMpe 
lo 0»di without Toujid^Lton, Hoi^kviB book* !■ out, and 
mtttt beQiOiJtdiy got up. He hm b^irivurvd lilc beyvTid nwu- 
ure by dedicoiiag it bo me! At for myself. I am got to the 
pag? irf of the Bamacln. and ihal ii th^r vim tutaJ of w/f 
histofj- By-tht'-way. « j^h care «i much al»m»t North 
America, I may mention that 1 had a long letter from a thip- 
mile in AlIlt^ali[^ who ^yi t)ie Coiony is getting decidedly 

* Sir J. Heokcr't ■ HJnBlayaiL JouniA' 




npubliom from the influx of Amcncnns. and rbai aW the 
^caf And novel Bc1icm<!i fur working the ^dU\ Jie planned 
snd rvi^f^ucd by ih^tc mtrn. Whal .i |;o-u-Ui'Aj nuLiuii it in! 
Oivc my kindest i<:tJ]i;)jibNmci;ft lo \,M}y hyvW, utid II? Mrs. 

CjJiiuitch mny be i^n (imci as kterctdng At MAddra, and 
liut everything may (pa on moil prosperously with your 
IT hole p^rly. 

My dctiT Tnyi^ll, 

Yaurs mg^t truly iuid A^cctiomtldy, 

(1 Dak WIN. 

C. Dantia ta /, D^ ffaekfr. 

Down, Man* iii [1S54I- 

Mv rtAH HooKKu,— r finished yeslerdny evening ihe 
fifit volume, iin (I I vvry siotiTt-ly cuni^rfLhilali? you. iin hav- 
fiojc pru<!ui:t(l tt. Jtrtt-^iast book'^a IjqoL which certJinly will 
kfiLp ] cannoi doubt thaL ic wilt like its pla<:e a» a Mandard, 
not so much btcaiise \x ifHilsifit rciti solid matlcr, bul ihsit it 
llivc* ;i [Hcture of ihi: whok- coumry, One tan ftrd that one 
hflH wen ii (and denpermdy imr^mforTHble f fdt in ]^\t\% 
over MHTc of the bridges and steep Tilop*!s), and one ffiifisri 
■II the giL-ai Phy8K-ul ft^lurt^ Vun tuvr in uuvb redHon to 
be jjroud ; consider how few Irawllcrs there ha« been with 
n profound knowledge of one subjccr. and who could in 
addition make » m;ip (whirh, Uy-tHe-wjy, is one o( ihe most 
di«inirt one* 1 ever Inokcd at, wherefore blrs^itip alight on 
youT hfjvfl), ami study git^ology arift meie/»rftUigy ! I thonf^i 
J knew ynu very wdl. but 1 had not thr tcn^t idea ihni your 
Trnvelft were your hul>by i but [ jm heuriiEy ^lad uf 11. for 1 
fed suir thitl the tmii: will ntver come when you and MriL 
Hooker will not hr proud lo look bjck at ihe bibouf be- 
Mowed on thp^e beiuliful volumes. 

Your letlcr. rccerived ihU morning, hu iiime»tcd me ex^ 

* HimaUyAn Jourpil.' 


LtrS AT DOWK. ATAT. jy^. 


tfetiffy, and 1 Ihflnk you tincrfdy n>r telling mc your old 
ih»i^}{Uu jn^l A«]>it3tionv AU ih«i yoi^ uy in*kc& mc c\tn 
mrirc deeply grmifti-'d Uy The iJeclication ; hut you, bad man, 
t]o you rnnvmbcr ;&4kLi;j£ mi: Iiq^^ i ihou|»hi i^ycll wuutd lika 
Ihr wurk tu be dctlicilcil to liitii i I (rmviiitcr ho« >Uoti^f 
\ ariiw^rcd. inj 1 picsLiTOc you wanlcd lo know whjt I should 
fed ; whorvrr would twr dnMnn-d nf your hi:ing m> crafty ? 
I «m jt;fc(i<1 ymi h^vr thn^vn a liiili^ Ui uf jtmbtimn altoni your 
Jouniftl, fjT yoy mLJsi know th^i I huTe often abused you fof 
n<^L cmmg niurv ubom fAmc, chmigTi, sx. the ujik? llui<;, I must 
coiifcw i liJvtf viuivJ ind hujiuutcJ yuu lur bcmjj ku Irtrv 
(loo (rec, AS 1 have alvrjiy* thought) ot ihU " Lut infirmily of, 
ficc/' Do not lay, "' ihew never w.k o p.iM hitherto lo mc — 
Ibu ph.intr>in was aiwayt tn vk-w," for yuu will ftO<jn find 
oihcr ph.inlomit in view. How well 1 know ihit filing, and 
did fonncTly ttilL mnic vividly; hul I ihink my tlouioch hu 
much dcAdcnvd uiy ^oruK-i puiv ^□lhubii»m f<;r Kici3cc aod 

1 ;im MriiinjE ;in uaroft>icion«bly long ketcr, but I mu 
return lo (he JournaK ihoLii which I hAve hftrdLy«ud ui 
Ihin^ in diriiiil. lni]>rinii<i, the illtistrattom and maps appear 
to mt the lK"4t I havi: cvlt fccn ; (ho Myk F(r>:ir» It* 
civiyA hciv LMrifuclly vk-ui (Ijum iJic jl v^tIuc), &lid bomv 
>igt« rCAlJy do1^ucn^ Jlow eiccJlenily you h«\x dctctibed 
Xhtt upper villcys. nnd how delectable their dimai«; I it\t 
quite indnuK on Ih^ Kli>|krt of Kinrhin rhM dreadful unovry 
Dighr. Knihlng hAi o-Momshrd mr m^^ro ihan your i^hyiJiuJ 
BErength; and all ihoine dcvilUh hridges! Well, ihank good- 
ne»i^ it 11 not t^ty likely that I shall ever go tu the Hima- 
laya, Much in A w^icutrt'it |>uiut uf fivw hait micre^ed me, 
ctpeeULly ali about iho»? wonderful miir^Lnet. I certainly 
think I qutle realise iHe valteyi, roore irfvidly pcrhAp* from 
h*vrng ncpn ihc valley* of Tnhiii. I mnnoi doubt thai tho 
Mimal.iya owe ^hnuhl all thnr contour Iej running water, and 
Xh4X they Imvc been tubjccbed lo such aciion lonj^er than any 
niouQtainrt fu ytx dcH'Hbcd} in ibe world- Vi'hat a contra 
with the Andc*! 

pair 1 




Perhaps you woiiM Wtt Ui hear ihc very little thai 1 tan 
%Ay ptr £tmtra. and thia only appHccJ to the lifginning, In 
which (fl& it struck mcj there was not fiow enough till yoi> get 
ti> MiriiLpore on the Gangve (but thfj Thup were n^r/ intcr- 
BstiiigK wbi're tht slfi-'^iin f^i^irinvd ly cany yuu on more 
cqu;tbly ^vilh lungct icntencct jnd longer incts anil discu!^ 
jionj. ^c. Jn imoihcr i^diifon (nnd 1 am dcHfihtcd to hear 
th:it Murray hnn hoIiI nil ofT), I w»iiM ronaultr vhcthff fhin 
piiM cnuld not lie rontlirnflcd, F.vcfi \X rhc mcicoTology wai 
put in foot nutcrH, I chink it would be an imEHovinneiii, All 
th« wurhi is jgjinai \\\n, bui 11 mukva me vtiry unhjppy tu see 
the L<Llin nmiich dll ifi IliilKit, iinij aH minj^lej with EitglUh 
ffiftmc* in RoTnan lypc ; Umi 1 must bear this burden, fc-r All 
men of Science irt^m tc think 11 would cornipt ihe Latin lo 
draw it up in the same type as |}oor old Ent^tish. W^M, I 
Lm very proud of nvy book ; but thtrc \i ont bur<f. tl^aE I do 
^noE mu.i:b liki? asking peopk wiKthvr chcy hiive fven it, and 
how they like it, for J feel so much idcniilietl with it, that 
Bifcli gi.ic*tions become r^ichcr peraonul, Henre, I caotiot 
fell you Ih? o|>tnKjn of othcti. You will hnvc seen a (airly 
good review in ihc 'Aihenitum" 

Whni cnpiiil new* from Tasaiania ' tt really is a vf ry rr- 
miLrkable and tredjlabte latl to Ihv C^loriy,* \ :iin alw^tyi 
bmitlmu veritjibte t^isUe>t in Ibe atr abiiut enii^rJtmjj, and 
TumAoia has been my head-quiTfen of late ; 30 that I feci 
[^Ftry proud of my adopted country : it U really ,1 very dngn- 
/lar and ddi^litfiil fact, conrtAnird with the ilighi nf^pt^eiation 
of wienrr tn x\%v old country, I :hnnli j'oti heartily for your 
teitc-r fbia morning, and las all the graiiiitation your Dedica- 
tion hfls given me : 1 could not help tbiiikin^ how min:h ■ 

would dnpisE^ vuu fur "ut huviri|£ d[;du;-ited it to tome great 
man, whu would Iilivc douc you nad it lome good 1:^ the cye« 
M the world Ah. my deflr nortktT, you wcit very soft 'jn 
thuhead, and justify whu I say about nuic-jriny enough for 

jfe LirE AT DOWN. .«TAT. >j^i- ti»54. 

yooT own fame, I with I wa» in cvfiy w*y mor« worthy of 
your gofxi *>pmif>n. J^mcirclL How plcjuaatly Mr>, Houkcr 
anj yuii iiiuai feii fiom one of your many lihoun. , . , 

A|t4iii fdtL'woll : 1 lijic uHlien a wocderfutly lang tnicr, 
Adioir Aad Uud Ikhb ymt. 

My dcu Hooker, ever your*. 

C, DAtiWtti. 

PS. — T havcju*T lookcrl over my nunblinR Irttcr ; 1 
IhiT I hnvc not m all cxprrsi^ my nirong odn^iratinn u fh< 
amount of HcicuDfic work, tn bo many bmndics* whith you^ 
Uuvt- ciTci LcJ. il u rriLlty ^r#mJ, You hdvc 4 ri|;lit lu rcA 
on your oan ; or even lo wy, if ii no plcanci you, lliAl "your 
mcriciian it pMi ;" bui well flwurcd do [ feci ihai ihe day of 
your Te|juui](;n and gr^i^tral Trcagnttion hm only juit be^n 
to dawn. 

[In Srplemb«r, 1S54. hl% CirripinJc worL was pmclicAUy 
finithcd, and he wjotr Cti Dr. Hooker ; 

" 1 Kavc liceri fnlLcnai; *vt^y my time for the Idtl Itveral 
v«eki in a wcarUome mAnner, fuirEly idlencu, and oddi jiad 
endit and tending len rhouj^ind liitrnade:^ am of ihc honi 
lU over the world. Uul I ihall now in a day ur rao begin 
louh over iny oLJ nvLi;« Ljn tpcLioa. Wlidt a Oe^ t shdll have 
to dJ*eutt with you : I ths}] hare to Look ^Jirp chiil 1 do 
'pnoj:re*** info one of the jcreateil borti in Life, to the fcl 
IUec you with low of ltnowliT(lfie.'"J 


fOu pflgp ^7, fhc growth of the 'Origin of Spefici* hw 
Iji'tn liricflj^ described in my faiht^r's word^. TKt TcUt'n 
Itivcn in ihc present a.nd fulluwmg r:liA{)EerH will iHustruto PliO 
jimplify the hibtory 1fku& tkctchud ouE. 

It ii ticar that m the ri^rly j>att Qf the voyage of (he 
Bra^ti he ditl no( feel U incan««lcnl with his vwwe Io C3LprcM 
himiclf m thoroughly orehodon J»r»flnflgc sa to the g^nesb of 
new spi'cies. Thtts in tS^4 he wrote* nt Vn^Jpariiio: "I 
have fllrt-fldy found binN of r*'.xnt nhdls yta retaining th*'tr 
colour at an dt^vauon of ljdo fucti and beneath) tht: levd 
oouuiry iti btrrwn willi ihiriu, IL hctruvi iiol a vcty intjirobjllc 
conjecmre that (he »ani of nnimali may be owin£ to none 
having been created vnce ibiu rontitry was raised from the 

Thifl pn^aa^ doc* nor orrnr in the publf abed 'Journal,' 
th« last proof of which was finjshc^d ir; iS;^; ; and thin fact 
lijrmonJ£e« with the dmn^e w: know to hjvi: bei^u Eirocecd- 
iny in hia vit^tvii. Hut in the published ^Juufnn) ' ^e find pLVt- 
fcigrj which show A point of view more m iicrofdince with 
orthodoE fheoLogical natural hlHtnry than wirh hih brrr viewA- 
Thit^, in speaking of (he Irirda li^ynnllaxis jjnd S^yialopos (i«l 
edit, p, 3JJ ; and cJir, |>. iii}U he jny* i "When finding, as 
b this case, any animal which icems Iv play *o insignificant 


a pan ia the great »chomc of nature, one u *p\ tg woodcf 
why t difttinct ipccit* ihcuEd hnvc been tiMtcJ. '* 

A cfjmpAn.tfin nf thr iwo c^litinnn of thi- ^ Jmirnul ' la In* 
fifructivc, 01 jEiving same idea of Ihc dcvclopmcni of lut view* 
on rvolution^ It daci not give us a true indct of ibe moM 
ifl t:ifn'}ccXiiir *iw:\i wn Ukm)^ Umpt* m i\n Jiiiiul, Uut It 
hhowi ufi thAi he fdL turc enough u( the liuth of Liu belief 
to allow « itrongcr lin^ o' evolution lo iipprar in the second 
cdrlion. He hrt» mtniiftncd m iht Autobif»K"|ihy (p 6t} 
ihac it Witt not nntif hr rend Mdthmt ihm hf f^ttx % rlcar vl 

the potency of nmufal stleaion. Thi» was in iSj 
after he finished the r^nc ediiion (it via not publishi 
nntil rB^g), and Ave yeu^ before the ictand edition wj 
written (i^4S)' ThiiR the ttrrnJM|[«-poiDi tn the formation 
bia (heory IckjIc place between ihc*niingof the two editions 

I wEU tint jj;ive a fifir ^aii!j>;t'4 whHi an- (iTaciEcally tlwj 
kune in the two ediiionh^ and whti h arc, iheri-forei chieAf 
inieren ai iltuntriiling his frame of mind in iH^j. 

The caic of the 1*d specie* of Molothtus (ist edit, p, 6l : 
ii^d edit, p. 53) innit have been one of the nrlictt inttancea 
noticed by htm of ilic exislenee of repfetcntarLi'e specie* — ^ 
[>henoniL-non u^hich we know {' Aurobiogmphy,' \t. 6S) sinick 
him deeply. The discuvflion on mtnxlucrd ^iniiQiLlH |itt edit. 
p. ij(); jnd edit- p. i9o) bKvw* how much he vrat impri 
bf the complicated intcrdepeDdeoce ol itic iobabtlaala of A 
(pirn (ircA. 

An nnjtlngoiu point i-pf vfew i^ R^vrn in the di^Cim^inn (itg- 
edit- p. 9M ; ;nd edit, p. 3^5} of the mlMakcn belief that lafge 
animaU require, for their support, a luKurioai vegetation : the 
iiKOrreetneu of ihis vjcw i^ illuMrjted by ilw compartewn i>i 
the fauna of Souih Airiu ^nd Suuih America, and ihe ixfv- 
tafion of the Iwo cgntinents. The inieresr of Ihe discuisioo 
\t that It ihcwi (.'liTiirly ovir A ^rt^ ignonnee of the condi* 
tion>i of Ufe smiablc <o any orj^nnivn. 

There it a paa:»a^ which has been more than once quoted 
n be;irinE on ihe origin of hit liewi. It ii where he dis* 
cvuct Ihe btriking diQcrcnce between Ihc ipcde* of mKe oa 



Ihe east and west of the Andes (Mt edit. p. 390) t "Vnlcas 
wr ^uppD4^ iht ^amc sp«ric« to have hccn crcLKcd in two dif- 
fercni countries^ we ought not U* «i|jcct any vlubcr stmilnnly 
btfiwtfisn Ihe org-init: bcingi OA the Opposite Hde^ ol the 
Angles tlun on *hcr« separated by « broad atrait of (he «*," 
in ihc ind edit, p- 317, *h'^ passngi^ is almnni vcrlmlljr Urnii- 
cal. And 15 pTiiclirally Ihe Aunc, 

There art' other pnaages igiin whkh OTc more wrongly 
cmlutionflTy in the and cdi»., bui oihiirwisT.' ure similar to the 
corresponding pu.$u|^es in Ihe lai i^diimct Thuh. jh JcHriti- 
in^ the blind Tuco-tutu (isi edit p. Oo ; Jtid cdiL p- jj), in 
tliL' liiitl edihon he niakc« no aiUsiion to what l^imarck might 
hftvc ihonghi, nor is the instance used at an example of modi* 
aeaiioh. At in the <*di[ion of TS45, 

A •iiriking pasB.ijfe ocrurs in Ihe 3t\i] ci\it. {p. 173) on Ihe 
rfl^EionRhip betivecn the ^' cxiinf^t e(l<:ntata and the living 
fckjth&, ant-eaters, and arm^uJdlds-" 

"This wonderful relationship in the name coniineni be- 
twttn the dead iind the hvttig, wOl. I do n^i doubt, hcrejfter 
throw moft li^ht un Ehc ap]K-nt'irK.c ol org^imc Ijeings on our 
Ciirfh, and their dis^ippcorance from it, than nny mhcr cIjus 
Of fncrs." 

This sentence does nai occur in the i^t eJii., but he whi 
rvidenlly profonmlly struck by the disAppeuanceof rhegigaiu 
lir fofCTMnni^rs frf the present flnimnts. The difference be- 
iween the diwm^siona in the two editions ia mnut inNtnictivr. 
In both, our ignoran<:e of Ihe conditions of life ia tn^isifrd on, 
but in the Kruond edition, thi^ diACUBbion is mode lo le^ad up 
10 JL »irong iiiatctnent odht: intensity o| the atru^|;[i; for life. 
Thcro follow* a compflrison between rarity* and cxlinttion. 
whifh introduces ihe ides that the pre^rvalion rind domi- 
nance of existing species depend on the decree in whuh they 
lie adapted 10 aurrcunding conditions. In the lirst ediiioni 

■ In the upconil rvliiina, ji. 14^ 1li« de^iruction nl Nbta aitir irf 
draughlA i> 0vcn a; ■ good tianiplc ofmir 4|£iiDritnrc o[ The caiiMi oi lu- 
itl" or eUiiii:{]Hj||, ihe poud^e doc* noX occur m ihv Unt cditiorh 



Jiv 19 TDrr^ly ** t^m^Jtcij to tidicvc in tudi »inip1e rcTalioni oM 
varLiEion <^\ climaic 3-nd food, or inltDduction of cncnii<;«. oi 
ihv inc-Ecaud number of olhcr ipccicv u ihc cnunc of tt 
vucccwoQ of rnrc^" Bui finally (iRC (xl)tO hir cnda il 
chapTfr hy ri>m(nijinK lb<* rxdm-tion nf a ippcici lo ihc cn- 
hAiitiif^n nnd dL»i|i|tcaTjrtcc of vatLctics of fruiiucu: us if 
he chuughi that a i&fisicirtouK leroi u( lifti W3« inijirtMctl un 

'[ \iv UirJcrrncG ol trcMment of Ihc GalapJgos probJcm a 
of lomc lAictcst, In the oukier book, ihn Am? ric*n typ<r of 
the prndiirlmnt of the ii^lanflA \s ru>rkrfl, nn U thr faj-t IhaCj 
th» dJTercni Ulandt potAOis forms fipccially their own. but Ihi 
unpo[tdni;c of tht whole problem U not lo EiTongty put for- 
wiidn rhufcj in the Iir»t edition, he mtn\y wya ;^ 

"Thth iiintiljirlty of type between diHUnt lATandt and fon* 
ttncnit* while the ipccici ai^ dinitici, hii irarcely been »uft- 
cicntLy Doikcd, Thr circumtttnce would be c-Kplutied, ac' 
cording lo the vicviof wmc atithon. 1>y trying ihaE the ores- 
rite power had a*:tiid Acronling to thi' sanie law uv«r i 
arva." — (i»«dit, p. 474 ) 

ThU paHhii|^ i» not jtiven in ihe >ici^^nd irdjiioa, cuid thttl 
tIcncrali«aiionA on {jco^rjiplitij) ditirrhuiion ire much vidcf 
na6 folkr. Tbm he a»t» . — 

"Why wrrr (heir al»ori^mal inhabifantii, ■*iori*ied 
in different prnriciriinnK boih in kind And niimbrr fmni those 
on tht ConEineni. ±nd therefore acting on «u:h other in a djf* 
fvrcDt manner— why were ihcjr created on American lypw oj 
organiiaiioii ? "— (jud edil, p. jy.i) 

The ume diifcience uf [rruimmi U «hown cttcwhcre in 
thw ehapEer. Thui the giadation in the form of beak pre- 
vnicd by the thirteen allied speein of fineh it dncpbcd in 
the flm cdiiiof) <p, 4111) wrihout fomtnent. Wboms Id th«. 
second edition (p. jSo) he concliule^ ^^ 

" One might reiUy fa»cy thM from an original paucity 
biriU in lUiiL Art hipeU^EO. fln« apvcin haa been l^Lrn aod^ 
madiflcd for different cfidn." 

On the whole il teems tome rematkable that the difference 



Ijciwccn the two c<ditioat i& cipt greater : iC i% anothct proof 
of ihc aiithrjf ^ ciuiion itnd nclf-rtstr.iiin in llic iTrJimcnt of 
Mii t]\cftry. Aiief TC&ding the aei'onil oilirion of xhc ' jrn»T» 
nal," wc find with a strrmg sense at surprise hnw tar rtevpl- 
ojjtd wi-rc his views hi 1837. We aic ennblcd (n form an 
vpuMuii on Ihis point ftom thi: nolC'boot* in which ht wrote 
dcwn detAchcd thougbtt and [|ucrLcs. 1 hhAl] quisle frixn (hu 
first note-book, tomplcicd between July jHj; and February 
iSjS t and this i« the moro worth doin^, ^9 it giv» m nn Jn< 
»ighE into [he cAndition of hin thoughts before the readmg of 
M:il(hufi, The notcK Lira written in hU mn>.t hurried ityle, 
ku rnauy word^ heing omilledt th:il jt la often (liffirult CO 
urrive 41 the mcaumg. With ^ few rxreplji;rvi Lindit^itcd by 
square brnfketi) • I h.ivc printed the cxtiarn .11 wiirfcn; the 
punctuation, however* hAs been altered, ind a few obvioui 
»lipB corri^fU'd whert' il seemed nctes^Jiry. The exiraciB are 
not printed in order, but me mughly cb*}>iifivil f 

" ?Fopa)^JtLon explains why modern jnmiaU uine type 3» 
cxiiniit, whkb i^ law, almost proved-" 

" We cJiH sec why slriitturi: U common in certain countrit* 
when we tan hardly bcUevc neccwftry, but if h wni ncreiwirif 
In nnt forefather, tJie te^ixll wo^ild be a^ it is. Hcftrc ante- 
lopea ftt Cflpc of Good Hope; marsupials at AuBtrnhv" 

"Countries longest EcpnrJtfd K^^alnt ddTerenccb— if wpa* 
nied from immers^ijae* pi>Bsibly I'vt.t dislmLl type*, but cath 
bjivin^ lis rcpiescnUljves — ^ in Au^lrilu-'" 

"WiH this apply to whole oiginic fcingdom when our 
pUncl hrst cooled'" 

The two following eitraet»P fthnw ihat he Applied the theory 

* In i^v nlnett fri-»rn The nottptKtnk or4iJ\aff hact«l« repreienl By 
fttthffr'i parriiiliFvt, 

+ On (he firti pjgs of I'rto nnlc-bonk, j» wiirif u " Z'Kmvm'in " , ihn 
HFinft Eu r^r^r 10 cbt <iFii Jpw fu|j» Ln which if prod net ion bjr |j;cinttijiiiun 
t^ divL-u:t>v<!. &ii(t whi^rv the ""Zoonoii>kQ " V* rnvniL'^n*!^!* ha« 
Weil cal 1)111 ot llii; noic-tirmk. jimbnbly fi^r uv« hi »r^irrif[ (he ^Lpich of 
1B44. Hfl ihnd woaLd have no donbl cuqUincd (he niUBl ImcrvtL^if 


of vvolulion to the *' whole organic kiiiftdc>m " froin p1«niG Id 

'' \\ wi? chfiov to \cv ron}cciurc run wiM> ihcm oiifinali, 
our fcUovr brc^thrcn in pain* diioascv deulu Buffrring :inil f«Tii- 
ine— uitt ahivo^ id tlit^ munit bburiuuB yftn\-\ our c:um|Ji«&ivi 
id <jur amwHciiicnU^thcy tiuy {iJiiakc [vl ^J uui otj^in ift 
common inceilor— wc may h« all mclicd together" 

" Tbr dilTcff nt inicllccrt of nrnn «nd anitnaU not so grei 
Ai briwcrn livinj; ilun^^t without ihniigbt (pUniAj, and livh 
Thin^ii with ihonghl {anlmftU)," 

ThctbllowingctirDcnarcagnini^onf^CTncd wLtliini^ 
view of the probability vf llic origin of 3|n.xic« \jy dcKCal 
t" iiro|iJiji'it'Ofi/" lic cjJIrd 111- 

" The tree o( life ihouJ<l pfrharn lie cnlird tht conl of 
Hfe, boic of brinchci dead: u Ibai pa^nagea cannoi bo 

"TluTf nn-fr mny h;tvi.' lurn f-riili- Klwocn [^ijcand tapir, 
y«L from Mitnc i <ini:Aicin iirogcniti^r. Now if the tnEvtiucdute 
rankthuJ produ^ei] inrinilcspcde«, probably the Mrir* woitJd 
have been morr perfett-" 

At an^ihrr phiLe, »i>c«king of iotcnneditte fonni 
My* \ — 

" Cuvief objects to pro;>jiKiiMan of i]>ccict hff saying, why 
have nol some intermediaie fonni been diirovercd between 
P^KCflhcriuin, Mc^jlunyt, Mattodon. and i\\it upecioa aoi 
living ! Now actioiUiMg Ei> my iicw (JA 5. AmerKu) parent 
■II Arrmdillow mfj-ht be brother to Megalhcriiim — uncle now 

Speaking eluewhere af iTi(enni:diAtr fonnt, h(T rrmnTliq • 

''Opponenn wJI iCf^ihtw Uem me, I will MKwcr yes, il 
you will ihtjw me every step between buUdog and gwy- 

Here we »ee thii thecfttc of dom*ille linimAlt vx% ilrc^d^ 
pre*eQi in hii mind u bearing on the prodacibn of n^nmlj 
Bp«cin. The diiappc-irancr of intrrmedUie fornii naittratl] 
lejJt up to the iubjevi of eumction, wiih which the t^%\ 

NOTE- BOOK OF i&jj. 


" It i% n nondeKuL ii<t, hone, dcph^mt, uid mulgdon, 
dying out aboul irtiiir lirnr in *iii:h difTcrrnt ipMTfcfSH 

"Will Mr. l.yoll aay Ehni aomt^ [lanic ^| ciirHFrmtancc 
killed u over a iroci from Spain to ^vuih America?^ 

" They die, wiilioul they change, Liku Kuldcn pippinti ; it 
lA y£ffl/r(i/f('fl o/spetUt like gcnertttion ^ ladn'utuitii. 

■■ Why doc* individiiHil die ? To papctuatc ccriain peculi- 
arities ((hc«foTf? ai].i[itafion)r and obliicMf^ ntcidtninl varie- 
tiMi ind to A^contmodAtE iiAcIf to change (fnr, of rounr, 
cbftnge, even in vd-ricTicc, JA sccommndtuinn). Noht thi* 
oignaicni applies in spcciei, 

^* If indjvidual cannot propagate l>e h^s no ittue— ^o vith 

" [f -r^rtVr generate olhcr spfHtt^ their rice U not nilcrly 
cut off :— ^ikc golden pipping if produced by seed, go on — 
olhcrwiftc nil dtu. 

"The foB*il horse KE'nerAtcil> in Souih Affico, icbra — and 
coniintiet! — ptriiUtd ii\ Aini^ricLi. 

'' AU anjmih of same tpetjcs are bounil together imt Iik<f 
buds ot pUnis. whkh die at one lime, tbougti produced tiEhcr 
•OOnCT or Ijiicr Ptovl' animah like phnls— trace gr^iialion 
SnweCTk associflii'd and non^asaocinttd animalij — aad the story 
will he complete." 

Here wr h.ivt! ihe x'lcw already alluded tu of ai term oF liFo 
imprt^ssed un a ^petit-^ 

Hut in thtf fultuwing nolc wr get e n tine ticn connected mth 
vnfavouriibLc vamcion, and thuv a hint n gircn of natural 
(election : 

" Wiih respect to extinction, wp ran ewily «ec that [nj 
vjiricty of (th).'] oicrieh (Pelitie), may not be well adapted, 
ind thus pcrUh out ; or, on the other hand, like Urph^u* \* 
CJilapago^ h\t^\y Lteing favourable, many might be produced. 
Thiis tequircii [the] principle that the permnnem variations 
^•fodnecd by confinLcl brcoiJnji and chan^'ng cifciimslant^e* 
arc contmued and produrcd arcordiny to the adupiaiion of 
auch circumstance, and therefore that dtiath of species it a 


C0D>cc)ucnce (conuiuy :■> what nrould Appear from America) 
of noii'tidapUlioQ uf ciKuiiuunccv" 

Thr rtiX pari of the next citruc hfli a tlmiUr beflrinit 
1'h(^ cD(t of the pwjif^ JH of much interest. ^ ifaowing ihAC 
he hix6 ai ihii early dote viiionA of thr f«r-rp«chiiif character 
of the theory of evolution :— 

"Wtthbdicf of inLELeiiiuiatiun and Bcographkal gronpitig, 
ve arc led lo crideavuui to discuvtfi eauifsot change; the 
manner of adapUE]<:>Qlivi)pbof parcriU.'?), iiihtinci aiij t^Uutl- 
tire IwcomCT full of ip^^culinon and Imct of obtervjiuan. 
View f»f grnet»iioTi |itin|c con den ml ion,* test of hi^eit or- 
i:ini«a<ian inidltjtihlc . . . My ihrory would give icit to 
recent in<l fouil coin^irotwo anatomy ; it mxiiiM lead to tha 
<^x*^y of mivtiacti, heredity, ind mmd^hciedjiy, whok [of] 

*' Et wottUI lejid tn f^Ionei^t enaminxiion of hf^hridiry tan 
generi^iion, fjutci of rh^nge in order to know whal we have' 
eome from and to what we icnd-'io what cimimtLUnees 
favour ermiinif ^nd whit prrvrnl* it— ihiK. and diTtct enam- 
iiuLLon of direrj pafihiget of f^tructurc in ipccics* might lead 
to lavi of change, which would then be [the] indn object of 
slvdy> to guide qui speculations" 

The following two ritrarls have a vmilar ^niereit : tllQ 
fcciond h e^iirr.ially iniomiinft aa tt crmtaEnA ihr grrm of] 
concluding wnrence of the "Origin of Spcrici':t — 

" Deforr the atttactiun of gravity tliacovered il niifht have 
b«en lard it wa« u K'^-'t -^ diflict^lty 1o account for Ihe 
niDverneot of All [plancdl h_v one law, aa lo acoou&l for «fte^ 
tefutaie one ; *o to lay thai aU manunalaa were bom fron 

* 1 imtcinr Ttin 10 fBcan thai caeh (tacraiiM b^'coodnaad" to a 

1 *Oe]cLu rti Spcftrt' Mlv, i').p 440:— "TlMie Ka cruiffortii Mt 
vkitf ^r life, *t'-h iL* Kvrrir i?«<irr«. litilDf thttn o^^iHMl\y hm'hr^ IMO 

% Tw (bmik <>■ Lnlo ant : iihI Lhfll vlnl^l rhi> pfancl faai f-inr cif lin|' « 

faffn* oiutt tjHurlfvl kod nwm wandwful biv« bf«n, vid wt tAaf 



OQV Block, aJid Mnrv dUlrlbuT^i^ by inch mcAnA ih wc caij 
Ter.ognlw, may b? thought lo cvpbin noThing. 

"Astionometfi might formerly haw said lliat God fore- 
OrOtrrcd each (jUiicI to movi; in it& particuTar dc^Einy. In ihti 
'•Adie mannct God ttfdcrs cath »njnia| crcattd with i:«riiiin 
formv in certain countricgH but how mijch mort sitnpit jind 
huhlimp [a] pnwrr— let aitrnction act according lo certain 
law, iiiwh ore incvimbk fonflcqucni^c* — let atjimah be Tre- 
ated, then by ihc fisptl laws of Bcncratiuo, such will ha iheir 

'^ Lei Ihe power* of lfanipo*ial bt 4iich, and 40 will be the 
forms of m>c country lo another— kl gcotofcrcal changcf- go 
at Hu<-h d Mtc, Qo will be Iho number and diainbLLtion of the 
ijnicics! I " 

The Ihicc nciL cittracte arc of miscelUneoua inierest :*<> 

" WhcQ Dtip 5-cs nipple on man's brta^l, one iJijci not s*y 
some um:. but scs r]'>l buvinii; been Udetnuncd — so with usf 
le*^ wifiR* nndcT dyira af bct-iki;— born from hectic* wlih 
wing*, And modified — if iimpk creation merely, would have 
been born wirhonl them," 

^^In diTcreaun^ poiiulGCion M any onc^ moment fewer 
ctow^r rcbtcd (few tpccict of gcneritj i uliimatcly few genera 
tfor otherwise the reljitionship wovild eonvetue 50on«), and 
iMtly, prrhap*. wme one Single one. Will not thU srrount 
ffir the oJ<1 pcnerTi y^ith few spccifn which siand between 
great groups, which we are bound lo consider the increasing 

The U»C oitract whidi ] &hall quote give^ the |^rm of hia 
theory ot <he relation bcUecn nilpinc pUnts in v-iriou*: parU 
of the world, va the publication of which he was forestalled 
by K. Forhcs {sfc vol. i. f*. 71)- He ays. in the li^^j nof^ 
brtctk, that alpine planes, " formerly descended lower, there- 
fore [ihey are] ipedei oi lower genera altered, oir norihern 

When we ttini lo ihc Skclch of hU theory, written in 1&44 
(■till therefore before the *rtond edition of the ' Journal * wju 
eampleted), we 6nd an ctiormous advance mode on ihe note* 




honk of iAj7. The Skcl^h u tn ficr « lurpritinglj fravpkee 
prcwntilion oi ihc argumctit aficrward* familiar to ut in the 
^,'On^iti uf Siicdtv" Thtic is w>mc vl^acumy ii lo th* dat* 
Ihv ^uTi SLcCi:h wIilcEl (ormcd ilic buitvf llic i&h K^^aXh 
^« know (rom hm own irordi (vol, L* |i. GS), lKm it wu m 
JUQC 1841 thit h« 11 m #rol« oat a shcrt ikrtch of hii virw* 
This ftratrmimt ii jpvcn wiih no m«rJi finriunttAntc thii k 
Ualmofli impottihlc ia tii[jpa''0 thai ii concaini atiqfwrci 
dale. It ^tgrcci ^H> viUi thv fullgwirig cxu^i^i from \m 

"June ijlhli^ShrewibLLiy, *nd on i»th tft CUpcl Coiij 
During my «TiX ^t Mnt^r and Shn^vntbur)' (five ycAn after 
commenovnicnLi wri*w ]n;in;i]-^kfnrh of tipftipjt thci>t>'." 

Again m (he JniruducEion 10 (he ' Oh^n/ pL i> he «TJici 
■flfiei an loicnil of five yciJ*' wort" (tton iftj;, >, r. in 
184J), "I flUvwcd nifKir to specuUtc on Uic Mibjecl, ud 
dre" u|> *oriur >hoft note*." 

K evert hfic** in ihe Ifiier %{|cncd by Sir C. Lyell and Sir 
J. D. llookcf, whifh urvei Ai nn iniradueTioD ra the joini 
paper of Mrftir^. C Darwin nnd A. WaJlatt on Ihi* 'Tendme] 
trf Spcdt^i to fotm Varifticfj't th* e*say of 1H44 U^it'- 
from whiLh Unm piri of ihe paper) Lb uid to h^ve bcen^ 
''ikelched in (Sj^, and coiiied in 1^44" Thi» iraicjneot i« 
olTviddily m^dc on the authority of a note wrilten in my 
faihe^t hami armtt ihr T*li|e nf f^onteniaeif the ift44 Kuay, 
It u to the fatlovins cffccf : "Thti was skeuhcd In 1839. 
and copied oui in full, as hrre written and r«ad by yvu 
1^44." t i.'onctvdc llitfl Itiii note 11 -J K ud Jed in 1(^58. 
tlir MS. Will aent to Sir f^ 1>, MooLer (aee Jitter of fune 1^ 
1858, p. 476). There ii alia lome further ei-i<!ence ofl thU; 
sidi? of the question. Writing to Mr, Walhr^ ijan. 35, 1839] 
my f.itheT nayt. : — '* K»ery one whom I have «ecn hai 

* Thla **n'nn I Mna^ii Aari, jnd ii w«i proWbly drutvytd. like 

SKCTai or t>u. 


youf papcf very well wiuicn and inicrcfliDg. U pvin my 
cxlrari* fwrilten in 1S39, aftw juat Iwtiily yfan aa'J ]), vrhkh 
I mn^t jjiy ][i apology wctv nevci for Ati inwfjint inrtntlcd for 
iniblicHiion. iftio ihc ^hafk." The suitmcnr ih^i the pfliliost 
ekolch wiw wfideii in jSj9 hat bci-n frequently made in bio- 
KMphtcd nu[ii:i:s uf my i^th^r, rio iJoiibt un tliv sulhgrily of 
the ' LinncAn Journal/ bui n rEiu<.tH i Hunk, be cuuhjdtrcd 4« 
efrrnieou*. TKc error may poHibly Ji^vc amen in ihit way. 
In vmilng on ihc Tablf of Ci^ntr-ntfi of the 1A44 MS. Ihnit it 
ft'ti-'i sketched in iJ^3<jf 1 ihink my faihcr mny hnv*^ micnd<d 
lo imply thai ihc framework of ihe theory was dcaily rhoiiglif 
out by lum at thui dale- In the Atitubiogrjphy (p. 71) he 
rjieaks of Ibe time, ** jljout i-Hjo^ when the theory wai Lilearty 
conceived," menninst ng dcmbi, lh(^ enrt of ifljJ* itnd lienin- 
ningof 1839, when ihc reading of Malthni hadg{vefi htm the 
key to the idea of natural *t'T«-tion. But (hi» etplnr^aiion 
dues nol iipj^ly I'j tilt: letlcf l^> Mr. Wjdl.ic^i- ; antX wiih ii'gard 
lo ihe (NLs&oge* in the * Linncan Journal' it ii^ dillicult to 
underfitnnd how it should havi; been allowed to remain m it 
fiov Hands, cionvcymg. as it rlearly dne^. Uie impies*Jciti that 
J830 WHS the dnic of his carlieit written ikcick 

The skctth of TK44 U wrilTen in a elerk'pi hand* in two 
hundred and thirty-one paj-ca folio, blank leaves being altef- 
nmtod w)th Ihi- MS, with a view to ampliHt.ilion, The leil 
ha« been rcviwd And eorrectcdf t:niRL*>i]i>i \xiasi pcncdlud by 
hiimcif on the margin. It ii divided inio two part* : L " On 
Ihe uariaticm of Orgflnir Ueingv imtTi^r nomoiticacio^ and Jn 
Nalural Siaic." II, "On the Evidfiif-f: f^vniiraMo and 
ifd 10 the vicvt Ihai SpceieK are naicjrally formrr! rnrci 
:«nded from tuiumon Slock^n" The 5nt part i:antain!i 
mum afyumeiil ^I'tinj " Oiigm of Spccici*/ ll \a founded, 
as is the afgumcnl of th^t work, on the «tudy of domoiiic 
AnirsAls^and both Ihe Sketch and the 'Origin' open wiib a 

* My lather ceiTflinly ww the (ircnlh u( The \i»tier. for he Bilifed t loot- 
nole ipa|D^i*in|( tor Ibe ilylr uF lUf fkimcS, Ud ibr j^iuunJ ihkL iht " vork 


Tiie <;RotvTii i>r tiic * origin of sreciKa* 

ch^trr on viriaiinn tinJor domcttiVatioQ and on ^vnifirijil 
»ck-cl;c>n- ThiK it fullotvod, in both c$ayu by dbcu«Muci« on 
variation under nalurv, on DKluntI Mkctioo, awi on tli< 
iiniggk for life- Ifcrr* uty fioK rr*eaiblmcv briwcfn the 
Iwo mjyt with TTittrd to aTranj-rmcnt cc*a«l Chapter III. 
tit tht SLctch. whjfh roHf ludcft the flrtf pArt, inabi of th« 
tarintianri which occur in the infiibc» ood hdbib of asinalit 
and thus cunvsjwndi lu M>iiiir «at«Dl with Cluster VII. of 
thv'OHgjn' (ittcdiO- It thutlofiof a cooipleuirni to Uiv 
chapl«rt which dcjit with vsriitioEi In ktnticluFe. It «c«afet to 
haTc b«i» placed thui early in the Kmy lo prerent the hastjr 
tejcction of ihcuhi^le theory hy j rrndcf ti> *hom the idea of 
natural wlection aciin^ on in>»tinrth mj^hc Kcm impoHihtc. 
Thit j& iKc moie prclutrle. a tlie Cb^i^tcr on In»liDcl in ibe 
'Origin' ib ipccialEy meniionrd (InitDductign, p, 5) ai imc of 
the "mod app-irenl ami ][ra^c«t diffitullict on th« theDry,' 
Moreover the rhipicr in ihe Sketch miii «iih a dii^ituic^nvl 

"wheiher any partiri]larf:orp&rea| smictnrrt are M> 

wonderful at to justify (hp rejfrtion frimj /atk of our Ihe- 
ftry," Under tttib heading loinct (he dncuftsiori of the eye, 
which m Ihc "Origin' find* ii* plac« in Clhjipter VL under 
''Djflitultie^of iheThtory." The *eecmdi:arl Ketni u» have 
bcfti planned in vrordanrr wiih hi^ fiivourttc point of rww 
with rr^rd to his theory, Thi^ t« hricdy gitvn Co a letrcr to 
Dr. Aa Gray, Novcmbtfr 1 iih, 185^ : " I eannnt pnuihly bc- 
U<va that a fal»B theory *ould explain »o mtmy cUkck of 
fxcu, a« I Ihink it cerliinly docs <aplain. On (he?v grounds. 
I drop my anchor, and bellerc that the difliMilliot wiQ 
«lowly disappear ■* On ihi? prineiple, hiving tUlcd Ihc 
Ihrnry In (he fintr pjiri, he piwted^ 10 ihc-w to what ex- 
lent viriouK wide scrim of foeu can be ^ilain{'il by ii« 

Thu« the second (tart of the Sketch correipoodi roughly 
in the nine condudinff Chapters of the Kir»t Kdihon of the 
'Ori^n" Bat we inu« eieludc Chapter VII. (Mjriyin') 
on Tn«tincE. which form^ a rhnpier in the tt%X pan of the 
SUich, and Chapter Vlll, ('Origin *) on Hyhndiam, a subject 

SKETCH OV i«44. 


trrattd in ihc Sketch wiih ' Variation under Katiire ' in the 
ArHE pan. 

TJiv fuUuwmbi Ilkl ol Uic t-hji|;urH oC lUc bvcund pjirt uf the 
Shctth will jEUihif-Jtc thcic corrc(pou(lcncc wiUi thv tmul 
cbftpiCR of the ' Origin.' 

Chapter L "On the kind of inCrnncdii^tcneM n«<no.ty, 
jnd Ihc numhcr of surh in termed tale form*." 

'T^his inL^Ui^rs a gcolngicnl dinoussioti, and corresipnndit to 
parts of ChttptcTB VI. and IX. of the ' Origin/ 

Chapter n, '^ 'Vht giudu;!! appraraiice *tiil dJHappi-iirance 
o1 orgauii: tiCiuy^" Corn^^ljundb to UljjpLvl \- ol Ihtf 


Chapier Til " Ceographical Disiribution." Comcspondft 
loChaiiHTfi XI. and XI L of the 'Origin/ 

Ch^ptef IV. '"AFfi^iilies ^ad Cla^bificaLion of Organic 


Chapter V. " Unity of Typt" Morphology, fcmbryoIoBy. 

Chjplcr VI KudiintQUry Organs* 

These three chapters iiimspond lo Chapter XIL ol thif 

Chapter VII. Recapitulation and Conclusion. The final 
•etironcrof Ihc Skt't<:h, whirh wc vjv in its fiisl rnt^gh form 
in thu NoCtr Book ul 1^371 clL^sely u'l^uiblos tht: final sentence 
of Ihc 'tJhgin/ much of it being idcniiuil. The 'Origto * ix 
not divided into two " Paris," but we sec tr.ices of such a 
diviifon having been present in ihe writer's mind, Tn this re- 
^lembliLnce between the second part of the Skcreh and the 
Ati&l E^h^ptera of the 'Origin,' That he should tpeak * of the 
chApLci« on trantkion, on instincit on hybridising md on die 
geolofiica] record, ai forming a group, may be due to the di- 
vision of his c-iTly MS into two part*. 

Mf- Huxley, who vim goc«:l enough to rca^ (he Skeleh At 
tny Ee(|uc«t, white remarking that Ihi; "main lines of atg\i- 
mrnt," and Lhe iUusiiitiont employed .ire ihe tame, pomt> 
Out that m the 1^44 E«sAy, "much mure weight is 3tta.chfld 

'*Oti£in,' Introituctiiin. p^ $■ 



and to Ihu inhcriuticv tit adiutrcd habiu thin in the 

It ii ntrcmclf icccroDog to £nd io the Sketch ihc tint 
mention of principWfiniilrar to ub in thf *0¥ij;io of S^n^rkv' 
For^mtut nmonfc thntr may h^ (nrntioTU'^l the prinripl^ of 
Stiual ^Ic'ction, whit^h is dc'irly enunriAi^d. The impaRuii 
form of icicction known :Ls"uacon»ciouV'i«al«o given, litre 
■bo occun a Bli&totiieat uf the law that ptculiaiuift tend to 
•Pljttar is the oflii|jfin|[ m au ^e coi rc»HOi^ Jmg to tiiM jit 
which they 0t:cuiTci^ in the (urtni, 

PiofeifOT Newton, vho vu vo kind m to loot th 
the 1844 Sketch, trllb m« that my fftlbprS rrmarka on th 
migration ol btrtU, incidcntaUy givvn in more than ono 
paujgc, ihov that h« had iaticipottd the vicwt of lomc hUcX 

With rcit^rd to the fcnerjl kiyle of the Slcetch. i1 it not to 
be eipecied thai M ihauld hflTc all the f h-ifKicmneji of th« 
' Origin,' And wc do not, irt fact, find ihai balance and con* 
Ipol, that coTif'entraliun and graitp. wWli ajrc no fttnking in 
iht- work of »Kjy, 

In the AuIobiogtdphy(}x 68. vol- 1) my fjthcr ha* ttated 
what lecmed to him the rhief Aaw of (he 1844 Sketch; he 
had ovrrlmikcd ''one prflSli-m ol great impartantf," iho 
problem of the diverpeTif t of character. This point 11 rli*- 
ciHied in the ' Otigin of Spcciei,' buu aa it may not be famitiar 
lo dUk if«den, 1 ivitl givt » ihorl itccouot of the ditteulty 
tt4 toUilion. The lutlior brgiut by (tiEbg thAt vii^eii 
differ from each other Ini than speciet, and then poci oa ; 
*■ Nc¥erthelr*s flCicoffrUng to my virw, variclif* arc tpceiet in 
pro'f-ti of form-iTtr^n, , , , . How then docs (he Ictwct dif- 
ference between variedta become au^^menred into x\» grcAter 
dirTercnt'c between s|>c(.ie«?"* He hhuwt hijw ah jtnilo^out 
diiergencc lakeit place under domcsiiicatioa where an ori^O- 
ally uniform stock of honcthoa been >plit up into nee-ho 

*'Ongiii/ litediL p, lit. 



Atxj-\QX9^eL. &c,. and ihcn goc« on to explain how iht umc 
principle appli« CO nntiifal spccicv "From the simple df. 
tuiu£ia[i4:« iLiai the murv dLt'et«i[~icd tlitf dcrscctLduijinftciiii any 
^iic aj][:rcifa bt^ci^me in iiLrui-turc, couftliluUun, uiicj huhjiBf by 
K) mu<.h will chcy be belter ciubTcd to scixc on nmny .iiiiL 
widely <livFrnlicd p]a>:ci in iVie polity of naiur;. and >i:j t>e 
enabled tn incrcasf in numbers." 

The pTinriplc ia exemplified by ihc forj tKbi if on one 
ploi uf ground a single variety of wheal bu ?Jcwn, nnd on in 
oaioihcr u mtxturc i>l varivtieb. in the Utcirr labv tJiu pruductf 
ii) ^rcjLtr, MuriT inOividuaU ha>e b[:cn ahW lu tJtist bvcanMV 
they were not aU ol ihe same variety. An organiim beconicii 
more perfect nnd mort- lined to ™rvi''c when by d[vi!iion of 
labour the diffL'rvnc function? of lifo ar*; pt'TfoTnitd by differ- 
vnE organs In the BUme way n tijitciea be^omi:s mure eJlteient 
And more able to survive when dilTifrL'nE i^ccuonb of the spedea 
Irtcome diffcrenliaUd bo as to fjll dJtlcieni sUiJi^ns. 

In reuJing the Sbelcb of 1044, I haw FouLid it diRicult to 
recopii^e The ftb*enec ftf anydcfinilc ntfliemenC of the prin- 
ciple of divergence at a finw in the F-ssay, iJesLenl with 
mOLtificration implit^s divcr^enc^i^, jind wl' bocoivK^ so habitnated 
10 A belief in dc&tcnt^ iind therefore in divi^rgence, thjE we du 
DOI notice the jb^enee of proot that divertjeiuc b in itself jn 
aiivAtitJige. A? shoim in Ihi.- AtilobioerAphy, my falh^r in 
|J?76 fciiiiid ii hardly credible Ihai he «hivuld hair overlooked 
ihe problem and its solution. 

The ftjllowing leiitf will t*e more in place herr Than its 
chronolugjc^i] ^oAilion^ since it shuwit what wari my father's 
ftxlin^ la I^ the value of tbc ijkelcb »X tiiv luiie vf itit coin- 

C Vamnit h Mrs. Durrvt/t. 

1 havi! juht fminheJ my sketch of my apecii^s theory, it, 
«s I bcbcve, ni)' theory in iimc be accepted even hy cne cotA- 
pctci^i jiidgCi it wkll bo JL i\jnbidcrjbk step in seienr:e_ 


1 lhvff«f<irv write this in <aic of fnjr itidiS«ti dolK, u mr 
omt Kilcvtn end bi« rcifDCit, wkich J ub s>rc fott mil coa- 
Mtt the «iiic «4 If Icxttlj entered tn mf wilt t!ui yoia vQl 
dcTOtc ;£'40O to ia publkatioo, «nd f«rther, will ftMii^lf, or 
Uirott^ Hcndeigk* >'!« tnwblf m pmnutmf iL 1 wt»h 
t}i»t my tkeith he fiv^a bo «o&m comfiefeat pcrxm, mtb thit 
sum to ioducc kim lo lake trouble in iti imp<OT«me«i aikI 
«n|jrgcmcn1. I giif totiim iH my hooli nn Natural HtHtorj. 
«liich nrr rithrr itfnr«il or have rofrmirc^ at the end to the 
pflfei^ bcssin^ him cflrrrutl)' to loak over utd connde* Mcb 
puatgcs AS actually h^ria^ or hf poflaibtfiljr bvirinf^ on 
IhiB nibjvcl. t fr»h yuu to nukv a ]ut of aO nich books as 
tome tcmr>tAti<>ii t4 i4^ editor. 1 alto rciiucit ihai jou wQL 
hJtnd over |coI him all Ehotc tcriju roughly divided m eifht 
or t«n brown paper portfolios. The »er3p% with copied quola- 
tiont from vafiou:? works ^^' ihoitc which rnny aid my «di 
I aho rviiuc4i th-tt you, or uune dnuimcntiti. will aid itt 
dphehag any of the »cr4pt which the cdilor nuy thitik pont 
biy of u^. I Inive to the editor'^ judgment wbviher to 
UrpoUle their facti in the t«£t. or u solei. or aadet i\ 
dlce«, A» the lAokinf over (he refermcet and aerafit will he 
■ fong Ifllioiir. and u the rtrr^iiitg and enlarging and ^erini; 
my ikctch wilL dbo tjke cun^tiderjble iime> I leave thb Kom of 
^400 a* (H7II1C reniuneiatL^^in, anii my profitA from the wotk, 
I coDiidcr that for thic the eULtor i> bound 10 gri ihc ikeUh 
puUiihcd either Jt a pubUiher'i orhti own riik. Miny of 
the iCTSl> in Ihr pOftrnlioBcontoinK mrre nid^ «ii|Ej!C4liona and 
early virwo, nr>w rtKelew, and many (if \hc t.kc\% wtX\ prohably 
lum out (U h[idn){ no hcarihn nn my theory. 

With resfiett tu ediion, Mr. Lyell would he the best if he 
would undertake i| ^ I bctievc hv wutild Hud the Hvrk jiLe-iS- 
ani, and he would leitn some lactt Dew to htm- A* the ed* 
llor mu*t be x j-eolo^^r ai well ji« a naiuraliit, the next 
editor would be Profet^or ForT>e« <Tf t^ondon. The neat 
(and rtuite br«t in nutny re«peri») would Iw Prnlvfflor M 

*Mr, K. Wcdgwocri. 



low. Dr. Hooker would be jvrv gcpoJ. The nejcl* Mr. Snick- 
Und.* 1( nunc of 'iicic wotild undi;H;ikc it, 1 uould reiju^t 
you to cnnsutt wirli Mr Lydl^ or Aomc orhrr (-:tpiihtr m^n for 
tome f dliorr A ftcoln^isi and n^mralisL Sbould ono ovhcr 
hundred pounds mnkv ihc d^ftfteunp of pMniring a good 
editor) rvqur^L vArnu^ily ihm ^k>u will tinw U^s^o, 

My remaining cvjU(:;;hun& in N^Lural Hi&lory may be yiveo 
to any ooc or xny Lnu^um where ii would be .accepted. , , . 

(The following; nott seems To h-ive formed part of the 
Otigifial k'tttT, hut nifiy have been of later date ■ 

*' Lycll, cspcdflliy wiih the aid of HookeT (and of tvny gnod 
Koologicd aid), would be b&st of all. Without an editor heU 
pledge hiniBcIf to give up lime to it, it would bo of nv ui« 
paying tuch :i sum, 

*' If there should be any dilfif ulty in getting an editor who 
wauld go thoroughly into the subjeci, jind think of ihc bear- 
ing of Ih^ p,i^^3gcFi marked in the boolta and copivid out of 
scraps of pajier, then let n\y skclch be publi^heil m \t b^ 
stitling that il wjs done bcvenil ytui* ago t and from meinoty 
without consulting any work's, and with no inlcntioa of pub- 
lication in ilE j>rr*cr;i form." 

The idea (h.ii the Sketch of 18^4 might Trmabi, rn the 
«vent of his death, as the only record of hi& worl*. wems to 
have been long in his mind, for in Au^u^t 1S54, wheti he had 
linished with the Cirriptfdv^* and has thinking of l^cgumjnjt 
his " spccjca work/' he addwl on the back of the above letter* 
•"Hooker byfarbestmwi to edit my species *-olumc. August 

• Afl^r Mr. SJni.Un'nlS nunc cc-mc^ ihr f"l|owiftg f,f'iieiicvH wtiicli Ipm 
luesa itAmd liuc nmuntO legible. "l^rarcnoE Owvu vrouM Liv tLTy i^uvO ; 
but t prttiuirihe wiiiilJ roL uutEoidikff ^ucb 4 «Dtk," 

f Thi wnrdt " aewfrnl yr^n n^a ind," tma li> liavp EiEtn tddcd tf ■ 

TUR nRov-ni OF xnt: 'autr^tM or i^r-rcn^' 

[Thk tiiiilory of my fuhcT*i bfc h told more coreptMely 
bi hw correspond wi« wiifi Sir J, D, Hooker ihu) in vir other 
8«ri» of IrttrrH ; and tht» l» t«pWTii1ly Irtic of the hiK'^ry of 
the growth <if the ' Origin of Specie^.' Ihi^ thrrrfurr. *riMTiB 
Art AppropniUe pUcc for the followmi; nmc^ wtiich Sir JMCph 
HcH)k<;r hH kindly aiie-n me. Thi-y ^i\v. moreover, an ia- 
tcmitfiK [lirturc ol htK rarty fficnOAlup with my father :^ 

" My fini m«iing wiih Mr Darwin wn» in xSj^, in Tm- 
fjilgnr Squarir. I wa^ watbing with an offttr who hj(t b«Q 
hit hhjpmjte Fdt u hhuiL Ejjuc in thi- &tit£le vfvcn )ian b«- 
foTCi but who h'd nai.l bcheve, imce met hiut. J w» intro- 
duced : Ihc inif rvieH w.m of coiinc brief, and the memOity of 
him ihnt ! i-Arrtr-il nw.^y and uTilT rciain wm ihat of a rather 
tatl j^nd rnthfF bmnd-ihouMcrrd rnnn^ iviih a \M^l ttoop* 
BD agrecjble uid Animated enpreuion n'hen talking, beetle 
bnjwb, xi\t\ n hollow tint melhjw vujce ; and that lili gn^eling 
of hiN old jEcqujudUrii.e wilt MJl<jr'iik« — thai w, Mi^htFuJLjr 
frank and coritiol. 1 obtcr^ed bim w«l]. lor I waa olrcadj 
■ware of hi< attainmrnti and laboiini^ dcrii'ed from haitng 
md vtriouB proof-^hrvtt »f htH ihct> unpnbTishcd 'Jr^iimal * 
lliete hod been aubmittcd to Mr, (aftcmrAriK ^ir OiHrlcs) 
Lrell liy Mr. DaJiffm.and by bim »eotto bi»Ulhct,Ch. Lycl^, 
EiM|k.of KmTirtri^y. who (being a Ttry old friend of my fiiher, 
■ad taking a kind interest tn my projei^fcd career a* a nam* 


ritist) hud Atlowrrl v^c to poruK ihcm. Ai thU lime 1 WM 
hurryiog on my tLutltH, no at* to tLikc in^ dcgriT Iwforc voliin- 
|«ring 10 accoTnpnny Sir Jaract Roii in llic Ar»uivl)i; Eupc- 
ilirirtft, whirh hin\ jiiwr brrn deitTftifncd on by Ipie Admiralty; 
and so prr-4trd f<ir ilmc vikt 1. t n^ird to sleep wich the 
nhoctsof the 'Joumnr under my pillow, ihft" I niiKht rtad 
ibcm bciwtitn ^vaking unU fising. They impressed mo ptf»- 
founUly, 1 iiilkJu b^v dc«t'^i<"^(i[yt ^'^^^ ^^< variviy vf uquirc* 
menlt, mcnuJ &iul physical, required ui ai iiuEuruIiM wbtj 
diouldlollow m Paiwiti'&fooistcp&>whiU( iKey aiLKiulaicd uw 
to enthuiiaim in the d«ir* to tiavd and obicfvc- 

"It ha* twrn fi pcrmantm 80Utt:c at hnppincM to mc 
ttiat T knew *o mni^h (^f Me. Uurwm's bcit^niUii; work w ni:my 
yean ttcf^rc th-tt joiimJ«cy b^'gan which ripc[ied iui9 (cciingK 
n n«LT to thofic of reverence fot his Kfe, Avurks, &nd char- 
actc M ih rC'ihonnMc .ind proper. Il anly rcmdini To add 
to ihii ItlfLe cpi-iode chat I rcccivr-d a copy oi t\%v ^ Journal ' 
complete,— fl gift from Mr. l.yell,--a tnw days befow leaving 

" Vvry AOftn nfivt ihe rtrtum of (he Antarctic Rupcdilion 
my corrcfpondencc wSih Mr. Darwin btgiiu fDecrmber. iS^j) 
by his tending me a lon^ letter, v jrmly congr'ttuldling me on 
my rrturn t(^ my Timily and friends, and CTtpTe«mjt a wish to 
hear more of the mullsof ihc txpediiinn, of which he had 
derived some krn>wlcdgp from private IficerB of my uwo 
(wiitten lo or comiuumcaud ihfou^h Mt. LycLI)^ Then, 
j^Itinying .it onct ml*? Htieniifn: iiiatleri, he directed my atten- 
to the impoflincc of correlating the FueRian liVra with 
of theCordilkr^ >ind of Eiiropr. and invited mv tn utiidy 
IP hftmnicol collecimnftwhiVh he had mnde in the Gabpagoa 
Inlands, at well as his Patneonian and Fucgian pLmtv 

'^This Itid tome^cindiDg him an outline uf the lumluMiUlis 
1 had fcjTmrd repirding the dLslrihiilirm of j^UntM in the 
louthem reiiionit, and the n^ic^siiy or .luumlnfc the dutriic- 
tion of eoniiderable ateas of land to account for (he relations 
of the flora of the to-catlcd Anti;rclic Iitlands. I do nr^t »U])- 
j>o«G thut any of those idc:a!> were new to hini, but thvy EcU 




to ftfi ATitmntcd flod Iwgthy corrrspond^ticc fuH of in«iruc- 

Here follow* ihc kttcr (1*4,1) ^ Sir J. D. Hooker abore 
nrfcrred to.l 

Mv DEAK SiR.-^I had ho|)cd before thib timu to ]iav« li»d 
the picoiurt of »cciDg you and congrafuUiing you oa your 
aalc fctum from your ton^j jind jjEoriou^ voj-agc. ftui as 1 
nrldnin flo to London, w^ may not yet meet for iotnc timf — 
wuhoui you flfc led 10 ancn<l the Coologirfll Mcrtingi^- 

I am aoKtoua lo know whut you initnd "iloin;- viih all your 
iiuitvri;il!i— I hdd ao much pteu^uEv Jii iVJidiiig psiti cf ra 
of y»ur tcitcr^i ihai 1 «haT| be very ftorry d I, ^ one of 
publk, have no opponunuy of reading 1 good doil moev 
I Buppoic you ari* vfry busy now and full of cnjoymeoi; 
how wcU I feroembcT ihc hapiMnc** o( my fimt few month* 
of Kngland — it w-u norit; all Ihi: diu:(iiufQrtfi of niJiny a £aJc 1 
But I have run from the subjects which mudc mc write, of 
eK|>reHmg my (ilcjiiure Ihjl Hcnslow (ai he mformed me 
A few djiyt fitncc Uy letter) h.iii «eoi to yoti my iimail colkc* 
lion 0/ planrt You cannot ihink how luiich plea*ed I am, 
u I feand they would ha\e tu'rn all Iry^x. .-ind few as they arei, 
they cuHl (iw i jgoml ilvA uf truuhle. There are a t«ry few 
tcs, livhich 1 l>clie^c JlciihUiw liJi KOI, deM:iibin|i ihv 
ibiiits A.'c.. of some fen or the more lemorkjble planla. 
I paid ratiirular atifniion to Ihr Alpine Howctb of Ticrra 
Fuegc^ and 1 am sure I lerit evrry [ilant «hii-h waa in flov 
in PaJaiiunia at ihc seasons vhen we were ihvrc. I hji^'c Ion 
tiiouitht ihii some general skecch of the Flora of the point 
land, Ktrelchin^ ho far into the southern ^Jt, wc-uld be re 
curious. Do make comparative rcmaiki on Ihc hfiecin ai 
to the Riiropeiin specie*, for the advantafle of t«n»icAl igno* 
ramuw Tike myself It has often MTurk n« as a curious 
poim to imd stxu whether thrra arc matiy Kurot^'an ^[enera 
ID T, del Fuego which ate no: found along the Tid^e of ctw 
Cordillera 1 the sepjratioa in such case would be to en ormou 
Do point out in imy sketch you draw up. a-hal ^cuera 





American and what European, nnd hijw giiziX ihc diSercncn 
of Ihc ftftccirs arc, when the gciit^rs ute ^orapCAn, fOE the 

xnkc nf ihc IpiatstTnuMJi. 

I hopr Hcn,';lowwiil send yoa mv dbp^guf planis (;ibcnit 
whii^h Humboldt evcd vaprtsscd lu tr\v (xiiKiOriiibli; ouTtyhitj) 
— I look much ^ain^ in cotEcUmg aU i could. A Florft of 
Ihib jrdiifebj^D wouH 1 &u!>pcct. ot)cr :l nearly pafdiel ca«e 
to thar of St. Helena, which hi5 *p Inng ttcitcd inicrcst. 
Way t'lcii^c thiii 'of^g riirnblmjr niUc, STid htlit'vc me, my dear 
*it, youTs very sincerely, C. Darwlm. 

Will you be so good as tq present my rcapcclful totopH- 
iDcDtt to Sir W- Hookci. 

tReferring lo Sii J. D. Hooker'^ woik 011 the GdUp^i^Di 
FtoTa, my father wrute in 1B4& : 

•* I Eannot Idl joti how delighted and astonished I am at 
the rreults Ot youi exaiainAium ; how wi>iideKu]]y they Mip- 
port my stitcriion on the di^ercnce^ in th« jiiiniaU of ihc 
'diftcrvnt i&Unda, about wbith X hive alwAys been kiiiful " 

Aeain ht »folc (1849) :— 

"I rcceivcfl n few wi^rk^ ago your Ciiilapjigos pjircr;,* and 
1 have read rhem !*mce bein/ here. I really f::jinnnr enprcw 
too Strongly my admiraiion of the geogmphicial diftcns^on : 
U> my judgment it is a perfect model of what nuch a paper 
should bv ; il look lue four d^iys to tvu.i1 and think over. 
How mterctiing the Ftori of the Sjjidwich hbnd^ nppcare 
to be, how I wiih there were nijitcnal* for you to tfeal il» 
floFA jiA ynii hdve done the Galapagoi En (he Systeniaiic 
paper 1 wof rather f^itap pointed in noi fmding gcnerjit rfiroarlcn 
on afliniiiea, MructurcB, Jic., such as yon often give in cnn- 
ver^JtioD. «ad luch a> De Candolle and St. Hibiie iniruduccd 

* TbHft ptpon hicludt; tbc ri?5u1i^ of ^ir J- T> lliwkcr'i Traminaium 
itf Of IbAer^ GftlipA£« plan[4, util were publialicd Uj tht Lionttn 
£oci4Ly In i$4^ 

OROwnf or the -oitKirM; 


Id dniovi alt iheir p«pen. tad ivbkh euke ihea inccmling 
eves to a noa-Bonsiut" 

^ Very KMM ^tcrwdt [awumne* Sfr J. D. HoeA^] in i 
letlcf dited Javuoff t£44< tlie »ubjeci of dw ' OHgin oi Spc- 
civt ' vai bf«|pht forward by bia. asd I Micrr ihji t wu 
tfw fim l<> whoon he ^odkuvriKalcO ha> itwn Ofv idtaft oa lh« 
iub>ect, u>d whicb being oi tnicrcii «> i conintfuiiun to Efac 
hixorr 0* £voluiioo> 1 hew copy from hi* ktu*"?— ] 

ttrt!do4 scfst-rA! inirrnt «bovt th^iOdihrrn Un^\ I hive 
b«cn now ever uncc my retiun engogctl in a vciy jimump- 
iDous work, and J knuv no oac individud «ho would nor 
My 1 vpry fooluh one. I vai *o ttnick *i|h the diitn- 
butlon ot the GiUjaiot orgJt'iitmt^ ftc Arc, ind nlh Ihc 
diuracTcr of ihe AmerKnn fooil mdmmifen, Anr, Arc-« ih« 1 
dri^rmfnrd to coll^i blindly evi^ry virt of fiict. «bich could 
bi'if any way on whai jfc nirt-ncn I htvt wad hcapt of*l 
ogricuhuriil jdJ horticuJiLinl book*, And have ncvcf coated 
collecting faciL Al lasi gk^mv of light bive come, and 1 am 
almoft convinced (qi^itr contnry to rhr dpmion [ siaited 
with) thut 4pftrri<'« aif not (It (1 lilce ronfeMij^jc ft miirdeO 
immui3liU Kfavrn forfcnd me f mm t^amnrek nnnii'rnW'oi 
a "icndtncy 10 ptogroiioii," " adiputiom* from <hc Uow 
willing of jnimalB," t^v.\ Hul thf concluviuni I am kd lo are 
nai widdjr diflcreni from ha : though ihe incanft of chance 
■re wholly to. 1 Ihink I h:itr fnimd out (hcrrS pT»unip< 
lion I) thf nimjilr way hy whirh *j»ecifB bo«imr fu\nit\it:\f 
adapted 10 varioui cndiv Yuu will now groan, ind think to 
youreelf, "on what a luun luvt 1 bvpn warning my iini« 
and vrilrng ttx" I thoulJ, five ycarv a|0^ hate thought 

[Tkeforioivififclclfef wfritcn on Ffbniaty jj, i&h. thowa 
that tb« OicqiiAinCaDcethip with Sir J, U- Hooker «u then 




fsit np^ning iniv friend shni. The IcUcr i» rhivfly r>( mtcrciLt 
3« nhowing the ^dtL of problems then oc.xujij'iEij^ my Lather'n 
mind :l 

Dv-AH HotiKEH,— 1 hope yoD Will eKcu?!^ iliL- ficedom uf 
my address, btil I feci iMl .ti? cu-dicum'wandcTr!!^ anij iis 
fcMokv labouren (ibough myi^cll j vciy weak one) wc may 
throw aiidc 4omc of the old-world formdit/. - . , I have ju it 
finUhcd X \\\tW vfAumv on tho volrAnrr iMlAndu whirh wc 
VJliird- 1 dn not know h<tv (ar yfu rjnr for flry simple 
geology, but T hope you will ki mc ricnd yon a cnpy, I 
«upp<7Bi* 1 can send it frvm London by i;oinmotk cujch con* 

. , . 1 am Roi'^2 f (^ i^h yi^u some ■vri' quealiona, 1hi?ug;h I 
dAiTMy. without asking ihcm, 1 shall 4cc ^niwcn in your 
workn when puMUhed, *hich will he qiiit<? ttrnc enough for 
niy |ni rposi-ii. t'iist for iho Clalapagos, you will nt-e in my 
Jouraul. ;hM lUif Hird^ though peculiar sptutirs, have n \aat^t 
obvious b. American aipect : 1 have just ii^ctrijiincd the 
■iintc thing hold:^ ffjtrd with the sea-^&lidlh, It i» so ihiih 
lho*e plams which arc prcnlur To ihit nrthipelago ; you MKc 
Ihflt ihcif numcfLi:iil proportion* MP conlineninl (is tvot Ihii A 
very curious fatt?) Imi are they related in forms to S. Amer* 
ic^L. Do you know of any other cube of »n tn^ihi^al'-i^o, with 
the tcporatc L&lamU pos<ie<iMot; diatinci teprcscnt^ive ipccietJ 
I have always intended (L>iri have not yet done so) loMAmiiM 
Webb am! Bcrthplni oti thr C^^nary Inland'* frjr this objwt. 
Talking wiih Mr. Benihnm, he told mv that the scparoic 
lalandA of (he ^^'^iidwich Art^hipefago pou^sEed distinct repre- 
stntilivc t|M;cirB td the H-une ^E^nera oE Lubiitljfc ; wokiJJ not 
ih*5 be worth your cnquiiy? lluw it U with tlic A^orei ; to 
be sure the heavy wciCcin gnle* would fend to diffuse lh« 
*amc species over that group. 

I hope yuu will (I iliire hAy my hope \i> qniti! superfluous) 
attend to ilih general kind of a^fhntiy in i&oUiCf] iAUnd^r 
Ihougli I suppose it is more diffitull to pefteive this sort of 
relALion iu pUiUt) IhAn in biida ijr ^uadmpcdt, Ihc groups of 




which arir, I fancy, tMhcr mort confin«d. Can Si. Hflenu I10 
dasHcd, thi»u|:h icmoLvly, cjeTkt with Afiita vt S. Anicrivii ? 
hiwn honic l:kcu, tvbKh 1 hjve collected, I bav« beta kJ tg 
CQndude thai th« fauna of mounuins ire nrMer reiuafkAblf 
iimilarCiomciimc^in ihr jirr*fnitr i>f ihe n.imc vprcin »ad ai 
dhcr timc^ of ^mc genera), /tr that ihcy are rcmarliJthlf dii 
rimUar ; and ii hju otcumd to mv thut pOBibly pan of ibit 
piiculmrily of t\w SI. HdciiA jiiiJ C-iU^tiJ^^iot lloru in^y be 
AEtiibulpd to i j^ieat pjTt ot ihcic (wo Mr>fji« bcinit moun* 
Uin Flora*. I fear tnf noco will hardly serve 10 diitiHRuiih 
mu<:h of (he hihiijiT^i of iht GJilHivijcot planti. but %htj nujf 
bl some cnw»; matt, tf not all, of ihc K^cn, leafy p1anct< 
come from the «unimit»of the i^andi, and the thin hrown 
leaAas planii come from the Lower «tid parii : would jom he 
•9 kind iit to bear Ibi* remark in tamd, vhcn eiL^tnining my 

I will trouble you with only one other <)ucKtJoii' In di«- 
cavnon with Mr. Oould, 1 found that in mt'ia of the genera 
of birds which rsn^ie over the whole or j^eaier pan of ihe 
VDrlO,the individual *|>ec'irA hiivi- wuWt rani^'S, (ho* Ibr Owl 
ift mundnnei and many o( the tjKcieK havr vcfy wide ranKCt- 
So I believe it i» wiih Und and Ireihwatti iheUi— and 1 
mij^ht addure ^tlier ra^e* U it nol *> with Cryptogamic 
planiK : have not mn&t of the «pi-ejet vrid? ranjcn, in thMC 
genera which ire mundane? I do cnt supple ihai the 
mnvcrtv holds vif.— that whf:n a speciet has a wide range, 
lU genu* a]40 rangea wide. WjH )qu «o far obU^r me hj 
occationoUy thinking oter thiA^ 11 would eohL in* *«iM 
trouble to get ,1 li«l of mundane ph^Qerogaraic genen aftd 
then »c.if^h how fat the *perk'^ of the*r genera are apt to 
ranjiro wide in their v^era] eountriei; hut ytm mij^M fKtA- 
fionally,in thecounenf your pursuits jufit bear ihiit in mind, 
though perb^in the point may- long lince have occurred tio 
you OT other Jlotaoitu, t'eolociy is bHiijj;iiig to ligbl mtercvt- 
ittg fact*, eanecrnlng the range* of then*; I thank it i* pretty 
well niahlifthrd, thai aceotdin^ ai rhc i^eogfHpliical range of 
a fpfldci ii widci fto U ka p«iiitiecce and duntion in tinu. I 

il4l] SIR J. n. IIOOKtlR'S RE«l»1ftCEKCE3. 


hope ji>\i will try to ^ucl^o 94 lifilc Aii you cAn the trouble <tf 
my Ictlcra, and prvy believe me very truly youri, 

P. S. I shouli) fcrl «xtn*in(-]y obliged for yuui kind uETer 
uf tile aket^-ll o( HumbuiUl i I voocr^iv bim> and ftUct luving 
had the pleasure t>l convcTiiiD^ wuh bim in Loadon, 1 shall 
ftlill more like 10 have aoy porirdic ot him. 

(What follow* a quoted from Sir J. Hooker's aoic^. 

"The nc»l am m ihc drama of our lives opens with p«r^ 
•Oaal intCKUiinLtf. TluH beg-'ti mtb au inviuiion to LfriiaLl^t 
Willi htm 3l his brolhi:r"s (Frasmii* Dftr*in'i) house it) Park 
Street ; which wa? shortly jifreTwnrd^ ft>llowTd by an invitn- 
tian la Down ta mri?1 a fc^v brdthcr NaturaJii^tB. In th? thort 
inwrvabof gonH hnilth Ihar f*:illnwi?d ihe Imig i]lTn.-5w.^s which 
<ifietilinii;:^ rcndcu-d liEc a bviTlhrii tu him, bel^votn 1S44 and 
1H4T, 1 had many «uch inviution&i and ddighiful they wcrt^ 
A more hotpiUble jnd more Atiraciivf^ horiic under rvuxy 
point gf view t<-»uld not Jjc imiigitit^d^ol iiciciely there were 
iiiorT ofLcn Dr. Falcontv, Edward Forbes, Ptofcisor Ikll, and 
Mr Wjicrhotup— Ihcrc were tong walks, fomps wiih th<! 
children on hands und knees muBiL- thai huutits me ^uU. 
Darwin'a own hearty mannifr, hobow laugh, and ih^nnigh 
riiji>ymtunt of h^'nie Hit: tviih frtenilb ; btrtillt i«ilh hnn all 
tcigciher, and intcrvif^w* with 'is one by one in his stodVn to 
tU^atA r|u*^tinns in nny hmnch of hioloKi^'fll or physical 
knowledges thai we had foUowtd; and whith 1 at any tale 
alway>^ left with the fei^lmg iliiiL 1 had imparted nolliing and 
Variied»y iiLore lli^ix 1 tvuld bt^^^i uiidci. J-aiteily, u 
hii health becjme more seriously affected, I w-ii for day* and 
week.1 the only viiitor, bringing my work with mf and tnjoy- 
in^ htft SiO<'i4.»!y ok opjiortunity ufTcri-'d, It waa an ^Maliliished 
rule [hat he rvvry {Ley pLimpcd m<^, a:^ hv called it, for half 
an hour or 10 after hrv^LkfoaC in hb study, wheti he hrtt 
brought out a heap of hUys with ijtLc^tiouti butaoical, |>ru- 
graphical, &C'T f^i "1^ 1^ anawef, and concluded by icllin^j 




nw of the pfo^cTc^a he hod made in hti t^wn wmV, JukiDg my 
opinioin on vaiiouA \jQinti. I haw ho more of hUn iiI9 .nbout 
DOOA, flrbcQ 1 licud hii cncllo# linj^ng voice calliui: my 
nnmt.- iindrr my wmJow— (hia wfli fo join him in hit ddjly 
ffirrnoon walk rnund <hc SJinfi-walk * On joininji him I 
found him in ci roiij^n jcroy fthnoiLng-c-cMt i& vinnmcT, md 
LhiL-k cap« over hin thunUItrn^ in winLrt, j.nd a tiout xUff ki 
hiq hiintl; uway wc irudj^vJ iliruugh ihv gmdcnf tvhcre ihere 
wJU ulw:iyA «ima GXiicrjmciit ti) vibU. ui(J on lO tbv b2nd< 
ualk. icruExd which i fixed Ruml)C( or turftx were tAkcn^duriftg 
ivhirh OUT roavcnatioa uiually rin on foreign Und« ind Ma«, 
olH fricndx, »|d hoolu, And things far off lo both Diind >Ad 

" In the aflcnkQOD Iherc wat. another iuch walk, ^fier which 
he again retired till Jinner if well enough io join the Euoily ; 
if not, he icencrally cnina^ed to dppeAr iu the dravi&g-rxKiia, 
where tested in his ht^h chair, with hit tfoct in cnorinoui cij> 
pel ihocs, supported on a high iiooWhc enjoyed the muni 
or convcnuLiion of hiA family" 

Here followsa %tT\n of letter* iUu^rating the growth of 
my fjiiher'^ vicw^i, aind iht- nature of hik work during thii 

Dflwn [1I44I. 

. . . The concision, whieh I hive come ai if that ihnve 
areas, in whJLh ipecies un moat numcroui, hate ofTeneii l»ce« 
divided iind iwUted Eroni other ureio. united nnd u^^din di' 
Tided ; A procehf inip|yju|t anitijuity iijd^i:>iue Lli:iuge« lO lh« 
CKlcTQt) condtLJonv Itii* will juAily toiind very hypolhelicaL 
I eanrkot pve my le^ioDi in deuil ; t>ut ihe rao»l f^nenJ 
rliision, which the geographkaL diEtribuiiixi of all org4i 
Iwing^ api^earh lo mu 10 indicator t^ ih«i iKiUlion ik the i:hiet 
concomilaat or cauM of ihc appeartince of new fotms (I «i 




linow <h*re are lome staring ex^teptiomsV Swondly, from 
lirting how oflEn [hr plnnT^ and ^nimah swirm in a country, 
wli^Ei LtiUudtKcU itUu il, ^nd fujn] peeing nhJL ji vuhl number 
it( |fl>nu wilJ live* foi inslancc jn EngljAnd, if kept /m /if^n 
jf/ftf'i, atiif^ntfiW fihi'ifi, 1 have been led to consider thai the 
uprc-idrn^ .nrni niirnlx-f oi 'he orgnnir heingt of any roiintry 
d^pen<1 Imk rrn irn citcrriak fcnuirc:;, than fin the number of 
farms, whkh have hem there originally created or produced, 
1 much doubt whetlicr you mil lind it pu^iblc (o cxjjUtn 
ihe nu"]bvr i>r fuiriiE by pro]>i:trlional djf[erei>cea of export; le; 
and J onntrC cEoubl H haLE tlic ^pccECh in ^ny countiy w<;rc 
deiJroycd or bad not been ffeaCcd, yet that country would 
appear to 11^ fully ^leopled. Wjih rcippft to original creation 
or p[tKl[tct]{>n of TiL'W frprm^t 1 h:ivf said that is(»LtiIron ;Epj]tar4 
the chitf tlemeoi. Hence, with rt-ipcit lo l*rrre*[rijl pro- 
ducliona. a trjct of country, which bud gftcac&t wUhin the 
lute geoIoKit:J periods ititibidcd and been (;onverted into 
ialund^ and rcunit<:d, I should exjitftt to contain njust forms, 
liiu »ijch ipci^Lilaiions art nmuiina only lo :inc *clf, And 
in ihii caju; uiclesA, us ihry do not «hcw any direct Uue of 
ob§ervaiiu& ; if I hod si^cn how hypoThclical |[s] ihc littk, 
which 1 hnve uncltjrly writien, I ^roiild witK hav^ troubled 
you nith ihc leadinjj^ of il, ticliuvc me, — At Ui^L not bypu- 
thcikutty, Youra very liocerely, 

C IijsawtK. 

C. Darvffit ttf / D Mmktr 

, , > I forget my ia.ftl klteti but it must huvi* been a vrry 
isilly oue» a* it utems J yavc my notion of iht number of 
tpcciv* being in \^n^\ <legree governed by Ehc device to 
which th*r area had hccn often isolated and divided ; I mult 
have beer Ltjcltcd lo have writltn ii, fnr 1 h,ivc no evidence, 
wiihnut a |ierson be uillinj; to admit J.U my view^ a\m\ then 
it doc» follow ; but in my most sauguine moments, all 1 
expect, is th;it I «hjll bf ^ble to diow even to tound Natu* 
rtlLiLis, thai there ore two aidca 10 the que^Lion of the immu* 




lability of ipccia :^ihat facts can be viewed Aitd povped 
uni^ci liic nation of ailicd spcdcs h4nng drKctulcd trvm 
ctyntmon ^rtx^ki. Wiih rrt[irrt to txmks OD ibi^ mVj^rti 1 
do nnt know oi nnf sjrttematical oara, cxctfpt I^marrh'a, 
which u vcrilaljlc fubbiahj Sui ihcfc an; plcntj^ at t-yell, 
FritcharU, &i.. un ihc vii-v uf the immuUbjUly. A^aiu£ 
lltoljrhu Lruughl the Kircviigoii iii^ntnenl in Uviruf uf iiikmu' 
Utility, Uidore li. St. Ililairc hot wrtKcn tome good £tfaj <^ 
lendtag loirardt the muu1iility-iidr» in ihc ' Suitrtl Buffbo,* 
cniiilrrt *' Zoobg- G^n^mli"/" U it not ittfrnicf th** ihc author, 
of mirh a bank a& ihr ' Animai^v tarvH Vcn^hret/ should hmrc 
vriltcn thai irwcU, which nci'irici- tbeiv cggi, should ««i7 
(«ml [rl^Li, [itrir Ktcdi} 1o be of pO-TticuUt fatmt. «o u to 
bccciiiic ittMhcd icj pirtirubr objects. 'I^hc other, roramon 
(specUlLy (/ermanLf) notion h hardly loii abvord, vii. ihai 
climate. icoA. &c., ihould make a IVrticvilu* formed to climb 
hiiir, at wood'peckrr. Ta e^limb irrci^ I believe Ul thcic 
absurd \iv*n Jintc^ from no one having, u fjr ai I know, 
ap|)tiKi( hed Elu' iiu]>ji.-<:t nn ihi: hu]c of viiriation under Hooscs- 
Licoeion, ami havtng ituilicd aU (hm in known obonl domcttJ- 
cBtion. I waft very glail [■> heai your crilicitm on ixland-norai 
4tid on non-difFuftion of pUnt* : ihe mbjcd i> tuo Iciiift for a 
letter: I roulJ defevtd mywlf to some coniiderabl*' 'tioni, 
but I rl«)tib( vrbeth^r —eecjrfnUy in your eyei, or Indeed in 
my own. , , , 

Pawn [|«17. )*44)< 

. , . I am now reading a wonderftd book fo* facU on 
VAritttiun^Broan^*Gc»i;h[LhEcder Naturn' It it ttiflTCtennan ; 
il forcftiafU me, wmeiJmct 1 think dcHghtfuDy, and «om«> 
timn cmclly Yoh will br fen rime* here after aorr hnrnfiirfl 
at mt than ai H. W.n^on I haiv ar]{umont« from fr^iiili*^ 
but nn ray vicwt of descent, really Nuural Kitlory become* 
a lublimelv gr^ktid rmilt-giving mbjecl (now you may quv 
mc for w fooljsh an c«C4|>c of mooib). , . - I oniT leave ifllCr 




IciKrlill to-morrow, for I am lired : but I so enjoy writing 

to you. thai I must inllkb a Ittltc moic on you. 

Hate yu\[ anj j^twl c^iJciicc J<jr aU^tnci; o( msetla in 
tnull iiUndi ? 1 Riund Ibiriccn species in REding AkoU. 
FlifnariT goodfirrtiliurs, and I hare iwrn a microscopic Ihiip* 
nnd ;t Cc';ifii'>mya late flight from a flower in th-c dirtctioo of 
another with pollen adhering lo ihom. In Arctir counirici 4 
bet iccma lo go as iat N. na any floiver .... 

Mr i>RAK. HoOKKR. — I wfi(c A linc to s*y that CoHmos * 
arrived quilc safely [?J,H, One sheet came loo!ic in Pi, \\ 
iind to ihank yoii iot your nice noiir. 1 have jost licfgun :he 
inlrndi-tctJon, and groan OvtT Ibc siylc. which ir» such frarls in 
full half the batile, Huw irue m^iny of the teourks ori^ {/, ^^^ 
3^ fut iib 1 can understand ll^c wieUhed EiigLibh) vii the 
mcncry ; il is xa cxaci cipreaion of one's own. though vs. 

I wiah I ever had -my bookt to 1«nd you In return fot ihc 
IDJmy you h-tve lenL \f%t. , - - 

All nf what you kindly ?jay ahnut mynpecios work does 
nni nlicr nnp ioiri my long self-uckaonk-dgrd presuni^tiun in 
Orcumulatm^ Facts Lind ijwcublin^ on (lie subji^ct of voii^t- 
tiun. v^ithoul liavingHorltEid out my due«hare of species. iJut 
novt for nine yeiut il has been anyhow th* grcflieit ajnuic- 
mcn: to me- 

Farewcll, my drar Hf)ofccr, 1 grieve more ihnn ynn ran 
well believe, over our pmspcci of so leldom meclio^ 

I have never perceived but one fault in yon, and that yuu 
hav« gritfvousty, vii. mode si y ; yuii forni tii\ cxccplnjn lu 
9i/ijney Sm.iLh'* aphorism, that merit and modesty have no 
other connection, eitctpi in iheir first letter. Farewrll, 

C Daawiiv, 

* A trandjiLlirn nf lliimboldt'i ' KcBmon.' 


IjICOWTII or TIIK -OkltilN/ 


Mv T]p*» Jesvn's^ - Thanki for your noit I ara snTiy to 
wy 1 hnvf nm even the uil-end of a faci in tnglisU Zoology 
la rommunic^iii-' \ have Eoujid tlut vwti triflin;; ubKirrvsLioDi 
TCquirn, jii m^ cum;;, duihi; Lcj>utc luul vuci^y, Lvlh oC which 
iuKit^lk'riU I hitvti hjid nt>^»c [o i»;jaic, At wrtUng my Gr^olojiy 
churouuhly «xpcnd« both- I hid alvayi thou(;h| dkui I vouJd 
keep a journjil And record <-vcryihinKi l>^it in the «Ay I now 
five I find I nbifrvr nolhmK li TrT-rird, Knokinjt iifErr my 
ipirrlen nnji irefii^ and orcAamnally a very little walk in An 
ulle Tramc of mm J, IlLU up every jU icmaon in the ume uun- 
ncr. 1 Am Jnurpfiied that with all your patiih jiLun. you have 
had lime to du alJ that which you have dune. I BhAll b« very 
SUd to iiee your tiiilc woih * (-tnd proitd ithoiild I h-itv been 
if I eoiitd hAve added A single faf i to itj. My wt>rt cwi the 
spl^cLe1 question hai imprmt'd me vtfry forcihly wiih ihe 
tm|>urranL.'e i>f -ill Mich wotkh ah yimr inEctided one, conuin' 
ins tf^Ekt people an- pluahed generally to call triding fACU. 
These oic the fActt irhtch mAk< one undcniAnd the votkiag 
or economy of nAture. There it one •ubjeet) on which J ;im 
«ery rnrJous and HM<-h prrhapc yon m^y throw wtuf light 
on. if yoij have ev^r ihoughi on it: nomdy, whAi Afv the 
checks and «hat die prfiwti □( lifft— by whit'h ihv incrcwe 
i^f any jitvcn «pcciM ib liiuiled. Juht calcuUtc thr locmM 
<A any bird, if you jsume thjt only half the young Are teAret 
And thew breed ■ wuhin fhr Hatanti {i. t,. 'd free from 
dcni4) Mfr of thf pArrnL^ the nirmbrr of fndfvMiialn will fai 
oome enormous, nnd t have been much iurprt»ed to thri 
how grr^t destruction m*mi/ acitiudly or OtXAiondly be filling 

*>Ir.TM^i^'Ob9vTTattoDifayuiinl Hhtory.' tl it pnlkctd by «a 

IniiTHlBcrif'n oq " ]lA^m of ohdervtiif u <oniu<tei ^nh the ttii4y of 
XUdiaI iliiTory.'ind followed by a "Calendar of I'tilodjf PbenomoB In 
^Arurvl lltOAiy," Willi "Kfmirkia* rht mpnrvhn fl( wtit lG«E^bE«rv' 
My fafliff tHHit lo (k tllvJinc \.^ thit Krt*<*" *" *he I'.fh to (>i« li 




«in every tpcciei, yci thr-intritnik ^iid pcrfod of «uch dc^lru^- 
lian it icarrcly pcrrcivcd by uv 

I have conii&ucd sl^aitily rradmg and collcriing Uctn an 
vamtiun uf iJr>im>tLL uuiiimJii ;i]id (rJhiiitB, and o" the ^UE^^dtun 
tft wliAl 4ICC t^rficjcv J have u ^[juid budy ut f^Ltk, Jiid 1 
Ibiuk E caa draw tome sound coEiclu»ioi». The general cob- 
rlinion* M whifh 1 have slowly bctfn driven from a dir^tly 
o|iprisitc conviciioti, in ihac apecira fire mutAblr, And thai 
allied species arc co-darcndanis from i^ommon sioi^Tti I 
knuw how much I ojwn luyBdf lo reproach foiBKch acon- 
cluslon^ bul J h^vT ai ka^L Ijocifslly and dfliboTJirly coMte 10 
iu 1 bh^U not publish un tlti& bubjt^cL for Eiicvt^r^] yxnt^. At 
preicnt I am on ihc (ieology of South America, J hope 10 
pick up from your book name facr^ on slighi vdriniioni in 
Binjcturi:; cir luslijicts in iht animals of your ncquain Eanccv 

Believe mv, ever yours, 

C. Darti'in to L. Jeiiym.* 

Mt pKAR Jenvns,^! am tery miit;h obliged to yoH for 
the iTouble you have token in having written roc so long 
ft note. The quMtion of where, urhen, and how (he check 
lo the incTCflsc of a glvrn ipnie^ fslN appears lo mc par* 
liruLifly mtcrc'^iing, and our dirticulty in ftti^wcting 11 shows 
how really ignorant *ve ate of the lives and hnhit^of our moat 
faiiiLJiai «pn:it;a, 1 wait awuic of the bui? fact '(A old biidft 
driving awiiy Ihe^r young, bnt had never thought nflhc cfTcct 
you «o clearly point out, of loral gapi in number being thus 
immt'diatclv tilted up. Hul thr 4ifli<:uUv Ti^mainf: 
for if youf fafmers hnd not killed your iparrowa and rook*, 
whm would have bet^tme of chose which now iminiigrAitf into 
your pjirifth ? in (he iriiddEe of nnf(Und one l4 loo for difiUnt 
front the naiuml htnitu of the rook and ^;h.iETi.m 10 ^irp^io^e 


i.iX'VrTli OF THE *OCEtCI-V- 


Ihdt Ibc youniEire tbui tu cipdied from CunbcidgnbLtc. 
The check iiiuat UU ht^* ily ai »u(nc bmc of c^h vfwcie*' life : 
tor. i< ODC f7lni]4t» that ool^ h*lf ihc progrAF ■'c reared 
uid breri, how cnormon* it ihc incrccMr ! One hju^ however, 
IM buflncH lo foct VI much surpricc at one's iterance, tHica 
one knowt bow impouihltf it is aillioui ttaiLiiica to c<in-> 
jc^iiua Ibe duntion of life and prrt-eitji^of dvalhk eo birlti* 
b nunkmd- U it wuM br shoivt; :lut ;ip|iaienily the birds 
of piHigc vitiifJ ^tfii Arrf tad ia<.t-.iM. rctuirt in the ivc- 
crcdin^ jrejri in db^ut the tame tiumberi vhereia thovc that 
romr hcrr forihcir^rmtrrind non"brc«|ifl|t iv**Qn AnmiAlljr, 
cane here viih the mine numhcT\ hut rfttim uirb grraiJy 
decrcued numbers, onu would know {2* indeed Kcms 
probiblc) IhAi the check Jell cbieflf on fnJI-grow birdi 
in the winter *CKiDt jnd not on tbe efgn inij very y^mng 
b)T<ls whifh hji» «fi|>cArcil ti> me often the nio«r [>fotTAb1e 
period. If It any limc my rrmvki on ihii subjixi khoutd 
ocj^uT to you, 1 »>iciu1d be mott grateful for tb« b«Dt4l <rf 

With rehp«ct to ray fir difilBat wodL on *peciei> I rnust 
have eJiprcHPd myielf wilh tinguldi inaccuracy if \ led you 
to *Hj>[jci*c ihat J uie*Ql to s.iy Ihxt my coaElntiom i*<tc 
incvirahle, T'h«y have b<reonir to, after yein of wdgbtng 
putztf!i, to myself ri/<>w; but in mjr vitd««l day-drraxn. I 
ncier expnt more than \o be ah\v lo t»buw Lhal Iheri' ire two 
lidc* to the ^uevlioii of thif itEimut^biUly of )tj>CLic«, i. t. 
hheiher ipectct ate Uifirtiji created or by inlermediate lawt (uj 
with the life And de;iih of indiTidii^l)), t did not ip^n 
the lubjeet mn ih^ Aide of ihr diflliridty |» detetniinirif vl 
arc vpcrtci anrl uhat are vArie(ie% but (thoui^h, why I ib/MA 
^xt yuu such a hiaiory of my doings ii would be h^rd to uy> 
from htjuh fa^t» » lUe roUtioQftTup belwecn the lirkif And 
eiiinei mAmmtrert in South Amerjea, And betwMA ibcMC tiv* 
ing on the Coniine-ni and on adjoinuii; inlands iBch n lh(< 
GolajiAgoc- It occurred 10 tic- that a rollc^^iicin of all «kch 
anaJogoui facts would throw U^t eiUier for of against lh«^ 
vie* Dl it-Jatcd »fK:':iev being eo-desccridants from a comi 




Ktodc A Long kcoichmg ^imongU DgrkukunLl and horttcuU- 
UTjI bookEf md jj^irlt mdk<'K rnc brlicvc ([ ^vcll kriuw how 
ab!iiiriJ(y prrtiimphiniin llvi* murt apfK^flr) fliJtl I *(v thr wfly 
in M-hii-h new vnriciics bcccmie ciiqHivit(>l^ ndnpii-rl to the 
ry(rTTinl cfrtiditinna of life and to other surmuniiing lioingv. 
) am P hM tana tu luy inysdf open lu being chougEu a com- 
pltfLc fooli and n iiiu^i ddiLirrAhr tjne. Fri:>(n the Dslure oT 
Ihv grounds which make mc bettcvc thjti Kpctiu arit mutable 
ill taitn. ihcse ground* tannoi be rcitiktcd to the cloacit- 
albed specie* ; bui how far thty cxtmd 1 cannol m\\. a^ my 
reaitan^ fnll nw^y Ity degree^) when nppli^d lo «prcif4 more 
sn<I mDri' rcmnit^ Troni each other. Vrny do not think ihdi I 
iim su IrlinJ ui^ nut to sec thjt there arc numerous immcQK 
diiticultic^ in my [iQltan», but they ippeu to me ]e» than on 
Ihc common view. I h*ve drawn up a >kclch and had it 
Copieil (in 'Joo ft^tj^s) of rny coEK-lu^ion^ ; .tni? if I rhoiighl at 
tame fitmrc time iK:lI you would think h worth readings I 
ftlmiild, of course, be mobt thankfuT to hare the crilidsm of 
to cf»m|iettfnt a crilic Escnse IhiR very loT»fi and fgoti^tiral 
And tll-ivrriien leiter* which t>y yoor n:mnrkH yuu hud led mc 
into, and believe me. Yoow very truly. 

Doi*B. Oct. I7tli. Ifl4*» 
npAB JrKVK^— I have lak^n .t mn« iinjiTaiefnl length 
of drop in (hanking you fi>f your very kimi prrirni of yotir 
' Obbervatiuns/ But I h.-ippcned to have had m hand wvpnvl 
other buoks iind have fioifihed ytun only a few days ago. I 
fouiid it very pleaiant re^din^. Jiid m^iny ui your futia inter' 
cited me much, I think I was more mteteiEed, which ifaodd» 
irilh your noi<^! on M^m*? of thr lower animtih than on the 
higher on<?8, "I'hc mtrodurtion strutk mt ab very good ; but 
ihis it what I expectcdf for 1 well remember bcinf qii[te d«* 
lighted with j preliminaty eway to the firii Dumtfci of the 
'AnmUa of Natural HiaLory.' J mi«««d one diatu-i»on, and 



thidlE myu^f lIE-mavJ, for 1 rciiivnibcr your saying yow aould 
make tujuc tcmuki ca Ihc wcfii^^cr and b^Jcunctct. u A guidv 
for the ignoronl in predjcljon. I had ^o tiO|>rd 1o have 
prrhnTi^ nirt wiih fifrmr rtmarb* on ihc nmrkuni nf vjirUt^Mi In 
OUT foiTHnon :ipccici. Andrew SmiEh once dc^Liircdhc would 
gel »nic hundrcd» oi spcdmcm of Earks and apanows frocQ 
kU pari» uf Utuai Briiuin, i^ud tec uhuthrri wiib fmm msa 
urcMJtuK liv cuuia dcE^'-c iitty |jruix>riiuiial taiutiuni in bcak«- 
of limttt, &c. Thii point inlcmu me from lumg Uldy 
been fkimming over ihc al>Burd1>' oppo^Lii; concluiion* of 
Gloger Jind Hfi'hm ; ihr oo<.' mnkinjt hnlf-A^rlfuvn :«prf in 'lUt 
Of every common bird, and the oibcr Turning vi Ttu.nj re- 
puted species into one. liwc you ever done an^hing ot ihis 
kind, or hjivr you fvcr iludicd Gioger's or Brchm's Borks? 
1 wjtt intctettrd in your account of the muiifii, (or 1 hjul juvt* 
before been niicrJy perplexed hy noticing 3uiT such a pro*- 
ceeding at you dc»cribr ; I eoonted wen. one d^f Uid^, 
viEiEing JL vin^k' nett -ami v^Eickin^ ilirt on the adjoining w^ilT. 
1 miLy tnvniio» that ] ^ncevaw honic vLuiT-rrlneAi^ly »|7)ilUng 
tho«e little fkcmi'transinir^nc iphrrical gaih on the back odoak* 
leaves for the magyoi vrithvn ; lo Ihai they aie inseeiivoroui^ 
A O^^Mif rvitratut once i^uLricd into my cyci and K>rv Bie 
Oirrcmc pAin ; And T must lell you whir h:ip|X^cd lo rnr OH 
rbe l)*nki at ihr <^am. in my early eniomolnKleil d jyn ,- under 
ft piece of bark I found two Carabi {\ forget which), *nd 
ougbl onr in dcli hand, when lo fiod behold 1 uw a ucrtd 
ramt^itin tmx mo/tr ! 1 coujd rn»t b*»r to ^i»vc tijJ cillier of 
luy CfVir^, and lolotc J'anajiam wa^ irut of ihc quntion: to 
that in dt^paii I gcQily lei^ed one ol Ihc Carah belwccn mj 
trreth, when to my nntprikiibte diiguiC and pain the biil^ in- 
eonstdrrate tirMi tt^iiirTcd hi* acid down nyihroattHnd I loM 
both CtffuVand Pamtx^nn! I wai<iui(c uioniabed to h««r 
of A tcrmtrTa] PUnana : fur about a year oc two ago 1 de> 
acHbcd in the " Ann.iKof Natural Hiatory " ^veril beauttfuLly 
coTonrcd trrrciirinl ipeciet of the SoutheTv Hemijiphere, and' 
thou^Ul ii ijiiiiF a new faet. Py ihe way, yoa iprak of A'] 
theep fiilh x broken kg not having fiukea: I have heard tnf'\ 




rather aver thftt a frvvr, or any srrfftus fjtditfnt^ i* a tirokcn 
Piml), will tau'ic m j miin all (h\' iftU-htinal worm» lo bu w^icy- 
ati:d. M>ghl nol lUis possiltly have been the ^jJht; wjlli tbe 
rtntc* in their «riy slate ? 

1 hope you were none thr womr fnr Soiif hrtmpton ; • I wi»h 
I had seen ymi locking mihcr falter [ rnji^yol my wctk 
eiUrujdy. ildU it did m« goad. J missed yon \\\^ Iaai kir 
dtytk, and wc ik^vci iiuin:&^it lu ^et? much uf each olhcf : bill 
there were 40 iiuay jfcupit Unjri'. ihat i for one h,ird|y saw 
nnylhing of ^y one- Once j^^m i thank you very curdoUy 
f«r your kmd jirwcnt, and the pleasure it hai given mc. and 
bcLicvc mc, Ever most iruTy yoiir^ 

P S,— r h»vp (luitc forgoti(<n to say hnw greally intprc^Ud 

I was with your dibcu^mn im die statislicii of animalfa : when 
MrUl Naiuul HLSlory be &o perfeci thai ^Lich puinl:^ ait you 
diKuflft vrilJ be perfectly Laowa about any one animiLl.* 

C Daru'tH ta J. D. Jii^kcr. 

Mulvcni, Tunc L5 (iG^I- 

. , > At Iahi 1 am goifig ro press with a attkoW poor iirRi- 
frufi of my cc»nfounded Cirripediflj via. the fossil pcduncuTate 
cirrtpcdia. You afth what cHVct aLudying si>cci^s h3« had on 
iJiy variation iheorieii; I dtj not tbink inucU< — 1 hjve felt 
fome difficutiies more On Xhv other hand, I have been 
«lrurk f^nd pmhahly unfairly frfjm the claat) with Ihe vjiriu- 
hiliiy of every part in some alighr degree of every species. 
When the same' or^^n U rig^eusfy ootnpaTeil in many indi- 
vidu^lst 1 alWhiyb (v\d some nlij^ht v^nabilityt and ccjnhv- 
<|LJi:ntly thai tlic diaunu^^ af BpeLJesi from minute diiTercucca 
U fliwjyi dfltigf-rotis. I had thonghr the j^mc F*:irti of the 
same ipetics more rcscmbla fthun ihey dc* jnyhov in Cirri- 
pedin) objects oast in the bamt mould. SysLcniiLlic work 

• Thr ffiHtifig af Uif British AuocUUon. 




would be ofliy were il not for lhi» fonfouiKled tiiridriont 
whtch» howcri;r- is plcaMnt to me ai a ^pvcuUliat, though 

tincincu (b> unplcaiJLnt Li> nic) of the llimAlayan Katfi, wU* 
lowiv &c., compared with Ihoti: of northern [Europe f], &C.p 
nrc very inifTf^ting; if my rudo ipi^rirt-^kcJr h hnd nnjr tmaff 
Hhjirc in Icndtnj; ynii lo thcoc nhvrvnrionR^ ii hiiii mlrculy 
done food iind ntnpic srrvic*-', and may lay tu bones in the 
t'urtli m peace- I nevvt h^nid anything vj Hiraagv as Fal* 
ccincr'a nc|(]tfel uf yuur Itfllcm ; J ^m c;&ireiudy glad you an 
ci^rdjal with Uim Jfjim, (hough it muU hjvc <:oM yuu *n 
cfforf, Tiikoner k a man one mu*! love. - . , Mnj you pros- 
per ia every way, my t\^ar Hof>krr 

YouT iifTtrnonatc ftifnd, 

C I^rMO ta J. D. I/ookrr. 

Down, Wciin«J»( [Scplcmba, n- d-]^ 

, . . U*ny UunLi fgr youf letier received ye»(crday, 
which. OA ilways vei mc diinking ; I Uughed 4t fovr aitack 
aiiny ilin^ci4 in (.Imtigei of k^-el lo^vdi Fovbe*.* being 
10 libcnl loward» myArlf ; hut I mim mniniAiri. thai I h^ve 
Dtv^ Id ilrjvft or iijihc-avrd onr mnther-eanh"* virfsfe. fof 
the sake of ei|jlatning iiny one (jhcniTuneucm, and I xrwa X 
have very seldma done w wuhout wme dutlnct evidenee. 
So J ntuM HtUI ihink U >i bt^fd step (purhapv & vcv; true one) 


* E4w«rd F«riMv bom b ibt lilc of Man ilif, died ie$«. HU belt 
Lmwfi ttofh vu hit Report on the Jikiribuiir^n of tDaiine lAiinali al dil^ 
fi-Hnl ikpth> in the Mnl tTcr nnMO- An imiKirtftfiJ mfMou flf bu i« ift* 
fcvrfd tA in cny CutHf'i 'Anlnbic-Cmphj.' p. 7>- tir TinkI iqcmkrnTy th« 
pflvit of rurttor to rhr (■f<<u^i(j] Nofuty'i Muviiiu. ah-I Froftwior vl 
Nthtnl )li^TM7 in tbf WbituDo of I'ikucaI iJ^oU^y ; -.tumxly T>rT.jfT he 
dif^ he wa> ■|t]KdiiIr>l PriufcMAf «f Ntlunl UnUny in iEh L'luvr^ifljr i^^f 
Kdinbui^i- llr wrini (u hbrc- tnti'iwtftl fiu eDni<ini>uiartc* a» a in4n cf 
•mkiEigly lemlilf Bfitl tj^^uui mifuL Tlic &^>otfi i||D>ion in ihttn^Bt of 
l*vil iWipn ID Failv«\ iftaifcncv to ei^iluEi \hr fact* ti pAi|;npfai(aJ 
DRfVltoK by ndB» of ui *efH-e pfdcilcBl raiAfiiuUon, 





Ui hink into thr ilv[ithh of oce^tn. withtn Ihc period ot existing 

Apcf^ict. ito laq^ a Irai;! of Ruifatc- But iherc 1% hq amount 
oi Client of chjing;r of level, whirh T am rot fwlly prcpiircd 
to ftdmiif hilt I miifl nAy I thnuld h\tc betif r evfdcnri?, rliAn 

Ihc idmiiiy of a. U-w pbnrs, which fioaili/y {J dc nttt my 
probably) might have bten oihcrwwc: tfauspotieil. Pariicu- 
hu thankfi for your alkmpl to ^et iiitf v> \^o^y vt ' L*KBpc;:e/* 
ttJiJ ilniD>?t ti|ti:tJ tliankh fiif y^ur (nLinismt on hJm ; J T;ilUcr 
itiJHduuUcd hmi, Jml frit not Lnuch inclined lo ukc u goipel 
bii f^cU- 1 ^nd ihi; one of my RreaTcM dilficiillJcs with 
fori ign aiillujn,^ vi^. judging of (heir credibility. How pnin- 
fully (to m<^j true h your remark, thac no oac hav* hardly a 
righi lo examine Uxcqueiiion ot tjwtics «h[> ha* not minutely 
dostrxbed tnany. 1 was, however, pleased to Zieur from Uwen 
(who is vrhemenEly oppcjdcd to any miiiaLiltty in species), 
that he thOHghl it vsiti. n very UTr siihjcct, and Ihni there win 
A mo-^i of facts to be brought Eo bi-ar oa ihc <4UL-D(ion, not 
hitherto collected- Myonly eomfort is (&% 1 mean tn attempt 
the subject), that T hive d/ibbleil In several branchc* of Naiu- 
»1 History, ami ^c^en good Kpcciflc men viotk out my i^pecitri; 
anil know somethini; of geology (in indispensable union); 
and tbou^h I shrtll grt tiiorc kirkk ^^an hnU-pcnnica, T will, 
lift servinji. att<:nipt my wr>rl( Lamarck h iho only excep- 
ifon, that I can think of, of An tccuraic dericribcr of spcde% 
K Icaat in ihe Invenchtatc Kingdom, wbo hi^B dishdieved Jn 
pemunetM species, but he in hia Hbsiird though clevui work 
ban doo« Ihr- tubjvct harm, u has Mr. Vciftigea, JEid, as (ujinc 
future luoiic; natuEuli^t allcmplmg Uie s-tme spceulactons wUI 
perhaps sjy) has Mr, H. . . . 

*1VDt>tb^y GiHliuii't »4y. pdliElthvd bjr die Aoilerny o( Xoncj id 


GROWni op THE 'Oltimfi- 


Mv T>E*» H[>rtPtRiE, — r hire read your pupcririih grcJl 
j&tcmt ; It itrcmn atl very clcor^ nnci mil form an admimliTe 
intioduciUm lo the New Znlimd Flon, or lo jjiy Tiau in the 
world- Kuw few gvuvrilijtvrs Ihrrt; uro smong ft>iliriii;itiBi4 ; 
t really iukpc4;t there n ^ciideihmu A^Kllut^ty i>ppa(cJ W cadi 
<kihcr and hotitle in ihe Iwo Iramei o( tnind requucd for 
iy^nTr: ma tiling and rcAwniDg on Uigc collecliofki of facU. 
Many elf yniir nr^irrnrnr^ .i|i|i(^aT \t\ mr v^ry wrkh piil, and, 
K far JtK my cxpi^riencc ffocis iHl- canrlid way in vhioh you 
ditcuu ihc kubjc^t U uikiquc. The whole wili be very u*c* 
ful 10 in« whenever I undertake my vu]u»^e. iliuu^ parts take- 
the wmd very coniplclely oul of my ^iU ; it iviiL be all nui 
10 me - , , for I have for nomc time determined to p*'*" 'tie 
argummti on hoik Mtla (ai fat u 1 could), inctead r>f arguing 
tyo, the inuUbihty Mdt* alono. 

In my own Ciriipedijl work (by thi- way. thank I'ou ft 
the dbrtc of toft colder ; tl doe* gne^-or at leui mi^a gtcM! 
deal of good) — in my own work I have nol fcU conBciout 
that dmlxrlicvinK m the \^tt^ ptrmati/iKt of tpccict haa tnj 
murh lUffrronee one way *r ihr cither : in loroc few n*rt 
publishing avowedly on doctrine of noo {permanence), I 
idiuuLd niit liAvu jfTiJLed nAim^ and in lome few ca^tfi 
ihouM Jiivc iithtcd nurne* to rc-mirkjbic varietiei. Cer- 
lunly 1 have IcU it humiljjimg, diicuatiog and doubting. 
and examining ever and over again, <rhcn m mi ovo mini 
Ibr only doubt hiii tx^rn trhether the foim varied h^^j 
jfttfrJay (nor to pui liif> finr a ^^i^inr on \\,xa ^nA|;4liy* voith 
tty). After descrihiuK a tri of form^ /u dktini:t ]ii>rHcii~ 
tMringup myMS-, and making them one »pc<i^ tearing thai 
up and making tbcm icparoie, land Ihen making ihecn one 
again (which hat ha' ^rcned O me)> I harr g^uhcd ray tcClb,j 

cuncd ipccleif and ^ked what lin I hod comMliud to 





ifl punifthed- Bui l mu*T r.onfcm ihaf pcrliop* nearly the 
tame thing would hAvc happfiicd to mc nn any mlirnir of 

I am hearhly ^l-id co hear yuur Juumftl* it to nmch ad- 
yam:ciJ; liow ni4}^ntrin:ntiy il acems to be iUuitralcd ! An 
"Oriffiti JVafH'^ffsi" «:Lh loCs of jm.ijtinali'm nml not luo 
TOiKh rrK^rd to fi^itf. i« jtust the m.'^n Ti^ rliwiifat sp^ri^i ! I 
think your liilr or W Jftiimal nf a Kniuraliit in ihc Kast ' 
very good; bm whether "in ihc IIimaU>a" wouM »*>( be 
better, I have doubled, for the Eobi tiounds raihtir vtuuc> < h . 

C I^arrvtn iff /. D. Jlooktr. 



Mv i>F*K HooKEP, — I have no icmiirltt ar atl woilh 
S4?niiing you* nor. indiftil, ^v.t& iL likdy ihal 1 should, c^n- 
fcideifug huw perfeci jnd dalioralcil an eai^y it is.f At fir 
at ray Judt^raeut goes, U U ih? mait unporunt discusion 
on tlic pomLi in ([uciiion ever published. 1 c^in «jy nn more. 
I iRicc wilh aliiii»&t evtrylhing you §By ; but 1 iccinirc mitch 
lime to digest an eiany of such quality It almost made MC 
^oorny, partly from feeling T frould not .intiwi?r aomfr poLnta 
*hi*:h theoretically I abniild hiivt lik^^d to have been differ^ 
CHt. und parlly from htetiig wja* hcllrt tienf tlkan I to^Id have 
done, di^evtaions oq some potnt» which 1 hud inlfrnded (o 
have tiiVm up. , . . 

1 much L-ni/>ycfl (hctt^ap*you have given lo the provincial 
Kpoclcfl-mon^efs. 1 wiah [ could have bcicn of the slightest 
U9C 1 I have been deeply inirreBlPd by the whole entiiy, jind 
cungraiuble ytiu on hjivini^ pioduti-d a iTienioir whith I be- 
licve will be memorable. \ vraa deep iii it when your most 
cofi»idcrate riote arrived, bcBging jnc not [i> liufiy, \ \\\-a\\\ 
Mri* Hooker and yourself mo^l ijnceioly for your »inb to see 
me- J will nor kt iinoThcr summer pass without seeing you 
At KeWp for indeed 1 ^boulj enjoy i[ much, , , . 

*air J. T>. HflAkf/i - llimAlA^qn JnnrtiDi; 


CitOWTII or THE -oRicm.' 


VoQ do one rvtAly morr htrntmr than I hare inf clnim La, 
patting nc tn tthrr l^jtW on tipv and doniBL tn a yt^ruv. 
lwo*& biiii:. whpTi I itidll b* at iDf ipcciv* buok (tf L ^lu not' 
break duwn)t t UijU jfitkth my teeth ^uid abutc you for having 
pul M ttitny hokitic lacU »o confi^rnndcdly •rcJI 

Ever F^iirs .iffrcIionJicljr, 

C- Darvim, 

C J>arttrfn to J. D. Hv^r. 

Down, Mw h Mlb \\^\ 

Mr iMtAK Hooker.— I had h^i^cd thai y'ou vuuld hav« 
htd a tilllc hrcalhinn-tiniF Aftrr your JoumAl, bul Ihk K«(aai 
be very i\t from the c»tc; and I am ihe more Abli^cd^l 
\A ■^mewbai contritf^) for thr lun^t lettrr received this 
ijng. tvtu' juiry ^iih newn And ivoi^ inicreftEing to me iq 
QUny way^ J aril vi-ry jjtlcid indeed lo bcii of the rcfamM^j 
Ac^ tn Ihe Royai Society. With reiped lo (iic Club,* 1 amj 
deeply intereiEcd ; only iwi> of three Jay* J|ic^ I w** Kftt- 
tihfj- to my wife, how 1 wa* IcttinB drop *nd being dte>ppcd 
by ticAtly all my ncqwainianccs and thai ] would endeavour 
to liuofkner to London ; I wji» not then thinLitsitof ihe Club, 
vhlt-h^ AS fnr as »ny onir ihin|£ |Cnr4. wniiM Aniiwrr my ntnct 
object inktepingupoldan^ mjtkifiRiAmencvacqa«iniimec«, 

* TV 1^tln«ofiTii(tJ Club, lo vliktt [ity ttllin «*■ rtHlT<f |ji* 
B'>iiifr* i» utjiltI rritniith i« lufm^m nic>un A|^l SA- 1*4* H< ie»ianeJ M» 
iia<nibvn.lEJLi 111 i^, Tht Club^v fDuiultff) lb tBi^j- Th^Humbar of 
Bnnbvn bttni- llmJivd 1047, ll oai prnpthot to ehnnti h "ihlOtb af 
41,* bai (be hattip urif Derrr ttftrpttd. Tbc niHirc fF th< Clab n^ybc 
^ilwreil from ib Am rule : "ThtpurpoKcf the Club biopronuMtumvch 
■s panlble ihc ftdcnirLEie ottjcrti of the Royal fiocicty \ lo ^irlliitle fate^ 
MitP4 bef vr«n dioif Ff llo*t vhn jf* vtively cajfigtd ia CLiluvftlEiE dw 
rariwit hnnrhrt nf KaIiae Sirlcnce.anil vti4^ htTvcniiirfhi^iol 10 U* 
f***: |r» Inf ft*tr ih* ■"cii-fturr 4t Ihr ^Hfilng nnYriij^v *ihI 10 
ace the t^nilnTiiiiiipi and ditL-ii>Hrm rif papen.' 'Ilii iflub mel fur diimer 
(tr lifi()ar b^ ftntf (h< (htir waafo be quIUcd at B t^.ji brinf ciptclr^ ttut 
nrmkrn iBQuM fo Ea |tic hcnl SnctrlTr Of lua ^MOi ihc dUbvt ba> 




I will ihurL-forc cnmc up to l^ndon for every (wilb ratt ex- 
ccptianfc) Club'tlay, and iliifn my he.ii!, I ihiiik, will jUIow inc 
on All Avcu^c to goto every other mecttng. Hut it it gjjcv- 
ouB how often :;ny change knocks mc up. 1 will further 
lilod^f my^rlf, n\ I InM T.ydl, to rcstj^n iiftrr n yr;(r, if I did 
noi attend i>rrny offen, so that 1 ^.hoKilti ttf tivrti t^nmniWr 
the Cliil> ieiii[>ufjrily. If you *ian get me elected, I certainly 
«li^1J be vuiy Eiuith plc-i^cJ. Vi^iy rhuny thanks Terr anawen 
abotii Ubcicr^ 1 am very itlAil to heai ol Ihu acvonO Kdii * 
Bi> very lOon; but am not lurpriicd, (or 1 h^vc heard wf 
^vcimI, inotir^mdl drcte, teadingit with very much pleasure, 
1 fthftll hi? oiirloim to hrnr whul llomboldl will ifly: it will, I 
ihouli) think, ddi^'hL him^ nm) mci.'t wUh more praise from 
him than any wther tool of rravcls, for I uannoi rumtmbcr 
one, which hofi to many ivibject^ tti common with him. What 
» wi^odcrrul olJ Mlow he I5. . , . . By Ihc wjiyj I hope, 
when yon go to |lil<, (nwjirdh Iht end of May, yoH will 
be fnrced to hnve ^omc rcn. I am grieved to hear ihfli nil 
l\\v t»a.d ^ymplorn? have not left Hcnslow ; it h ^0 titrangp 
and new fr> feci nny iintflsiae-ia ahout hit hi-aUh, I am 
partloiibily oTrbgcd to you for sending mc Aha Uray'b Lctti^r ; 
how very pkanLihtly ht writes. To iec his and your CJUtion 
<in ihe sijccies-question o"ght to overwhelm mt in confu&Lon 
nml thame; it docs mflJsc me ffcl deuced iiTn-nmfriTl.-tblc. , . . 
It i» dtfhghlful to hcL-ir all lilcit he nays on ,'\|!;ni6]£ ' how very 
■injcuhr it is thnt so ^j/n'it^ntiy c\tvvt a man, w^iih sMch intHrfrtv 
Icnowledpt on mjiny branthes of Kiiiunl Hiniory, shrjuld 
write a."^ he does, Lyell told me thai he wiis so de]j{>hLecl with 
ontf of his {j^ga&sjji) leLtnrcMjn progressive ilcvcUjiaiJicm, Aiic, 
Ac, thui he went to him allerwajds and told him, "ihfll u 
w.-ii to delightful, that he could ni:it help j]) the lime wiOimj; 
ElwiiBtnic." I wldom sec t Zoolo^ic*! pap^r from North 
Arnrrira^ wlthtiuE observini( thr iuiiirrH^ of Agasbi; a doc-> 
(jincfc — another proof, by (he way, of how great a man he i«. 
1 was pleased and soq>rLM-d to nn A. Gny'v remarks vn 

or ihf iltiuHLtjvi JoumkU 




CTAninft i^bliter«ting v*riclU4, otx which, ai yoti hnaw, I haiv 
hten ('olJ<^cting facet for thftc dam yt»rs. How awfnlJjr Ait 
1 bUuIE f4'd. if when I i^vi iny nuti-s tuyeilLcrDtiB|>ni««. Akt.i die.. 
ih< whuk- ihini; »[>lod«i hkv un empty jiull-bftlL lh> out 
work v^u'vcl' !<' death. Ever >oui« ino»t intly. 

C Dambim. 

C. Darwin At /, D. //n^efr. 

Dovm, Sot ^ib Ei^Si* 

Mv riF.An Hooker, — I wa% dcWghtcA m |;rl fo^ir nn(« 
ycaicfday 1 ccpT»gm.f»!atc yoti very hcanily,* aikd whether 
you catc much or UuiC| I rejoice lo ace ihc highctt icicnti^ 
juf1f(mc£]E'CDiJr| ;n Oredl tiriUin recoiEni»c j'Our claims t do 
hojfc Mn, Hooker i^ p)r<>iicci^ And fir dctircL me p^rtJcuU'ly 
to 5cnd her cordifll fjongraiuUTiont , . , J pity you from ihc 
very botrom uf my hL-srt about your aAvr-dinuCT speech, 
whii'h I itiiT 1 hhjil ncil henr. Wiihrjut you K^vc a vctj 
much gre^ucr loul (hai^ 1 have (and 1 believe that you bawV 
yim will fmd th« mcd^d a plejuant Jittic tLimulus. when vwk 
S{oc» b;id[y, AJid one riiniin.iU'i rh^a all j* vauity, it is ph 
to \\^vc Kime ungiUle ^troof, ih»t ofhcrn have thiiuj^hl *oi 
thing of otie'i Inlioun. 

Good-bye my dcat Huokrr. 1 cun auuiv [you] that we 
both most tmly enfoyed your uid Mih, HvokefV vihil here., 
Farfn-eUn My dear Hooker* your linccrc friend, 

C. DaRvw. 

, . . I havr juM finiihrd workinit well aI Wollaston'tf 
' [niccU MAdcrcn»ifl ': i« h an oifrntntAff work. There t? B 
wry cunoui |iotnt in ihc oiiioonclinji proportion fif CuleopKi 

* On ihf kimrd lohbn cif rht RoyaJ SAd#Ty\ M»4»l. 

* I'h'vmaa Vrmnn WfjllBiian dinliknhii t'hyfHVmh ynr. ii J btftrfl 
Ofi Jfen. 4. i«7«. 1 1 Ik AhMi raie&nc him ih carlf ttutiA«l l^winiu ib 



that Bic flplciouu; and I think l have gucfcwd the reason, 
VI*,, ihal powcis <jf fSi^hl wvul'l i'C injurious Itt [tificct& inhj- 
Utingii i:on6ni:tl locality. Jind i:*|iOSC them to hr blown lo ilie 
tcA: latest ihijt, J fmd ihdt the inKecia inhibiting thv Ue^tfite 
Grandcv 3 ^ui^c^ ^iiL^tl i^lvti wcuM be »ti1] moru e\[jL>Hrd t<j 
this diUigiJt, and hen: 1E11; jj[0])orlion of aplcrguh 'iibccU is 
<ven con^idetiiLly ytcatcf tluu on Miidtijn I'fopcf. Woilw- 
Eon s.peaki of Maddri jnd the orhci Aichipc!agoc« as being 
"iijic and tcrtuin wilnessci of Forbes' old t-ontinent^" ond nf 
cniifse the Knioinological world implidily follows Lhin view. 
But \a my eyes it would b? diflicuU Lu iiDagm« f^jci^ mure 
UplJU&cU Id »uch a v^cw. U is iciiUy di«|;u^Ljng ai)*\ hitini* 
liatmg to fcc directly opposite conclusion!! drawn f rom tUc 
same faci^, 

1 have had somo ;;on-Espaii deuce with WulE.islun iin this 
And olInT fltibjccte, and 1 fird thai he cnnll} assumef:, [ 1 ) ihjii 
ferflltrly insi^cts possessed greater mtg:aiory power^i tli^id nij«\ 
(a) that the old Uiid wa± i^maliy ricii in cent'e» ?( cteatioa, 
(,l) Ihal the uniting lutid \.a^ dntroi>'?d before the spccEol 
treulions had hme lu diffii^c^ and (4) Ih^t the land W4& broken 
down liefcTc coruin families and genera had time to rcACh 
from Enropc or Africa the poinii of land in <iiicitloi]. Arc 
not these a jolly lot of msumptions ? and yet I shall sm for 
the next do^t-n or ecore of years WoUiiston quoted as proving 
UlV former eKiBleiice of poor Fgrbes' Atiautiih 

tint wuili, tie tlcvuttil hinuvlf Ui a cludy of (he Col A>ptaia ctTMAdvln, lUv 
Cnpvlc Vcriles ai*l ^^' Iftlcda, t^^hcnn ht dfdt^ctil wUlvnev in luppuri 
tA the belief {n di? ^ubmcr^ed coniirifDC of ' Adafiiii/ f n an oTpiiiitry 
nolicff liT Mj- Rye i* NaTure,' ri7BI he i* dLiirritcd a* *rurkin(; pprsiitcnlly 
" Ppnn a hmjvl cmicrpiiiiii o* the sricnc* To whu-h hr wm JrvaEccI," while 
hring aI rh« loin^ rime "Bixiir4lt^«laiiof*te, 4nJ pffviKi* ^jiui-luai, and 
niluriily ol 1 mmiirrly crt'iml hathil." Hit fim rcifnlldc [>d|ier vAt 
vrrillFii when hi: wb* m triiJcT^ri'tuifc nf J{-iiik<I>»]l<T|i^, CimlirEdg^. Whkla 
■1 thr Univc^rtjiy^ hr i»4h ;iii Aunculc 4nd Afi^nviinl* ■ Mcmtrri of [h« 
Riy Club F thit ka urall tncieiy which >i)l] inerl* uiice a ntvck. adiE whert 
tbf «1MJei|cru1;}»l« membfrvorA^ocialci* receive much kiikillT enfwjra^fT* 
tfltOtfroin Ihcir cl<]ci>^ 




1 hope ! hkvc not ^«3rie<l yoii, but 1 lliou^til ytya voqM 
1H(* ro hcjr about thit b^ok, which urikci rac ja /.lov/frntf m 
iU f^cUj ajid (hu auihvr a huhI nicr and modesi mac. 

Musi iruly yuun. 

Down. March iqA {il(f)* 

Mv urAii Fo\. — Hfiw long it is sintc we havf hnd any 
coram unication, inJ J reall)- wani (o hau how ihc wurid goes 
wiih yiju ^ bui riiy iiJiiiicdiHie ob|vtI is to aak yoo to ob*«nt 
poinr for mc. unit ai ) Liiow now yo» uc J very buftjr BUA 
with trjo murh to do, ! ^hall hnve a good chance cJ yoor 
doing whAl I want, as it would be ho[HTk*) to ask m ipiite 
iilli! muti. Afl you haw a N'mh't \tk, I do not doubt that 
you have pigcouK. (How 1 «ub hy any chance xhcf ««re 
fanLuh !) Now «hat [ want to know a. at what age antliag 
fjigvoDi have their t:iil fcnthcT> fiufTif icntly iScicloprd lo b« 
fountcd I do not think f ever uw « young pigeon, I an 
h«Td at work at my notes coikcting xnA comparing Ihcm. m 
order in «omc two or thnc jtan lo wrt«r a book with all the 
facts and argumcntA^ whicJi I van colk-tl,/"' ««/ rr^itij ihe 
immutability of ipecie*. I want lo gel the young aS our 
imcilic breedt. to ic« how young, and lo Bhai degree the 
lifferrn^r** Appear. I must either breed my*elf (which is no 
JimUftcmcnt Inn a hivrid tififr (o mr) ihr pi^Timt or buy rhnr 
foung ; and before 1 ga lo 4 seller, whom J have heard of 
from Varrvil. I am rvally onKioun to koon vjmclhing about 
their <lcvelt>pmc»t. nM lo et|HAC my cUfMiW jgnonnct', 
and iheieforc be cxcc»tve]y liable to be cheated amj gulled. 
With rtipect to the ^»t point of the tail feathers, it ]« of courae 
fit relation to th«; wontlcrful development of uit feather? in 
ihe aflult lunutU, U you had any breed of poultry puri.-, I 
would beg a chicken «iA exaci age italed. about a week ot 
fortnttihi old 1 to be *cnt in a hot by po»f, if you couJd have 
the heart to kill one ; and secondly, would lei me pay ikmi* 




nge. . . Indeed, I ihotild be very glad to have ■ neirling 
coEDinon pu^con «crit, tai I mean to make AkcktunK* ami li^vk' 
drc.idy JuAt begun conip;Lrii]g ttilU iinil L^iic du^Ur And I 
think the muUs raihci i uiiuu»i * lur itn wcighjQg ihc several 
hones very carclully. ¥t\\zn perfectly cleaned the proportiooil 
wujjlits of iK" 1*0 hive greatly raricd. Ihc font of ^^c t*me 
h^ivinft lai^cly mcreated. How I wUh I *^oiiltl get a linlc 
wild duck of fl wccb oM, but that I kaav H olmnsi impofi- 

With rc*pe<:t lo ouraclvi^s, I have Dot mtii:h 10 say ; we 
hjtvc now a icrrlbly noisy house wjih tlie w]iaopmg cough, 
hut otherwise are all wdl, Kiir llic grtf^Ursl latl about mywif 
»thut I hive ^1 liLsi <|uitc Jonc wiih ilic cvtrlastmg b.irn^dei. 
Al the end of tlit wp }ud two a1 out luilc boyi very Ul 
wiih fcTcr and brt»nchiti4, and all sort? of allmeni^ Partly 
tor amu«cmcnf, And partly for ehangi? of air, wo w-eni I0 Loo' 
dm and (00k 1 houic for a months but it turned our a ^tat 
lularci for that dT4;a*:1fi]l fro«t juai net io when fm wtEtii and 
tJlU our rhjMrcn pit unwtiU. aniE ¥.. und J had otiugh^ and 
eoldfc and rhcunutmn ocaily ali Uit: time. We ImJ ]jliI down 
fini on our Kit of chjn^t tv do, io go and ice Mn. Fox, but 
literally afier w.niin^ ^ome time to sec whether the weather 
would not imjirovr, wc hml not a d«y when we both could 

1 do hope before very long ynu will he able to mana^ 
to pay ui a vistt. Time it slipping away, nnd we «c jetting 
Oldikh. Do (ell UH about yotinelf and all your brjir family. 

I know you will help me i/ yifu /art with informfltiort nbout 
the young pigeon* ; and anyhow do write before very long. 
My dear Fox, your sincere old friend. 

C, Dahwiv, 

* " } hn^c jgvi bf en lotlni; pmcHcally whut ifiiua* ilopt in rrtfurtn^ 

fojM : I Ubvc vanAe ■l»i]«ian oi ifWd vtA amc du^V (nh. tht %mtn nf wefl- 

IfuJlcd, high ilnck * [] unA 1 fiDfl Iht Ikmc-'luck winj^^L^Iil, «x:cLirdin|E to 

jcale fif wUd proint>Tr, 10 hurt tri r»o win^H j&ogrni"* m wiifthl, but il 

lu il inily 317"— A letter lo Sir J, llnoLgr. iHt|. 




P.S^^AnioDgit aU vurlit of odd* ind tatSa, with wbkh t 

licmh nf pUntA ] hai\ formerly Homc vtid cahba^e «rr<1:s 
which 1 g*LVc to nninc untr, v^s ii 10 yon ? li U » tftatuimii lo 
one it wuB ihrgwn iiu.Ly, if nui I iliuutd bt veiy flad o' ■ 
pb^b uf it- 

[Thc following rjEiwrr frcni a lc((fr ic Mr fc\ {MArrh 
ajch, i^jj^ rcfE-n 10 ihc s4mc iubjt-cc ofl ihc Ioai Iccier, and 
gives lomc KLccouni of iht? " sptuca weak:*' '"The woy 1 
Hhjill kfU young thin|{» ^v^iU Lk; kj pui thtfm uiidrr u tumbler 
glihh With 4 tcaihiJoon ol ether or i-hlorufuiiii, \\\v glofo hv\x\^ 
pimrd down on w>mc yidding •urfacc, and Iciie tb«n ft>r 
an himr ur twti, yimnn h:iTo oiifh |MJwcT of r^viiiHcaiioii- fl 
havf iliu^, kilkid motliB and tiuilcffli^-ev) The W«i way H^uid 
be 10 hcnd thcni at you procun- ihcm, tn puEcbomd chrp'box 
by puit, on which you cQuld wriic und just lie mp ^iih iiritig ; 
and ycju mW tf^ffy matr mc h.ippicr by jJlowinj( mc to keep 
tn account of imitt^Ko, &c- Upon my vord I «ftn luifd^ 
believe Ihii iIji^v <*'v fould be ti^ gnod^niiurcd ai (o take sueK 
trouble and do luch a very diui^<.'(.<abl<; thmjc *^ kill baW* ; 
itnd I nm very »iutr 1 6n not kno* one soul who, csioqii youi- 
iclf. would lie »o> I Jm going to uk one Ibing invfe ; ihoald 
old hent of Any above pouUry (not duck) die »t l>eiroTnr » 
old a» to bi; yvt<rri, I wi^h yo<i would wrtd her 10 me per rail, 
ftddrcHcd ui "(*, Dirwin, care of Mr. Arton. Pnsi-ofiic^ 
Biontley, Keni." WiJl you keep ihii addte«.* it shoftett 
way for piLKelS' But 1 do not c^irt to inuih for thii^ aji £ 
could buy Ihr oltJ biid« dctid at Buly to make tkeletonA, I 
ihould have uritieii M once even if I had not heard fmoa 
you, to beg you noi to take trouble alio«i pigeon^ for Vand? 
hA^ per^nnd^'d me li> ATlcm|il ir. and I am now Atling up a 
phf c, and hafc wntten to Bftily about priced &e., &c. Sfmt- 
timi (when you arc belter) I should like v«ry much lo he*r a 
liitk About youi "LittK- Call Duck"; wby »o tailed? And 
wbrrc you gol it ? and whal h la like ? , . . I MtA lo Igpur tnt 
I did no! even know There were three vorieriei of Dorking 
fowl: how do they differ^ , . , 


MUTAtm-irV OF Sl'EClEfx 


1 im^t wheiher I ever Uild yoa whflt the object of my 
jfrt-woi work i&, — il is to *icw all favis ihai I can masttr 
(chcu. chcu, how ignorant I find 1 amj m NKiurj] Hisiory 
(ai on p:r>gr:iphka] dutribulion, pfll^ontology, U^toifM iitiwn, 
hyhndUm, dumcsrie .innnnlii nniT pbntpi, &c., A:c.,£ec-) l(i %et 
hfkw for Ihcy favour or arc opposod 10 ihr notion ihnt wild 
SpccirE are muialjlt ur iminuiiiUL" : I menn wirh my nfmnir 
power lu give all ar^menlB ^nd Fjcu on lioih 'iider^^ I h.iVL^ 
a natmUr oi |icuple helping mv in i-very way, ntid giving mc 
moii ialunblr Assi'iMncc : bui 1 oflen dimhl ivlitilitr ihc nub- 
jtcl will not qmic (ivcryjowef me. 

So much for ihe iniaii-businr^s pnr[ of my Icltcf, 1 sm 
very veiysoJiy to heir toindifTcrt'Tii flccnmit of your bcahh : 
with your Urge fiimjly your life: is v;:iy prtmma, ami I am 
»urc wilh itll yum anivily and goodiit*,* il ought lo be a 
happy one, or a$ bap|iy u can icuonably be cKpecled witli 
all (he «:iiri:»( of fiiTmily on cne^ 

One rjiniiot cipcct the pwscnT to be lite tht old Crux- 

major d^yi at ihc foot of ihosc noble willow slumps the 

lemorv nf whirh [ revere. I now find my btile enromology 

A\\th I whrjily oive irj yon, comi.'^ in very risefuL I nm very 

glad to hear that you hava given yourself a ie»t from Sun- 

duiicH, How much illness you have had in yout hfe! 

irewetl my dcai Fox, I juiure yon I thank you heariily for 

your proffered asiistance-"! 

C. Darwift ia il'. J}. /«:, 

linvrn. M«r 7th (rliffl. 
My dear Fok. — My corre?tpondence han cost yoi; '^ deal 
of ifDublc, lhEmjj,h Ihia iiuLv wdJ noU I found youn on my 
reinm home on Sfltnrdny rUct a week"* wr»fk in London. 
Whilst there I raw VarrcH, who loM mc he had earefnily ex- 
amined !iU |M«ntT in ihc Dill Diirk, itnd dtd not feel any 
doubi about it XK\ng apeciiically iJeniitjl, and thai it had 
cro«e4 freely with common varieties In Si. James'ti Park. 1 
•hould Ihereforv he very glad for a cevrn-days' duekling and 




for one of the old birds, shoiJd onr evrr dip a tiitt»i%\ dvaih. 

Varrdl tuld niL^ Lhai Sabjiic hnd fjolk-ctcd fony rjfictiMof 
llie cum Ell U11 duck T , , , Well, lo ictuin Vi>bu»m?u ; nobodjr^ 
1 Hm Hufc, couM lit belter for mc than you tlie cluwt«n>iic 
njc of liulc chkkcni : whb rtspifcl to iWcic»r>n*, I hiivr fcArr<t 
it would b« impcmibE? to make ihtrm, but I i^up^wsc I thalX 
hr Able to mcAKuro ^imhi. Arc, by ftcting the joint*, Wliu 
yr>u iJiy About <:htd cof kii )u» confinnE wlui 1 tbou^ht, lad I 
will mnkc my skeletons nf old tutkan Should aa old inJiI 
tUTkvy ever ilit*, pleaJi« n-membt^r mv; I du iiot caie tot a 
baby turkey, nor loi a fiiuiiU- Very many thaitkt for youj 
ofTer. 1 havr piippin of bull*doj^ And greyhound in ull, 
Jind T hiivo had r.-irt-horit ami nce-hom? yoiirm cull* <:ar<:- 
fully mt'-'iMirfd, WMhrr 1 shnll do any good I doubt. 1 
3m gisumg aui at my itc|Jtb, Moat truly yui^rn, 

fAn extract from a tetter to Mr, Fox may And a place bcrc. 
though 'A A later date, vii. July, idjs i 

" Many thanks for ibe <wven day** old whke Dctklng, and 
for the Other promtited unci. 1 am ^(ftttn^ qxiUc a 'chamber 
of horror^' I ajiprct tati; yovir ktzidn«ia c^'t^tt more ihaA be- 
fore; fori have done Ebe black deed ind murdcvvdaji aagelic 
\in\< fan'.xil xnd [^ouier nt ten diyt "3d- 1 lfi«I cbloroConn 
and cibrr for the fiW, And though ewJently j pcrtettJy *a*y 
de4Th, it wan prolon^i^d ; and for the second t tried putting 
lumps of cyanide of p^iau[um in a very lar^- damp bottle, 
hdll !4u hour before puciing in ;he piffron^and ihepnii4ic 
acid itiAA tliub lEenerated '"'aa vrry quickly faiir" 

A letter to Mr, Pox {M^kf rjrd, (S^j) i^ict the flr«t mcti- 
tion of my fniher'a laboriou* piece ot work on ihc bfeeding 
of pigeon b; 

** i wriie now io %iy iViar 1 have lieen looking at tome of 
our mongrel cKickeuk, and 1 thould «jy mt tmJt W v^uld 

ll»,| PIC.EON FATiCVlNtt, 411 

do veiy well. The chitf jrfiiHt'i whk'i I :im, und hrtvc been 
i<jT yvitit very curioub al>oui« is to .ihLcft&in whvthor the 
youHfi of our domcflic bicod» ditfcr u nmch tiom each utii«r 
as do their panrntt. jind I h^vc no fnirb in Anything ihoft of 
.irlii.ll mtasurcniL-nl *ini the Kidf? of Thrrr 1 hcjpt' r»nr] be- 
tifvc I mn noL giving k> much trouUc wuhniit .1 mniivi; i>f 
KufficLctil worth- I bai'c got mjr faiLi;LiU and ynutcn (choice 
birds, 1 hope* ^^ 1 (laid 80J, fur viicFi piiii from hiiily) in a 
gjjtnd cage am] j^ii^cun-houiic, ami Ihcy '^tv a. dcctiiijd ujuubv- 
ujcni lu inc, »tid ddight to H," 

In the course of my father's pigeon -fancying cntcTpnie hp 
ntfrcsR^irily h*t'r;mo aj.'qnaioted with bri'pdcr*, and was lend 
□f relating his cxjifric^ncvs as a mcmbcfr of the Columbarian 
ami Philo[>erif*tcra Chb?, whtTO he mt't ihc purcsT enihn^iMts 
of thL' " fancy," and leirnt mudi of l>it mvitcnL-t of their rut. 
la wnLing to Mr, Huxley tome ycar» jjJterward&, he ^uoles 
from a book on 'i'lgcons' by Mr, J. Eiiton, in iHustraiion of 
the "extreme ailention jdJ clotc ob^vfviition " necewacy to 

"Jd hix [Mr. Eiton'i] trealiBc. dSvotvd (0 the Almond 
Tumbler W"rt^, whu h 15 a sub'V.iricly of the »hr>rr'fji<-ed vari- 
ecy, whii:h is d ^^iriety of the I'limbler, jia thnr is of the Roflt- 
pigeon, Mr, Ejiion says? "There arc Hnmc of the young fan- 
cierfp who are ovcr-L-ovciouBi, who go for all [be Ave ]riu|»erlJeK 
iit once U-',, th[j fiv*f characK'natu: points wliiiiU *rc ii^amty 
attended to, — C. I)-], they ItJvc ihtit rcwittd by gtftling nolh- 
In^* In short, U b alinosC beyond Ihc human intellect to 
UlCnd r.>rf//Th4: exceTlirnct*?*! of the Almond Tumbler! 

"To be ji ^ood breeder, and to Butcced in improvinft any 
breed, bt'yond everything cnthnaiosm isrcquifed- Mr EiLlon 
has gained Jct^ of \.*tiits, llattn lo him, 

'**Jf it was po^i^ible fwf noblemen and gentlemen to know 
the taa!\r.\n% jmotini of solace and pleixture derived from the 
Almond TiimblcfH when ihey begin to iindei^tAnd thefr (r. f., 
the tomblcr'ii) jiropcTties, I shouid think that scarce any 
nobleman or genllemitti wonid be wrthuut their aviaries of 
Almond Tumblers/" 




My father wm fuml of ijuorJnf; ihi« |iftMAf-r, aiul aluafi 
wiih JL tone of fcHow-fccliag for the author, <hi>ugh, no doubly 
he had fofgoitcQ his own wond^ng* a* i child thit " v^^xy 
gcntkniai) did not l>c<:i>inc an ornirholoj;iftl/'^'Autobio|^ri^ 

To Mr, W. R- Tc){:!(mcicr, ihc wr1Uknni«^ imlcr oq pMil* 
try, fiiEC,. he was itiji-blifd for consunt uSrIfv Mid co-open* 
uoLL Their i-orn:ij>undt*iii:tf began in ia5j, anfl Ijufnl itt 
iHHj, wlivi) my f;LLlici wruEv : "t can OsUTC you thai I ai\crt 
Joi^k bock frilh pleasure ta the uJd days when 1 aiicndcd m 
pigeoti^ fowlsi, &(., and when you i-uve me buch v4ilualiU u- 
■ifttancc- I not rarely wgrct that I have had *o Iiiiic ttreni^fe 
thai I have not hvvti :ibK- lo keep up old ajccLuaInianr:c4 and 
fnvncUhJiih," My EnlZi^-n'i k'ltrn ro Mr. Tcgrtoieief fMutfl 
almost entirely of stfricf of iiuevtioriH reluting tc the diflTfreAt 
breudk of fowU, |ji|£enn»i> Ac-, >ind ore tot, xhttctot^ ^titereit- 
mg. In re^idrng Ihiouj^h ihc |iite of leittra* ane ia much 
Ktruck by the dUigence of the writer's leoich for factt, mnd it 
U tnode cEciir :hat Mr- TegeEmeirr'B knowledge and judgiMM 
vrcre completely truflcd and hixMy valued by h\tn. Ntrmte* 
ouft phrHHcVt ftuch AK "your note i* a mine of vcolth to tne," 
occur, nprofAinjc hiK »fn*e of the value of Mr, Tegcimeicr'ft 
help, as well OS wotdi cxpieanng hb wonn appreciation of 
Mr. Tc>ieLinGivr*s umdintiTii; trud artd kindneto, or hn "pun 
And dhtinterefiivd lovcof tcicncc." On die hubiect of hire- 
becft and thdr combs, Mr, Tegctmeier'i help was ojso voJucd 
by my father, who wrotr ." your paper on ' Beci-c«Ili;' rcjfcd 
before Ihc Rriiiith Ai^viciAtion, wan htj^hly mcfid and mnDni* 
tive CO mc/' 

To work out the problemA on the GengrapHicai DUtHbu- 
lioDk of antmaU and pbnib on evolutionary priociplefti he had 
10 study the incann by whii h seedt, cjufS &c.. r»u {tw Ifaa^ 
ported acroM wide spflces of occin. |i was thj* need which 
Itavr An Sntrrevt io the ttatft of experiment to which the loW 
lowmg letters alLudc] 




C Dantfia £o ^K B. J^,^. 


My nrAB Fox, — Vou will hale Ihc vtty iight ufmy hiind- 
wrjUng ; but Aiitst l\m lime I i^rumi^c 1 wrtl u^k fi^r nvL^iini; 
^lore^ aL lca*E for i long lime. As you live on sandy soil^ 
hjvc you lijjrd^ at alT rominon > If you havo. ihoLitd yon 
think it too ridirulou* to oficr a rcwnrd for mt* for lizaifl'i 
eggs to the hnyi in your school ; a shiMm^^ for every half- 
doTien, oT more if rare, till you got two or ihrec doacei and 
tend Ihetn la nic? If snake's tj^jis iutl' broughi m miFptake 
it would be very well, for [ wnnl such slso; and wc have 
DCiiher lUardB nor snakes about htrc. My Abject » to aee 
whether Aoch c|^ wiU float on lu watcr^ nnd whrrhcr ihey 
will ln.-tp alive thus floating for a month or two in my cdlar, 
I nm trying ctpcrim^nts un transportaiion of all firganir 
bcingA IbjtT I can ; and li£3id& arc found on cvviy i^Jan^, and 
thcrcfoic I ^m vciy iinxioui to sec whether Ibvir cg^& Mand 
•» wuter. Of course this nolo need nut he an»w«rcd> with- 
out, by a strjiige and fflVOOtMble cliAnce, you can *onie day 
Aiuwcr It with the cggA. Vour most iroubtemmc friend, 

C Damwis. 

C Dantfin to J. V. Hiroktr, 

April i^tb (r^sil- 

. . , I have hod one eKpcTimeni lome Utile tiukc tn pro* 
jrr«i,whTi:h will, I think, br inlerciting, namely, seeds in «aIi 
watf r tmmtTsed in wBt<*r of ^^I'^-^jj", whicb 1 havo and ^hall 
long hftvp, an I filled n grt-at liink with unow. When I wroif 
Ust I *;is guing \Q iiiumph over you, foi my puperiment had 
m u slight degree succeeded; but ihii. with infinUe baietie», 
I did nut lel], t|] bope% Cbitt yon would tay thai you would 
t%X a.11 the plants which [ could raise after immersion. It la 
very aggravniing ihdt 1 cannot in the least remember what 
you did formerly siiy that made mc ihink yovi scoffed at th(- 
CxpcrinieniA vastly; for you now wk\i\ to view th^ rxperi- 


GRO\rTtl OF TIIK 'OftlGlSL' 


mcnl WVc A good Chri^ifLan. 1 hare in »maJT botlln out of 

vubUu^B, ltfrtiKCh« <uira1fl, and celery, and onion lecd^ftMir 
HTcjxi faioilict. Thc*c, *ftcf imm^nion for *\»(tlv anr wf<li, 
have ill ^rminalcd. whith T dul nol in thr li***l cxf^rtl {and 
ehniiAht hnw yoiL woLild Mirer at mc) ; tor ihc wjiict nf ncflriy 
rM^ and o( ihe cicm Mpc^uHy. wnch very badljr, and the 
creAi atc'c) ctniEitd a honderful ^luaniity uf iiiucuil ^thtf 'Vn- 
tides' wuLjId Uaw tx\H:i-l*ii^ thvm to tuin into Udpoln^ Mr 
Ai lu adhere Hi J. eluu ; but thcic Kcd» ^efminalcd and 
grew iplcnd[dly. The gcrtnination of all U'^pf^i^llT crvM 
and Icmirri) hj^s 1>ccti a-rrirrAtfrl, rvrrpi Ihc cAbbftjor\ 
«hich have cumv u]j v«ry iir^icularly, and a good atbny, I 
thiukf dead. One would have thought, ftom their iiAiivc 
habrtat, ihit ihe cabbage would hive siood well. The Ui 
MUUtX and onioni u-rru to aland Ihe Mil wcIL I vJtih th( 
leed heforr pfaniinii thcn^, t have >4ritien to the G^t^tfrt' 
CArcrrrr/f* ihodgh I douhi «hcihcr it via worth while. If 
my mcrm strmi lo moke it worth while, I will ^^nd a tccd 
Kelt to f^i you itt m.nrk ^omc dilTcfcnt claaataof Acrds. T^ 
day I replant the tame ued» a» above after fourteen daya'f 
immefMon- A* many »ea-tufient» go a mile an hour, even' 
in a week Ihey mighi he lMr>4]H>rted t68 miUa; the Gulf 
SiFvam iA laid iii j^n Afty nn'l Kitty mifct a day, Sa tnurli^ 
and too mucli on ihi> head; bui my gecte arc alwayi 
twanit. . . . 

C Danf'itt t& /. fl lioohr. 

lAprili|ih. tK5}.] 
. . • You arC4 ^whI ^n^n to cunf^» that you expected the 
crca* would be Liliird in a wr;ek, r<ir this givci me a nii:* tiuh 

■ A ffv wonb iiklfm flpr bfoniutiM^ Tht malu were T<tlM>»J ta 
1^ ' Cudtnen' ChrenitW >Uf aA. Nov- 3^ tH). In the nunc rnr^] 
f9it)hc VBl a r.S. to hii ronwr pA(if'» fwrwcTtniE ■ mUpmLi And iMi^ 
in|£ ■ ffv woritt ^n iha icnU nr ihc l^cvmLnAv. A 'tiller t^ptr « rhe 
^imlnAilrtA f-r •'fiti 4ltFt ln4fmcnl In Mil vrMtr, Apjattrvd in rli« ' Ub 




ItiumjjH, Thf r.hUJrcn M first were Ircmcndoiidy cagcr^ind 
a^kej [Mc aiirny " whether I ibould bcfli llr, HookcT [ " The 
cress And Iciiucc havr just vcgeUEtrd well aiivt iwcniy-cmc 
day^' imm'rraiun. Bui 1 will write nu murv, whSth » a grc-ut 
vcriui; in inL' ; lui il [s tu iiic a vtty great pk^^ufc Idling yuu 
tiyicTyiUmg I do. 

» . . If you kacw some ofrheexpezimenttfif they mkybc 

lo-cfllkd) which I am trying, yoO wOQM hnvt a Rood right 
to vncer, fnr I hey are ea a^iurt/ f-vcn in fff opinion Ihit J dare 
not idl yoti- 

Hflve not same men a nice notion of cxpcdmemi^mg? 
I have had a letter teltizig uie thai aeedu mArj^ have gr^a/ 
power of rf^tt&tijig salt vrnt^t.lot oliterwi^ how c^uld they 
get to Ubricls ^ ThiEJ b the true way to solve a pri^btem I 

Mv DRAR HooKCR>' — Yoli hkvc been a very itood man lo 
exhale some of your ifaiisf^ctjon in writing two Dot«» to me ; 
you eould not have takeri a betUr line in my opijiioni bul 
■1 for showing your ^atiiifflclion in confounding my cK^htti- 
mcnti, I aofiure yon f am quite enough confaundctl — those 
htrttid aecds^ whirh, a-1 you truly observe. U ihey sink ihey 
won'E nujt. 

I have written to ScJttfcaby and have had a rather dry 
aniweT, hut very riiu<,h to the purpose* and giving nie no 
hope) of Jny law unknown lo me which might arrpii iheir 
Cverlai^IJn^ drvcnt iniei the drtpe*l deT»lh«i of tht ocean. By 
the wfly il w.xfL viry o^ld, hut l talked in Col. Snhinc tar hal/ 
an hour on the suhjecr, and could not mal*e him hcc 'riih 
Tvvpeet to Irunaporial thedilTicuhy uf th? fiinkLiig quesliun! 
The bore i«, if the tttnfijundcd seeds will sink, 1 liavc bccn 
Eakrng nW this trouble in salting the lingratcful niacAls for 

Kvcrylhing has beetj going wronj^ with me blcly ; the fiah 
lE the ZiK/log. Soc, ate op Lots of bO^ked secdB, arid m imagi- 




^^M 41G GROWTlt or TICK <OKlCl\.' [i^j. 

^^H nadan ih^ hnd in 1117 mind ht^n ^vjiWoyecd, fnh and «)1, 
^^H tiy n heron, hail bcin tarrti'd a hunilrcJ Biilo«v b^irn ^x>idcd 
^^H on ihu banks of mime oihcr lake aitd genniniicd hplcmlidljt 
^^H when Ici and behold, the fiih cfccicd Tchci&ctLll)% and w^Eli 
^^^1 disgii4t equal fci tny own* d// ihr ^tcdt from Ifactr motithi,* 
^^^1 FI11I 1 ^m nn( i^in^ (0 ((Ivo tip the floAlIng fi^t : tn fiml 
^^^1 plQcc 1 muKi try frcih ?iccd&| though ni course ^i ftccnu far 
^^H laore probable lh;jt they will vink; ind Hcondly. a» a Uu 
^^^P nrxTurcVi 1 mu«t b«hvvc in the pud <jr c^-tn wbc>k' pUnt cr 
^^^M branch being wathed mio lUc ka ; ^vith rWidi jnd h^tjja* j»d 
^^^1 CitrihtiiiJilEcs : Xh'iH mit»l conTtnunUy be h97>pcning»and if kept 
^^^1 wr\, 1 fnnry ihr pnfl:^, Arc. \f\, woiil^t noi ojifn and 4h<xl their 
^^H «c«dK. Do iry your Mtmota seed Ji Kcw, 
^^H 1 had intended to have aiked you vhether Lhe Miwt^a 
^^H tc^mirm and Gitit'smtina Mm'iaf KTOWt at Kcw^, to try fresh 
^^H Mtdit U broHM tolU mc he bdievci four W. Indian a«cd» 
^^H have been wnihi^d on ^hori^4 of Knrape. t wan asiurcd Bt 
^^^ K^ehng Island ihiVl '.I'filn wtTc ncil rJiri/lj- washfil on shore : 
f AC Aofti they nuji^i .iitd Khali ! What 1 lon^ yjim 1 faavc licrn 


If you h;ivc sc^vcral of the Loflodcn feeds, do «oak uone 

in lej}id watcfi and get pUaied Aitli Ihe 'JLmosI c^rv ^ this is 

Mii ripeTimenl after my own hearty with chanci^a looa to t 

ftgAJnst its aucccAii- 

DI41UK i> [KTivtrrw jiiJ will tii:>i i-tci tu 1 Willi jl \ Hilt juEt RE prc«etii t wtih 
1 ^ad my old l^arnafEr* to vofk j|, and nathmfi new " Tb* ctptrloml 
uLijiBAif ]y iticcfttled, wA he i^'roic in Jijr J. HoalieT : — " \ finil ijih will 
grffliTI]^ cat weiti of af|UALlc i^iu^f.^ via that millft'vcd put b<q tiah 
■nd [:iveTi to » tfmk. tnd ihcB Yoidtd, wd| f^nniniLlf^ fio (hi* m lh< nar- 
Kry Jh^me o1 * ihin ik the «[ick tbtr hran Ihr pi^' fre-, Ac-* 

. J 





Down. May irth [I'Uj- 

Mv DEAR Hooker, — I have jun rfctiveH yoHrnotc, I 
am most sincefcly and licanily gbd ai the news • tl coniainn^ 
mm] ^o h my wiEe. Thoitj*]] Che income lb but a. poor tyac, 
y^l lltc tLKilsifily^ I b^jjjif, h aali^fj^lury L<j yr>ur&i;If AJid Mr?.. 
Hooker. A» ii must lead in future years to the Uire^iunthip, 
I do hope yoi: loot al i», as it piece of good fortune- I'or my 
own UMP X f annoi fnn^-y a pleaasintf r position, than the llcjd 
of such a noMc and fsplcndid pUrc : far better, I should 
think, Ihan a I'rufcsBotship in a great lown. The more 1 
think of i(» th(- gladder I atn. Hut L will aayno more ; except 
that 1 hope Mf!i Hcakcr lb [ifctly *cll pleafttrJ. . , , 

Al the GariitHtrs' ChranuU put in my <iueslinn, and took 
notice of ii, t ihmk 1 am bound to «end, ^^hkh I had ihouj^ht 
of domg nrxt week, my first report to Lindky to give hiiii 
the oplLun ot inserung U ; buL I think it likely chat h;; iiuy 
not think il fjt fora Gardening periodicid. When my experi- 
ments are irndi-d (should the [»uLtb :tppear worthy) and should 
Ihc ' LinnciJi jouriiiil ' nol *jbjtfct tci the prtvious publication 
of imperfect Jnd proviaional reporia, I should be d^rghifJ to 
insj^rr the report there; for it has eo'ii me *o ninth 
trouble. iliLit I should ihink thai pruhably the result wan 
worthy of mure permanent record than a newspaper; but I 
think 1 am bound to send it firat to Lmdicy, 

1 Ijcgm to think the Eto&ting i^ue^tion mure serious than 
rhe germiuating one : and flm making all the enquiries which I 
t*n on the Bubjc'.'t, and hope to get ?iomc biilc light on it. . . , 

I hope you managed a Rood merting ai [he Club. The 
TreaftiircrsMp must be a phgne to yon, and I hope you wi^l 
nol be Treasurer for long: I know 1 would much sooitier gtve 
up \\\K Club Ih:Ln be Uf Tieannrer. 

FaiewcJl. Mr. Assistant Dircetof and de«r frirnii, 

* The ipp^inlmenT ef Sir j. D- Kookn u AaUlanl DInctDr of the 



C Dartvi'i to _/. D. J/mAtt. 


Junr jtb, iSf V 

VMfrk! fur Etur :iiiiubi.'tiiv(il. And it dt^ct namM mc very muth. 

which hfu b«Tn allowtrd io nin wjiftrr for Afrcrri ycJir«^ trul 
whjch bpfcirf w.iih c!iiUitfAtrd from time immrmorial ; and wc 
Arc al«> roHcfiing all the pUnu m an ddJQJninb- jnd fimilar 
but cultivated fidd ; Juki br the ftiu of ftcrm^ whit pUou 
hiiv« wjrvivvd or died ^ul. Htfrciftor »« tlull vHftt 4 btl of 
help lu njmmit puzjlcfi^. lluw Uieadfully diflliculi ti u to 
name plant i. 

What a rtmarkabiy ni^ic and kind lni«r Dr. A. Gray has 
•cnt mt- h annmr la my irmihli'^imiv <|u<ri?i<; I rHaincd 
youE copy of his * Maimal ' till I heard from hiin, u>d when 1 
have JiniweTed hit lctl«r, I will return ll to you. 

I thank you much for Hcdys^ium: I do hope il b aot 
very pTccicju*. for at 1 toKl yrm it \% (or probably a mt^t fooI» 
i«h purpane [ read idmcwhirrc ihai no plant doiei its Icam 
■Dpromplly in darlcncs^ and I vani to ccvcr it np daily f< 
half an hour, and pK<if if I con tcuch it lo clmc by ii»df, 
more eurily than at firtt in da.fknvt*' < . . - 1 cjanot nuic 
0^1 why you aciuld i^refer a continenial tranimiuron, »i I 
think you do, to carriai^e by tea. 1 ihoLild have thoo^t 
you would have btffl plrflicd at » many itotftn^ of trana- 
miuion aa itotaihlc Fnr my ovtfi pcri iheoreiic nottona, it 
ia quite indifferent whether ihey are inmsmillcd by VMOff 
bnd* ai» long a* xonit; Lolerjbly pr?b»blr way i» iljo«-n. Kul 
it >hoi;kh »ky phdoMpliy to crcau Und. wiihoui tome other 
■Dd independent evidence. Whenever vre meet, by a vetr 
few wnrdi I should, I think, more clearty understand 
rlewk . - . 

I have )uu nude out my fint grau, hurrah ! hurrah ! I 
louai coulcn that fottuue Uvoun the UoldL for. m good luck 

■ A kfti^ vfco m f« many jxan \ coTcmcv in Ibc fndlljr. 



would have il, il was Ihc vnsy Attkexanthum odoratum i ncver- 
Ihcki* U JB a. %tv^\. liiwovrry ; \ ncvrr <spctlcd to mate uiit 
a f^33s in [ill my Tife, so hiirmh ! Ic hni done my aiomach 
aiirprijuog good. . . . 

C. DtinMH Ai /. ih Ilvvkfr. 

Mr ITEAR HooKEfc, — I ]uil wHtc onc line 10 say ihit the 
Hedpamm !■< romc ^w/ft w/zA', and thank you fcr it. 

VoLi EBnnot tmfLginc Amuienirnt yo'a havf: given 
mc by running ihosc chncc grasses: I have jiint j^t piipcr 
(9 diy -iind collect all gra^^cs. If cve£ you calch <]VJil« a 
beginner, and want ti? give him a u^ie of Ituuny, IvII 
him to mdke n ;jCTfcrE hsl of some tittle field or wood. Both 
Mis* Thorlty and I iigree ThjiT ir gjvc5 a rtnlly iincommon 
incorctt to \\\k work* having a nici^ little dttinife i^orld to 
work on, insleiid of the awful abyss Jnd itnmcnsity of all 
Bmish Plants. 

Adici. J wiX^ re;tUy contummaidy impuilenc lo express 
my opinion "on the ri;tto^rade ^Icp." * and I dcEcrvcda fpoA 
iniib, and upon reflection [ Jm very glad you did net jinswcr 
me \tK Gardeners* ChrnnUU^ 

1 have bptti ^ry maeft inicrcaled wUh the Flornla-t 

[W tiling on June 5lh to Sir Jh T5, Hooker, my falhrr men- 
tions J kltcr from Dr. A&a Gray. The letter referred tu wa* 
aa 43ii*ei to ihc following ;] 

* "Tq iDiaijine siich enurirouE uFali>ult;il chih^c^ wil1iji> ilit ptriia! of 
ibc cilfetviKC of nuw [ivtEig benight o^ "" aiti« gniund hue 1u acc4iunt for 
Iheit diiiribal^n. »eiii£ e<? me, in our ptvieni a^xt nf jpionmce on ihe 
irifaot of tran<ijnrltr) *a *h\ioH reirogioifff iifp in ii-ecu»." — KilrAti fruiq 
iht pRpvr on "Salt Wii[« mtl St«!>' in Coni^r*/ CAr^Wr//, Miiy aft, 

f (^lnja'4 ' FlOhjlA JiLTfniilK' whtdt filvci 4n tnif n ^ring Acownt of 
plin[^ inlrculun't jn tmpor(c<l woid. 


ul^CWTII OF THE -OlElGtlt/ 


Mv pnAft !>iii, — 1 hcipclhAt yciu wiM rrmembrr that 1 hul 
Oic |>Icuurc of being introdu^d (o you M Kcv. I w«nE to 
beg A grrar fjtvoiir of yf>\\. (or vhirh I wrll know I ua ol 
nrt AjKilojey. Etur fho favnur will not, 1 think, cauif youtnui 
trouUe, and will givatir ol>lij;« m«, A» L nii ni> buUniM, it 
wjil jfvin bu ^ibMiM (ij ywi my otkmg boUniii^L quAtJao*; 
lIuL I iiuy jxcmihc Ihal 1 hflvc for srvcral yean been colJcci- 
ing r;ic:U oa '* virintton," and whfn I find lh»C any K^nm] 
r^mArk 40cm» li:> holi) ^i4if| Aninn)C4t Animali^ 1 try t'> Ct^^ 
ir In Plint». (.Here FotlowA a rcqucai for Enlormaiion on 

oo (he lubjccu] 1 ^aa jwiutc you ihjt t perceive hav pre- 
lumpluoua il is in mc, noE a boUniat, Cu make even ihc mou 
Triflii\|^ iLibil^c^Ktion to swc.h n bounUi «i ytkuracH ; but from 
what I Mw mid have hcord of you from our dear and kind 
friend Hooker, 1 hope and ihjnk thul you will fotgit^ mc, umI 
bet'CVG m«j wUb mucli rrspn ^ 

Uear sir, youn very faiilifuUy, 

CllA«l.«s DAkW|>. 

Down, funt Sibtilts]' 
Mt ntXR Stb,— I (hank ynurordbllyfor yocir fcnurkably 
lind letter of th<T f»d citt., and fnr ihc extremely picauni 
jirvd obli^Tig ruiitinrt in which yoa have taira my rather 
iroul>1ckoine qcie^iionft. 1 <-ivx hardly 1^1 you ho' nnicb 
your Usl of Atpiae pUnu hat inlerevted me, and I C4n i»o« 

*The wtD-kDOim Amtrian Bounial- Mffit1vrrVfr>tfiiltfcI|> villi Dr. 

Urangpvratm&l vvcuJ fur Pr- GmybtA ui ?4/b *>ricMi "I hn^ Inn 
(IaJ t«k« a. Cnr'^lcusri l tlwnUaliirtjri wmafJiiii^ ja (btia Lbui Jiuwt 
fJiiL he 1> « wy lowblc nuiL" 





m wmv dcpve picture iv myiclE the plpjiti i>f your Alpme 
viimmilv, The nrw cdu. uf fuur Mjnual in eafii/tt/ n^-ws for 
mc I tnow fm(n your prr'nrr h«w prrn^d yon nrr fof 
room, hui it wALild xakc. no Apace to append (Ku) in VirAckctn 
to any Europcfln phni^ and, as far oji I am concerned, this 
would im^wof L'Vfrj' purpose,* From my own BAptriunci-. 
whitit oiiLkii]^ oul Eo^h^h jjluiitb in uur in:inuals. it h-.ts ottra 
struck me how much interest ii rtoutd give if some notion 
of IhcJr rnngc hhid been given ; and 5o. 1 c:inf»ol doubt, your 
Amfricin innmrtra and licpnncrs would much like lo krtow 
whirh of ihciT pinnrs were in*Iigenoii9 And which Eumpciin. 
Would it not be well in the Alpine plants lo append the very 
same addition which you have now sent me in MS. ? thoi!gh 
here, owing to your kindiici^. ] do nut fipcak ai^lfibhly. but 
nirrHy /fH ^nmr Am/ruatm publico. 1 ihteaome it wotijd be 
tiy* ifoHblMomc TO give in your TnnTiuiil the hnbifan of ihoic 
planti found wc-^t of the Rocky Mountains, and likewise those 
fouTjcl in Kasiern A*ra, mking the Yvoeairl (?),— ^hich, if I 
Truuimbtr righi, acLonlmg to OmeUn, is die msiin partiiion 
Imc of Siberia. Perhaps Siberia molt cjoternt the noilbcfn 
FIvra of North America* Th« rutg^i of the plants to the 
<anl rind wc8l, vU., whether mo^t found are in GrccitUod and 
\Vi-4rf!tn Eiiiopc, or in E Asia, appnarfl to mt? a very interest" 
ing point as lending to show whelher the migraiion ha« been 
tfu^Eward or westward. Pr.ty btheve me that 1 am must 
fljiitirtiJy consT-idus Lhat thu tffiiy ust of Iht'sr reiuarks Jb lu 
(how H tii>L^iii}it wbui |Hji[it^ A Ekon-E^ouniftt ih curiuuh to 
learn ; for I think every cue who itudici profoundly a subject 
often bcromc'S unaware fon) what pninfit the ignor-vnt retjuire 
iftformAtion. ! nm so very gljid ihn: you think of drnwinj^ up 
lome notice on yotif geographical disiribution, for the arm 
of the Manual airikea mc aa in Homu point* better adapted 
for com pari !Lon wiEb Kuro|>c Elian thjtt of Ihe whole of Norib 
Americft, You auk me to Mnte definitely aome of the pomu 
oTk vhieh 1 much with for informntiAn ; but I riNtlly hnrdly 

* TUi ftdssutloa Df > Gr«y *do|>l«t! Ld lubKqiiieBl vdiLiou, 


cROnrrii or thr -orcgik/ 


can. for thq- arc m vague ; and I ralhcr wbh lo *« «bM 
rc^ijStx wHJ come oui from coinptLtiwn*, llun hirf 4h ja 
dcridci iihjCLth. I picbumv ilixt, like other bvi^miu* )tni 
would give, for your arcji, the propoition (leatiag out inin^ 
duGcd pbnti) to thf vhoir uf fhc j^cat lejvding fimilici : ihi* 
is ono pmoi I hftcl intrmlrd (jtncl, tndccfl, have dfjne mtJJthK) 
Tn lab^ihie from your book, bin of rmirv I <yiuM have done 
ic only pefy im^/Mfy. \ ihouid also, of c<iurK?. hate a*ccf-j 
tuinud llic proiiortiuU) lu Lhe whole Flora, i>f div BurO| 
]iJ:jnL^ flcjviuy <^ut mtfudutecj) tfn^ of tkt tf^rah gtaf 
/amtiui, m order to ipccuiaLc on meam of iTAnipovEiL. By 
the way, I ventured to tend a few days ago j copy oi tW 
Ganifftfri CAr^mtU vi<h a nhori rrport Ny me of ftotnc 
trilling C)t[JcrJiniriilfi which ] have Ik-cd Cymjc On Ehr |iOV^cr 
ttf tceds lo wilhtUoiJ tea water. I do not know whether i1 
hat struck you, but it bai me, that it would be adviaable 
for boliniftU lo giv^ in rpAnIt runri^m, A* well at in Ihc lowesl 
IVaLiion, the propr>nionnl numberi or ihc famitieii ihui I make 
out from yovtr Manual thac of ihc iajt'^^tfous planEi the pro- 
portion (ft the Umlidliftrtp urc i^f ^ = ^ ; (or, withnul one 
knows tbo urhi'Sf numbrri^ one r-itnnot judge how leally Unite 
Ihr numbcn of the pJantA ni ihc Kjmt? family Arc in two \\'\t,* 
lont tountrjci ; bul icTybkcly you may thtnh Ehissuiicilluout, 
Mcntionins thn«; pmporttonal numbcn. 1 may give you an 
inttxnrr r>i the ynrX of pnini*, and bow v;ignc and fWik they 
ofirn arc, whu h I aU^mft to work our . - . ; wfleefinR on It, 
Brown's nnd Hooker's remark, that ncu iilenriiyof propor- 
lionat numben of the ^ruat faniiljei in tWQ countnet^ Khowt, 
probulily %\\aX Ilicy were c>n<:e cunlinnoi^^ly vinitcd. J Ihouj 
J would t-skuUie ttie proportions of, for inhUncc, liie titir^' 
timttif Compotit;* in Great Brirain lo all the introduced 
pfanT% and the rr^ulf was, )| = i^|. In our dA^r^idd/ or 
iacliKenLiit^ Hora the prij]i'.<riii>n is ^; and in maay other 
cjsrs 1 found on equally tmkjnf i:orre%]>ondencc I Uicn 
loo'ii youi Manual, and worked out the tame queslton; here 
] And in iheCompoiitx in jlmfm e<iua!lyathkitix corrcapond- 
cnc«, vU^ M = & '^ ^^ introduced pUiu% end ff^ = J ia 




the indigenous ; Ijut when I came Xft the other families f 
found the proportion entirely dirTt^nimt, F(hiiwin|{ thni the co- 
incidences tn ih? Briliili Fluia were prububty Jvui<Jf(iial ! 

Vou will, I pfciumc, give [he prQp<jrtion of the jpcciei lo 
the genera. /'. r., slii>w on an aviTHp.' how mnny fpecir* cwh 
gcnij) roniajn* ; rhoiiji^li T hjivi: dnnr Thi^ ftir iriynflf. 

If It woiiltl not f>e loo iroiiblciomc, do you not ihink It 
would he very inicresting, and give a very good iJe:L 0/ your 
Floru^ to (Jivide the at>vLiif& mio thrt^c f^rout^St vi^.. [t/) bp^-iiii 
COniEMUEi to ihfc i>td world, Mating niiml/cih lojitmun to Lufopc 
ami AhiA ; l^') indL^eaoDs tpccic(« but belonging to genera 
found in the old world ; and (/) *pecic* belonging to gen«rA 
eonfinird to America fir ihtr N<^* Workl. Tomakr (ncrcrding 
to my idtusi pi^rfection [lerTecl* one ought to hii lokl whethiT 
there are other C]i£cs,like Ericjitof ^nern common in Europe 
or iri Old World not found m your nren^ But honestly 1 feel 
Ih^t El a ijuite ridkuIoLiii tnjr vrricing Co you al such Ungili un 
ihcfttjbject^ but, xs you h.ive Askcd me, 1 do 11 griLiefiilly, 
«nd wrjte to you 3S I ahoi^ld lo Hooter who often laughs 
_a(_ me uumerdfiiHy, and I am !^ure you haw bctlLT reuaon 

lo go. 

There is one jioini on which I am most anxious for infor- 
mation, -ind 1 mention it hiiU llie greateil hesitation, and 
nnly in the /u// Mff Ihnl you will believe :nc I h^ve 
not the folly urtd prcBiimplion tn hrijir for n Hcr-nnd rhui you 
wrll ^ivc if, without yoH enn with vpry Uirlc trouble. Tht? 
point enn at prewni inierest no one but myself^ which innltei 
Ihtf cu^e wholly difTereni from {-[^oj^riLplik;!] dLBlrtbLLlioi], The 
only vmiy in which, 1 lUiiik. you poh^jbly mulit do )L willi little 
troiiblewould be to bcjr in in[nd,whil!it correcting vour proof- 
sheets of the Manual, my queiiion and put n tro** or m^rk 
to the Spcriei, ■nil whenever tending a pfiffel to Honltcr to 
let me hjivr ■■urjh Md sheets. But this would yivi- you the 
lioubic of remembering iny- ttuetiioo. and 1 tan hardly hope 
or expect that yvu wi[l do it, Hut 1 will ju«l mention whjit I 
w*iil 1 il u tohjivc marked the "cio',ie s|ict:ica" in a Flor,i» *n 
A> to eompufc in ihjfsf<nt tlorai^ whether the same genera 





h»vc "c\ott i|^*iitfs" Atid for other purvvtci tt>a v^guv to 
«nfimf rAtc, 1 have ictrmptcd, hy Kook«i'« Kdp, to oKccrtJiin 
in a limikr vay v/hcihcr ihc <1iffi:fcrii ft|H7dci ct the mmc 
f^uFru UL disEant c|u;ij[crs of ihc ^lohp irc virinhli* or prv»ent 
vaiii'litBH 'niL- ^iBftuilnjii 1 sliuultl give v( t "iUtf ifwift" 
wu one that ^t/u thou^lit h^ciilic^Uy distinct, but «)ikli yoo 
could conceive tome other ^iffJ botnnin fpight think only a 
nee or vnn'cty; or. aj^ain, i ipcrici rhnt you bad trouble* 
thouf^h hAvinjt ^p|)o^^unlEl^^ <*( knowtnjc tt well, in diurirai* 
noting from aome oib^r li-pfriflt *^Hppn«tig thai ^*n(> wci 
inclined to be so very kintl n& lo do :his» and could (which 
do nul eA|iec:t) ii|>ri<c tfic Uiuc, ^i J lute Mid, A iiurre cruu 
to each *urh ipcciei in nry u*de« prooT-iheru would ^ivc 
nH? the informaiion deiircd, whieh, 1 may add, I Icnow mutt 
be vfljiur. 

How cjin 1 .ipotogiflG cnoagh for all my |i*c«uni!tion an< 
the exCTctne length of IhU teller ^ 1'he great g^^d QJiture of 
your Jetttr to mc hiu bi:en I'jirtly the tJLifc. %o lh;iU jk n U 
often Eh« cUtf in lUib koiM. >'uii are puiiibhcd for your 
d<edii. With hearty ihinkt, believe i&e, 

VoLin very truly ind gTitcfuUy. 

Ch. Dakwin. 

... 1 ihink 1 Rm finrlng ^ fff/A/ raie jihouc Chnrlivk 
seed;* but jnsi ns ahnut sailing, ill luck io it. I otnnot 
remember how many yean you would oJJow lUal Chulock 

' In Lhc Caif^iur^ Clnwofr. tftSS* ?- TfS- ippev^d t notify (l>^f * 
CDliEinn in li-n^hj bf tni tnhar on lh« "VlUlhy ftf Sudi" The 'hcct 
rdaiM Tt(rr lo eEi^ "Sdnd-vtlk" ; (he w*id wiu plinErd in 1*4* "" » 
pIfCf of fU^tuf kAd U14 dovn u £t«ii in il^Os In li^y oa Eltv wd 
bt^ni <lui in wrcnl |ii«c^ CK4r1ocli ^If'^Jli^-t nuy^iVrptaflif iprviic up 
f^^flr^ ^^ witicrr rtiilmaeil In iaTrrcil hJin, ami I Itori t Dvie ditot 
Jiiljr tnd» Iftji, in which n^lkihn ncunie<l th^t (iJilr-Hk ^mli '4 Cli^r- 
locV »pnn|t up in Ibjl ftu ovvt aip«cc(l4'7 '(r*!) *1iitb loil bntn d( 
Io ■ anddcnbda if«plh. 




Rc^d might Uvc in ibc grounU, Next ums yau wiilc, fthow 
SL Md iMt, and »ay in bow many year*, you ThinlCn Charlock 

swd would pn-ihiibly all in" driid, A rnun toU] mr !bc other 
tifly of, « I ihoMght, J ftptfu^lul jpsinni-c:, — an<l rpUa^i^ it 
VOX, for ati^ording m hU evidence tbr iced c^mc up alive aui 
of the ha>^r ptiri of the L&nJen CSay' .'ft diaguBii-d bim Vy 

Vou fthk how tar 1 go in atiributing ot^atuxau, lo * com- 
inon docpnt ; I answer t know not ; the wny in which I in- 
land ut:tftnj" fht tLiibjf^rt, i*to iihntt {tn/i/firi f •■ti*i\ ihc f^icli 
Anil ^r);iimfn(« f^r anci iij^iinhi the enrnmiin dcni-rni ttt thr 
fipEcivg ut ihi^ bomc genua ; and ihen (how how i^r (ht- aamc 
arguments Lcti for or jgJiatt C^rmit moic and marc ^^idely 
dhlliMcni ; and whc^n h'c c^mc 19 lorms i^f ^t^Vtvut crnlem 
ailJ tUtiies, there rciiMJii only Rimr fcutb .■vrKiimcnl* »i ihtJBe 
^*hicb fan pcrhap* be dcJufctl itom simihr mdimcniary 
strutturi% and very 9oon noc in ftraiirucni la left 

[The foUawm,^ cKtracI from u fcdcr 10 Mr For (Oct. 

1S55,* gJVF* u. brief mtniifjii i»f tbc hiNt nn-rtiny oFthr RritiBh 
Ab«ocial^<jn whii;h he allcndc J :j "J really have no new^: 
(he only thing »<; havt done for a long lime, wm to go 10 
ClflAgotv ; buf the fsTigue was to mf mow than it Wii* worth, 
lUld E< caughl n bud ^old. On r>iir ri'lurn we sljiycd a single 
day at i^h^^;wsbu^)■, and enjoyed i^rcing thp old place. I mt 
A IhLlc of Sir Pljilip 4 (wlmtii I liLed much), and \\c ai^ked mr 
"why oxi cjtOi 1 irisli^.tU'J you lo rob hie jioultry-yard *" 
The meeting wae b, good one, tind the Uukc of Argyll 4|>ok« 

• Icb Ihi^yeir be publi^livd (' Yhl\- Mim,' x^lapipfr *Oii ihf power nf 


Mif iSfib u June tti%^ 

{Is the Autcbtojfniphka] chapter (page (9,) my Uther 
wrotr:— "* Kiifly in 1*56 LycU ddvitcd me 10 itTii* ool my 
vicw« prcUy fuLty, and I Vegan at once to do to on a vc^te 
tlucc or bur limn »k cxtcntivc as (hat which «M ftfienrarda 
followed in my 'Origin of Specie*: ' yci ic wai cmly an at>- 
fttraccof the mJUrialiirhich £ had colla Eod." The letter* 
in the pt«cnt (chapter arc ffhwfljr concerned with the prepara- 
tion of ihji unfiniihfd book. 

The u'ork WM lie|:wr on May I4lh, And KteMhLy continued 
M[t tu June 1^5^, uticn ti wiu mierrupted by ttic 4rtivdl of 
Mr, Wjlliue'* MS- During the iwo yeart which we are now 
contidering hf "foie i<r\ ehupten (that il about nne-hjlf) i^f 
the prtjjrrfi"*! hor^k. He rcmnrnt'd for the niofl ftn at honir^ 
but paid licveraJ viiitt tci Dr. iMtic't WoictCute E^iahli^* 
mcni 41 Moor Pork, during une nfwhirh he m^ule a ptlgriiq- 
agv t>:j the shiine oi Gilbcn ^^liite iU SeHjornc] 

C. Zltfm4« ^ C Ivrff. 

. , , With rc«pcct 10 >ottP tugft«iion of a akeieh nf 1117 
vTnrt. ! hardly hnov «hai to ihinh, but will reflect nn it. hm 
il goci a^intE my piv/udicn. To i;ivo 3 fair tkrEch vrould be 
absohftely im|>0Mihlei f«r ^rtrj pcio^iition fvtiDiivt tuch aa 




$,my of firlb If I wore to do nnyihinjCt it rould only T^er 
Lo Lhe main tifffiucy of change — Kcli-ciioti — itncl ]i<:r]itf|3^ point 
out A very few ol Ihc Tciduig fcjluic^ whidi ruiiuK'naiice 
fiKh a viciT, And lomr fen* of th< ntJin difficiitiLi.-v Itat 1 da 
nor kn/jw what 10 ihSnk; I rather hntc Ih^ idea o^ vriring 
for priority, yef I npriainly thoiild he vrtcfl i( any nnc were 
to publish my ilactrino More mc- Anyhow, J ihank you 
hvi^rlLly fur yuur byuipulliy. 1 bhall be tn Lundoii nm v^eckt 
And L will caJt un yi>u on I'liumlay i»uriiiiij( fur uiitf hour pii*- 
riicly. lo ai not lo loic fniKh of your lime and my own i but 
wii\ yoii liM me thi^ rime come ai early u 9 oVbtk. for 1 
have mni'h which I miint do in ihc morning in my itrongcM 
time? Fu?wcll| my dear old jidirfjn, 

C* Daawiv, 

Ky (he way, M^/* planifc have come up out of the earth, 
perfectly enclosed in the tooU of the iret-A, And Ewrniy^nini; 
plants in the Uble-ipootiful of mud, oul of the little pohd ; 
Hooker was vurpriticil aI ihU, and struck with tt, when I 
iho>vcd him how mnch mud 1 h^d ^cti^d off one ducVa 

If I did piihUtth a fihon skulch, when; on tarih should I 
publish i[ * 

If t du mV hear, I sbaM undcniULiJ thiL 1 riij^y <;omc from 
9 to ID on Thurulay, 

Mayfth, |>Ks&j. 
... I very mu^b wunl advk* auid fru//i/uf lon^olati^rn if 
you can ^vc il, J ]nid a good lalt wiili Lycll atiout my 
BpKiv>i work, and he urflet me icrongly to publiih toTnflhing. 
I am fined Jifain^t any pcrJoditMl or Jtniiniil il» I posifivtly 
vill not c«po»F myself ro .in ?'dirof or a Council, allowiim a 
publication for whicih ihey mijEht lie ^ihiuicd. If I puUith 
tnythfnit it unmt bi- a f^ry Mt/r xnd kittle volumct living a 
ftketch of my viewxand difficuUici; but il t*reaily Jrcadfullj 




uni)l3{lo«0|)hiri) la gire « mum/, without rart wftfrcntei. 

of 4n impubliiihcd work- Bui Lyell iccmtd 10 think I might 
ila thiK, at the BUg^stiuD c<f liif n<l4| and on the keouhO, whidt 
I inij:ht bldlf?. thxl I hid b(n;n ac wvrk Ictt etehtcoi * ycan^ 
rin<l yc( K'>uh\ nut puNjhh lor >evtr;U ycin, Jnd cipccUTly u 
i could pain I out tdifficaltici vhkh seemed lo irie lo rcj|»tr« 
npctml inv^iiiflation- Now whM ihLnk jronT 1 ihould be 
rr^illy ^ritc^fitl far rulvirr. E ihmif^ht of ^nng up A COiipU of 
months and wtiiing such a sketch, and Ufing to kctp mjf 
judgmcm opcK whvtbc^r or nu 1o publish il whtn completed 
[| hdl he iiiinpLy imiHiAAil^tu lot nic Eo give cxtci rtfcreoce*; 
anythin}( Lm^riunt I ihntild itnic on thr auEhority of ilie 
acitHoT j^cnr'Tdlly: .ind instiMid of giving all thf iotirtn on whicl] 
I j!rt)tind my o|>m[nn, I ruuld f^Wc by memory only one or 
iwii. In the Prcfii<-v I ^otLld siLite (hat the nvrk could ooc 
be LOUfiidcrcU siriLtly scjcntiuc, but a lacrc sketch or outline 
of a futuic work m wtiich fuU n-fcrrncn» &c., vhould be 
given. EhcU) chcu, t bclirvc 1 should hnccT At «ny one cIm 
doinn thi*. and my onlv c.<>mtorl i*^ thai I irmfy never drcrtmcd 
o( it, (ill I.ycll sufigcittfd it, and wcm* d^Ubcraii^lj to think 
it advisnhlrr. 

I ATii in a pi.-ck ot troubles and do pray forgive mc for 
tioubling you. 

Youn atfcclioQ4le1y> 

C. Da* wife, 

C I^nrfa in /. D. //Mtr. 

, . . Now for it mor^ imptrrlanff aiihjfrt, vlr,, my own nctf : 
T un entremely glad you think well of a »irparate " Pre- 
luiiLUiLiy Kbttuy " (r. t„ if unylhrn^ wtk^ilcvor ik published; foi 
Lyrll urcmcd r&llior to doisbt on ihiit head) \ ; but I caaeu^i 

* The JiiErrvat of er([hl(rh f^^^n Truiii if J7 when he bc^ii M t'ollrcl 
fjL[>, wuuht biit^ rhe difr ar \Ua. MUi In |A$}, not |90, imeitli'lfv 


THE i;NfI>'ISITl'l> BOOK. 


Lear the id^a of ^jmSjig v>mc Edilor «nd Council 1<j pubhrtli. 
and tlicn |ii'rhrt|ifc lo have to afttiit^csr humbly for havitijc led 
fhfm itifo a flfmpr In this ajw. TciT>ct'i I am in rhc stAio 
whirh, according to b very wise saying of my uthet's, is ihc 
only 6 1 auic forukitig ;idvicp, vU., with my mitid finidy made 
up. dnd Lhtrn, ob uiy fiilher uMrd to eay, x^'^^d^kv wut vvty 
cx'iuli>ru!ilc, and tt n^ easy to reject baJ advitc. but 
Ifcaven knoni I axa not in this %ia(c with rcipect lo publish' 
ing JT jII jny picbmtn;iry e54-iy. It yet itrikc* mc a? t|uite 
UTi)Fhi1o«oj>hirftl Kfi piihliah fcsiilla withoiM rhc fiLlI details 
wli«:h hnvt' led lo itir.h restdia. 

It ill a mdan<:holy, und t hope not qudc true view of youm 
<haC faUfi will prav? anyllimjL ^iid arv tbcrcfforc tupcrlLuout 1 
Bui I h.Lve raihfi exaflgerjited, I hce, your {loctrine. I do 
noi feflT being tied doiwtl to error, i. ^., 1 feel prfciy lurc I 
shoidd give up anything false piihlUhi^d in Ihe ^jreliminiiry 
«Ray, in my Inirfjirr worl; : but I nioy lhuK» it \\ very (ri»e, do 
miNi^hicf Uy ^pri^nilin^ eirur, which oi 1 have often heard you 
tay U much easier bpreid than corret^tcd- I coqIcm I lean' 
more and mure to at leui m.iking the attempt and drawing 
up a sketch and trying to keep tny judgment, whetlier 10 
publi^hj ri]>eTY. iU>t 1 alway* Tetum tn mv fiied idrn ihai il 
i« dffadfliHy imphElo^nphlral to pnhlinh without full details. 
T eertnmly think my future work in full wnuUI pmfit by hear- 
ing trhat tny frienda ur crilicB (if reviewed) tliought uf Ihc 

Tu iny one but you 1 ahould apologite for tuch long dii- 
eu»ion on to personal aei affair ; but J brlirvc, and indeed 
you have proved it by the Iroublf yon have taken, That Ibiii 
would he !iuperflLjou9H 

Your* tndy obliged. 

Cll. UAHWtN. 

% What yon uy (for 1 h*vt jnfct re-retd yout IcttM) 
Ih:i( the KtMy might tupcnwde ftnd take jwRy «I1 Dovdty 
and vabie from any future larger Book.i* very true; and ihiit 
would i;ricve mt' beyond «v(*rythinK, On the other hand 

THE UHiFlMSHPJ) BOOK. filifr. 

(ftgim frnm 1-)>cir« urK^ni mlvii'c). I puliluhrd a pTrUmknjirT 
flkctch tit lUe Coiitl Theory, on<l thi* rfid ndlher ^ood nor 
harm. I hcgin nosi A/arriJr to wi*h thii Lydl hdd ncrer put 
this idea of An Eb.t*y mtc my head. 

"] un dcli)|htE;il that 1 m^y ujr (wilb AUotutc truth) Ihai 
my cftitay u published H your luggrftioo. imt 1 hop? it wU 
not n«d «> rotich aiwlofiv a> [ ai fir»i itirjii^hi ; f<^r I h*' 
rcKolvrd tomjakc Ie nearly ofiComiilniCA* my pfv««nE matcriAli 

aJIciw. I cjinnui put in all whifh you luggenl. Cor ti would 
ap^iir loo LwuttiiciJ/' 

^rtw a tiinr t& JV. D. Fax. 

". . . VhAl you «fly alioui my F.tuy. I (l;iTe uy h vrry 
iruc: ftad it g&Tc me an other lit of ihc «ibber-gibt>ci> : I 
hope Out 1 tlull tuccctfd in making tt modvil. Unt grci 
motive is lo itrl inforni-tlion on the nuny ftoinli on which I 
•snt i[. Due t ireiiiUc jtiout if, whieh I thould vioi do, if I 
aDnwed '^unie Ihtcc or four more ycirs to ebpie before pub* 
IjjthEng luiythmg, . , ," 

(The foUovlM extraei* fiom Irtlen in Mr. Foi ire worth 
girfnf, a* showing how grejir wu the OiceumalalioQ of mate* 
ri«| whirb now hod to be d^nlf with, 

** Vrry many Iliank« F^r the cApitiJ in(oim«lion on caH; I 
■ec I hjid blundered jsieJily, but 1 know ] hid MmewherQ 
yoar ori^nl Doiri; bui my notfi ar^ v> numi^rout ^Itannjc 
Rinctrcn yrara' fioJIndioKp that it would lake tat at teui a 
yejf lo go nver aad K\atjA\y them." 

Nov. 1856. " Soineiimei J feJii I «hall break down, for my 
iubjcci it^U bicgcr aad b«cffr with eacb monlh't vorL^ 



C Darwin ia C. lyil 

My TiXhVL f.Yi:u,, — 1 am going tu do the most impudent 
thing in the vurld. fiiii iny bluud ^cu ^ot wifli p;iG?vjrk ^nd 
turn* cold aiMuutdx ui Uic )r«v1v|(Kal btii^rr^, «hjth m^ny uf 
your dibctples aic idktng. 

Ikrc, pool Forbes m,idtf &coatiD«ni to |i./., extending to] 
Nrifih j^irrPik.-i and anolHer (or Ihi? Rsmt) to llic Gulf wtfd; 
Hanker make^ ar^c frr>m New Zealand in f%OLiEh AmrrlcA and 
fnimd ihe \Vorld lo K^-rguden Land. Here ia WoHasion 
bpL';ikiti^ uf Mjidi-Ka and P. Sanlo " it ihc tfurc J<f>d <.vr1utn 
wimct^c* of iJ former continent." Here U Woodw;ir<l wntL'i 
10 mc, if yciu p-.^ni a fonnneM over soo 01 300 mik-K oj o^can 
depihi (ns if (hrtt vvas noihinjj;), why not intend a Cf>niinciit 
to ttpry inland in the P:rrifii: :(nd Allantii: OrffltiH? And nil 
Ihift within iht i-stslcnee tif recent niicciem ! U you di> not 
vLop thit, if there by u lower rct^ion lor the puniilnncnt of 
geologists* [ believe, my ^ne;it in<i.tlf:rt you x^ ill go ihcic. U'iiy. 
IT djviplet m a. alrjw xnd Lrrcprn^ manncf bcJil -dL the: <>td 
lEaMfophisU Vkho ever ]i*-ed. Vou will live to be Ihc great 
"chief of ihc Cilflstrophi^ls, 

There. I huve donr^ my&vlf a grvaC dval of ^uod. iind hdvu 
txi'loiied my png&ji^n. 

^Kt my master, foigivc me, and believe me, ever yatirtf 

C. D^Kwir*. 

F, S. Doq'I answer Lhii^ I did it to ca^a my«clf. 

C jyu/wtffl ft- / I). No&krr, 

Duwii fjunel i7lti. iSsO- 

. . . ! have lie^n very iJc<!i>ly iniervRtcd by Wollaston * 

book * through t differ f^reath from many of hU docCrine«, 

Did you ever read inylhing h> rit:li. toniidering how very fur 

he goe«. as hu dcnunciaiicijib jgamiit thij^c wh^ gi> limhcr : 

■ *'riit VirlailMh ofSrwclfti' itsO. 




"most miwrhitfvovjii/' "abiui(J,'"'uiiM)und," Theology U su 
The botlfim of *i*mr of Iht*. I loU hira he **"t* hkt Caltin 
humirtK 1 hcrctl<% 1i Lt a very vnluiMc ind clcTcr book in 
tny opinion. He hns cvlilenily rcflt! vpty SUilc nut nt hU own 
line I iirj^eil Itim lu ftaj ihv New Zeilatid cssjy, Hw 
Gculojiy aim ih lailicr <^fttfy ua 1 totd liun. In Uci J wroir 
mn»l t'TAnkly , JIgju loolraukty,; heta^i^ hv mKurr lliui tjllia< 
honciiy iimy chdrjirictiilk : I do not k::ow wh«ihci he cuciuit 
ii Aft Jt tnc^ ; I ho]io nor. TAlLing of cortnc geology, I ^l 
sin WMth aTirtiit Ihr -Vrbntir rnntinrM, morr ruiirrislly from 
a note /mm WoodwaM (who hrni publishrfl ft [jpiMl hfmfc on 
fthvUa), who doci noi spttti la tlouU Ihnt rveiy bland irv Th<" 
?jii.jru And Aibnlir Arv [lie ><niJim» of continent, tubmctgnl 
wiihin period of cxi^in^ vpcricA, thai I f>]ir1|r cipludci], atid 
wfoic lo I, yell Co i^rntfsc, nnd lummcd up lU ihc connncnU 
crenU'd of Imc >Oiiri liy F'^rbt** (the h«d sinner!) yimrK//, 
WoNjiiitirfi, aiul U\Tijil*ard, jthI n pfefly nict lill^i^ I'xti-nsion 
Ql Lind Lhvy m^Lkc j|[ogi-tlii:r i 1 am f.iirly labid ou tho 
q-i<:itEon Aud thcrcfcrc, il uoi wrong aJrcjJy, am prdty nurc 
to bcc(>iur ao . . . 

I have enjcycd your note much, Adio*. 

P, S. (J^inr-') t^ih, lycll hAi wn'itcn mr i t^ihti \<^\X/^ 
on your »dc, which might to iipici mc cndrcTy^ bin 1 cjinnot 
Bjy il df^r* nuilif. 

Iliuui^h \ inu)Lt ify »nd cvi^Hv bvio^ rwbid and try to fed - 
hiimbk. and allow you all lo raako conliiicnU^ as cosily a« ^ 
took docs p^ncakfi. 

Mv DtAa LvELi^— r will have the following ircMcedoiiJt 
leticr copii^d :o makr; the rt^nding tnMc<t, and w 1 want to 
keep ft copy. 

At you >ay you would like to lieot my reoiionii for being 




aiiihotii, 1 Klxcjly wiilc therm, ^ wiTKiiiit I am <:onvmci?cl of 
my error, I ihjill have in give them rrnndcnwd in my ««)^, 
when 1 discua jiingk and multipk cic^^ioa: I tnjlHbprrfurfl 
be lartJbulnrly ybd (u huvt^ ^uiii jittjcnl o|;iihiuLi mt lii^ta. 
i may fttift liAdy have |icri>uadcil inyKll in mj wuib that 
ihcrc i» more in Ihcm than there ii. If ihcrc wa» much more 
mwn \i> admit a lonimcnial eitrnvnn fn anyone or iwn 
Ini^tnrteM (ak ^n M.idriTii) ih^n in »Thrr <-a%c% I ahoiiM f^l no 
difRculiy wbnievor Bi» if nn nrrniinr of Ruioprran pUnta, 
antl liuoral icu shelK h i* ihoughi ncteasLiry id join Madeija 
tu Itiv muinhnrj, H(iuk«r 14 c]Liite rrglit tu juin Nr^w HoiLmd 
Ei> New /c^Und, ind AuckUnd Ulind (and Kucml hbml tu 
K^ E,). and Ihi^sc 10 S- AmeiicA nnd the Falkbridiv And lhc«i? 
FA TriiTiin d'.Vunhii, and Iheie 10 Kerguelen Ijind ; ihus 
mjLking, t'itht^T sinetjy at ihe aamr irmr, or ut di^erent 
[K-riuds but nil wiihii* tht life of rurunl bcin^^^, nn alm/fht 
ciMumpi^lAr bell of land So ^gain CiQla[jaHOh nnd Juan Ter- 
nuidcE mu»t be joined to AmcincA ; and cf -wc trual to hUoiaL 
MNi thells, the If AlapjgOL mutt have bc^o ioin«iJ to ihe Fji- 
ciFiE^ KIiindA (;(OD iiitlo di»ljn1) iK Wfll m (a Amerlrjj, and 
ai Wootflward iii^rm* rt» think all Ihi- iglnnd* in the Pflcific 
into a pDagni6<:en[ coniineiac ; oIro ihe it^landa in the Southern 
Indira Oi:vui into unolher lontinvtiu with M riiEjiuiuic^at Jiud 
Afrma. and |ieihd|jh India, In tlie NotUi AlUniii, Hoiopc 
will fiticlch h*i,lf'W4y icrc»»> the ocean to the \zatz-i, and 
further north n'uht arrov. In ^hort, w^ mrst »»ppOT [mib:i- 
biy. half rlir pr*'>iJ'nt ocmn wrm Uind within the period of 
living organisms. The (ibbe witliin thit period muit hat^ 
had a quite different aspect. Now the only ^iiy 10 Itrftt ihifc, 
;hat t tun itie. lb to tvnsider tthctli<:r Llic ^^m tin en it have un- 
dergone within thit ^me period kuch wonderful pctmuia- 
tioni. In all North and South and Central Aniens n, we have 
lioth nvt-nl and mioccnt (or eor«ne) shdh, quite distinct on 
lh« oppotite %\i\f!\ anil hem r I f^nncit doubt Hiax Jurtdamrttl' 
affy America hoh helil iis ijlaci; itinee at lej*!, the miocene 
period. In Africa olmott jIL the living ihelU arc diitinct oa 

1ion« of jII tlu-HO vnoiWKt 
level withiTi ihit period, tiut 

ind "hcrvfOTC I thuiih! ii-i|i 
mfikc me bcbcvc In tiicH iniTi 
of living orgnnttmt in oar oci 
grrat depths, (he di{»n^-? fnu^| 

mounuin pc«k« ;i( ubnUv and^ 
iilandi t>c, — Consider thai the I 
nin«i, ATp<,C»rpaiHiBn«. tirnoi 
volrjm^c In Ana^ MtM «n4l 
canic In North Afric.i iht nn 
of Abyiimii ind of ihc A(Ij^ 
Mounuin»p In AnvirjEm, the I 
Arocficj, the While Monniai 
MouDiairr» — ^rnc <>{ the Uucr 
South AmcricA to the cut, |h< 
racJti, and lUcolTJini of Uriicil. 
t^ois^rid m the CorddkrDS* mj 




srwra/ tvasonh ic tuypow, were contiecteJ with mainbnd, ns 
SardiTii.i. imd hr>w diUfreni it ^ppcare. llvlicving, oh J aiii 
intlmcd, thai cQiilincnu at conlinenEi. and occam m ocean*, 
arc of immfnK anTiquity-^l 4hmild \Ay iF any of the 
vxi^lin^ 'trrnnu' ii^lnncti% liavc any (vlAfion of Any IcinrI in rnn- 
lincniEp they are fomimg cfiniincntt; and ihnt by ihc limp 
thtry could furm u cuntmvnl) xUc rulcunwb wuuld bf^ denuded 
tit thb'Lr cur«^§» Itrjvmg jjcukh uf hycnUc^ UiurLLir» vt |xrr|Jij'ry. 
Bui h;iVG wc nowbcrc ^ny tut wreck ot a continenl, in the 
midst of thtf o*:ean? St. PiiuVi Rock, and mch old tiJtirfcd 
volrimic inlands ^^^ 51 HdcnA, may hf ; but 1 ihiok wc tan 
acr ftom^ refiMn why wc «haii1d have It^a evidence ot link- 
ing than of Tti^ifig cuniinent^ (if my \ltw in my ConJ voliimo 
hits ^r>y trulh iti ii, \\t. : ihM vokaaic outburslB acc^jinpiny 
rising iicas), ^°^ diirin|C snb^idence Iherc will t^ no comijcn- 
sating agent at work^ in rising areas thcK will be the aJJifrJua/ 
dement of outpoured volranic nmtitfrr 

Thiriily. Ci>nsidcr»ni; tbe ileplh of tlie Ott'Ony 1 WM, be- 
fore I gOl your krtiri, inrlini:d vt-ht-mently L<i dikfjiilc Ihc va^t 
dmouni of aulrMden^e. but [ nrn^t iifikv my c^burs. With 
reaped lo coral icr(£« 1 carefully guardi:d againai iti^ being 
ftuppased thai a continent w:^5 indicalcd by the gTou|H of 
AtolU, li lA diffimU to guess, js it sccni« lo mc* the Amount 
of subsidence indicaled by coral rcefi; but in mch Urge 
nrpa* ai the Low^ ArrTiipelago. the Marshall Archipfla^, 
•nd l.flrradiv*^ |:rnnp, \l would, jud|^n^, from (he bright* of 
existing octnnic oTrhij»H[igocs, he odd. if wimc pcaki of from 
8ooo to lo.cco feel bad not btcn buried. Even nfler your 
JvlCi^r a 5UBpiciou ciussed me u1i«ther il would btj fair to 
ftfgue from xibNidcnci^*! in Ihe midiUf^ I'l tbu yreiitchE ui;euiih 
\t> continent*; but rciicihrng my memory by ulking with 
R»tnwy in regsird to the probabTc thickne^ >n one vcrttiral 
bni' i»f thr Sihirijin rtnd c*rbonift.Tniiji fotmtfiion, it ^wt-mg 
there muht have ho<n af kaii lo^ooo fci:! of tubsiitence dtiitng 
these fr^nnaiiont in Europe und North America, jin<:l ihercfoFc 
during th? coniiniunce of nearly the »me lel of organic 
bci)i|j;4> Hut even ij,ooo feet would nut be enou^ i^t the 


Aiore»,<irfor Hooker'* coniiiieiiil; J bflieic Hook 
inkr a cominuuut lonlinfint, but UjixuDnutc ^'O 
uUndi, with, tf vtr may ji'dgr fmm cabling rnAiin^r 
^ri^f?««tf]^ deep ica between tfacm; buc Ihc argume 
the voko&k xiiturr of n«or!>' v^'cry vxifitisg otitAiiic! 
tv\\ iii^^mfft bui;b »u|i]ji;nrJ j;rx}ii|4 uf itbriJs^-fur I p 
]vs Uoa iiui iup|ioiiC a tncrc chain of vokami^ iiUaiU 
ihc Hjuthcm hemisphere. 

FourtMy. Tht ^«ppo«ed conHntntal eilen*ions 
gf<-Tn to me, jirrfcetly tn iccniini fof all the i^hrnon 
[liiiribuibn citi tilondA; ok the dbtokcc of roommi 
}lL]Cr:ic1iijn&: ihc absence uf cErHnin gri^ gmUfH of 
DQ M^di^irB. Add uf Atatije and J3jQkm», &^» in Ni 
Unii; the [jAucity of pboit in itomv cue*. &c^ Ki 
ihote who beb'cTc m vRrioui vccUlentol mrans of di 
cnn explain mwi of thwc cnw»; but ihe> may ai let 
that ihE9i? fai:ti Bcctn hiirdly rumjiaidJi? with former 
ous lani). 

J*i»dJij!, For IhcMtcvorjl rtrdyofiK, knti vtpccbllyco 
bg Ll ecruin (ia which you wiU ji^rcc] that wc are cxi 
ignorant of mcins ot JiBpertAl, I cAQnot avoid thlnkii 
Forbe»' * Allimli».' *** an itl-^etiiic^ In wiener. ^ ch 
n rioiir ttnily ui mi*an& of dissenivnation. I KhaU lie 
gmicful (o hear, Ai briefly ns you lilte; whelher ih 
nionts hflve any weight with yuu. jimiini; ygurielf 
postDon i/f an hont^nt judge. 1 luld Huuker ibul I Mf'M 
tu wrilc to you on ihJH vubjecl j anij 1 i^houM ULe him \ 
thi«; bill wheiberbc or you will IhlnV it wt»rth timctn 
age remains to be prored^ 

Yours mo*t triily, 

fOn July Sih he wrore to Sir Ch.irlet Lyd! 

" 1 wi MfTT yo" cflnnoi give any tetdict on Comi 
eitennona; and t infiT iIkiI iH'<m Thi»k my ^rpimenl 
much weight agjmjst such cxteaiioiu- J know 1 wish 
beb4;vc no," J 




, . , II U not a \\ii\p fgnmtif^ntr hut I ^hoiiUl ILkr id tc-11 
ynii (and I do not tMnli I havr) huw T view roy wnrk 
Nmctpcn years f I) ago tl pixurri^d to me thai whilst otherwise 
e(np[oye(L oti Kul, Hist., I might ^rh:L|i& do i^ood if I uolvd 
any sort of faoi& 1)earin|j on Lhe question of the origin of 
ftpecics, and Ihii 1 have since ^ccn doing:. Either tpccici 
hire been indepcndcrttly crcaTfij, rr rhty h,n-c dfs<:cnded 
ffOm tiihcr specti^ii, Hke vjiricdes from one spccio* I think it 
Cftn l>F bhown to be prot^uhlc that mn;i geisi his most dLsiinj:t 
varieties by prcse c\'ini; such as iirisc bc*t y^'*>i\\\ kec])m(; nnd 
iJcitivying the uiherik hut I ahodUl fill i quire if I wet? to go 
on To he brief, 1 Oituutt that tpccici ^rjitc iLkc oee; (Jumcftic 
v>nelic« wirh ww--* esimction ; nnd then ic^t this hyporhc^ii 
by cftrnparison wiih ,11 many general and preriy weN-c^iflh' 
h^hcd [iiopni5U(on!i nr* I fun find made out,— in ReographTrJil 
dJi^trJhuiioH, geoJo^jical history, aHiniiies, 6iC-, Arc. And it 
Mtmi to me that, iti/f&un_^ that lutb hypolhcsis were to 
Cicpl^in such general |>ru]fubitiuiLS, we uughl, in accortlancc 
with the rotnmrin wxy of folhivring aU 4nence<. tO ndoiit it tfll 
some better hypothesis he f*iiirid one. For 10 my mind to 
say ihni species wvtt tteuied to and m u nu acientiilf: txpk- 
nation, only » reverent way ut liayLng it i» m and. «;>. Jijt it 
if tion»cnhkj| trying to tliciw how l iry li^ pruteed m IUk 
compass o( a oote. But .15 an honest man, I niLiii lelJ you I have come to the hcterodrv^ ronrlusion thai there fli* 
no H»<'h thinRs as independomly rrcsied upccicft — that v|h"Hch 
are only strongly defineii varielii's, I know thai this will 
make you dcapise uic. 1 do not much underrate the many 
AHXrdifliculLieKijn thiK view, but ycE it BL!ems to me to explain 
ICO morh, oihefuitc ineufiljenblc, to be faKe j^i^t to ^iLlude 
to one point in your last note, vlr... aboni ipeciei of the time 
l^enurt £f/t^-aify havinf* ^i common or coniinaous nrea ; tf they 
arc avtii^if bncaL drhf.i-ndania of on^ np^Li^A^ thin of i^onrxe 
would be the ca«e ; and the sidLy too many exceptions [rot 




mc) hitvc (o be tupUincd 1>ydTinataJ and gi?alogicji1 chanEcL 
A fortiori on thia view (but tm r»cli)' Mme gruiindi), all ibe 
mdividual* of the »inc tpecki ihould hare a ooniitiuui du- 
Inlnition, On Lhi« Ictlcr Sranrh of the iiubjrct J have jml i 
f-Kafktc-r tnj[cther, and Honlti-r kindly rrnd H o^rr. I thought 
iheciccpi^ons anddifiicullia wcrvwgrcAE that on the whole 
thr bfibncc vreighed agaiiibt my nutiuns. but I WAh murh 
pUM^vd ui fitid ihut It Ne«Ei]i;4 iv liute K^n^jJerable weight 
with HiA>l:ei, whouud he l^d never been >o much bUi^ercd 
About ihe permanence of ipcciei. 

I miiHE H:iy *»nr word morp in jimtiAoiIton {(or I (eel >ufT 
thNf yotif Tcndenry will tie io drtpiif mennd pny crotcfaeu), 
thai all my nolions about hifw »pccict chuigc arc derived 
from IciQjiC conlinued study of (he woiki «d^ (ao<I ct>fivriM 
wilhj i|cri<iiUuri«U and hoiticuUiiriMB; and 1 believe 1 we 
my wny pretty cicaily an the mcan^ uted by nnture to cho-n^ 
her sperJF! and adapt ihem tc the wondraui and enquii- 
itdy litr.iutifu] runtin^vndeB lo which every lirin^ being U 
e^pohed, . . , 

r. ihru'tri to y, A ff^M/r. 

DawB. Jflly 30(^ it|Ak 
Mv HEAR Honicr,P,"VmiT Ifiter U f^f tnuA vftW lo a>«. 
I WKs not able lo gel a definite answer fiam Lyell,*^* you 
will HVtf in the encloMil leitm. Ihougti 3 inferred that he 
tht>ughi nothing of my ^rjiunu-JiU, K^d d nut bom for ihU 
C0Trc«]K>ndeQcei [ should have writicn mWy too ilron^cly- 
Yoii may rely on it I »hall pul my doubts moderately. There 
never waa ^uch a pwdirjimetit .i* mine : heT<f you cfintinent'1 
extenftionipls would remove enormous dii^rultic* opposorl to 
me, Jind yt^l 1 cannot hun^^stly atlmil the doctrine, and mvst 
therefore t:ty su. 1 c^ninjt in;[ itvti (he faU Ihjt nul ■ frA^- 
meni of aef^oridnTy or piilacinoir rtjck h*n hrcn found on »oy 
i<dand above 500 or 600 mile* from j mainland- Von rather 
miHUndr^rrLtand mr when you think t doubt t\it fusn'^V/ty ol 




*i]b!ii<l^n4?c of lo 009 or so,<3oo fi;«t : ic Monly probftbiNiy, con- 
nJcring luch cvjijcikv a* wc havr iiiJti[jrniitrnEly uf diilrihll- 

ibn, I have iiui >ci worked utkE in lull ilvUiL iliciliBlrlbuiion 
ol iniTnmaSici. b<Hh i.^rnt-ia/ .-lik) alJicd, wuh rctpcct lu ihu ™^ 
f^mral a/ sUpth af iJtf ira , bill a« far .i> I h*vc gpne, tho 
rriuTTA Afr in mc iurprumgly nrrorilnni with my t«ty m^t 
TrfiiiUcsomc bdkf in not surh great gcographicnl fhnn^iT* at 
you believe: ^^Lti) i» rii^imnalia ^^'e certainly know more ai 
mtun$ uf d^hUiUutiuii Ih.iii m A\iy other cbae N^Dlhing U liO 
vcji4tiou« to me, as so conil.inlly (indm^ niyKvlf Jf:&wing 
diflcrent conclusions from Uiter judges than myself, Injm ihv 

I fancy I hjv<- Uifly rcmnvod many (nut gcographkjil) 
gre^i ililTJculiLt^ u[Jiio«efl lo my notionh, but Gud knowi ii 
may be dll hallucination. 

PI«Lat Tcturn Lycll's l<;tltra, 

Whal ^ tapiljl kttir of Lydl's thai l^ you \%t and whal a 
vondcrfiil man he iv^ 1 dtflTer from; bim greatly in Ihinking 
thAt thoKC who believe \h*x ^iiecici ire ttet tlxcd win miJtiply 
ipecil^C names : 1 know in my own erne- my mojil freqticnt 
«}orcf of doubt was whcrh^'r ochom would not think ibU or 
(hat was £i God created Q<ir»uT:lL', :ind turrty dcvervrd a ntunc, 
Olhcrwiee I itbuuld uuly havi: Uujuwht uvhethfE \\\v umuunt 
q\ diftcTcnce and (icinuncnLe was tuflicieni lo jtthiiiy a riAme : 
I am. afso, surprised Jt hfif thinking it inim«rcrri;i1 whether 
ifwcteii arc abnfklnic or not : whenever it h prnvrii rhai all 
ipeciei iire produced by Keneraiion, by bwi of thangi:, what 
good evkdence we shall have of the k»^i- ml fvrJiialioiibt And 
whal a hcicLicc Nitui-il llitlory wlII be. when we aie in uur 
graves, nhen jII the laws of change are thought cne *>i the 
moil imporrani jjArt* tif N.ifHral HiiTory, 

[ ciutnui cunccive vhy t.yell thinkh Duch notlonii aa mine 
or of *Vetti|fefc,' ^^1^ i'tv^^i^Atc vpccific centre*. Hut 1 muitt 
col tun on and like up your time^ My MS. uill nut. 1 fori 
be CD|fied before you go abroad. Wiih h^^arty thanLi, 

Ever youn, 

C Danwik. 




V. S-— After pving ntnch c«id«wH, my irgiiiiic«t v<1»uf 

Diiwn,Ai[>uii fib [iBjfit 
. i ' I quilc agree aboul LfcEI'i lcU«n to inc. «hrch, 
though lo mc inlcrcitiD|!U have altbrdcd tae no ocv Jigbi. 
Vftar IcitfM^ undtr Thi" /mA^iVj/ pi»inJ of vitw, bjTc brcfi 
mnrp vdlniMr irt inr Vnii ciinnoi imji^iK^ how comfifly I 
with I cckuUl Kwallow coniincEitAl cxicntion, hut 1 cannot ; 
Ih^ more 1 ihink (uiil I (iinnut gel the tubject out of toy 
hcftd). Ihc mor« iliRicvll 1 find it. If thfrc wrrc "nlj *ome 
holf'clojcn rjtfrv I hf^otiM not IrI lh? Lci«r {lilh<:tilly : E^ul 
(he gcncmlily af the facl» of ^11 Ut«nd« <ci(«cf>t oflc or tw&) 
having a con^drriahlf pitri of thrir production! im ^omtnoa 
with nn<; rrr iiii>ic m^nrilumh udi'tly siag^tf oiv. Whai « 
«Y>niIcrfu1 C4>>e of the Ki'Acriddtl [| U mo«t vcxuioui, aIw 
hurnitialiag, lo mc that E connoi follow Biul mhunlx' to Ihe 
way tn whkh you ^L^1LlJ1tily f^E your view of ihr ^ue. 1 
look M ji^r fact* (itbrnil Kiir.itypln«, Jfr.) at i^wvnqf ajc^infl 
<:dntjf)crtii1 riirnnion. nnfl if you like -ilv) dfimtunjE HfEtmikl 
migraiEon. or ai Icjm of nrcrm^m ftifKrrilty. \ nccihc groiinii 
of ourdiSi'rrnc<-(ia x leiicr I muM put myself on an equality 
iu AfgLiing) lies, io my oiunii^n, tli^i ne-jinuly mythtoit i« 
kdoiiTi of m«dni of distiihoitou. t ijuitc Agree with A, IH 
mr!ot]rA (>ind ) dirt My your) opinion ih>| il u pooif worfc 
tutiinf together the merely /w^aV/ m»ii4 of divtribution ; 
but T ic^ no other wjty in whieh thr tnh]f«c CrMt he AttJK'tied, 
fur 1 l^jriik thai A. EJc Cflndotle's argumcoi, thai oo pJano 
have l^ecn m(roiiii< ed into Kn^nil i::tce)>t by UUQ*» agency, 
[u] of no nYight. I canttoi but think tS>l the theory of con- 
tinental cXlenKlon (l«;i do somt \\\\\c hanii n ft(0|rpin>; invfft- 
tig>tiotf of tn< meant of di^pcrul, which, whtLJfce* itf^iMtit'f or 
po«ilive, necDii lo nic of vaIuc : whco ncK«livfd. then evriy 




one who bclicv« in single ccniTci will hAvc 10 ddmiE conti- 
nental cirensions, 

. . . t TiW from yvur rrmarbf that you do noE uaJcr^iand 
niy uutiii^an (whclhcE or nu vtvit\\ uiiyOuii]() about nitxSlJi^A- 
iion^ I Ailriburc very lillle to the diccrl action of dijniie, 
Bfc- I 4uppo*e, in regard 10 ipceifn: centres we .irt at ctois 
purpo^rs ; I should niall the kilr'licn yH.i(Jro in which the led 
r*!)hag*? was pcoduccd, or ihc fnrm in wbkh linkewdl made 
ihe Shorthorn cauk. the Hpedfic cvnttv nf thtsc ipfcie:.' And 
surely thiTi i!j centtLilUuuun tfnuugh ! 

1 ihank you mo^l »mci:rcly for nil your :ibAistftnce ; and 
whether or no my Look may be wielchcd, you hjxvc done 
yj^uf bent to mnkc \\ less wreiclietl. Sometimes 1 Jim m vrry 
gooil spirits and sometimes very low flboi:t it. My own mind 
n decided on the question of tht ori^n of specie* ; but, good 
heavens, bow littli^ that is worrh ! . . . 

[WUh icgard 10 ^'specint. tenlfet," a passLige from a letter 
djlicd July ^S. 1*56, by Sir Chirks I.yeU lu Sir J. IX Hookor 
C'J,iftr,' 11. p, JiGj la <>f intcrcat : 

" I fear much iTiai tf Darwin argues thni ■^ptcic?; nrc phan- 
toinM) hr will alsn havi' In ^dmit Ihat ^nglc r^nlrrs of disper- 
sion ;irc phantuin:^ also, %nd ih^i would dLprive me of much 
of the vnUic which I ascribe To thp present piovjncct of ani- 
rncti nnd phnt^, as iLKiiirating modem jiind terrinry ch^ngo 
in l^liy^icnl geography." 

He acem^ \o have recognised, however, that \hc phantom 
docUinc would Tioon liavt? lu be faced, for he wmte in the 
*,Axm; IclLcr ; "Whether Darwin pertu^idts you and me 10 
rirnouncF our fattb in »pci-Les {wht^n yeotogu'al fpotbb an; 
coniidcrcd) or not, 1 foresee Ihal many will go over Lo lh<; 
infJcfiniTc mf^difiahilcty doclrinc '* 

In the AULUmn niy father w<t« sFill working ;^X gcoj^rnphkol 
duttibutJon, and again wught the aid of Sir J. I>. Koojcor- 

A f^itfr ta Sir /. D Hsoktr \Sept., \%%t\. 

" In the course of *omc wcelts, you unfnrtnnurr wrtrti h, 
you will have my MS. dd one point ol (jeoj;r3|ihicftl Uj^ttrdju- 




lion- t will, h4>trcv<rr, ncvtT iiak such ■ fatmtr a^ain : bvi m 
Tr\lflTi\ W thi? ofJC liifcc of M!v, Tt U of yftfinilu iixi[iortiincr *• 
nic (or you to »c ii; lor ncvct in my Hit hive I fdl tocfc 
difticijLty b'hai Id do, and 1 hciirtily wisli I could ilui tbc 

whnlr Mibjfct over" 

In JL kUtif lo Sir J> D. Hc^ukor O^nv, 1856), ihc follovring 

chtlACtv^iAtii: p^hig^^c occun. 6ug^v«:(cil, no il'^^bt. hy ihc 
kind or work which li^s cEuptcr on GcographicAl Diunbunon 
cnlJLilt-d : 

" There U wnnderful ill lo^lc in hi* (E PofSf*'] f*moin 
ftnd ndmirohlr mrmoir on <lisirihuli^n, m It ApprAn lo mca 
n9w thiit ] iiuvr ifui li up tij na to givt (he bt^da m 4 paipL 
Depend on it, my i4yinj| in a Inie one> vix,. Ihtt ft compfler 
in li jf/-r<idf raan, and ^n origin*! man A <oinmanplAcc m^n. 
AnyfooJ can generalise and ipivuUtc: hut. oh, mf brjivcm! 
lo get up at sceantf ^fttJ s. >Jcw Zt'Oland Flora, ihai it work/*] 

Oct. 3 [il*ftl, 
... I rvmcrabtrr fou protenied aRainii l-ydrs Adv*c<- of 
ttTitinE a fjff/M of my ipecici doctrinrt. Well, when I bC£*Q 
] found il ?^u^h oniiatiifactory work ihal ] have flt^iited, And 
am now iJtiiwin): n\t my work Uh pvrlect fth i»y m^tcrob oC 
niitflccn ycjrt* cullccLinit kiiHicct t>u1 do not mlcad to Uofi 
tn pcrferl any line of ifirrificflfrnn br>ond fLirrrnt wocfc. 
TliiiH far and no farther 1 nhall follciw Lycll'i Lirgcui advicr. 
Vonr remarkmrcigticd with me consideTably. I find 10 ny 
Mrro-iv it will run to quite a br;^ book, t hat* found my care^ 
ful urufk al ptg«i>[i« tt^Wy inv^klu^Lilc, ah c^tliij^icrktitg mc on 
ni9Ay poinit on tariatlon under domeitication. The copious 
old Uteratsn, bj which I on trace the Rrailual 4^han|EC4 Xn 
the brteds of plfMnt h^it lie^n tfitraordinarily useful 10 bbv* 
) have JU4I hail pijfeons ami fowU «/j'rir from the GiunbiAl 
REibbicK and duck* I am juending to pretty carc/DUy. b«t 
Ih* to than pigvon*. I lind mwt remarkable d^nereiKe* Is 
ih« ikelcioni of rjibbirt. Have you erer kept any odd breed* 




of rrtblnts, and can you gh'o me nny dpiiili^ One otht-r 
ijUcilLOU : Vou ustij tn kf^cp hawk'^ ; do yun iir ;il1 knu^v, 
nlKi e4img a bird, him ^oi^ii aJtci Ihcy thfuw u|j the |icUl-L f 
N<> ?i)bj?ct pivci mc H> much Troiibk and doubi and dl^- 
rii]ty as Iht- mcan^ of dispcrial of ihi; «mc ^pccio of ktrci- 
iriat prodiictionn on lhfr04!»!HnU: j»land&. [,,1^1 molItiiarM drire 
mc mild, and I cannot anyhow get ihcir c^n to cicpcTirnenti&ir 
itidr power gf floating and reslstuncc to the injurious flrtion 
of ball wKier 1 will ti^A jpoiu^i^L^ fur wnting no much a1)uui 
my own doingh» n'^ L Utiljcvt^ j'ou ^viU liltr; Ei^ hear. Do ^gmt;- 
iimt. I beg you, let ukc hear Lliiw you ^ci on irt health ; ukd 
rf K i/tf/irvif let mtf^ havt foi^e words on coll-tiiKks, 
My d«aT Fok, you re ifftjciionntirly, 

Ch. Dakwik. 

[With regard to his book he wnrttf (Ncv, iclh) lo Sir 

Ch-iiles Lyell - 

" I flin working very stcnddy at my bijt booL ; 1 have 
found it quite impoHtble to publish any preliminary caaoy or 
Bfcoich : but urn iloinf; my wi>rlt as com^lclc\y as niy prncni 
nmicriuls allnw wtlhoiu wailing lo perfect (hem, And Ihia 
much aLOclctJlion £ owe lo you/'J 

C Vamnn to J. D. ffo&ker. 

Duwfi, Sunday [Od. \%^.\ 
M%' nr.AH Hooti^Hf — The secda arc come? aEJ aafc^ many 
ihanki for ihi?m. I wa?i very ^rry to rm away so sn^n and 
VAW-. any put of uiy most pJuasjTiE c!vvning : and I ran nway 

tlikc A Uolh and Vandal wiihout wUhing Mrf. Hooker good- 
bye : but I w:ii only juil in time, u 1 got on the platform the 
(rain hod arrived, 

1 wji£ jtarticuLirly gtjid of onr diacushion after dinner; 
lighting a battle with you always clear* my mind wonderfully. 
I u'o.'n lo Tiear that A. ^x^'i ugreea with y«u about the ton- 
dition of fioianica] Geography. AU I know U Ihat if yoii had 


hid 1o «carrh fcr Ughi m ZoolaglcAl Gcogrnphy yrm wouli 
by controiCt rdficci your own subbed n tm <U'M inortr thav 
ygu DOW do. The liawks have bchivcd lik« gcnilcincn, lui 
hivf i^Ant i7|i r^llcls with lot« of s«cd« TD Ibcm ; and I hHH 
JuAi )\A<\ a pari^fl of ptrtridgc'M feet urdl caked wilb mudlU^ 

Ycur iiudne and pcrvcnc iHend, 

Mv va^fiu H^oKLLk, — ] thunk you more cfirdia/fy chAn ^ou 
wit] ihink |jrob«bk'. for yuur note, Vout verdict f b^ft been 
a grcni rcfiof On my hnnnuT I hjtd nn jdcji whi^Elicr ur noi 
you wr>urd sciy 11 vu (niid 1 kocw ymi ^voiiM sny it very 
kiriiilyl ro bad, that you would have bi^ictrt'd mc to have liumt 
the ^vhnliN T(} my omi vaini\ my ^S. rchcvcd nir of wmc 
few difliciilue!A> kind the dLfhcultict Kccncd 10 me inctiy faJrly 
MMed, but I hjd become id b^wildpfed vr'txh conilicUng fat-M, 
evidence, tc»foning Att<i i^l'imisnli, i felt lo myself t)lJl[ I lo$( all judgment. Your general verdict ii t/in/n/ar^^ 
mure fLtvouruble diun I hud anticipttlcdi . . . 

C Ihrxmi fti /. D. Hooker. 

Itown, Nfiv. 3jn) f iSjfi]. 

Mv MAR Hr»oKER,— I ftJT ! fihall wcaty yyii with lelt^'n. 
bat do noi fui&wcr this. f<>r in Iruth and Aifhciut tljiiuiy, | to 
vjiluc your lelter;, that aficr n heavy ba.tdi, as of laie, 1 fed 
ThAt 1 hAve hE^cn L^KfTOvAr^iinT and hAvp dMwn too inack 
mnneyn and «ha]l therefore have to ntlni mytctf on uiotlitfr 

When I tent my MS. 1 felt itrongly that ar^me prelfmiruuT 

* Tha mud In nuch cuei ofLGii conuins leedi, to Ibai pluEA vrr tbto 






quc«l~WJis <^a Ihc cauaet of variation rn^^ht to hnvt been acnl 
yoii. Whclhcr I am ri^hl or M^rim^ in Ihcsp points 15 ijuitc a 
hi-fi^rflic qucsrirtn, b^r ihc roncliision which I have (omc to, 
quite indcpc-ndcntly of gmgr:kphkal dMnbulion, iatliat ct- 
furnal condillonfi (tu whicli iiatwialJHU sci ^ftcii appeal) do by 
Iht'iiisdvce pr/^v ItitU. Hoiv Liiudi they do is. Ihc poim of alJ 
othcft on which I feci myself very wejk, I (ud^ from ihe 
facts o1 VAriiitLOD under domcilicjuion. >'ind 1 in^y yet get 
inorr!i;(hl, But .it iirtrsc^riC, sflt-r drawing nji a rough fopy 
»n thift ftiihjrr.t, my ooncln&ion is thnr external conditiona do 
fitreiaeiy tiulc, except in tsLising mere variabihty. Thi* 
mw ruridbiLily fc^uHing \,\\v t^hild ml clubi'ly to n!trenib1i; its 
parcnlt I. look a( as r-i''"i' diiTtrcnl fiom [he formAtiun of ft 
m.irked vnricly or new ^pcc^jca, (Mo dotibt ihc vambilhy l> 
governed by Inws, some of which I nm endcnvmiring very 
cih^ruTfly i'} rr.ioo.) TVif fnrmn'Jtion of a 'jfmng variety nr 
species 1 look nl :ts nTino^L wholly dtJL' to thi-' sdectioii of whjiC 
may be tncorrcLtly uilltrd chance variations or variability. J 
ThJ* powci of idection standi in Ihe moit dirvct reblion lo i 
tiniv> ind in Ihe ^XMr: of nature c^tn be only excessively »low. \ 
Ajc>tiik, ihe shght dirfercnce« wletted, by which a nu:e or ap^ t 
de» is ax \sj>X formed, MJinds^ n? I ihint can be shown (even 
with plants, and obvioii^ly with dniiii^ds^. in u fir mote im- 
ponAiiL relu-dgxi to lu assuclaks tbun lo «Kttrna] condicion&h 
Thufufortfj acrording lomy |Jrm^;ivllt^i, whether right or *foiig, 
1 cannot j-gruc wiEh your propo&ilion that time, ^nd aJtert:^ 
conditions, and altered -isiocifttcs, arc ''cQaveftiblc term*. ' 
I look ar the ltr«l und the hit jI5 /drr more importAnt : titne 
t>cinK impftrisnJ only tnfaras giving 5rnpc lo scln'Tinn. God 
knnws whether you will pereelve af wh,iT T ,itn driving. T 
shall hnvc to diwuss and think mnre abnui vnur difficiuky ot 
ihc tt-mperoie and sub-arctic form^ in the S. hemi^Jlhe^e than 
I have yel done. Sut 1 am inclined to thjnk ih^c I am nght 
(il my gcncfal principle* ate ri^hl), that there wotiUI he little 
tendency to the formation of a new ipceie*. during che period 
of migmtion, wherher shorter or longer, thf>ugh consiiJersblu 
vufiabiiity may have supervened- - - . 




C Zhintv* ta J. D //•wAfV. 

• . . How ! do wjsh ) tivcU near you lo Ui^uts maltvn 
with. I hattf juM Wii i:uii]|jjrLii|i clermictoai a( bpcdc*, dad 
HiAtiiitE lJ)^ictly how hyilcmjiuc naluralUis wofV oui their sub- 
jccU. Aquilcgia in th? Tlom Indies wat 4 ca|viul oLAnpSc 
ifi\ me. It IS tvally UitjchAMc lo net? whfii diffcicci Jdeu uv 
|iminlnL-nt in varinii« n.itumtiEiK' minds, whco ihcyqieak of 
* ?p(vi<?i^ ; " in souich rt-scmbbnte U wcryLhine u^ iJocent 
<rf liuLtf wri^ht^it; Ttuuitf. Tt^viftublitnc* neriii^ lu gD lor noUi* 
iiig, arAil CrCritKiii the f^iuniiii; idci— JU tome, dticeal iii Uic 
tey,*— in iomc. sicrllity in iinUiling cc*l. wi:h o[heT» it U nol 
wnriTt iL fjirthing. fi nil come^ t believe, fram trying to de- 
fiEK- iltr iinj^-rinublc. I ^upiww you have losi Ebc oild liUck 
»L-cd tram the 1iird&' i]ijn|{, wliii:h iJi-rminaU'iJ, — anybow, tt ia 
net wi>C(h taking i[ou1>k over. I have oon gol attoul a tloicn 
»ccdi (lui tjf KLn;iLl bifdi dub^ Adioi, 

My dcat Hooker, <*« yourt, 

C Darwin Ai ^fli CTnty. 

Mv D^Aii Db Gmav, — I haTt received %ht second pan ol 
your pnix^r^* and ihoiiKh I hjive nalbrnjc pArrlriiftf 1i> %aj, f 
nuat tend you my Thanks and hctrty arlTniratton. The wbolc 
paperr Btnkra mv as ifuitc cKbausiing the tubjecc ind I qmic 
fiucy mid JluLter iity>idr I uw j;>pn*(.ijlr th* ckiracter nf 
you' MuijIh Wh*l a diflfcrencc in fci;Afd Uy £iiTO|>c your r^ 
mjirlt in rcUEion ia Ihe Renru maWei 1 ] hnt^ been eminenlly 
gfad lo «cc youT conrluiinn in rtfiiird to (he specie* of large 
IQcnera widely rAi^;pn(c: it U in «tr[rt rnnfnrmiiy witli tV re< 
tuitt T have wovied out in (cvciaI wa>-». It in of ^tvat imjwir- 
tancc l<^ my notioni> By (he vay yii^u haw paid me a /crml 




c^jmplUncat :* to bcn«//r mcniitmcd even in such a paper 
1 consider 3 vi;ry grChSl hunn^ur. Qnt' uf your tuntJuHdni 
m.nkr* mc ^oan^ viz., ihal ihi^ Imp of r£>nnrr:li0P rtf Thr xtrirrly 
alpine plants U through (irccnland. I *h*>iil<1 rxffr/Hffy like 
10 set your reastinn publisliod in detail, for it "' riles " me {th\% 
is it proper cxprvsbioii. is 11 iiuL ?) iXrvulinlly. Lydl tufJ tnv, 
tlutt A^^JhAiz havini^ i thcuiy jI'QljI when S^LUiiaiis wt^te iirtti 
crciccd, on hearing tome careful oti»crvalionb opposed to this, 
uid he did noi btUcvc il. ''for Natun^ never lied." 1 am just 
in this prtdieanicnt^ flu^ fcpost lo yoil Iha*, '* Nature never 
Ucs," etfio, ihforispr^ arc always righi, . , - 

OveruorVed ns you are. I d»rc my you will say that I am 
»i\ odious pldguc ; but Ukw is mother ^uggetlion ! I w^i led 
\iy t>nc of my wild ipctubtion* to totniludc (though it has 
ni^lhtng Eo 6a wirh geographies dtiiribufion, yet it h» with 
yrdir siatistics) that trees would have a strong lendcTicy co 
li.ivL' rif^wiTswith diocdons, inonwcirju^ or polygamous struct- 
ure, Sedng EhAt Ihife h^iHilJ ao Jn Perr^oon. 1 tCtuIt one litlle 
Uritifth Ktora, xnd diH;ruainatEng Irec;^ from bu&hc^ according 
to Loudon. I have fo^ind lhi:it the result was in species, genera 
nnd |jmilie&, as I anli'iip&icd. ^o 1 hcctt my notions tv Hooker 
IH ask him to tabulinr* the New Zcnf*nd Rora for this en*!, 
and he thought my result siiffiripmly cnrions, to do so: iin<l 
the oecordance with Britain is very striking, and rhc more 5q, 
w» h« made three clj^tcn of Ueeb, liuaheE. atvX herbaoeoui 
planU, (He A^ya fuilhcr he hh^U work thu T^fim^nian FlorK 
en the ipime prinnipte,) The bukhe* hold ju imcrnicdiAlc 
pr-iir*on between the other two elasscv It iiffcms lo me a 
rnrioiii relaiion In Ifi^rlf, ftnd tA vrry much im, If my thntry 
jind cxplanaiion nre eorrei't.t 

With hearty thanks, your mosi iioublot^inc friend, 

• " I'ri'Oi tome Ljivcilijjiiiiun* uf liU uwn, thi? ki^aciolii fiaiurtiliic ")- 
llinc« lo ihink lEi^l fifre ipi'Ciuor] bqfu c^ticni mngp fpvoi a l4rgi-rHn4 
tTULD llic k|ffbiL^ 0/ entail ^■•tin.rt i\o."*^Axi trjav, tat. fit, 

f S« 'Origin; Eil. 1., p. lua 



C DanPitr to / J>. Hadkff, 

Down, Apn) iKh (i^i7^ 
Mv DFAR llni>K.Fit. — Voitr Icltrr hAt pl^airij mc nitKh, 
for I ncvtr cAfi get ll <fut of my bmd, thni I take unfair 
ailvonugc of your kiDiln<;is, n» 1 receive all ami give nothiQg- 
y*\\.\l 1 fi^lcn<[i(i (litttmiou you voutd vhic tM^ the uhDje 
tubject of varialion! Tli« d^ch di^tutvcJ lU j^tir latal ctoOc 
*ic vaJuaIjIc <u (lie [thouf^b odioui and djcuiublcl^u ihoaiog 
how profoundly i^n^tunt «c ir« on tbc cAusri o\ TAriitkit). 
I «hAll )\\^\ MliicJc fo rhcAf fjiact, as 4 nori of mtb-diviiion 
of polymorph Um n litilc more flrnnitc, t fmry, itun thf 
vaHaiLon of, for intunce, the Rubi, and equally or more pet- 

1 h^ve i(j4i keen putting my note* together on TMnitiooa 
aj*/^tmt/y due to ihc immcdbtc And direct iciLon of extcra^l 
c.-LUnci; iind I bnvc been struck with ao^ rcititl. The nioti 
firm ^licklen for indepcmdi^ni crfdiion admit, thiit ibr fur of 
the j^jvnr sprde« in ibinnvr lowarch (h^ tiiuih of the raBj:c of 
the Eame k{h:i^^c» ibnn \o the norili— ibat the ssmt fhe^H iro 
bug hie I -coloured to the loulh (ban uoith ; that tluf uaic 
[ihcll] is p4lcr>co1ourvd in deep wjiler — lb«t mtedqaicnndller 
jind do^rkcT on moiniuinii— mote Uiid :ind lesuccoiu ncv Mm 
— thai pUntK ari? smaller and more hffiry and wilfa brighter 
flowi-i» on mounuins: nuw in all such, and other <ttsc». dift- 
tiiict hpo-iCk in the two xoTJct foJ^uw thr ume nilc, wbicli 
teefn« to me to be moii limpSy eitplalncd by »pe<;ict, bei&g 
only vCton^ly mnrl^d v^riirtiM, nnd therefore folloming tbc 
umv lAw* A« riv-oiTnLttrd and admiitcd vAriettets I mdiEton 
all ihii nn account of the variation of pUit^ ia a^rcndinjc 
■iDunaina ; I have quotvd the foregoing rem^k only gener- 
jUy witli DO tJ^amplt^B, for 1 atdtS. thcrr it »o much dovU ukd 
dUpule what to L^ll vArietiet^ bul yet t bjve Uumtiled on to 
mAnv catu^ temirh* on njri/tiet of planfi on mouniata* 
licing to chiiracitri^t^d, \hM \ pirmmt! theif is some tnith tn 
ll, Whai think you ? Ho you bcltcvc tbcrc i* inrf tendency 
in ttf/^AW, a» s<HfnUij »o called, of pUnu to beconte Rtorv 




lialry ai«l with proportion ally larger and bnghtCT'Colnurod 
flowcii in aKcndiuj;; n inountkttn ? 

1 have been intcrt'sU'd in niy " weed garden," of jXa feet 
square; 1 mjifk each ^ordling as it* and 1 am 
astnni^hfd at the numlic^r fhar come uji, nnd 4iiU m&rtf at 
The ftiimhcr kJllod by shgs. *tc- Already $*) have Itcirin w 
k'tlM : I cxpttEud a good nmn^-, but 1 had fanricd chat ihJi 
w;i« u Il'bb t>olciiE check than U bcciiifi to Ifi?. and 1 atiribuEed 
^htkotl cxelii)<LVcly lr> raerc chuking, the OeHtruclJon ul llio 
lecdlingi. Gtais-fecdlingi seem lo suQ^er much icbt than 

C. Danvm h /, D. Hofktr, 

Moor I'nrk, Kornham lApril (f) rS^?]. 

My DCAK TlooKKR,— Voiir leLln has been furwaiUcd t^ 
Tnc here, where I ani undtrgoitig hydrojaihy fof ;j (<jflnighl, 
Tiavinft hei?n here a week, and having already rMelved an 
4mi)un( of good whirh li qmte incri^riible to mynL^lf and quite 
unaccoun table. 1 ^ran wulk and eai like a heariy Chrfuian. 
arid even my tughlsi Jite good, I cannot in the legist und^r- 
(iljnJ ho* hydropathy can act as ir ceitainiy doet on me 
[t dulk one'i briiin splendidly : t have not ihoughi about 
a «n;4le *peci(^' rif anv kind wnc^e leaving hnrae. Vnsir notff 
hrW taken me nbai:k ; I Ehonjirht the hairmea^, &e., of ALfiinc 
^<ftfs wfla gcnprnlly admiiicd ; I am sure I have Rocn it 
alluded 10 ii sLori- (if Limes t'altoni^r was harangLjing on it 
ihc other day to me ML^yen cr Gay, or aomr ^uch [el](>4' 
fwhom yiju woLjId dctptac). \ remember, niake^ aonkc rentaik 
yil t'hihjn Corddleia pbm* Wimracf hn* vritlen a litlk book 
un (he same lrne% and on v^rietif.^ hclng vj rhararrtriwd in 
the Alps^ Bui differ writrng to yoii, 1 i;onfc33 I wns siafgercd 
by findin>* one fii;in (Moquin-Tandi^n, I think) siying dui 
Al]itiie fltiwcrii are aUongly inclined to l>e wbilCj aod Linnwus 
aaying ihai t:old cnake« v^^'''^ apttthmt^ even the same 
tpecies ! Arc Arclic plants often apetaloni * My peneinl 
leli^£ ffoni 'ny fQinpiUng work b quire lo ngrcc ^^Jih what 




yoKi »jy alH>ut the liltlc dirct:! influcroc* of diaatt : aaiI 1 
rfivc Juki Jiliitlcr] ru Ihr hairiitcui of Alpine pUnO a* fto rj* 
The«fl would be a gnnd mw fof mc H 
knew of ranVfifs li^-lng tiiviv ci<lonfcro<Li in dry hAbitau 

1 iv^t tlial I Uiw luokc^ aL ihc iiditmesft of A1pi»c pbEiti 
u HI ijcrtcf^tlly ji,lmi>ttkdgvd tli4t 1 hdvv iwl ERirkcic) pa»- 
«agc», to Aft At aU 1o *cc kvhai liind uf cviJcncc JulJidn a(5- 
viacc. I muit c>nfMt. the other day, ^vben I j*ked Kakoncf, 
whether he knew of t^iit-i^iuaJ pbnli loiing or arquiriag h*in- 
nt«l wh«t> ininB]-M>rtci1, hr did noi. Rm now /jf/i tfo^nJ^ mj 
memfiry Aoshci on me, and 1 am ccriaiii I have uvmewh^rr 
got Diarked a coac uf hairy plants frofn the ryrenccs losing 
hiin when luJlivalcd at MuuipifJlicr, Shall you think mc 
very tmpiidc^t if I U-ll you ihKl I h«vr wnicEiniet thoufthC 
ih>ir (quite independently at ihc present case), you ure Ji little 
too hard on bad obvrvrn: iKai a remark made by a bad 
obwrvcr ^atm/*! be rfghl : an obvrrvcr who dr?ienr« to Iff 
(!.imnL.-cl yoti wonkl uuerty diunn. I fuel rntitc dcfrrrmc 
10 Any teniark you (nake out of your own hrud ; but mhca la 
Dppoution to «onic poor devil, t %oravhow intoluvitfihiv feel 
not quite so much, but yet much dcfrrmce i^t your opinion- 
\ do not know in the 1c-»t whether there is iny truth in thii 
my eTJilelnm ajEStlait ynii. bui 1 hire often thought I would 
tell you it 

E xm rc*lly *ffry jcuch uW*(ed for yogrlrtler, for, though 
I mtcnded Co put only one (entente and vaguely, I iibould 
probably bai^ put thjf m>*'.li too itmngly. 

Erer, my dear Koober, youn mo(t tnily, 

C Dakviv. 

P. 3. Thu ootf^ t\ you kt, ha« not uiylhing re^uttuiB ^ 

The diittibution of fre^h^vater ino1Tu«c« ha* hrirti a horrid 
ircnbuH lo me, but I think T kn<}w my way now : when 
fim hatched thoy are tery flciive. and I h^ive bad Ihiriy 
or forty €ra»l on a deid duckV foot ; and Ihey Eiuuot be 
Jcfk«d off. and will live Afteien «nd even twenty-four hourv 
our of water. 



[The following tcitcf f^fcrn to the cvii4;(ULian of ihc Au»- 
Iri&n iHgAte No^rSi Lycll li:ul s«k?U my fAlhcr (oc »ogge>- 

Mv r»EAR I.vcLL, — T van ^lad to kc in ih* ncw!ip,ipeti 
aXiom the Austrian Rvpof^iclcin, \ hn\p nnlhinj^to udtf k^oIo 
^ically to my notes in the Manufll,* 1 <\<i nm knr^w whcihcf 
iTie KK|>i'dilion i^ tied titiwn tu call at only 6iL-d i^pois. But 
it Ihrtc he 3r\y chmc* or |>ti4vr in ihc Kicnlilic mcQ to 
influence ihc ptntci — ^this would be most desirable. Il \s xay 
ma-yt f\i^\xhctTHc crmvimoti ihnt nothing would aid m^re, 
Nj*(Mral Hf^Tory, than ciireful coUctling and investigniing aU 
fhf prmtHftiiim \\i the nios^ isolated isbnds, csj'criitlly of the 
Routhein hcn>i&phi:ri?. Extiejit 'rrist;Ln d'AcLinhji and Ker- 
gu«]cQ Land, ibty aic vtry impcifetlly known ; ind cv^n jt 
Kerguckn Land, hciw much there '%% to moke out about ihe 
lignite beds, jiid whether there are signet of old CJIiicml action, 
Ev«y *cn ihdJ nrifl insect anrt plant U of vahie from !%ti(-h 
ppois. Some one in the Expedition csprdally ought to have 
Hooker's Ni-w Ztralund Ks^Liy, What grand work to explore 
Rodriguez, wiiEi its loi^^d birij^, and hillc kno^n pruductiona 
oftkcrykmd. Ag^tin the Scyi^hdlc^j, which, with the C'ocuK 
»o near, muit be a remnant of ionic oMer land. The outer 
binnd nf Jiinn FernanifcE i* litTi* known. The invtiiigition 
of Ihe^r little Hpnl* by .-i lumd of narnraliHTi would ht f^r^nd; 
St Pnnr^ jind AmiLcnUm wmiM bi* i^lohona, Uotnnlrjilly, 
and gea!ogicD.Uy. Can you not rccomtnend ihem to gel my 
'Journal ' jitid ' Volcamii; Irlniidtt* on account u( ihc Gulapa- 
fO*, I* thcj tome from Ihe norih it will be ji Khnme a»d % 
vin if they do not enll «i Coeoi hlet, one of Ihe nnbptf^*^*' 
I shtay* regretted that I wa* not iiMe to e*ambe the great 


Gfclcigy" ill ijie A(ltnirilr> Maheiii] of ^iffnfific En* 




cmtera on Albcmjrle tibnd, nne "f the Otlafi^QOH. Vn Nc-v 
KcaUnd u?Hc oik them lo look &u( for tmiic bouMcrt Ami 
marku of old gl^KicT^ 

Un^c \hv Ubti <»f the ilrcd^tf m tht Tropic*; how liiilif at 
lUttUing wc knuiv rai Uie liiiiiL uJ iJc dowftivaid w tliv hvl 

My |ipe*rnt wort T^4d» mc 10 prrrcivc how much ihe 
domri^lfc- animnLA h^vi^ hj!m ncglortnl h oui of The ^*7 


The Rcvitbgigcdo iBliind off Mifxicu, ) brlitvc, bas never 
hnvw Uuddvn t>y f<KJl ol natui.tUhl- 

if ihc cipcdiiioii tiiLki lo mch place* At Kia» Cip< of 
Good Hope, CcyloA and Auiiralui, Arc. ie will noi do much. 

Kvfr yoiitn Tiioit Inily, 

C Darwik, 

[The following panago occun m a Iftirr lo Mr. Foi, Ftb- 
nury 21, 1S5;, uid lioA rrfcfcncc 10 iltc book 00 Kvolitiian 
on which he wia nill 21 woiL The rcmamdn of the Ictut 
ti inaii« up in dcEail^ of no jnlcfckt ; 

"lam^tmosi deeply intcr««tciJ in my suljtct: ihougli 
I with 1 could hci tcu vaIuc on ihc Laubic I^um, ciihcE presciu 
or pnthiimous. than 1 ^o. but not I Ihnk. to jdjt citrcm* 
dc^^rrr ; >rt, 1/ I know myiH'Ifj I would work }iiV ai hAfd, 
though virh l«« gusto, if 1 knew thai my book would be pnb- 
IJUicd Tor rvci anonytnouily.*'] 

C Daruin t» A. R. U'a/Jaif. 

Uosr PkTl. Bfty l«L iBfT^ 

Mv DBAS Sir, — 1 »m much oblj|^ for yonr letter of 
Octub^ loih. from Celebes. tcLcJ^cd a few d^yi >|p i in Ji 
laboriotu undertakioiz, iymE>ATby n 1 valuable >Ad real cn- 
courikccnient. By yaur letter 4nd even hIiII more by youj 





|Aipc:r*in iht Annals a year or it\ok ag<i» 1 can plainly bcc 
thiit we hsivp thonghi nonch Ailikc ami to a rcrTam cxicnr have 
cdmc 10 umilar riotiduiiona. In rcrgord rothc Papf?r in ihe 
AnuuJb. 1 iL^fL'c Lo ihc! iruih of almost cv«ry W{>rO of your 
p;L|}cr ; and I il^iitf i^y ihaC you #'i\\ »gtcc with mu thai H a 
Mety rare to Jind oneself agrccinij prctly lIqi^cLj' with any 
theoretical pnper; for it U lamcDi^bk how c4ch nun draw* 
his f>*vn ilifTrrcnr ronc-!iii»innt fmm The vi^ry *ami.' fach. This 
aummcr will mjikp thtr aoth yctir (!) sinr^ [ opcncil my first 
norc-honkn nn the qncmion how and in what way do specie* 
and vojieiit^a differ from each uihei- I jm now [jn-[jaring my 
wfirk fur iJublajJ(ton> Lm I Tiud Ihti Bubjeci ao vr;ry lar^e, that 
Clh>i]gh L h^vr wrtltcn many ^.h^jXcnt I do ni>c »u|>|h4>t<r I thalJ 
go to press for iwo yciir*. I hftve never heard hr.w lonj^ you 
intenii ^t.iying in th<^ Mal,\y Archipcbai^ ; 1 wish 1 mjfthi 
profit Ny Ihc pubh'ralion ol your Travels there before my 
work apjjeart. lor no doubL you wdi rea|> a Largt; harvest ot 
fiicTs. 1 h.iVL' nctcd already m actoidiince with your advice 
of Icecping domestic varittiea, and those appearing in a tEa£e 
of nATure, drsnnct ; but I have sometimes doubled of the 
wttdnm of thifl, and rhercfrire I nm glad to be hacked hy yoiu 
optnion, I must nmfess^ howrver, I rDthcr doubt The Truth 
of the now very prevalent doLlrmcuf a}\ ourdi^mt^^tic anlniali 
having de«ended from teweral wild slock*; though 1 do mil 
doubt thai ii is so in *oi"e raw*. I think fhcie ia uther 
Hf Iter eviden<^c on the stcrilirynf hybrid nnimals than yon 
seem to admit: and in regard to plants the folleetion rtf 
t-arefuHv recorded facti by Kfilreuter and ttnertncr {and 
Hcibert,] h 'normpm, I mosl -.'nlircly apmc with you on the 
little effettft vf " Llimatjl eoiiditlon<t," which one heeii referred 
to at/ H'lttifaw in all book* ; 1 suppose some very little cliett 
mini be artrrl.'Utcfl to »iirh influences, but I fully believe thai 
ihcy are very sbyhi, Tt w r^iilly impftsi^f fo explain my 
viewi (in the compau of u tetter), on the causes and meajis 

"Oiv the Iflw thjit hu ic|pjlated the intnductioD of d(* iprdB-'-' 
Ano. Nat. Kiel^ jHS' 




rtS varijklion in i BEat« of biture ; h\it 1 hatt tl^wlr adopted « 
diilinc^l ui(i taiiKthlc iiic^^-whether trtic or f^t oiticfi ntuil 
Jmigc ; (oT the finncit nonviciion of fhc ttuih o( a docirmt by 

tf utii ! , , , 

Mv TiFAft H*-irtCFn^— Vnu h*ve bhavrvl The haJr ftff ihi' 
Alpmc plAfiri [-rc(iy cffcfCuaUy The case of the AnthylKt 
will niAk« a "lie" vrtlli tfir Micvcd c;(m: of Fyimmri pUnu 
bnuiiniiK i^Jalrrou'L kX low tcvvlv II I Jtf find Uul 1 have 
mukrd 5uch l4i:iv I mill by ihe fudcnct briorc you. I 
wonder how ihc briicf could h,iir oriii^niat^d ! Wj^ ii ihrouf^ 
final cntj^vft let lcrq> ihr i>T>int^ uarm' VnUoQcv la %aXk 
coupled the two I'lU'U of w^^ully A1|i;nc pUntt ind tncnunalL 
Hdw candidly and meekly you t<jok my Jeivmiid ty^ ywif 
icveriiy l<^ an:and-cb» men. After 1 hi'J ttjxx it o8, an ugly 
Jitllc *Dicc asked mt-, once or iwicc, hoi' mucti of my noUc 
defence of the poor in tpirit and in {at I, «•.» owing to your 
haring not seldom imAAhcd favourite notion* of my own. I 
tUcTir«d ihc ugly little toicv wiih contempt, but it vouM 
whisper again and sciiin. ] «Qtnciimc4 dopUc tsyfdf a« s 
poor conipLJer u heftriily s^ you could (ki, thougb I do mat 
despite my whole worlc* as I thmk there i> enough known lo 
lay A fnimdrtrion for Jhr i.U«cn»4ioii on the oripn of ipcrie*. 
] hAve I'ltrn li-d in Ac^%t%<' nnd Uu|[|h at cnyidf d£ n iompi1er» 
fiar having put down that " Alpine pUnti have large Aowert," 
Rnd now perhiip* I may write over ihcsc vtry word*, " Alpine 
planta have Htnall ot apeLatous flovrix ! " . . . 

C. Datviik fa J /J. Ha^r. 

Mv MFAft HoAicr>. — You ftiid — I hope honently— thai 
you did not dislike my askm^ qneiiions on g«ncn1 pofniv, 
youijfcourv anHwc^rin); or noi iu time or Lnclifraiion might 





iffve- ] find in ihc anim^] kinHdom thai the pTiopnibilion 

that any pari or organ developed normttlly (r ^.. noc a muo' 
slrO'iiiy) ill a sp<^ues in uny ^jj,''^ or unuxuat dtigrre. cuoiparifd 
will] the sjuie iiart ut ixgiui ij^ jUlclI hpi^ciL^ (ciiij& (u be 
/iiqhiy tiifittl^f. I tanilOl di^tubl ihii irom my mois of tol^ 
Iccicd fnnt^. To give an tn^tflncr. the Ciosi-bill is very ab- 
normal m the sirticliiri; of lU bill compared wilh oilier nlliei! 
FnngiHidm, flud the beak h rmiittntly farialif The Himan- 
inpus. remnfknbltf from ihe w^ndurfui Icngih of ii^ leg^ ir^ 
xtty variable in \)\< lengOi uf i'B kip. t toulJ givu w/tr^jj 
rngsl striking and cutiou^ iUustrjiioii)* jh all iUsti^si tici jiiiny 
Ihiit I rliinW a c.;jnnc[ be ehjiuc- Uui I hjvc n*wf in Ihc 
Vfgclabk kingdom, owing, as 1 believe, to my ignorance. If 
Nepenthes conidstcd of snt or rtfo specie* in a Eroiip wilh 
a piirhcr d'.'VpW^K'd, Ihen I Rhould hnvo ex^iec'leil \\ \.u have 
been Vtify variable ; but \ ^o not coiihidei Ni:pc[itLii-» a caiiv 
in point, for wUen a whole gt!iiUK or group ha& 4n organ, 
ho*r?vcr anumaloiiSi I do not expect it lo be variable^-il im 
only when ooe or few sifcclcr difler ^tvsiW^ in some one part 
or organ from the formi iio.'^eiy aUh'i in it in all other re* 
4peris,thac I beUcve such part or organ to be hichly variable. 
WiH you turn Ibi* m your mind -' il is :ia inijioriant apparent 
itfifr (!) for me. 

Ever yu^^H^ 

C. DAftwix, 


p. S,— I do not know bow f,Tc yoii will cLire \<\ bear, but 
T find Mwiuin-Tandon treats *n his 'TtratoloKif^' on viUnsity 
of plani-'s and seems lo attribtJte more lo dtyiicss tluti alti- 
ludr; but «ecm& to thiok that i\ mu^I h^ admittvij thiii 
lauuntain ptanlt aru viUoa<?, And UiaC this villokify it only 
iji pan enpUincd hy Pe Candolle'i remark that the dwarfed 
CQAdition of mountain plants wovdd I'ondenftr ih« hairs, and 
BO g>ve them rb? t^pprantmr of bt^int; more hairy. He tjuoEn 
Senebier. ' ^'hyMifliJuii: VtgcUli;,' :is aulUotily^ suppose the 
lirtt amhority, foe mountajn pbnts beiug hjiry. 

If I could sho^ positively (hat the endemic ■apecJes were 




matt bfliry in dry disin^ts, i^m the cft»e <ir iW vftHctIa 
becoming niorv bairr in dry i;round irovid b« a fftct Eoc 

C i>4/wiff J^ / D. MMer. 


Mv ut^R H00KS8,— t im goinit to vnjof mjbcU by 
liAviEig 1 |jrue on roy own vubjccti to yon, and tbi* b A 
^cAtcT cnjoymcni 1o m? than you wiTi readily ondcntnnd. » 
i Cor m^^nthq to^th^i do nttt np-n my mnuth cin Nahiral 
Hfsiory. Your tctv^r h of groat vuliic to mc, und i^iag|^rt me 
in regard la my pfOEiotition. i dare tay Ibc abteaoc of bo- 
tanical fjcu nuy in part be accouaied for by Ihc difficulty 
of measuring ilij^^l vdTMlioiiL tTid4;cd, after writing, thb 
occurred lo me ^ for I hitc Cru^iinteifs ahfoM comisi^ knto 
flower, jind the piirtl ought to be very vt^fiMe m Ic^Kth, and 
thiTiking of ihiH I nl onte fell how rould one judge tthrthcr it 
wji vjrialik in any hi|^ deerrt'e. Ho* dLfFermi, tar intuncci 
from (he licaL of s bird I Uui £ am not utuAed viib thin 
cxpUnaiioii, and am iia^gcred. Yd I think theTv Uionw* 
tiling; in the bw ; I hjtie hitd tumaoy iTittaiiccik m the follow* 
injE : \ vfoEe to WolLiKton to AftL brm to rtiii ihroti]^ the ^ta- 
deiia Kr^tletand (dl m<- whcihornny one presented anvihiftg 
Tciy anomiiloiis in fi?bimn to its iUies. llv g4Tc mc a unicju* 
CQAB t^ an enurmuub hcdd ia a femile* inii then t found io 
hih Ijuok, ilrvady tuied. th^c the tij^e vl the hcJd wu diJM- 
i/Ant^/v vacublc. PaEt of the diftcience vitb plonu may be 
acCDumed for by many of my <a»e* beina seeoodary nuk or 
ftmali f haracleri^ but Ihen I hiv* stnktTii; r:4«f««iih lier* 
maphrivtiic Cirripedei;^ The ruea Kcem to me far lOo nunei^ 
ouA for accident^ cmnddencrs, of great rambilny find ab- 
au(m:U dcvebpmenl. 1 prciome that you wdl not object lo 
my puUmK a note uyiiig that you h^ rrflei; tcd over (he cinr, 
add iboiigh oneoriivo e^sc* itemed 10 lapporit quite ai man^ 
or morr lepmed wholly contrudktory. This want of erideacc 





IS ihf more surprising lo mc, u gr^nfrntly I And nny propo- 
sition tauK cA-iily it5ie<f by ub^Tv.iinjHs in botankal w(J^k^ 
which 1 hnvQ I'luLcd U|ft llun lU ^cfLiti;gii;4l wgrk>, 1 itcvcr 
dreamed ifaat you had kcpi the lubfcci at alt before your 
mind. Allo^^crhi^r thr iisk it f»oc more of my many horrid 
pnjSKlr'^, My observntloniB, though an *a infinitely a *imall 
!(calr, on the struggle fnr eiiisiencc, b^gin to make mc itce a 
litlle ck'^rer fiuw rhc j^^^ht goes on. Out uf aixiccin kincl^ of 
*et'd »uwn t>n my Aiitjdoi^j fiftCL-n havL- ycioiinalrd. bul now 
ihey arc pch&hing al such a rale thai I doubl nhvlher rnvre 
than one will flower. Here wc have choking whKh hus Ukcn 
place Uki-'wi^c on a ^rtat ^ealc. wilh pbnU not M^edKng^^ in 
my lawn aliiiwinl In grew np. On ihc olhtr hnnd, in 
grouiiiJi 2 by j fk-ct, L have djily fiiarkeil t^udi need- 
ling weed a& u ha& appe;tTcd duiing Match. Aprii ^nd 51ay, 
■^n*^ ,t5? have cjnie uvs and of these 337 h^ivr airaniy been 
ktlled, chiefly by siug^. Ily ihe uay^ jt Mcor pATk, 1 mw 
rather a ptetiy case of Ihe offecw of «nimaU on vcgcfaiion : 
iherc arc cnnrmous comm'ins w»h cTumps of old ScoTeh firi 
on IhL' hills, and abotu eighr or [en years ngo >iome of those 
eommonfi wert? {.-ndovied. und all round ihe diini^iib nice- voAini; 
iRCs are springing up by ^he mdliun, looking edacity a» if 
'fflinCed, 40 many are of thr sjme aj^r. In other part* of ihe 
eonirrtrm, not yer enclrs-d, I Inokrd for mi1e« and not anr 
yauAg irce rould he leen. V ihcn wrni nenr (wirhin q^Mricr 
of a mile of Ihu dumps) and looked tlosdy in the hcnihcr. 
and thtfrs 1 fvund \*iw^ of ihodsandfi of yuuo|; Scotch fint 
(thirty in one »qu&re yjrd) wtih tlieir iiJp)« nibbled otf by Lhc 
few caide which occAtionally over theie wrel<^hcd heaihi. 
One lifTlc Irec^ ihrec inchi^'i hiifli, by the rinjc^ apprjirrd lo he 
iwt^niy-itEt yenn oh^ wtch a ihori s^tfm ahfint at thitlc n:4 a 
«ick o( sealing-wax- What a wondrous problem ii ift» what 
a play of forcen. deLermining the kind and proportion of e^icU 
plant in a kir]ujirc yjid of luifE It ib (o my mind truly won* 
derfuK And yei h'e are pleancd to wonder when tome animal 
or plant becomes entinet. 

I am fo Horry cbst you will not be %\ the Club. I ace Mrs 


TiiK u^rl^lMlED pook. 


Hooker U iroinfE In V;tnnuii[h ; I iniSl tbiit the heallfl of fnUT 
children U not ihc lnotlVL^ Good-bye- 

My dcit liiwtcf, e*eryouri, 

F. ii.<— t believe you Afe ftfrud (i>»cnd men ripe EdwunUiA 

Oa»ft. June S li*l>l- 

!tfT DKAK Hooki;r,— r honour jonr coiudemious 
about Lhr? mffdjtU* TbankGi>d! I am oiil]r ui amateur 
« mufh inirrcxied one) on the subject. 

El it an old notion of mine ihftl morr good (i done bf 
^ving mctlaU (o youngrr men in tlir early pin ol ifacrr 
caretrr, (hnn as a merr riurtiTil tr> men whow wientific career 
iu ne^Jy (inihliecL Whcllii^i niedAlit ever da any ^ih>r] m a 
qiicsiion which doti n4>t toncem ui, a* Ihcrc the niedaU axe. 
1 am ^Imfni inclined lo ihink thai I wontd raiher kiwcr llic 
■Undard, and Kiic medJilk lo younK vorken than lo old 
onc» with nn /f/rv'ir/f Uimi, With regard lo eipecial claiiarik 
I think Ic JLTiT deserving your atiention, that if gnunl claiaw 
i-are once iuliujtied* a 'j\>i'tn tlie ilovi lo f^rt^ laaily in giving 
them. Think of the catr of a very rii'h man, vho ^ded *ftrff 
wilh hi> money, but to a uiod eitent — oi luch an inconcciv- 
aMe prodigy as J mini^i^r nf ihr Crofrn wlio real^ cared for 
>dcnc«. Wnuld ynu give %utth mm med^D? Fertkipt 
fned«k could not b? bcllcr applii^i! ihiat fjcr/it^tvfy id muth 
men. t confoi a pn-ient t incJine tu UKk i<j e^ien«l cbimt 
wTiich can be put tlvvrn jn pjipvr. * . , 

I ilia iiiuf lj ixinlounded by your vhoving that there atv 
fiDi obvioui inauncM of my (or raih« WiZcThouv'i) Li* of 
nhnormal developments beinx highly variable I hare been 
thinking nwre of youf rcaark ftboui th« difficulty of judging 




fjT compAnng varuMHiy in pUnr« from the grcM general 

vArinbHiiy a( yam. 1 ^hauld look at ihe law a& more com* 
plctfiy ^maBheiJ if >'uu wuuld [um in your mind fj^r a Uicle 
wIliK' for ca^'A of threat vjtriabiljly uf an ort;sn, Aiid tell me 
whether it is (moderately cuy lo pick out AUch cuneA ; /^r f/ 
tJify iiti ff pukfd our, and, nolwifhsTitidingn do noj coincide 
Vi'iXh greut or abncinn^l devclnpmi^nt, it would be n corapleit 
viiiislur U is only bc.ijinmi'ift in y<^iir mirtd at rhc variability 
end of the question insiend of nt tlie jihrnnrmahty end, Prr- 
Ad^j tafics m wliich u part is highly vambk in nil the spi-tira 
uf jt group nhi)Lild bi: vntludtfd, :u jjusuibly beittg Konietbiti^ 
dihiinct, xnd f-unnettcil with the fit-r|i]cxiE>^ ^uL>jt^-( *A ptily- 
morphinm. Will you pcHcct your jinsist.ince hj rutTher LOtj- 
sadctine- '^t- d Utile, the wUjpct this ivny ? 

I havi' been bo mnch interested this morning in comparing 
nil my notes on the varialinn of the ^evi^ral h(tetie>i t)i ihi- 
B^DUi Bi]UU!i and the re^LiU^ of theit croiUng. 1 ^king mott 
vtriclly analo^uK fads amongst \\\t blc^icd pigcont for my 
|[iil<if, T bcticvc I can plamly *ee the colcuriug and marks of 
the gmnd/athcr of the \is. Hone, Qiiagft.i. Hemionii* 4ftd 
Zebra, some millron-t of g^ncmiLon^i ago! Should not I 
IhavrJ snetr[ed] it nny on*- who made such a rcmart to mf 
A few years jgu - bul my evidence itcema Ui nic «u yuoU that 
I ih^ll publish my vition At the end of my lurle ditcut«ion ork 
fhi*i ficnus. 

! have of Inte inundated you with my notloii»^ ymi \k^\ of 
fricndn and philoHopbcffl- 

C Dauwin, 

Mnr Park. Fjinibmn. June s^ih [\%ii\. 

Mv Drar HfWKER, — 'This rfipiirw no iinswer, bnt I will 
a*il< you wheneVEfr^rt mc{;l. Look at t^ndoued AeedJin^ gorsef, 
eipecially one with the lop knocked off, Thf; leaves suc- 
ceeding the LOtyledt^nK being jUmipat cbver-like in sh^^je. 




tmm 1o nK fe«l}ty Daalogou Do embryonic triraUmcn in 
foui^ aikiintla. ^ for ii»l4Ac«, the j^oung lion bci»|[ ttripocL 
1 ihall ui joo wWthcr tItA n lo-* - . . 

Dr. Ijnc t lAd vik. «od mother- in -b«, Lidy l>rpdile, 
afc 4onv nf tibc nimt profile I hive ev^-r mft. 

I rtinm bomc on the joth, f^ood^byc. nty dear H4>oktt. 

£vef fo«n, 

[Here foJlow» « group oif leicera; of rariout datn, borias 

I vat led io 3JI ihU work by 1 remark of Friev tb» (he 
tpccici in Urge genera were akore doielr rebtcd Ui each 
other thjui iii imjlL gencn ; and if Ihii «-ere to, miog ihat 
variciirxind «pecic< arc to hardty<lrtttnj(uithalile»l nonHudcd 
that [ ihould llnd more v«neti« in the large genera thafi Ifi 
iTiF muU' . . * Sotr'T daj I hope you will read mj ihort 
di«-ubhfo>n on thr irlioir vubjccr. Vou have done nie inlinTTr 
»er«ite; whiiovei optuiuti 1 ci>inc lo* iii ijiawibi my menlioLi 
to at leui ihe pouibility or the probabilitf of bciUniUi re^^ord- 
inj[ mrirc VArkrie« in Ihr Inrgr ih-in in Ihr small geom. It 
win be hard work for mc to t>c ejindiil in c^miaf to a>y roh- 


Ever Toun, rrvof i uvly, 

C DaRiviif^ 

P. Sh— 1 ^hail b« tcvcral week* al my prc*eal |ol>. Th* 
work ha* be«tk turaing out bidly for m« thi« moraing, atid I 
amairfcat heirt ; and, oh I how I dohateqxoei and varieties 

I Tlif ptayiUiao tl Moor Vu\. 



... I write now lo impplicula motX varncMly 4 favour^ 
til-, Ibc Icwii '»! liifftiiti, J'Jifft t/ti itHtre sit U f'ana^ rttfrtr 
isf vr tfit^ idifit-n. Iflii b«[ ; also ■■ Tlora RitUboncniis,'"' by 
Dr. FUmrohr. in ' N'alurhiar. ToftogrAphir von Kcjiirn^briru, 
iRj9-" If you ean/ftfwlWv spare ihem, will yoM srn^ fhrm ,ii 
once EO ihc cnHoscft address. If yon have not cht^m^ will 
jrou «nd one line by return of post : j^ I tnuBl iry wh«lh«r 
Ki^pUl • can anyhow find Ihtm. which I kai wiU bo ntjrly 
imjHitsibic in the Liniicau l.ibriiryj in which I know Ihcy Jit. 

1 h^vf bten making f^n^c cAlcubnon-t Aboui variiriLc\ &(^,t 
anil (aiking ye*ittTdi;y wiih T.TihhorV, ho has pointed out to 
nic th{! groKst^ht blLinflct whith I havt^ inadr^ in ]mnrip1^, and 
which enuiU two or three ^vccks' Lost work ; and I am ±\ a 
dcaddock Lill I h±\c ihcie kgokt to go ov^t agajn, and bcO 
tvhflt the renLiIl of t-jknl^tion on Ihc riijlit principle t§, t ain 
the mo5t miserable, bemiiddtcd, siupiii 6a^ in all Krif^liind, 
and nm ready to cry with vfxaiion oi my hhndncs and 

Bveryouiai moat iniarrably. 

C- Damwin. 

Dowa, IJulyl utli C^^^tJ- 

Mv ncAn LvHsnrK.— Yftn have done mc the grrniesi 
po^uihle service in helping mc to cUrify niy btajnt If I am 
a? muz/y on all &ubj«cl& as I jni on priiporhon and chaacf, 
^wliaL a liook ! s^hall pioducc? 

I hjve divided ihc Npw Zealand Flora as you 4iiggc4t**d. 
There ate ^i^ upcciefi in gtntra of 4 and upwariis, and 333 in 
genoTft of 3 and Iwhbl 

■The Iiiic Ml 
SockEji'k Librnrj'- 

KfppliC vos i[ ihii time ixi chuce of the LJnaetci 




TTic JJ5 ipci!f*^» hice 51 tpffin prcvceing one of mow 
varicric*. The 313 '*|K.'(-io* hnwc t>i\\y 3J, ProportionAtelj 

|jEcsc»iiri|; vin, Si> ihal (he C4ic goc* u I «ani -i, Imii not 
firong enough, whhoui it be gcncml, for vtt lo h«*ic toscb 
confid<rnrc in. I am qii!ic ronvincf_d yOHri i« ihc rijfht wajr ; 
1 }im\ ihr>u|;h( of if, \m\ should never have done ii bad k not 
been for my mo« (onunalr convcmatiim wiih you. 

i UJ11 quite bbcMiked lo dinl how v;tbily I aiit muddled, for 

my »ay wjii fair, ll i» drcadfuJty crroneoui. 

VVhnt a diagmccful blunder you faa^'e «Ted me (fora, 1 
heartily thank you. 

Ever yount 


P. S. — Ti a enough W mite me tear up all ny MS^ atkd 
give up in d4r«pair. 

Il will LAke me t^vcnd weekh 10 go over oB my nutcnaU- 
Bul oh, if you knew how thankful 1 am lo you ! 

Mv hf.ah Hnouta,— Ir ii a horrid bore yoo c^nikoi mm* 
loun, ind t rrproach tnytelf that 1 did nol Kiile sooner. 
Howbu^y Tou mittt l*:! n-hh vii;h a hei^ of l>oCaAi»u aj 
Ktivf, Only think, I have jl^ hod a lelief from llcntknr. 
trying he will come here beWeen inh and t «ih ? ti nor 
X>\\x. fcnnd ? Many thar^Vt about Fflrnrohr I motf hutnhly 
aLipplieatc RiiiplqA to irareti for le: he mo*t kindly gm Bo- 
rcju for mc- 

I am got cxiremely in(«reitcd in ubulctiot^ aceovding 10 
iTTcre 9L/e of genera, (he >pecie« havio^ ny virietiet mAiked 
by Greek triicrt or oihrr«t«e ; ihr result (a* f if a* 1 btve yet 
gone) teemi lo me oae of thr mmr important 4Tfcn»entaT 
have yci net wUh, that vnrietiei are only imall •jircicfr— Of 




species fliJy itFonpily marked variciid. 'Yhc subject is in 
mnny wjiyi MSvcry irnpoTt^mt for irn? : 1 wish mui^h you would 

U'ith 1I1C variehcf marked. It ih ^ood to have Ikaic^pl Liter* 
and lumpen.* I have dane, oc am doing -. — 

Hahinj^lvHi , 

Rnrpaii . 

Am Cny 


K. C.Wmkmi } 
- HoUua. 

Has not Koch publi^hetL a good Geimtui FJora? DoE^a 
he mfuk v;Lnctict? Could you send U mc ? U theic tint 
tumc gr.vnd Rutiimii Flota* uhirh prrlupi Klij» vaneiitiB 
marki^d i* The Floriii f>itftht (o be well known, 

J «m in no hurry for a few weeks. Will you mm thU m 
yeur fiend when, if ever, ymj have leisure? The sylij(.Tt in 
Vtty ImpotUM for niy work, iliuugh 1 cLeaily s^te many cau^a 
of error. . • . 

C Dai-a/in ta Aia Gray, 

Ddwd. Feb- airt [iB^]. 

Mv ntAft r.KAir,— My last Icitcr bepgcd no favour, thin 
(^nedocsr but it will rcaliT eost you very litile trioublc to 
antwei tu me- ind it will Ijci of very i^rfj/ service lo me. owing 
Uiuieinaik made (o inf Liy Honker, which [ cji^nol Cfediti 
iifid whi".h WJ6 sug^ie&ted [o him l>y one of my letlen. He 
suggested my asking you. and t told hJm I would not i^ivc 
Ihc lea« hint what he thought, I Eenerilly hdk-ve Hinjk«r 

* ThtHc wlin mkbp muif ^peds bre the "spUtlon," ud tlioft* who 
mtkc ffw ftfe t^r " hjinpcfi." 



inpljcillyp bat hr i^ lioniciimcK 1 think, and he confi 

Ntber ovcf ctUK^J, and Liiv in^cnuit> la dibLQVciing 
ftp exn« ta mr Mdminblp, Here ii my qHc*li(in :^*'D*> 
Ihink ehjtr fiaad hfitnTkiit^ in drAwLn^ up a \rtctl Flom, wh 
small or lorgc^ nr in m.iking 4 Pfodromus like Dc CAHdnl 
vouM Jilm^at univ^ntaJly, bul uoimrriiiuiMHy dud 
iciouilyi tend (o rci;urO (r f .< miiikiftg with Ur^ck Jtl 
ind giving ihoiE cluractcnk vAriclic« in the Urge or in 
9maU gcncTJ ? Or wi>u(d The tcni^cnry tie to r*ror<| Ibe 
riiltf*^ alkodl r:r[tin1ly jn i^i^ncrH nf all ii!xc4? Arc you 
arif conscious on reflrrtion that y<tM have aiicnderl to» 
ri-t-ordtd mufp tar^-fully the variclici in lojgc or small, <a 

1 know whAT nr^tmj; and irilHriji thinjit vjineti^a v«ryol| 
Ar^ : hut mv <|iiFfv ippLici tn such fit have be^n (houi 
worth nijirting atrd rei^ordmg. If you eouLd !Hrrcw riiae 
s^nd in« ever ao brief an answer to this prrliy Mii>n> H 
hti a grriLL «erv)<:L' lo mc, 

\'om£ oio&i inily obliged, 

P, S-— Do yoii] kti<iv whethrr any one has ever publiihc 
ftny remarks on ihr^ geograpbiL-al mnge of viiieliei of pbn 
in compacHuti with ilii- Hpcci?« i'.- which [hey arc »iuj>|)vaed Is 
belong? I Kawc in irtin tried to gri lome rajtue idcJU and 
wirh the eKception of a IttiIo informnlinn r>n thia hr^d jciv^ 
me by Mr, Wjjivin m j paper on T.jind fihclU in U, Stati^ 
have qriite f;iilcd ; bui pcrhnpa it would be difficult iat yo 
lo give me even a brief anuwcr on thii hend, and if so I 
not 90 unr«;iHonablc, / njsur/ ivi/, »it to expvct lI- 

U ytm arc writing tu KnuLin^.! tioon, you could encUa 
Other leiteii \(ai] mc to forwaid, 

rirme obicrve the iiui'siion i& not whether ihtre ai* 
OT fewer variriica in larger or sm.iUef jtenerji, but whelh 
there it a stronger or weaker tendency in the iniAdi of 
nhis to ra^rtt such in lotge of sju^ili seaen. 



C. l>artm» A* / /}. IftH/J^r. 


... I lend by this po«i my MS. oa zhc "<omnionnct«," 
*'i»ngc," and "variation" of specie* in l.irgc anj imnll gen- 
era. You hnvr unrltTlJiki'n a hnrriti j"li tn m> ytry kindly 
off<tLng to read ii, iind I Ehnnk ymi wnrmly, I h/ivo Jimtrrir- 
rccird the copy. u.ti(J am diaapjioinipd in finding ho* loiigh 
3rti uliBcujc ii i^ ; UllI 1 tJinni}! iiuki; Jt tk'urvri and at prc9' 
viLl 1 IvAthc the very «ight of it. i'hc ftlyttof Lumnv rei]uiE«« 
fqrihd correction, and if pnblUhcd 1 mutl Uy\ but u yd wtf 
not how, to make it cU'^rcr. 

If you have Tnu<'h I0 sny nnd cnii have pELtiirnci^ to ron- 
ftldcr ihc whalE hulijcci, I would mtet yo» in London on the 

■ I'hi]. Clul; day, i.o as to have yc^u Ihe iroudleut ^ncin^. For 
I Htaven^ soke, yoti Mcrn and awlul judge «iid M:cpiic, re- 

■ mrmbvr that my conclusions m-iy be Irur, notwithfiCanJing 

■ that Botani^i* nmy [\sv\- recorded more variclic* in large thna 
I m «mnU goni^rA ll secink 10 me n mcfc b^Uncirtg of jiroba- 

■ biUlien, Agnin t thank you most sincerely, but I r»r yon 
H vill find it a horrid job. 

^^^ Ever yours^ 

^^M C. Dahwin. 

m P.S.— Ab usual, Hydropathy hari made a niian of me for a 

lliort time; J hopv the He« will do Mra. Huok«r much good. 

C Dattein /tf A. R. \V<t!iaf^. 

Dorm, D*r Mcid, iSfl, 

Mv DtAR Sn, — I thank you for your letter of Sept. S7th. 
I am ^Ktrvinely ^a*S to hear iliul you are jittending to diBiri- 
bLjlion in aci'^irdjnce with theoretical idcaA, I jnt j tirtn lic- 
Ikver thai without Kpeculaiion there is no good and original 
obwirvaiion. Few cmvellcr^ have attended to such points u 
you :ire n'lw nt work on ; jnd, mdcTd, th« whole (lUhjccE of 
dittriLulion of animolt it dreadFuUy behind ihat uf j^lanii. 

than jron ; bnt it ^^^^^H^ "i^ 
IaHvc noHoni. ! KlRH^ct sfcn 
buiian of Animafa in ih« Ani lilm^i^l 
utcnotfl tnlcrr-4t ; (or I flunk Ehni thr 
<if Lite whole globe in rcii^riTCt ii> dihinl 
t>cca vrry imperfccity trying to coll 
Acchipclago. 1 fhilt be 4«itr pitpird 

cvltkncc of the Cot»i Recti I coldui 
mv Cor*l tokmcj of ihc Aru T^li- 
l>ui goE frightened and tcfc il u,, . u 
ihil you an indiord to |;u much furl 
^artl tv iliv furmvr <onii»iiun of occa 
tift<ntk Kvcr tmce |h>ot fi. Korbet p 
trine H hai bcoi vx^trif fcUoirfd ; am 
di^ruMr^ ihf fnnnrr conncrtioi^ of a|] 
and New Zcalanfi and ^nuih Am^ried 
] discuiied this «ubjecf much Tith L< 
] ihttli htfvv Id Imt of ii)^ and wrote 
0|)po>Hilj4n ; buc yvu will be ^lul lo hi 
nor Hooker thougti[ mtKb of my Jiri^i 
for once in my lif^ ' ''-f*' "ithj 




ftuWaaiiL In the Pacific Inlands there are rasfs of idcrriCy, 
which I cittmol at t'^i'i^Eil iimiiaU^ mpclf to auuuut for by 
iiilroJuttUni thfuuyh rnaii't -L^^crciLy ; allhougli iif. Aug, LiuulU 
hji Loiiclunuly lUoivn ihal m^ny Und-»hetU have [hu> been 
dijtribulcd ovtr (he Pacific by man'» iigcncy. Thcs* ca^ca of 
imrcxliiction nrt: most pla^iinj:, H^vt ynn not foitnd it ^ in 
the Maby ArrhipcJngo ? Ir has lecmed to a\c in ihr Km* of 
rnarnm:!]? nf Timor and olhcr island?, ihoj trt^fai m ftll prcth- 
ubitjty havt- bo?n nalumIi^t?(I, . . , 

Vou Jik wlictficf I sliall discu»H '*man/' I think I uluill 
^B&ttfilfi^|de subjci:!, a« &o surrounded ivah pitiuOui:^ ; 
B^RIpV^fffHDiil thai El \i (he highest and moii intcrciling 
prohk-ni lot Ihe naturabbt. My wurk, un ti'tiich I bnvc now 
been Bl work more 01 lc&« for twenty ycdr^, wiLl not fix or 
HitU Anything ; but I hope il vill uid ly giving j latgc coU 
lection of fiicla, with one definite end- 1 get on rery slciwly, 
pnrty from iH-hcnhh, pnrtly from bring a vtry aft»w worker, 
I hnvi? got ^tioiil liaLf wnicen ; but I do iyot lEipposc 1 ihall 
publishi^d ifnd<?r c'oii]ik- of years. I have now been ihtce 
whole roonrh^ on une ^liaiiter im Hybridism ! 

1 .-ini ^3[L>niihcd Ur sec thiXC you «\pt:cL 10 rtmain 01.1i thrr« 
ot four ycjif3 more, VVhai a wonderful deal you wdl have 
flcen, Mnd what infcrciting jiwa^^lhe grind Malay Ar<hi« 
pelago and the n<:hr;^( fifjru of Sourh Amcrlcu ! 1 infiniicly 
admire and honour your /eal ^r\d courage in ihc good oaw^ 
oC Naluidl Scivnt:? : and you have my very sincere and cprdi:il 
gooilwLiiheH for succesb 0I all kjndB>;tud may -AV your theories 
■nccced, except thil on Oceanic Ibiafid^ on wbii:h iiubjeol I 
will do h^tilc to the dtfdth. 

Prny believe me, my dear iir, yours very Rinecrrtyi 

C. Dantii h If. D. P^x. 

Fdhfiih fEt^K> 
. . , I im tvorLinji very hird at my book, ficthjp« too 
hATd, \i will be very big, and I «m become most deeply 
Interctted in the way f^cii fall into grnupv, I am like Cto^«ut 




book ^ perfect uocf I cxn. I ihjiU ooi go tA pvcu al toOA' 
oi for a cou|)le of )«an. . , . 

, . , I w^fc Df^i much itruck vith the grMt Hucktc* uad t 
»dniir«4 thi: way yoo fiui k up iTjohi i.^( duct ion and induc- 
tion, I ftm fTAdJnfC hU hook,* irhii^h, with mufh «f>phiqltT; 
ai ii ftcems to mc, in tBVmJtr/irify cXcvtt and flrig^ai, ftad ai^ 
astuunciini; knoulrctge. 

1 Aiw ih^t you Jilniiicd Mrs, ?'JrrcrS ' QunU tomba ' of 
BccihovcD thoroughly ; there u tomcehiag grutC in hct iwcft 

t'vevrcll. I have parily written tfau) note lo dnvf tM-«'f- 
<:«1U out of my hcul ; Joi I xni hilf-mAd on the tubjcci la 
Uy Eo aakt out lomt timplc vicps Ixum vhich all ifae won- 
dnjo>< xngkfi niiy retuli.f 

I wiiH vi-Tv gilid in !we Mn. Hooker on Kndjty ; ho* w«il 
»hc appeifi to be ind looki^ 

Forgjve your iotolerablf; but affectionate fiiPBd, 

C- Dabviv. 

liarim. AprtI |bh|lM5l| 

Mt niAk FoXi'-^C wjLOt you to^bficrvconepoifitfov lae, 
on whkh I -LTU ciiicmely much Jntcmicd, «nd atiich till |[iit 
you no trouble beyond kerpTng your cyei open, and thai n a 
hjibit 1 kftnw full frclJ rhnt you have. 

J find horws of various colouraDfirA hjve a ipinaJ kiad 
or siri^t of d^Svrmt and Jnrkcr (inl than ihe trA of the body ; 
r«n-ly tranairnu bw* on the lcu>, generally on the uo^lcf-Mde 

*-Tiic Itlttoy ofOriliiB^A-' 

f lit liail muth omipipaadpKt Ob tlu> tubjvcl wilb lb* kL« rfofftpiat 



of ihc frcmt Wgs^ slill more rawly a very faint ttan^vtrw 
thoiilder-ariipc like a,a ub«, 

la ihcre any breed of Delomcre forcsi ponies? I hnvc 
found oui Hitie nbout [jonien in thest reapecia, Sir P, Kgef- 
lEjn bjui> 1 brieve, ijoini^ <iuJ(c thoiougtibrEd cb^ainut honca ; 
have kny Qi Lbciii Lhe apmul hLnjjt ? Moubtf-Luiiruied ponicsi 
or rather *maU hones, often h.ive spjniU and kg bar*. So 
hrivc dun hor»cH (by duti J mean rcul tolour of cream mixed 
with brown, bny, or t^hcsinuij So bnvc sometimes chrsinuti, 
but I havtf no! yet got a case of spinal sxripp in chestnut, eor-e 
hc?nte> Of in (.^uite btuvy cau-boisu. Any fuci uf thiv aature 
of such ilripes in boifct would be vtp>/ uictul to me. Th«JO 
is a parallel ca^c in the li^^ of ihc dcrnkt^y. nnd I haiv coU 
let'tfd sonn: mosi curious cases of stripe? Appearing rn va- 
rious CTO*ised equine animals, 1 havt^ alaa a large masn 4>f 
parullcl Tacit in the breeds of [ligcons about the ^ing ban. 
I lUi/Vi-f it ^'ill throw ll^hi on Lhe colour o{ the primeval 
hornr, So dti hdp me if occasion turns up- , . . My He-ilth 
hflfi been lately very bad from ovefworK, nt\d on TnesiJfly I go 
for a fortnighr's hydropathy. My work is everlasting. Farc- 

My dear Fox, F iillsi you art well. Farewell, 

C, Darwin, 

C. Danfin in /. D- Mooktt, 

Muur rprk. r0mb»m fAptil i6tb. i%*X\. 

. . ". I have just had the inntrmosi cockles of my heart 
rejoLVL'cl by a ItUer from LydE, I said to him (or he to me) 
tlial I believed from (lie ehara^vtcr of the Hiitj <>I ihe Ajoicis 
thai [ceber£!( must h.ive been stranded theie: and that I ex* 
|>erlcd erratic bnnlflcr* wmjld be detected embedded between 
the upheaved lava-lx^Js ; and I goT l.ycll tc» wntf lo Hnrturg 
to afikp OEtd now H. ^ay& my tjue&lJori ejiplaint whaL had 
aitDUQdcd him, vi*., large boulders (and »ome poli*hcd) of 

e.ipiarti, sandstone^ At., fiomeembedded.and BOtne 
feel above the levct of the §ea, mo th^ii he had 




inferred (hit Ihcy h%^ nol bcttt broil|[bt At 1>JilU*t, l> 
(loi facauiiful? 

Thtf wMcr-^'urc hij-t <Ji>nt mc wni« guoij, txit I [flm] 
tng to boaal of lo-daVt io ^vmi-liyM, 

My dc«r fiienj, youtK 

c a 

C. Iktrtt'i/t ^ C. Ij^. 

Mv nRAK LytLi.,^1 havtf Kome hvK fot a fortnjgbi 
hydro [i:Lthy, Ji my ttumuih TuJ ^i^t, Uvsu Hicady wuH:. inia 
bornd ^uu. I nm ciitcnt^ly nuich ubLigcd to ]rou ffv «etu 
ing mc Manung'ftimFrHlitig Letter Thf crrniic bovMcna 
it]tl«*ndE{i. Ii 11 ;k grand cau: uf flj7a1tag jco vcr^ui gbck 
Hc< ought ti) huvr rjjnijiaruil the rtirihrrn nnci tuulhom shoi 
of the JfilamtL It iii L-mmenily JntcTciting to me^ tor I hn 
writicn a very Iting chapter on Ihc tubjccl, collecting briofl, 
alJ the- gcolojELCAl cvidcncr vt jtUfUl *r|Jon m difTcrcnt pit 
of ihn worTc], jnd thtn ni itrcni Icngih fnn the ihcoty of ipc 
cict chunKing) [ have di*i:u«p<I rhi" fnigration And modinc 
lion of p1um« Aniil anini'tls. in wn and land, oi-rr a l^rgc par 
or tliv world, Tci my rniiKl. tt Oirovi^t i flood of light on tb 
tthuir »u|jjn t of ifiiiLritmiion, ii combinod with Ihc modificA 
lion of fcpcLics. Indeed, I vctilUfc To tpcak with tonic lUt 
cotifidcncc on this, for Hoolicr, About « year ikjic. kir.dly re* 
over my rhajittr, ant] ihoitgh b<^ thc*n drmiinrd ijravpiy 
thi^ gmcrni conctn»nn, [ y^^As, rtclighi^ to hear a vcck o^ tun 
ago that he was inclined to comt round prerty simngly ut tnf 
viewEi of diainbulioti and changt; during ihe glacial period, 
hid a letUr from 'Jlionipton, uf C;;lvuCtii> the other day 
whk'U hdpt me much, 31 he it making out for me wlui lica 
0[ir tcmpcTQif^phnii f;in endure. Itui it it too long b lub- 
Jeci for a note; and F have writicti thus only hi'cauw Har^ 
tUng'B note ha« tct thi- whole *u!ijf<'E afloat in my mtn* 
again- But I wilt write no more, fur my ol:>)ecl here » tA 
think ib^ni nothing, bathe much. wuU taixcU, rat much, ui< 




4; I 


■ rrad much novd?. FarrwuD, viih many thaokf, and vcrry 

I kind re]iii'mbr«uo<: 10 Lady Lydl. 

B Ever youn, 

C. jyam'it fkf ^frs. Dtu-teia. 

Moor Pftfk, W(d»c*<lnjv .\|iriJ [tBj*J, 

The wcaLh<;r it quite dd;dou4, Vc^terdjy. after KiiiLnu 
to you, 1 iUuUcd a hUle beyond the glade iw an hour hind 4 
half, aQd cnjoyird my»clf— -ihc frc*h yc( dflfk-grpcn of the 
l^rjind SroFih fir?, rhe hrown of Ihc r^iIktnK of the old birrhci, 
with their while 9t<^ms, ind ;l fringe of distanc green from the 
bTi:hc& madu an c^cefijvt^ly (iicLty v^cw, Al L^t I fell fatt 
asleep on Ihe gio^s *^'^ awoke with a chorus of birds ^infjing 
atQund mc, and «qdtrrclB running up Ihe U^^^, and aomc!f l.iughing, Hnd il w.iii jiii plea&ji^l untl n 
scene A9 ever 1 saw, .inii I did not earc one penny how jiny 
of the hcasis or bird^i had been formed. I sui in the drawing- 
room till after eighr, :>nd then wcni rmd The Chief Ju5- 
liee*H sumTTiing up^ arirj thought BiTnar^l * K"'lty, and thi-n 
read ■ hit of my nm-elt whkh i^ feminine, vtrhious, clmcil, 
phibnihropical. and all ilial sort of thing, but very decidedly 
fljt. I SflV feminine, fnr the author is igr^nrjLnJ ahotir money 
mntri^rs, ^nd not much of a lady — for she mnkc^ her men i^ay, 
'* My Lndsr," I ]fke Miss Crnik very touch, iht^ugh wc hnve 
sctxic balde&p and differ on every bubjectn I like abo thvi 
Hun|;arian ; a Ihonjvigh gentleman, furmerly aMach^ nt ^ana, 
and then in the Au&lfian caviLry, and now a parduned exilct 
with broken health. He doe4 not teem to like Ko^^th. but 
intyv he L9 eeria^rn [he i*] a sinrerc piitrioE, most clever nnd 
cLoilueni, biri woalc. wUh no ilc termination of eharartcf. , 

■ S*(in-in rV™,»M WM iricd In April 1G53 d± fln iirrm*nry inOnliit't 
■fTniLi^i un Ihr lifp of ihc Em|4crOr ol (he FtCDcb- 'Mic ferdtet wu " pot 

Till wftrnvc or tki *<hu^i> or ft^xcm.* 

P'tif Icltctk ]£tvcn in tlic pfvtcnt thspier IcU Iheir iCory 
trith aufficirtK ckarnct»« imJ need but i frw vfnd> of cipla* 
nation. Mr. Wallacc't Hflajt n^fif-rrfiS to in the firvt 1i 
bttrt the »nb-tii1e, 'C'n Ihc Tcndcni,-y of Vunrtic* to dqiaj 
indeAnLicly fram (he Original Type,' And «;>& jJublUhed tn ibc 
Linnean Socn?iy"i Journal (i^S*- ''*'^- >"■ P' 5J' " t*"* *^ '^ 
joint im|icr of *' M«tu^ C- l>iiT»in and A^ WalUcc," of mhk\ 
the full tlik vift 'On the Tendency ot Sprcies to form Vj 
ties; nnd on the VerpetuJkiioa of Variciie* and Spcde* by 
Natural Me^n^ of SdecHon.* 

My father'^ ci>ntrtl>uiion to the ]iapcr ron&iftUtl of (i) Ei- 
trju:U iii>m the «Vetch of 1^44 ; {i] \nLrt of a letter addtm 
to Dr. Ata Grayi dared Se^itember 5, it^AJ, and v-hick i§\ 
jfven ai p. tso. Th« pa'firr vnt "enmmfmlcAbed "* lo tlw 
Sotipiy by Sir Chatlea I-yell and Sir Jucph Hooker, tn wh< 
prcf jiiory IvU^t, a dear acccmni of the cii<c^]in»tini:c« of ll 
oat iH f^ivGii. 

Kefcrrinfl to Mr. WatlacE's fCkuy, they ivroie : 

"So highly did Mr, nirvin appreciate tbc value of the 
vtrwt therieiT) teC f{>tTh, rhni bi^ i^rniKthrd, in a Irtlrr to Sif 
Charlci LycH, in obtain Mr, U'lllore^ oonftcni to allow ll 
Rts^fio be pabliftbcd aiiot^n as |K>»nb1e, Of ihi^fltep 
highly approved, pirri-iilcd Mr, Danvin did nol withold froni 
the public, ai he una itrongly inrlinrd tc> Jo (in fawou? of 
Mr- Wallace), tbf menoir which he had him*dr writteit no 
ihc ume «ihjeci, and which, as briore ilatci^ one of u$ bad 





pcrubCii in r844, intl ihc coaiviUfc ai which we hm\ borh of 
u» hrcn privy lo foi niany yriiii. On rtpfe»enliug tl>i& Uf 
Mr Darwin, he guvt irn prrmiwjjn to make what u^c wc 
ihniighl prsjpcf of his memoir, Arr. ; iinj in adopting out 
prctcnc cnuiBt', of presenting it tn the l-innc^an Society, wc 
hrtvc cuplamtjd t(j hitn ihui wc arc nni loldy rnr^sidcrinft ihe 
idjiLive daims lo ]>r;<jritv of hiinndf iinti his friend, bm the 
ifi;ciuls of science gcncr;^ity."] 


Dawn, iftlh [Jacie 100]. 
Mv DEAft LvVLi, — Some year or «o a|ji> yoii rec^nmiended 

mc 10 reAd a paper Ity Wallace in Ibc ' Annntfi,' * wJiii h h?Ld 
intciCTtffd you. iind, j^ I w;« wniini; W him. I kntw ihrs 
woLiM pleaisL' him much, ■«) [ told himn He has Iw-dhiy icnl 
met he enclosed, and ^lAked mc loforivATcl it to you. iL sofmn 
to me wcU worth reading Vaiir word* have come n«c with 
a vengeance — thjit I nhoiiM bi' forestalled. Vou said ihii, 
tthvn I exptiitnt'd to yon h^-rr vi^ry bnVfty my view; of * Nnt- 
ur^r ^[Tlcc:tiEin ' dcpL'ni^lmg on thif uLni^j^le for ex)steni\e. I 
never taw j mofc linking tojiicidcnce ; if Walljcc hjii my 
MS, sketch wrilicn out in [84;, he roiiW noi have made A 
bcHcr »hoTt iibtrr^'T t Rveri hi* ti'rni.s no* stand us ht^ad* of 
my ehsptfrs. Plfasf reiLEm me iho MS., whirh he doe* noi 
My he ^i^hes me to puUlUh, hut I ahaii of course, at once 
wiittf und ofTer lu tend Lu jiny juurnnL 5o dlE my ofiginality, 
whotffvtr it miiy :iiiiuiiji1 I^j, tv^ll be sm^tht^d, though niy Lo^k» 
if it wdl ever hftve any value, wilt not lie dtleiioraled , 2A ^L 
ihe labour consists in the .ippliciticn of rhe (he4?ry. 

I hopr yfiW will flpprnvc nf WAlhec'i iiketch, th,it I may 
irll him what you «^y, 

My dear LyeLI, youn most truly. 

C, Daawik, 

• Aitnnt^ and Mafr ef N'm. Hitt., lAsfi. 


uxn mijrh fuller in my tki 
by Huokcr «ame duEca ycm a«o^ 
a *hor( ticrlch. of whkb I hare a 
10 corrc«pl>^d1^ntc^ on icvcril potM 
I ooald moit tnijy «iy «nd prore 
Walbcr I ihouTd b^ rxtrtrmclf ghd' 
of my (prnrrai \U-wk m uUcioc a dowijl 
oat iwnuuJc ntyteii thai J can do 
wy* nc>thing dboui publicaiion. jnd 
ai I tud not inrrndcd (o pubtiih any %\ 
riiiThitily, bnniiv Wjillflr* hai *cnt mc -. 
ttitit.-^ 1 wi^ihlil fir mth^r hnrn my wl 
or jiny oihcr man shmM think ihoi I h 
ipirit, tfo you nut tJhink hi« having i 
nty b^nd^i? . . ^ U i coulii huiioLmMy 
Ihal 1 wu induced nott to pubhhh a i 
tcry glad lo b? pcrmiii? d lo tiy, to I 
ago giTcn) frorn Watl^iic hatjnjc «CDt 
gmtril conclii^nnx We differ ontfp 
my virwh itam ^hai jnifif iat ^fictton 
animals, 1 woulJ w^<l w^ijj^co :i c<i\ 
G»yi to ih< 




iiTffr to Huolicr to be forwBriJccI lo rac, tot ihcn I thill Iiavq 
ihc opinion ^^f my two bpsi ancl kindest fHcnds. This li-ncr 
IK mi-'iprnbly wTiucn, anil t wm<^ h nor, thai I muy for a 
tiiiii- l>ani9[i the whoJv bubj^ct j iinU I Jiui wom out with 
muHitiK • . . 

My g(Kn.\ dcxt Siiend forgive me. This U « [TLimpcry let- 
ter, influcQtcd by trumpery kcling*. 

Your* moB^ truly, 

C Daowiv. 

T wfU nfve? iFAubte you or HooVi^f r^fi i>tf' nubj^ct iti^nio^ 

a Dara-tn fa C Lyrit. 

Down, aAch [[Hue, iBsfi]. 

Mr IWAH Lyell,— Forgitfc mo for adding a P.S, lo make 
Ibe r?** a.^ strong ai pos^ihlc Agnin-^t my^df 

WaMart ntighl say, "Von Oid ni^t inlcnd publishing an 
atMUact of yt>Ltr views till you received my commuaicaticm- 
\% it fair Lo ukc udvj.ikiagc uE my b^ivmg frct^ly, though 
unA^kird, cominunitalt'd lo yoii my id^^a, and [hufi prevent 
me for»ial]ing ymi ? " The ndrnniagr whirh I nhnitld \siVt 
being thai r am induced to publish from prii-aiely knowing 
ih^E Wallace Lb in thp AeTd. it Esriiis lurd on mir that I 
thuutd be l!tu*i i:4;im|hc[lcd li> loae my j>riaTiLy t^f iiuuy yfam* 
stmding, but I CAnnciI fed x\ atl ijure tlial tliih alLi;!r> Ehe 
juWirt of the raHC- First imprcwiom nre gcnerjlly right, aad 
I AC fim thonj^ht if would be dUhononrabk in me r^tm to 

YouM moBt trtLly, 

C Dahwibt. 

P, S, — I have always thought you wouM mjkc a Ursi-ntte 
Lord CbanceUor ; and 1 now appedl lo you a> a Lotd 

, . . • Cod ljlc» you, Vou Bh< 


C Danvi9 to J. D. 

Mv UEAK HooCRH, — I havG Juisl n 
you w;tnl <hc papers «t once, I jun 
can do nothing, but J send WilUoc, a 
\t\\t\ C'j j^iJi Grny, whWi K^"^* ni'^^ 
mcnnH of rbannc. ami dot-ii nrii tmii^h Q 
th^c fpvcict do change. I dale sAf aT 
c«rv jbouc iL Bui you atc ion gcncm 
tiine jLDtJ kin<li]«r«. It a luunt u^-neroi 
my ikclch oX i»44 tolcly Utiil you ' 
handwHtbg thai you did re^ it. I 
lobk at it Do noi w:liic muth tiioc- 
tiO cane >t All ahonr T^norLiv. 





T will do anythmg t'.ml lilfSh you. my iJriir Itind fjifnd, 
I c^n wrJLt? nu more, 1 scml Etiift by my M:rvanL lii Kcw, 

[The J&llowing kttci is that alrtadj" referred to as form- 
ing part of the joint pa^icT ijiiMiihcil in the LinnCiin Society's 

C. Dartftn to v*** Cra t. 

Mv »KAH CiwAV,— I forget the cxnci woiils whirh 1 mod 
in my fotmt'i UU«, Uit I dare say I aaitl thai I lht»oghI yoa 
(vould u(E?rJy dc»]>LHe mc when I Told you whit vii'ws 1 h>id 
arrived at, whkh I rfid hcratmc I ihonghr \ ysm hound as an 
honest man lo do go. I ^hcuM have been a. sifingt morul, 
seeing hy* much I owe to your quile ejttraordinnry kmdncjs, 
if in bJtytnj^ iliis I hjil Tnt'anl tn attrihutt^ Ihp least hj^i\ fci'ling 
10 you. Ptrinii mc to icU you lh;it, before I haul ever ci;»rrC' 
Gpondcd with you, Hooker hod thown mc several of your let- 
ter* (not o( a priviitc natuiv), and Ihese gave me the Avarroesc 
feeling of r^ipccl to you ; ^nd 1 ihould indeed be uagiateful 
if jonr Irticrt to m^, nnH all I have hcnrd of ynn^ had not 
sirongly i^nhanrpd ihis feeling. But T did not feel in the IctK^t 
Biin- ihui when you Wnvw whilhci I was tending thai ynu 
might uut think me %m wild and fooliflh in ray vJew^fGod 
knowb. ar/ivcd ai nfowly tnwiit;h, and I hope fomn-ien'.Juusly), 
that you would think mc worrh no nkorc fiiiticE of a^<ist:tiM Ch 
To Kivt one example ; the list time I saw tny dear old friend 
Faironrr, ho alTartn'rl mc moir vigorfiuuly, h»I qiirtr kindly, 
and told me, " Vnn will do more harm than any ten Naniralisi?! 
will do gpod, I can see that you have alrcudy ^rru^ii and 

*The <]ji1c in ifitfcii &• OctDtitH In th« ^ Lmndan JourtiJiL' The ft- 
llirtiwws pHmM from a aiipUcaTf umlatcil copy m m> fathtr'* pn^t^v 
ll0n. on wtktch h« KaiI *ri1lvii, "TUi wuxnt Id Aw Gn^ B orq inuiilTii 
■^, I Ihink Oftohrr r3)7 

4;8 THE W;tlTlNc; CF THE 'OBllGlSOF »M?CIK?>,' |i 

half-spoitrJ H(n>ti'r J ' " Now when J xc luch «troi>9 feel 
In my clcluii friends X^u "^^ "^ wonder thju I Alw^rt 
pea my viewt tg he rcEciivd iriiii c9ntviDpt, But cnot 
and Uto much c^f thiv 

J think you inr>«i iruly for ihe kind ipirii tttyanr list kit 
T ij^rce tn every svnrd in il, and ihink I re» «s far a4 aT 
anyone in 5c«ing the ^ravc Uifficuliies a^aat my dociri 
Wiih rvspccE tu lh« exieni lo whiUi 1 gfjf a}} Ihe oxguna 
in Uvouml my noiiont fill i^'tiVrjiWiiy, the gicatcr Ihcrsco 
of formt conMdcrcd. Bur in inimali. cmtiroJogy Icjtih uie 
» enormous nnd frightful rariKr The f.KT« which kept i 
Inn^^r Hrtirntiflcr^lly orihotiov arc thi>tr of J9j1ft|ifaiii>a^ll 
pollen- maitacA in a^le|iiaf^ — the mJKtk-Eoc, with lis jtoll 
coniccL by irticutt, ind seed by bird^-lhe wgixlpeckcr, wi 
iU feet Aod Uil, beak and tongue, to climb the trre ai>d wlu 
in«ecu. To xik\k of cliinMc or LAm^rckun h.-ibit prodocu 
nieh ad^ptJttont to ochcr organic bcinnt it futtlc Thtv dif 
cuTty r bclici'c I have ^urmounicd. A* you spcm inicmti 
in the subject, uid u it ti on imm^irst advanXagf to ne i 
wnitf til you jind lo hear, ever w> brirfly. what you think, 
will cncbfic (copied, to at to t.ase you trouble m rr^tni 
the bricle»t abiiroct of my notions on Ihc! mcan^ by whK 
Nitiire make! her ipectci, Wliy I ibink ihot cpecic» hav 
feally chflnitevl, dcprnjU on ^' fni* in Th« flftioil 
embryolngy, rudimfninry orKanXt geological hif^Tory^ and f^ 
(Eraphkjl diniribution of organic beings. In regard to in 
AUnLru^Ji, yuu luntt l;ikc: itnuienfiely on iruBl, cn4:h paragrap 
occupytnu one or two chapter^ m my book. Vvu wilL pel 
bapK, think it palUy in mc, viUen 1 at-k you not lo mvittiod 
my dortrinc ; tbc re.non i?, i( any otic, like the auihoi ol 1l 
^Vcvijorn/ W[-fr trt hfsT nf Tbrm, he mij^ht eaiity w"*rk the; 
in. And then I thould hnve tn rjtmte from a work prrhapi 
deipipcd by naLUTalUui and ihis^ would tfrcaily injure nn 
chanL:^ of my views being rcceiwil by (bote alune ^tho 
Opinion* I vAlue. [Tlfte follow* a dittruwion on *■ Urgi 
genem varying/' which han no direct corioecEion with thi 
remainder of the letter] 


Tllfc LllTTEk TO DR. GlUr, 


t, ll is vramlerftit ikhul the ]irinH[jk of SHfrtiEin ^y Mm, 
that is ihe picking out uf mdiviJiialA with ixny Uci^ired L^u^ihiy, 
itnd breeding from them, and Again pickiDs out. cAn do. 
Even biv'<^ficr* h^vc Incfn a*toniihod M their own result*. 
They can act on Jiffcrences in.ippfriMMi' tn nn iinccjinjtfed 
tft. Selection hns btcn mftHndUafiy follnwcd in Kiiropc far 
only llie last halF ti-rilury^. But it h^it occaaionally* and even 
ill ht-mc degree me L hod i tally, bveri ruHuwod in l[ie iiiuBt 
ftttcicril linitra. Tlwre muiit hjivc been oiiiQ a kind of uacc^A- 
idoqi ickcii-^n from t e nioit ftnc:cni limcv namely, b ihe 
prewtvalion of (he ini^ividiisl inimaln (withrmf 4ny thought 
nf thrlr ofTsiprin^) mo^i tisc^ful to each nirr of man in hiH i^ar- 
ticubr circum&tAQte^. The '* roguing," as nuracty-mcn lall 
Ihe desiroying o( varieties, whith dquri from ilieir iy(je. it a 
kind t?r selection, t .irn convinced tlul inlentionAl and OC' 
t^sjonil selection h^t been ihe mj-in igent in making nur 
domcsdc rnces. Rii!, however ihU may be. iis gr-^ai power 
of modi fie It ion has been indisputcdly shown in tjie timca. 
SclecELim acU t^nly by thu .L^eumnlaiion of very riti^ht or 
greater varaiions, cau^td by external conditions, or by ihe 
mere fact tbiil in generation (he child it not abLi^ilute'y timiUr 
Uy it» fMrcnl, Msn, h\ thi^ power of accuini(Uil"n(^v.nna(ioiiSL 
«rfnph lEvtng bein^ to hU wanr* — he may U miJ to make 
the tvool of cme :^heep good for carpet^;, and anathcr for 
doth, &c. 

JI, No*, 6iip|H)^c there was a being, who did out jtirl^e by 

c^lernaJ .Lppe;irLLncet but c^uld tiudy (he whole internal 
liiaiion — 'v^ho nevCT wfl* eapr