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LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 



WORKS OF 

JOHN A. BROADUS 



(a) Biblical Helps. 

(i) A Harmony of the Gospels, In the Revised 
Version. With some new features. Notes at end by Dr. 
A. T. Robertson $1.50. 

(a) Commentary on Matthew. 650 octavo pages, 
double column. (Part of American Commentary on New 
Testament, but also sold separately.) American Baptist Pub- 
lication Society, 1420 Chestnut Street. Philadelphia $2.35. 

(3) Jesus of Nazareth: I. His Personal Character; 
II. His Ethical Teachings ; III His Supernatural Works. 
Lectures before the Y. M. C. A. of Johns Hopkins Univers- 
ity. 75 cents. 

(5) Preaching. 

(4) Treatise on the Preparation and Delirery of 
Sermons. $1.75. 

(5) Lectures on the History of Preaching. $1.50. 

(6) Sermons and Addresses. With Portrait. $1.50. 

(c) Biographical. 

(7) Memoir of James P. Boyce, D. X>., X-X>. X>, 

President of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. 
$1.75. 

(d) Miscellaneous. 

(8) Small Treatises on Living Topics (American Baptist 
Publication Society) Three Questions as to the Bible, 
8 cents ; Paramount and Permanent Authority of the 
Bible, six copies for 10 cents; Duty of Baptists to 
Teach their Distinctive Views, 5 cents ; Immersion Essential 
to Christian Baptism, 8 cents ; A Catechism of Bible 
Teaching, 5 cents (also published by Sunday School Board 
of Southern Baptist Convention, Nashville, Tenn.). Ought 
Women to Speak in Mixed Public Assemblies, 5 cents. 



LIFE AND LETTERS 

OF 

JOHN ALBERT BROADUS 



BY 

ARCHIBALD THOMAS ROBERTSON 

Trofessor of the Interpretation of the V^ew Testament in the 
Southern 'Baptist Theological Seminary 



ThAte is no life of a man faithfully recorded, but is a heroic poem 

-Carlyle 



PHILADELPHIA 

Bmetican Baptist publication 
1910 



Copyright IQOX by the 
AMERICAN BAPTIST PUBLICATION SOCIETY 



Published May, x 



from the Society'* own pees? 



" Si quis piorum manibus locus ; si, ut sapientibus 
placet, non cum corpora exstinguuntur magnae animse : 
placide quiescas, nosque, domum tuam, ab infirmo de- 
siderio, et muliebribus lamentis, ad contemplationem 
virtutum tuarum voces, quas neque lugeri, neque plangi 
fas est : admiratione te potius, quam temporalibus laudi- 
bus, et, si natura suppeditet, aemulatione decoremus. 
Is verus honos, ea coniunctissimi cuiusque pietas. Id 
filiae quoque, uxorique praeceperim, sic patris, sic mariti 
memoriam venerari, ut omnia facta dictaque eius secum 
revolvant, famamque ac figuram animi magis quam cor- 
poris, complectantur : non quia intercedendum putem 
imagimbus, quae marmore aut asre fmguntur : sed ut vul- 
tus hominum, ita simulacra vultus imbecilla ac mortalia 
sunt ; forma mentis aeterna ; quam tenere et exprimere, 
non per alienam materiam et artem, sed tuis ipse mori- 
bus, possis. Quidquid ex Agricola amavimus, quidquid 
mirati sumus, manet mansurumque est in animis homi- 
num, in aeternitate temporum, fama rerum. Nam multos 
veterum, velut inglorios et ignobiles, oblivio obruet: 
Agricola, posteritati narratus et traditus, superstes erit." 

TACITUS DE AGRICOLA. 



X PREFACE 

their lives to it. No institution has had a nobler history 
of sacrifice and heroism. It is enough to fire the blood 
of every lover of Christian education. It is certainly 
" one of the great achievements of our time." 

But the life of Doctor Broadus would be worth the tell- 
ing apart from his share in this high performance. His 
personal character, accurate scholarship, original think- 
ing, marvelous preaching, matchless teaching, great wis- 
dom, rare personal influence, breadth of view, high ideals, 
and earnest piety, mark him as one of the foremost 
products of American manhood, one of the ripest fruits of 
modern Christianity. The high praise here given will seem 
sober truth to the multitudes who felt the joyous touch 
of his personal power and will be amply justified to those 
who knew him not by the life story here unfolded. It 
is not an exaggeration to say that he was the pride of 
American Baptists and his influence is undying among us. 

The materials for the early part of Doctor Broadus's 
life are not so abundant as for the later years, and yet 
enough is known to trace with clearness his childhood 
and to give a fair picture of his youth. He himself began 
to jot down notes of his early days, but he could not find 
time to finish them. A visit to the scenes of his child- 
hood revealed many points of interest concerning his boy- 
hood. 

Enough good material exists for several volumes. The 
selection has been made on the principle of keeping Doc- 
tor Broadus himself constantly before us and from vary- 
ing and progressive points of view. This will explain to 
some why their letters are not used. Chapter X!L alone 
could have been made a whole volume. At every point 
in the European and Oriental tour Doctor Broadus wrote 
careful descriptions of surpassing interest. From Rome 
he sent some fifty pages of discriminating criticism. So 
it was at Jerusalem, Athens, everywhere, Besides the 



PREFACE XI 

letters there was the diary in the Oriental part of the 
trip. Nearly all this had to be reluctantly passed by and 
only the more personal parts introduced. 

It would not be possible to recount the many courtesies 
received from numerous friends, besides the family and 
other relatives, who have gladly furnished material for 
this work. A general acknowledgment of gratitude is " 
here made. But I must acknowledge special indebted- 
ness to Prof. F. H. Smith, LL. D., for help on the Univer- 
sity of Virginia period, and to Dr. W. H. Whitsitt for 
information concerning Doctor Broadus's work in the 
Seminary. 

Chapter XV. is written by one of Doctor Broadus's 
daughters, Mrs. S. C. Mitchell, and gives a fresh view of 
our many-sided scholar. The copious and useful Index 
is the work of another daughter, Miss E. S. Broadus. 

It remains that I acknowledge gratefully the kindness 
of my colleagues, Drs. J. R. Sampey and E. C. Dargan, 
who have read the book in manuscript and offered many 
helpful suggestions. I have sought to be just toward all 
the many interests that touch such a life as that of Doc- 
tor Broadus. 

It has been a labor of love through these four years to 
work over the facts and forces in the career of John A. 
Broadus. How often I have felt him at my side with the 
old familar smile and cheery tone as during the ten years 
that I was permitted to rejoice in his companionship. If 
the story of this life of "plain living and high thinking" 
shall stir to like endeavor some regal spirit, I shall be 
satisfied. 

A. T. ROBERTSON. 

LOUISVILLE, Kv. f January x, 1901. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Doctor Broadus in his prime Frontispiece 

The young Charlottesville preacher 134 

Fac-simile of letter accepting professorship in the Seminary .... 159 

Doctor Broadus in the " seventies " 280 

Fae-simile of letter to Doctor Bqyce about standing by the Seminary 289 
Doctor Broadus during the last years 372 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I 

THE BROADDUS FAMILY ............... i-io 

CHAPTER II 
MAJOR EDMUND BROADUS .............. 



CHAPTER III 

YOUTH OF JOHN A. BROADUS ............ 21-35 

CHAPTER IV 

THE SCHOOLMASTER ................. 36-54 

CHAPTER V 

THE UNIVERSITY STUDENT .............. 55-74 

CHAPTER VI 

A YEAR IN FLUVANNA ................ 75-95 

CHAPTER VII 
CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY ...... 96-133 

CHAPTER VIII 
CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY (Continued) . 134-167 

CHAPTER IX 

THE CHANGE TO HIS LIFE-WORK .......... 168-185 

CHAPTER X 
THE SHOCK OF WAR ................. 186-211 

CHAPTER XI 
MAKING A NEW START ................ 212-237 

CHAPTER XII 

A YEAR ABROAD ................... 238-279 

xiii 



XIV CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XIII 

THE STRUGGLE FOR THE SEMINARY'S LIFE 280-306 

CHAPTER XIV 

THE FIRST YEARS IN LOUISVILLE 307-323 

CHAPTER XV 

MEMORIES OF MY FATHER'S HOME-LIFE 324-335 

By ALICE BROADUS MITCHELL. 
CHAPTER XVI 

REALIZING HIS HOPES ABOUT THE SEMINARY .... 336-371 

CHAPTER XVII 
SUCCEEDING DOCTOR BOYCE AS PRESIDENT .... 372-415 

CHAPTER XVIII 

THE LAST YEAR 416-450 



LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 



CHAPTER I 
THE BROADDUS FAMILY 

Pure livers were they all, austere and grave, 
And fearing God ; the very children taught 
Stern self-respect, a reverence for God's word, 
And an habitual piety. 

Wordsworth 

EARLY in the eighteenth century, Edward Broaddus 
came from Wales to Gwynn's Island, Virginia. 
All the American Broadduses seem to be descended 
from him, and the family name is most often met through- 
out the South and Northwest It is certain that the 
family is not properly of Welsh, i. e. t Celtic origin, but 
is Anglo-Saxon. The name was originally Broadhurst, 
and in that form still lingers in South Wales and is com- 
mon in England, while it is found also in Kentucky and 
other States of the Union. Dr. John A. Broadus him- 
self wrote : 

The name Broaddus, according to tradition in the family, is a con- 
traction of Broadhurst, One of the family [J. A, B.] found some 
years ago in London that whenever he gave his name to a shop- 
keeper or the like for sending home a package, it was without hesi- 
tation written Broadhurst. The name corresponds to Whitehurst, 
Deerhurst, Penhurst, Medhurst, etc. The word Hurst alone is also 
a family name. It signifies a wooded hill or knoll, so that all the 
names of the group are primarily territorial. While the name is evi- 
dently Anglo-Saxon, it is a tradition that the family came from 
Wales. The late Professor Benjamin Davies, of Regent's Park 
College, London, explained this by stating that there has long been 



2 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

a consldeiable Anglo-Saxon settlement in South Wales. He once 
lived there and remembers the name Hurst as existing among them. 
. . The name Bioadhurst is frequently found in London, and Henry 
Broadhurst is now a member of Parliament, and was a member of 
Mr. Gladstone's last government.' 7 * 

We are all familiar with a similar situation in the case 
of the immigration of the Scotch to the north of Ireland. 
All the descendants of the first Virginia Broaddus, Ed- 
ward, spell the name with two d's save the families of 
Major Edmund Broadus and Major William Broadus. 
Various legends are afloat to account for this variation in 
the Culpeper family. Dr. John A. Broadus explains it 
as follows: 8 

The three brothers, William, Thomas, and James (sons of Wil- 
liam), probably after their father's death, began to spell their name 
Broadus. There is a tradition that they were led to do so by a 
somewhat eccentiic maternal uncle, who was fond of objecting to 
the use of unnecessary letters in words. There are many similar 
cases of slight divergence in the spelling of family names, as Brown, 
Browne, Broun ; Thomson, Thompson ; and probably Leigh and Lee* 
Thomas Broadus, who died in 1811, expressed a wish that his sons 
should return to spelling the name Broaddus, and William F. and 
Andrew, who were children at the time, did so. But Edmund, being 
already a teacher, with some business relations, feared business 
complications if he should make the change. Descendants of Ed- 
mund and those of Major William Broadus, are probably the only 
persons who now spell the name with one '* d J> ; also some who 
have Broadus as a middle or first name. 

There is a famous story about "the two d's*' told on 
Dr. William F. Broaddus, who was very particular to 

1 Page 19, / " The History of the Broaddus Family." by Dr. Andrew Broaddus, of 
Sparta, Va , 1888, which is the source of most of the facts for this chapter. An ex- 
cellent example is set In this volume for other Anwrican fdnuht't. Family history 
should be preserved for every reason. The restlessness of America hardly permits 
that stability of family life which Is seen in England. But the coming > ears will 
witness less movement to the west. Dr. John A. Broadus wrote a brief introduction 
to this volume as well as the account of his branch of the family, excepting, of 
course, the sketch of himself. 

6 " History of the Broaddus Family," p. 135. 



THE BROADDUS FAMILY 3 

use both d's. While he was pastor at Fredericksburg, 
Va., a new church was built. He gave directions to the 
brother in charge of marking his pew to "be sure and 
put in the two d's." But for some reason his pew re- 
mained nameless. It turned out that the good brother 
was so shocked at the preacher's lack of taste in wanting 
D, D. put on the plate that he left it blank. He did not 
understand "the two d's." 

Edward Broaddus, the progenitor of the American 
Broadduses, left Gwynn's Island, in 1715, and settled in 
Caroline County, Va,, which county has since been the 
Mecca of all the Broaddus clans. The lower part of 
Caroline was then in King and Queen County. There 
he purchased a farm and lived to the age of seventy. 
He was twice married a.il had seven sons and two 
daughters. Hither the tribes go up. The Broadduses 
to this day overrun Caroline County. All the branches 
of the family center here and claim kin with Andrew 
Broaddus, of Caroline, the famous preacher. 

John Albert Broadus comes fifth in line from Edward 
Broaddus. The fourth son of Edward was William. 
William Broaddus' second son was Thomas. The eldest 
son of Thomas was Edmund, the father of John A. 
Broadus. Edmund had two brothers, the famous Wil- 
liam F., and the equally able Andrew, and two sisters, 
Lucy (Mrs. Wm. Ferguson, of Illinois), and Maria (Mrs. 
John Strother Wallis, of Virginia). 

The Broadduses have been largely engaged in farming. 
Some have been physicians, some lawyers, some rail- 
road men, and a great number have been teachers. 
Teaching ran in the Broaddus blood. The family is Bap- 
tist to the core very few of the name belonging to any 
other denomination. They have usually professed re- 
ligion in early life and are distinguished for piety and ac 
tivity in all forms of church work. It is a family ot 



4 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A, BROADUS 

preachers also. More than a dozen ministers have borne 
the name, besides others who have Broaddus lineage, 
such as Rev. W. A. Gaines and D. M. Ramsey, D. D., 
of South Carolina. 1 Dr. H. H. Harris says: "No other 
family has given to our ministry so many able men." 
For over a hundred years the Broadduses have been, 
active in Baptist affairs, especially in the South and" 
West. 

Hon. R. W. Thompson, a member of Pres. Hayes' 
cabinet, and long prominent in Indiana and national poli- 
tics, was of this sturdy stock, illustrating the turn for 
statesmanship shown in Major Edmund Broadus, the 
father of Dr. John A. Broadus. Robert J. Burdette, the 
humorist, is likewise of Broaddus descent, and finds a 
parallel in the eccentric humor of Dr. W. F. Broaddus, 
the quaint wit of his brother Andrew, and in the quiet 
fun of Dr. John A. Broadus. 

Dr. Broadus became much interested in heredity. He 
once chose this as his theme to discuss before the Con- 
versation Club, of Louisville. He often alluded to the 
subject in sermon, lecture, and table talk. He some- 
times said that heredity was an immense and a tremen- 
dous reality. It is interesting to see something of the 
family history of the greatest man who ever bore the 
Broaddus name. He was not an accident. He came of 
preaching and teaching stock. 

The first minister of the name to become distinguished 
was Andrew Broaddus, D. D., who was born November 
4, 1770, and died December i, 1848. Dr. J. B. Jeter 
prepared an excellent "Memoir of Andrew Broaddus. 1 ' 
He was born and reared in Caroline County and spent 
most of his life here and in King and Queen, For six 
months, in 1821, he was assistant pastor to Dr. John 
Courtney, of the First Baptist Church, Richmond. He 

*Pr$. A. P. Montague, of Broaddus lineage* is president of Kuraun UnivrtUy* 



THE BROADDUS FAMILY 5 

was retiring and shrinking before strangers. Although 
he received many calls to large cities, such as Boston, 
Philadelphia, Baltimore, Norfolk, New York, Richmond, 
he preferred country pastorates. He had little schooling 
in his youth, but he possessed a passion for learning, 
and made a good English scholar of himself, and ac- 
quired some knowledge of Latin, Greek, and French. 
He had real genius and was a great preacher, with the 
peculiar fascination afterward seen in John A. Broadus, 
who says of him : 

In my boyhood it was a great delight to make a long journey on 
horseback to one and another ** Association," which it was reported 
that this venerable man would attend ; and no little pride was felt 
in being even remotely akm to one so famous and so gifted. 1 

There exists a large number of outlines of sermons of 
Dr. Andrew Broaddus. These outlines are sketched on 
one side of a slip of paper the size of your hand. They 
are mere skeletons, but that was enough for this trained 
speaker. These sermon outlines are far superior to those 
sometimes published for the use of indolent preachers. 
They evince grasp and insight and power. Dr. Broaddus 
had learned how to think. He did not walk on crutches. 
The following story will illustrate the charm of his 
preaching : 

Were we required to describe the power of his oratory by a single 
term, that term should be fascination. There was in his happy 
efforts a most captivating charm. An incident may best illustrate 
this remark : . . While in the zenith of his power and popularity he 
attended a session of the Baptist General Association held in the 

town of L . Monday moining he preached in the Methodist 

church to a crowded audience. Mr. D , a lawyer of distinction, 

on his way to the court-house, where the court was in session, 
stopped in the street beneath the fierce rays of a summer sun to 
listen for a moment to the sermon. Business urged his departure, 
but having heard the commencement of a paragraph, he was in- 
i Introduction to " History of the Broaddus Family," p, xi.,/. 



6 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

tensely anxious to hear its close. Intending every moment to break 
away he became more and more chained to the spot. Presently he 
heard his name called by the sheriff at the court-house door, and he 
soon heard the call repeated ; but it was to no purpose he was 
riveted to the spot. Neither the fatigue of standing, the melting 
rays of the sun, the urgency of business, nor the repeated calls of 
the officer of the court could disenchant him. He heard the whole 
of the sermon, and paid unwittingly the highest compliment to the 
eloquence of the preacher. 1 

Henry Clay called him "the past-master of eloquence/' 
Dr. Broaddus was a prolific writer and was a strong an- 
tagonist of the views of Alexander Campbell. He is the 
most distinguished man of his name save John A. Broadus. 
He has had many namesakes who, to the uninitiated, form 
a labyrinth of Andrew Broadduses. His son, Andrew, 
Jr., the venerable and esteemed Dr. Broaddus, of Sparta, 
Va., is well known to readers of " The Religious Herald." 
Dr. Jno. A. Broadus says of him : 

He never discusses any subject without leaving his hearers with 
clearer views in regard to it. In the pulpit his style is uniformly 
solemn and reverential, often with a wealth of tender feeling. On 
the platform he is sometimes highly humorous, and his speeches re- 
veal the keenest wit, as also appears in his delightful conversation. 
His illustrations are drawn without apparent eftort from the whole 
range of literature and history as well as from the various occupa- 
tions of men, and from the sciences, the mechanical arts, and the 
great book of nature. In the exposition of Scnptuie he is singularly 
clear and attractive. A beloved and successful pastor, an orade 
among all the people of two counties, and respected throughout the 
State, Dr. Broaddus has lived a noble and honored life, which in 
tangible usefulness has probably even surpassed that of his distin- 
guished father. 8 

Andrew, Jr.'s son Andrew is now pastor of Salem Church, 
where his father and grandfather preached before him, 

1 " History of the Broaddus Family/' pp. 83-85. 

a "History of the Broaddus Family," p xv His recent death gtv*s added inter- 
est to this sympathetic description. 



THE BROADDUS FAMILY 7 

"Andrew of Luray," a noble business man, is now dead. 
"Kentucky Andrew" was the able brother of Edmund 
and Wm. F, Broaddus. " Andrew of Louisville" is an 
esteemed Baptist layman and prominent railroad official. 
These have all borne the name worthily. 

Thomas, the grandson of the original settler, Edward 
Broaddus, had three sons, each of whom became a man 
of mark, Edmund, Wm. P., and Andrew. Dr. Wm. F. 
Broaddus was a minister of great power. He left a deep 
impress on religious life in Virginia and Kentucky. Like 
most of the Baptist ministers of his time, he had limited 
opportunities for education, yet he added great industry 
to his unusual gifts. He was the warm friend of min- 
isterial education and for some time acted as agent for 
the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. He began 
preaching in Culpeper at the age of twenty in the early 
part of the century. He wrote an autobiography cover- 
ing seven large manuscript volumes, but this was un- 
fortunately burned with his house at Shelbyville, Ky, 
Once more he recorded his recollections, which were 
again destroyed in Fredericksburg when the town was 
captured by the Federal troops in 1862. In his closing 
years he again prepared brief reminiscences which have 
been preserved, 

Virginia Baptists and the whole South owe Dr. Wm. F. 
Broaddus a debt for his bold advocacy of the mission en- 
terprise against the " Hardshell " or " Black Rock " ele- 
ment of the denomination, which was very strong in all 
Piedmont Virginia, the Valley and the Mountains. 

They were violently opposed to missions, Sunday-schools, and all 
religious associations and enterprises that seek the conversion of 
men and the promotion of the cause of Christ. Some of them were 
antinomians and all of them were predestinarians of such a pro- 
nounced type that they regarded it as presumption in a preacher to 
appeal to sinners to repent, and folly in sinners to seek repentance 



8 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

till impelled to it against their will by a supernatural and resistless 
divine impulse. Their ministers were uneducated, but some of 
them were men of vigorous intellect, and they denounced with great 
fervor, at great length, and in violent, and sometimes abusive lan- 
guage, the " New Lights," as they called those who dared to urge 
men by exhorting them to repent, "to take the work of God into 
their own hands." Among these people Wm. F. Broaddus appeared 
and excited no little commotion. Young, ardent, of pleasing man- 
ners and fine personal appearance, with a bright intellect and at- 
tractive speaking gifts, he soon won the attention and admiration of 
the people, while at the same time he drew upon himself the 
fiercest assaults of the " Hardshell " preachers. But he was equal 
to the occasion. His imperturbable good humor, his keen wit, his 
facility of speech, his insight into human nature, and his adroit 
management gave him the advantage in every contest, and con- 
stantly strengthened his influence. He was a tireless laborer. Riding 
on horseback over the rough mountains, living on the coarse fare 
and sleeping in the rude huts of the mountaineers, he was, day in 
and day out, employed in preaching in groves, in log cabins, in 
private houses anywhere and everywhere that a congregation 
could be gathered. Making the tail of a wagon, a stump, or a rock 
his pulpit, he poured out the truth from a burning heart and carried 
the people with him. Soon a reaction commenced and it has gone 
on till all that region, once dead through Black Rockism, is now 
alive with active, earnest, progressive Baptists. 1 

He introduced the custom of paying salaries in his part 
of the country. A story is told of a call he received with 
the promise that he should have whatever the church 
felt like giving. Being present, he promptly accepted 
the call, saying that he would preach for them on what- 
ever Sundays he felt like it. It is needless to say that 
they offered him a regular salary. Dr. Broaddus was a 
man of many eccentricities, especially in his well-known 
aversion to cats. He would become pale and ashen and 
positively ill if a cat were in the room. Many ludicrous 
stories are told of this peculiarity. He was fond of tell- 
ing stories and enjoyed one on himself even more than 

1 " History of the Broaddus Family/' pp. 160-162. It Is but just to *ay that not all 
the " Hardshells " were as extreme m those davs as this picture would Imply. 



THE BROADDUS FAMILY 9 

on others. During the war when a prisoner he had 
much fun at the officer's expense by insisting that he 
did not know what F in his name stood for* He had two 
Fs in his name, Wm. Francis Ferguson Broaddus ; one 
was dropped out and he did not know which. He exas- 
perated the officer further by remarking that he did not 
know in which county he was born. He finally explained 
that Rappahannock had since been formed out of that 
part of Culpeper. Dr. J. C. Hiden has many stories on 
Wm. F. Broaddus. He is fond of telling about a contro- 
versy between Wm. F. and John A. Broadus over a pas- 
sage of Scripture. Wm. F. got the worst of it at the 
hands of the brilliant young scholar. Finally he said : 
"Well, John A., there is no use to say anything more 
about it. I have one of my best sermons on it." 

Rev. Andrew Broaddus (Kentucky Andrew), a younger 
brother of Wm. F., began his ministry in Virginia, went 
to Missouri, then to Kentucky, and finally back to Vir- 
ginia. He began preaching rather late in life and did not 
at first possess the charm of his renowned brother. One 
day his wife, who strongly opposed going to Missouri, 
was walking home with him from church after hearing 
him preach. She said demurely : "Mr. Broaddus, are you 
firmly resolved to keep on preaching ? " "Yes, my dear," 
he answered. "Well/' she said, "then I am perfectly 
willing to go to Missouri." But the good wife and hosts 
of others came to be proud of him as a preacher. He in 
time grew to be more polished in certain ways than Wm. 
F,, and had much of the subtle penetration so prominent 
in John A. Broadus. 

It would be pleasant to have something to say about 
the other noble preachers of the Broaddus name, such 
as the lamented Luther Broaddus, Julian Broaddus, 
M. E. Broaddus, and others. "But the time would fail 
to tell/ 1 



10 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

There is a curious note in a letter of Wm. F. to his 

brother Edmund : 

Then let's hope that some one in our family is destined to be a 
prodigy, and as our day is nearly passed, take it for granted that 
the next generation will be favored with his appearance. 

The looked-for prodigy was Edmund's son, then fifteen 
years old, already the pride of Albert Simms' school in 
Culpeper, of whom it would one day be said by a great 
historian that he was "perhaps the greatest man the 
Baptists have produced." 1 

1 Prof. A. H Newman, In " Progress," Vol. III., No. xo, Chicago, 111. 



CHAPTER n 
MAJOR EDMUND BROADUS 

The reason firm, the temperate will, 
Endurance, foresight, strength, and skill. 

Wordsworth. 

VIRGINIA was in the full tide of power and glory in 
the thirties. She was dominant m national politics, 
and her civilization was setting the standard for all the 
South. A noble class of settlers had early come to Vir- 
ginia that was to exert a commanding influence on the 
whole future of the republic. For even now, if states- 
men flourish farther west, many of them come of Vir- 
ginia ancestry. Pride of prestige ran in the Virginia 
blood when we touch it in our narrative. 

The people of the Piedmont section were not then so 
rich and prosperous as those of the Tidewater and South- 
side regions. It was a new country still. In 1800, Pied- 
mont Virginia was the Middle West on the way to the 
great Kentucky forests. Twenty-five years had brought 
a great change all along the foot of the Blue Ridge, but 
the comforts and luxuries of the eastern counties had 
not come generally to the great hill country of Virginia. 
However, the gentlemen of Culpeper took as lively an 
interest in State and national affairs as did the citizens 
of the more ancient seats on the Eastern Shore, The 
road to distinction and power lay through politics, and 
not so much as now through business, the press, or schol- 
arship, Virginia life before the Civil War had a raciness 
and richness not to be repeated in American experience. 

Culpeper was once a very large county and has had 



12 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

Rappahannock taken from it. Much of it lies in sight of 
the Blue Ridge, which affords a never-wearying pano- 
rama of beauty. A spur of this range, Mount Poney, rises 
not far from the county seat. The land is not notably 
rich, but the county has had a noble history. It was 
one of the chief battlefields of the Civil War. It was 
also one of the battlegrounds of Baptist principles in 
Virginia. A number of Baptist preachers were impris- 
oned in the Culpeper jail for preaching the gospel. The 
Baptist church now stands where once James Ireland, 
Elijah Craig, Nathaniel Saunders, Banks, Maxwell, Du- 
laney, and others, stood behind prison bars for the crime 
of proclaiming Jesus Christ. 1 Within the Shiloh Asso- 
ciation lived also John Leland, a mighty preacher and 
champion of religious liberty. Out of Culpeper was 
driven Samuel Harris for preaching. Culpeper is sacred 
soil for all lovers of religious freedom, and has become a 
nursery for Baptist preachers. 2 

For a number of years the leading figure in politics 
and religious affairs in Culpeper was Major Edmund 
Broadus. 8 His career forms one of the most honorable in 
Virginia history. He was born May 5, 1793, on the edge 
of the Blue Ridge, in that part of Culpeper now known 
as Rappahannock. His early years were spent chiefly 
in farm-work, but he received a good English education, 
partly at a boarding school. At eighteen he taught 
school in the home of Edward Sims (Simms), a prosper- 
ous farmer along the spurs of the Blue Ridge. His father 
having died, he gave all that he made by teaching (one 
hundred and fifty dollars) to his widowed mother to meet 
some debts left for her to discharge. But during that 
same year he had taught the farmer's daughter, Miss 

1 Beale's new edition of " Semple's History of Va. Baptists Pitt and Dickinson." 

* See " Historical Sketch of the Shiloh Baptist Association/* by Rev. E W, Win- 
frey, Culpeper Va., 1894 

* Named after Judge Edmund Pendleton, a half-brother of hfc grandmother. 



MAJOR EDMUND BROADUS 13 

Nancy Simms, to love him. Her father said : " Teach 
on and live with me." So they were married in 1812. 
His school would not be out till December 15, and they 
had to live without money. When her father's harvest 
came, the young husband went out into the field and cut 
wheat with a reap hook at a dollar a day and gave his 
earnings to his bride. He thus spent several years teach- 
ing 1 and keeping a mill belonging to his mother. He 
built his bride a log house without nails or glass, for it 
was war time. After some years he removed to the 
neighborhood of Culpeper Court-House and accumulated 
a moderate estate as a farmer. 

In 1826 Major Broadus (major of the Culpeper militia) 
began to take an interest in politics, and spent twenty 
years in the legislature, save two years of voluntary retire- 
ment, without ever being beaten in an election after his 
first candidacy. He was the only man who could handle 
the Democrats in Culpeper, the Whigs and Democrats 
being about equally divided in the county. He had such 
competitors as Captain A. P. Hill and the Hon. John S. 
Harbour. Mr. Barbour was the ablest opponent Major 
Broadus ever had. Upon one occasion Mr. Barbour had 
made a very brilliant speech, which rendered Major 
Broadus's adherents uneasy ; but the Major completely 
vanquished him by reading extracts from a still more 
striking speech he had made on the other side years 
before. The Major's singularly penetrating voice, which 
his son inherited, gave additional force to his reply. John 
A. Broadus says of his father : * 

He came to be regarded as a leader of the Whig party in the 
House, exerting influence not by oratory though he was a clear 
and forcible speaker and hard to answer in argument but by thor- 

1 " Nearly every male descendant of Thomas Broadus and of his brother James 
has spent a part of his life as a teacher."" History of the Broaddus Family," p. 126. 
* In MS. notes, the source of much material for this chapter. 



14 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

ough acquaintance with the subjects of legislation, whether political 
or practical, by sound judgment, irreproachable integrity, and some 
personal magnetism. 

Judge Bell, of Culpeper, in a memorial address after 
Doctor Broadus's death, spoke as follows : 

Major Broadus was then one of the most adroit electioneerers in 
Virginia. The secret of his success was his calm, quiet, easy, and 
courteous demeanor to the people and to his competitors. There was 
no money used in elections ; no purchasing or bribing voters ; gen- 
teel and courteous demeanor prevailed over the bully and the brag- 
gart. Time and place were set for the people to meet and listen to 
dispassionate discussion of great questions of government and State 
policy. And tradition says that ail that any election ever cost Major 
Broadus was a few old Virginia clay pipes and smoking tobacco. 

He was a great temperance advocate and active in the 
Sons of Temperance Society and would not use whisky. 
He rode a horse, named Prince, that had learned his mas- 
ter's habits. When he met a man in the road the horse 
would go light up to him and stop. 

Political excitement often ran high in the campaign. 
Major Broadus's house being on the road when he was 
opposed by Captain Hill, people would sometimes shout, 
as they passed by, " Hurrah for Hill and down with 
Broadus." The story is told that little John A. would 
run out and answer lustily, " Hurrah for Broadus and 
down with Hill." Major Broadus was an ardent Henry 
Clay man and his son never got over his worship of 
Clay. Dr. J. C. Hiden says of him : l 

The great champions of Democracy in that region were Governor 
William Smith " Extra Billy," he'was familiarly called one of 
the adroitest politicians and stump speakers that Virginia ever pro- 
duced, and old John S. Barbour, one of the most splendid orators in 
Congress. Major Broadus was not a professional man, and nobody 
ever thought of him as an orator, and yet the two famous Demo- 
cratic speakers found it hard to hold their own against his plain, 

1 " Religious Herald," March a8, 189$. 



MAJOR EDMUND BROADUS 15 

pointed, popular " talks" to the country people, who assembled on 
court day " to hear the candidates." 

When he declined to treat, his friends said he would be 
defeated, but they were mistaken. He was one of the 
real leaders of the time. He was a statesman and 
patriot, the friend of every good cause, and rendered 
great service to the University of Virginia by his stand 
for it in the legislature. 

He quit the support of President Jackson upon the famous " re- 
moval of the deposits " and was always afterwards a Henry Clay 
Whig It has frequently been declared by former associates in the 
legislature that he was, for some years, leader of the Whig party in 
the House of Delegates. At one time a caucus of the party, when 
in the majority, offered to elect him governor, but he declined on the 
ground that the governor's expenses beyond the salary would con- 
sume all his property. 1 

Major Broadus's picture shows a man in whose thin face 
there is intellectual force, and the masterful look of re- 
pose. Though he had dyspepsia all his life, like his son 
John, yet he was uniformly cheerful. He was a man of 
courtly manners and was the center of attraction in so- 
cial circles. He became early in life a church-member 
and through a long life showed how it was possible to be 
a politician and a consistent Christian. He was the 
most influential man in the Shiloh Baptist Association. 
He thought his famous preacher brothers, William F. and 
Andrew, and his pastor, Rev. Barnett Grimsley, were too 
far ahead of the people in their zeal for missions. He 
wanted the people to get ready for the movement. But 
some of the people never have gotten ready. It is true 
that the earnestness of Dr. Wm. F, Broaddus led to a 
schism on the mission question, but the " Hardshell " 
wing has dwindled away with the years. Major Broadus, 
however, was a firm advocate of missions, temperance, 

* " History of the Broaddus Family," p. 137. 



l6 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

and ministerial education. His house was the preach- 
ers' home for many years, and this gave him frequent 
opportunity to counsel young ministers. 

He was often asked to settle disputes between neigh- 
bors, and came to be the peacemaker of the community. 
He was persuaded to take charge for a while of the 
county poor farm, his prominence and character guaran-: 
teeing unusual attention to the management. Major 
Broadus remained in charge five years and then moved 
to Bleak Hill, about four miles from town, afterward the 
home of Albert G. Simms, the famous teacher. Bleak 
Hill is now burned down. 

In 1837 Major Broadus moved to Edge Hill, a farm of 
some three hundred acres with a profitable mill. This 
estate, six miles from Culpeper Court-House, he pur- 
chased and now had a settled home of much comfort for 
his family. The Blue Ridge was only fifteen miles away. 
There was the large white house upon the hill and a 
glorious spring in the clump of trees at the foot of the 
hill by the roadside ; the orchard and the rolling fields 
stretched back of the house. This was the home that 
made its impress upon John A. Broadus. 1 

New Salem Church is only a mile and a half from 
Edge Hill and Major Broadus became the leading spirit 
in this church. This part of Culpeper, known as ''the 
Pines/' not very rich, is surrounded by pine lands* 

The first two years at Edge Hill Major Broadus stayed 
out of the legislature and taught an "old field school." 
He had two objects in view. One was to give a good 
chance for his daughter Caroline and his youngest son 
John ; the other object was to help pay for the farm* 
In 1835 Major Broadus had sunk money, like so many 



1 On a recent visit to Edge Hill (now known as Cana's Mills), Mrs. Cana, a quaint 
old lady, said to me : " The Broaduses are mighty good people. If all this country 
were Broaduses, It would have been better than it is." 



MAJOR EDMUND BROADUS 17 

others, in a gold mine in Culpeper. He also lost much 
from security debts. He could easily have recovered him- 
self by his farm, so that his brother, Wm. F., expressed 
great surprise when in 1846 he took the position of stew- 
ard at the University of Virginia to board State students. 
Yet the chief reason that led him to do this was to give 
John the advantage of a university course. 

Major Broadus's wife died June 22, 1847. In 1849 he 
married Miss Somerville Ward. His second wife, after his 
death, lived chiefly with John A. Broadus, who delighted 
to speak of her as one of the excellent of the earth. She 
died at his home in Greenville, S. C., May 27, 1877. 

Major Broadus lived to see John complete his work at 
the University, but died June 27, 1850, a few days be- 
fore he was to receive his degree. His efforts to educate 
his boy were rewarded and he left a double portion of 
his spirit on this son "of parents passed into the skies." 1 

Of the mother in this cheerful home we have less in- 
formation. She was, as we have seen, Miss Nancy 
Simms, daughter of Edward Simms. She was born Sep- 
tember 20, 1790, and was a woman of many excellent qual- 
ities. She was of medium height and rather plump the 
Simms are generally small and John A. Broadus resem- 
bled his mother in stature as in many other things. She 
was very gentle and quiet in manner, but firm in her con- 
trol over her household. There was a briskness and 
energy about her that was contagious. The major was 
often absent on political tours, so that the farm largely 
fell to her care. She exhibited such industry, tact, and 
firmness that she merited the wise man's words about 
the virtuous woman. Everything moved like clockwork. 
She required perfect obedience from the children and re- 
ceived it, but there was never a word of harshness. Miss 

* Inscription on tombstone of Major Broadus at University of Virginia. See Cow- 
pet's lines " On Receipt of My Mother's Picture," 

B 



1 8 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

Mary Wallis, for a time a member of the family, says : 
" It never occurred to any of us children not to mind just 
what Aunt Nancy told us ; and yet she never scolded or 
spoke impatiently with any one." This peaceful, well- 
balanced home seems to have given John A. Broadus the 
greatest dislike to anything like disputing in a family. 

She taught her children habits of neatness and order. 
In after life J. A. B. would often rise from his study and 
meditatively sweep up the stray bits of coal, while re- 
volving some phrase for letter or discourse, saying: "My 
mother said that the fire would not burn were the hearth 
not swept." She had many sayings that he loved to 
quote. Another one was : " Put tire upon tire, and you'll 
get rested, " She was very tender, and from her John A. 
Broadus got his wonderful pathos. In the long winter 
evenings she taught her children to love the best books. 
From her also they obtained their love of flowers and 
music. There was a deep and tender piety about her, 
although she did not make public profession of faith in 
Christ till after all her children were church-members. 
When her daughter Martha was baptized, as they came 
from the service Mrs. Broadus remarked: "Well, my 
children are all going into the church, and I am left 
alone." Little John offered comfort to his mother by 
saying: "Mother, I won't join the church. I'll stay 
with you." Finally she was roused to public profession 
by Wm, F. Broaddus. She was so anxious to be bap- 
tized at once that he sent John off forty miles on horse- 
back to pay an urgent obligation for him, while he re- 
mained and baptized Mrs. Broadus in the millpond at 
home. John was a singular combination of the best 
things in his parents. 

Four children were born to Major Broadus by his first 
wife: James Madison, Martha A., Caroline ML, and John 
Albert. John was much the youngest, and he looked up 



MAJOR EDMUND BROADUS ig 

to his brother and sisters, who exerted a noble influence 
over him. The closest relations existed between the two 
brothers. James Madison Broadus, was born November 
30, 1812. His early life, like his father's, was spent in 
farming and teaching school. In 1832 he wrote to his 
father : 

I write to you that Mr. A would gladly receive Genl. T 's 

confession. 1 . . Your hands are at work on Tutfs schoolhouse. . . 
I shall move to Capt. Games' m a few days and shall commence 
my school next Monday week, Jan. 16. 

In middle life he became connected with the Virginia 
Midland Railroad, and was general ticket agent of the 
road for twenty years. His home at Alexandria, Va., 
was a center of interest for a large circle of attached 
friends. He was the pillar of the Baptist church there 
and felt the keenest interest in Baptist affairs generally. 
He was an exceedingly noble and useful man, possessing 
great wisdom and readiness of mind. John leaned upon 
him at every turn and loved him with rare devotion. He 
was John's constant adviser till his death, as the many 
letters that passed between them show. From being 
taught in childhood to imitate a servant he early acquired 
the habit of stammering, which prevented his rising to 
the eminence he might have gained. He died July 21, 
1880, at Alexandria. 8 He was twice married, first to Miss 
Ellen Barbour Gaines, and afterward to Miss Mary Cath- 
arine Lewis, who still survives him. He left a large 
family, four of whom are living. 

The eldest daughter, Martha A, Broadus, was born July 
24, 1814. She taught John a great deal at home. He 
often said that he owed more to her than to almost any 
other influence. He once recalled tenderly his sister's 
influence over him in talking to a familiar friend, whom 

1 Instance of Major Broadus' s work as a peacemaker between neighbors. 
* See " History of Broaddus Family" for sketch of his excellent family. 



20 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

he wished to incite to special influence over her younger 
sister. He always advised young men to listen to their 
sisters, particularly about manners and dress. His sister 
Martha, when he was seventeen, wrote to Miss Mary 
Wallis: "I think your little cousin John will be the 
brightest star of the Broadus family/' Martha was quite 
pretty, with brilliant complexion and bright brown eyes. 
She married Mr. Edmund Bickers, an estimable and well- 
to-do farmer in Culpeper. She died June 6, 1874. 

Caroline M. Broadus was born in 1822, and died August 
25, 1852. She married Rev. W. A. Whitescarver, one of 
the most intimate friends of Doctor Broadus's life. He 
often said that Mr. Whitescarver was the most spiritually 
minded man he ever knew. 

Thus we have caught brief glimpses of the family group 
at Bleak Hill and afterward at Edge Hill. For some years 
Major Broadus's mother was an honored member of the 
household. It was a simple, wholesome, genuine life. 
They were not affluent, nor were they poor, but belonged 
to that robust and progressive farmer class that has done 
so much for American life. 



CHAPTER III 

YOUTH OF JOHN A. BROADUS 
It is a wise father that knows his own child. 

Shakespeare. 

The proper study of mankind is children. 

- -J A. B. 

JOHN ALBERT BROADUS was born January 24, 
1827, in Culpeper County, Virginia, about three 
miles from the county seat. He was thus a few days 
younger than his future friend, James P. Boyce, who 
was born January 11. He was named after two brothers 
of his mother. John Simms, who was a doctor, insisted 
that they must take his advice and must not let the child 
be rocked. Albert was the school teacher, who exercised 
a great influence over his nephew. 

It was a genuine boy who played upon the hills of 
Culpeper. 1 He had the good fortune to be reared in 
the country, where, as he afterwards said, everybody 
ought to be born. He seems to have been a shy child 
who did not enter into all boyish games. He liked mar- 
bles, but not ball. He was particularly fond of running, 
and had the reputation of being the swiftest runner in 
the county. Two little colored boys, as was true of so 
many Southern children, were his playmates. Henry 

1 Dr. Broadus left brief MS recollections of his childhood. He used to make his 
class In Homiletlcs write a paper on the " Recollections of Childhood " He once 
chose this topic for the Conversation Club, Louisville, Ky, Introducing the topic, he 
spoke of the interest taken In the childhood of great men, since " the child is father 
of the man." He spoke also of the difficulty in getting the proper visual angle, the 
value of recalling in order to self-knowledge and In order to understand children. 
He remarked also that we are apt to overrate the joys of childhood, and underrate Its 
sorrows. 

21 



22 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

was black and George was brown, and young Broadus 
early came to observe that the brown Negro boy was 
much more intelligent than the black one. John and 
Henry made up a secret language, as children often do. 
He would teach the words to Henry, but as neither could 
write, they would forget their vocabulary by the next 
day. Henry was older than John and once chased him 
till he was about to give out John jumped into a brier 
patch with his bare feet, knowing that Henry would not 
have the courage to follow him. He was led to swear 
once by his colored playmates, but his sister Martha 
promptly checked it for good and all. 

" Uncle Griffin," the husband of " Aunt Suky," was 
the oracle of the place and on Sunday afternoons would 
take the little boy on his knee, just like Uncle Remus, 
and tell him the matchless stories of Bre'r Rabbit and 
Bre'r Wolf almost word for word as Joel Chandler 
Harris afterwards printed them. When the first Uncle 
Remus book appeared, Dr. Broadus was in New York 
in the office of the publishers, who sent up for the first 
copy from the press, which he eagerly purchased. He 
took it and read it to his children with an almost trem- 
bling anxiety to see if they would enjoy the stories as 
he had done when a child. He felt an intense satisfac- 
tion in seeing that they did. One Sunday afternoon the 
little boy said to Uncle Griffin, as usual : " Uncle Grif- 
fin, please tell me about Bre'r Rabbit and the Tar Baby." 
With a pang he heard Uncle Griffin say : *' Go 'way, 
chile; ain't nuvver gwine tell yer 'bout dat no mo'. You 
gittin' too big." The darkies never told any of their 
folk stories in the presence of grown white people. 
They possibly dreaded lest the half-concealed allegorical 
meaning might be understood the triumph of a weaker 
race by cunning over one naturally stronger and more 
intelligent. 



YOUTH OF JOHN A. BROADUS 23 

Major Broadus took a great deal of pains to keep in 
sympathy with his boy and to cultivate his acquaintance. 
John would come and sit by his father when he came 
home and listen as he talked about all sorts of things. 
When he read books during the day, he told at night 
what he had read and asked questions suggested by the 
books. He was encouraged to ask questions freely and 
to tell of his own doings, and his father would explain 
political matters to him. His cousin, Mary Wallis, says : 
"He and Uncle Edmund sat and talked like two men." 
He loved to ride with his father over the farm and hear 
his explanation of the farm-work. He remembered in 
after life the joy of going to mill behind his father on Old 
Prince, when his little legs could barely stretch across 
the horse's back. In the first volume of " Kind Words " 1 
he describes Old Prince for the children, as his own 
children used to love to hear him tell : 

He was a bright, bay horse, and I think he had a star on his fore- 
head. He was a natural pacer, and could swing along so smoothly 
and so fast that it was delightful to ride him ; but he had got to be very 
lazy, and hardly minded a switch at all. When I was about six or 
eight years old, father used to take me up behind him to ride out on the 
plantation or about the neighborhood. When we started, Old Prince 
would poke along just as slowly as he could. Father would kick 
him, first with one foot and then with the other, and say, " Go along, 
sir" ; and I too, with my short legs pretty wide apart, and my little 
bare feet, reaching about half way down his side, would kick my 
best, with both feet at once, saying, " Get up, you lazy old thing, go 
'long." The fact is, laziness is a hateful thing, in horse or man or 
boy, and whatever faults I may have, I don't intend to be lazy. 
After a while, we would come to the woods, and father would have 
the hardest work, jerking the bridle and kicking and scolding at 
him, to get the old fellow up to a bush, so as to get a switch. He 
knew too well what was coming. And then he would begin to bite 
the leaves of the bush, or the grass around its roots, and when the 
switch was cut, he would go along more slowly than ever, while 

i March, 1866. 



24 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

father trimmed it. When the last twig was cut off, and father 
crooked his elbow to put the knife in his pocket, Old Prince would 
jump and sail away, so as almost to throw me off. How smart he 
was! 

So pleasantly father used to talk as we rode along together. Dear 
father, he was so wise and so kind ; he would tell me stories, and 
explain things about the plantation, and often tell me how a boy 
ought to do, about one thing or another. I remember that one day 
I pulled down a neighbor's fence, so we could ride across the field, 
and, in putting it up, I left the top rail lying down, because it was 
heavy ; and father said, "No, no, my boy, put it up ; whenever 
you pass through a gate, or draw-bars, or a fence, always leave it 
at least as good as you found it." To this day 1 think of that, when 
passing through anything of that sort, and I am sure it is a very 
good rule. About all sorts of things, children, whether great things 
or small, try to do just like father and mother tell you, and you'll 
be glad of it when they have long been dead and you are growing 
old. 

When old Prince died, some twenty-five years old, all the family 
felt as if they had lost a friend. He was a noble old creature, if he 
was lazy. Father made them bury the body off in the pines, and 
sister wrote a letter to me, away off where I was playing young 
schoolmaster, to tell me that Prince was dead. We ought to love 
the brutes that belong to us, and to be kind to them. Whip the 
horse, if he won't go along, but don't beat him when he is doing his 
best Feed all the poor brutes well and regularly, and never be cruel 
to them. A merciful man is merciful to his beast. 

Long after Old Prince was dead, and the year father died also, I 
thought I saw them both. I was riding one evening at dusk, and 
two hundred yards off, just coming out of the woods to meet me, was 
father riding Old Prince. He came swinging along In the old way, 
and father, the same tall, stooping man, had on his long, dark over- 
coat, and the red bandanna handkei chief over his head and tied 
under his chin, with a high-crowned hat put on over it, just as he 
always did in cold weather. Here he came. I remembered that 
twice since my father died I had dreamed that he came to life, and 
now here he was riding on Old Prince. I confess that I was troubled, 
and thought about turning back, or striking into the woods; but I 
knew that would be foolish and wrong, and rode on. At length I 
met and passed some strangei, who did wear the long coat, hand- 
kerchief, etc., and who rode a natural pacer but it was not father 
by any means. It is very foolish to believe in ghosts. If I had 



YOUTH OF JOHN A. BROADUS 2J 

turned and fled, mine would have been almost as good a ghost story 
as many, and yet it was all a mistake. 

I shall never see old Prince any more, but I shall see father. He 
will rise again, and in the judgment of the great day he will be on 
the right hand of the Judge, beholding that Saviour whom from 
early life he loved and served. Oh, that I may be there too. 

He had many memories of his early years. The 
country was full of peddlers. One of them said one 
day, as a sort of joke, that he would bring him a red ban- 
danna handkerchief when he came back, meaning, how- 
ever, to quit the business and never come back. The 
little boy faithfully cherished in secret this promise and 
looked for him daily. When months passed by he took 
the peddler's perfidy very hard. 

One of his earliest recollections was the marriage of 
his brother to Miss Ellen Gaines, in 1831, when he was 
only four years old. As a child he dearly loved the 
Blue Ridge, and all his life was deeply moved by its 
beauty. The South had great lack of schools before the 
war ; even the old field school was not universal. Tutors 
and governesses prevailed in the wealthier families. In- 
telligent parents and elder children helped greatly in 
many cases. But John A. Broadus had real educational 
advantages in his childhood. There were numerous 
books and periodicals, and interesting visitors from far 
and near, and the family were all keen critics of lan- 
guage. He had a remarkably good teacher in the old 
field school, Mr. Albert Tutt, and in his teens he had 
one of the best high school teachers in the land, Mr. 
Albert G. Simrns. 

When John was about five years old his home, " Bleak 
Hill," was within a mile and a half of Tutt's schoolhouse. 
From five to seven John attended this school, walking 
back and forth. Often the little fellow would turn down 
the big boys in the spelling class. Once when he did so 



26 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

the big head boy picked him up with one hand and swung 
him up to the head of the class, saying, " There, you lit- 
tle rascal." Mr. John H. Apperson, of Culpeper, who 
went to school with him, says that " he was as old then 
as he ever was." Mr. Gabriel Tutt, brother of the 
teacher, was one of the big boys of the school. He 
remarked of him : " John was an excellent student, 
diligent and thoughtful. He seemed to devour books 
and acquired knowledge easily and rapidly. On one 
occasion Major Broadus went to Richmond to be absent 
a few months. When he came home he brought John 
a book which he thought he needed. But the boy had 
made such progress in his father's absence that he had 
no use for the book. He was far beyond it." 

In 1882 while on a visit to Lexington, Missouri, he met 
Mr. Gabriel Tutt, then an old man, and asked if he re- 
membered having in those school days once tossed him 
over his head, catching him again and again, for " I 
was throwing stones at sister Carry and would not stop 
until made to say I'd quit by my sister's champion." 

Mr. Tutt stopped teaching in 1834. For the rest of that 
year, all of 1835 and 1836, from near seven to near ten, 
John remained at home. His sister Martha taught him, 
however, during these years, as there was no other 
school in reach, the Court-House being too far away. 
Doctor Broadus often said that this sister Martha laid 
the foundation of his education, and when needful quelled 
his bursts of temper with the right word. During these 
three years John did much reading. Among other books 
he read half of Shakespeare, Cooper, "Robinson Crusoe," 
"Tales of a Grandfather" (his favorite book), " Gulli- 
ver," "Thinks I to Myself" (a quaint book much dis- 
cussed in the family), " Parley's History of the United 
States " (much impressed by the picture of the Pilgrims), 
"Parley's Magazine," and "The Religious Herald" 



YOUTH OF JOHN A. BROADUS 27 

(which he read all his life). He was taught to read 
aloud. In the evening his father would sit reading his 
papers in the corner by the fire, and at regular intervals 
of about twenty minutes put on a pine knot so as to 
keep up a steady bright light (far better, by the way, 
than the lamps and candles of those days). As his 
mother and sisters sat and sewed, John would read 
aloud to them from the books or papers. In these days 
his ambition was to be a Mohawk chief, marry a squaw, 
and live and die in paint and feathers. He always re- 
membered with pleasure the exciting bump, bump, bump 
of the apples down the stairs when he had gone up in 
the dark to fetch a waiterful from the garret. 

In these years the boy was with his father much, as 
he visited the neighbors, went to court, or to muster 
(his father being major of the militia). He always re- 
membered the fascination of a window in a little log- 
house at a turn in the road to town where an old 
woman kept gingercake horses and other animals. It 
was an event when he could go to Grandmother Simms's 
house. At home hospitality was free. Visitors would 
come from over the ridge with big wagons and bells on 
their horses. The lawyers and politicians felt at home 
at Major Broadus's house. So did the preachers, who 
would sometimes make little John stand upon the table 
and read aloud from the "Religious Herald.'* Major 
Broadus at this time was a member of the Mt. Poney 
Baptist Church (Culpeper Court-House). No meeting- 
house was near by and " Uncle" Griffin Reid some- 
times preached in the schoolhouse. He had the sing- 
song tone and was fond of telling his experiences. 

In 1837, when Major Broadus removed to Edge Hill, 
John, now ten years old, entered a school taught by his 
father for his benefit. This school was a mile and a 
half from Edge Hill. The subscription list is still pre- 



28 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

served. Eleven patrons signed for the school and they 
furnished forty scholars. John liked geography, history, 
arithmetic, and grammar. His geographical knowledge 
was thrown into a state of excitement when he learned 
that the earth turned around on its axis. He had long 
arguments on the subject with Henry, his colored play- 
mate, who doubted that piece of information, since, said 
Henry, "If dat's so, why don' de water spill out o' de 
well ? " In 1838 his brother J. M. assisted his father 
in the school. There were several grown men in attend- 
ance, but John A. stood at the head of the classes. 

He early became a great mimic. Mr. J. H. Apperson 
says : " In his boyhood days he would go to hear Barnett 
Grimsley or Cumberland George preach a sermon. The 
next day he could repeat it so nearly and imitate their 
voices so closely that, if he were out of sight, you would 
think it was one of them talking." Dr. Lewis, of Cul- 
peper, tells that one day he climbed a sycamore tree 
and aptly took a text about Zaccheus. J. A. B. him- 
self remembered it as the proudest day of his life when 
his father had him read a political speech before a large 
audience. It was when Major Broadus decided to re- 
turn to the legislature in 1839 an< 3 John was twelve 
years old. It was an exciting campaign. On this oc- 
casion he was very hoarse, and so had his little boy 
read his speech over till he became familiar with it. He 
was put up on the platform and read it to the delight of 
all, 

On Saturdays he was busy about the farm. He loved 
to fish in the big millpond and up the streams. His mother 
said that he might bathe, but mustn't swim ; he might 
hunt, but mustn't shoot. He always thought this a great 
mistake. But he fairly grew up on horseback. One 
day his big brother was riding with a young lady. John 
was riding along behind. He was terribly afraid of ladies 



YOUTH OF JOHN A. BROADUS 29 

himself, and could never say a word to them. When 
they stopped to water the horses at the stream John 
saw his opportunity for finding out how the thing was 
done, so he whipped up his horse and listened eagerly. 
His brother remarked to the young lady, " Your horse 
seems to be thirsty to-day. " John was much surprised 
and disappointed. 

One of the pleasantest recollections of Edge Hill to 
John A. Broadus was the old spring under the trees. 
When he went to Clarke County to teach school his heart 
yearned after it as David's did for the well near Bethle- 
hem. He wrote some lines about it in his boyish days : 

My early home, my early home, 

Whene'er I think of thee, 
How many thronging memories 

Come sadly over me. 
I see again the old white house, 

Half hidden by the trees ; 
I hear the carol of the birds, 

The humming of the bees ; 
I stand beside the clear old spring, 

Where oft I stood of yore, 
I watch them boiling, bubbling up, 

Those waters, bright and pure. 

Once he had fever, and it was the usual custom in 
those days to let fever patients have only warm drinks. 
He never forgot his intense thirst and how he made up 
his mind that if he ever got well he would go to the 
spring, lie down on his face, and drink for half an hour. 

" Uncle Dick " was the wagoner. He was specially 
warned not to burn rails when he camped out. After 
he had been off on a two days' trip, Major Broadus 
asked him if he had burned any rails. He said, " No, 
sir, 'ceptin' pieces." As he went out of the room little 
John overheard him say to himself, " I made 'em pieces 
and den I burnt 'em." John was not allowed to go to 



$0 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

Fredericksburg with Uncle Dick. This distant town 
was the nearest market, and the trip excited great 
interest. Uncle Dick lost Dobbin, the wheel horse, on 
one of his trips to Fredericksburg. Coming back home 
one day, Dobbin got sick and died. That night they 
camped as usual. Next morning Michael, the horse that 
had pulled by Dobbin's side, was gone. Uncle Dick went 
back to where Dobbin was left and there he found Michael 
standing over Dobbin. "You see," said Uncle Dick, 
in telling about it, " dey done worked together for such 
a long time." Doctor Broadus often told the story of Mi- 
chael and Dobbin with great power in public discourse. 

In 1839 Major Broadus quit teaching and returned to 
the legislature. John was nearly thirteen years old. 
His uncle, Albert G. Simms, was teaching a boarding- 
school at his old home, Bleak Hill. It was six miles 
from Edge Hill, but John would walk home every Friday 
evening. Mr. Simms had already won much distinction 
as a teacher. He had come to Culpeper from Madison 
in 1836 and lived here till 1872. He was a noble type 
of the teacher. " As a teacher his name has long been 
known throughout the South and West. The pupils 
of his high school adorn every department of learning 
and every walk of life. Their proficiency, especially 
in languages, was matter of note amongst the professors 
of the University of Virginia." Mr. Simms was as- 
sisted awhile by Mr. Albert Tutt, and by a Scotch 
teacher, Dr. Robertson, father of Judge W. J. Robertson, 
and a relative of the historian. Mr. Simms made his 
students familiar with the vocabulary and facts of the 
language, parsing every word, and reading widely and 
rapidly. But he did not teach them the philosophy of 
the language, so that when Dr. Gessner Harrison, at the 
University of Virginia, asked why a certain form was 
in the subjunctive, Mr. Broadus was dumfounded. He 



YOUTH OF JOHN A. BROADUS 31 

acquired ease in Latin first and the philosophy later. 
Doctor Broadus always said that he was better grounded 
in Latin than Greek because of the thorough drill he ob- 
tained at Simms's school while he was young. He did 
not study Greek at this school. He read Caesar, Sallust, 
Virgil, Livy, Horace ; Mair's " Latin Syntax " was used. 
There were no written exercises of " English into Latin." 
Murray's English Grammar was reviewed ; but while the 
Latin was on, with this exception, it was Latin day and 
night. He then read ahead of the class. Col. C. H. 
Wager, of Culpeper, who often read with him, says that 
John sometimes proposed, when reading Horace : " Let's 
read two hundred and fifty lines." When Col. Wager 
entered Washington College he stood at the head of a 
class of twenty-six in Latin, but he said he "had not 
done so at Simms's school, for John A. Broadus was 
there." John was best in Latin and mathematics, but 
mathematics was his favorite study always at school. 
Col. Wager said he was considered the best student in 
school by everybody. Some of the boys called him 
"hustler." One day several of the boys called him 
over and began subjecting him to various tests in Latin, 
such as skill in finding words in the dictionary, parsing 
fast, etc. Each time, surprised to find that one or 
another could excel him in this particular test, they 
looked up and said significantly, " 'Tain't that," and 
went on with the next test. John was quite unaware 
what they were after. Col. Wager's solution of the 
problem was to consider his schoolmate a prodigy. 

John was pale and thin in his boyhood, says one of 
his schoolmates, with heavy black hair, rather long and 
curly behind the ears. He had marvelous eyes, clear 
and piercing. He had a quiet laugh and a winning smile. 
His manner was demure and vivacious. With the boys 
he had a high sense of honor, and was genial and free 



32 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A, BROADUS 

from jealousy. He was fond then, as all his life, of 
taking long walks. He was popular with the students. 
One of his warm friends was A. P. Hill, afterwards so 
distinguished a general in the Confederate army. In 
after life they always called each other Powell and John. 
John was prominent in the Polemic Debating Society. 
He especially enjoyed once getting the best of "Top " 
Hill, brother of A, P., a crack debater, and afterwards a 
prominent lawyer. 

In 1840 John dropped out of school for one year to help 
on the farm. Doctor Broadus always felt that this year's 
work on the farm was a great blessing to him in pro- 
moting bodily health and gaining familiarity with prac- 
tical affairs. There was no overseer that winter, and 
the boy, not yet fourteen, had charge of the farm, the 
sawmill, and everything when Major Broadus was away, 
he being busy with politics that year. He had Uncle 
Griffin's help in managing things. Cutting with the axe 
was Uncle Griffin's pride, and he taught his young master 
to cut deeper into a tree in a given time than any other 
boy of his age. He learned to split rails, to plow, to 
mow, to bind wheat, to rake hay, to pull fodder, and 
everything else necessary on the farm. He worked with 
the men as well as managed the farm. He won a great 
reputation for guessing the yield of the wheat stacks. 
He noticed that Uncle Griffin, with the hopefulness of 
his race, generally guessed too high, while his fathci 
usually guessed too low. He waited till both had spoken 
and then split the difference. 

Major Broadus had to write pension papers for the 
veterans of 1812. The papers had to be absolutely per- 
fect, without erasure. Even in his early days John wrote 
a good hand and was often set to copy these papers 
for his father. One day he lacked five lines of finishing 
and got to thinking what he would do when he was 



YOUTH OF JOHN A. BROADUS 33 

through. Just then he made a mistake and had labori- 
ously to copy the whole paper over. It was a hard 
lesson in patient concentration. On the long winter 
nights and rainy days he kept up his Latin, reading 
largely. He read " Tales of a Grandfather " over again 
and also read the second series. Others of his old fav- 
orites re-read were "Gulliver," "Robinson Crusoe," 
and " Peter Parley." 

He went back to school in 1841, and remained till the 
fall of 1843. During the last year he assisted Mr. Simms 
in some of the teaching. One day John came home from 
school with his trunk. Major Broadus feared he had 
been expelled, and asked for an explanation. John 
solemnly said: "My uncle says he has no further use 
for me." His father could get no more out of him, and 
went over to see Mr. Simms, who laughed and said that 
John had learned all that he could teach him. There 
was always a tender feeling between Mr. Simms and his 
brilliant pupil. While in Europe, in 1870, Doctor Broadus 
wrote a letter in Latin to his uncle. He was greatly 
pleased, and speaking of it to a friend said : " And I an- 
swered him in the same tone, sir." 

While he was still at school, a protracted meeting was 
conducted atMt. Poney Church (Culpeper Court-House), 
by Rev. Chas. A. Lewis, of Kentucky, and Rev. Barnett 
Grimsley. Mr. Broadus was converted at this revival. 
While under conviction and feeling unable to take hold 
of the promises, a friend quoted to him : " ' All that the 
Father giveth me shall come to me. And him that com- 
eth to me I will in no wise cast out/ " repeating, " ' in 
no wise cast out.' Can't you take hold of that, John ? " 
Somehow the light dawned under this verse of Scripture. 
James G. Field, of Gordonsville, Va., writes : 

I knew him quite intimately from 1842 to 1847- We were youths of 
about the same age, he going to school to his uncle, Albert G. Simms, 

C 



34 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

and I living in the store of Thomas Hill & Son, at Culpeper. Our 
fathers had been opposing candidates for the legislature. In May, 
1843, at a protracted meeting, conducted mainly by Elder Charles 
Lewis, with the Mt. Poney Church, at Culpeper, we both professed 
conversion, joined the church the same day, and were together bap- 
tized by Rev. Cumberland George, in Mountain Run, just above 
where the bridge crosses the stream. He did not remain in the Mt. 
Poney Church very long, but took his letter and joined New Salem, 
the church where his father and family had their membership. . . 
In our little debating societies and prayer meetings he was always 
clear and logical in his statements, and devout in his supplications. 

The place of his baptism is just outside the town of Cul- 
peper. John was a little over sixteen when he joined the 
church. 

Rev. Cumberland George, who baptized him, assisted 
the pastor, Rev. John Churchill Gordon, once a month, 
and was afterwards pastor of the church. He was a man 
of fine physique and made a splendid appearance, and 
had a voice like a trumpet. He was best on set occa- 
sions. He had better advantages, but less native genius, 
than Rev. Barnett Grimsley, the pastor at New Salem, 
Grimsley was a man of great gifts, self-educated, elo- 
quent, and powerful. He had a famous illustration about 
climbing the Blue Ridge in the early morning, comparing it 
with progressive revelation (twilight, stars, moon, dawn, 
sunrise). Doctor Broadus delighted to expand this illus- 
tration as he had heard Grimsley do it. He had great 
influence on Mr. Broadus, and helped him decide about 
preaching. We shall see much of him during the Clarke 
County period of his life. He was, all in all, one of the 
most notable ministers in Virginia. Doctor Broadus 
heard much fine speaking in his early life. 

The New Salem Church has sent out several ministers 
besides Dr. Bioadus, viz, Rev. J. M. Farrar, Rev. A. H. 
Lewis, and Rev. R. H. Stone. They had monthly 
preaching. The Shiloh Association has had a noble his- 



YOUTH OF JOHN A. BROADUS 35 

tory and many able preachers. Some of them preached 
very long sermons. Rev. Silas Bruce had this habit. 
One day J. A. B. heard him preach an hour when he 
announced that he was now ready to take up the first 
part of his discourse. Thereupon Rev. H. W. Dodge arose 
and stepped in front of the pulpit and said earnestly : 
"My dear brother, don't you think this glorious theme 
had better be continued at another time ? " Mr. 
Bruce collapsed, but resumed that night and preached too 
long again. 

In a meeting a few months after John's conversion, the 
preacher urged all Christians at the close of the service 
to move about and talk to the unconverted. John looked 
anxiously around to see if there was anybody present 
he could talk to about his soul's salvation. He had 
never done anything of the kind before. Finally he saw 
a man not very bright, named Sandy. He thought he 
might venture to speak to him at any rate ; and Sandy 
was converted. John soon went away to teach school. 
Whenever he came back Sandy would run across the 
street to meet him and say: "Howdy, John ? thankee, 
John. Howdy, John ? thankee, John." Doctor Broadus 
often told of this first effort of his at soul-winning and 
would add : " And if ever I reach the heavenly home 
and walk the golden streets, I know the first person to 
meet me will be Sandy, coming and saying again : 
1 Howdy, John ? thankee, John.' " 



CHAPTER IV 

THE SCHOOLMASTER 
And gladly wolde he lerne, and gladly teche. 

Chaucer. 

THE question now confronted young Broadus as to 
what he should do. He had not decided upon his 
life-work and he wished to obtain a higher education. 
But not having means he determined upon teaching as 
the only feasible method of procuring funds. What an 
army of Southern boys have attained a high career from 
this beginning ! Rev. Barnett Grimsley was pastor of 
Bethel Church, in Clarke County. He seems to have 
interested himself in securing a position in that county 
for his young friend. Major Broadus was in Richmond, 
but felt much concern about this step on the part of his 
son : 

RICHMOND, VA., Jan. 4, 1844- 

You desire to know what I think of your engagement in Clarke. 
Of course, I cannot decide, not having the slightest acquaintance 
with the people you are to be among. I suppose Mr. Gnmsley 
advised you to engage, and I have no idea he would have done so 
without due deliberation. Your own judgment concurs too, 1 sup- 
pose, and I have mentioned it to Mr. Burwell, 1 who speaks well or 
the man and of the situation. . . I must, of course, yield to all these 
and be contented. I apprehend that your mother will feel that you are 
going a long way from home and maybe your father may too; but 
we must bear that if you can convert it to your benefit, which J hope 
you will be able to do. I cannot now undertake to advise you! 
have tried to do so before. Remember that " religion is the chief 
concern," that honor and honesty is the road to preferment, and that 
** modesty is a quality that highly adorns youth/ 1 The anxiety I 

* Member of the legislature from CUrke. 



THE SCHOOLMASTER 37 

feel for your welfare at this moment (one hundred miles from you) 
overpowers me I cannot write. 

He sent his watch for John to use in his teaching. 
When we next hear about the young teacher, he has 
been in Clarke some weeks. He went over the moun- 
tains in January and began his school at Rose Hill, 
the home of William Sowers. His school was small 
and he soon became low-spirited. His sister Martha 
writes to him in a comforting strain: "Cheer up and 
lay to it with all your energy and you have nothing 
to fear. I feel proud in the knowledge of the fact that 
you are capable of performing the duties laid upon 
you." His sister Carry urges him not to be "too sus- 
picious." "Try to act in such a manner as to give 
people no just excuse for saying anything rude or un- 
kind about you, and then just take it for granted that they 
do not, and you will be much happier. See if you do 
not." It was the first time that the boy of seventeen had 
gone alone among strangers and his naturally shrinking 
nature found it hard to become adjusted to the ways of 
the world. Many evidences of this modesty crop out dur- 
ing the Clarke County period. Enough of it remained 
with him always to give an added charm to his charac- 
ter. He had been little in the society of ladies save 
that of his mother and sisters. He soon discovered that 
the fair sex had great charms for him, and made heavy 
encroachments upon the time he had set for reviewing his 
Latin and French. But it was just as well, for the 
lighter side of his nature needed to have play. He felt 
a relief from the severe tension of the Simms school. 
These years of varied interest and pleasure in Clarke 
formed a good preparation for the intense exertions soon 
to come in the university. The struggling youth made 
mistakes, some of them bitter and sad, but he was ever 
striving to do the duty that seemed the highest, even 



38 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

when others may have thought he did wrong. The rich- 
ness and depth of his future life even now gave some 
outcroppings. 

The systematic habits taught him by his father were 
faithfully kept up. He made minute account of all ex- 
penditures and receipts, manifesting a care in financial 
matters that became a part of his character. He in turn 
encouraged his children to keep accounts from the days 
of their smallest pocket money, and was strenuous in 
urging scrupulous exactness upon his students. He kept 
a list of all his correspondence during this period, and 
began the habit of preserving all letters received, a cus- 
tom which he carefully maintained all his life. 

He did not enjoy teaching at first. It seemed a make- 
shift leading to something else. His sisters kept in close 
touch with everything and held him to a high resolve 
about his work. Often during these years they showed 
their tender care by watching over his wardrobe, sending 
packages by Mr. Grimsley, and fitting him out when he 
came home. In one letter his sister expressed the hope 
that the new coat she sends will fit. Once mention is 
made of cloth being woven at home for a suit for him. 
She wrote that her father was opposed for the legislature 
this spring by Mr, J. S. Barbour, but that he was not un- 
easy. 

EDMUND BROADUS to J. A. B. : 

May 7 1844 : My majority this year is the largest I ever had, 
notwithstanding I am against a congressman and member of the 
State convention. . . 1 was young once myself and passed the same 
ordeal that you are now undergoing. Had this not been so, I should 
not know how to enter upon the trial. I had much diffidence and 
many defects to overcome, and of course much difficulty to contend 
with. First, my education was very limited and 1 was rusty even 
in that. I went too, into a school kept the year before by a first-tate 
teacher, and the boys were considerably advanced. Of course 1 
had to work hard to go ahead of them, so as to teach them. * . I 



THE SCHOOLMASTER 39 

succeeded tolerably well. Your situation is better. You were in 
full practice and ahead of your scholars, with capacities to compass 
the duties of the station and having other advantages which I had 
not A youth ought not to aim at too much at once. All of us 
must rise by degrees, and although a laudable ambition to become 
eminent should be indulged, yet we ought not to expect to rise 
too rapidly. . . I know you must succeed, because you have the- 
elements, but you must plod for it and make yourself. This all : 
have to do, or it is never done ; but success at once would be a^ 
miracle and would destroy every claim to merit, which consists in 
overcoming difficulties. But enough of this your own reflections 
have taught you all. I saw Mr. Gnmsley last Saturday, Sunday, 
and Monday, He says you are getting on very well, and so say 
others I have seen. Let that encourage you to persevere in the dis- 
charge of your duties. I should make the exclusion of any pupil a 
last resort. Try every way without it. It hurts the feelings of 
parents and rarely reclaims a boy. 

Young Broadus made a visit home during June, 1844. 
Before returning to his work he promised his sisters to 
keep a diary for their benefit. This was continued for 
two years, and is a most interesting chronicle of his life 
in Clarke. Many extracts will be taken from it : 

July 12 : My school is still small to-day. I have but ten and feel 
very lonesome. Mrs. Sowers made some Tyler pudding yesterday, 
according to the directions I brought, and considered it very good. 
There is a piece in my bucket now, and I will try it presently. . . 
I have tried the pudding and it is excellent. I hope Mrs. Sowers 
will make more of it. People may think as they please about it, 
I feel somewhat better on Friday evening than on Monday morning, 
and now, although fatigued by the labors of the day, I must hasten 
to the house and plunge into the mysteries of Sallust and Gil Bias. 

Tuesday, July 16: I went to Winchester on Saturday and as- 
sisted W. A. W- 1 in selecting some Sunday-school books. I did not 
obtain the Greek book which Parson Dodge 2 directed me to get. It 
was not to be had in town. I shall probably see him next week, 
and if he does not insist on my getting the book, I think I will let 

i Mr. Whitescarver, the young Sunday-school superintendent at BerryviIIe, 
* Rev. H, W. Dodg:e, the pastor at BerryviIIe, took a lively interest in Mr. 
Broadus and tried to Induce him to study Greek. 



40 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A, BROADUS 

the Greek be. I believe I will learn more by reviewing my Latin 
and French than by commencing Greek, when I know I can never 
finish it. Nevertheless, if the parson continues to urge it, I shall 
make the attempt. . . It will not do to neglect my Latin and French 
altogether, and my playtimes are devoted to algebra ; besides at least 
one evening in the week must be devoted to the reading of the 
papers, for reasons which you understand. . . My new grammar 
class will probably commence to-morrow. 

On Tuesday, July 23, he records at length a most in- 
teresting experience about a boy who created much dis- 
turbance while he was out of the room a few minutes. 
The boy took correction badly. 

There I sat in my chair with my feet upon the stove ; within six 
feet of me sat a boy whom I knew to be as stubborn as an ox and 
who had just failed to comply with a positive command repeated five 
or six times ; and all around were the scholars looking to see what I 
would do. What could I do? I didn't want to whip him, and be- 
sides I could not conquer him by that. So I just went to him and 
taking him by the arm led him to my chair and seated him in it, telling 
him to sit still. (You may see I did not know what to do.) He got 
up and I set him down again and held him there. He struggled, I 
held him ; he cursed me and I talked to him mildly. He threatened 
to tell his mother, and I laughed at him. He threatened to " blow 
rne up " (send me away, you know), and I told him to " blow on." 
After about fifteen minutes, weary of being held, he sat still, and I 
let him go. 

Wednesday, July 24: 1 am stalled in my algebra, 1 and when 
playtime comes I will try at my sum awhile, and if I fail I will write 
'a letter to somebody. . . 

Thursday, July 25 : Would you believe it, I actually perpetrated 
a piece of poetry yesterday to " my sister" I 

There is a little manuscript book of verses written by 
him during this period. One on silent gratitude, one on 
Naomi, one to an infant niece, etc. 

He took much interest in politics (naturally) and was 

1 He had begun it by himself. 



THE SCHOOLMASTER 41 

an ardent admirer of Clay, the presidential candidate of 
the Whigs. Doctor Broadus often in after years re- 
proached himself for not having gone to Washington to 
hear the great speeches of Clay and Webster in the 
senate. In July he made a trip to Loudoun to hear a 
political debate, and was much interested in seeing "the 
far-famed Loudoun beauties." The debate was between 
" Extra Billy " Smith and Mr. Janney. 

August i : I was besieged on yesterday evening by Miss Lucy * 
to go to the Bear's Den on Saturday instead of going to church. I 
refused. 

Monday, August 5 : Surely I am the most fickle, inconstant mor- 
tal in existence. After refusing so many urgent, pressing invitations 
to go to the Bear's Den, and, after becoming fully convinced that I 
ought not to go, I went. 

On Tuesday, August 6, he is gratified at having a 
Latin scholar at last. He put him in Adams' Grammar, 
which he had studied at Bleak Hill under Albert G. 
Simms. The boy was of the same age as himself. He 
had suddenly risen above an old field school teacher and 
had become a classical professor. On Wednesday, 
August 14, two of his scholars were missing. He 
visited the mother of the two girls and had a rather stiff 
interview. Some other young school-teachers may ap- 
preciate the colloquy: "If I may be allowed to inquire 
the reason, ma'am, are you dissatisfied with their prog- 
ress ? " " No, sir, not with that ; but I don't think you 
keep order enough in the school." "Yes, ma'am." 
" I don't believe my girls can learn well where the schol- 
ars are constantly laughing and talking, and half of them 
doing nothing." " I know very well, ma'am, that I am 
not a good teacher; perfectly aware of that." "No, 
you are too young ; you have not had experience 

1 Dr. Broadus's old students will be interested in seeing that there was a veritable 
"Miss Lucy "not bis Miss Lucy, however. 



42 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

enough." "I know, ma'am, that I cannot be a good 
teacher without experience, and I cannot get experience 
without teaching. " "Well, I know that, but I don't 
want anybody to get experience by teaching my chil- 
dren." " Certainly, ma'am, that is correct, exactly 
correct. Do you intend to take the boys away too ? " 
" No, I sha'n't take them away." 

He hopes to go home either at the Association or in the 
fall, especially if either of his sisters gets married. He 
succeeded in going home August 27, for a two weeks' 
visit. The diary for August closes with an interesting 
parody of "Old Dan Tucker," called "The Ladies' 
Song," It is a political ditty in praise of Clay and the 
Whigs against Polk and the Locofocos, as the Democrats 
were called. It is eight verses long, beginning : 

We gained the day four years ago, 
For all the ladies help'd, you know. 
And now they all enlist again 
And go for Clay with might and main. 

EDMUND BROADUS to J. A. B. : 

August 13: Last Thursday and Friday we had our Whig festi- 
val. Southall, Lyons, of Richmond, Janney, etc., were with us and 
addressed us Their speeches were all good, Janney's the best, and 
surpassed anything I ever heard. Three thousand at least were 
present and were highly gratified. . . The Whig spirit is high here, 
and we expect to give a large Clay majority. 

John was troubled with the question whether he would 
be wanted again by his patrons after the year was out. 
His father wrote him : 

There is no occasion, I suppose, for you to be in a hurry. You 
ought to have more than you are getting, but it may not be neces- 
sary for you to move to get it. Please your present patrons right well 
and they will give more. If not, they will give you such a recom- 
mendation as will get you a better situation. I flatter myself you 
are doing pretty well and that they will not like to part from you- 



THE SCHOOLMASTER 43 

His mind had already been turning toward medicine as 
a profession. His father had advised him not to go into 
politics. He wrote him once : 

I have not meant to write a political letter. It must not make you 
a politician by trade. 

His father was unwilling for John to study law, for 
which he was in some respects well adapted, since at 
that time in Virginia a lawyer could not keep out of poli- 
tics ; and he was not willing for his son to go through a 
politician's struggles in leading a sincere Christian life. 

WM. MORTON to J. A B. : 

August 30 : I expect to commence the study of medicine either this 
fall or next. I hope you will not give up the idea of studying it, for 
I think it would suit you better than anything else. . . I am glad to 
hear that the ladies do not frighten you now. I always told you 
that they would not. 

He returned to Clarke again September 9 : 

Saturday, September 14 : I will undertake to describe Miss Lucy's 
quilt. She made twenty-eight stars, twenty-five of them go into the 
quilt whole. The remaining three are cut through bias and put on 
the ends of the quilt, three halves on each end, to make it out square 
on the edge. Then there are ten half stars, made so, where they are 
placed, five on each side . . . besides all these there are two small 
pieces necessary to fill out two of the corners, the other two being 
filled with still smaller pieces of white. . . If my explanation has 
only mystified what you understood before, I can't help it. 

Wednesday, September 18, he records an amusing ex- 
perience. He had concluded to announce French in his 
list of classes. One of his patrons had doubts as to his 
ability to teach it and asked him to read some French to 
him. Although the patron knew no French at all, he 
looked gravely at the book as he read, and seemed satis- 
fied. His wife, however, came in and was not so easily 
pleased. She likewise wished to hear some French read. 



44 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

Mr. Broadus read some of "Gil Bias/' not transla- 
ting. The good lady said that she could not understand 
him as well as she did the French priest who was at the 
house last winter. The husband then explained that the 
priest mixed English and French together as he read, pro- 
nouncing and then translating each phrase, so that she 
understood exactly half of what he said. 

He is much exercised as to whether he shall stay at 
Rose Hill another year. Scholars are few and things are 
slow. Capt. D. W. Sowers wants him at Woodley, three 
miles from Berryville, where Mr. W. A. Whitescarver 
has been teaching. The diary gives evidence of his ac- 
tivity in various directions. He begins to enter with spirit 
into the social life of the county. He teaches a Bible 
class in the Berryville Sunday-school, of which Mr. 
Whitescarver is the superintendent. He belongs to the 
muster roll of the militia, as his father did in Culpeper. 
He attends the geography class in Berryville taught on 
the Lancastrian system in eighteen lessons. This method 
consisted in singing geographical rhymes with a swing 
and dash, and created some furore at the time. The 
middle of December closes his engagement at Rose Hill 
and he makes a visit to Culpeper. 

In the middle of January, 1845, our young schoolmas- 
ter begins at Woodley, the home of Captain D. W. Sowers, 
living alternately there and with Dr. Lewellyn Kerfoot. 1 
He is much grieved at the loss of the companionship of 
his friend, Whitescarver. He tries hard to please his 
new patrons, who had been fond of the previous teach- 
ers. He goes regularly to the singing-school at Berry- 
ville under Mr. Wells and takes lively interest in it 

People thought the do-re~mi system of singing a won* 
derful thing. On Thursday, 27th of February, 1845, he 
says : 

i Father of Dr. F. H Kerfoot. 



THE SCHOOLMASTER 45 

Last night I commenced my studies after having spent nearly two 
weeks in complete idleness, much in the society of the ladies. 

On April 6, 1845, he is made superintendent of the 
Sunday-school at Berryville. He speaks of himself as a 
" very imperfect one too. ' Still, he is " the only chance 
and he ought to do the best he can." He makes a short 
address to the teachers from Luke 9 : 62, "No man,' 
having put his hand to the plough," etc. Finding it 
hard to get teachers for the Sunday-school among the 
church-members, he persuaded three young ladies, who 
were distant relatives of his, and a young man, to take 
classes, though they were not Christians. In a few 
months they were all converted. One of the ladies, 
Miss Laura Reynolds, married his friend, R. B. McCor- 
mick, and became the mother of H. P. McCormick, the 
missionary. The school at Woodley is prosperous and 
he is happy. The people in Clarke at that time were 
generally well-to-do. 

J. A. B. to EDMUND BROADUS : 

WOODLEY SEMINARY, April n, 1845: Your letter of the tf 
inst, which I received last evening, was, as you supposed it would 
be, unexpected, but I was only so much the more gratified at its re- 
ception. The reflection that I have now arrived at an age when it 
is necessary that I commence striving to be what I wish to be, a 
man possessed of those solid qualities which alone can gain the 
esteem of the intelligent and virtuous, has often troubled me. Some- 
times, when my thoughts are flowing in that channel, I feel that 
nature has given me the ability to be something, and I am deter- 
mined that I will strive to rise. Again 1 am discouraged by the 
seemingly insurmountable difficulties that are before me. I have 
been troubled too, by the fact that I cannot decide what to make of 
myself. Irresolute and undecided, then, as I was, your advice was 
apropos. I am a schoolmaster now, and 'tis best that I confine to 
my present occupation all my ambitions to rise. Here again I am 
discouraged, for, strive as I will, the progress of my scholars is not 
sufficient to satisfy what I conceive may reasonably be the expec- 
tations of their parents. Do not understand me as saying that I 



46 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

know them to be dissatisfied. I know nothing about it, but I am 
not satisfied myself, and I am constantly fearing that they are 
not. It seems to me that my future prosperity as a teacher de- 
pends pretty much on my success this year. If I fail now I don't 
know that I shall ever again obtain employment as a teacher. 'Tis 
but natural that I should bend all my energies to my duties as a 
teacher, still I cannot see what more I can well do than I am doing 
already. I am in school regularly during the appointed hours, I try 
to get the scholars along, I do all that I can to get more scholars, 
and in every way that I can think of endeavor to promote the inter- 
ests of my patrons. Can I do more than this? You advise me to 
give up other studies for the present and devote myself to my calling. 
Here I do not understand what you mean, and it is because I wish 
to explain that I write so soon. If it is necessary that I give up my 
studying I ought to do it at once. Still I cannot understand how it 
would benefit my scholars or my patrons. I spend as many hours 
in school as it is customary here to do (six), and I intend, if my pa- 
trons will allow it, to take an hour more before long. Now when 1 
am out of school I may as well do something as nothing. I have 
been accustomed for years to reading a great deal. If I do not read 
something solid and profitable I cannot help reading things that are 
light and useless. Will not my patrons, then, if they are sensible 
people, think more of me, both as a man and teacher, if they see me 
endeavoring to gain useful knowledge, than if I read only light stuff 
or even nothing at all ? But perhaps you mean that I ought to give 
up Greek. I undertook it more on account of Dodge's frequent and 
persistent persuasions than anything else. But although I have 
made but little progress, I have become interested in it, and I cannot 
see why I may not as well devote to that as anything else these 
leisure hours which it is not in my power to spend for the interest 
of my employers. Do not understand me now as being unwilling to 
follow your advice. I only ask you to explain, to tell me what I 
ought to do, and it shall be done. Please write to me on this subject 
as soon as you can. 

Major Broadus's reply must have been satisfactory, for 
the diary says : 

Friday, May 2, 1845 ' Recommenced my studies last evening* I 
want to try to stick to it, but I don't know whether I can. 

On May 28, 1845, Major Broadus writes with much un- 



THE SCHOOLMASTER 47 

certainty as to the wisdom of the Augusta Convention, 1 
for fear it may not turn out well, but hoping for the best. 
During all this period Mr. Broadus was remarkably atten- 
tive to his church duties, including prayer meeting and 
Sunday-school 

Thursday, June 26 : Wrote to W. A. W. last evening. Spent the 
evening and night at home, studying like a clever fellow. During 
this week, Greek, Latin, French, music, vocal and instrumental, 
have all gone ahead in fine style. ** Too many irons in the fire," 
say you ? Not if I could stick to it ; but next week I shall go to the 
singing school again and get my head full of the girls, and then 
good-bye Greek. 

Previous to this time postage had been twenty-five cents 
a letter and it was paid by the recipient. Now it was 
reduced to five. There were still no envelopes. Dr. 
Broadus often delighted in the postal system as one of 
the great triumphs of modern civilization. He never 
mailed a letter that was to go half-way around the world 
for five cents without being stirred. 

He thinks of trying to go to Columbian College with 
Whitescarver and John Pickett, and wants to clear one 
hundred dollars next year from his teaching. 

Wednesday, Oct. 15, 1845 Spent last evening and night at home 
in hard study. When I returned from Culpeper, I determined to try 
to devote my leisure hours more closely to my studies. Thus far I 
have been doing pretty well and I flatter myself, nay I have reason 
to believe, that if I can persevere in much application, I may by the 
close of next year read Greek with ease. Already difficulties are 
removed which two weeks since seemed insurmountable. I have 
made arrangements to obtain a Greek Testament and hope that, ere 
long, I shall be reading the New Testament in the original tongue. 

In November his father returned to the legislature and 
soon arrangements were made for John to make his father 
a visit in Richmond. His father in two long letters gave 

1 Organization of the Southern Baptist Convention. 



48 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

him minute directions about traveling by rail. The jour- 
ney was safely accomplished and John greatly enjoyed 
this first glimpse of the world. 

Thursday, Jan. 29, 1846 : I commenced last night reading a work 
on anatomy. I want you not to mention that I am studying medi- 
cine, as I don't wish to have it tattled about at all. 

Thursday, Feb. 3, 1846: Spent last night at home, examining 
the skulls. The doctor 1 is very kind and accommodating, sits with 
me every night, and shows me every os and process and foramen 
that I can't find myself. 

Monday, March 23, 1846 : Finished on Saturday night the first 
volume of my anatomy. 

J. A. B. to T. W. LEWIS : 

WOODLEY SEMINARY, Feb. 26, 1846: And you have at last 
made the discovery that " There is no place like home," have you? 
That, my dear sir, is what every one thinks when first he leaves 
home and friends to " go into a strange land." Such, at least, were 
my feelings ; and, indeed, for months I thought I could never be 
happy anywhere else. Such notions, however, have long since 
passed away, and one place is to me now almost as another. 1 still 
love my home and kindred as devotedly, I am persuaded, as I ever 
did, but I feel not now that sense of utter loneliness which once I 
felt when away from them. Strange that we can so soon become 
accustomed to different situations, that we may so easily bend our- 
selves to suit our circumstances. But, though strange, it is a bless- 
ing ; for, were I doomed to a continuation of such feelings as I had 
soon after I left home, my lot would be miserable indeed. 

You inquire if I never think about preaching. I answer, I do ; 
but I always come to the conclusion that preaching is not my office. 
Not because I consider a call to the ministry to consist in some supei- 
natural 2 intimation, for I believe that to be very little more than an 
earnest and ardent desire for the work, but because I do not think 1 
am qualified for it. I do not say this because I wish you to say the 
contrary, but because I am endeavoring to tell you candidly my 
real thoughts. I know that my mental capabilities are, in some re- 
spects, not inconsiderable, but I was not u cut out" for a public 
speaker ; 1 have not that grace of manner and appearance, that 

* Dr. Kerfoot 

2 But when he did feel called to preach, he thought differently and believed In * call 
of the Holy Spirit. 



THE SCHOOLMASTER 49 

pleasant voice, that easy flow of words, which are indispensably 
necessary in him who would make impressions on his fellows by 
public speaking. 

Such were some of the reasons which induced me some months 
since to give up well-nigh all idea of becoming a preacher. 1 am 
now, in conformity with the wishes of my relatives, and particularly 
my father, devoting some of my leisure hours to the study of the 
" healing art." The gentleman with whom I board was formerly a 
practising physician ; he is an intelligent and accommodating man, 
and has a supply of " books and bones," so that I get along with 
anatomy without much difficulty. 

You speak of my being so much disposed to be that butterfly 
thing called a " ladies' man." I lament that I so well deserve the 
name. Ofttimes I determine and redetermine, resolve and reresolve 
that I will not waste so much time m fluttering around the fair, but 
it really seems that I cannot help it. I feel, and bitterly, that " much 
of my time has run to waste," but I cannot husband that which is 
now passing by, as I would, as I should. 

You have twenty scholars ; you outnumber me, then, by four, for 
I have but sixteen. I may have more, and may have less ; 'tis a 
matter of no consequence to me. 

I never saw Brown's Grammar; what are its characteristics? 
what is there in his plan that is new ? I am using now Murray, 
Kirkham, and Smith, all three, and I can hardly say which I con- 
sider the best. 

The diary closes May n, 1846. It is a most interest- 
ing narrative of the passing of the boy into the man. 
His letter-book makes mention of two letters to the Win- 
chester "Republican " and one to the Winchester " Vir- 
ginian/' during the last months of his stay in Clarke. 
Thus early did his career as a newspaper writer begin. 

Mr. Broadus, like his father, took the keenest interest 
in the society of the Sons of Temperance, an organi- 
zation which did much good. In May, 1846, he was 
asked to deliver an address before the Berryville Total 
Abstinence Society. He wrote the speech out in full. 
On the back of the manuscript Doctor Broadus had 
written, " This affair (my first effort) was prepared in 



50 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

the summer of 1846 by appointment of the Berryville 
T. A. Soc'y ; but the day was rainy, and the speech 
could not be delivered. Pity ! " The address shows 
that the youth of nineteen years had the power to seize 
strong arguments and put them into striking speech. 
For the comfort of other young orators it is worth noting 
that there is a touch of the sophomore (to whom Doctor 
Broadus so often paid his respects) in the peroration : 

Be excelsior our motto, our watchword onward, and let us never 
cease from our labors until the power of intemperance shall be tram- 
pled in the dust and the proud flag of total abstinence shall wave 
over every hilltop of our native land. 

EDMUND BROADUS to J. A. B. : 

CULPEPER, June 10, 1846 : In your last you mentioned that you 
had promised to make a temperance speech. I hope that you did so 
and that you had " liberty and light " or rather " light and liberty." 
But if you failed, what of it? Would you be the first who failed in 
the first effort? Speaking does not come naturally; although the 
organs are given, their use must be taught. Children learn to talk by 
tuition, or the organs would lie dormant. Public speaking requires 
practice after vou know how to speak ; there is a certain degree of 
confidence necessary to enable a speaker, young or old, to do justice 
to his talents or his knowledge of the subject ; practice alone can 
give that in the right way or in the right degree. A man may be 
bold and dauntless and care but little what he says or how he says 
it. That is not the confidence I like to see. In the first place, a 
speaker ought to know something, or rather, a good deal, of the sub- 
ject on which he speaks, and then if he is master of language enough 
to express his ideas, without an effort for words, he may confidently 
expect success, and may be easy. It is not always expedient to say 
in a public speech all that is true a proper selection should be made 
so as to produce effect, and care should be taken to avoid anything 
which would offend or shock the audience. Of course all that is 
said should be true, whether there is to be a reply or not It gives 
the audience confidence in the speaker without which but little good 
can ever be effected. But why should I be telling you all this your 
own good sense, observation, and Mr. Dodge can supply you. Let 
us hear from your effort. 

Your mother's health is not good, and mine is not as good as 



THE SCHOOLMASTER $1 

common ; the rest are well. There is no neighborhood news, or 
very little. Carry gives you the gossip of our community. . . 

The great Baptist anniversaries are going on, you know. Well, 
they mean well and are right in their objects. Is there not danger 
that they go too fast in some things? You have no idea of the 
amount of zeal manifested in the cities on the subject of foreign mis- 
sions. This is all right, but 1 fear still the political effect of the 
division between North and South. Everything which tends to 
estrange and sever the feelings of the people of different sections of 
the Union, weakens so far the Union itself, and renders more prob- 
able what is already dreaded by every patriot. I have often heard 
it advocated on the ground that it would stimulate both sides and 
more would be done in the cause of missions. That may be so ; 
but ought we to endanger our existence as a republican government 
and lose the guaranty of religious liberty, or liberty of conscience, in 
the effort to increase the stimulus to work even in a good cause? Do 
not think me unfriendly to missions it is not so ; but " the world 
was not made in a day." On the contrary, the great Artisan em- 
ployed six distinct days to build a world which he could have 
spoken into existence in all its perfection as easily as he said, " Let 
there be light, and there was light." We are to be the instruments 
of carrying forward the designs of the Almighty in evangelizing the 
world ; but we ought to be satisfied to feel our way, and not assume 
that that is the great good, and sacrifice every other blessing to that 
duty. 

Your coat and vest are made. Inform us directly whether we 
shall have them carried to you by Brother Grimsley, or whether 
you will wait till you come over to see us at harvest We had only 
one day meeting on the fifth Sunday, and then only our pastor, on 
account of the rainy weather ; so you would have been disappointed 
had you come. 

In June, 1846, Major Broadus corresponded with Hon. 
J. C. Cabell about obtaining a position at the University 
of Virginia in order to give John a university education. 
This correspondence led to the offer of the new office of 
steward for State students. The faculty, through Mr. 
Cabell, urged his acceptance of the place. So Major 
Broadus took up his abode on Monroe Hill in the fall. 
He made his arrangements to move September i. He 



52 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

urged John to be on hand at the beginning of the ses- 
sion if his kind friends in Clarke would let him off. 
Preaching was still in John's mind. The study of 
" bones " did not satisfy him. He was working his way 
toward the light and sought the help of his intimate 
friends. Still he pushed the question of preaching away 
from him. He was going to be a physician, and he had 
the chance of going to the University of Virginia. That 
was the alluring prospect now before him. But God laid 
his hand on him. Writing to his father, August n, he 
says : 

Last evening I reached home from Upperville, where I had been 
since Saturday, attending the meeting of the Salem Union Associa- 
tion. What occurred there I can tell you when we meet. 

What John had to tell his father we know from his own 
words in his memorial of A. M. Poindexter : l 

In August, 1846, while pursuing the agency for Columbia College, 
he [Poindexter] attended the Potomac Association or was it not 
then called Salem Union ? at Upperville, Fauquier County, and 
preached two sermons, which are vividly remembered by at least one 
person who was present, and which may be referred to as illustrating 
the usefulness of many kinds which Dr. Poindexter always con- 
nected with agency work. A youth who had been teaching school 
in that vicinity two or three years, had just been released m order 
to enter the University of Virginia and study medicine. For three 
years a professed Christian, he had often thought about the question 
of becoming a minister, but considered himself to have finally decided 
that it was not his duty. On Sunday Dr. Poindexter preached upon 
" Glorying in the Cross." The young man had often heard with 
enthusiasm and delight such truly eloquent preachers as Barnett 
Grimsley, Cumberland George, and Henry W. Dodge; but he 
thought, that Sunday at Upperville, that he had never before imag- 
ined what preaching might be, never before conceived the half of 
the grandeur and glory that gathers sublime around the Cross of 
Christ. . . 

The next morning Doctor Poindexter was requested to preach at 

1 "Sermons and Addresses," pp. 397-399 



THE SCHOOLMASTER 53 

eleven o'clock in the church, the Association adjourning to hear him. 
The sermon was one which he often preached in the journey ings of 
later years on the Parable of the Talents. Impressing the duty of 
Christian beneficence, he adopted a plan which will be remembered 
by many as characteristic. He mastered the complete sympathy of 
many hearers, the prosperous farmers of that beautiful region, by ar- 
guing long and earnestly that it was right for the Christian to gather 
property, and right to provide well for his family. Excellent brethren 
were charmed. No preacher had ever before so fully justified the 
toil and sacrifices by which they had been steadily growing rich. 
They looked across the house into the faces of delighted friends. 
They smiled and winked and nodded to each other in every direction. 
But when the preacher had gained their full sympathy, the sudden 
appeal he made to consecrate their wealth to the highest ends of ex- 
istence, to the good of mankind and the glory of Christ, was a tor- 
rent, a tornado that swept everything before it. Presently he spoke 
of consecrating one's mental gifts and possible attainments to the 
work of the ministry. He seemed to clear up all difficulties pertain- 
ing to the subject ; he swept away all the disguise of self-delusion, 
all the excuses of fancied humility ; he held up the thought that the 
greatest sacrifices and toils possible to a minister's lifetime would be 
a hundred-fold repaid if he should be the instrument of saving one 
soul. Doubtless the sermon had many more important results which 
have not fallen in the way of being recorded ; but when intermission 
came, the young man who has been mentioned sought out his pastor, 
and with a choking voice said : " Brother Grimsley, the question is 
decided ; I must try to be a preacher." For the decision of that hour 
he is directly indebted under God to A. M. Poindexter ; and amid a 
thousand imperfections and shortcomings, that work of the ministry 
has been the joy of his life. 

He knew now what a call to preach was. So he left 
Clarke County the last of August with a throbbing heart- 
He was deeply grateful to his friends there, especially to 
Doctor and Mrs. Kerfoot, for their many kindnesses to 
him. He rode his father's riding-horse, Dick, over the 
mountains to Culpeper with many thoughts in his heart. 
The glorious Blue Ridge had a new meaning to him now. 
The whole world had opened out to him since he had first 
crossed the mountains into Clarke. He was reaching out 



54 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

after it. He had gone away two years before with fear 
and trembling ; he came back with solemn and mighty 
purposes. A few days here in the old scenes and he was 
off to the university to the larger life to which God was 
calling him. 



CHAPTER V 
THE UNIVERSITY STUDENT 

Whose high endeavors are an inward light 
That makes the path before him always bright ; 
Who with a natural instinct to discern 
What knowledge can perform, is diligent to learn. 

Wordsworth 

THE University of Virginia offered the most thorough 
education to be had in this country in the forties. 
The wisdom of Thomas Jefferson's educational ideal has 
long been justified, if its full recognition was slow of foot. 
Nearly every essential idea that was incorporated by Mr. 
Jefferson in the University of Virginia for the first time 
in America has since been adopted and enlarged upon by 
older and wealthier universities. Virginia's primacy in 
the highest educational standards is as true as her early 
leadership in statecraft. Prof. Herbert B. Adams, associ- 
ate professor of history in Johns Hopkins University, has 
furnished a fascinating account of the inception, growth, 
and influence of the University of Virginia. 1 This able 
work is written from original sources and is amply illus- 
trated. No more noble contribution to the history of 
American education has been made. The Commissioner 
of Education, Mr. N. H. R. Dawson, writing to Mr. Lamar, 
Secretary of the Interior, commending the treatise for 
publication, gives the following unstinted praise to Jef* 
ferson and the University of Virginia : 

1 U, S. Bureau of Education. Circular of Information, No. i, 1888. " Contribu- 
tions to American Educational History." by Herbert B. Adams. No a, "Thomas 
Jefferson and the University of Virginia," by Herbert B. Adams, Ph. D., 225 pp< 
See also Gessner Harrison's article In Duycklnck's "Cyclopaedia of American 
Literature/' 

55 



56 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

To the University of Virginia, Jefferson's creation, the whole coun- 
try is indebted for the following distinguished services to the higher 
education: (i) The recognition of real university standards of in- 
struction and scholarship. (2) The absolute repression of the class- 
system, and the substitution of merit for seniority in the award of 
degrees. (3) The first complete introduction of the elective system. 
(4) The establishment of distinct " schools," in which great subjects 
were grouped ; for example, ancient languages, modern languages, 
mathematics, law, and politics ; each school having its autonomy 
and its own standard of graduation. (5) The institution of constitu- 
tional government, in academic form, with an appointed president or 
chairman of the faculty, holding office for one year, but eligible for 
re-appointment by the Board of Visitors. (6) The promotion of self- 
government among the students, with the cultivation of an esprit de 
corps sustaining high standards of academic honor and scholarship. 

The University of Virginia exerted such an overmas- 
tering power on John A. Broadus's whole nature through 
all the years that an adequate idea of this noble institu- 
tion is necessary in order to understand his mental habits. 
Twelve years of Doctor Broadus's life were spent in close 
connection with the University, and the Southern Baptist 
Theological Seminary, to which the rest of his life was 
given, was patterned after it. But for the impress of the 
University system upon him, the elective method of study 
could never have been implanted in the Seminary. 

Comparatively few persons, even in the South, are 
familiar with the important facts connected with the 
founding of the University of Virginia. Before Jefferson's 
day American higher education was a very simple affair. 
The older English educational standards were reproduced 
by the Puritan at Harvard College and the Cavalier at 
William and Mary. Both institutions followed the beaten 
track with similar curricula. " Jefferson's propositions 
for the modification of this ancient scholastic curriculum 
represent the first current of modern ideas, which began 
in 1779, at Williamsburg, to flow into American life." 1 

1 " Thomas Jefferson and the University of Virginia," p. 41. 



THE UNIVERSITY STUDENT 57 

Jefferson's sojourn in Paris had brought him in contact 
with French education at the time when sympathy for 
French institutions was very strong m the United States. 
While there (1786) he had become interested in a gigan- 
tic scheme of the French savant, Quesnay, for the estab- 
lishment of a national academy at Richmond, Virginia, 
which should be a reproduction of the great academy at 
Paris, with branches at New York, Philadelphia, etc. It 
was no less than an effort to reproduce French Catholic 
culture in the United States with Richmond as the center. 
The building l in Richmond was actually secured and one 
member appointed to organize it, but the French Revolu- 
tion smashed this grand scheme all to pieces and saved 
the South and the country from the dominance of French 
culture over our Saxon institutions. But Jefferson did get 
the idea of distinct schools of art and science from Paris. 
He had become profoundly interested in higher education 
in Europe. He felt that the stability of free institutions 
rested upon the education of the people. So he sought the 
best models the world over, at Edinburgh, Geneva, Paris, 
Oxford, Cambridge, Rome. He once actually thought of 
importing the faculty of Geneva bodily to Virginia, but 
Washington opposed it. Jefferson's advocacy of religious 
liberty necessitated the establishment of an unsectarian 
school, unlike William and Mary College, his alma mater. 
Though a Unitarian himself, says Adams, he did not wish 
to promulgate his religious views through educational in- 
stitutions. He decided to devote his closing years to the 
work of education. His system comprised three grades 
of schools : various district schools in each county, acad- 
emies, a State university. 

As to the relative importance of the University and common schools 
for the people of Virginia, he once said in a letter to a friend, Joseph 

* This building; was used for the meeting of the convention that adopted the Con- 
stitution of the United States- 



58 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

C. Cabell, January 13, 1823 : " Were it necessary to give up either 
the primaries or the University, I would rather abandon the last, 
because it is safer to have the whole people enlightened than a few 
in a high state of science and the many in ignorance. This last is 
the most dangerous state in which a nation can be. The nations 
and governments of Europe are so many proofs of it." L 

He labored earnestly to get local taxation for free schools 
as early as 1796, but failed. Again in 1818 State sub- 
sidy alone could be secured, the counties being unwilling 
to tax themselves for public schools. Not till 1870 did 
Virginia awake to Jefferson's ideas about popular educa- 
tion. He addressed himself vigorously to higher educa- 
tion, hoping to create sentiment for popular education, 
and so worked from above downward through trained and 
enlightened men. Perhaps Jefferson would have failed 
in putting into actual shape his ideals of university educa- 
tion but for the timely aid of Hon. J. C. Cabell, who in 
1806 returned from a three years' stay in European uni- 
versities, where he also had obtained broader ideas of 
education than existed at William and Mary, his alma 
mater. Cabell wished to rejuvenate William and Mary 
by establishing a museum of natural history. Jefferson 
declined to help, but his private secretary, Col. Isaac A. 
Coles, suggested to the ambitious young Cabell that he 
enter the legislature, and instead of trying to enlarge an 
old institution, seek to found a new one. Thus in 1807 
came to Cabell "a declaration of independence in the 
matter of higher education in Virginia." Cabell took 
this advice, entered the legislature in 1809, in two years 
more the State Senate, and stayed there until 1829 after 
the complete triumph of Jefferson's plans. Doctor Adams 
pointedly says that, without CabelPs aid, " Jefferson's 
university ideal would never have been realized, at least 
in his lifetime." 

1 " Thomas Jefferson and the University of Virginia/* p, 3,4. 



THE UNIVERSITY STUDENT 59 

After the appropriation was made by the State Senate, 
there was difficulty in deciding where the new institu- 
tion should be established. There was a sharp conflict 
between William and Mary, Washington College, and 
Staunton. 

Jefferson was determined to have Central College 
(which he had enlarged from Albemarle College), one 
mile from Charlottesville, made the university. He 
pointed out that, if a line through the State were drawn 
in almost any direction, it would go through Charlottes- 
ville. He thus carried his point over the rivalries of the 
East and the West. The commission recommended Cen- 
tral College for the new university seat, with Jefferson's 
ideas of instruction. Edward Everett reviewed Jefferson's 
whole scheme in the "North American Review," Jan- 
uary, 1820. Fierce opposition sprang up in the legislature, 
Mr. Cabell rose in his might and publicly and privately 
convinced the opponents of the bill, establishing the uni- 
versity at Charlottesville. On January 25, 1819, it was 
done. Cabell had brought on hemorrhage of the lungs by 
exposure and loss of sleep while working for this meas- 
ure. He and Jefferson had won at last. Jefferson was 
made the first Rector of the Board of Visitors. From 
Monticello he could look down on the university grounds 
with his spy glass and even watch the bricks placed in 
the walls. He busied himself with every detail. The 
university was his "pet." He drew numerous plans and 
made an original conception of an academic village with 
monastic cloisters and classic architecture, Doric, Ionic, 
and Corinthian. The beautiful lawn with its double row 
of trees, the noble line of professors' houses and students' 
lodgings (East Lawn and West Lawn) fronted by classic 
colonnades, the farther rows of students' dormitories on 
each side (East Range and West Range) present a har- 
monious and stately picture. Each professor's house had 



60 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

some feature of famous buildings of antiquity, but the 
crown of all was the Rotunda at the head of the lawn, 
whose proportions were modeled after the Pantheon, re- 
duced to one-third the size. 1 The capitals of the col- 
umns on the portico were made in Italy, and Italian 
workmen were imported. 

Mr. Jefferson created a unique university plant and 
the most beautiful one in America. In 1824 Professor 
Ticknor, of Harvard, made a visit to Thomas Jefferson at 
Monticello. He wrote as follows to the historian Prescott 
about the elective system : 

It is, however, an experiment worth trying, to which I earnestly 
desire the happiest results ; and they have to begin it, a mass of 
buildings more beautiful than any thing architectural in New England, 
and more appropriate to a university than can be found, perhaps, in 
the world. 2 

As a result of this visit Professor Ticknor succeeded 
in introducing several of Jefferson's ideas into Harvard 
College, though with much opposition. President Way- 
land, of Brown, afterward made a similar visit to the 
University of Virginia. He was favorably impressed and 
strongly advocated the elective system of instruction and 
other features of the University of Virginia. Jefferson 
insisted on a high order of professors. All came from 
abroad save two ; for obvious reasons the chairs of Law 
and Political History and Science could be better filled 
by Americans. The new teachers all gave prestige to 
the institution. Professors Blaetterman, Long, Key, 
Bonnycastle, and Dunglison, brought fame from abroad, 
while Professors Tucker and Lomax represented strength 
at home. The doors were opened in 1825. Jefferson 

1 The Rotunda was burned October 27, 1895. It was a sad Sunday for the Univer- 
sity. The Rotunda has since been restored and several other buildings have been 
added. 

3 M Thomas Jefferson and the University of Virginia," p 174, 



THE UNIVERSITY STUDENT 6 1 

died in 1826, leaving as one of the phrases he wished 
inscribed on his tomb : " Father of the University of 
Virginia." 

It is impossible to estimate the influence of the Univer- 
sity of Virginia over the educational system of the South 
and of the North as well. Professors, lawyers, statesmen, 
physicians, ministers, and business men have poured 
from its walls. No honorary degrees have ever 
been conferred. Its M. A. was the highest scholastic 
degree in this country. This was before the introduction 
of the specializing Ph. D. Original research and exact- 
ing work was the atmosphere from the start. In after 
years, looking back upon it, Doctor Broadus said : 

The noblest legacy they have left us is this that the very genius 
of the place is -work. No professor or student of susceptible soul can 
establish himself here without feeling that there breathes through all 
the air this spirit of work, a noble rage for knowing and for teach- 
ing, 1 

The leading professors in the University when Mr. 
Broadus entered in 1846, were Gessner Harrison, W. B. 
Rogers, J. L. Cabell, R. E. Rogers, E. H. Courtenay, M. 
Schele de Vere, W. H. McGuffey, John B. Minor, and 
John Staige Davis. Some of these had been at the 
University only a short while, but they were all men 
of great ability. He came under the spell of three 
teachers in particular : Harrison, McGuffey, Courtenay. 

Gessner Harrison was one of the first three graduates 
of the institution. When Prof. George Long returned to 
England in 1828 he recommended this young man to suc- 
ceed him as professor of ancient languages. He had ex- 
pected to practise medicine, but gave up that ambition for 
the classics. This professor of nineteen years began to 
do some of the most original study and thorough teaching 
"n this country. Long sent him "Bopp's Comparative 

1 Memorial of Gessner Harrison, in " Sermons and Addresses." p. 347. 



62 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

Grammar," just out and used nowhere else in America. 
He eagerly devoured it. The students talked flippantly 
of "Old Gess's humbuggery," but he stuck to his ety- 
mology and philology. He went to the root of things. 
By degrees he won his spurs. He was working along 
right lines and began to kindle enthusiasm for genuine 
scholarship. He became the leading spirit of the Univer- 
sity and did much to uplift Southern educational ideals. 
He was greatly gifted in the use of illustration. He had 
keen fondness for Roman history, making it fascinating 
indeed. His common sense, quiet humor, simplicity, and 
devout piety adorned a wealth of learning. His examin- 
ations were very rigid. One year, out of a hundred and 
fifty in senior Latin, only twenty-six were graduated. A 
story is told by Doctor Broadus that one day a student 
came out of Professor Harrison's office with a broad 
smile. His friends, waiting their turn, asked if he had 
passed. " No/' he said, " but old Gess said that I came 
nigher to it than any fellow that didn't pass." Doctor 
Harrison was the author of a Latin grammar and a work 
on Greek prepositions. He was made Chairman of the 
Faculty repeatedly. In 1859, to niake better provision 
for his family, he left the institution to establish a high 
school for university aspirants. He died in 1862 from 
fever caught while nursing a sick son. Doctor Broadus, 
*in concluding a noble panegyric on Gessner Harrison, 
said : 

And let it be the last word spoken to-day concerning Gessner 
Harrison, spoken, as it were in his name to the professors and stu- 
dents of the University that he loved so well : Sirs, brothers, FEAR 
GOD AND WORK. 1 

Professor McGuffey had come to the chair of moral 
philosophy in 1845. He was a gifted teacher, pursuing 
the Socratic method. He taught the student to think. 

1 " Sermons and Addresses,," Memorial of Gessner Harrison, p. 347. 



THE UNIVERSITY STUDENT 63 

Doctor Broadus always remembered with emotion the 
first time that Doctor McGuffey asked him his own 
opinion on a point in philosophy. It marked an epoch 
in his intellectual life. Dr. Geo. B. Taylor, of Italy, 
says that he often found himself overcome with feel- 
ing in Doctor McGuffey's class-room. He had great 
charm of expression and strongly advocated extempore 
speaking. His series of school readers is familiar to 
many. J. A. B. was fond of telling a story of a 
gentleman who confided to him his great admiration for 
Doctor McGuffey as a writer, pointing to the selection in 
the Fifth Reader, "To be or not to be/' as an example 1 
Professor Courtenay had held the chair of mathematics 
since 1842. He was a very able teacher. Clear state- 
ment, unwearied repetition, and courtly manners espe- 
cially characterized him. Professor Courtenay was the 
author of a work on differential and integral calculus. 

As a teacher Doctor Broadus combined the excellencies of three 
men by whom he had been strongly influenced: Gessner Harrison, 
the patient, careful seeker after principles; William H. McGuffey, 
the quickenerof sluggish intellects into activity; and E. H. Court- 
enay, the lover of exact statement. 1 

Dr. Broadus often spoke of the different methods pur- 
sued by these teachers with a student's difficulty. Pro- 
fessor Courtenay would patiently repeat his original clear 
statement until the man saw it ; Professor McGuffey 
would seek to get the student's point of view so as to 
point out the difficulty and remove it ; Professor Harrison, 
with his brilliant imagination, would turn every color of 
the rainbow on the subject till it flashed before the stu- 
dent's mind. 

There were about a hundred and fifty matriculates in 
1846; the number rose to nearly three hundred before 

H. H. Harris, "Religious Herald/' March sa, 1895. 



64 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

Broadus' student days were over, and soon thereafter 
seven hundred crowded the University, the highest 
number ever attained. 1 A number of John A. Broadus's 
fellow-students became distinguished in after life : Gen- 
eral Roger A. Pryor, of the New York bar ; Hon. Wm. 
Wirt Henry, of Richmond ; E. R. Pollard, author of " The 
Lost Cause"; Prof. John Hart, Virginia; Rev. C. A. 
Briggs, D. D., of Union Theological Seminary ; Rev. Ti- 
berius Gracchus Jones, D. D., Virginia; Col. Wm. Le 
Roy Broun, Alabama ; Hon. F. W. M. Holliday, Virginia ; 
Bishop James A. Latane, Baltimore; Col. Alfred T. 
Rives, Virginia ; Charles Dabney, son of "The Southern 
Planter"; Nat. Tyler, editor of the " Richmond En- 
quirer " ; Gen. W. C. Wickham ; Dr. Edward Warren 
(Warren Bey) ; Judge Fernando Farrar (Johnny Reb) ; 
Gen, Sam'l Garland ; Prof. F. H. Smith, of the Univer- 
sity; Prof. C. H. Judson, of Furman University; Prof. 
Chas. S. Venable, of the University; Prof. James D. 
White, of Washington and Lee. Many others also be- 
came men of power and mark. Much of the flower of 
the South was here. Dr. Broadus often said that a stu- 
dent gained as much from his college-mates as from his 
professor. Mr. Broadus roomed with his old friend W. 
A. Whitescarver. He once said of him : " He is the only 
man I never found anything wrong in. We talk about 
saints. William is one." 

Mr. Broadus was well prepared in Latin at Albert G. 
Simms' school, but was poorly off in algebra, French, 
and Greek, having picked these studies up himself. 
Hence he took advantage of the elective system, select- 
ing a rather irregular ticket. The points in this pro- 
gramme to be noted were his taking moral philosophy 
the first year and then finishing mathematics in two 

1 In the " Alumni Bulletin/' May* 1895, there is a graphical record of the student 
attendance from 1835 to 1894 



THE UNIVERSITY STUDENT 65 

years with practically no preparation and giving a year 
to graduate mathematics, graduating in Greek in two 
years when he knew nothing to start on save what he 
had picked up himself m Clarke County, and giving four 
years to his degree when he might have taken it in 
three. He and his room-mate would take long walks 
and drill each other on the Greek forms to make up for 
lack of training in them. He devoted one vacation also to 
Greek. With what relish this brilliant student absorbed 
everything in the University ! The hunger after knowl- 
edge which had stirred his soul in the rides over the 
Blue Ridge was being gratified. He was drinking deep 
at this pure spring. No man ever quaffed here who 
drew more refreshment and inspiration. His whole na- 
ture expanded, his powers grew, his prowess came rapidly. 
He found delight in the whirl of his great opportunities. 
He was open to all that passed before him, while his 
horizon widened with every step up the mountain. Hon. 
W. W. Henry says that he considered him the strongest 
man at the University. But some could not understand 
his habit of working so hard. Some even said : " He is 
only a plodder." He had the reputation of studying all 
night because Whitescarver sat up late and he got up 
early, thus keeping the light burning nearly all night. 
Professor Smith says of him : "If genius is the ability 
and willingness to do hard work, he was a genius." He 
avoided overloading himself, so as to be able to master 
every detail and make it his own. Humdrum work was 
done conscientiously. He did not try to " cut " and then 
"cram" for examination. He practised what he after- 
wards so earnestly preached to his students. At first he 
had such difficulty with his mathematics that he was dis- 
posed to give it up, having really no preparation, but 
Professor Courtenay made him persevere until he dis- 
tinguished himself in it as much as in the other schools, 

E 



66 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

and it was regarded as his favorite study. Although 
generally at the veiy front in his classes, he did not ex- 
cite the jealousy of the student body. Prof. F. H. Smith 
characterizes his student life thus : * 

He cultivated a great power of application and grew to have a 
great ability to work, and was not ashamed that otheis should 
know it The wonderful result of this steady, methodical industry 
was that in after years he could do unheard-of things in the briefest 
time. His disciplined faculties were so under his will that the result, 
while natural, was surprising. . . He demanded of himself the best 
he could do in all that he did. The resulting clearness and correct- 
ness of his thinking begat that limpid, lucid, crystalline purity of 
expression which marked his writing and speaking. 

Mr. Broadus became an active member of the Jefferson 
Society, the largest in the University. Here he had to de- 
bate with men like Holliday, Henry, and Pryor. He had 
a favorite place in the woods, near the cemetery, where 
he would walk and study his speeches, wearing a path 
in the forest. The habit of composing addresses while 
walking remained with him. Mr. Henry says that 
Broadus was the best debater in the Jefferson, besting 
Pryor and Holliday, when he locked horns with them. 
In June, 1848, he delivered the valedictory address for 
the society, a distinguished honor for his second year. 
In the fall of that year the society formally asked for 
the publication of this address. The subject was " Na- 
tional Literature." Here is a characteristic extract : 

What nobler purpose for the young man who is just going out 
from college, than that he will contribute to the progress of letters? 
I cannot but be persuaded that either directly or indirectly you will 
do this. But whether it be in literature or in other pursuits, that you 
seek for usefulness and distinction, one thing remember the price 
of all success is toil, hard and umemitting, 

Mr. Broadus found time for active religious work in 



1 *' Seminary Magazine/' April, 



THE UNIVERSITY STUDENT 67 

various ways, in the students' prayer meetings, teaching 
a Bible class, and conducting a Sunday-school in the 
Ragged Mountains. In after life he often said that a 
man was not fit to go as missionary to China who 
would not work with the needy at his own doors. He 
showed that piety and scholarship were not incompatible. 
His charming personality made him popular. 

He was a loyal Christian, for whom even the wicked never had a 
word of disrespect. It was wonderful, the universal kindliness felt 
by the bad and good alike for him. 1 

I remember a fine young fellow-student, who was no Christian, 
showing me his autograph book, in which Broadus had, at his re- 
quest, written a line. It was only three words in Greek, *v <r tWepet, 
*' one thing thou lackest" A finer compliment and yet more faithful 
admonition could scarcely be conceived. 2 

Many years afterwards a seminary student from Texas 
bore to Doctor Broadus a message from an honored 
physician in that State who said that he had never been 
able to forget that sentence in his album, and he trusted 
now that he had found the " one thing lacking/' 

On June 22, 1847, a great shadow came over his life. 
He was sent for quickly, and on entering his mother's 
room, only heard her say, "My son," as she passed 
away. She died of a sudden and severe attack of heart 
disease. She had given John the true ideal of woman- 
hood, and taught him from his earliest years that beauti- 
ful reverence for women which was so thoroughly a part 
of his character. 

General John H. Cocke, of Fluvanna, one of the 
oldest 8 and most efficient members of the Board of Visit- 
ors, in the fall of 1848, writes to Major Broadus, urging 
him to exert his influence among the students in behalf 

1 Prof. Smith, "Seminary Magazine," April, 1895. 

* Prof. Smith, " Religious Herald." April 4, x8gj. 

* General Cocke was a member of the Board of Central College, and one of the 
original members of the University Board. 



68 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

of temperance. Some reproaches had been cast on the 
University on the score of intemperance. Major Broadus 
had long been a prominent figure in the Sons of Temper- 
ance. In fact, before General Cocke's anxiety, Major 
Broadus had, with the co-operation of James Alexander, 
John B. Minor, and others, already established a Division 
of this Order in the University. In 1848, young Broadus 
appears as Worthy Patriarch, having joined the Order 
the year before. He was now in much demand as a 
temperance orator before Divisions in various parts of 
the State. 

Doctor Harrison, the Chairman of the Faculty, was 
much opposed to anything like espionage over the Uni- 
versity men. He believed in expecting the men to be 
gentlemen and treating them as such. There is diffi- 
culty, in the nature of the case, in striking the right note 
in the discipline of a large number of young men, more 
or less raw and full of life. Doctor McCosh similarly 
had a severe struggle when he took hold of Princeton, 
but succeeded in greatly toning up the institution. Mr, 
Broadus early formed the habit of praying regularly and 
often for schools of learning, teachers, and students. 
Many persons may remember how, at the opening of the 
school session, he would make public appeal for prayer 
for the schools of the country. Mr. Jefferson's free sys* 
tern, while developing manhood, likewise called for sym- 
pathetic interest and spiritual guidance. 

A letter of Mr. G. W. Hansbrough, a native of Orange 
County, to Doctor Hiden, gives a striking example of the 
manner in which Doctor Broadus impressed himself upon 
his comrades, even in his youth : 

When I was a little over sixteen and he twenty-two, we were 
students at the University and room-mates at his father's house. 
We were both members of the Jefferson Debating Society. One 
night Mr. B. came into our room much excited, and told me that 



THE UNIVERSITY STUDENT 69 

in a debate he had uttered some language of severe criticism on one 
S. P., who resented what he considered an insult, and had promptly 
written and sent Mr. B. a peremptory demand for an apology ; and 
Mr. B. requested me to take his answer. Not being of a very 
pacific disposition, I took some part in dictating the answer, and 
it was not particularly conciliatory. P. was a law student, about 
twenty-five years old, tall and handsome, and very much of the 
peacock in character and manner. I took the answer ; it was not 
satisfactory to his Haughtiness. On my return, I found old Major 
Broadus in our room with John. When he saw the note I had car- 
ried, he said: "John, John, this will never do. You were wrong; 
such style of speech was wholly inconsistent with your profession 
and purposes in life. You must forthwith send an unconditional 
apology." Much loath, I took the apology to the irate gentleman, 
who accepted it, but with the conditions that " the apology should 
be made as public as was the insult." Well, at the next meeting of 
the society, I was present. John A. Broadus was not naturally of a 
very meek disposition. But on that occasion he arose, and in a 
manner indicating a deep sense that he was wrong, went on to 
acknowledge his error in most impressive tones, gaming at every 
word the utmost sympathy of his hearers, apologizing not so much 
to his adversary, but, as it were, in the presence of his Lord and 
Master, whom he confessed to having justly offended by giving 
way to sinful anger, and indulging in unseemly sarcasm. I could 
perceive in the countenances of all around me a manifestation of 
unusually heightened respect and admiration for Mr. Broadus, and 
a corresponding disapprobation and contempt for his adversary. 
Upon his concluding his statement, a silence of subdued sympathy 
and appreciation prevailed for a considerable time. From that hour 
John A. Broadus stood, as ever since he has stood, on a plane 
infinitely higher, whilst P. sank to a much lower one. The feelings 
I entertained were those of awe in contemplating a height and 
grandeur of character of which I had never before suspected the 
existence ; and ever since, I have watched his career with interest, 
regarding him as perhaps the greatest man Virginia has produced 
in the present century* 

During one session of his university course he taught 
the daughters of Professors Courtenay and Howard, and 
the son of Professor Harrison. He was very careful to 
work out all the mathematical problems at every point. 



70 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A, BROADUS 

He was using an algebra, recommended by Professor 
Courtenay, which had a large number of curious, original 
problems. On finding three that baffled his skill, he 
took them to Professor Courtenay, who solved one, 
pointed out that one was wrongly stated, and freely con- 
fessed that he himself could not solve the third. 

J. A. B. to MRS. BICKERS : 

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, Feb. 3, 1849: Sister C. 1 is married 
and gone. . . I might have been sad, if 1 would ; sad, not because 
she has married the man she has, my friend of many years, a 
friend whom every trial has but rendered more fondly dear, but 
because my sister, who it seemed to me had become indispensably 
necessary to my happiness, is gone, and 1 am left alone, as desolate 
as an only child, with none who can so well sympathize in my joys 
and sorrows, none to counsel and aid, as a fond sister only can. 
But I have striven, and successfully, against everything like sad- 
ness. One thing, however, I have learned that I did not know 
before, that when dear friends part, they who stay must always 
sorrow more than those who go. I have had experience now in 
both. Our mamma is very kind and affectionate, and I love her 
most sincerely. She must needs have many troubles as the head 
of such a household as this, yet nothing that I can do shall be want- 
ing to make her happy. 

THOMAS L. SNEAD to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND COLLEGE, April 20, 1849: The contingency to which 
I referred, when at the University, exists sooner than I anticipated. 
The professorship of mathematics in this college has been vacated 
by the resignation of Mr. Robertson and I hope that J may be allowed 
to represent you to the Board of Trustees as willing to supply the 
vacancy. I fear that no inducements that they can offer will be 
sufficient to lead you to forego the pleasure of passing another year 
at the University, and of carrying off the M. A. which awaits you, 
but I will hope for the best, and tell you what out people may do 
for you* The college goes fully into operation this year for the 
first time. The number of students during the present session has 
been seventy-two. , . Be good enough to write an answer as soon 

1 His sister Carrie had married W. A. Whitescarver, an4 his fvffw ha4 njarrted 
Miss Somervi lie Ward* 



THE UNIVERSITY STUDENT 71 

as you conveniently can, and allow me to insist on a favorable 
reply. 

But Mr. Broadus kept to his M. A. How often in after 
years he exhorted his students to stick to their course of 
study and not be lured away by calls to this or that, but 
to "think of their probable life as a whole and do what 
they would be glad of at the end." 

On June 4, 1849, Mr. Broadus preached his first ser- 
mon. It was at the Mount Eagle (Presbyterian) Church, 
in Albemarle County. The text was from Ps. 62 : 8, 
" God is a refuge for us." 

Mrs. L. L. Hamilton, of Charlottesville, then a child 
near Keswick, writes as follows concerning this first 
sermon : 

Dr. William McGuffey, professor of moral philosophy in the 
University of Virginia, had charge of the church. Being sick on 
this particular Sunday, he sent down one ot his students " to fill his 
place/' And well did he fill it. The doctor was dry and logical and 
preached more to the head than to the heart. On this day, which I 
well remember, there stood up in his place a slightly built, dark- 
haired youth, scarcely twenty 1 years of age, who spoke as I never 
heard man speak before of our gracious Saviour. There was some- 
thing in his manner very entreating, veiy touching, very convincing. 
After the sermon all were eager to find out the name of the student 
who had filled so acceptably the learned professor's place. That day 
was the first time I ever saw or heard the name " John A. Broadus." 
I was about eleven years of age, I wish 1 could recall the text, but 
I well remember the impression made upon me by its charming sim- 
plicity. He had made comprehensible, even to the mind of a child, 
great Bible truths. 

His next sermon was July 2, at New Salem, Culpeper, 
his home church, always a trying experience to the 
young preacher. On this occasion the text 2 was i Tim. 

1 Really over twenty-two. 

2 Doctor Broadus left two large notebooks filled with dates, places, and texts of all 
the sermons preached during his whole life, a good practice for all preachers, It Is 
thus profitable to see some of his homiletical habits. The first book has also a list 



72 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

4:8. He now had two sermons. On the afternoon of 
the same day he preached his sermon from Ps. 62 : 8 
at John Lewis's home in Culpeper. On August 3 he 
preached at Berryvilleon Lam. 3 : 33. The subject was 
chosen because it was a "Fast Day." August 31 he 
preached at the Brick Church, Culpeper, during the 
session of the Shiloh Association. This time his text 
was Gal. 3:1. On September 3 he preached at Cul- 
peper Court-House from Luke 8 : 39. He now had five 
sermons and had preached at all the scenes of his early 
career. 

In September, 1849, he was asked to be permanent 
supply for the Charlottesville Baptist Church. His bro- 
ther Madison wants him to do it, " for you can preach," 
he says. His brother had previously felt grave doubts 
of his success. However, he wisely declined the com- 
mittee's urgent request fiom the church. Their petition 
showed their estimate of the young preacher. They 
urged that here he could "cultivate those superior tal- 
ents which have been committed to you, as we prayer- 
fully hope, for very great usefulness in the vineyard of 
our Master." 

During the next session (the last) he pteached seven 
times for the country churches around Charlottesville. 
Once during the spring of 1850 he preached for the col- 
ored Baptist congregation of Charlottesville. His text 
on this occasion was Heb. 4 : 16. Rev. J. R. Scott 1 had 
often urged him to study " Butler's Analogy " and preach 
to the Negroes. He always commended to his students 
this sound advice. 

During the last session John A. Broadus was one of 
the editors of the " Jefferson Monument Magazine," and 

of the themes and texts of Rev. J. R. Scott, Chaplain at the University while Mr 
Broadus was a student, 
i See " Broadus's. History of Preaching," p. 108. 



THE UNIVERSITY STUDENT 73 

exhibited great diligence in securing contributions from 
old students and other prominent friends of the Univer- 
sity. He was also the leader of the chapel choir, and 
thus found useful his music which he had learned in 
Clarke. Prof. F. H. Smith entered as a student this 
year. He and Mr. Broadus soon became warm friends. 
He thus describes Broadus : 

My first meeting with him was in October, 1849, at the students' 
weekly prayer meeting, then held on Sunday afternoon in the parlor 
of Mr. Addison Maupin. It was just after my first matriculation in 
the University. At a certain stage of the meeting a student of strik- 
ing personal appearance and bright dark eyes glowing with the light 
of intellect rose to speak and drew the attention of all. I was at 
once impressed with the force, propriety, and simplicity of his brief 
utterances. There were a maturity and sense in what he said that 
marked him as no common student. I soon learned that he was 
John A. Broadus, the son of Major Edmund Broadus, who lived on 
Monroe Hill, near by. We were thereafter thrown much together. 
We often met at Dr. Gessner Harrison's house, being attracted 
thither by similar reasons. In that drawing room young Broadus 
could gratify his uncommon taste for and enjoyment of instrumental 
and vocal music. He was quite a singer, and while, like others of 
us, he had no great voice, he more than made up for the deficiency 
by the thoroughness of his knowledge of the art of music and the 
precision of his execution qualities which, I afterwards found, be- 
longed to all that he did in every department of effort. 1 

Mr. Broadus's health was not so good the last session. 
He began to feel the severe strain of his exertions and 
was neglecting his regular walks. A young friend of his 
consented to walk with him every afternoon. Thus he 
gained exercise and inspiration in the company of the 
charming woman who was soon to become his wife. 
Miss Harrison's sympathy and approbation buoyed him 
during all this stress of work. She was thus able to bring 
out the side of his nature that school life usually warps. 

In the spring of this closing session Mr. Broadus ac- 

1 " Religious Herald," March 21, 1895. 



74 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

cepted a position to teach at Bremo, the home of General 
Cocke, in Fluvanna. There was a cloud before him 
during these months on account of his father's health, 
which was gradually but surely failing. He had come to 
the University to educate his boy and succeeded, but he 
died June 27, 1850, two days before John was to deliver 
his graduating address. As he stood by his father's bed- 
side, he said : "I shall not make my graduating speech, 
father. 1 ' "Yes," said his father, "for I am dying." 
Major Broadus's death caused widespread regret all over 
the State, for he was a man of mark and of great per- 
sonal worth and force of character. The speech was 
afterwards published in the "Jefferson Monument Mag- 
azine," for January, 1851, and created marked interest. 
The subject was: "Human Society in its Relation to 
Natural Theology." The address, a tribute to the power 
of Doctor McGuffey over him, showed maturity and 
vigor. There were six who received the degree of M. A, 
on graduating day, June 29. John A. Broadus and Rich- 
ard Davis were four-year men ; W. W. Henry and R. P. 
Latham, three-year men ; Wm. LeRoy Broun and John T. 
Points, two-year men. Three entered the ministry 
Broadus, Points, and Davis; one (Broun) became a pro- 
fessor; two entered the law (Henry and Latham). Mr. 
Broadus, of course, was not present. Dr. Gessner Har- 
rison, chairman of the faculty, remarked in noting his ab- 
sence, that the University had never turned out a better 
scholar. One can only imagine the mingled emotions 
with which young Broadus closed his scholastic career at 
the University. Light and shadow were strangely mingled 
on that day. Already large things were being said of him. 
Hon. W. W. Henry says that, as he watched him at the 
University, he came "to predict for him a great future." 
Long years afterwards, Prof. F, H, Smith will call this 
vouth the University of Virginia's "greatest alumnus." 



CHAPTER VI 

A YEAR IN FLUVANNA 

Dreams, books, are each a world ; and books, we know, 
Are a substantial world, both pure and good. 

Word&wortb. 

LET no one think that Mr. Broadus had given up his 
intention of preaching because he had accepted a 
position as tutor in the delightful home of Gen. J. H. 
Cocke (Bremo, in Fluvanna County). He was in no 
hurry to assume the heavy responsibilities of the pastor- 
ate. This school in the country offered a period of quiet 
reflection and study to the overworked University gradu- 
ate. General Cocke was a stanch friend of the Univer- 
sity. It was this interest that attracted him to Mr. 
Broadus. 

GENERAL COCKE to J. A. B. : 

BREMO, April 22, 1850 : Yours of the i6th inst was duly re- 
ceived. My offer through Doctor McGuffey was made in reference 
to the very small school now in my house, consisting of five schol- 
ars and two day scholars from the neighborhood. . . If we can add 
five more scholars as boarders, I would be willing to increase the 
number to ten, and in that case I should allow you fifty dollars in 
addition for each scholar over five. . . It may be proper here to re- 
mark, in adding to the boarding pupils, I wish the school to be select. 
I should be unwilling to take any pupil over the age of my two 
grandsons, both of whom are now in their fourteenth year, unless 
they could be vouched for as boys of more than ordinary good breed- 
ing and good character. 

BREMO, May 10, 1850 : In reply to your inquiry as to the com- 
mencement of the school, the first Monday in October is the time 
I shall prefer, if suitable to your convenience. 



76 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

Nobody can fail to be pleased with young Henson, 1 he is a prod- 
igy. I shall not fail to do all I can to get him into the University. 

Sunday, July 14, 1850, Mr. Broadus preached for the 
first time for the Charlottesville Baptist Church, his text 
being Heb. n : 6. He had steadily resisted the tempta- 
tion to spoil his University course by too much preaching. 
How often in later years he poured this advice into ears 
all too unwilling to heed. He always insisted that it was 
far better to be thorough in one's educational foundation, 
so as to have all the more to build on, than to rush head- 
long through one's school days at breakneck speed. Let 
his example be a lesson in self-restraint to every ambi- 
tious young preacher who is lured into too many outside 
activities. If a theological seminary had been accessible 
to Mr. Broadus he would eagerly have sought its advan- 
tages. He strongly felt the need of theological training 
and for advice wrote to Mr. Scott, who had recently been 
chaplain at the University, a minister of culture and 
ability. Mr. Scott's letter shows what was then con- 
sidered the theological outfit of a young minister. 

REV. J. R. SCOTT to J. A. B. : 

PORTLAND, ME., July 23, 1850: I am favorably impressed with 
what you say of your arrangements for the coming year. You 
will lose nothing by teaching, while your situation at General 
Cocke's will afford you facilities for making many valuable ac- 
quaintances, for quiet study, and for acquiring practical skill in 
preaching. You will find it both pleasant and profitable to inter- 
pose between the University and your future sphere of public activ- 
ity, whatever and wheiever it may be, a period of retirement, in 
which to digest your past acquisitions, observe the indications of 
Providence, and lay your plans the more definitely and deeply for a 
useful and honorable careen I could wish that after the expiration 
of your engagement in Fluvanna, you might pass some time at a 

1 P. S, Henson. Fluvanna was famous for its persimmons. Doctor Henson often 
remarked that Fluvanna only raised persimmons and men, but they were men. Young 
Henson was a " boy " preacher, but one who was wisely sent to school and gained an 
education* 



A YEAR IN FLUVANNA 77 

theological institution, but I am by no means so solicitous in your 
case as I should be in that of one who was averse to study, or knew 
not how 1o study progressively, or had lower aims. 

You ask me to advise you with regard to books "something 
which will serve somewhat as a foundation for theological study." 
Bearing in mind what you have I will do the best I can. I would not 
be satisfied without at least enough of Hebrew to enable me to ap- 
preciate the force of any criticism on the original text. Of course, 
here, you will naturally look to Doctor Harrison for guidance. Doc- 
tor McGuffey too, will doubtless take much pleasure in making you 
many valuable suggestions on books in various departments. You 
will find much reliable information in ** Stuart's Critical History and 
Defense of the Old Testament Canon," and m " Kitto's Biblical 
Cyclopaedia," the former costing about a dollar and a quarter and 
the latter six or seven dollars. In theology, Knapp and Turrettin, 
or any of the Genevan divines, go well together. These cost, I 
suppose, some ten dollars. Neander is the prince of ecclesiastical 
historians. Some of his biographies, such as his " Life of Christ," 
and "Life of Chrysostom," would interest and benefit you much, 
although you must keep a good eye to his notions on inspiration. 
Gieseler's " Church History " you will find valuable for its succinct- 
ness, . *., of the text, the notes being very full. Ten dollars might 
be spent here to very good purpose. Robinson and Smith are, of 
course, the Scripture geographers. By the by, you would do well to 
take the " Btbliotheca Sacra" the back numbers of which also are 
quite a thesaurus. Our own " Christian Review," I hope, is now 
likely to be worth patronage. Three dollars a year, published by 
Ballard & Colby, New York. Bloomfield's Greek Testament, 
though very defective in its theology, is probably as good an au- 
thority on the state of the Greek text as you will find. Four dollars. 
You would do well to dip into the old English divines occasionally 
Howe, Owen, South, Jer. Taylor, Leighton, and Barrow. I need not 
say make Butler a oade mecum. Should you wish to settle your views 
on the atonement, read Symington and Jenkyn, and you will prob- 
ably take a mean between them, and hit about right. You will de- 
rive much benefit from filling up leisure hours with reading Robert 
Hall, Foster, Wayland's " University Sermons," and William R. Wil- 
liams' " Miscellanies." But I am only telling you what you know 
already, as well as I do. Should any suggestion in relation to your 
course occur to me hereafter, I should be happy to communicate it to 
you, if you will pardon the meagreness of the above. 

You know my opinion of your lady-love. At least, I think I have 



78 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

expressed it to you. If I never did, I will now say that I consider 
Maria Harrison as one of the very choicest young ladies with whom 
I had the happiness of becoming acquainted in Virginia. She is no 
meie toy. With all of feminine delicacy that could be asked, she is 
rich in substantial excellencies. She will never play the Uue with you, 
and yet she will not tolerate you in mental rust-gathering. I do in- 
deed congratulate you, and (you may whisper it in her ear) her too. 

GENERAL COCKE to J. A. B. : 

BREMO, August i, 1850: I am glad to learn your willingness to 
preach to our people at our chapel. Christians in our country have 
an awful account to settle for their neglect of the slave population. 
I have been long desirous to do what I could in that way ; would to 
God I could say my skirts were clear. 

W. LE ROY BROUN to J. A. B : 

MlDDLEBURG, VA , August 6, 1850: There is also another sub- 
ject in which I imagine you feel some interest, and in regard to 
which I would like to have your advice. The question is as to the 
continuation of the magazine next session. Probably you are not 
aware that an effort will be made at the beginning of the session to 
discontinue its further publication, and indeed, should the students 
order its continuance great difficulty will be experienced in getting 
subscribers. As many of the old students will refuse, and from 
their influence many of the new ones will fear to enter upon it, I 
am in favor of relinquishing the attempt, unless we can get good 
assurances that each number will be filled with good contributions. 

For the good of the University we must abandon the idea of rais- 
ing a monument to Jefferson, unless we effect a change. 

What plan do you propose? I wish you could be with us all for a 
while next year, and then we might hope for its success. 

Probably with the aid of a little " wire working," etc., we may get 
the current in its favor at the very beginning, and then, with a few 
good backers, failure will be impossible. 

But this is certain, we must give up the ship unless we see clearly 
that we will far surpass everything of the kind published in the 
North. 

In August we find Mr. Broadus back in Culpeper visit- 
ing his brother, J. M. Broadus, his sister, Mrs* Bickers, 
and other friends, and preaching at Culpeper Courf 



A YEAR IN FLUVANNA 79 

House, apparently in a revival. On Monday (second 
Monday), August 12, a presbytery assembled at New 
Salem for the ordination of Mr. Broadus ; the church had 
called for his ordination at the July meeting. The sermon 
was preached by Rev. H. W. Dodge. Rev. Barnett 
Grimsley and Rev. Cumberland George assisted in the 
exercises. J. M. Broadus acted as clerk. 

GENERAL COCKE to J. A. B. : 

BREMO, Aug. 23, 1850 : I am authorized by the Rev. Mr. Moore, 
pastor of the Baptist church at the Fork Union in this vicinity, and 
the Rev. Mr. Tyree, of Powhattan, to invite you to come over and 
assist them in the winding up of a meeting of ten days and still 
continued with increasing interest. 

The last of August Mr. Broadus attended the Shiloh 
Association, which met this year at Bethel Church, four 
or five miles from the house of Mr. George Ficklin, where 
a few weeks before Rev. James P. Boyce and his bride 
had been visiting. 

If Boyce had remained a little longer, he would have attended also, 
for he was fond of Associations, and two who were destined to toil 
so long together would have met years before they did meet. Haw- 
thorne has a quaint story to illustrate how things come very near 
happening, and do not happen. 1 

Mr. Broadus "was frightened by being asked to 
preach" before a Baptist Association, and apparently 
declined. 

J. A. B. to MISS MARIA HARRISON : 

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, Sept. 9, 1850 : . . Sunday morning 
I heaid Mr. Bennett 3 for the first time very good sermon. He had 
to leave, and asked me to preach for him in the evening. I obeyed 
and did it. Had a full house, indeed crowded, but I fear they won't 
continue to turn out so for me, for I spoke almost an hour, I reckon, 

* Broadus 1 s " Memoir of James P. Boyce/' footnote, p. 8x 
* Methodist minister in Char lottesvi lie. 



80 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

and am afraid there seemed to be a great deal of youthful extrava- 
gance in what was said. However, let it go. Your pa was there 
in the morning and went down with me at night. . . 

Will you speak of me and of my regard to your dear grandmamma 
and to all the family. I have no disposition to make speeches about 
it, but I bore away with me many pleasant feelings and I cherish 
now many delightful recollections of Harnsonburg and its citizens, 
and especially those whom I loved before as your friends, but love 
still more now as my own. Do not forget my warm regards to Mr. 
Stevens and to your Aunt Margaret. . . 

May God bless you, dearest Maria, and help you to trust m him, 
and to believe in Jesus, the Saviour of the lost. May he piotect you 
in all your goings may he grant to you and to me what is most to 
be desired, a life of active usefulness, a death of Christian peace, a 
final admittance to his own presence in heaven. 

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, Sept. n, 1850 : I have been succeed- 
ing so beautifully, since Monday afternoon, when I wrote, in doing 
nothing, that I want you to join me in rejoicing. To be sure, I had 
to go to town and to write letters, to visit the Misses McGuffey last 

night, and spend several hours with Mr. McG this morning in 

conference about my Bible teaching. Then I have studied the Hebrew 
a little, looked through Mr. Davies' book on mathematics, studied 
several chapters of Chalmers' Theology, read something in the 
"Southern Literary Messenger" and the newspapers, and made 
some little progress in drawing off and settling accounts. It takes 
some time too for the Greek Testament and other reading, of 
course. . . 

Don't forget to know those Hebrew verbs. D'ye hear? 

BREMO, Monday afternoon, Oct. 7, 1850: We reached Bremo 
at 3.30 P. M. It is certainly a pretty and pleasant place. I have no 
" talent" for describing, and so I will not attempt it. I was pleased 
though, and am pleased, with the appearance and arrangement of 
the plai.e, the house, and the household. Of course I do not expect 
to be free from annoyances, but I have a firm belief, yes, a very de- 
lightful assurance, that you and I will be able to spend the months 
of our abode here with as little trouble as we have any right to 
expect. 

Monday Night, nine o'clock. 

I have spoken of the matter to the " Gen'l," and he agrees with 
great readiness to what is proposed. " A very reasonable proposi- 



A YEAR IN FLUVANNA 8 1 

tion," etc. "A very suitable plan," etc. " There could most as- 
suredly be no objection, on such an occasion, and he would take 
great pleasure in doing anything he can to aid in the execution of 
the plan." So the matter is settled. . . 

Well, but I haven't told you yet whether I am pleased with the 
idea. I said the " Gen'l " agreed to it, but didn't say that I did. . . 

Well, no such thing was ever heard of as a man's being unwill- 
ing to take the most pleasant, most delightful trip, after his mar-;- 
riage ; and now what a splendid opportunity for me to distinguish 
myself, to become charmingly notorious for eccentricity ! On the 
other hand though, so I reason : It will be very pleasant to ripen off 
my green anyway especially in a " Northern city " and most of 

all, in company with . Again, it would be delightful to hear 

Jenny Lind, even without you it will be more delightful to be with 
you and not hear the Lind and, by every principle of good reasoning, 
good sense, and good taste, it is, it would be, it must be most de- 
lightful to hear the song standing by her side who first gave me 
some faint idea of the spirit-moving power that dwells in music. . . 

Commence my school this morning nine of the boys in ; there 
will most probably be fourteen. Certain it is, I have to work hard. 
Even now, I must cease writing to my lady love, and look over les- 
sons for to-morrow. 

Preached yesterday twice in the afternoon at Bremo chapel. 
The people listened, whether with pleasure and profit I cannot know. 
I think I shall not undertake the regular service at the chapel. Am 
unwilling to turn out the present incumbent. 

BREMO, Oct. 14, 1850 : Another application to-day for a pupil. I 
did not see the lad myself (he came to see about it), but he told 
" Gen'l " he would go home and learn what his father thought 
best. I'll take in several more if they will board in the neighbor- 
hood, for (did you know it ?) I calculate upon having after a while 
a little occasional aid in managing some of the beginners from a 
highly competent friend of mine. . . 

Now just please to understand me, I am not arranging to make you 
a country schoolmaster's assistant, no, no, it is bad enough to be 
a country schoolmaster's wife, I have only been thinking that you 
might sometimes, when it was convenient and if it was agreeable to 
you, go in, especially if I happened to be pressed, and hear little 
Moseley or someof the Memoiiter Latin Grammar Lessons, and so on. 

BREMO, Friday, Oct. 18, 1850: I find it difficult to " arrange the 
lectures," very difficult. Just think, out of twelve boys I have five 

F 



82 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

different classes in Latin, two in Greek, two in geometry, four in 
algebra, one boy studying arithmetic ; then there is the thirteenth, 
little Moseley, who is of course by himself altogether. We have 
made a little beginning in the study of Scripture history ; I divide 
all the boys into two classes, each reciting every other day the 
smaller ones are to read some of the narratives, as the story of 
Abraham, of Jacob, of Joseph, of Moses, of Samson, etc., the other 
class are reading the history connectedly, with some little atten- 
tion to chronology. I do not want to try to teach them theology 
for more reasons than because I don't know it myself. Nor do 
I seek to have them study the Bible particularlyit is only to in- 
duce them to r&ad it with interest and attention and to give them 
such helps in understanding and remembering the history (for it is 
as sacred history that we read it) as my information and time will 
permit. I am glad to find that the boys take a good deal of interest 
in the reading, though I have not been able to get more than five 
or ten minutes to talk with them about what they have been 
reading. I am sure it can be made interesting. I wish much that 
I knew more about it, and had more time. 

There are a number of things which ought to be going on in 
school, that I have not been able yet to attend to at all. Many of 
the boys ought to read for exercise all ought to wr tit some to spell. 
And then, geography, modern and ancient, and I know not how 
many more things. When and how I am to attend to all these is 
more than I can at present exactly see through, but I mean to toil 
on. Many a time I have had to encounter difficulties, and not 
always without success ; and I'll labor, yes, labor on. It is good for 
us sometimes to* be troubled, since it drives us to the Great Com- 
forter ; for it is good to feel our weakness and insufficiency, and then 
go to the Source of Strength. 

I am prone to impatience, and I see that I shall have many a bat- 
tle to fight with myself may I always be conqueror. 

About the piano, I am glad of course. I had made up my mind 
to get one, although my scanty resources might not very well afford 

it. General C would not dream of being unwilling for you to 

bring a piano with you I mean, to bring one here of your own. It 
was only the idea of my getting one that I thought possibly he 
might dislike. As to the flute, I shall not be apt (at least not often) 
to spoil your music in that way ; but I want to overcome the foolish 
feeling which makes me unwilling to blow at all, because I know I 
cannot do it well ; for the same feeling applied to other things would 
stop all my singing, preaching, teaching, and everything else. In- 



A YEAR IN FLUVANNA 83 

deed, I think of only one thing I am able to do well, and that is 
\<we you. 

BREMO, Nov. 5, 1850 : It is a pleasant thought to me, Maria dear- 
est, that before there would be occasion for me to write to you again, 
you will have become fully my own. It has been a most delightful 
correspondence I have had with you this long time, as my affianced. 
Welcome, welcome, and precious have been those frequent messen- 
gers from my beloved one. My heart bounds at the very remem 
brance of the delight with which I have so often gazed upon the 
well-known characters in which you trace my name. The little mis- 
sives of last session, that long letter from Harrisonburg, and all the 
precious ones since I left the University, all together form a rich 
treasure, that will be preserved while I have power to preserve any- 
thing. . . 

It seems to me I love you more and more, dear Maria, as that day 
approaches, and I have an idea that is even so with you. Oh, that 
your hopes of enjoyment in the society of the man you love may 
not be disappointed ! Sometimes I cannot but fear, yet such times 
come not oftenyou were made to be loved, I will love you, you 
will be happy. 

The wedding took place at Dr. Harrison's house, Nov. 
13, 1850. On the following day the happy couple set 
out for Philadelphia to visit the bride's grandfather, Mr. 
Tucker. The Academy of Design gave Mr. Broadus his 
first opportunity for studying fine pictures and statues. 
He always found keen delight thereafter in art. They 
returned by Richmond and took the canal boat up the 
James to Seven Islands and thence to Bremo. 

J. M. BROADUS to J. A. B. 

CULPEPER, Nov. 19, 1850: I have authority enough to justify 
me in presenting to " John and his Lady " such lively congratula- 
tions, as one having a high appreciation of the connection you have 
formed might be expected to offer. You have reached the highest 
point of human felicity henceforth, not a wave, etc., etc. Is that 
the idea? No, you are too wise for that. 

GESSNER HARRISON to MR. TUTWILER. 
UNIVERSITY OF VA., Dec. 23, 1850 : Maria has come to-day to 



84 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

pay us a visit from her new home at General Cocke's, where her 
husband, Rev. John A. Broadus, teaches a school. She was mar- 
ried a little more than a month ago to a young Baptist minister who 
graduated here last June as M, A., and who is a young man of 
much promise. He has no fortune, but has an uncommonly excellent 
education and fine abilities. I think he is well calculated to make 
her happy, and we have willingly committed her to the care of the 
same Providence which has guided us hitherto. 

Dr. Geo. B. Taylor kindly allows us to quote from the 
manuscript of his sketch of Dr. Broadus for the new 
volume of "Virginia Baptist Ministers," by his son, Dr. 
Geo. Braxton Taylor : 

Well do I remember my first meeting with Broadus. We were both 
teaching in Fluvanna County, Va., he a private school at General 
Cocke's place, Bremo, and I, just graduated from Richmond College, 
"an old field school " in the Fork neighborhood. We met in 1850 at 
the James River Association, Cumberland Co. [Booker's meeting- 
house.] I then for the first time heard him preach, his text being, 
" O foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you ? " and a very witch- 
ing sermon it was. But no less a spell did he cast over me by his 
manner and conversation. He accepted me at once as a friend, per- 
haps for my father's sake, as I loved him at once for his own. He 
had come on horseback and I in a buggy with Mr. Hen son, the 
father of Dr. P. S. Henson, who, seeing how agreeable it would be 
to us both, very amiably gave his seat m the carriage to Broadus 
and took the horse, which was rather a hard trotter. That long 
ride together, which however seemed short, being so pleasant, 
cemented our friendship more than brief interviews during a series 
of years could have done. It is certain that from that date he was 
an elder brother to me and treated me with such frank kindness that 
I always felt perfectly free in my intercourse with him. His six 
years of seniority, and more than proportional attainments, inspired 
my respect ; but all fear was cast out by perfect love, while from that 
time to our last meeting in that autumn of 1887 he called me George 
in a way that was music to my soul. One little incident of that day 
is worth mentioning. We stopped by a wayside spring to drink, 
and when I wished to serve him first, he made a mock bow nearly 
to the ground, accompanying it with some playful protest before ac- 
cepting the gourd. Not more refreshing was the water of that spring 
than the gayety which naturally welled up in him whenever he was 



A YEAR IN FLUVANNA 8$ 

with intimate friends and the pressure of work and care for the mo- 
ment removed. This capacity of his, so pleasant to all who en- 
joyed his companionship, was invaluable to himself as relieving the 
strain on life's silver cord. 

During his stay in Fluvanna he preached several times at the 
Brick Church, people gathering from far and near to hear him, and 
as the pastorate was vacant he was invited to it. It was a position 
pleasant and important, but one of the brethren shrewder than the 
rest saw that the brilliant young preacher was destined to a loftier 
flight and could not under any circumstances have long remained 
there. 

In February Mr. Broadus receives official notice of his 
election to the professorship of ancient languages in 
Georgetown College, Kentucky. 

WM. F. BROADDUS to J. A. B. : 

SHELBYVILLE, KY., February 22, 1851 : This morning I received 
a letter from one of the Board of Trustees of Georgetown College 
informing me that you had been unanimously elected to fill the chair 
of ancient languages in said college. You will, of course, be officially 
informed of your appointment ; but such is my anxiety for you to 
accept, that I cannot forbear to write you a private note on the sub- 
ject. Though I am a member of the Board, I did not attend last 
week, because I knew that you would be nominated, and delicacy 
dictated that I should have no hand in your election. 

And now, my good boy, let your uncle advise you to accept this 
call. The college stands in the front rank of Western institutions, 
with an able president, and a Board of Trustees second to none. 
Our denomination is strong and wealthy in Kentucky, and the col- 
lege is rapidly rising in their affections. 

GESSNER HARRISON to J. A. B. : 

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, March 3, 1851 : I received your letter 
mentioning your Georgetown College appointment, yesterday, and 
have looked at the subject as carefully and with as much fairness as 
I could. But I ought to say that I am hardly capable of weighing 
justly the advantages and disadvantages of such an appointment. . . 
I would seriously doubt if this be such an offer as you ought to 
accept. 

r. It blocks up your way to the ministry. If you had duties to en- 
gage your time and talents, your theological studies must be aban- 



86 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

doned. If your duties did not thus engage you they cannot be 
worthy of your acceptance. And either way, you cannot expect to 
preach and fairly go through the routine of college duty. 

2. Although the country in which Georgetown College is situated 
is cheap to live in, judging from the charge for board, your salary of 
one thousand dollars would afford you little more than a bare sup- 
port, after buying books, etc. 

3. You can't divine beforehand the disappointments of being a 
member of a faculty of which the members have no individuality, 
the president being the unit that stands with the public ( and with the 
trustees) for the fractions which alone the other professors represent. 
This supposing the president to be a fair-minded gentleman. The 
presumption may be either way. This objection is not weaker but 
stronger for all sectarian colleges In these a professor is limited for 
his reputation to his own sect not quite, but mainly, and as the sum 
total of it is necessarily smaller it is more easily absorbed by the 
president for some pre-existing reputation with his sect, commonly 
derived from popular preaching talent, rather than from his scientific 
or literary attainments. 

4. But even were this untrue, what field is open to a man of higher 
aim where the course of study is so ordered by the Board of Trustees 
(or say the president) that the professor must be superficial, more or 
less, or derange the system ? He has one resource alone, /. *., to 
publish books. 

5. Lastly, you can do better if you choose to teach for a time, 
within the borders of Virginia, and retain your independence. And 
then, when you choose you can enter, Providence opening the way, 
upon your chosen calling, that of the ministry. 

There are my views, set down hurriedly for lack of time, but well 
considered and decided. I wish you to attach no weight to them be- 
yond what they carry with them. If you think differently, and you 
choose to accept, I would still suggest that you should reserve to 
yourself the right to enter the ministry so soon as you think that 
you ought. 

J. M. BROADUS to J. A. B, : 

CULPEPER, March 5, 1851 : I have no difficulty in deciding that 
you would best accept the Georgetown offer, if (and I believe it is so) 
the college there is a respectable affair, and if you can venture now 
upon a professorship that necessarily includes, as I suppose ancient 
languages in Georgetown College does, the Hebrew. I have always 
concurred with Doctor McGuffey in the opinion that you are to spend 



A YEAR IN FLUVANNA 87 

your life as a college man. . . It occurs to me that you may have 
difficulty in deciding to abandon the plans you may have formed for 
being a learner yet longer theology, etc. Well, is not President 
Reynolds a theologian? a biblical scholai of considerable eminence? 
And might not contact with him be as profitable to you as any other 
position you can hope soon to have? And would not your opportu- 
nity for extra study be as good then as it is now ? I cannot suppose 
that the professor of ancient languages in Georgetown College 
must necessarily give up his theological studies any more than the 
professor of everything in Bremo College. I confess that, if in 
order to accept this plan you must necessarily turn your back upon 
the ministry, my decision might be very different, but I will not think 
that any such necessity exists. 

DR. W. H. McGUFFEY to J. A. B. : 

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, March 13, 1851 : Doctor Harrison in- 
forms me that you hold under advisement an appointment from 
Kentucky. Allow me to hint (without intending to obtrude advice) 
two or three things in favor of your accepting the place offered : 

1. It would almost certainly lead to your transfer (as soon as that 
would be worth your attention) to a place in the theological sem- 
inary at Covington, Ky., near Cincinnati, the best endowed and 
most desirable institution of your church in the United States. 

2. It would be no bar, but the contrary, to your receiving an ap- 
pointment in the University of Virginia (when a vacancy occurs) 
that you were (and had been) a professor in a college, etc. 

3. Should neither of these result, nor anything of this sort, a so- 
journ of three or four years in the West would not be of any detri- 
ment to you (nor your good lady, I ask her pardon), and we can 
bring you back and reintroduce you to the Old Dominion as chap- 
lain to the University of Virginia when it is the turn of the Baptist 
Church to furnish the incumbent. 

What was he to do ? The questions involved were 
larger than the mere removal to another State, or whether 
it would be an agreeable position. His whole career in 
large measure hung upon the decision. Should he com- 
mit himself to teaching ? He had decided to preach and 
was steadily preparing himself for that high mission. His 
work in Fluvann-a was only designed to be temporary. 



88 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

His friend Whitescarver writes : " It is what I have been 
fearing and what I have been expecting." Finally he 
sees his duty and declines. 

J. M. BROADUS to J. A. B. : 

CULPEPER, March 28, 1851 : Your letter received this morning, 
I confess rather surprises me. I expected you to accept the George- 
town appointment, confidently expected it, and have told many per- 
sons that you would, in all probability, leave Virginia next fall. 
Well, perhaps there is wisdom in your decision, but if there is, I 
acknowledge my judgment is at fault. So far as I am personally 
concerned, I am glad that you are (I feel so) not so far from me. . . 

As to the additional d I have but little to say, further than that / 
shall probably never adopt it. Certainly I shall not, if it is to be 
considered an abandonment of my father's name. That name is hon- 
orable enough for me, and more sacred than any other. I did make 
the change once, and pursued it for several years, but afterwards 
got back. Father's positive refusal to yield to Uncle William's sug- 
gestions, is, now that he has passed away, a law that I cannot be 
persuaded to violate. 

WAI. F. BROADDUS to J. A. B. : 

FRANKFORT, KY., March 30, 1851 : Yesterday I was in George- 
town saw Doctor Reynolds and several members of our Board. 
They had just received your letter, declining the appointment. Oh, 
how disappointed was I, they, all of us. It was agreed that I should 
visit you during my trip to Virginia which I am to enter upon in a 
few days, and urge your acceptance. I think I can convince you 
that you ought to come, and then I take it for granted that you will 
come. Nothing will be done here towards filling the vacancy until I 
see you, and the Board hears from me. 

I suppose you have heard of my house burning. I lost nearly all 
my earthly substance. But I am in good spirits. I think I shall teach 
no more ; at any rate not now. But I expect to continue in Kentucky, 
though I may not. Excuse haste. I will soon see you face to face. 
Prepare for a siege. I am commissioned to get you to Kentucky, and 
cannot easily be turned aside from it. My love to my niece. I wish 
she may be ready to aid me in my effort to bring you here. 

Mr. Broadus would not decide great questions off- 
hand. He took time to see a subject in all its bearings 



A YEAR IN FLUVANNA 89 

so that he could reach a wise decision and one that would 
stand. 

ANDREW BROADDUS to J. A. B. : 

SHELBY CO., KY,, March 3, 1851 : I am sorry that I am so little 
qualified to reply to your inquiry as to "how far Calvinism should 
be carried." I know but little about " isms," and desire to " know 
nothing among the people but Jesus Christ and him crucified." My 
plan has been, since I have been in the ministry, to avoid as much 
as possible, all controversy on religious subjects. In this course, I 
have enjoyed, no doubt, far more peace of mind than I should have 
done had I been a controversialist. It is a point well settled in my 
mind that God always acts in accordance with an eternal purpose, 
else how can many portions of his word be reconciled? I am also 
well convinced that Christ and the apostles, in their appeals to man- 
kind, recognized no impediment in the way of any, but called upon 
*' all men everywhere to repent." Now because I cannot fathom 
the mystery connected with God's sovereignty and man's accounta- 
bility, I must not run into fatalism, as some do ; but the safe plan, 
in my judgment, is that of Christ and his apostles, alluded to above. 

J. M. BROADUS to J. A. B. : 

CULPEPER, Feb. 24, 1851 : As to preaching, could you not give 
the colored people the same sermon that you put upon Fork Union ? 
Our ablest and most popular ministers do that, and why not you ? 
Perhaps, though, there is not distance enough between the localities. 
That is all important. My opinion has always been that you ought 
to preach as frequently as possible. The habit of speaking is a great 
acquisition. Your idea is that the habit formed must be a good and 
a chaste one. Well, maybe so. You ought to know. 

MRS. LOUISA TUCKER to MRS. MARIA C. BROADUS : 

PHILADELPHIA, March 17, 1851 : A letter from your mother, this 
morning, mentioned you, Mr. B. and George, and she told us of Mr. 
Bioadus' appointment in Kentucky. I had no doubt, but his talents 
would give him a name abroad, as well as at home, but I hope when 
he leaves Virginia (if he ever should) that you will come nearer to 
us. . . 

Give my love to Mr. B., for I must love those who love you and 
you love so much, I hope before long he will bring you to see us, 
and stay more than four days ; it may be, that he will be coming to 



QO LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

publish some valuable treatise on teaching, say some literary work ; 
there I go again at my old trade of castle building. . . 

Did you ever ask Aunt Caroline to send you the pattern you prom- 
ised me of your wedding caps. I have a desire to get it, both the 
shape of the cap and the bobbin-work pattern. . 

F. H. SMITH to J, A. B. : 

UNIVERSITY, March 31, 1851: Your last letter contained some 
instructions with regaid to the publication of the essay which I en- 
deavored to attend to. I saw Doctor Harrison in reference to the 
preliminary note and the result was the simple introduction you saw 
at the bottom of the page. I trust that the number of copies sent 
was sufficient. There are some on hand yet (of the extra copies), 
and if you wish it, 1 will enclose you more. As to the reception of 
the essay here, it would be a work of supererogation to say any- 
thing. The magazine has been supported very well indeed for sev- 
eral months. There has been no dearth of contributions as in the 
beginning of the session. The impression is that it will be discon- 
tinued at the conclusion of the present session and it will certainly 
require all the profits of last year to pay the expenses of the present. 
In view of this and the fact that the legislature has refused to con- 
sider the motion to erect the statue, the University will for many 
years probably be without any such memorial of her founder. For 
my own part, I consider the institution itself to be his most glorious 
monument. 

I heard a short time since that you had been offered, or elected to 
a professorship in a college in Kentucky. Mrs. Harrison of course 
was strongly opposed to a proceeding which would remove you so 
far from home, and indeed all seemed gratified when intelligence 
came that you had declined the invitation. By the way, did you 
hear how near you came (unknown to yourself) to a call from one 
of the Richmond churches ? Bob Coleman told me that on occasion 
of a vacancy there he had taken the liberty to suggest your name to 
the authorities. From what he said I apprehend it only needed a 
personal acquaintance to have turned the scale of a doubtful vote. 

I suppose that you have by this time been thoroughly indoctri- 
nated into all the quiet gravity and domesticity of a genuine bene- 
dict. If theie is any man within the limits of my acquaintance 
whom circumstances seem to compel to be happy, that one is your- 
self. I wish you would not forget your experience for 1 hope to re- 
ceive a great deal of good advice from you, not many years hence. 
A letter from home, a few days ago, informed me that their wish. 



A YEAR IN FLUVANNA 9! 

was that I should not enter active life for seven years, or more, yet. 
I thought to myself that there would be a disappointment either of 
their expectations or mine, not of the latter if I can help it. I expect 
ta live oyster-fashion for the greater part of this week. Mary (the 
prefix Miss is too formal and cold) has gone into the country to stay 
a few days, in what direction she was unable to inform me, except 
that the initial movement was up the Hamilton road. 

I am sustaining at present here a kind of shuttlecock character, 
knocked about between old Professor Schele, Doctors Rogers and 
McGuffey, while I see looming up in the dark distance an additional 
force in the shape of the A. M. Reviewers. Oh, how I sigh for 
those good old days of Virgil's pastorals when there was nothing to 
do but "recumb" under the shade of a "patulus" beech, sing 
songs, and attend to sheep. Glorious old Tityrus, disturbed by no 
44 corkings " and paying for no midnight oil ! Mixed math, is get- 
ting beautifully indefinite about this time. Some of us are decidedly 

moonstruck, a misfortune due to P 7 s blunder of placing the lunar 

theory first Col. Croset happening to be in company with Mr. 
Courtenay, the other day, inquired what his mixed class was doing, 
and on being told that they were engaged in discussing some knotty 
points on the planetary theory, rolled up his eyes, raised his hands, 
and gave a most doleful whistle. 

JAMES THOMAS, JR., to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, May 22, 1851 : I have not the pleasure of a personal 
acquaintance with you. Though I feel so, being intimate with your 
friends and relations, and especially on long and intimate terms of 
friendship with your revered father. . . 

My main object now in writing is to induce you to come down 
to our anniversaries, which commence to-morrow week. We desire 
much to see you here and I trust you will feel it your duty to come 
and begin at once to throw all your influence in these great entei- 
prises. It would give myself and family great delight if you would 
come and bring Mrs. Broadus with you. Just come to my house. 
It would take you but a few days. 

Do come. Doctor Fuller will be at the house on Sunday next 
and I hope will stay until after the meetings, though I have but little 
hope of it. 

At the meeting in Richmond, in 1851, appeared a young man, 
who, along with two other brethren, gave in their names as dele- 
gates from Fork Union Church in Fluvanna County. Enough was 



92 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

known of the young man to lead the committee on church services 
to appoint him to preach. This he did, and in a day or two returned 
to his school in Fluvanna County. His name was John A. Broadus. 1 

He was assigned to preach at the First Church, and his 
text was i Cor. I : 23. Mr. James Thomas was so much 
interested in his young friend after this visit and sermon 
that he requested him to order a large lot of books for 
himself at his expense. (The bill amounted to eighty 
dollars.) 

In a memorial address on Doctor Broadus, Professor 
C. L. Cocke says of this occasion : 

He was appointed to preach on Sunday night in the First Baptist 
Church. Before the hour had arrived, that spacious auditorium was 
crowded to overflowing. Expectation was on tiptoe, and most in- 
tense. Every eye was turned toward the aisles to catch a glimpse 
of the young preacher. He was so youthful in appearance, so frail, 
so diminutive, an old brother sitting by whispered in my ear, " He 
will fail." Soon with slow and graceful step he approached the 
desk and announced the opening hymn. In clear tones, with no 
tremor of voice or manner, he read the several stanzas and took his 
seat. The old brother whispered again, " He will not fail." And 
fail he did not ; he fully sustained his early fame. His sermon was 
equal to the demands of the great and trying occasion, no gush, no 
attempt at mannerism or display of learning ; it was the pure gospel 
in simple, earnest, well-chosen diction, and impressively delivered. 
From that hour to the day of his death, Doctor Broadus always met 
occasions. He never allowed his reputation to outrun his ability or 
his merit. 

JAMES THOMAS, JR., to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, June 5, 1851 : We had a Mass Education Meeting 
on Monday night at which it was proposed to raise an endowment of 
one hundred thousand dollars for Richmond College. Some twelve or 
thirteen thousand dollars was subscribed on the spot, a very small 
number of our brethren either from town or county present. From 
the spirit prevailing I trust good will come. Brother Poindexter was 
appointed agent. I now have strong hopes that our denomination 

1 " Religious Herald," Nov., 1896. 



A YEAR IN FLUVANNA 9$ 

in the State will rally around this college and make it what it ought 
to be one of the first, worthy of the denomination and of the State. 

Another result of this Richmond visit was an invitation 
to be pastoral supply of the Grace Street Church, Rich- 
mond, during the absence of the pastor, Dr. E. Kings- 
ford, in Europe. He was to receive the regular salary, 
but he declined this unanimous call. 

MRS. E. L. C. HARRISON to MRS. MARIA C. BROADUS : 

UNIVERSITY, June 19, 1851 : I have heard from Mary Spencer 
the most gratifying accounts of the impression made by Mr. Broadus 
in Richmond. Cousin F. Gwathmey wrote she heard he preached 
a very fine sermon, and Mr. Smith said he heard a letter read from 
a lady in Richmond who said, " She had heard of Mr. Broadus, but 
he far surpassed her expectations." The general impression seems 

to be that Mr. B had accepted a call to Richmond, Cousin F 

seemed very happy in the prospect of having her " sweet little 
cousin." Aunt Otwayanna said she was silent as long as she sup- 
posed there was any chance of Mr. B 's accepting a call to 

Lynchburg, but hearing he had declined coming, she very openly 
expressed her opinion as to its being a very wise decision on his 
part. 

The church in Lynchburg made renewed efforts to get 
Mr. Broadus as pastor. Finally, August 25, a formal and 
unanimous call was extended him to succeed J. W. M. 
Williams, D. D., who had gone to Baltimore. At the 
same time the Petersburg Church wanted him. The 
church at Scottsville called him. He was wanted at 
Huntington and Rockdale, Md. The Fork Union Church 
now gave him a call. He was asked to open a school 
near Charlottesville. His perplexities multiplied. 

MISS MARY STUART HARRISON to MARIA C. BROADUS : 

WINCHESTER, Aug. 12, 1851: Has Mr. Broadus determined upon 
taking the tutorship? I do hope that he has, for unconsciously I 
have been thinking, ever since I heard of it, that we should have 
you both with us next year. I suppose, however, that he finds it 



94 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

very difficult to decide upon what appointment to take, as he has 
so many to choose between. 

The position of assistant instructor had been created 
and was offered to Mr. Broadus and to Mr. Smith, the 
one in ancient languages, the other in mathematics. 

F. H. SMITH to J. A. B. : 

LEESBURG, Sept. 4, 1851 : Mary wrote to me (you must know 
that we correspond) a few days since, informing me among other 
things that you had not decided upon any occupation for the ensuing 
year, and would probably remain at the University. I presume that 
you will of course accept the situation in the school of Ancient Lan- 
guages if you remain. I am heartily glad that there is any prospect 
of your remaining with us. My position will be quite lonely if I 
have no acquaintance or friend occupying either of the other places 
and this, though a very selfish reason, would operate to make me 
happy to have you with us. Besides, I want you to resume your 
old station as superintendent ; and there is also the prayer meeting, 
which stands in need of some reanimation, and which, I hope, will 
take a better position the coming year. 

He was likewise called to the pastorate of the Char- 
lottesville Baptist Church. Now he began to see his 
way. The pastorate of Charlottesville could be taken 
in connection with the work in the University. He could 
thus be both preacher and teacher. So he accepted both 
positions. 

JOHN A. BROADUS to the CHARLOTTESVILLE BAPTIST CHURCH : 
UNIVERSITY OF VA., Sept. 5, 1851 : Dear Brethren: I have re- 
ceived your letter of the 5th inst. informing me of my election as 
pastor of the Charlottesville Baptist Church, and also an extract 
made by the clerk from the minutes of a called meeting held Sept 
5, with reference to the subject. As the arrangement proposed is 
somewhat peculiar it is exceedingly desirable to both the Church and 
myself that there be no ground left for misapprehension in any re- 
spect. I think it is proper for me to state as distinctly as possible 
what I understand to be the duties expected to be performed, they 
being in fact also, the extent of labor which I felt it at all practicable 
for me to undertake. 



A YEAR IN FLUVANNA Q5 

1. I am to preach every Sabbath morning. 

2. On Sabbath evening to attend a prayer meeting and take such 
part in the conduct of it as is customary for a pastor to take in 
prayer meetings held by the church, making any remarks, and giv- 
ing any aid in general towards rendering the meeting interesting 
which I may find consistent with my other engagements and duties. 

3. As to visiting and the kindred pastoral duties, I am wholly ex- 
empted from them as a regular duty. I will visit among the mem- 
bers, especially the poor and the sick, to whatever extent I may find 
it in my power. With this understanding of the proposition, 1 am 
disposed to become the pastor of your church. I trust that I do this 
with something of a proper spirit. I pray and earnestly beg that all 
the brethren will continually unite with me in praying that the con- 
nection may tend to our mutual edification and enjoyment, and to 
the promotion of religion among the people. I shall be grateful if 
this letter be entered among the minutes of the church. 

His salary as pastor was five hundred dollars. He had 
preached fifty -seven times before he undertook the Char- 
lottesville work. 

MISS MARY STUART HARRISON to MRS. MARIA C. BROADUS : 

HARRISONBURG, Sept. 10, 1851 : I am truly delighted to hear 
that Mr. Broadus has at last determined to remain with us next ses- 
sion, although with you I have had my doubts as to whether it were 
the best thing for him ; but as his decision is made, you know all 
things are for the best, and we can certainly enjoy each other's 
society more than under any other circumstances* I hope that I will 
be there to hear his first sermon in Charlottesville. What is the 
prospect for the new Baptist church which they were to build? 



CHAPTER VII 
CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 

Enflamed with the study of learning and the admiration of virtue ; 
stirred up with high hopes of living to be brave men and worthy 
patriots, dear to God, and famous to all ages. 

Milton 

MR. BROADUS was now pastor of the church that 
he had declined while a student, and was teach- 
ing in the great University whose walls he had so re- 
cently left. It was coming back home. 

During the year in Fluvanna he had been learning by 
teaching and preaching. As he began, so he went on, 
so he closed his career learning, teaching, preaching. 
It may be worth noting that the very year that John A. 
Broadus entered upon his severe labors, James P. Boyce, 
just from Princeton, became pastor at Columbia, South 
Carolina; Wm. Williams, recently from Harvard College, 
assumed pastoral work in Alabama ; and Basil Manly, 
after Newton and Princeton and a pastorate in Alabama, 
came to Richmond as pastor of the First Church. But 
the lines of meeting for these four were years ahead. 

Mr. Broadus took up heroically his double burden at 
Charlottesville and the University. He had not antici- 
pated an easy time. He knew full well the University 
standards of work. Gessner Harrison was still there. He 
had his own high ideals of preaching. His audiences 
would be composed of the varied classes of a good-sized 
town, besides the University circles who would be some- 
what under his influence. With his aspiring nature he 
could be inferior in neither pulpit nor teacher's chair. 
We find him still working vigorously at Knapp, Tur- 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 97 

rettin, Dwight, and Andrew Fuller. He had undertaken 
an enormous amount of work and his friends were solici- 
tous about his health. 

DR. W. H. HARRISON to J. A. B. : 

WIGWAM, Jan. 3, 1852 : Will you excuse a little impertinence, 
perhaps a great presumption? I had the pleasure last summer at 
Bremo, of spending a brief time with you, long enough, however, 
to interest me greatly m you, for I saw that God had committed to 
you great talents with the promise of rare usefulness, and I feared 
that unless you could be induced to change your habits and allow 
yourself more exercise and more recreation that the cistern would 
soon be broken and the jewel which he had chosen change its cas- 
ket. It was this fear which prompted a conversation which I then 
held with you ; it is the^ same fear which now emboldens me to 
trespass upon your patience and the more earnestly because I know 
that your duties have been greatly increased, and I learn from my 
friend Gresham that your application is constant and your health 
manifestly failing. I would earnestly entreat you, dear brother, to 
" pause and think before you farther go." Think of the noble 
spirits who have gone before you, who by the course you are now 
pursuing, shortened their stay on earth and were cut off in the dawn 
of usefulness. Sydney, Kirke White, Andrew Nichol, Cowper, 
etc., all the victims of over-study and continual neglect or transgres- 
sion of God's physical laws. And you, dear sir, will not be an ex- 
ception. Your course must be short unless you change it speedily. 
And m this day of daily development, why should you wish to 
shorten your stay on earth, why leave so early the vineyard in 
which the Master had so much work for you? God give you wis- 
dom and all of us grace to live according to all of his laws, natural 
as well as revealed, physical as well as moral. . . 

P. S. And you preached lately from the text " Rejoice always." 
Glorious text ! Would that I could have heard you ! 

DR. JAMES B. TAYLOR to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., Jan. 29, 1852 : Please accept my thanks for 
your letter of the 26th inst It evinces an interest m the cause of 
missions such as inspires the hope that you may be honored of God 
in its promotion. It is a melancholy fact that few of our brethren In 
the ministry are desirous of acquainting themselves with the history 
of those operations which relate to the spread of the gospel, and 

G 



98 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

therefore ill prepared to inform others. Hence the comparative 
listlessness of the churches on this subject. I am happy to believe, 
however, that an improvement in these respects is taking place. 
Our brethren are beginning to understand that the spirit of missions 
is no other than the gospel spirit the spirit of Christ. 

WM. F. BROADDUS to J. A. B. : 

FORKS OF ELKHORN, Feb. 18, 1852 : Your inquiry with reference 
to the views of our brethren here, on the revision question, requires 
some care lest I fail to give you a full view of the subject. . . 

For my own part, I am as nearly neutral, in regard to this matter, 
as a man of my temperament can be in regard to any important 
measure. I grant that many and important improvements might be 
made in King James' version, and indeed I have long wished that 
the obscure words so often to be met with in it were all removed. 
But whether this could now be done, and by the Baptists alone, with- 
out endangering the interests of our denomination (and thereby of 
the truth), is a question which I have not yet settled. . . 

I have not yet been able to obtain a copy of the " Memoirs " of 
our distinguished relative, A. Broaddus. The work has not been 
sent westward. 1 wish you would suggest to his son (I suppose 
you see him frequently) that the work would sell rapidly in Ken- 
tucky. Many, very many old persons, who came to this State from 
Virginia, think of him with almost the veneration due to an inspired 
apostle. 

J. M. BROADUS to J. A. B. : 

CULPEPER COURT HOUSE, March 16, 1852 : You mentioned 
your call to California, but did not intimate your mind in regard to 
it. Three thousand dollars a year, as Billy Allen used to say, sounds 
well on water. Suppose, however, nothing like money could tempt 
you away from civilization. 

J. A. B, to MRS. MARIA C. BROADUS : 

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, Tuesday, March 23, 1852 : One mo- 
ment I must take, just to tell you how busy I am . , 

Students made a great bonfire on the lawn last night, and put it 
out, I believe, with the engine, which is still standing out there. . . 

When you get " little precious " off where none can see or hear, 
kiss her five times, and tell her 'tis for father." 

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, March 25, 1852: , . Never mind, I 
feel better to-day, and I mean to spare myself the balance of the week 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 99 

as much as possible, so that when wife and baby come back they 
may find the husband-father blooming and lovable. . . 

Couldn't sleep this morning, and was ready for breakfast before- 
hand sat down, and read some more of ** Die widen Schtoane." Oh, 
it is so pretty ! And then I love the story because it has Elise m 
it. . . 

I wonder if you will be done Bancroft sure enough when you come 
back. 

A. M. BARBOUR to J. A. B. : 

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY, March 29, 1852 : The object of this 

note is to request you if possible to send me a copy of Doctor Har- 
rison's " Latin Grammar." I will pay any price for one if it can 
be secured. I have gotten into several discussions with these fellows 
here on the languages and have given some of them a very severe 
drubbing on Latin and Greek and shown them that they know 
but little of Latin or Greek really. But now I am subject to daily 
assault as I am the only man here from our school. Therefore I 
want to keep myself thoroughly and perfectly armed for them. I 
consider that " Grammar " the best extant and there is no favor you 
could do which would be so acceptable as to procure me a copy. 

I like the Law-school here pretty well. Here, everything is 
voluntary and nothing compulsory. But then to one who is desir- 
ous of learning, it is a fine school. They have an elegant library, 
and Moot Courts twice every week. Their Academic department 
cannot compare with ours. I know I never was a good scholar and 
am now rusty, but can stump any of the Seniors here, even their 
very best men. The fact is, they don't know how to study or 
teach the languages. 

New positions continued to be pressed upon Mr. 
Broadus. President White wished him to succeed him 
at Wake Forest College, N. C ; the professorship of 
Ancient Languages in Columbian University was urged 
upon him ; and he was sought by the E. Street Church, 
Washington. His health was breaking down and he was 
on the way to Rawley Springs. 

J. A. B. to MRS. MARIA C. BROADUS : 

COCKE'STAVERN, i. 30 P.M., Wednesday, Sept. i : . . . At ten 
o'clock, Mr. Blair, the Presbyterian preacher came in. I was intro- 



100 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

duced, and he invited me to go down to Hillsboro and be at the 
temperance meeting, which some while ago, you may remember, he 
invited me to attend. It is less than a mile from here, but I declined, 
after considering. An extempore temperance speech must needs 
savor of the humorous, and I am in no mood for humor ; besides 
that, some of those who would be present stood with me last week 
around my sister's 1 grave. Oh, may the load of affliction that 
weighs me down when men are not knowing it, be sanctified to my 
spiritual good ! May her holy life, and this her hopeful, happy death 
be the life and death of her so unworthy, yet so richly-blessed, 
"baby" brother! Oh, that sister was dear to me, dearer than 
any knew, dearer than I knew myself, yet she is gone ! But then, 
she is gone to heaven ; and I can hope, humbly and trustingly, that 
by the grace of God I shall see my sister Carry again, and part 
from her no more. My dear Maria, be a Christian, with all your 
heart, now. 

VIRGINIA HOTEL, STAUNTON, Sept. i, 1852: I feel inclined to 

write. I shall speak of nothing but very little things in my adven- 
tures, things that I know would interest no other being, but which 
my own little wife will read with pleasure on the same principle that 
I, when in Clark, used to love the very strings with which my sis- 
ters had tied up my bundles. 

You perceive that there was room for me in yesterday's stage. 
Had an Irish woman and her son of some twelve years on the seat 
with me, who seemed fresh. I tried with due respect, to find whether 
either of them could speak at all an old Irish dialect ; both said they 
couldn't, though the old woman said many of the people could. I 
believe they thought I was poking fun at them. I walked two miles 
up the mountain. The Irish about the tunnel, etc., are said to be 
wretchedly degraded. A young man from Waynesboro told me 
that the women even were often drunk there in the streets, and with 
the most vulgar language. When the women are degraded, there 
is little hope. 

Got very warm walking. It was growing dusk when I returned 
to the stage, where I soon became very chilly and was uneasy. 
Didn't speak of it, but buttoned up my coat. This attracted the at- 
tention of a lady on the back seat she had a little girl with her, 
and I had before amused her out of a bad humor into a mighty good 
one with the pictures in '* Harper "who began inquiries about my 
health, and advised the borrowing of an overcoat which a young 

1 Mrs. Whitescarver. 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY IOI 

man was not wearing. I wrapped it about me and was comfortable. 
Had much talk with the lady, starting from the child, about educat- 
ing children, and afterward with her companion, a young lady, 
(both from the North originally) about slavery, " Uncle Tom's 
Cabin," etc. Upon slavery in general and in particular, and after- 
ward upon pronunciation, e. g., garden, etc., she was very Northern, 
and I intensely Southern, but we agreed to disagree, and got on 
pretty well. . . 

RAWLEY SPRINGS, Sept 4, 1852: Thump, thump, splash, 
splash, over stones and through the countless crossings of the 
river, came an old buggy with a lame horse, bearing your pre- 
cious husband yesterday evening to this delectable spot. My epi- 
thet is applied half in earnest, half in irony. In many respects, 
I like this place exceedingly well. I have always loved the moun- 
tains ; more, perhaps, because my father and mother were raised 
among the eastern spurs of the "Ridge," than for any reason. I 
love to see the steep hills, I love to climb them. I love to stand, 
as I did this morning on the summit of a precipice, and look down 
over the little glen between the mountains, with its dashing stream 
that really seems to have fretted itself into a fury, actually foam- 
ing with rage because the rocks won't get out of its way to take 
off my hat and let the breeze that sweeps down the glen play on 
my brow, cooling its heat and blowing back the hair, and mak- 
ing me feel free and fresh and joyous, till I almost think I am a 
man, or rather till I feel myself a boy again. I dieam over for a 
moment some of my boyhood's dreams about a hunter's life in the 
woods and on the mountains. I do love this, and verily I have 
almost grown romantic in speaking of it. There is something in 
the mountains that always stirs my soul more than anything else in 
nature. I love the very toil of climbing them to draw myself up 
steep banks by the bushes, and think of the lucky Indian of Potosi, 
to jump, more boldly than anywhere else I could venture, from one 
great rock to another, and wonder if it mightn't be a pleasant thing 
to be a chamois to come back to the little half-grown river, and 
standing on one of the many rocks that lie scattered about in the 
stream, to hold my hands as if I wanted to stop the current, and then 
again and again and many times to lift up the bright, clear, spar- 
kling water and let It cool my face. I love all this dearly, and am 
speaking of it now in a way which will make my dear little wife 
laugh at my extravagance. . . 

Major C of Stafford, knew my father very well, and makes 



102 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

a great fuss over me, and Mr. Jamie C makes himself as 

agreeable as ever he can, which isn't much, and Mr. Van Lear, of 
Augusta, is a student of Washington College, and we agree won- 
drously in our insinuations about the Institute. . . 

I'll drink the water to the very limit of endurance, I'll eat enough 
to make Mr, Sites' cook think several new visitors have just come 
in before every meal, I'll climb the hills many times m many di- 
rections, I'll try hard to catch one trout from the streams, for my 
father used to catch trout when he was a boy, I'll read as much as, 
with so many other important things to do, I can find time to read. . . 

What you say of your religious feelings gives me some pain, but 
much more pleasure ; pain, because you have somehow misunder- 
stood me, and perhaps that has caused you suffering but great 
pleasure because I now confidently believe you are fairly in the 
right way, that however trembling, you are laying hold upon the 
hope set before you in the gospel. . . 

I should be glad to see you join the church ; and my only 
personal request is, that whenever you go forward, it may be at a 
time when I can be present. 1 

Now and always, my dear Maria, I do pray and will pray, that 
you may come rapidly up to the stature of a full-grown Christian, 
that you may be earnest and devoted, and that the peace of God, 
which passeth all understanding, may keep your heart and mind 
through Christ Jesus. 

RAWLEY SPRINGS, Sept 9, 1852 : I have finished " Uncle Tom's 
Cabin." It is exceedingly well written, having some passages of 
rarely equaled power, and being altogether, so far as I can judge, a 
very remarkable book. It contains much that is true, and much 
that is untrue ; will do some good, and a great deal of harm, among 
the Northerners. 

I am reading now *' Mary Lundie D." Oh, it is beautiful ! , . . 

I am often regretting the necessity of being thus absent from my 
wife and our babe, and have to exert myself to keep down a sort of 
restless feeling. 

I ought to regret yet more, that I find it hard to be as much en- 
gaged about personal religion as 1 ought to be. I do not love the 
Bible as 1 ought to love it do not read it with such relish and zest 
as I ought to feel. I do not take a right interest in prayer. Alas! 

1 Mrs. Broadus soon after joined the Methodist Church, in which she had been 
brought up. 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 103 

your husband is a very poor Christian, Maria. Will you not pray for 
him that he may have more of every Christian grace, and be en- 
abled, in his private life and his public labors, to glorify God? 

STAUNTON, Sept. 17, 1852 : I must write a note to Will, which he 
will probably receive to-morrow some time, informing him of my re- 
turn and my purpose to be at Mountain Plain, Sunday. Then I must' 
devote the morning to my sermon. I have done scarcely anything' 
at it yet, and though I feel very little like thinking, it will be only 
worse to-morrow, and I must try to think of something to say. My 
subject (Matt. 23 : 37) is prolific enough, one would think, yet my 
ideas are very scanty, and I feel that it must be a barren sermon. 
Yet the Lord often blesses our weakness, more than our greater 
strength. Oh, that he may establish the work of my hands upon 
me. Will my wife pray for me, that my so feeble labor may not be 
in vain in the Lord ? Oh, that I could see sinners among my people 
converted ! It lies like a burden on my heart, the thought that there 
are so many unconverted men and women who look to me for almost 
their only instruction, so many in the road to hell, with no voice but 
mine to warn them of their danger and invite them to Jesus. Alas ! 
how cold have been my warmest feelings, how dull my most earnest 
appeals. The Lord in mercy forgive me, that so often, so constantly, 
I have neglected my duty. 1 know that I am not fit to be the instru- 
ment of good the Lord take me and fashion and temper me, and 
then use me for his glory. Pray much for me that the love of 
Christ may subdue the deceitfulness and rebelliousness of my heart, 
and that zeal for his glory, and pity for poor, perishing souls, may 
lead me to work more faithfully in the Master's vineyard. Pray for 
the divine blessing upon my preaching especially upon the poor ser- 
mon of next Sunday night. Dear Maria, do not fail. 

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, Sept. 22, 1852 -. I was engaged ail 
day yesterday in getting the amount of the subscription for building 
our church, with a view to giving the thing a start Saturday night 
next. I find a general anxiety, especially among the ladies, to have 
it done, and hope it will be arranged now, and finally. It must cost 
me much trouble and labor this week, and will require more wisdom 
than I have, to harmonize and control. I will try. . 

Mr. Broadus pushed the enterprise of a new church 
building. By October 6, 1852, at the Wednesday meet- 
ing, he had subscriptions amounting to three thousand 



104 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

dollars. This was a heavy burden to the struggling 
church, but the effort to bear it was blessed. A glorious 
revival came in a few weeks. The meeting lasted from 
October 20 to November 5. Rev. Messrs. Wm. F. Broad- 
dus, Myrick, Fife, Fnsby, and Whitescarver preached, 
while deep interest was shown in the meeting by the 
University chaplain, and the Presbyterian and Methodist 
pastors. Forty made profession of religion and twenty- 
three were baptized. " Our meetings were very quiet 
and solemn ; and there was frequently felt a realizing 
sense of the Divine presence, which could not but impress 
the heart. Especially did we find such pervading so- 
lemnity in the sunrise prayer meeting. The number of 
persons professing conversion is considered large for this 
place/' l Dr. Wm. F. Broaddus spoke of it as " one of 
my old-time meetings." J. M. Broadus wrote : " We are 
glad of your success in this first great effort." 

The church was not built without a debt, which hung 
like a millstone on some necks. Many wished to use it 
as an excuse for not giving to other things. Dr. R. J. 
Willingham tells the following : 

I remember in one of Doctor Broadus's last speeches before his 
death he told this incident : When he was a young pastor in Vir- 
ginia the church had just put up a new building. On Saturday one 
of his deacons met him and the following conversation took place : 
" Brother Broadus, to-morrow is Foreign Mission Dav, is it not? n 
" Yes." " Well, you will not press the subject, will you? " " Why 
not? " " We have a debt on our church, and ought to pay that." 
The young pastor answered : " Do you think that after being blessed 
of God in building a house for our comfort and convenience we 
ought to neglect the lost souls out yonder for whom Christ died ? " He 
went home, fell on his knees, and prayed God for wisdom to lead his 
people. He then prepared the best sermon he possibly could on the 
subject, and urged his people to give. A glorious collection followed. 
The people were so rejoiced that they met Monday night at the young 
pastor's house and paid every dollar of the debt which had been 

1 J. A. B, in " Religious Herald," Dec., 1853. 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 105 

worrying them. God honors those who in his name reach after 
dying men and women. 

Some of the members of the church remember to this 
day that sermon, and how Mr. Broadus used with tre- 
mendous and wonderful effect the charge at Balaklava, 
urging that our Commander makes no mistakes. 

Already the young preacher was having that strange 
effect on other preachers so noticeable in after years. 
Rev. John T. Randolph was the preacher for the Negro 
members of the church on Sunday afternoons. One 
afternoon he was in a " weaving way " when Mr. Broadus 
quietly stepped in and sat down. Instantly Mr. Ran- 
dolph collapsed and called on some one else to pray. 
Another time Broadus was absent from town and en- 
gaged Mr. P. S. Henson to preach for him. But Mr. 
Broadus unexpectedly came back just before the closing 
prayer. Doctor Henson afterwards said that he did not 
know a word of what he was saying in that prayer. It 
was a source of much regret to Doctor Broadus that he 
thus upset some preachers. In after years he used to 
take pains to hear his students when they preached, 
and was always disappointed when they failed to under- 
stand his sympathetic attitude. 

He had his amusing experiences, like other pastors. 
Once a man a dozen miles away came and urged him to 
come and marry him. " The folks are all ready/' he 
said. Mr. Broadus went on horseback at his own ex- 
pense. The groom pompously paid him two dollars say- 
ing : " Parson, I reckon you make right smart money, 
marrying folks." 

J. A. B. to W. A. WHITESCARVER : 

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, Dec. 27, 1852: I want to covenant 

with you that we shall regularly pray for each other, for our indi- 
vidual spirituality and our public usefulness. 
The Lord grant that your labors may be greatly blessed, that your 



106 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

people may become more earnest and more godly, and that you may 
soon see sinners converted ! 

Mr. Broadus is now in the full tide of his career as a 
preacher. He has large and definite plans for study and 
growth for long years to come. He grapples with his 
destiny. 

That he did not consider the Charlottesville work a 
sinecure, a study of his record-book will show. From 
January to June, in 1853, he delivered a series of four- 
teen Sunday evening discourses on the Apostle Paul. 
Conybeare and Howson's "Life of Paul" he did not 
have, but he used original sources. This series cre- 
ated a sensation and thronged the church to overflow- 
ing with professors and students from the University 
and people of all denominations from Charlottesville. 
He began on Wednesday night, but soon had to take 
Sunday nights in the main audience room. He used maps 
to point out the places and each sermon grew in favor. 
He had also a printed scheme of these lectures as an aid 
to the audience. People would say : " Paul will preach 
to-night." Interest in the Bible became widespread in 
the town. 

Pressed as he was with double duty, his preaching reached high 
water mark, and the little Baptist church at Charlottesville was 
always crowded, the congregation including numbers of the students 
and often professors as well. Never can I forget how I would sit 
enwrapped in his eloquence which was scarcely surpassed afterwards, 
however much he may have grown. I think that later his sermons 
became more didactic and perhaps richer in the exposition of Scrip- 
ture ; but oh, there was then a freshness and fervor and a flow of 
thought and language ; and sentences from his lips are still in my 
memory as if heard yesterday. 1 

Dr. W. D. Thomas, who was a student of the Uni- 

1 Doctor George B Taylor. In manuscript for new volume on *' Virginia Baptist 
Ministers." 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 107 

versity from 1850 to 1854 (taking M. A.), says that John 
A. Broadus's preaching was rather bare of imagination at 
first. He later cultivated his imagination till he used it 
with wonderful power. After a sermon of Mr. Broadus's 
on Martha and Mary, a gentleman inCharlottesville, who 
had just returned from Palestine, asked him when he 
had been there, so accurately had he described the roads 
from Jerusalem to Bethany. He had been studying 
Robinson. The use of his imagination became a marked 
characteristic of his preaching. There was little gesture 
in these early days, some illustration, but no embroidery. 
Once, when asked the source of his style, he said it was 
his audience. He was compelled to put things so as to 
enlist the sympathy of the most profound and the most 
ignorant. His audience was cosmopolitan, and swept 
the whole gamut of human gifts and accomplishments. 
He had to blend depth and clearness in every sermon. 
The constant effort to do this created that wonderful 
simplicity which flowed like a mountain stream, so clear 
and so deep. There was tremendous moral earnestness 
with deep pathos and delicate flashes of humor. His 
magnetism threw a spell over his audience. People felt 
that his preaching was one of the events of their lives 
not to be missed. There was more than the glow of 
youth and genius. There was great spiritual power that 
melted hearts to repentance. 

Some criticism naturally arose because he could not 
visit much, but he made his visits tell. Besides calling 
on families, he had a habit of calling on one member of 
the family at a time so as to have a chance for conver- 
sation on personal religion. These conversations often 
led to salvation. One of his flock well remembers one 
such visit to herself, when she was asked if she prayed. 
She thought to herself: "If I say 'Yes/ he will say, 
'Then why are you not a Christian' ? " So she said 



108 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A, BROADUS 

"No." He prayed with her and soon baptized her. 
Doctor Broadus often said that he knew of more persons 
led to Christ by his conversation than by his preaching. 

MRS. MARIA C. BROADUS to MRS. MARTHA BICKERS : 

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, April 27, 1853 : I reckon you have 
heard of Mr. Broadus's intention of taking up his abode in Char- 
lottesville next session, but I am sure I shall be first to tell that he 
has actually rented a house and that we expect to go there to live 
about the middle or last of August. 

I have been to see the house and was much pleased with It, and 
as I have always fancied the idea of keeping house, hope to be 
very happy there. My head is full of plans and arrangements and I 
scarcely think of anything else, but I excuse myself for being so 
intent upon the subject, as it is an entirely new business to me and 
therefore requires a good deal of thought and foresight. 

I am going to give you something to think of too, and that is, you 
must make up your mind to come to see us when we get fixed, for it 
will never do for you not to come to see your little brother, as I dare 
say he still seems to you to be. . . 

And ten days ago Mr. Broadus and I went to Richmond and spent 
Sunday in the pleasant household of Mr. James Thomas. So you 
see we are great travelers, though we do not go very great distances 
from home. 

In strawberry season I am to go to Aunt Maria Rives' to stay ten 
days, and if I can get the strawberries to last, I want to wait until 
the first of June, as Mr. Broadus will be absent a week at that time, 
attending the June meetings. I should be glad for Mr. Broadus to 
go about in the country some now as he does not look very well, 
although his health is better than it usually is at this time of the year, 
but he cannot spare time enough to do him any good. I hope, how- 
ever, he will have time and opportunity this summer to recruit and 
gather strength for the labors of next year. 

J. A. B. to MRS. MARIA C. BROADUS: 

BALTIMORE, May 14, 1853 : I live a month every day, though 
yesterday was a very sickish and sleepy day. I came very near 
making a speech about gvoing this morning, but did not, and am 
glad ; I don't think it would be in good taste for me to speak in so 
august a body. 1 . . 

1 Session of the Southern Baptist Convention. 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY IOQ 

I am to preach to-morrow morning at the High Street Baptist 
Church. I suppose there is some curiosity to hear a young man 
who bears a highly honored name, but it is Wilson's doings that one 
so young should be among the ten preachers selected. I am trying 
to think only of speaking the truth and doing good. I have deter- 
mined to take the sermon you heard when we came in from Parish's, 
" My ways are not your ways," etc. 

FREDERICKSBURG, Saturday morning, June 4, 1853 : I reached 
here last Thursday afternoon, 4^ o'clock. Preached 1 that night in 
the Presbyterian church, the Baptist church being small, to some 
twelve hundred people. The sermon was about middling ; 1 believe 
it is well spoken of. . . 

I know that I am exciting expectations, to meet which will require 
more effort than I have ever made before. Besides, I know that 
I am grievously prone to overestimate men's opinion of me and 
lamentably inclined to be vain when I ought to be humble. Pray 
for me, Maria, that a little applause may not be permitted to turn my 
weak head and bewitch my silly heart in that I may remember my 
nothingness and my entire dependence for all true success on the 
Divine blessing, and that more than anything else I may carry back 
an increased desire to labor for the conversion of men to Christ. 

WM. F. BROADDUS 2 to J. A. B. : 

MOWINGTON, June 14, 1853 : On the last day of last week I left 
home for a short trip, and was gone three days. Your name was in 
the mouth of more than one friend with whom I met, most of whom, 
by the way, had both seen you and heard your voice more than once, 
while the hosts of the Lord were at the June Feast. I will tell you 
some things that were said of you. I have not time to tell you all 
that I heard said of you, for much of our talk was of you, and to 
write it all would take more space than this sheet would give and 
take more time than I can now spare for you. I will give you what 
two friends said, and their words may serve to point out to you what 
you told me you had a wish to know that is, what those who heard 
you preach and teach from the word of God thought of your style 
and your mode. 

I shall give you first the mind of a man who for twelve years has 
had a place in the ranks of those who preach the word, and whose 
mind is strong and thought by those who know him to be of a high 

1 Before the Virginia Baptist Foreign Mission Society Text, Matt ig : ao 
* W. F. Broaddus often amused himself by writing letters In words of one syllable, 



1 10 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

grade. In short, he is a man whose words would have great weight 
with all who know him. He heard you "preach" and "speak," 
and he thinks your whole mode the best he has met with in all his 
life. He says you teach just what ought to be taught, and in just 
such a way as he thinks it ought to be taught, and he would give all 
of this world's goodsand he has quite a large stock of wealth if he 
could preach as you preach. And then he said, that he hoped that 
all the young men who heaid you would think of you as he did and 
would try to shape their course by yours. But now, lest what you 
have just read should lift you up too much, I must tell you what one 
said who does not think of you just as the friend does whose words 
you have just read. This man too is of those who "preach the 
word." He made his first speech in the " desk " one year ere I made 
my first, and from that time till now has been in the field. He is a 
good man and has done good for the cause of Christ, though I must 
own that he has not spent much time with books, nor had much care 
to store his mind with what great men have said of God's word and 
ways. I took my chief meal with him on the last day of last week, 
and as we sat at meat, he spoke of you. Said he : " What he said 
was good, but how strange that a young man so well taught in ah 
that the books can teach should use a style so much like that of a 
mere child. You ought," said he, " to tell him of it, and put him in 
mind that one who knows so much ought to use a style more high, 
a style that fits such thoughts as he deals out to those who hear 
him." I had hard work to keep back a smile at these words. I 
thought how strange that one so long at work in Christ's cause 
should wish to have the truth set forth in words of high sound. 

It was not alone as a preacher that John A. Broadus 
had grown during these two years. He was assistant 
instructor of ancient languages in the University and 
lived with Doctor Harrison. The room in West Lawn is 
still pointed out where the young teacher corrected Greek 
and Latin exercises. As a teacher he took steady hold, 
winning the respect and confidence of his pupils. His 
young colleague, Prof. F. H. Smith, would hear students 
speak of his clearness in teaching. Professor Peters, 
though not in his class, sometimes attended junior Greek 
under him. He found that the men had confidence in 
his scholarship second only to that of Doctor Harrison. 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY in 

Dr. George B. Taylor, a member of his Greek class, 
says : 

His teaching traits then were, a purpose to excel in his work, a 
thirst for learning for its own sake, a desire for usefulness, and fine 
tact. He would sometimes send me a note inviting me to his study 
on the lawn, and I have now before me a clear picture of him as he 
would be at his table covered with lexicons and other books of refer- 
ence, a shade over the lamp and one over his eyes, intense serious- 
ness in his face, in a word the typical hard student. He already had 
the stoop of the man who sits much at the desk, and when in repose, 
his face seemed almost sad. There was much to do, for besides the 
preparation of two sermons for Sunday and other pastoral duties, 
there was the getting ready to meet his classes and the drudgery of 
correcting not less than a hundred exercises every week. Besides all 
this, he was constantly adding to his knowledge and laying broad 
and deep the foundations for the future. Specially was he at work 
on New Testament Greek, bringing to it his thorough acquaintance 
with classic Greek and using all the best helps. He said to me at 
that time, " Though I may not become an authority, yet I wish to be 
able for myself to form an independent judgment on all questions of 
New Testament interpretation." As yet not many books were on his 
shelves, but he was already beginning to gather a first-rate library, 
getting ready the tools he needed and only the best. In the class- 
room he simply followed the traditions of the University, rigidly 
questioning and insisting on exactly correct answers, correcting mis- 
takes, yet using the utmost politeness to every student, no matter how 
idle or dull. His dignified mien prevented disorder, and his keen wit 
would have quelled it had it appeared. Any slight annoyance he 
would abate by a playful, sub-acid remark. l 

Mr. Broadus took a keen interest in the life of the 
students and had intimate personal relations with many 
of them, taking walks with one or another. Prof. 
Thomas Hume, of the University of North Carolina, re- 
calls how, on one of these walks along the Chesapeake 
and Ohio railroad track, he urged him to consider if 
preaching were not his duty. 

Dr. C. H. Toy, in a private letter, says : 

1 Sketch of John A. Broadus, from new volume of " Virginia Baptist Ministers " 



112 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

When I went to the University of Virginia, in 1852, he was tutoi 
in Greek, and was regarded as an admirable Greek scholar. He 
was very kind to me personally (I had a letter of introduction to him), 
but he left the University before I entered the school of ancient lan- 
guages, and I did not at that time come under his teaching. His 
acceptance of the charge of the Charlottesville Baptist Church was 
greatly regretted in University circles ; it was belkved that if he had 
remained there as teacher he would have become an eminent Greek r 
scholar (and, as it happened, this is what he did become). 

The burden of teaching and preaching had become too 
great and Mr. Broadus was not willing to give up his 
ministerial work. So he moved down to Charlottesville 
as a full-fledged pastor. 

WM. F. BROADDUS to J. A. B. : 

FLEETWOOD ACADEMY, June 27, 1853 : I hope you are arrang- 
ing to be at our camp meeting in Culpeper. Do you know who 
wrote " Phoenix " in the " Herald " ? It is supposed in all this region 
that you wrote it. 

J. A. B. to MRS. MARIA C. BROADUS : 

BREMO, August 8, 1853 : We reached Bro. Jones' before eight 
o'clock Saturday night, having traveled thirty-three miles in less than 
seven hours. I was tired, but got a pretty good night's rest. The 
meeting at the Fluvanna Church was still going on yesterday, but 
we had at the Brick 1 a great crowdvery many not getting in. I 
preached in the morning from the parable of the Sower, but was 
greatly "hampered," and made a poor affair of it. In the after- 
noon, from the Publican's Prayer, with more feeling than usual, a 
good deal of interest. Four persons knelt for prayer, and several others 
told us at the close of deep feeling. The prospect is very encouraging. 

Read a very pretty little story, last evening, by the author of " A 
Trap to Catch a Sunbeam," which made me think much of you, of 
your manifestly growing affection for your husband, and, I trust, your 
growing happiness. Sometimes there comes over me a dreamy hope 
that the day may be when I shall be less unworthy of my dear wife's 
love. 

STAUNTON, August 22, 1853 : Till the breakfast bell, I can write. 
The details of my trip thus far I will give in a subsequent letter. I 

i Fork Union. 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 113 

have enjoyed it ; preached tolerably well on Friday ; was elected 
moderator of the Association, and have got through pretty well. 
Stayed one night with A. L. Nelson. Yesterday morning I preached 
at the standimmense crowdcame m afternoon to Staunton, and 
preached by arrangement in the Presbyterian church. A little too 
much distinction and lionizing. Oh, for the meek and lowly spirit 
of him in whose name I labor. 

J. A. B. to MISS CORNELIA TALIAFERRO : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, September 5, 1853: Your letter of August 4 
arrived while 1 was with Brother Whitescarver, at his church in Flu- 
vanna, in a meeting of days. We had large congregations, the 
house crowded even on week days, and a good state of feeling 
among the people. Some of them were rather disposed at first to be 
boisterous, but before we left there was much of that solemn stillness 
in which I so much delight. Some seven or eight persons professed 
conversion during our stay, and I hope much good was done that 
only the future will make manifest. That meeting and the one at 
Blue Run, 1 1 look back upon as two of the most pleasant seasons of 
my religious life. I trust I have to some extent found it true in the 
spiritual sense, that '* he that watereth shall be watered also himself." 
Our kind Father will not fail to bless to our own growth in grace 
and comfort of love, any sincere effort, however feeble, which we 
make to promote his glory in the conversion of sinners ; and this 
blessing may be realized, not only by the preacher in the pulpit, but 
by every Christian in private efforts to do good to individuals. 

A few days after I returned from Fluvanna and received your letter, 
I set out again to attend a meeting of the Albemarle Baptist Associa- 
tion, held in the county of Augusta. A Baptist Association is com- 
posed of delegates from the churches in a given district of country, 
who voluntarily associate themselves for the purpose. At these 
meetings, commonly consisting of four delegates from each church, 
letters are read, stating the progress of the several churches during 
the past twelve months and their present condition and prospect, with 
statistics. Reports are also made by standing committees, which are 
expected to embody facts and arguments concerning the great 
benevolent operations of the day ; and any other matters acted upon 
that are requisite and allowable. The Association has no control 
over the churches, being simply an advisory body. Every church 
we consider a government within itself, and all other organizations 

1 In Orange County. The meeting: was in July, 1853. 
H 



114 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

for religious purposes must be voluntary and without any authority 
to rule the churches. Such is the form of church government which 
we think the New Testament sanctions. 

I hope that in enlarged acquaintance with the Scriptures, and 
growing interest in the progress of our Redeemer's kingdom, at 
home and abroad, you may find benefit and enjoyment. Let me 
recommend you to keep near the simple, fundamental truths of the 
gospel ; you a sinner, and Christ the sole and sufficient Saviour. 
My text yesterday morning is a passage well worth bearing m mind, 
" When I am weak, then am I strong " (2 Cor. 12 : 10). Let con- 
scious weakness make you watchful, and make you prayerfully take 
hold upon the Divine strength. You may find the saying true in 
many respects, but especially as regards Christian steadfastness and 
Christian usefulness. . . 

Please present me with respectful and kindest regards to all your 
friends whose acquaintance it was my privilege to make. I remem- 
ber my visit to Barboursville with exceeding pleasure, and shall be 
very glad if I am ever able to repeat it. 

MISS CORNELIA TALIAFERRO to J. A. B. : 

BARBOURSVILLE, Sept. 29, 1853 : I received your kind and in- 
structive letter a few weeks since and was truly obliged to you for it. 
I was glad to have a clearer idea given me of our church organiza- 
tion, for though not entirely ignorant, still I had but a vague idea 
given me of it. . . 

The entire disposal which I have of my own time I consider a great 
cause for gratitude, but at the same time it is a most important talent 
intrusted to me, and I do feel most sincerely desirous to use it in a 
manner which will conduce most to the honor and glory of the good 
Giver. I think I cannot be mistaken in devoting a large portion of my 
time in the study of his will as made known to man m the Bible, 
For a year past I have felt the want of a fuller commentary than the 
one I have, and thought of getting Scott's, but I would like to know 
whose you prefer. I would be obliged to you for any hints that you 
would think useful to me in my efforts to acquire a knowledge of the 
Scriptures. I wish to attain a clear understanding on my own account 
and then as an aid in my endeavors to benefit others. 

The sermon note-book shows this entry for Sept. 25 : 

Address to the church on commencing my labors as exclusively a 
pastor. 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 115 
J. A. B. to W. A. WHITESCARVER : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA., Oct. 3, 1853 : Thanks to sawing wood 
every morning, my health is improving. 

In the " Religious Herald " for Oct. 6, 1853, John A. 
Broadus appears in an article entitled " Obey your Par- 
ents " and signed A. This brief article is worth pre- 
serving, since it shows how rapidly the two years at 
Charlottesville and the University have matured his 
thought and style. Here we see the same elements 
that characterized him in after years : 

OBEY YOUR PARENTS. 

In talking, the other day, to the children of our Sunday-school, it 
occurred to me to put together several reasons why they ought to 
obey their parents. They are not new reasons, but they are very 
good ones ; and it may be that thinking of them, all together, may 
incite some young reader to do what is thus urged. 

1. Itisnght m itself. The apostle says (Eph. 6 : i) : " Children, 
obey your parents in the Lord ; for this is right." Surely that ought 
to be reason enough, if there was no other at all. But 

2. It is your interest. This is the first " commandment with prom- 
ise." Obey your parents, honor your father and mother, that it 
may be well with thee and thou mayest live long on the earth. 
Often this is literally fulfilled ; and alas ! very often children shorten 
their days by not obeying either they meet with some fatal accident 
through ignorance or recklessness, or else they sow the seed of some 
disease, or form some pernicious habit, which afterward brings them 
to an unhappy and untimely death. 

3. You have the best possible example for it. You remember that 
this is Jesus himself, who "was subject unto" his parents. And 
observe this Jesus was wiser than they were ; nay, though only 
twelve years old at the time referred to, he had just proved himself 
wiser than the great teachers, the learned men at Jerusalem. Some 
boys and girls think themselves wiser than their parents, especially 
if they happen to be learning something at school that their father 
and mother never had an opportunity to study. But here Jesus, who 
really did know more than his parents, was still subject unto them. 

4. If you do not, you will be sorry for it. You will be sorry in 
many ways one way is this : If you ever live to stand by your 



Il6 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

father's or your mother's grave, or stand, as I have stood, where both 
sleep side by side, and remember any time when you gave them pain 
by disobedience, oh, then you will mourn most bitterly ! It will be 
too late then, however you might desire it, to ask their pardon. Do 
not run the risk of ever knowing an hour of such keen agonysuch 
bitter sorrow. 

Consider now, whether these are not good reasons ; and determine 
that you will be sure to " obey your parents." 

J. A. B. to MRS. MARIA C. BROADUS : 

FREDERICKSBURG, Monday morning, Nov. 7, 1853 : I reached 
home at eleven o'clock Saturday morning. On the cars I had a fine 
opportunity to stare at General Scott, of which I availed myself with 
great satisfaction. He was talking, part of the time, with some lively 
young ladies, so as to put off his accustomed frown, and he was 
then in my eyes a man of most magnificent appearance. How mar- 
velous is our admiration of military greatness ! I have no respect 
for that man as a politician, but remembering Lundy's Lane and 
the battlefields of Mexico, and gazing upon his truly commanding 
form, I honor him, and account it a privilege to see him. You 
remember, though, that I have seen very few of the noted men of 
our times. There were various acquaintances on board, John Wash- 
ington, Andrew S. Broaddus, of Caroline, young Doggett, the 
Methodist preacher, etc. . . 

Yesterday morning the church was quite full, and some went away 
for lack of seats. I preached from the Publican's Prayer with toler- 
able success The congregation has been somewhat prepared for this 
meeting, there being a general looking forward to it, and so at the 
very first sermon there was not only excellent attention but much 
feeling many wept. Last night I preached again, from Col. i : 28. 
The house was crowded and overflowing. The sermon was rather 
languid, and certainly one of the most commonplace that even I have 
ever preached ; in fact, I somehow felt no disposition to rise above a 
mere unpretending repetition of what they have been hearing from 
their childhood. (As we were returning, Uncle William and I, we 
heard two young men discussing the sermon ; one of them was 
greatly disappointed, he had expected to " hear something eloquent,'* 
the other was insisting that it was very fitly done). It is needful to 
be cautious about the special application of such a belief, but I am 
inclined to believe that the strong inclination I felt to speak in such 
a style was to a certain extent of the Lord. I have prayed that great 
good might be done at this meeting, and done as far as possible in 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 117 

such a way, that I might be unable to take the credit of it, m any 
degree to myself. . . I soon perceived that many in the congrega- 
tion were deeply moved, and as I spoke of Jesus the Saviour, the all- 
sufficient, the loving, the only Saviour, and warned them not to re- 
ject him, not to put off, warned them to flee the wrath to come, many 
wept ; strong men, they say, and near to the door where the atmos- 
phere is often so chill, were weeping like children. And yet what I 
was saying did not move my own heart, and would hardly have 
kept my people at home in their seats. Seven persons came forward 
for prayer. I suppose twenty or thirty might have been induced, by 
much persuasion, to come, but my uncle thought proper (and I be- 
lieve very wisely) to refrain from any great effort just then. 

FREDERICKSBURG, Friday, Nov. n, 1853: . . The enclosed 
notice will surprise you. 1 received the invitation the day I arrived, 
but did not think of appearing until some future time. Yesterday, 
they l came to me, representing that they were anxious to commence 
their series of lectures speedily, and desiring me to address them 
before leaving. They said all would appreciate the difficulty of doing 
myself justice under the cncumstances, etc., and Uncle William and 
Bagby advised that I should undertake it. Uncle William himself 
is to be one of their lecturers, and I suppose McPhail, John R. 
Thompson, R H. Garnett, W. Pope Dabney have consented to 
come during the season. So it is a respectable concern. Indeed, it 
troubles me that I must appear, for the first time, to deliver a lecture 
with a fee for admittance, and have only parts of three days to pre- 
pare. I shall go away by the train Monday night, so as still to get 
home Tuesday. 

I thought yesterday I would treat this theme, " Simplicity of 
Speech." I can hit at pedantry, at the doctors and lawyers and 
preachers and teachers, and the young ladies too can talk about the 
English language, Anglo Saxon, etc., and languages in general. 
Don't know what I shall make of it. 

J. A. B. to MISS CORNELIA TALIAFERRO : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA,,DCC. 5, 1853: . . With your permis- 
sion, I will recur in a future letter to the special subject of reading 
the Bible. The subject is, I confess, a very favorite one with me, 
perhaps some would say my hobby. 

With regard to your colonization scheme, I have only time to say 
that I heartily approve the general idea of colonization, and that i 

1 The Young Men's Society. 



Il8 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

should be disposed to favor the plan you speak of with reference to 
your own slaves. If you will give me, as you mention, further 
details concerning them, I shall take pleasure in stating my opinion 
with all the freedom that is inspired by your kind confidence. 

I trust you are still making some progress in personal piety. May 
the Lord make you faithful and useful, and thus happy. 

The valuable book you sent me, and which was duly received, 
could hardly have been equaled in acceptableness. I had been regret- 
ting, upon reading notices of it, that I could not afford to procure it. 

Mr. Broadus was very active in mission endeavor. 
At the June meetings in 1853 he had reported for the 
church five hundred and forty dollars for various mission 
causes. This was more than the pastor's salary. The 
book shows also that he himself gave more than one- 
tenth of his income. He opened his pulpit and his heart 
to the denominational agents. He speaks as follows of 
the secretary of the Foreign Board : 

Doctor Taylor's method of collecting was of the fertilizing sort. 
He left the people more fnendly to him and his cause after giving, so 
that next time they would give more cheerfully, if not more largely. 
Two or three times I wrote and asked him to come when it was time 
to collect for missions, because I knew the effect would be good. 1 

The series of lectures upon Paul turned out so well 
that Mr* Broadus wished to go further in that line. From 
the first of October, 1853, to the end of June, 1854, the 
note-book presents a remarkable course of week-night 
lectures. He was free from University work now, and 
threw his whole nature into the work at Charlottesville. 
This suggestive list of topics is worth the pastor's peru- 
sal who has trouble with his prayer meetings. This 
series crowded the house week by week. 

Family Prayer, Reading (two), Profanity, Self-government, The 
Woman of Canaan, Enoch, Noah and the Deluge, Lot and the De- 
struction of Sodom and Gomorrah, Abraham, Balaam, The Entrance 
into Canaan and the Destruction of Jericho, Caleb (with a sketch of 
1 " life and Times of James B. Taylor," p. 347. 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 119 

the intermediate history), The Earlier Judges, Samson, Micah's 
Establishment and the Destruction of the Benjamites, Ruth, Samuel, 
Eli, The Ark, Saul, David (nine lectures: Earlier History; Till his 
Flight to Ramah ; to the Wilderness of Maon ; to the Death of Saul ; to 
the Removal of the Ark to Zion ; to the Establishment of Mephibosheth 
at Court ; to the Commencement of Absalom's Rebellion ; Absalom's 
Rebellion and the Restoration ; to the Close of his Life), Andrew Fuller's 
Life and Writings, Robert Hall's Life and Writings, Solomon (five 
lectures : to Marriage with Egyptian Princess and Canticles ; The 
Temple ; Fortifying and Commerce and Queen of Sheba ; Book of 
Proverbs ; Solomon's Shame, and Last Years and Ecclesiastes), Habit, 
Popular Amusements, Church History (thirteen lectures : Introduc- 
tory; to Reign of Hadrian 117; Justin Martyr and his Times; 
Irenaeus and Hippolytus and the Catacombs ; Tertullian and Church 
Life and Worship; Origen and Leading Heresies; Cyprian and Church 
Constitution ; Constantine the Great ; Julian the Apostate ; Asceti- 
cism and Monkery ; Chrysostom ; Augustine and Jerome ; Mahomet). 

Vigorous work and robust reading had preceded this 
course of prayer-meeting studies. 

J. A. B. to MRS. MARIA C. BROADUS : 

PETERSBURG, Friday, February 17, 1854, Columbia Hotel: After 
supper got into a room, and attempted to think over the speech ; 
kept me walking the floor till 10.30 o'clock. Then, tired, excited, and 
with my cold increasing, I tried to sleep, but it was near midnight 
before the bustle ceased, and then I slept fitfully. The room had 
been a very short time in use, and unless I greatly mistake, the 
sheets were slightly damp. I awoke this morning half-past five, 
quite hoarse and with some sore throat. For breakfast, some 
wretched biscuits, and strong coffee without cream. I nibbled and 

sipped a " li' bit." Reached here at nine o'clock. Mr. G 's carriage 

in waiting. After dressing found their breakfast just ready, and ate. 
Mr. J. Y. G. is unexpectedly detained in Richmond ; coming over 

this afternoon. Mr. and Mrs. G seem to be among the excellent of 

the earth ; they have been very kind and every way considerate, 

Mrs. G made me a mixture of egg and sugar, with a little brandy, 

which is helping my hoarseness a little. I have been to the library ; 
the room is exceedingly neat and tasteful, and must be pleasant to 
speak in. They have no books on languages. 1 I don't know that 

1 Lectured before Petersburg Library Association on the study of language. 



120 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

they ought to have. There have been some half-a-dozen lecturers, 
Van Zandt, Bishop Atkinson, T. V. Moore, John R. Thompson, 
don't remember the balance. I am scared, terribly. Am not myself, 
from loss of sleep and cold; fear my subject won't take, but I 
believe what I shall say, and shall speak con amore^ if with no other 
merit. They have always had good audiences, and it will be a 
pleasant night. 

J. A. B. in MISS M. M.'S ALBUM : 

April 20, 1854 : The four years which I spent, Miss Mary, so neat 
to your own home, will soon have been equaled by the years elapsed 
since my student life was ended. Yet I look back upon that life with 
feelings that have scarcely lost any of their freshness. I remember 
many pleasant meetings, many a lively talk, many a time when, on 
the eve of some difficult examination, 1 would " go to see the ladies " 
as a finishing touch to my preparation. I cannot think of those days 
but there come thronging memories of kindly words and friendly 
deeds on the part of yourself and all the others of your family, the 
living and the departed. I cherish toward you all a feeling of grate- 
ful regard which I am conscious of having poorly manifested, and 
to which words could give no fit expression. May you long live, 
Miss Mary, to laugh away the glooms of many another friend ; yea, 
to bless more highly still ; for earnest and serious as well as cheerful, 
combining knowledge of religious truth with a hearty and humble 
love of the truth, may it be your privilege by your character and life 
to present to all who know you that pleasing picture, the bright side 
of religion. 

J. A. B. to MRS. MARIA C. BROADUS : 

EXCHANGE HOTEL, RICHMOND, VA., June 2, 1854 : Our meet- 
ings l have been quite interesting. 

Uncle William has been quite unwell, and made a bad failure 
last night on foreign missions. He won laurels, however, this 
morning, by a very able speech on the proposed female institute. 

I was asked to speak this morning in the Bible Society, and at 
short notice concluded to try it ; did only tolerably well. , . Took 
tea yesterday in company with Mrs. Alexander, who was my near 
neighbor in Clarke ; have seen also one of my old scholars, James 
Allen, now a delegate to the Association. Mrs. Alexander was won- 
derfully friendly. 

1 June meetings. 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 121 

Some members of the Second Church (Dr. Ho well's) expressed a 
wish that I should preach there Sunday. Howell therefore insisted, 
and though I spoke of Hoge's invitation, Howell overruled it in the 
committee, and I am to preach at Second Church Sunday morning. 
Had a special application also to preach at Centenary Church. 
Happily for me, the committee have all the responsibility of assign- 
ing and arranging. 

1 During his [J. A. B's.] pastorate at Charlottesville was organ- 
ized, largely under his influence, the Albemarle Female Institute, the 
very first school, so far as I know, to put the English language on 
a footing of parity with the ancient classics and the cultured tongues 
of modern Europe. More of credit for this bold innovation is, per- 
haps, due to the principal, Prof. John Hart, and his assistant, 
Crawford H. Toy ; but it was made not without consultation with 
the president of the trustees. 

The "bold innovation " was not consummated till 
1857. This "branch in collegiate education [study of 
English] owes him a large debt." 

Mrs. L. L. Hamilton writes as follows : 

Whilst a pupil at the Albemarle Female Institute, I boarded with 
a Presbyterian family ; but through the courtesy of Doctor Broadus 
was able to attend the night services held at my own church. 

The Baptist parsonage was not quite a block away from my 
boarding house and Doctor Broadus would come for me " ram, hail, or 
shine." One Sunday night, a violent storm came on an hour before 
services. It simply poured down, the streets looked like running 
streams. 

Every one in the house abandoned the idea of going out to preach- 
ing that night. Soon the door-bell rang Doctor B stood on the 

porch under a big umbrella, and in a cheery tone called out, " Well, 

L , are your ready? It is pretty bad ; but I think we can make 

it." The church was only a short block away, we reached it with- 
out any material damage, and found a waiting congregation of 
three persons John Hart, Alec. P. Abell, and Louisa Soweli ; I am 
now the only one left of the five that were present that night. 

I thought of course our good pastor would give us a " prayer- 
meeting talk," sing a hymn and go out ; but no, when he entered 

1 Prof. H. H. Harris In " Religious Herald," March 21, 1895 



122 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

the pulpit, a momentary expression of amusement flitted over his 
countenance as he gazed on the empty pews. Mr. Hart and I sat 
just in front of the pulpit, and the other two brethren in the " amen 
corners." 

The services began as usual you can well imagine that the 
quartette were not able to render very fine music, but we did the 
best we could. Then came a grand sermon. Doctor Broadus 
preached with as much pathos and power as if thousands were lis- 
tening to his impassioned utterances, After it was over he came 
down and said smilingly, " I have a very attentive congregation." 
Some one said, " We would have been satisfied with a little talk, 
you should have saved that fine sermon for a big crowd." He re- 
plied : " The few who braved the storm to hear me, deserved the 
best I had. I really enjoyed preaching to you, for I knew you 
wanted to hear me." 

Another friend writes : 

There was a magical influence in his sympathy with the young 
people of the community. They remembered and repeated his say- 
ings, and they sought his advice with a love and confidence little 
short of adoration. Perhaps in Charlottesville his greatest influence 
was with them. The boys and girls still at school he stimulated to 
nobler effort, frequently by an incidental remark from the pulpit, upon 
the importance of their work, or with a tender word touching upon 
their difficulties and the way to rise above them. He created an 
eagerness for learning and love of truth which led them to buy and 
diligently read any book he named. 

Many a delightful volume would he recommend with an aside re- 
mark in his sermon, or more often in the Wednesday night lecture, 
which the young men and women might otherwise never have 
known, and enjoyed, and woven into the very texture of their being. 
When any were tossed like the troubled sea, and groping after 
religious light and peace, he seemed gifted in his preaching with a 
clairvoyance which knew all that was in their minds ; and with a 
wondrous aptness, clearness, and fullness, he guided their yearning 
hearts to the Fountain of life, and there was given unto them ** the 
garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness." 

The following essay, from which we make a few ex- 
tracts, was written before John A. Broadus was twenty- 
eight years old, and forms an interesting study as the 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 123 

basis of his " Preparation and Delivery of Sermons," 
written sixteen years later. The essay was published 
in the " Religious Herald/' Dec. 14, 1854, In a note to 
the editor, J. A. B. said : 

The following essay was read, by appointment, before some 
brethren, who proposed that it should be published m the " Herald." 

ESSAY ON THE BEST MODE OF PREPARING AND DELIVERING 

SERMONS. 

The subject is one of such compass and complexity that we can- 
not expect to investigate it in general, and propose to deal -simply 
with its practical aspects. We make only one or two preliminary 
remarks. 

A sermon becomes such only in the act of delivery. Whatever 
mode of preparing be adopted, it is not strictly a sermon, but merely 
the preparation, until it is delivered. The proper design of a sermon 
is to produce its effect as delivered. The subsequent printing such 
a discourse to read, however legitimate and useful, is a matter inci- 
dental and additional. We must inquire, then, what method is cal- 
culated to produce the greatest and most lasting effect upon those 
who hear the sermon delivered ? 

Again. In consulting the taste of our auditors, we are apt to re- 
gard too exclusively the preferences of the cultivated few. It is true 
they exercise no little influence upon the many ; yet while the people 
at large may be induced thereby to acquiesce in some particular 
method, it may still continue devoid of the power greatly to interest 
or impress them. 

Yet, another remark must be, that we can only expect to decide 
on some mode as generally best ; for there may often be something 
peculiar in the subject, the occasion, the character of the audience, 
or the speaker himself, necessitating the adoption of a method which 
commonly might not be preferable. Besides, there is no method 
which has not been adopted by some men with very great success. 
It follows that we must not look too much at particular examples, 
but inquire what is best for men m general. 

The modes of preparation and delivery, commonly employed, are: 
To write and read ; to write and repeat from memory ; and to speak 
extemporaneously. (We use this last term because it is comprehen- 
sive, although aware of its great ambiguity.) 

We shall endeavor to point out, in few words, some of the advan- 
tages and disadvantages of these several methods. . . 



124 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

We come now to the third method, to speak extemporaneously. This 
does not mean to extemporize the thinking, nor even that the choice 
of language shall of necessity be all left to the moment of delivery. 
Many who speak in this way not only elaborate the thought before- 
hand, but select the terms where there is difficulty in making the 
selection ; and, in some cases, arrange a sentence, as in the state 
ment of their subject in a definition, or wherever there is need of 
special accuracy. We include under this head all those methods 
which do not involve writing out just what it is proposed to read or 
say, whether the preparation be made with or without writing down 
thoughts and whether the delivery be with or without notes. 

Among the numerous advantages of this method, we may name 
the following : It accustoms a man to think rapidly and trains the 
mind to work for itself, without such entire dependence upon out- 
ward helps. It enables him to spend his strength chiefly upon the 
more difficult parts of the subject. When he is pressed for time, as 
with the numerous engagements of a modern pastor will often be 
the case, he can get more thought into his sermon than if all the 
little time he has must be spent in hurriedly writing down what 
comes uppermost into mind. In such cases the choice must be be- 
tween extemporizing the language when the thought has been elabo- 
rated, and taking the thought extempore in order to prepare the lan- 
guage. Indeed, the general question between this and the former 
methods would seem to be, which deserves greater attention, power 
of thought or precision and prettiness of expression? Many times 
an audience listens with every indication of pleasure to a discourse 
whose smooth and flowing sentences contain no truly valuable 
thought, while it would be more profitable, even if less pleasing to 
some, had it contained but a single thought of value, though less 
elegantly and accurately expressed. Shall we seek to tickle men's 
ears or to touch their hearts? And, besides the advantage of being 
able to use an idea which may occur at the time, and to turn to ac- 
count particular circumstances, it is often desirable for a preacher to 
speak at a moment's warning. A talented minister is sometimes 
unable to make a little speech in a temperance meeting, or the like, 
because he is used to writing out beforehand whatever he says. 
Certainly this disqualification does not in all cases exist, but such is 
the natural tendency, and such, to a very considerable extent, the 
frequent result. In delivery, the advantages of speaking extempo- 
raneously are not only numerous and great, but so obvious as to 
need no detail. 
The disadvantages seem to be these : There is a tendency to in- 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 125 

crease indolence, as one's facility of fluent speaking increases ; but 
the tendency may surely be resisted. There is difficulty in fixing 
the mind when preparing ; but this is largely remedied by making 
notes. This sermon, if used again, requires renewed preparation ; 
but, then, it can be much more easily adapted to the new circum- 
stances. One cannot quote so largely from Scriptures, or from the 
writings of others, prose and poetry ; but, passages which the 
preacher has remembered are more likely to be remembered by his 
hearers. The success of the sermon is largely dependent upon the 
preacher's feelings at the time of delivery ; but he will oftener gain 
than lose by this. There is danger of wearisome repetition ; for the 
speaker may lose the slight trace of his previous imperfect think- 
ings, and then circling around to find it, may strike in behind where 
he left off. This is too often the case ; but only where there has 
been inadequate preparation. 

It is worthy of especial remark, that the disadvantages attendant 
upon speaking extemporaneously can all be obviated by sufficient effort, 
while in the other methods there are many inherent disadvantages 
which may be lessened, but are in great measure twavoidable. . . But, 
if the different topics and subdivisions, details and illustrations, are 
arranged according to their natural sequence and connection, there 
need be little anxiety about recalling, for each point will suggest 
what is to follow. Thus too, the necessity of putting things to- 
gether so that they can be remembered, will compel a man to find 
out the true relations and natural order of his thoughts, when he 
might otherwise shrink from the task. Instead of presenting a 
meie conglomeration of ideas, it is better if we be forced to have 
them in solution in the mind, that so they may crystallize according 
to their own law. There may be exceptions in peculiar subjects ; 
but, in general, a discourse which cannot easily be remembered has 
been ill arranged, and details which do not readily present them- 
selves were better omitted. For it is not everything that can be con- 
nected with the subject, but only what naturally belongs to it, that 
will contribute to the actual effect. 

This, then, is the plan we recommend : to think over the subject 
with all possible thoroughness, arranging its topics in the most 
natural order ; to fix it in the mind, running over the arrangement 
till the whole is familiar ; then going without paper into the pulpit 
to stand up and speak. 

J. B. JETER to J. A. B. : 
RICHMOND, Jan. 29, 1855 : After due consideration, I have de- 



126 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

clined accepting the chaplaincy of the University. I know nothing 
that would be more pleasing to me than the prospect of spending two 
sessions in a place recommended by so many advantages. I need 
not state the considerations which have prevailed to prevent me from 
enjoying this pleasure. They have fully satisfied my mind, but not 
all the minds of all my friends. It is important that the post should 
be well filled. . . 

I still think thai you are the man, if any arrangements for supply- 
ing your church can be made, best suited for the place. 

I am gratified that my work on Campbellism meets your appro- 
bation. It has been generally commended. Its reception at Bethany 
1 have not yet learned. The Reformeis here have received it very 
quietly. But when the keynote is sounded at Bethany, they will, I 
presume, all strike vociferously into the same tone. I am really 
anxious to learn what ground the Reformer will take in regard to it. 

J. A. B. to S. MAUPIN : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, March 23, 1855 : I received your letter of $d 
inst, announcing my election as chaplain. After long and anxious 
deliberation, I have determined to accept the office. Amid the fears 
with which one must look forward to the duties of so responsible a 
position, it is pleasant to think of the opportunity it will afford me 
for a freer, and, if that were possible, a more friendly intercourse 
with the members of the faculty and their families. 

J. A. B. to W. A. WHITESCARVER : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, March 26, 1855 : It has indeed been a long 
time since we had any direct communication ; and it is now a week 
since I received your letter. For three weeks past I have had great 
anxiety and distress of mind. The faculty required me (by an elec- 
tion) to decide whether I should be chaplain. Bro. J. B. Taylor 
(Jeter has been doing so for a year) urged, when here in February, 
that I should be chaplain, and retain my pastorate, procuring an 
associate to preach Sundays. I took it into consideration ; became 
satisfied that this plan would not answer, for the chaplaincy or for 
me, even if for the church ; and then had to decide whether simply 
to go or stay. Brother Taylor and Uncle William urged me to 
accept. Brother and Abell were neutral. I did not write to you, 
because expecting to be obliged to decide before I could receive an 
answer ; various brethren of the church said they thought upon the 
whole I would better do it ; and so, at the communion yesterday, I 
announced that at the close of September I should resign, in order to 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 127 

be chaplain. It was obliged to be known in college at once, and 
indeed it had gone out in town that the thing was proposed, so I 
thought it best to state the fact, and my reasons. The church has 
not yet decided whether they will seek a " supply " or a new pastor 
it is hard to say which it is best for them to do. 

It has cost me (and does still) much bitterness and grief ; but it 
seems to be needful. It will be an injury to the church, but some 
church had to lose its pastor. I shall gam nothing to myself, except 
having more time for study and for careful preparation, no weeK 
services, and three months' vacation ; and I greatly need time for 
general religious and other reading. I have tried to do right the 
Rubicon is passed ; the Lord bless my dear people and my remain- 
ing labors among them, and strengthen me for the duties of a most 
responsible and trying position. Our children are rapidly recovering, 

J. A. B. to MRS. MARIA C. BROADUS : 

WILMINGTON, N. C., Tuesday morning, 6.30 o'clock, May 8, 
1855 : We have been here an hour (in twenty hours had come three 
hundred miles), have been to hotel and got breakfast, and now are 
waiting on a little steamer that will cross presently the Cape Fear. 

The Richmond men all left yesterday morning. Dickinson and I, 
and L. W. Allen, the Goshen " bishop," are together. We hope to 
reach Montgomery in the forenoon of Thursday. 

ATLANTA, Wednesday evening, May 9, 1855 : Allen and Dickin- 
son are somewhat amused at my frequent " bulletins." This takes 
my last envelope. 

I forgot to put in Notes of Sermons. Have been trying to-day to 
call up a sermon, in case I should be bidden to preach. It isn't prob- 
able, and I hope it will not be. 1 I'll tell you all about what I see that 
is interesting, when I return yes, I actually will ; for I was affected 
to-day by reading of a lawyer's wife, who complained that her hus- 
band was so busy, and when at home so tired, that he never took 
time to talk to her and pursue the studies together for which they 
both had a taste, and her life was lonely. I believe I have done 
wrong, even while meaning to do right. 

MRS. MARIA C. BROADUS to MRS. BICKERS : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, June n, 1855 : I am sure that you feel anx- 
ious to hear particularly how we enjoyed the June 8 meetings, and I 

1 He did preach In Methodist church, Montgomery, from Heb. a : a. Southern 
Baptist Convention. 
a The new church In Charlottes vl He was ready In time. 



128 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

shall have abundance to say on that subject, as I have my head full 
of all its occurrences. . . We had staying with us Cousin Andrew 
Broaddus, Rev. H. W. Dodge, Rev. Mr. Watkins, of Richmond, 
Miss Leftwich, and Miss Hatcher, from Bedford County. Doctor 
Gwathmey, of Richmond, stayed with us while he was here, and ma 
stayed two nights. You will wonder how we managed to accommo- 
date so many in our small house. 1 had a bedstead and trundle-bed 
for the ladies. A bedstead and a bed on the floor for the gentlemen, 
a lounge m a small room for another gentleman, and a pallet m Mr. 
Broadus' study for us. The children I put in their mammy's room. 
Doctor Gwathmey and mamma were not here the same nights, so 

that we had plenty of room, as Mr. B could then occupy his place 

and mamma stayed with me. I dreaded having so many persons to 
provide for, being entirely without experience in such matters, but I 
had no difficulty whatever. Mamma, l with her accustomed kindness, 
helped me a great deal, and one day and night when I was quite in- 
disposed, almost sick, she came and did all my work for me. 1 do 
not believe there ever was a better person on the earth than she is. I 
feel that I love her most sincerely, and surely she deserves my love. 
I had a good many presents for the meeting. There came in from 
the country one morning two dozen chickens, twelve dozen eggs, 
several pounds of butter, and a fine ham and bacon, all from one 
family, and that, one with which I have but little acquaintance. 
Another friend sent me a gallon of milk every day and several 
pounds of butter, another a turkey, and another some preserves. 
Truly my heart swells with gratitude in recounting these acts of 
kindness, which although intended for the supply of others besides 
myself, still showed a degree of consideration which is not always 
manifested. I suppose you have seen some account of the meetings. 
I was not present at them all, but found them interesting whenever I 
was present. You would have been gratified to see the favor with 
which a speech of Mr. Broadus was received. I felt more proud of 
him than ever before, and am sure it would have done your heart 
good to see your brother the object of so much admiration. I am so 
much afraid of seeming foolishly proud of Mr. Broadus that I don't 
know that I have done right to say all this. But you feel too 
lively an interest in all that pertains to him for me to fear your dis- 
approbation. It must be a pleasure to you to know that he possesses 
influence, and that it is all for good and not for evil. . . 
I don't yet know what our plans for the summer will be* I want 

1 Mrs. Somerville Broadus. 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 129 

to go to Culpeper, especially to see you in your new house, but I 
can't tell yet. Mr. Broadus is to deliver an address before the young 
ladies of the Richmond Female Institute, on the yth of this month- 
then at the Buckingham Female Institute some time in July, and the 
first Sunday in July he will preach the dedication sermon of the new 
church at Cedar Run in Culpeper. I don't know how many other 
engagements he may have for the summer, but I think he will be 
quite busy just now preparing for what he has already on hand. 

Lida and Annie are both well and hearty. To see Lida, one would 
hardly imagine she had ever been sick, and Annie has improved 
greatly since she got all her teeth. I don't think she is as pretty as 
when a, very young baby, but she is thought to be very much 
like Mr. Broadus, and that will make her good-looking enough. 

J. A. B. to W. A. WHITESCARVER : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, June 18, 1855 : I will try to get the plan of 
our belfry it is horribly ugly, I think, but de gustibus. Besides, no 
belfry ever was pretty. 

The church have determined, and I have agreed, that I shall con- 
tinue to be pastor, but be released, by resolution, from all obligation 
to perform pulpit or pastoral duty for two years from Oct. i, next 
and that they will employ an associate pastor. I stated (in writing) 
that I " confidently calculate " on resuming official duties at the end 
of two years, but could not pledge myself since that would be to 
forestall Providence. 

Jas. B. Taylor suggested the plan, before he left. Doctors Cabell, 
McGuffey, and Harrison approved it. I am not certain that it is 
best, but it seems so, and it is done. Unanimous vote in the (large) 
church meeting but two or three persons secretly dissatisfied. I 
stated distinctly that I did not ask the church to do it, nor recom- 
mend it ; I was willing to make such an arrangement, if the church 
thought it desirable ; and they must decide. 

They tried Geo. B. Taylor, for associate, but he was already en- 
gaged to go to Baltimore. Committee appointed have not yet sug- 
gested another most are in favor of Dickinson, as I am ; but we 
shall not get unanimity upon anything or anybody. A time of pas- 
toral selection is a time when the bonds of the church bundle are un- 
loosed, and all the crooked sticks begin to roll about and show their 
crookedness. If we can just get them well tied up again, they will 
lie still. 

All this, of course, between you and me. I am in no little trouble 
for the church. I have tried to do right, with more purity of motives, 



130 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

I think, thanj often attain. May God direct, or overrule, the whole 
matter to his glory ! 

I regret to have had so little time to talk with you during the meet- 
ingsfeel like I hadn't seen you at all. I remember nothing very 
distinctly except that I several times made a convenience of you, 
but my hands were too full then, for any use. 

I wish we could be together some days again when shall it be? 

Rumor says you will be married. 1 I do not inquire whether it is 
so, but simply claim a sort of right, if ever it should happen, to be 
the parson and you must let me know a good while beforehand. 

J. A. B. to MRS. MARIA C. BROADUS : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, Monday night, July 9, 1855 : Preached yes- 
terday with rather poor success, Mr. Meade had a cold, large con- 
gregation in the morning, respectable at night. Have been run very 
hard to-day with a multitude of little matters, and am completely 
broken down. It's a distressing thing to be counted a smart young 
man, and have to be going about speechifying when one is tired 
beyond endurance. And then to come home Friday night, and have 
to preach twice on Sunday. Well, a stout heart, and old sermons, 
can conquer many difficulties. 

When I get home, and hear from you, and see how matters are 
going, I can decide whether to come over next week after you. If 
you wish to stay till the week following, write it at once, that I may 
know upon returning. 

2 1 knew him first and best at Charlottesville in the life of his first 
wife, who was Maria Harrison, daughter of the great Doctor Harri- 
son. He was then pastor of the Charlottesville Baptist Church, and 
near the close of 1855 became chaplain of the University of Virginia. 
He was then about twenty-eight or twenty-nine years of age. 
The Presbyterian pastor, J. Henry Smith, D. D., long pastor at 
Greensboro, N. C. (still alive 5 and well), was seven or eight years 
older. With these two men the writer, smartly their junior, had 
most delightful friendly and brotherly intercourse, and from them 
derived much beneficial information and stimulation. The kindness 
and courteous friendliness of those days extended to these days of 
old age with us all, though I have met Doctor Broadus but seldom 
in many years. 

1 Mr. Whitescarver was married in the autumn to Miss Sallie Perkins. 

8 Rev. Paul Wtntehead in " Richmond Christian Advocate/* March at, 1895. 

1 Now deceased. 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 131 

During those happy times at Charlottesville a Literary-Theologi- 
cal Club was formed, which, besides those named, embraced such 
men as James C. Southall, Dr. William Dinwiddie, Bishop Latane, 
the Davises ( Eugene and Dabney ), Judge Egbert Watson, Mr. Frank 
Carr, Mr. Hardm Massie. All too soon it was dissolved by losses 
and changes of residence. 

RICHMOND, VA., Tuesday, i o'clock : Heard Thackeray last night 
interesting affair, many fire-crackers of wit, a most unjust account 
of the personages introduced, because he must needs be satirical, and 
the most miserably bad reading I ever heard or dreamed of. I like 
his books, and I went, as every body else does, only to see Thack* 
eray. 

J. A. B. to W. A. WHITESCARVER : 

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, Feb. 4, 1856 : Your letter reached me 
in ten days after its date, which is doing very well for these snowy 
times. We were sorry you couldn't come at Christmas, but of course 
it was impracticable, Who ever saw such a spell of weather as from 
that time to this? They are trying to get up a S. S. Convention of 
Albemarle Association churches, to be held in Charlottesville in 
April ; may we not count on the visit then? 

I don't think of anything in our recent doings or sufferings here 
that is particularly worth reporting. The Christmas holiday appears 
to have destroyed all special seriousness in college, as I feared it 
would. I can find no heart to hope now for any general revival dur- 
ing this session. Yet, oh, if it might be so ! I know of some eight 
students who have professed conversion during the session ; three in 
connection with the Baptist meetings ; three with the Presbyterians ; 
and two without any special* influences. I have taken great pains to 
ascertain the exact number of religious students, which has never 
been done before. Thus far, I know of about ninety-five (it will 
probably reach one hundred) distributed, as nearly as I recollect, 
(the list not being before me) as follows : Baptists, thirty-six ; Pres- 
byterians, twenty^seven; Methodists, eighteen ; Episcopal, ten ; other 
denominations, four. 

I expected, when I determined to come here, to do much study in 
general. Thus far, I have done hardly anything. 

Samson's lectures in Charlottesville were very interesting, but 
poorly attended. The weather was bad, and Thackeray was here 
at the same time. The church is, so far as I can judge, doing very 
well. 



132 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

J. A. B. to MRS. MARIA C. BROADUS: 

STRASBURG, April 29, 1856 : I reached here at 12.30 all right. 
Should like to write a good deal, but the General Division meets 
again at 7 30, and I haven't time. They hadn't many on hand this 
morning, and as folks here dine early, they concluded to wait for me. 
I got through the afternoon session well enough. My report will 
not produce any bad feeling or excite any opposition indeed, I 
think the majority of those in attendance would quite agree with 
me. I shall have to make a speech to-morrow or the next day ; tried 
to think about it coming up this morning, and shall try again to-mor- 
row morning. Can't do much, but may find some things to say. 
Mingling with temperance men naturally excites more interest in the 
subject than common, and this place is greatly in need of such effort. 
Coming up this morning, I passed a familiar spot. In a gorge of 
the mountains, between the Blue Ridge and the Shenandoah, there is 
a little rocky stream winding along for two or three miles, till the 
ravine widens into a narrow plain, and the stream enters the river. 
A bridle path, almost impassable for wheels, runs along beside and 
often across the stream, to the ford of the river. It was my road 
from Culpeper to Clarke. Many a time, in company and alone, I 
rode up or down that ravine, counting how often we crossed the 
stream (I never could determine whether it was seventeen or eighteen 
times), fording the river, two hundred yards wide, with a timidity I 
could never fully overcome ; very sad, as drawing a lengthening 
chain when I was going away from home, mother, sisters, and with 
a painful longing when going the other way, to be at the long jour- 
ney's end. Many wandering thoughts would pass across my mind 
as I journeyed there alone, many wild dreams in that wild spot, of 
education, of competence, of reputation, which I never dared to hope 
could be realized. To-day I found, by inquiry, that we should pass 
the spot, and looked eagerly as we passed one mountain gorge after 
another, till I saw the turn of the well-remembered path and stream, 
and presently the opening vale, and in the distance a reach of the 
river, gleaming in the sun. My heart swelled with an emotion 
rarely felt ; the thoughts of years long passed came trooping back 
the ambitious but despairing dreams of youth were remembered as if 
I had just waked from the dreaming ; and Maria ! I thought, and 
tried to be grateful, that Providence has done almost more for me 
than I dreamed. Educational advantages, such as I then did not 
think of, pecuniary means which then would have seemed to me 
fortune, reputation, more than I deserve or can support a loved wife, 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY If 3 3 

whose excellencies grow greater and whose faults grow less, not only 
in my eyes but in fact, with each advancing year, and dear little 
children to twine their arms about me and tell how much they love 
me what is there that I have not in sufficient measure to make me 
happy and grateful? 

Pray for me, dear wife, that my soul may prosper, and that I may 
be useful. 



CHAPTER VIII 
CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY CONTINUED 

For he was ours. How, happily surrounded, 
Each favoring hour revealed his lofty mind ; 

How sometimes grace and cheerfulness abounded, 
In mutual talk with earnestness combined ; 

And sometimes daring thought, with power unbounded 
Life's deepest sense and highest plan divined, 

AH in rich fruits of act and counsel shown, 

This have we oft enjoyed, experienced, known. 

Goetbe. tr. by James Freeman Clarke. 

J. A. B. to MISS CORNELIA TALIAFERRO : 

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, May 19, 1856 : I have not found the 
position of Chaplain so favorable for general study as I had hoped. 
To preach twice every Sunday, where one must be thoroughly 
practical and yet must have some freshness in the modes of pre- 
senting truth, demands much time for preparation. Visiting, not 
only in the resident families, but among the students, might be pur- 
sued without limit, and is here, not less than in ordinary congrega- 
tions, an important means of usefulness. And then, besides a good 
deal of work upon committees, boards, etc., I have found it impos- 
sible to avoid giving a considerable amount of attention to the inter- 
ests of the church in Charlottesville, which under the very active 
and zealous labors of Brother Dickinson, is still in a remarkably 
flourishing condition. 

My labors at the University have not been attended, thus far, 
with any very manifest and decided results. I often feel inclined to 
great despondency, especially of late. I try to hope that what I 
have cast upon the waters will come again after many days, but it 
is very hard to be hopeful and zealous where no fruit appears. The 
two great difficulties or rather trials about a position like this, are : 
That nobody expects immediate results, and that there is no organ- 
ized body of believers. Many Christians there are, among faculty 
and students, who feel a lively interest in the Chaplain's efforts, but 
there can be little unity of action and of feeling, not only because of 
134 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 135 

denominational differences, but because their association with each 
other is temporary. 

Yet I really enjoy my position, with all its trials, for there are 
peculiar pleasures too. I humbly hope that, if spared, the Lord may 
bless my labors during next session more abundantly. 

Mr. Broadus had been appointed to deliver the address 
before the Society of Alumni of the University of Vir- 
ginia on June 25 . He chose as his subject, ' Education in 
Athens." The publication of the address was called for 
by the Society, and it was issued at their expense. This 
address appears in his volume of "Sermons and Ad- 
dresses." Its closing sentence is a noble appeal : 

But it is in the power of us all, so to cherish the spirit of letters, 
so to prove the value of the training here received, that this noble 
institution, which made us proud and happy in younger years by 
the bestowal of her unrivaled honors, may at least to some extent 
receive honor in return from the achievements of our ripened man- 
hood and our advancing age. 

J. A. B. to MRS. MARIA C. BROADUS : 

BATH CO , Aug. 2, 1856 . . . Ascending the Warm Spring Moun- 
tain, I saw in a stage window the dusty face of Summerfield Smith, 
I suppose on his way home. The stage was rattling down, and there 
was no time for anything but a smile, a wave of the hand, and a 

shout, and away they went. At the Warm Springs, found E and 

Mrs. L just setting out for the " Red Sweet." He was on the por- 
tico as I walked in (to see Colonel Ward) and our greeting was over- 
whelmingly affectionate. It was a sight to see. My old coat was 
buttoned and pinned up to keep the dust off my vest, and it and the 
ugly pants were covered with dust, face ditto. Suddenly I met the 
bride. A cry of joy friends long parted met again hearty and 
long-continued shake of the hand, impassioned and repeated expres- 
sions of delight, numerous inquiries, as to whence, and when, and 
whither, introduction straightway to three fine ladies with whom she 
had been talking, dusty hat lifted, dusty face wreathed in smiles, 
renewed protestations of delight on both sides sure it was a specta- 
cle. Afterwards, on the road to the Hot Springs, we passed them, 
with two other persons in the coach, who looked like a newly-mar- 
ried pair too. . . 



136 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

At Healing, stopped a moment, went down to the Spring, and met 
Mr. Smith. After I got into the buggy, happened to spy Mary on a 
visit to a cabin hard by. She seemed in fine spirits, expressed her- 
self pleased with the place, and certainly looks better than she has 
done for some years. She had all the glow and freshness of look 
which belonged to her girlhood partly due, doubtless to the anima- 
tion of meeting a friend. 

RICHMOND, 2 o'clock, Friday, Oct. 25, 1856: I went to see 
various people among others the Magills, at Dr. Tucker's. On 
Sunday must preach at First Church in morning, and if anywhere 
will preach at Dr. Jeter's at night. I have long been anxious to go 
to the African church, but can't do it without the risk of having to 
preach ; and three sermons on Sunday would disqualify me for Mon- 
day night. Monday I want to go to the Richmond College for the 
first time. 

Read this morning in W. Gilmore Simms' poetical works his 
tragedy of Herman Maurice. It seems to me to evince not only 
considerable dramatic power, but real poetic talent. Hadn't time to 
read anything else in the volume. 

All insist that if it is a good night I must have a good audience 
Monday. 1 

Lute is very nicely fixed indeed, and they seem quite happy. Ex- 
press great joy at my having to stay. 

Saw the Thomases last night and received a good scolding for 
running away from home. 

FREDERICKSBURG, November 5, 1856: I feel proud of having 
such a wife, who has not only mind and knowledge and character, 
such as 1 am sure will make her in the end a successful teacher, but 
^who will urge her husband to cling to the ministry, though it must 
'keep her in poverty, and even sometimes require, as now, that she 
should toil beyond her strength to eke out the inadequate support. 
Precious wife, my heart bleeds when I think of her fatigues and dis- 
tress, of all her sacrifice and self-denial, met without any affectation 
of heroism, met with all the shrinking of a sensitive and delicate 
woman, not made to stand alone in the world, and yet with all the 
firmness and fortitude of a noble heart. People sometimes speak of 
my making sacrifices in order to preach, but I am apt to think in my 
heart, it is not I, it is my wife that bears the cross. . . 

I made an exhortation at the prayer meeting yesterday afternoon, 

1 Lecture to raise money to improve the parsonage at the University. 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 137 

upon the need of the Spirit to convince the people of sin. Preached 
at night upon i Peter 2 : 7, 8. Did not feel as much tenderness as 
the subject ought to inspire. Oh, that I could myself be deeply 
moved by the preciousness of religion and the perilous condition of 
those who neglect it ! 

FREDERICKSBURG, Thursday, Nov. 6, 1856: I am greatly 
pleased at receiving your letter when we returned from church last 
night, and so just about twenty-four hours from the time you sat 
down to write. You have been getting on better than I expected, 
and I was comforted. . . 

I preached last night the sermon on Pleasure and Pride, Acts 
17 : 18. Very fair congregation, and remarkably good attention. I 
had more '* liberty " than heretofore. One young lady came for- 
ward for prayer it was the first time an invitation had been given. 
Oh, that I could preach to-night with tender interest in the salva- 
tion of those who hear ! . . 

Quite a number of persons have expressed regret that I did not 
bring Mrs. Broadus with me, who seems to be a person of conse- 
quence in their estimation. I have devised the scheme that we shall 
come to the Potomac Association, which meets here early in next 
August. If the Lord will, it may be a pleasant trip. 

FREDERICKSBURG, Nov. 10, 1856 : I am to leave to-night by the 
cars and boat to Alexandria, and thence to Culpeper home on Wed- 
nesday. Several persons have professed conversion, and a few 
others manifest interest. I have written declining Doctor Jeter's in- 
vitation. The Lord bless you all, and help me to preach to-night as 
one that must give account 

ALEXANDRIA, Tuesday morning, Dec. 2, 1856: It is ten o'clock, 
and I am very comfortable in brother's parlor. . . I find, to my in- 
expressible annoyance, that everybody thinks my visit was re- 
quested with at least some view to a possible connection with the 
church. Perfectly conscious, however, of having acted with self- 
respect, and having had no dream of such a thing when I accepted 
the invitation, I am trying to take it quietly. 

PHILADELPHIA, Wednesday, Dec. 3, 1856 : Your letter was ready 
when I got to Mr. Tucker's. Your grandma received me (literally) 
with open arms, and I submitted to the embrace as meekly as pos- 
sible. They are all quite well, Mrs. T being rather better than 

common. . , Mr, T very kindly took me this morning to Doctor 



138 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

Shaw's, who has a fine collection of works of art. I enjoyed it very 

much, though Mr* T could not stay long. Doctor S says 

he was at the University soon after its establishment. 

Afterward, at the Academy of Arts, I had three hours of rare en- 
joyment After dinner, George went with me down to Lee & 
Walker's, and I got two or three pieces of music, which I hoped you 
might find easy enough for your time, and to your taste. George 
didn't know certainly, and we could only go by the composer and 
the looks ; so don't be disappointed if none of them suit you. There 
is a piece by Thaiberg, another by Gottschalk. . . 

I am going to-night to hear Thaiberg, who is giving concerts. 
Have some headache though, and shall not enjoy it so much. 

NEW YORK, Friday, Dec. 5, 1856: It is nine o'clock, A. M., and 
I write in my room, previous to going out again into the streets of 
the great city. I reached here in safety, and have been most kindly 
received. . . Went last night to the St. Nicholas, where I met John 
Clark, then spent a long time at the Dusseldorf Gallery, which I 
must visit again, several paintings of the collection being very beau- 
tiful. Then we strolled up and down Broadway, looking at mag- 
nificent buildings and famous localities and hurrying crowds, till I 
felt that I was indeed in New York. After all, there is some gain 
as well as much loss, in living to mature years before one sees any- 
thing of the great world. The impression is powerful, almost over- 
whelming, but one gains much by the sharpness of the contrast, and 
by comparing the results of his reading and dreaming with things 
as they are. If I had a month to spend here, and you with me, the 
visit might be made very profitable as well as pleasing. 

NEW YORK, Dec. 8, 1856 : Preached in the morning on " Looking 
unto Jesus," and in the afternoon on the " Publican's Prayer." 
Good congregation and very attentive. I suppose, from appearances 
and incidental expressions, that the people were quite well pleased 
with the brother from Virginia. At night, a little prayer-meeting, 
at which I attempted a talk, and bungled it sufficiently. Took tea 
with Doctor Devan, who corresponded with me ; he is a returned 
missionary, a sensible man, and pleasant family. Had considerable 
talk with a Brother Smith, who was there, about slavery. Of 
course I told them the plain truth, as they asked me about the facts 
and the principles of "the institution," the sentiments of Baptist 
ministers in Virginia, including myself, etc. They were not fanat- 
ical folks, and we talked on quite smoothly. 1 . . 

1 He had been invited to supply a few Sundays for the First Church, New York. 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 139 

I am to lecture (that is, preach a week-night sermon) on Tuesday 
night, and Wednesday morning I will start home. 

The chair of ancient languages in the University had 
been divided in 1855, Dr. Harrison retaining the Latin. 
The chair of Greek would have been given to Mr. 
Broadus if he had allowed it. Mrs. Broadus took natural 
pride in the growing power of her husband, who used to 
say that the only time he ever saw her really angry was 
when she was told of some slighting remark by a prom- 
inent teacher. " Just to think of his saying that, when 
he only has his position because my husband wouldn't 
have it." After the war he was offered the professor- 
ship of moral philosophy. Professor Smith says that the 
position of chancellor would have been created and given 
him, if he would have taken it. Nothing was too good 
for him at the University. 

In the beginning of 1857 Mr. Broadus wrote a friend 
that there was much religious interest in the University. 
He had undertaken to write frequently for the " Religious 
Herald," under the signature "X. X." His brother wrote 
to him that the necessity of studying theology without 
going to a seminary had given him a hard time and urged 
him to write books now that he had become something 
of a theologian. How John A. Broadus would have re- 
joiced at the chance to go to a seminary ! At the same 
time Rev. W. D. Thomas wrote of his difficulty in doing 
systematic study in his work in Caroline, and told of the 
books he was reading. 

J, B. JETER to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, April 14, 1857 : I am glad to hear that you are going 
to the Convention. We shall leave here for Washington on Monday 
morning after the first Lord's Day in May. By so doing we shall 
reach Louisville, I learn, on Wednesday evening. The carrying out 
of this arrangement depends, however, on the time of the meeting of 
the theological convention. We are in doubt about the time of its 



140 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

assembling some think the time is not specified others that Tues- 
day previous to the meeting of the Convention is the time. I will 
endeavor to find out. 

I was pleased with your late article. I hope you will mature some 
plan be able to propose some definite course of action. I am so 
lamentably destitute of education, both secular and theological, that 
I can do little more than give my countenance to the enterprise. 

J. A. B. to MRS. MARIA C. BROADUS : 

LOUISVILLE, Monday morning, May n, 1857: The theological 
convention reached a remarkably harmonious conclusion, determin- 
ing to build up an institution at Greenville, S. C. I am one of five 
to report, twelve months hence, a plan of organization of the institu- 
tion. I am glad to be on the committee, though it will be a most 
difficult task, everything for the success and usefulness of the insti- 
tution depending on its system of instruction. 1 

Last night I spoke, with Doctor Burrows and A. M. Poindexter, 
at the great foreign mission meeting at the leading Baptist church. 
Got through tolerably well, better than I had expected. Uncle 
Andrew and some other persons having urged it, I am to preach to- 
night at one of the churches. 

I shall not write again. We expect to leave on Wednesday 
morning, and are thinking of going to Lexington, Ky., instead of 
returning through Indiana and Ohio, so as to get a glimpse of the 
finest country in the United States. We want to stop half a day at 
Harper's Ferry, if possible, and reach home on Saturday. The good 
Lord protect us all, and grant us a happy meeting at home. 

DR. PHILIP SCHAFF to J. A. B. : 

MERCERSBURG, PA., May 30, 1857 : Your favor of May 26, was 
duly received last night, together with a copy of the catalogue of 
your University for the current year, for which please accept my 
thanks . . I always had a desire to see that institution in active 
operation, and intend to visit it as soon as I can make it convenient, 
perhaps in the next year, if God spares my life. I have some slight 
acquaintance with one of the professors (Schele de Vere), not per- 
sonal, but through common friends at Lancaster. I have also an 

1 " See Memoir of Boyce," p. is?/., for account of this important Educational Con- 
vention which really established the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary We 
shall make no attempt to give a formal history of the Seminary. Doctor Broadus 
has done that sufficiently in his " Memoir of Boyce.' ' Doctor Broadus's own relation 
to the Seminary will, of course, be brought out. 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 141 

urgent invitation to attend the examination of the Episcopal Semi- 
nary, at Alexandria, in June next, but I doubt my ability to go there 
this year. 

As to your request. I shall cheerfully send you a catalogue of our 
seminary as soon as it shall make its appearance. . . 

I try to combine in my department the German lecture system 
with the American catechetical method, and always found it to work 
very well with my students. For instance, I lecture four times a 
week on church history, and devote one hour every week to exam- 
ination, recommending the students at the same time to consult be- 
sides their own notes such works as are within their reach. I find, 
upon the whole, that the taking of notes from free lectures is the 
best mode of mental appropriation and digestion, and keeps the at- 
tention more alive than the mechanical use of text-books. The 
lecture system is of course far more laborious to the teacher, but it 
develops his whole strength and energy and imparts to his instruc- 
tion more freshness and vivacity. 

I thank you for your kind sentiments concerning my publications. 
I am now hard at work on a " Manual of Church History/' in three 
volumes, for the use of theological seminaries, and hope to be able 
to send Vol. I. (embracing the first six centuries) to press within 
one year. 

JAMES EDMUNDS and W. B. CALDWELL to J. A. B. : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., June i, 1857 : The undersigned, one a member 
of the Walnut Street Baptist Church, and the other a member of the 
Jefferson Street Baptist Church, both of this city, address you this 
note in a private and confidential way in hope to prepare the way for 
the more public correspondence which we hope will result. The im- 
portance of this city and the vast influence it is destined to exert on 
this great valley are open to all who visit this neighborhood. You 
are aware that one strong Baptist church has been raised up heie 
within the last two years. Our desire and the desire of many lead- 
ing brethren here is to raise up another equal to it. We believe it is 
easier to raise a strong church than a weak one. Our heavenly 
Father is pleased when we ask great things of him. The pastor of 
the Jefferson Street Church has resigned and will leave the first of 
August next. They have a comfortable house on leased ground for 
the next four years. They have selected the best vacant lot m the 
city and have nearly completed a subscription of five thousand five 
hundred dollars to pay for it. This lot has a vestry on it. The 
Walnut Street Church have completed their house and are now en- 



142 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

gaged in assisting to buy the lot with a view of building a good 
house on it for the Jefferson Street Church. The Walnut Street 
brethren feel that it is their work to see now a first-rate church and 
a first-rate house for the Jefferson Street Church. 

Several meetings of the leading brethren of the Walnut Street 
Church with brethren of the Jefferson Street Church have been held 
to consult on the whole movement. The plan is to call such a pastor 
as both churches can cordially sustain in carrying out their plans. 
You are the unanimous choice of all. We wish to begin a corre- 
spondence with you and keep you informed of what we are doing 
and what we hope. Do you ever look toward this great valley, this 
seat of future empire? What do you think of Louisville? Is your 
heart in such a movement as we contemplate? Will you talk with 
us on the subject? Will you write us? . . 

No city in the Union is more healthy than this. Its population is 
steadily increasing. A Baptist population surrounds it. The Bap- 
tists are growing strong here. We think they have it in their 
power to do much for the cause of the Master in this valley. We 
are confident here is a great field for a young man to do a great 
work for the Master. We believe you are the man to do it. 

JAMES P. BOYCE to J. A. B. : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., June i, 1857: I send by this mail a cata- 
logue of the plan of the theological department I arranged at the 
time of my accession here upon the supposition that we would have 
at least two, but never more than three, professors. A great many 
things need to be added for the ordinary instruction as well as for a 
course of higher and of lower study. But I think you can gather 
enough of my ideas here to judge as to our substantial agreement. 

June 3 a petition, signed by forty of the prominent 
students, was handed Mr. Broadus requesting the publi- 
cation of the sermon preached the previous Sunday 
morning. The text was Eph. 3 : 8. The professors urged 
its publication also. So it was published in pamphlet 
form, and can be seen in Broadus's ''Sermons and Ad- 
dresses," under the title of "The Apostle Paul as a 
Preacher." There were many Baptist students at the 
University during these years mainly because of Broadus's 
influence and reputation ; among these can be noticed, 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 143 

H. H. Harris, J. C. Hiden, Thomas Hume (who wrote the 
constitution of the earliest college Y. M. C. A.), J. L. John- 
son, J. M. Harris, Jeter George, J. W. Jones, C. H. Win- 
ston, etc. Broadus made a lasting impress upon the men 
while chaplain. One day at the University, after he was 
no longer chaplain, a very accomplished skeptic from Cal- 
ifornia said : " Where is Broadus ? He is the only man 
who ever affected me about religion." " Tradition 1 still 
tells of those fruitful years, in which the young preacher, 
enriched by the learning of the school, and the spiritual 
experiences of his pastorate, crowded the public hall of 
the University with congregations of listening youth, and 
melted to love and penitence those ingenuous souls." 

While 2 preaching in Texas he [J. A. B.] was informed that a lady 
desired an interview with him. He made an appointment, and she 
came leading a little boy about eleven years of age by her side. She 
soon informed the doctor that her husband, now deceased, was a 
student in the University of Virginia when the preacher was chap- 
lain there that he was awakened and led to Christ by his sermons. 
He was in the habit, before she became acquainted with him, of 
repeating many of the sentences of those sermons in his father's 
family, and when married, he would rehearse to her the thoughts 
that made such a deep impression on his mind. Since his death the 
widow and mother had been teaching the preacher's words to the 
little boy. Doctor Broadus said : " The heart of the preacher might 
well melt in his bosom at the story. To think that your poor words, 
which you yourself had wholly forgotten, which you could never 
have imagined had vitality enough for that, had been repeated 
among strangers, had been repeated by the young man to his 
parents, lepeated by the young widow to the child your poor words 
thus mighty because they were God's truth you were trying to 
speak, and because you had humbly sought God's blessing." 

Mr. Dickinson's work with the Charlottesville Church 
was greatly successful, and he is beloved there to this 
day. He occupied a delicate position, but he made things 

i Prof. Wn>. M. Thornton, In " Alumni Bulletin/ 1 May, 1895. 
8 Nelson B. Jones, In " Baptist Courier," April n, 1895. 



144 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

go. He gave himself largely to pastoral work and there 
was a great revival during his stay with the church, con- 
ducted by Doctor Cornelius Tyree. There were over a 
hundred conversions. Mr. Dickinson was elected Super- 
intendent of Colportage and Sunday-schools for the State. 
When he left in September, the church passed resolu- 
tions of warm appreciation. 

The last of June Rev. Basil Manly wrote to Mr. Broadus 
to know if the committee about the seminary could meet 
in Richmond the last of August. This committee, ap- 
pointed in Louisville, consisted of J. P. Boyce, John A. 
Broadus, B. Manly, Jr., E. T. Winkler, and William Wil- 
liams. In July Mr. Broadus went to the Hot Springs and 
the White Sulphur with his wife, whose health was fail- 
ing, but the first of August he met Boyce and Manly in 
Richmond to formulate plans for the new theological 
seminary set on foot by the educational convention in 
Louisville. Mr. Boyce brought an outline of the "legal 
and practical arrangements," Mr. Manly had drawn the 
"abstract of doctrines and principles " for the professors 
to sign, and Mr. Broadus presented the plan of instruc- 
tion, modeled after the University of Virginia's elective 
system. The other two members of the committee were 
absent. Boyce and Manly were both familiar with the 
curriculum system at Brown, Newton, and Princeton. 
But Broadus was so enthusiastic in his advocacy of the 
elective system that he completely won them over. He 
urged strongly that the success of a new seminary de- 
pended more upon wisdom in the plan of instruction than 
anything else. So, as Mr. Jefferson had drawn a new 
American university, Mr. Broadus drew a new American 
seminary, which had in it adaptability and expansion, 
the possibility of becoming a theological university. 1 

1 See Broadus 's " Memoir of James P. Boyce/' p. 150 / 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 145 

The rest of August was spent with Mrs. Broadus at the 
Salt Sulphur and Red Sweet Springs and in Culpeper. 

J. A. B. to MISS CORNELIA TALI AFERRO: 

WHITE SULPHUR SPRINGS, July 28, 1857: I came to the moun- 
tains for Mrs. B.'s health, which is ladically bad, and enfeebled by 
her teaching during the past session. We stayed a week at the 
Hot, and have been two weeks here. She is just beginning to ex- 
perience some slight improvement here. On to-morrow we leave for 
the Salt Sulphur, which we hope to find still more serviceable. I 
shall have to leave her the last of the week, to meet a committee in 
Richmond for a few days. You doubtless noticed the movement 
to establish a theological seminary at Greenville, S. C. A com- 
mittee of five was appointed to prepare and report a plan of organi- 
zation. Two brethren from South Carolina and one from Georgia 
are to meet Bro. Manly and myself in Richmond, next week, to con- 
sider together what certainly is a very important and very difficult 
question. To provide an institution which shall at once furnish 
thorough and extensive training to those who want it, and a little 
help to those who have desire and preparation for but little, must 
of course be difficult. I hope we shall be able to meet the con- 
ditions of the question by a plan modeled upon that of the Ger- 
man institutions and our University, having independent depart- 
ments, and allowing the student to choose among them according 
to his taste and preparation. In this way too, we may in some 
measure counteract the tendency to formalism, to making men all 
on one pattern, which has so commonly characterized the theologi- 
cal seminaries of the country. 

I should be quite unwilling, if it were possible, to see it required of 
our ministers to have any particular amount of education, general or 
special. If the Baptists and Methodists had done this, as our Pres- 
byterian and Episcopal brethren have done, what would have be- 
come of the great masses of the people in our country? I have 
considerable hope that our proposed institution may be rendered 
attractive to young brethren, and thus have students, the lack of 
which important element has seriously interfered with the success 
of many seminaries. 

I do not apologize for writing about all this to a lady. I know 
you are interested in whatever concerns the increased efficiency of 
our ministry. 

Our Female Institute at Charlottesville has now very encourag- 



146 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A, BROADUS 

ing prospects. It did much more than I had expected, amid all the 
difficulties of a first session. The instruction is more thorough, as 
well as more extensive in each particular subject, than in any other 
female school with which I am acquainted. . . 

1 preached here last Sunday morning, and found pleasure in the 
thought that there is really more piety among those who frequent 
watering-places than a superficial observation leads us to suppose. 
Mere giddiness and folly make themselves so obtrusively promi- 
nent, that one forgets how much quiet piety there may be, pursuing 
the even tenor of its way, and it is delightful to see that many, even 
amid unfavorable associations and surroundings, take the most 
lively interest in the exercises of devotion, and the most practical 
truths of the gospel. . . 

On the first of October, I am to resume pastoral duties in Char- 
lottesville. The brethren have been very kind in purchasing a 
parsonage, which they propose fitting up for us, and which will 
form a very pleasant residence. Mrs. B. is delighted with the 
prospect of having so desirable a home. It is a great work that 
awaits me, and I feel like asking the special prayers of all Chris- 
tians whom I may venture to consider peculiarly my friends that 
I may be strengthened for it, and my labors not be in vain. The 
church is numerous, and there are many young members needing to 
be trained in the habits of piety, as well as many in the congrega- 
tion still unconverted. 

On October 21, Mrs. Broadus died, after only a week's 
illness. The Sunday before Mr. Broadus had preached 
on the "exceeding great and precious promises " (2 Peter 
1:4). He had recently also preached on the habit of 
thankfulness. 1 The Sunday after his wife's death he 
lay prostrate with grief. One of his brethren came, quot- 
ing tenderly the message : " In everything give thanks." 
On November i, Mr. Broadus preached again. His text 
was Matt. 12 : 20: " A bruised reed shall he not break, 
and smoking flax shall he not quench, till he send forth 
judgment unto victory." When Mr. Broadus told his 
wife that she was dying, she said simply : " Well, tell 
me about Jesus." She was not quite twenty -six years 

1 See " Sermons and Addresses." 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 147 

old and left three little girls, Eliza Somerville, Annie 
Harrison, and Maria Louisa, the youngest, about a year 
old. 

G. B. TAYLOR to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, Oct. 26, 1857 : I have wanted just to assure you 
that my heart has sorrowed with yours, and for you, in this the 
season of your sore affliction ; that I have felt afflicted in the sad 
bereavement of my beloved brother, that I have been constantly 
praying that " the God of all comfort" may by his own Spirit com- 
fort you, and cause your baptism of sorrow to be of sanctifying 
efficacy. 

From November 30 to December 10, 1857, Mr. Broadus 
conducted a protracted meeting with the Grace Street 
Church, Richmond, Dr. Jeter's church. Dr. W. E. 
Hatcher was then a student at Richmond College and 
heard him. He says : 

He thrilled the people with immense magnetism. For weeks 
afterwards I found myself saying things like Broadus. He threw 
a matchless spell over people that carried them away. Forty years 
ago people would worship Broadus, as the most wonderful thing you 
ever heard. In his later years you went away melted with tender 
reverence. There was not more intensity of manner in the early 
years, but he emitted power more continuously. He was not so 
pathetic then as later. He never trifled with his feelings. He pre- 
served his emotions fresh and sweet and there were refined piety and 
the emotion of the Holy Spirit. Men imitated him in later life. He 
was an artist. Art and nature were married. He said he never 
dared to preach unless he could spend at least two sober hours in 
immediate preparation. Dr. Jeter could preach with little prepare 
tion. He would beat around a good while, but Broadus always 
pitched right in, gathered force, and grew to the end. 

BASIL MANLY to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., Feb. 15, 1858: Suppose you come down to see 
me the 22d. You know by common consent that day has been 
moved bodily to Richmond, for this time, and it won't be anywhere 
else. So come, and spend it with me. 

To tell the truth, I don't care very much about it being Washing- 



148 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

ton's Birthday, or the statue, or the speechifying, and other demon- 
strations of a noisy character on brass and sheepskin ; but if you 
will come down we can have a chat about our work committed to 
us that creed, schedule of theological studies, etc. I can't go to 
work at it, till I feel I have got it to do ; because there is nearly 
always something else pressing, knocking at the door, pleading, 
" let me in now," " attend to me " ; and so the quiet visitor, who 
can be put off is postponed indefinitely. In short I need the "fire 
coal on my back," and if you will come down, and spend a week 
with me, we can spend the time pleasantly, and do our work besides. 
I heard you were sick recently, I hope you are well again. Let 
me hear from you. 

Mr. Broadus attended the Educational Convention in 
Greenville, S. C., May i, 1858. This Convention for- 
mally established the Southern Baptist Theological Sem- 
inary. 1 Four professors were elected, J. P. Boyce, J. 
A. Broadus, B. Manly, Jr., and E. T. Winkler. The mo- 
mentous question was thus thrust upon Mr. Broadus. 

WM. P. PARISH to J. A. B. : 

VERDANT LAWN, VA., May 8, 1858; I feel deeply grieved to 
learn you entertain the thought of accepting a professorship in the 
Greenville Theological School about to be established m that place. 
It gave me much trouble in my wakeful hours last night, and I can- 
not bring my mind to the conclusion you will leave. In the first 
place if you give up the ministry for a professorship you ought to 
have accepted the one offered at the University, much more satis- 
factory I suppose as far as friends and location etc., are concerned. 
You may say this is a theological school to prepare young ministers 
for preaching. Concede all its friends claim for it, cannot men be 
found to answer well as teachers in the different departments pro- 
posed to be taught competent to the task, who can't hold out in 
preaching, for instance? 

To take valuable ministers from prominent positions to teach 
twenty or thirty young men to become preachers, many of whom 
are made worse by it, and none benefited (as those who have minds 
are tied down to what they learn), is too great a sacrifice. Who are 
the most valuable ministers of our denomination? Certainly not 
those who have received a theological education. Educate men and 

1 Sec Broadus, " Memoir of Boyce," pp 151-153. 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 149 

God will make ministers. You will leave the most important posi- 
tion known to the denomination, and the only minister of my know- 
ing that can reach the young men coming to the University, thus 
sending out an influence beyond anything you can hope for at 
Greenville College, to say nothing of the church in Charlottesville, 
which is much more important. Then here is a female institute, 
which m my humble opinion will do more good than all the theolog- 
ical schools in the United States. 

The Lord may design to remove you for a wise purpose, to teach 
the church they should have no idols and that other ministers may 
be heard with interest. I hope the church and people may, like the 
people of Nineveh, repent m sackcloth and ashes, and that the good 
Lord may avert the calamity likely to befall it. 

A paper was drawn up by a voluntary committee of 
the church, protesting against his leaving. One of the 
arguments used was the following : 

Then as to extent of influence, we doubt whether there shall be 
really any wider field at Greenville than here ; even if it be so, the 
case stands thus : Another man may be found to supply the place at 
Greenville, and the denomination and the cause of truth then lose 
but the difference between the influence for good exercised by such a 
man, and that which we believe would there be exercised by our 
pastor. But take away our pastor. There is left a vacancy which 
we honestly think no other man in the denomination can at all fill. 
His relations in past time and now to the University, give him an 
access to the great mass of mind there, sanctified and unsanctified, 
which no other man in our denomination can have which no other 
pastor in Charlottesville has, or can have, so long as the men remain 
the same. Surely it were great loss to us and Baptists everywhere 
to lose this advantage. We regard this loss inevitable if our pastor 
leaves us. 

We think that he is scarcely at all aware of the amount of good 
he is now doing, how much influence he is now exerting over the 
young men of our own church, in leading them in the way of Chris- 
tian duty, and preparing them for future usefulness. 1 

BASIL MANLY to J. A. B. : 
RICHMOND, May 14, 1858: As we are "fellow-partners," if not 

1 In the light of subsequent history, it is interesting to notice that the names of 
J. Wm. Jones, John Hart, and C. H. Toy were signed to this protest. 



150 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

" in distress," at least in doubt and anxiety as to our duty, I do not 
know that I can more easily concentrate and make clear to myself 
the various considerations which bear upon the decision, than by 
writing to you. I find a pen helps me to think. 

The first thing which strikes me is that a peculiar conjuncture of 
circumstances, not of our seeking or desire, has thrown the burden 
of this enterprise on us. It can hardly be wrong to call them provi- 
dential circumstances. The idea has long been entertained, long 
labored for ; the hope of fulfilling it has given rise to every denom- 
inational college and has engrafted on most of them some special 
teaching looking toward theological instruction : never before has 
there seemed any opportunity at all not to say so promising an 
opening for accomplishing the result ; though our acceptance does 
not indeed assure success, our declining, it seems necessary to con- 
fess, insures failure. Shall it fail ? and shall the disappointment in 
this instance serve as a lasting discouragement, a decisive and un- 
answerable objection to all similar attempts? This is a question for 
you and me. 

In fact it is narrower still. So far as I can see, the real decision 
rests with you. If you decline, I think Pomdexter 1 will. If he and 
you decline, I certainly shall. Then Winkler will feel unwilling to 
leave his church, even if he could otherwise be induced to go, and 
even Boyce, left alone, will feel himself compelled to look rather 
cheerlessly for new associates, men of more self-sacrifice (or I take 
that back what I should have said is, men of more deep convictions 
of the comparative importance of such a seminary), or else he too 
must give up the ship, a grand finale indeed, after all that has been 
said and done. . . 

I hear a great deal here that seems to me mere talk, or at any rate 
mere feeling, not entitled to rank as judgment or advice ; the audacity 
of people is strongly censured who venture thus to rob Virginia, who 
entice away her strongest men, who expect to build up South Caro- 
lina at the expense of the other States, etc. Then there is more of 
objection than I had supposed possible among well-instiucted men, 
to the whole idea of ministerial cultivation. An uneducated minister, 
it is said, has more sympathy with his people ; instruction only lifts 
him up above them, puffs him up, etc. To this I say, jocosely, that 
if the students at the seminary never get more learning than their 
professors, they will never be hurt by the quantity of their learning, 
and more seriously, that the objection goes to the extent of doing 

1 The number of professors was increased to five. 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY IJI 

away with all education, and that we must go back to first principles. 
An educated man can speak plainly, modestly, in sympathy with his 
unlearned hearers, and be " all things to all men." The uninstructed 
man cannot reach his cultivated hearers ; he is debarred from one 
class, and that the more influential ; the other has free access to 
both, etc., etc. 

The effect of all this is rather to make me feel that so strong a 
current of prejudice makes it necessary that those who know better 
should set themselves to correct it. . . 

Monday morning, May 17 : My case is complicated by several 
circumstances which do not apply to you. I have a considerable 
pecuniary investment here which will be rendered comparatively 
valueless by my removal. Besides this, removal to my family is 
necessarily an expensive operation. Again, your influence and open- 
ings for influence are greater than mine, I know, but they are all in 
one direct on, i. e., pastoral care over the church and University stu- 
dents. Mine, though less, works at several points the institute, 
the country churches I have charge of, the Sunday-school and Pub- 
lication Board, with its new feature of extensive colportage opera- 
tions, and the Foreign Mission Board. In all of these, I can say with 
all modesty, my loss would be felt. Besides, there is a kind of gen- 
eral influence with all the city churches arising from my association 
with so many of the young people or their families. . . 

Then some say there will be no students at Greenville, not more 
than twelve or fifteen at the outside; that to take the theological 
students away from Richmond College will be to render to that ex- 
tent useless our expenditure there, and so too, of other States and 
colleges ; that the endowment won't be collected to pay our salaries, 
and that we will have to leave Greenville, starved out, in a year or 
two, both by the lack of money and the lack of anything to do ; 
that a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush, etc. 

Well, I have tried candidly and carefully to look at the subject all 
around ; and I trust I have sincerely and humbly implored divine 
guidance. The present inclination of my judgment is, that I must 
go if the others go. 

It is certain if none go to Greenville except those who are of little 
use where they are, they will be of little use there. None had better 
go, rather than such. Other men might perhaps have been selected 
as well adapted to the post, or better, who could go with less disrup- 
tion of strong ties, less sacrifice of obvious usefulness ; but we were 
selected, after anxious and faithful consideration, by judicious breth- 
ren acquainted with us and our fields, our usefulness and adapta- 



IJ2 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

tions. . . At any rate, the question seems brought to our door, and 
laid at our feet, " So far as you are concerned, shall this seminary live, 
or disgracefully die?" . . 

I have been trying to drink in the full richness of that text, 
"my mother's text," "Acknowledge the Lord in all thy ways, 
and he will direct thy paths." God bless you and guide you, my 
brother. 

J. A. B. to J. P. BOYCE: 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA., May i$, 1858: Reaching home on 
Friday, the yth inst, I spent some days in hearing the leading 
brethren of the church and consulting a few judicious friends. Still 
utterly undecided, I left home on Tuesday, and went to see other 
friends, in Alexandria, Fredencksburg, and Richmond, returning 
yesterday. Feeling the responsibility of the decision, I tried hard to 
consider the question calmly, to exercise my best judgment. After 
more anxiety and difficulty than I ever before experienced, I have at 
length decided that I cannot leave here. If anything I can conceive 
could make me feel it right to leave this post, it would be the Sem- 
inary ; but I could not dare to go away. 

I hope Wmkler, Manly, and Poindexter will all be able to accept 
Probably, if you thought it desirable, P. C. Edwards would help 
temporarily for the first session, say in New Testament Greek. It is 
needless to say that I will heartily do all I can toward getting endow- 
ment in Virginia, and inducing young brethren, from the University 
and elsewhere, to attend the Seminary. 

My people here are in great perturbation, and it is extremely de- 
sirable on several accounts, that my decision should be speedily 
known, but it was proposed that no one of us should commit himself 
to the public without first communicating to the others. Please write 
to me, therefore, at once. I have mentioned my decision to only two 
gentlemen and they will keep my confidence. 

BASIL MANLY to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., May 18, 1858: As to the Seminary at Green- 
ville, I think your dechnature, under the circumstances, is the death- 
blow to it. While I cannot in the smallest degree blame you for your 
decision, I may say that I regret it. I had made up my own mind, 
if you accepted, that I would make an effort to induce Brother Poin- 
dexter's acceptance, and if successful, I would accept. As it is, I 
think it doubtful, exceedingly so, whether he will undertake it. He 
and you declining, I think my duty is clear, so far as I can now see, 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 153 

f. *., not to go to Greenville. What I shall do, I know not. God, I 
trust, will guide me. 

I do not know whether you can reconsider your determination. 
That is not for me to decide. There has been no opportunity, since 
I knew anything about the Baptists, when there was so fair an 
opportunity for a theological seminary as this. There will not proba- 
bly be another for twenty-five years to come if this fails. As I now 
view the matter, it is already de facto a failure so soon as your de- 
cision and its results are known. No more now. God bless you. 

E. T. WINKLER to J. A. B. : 

CHARLESTON, May 26, 1858 : I received your favor and wrote 
an immediate answer to it, which is still lying on my desk. It was 
so indeterminate that I was unwilling to send it. At the time when 
it was written I was inclined to believe that duty required me to leave 
my present field. Now I have been slowly coming to the opposite 
conclusion. The distress of my church has been so extreme, I 
might almost say so extravagant, as to excite my unfeigned aston- 
ishment. . . I think that in justice to them I ought not to go. 

I am sorry to hear, however, that you are not to take charge of 
the Greek professorship at Greenville. From all that I have learned 
and know of you, I am sure that you would be an efficient officer ; 
while your influence in Virginia would also be of great advantage to 
the institution. We need the patronage of your State more than any 
other, both in regard to men and money. 

And yet I cannot blame any pastor who is cultivating his special 
field of labor successfully, when he declines, for any cause what- 
ever, to leave it. The luxury of such a vocation is legitimate. 

MRS. E. L. C. HARRISON to J. A. B. : 

UNIVERSITY, July 30, 1858 : I will endeavor, as well as I can, to 
give you some account of the commencement, although it must 
of necessity be very imperfect, as I did not participate in anything 
that was going on, saving the entertainment of company. 

I had Mr. Lewis Coleman, his wife, Sally Flemming, Miss Mar- 
shall, sister of Mrs. C , and a cousin of hers from Richmond, Miss 

Emily Harvie. All these ladies but Miss Flemming are grand-daugh- 
ters of Chief Justice Marshall, and seem to have inherited much of 
his simplicity of manners and character. I was greatly pleased with 
them all. 

Doctor Hoge gave us a very interesting and able address before 
the Society for Missionary Inquiry, on Sunday night in the hall. 



154 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

The audience was a good one, and I presume were generally very 
well pleased. Our prayer meeting on the 2gth was rather badly 
attended, doubtless owing in a great measure to the students having 
been kept up so very late the three preceding nights. . . 

We had quite a large company of gentlemen yesterday to dine 
with us, among them several old students whom I have not seen 
for a number of years, Hugh Nelson, of Clarke, and Alexander Nel- 
son ; Mr. William Thomas was also a guest. Professor Morrison 
was here, showing very plainly some of the effects of time his 
whitening locks and redundant hair about his face prevented me 
from recognizing him at first. He is the same kind, cordial, unaf- 
fected person he formerly was when a member of our choir. 

Oct. 3 Mr. Broadus pieached at Charlottesville from 
Phil. 3 : 12-14. He has this comment in his sermon 
note book : " The Lord be praised that I have been per- 
mitted to preach once more." It had been six weeks 
since he had preached, because of a violent and depress- 
ing attack of ulcerated sore throat, which threatened to 
destroy all his hopes and plans for life. 

ANDREW BROADDUS to J. A. B : 

WHITE PLAINS, August 26, 1858 : I am very much gratified that 
your visit to my " home" has left "pleasant recollections," and I 
cordially join you in the "hope" that you may "live (often) to re- 
peat it " Whatever may have been the impression you received 
from your visit to my house and to the neighborhood, the impression 
left on us has been of a most agreeable character. My family en- 
joyed your company very much, and " the cousins " generally were 
delighted. Indeed, John A. Broadus is just now the standard of ex- 
cellence by which intellect, scholarship, and preaching talents are 
measured in this region. I understand that shortly after your ser- 
mon at Sparta, two of my members (not "cousins" either, by the 
way) expressed the opinion that Spurgeon could not possibly excel 
you. Now, lest you should be exalted above measure, be pleased to 
remember what Brother Jeter said to Brother Parish, and what you 
were kind enough to apply to me, that "no matter how mean a 
preacher a man may be, there are some people who will think him 
the best preacher in the world." I have written thus far somewhat 
in a strain of badinage, and yet it has been done with literally "an 
aching heart." Pray for me that my life may be spared, and that in 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 155 

any event I may be prepared for the will of God. Oh, I wish I could 
feel more confident of acceptance with God, more reconciled to the 
thought of death, and better prepared to echo the sentiments of Paul, 
" to depart and be with Christ is far better." 

BASIL MANLY to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., Nov. 19, 1858 : I hear there is much religious 
interest at the University. I hope there may be another great re- 
vival there this winter. How is your health now? I heard it was 
not so good. Perhaps God may be preparing the way to cause you 
to enter the theological seminary. If that should be his will I should 
not grieve, for I candidly think that the opportunities for permanent 
and extensive influence there are superior to any other situation in 
the South. I scarcely know another, however, that surpasses, or 
even equals, your present post 

God bless you, and guide us all according to his will. 

J. C. GRANBERRY to J. A. B. : 

WASHINGTON, Dec. 18, 1858 : Your kind letter stirred in me 
pleased and grateful feelings. I am gratified in the persuasion that 
you will feel a lively interest in my chaplaincy, both from your 
friendship toward me, and from your intimate acquaintance with the 
responsibilities belonging to one who exercises his ministry among 
so many young men, now forming their characters and educating 
their minds for positions of influence in the world. 1 count not least 
among the advantages of my chaplaincy, association with yourself, 
not only because your personal traits have called forth my esteem 
and love, but also because I know that your decided preference for 
your own church combines with a large-minded sympathy with your 
fellow-laborers in the gospel of Christ without distinction of name. 
May God abundantly bless you in the important pastoral charge 
you now fill. 

I thank you for your congratulations on my recent marriage, 
hope that congratulations on this event may never be out of date. 

On January^ 1859, Mr. Broadus was married to Miss 
Charlotte Eleanor Sinclair, at Locust Grove Homestead, 
near Charlottesville. Miss Sinclair had been carefully 
educated, amid refined influences, and made for him a 
happy home, ever welcoming his many friends as well 
as sharing in his interests and pursuits of whatever kind, 



156 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

The bridal couple went to New York on a wedding jour- 
ney, amid many congratulations. A large number of 
students sent a signed paper of best wishes. 

CHARLOTTESViLLE, Jan. 25, 1859. 

DEAR BRETHREN : I received this morning, through the hands of 
Bro. G. W. Garrett, your note of 22d inst., together with an exceed- 
ingly beautiful and convenient secretary, at (the desk of) which I am 
now writing. I know not how to thank you as I should wish to do, 
for a gift so elegant in itself and so inexpressibly gratifying as coming 
from young brethren at the University. Among the strongest and 
most endearing ties which bind me to this community is the oppor- 
tunity here enjoyed for doing something for the religious good of the 
students. It is a subject of continual regret that I can accomplish so 
little in the way of personal acquaintance and intercourse, even with 
those who are actually members of Baptist churches. But I look out 
from the pulpit over pew after pew filled with intelligent listeners 
who are University students, and feel a gratitude and joy equaled 
only by the trembling sense of responsibility. There is scarce any- 
thing I more ardently desire than to promote your welfare and enjoy 
your good will. Why should I not be delighted, when, on so inter- 
esting an occasion, you come with so pleasing a token of affectionate 
regard? I thank you. I sincerely wish that you may all be suc- 
cessful in study, be ever surrounded by friends, and in due time ad- 
mitted to the enjoyment of domestic felicity ; and I fervently pray 
that you may be, more and more, every year you live, devoted and 

useful Christians. 

Your friend and brother, 

JOHN A. BROADUS, 

E. S. JOYNES to J. A. B. : 

WILLIAMSBURG, VA., March 6, 1859 : Your accounts and per- 
sonal reminiscences awaken so many associations, and especially 
your question about Germany suggested so many interesting recol 
lections, that I should have to write a long letter to do them justice, 
and would rather even not write of them at all than to do so hastily. 
One thing only I will say, the state of religion in Germany, the 
whole status of the German mind with reference to Christianity, is, 
I believe, very much misunderstood among us. In our popular lan- 
guage, German and mfidel are almost synonymous terms, but the 
truth is not so. A great, a wonderful reaction has taken place in 
the last thirty years, beginning from Schleiermacher, and is now in 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 157 

triumphant progress. The reign of infidelity is over, its days even 
seem to be numbered, and indeed it seems already, even to human 
eyes, to have been a great instrument in the hands of Providence, 
for besides other results, the efforts of infidelity in Germany have 
called forth the greatest and most conclusive works in defense of 
Christianity, the best apologetic literature in Germany itself which 
any age or language has produced. Indeed, this has been, I believe, 
in its widespread influence, the occasion (even unconsciously, may- 
be) of most of those excellent works upon the "evidences" which 
have of late years appeared in our own language, so that it cannot be 
denied that Christianity stands at this day upon higher ground of 
argument and evidence than it ever would have done but for the at- 
tempts to overthrow it in Germany. 

JAMES P. BOYCE to J. A. B. : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., March 29, 1859 : The provisional committee, 
to which was entrusted, among other matters, the nomination of per- 
sons to fill vacancies in the faculty, has resolved to present the 
names of Brother Winkler and yourself, we are assured that we 
cannot make any other nominations that would be acceptable, and 
we beg you to take this into consideration. Have not circumstances 
so changed since your refusal last year as dearly to point this out as 
duty now? 

I would write at length, but I feel that this is a question for your 
own decision. If you are resolved that under no circumstances you 
will accept, please inform us before we make our report. If you will 
accept, please say so ; it will secure Winkler, who hangs off still. 
If you are undecided, please take the matter into serious considera- 
tion. 

J. A. B. to JAMES P. BOYCE : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA., April 4, 1859 : Your letter is before me, 
before me continually. Providence permitting, you shall receive my 
final answer before 2$th inst. Meantime, do not let it be known that 
I am considering the matter. 

I earnestly hope, on various accounts, you may be able to come to 
Richmond. 

JAMES P. BOYCE to J. A. B. : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., April n, 1859 : Forgive me if I seem to 
importune, but I wish to send you an extract from a letter just re- 
ceived from Doctor Manly. Does he not speak truly? I will not 



158 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

breathe a word to any one about your holding the matter under con- 
sideration. "The prospects of the theological school have been 
shaded, at least, by failing to obtain the officers we sought and to 
commence business last fall. The trustees are to hold their first meet- 
ing m Richmond at the time of the approaching anniversaries. 
Make another failure and you will see what will come of it." 

If you cannot fully consent to a lifetime work, try it for a while 
in order to inaugurate the matter. Your simple name will be a tower 
of strength to us ; and, when we are once started, if you find it not 
congenial, you can return to the pastorate. But will it not be con- 
genial to preach Christ daily to the most attentive hearers, knowing 
that you are starting influences to reach every quarter of the globe 
and the hearts of every class of men? What do we need now 
among the Baptists? A number of educated men to aid in forming 
the public sentiment of the churches. In our cities and towns and 
villages we have conservatism, but we have not enough for the 
country ; and behold the radicalism and the demagogism that is 
rife. 

Ought you not to make the sacrifice are you not called by God 
to enter upon this work? If you fail me and Wmkler fail me, I must 
give up, and I fear Winkler will go. My chief hope of getting him 
now is that he looks to you and your coming may move him. Sup- 
pose you write to him. 

J. B. JETER to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, April 6, 1859 * We expect a large meeting at our 
Convention. I have serious fear of trouble. Both parties at Nash- 
ville are moving to secure the endorsement of the Convention. The 
election of Howell to the presidency will be the point of conflict. I 
do not see how we can escape the issue. The Graves party have 
avowed their purpose not to run him for the office, and they will 
stake their own success on the defeat of Howell. It is a pity that we 
should be in such a predicament. I hope the wise ones will be able 
to devise some means of preserving harmony. We have appointed 
meetings for special prayer on behalf of the Convention. Urge 
your people to pray for it. 

J. A. B. to BASIL MANLY : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA., April 21, 1859: Brother Boyce in- 
formed me, three weeks ago, that the provisional committee wished 
to renominate Winkler and myself, if we could agree to accept. I 
have at length, with difficulty and distress, reached a conclusion, 



158 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 




CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 159 

and have written him to-night that I am willing. I have also writ- 
ten to Winkler expressing my anxious desire that he may be able to 
do likewise. 

I heard it whispered in Richmond that a plan was on foot for 
keeping you there. May I earnestly beg that you will suffer noth- 
ing to induce you to do this? You have been regarded as identified 
with the Seminary ; don't forsake it now. It would be simply im- 
possible to fill your place anything like so satisfactorily. It will be 
much easier to find some other man who can do what they are cut- 
ting out for you in Richmond. 

It is evident that the Seminary will have much opposition to con- 
tend with. . . Surely all that is but a reason why we should stand 
up to it. If we can all four take hold, and we live five to ten years, 
I shall hope for good success, do what they may, 

J. A. B. to JAMES P. BOYCE : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA., April 21, 1859 : With much difficulty 

and much distress, I have at length reached a decision. I tremble at 
the responsibility of the thing either way, and hesitate to write 
words which must be irrevocable. But ... if elected, I am willing 
to go. May God graciously direct and bless, and if I have erred in 
judgment, may he overrule, to the glory of his name. 

Jacta est aha. Do not fear that I shall change my mind and, my 
dear Boyce, suffer me to say, that few personal considerations 
about the matter are so attractive to me as the prospect of being as- 
sociated in a great work with you. I rejoice in a warm, mutual 
friendship now, and I trust we shall ere long learn to love each 
other as brothers. Pardon me for just saying what I feel. . . 

Will theie be any money now for the library? I lack many books 
which will be almost indispensable in the beginning, and I cannot 
buy them all myself. Will the Furman University let us have the 
theological part of its library, and if so, can you bring with you to 
Richmond a catalogue of its contents ? 

I shall be sadly, sadly disappointed if you cannot come. I expect 
to leave for Richmond on May 2. If you cannot write in time to 
reach me here before that day, direct to care of Doctor Jeter, Rich- 
mond. 

Let us pray for each other, and across the distance pray together 
for our work. 

J. P. BOYCE to J. A. B. : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., April 26, 1859: Your letter has gladdened 



160 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

my heart. Truly am I grateful to God that he has brought you to 
this decision. Thank you for what you say personal to myself. I 
reciprocate it fully. I have ever esteemed it one of the most pleas- 
ant things connected with the election last year that if it should be 
the one finally made it will bring together four of us who can feel 
like brothers indeed toward each other. What a power have we 
here ! The Lord grant that we may use it as he has given it, for his 
cause. . . * 

As to the matter of books, it was expected from the beginning 
that prior to any purchase of a library, at least five hundred dollars 
should be expended in books, chiefly with a view to text-books. In 
your depaitment the library of the theological department of the Uni- 
versity, which they transfer, is not very rich, unless they will let us 
have the books belonging to Professor Minims' library, which I sup- 
pose they will ; as we have to pay for them, however, it will not be 
of any pecuniary benefit. We can buy them elsewhere as cheap as 
they bought them. But in my own library I have almost every im- 
portant exegetical work of modern date, with many others. You 
will always be welcome to as full a use of my books as myself. 
Could you not make out a list of such books as you wish ? We 
can all put in what text-books we must have for students and, get- 
ting the appropriation from the Board, we will be able to see what 
can be spared. Winkler has a fine library also, nearly as large as 
mine, and I do not think that more than one-fourth of the books are 
duplicates of mine. If he comes, with his and mine together, I think 
we will have about seven thousand volumes. Manly must have fif- 
teen hundred to two thousand, and they are nearly all different from 
Winkler' s and mine, so that we will not be too much dependent upon 
our future purchases until the library of the Seminary is bought. 

WILLIAM WILLIAMS to J. A. B. : 

PENFIELD, GA., May 30, 1859: My appointment 1 by the Board 
at Richmond took me by surprise. I had not expected or thought of 
it. I have taken up some time in making inquiries. I now take the 
first opportunity to inform you of my acceptance. My mind is not 
so clear, however, as I would like it to be, and as it always hereto- 
fore has been, in settling any important question of duty. I hope I 
may not have erred. If a man may ever be sure of the honesty and 
sincerity of his feelings and desires, I think I may say it has been 
my wish to act just as God would have me act, without reference to 

Doctor Winkler had again declined. 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 161 

self. Perhaps longer time might make the matter plainer. I do not 
know that this would be the case, however, and it is due to others 
that I decide, as well as due to myself. 

I thank you for your kind letter and assure you that I reciprocate 
all its kind and friendly expressions. 

J. P. BOYCEtoJ. A. B. : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., June 3, 1859 : We have secured Williams. 
He writes me he will accept. I just take the time to drop you this 
line. I have almost arranged about the house also. I will write you 
more when I fmd that bargain completed. I have heard nothing 
from Dickinson. We must get him [as agent] if possible. Please 
write me at Richmond, care of Dr. A. Z. Coons, if you know 
anything in his way. Do you know any one we can get for three 
other States? Would it be possible, think you, to get your uncle to 
extend his agency outside of Virginia after he has finished there? I 
expect to pass through Richmond on Thursday afternoon next and 
may stay a day, or, at least, a night. 

Professor Broadus's first speech for the Seminary was 
delivered at the Hampton June meetings, 1859, an d re- 
ported for the " Religious Herald " by the speaker. Ob- 
serve that the Seminary had not yet opened its doors, 
and Doctor Broadus speaks as a prophet. We make a 
few extracts : 

The speaker began by narrating an incident lying within his own 
knowledge, not to say experience, and tending to show that a young 
preacher may have enjoyed the best advantages for academical in- 
struction and yet be so ignorant of fundamental matters of doctrine 
as on important occasions to make serious blunders upon the great 
doctrine of " justification by faith." He will speak especially of the 
objection often made to theological seminary instruction He had 
himself, at one time, been strongly opposed to it, and had come to 
believe that his objections were partly unfounded, resulting from 
mere prejudice and lack of information, and partly capable of being 
obviated, at least in large measure, by means of the peculiar ideas 
and methods embraced in the organization of a seminary at Green- 
ville. The introduction of important changes in theological instruc- 
tion was rendered necessary by the peculiar wants, as well as opin- 
ions, of our Baptist ministry. This was ably shown by Professor 
Boyce in an address published two or three years since, which has 

L 



162 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

met with general approbation, and, as the speaker chanced to know, 
had been highly commended by Doctor Wayland, whose opinions 
on this subject have much weight with many brethren. The plan 
of organization, and particularly the plan of instruction of the new 
Seminary, is an attempt to meet the wants indicated in that address, 
and so generally acknowledged as existing. At the same time, it is 
believed by many that such a plan is not only necessary to an insti- 
tution which is to be attractive and useful to young Baptist preach- 
ers, but is greatly preferable to theological seminaries in general, and 
would be found so by all denominations. Even among our Presby- 
terian brethren, whose seminaries have formed a model generally 
adopted, there are indications of dissatisfaction with existing meth- 
ods, as seen in the preference still occasionally expressed by promi- 
nent men for returning to the old plan of private study with a pastor, 
and m the altered, though hardly less objectionable, method adopted 
in their seminary at Danville. 

It ought to be carefully observed that many of the objections made 
among us to a theological education are precisely the same in princi- 
ple as those which were formerly made by some persons to educat- 
ing the ministry at all. The battle has been long ago fought and 
won ; the brethren may be urged to consider how far they are now 
reviving arguments which, in essence and in principle, have been 
already refuted. Particularly is this the case with the argument some- 
times put forward, that brethren preach well who never attended a 
seminary ; so do many who never went to college. . . 

The inevitable effect of this [students subscribing to a creed] must 
be, that the student goes to work, not to find out what the Scriptures 
teach, but to satisfy himself that they teach certain doctrines, which, 
in all their detail, are laid down beforehand. This is the reverse of 
the natural process of inquiry, and must of necessity fetter the mind 
and restrict independence of thought. But in our Seminary the stu- 
dent will not be required, at the beginning or the end, to accept any 
given symbol or doctrine. The professors must accept a brief ab- 
stract of principles, as one safeguard against their teaching heresy ; 
but they are supposed to be men who have already formed their lead- 
ing opinions, who will undertake the professorship only if they can 
concur in these principles, and will therefore not be materially re- 
stricted in their inquiries, while the students will be perfectly at lib- 
erty and constantly encouraged to think for themselves. Add the 
sturdy and indomitable independence which is fostered by all our 
Baptist ideas and institutions, and there does not seem to be much 
danger from this source. 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 163 

The perfect liberty of choice as to which subjects shall be studied 
by each student, and as to the order in which they shall be taken 
up, will tend to promote the spirit of freedom. And a similar effect 
will be produced upon the professors by the independence of the 
schools. They will not be cramped in a certain space, as part of a 
fixed course, but can work freely, each going as far, with any par- 
ticular subject, as he may be able or think proper, and as his class 
are found able to follow. 

Such a system is more likely to be attractive. Young men can go, 
with such preparation as they may have, to study what they may 
prefer, can stay as few or as many sessions as they choose, and can 
get credit, from time to time, for just so much as they have done. 
We have no means of requiring our young brethren if that were, in 
fact, desirable to secure any particular amount of theological train- 
ing. It is well if they can be attracted to come of their own ac- 
cord. . . 

Those who are not acquainted with the learned languages, and 
can therefore study only certain subjects, will not be placed in a po- 
sition of felt inferiority, but in the subjects they do pursue, will be 
in the same classes and every way in the same position with the 
rest. And one who is able to graduate in some schools, and having 
done better than he had hoped, if disposed to remain, can go right 
on to the other schools, almost as well as if he had designed it from 
the beginning. . . 

Much is expected from the arrangement that in the interpretation 
of the Scriptures, Old and New, all will study together, in a sort of 
Bible-class fashion, the English version, there being special classes 
besides for those who know the Hebrew or the Greek. This again 
is made necessary by the peculiar wants of the Baptist ministry, but 
it is believed to be best for all. Students who have given considera- 
ble attention to the original languages will yet find them a very 
muddy medium through which to see the connection and general 
drift of an extended passage. They will gain a far better acquaint- 
ance with the actual teachings of Scripture from a careful study of 
the English, the professor making use of his own knowledge of the 
original, as the commentators do, but adapting his explanations to 
those who know the English alone. Nothing is so important to a 
man who will preach, as to know what is taught in the Bible, as it 
stands upon its own connection. The theory of interpretation too, 
can be best learned through the actual study of Scripture in a 
language which is well known. 

The speaker closed with some personal allusions, designed to ex- 



164 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

press his own high sense of the importance of this enterprise, and 
with the earnest request that brethren would not only contribute 
means and send students to the Seminary, but would often pray for 
the Divine blessing upon those whose privilege it shall be to be con- 
nected with it, that they may be enabled greatly to improve both the 
education and the piety of such as go out from them to preach the 
gospel. 

J. A. B. to W. A. WH1TESCARVER : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, June 17, 1859 : I am in good spirits. Shall 
have much trouble in removing, but hope to meet all with a stout 
heart. Some folks have abused me, but 1 believe they have got 
over it. I am busy with preparatory studies. Must spend my sum- 
mer here. 

A. M. POINDEXTER to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, June 27, 1859 : If you have not been informed, you 
will be, I presume, m due time, that at a recent meeting of the trustees 
of Richmond College you and Manly were doctored. I feel it due to 
you to state that I was not at the meeting and had received no inti- 
mation that such a thing was contemplated. I had not referred to 
your wishes in the matter, and no one knew, I presume, of your ob- 
jections. The thing is done. I regret it, as you do, but it cannot 
now be helped You know the old saying, " What can't be cured 
must be endured." I could not feel satisfied without this explana- 
tion. 

William and Mary College likewise gave Mr. Broadus 
the title of D. D., "in view of your distinguished attain- 
ments as a scholar and divine." 

BASIL MANLY to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., July 14, 1859 - It is time we had published 
something of our plans. I have been waiting for Brother Boyce to 
attend to it, but if we do not look out we shall assemble there with 
as many teachers as scholars. When do you purpose actually start- 
ing, and by what route? Can we not arrange to go together? 

By the way, we seem all to be in rather a bad condition, in public 
estimation. First, the trustees of Richmond and Columbian Col- 
leges think us in so precarious a condition that we must needs be 
"doctored," and then the Greenville editor finds it in his heart to 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 165 

soap us all over in advance, so that I feel somewhat as I suppose 
the rabbit does when the rattlesnake has made him all ready for be- 
ing swallowed. I knew nothing of the plan of our trustees, or, so 
far at least as I was concerned, I should have opposed it. I should 
not have minded their doctoring you so much, but I did not like to 
take the prescription myself. 

J. A. B. to J. P. BOYCE : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA., July 16, 1859: What has become of 
you, that you haven't yet appeared in print about the Seminary ? 
Has the weight of Columbian College honors crushed you? . . 
But however ail that may be, hurry up, my dear fellow, whatever 
you are going to publish, so that the Seminary course may take 
a more distinct form in the eyes of the people, or else, I am con- 
siderably afraid, there will be four doctors of divinity met together 
on the first of October, to teach each other ; which operation might 
be serviceable enough, if it should not prove too much like the op- 
posite sides of an empty stomach digesting each other. 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA., July 23, 1859 : Yours of the 2oth just 
received. My wife and I thank you most heartily for your kindness 
about the house. I am compelled to remain here as pastor till Sept. 
i, and I had been thinking to have a week or two with my friends 
in another part of the State, and go to Greenville after Sept. isth ; 
but I now feel inclined to go earlier in that month. It will be pleas- 
ant, and in various ways useful, if we could be there all together 
for a few weeks before the session opens. Obliged to keep up my 
home here to last of August. I have been unable to send furniture 
by vessel which has just left Richmond, and fear there will not be 
another when I want it. But all that can be arranged some way. 
... As to pleasing everybody, I suppose it must be our lot, the 
balance of our lives, to have various persons all the time finding 
fault with us. There are people in abundance who don't mean to 
be pleased with anything we can do. Still, I grow daily more en- 
thusiastic about our enterprise. If the Lord spare and bless us for 
a few years, I am sure it will appear, even to many who now doubt, 
that we are doing a great work. It is costing me severe sacrifices ; 
but they are nothing compared with the self-denying labor you have 
bestowed on it. In either case, no doubt, we have far more remain- 
ing to bear as well as to do ; but we shall not labor in vain, for surely 
it is the Lord's work. 



166 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A, BROADUS 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, August 28, 1859. 

To the Charlottesmlk 'Baptist Church : 

BELOVED BRETHREN AND SISTERS : I beg leave now formally 
to carry out the design which was some time ago intimated to you, of 
resigning the pastoral care of the church. In so doing I desire to put 
upon record the statement that I should not have been willing to 
leave here to become pastor of any other church whatsoever, or to 
be professor in any other institution than the Theological Seminary 
to which I am going. 

At the close of this pastoral connection of eight years, I call upon 
you to join me in giving thanks to God for the measure of success 
which has attended our joint labors, for the marked prosperity of the 
church we love. Dear brethren and sisters, it is not hopeless toil to 
work for our Master's cause. Let us try to be far more diligent and 
prayerful, and thus we may hope to be far more useful in the time 
to come. 

I am unable to express my feelings of gratitude for all your kind- 
ness and of affectionate interest in your welfare, as a church, as 
families, and as individuals. I trust you will always look with 
charitable indulgence upon my faults of character, and failures in 
duty. I have little fear of being personally forgotten here, but I 
especially ask that you will not forget the truth I have preached 
among you, but will seek to profit hereafter by the labors which are 
now ended ; so " that I may rejoice in the day of Christ, that I have 
not run in vain, neither labored in vain." 

And now, brethren and sisters, with a heart that overflows with 
love to you all, " I commend you to God, and to the word of his 
grace, which is able to build you up, and to give you an inheritance 
among all them which are sanctified." May your future pastors be 
more faithful and successful than I have been. May you all be 
richly blessed, in the Sunday-school, in the prayer meetings, in your 
private efforts to do good, in your families, and your own hearts ! 
Such is, and while life lasts shall be, the prayer of, 
Your brother in the Lord, 

JOHN A. BROADUS. 

Dr. Broadus preached his farewell sermon to the Char- 
lottesville Church from Philippians 2 : 12-16, He gave 
a summary of his work since September, 1851. He had 
preached in these eight years seven hundred and sixty- 
one sermons, a hundred and twenty-two being at the 



CHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE UNIVERSITY 167 

University, two hundred and eighteen at other places, 
and four hundred and twenty-one at Charlottesville. 
There had been two hundred and forty-one baptized, 
one hundred and twelve of these being colored. Much 
of the addition to the church-membership was while Mr. 
Dickinson was associate pastor. Some lines of sadness' 
were written on his leaving, " Leave us not, man of 
prayer." 

The ties which bound him to the University at Charlottesville 
were not easily sundered. It had been the home of his early man- 
hood, the nursery of his intellect, the arena of his first forensic tri- 
umphs. He loved the blue hills amid which her classic buildings 
are set, the billowy undulations of the fertile fields that swell around 
their feet, the fragrant airs that sweep her shadowy colonnades and 
the cool vistas of her verdant lawns. Here the thrilling music of 
woman's love had first melted his heart, and the sweet intimacies of 
wedded life and the soft smiles of children had been his ; and sorrow 
had laid upon his brow her consecrating touch, and beneath the 
sighing pines of the old cemetery reposed the ashes of his fair 
young wife. Here was the spacious church, builded by his devout 
efforts and almost with his own hands, and a growing congregation 
crowding its pews and aisles, eager to receive from his hands the 
bread and water of life. And here he had knit over the ties of do- 
mestic life and reared again an altar and a home. In all his wander- 
ings, I fancy he found no other spot of earth so dear as this not 
Carolina's blue skies, nor Kentucky's green expanse, nor foreign 
cities with their haunting memories of song and story, nor even 
Palestine and the flowery fields hallowed by the footprints of his 
beloved Lord. But duty and destiny summoned and he obeyed, 
taking his journey into a far country, vowing his life to poverty and 
to labor, but called through self-denial and toil and illness to do a 
great and enduring work. 1 

1 Professor Wm. M. Thornton, in the " Alumni Bulletin " for May, 1893. 



CHAPTER IX 
THE CHANGE TO HIS LIFE-WORK 

" Beholding the bright countenance of truth in the quiet and still 
air of delightful studies." 

Milton. 

MOST of the summer of 1859 hac ^ been given to 
plans for the work that now engrossed Doctor 
Broadus's heart, for his whole nature went into the new 
enterprise. He was busy buying books for the library 
and for himself. He sought original sources in various 
languages. He was pitching his work on a high plane. 
He was to teach two new departments, New Testament 
Interpretation (English and Greek) and Homiletics, but 
he held himself to a severe standard at the very start. 
He aimed to secure the best text-books possible. This 
was his programme for homiletics : 

" Homiletics, or Preparation and Delivery of Sermons"; "Rip- 
ley's Sacred Rhetoric " ; " Vmef s Homiletics " ; numerous lectures ; 
ample exercises in formation of skeletons, criticism of printed ser- 
mons, general composition, and discussion ; opportunities for stu- 
dents to preach, but no*preaching merely for practice. 

He had drawn the plan of instruction in the eight 
schools with one general diploma and separate diplomas 
for each school. He expected opposition to the elective 
system, as it was a new thing in theological education. 
But there were some enlightened minds who clearly ap- 
prehended what was involved, and gave hearty endorse- 
ment at the very start. 

PRESIDENT W. M. WINGATE to J. A. B. : 

WAKE FOREST COLLEGE, N. C., June 20, 1859 : I think we feel 
i6S 



THE CHANGE TO HIS LIFE-WORK 169 

a good deal of interest in this State, and especially at this place, in 
the Theological Seminary. We shall have a respectable number of 
young brethren, I think, going in the course of time from this place. 
The Convention I infer from the expression of opinion given in our 
last meeting will be in favor of supporting brethren without means, 
there, just as they do at Wake Forest ; for the most part, I suppose, 
continuing those who have been for a longer or a shorter time at our 
college. You, and the brethren acting with you, may be assured 
that I shall do what I can in my humble way, to foster and encourage 
the Southern Seminary. 

I like much the feature suggested by you in your letter. I saw it 
elaborated to some extent in Doctor Boyce's address some three 
years ago. Our theological seminaries have been based too much 
upon Presbyterian theories of preaching, and they have on that ac- 
count been of very little use to Baptists. We must help men a little, 
who cannot or will not be helped much, or they will preach without 
help, and should they not? For one, let me express the hope that 
prominence will be given to this feature. 

W. D. THOMAS to J. A. B. : 

WARRENTON, VA., Sept. 8, 1859 : I have been hoping that we 
might meet again before you started for Greenville. Circumstances, 
however, have been such as to prevent it, and now you must go 
without my seeing you. I much regret this. I cannot let you go, 
however, without saying good-bye. I need not say that I have loved 
you, and that you will be dear to me still in your new and far-off 
home. I have felt for you in your struggles to decide in reference to 
Greenville. Though one of many who are sorrowing because you 
are to go, yet so far as I can see you are doing what God would have 
you to do. I trust that neither my grief, nor, what is more likely, 
the sorrow of so many others, will make you doubt that your steps 
in this matter are ordered of God. The conviction that we are in the 
path which God would have us walk, and doing the work which he 
would have us do, will give one zest, energy, and power which can- 
not be had without it. Believing, as I do, that you have decided 
this matter in the fear of the Lord, I trust this conviction may abide 
with you. 

After all, your sorrow at parting with friends and our sorrow at 
parting with you need not deprive us of comforting thoughts. " The 
field is the world." . . Oh, for such a faith as will not permit us to 
look upon the kingdom of our Lord as a mere province confined to 
our own State or individual church. We need a world-wide king- 



170 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

dom. My dear brother, may the Lord go with you to Greenville and 
abide with you there. For your going will be vain unless his pres- 
ence is with you. When there think sometimes of your friend Wm. 
who is laboring (in weakness and imperfection) for the conversion 
of sinners and the promotion of our Lord's kingdom here. 

There were many kind friends in Greenville to help 
get things in readiness for the home there. In particular 
were Doctor Boyce and his family all kindness in secur- 
ing a pleasant, roomy house, and having it in complete 
order. 

Doctor Broadus's first sermon in Greenville was to the 
colored Baptists, September 18, from Acts 2 : 39. The 
Seminary opened auspiciously with twenty-six students. 

PRESIDENT E. G. ROBINSON to J. A. B. : 

ROCHESTER, N. Y., Nov. 23, 1859 : Allow me to congratulate you 
on the successful opening of your Seminary, and to wish you the 
largest and truest prosperity in the future. My colleagues, I am con- 
fident, would join heartily in the sentiment. A common service be- 
gets sympathy, and we cannot but all rejoice in the multiplication of 
educated ministers. You have a vast field to supply and I hope the 
number of your pupils will increase till it shall be commensurate with 
the demand. 

The four young professors took hold vigorously and 
with high hopes. A teacher's first year is proverbially 
hard. Doctor Broadus had had experience in teaching 
at the University fcf Virginia, but he was now on new 
subjects and he had lofty ideals for his work. Much de- 
pended on these opening months. His health snapped 
under the strain and he had to give up teaching entirely 
for a while. But his colleagues bravely took up his 
work for him. 

J. A. B. to MISS CORNELIA TALIAFERRO : 

GREENVILLE, S. C.,Feb. 18, 1860: I have delayed answering 
your kind letter only because I wished, and from day to day hoped, 
I should be able to reply at some length. It arrived while I was ab- 



THE CHANGE TO HIS LIFE-WORK I/I 

sent in Charleston for a few days, seeking benefit for my badly 
shattered health. 

I beg to thank you, very warmly, for your handsome present to 
our little boy. 1 

My Aunt Lucy's idea that my health was quite re-established 
arose from a very hopeful letter I wrote them at Christmas ; but the 
hopes I then cherished have not been realized. For nearly three 
months I have been unable to meet my classes, though never vio- 
lently ill. The attack was of indigestion, not understood at first, and 
it has settled down into confirmed and obstinate dyspepsia. My 
health in October and early November was uncommonly good. I 
was greatly interested in my work, and was happy. But anxious to 
meet the pressing demands of a first year's course of instruction, and 
made confident by feeling so well, I overworked myself, and was 
somewhat imprudent in eating ; and then after resting a few days 
went to work again too soon and too hard, and in a week more was 
laid up. My first physician did not understand the case, and when 
he was taken sick, and another came, I was really thoroughly dys- 
peptic. Having improved a little before, I find the trip to Charleston 
very beneficial, and hope again to be speedily much better. But I 
take ups and downs, and am still wholly unable to work ; ten min- 
utes of continuous close thinking will make me sick. I have been, 
personally, favored much, in being able to read, almost always, but 
only what was light, and excited no particular desire to comprehend 
or remember. Without this, I know not how I should have endured 
the languor and low spirits of these many weeks. My colleagues, 
burdened as they were, have been to a considerable extent carrying 
on my subjects, though they have not had time for all. It has been, 
and is every day, very hard to see my cherished hopes still deferred, 
and the time wasting away, and with a spirit at once desponding 
and eager, to be vainly seeking that "quiet cheerfulness" which 
well-meaning friends fairly worry one by enjoining. . . 

I try to avoid plans for the future now ; but if I do not grow worse 
again, I hope that the summer in Virginia, with absolutely nothing to 
do, may bring me to the point of being able to work again. We look 
forward to the trip with daily mention and interest. . . 

We count twenty-six students, some of them capital young men. 
We think there is reason to hope for forty or more for next year. 
There will be difficulty, in other States, as well as Virginia, about 
raising the endowment, but I am confident it will be done. I feel 

1 S. S. Broadus, born January K>, 1860, 



172 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

hopeful, altogether, as to the prospects of the institution. If it be not 
God's will to allow me a share in the work of building it up, why, 
his will be done. 

Do not allow any one to think of this as a sickly place, because I 
have been sick so long. I am satisfied that the climate is not the 
cause of my attack. Indeed, there is exceedingly little difference be- 
tween the climate here and in Albemarle or Orange. We are about 
the same distance from the Blue Ridge that you are, in a country 
quite as much broken and with a very similar soil and productions, 
and the ice-houses were well filled in January. . . Mrs. Broadus 
hopes to have opportunity of making your acquaintance next 
summer. 

1 As a part of his ample home establishment, Doctor Boyce had 
several ponies, trained for the saddle, on which his wife and her 
sister were accustomed to ride, accompanied by a groom. One of 
these ponies was promptly placed at the disposal of his colleague, 
who soon sought permission to take the groom's place in the long 
rides through that beautiful neighborhood, which he has ever since 
most highly valued 

Doctor Boyce's own health was at that time superb, and his power 
of endurance seemed almost unlimited. In January he took his family 
for a few days to Charleston, in order to visit his relatives and look 
after the many business interests of his father's estate. He invited 
his invalid colleague to accompany him on what would be a first 
visit to the beautiful city by the sea. The journey had to begin at 
four A. M., and continue till toward midnight, but he wrapped his 
friend in a wonderful overcoat, a miracle of softness and warmth, 
and when he reached Charleston carried him in his own arms from 
the carriage into his room at the hotel. He seemed strong like a 
giant, and he was tender as a woman. 

J A. B. to MISS CORNELIA TALIAFERRO : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., March 28, 1860 : I am very glad to be able 
to say, in reply to your kind letter, that my health is considerably 
improved. I have resumed a part of my duties, and am hoping to 
be able soon to take up the remainder, though still feeble, and very 
easily thrown back. It is hard to be prudent, 

I had been thinking about Rawley, and your recommendation in- 
creases my disposition to try it. I hope I may be able to find it prac- 
ticable to do so. 

1 Broadus' " Memoir of Boyce/' p. 173. 



THE CHANGE TO HIS LIFE-WORK 173 

Do you expect to attend the General Association? I am arranging 
to leave here the morning after our Commencement if possible, and 
in that case, can leave my family at Charlottesville and reach Staun- 
ton Thursday afternoon. It is my purpose to attend the Shiloh Asso- 
ciation at Blue Run also, and I shall hope to be able then to accept Mrs. 
Harbour's kind invitation to visit her. . . Brother Toy, who is going 
to Japan, and Brother Jones (of Louisa), who is going to Canton, are 
boarding with us now, and we greatly enjoy their society. Toy is 
among the foremost scholars I have ever known of his years, and an 
uncommonly conscientious and devoted man. Jones you may have 
seen ; he has great zeal, an unusual turn for practical working, and 
I am sure he will make a very useful man. Others of our students 
are thinking of the foreign mission work. . . 

GREENVILLE, S. C., May 25, 1860 : I received your kind letter of 
1 5th inst, and also the book. I had read the "Still Hour" with 
unusual pleasure, and I trust, some benefit. I am glad that I can 
now take the copy I had to my brother's wife in Alexandria, who I 
know will appreciate and enjoy it ; and I shall tell her she may thank 
you for getting it. . . 

Be sure, if you please, to carry out the idea of writing for the H. 
and F. Journal. We need a diffusion, by line upon line, of mission- 
ary ideas and information ; we need more men and means and 
prayer. The indications are favorable for a considerable increase in 
the number of missionaries and we may be encouraged to pray and 
labor for I believe men are to be called into this work, as into the 
ministry in general, and as into the church, through the use of 
means. A word to a young minister, or one preparing, might be the 
means by God's blessing, of bringing him into the work. 

But it is breakfast time, and I must prepare for my last examina- 
tion. Please address me hereafter at Charlottesville. 

The first Commencement, May 28, 1860, was an inter- 
esting occasion. Dr. Basil Manly, Sr,, made the ad- 
dress. The outlook for the Seminary seemed auspicious 
in spite of storm-clouds upon the horizon. 

J. A B. to BASIL MANLY. 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA., June 16, 1860: Thank you for the in- 
formation from Dr. Hackett Edmunds gave me (at Staunton) Hack- 
etfs " Revision of Philemon," a copious and admirable Introduction, 



174 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

and very full notes, and beautifully printed. [I like it, though of 
course two such scholars as he and I couldn't agree on all points. 
What a nice time he and Doctor Conant might be said to have a 
good salary, an unrivaled library, with everything added to it that 
they can think of, and their works published in the handsomest style, 
and gratuitously distributed through the country. Isn't that mag- 
nificent?. . 

The meetings at Staunton were very pleasant indeed. Both Boyce's 
speech and his sermon were frequently mentioned in my hearing, and 
with high praise. I am very glad he came, for together with the en- 
thusiasm manifested by the students, it awakened a very lively and 
very general interest in the Seminary. The ordination last Sunday 
(Toy, Jones, Johnson, Taylor, Jr.) passed off well, and I hope did 
much good. 

J A. B. to J. P. BOYCE : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA., July 23, 1860: On the i$th in Alex- 
andria, my little Maria died, of diphtheria. The physicians thought 
the others all had it, Annie being already very sick, and with many 
fears I brought all here on Monday. Doctor and Mrs. Harrison and 
Mrs. Sinclair aided us in watching by Annie all the week, and she 
is now much better, almost well. The others were very slightly 
affected, if at all. 

As we came to Virginia on the cars, who, if told that two of the 
company would die in a few weeks, would have selected as the per- 
sons James Witt, and that laughing little girl ? Oh, my daughter ! 
but the will of the Lord be done. I have stood by the deathbed and 
the grave of father and mother and sister, of wife and child ; I am 
confident they are all safe in heaven ; God help those who are left 
to follow them there. 1 

The physicians here advise me to try the Rockbridge Alum 
Springs, and I expect to go to-morrow. I have gained a little, upon 
the whole, but have repeatedly been set back by some season of ex- 
citement and loss of sleep. I weigh two or three pounds more than 
on June ist and think I am stronger. 

1 Dr. Whitsitt, in his speech at the funeral of Dr. Broadus, made the following 
reference to little Maria's death : " Late one night I met him at the railroad station 
in Greenville, S C We were both going somewhere in the country to preach the 
next day While we waited for the train he was full of loving talk in which he came 
to speak of a daughter who had died years ago in early childhood, and insisted that 
the child's influence on his life was greater far than if she had been permitted to live 
out the measure of her days. I can recall the tenderness and enthusiasm with which 
he several times exclaimed, 'A glorious memory.' " 



THE CHANGE TO HIS LIFE-WORK 175 

J. A. B. to MRS. CHARLOTTE E. BROADUS : 

ROCKBRIDGE ALUM SPRINGS, Wednesday, July 25, 1860 : 1 met 
on the cars, first, Wm. C. Rives, with whom I had a talk about his 
"Life of Madison," and about historians in general, particularly 
Prescott and Motley. Next, I got a seat just before my earliest 
schoolmaster, Albert Tutt, of Culpeper, to whom I went to school 
two years, beginning twenty-eight years ago last February. He 
was taking his wife to the Healing [Springs] for bronchitis. Her 
father was our nearest neighbor, and she and sister Martha were 
girls together. I told them about how Mr. Tutt used to stand long 
at his desk, sometimes absorbed in writing, and how we little folks 
would munch apples behind our books, and tell each other there was 
no danger, for he was writing a letter to his sweetheart. And it was 
pretty to see the girlish blush on the matron's cheek as the memory 
of those days long past came freshly back, when she was a blithe 
maiden, and used to read those letters from her own Albert. . . Dear- 
est, I hope to live a good many years still, if it please Providence, and 
I mean to try very hard to improve during this trip. 

R. H. STONE to J. A. B. : 

GAVE, CENTRAL AFRICA, July 24, 1860 : I feel a deep interest 
in the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. May it, indeed, be 
a school of the prophets. I hope it will send forth men who are not 
only like Apollos, "eloquent and mighty in the Scriptures," but 
also men like Barnabas, " good, full of the Holy Ghost and of faith." 
We much need the influence of such men now when strife and dis- 
cord distract the energies of the Baptists. However, it is pleasant to 
compare our denomination with what it was fifty years ago ; and we 
may well say, " What hath God wrought." 

J. A. B to MISS CORNELIA TALIAFERRO : 

RAWLEY SPRINGS, Aug. 24, 1860 : I expect to reach Blue Run 
in the course of Tuesday afternoon, by private conveyance from 

Charlottes ville. Mrs. B will probably accompany me. We wish 

to spend one night at Doctor Jones', and one (in acceptance of your 
kind invitation, repeated by Mr. Barbour) at Barboursville. 

I shall get only six days at Rawley. Still, I hope for some benefit. 
I spent ten days at the Rockbridge Alum, leaving in the beginning 
of August, and have been improving, more or less, ever since. I 
am now within six or eight pounds of my ordinary weight, and have 
a tolerable amount of strength. I have preached four times during 
this month, and expect to preach here on Sunday. 



176 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

W. D. THOMAS to J. A. B. : 

WARRENTON, VA., Oct. g, 1860 : I was very sorry that you 
couldn't pay us a visit before you left us. Few things could give 
more real joy than to have you and yours spend some time with me 
at my own home- Though necessarily disappointed this time, yet I 
hope some day to enjoy it. I suppose by this time you are all fairly 
at work. I sadly feel the need of just such training and instruction 
as can be had at Greenville. . . 

I have concluded that the surest way to convert our brethren who 
oppose theological education from their error, is to make them try the 
work of pastors without such training. If this were done, they would 
soon be (as old Brother Kerr used to say) forty thousand miles off 
from opposition to Greenville. 

If you will permit me to do so, I would like just now to beseech 
you not to imagine that you are so far restored to health that nothing 
can hurt you and so confine yourself too much to study. As a stew- 
ard you must be found faithful in the matter of your health as well 
as in other respects. Pardon me for this ; but you know my regard 
for you and deep interest in you prompts it. 

J. A. B. to MISS CORNELIA TALIAFERRO : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., Oct. 25, 1860 : We now number thirty-one 
students, adding one more from Mississippi to a statement which 
will probably appear in the "Herald " of to-day. We feel encour- 
aged by the increase, and by the general character of the students, 
and the spirit they manifest. My class in New Testament Greek 
numbers sixteen. They are nearly all graduates of colleges and uni- 
versities, but the standard of graduation, and often of instruction, is 
deplorably low in most of the institutions of the land, and I find it 
necessary to spend a good part of the session in teaching Greek in 
general, classic Greek, which they ought to have learned at college 
But I can better afford to do this since they go over a large portion 
of the New Testament in the English class. The difference in other 
theological seminaries is, not that they have students better pre- 
pared, but that they make little or no effort to remedy the evil. . . 
I have two of last year's students reading, once a week, some selec- 
tions from the Greek Fathers ; and Brother Boyce is doing something 
similar this year, with some of the Latin Fathers. This would be 
impracticable in a seminary where there was a curriculum, the same 
for all. . . 

I am glad to say that my health continues about as good as in 



THE CHANGE TO HIS LIFE-WORK 177 

September. If I can be careful still, I trust I shall be able to go 
steadily through the session. But it is not easy to be careful. 

Please remember me most respectfully to your honored grand- 
mother, to your uncle, and all the family. Mr. Barbour may be in- 
terested in the opinion (though of course he is better posted on the 
whole subject than I am) which I formed upon the statements of 
gentlemen here, that in the event of Lincoln's election, South Caro- 
lina will certainly not secede alone, but will gladly join any one other 
State, and that her secession leaders will move heaven and earth to 
aid their sympathizers in Alabama and Virginia with the hope of 
such a result. Very many people here are as much opposed to a 
dissolution of the Union as you or I, but there can be little doubt 
that a majority of the voters in the State would be in favor of seced- 
ing with any other State. 

Two or three books that I think would please you are, " Five Ser- 
mons on St. Paul," by A. Monod (from the French) ; " Memoir of 
Kingman Nott " ; " Angus' Bible Handbook." All small volumes. 

RICHARD HACKLEY 1 to J. A. B. : 

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, Nov. 5, 1860. My Dear Master: 
As I feel like writing a few lines, and to show you that I think of 
you very often, I take the present opportunity of doing so. I am 
quite well now, thank the Lord, and we are all so far as I know, and 
I hope when these lines reach you that you and yours may be quite 
well. I heard from Mr. Saint Glair's yesterday all well. My dear 
master, I hear much of the coming election. I hope that Mr. Lincoln 
or no such man may ever take his seat in the presidential chair. I 
do most sincerely hope that the Union may be preserved. I hear 
through the white gentlemen here that South Carolina will leave the 
Union in case he is elected. I do hope she won't leave, as that would 
cause much disturbance and perhaps fighting. Why can't the 
Union stand like it is now? Well do I recollect when I drove a 
wagon in the old wars, carrying things for the army ; but I hope we 
shall have no more wars, but let peace be in all the land. 

I have been wanting to go up to see my wife, but have not been 
able, but will do so soon, I hope. Next year I should like to live 
nearer her. With my best respects to you and mistress, I am as ever, 
your devoted servant. 

J. H. COCKE to J. A. B. : 

BREMO, Nov. 18, 1860 -. I believe there have been too many Chris- 
1 Servant of John A. Broadus, the well-known " Uncle Dick." 

jto 



178 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

tians, both North and South, praying for the preservation of our 
national Union, for the combined efforts of the fanatics of the North 
and the fire-eaters of the South to prevail against our prayers. 

C. H. TOY to J. A. B. : 

WAVERLY, SUSSEX COUNTY, VA., Nov. 25, 1860: I suppose 
you are a secessionist. You have seen the action of the Alabama 
brethren. I hope Doctor Boyce will disentangle himself in New 
York before South Carolina leaves the Union. You all seem in- 
clined to snub us in Virginia, hardly willing that we should enter the 
Southern Confederacy. In that case we shall have to put ourselves 
on our dignity, and rely on our prestige and our tobacco. But I hope 
we shall stand together. 

J. M. BROADUS to J. A. B. : 

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 

ALEXANDRIA, VA., Dec. 7, 1860. 
REV. DR. J. A. BROADUS, GREENVILLE, EMPIRE OF SOUTH 

CAROLINA. 

DEAR BRO. : What think you of the foregoing? Does that suit 
you? Are you willing to be alienated from Virginia? Are you willing, 
when you come to Virginia to be considered a foreigner? What be- 
comes of your Seminary when its location becomes foreign? Virginia 
will not send our young men to " another country " to learn to preach. 
Levity aside, my brother, the times are serious now. When we last 
talked about it, I had no idea the present state would come up. Still, 
I will not agree that South Carolina is right in her hot haste, and 
hush ! hush ! hush ! no-time-to-hsten-to-you policy. The issues are 
too momentous for action without the profoundest deliberation, and 
without first exhausting every possibility of doing better. I suppose 
South Carolina will not be persuaded, but Virginia will not yet go 
with her. The time may come, and very soon too, for Virginia to 
go, but she has not yet come to it. I have greatly changed since 
last Monday, 

J. B. JETER to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., Dec. n, 1860 : I can readily conjecture that the 
friends of the Seminary are anxious lest the political convulsions of 
the country should injuriously affect the interests of theological edu- 
cation. I have had this apprehension myself ; but on a calm con- 
sideration of the whole subject, my fears have been quieted. If the 
rights of the South can be maintained in the Union, the country will 



THE CHANGE TO HIS LIFE-WORK 179 

soon settle down into its usual quiet and prosperous condition, and 
the course of the Seminary will be unobstructed. If a division of our 
country should take place, then, undoubtedly, there will be some 
sort of union among the Southern States, and we shall be compelled 
to look to our own section for theological instruction. I am afraid 
the pecuniary crisis, consequent on our political troubles, will greatly 
embarrass the agents of the Seminary in the collection of funds, and 
may prevent the completion of the subscription within the limited 
period. The South Carolina Baptist Convention will have it in its 
power to lengthen the period of obtaining subscriptions, and, in view 
of the extraordinary crisis, will not, I presume, hesitate to do so. In 
any event, let us trust in God. He can overrule the agitations of 
the country, and even the disruption of its government, for the pro- 
motion of the cause in which you are laboring ; and I hope he will. 
We are painfully anxious here about the fate of our beloved coun- 
try. The sentiment of Virginia at the close of the presidential elec- 
tion was decidedly in favor of maintaining, if possible, the rights of 
the South in the Union ; or failing to secure them, to leave it in con- 
cert with the Southern States. But the hasty acton of South Caro- 
lina, and probably of other cotton States, will prevent, or greatly 
hinder, the accomplishment of these designs. What course Virginia 
will pursue no mortal can tell. The question of division with Vir- 
ginia and Maryland is a very serious one. They are the border 
States. Soon or late, division must result in wars and bloodshed. . . 
These States must become battlefields of the contending parties, and 
their sons must bear the brunt of the fierce conflict. Secession is, in 
my view, comparatively a light matter to the cotton States ; they are 
far away from the common foe, wide States lie between them and 
danger, except on the ocean side where they must be attacked, if at- 
tacked at all, at great disadvantage. My own opinion is that the 
time has come when we must have an adjustment of our difficulties 
with the North, or go out of the Union. The incessant agitation of 
the slavery question, and the sectional aggressive policy of the free 
States, cannot longer be endured. I confess, however, I cling with 
great tenacity to the Union. With all our perplexities, we have been 
the freest, happiest, and most prosperous nation that the sun has 
ever shmed on. If there could be a stable Northern and Southern 
Confederacy, the prosperity of the country would be but little im- 
peded. But secession is only the beginning of the end. It is easier 
to pull down than to build up. The history of Mexico, Central 
America, and the South American States should warn us of the im- 
pending dangers. Already the outlines of half a dozen confederacies, 



180 LIFE AND LETTERS OP JOHN A. BfcOADUS 

and a limited monarchy besides, have been projected. When the 
spirit of discord is once fully aroused, who can lay it? Will it not 
be sad, if between Northern fanaticism and Southern rashness the 
best government that the world has ever seen, the work of our rev- 
olutionary fathers, the admiration of the friends of freedom in all 
nations, and the last refuge of republican liberty, should perish? My 
only hope is in God. 

J. WM. JONES to J. A. B. : 

LOUISA COURT HOUSE, VA., Dec. 17, 1860 : The Board have 
decided not to send out at present any of the missionaries under ap- 
pointment. Toy talks of going out anyway and taking the chances. 
I suppose you will be in a foreign land in a few days. The sece~s- 
sion feeling is growing in Virginia very fast. 

MRS. E. L. C. HARRISON to J. A. B. : 

BELMONT, VA., Jan. 10, 1861 : I postponed answering your kind 
and welcome letter longer than I wished, in consequence of an effort 
Doctor Harrison made to procure a South Carolina note to send the 
children to buy some little Christmas present. He was quite unsuc- 
cessful, but will avail himself of the first opportunity that occurs to 
send them something. 

Like yourself we have felt a great anxiety relative to the affairs of 
South Carolina. Indeed no one can do otherwise than have the most 
fearful apprehensions for the country. We can only pray that the 
Divine Disposer of events may see fit to overrule these things to his 
glory and our good. The future seems dark and gloomy from the 
present aspect of affairs. 

Papa 1 is in Charleston, a painful looker-on of things passing 
around him. He finds the climate very pleasant, but thinks of going 
farther south, perhaps to New Orleans. 

MRS MARY STUART SMITH to J. A. B. : 

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, Jan. 10, 1861 : Together with all the 
rest of the country, the distracted state of political affairs occasions us 
great concern. We heard last night with feelings of deepest regret 
that an engagement had already taken place between the South 
Carolina and the United States troops. It was said that there was 
an interruption of the telegraphic wires, so that there was nothing 
but the one fact stated. What could the United States government 
have expected but resistance m attempting at this time to reinforce 

1 Mr. Tucker. 



THE CHANGE TO HIS LIFE-WORK 181 

Fort Sumter? Last Friday Mr. Buchanan ordered a day of solemn 
fasting and prayer that the Union should be preserved, and by his 
order, they say, men were sent off to reinforce Fort Sumter on Sun- 
day, thus precipitating matters and forcing on the war It seems 
strange and inconsistent conduct. We had a very interesting day on 
Friday. 

MISS CORNELIA TALIAFERRO to J. A. B. : 

BALTIMORE, Jan. 14, 1861 : Though I know the suffering in 
South Carolina must be very great, still I try to hope that the ac- 
counts that we have are exaggerated, and that it is not so terrible as 
it is represented to be. 

Doctor Fuller gave us a very touching sermon yesterday morning 
from Heb. 12 : 5. He has recently been most sorely tried. As he 
said yesterday in his sermon, he had both the rough wind and the 
east wind sent upon him, for he had been cast to the ground by the 
troubles which were distracting our country, and he has recently had 
a terrible shock in the death of his second daughter. She died very 
suddenly ; was passing the morning with her mother, and had just 
put on her wrap to go home with her husband, who had called by 
appointment to take her home to dinner ; just as she rose to leave the 
room she said, "What a singular pain I have in my head," and fell, 
and showed no signs of consciousness afterward. The death was a 
terrible shock to all who knew her. 

J. A. B. to MISS CORNELIA TALIAFERRO : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., Jan. 22, 1861 : You will excuse me for being 
a little amused at the conception you had formed of our condition 
here. The representations of the newspapers as to affairs in this 
State seem to surpass in exaggeration and shameless mendacity any- 
thing I ever happened to observe before. I may be believed, perhaps, 
when it is understood that I was most earnestly opposed to the action 
of the State in seceding, and deeply regret it now. I have at this 
hour no sympathy with secession, though of course it would be 
worse than idle to speak against it now, and though, equally of 
course, I mean to do my duty as a citizen here. 

Well, I have taken considerable pains to inform myself, and I am 
satisfied there is no greater pecuniary trouble in this State now than 
all over the country ; and as to the necessaries of life, abundance and 
cheapness prices are no higher here than they were at the same 
time last year. 

The South Carolina people are hot-headed, and all that, but with 



182 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

all their faults, they are generous, honorable, brave. They believe 
they are doing right, morally and politically. They cannot be co- 
erced into submission. It is simply impossible. They may be 
ruined, but not finally subdued. Whatever be the truth as to the 
right of secession, these people must not be forced ; it will be sheer 
folly, utter madness to attempt it. 

For me, I can do nothing. I try to perform my daily duties, and 
am thankful that in these troublous times, I am so busy ; and I pray 
God to direct and overrule to the advancement of his cause, and the 
glory of his name. 

The Seminary numbers thirty-eight students, though four or five 
of them have left, from sickness at home, etc., etc. We get on 
smoothly, and 1 greatly enjoy my work. Brother Boyce is a strong 
anti- secessionist man, Brother Williams strongly secessionist, Manly 
mildly so. But neither that, nor anything else, has ever caused the 
slightest jar among us. 

Mr. Collins' address is most able and eloquent, and I noticed in the 
" National Intelligencer" a statement that it was making its mark. 
As to objecting to its being received here, Doctor Manly takes the 
New York u World," which is becoming rabidly Republican. There 
is no surveillance over the mails. I might receive a copy of the 
"Tribune" and it would occasion no remark, though of course it 
would injure a man to be a regular subscriber to it. I suppose nine- 
teen out of twenty of the people of the State are strongly secessionist. 
The rest are quiet of course. 

My health is pretty good. I gained some flesh in the autumn, and 

have not had to miss a lecture during the session. Mrs. B and 

the children are in their usual health. 

JOHN HART to J. A. B.: 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA., Feb. 2, 1861 : It has been a very long 
time since I heard anything from you, or I think you from me. Per- 
haps being a citizen of a foreign State you feel somewhat less interest 
in the people and affairs of Charlottesville than once. I hope you 
will not, however, be a foreigner to Virginia long. It is impossible 
to say with certainty, but I believe and hope that in two weeks more 
Virginia will be where she belongs, by the side of the Southern States 
already withdrawn. Mr. Holcombe has resigned his chair at the 
University and is a candidate for the Convention. I hope he will be 
elected, though some of his friends are doubtful. 

J. M. BROADUS to J. A. B. : 
ALEXANDRIA, VA., Feb. 26, 1861 : The Northern mind would calm 



THE CHANGE TO HIS LIFE-WORK 183 

much quicker if nobody would talk about taking Fort Sumter, and 
true enough, the South would be more easily managed if Fort Sumter 
were surrendered ; but the South certainly must be regarded the ag- 
gressive party in regard to the forts, and they ought to come down. 
We all say the South shall not be coerced that means that the Fed- 
eral sword shall not be employed to force submission to Federal au- 
thority, but if by a happy combination of maneuvers we could exert 
a moral coercion I should be delighted, and just that is what I want, 
and what I hope will be brought about. 

Your Commissioner Preston made a very eloquent speech before 
our Convention. I think he offered a gross insult to the old com- 
monwealth in the promise that if she would go down to Montgomery 
she could get anything she wanted, the presidency or vice-presidency 
or anything else, she might have entire dominion. 

I confess I have not suffered the fears that have haunted many 
about Mr. Lincoln's administration. I have felt that a Henry Clay 
Whig could not well be far wrong. I also confess that he is probably 
quite a rough, unpolished customer, not much acquainted with court 
styles, and will constantly expose himself to ridicule, some of it just, 
much unjust, but if he will only listen to Seward he will put him 
through. Did you read Seward's December speech? There was 
sense in that statesmanship. So I think. 

ALEXANDRIA, VA., April 6, 1861 : Will Thomas came last Friday 
a week ago and preached until Thursday night. Will is much of a 
preacher. His sermons are equal to anybody's powerful, interest- 
ing, effective. 

ALEXANDRIA, VA., April 27, 1861 : I am not a secessionist the 
word angers rne nowbut I am a Virginian. Virginia in the Union, 
if men were wise enough, unselfish enough, virtuous enough to ap- 
preciate and preserve a union, is my favorite idea but if Virginia 
cannot belong to the Union without servile degradation from Northern 
aggression and domination, then I am for Virginia and nothing else 
at present. You see no doubt our Convention has turned us over 
provisionally to Jeff. Davis' provisional government. Well, I 
am content with it. Virginia, I think, will overwhelmingly ratify. 
. . . Here scarcely any will be hardy enough to vote against it Such 
a vote would bring down on any man's head such a storm of indig- 
nation as not many could brook. We are wild with the idea that 
Lincoln has insulted threats of vengeance for our offers of peace ; 
and we may be called fully united in a determination to see him 



1 84 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

through. And before the New York " Tribune " has the pleasure ot 
apportioning the beautiful lands of Virginia among the wretches to 
whom he has promised them there will be such a carnage as the 
world has never seen. The North seems quite as united as we, and 
how far they may go cannot be safely foretold. At present they 
will not be likely to invade our State, but how soon they may get 
some pretext for doing so I know not. Major General Lee is a 
prudent and skillful warrior. I hope he may not precipitate hostili- 
ties. Virginia is not ready for a conflict, but she is making herself 
so as rapidly as possible. Our city is a military encampment. Brig. 
Gen. P. S. G. Cocke has his headquarters here. We have a 
thousand soldiers in the city, not more, if so many. Washington 
contains nearly fifteen thousand with many thousand more near at 
hand. It is rumored that the New York Seventh Regiment and 
sundry others have refused to take Lincoln's oath. They say they 
came to Washington under special orders from General Scott, to de- 
fend the Capital. That they will do, but nothing more. We shall 
see. Intercourse with Washington, heretofore so great, has almost 
ceased with our people. I must try to bear the humiliation of be- 
longing to the Southern Confederacy under the force put upon me 
by the North. We cannot stay with them, therefore we turn the 
other way. It is difficult to realize the condition of things. Very 
difficult to believe that we are surely going into war, but the proba- 
bilities are so great we cannot refuse to fear it. Who has brought 
it on us, is not now under discussion. It is altogether unfit that we 
reopen questions among ourselves until we make an adjustment with 
the common enemy ; but if we live, if we survive the general wreck, 
we may then take occasion to insist upon saddling the right horse. 

1 Three weeks before the close of the session, Doctor Boyce and the 
writer went to Savannah to attend a meeting of the Southern Baptist 
Conventon. At Charleston we took a sail-boat, in company with 
Boyce's early friend, William G. Whilden, and visited Fort Sumter, 
to see the effect of the bombardment which had caused its surrender 
by the United States troops. We lunched on Morris Island, which 
afterward became famous in connection with the blockade and siege. 
In returning we encountered a very high wind which made the voyage 
of the little sail-boat increasingly difficult, and at last dangerous. 
Whenever we tacked, beating up against the wind, the waves burst 
over us, wetting the whole person and deluging the boat. We learned 
afterward that many boats were upset in the bay, and some lives 

1 Broadus, " Memoir of Boyce," p. 178 /. 



THE CHANGE TO HIS LIFE-WORK 185 

were lost At length we gave up the attempt, and went before the 
wind to Point Pleasant, returning to the city at night when the storm 
was over, Boyce was a good swimmer, having had much boyish 
practice in those very waters, and was characteristically cheerful, and 
even hilarious when the waves would break over us. It is stll re- 
membered in what a comical quandary his colleague was, who could 
not swim, as to the proper generosity in his assurances that the Negro 
boatman should be rewarded if the boat capsized and his life was 
saved. Enough must be promised but not too much, or the boat 
might be helped in going over, The Convention at Savannah passed 
resolutions showing sympathy with the cause of the Confederacy, 
Doctor Boyce discouraged anything of the kind, and through life he 
always strongly opposed the interference of religious bodies as such 
with political affairs. 

J. A. B. to MRS, ARCHIBALD THOMAS: 

SAVANNAH, GA,, May 9, 1861 : I learn with deep regret that your 
excellent husband is no more. I remember how highly my father 
valued his friendship, how kind he has always been to me, how 
much he has done for his fellow-men and the Master, I think of the 
integrity, the sound judgment, the straightforward kindness, for 
which all men praised him, and of the simple trust in Christ our 
Saviour of which he gave ample proof, and I feel that I, and all who 
value real worth and Christian usefulness, share with his family a 
common loss, But it is all gain for him, 

Please offer to all the family the assurance of my sincere sympathy, 
I too have lost a loved and honored father, and I feel for friends on 
whom such a loss now falls. 

The dreadful war was in full blast, and the Seminary 
was caught amidships. 



CHAPTER X 
THE SHOCK OF WAR 

" Come as the winds come, when 

Forests are rended ; 
Come as the waves come, when 
Navies are stranded." 

Scott, 

IN June, 1861, Doctor Broadus journeyed to Virginia, 
preaching the commencement sermon at the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina on the way. After preaching in 
Richmond at the First Church, in Charlottesville, and in 
Culpeper, we see him on June 16, preaching before 
Kershaw's regiment and the Albemarle regiment at 
Manassas. Battle was in the air. He returned to Green- 
ville the middle of July. 

J. M. BROADUS to J. A. B. : 

CULPEPER, VA,, July 23, 1861 : You will have heard it, but you 
must have my word for it, that on the twenty-first the Confederate 
army met a grand attack of the Federals and gained what might be 
called a glorious victory. Glorious in the honor it attaches to our 
nation, and in its present and prospective results. Of the fight on the 
nineteenth you have read ; that was full of good results for us. Sun- 
day a grand attack of Lincoln's fully appointed force was made. . . All 
the chosen troops of the Federals, the fifteen thousand regulars and 
their select artillery, were in the attack. The fighting was unparalleled. 
The regulars fought nobly, fearlessly, and skillfully. About two 
o'clock, it is said, the enemy had won the battle, if they had seen 
their advantage. Beauregard saw it, and headed seven thousand 
men to the rescue. Then dreadful was the conflict. Johnston came 
in nobly. By three o'clock the battle was decided, the enemy was 
retreating, 

Sherman's dreadful battery had been taken and retaken three 
times, the third time it was held. The cavalry pursued, the enemy 
186 



THE SHOCK OF WAR 187 

Tost sixty pieces of artillery, all the baggage wagons and the bag- 
gage, their commissary and hospital stores, about fifteen thousand 
stand of arms, innumerable small arms, etc. It is said they had 
made a depot of provisions at Springfield. Our Mr. Daingerfield 
told me this morning, they had left stores there worth a million and 
a half of dollars. . , 

How plain it is to any that the God of battles disposed for us. We 
wanted arms, he got them for us. We wanted particularly hospital 
stores, medicines, he provided a medicine wagon full of all we 
wanted, especially a large supply of the very best surgical instru- 
ments. Venly God is with us. We wanted more of everything 
than we had, and here we get something of everything. The best 
cannon belonging to the service, Sherman's batteries of rifled can- 
non, with all his elegant horses and perfect appointments of all sorts. 
Very few of our friends are hurt as far as I know. I have not been 
able to hear from Clarence, but that his regiment was not much in 
the fight. I am hoping they might get us to Alexandria very soon, 
God grant it. 

Lincoln and Scott had certainly planned a great affair, and had no 
doubt of its success. They were provided to go on to Richmond, 
had everything necessary for enjoying the trip. Great quantities of 
champagne, etc. And no doubt at all, they confidently expected to 
pass right through, driving Beauregard before them to Richmond, 
there to be met by Butler from Fort Monroe, and to consummate the 
triumph by capturing the rebel Congress. It is thought many mem- 
bers of Congress (the Federal Congress) followed the army on Sun- 
day to witness and enjoy the victory. 

Great praise is due to Culpeper County for its hospitality to the 
sick and wounded. Scarcely a family in all the country round but 
has from two to a dozen convalescents, feasting them and making 
them comfortable by every contrivance they can make. Martha has 
two very nice young men that have been with her now more than a 
week. 

On July 28th, the South Carolina Baptist Convention 
was in session at Spartanburg and Doctor Broadus 
preached from Ps. 44 : 6-8. 

There was naturally much exultation. A thanksgiving service 
was appointed for Sunday morning. The preacher urged our entire 
dependence on Providence, and the great importance of not taking 
everything for granted from a single success. The tone of his ser- 



1 88 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

mon was commended by some leading brethren, but others evidently 
felt that he was not quite up to the requirements of the occasion 
Our Southern cause was right. The right must succeed. Yes, the 
right had succeeded, and this must continue. Such was the feeling of 
many good men, while of course others, such as Doctor Boyce, were 
more thoughtful, and better acquainted with the illustrations given 
by history to the true and scriptural doctrine of providence. 1 

H. H. HARRIS to J. A. B. : 

LEWISBURG, VA., Dec. 12, 1861 : Perhaps you have heard, or wift 
hear by the papers, of the disbandment of the University volunteers. 
. . . What shall I do next? that is the question now in my mind and 
in the decision of which I want your assistance. I have had little or 
nothing to do with the attempt to have the company disbanded, no 
anxiety to get off from a service which I entered from convictions of 
duty and in which I have been blessed with so much better health 
than I've had for a year or two, as also in many other ways. . . 
During the last five months in the wilds of Western Virginia and in 
camp where men exhibit themselves in their true characters unre- 
strained by the rules of society, I have seen, would I could say felt, 
more than I had ever before conceived of the wickedness of man, the 
destitution which prevails, and the great need of ministerial labor. 
Thoughts of going to Greenville therefore_return upon me, although 
the session is so far advanced. 2 

J. P. BOYCE to J. A. B. : 

CHARLESTON, S. C., Dec. 23, 1861 : I have returned again to my 
work 3 with additional zest. . . 

Our service at night was as largely attended as usual, or nearly so. 
You, who have been a pastor, can imagine something of my feelings 
for these poor men. But not all of them now especially when I 
know that we are in the course of ten days to occupy James Island, 
where the battle is expected and where we will probably have to 
bear the brunt of the battle, having to receive the enemy until the re- 
inforcements come up. You cannot know how tenderly my heart 
yearns over them. How many, after all, must go unprepared into the 
presence of God. I feel like preaching all the time and would do it 
if I thought I could accomplish more that way. But alas for the 
unwillingness of men to hear the gospel. I would only thus frus- 

1 Broadus, " Memoir of Boyce," p. 179. 

2 He came and stayed only during January and was off to the war again. 
8 Chaplain in the army. See page 187 m " Memoir of Boyce." 



THE SHOCK OF WAR 189 

trate all the good I would do. Oh, that God might only aid me 
and help me in what I can do ! It would be enough to bring multi- 
tudes to him. But I often wonder as 1 look at the indifference of 
men. On the removal from Summerville one poor fellow here, who is 
only half-witted, was asking others if they could pray, saying we 
ought all to be converted before going to battle. It had been told as 
a joke, but how fearfully true it is. And how singular that such a 
remark should have come only from such a one and how much 
more so that it should be spoken of as a funny thing. 

My heart is greatly cheered by the interest exhibited by the men. 
I trust that God will bless us. Pray for us, and that often. Let me 
know how matters progress at the Seminary. 

While Doctor Boyce was chaplain in the army, the 
other professors were trying to keep the Seminary going 
and were supporting themselves by preaching to country 
churches. 

J. M. BROADUS to J. A. B. : 

CULPEPER, VA., Jan. 30, 1862 : England will not help us, I fear, 
until we have suffered yet very long. Her people are delighted that 
Mason and Slidell have been surrendered and they thus saved a war. 
That proves that they are not spoiling for a fight. The Burnside 
fleet will do much damage to our coast and perhaps penetrate the in- 
terior. The Kentucky fights are not certain to issue favorably to 
us. They will probably not do so unless Beauregard should so fill 
the troops with enthusiasm and daring as to make them invincible. 
Some hope for that. . . A sack of salt was retailed last week in Rich- 
mond for one hundred and ninety-two dollars. Fifteen bags, less 
than two bushels each, were sold here on Saturday last at twenty- 
three dollars the bag. 

GEO. J. SIMMONS to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., Feb. i, 1862 : . . I am gratified to learn of Bro. 
Dickinson's success. He certainly has a popular cause, one that 
strongly appeals to the benevolence of all Christians, and I feel a 
laudable pride that the Baptists of the South have been made in the 
Providence of God the pioneers in this glorious work. 1 

J. P. BOYCE to J. A. B. : 
CAMP GREENVILLE, S. C., Feb. 5, 1862: My best regards to 

1 Colportage work in the army. 



icp LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

Mrs. Broadus and remembrances to Williams and Manly, You may 
judge of the eagerness of our men for books from the fact that with 
little more than half the regiment on hand, I distributed last Sunday 
three hundred Testaments and Bibles, forty hymn books, and a large 
box full of reading books. Kind regards to all the students. 

S. S. KIRBY to J. A. B. : 

JOHN'S ISLAND, Feb. 18, 1862 : . . Ought we not, especially at 
this time, to have a tract for profane and wicked professors and 
camp backsliders, who plead the influence of the camp as an apology 
for their indulgence in wickedness ? I think we ought, and 1 write 
to ask you if you will not write such a one and have it published by 
some of our tract societies? 

In response Doctor Broadus wrote the tract and called 
it, "We Pray for you at Home." It is a noble appeal 
and was accompanied by a hymn by Dr. Basil Manly, Jr., 
"Prayer for the Loved Ones from Home." An extract 
is given : 

We pray for the cause that just and glorious cause in which you 
so nobly struggle that it may please God to make you triumphant, 
and that we may have independence and peace. . . 

We pray for your precious life that if it be our Father's will, you 
may be spared to come back to your home and to us. . . 

We pray for your soul. Ah ! what shall it comfort us, and what 
shall it profit you, if you gain the noblest earthly triumphs, the most 
abiding earthly fame, yea, every good that earth can give, and lose 
your soul? If we continually beseech the Lord that your mortal life 
may be preserved and made happy, with what absorbing, agonizing 
earnestness must we pray for your immortal soul, that it maybe de- 
livered from the eternal degradation and wretchedness which are the 
wages of sin, and be brought to know the sweetness of God's serv- 
ice here, the rapture of his presence hereafter. We know it must be 
hard for you, amid the distractions of camp life, the alternate excite- 
ment and ennui, the absence of home influences and the associations 
of the sanctuary, to fix mind and heart on things above. We do 
not doubt the nobleness of your impulses, or the sincerity of your 
frequent resolutions to do nght, nor do we exaggerate the tempta- 
tions of a soldier's life. It is no reproach on your manliness, and no 
assumption of superiority on our part, to utter the mournful truth, 
that spiritually man is always and everywhere weak ; that you 



THE SHOCK OF WAR igl 

wrestle against outnumbering and overpowering spiritual foes. We 
pray that you may be inclined and enabled to commit your soul to 
the divine Saviour, who died to redeem us, and ever lives to inter- 
cede for us, and who with yearning love is ever saying, " Corne 
unto me." We pray that the Holy Spirit may thoroughly change 
your heart, bringing you truly to hate sin, and love holiness, and 
may graciously strengthen you to withstand temptation, and give 
you more and more the mastery over yourself, and the victory over 
every enemy of your soul. Whether it be appointed you to fall 
soon in battle, or years hence to die at home, may God in mercy 
forbid that you should live in impenitence and die in your sins. 
Whether we are to sit with you again around our own fireside, and 
" take sweet counsel together as we walk to the house of God in 
company," or are to meet you no more on earth, oh, may God in 
his mercy save us from an eternal separation ! 

ANDREW BROADDUS to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., Mar. 10, 1862 : . . Everything here is astir. 
The brilliant naval victory off " Newport News " has brightened 
many a countenance. The government seem to have gone to work 
afresh, and the people are rising above the depression caused by our 
recent reverses. God grant us all deep humility, and the spirit of 
earnest prayer. 

J. A. B. to JAMES P. BOYCE : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., Mar. 14, 1862: . . We are in much anxiety 
about the application to the governor and council, of which Manly 
wrote you. If no letter comes to-night, Manly is going down to 
Columbia to-morrow in order to ascertain. If the students are not 
exempted from the draft, all that are now here, eight, will leave 
Tuesday morning. 

BASIL MANLY to J. A. B.: 

COLUMBIA, S. C., Mar. 16, 1862 : I could not find the governor 
yesterday at his office, but I succeeded in seeing two of the council, 
who are in fact our dictators. Colonel Hayne and General Harllee, 
whom I saw, expressed decidedly the opinion that our students need 
give themselves no uneasiness. 

J. P. BOYCE to J. A. B. : 

ADAM'S RUN, CAMP GREENVILLE, Mar. 16, 1862 : I have been 
thinking more deliberately than I could at Greenville about the mat- 
ter you spoke of and concerning which I found your letter on my 



1Q2 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

return to camp. I think now it would be best to have no commence- 
ment. I think also that inasmuch as we will hereafter change the 
end of the session to the first of May you might close at that time, and 
announce the fact not as a sudden ending of the term but as the be- 
ginning of a new order of things. State distinctly the fact that we 
will open the first of September. . . 

We have no large diplomas, had only one, the plate is in Phila- 
delphia. Bro. Hyde will therefore have to wait until the war is 
over. He might receive a written one. I would have it and the 
small ones given at the Seminary building without any other cere- 
mony. The Board will not meet until summer at the State Conven- 
tion. Let me know, as I would like to be at the final examinations 
so far as practicable. . . 

I see that the Mission Board are going to appoint missionaries to 
the soldiers. It will be a valuable work. It will be a much pleas- 
anter one in many respects than that of chaplain. I trust that many 
of our best ministers will devote themselves to this work. . . 

I feel grateful to all of you for your kindness to me during my 
absence as in former times, and especially so to Bro. Williams for 
his labors with my class. I shall have the comfort of knowing that 
at least one class ought to understand theology if they do not. 
What would I not give for his wonderful power to put things clearly 
before those he addresses. Best regards to them, also to your wife 
and kind remembrances to the children. 

JAMES THOMAS to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., Mar. 21, 1862 : I do not know but in the muta- 
tions of these troubles I may seek refuge with my family at Green- 
ville. My son William and family have fled from Warrenton, left 
house and home, and are expected at my house to-night. Our army 
has fallen back from the Potomac to Gordonsville, Culpeper Court 
House, and Fredericksburg. . . 

Now you may think I am alarmed ; not so, no more than I was 
when the troubles first commenced. I always felt that the earth never 
saw such scenes as would be when abolition got into power. They 
are getting nearer to us but I trust they will never get to Richmond, 
and I don't believe it ; yet I fear it as a possibility. I wish to be 
prepared, if I can, to take care of my family. Have you many Ne- 
groes in your region ? Do you ail feel safe? 

MRS. MARY STUART SMITH to J. A. B. : 
BELMONT, VA., April 6, 1862 : You will no doubt be surprised to 



THE SHOCK OF WAR 193 

hear from me so soon again, and would that I had other than sad 
tidings to communicate ! My dear father 1 is very ill, lying, as it were, 
at the gates of death. When I first realized the terrible apprehension, 
day before yesterday, that he might never recover, my first impulse 
was to write to you and beg you to pray for his restoration to health. 
No one, 1 believe, feels more deeply interested in him, or knows better 
than yourself what he is to his family, and would more willingly 
render this office of friendship earnest, Christian prayer. 

We have the promise of Scripture that the prayer of faith shall 
heal the sick, and I believe it firmly. 

BELMONT, VA., April 8, 1862 : With a sad heart I have to make 
the announcement to you that my beloved father is no moie. Words 
cannot express, as you well know, our sense of this appalling calam- 
ity. I beg you now, to pray not for him but for us ; if ever there 
was a stricken, bereaved family we are one now. I hope I may be 
able to compose my faculties sufficiently to give you some particu- 
lars, for I am certain all concerning him would interest you. I sup- 
pose you received a letter I wrote you last Sunday morning. Alas ! 
while I was beseeching prayers to be made for his restoration the 
fiat had already gone forth, and I believe now he was dying at that 
time. He expired about half-past ten o'clock Monday morning, 
quietly, almost without a struggle, but without the power of giving 
utterance to a single parting admonition, or even bidding one of us 
farewell. . . We must believe this was a wise arrangement of Provi- 
dence to spare him some keen pangs. . . 

There was no need of dying testimony from him, for his life had 
been a " living epistle," and as far as he is concerned we ought, 
and I trust we do, rejoice that his toil-worn body and wearied spirit 
are at rest. True to his character to the last, no sick person ever 
gave so little trouble, and he even did not like to trouble any one to 
lift him into bed the night before he died. Even while I write all 
this I cannot believe the sad reality, that we shall never hear his 
loving voice again, nor have his counsel and direction more. The 
thought is too full of pain to take in. Oh, it will lend fresh charms 
to our prospects of heaven, the hope of meeting him ! Pray for us 
all, but especially the dear boys, who will be almost heartbroken, I 
expect. 

H. H. HARRIS to J. A. B. : 

No. 4 MONROE HILL, UNIVERSITY OF VA., April 9, 1862 : If 

1 Dr Gessner Harrison. 
N 



IQ4 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

suddenly set down in CharlottesviIIe some fine day, I doubt whether 
you would know where you were. The surrounding mountains in- 
deed preserve their relative places, so do the old streets and most of 
the houses, but the people I hardly know one in fifty whom I meet. 
Instead of the young men who are gone we have a weakly looking 
set of convalescents from the hospitals ; at least half South Caro- 
linians, each eating his "pint of goobers." And instead of the 
ladies, who stay at home much more than they used to, we have 
refugees from Loudoun, Fauquier, Culpeper, Greenbrier, etc., with 
whom both hotels and many private houses are filled. And finally, 
instead of the students are Colonel Barksdale's 47th Virginia Militia, 
seventy strong on West Range, Colonel McKinnie's 88th Regi- 
ment, one hundred strong on East Range, and our company on 
Monroe Hill and Dawson's Row, I believe they count about twenty 
students attending lectures. 

J. P. BOYCE to J. A. B. : 

CAMP LEESBURG, April 9, 1862 : I had seen the announcement 
in the papers of the death of Doctor Harrison. No one but one of 
literary pursuits, and especially such as value the classics, can realize 
the loss to the country of such a man. By all such he will be uni- 
versally deplored. I have noticed that his family have been griev- 
ously afflicted during the past year. Do you know, I saw him only 
once and that for a moment? But it was long enough to show me 
that his private virtues equaled his public advantages to the world. 

J. M. BROADUS to J. A. B. : 

LYNCHBURG, April 12, 1862 : God help us to be grateful that our 
lives are spared through so much dreadful war. I left Culpeper on 
the 1 8th of March, came to Lynchburg and got a house, and on the 
23d got here through great tribulation with my family and effects. 
We are keeping house, and hope to have you with us before many 
months. 

J. P. BOYCE to G. W. RANDOLPH : 

RICHMOND, VA., Aug. 20, 1862 : Hon. G. W Randolph, Secre- 
tary of War. Dear Sir : Allow me to ask you if the clause in the 
exemption bill of the Conscription Act by which ministers of the 
gospel are exempted does not also by a fair construction exempt 
students of theology preparing for the Christian ministry. . . 

The inquiry I address to you is of importance to several semi- 
naries of different denominations and not simply to the one on be- 
half of which I address you. Should these students not be exempted, 



THE SHOCK OF WAR 195 

their doors must be closed and the supply of educated ministers to 
their respective denominations be entirely cut off. This supply is 
now limited. To destroy it will be disastrous to the moral and re- 
ligious condition of the country. To continue it will scarcely 
weaken at all the army of the Confederate States. The statistics 
of the past show that not more than one hundred students will 
probably be found each year in all the seminaries combined. . . 

J. P. BOYCE to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., August 25, 1862 : Best regards to Mrs. B . I 

would send a pretty message, but I have always been afraid to say 
anything pretty since she gave my compliments the cold shoulder. 
Tell her anyhow that, whatever I think of you, I still recognize 
her as the better half. Wouldn't she like to know what I told 
Doctor Jeter the other day when he asked me what sort of wife 
she makes Brother Broadus? Best love to my colleagues, as we 
congressmen say, or I should say, my learned and distinguished 
colleague, for whose intellect and acquirements I have the profound 
est respect. 

When the Federal army got possession of Fredericks- 
burg, in April, 1862, Dr. Wm. F. Broaddus was one 
among the sixty prominent citizens arrested in retaliation 
and as hostages for some Northern men imprisoned in 
Richmond. They were kept in the Old Capitol Prison 
from April to October and were then released through 
the kind offices of Mr. Marye of Fredericksburg. 

WM. F. BROADDUS to J. A. B. : 

FREDERICKSBURG, VA., Oct. 8, 1862 : Yours of the 2nd inst is 
at hand, containing congratulations quite enough, and of questions 
more than enough, I accept the congratulations in full, and will 
answer the questions in part. 

1. " Did your health suffer?" Not at all. I had ice water and 
newspapers in abundance, and my lady friends in Baltimore and 
Washington sent constant supplies of the very best eatables. We 
cooked our own meals in our own rooms, and lived like old Vir- 
ginians. The whole nineteen fared welL We never went to the 
prison table. . . 

2. " What of Northern sentiment? " Much divided I think. The 
" National Intelligencer," and many other leading sheets, denounce 



ig6 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

the proclamation and prophecy evil. Editors from Pennsylvania, 
Iowa, Illinois, and Ohio were in the prison. They say the Northerners 
will shortly shed each other's blood. I attach some consequence to 
their opinions. 

3. " Did you see Samson?" Yes; twice he called to see me. 
He is tiue to the South. Fuller also came to see me. He take the 
oath ! Phew J He is all right ; so are Adams, Pntchard, Wilson. 
On parole one day in Washington, I found most of my old friends 
"Secesh," some bold as lions, others prudently silent, lest Mrs. 
Grundy should know their sentiments. Washington is about 
equally divided on the questions involved in the war. . . 

6. " Will there ever be peace? " I think so, soon. Neither sec- 
tion can stand it much longer, and Europe will intervene, or inter- 
pose, or inter-something else, before very long. Above all, the God 
of peace will give commandment that the war shall cease, and then, 
who can prevent peace ? 

I do not know what you mean by *' notwithstanding Sharpsburg." 
You surely have not heard the truth touching this most brilliant of 
all achievements. 

The Seminary was closed this fall, and did not open 
again till after the war, as Doctor Boyce failed to obtain 
exemption for ministerial students. Since the preceding 
spring Doctor Broadus had been preaching every Sunday 
at various points in South Carolina. In November he 
became pastor at Cedar Grove and at Williamston, and 
continued to fill in the other Sundays at various points. 
While the weary war was dragging on, Doctor Broadus 
began his " Commentary on Matthew/' Everything 
grew darker and darker. One cheering circumstance 
was the coming of his warm friend, Rev. W. D. Thomas, 
of Virginia, in February, 1863, as pastor of the church at 
Greenville. 

J. WM. JONES to J. A. B. : 

CAMP THIRTEENTH VIRGINIA INFANTRY, HAMILTON'S CROSS- 
ING, Mar. 30, 1863 : By the way what think you of the proposition 
I made in my last that you spend your summer as army missionary? 
Or, if you would like it, I could get you a commission as chaplain 
to labor in A. P. Hill's Division, where you would be very comforta- 



THE SHOCK OF WAR 197 

bly quartered with brethren Ned Hill and Jim Field, or in a good 
artillery regiment. I am very sure that you would find it a wide 
field of usefulness, and it may be that your health would be materi- 
ally improved by it. Think about it and if you should decide to 
take the chaplaincy write me to that effect at once. , . 

We shall probably follow Mr. " Fighting Joe " on another " change 
of base " so soon as the woods are in condition to allow us to move. 
I saw Toy ten days ago. He is chaplain in the Fifty-third Georgia 
Regiment, Seemes' Brigade, McLaw's Division, and is quartered 
near here. Is looking very well and seems to be enjoying himself. 
His Syriac books are in Norfolk and he has, therefore, been com- 
pelled to fall back on German for amusement. 

Wednesday night, April 15, 1863 : . . I was very glad to hear that 
you were at work on the notes, 1 and have no sort of doubt that they 
will prove widely useful. I shall most certainly secure one of the 
earliest copies printed if I live to see them published. But I fear that 
your labors in this direction will prevent your visit to the army of 
Northern Virginia, on which I've so much set my heart. . . Of 
course we can't tell, but it seems to be the general impression that 
General Lee intends crossing the upper Rappahannock and making 
a flank move on Mr. Hooker. In that case I take it for granted that 
our corps (Jackson's) will as usual make the move some dark night 
while Longstreet amuses the enemy in front of Fredericksburg. I 
look to the opening of the campaign with perfect confidence our 
army is in splendid condition and fine spirits. I was gratified to 
learn the other day from a perfectly reliable source that our army 
here is now stronger than it was at the Fredericksburg fight, although 
three divisions have been sent off ; the increase being from the return 
of those who were wounded or sick. Our successful resistance at 
Charleston and Vicksburg has had a fine effect on the spirits of our 
army generally. 

Stonewall Jackson urged Doctor Broadus, saying to 
Doctor Jones : " Write to him by all means and beg 
him to come. Tell him that he never had a better op- 
portunity of preaching the gospel than he would have 
right now in these camps." 

He promptly replied that he would be glad to come ; that he had 

been seriously and prayerfully considering the question ; and that 

i On Matthew, ~ 



198 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

he had only been prevented from entering the army before by a 
doubt as to whether his feeble health could stand the exposure of 
camp life ; but that he would at least try it as soon as he could make 
his arrangements. When I met General Jackson a few days after the 
reception of Doctor Broadus's letter, and told him that he would 
come, the great soldier said in his characteristic phrase: " That is 
good ; very good. I am so glad of that. And when Doctor Broadus 
comes you must bring him to see me, I want him to preach at my 
headquarters, and I wish to help him in his work all I can." Alas ! 
the battle of Chancellorsville came on a few days afterward, and 
before the great preacher could see the great soldier, Stonewall 
Jackson had " crossed over the nver to rest under the shade of the 
trees." 1 

July and August and half of September were spent in 
daily preaching to Lee's Army, now in the churches at 
Winchester, now at the convalescent camp, now to 
Corse's Brigade, the hospital at Charlottesvjlle, Mc- 
Gowan's Brigade, Mahone's Brigade, Smith's Brigade, 
Gordon's Brigade, Scales' Brigade, Jones* Battalion of 
Artillery, Brown's Artillery, and Nelson's Artillery. J. 
A. B. afterwards wrote : " For three months of that sum- 
mer I preached as a missionary in General Lee's army. 
It was the most interesting and thoroughly delightful 
preaching I was ever engaged in." Besides the preach- 
ing Doctor Broadus was war correspondent of the " Char- 
leston News and Courier." 

It was furious and exciting work, and Doctor Broadus 
threw his whole soul into it till finally his throat gave way 
completely from so much out-door speaking. Dr. J. Wm. 
Jones has a most interesting account of this phase of 
Doctor Broadus's career in " Christ in the Camp." 3 

J. A. B. to MRS. CHARLOTTE E. BROADUS : 

COLUMBIA, S. C., Tuesday, June 22, 1863 : Hot, hot, weary day ; 
but got on safely, reading the papers, and talking with various ac- 
quaintances, and sleeping, and eating. Very good food I have, and 

1 Dr. J W. Jones, in "Seminary Magazine," April, 1895. 
* " Christ in the Camp," pp. 312-315, and ja6. 



THE SHOCK OF WAR 199 

much. Old Negro woman, handing water, looked at niy open bas- 
ket, and said, " Massa, whar is you gwme to? " " Oh, I am go- 
ing to Virginia." "Ah, well," she said with an air of relief and 
satisfaction, as if that accounted for my having so much. At junc- 
tion with Spartanburg train, met Mr. and Mrs. De Fontaine (" Per- 
sonne "), was introduced, and had some pleasant conversation. He 
is busy with his book about the war, and hopes to have it out in two* 
orthree months. He is pro-Beauregard and anti-Davis, very strongly, 
and so we didn't quite agree. Showed me a confidential letter from 
Beauregard, written in very good spirit, but intimating that he had 
been badly treated by the president ; also a pamphlet printed by 
Beauregard (but not published), defending himself, and hard on the 
president. His wife is a joyous, gay girl, bright and witty, and suits 
him very well, I guess. He is a small man, with thin and very pale 
face, and brown hair and beard : very gentlemanly and agreeable. 

A deserter on the train jumped off while in rapid motion, with 
handcuffs on, and was not caught. Several were brought down 
to-day. 

LYNCHBURG, VA., June 27, 1863 : Here I am, sitting on brother's 
porch steps, at 5.30 A. M. Have been here half an hour, and read 
the morning paper through. The family are not yet up, and I have 
forbidden the servant to wake them. It is a pleasant morning, and 
my heart glows at the thought that I am in Virginia again. For an 
hour before we reached here it was light, and we were coming up the 
James crossing it several times, skirting its rich bottoms, catching 
glimpses of its pretty hills and green vales, here a huge rock, rising 
abrupt from the river, there a clump of trees high on a hill, and again 
a pretty house lying on the slope, or nestling in a vale, and every- 
where the glorious green grass ; ah ! if you were here I should be 
very happy. 

CAMP THIRTEENTH VIRGINIA INFANTRY, WINCHESTER, VA., 
Saturday, July 4, 1863 : Jones got back late last night, and came 
this morning before I was dressed, and so after breakfast I came out 
with him to camp, and am now writing in his tent. His regiment, 
Thirteenth Virginia, is all the infantry that hasn't crossed the Poto- 
mac, and they will probably go next week. The men had famous 
plundering after the late capture. In the " Sentinel " of July i (if 
Thomas has preserved it) you will find a letter he wrote, giving the 
best account I have seen of the capture of Winchester. . . 

What can I do at preaching? I fear, not much. There are about 



200 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

twenty men stationed here, but they are busy with picket and provost 
duty. There are many passing through, but they stop only a few 
hours or a day. Five miles off, at Jordan's Springs, is a hospital of 
a thousand sick and wounded. I am to preach to-morrow morning 
at the Presbyterian church, and in the afternoon or evening at some 
other, and then to try an afternoon service next week and see if we 
can do anything. . . 

WINCHESTER, VA. (Camp isth Va. Inf.), Monday, July 6, 
1863 : I did not go back to town on Saturday. They have pure 
coffee, captured of course, and it begins to disagree with me. Other- 
wise, I get on well enough. My sleeping is on a little wooden frame, 
having under me an oilcloth and a blanket to soften the plank, and 
another blanket for cover, with my overcoat for a pillow. . . Toler- 
able congregation at O. S. Presbyterian Church yesterday morning. 
Preached on the prayer for the Ephesians (3 : 14, etc.). At night, 
great crowd at Lutheran church text, Prov. 3 : 17, " Her ways 
are ways of pleasantness," etc. You perceive that I am taking my 
old sermons. It is very difficult here to think up an unfamiliar dis- 
course. I haven't got used to the tent, and am constantly making 
acquaintances. A good many soldiers in attendance both times yes- 
terday. The sermons were not particularly good or particularly bad. 
God grant that they may do some good. Oh, it is so hard to preach 
as one ought to do ! I long for the opportunity, yet do not rise to 
meet it with whole-souled earnestness and living faith, and after- 
wards I feel sad and ashamed. There is an appointment for me to 
preach this and several successive afternoons (five o'clock) at the 
Lutheran church. But I fear nothing can be done, as the whole 
community, citizens and soldiers, is astir about the late battle near 
Gettysburg, of which we have very conflicting and very exciting ac- 
counts, and there will probably be wounded men here to-day or to- 
morrow, requiring attention. But we'll see how things look this af- 
ternoon. I do not go into the reports current about the battle, because 
you will see more reliable accounts before you receive this. . . I 
can't say that camp-life attracts me. I suppose that with the army, 
where a whole division would often be within walking distance, one 
might find much more to interest him. Out here we have but a 
fraction of a regiment. 

WINCHESTER, VA., July 7, 1863 : I went to the stage office to 
secure a seat to Staunton, and learned that the chief surgeon here 
has impressed the stages to send off the slightly wounded, and citi- 



THE SHOCK OF WAR 2OI 

zens must wait. So I mean to wait, and meantime to do all I can in 
the hospitals. As things get quiet in the wards, I can go in and sing 
and pray and sometimes talk ; and in some way or other I may get 
a chance to preach some during the week, with plenty of chances 
for Sunday. . . I am very well satisfied, because it is so clear that I 
must remain. I shall, of course, be in not the slightest danger ; for 
even if General Lee has to leave Maryland again, as some folks 
now fear, I can keep on the Virginia side of him. I have only a 
carpet bag, am very well, and can walk if I can't ride. So be easy 
about me, as I am. Took tea last evening with Doctor Boyd, the 
distinguished New School Presbyterian minister very kind family. 
The late battles were at first a success, and afterwards a reverse, 
nothing to boast of on either side, and dreadful losses on both. That 
is all we can make out to-day. 

WINCHESTER, VA., July 8, 1863 : After dispatching my letter 

yesterday at twelve o'clock, I went to Mrs. MagilPs. Mrs. M lives 

on the main street, which is the turnpike, right at the north end of 
the town, and all the wounded soldiers who were coming from Get- 
tysburg via Martinsburg, passed right by her door. I found the 
family busy in preparing and handing out slices of buttered bread to 
the poor fellows, and took hold to help. Money had been placed in Mrs. 

M 's hands for this purpose, by persons aware that she always did 

this, and so we went into it largely. When the bread got low, she 
sent to the baker's for a great basket full of loaves. Pound after 
pound of butter was brought out with bowls of scrambled eggs to be 
spread on the bread instead of butter every now and then there 
came out a pot of coffee, and a neighbor several times sent in sup- 
plies, including some buttermilk. The result of it was that we 
worked there, stopping for dinner, until five o'clock, when the sup- 
plies were exhausted, and everybody broken down, and stll the 
wounded were pouring in, on foot, on horseback, in ambulances or 
wagons. They are sending on toward Staunton all that are able to 
go, most of them on foot ; and the hospitals here, with the basement 
of one church, are overflowing. 

WINCHESTER, Saturday, July 11, 1863: By the way, Mrs. Ma- 
gill had some corn bread yesterday for breakfast, the first time they 
had seen any corn bread for six months. They were handing it 
around (egg bread) as a great rarity and delicacy, and I told them 
I would not condescend to eat it. I black my shoes every morning, 
as Mr. Graham does his, and they shine in a style they are not 
used to. 



202 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

Walter Bowie is here, with a very bad wound in the foot. He is 
a noble fellow, and bears up beautifully. He is captain, and was 
commanding the regiment when he was struck. 

WINCHESTER, VA., Monday, July 13, 1863 : . . General Lee is 
in line of battle, extending from Hagerstown to Falling Waters, 
below Williamsport, and awaiting an attack from Meade. If they 
attack, he will defeat them. If they keep aloof and Burnside and 
somebody should strengthen the force that threatens Richmond, Lee 
will have to go there, It is now believed here, that if there is no 
fight in a few days, Lee will recross the Potomac, and the second 
Maryland Campaign will be ended, with very slender results. 

I preached yesterday morning at Doctor Boyd's church, at night 
at the Lutheran again. Jones and I have appointed preaching, es- 
pecially for the soldiers, for every afternoon this week at five o'clock, 
at a Methodist church near the principal hospital. 1 don't think we 
can do much, but something is better than nothing. 

WINCHESTER, VA., Friday, July 17, 1863 : Unpleasant rumor 
this morning that Charleston has fallen. If it should fall, I shall 
think of coming home sooner than I had intended. Don't be uneasy 
about me, whatever happens. I mean to be prudent, and hope God 
may preserve me as well as you. 

WINCHESTER, VA., Tuesday, July 21, 1863 : I preached Satur- 
day morning to Corse's Brigade, two miles out of town, and in the 
afternoon my last sermon at Doctor Boyd's church. Sunday morn- 
ing I went out to the brigade again, and preached forenoon and 
afternoon. At last I was preaching to the soldiers, and I enjoyed 
it very much. Some of the regiments contain many Baptists, from 
Fredericksburg and Caroline, from Richmond and Henrico, etc., 
including several Broadduses from Caroline. Mr. August, formerly 
Methodist preacher in Charlottesville, was chaplain to one of the 
regiments and treated me very kindly. He had found some hats for 
sale here, and taken two or three out, and one of them did not fit the 
man it was intended for, and did fit me ; so the major and one of the 
lieutenants gave it to me. Cost them twenty dollars, worth thirty 
or forty dollars in Richmond. My Williamston hat is generally 
acknowledged to be superior to anything that has been seen of Con- 
federate make. That I have in my carpet-bag. 

STAUNTON, VA., July 24, 1863 : . . Setting out Wednesday af- 
ternoon at three o'clock I rode on the deck seat of the stage, which 



THE SHOCK OF WAR 203 

was filled with wounded men and surgeons. So all the next day. 
There was no cushion but my overcoat. A North Carolina captain 
along was sick, and finding him tired with sitting flat on the top, I 
gave him my seat in the afternoon of yesterday, and rode on a trunk 
in the middle of the top, where I fought the branches of the trees, 
played with the telegraph wire, and occasionally calculated how far 
off I should fall if my trunk were to imitate the " Flying Trunk " of 
Anderson's story, and at the next great jolt bounce off into the air. 
We got in safely at 8 o'clock last night. . . 

I worked awhile with Taylor this morning distributing newspapers 
and tracts in the hospitals, and afterwards rode to see the graveyard, 
where the graves of twelve hundred soldiers lie in long rows and 
squares, and ten or a dozen are regularly dug beforehand and kept 
waiting. Oh, this dreadful war ! 

LOCUST GROVE, CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA., Friday, July 31, 

1863 : This morning I am going to Culpeper, to preach in the army 
again. I think Uncle William and Hiden can do more good among 
the soldiers here without me than with me. Think I shall stay in 
Culpeper, if the army doesn't move, for a week or ten days, and then 
come back here to rest. Most of the army are within a few miles of 
town. 

CULPEPER C. H., Monday, Aug. 3, 1863 : . . I went to Cousin 
James Broadus's. His wife died several weeks ago, ten days after 
the arrival of her daughter, Mrs, Stone, from Africa. Sue, Mrs* 
Stone, is looking well, having greatly improved during her trip. She 
spent some time in England, including a week at the residence of the 
celebrated Isaac Taylor, one of whose daughters has been her fellow- 
missionary. She gave me interesting accounts of him Saturday 
night, and I expected to have much more talk with her if I had re- 
mained here. She also stayed some time in Baltimore, and brought 
me five pair of beautiful yarn socks from Miss C. T M who knit them 
expressly to send me. . . 

Tea with Major E. B. Hill, where I met General A. P. He was 
very cordial. His dignities have not puffed him up, but have only 
sobered him. He accosted me as " John " at the beginning, and it 
was " John " and " Powell " all the time. . . This morning at day- 
break I was aroused by a trooper at the door, with Major Field's 
compliments, and they were about to move, and he had brought a 
horse for me if 1 chose to go with them. My cold continued and my 
throat was slightly sore, and the sun promised to be very hot, so 
that I declined his offer, determining to take the cars for Orange. . f 



204 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

LOCUST GROVE, CHARLOTTESVILLE, Aug. 5, 1863: Felt very 

weak and prostrate when I reached Charlottesville, don't know why, 
for no derangement of the system. Even before night, the delicious 
coolness and quiet of your old home refreshed me, and now, after a 
long night's sleep, I feel considerably better. 

ORANGE C. H., VA., Saturday, Aug. 15, 1863 : I wrote at Lo- 
cust Grove yesterday afternoon. Mr. Hart took tea with me, and 
listened to some pages of my manuscript on Matthew. He seems to 
take real interest in my work, and I hope for benefit from his sug- 
gestions. . . My efforts in Mahone's Brigade were not wholly 
fruitless. I am told that a Presbyterian officer in one of the regi- 
ments urged an effort to get me as chaplain, and said he would 
himself pay three hundred dollars extra towards the salary. (Don't 
be uneasy : no notion of turning chaplain.) And, what is more im- 
portant, they have been holding prayer meetings all the week and 
had last night five hundred present, with much appearance of inter- 
est. I hope Hatcher's sermons to-morrow will be a blessing. I mean 
to try to get there myself within a week or so. 

CAMP THIRTEENTH VIRGINIA INFANTRY, SMITH'S BRIGADE, 
EARLY'S DIVISION, Monday, Aug. 17, 1863 : . . There is a famous 
old Baptist church here, known as " Pisgah," a small bnck house, 
in which we have meetings, and our camp is one hundred yards off. 
Quite a revival in almost the whole division. I preached Sunday 
morning here, and in the afternoon went a mile back to Gordon's 
Brigade of Georgians, and preached. General Gordon is a Baptist 
and a very pleasing man. Last night I slept in Jones' tent on the 
ground, with my clothes on, and slept pretty soundly, thanks to being 
tired. Had some of my tea made in a tin cup for supper and break- 
fast, which helped me mightily. Dinner yesterday nothing but beef 
and peas (cow-peas), with bread, but I enjoyed it. This morning 
preached again at ten o'clock, and afterwards Jones baptized nine. . . 
In all, over forty in this brigade have been received into the various 
denominations within ten days, and the work is widening. . . 

You have acted nobly, my dear wife, in submitting so patiently to 
my absence, and I am sure you'll bear it still. Whatever good I can 
do here, you deserve the credit of it much more than I do. 

ORANGE COUNTY, VA., Tuesday, Aug. 18, 1863 : Wrote last 
night from camp of Early's Division. This morning came up and 
preached at the chaplains' meeting on the text, " Who is sufficient 
for these things?" Overwhelmed with invitations to come and 



THE SHOCK OF WAR 205 

preach in different brigades. About sixty preachers were present of 
the different denominations, including nearly all the chaplains of 
Ewell's and of Hill's Corps. Came down to Mr. Scott's to dinner, 
where I now am, in company with Jones, Hatcher, Jos. S. Brown, 
and Herbert Harris. Am going back to the division this evening, 
and expect to remain about there till after Sunday, and then to come 
up and preach in Hill's Corps. Hatcher reports decided interest in 
Mahone's Brigade. There are six or eight brigades in which there 
is a great work going on. 

J. A. B. to MISS ELIZA S. BROADUS : 

CAMP THIRTEENTH VIRGINIA INFANTRY, SMITH'S BRIGADE, 
EARLY'S DIVISION, EWELL'S CORPS, A. N. V., Thursday, Aug. 
20, 1863 : I was preaching yesterday about Joshua, and his saying, 
" As for me and my house, we will serve the Lord,' ' and there, in the 
midst of the sermon, I felt anxious about you and Annie. Oh, may 
God give you the grace to put your trust in the Saviour, and to 
devote your lives to his delightful service that I and my house may 
serve the Lord. 

J. A. B. to MRS, CHARLOTTE E. BROADUS : 

SMITH'S BRIGADE, Saturday, Aug. 22, 1863 : Yesterday morning 
not long before the sermon ended, Hon. Jeremiah Morton and two 
ladies rode up, having supposed the service would be at eleven o'clock, 
while it was at nine. We were in a grove, the church being too small, 
and they were approaching from my rear. What a sensation ! I 
told some of them afterwards that I knew, before the party came 
within my view, that either General Lee was approaching, or a lady. 
Poor fellows, they tried hard to listen to the balance of the sermon, 
but ever so many would be glancing again and again to the side 
where the ladies sat on their horses, with riding dresses and hats, 
looking quite picturesque under the oak tree. . . 

I am going to Orange C. H. this morning, and expect to preach 
in Hill's Camp hereafter. Shall probably make Bro. Scott's my 
headquarters. I have stood the camp-sleeping without catching 
cold, and am thankful for the privilege of this week's steady preach- 
ing. 

ORANGE C. H., Aug. 28, 1863: I have not written for two or 
three days. Am staying at Bro. Scott's. Preaching every morn- 
ing at eleven o'clock in Mahone's Brigade. Caught a slight cold 
the first of the week, which is affecting my throat somewhat, so that 
I have avoided preaching more than once a day. Congregations 



2C6 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

good in the morning, and very large at night. I am going to-night 
because I can't keep in sympathy with the meeting unless I attend 
them, although I fear for my throat in the night air. Mean only to 
make fifteen minutes' talk. . . Oh, there is such an opportunity to 
preach in the army now, that I want to be preaching all day long, 
and can but lament my feebleness, and console myself with remem- 
bering that something is better than nothing, . . 

If my health were vigorous and my " Commentary" work had 
never been undertaken, I should have no hesitation in thinking it 
my duty to labor in the army permanently. I could, with God's 
blessing, do much good, though there are numerous brethren who 
could do more, for I greatly lack some important requisites for such 
work. . . I could, perhaps, stand a soldier's life as a soldier, but 
with all the anxiety and nervous exhaustion attendant upon a preach- 
er's work, which even before 1 went to Greenville used often to 
bring me into great prostration, I could not stand it. This is my 
chief reason, but I do feel that my " Commentary " work is of more 
importance, and that even at home I should not be living merely for 
myself. . . I think I want to do right about it. 

CEDAR GROVE SUNDAY-SCHOOL to J. A. B. : 

CEDAR GROVE, S. C., Aug. $ist, 1863 : The reception of your 
letter made many little hearts happy. When the announcement was 
made to the Sunday-school that it would then be read, all noise was 
hushed, eager faces were turned to listen faces that lit up with 
smiles, as the little ones of your flock heard that they were not for- 
gotten amid your many labors and duties. But when what you 
said concerning the battle that was going on when you got there, 
was read, eyes in that quiet little church sparkled, but not with 
smiles now. And the looks of assent that were given to your ad- 
vice, augured that it would be followed. 

J. A. B. to MRS. CHARLOTTE E. BROADUS : 

ORANGE C. H., VA., Friday, Sept. 4, 1863 : . . Hillary Hatcher 
is still going on with his meeting, and yesterday twenty-seven were 
received for different denominations, making sixty-four in all, of 
whom twenty-four are Baptists. It is understood that Hatcher will 
to-morrow be appointed chaplain to one of the regiments of Mahone's 
brigade, and H. H. Harris has just been appointed to another regi- 
ment. The two regiments march together, and camp together. 
Hatcher and Harris were fellow-students at Richmond College, and 
will work pleasantly, and they two can do the work of the brigade. 



THE SHOCK OF WAR 207 

On Sunday last, a captain m the 6th, who is a zealous Baptist, sent 
me word by Hatcher that if I would furnish a recommendation of 
Harris, the colonel would appoint him, and the appointment has been 
made accordingly. I feel very glad that I have been, however slightly 
and casually, the means of furnishing this interesting Virginia 
brigade with two good chaplains. 

ORANGE C. H., Monday, Sept. 7, 1863 : Yesterday morning I 
preached at McGowan's brigade, and dined there with Harrison 
Griffith and Col. Brown (who is a Baptist). Excellent dinner I 
made, fine beef soup, really well prepared, and plenty of it, and cap- 
ital green apple pies, very well made indeed. These were my dinner, 
as I took no meat. Griffith's wife was expected yesterday after- 
noon, and it was pretty to see him and a young lieut. colonel from 
Newberry, whose wife was coming also. Both put on their very 
handsomest. The young colonel came by an hour too soon, going 
to the depot, and told Griffith confidentially that he felt just as he 
used to feel when he was going courting, didn't want any dinner 
at all, and couldn't wait a moment. Griffith tried to be very quiet, 
but he was very fidgety for dinner to be ready, and then confessed 
that he had no appetite, and put off. Happy fellows, I sympathize 
with them, Later in the evening, somebody handed me a letter 
which Mrs. Griffith had brought from the Cedar Grove Sunday- 
school. At four P. M. I preached, by special and repeated invitation, 
at General Scales' brigade (North Carolina), dose to McGowan's. 
I met Genl. S , in Winchester, slightly wounded. He is a Presby- 
terian. Genl. Hill and Maj. Genl. Wilcox were present and also 
Mrs. Hill and Mrs. Scales great crowd" Her ways are ways of 
pleasantness," etc. Hill made some fuss over me, introducing, etc., 
and inviting me to come and stay with him and preach at his head- 
quarters. 

BEAUMONT, NEAR GORDONSVILLE, VA., Saturday, Sept. 12, 

1863 : Thursday afternoon, by arrangement made at Gordonsville, 
went to (Lt Col. Hillary) Jones' battalion, and preached. Charley 
[Sinclair] looks very cheerful, and, as is meet, a little stuck up at 
being a man and a soldier. Col. Jones, who has recently become a 
communicant, assured me that a better company for a lad to enter 
could not be found than Camngton's, and I took it on me to solicit 
in Charley's behalf the friendly notice of Capt. Carrington him- 
self. . . 

Yesterday morning I went to Blue Run and preached to Col. 
(John Thompson) Brown's Battery. Much interest there. Dr. J. 



208 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

R. Bagby, our former student, has been holding prayer meetings, 
and several have professed conversion. Many wept during the ser- 
mon, and not at allusions to home, but to their sins, and God's 
great mercy. . . Gilmer is dreadfully opposed to inviting men for 
ward to prayer, etc., though Lacy, Hoge, and most of the Presby- 
terians, do it just like the rest of us. 

Dr. J. Wm. Jones, in the " Seminary Magazine " for 
April, 1895, says: 

As for his preaching, I had appointments for him three times 
every day, and occasionally four times. He drew large crowds, and 
as he looked into the eyes of those bronzed heroes of many a battle, 
and realized that they might be summoned at any hour into another 
battle, and into eternity, his very soul was stirred within him, and I 
never heard him preach with such beautiful simplicity and thrilling 
power the old gospel which he loved so well. I have frequently told 
him that he never preached as well as he did in the army, and I think 
that he agreed with me. We had four series of meetings running 
at the same time one in my brigade (Smith's Va.), one m Gordon's 
(Ga.) brigade, one in Hay's (La.) brigade, and one in Hoke's 
(N. C.) brigade. There were two hundred and fifty professions of 
conversion in Smith's brigade, over two hundred in Hays', and large 
numbers in the other brigades. Again and again would the vast con- 
gregations be melted down under the power of the great preacher, 
and men " unused to the melting mood" would sob with uncontrol- 
lable emotion. 

I especially recall a sermon I heard him preach at Gen. Gordon's 
headquarters about sunset on the evening of the Confederate Fast 
Day (he preached four times that day). Gen. Gordon had sent 
around by special couriers notice that Doctor Broadus would preach, 
and there was an immense crowd probably five thousand in at- 
tendance. Generals Lee, A. P. Hill (an old schoolmate and special 
friend of Doctor Broadus), Ewell, Early, and a number of other 
generals were there, while all through the crowd the wreaths and 
stars and bars of rank mingled with the rude garb of the private 
soldier, and the vast sea of upturned, eager faces as the men sat on 
the bare ground, made a scene not easily forgotten. 

The songs, simple old hymns, containing the very marrow of the 
gospel, were sung " with the spirit and understanding," and stirred 
every heart. The reading of the Scriptures, and the appropriate, 
fervent, melting prayer, such as only John A. Broadus could make 



THE SHOCK OF WAR 2OQ 

were all fit preparations for the sermon. The text was Prov. 3 : 17, 
" Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace." 
I have heard him preach from that text several times, but never 
with the pathos and power that he had that day. He caught the 
vast crowd with his first sentence, and held, and thrilled, and moved 
them to the close of the sermon. There were times when there was 
scarcely a dry eye among those gathered thousands, and all through * 
the sermon " Something on the soldier's cheek washed off the stain 
of powder." It was touching to see the commander-in-chief and his 
great lieutenants and other officers, the very flower of our Confed- 
erate chivalry, mingling their tears with those of "the unknown 
heroes" of the rank and file men who never quailed in battle, 
trembling and not ashamed to weep under the power of the simple 
preaching of the glorious gospel of our Lord Jesus. At the close of 
the service they came by the hundreds to ask an interest in the 
prayers of God's people, or profess a new-found faith in the Lord 
Jesus Christ, and I doubt not that our beloved brother has greeted 
on the other shore not a few who heard him that day or at other 
points in the army. 

Before the end of September, Doctor Broadus was 
back in Greenville. He now became pastor of the Clear 
Spring Church besides Cedar Grove and Williamston, 
and he took Siloam Church in the fall of 1864. From 
1863 to 1866 Doctor Broadus was Corresponding Secre- 
tary of the Sunday-school Board at Greenville. This 
Board was chiefly established by the aid of Doctor 
Broadus and Doctor Manly. It grew out of the necessi- 
ties of the war to supply the wants of the children. The 
Board published "The Child's Index," question books 
by Manly, " Catechism " by Boyce, " Little Lessons for 
Little People " by Manly, etc. Though the publications 
were on the poorest kind of Confederate paper, the 
quality of the contributions was excellent, and about a 
hundred thousand copies of the little books were sold. 
In January, 1866, the Board established " Kind Words." 
The chief contributors were John A. Broadus, Doctor 
Manly, Doctor Williams, Dr. Wm. F. Broaddus, Dr. W. 

o 



210 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

D, Thomas, Colonel Elford, and Dr. Geo. B. Taylor. 
Doctor Broadus wrote as " J. A. B./' " J. Lovechild," 
"J. L.," "Theophilus," " A. B.," " A.," " Zerubba- 
bel," "Z.," "R." Other familiar pseudonyms were 
"Henry Hinter " and "Junior" for Doctor Manly, 
" Cousin Will " for Wm. F. Broaddus, " Cousin Guy " 
for G. B. Taylor, "Grandfather Grey " for Col. Elford, 
"William Wrinkled " for Dr. William Williams, "Didy- 
mus " for Doctor Thomas. Dr. Wm. F. Broaddus wrote 
also a famous series entitled "Sermons for my Little 
Cousins," all from the text " A Habit is a Habit." Some 
of Doctor Broadus's noteworthy articles were " Old Mr. 
Experience," "Leg over Leg as the Dog went to Do- 
ver," and the " Letter R." 

J. A. B. to BASIL MANLY : 

GREENVILLE, April 15, 1864 : Have just written to Williams, 
urging him to go with me to Atlanta, according to your suggestion, 
which Elford, Boyce, and Thomas approve. Expect to go down on 
Tuesday with Boyce, who has to go to Graniteville, and have asked 
Williams to go with us that day. Meet us at Ninety-six if you can, 
and we can talk matters over. I'll carry (if nothing happens) Tho- 
luck and some other things on Sermon on the Mount, and if you 
don't meet us will leave them at Ninety-six. Wish I could spare 
you Alexander, or the remarkable unpublished work you wot of. 
Thank you for encouraging me to keep at it, for it is hard for me to 
work cheerily amid so many interruptions and drawbacks. I think 
I am now making the " Notes" a good deal better than when you 
last examined, but I get on very, very slowly. I am now in the 8th 
chapter. 

GREENVILLE, S. C , May 28, 1864 : Glad you are getting on so 
well with your continuation of the " Child's Question Book." The 
notices of it, private as well as public, are all full of commendation. 
The " Primer " will be ready next week, and Boyce's " Catechism " 
is in the printer's hands. I advertise " S. S. Tickets " and " Teach- 
er's Class Books," to be ready by ist July. What do you think 
about the tickets what to put on them? Do you think it important 
to have texts of sermons? If so, don't you want to send me some 



THE SHOCK OF WAR 21 1 

of your favorites just referring to them, or catchwords, by which I 
can find them ? 

During the last year of the war Doctor Boyce was 
aid-de-camp to Governor McGrath. Doctors Broadus, 
Manly, and Williams were preaching to country churches. 
The bare necessities of life were hard to get. The Semi- 
nary seemed dead. The end of the war no one could 
see even just before the surrender of General Lee. 

J. A. B. to BASIL MANLY : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., April 11, 1865 : I take it there will now be 
war in this country fully as long as you or I will live. AH thought 
of doing this or that " after the war," must, I fear, be abandoned. 
I still have strong hope that our children may live to see independ- 
ence, and maybe our grandchildren, happiness. But " man's ex- 
tremity is God's opportunity." As wonderful things have hap- 
pened in history as that our cause should now begin to rise and 
prosper. 



CHAPTER XI 
MAKING A NEW START 

Dive through the stormy surface of the flood 
To the great current flowing underneath. 

Wordsworth. 

AT last the war was over and the South was prostrate. 
Could the Seminary reopen ? The professors had 
been living on their small salaries from their country 
churches, paid chiefly " in kind." Doctor Boyce at first 
proposed to leave the Seminary so as to make money for 
it by his business talents. 

J. A. B. to BASIL MANLY : 

GREENVILLE, July 3, 1865 : Boyce makes a definite proposition. 
He has determined to leave the Seminary and engage in business. 
He proposes to lend to each of us three a thousand dollars for the 
next session, on the faith of our salary of $1800, which the Semi- 
nary will owe us, to be paid when it can get the means. I add the 
following suggestions. You and Williams might arrange with your 
churches to preach once a month to each during the session, ana 
twice a month in vacation. We could, for the present, cease to have 
lectures on Saturday, and this would take each of us away two 
Mondays of the month, or perhaps I might go only one Monday. . . 
C. J. Elford, with whom I have been talking, thinks the plan 
entirely feasible. He says, as do others, that unless there is a great 
drought, corn will be much cheaper next winter than ever before 
since we came here. . . 

Boyce expects to leave next Tuesday for New York, and wants 
us to decide this week if possible. I am about to write a similar let- 
ler to Williams, but greatly fear he will not get it. If possible ride 
up and see him, and let me have answer from both immediately, 
certainly not later than Monday's mail. Give the letter to the mail 
agent in person. I say agree to it, by all means. Boyce will lose 
the use of capital, but will have no risk, as we shall be personally 



MAKING A NEW START 213 

responsible to him, and the Seminary, with its whole subscribed 1 
endowment of at least $140,000, responsible to us. 

BASIL MANLY to J. A. B. : 

NINETY-SIX, S. C., July 6, 1865 : Yours of 3d reached me yes- 
terday at dinner, and I went immediately to Williams , . 

Williams will write you his views. . . Meanwhile, here are my 
ideas for him and you to consider as far as I have been able to 
think through the case. [We give a few extracts], 

It is desirable to return to the Seminary, if possible to reorganize 
it. That work is the most agreeable to my feelings. Its prompt 
re-establishment secures the institution for the churches of the country 
with all its boundless possibilities for good. And we are committed 
and pledged to it, not only by being its representatives before the 
public, its active officers, but also by having received our salaries 
during the war. . . 

There is hazard to ourselves in incurring a personal debt which 
neither of us has funds to pay if it finally falls on us. . . 

Will there be any students ? Where from ? How supported ? 

Calculations on pay from churches must be extremely moderate. 
Three hundred dollars, I think, is as much as could be counted on 
with safety The people are both impoverished and utterly dis- 
couraged. 

Can collections be pushed for the Seminary either of old or new 
subscriptions, for a number of years ? Will not the local institutions, 
the denominational State colleges, claim with more power and suc- 
cess than we the sympathies and slender contributions of the people, 
so that we should be postponed to a more convenient season? Most 
of the existing bonds were given by men who, I suppose, are now 
unable, even if willing, to pay, and who would almost feel it as an 
insult, if collections were pressed with decided earnestness. 

The whole question turns, it appears to me, on the other questions : 
Shall we have quiet soon ? Will the labor system settle down to a 
stable equilibrium ? . . 

In short, if there is a reasonable probability that Boyce's generous 
advance can be refunded by the Seminary, in a reasonable time, we 
ought to try it, otherwise not. . . 

I would like to help you at Siloam. The difficulty is I ought to go 
up about that time for my wife, and having no money to go by cars, 
must take the dirt road, and that takes time. Til see about it. This 
letter, of course, is for Boyce as well as you. I exceedingly regret 

1 This subscribed endowment became of little value because of the war. 



214 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

the idea of his withdrawing from us, but suppose he feels it his 
duty as well as interest. He was the founder of the Seminary, and 
its representative man more than any of us. 

J. A. B. to BASIL MANLY : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., July 12, 1865 : Very low spirited letter from 
Williams. Am going to urge him to go to Siloam, Monday, and be 
with us at least that day and the next, and let us talk again about 
the matter. . . 

GREENVILLE, S. C., Augustas, 1865 : Boyce home this evening. 
Hopeful about his affairs. Desires to stand up to his proposition. 
But says the Seminary must not fall below three professors. If 
Williams can't possibly take hold, he will feel bound to do it himself, 
though with the certainty of considerable, and the danger of enor- 
mous, losses from inability to move about as his affairs may require, 
and with a very poor chance to teach satisfactorily. It will, there- 
fore, be a favor to him personally, if Williams can join us. 

The end of the Seminary seemed at hand. When 
they all came together, Broadus said: "Suppose we 
quietly agree that the Seminary may die, but we'll die 
first/' 1 So the four professors held together. There 
was no chance to advertise the Seminary so as to get 
students. Col. Elford proposed to start a paper with 
the professors as editors. It was favorably considered, 
in fact, decided on at first, but seems never to have 
gotten really started. Everything was paralyzed by the 
effect of the war. When the Seminary did reopen on 
Nov. ist, it was with only seven students. In homilet- 
ics Doctor Broadus had only one student, and he was 
blind. But it was like Doctor Broadus to give this one 
blind student the best he had. The careful preparation 
of full lectures for the blind brother led to the writing of 
" Preparation and Delivery of Sermons." 3 

At this time he was also teaching a large Bible class of 
ladies which had begun in the Sunday-school ; but when 

1 Broadus's ' ' Memoir of Boyce," p. 200. a /fcrf., p. aoi. 



MAKING A NEW START 21$ 

he was absent, preaching every Sunday, they requested 
him to meet them on Wednesday afternoons, in the lec- 
ture room of the church. 

J. A. B. to MISS C. F. D. : 

Is it any harm for me to express the earnest desire that you should 
become a Christian, and now ? We are friends, and I delight in it 
I have been your teacher in the Scriptures, and you have listened to 
me often as I preached the gospel and I pray you, be reconciled to 
God. Seek the Lord while he may be found. Some people deceive 
themselves, but religion is not deception. Oh, be a Christian, and 
try to bring all you love to be Christians too. Begin to pray, that 
you may pray for others as well as yourself, I am going to make 
daily prayer for you. Oh, pray yourself have mercy on yourself. 

C. A, BUCKBEE to J. A. B. : 

NEW YORK, Nov. 3, 1865 : Yours of Oct. 24 is just received. It 
gives us joy to hear from you once more. Your letter breathes a 
generous Christian spirit in reference to our country and the feel- 
ings of the people. Your sentiments are in perfect harmony with 
those of the great majority of the people at the North. We have 
had conversation with a number of brethren from Alabama, Georgia, 
and other States, and find that all are disposed to cultivate a truly 
Christian and generous disposition, in a spirit of cordiality and con- 
fidence. This we must do, for each other's sake, the country, the 
colored people, and the cause of our Redeemer. 

Since 1861 we have gone on in our work, though we missed the 
aid of our brethren in the South. 

J. A. B. to " THE NATIONAL INTELLIGENCER " : 

As to Governor Perry. . . I believe him to be an honest man, an 
article more scarce in the world, even among politicians, than could 
be desired. He was always a Union man, and opposed secession 
with all his might to the last, . . but afterward supported the war, 
as any other decent man born and bred here, and rooted in the soil, 
would have done. 

The pathos of the reconstruction period was relieved 
by some humor. Some of the new advisers of the Ne- 
groes counseled them not to take their hats off when 
speaking to white people. One morning a Greenville 



2l6 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

Negro met Doctor Broadus on the street and said : 
"Good morning, Mr. Broadus," with a stiff air. But he 
soon caught himself and doffed his hat with a hearty 
" Howdy, Marse Jeems " as he was wont to call Doctor 
Broadus. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : l 

GREENVILLE, S. C., Jan. 27, 1866 : The political prospect now 
is very dark. God have mercy on this troubled land. I conclude 
not to order any more books, nor to buy anything I can do without, 
until I get more money, or see a brighter prospect for the country. . . 

Mr. Getsinger's departure leaves me with nobody in homiletics 
but Mr. Lunn. As it happens, nearly all the remainder of my course 
is lectures, and he is a good listener. The Presbyterian Seminaiy at 
Columbia has five students, though they offer to pay the students' 
board. Before the war they reached sixty odd. 

GREENVILLE, S. C., Feb. i, 1866 : Really it is right dull to de- 
liver my most elaborate lectures in homiletics to one man, and that a 
blind man. Of course I whittle it all down to a simple talk. 

GREENVILLE, S. C., Feb. 6, 1866: . > I was much interested in 
your graphic description of experiences in Richmond. Such details 
are the life of letter writing. I deeply sympathize with your mother 
in the loss of her sister. I have known what it means to watch long 
beside one suffering and sinking, and at last see her pass away, a 
dear, dear sister. I am very sorry I never knew your aunt. It is a 
trial about the life we are living here, that we cannot get acquainted 
with each other's kindred, and can so seldom see those we know 
best. But anything personal must be sacrificed to usefulness. 

NEAR NINETY-SIX, S. C., Feb. 19, 1866: I came down on Satur- 
day as usual. Left the family as well as usual. Cars start at 4.30 
o'clock now, and it was the coldest weather we have had this winter. 
Bro, Williams came down also to an appointment, and we chatted 
and read. So cold at the church that we built a fire out of doors, 
sheltered by the house from the wind, brought out some benches, 
and I believe the little group of twelve or fifteen enjoyed the services 

1 Mrs Broadus had returned to Charlottesville for her first visit since before the 
war. She remained some months and was much benefited in health. At Columbia, 
on the way home, she was met with the grievous tidings of the death of her little 
Nellie, a radiant, delightful child ; she had been ill but a few days. 



MAKING A NEW START 217 

uncommonly. I sat on one of the benches and preached, with the 
Bible lying on my knees. 

GREENVILLE, S. C., Mar. 2, 1866: There was an examination in 
systematic theology to-day, so that I had no lectures, and I have 
reveled all day in the new books. Some valuable German works 
on homiletics if I just had somebody to teach. Origen on Mat- 
thew, in the Greek, and Grote's " Plato and the Other Companions 
of Socrates," 3 volumes, 8vo, fai.OutchJ It is a noble work, 
and we must both read it very diligently to get the worth of the money. 

GREENVILLE, S. C., Mar 8, 1866 : I have had some long talks 
with Thomas. He thinks, from the way folks in Virginia talked, 
that the brethren will keep the Seminary going in some way, and I 
feel a little less discouraged about it than of late. . 

GREENVILLE, S. C., April 10, 1866: It is settled that I am to go 
to the Southern Baptist Convention which meets Tuesday, May 22, 
at Russellville, Ky., not far from Nashville. . . See Uncle William 
and say that I earnestly hope he will find it practicable to go. The 
fate of the Seminary must be decided there, by a consultation among 
its friends, and he could give us important help. Tell him the enter- 
prise must fail unless there is a vigorous effort en the part of its 
special friends. 

GREENVILLE, S. C., April 17, 1866 : Made my last lecture in 
homiletics to-day. Quite possible that it will be the last indeed. 

I must work now over the affairs of the S. S. Board, especially Its 
report to the Convention, which it will take me many days to pre- 
pare. With the session of the Convention, I shall lay down that 
work, positively and altogether. 

GREENVILLE, S. C., April 24, 1866: This afternoon the horse 
came from Cedar Grove, with a top buggy lent by a Bethel man, 
till they can procure one. The horse is not handsome, but seems to 
be of solid qualities, gentle and able to go along quite well. He is 
seven or eight years old. They paid a hundred and forty-five dol- 
lars in gold for him. So if nothing happens you can continue your 
buggy rides after your return home. 

J. A. B. to MISS ELIZA S. BROADUS : 

RUSSELLVILLE, Ky., May 24, 1866: Keep account of the postage 
as usual, and preserve this list until my return* This will be a tu- 



218 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

blesome job to you, but it is a comfort to me that I have a daughter 
sufficiently intelligent and careful to be trusted with such things. 
We have got a secretary now (Mr. Bitting) and you and I both may 
hope soon to be relieved. 

Extract fiom J. A. B.'s report as corresponding secre- 
tary of the Sunday-school Board : 

In looking back now (May, 1866) upon their labors during the 
war, the Board feels glad that the Baptist denomination did at least 
attempt some general effort towards the advancement of the Sunday- 
school work at that period a thing which, so far as they are in- 
formed, was not attempted by any corresponding organization in 
other denominations. And though what we did was sadly little, 
compared to the need and with our wishes, the Board are thankful 
that we are enabled, amid the surpassing difficulties, to accomplish 
so much. . . 

Sunday-schools for the colored people have, for many years past, 
been conducted in different sections of the South, particularly in the 
cities and towns. The recent emancipation furnishes increased mo- 
tives for seeking to establish such schools, and there can be no lon- 
ger any disposition to restrict them to oral instruction. On every 
account it is more important that the colored people should be brought 
under the influence of morality and religion, and that they should be 
able to read for themselves the blessed word of salvation. And this 
work must of necessity be done mainly by ourselves. No other 
persons can possibly reach them on so large a scale as the whites 
among whom they live, and no others are likely to have so much 
influence with them, especially in the wide country districts where 
they are mainly found. We are solemnly bound to use this influ- 
ence for their highest good, and we may increase it by kindly and 
judicious efforts to promote their educational and religious welfare. 
The Board are therefore impressed with the conviction, that both 
organized and individual exertions ought at once to be made, all 
over the country, to establish colored Sunday-schools, and they hope 
the Convention will give to this idea their special recommendation. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

WASHINGTON CITY, May 30, 1866: The meeting at Russellville 
for the Seminary gave us great encouragement, and is thought to 
have insured the success of the institution. Over ten thousand dol- 
lars were subscribed on the spot, to be paid in five annual instal- 



MAKING A NEW START 219 

ments, and agents were heartily invited to Kentucky and Missouri. 
We are in good spirits. 

J. A. B. to DR. B. GRIFFITH : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., June 21, 1866: I earnestly hope that the 
contemplated Review may succeed in obtaining a national circula- 
tion. But I cannot undertake to occupy the position of associate 
editor, nor do I think the plan of having associate editors is really 
best for the enterprise. . . 

I need not apologize for the freedom with which I make these sug- 
gestions. They will be regarded as showing my sincere desire to 
see the Review do well. I shall be very glad if you can give it such 
a truly religious character, and succeed in keeping it so free from all 
that ought to give offense, that we of the South may find no diffi- 
culty in yielding it a hearty support. It has been one of our plans 
at this place to establish a Review here some day ; but the crippled 
state of our finances would make that impossible now, and the future 
must decide whether it shall hereafter be considered desirable. 

J. A. B. to C. E. TAYLOR : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., July 20, 1866 : I sympathize with the feel- 
ings you express. But we have so few Baptist ministers who are 
thoroughly educated and are going to have so very few of that class 
from among those who were in the army, that I feel an exceeding 
desire to see any young brother who has ability, preparation, and 
sufficient means, passing on through the most thorough and patient 
preparation. Four years from now you would be twenty-seven and 
Jesus began his ministry at thirty and Paul at near forty. 

The years lost in the war ought to be treated with reference to 
mental culture, as a sort of resection just consent to lose the piece 
and join the two extremities. After graduating at the University of 
Virginia, if you cannot restrain your impatience so far as to take 
two more years here, one session would give you our most indispen- 
sably important studies, Hebrew, Greek, Systematic Theology, and 
Homiletics. 

Meantime, if you can do half as much good among the students 
as your brother George did, your college years will be by no means 
a blank in the record of your life-time usefulness. 

From intimations received, I expect if we live, to see you attain 
usefulness of a high order. God bless you, in heart and in life, in 
your current efforts to do good and in your plans for the future. In 
patience possess your soul. 



220 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

R. H. GRIFFITH to J. A B. : 

CHARLOTTE, N. C., Aug. 20, 1866 : It is not so much that I 
suppose that my views of the matter are of any moment with you, 
as for the satisfaction it will furnish myself in giving expression to 
my feelings, that I write to say to you that I am very, very glad that 
\ ou have decided to remain in your present position in the Seminary. 1 
I really believe that such is the sentiment of the great body of our 
brethren throughout the South, and I trust that you will receive from 
those whose views should have weight, such assurances of their 
gratification at your decision, as will go far towards furnishing 
heart-compensation for the self-denial you make in remaining. And 
yet, far more than this, I pray that the Master may so bless your labors 
and so furnish your heart with delight in the work of your position 
that you may have the self-satisfaction of feeling that he has di- 
rected your decision. May our heavenly Father not only bless your 
labors and accept your sacrifices there, but graciously fill your heart 
with the delights of his presence. 

You will excuse me for saying this much. It was in my heart, 
and I feel better now I've said it. 

JACKSON BLACKWOOD to J. A. B. : 

CHARLOTTE, N. C., Sept. 17, 1866: Tell the young brethren to 
learn to sing a few tunes, for I have seen some good meetings 
spoiled for want of some person to raise the tune. 

Doctor Broadus from the start took great interest in 

the students learning how to sing. 

% 

J. A. B. to H, P. GRIFFITH [member of the Cedar Grove Church] : 
GREENVILLE, S. C., Oct. 5, 1866 : I am quite sick, and utterly 
broken in spirits intermittent fever very weak. Doctor Earle 
says it will take several weeks before I can do anything. 

I am specially dispirited at being utterly unable to obtain any 
money in my present condition. It is impossible for an honest man 
to live in town without money all the time. How much more when ' 
he is prostrate on his bed. . . 

If any of those who owe me and who, I know, find it exceedingly 
hard to pay anything, could understand my present state of need 
and mortification, they would feel like making a most earnest effort to 
pay me something. 

1 He had been asked to be President of Richmond College. 



MAKING A NEW START 221 

I should not have been willing to speak thus/if in my usual health, 
for I should have been more hopeful and there would have been 
some chance that I might find out some way of getting something. . . 

Keep on the old way ; that if any prefer giving provisions instead 
of money, let them do so. 

J. M. BROADUS to J. A. B. : 

ALEXANDRIA, VA., Nov. i, 1866: I told Bro. Bitting to tell you 
that if you wanted to hear from me you could take the usual course 
for getting a letter ; but upon reflection, I think I am now your 
debtor, not having written you since your letter explaining the Rich- 
mond College affair. Well, just a word about that : I approved your 
course in that matter and surely everybody else approves it ex- 
cepting such as cannot see how a man is justified in " refusing a 
good offer " good in the sense of promising a handsome yield of 
money. Martha and I were talking of it when I saw her last week. 
The four or five thousand dollars shocked her sensibilities, but she 
accepted the explanation and agreed you had done right. What is 
the matter that you do not write for the " Herald" any more? I 
need not say that your articles afforded a large proportion of my 
pleasure in the paper. Are you busy with your twelve pupils? 
Maybe your commentary has been resumed. And are you still serv- 
ing three churches ? 

Some reminiscences of Doctor Broadus's work at Cedar 
Grove Church have been furnished by Prof. H. P. 

Griffith : 

I noted a little exhibition of delicate feeling and of fine perception 
on his part which I was fully prepared to appreciate. He asked me 
to open the Bible and read a passage from one of the minor books. 
There were young ladies present and he must have noticed my blank 
look, and so he with hardly any pause, went on to enumerate in order 
the names of the books, so that to my great relief I had no difficulty 
in finding the places. . . 

Just after the war when the Ku Klux were committing great 
atrocities and terrorizing the upper part of South Carolina, I was 
with Doctor Broadus at a place where a small party of six or eight 
young men were present. They were all strangers to him and some 
of them were to me. One of the young men introduced the subject 
of the Ku Klux and several of them put verbal endorsement on the 
organization, or expressed their approval of it, as many good men 



222 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

did. Doctor Broadus was silent for some time, but finally he spoke, 
and I never heard a more scathing rebuke administered than he gave 
the young men and the Ku Klux. He grew eloquent over the woes 
already inflicted by the organization, and spoke with withering 
power of the criminality of lawlessness and of the just retribution 
that was sure to come. After we had left, I said, " Doctor you were 
pretty hard on those young men." He replied, " Yes, I saw that 
two or three of them were Ku Klux, and I felt it my duty to repri- 
mand them in strong terms." 

There was a member of our church who would never contribute 
anything to the pastor's salary, though he was a man of some 
means. He pretended to believe that it was wrong to pay a man for 
preaching, and he could at any time quote Scripture in defense of his 
position. His position was a great hobby with him, and he was 
always eager for a wrangle with some one who would take the 
other side. Doctor Broadus skillfully avoided all contact with him 
on his hobby for several years. But by and by the man quit at- 
tending church. After he had stayed away many months, Doctor 
Broadus went to see him at his home. He began to talk with him 
kindly and lovingly about his staying away from church, told him 
that he was neglecting a duty and a privilege, and besides was set- 
ting an example that would do harm to others. He told him further- 
more that he (Doctor B ) had just come from the bedside of an 

old man in a dying condition who had for years done just what he 
was doing, and now it was the source of bitter regret to the old man 
that he had so acted ; and that the time was coming when he too 
would bitterly regret the way he was doing. At about this stage 
the man sprang his hobby, and said, " Well, what do you want 
money for preaching for? " Doctor Broadus's reply was like the light- 
ning's flash. He rose to his feet in towering indignation, and said ; 
" Thy money perish with thee ! I have not asked you for money. 
Wait till I ask you for it, before you insult me with such an insinua- 
tion." And he turned and left the man literally writhing under his 
indignant scorn. 

In those days he made it a point to learn something from every- 
body he met. I saw him once stand by a blacksmith and watch 
him intently while he shod a horse. He not only watched, but 
asked many pertinent questions about the process. The blacksmith 
was greatly flattered by the interest manifested, and a casual ob- 
server would have thought that Doctor Broadus was trying to learn 
the trade of shoeing horses. At another time I was traveling with 
him on a railroad. By some means he found that a certain portly- 



MAKING A NEW START 223 

looking gentleman who sat far from us was a big railroad official. 

On learning this, Doctor B went to him, introduced himself and 

was soon seated by him and apparently engaged in a very interest- 
ing conversation. He remained with him for perhaps an hour, and 
when he came to me, he said : " That is Mr. , one of the rail- 
road magnates. I do love to meet a man who can tell me a whole 
heap of things that I know nothing about." 

In July, 1864, 1 was brought home, badly wounded. Somewhere 
in North Carolina I was surprised and delighted to see Doctor 
Broadus step into the train. He was homeward bound and stayed 
with me through the rest of the journey, showing me every possible 
kindness and attention. I was unable to walk, and was physically 
prostrate. I remember that an officer poured out some whisky from 
a canteen for me and told me to drink it. Before I had done so, how- 
ever, he added, " Stop, I'll get some sugar and sweeten it." Doctor 
Broadus answered quickly, " No, don't do that. If he is going to 
take the whisky as a medicine, let him do it and don't try to make 
a beverage of it." The sugar was not brought. During the day 
on which we arrived at home he sat down by me in the car and 
talked to me long and affectionately. He gave me a good deal of 
advice in regard to building up my health and thereby improving 
jny wounds, and he added : " Harrison, you will now be the head 
of a family when you get home (I was married and had one child) 
and it will be a good time for you to begin to have family prayer. 
Kneel down with your wife every night, and teach your little girl 
to be still while you lift up your heart to God." He then went 
on to mention many things to be prayed for, and indeed outlined 
the kind of prayer that I should use, so that it would be easy for 
me to make it. He did all this with such charming tact, and yet 
he was so simple and earnest and affectionate, that I was impressed 
for a lifetime. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. \_en route to Southern Baptist Convention] : 

ATLANTA, GA., May 6, 1867 : In the afternoon tihere was a union 
celebration of all the Protestant Sunday-schools. It was a grand 
procession, the schools amounting to actually two thousand present. 
An immense hall was crowded, and a multitude found it impossible 
to enter. Probably twenty-five hundred were kept forty-five minutes 
listening to a most inappropriate address from a distinguishec 1 

preacher, Doctor M . It was full of spread eagle, geology and 

infidelity, cyclopedia and dictionary, and the poor children sat try- 
ing to listen. 



224 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

MEMPHIS, TENN., May 8, 1867 : Mr. Keen and I went before 
dinner to see the " R. E Lee," a new and marvelously splendid Mis- 
sissippi River steamer. I then got my first sight of the Mississippi. 
A mighty river moving in its majesty always strongly affects me. 
I must try to go alone some day, and sit and gaze an hour upon the 
grandest of earth's rivers. At such a moment there is but one per- 
son whose presence would not disturb me. The " R. E. Lee" is a 
magnificent affair, the saloon as splendidly gilt as the halls of Con- 
gress, and beautifully furnished. Oh, how much I should like to 
take passage in it next week for New Orleans. When we get rich 
we must take a trip on the Mississippi. 

J. H. THAYER to J. A. B. : 

ANDOVER, MASS., May 13, 1867 : Please accept my thanks for 
your very kind note of the 2$d ult. The suggestions you make re- 
specting " Winer's Grammar" seem to me to be well founded. My 
experience in the use of it as a text-book, though brief, has been 
similar to your own. The first and gravest difficulty I encountered, 
however, on making daily use of Masson's translation arose from 
its untrustworthiness. With all its ease as a translation, I found it 
could not be relied upon as a faithful reproduction of the original. 

Doctor Broadus was asked to preach the baccalaureate 
sermon at Washington College. When he demurred at 
the distance and expense, Gen. R. E. Lee sent back this 
message through the Baptist pastor, Rev. J. Wm. Jones : 

LEXINGTON, VA., May 18, 1867 s General Lee says : "Tell him 
we are as poor as church mice, but would most gladly pay four 
times the amount in order to have one of his gospel sermons and 
have the pleasure of his society." 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

DANVILLE, VA., June 5, 1867 : Parted from Misses P and 

W this morning at Greensboro. They are going to a Catholic 

convent school, and as I looked at them in their girlish simplicity, 
I felt like I was leading maidens to a sacrifice. I tried to say some 
things before parting, as much as delicacy would allow, and trust it 
may do them a little good, as we had become attached to each other, 
and they wept at my words. I merely urged that they should love 
Christ, and must lodge fast in their minds the idea that Jesus is as 



MAKING A NEW START 225 

truly human, with as tender human sympathy as his mother or any 
one, and that no one must ever come between the soul and him. 

Between Columbia and Charlotte I had much pleasant talk with 
Rev. Dr. Woodrow, of the Presbyterian Seminary at Columbia, to 
whom I was introduced, and who is a very agreeable man. 

LOCUST GROVE, CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA., June 6, 1867 : At 
Gordonsville the others took the O and Alexandria train by a new 
arrangement and went ahead. I was on the platform and waited for 
the Central train, which had backed some distance, to come up, 
taking for granted it would stop. Finding that it was passing without 
stopping, bewildered at the idea of being left, and imagining that the 
train was not yet moving rapidly, I committed a great folly by try- 
ing to get on while it was in motion. I seized the iron rods with my 
two hands, was immediately dragged from my feet, and found my- 
self between the platform and the swiftly moving car, holding by 
my hands, and dragged over the crossties, sadly near the terrible 
wheels. By a great effort I lifted myself so as to get one knee on 
the bottom step, and thus got on, fiercely scolded by an unknown 
passenger, and feeling, I trust, thankful that my grievous impru- 
dence had produced no worse consequences, and that I myself, and 
not another, would tell you the story. One ankle was a little bruised 
by striking a crosstie, and the jar and fright made me nervous for 
some hours. I shiver still when I think of it. If my life is spared 
long, it is greatly to be feared that I shall do a variety of foolish 
things, but I feel at present a strong confidence that I shall never 
again try to get on a train in motion. . . 

The first thing I did upon entering the yard was to pluck a rose 
from the " Giant of Battles," and some leaves of it shall be enclosed 
in this. . . 

I throw open the blinds, and yonder he the green fields, smiling 
under the level rays of the declining sun, and farther the long line of 
the Blue Ridge, which bears my thoughts southward to that far-off 
home where the sweet wife sits who left this beautiful landscape for 
love of me. God be thanked that she will not have a telegraphic 
dispatch to-morrow night telling her that her husband's crushed 
body lies still at Gordonsville. And God grant that we may meet 
again at the appointed time, both improved in health, and that I may 
be enabled to be to you somewhat such a husband as I wish and 
mean this evening. 

LYNCHBURG, June 8, 1867 : Boyce is somewhat sick this evening. 
He is much distressed and depressed by the death of Elf ord. He has 

P 



226 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

about determined to stay and teach his classes next session, and de- 
cide a year hence about his future. 

You may know what a crowd l there is, from the fact that I did not 
speak to Uncle William till noon to-day, nor to John Hart till just 
now, five o'clock. 

LOCUST GROVE, CHARLOTTESVILLE, June 13, 1867 : Went 
up to the University and dined at Mr. Smith's. I heard part of a 
lecture from Mr. Smith on " Electricity," and was very much in- 
terested. Went into Mr. Peters' examination in Latin, and met Mr. 
Holmes there also. Mary Smith has been much interested of late 
in translating from the German, prose and poetry ; among other 
things, a complete translation of Schiller's " Song of the Bell," 
which was mislaid, and I could not see it. If Annie receives two 
numbers of a Philadelphia weekly, " The Age," she will find in it a 
story, " The Broken Pitcher," which Mrs. Smith translated. . . I 
mean to write for them. In the evening before coming back, I rode 
on horseback to the country. Everywhere I go I want you with me 
every feature of the landscape makes me think of you, every me- 
mento of the past is somehow associated with you. 

GOSHEN DEPOT, VA., June 16, 1867 : I left Lexington last night. 
... I was treated with great respect and kindness, of course, and 
my sermon, though imperfect, succeeded better than I had feared, 
and I trust did some good. 

I wrote Saturday morning. That afternoon General Lee and several 
professors called. There was a concert at night, but I stayed at home, 
hoarse, and feeling badly. Sunday morning it rained considerably, 
which prevented my going to Sunday-school, and prevented the 
huge Presbyterian church from running over. It was full, including 
some four hundred college students and cadets. I did greatly long 
to make them think of Jesus. 2 Oh, that I could once speak of him 
somewhat as a man ought to speak. 1 dined at Colonel Reid's, 
whose only son died at the University while I was chaplain, and I 
preached his funeral sermon one Sunday afternoon in the public hall. 
(I think you were present.) One of his daughters married James 
White. I spoke to old Doctor White of you as his pupil, and he 
said some kind and handsome things, speaking also of your father, 
as having given him a very kind and valuable support in his early 
years of teaching and preaching at Charlottesville. In the after- 

1 June meetings of Virginia Baptists. 
2 He preached on " One Jesus," from Acts 35 : 19. 



MAKING A NEW START 227 

noon I attended a prayer meeting at the Baptist church, and talked 
to them, having steadily declined to preach. Took tea with a Bap- 
tist brother and at night heard Dr. B. M. Smith, formerly of Staun- 
ton, before the Christian Association. General Lee invited me to 
dine with him, and then to take tea on Monday, but I was already 
engaged for both. Monday I saw the towncalled on Mrs. Lee, 
who is an invalid in a wheeled chair, but exceedingly agreeable. . . 
In the afternoon visited Jackson's grave. Took tea with Professor 
Harris, 1 who was my classmate at the University, and met there 
most of the new professors, some half-dozen very pleasing gentle- 
men. At nine o'clock went to the celebration of the Ugly Club, 
which was quite entertaining. 

J. M. GREEN to J. A. B. : 

MACON, GA., May 6, 1868 : Some two months since I wrote to 
my friend, Doctor Davidson, of Lexington, requesting to know if I 
could obtain a biography of that distinguished scholar, Gessner Har- 
rison, whose name, although perhaps the greatest scholar that 
America has produced, is almost unknown to his Southern country- 
men. I desire to procure such a notice of his life and character as 
would be appropriate for insertion in the papers and m a biographical 
dictionary. I felt that a man who had conferred so much honor on 
his country should not be allowed to pass away without the slightest 
attempt to perpetuate his name and fame. I have, therefore, at the 
suggestion of Doctor Davidson, taken the liberty to ask of you if 
you would not undertake to prepare and have published such a 
sketch of Doctor Harrison's life, and also send me a copy of the 
same for republication here. My reason for applying to you, is that 

I have learned from Doctor D that you have been appointed to 

prepare and deliver a eulogy on the life and character of your dis- 
tinguished relative before the alumni of the University of Virginia. 

In May, 1868, the Southern Baptist Convention met 
in Baltimore. Many visiting ministers attended from the 
adjacent Northern States. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

BALTIMORE, MD., May 8, 1868 : Just adjourned great hurry. 
I am quite hoarse, but general health improving. Have declined 
preaching and been excused. Meeting for Seminary this evening 

1 Carter Johns Harris. 



228 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

new plan much feeling. Don't know yet what the result will be 
The Lord direct. I said that reliable arrangements must be made or 
I must resign this very summer. 
All straight and smooth about the Northerners. 

BALTIMORE, Saturday, May 9, 1868 : Session for the day nearly 
over. Morning spent on the Seminary. Remarkable interest. I 
suppose we shall be sustained, but it is not absolutely certain. It is 
certain that we shall not, for some years to come, remove the Semi- 
nary from Greenville. 

Fuss this afternoon about the North and the South. Pomdexter 
grew heated and Doctor Welch, from New York, is now making an 
injudicious reply. These old men are rather hotheaded and I fear 
some of the young men may catch the contagion. Things look a 
little black in that direction. 

BALTIMORE, May 12, 1868 : We are still engaged some sense, 
and some nonsense. Sunday-school Board moved to Memphis, 
after somewhat hot debate, Boyce and Graves. I took tea yester- 
day with Miss Cornelia Taliaferro. . . 

There is to be a meeting Thursday at twelve o'clock of a society 
for the education of Southern girls. I gave notice of it last Sunday 
with some remarks which pleased the ladies, and some of them be- 
sieged me last night to stay and speak on Thursday. The very ex- 
istence of the Seminary depends on the support of Baltimore, and I 
agreed to remain. . Have just refused to change back to biennial 
sessions, with less discussion than 1 had feared. . . It is settled that 
I am to resign my churches, and spend the summer collecting in 
Virginia. 

J. A. B. to A. B. WOODRUFF : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA., May 18, 1868 : What can I say? I 
can hardly bear the thought, but it must be so. 

There was talk of sending me to England, but I objected ; I am to 
spend the summer in Virginia, partly perhaps at the Springs, and 
hope that I shall be strong next fall for my duties in the Seminary. 
Brethren seem determined that I shall live. I can no longer do both 
a professor's and a pastor's work, and everything must bend to the 
Seminary. For it I left my position here, which was to me the most 
attractive pastorate in the country. Brilliant proposals are made in 
different directions, but I have no thought of anything else than ad- 
hering to the Seminary, though the salary is not increased, and I 
shall have hard work to live. 



MAKING A NEW START 229 

My best love to your dear wife. I have formed many friendships 
at Bethel which will be cherished as long as I live. 

REMINISCENCES OF J. A. B. BY A. B. WOODRUFF. 

The first year of Doctor Broadus' s pastorate was for only one 
Sunday in the month. He came down from Greenville, a distance 
of twenty-four miles, on every Saturday before the second Sunday, 
preached that day and the day following, and returned to his home 
on Sunday, and for that service we paid him $200. . . During 
this second year he prepared and presented to the members of the 
church a scheme for reading the Bible through in a year. Many of 
the members adopted his scheme and found pleasure and profit too, 
in carrying out his plan. . . 

He had a most affectionate way of drawing out the members to 
lead in public prayer. And it was wonderful to see the extent of 
success in this line of work. Men who had always been considered 
immovable as to this order of Christian duty would melt down under 
the influence of his affectionate loving spirit and draw us all nearer 
to a throne of grace . . 

When he left us, in June, 1868, it was one of the saddest days our 
church had ever experienced. He was beloved by all, and in fact we 
could hardly exist without him. The church had just voted him a 
vacation of some weeks and he was then absent on that vacation. 
His letter of resignation came and was accepted under a sense of the 
saddest duty. 

He was always prompt to fill his appointments when it was possi- 
ble for him to do so and he was just as prompt to return to his home, 
although he would very often have lo use a part of the night to 
reach his home. Some of the brethren of our church prepared and 
furnished him a buggy and umbrella, while the brethren of the Cedar 
Grove Church, near-by, and which he also supplied, furnished him 
a horse, and this supplied him with the means of transportation for 
his work. The women of the congregation wove and made him a 
full suit of jeans which he wore for a long time and enjoyed very 
much. It was a work of love on the part of these Christian women. 

After the Convention, Doctor and Mrs. Broadus were 
invited to visit Miss Cornelia Taliaferro in Baltimore. 
They greatly enjoyed their stay of ten days, meeting 

Dr. Richard Fuller, who was Miss T 's pastor, and a 

number of other friends. Meanwhile Doctor Broadus 



230 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

went over to New York with Doctor Manly to attend the 
May Anniversaries. He had been formally asked to 
address the Home Mission Society upon " The Religious 
Condition and Wants of the South." 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

NEW YORK, May 26, 1868 ; This afternoon we were formally re- 
ceived, with two or three hours of grand glorification speeches, great 
crowd, and prodigious enthusiasm. I feel worn with excitement, and 
to-night have to make my address. I am ashamed to predict a fail- 
ureyou laugh at me for doing so ; but the circumstances are very 
trying, and I shall speak under many disadvantages. I fear and 
tremble, for I should like to do good, and there is a chance for doing 
good. 

DR. NATHAN BISHOP to J. A. B. . 

NEW YORK, May 28, 1868 : Remembering that the faithful laborer 
is worthy of his hire and believing that your views and conduct are 
aiding in restoring good will between Northern and Southern Bap- 
tists, I enclose one hundred dollars for you personally to encourage 
you in your efforts as a peacemaker. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

ALEXANDRIA, VA , June 5, 1868: I have had an exciting day. 
Seminary up this morning at eleven o'clock. Manly and R. Fur- 
man made admirable speeches, and I tried collecting. Got more than 
I expected, viz, eight men to give one hundred dollars a year for 
five years, making four thousand dollars in all. There will proba- 
bly be two or three others. Also got over one hundred dollars cash 
collection, and two or three hundred has been paid on bonds. The 
interest for the Seminary is strong, and I feel encouraged. I have to 
make a short speech to-night for Richmond College. 

J. A. B. to BASIL MANLY : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA., June 15, 1868: Encouraged by Bro. 
Jeter, I have just written to Gould & Lincoln about publishing my 
" Notes on Matthew." I am a stranger to them, and beg you will 
write them a note on my behalf. 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA., June 24, 1868: Gould & Lincoln 
write very kindly, etc.need not wait for letters referred to, for could 



MAKING A NEW START 231 

not undertake to issue so costly a work now, which could not have 
a rapid sale, when business is so depressed, etc. Would publish with 
pleasure if the plates were furnished, which of course I can't do. A 
final disappointment to me for the present. Perhaps it will turn out 
for the best. I must try now and learn something instead of pro- 
ducing. 

My health is improving. I am trying very hard to rest and be- 
have myself. 

S. S. CUTTING to J. A. B. : 

SARATOGA SPRINGS, June 27, 1868 : How deeply I am myself 
interested in your work you already know. The education of min- 
isters is not a question of the passing hour only. There is a great 
future before our country, fraught with mingled good and evil, and 
the good will be much in proportion as the churches of our blessed 
Lord are taught and guided by a consecrated and able ministry. 
That this question so looms up at the South at the present time, is to 
me among the happiest of auguries, and whether for the cause of re- 
union in our Baptist family, or of happily restored civil relations, or 
of our country's evangelization and its permanent well-being, I know 
of no way in which a Northern Baptist can use his means more 
effectually for good than in aiding in the support of young men at 
Greenville. 

B. GRIFFITH to J. A. B. : 

PHILADELPHIA, Dec. 31, 1868 : Your package of MS. Commen- 
tary has arrived safely, and will be submitted to the Publishing 
Committee at their first meeting, after which I shall be glad to report 
their action. 

I greatly hope that this work may prove to be just what is needed. 

Doctor Weston, a few days after the reception of your first letter, 
informed me that he was maturing a plan for having a commentary l 
prepared on the Gospels and other books of the New Testament by 
different parties ; each person writing on one separate and distinct 
book. Doctor Hovey was to be asked to write on John. Doctor 
Kendrick on Luke, I think. He proposed writing on Matthew him- 
self ; but he will now probably desire you to take Matthew. He pur- 
posed asking you to unite m the plan and to be one of the writers. 
I presume he will confer with you before long. 

The idea is a good one, provided the right men are selected 1o 
write on the books on which they can do best. 

1 This plan resulted m the excellent " American Commentary.", 



232 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

By May, 1869, Doctor Broadus's health was still much 
impaired. ' A new professor, Dr. C. H. Toy, was added 
at this meeting by the trustees, so that Doctor Broadus 
could be relieved of homiletics, Doctor Manly taking 
homiletics and Doctor Toy Old Testament interpretation. 
Doctor Broadus took some interest in the discussion of 
the translation given to i Tim. i : 10, by the Bible Union 
Revision of Doctor Conant, where " menstealers" is 
rendered " slavedealers." He strongly insisted that 
"menstealers" was correct. In July Doctor Broadus 
wrote a very remarkable article in the " Baptist Quar- 
terly " on the closing verses of Mark, strongly advocat- 
ing their genuineness. 1 The article was entitled " Exe- 
getical Notes " and dealt with the style of these verses 
compared with the rest of Mark, 

Dean Burgon in his book on the authenticity of this 
part of Mark quotes freely from Doctor Broadus's article. 2 

B. F. WESTCOTT to J. A. B. : 

HARROW, LONDON, N. W., Sept. 3, 1868: Allow me to thank 
you most sincerely for your obliging note and the journal which ac- 
companied it. I have read with interest the careful and sound criti- 
cism to which you kindly called my attention. The limitations which 
you fix to the application of simply mechanical rules in estimating 
the real character and style are, I believe, most true and necessary. 
Style, indeed, is the result of the relation between the individual nature 
and the subject, and when the subject is varied it must, if it is to be 
spontaneous, vary in like manner with the same writer. The neglect 
of this obvious principle has led to the most irrational conclusions in 
reference to the Epistles of St. Paul's captivity, and to the Pastoral 
Epistles. As soon as we really apprehend that style is a function of 
the circumstances as well as of the man, difficulties vanish which are 
otherwise grave and perplexing. 

With regard to the passage of St. Mark, which you most ably 
analyze, external evidence leaves no doubt, in my opinion, that it was 

1 See Prolegomena to Tischendorfs "No-y* Testamentum," by Caspar Rene 
Gregory, p 1260, where he speaks of Doctor Broadus as " vtr docttssimus," 

2 Doctor Broadus afterward felt more uncertain about these last verses of Mark. 



MAKING A NEW START 233 

a very early addition to the Gospel and not, I think, by St. Mark. The 
writer of ver. 5 could not to express a feeling which hardly can be re- 
duced into an argument have continued his narrative in ver. g. My 
experience too, in dealing very minutely with the Greek text leads me 
to think that such a combination as K B k Arm (pp.) is never wrong. 
We are under engagement now to complete our text of the New 
Testament next year ; the work, which will appear very simple, has 
cost immense labor, but 1 hope it may issue in the substantial ancient 
text. It is an advantage that every reading has had the advantage 
of a two-fold judgment. 

The prospectus which you enclosed interests me extremely, and I 
should gladly know more of the remarkable Seminary which it 
describes. Indeed, there is nothing to which I look forward with 
more interest than a visit to America. At present my work renders 
this impossible, but it is not past hope. 

As a very slight indication of what we try to do in guiding the 
reading of candidates for Holy Orders, I send a little paper of hints 
which is asked in our own examinations. 

J. A. B. to J. L. M. CURRY : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., Jan. n, 1870: I was very much obliged to 
you for the copy of " Protestantism how far a failure." It is 
very timely and admirably done. I opine that " Clippings with 
Comments " in the " Herald" are from you, and should be glad to 
see more of them. 

I could not fail to heed your suggestion last fall that I should work 
towards the task of preparing a life of Christ. For some years, in 
fact, I have felt that if I could do several things preparatory, and then 
write, deliberately and with ample labor, a life of our Lord, it would 
be the goal of my literary aspirations ; and that one of my wisest 
and most cherished friends should have suggested the same thing, is 
a matter of much interest to me. But the way is long, and I am 
weak, and elaborate composition is very wearing to me. Last sum- 
mer I went to work at a treatise on the " Preparation and Delivery 
of Sermons," hoping to make a text-book for Manly, and at the 
same time meet the wants of young ministers who have no course of 
instruction in homiletics, and give some useful hints to older minis- 
ters. I worked at it all summer, but have not yet completed it 
Such books do not get a wide sale, and no publisher is willing to 
take one from an unknown Southern author. So I am arranging to 
publish at my own expense, through Smith & English. A generous 
contribution from unknown persons in Richmond, lately received 



2J4 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

through Wm B. Isaacs & Co., came when I was quite despondent 
about the prospect of commanding the means to publish, and will be 
a very important help to me. 

I don't want my intention to issue the book publicly known till I 
am prepared to announce it. I hope to get it out by the end of this 

session. W. D. T x has with exemplary patience, nay, with chai- 

acteristic kindness, encouraged me to read my successive chapters to 
him, and has made useful criticisms and suggestions. 

If I can get this out, and mend my health next summer, then I 
want to finish the long-delayed " Notes on Matthew," which the Publi- 
cation Society will publish. 

Your kind suggestion has led me to this long account of my occu- 
pations and plans. You will pardon it. 

We are having a good session (fifty-eight students in all), except 
that the bonds are not promptly paid, and our finances are low. I 
have been exceedingly gratified at the prosperity of Richmond Col- 
lege, which in the present state of affairs in Virginia seems to me 
very marked and encouraging. We have a fine young man here 
from Berryville, Kerfoot (graduate of Columbian), who heard you 
two or three times on your tours, and speaks with unbounded en- 
thusiasm of the addresses. 

GREENVILLE, S. C., Jan. 24, 1870 : If I could for a moment think 
of leaving here, I should look with pleasure upon the idea of joining 
you at Richmond College. But I am satisfied that I have " found 
my work." Oh, for strength of body and of character to per- 
form it 

DR. HOWARD OSGOOD to J. A. B. : 

CHESTER, PA., April 7, 1870 : Doctor Weston tells me that you 
expect to pass by here on your way to New York. It will give me 
a great deal of pleasure to have you stop at Chester and make my 
house your resting-place. Though I have not the pleasure of a 
personal acquaintance with you, that is just the benefit I seek, and if 
you will come under my roof I will do all in my power to make your 
stay agreeable. 

I have been requested to write a paper on " The Necessity of an 
Abridged Course of Studies in our Theological Seminaries." My 
own views of the necessity of such a course are decided but I should 
like to have a statement of your experience at Greenville. 

1 W. D. Thomas 



MAKING A NEW START 235 

W. D. THOMAS to J. A. B. : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., May 21, 1870 : 1 By this time you have 
heard from Boyce. I can't decide for you in the case, but, if you 
can see your way to do so, will be glad for you to enjoy the trip to 
Europe. If you go, you had better get such guide books from Curry 
and myself as we have on hand. As we have talked the matter 
over I need say nothing more. . . 

As to the Convention at Louisville I wish to say a few things. I 
did not say all on the subject of co-operation which I could say, nor 
all which I would have said had it been necessary. I certainly said 
nothing which ought to offend any man North. My convictions on 
the whole subject are clear and strong. I am in favor of cultivating 
kindly feeling, in favor of fraternal intercourse, in favor of correspond- 
ing in a brotherly way through messages with Northern societies, 
but utterly opposed to having our Boards in any way complicated or 
associated with theirs. 

As a result of the visit to New York, where he went to 
speak at the Educational Convention, Doctor Broadus 
was urged by telegraph to become pastor of the Calvary 
Church, New York City. On April 24 he preached for 
the first time in North Orange, which led to the many 
engagements in following years. 

W. A. GELLATLY to J. A. B. : 

NEW YORK, May 30, 1870 : A great many people in Orange 
were disappointed yesterday, but they will all be glad when you re- 
turn. I am afraid you are taking so strong a hold on the hearts of 
the people that they will suffer severely when you get through ; you 
must try and arrange to stay with us on through July and August. 
I wish it might be that the Lord would indicate it to be his will that 
you should remain with us for some years, at least long enough to 
enable you to recuperate, so that you could return to your work at 
Greenville with such an increase of health and strength as would 
enable you to continue your work for years to come. My fear is that 
you will return there and work yourself to death in a few years, 
whereas a change of labor and climate for a few years would 
lengthen the time of your usefulness in the work so dear to your 

1 Doctor Boyce had persuaded the trustees to send Doctor Broadus to Europe and 
Palestine for a year of rest and travel. 



236 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

heart. But I fear I am on forbidden ground nevertheless, " out of 
the fulness of the heart the mouth speaketh." 

J. A. B. to MISS E. S. B. : 

NEW YORK, June 14, 1870 : After writing to your mother yester- 
day, at three P. M. I caught the steamer, and reached West Point 
(fifty odd miles) about six. It was a great delight to see the famous 
scenery of the Hudson. 1 have a map of description which I mean 
to carry home for Sam. At West Point, it happened to be the sea- 
son of examinations. I got only an extemporized couch in the 
cupola of the hotel, with the music of the "hop" sounding four 
stories lower till nearly morning, and with the frequent whistle of 
steamers rounding the point, or the roar of trains passing up on the 
other side of the river, and waking the mighty echoes of the High- 
lands. You may imagine how much sleep I got, between eleven 
and five o'clock, for at five the reveille waked me, and I feared to 
sleep again, lest the tired servants should neglect to wake me. For 
these delightful accommodations I paid (supper, lodging and break- 
fast) three dollars and a half. However, the fare on the steamer is 
trifling (seventy-five cents for the fifty miles), and the ride was de- 
lightfuL I saw the dress parade last evening and the drill of recruits 
before breakfast, and through the window saw the Secretary of War 
in a minuet (I suppose it was), and the cadets and young officers 
with the belles in the waltz. Very few were graceful, though some 
were. If they would keep dancing within bounds, I should make 
no ado about it. But they will not, never do for any long time. 
And now-a-days they begin at once with round dances, which 
makes everything else tame, to be thrown in, like a promenade, 
only for variety. 

J. A. B. to BASIL MANLY : 

NEW YORK, June 27, 1870 : Upon conference with Bro. Boyce, 
I found that he would be willing to take the whole of New Testa- 
ment English, so that there may be no hindrance to your taking the 
whole of your polemics. 

I have sent to Pagan all of the book except Delivery as respects 
Voice and Action (two chapters) and Public Worship (one chap- 
ter). These I can finish this and the next week, if nothing happens. 
I have been taking it very easy. The hot weather last week pros- 
trated me considerably. To-day I feel much better. 

Next week 1 design returning to Charlottesville, and on 23d July 
I am to sail from here to Glasgow. The steamers are declared by 



MAKING A NEW START 237 

ladies and gentlemen who have tried both, to be fully as comfortable 
as the Cunarders some of them say more so. 

Doctor Broadus supplied at North Orange Church till 
July 3, and formed many delightful friendships that 
lasted through life. July 9 he writes to Manly : " Nearly 
done on Action. Profiting by your notes." It was diffi- 
cult then for Southern authors to get a book on the 
market. But Smith, English & Co. pushed the " Prepa- 
ration and Delivery," and Doctor Manly saw that it got 
good notices. 

J. A. B. to MISS E. S. B. : 

LYNCHBURG, VA., July 16, 1870: I took B L with me 

to hear a lecture by Doctor M . Subject: "Man." The fol- 
lowing is an humble attempt to report it : 

A collection of heterogeneous and irreconcilably incongruous ma- 
terials, conglomerated into an indescribable incomprehensibility, or- 
namented with fantastic creations of an insane imagination, and 
constituting the climacteric of sophomoric oratorization. 

He has in several respects great powers, but uses them in the most 
deplorable taste, and to hear people call that eloquence is melancholy 
and disheartening. 



CHAPTER XII 
A YEAR ABROAD 

The heart ran o'er 

With silent worship of the great of old ! 
The dead, but sceptred sovereigns who still rule 
Our spirits from their urns. 

Byron. 

MANY good wishes were to go with Doctor Broadus 
in his search for health and greater knowledge. 

ROBERT E. LEE to J. A. B. : 

LEXINGTON, VA , June 21, 1870 : I am glad to learn that you have 
decided to visit Europe, and trust complete relaxation from duty and 
the objects of interest that will at all points attract your attention, may 
entirely restore your health, and that you will return renovated in 
strength and vigor, to gladden the hearts of your many friends. 

He had originally planned to sail July 21 on the Anchor 
Line steamer " Cambria," and he changed to the " An- 
glia " J for the soth. But suddenly a suggestion was made 
that two daughters of a warm friend of his accompany 
him as far as Italy. So it was happily arranged and pas- 
sage was taken on the " Scotia/' a Cunarder. Among 
the passenger were Mrs. Horace Greeley, Gen'l Phil. 
Sheridan, and some German barons and Polish counts, 
"lam glad, " he wrote before landing, "I am on the 
' Scotia.' It is good to feel when you wake at night, 
tossed against the side of the berth and hear the waves 
break against the side of the rolling ship, that you are on 
one of the best and safest ships in existence." 

1 On Oct. 15, 1870, Dr Warren Randolph sailed on the " Anglia," having changed 
from the " Cambria " of the week before. The "Cambria " went down with all on 
board. 

238 



A YEAR ABROAD 239 

J. A. B. to MISS E. S. B. : 

CORK, IRELAND, Aug. 5, 1870 : At Queenstown we touched Ire- 
land. The queer little donkeys, dragging huge baggage carts, and 
the queer little beggars, offering to sell matches, fiddling, dancing, 
jesting all around us, made a strange sight. One bright little girl I 
questioned, that the ladies might hear the rich Irish brogue at home, 
and then gave her a penny. She was jubilant, and told the young 
ladies she wished 'em a good husband, which they thought a fine 
wish. A woman led in a man who tried to seem blind, but clearly 
was not. The little girl looked up at him with the most comical 
look I ever saw in my life. No one in our circle has mentioned it 
all day but everybody laughs afresh. But it is impossible to give 
any idea of the rude Irish wit that played like summer lightning 
around us as we waited at the wharf for the steamer to Cork. 

One gets out of Europe largely what he takes with 
him ; and Doctor Broadus was well prepared for travel. 
He wrote copious and delightful letters to his family, 
enough to make a large volume. From Feb. 5, 1871 to 
May 13, 1871, a diary was kept of the tour in Egypt, 
Asia, and Greece, while full and charming letters de- 
scribe the entire trip abroad. From these notes a nota- 
ble series of articles, entitled " Recollections of Travel/' 
was written for the " Religious Herald/' The material 
for this chapter is so abundant that only cullings of a 
more personal nature can be attempted. 

Of course Blarney Castle was visited and the Lakes 
of Killarney. Here the driver played a trick and drove 
the party seventeen miles out of the way in a pouring 
rain, in order to get more pay. As a result, Doctor 
Broadus was thrown into a bilious fever and was de- 
tained at Dublin for ten days in a hotel which did not 
have too many modern conveniences. He was glad not 
to be alone. He writes: "The young ladies are not 
only contented, but thoroughly kind, and quite skillful in 
nursing. . . have done all they could to help me/' A 
stay at Harrogate became necessary. 



240 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

HARROGATE, Aug. 30, 1870 : Here are four kinds of water. . 
Imagine yourself drinking White Sulphur water with almost as 
much salt as it would hold in solution, and quite warm, and you 
have my fix in the morning before breakfast. It is cold here, like 
the mountains of Virginia. Yesterday and to-day have been fair 
and magnificent autumn days. Yesterday we made an excursion to 
York, nineteen miles. . . We saw the old walls, very curious a 
jail, part of whose wall belonged to a castle built by William the 
Conqueror and the Cathedral, which was our special object. It is 
the second largest in the kingdom. Its grandeur, beauty, sublimity, 
thrilled and awed me. Nothing else I have seen made half such 
an impression, except the ocean during a gale. Some of the win- 
dows are wonderful in their immense size and resplendent beauty. 

HARROGATE, Sept. i, 1870: To-day the session of the Semi- 
nary begins. I have thought much about it for some days past, and 
it has been always present in my prayers. God be merciful to them 
and bless them, and cause his face to shine upon them those noble 
men, my colleagues, and the dear young brethren. May there be 
many more than last year, and may all be prosperous. 

FORT WILLIAM, HIGHLANDS OF SCOTLAND, Sept. 5, 1870 : On 

Saturday we went to Loch Lomond, which is beautiful beyond all 
description, beyond anything I have ever imagined. We saw more 
to-day of the same kind of scenery, for which Scotland surpasses 
all countries the mingling of lakes and mountains. The long 
slender loch runs for miles and miles, winding among the numerous, 
various, and wild-looking mountains, separated by every species of 
glen, ravine, and chasm, clad in evergreens or in mosses, with 
sometimes a little stream running from the immense height like a 
thread of silver down to the lake. . . 

We have had beautiful scenery till I was overwhelmed, and could 
not look at it. Made acquaintance with a couple of Highland gen- 
tlemen, named Ross, who are highly educated and exceedingly 
agreeable, real English people. 

STIRLING, Sept. 8, 1870: The gentlemen I mentioned, Mr. 
Ross, with his wife and little boy and his brother, were much with 
us on Tuesday. He is a leading man in the great family of Ross, 
and a large landholder In Rosshire, but spends most of the year in 
England. He is one of the handsomest men I ever saw, and being 
educated, traveled, and singularly pleasing in manner and disposi- 



A YEAR ABROAD 24! 

tion, he is attractive in the highest degree. His wife told me that at 
home in England she often walks ten miles for exercise, and in the 
Highlands has walked twenty miles among the mountains with her 
husband, deer-stalking. . . Our friend, Mr. Ross, expecting on 
Tuesday to get to his Highland estate, arrayed himself that morn- 
ing in full Highland costume, to please his dependents. As a chief- 
tain, he wore at his belt a silver- mounted knife, almost equal to a 
bowie-knife, and on the outer portion of its sheath were stuck in a 
knife and fork for eating. In the right stocking was stuck a deer- 
knife. . . Have gained two pounds since leaving Harrogate, a week 
ago, and gained greatly in strength. I enclose '* blue bells of Scot- 
land" from the field of Bannockburn, near where Bruce planted his 
banner. They were beautiful when gathered. 

EDINBURGH, Sept. 13, 1870: I sent Charlie some photographs of 
Edinburgh. Our hotel is on Princes Street The Scott monument 
is fifty yards from our door and is the most beautiful thing of the 
kind I know of, two hundred feet high, with a statue of Sir Walter 
that one never wearies of surveying. The photographs of the High 
Street and of the Castle give precisely the views that we get every 
time we go out. But I sent the collection mainly because it is pub- 
lished and sold by C. Sinclair. He says that Caithness (in the 

North) is the great place for Sinclairs, the Earl of C being of 

that name. In Edinburgh I see from the directory there are but 
seventy-seven Sinclairs mentioned, that is, separate concerns. Of 
these, five are named George, and seven named John. St. Clair, 
Earl of Caithness, and several of his family are buried at Holyrood, 
in the beautiful old Abbey, and a son of Sir George Sinclair in Mel- 
rose Abbey. I wanted to go to-morrow to Rosslyn Castle, seven 
miles from here, which belongs to the Earls of Caithness and is very 
beautiful. 

J. A. B. to THOMAS A. BROADUS (son of J. M. Broadus) : 

BIRMINGHAM, Sept. 16, 1870: Reached Keswick (pronounced 
Kezzick) at eleven. Saw, but could not enter, the late residence of 
Southey. Derwentwater, a river hard-by, is a beautiful stream. 
Skiddaw, the mountain so eulogized, is tame beside the Scotch moun- 
tains. Southey was poet-laureate, a voracious reader and volumin- 
ous writer, and very famous in his day and in thirty years the 
world has forgotten him. Some of his minor poems will keep their 
place in collections, and his " Life of Wesley " is a classic that is 
all. . . 

O f 



242 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

I found it hard to refrain from buying Wordsworth this morning 
and plunging into his poems, but I knew it would do me hurt. He 
is in some respects the great poet of the age, yet one that the crowd 
will never appreciate. Two railway bookstalls, at Penwith and 
Keswick, amid hundreds of volumes, offered but two copies of 
Wordsworth, and nothing of Southey's. 

J. A. B. to MISS ANNIE H. BROADUS : 

STRATFORD-ON-AVON, Sept. 16, 1870: Wednesday afternoon 
we left Edinburgh. That morning I called on Doctor Hanna, but 
he was out. . . 

We got here at seven, and are at the Shakespeare Hotel quite 
nice. Portraits of Shakespeare all about the house. Rooms named 
after some play, the name of which is over the door. The girls are 
in " Love's Labour's Lost," and I m " All's Well that Ends Well." 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

WARWICK, Sept. 19, 1870 : I feel quite powerless to describe the 
Shakespeare localities, or to tell aught of the feelings awakened by 
seeing them I have never seen so good a description as that of 
Hugh Miller, in " First Impressions of England." . . 

To-day, a beautiful day since eleven o'clock, we have seen Kenil- 
worth and Warwick Castles. Kemlworth is a magnificent ruin, but 
after all, its real interest is in the historical and imaginative associa- 
tions. Warwick Castle surpasses my wildest fancy. The grounds 
are a succession of varied beauties. The castle is truly grand and 
imposing. The furniture has given me a new conception of splendor. 
One table (the Venetian table) is valued at ten thousand pounds. 
It is inlaid with costly stones, many of them rare jewels. The 
Cedars of Lebanon are far grander than are now to be found in 
Lebanon itself. There are three, seen from the windows of the 
boudoir, that were brought from the Holy Land during the Crusades 
and planted here seven hundred years ago. They are magnificent. 

My health improves very slowly. I have been traveling too fast, 
seeing and doing too much. I have determined to take it more 
quietly. 

LANGHAM HOTEL, LONDON, Sept. 20, 1870 : We had four and 

a half hours at Oxford, and spent it with exceeding great pleasure, 
and most respectably heavy expense. . - 

At University College we saw a memorial of Sir Wm. Jones, by 
Flaxman, which I am sure I shall never forget worthy of Sir Wm. 



A YEAR ABROAD 243 

and worthy of Flaxman. At Magdalen College we saw the varied 
and beautiful grounds, with the Poet's Walk, where Addison loved 
to stroll. At New College we visited the famous and beautiful 
chapel. (New College is now five hundred years old). These are 
the most remarkable of the nineteen colleges. You know they are 
entirely distinct establishments, as much as if a hundred miles apart, 
and that the University of Oxford is simply a general organization 
which gives degrees to the men prepared by the different colleges. 
Then we spent one and a half hours at the famous Bodleian Library, 
the most valuable (British Museum has the largest number of books) 
in the world. Oh, the books, the books the early and rare editions, 
the illuminated manuscripts of the Middle Ages, the autographs of 
famous persons, and the portraits, the portraits of hundreds of the 
earth's greatest ones. Happy students, fellows, professors, who 
have constant access to the Bodleian Library, 

LONDON, Sept. 26, 1870 : I was greatly delighted with Spurgeon, 
especially with his conduct of public worship. The congregational 
singing has often been described, and is as good as can well be 
conceived. Spurgeon is an excellent reader of Scripture, and re- 
markably impressive in reading hymns, and the prayers were quite 
what they ought to have been. The sermon was hardly up to his 
average in freshness, but was exceedingly well delivered, without 
affectation or apparent effort, but with singular earnestness, and 
directness. The whole thing house, congregation, order, worship, 
preaching, was as nearly up to my ideal as I ever expect to see in 
this life. Of course Spurgeon has his faults and deficiencies, but he 
is a wonderful man. Then he preaches the real gospel, and God 
blesses him. After the services concluded, I went to a room in the 
rear to present my letter, and was cordially received. Somebody 

must tell Mrs. V that I " thought of her " repeatedly during the 

sermon, and " gave her love " to Spurgeon, and he said such a mes- 
sage encouraged him. (I made quite a little story of it, and the 
gentlemen in the room were apparently much interested, not to say 
amused. ) 

We went straight toward St. Paul's, where Liddon has been 
preaching every Sunday afternoon in September, and there would 
be difficulty in getting a good seat We lunched at the Cathedral 
Hotel, hard by, and then stood three-quarters of an hour at the door 
of St. Paul's, waiting for it to open. Meantime a good crowd had 
collected behind us, and there was a tremendous rush when the door 
opened, to get chairs near the preaching stand. The crowd looked 



244 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

immense in the vast cathedral, and yet there were not half as many 
as were quietly seated in Spurgeon's Tabernacle. There everybody 
could hear, and here, in the grand and beautiful show-place, Mr. 
Liddon was tearing his throat in the vain attempt to be heard by all. 
The grand choral service was all Chinese to me. . . 

This morning I received the "Herald" of the eighth, with Bro. 
Long's 1 review of my book, the first information I have had of its 
appearance. I am exceedingly indebted to Bro. Long for a notice 
so very carefully prepared, so very kind, and calculated materially 
to promote the acceptance of the book. I mean to write to him. 

LONDON. Sept. 29, 1870 : Wednesday morning we went to Mr. 
Gilliafs, Mr. Thomas's correspondent and friend. Delightful 
weather, beautiful country, seventeen miles in train, five in open 
carriage. Exceedingly handsome country mansion, built by him- 
self, with a surprisingly beautiful situation, and a wide view of hill 
and dale, of stream and park and dwelling. Some magnificent oaks, 
elms, and beeches, and some great Cedars of Lebanon, next oldest 
in the kingdom to those we saw at Warwick Castle. I got him to 
show me over the house, from wine cellar (thousands of bottles, be- 
sides some barrels, etc.) to roof of tower a fine specimen, no doubt, 
of a new and elegant country residence. The grounds too, gardens, 
green houses, hot houses, grapery, stables, all very handsome. . . 

Mr, G is a graduate of Oxford, and once traveled a year in 

America ; a good business man, intelligent, very friendly and suffi- 
ciently agreeable. He is a thorough-going high churchman, never 
before met a Baptist preacher, except a stone-mason somewhere in 
the neighborhood there, believes that Christian life is produced by 
baptism and sustained by the Lord's Supper, and was very anxious 
to talk with me about church questions. He warmly sympathized 
with the South, and is acquainted with Jeff. Davis, Senator Mason, 
etc. 

J. A. B. to MISS E. S. B. : 

LONDON, Oct. 5, 1870: Saturday afternoon, Oct. i, I went to 

Gloucester to visit the bishop, 2 arriving at 6.30. He received me 
very cordially and treated me with real kindness and true courtesy. 
He is a man of about my size, but erect, a little bald, with a thin face, 
and a profile resembling General Capers. He walks a little lame, 
having had his leg broken by a railway accident a dozen years ago, 
but is a great walker. His father and mother live with him at the pal- 

1 Rev. J. C. Long, then pastor at Charlottesville, Va. * Bishop Elhcott. 



A YEAR ABROAD 245 

ace, the father being a clergyman of seventy-seven years, and a very 
sprightly, pleasant old gentleman. The bishop's wife is a tall, 
quite grand-looking lady. . . He has three children. Arthur is soon 
to graduate at Cambridge, and is preparing for holy orders. Miss 
Florence is a tall, fair, quite English-looking girl very modest, but 
readily talking when spoken to. . . Mrs. Ellicott (she is not lady, 
though the bishop is a lord) wore splendid silks, and much jewelry, 
and Miss Florence had white muslin for dinner, and some plain linen 
fabric at church. Miss Rose is twelve years old. Mrs. Ellicott 
seemed reserved to me at first, but before I left we were somewhat 
cronies. . . 

We had tea in the drawing room, and the ladies retiring early, his 
lordship and I had a long talk. I told him the history of revi- 
sion in America, and then we talked about his present scheme. I 
inquired his view about the rendering " slavedealers " in i Tim. 
i : 10 (you remember my paper about it), and found him all right, 
and before I left, was satisfied he would prevent any change of 

the Common Version there. I mentioned A 's having adopted 

" slavedealers," and he said, " Oh, but A 's no authority on 

such a question." " I know that, my lord, but the people generally 
think he is.' 7 " Oh, well, we'll see about that." (Monday morn- 
ing without my mentioning it, he hunted up the word in the best 
Greek Lexicons the same that I have and quite satisfied himself). 
Then he asked me about Baptist views. First he attacked election, 
and I defended till he agreed that that wasn't so bad, if that was 
what we meant. Then he asked about infant baptism, and we 
argued over it for an hour very courteous, of course, and perfectly 
friendly. . . 

My room was exceedingly pleasant. There were prayers at ten 
P. M. and nine A. M., in the chapel of the palace, conducted by the 
bishop in a surplice, with chanting, etc., but brief. The servants at- 
tending were six women and two men. . . They talk English pre- 
cisely as educated people do with us, except the broad " a" that 
is, they talk exactly as your Grandma Harrison does. In all the 
forty-eight hours, I did not hear a pronunciation that sounded 
strange, except the " a," and a fancy the bishop has for saying 
know-ledge. They do not roll the "r" at all, but they always 
sound it. 

LONDON, Oct. 8, 1870 : I was speaking of the visit to Gloster. 
Sunday I went to the cathedral, morning and afternoon. . . The 
bishop preached offhand. A very fair sermon of twenty minutes, 



246 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

spoken with quiet earnestness and no affectation, but without show- 
ing power as a speaker. Madame and madame mere^ scolded him at 
luncheonhe had been sick, and really oughtn't, etc. He said yes, 
but he must teach the new canon a lesson, who had neglected his 
duty, who got seven hundred and fifty pounds ($3,700) a year for 
preaching twelve sermons, and now was failing. He was vexed, 
and said while he had breath in his body he must preach when there 
seemed occasion, especially when others were improperly standing 
back. At the close of the afternoon service, he took me to walk, 
son and daughter following. Didn't bring me back short of five 
miles, and I was tired. He talked a great deal about all sorts of mat- 
ters, for one thing about the oddness of his position as a peer and a 
priest ; said he understood some of the American bishops who were 
over last year were much pleased with the episcopal dress, and that 
the bishop of New York had taken to shoe buckles this belonging 
to the peer, and not to the bishop. He didn't explain or remark, but 
laughed. Towards the close he said (we had passed a dissenting 
chapel) that other bishops shared his desire to conciliate the Non- 
conformists, without making or asking any concessions, and thought 
that " we can be friendly, and where they are scholars can give them 
the hand of fellowship, without losing anything, even in the lowest 
sense." . . 

Sunday evening, the bishop showed me, in strict confidence three 
chapters of Matthew, as printed from their first revision nobody to 
see it. . . 
Monday morning I was away at twelve (breakfast over at 10.30), 

but after I had duly declined Mrs. E J s very pressing invitation 

to stay another day, the bishop suggested staying till after lunch, 
and thus catching a faster train (brought me over one hundred miles 
in three and a quarter hours), which I did Spent the hours in the 
study. Good library for an exegetical scholar, though not nearly 
equal to Doctor Boyce's. Some recent German commentaries. I 
begged him not to spend time further on me, but he stayed all the 
time, except when called out by callers. Very free and easy. 
" There is a country squire, now, who has had a quarrel with his 
rector, and I have to hear his story over again, and see if I can set- 
tle it. Here, let me show you this before I go." And pretty soon, 
he was back again. Offered to send me, whenever I should apply, 
letters to university professors and other scholars, any I wished to 

see. . . Mrs. E at parting hoped to meet me in London next 

week, and was sure she would see me at J. L. I didn't know what 
that was, and she said that my young ladies would tell me when I 



A YEAR ABROAD 247 

returned, and so they did : Jenny Lind is to sing here next week. 1 

had a great time Monday at breakfast trying to teach Mrs. E 

to eat raw tomatoes. Nobody had ever heard of such a thing, but 
I spoke of it Sunday evening at dinner, as good for health, and so 
she had some, and we had quite a fuss. The bishop came in pres- 
ently, and got one too, and made faces over it, and so on. . . 

Went yesterday to the British Museum again, and last night B 

and I went to spend the evening with Doctor Manning, a Baptist 

literary man, who will review my book. Mrs. M had never 

before seen a slaveholder, and talked quite innocently about having 
thought they were all fierce-looking, and I had much fun joking her. 
Their son, and their pastor, who was invited, were great Southerners 
in sympathy (as Bishop Ellicott said he was). Mrs. Sheppard, stay- 
ing there, is the wife of " Keynote," who is now shut up in Paris 
purposely" takm' notes, and faith he'll prent it." She showed 
me a card received from him the night before, sent by balloon. . . 

LONDON, Oct. n, 1870: Sunday I heard Spurgeon again in the 
morning, and in the afternoon Dean Stanley, at Westminster Abbey. 
I sat in the Poet's Corner, amid the famous tombs. At night went 
to hear Archbishop Manning, the famous Romanist. He officiated 
in the grand (and to me mournful) cathedral service. . . 

Yesterday (Monday afternoon), I went again to Regent's Park 
College. . . Doctor Davies, famous Hebraist, to whom I brought 
letter from Doctor Cutting, received me very pleasantly, and intro- 
duced me to Doctor Angus, the author, who is president, and who 
has just returned from America. Mr. Gilliat gave him my book, 
and having examined it coming over, he proposes to use it as text- 
book m the college, which will probably help me. 

Doctor Davies invited me to attend to-day a quarterly meeting of 
the London Baptist Association, which I did. They received me 
most cordially, introducing me to the body. An excellent essay was 
read, followed by a capital address from Mr. Spurgeon, and then I 
was invited to speak. I was in the mood and succeeded pretty well. 

LONDON, Oct. 15, 1870: On Wednesday at two o'clock I 
went to Westminster Abbey, at the suggestion of Bishop Ellicott. 
Before I left Gloster he offered me letters to any scholars, asked if I 
was not going to Cambridge, where I might see Lightfoot, and 
finally said, if I would go one day when the Revision Committee 
stopped for lunch, to send him in my card, and he would bring 
out Lightfoot and I could have ten minutes chat with himalso any 



248 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

other I might wish to see. . . I went to the Deanery (A. P. Stanley 
is dean), sent m my card with the luncheon, and his lordship came 
out saying that he had asked leave of the committee just to bring 
me in for the half -hour of luncheon. He introduced me in general 
at the door, and then various gentlemen came up and shook hands, 
giving their names. Several deans, canons, and prolocutors were 
unknown to me by title, and I don't remember. Some of them in- 
vited me to visit their cathedrals, others asked about the South. 
Doctor Eadie, of Glasgow, Presbyteiian commentator, a very tall 
and stout man (equal to Colonel Randolph), was very civil. Profes- 
sor Lightfoot (author of the Commentaries on Galatians and Philip- 
pians) is about forty-five, short and thickset, rather bald, with a 
fine, open, and intellectual face. He invited me to Cambridge quite 
cordially. Doctor Alford has a sort of careless cordiality of manner, 
which didn't please me. Mr. Westcott (you know how I like his 
books) is a gentle, lovable-looking man, with a mild, sweet tone, and 
with devotional feeling predominating in all his talk. I talked 
principally with him and Mr. Hort about their forthcoming text of 

the New Testament, in which I am much interested. Mr. W 

invited me warmly to Peterborough, where he is canon. Presently 
I heard the bishop's rap, calling to order, and of course retired 
rapidly. His lordship followed me out, insisted that I was looking 
better in health (true), was glad I had seen their gathering m the 
Jerusalem Chamber and their work-table as a committee. 

Bishop Ellicott was all courtesy and kindness to Doc- 
tor Broadus and left nothing undone that he could do for 
his enjoyment. Nisbet & Co., of London, issued a re- 
print of "Preparation and Delivery of Sermons," with 
introduction by Doctor Angus. 

DAVID BROWN to J. A. B. : 

ABERDEEN, SCOTLAND, Oct. 29, 1870 : 1 only received yours of the 
2oth, and some days thereafter your handsome volume on " Sermon 
Preparation and Delivery." I opened it merely to run over the Pref- 
ace and Contents, but ere I shut it I had gone through it all. You have 
collected a large amount of the best matter from the best writers on 
homiletics and writers on kindred topics, and besides this have con- 
tributed much that is weighty and well worth attending to of your 
own. So that your volume seems everything that one requires as a 
manual on the important subject it teats of. 



A YEAR ABROAD 249 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

ANTWERP, Oct. 28, 1870 : But a long letter from Antwerp, and 
nothing about Rubens and Van Dyck. It is to see their paintings 
(and others, of course) that people come to Antwerp. I have seen 
all the principal ones, most of them twice, and can never lose the im- 
pression made, nor wholly forget the pictures ; but it is impossible 
to describe them, at least without a vast amount of detail. Rubens' 
Elevation of the Cross, Crucifixion, and Taking Down from the 
Cross, are the grandest pictures I have ever yet seen. . . Of the 
Crucifixion I saw a copy in Edinburgh which I mentioned then as 
greatly impressing me. Oh, that I might have life and health to 
describe in words, even in my poor fashion, the many moving scenes 
in the life of the Saviour ; the study of these great paintings, even 
for a short time, as now, would in such a case help me. 

AMSTERDAM, Nov. i, 1870: I find that in my ignorance I came 
to the Low Countries just at the time (ist Nov. ) when they acknowl- 
edge that people right often have chills and fever here. I did not 
dream of such a thing. No book, and no traveler sagely telling me 
what was before me, has ever mentioned it. Sensitive to malaria 
as tinder to a spark, it is manifest that I must go away from here, 
and if I feel pretty sharp to-morrow, we are to start at 2.30 for 
Berlin. . . 

DR. W. D. THOMAS to J. A. B. : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., Nov. 2, 1870: Doctor Boyce is working 
like a hero and the Seminary is going well, though you are sorely 
missed. . . You have heard before this of the death of General Lee. 
. . . Your book is going like hot cakes. . . I hope you are taking 
notes for a book of travels. . 

C. J. HARRIS to J. A. B. : 

WASHINGTON COLLEGE, LEXINGTON, VA., Nov. 16, 1870 : 1 

write to enlist your interest for an enterprise, of which the enclosed 
paper will inform you. We are specially desirous to have for the 
"Memorial Volume" something from yourself, and some of the 
striking things that may be said of General Lee in the English pa- 
pers and elsewhere, which you may be in the way of getting for us. 

W. H. WHITSITT to J. A. B. : 

BERLIN, Nov. 26, 1870 : I have had occasion to be very sorry 
that you did not call on Doctor Dorner during your stay. I had 



250 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

asked his permission beforehand to introduce you, which 1 did, you 
remember, one afternoon in the university. But that did not seem 
to have satisfied him ; he expected, I have no doubt, a visit from 
you. . . 

I have not enjoyed the weeks since you left nearly so well as that 
of your stay here. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

DRESDEN, Nov, 28, 1870: I went, as half Dresden did, to the 
court church (Catholic) where there was high mass, in thanks- 
giving for the recent birth of a royal prince, grandson of the devout 
old king. There was martial music added to the usual opera per- 
formers, and salvos of artillery without, that fairly thundered. Tell 
Sam I saw a king, and a queen, and a whole lot of duchesses and 
countesses, and so on. Some of the court folks were splendidly 
dressed, but the king and queen very plainly. I was passing the 
palace the other day and saw the king and queen in separate car- 
nages, each with four handsome horses and various attendants, 
going to see the new-born prince. Yesterday I was just opposite, 
and saw both plainly and fully. 

MUNICH, Dec. 6, 1870: . . The weather is magnificently cold. 
The snow cracks under one's feet in the old way it did when I was 
a boy, and which I haven't heard this ten years. I should like 
prodigiously to go rabbit hunting, and whoop and halloo through 
the white fields. This afternoon I saw them hauling ice along the 
street, and it looked beautiful. . . 

Yesterday and to-day we have been at the gallery of sculpture 
and the picture gallery. Last night we heard Mozart's " Magic 
Flute," which contains a larger amount of exquisite music than I 
ever before heard in one evening. We tried a concert Saturday 
evening (eight cents), but the room was low pitched, and the smoke 
very dense, and we couldn't fully enjoy Herr Gungel's choice mu- 
sic. . . 

And now to you, and each of the children, and all the family, and 
to the Harrisons and Smiths, I beg to send my hearty Christmas 
greeting. Never before, amid all the changes of my life, have I 
been absent from my home at Christmas. . . And this time I expect 
to be far away, at Rome. Across the continents, and across the 
stormy winter sea, I send my greeting, to each and ail. The good 
Lord graciously bless you. May you have health and contentment, 
and good hope in God's providence and grace so may you be happy. 



A YEAR ABROAD 251 

J. A. B. to MISS ANNIE H. BROADUS : 

MUNICH, Dec. n, 1870: Twenty years ago your Grandpa Har- 
rison had a beautiful edition (in German) of Goethe's " Remeke 
Fiichs" with wonderful illustrations by Kaulbach. I think that by 
lending out it got destroyed, like some of my books. In Dresden I 
found it where I boarded, read most of it, and delighted in the pic- 
tures. This new interest was due to my having seen in Berlin six 
magnificent wall paintings (fresco) by Kaulbach, of which I made 
at the time brief mention. They represent great events or epochs in 
the history of the race, (i) The Confusion of Tongues at Babel. 
(2) The Golden Age of Greece. (3) Destruction of Jerusalem. (4) 
Battle of the Huns. (5) Crusades. (6) The Reformation. Numbers 
three, four, and six are the best, and made a great impression on me, 
as grand historical representations, vividly recalling facts and sym- 
bolizing great truths. Well, here at Munich, Kaulbach is still living, 
as Director (President) of the Academy of Art, and a young Ameri- 
can student of painting proposed to carry us to his studio and introduce 
us. He says the old gentleman is changeable, sometimes very 
friendly and gracious, and at other times as huffy as possible. . . 

Presently he came in, and we were introduced and greeted with a 
smile. A man of medium size, with brown wig and grayish mous- 
tache, and face not particularly noticeable, who might pass for fifty 
and is sixty-five. We have seen some of his works and heard much 
of him, and were anxious, etc. He was much pleased to see us 
always glad to see Americans, etc. I had admired his *' Reineke 
Fucks" twenty years ago in America. Ah ! indeed, twenty years ago. 
By the way, he had the day before received a communication from 
America, but being in English he could not read it perhaps we 
would look at it. He opened it, and presented certificate of election 
as honorary member of the American Academy of Science and Art, 
at Boston. The young painter broke down in translating the tech- 
nical terms, and I fortunately could cany it through. He was greatly 
honored by such an election, etc. Young painter suggested that it 
was rather an honor to the American society to have him as a mem- 
ber. "Oh, no, much rather to me." And turning to me again, 
*' Much more to me." , . 

Yesterday morning (Monday) I called on Doctor Dollinger, a 
celebrated Roman Catholic professor of church history here, and 
during the present year world-famous for his opposition to the dogma 
of papal infallibility. I had understood that he rather likes visits 
from Protestants. I stayed half an hour, and by invitation, when I 



252 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

left, went again at seven P. M. for a cup of tea and more conversa- 
sation. He speaks English pretty well. I must give an account of 
the visit to Doctor Williams, perhaps to the "Herald," if mamma 
won't get desperate at the latter. 

To-day I failed a second time to get into the palace, to see some 
frescoes of the " Nibelungm-Lied" the great German poem of the 
olden time. . . I saw colored portraits of Luther and Melancthon, 
taken by L. Cranach, Jr., from life. Luther's picture is every- 
where the same. Melancthon is here gray, wrinkled, and wasted, 
but has a magnificent forehead, and that sweet expression which 
suits his character, a scholar and a devout man, one who could love 
and suffer, but couldn't fight. He and Luther were complements of 
each other. . . 

It is now 5.30 P. M. At ten we are to leave for Verona, in Italy, 
expecting to travel on until i P. M. to-morrow. The day train is 
much slower, and we can make no other arrangement so comforta- 
ble. It is not very cold, indeed it has been warm to-day, and the 
snow melting fast. My next letter then, must be from Italy. 

VENICE, Dec. 17, 1870 : Now what in the world shall I say about 
Venice? I am not disappointed, nor am I charmed. I have not been 
feeling bright, and the weather has been dull and dreary, and the 
Venice of to-day, is in fact, one great scene of faded splendors. . . The 
gondolas are extremely plain black boats, very long, narrow, and 
pointed, very skillfully rowed. It causes quite a thrill of novelty 
at first to get aboard, but we human beings have such an unhappy 
faculty of getting used to things. 

BASIL MANLY to J. A. B. : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., Dec. 17, 1870: Your letter to Curry (about 
Bishop Ellicott), to me, and last to Toy (Nov. 27), have all been 
-eceived by us with pleasure and interest. Sorry to learn of your 
backsets, but we hope the general average result will be gain. You 
are often thought of, and mentioned not only in the family circle, 
and at family prayer, but in our Seminary devotions. It seems to 
come spontaneously often both to professors and to students to 
think at such times of our dear absent brother ; and often, I doubt 
not, if there is not a prayer meeting, there is a meeting of prayers ; 
for I am sure your thoughts often fly back to old scenes and remem- 
bered friends. Still more will this be the case when you get over to 
Palestine and roam over the regions we have so often talked about 
in the little awkward recitation rooms in Greenville, Blessed faculty, 



A YEAR ABROAD 253 

by which we can people the present with relics from the past, and 
the future, and make visible scenes and faces fade before the bright- 
ness of the absent. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

FLORENCE, Dec. 22, 1870 : An hour brought us to Padua again, 

and some distance this side of P we saw a small village which 

was the birthplace of Livy. I quite longed for some one to share 
my enthusiasm. A young Italian lieutenant talked French to me 
very affably, but my allusion to " U ceTebre auteur Romain ancun Ttte- 
Lwe " left his face quite blank, even after I had carefully explained 
who it was. Getting the officer to pronounce some Italian words for 
me, I found that he was also beginning to learn English, and so 
we had a great time over a newspaper, he teaching Italian and I 
teaching English. We amused ourselves so successfully that at 
Bologna at 3 o'clock, he said, " Ah ! small travel," meaning that he 
had found the journey short. I guess much of my French and Ger- 
man is about as successful as that. I am not trying to speak Italian 
beyond the numerals as to prices, and a few needful words and 
phrases, but I hope to pick up enough knowledge to read it. This 
side of Bologna we were two or three hours crossing the Apennines, 
with much magnificent scenery. Reached Florence at 7.45 P. M. . . 
The streets were very bright and the air mild and sweet, like a 
November evening at Greenville. We had already noticed before 
sunset the deep blue of the Italian sky. After tea we walked to the 
Arno, and stood on one of the massive stone bridges which cross it. 
I was pleased to find it flowing rapidly. In fact, there are high 
mountains on several sides of Florence, some of them very beau- 
tiful. So we were greatly pleased with our first evening (Mon- 
day). . . 

Here too, is the " Venus de Medici." I have seen so many copies 
of this that it was hardly a novel sensation to see it, and it is too 
perfect to make a sensation at first sight. People usually express 
disappointment at seeing it, as they do when first reading Sophocles 
or Demosthenes, because there is nothing salient m the harmonious 
completeness, the tranquil beauty. A thousand times I am wishing 
you were with me, that we might talk together now about these 
great works of art, and remember them together hereafter. . . I fear 
that the thoughts which sometimes throng my mind in beholding 
will for the most part never return. 

Last summer Doctor Cutting insisted that I must seek the ac- 
quaintance of Geo. P. Marsh, U. S. Minister here, and his wife. Mr. 



254 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

M is the author of the famous " Lectures on the English Lan- 
guage," and other valuable works. I went yesterday to his office. 
He invited me to come to his house this morning, and as I inquired 
foi the location of Casa Guidi, where Mrs. Browning lived, he very 
kindly took me m his carriage to the place. It is across the river 
from our hotel, about three hundred yards from us. Here were the 
*' Casa Guidi windows," from which she saw the revolution of 
1848, and in the vision of her poem saw many a scene of the glori- 
ous old Florentine history. . . 
This morning I went out of the city to Mr. Marsh's and saw him 

and his wife, with a good deal of pleasant talk. . , Mrs. M gave 

me information about several places where the ladies might board 
here. They want to remain till my return from the East, and then 
go to Paris (if open), to the Rhine and the Alps, and so home with 
me. . . 

J. B. TAYLOR to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., Dec. 24, 1870 ; I write now especially to request 
that while in Southern Europe you will make such inquiries as may 
aid us in the evangelistic labors of our Board. . . What portions of 
that field are most accessible? What are the facilities of preaching 
a pure gospel in Rome? 

It is very desirable that you see our missionary, who is now in 
that city. Please find him (Rev. Wm. N. Cote) and confer with 
him on the whole work in which he is engaged. You will be able 
to make such suggestions as circumstances require. . . 

J. L. M. CURRY to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., Dec. 28, 1870 : . . Your book has received more 
favorable commendations from the religious journals than any book 
of the kind ever did in America. I have seen notices in Methodist, 
Presbyterian, and Congregational journals. . . 

L 7 s last letterthe girls write charming letters gave us the 

cheering news of your increased weight and restored health. Thank 
God for the blessing ! I hope they will be able to keep you from 

study. I think Mr. T gave them permission to accompany you 

to Palestine. If so, what a jolly time you will have on camels and 
donkeys. A trip to the Holy Land ought to make an infidel a be- 
jever in Jesus ! The work, just published, of the Palestine Explora- 
tion Association states, as a wonderful fact, that all the party are ac- 
cumulating verification of the Scriptures. I wish you could read the 
book before you reach the land. 



A YEAR ABROAD 255 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

ROME, Dec. 31, 1870 : . . Going out after breakfast I found that 
the king, who arrived at four o'clock this morning, was riding about 
the streets, and all was hubbub to see him. . . This was no formal 
entry. He came merely to inquire into the sufferings and losses 
caused by the flood. This was good-natured, and also capital policy, 
as the pope could hardly take this occasion for repeating the excom- 
munication and closing the churches, and yet now Victor Emmanuel 
has entered Rome. He left to-night, having to make a New Year's 
reception of the Diplomatic Corps to-morrow at Florence. . . 

This morning I went with Doctor Cote to the house of an English 
Baptist minister, Mr. Wall, where in the front room, second story, 
we had, at eleven o'clock, a religious meeting. It reminded me very 
vividly of Paul, " in his own hired house," receiving them that came, 
and speaking to them. The flood broke up their meetings, as it did 
almost everything else, and so this morning both missionaries and 
their two colporters were together, about fifteen in all. I perceived 
that Mr. Wall, in his address, alluded several times to Paul, " in 
this very city." Afterward Doctor Cote and an Italian colporter 
spoke a little. Then a man, who turned out to be a stranger, spoke. 
He said (as they told me afterward) that he some time ago got a 
Bible from one of the colporters, had been reading it, found there 
that he had been taught many errors, and would like to read a paper 
he had written, showing the errors of the papal religion. . . 

I saw, with much regret at having so little time, some of the 
numerous Greek and Latin inscriptions from all Southern Italy. 
Even the little I could examine gave me some useful points as to my 
New Testament Greek. By the way, a gentleman (American), dili- 
gent in study of Italian, tells me that in Southeastern Italy, indeed in 
all Southern Italy, the popular dialect partakes largely of the peculi- 
arities of Greek. . . I wonder if this can possibly descend all the 
way from the early Greek settlements in Southern Italy, of which 
your friend Grote gives so full an account ? . . 

I had much pleasant talk with Mr. Ticknor, of Boston, son of the 
famous publisher, from whom I got ideas about modern languages, 
and information about Egypt, where he spent last winter. . . 

ROME, Jan. 28, 1871 : B. O. Duncan and his wife were extremely 
kind at Naples. I have no doubt he makes an excellent con- 
sul. Admiral Glisson, there with his flagship, treated us with 
marked courtesy, as did W. W. Story at his studio here to-day. 
We saw Pompeii two days, and the museum many times. Dun* 



256 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

can went with us to Pozzuoli (Puteoli) and Baiae, a delightful ex- 
cursion, 

Last evening and this morning eight converts, men, mostly young 
men, were baptized by Doctor Cote and Mr. Wall (English Baptist), 
and this morning, these, with the two missionaries and their wives, 
and two other Italians previously baptized, were constituted a church, 
"the Apostolical Church" of Rome. Doctor Randolph 1 and I ad- 
dressed them (through Mr, Wall) and gave them the right hand of 
fellowship, and we observed together the Lord's Supper. I must 
write to J. B. Taylor, by request, stating my impression as to the 
work and the workers here. This afternoon I heard Gavazzi preach 
in English, in the Scotch Free Church. Afterwards saw Prince 
Humbert and his wife. The latter has a bright face, and a caress- 
ing bow to the crowd that is quite charming. It is long since a 
Roman sovereign or ruling house presented them a lady for their ad- 
miration, and the Romans are wild. 

J. A. B. to DR. JAS. P, BOYCE : 

ROME, Jan. 28, 1871 : I walked up the cone of Vesuvius, with 
snow six inches deep at starting, and a foot deep nearer the top. 
Many stout young men pull up by a mountaineer's strap, but I went 
by choice, unaided. I was three and a half hours on my feet m the 
snow, besides riding horseback five miles up the mountain, and then 
back again. Next day I was stiff, but walked twice to church. . . 
Fortunately, providentially, I met here, some days ago, Warren 
Randolph, D. D., of Philadelphia, traveling for his health, and 
thinking of going to the East, but with no definite plans. I had 
met him twice in America, and liked him, a thorough gentleman and 
a fine fellow. In brief, we are going together. I think we shall get 
along pleasantly, and our compact is loose enough to let either of us 
make other arrangements, if we find it necessary to our plans. Mrs 
Randolph stays near Naples with some American friends . . We 
spent ten days in Naples, and have been back here more than two 
weeks, making a month at Rome in all. Notwithstanding much 
ram, it has been to me a month of immense enjoyment, and I hope 
of some benefit. . . My ladies go back with me to Florence, two 
days hence. Mrs. Marsh mentioned two places, and would look 
for others, suitable for the ladies to stay, and improve their French 
till my return from the East. If Paris becomes accessible, we have 

1 Dr. Warren Randolph, of America, who became Doctor Broadus's companion m 
Oriental travel. 



A YEAR ABROAD 257 

arranged with a family from St. Louis to take them from Florence 
to Paris, about first of April, and they will wait for me there. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

FLORENCE, Feb. 3, 1871 : . . You must conceive of me hence- 
forth in light-colored pants and drab hat, with low crown and broad 
brim, and with all my beard growing. I expect to spend a day in 
Alexandria, two weeks at Cairo and Pyramids, and then to go by 
the Suez Canal to Jaffa and Jerusalem. . . 

I want m the East to keep something of a regular diary, which 
may be of use in my lectures and to my colleagues in some of theirs. 
So I shall not be able to write letters of description, even such meagre 
ones as I have been writing. The mail is but once a week, and 
pretty irregular. Bear this in mind and don't be uneasy if you some- 
times get no letter for two weeks, or even three. Expect me to write 
eveiy week, some account of my movements, and always the exact 
facts about my health when there is anything noteworthy. . . 

There, I must go to bed. I took a notion to write to Uncle Albert 
from Rome m Latin hope it will amuse him. My love to each and 
all. I am going farther away, and feel it deeply. But let us still 
trust and be thankful, and try to be prudent, and accept what Is 
appointed us. God bless all I love and my far-off country. 

BRINDISI,Feb.6, 1871: . . Last evening was beautiful : the moon 
full, the sky clear, and just breeze enough to be pleasant. I walked 
on deck after tea, and sang hymns, and thought of home and the 
better world, and felt happy. . . Indeed, once I felt so lively that I 
skipped about the deck. To-day also I am feeling much better than 
for a week or two past. We reached Brmdisi ahead of time, soon 
after eleven A. M., which was astonishing for Italy, but explained 
by the fact that we have English engineers, as well as an English- 
built steamer. . . 

I asked a boy if he could show me the Casa di Virgilio. Virgil 
died here (though he was taken to Naples for burial) and they pre- 
tend of course to have the house he occupied. . . Octavius came 
once from Rome to Brindisi to have an interview with Antony. 
Maecenas came with him, and was accompanied by Horace, who 
gives a humorous and very famous description of it in " Satires," I. 
8. I think, though, that he says nothing about B itself. 

It was several hours before I could find Doctor Randolph. . . But 
at last he found me, and we are all right sitting now together in the 
cabm, each writing to his wife, as I hope we shall be spared to do 

R 



258 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

many times on two sides of the same table. There are very few 
passengers, and we have the pick of everything. So I feel pleased 
and hopeful. 

ARRIVAL AT ALEXANDRIA, DIARY, Feb. ro: We left the steamer 
at eight, svith a commi^wnave of the Hotel Abbot. It was charm- 
ing to sit on the boat, and pass among the ships of many lands that 
crowd the harbor, and the boats moving swiftly and slovv ly in every 
direction the bright Oriental dresses, the flags flying, the brilliant 
sunshine, the steady dip of the oars, and the easy, floating motion 
I was grieved when we got to land. In the afternoon we went to 
see Cleopatra's Needles. . . Quite near the obelisks is the station of 
the Alexandria and Ramie Railway the fifteenth century B. C. and 
the nineteenth A. D., standing side by side. Very large hieroglyphics, 
and some distance above the base, quite distinct. 

Dr. Warren Randolph tells the following : 

It was at Alexandria. The post office was open for the delivery of 
letters only at given hours and then only for a little while at a time. 
All non- Arabic mail was given out at " The Frank Window" so called. 
A crowd being about it as soon as it was opened, it did not seem nec- 
essary for us both to press our way in, so he [Dr. Broadus] went and 
got our mail. As he came out and handed me a letter from my wife, 
the handwriting upon which I recognized, though he did not, I said, 
" Ah, that is from the person who sustains to me the most endear- 
ing relation in life !" His look was one of blank astonishment, 1 
may say, it was a look of almost indescribable despair. After wait- 
ing as long as I thought it safe, I explained. " Some years before, 
while a student, I had heard, at an Association, an address on Sun- 
day-school libraries, in which the speaker maintained that books for 
ruch purposes should be carefully read before being accepted, and 
* in my school,' he added, * this service is usually rendered by myself 
and the person who sustains to me the most endearing relation in 
life.' That gem of affectionate rhetoric I had never forgotten and 
the time had come to use it. Egypt seemed a most fitting place." 
And the look of relief which came over my friend's face as I ex- 
plained was a study. It was as maiked as his previous look of 
despair. " Well, I'm glad to hear thai," he exclaimed, " for I said 
to myself, Is that the kind of a man I am to travel with?" And 
from that day on, the phrase was never forgotten. Upon occasion 
he often began the quotation while we were together, and again and 
again in after years as we met, when he wanted to inquire for my 



A YEAR ABROAD 259 

wife, he would ask, " And how is the person who sustains," etc. 
His love of humor was as genuine as any part of his nature. 

DIARY, Feb. 10 : The goats about the city all have long, pendent 
ears like a hound. Saw one with its ears trimmed to the usual size. 
Wonder if it was a European who did it good illustration as to 
many things, especially as to oratory. . . 

Feb, 12 : At five o'clock we walked to Jews' Quarter of ancient 
Alexandria. The Ramie Railway cuts right through it, and we saw 
a train come dashing through the midst of the mounds where Philo 
dreamed and Apollos grew mighty in the Scriptures; where the 
Septuagint was translated, and all the Greek- Jewish philosophy was 
written. I thought a good deal about the Jews of Alexandria, and 
then about Origen, Athanasius, etc., though they did not live in 
this quarter. 

CAIRO, DIARY, Feb. 14, 15, 19: Often amused with living pano- 
rama before our windows. The Orientals passing in procession 
before our eyes, at any hour of the day, with their variety of bright 
costumes, people of every rank and every calling and age, and 
both sexes. Can't certainly tell woman, except when she is veiled. 
Some old ladies think their faces a sufficient protection against star- 
ing eyes, and need no veil. Officials whack the common people to 
make them clear the way, stand back, etc. . . 

Fine day. Went a little while to the Coptic church, much larger 
and grander than the old one in old Cairo. Mass, intoning priests 
and boys. Pictures of the Virgin and Child, and God the Father, 
and numerous figures of a dove cut in the wood The intoning 
shrill and harsh. Women above in latticed galleries. Men stood on 
matting, next the altar ; many, but not all, took off shoes. At one 
point, they knelt and touched forehead to the floor, some of them 
three times, after crossing themselves. 

Feb. 19 : Sermon by a Scotch minister at the American Mission- 
United Presbyterian, Doctor Lansing and several others chiefly 
among the Copts, and having very gratifying success. Learn that 
when Mrs. Lansing first visits women, and wishes to read Scripture 
to them, they frequently say no use, they are women, don't know 
anything, can't understand, nothing but donkeys ; but when she 
persists, telling them they only need education, and she will explain, 
and presently gets them interested in some passages of Scripture, 
they frequently become very eager for her to come again ; minds 
waked up for the first time. 



2<5o LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

J. A. B. to MISS E. S. B. : 

CAIRO, Feb. 22, 1871 : We went on Saturday (in a carriage four 
miles) to Heliopolis, the On of Genesis. It was the religious capi- 
tal, and the university town. Its priest-prince was probably the 
highest in rank of all Egyptain subjects, and Pharaoh honored 
Joseph by giving him to wife Asenath, the daughter of this func- 
tionary. I showed a young lady (from Ohio) the place (?) where 
she lived before she mounted a camel and went up to Memphis to 
be Joseph's wife. A solitary obelisk is standing, in its* original 
place, the oldest in the world. I doubt if Asenath saw it that morn- 
ing, but she had often seen it in her childhood, and her fathers for 
many generations. . . Herodotus mentions this obelisk, and Plato 
was a student there for years. The site of the little town (in which 
few besides priests lived) can be determined, and the circuit of 
the walls. But the Arab drives his rude plowshare where the 
temple of the Sun used to stand, and looks up in idle wonder at the 
Fianks who keep trooping to see nothing. Walking on the mounds 
where the town stood, one gets a wide and beautiful view, including 
Cairo and the great pyramids, which were already many hundreds 
of years old when Joseph used to walk there. There came a sharp 
little shower while we were looking at the mounds, and it was almost 
cold. Not true that they have no ram here, but it is rare. A beau- 
tiful rainbow was seen while we were retaining, but our backs were 
towards it and we didn't see. That is said to be a very rare sight 
here. . . 

Monday, the Pyramids, and a beautiful day. Only seven miles 
to the greatest, and a fine cariiage road made by the viceroy for the 
Empress Eugenie, fall before last, with a bridge of boats over the 
Nile, made for a ball. The Pyramids I clapped my hands and 
laughed and sang, and wished for my dear ones, and felt myself to 
see if it was I. Can't allow myself to describe. Whew ! how it 
tired one to go up stones two and three feet high. View from the 
summit wonderful ; valley of the Nile, broad river, winding near 
us, sand and green so that one could stand with one foot on the 
desert and the other in rich clover far off eastward, beyond the river, 
the limestone hills from which the stone for the pyramids was 
brought, and Cairo and westward the Libyan hills, and beyond 
them three thousand miles of sand. Coming down was frightfully 
fatiguing ; not at all dangerous, just hard work. When I got to 

the ground I couldn't walk, my knees felt so weak. Doctor R 

was less used up, but the Arabs toted us both on their shoulders, 



A YEAR ABROAD 26 1 

along one side of the pyramid, being two hundred and fifty yards. 
Then we went inside, which is most fatiguing of all, stooping and 
crawling, slipping down a slope, and climbing up where the rock is 
broken. 

DIARY, Feb. 25 : By 7.30 o'clock we reached Jaffa. Many boats 
put out to meet us, over twenty of them, black looking, and men 
rowing eagerly, and striking from different directions towards the ship 
it suggested the boats of savages, coming to attack a ship be- 
calmed. As they got near, and before the steamer fairly stopped, 
they began screaming to us, and beckoning, and running against 
other boats the grandest specimen of Oriental uproar I can well 
conceive. We got into a large boat, reaching it with difficulty. The 
sea unsually calm, and slight wind blowing off shore yet even then 
the landing looked perilous no harbor reef of rocks a little way 
from shore (famous as the rocks of Andromeda, Stanley, Ch. VI., 
Note A), with two narrow passages, one being about ten feet wide. 
For two previous weeks the steamers had been quite unable to land 
their passengers, and had to take them on to Beyrout. Will there 
ever be a harbor made here? Or will there be a railway from Port 
Said to Jerusalem, or from Beyrout? 

Doctor Broadus afterward wrote of an incident on the 
way to Jerusalem : 

Oriental usages will die hard, and as long as they last, they 
will startle and thrill the traveler. One morning on the plain of 
Sharon we saw a shepherd ahead of us, leading his flock of mingled 
white sheep and black goats out to pasture. Presently he turned 
into a little bit of sepaiate valley among slight hills, and, as the 
flock followed, he stopped and stood facing them. The goats aie 
rude, and apt to push the sheep away from the best grass, so that 
they need to be separated. So, as they came up, he would with his 
rod tap a sheep on one side of its head, and it went *ff to his 
right ; tap a goat on the other side of its head, and it went off to his 
left. We sat on our horses, and gazed in silence. 1 

DIARY, Feb 28 : " My feet shall stand within thy gates, O Jeru- 
salem." Thank God, that the hopeless dream of many a year has 
become a reality. I am at Jerusalem. 

1 " Convention Teacher," April, 1891. In the last years Doctor Broadus wrote fre 
quently for this " Teacher " 



262 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

DIARY, Mar. 3 : Returning, in street of David stumbled upon a 
marriage procession, headed by noisy and discordant music. Girls 
covered with white, two of them leading the bride, going to bride- 
groom's house. At several houses, friends came out and offered 
some cheap drmk, bright colored. Reaching bridegroom's, they en- 
tered small inner court, and painstakingly ascended narrow stone 
steps bride's handsome dress (under the white covering) could be 
held high by her attendants, as she wore the Turkish trousers, 
very large and showy. We were allowed to go up and look into 
upper room. Bridegroom, a boy of fifteen or sixteen (said to be from 
London), looked very sheepish, much bored, as he sat by the bride 
she and her attendants had all removed their white coverings. 
The room was full, the musicians made the biggest noise they 
could, and a girl came into a small space opened in the middle, and 
danced before the happy pair. . , 

The diary is full of most interesting observations by 
Doctor Broadus, whose mind was rich in biblical lore, 
but these must nearly all be passed by. March 7-11 he 
and Doctor Randolph made an excursion to Hebron, 
Bethlehem, Mar Saba, the Dead Sea,' the Jordan, and Jeri- 
cho. We must let Doctor Broadus tell of the sunrise at 
Jerusalem as they started. 

DIARY, Mar. 7 : It had been raining several days, and we were 
uneasy for our trip., which must of necessity be arranged beforehand, 
and could be postponed only with great difficulty. 

This morning very clear, and we looked with joy from high upper 
window to the line of Olivet, beyond that to the mountains of Moab, 
distinct but dark. Presently a single ray of golden light touches 
the highest point of Moab (that ought to be Pisgah), and seems to 
run along the waving line of the mountain summits away towards 
the southern part of the Deal Sea, while Olivet grows clearer in the 
foreground. Soon, looking just to the right of the church of the 
Ascension, on the summit of Olivet, we see a bright speck behind 
Moab, enlarging, then the bright line towards the South becomes a 
broad band, a gilded phylactery on the frowning brow of the 
mountain, while a single dark cloud just south of the rising sun 
looks like a great mountain on fire. Now the bright light comes out 
over all the rounded summits of Olivet and m a moment half of the 
sun is visible above Moab, and flinging across to us such a brilliant, 



A YEAR ABROAD 263 

dazzling glory as to swallow up the whole scene, and make us turn 
our blinded eyes away. 

Doctor Randolph tells the following story of this jaunt : 

Not a single mishap, I think, befell him while we were in the 
Holy Land, and but one came to me. Our journeymgs were en-' 
tirely on horseback. The roads were merely bridle paths. As a 
rule they were unfit for anything but a walk. Four miles an hour 
was the average rate of travel. I can scarcely remember more than 
one stretch of a mile where a smooth path invited to a canter. That 
was between Hebron and Bethlehem. There we tried the speed of 
our iron grays. But it had rained that morning, and the road was 
slippery. My horse slipped and fell and I fell with him, but fortu- 
nately he did not fall on me. I was badly stunned and for a few 
moments dazed. However, by the aid of my friend and our drago- 
man, I soon remounted, and we went along. But there was no 
more galloping that day. 

Doctor Randolph likewise says of the visit to Mar 
Saba: 

The convent belongs to the Greek Church and admission to it 
can only be obtained through the Greek patriarch at Jerusalem. 
Provided with this permit, we reached the rocky fastness a little 
before nightfall, drenched by the hardest rain to which we were ex- 
posed in Palestine. The heavy door of the convent was closed as 
usual. From a loophole in the wall, some distance above the door, 
a basket was lowered, into which our permit was put. It was then 
drawn up and examined, and being found correct a monk came down 
and admitted us. No sooner were we within, than the door was 
again closed and fastened, and as the heavy bolt creaked on being 
shoved back to its place, Doctor Broadus in an undertone said to 
me, " Now we are in the Middle Ages," a thought which was addi- 
tionally impressed as in the night we heard the convent bell calling 
the monks to prayer. 

J. P. BOYCE to J. A. B. : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., March 10, 1871 : And now let me say per- 
emptorily, " You must not hurry home." I have consulted the faculty 
and they are unanimously of the opinion that you must stay as late 
as possible, at least late enough to allow a trip to the Rhine and 



264 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

Switzerland. Don't be troubled about the money. I shall be able 
to keep that all straight. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 
JERUSALEM, March 19, 1871 : Everything conspires to make me 

satisfied \vith the plan I devised as to travel here, and Doctor R 

frequently expresses himself strongly on the subject. We stay long 
at Jerusalem, returning again and again, visiting the principal places 
many times, and reading over the Scripture events and discourses on 

the spot. (Doctor R reads aloud, and we discuss and comment.) 

We want in some way to stay longer by the Sea of Galilee than 
most travelers do. And finally we return here for Easter, when the 
Orient gathers here its many thousands. The ladies who came up 
from Jaffa with us, and who intended to go across to Damascus, ten 
days' continuous riding, have given it up, and went back to Jaffa 
yesterday. No ladies ought to come here unless used to horseback 
riding, and not easy to take cold, and no persons of either sex ought 
to visit Palestine unless they either know much about it beforehand, 
or stay a good while at every important place. The first time or two 
they see one of these famous places, people are usually disappointed, 
astonished, disgusted, and often sorry they ever came. The wretched 
hovels in which most of the people live, the narrow, filthy, and dis- 
gusting streets which are universal even the best streets in Jerusa- 
lem being not more than twelve or fourteen feet wide, and filthy be- 
yond endurable description and the bare and desolate hills on every 
side, fill their minds with painful emotions. . . If they would stay 
longer and study the excellent books accessible, and see places many 
times, and learn to distinguish what can be really ascertained, and 
by an effort of imagination sweep away these disagreeable actuali- 
ties and reproduce what once was here, and then, resting from topo- 
graphical discussion, would go over the Scripture narratives and dis- 
courses, they would find an exquisite delight, which might well 
make them clap their hands with joy. 

DIARY, March 20 : Our dragoman traveled a month last spring 
with Kiepert, the great map-maker, beyond Jordan, and said they 
went to Wady Zurka. I was delighted that Kiepert should have 
visited the site of Machaeius, as nobody has shared my enthusiasm 
about it enough to join me in the risky and costly trip to see it. . . 

A tour to Galilee was made March 2i-April 4, the 
party returning to Jerusalem for Easter* Doctor Broadus 



A YEAR ABROAD 265 

fairly reveled in the sights at Bethel, Nablous, the val- 
ley of Esdraelon, Nazareth, the Jordan, Tiberias, Caper- 
naum, the Sea of Galilee, and all the rest. 

DIARY, March 21 : When we reached Tiberias, the trifling mule- 
teers had pitched in the first place they reached, a bit of plowed 
ground. . . We put on our waterproofs and watched the lake. The 
cloud now black in the South thunder more frequent, and its fainter 
sound rolling off mingled with the echoes from the hills behind keen, 
fierce lines of lightning, strangely vivid in this wonderful atmos- 
phere. Surface of lake ruffled, and raindrops falling heavily so as 
to make the water leap up. . . Dragomen and servants, with some 
Arabs from the town, are rushing about screaming Arabic at each 
other, amid the roar of wind and thunder trying to get the tent set 
up. Yonder around the town (we are just south of it) comes one of 
the few boats of this lake which once swarmed with them, coming 
back with a party of travelers who arrived yesterday, and whose 
tents are between us and the springs. , . The sail is set, the rowers 
are busy, they are hurrying to get the ladies ashore. There is no 
wharf, the bank slopes too gently, the boat grounds and the boat- 
men hurriedly tote the ladies ashore, who scamper towards their 
tents. We are safe, quiet, and happy, . . and delighted to see a 
storm gathering on the Sea of Galilee. Presently I look across all 
the southern part of the lake is now clouded, with rain already heavy 
at the south end but opposite I see the summits of the moun- 
tain range standing out very clear, indeed bright in the evening 
sun, which shines over the clouds upon them, and Oh, look, look 
at Hermon ! Oh, look, look ! Oh, look, friend, at Hermon ! . . All 
words fail to tell how brilliant, how gloriously radiant. I gazed and 
gazed in a very agony of delight. And so, I was thinking, so some- 
times with the dying, when all around is growing dark, they turn 
their eyes in a new direction and sudden, bright, transporting, rises 
the vision of another world, splendid with unearthly glories, blessed, 
rapturous, overwhelming. I could not see the wonderful mountain 
now, for the tears that came. But the rain increased, and the tent 
invited. . . New and loud bursts of thunder, and as I look forth, 
the water of the lake is leaping high from something more than rain- 
drops ; on the tombstones here just before'me large hail-stones are re- 
bounding. The tent, too hastily erected, shakes and leaks, and 1 
arrange our beds so as to protect them, then sit down near the tent- 
door to gaze. White-caps now on the lake, and surf beating on the 
shore. , . Thunder very loud and abrupt, lightnings forked and 



266 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

many-colored. . . The northern part of the lake now obscured, the 
vision of Hermon gone. As the hail subsides, there passes between 
rne and the shore a great flock of black goats and some sheep, hur- 
rying from the fields to shelter, but too late the shepherd calls, the 
shepherd dogs bark loudly, urging the stragglers along. The storm 

rolls off north and northeast. Doctor R has stayed out through 

it all. We rejoice much at having seen it, having got here just in 
time. 

Monday, March 27 : We had engaged the boat Saturday evening, 
and though some danger of ram determined to go. . . Our drago- 
man afraid of the water, and got a substitute from Tiberias, an old 
Arab, formerly a distinguished dragoman, but utterly ruined by 
drink, which has thickened his speech and fuddled his brain, and 
driven his wife and child to leave him. It seemed sad to meet such 
a case here. Mohammed's prohibition law does not appear to be 
very efficacious. 

We wanted to visit place where supposed that five thousand were 
fed, and then work around by mouth of Jordan to Tel Hum. Men 
unwilling to go across; would not be time, no travelers ever go 
there, etc. We insisted, and they went, but very slowly, taking 
three and three-quarter hours, till half past eleven o'clock. At eleven, 
one of them called my attention to appearance of wind rising in 
West, by Mejdel, and it was "mushtayib," bad, bad. When we 
landed, the waves were beginning to swell, and the wind freshening. 
We were at the south end of the plain of Bateiha, which extends 
southeast from the upper mouth of the river. This plain would 
naturally pertain to Bethsaida Julias. . . Into the plain itself came 
three main wadys, the middle one being the largest, and running 
away back into the mountain range. Our Lord may have gone up 
this middle wady to find a " desert place " for rest. . . Close to 
where we landed, is a singular creek, or inlet, with a narrow and 
shallow entrance, but deeper within. . . This creek makes a capital 
harbor for boats, and our boat at once upon our landing put in there, 
and was quiet through all the storm which followed. . . The disci- 
ples knew there was danger of sudden storms at this season (much 
better than we did), and they expected to leave their boat for some 
time. Is it not natural to suppose they would have made for this 
little inlet, and left their boat there? Up the hill (a half or three- 
quarters of a mile from the shore), on southern side of it, towards 
the wady, and thus near the edge of the territory which would 
naturally belong to Bethsaida Julias, we observed a slope towards 



A YEAR ABROAD 267 

the southwest, quite large, sloping gently, full of herbage, on which 
the afternoon sun would shine pleasantly. . . (The five thousand 
were fed shortly before the Passover, and we are here at just the 
same season). This might well enough have been the very place 
though there are many other places suitable, if not so strikingly. 
We should have been glad to observe more widely and carefully, 
but plain to north of us contained thirty or forty Bedouin tents, and 
our guard was the old interpreter and one boatman, instead of sev- 
eral that had been promised us. Besides we felt uneasy about the 
rising wind. 

Regaining the boat at twelve o'clock or so, found wind high, 
waves breaking white all over the sea and in abundant surf on the 
gently sloping shore. . . "The wind was contrary" to our return 
across the lake. Fortunately it was midday rather than midnight, 
and we were still on shore. The boatmen composedly laid down 
and went to sleep, and we quietly ate our lunch. Then we read 
more of the Galilean ministry. Gathered many minute shells, and 
a good many flowers. Fine sunny afternoon, but wind still sharp, 
and quite unsafe to cross. So we waited many hours. 

The ruder boats of the olden time were probably built much like 
this. At each end of this boat is a platform, near the top, extending 
some four feet towards the middle, and forming thus a bit of deck. 
On the hinder one we sat upon a piece of carpet, and on the other 
the owner coiled himself to sleep. In a larger boat there might well 
be here behind a cushion, good for passengers to sit on, and con- 
venient for one person to sleep. Accordingly we find our Lord (in 
the first stormy voyage described) in the hinder part of the boat, 
asleep on a cushion. He cannot have been in the bottom of the boat, 
for it was filling with water and threatening to sink while he slept on. 

Farther east to-day than ever before, or expect to be again, unless 
we go to Damascus. 

At five o'clock, wind a good deal slackened, and we set out. . . 
Waves still quite high, and we had no work to do, and ample 
leisure to be uneasy. The prospect was alarming. A striking illus- 
tration of Scripture, and so far very gratifying. . . Boat savagely 
tossed at times, but shipped no water (though barely escaped), and no 
notion of capsizing. Presently they set the sail, and we worked north- 
west. . . We beat up into the mouth of the Jordan (thus having, 
notwithstanding the storm, some opportunity to see it), and waited 
awhile for the wind to sink more. Near dark we put out, keeping 
within a few hundred yards of the western shore, and relying on 
oars. , . Slowly we got on, passing Tel Hum, etc. Moon in first 



268 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

quarter, stars here and there, lake shore very pleasing. Uneasiness 
diminishing, I sunk down, quite overcome with fatigue and the day's 
excitements, and slept an hour or two in a certain fitful fashion. . . 
Landed at half past ten, and felt heartily thankful. Gave the men 
liberal bakshish, and they probably wished for many storms with 
Frangi. 

The diary has a graphic description of the frauds and 
impositions about the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, the 
Greek footwashing, and the ceremony of the Holy Fire 
on April 6 and 8. About all the mockery DoctorBroadus 
says : 

No devoutness, no seriousness frolic for the crowd, ridiculous to 
the persons officiating It is ceremony run in the ground, utterly de- 
feating its own object. I have never in my life beheld a spectacle 
so humiliating. This is Oriental Christianity. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

BEYROUT, Apnl 13, 1871 : We had had a pleasant ride to Bethle- 
hem that morning, and when at 6 o'clock I got so many letters, I 
was quite happy, especially as they all contained good news rather 
than otherwise. The next day, Tuesday, we left Jerusalem at 6 
o'clock, and soon had our last look at the " Holy City." The ride 
was pleasant. Palestine looks its prettiest at just this season. Even 
the rockiest mountainsides have many wild flowers among the 
rocks, and the valleys and plains, where not cultivated, are com- 
pletely covered with the little flowers, most bright and rich in their 
colors, and often very sweet in their perfume. Throughout our 
journey north, the wild flowers were our constant delight. Some 
great mountain might look very bleak in the distance, with its vast 
ledges of rock, but when we came to climb it, away up even to the 
top, the flowers, thick as in garden beds, would nod all around us 
their bright welcome, and fill the air with their delicious breath as 
we walked, . . The white almond blossoms have now passed away, 
and the trees are full of young almonds, which the people eat largely 
in their green state, shell and all, and which some say are sweet and 
wholesome. . . We spent the night at Ramleh, as before, and I 
thought the great olive groves, with tall wheat between the trees, 
more beautiful than ever. Yesterday morning we started again at 
6 o'clock and came to Jaffa. 



A YEAR ABROAD 269 

J. A. B. to MR. S. S. BROADUS : 

BEYROUT, April 13, 1871 : The French steamer did not arrive as 
expected, but fortunately we found a freight steamer from Glasgow, 
which does business in these waters, and had come to Jaffa to take 
pilgrims, returning from Jerusalem, to their homes, along the coast. 
... All the lower deck was full of pilgrims, Some of these are 
wealthy people ; they put on mean clothing and rough it. . We 
had several persons on board who were traveling around the 
world, . . I was faintly trying to wash my face, at half past six 
o'clock, when I heard some one above say, " We are just passing 
Sidon." . . 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

BEYROUT, April 14, 1871 : . . If I can get pleasantly situated at 
Athens I mean to stay there at least three weeks. I am tired of so 
much going. If nothing happens, we shall reach Athens about 24th 

or 25th. Doctor R will not stay there more than one week. I 

told him how you envied his wife about correspondence, and he 
dolefully said that my last letter from you was of later date than his 

last from Mrs. R , which was true, the English mail being very 

prompt, and the Italian very uncertain. 

Beyrout is now the great port of Syria, with sixty thousand people, 
and growing rapidly. I have taken a great fancy to the place, 
probably because I was so sea-sick when I arrived here. No doubt 
I shall, if nothing happens, have a similar preparation in June for 
taking a great fancy for Locust Grove. 

SMYRNA, April 22, 1871 : . . The weather was delightful, and 
the boat comfortable. We had for three days a number of American 
missionaries (Congregationalist), stationed in different parts of Syria 
and Asia Minor, nine in all, including four ladies, and I was ex- 
ceedingly pleased with their society. . . Then we coasted all along 
Syria and the southern coast of Asia Minor, almost everywhere in 
full view. We stopped four, six, eight hours at several points, and 
could go ashore. Thus at Alexandretta (Scanderoon), near the N. 
E. angle of the Mediterranean, we spent several hours of Sunday 
on shore, holding a prayer meeting in a Greek church. We were 
there in full view of the plain of Issus, where Alexander first fought 
Darius, and the town was named in his honor. Next day we stopped 
at Messena, within four hours of Tarsus, and though there was not 
quite time to go there we were for many hours in view of Paul's coun- 
try, including the glorious snow-clad summits of Taurus. Then we 



270 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

stopped at Rhodes and went ashore, with time enough to see the 
harbor, speculate about the Colossus, and run about the town. 
Afterwards we were passing the famous islands, Cos, Samos, 
Chios (Scio), etc. Patmos at night, couldn't see it We reached 
Smyrna early yesterday morning, and to my great delight were 
able to make an excursion by rail, fifty miles, to see the ruins of 
Ephesus. I have been surpused to find Smyrna so beautiful the 
harbor almost equals the bay of Naples, and the town not only 
looks beautiful at a distance (as many Oriental towns do), but 
compared with what we have long been seeing, it looks beauti- 
ful within. 

DIARY, April 24 : Rose early but not early enough to see ruins 
and temple of Minerva on Sunium a gentleman (who slept on 
deck ) said it appeared to great advantage in the morning light. We 
were in the gulf of Athens on our right, Hymettus ; on left, yEgina, 
and the little island on which Demosthenes died farther left, moun- 
tains of the Morea, running in till nearly in front were the snow- 
capped mountains near Corinth. The bay is broad and very 
beautiful, the morning was surpassingly fine, indeed the weather 
for a week past, ever since we turned the N. E. corner of the Medi- 
terranean, has been perfectly delightful. By degrees, on our right, 
Parnes becomes visible presently we can see the Acropolis. . . 
Now we can see Pentelicus, between Hymettus and Parnes, and east, 
the Lycabettus. Yonder, in front, is the isle of Salamis. I see a 
youngish lady (of Cook's party, I think) talking to a young man 
in the most animated manner, her face radiant with enthusiasm and 
delight, and with animated gesticulation, perhaps one of those 
splendid scholars in Greek, like Mrs. Browning or Marian Evans, 
and full of enthusiasm here and now. " Dear little Charlie waked 
at half past four, and he was so lively I could not sleep any more 
the dear, sweet little fellow." Yes, yes, that is right, that is 
beautiful what are all these associations compared with a mother's 
love of finding delight in its very sacrifices? So, my amusement 
changed to a certain admiration. 

Certainly Xerxes did give the Greeks every possible advantage in 
the naval battle yonder between Salamis and the mainland. In that 
narrow strait a few of their best ships, more easily maneuvered than 
his grand galleys, could hold the entire line, and if one of his broke 
the line it would be surrounded by the mass of Athenian vessels, 
gathered in safety behind. Self-conceit made him mad, almost a 
simpleton. 



A YEAR ABROAD 2/1 



J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 



ATHENS, April 29, 1871 : Doctor Randolph left, night before last, 
for Messina and Naples. Said he was very sorry to leave Athens so 

soon, but Mrs. R is in Naples, and he hasn't seen her for almost 

three months, a separation far longer than ever before. I found him 
throughout a pleasant traveling companion, and I felt very blue 
when he was gone and 1 found myself alone in a strange land. 

There is a Baptist missionary here, a native Greek with a New 
England wife, and they are very fnendly. . . 

Mr. Duncan gave me a letter to the American minister here, Mr. 
Tuckerman, and he has been quite civil. Spending the evening 

with him, and somebody mentioning Sophocles, I asked Mrs. T 

if there were nightingales here, and referred to the opening of OEdi- 
pus Coloneus, where the blind old man and his daughter came to 
Colonos, a mile or two from Athens, and heard the nightingales sing- 
ing in the grove. She said they were abundant, and a few minutes 
after she threw open the casement and called me. The Royal Gar- 
dens are opposite, it was ten o'clock, and the night singers were just 
beginning their responsive notes in the dense grove across the 
street. I listened long, and stopped many times on my way home 
to listen again. That passage of the QEdipus took very fast hold 
of me years ago, and to hear the nightingale for the first time here 
and then, was quite a delightful bit of experience. Last night, in 
my new quarters, they sang me to sleep with notes a good deal re- 
sembling the mocking birds we hear in the oak trees opposite our 
home excepting the nightingale's delicious semitone trill. 

Athens is a very pretty modern city, near fifty thousand inhabit- 
ants, and growing. King Otho and his engineers gave it quite a 
German look, the houses closely resembling his native Munich. 
The Greek costume is comparatively rare on the streets, and thus 
the more picturesque. Everywhere one hears French, English, 
Italian, German, as well as Greek, and the whole aspect of the 
place is European. Nor does this seem out of harmony with the 
glorious ruins on the Acropolis. Beyond all the nations or races, 
the spirit of the old Greek was a spirit of change and progress. In 
an Oriental city with the stationaiy Oriental civilization, European 
languages, dress, life, seem out of place. But here it seems perfectly 
appropriate that everything new should find a place, and the ruined 
Parthenon looks down benignly on the railway train, the gaslight, 
the breech-loader. 

Those ruins on the Acropolis merit all their fame, and transcend 



272 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

all eulogy. They thrill at the first visit, they grow upon you every 
time you return. It seems that only within the present generation 
has there come to be understood the wonderful system of curves 
according to which the temples there, and there alone, weie built. 
The long steps, the pillars, the very grooves of the pillars, curve in 
conic sections, and the different grooves of the same pillar have dif- 
ferent eccentricities, so that the eye never falls on a sharp line be- 
tween two grooves, but all is soft in its gently curving outline, 
whatever part, great or small, we look at, or from whatever point 
of view. It is believed that the total failure of all imitations of the 
Parthenon is due to the lack of these delicate curves, most of which 
are detected only by instrument Some account of the matter is 
given in Felton's " Ancient and Modern Greece," published three 
years ago, and a very readable book, which the University library 
surely must possess. It is very wonderful to find these delicate de- 
tails, wrought out with scientific exactness and on so grand a scale, 
n so early a work* Matchless genius there was in all this, but also 
profound study, and boundless labor in the execution ; and in every 
department of human effort it requires all three of these to achieve 
any great work. . . 

After all descriptions, I had little conception of the Areopagus. It 
is just a huge lump of limestone rock, rising on the gradual western 
slope of the Acropolis hill (which on every other side is precipitous), 
and with a depressed neck of earth between it and the far higher 
and larger rock of the Acropolis itself. The rock is perfectly bare 
and rough. Near the eastern end, but fronting south toward the 
Agora, are cut the sixteen steps, narrow and rude, leading up to 
a small space which has equally rude seats cut in the rock, mak- 
ing a small square, and two little stands for accuser and accused. 
The fifty judges (I believe that was the number) must have folded 
their cloaks quite small and laid them close together, as they sat 
upon these half-hewn seats without backs, and the spectators could 
only perch around on the little natural lumps in the hard gray and 
reddish limestone. On one of the low stands, two or three feet 
square and high, partially cut out of the rock, and either facing the 
Acropolis or facing the other way toward the Pnyx, Paul must have 
stood. It seems very queer that not only in this strange old court, 
but in the popular assemblies at the Pnyx, the speaker spoke in the 
open air, standing on a piece of rock rudely hewn, and the hearers 
sat on stone seats, when they had seats at alL The open sky and 
plain, mountains and sea, the fair city around and the grand Acrop- 
olis towering yonder, gave the orator great advantage in his allu- 



A YEAR ABROAD 273 

sions to nature and history, and the stone seats might well warn 
him not to be tedious. Not wonderful that Demus was often rest- 
less and impatient. So too, in the recently excavated theater of 
Dionysus, where the great dramas of ^Eschylus, Sophocles, Eurip- 
ides, and Aristophanes were all performed, the seats are all stone, 
the priests in front having only the distinction of marble, with arms 
and a concave back. 

But I must go and mail this, and then come and " look over," asj 
the other schoolboys say, the lesson my teacher in modern Greek 
gave me. 

ATHENS, May 5, 1871 : The lessons in modern Greek are accom- 
plishing fully as much as I expected from them, and are costing me 
no worry at all. I have been sightseeing when I felt like it, and had 
a good many long and pleasant walks, both alone and in company. 
Two nights ago I went to see the Acropolis by moonlight, in com- 
pany with Doctor Smyth, of Andover Theological Seminary, and his 
wife's sister, a very pleasant lady. Her enjoyment of the scene 
made me wish all the more, what I am so often wishing, that you 
could be with me. As the clear, full moon shone down serenely upon 
those matchless columns, and flung its soft light over all that spot so 
rich in charming memories, I thought again and again that if Lottie 
were here, and our daughters, and Mary Smith, and Jennie, . . I 
would fairly say, I am happy. " Man never is, but always to be 
blest." 

Well, I did greatly enjoy it, and nothing would have been more 
out of place then and there than to give way to vain longings for 
the impossible. What a power and life there was in that old Greek 
spirit, to infuse itself into chiseled stone, and live there forever, 
ready to cast its spell over every stranger who draws near to behold. 
The power of oratory and of song is wonderful, but then they em- 
ploy that most marvelous of all human inventions, language, and 
that finest of all instruments, the human voice ; the musician throws 
his soul into the instrument, and stirs our souls to their deepest 
depths, and we justly say, how wonderful ; but then he has all the 
varieties and combinations of changeful sound. And the painter has 
color, and even the sculptor has posture and symbolical action, and 
both have easy command over our sympathies by presenting in pre- 
ternatural beauty the human form. But the architect where dwells 
the charm of that ruined Parthenon, making it seem the perfection 
at once of beauty and sublimity ? as if the beauty of yonder sleep- 
ing sea, and of yonder dark mountains, and of yonder glorious 

s 



274 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

mighty heavens, had all come to dwell in these rows of marble col- 
umns and broken marble walls ? . . 

Yesterday, as I said, was the king's name day. Men in Greece 
are almost always named after some saint, and then they celebrate 
the calendar-day of that saint as their " name-day," receiving visits, 
etc. The young king is fortunate in having a good Greek name r 
and St. George is one of the great saints, with a day that comes at 
a pleasant season. The great feature of the celebration is the serv- 
ice at the Metropolitan Church. I happened to fall in with the 
Smyths going, and we were carried by their dragoman within the 
railing, just to the left of the throne ; and though others were turned 
out, the foreigners were left there undisturbed. After due delay, the 
foreign ministers came in, resplendent with gold-lace and order rib- 
bons, and it was very funny to see them all around us with their 
elaborate greetings and magnificent politeness. A platform held 
two chairs, red velvet and gold, with a little crown at the top of the 
back, and their majesties came in and stood before the chairs, get- 
ting pretty tired of the long service. . . I couldn't understand the 
service, and as it was my first and last time of being within five feet 
of royalty, I observed them pretty closely. . . 

Sam sent his love to the next king and queen I saw, but he'll have 
to pardon me I really hadn't a chance to deliver it. . . 

After we came out, I ran (literally) to see the procession pass along 
Hermes Street trumpets and galloping cavalry, with the same blue 
and white uniform, and carnages dashing by at a gallop. . 

CORFU, May 16, 1871 : We sailed from Athens till we reached 
in four hours the isthmus of Cormth, which we crossed in carriages, 
three miles, passing the site of the old Isthmian games. We waited 
an hour at the little town of New Corinth, the famous city where 
Paul labored so long. The gulf of Corinth presents much beautiful 
scenery. It is narrow and winding like the Scotch lakes, with bold 
headlands and high mountains, some of them, both in the Pelopon- 
nesus and on the north, being bright with snow. After passing 
Helicon on the north, we came towards evening within clear view of 
Parnassus, whose mantle of snow is very broad, and probably never 
cast off for all the persuasion of the summer sun. . . During the 
night we passed Missalonghi, where Lord Byron died. Yesterday 
we had a capital view of the island of Ithaca, famous for Ulysses 
and Penelope. One of my companions, a young Massachusetts 
professor, was reading the " Odyssey " in Greek. At midnight we 
were at Corfu, and had the next day before us. . . 



A YEAR ABROAD . 275 

J. A. B. to MISS ANNIE H. BROADUS: 

CORFU, May 16, 1871 : But I am not giving you the slightest 
conception of the transcendently beautiful scene, as we saw from a 
high rock on the summit of a mountain. I had been getting more 
and more delighted as we went along. It is so pleasant after being 
at sea, to look out on a wide expanse of terra firma, with its trees 
and crops and friendly flowers. The roses seemed to have caught 
a smile from the lips of those 1 love. The ripening flax brought 
back the days of boyhood, when I used to pull flax for mother. The 
huge figs, almost ripe on the trees, suggested the most luscious tastes. 
The flourishing young vines cut almost to the ground in winter, but 
now full of rapidly growing shoots and pretty bunches of young 
grapes, seemed to radiate from their tender and quivering leaves the 
very vitality of spring, and to send joyous life tingling through my 
nerves. The laborers, with their bright dresses, all looked smiling. 
The cheery upland breezes seemed to whisper of all pleasant things. 
And when, after many an exclamation of delight I reached the high 
rock and looked around, I clapped my hands and shouted for very 
gladness. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

MILAN, May 23, 1871 : We left Florence Monday morning (yes- 
terday) and came through to Milan in ten hours. The day was 
very fine, and the ride uncommonly pleasant. . . 

From Bologna came by Modena, Parma, Piacenza famous names, 
but we flitted by, and saw but little. Far to the west of us was 
bending away the high range of the Apennines, with several snow- 
clad summits. The railway runs almost exactly along the Roman 
Via /Emilia, and all about were the sites of Roman towns and Ro- 
man battles. 

At Florence Doctor Broadus rejoined the young ladies 
and they now had the joys of the Alps together, 

J. A. B. to WM. WILLIAMS : 

INTERLAKEN, June 6, 1871 : At Geneva I made some effort one 
afternoon to find places associated with Calvin, and it was curious 
to see how little could be found. There is a library, in which are 
autographs, etc., of him, and other Reformers, but it was closed, and 
the librarian was not at home. There is the house in which he lived 
twenty-one years, up to his death. . . It is one of the largest houses 
in the vicinity, of excellent stone, two stories high besides cellar and 



276 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

garret rooms, and built around three sides of a court. The only thing 
to be learned from my survey is, that from his first going to Geneva, 
Calvin lived in excellent style and ample comfort. Then I tried to 
find the Champel, a hill south of the town, on which Servetus was 
" executed." After some inquiries it was reached, but a couple of 
intelligent gentlemen who were passing assured me that the place of 
the execution was entirely unknown it was somewhere in this 
vicinity. . . The cemetery in which Calvin was buried is known, 
but it is no longer used, and the exact spot occupied by his remains is 
unknown, as he expressly forbade the erection of any monument 
over his grave. . . An admirer of Calvin (and assuredly I belong to 
that class) might liken the case to that of Christianity itself, whose 
original abodes have long been occupied by its enemies, leaving few 
genuine memorials beyond the mere natural locality, but which thus 
only the more vindicates its character as not local and sensuous. To 
complete the series of failures, I called at Dr. Merle d'Aublgne's, but 
the servant reported he was at dinner, and I said I would call in the 
eveningwhich circumstances made impracticable. 

At Lausanne I hunted up the garden in the rear of a house in 
which garden Gibbon wrote the last volume of his history, and 
where he tells that after writing the last sentence, late at night, he 
laid down the pen, took several turns in the garden, and thought- 
what in the world is it that he says he thought? . . Anyhow, 
he thought something or other, probably a very self-complacent 
thought, as it would have been like his character, and anyhow, it is 
a lovely little garden in which he wrote. Completely shaded (now) 
by six fine trees, and with an adjoining flower-garden on a lower 
level of the hill to send up its sweet odors by day and by night to his 
table and chair, it commands a wide and most beautiful view of the 
Lake of Geneva, and of the successive ranges of the Alps beyond, 
with Mont Blanc in the distance. I got to thinking about what an 
excellent thing it is for a student and author to be rich, and the fact_ 
that besides Gibbon, Grote was rich, and Buckle, and Prescott. 
. . . Gibbon's house has been converted into the Hotel Gibbon, and 
has Jong been popular as a place of summer resort, Lausanne having 
one of the most beautiful situations of all the world's cities. Among 
the schools for which it is famous, is the Academy, and here Vmet 
was once professor. 1 had considerable trouble in finding his lectme 
room. At length, after being stared at for my inquiries about the 
late distinguished professor, I stumbled upon an old servant man, 
who with some effort remembered about Vmet, and would show me 
his portrait. So we went upstairs from the court of the building, 



A YEAR ABROAD 277 

and hunted round for the portrait among a number on the walls of a 
room ; but didn't find it. Then he thought it must be somewhere 
else, and went in at a door about as uninviting as that by which we 
and our students enter the halls of wisdomexcept that it was in a 
stone wall, but very old and ugly. We climbed an old spiral stone 
stairway, and got into a small room, where was another old man. 
" He can tell you," said my guide. So he told me that there is no 
portrait of Vmet there, though there is a picture somewhere else in 
ihe town, representing him and others on some public occasion. I 
inquired for his lecture room, and behold, it was this room. It is 
about twenty-four by fourteen feet, low pitched, with one small win- 
dow at the end, looking on a dull street, and two or three small win- 
dows in the side looking into the old court of the academy. The 
professor stood at the other end, with no window near and must have 
had a pretty dull time of it, as to his surroundings, and also a rather 
small class. I think our lecture rooms are twice as agreeable, being 
so much better ventilated and lighted, besides having a goodly space 
above, into which a man may let loose his voice upon occasion. The 
room here was rather dark, and the students couldn't always make 
their hasty notes legible. And as the book on homiletics was eked 
out from their notes, there can be of course no doubt that the pas- 
sages in it which you never could understand, and I never could ex- 
plain to you, were derived from notes taken on rainy days. 

It is not pleasant to think how soon a theological professor may be 
forgotten in the places where he was so great a man. My aged in- 
formant was a librarian, and the lecture room is now a reading room 
to the library. 1 think we really must get us a librarian, and one 
likely to be long-lived. 

I haven't heard what was done for or with the Seminary at St. 
Louis, but hope to hear soon. Tell Thomas that we went to 
Chamounix last week, having perfect weather and a delightful trip. 
Now, we are shut up by a succession of rainy days. But we are at 
a pleasant place, and have no special engagements, and are taking 
it very easy. 

My health gets better and worse I don't know how it is. Some- 
times 1 I fear that I can never stand anything like close study again, 
but I look forward with much interest and pleasure to the time for 
resuming my work. I have written to engage passage for July 8, 
which would take me to Charlottesville about July 20, where I should 
be glad to hear from you. 

1 And yet he did hold himself to severe study till the very last 



278 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

Doctor Broadus and the ladies went by Lucerne to 
Baden and then down the Rhine to Cologne. It was 
now safe to go to Paris. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

PARIS, June 16, 1871 : Poor Paris ! The Boulevard des Italiens, 
with its splendid shops, shows no crowds of passers-by, as it used 
to do, and almost everybody looks grave and even sad. However, 
it is rather a credit to the people that they have such an aspect ; there 
has been enough to make them so, and the future of France is sadly 
uncertain. 

PARIS, June 19, 1871: We were fortunate on Sunday. Finding 
that one of the French Protestant chapels, belonging to the congre- 
gations which reject State aid, led by my friend Pressense", was near 
here, I went there in the morning, and learned that the preacher for 
noon was M. Bersier. I knew of him from the " Revue Chretienne," 
which I used to take, as an eloquent and scholarly man. We went, 
and were greatly gratified, though I couldn't understand quite as 
well as I do a German preacher. . . Bersier is a fine-looking man, 
tall enough and broad-chested, with a splendid forehead and classical 
features, and a voice not powerful, but sweet and ringing. The 
text was Isa. 40 : 9 end. The sermon was recited, except (I thought) 
some passages towards the close. He spoke of the occasion to 
which the prophet referred, a nation crushed and its capital in ruins, 
and yet comfort in waiting on the almighty and eternal God. The 
two facts, God is powerful, God is eternal, were shown to contain 
consolation, not for the fatalist or the pantheist, but for the Chris- 
tian. Then he applied it to present circumstances spoke of the 
proud and powerful people, the brilliant civilization, the irreligion 
and vain philosophies, and the nation subdued, and beautiful Pans 
with her proudest palaces in ruins and to crown all, this last tra- 
gedy of blood and fire, as awakening fears for the future. Then 
he talked of consolation for the Christian, even here and now, in re- 
membering God of the political and social duties of the hour said 
that true Christians could regenerate France, and even a true leaven 
cf it could save her ; that in the seventeenth century, when the talents 
of Bossuet and the virtues of Fenelon conld not stop the corruption 
of Catholicism, Protestantism had saved France, and Protestantism 
must do it again. These were the leading thoughts. The style had 
not only the elegance which is so characteristically French, but 
terseness and point, and there was a pathetic tenderness of sentiment 



A YEAR ABROAD 279 

and the delivery swelling to passion when he spoke of the incendi- 
aries, and of the socialistic philosophies which had led to all this, 
that was extremely impressive. Several passages took possession 
of me, though I could not more than half understand. I felt as when 
one hears a most impressive song, catching only enough of the 
words to see the general drift, and borne along by sympathetic senti- 
ment rather than by ideas fully apprehended. 

PARIS, June 24, 1871 : This morning I went alone to the great 
National Library, which claims to be the largest m the world. They 
have for some years been making a new suite of rooms, and so one 
cannot see the books, but I entered the reading rooms, of which the 
principal one is lighter and more elegant than the grand room at the 
British Museum. Though I had no card of permission, and not even 
my passport, they agreed, after some parleying, to let the " Ameri- 
can " gentleman see the MS. of the New Testament (known as C), 
which is one of the treasures ; and I had the pleasure of turning 
over its leaves for half an hour. (Cardinal Antonelli never answered 
my humble request to see B at the Vatican. I mean to try again to 
examine A in the British Museum.) Can't learn anything thus, 
but it is a pleasure, and will interest my pupils. 

J. B. JETER to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., July 29, 1871 : I am mortified that I did not see 
you while you were here. I did not learn that you were in the city 
till this afternoon. I wish to talk with you about many things. By 
all means you should write a book and publish a portion two-thirds 
in the " Herald." This arrangement would aid the circulation of 
the book. . . 

You know not what you missed by failing to call on me. Mrs. 
Jeter has such a collection of compliments for you as no other mor- 
tal, I presume, ever received at one time. It will put your modesty 
to a severe test. 



CHAPTER XIII 
THE STRUGGLE FOR THE SEMINARY'S LIFE 

And behind the dim unknown, 
Standeth God within the shadow, keeping watch above his own. 

Lowell* 

AND now the Seminary once more. This enterprise 
had always been on Doctor Broadus's heart and 
in his prayers. His best service to it was in the future. 
His life had been spared for it and he was richer for this 
work by reason of his European and Oriental travel. 

BASIL MANLY to J. A. B. : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., July 13, 1871 : So far as I can judge, the 
prospects are, ( i) That the Seminary will be sustained. It is stronger 
than ever in the confidence and affections of the people, and any 
attack upon it would only intensify and render more practical the 
interest felt in it (2) It will leave Greenville. (3) Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee, and Georgia, afford the most desirable sites. At present no 
enthusiasm appears to have been developed except in Kentucky, and 
a few days more will show the result there, in part at least. . . 

ON G. & C. R. R., Aug 7, 1871 : I am on my way to Kentucky. 
Ten days ago I declined presidency of Georgetown College. But 
they telegraphed that " the board ^desire a personal interview and 
will pay expenses" ; so I am off . . 

Perhaps it may be that I can " leave the Seminary for the Semi- 
nary's good " like the Botany Bay emigrants leave their country. 

J. A. B. to BASIL MANLY : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA., Aug. rr, 1871 : I can't face the idea of 
losing you, and it would be very nearly impossible to make me see 
that your leaving us could be an advantage to the Seminary. But 
I have much more confidence in your judgment than my own. If 
you think it best, for yourself and for the cause, to make the change, 
I must try to be reconciled, but it would be very hard. I really 
280 




Page 2SO 



THE STRUGGLE FOR THE SEMINARY'S LIFE 28l 

shudder at the idea of losing your so dear companionship and so 
valued co-operation, and I entreat you to be very slow to think it your 
duty to change. I feel particularly disqualified for judging about the 
question, because I don't really understand the status of things. I 
rarely got the " Herald " while absent, and it is curious how com- 
pletely behindhand I find myself. I have been waiting to see you 
and Boyce in order to post myself. As to salary, we must all have 
more in a year or two at the farthest, or the whole concern will 
fail. 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA., Aug. 12, 1871 : Uncle William came up 
last night. He was at the Louisville Convention about removing 
the Seminary. He says the leading Russellville men will not con- 
sent to merging Bethel College into the Seminary. They want us 
as a theological department of the college. . . 

He says the only real prospect is of our going to Louisville, and 
does not think that it is very brilliant. 

So Doctor Manly, after a severe struggle as to his duty, 
went to Georgetown, and the rest, Boyce, Broadus, Wil- 
liams, and Toy, with saddened hearts took up the work. 
Broadus undertook the Students' Fund, while Boyce 
assumed homiletics, unwilling that Broadus, still in poor 
health, should do double work. The Chicago University 
was making overtures to get Broadus as its head, but he 
was going to remain with the Seminary through "thick 
and thin." He soon went to New York in the interest 
of the Seminary. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

EN ROUTE TO NEW YORK, Oct. 12, 1871 : This terrible fire at 
Chicago will almost ruin my enterprise, I fear, but I must follow the 
lead of Providence, and am not nervous on the subject. 

NEW YORK, Oct. 16, 1871 : Mr. Gellatly and I went over to 
Brooklyn to Mr. Pentecost's, and presently to a social meeting of 
Brooklyn pastors, of all denominations. They postponed their ap- 
pointed subject of conversation, and called on one of their number for 
an account of his visit to California, and on me for my travels. I 
talked at some length, and was asked a variety of questions, and 
treated with much courtesy. Edward Beecherwas there, but not 



282 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

Henry Ward. Doctor Conant was present, very civil to me, and 
invited me to dine with him some day this week, which I shall proba- 
bly do. . . 

Yesterday was the most unlucky time for my contribution, cer- 
tainly. Preached at Hanson Place (Pentecost's) in the morning, 
and in the evening they were to have a sermon and collection for 

Chicago ; and where 1 preached in the evening they had C in 

the morning. But the former gave me something over three hun- 
dred dollars, cash down, and the latter will not probably fall below 
the same sum. I think this was very generous. I was treated with 
all possible consideration. 

NEW YORK, Oct. 21, 1871 : It is more and more clear to me that 
the Seminary must go West or go down. 

J. A. B. to BASIL MANLY : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., Feb. 13, 1872: Sunday was a day of trou- 
ble in Greenville. The news spread that you were alarmingly ill, 
and there was great distress and anxiety. The attempt to get a 
telegram through that day failed, and we had to wait. So it went 
until Monday afternoon. Not only our immediate circle, professors, 
students, church, but everybody was expressing concern and desire 
to hear again. Many times the Negroes stopped me on the street to 
ask if we had heard anything more, and the shopkeepers would call 
from behind the counter as I passed their doors. And to-day, as I 
rode by the home of the old one-armed lady who belongs to our 
church, she called out to stop me, and came tottering out to ask. 

God be thanked for the news received last evening that you were 
decidedly better. God spare you, if it please him, and raise you up 
speedily again for active service. But don't forget Milton's grand 
image : 

His state 

Is kingly, thousands at his bidding- speed, 
And post o'er land and ocean without rest ; 
They also serve who only stand and wait. 

My dear fellow, God bless you, in body and mind and soul. 

Brown University was after Doctor Broadus for presi- 
dent, Crozer Seminary also sought him. Rev. W. D. 
Thomas wrote : " Glad to know that nothing moves you. 
. . I wish I had a hundred thousand to give the Semi- 
nary." 



THE STRUGGLE FOR THE SEMINARY'S LIFE 283 

J. L. JOHNSON to J, A. B. : 

DANVILLE, VA., March 14, 1872 : I have had much pleasure in 
reading your " Recollections of Travel " and always feel something 
of disappointment when the " Herald " comes without a column 
from you. Don't be in a hurry to get over the ground. I believe I 
have most pleasure in your accounts of places having literary asso- 
ciations, but I enjoy them all, and I doubt not many are learning 
something of geography and history too, who knew precious little 
of either. By the way, I had recently an illustration of Hiden's say- 
ing, " The amount of ignorance which some people have accumu- 
lated is really astonishing." 

W. H. WHITSITT to J. A. B. : 

ALBANY, GA., March 4, 1872 : I regret not a little the cry that is 
raised about Bro. Williams' ears, and wrote to him a few days ago 
giving an expression of my feelings. As to " alien immersions " 
there is a "debatable land" with every case that arises, but the 
principle on which to decide these cases is clearly and unmistakably 
that which Bro. W enunciates and maintains. 1 

ALBANY, GA., April 9, 1872 : Yours of the 3oth March was re- 
ceived last week. After turning the subject over many times and 
praying for Divine guidance I have concluded to accede to your re- 
quest to permit my name to be proposed to the Board of Trustees for 
the position of assistant professor. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

COLUMBIA, S. C., May 7, 1872: Manly got on at Newberry, and 
I talked over with him the questions about the Seminary and Louis- 
ville, he expressing himself as ready to do everything in his power 
to help us there, if we should go. It is more and more clear to my 
mind that the board cannot decide, and will have to appoint a 
large committee to meet, say three months hence, and let Louisville 
in the meantime be canvassed. The question is pretty clearly be- 
tween Chattanooga and Louisville. 

RALEIGH, N. C., May 9, 1872 : Found on the train many friends, 
and had much pleasant talk with Uncle William and others. At 
Hillsboro Mrs. Gov. Graham came aboard with some of her very 
interesting family. Reached here at seven o'clock, beautiful day. 

1 Doctor Williams laid little stress upon the administrator for the validity of bap- 
tism. 



284 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

Had been assigned to Colonel Heck, splendid home, many brethren, 
Doctor Randolph and I in a delightful room. . . 

But we are all filled with grief at the death of Dr. A. M. Poin- 
dexter, which occurred two or three days ago, after a very brief ill- 
ness. It is a terrible shock, and casts a gloom over all hearts. May 
these many losses be blessed to the Convention. 

Doctor Boyce was elected president on first ballot, by a considera- 
ble majority, Doctor Curry being next. He made a good address 
on taking the chair. Vice-presidents, Curry, A. P. Abell, Fuller, 
Crane, and Davis, of Bethel College. I presented Boyce the mallet, 
with a few words, and it was quite unexpected to find it exciting 
much interest. 1 

ON THE CARS, May 23, 1872 : I should have decided last night 
to remain but for one thing. I should not hesitate to miss the Edu- 
cational Convention and the General Association in Staunton, but it 
is necessary to consult and decide during the Conventon whether 
we are to make that effort in New York. . . This is a matter of the 
highest importance, on which the future of the Seminary may turn, 
and as I have providentially made friends in New York, it seems to 
be my duty to be present next week on that account. But I am go- 
ing with a heavy heart. . . 

And now even for myself I want to be resting and trying to get 
some strength, and quietly making some progress as a student, 
instead of wearing out what is left of me in fatiguing journeys and 
exciting Conventions and collecting campaigns in June. But it seems 
to be my duty, and Providence is wiser than I am. My life has been 
graciously, and in some respects strangely, directed by Providence. 
I have often, when sorely troubled, found unanticipated blessings. 

PHILADELPHIA, May 30, 1872 : They keep us very busy. (Edu- 
cational Convention.) Some very interesting men here. Doctor" 
Sears' address was inspiring, and Doctor Kendrick's on Classical 
Studies was unrivaled. I spoke good-humoredly against Doctor 
Brooks on having women in the colleges. Am on a committee with 
E. G. Robinson, and had the satisfaction of agreeing with him. 
Doctor Sears has treated me with marked courtesy. . . It is decided 
that Boyce and I shall not make any attempt in New York now, 
and so I expect to be at home by twentieth or twenty-fifth of June. I 
want to get home and stay there. I am to leave this evening, hop- 

1 A gavel of olive wood he had brought from Jerusalem. 



THE STRUGGLE FOR THE SEMINARY'S LIFE 285 

ing to get to Staunton to-morrow, and expect to spend most of next 
week at Charlottesville. 

STAUNTON, VA., June i, 1872 : Received at the depot by my friend 
General Echols, formerly of Union, Monroe County. I stayed at his 
house there in summer of 1859, and am delightfully situated with 
him here. Interesting family, charming home, several other brethren. 

APPROACHING RICHMOND, June 3, 1872: Not having had sleep 
enough for several nights, and feeling quite fagged, I went home 
and spent ten hours in bed. Preached yesterday morning at Epis- 
copal church, on " Raising of Lazarus." Very large house, crowded, 
benches in the aisles. All the famous lawyers of Staunton were 
there I wish it might be blessed to their good. . . 

At night I heard Bro. Winfree, of Chesterfield, a country preacher 
almost equal to Gnmsley. 

My stay at General Echols' was very pleasant indeed. Great 
crowd leaving Staunton this morning. Very interesting to be with 
so many dear old friends. Have had a long talk with Doctor Jeter, at 
his request, about the location of the Seminary. Also many talks 
with many others. A. Broaddus and his wife sit across the aisle of 
the car. W. D. Thomas comes by and says, Give my love to your 
wife and your ma, talks awhile, and goes off, saying, finish your 
letter. Doctor Curry, who was president of the General Associa- 
tion, and hard-worked, is on the seat behind me, asleep. Bitting is 
over yonder, gayly talking with some lady, etc., etc. 

I concluded this morning to keep on down to Richmond to B J s 

marriage this- evening, and back to Charlottesville to-morrow. 

B is going to Europe on her bridal trip, and said she wished I 

was going along, but I reckon I should be " vnpm de trop " this time. 

J. A. B to MISS E. S. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., June 4, 1872 : 1 learn, as coming from Professor 
Harris and Professor Winston, that the Philadelphia breakfast was 
a delightful affair, and that among all the amusing and taking 
speeches, Doctor Boyce quite carried off the palm. He made a fine 
impression throughout the Convention. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, June 6, 1872 : Took tea at Doctor 
McGuffey's. His work on " Mental Philosophy " like Haven in 
size and design is printing, and he showed me proofs. He looks 
as young and vigorous as ever. . 



286 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

I attended a lecture of Gildersleeve's at half past twelve, and got 
ideas. In the evening he and Holmes and Peters called, and Doctor 

Davis was prevented after proposing. G was glad to meet 

somebody interested in grammar, and sat late, very full of talk. 

W. F. MOULTON to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND, July 29, 1872 : I am ashamed 

to discover that a year has passed since I received your letter written 
off Queenstown. The explanation of my apparent forgetfulness is 
very simple, though I cannot feel that the excuse is sufficient. 
Messrs. Nisbet kindly sent me the volume on " Homiletics" with 
very little delay, and I lost no time in writing a few lines of recom- 
mendation in the " London Quarterly Review." I could not bring 
myself, however, to write to you until I had done more m attestation 
of the very high estimate I had formed of your woik. For several 
months I have been waiting for an opportunity of writing a more 
complete notice of the book, but an unexpected pressure of work has 
until now prevented me from doing anything of this kind. I hope, 
however, to carry out my purpose very soon. " Homiletics " is not 
a subject which belongs to my department ; but I have done all that 
has been in my power to recommend your work as the best treatise 
on this important subject that I have ever met with. I earnestly 
hope its circulation in England will be very large. 

I thank you very sincerely for your kind words respecting my edition 
of " Winer." If you will have the kindness to mention to me any 
suggestions which occur to you in using the book, or any mistakes 
which may attract your notice, I shall be very much obliged. I am 
now preparing for a second edition : after this, I wish to leave the 
book untouched for some years. 

I am disappointed to find that the distance of New York from 
South Carolina makes it impossible for you to join the American 
Company of Revision. It would have been a great pleasure to me 
to think that we were engaged in the same work. 

Doctor Broadus fulfilled his engagement at the Crozer 
Commencement and made a brief trip to New York, 
where he and Doctor Boyce labored to keep the Semi- 
nary afloat. 

, , A. B. to BASIL MANLY : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., Sept. 13, 1872: I hope and pray that it may 
all turn out straight about our going to Louisville. If we can get 



THE STRUGGLE FOR THE SEMINARY'S LIFE 287 

established there I am persuaded that you and we together can do a 
great deal of good. . . One thing is to my mind clear that we shall 
help the colleges instead of harming them. If it should be thought 
best by them to give up theological teaching, I think that will be 
best in the end. The people now regard that as the most important 
part of the college, and. I know it is necessary to make that go. 
But they can, when the time comes, be persuaded from the example 
of Virginia and North Carolina, and of all the Northern Baptist col- 
leges, that colleges do better without attempting theology than with 
it. And all the interest in ministerial education which the Seminary 
will help to awaken will tend to send students to the colleges for 
their literary education. . . 

I hope your Greek professor drills a great deal in the forms, and 
makes them write much Greek. If he doesn't, it would be a good 
thing if you could get a tutor as soon as practicable that would push 
that sort of thing. . . 

Williams is very busy, having undertaken Boyce's work as well 
as his own. 1 I hope his health may keep up it was improved by a 
jaunt in the mountains in August. 

I have pretty good health except as to my eyes, which get no better. 2 

J. P. BOYCE to J. A. B. : 

LOUISVILLE, 3 Oct. 8, 1872 : I shall have a hard time. I trust I 
shall have the earnest prayers of all of you. . . 

The pastors here are all pledged to me by vote at their conference 
yesterday. 

Doctor Boyce at first found much indifference toward 
the Seminary among the Baptists of Louisville. This 

1 Doctor Broadus now resumed homiletics 

2 Dr. George B Eager (now professor in the Seminary) entered the Seminary this 
fall. He recalls distinctly how, on a visit to Dr. Broadus's house, he spoke particu- 
larly of the importance of students taking care of their eyes, alluding to the trouble 
under which he was then laboring. Doctor Eager also says: "One of the most 
vivid recollections I have of Dr. Broadus associates him with a homespun suit and 
his habit of eating apples. (I afterwards heard him tell that the suit was made 
for him and presented to him by one of the good sisters of a country congregation 
to which he was preaching ) I can see him still, as I saw him then, in the bright 
and bracing air of those frosty mornings in the fall of '72, striding on to his lecture- 
room eating apples and greeting all he met with his accustomed smile and cheery 
words. It was a sight to impress the imagination and memory." 

8 Doctor Boyce had gone to Louisville to see if he could raise enough towards the 
endowment in Kentucky to justify moving the Seminary there, the other professors 
meanwhile carrying on the institution in Greenville. 



288 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

was chiefly due to lack of acquaintance with the institu* 
tion, and gradually disappeared. Doctor and Mrs. Ar- 
thur Peter deserve special mention as being at once alive 
to the importance of the enterprise for Louisville and the 
South. They gave the first large contribution and 
opened their home hospitably to Doctor Boyce. Through 
all the years since this honored couple have loved the 
Seminary and its professors. Mrs. Peter is a Virginian 
and that fact gave her a new bond of friendship fo: Doc- 
tor Broadus when he came to Louisville. 

J. A. B. to BASIL MANLY : 

GREENVILLE, S. C,, Oct. 29, 1872: We have been having our 
usual charming autumn weather, but it has seemed more charming 
than ever before. The growth of leaves was very luxuriant, and the 
forests have now a richness of color that I have never seen equaled. 
I think some of the great painters would go wild with delight to see 
such gorgeous splendors as half a dozen points around us now 
present. 

I suppose you have seen " Life and Times of J. B. Taylor." I 
find it very interesting, as I had expected. 

W. A, MASON to J. A. B. : 

OKOLONA, MISS., Jan. 3, 1873 : The opposition to the Semi- 
nary arises from a gross misapprehension of the way things are car- 
ried on there, and the indifference is simply ignorance. The Semi- 
nary has never been represented in our Convention, and on tins 
account a large majority of the brethren feel not much connection 
with it Some think you are slighting the Southwest, in never send- 
ing a representative farther west than Alabama. This is an argu- 
ment constantly produced to alienate our people from the Seminary, 
by those who oppose it. There are other influences silently (more 
or less) at work here against our noble school, and all its friends de- 
sire to throw every counteracting influence possible in the way. 

J, P. BOYCE to J. A. B. : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., Feb. 25, 1873: I do not fear the badgering of 
Williams. If any one badgers, let him fight. We need not fear the 
consequences. I think some eyes would be opened to see that much 
can be said on the other side of a question on which they speak so 




V 



-- Pk 

f -t -\l 



THE STRUGGLE FOR THE SEMINARY'S LIFE 289 

dogmatically. Perhaps Williams could ask them some hard ques- 
tions. 

Whitsitt writes me the Foreign Board would send him to Rome 
(as missionary). I shall be very sorry to have him go with so brief 
a stay with us. I have formed great hopes of him. 

J. A. B. to JAMES P. BOYCE : 

GREENVILLE, S. C. March 14, 1873 : I do not wonder that you 
sometimes feel discouraged, painfully. The task is difficult, and the 
kind of opposition encountered is very depressing. But life is always 
a battle. My dear fellow, nobody but you can do it, and it will be, 
all things considered, one of the great achievements of our time. To 
have carried it through will be a comfort and a pleasure to you 
through life, a matter of joy and pride to the many who love and 
honor you, an occasion of thanksgiving through all eternity. Op- 
position every good thing encounteis opposition. Think of Paul, 
of Jesus ! 

Nay, nay, no such word as fail. Somehow, somehow, you are 
bound to succeed. The Seminary is a necessity. Our best brethren 
want it. God has blessed it thus far. It is your own offspring. You 
have kept it alive since the war, fed it with almost your own heart's 
blood. It must succeed, somehow, and you are the man that must 
make it succeed. 

J. A. B. to MRS. MARTHA BICKERS : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., April 10, 1873 : If I find you there this sum- 
mer, I want you to join me in visiting your home and also the home 
of our youth. On a pleasant summer day there would be much pen- 
sive satisfaction, and ought to be some profit, in reviving the recol- 
lections of the days " when the world and we were young." . . 

I believe in the open air. . . If your chest is weak, riding horse- 
back will do you more good than anything else that can be started. 
Many a person after severe hemorrhages, has been made strong by 
It. And a trotting horse is the best. Let me see I have dim recol- 
lections of the time when you first grew up what a comely damsel 
you were ; a fair complexion and cheeks of pretty pink, all in the 
days before you had that nervous fever which Doctor Herndon 
couldn't fully cure, and which brought dyspepsia ; I dimly see you 
now ; I must have been six or seven years old then ; and you were 
riding an old gray horse, it seems to me, and the horse trots, and 
you look worried, as much so as a nice young girl could be expected 
to look, because your horse doesn't pace. That trotting horse was 

T 



2QO LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

doubtless the making of you. If it hadn't been for him you could 
never have stood all you have gone through, of ill health and care 
and toil. That trotting horse was a blessing in disguise, like many 
another that it takes us forty years to find out. So get you another 
trotting horse, and learn to ride again, and see if it doesn't make you 
strong again, even young, and pretty, of course. So learn to ride, 
sure enough, and we can then take that little jaunt on horseback. . . 

Mother used to say, " Anything is hard to do if it's well done, and 
doing nothing is the hardest of all things to do if it's well done." 
Perhaps I don't do nothing well, for I find it not hard at all, and 1 
can recommend it heartily. 

I am glad to say that Annie and Sam have both been received by 
the church, and are to be baptized on Sunday next. They seem to 
be thoroughly in earnest, and I trust they are truly renewed. Some 
thirty-five have recently joined our church, the fruits of a meeting 
begun and for the most part carried on by our Seminary students. 

It is now decided that we stay here another year. Our future after 
that is very uncertain. But the Seminary has been wonderfully 
guided and upheld through all these trying years, and by God's 
blessing has become dear to very many of our best brethren, and so 
I hope there will be given us a future. 

I am under engagement to be at the University of Virginia, July 
second, to read a paper in memory of Doctor Harrison. 1 

J. P. BOYCE to J. A. B. : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., April 21, 1873 : I have now seventy-eight 
thousand dollars and over. My prospect of reporting one hundred 
thousand dollars tolerable. The fact is that my Louisville subscrip- 
tion of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars is now to my mind 
certain. But time, time ; I hope to see many of you at the Conven- 
tion But I am anxious for Will'ams to go to Mississippi. If they 
should treat him badly I shall be sorry on his account and theirs, 
but it will help us. Soul liberty is worth more than alien immersion, 
even with Landmarkers. 

PHILIP SCHAFF to J. A. B. : 

NEW YORK, April 28, 1873 : I just learn that i and 2 Samuel will 
soon be published. Will send you the first copy unless you have 

Published in the "Southern Review" and also in "Broadus's Sermons and 
Addresses." Professor Smith spoke of it as " that noble essay on the life of Gessner 
Harrison, which is worthy to be ranked with the best compositions of our literature." 
Doctor Hiden compared it to Tacitus' s " Agncola" 



THE STRUGGLE FOR THE SEMINARY'S LIFE 291 

already ordered it, m the meantime go on with the textual department 
as fast as you can. 1 

F. H. SMITH to J. A. B. : 

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, May 4, 1873 : At a quarter past six 
o'clock this evening our venerated and valued professor, Doctor 
McGuffey, quietly and in unconsciousness passed away. He lingered 
for weeks, having rallied after his physicians despaired of him. His 
daughter, Mrs. Hepburn, and his wife were the only relatives with 
him. . . 

Other gentlemen of the faculty, besides Dr. [John Staige] Davis, 
have spoken to me most earnestly in reference to the matter, and in- 
deed so far as I know, if the alumni, faculty, and friends of the In- 
stitution were polled, their well-nigh, if not altogether unanimous, 
choice would light on you. 

These gentlemen desired me to approach you, or cause you to be 
approached on the subject. I know of no way save that of simply 
and directly telling you the facts and asking you to deliberate upon 
them and give us your mature decision, earnestly hoping that this 
decision will be favorable to us. 

It would be presumptuous in me to attempt to argue the matter with 
you. I could say nothing which will not occur with greater force to 
your own reflections. I can very well understand the strength of 
your love to the Seminary, the child of your care and toil. 

J A. B. to MRS. B. : 

MOBILE, May 9, 1873 : Dr. T. G. Jones' introductory sermon 
last night (one and a half hours) was one of the noblest sermons I 
ever heard intensely practical, saying the very things that needed 
to be said, and saying them with wonderful freshness and impres- 
siveness. 

MOBILE, May 12, 1873 ' Preached on John the Baptist pretty suc- 
cessfully at St. Francis Street, and though very tired afterwards, 
was not prostrated. . . 

Convention adjourned this afternoon only a sermon to-night. 
Very good session, upon the whole. Some people say Boyce pre- 
sides even better than Mell ; equally prompt, clear, and impartial, 
and more cordial and genial. . . 

I love you, dear wife, always, everywhere I love you. Try to 

1 In the " Lange Commentary " (American and English Revision), to which trans- 
lation Doctor Broadus and Doctor Toy contributed the commentary on i and a SamueU 



LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

bear patiently the ills we cannot cure, and God be gracious to us 
both. 

Doctor Broadus supplied the First Church, Richmond, 
during July and August. In November he went to New 
York and New Jersey to procure assistance for the strug- 
gling Student's Fund, while Boyce battled away in 
Louisville. The students wrote : " You and your mis- 
sion were made the special object of our prayer meet- 
ing yesterday afternoon." On his return, Dr. Edward 
Bright eagerly wrote to inquire if he would take the 
Yonkers Church with a unanimous call and a generous 
salary. 

J A. B. to J. P. BOYCE: 

GREENVILLE, S. C., Dec. 2c/, 1873 : I sympathize with your an- 
noyance. . . But I am satisfied that if you were to resign, it would 
do harm rather than good. It is true that people have come to think 
you can accomplish impossibilities, and so they are disposed to stand 
by and let you run the machine by your financial skill and influence, 
but if you resigned they would say, " Well, if Boyce has given it 
up, there is no hope." Our people have suffered so many losses 
that they are too ready to give things up as lost. I am sure this is 
the effect which your resigning would produce. . . 

Cheer up, my dear brother. " Through much tribulation." But 
God has been with us in six troubles, at least. 

J. C. HIDEN to J. A. B. : 

WILMINGTON, N. C., Jan. 17, 1874: . . I am glad to hear of 
even the temporary relief to the professors in our beloved Seminary. 
But I am still troubled about its needs. Oh, if our business men, 
who have the means, could only be brought to feel (as some of us 
poor, overworked, ill-furnished preachers can and do feel) the need, 
the terrible, pressing, crying need of better furnished men to do the 
pulpit work of our day ! 

Paul said, " Who is sufficient for these things?" and our people 
are saying (in effect) " Almost anybody is." I know something 
about what it means to preach Sunday after Sunday (two sermons) 
to the same intelligent congregation for years, and to have some sort 
of a standard of conscientious pulpit work, and then to feel that one 
is expected to do the work of three good men, with the time, the 



THE STRUGGLE FOR THE SEMINARY'S LIFE 293 

capacity for labor, and the health of one man, and with the prepara- 
tion of half a man, and " haud ignarus wah, misens succurren 
disco." . . 

I was traveling on the cars some time ago, and a little Negro was 
offering oranges for sale. He had evidently got the contagion prev- 
alent in our latitude, and had just sense enough to proclaim through 
the car, that " Dese oranges is from de Norf." A sprightly Yankee 
woman was much amused, and the car rang with peals of laughter 
as she stopped little cuffee and asked him "if he was sure his 
oranges were Northern ones." " Yes'm, raised darV 

J. P. BOYCE to J. A. B. : 

AUGUSTA, GA., Jan. 19, 1874 : I suppose it may be best for me 
to go to Greenville and talk matters over with all of you. I do not 
wish to be hasty, and especially not to take steps which I shall have 
to retract. I have made up my mind all along to keep on as long as 
there was any chance. . . I doubt even now the possibility of per- 
manently endowing the Seminary, and fear we shall have to give 
up the whole work. Perhaps this is the will of the Lord. As I say, 
I have no desire to take a step backward and therefore when I feel 
compelled to say to the Board I can go on no longer, I shall not take 
hold again, and I think my reasons for resigning will prevent any 
one else from so continuing. 

H. A. TUPPER to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., Jan. 20, 1874 : Thanks for the $12,50 [for mis- 
sions] : acknowledgment made as directed. Would that all the 
world knew how to write a business letter as does J. A. B. 

J. M. BOSTICK to J. A. B. : 

BRIGHTON, S. C., Jan. 25, 1874: I read to the little congregation 
there your appeal in the " Herald" of the 8th mst. It acted, in my 
hands, like the Irishman's overloaded musket, that did more execu- 
tion behind than before. The immediate response of the congrega- 
tion was two dollars, but as I was traveling homeward with my 
little boy he asked if I could afford to pay him half of thirty dollars, 
which he says I owe him for a calf which I appropriated, and which 
is now grown to the size of an ox. . . On my telling him that I 
might get the money for him if he would use it well, he said he 
wanted it for the Seminary. So here it is. 

F. H. SMITH to J. A. B. : 
CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA., Feb. 24, 1874 : You kindly alluded to 



294 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

my letter to Doctor Dabney. The doctor only used, as he had free 
permission to do, such paragraphs as came immediately in the line 
of his argument. There were some inferences which seemed to me 
to be important, to which I am not sure that the doctor would sub- 
scribe. I cannot help believing that the impenetrable silence of 
Scripture as to the date of these two great extra-natural events, the 
creation of the world and its final dissolution, both of which are an- 
nounced with equal clearness, and are equally outside the scope of 
science, is a shining instance of the wisdom and love of the Almighty. 
To have revealed the date of creation would have put a term, and it 
may be a near one, to the excursions of science and the discipline of 
the intellect in the solution of the greatest problems of nature. 

To have revealed the time of the end v/ould have been fraught 
with disaster to the activity of the race. 

So far as I can see, God has left the scientist as free to push his 
maxim, *' Like effects imply like causes," to the remotest depths of 
the past or future as the baldest materialism could leave him Chris- 
tian Faraday is as untramrneled as skeptical Huxley. How glorious 
will be the testimony of the unfettered science of the future to the 
truths of religion. Indeed, I would go further and say that the Bible 
not only permits the unlimited explorations of science, but requires 
them as a solemn duty of the Christian philosopher. 

J. A. B. to J. P. BOYCE : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., Mar. Q, 1874 : I am more and more wedded 
to the persuasion that the Seminary must be kept in operation or 
abandoned. If we can't get these bonds for current support, by sum- 
mer or early fall at farthest, I should prefer to quit and be done 
with it, rather than to die a dozen deaths before it is over. And 
I believe if we were to suspend, the whole country would feel that we 
had failed, and we could not make head against the discouraging 
effect, and the croakings in which some would abound who want 
us to fail. I think, therefore, we had better determine to keep it 
going or sink it. 

J. A. B. to J. P. BOYCE : 

GREENVILLE, S. C,, April 21, 1874 : The students are constantly 
inquiring, with the deepest concern, whether the Seminary is likely to 
be suspended, or will go on next session. I tell them 1 hope it will 
go on ; that I don't know how we are to manage it -but I hope and 
pray that God may put it into the hearts of the brethren to help man- 
fully and immediately. We shall look with great anxiety for the 



THE STRUGGLE FOR THE SEMINARY'S LIFE 295 

results of your visit to the Georgia Convention. Oh, that our dear 
brethren may have a heart given them to rise up to the demands of 
the hour, this time that tries men's souls,- that they may set an ex- 
ample of heroic determination and cheerful sacrifice which will be a 
keynote for all the conventions of the year, and will prove to all the 
land how much it means to be a Baptist. 

I am satisfied that ours is the most thoroughly Baptist theological 
seminary in the country. My heart leaps up at the thought of the 
good it will do, if it can be kept alive now. 

J. L. M. CURRY to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., Mar. 21, 1874: Doctor Boyce does not give a 
flattering picture. Times were darker to Abraham when he was 
promised an inheritance for the possession of himself and his seed. 
To me the Seminary seems so much a necessity for our Baptist Zion 
that I cannot permit myself to doubt its success. 

S. S. CUTTING to J. A. B. : 

NEW YORK, April 24, 1874 : 1 am overwhelmed at the idea of the 
suspension of your Seminary. It must not be. We must make 
common cause and prevent the possibility of such a calamity. Please 
send me a letter about your condition such as I can use for your 
benefit. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B, : 

JEFFERSON, TEXAS, May 9, 1874: I am thankful to say that we 
did well. Had three hours, and got over eighteen thousand dollars 
in bonds, besides land worth from one to three thousand more. Ex- 
pect it to reach twenty thousand dollars certainly. This makes in 
all sixty thousand, and leaves fifteen thousand to be raised to insure 
opening next fall. Doctor Williams will start out in Texas, with this 
to back him, and a hearty enthusiam among those present here. We 
are to consult this evening. Will probably conclude that the others 
shall work for the fifteen thousand dollars (and more for margin), 
and Boyce and I shall work in Kentucky for endowment. 

WASHINGTON, May 23, 1874 : My address * came off at 11.30 to- 
day, and lasted forty minutes. I have reason to be gratified and 
thankful at the result. A very crowded audience, already stimulated 
by two previous addresses, gave me hearty applause (after their 

1 On " The Work of the Baptists for the Next Half Century," at Jubilee meeting- of 
the American Baptist Publication Society. 



296 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

fashion) on appearing, very animated attention throughout, and 
numerous congratulations and thanks afterwards. I thought you 
would be pleased to know that my effort was well received. I wanted 
to do some good, and I pray God that good may be done. 

WASHINGTON, May 26, 1874 : Quite a surprise last night. Doc- 
tor Cutting, Mr. Samuel Colgate, and others, got up a scheme, and 
called on me to take ten minutes and state the present condition and 
wants of our Seminary, they getting me the invitation. Of course 
I said it was all their doing, not mine. I spoke five to eight min- 
utes and they helped me by overwhelming applause. Then Mr. 
Colgate rose in the aisle, spoke warmly and proposed an effort to 
raise pledges of twenty-five hundred dollars a year for five years, to 
support one professor. They were much pressed for time and could 
not come to small sums but they made it up to one thousand nine 
hundred and fifty dollars a year in a few minutes, of which my 
Orange friends pledged eight hundred dollars a year. There was 
also three hundred and sixty-seven dollars in cash given and a pledge 
of two hundred and fifty more. It was all done cheerfully, zeal- 
ously, in fact, with prodigious enthusiasm. The Orange men say 
the two thousand five hundred a year shall be made up. They are 
great and bitter sacrifices that you and I have to make, dear wife, 
for this Seminary enterprise ; will you not rejoice with me at this un- 
expected help which Providence has raised up for us? 1 

ORANGE, N. J., June i, 1874 : 2 The services went off in a very 
gratifying manner, so far as I could judge. The church is really 
beautiful, and not hard to speak in. It holds some seven hundred, 
was as full as it could hold in the morning, and ran over at night 
The day was charming. I did not succeed to my satisfaction in my 
sermon. 

Doctor Broadus joined Doctor Boyce at the Mississippi 
Convention, at Oxford, and then both spent June and July 
in Kentucky, working for the endowment of the Semi- 
nary. The letters show severe struggle and heroic 
effort. 

Often he rose early without sufficient sleep, to make 

1 Doctor Broadus afterwards said that he felt all that he had ever learned and 
thought focused in this eight minute speech. He was speaking for the very life of 
the Seminary and held back nothing. 

2 Dedication North Orange Church. 



THE STRUGGLE FOR THE SEMINARY'S LIFE 297 

fatiguing journeys throughout the State, seeking to arouse 
interest and allay opposition, and preaching almost every 
day for six weeks and more. At Danville, Ky., he had 
an interesting experience. He had despaired of doing 
much. He was told of a farmer who might help a little. 
Doctor Broadus found him sitting on a stump in his shirt 
sleeves, but he listened to the Seminary's claims, and 
cheerfully gave a thousand dollars. It is noteworthy 
that Doctor Boyce and Doctor Broadus never became 
discouraged about the Seminary at the same time. Each 
served as a strong support to the other, 

J. A. B. to MISS CARRIE F. DAVIS : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., Aug. 4, 1874 : Our labors have not been 
in vain. Though the full amount for current support the next five 
years has not been reached, we are near it, and the result is sure. 
Doctor Boyce and I were sufficiently successful in Kentucky for per- 
manent endowment, notwithstanding drought, to satisfy us that the 
thing can be carried through there, by hard work. I am now quite 
hopeful as to the Seminary's future. It will stay here at least two 
years more. 

Doctor Williams returned a day before I did. In Mississippi, where 
some have talked against him, he was received with uniform kindness. 

JAMES THOMAS to J. M. BROADUS : 

RICHMOND, VA., Dec. 12, 1874: You know Doctor Burrows has 
resigned the pastorate of the First Church and there is no other man 
in the South, or in the United States, that can fill his place but your 
brother, John A. . . 

I think he has planned, chalked out, and molded the Seminary 
so perfectly that others can carry it out and he be spared from it to 
do his heart's work, preach the gospel where thousands will hear 
and where I believe, and our church believes, and our citizens be- 
lieve, he can do more for all the churches in Virginia than any other 
man. Is such a preacher to spend his life in a schoolroom ? Is he 
to continue to make sacrifices? And above and beyond all this, is 
he to sacrifice his wife and children entirely to the school? Is not 
this side of the question too grave a one to be lightly passed over ? 

RICHMOND, VA., Jan. 16, 1875 : Now, in the opinion of his best 



298 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

friends and brethren, he is offered the first place in Virginia for the 
widest usefulness he ever can have, and with it an offer of a good 
house and home in fee simple for himself and family and also to pro- 
vide an insurance on his life for the benefit of his wife and children, 
say fifteen thousand dollars. The two together would amount to 
twenty-five thousand to thirty thousand dollars, and, I am sure, a 
salary of five thousand per annum. 

At the request of the Faculty of Richmond College, 
Doctor Broadus wrote a tract on " A College Education 
for Men of Business," which had a very remarkable cir- 
culation. Richmond College published one hundred thou- 
sand copies, and it was reprinted by the Wake Forest 
College. Another tract of his, " Immersion Essential to 
Christian Baptism/' published by the American Baptist 
Publication Society, had already attracted wide attention. 
For a number of years Doctor Broadus was editorial 
contributor to the " Religious Herald " under the signa- 
ture J. A. B. 

J. A. B. to MRS, B. : 

ATLANTA, GA., June 3, 1875 - Now I'll read some Odyssey. It 
is raining very pleasantly. The very sound is refreshing, and the 
distant roll of the thunder is a fine musical accompaniment. I have 
a great liking for thunder. Yonder is an arm-chair by the window, 
with a leather-cushioned seat, and there is nobody in the room but 
me, and the thunder will keep me company. 

J. B. LIGHTFOOT to J. A. B. : 

CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND, Dec. 15, 1875 : Though you deprecated 
my sending an acknowledgment of the notice which you were good 
enough to send me some short time ago, I car not forbear writing to 
you a few lines of thanks for your kindly and too generous appre- 
ciation of my literary work 

I wish that the Atlantic were not so broad and that there were 
more chance of our meeting ; but failing this, it is a great pleasure 
to me to shake hands across the ocean. I can honestly say that 
nothing in my literary career gives me more satisfaction than the 
thought that I am holding communion with many friends, some al- 
together unknown to me personally, some (like yourself) only too 
slightly knownin far distant countries. . . 



THE STRUGGLE FOR THE SEMINARY'S LIFE 299 

I quite agree with you as to the treatment of the Epistle of Barna- 
bas in "Supernatural Religion." The wriggling criticism of this 
part is truly pitiable. 

J. A. B. to J. P. BOYCE : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., Jan. 24, 1876: This is my birthday. We 
have entered, you and I, on our fiftieth year of life. Each of us 
could look back with sore lamentings and might be tempted to re- 
pinings, but let us try to be thankful instead, to be trustful too, and 
hopeful. For one thing I give thanks at this moment, as often 
before, that God has given me such a bosom friend as you. 

J. W. WILDMAN to J. A. B. : 

LYNCHBURG, VA., Feb. 4, 1876 : I noticed in a recent article of 
yours for the " Herald " that you ask, where did Judge Lynch live? 
The gentleman of this name, whose course of justice you referred to, 
was a resident of my (Campbell) county. His residence, and I be- 
lieve his house is still standing, was near Staunton River, and the 
vicinity is to be identified with a small station (Lynch' s) on the Lg. 
& D. R. R., at which Colonel Anthony was recently murdered. If 
the place is the one I suppose, the tree is still standing in the yard to 
which Mr. Lynch tied the criminals to administer his hickory jus- 
tice. Our country about the time of the Revolution was infested with 
outlaws, who committed their depredations and then retired to the 
brushwood. When one was captured he was carried before " Judge " 
Lynch, a wealthy man, who punished the offender in a summary 
manner. I remember reading the fact in '* Virginia Antiquities' 7 
several years ago. 

J. A. B. to J. P. BOYCE : 

PHILADELPHIA, Feb. 24, 1876: I preached at Madison Ave. 
last Sunday morning (for Publication Society) and at Fifth Ave. 
(Armitage's) in the evening. Last night I preached here, Henson's 
dedication, and had the great satisfaction, with a magnificent con- 
gregation, of making one of my complete failures. The tamest 
broken-down sermons I made in Kentucky, when traveling with 
you, were better. Well, I really was not well enough to come on 
this trip at all. But I dislike extremely to miss an appointment, and 
thought maybe the travel would help me and still hope so. . . 

I intended to go home from here, but the Orange folks want a 
supply for Sunday, and urged me to go. I always enjoy preaching 
there, and I think it is the interest of the Seminary that I should do 



300 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

what they request, as they are giving us one thousand two hundred 
dollars a year. So I expect to get home next Tuesday night. 

EZRA ABBOTT to J. A. B. : 

CAMBRIDGE, Feb. 10, 1876 : I should be very much pleased to 
see the article on Tischendorf to which you refer, and any other 
^ articles which you may have published of which you have extra 
copies. Hoping thus to effect an exchange, and as you are one of 
the few in this country who seem much interested in the textual criti- 
cism of the New Testament, I take the liberty of sending you copies 
of some recent papers of my own, viz, notices of Tischendorf and 
Tregelles, and a discussion of the readings of John i : 18 and of 
Acts 20 : 28. 

The first of May Doctor Broadus delivered before the 
Newton Theological Seminary, five lectures on the " His- 
tory of Preaching," which were afterward published. 
This volume covers a most neglected field and handles 
the subject with great skill. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

BOSTON, May 5, 1876: . . It rained last evening, yet we had a 
better attendance than the first night. Got through in one hour and 
ten minutes. They seemed interested. The thing is going off as 
well as I could expect not a brilliant success, but a success. My 
throat was clearer than the first night. The morning was very 
pleasant, and I walked to the Hill to a lecture, after writing. 

PHILADELPHIA, May 30, 1876 : A hard day's work in the Ex- 
position. Everybody ought to visit it that possibly can, for there 
is not only much to be enjoyed but much to be learned. 

Sheldon jumped at the offer of my " Newton Lectures," and will 
give me ten per cent, on the retail price, the usual share for authors. 
I must get the children to copy them with my corrections. 

After the Newton lectures a week was spent in New 
York as the guest of his friend, Mr. Coghill. He preached 
in Brooklyn on Sunday, and afterward attended the 
Baptist Anniversaries at Buffalo. Doctor Broadus, with 
his daughter, then spent three delightful days at the 
home of Doctor Randolph, near Philadelphia, attending 



THE STRUGGLE FOR THE SEMINARY'S LIFE 301 

the Centennial Exposition, and being present at a large 
gathering of the Baptist Social Union, where he made 
an address. These busy weeks concluded with the 
June meetings at Culpeper, Va. 

J. P. BOYCE to J. A. B, : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., June 20, 1876: As to the Campbellite snarl, 1 1 
agree with you. It was within half an hour after hearing what I 
did about Kerfoot that I wrote him our wishes and offered him the 
place, and said nothing then nor when he came down about the 
matter. The position we have taken upon disputed points, viz, 
that of liberty to the professor, is the true one. Upon divided points 
we must consent to be divided. . . 

In a postscript to a letter to Toy I broke into a gentle remonstrance 
and earnest entreaty on inspiration. 

July and half of August was spent in preaching for 
the North Orange Church, New Jersey. How Doctor 
Broadus loved this church ! The week days were spent 
with Mr. Gellatly and the Colgates on the Jersey coast. 
Dr. Richard Fuller's presence added to the pleasure of 
being at the seashore. Doctor Broadus began a " Life 
of John the Baptist," which was much in his mind these 
years, but it was never finished. He cherished the hope 
of writing a " Life of Jesus " also, a " Grammar of New 
Testament Greek," and a history of the " Interbiblical 
Period " (five chapters of which are written). 

J. P. BOYCE to J. A. B. : 

LOUISVILLE, Sept. 14, 1876 : Has any institution had such malig- 
nant enemies as ours? What can be the cause? It is personal, not 
a matter of principle ; yet what have any of us done to arouse such 
feelings? 

MRS. E. M. COLGATE to J. A. B. : 
ORANGE, Oct. 6, 1876 : We had just finished reading your in- 

1 The church at Midway, of which Rev. F. H. Kerfoot was pastor, had received a 
Disciple without rebaptism. After Doctor Kerfoot became a professor in the Semi- 
nary his studies led him to modify his views to an intermediate position between the 
two extremes on the alien immersion question. 



302 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

teresting review when we received your letter calling our attention 
to it I learned more of Dr. Addison Alexander than I ever knew 
before. It seemed to me an impressive way to thus compare men 
with each other. Mr. Colgate has just finished the " Life of Mac- 
aulay," and I have heard it by snatches. It is intensely interesting. 
We both feel the truth of your criticism in regard to his literary 
merit and to his character. Doctor Adams told me he thought the 
reticence m regard to his religious life was more the author* f s omission, 
and that an accompanied slur indicated his estimate of such things. 

After the exciting election of 1876 Doctor Broadus was 
asked to make a speech on the situation. Greenville 
" Daily News," Nov. 12, 1876 : 

Doctor Broadus said this triumph had come sooner than he had 
expected He had often said the day must comethat the intelli- 
gence and property of the State must control the State government ; 
but he had not in past years dared to hope it would come so soon as 
this. He wanted to say, and as they had sent to his home for a 
Christian minister to speak, they would expect him to say : " Thank 
God ! " (This was repeated three times. The crowd was hushed 
into silence.) He said two things in this canvass had given him 
especial satisfaction. One was the high character of Gen. Hamp- 
ton, and the consummate wisdom with which he had conducted the 
canvass. The other was the self-control which our people have 
shown. We Southerners are hot-headed and sometimes wanting in 
calmness. But, as a general thing, our people have of late acted 
with a steady determination, and shown a forbearance in trying cir- 
cumstances which was highly gratifying. Let us continue to act 
in this spirit, to cultivate and exercise self-control. 

He suggested that as we are successful, we can be magnanimous 
without being misunderstood. Not only must there be perfect jus- 
tice to all, and an effort so to manage that everybody in the State 
may have occasion to rejoice at Hampton's being governor, but there 
should be magnanimity. 

J. P. BOYCE to J. A. B. : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., Dec. 6, 1876 : I am decidedly of the opinion 
that you had best retain your editorial connection with the " Herald," 
because we must not ruin ourselves with our real and tried friends 
everywhere to avoid a little attack now and then. I only thought it 
politic (as a rule) to hold no editorial connections. But when this is 



THE STRUGGLE FOR THE SEMINARY'S LIFE 303 

demanded of us as a right, I think the demand should not be yielded 
to. . . I propose not to yield an inch more, but to take a firm stand. 
I am sure this is our true policy as well as "the right thing." 

J. A. B. to GEO. B. TAYLOR : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., Jan. 5, 1877: We are helped along, one 
way and another, and have much to thank God for. I often mourn 
to think of the heavy sacrifices Boyce has to make, in many ways, 
and the weariness of hope deferred under which we suffer. But I 
trust we are getting ready for some happy fellows to work hereafter, 
with sufficient support, and Jeisure for study and production in a 
strongly established and widely useful institution. No doubt that is 
exactly your consolation also, in the trials and patient waiting of 
your own work. I think you have succeeded well m tutoring our 
people at home here to wait patiently, without losing hope or interest 
in the work. They had such a wild and feverish hope of great 
things, when the mission began, that I feared a reaction, notwith- 
standing your temperate and wise admonitions before you went. So 
far as I know, people are now quite satisfied that you are doing just 
the best that can be done, and that we must work and wait. . . 

Yet, doesn't it become every year a more real thing to us both, 
amid all our difficulties, failures, disappointments, that " there's a 
divinity that shapes our ends" that our work is better managed 
for us than we could manage ? 

Every session, in our missionary society, we have up your Italian 
mission, trying to make our students understand it and take lively 
interest in it. 

We have about as many students as for the last three sessions. 
Most seminaries have fallen off, in consequence of the financial 
straits and general depression. 

Doctor Williams went down last spring with incipient consump- 
tion. At Asheville, N. C., he got better during the summer, and he 
is wintering at Aiken. But he is not well now, and I greatly fear 
he will never teach again. He is a noble man, of great abilities, and 
is the finest lecturer I have ever known. His lectures on Systematic 
Theology, the last two or three years, were something wonderful 
for clearness, terseness, power. 

W. A. GELLATLY to J. A. B. : 

NEW YORK, Jan. 6, 1877 : I think that to-day there is more real 
union and fraternal feeling between members of the Baptist church, 
North and South, than there is between the churches of any other 



304 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

denomination and that the cause is, under God, largely owing to the 
visits and preaching and social interviews of yourself and Curry. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

ROCHESTER, N. Y., Feb. 15, 1877 : The third lecture was highly 
successful, I had slept well the night before, was improving in 
health, had a congenial and familiar theme, and rose pretty high. 
The lecture was followed by half an hour of questions (from profes- 
sors, pastors, and students) and answers, in some of which I was 
quite fortunate. There are supreme moments in which all the 
energies and experiences of a man are concentrated with the highest 
intensity upon focal points, and it is curious how things blaze. If 
I could leave to-day I suspect the stimulating effect of the course 
would be greatest. So fiercely excited, I did not at once get to sleep, 
though I slept very soundly, and this morning I don't feel quite so 
well as yesterday. 

The lectures at Rochester Seminary were free talks on 
the general subject of preaching, made from carefully 
prepared notes. Doctor Broadus was at his highest 
power in work of this character. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

NEW YORK, Feb. 17, 1877 : Well, the lectures are over. The 
fourth, though I felt flat, was considered the best, I believe, containing 
many fresh thoughts about the preacher's private life. I was anxious 
and unhappy about my last topic, especially as you had opposed my 
taking it. The audience was quite large, and the topic was not so 
suitable to the circumstances as some had been. But the lecture was 
very attentively heard and kindly received, some Pedobaptist min- 
isters coming up afterwards to say pleasant things. After the lec- 
tures I admitted questions at large, and we had a great time. The 
question and answer feature throughout has taken admirably. 

Professors Strong, Wilkinson, and Kendrick expressed themselves 
in singularly strong and gratifying terms about the lectures, the 
former thinking I had done the students and the Seminary important 
service. So I may well be thankful. 

Doctor Strong wrote March, 1895 : 

He was our most persuasive preacher, and our best teacher of the 
art of preaching. His work on the New Testament was the work 



THE STRUGGLE FOR THE SEMINARY'S LIFE 305 

of a master. The charm of his personal character can never be for- 
gotten. He has done more than any other man to bind North and 
South together, for the whole country loved him. He was one of 
God's greatest gifts to our denomination, and to our generation. 

Dr. Wm. Williams had been failing rapidly from con- 
sumption. The trustees had made provision for help in 
teaching this year, Dr. J. C. Hiden, then pastor at Green- 
ville, helping in homiletics. Doctor Williams died Feb. 
20, 1877, a t Aiken, S. C. Doctor Broadus preached the 
funeral sermon from the text of Williams' own choosing : 
" My times are in thy hand." Doctor Broadus says : 

It is vain to attempt any fitting eulogy of Williams. Besides the 
high intellectual powers which have been several times referred to in 
this narrative, his character was such as to command profound re- 
spect and warm affection. . . Who ever knew a man more com- 
pletely genuine, more thoroughly sincere, more conscientious in all 
his doings? 1 

J. P. BOYCE to J. A. B. : 

LOUISVILLE, March 23, 1877 : I really fear that it would be pru- 
dent to stop the Seminary, let you go to Eutaw Place 2 for a couple 
of years and then reopen here. I am in a great perplexity. The 
brethren will not and some cannot pay. 

J. A. B. to J. P. BOYCE : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., March 27, 1877 : I am grieved at your dis- 
couragement. . . The prospect of support is gloomy, as you say. 
But I don't think it would do to suspend as you suggest, in the way 
of inquiry. 

In May, June, and July, Doctor Broadus supplied the 
Calvary Baptist Church, New York, while Doctor Mac- 
Arthur was absent. He had many of this series of eigh- 
teen discourses taken down by a stenographer with the 
view of publishing a volume of "Calvary Sermons." 
He did not write his sermons out. The experiment was 

1 " Memoir of Boyce," p. 247. s Doctor Fuller was now dead. 



306 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

very unsatisfactory and he found it well-nigh impossible 
to whip the stenographer's report into decent shape. 
There was difficulty also about a publisher and the plan 
failed. Some of these sermons appeared later in the vol- 
ume of "Sermons and Addresses." He was inimitable 
before an audience and unreportable, to the loss of the 
leading public. 

Brown University, Crozer Seminary, Richmond Col- 
lege, the First Church, Richmond, and Eutaw Place, 
Baltimore, all clamored for Doctor Broadus's services at 
a time when there was not enough money to pay the 
salaries of the professors. But he could not be moved. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

CHARLOTTE TO GREENSBORO, May 17, 1877 : A great secret. 
Doctor Furman told me at the train in strict confidence, that Boyce 
is working to move the Seminary this fall. 

NEW YORK, June 5, 1877: The die is cast, and the Seminary re- 
moves to open in Louisville in September. We cross the Rubicon. 
Boyce is pleased and hopeful. 

J. A. B. to J. P. BOYCE : 

NEW YORK, July 14, 1877 : Reading what I have said, I feel like 
adding, that we must both try to keep alive till, if it please God, we 
can see the Seminary strong, and as safe as such things can be 
made. How I should rejoice some day to shake hands with you 
over the result ! You don't know how glad I am that we are to be 
close together again. I feel that I know you better than my own 
brother, and love you almost as well. Does it need to ask pardon 
for saying this, because we are both getting gray? 



CHAPTER XIV 
THE FIRST YEARS IN LOUISVILLE 

Prompt to move, but firm to wait, 

Knowing, things rashly sought are rarely found. 

Wordsworth. 

IT was a painful uprooting to leave South Carolina. It 
was the Seminary's home and the ties of friendship 
were very tender. The State had done nobly by the 
institution and the people loved it with whole-hearted- 
ness. They would have done great things for the 
Seminary if they had been able. But the State was 
prostrate still from the war and the reconstruction period. 
There had been herculean difficulties at the first starting, 
both as to men and money. The war's sudden blow 
had dashed to earth the struggling school. The steps 
for reviving it afterwards were slow. Rallying hopes 
came and went. The professors hardly knew where 
bread was to come from or how to meet their necessary 
obligations. Boyce took the field and Broadus " staid 
by the stuff." Each cheered the other when the dark- 
est hour came. In the midst of it all a heated contro- 
versy was waged from certain quarters against one of 
the professors, Dr. William Williams, which only ceased 
at his death from consumption, induced by overwork in 
the Seminary. Boyce and Broadus battled for the Semi- 
nary's life and for reasonable freedom in teaching 
through the years, in face of a divided constituency and 
great opposition to ministerial education in general and 
theological education in particular. For five years Doc- 
tor Boyce had labored to get funds and a footing in Ken- 

307 



308 LIFED AN LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

tucky. At last it was possible to go, but at a venture. 
Will the enterprise succeed in the new atmosphere ? 
Will it be worth while for Boyce and Broadus to cleave 
to this child of many prayers and tears ? It is twenty 
years since the Educational Convention met in Louis- 
ville which set on foot the Seminary enterprise. And 
now the Seminary is to be finally established here. 

BASIL MANLY to J. A. B. : 

GEORGETOWN, KY., Sept. 8, 1877: Greeting and welcome to 
you and yours. May God bless your coming to Kentucky, and your 
labors here. You will feel the changes from dear old Greenville, of 
course. But that you made up your mind to before you started. I 
have been all along there, and can sympathize with you fully. 

ALVAH HOVEY to J. A. B. : 

NEWTON CENTRE, MASS., Sept. 29, 1877 : I trust you are en- 
couraged about your Seminary. To me it seems almost a miracle 
that so much has been pledged in these trying times. 

JULIUS C. SMITH to J. A. B. : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., Sept 3, 1877 : We miss you all very much. 
Trust the opening of the Seminary has been a great success. Our 
hearts went up to God in prayer for you all and for our Seminary 
upon the first Sunday in September, both in Sunday-school and 
church. May it be blessed and prospered beyond our most sanguine 
expectations. 

The highest number of students at Greenville had 
been sixty-seven. Instantly at Louisville the number 
rose to eighty-eight. Doctor Boyce now resumed his 
classes, and the work of the first session moved on in a 
manner highly satisfactory to both students and pro- 
fessors. 

In the fall of 1877 Doctor Broadus assumed the pastoral 
care of Forks of Elkhorn Church, Franklin County, Ky., 
which delightful Blue Grass pastorate he held for several 
years, preaching for the church two Sundays a month. 
Here many lifelong friendships were formed. 



THE FIRST YEARS IN LOUISVILLE 309 

On May 7, 1878, Doctor Broadus's daughter, Annie 
Harrison, was married to Rev. W. Y. Abraham, of Rock- 
bridge County, Va. On May 26, 1895, Mrs. Abraham 
died, leaving two children, John Broadus and Annie 
Louise. Another son, Wickliffe, had died in infancy ; 
while a beautiful and charming boy, Edward, lived to 
be nearly two. 

A friend writes: "Mrs. Abraham was a woman of 
more than ordinary endowments, attractions, and force 
of character. Being gifted in conversation, she readily 
won friends, but it was only to those who knew her most 
intimately that her chief virtues and greatest charms 
were revealed. Her Christian character was simple and 
beautiful." 

From M. S. S. : "I have her so clearly in my mind's 
eye as such a pretty child, with her large black eyes, 
with fire in them, so like your father's. Ah, we shall 
never see their like again." 

From A. B. M. : " Sister Annie is the first of us to be 
reunited with him. The relation was so ' lovely and 
pleasant ' to both of them, and in their death they were 
not long divided. It is a sweet thought to me that she 
knew how he loved her, and was proud of her." 

BISHOP W. PINKNEY to J. A. B. : 

WASHINGTON, July 26, 1878 : Will you accept this little pam- 
phlet, written by me in much " sorrow of soul." I send it as a slight 
token of regard for one whose writings have afforded me so much 
pleasure and instruction, and whose learning entitles him to the 
gratitude of scholars. Should you visit Washington, I shall be 
happy to take you out to my home. There is much in common 
about which we could talk, and enough, I hope, of the frankness 
that asks no sacrifice of principle. 

In August, 1878, Doctor Broadus again preached for 
the beloved North Orange Church. While there a 
strong effort was made to get him as President of Vassar 



310 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

College. At Newton they tried to secure him as pro^ 
fessor of New Testament and Homiletics. Much news- 
paper writing was done for the "Chicago Standard/' 
"The Examiner," "The Central Baptist," besides the 
editorial correspondence for the "Religious Herald." 
The additional income thus provided was much needed, 
as Louisville was a more expensive place than Green- 
ville and Seminary finances were very unsettled. 

RICHARD NEWTON to J. A. B. : 

MOUNT AIRY, PHILADELPHIA, Oct. 29, 1878 : Many thanks for 

your kindness in sending me your volume of " Lectures on the His- 
tory of Preaching." I shall read the lectures with great pleasure, at 
the first leisure time I can command. I shall always remember with 
pleasure the sweet hours spent together in counsel and study over 
the lessons for 1880. I shall look forward with delight to the future 
meetings of our committee. 1 And when our work on earth is done 
for that blessed Master "whom having not seen we love," how 
glorious the fellowship of heaven will be, with its "fullness of joy 
and its pleasures for evermore " ! God bless you in your work. 

A. J. GORDON to J. A. B. : 

BOSTON, Nov. 12, 1878: In speaking of the theological seminaries 
I only gave expression to the general impression. All in this part of 
the country are strongly and avowedly post- millennial, and the other 
view is for the most part looked upon with great disfavor. I was 
greatly delighted and surprised to learn your sentiments. . . 

I accept with thanks your admonition in regard to " allegorical 
interpretation." I hope I may not go astray or lead others astray. . . 

When a college president standing in the orthodox ranks can 
write such words as these, I give from his letter to me : " The 
coming of Christ was the primitive hope, I grant, and it was the 
most egre"giously mistaken hope into which the church ever fell. I 
do not believe that Christ will ever come to earth in bodily form," 
ought not other men of learning to tell what they believe in regard 
to "that blessed hope"? 

E. C. DARGAN to J. A. B. : 

BOTETOURT SPRINGS, VA., Nov. 19, 1878 : I fear your burdens 
1 International Sunday-school Lesson Committee, 



THE FIRST YEARS IN LOUISVILLE 311 

are largely increased by the larger number of students, and I can't 
help feeling anxious for your health, as often as I think of you. Do 
you keep up as well as ever? 

Dmwiddie, formerly Presbyterian pastor at Gordonsville, is now 
located at Big Lick, and speaks affectionately of you to me. You 
helped him in his religious growth while at the university. Amid 
all your difficulties and troubles, as I know you have many, it must 
ever be a source of comfort to you to know that you have helped 
many a man to be a Christian and a scholar. 

Your influence is deeply felt by all who ever came near enough to 
you to realize its worth I see it in others, and I feel it in myself. 
May God bless you and spare you a long time to us yet. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 
BALTIMORE, Dec. 9, 1878 : Delightfully at home at Mr. Ker- 

foofs. Mrs. K is truly a jewel. But my judgment is that only 

people who have been married nearly twenty years know how to 
love each other with all the heart. 

J. A. B. to J. P. BOYCE : 

BALTIMORE, Dec. 9, 1878 : Not very hopeful, but not despairing, 
and meaning to work. 1 

Best regards to the ladies and to Toy and Whitsitt. People in- 
quire anxiously after your health, having noted that you seemed 
unwell. I reply that you are about as well as common again. My 
dear friend, we are both struggling with ill health, and carrying 
heavy burdens. May God sustain us, and grant that we may live 
to rest a little while under the shadow of our completed work if it 
please him. 

BALTIMORE, Dec. 16, 1878: We raised $10,760 besides the 
$8,000. . . 

This is not success, my friend, but it is far from being failure. 
Few people imagined we should do so well. There was much joy 
and gratitude when we closed. As a popular effort, with very great 
generosity on the part of many, it is encouraging. But that other 
$6,000. We cannot do without it. I shall strain every nerve, and 
shall stay till the very end of the week if I can make it tell, though 
I want to get home Friday if possible. . . 

You will join me in giving thanks, and in praying that the hearts 

1 In Baltimore , effort to increase endowment. 



312 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

of men may be opened. I am tired enough, but not sick. You can 
imagine what a strain it was on me last night. 

JOHN STOUT to J. A, B. : 

SOCIETY HILL, S, C., Jan. n, 1879: It would be hard for me to 
write a merely official note to you. Gratitude and love clamor for 
expression. And I find myself hoping that it is not a matter of in- 
difference to you that one who owes you so much should care to tell 
you that he is increasingly conscious of his debt. . . 

I see you continue to do more than your share of work, and such 
anxious work it must be. I sincerely hope that you and dear Doc- 
tor Boyce may live to see the Seminary really endowed and your 
best expectations of its widespread usefulness fulfilled. When you 
send your man to South Carolina I shall " stand by to lend a hand." 
But I sometimes wonder how he will ever get what he asks for. 

HOWARD COGHILL to J. A. B. : 

HOTEL BRISTOL, NEW YORK, June 4, 1880 : You have proba- 
bly quite forgotten that before entering college I promised to send you 
any one of the Greek prizes that I might be fortunate enough to take 
in order to assist in preparing some young man for the ministry. . . 
This year I resolved to write for the trustees' prize offered to the 
senior class for the best written essay on a prescribed subject, the 
subject this year being " Communism and Socialism." . . You can 
imagine my gratification on hearing the announcement that I had 
taken the first prize, more especially as this prize is regarded as the 
most " scholarly " one of the whole college course. And now, my 
dear Doctor Broadus, though not the Greek prize, it gives me great 
pleasure to send you the first money I ever made, to be used in a 
noble cause and one to which I consider it an honor to be per- 
mitted to send an offering. . . 

Father wishes me to send you his kindest regards. He is very 
busy, as we sail for Europe on the sixteenth of the month* 

E. S. ALLEN to J. A. B. t 

WOODRUFF, S C., Jan. 26, 1880: I deeply sympathize with you 
in your efforts to place the Seminary on a permanent and useful 
footing. The Baptists of the South cannot afford to let it fail. Its 
importance can be imagined by what it has already done. If you 
were to take from the Baptists of South Carolina those who were 
prepared in that Institution and who are now preaching the words of 
life to sinners, what a sad condition we would have to deplore. 



THE FIRST YEARS IN LOUISVILLE 313 

In March, 1879, Doctor Broadus was one of a repre- 
sentative gathering of Baptist men to meet in New York 
City to consider the revision of the by-laws of the Ameri- 
can Bible Society, whereby the society expressed a will- 
ingness to consider new versions of the Bible in heathen 
lands, without insisting on transliterating "baptize," It 
was recommended that the society was once more to 
receive Baptist patronage. Doctor Broadus had taken 
the keenest interest in Bible revision. In the early 
seventies he had written a remarkable series of articles 
for the " Religious Herald " on the Bible Union revision. 

B. F. WESTCOTT to J. A. B. : 

CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND, May 18, 1880 : Allow me to thank you 
for the copy of the notice of the " Speaker's Commentary " which 
you have most kindly sent to me. It is a great pleasure to receive 
so generous a recognition of work from America. The words of St. 
John have clung to me for more than five and twenty years and I 
hope that I may have been enabled to help some to make thoughts 
their own which have been helpful to myself. 

The revision work is now rapidly drawing to an end ; and it is 
impossible not to rejoice. But it has been carried on from first to 
last with a harmony and energy of purpose almost beyond hope. 
The result will, I trust, bind English-speaking people closer together 
in spiritual unity. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B, : 

ATLANTA, GA., May 10, 1879: Alas! the mournful deed is done. 
Toy's resignation is accepted. He is no longer professor in the Sem- 
inary. I learn that the Board were all in tears as they voted, but no 
one voted against it. I cannot yet say who will be elected in his 
place. . . 

Poor bereaved three ; we have lost our jewel of learning, our be- 
loved and noble brother, the pride of the Seminary. God bless the 
Seminary, God bless Toy, and God help us, sadly but steadfastly 
to do our providential duty. 

In the "Memoir of Boyce " (p. 262), Doctor Broadus 
says : 
It was hard for Doctor Toy to realize that such teaching was 



3 14 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

quite out of the question in this Institution. He was satisfied that 
his views would promote truth and piety. He thought strange of 
the prediction made in conversation that within twenty years he 
would utterly discard all belief in the supernatural as an element of 
Scripture a prediction founded upon knowledge of his logical con- 
sistency and boldness, and already m a much shorter time fulfilled, 
to judge from his latest works. 

" Religious Herald," May 15, 1879 (report of Southern 
Baptist Convention) : 

Dr. John A. Broadus moved to strike out the first and second 
resolutions. He said he agreed with much that Doctor Tichenor said 
in a speech, which was truly eloquent even for an Alabama brother. 
But he felt it best that the conference should not be held. All that this 
proposed conference can mean is a full merging of the work of this 
Convention into that of the Northern societies just what our brother 
said he did not mean. Doctor Broadus loved to go North and loved 
to speak for their objects. There is no need to talk of a bloody 
chasm. As matters now stand, we are not responsible for what at 
the North we object to, and they are not responsible for what at the 
South they object to, but put us together and a good many of us 
might object, and the old feeling might again be revived. Things 
are working well ; it is a marvel how good feeling is growing. We 
are not doing our duty in giving, but a union at present would lead 
us to give less. We would look to the North for help rather than 
help ourselves. We should have less good feeling and less money 
(from our own churches) and, therefore, I object to this action. . . 

The vote was then taken, and Doctor Broadus 7 s amendment was 
adopted by a vote of one hundred and seventy-four to sixty-eight, 
after which the rest of the report was unanimously adopted. 

After a round of commencement addresses at Wake 
Forest and Richmond Colleges, Doctor Broadus again 
spent July and August with the North Orange Church, 
with excursions to Saratoga, etc. Dr. C. H. Ryland 
writes of the Richmond College address on Demosthenes : 

The college chapel was packed with an ehte and brilliant audience. 
Governor F. W. M. Holliday had been chosen by the two societies 
to preside. In closing his opening address Governor Holliday said : 
" It has been many years, how many I need not stop to number, 



THE FIRST YEARS IN LOUISVILLE 315 

since the gentleman, who will presently address you, and I, met upon 
the platform on a similar occasion. It was at our own State Uni- 
versity. He then presided ; I was the speaker and we were both 
young like yourselves and full of the same emotions which I doubt 
not now animate you. Our callings have been different, our homes 
far apart, and we have grown gray since then. Our country has gone 
through the throes of a great and terrible Civil War, and hence strange 
and varied vicissitudes of fortune have fallen upon us both. Of my- 
self I need not speak, that is of no interest. Of him it does me good 
to say that his life has been a triumph, because he from the start 
looked upon life as profoundly real, and whilst he has walked his 
onward and upward way he did his daily work, whether great or 
small, in sorrow or in joy, with a single eye, in all humility, open- 
ing the windows of his soul that its chambers might be filled with 
celestial light." 

Many thought Doctor Broadus's lecture on Demos- 
thenes the greatest production of his life. " It was the 
result of profound and sympathetic study of Greek his- 
tory, language, and literature, and showed personal in- 
terest in the struggles and triumphs of the Greek people." 

J. H. THAYER to J. A. B. : 

ANDOVER, MASS., July 31, 1879: Allow me to return you my 
tardy thanks for your letter of the thirtieth ult., and also for the val- 
uable documents which accompanied it. The article in the "Bibli- 
otheca " l to which you refer can hardly have been written by any 
member of our faculty, and I am sorry that in Professor Park's (the 
editor's) absence from town I have been as yet unable to ascertain 
its author. But I will take the earliest opportunity of calling his at- 
tention to the able discussion by Doctor Boyce of the same topic 
nearly a quarter of a century ago. 

Notwithstanding the explanations you urge, it is indeed strange 
that we know so little of what has been done and is doing in your 
part of the country. And just here permit me to return thanks for 
your very interesting sketch of Doctor Harrison ; a noteworthy man 
about whom I had hitherto been able to get only meagre accounts. 
In fact, it is only about ten years since I first heard of his elaborate 
work on the prepositions with their cases, and months elapsed before 
I could obtain a copy ; for I could find no Boston bookseller who had 
i On " Elective System in Theological Education." 



316 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

ever heard of it, and I did not know by whom it was published. It 
is to be hoped that those days of comparative isolation are past. 

Doctor Broadus had come to be in great demand in 
Louisville as a preacher in the churches of all evan- 
gelical denominations. His power in Louisville grew 
with the years till a church could with difficulty hold 
the audiences which flocked to hear him, men of all creeds 
and none, the ablest lawyers, bankers, merchants, phy- 
sicians, who felt that here was a man who had something 
to say worth hearing and said with matchless simplicity, 
sincerity, charm, and power. The preacher swayed a 
kingly scepter over the hearts of Louisville. Doctor 
Boyce used to say that if the five great living preachers 
were named, Broadus would have to be included. From 
this period of Doctor Broadus's life the demands grew 
incessant for preaching in all the great cities, for dedica- 
tions, for Chautauquas, for supplies, for pastor. On Nov. 
6, 1879, h e preached the dedication sermon for the Second 
Church, St. Louis. 

J. A. B. to S. S. B. : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., Dec. 3, 1879: A banquet last Wednesday 
night in honor of Dr. J. Lawrence Smith. Some sixty sat down, 
including many of our leading men. I spoke for " The Church," 
and folks said it was a good speech. The thing was suggested by 
Doctor Boyce, managed by Doctor Warder, and conducted by Mr. 
Henry Watterson and Mr. Isaac Caldwell. 

J. A. B. to W. A. GELLATLY : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., March 23, 1880 : Yours received. I confess my- 
self not a little gratified that the North Orange Church have not got 
tired of me, as they well might have done. And I like much better 
to preach to old acquaintances than to strangers. 

J. L. M. CURRY to J. A. B.: 

RICHMOND, VA., March 29, 1880 : The First Church will celebrate 
its Centennial Anniversary on the eighth and ninth of June, im- 
mediately after our General Association. The church desires you to 



THE FIRST YEARS IN LOUISVILLE 317 

preach on the night of the ninth a sermon, not exactly on " The 
Church of the Future," but on the future of the First Baptist Church. 
All previous pastors, living, of the church are invited and expected 
to be present, and you were once a temporary supply. 

I shouted when I read the telegram about Governor Brown. 1 . . 
You ought not to die without writing out that address on Demos- 
thenes. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

ALEXANDRIA, VA., June 5, 1880: On Monday I must decide 
whether to attend the First Church centennial which I shall probably 
conclude not to do, unless brother shall be better. 

J. A B. to J. M. BROADUS : 

CHICAGO, 2 June 22, 1880 : I am trying to spend a quiet week. 
What I really want is such rest as I used to get when coming from 
Charlottesville to your home in Culpeper, and lying on a counter- 
pane, under a big tree in the yard, where I could read myself to sleep, 
and waking could watch the sunlight playing through the outer 
branches, and sometimes hear a bird sing, and having nothing to do 
could be utterly indifferent as to doing that. It is hard to get per- 
fectly quiet in the midst of Chicago. 

My love to all. God be gracious to you, brother. It is my daily 
prayer that you may be lifted up, if it be his will, and it is my daily 
comfort to remember that you seemed to feel about it all so exactly 
as I would wish you to feel. 

J. WM. JONES to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., July 30, 1880 : I need not assure you that I, in 
common with thousands of others, have deeply sympathized with 
you in the loss of dear brother Madison, whose death is indeed a 
public calamity. 

J. A. B. to J. C. G. BROADUS : 8 

ORANGE/ N. J., Aug. 14, 1880: Your letter received, and I am 
glad you have got to work. I beg to offer you, offhand, a few 
points : 

( i) From the beginning, be at your desk from two to four minutes 
before the hour, every morning perfectly punctual. 

1 Governor Brown had given fifty thousand dollars to the Seminary endowment, 
saving- the life of the Seminary at another crisis. See account in "Memoir of 
Boyce." 

2 Supplying First Church. 8 Son of J. M. Broadus. 4 Again supplying here. 



3l8 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

(2) Give your whole mind to whatever work you are doing. If 
it is merely adding rows of figures, or copying reports, try every 
time to get it exactly right, without a single mistake. And never 
turn over your work till you have carefully examined it, to see if 
there is the slightest mistake. Make it a matter of ambition, of 
official fidelity and honor, to do your work well. 

(3) Be very careful about your private habits and your associates. 
" A man is judged from the company he keeps." If some young 
fellow has a doubtful reputation, even though you think he does not 
deserve it, better give him a wide berth. Above all things, eschew 
the notions of concealment and deception which so many lads have. 
Be absolutely truthful. . . Let there be nothing in your life that you 
would not be willing your mother should know. Young men often 
think and say, " Oh ! people need never find it out." But people 
do, and older men often know things about the young that they do 
not choose to tell. And, besides, when a man attempts to maintain 
practices or companionships he must conceal from those he loves, 
such concealment involves deception, and damages his character in 
its very foundations. 

(4) Remember your Creator, the God of your widowed mother, 
the God whose grace enabled your now sainted father to become the 
man he was. 

As long as I live, if you are doing well, my boy, I shall rejoice for 
your dear father's sake as well as for my own. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., Sept. 16, 1880 : Senior Greek class the largest 
I have ever had Doctor Boyce also attending it. Homiletics too is 
larger than heretofore. Both these agreeable facts mean more work 
in correcting exercises. But it is a very great relief to be rid of the 
Student's Fund. 

NEW YORK, 1 Feb. 14, 1881 : Nothing really accomplished yet, 
and prospects not brilliant, but not desperate. 

You will doubtless know of Doctor Boyce's coming on, to be here 
Vmorrow morning, in consequence of my telegrams to him. . . 

I feel much burdened with my great and difficult task. . . It is 
one of the great crises of my life- work. Boyce's coming will divide 
the responsibility with me. May Providence direct/ And may 
every blessing rest upon the dear wife and children from whom I 
find it every year a greater trial to be separated, 

i In New York to raise endowment for the Seminary. 



THE FIRST YEARS IN LOUISVILLE 319 

NEW YORK, Feb. 16, 1881 : . . I assure you I do not feel it amiss 
to approach these gentleman. I succeed as well in my line of work 
as they do in theirs. They can help me to be useful and I can help 
them to be useful. If they do not know of my work and seek to 
share in it, I will seek them. If they decline I have done my best. 
May the matter be guided from on high. 

NEW YORK, Feb. 17, 1881 : Our success must tremble in the 
balance for several days to come. I feel very quiet this afternoon 
and am trying to trust calmly in Providence. . . Some folks would 
think it a very pleasant thing to be in New York with nothing to 
do nothing but wait and tremble with blended hope and fear, and 
think of the classes I cannot be teaching, and the book I cannot 
write. 

But I really am so anxious that I can't enjoy even a bookstore 
very much. I will try to be less anxious. " In nothing be anxious ; 
but in everything, by prayer and supplications, with thanksgiving, 
let your requests be made known unto God ; and the peace of God, 
which passeth all understanding, shall guard your hearts and your 
thoughts in Christ Jesus." What healing, sustaining words I Let 
us try, my dearie, to feel that way. God help us. 

Some forty thousand dollars was then given in New 
York for the Seminary endowment. This amount added 
to the fifty thousand given by Governor Joseph E. Brown, 
of Georgia, saved the day for the Seminary. Men of 
means were now willing to invest in the institution, be- 
lieving in its stability. It was at last certain that the 
Seminary would live, after twenty-three years of un- 
certainty. Rev. G. W. Riggan was added to the faculty 
in 1881. Doctor Manly had already, in 1879, come back 
from Georgetown to join hands with Boyce, Broadus, 
and Whitsitt in building upon the firm foundation at last 
laid in Louisville. 

On coming to Louisville, Doctor Broadus and his family 
had joined the Walnut Street Church, where he was a 
most efficient member. Dr. J. W. Warder, the pastor, 
became State Secretary of Missions in 1880, and in May, 
1881, Dr. T. T. Eaton entered upon his work as pastor 



320 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

of the church. Among his many warm friends in this 
church and with whom he delighted to labor, were Dr. 
Wm. B. Caldwell and his brother Junius Caldwell, who 
were among its ' ' chief pillars " until their death. They, 
with Dr. Arthur Peter, had been largely instrumental in 
building Walnut Street Church. 

On May 25, 1881, Doctor Broadus delivered a re- 
markable address "On Reading the Bible by Books/' 
before the International Convention of the Young Men's 
Christian Association at Cleveland, Ohio. This address 
was published in tract form by the International Com- 
mittee and appears also in sermons and addresses. The 
following winter, Richard C. Morse, of New York, wrote: 

It gives me great pleasure to send you a package containing copies 
of your Cleveland address. The large edition printed last summer 
is nearly exhausted, such has been the demand for it. 

BASIL MANLY l to J. A. B. : 

LEIPZIG, GERMANY, June 15, 1881 : So far as I can see, there is 
an almost universal ignoring of anything, in theology, at least, be- 
yond the confines of Germany. In the University Reading Room, 
which I have joined and where perhaps two hundred publications 
are taken (fee $1.35 for the semester), I find some of the American 
Theological Reviews and Journals, very few French, and scarcely 
any English, Nor does there seem to be any disposition to inquire 
into matters or researches beyond the channel, except in some special 
topics, as in Assyriology, etc. It is quietly assumed that there is 
nothing worth seeking for there. Even the "Revised New Testa- 
ment' 1 has only reached here this week, and then I believe by 
special orders. I brought a copy with me, but so far as I know, 
mine was the only copy in the city for two weeks or more, nearly a 
month after it was issued. 

... Of the six regular Lutheran churches, I have attended the 
three most popular. On an ordinary Sunday, fair, pleasant day 
with no special attraction or preacher or feast day, it is safe to say 
the congregation would not exceed five hundred at any of these, and 
would hardly average three hundred. I have attended several times 

1 Doctor Manly spent the summer in Germany. 



THE FIRST YEARS IN LOUISVILLE 321 

where there were not more than one hundred or a hundred and fifty. 
Meanwhile the theatres, beer gardens, and cafes are crowded, Sunday 
being their harvest day ; the parks and promenades are crowded. . . 
I heard from well-informed persons that there were no Sunday- 
schools but have more recently found that there are three or four, 
and I am going to hunt one of them up next Sunday. The Bible is 
studied in school every day ; but after leaving school it is to a painful 
degree laid aside, with the grammar and the spelling book. But the 
people are all Christians, good church-workers, made so in their in- 
fancy; and without a"schew" or certificate of their confirmation, 
they find it difficult to get entrance into the public schools; they 
could not by law till recently, I believe. The church has taken the 
whole community into its fold, and all are lambs, no wolves, no out- 
siders, no world. The church and the world are one ; but as it is 
sometimes said that man and wife are one, the question remains, 
which one? 

B. F. WESTCOTT to J. A. B. : 

PREBENDAL HOUSE, PETERBOROUGH, ENGLAND, July 19, 
1 88 1 : Allow me to thank you for sending me a copy of your re- 
marks on the Revised Version which, if I may venture to say so, 
seem to me to be singularly wise and just. It cannot but be pleasing 
to English scholars to find their woik so received in America, even 
where in details national feeling may be against it. 

The mass of English criticism has hitherto, if I may judge from 
what I hear, for I avoid reading, been very unintelligent, but the 
general reception of the work has been far more favorable than 
could have been hoped. Perhaps more serious attacks may be m 
preparation. By this time the text which Doctor Hort and I have 
prepared will probably be in your hands. Copies of the plates were 
sent to New York by Messrs. Macmillan. The introduction will 
follow very shortly, but the short Antelegomena will give a scholar 
all the guidance he needs. 

I happened to preach in our college chapel on the Sunday after 
the publication of the Revised version and naturally said a few 
words which the young men had printed. You will sympathize, I 
think, with the expression of the larger interests which are involved 
in the publication. 

May this work be allowed to contribute to a fuller and deeper 
knowledge of the truth. That is all we ask. 

J. B. LIGHTFOOT to J. A. B. : 

AUCKLAND CASTLE, ENGLAND, Aug. 26, 1881 : I beg to thank 

v 



322 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

you for the criticisms on the Revised version, which I received from 
you a short time ago. I admired their appreciation and good sense. 
Alas ! I do not know what may be the probabilities of the future, 
but at present I find myself wholly unable to touch Commentary. 

A H. NEWMAN to J. A. B. : 

ROCHESTER, N. Y., Aug. 18, 1881 : Our work in Toronto will 
begin in a most hopeful way. I have there all that I could desire in 
the way of opportunity for work. The only difficulty is that there 
is too much of it You have doubtless learned from our prospectus 
that we adopted substantially your arrangement of studies. The 
Canadian brethren are delighted with it. I trust you may feel it 
practicable to accept the invitation to deliver the opening address in 
October. 1 

During 1882 Doctor Broadus wrote in the " Examiner " 
notes on the Sunday-school lessons, which were from the 
Gospel of Mark. Doctor Broadus as a member of the 
International Lesson Committee (since 1878 and re- 
elected till his death) had become active in Sunday- 
school affairs. He wrote much for the " Sunday School 
Times." The First Church in Chicago was seeking him 
as pastor, but he had found his work. 

J. C. CRANBERRY to J. A. B. : 

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY, NASHVILLE, June 2, 1882: I thank 

you for your prompt letter of congratulation and kind wishes. I 
have enjoyed my work as a teacher, and cannot anticipate so com- 
fortable an experience hereafter. Travel and making new acquant- 
ances have not much charm for me. But I trust I shall be able to 
serve the church usefully, and that is what we prize the most highly. 
I have used your work on " Preaching" as a text-book with great 
satisfaction, and my classes have admired it, and expressed their in- 
debtedness to it, with an enthusiasm which must be gratifying to 
any author. I have been accustomed to read to them copious ex- 
tracts from your lectures on the history of preaching. I had an op- 
portunity to express my appreciation of these works in an article on 
Oosterzee's "Practical Theology" which was published in our 
" Quarterly " two years ago. 

1 Doctor Broadus delivered this address at the dedication of McMaster University, 



THE FIRST YEARS IN LOUISVILLE 323 

J. W. JONES to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., July 24, 1882 : I have decided that Carter shall 
go to the Seminary next session. . , 

He preached his first sermon yesterday and seemed to give great 
satisfaction to the large congregation who heard him. 

I thank you for your kind letter. It is indeed a subject of con- 
gratulation that Carter has decided to preach, and that I am able to 
place him under the charge of my dear old professors, to whom I 
owe so much and in whom I have such implicit confidence. 

I have not failed for years to pray every day " God bless the Sem- 
inary," and the prayer will be none the less fervent when my own 
boy is there. 1 

During 1882 Doctor Broadus did much preaching, act- 
ing as supply four months at the Broadway Church, 
Louisville, and also at Emmanuel Church, Brooklyn, and 
North Orange again, Calvary, New York, Immanuel, 
Chicago, etc. He was doing a prodigious amount of work 
these years, full labor in the Seminary and more, news- 
paper writing in large quantities, almost as much preach- 
ing as a regular pastor, besides lectures and efforts to 
raise money for the Seminary. His health again trem- 
bled in the balance, but the White Sulphur and the Raw- 
ley Springs steadied him over the crisis. 

J. D. ROCKEFELLER to J. A. B. : 

NEW YORK, Nov. 9, 1882: I regret to hear of your ill health. 
Would it not be better for you to go away and take a little vacation ? . 

We are all very well. Will be very pleased to see you when you 
come North. I am pleased to hear of the increase in the number of 
students. 

Doctor Broadus took this good advice and through his 
friend's substantial kindness spent three weeks of this 
winter in New Orleans in company with Mrs. Broadus. 
He reveled in the balmy air of this interesting historic 
city, and long felt the refreshing effects of the rest. 

1 Doctor Jones himself was one of the first students at Greenville and now sent 
the Seminary's first " grandson " 



CHAPTER XV 
MEMORIES OF MY FATHER'S HOME-LIFE 



BY ALICE BROADUS MITCHELL. 



More homelike seems the vast unknown 
Since he has entered there. 

J. W. CbadiulcJt. 

E first time I ever saw my father was when one day 
1 as a child I watched him stand at a mirror to brush 
his hair. I noticed how dark and shining his hair was, 
and then glanced down at his face. He had a look of 
keen, interested thought, as if working out some idea 
that was of use to him. His brow and eye and lips mov- 
ing with thought came to me like a vision and I seemed 
to realize who it was that lived among us. I looked 
timidly at his reflection in the mirror, and thought, "I 
must be better than I have been, with him for a father." 
Even a child could see that his home-life showed his 
best personality. When we heard him preach, or talk 
in other circles, what he said never seemed in different 
character from his home-self, but only something more 
from the same source. He had very winsome ways in 
dealing with children. Any duty would be presented as 
something to be undertaken with cheerful ardor, and his 
own example in this was always a tonic. When we 
were quite small, he once called us all about him and 
told us the meanings of our names, that this child's 
name meant "Light," and she must be a sunbeam, 
cheering and helping all she touched ; this one was a 
324 



MEMORIES OF MY FATHER'S HOME-LIFE 325 

" Princess," and she must be noble and gentle and gen- 
erous ; another's name meant " Strong," and another's 
" Asked of God," and so on round the little group, with 
his tone sprightly, yet wistful too. 

In talking with children, he thought it worth while to 
answer their questions, and, as he put it, to " talk sense " 
to them. I remember his explaining before I was ten 
years old the difference between a rule and a principle, 
and how it seems more convenient to go by rules, but is 
better to live by principles. He used to put things to us 
in such a clear and simple way that we would wonder 
how they could ever have perplexed us. One of us came 
in from school one day and asked him if it was right to try 
to get ahead of other scholars so as to be the best in a 
class. He answered, " It is right to try to do better than 
they, but it would be wrong to try to keep them from 
doing well, or to begrudge their success." 

He began the most wholesome lessons with us when 
we were very young. When we went to live in Louis- 
ville, he took three of us down town one day and showed 
us the fruit and candy and toy stores, but without buy- 
ing anything, saying in a cheerful, philosophic tone that 
people who come to live in a city must learn to see a 
great many attractive things spread out with no thought 
of buying them if they cannot afford it. On the other 
hand, he was generous about not only our needs, but 
any special advantages or pleasures that he could give 
us, such as joining some private class, taking lessons in 
embroidery, or keeping up a tennis court. There was a 
special smile of readiness and courtesy with which he 
would hand us the money for these things. Any re- 
quest that he made of us, from childhood up, was in a 
tone and manner that kept our self-respect and made us 
feel in the happiest relation with him. He called fiom 
the front door one day to one of his daughters and asked 



326 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

if she meant to do any more copying that evening. She 
replied that she would come at once. " Oh ! " he said 
with solicitous courtesy, " judge for yourself about that ; 
I only meant that I had gotten the second lecture ready 
and wanted to tell you before I went out." A winter in 
Greenville is remembered, when some of the little ones 
were not always ready for breakfast. He said he should 
like every morning to hear a gentle tap at his door and 
the voice of each one, from the eldest to the youngest, 
saying, " Seven o'clock, papa." The sound of their musi- 
cal scale and the merriment at his door, never failed to 
bring them a cheery word of response. 

His reverence for women was especially shown in his 
own household, and his manner toward us had always a 
charm of deference and courtesy. One winter, when 
both the sons were away, he said playfully : " I want you 
ladies to understand that whenever you need an escort, 
or any service where a man can be of use, I am still 
doing business at the old stand." Toward mother he 
was most chivalrous of all, and his very tone in speaking 
to her was different from what he used with others. He 
consulted her in everything that he wrote and did, and 
relied upon her judgment and wonderful sense of fitness 
with grateful and loving appreciation. 

Christmas Day was the one morning of the year when 
we were sure of having our busy father to ourselves. We 
did not usually have a tree, but the mysterious packages 
were arranged upon a table. Each one of the household 
would have ready a Christmas poem to recite, ranging 
all the way from " 'Twas the Night before Christmas " 
to Milton's " Hymn on the Nativity." One year a rickety 
little platform was made by the little brother as a rostrum 
for the recitations, and some of the elders declined to 
use it. When papa's turn came he stepped upon it with 
a smile and then clasping his hands reverently, repeated 



MEMORIES OF MY FATHER'S HOME-LIFE 327 

Addison's hymn beginning, " When all thy mercies, O 
my God." He always distributed the presents himself 
and read aloud the rhymes that we delighted to put with 
them. We were radiant at hearing his voice give so 
much expression to our little jingles. This way of keep- 
ing Christmas was never given up, and as we began to 
be older we used to be astonished to hear other grown 
people say that they " didn't care for Christmas, it was 
only a day for children." It was not until we had lost 
him that we realized what had given the day its ecstasy 
through all the years. 

With all his tenderness and the pleasure he took in 
mingling in his children's pursuits, my father did not 
" make himself a child" with us. We always felt for 
him a reverence and even a sort of awe that we com- 
pared instinctively to living "in the fear of God." He 
was very far from the sentimental attitude of some 
who hold that all of a child's instincts are good and to be 
respectfully indulged. He required children to obey 
rightful authority and be diligent and trustworthy, but 
he never posed as himself infallible and despising their 
weakness and mistakes. He used to say candidly that 
our parents' advice was not always sure to be right, but 
that mother and father were our best friends, with more 
experience than we, and that we ought to value and 
trust what they told us. If we were too young to judge 
for ourselves and still unwilling to be guided by our 
parents, then obedience must be enforced. Faults for 
which he had no sort of toleration were laziness and self- 
indulgence, and his keen comments showed these to be 
at the bottom of many a difficulty. When one of us 
lamented at having started late in the session with a 
certain study and finding all sorts of mysterious troubles 
in keeping up with the class, he said with a twinkling 
smile, " I suspect that all those troubles will vanish if 



328 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

you get up the first part of the book thoroughly." Then 
his eye flashed as he added, " Resolve to get the better 
of your drawbacks and make a superb success. Take 
on a large stock of perseverance and renew it before it 
ever gives out, and let no one in the class do better than 
you." 

He used often to remark upon the wealth of delightful 
books that are written for young people now, and tell us 
what made up his supply when he was a boy. His 
Christmas and birthday presents to us were almost always 
some book, chosen with especial care. At the beginning 
of our school sessions he would look over our new school 
books with the greatest interest, and show us what pains 
the authors had taken to make things clear and interest- 
ing to us, and what beautiful maps and illustrations they 
had. I recall his looking at a diagram of Caesar's Bridge 
in a boy's new edition of Caesar, and exclaiming, " What 
a boon this drawing would have been to me when I 
was struggling to understand the bridge ! You'll be a 
lazy fellow if you don't make short work of it." We sat 
by his study table to learn our lessons in the evening, 
and he would usually be writing at the desk at one end. 
He would stop his work at any moment to explain a 
point to us or to open before us a good reference in some 
other book. When in our school-work we were given 
some subject to investigate and report upon, we were 
inclined simply to "ask papa," as being pleasanter than 
looking it up in books. We used to wonder at the defer- 
ence he showed the dictionary and cyclopedia, and the 
affectionate zeal with which he would sometimes say : 
" We are fortunate in having the very book that can tell 
us best about it." Then he would supplement what the 
books said and encourage us to express our own ideas, 
and somehow every subject that we remember talking 
of with him, has a life in it to-day that nothing else is 



MEMORIES OF MY FATHER'S HOME-LIFE 329 

like. One of us asked one day how it is that the weather 
probabilities are made out. He replied: "How should 
you suppose ? " and when the child made no effort to 
think it out, he said a little sternly : "You ought to be 
able to form some idea." The way in which the ex- 
planation flashed into the child's mind at his reproof, 
was an instance of one of his ways of educating. We 
formed the habit pretty early of thinking over a subject, 
when we could, before presenting it to him, and some- 
times privately applying first to the cyclopedia and then 
demurely making very respectable replies to his ques- 
tionings. 

When one of his daughters was about twelve years 
old, he told her that there was a poet whom he liked to 
read, named William Shakespeare, and he thought she 
would like him too. Then he got down the volume that 
contained " Henry IV." and explained the history, going 
over with her the list of persons in the play. " Now," 
he said, "suppose you read the first Act to-day, and if 
you come across any lines that you think are pretty, put 
a mark by them, so, v, and after supper come into my 
study and read them to me." The child did so, and 
after she had read her selections, he pointed out two or 
three more, saying, " Here are some others that I like." 
Thus they went on from evening to evening, till she 
was fairly launched in Shakespeare. 

When the youngest child was learning to read, it was 
decided that he needed a spelling-book, and the little 
nine-year-old sister, who was helping mother to teach 
him, went down town with her father to choose the book. 
She looked at every speller in Dearing's bookstore, 
while the father stood patiently by, but she thought 
none of them would do. "Well," he said cheerily, 
" let's try down on Main Street." The little girl turned 
over all of Morton's spelling-books, and said at last that 



330 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

she could write lists of words in a blank book that would 
be just what she wanted. " Ah ! " he said, " like other 
professors, you decide to make your own text-book." 
There was no part of his home-life that meant more 
to us than his talk at the table, which was so informing, 
genial, and sympathetic. It was a marvel to see how 
with all that absorbed his thoughts, he could join with 
the fullest interest in any topic that came up books 
that any of us were reading, happenings at school, the 
entertainment the evening before, fashions, politics, and 
any news of what was going on in the world. Some- 
times, and especially at breakfast, when he had just 
been reading the morning paper, he would give us a brief 
explanation of the current political situations, so that we 
might follow them with a better understanding. Then 
from day to day he would allude to what went on, with 
a spirited interest which implied that the doings of Russia 
or Germany or China concerned each one of us. He 
said sometimes that he should like to take a New York 
daily for its political news, but knew that he would 
spend more time in reading it than he could afford. 

One of the things my father most enjoyed was to 
have guests in his home. Something in his delicate 
courtesy made them feel that it was an exquisite pleas- 
ure to him to have them there. He seemed to lay aside 
every care and refresh himself with the pleasant inter- 
change of talk. I have seen him with a party of young 
people, set them going, and then lean back with a happy 
smile and listen to their sparkling talk. Old friends gave 
the best joy of all and he delighted to converse with 
those in the full tide of affairs ; but all who came had 
something congenial to him and he was alert to learn 
from their experience and point of view. I remember 
how as children our playmate guests were treated 
with a charming consideration that made our hearts 



MEMORIES OF MY FATHER'S HOME-LIFE 331 

swell with pleasure. He abundantly observed the in- 
junction, " Be not forgetful to entertain strangers/' 
and often we found them "angels unawares." At the 
same time, he emphasized the importance of what is 
sometimes overlooked keeping in touch with those 
whose society is an advantage and improvement to us. 
I think he made hospitality something of more moment 
than it is usually reckoned at, and it became no small 
feature of his life. 

All his life my father made time for reading widely 
and deeply, and his books were his dearest possessions. 
He denied himself many other things to secure the best 
"tools" for his work, and paid a genuine homage to 
their significance. If one of his books was mislaid, our 
oldest sister was the one always called on to find it. She 
kept in mind where they all belonged and had grown up 
along with their gradual acquisition, so that her associa- 
tion with them was near and dear. Her being at home 
with Latin and Greek which papa had himself taught 
her when she was a child was a help to him in a num- 
ber of his undertakings. 

He encouraged our reading aloud in the family circle, 
and this grew to be one of the great pleasures of our 
home-life, books of biography being the greatest treat 
of all. It was seldom that he had time himself to join 
us, but now and then he would read to my mother for 
a while in the evening. Sometimes he would translate 
aloud from Plato's " Phasdo," and on Sunday afternoons, 
in the hour just before supper, was fond of reading to us 
all from the " Library of Religious Poetry." One sum- 
mer he stayed at home to work on the memoir of Doc- 
tor Boyce, and formed the plan of writing all the morn- 
ings and nominally resting for the balance of the day. 
Just after dinner, we would all go into his study and he 
would read to us for half an hour from Mr. Warner's 



332 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

"My Summer in a Garden." Books which the rest of 
us were reading aloud and would discuss at table, he 
said he was reading by proxy. I recall especially his in- 
terest in this way in the life of Agassiz and that of Haw- 
thorne and his wife, and his reviving old recollections 
t of Cooper's novels when his youngest boy was reading 
them. 

At morning prayers, his reading of the Bible seemed 
to me better to express "the sacred page" than any 
other I ever heard. He usually read some book by 
course, making comments as he went along, and I re- 
member the eager interest with which as a child I would 
put my chair in place to hear the next instalment in the 
history of Joseph or of David. With all his analysis and 
practical application, there was a reverence in his look 
and voice which made reading the Bible indeed an act of 
worship. In reading the conversation with Nicodemus 
and with the woman at the well, I used to fancy that 
the tones natural to him were just those which the 
Saviour had used. So also his voice still echoes in 
" Lazarus ! Come forth ! " and in Christ's saying to the 
woman in the garden, "Mary." At one time, he used 
to select every Sunday afternoon a hymn for each of us 
to learn by heart and repeat to him. Once two of us 
came to repeat "Jesus, Lover of my Soul," and were 
mortified that we would both " forget what came next." 
He took the book and kindly pointed out how that hymn 
is made up of short phrases which have not much natural 
connection to help the memory, and so we would have 
to take special pains in learning it. He sometimes chose 
long poems for us to get by heart, and liked to hear us 
repeat " John Gilpin," " The May Queen," and " Gray's 
Elegy." 

The trips we took with him at various times are 
among the brightest memories of our lives. Many happy 



MEMORIES OF MY FATHER'S HOME-LIFE 333 

summers were spent by us all at " Locust Grove," the 
fine old home of my mother's girlhood. Papa and our 
grandmother had a beautiful relation of mutual under- 
standing and appreciation, and felt the deepest satisfac- 
tion in being together. He often found it refreshing to take 
excursions with us on the street car to one of Louisville's 
suburban parks, there walking about and climbing the 
hills. He enjoyed the autumn foliage at these places 
especially, and the golden air of Indian summer. At 
one spot he brought stones and made a little bridge for 
my mother's convenience, naming it for her the Char- 
lotte Bridge. 

Some of the most characteristic memories that I have 
of my father are those connected with his letter-writing. 
He sometimes dictated answers to twenty or twenty-five 
letters in an evening, and suiting their varied require- 
ments brought all his qualities into such play that it was 
delightful to be with him. It was interesting to see how 
he had cultivated the power of writing a few discrimina- 
ting, comprehensive lines that were all-sufficient and 
saved his time. Yet, where the case required it, he 
spared no pains to turn a matter over in his mind for 
days and weeks, considering it from all points of view. 

He grew to like the click of the typewriter, saying it 
stimulated his thoughts and made him feel that the work 
was getting done. He usually sat at his desk with a 
file of outspread letters at his left hand, the longer ones 
having such paragraphs as needed special reply marked 
with a blue pencil. Sometimes when writing difficult 
letters he would pace up and down the room for a while 
with his hands behind him, "thinking hard," as he ex- 
pressed it. In other moods, he would stroll about while 
he dictated, absently fingering the books on the table, 
or meditatively brushing the hearth, or looking through 
the slats of the blinds, whistling softly to himself. Then 



334 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

presently he would turn around with the phrase he had 
been shaping all complete and exact. He seemed to find 
peculiar satisfaction in hitting on a phrase that expressed 
just what he meant, and I have often seen some little 
instance of this refresh him to renew the attack on the 
great mass of letters which he dared not allow to accu- 
mulate any longer. 

I used to wish that those who received the letters 
could but hear the tones in which they were given. It 
would have softened many a disappointment if the 
readers could have known how courteously and sincerely 
the regrets had been spoken ; and I often felt that his 
most lucid explanations in other letters would fail of their 
full effect because they must be received without the 
commentary of his voice. As I think of my father's 
voice now I realize that his whole character and life 
flowed into its richness and meaning. 

The letter-writing was only one small incident in his 
day's work, and he usually came to it fagged from the 
strain of what had gone before, but he went through the 
task faithfully and cheerfully. When we did now and 
then actually "find the bottom " of that letter drawer, 
he always had a jest and a smile to greet it. 

I recall with gratitude the letters he often received 
from old students, whose expressions of love and rever- 
ence were very dear to him. 

Sometimes in writing to a confrere about a piece of 
literary work or some committee engagement, he would 
turn into a brief aside of reminiscence or raillery or warm 
congratulation. Such moments of intercourse with a 
kindred spirit were among his greatest enjoyments ; and 
especially was this true in conversation, where his mind 
could receive as well as give forth, and where the 
air was rife with sympathy and stimulus. Blessings on 
all who cheered and refreshed his thoughts ; and bless- 



MEMORIES OF MY FATHER'S HOME-LIFE 335 

ings too on those who turned to him for help, for he 
knew no higher joy than to do good. 

"Busy" seems no adequate word for what his life 
always was. We often waited for weeks, to get a 
chance for ten minutes' talk with him about something 
important, and then if such a time seemed to have come, 
had no heart to interfere with his first moment for rest. 
He could never have accomplished so much if it had not 
been for the system with which he made his plans and 
carried them out, and the care he observed about exer- 
cise and the other laws of health, so as to keep himself m 
working order. In his last years, the pressure of mat- 
ters that he could not delegate to others became cruelly 
heavy, and he sometimes said himself that he was work- 
ing within an inch of his life. 

The older children he had taught himself, but as the 
years went on, the younger ones felt his influence in less 
direct fashion. He used to say sometimes with a half- 
smile, " The shoemaker's children go barefoot, and the 
professor's children don't know anything." Perhaps, 
though, he was not unconscious that at least our stand- 
ards of life were formed in the atmosphere of his. Our 
first ideas of man's relation to God and the meaning of 
life, the sacredness of marriage, the unquestioned duty 
of doing the best we knew, we could see later on had 
really come from him. 

He wrote once in an autograph album for one of his 
children, "It will take you all your life to know how much 
I love you." Small wonder that to each of us, our least 
inadequate conception of God is to think of him "like as 
a father," 



CHAPTER XVI 

REALIZING HIS HOPES ABOUT THE SEMINARY 
Hope is brightest when it dawns from fears. 

Scott. 

AT last the Seminary rested on solid ground. But as 
yet, there Avas no building for lectures or dormi- 
tory. The number of students was growing. Now in 
1882-1883 it was one hundred and twenty. Most of 
this increase came from Kentucky, which had sent but 
few men to Greenville. Louisville proved more accessi- 
ble to the Southwest and West also, and by degrees the 
North began to send students, and even Canada. Vir- 
ginia did not lessen her interest in the Seminary. For a 
number of years Virginia and South Carolina furnished 
one-half or a third of the men at Greenville. These two 
States have still steadily shown their loyalty to the Sem- 
inary since coming to Louisville. Soon Doctor Broadus 
found himself confronting large classes that at last gave 
full scope for his magnificent powers as teacher. But he 
had nevertheless given his best to the small classes 
through all the years at Greenville. If he could only have 
had large classes all his previous life ! But, though fifty- 
five years old, he was in his prime and glory now. Oh, the 
rapture of the days when one could hear Broadus lecture 
in New Testament English or in Homiletics ! It was 
worth a day's journey to any man. He was a consum- 
mate scholar, of the widest reading and the most thorough 
assimilation. He studied the sources of things and worked 
through everything for himself. To Anglo-Saxon, Latin, 
Greek, and Hebrew, he had added German, French, 
336 



REALIZING HIS HOPES ABOUT THE SEMINARY 337 

Spanish, Italian, Gothic, Coptic, and modern Greek. He 
had made himself a specialist in homiletics, in the Eng- 
lish Bible, in New Testament history, exegesis, in Greek, 
in textual criticism, in patristic Greek, and hymnology 
(English and foreign). His " Preparation and Delivery 
of Sermons " had become the standard and most popular 
work on the subject. Prof. W. C. Wilkinson, of the 
University of Chicago, speaks of it as "on the whole, 
the best single treatise existing on its subject. This 
judgment is one neither hastily formed nor extravagantly 
expressed. It is a conviction arrived at after long and 
careful comparative consideration of the principal works 
in any language that could be regarded as rival claim- 
ants for the praise bestowed." l 

M. L. GORDON to J. A. B. : 

KIOTO, JAPAN, May 23, 1883 : We desire to use your most valu- 
able work, ** Preparation and Delivery of Sermons " as a text-book 
in our training school (American Board's Mission). . . 

We have two theological classes in our school ; one whose mem- 
bers know nothing of English, and another whose members read 
English very well. In instructing the former I have always made use 
of your book and I wish to use it more fully and thoroughly with the 
latter class. 

He was also one of the greatest preachers of his age. 
It was the rare combination of scholar, teacher, preacher 
that met you in the classroom. More than all this, there 
was a witchery or magnetism that entranced you. If 
the subject was the Greek article, you felt that that was 
the line of destiny for you. Go and master the article. 
If it was English accent and spelling, you had a longing 
to hunt up the history of English words. If it was a 
scene in the life of Christ, the whole wondrous picture 
came before you. You found yourself living with the 
throngs around the Nazarene. If you exposed your 

* " The Biblical World," May, 1895. 
W 



338 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

ignorance by a simple, if not presumptuous question, the 
quick flash of the eye, the kindly smile, the sympathetic 
voice put you en rapport. You were glad to be a fool for 
such a man. But if, indeed, conceit ventured too far in 
the classroom, the withering sarcasm was terrible to 
behold, and so quick that the victim scarcely knew what 
had struck him. 

Doctor Broadus was the greatest teacher of his time. 
No one in this country could equal him in the marvelous 
projectile force and in the inspiring momentum which 
he gave to his pupils. His old pupils sought in vain 
among the teachers of Germany for his equal. With 
one accord they all pronounce him the greatest of 
teachers. Prof. J. H. Farmer, of McMaster University, 
who spent two years under Broadus in preference to the 
German Universities, tells his experience in the class- 
room, from whom we quote: 1 

And what a superb teacher he became ! Nowhere else did Doctor 
Broadus seem to me quite so mighty and masterful as in the class- 
room. In New Testament English he was a king enthroned. The 
class was large and made up of men of all degrees of culture. A 
Texan cowboy, who had never before seen the inside of a school, 
sat side by side with a learned Presbyterian doctor of divinity who 
had been professor in a Seminary. But everything was clear enough 
for the one and strong enough for the other. He had marvelous skill 
in seizing the heart of some great subject on which he had read vol- 
ume after volume, and giving it to his class in a few pithy sentences 
of crystalline clearness. Many of us are only gradually finding out 
the real value of those lectures the wealth of learning and wisdom 
they represented. 

In that class he usually spent half the time in questioning, and 
half in lecturing. No time was wasted on foolish questions. It was 
his custom to dictate the substance of the lecture, and, while the 
students were writing, to keep up a running comment on that. Here 
the great man was in his element It was his most congenial theme. 
The preacher and teacher met together, the intellectual and spiritual 

1 " The McMaster University Monthly," May, 1895. 



REALIZING HIS HOPES ABOUT THE SEMINARY 339 

kissed each other. Mind and heart were all aglow. This was the very 
business for which all his rigid self-discipline had been preparing 
him. How splendidly his powers responded to the call ! Everything 
was orderly. Great thoughts were flung out in the richest profusion. 
Learning brought her treasures and wisdom her most precious things. 
Sparkling wit, delicious humor, apt anecdote, not infrequently re- 
lieved the intensity of the work. It was the most exhilarating ex- 
perience I ever knew. It was the spectacle of a great personality 
ablaze the finest thing in all the world. 

Doctor Broadus could not brook slipshod work either 
in the classroom exercises or examinations. He held 
himself to the most severe ideals of exact scholarship 
even in the most minute matters. The high standard of 
scholarship through the years at the Seminary is due to 
his ambition in this direction. But he was no Doctor 
Dry-as-Dust. He showed that learning need not be 
dry. He was popular in the true sense. 

On May 9, 1883, Doctor Broadus preached the sermon 
before the Southern Baptist Convention, at Waco, Texas, 
on three questions as to the Bible (2 Tim. 3:15). The 
sermon had a wide circulation in tract form, published 
by the American Baptist Publication Society. He was 
asked to edit the American edition of Meyer on "Mat- 
thew," but he was then occupied with his own book on 
"Matthew." 

J. P. BOYCEto J. A. B. : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., Sept. 4, 1883: I received this morning from 
you a copy of your sermon before the Convention. The sermon 
seems to me now even better than ever before. I am glad that so 
far it is a great success. I hope that it may be made more so by a 
very large circulation. 

T. M. MATTHEWS to J. A. B. : 

EDOM, TEXAS, May 22, 1883 : I've never seen you since 1853 in 
the pulpit of the church in Charlottesville when I heard you preach. 
But, John, you have been preaching to me through all these years. 
Pll tell you how. You remember our " autograph books " ? Well, 



340 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

of ail the students I took mine to you first, that you might write in 
it the first. Do you remember? [I reckon not, however. You wrote : 
iv o-e v<rrepti (Mark io : 21), John Albert Broadus, University of Va. 
That rang in my ears till I found " the pearl of great price," the 
thing you knew I lacked. I've often thought of you since and never 
without recalling this little, but to me great, incident. 

Doctor Broadus's pen was busy as usual with articles 
for the " Homiletic Review " (a series on Representative 
Preachers)," The Independent/' " The Baptist Teacher," 
and various other publications. He was regular supply 
for some months for the Ninth Street Church, Cincinnati. 
He entered more and more into the life of Louisville. 
He was a member of the Filson Club for promoting in- 
terest in Kentucky history, and of the Conversation 
Club, where he was the bright particular star. His pres- 
ence was sought for almost every public function. He 
became the pride of the city and beloved of all hearts. 

The last of February, 1884, Doctor Broadus delivered 
three lectures before the Newton Theological Institution, 
on " Textual Criticism of the New Testament/' This 
month also the International S. S. Lesson Committee 
met in Montreal. The ice palace and toboggan slide 
interested them. In a later letter Doctor Broadus ex- 
plains the work of the International Committee. He 
took the keenest interest in this work. 

J. A. B. to MR. BOYCE BROADUS : 

FROM PITTSBURG TO COLUMBUS, Nov. 14, 1891 : I have been" 
to New York to meet the International S. S. Lesson Committee, 
and we had two days of very hard work selecting lessons for 1894. 
The committee consists of fifteen members, of all denominations, 
from the United States and Canada. Our lessons are revised by a 
committee in England, and at the next meeting we consider their 
suggestions. But few Episcopalians adopt the lessons, because we 
follow of necessity the order of the Bible books, and thus they are 
not adapted to the Church Year. Our course of lessons has hereto- 
fore run through the Bible in seven years, and this has been done 



REALIZING HIS HOPES ABOUT THE SEMINARY 341 

three times (the last extending through 1893) ; it will next time be 
six years, two and a half in Old Testament, and three and a half in 
New Testament. We give separate optional lessons for Christmas 
Sunday and Easter Sunday, to be used by those who like, and this 
is done by a good many Episcopalians, and by many Lutherans 
and others. One member of the committee is an Episcopal judge, 
from Canada, a very zealous and lovable Christian gentleman. Our 
lessons are widely used wherever English is spoken, including mis- 
sion fields probably studied by ten millions of persons every Sun- 
day. As you have been studying them so long, and I helping to 
select them for fourteen yeais, I thought you would like to know 
something about the way they are selected. 

In 1872 the First International S. S. Convention for the United 
States and Canada adopted the system of uniform Bible Lessons. 
Bishop Vincent and B. F. Jacobs, of Chicago, divide the honor of 
originally suggesting and working out the plan of uniform lessons. 
These two, with Dr. John Hall, of New York, and Doctor Randolph, 
the secretary, have been reappointed in every successive committee. 

During the early days of June, 1884, the International 
Sunday-school Convention was held in Louisville. Doc- 
tor Broadus was in a sense the host of the Convention 
and made a wonderful speech of welcome. 

At a meeting in Louisville in favor of registration for 
election, Doctor Broadus spoke : 

He was received with much favor by the audience. He said 
American institutions were yet on their trial. The people of Europe 
were saying that the experiment would end disastrously. He was 
in favor of voting. In his community there were too many people 
who do not vote enough, and too many people who voted too much. 
He himself always voted, and always would, if he had to be carried 
to the polls. The institutions of the country lead the lower classes 
into temptation. He could not see how any one could object to 
any law which would only be for the general good. 1 

THE FACULTY OF THE SEMINARY to REV. C. H. SPURGEON. 

LOUISVILLE, KY., June 27, 1884: The undersigned professors in 
the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, beg leave to offer re- 
spectful and hearty congratulations on your fiftieth birthday. We 

1 " Courier-Journal," April 9, 1884. 



342 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

thank God for all that he made you and has by his grace enabled you 
to become and achieve. We rejoice in your great and wonderful 
work as preacher and pastor, and through your Orphanage and your 
Pastor's College ; as also your numerous writings, so sparkling 
with genius, so filled with the spirit of the gospel. Especially we 
delight to think how nobly you have defended and diffused the doc- 
trines of grace ; how in an age so eager for novelty and marked by 
such loosening of belief you have through long years kept the 
English-speaking world for your audience while never turning aside 
from the old-fashioned gospel. 

And now, honored brother, we invoke upon you the continued 
blessings of our covenant God. May your life and health be long 
spared, if it be his will ; may Providence still smile on your varied 
work, and the Holy Spirit richly bless your spoken and written mes- 
sages to mankind. 

This year he supplied the Washington Avenue Church, 
Brooklyn, from June until September. 

J. A. B. to J. P. BOYCE : 

ASBURY PARK, N. J., June 8th, 1884 : I fear the papers will tell 
of my misfortune on Sunday, fainting and falling after five minutes 
of preaching. The people were exceedingly kind. I had a high 
malarial fever, but thought I could pull through a short sermon. 

I am already feeling much better, though a trifle dazed to-day 
with quinine, and hope to be well soon. 

G. W. RIGGAN to J. A. B. : 

DUCKERS, KY., July n, 1884 : I was very sorry to see in the 
papers that you were taken sick last Sunday while preaching. I 
hope you have continued to improve and are now quite restored. I 
know how difficult it is for you to rest in the midst of weighty re- 
sponsibilities resting upon you, but there are thousands of people 
who would join with me in urging you to consult your health above 
everything else. 

The first week in August, between the Sundays in 
Brooklyn, Doctor Broadus delivered a series of lectures 
on the "New Testament " at Granville, Ohio, before a 
summer assembly at the Denison University. At this 
time Prof. Flinders Petrie wrote from London, asking 



REALIZING HIS HOPES ABOUT THE SEMINARY 343 

that he allow himself to be elected a member of the 
Victoria Institute Philosophical Society. In the fall Doc- 
tor Broadus was the stated supply of the First Church, 
Indianapolis. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

ASBURY PARK, Sept. 6, 1884 : Mrs. Eddy said she had been filled 
with admiration of your noble patience and cheerfulness while you 
were here. So you see another sensible person thinks as I do about 
it. Everything in the room reminds me of you. The hinge I broke 
on the window-blind remains unmended. I have brought in the big 
old rocking-chair from the porch. If you were here I should be very 
happy. And notwithstanding all these long separations, and our 
many and sore trials, I am constantly cheered and supported by the 
sense of companionship with one I love so well and admire so 
warmly. I do not know whether we shall ever be at the Magnolia 
together again, but I pray that we may have a good many years to- 
gether still in earthly life, and that we and ours may reach the life 
eternal. 

J. A. B. toJ. H. COGHILL: 

LOUISVILLE, KY., Oct. 8, 1884 : I have read as yet only a part 
of Drummond's "Natural Law in the Spiritual World." I have 
long thought that we must recognize the reign of law in the mental 
and spiritual as well as in the physical sphere. Drummond seems 
to me to jump too far with his theory, but his work will lead to 
valuable inquiry and reflection. 

The opening lecture before the Seminary this fall was 
given by Doctor Broadus and the theme was " English 
Hymns of the Nineteenth Century." During 1885 Doc- 
tor Broadus wrote critical notes on "John's Gospel" 
for the " Sunday School Times." Churches in Boston, 
New York, Brooklyn, Providence, Indianapolis, Chicago, 
Cincinnati now clamored for his services as summer sup- 
ply. His hands were never more full, for the " Com- 
mentary on Matthew" was nearing completion and he 
was also writing notes in textual criticism for Doctor 
Hovey's " Commentary on John," 



344 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

B. B. WARFIELD to J. A. B. : 

ALLEGHANY, PA., Feb. 4, 1886 : I have read with great interest 
the notes on readings [Hovey on 6< John "] which you have contrib- 
uted to the book, and of course, I may add, with much instruction 
I find myself in substantial agreement with you in most of the con< 
elusions to which you have come. , . I may venture to say that 1 
disagree with your opinion that B has " Western " and " Alex- 
andrian" elements m the Gospels. I also suspect that the weight 
laid on ** transcnptional evidence " may occasionally mislead ; no 
form of evidence, in my judgment, is more often capable of being in- 
terpreted both ways. I am compelled to admit, however, that in 
your hands it appears a powerful and safe instrument 

J. A. B. to MISS E. T. B. : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., Mar. 25, 1885 : I am much obliged to Doctor 
Thomas for suggesting that you might study Coptic. I have been 
bothered and lonesome in studying it myself the last few years, with 
no one to sympathize. Perhaps it would be a good plan when you 
come home for you to take it up and be company for me. 

It cheers rne, my dear little woman, to think of you as having so 
much enjoyment among such delightful friends. I hope you'll get 
strong and rosy. Give my love to all the family. 

MISS E. T. B. to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., April 22, 1885 : Doctor Thomas saw the notice 
of Doctor Riggan's death in the " Despatch " on yesterday. It will 
be very hard on you and Doctor Manly, I am afraid, to have so much 
extra work to do, and especially as you are in such poor health now, 
and trying so hard to finish the " Commentary. " And mamma's 
not there either, to keep you from working too hard. How I wish I 
could see you, my dear papa ! Don't you think I will be nearly big 
enough to write for you by the time I get home? I am thirteen 
years and nearly four days old now. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., April 20, 1885 : The funeral [of Doctor Rig, 
gan] occurred at twelve o'clock. Considerable audience for that 
hour. The sermon was very flat, but not utterly bad. It was the 
best I could do without keeping myself in a great strain for forty- 
eight hours, and that I carefully avoided. I feel somewhat tired this 
afternoon, but not sick. We have to consider how to fill the vacancy 



REALIZING HIS HOPES ABOUT THE SEMINARY 345 

for next session. For the rest of this session I am already doing the 
work. . . 

A good many from Forks of Elkhorn came down. I am to go up 
Saturday afternoon, and take part m a memorial meeting there next 
Sunday. I shall give the same discourse, and the trip will rather 
help me. 

The discourse at the funeral of Doctor Riggan made a 
profound impression and many remembered it as one of 
the most wonderful experiences of their lives. It was 
published in tract form at the request of the faculty and 
is contained in " Sermons and Addresses." 

W. W. LANDRUM to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., April 30, 1885 : Our pastors' conference was 
stunned by the announcement of the death of Professor Riggan. All 
Richmond deplores his loss. Indeed, it does not appear to some of 
us where in the South his successor is to be found. Though I knew 
him only slightly, relying upon the testimony of our competent 
judges, I must presume he was a remarkable student and teacher 
for his years. Assured, as I am, that the Seminary is of God and 
for God, I have no fear as to its ever- increasing influence and power. 
And you will let me say, my dear doctor, that, so far as I am able, 
I will seek to reproduce in my life and labors the example, as to creed 
and conduct, set me by yourself while I was a student there. 

W. J. GUSHING to J. A. B. : 

PROVIDENCE, R. I., April 25, 1885 : In conversation recently with 
Doctor Guild, librarian of Brown University, upon the subject of 
the " Education of the Negro in the South," he said that among the 
ablest and most interesting essays upon that subject he should place 
the essay written by you that appeared a year or a year and a half 
ago in the " Chicago Standard." I take the liberty, at his sug- 
gestion, of writing to you to ask if those essays have ever been 
published in pamphlet form? 1 

1 Some years later Doctor Broadus, at the request of President C. K Adams, 
wrote an elaborate article on " The Negro" for the Johnson's "Cyclopedia," which 
failed to appear, however, by some oversight in the office. In this article he had 
amplified his theory of the three original types of the Negro, the brown with regu- 
lar features, the black with regular features and thin lips, and the Guinea Negro 
with flat nose and thick lips. 



346 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

In May, 1885, Rev. John R. Sampey, of Alabama, was 
elected assistant instructor in Old and New Testament 
Interpretation and Homiletics, thus doing the work pre- 
viously performed by Doctor Riggan, and aiding both 
Doctors Manly and Broadus. 

J. A. B. to BASIL MANLY : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., July 2, 1885 : I am convinced that a professor 
who is growing old must take very great pains to freshen up his in- 
struction, examine the new books, lecture on new topics, etc., or the 
students will begin to make the always damaging comparison with 
his former self. 

Doctor Broadus remained in Louisville this summer 
hoping to push the " Commentary on Matthew " through 
and did little preaching, save for the First Church of In- 
dianapolis in June. In the July " Homiletic Review" 
he had a notable article on "Pulpit Power," while in 
the October " Baptist Quarterly " he advocated the 
" Elective System for Theological Seminaries." 

H. H. HARRIS to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., Sept. i, 1885 : Yours of the 25th misses some- 
what the point of my discovery (?) with regard to the healing near 
Jericho. It did not touch the variance between Matthew and Mark, 
as to two or one, but between these and Luke, as to the place. 

The suggestion occurred about as follows : We had spent the night 
near old Jericho, identified by its rums and fountain, and thence going 
" up to Jerusalem " had to ride southward a mile or two, " enter and 
pass through " the ruins of a Roman city, commonly called " Herod's 
Jericho," and then turn eastward up the Wady Kelt or Brook Cherith. 
My most congenial and helpful companion was a Presbyterian from 
Pennsylvania, Rev. Mr. Taylor, and as usual he and I were riding 
side by side. About half-way between the old city and the remains 
of Herod's city, he called my attention to a bank on the roadside, 
remarking : " Just about there I should imagine Bartimeus sat." 
At once it flashed upon me that the two sites both called Jericho 
offered a plausible reconciliation of the variance as to the place, a 
view which Mr. Taylor had not taken and did not seem much in- 
terested in when I suggested it. I have worked it out somehow 



REALIZING HIS HOPES ABOUT THE SEMINARY 347 

thus : Suppose Jesus spent a night, as he would likely do, in the city 
of his foremother Rahab, and that Zaccheus had his office in the 
Roman town with his residence in the west end ; now to locate the 
healing at or near the place suggested a most likely spot for a beg- 
gar on the highway between two towns. Matthew and Mark, as 
Jews, speak of it as when " he went out from Jericho," /. *., the old 
city, but Luke, a Gentile and writing to a Gentile, says, " as he drew 
near unto Jericho," '. e., the Roman town, and going on to tell 
about meeting Zaccheus adds, " he entered and was passing through 
Jericho." 

My notion, a mere conceit, is that Zaccheus lived "up town," 
that the morning was well advance&and our Lord stopped with him 
during the sultry noon hours, the publican's house serving, more- 
over, to rid him of the crowd, and that in the afternoon he went 
quietly, almost secretly, with the Twelve up to Bethany. 

I hardly need to add, that I had not seen the suggestion which you 
refer to as quoted by Farrar from Macknight. 

J. A. B. to J. H. COGHILL : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., Sept. 29, 1885 : I have spent the summer at 
home, working hard at a commentary on Matthew, which has been 
long on hand, and which I hope now to finish by next summer. My 
health has been reasonably good. But my wife suffered a very 
painful accident, September twelfth. She was knocked down at a 
street crossing by a trotting horse and broke a limb, the neck of the 
thigh bone, which is hard to cure perfectly. She is doing quite as 
well now as we could expect, and I am confident she will be up again 
after many weeks of further weariness and discomfort. Whether 
she will regain the full use of the limb, is more doubtful. This is a 
great affliction to us, which I describe because I know so cherished a 
friend will sympathize. 

THOMAS ARMITAGE to J. A. B. : 

NEW YORK, Nov. 18, 1885: Some time since you promised to 
send me your photograph, but have forgotten to do so. Will you 
have the kindness to forward me one, of the same sort that you gave 
to Mrs. John Rockefeller, by the return mail? She would lend me 
hers for the use of the engraver, but it is in Cleveland. It would be 
a favor to receive it this week, as its immediate use is needed. 1 

1 Doctor Armitage did not simply put Doctor Broadus's picture in his " History of 
the Baptists/' but he had it stamped on the front cover as the representative Baptist 



348 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. ROADUS 

On Dec. 13 Doctor Broadus preached the dedication 
sermon for the Third Church, St. Louis. The Seminary 
was still without buildings, renting hotel and lecture 
rooms in the city. But the time was now ripe for an 
effort in this direction. Doctor Broadus went to New 
York to secure funds and the spacious dormitory build- 
ing, New York Hall, was the outcome. 

J, P, BOYCE to J. A. B. : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., July 20, 1885: I confess I get sick at heart 
when 1 see brethren so perfectly indifferent to the position in which 
they leave me. I am like a man sinking in a quagmire or quicksand 
and seeing others to whom he cries for help walking off quietly to 
eat their supper. 

J. A. B. to S. S. B. : 

NEW YORK, March 16, 1886 : He [Mr. R ] is a very noble man, 

of wonderful insight into character, and a marvel of mild persever- 
ance in carrying through what he undertakes. 

I came to the Orange welcome service for J. T. Dickinson, preached 
in New York Sunday, and am spending my nights at Doctor Hawes'. 
I wanted to see whether anything could be done here for our needed 
building, and have the promise of a good sum, but the remaining 
third of the requisite amount will be very, very hard to get. I shall 
probably be here till Monday. . . 

Mr. R has been having me lunch with him at the grand new 

building every day, and gives me a room and a desk when I please. 

J. A. B. to J. P. BOYCE : 

NEW YORK, March 15, 1886 : Suppose I ask you to telegraph me 
here that you have paid, or have the money to pay, all that remains 
due on the lot ; can't you do it? 

This was twenty thousand dollars yet owing on the 
lot which the friends in Louisville pledged themselves to 
procure. 

BASIL MANLY to J. A. B. : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., March 19, 1886: We have been greatly stirred 
and gladdened by your telegrams and have hoped and prayed for 



REALIZING HIS HOPES ABOUT THE SEMINARY 349 

your successs, with sincere gratitude to God, and also to the kind 
brethren whom the Lord has raised up for our help. 

I made urgent appeals. . . but I did not get a dollar. . . However, 
Boyce worked it through, as he has telegraphed you. But he is in 
bed still, lame with his exertions, but cheerful and bright. 

J. A. BOSTWICK to J. A. B. : 

NEW YORK, April 4, 1886: Your favor of thirtieth ult, is re- 
ceived and am much pleased to hear you were successful in securing 
the sixty thousand dollars. My subscription of sixteen thousand 
five hundred dollars I will pay whenever you desire it. I am very 
much obliged for your kindly expressions and hope you may be 
spared to see the building completed and the good work continue for 
many years to come. 

MRS. HELEN M. GRADY to J, A. B. : 

BALTIMORE, MD., April 7, 1886 : May I add my heartfelt rejoic- 
ing over the blessing attending your efforts in New York and those 
of Doctor Boyce in Louisville. 

Surely this is a first fruit of the great blessing in store for our 
loved Seminary. We of little means but praying hearts can take 
courage. His promises are very sure. I noticed recently the news 
of the conversion of your youngest son [Boyce]. No one but a 
parent can know what grateful emotions the early calling of the little 
ones affords. 

JOSEPH E. BROWN to J. A. B. : 

ATLANTA, GA., Aug. 28, 1886 : I thank you for your kind letter 
of twenty-fourth inst, which I have received. I am very glad the 
donation l which I was able to make, came, as you seem to think, in 
a good time, and aided in carrying out a cherished plan for the con- 
struction of the buildings, part of which it was feared you might 
have to abandon. 

I feel very anxious to see the Seminaiy firmly established in its 
own quarters, where it may be regarded as in perfectly safe con- 
dition, and I trust you will soon be beyond the reach of further doubt 
on that point 

J. M. FROST to J. A. B. : 
SELMA, ALA., July 9, 1886 : I send you, as requested, copies of 

* Five thousand dollars. 



350 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

your tract [on Infant Baptism], and will gladly supply you all you 
wish, of course, free. I have published five thousand of them and 
one of the members " paid the bill." What of them are sold will 
only serve to create a revenue for my tract fund, which I am going 
to try to make a real power. Your sermon l is much talked of ; it 
dropped into my life a great power and joy. Have sent your address 
on the Confederate dead 2 to the " Montgomery Advertiser." I 
showed it to several gentlemen of prominence, who were men in those 
terrible days ; all speak well of it. 

ALVAH HOVEY to J. A. B. : 

NEWTON CENTER, July 25, iSS6 ; Your last bundle of MS. 
reached me safely and I am enjoying a careful perusal of it. No 
doubt it will prove to be the Commentary of the whole series. Had I 
read it before writing mine, I could have improved the style and sub- 
stance of my work in several particulars. I shall hope to see you 
for a few hours at least while you are in Boston. 8 

J. A. B. to MISS A. V. B. : 

YONKERS, N. Y., July 28, 1886: To-day has been beautiful. I 
walked out of town and away up the river, two miles, and rested 
long in a stone quarry, protected from the sun by the perpendicular 
rock, reclining on ledges, and watching the Hudson, fifty yards 
away. A pretty little excursion steamer passed up, near shore, with 
flags flying, and lively music. A little sail boat passed down, with 
white hull and black bulwarks, and one small sail. A minute tug 
puffed and struggled, followed at a distance by a tow of sluggish 
barges, laden with timber. A huge steamer, long heard behind a 
fringe of trees, with great, deep sighs as if it felt the guilt of all the 
world's sins, came at length into view, and passed in majesty and 
innocence. Meant me the railway trains shot by in either direction, 
below the bluff, screaming and rocking. And over all rested the 
calm of a perfect summer morning. A pretty little yellow bird, with 
black wings, sat down on a rock near me, and when I moved a lit- 
tle to see it better, flew away. At intervals, I read in a magazine, 
with languid interest, always ready to look up if anything passed. 
After an hour or more I rose, climbed down the bluff to the railway, 
and walked back along the track. At last the dream of weary 
months had come true I had been resting. 

1 At Howard College and Judson Institute. 

2 At Cave Hill Cemetery, Louisville, May 22, 1886 See " Sermons and Addresses." 
8 First Church last three Sundays in August. He was in Yonkers, N. Y., and 

Emmamial Church, Brooklyn, in July and August 



REALIZING HIS HOPES ABOUT THE SEMINARY 351 

Mr. James Colby Colgate returned last evening from Chicago, 
He is a graduate of Madison University, at Hamilton, where I saw 
him once, and is studying law. 

J. A. B. to MISS E. T. B. : 

YONKERS, N. Y., July 29, 1886: At dinner, besides Doctor 

Peaselee, was a Mr. F , from New York, who quotes Holmes 

and Lowell. After dinner, m the pavilion near the river, Mr. Col- 
gate told me much about the silver question. In my room I spent one 
and a half hours examining the Pomdexter l papers, and found, as I 
feared, that I shall have great difficulty in getting facts and dates. 
Mrs, V could have told me several things. 

This morning I climbed the hill and walked along the summit 
road, past many grand abodes, including Graystone, the summer 
home of Mr. Tiiden, Get Uncle Charley to tell you all about Mr. 
Tilden, who was elected president, and never served. He is a man 
of great wealth, now so palsied that his signature to a check is 
hardly legible, and his voice reduced for several years past to so 
faint a hoaise whisper that only intimates can understand him at all. 
Yet the greatest Democratic statesmen came to Gramercy Park or to 
Graystone to learn his opinion of current political questions, and 
are proud to tell it in Washington. 

A little beyond his gate I lay under a tree and read the letters from 
home, handed me just as I was starting. After resting I went on and 
passed down a rustic road through wild woods towards the river, 
and near where I sat yesterday I found a better seat under a tree, 
and read (at Miss J 's request) " Doctor Claudius" by the au- 
thor of " Mr. Isaacs." 

At lunch we had Mrs. Colgate Hoyt, near neighbor, her husband, 
son of Mr. Hoyt, of Cleveland, whom your mother will remember 
herself daughter of Judge Sherman, of Cleveland, and niece of the 
general and the senator. With her was her sister, Mrs. General 
Miles, whose husband is the great Indian fighter. There was also 

Mrs. B , of New York, a stout and strong-looking lady. I heard 

her advising Mrs. Miles to try the Virginia mountains, saying that 
she was there a day or two last week, and then I remembered that 
she was on our car and got off at the White Sulphur. She is one of 
the ladies that go about very much, and know many people. 

1 Nov. 13, 1886, at Staunton, Doctor Broadus delivered an address on A. M, Poin- 
dexter, before the Virginia Baptist Historical Society. See " Sermons and Ad- 
dresses." 



LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

President Eliot requested Doctor Broadus's presence 
at the 250th Anniversary of Harvard, March 6-8, that 
the University might confer upon him the degree of Doc- 
tor of Divinity. The New York Chautauqua was re- 
questing his services also. Demands pressed upon him 
from every side. On Sept. 12 he preached the dedica- 
tion sermon for the First Church, Lynchburg, Va. 

H. S. BURRAGE to J. A. B. : 

PORTLAND, ME., Oct. 28, 1886 : Your syllabus reached me to- 
day and I am grateful to you for the help it will afford me. You 
mention several hymn books I have not seen. Doctor Wmkler's 
"Sacred Lute"; A. B. Gates"* Baptist Songs"; Sidney Dyer's 
"Zion's Harp"; J. M. D. Gates' " Songs of Zion and Sacred 
Harp" ; Dr. W. G. Buck's " Baptist Hymn Book" ; and Mercer's 
" Chorister." I have never seen a Watts and Rippon. . . 

You mention the fact that Rev. S. P. Tregelles in his later years 
joined a mixed membership Baptist church. Was he a Baptist and 
so entitled to a place in my work ? . . 

Again let me thank you for the syllabus. 1 It will be exceedingly 
helpful to me in its suggestions. I am glad to know that in one of 
our Seminaries work of this kind is done. 

On Sept. 27 Doctor Broadus published an article in 
the " Courier- Journal " which greatly helped to prevent 
a riot and lynching in Louisville. We quote from it. 

SOME EARNEST WORDS AS TO LYNCHING. 

Everybody can see that lynching grows worse and worse. Such 
practices are contagious. Public description of one case suggests 
another, where it might not have been thought of. What in the 
world will all this lead to? As a permanent and growing practice, 
lynching must be destructive of civilization. Is this statement too 
strong? Think a moment and see if it would not be so. 

Now the apology for lynching must be in one of two things : 
Some say that our laws and our courts cannot be relied on to punish 
as outrageous criminals ought to be punished. Others tell us that 
lynching will be more likely to strike terror into brutish criminals 
than the slow and dull processes of law. 

1 " Syllabus on hynmology." 



REALIZING HIS HOPES ABOUT THE SEMINARY 353 

As to this last point, I gravely doubt whether the view is correct. 
Even the lowest of mankind are not brutes. They have some no- 
tions of right and wrong something of what we call conscience. 
If you try to restrain such a man from great crimes only by fear of 
lynching, you excite the brutish elements in him, and do not appeal 
to the human elements. He thinks to himself, that if he gets caught 
he will be lynched, and he rages at the thought, and really considers 
himself as m such a case the innocent party. Besides, he hopes to 
escape. He feels cunning. He thinks some other fellow will be 
caught and lynched. . . Altogether it is a form of punishment that 
does not strike terror, certainly not so much as many seem to imag- 
ine. On the other hand, if law is properly administered, there is 
something about it that appeals to the human in a tempted wretch. 
I was glad to see the " Courier- Journal " the other day expressing a 
similar persuasion. The idea of having all the facts searched out 
and proved against him, having his guilt fully established, and 
then having to wait for weeks, with a knowledge that at last he 
will be hung, there is really something more terrible about this than 
attaches to the prospect of lynching. 

But the greatest trouble is, people say, that the laws are sometimes 
inadequate, that punishment provided is not severe enough, and es- 
pecially, the lawyers can manage to have guilty men escape if there 
is any money m the case. Now there is some ground for this view. 
There has been a tendency, in recent generations, to tone down the 
punishment for the highest offenses, and to sympathize with, or 
pity, a vile criminal as rather unfortunate than guilty. There is a 
sort of sentimentality abroad in regard to criminals, by no means 
universal, but pretty widely diffused. And it cannot be denied that 
some lawyers manage to delay a case until public indignation has 
subsided, and then, perhaps, the guilty man may go free, or may 
encounter only a modified punishment. . . 

Besides the geneial evil of lynching, upon which I will not enlarge, 
there are two special evils appertaining to the practice in our South- 
ern States. I write as a Southern man, having spent my life suc- 
cessively in Virginia, South Carolina, and Kentucky. We Southern 
white people are trying to deal with the most formidable problem 
that civilized mankind ever had to face. Besides a great many 
ignorant and often degraded white people, we have this mighty 
mass of colored people. We must not forget that the Negroes differ 
widely among themselves, having come from different races in 
Africa, and having had very different relations to the white people 
while held in slavery. Many of them are greatly superior to others 

X 



354 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

in character. . . We have to deal with them as best we can, while 
a large number of other white people stand off at a distance and 
scold us. Not a few of our fellow-citizens at the North feel and act very 
nobly about the matter ; but the number is sadly great who do nothing 
and seem to care nothing but to find fault. . . There is a goodly 
number of intelligent Negroes who really take sound and wholesome 
views of the situation. If we continue to tolerate lynching we lead 
these better Negroes to think that we are the enemies of all their 
race. We alienate the better class from the support of justice and 
government and civilization. 

Now, then, I appeal to thoughtful men wherever the " Courier- 
Journal " is read, will you not come out and condemn this business 
of lynching ? Will you not openly discourage and oppose and stop 
it? We can stop it. Is not this our duty? Is it not high time? . . 
I ask intelligent people all over the South to reflect upon the subject, 
to tone up public opinion by their conversation. Men and women, 
the thing is wrong, and getting worse and tending to be ruinous ; I 
pray you, think, speak out, act in such way as you deem wisest. 

I will not apologize for publishing this respectful appeal. As a 
minister of religion, I take no part in the manipulations of party 
politics, though careful to vote at every election, since voting is 
surely one of the highest duties of an American citizen. But this is 
in no sense a question of party politics. It is a question of justice, 
of fundamental right, of essential civilization, of human welfare. 

On Oct. 21 Doctor Broadus was called upon to con- 
duct the funeral of Mr. W. F. Norton, a very generous 
friend of the Seminary. He and his brother, Mr. G. W. 
Norton, were both trustees of the Seminary and were 
faithful and wise friends to the institution. They were 
both men of noble character and active piety, of ear- 
nest convictions and lofty aspirations. All Baptist in- 
terests in Louisville felt the impulse of their practical 
wisdom and liberality. 

C. H. RYLAND to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., Dec, 13, 1886: Pardon me" for saying that it is 
the general impression that your late visit to the General Associa- 
tion gave you, in a peculiarly happy manner, a fresh hold upon Vir- 
ginia Baptists and all your old friends and the brethren. The opin- 



REALIZING HIS HOPES ABOUT THE SEMINARY 355 

ion is that you were at your best and that the Poindexter effort, as a 
portraiture and as a piece of literary work, was not behind the best 
of your life. I don't think there is any harm in saying this. 

J. A. B. to S. S. B. : 

LOUISVILLE Dec. 31, 1886: I had heard about Doctor A 's 

position, and am really very much surprised that so vigorous a 
thinker should go off in that direction. If a man is going to be a 
Christian at all, I think the New Testament will surely make him 
an orthodox Christian. If it does not teach the divinity of Christ, 
I wonder how that could be taught. 

In the fall of 1886 H. M. Wharton & Co., Baltimore, 
published a volume of Doctor Broadus's " Sermons and 
Addresses," which had a wide sale. His reputation as 
a preacher will rest partly on this volume, but chiefly on 
the memory of the wonderful discourses that were never 
recorded and which surpassed in power those in print. 
It seems a pity that so small a collection of sermons 
should remain from his pen. But Doctor Broadus pre- 
ferred immediate power before his audience to permanent 
preservation of the matter. It is impossible to put on 
the printed page the voice, expression, gesture, and 
nerve power that swayed his audiences. Here are two 
estimates of his preaching : 

Doctor Maclaren, as a preacher, in the pulpit, has by no means 
the charm and the power that were the gift and acquirement of Doc- 
tor Broadus. If Doctor Broadus had given himself, with the same 
approach to exclusiveness that Doctor Maclaren has done, to the 
work of the preacher, and if the outward conditions of life in his 
case had equally favored, the result of production in print might 
have been fully comparable, both in quantity and in quality, with 
that of the famous Scotchman. But the brilliancy of immediate 
effect in usefulness and in fame due to mere eloquence in the pulpit, 
would certainly have been far greater for Doctor Broadus. For he 
had, beyond his British compeer, the proper and distinctive oratoric 
endowment. 1 . . 

1 Dr. W. C. Wilkinson in " Seminary Magazine," May, 1895. 



356 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

The theme was thoroughly mastered and his heart was in it ; he 
came quickly into sympathy with his audience, won their attention 
and talked freely, speaking straight to their need ; the thought was 
clear as sunshine ; the words simple, often homely, always apt ; the 
style chaste and vigorous, never betraying any mere straining after 
effect, but graced with such beauty as became the thought ; the de- 
livery was quiet and conversational, with little gesture, and yet there 
was in it a subtle impressiveness and a stiangely contagious inten- 
sity, usually subdued, but sometimes rising to heights of impassioned 
eloquence. There was the warmth and fervor, without the luxuriant 
extravagance, of the South, combined with the matter of fact direct- 
ness and sturdy vigor of the North. He was always interesting, 
instructive, persuasive. His power to play on the emotions of his 
audience was remarkable. But he never did this to amuse ; the 
object of the sermon, from first to last, was to win men for God. He 
"struck for a verdict." The glory of this was that his eloquence 
exalted not the speaker but the truth, and the more you heard him 
the more you felt his power. And so it came to pass that in Louis- 
ville, wherever he preached, the place was thronged, and among all 
the thousands of his brethren he stood without a peer. Not without 
good reason did Dr. W. C. Wilkinson, some years ago, single out 
this teacher as among the foremost preachers of the age. And I have 
seen it stated that Spurgeon himself pronounced him the greatest of 
living preachers. 1 

J. L. M. CURRY to J. A. B. : 

LEGATION OF THE U. S., MADRID, Jan. i, 1887 : I had been re- 
proaching myself for several days for the indelicate presumption of 
sending you a letter about Mr. Thomas, 2 when yesterday, on remov- 
ing a cover from a book 8 1 found your recent volume with a dedica- 
tion to my unworthy self, Mrs. Curry and I were intensely gratified 
at the marked honor and the graceful manner in which the honor 
was done. Such a public and touching recognition of my devoted 
friendship filled my heart with gladness and my eyes with tears. 
May the good God help me to live not unworthily of the association 
of my name with yours ! 

Mrs. Curry, as grateful as I, sends her love and both wish to be 
remembered to all your household. 

1 Prof. J. H, Farmer, In " McMaster University Monthly," for May, 1895* 

2 Doctor Broadus delivered a memorial address on James Thomas> Jr, t at the open- 
ng of the Thomas Museum, Richmond College, Sept xz, 1887. 

8 " Sermons and Addresses." 



REALIZING HIS HOPES ABOUT THE SEMINARY 357 

On Jan. 19 Doctor Broadus preached the dedication 
sermon for the Woodward Avenue Church, Detroit. At 
last the Commentary, begun twenty years ago, had 
come out, and was warmly welcomed. Doctor Thayer 
in " Books and Their Uses," calls it "probably the best 
commentary in English on that Gospel." 

E. C. DARGAN to J. A. B. : 

PETERSBURG, VA., Jan. 24, 1887 : I have waited long and eagerly 
for your " Matthew " ; I hail its advent with unspeakable pleasure. 
My expectations are fully realized, and am immensely delighted 
with it. 

The " Sermons and Addresses " have been carefully and lovingly 
read. I used to think it might be dangerous for your reputation as 
a preacher for you to publish, eye, face, and voice lacking, but the 
actual fact (as is often the case) puts the theory to flight. I thank 
you very much and very heartily for both. 

J. C. LONG to J. A. B. : 

CROZER SEMINARY, CHESTER, PA., Jan. 24, 1887 : I happen 
to know that this is your birthday, and send you hearty congratu- 
lations, and the usual good wishes. But almost everybody can have 
an occasional birthday. It falls to the lot of few of us to write a 
commentary on the " Gospel of Matthew." I was in the city to-day 
and brought your commentary down with me. It was with great 
pleasure that I got hold of it, and I most heartily give you joy in 
being permitted to complete it. Unless I am very much mistaken 
you have done a work which a man might gladly labor twenty 
years to do. So many men who have learning have not common 
sense; and so many who have common sense have not learning. 
Your book shows both learning and common sense, in no ordi- 
nary degree. Among all your friends, hardly one will more sin- 
cerely rejoice in what the Lord has enabled you to do for the ex- 
planation of His word than I do My best regards and heartiest 
congratulations to Mrs. B . 

H. F. COLBY to J. A. B. : 

DAYTON, O., Jan. 24, 1887: My father thought a great deal of 
you and enjoyed your friendship. The statement that his legacy, 
by stereotyping the work [commentary on '* Matthew "] may serve 
to bring it to the hands of a large circle of appreciative readers, is 



358 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

very pleasant to me. I feel sure it would gratify him thus to help 
his friend to a more extensive audience. It would be just like him 
to say, " Come and hear Doctor Broadus." 

J. A. B. to S. S. B. : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., Feb. 5, 1887 : You will probably see or hear 
something about the present to me of a horse on my sixtieth birth- 
day. It was a notion of Doctor Eaton's, and taken hold of with 
great heartiness by many leading citizens, of all persuasions. . . 
I am arranging to get a " combination " horse, for both riding and 
driving, and a vehicle of some kind. The thing was very kindly 
meant and handsomely done, and I shall exert myself to make it a 
means of much gratification and benefit to your mother as well as 
myself. I fancy Master Boyce will be pleased. 

F. D. Hale began a protracted meeting with our church last Mon- 
day night, but was taken sick. This morning they persuaded me 
to undertake preaching every night from Sunday to Friday of the 
coming week. I shall try to drop everything but my lectures, and 
be heedful as to exercise. 

Your mother sends you the " Sunday School Times " regularly, 
and hopes you get it in time for your class. 

A tribute from the students of this session on his birth- 
day, was a saddle and bridle to complete the equipment, 
which was very highly appreciated. 

J. M. FROST to J. A. B. : 

SELMA, ALA., Feb. 14, 1887 : I have just gone through your 
" Sermons and Addresses," published by Wharton & Co. My 
object in writing is not to praise you everybody is doing that in 
print and in private. But I do wish the privilege of sincerely thank- 
ing you for them. They have come into my library as a permanent 
force, into my heart and life as a great joy, I find them good to 
read while preparing for the pulpit, and good to read before preach- 
ing and after, although I see no hope of preaching from any text 
you have used unless I take your sermon. The supreme test of a 
sermon with me, is the effect which it produces upon the spiritual 
nature and in the religious life. Late last Saturday night after lay- 
ing aside my sermon for Sunday morning, " I beseech thee show me 
thy glory," I took down your volume and read the delicious sermon 
on " Ask, and ye shall receive." Seldom have I been so overcome 
by the printed page. I closed the sermon in tears and knelt down 



REALIZING HIS HOPES ABOUT THE SEMINARY 359 

and tried to praythanking God for the sermon and for the author 
of the sermon. And in the loneliness of the hour I prayed, and it 
shall be a frequent prayer of mine, that God will greatly and richly 
bless you in the coming years. 

Whenever I have heard you preach or lecture there has come to 
me, after you had advanced considerably into the discourse, a really 
painful sense that the thing must come to an end directly. Ah me ' 
I begin now to feel that way about your life. Would that we could 
keep some men with us forever ! And yet, perhaps I ought not to 
say that. May God bless you and keep you. 

I will not close without joining Dr. J. C. Long in the wish that 
you may give us another volume. You have other sermons and 
addresses which you should publish, and which would be of lasting 
good after you shall quit us here and go up higher: 

C. H. TOY to J. A. B. : 

CAMBRIDGE, MASS., Feb. 18, 1887: Your notice of Thayer's 
Grimm in the " Nation " will be of service to the book, and Thayer 
thinks that you did " very handsomely " by him. 

T. U. DUDLEY to J. A. B. : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., March 16, 1887 : I can hardly tell you how 
pleased I was, on my arrival at home yesterday to receive your book, 
and the assurance of your cordial regard. Believe me that I shall 
prize both so long as I live. 

And you will not think strange that I add that your dedication l 
to the grand old man, your master and mine, gave me a thrill of 
delight. 

May God prosper your effort and the effort of every honest Chris- 
tian man, to make better known his precious word. 

MRS. C. C. BISHOP to J. A. B. : 

MORRISTOWN, N. J., March 22, 1887 : I am glad to hear that 
Mrs. Broadus is so far recovered and that you are in ordinary health, 
after such a busy winter, and now preaching so constantly. But I 
know how you love to preach the gospel ; so, it does not tire you as 
much as an equal amount of some other kinds of work would. 
Well, I certainly congratulate those Presbyterians 2 and would be 

1 Doctor Broadus dedicated the " Commentary on [Matthew," to the memory of 
Gessner Harrison. 

2 Doctor Broadus supplied the College Street Presbyterian Church, Louisville, for 
three months. 



360 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

most happy if I could look in upon them, and enjoy some of their 
privileges. 

PHILIP SCHAFF to J. A. B. : 

NEW YORK, March 24, 1887 : I beg leave to ask you whether you 
would not like to assume the revision of the Oxford translation of 
"St. Chrysostom's Homilies on Philippians, Colossians, and Thes- 
salonians " for " Nicene Library " which I am editing. These Epp. 
form a volume of five hundred and thirty-eight pages of the Oxford 
Library of the Fathers. The translation is good, but I would like to 
have some explanatory and critical footnotes and to bring the ven- 
erable father into contact with modern exegesis. 

After this work was completed we read : 

PHILIP SCHAFF to J. A. B. : 

NEW YORK, July 16, 1889 : I read your letter of July twelfth and 
your preface with great satisfaction. Your preface is very impor- 
tant, and I suggest that it be printed (immediately after a big preface 
of mine on the whole volume) as a separate preliminary essay on 
Chrysostom as a Homilist and Exegete, and on the critical restora- 
tion of the text. 

J. C. HIDEN to J. A. B. : 

NEW BEDFORD, MASS., Mar. 29, 1887: As to the "Commen- 
tary.* 7 It came soon after your letter, and I am doing you the honor, 
and myself the pleasure, of reading it regularly through, a compli- 
ment that only Ellicott ever got out of me before, Macaulay said 
that Sam Johnson wrote the first readable English Dictionary. I 
need not apply the remark. 1 

GROSS ALEXANDER to J. A. B. : 

NASHVILLE, April 5, 1887 : I must beg in the outset, however, to 
correct one error into which you have fallen. When you say a 
"very small fraction " of what I am is due to you, you miss the 
mark by a very large fraction. You taught me Greek not as the 
scribes, referring to what others think and say, but as one having 
authority, and I never got the hang of it till I came under your in- 
struction. Do not understand me to say that I know anything. . . 

At any rate I think it is safe for me and due to you to say that 

1 Doctor Hiden wrote elaborate and discriminating: reviews of all of Doctor 
Broadus's works for the " Religious Herald " 



REALIZING HIS HOPES ABOUT THE SEMINARY 361 

the knowledge I have of Greek and the position I hold as teacher of 
Greek are to be credited to you more than to any one else. 

On April 17 Doctor Broadus preached the dedication 
sermon for the Emmanuel Church, Brooklyn. 

In May, 1887, at the meeting of the trustees at the 
Convention in Louisville, Mr. Sampey was promoted to 
the position of assistant professor of Old and New Tes- 
tament Interpretation and Homiletics, and Dr. F. H. 
Kerfoot was elected as co-professor of Systematic The- 
ology to relieve Doctor Boyce, whose health began to 
show signs of failing, so as to give him a chance for 
travel and rest. 

On May 25 he preached the sermon at the American 
Baptist Publication Society's yearly anniversary, held 
in Minneapolis, on the " Permanent and Paramount 
Authority of the Bible." The sermon was published in 
tract form and had a very large circulation. Another tract 
that appeared this year from Doctor Broadus was on the 
subject: "Should Women Speak in Mixed Public As- 
semblies?" in which he argued against this prevalent 
practice. Perhaps the most remarkable address he ever 
delivered was that on "Demosthenes" at Richmond 
College (June 18, 1879), an d repeated by request at 
Georgetown College (June 7, 1887). Other popular 
lectures often delivered by Doctor Broadus were "The 
Roman World in the Time of Christ," " On Female Ac- 
complishments," and " Glimpses of Great Men I Have 
Met." Doctor Broadus's summer was spent largely 
in Louisville supplying the Walnut Street Church, with 
visits to the Second Church, St. Louis, lectures at Ot- 
tawa, Kansas, and Northfield, Mass., and the New York 
Chautauqua. The St. Louis Church endeavored to se- 
cure him as pastor, but he was not to be spared from his 
devotion to the Seminary. "I am satisfied," he said, 



362 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

"that in the probable remainder of my life I can do most 
good by remaining in my present position. " 

MISS ANNIE W. ARMSTRONG to J. A. B. : 

BALTIMORE, MD., June 30, 1887: Now, with your learning 
which has made you consent to be simple, concise, clear, and direct, 
and with a sympathy that puts you at once in accord with the child 
mind and its perversities, would it not be a happy and lasting sup- 
plement to your many Sunday-school contributions to provide the 
41 Baptist Catechism " ? I am sure you will consider it. 

J. A. B. to MISS E. S. B. : 

NORTHFIELD, MASS., June 30, 1887 : To-night Prof Drummond 
and I are to make opening addresses, of a general character. To- 
morrow at ten I begin with " Interbiblical History." 

I have just dined at Mr. Moody' s house (near his birthplace), in 
company with his guests, Prof. Drummond and Mr. and Mrs. 

Oates of Glasgow all thoroughly English. Mr. D is tall and 

slender, with thin face and light side whiskers, and talks mthout ah 
ah ah. Two students from Cambridge, England, Mr. MacFee, 
and Mr. MacGregor (Scotch and Scotch-Irish), have the English 
drawl. Mrs. Moody is a very quiet, unpretending lady, of easy 
manners and agreeable appearance. 

W. R. HARPER to J. A. B. : 

NEW HAVEN, CONN., Sept. 23, 1887 : I am pleased to know that 
you are interested in the work which the "Student" has under- 
taken, viz : that of pushing the study of the English Bible in the 
colleges and theological seminaries. I have often thought of the 
pioneer work which you in your Seminary have done in this direc- 
tion. I have never been able to explain to myself why other semi- 
naries have not followed in your train. 

A movement came to establish a great university in 
New York City and tremendous pressure was brought to 
bear upon Doctor Broadus to go into it in any position 
he wished. It was a tempting proposal, but again he ad- 
hered to his work. " This one thing I do," 

J. B. SIMMONS to J. A. B. : 
NEW YORK, Nov. 16, 1887 : A few weeks ago when I purchased 



REALIZING HIS HOPES ABOUT THE SEMINARY 363 

your delightful " Commentary on Matthew," I made all haste to 
turn to Matt. 6 : 25-34, that I might see how you treated the sin of 
anxiety. And I write to say that in my judgment your treatment of 
that subject, will, as the years come and go, save the lives and pro- 
long the useful labors of hundreds, perhaps thousands, of God's 
most conscientious and faithful ministers. Nowhere, absolutely no- 
where, have I ever found so good an exposition of that lemarkable 
passage of Scripture. How many break down and go to early 
graves for the lack of obeying Jesus Christ in that matter of trust- 
ing and not worrying ! I think I might have been spared three 
periods of sickness, one of which brought me to the brink of the 
grave, had 1 possessed and heeded your teachings on that subject 
at the outset of my career as a minister. 

And I do earnestly hope that you will see to it, in revising the 
Bible Union " Testament," l that the word anxious is used six times 
in rendering those verses, as it is in the Canterbury ; and if the 
Greek warrants you in doing so, put it in a seventh time. 

In December Doctor Broadus had a round of lecturing 
and preaching at Boston, Yale, and Rochester. 

H. CLAY TRUMBULL to J. A. B. : 
PHILADELPHIA, PA., Jan. 2, 1888 : Your work at Northfield was, 

I am sure, a blessed work. Only yesterday my young friend S , 

of Princeton, was speaking of your wise and earnest words. They 
made a deep impression on his rnind. Your sermon on " Consecra- 
tion," I think, affected his life for good. And from what I have 
heard from others, I am sure your labors there were greatly blessed. 

J. E. COOK to J. A. B. : 

ST. LOUIS, Jan. 2, 1888 : I suppose the New Year gives me lib- 
erty to say, what I have often wished to say, that I thank you and 
shall thank you through life, for the good you have done me. The 
effect is not large enough to attract your attention ; but it is great to 
me and commands my deepest gratitude. 

I often think of what you told us the last time in homiletics, and 
I do try each time to preach my very best, not only for my Master's 
sake, but for the sake of my teacher. 

I hope he may be spared many years of usefulness to the ministry 
of to-day, and of thirty years hence. I love my teachers at the 
Seminary and I pray for a long life for each one of them, 

1 Revised by Doctors Hovey, Broadus, and Weston. 



364 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

Doctor Broadus was asked to write on " The Christian 
Pastor" for the International Theological Library, He 
was also requested to attend the World's Missionary 
Conference, in London, as a delegate at large from the 
United States. 

1 J. A. B. to J. H. COGHILL : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., Man 24, 1888 : I am just beginning to work 
after a spell of fever. I received the book [Amiel's "Journal"] 
you kindly sent with great pleasure, and have read the greater part 
of it, intending to complete it soon. It is a book of extraordinary in- 
terest and suggestiveness to thoughtful religious readers, often re- 
minding one of Pascal's "Thoughts." I think that Amiel was so 
involved in the whirl of mingled belief and doubt which is common 
in our age, that some of his detached expressions might be in them- 
selves misleading, and require to be carefully weighed, while yet the 
general tone of his work is in a very high degree helpful to religious 
thought and life. 

Doctor Broadus during May and June supplied the Fifth 
Avenue Baptist Church, of New York. 

J. A. B. to MISS E. T. B. : 

NEW YORK, May 12, 1888 : I had previously accepted an invita- 
tion from R L. Harrison to attend the New York Southern Society. 
. . . About two hundred gentlemen were present, in a hall. Enter- 
ing a little late,-and taking the nearest chair, I saw by me a tall, 
bald, and white mustached man, and across the hall came quite en- 
thusiastically to greet me, a fat, bald, and also white mustached man 
and we three entered the University the same year. The second 
was Colonel Snead from Richmond, and a fine fellow. The other 
was Colonel Paul, of Petersburg. . . Snead took me in to the colla- 
tion, and I called him " Tom," till at length he said " John." Be- 
fore the collation, Col. R. M. Johnston, of Georgia, author of the 
" Dukesborough Tales," made a brief address, and read two scenes 
from a new story of the same sort, which seems very fine, and was 
quite well read Then a couple of short poems were read by Robert 
Burns Wilson, of Kentucky. The president of the society is Frank 
Rives, Esq., whose son recently became Assistant Secretary of State. 
He says that my friend, Colonel Alfred (Miss Amelie's father) was 
recently here, and that he has had good health in Panama. . . 



REALIZING HIS HOPES ABOUT THE SEMINARY 365 

A number of old friends and various new acquaintances all 
Southerners. Virginms Dabney was a comfort, as he had forgotten 
me. Judge Robertson, of Charlottesville was here on business. 
Judge Somebody from Louisiana said he was a student when I was 
chaplain, and made excessively flattering remarks. Logan C. Mur- 
ray, who came from Louisville, was very friendly, as he always is. 
Altogether, the evening was a great pleasure to me. 

In July Doctor Broadus was again at Northfield lec- 
turing on the Bible to the students gathered around Mr. 
Moody. A visitor to Northfield the succeeding summer 
was told that no one had ever made such an impression 
at Northfield as Doctor Broadus had done. Mr. Moody 
himself, in his great meeting at Louisville in the winter 
of 1887-1888, bore public testimony to Doctor Broadus's 
power at Northfield. Doctor Broadus greatly enjoyed 
having his family with him for a tour in New England 
and for the stay at Northfield and Chautauqua. The 
work at Northfield was followed by a series of twelve 
lectures on the Bible at Chautauqua (N. Y.), where he 
created similar enthusiasm. August and part of Septem- 
ber were given to supplying the Calvary Church, Wash- 
ington. What a tide of toil the years were bringing to 
Doctor Broadus now ! He was preaching as much as 
many pastors, teaching more than most teachers, writ- 
ing articles and books. He was in the full prime of his 
life-work. 

Boyce and Broadus had not toiled in vain. The Sem- 
inary had a home at last. New York Hall was nearing 
completion. A considerable endowment was secured. 
Students were flocking in great numbers. In May, 
1888, Mr. A. T. Robertson had been made assistant in- 
structor in New Testament Interpretation and Homiletics 
to relieve the strain on Doctor Broadus and Professor 
Sampey, who was now relieved of New Testament work 
entirely. 



366 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

And now, for the first time in thirty years, Doctor 
Boyce was willing to take his hand from the Seminary. 
He went to Europe in the summer of 1888 with his 
family. At last he could take a vacation. He had firmly 
established the Seminary. 

J. A. B. to J. P. BOYCE : 

LOUISVILLE, Sept. 19, 1888 : I think the enclosed from the " In- 
dependent" is very gratifying. The writer is evidently a man of 
some ability, for he indicates some of the chief real merits of your 
excellent text-book. 1 His praise could scarcely be higher, and yet 
it is nowhere exaggerated or beside the mark. And he examined 
carefully, for he noticed the special attention you pay to recent views 
of the atonement. As to his objections to your Calvinism, they 
only emphasize the commendation in other respects. 

MISS LOUISE LAWSON to J. A. B. : 

NEW YORK, Dec. 27, 1888 : I have not forgotten our talk about 
Cleopatra and her type of beauty, and the color that you gave to the 
temples and skies of Greece. I hope that some day you may tell 
me more of them ; we live happier for such things. 

JOHN RANDOLPH TUCKER to J. A. B. : 

WASHINGTON, Aug. 13, 1888 : Permit me to thank you for your 
instructively interesting sermons of yesterday, to both of which I 
listened with the highest pleasure and, I hope, benefit. 

The art of preaching that conceals art is evident in your case. But 
your preaching finds its chief power in your evident belief of all the 
Gospels, and in your close, critical, and luminous exposition of the 
text. It gave me great satisfaction. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

WASHINGTON, D. C., Aug. 13, 1888: When just leaving the 
hotel I received by mail a note from J. R. Tucker, with very cordial 
commendation of my sermons, and hurriedly placed it in an envel- 
ope to you, thinking it would gratify you, as he is one of the ablest 
men in the country. Waiting here for the local train, my thoughts 
revert to one of his expressions. Of course he alludes to the famous 
saying of Quintihan : " It is the highest art to conceal art." That 
is usually considered a very high compliment, and I have no doubt 

1 Boyce's "Abstract of Systematic Theology." 



REALIZING HIS HOPES ABOUT THE SEMINARY 367 

he meant it so. Yet it may strike you that he and Wilkinson per- 
ceive in my simple style and free and easy delivery a certain artifi- 
ciality. I speak so much, and go over essentially the same trains of 
thought so often, in lecturing and in repeating sermons, that there is 
danger of becoming artificial of saying things as I once felt them, 
but do not altogether feel them now. I wish only to say to you, as 
I value your good opinion much more than that of even Wilkinson 
and Tucker, that if this is true of me, it has aiisen unconsciously. 
Of all things I wish to be genuine, toward God and man. . . 

In the " Homiletic Review" for August and Septem- 
ber occur two articles on Doctor Broadus in a series en- 
titled " Criticisms on Some of the Ablest Representative 
Preachers of the Day. By an eminent Professor of 
Homiletics." The writer was Prof. W. C. Wilkinson, 
now of the University of Chicago. Let some extracts 
from this keen critic of preaching conclude this chapter : 

Every characteristic I have now pointed out as found with Doctor 
Broadus in the teacher of preaching is found also with him, and 
more rather than less, in the preacher. His practice well comports 
with his theory comments and commends it. To the thoughtful 
student of both the theory and piactice of the man, it becomes evi- 
dent that in Doctor Broadus 7 s case the practice preceded theory. But 
it becomes equally evident that also the theory following reacted, as 
it should do, confirming the practice. . . 

The sermons read in piint and the sermons heard from the pulpit 
make, in Doctor Broadus 1 s case, exactly the same impiession, that 
is to say, exactly the same quality of impression. The quantity of 
impiession is double, more than double, when you hear them. 

What, then, is the impression which they make, analyzed into its 
elements? 

First, I think, and paramount, is a trait which I must call winning- 
ness. This trait, this spirit, penetrates and qualifies everything, 
both in the sermon itself and in the delivery. There is all to attract 
You feel yourself treated by the preacher with exquisite respect, not 
with flattery. It is the respect of a man who respects himself, as he 
also respects you, with nothing of the disagreeable effect of flattery. 
You insensibly respect yourself more, not the self that you are, but 
the self that you ought to be, and that you now begin to feel as il 
you might be. And it te that ideal man possible, rather than the far 



368 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

from ideal man actual in you, that the preacher himself treats with 
such grave, such pathetic respect. I can scarcely imagine a tacit, 
mutual understanding established between speaker and hearer more 
favorable for the proper effect of true preaching than the understand- 
ing immediately and permanently established by Doctor Broadus 
with his audience, whether of the pew or of the press, but especially 
with an audience of the pew. Every personal antagonism that 
might have arisen to hinder the impression of the truth has been un- 
consciously charmed to sleep. . . 

He lays it down as one of his prime advices to the preacher, gain 
the sympathy of your audience. This sentiment finds strong ex- 
pression even in a sermon of Doctor Broadus's. In his admirably 
wise discourse entitled : " Some Laws of Spiritual Work," he says : 
" Everybody who can speak effectively knows that the power of 
speaking depends very largely upon the way it is heard, upon the 
sympathy one succeeds in gaining from those he addresses. If I 
were asked what is the first thing in effective preaching, I should say 
sympathy ; and what is the second thing, I should say sympathy ; 
and what is the third thing, I should say sympathy." . . 

The second thing to be noted in Doctor Broadus's oratory, is its 
Christian spirit. . . You are affected for good by how he teaches, 
quite independently of what he teaches. . . I must illustrate my 
point with example. Doctor Broadus had been making an address, 
very much in the nature of a sermon, on " Reading the Bible by 
Books." At the close questions were asked of the speaker, the 
occasion being such as to allow this familiarity, and he having 
himself expressly invited it. The foliowing question was one of 
those asked : 

Q. " Would you not advise much prayer and communion with God 
in the study of the Bible, in order to a better understanding of it? " 

A. " Oh, assuredly, I should advise prayer and communion with 
God. I ought not to have taken that for granted. I blame myself 
that I did not say that." 

Observe the delicate urbanity of this reply, the meekness of wis- 
dom in it. . . 

The next thing to be noticed in Doctor Broadus's eloquence is 
closely akin to his winningness. It is candor. This is a very 
marked trait of Doctor Broadus's mental and moral character. . . 
This trait is omnipresent, like the kindred trait of winningness, in 
Doctor Broadus's discourse. . . It might almost be pronounced a 
habit of Doctor Broadus, in preparation for presenting in order to 
argue and enforce it, some certain truth or view of truth, to begin by 



REALIZING HIS HOPES ABOUT THE SEMINARY 369 

presenting strongly the truth or view of truth opposed, or apparently 
opposed, and acknowledging fully the weight and value of that. He 
thus wins the great advantage of appearing before his audience m 
the light of one able and willing to see both sides of a question. The 
introduction to his noble sermon entitled, and happily entitled, " Let 
us have peace with God," offers an example of this. The preacher 
is about to preach on justification by faith. He will let his hearers 
understand that he does not regard this doctrine as constituting the 
whole of the gospel. He says : 

" The doctrine of justification by faith is simply one of the ways 
by which the gospel takes hold of men. You do not hear anything of 
that doctrine in the Epistle of John. . . I think sometimes that Mar- 
tin Luther made the world somewhat onesided by his doctrine of jus- 
tification by faiththat the great mass of the Protestant world are 
inclined to suppose there is no other way of looking on the gospel. 
There are very likely some here to-day who would be more impressed 
by John's way of presenting the matter ; but probably the majority 
would be more impressed by Paul's way, and it is our business to 
present now this and now that, to present first one side and then the 
other. So we have before us to-day, Paul's great doctime of justi- 
fication by faith," etc. 

Who does not see that such a manner as that of proposing a sub- 
ject is well adapted to propitiate all classes of hearers? It is so fair, 
so balanced, so candid. You are willing to tiust your stake in the 
truth quite unreservedly in the hands of a man like that. . . 

Moderation of tone, conscientious carefulness of statement, sound 
and vigilant scholarship, are additional, though still kindred, char- 
acteristics of Doctor Broadus's work. He inspires confidence not 
only in his intention, but in his disciplined and equipped ability to 
be fair. Scripture receives not only reverent, but also enlightened 
treatment at his hands. He is a true interpreter of texts, and not a 
mere user ; far less, as many a preacher thoughtlessly is, an abuser 
of them for homiletic purposes. Rarely, indeed, will he be found to 
have assumed the current, conventional reading and understanding 
of a verse or passage of Scripture, without having evidently first 
subjected that verse or passage to independent, scholar-like exam- 
ination of his own for the real truth of its form and meaning. It 
agrees with this spirit and habit on Doctor Broadus's part that, 
though intensely the reverse of obscurantist, he should be, as he is, 
for ** substance of doctrine," found everywhere in cordial and en- 
lightened accord with what, by the general consent of the church in 
all ages, is confessed to be orthodoxy. The so-called ** new theology," 

Y 



370 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

for example, exercises not the slightest real influence to conform 
Doctor Broadus. . . 

This truly reverent spirit toward divine revelation prevails in his 
preaching. It is a perpetual silent rebuke of that license in the han- 
dling of Scripture which some indulge, some even who, in profession 
profoundly obeisant to the word of God, nevertheless in practice often 
wrest the word of God to make it mean whatever at the moment 
may promise to serve some certain purpose of their own, supposed by 
them to be pious. 

It is proper now to remind ourselves that any fair or wise appre- 
ciation of Doctor Broadus' s style in preaching must be appreciation 
of it, regarded as spoken, and not as written style. For Doctor 
Broadus is an extemporary preacher, and these printed sermons of his 
bear, the most of them, inseparable internal marks of remaining still 
very much in the same form of syntax and of rhetoric in which, 
having never been written they originally flowed from the speaker's 
lips. This fact duly considered, the style is remarkably free from 
faults. Faults, however, it has ; and its faults are precisely such as 
extemporization naturally, almost necessarily, engenders. The vir- 
tues of it much more than compensate; and of its virtues too, it 
may be said that they are precisely those peculiar to extemporary 
discoursenaturalness, directness, familiarity, ease. But these vir- 
tues might conceivably exist without the faults which are so apt to 
accompany them. . . 

An occasional negligence is certainly excusable, it is perhaps 
scarcely avoidable, in extemporary discourse ; but Doctor Broadus 
would have been warranted m correcting thoroughly enough not to 
let such appear in the printed volume. What is noticeable, and in 
highest degree commendable, is that the thought with this preacher 
is never negligent, never hasty, never crude. He does not think ex- 
temporanly. . 

Doctor Broadus deals sparingly in quotations from literature, al- 
though wide reading and fine culture on his part are made evident 
enough. . . 

Charm is present everywhere in Doctor Broadus' s discourse ; but 
it is seldom a charm carried to the last, the consummate degree, by 
exquisite rhetorical form. You constantly feel that the orator is too 
intent on what he will say to be quite sufficiently solicitous as to how 
he will say it excepting always, or almost always, that he will say 
it in a manner to have it instantly understood. The supreme mood 
of feeling, will, however, sometimes usurp the man, and nature will 



REALIZING HIS HOPES ABOUT THE SEMINARY 371 

then snatch a grace in expression beyond the reach of artas wit- 
ness the pathos and honesty of the following passage from a me- 
morial discourse on a young colleague of the speaker's, fallen from 
his side in the faculty of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 
Louisville, Ky : 

" Eight years ago we buried with the deepest sense of loss our oldest 
professor, who had been with us from the beginning. What a shock, 
that the next to pass away should be our youngest ! We cannot 
but feel like parents grown gray when called to bury a son in all his 
youthful prime. It is a mournful experience. God help us. And 
can I more say? Three years ago the orange blossom, and now 
these flowers, that vainly essay to smile upon a scene too full of 
sadness. O pitying heavens, drop down the dews of your consola- 
tion ; O pitying angels, doubtless ye care, but ye know not, O 
angels, the sweet, sweet human love, the bitter, bitter human 
sorrow. O sympathizing Saviour, thou didst weep with sisteis 
beside a brother's grave, and thou knowest, thou knowest, O 
Saviour, that here is a grief still harder to bear. O Holy Ghost, 
the Comforter, come now and comfort. O God and Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, the father of mercies, and God of all com- 
fort, the father of the fatheiless and the widow's God, come guide 
and uphold one who strives to be brave and calm as she leads forth 
into life the tottering steps of her fatherless little boy. 

There is a tradition that ^Eschines, banished from Athens after 
his defeat by Demosthenes in the famous contest of eloquence be- 
tween the two orators, read to his pupils at Rhodes his gieat rival's 
oration on the crown, and on their applauding and praising it, gen- 
erously said, ** You should have heard the rascal deliver it himself ! " 
And if the readers of this paper think the passage just shown them 
beautiful in print, I can strongly say, " You should have heard it 
from the lips of its author 1 " There is a strand of pathos in tone 
braided inseparably into the speech of Doctor Broadus which must 
have given a peculiar all-subduing effect to such a passage of elo- 
quence as the foregoing. 



CHAPTER XVII 

SUCCEEDING DOCTOR BOYCE AS PRESIDENT 
As ever in my great Taskmaster's eye. 

SMtlton. 

DOCTOR BOYCE held out in the struggle long 
enough to see victory. It was a long fight these 
thirty years. But a dire calamity to the Seminary was 
at hand, and for Doctor Broadus one of the heaviest 
griefs of his life. Doctor Boyce had left for Europe in 
hopeful spirits and had a pleasant voyage and a little 
jaunt in England, but in London he was taken seriously 
ill. 

W. E. HATCHER to J. A. B. : 

LONDON, ENG., Oct. 7, 1888: I hope that you are not ignorant 
of the sickness of Doctor Boyce, and yet I feel impelled, in a quiet 
way to write you some facts concerning him. Only last evening 
while at tea with Doctor Angus, I learned that the doctor was in 
London and quite sick. I went to him at once and found him in a 
condition which gave me much anxiety and alarm. From his ap- 
pearance, as well as from the decision of his physicians, as given 
me by the family, I am led to feel that his case is very serious, 
though not beyond hope. One thing is fixed and that is, he is not 
fit for travel. To-night I called again and while he brightened at 
my coming, I was not encouraged. He looked sadly broken and" 
languid, and I felt constrained to join his children in their attempts 
to dissuade him from his purpose to go to the Continent. This he 
is set on not for himself but for his daughters' sake. 

JOSIAH RYLAND to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., Oct. 17, 1888 : I am sorry to see that Doctor 
Boyce has not improved. I do hope his valuable life may be spared. 
And yet how little we know as to what is best ! God makes no 
mistakes. We remember the Seminary at our family altar, 
37 2 





Pago 372 



SUCCEEDING DOCTOR BOYCE AS PRESIDENT 373 

J. A. B. to J. P. BOYCE : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., Oct. 17, 1888 : 1 trust you greatly enjoyed your 
first drive, and many more since that time, and that the pleasant air 
of France will greatly improve your strength. I have communicated 
to such of our colleagues as I have met the sorrowful intelligence 
that you feel sure you will never be able to teach again, and must 
lesign next May. May I trust that it may please out heavenly 
Father to spare you for yet many years of varied usefulness. . . 

I noted what you said about the importance of raising money for 
the library, according to your generous proposition as to giving your 
theological collection. . * The same day came quite a remarkable 
appointment of Providence. I called in the afternoon on Mrs. J. Law- 
rence Smith. . . She said that by a coincidence she herself was just 
figuring when I came in to see what property was available to sell for 
fifty thousand dollars, which she proposed to give the Seminary for 
a library building, as a memorial of her two nieces, and of William 
and Lawrence Caldwell. . . She expressed great pleasure that I had 
come in, talked freely about her desire to do all the good she could, 1 
and presently said, of her own accord, that 1 might mention this 
plan to you (I had at the outset delivered your message), as it would 
doubtless encourage you, with reference to your great life-work but 
that she had spoken to no one on the subject, and wished nobody 
but you and me to know of her intention till she was prepared to 
avow it. 

J. P. BOYCE to J. A. B. : 

PARIS, Oct. 31, 1888 : I received last night yours of Oct. i7th. I 
think we have both of us more to learn of the duty of faith and con- 
fidence in the working of God for our Seminary. With all our 
anxiety and hopes and fears, how true it is that in our agony of 
trouble as to what will occur we find that God has found a way of 
which we have never dreamed. Witness the gift of Governor Brown. 
We weie praying tor help and crying out In our despair, and, without 
lifting a finger almost, it came from a quarter to which we had 
never looked for such a sum. So also your letter of to-day tells me 
of a generosity not exceeding what might have been expected for 
worthy objects from the generous donor, but we have already had 
so much from that source that we had no right to expect more, so 
much so that I have felt almost ashamed of having asked and re- 

1 In a later note she said: "I hope it was most In my heart to advance the in- 
terests of the Seminary," 



374 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

ceived the five thousand dollars last given, and certainly the help 
now proposed was beyond all possible conception except by the gen- 
erous heart which proposes it. . . 

So also have I felt about my library. It is not simply that the 
Seminary should have so many books of such and such a value, but 
that they should be my books which I have selected and bought 
and owned and hoped at some time to be able to bestow on our be- 
loved Seminary, . . 

I shall take immediate steps so to arrange the transfer of my library 
as to make it all safe to the Seminary at once. My wife and daughters 
understand that it is in general to go that way. I shall only retain 
the books not theological and which would not be of use to the Semi- 
nary except in an indirect way. . . 

Please express to your friend my most hearty thanks for this con- 
templated gift, both personally and officially. I know not what 
words to use. None could express too strongly my gratitude and 
thanks. May God reward her, for he alone can do so worthily of 
her generosity and noble purposes. 

God be with you and bless you, my dear friend. No one knows 
how much I owe you for your help and your influence in the matter 
of the establishment of what you call my life-work, but which ought 
to be called " our life-work." 

The end came with Doctor Boyce at Pau, France, Dec. 
28, 1888. The funeral services took place in the Broad- 
way Church, Louisville, January 20, 1889, when Doctor 
Broadus spoke, though, as he said, he felt his true place 
to be beside the sorrowing family. They had walked 
together since 1859, an * each had been to the other a 
constant stay and strong support. Doctor Broadus 
sometimes said that he never felt that he was the same 
man after Boyce was gone. The old buoyancy never 
quite returned. He closed his memoir of Doctor Boyce 
with these words : 

O brother beloved, true yokefellow through years of toil, best 
and dearest friend, sweet shall be thy memory till we meet again I 
And may the men be always ready, as the years come and go, to 
carry on, with widening reach and heightened power, the work we 
sought to do, and did begin. 



SUCCEEDING DOCTOR BOYCE AS PRESIDENT 375 

WARREN RANDOLPH to J. A. B. : 

NEWPORT, R. I., Jan. 8, 1889 : Most sincerely do I sympathize 
with you, not only for what you have lost in the Seminary in the 
death of Doctor Boyce, but in the loss of a personal and bosom friend. 
He was a man, as none knew better than you, of royal elements of 
character. And I can imagine you going about with ejaculations like 
Charles Lamb when Coleridge died, " Boyce is dead ; Boyce is 
dead." May God be with you all. 

JOS. E, BROWN to J. A. B. : 

ATLANTA, GA., Dec. 10, 1 888 : Your very kind letter has been 
received by me, and shown to my wife and son, and we thank you 
very much for your expression of appreciation of the little donation 
we gave Doctor Kerfoot to aid in endowing the Broadus Professor- 
ship in the Seminary. While we were willing to render some as- 
sistance in endowing a professorship, the duty became much more 
pleasant when it was known that your name was to be connected 
with the professorship. We feel, as all parties feel, that you have 
done a noble work m the cause of the Master in connection with the 
Seminary. You have discharged your duty with zeal, fidelity, and 
ability, and you have the affectionate regard, and, indeed, the love of 
the whole Baptist denomination. May God ever bless you and 
spare your useful life and your health and strength for many years 
to come. 

Doctor Manly, at the time of Doctor Boyce's funeral, 
was ill with pneumonia. 

J. A. B. to BASIL MANLY : 
NEW HAVEN, CONN., Jan. 28, 1889: Would it not be well for 

you and Mrs. M to make a little trip to Mobile, or the like, so 

that you may live much in the open air? My three weeks in New 
Orleans in January some years ago, set me up mightily. Now will 
you not take some such trip, at the special request of your remain- 
ing yokefellow? The fact is, I have a selfish interest in the matter 
of your getting strong and well, so as to last and work for many 
years. I shall be constantly needing your advice, about measures 
and men, about great things and small. Now that Boyce is gone, 
I value your advice in Seminary matters beyond that of all other 
men. The Seminary is passing through a crisis, and cannot for 
several years to come afford to lose you and meand we must hus- 
band our strength, and stand together, like two old oxen, neaiest to 



376 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

the wagon. So be a good fellow, and go off for a while, and I am 
sure it will prove advantageous. 

Doctor Broadus had a busy winter, what with his 
Seminary duties and preaching at many points, Indian- 
apolis, Knoxville, Cornell University, New York, and 
New Haven, besides the Lyman Beecher Lectures on 
"Preaching" at Yale University in January, 1889. 
This course of lectures created high enthusiasm, more, 
perhaps, than any since the days of Henry Ward Beech- 
er's. The theological faculty of Yale expressed "their 
high appreciation of the suggestive and stimulating series 
of lectures, 11 together with the hope that they would be 
published. But Doctor Broadus had not written them 
out in full, preferring to speak from notes according to 
his custom when lecturing. 1 He expected also to in- 
corporate some of them some day in his "Preparation 
and Delivery of Sermons." He did not accomplish this 
himself, but his successor in the chair of homiletics, 
Prof. E. C. Dargan, D. D., has done it in a revised edi- 
tion of the work. It may be interesting to mention the 
topics of the eight Yale lectures : " The Young Preacher's 
Outfit/' " Freshness in Preaching," " Sensation Preach- 
ing/' "Freedom in Preaching," "The Minister's Gen- 
eral Reading," "The Minister and his Hymn Book," 
" The Minister and His Bible," " The Minister's Private 
Life," 

Doctor Vedder wrote concerning the lectures : 

Men of considerable reputation have come and gone without their 
presence being known to any but the few immediately concerned. 
Such has not been the case with the visit of Doctor Broadus and the 
delivery of his lectures. He has made marked impression on the 
life and thought of the University, outside of the Divinity School, 
to which he has been especially lecturing. Every available seat in 
Marquand chapel not reserved for students, has been occupied each 
1 In the pulpit he made it a point never to take notes with hjra. 



SUCCEEDING DOCTOR BOYCE AS PRESIDENT 377 

day, considerably before the hour for the lecture, and after all availa- 
ble spaces have been filled by chairs many have crowded into the 
corners left and listened standing. To judge from appearances, 
the audience might have been doubled or quadrupled if there had 
been room for those who would have gladly come. 

Several lecturers have so far lacked the faculty of interesting the 
students that their lectures, though they have made valuable books, 
have failed to win hearers for their oral delivery. Many students 
expressed in private the warmest appreciation of the work Doctor 
Broadus had done for them this year, and declared that this is the 
universal feeling among the young men. That this judgment was 
shared by the "dons" has been shown by the fact that unusual 
numbers of them have attended from day to day, so far as their own 
engagements made attendance possible. It is generally regretted 
that the lectures are not to be published. 

One who had heard Doctor Bioadus in the pulpit can easily im- 
agine him in the lecture room. There is the same smooth flowing of 
choice English, the same winning manner, the same conversational 
tone the latter a little emphasized by the more confidential relations 
at once established between his pupils and himself. The various 
points of his lectures are amplified by means of wholly admirable 
(but also wholly unreportable) little asides, anecdotes, illustrations. 
An occasional thrust of the keenest wit at some foible of preachers 
provokes an appreciative but not noisy laugh, and a lambent humor 
plays all around the subject, calling forth now and then those smiles 
that are near akin to tears. In short, Doctor Bioadus approaches so 
closely one's ideal of a lecturer to students that one hardly sees how 
the ideal could be more nearly satisfied. . . 

In concluding, Doctor Broadus spoke a few words for himself and 
the faculty with which he had been temporarily associated* These 
were his last words : " For the most part our hope of usefulness in 
the world is through you. Preach your best before God, for your 
own sakes, and then think of us and preach a little better still." 
The prolonged applause that greeted the appeal showed that it had 
touched a responsive chord in many hearts. If the men at the Yale 
Divinity School are not better preachers, and better men, for having 
heard this series of lectures, it will not be because the way to become 
both has not been earnestly and affectionately and eloquently pointed 
out to them. 1 

While at Yale he was kindly received in a social way. 

1 H. C, Vedder, In " The Examiner/' Feb. 7, 1889. 



378 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

THE BIRTHDAY OF DOCTOR BROADUS. 

The distinguished lecturer at Yale this year has a warm place in 
the hearts of New Haven Baptists who had had the pleasure of 
hearing htm. Prof. W. R. Harper and others arranged to give him 
a dinner last Thursday evening, which was his birthday, in order 
that some of the laymen of the Baptist churches might have the 
pleasure of meeting him. Before the dinner an hour was pleasantly 
spent in social chat. About fifty gentlemen sat down to the tables 
at Radclifre's. Hon. Francis Wayland presided, and Rev. Kittridge 
Wheeler asked the blessing. After an excellent dinner president 
Wayland made a felicitous speech and introduced Hon. James L. 
Howard, as one who would never be an ex-governor to the Baptists. 
Doctor Phelps followed with a poem that made graceful reference to 
the guest of the evening. Prof. W. I. Knapp was the next speaker. 
He will be remembeied as our missionary to Spain for ten years. 
For the past ten years he has held the chair of Modern Languages 
in Yale. Other speakers were Rev. Kittridge Wheeler, of Hartford, 
lawyer Julius Twiss, Dr. E. J. Walker, Rev. Wm. Davis, of the 
Seminary, Rev. W. D. McKinney, Prof. W. R. Harper, E. Larkms, 
Rev. E, M. Poteat, and Rev. C. A. Piddock. President Wayland 
introduced Doctor Broadus, whose address was full of kind feeling 
and capital illustrations. He spoke of the wonderful change of sen- 
timent, North and South, during the past twenty-five years. We 
now know each other better and are one people. All of the after- 
dinner speeches were informal and every one felt it to be a very pro- 
fitable occasion. Before adjourning, a committee was appointed to 
arrange for a permanent Baptist Club for New Haven and vicinity. 
The influence of such a gathering cannot fail to be excellent, and in 
behalf of those from out of town we thank Professor Harper and 
those who aided him for the opportunity to attend. 1 

This spring a flood of invitations came to Doctor 
Broadus for addresses, all of which had to be declined. 
He was elected an honorary member of the Cliosophic 
Literary Society of Princeton College. He was also 
elected a trustee of the Slater Fund in place of Doctor 
Boyce. He took interest in this work for the Negroes and 
enjoyed the pleasant friendships which it occasioned with 
President Oilman, of Johns Hopkins, ex-president Hayes, 

1 " Chnstian Secretary," for Jan, 30, 1889. 



SUCCEEDING DOCTOR BOYCE AS PRESIDENT 379 

and others, besides the intercourse with Doctor Curry, 
his life-long friend. 

A committee of English Baptists visited the Southern 
Baptist Convention in Memphis, May, 1889, at the in- 
stance of Dr. W. E. Hatcher. Doctor Bioadus made a 
very remarkable address of welcome. 

Doctor Broadus said that, after a life spent in public speaking, he 
never felt more like wishing for something to say which should be 
worthy of the occasion and should fitly express the joy of the breth- 
ren in welcoming these brethren. We welcome these men because 
they are Englishmen. We love them as Englishmen, and we are 
not afraid of them as Englishmen either. He told of a Kentucky 
orator who defied the English navy, and said if they attacked us, 
we would turn the Mississippi into the Mammoth Cave and dry up 
the Atlantic Ocean. Our hearts warm towards them. We and 
they have had many similar difficulties. We are misunderstood. 
But we have found that a people with the courage of their convic- 
tions can thrive under all manner of obloquy. He had never heard 
the strength of the position of Baptists so strongly stated as in Doc- 
tor Parker's speech. American Baptists reminded him of a herd of 
wild horses, with heads erect, rearing and plunging and curvetting, 
but somehow moving on all in the same direction. It was some- 
times said by other denominations that Baptists had among them a 
great mass of ignorant people. This was true. And he felt like 
leplying to those who made the statement, " Why haven't you a 
similar mass?" 

Doctor Broadus's speech was thrilling, eloquent, and unreportable, 
and at its conclusion the congregation sang with great feeling, " The 
Sweet By and By." This was the most delightful incident in the 
history of the meeting. Brethren pressed forwaid from every quar 
ter, and there was manifest and profound feeling. 1 

Doctor Broadus made a stirring plea for the Seminary 
at this Convention : 

Doctor Broadus said that this was only one of many times that he 
had appeared in the interests of the institution. He spoke very ten- 
derly of the irreparable loss sustained in the death of Doctor Boyce 
greater, he said, to himself than any one else. We ought not to 
i Religious Herald," May 16, 1889* 



380 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

indulge, however, in useless regrets, but the inspiration of precious 
memories and noble examples ought to lead us to larger endeavors. 
The session of the Seminary the fust year after the war, had 
present seven students and four professors. He lectured that session 
to one student, and he was blind. This year they had one hundred and 
sixty-five on the roll and might possibly have one hundred and ninety 
next year. 1 Still he was not scared. Calvin had eight hundred at 
Geneva. It is easier to lecture to eighty than twenty. Some seemed 
10 think that the Seminary was like the old woman who lived in a 
shoe. He said that they looked for further endowment for the Sem- 
inary from men of large means. If asked whether they would like 
such gifts in the form of bequests or in antemortem donations, he 
would take a little of both. 2 

JOSEPH E. BROWN to J. A. B. : 

ATLANTA, GA., May 16, 1889: While it was a foregone conclu- 
sion and everybody knew that there was but one thing to be done, 
yet I sincerely congratulate you on your election to the presidency. 
Under the inspiration and guidance of the Spint you have a great 
work to perform, and I earnestly pray that you may be sustained and 
upheld in the discharge of the responsible duties devolving upon you, 
and that the official connection with the Seminary which you now 
assume, will prove a great blessing to the Seminary, the Baptist 
cause, and the churches generally. 

At this meeting Doctor Kerfoot was made professor of 
Systematic Theology and financial agent and treasurer. 

The " Religious Herald/' of May, 30, 1889, speaks as 
follows of an address of Doctor Broadus in Boston : 

Dr. John A. Broadus made a notable speech before the American 
Baptist Education Society, in which he undertook to give his hearers 
a better insight into the real condition of the South. Some of his 
statements were very much at variance with those made by a colored 
brother who preceded him on the same platform the evening before. 
Take the following as mere specimens ; " There is much that is 
wrong here in Boston and m all the Northern section of country ; 
but we do not hold you responsible for it. The same blood is in our 

1 Doctor Broadus lived to see two hundred and sixty-eight students In the Semi- 
nary. The number afterwards, under the presidency of Doctor Whitsitt, rose to three 
hundred and eighteen. 

a " Religious Herald/' May 33, 1889. 



SUCCEEDING DOCTOR BOYCE AS PRESIDENT 381 

veins as in yours. I was a rebel and George Washington was a 
rebel ; but he succeeded and I failed. That is about the difference 
between us." . . 

" The Examiner " said of this speech : 

There was a responsive thrill of sympathy and union as deep as 
Christian love. " As one who had lived in the South, in Virginia, 
in South Carolina, and in Kentucky, now sixty years, I can testify 
that if any man says there is unkind feeling in that section toward 
you of the North, that man is mistaken. There is no such unkind 
feeling. We have not forgotten what we have suffeied. If we had 
beaten you half as hard as you beat us,,w would have found it dif- 
ficult to forgive us. And if we had had half as much money as you 
had, I am not sure but we should have beaten you. What wonders 
twenty-five years have wrought ! How we did hate you twenty-five 
years ago ! And after Bull Run, and after Fredencksburg, your 
love for us was not perfect ! But you whipped us, and I am not 
sorry that we did not whip you. We have one country North, 
South, East, West we are one. God bless the United States! Let 
us love one another." Such was the purport of Doctor Bioadus's 
little speech. But the inimitable manner and spirit of it, the under- 
lying and but half-suggested proud Southern tone, perfectly lecon- 
ciled with gentleman-like comity and with Christian love this, and 
the punctuation of sympathetic responsive applause from the audi- 
ence, followed by silent, softened, tearful feeling on their part, 
springing under the touch of eloquent gentleness in the speaker's 
voice all this, I say, cannot be put into words ; but it was far more 
than half of the power and the pathos of the scene. 

Doctor Broadus was made regent of the Board of 
Trustees of the Kentucky School of Medicine. He was 
now president of the local University of Virginia Alumni 
Society, No one was so happy in introducing famous 
lecturers. He was the popular after-dinner speaker at 
banquets. He was a member of the Confederate Veter- 
ans' Association, and the Sons of Veterans later named 
a "camp" for him. The Ladies' Association had re- 
quested him to deliver the address at the laying of the 
corner-stone of the Confederate Monument, but his ill- 
ness prevented it The City Y. M. C. A. looked to him 



382 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

as a stanch friend. Ministers of all denominations con- 
sidered him their adviser and helper in every good work. 
In July, 1889, while engaged in delivering a series of 
lectures on the " New Testament," at Chautauqua, Doc- 
tor Broadus was called home to conduct the funeral serv- 
ices upon the occasion of Mr. G. W. Norton's death. 
The latter had been a noble benefactor of the Seminary, 
and one of the trustees. After this hurried journey, he 
returned to complete the course of thirty lectures. 

J. A. B. to a COLLEGE STUDENT. 

CHAUTAUQUA, N. Y., July 7, 1889 : 1 think that scholarly tastes, 
so far from being useless in the ministry, are now very especially 
needed among Southern Baptist ministers. Most people think 
scholarship is impracticable, if not undesirable, in the working pas- 
torate, and we greatly need examples to the contrary. I could men- 
tion notable instances abroad. . . 

For my own part, while no stranger to the dreams of young 
ambition, I heartily rejoice that I declined many an offered profes- 
sorship, and gave myself to the ministry, though always feeling 
for these thirty years, that in abandoning the pastorate to guide the 
studies of others I was giving up the minister's better part. I envy 
those who are most directly Concerned with saving souls. 

J. A. B. to MISS E. S. B. : 

CHAUTAUQUA, N. Y., July 22, 1889 : Beautiful weather, and I 
am feeling pretty well. The n o'clock lecture, on "Revelation," 
began to-day with double as many as I had on '* Hebrews "more 
people present now also my giving a pamphlet, or syllabus, at- 
tracted some; it is queer how people seize on such a thing, some 
silently taking copies for friends. 

I heard Hjalmar Hjorth Boyeson, who began to-day at 2.30 a 
series of six lectures on the " Modern Novel "this on the *' French 
Novel." I expect to hear some others. Richard Malcolm Johnston 
has arrived to give two readings from his writings. I took a walk 
this afternoon with President Galusha Anderson, of Denison Uni- 
versity. Yesterday at five P. M. I walked through Palestine with 
Doctor and Mrs. Sampey and Doctor Weidner. 

J. A. B. to F. W. BOATWRIGHT. 
CHAUTAUQUA, N. Y., July 25, 1889: I rejoice that you mean to 



SUCCEEDING DOCTOR BOYCE AS PRESIDENT 383 

bean actively useful Christian. In Germany, and in some parts of 
Great Britain and America, it requires great independence of mind 
and carefully maintained devoutness, in order to stand firm against 
not the arguments, but the cool assumptions, that all " traditional " 
views of the Bible are antiquated, and that the orthodox are weak 
and ignorant I am glad you are going to Germany, and to Greece. 
There is much to be learned, much good impulse to be gained, also 
prestige, and familiarity with languages in which you must be read- 
ing through life. But 1 am persuaded you will find it desirable to 
maintain, quietly and distinctly, just such habits about Sunday, 
about beer and wine, about theatres, etc., about private prayer, as 
you would do at home in Richmond. I need not apologize for 
making these suggestions. I trust I shall live to see you come back 
and enter upon a course of great usefulness as a Christian professor, 
to the joy of your parents, and of many others who love you. 

During August, Doctor Broadus supplied the Wood- 
ward Avenue Church, Detroit. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

DETROIT, Aug. 3, 1889 : After the morning paper, I have tried to 
read a novel, but 1 seldom get on well with a novel in these days. 
They seem paltry and pottering. It does not certainly follow that I 
am grown deficient in sentiment. Beyond question I love my wife 
as warmly as I ever did and my children. I remember, some twen- 
ty-five years ago I lost relish for novels and afterwards it returned, 
Curious changes take place in us, and the wise Greek's counsel, 
Know thyself, is far from easy to carry out. Self-analysis may be 
morbid, but it may be healthy. And one who attempts to teach a 
whole room full of fine young men, to preach to large assemblies in 
all parts of the land, to write and publish in various ways, ought to 
try to understand the tools he has to work with, and the faculties he 
has or lacks. But enough of that. 

Pray find out about your mother's health. I am sure you ought 
to visit her this season, and the only question is whether in August, 
or September, or October. 

J. A. B. to MASTER BOYCE BROADUS. 

DETROIT, Aug. 9, 1889: I send you a " History of the U. S. t " 
which I think you and John 1 will find interesting. Suppose you 
begin at the beginning, reading a good deal every day. Let John 

* John Broadus Abraham, his eldest grandchild. 



384 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

look at the pictures and read as much about them as he pleases. 
Then you and he look at the pictures together, and talk about them, 
and where you do not agree, or wish to know more, ask some such 
venerable person as Miss Ella, or you might sometimes try the " Cy- 
clopedia." I think a history full of pictures is very desirable. Ask 
your mother, or some one, to look over the account of the War of Se- 
cession, and see if the author has succeeded in being fairly impartial. 
He is a Methodist pastor in Brooklyn. This volume is enlarged 
from a school edition full of questions and reviews, which I saw at 
Chautauqua and liked. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

DETROIT, Aug. 12, 1889 : Charming weather, ever since my re- 
turn on Friday. The congregation yesterday morning was much 
interested, as upon the previous Sunday, and in the evening the 
aisles were full (making 1500 to 1800), and several hundred were 
turned off. It is a novel experience in my life as a summer preacher, 
to have crowds. The regular congregation is very large, and while 
a good many are gone away, not a few came to the city to enjoy va- 
cation, and people stop in going east or west. I wish I could do the 
great throng of people some good. It is a heavy responsibility to 
have so many looking to one for instruction and impulse in the 
highest things. 

I had one week of delightful rest in a trip to Mackinac Island. But 
for ten days past I have been hard at work with Doctors Hovey and 
Weston x who leave to-morrow evening, and then I can have Friday 
and Saturday. I hope to go home Monday, arriving midnight. 

HORACE WATERS to J. A. B. : 

NEW YORK, Jan. 23, 1890 : You do not know how I rejoice at the 
progress of the work of " Revision." Soon I must go hence. I am 
in my 78th year. But I want to see both the New Testament am' 
the Old completed and published before I die. In a few days I pay 
my second $1,000 for this blessed work. 

H. W. DODGE to J. A. B. : 

AUSTIN, TEX., Oct. 23, 1889 : Your letter to my son Clarence at 
Cameron, Texas, was sent by him to me. Its reading brought 
vividly to view those earlier years when you and I shared the hos- 
pitality of one of the most hospitable homes of Virginia. How dear 
to my heart is the fond recollection. I thought well of you then ; 
1 On the Bible Union Revision of the " New Testament." 



SUCCEEDING DOCTOR BOYCE AS PRESIDENT 385 

and since then, through all these years, admiration of your charac- 
ter has never diminished. My own home has been in the valley, 
my nest under the rose-bush, but I have gazed at you, as one in 
the vale of Chamoumx, might at a dear friend ascending the high 
Alps. As point after point has been reached, I have again and 
again said, Lord, keep him and bless him and make him a thousand 
times greater, that he may the better reproduce himself in the many 
he maybe privileged to instruct. And I follow you still. May your 
day be a full day, and at sunset may a serene twilight melt into a 
night of starry brightness. 

MISS A. V. B. to MISS MARY E. ADAMS 

LOUISVILLE, KY., Nov., 1889: Papa went to Virginia last week 
to the General Association and said he saw everybody and enjoyed 
himself immensely. I asked if he talked any about Vnginia in the 
Association and he confessed that he had gotten up and said some- 
thing about the changing lights on the mountains and the emotions 
that stirred in his heart. Then deprecating his emotion, he said in an 
indescribable tone : " There were two reasons why I made that 
speech : first, because a man who was born in Virginia and lived 
there thirty years could not help it ; and second, because I would not 
have dared to come home without it." 

In November Doctor Broadus preached the dedication 
sermon for the McFerran Memorial Church, in Louis- 
ville, and the following year for the East Baptist 
Church, as he had previously done for the Chestnut 
Street Church. 

MISS A. V. B, to MISS MARY ADAMS : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., Feb. 3, 1890 : Thursday night papa and I 
wrote nineteen letters, and they were literally from grave to gay, 
from lively to severe. About ten of them were to answer questions. 
One person asked him eleven questions of most comical variety and 
said he must not feel impatient at having to answer them, because 
he could do a great deal of good. I remember a few of them : 

" Please give me five good reasons against dancing. " 

" Is it right for a minister to take charge of a church for an in- 
definite length of time? " 

"Please make me out a list of books for a Sunday-school library." 

u What are the best commentaries ? " 

z 



386 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

" How would you interpret Hebrews ? (I don't remember the 

reference). 

" Is it ever right to kill a man in self-defense? " 

To this last papa replied : 

" I think it entirely lawful to kill a man if that is necessary to 
prevent his killing me ; and if anybody tries it I intend to treat him 
accordingly, if possible. But I have not time to argue the question." 

WARREN RANDOLPH to J. A. B. : 

NEWPORT, R. I., March 5, 1890: The International Sunday- 
school Convention (to which we are to present our final report, and 
which is to appoint a new committee) is to meet in Pittsburg, Tues- 
day, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, June 24-27. . . I am 
much gratified to find you speaking of a purpose, if possible, to be 
present. I sincerely hope nothing will occur to prevent. Your coun- 
sel will be greatly needed in the Convention. The International Les- 
son system will undoubtedly be sharply criticized and some defense, 
such as you can give, will be needed. 

Nineteen years ago to-day was Sunday, March 5, 1871. Need I 
remind you of going that morning to hear Bishop Gobat preach, where 
we fell in with the young Englishman (of Cook's party) who had 
arrived on Saturday, and was to leave on Wednesday, but who 
wanted to know what interesting points to visit at Jerusalem, be- 
sides "The Mosque of Omar." When the Mount of Olives was 
suggested, do you remember how he triumphantly replied, " We 
have done that," and I am sure his sage remark must still be fresh 
to you, as he summed up his opinion of Jerusalem, " It's a very un- 
interesting city, anyway." But better than that, do you remember 
how we read about Jerusalem in the Gospels and the Acts that day 
in our room? Ah, what precious days those Jerusalem days were* 
What a foretaste of days to come. Yours for the New Jerusalem. 1 

MISS A. V. B. to MISS MARY ADAMS : 

LOUISVILLE, March 30, 1890 : I have been wanting to write you 
about papa's Johns Hopkins lectures which he made this last week 
in Baltimore. 2 Mr. Eugene Levering has endowed a lectureship on 
Christian Evidences ; and asked him to open the series. He made 
three lectures on Jesus of Nazareth : "His Personal Character," 
" His Ethical Teachings," " His Supernatural Works." 

1 He has joined Doctor Broadus In the " New Jerusalem." 
8 The Levering lectures, repeated In April in the Walnut Street Church. Louisville. 



SUCCEEDING DOCTOR BOYCE AS PRESIDENT 387 

He told me several times that he had never in his life, undertaken 
such a difficult piece of work and that he felt weighed down by the 
task. The first subject in particular, was of such a delicate nature, 
and he knew that he would have some skeptical, critical hearers on 
the sharp lookout for some flaw in argument or extravagance of ex- 
pression. He said he felt that the most inadequate language was 
less inappropriate to the theme than the slightest extravagance 
would be. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

BALTIMORE, March 29, 1890 : I did not write yesterday morning. 
The *' Sun's " news was that the whole city was prostrate, 1 which I 
did not believe, but the telegraph wires were said to be all down. I 
could only wait. . . 

The lectures limited to seven hundred tickets. Room full for the 
first, crowded for second, many turned away. They listened atten- 
tively, and speak kindly, I am so little accustomed to reading, that 
I cannot feel sure how far I am getting hold. I pray that some good 
may result. 

The Philadelphia " Presbyterian " for June n, 1890, 
says of the lectures on " Jesus of Nazareth *' : 

They are scholarly in composition, beautiful in diction, and mas- 
terly in thought. Their attractive form would ensure them a hear- 
ing from the young men to whom they were addressed, while their 
thoroughly evangelical spirit gives them a power over heart and con- 
science. Christ the Man is the real theme, but his supernatural 
character and mission are not overlaid or thrust in the background 
by Doctor Broadus. In these days, when naturalism is engaged in 
a continually closer contest with the spiritual, it is pleasant to hear 
the ring of a true message from above, addressed in so attractive a 
manner, to young men engaged in scientific and philosophic study. 
It may serve to withstand the strange tendency of such study to 
allure into doubtful speculations which sometimes make shipwreck 
of faith. 

A missionary from India writes to get " Jesus of Naza- 
reth " to use with educated Hindus. Pastor C. Philet 
of Ardeche, France, writes : " I have read with a joyous 



1 The Louisville tornado, on March 37, 1890. 



388 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

astonishment that you have published a course of lectures 
on the whole Bible/' If it had only been true ! 

R. A, GUILD to J. A. B. : 

PROVIDENCE, R. I., May 8, 1890 : Your allusion to your pleasant 
visit Thanksgiving brought everything to mind, and opened the 
wounds anew for sorrow. Dear, dear Boyce. Classmate, brother, 
and fuend ! How I loved him. Am glad you keep the memoir in 
view. How you find time with all your duties to write and preach 
so much outside is to me a mystery. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

FORT WORTH, TEXAS, May 8, 1890: Read with singular in- 
terest " Memorials of a Southern Planter," the father of Virgmius 
Dabney, written by his daughter, a delightful picture of a low 
country Virginia home, afteiward Mississippi. Doctor Manly lent 
it to me, and we must have it. They gave zfac simile of a letter to 
the author from Mr. Gladstone, praising the book, and asking her 
permission to publish it in England, in order that the Southern slave- 
holders may be better understood. 

Returning from Southern Baptist Convention at Fort 
Worth, J. A. B. writes to Mrs. B. : 

APPROACHING NEW ORLEANS, May 13, 1890: It seemed nec- 
essary at the Convention to make one moie attempt at a public con- 
tribution. . . Kerf oot spoke for ten minutes, I for thirty minutes, and 
then for forty-five minutes we called for pledges and gifts. . . 1 asked 
for ten thousand, and got sixteen thousand. The Board expressed 
great gratification. Saturday evening I spoke (according to previous 
promise) at a mass meeting for home missions, thirty minutes. 
Sunday morning I preached at the First Church. So 1 kept out of 
other speaking, except three minutes Monday noon, when I man- 
aged to stop an acrimonious debate about " Kind Words," and bring 
on a vote which ended the conflict. 

Doctor Curry made a grand speech yesterday afternoon on a pro- 
posed centennial of modern missions in 1892. 

During the spring Doctor Broadus had done a great 
deal of preaching in Louisville, at the Baptist churches 
and the Warren Memorial Presbyterian Church. He 



SUCCEEDING DOCTOR BOYCE AS PRESIDENT 389 

had preached the Richmond College commencement ser- 
mon and in July he was at Chautauqua for twenty-four 
lectures on the New Testament. 

Doctor Broadus had also written this summer the in- 
troduction to the " Thirty Years' Catalogue of the Sem- 
inary " by Doctor Sampey, then going to press. 

H. C. VEDDER to J. A. B. : 

NEW YORK, July 29, 1890 : Several things in your letter gave me 
great pleasure, but nothing pleased me so much as your attributing 
to me the facility of seeing that a question may have more than one 
side. The question of theological education, as I view it, certainly 
has more than one side, but it may surprise you to know that my 
sympathies are not with the curriculum idea, but with the elective 
method. I made this tolerably clear some years ago in an article 
(that you have possibly forgotten) on "Reforms in Theological 
Education," published in the " Baptist Quarterly," for July, 1885. 

Doctor Broadus supplied the pulpit of the Woodward 
Avenue Church, Detioit, duiing August. It was a glori- 
ous experience again for preacher and people. What 
crowds and what enthusiasm ! The " Christian Herald," 
of Detroit, published a report of the sermons. This paper 
for August 8, 1890, says : 

The exalted esteem in which Doctor Bioadus is held arises not 
only from his eminent scholarly attainments and rare gifts in the 
capacity of author, teacher, and pieacher, but from a singular trans- 
parency of nature and benignity of presence which never fails to 
impress all with whom he comes in contact. As a preacher, his 
style is so easy and conversational, the language so crystal-clear a 
medium for the thought, that one may fail at first hearing to appre- 
ciate the wonderful freshness of his scriptural expositions, and the 
wealth of knowledge and of spiritual power which are being unfolded, 
but his words are found to linger in the mind like strains of noble 
music, lending inspiration to the prosy week. Doctor Broadus's 
sermons are pre-eminently sermons, not essays, not orations, not 
anything for the display of the preacher's erudition, but symmetri- 
cal growths from a life devoted to studious thinking and noble 
living. 



390 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

C. R. HENDERSON to J. A. B. : 

DETROIT, Sept. 8, 1890 : I cannot express my gratification at the 
reports of your work here. The people have had a great blessing 
and they had the good sense, I believe, to appreciate their opportunity. 
From our members and from outsiders I hear strongest words of 
praise. 

W. C. WILKINSON to J. A, B. : 

TARRYTOWN, N. Y., Sept. 3, 1890 : Thank you heartily for your 
leaflet, " Should Women Speak in Mixed Assemblies ? " I had been 
wishing I could see it and wondering just how to get it. It shows 
you the same consummate master of persuasive presentation that I 
have always felt you to be, I wish you could have a wide hearing 
in our American Baptist Israel. I feel that we little dream whereunto 
the license prevailing will end. 

On Sept. 21, Doctor Broadus preached the dedication 
sermon of the Calvary Church, Kansas City. 

S. H. PAINE to J. A. B. : 

NEW YORK, Oct. 6, 1890 : I have just been reading in the " Sun- 
day School Times" of those Confederate hymn books, and I am 
filled with envy and covetousness. Ever since I began collecting 
sacred poetry I have been hunting for anything published in the 
South during those years, but never until now have I heard of a 
single such book. Have you duplicates of any of them ? If so, will 
you sell them and at what price? If not, cannot you put me on the 
scent of somebody who may possibly have them ? My collection of 
hymn books and sacred poetry numbers now about four thousand 
volumes. 

MISS E. T. B. to MISS MARY E. ADAMS : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., Nov., 1890 : Mother and I have been reading a 
beautiful translation of Sophocles. We got into it by reading his 
" Electra " to compare it with that of Euripides, which I was sup- 
posed to be studying in a class taught by Miss Merker. Then papa's 
enthusiasm for Sophocles led us on ; now, after many interruptions, 
we are half way through " OEdipus at Colonos " which is papa's 
favorite. 

In December, 1890, Doctor Broadus paid his last visit 
to South Carolina. Doctor Dargan tells of it as follows : 



SUCCEEDING DOCTOR BOYCE AS PRESIDENT 391 

He attended the State Baptist Convention at Union C. H., where 
he preached in the afternoon of Sunday a never-to-be-forgotten sei- 
mon on " Be anxious for nothing." The next day he conducted a 
sort of class-room, free question and answer sort of service, to the 
great delight of all. He levisited (I think) Greenville, Newberry, 
stopped at Summerville to talk with Judge B. C Pressly, and came 
to Charleston and paid me a visit I shall never forget. All this was? 
to help out his " Memoir of Boyce " by refreshing his memory. He 
went up the tower of the Citadel Square Church with me to get a 
view of the city, visited the various places connected with Boyce's 
boyhood, interviewed his then still surviving old teacher, Doctor 
Burns, and in other ways gleaned items for his book. It was one of 
the joys of my life to have had him only that once for a guest. 
My heart swells as I think of it all ! What a lare man he was ! 

At the close of January and the beginning of Febru- 
ary, 1891, Doctor Broadus delivered four lectures at a Bible 
Institute held in Chicago by Doctor W. R. Harper. The 
Chicago " Advance " for Feb. 5, says: 

Perhaps no single address better embodied the thought and ani- 
mating spirit of the institute than that of President Broadus on " The 
Adaptation of the Bible to Human Nature." Certainly no address 
awakened gi eater interest than his. 

R.B. SMITH to E. C. DARGAN : 

NEW YORK, April 4, 1899: I write to ask you whether any of 
Doctor Broadus's lectures have ever been published aside from a 
volume of "Sermons and Addresses." While in Chicago attend- 
ing the Seminary (February, 1891) I heard him deliver four lectures 
at a Bible institute in which Professor Bnggs, Doctor Hatper, and 
Bishop Vincent also delivered lectures. But Doctor Broadus carried off 
the palm above all the other lecturers in the judgment of about seven 
hundred students of the various denominations of the city. I would 
give almost anything for a copy of those lectures, and especially the 
one on " Christ's Teaching as to the Old Testament." 

The address of Doctor Broadus on " Christ's Teaching 
as to the Old Testament " was delivered again at the 
University of Virginia. He felt strongly that the testi- 



392 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

mony of Jesus was final on all matters concerning which 
he spoke. 

J. A, B. to MISS E. S. B. : 

APPROACHING MOBILE, March 11, 1891: Evergreen (nine 
o'clock) looked in the rain as if it might be a right pleasant country 
village in fair weather. We shall get dinner, as we got supper, from 
the basket I am reading Col. Wm. Preston Johnston's lectures on 
'* Shakespeare," as I may meet him in New Orleans. The first, 
" How to Study Shakespeare," is sensible and likely to do real good. 

Your ma says she is getting on more comfortably than she usually 
does. The coffee at breakfast was very nice. 

Doctor and Mrs. Broadus spent some weeks in the South 
resting. During this visit was preached the dedication ser- 
mon for the Parker Memorial Church, Anniston, Ala. 

G. B. EAGER to J. A. B. : 

ANNISTON, ALA., April 13, 1891 : The memory of your late visit 
and sermon is still fresh and potent with all our people ; scarcely a 
day passes but that one or more speaks to me of it. 

The total impression of our dedication services seems to have been 
lastingly good ; I trust the future may prove it so. I hope there will 
be no giving way in your strength during the rest of the session. 

Mr. Page was invited to address the Louisville Uni- 
versity of Virginia Alumni Society upon the occasion of 
their annual banquet on Jefferson's birthday. 

THOS. NELSON PAGE to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., April 4, 1891 : I am in receipt of your kind let- 
ter and accept with great pleasure the kind invitation you and Mrs. 
Broadus are good enough to extend me. I hope to arrive Saturday 
night, but will telegiaph you as to my train. If the weather is bad 
I beg that you will not attempt to meet me at the station, as I can 
readily find my way to you. 

As to the address I think it would be better to let me have my say 
in accordance with your custom in the pallors before the banquet. 
I have prepared an address on the " Need of the South for a Historv." 
I would then respond to the toast more briefly. I assume from what 
you say that it will piobably be in somewhat the direction of the 



SUCCEEDING DOCTOR BOYCE AS PRESIDENT 39? 

address: The South. As to the reading next evening, I think I 
wrote that I would read from any one or two of my stories which 
might be preferred, as I am quite familiar with all of them. 

I beg to assure you of the very great pleasure with which I look 
foiward to my visit to you. A baccalaureate address which you de- 
livered when I was a student at the University of Virginia made a 
deep impression on me, and ever since then I have been a warm ad- 
mirer, to which I now ask leave to subscribe myself, in addition, your 
sincere fnend. 

ALVAH HOVEY to J. A. B. : 

NEWTON CENTER, April 25, 1891 : Permit me to thank you from 
the heart for your kind reference to myself in the work we have now 
completed. I can also say that my greatest pleasure in this work 
has been derived from your fellowship. . . I believe that the result, 
with many imperfections, is a very real improvement on the former 
edition, and indeed on the Canterbury. 

May the Lord bless you and yours for evermore ! 

In May, 1891, the beautiful memorial library, the gift 
of Mrs, J. Lawrence Smith to the Seminary, was formally 
opened with appropriate exercises. Doctor Broadus, 
Doctor Harper, of Chicago University, and Doctor Dud- 
ley, of Georgetown College, delivered addresses very 
interesting and suitable to the occasion. Doctor Tupper 
and Doctor Ha ton offered prayer. 

The meeting of the Southern Baptist Convention at 
Birmingham in May, 1891, furnished a remarkable ex- 
hibition of Doctor Broadus's power among Southern 
Baptists. There was intense feeling over the ques- 
tions involved in the establishment of the Sunday- 
school Board, The " Religious Herald " for May 14, 
1891, says: 

It was expected that this report would create a lively debate, but 
Doctor Broadus made a few remarks favoring it and deprecating 
discussions that might wound, and the report was adopted with 
practically no opposition. 

The " Herald " for May 21, continues : 



394 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A, BROADUS 

Nor can we fail to mention the brief but timely speech of Doctoi 
Broadus, made immediately upon the presentation of the report. We 
are tempted to say that even in a life so eminently useful it would 
be difficult to find anything more distinctly useful. None other 
among us could have so effectually stayed the swelling of the tide 
of talk which awaited us. Several " greatest efforts" were doubt- 
less thus lost to the world ; but that the world will not suffer on 
that account no one can doubt. 

The new arrangementthe details of which we publish elsewheie 
will, we earnestly hope, work well. 

Prof. J. H. Farmer has a vivid description of this speech: 

No one can measure his influence over the thousands of young 
men who passed through his hands. Personally I think I never 
left his room without a prayer in my heart that I might be a better 
man. It was that that drew me back from Germany for a second 
year. I had not met his equal. Influence? Though he never held 
any office in the Southern Convention, I saw him do a thing in that 
Convention that no other man could have done. A great fight was 
expected over the report of the Sunday-school Committee. A hot 
controversy had been going on in the papers, and men went to that 
Birmingham Convention with speeches ready. They were eager 
for the fray. The moment had come. The report had been read. 
Discussion was in order. There was what all felt to be the lull 
before the storm. Broadus seized the opportunity, stepped to the 
front, and spoke. Every word throbbed with emotion ; it was a 
brief but passionate appeal for peace. The great throng bowed to his 
will. The spirit of controversy was muzzled, even as the spirit of 
the storm on Galilee was at the Master's word. Not another word 
was spoken. The report was adopted in silence. And even as I 
write, the tears come unbidden, as I think of the old veteran sitting 
there, his head buried in his hands and his whole frame heaving 
with emotion, which, if I mistake not, found relief in sobs. No won- 
der. He had saved the South. There is influence for you ! Aye, 
and that same man's influence had been one of the mightiest factors 
for the last quarter of a century in drawing North and South together 
and binding them with the bonds of mutual respect and affection. 
No one has ever impressed me as Doctor Broadus did with the almost 
measureless influence for good that may gather about one true human 
life.' 



1 Pages 346 /., " McMaster Monthly " for May, 3(895. 



SUCCEEDING DOCTOR BOYCE AS PRESIDENT 395 

At the Birmingham meeting also, Doctor Kerfoot made 
a public collection of twenty-one thousand dollars for the 
Seminary amid great enthusiasm. 

On June 30, 1891, Doctor Broadus's daughter, Miss 
Alice Virginia, was married to Prof. S. C. Mitchell, of 
Mississippi, afterwards professor at Georgetown and 
now at Richmond College. 

Again it had become plain that Doctor Broadus needed 
rest. The heavy summer work, in addition to the Sem- 
inary cares, was telling on his vitality. Through the 
kindness of his students a trip to Europe for the summer 
was planned. Mrs. Broadus went with him. While 
aboard the steamer " City of New York," Doctor Broadus 
wrote : 

Besides acquaintances mentioned yesterday, I had (or rather heard) 
a long talk with Professor McCabe, of Petersburg, Va., defending 
the changes he has just Induced the Visitors to make as to the Uni- 
versity A. M. course. . . 

Got into a talk casually with Piince George of Greece. He had 
stopped in New York, making a tour around the world. I told him 
presently that twenty years ago I stood for two hows within throe feet 
of his royal father and mother at a church service on the king's " name- 
day." He talked freely and pleasantly. " You ought to go there 
again, the city has giown to one hundred thousand ; the university 
has three thousand students." I mentioned seeing the common peo- 
ple reading the newspapers* " I don't like it. It makes them too 
much inclined to interfere with politics." He probably feels that 
they do not really understand politics, and are just food for dema- 
gogues. Very good manners ; no assumption, not even that of 
cordiality, 

McCabe's talk has suggested to me a new scheme of possible 
degrees in out Seminary." 

J. A. B. In *' WESTERN RECORDER " : 

LAUSANNE, SWITZERLAND, Sept 2 : Two months in Europe tempt 
one to travel too fast, and we have tried hard to avoid this mistake. 
My health has varied, but on the whole has considerably improved, 
and there is reason to hope it will continue to imptove. The best of 



398 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

and which I am at present having my class examine with great in- 
terest and profit. 

Doctor Broadus had been requested by the Southern 
Baptist Convention at Birmingham, as well as by the 
American Baptist Publication Society, to prepare a cate- 
chism to be issued jointly by the Northern and Southern 
Baptists. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., Dec. 18, 1891 : Notwithstanding various in- 
terruptions this morning I finished Lesson I, for the " Catechism." 
It is, of course, an extremely difficult task to make questions and 
answers about the existence and attributes of the Divine Being, that 
shall be intelligible to children, adequate as the foundation of future 
thinking, and correct as far as they go. 

Some years before this Doctor Broadus and Doctor 
Kerfoot had so earnestly presented the needs of the 
Seminary to Mr. G. W. Norton that he and Mrs, W. F. 
Norton had agreed to erect a building for lecture rooms 
and chapel, costing sixty thousand dollars, as soon as 
the endowment should reach four hundred thousand dol- 
lars. This requirement had now been fulfilled by the 
earnest efforts of Doctors Broadus and Kerfoot. Mr. 
Norton had passed away, but the family and Mrs. W. F. 
Norton cheerfully carried out the plan, and the noble 
edifice known as Norton Hall was duly erected. If Doc- 
tor Boyce could only have seen this day ! 

But light and shadow came together. Doctor Boyce 
had been stricken down when the library was in sight, 
and now Doctor Manly falls as Norton Hall becomes a 
reality. In the fall of 1887 he was struck on the head 
by a robbei at Crescent Hill one evening as he went 
home. His system never recovered from that blow. 
Valvular disease of the heart was brought on, which ulti- 
mately led to his death from pneumonia on Sunday, Jan. 



SUCCEEDING DOCTOR BOYCE AS PRESIDENT 399 

31, 1892. The funeral exercises were held in the Walnut 
Street Church. The sermon was preached by the pastor, 
Dr. T. T. Eaton, and addresses were made by Dr. W. H. 
Whitsitt, Dr. E. L. Powell, Dr. R. H. Rivers, Dr. C. R. 
Hemphill, and Doctor Broadus. The following report of 
Doctor Broadus's address is from the " Courier- Journal." 
The closing apostrophe was spoken with staitling passion 
and vividness. Prof. T. M. Hawes 1 considered it the 
most remarkable burst of oratory he had ever heard : 

Is there not danger that as we survey so remarkable a character 
there \* ill come a feeling that he was such a good man we can never 
hope to be like him? His example is so bright. We deal in mere 
admiration and eulogy instead of being stimulated to earnest imita- 
tion. I dare say he never found it an easy thing to do right. This 
nature of ours requires the converting and strengthening grace of 
God to create a Christian character and help in leading a Christian 
lire. He had no doubt plenty of struggles ; many times he must have 
looked back upon his nets with regiet. Let us not fail to be 
strengthened by such an example, to follow him, to imitate him as 
he imitated Christ. Waste no words ot vain admiration, but say, 
** God helping me, I shall tiy to live better because I knew him/' 
People often said : " Oh, he is such a good man ! " But some think 
that a good man is one person and a great man another, They 
think n man of power must have a will of iron and stern manners. 
Ah ! this gentle-mannered man, if ever he made up his mind that 
something must be done never stopped till that something was done. 
I never knew a stronger will nor one more gentle. 

People see a man patient and suppose it is no trouble to be so ; 
they don't know what it costs to be gentle, 

He was the most versatile man I ever met- I never saw him try 
to do anything that he did not do it well. The worth of such a man 
only God can measure. , . 

I knew him nearly forty years ago as president of the Richmond 
iVa.) Female Institute. What privileges those girls enjoyed in 
having him as a teacher ! To-day in many a Southern home some 
matron with children and grandchildren around her will be telling 
that she was a pupil of Basil Manly. Then he was president of 

1 Doctor BmaJushaJ associated Professor Hawes with him in his homlletlc class 
U* <<mst Jerod him a remarkable tencher of elocution. 



400 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

Georgetown. Besides the hundreds of young men who there took 
his impress, near one thousand of the thirteen hundred young minis- 
ters who have studied at our Seminary are to be added. Happy 
pupils who have looked up into his loving face. . . He ought to 
have lived to a good old age, but you know that the world's most 
worthless object may strike down the greatest life. In the dusk one 
day he walked to his country home at Crescent Hill. Parting from 
his companion he heard a noise, turned, and saw his friend on the 
ground with another bending over. Running to ask the reason he 
was himself struck down. Oh, poor wretch ! Where are you to- 
day? Do you know what you have done? How could you rob 
the world of ten years of noble life ? May you reap the result of 
your ignoble work ; may God's justice follow you till his truth 
strikes your heart and in his mercy you may find pardon ! But who 
am I to complain of God's providence? Let us all, young and old, 
try to live better because of his life. God help us. May it not be 
in vain for any one here present that we knew and loved Basil Manly. 

Resolutions of sympathy were passed in many parts of 
the country, including the New York Baptist Ministers' 
Conference. 

C. H. JUDSON to J. A. B. : 

GREENVILLE, S. C., Feb. 2, 1892 : The daily papers of this 
morning announce the death of two eminently godly and useful men 
Rev. Charles H. Spurgeon, of London, and Dr. Basil Mnnly, of 
Kentucky. The Baptist world mourns their loss. Their voices are 
now hushed in the sleep of death. Their words live on, and will 
continue to live, till they themselves shall awake to newness of life. 

The faculty of Furman University have instructed me to express 
to the officers and students of the Seminary our heartfelt sympathy 
in your great bereavement and sorrow. Dr. Basil Manly's long con- 
nection with the Seminary, his noted piety and ability as a teacher, 
his versatility of mind, as manifested in the management of many 
of the minor interests of the Seminary, his genial and generous 
character, as shown in his regard for the temporal as for the intellec- 
tual welfare of the students, his wisdom and sagacity as shown in 
the counsels and deliberations of the faculty, will cause his loss to be 
deeply felt by all connected with the Seminary. 

J. P. GREENE to J. A. B. : 
ST. LOUIS, MO., Feb. 4, 1892 : I did not hear till last night of 



SUCCEEDING DOCTOR BOYCE AS PRESIDENT 401 

Doctor Manly 1 s death. This is a great loss to the Seminary and to 
our Baptist cause. I have been thinking much of the Seminary and 
of you, since I heard of his death. You alone of the founders of the 
school are left, and my heait sympathizes with you. I remember 
distinctly your remarks at the funeral of dear Doctor Williams. 
Since that time Doctor Boyce has gone home. . . I thank God that 
you are spared to us ! At this time, I am sure you have the sympa- 
thy and prayers of all your old students I thank God for the four 
good men whom he called to lay the foundation of this great school. 
Many can say the same thing with sincerity and truth, . . 

W. W, HENRY to J. A B. : 

RICHMOND, VA., Feb. 26, 1892: Your kind letter of the 23d is 
most highly appreciated. Besides the favorable criticisms in the 
public prints I have a number of most appreciative letters, among 
them letters from the Hon. Robert C, Wmthrop and Chief Justice 
Fuller, but I value none more highly than yours. I was indeed 
anxious to know of your estimate of my work. 1 If you can find time, 
I will be greatly obliged tor the notice you design. 

J. A. B. to MRS. A, B. MITCHELL. 

LOUISVILLE, Feb. 26, 1892 : Doctor Huntoon was here last night 
at the [Conversation] Club, and spoke to me with warm admira- 
tion of your [Sunday-school] lessons, and I agreed with his estimate. 
This is t of course, a reason for still higher aims. The best result of 
doing anything well Is that it gives hope of doing better. 

I wrote last evening to Aunt Mary Stuart* Alas ! what a sorrow. 8 

J. B. GORDON to J. A, B. : 

WASHINGTON, D. C., March 14, 1892: I have not had the 
pleasure of seeing you for many years ; but you may recall me as 
the commander of a corps In General Lee's army, and finally of one 
wing of that army. , . 

1 wish I could hear again some of those sermons from your heart 
and lips, which used to so lift my own spirit toward the better land. 

EDWARD JUDSON to J. A* B. : 

NEW YORK, March 31, 1892 : Jt is with heartfelt gratitude that I 
acknowledge the kindness which breathes In every line of your let- 
ter of March 27th. I said to Mrs. Judson, " It is no wonder that so 
many people low as well as admire Doctor Broadus." 

* Life of Patrick Henry/' * The death of Mrs. E. t. C. Harrison. 
2A 



402 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

J. A. B. to the SOCIETY OF ALUMNI OF THE SOUTHERN BAPTIST 
THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY AT ATLANTA, GA. : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., May 2, 1892 : I beg to thank you most cordi- 
ally for your very great kindness in providing for me last summer a 
trip to Europe. It proved of material service to my health, which 
has been decidedly better during this session than the last session. 
I have missed no engagement on account of my health, and feel 
much stronger now than a year ago. 1 am grateful to you, and to 
the Giver of all good. I thank you also for individually exerting 
yourselves last summer, as I am sure many must have done, m find- 
ing out men who ought to come and study in the Seminary. I am 
satisfied the remarkable increase of attendance for this session was 
largely due to the exertions of the alumni and other friends, and I 
trust you will be encouraged to look around again, and stir up those 
who ought to come. 

May God bless you in your meeting, and each one of you in his 
work as a minister, and in all his mental and spiritual life. 

Doctor Broadus made another remarkable speech be- 
fore the Southern Baptist Convention at the meeting in 
Atlanta in May. Southern Baptists were engaged in the 
centennial effort for missions, an enterprise that greatly 
enlisted the sympathy of Doctor Broadus. 

At this meeting of the Seminary Board of Trustees, 
Dr. E. C. Dargan, of South Carolina, was elected asso- 
ciate professor of Homiletics and Pastoral Theology, to 
relieve some of the strain upon Doctor Broadus and Doc- 
tor Kerfoot. Assistant Professor Robertson was made 
professor of Biblical Introduction and continued assistant 
professor of New Testament Interpretation, to which 
position he had been promoted in 1890. Doctor Broadus 
now had two assistants glad to lighten the load for him, 
besides Prof. T. M. Hawes, who had long rendered ad- 
mirable service as teacher of elocution. Doctor Sampey 
was also made professor of Old Testament Interpreta- 
tion, succeeding Doctor Manly. 

MRS. A. B. M. to MISS MARY E. ADAMS. 
ALEXANDRIA, VA., June 10, 1892 : One word more before going 



SUCCEEDING DOCTOR BOYCE AS PRESIDENT 403 

away from the sacred soil. I was tempted to confiscate on Tuesday 
a sheet of paper marked ** Mount Vernon on the Potomac, Fairfax 
County, Virginia," to write you a letter on, but managed to refrain. 
Our visit there was ideal the house and situation so beautiful and 
stately that I rejoiced in Washington's having such a home. We fell 

in with Mr. Wirt Henry, grandson of Patrick H , and a college 

mate of papa's. He is a* 1 Regent" of Mt. Vernon, and opened 
doors for us to enter and see and touch, where others looked through 
lattices. He took us also into Mis. Washington's rose garden, and 
gave us each a bunch of white roses. 

Washington has been delightful, with all sorts of nice experiences. 
But Culpeper was best of all. We had a carriage and drove to the 
three homes where papa lived till nineteen. Reminiscences crowded 
as we entered the rooms, and Ella and I too recalled many of the 
" stories about Jack " that were the delight of our childhood. We 
passed Old Prince's stable, and the garden where Jack instinctively 
laid the scene of Brer Rabbit's raid on the cabbages, as described by 
old Uncle Griffin, whose cabin was just across the yard We walked 
between the flower borders where the pinks used to grow, and sat 
around the big fireplace, and knew each one's favorite seat. Father 
was in this corner with the pile of lightwood splints under his chair, 
and mother over there, and the two sisters there, and Jack sat 
between, reading to them from " Godey's Lady's Book." Then 
he would go up to the garret for apples, and pile the waiter so high 
that the apples fell down bumping along those very steps. We 
drank from the cool spring that he thought of so longingly when he 
lay burning with fever, and the doctors let him drink no water that 
had not " the chill taken off " with a fire coal. We sat behind the 
ice house where he taught his playmate Henry a new language to 
mystify people with. I know papa must have sad thoughts here, 
but he was merry and tender, and full of cheery anecdotes all the 
while. He Is the only one left of that family circle. 

We leave for Louisville to-day at 2.20 on a through train from 
Washington, Mr, Mitchell getting on at Charlottesville. Papa 
leaves from here to-night for Cornell, 1 to be at home next week. 

This has been a delightful little jaunt with the father we love and 
honor. He is so playfully chivalrous, and wondrous thoughtful of 
girls' fancies and enjoyments. 

Doctor Broadus spent the summer of 1892 in Louis- 

1 Baccalaureate Sermon at Cornell. 



404 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

ville at work on the " Memoir of Boyce " and the " Har- 
mony of the Gospels/' declining all summer supply work. 
He had a brief rest at the White Sulphur and Rawley 
Springs. In September he dedicated the Delmar Avenue 
Church, St. Louis. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 
LOUISVILLE, KV., Dec. n, 1892: I began this morning with 

three hours of dictating to E the letters of Doctor Boyce for the 

" Memoir," and this afternoon L put in two hours. It requires 

but little effort for me, having previously selected and arranged the 
letters, and needing only to look out for omissions, etc. I think the 
'* Memoir 7 ' can now go ahead pretty fast, as the " Cyclopedia" 1 
article is practically finished, and the " Harmony " getting on pretty 
well. Robertson will do for me in the spring (when he will have 
more leisure) the elaborate notes at the end of the " Harmony." 
Eaton asked, with many apologies, if I could preach for him next 
Sunday as he was needed elsewhere. I could not well decline. My 
throat is rather better. Dargan is doing much more than half of the 
work in homiletics, but I lecture sometimes, and must correct a share 
of the sermons. The students tell that he is a much more severe 
critic than I am, which is a healthy situation. 

MISS E. T. B. to MISS MARY E. ADAMS. 

LOUISVILLE, Dec., 1892 : I feel the harmoniousnecs, the working 
together, of the change from summer to autumn, and from autumn 
to winter. And it is the same way, I tell it blunderingly, but I have 
learned it, about death. I have learned it when some that I have 
loved have died ; when I have thought about it in the night, and 
&een everything differently the next day, and all the days after ; 
when I have caught the meaning of expressions in sermons and 
hymns and prayers and in the Bible ; and most of all when I talked 
with papa. This last has been only two or three times. But he 
has spoken, not generally or vaguely, but simply and plainly of him- 
self. Last spring, after Doctor Manly's death, he talked to me several 
times about things that he wanted me to remember to do after his 
time had come and we were left. And since, more than before, I 
see how right it seems to him, and how real heaven is, and how true 
the blessed life there and somehow, not from conversations, but 

1 Article on " Negro " for M Johnson's Cyclopedia." 



SUCCEEDING DOCTOR BOYCE AS PRESIDENT 405 

from bits of expressions and from his feeling of constant readiness, 
I have come to understand in part. 

W. H. P. FAUNCE to J. A, B. : 

NEW YORK, Jan. 4, 1893 : I was very happy to receive yours of 
the 28th, and to know that you can be with us on the evening of 
Jan. ijth 1 You will receive the warmest possible welcome fiom 
all our churches, and do us more good than any othei man could 
possibly do. 

J. R. MOTT to J. A. B. : 

CHICAGO, Jan. 18, 1893 : I have been glad to hear from my col- 
league, Mr. Brockman, that you are entertaining favorably the in- 
vitation to be at our summer school two or three days between June 
24th and July 2d. . . We never can tell how much good you have 
done in stimulating the college students of this country at Northfield 
and Knoxville. We aie peculiarly anxious to have you at this 
Lake Geneva meeting. It will be largely attended owing to its 
proximity to the World's Fair. You understand that it is only sev- 
enty miles northwest of Chicago. . . We believe that you stand 
for the most helpful, most spiritual, and most enduring Bible work 
of our time. . . 

J, A. B. to H* E. TRUEX* 

LOUISVILLE, Jan. 28, 1893 : I reach your letter again In a pile 
and must answer without further delay, though I have a great press 
of work. It seems to me that you are merely pressing certain as- 
pects of a great truth into covering all sides of It, through desire to 
get out a scheme of thought that will be thoroughly comprehensible. 
What you say is simply another form of the old Modalism having 
the same recommendations and the same objections. I suppose 
every thinking man will some time or other strive to comprehend 
the Scripture teaching as to Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. No man 
crm comprehend it in the full sense of that term ; and then the ques- 
tion Is whether he will accept the practical teaching as to our proper 
relations to the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, without settling the 
profound questions involved, or whether he will force his way 
through to some comprehensible theory, I do not at all know the 
nature of the something that moves invisibly along the wire yonder, 
and has just made a car pass at great speed. But I know how to 

* At a ftreat missionary meeting during the Centennial effort 



406 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

put myself into helpful relations with that something, and how to 
avoid other relations in which it would kill me. The Scriptures teach 
us what we need to know about our personal relations lo Father, 
Son, and Holy Spirit, while teaching us comparatively little about 
their relations to each other. I think the view that has been in- 
teresting you is very attractive, and practically impressive, if you do 
not attempt to make it cover everything. 

I suppose you have Strong's "Theology," of which I think 
highly. If you care to write me again about the questions con- 
cerned, or talk to me when we meet in May, I shall always be glad 
to know your views. But go slow, and be cautious about an- 
nouncing anything essentially novel in doctrine. Men usually get 
back from such views, if they have not committed themselves by 
preaching or publication. 

On Feb. 16, 1893, Doctor Broadus delivered an ad- 
dress at the dedication of the new building at Stetson 
University. He had come to seek recuperation in Florida 
this winter. 

J. A. B. to MRS, B. : 

ST. AUGUSTINE, FLA., Feb. 14, 1893 : Now if only you were 
here. The sea air is pleasant, and the roar of the breakers beyond 
Anastasia Island sounds familiar and cheery. The hotel is a dream 
of Oriental splendor. Spanish architecture, like Spanish literature, 
has a tinge of the Moorish, the Arabic, and it is reproduced here. . . 

It is Valentine's Day, and if you were here, I might make some 
appropriate expressions, which can hardly be entrusted to the mail. 

Well, I have been honestly trying to get strong and bright. I re- 
member at every meal your injunction to eat things I do not have 
often at home. 

The Seminary was greatly in need of additional en- 
dowment. Doctor Broadus found a timely helper in 
Mrs. Minnie N. Caldwell, who gave property valued at 
seventy thousand dollars in memory of her husband, 
William Beverly Caldwell, Jr., from the estate of his 
mother, which she had inherited. 

MRS. MINNIE N, CALDWELL to J. A. B. : 
LOUISVILLE, KY., Feb. 27, 1893 : It is a great pleasure to me to 



SUCCEEDING DOCTOR BOYCE AS PRESIDENT 407 

make this gift to the Seminary and I do it most cheerfully, trusting 
it may do much good, and lift some of the burden from its true and 
faithful friend, its president. 

J. H. EAGER to J. A. B. : 

FLORENCE, ITALY, Feb. 28, 1893 : 1 cannot thank you sufficiently 
for your prompt and favorable reply to my request for an Introduc- 
tion to '* Romanism 1 in its Home." My hope is that I shall com- 
plete the MS. by the beginning of summer, so that if you could 
prepare the Introduction in time to let me have it early in June I 
shall be very grateful. I know how very busy you are, and so I 
can only say take your own time. 

E. Z. SIMMONS to J. A. B. : 

CANTON, CHINA, May 29, 1893: I have translated your" Cate- 
chism " into Chinese. 2 And now that I have done it, I want to ask 
your permission to have it printed. I should have asked your per- 
mission earlier, but for press of other works, and being almost certain 
that you would not object, I have gone on with the work. It is 
now finished, and Doctor Graves is revising it. 

I am anxiously waiting for your " Harmony of the Gospels " to 
be published. We need a good " Harmony of the Gospels" in 
Chinese. 

H. G. WESTON to J. A* B. : 

CHESTER, PA., June 21, 1893 : By the way, in the course of my 
wanderings lately, I lighted somewhere on a volume of your sermons. 
1 had not seen them before ; it was when I had time to enjoy my- 
self and I sat down and read them ; read them with unmixed delight 
and admiration. I'd rather be able to preach those sermons than 
any others I have ever read. J rose, grateful to God, not so much 
that he had given you such powers as that he had given you so 
largely the ear of God's people, and that you set before them such 
pure, appropriate, helpful gospel truth* The next best thing to being 
able to meet one's ideal in preaching is to know some one who can. 

J, A. B. to WARREN RANDOLPH : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., July 12, 1893: I think that our scheme of les- 
sons has been In some details fairly open to criticism, but I think 

1 Now out* American Baptist Publication Society. 

* Doctor Graves lias also translated Into Chinese Broadus's H Preparation and De- 
livery of Sermons/' 



408 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

that much of what some folks have been saying of late is nonsense. 
The so-called inductive method of study will answer for college 
students and a few Bible classes, but most pupils and most teachers 
will never make anything of it. It is all very easy to say that we 
must have a scheme of lessons which will compel the teachers and 
pupils to study the lessons. I can call spirits from the vasty deep, 
but will they come? Get up hard lessons in order to compel study, 
and you defeat your object with most schools. A good part of this 
new movement arises from the general tendency of the time to 
frequent change, to regard everything twenty years old as anti- 
quated, and every man fifty years old as behind the times. There 
is, of course, no small advantage in having different lessons for dif- 
ferent grades of pupils. On this account, I was at first opposed to 
the system of uniform lessons. . . So let us be patient, take it easy, 
go out gracefully if that seems best, and if we are retained, try to 
make all the real improvements we possibly can. Whatever is 
worth doing well is worth doing better. 

One of the last and best things done by Doctor Broadus 
for the Sunday-school was getting the adoption of parallel 
readings for the connection. This was done at the Bos- 
ton meeting of the committee in December, 1893. He 
went to the meeting to get this done and succeeded. 
Doctor Hoge, who was a member of the committee, says 
in a memorial sermon on Doctor Broadus : 

For about twelve years, once in the year, I have met him in our 
International Sunday-school Lesson Committee ; and, as I had oc- 
casion to say to a brother that I see in this house this evening who 
asked me once with regard to what had been done at our last meet- 
ing, there was one department of our work in which Doctor Broadus 
was worth all the rest of us together ; and that this was no exag- 
geration will be understood when I say that he came prepaied with 
the scheme of the lessons already formulated, written out wholly or 
so planned that he was ready to lead and guide through the whole 
discussion. 

We always met at the same hotel, because we could not afford to 
be separated ; and we always took our meals at the same table, that 
we might resume our work immediately after the recess ; and when 
we were gathering at the place of rendezvous, as we were greeting 
each other, the first question would be : " Has Doctor Broadus come 



SUCCEEDING DOCTOR BOYCE AS PRESIDENT 409 

yet?" And, after it was known that he was present, there was a 
feeling of satisfaction that the work would be safely and well con- 
ducted. 

R. A. GUILD to J. A. B. : 

PROVIDENCE, R. I., Aug. 28, 1893 : I have just finished reading 
your charming " Life of Doctor Boyce," and I want to thank you for 
the invaluable service you have rendered, in making the public thus 
acquainted with the character, talents, and labors of the founder of 
our largest theological school. Dear Boyce I What a wonderful 
man he was. And how I loved him. He was the dearest friend I 
ever had, I miss him more and more. I think of him every day 
of my lite. My dying moments, whenever they come, will be soothed 
by the thought that I shall meet him m the blest " Beyond." 

C. W. PRUITT to J. A. B. ; 

HWANGHIEN, CHINA, Aug. 3, 1893 : Mrs. Pruitt and I have just 
finished reading together the " Memoir of Doctor Boyce." I want 
to tell you something of my appreciation and enjoyment of the book. 
It was such a pure delight to go back to the Seminary once more 
and be taken into such noble companionship, not only for all the 
years of the Seminary's existence, but for many yeais besides. 

Doctor Boyce was a great man. I only realize it now at this dis- 
tance and through the medium of your book and the memories it 
stirs, and involuntarily chide myself for not finding it out when in 
daily contact with his life. I loved him and revered and honored 
him then, but I knew not that wonderful history. I had no adequate 
conception of the almost superhuman struggles that were required 
for establishing and maintaining the institution we all love so much. 
When I read how he labored and what sacrifices he made I am 
deeply conscious of how poorly I have responded to the efforts of my 
predecessors and teachers. I owe so much to the Seminary and to 
Doctor Boyce, to Doctor Manly and yourself, and also Doctors Toy 
and Whitsitt. Pardon me if I say that besides your faithful and 
inspiring instruction in the classroom, your loving advice in private 
on one occasion will ever be treasured as one of the most Important 
events of my life. So fatherly, so tender, so convincing, it Is a 
sweet memory. 

Doctor Boyce' s Is the most remarkable life I ever read in its free- 
dom from faults and its universal sympathy. One would be tempted 
to fed that somehow the author's affection (winch is so beautiful) 
had blinded him to the defects weic it not that the same high con* 



410 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

elusion is overwhelmingly borne out in all Doctor Boyce's letters 
and addresses. 

J. A. B. in the "Western Recorder" for September 
20, 1893 : 

I preached six Sundays in the Washington Avenue Baptist Church 
in Brooklyn. I have never through all the years had very large 
summer congregations in New York or Brooklyn better in some 
cities, magnificent foi two summers in Detroit and I have learned 
not to have large expectations in that line m the metropolis. One 
reason is, of course, that there so many people really go out of town 
in summer. The proportion, however, of good listeners at Wash- 
ington Avenue was very remarkable. Blessings on the head and 
heart of the people, older or younger, who listen well, who listen for 
dear life to the plain statement of essential, practical gospel truth, 
evidently believing that these things have to do with all their 
worthiest aims and highest comfort. Good friend, suppose you 
make up your mind to be at church always a good listener* If the 
preacher speaks well, your listening will help him to do better still. 
If he is a very poor preacher, your good listening may make it more 
endurable, not only to yourself but to all the rest. Once in boyhood 
my father said to me : ** Always listen closely to every preacher ; 
he cannot fail to say something worth hearing, and you can form 
few habits so important as the habit of close attention." Washing- 
ton Avenue Church is one of the most notable Baptist churches in 
the country. There is at present no pastor, the excellent Doctor 
Braislm having resigned in the early summer. I hope and pray they 
may find a man full of gospel truth and love and power, and I am 
satisfied that whoever comes will find uncommonly good helpers in 
his work. Oh, the work that is to be done in these vast and grow- 
ing cities, and for all this great and wicked world ! 

Between Sundays I, of course, tried to rest and gain improvement 
in health. Two weeks were spent with very dear friends in the ex- 
act center of Long Island, near Lake Ronkonkoma, a region I have 
never before visited. It is a country of sand and pine trees, which 
take all that is hurtful out of the sea air, and leave it delightful 
and healthy. Every blessing on the family circle with which my 
wife and I sojourned dear to us as kindred and by many other ties. 
Then we spent two weeks in the Catskills. In all my summer so- 
journing about New York I have never visited this famous region. 
It is a mountain region extending west and southwest from the upper 



SUCCEEDING DOCTOR BOYCE AS PRESIDENT 411 

Hudson. A peculiar stream which flows through a cleft in the 
mountains was named by the Dutch, Kaaterskiii (pronounced Kaw), 
that is, Cat's Creek, from the fierce wild cats which they found in 
the neighborhood. This name is still retained for the creek, but the 
first part of it has been translated for the mountains, making Cats- 
kill. These mountains are really a part of the great Appalachian 
range which extends down into North Alabama. I had half a mind 
to telegraph from the famous "Mountain House" on the Catskills 
to a friend in Florence, Alabama, saying, " Alleghenies, end to end " ; 
but stopping to think, I remembered that really the same range in- 
cludes the mountains of New England, and runs into Nova Scotia. 

We were struck with the general lesemblance of the Catskill 
Mountains, at first view, to the Allegheny Mountains in Virginia, 
and the books show that the strata here are the same as elsewhere 
in the great range, except that the Catskills lack the upper strata 
containing iron and coal, which do not begin until you reach Penn- 
sylvania. The celebrated view from the Catskills is also much 
like some of the mountain views in Virginia, but with the important 
advantage of the Hudson River ; then, being near to New Yoik, it 
has been made famous by unnumbered travelers, and already at an 
early period by Cooper and Irving. How many a fail landscape in 
other parts of this beautiful range of mountains, still waits in smil- 
ing beauty for the fit interpretations of literature and art. Cooper 
carried Leatherstocking through the Catskills and here lived and 
slept and waked In wonder the immortal Rip Van Winkle. They 
even showed us the very rock on which he slept those twenty years. 
From the stage road the ladies have to climb some distance up a very 
steep place, pulling at the shrubbery, or at long wiies strung for the 
purpose, to reach the rock ; and then after descending they are told 
that others say the real rock is this flat one beside (he road. Barnum 
used to say : ** The world was born to be humbugged, and I was 
born to humbug it." But go along the road down the mountain 
slope, look out over the dreamy landscape, and you are willing enough 
to believe for artistic purposes, in Irving's immortal creation. . . 

My last week in the neighborhood of New York was spent at 
Manhattan Beach. When the great storm occurred on Wednesday 
night, I was waked two or three times by the tremendous dash of 
rain against the window, and the quivering shake of the gieat 
wooden hotel, but it struck me that the architect who built the hotel 
must have known that storms and winds would come on Manhattan 
Beach, and wouldn't have built it to be blown down ; and as there 
was no possible way to help one's self, or to help anybody else, there 



412 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

was nothing to do but to turn over and go to sleep again. To peo- 
ple accustomed to bear heavy burdens of responsibility, it is some- 
times a great relief to feel that you have nothing to do in a case. 

I think that Sousa is a worthy successor of Gilmore, and that is 
saying a good deal. He has most of Gilmore's musicians, he learned 
well his chief's ideas, and carried them out with admirable skill. He 
makes great crowds of people listen to a great deal of true classical 
music, by skillfully mingling with it a great variety of lighter pieces, 
popular in tone, but really good, and played with contagious en- 
thusiasm. He is always ready to give an encore, and even a second 
encore, throwing himself heartily upon the sympathies of the audience. 
Theodore Thomas presents as admirable a programme in selection 
and execution as any one has probably ever heard on the Continent, 
but he takes no pains to get hold of the audience. He will seldom 
concede an encore at all, and if he does, it is again something stately, 
and scarcely ever a popular favorite. I think that preachers might 
learn a great deal from reflecting on these two methods. . . 

My last three weeks of vacation were spent at Rawley Springs, 
near Harrisonburg and Staunton, in the valley of Virginia. It was 
the eighth or ninth visit of my life to that wonderful fountain of iron 
water, the most perfect tonic, for persons who need only a tonic, that 
I have ever seen or heard of. How delightful it is to drink from the 
copious flowing stream what has so often before done you good 
through and through ; to eat with quickened appetite and no fears 
about digestion ! To climb high mountain sides with fresh and un- 
wearied vigor, and revel in the beautiful scenery ; then to sleep, 
drinking in at every breath the cool, pure mountain air. And what 
pleasant people one meets in the little company at Rawley. People 
from Baltimore and Washington, and Richmond and Charleston ; 
old-fashioned Virginia people, from country homes; F. F. V.'s who 
are worthy of the name. I have had many a pleasant sojourn at 
Virginia springs, but never met pleasanter people than this summer 
at Rawley, and I and several members of my family came away 
thankful for marked improvement of health. 

Of this summer, Dr. C. R. Bracket!, of Charleston, 
S. C., says : 

In all our travels we do not remember ever to have met with a 
stranger who so quickly won and completely captivated our hearts, 
and who in so short a time so deeply impressed himself upon us! 
We have never ceased talking over our delightful interviews and 



SUCCEEDING DOCTOR BOYCE AS PRESIDENT 413 

pastimes at Rawley Springs. What an eager listener I was in our 
daily walks ! He must have wondered sometimes at my reticence ; 
but he would have ceased to marvel, had he seen how my thirsty 
soul was drinking in, like a sponge, his woids of wisdom and ex- 
perience. I mean by wisdom, all his vast information, digested into 
knowledge, and passed through the crucible of his own experience. 
Doctor Broadus impressed me as having reached the type of a per- 
fect Christian character, " a glorified childhood." I think of him 
not as '* a star that dwells apart," but as a " central living fire," 
that gathers around it by the gravitating foice of his love numerous 
lesser stars, that he delights to illumine, warm, and refresh ; not as 
a mountain sublime in lonely giandeur, but like such a mountain as 
1 have read of, fruitful to its summit, that loved to towei above the 
clouded earth towaid God and heaven, but was equally in love with 
the plains, which he delighted to bless with all the gathered tieasures 
oi heaven and eatth. I think of him now as having gone to take 
his place among those who aie "greatest in the kingdom of hea- 
ven,' 7 who on earth were the ** servants of all." 

LOUIS BELCHER to J. A. B. : 

NEW YORK, Oct 10, 1893 : You little know, my dear sir, how 
much good you did this summer at the church by yow sermons, 
your kindly presence, and genial manner. I know whereof I speak, for 
one of my choir has written out at least one of your sermons and has 
gladly handed the copy to those not privileged to hear the delivery* . . 

We musical people are very sensitive and when we meet a minis- 
ter who realizes the value of good music properly rendered and in- 
spired by correct motives, our hearts warm toward him. 

On October 8 Doctor Broadus preached at the dedica- 
tion of the Second Church, Atlanta, as he did for the Col- 
lege Avenue Church, Indianapolis, in November. 

JOHN POTTS to J* A. B, : 

TORONTO, CANADA, Oct. 27, 1893 : I have just received a copy 
of u A Harmony of the Gospels." I have examined the book with 
some care T and have decided to place it alongside of my Bible in the 
study of the Gospels and in pulpit preparation. 

I hope your health is good, and that you will stick by the les- 
son committee. We miss you very much when not able to be 
with us. 



41 4 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

JOS. E. BROWN to J. A. B. : 

ATLANTA, GA., Oct. 29, 1893 : Through your letter to Doctor 
McDonald, I learned of the formal opening of the Norton Hall. You 
judge rightly, my condition makes it impossible for me to attend 
even on such an interesting occasion. 1 dare not allow myself to 
make the mental effort to say anything worthy of such an auspi- 
cious event. Be kind enough to represent me in any way you 
deem proper and necessary. 

I am glad that the honored names of such generous contributors 
are to be preserved in the Norton Hall. 

As humble an individual as myself rejoices that I have been able 
to contribute a little towards securing an institution which has 
proven such a blessing to the churches of our denomination. I have 
thanked God for this ever since it occurred. 

I rejoice in the prosperity of the Seminary and in the work already 
done and for the promise of ever-widening influence and blessing. 
Oh, that Boyce and Manly could be with you to-day ! 

In the short time our heavenly Father may allot to me I will pray 
that the Divine blessing rest upon the Southern Baptist Theological 
Seminary. 

The magnificent Norton Hall, alluded to by Senator 
Brown, was formally dedicated Nov. i, 1893. Doctor 
Broadus presided, Doctor Pickard led in prayer, Dr. 
Henry McDonald, Mr. G. W. Norton, Jr., Doctor Ker- 
foot, and Doctor Broadus made addresses. Dr. B. H. 
Carroll had been also requested to speak, but was un- 
able to be present. It was a happy day for the Semi- 
nary when its third building was opened for service. 
There is now a fourth building, the generous gift of 
Hon. Joshua Levering, President of the Board of Trus- 
tees, which is called the Levering Gymnasium. 

LEW WALLACE to J. A. B : 

CRAWFORDSVILLE, IND., Nov. 15, 1893: I give you many 
thanks for the very intelligent and discriminating notice of "The 
Prince of India," that appeared m the " Western Recorder " of the 
ninth inst. 

The criticism of too much history, or rather historical detail, is 
just, if viewed from a purely artistic standpoint. But you have 



SUCCEEDING DOCTOR BOYCE AS PRESIDENT 415 

struck the reason of the objection. Like Ben Hur, the Prince of 
India was written for what I hoped would prove a great aimy of 
" average readers," not the small corps of professional critics. 

Doctor Bioadus wrote many book notices, which were 
always informing and just. He was distinctly a man of 
letters. With all his special duties he found time for 
general reading, and delighted in it, and he strove to 
stimulate a like interest among his students by a helpful 
lecture on " The Minister's General Reading." He had a 
passion for history, and insisted that it was the most im- 
portant of human studies. He once devised a very at- 
tractive plan for reading English histoiy in connection 
with Shakespeare, the "Waverley Novels," etc. It 
was characteristic of him that he urged a re-reading of 
the history after the novel or drama, so as to correct 
false impressions. He always delighted in poetry and 
was especially fond of Shakespeare, Wordsworth, Brown- 
ing, Tennyson, Milton, and Sophocles, It is remembered 
in the family as a feat that he once read aloud for an 
hour from f< The Ring and the Book," so as to make it 
delightful, though it was new to both reader and hearers. 



CHAPTER XVIII 
THE LAST YEAR 

Thy presence through my journey shine, 
And crown my journey's end. 



Anne Steelt, 



IT was becoming plain that Doctor Broadus was not so 
strong as he had been. He clung to his work from 
high principle. His colleagues, Professors Dargan and 
Robertson, relieved him all that he would allow. But he 
dearly loved his work and fought the idea of letting go 
at any point. A midwinter trip to Florida gave him 
some relief, but shortly after his return Prof. Sampey 
was compelled to give up his work for five weeks, and 
this threw much upon Doctor Broadus, as we shall see. 

J. A. B. to MISS E. T. B. : 

PLANT CITY, FLA., Jan. n, 1894: Hard time last evening. I 
had told the pastor and others that I couldn't possibly preach. . . 

This morning I spoke twenty minutes on the Woman's Mission 
work. To-night I am to speak for the Seminary, but after four 
other speakers, and I know well enough what that will come to. 
Well, I must simply do the best I can. No chance to rest here ex- 
citing sermon from Doctor Bitting this morning, speech from Bryan 1 
this afternoon. Now I must go and walk. Have to leave to- 
morrow at 6.37 A. M. Whew ! Well. 

J. A. B. to MRS. B. : 

DE LAND, FLA., Jan. 13, 1894: I received L '$ letter at Plant 

City just before leaving there. I spoke Thursday night after four 
others, the last being Doctor Gambrell, who was highly entertaining. 
They readily pledged the contribution Whitsltt desired. 

Yesterday morning I had to rise early and pack, to leave at 6.37. 
So I did not sleep soundly. We breakfasted, President Forbes and 

i Rev. R. T. Bryan, missionary in Shanghai. 
416 



THE LAST YEAR 417 

I, on a buffet car. It was a pleasant day for traveling, like an April 
day peach trees in bloom, delicate wind. Mr. Stetson met me. In 
the afternoon we surveyed a wonderful crop ot oranges. Great 
trouble this winter that oranges aie too large can't put enough in a 
box dealers have to sell by the dozen serious difficulty. 

Last evening a good audience, and ** Glimpses" got through 
moderately well. Good night's sleep. I try not to eat too many 
oranges. Have just corrected proof ot " Glad Giving." l 

J. A. B. to E. Y. MULLINS : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., Jan 27, 1894: I cannot complain of inquiries 
about my opinions as given in books and lectures, and of couise I 
am glad to hear from you on any subject. 

I am neither a Pre-rmllenarian nor a Post-millenaiian, in the 
usual sense of those terms. I think that the popular view, which I 
was accustomed in youth to hold in a vague way, that, before the 
coming of our Lord, there will be a thousand years of universal and 
perfect Christian piety, is simply impossible in presence of the num- 
erous strong statements made by the Saviour and the apostles that 
we must be always looking for his coming, and that it will be, as 
to many persons, wholly unexpected. If there were a period in 
which all mankind were perfect Christians, suiely the wot Id would 
kmnv just when that penod begins, and just when a thousand yeais 
of it aie about to end, and so all the woild would be looking for the 
Saviour's coming, prepaied for it ; and this is jusl the opposite of 
what the Saviour himself and his apostles have declared. I believe, 
therefore, that we ought to be all the time looking for our Lord's 
coming, and trying to be ready for it. I should not be amazed to 
see it to-monow. I have no absolute assurance that it will be this 
side of a hundred thousand years. I only know that we ought to 
be trying so to Jive as to be ready when he comes. I do not know 
what the thousand years in the book of Revelation mean. The 
programmes which some writers have drawn up, to be carried out at 
his coming by our Lord, seem to me quite unwarranted. They rest 
upon very doubtful interpretations of very obscure expressions. The 
calculations that he is going to come at a certain time, seem to me 
forbidden by his own statement that the day and hour is unknown 
to the angels in heaven and was unknown even to his own human 
mind. So, then, I cannot declare myself in sympathy with the cal- 
culations and the programmes of Pre-millenarians. I confine my- 
self to what is clearly taught by the Saviour and his apostles, and 

1 Sermon preached at Walnut Street Church, Louisville, and issued as a tract. 



418 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

we ought to be looking for his second coming and trying to be ready 
for it. 1 

J. A. B. to MRS, A. B. MITCHELL : 

LOUISVILLE, Feb. 8, 1894 : Doctor Sampey is sick, and was to 
start this afternoon for Evergreen, Alabama, his native climate, at 
my suggestion, with the hope of recovering more rapidly. I take 
his Old Testament hours for my New Testament class, and this is 
working me pretty hard. I have a bad cold, with sharp coughing 
and serious hoarseness, and shall be thankful if I can get through 
this spell of weather without breaking down. . . 

I hope this will arrive before your birthday is over, and I offer my 
most loving congratulations. I send in a separate envelope, my ser- 
mon on " Glad Giving." 

THOMAS NELSON PAGE to J. A. B. : 

WASHINGTON, D. C., Feb. 21, 1894 : I am afraid I have not the 
novelistic faculty. My mind seems to me to run only for short 
watches ; and I see the end of every story I write too clearly to 
dwell much by the wayside. However, that old life back in the 
twenties and thirties offers a fine field for the novelist, and the uni- 
versity would make a good and notable figure in it. I have written 
a somewhat longer story than I usually write, which will come out 
in the " Harper " sometime, and I hope you will like it. It is hardly 
more than a character sketch, but it deals with the past It is called 
" The Old Gentleman of the Black Stock." 

J. A. B, to W. A. WHITESCARVER : 

LOUISVILLE, Mar. 8, 1894 : It is a great pleasure once more to 
get a letter from you. I am glad you have been able to finish your 
sketch of Uncle William. Please send it to me by express to the 
above address. I shall be much interested in reading it, and wish I 
could see the way to publishing it. The difficulty is, to make re- 
ligious memoirs pay expenses. I wish I could be sure that my 
" Memoir of Doctor Boyce" would pay what it has cost me to pub- 
lish it, although he was so widely known and died so recently. But 
I shall be very glad if anything occurs by which we can bring this 

1 Doctor Mulhns had been investigatingthe subject of Christ's second coming and 
had written something on the subject. There was some change of view In the 
course of these investigations. He has for several years past held substantially 
the same view as that indicated in the letter of Doctor Broadus, Doctor Mulhns is 
now President of the Seminary and Professor of Systematic Theology. 



THE LAST YEAR 419 

before the public, and especially well pleased if I live to write an In- 
troduction to it as you propose, . , 

My family are widely scattered. Boyce is a student at George- 
town, where his brother-in-law is piofessor. Alice Mitchell has a 
John B., whom she honestly believes to be the most interesting 
child ever seen in this world. Annie Abraham, at Columbia, S. C., 
has lost two children, but has a baby, and a son ten or twelve years 
old. My son, S. S. 1 , is cashier of a bank at Florence, Ala. 

J. A. B. to JOHN B. ABRAHAM : 

PHILADELPHIA, Mar 15, 1894: I left home a week ago, and 
preached Sunday morning and evening at the University of Virginia, 
to great audiences, part of a series by Bishop Gianbery, Bishop 
Dudley, Doctor Hoge. Every locality and object theie has memories 
tor me, and they grow more pathetic as I grow older, so that it is 
hard to control my feelings, in public and in private. 

Monday, two P. M., to Tuesday morning I spent with Aunt Cassa 
at Alexandria. Get your mother to tell you about her, one of the 
excellent of the earth, and her daughters, Rosalie and Reubie, and 
her son Tom, with his wiie and son Edmund. This last is a stu- 
dent in Columbian University, 

For forty-eight houis I have been busy here, as a member of the 
International Sunday-school Lesson Committee. I think the les- 
sons for 1896 will show important improvements, which I have been 
trying to secure. I am very anxious to see people stirred all over 
the country with preparation for the twelve months on the u Life of 
our Lord," to begin July ist next. 

To-day we lunched with the famous John Wanamaker and found 
him a very interesting man. 

W, E, HATCHER to J. A. B. : 

RICHMOND, Mar. 7, 1894 : Everything will be ready for our dedi- 
catory services on the fourth Sunday in this month, and I need not 
say that we look with much interest to your coming. I have never 
seen the people so eager to hear you as they seem to be. Mr. Moody 
will be in Richmond at the time of our dedication. This will make 
it necessary for us to put all our services into one dav. The other 
churches (Baptist) will have part in our exercises, There will, of 
course, be great crowds at both services, and much &ood ought to 



1 Mr, S. S. Broadus was married Dec. as, 11895, to Miss Marguerite Carlisle. They 
have & tittle son named John A. Broadus. 



420 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

be done. I am seeking to shape the exercises, and train my people 
for the highest spiritual results. 

RICHMOND, VA., April 29, 1894- Youi sermon was a heavenly 
feast to my people, and my home-folks think of your visit as a 
thing never to be lost sight of in our thoughts and talk. 

Doctor Hatcher says that the people generally felt 
that this was Doctor Broadus's last visit to Richmond. 
They had come from all over the State. It was really 
pathetic. It was Virginia's farewell to her great son. 
The governor and most of the prominent people of the 
city went to hear him. The subject of the discourse 
was "Places of Paul's Preaching," and it was a great 
sermon. A powerful impression was made for good. 

In April it was clear that Doctor Broadus had become 
seriously ill. He did not rally from the overwork of the 
previous weeks. His physician, Dr. J. B. Marvin, 
warned him against severe strains of any kind. So he 
did not go to the Southern Baptist Convention, at Dallas, 
in May, but sought recuperation at Dawson Springs, Ky. 

J. A. B. to MISS E. T. B. : 

DAWSON SPRINGS, KY., May n, 1894 : I am getting on pretty 
well. It is cold, and I have a fire. I walk much, but slowly. Yes- 
terday morning a gentleman took me to drive to see the high sand- 
stone cliffs, near the Treadwater River. Introduced to plenty of 
people. Twice invited to preach Sunday, and wonderful to tell, de- 
clined, notwithstanding all three monitors are absent. Have read a 
good deal of " Stanley's Life." Have written a note to Lida, and 
another to Doctor Robertson, sending best wishes to the Greek 
classes in their examination to-morrow. 

The trustees of the Seminary had in May elected Mr. 
W. J. McGlothlin, of Tennessee, assistant instructor of 
Old and New Testament Interpretation, in order to pre- 
vent the professors from breaking down again. It was a 
comfort to Doctor Broadus to see a band of younger men 
gathered around him, trained by him and guaranteeing 



THE LAST YEAR 421 

the perpetuation of the cherished Seminary ideals. Dr, 
H. H. Harris, who came into the Seminary a year hence, 
was thoroughly in sympathy with the traditions of the 
institution. Mr. W. O. Carver, whose coming in 1896 
completed the gap in the teaching force, had attracted 
Doctor Broadus's attention as a student. 

Doctor Broadus had many plans for the future of the 
Seminary, such as an endowment for the librarj', larger 
general endowment, and a gymnasium. He did not live 
to see the well-appointed Levering gymnasium. He was 
anxious to see the graduate work grow, which had already 
been much stimulated by the new system of degrees. 
He often talked of the Seminaiy as being a possible 
theological university in character and scope of work. 
Doctor Broadus frequently spent sleepless nights devis- 
ing plans for the prosperity of the Seminary. 

J, A. B. to MRS, W. Y. ABRAHAM : 

MILAN, TENN., June 4, 1894: At Jackson, Tenn., from Satur- 
day afternoon to this morning, I was the guest of Mr. and Mrs. H. 
W- Tribble. . . I greatly enjoyed my sojouin, all the more that my 
nephew W, Edmund Farrar and his sister Martha board there. The 
president of the Southwestern University at Jackson volunteered 
the statement that Edmund is a fine teacher and a great help every- 
way. , . 

I have been weak and easily run down for some weeks and the 
toils and troubles of commencement week were augmented by the 
death of dear Mrs. Boyce. Lizzie telegraphed Sunday morning 
horn Oxford, Ga., that she was dead, asking me to make all arrange- 
ments for the funeral. She had suffered much for several years. . . 

Dr. H. A. Tupper has written : 

This brilliant and beautiful woman, the relict of Rev. Dr. Boyce, 
passed into the other world, May 26, 1894, and was laid to rest by 
the side of her husband, A liberal education, with incessant read- 
ing, made her a woman of more than ordinary culture, and her rich 
and racy conversation, with pleasing person and attractive manners 
rendered her the center of all social circles that she entered. While 



422 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

her talk abounded with Ion mots, irresistible sallies and sparkling 
repartee, no unkind nor cutting word ever passed her lips. Her rare 
gifts were used for profit and pleasure, but never to wound, or in- 
jure. . . She esteemed herself "the unworthiest of all," but she 
held to Christ as " all in all." She never rallied from the death of 
that strong man, upon whose judgment and wisdom she relied with 
almost childlike trust, and up to whom she looked with loving ad- 
miration. 

Doctor Broadus went a second time to Dawson Springs 
after preaching the commencement sermon at Jackson, 
Tenn. He then preached a notable sermon on Moses at 
the Vanderbilt commencement on June 17. 

E. E. Folk in the " Baptist and Reflector " : 

We may only say now that it was a sermon remarkable both for 
the breadth and depth of its learning, and wonderful for the sim- 
plicity with which profoundest truths were stated. It had, we be- 
lieve, a very inspiring and uplifting influence upon the audience. 

On Monday morning he delivered in the chapel of the University 
what he called a familiar talk to young preachers which, if anything, 
was more thoroughly enjoyed by the large audience present than 
the sermon on the previous day. There is one thing about Doctor 
Broadus's preaching and speaking : Whenever you hear him you 
feel like you want to be a better man, and that by God's help you 
are going to be a better man. At any rate this is always the way 
we feel after hearing him, and we presume that is the same way 
with others. This is, we believe, the highest effect of preaching 
to make people better. The sermon is good that does good. It is 
an effect akin to that produced by Demosthenes, when, after hear- 
ing one of his fierce denunciations of Philip, the people would exclaim 
with clenched fists and burning cheeks, " Let's fight Philip." 

We were very sorry to see that Doctoi Broadus was in such poor 
health. He told us that he could hardly stand up to preach Sunday 
morning. We trust that he may soon be fully restored to health. 
There is only one John A. Broadus in this world, and it may be a 
long time before we have another. May he long be spared to shed 
his beneficent influence upon the world. 

But there was to be no more preaching this summer. 
He had preached his last sermon. His beloved physician, 



THE LAST YEAR 423 

Doctor Marvin, told Doctor Broadus that he had serious 
heart trouble and that the end might be at any time. 
An engagement with the Woodward Avenue Church, 1 
Detroit, for preaching in August, had to be regretfully 
recalled, and Doctor Broadus once more sought health at 
Rawley Springs. 

J. A. B. to MISS E. T. B. : 

RAWLEY SPRINGS, VA., Sept. 10, 1894 : I suppose you will have 
returned by the time this ainves. You didn't know that I have on 
my mantel a photogiaph of you, on a little gilded support. Miss 
Switzer brought it one day, saying she would spare it from her man- 
tel to mine during my stay, if I'd be suie to return it. So 1 look at 
you often. Pray don't forget, amid whatever engrossments, that the 
old gentleman you call papa loves you, more in fact that he can 
state or you can imagine. 

I was in bed last night over ten hours, and my wakings were 
very brief. For several days I have really felt well j no qualifying 
terms appropriate. 

MRS. A. B. MITCHELL to J. A. B. : 
GEORGETOWN, KY.,Sept. 10, 1894: . . Jack is well. He talks 



1 Carter Helm Jones, D. D., pastor at Broadway, Louisville, was the supply at the 
Woodward Avenue Church, Detroit, of which Dr. D. D. McLaurln is pastor, the sum- 
mer of IQGO, when one of the noblest members of this church, Mr. C. C. Bowen, 
died. His letter reveals an Interesting side to Doctor Broadus's life. Who can 
tell how many Institutions of learning he helped by such kindly voids as these? Doc- 
tor Jones writes under date of August 33; "A beautiful incident has just come to 
light which I wish you could mention in your life of Doctor firoadus. You know, of 
course, of the friendship between Doctor Broadus and Mr. Charles C. Bowen, of 
Detroit Last summer Mrs. Bowen told me, at Mackinac, that the last remark 
Doctor Broadus made in parting from her husband was : ' Don't let Kalamazoo Col- 
lege go down/ Two weeks ago Mr. Bowen died. I counted it an honor to make an 
Address at hls funeral in connection with Dr. C. R. Henderson. President Harper, of 
Chicago, and President Slocum, of Kalamazoo, also took part in the service. A 
fVw days ago, when Mr. Bowen's will was probated, there was found a legacy of fifty 
thousand dollars to endow the 'John A. Broadus Chair of Greek' in Kalamazoo. 
As I read the item it thrilled me through and through." 

A different kind of memorial to Doctor Broadus is the Broadus Memorial Church, 
Richmond, Va., of which Rev. C. P. Stealy is the present pastor In the last few 
weeks my attention has been called to the memorial window in honoi of Doctor 
Broadus in the Greenwood Church, S. C,, where he was supply In xS?*. E. J, For- 
rester, D. D., is now pastor of this church. The Broadus chair In the Seminary* tho 
endowment for which Dr. Kerfoot labored, has already been mentioned. 



424 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

a great deal, and says " Danfarber " very plainly. He says his own 
name so sweetly that the boys are always bribing him to tell it. 
Yesterday he said " Mo* tan'y, mamma " in vain, and at last pulled 
my dress and said, " Don Bawder Mishel" in the most coaxing 
way. 

That is the story, and you must not ask me whether he got the 
candy or not. . . 

Give my love to the Blue Ridge. I am glad you are in sight of it. 

J. A. B. to MRS. A. B. MITCHELL : 

RAWLEY SPRINGS, VA., Sept. 14, 1804 : Your letter gave me 
much pleasure. I am very glad that you are fairly established in 
your new home. May God grant to you and your husband long 
years of domestic joy. I can't accept your invitation to come by. . . 

My health has improved as much as I had any right to hope. I 
am greatly strengthened, and have six pounds of weight more than 
when I left home, bringing me to about my customary weight for 
some years. I cannot wholly escape the weak feelings, and doubt- 
less never shall, but I hope to do steady work not too burdensome 
with hearty relish. 

My dear love to your noble husband and the dear Jack, and to 
Boyce, who must try to set me the example of growing stronger 
while at study. 

J. A. B. to J. H. COGHILL : 

LOUISVILLE, KY., Oct. 9, 1894: Yours received, with check, 
which I turn over as usual to Doctor Whitsitt for the Students' Fund. 1 
It is indeed truly kind and generous in you to take the hard times as 
only an additional reason for helping us, for we have had a very heavy 
struggle last year and this. The number of students was somewhat 
greater last year than before, and is again somewhat greater this 
year. We shall probably reach two hundred and eighty, being con- 
siderably more than any other theological seminary in the United 
States of any denomination. . . 

My health was so much improved that I am entering upon my 
work with relish, but it is evident that I must try to avoid outside 
engagements as far as possible and to dimmish my work inside by 
the help of my associates, if I am to have hope of living a good 
many years still. 



1 Mrs C. C. Bishop, of Momstown, N J , a dear friend of Doctor BroaJus, should 
also be mentioned for her large aud constant benefactions to the Students' Fund 



THE LAST YEAR 425 

J. A. B. to MISS ANNIE WILMER HUME : 

LOUISVILLE, Oct. 24, 1894 : At last I have found a gold dollar, 
The government has stopped coining the little thing, and so it haa 
become scarce and commands a growing premium. It gives m$ 
pleasure to send it to you as a token of my love, and as recalling tho 
fact that you really did impiove in health so remarkably while wfl 
were together [at Rawley Springs], 

I got your letter from Waynesboro, and was much interested and 
pleased. . . 

Especially I urge upon you to learn all you can from listening to 
conversation, and taking part in it. You are greatly favored in your 
gifted and cultivated parents, and in the tact that so many of the 
visitors at your home are highly cultivated people. Make it a point 
to learn all you can from what people say. Try to remember some- 
thing interesting that somebody said, and take the first opportunity 
to ask your father or mother questions about it, whether they think 
that was true, or how so and so can be explained. People can learn 
a great deal more fiom conversation than from all the reading we 
do, if they will only try. 

Give rny dear love to your father and mother. It will always be 
a delightful recollection with me to have been able to be with you 
all during this summer. My health is fairly good and I am pretty 
busy. 

Doctor Broadus was asked to write on the Pastoral 
Epistles for the "International and Critical Commen- 
tary," hut he declined. He had a cherished plan to 
write a book on the " Interhihlical History," and he felt 
the time growing short with him. So he began compos- 
ing the " Interbiblical History " in connection with his 
caching that subject during the October days. Five 
chapters were written out in full. But the last of Octo- 
ber he stopped at Baltimore to address the Maryland Con- 
vention on the way to New York to a meeting of the 
International Lesson Committee. It was all very excit- 
ing to him. He came hack on Saturday and worked 
furiously on his book that night. The next day he 
was very ill, and for a month he was unable to lecture 
at all. 



426 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

J. A. B. to A FRIEND : 

LOUISVILLE, KV., Nov. 24, 1894: My home is lively with the 
daughters and their children, come beforehand to the wedding, 1 and 
they help me a great deal upon what would otherwise have been 
days hard to bear, in all the monotony of sickness. I take gieat 
pride in my daughters. They are quite unlike in appearance and 
character, and I admire each one. The fond pleasure I take in each 
one makes me all the more delight in the others. I love to talk with 
them, and quietly observe their quiet ways. 

WM. L. WILSON to J. A. B. : 

WASHINGTON, D. C., Nov. 26, 1894 : I am sincerely pained at 
the news which Doctor Huntington brought home from the General 
Association of Virginia as to your health. I trust it is exaggerated 
and that you may soon regain all that you have lost and add many 
years of working capacity to your useful life. Both you and I have 
led such busy lives in our respective spheres, that our paths have but 
seldom met and then very quickly crossed, but I have long hoped 
that when my own work slackened I might be privileged to enjoy a 
closer and more intimate acquaintance with you ; not only in the 
field of scholarship which you have been permitted to cultivate so 
much more thoroughly than myself, but as a Christian and a Bap- 
tist whose ripeness of study and steadiness of faith I could safely 
draw on for comfort and guidance. My people have given me a dis- 
charge 3 from a public service as laborious as any American politician 
of this generation has had, and while, very naturally, I do not relish 
the order of my going, I hail with delight the large opportunities I 
may have for reading and study in fields I have been long com- 
pelled unwillingly to neglect. 

J. A. B. to B. W. N. SIMMS : 

LOUISVILLE, Nov. 28, 1894 : My daughter wrote you that I was 
sick. I regret the delay in answering your letter. 

The idea that the word wine in the Bible sometimes means an un- 
intoxicating beverage is without any sufficient foundation. Some 
men have written to that effect, but no man who is a thorough He- 
brew or Greek scholar, as far as I know, at all takes any such posi- 
tion. It seems to me a great pity that advocates of the great cause 

1 His youngest daughter, Miss Ella Thomas, was married on Nov 27 to Prof A 
T. Robertson, of the Seminary 

2 Mr. Wilson had been defeated for Congress from West Virginia, after career 
of great distinction in Washington, and has now fallen on sleep. 



THE LAST YEAR 427 

of total abstinence should take up so utteily untenable a position. The 
pure wine of Palestine, in our Lord's time, taken as was the custom 
with a double quantity of water (a man who "dunks unmixed," 
among the Greeks, meant a hard drinker), and used in moderation, 
was about as stimulating as our tea and coffee, and was used by the 
Saviour and by others just as we use them. The case is altered 
now, for such pure and mild wines would be very hard to get, and 
they are not needed because we have tea and coffee, and their use 
would tend to encourage the use of distilled liquors, which are so 
much more powerful and dangerous. Therefore it is better to abstain 
from the use of wine for our own sake and as an example to others. 
I do not know of any tract on the subject. 

My daughter's marriage occurred on yesterday, and they have 
left for New Orleans to stay a few days. . , I wish we could meet 
oftener. 

On Nov. 30 Hon. Joseph E. Brown, president of the 
Board of Trustees of the Seminary died, but Doctor 
Broadus was unable to be present at the funeral. The 
Seminary was represented by Doctor Kerfoot. Doctor 
Broadus now took up full work again with zest until the 
bitter cold sent him to Florida accompanied by Mrs. 
Broadus. 

J, A. B. to MISS ANNIE LOUISE ABRAHAM : 

JACKSONVILLE, FLA., Jan. 9, 1895 : I am sitting by the window, 
and grandma is combing her long hair. We both love Annie Louise 
dearly. We got here all right, and are going oft this morning again. 
Give our love to your dear mother and John, and to sister and to 
Uncle Rob and Aunt Ella, and say howdye to Hattie and Amanda. 

J. A. B. to A. T. R. : 

OCALA, FLA., Jan. 21, 189$: Beautiful weather the last few 
days. We lost the first half of our three weeks, and are just begin- 
ning to get the good of Florida. The first effect is to make one 
thoroughly lazy, and that I am feeling. 

Mamma joins me in love to each one, * . 

ST. AUGUSTINE, FLA., Jan. 28, 189$: I am about going down 
to telegraph, u Expect us Saturday noon**' I have not shaken off 
the cough, though it is lessened, and I think it my duty to stay the 



428 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

few days longer that are possible, so as to feel in any event, that I 
did my best. . . I feel a good deal stronger, but can't get rid of the 
cough. 

C. L. COCKE to J. A. B. : 

HOLUNS, VA., Jan. 26, 1895 : 1 read your suggestion 1 in regard 
t to reading the Gospel of Mark through in eight days and though I 
had recently read it in less time I commenced again. Others here are 
reading it with you and I have no doubt thousands all over the 
country are doing likewise. The suggestion was entirely unique 
and original, and from that very fact, no doubt, will attract very 
general notice and comment, and further induce many to read the 
Gospel of Mark with more care and close study than ever before. . . 

Doctor Broadus felt much concerned for the future of 
the B. Y. P. U. work, to which he was thoroughly 
friendly, as he had exerted himself in Woman's Work in 
the South. He had hoped to be in the coming Washing- 
ton Conference. In one of the last weeks of his life he 
said : " I had been hoping to do some helpful work about 
this young people's movement. It is full of possibilities 
for good or for harm, and needs the wisest direction." 
The last article he wrote for the public was for the " Re- 
ligious Herald " 2 about the young people and also about 
"progressive conservatism." This phrase accurately 
describes his attitude toward a great many questions. 

It turned out that Doctor Broadus returned too soon, 
for it was the worst winter in years and the most terrific 
cold came after his resumption of work. This naturally 
affected his health. But he toiled on heroically. 

j. A. B. to MR. s. s. B. : 

LOUISVILLE, Feb. 18, 1895 : I am better, but not thoroughly well. 
I lectured seven times last week, and must, if possible, make ten this 
week pretty hard, but seemingly necessary. 

J. A. B. to W. D. POWELL : 
LOUISVILLE, Feb. 26, 1895 : I am glad to hear about your pro- 

1 Made at the Florida Convention. * Issue of March 14, 1895. 



THE LAST YEAR 429 

posed Missionary Conference, and to learn that our honored friends, 
Mr. Moody and Mr. Sankey are expected to attend. I have never 
heard Mr. Moody speak without gaining fresh and wholesome im- 
pulses in the right direction. He is one of the most useful and justly 
honored Christian men of the age, and 1 shall be exceedingly glad 
if he can give you his help. 

The Saviour knew that his disciples would always find it difficult 
to believe that the Spirit's guidance and sustaining power would be 
better for them than his own continued presence. A person who 
has high self-respect will seldom condescend to give assurance that 
he is telling the truth. That ought to be taken for granted by his 
friends, yet the Saviour said to the disciples on the night before the 
crucifixion, " Nevertheless I tell you the truth. It is expedient foi 
you that I go away, for if I go not away, the Spirit will not come, 
but if I go away, I will send him to you." So then we are actuallv 
better off, if we only knew it and would fully avail ourselves of the 
privilege, In that we can constantly seek the blessings of the Holy 
Spirit in his blessed mission with his people, than we would be if the 
Saviour himself were still moving about among us. Let us try to 
appreciate this great blessing of the Holy Spirit's mission to his peo- 
ple. We must not err about it. We must not imagine ourselves in- 
spired, as the apostles were, and go to setting up our ideas in oppo- 
sition to their inspired teachings ; but we may hope to have, and 
therefore should be always seeking the Holy Spirit's help in determi- 
ning the meaning of the inspired teachings, in applying them to our 
guidance, and using them for our support in every question of truth 
and duty with which we are called to deal. Let us always and ear- 
nestly seek for ourselves and our fellow-Christians the special bless- 
ing of the Holy Spirit. 

Everything in the Seminary life interested Doctor 
Broadus to the very last. Through the generossity oi 
Rev. W. D. Gay, of Alabama, the Gay Lectureship had 
been established, and the coming of Prof. H. H. Harris, 
the first lecturer, was eagerly looked forward to by Doc- 
tor Broadus. But he was not to see the series inau- 
gurated. 1 



1 The lecturers chosen since Prof. Harris, are W, R, L. Smith, D. D., B. H, Car- 
roll. D. D., G^or^eC. Larimer, i>. D., President W. H, P. Faunce, D. D., Prof. W, 
L. Poteat, and Prof. C L, Smith, PH. D. 



430 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

Doctor Marvin had said that it was not wise for Doc- 
tor Broadus to cease work entirely, that the depressing 
effect of giving up his duties would biing on the end. 
But his strength steadily failed before the cold and the 
work. It is inspiring, yet pathetic, to think of him as 
he went to the Seminary in his great coat with the ther- 
mometer at zero for weeks together went out and 
taught when it was too slippery for him to go alone. 
One day he said to me as he started upstairs: "The 
next three weeks will decide everything with me." If 
he could only reach the mild spring weather ! He was 
right. One day he met his class in New Testament 
English for the last time. He was talking of Apollos : 

Young gentlemen, if this were the last time I should ever be per- 
mitted to address you, I would feel amply repaid for consuming the 
whole hour in endeavoiing to impress upon you these two things, 
true piety and, like Apoilos, to be men "Mighty in the Scriptures" 
Then pausing, he stood for a moment with his piercing eye fixed 
upon us, and repeated over and over again in that slow but wonder- 
fully impressive style peculiar to himself, " Mighty in the Scriptures" 
" Mighty in the Scriptures" until the whole class seemed to be lifted 
through him into a sacred nearness to the Master. That picture of 
him as he stood there at that moment can never be obliterated from 
my mind. 1 

This was on Thursday. Next day he was attacked 
with pleurisy that gradually grew worse. For some days 
there was still hope, but by Thursday the I4th it became 
clear that the end was near. The children were tele- 
graphed for. No sadder hour has come to my life than 
the duty of telling the student body in New York Hall 
on Thursday evening that Doctor Broadus was dying. 
The end came Saturday morning, March i6th, at 3.45 A. M. 

MISS E. s. B. to s. s. B. . 
When his mind began to wander, he talked much of friends he 

'Rev. C L Corbitt, "Seminary Magazine/' April, 3895. 



THE LAST YEAR 431 

imagined himself to be with, or of lectures he was giving. Often in 
bed he would raise his hands as if speaking, and say something in 
the loud tone of the classroom. Once it was " Hand me my pencil," 
and " Well, give me my classbook." Up to the last day, he would 
say " Thank you," for food or medicine, with his own beautiful smile 
. . . Thursday morning there was change for the worse, and at noon 
the doctor said, " Send for the children." He had not told us before 
what he feared, and we would not think of it. When Alice came, 
he repeated after her " Jack," with a sweet smile, and " Alice." I 
tried to win some recognition for Boyce, but again he repeated the 
name, with a smile, and that was all. That night, staying in the 
room, 1 heard him singing in a low tone, " Jesus, lover of my soul." 
Reclining on the bed beside him to catch his words, 1 heard, " And 
sing my great Redeemer's praise," sung over and over. You know 
the hymn, " Loving Kindness." 

A few days after said one : 

Aye, dear brother, that was thine earthly prelude to the singing in 
thy heavenly home, with all the redeemed in full choius, the praises 
of thy " great Redeemer," chanting the song sublime of Moses and 
the Lamb, with all the company of heaven forever and ever. 

The whole city was hushed into reverence as Doctor 
Broadus passed into the shadow of death. The " Even- 
ing Post " voiced the feeling of the city in saying : 

Doctor Broadus, the first citizen of Louisville, is passing away. 
By mind and character he has become the leading personal influence 
in this community. He met easily all the requirements of American 
citizenship, and fulfilled all the duties of modern life with rare ability, 
Clear in all his views, lucid in all statements, earnest and persua- 
sive in argument, he has that tolerance which is born of broad cul- 
ture and wide expenence. He has labored here with great effect, 
and the work he has done will live after him, The whole community 
mourns his approaching departure, and pays a tribute to character 
and conduct which pomp and power can never command. 

The " Courier- Journal " said : 

There is no man In the United States whose death would cause 
more widespread sorrow than the death of Doctor Broadus, 



432 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

The funeral exercises were held in the Walnut Street 
Church, Sunday afternoon. The audience overflowed 
to the sidewalk and the streets were lined with sympa- 
thetic crowds all the way to Cave Hill, The Confed- 
erate Veterans attended in a body. The active pall- 
bearers were students. It was a solemn and majestic 
occasion. The time was too short for many from a dis- 
tance to come, but A. J. S. Thomas, D. D., brought 
sympathy from Greenville, S. C., while T. P. Bell, D. D., 
and J. M. Frost, D. D., came from Nashville. There were 
five addresses, of which we can give only extracts. Dr. 
W. D. Thomas, of Richmond, Va., was the first speaker. 
He said in part : 

I should be false to my friend, false to his Lord and mine, if I did 
not hasten to emphasize the fact that, whatever Doctor Broadus be- 
came in character, life, and work, the great formative and unifying 
force of it all was his faith in Christ. And his faith was not the 
simple acceptance of Jesus as the flower of humanity, the ideal char- 
acter, the greatest of ethical teachers, but still a mere man. He be- 
lieved on him as the incarnate Son of God. Nor was his a vague, 
indefinite faith that some ill-defined benefit somehow comes to men 
through Christ ; it was a clear and firm trust in the atonement of 
the Son of God. He was able to keep pace with the most advanced 
thinkers, with the most progressive scientists, and with the most 
destructive critics ; but they could not rob him of his faith in the 
atoning sacrifice of the divine Saviour and Redeemer. This faith, 
not mere natural endowments and culture, made his character beau- 
tiful and his life fruitful. If there was manifest in him energy and 
courage (what the Scriptures call virtue) ; if his virtue was guided 
by knowledge ; if in knowledge he furnished self-control, and in 
self-control godliness ; if his godliness flowed forth in brotherly kind- 
ness, and his brotherly kindness in love ovei leaping the narrow 
limits of mere partisanship ; if these graces adorned his character, 
the root and source of all was his faith in Christ Hosv this whole 
choir of graces, led and directed by faith, filled his life with music, 
which charmed and sometimes transported us I But take Chu'st 
away from his life and it would be robbed of its beautv, of its power, 
and of all of its meaning. Faith in Christ worked in him, quicken- 
ing, purifying, and elevating all his impulses, powers, and aspirations. 



THE LAST YEAR 433 

and made him what he was. In this time of unrest and of drifting 
away let us not forget that this scholar, this great and good man, 
was Christ's man. 

Doctor Whitsitt said : 

One of our esteemed evening newspapers in making allusion to 
the last illness of our dear tnend, said, " Doctor Broadus, oui first 
citizen, is dying to-night." He was always first wherever he chose 
to stand at all. He was first among the Baptists of the South, of 
our entire country, of the world. In the elevation of his character, 
the splendor of his genius, and the extent ot his attainments, he 
tu\\ ered above us all, almost above our conceptions. 

Eaily in life it was given to him to find a supreme object of exer- 
tion the promotion of highei theological cultivation among our Bap- 
tist people. In this enterprise, pursued through so many years, his 
imperious will, often sorely tried, always defied discouragement. 
Few men have ever got their crowns at highei cost. The difficulties 
that lay before him at almost every step would have been appalling 
to feebler natures. But he kept up the fight to the end, Failure 
would have been to him like the crucifixion of the soul. 

1 belong to the second generation. It was not given me to look 
upon the eailier years of our theological Seminary. The last of my 
predecessors has now passed away, I first met Doctor Broadus in 
the summer of 1867, He had been on a visit to Lexington, Virginia, 
to preach a sermon for General Lee at the commencement of his 
university, and afterwards came to the University of Virginia and 
solicited me to attend the Seminary. In the eight and twenty 
years that have since elapsed of almost daily intercourse, we have 
had many joys and sorrows together ; but in all our sorrows and 
joys he was the greatest man I have ever known. 

The foremost achievement in my generation occurred In 1874. 
By means of the reconstruction of the Southern States values had 
shriveled up and we were in poverty. Over and above this there 
had befallen the great financial panic of 1873. When we became 
aware of the real condition of affairs all our hearts were overwhelmed, 
and we were ready to give up the fight. That supreme moment was 
his opportunity. He sprang into the breach, seized the standard, 
commanded courage, devised counsel, brought deliverance. This 
splendid feat was not blazoned abroad ; It was performed in the 
privacy of a faculty council ; but It was the deed of a heroic spirit. 

This is but a specimen of the trials that he encountered, in all of 
which he showed himelf every inch a man. The Lutherans speak 



434 LIFE A ND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

of their great pair of twins, Luther and Melancthon. The Reformed 
point with pride to Calvin and Beza. Southern Baptists may find 
their twins in Boyce and Broadus, who will stand side by side in 
our history till the end of time. 

Our departed friend often reminded me of Shakespeare in the cir- 
cumstance that he seemed to know things without learning them. 
Conclusions that I had gained by hardest knocks I was in the cus- 
tom of bringing to him for comparison and discussion, and he would 
begin with these as fundamental principles that required no elabora- 
tion, and possessed the character of axiomatic truth. 

He was loyal to his church. Everybody among us, from the 
lowest to the highest, trusted him with implicit confidence. Yet he 
was always and everywhere a lover of good men of whatever re- 
ligious connection. This was not a matter of policy ; it was the 
result of genial insight and hearty appreciation. 

He was loyal to his section. He kept his feet always firmly 
planted on Southern soil. He was the idol of the Confederate Veterans 
who have come to stand with sad pride in the order of his funeral. 
Yet he was as much loved in New York as Vn&inia. Whatever he 
spoke from any platform on either side of the line was applauded to 
the echo on both sides of the line. Other men have endeavored to 
accomplish a feat of that sort and have often failed inglonously. 

He belonged to a widely extended family, containing many people 
of distinguished attainments ; he was only the highest peak among 
others that were eminent. His relative, Andrew Broaddus, of Caro- 
line, was the foremost orator among Southern Baptists in the first 
half of our century. Henry Clay, who peihaps had formed his ac- 
quaintance in the house of his father, John Clay, always followed 
Andrew Broaddus, of Caroline, with veneration and enthusiasm, 
He loved to speak of him as the " past-master of eloquence who 
shows us all the way." . . 

The elements were so mixed in him that nature might stand up 
and say to all the world, " this was a man." It seems a waste of 
nature that so many rich treasures should be had in an earthen ves- 
sel. Unrivaled genius and usefulness, exquisite learning, p^rless 
eloquence, iron industry, apostolic piety, have all been scattered here 
by the touch of death. It would seem that a man of such endow- 
ments and achievements should be formed to live a thousand years. 
Yet it is ordered otherwise and he has passed away when our need 
was the sorest. 

Doctor Eaton then followed : 



THE LAST YEAR 435 

He was a great preacher, one of the greatest the world ever saw. 
"The common people heard him gladly," and the most thoughtful 
and cultured never failed to be greatly edified. Soon after coming to 
Louisville I had Doctor Broadus preach for me, and sitting just there 
was that great and good man, that Christian philosopher, Dr. J. 
Lawience Smith. Sitting just in front of him was a little boy, and 
the philosopher and the boy listened with equal interest, I do not say 
with equal profit, as the great preacher set forth the truths of the 
kingdom of God. From the fiist sentence you felt you were in the 
hands of a master, and that feeling remained with you and increased 
to the close. He had that rare eloquence which exalts not the 
speaker but the tiuth. 

Dr. C. R. Hemphill said : 

Among the sweetest of memories will be the recollection of the 
cordial way in which he would gieet me when I called on him in his 
study. ** Why, how are you, my friend? Come in, have a seat.'* 
And when I would rise to go : " Come as often as you can ; I am 
always glad to see you." May I hear that voice of welcome from 
him in the better home ! The memoiy of his friendship will remain 
a consolation in life's changes and sorrows, and a peipetual plea 
and solemn motive to nobler living. . . 

It is agreed that Doctor Broadus was a great man. Most men of 
greatness are tempted to make lesser men feel their inferiority. Doc- 
tor Broadus was utterly free from this disposition, no matter how 
marked the disparity of age, attainments, and reputation. In fad, 
he would not consent to be thought a great man. I never knew him 
to show irritation as plainly as when some one would venture to pay 
him a compliment. His whole demeanor was as though he would 
say : ** Get thee behind me, Satan." He was clothed with humility, 
and his friends were under no necessity of burning incense to any 
high thoughts of himself. 

The loveliness of his character and the sweetness of his spirit 
which first attracted you to Doctor Bioadus gtew constantly on you. 
I have just now read through Paul's prose poem on the grace of love, 
and it is but the simple truth to say that Doctor Broadus displayed, 
ns far as any man on earth, the beauty and charm of this grace. He 
showed us how very lovely and lovable love is, and it was a delight 
to us to pour upon him the affections of the soul and be taught by 
him what Steele meant when he said of Lady Hastings: " To love 
her was a liberal education." . , 



436 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

What a heritage is the memory of such a man ! To use words 
which once I heard from those now silent lips : 

Thus, though oft depressed and lonely, 

All my fears are laid aside: 
If I but remember only, 

Such as these have lived and died. 

Doctor Henson, of Chicago, made the closing address 
from which we quote : 

It is fitting on such an occasion as this that another John A. 
Broadus should speak, and there is none left on earth. His words 
were " apples of gold in pictures of silver." 

He was the inspiration of the speaker's young life. The country 
people in Virginia listened to him gladly, never suspecting his learn- 
ing or his profundity. " He was the ideal of my young life." As 
Cicero said of Archias -if there is any power in my speaking, it is 
due to my friend At the University of Virginia a little circle of us 
met him from week to week to study Greek philosophy. Those 
nights are ambrosial across forty years. Though in that time rivers 
of blood and tears have flowed, here is one man who never lost his 
balance nor the love and confidence of his countrymen. His utter- 
ances make responsive echoes in all our hearts. It has been said 
that he bound denominations together m Louisville. He bound the 
nation together by the love of his gieat soul. He was a Baptist 
on deep conviction, never apologizing for his principles. . . 

He is gone, but his light is not out. There are stars so far away 
that if they were blotted out they would still shine on foi a hundred 
years. So will Broadus continue to shine. He will live in your 
hearts and in other hearts all over the world. When Moses died the 
people wept, and well they might, for there was but one Moses. But 
lo ! Joshua comes, and the walls of Jericho fall down, and the Prom- 
ised Land becomes the heritage of God's people* Elijah is taken 
up, but his mantle falls on Elisha. So God's work goes on. 

He was buried in Cave Hill Cemetery in the Seminary 
lot beside Doctor Boyce and Doctor Manly. " They were 
lovely and pleasant in their lives and in their death they 
were not divided." 

It is impossible to describe the outburst of sympathy 
from all over America, and even in foreign lands. The 



THE LAST YEAR 437 

daily papers over the country, the weekly denominational 
papers of all creeds, all delighted to honor Doctor Broadus. 
Resolutions of sympathy were passed by numerous bodies 
North and South. The Conversation Club, of which 
his esteemed friend, Judge H. W. Bruce, was president, 
felt that they had lost their most valued member. There 
were many memorial meetings in many cities where ten- 
der words were spoken of him who had "passed into 
the skies." At the students' memorial service Dr. 
Arthur Peter said : 

Some of us are saying, what a loss ! Not so. There are no losses 
in God's plans. Who will take his place? No one. His place has 
been filled. His woik has been done. These other professois have 
their places to make ; God help them to make such places as he has 
made. One of his great characteristics was the power to make 
every man in his audience feel thai he was speaking directly to him. 
He was the most talented man I ever knew. He has finished his 
work and gone up yonder; let us prepare ourselves to be with him. 

Mr. Theodore Harris said at the same meeting: "I 
have known many whom the world calls great, but John 
A. Broadus was the greatest man I ever knew/' 

At Washington, in connection with the Southern Bap- 
tist Convention, a memorial service was held on Sunday 
afternoon, and was presided over by Judge Haralson, 
president of the Convention. The speakers were Dr. J. 
C. Hiden, Dr. Henry McDonald, and Dr. F. H. Kerfoot 
We quote a brief extract from Doctor Kerfoot's address : 

In all the twenty-six years I have known him, nothing has im- 
pressed me more than his personal influence, his gift of putting himself 
into men and becoming a part of them. Power went out from him. 
Many are accused of Imitating him, but the difficulty was to keep 
from acting his life over. He had a wonderful way of putting him- 
self into his books, and through them into men. But he did not 
reach men best through his books, His sermons were more power- 
ful still. When he preached he poured out the best of his life into 
his audience. Again he could do this in a wonderful way in his 



438 LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS 

conversation. He could inspire the crude or desponding student. 
But there was another line in which he had this power in a pre- 
eminent degree. In the class-room he was the crowned king. In 
the University of Leipsic I declaie that there was not a man that 
could compare with him. He could take a dry Greek verb and 
burn it into the student's heart. No one can estimate this self- 
multiplication of Doctor Broadus. In China, Japan, Africa, South 
America, many schools and colleges, and in thousands of pulpits he 
lives still. He has girdled the globe with his influence. 

Rabbi Moses, of Louisville, paid a remarkable tribute 
to Doctor Broadus in a discourse in his memory. We 
quote an extract : 

The glory of Louisville has departed from her with the departure 
of John A, Broadus. The splendor, the ornament of the place is 
gone, since the greatest and saintliest man who had dwelt in it has left 
it forever, never to return. Our city is like a ring, the precious 
stone of which has been torn from its setting and become lost. . . 

It was borne in upon you that you weie standing face to face with 
one of the great and original men of the earth, with one who towered 
high above you in intellect and knowledge, in will power and no- 
bility of character, in breadth of culture and refinement of manners, 
and in those indefinable spiritual poweis and qualities of mercy 
which mark off a few men as the children of light and immor- 
tality. . . 

Before I became familiar with Doctor Broadus, I knew Chris- 
tianity only as a creed which seemed absolutely incomprehensible to 
me. I judged it mainly from the untold, unmerited misery, the 
agony of ages which Christian rulers and nations had entailed upon 
poor Israel under the impulse given by Christian priests and teachers. 
But when I learned to know and revere in Broadus a Christian, my 
conception of Christianity and my attitude toward it underwent a 
complete change. Broadus was the precious fruit by which 1 learned 
to judge of the tree of Christianity. 

We took pride in his greatness as if it were a part of our own. 
We gloried in his fame and in his immortal achievements, as if \\e 
had a share in them. . . He was the most charming and brilliant 
conversationalist I have known. He touched on no subject but he 
adorned and illumined it. Whatever the subject of conversation, 
he opened large and new vistas to the surprise and delight of his ad- 
miring friends. However trite and stale the topic, he lifted It to a 



THE LAST YEAR 439 

higher plane. There was a play of fine humor and wit in his talk. 
But he never employed the weapon of sarcasm or irony. He never 
abused his great intellectual powers in debate. In fact he was not 
conscious of them. There was a touching gentleness in his voice, 
such a noble modesty in his demeanor, that it was a pleasure to 
bow to his superiority. He was an excellent listener. He was all 
attention and eagerness to hear what one had to say. He seemed to 
be expecting to receive from you some message of higher truth and 
new light. He greeted the most ordinary peisons with gracious 
cordiality and utmost respect. Ah, it was his delight to honor 
and love men, and to mspue them with self-respect and moral cour- 
age. The centiai warmth of his great heart diffused itself as a genial 
influence in glance and smile, in clasp and word, on his family, 
his friends, his disciples. Broadus was an ideal American gentle- 
man. He was perhaps the most amiable and lovable Southerner of 
his time. 

There was a refinement about him, an indescribable charm of man- 
ner, a sweetness of temper, a joyous kindliness of nature that made 
everybody love him tenderly, enthusiastically, who had the good 
fortune to know him. No bitter word ever escaped his lips or flowed 
from his pen against any opponent. He was generous and charita- 
ble almost to a fault. His heatt was a noble vessel brimful of the 
milk of human kindness ; the slightest touch of pity caused it to 
overflow. 

Doctor Sampey wrote of Doctor Broadus : 

For several years it has been my privilege to accompany Doctor 
Broadus quite often on his " constitutionals." And what a privi- 
lege it has been. . . In spring and summer frequent trips to Jacob 
Park were made. He always climbed the little mountain and re- 
turne