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The Arthur and Elizabeth 

on the History of Women 
in America 


Copyright J. E. Hale. 


In Her Eighty-Sixth Year. 







B Story of the ewluHon of the Status of aioimn 






Copyright 1908 


The Executors or the Estate or Mary S. Anthony, a Part op Whose 
Bequest to the Cause of Woman Suffrage Was Used 











The writer of this volume wishes to 
express her high appreciation of the 
helpful suggestions and cordial co- 
operation of the Rev. Anna Howard 
Shaw, Mrs. Rachel Foster Avery and 
Miss Lucy E. Anthony, executors of 
the estates of Susan B. and Mary S. 
Anthony. Thanks are especially due 
to Mrs. Avery for constant assistance 
during all the long task of proof- 
reading both type-written and print- 
ed copies. 



The writing of the two preceding volumes was completed 
early in 1898, but the revising, proof-reading, indexing and the 
many details connected with the publishing of a book delayed 
its appearance until the last months of the year, just in time to be 
utilized as a Christmas present. It had been a serious problem 
whether or not to give it to the public during Miss Anthony's 
lifetime, but the same reasons which impelled her to have it writ- 
ten while she yet lived, decided her to have it published at once. 
For many years Miss Anthony and the work she was trying to 
do were so cruelly misrepresented by individuals and by the press 
that she felt it but simple justice to herself and her cause to pre- 
sent the facts and the evidence, and in case these were questioned 
to be able herself to defend them. It is a deep satisfaction to 
know that this never was necessary, for, notwithstanding the 
large number of persons mentioned and the many controversial 
matters discussed, in only one instance was any statement really 
disputed and this hardly to the extent of a denial or a challenge. 

To Miss Anthony's friends the publication of the book was a 
thousandfold justified in the pleasure it afforded hen For years 
she had been oppressed by the feeling that it must be written and 
by the realization of the time, the work and the responsibility its 
preparation would involve. It was with the utmost relief and 
gratification that she saw it completed, and her joy was un- 
bounded when she received hundreds of approving letters from 
friends and favorable reviews from most of the leading papers 
and magazines in this country and Europe. The press notices 
included, for instance, a full page in the New York Herald, the 
Chicago Inter-Ocean and the Indianapolis News, three columns 
in the New York Sun and as many in the London Times, and 
among all the reviews there was scarcely an unfavorable com- 



ment It is a great comfort to know that all these came while 
Miss Anthony was here to have her heart gladdened and to re- 
ceive this recompense for the years of coldness, unappreciation 
and contumely. And then her delight in presenting these vol- 
umes — ^no one will ever know how many — ^to her dearest friends ; 
to those who had given her hospitality or assistance; to clubs 
and libraries too poor to buy them, always with a message of 
affection or gratitude or encouragement which infinitely en- 
hanced their value! For seven years her generous heart found 
this charming expression, and all who loved her rejoiced indeed 
that the book had taken shape, received her consecrating touch 
and added its measure of happiness to those last precious days. 

When the first two volumes were finished it was understood 
that if Miss Anthony lived for a number of years and the events 
of her life justified it another should be written. She was then 
seventy-eight years old and apparently as vigorous physically 
and mentally as in her prime. She came from a long-lived race 
and believed that she would round out the ninety-seven years of 
her paternal grandfather, but she did not take into account the 
greater strain of mind and body to which she had subjected her- 
self. The end came at eighty-six, but the last eight years were 
among the most important of her long existence in incident and 
achievement, and strongly demanded the completion of the won- 
derful story. The intention was to write this volume immedi- 
ately after her death but circumstances prevented. Through the 
delay there has been recorded in it the passing away of the beloved 
"Sister Mary," the last of her generation. 

The inspiration of the other volimies has been sadly lacking 
in the present The environment of the Anthony home where 
they were written was strongly conducive to work; nobody 
therein ever knew an idle moment. The maid in the kitchen was 
busy looking after the material wants of the household; Miss 
Mary, in her little retreat off the back parlor, carried on the 
president's duties of the large Rochester Political Equality Qub 
and those of her church and charity organizations; Miss An- 
thony in her historic study, conducted a large part of the vast 
business of the National Suffrage Association and her cor- 


respondence which extended around the globe, and three type- 
writers made harmonious music all day long. No idlers tarried 
here, the many visitors were all workers in various lines of life's 
activities. The very atmosphere was stimulating, it aroused en- 
thusiasm, quickened ideas, incited to effort. In the quiet "attic" 
or third-story work-rooms one was isolated from the world and 
wrote day after day without an interruption; from its treasure 
house of materials it was a keen delight to select, to shape, to 
construct ; and when a date, a name, a link was missing, one had 
but to call down to the occupant of the study at the foot of the 
stairs, and, almost without a moment's hesitation, came back the 
needed information from the depths of that marvelous memory. 
In the evening there was a long walk, or, if the weather were too 
inclement, an hour by the fire, when the chapter of the day was 
talked over and the recollection awakened of many a forgotten in- 
cident. How clear the perceptions, how wise the judgment, how 
fine the criticism — fortunate the writer who could submit her 
work to such a Mentor ! All the wearisome task was lightened by 
the interest, the S)anpathy, the quick appreciation, the generous 
word of praise. The tedious seclusicwi, the nervous strain, the 
mental and physical drudgery, were far more than compensated 
by daily association with that splendid intellect, that strong, 
philosophical nature — ^the rarest of privileges for which no price 
could be too great. 

In preparing the present volume there has been only the in- 
spiration which lingers in the memory of those days long past; 
only the loyal effort to keep the promise that the story should be 
finished ; only the earnest desire to tell it as Miss Anthony would 
have wished it told. It ends the record of this noble life conse- 
crated to service for humanity in the firm conviction that through 
the highest and fullest development of womanhood the whole 
race will be uplifted. The entire social system already shows the 
beneficial results of Miss Anthony's work, but for women exist- 
ence itself has been transformed because she lived and wrought. 
It will be always a matter of the keenest regret that she did not 
live to see the complete realization of her three-score years of 
heroic endeavor, but she died in the perfect faith that, in the not 


distant future, women will surely be protected by the law in their 
political rights as they are today in all others. She found her 
deepest pleasure in the thought of the millions now in full enjoy- 
ment of the new world which has been opened to them, and in 
the observance of their remarkable evolution under the con- 
ditions of freedom. All the vast army of women who are now 
carrying forward her work to completion, all who shall hereafter 
take it up, will receive as a blessed inheritance something of her 
indomitable will, dauntless courage, limitless patience, persever- 
ance, optimism, faith. 

New York, September, 1907. 


Vol. 111. 


Pages from the Life of a Busy Woman. (189S.) 1111-1122 

Fiftieth Woman's Rights Anniversary; Miss Anthony's red 
shawl; tribute to Mrs. Hooker; death of Frances £. Willard; 
proof-reading the Biography; Miss Anthony's opinion of school 
teachers ; stands for suffrage alone ; scores treatment of soldiers 
in Spanish-American War. 


Medieval Journalism— Women in Our New Possessions. (1899.) 1123-1134 
Miss Anthony's inscriptions in her books; she is ridiculed by 
newspapers; her view of her own power of oratory; National 
Convention in Grand Rapids; speech on action of Congress to- 
ward women of Hawaii and the Philippines ; women should not 
be counted in basis of representation ; called daughter of Methu- 
selah; her minister's sermons; women voters necessary for en- 
forcement of temperance laws; starts for London to attend 
International Council of Women; letter to Mrs. Stanford on 
restricting number of girls in the university. 


The International Council of Women in London. (1899.) 1135-1147 

Miss Anthony's part in the Congress ; her address ; tributes of 
women ; of the press ; interviews ; descriptions of the Congress, 
social entertainments, services in Westminster Abbey; anec- 
dotes of Miss Anthony; her part in reception by Queen Vic- 
toria; her account after returning home. 


Plural Marriage— Victoria— Women Commissioners. (1899.).. • 1148-1160 
Women's votes necessary for political reforms; Miss Anthony 
at State Federation of Women's Clubs; speech on Polygamy 



creates excitement; states her views in New York World; also 
expresses them to Mormon women; personal description in 
Indianapolis Sentinel; letter to Samuel F. Gompers ; addresses 
Labor Convention; interview on impressions of Queen Vic- 
toria; Congressional Committee Reports on woman suffrage; 
successful efforts to have women appointed official representa- 
tives to Paris Exposition ; letters of Mrs. Bertha Honore Palmer. 


Resigns PsESiDENcy of the National Association, (igoo) X161-1176 

Miss Anthon/s address to Bricklasrers' and Masons' Interna- 
tional Union; interview on progress of women; press comment 
on her proposed resignation, her great work and her present 
vigor ; Miss Anthony's view of the National Suffrage Conven- 
tions ; her report of the International Council ; plea before Sen- 
ate Committee for Sixteenth Amendment; appearance of the 
Anti-suffragists ; her visit to Mrs. McKinley ; Washington Post 
on her resignation; her speech to the convention and presenta- 
tion of her successor; Mrs. Chapman Catt's response; Miss An- 
thony's farewell address ; tributes of women writers. 


The Eightieth Birthday Celebration. (1900.) 1177-1189 

Gifts to Miss Anthony; great celebration in Lafayette Opera 
House; sonnet by William Lloyd Garrison; description in 
Woman's Tribune; addresses of Mrs. Gaffney, Mrs. Sewall, the 
Rev. Ida C. Hultin, Mrs. Hollister, Mrs. Cook, Mrs. Thompson, 
Mrs. Warren, Mrs. Shafroth, Mrs. Richards, Mrs. Stanton- 
Blatch, the Rev. Anna Howard Shaw; offerings of children; 
poem by Mrs. Coonley- Ward ; response of Miss Anthony; re- 
ception in Corcoran Art Gallery. 


Interesting Letters from Miss Anthony. (1900.) 1 190-1209 

Cleveland Leader on What Miss Anthony Missed; Standing 
Fund for Suffrage incorporated ; begins answering 1,100 birth- 
day letters; messages to the disgruntled; to the forgotten; to 
the young women; to the clubwomen; to the writers; to the 
Ethical Culture Society, the W. C. T. U., the D. A. R.; on 
Peace and Arbitration ; to business women ; to the home keep- 
ers; to women in the Suffrage States; to those in the South; 
to bereaved mothers; on public schools; to liberal and orthodox 


churchwomen ; to an anti-suffragist ; to old co-workers ; to Mrs. 
Stanford, Mrs. Severance, editor Omaha Bee; joking notes; to 
Mrs. Chandler on Sixteenth Amendment 


The Opening of Rochester University to Women. (1900.) 1210-1229 

Life Memberships; beginning Vol. IV History of Woman Suf- 
frage; memorials to presidential conventions; Miss Anthony 
opposes women's joining political parties; her love for young 
people; speech in Faneuil Hall; names the eminent pio- 
neers ; death of brother Merritt ; longing for immortality ; agrees 
with James Martineau ; love for Miss Shaw ; entertains National 
Suffrage Board; great effort to complete the required fund for 
opening Rochester University to Women ; pledges her life insur- 
ance; almost fatal effect of struggle. Was it necessary? Grati- 
tude of women students; takes up her work again but never 
fully regains health. 


Miss Anthony's Varied Work in Conventions. (1901.) 1230-1243 

Her 81 St birthday; National Suffrage Convention in Minneapo- 
lis; Miss Anthony's view of mother's influence; petitions to 
Congress ; her remarkable work in conventions of many kinds ; 
letter to National Convention of Brewers ; their answer ; tribute 
to Mrs. Avery; on licensing social evil; address at Universalist 
Convention ; articles on marriage ; visits Miss Eddy and sits for 
her portrait; goes to Providence, R. I., and speaks to women 
students of Pembroke Hall; her descriptive letters; tribute of 
Richard Lloyd Jones. 


International Suffrage— Medallion for Bryn Mawr. (1902.).. 1244-1261 
Eulogy of National Suffrage Conventions; International Com- 
mittee formed in Washington; foreign delegates congratulate 
Miss Anthony ; her ovation at the D. A. R. Congress ; illness in 
Philadelphia; just escapes fire in Atlantic City; answers Justice 
Baldwin on wife's inferiority; bronze medallion presented to 
Bryn Mawr College by Dr. Howard A. Kelly; her reception by 
students; visit to Mrs. Stanton; proofreading Vol. IV of the 
History; her guests invited to hear it; her opinion of "segrega- 
tion" at Chicago University; marriage of her secretary in the 
Anthony home ; Miss Shaw's wedding ceremony. 



Death of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. (1902.) 1262-1270 

Miss Anthony's reminiscences of the early experiences of Mrs. 
Stanton and herself; tribute to great ability of her co-worker; 
account of the funeral; her article in North American Review 
on Woman's Half-Century of Evolution; in Collier's on 
Achievement of Woman; extracts from articles in Pearson's 
Magazine, Two Greatest Women Reformers ; from N. Y. Inde- 
pendent on Mrs. Stanton's ideas of the church; from Review 
of Reviews on powerful influence of these two pioneers on the 
evolution of woman; from N. Y. Sun on Mrs. Stanton's 
genius and the failure of the Government to recognize it. 


To President Roosevelt^Placing the Suffrage History. (1902- 

1903.) 1271-1287 

Answer to political committee; correspondence with Mrs. Mc- 
Kinley; letter to President Roosevelt urging him to recommend 
to Congress the submission of an amendment for woman suf- 
frage; Miss Anthony's great work in publishing and distribut- 
ing the History; portion of the Preface; change of sentiment; 
beautiful acknowledgments of the volume from this and other 
countries ; placing her collection of books in the Library of Con- 
gress; Harvard graduates and marriage; her birthday ''at 
home" ; tributes of the press ; letter on disfranchisement to meet- 
ing of negroes in New York. 


Advice to Teachers — Miss Anthony's Domestic Life. (1903.) . . • 1288-1304 
National Suffrage Convention in New Orleans; cordiality of 
press and people; visit to Tuskegee Institute; letters to Miss 
Haley on National Educational Association and mistakes and 
duties of women teachers ; sentiment for bicycle calendar ; letter 
to Dr. Vincent on woman suffrage symposium at Chautauqua ; 
banquet of New Century Qub in Philadelphia ; destroying mass 
of old documents in attic workrooms; making new index for 
Biography; extracts from sketch in Pearson's Magazine of Miss 
Anthon/s life at home, domestic traits and love of family. 


Last Washington Convention — Starting for Berlin. (1904.)... 1305-1314 
Letters from Mrs. Sargent on The Pleasures of Old Age and 


Mrs. Jacob Bright on The Solitude of Self; Miss Anthony's last 
SufiFrage Convention in Washington; guest at White House; 
last address before a Senate Committee; faith in triumph of 
woman suffrage; urged by German women to come to Inter- 
national Council ; neighbors' good-by ; starts on the trip to Ber- 
lin; incidents of the voyage; beautiful reception at Bremen. 


The International Council of Women in Berlin. (1904.) 1315-1328 

Reception by Council officials; description of Congress, the 
Philharmonie, wonderful ability and unparalleled hospitality of 
German women, extensive social entertainment, etc.; at Am- 
bassador Tower's; Miss Anthony first woman to speak in a 
church in Germany; reception by the Empress; Miss Anthony's 
account of it; garden party by Cabinet Ministers; Emperor 
William's diplomacy; honors to Miss Anthony; great banquet by 
Municipal Council; magistrates declare for woman suffrage; 
American women contrast with United States; forming of In- 
ternational Woman Suffrage Alliance ; Miss Anthony intercedes 
for reporters; they stand by her; her spirited denial of having 
made any criticism of Germans; end of happy sojourn. 


Visiting in Europe— Death of Col. D. R. Anthony. (1904-) 1329-1341 

Miss Anthony visits in Dresden, Heidelberg, Vevay and Ge- 
neva; goes to London, guest of Mr. and Mrs. Stanton Coit; 
London and Manchester branches of British Society for Wom- 
en's Suffrage give large garden parties in her honor; she visits 
Mrs. McLaren in Edinburgh; her letters from there and other 
places visited ; at the home of Jacob Bright ; talk with Mrs. Be- 
sant; appreciative letters from her hostesses; amusing incident 
of return voyage; her welcome home; visits her brother CoL 
D. R Anthony in Leavenworth; his death soon afterwards; 
her deep sorrow ; finds comfort in work. 


Miss Anthony's Opinions— Ex- President Cleveland. (1905.)... 1342-1359 
Interest in unfortunate women ; favors prohibition of the liquor 
traffic ; chides indifference of women to the suffrage ; begs Pres- 
ident Roosevelt to recognize women as well as negro men ; cel- 
ebration of 85th birthday in Rochester; congratulations of the 
press; tributes of eminent men and women and of children; 
Mrs. Sage sends editorial from N. Y. Telegram; interview in 


N. Y. Press on position of modern woman ; personal description 
in Philadelphia Press; visits Mr. and Mrs. Blodgett in Florida ; 
letter to nephew D. R. on dean politics ; sympathy for colored 
children ; opinion of Divorce ; comment on ex- President Qeve- 
land's articles on Woman's Qubs and Suffrage. 


Trip to the Far West— Call on President Roosevelt. (1905.) . . . 1360-1580 
Notable journey to Portland, Ore.; welcome of press and citi- 
zens to National Suffrage Convention; Miss Anthony's re- 
sponse; at dedication of Sacajawea statue; visit to Mrs. Bidwell 
at Chico Ranch; their addresses at dedication of park; visits, 
speeches and receptions in San Francisco, Oakland, Berkeley 
and Los Angeles; Suffrage Day at Venice Assembly; journey 
homeward via Leavenworth; ovation at N. Y. State suffrage 
convention in Rochester; eulogy by mayor; Miss Anthony's in- 
terview with President Roosevelt ; letter asking him to appoint 
a commission to investigate practical working of woman suf- 
frage ; her large and varied correspondence ; women everywhere 
write of their triumphs and disappointments ; her last Christmas. 


Tributes of College Women — Great Fund for Suffrage. (1906.) . 1581-1401 
Miss Anthony's last letters; her 86th birthday celebrated in 
Rochester; starts for National Suffrage Convention in Balti- 
more; illness at home of Miss Garrett; welcome by distin- 
guished men; addresses by Clara Barton and Julia Ward 
Howe; President Shaw criticizes Roosevelt's Message and 
shows workingwomen's need of ballot ; College Women's Even- 
ing under direction of President Thomas of Bryn Mawr; beau- 
tiful tributes to Miss Anthony by women presidents and pro- 
fessors; her touching response; gives her birthday money to 
Oregon campaign fund ; her last address to a suffrage conven- 
tion ; Miss Garrett's brilliant entertainments ; President Thomas 
and Miss Garrett raise large fund for suffrage work ; Miss An- 
thony's deep joy and appreciation. 


Last Celebration of Miss Anthony's Birthday. (1906.) 1402-1414 

Miss Anthony goes to Washington; celebration of her 86th 
birthday; letters of greeting from Vice-president Fairbanks, 
Secretary Taft, Senators Depew, Piatt, Gallinger, Beveridge, 
Patterson, Heybum, Fulton; Representatives Payne, Smith, 


Watson, Kahn, Cushman, French and others ; letter from Pres- 
ident Roosevelt; her never-to-be-forgotten rebuke; her last 
words in public; very ill and hastens home; great celebration 
of her birthday in New York by women prominent in all lines 
of activity; loving messages sent her; poem by Edwin Mark- 
ham ; address of Wm. M. Ivans ; tribute of Wm. Lloyd Garrison. 


The Passing of Susan B. Anthony. (1906) 141 5-1428 

Miss Anthony's calmness and courage in her last illness; her 
anxiety over the Oregon suffrage campaign; account of her 
last days by the Rev. Anna Howard Shaw; her earnest desire 
to give all she possessed to her beloved cause ; remembrance of 
all her fellow workers; ideas as to memorials for herself and 
others; regret that she had not seen woman suffrage granted; 
messages to the workers to be loyal, firm and persistent ; hope for 
a future life; passes away on March 13; magnificent eulogies 
of press and people ; tributes of Mayor Cutler, President Strong 
of Theological Seminary, President Rhees of the University, 
ministers and heads of organizations^ men and women. 


The Funeral of America's Great Woman. (1906.) 1429-1445 

In the beauty of death; scene at home and church; great out- 
pouring of people; 10,000 pass the bier; description of funeral 
services; eloquent prayer of Mr. Gannett; orations of Wm. 
Lloyd Garrison, Mrs. R. Jerome Jeffrey, Mrs. Carrie Chapman 
Catt, the Rev. Anna Howard Shaw; pathetic occurrences; last 
rites at the cemetery; tribute of Mrs. Harriet Taylor Upton; 
message of Miss Shaw to the workers. 


Letters, Resolutions and Memorial Meetings. (1906.) 1446-1471 

Resolutions of New York Legislature ; Rochester Board of Ed- 
ucation ; Grand Jury of Monroe County ; messages from all parts 
of the world ; letters from National Associations of Great Brit- 
ain, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Germany, Finland; Society 
of American Women in London; Universal Peace Union; G. 
A. R. Department of Kansas ; King's Daughters and Sons ; Pro- 
hibition Union of Christian Men; letters from distinguished 
men and women ; resolutions of Rochester Alumnae Association, 
Unitarian Church, Women's Educational and Industrial Union; 


from many organizations of men and women in this and other 
countries; memorial meetings; Lady Aberdeen's eulogy at In- 
ternational Council Executive in Paris; memorial services by 
International Suffrage Alliance in Copenhagen; gratitude of 
Australia, Finland, Norway, Sweden and other lands; Will of 
Miss Anthony ; final transfer of all property to fund for woman 
suffrage; Rochester women take steps for a memorial building 
on the college campus; National Suffrage Association arranges 
for large memorial fund ; memorial window in Rochester church. 


Editorial Comment on Miss Anthony's Life and Work. (1906.) 1472-1487 
General resume of editorial opinion; splendid tribute to Miss 
Anthony and her work; some adverse comment; her expressed \ 
"regret" misunderstood; her encouragement and faith; lack of 
logic in discussing woman suffrage; she did "convert her own 
sex"; quantity and quality of women who favor it; small com- 
fort for Anti-suffragists; a few mistakes; she placed suffrage 
first; extracts from biographer's articles in Review of Reviews, 
North American Review, Collier's, N. Y. Independent, etc 


Death op Mary S. Anthony; Closing of Old Home. (1907.) 1488-1517 

Thirty years as teacher; vast amount of work accomplished; at- 
tended First Woman's Rights Convention; gradually led into 
public work; protests against taxation without representation; 
strong demand for a true republic ; firm stand for coeducation ; 
trips to Europe; loving testimonials of friends; great service 
to sister; letters of S3rmpathy at time of her death; goes to help 
in Oregon campaign ; grief for loss of sister ; last illness ; con- 
stant thought for suffrage work ; message to National Conven- 
tion; tributes of the press; eulogies of women at funeral; 
poems ; bequests to suffrage ; closing of the old home. 


Appendix 1519-1609 

Editorial comment by leading papers in all sections of the coun- 
try on the life of Miss Anthony, the work she accomplished and 
the cause she represented ; twelve poems. 


Vol. III. 

Susan B. Anthony, in Her Eighty-sixth Year Frontispiece 

The Anthony Residence faces page 1126 

The Countess OF Aberdeen ** " 1142 

Clara Barton " " 1172 

Miss Anthony in the Garnet Velvet Dress " " 1188 

Corner of Miss Anthony's Study " " 1200 

Mary T. Lewis Gannett " " 1224 

Miss Anthony Making an Argument " " 1236 

Medaixion and Bust ** " 1254 

Elizabeth Cad Y Stanton '* " 1264 

The Lady Battersea " " 1280 

Corner of THE Back Parlor " " 1300 

Fraxj Marie Strttt " " 1316 

Corner OF THE Front Parlor ** " 1346 

Elizabeth Smith Miller, Mary S. Anthony and 

Susan B. Anthony " " 1376 

M. Carey Thomas, President of Br3m Mawr College " " 1388 

Mary Euzabeth Garrett " " 1400 

Miss Anthony's Last Picture " " 1410 

She Gave Her Life FOR Woman " " 1424 

Executors OF THE Anthony Estates ** " 1464 

National Woman Suffrage Headquarters " " 1476 

Interior View of Suffrage Headquarters " " 1480 

Mary S. Anthony, at Twenty-five " " 1490 





HE thread of the story that ended for awhile in the 
preceding volume is taken up again at the begin- 
ning of 1898, which, compared to most of the years 
in the strenuous life of Susan B. Anthony, was 
Vquiet and uneventful, filled to the limit of waking 
hours with tne usual activity but unmarked by any occurrence of 
special public interest. The second Sunday of the year she was 
not quite equal to braving the weather and going to church, so, 
according to the little journal's entry for that day, she "read the 
papers and wrote twenty-four letters!'' 

Extended preparations were imder way for the annual meet- 
ing of the National-American Woman Suffrage Association in 
Washington, February 13-19, which was to celebrate the fiftieth 
anniversary of the first Woman's Rights Convention, that his- 
toric gathering in Seneca Falls, N. Y. In a fierce blizzard Miss 
Anthony left home February 2, going as far as Syracuse, where 
she addressed the State Grange in the afternoon. She spent the 
night with the family of Mr. C. D. B. Mills, as was her custom, 
and then went on to New York for a few days' visit with Mrs. 
Stanton. In the olden times she always stopped en route to con- 
ventions and carried this lady with her, generally under much pro- 
test, but for the past five years Mrs. Stanton had not been able 
to take the journey. Miss Anthony, however, still made the pil- 
grimage to her home and never failed to bear away one of Mrs. 
Stanton's fine addresses, which she proudly presented to the con- 
vention and usually at the hearing before the Congressional Com- 
Ant. Ill— I (nil) 


inittees. Just now she was much disturbed because Mrs. Stan- 
ton, appalled at the flood of immigration, had repudiated her 
life-long demand for universal suffrage, and was advocating a 
strict educational qualification. Nevertheless, although strongly 
opposed to this view. Miss Anthony insisted that it should have a 
fair and full presentation. 

Hearing at this time that Miss Frances E. Willard was very 
ill at the Hotel Empire Miss Anthony hastened to leave a mes- 
sage of love and sympathy, but when Miss Willard learned she 
was there she sent at once for her, saying, "It will do my eyes 
good to see her." In speaking of the interview Miss Anthony 
said: "She seemed like an angel, so white and frail one could 
almost see the spirit, but so bright and cheerful and so full of 
wise and helpful plans, I felt as if she must recover and take up 
her splendid work again." But in less than two weeks, while in 
the midst of the convention. Miss Anthony received a telegram 
from Anna Gordon : "Frances entered upon heavenly ministries 
at midnight.*' A wreath of violets and Southern ivy was sent by 
the association, adorned with miniatures of Miss Anthony, Mrs. 
Stanton and other suffrage leaders, with whose aims Miss Wil- 
lard had been in closest sympathy for many years. 

This thirtieth convention, which was the largest ever held in 
number of delegates, had been anticipated as a continuous love 
feast and gala time, but the week was changed almost into one of 
mourning by the death of Miss Willard and the blowing up of 
the Maine in Havana harbor. Miss Anthony opened the meetings 
standing by the old-fashioned, round, mahogany table on which 
in the parlor of the McClintock family, in the summer of 1848, 
the first Declaration of the Rights of Women was written, and 
which had been brought from the Anthony home for this occa- 
sion.* She enumerated the demands in that famous document 
and called attention to the significant fact that all had now been 
granted except the suffrage. The Evening Star, of Washington, 
said: "Just half-a-century Susan B. Anthony has been fighting 
for suffrage for women. She looks no older than that today and 

^ History of Woman Suffrage, Volume I, page 67. 


yet she has passed the allotted space of man. She comes of a 
fighting family which never says die, and with moderate care 
she looks to be able to live out the century and fight to the finish." 
Referring to the noted red shawl the paper said : "It is silk crepe 
of exquisite fineness, with long, heavy, knotted fringe.^ For full 
thirty years Miss Anthony's red shawl has been the oriflamme of 
suflfrage battle. She wears it with the grace of a Spanish belle. 
A shawl is a horror on most women. Miss Anthony, with her 
square, well-shaped shoulders and soft, silvery hair held primly 
by an antique tortoise-shell comb, gets just the rich touch of color 
necessary in that incarnadined silk shawl." 

Another paper said at this time: "Spring is not heralded in 
Washington by the approach of the robin red-breast but by the 
appearance of Miss Anthony's red shawl." At one session she 
was persuaded to wear a handsome white one and when she ap- 
peared on the platform the reporters immediately sent her a note, 
saying, "No red shawl, no report." Reading it aloud she said 
with a laugh, "AH right, boys, I'll send to the hotel for it." This 
she did and as she put it around her shoulders in a graceful way 
peculiarly her own, the audience broke into applause and the re- 
porters took up their pencils with a zeal that boded well. 

Pioneers' Evening was to Miss Anthony the happiest of the 
convention and her delightful qualities as presiding officer were 
never more evident than in "the roll call of the years." As the 
workers of each decade were summoned, beginning with 1848, 
and came forward on the stage or rose in the body of the house, 
she moved the audience now to laughter, now to tears, by her 
clever introductions or bits of reminiscence. 

Among the women speakers at this convention were ministers, 
Editors, doctors, (including the dean of a Medical College), law- 
/yers, (one of them assistant attorney-general of Montana), a 
State senator from Utah, a representative from the Colorado 
Legislature, the State superintendent of public instruction from 
Wyoming, a State factory inspector from Illinois, heads of 

*The shawl which Miss Anthony was wearing at this time was the gift of Miss Helen 
Mar Wilson, of Philadelphia, to whom it was the most valued legacy of her mother, in 
whose memory she gave it to Miss Anthony. 


/ schools, college professors, colored women, (one a member of the 
Washington school board), and several women from foreign 
countries/ One may imagine Miss Anthony's thoughts as she 
looked upon this body of women, illustrating the possibilities of 
education and freedom of development, and remembered that 
when she began her work to secure these for women, she was met 
on every side with the assertion that they were not mentally capa- 
ble of being educated and that full liberty would result in social 
chaos. Messages of greeting and approval of the movement for 
woman suffrage were sent to her personally and to the convention 
from the Universal Peace Union, the King's Daughters and 
Sons, National Councils of Women, and suffrage and other so- 
cieties in Canada, Great Britain, The Netherlands, Germany, 
Norway, Sweden, Finland, and from noted individuals in many 

Miss Anthony conducted the hearing before the House Ju- 
diciary Committee, seated at the right hand of its chairman, 
David B. Henderson, (afterwards Speaker), her group of able 
orators gathered about her and the room crowded with women. 
Both chairman and committee spoke in highest terms of the dig- 
nity and logic of the addresses and seemed deeply moved by Miss 
Anthony's own intense and forceful argument. Fifteen of the 
seventeen members were there and she referred to the early years 
when she had come to the Capitol and made her plea with only 
two of the committee present. 

A touching incident of the convention occurred when Mrs. 
Isabella Beecher Hooker read her scholarly address on United 
States Citizenship. Her once fine voice showed the feebleness 
of age, and the audience, not being able to hear, grew restless. 
Miss Anthony at once arose and told them they ought to be satis- 
fied just to sit and look at Mrs. Hooker, for to see her was a bene- 
diction, but a moment later, noticing that she was almost over- 
come by the exertion, Miss Anthony stepped quickly to her side 
and put her strong arm around the fragile form. At once Mrs. 
Hooker turned and pressed her lips to Miss Anthony's cheek, 

^ Extended personal mention is made in accounts of conventions. History of Woman 
Suffrage, Volume IV. 


she gently returned the kiss, and a thrill of emotion swept over 
the spectators at the sight of these two beautiful old ladies, co- 
workers since their early womanhood and still loving comrades 
in the evening of life. As Mrs. Hooker sank into a chair Miss 
Anthony turned to the audience and in a voice vibrant with feel- 
ing exclaimed : "To think that such a woman, belonging by birth 
and marriage to the most distinguished families in our country's 
history, herself the intellectual peer of any statesman, should be 
held as a subject to all classes of men — ^yes, and with the prospect 
of there being added to her rulers the Cubans and the Kanakas of 
the Sandwich Islands ! Shame on a government that permits such 
an outrage!" 

On Miss Anthony's seventy-eighth birthday a handsome lunch- 
eon was given in her honor by Mrs. John R. McLean, attended 
by several score of the most prominent ladies in the social life 
of the national capital. It was followed by a reception at which 
Mrs. McLean was assisted by Miss Anthony and Mrs. Ulysses 
S. Grant. The birthday cake, three feet in diameter, on which 
burned seventy-eight wax tapers, was presented to Miss An- 
thony, and, wreathed with flowers, was carried in state to the con- 
vention, where it was cut into slices that were sold as souvenirs, 
realizing $120. It is hardly necessary to say that the treasury 
of the National Association was increased by exactly that amount. 

A little anecdote will illustrate Miss Anthony's quaint remarks 
which always kept the listeners on the alert to know what was 
coming next. A grandniece. Miss Guelma Baker, sang one even- 
ing and was heartily encored. She finally came back on the stage 
and whispered to Miss Anthony, who at once turned to the audi- 
ence and said, "She wants to know whether she shall bow or sing 
another song. I tell her to sing, I can't see what good it would 
do just to bow!" 

The spring months of 1898 were largely devoted to reading 
and revising the chapters of the Biography, which had long 
since been irreverently dubbed the "Bog." These Miss Anthony 
went over again and again, paragraph by paragraph, line by line, 
word by word, and many were the long drawn-out arguments 
when the writer insisted that certain letters or statements must 


be retained in order to justify Miss Anthony's action in 
various matters or place her in the right on disputed questions. 
If these reflected on someone else, if they were likely to hurt 
somebody's feelings, out they must come regardless of the con- 
sequences to herself. After one of her own letters to a prominent 
woman had been discussed for hours she finally consented that 
it might remain, and the biographer went to bed triumphant, 
revelling in the effect it would have on the readers. The next 
morning Miss Anthony, looking pale and worried, said, "I didn't 
sleep a bit all night thinking of that letter." It is needless to say 
that before breakfast it lost its chance of going down to poster- 
ity. And then the contest over the names which should be men- 
tioned! In vain the writer begged, expostulated and protested 
that the book would be swamped with them. "It is all the re- 
turn I can offer for the friendship, the hospitality, the loyalty of 
those who have made it possible for me to do my work all these 
years," was the unvarying reply, and not one could be smug- 
gled out from under that watchful eye. In several instances 
where the writer, after an extended battle, was successful in re- 
taining certain statements and sending them off victoriously 
in the manuscript, she met defeat when the proof came back and 
the final mandate was pronounced to cut than out. Doubtless it 
was wise but the public lost some sensations.* 

Between the days of proof reading in the spring and summer 
Miss Anthony found time to receive many visitors, which always 
was a great delight to her. Once when it was gently suggested 
that this involved much expense she answered: "My friends 
helped me to get nicely settled in a home of my own so that I 
could entertain the suffrage workers when they were passing 
through Rochester and it is my duty to do it." Of course those 
who had contributed to the fitting up of the home had had no 
thought except her personal comfort, but it was characteristic 
of her to regard everything from the altruistic standpoint, and 

^ The next day (Sunday) after the manuscript had been shipped to the publishers Miss 
Anthony wrote in her diary: "I hope no one mentioned or not mentioned in the book 
will feel that there was any willingness to be unjust to her;" and farther on: "It seems 
as it does after a long sickness, death and funeral in the family — so still and empty- 


for the eminent and the obscure there was always a welcome place 
under this hospitable roof. 

During these months when Miss Anthony was obliged to stay 
at home, she gave brief talks to the Woman's and Ethical Clubs, 
the Society of the D. A. R., the A. M. E. Conference, the Young 
Women's Christian Association, the National Suffrage Con- 
ference that met here; to educational, religious, temperance and 
many other local organizations, which gladly availed themselves 
#of this opportunity. On every occasion she pointed out to the 
[women that whatever the object of their association they could 
.promote it with far more success if they possessed the great 
power of the ballot, and few there were whom she did not per- 
'suade to realize this truth. 

In July the State Teachers' Convention met in Rochester, and, 
after it was over. Miss Anthony in an interview in the Democrat 
and Chronicle referred to her effort in 1853 to secure for women 
the right to speak in these annual meetings, and expressed her 
opinion of the present one in these words : "I have fought some 
of the hardest battles of my life for women school teachers, and 
yet many of these of today know little of what was done for 
them in those early years. They appear to be lacking in spirit 
and content to occupy subordinate positions; they do not seem 
to have the ambition to sustain their rights. On the program of 
this convention not a woman's name appeared for the principal 
meetings. Not an address was made by a woman and not at one 
where I was present did I hear a woman's voice raised on any 
question. There were ten women to one man, and yet the men 
ran the convention to suit themselves and took the credit for 
whatever was or had been done. The women, to be sure, were 
on the programs and managed the meetings of the side shows, 
but that is all they did do." This interview created almost as 
much of a panic as did Miss Anthony's noted speech at the con- 
vention of forty-five years before in this very city. 

Among the few letters of this year in existence was found a 
draft of one which evidently was undertaken in answer to a re- 
quest from some college girls for the name of her favorite cake 


and a recipe for making it. It was filled with erasures and inter- 
linings and read as follows : 

Dear Junior Girls: My favorite cake is the old-fashioned sponge, made 
of eggs, the whites lashed to a stiff froth, the yolks beaten thoroughly 
with cups of pulverized sugar, a pinch of salt, a slight flavor of almond. 
Into these stir cups of flour — ^first a little flour, then a little of the white 
froth — and pour the foaming batter into a dish with a bit of white buttered pa- 
per in, the bottom. Clap into a rightly tempered oven as quickly as possible 
and take out exactly at the proper minute, when it is baked just enough to hold 
itself up to its highest and best estate. Then don*t cut, but break it carefully, 
and the golden sponge is fit for the gods. . . . 

Well, the dickens is to pay — I can not find the old cook book — so just put 
in any good sponge cake recipe for me, and then add: "It matters not how 
good the recipe or the ingredients may be, the cake will not be good unless 
there is a lot of common sense mixed in with the stir of the spoon !" Lovingly 

There was another letter, written to the Union Signal, org^n 
of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, in which Miss 
Anthony requested them to remove her naitie from the list of 
regular contributors, where she had just learned that it had been 
placed, and said: "I want to stand for woman suffrage alone. 
If I knew that the majority of women would vote against tem- 
perance and social purity and all other reforms, I should still 
work to secure the ballot for them. I do not ask it wholly be- 
cause of the good I hope they will do with it, but because it is 
their right, and I demand it for the low as well as for the high." 
Miss Anthony always held that, while some would undoubtedly 
misuse the ballot, women in general would reach a higher de- 
velopment through freedom and responsibility, and as a means 
to this end the suffrage was of the highest importance. She never 
swerved from the position that it was a citizen's right without 
regard to the use that would be made of it, but she held an ab- 
solute belief that the vote of women, taken as a whole, would 
result in a vast improvement of conditions. 

Every year now recorded the death of old friends. Mrs. Ma- 
tilda Joslyn Gage passed away March i8. Miss Anthony and she 
had been co-workers long before the Civil War; at the time of 
the famous trial for voting, and again in the preparation of the 


History of Woman Suflfrage, Mrs. Gage had g^ven invaluable 
assistance, and in a published interview Miss Anthony paid high 
tribute to her great ability. In July she received a telegram an- 
nouncing the death of Parker Pillsbury in his eighty-ninth year. 
"Samuel May, Jr., is now the only one left of the old Anti- 
Slavery Committee," she wrote in her journal. "It seems as if 
I must go on to Concord to be with his dear daughter, now left 
entirely alone, but here I must stay and work on this book just 
as I had to when they laid Robert Purvis to rest." And after- 
wards she wrote : "I have just read the funeral oration by Wil- 
liam Lloyd Garrison ; it was worthy of his royal father and well 
merited by Parker Pillsbury's life and work." Readers of the 
preceding volumes know how closely associated with these she 
herself had been in the ante-bellum days, in the early contest for 
the rights of women and in the publishing of her paper. The 

On May 22 Miss Anthony wrote in her diary : "Mr. Gannett's 
text today was 'Gladstone, England's Grand Old Man.' He eulo- 
gized him as the champion of emancipation and extension of the 
suffrage, but ignored the sad fact that he set his face against the 
enfranchisement of one-half of England's people, and when a 
petition of more than a quarter-of-a-million asked it of Parlia- 
ment, the great Commoner went out with the opposition. Grant- 
ing all that he was for English and Irish men he was far from 
a Liberal towards the women of the nation." 

In August Miss Anthony went for a little visit to Sherwood, in 
the lovely old home of Miss Emily Howland, and on the 25th 
she made a half-hour's address at the Farmers' festival in Center 
Grove with fully a thousand people present. 

The proof-reading at last was finished, and, feeling as if she 
had escaped from prison. Miss Anthony started September 22 
for the Maine Suffrage Convention. She stopped on the way for 
a much enjoyed visit with relatives at North Adams, Mass., her 
birthplace, and the neighboring village of Cheshire, and then went 
through the beautiful valley of the Deerfield river to Boston and 
on to Portland. Here she was the guest of Miss Charlotte J. 
Thomas for a few days and then they went to the convention at 


Hampden Comers. It was held in the town hall and she had a 
most cordial reception, but her greatest pleasure was the five 
days' visit with her much loved friend, Mrs. Jane H. Spofford, 
who had entertained her for so many winters when hostess of 
the Riggs House in Washington. On her way back she stopped 
in Concord, N. H., at the Pillsbury home, to visit the daughter, 
Mrs. Helen P. Coggeswell, and her old coworker, Mrs. Ar- 
menia S. White, and spoke in the Universalist Church. In Bos- 
ton she called at the Woman's Journal office, had luncheon with 
Frank P. Garrison, took her train, was delayed by washouts and 
did not reach home until one o'clock the next afternoon. Here 
she dined, bathed, dressed and presented herself at three o'clock 
at a committee meeting to discuss the opening of Rochester Uni- 
versity to women, just as wide-awake, alert and full of vigor as 
if she were twenty-eight instead of seventy-eight. 

A week later, October 15, Miss Anthony started westward for 
the State conventions of Missouri, Iowa, Kansas and Nebraska. 
In Chicago, where she was the guest of Mrs. Emily Gross, she 
went to hear President McKinley. "The streets were all deco- 
rated with arches and banners," she wrote in her journal that 
night, "but not on one of them nor in any of the speeches was 
there the name of a woman ; all was for the glorification of man !" 
She presided at the business meetings and spoke at the conven- 
tion in St. Joseph, Missouri; then, with Mrs. Carrie Chapman 
Catt, went on to Council Bluffs, Iowa. The Kansas convention 
was held in Paola. Here she met Mrs. J. Ellen Foster, who was 
canvassing the state for the Republicans, and recorded in her 
diary : "She was asking the women to work for the party that 
voted against their enfranchisement in 1894." 
r After the convention Miss Anthony returned to Omaha, where 
/ the Exposition was in progress, met the Reverend Anna Howard 
[ Shaw and Mrs. May Wright Sewall, and remained for a week's 
session of the National Council of Women. One afternoon she 
attended a Congress of the Liberal Religions to hear Rabbi 
Hirsch, Dr. H. W. Thomas and the Rev. Jenkyn Lloyd Jones ; 
they called her to the platform and she spoke briefly. Later she 
addressed a large meeting of the Jewish Women's Council. 



At this time the country was much stirred over the large 
number of deaths from disease among the soldiers in the Spanish- 
American War because of the incompetency pi the officers, as 
shown in the location of camps and in the inferior quality of food 
provided. In an address before a large audience Mrs. Foster 
defended the administration of the officers, particularly Surgeon- 
General Sternberg. She was wildly applauded because pf the 
patriotic sentiment inspired by any allusion to the nation, the flag, 
the war and everything connected with them. At its close Miss 
Anthony sprang to her feet, and in an impassioned speech boldly 
charged the Government and army officials with incompetency 
and neglect of duty. At first she was coldly received, but as she 
sketched the going forth from home of the young men, the unsan- 
itary camps they were forced to occupy, the greed and graft of 
the men who provided them with unwholesome food and the 
sickness and death which resulted, the people began to realize the 
truth of what she said. Soon they were intensely moved, and, 
as she pictured the agony of the mothers at home and their power- 
lessness to change these conditions, a great wave of enthusiasm 
swept over the audience and she had to wait for the applause to 
subside. At last turning to Mrs. Foster she said: "I am not 
denying that your doctor is a great bacteriologist, that he knows 
all about germs and such things, but what I am saying is that he 
does not know how to look after boys. There isn't a mother in 
the land who would not know that a shipload of typhoid-stricken 
soldiers would need cots to lie on and food to eat and fuel to cook 
it with, and that a swamp was not a desirable place in which to 
pitch a camp. To make the crime more atrocious there was high 
and dry ground within easy reach where cities were near enough 
to supply every necessity. Such an outrage against the loyal, 
courageous men who offered their lives in defence of their coun- 
try cannot be too severely censured. What the government needs 
at such a time is not alone bacteriologists and army v officers but 
also women who know how to take care of sick boys^and have 
the common sense to surround them with sanitary conditions." 

The papers and the people commended the courage which had 
impelled Miss Anthony thus to voice the indignation that was 


SO widely felt. She always spoke what seemed to her the truth, 
regardless of praise or blame, and no one ever catered less to 
popular sentiment. 

An entry in the diary, December 2, said : "Our dear mother's 
105th birthday and the 39th anniversary of the hanging of John 
Brown! And this morning Corinthian Hall burned — ^the dear, 
old hall in which in times past so many great men and women 
presented their highest thoughts to Rochester's best people — 
Phillips and Garrison, Beecher and Curtis, Mrs. Stanton, Er- 
nestine L. Rose, Lucy Stone, Frances D. Gage, Clarina Howard 
Nichols — and here we formed the first State Woman's Temper- 
ance Society in 1852." Among other incidents of the month she 
noted that she assisted Mrs. Sewall to form a local Council of 
Women in Rochester ; that she became a charter member of the 
George Washington Memorial Association; that she was guest 
of honor at the reception of the Educational and Industrial 
Union; that she talked to the girls of the public schools; that 
she signed one thousand letters asking subscriptions to the 
work of the National Suffrage Association; that she enter- 
tained the Political Equality Club ; that she wrote her name and 
an inscription in seventy sets of her Biography for friends. It 
is only by specific mention that one can realize the constant 
occupation of this busy and useful life which never had an idle 
or a wasted moment, and never knew cessation of its varied 
activities until after these had extended through more than four- 
score years. 





ANY times in preparing the first two of these vol- 
umes the writer said to Miss Anthony, "O, if you 
ever had stayed at home and done nothing for one 
year, or even for one month, what a relief it would 
be to your biographer !" But as the years went on 
I the days became more and more crowded and the interim be- 
lt ween journeys less and less. 

On New Year's Day of 1899 Miss Anthony started for New 
York where she was met by Mr. George W. Catt and accom- 
panied to his home in Bensonhurst-by-the-Sea. Here the Busi- 
ness Committee of the National Suffrage Association, as guests 
of Mrs. Chapman Catt, were to have a four days' meeting. As 
there was a strong spirit of harmony and fellowship among the 
members of this committee, their meetings were always greatly 
enjoyed and the pleasure of this one was much enhanced by the 
hospitality of this beautiful home. At its close Miss Anthony 
returned to New York and consiunmated a plan she had long 
cherished for having a department devoted to suffrage in one of 
the metropolitan dailies. She arranged with Mr. Paul Dana, 
editor of the Sun, for two columns in the Sunday edition of that 
widely circulated paper, which were filled by the present writer 
for five years — until Mr. Dana transferred the journal to other 
hands. Mrs. Stanton, as well as Miss Anthony, took the keenest 
interest in this department — ^The Cause of Woman — and both 
continually sent information, suggestions and helpful criticism. 
Theodore Roosevelt was at this time Governor of New York, 



and, as he had recommended a woman suffrage bill to the Legis- 
lature, it was decided to present him with a copy of Miss An- 
thony's Biography, in which she was asked to write an inscrip- 
tion. This she did as follows : "To Governor and Mrs. Roose- 
velt: It is with pleasure that I comply with the request of the 
Political Equality Club of my city to inscribe on this fly-leaf 
what should be the aim of every true patriot, viz: to establish 
for women perfect equality of rights with men— civil and polit- 
ical — ^in every State of the Union, and to make our Stars and 
Stripes, over whatever outlying possessions they may float, carry 
to the people thereof *equal rights for all,' irrespective of race, 
creed or sex. With highest respect and admiration." 

What an interesting chapter it would make if all the inscrip- 
tions Miss Anthony wrote in History and Biography could be 
collected — ^such delicious touches of humor, quaint bits of philos- 
ophy, strong words of wisdom and admonition, tender ones of 
love and friendship ! No edition de luxe which may be issued by 
an admiring posterity can have the priceless value of those en- 
riched by the tracing of her own pen. 

Miss Anthony was interviewed by the New York Herald, 
during this winter, in regard to some notoriously unjust dis- 
criminations which had recently been made against women in 
the educational and business world, with little concealment of 
the fact that it was because men were beginning to fear their 
competition. She said no more than the circumstances justified, 
and closed with the opinion that, if the coming generation of 
men did not change some of their habits, women would surpass 
them not only mentally but also physically. For many years 
she had been treated with much respect by the press and its 
billingsgate of the past seemed to have dropped into oblivion. 
These remarks, however, aroused the ire of the Memphis Scim- 
itar, and it began an abusive editorial of a column as follows : 

Miss Susan B. Anthony, we are very much more than pleased to observe, 
is again before the footlights. We had sighed for Susan through the many 
long and weary moons of her beautiful silence — for of all the beautiful things 
about Susan her silence is the most artistically and acceptably beautiful — even 
as the heart panteth after the brook . . . But, behold ! she hath arisen, and 


she returns to the old warpath with a pair of sound lungs and a healthy and 
well-developed desire to see her name in print, and re-engages in the crusade 
against her hideous former foe, the bifurcated beast, the braggart brute, the 
miserable and melodramatic monster — Man. Madly she snatches the veil from 
the face of her maidenly reserve, launches the gunboat of her vengeance, un- 
corks the bottle of her wrath, and goes after this heinous wretch in a way 
that would make doughty Aguinaldo himself quake with perceptible fear and 
arouse a flame of admiration in the breast of Colonel Quixote sufficient to 
justify the calling of the fire department. Yes, Susan is on tap with a 
vengeance, and the slight, spare-made tyrant who has lorded it so long over 
her oppressed and unfortunate sex would do well to take wings and fly to 
tall timber— for Susan is an avenger worthy of note. 

This was copied in full on the editorial page of the Birming- 
ham News. (February ii, 1899.) 

Miss Anthony went to Washington on February 10 for the 
triennial of the National Council of Women. It was the week 
of the never-to-be-forgotten blizzard, when street traffic was 
practically suspended, but she missed very few sessions. She 
forbade any attempt to celebrate her birthday, however, but the 
friends who were there presented her, through Mrs. Rachel Fos- 
ter Avery, with a generous check. After the Council closed she 
attended a reception given in the Corcoran Art Gallery by the 
Daughters of the American Revolution which, she noted in her 
journal, "was a perfect jam of splendid dresses." The next 
evening she went to a colored women's club at Mrs. Mary 
Church Terrell's, in which she found much more enjoyment. 

A stop was always made in Philadelphia, when Miss Anthony 
went to or from Washington, for a visit to the Rev. Anna How- 
ard Shaw, Mrs. Avery, and the nieces. Miss Lucy E. Anthony 
and Mrs. Helen Mosher James. During her stay this time she 
addressed the New Century Club. This winter as usual she 
went to New York to talk things over with Mrs. Stanton, and, 
as for many years, she was the guest of her cousin, Mrs. Seman- 
tha V. Lapham, who sent her each day in the carriage across 
Central Park to Mrs. Stanton's home. Just now the two were 
working diligently over letters of protest to Congress in regard 
to the proposed injustice toward the women of Hawaii. 

On March 7 Miss Anthony continued her journey to Hart- 
ford, Conn., to be present at the State Suffrage Convention, and 


was delightfully entertained in the fine, old home of Mrs. Isa- 
bella Beecher Hooker. She addressed the convention and at- 
tended the legislative hearing at the Capitol on a municipal 
woman suffrage bill. When at last she arrived home, March 13, 
she was, as usual, "appalled at the huge pile of letters" but 
attacked them with might and main. Her brother. Col. D. R. 
Anthony, of Leavenworth, Kas., coming a few days later, every- 
thing was cast aside and she gave herself up to the luxury of 
"visiting" from early morning until late at night. "It was 
snowing and blowing so hard," the journal said, "that we could 
not go out, so we sat with Sister Mary by an open fire and never 
had as quiet and pleasant a time, as always before we were both 
in a hurry but now both felt at leisure." 

The diary recorded that on the 22nd Miss Anthony was strug- 
gling with an article on the International Council of Women for 
the New York World. She went to Geneva, N. Y., on the 27th 
and addressed a large audience, but from fatigue or some other 
cause she "had not a free minute in the whole hour." It was one 
of those experiences which she sometimes had when it was sim- 
ply impossible for her to make a speech, and, as she never used 
even notes, she was entirely helpless. She wrote in her journal, 
"My failure was followed by an all night's sleeplessness and the 
memory of it was worse than a nightmare." Afterwards she 
heard that some one said, "Miss Anthony thought that anything 
from her would do on account of her great reputation," and she 
wrote: "I was crushed with the fact of my failure before, but 
to have it ascribed to that cause is a blow too cruel. I always 
feel my incapacity to give a *set' address — I can when in the 
best condition make a few remarks, but a sustained speech was, 
is and always will be an impossibility. Alas, that the friends 
will forever press me into a position where I must attempt it !" 
Readers of the preceding volumes and those who heard Miss 
Anthony at her best will understand how mistaken she was in 

^this estimate of her abilities, but she always insisted that she 
had not the power of oratory, that her strength lay in organiz- 

; ing, presiding, raising money and keeping other people at work. 
An entry in the journal, April 14, said, "Sister Mary and the 

Copyright, Frances Benjamin Johnston. 


Miss Anthony in thb Door. 


maid cleaning house while I am agonizing over points for my 
speech at Grand Rapids." 

After opposing it for many years Miss Anthony had yielded 
to the demand for holding the alternate national conventions in 
various cities, but she never was entirely satisfied with the plan. 
Under the date in her diary when this one was to open in Grand 
Rapids she wrote: "The 31st — ^it used to be annual Washington 
convention — ^now it is only the annual convention of the Na- 
tional Association," It opened April 27 in the handsome Saint 
Cecilia club house and was welcomed by the presidents of many 
organizations of women. In the course of her response Miss 
Anthony said: 

Since our last convention the area of disfranchisement in the possessions of 
the United States has been greatly enlarged. Our nation has undertaken to 
furnish provisional governments for Hawaii, the Philippine Islands, Cuba and 
Porto Rico. Hitherto the settlers of new Territories have been permitted 
to frame their own government, which was ratified by Congress, but today 
Congress itself assumes the prerogative of making the laws for the newly- 
acquired Territories. When those in the West were organized there had been 
no practical example of universal suffrage in any of the older States, hence 
it might be pardonable for their settlers to ignore the right of the women 
associated with them to a voice in their government. 

But to-day, after fifty years' continuous agitation of the right of women to 
vote, and after the demand has been conceded in one-half the States in the 
management of the public schools; after one State has added to that the 
management of its cities; and after four States have granted women the 
full vote— the universal reports show that the exercise of the suffrage by 
women has added to their influence, increased the respect of men, and ele- 
vated the moral, social and political conditions of their respective common- 
wealths. With those object lessons before Congress, it would seem that no 
member could be so blind as not to see it the duty of that body to have the 
governments of our new possessions founded on the principle of equal rights, 
privileges and immunities for all the people, women included. I hope this 
convention will devise some plan for securing a strong expression of public 
sentiment on this question, to be presented to the Fifty-sixth Congress, which 
is to convene on the first Monday of December next 

During the reconstruction period and the discussion of the negro's right to 
vote. Senator Blaine and others opposed the counting of all the negroes in 
the basis of representation, instead of the old-time three-fifths, because they 
saw that to do so would greatly increase the power of the white men of the 
South on the floor of Congress. Therefore the Republican leaders insisted 
upon the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to secure the ballot to negro 
men. Only one generation has passed and yet nearly all of the Southern 

Ant. 111—2 


States have by one device or another succeeded in excluding from the ballot- 
box very nearly the entire negro vote, openly and defiantly declaring their 
intention to secure the absolute supremacy of the white race, but there is not 
a suggestion on their part of allowing the citizens to whom they deny the 
right of suffrage to be counted out from the basis of representation. Some of 
the northern newspapers have been growing indignant upon the subject, de- 
claring that one vote in South Carolina counts more than two votes in New 
York in the election of the President and the House of Representatives. It 
seems to me that a still greater violation of the principle of "the consent of 
the governed" is practiced in all the States of the Union where women, though 
disfranchised, are yet counted in the basis of representation, and I think the 
time has come when this association should make a most strenuous demand 
for an amendment to the Constitution of the United States forbidding any 
State thus to count disfranchised citizens. 

Referring to some of the disappointments of the year Miss 
; Anthony continued : "None of these so-called defeats ought to 
.' discourage us in the slightest degree. Our enemies, the women 
" remonstrants, may comfort themselves with the thought that 
the liquor interest has joined in their efforts, but we surely can 
solace ourselves with the fact that the very best men voted in 
favor of allowing women to exercise their right to a voice in the 
' conditions of home and State. So we have nothing to fear but 
\ everything to gain by going forward with renewed faith to agi- 
tate the question and educate the public, until the vast majority 
j of men and women are thoroughly grounded in the great princi- 
[ple of political equality.'' Then dropping into the conversa- 
tional style that her audiences liked she said: "I thank you, 
friends, for your cordial words of welcome. We are glad to 
come here. I always feel a certain kinship to Michigan since the 
constitutional amendment campaign of 1874, in which I assisted. 
I remember that I went across one city on a dray, the only 
vehicle I could secure, in order to catch a train. A newspaper 
said next day : That ancient daughter of Methuselah, Susan B. 
Anthony, passed through our city last night, with a bonnet 
looking as if she had just descended from Noah's Ark.' Now 
if Susan B. Anthony had represented votes, that young political 
editor would not have cared if she were the oldest or youngest 
daughter of Methuselah, or whether her bonnet came from the 
Ark or from the most fashionable man milliner's." 


Later when a Colorado woman spoke of her own possession 
of the suffrage Miss Anthony said: "I am glad you have it. 
We are not working for ourselves alone and that is one reason 
why our society does not grow as fast as some others." In re- 
ferring to the effort in behalf of the Hawaiian women, she said : 
"We are told that it will be of no use for us to ask this measure 
of justice — ^that the ballot be given to the women of our new 
possessions on the same terms as to the men — because we shall 
not get it It is not our business whether we shall get it; our 
business is to make the demand. Suppose during these fifty 
years we had asked only for what we thought we could secure, 
where should we be now? Ask for the whole loaf and take 
what you can get." She urged all women to make an effort for 
the suffrage and inquired, "Why is it the duty of the little hand- 
ful on this platform to be working and talking for the enfran- 
chisement of women any more than that of all of you who are 
sitting here? Every woman can do something for the cause. 
She who is true to it at her own fireside, who speaks the right 
word to her guests, her family and her neighbors, does an educa- 
tional work as valuable as the woman who speaks from the plat- 
form." And to the charge of "abusing the men" she answered, 
"We have not been fighting the 'male' citizen anywhere but in 
the statute books." 

On Sunday evening Miss Anthony spoke in the Fountain 
Street Baptist Church on The Moral Influence of Women. The 
entry in the journal that night said: "In the afternoon I tried 
hard to get a nap but was too anxious to sleep. There was a 
packed audience, mostly bonnets, so it looked like a flower gar- 
den from the pulpit. I succeeded better than I had hoped — ^tried 
to show them that woman's moral influence to be effective must 
have the political backing of the vote." The next evening she 
addressed the convention on The Power of the Ballot in Munici- 
pal Elections. 

While in Grand Rapids Miss Anthony was the guest of Mr. 
and Mrs. Deloss A. Blodgett, who gave several social functions 
in her honor and also entertained the Business Committee. 

The convention was largely occupied with the constitution 


/ which Congress had prepared for the proposea new Territory of 

/ Hawaii and which enfranchised natives, half-breeds, Portuguese, 
every sort and condition of men, but barred out all women and 

' made them ineligible to all offices; it even deprived the Legisla- 
ture of the power to confer the suffrage on women, a privilege 

i possessed by all other Territories. This was done in opposition 
to the wishes of President Dole and Justice Frear of the Supreme 
Court, who came to Washington to represent the Islands. The 
Executive Board of the National Association memorialized Con- 
gress ; Miss Anthony wrote to President McKinley, to Senators, 
to the Congressional Committee, and sent petitions to every 

I State to be signed protesting against this outrage. She wrote a 
long and eloquent letter to President Sanford B. Dole, implor- 
ing him to have official action taken against it in Hawaii. All 
was in vain, and at the very dawn of the new century a Territory 
came into the Union with more unjust discrimination against 
women than had existed in any which ever had been admitted. 
Miss Anthony joined Miss Shaw at Chicago where they were 
made members of the Woman's Relief Corps, and then she has- 
tened home to see her sister off for Europe and herself to prepare 
for the long journey. She was going to attend the International 
Council of Women in London and she had been using all her 
powers of persuasion for the past six months to induce her sister 
to go also, had written pages while away and spent hours in 
argument at home. At last she was successful and Miss Mary 
decided to join a party of friends, go over early and make a tour 
of the continent before the Council opened. Miss Anthony went 
to the station with her on May ii, and the next evening she 
wrote in her diary: "How fearfully lonely the house is with 
Sister Mary gone out of it even for a few months ! What would 
it be if it were for all time and I were to be left alone?" 

Mrs. Clara B. Colby made her a little visit and they went to 
hear the Rev. W. C. Gannett preach on Co-education. That 
night she said in her journal : "He spoke of the need of co-edu- 
cation and cooperation in the home, the school, everywhere save 
in the Government. After church I told him of his failure and 
he looked so sad I felt sorry for doing it." But two Sundays 


later she recorded: "In Mr. Gannett's Decoration Day sermon 
he showed how the Civil War had a holy purpose, but the con- 
quest of the Philippines was only a grasping greed for empire. 
I told him afterwards that it was worthy of Parker Pillsbury, 
of whom he more and more reminded me." This was the highest 
praise she could have bestowed unless she had said Wendell 
Phillips. Mr. Gannett often laughingly remarked that he always 
expected her after the services to tell him whether his sermons 
were good or bad, but her family knew that she counted the 
Simday lost when she did not hear one of them. 

Miss Anthony had been invited to speak at Chautauqua, N. 
Y., this summer and had many other invitations but was obliged 
to decline all. Sunday afternoon. May 21, she spoke in the 
Brick Church of Rochester for the Young People's Loyal Le- 
gion. The Democrat and Chronicle said: "It was announced 
as a temperance meeting but when it is stated that Susan B. 
Anthony was the speaker, it will be understood at once that it 
was bound to partake more or less of the character of a suffrage 
meeting also, and it was bound to be interesting in each of its 
phases." After giving many reminiscences of her early temper- 
ance work, she was quoted as saying: "Today women are not 
only not denied the right to speak in public, but the men seem 
to have stepped back and allowed them to assume the whole 
burden in certain kinds of public work. I do not complain that 
this work is turned over to women, but I do complain that they 
are not given the power that men have in order to do it. 
Every one of the great monopolies is not only owned and con- 
trolled by men, but most of the employees are men, and there- 
fore when a capitalist speaks he represents thousands of men and 
money. If it is proposed to increase the power of the women of 
the country, these men head it off unless they decide that it will 
be harmless. Men make the laws and they enforce them — or 
fail to enforce them, and they generally fail in the case of moral 
laws. Do you not see, my good temperance friends, that it will 
not be possible to get good laws enforced until women can vote? 
What you need is not new statutes — ^we have them to cover 


every evil — ^but the power to enforce these laws. You couldn't 
elect a 'good government' official in this city if the saloon ele- 
ment and the gambling element and the low elements generally 
didn't know that 'good government' official would *go easy' on 
them for the sake of holding on to his office." 

"Up to this time," the account said, "the audience were in 
doubt as to the propriety of manifesting approval on Sunday 
but now they burst into applause." 

At eight o'clock on the morning of May 29 Miss Anthony, 
all alone, left her home to take the train for New York en route 
for Europe, her faithful neighbor, Mrs. L. C. Cook, closing the 
front door and promising to "watch the house." She might 
have been accompanied by a retinue had she not liked it better 
this way, but when she reached the station, feeling a little bit 
depressed in spite of her independence, there were her beloved 
Mr. and Mrs. Gannett waiting for her! "And so I had their 
loving good-by," the diary said, "and they were much amused 
to hear all the station men give me a hearty 'God bless you'." 

Miss Anthony spent several days in New York, bidding Mrs. 
Stanton good-by and receiving many farewell calls from rela- 
tives and friends. Miss Shaw, and Lucy Anthony joined her 
here and on Saturday, June 3, all started for London on the 
Atlantic Transport Menominee. Others in the party were Dr. 
Sarah Hackett Stevenson, Mrs. Emily Gross, Mrs. Emma Shaf- 
ter Howard, Miss Emily Rowland, Misses Harriet and Alice 
Purvis, Miss Nora Stanton Blatch and twelve delegates from 
Canada. Among the passengers was Marie Wainwright, the 
actress, who soon became devoted to Miss Anthony. When 
arrangements for the Sunday evening entertainment were in 
progress she insisted that Miss Anthony should speak and the 
latter agreed only on condition that Miss Wainwright should 
introduce her. This she did in charming fashion and Miss An- 
thony delighted everybody with her simple, straightforward talk. 
Captain John Robinson soon became one of her enthusiastic 
admirers and all on board were her friends before the v03rage 
was ended. She was an excellent sailor, had her salt-water bath 


at seven every morning, her three frugal meals, her afternoon 
nap, her long walks, and a sea trip was imalloyed pleasure. 

After ten days of fine weather the ship entered the Thames 
River and at the London dock Mr. William Henry Blatch met 
Miss Anthony and his daughter and took them to his home at 
Basingstoke. Here Miss Anthony had a quiet, restful visit with 
Mrs. Harriot Stanton Blatch, reading, answering the many let- 
ters that awaited her and driving through the beautiful country. 
Mrs. Millicent Garrett Fawcett, President of the National Union 
of Women's Suffrage Societies came down for a day. At the 
earliest possible moment, Miss Anthony wrote the following 
letter to Mrs. Leland Stanford : 

Before sailing I had read of your magnificent gift to the university and re- 
joiced in you exceedingly as having excelled all other women; and here in 
old England I have handed me a special telegram to the New York Tribune 
which contains the following: "Mrs. Stanford specifies that she wishes to 
have the number of women students limited to 500, as she sees a possible 
danger to the institution in the rapid increase of the percentage of girls — 
which has grown from 25 to 41 — and there are now 450 women. Many of 
the alumni feel that the college spirit is injured — that it cannot hold its own 
in athletics, oratorical contests, etc." This sends a chill over me — ^that this 
limitation should come through a woman and that one my dear Mrs. Stan- 
ford to whom I had looked for the fulfilment of our dream of perfect equality 
for women in her university. Who are the alumni that are thus afraid? The 
men, of course. And what do they think is endangered? Physical prowess — 
sports — ^not high intellectual attainments. I know full well that the men in 
co-educational universities have to suffer contempt from the shallow-pated of 
colleges for men only, but Stanford's splendid work hitherto has been to teach 
its men to stand up bravely and demolish those false ideas. You have done 
as much as any other human being to educate men to respect women and 
I cannot bear to have you destroy this work. Had you provided that, when 
the number of students had reached its maximum, care should be taken that 
the proportion of the sexes should be the same — ^that for the well-being of 
all, there should not be any great preponderance of either — ^it would have 
seemed fair and just. But to limit the women to 500 and set no bounds to the 
number of men makes you virtually say that the presence of women is de- 
teriorating to a university to such an extent that not more than 500 of them 
can be allowed without jeopardizing its best interests. 

Suppose all of the co-educational universities throughout the country should 
follow your example, where would the thousands and thousands of women 
find chances for education but in girls' colleges, seminaries and boarding 
schools, which would mean a return to the old-time methods. Indeed your 


proposed limitation is a most fatal step backward. Do you think your dear 
husband would have yielded to the fears of the male alumni? And if not, 
why should the wife to whom he intrusted all? I wish I could see you and 
talk it over. I am sure you would change it to half-and-half of the sexes, for 
the hij^hest good of the students, the home and the university. Lovingly and 
trustingly yours. 




, HE International Council of Women in London — 
not one chapter, not many chapters, could contain 
an adequate accoimt of that remarkable meeting 
which was a distinct and significant event in the 
great progressive movement among women. The 
space allotted here must be given largely to Miss Anthony's own 
part in this world's convention whose official proceedings fill 
seven volumes. That it was no small part the printed transactions 
of the business sessions show, for her name appears upon nearly 
every page, making reports, moving resolutions, speaking to the 
question, giving wise and helpful suggestions out of the depth 
of her long experience. She was chief among the founders of the 
I Council, in Washington, in 1888;* was a leading factor in its first 
Quinquennial at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago, in 1893;* 
and now, in her eightieth year, had crossed the ocean to partici- 
pate in its third convocation. 
-/^o Miss Anthony was assigned the important chairmanship 
I of the Nominating Committee. During a warm discussion on 
"electing prominent women members of the Council simply as a 
mark of honor, she characteristically observed that "those who 
wished to honor them should put their hands in their pockets 
and pay to make them patrons.*' When the vigorous attempt 
was made to override the constitution and keep out of the presi- 
dency an American woman who already had been practically 

1 Volume II, dapter XXXV. 
> Volume II, Chapter XLI. 



elected, it was largely owing to Miss Anthony's firm attitude 
and excellent generalship that the plan was defeated. While 
it was a matter of keenest regret to her and the other delegates 
from the United States to be compelled to antagonize the women 
of other countries for whom they felt the warmest friendship, 
they regarded the action strictly as an observance of the consti- 
tution and an adherence to principle. 

At the close of the last business meeting, the committee were 
entertained at luncheon at Cassiobury Park, the ancient country 
seat of the Earl of Essex, by Lady Aberdeen, the retiring presi- 
dent. When the new president, Mrs. May Wright Sewall, had 
eloquently moved a vote of thanks for this hospitality, which 
was seconded by the Baroness Gripenberg, of Finland, Miss 
Anthony rose and said with deep feeling: "Girls, — ^yes, I call 
you so, for you are all girls compared with me — you have ex- 
pressed your joy and thankfulness that you have had an oppor- 
tunity to be present at this Congress. What do you think I feel, 
I, who remember the time when woman's cause had no friends 
outside a little group now called the 'pioneers' ? What do you 
think I feel to know that now there is a whole generation of 
women able to carry on the work when the 'pioneers' have 
passed away?" 

After the applause which followed this little speech. Mile. 
Sarah Monod, the delegate from France, responded, saying: 
"On behalf of the 'girls', I, although sixty years old, beg to 
thank Miss Anthony for what she has done toward the upraising 
of womanhood and humanhood. Many of us here present are 
already grey-haired, but still we confess ourselves inexperienced 
'girls', who receive with thankfulness the inheritance she has 
given us." 

Miss Anthony spoke on the opening day of the great Congress 
held in connection with the Council, June 2y, the subject of her 
address. Position of Women in the Political Life of the United 
States. It fills six pages of the printed report and is an able and 
complete resume of the beginning, progress and present status 
of the movement for the emancipation of women, and their legal. 


industrial and social position at the end of the nineteenth cen- 
tury.^ It concludes by saying: 

Until woman has obtained that "right protective of all other rights— the 
ballot/' this agitation must still go on, absorbing the time and energy of our 
best and strongest women. Who can measure the advantages that would re- 
sult if the magnificent abilities of these women could be devoted to the needs 
of government, society and home, instead of being consumed in the struggle 
to obtain their birthright of individual freedom ? Until this be gained we can 
iiever know, we can not even prophesy the capacity and power of women for 
the uplifting of humanity. It may be delayed longer than we think, it may be 
here sooner than we expect, but the day will come when man will recognize 
woman as his peer, not only at the fireside but in the councils of the nation. 
Then, and not until then, will there be the perfect comradeship, the ideal 
union, between the sexes that shall result in the highest development of the 
race. What this shall be we may not attempt to define, but this we know that 
only good can come to the individual or the nation through the rendering of 
exact justice. 

The present writer ventures to use a few extracts regarding 
this unprecedented meeting from her own S3mdicate letters to the 
United States. 

Four great halls in London have been occupied by the Congress— West- 
minster, Town and Church Halls, St. Martin's and, for the mass meetings, 
the splendid Queen's Hall, with its fine decorations and massive organ. What 
a wonderful body it is ! What a broad conception, this bringing of the repre- 
sentative women of all nations to counsel together on questions directly af- 
fecting the evolution of humanity ! The London Sunday Times said : "It will 
certainly be interesting to see if women can successfully achieve what, so far 
as we know, men never have attempted." May we say, in all humility, that it is 
possible for men to learn some things even from women? We have had at 
this Congress an educated Chinese woman, sent by the Emperor of China to 
represent the women of that nation; native delegates from India; highly 
educated women from Australia and New Zealand, who traveled 12,000 miles 
just to attend this Council; women of culture and ability who came for the 
same purpose from the Argentine Republic, South Africa, Persia and Pales- 
tine. Almost every country in Europe has been ably represented. All of 
these have brought the story of what women are doing in their respective 
nations and all are eagerly seeking to learn from others how the work may 
be advanced 

Miss Anthony was one of the principal speakers at the mass 
meeting for woman suffrage held in Queen's Hall, the evening 

^International Council Report, 1899. Women in Politics, page 3. 


of June 29 under the auspices of the National Union of Women's 
Suffrage Societies of Great Britain. The official report says, 
"Miss Anthony was received with prolonged applause, the audi- 
ence all rising." Mrs. Fawcett, president of the Union, made the 
opening address; the resolution was presented by Mr. Faithful 
Begg, M. P., seconded by Mrs. Wynford Phillips and the Hon. 
Mrs. Arthur Lyttleton. Miss Anthony came next and she 
seemed to feel the inspiration of the vast audience of over 3,000 
earnest, enthusiastic men and women as she outlined the present 
position of women and the work that had been and was yet to be 
done. She was followed by the Hon. W. P. Reeves, of New 
Zealand, and Frau Marie Stritt, delegate from the Council of 
Germany, and the meeting closed with an eloquent address by 
Lady Henry Somerset. 

The syndicate letter continued : 

The colossal figure of the present Congress has been, without question, 
Susan B. Anthony. None other has called forth a fraction of the enthusiasm 
which has greeted her every appearance on the platform. When she has risen 
to speak the applause has been so long-continued it seemed as if she never 
would have a chance to begin. At nearly eighty years of age, her voice has 
still the best "carrying quality" of any of the fine voices which have been 
heard during the meetings. In these large halls, filled with thousands of 
people, she has been able to reach the farthest comers without apparent 
effort. . . . 

She has told how the woman's rights movement, which now extends around 
the globe, had its first beginning in this very city of London, when, in 1840, 
the women delegates were not allowed to take seats in the World's Anti- 
Slavery Convention; how the clergy of all denominations united in de- 
nouncing them; how Wendell Phillips eloquently pleaded for them; how 
William Lloyd Garrison refused to take any part in the deliberations because 
of this injustice. And then how Lucretia Mott, one of the rejected delegates, 
and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a bride, walked home from this stormy meeting, 
arm in arm, and resolved that something should be done to secure recogni- 
tion for women; and how eight years later this resolution took shape in the 
calling of that first Woman's Rights Convention in Mrs. Stanton's home, 
Seneca Falls, N. Y. As Miss Anthony has recounted the gains of sixty years 
and sketched the status of women of the present day, and the audiences have 
realized that, during more than half-a-century, this one woman has stood 
in the thickest of the fight, some of them have shouted their applause and 
some been moved to tears. 

The London correspondent of the Philadelphia Press said: 


"The papers here are going wild over Miss Anthony, declaring 
her to be the most unaggressive woman suffragist ever seen;" 
and the dispatches to the New York World: "When Susan B. 
Anthony, the great pioneer in the work for woman's enfranchise- 
ment, arose to speak there was a tumult of applause lasting fully 
five minutes." The Methodist Times, (London), said in a long 
and dignified article on the Council: "A hopeful sign was the 
unrestrained enthusiasm witli which the opening meeting greeted 
Susan B. Anthony, the 'Generar of the suffrage movement in the 
United States." Similar quotations might be made indefinitely 
to show the recognition of the woman and her work, by women 
of all countries and by audiences composed of all classes, in this 
largest and most cosmopolitan city in the world. 

Miss Anthony did not escape the interviewers. On the morn- 
ing the Council opened the Daily News had a column-and-a-half, 
covering the topics of suffrage, temperance, organizations of 
women, marriage, dress, law and the industries. The Sunday 
Times contained an excellent interview of a column devoted 
principally to the question of woman suffrage in all parts of the 
world, what it has done and what it is expected to do. An ex- 
tract will show the trend. 

Chatting about the Congress, the meetings and the organization, we touched 
on the question of housing educated women in London. Miss Anthony shook 
her head. "I care very little for these palliatives. It seems to me a very poor 
plan simply to make women comfortable in their poverty. The real aim should 
be to pay them better, give them the value of their work. It is to the advan- 
tage of men, too, that this should be done, for as long as women will take 
less pay than men for the same work, men will be driven out of their places. 
You see it all comes back to enfranchisement. Negroes never got the value 
of their work until they were enfranchised. When the Irish emigrated to the 
United States they were paid less than native-born men until they were 
naturalized, and then their pay became equal. They declared that the ballot 
was worth fifty cents a day to them." 
"And do you think it would be worth that to womankind ?*' 
"I don't pretend to assess the value precisely, but I do say that when women 
get the ballot they will be on fighting ground. At present they have not ar- 
rived. When men know that women can vote their heads off, then officials 
and office-seekers will attend to women's wants." 

Such long personal interviews are unusual in London papers 
and there were many of them during Miss Anthony's stay. 


Even a brief account of this meeting would be inadequate if 
no mention were made of the many social courtesies extended 
during the two weeks. These included two official receptions, 
one at Stafford House, the town residence of the Duchess of 
Sutherland, and the other at Surrey House, Marble Arch, that 
of Lady Battersea — ^two homes most noted in London for their 
wealth of art in every form. The garden party in Gunnersbury 
Park, at which the hostesses were Lady and Mrs. Leopold de 
Rothschild, was said to be the handsomest ever seen in England. 
Regrets were sent by the Prince and Princess of Wales for their 
inability to be present. 

The old castle stands in the finest of English parks, with many acres of 
turf as soft and smooth as velvet, trees which have stood for centuries, con- 
servatories filled with rarest plants, summer houses covered with luxuriant 
ivy, a lake with an exquisite Italian temple on its shore. Gaily striped mar- 
quees, adorned with rugs and draperies, were scattered about the lawn, and 
here, from gold and silver service, scores of servitors in livery of pale blue 
plush and white silk stockings dispensed elaborate refreshments. Four bands 
of nearly two hundred pieces played all the afternoon, each so far away from 
the others that there were no conflicting sounds ; while, for the further enter- 
tainment of the guests, there was a circus performance on the greensward, 
with equestrians, jugglers, acrobats, etc. 

Another charming garden party was given by the Lord Bishop of London 
and Mrs. Creighton, at their residence, Fulham Palace, built by Henry VII 
five hundred years ago. The beautiful grounds are surrounded by a moat 
kept full of running water from the Thames, crossed by only a single bridge, 
and the great trees are full of singing birds which no enemy can approach. 

Many of the delegates have been entertained at tea on the terrace of the 
House of Commons. One cannot imagine a more interesting sight than this 
broad stone terrace occupied by the most distinguished men of Great Britain, 
accompanied by handsomely dressed ladies, either strolling up and down or 
seated at the little tables with their snowy covers; the white-capped maids 
moving about with the steaming silver tea-pots, plates heaped with thin slices 
of bread and butter and great bowls filled with luscious strawberries. On one 
side is the magnificent Gothic front of Westminster, on the other the deep 
and swift waters of the Thames, with the endless procession of vessels of 
every description; close by, the splendid bridge supported by its seven gresX 
arches, and, beyond, those glorious views which inspired Wordsworth's poem, 
"Earth has not anything to show more fair." 

A delightful afternoon affair was given by Mr. Charles Han- 
cock at the National Liberal Club, its wide verandas overlooking 
Victoria Gardens; and the teas, dinners and garden parties by 


private individuals were far too numerous for special mention. 
At these functions the most eminent men and women in the 
literary, artistic and political life of London were present to 
greet the foreign guests. Invitations were extended for week- 
end visits at country estates, and every form of English hospi- 
tality was charmingly illustrated. 

The Women's Qubs have opened wide their doors for luncheons and recep- 
tions — ^University, Pioneer, Albemarle, Writers', Sesame, Camelot, Lyceum, 
Grosvenor Crescent — and visitor's cards, or "honorary membership," have been 
widely granted. ... It would be impossible to enumerate the official invi- 
tations extended by schools of cookery, students' associations, industrial coun- 
cils, local government boards, horticultural societies, hospitals, social settle- 
ments, vegetarian unions, etc., etc., to come and inspect and have the inevitable 
cup of tea. The delegates select the things they are specially interested in and, 
with visiting these, trying to hear as many as possible of the excellent Congress 
papers and attending two or three elegant social affairs each evening, we have 
felt like accepting unanimously the cordial invitation to visit the home for 

Ambassador and Mrs. Choate gave an afternoon tea for the 
delegates from the United States in their beautiful home on 
Carlton House Terrace. Lady Aberdeen's reception at the Royal 
Institute of Water Colors was one of the handsomest entertain- 
ments. None was more enjoyed than the large luncheon party 
given by the Society of American Women in London in the 
grand banquet hall of Hotel Cecil, where Mrs. Humphrey Ward, 
Mrs. Craigie, Lady Randolph Churchill, Mme. Sarah Grand, 
Miss Genevieve Ward, Mrs. Antoinette Sterling, the Mar- 
chioness of Duflferin and many other noted women greeted the 
guests from abroad. 

From the gaiety and sparkle of this gathering we went directly to West- 
minster Abbey where near "Poet's Comer" special services for the delegates 
were held by Bishop Lyttleton. Never will that scene pass from memory! 
The long, vaulted arches, the light falling dimly through the high stained- 
glass windows, the ancient tombs of royalty, the statues of warriors, states- 
men and poets, white ghosts of the dead centuries — and in this most im- 
pressive spot on earth a group who represented the divine discontent of the 
world's womanhood, the struggle to emerge from the dying traditions of the 
past into a newer and larger life ! And here in the midst of crumbling relics 
of bygone times and conditions, we heard a sermon so broad and hopeful 
and advanced in thought as to fill us with courage and strength. We came 


out from the old abbey as from the old existence, and the great rush of 
humanity that surged through the streets seemed typical of the new and 
unrestrained activities which awaited us. 

I As Miss Anthony was the leading figure in the Council and 
Congress, so she was the one most in demand at every social 

kflfair and in all the brilliant galaxy of women none was so 

[widely honored. 

On all occasions, Miss Anthony has been the center of attraction and the 
other American women have been happy to shine by her reflected light It 
can truthfully be said that she never has accepted one invitation without ask- 
ing permission to bring some of her countrywomen with her. In the glittering 
parade of rainbow hues, tinsel, feathers and pompadours, which mark fashion- 
able society of today, she has stood in dignified simplicity, clad in rich black 
satin, with its refined decoration of lace, and her crown of silver hair out- 
shining the jewelled coronets. With all the adulation, she is not the least bit 
puffed up with pride, but declares it is intended solely for the cause she repre- 
sents, when everybody else knows it is in reality for her very own self— a 
tribute to her life of service. 

Two little stories are told about that staunchest exponent of democratic 
and republican institutions, Susan B. Anthony. On one occasion she actually 
undertook to introduce one of the greatest lords of the kingdom to two poor 
little girl employees on a London paper, and, as if this were not sufficiently 
heinous, she told him frankly that she had forgotten his name. He did not 
tell it to her and if Gibson could have caught the expression of his lord- 
ship's face he might have produced his masterpiece. 

At another time she was invited to a luncheon to meet the Princess Qiris- 
tian, the Queen's daughter. After shaking hands with her and talking a few 
minutes. Miss Anthony sat down. Presently some one came and told her 
she must not sit while ro}ralty was standing. Some of her friends say that 
her eighty years and the fatigue from the strain of the past weeks justified 
her in sitting. Others say that she could have stood up two hours if she had 
had a suffrage speech to make, but that the awful breach of etiquette was 
due to 'that spirit of her Quaker ancestors which made them face death rather 
than take off their hats to a king. Miss Anthony herself only laughs and "re- 
fuses to be interviewed."* 

The culmination was the visit to Windsor Castle and this in 
a measure was due to Miss Anthony. When interviewed on this 

*The London Times said: "Miss Anthony is being entertained by all the lords and 
ladies of the United Kingdom. She dines with Lady Somerset, stops oyer night with the 
Countess of Aberdeen and breakfasts with her, Imiches next day with the Duchess of 
Sutherland, is received by the Queen and threatens every day to call upon the Princesa 
of Wales, who is really very anxious to see the dear, old lady suffragist" 

Copyright, I^fayelte, London. 


Prisidbnt Intbrmational Council of Wombn. 


point (after her return to America) she gave this characteristic 
account : 

One day I said to Lady Aberdeen, "Now if this great Council were in 
Washington, I should certainly get an invitation for you to call on the Presi- 
dent and his wife. Isn't it possible for us to secure some recognition from 
the Queen ?" She said she didn't know, but she would try, so she sent a letter 
to the Queen and soon received a reply from her secretary that Her Majesty 
would be very happy to see us. The Queen gave directions to provide tea for 
the ladies. "Ah, but," said the secretary, "you must remember that you will 
have to provide for hundreds." "Well," was the Queen's answer, "if there 
be thousands, provide for thousands. I cannot allow the ladies to call upon 
me without giving them a cup of tea." The tables were placed in St. George's 
hall, the banquet-room of the palace, where all kinds of refreshments, with the 
luxuries of the season, hot-house grapes, strawberries, etc., were served on 
the royal china by the Queen's own retainers in scarlet livery. 

In an interview in the Daily Chronicle of London Miss An- 
thony was quoted as saying: "All our delegates felt very 
grateful to Lord and Lady Aberdeen for securing them this 
opportunity of seeing the Queen, and thought it most gracious 
of her Majesty to grant their request. I shall always remember 
the delightful sensation of sitting there on a sofa in the Queen's 
own home, drinking her tea, and, as it were, breaking bread with 
her. It was not a mere matter of curiosity with us; we felt 
that the Queen is a grand woman, who has set a good example 
to the nations of the world, that her influence has always been 
for peace, and that she has been a good wife and a good mother; 
moreover in her reign woman has made enormous advance." 

No sovereign in Europe would personally receive a great body 
like this and Queen Victoria was one of the most exclusive of 
royal rulers, but it was really a friendly act for her to admit the 
delegates to the court of Windsor Castle to see her start for her 
afternoon drive. The situation, however, was not wholly with- 
out its humorous features, it seemed to the present writer, who 
thus described it in part: 

Our party passed through the old Norman gateway, the most ancient por- 
tion of the castle, and then we paused under the shadow of the great round 
tower. . . . The omnipresent red-coated, fur-topped soldiers stand guard 
at the entrance, a solitary policeman paces back and forth and tries to evade 
the volley of questions from the crowd of women who are afraid to approach 
Ant. Ill— 3 


the soldiers but who have policemen at home. Far across the court in an open 
doorway stand three individuals in long coats, white "spats" and silk hats. 
They are the gentlemen-in-waiting. We have a fellow feeling for them, we 
have been ladies-in-waiting for more than an hour. 

At last a wave of excitement goes scurrying over the dry gravel. We are 
all arranged in a semi-circle along the driveway. A broad, low carriage dashes 
up to the main door in the southeast corner, drawn by two beautiful dappled 
bay horses with black points, attended by two outriders, mounted on prancing 
steeds, a perfect match to the others. The coachman is an exact counterpart 
of the typical John Bull Various functionaries appear; one stands at the 
horses' heads, another blocks the wheels so they may not move. White- 
aproned maids are seen in the hall — ^and now comes the Queen ! Carried in a 
chair by a stalwart Scotchman in plaid and kilts and bare legs, and a tall, 
black East Indian in white skirt and turban, she is gently placed in the car- 
riage. The Princess Beatrice takes a seat beside her, and the chief lady-in- 
waiting sits opposite, but we have eyes only for Victoria. 

As slowly as the horses can step she approaches the line. All around us 
the English women whisper, "Don't forget to courtesy !" We Americans have 
not been taught to crook the knee but we make our very best bow. The car- 
riage stops before Lady Aberdeen, who stands at the head of the line. She 
courtesies to the ground and kisses the extended fingers. A Canadian woman, 
who is presented on account of some special service, does the same. Then, 
horror of horrors, up steps a woman from the United States and shakes the 
Queen's hand ! She supposed, of course, Her Majesty was going to greet all 
of us in that democratic fashion. Slowly the carriage passes on, pausing for 
another moment in front of the delegates from India in their picturesque 
garments. The English women begin to sing **God Save the Queen." We 
Americans do not know the words, but, led by Emma Thursby, we sing 
"America" to the same tune, and it answers just as well. Her Majesty smiles 
and looks pleased. She is a lovely old lady, with fair hair and blue eyes, a 
complexion as pink and white as a girl's, and does not appear a day over 
sixty. On goes the carriage, under the high arch beneath which only royalty 
can pass— and the great event is over. The Queen has sanctioned the Wom- 
an's Congress! 

• It was suggested to Miss Anthony that it would be a graceful 
thing for her to send her Biography to the Queen, and this she 
did, selecting a set bound in full morocco and writing this in- 
scription: "To Her Royal Majesty Victoria, Queen of Great 
Britain and Empress of India, with profound appreciation of 
Her Majesty's service to all womanhood. Susan B. Anthony 
presents this story of her own life-work." The book was appro- 
priately acknowledged.^ 

^People always seemed to enjoy giving; Miss Anthony presents and she received many 
during her stay in London. Among them was $100 from her cousin, Mrs. Emily Clark 



Miss Anthony found it extremely difficult to recollect to say 
"your grace" and "your ladyship*' when speaking to members 
of the nobility, and she thus related one incident : 

> That reminds me of another conversation I had with a titled lady. In 
/ England, you know, they are always treated with the greatest deference, 
/ which seems to Americans much like sycophancy. I asked this lady if I 
seemed unduly familiar in my greetings and conversation with titled people, 
I and said I couldn't get the feeling into me that they were any different from 
the distinguished women in America. And she answered, "Miss Anthony, 
r that's just the way I like to be approached. I have more respect for you, for- 
getting my title, than if you played the subservient part like the women here, 
who have always been taught that it is their duty to do so." 

It would be impossible to mention all the social attentions of 
a private nature which Miss Anthony received. She was enter- 
tained at luncheons by Lady Battersea, Lady Rothschild, the 
Countess of Montefiore and Lady Jeune, and was the guest over 
night of the Countess of Warwick. She visited the home of 
her dear friends, Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Bright, and dined with 
Mrs. Fisher Unwin, daughter of Richard Cobden and living in 
the old family home. Through Mrs. Unwin she received a cor- 
dial invitation to visit Lady Carlisle at Castle Howard near 
York. Her ladyship wrote, "It would be a very great privilege 
and delight for me to receive Miss Anthony here and I have 
written to beg her to come if she possibly can do so." 

After the Congress adjourned and Miss Anthony paid a little 
visit to Mrs. Fenwick Miller at Reigate, she went to the Isle of 
Wight with Mrs. Emily Gross, for a brief rest. Here they were 
joined by Mrs. Sewall and Mrs. Harper and spent several days 
exploring this beautiful island. Then Miss Anthony hastened 
to gratify her dearest wish on coming to Great Britain, which 
was to visit her much loved old friends at Bristol, Miss Mary 
Estlin, daughter of the noted oculist and friend of Coleridge, 
and the Misses Margaret, Mary and Anna Priestman, sisters- 

Griggs, of New York, who went abroad with her. It was given for the exiM-ess purpose 
of buying a cloak in 'London, and very much against her judgment she was persuaded 
into getting the royal purple velvet lined with white satin, which some of her friends 
decbred gave just the finishing touch of elegance to her evening toilets. She herself 
wanted one of black velvet that she could wear on all occasions. 


in-law of John Bright. Thence she journeyed to Edinburgh for 
another precious visit to his sister, Mrs. Priscilla Bright Mc- 
Laren, then eighty-four years old, whom she found "just as 
sweet and bright as sixteen years ago."^ She remained five days 
in this lovely home — Newington House— enjoying the society of 
the daughter, Dr. Agnes McLaren, and various members of the 
Bright family and driving about the historic city. 

On returning to London Miss Anthony went to Richmond 
Hill to spend the day with Miss Rebecca Moore, now past eighty, 
who had been the English correspondent for her paper, The 
Revolution, thirty years ago. The diary said, "I had a very 
pleasant time and rode home on the roof of an omnibus, which 
gave me a fine top view of things." Then she went down to 
Basingstoke for a three days' farewell visit with Mrs. Stanton 
Blatch, who was almost as one of her own family, and August lO 
y she sailed for home on the Atlantic Transport Marquette. 

Miss Anthony found a number of acquaintances on board, 
/ among them the Rev. C. E. Hamilton, of the first M. E. Church 
j of Rochester. He conducted the Sunday evening services and 
I at the close introduced her to the audience with eulogistic re- 
1 marks. Sunday though it was she improved the occasion by 
I telling them why women ought to vote, and they said it was 
I just as good as a sermon. The ship entered New York harbor 
' the afternoon of August 20. When the customs officer exam- 
ined her trunks he told her he was the son of the Rev. A. N. 
Cole, whom she described as "my best friend in that stormy 
temperance convention of 1852." ' 

One day of New York's intense heat was sufficient to start 
Miss Anthony on the fastest train for her own cool and comfort- 
able home. She arrived early in the morning and the diary said, 
"Soon after six o'clock I was sitting down with Sister Mary 
enjoying my simple breakfast with plenty of peaches and cream." 
/ Within a few days she had had calls from over fifty friends and 
had been interviewed by the reporters again and again, finding 
I a fresh idea for every one. To the Rochester Post-Express she 

^Volume II, page 569. 
'Volume I, page 70. 



•gave a clear exposition of the action of the House of Lords, 

'While the Congress was in session, in vetoing the bill passed by 

. the House of Commons providing that women should sit in the 

/ London County Council, quoting from memory the opinions 

/ expressed by the Lord Chancellor and the Prime Minister/ She 

I described the Women's Local Government Society, naming the 

! officers and prominent members ; and then she discussed the need 

f of women on government boards in the United States. On this 

I point she said : "In the sphere of local administration, at least, 

the special gifts of women are sure to be utilized before many 

years. Certainly the public should not be fettered in its choice 

of servants to do its bidding and administer its offices. The 

time has gone by when political disabilities were imposed on 

account of religion; they are no longer imposed for reasons of 

poverty, and the time must come when they shall not be imposed 

for reasons of sex." 

These interviews illustrated Miss Anthony's keen perceptions, 
her wonderful memory and her broad grasp of affairs — just as 
the trip abroad had shown her superb physical condition — when 
she was nearing her eightieth birthday. The writer recalls that 
many evenings when they were going out for the customary 
walk and she would get down stairs first, which she always did, 
she would skip up and down the sidewalk while waiting, and 
when starting would say, "O, if I were but fifty or even sixty 
years old ! I never saw so much to do nor so many chances for 
doing it — but I think I am good for a great deal of work yet, I 
feel so strong and well." To live in order to work — ^that was 
her ambition at the end of fourscore years. 

1 Ab this TOlume is being written, in the summer of 1907, a bill has passed both Honses 
of Parliament by large majorities making women eligible as councillors, aldermen and 
nuijon of any county or borough of Great Britain. 




^HE last day of August Miss Anthony went to Ge- 
neva, N. Y., where Mrs. Stanton was visiting Mrs. 
Elizabeth Smith Miller, and here in this delightful 
home, its spacious grounds swept by the breezes of 
Lake Seneca on which they bordered, the three old 
friends of fifty years had several happy days together. Immedi- 
ately after returning home Miss Anthony started for Strouds- 
burg, Penn., the diary said, "to visit my dear, first-adopted niece, 
Rachel Foster Avery." She was spending the summer in the 
mountains, with her three young childen, and they combined 
business with pleasure, as there were many arrangements to be 
made for the next annual convention, which would mark an epoch 
in the National Woman Suffrage Association. 

When Miss Anthony was at home she was constantly impor- 
tuned to address all sorts of gatherings in Rochester. On Sep- 
tember 10 she spoke to the Joseph T. Ailing S. S. class of young 
men in the Central Presbyterian Church on the notorious non- 
enforcement of law in the city, which was to be an issue in the fall 
elections. In a column report the Herald quoted Miss Anthony 
as saying : 

As a representative of the most radical and hence the most unpopular de- 
mand for the practical application of the Golden Rule as the basis of our re- 
ligion, and the Declaration of Independence as the basis of our Government, 
I esteem the invitation to address this class not only a high honor but a most 
significant "sign of the times." I shall take it for granted that the members 
of it are believers in good government. To acquire this we must have good 
citizens. The old maxim that the fountain can rise no higher than its head, 

(I 148) 


is no truer in the law of physics than in the law of political ethics, that the 
government can be no higher and purer than the majority of its constituents. 
Hence, if our city» State or national government is not what we wish, the 
remedy is not in securing new officials but larger numbers of good constitu- 
ents — in other words make the source higher. 

Is it not fair to assume that men alone have done their very best to purify 
and elevate the voting constituency? I shall not charge them with not having 
tried to do so. Yet today, after a century-and-a-quarter of masculine rule, 
new political parties constantly appearing to put down bribery, corruption and 
all sorts of dishonesty in our Government are proof of the futility of their 

Miss Anthony then gave statistics to show the proportion of 
women in the churches (three-fourths) and said: "If you put 
the ballot in the hands of the half that has in it three to one of the 
best citizens, you at once change the balance of law abiding voters. 
The three good women put into the scales with one good man 
would certainly be a help in bringing over to the right side enough 
voters to elect officials who would enforce laws. Legislators and 
officers are powerless to bring about reforms and maintain them 
because they are not supported by the women in the community 
who would make it possible for them to carry out their policies 
without facing defeat for re-election." 

After describing the results of women's municipal suffrage in 
Canada and Kansas Miss Anthony closed by saying : "Although 
I doubt if it will be possible to have any extended and permanent 
reform in the liquor traffic until women are in a position to stand 
back of the effort with ballots, still I advise you young men to 
vote for the candidate for mayor who pledges himself to try to en- 
force law and order, and I urge you not to forget to uphold the 
hands of such a man after he has been elected." 

Miss Anthony addressed a meeting at the Zion A. M. E. 
Church, and, although complying with their request to talk about 
her trip abroad, she did not fail to express her faith in the colored 
race and her appreciation of what they had already accomplished. 
Speaking of the new statue to Frederick Douglass in Rochester 
she said : "I wonder how the mistake was made of having it face 
the South. It ought not be so and I shall endeavor to have it 
changed. He always faced the North ; his paper was called the 


'North Star/ and I do not like to see him looking back to the 

At the desire of a neighbor and friend, Miss Frank Reichen- 
bach, principal of School No. i, Miss Anthony spoke at the dedi- 
cation of her handsome new school building, October 4. She 
wrote a great many encouraging letters to State suffrage conven- 
tions during the autumn but attended only one, that of New York, 
at Dunkirk, November 1-4, where she addressed a large audience 
on the opening evening. 

A considerable portion of Miss Anthony's time and strength 
was given in aid of the effort which was being made to put a 
woman on the school board of Rochester. To the usual cry that 
it was unconstitutional she said in an interview : "There never 
seems to be any difficulty in stretching the laws and the constitu- 
tion to fit any kind of a political deal, but when it is proposed to 
make some concession to women they loom up like an unscalable 
wall." She then quoted from a dozen different States where 
women were rendering excellent and satisfactory service on school 
boards. She did everything in her power to secure the election 
of Mrs. Helen Barrett Montgomery, both then and in her subse- 
quent candidacy at different times in the next seven years, sup- 
ported her policies and took great pride in her notable record. 

The State Federation of Women's Clubs met in Rochester 
November 9-12 and Miss Anthony was a highly honored guest, 
sat on the platform at the right hand of the president, Mrs. Wil- 
liam Tod Helmuth, and received marked attention at all the social 
functions. She was made chairman of the section of Political 
Study and the journal said : "I am informed that there are to be 
six brief addresses but none of them must mention woman suf- 
frage — ^they must talk of the study of politics but not one word 
of its practical application ! !" 

Miss Anthony behaved beautifully all through the convention 
— ^whatever she may have been thinking to herself — ^until the very 
last day, and then she dropped her bomb. A wave of hysteria 
had been sweeping over the country and large numbers of women 
had been besieging Congress not to seat Brigham H. Roberts, 
elected Representative from Utah and a polygamist. The man- 


agers of the convention had not intended to have the subject 
brought up and it had no place in the official resolutions presented, 
but a delegate offered it from the floor. It looked as if it would 
be carried and the president hurriedly appealed to Miss Anthony 
to "say something." Under the spur of the moment she came 
forward and said that she saw "no reason for protesting against 
the seating of a Mormon who had violated the law of monogamy 
and yet never raising a voice against seating in Congress, or any 
other high official body. Gentile men known to be violators of 
that law and many others for the protection of women and girls 
outside of Utah.'' 

The resolution was defeated and the president, turning to Miss 
Anthony, said, "I thank you." That evening over one hundred 
of the delegates called at the Anthony home with every demon- 
stration of respect and friendship. Some of the others, however, 
were deeply incensed at her remarks ; the newspapers of the en- 
tire country commented on them, and bishops, ministers and 
many prominent men were interviewed. Some of them agreed 
with her, among them the well-known Dr. Charles H. Parkhurst, 
of the Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church of New York, who 
said : "The thing that Susan B. Anthony contends against will 
certainly continue until violating the Seventh Commandment 
damages a man's reputation as much as it does a woman's. The 
wickedness of Gentile polygamy does not wash the stain out of 
Mormon polygamy, but there is a trace of cowardice and a taint 
of h3rpocrisy in getting hysterical over one sinner out of Utah and 
forgetting to be morally and religiously indignant over precisely 
the same brand of iniquity that luxuriates in our own immediate 

Miss Anthony, however, was so terribly misrepresented and so 
bitterly denounced that at last she found it necessary to define her 
position, which she did in the New York World as follows : 

No person could abhor polygamy more than myself, but I detest even 
more the license taken by men under the loose morals existing in what the 
Mormons call the Gentile world. It is not that I uphold polygamy or any of 
its exponents, but I do feel more charity for a Mormon who has been taught 
from his birth that it is not only his right but his duty to God to enter into 


plural marriages, and that the man who has the greatest number of wives 
stands highest in God's favor, than I do for the man who has been taught 
from his cradle that the unpardonable sin is the desecration of womanhood; 
whose religious training and the moral code of civilization in which he is 
reared both make it a crime to violate the Seventh Commandment and the 
established law of monogamy. Yet, judging from the testimony we see all 
about us— our Doors of Hope, our lying-in and foundling hospitals and our 
fallen womanhood — ^the married or single man who lives a pure life is rare. 
I have more respect for the Mormon polygamist, who follows his teachings 
and lives up to the traditions of his religious sect by marrying the different 
women with whom he cohabits and supporting them and their children, than 
I have for the man who defies public opinion and in the light of our advanced 
* civilization and religious moral teachings gives his name and support to one 
woman openly while secretly desecrating the lives of others, thus committing 
a crime against his lawful wife as well as the other women whom he wrongs. 
If he have no wife the sin is as great against morality, and he should suffer 
equally with the woman. 

Therefore, while abhorring the principles of polygamy, I think the wives 
and mothers of the country might better enter into a crusade against the 
licentiousness existing all around us and polluting our manhood, and leave 
it to our lawmakers to settle the matter of Roberts' fitness to be their associate 
in Congress. 

If women would require the same purity in men that men require in women, 
and if mothers would refuse to entertain in their homes or to give their 
virtuous daughters to men whom they know to have transgressed the moral 
code, society would soon undergo a purification — a revolution. If our women 
would take this decided stand it would strike the strongest, most decisive 
blow at polygamy; for the root of the two evils — polygamy in Utah and 
licentiousness in the other States — ^is the same, and nothing but the highest 
moral teaching and the example of pure lives can blot out either. 

With that man Roberts I have no sympathy personally. He is a strong 
anti-suffragist and did all in his power to prevent the women of Utah from 
securing the ballot 

This always had been Miss Anthony's position.* The preced- 
ing April she had written a letter to the Anti-Polygamy League 
for Amending the Constitution, forbidding them to put her name 
on their national committee as they had requested. She gave 
reasons similar to those just quoted and ended by saying : "As 
you are doubtless aware I have devoted my time and energy for 
the last thirty years to the securing of a Sixteenth Amendment to 
the National Constitution that should protect women in all the 
States from disfranchisement on account of sex. I am surer to- 

* Volume I, pages 388-390. 


day than ever that with the right to a voice in the making and 
unmaking of every law and every law-maker in the hands of the 
women of this nation, there would be no need pf a Seventeenth 
Amendment 'making a polygamist or a libertine ineligible to 
public office.' " 

In order to complete Miss Anthony's record on the question of 
polygamy it seems advisable to publish here a letter pf hers writ- 
ten six years after the one just quoted. There had been several 
attempts to force out of the National Council of Women the two 
Benevolent Associations of Mormon women. Miss Anthony, as 
well as various officers of the Council, had firmly resisted these 
efforts, holding that it could not discriminate against race, creed 
or politics. A prominent Mormon woman, whom personally Miss 
Anthony liked very much and had entertained in her own home, 
wrote a letter thanking her for this stand and asking permission 
to put her name and picture in a book she was preparing, as one 
who had always dared to be a friend of Mormon women. To 
this Miss Anthony replied December 31, 1905 : 

You, like others, do not seem to know the difference between endorsing 
a movement itself and upholding the affiliation with the National Council of 
organizations composed of those who are connected with that movement. I 
do not consider that I endorsed Mormonism, or the beliefs or actions of Mor- 
mons, by protesting against the exclusion from the Council of associations 
of women who were doing a large humane work, because they belonged to 
the Mormon Church. I cannot let you use my name in any way in your book. 
You fail to comprehend that I am among those who hate polygamy and all 
the subjection of women in the Mormon faith. 

The situation is indeed bad enough as we have it in what you call "the 
Gentile world," but in that when a man and woman consort outside of the 
monogamic marriage they do so against the law of the State, the law of re- 
ligion and the law of society. They, (and especially the woman), who are 
guilty of such a partnership are shunned by all decent people. When you 
justify polygamy as a requirement of religious faith you make it entirely too 
respectable. I recognize no excuse for it. 

Other letters of a public and a private nature might be quoted 
but surely enough evidence has been presented to make perfectly 
clear Miss Anthony's attitude on this question. Her lofty ideas 
in regard to the marriage relation may be found in the preceding 


For several days during the second week of December Miss 
Anthony was in Indianapolis, the guest of Mrs. May Wright 
Sewall, to assist the other officers of the National Suffrage Asso- 
ciation in forming a State organization, the old one for various 
causes having gone out of existence. This city had always a 
sincere welcome for her and she had only enjoyable memories 
connected with it. An interview in the Sentinel gave this pleas- 
ing picture : 

The bright sunlight streamed through the south windows of Mrs. Sewall's 
drawing room yesterday morning and made a halo about the head of Miss 
Susan B. Anthony. She carries her eighty years well, walks with a graceful, 
springing step, stands erect and strong, and her very handclasp denotes 
vitality and strength. The hair brought down smoothly covering the cars 
and arranged in a simple knot behind is snow-white. The blue eyes that 
look at one through gold-bowed spectacles seem slightly dimmed until some 
favorite topic comes up, then they sparkle like those of a young girl. Miss 
Anthony has a delightful smile, the smile and laugh of real enjoyment; her 
love of fun bubbles all through her talk. She will pause in the most serious 
conversation to laugh at a joke and her sense of humor is very keen. Her 
voice is gentle and womanly and one can hardly realize what a vast power 
she has been and still is on the platform. . . . 

No one can converse with Miss Anthony without being deeply impressed 
with her personality, for her magnetism is strong and her manner winning. 
She does not rant, she does not argue; she puts her facts tersely and is 
always ready to see the other side of a question. She possesses to an un- 
limited extent the tact of a politician and a leader and she utters more com- 
mon sense philosophy in the course of a half-hour than most people think in 
a whole year. 

From here Miss Anthony journeyed to Detroit to attend the 
convention of the American Federation of Labor. In October she 
had written its president, Samuel F. Gompers, saying she felt the 
time had come when great bodies of men should give practical 
assistance to the cause of woman suffrage. She had urged that 
able women should be permitted to present the subject to their 
conventions and that the delegates should petition Congress to 
submit an amendment which would enable women to vote, and 
thus continued : 

Now that our government is proposing to formulate constitutions for the 
Hawaiian Islands, Cuba, Porto Rico and the Philippines, I want not only that 
women should petition Congress to leave the adjective "male'' out of their 



'suffrage clause, but also I want to rouse the men of all the different associa- 
>tions to declare for woman suffrage and to join with us in demanding of 
( Congress the establishment of a genuine republican form of government in 
all of these islands, instead of foisting upon them sex oligarchies. In all 
probability there will be a larger ratio of intelligent women in all of these 
newly-acquired Territories than of men, because the vast majority of mis- 
sionaries and teachers will be educated, cultivated women, as will be the 
wives of the business men who go there and of the officials who will be sent 
by the United States. It will surely be a great crime for Congress to compel 
all these intelligent women to be without any voice in the government under 
which they live. I am sure you will agree with me and will help me to secure 
the weight of the influence of all the workingmen's organizations possible.^ 

Mr. Gompers sent a cordial answer and she was assured that 
an opportunity would be given her to present her question. On 
the morning of December 12 Miss Anthony spoke for half-an- 
hour to Per Gradus, a woman's club, and in the afternoon she had 
just lain down for the daily nap when word came from Secretary 
Frank Morrison that she was to go at once and address the Labor 
Convention. She dressed quickly and hastened to the hall where 
she was received with the greatest enthusiasm. She made her 
argument and the four hundred delegates adopted by a rising vote 
a strong resolution demanding that Congress take the neces^ry 
steps for enfranchising women.* Miss Anthony was so happy 
she forgot she was tired and went to a Unitarian supper and fair 
where she was the belle of the evening. 

The next day Miss Anthony visited a photographer and with 
her usual kindness gave a number of sittings. She then acceded 
to a request that she would address the students of Spencer's 
Business College and spoke forty minutes. After this she went 
with Miss Octavia W. Bates to lunch at the country home of ex- 
Senator T. W. Palmer. While in Detroit she was the guest of 
her cousins, Mr. and Mrs. B. M. and Mr. and Mrs. Howard M. 
Anthony. She reached home the night of the 14th and the diary 
said : "Sister Mary had kept the lamp burning and one eye open 
tm 12 o'clock." 

lYear axter year Miss Anthony sent similar letters to the presidents of all large or* 
ganizations of men. There never can be an adequate estimate of the amount of work 
performed by that tireless brain and hand. 

'For action of other organizations sec Chapters LV and LIX. 


Miss Anthony "didn't know which plunge to take first — into 
the mass of letters or the article for the World's Centennial Cal- 
endar on the Status of Woman at the close of the Nineteenth 
Century and the Hope for the Twentieth," but as she loved to 
write letters and hated to prepare articles, the Calendar waited. 
The next Sunday she went to hear Mrs. Kate Gannett Wells 
speak on the Legacy of the Nineteenth Century Women to Those 
of the Twentieth. The journal said : "She remembered to for- 
get to name the climax of these legacies — the desire for a voice in 
the government. All the other legacies will be as nothing without 
this for the Twentieth Century women." 

On the 19th Miss Anthony was obliged to go to Butler, Penn., 
to fill an engagement of Miss Shaw's to lecture before the Teach- 
ers' Institute the next day. She spoke an hour-and-a-half to a 
large and deeply interested audience, and the next morning made 
a brief address to the teachers in the court house. The evening 
before her lecture she went to hear Dr. R. S. MacArthur of the 
Calvary Baptist Church, New York, and the journal said : "He 
gave S. B. A. a great puff — compared her to Queen Victoria. I 
ought to have gone up and thanked him, but I sped me to my hotel 
and to bed." The hotel was crowded and a gentleman kindly 
gave up his handsome room to her. "But alas ! I couldn't sleep 
for the smell of the creosote everywhere," said the diary. "When 
I pulled the blankets up around my neck it was fairly suffocating." 
She was not used to the Pennsylvania coal regions. 

Miss Anthony and Miss Mary took Christmas dinner with Mr. 
and Mrs. Gannett, as they had done so many times before, and 
there were the usual number of remembrances from far and near, 
more than usual from abroad because of friendships renewed and 
made at the International Council of Women within the past year. 

During the holiday season the present writer, just home from 
Europe, was asked by the McClure syndicate to go to Rochester 
and get Miss Anthony's impressions of Queen Victoria and her 
reception of the Council. This interview filled several columns 
and in the course of it she said : 

The Queen is a close student of public questions, vexy conservative 



speech and action, and discriminates carefully in the people and the affairs 
that receive her personal sanction. This Congress, representing a score of 
nationalities, stood strongly and unmistakably for the new era in woman- 
hood. These were the uncompromising advocates of the highest education, 
of the opening of all avenues of employment, including the professions, and 
of the franchise on the same terms as for men. The Queen was fully cog- 
nizant of all this, and her gracious and kindly reception cannot have any 
other interpretation than approval of the aims of this International Congress 
of Women. . . . 

I thought Her Majesty was a very human looking woman — a good, motherly 
woman. That is usually one's first impression in meeting royalty or nobility 
— ^that they are much like other people — that is, refined and cultured people. 
It was difficult to realize her age. I always feel when I meet persons who 
are eighty, "How very old that is I" and then all of a sudden I think, "Why 
I am eighty myself I" and it seems impossible. The Queen is a most con- 
spicuous example to refute the oft repeated assertion that public life destroys 
the feminine instincts and unfits women for home duties. As the mother of 
nine children and head of the largest household in the world, she always has 
been distinguished for her wifely and maternal devotion and for her thrift 
and ability in managing her domestic affairs. 

Miss Anthony gave many instances and continued : "With all 
these essentially feminine qualities, nevertheless history shows 
that she is one of the keenest students of politics, and that, when 
she signs or withholds her signature from any official document, 
her decision displays clear discrimination and rigid conscientious- 
ness." After illustrating this point she added with much feeling : 

However much I appreciate her splendid record I cannot but remember 
that in all matters connected with women she has been very conservative, 
never wholly yielding her assent to any innovation until it was already prac- 
tically established. I have no recollection of her ever giving her influence for 
any improvement in the laws relating to women. Take for instance the three 
great movements in England — ^the abolition of the Contagious Diseases Act, 
the obtaining of property rights for wives and of suffrage for women — ^the 
Queen has appeared wholly oblivious when a word from her would have 
turned the scales. . . . The difficulty with the Queen all the way through 
— one horn or the other of the dilemma we must accept — ^has been either that 
she has felt popular sentiment would not sustain her or else she has lacked 
the philosophy to discern the relation between political power in the hands of 
women and the improved condition of society which she herself has labored 
sixty years to secure. I am inclined to think she has failed in this perception 
rather than that she has desired to cater to the public. 

Miss Anthony paid high tribute to the Queen's attitude in op- 
position to war, but expressed regret that home rule for Ireland 


had not been granted during her reign, saying : "Civilization and 
education have gone so far that it is impossible for the people of 
any progressive colony or nation to be content without local self- 
government and a proportional share in national representation." 
She thus concluded : "However I do not wish to go into the poli- 
tics or the religion of this contest. It is a family and a church 
feud and not one for outsiders to try to settle. On this, as on all 
public questions, whether between nations or the parties within a 
nation, I must hold to the one conclusion, viz : They never can 
be settled wisely, justly or permanently except by the combined 
judgment of men and women, instead of that of men alone, and 
with due regard to the will of the whole instead of one-half the 

An amusing illustration of the way Miss Anthony utilized 
every moment of other people's time as well as her own occurred 
during this few days' stay. Scarcely was the ink dry on this in- 
terview when she began bringing down into the study arm-loads 
of dusty documents from the attic, and to an amazed inquiry she 
made answer, "Fve been thinking for some time that we ought to 
put into pamphlet form all of the favorable Congressional Reports 
ever made on woman suffrage and we'll do it right now !" And, 
thanks to Miss Anthony's energy and determination and her habit 
of saving the records, the twelve-page pamphlet was put into 
shape, which is still in circulation, containing a resume of these 
valuable reports. It does not state what is the indisputable fact 
that all but one of these reports were the direct result of Miss 
Anthony's own personal effort.* The pamphlet closes with this 
paragraph : 

No petitions for human liberty have equalled in the number of signatures 
those presented to Congress during the past thirty years by the women of the 
nation asking for their enfranchisement They urge the submission of the 
Sixteenth Amendment in order that this question may be taken before the 
Legislatures of the various States, instead of having to depend upon the slow 
process of gaining the consent of the masses of voters in each separate State. 
Not a step in the progress of women — ^higher education, increased property 
rights, larger industrial opportunities — could have been gained if it had de- 
pended upon the individual votes of a majority of the men. It would be only 

* History of Woman Suffrage, Volume IV, page 366. 


an act of simple justice for Congress to grant their prayer and permit them 
to refer the final decision to the Legislatures of their respective States. 

How many, many times during those thirty years, and six more 
added to them, did Miss Anthony offer her petitions, arguments 
and appeals to Congress, only to have them fall on deaf ears, 
hardened hearts and calloused consciences ! 

Among many other matters that were claiming the attention of 
Miss Anthony during this busy year was that of an official repre- 
sentation of the women of the United States at the Paris Exposi- 
tion of 1900. She considered this of great importance, and, re- 
membering the splendid work of Mrs. Bertha Honore Palmer as 
president of the Board of Lady Managers of the Columbian Ex- 
position, wrote her on the subject and asked if she would accept 
an appointment as commissioner. Mrs. Palmer answered : 

Thank you very much for your kind letter. You are very good to remem- 
ber me and I am more than ever impressed by your constant care for all 
the interests of women. It would be most unfortunate if no woman were 
appointed by our Government for the Paris Exposition, because it would be 
a retrograde step after our very advanced position during the Columbian 
Exposition. All the world would notice the changed policy, and the abandon- 
ment of the field just when we were carrying conviction to other Govern- 
ments would be most disastrous. . . . 

With the warmest thanks for your kind remembrance and hoping that we 
soon may have the pleasure of welcoming you to Chicago. 

Strong pressure was brought to bear upon President McKinley 
during 1898 and 1899 and there was supposed to be no doubt that 
one or more women would be appointed, but under date of De- 
cember I, 1899, Mrs. Palmer wrote Miss Anthony: 

I fear the President is not going to appoint women on the Paris Commis- 
sion and I write in haste to say that I think a few letters showing that women 
are really in earnest would be very valuable at this moment. The appoint- 
ments will probably be announced soon after Mr. Peck goes to Washington, 
about December 10. 
^ The point raised is that the President fears, as the Act of Congress says 
he is to appoint twelve "Commissioners," that he cannot legally appoint 
women. We all know what rubbish that is, and that the President would not 
like to give to the public such foolishness. A commissioner is "one who is 
commissioned/' without reference to age, sex or previous condition. 
Would you be willing to be one of several women at the head of large and 

Ant. Ill— 4 


influential organizations to unite in sending him letters that would be almost 
uniform in substance, thus showing that they were acting together? Your 
letter should give the resolution passed by your organization asking for the 
appointment of women; state how many members you have and say further, 
quite simply, without any effort to argue the question, that you have heard 
that he hesitates only because he fears it might be illegal to appoint a woman 
in view of the word ''Commissioners" in the Act of G>ngress, and ask him 
if he will be good enough to tell you if he so construes the Act, as your or- 
ganization has a deep interest in learning this decision. 

Please add anything that occurs to you about your wish to have women ap- 
pointed, and that you are sure you must have been misinformed as to his 
narrow construction of the words of the Act, etc. I know you will pardon 
my venturing to suggest a form for your letter. It is only because the letters 
would be stronger if the presidents or organizations seemed to be acting 
together, and the time is too short for consultations. Argument on the main 
point is useless, as Mr. McKinley would only make that an excuse for not 
reading the letters, and really the matter is too plain to require discussion. 
It is merely a quibble. 

' I need not say that this is not at all a personal matter with me save that 
I should feel it a tacit reproach upon the Board of Lady Managers if no 
women were on the Paris Commission. 

I have heard much of your splendid meeting in London. If my invitation 
had reached me I would surely have been present. With kindest regards and 
always great sympathy in all your undertakings, as ever yours. 

Miss Anthony lost no time in preparing and circulating a 
strong letter to the President, which was signed by her own or- 
ganization and many others. She was not satisfied even with this 
"but went in person to make an earnest appeal to Mr. McKinley 
to appoint a woman commissioner and to name Mrs. Palmer. 
Later she used her good offices to obtain the appointment of Mrs. 
May Wright Sewall as official delegate to represent the organized 
work of women in the United States. Both appointments were 
made by President McKinley, and the results justified their 




^ HE belief of Miss Anthony that a large and fruitful 
field of work lay in presenting the subject of woman 
suffrage to conventions of men and securing reso- 
lutions from them has been referred to. On Janu- 
ary 13, 1900, she had an opportimity to address in 
her own city of Rochester a convention of the Bricklayers' and 
Masons' International Union. She spoke by invitation and a full 
report of her address was taken by their stenographer and pub- 
lished in their official organ. This paper said : "Miss Anthony 
was greeted with an ovation on entering the room and again on 
rising to speak, and her first words were lost in the continued 
applause." Such an audience was most stimulating and she was 
equal to the occasion; those who heard her said it seemed im- 
possible that in a few weeks she would be eighty years old. She, 
sketched the progressive history of the franchise as it was ex- 
tended to one class after another until only women were left; 
then she traced the evolution of woman's work from the home to 
the factory and showed how men wage earners were suffering 
from the competition of women's disfranchised and therefore 
degraded labor, and said : "Slave labor used to be the enemy of 
free labor, but now that all labor is free we have learned that it 
must be not only free but enfranchised." She gave many in-, 
stances of the great disadvantage of being without a vote and said 
at the close of her speech : 

Help women to become enfranchised. Do this that we may be able to join 
with you to bring about the good that we all desire. Think of the waste of 
Elizabeth Cady Stanton's life— she is in her eighty-fifth year now, and all of 



her working days have been spent in begging for the tools to work with! 
Think of what she might have done for the world if she had had these at 
the beginning! And I make bold to say that I myself could have done more 
if I had had the tools — ^the ballot and the opportunities that the ballot gives — 
put into my hands at first instead of having had to spend fifty years in plead- 
ing for them. Your own interest demands that you should seek to make 
women your political equals, for then, instead of their being, as now, a dead 
weight to drag down all workingmen, a stumbling block in their path, a 
hindrance to their efforts to secure better wages and more favorable legis- 
lation, the workingwomen would be an added strength, politically, indus- 
trially, morally. 

Women should vote for the sake of the home. By working to give your 
wives and daughters the ballot you would be working to double the repre- 
sentation of the home in government ; for the lowest men — ^the men who make 
up the slum vote, the floating vote, the vote that can be bought by anyone 
for any measure — these men seldom have homes and women in them whose 
votes could be added to theirs. It is the honest, hardworking men, with homes 
and families, those who have done most to build up this country and who 
are the bone and sinew sustaining it today, who have most to gain from 
women's getting the ballot. But the best argument of all is justice — ^the sister 
should have the same rights as her brother, the wife as her husband, the 
mother as her son. . . . 

I appeal to you as men, I appeal to 3rou as brothers, I appeal to you as 
voters of this republic, clothed with the regal power of the ballot, I appeal 
to you as sovereigns ! We want the same political rights that you have, the 
same weapons that you have; and we will stand by our fellow women and 
fellow men as loyally as you now stand by each other. 

The printed report punctuated this address with "loud ap- 
plause," "yes, yes," "you're right," and said, "Miss Anthony 
closed amid a storm of applause and every delegate in the hall 
sprang to his feet and stood while the vote of thanks was given." 
One can hardly overestimate the value of such an argument be- 
fore the representatives from all parts of the country of this large 
and influential body of organized labor.* 

The event of 1900 which ever will be most strongly impressed 
upon those engaged in the movement for woman suffrage was the 
retirement of Miss Anthony from the presidency of the National 
Association. In describing it the writer has drawn freely from 
the account in the History of Woman Suffrage, Volume IV, as 
that was written very soon after the occurrence and under its 

^ For further accounts of MIbs Anthony's eflforts with conventions see Chapters LIV 
and LIX. 


wonderfully inspiring influence, when every incident was fresh in 
memory and the enthusiasm still lingered to quicken the mind 
and vivify the pen. 

The convention, February 8-14, was held in Miss Anthony's 
beloved Washington, the one place above all others which she 
would choose for the end of her official career, for here the asso- 
ciation's annual meetings had beg^n in 1870 and hither its dele- 
gates had journeyed every succeeding year with three exceptions. 
In no other city did she feel so much at home when presiding over 
a convention, and in none did the audiences seem so sympathetic, 
because nowhere else were they so cosmopolitan, and naturally 
those from all localities who were interested in woman suffrage 
would come to the meetings. It had been her desire to keep the 
matter a secret, but, as she expressed it, she "probably confided it 
to one too many," and so she was obliged to tell a New York 
paper about the resignation some time before it took place. "It 
has been for several years my intention," she said, "to hold the 
presidency only until I had rounded out fourscore, in order that 
the younger women, who have actually been doing the work of 
the association for the last decade, might feel that they had on 
their shoulders the full responsibility before the world." It was 
so like Miss Anthony to say that the other women had been doing 
the work for ten years ! And then with the optimism which never 
deserted her she said : 

The hardships of the last half-century are forgotten as I look at the won- 
derful evolution of the womanhood of this nation. From an absolute non- 
entity in the government of the home, the church and the State, woman 
is now an authority in the first, a power in the second and a largely recog- 
nized factor in the last. In philanthropy, in education and in the social world 
she takes the lead. With present economic conditions women are the leisure 
class, and intelligent men are beginning to see the necessity of utilizing their 
great abilities in the law-making and law-enforcing departments of the Gov- 
ernment. When women themselves awake to the ultimate destiny to which 
all these changes are tending, they will rise en masse to demand their right- 
ful place in the world as the peers of men in the administration of its affairs. 
If they could only be made to realize what a revolution this will bring about 
in social and political conditions they would not delay nor shirk their re- 
sponsibility. That the younger workers, into whose hands I shall commit 
the sacred trust with the greatest confidence, may speedily bring this to pass 
is my earnest wish. 


Just before the convention opened the present writer said in a 
syndicate article : "When Miss Susan B. Anthony lays down the 
gavel this week as president of the National Suffrage Association, 
she will have rounded out nearly fifty years in office. The most 
» significant fact in this connection is that she has never received 
one cent of salary, but, on the contrary, has put into the cause 
every dollar she has earned' during all that time. When she dies 
and her slender annuity ceases, it will be found that she has left 
behind nothing of a money value as the result of her long and 
unflagging toil. This result must be measured alone by the dif- 
ference between the status of women now and fifty years ago. It 
does not need to be put into words, but just one woman in all the 
wprld has given every day of her life for half-a-century to bring 
about this evolution." 

After reviewing the early work of Miss Anthony and Mrs. 
Stanton, it continued : 

The first "tnemoriar ever sent to Congress asking for the enfranchisement 
of women was prepared by these two in 1867. They, with others, organized in 
1869, in New York City, the First National Woman Suffrage Association. 
Miss Anthony has missed only two or three of its thirty-one annual conven- 
tions. How many State and local conventions she has attended it would be 
impossible to say, but many hundred without doubt. The first "hearing" ever 
granted to women by a Congressional Committee for the purpose of pre- 
senting their claims to the ballot was arranged by her in 1869, and they have 
appeared before every Congress since that time. The statement can be made 
without challenge that Miss Anthony has been directly behind all the con- 
gressional action ever taken on this subject. How many letters she has writ- 
ten, how many interviews she has held with Senators and Representatives to 
secure even the little that has been done, never can be computed, and always 
with mental protest and revolt of spirit. She loathes this begging and im- 
portuning, and would infinitely prefer being burned at the stake if that would 
accomplish the purpose. 

Referring to Miss Anthony's declaration that she did not re- 
gret giving up the presidency the article said : 

And yet those who know her best know that it is not without a pang that 
she relinquishes the management of an organization which she has controlled 
since its beginning. When thirty years ago she gave into other hands her 
paper, The Revolution, into which she had put her toil, her ambition, her 
very soul, she wrote to a friend : "I feel a great, calm sadness like that of a 
mother binding out a dear child." And this feeling is in her heart today. 


but the world will never know it from this heroic Spartan. She has said 
that the younger women must learn to bear the burdens and accept the re- 
sponsibilities, but it is not to get rid of these that she retires from office. She 
comes of a long-lived race and expects to live and work for many years, but, 
nevertheless, she realizes that after one has passed fourscore the tenure is 
precarious. There are several important things which she is determined yet to 
accomplish, and which she cannot do in addition to the arduous duties of her 
office. . . . 

Not long ago as we were walking out together and I was trying to keep 
pace with her rapid steps, she exclaimed, "Oh, if I were but thirty years 
younger ! The plans crowd upon me and everywhere I see new opportunities 
for pushing this work, but I can't rouse the women to take advantage of 
them. They are willing, but they don't know how." And then, like a great 
General or an experienced politician, she began outlining a campaign, which, 
if the women of the country had the desire and the ability to carry out, would 
unquestionably secure the suffrage in a few years. No one can study the 
victories, legal, civil, political, social, gained by women during the past half- 
century without recognizing in Susan B. Anthony the master mind which 
made them possible. 

Interest in Miss Anthony's contemplated action soon became 
wide spread ; sketches of her career and of the movement whose 
history was almost synonymous with her own appeared in most 
of the leading papers and magazines ; special reporters were sent 
to Washington and the celebration of her eightieth birthday at 
the close of the convention was in the nature of a national event. 
Miss Anthony seemed at the very zenith of her powers. She pre- 
sided at three public sessions of the convention daily and at all the 
business meetings ; held a day's conference and made a speech in 
Baltimore; conducted the hearing before the Senate Committee; 
addressed a parlor meeting and attended several dinners and re- 
ceptions; participated in her own great birthday festivities, after- 
noon and evening; and remained for nearly a week pf executive 
committee meetings. 

As she rose to open the convention there were many a moist 
eye and tightened throat at the thought that this was the last time. 
Her fine voice with its rich alto vibrations was as strong and 
resonant as fifty years ago, and her practical matter-of-fact 
speech, followed by Miss Shaw's lively stories, soon dispelled the 
sadness and put the audience in a cheerful mood. Miss Anthony 
commenced by saying: "I have been attending conventions in 
Washington for over thirty years. It is good for us to come to 


this Mecca, the heart of our nation. Here the members of Con- 
gress from all parts of the country meet together to deliberate for 
the best interests of the whole Government and of their respective 
States ; so our delegates assemble here to plan for the best inter- 
ests of our cause in the nation and in their individual States. We 
come here to learn how we may do more and more for the spread 
of the doctrine of equality, but chiefly to study how to get the 
States to concentrate their efforts on Congress. Our final aim is 
an amendment to the Federal Constitution providing that no citi- 
zen over whom the Stars and Stripes wave shall be debarred from 
suffrage except for cause." 

In beginning her vice-president's address Miss Shaw said: 
"Before giving my report I want to tell a story against Miss An- 
thony. We suffragists have been called everything under the sun, 
and when there has been nothing else quite bad enough for us we 
have been called infidels, which includes everything. Once we 
went to hold a convention in a particularly orthodox city in New 
York, and Miss Anthony, wishing to impress upon the audience 
that we were not atheists, introduced me as *a regularly-ordained 
orthodox minister, the Rev. Anna H. Shaw, my right bower I' 
That orthodox audience all seemed to know what a 'right bower' 
is, for they laughed even louder than you do. After the meeting 
Miss Anthony said to me, *Anna, what did I say to make the 
people laugh so ?' I answered, 'You called me your right bower.' 
She said, *Well, you are my right-hand man. That is what right 
bower means, isn't it ?' And this orthodox minister had to ex- 
plain to her Quaker friend what a right bower is." 

Miss Shaw told of the universal recognition accorded Miss 
Anthony at the International Council of Women in London the 
preceding year, and the latter afterwards gave her own report of 
the Council, in the course of which she said : 

Every young woman who is today enjoying the advantages of free schools, 
opportunities to earn a living and other enlarged rights for women, is a child 
of the woman suffrage movement. This larger freedom has broadened and 
strengthened women wonderfully. At the end of the Council, Lady Aberdeen, 
who had been its president for six years, in a published interview summing 
up the work of the women who had been present, said there was no denying 
that the English-speaking women stood head and shoulders above all the 



Others in their knowledge of parliamentary law, and that at the very top were 
those of the United States and Canada — the two freest parts of the world. 
I answered : "If the women of the United States, with their free schools and 
all their enlarged liberties, are not superior to women brought up under 
monarchical forms of government, then there is no good in liberty." It is 
because of this freedom that Europeans are always struck with the greater 
self-poise, self-control and independence of American women. These char- 
acteristics will be still more marked when we have mingled more with men 
in their various meetings. It is only by the friction of intellect with intellect 
that these desirable qualities can be gained. 

After a graphic account of the honors they received Miss An- 
thony concluded: "What I wish most to impress upon you is 
this: If we had represented nothing but ourselves we should 
have been nowhere. Wendell Phillips used to say, 'When I speak 
as an individual I represent only myself, but when I speak for the 
American Anti-Slavery Society, I represent every one in the coun- 
try who believes in Liberty/ It was because Miss Shaw and I 
represented you and all that makes for freedom that we were so 
well received, and I want you to feel that all the honors paid to 
us were paid to you." 

Later in reporting as chairman of the Congressional Commit- 
tee, Miss Anthony said : "One reason why so little has been done 
by Congress is because none of us has remained here to watch our 
employees up at the Capitol. Nobody ever gets anything done by 

■ Congress or a State Legislature except by having some one on 
hand to look out for it. We need a Watching Committee." In 

(closing the hearing before the Senate Committee she urged them 
to report in favor of an amendment to the National Constitution ; 
described the hardships women had endured in making State cam- 
paigns, and said : 

Now here is all we ask of you, gentlemen — ^to save us women from any 
more tramps over the States, such as we have made now fifteen times. In 
nine of those campaigns I myself made a canvass from county to county. 
In my own State of New York at the time of the constitutional convention 
in 1894^ I visited every county of the sixty — I was not then eighty years of 
age, but seventy-four. . . . 

There is an enemy of the homes of this nation and that enemy is drunken- 
ness. Everyone connected with the gambling house, the brothel and the 
saloon works and votes solidly against the enfranchisement of women, and, 
I say, if you believe in chastity, if you believe in honesty and temperance, then 


do what the enemy wants you not to do, which is to take the necessary steps 
to put the ballot in the hands of women. .... 

I pray you to think of this question as you would if the one-half of the 
people who are disfranchised were men, if we women had absolute power to 
control every condition in this country and you were obliged to obey the laws 
and submit to whatever arrangements we made. I want you to report on this 
question exactly as if the masculine half of the people were the ones who 
were deprived of this right to a vote in governmental affairs. You would not 
be long in bringing in a favorable report if you were the ones who were dis- 
franchised and denied a voice in your government If it were not women — ^if 
it were the farmers of this country, the manufacturers or any class of men 
who were robbed of their inalienable rights, then we would see that class 
rising in rebellion and the Government shaken to its very foundation; but 
being women, being only the mothers, daughters, wives and sisters of men 
who constitute the aristocracy, we have to submit. 

These hearings were usually serious affairs but this one was 
relieved by an element of genuine humor in the appearance for the 
first time of the Anti-suffragists. These ladies had frequently 
descended upon various Legislatures when the suffrage advocates 
were to address committees, and now half-a-dozen of them, in- 
stead of arranging for their own hearing, deliberately proposed 
to take part of the time which had been granted to the advocates 
of suffrage. They did not know that admission was by ticket and 
when those who presented themselves at the Marble Room of the 
Senate could not get in, the wicked suffragists laughed in glee and 
gloated over their predicament. But when Miss Anthony arrived 
and learned the situation she directed the door keeper to admit 
them, introduced them to the chairman, gave them the best seats 
and later agreed that they should read their little papers. After- 
wards they denied, in the New York Sun, that she extended any 
of these courtesies but Miss Anthony herself confirmed the above 
statement, and the present writer has a lively recollection of being 
hustled by Miss Anthony out of her own good front seat and see- 
ing one of the "antis" installed therein.^ 

Miss Emily Bissell said in her argument ( ?) : "I have never 
yet been so situated that I could see where a vote could help me. 

1 Mrs. Rachel Foster Avery, who had charge of the arrangements for this Senate hear- 
ing, indorses absolutely this statement regarding Miss Anthony and the anti-suffragists. 
The quotations from their speeches were copied from the report of the hearing made by 
the stenographer of the Senate Committee. 


If I felt that It would I might become a suffragist perhaps." A 
broad and altruistic view to take of a great economic question ! 
Mrs. Arthur M. Dodge convulsed her hearers by begging the 
committee not to be influenced by the "purely sentimental reasons 
of the petitioners" — a queer misfit of a description when applied 
to woman suffrage speeches — and said : "The mere fact that this 
amendment is asked as a compliment to the leading advocate on 
the attainment of her eightieth birthday is evidence of the emo- 
tional frame of mind which influences the advocates of this meas- 
ure, and which is scarcely favorable to the calm consideration that 
should be given to fundamental political principles." Miss An- 
thony's birthday had not been referred to in any way but Mrs. 
Dodge had written her speech before she came, and, as she prob- 
ably did not know that the suffragists had been asking committees 
thirty years for this amendment, she doubtless thought it had just 
occurred to them that it would make a nice birthday present for 
Miss Anthony to take home with her. 

After the delegates returned to the hotel and were discussing 
the events of the morning Miss Anthony observed, "Those states- 
men eyed us very closely but FU wager that it was impossible 
after we got mixed together to tell an anti from a suffragist by 
her clothes. There might have been a difference, though, in the 
expression of the faces and the shape of the heads," she added 
without a smile. 

President McKinley received the members of the convention in 
the East Room of the White House, Miss Anthony at his right 
hand introducing them. After he had greeted the last guest, he 
invited her to accompany him upstairs to meet Mrs. McKinley, 
who was not well enough to receive all of the ladies. Giving her 
his arm he led her up the old, historic staircase, "as tenderly as if 
he had been my own son," she said afterward. When she was 
leaving after a pleasant call, Mrs. McKinley expressed a wish to 
send some message to the convention, and she and the President 
together filled Miss Anthony's arms with white lilies, which 
graced the platform during the remainder of the meetings. 

The Washington Post, which for so many years had welcomed 


Miss Anthony and her little army to the Capitol, said of her re- 
tirement from office : 

Miss Susan B. Anthony has resigned. The woman who for the greater part 
of her life has been the star that guided the National Woman Suffrage As- 
sociation through all of its vicissitudes until it stands today a living monu- 
ment to her wonderful mental and physical ability, has turned over the leader- 
ship to younger minds and hands, not because this great woman feels that 
she is no longer capable of exercising it, but because she has a still larger 
work to accomplish before her life's labors are at an end In a speech which 
was characteristic of one who has done so much toward the uplifting of her 
sex. Miss Anthony tendered her resignation during the preliminary meeting 
of the executive committee, held last night at the headquarters in the parlors 
of the Riggs House. 

Although Miss Anthony had positively stated that she would resign in 
1900, there were many of those present who were visibly shocked when she 
announced that she was about to relinquish her position as president of the 
association. In the instant hush which followed this statement a sorrow set- 
tled over the countenances of the fifty women seated about the room who 
love and venerate Miss Anthony so much, and probably some of them would 
have broken down had it not been that they knew well her antipathy to public 
emotion. In a happy vein, which soon drove the clouds of disappointment from 
the faces of those present, she explained why she no longer desired to continue 
as an officer of the association after having done so since its beginning. 

"I have fully determined," she began, "to retire from the active presidency 
of the association. I was elected secretary of a woman suffrage society in 
1852, and from that day to this have always held an office. I am not retiring 
now because I feel unable, mentally or physically, to do the necessary work, 
but because I wish to see the organization in the hands of those who are 
to have its management in the future. I want to see you all at work, while I 
am alive, so I can scold if you do not do it well. Give the matter of selecting 
your officers serious thought. Consider who will do the best work for the 
political enfranchisement of women and let no personal feelings enter into 
the question." 

When Henry B. Blackwell, chairman of the committee on res- 
olutions, read the one expressing regret at her resignation and 
paying a tribute of appreciation and regard, many of the dele- 
gates were on the point of giving way to their grief, but Miss 
Anthony quickly arose and in clear, even tones, with a touch of 
quaint humor, said : 

I wish you could realize with what joy and relief I retire from the presi- 
dency. I want to say this to you while I am yet alive — and I am good for 
another decade — ^as long as my name stands at the head I am Yankee enough 
to feel that I must watch every potato which goes into the dinner pot and 


supervise every detail of the work. For the four years since I fixed my date 
to retire I have constantly been saying to myself, "Let go, let go." I am now 
going to let go of the machinery but not of the spiritual part I expect to 
do more work for woman suffrage in the next decade than ever before. I 
have not been for nearly fifty years in this movement without gaining a cer- 
tain "notoriety" at least, and this enables me to get a hearing before the 
annual conventions of many great national bodies and to urge on them the 
passage of resolutions asking Congress to submit to the State Legislatures a 
Sixteenth Amendment to the Federal Constitution forbidding disfranchise- 
ment on account of sex. This is a part of the work to which I mean to de- 
vote myself henceforward. Then you all know about the big fund which I 
am going to raise so that you young women may have an assured income 
for the work and not have to spend the most of your time begging money, 
as I have had to do. 

Although Miss Anthony disclaimed any intention of naming 
her successor it was well understood that the delegates would 
desire to vote for the woman whom she thought most capable of 
carrying on the work of the association. This she felt could be 
done equally well by the Rev. Anna Howard Shaw, vice-presi- 
f dent-at-large, or Mr^, rarn'p r|^pppian Catt, chairman of the 
organization committee, but the former, feeling that her best work 
could be done in the lecture field, had declined to be a candidate, 
and so the delegates willingly and gladly turned to Mrs. Catt, 
though eleven of them still persisted in casting their ballots for 
Miss Anthony. The Post said: "There was a touching scene 
when the vote for Mrs. Chapman Catt was announced. First 
there was an outburst of applause, and then as though all at once 
every one realized that she was witnessing the passing of Susan 
B. Anthony, their beloved president, the deepest silence prevailed 
for several seconds. Lifelong members of the association, who 
had toiled and struggled by her side, could not restrain their emo- 
tions and wept in spite of their efforts at self-control." The 
Washington Star thus described the occasion : 

Miss Anthony was made a committee of one to present Mrs. Catt to the 
convention, and the women went wild, as, erect and alert, she walked to the 
front of the platform, holding the hand of her young coworker of whom she 
is extremely fond and expects great things. Miss Anthony's eyes were tear- 
dimmed, and her tones were uneven, as she presented to the convention its 
choice of a leader in words freighted with love and tender solicitude, rick 
with reminiscences of the past, and full of hope for the future of the new 


president and her work. "Suffrage is no longer a theory but an actual con- 
dition," she said, "and new conditions bring new duties. These new duties, 
these changed conditions, demand stronger hands, younger heads and fresher 
hearts. In Mrs. Catt you have my ideal leader. I present to you my suc- 

By this time half the women were using their handkerchiefs on their eyes 
and the other half were waving them in the air. 

The object of all this praise stood with downcast eyes and evi- 
dently was deeply moved. At length she said in response : 

Good friends, I should hardly be human if I did not feel gratitude and ap- 
preciation for the confidence you have shown me ; but I feel the honor of the 
position much less than its responsibility. I never was an aspirant for it; I 
consented only six weeks ago to stand ; I was not willing to be the next presi- 
dent after Miss Anthony; I have known that there was a general loyalty to 
her which could not be given to any younger worker. Since Miss Anthony an- 
nounced her intention to retire, there have been editorials in many leading 
papers expressing approval of her — but not of the cause. She has been much 
larger than our association. The papers have spoken of the new president as 
Miss Anthony's successor. Miss Anthony never will hav.e a successor. 

A president chosen from the younger generation is on a level with the as- 
sociation, and it might suffer in consequence of Miss Anthony's retirement if 
we did not still have her to counsel and advise us. I pledge you whatever 
ability God has given me, but I cannot do this work alone. The cause has got 
beyond where one woman can do the whole. I shall not be its leader as Miss 
Anthony has been ; I shall be only an officer of this association. I will do all 
I can, but I cannot do it without the co-operation of each of you. The respon- 
sibility much overbalances the honor and I hope you will all help me bear 
the burden. 

/ Mrs. Rachel Foster Avery relieved the tension by a motion to 
make Miss Anthony honorary president, which was adopted with 
applause. She responded in her usual off-hand, informal way, 
"You have moved me up higher. I always did stand by Eliza- 
beth Cady Stanton and my name was always after hers, and I am 
glad to have it there again." 

Not once during the convention did Miss Anthony lose her re- 
markable poise. On the last evening the Church of Our Father 
was crowded to its full capacity, people filled the aisles, sat on the 
edge of the platform and thronged the vestibule and sidewalk 
trying to gain admission. At the close of Mrs. Chapman Catt's 
scholarly address Miss Anthony turned to the audience and asked 
with a note of triumph in her voice, "Do you think the three 


Founder of the American Red Cross and Its President Twenty- Three Years. 
Founder and President of National First Aid Association of America. 



1 173 

hundred delegates made a mistake in choosing that woman for 
president?" She then presented Miss Qara Barton, president of 
the Red Cross Association, as one who had stood by her side on 
the platform of the first national suffrage convention ever held. 
When the applause subsided Miss Anthony observed, "Politically 
her opinion is worth no more than an idiot's." 

At the close of the evening's program Miss Anthony came for- 
ward, and, the audience realizing that she was about to say good- 
by, there was a profound stillness, with every eye and ear strained 
to the utmost. A woman who loved the theatrical and posed for 
effect would have taken advantage of this opportunity to create a 
dramatic scene and make her exit in the midst of tears and lam- 
entations, but nothing could be further from Miss Anthony's 
nature. Her voice rang put as strong and true as if making an 
old-time speech on the rights of women, and with the splendid 
courage which was the keynote of her life she gave not a sign of 
what those who were nearest and dearest to her knew was lying 
heavy on her heart. The farewell address of Washington was not 
listened to with more reverence, more tenderness, more regret 

/ than these parting words of the mother of her countr3nvomen. 

I "Once I was the most hated and reviled of women," she said, and 

/ here her voice broke for the only time, "now, it seems as if every- 

/ body loves me !" This was the sole reference to the long, hard 

V^struggle of the past, and almost the only allusion to herself. What 
she did was to seize the opportunity of this immense and appre- 
ciative audience and tell them all about that great fund she was 
raising and say that the way to show their appreciation of her 
work was to subscribe to this fund and help it along ; half-a-mil- 
lion dollars was the inside limit, only the interest to be used, and 
she was going to be President of the Board of Trustees herself for 
the next ten years. 

Then the second characteristic act, when everybody was think- 
ing only of her, was to summon to the front of the platform her 
"body guard," as she called the members of the National Suffrage 
Board who had stood by her through the stress and storm of the 
years, in order to express her deep obligation to them. The 
daughter of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, the daughter of Lucy Stone, 


her own two devoted nieces, were also lovingly introduced. The 
pioneers who were associated in her early work received a loyal 
tribute and she regretted that she could not take the time to name 
them all. Everybody was remembered but herself, everyone given 
her full share of credit in measure heaped and running over. 
Here was the secret of Miss Anthony's wonderful hold upon 

The great crowd sang the doxology but even then seemed un- 
willing to leave. Hundreds crowded upon the platform to take 
Miss Anthony's hand and others lingered in the aisle and aroimd 
the door gazing at the scene as if to impress it forever on their 
memory. Many of the old workers felt as if the curtain had been 
rung down never to be lifted again, but others were able to be- 
lieve that it was only for a change of scene. Although the mental 
and physical vigor of Miss Anthony seemed unimpaired, those 
who knew her best sustained her in her feeling that she should be 
relieved of the burdens of office, which were growing heavier all 
the time, and be free to devote her remaining years to important 
lines of work which could be done only by herself. Nevertheless 
they fully realized the import of her yielding the leadership of 
this great movement, which she had practically held for nearly 
fifty years, and, while they tried to imitate her own cheerfulness 
and philosophy, they could not banish the keen regret, the heavy 
sorrow, the heartache that never entirely ceased. 

The tributes paid to Miss Anthony in the press of the country 
would fill a volume of considerable size, and those written by 
women were especially touching. One of three columns by Miss 
Janet Jennings, for many years the Washington correspondent of 
the New York Tribune, began : "There is no sign of the doubts, 
discouragements and disappointments out of which Miss Anthony 
lifted the cause of equal rights. With no trace of bitterness, no 
remembrance of the 'slings and arrows' of the past, she turns her 
face to the future, bright, hopeful and serenely confident, as if 
life were all before her and the attainment of the end already ful- 
filled. This is Susan B. Anthony at eighty — ^the grand woman, 
the great leader. . . . Her optimism is sublime, her persist- 
ence supreme. Through the darkest night she sees the dawn, and 


her purpose never wavers, her footstep never falters before ob- 
stacles piled mountain high." 

Another gifted journalist, Mrs. Isabel Worrell Ball, said in the 
Washington Star: "To grow old gracefully is an art and few 
achieve it, but today one American woman, having reached four- 
score years, still stands pre-eminent among her sisters as the em- 
bodiment of all that is high in mental development and fine in 
moral fiber." After describing the persecutions of early days she 
continued : 

Under this load of contumely many as well-meaning but weaker women 
went to the wall, but not so Miss Anthony. The fires of travail burned out 
of her soul the little dross that nature implanted there and the pure gold 
which nothing tarnishes was left. 

Fifty years just round out the period of her real public life. Last night as 
she stood before a vast audience in the Church of Our Father, the lights 
gleaming on her silvery hair, her strong, true face so framed by it that it 
appeared almost like a halo; as she awaited the silence that it seemed never 
would come from the shouting multitude; as she saw the waving hand- 
kerchiefs, heard the cheers and felt the enthusiasm that her very presence 
inspired — there must have come back to her the memory of those awful 
days when she stood before the howling mobs and when her gently-bred 
senses were stunned by the imprecations of the jeering populace, for she 
raised her thin, white hand, with delicate lace falling around it, and in the 
strong, clear voice which age has not touched and time only softened, said: 
"There is, after all, compensation. Good friends, I have been reviled most 
of my life; I have been scoffed and jeered at; I have heard myself called 
dreadful names and have been the target for every kind of discourtesy — but 
tonight I am ready to believe that there are people who love and respect me. 
I am indeed grateful." 

Over and over again the audience cheered the white-haired woman who 
stood there like a statue, and on her high brow, but little lined with the 
weight of years, one could almost see the word "vindicated." 

In her department in the New York Sun the present writer 
thus referred to one conspicuous feature connected with Miss 
Anthony's retirement from a leadership which had to be resigned 
before she had carried her hosts to the long-sought victory : 

It often requires the martyrdom of a great leader to shock the community 
into a recognition of the justice of the cause for which he has been sacrificed. 
The pages of history record many examples in proof of this, and the most 
conspicuous since the death of John Brown is seen in the passing of Susan 
B. Anthony. It is true that she still lives, but she now relinquishes to younger 
Ant. Ill— s 


women the cause in which she has suffered martjrrdom for a half-a-century, 
and, while she possesses still a full measure of mental and physical vigor, 
the world understands that after fourscore years the most of one's work 
lies behind him. And so the people all over the country, with quickened con- 
sciences, are aroused to the fact that by their indifference or opposition an- 
other sacrifice has been added to the long list of those who have wrought 
for liberty. Editors who have been silent all these years have spoken of late 
in the pages of the great daily newspapers in favor of the object for which she 
has labored. Prominent men have declared their allegiance, and an army of 
women, many times larger than ever before, has poured into the suffrage 
convention to pledge their services to carry on the work to completion. 
Never in any decade of its history has this movement for the enfranchisement 
of women received such a forward impulse as during the year which has 
elapsed since it became known that its pioneer, its founder, its Commander- 
in-Chief was to resign the active leadership. 



[LTHOUGH it was arranged that a number of gifts 
were to be presented to Miss Anthony at her birth- 
day celebration, it seemed advisable that there 
should be a little ceremony at another time for a 
part of them, and so, during a lull in the business of 
the convention on the last day, the president-elect, Mrs. Chapman 
Catt, coming to the front of the platform, said : "A surprise was 
promised as part of this afternoon's program and a pleasant duty 
now falls to me. It is to present Miss Anthony with the spirit of 
a gift, for the gift itself is not here. Suffrage people from all 
over the world go to see Miss Anthony at her home in Rochester, 
N. Y., and consequently the carpets of the parlor and sitting- 
room are getting a little worn. When she goes home she will 
find two beautiful Sm3rrna rugs fitting the floors of those two 
rooms — ^the gift of her suffrage friends. I am also commissioned 
to present her with an album. Some of our naughty officers have 
been making fun of it and saying that albums are now out of date ; 
but this one contains the photographs of all the presidents of the 
State Suffrage Associations, and the chairmen of standing com- 
mittees. No collection of 'antis' could be found that would pre- 
sent in their faces as much intelligence and strength of character." 
Miss Anthony, looking very much surprised, expressed her 
thanks and observed, "These girls have disproved the old saying 
that a secret cannot be kept by a woman, for I have not heard a 
word of a rug or a picture." She had urgently requested that 
birthday testimonials might take the form of contributions to the 
permanent fund which she expected to raise for suffrage work, 
and a considerable amount was sent for this purpose. Many of 

(I 177) 


her friends, however, expressly stipulated that their gifts were for 
her own personal use. From memoranda available these seem to 
have amounted to a little over $1,200 in money, the greater part 
in sums less than $20, many of them less than $5, and even these 
representing sacrifice on the part of the senders. Through its 
president, Mrs. Margaret N. Caine, there came from the Utah 
Silk Commission, composed of women, a handsome black bro- 
caded dress pattern, wholly the work of women. A silver vase 
was presented by "the free women of Idaho," and also an albimi 
of two hundred pages of pen drawings, water colors and pressed 
flowers, with a sentiment on each page, the contributions of as 
many individuals, collected by Mrs. Mell C. Woods. From many 
States were presents of solid silver, fine hand-decorated china, 
sofa cushions, books, pictures, jewelry, lace, chatelaine bags, hand- 
kerchiefs, flowers and endless other tokens of love and apprecia- 
tion. To each Miss Anthony responded with a terse sentence or 
two, half-tender, half-humorous; the audience entered fully into 
the spirit of it all, and the convention for a while was like a big 
family enjoying the birthday of one of its members.* 

The day following the convention was the eightieth anniver- 
sary of Miss Anthony's birth, and suffragists had come from all 
parts of the country to assist in celebrating it. Mrs. Chapman 
Catt presided and the following program was carried out except 
that Mrs. Birney and Dr. Smith were unavoidably absent. 




Song John W. Hutchinson 

^As there is no complete list of donors it seems best not to attempt a mention of 
names. They were principally those whose generosity has been often referred to in pre- 
ceding pages. During this birthday week Miss Anthony received over i,ioo letters and 
telegrams, which required a telescope valise to carry them to her home where each was 
acknowledged by her. 


Greetings from 

Natioaal Congress of Mothers, 

Mrs. Theodore Weld Bimey, President 
NaticMial Council of Women, 

Fannie Humphreys GaflFney, President 
International Council of Women, 

May Wright Sewall, President 

Greetings from the Professions: 

Ministry Rev. Ida C Hultin 

Law Diana Hirschlcr 

Medicine Dr. Julia Holmes Smith 

Violin Sola^Hungarian Rhapsodic (Hansen) Joseph H. Douglass 

Greetings from 

Business Women Lillian M. HoUister 

Colored Women Coralie Franklin Cook 

District Equal Suffrage Association Ellen Powell Thompson 

Greetings from the Enfranchised States : 

Wyoming Helen M. Warren 

Colorado Virginia Morrison Shafroth 

Utah Emily S. Richards 

Idaho MellC. Woods 

"Lov^s Rosary^* (poem) Lydia Avery Coonley-Ward 

Greeting from Elizabeth Cady Stanton Harriot Stanton Blatch 

Greeting from the National American Suffrage Associa- 
tion Rev. Anna Howard Shaw 

Response Susan B. Anthony 


The gibe and ridicule and social frown. 
That through long years her faithful life assailed, 
Are dead and vanished ; as a queen now hailed, 

Upon her reverend brow rests Honor's crown. 

A faith that faced all adverse fortune down, 
A courage that in trial never failed, 
A scorn of self that grievous weight entailed, 

Have blossomed into laurels of renown. 

As, after days of bitter storm and blast, 
The chilling wind becomes a breeze of balm. 

Billows subside, and sea-tossed vessels cast 
Their anchors in the restful harbor calm, 

So this brave life has gained its haven blest. 

Bathed in the sunset glories of the west. 

Wm. Lloyd Gasrison. 

Birthday Celebration Committee: Carrie Chapman Catt, Chairman, New 
York; Rev. Anna Howard Shaw, Pennsylvania; Harriet Taylor Upton, Ohio; 


Emily M. Gross, Illinois ; Frances P. Barrows, Michigan ; Helen M. Warren, 
Wyoming; Lucy £. Anthony, Pennsylvania; Harriot Stanton Blatch, Eng- 
land; May Wright Sewall, Indiana; Mary B. Qay, Kentucky; Rachel Foster 
Avery, Pennsylvania.* 

Never was there a more representative body of women than 
the one which gathered in Lafayette Opera House that day. It 
was representative because all classes, colors and conditions were 
present. Admission was by ticket and every seat was filled, even 
to the loft. Probably several hundred men were there, but it was 
preeminently a woman's meeting — wives of high officials, prom- 
inent society leaders, colored women, wage-earners, young and 
old, married and single. The enthusiasm was unbounded, the 
audience springing to their feet again and again, waving hand- 
kerchiefs, laughing and crying by turn. The queen of the occa- 
sion sat in a large arm-chair, over which was thrown an elegant 
cloak of purple velvet, lined with white satin and trimmed with 
lace and ermine, making a beautiful background. Her gown was 
richly decorated with lace, and the full vest of chiffon was no 
whiter and softer than the silver hair which crowned her shapely 
head. She looked very pale and tired, for the strain of the last 
ten days had been severe, but there was not a happier woman in 
the world. She saw the cause which she loved infinitely better 
than life placed on a high and sure foundation; the principles 
which she had advocated through the long years accepted with 
universal respect and increasing favor ; the women whom she had 
set free — ministers, lawyers, physicians, teachers and those in the 
business world — assembled from all parts of the country to ex- 
press their gratitude to their benefactor. 

The IVotnan's Tribune thus began its report : 

There never has been before, and, in the nature of things, there never can 
be again, a personal celebration having the significant relation to the woman 

^In a letter written soon after this occasion Miss Anthony said: "The birthday cele- 
bration was ideal. Mrs. Avery, who arranged the program, had everything carried out in 
perfect order and exactly on time. That young woman has been my right hand for 
twenty years in all such matters, and she has planned the programs and seen them car- 
ried out for nearly every convention we have had during that time. This winter she ar- 
ranged not only the one for the birthday but also those of the two Congressional hear- 
ings and the twelve public aessiona of the convention — programs in all for fifteen sepa- 
rate occasions." 


suffrage movement which marked that of Miss Anthony's eightieth birthday. 
When Mrs. Stanton's eightieth anniversary was celebrated five years ago she 
had already retired from the active leadership of the organization; the pro- 
gram was in charge of the National Council of Women and was largely in 
the nature of a jubilee for the whole woman movement, although rallying 
around Mrs. Stanton as a center. Lucretia Mott's eightieth birthday came 
before it had gained the impetus necessary for such a celebration. Lucy Stone 
passed on in 1893 before reaching this ripe age, and now there is no one left 
in the lead who represents the earliest stage of the work but Miss Anthony. 
It was the fairest and sunniest day of all the good convention weather. On 
the stage were the Birthday Committee, a large number of persons who had 
been thirty years or more in the work, relatives of Miss Anthony and the 
national officers. Miss Anthony's entrance while the Ladies' Mandolin Club 
were playing was greeted with long-continued applause. The presiding officer, 
after stating that the gains of the last half-century in all lines relating to 
women were largely due to the guest of the occasion and her fellow-workers, 
said: "When Miss Anthony began her labors there were practically no or- 
ganizations of women; now they are numbered by thousands. The crown 
of the whole is the union of all associations, the National Council of Women. 
Its president will now address us." 

Mrs. Gaffney said in her tribute : 

. . . The Christian world reckoned by centuries is just coming of age. 
Therefore women are beginning to put away childish things and to realize the 
greatness of womanhood. They have had to let ideals wait They submitted 
to conditions because they were afraid that if they did not man would take 
to the woods and become again a wild barbarian. They were flattered by the 
fact that men liked them as they were, and they failed to realize that their 
power to civilize was God-given. They needed a leader to rally them, to give, 
them the courage of their convictions, and such a leader Miss Anthony has 
been. She spoke to the world in tones which rang out so clear and true that 
they will echo down the centuries. Some who had been protected and petted 
were slow to rally; others who had broader views accepted sooner the doc- 
trine of rights — ^not privileges— of rights for all women. Miss Anthony taught 
us the sisterhood of women, and that the privileges of one class could not 
offset the wrongs of another. . . . 

Mrs. Sewall, president of the International Council of Women, 
composed of the Councils of thirteen nations, and the largest or- 
ganization of women in the world, said in part : 

It is proper that the International Council should remember today "to ren- 
der unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's," and to pay tribute to the or- 
ganization which it may not regard as other than its direct progenitor. There 
are certain incidents, simple in themselves, in which probably the actors are 
always at the time quite unconscious of their perennial significance, and yet 


which become landmarks in the evolution of the human spirit Such are 
Thermopylae and Marathon and Bunker Hill. Such was that first convention 
at Seneca Falls. . . . The light from that meeting, springing from a vital 
source, has vitalized every point it has touched. Other torches lit by that 
have become beacon lights, and every one has stood for the illumination of 
women. . . . 

In the name and in the blended tongues of the women of the different 
nationalities who belong to the International Council, I salute and congratu- 
late you. ... I beg the proud honor of placing your name. Miss Anthony, 
among the list of patrons of the Council as a birthday gift, where it shall one 
day be pronounced in every language. . . . 

The Rev. Ida C. Hultin brought the gratitude of the ministers, 
saying : 

. . . Women have failed to see that the work of every woman has touched 
that of every other. The woman who works with the hand helps her who 
works with the brain. Today we know there could be no choice of work until 
there was freedom of choice to work. O, beloved leader, we of the ministry, 
as they of all ministries of service, bring our greetings and benediction. I 
hear the voices which shall tell of the new gospel and among them are the 
glad tones of women and the intonations of this one who spake in tears, who 
dared to speak before other tongues were loosed. Years will never silence 
that voice. Woman in her highest moods will catch the cadence of its melody 
and in the future there shall be that which will work the enlightenment of 
the world because you have lived and ever shall live. . . . 

Miss Hirschler thus closed the tribute of her profession : "In 
future generations when courts of law shall have become courts of 
justice, women lawyers will think of Susan B. Anthony as one 
who paved the way and made this possible." 

Mrs. HoUister said in part: "Miss Anthony has opened the 
portals of activities, has dignified labor, has made it possible for 
women to manage their own affairs — four millions today earning 
independent incomes. Women have given their lives for philan- 
thropies and reforms, but the one we honor today gave hers for 
woman. Olive Schreiner tells of an artist who painted a wonder- 
ful picture and none could learn what pigments he used. When 
he died a wound was found over his heart; he had painted his 
masterpiece with his own blood. Such women as Miss Anthony 
are painting their masterpieces with their life's blood." 

Mrs. Cook with a dignity and simplicity which won the audi- 
ence, said : 


. . . It is fitting on this occasion, when the hearts of women the world 
over are turned to this day and hour, that the colored women of the United 
States should join in the expressions of love and praise offered to Miss An- 
thony upon her eightieth birthday. . . . She is to us not only the high 
priestess of woman's cause but the courageous defender of rights wherever 

We hold in high esteem her strong and noble womanhood, for in her un- 
tiring zeal, her uncompromising stand for justice to women, her unfailing 
friendship for all good work, she herself is a stronger and better argument 
in favor of woman's rights than the most gifted orator could put into words. 
When she first championed woman's cause, humiliation followed her foot- 
steps and injustice barred the door of her progress among even the most fa- 
vored classes of society; while among the less enlightened and the enslaved 
classes the wrongs which woman suffered were too terrible to mention. 
Carlyle has said, "Beware when the great God lets loose a thinker upon this 
earth," When Susan B. Anthony was bom, a thinker was "let loose." Her 
voice and pen have lighted a torch whose sacred fire, like that of some old 
Roman temples, dies not, but whose penetrating rays shall brighten the path 
of women down the long line of ages yet to come. Our children and our 
children's children will be taught to honor her memory, for they shall be 
told that she has been always in the vanguard of the immortal few who have 
stood for the great principles of human rights. Grander than any other 
achievement that has crowned the work of woman in this woman's century 
has been that which has led her away from the narrow valley of custom and 
prejudice up to the lofty heights where she can accept the divine teaching 
that "God hath made of one blood all nations of men." 

Not until the suffrage movement had awakened woman to her responsibility 
and power, did she come to appreciate the true significance of Christ's pity 
for Magdalene as well as of his love for Mary ; not till then was the work of 
Pundita Ramabai in far away India as sacred as that of Frances Willard at 
home in America; not till she had suffered under the burden of her own 
wrongs and abuses did she realize the all-important truth that no woman and 
no class of women can be degraded and all womankind not suffer thereby. 

And so. Miss Anthony, in behalf of the hundreds of colored women who 
wait and hope with you for the day when the ballot shall be in the hands of 
every intelligent woman; and also in behalf of the thousands who sit in 
darkness and whose condition we shall expect those ballots to better, whether 
they be in the hands of white women or black, I offer you my warmest grati- 
tude and congratulations. 

Mrs. Thompson presented $200 with the following tribute : 

... In behalf of the suffragists of the District of Columbia, both men 
and women, I am happy to say, I am deputized to present to you a gift which 
expresses their regard and love for you as well as their appreciation of the 
almost superhuman efforts you have made for the past fifty years to secure 
justice and civil and political equality for women. 

The gift is in the form of what is often called "the sinews of war"— money. 


Not coarse, dead cash, such as i>asses from hand to hand in everyday trans- 
actions, but money every penny of which is alive with sincere thanks and 
earnest, loving wishes for happiness and continued success in all your en- 
deavors. . . . 

We do not hail you, love you, as one who has made woman's life easier, 
strewn it with more rose leaves of idleness, shielded it from more stress and 
storm, but as one who has taken the grander, truer view, that by equally 
sharing stress and storm, by equal effort and work, by equality in rights, 
privileges, powers and opportunities with man — ^her other self — woman will 
evolve and will reach her loftiest, loveliest development. Not as an apostle 
of ease, shrinking fear and parasitism do we regard you, but as the apostle, 
the incarnation of work, of high courage, of deathless endeavor. 

We wish our gift were myriad-fold greater, but it could never express 
more appreciation of what you stand for and what you are— a Liberator of 

Mrs. Helen M. Warren, wife of the Senator from Wyoming, 
speaking in a fine, resonant voice which would do credit to any 
legislative hall, read the poem written by Miss Phoebe Gary for 
the celebration of Miss Anthony's fiftieth anniversary, presented 
her with a brooch, a little American flag made of gold and jewels, 
and said: "I feel honored on this, your eightieth birthday, to 
represent the State of Wyoming which has espoused your cause 
for more than thirty years. I have in my hand a flag, which 
bears on its field forty-one common stars and four diamonds, 
representing the four progressive or suffrage States — ^Wyoming, 
the banner State, Colorado, Utah and Idaho. The back of the 
flag bears this inscription : *Miss Anthony : From the ladies of 
Wyoming, who love and revere you. Many happy returns of the 
day. 1820— 1900.' We hope you may live to see all the common 
stars turn into diamonds. With kindly greetings from Wyoming 
I present you this expression of her esteem." 

Mrs. Shafroth, wife of the Representative from Colorado, pre- 
sented a gift designed and made by the women of her State, say- 
ing : "It is with great pleasure that I bring you the greeting from 
the sun-kissed land of the West, where the flag which we all love, 
and of which we all sing, really waves over the land of the free 
and the home of the brave. Our men are brave and generous and 
our women are free. You and your noble co-workers stormed 
the heights of ridicule and prejudice to win this freedom for 


woman. In behalf of our Non-Partisan Equal Suffrage Associa- 
tion, I beg you to accept this ^loving cup' of Colorado silver." 

Mrs. Emily S. Richards brought the affectionate greetings of 
the women of Utah, and Mrs. Chapman Catt referred to the lov- 
ing testimonials which had been sent by the Idaho women. Then 
after an exquisite violin solo by Mr. Douglass, she said : "The 
liberties of the citizens of the future will be still more an out- 
growth of this movement than those of the present," and to the 
delighted surprise of the audience the following scene occurred, 
as described by the Post: "The most beautiful and touching part 
of the program was when eighty little children, boys and girls, 
passed in single file across the stage, each bearing a rose. Slowly 
they marched, keeping time to music, and, as they reached the 
spot where Miss Anthony sat, each child deposited a blossom in 
her lap, a rose for every year. It was a surprise so complete, so 
wonderfully beautiful, that for a few minutes she could do noth- 
ing more than grasp the hand of each child. Then she began 
kissing the little people and the applause which greeted this act 
was deafening. The roses were distributed among the pioneers 
at the close of the exercises by her request^ 

Mrs. Coonley-Ward of Chicago, read an original poem, entitled 
Love's Rosary, which closed as follows : 

Behold our Queen I Surely with heart elate 
At homage given to her love and power. 

World-famed associate of the wise and great, 
She is herself the woman of the hour. 

How kindly have the years all dealt with her! 

She proves that Bible promises are true; 
She waited on the Lord without demur, 

And he failed not her courage to renew. 

Oft on the wings of eagles she uprose ; 

On mercy's errands have her glad feet run ; 
And yet no sign of weariness she shows; 

She does not faint but works from sun to sun. 

^This interesting little act was managed by Miss Cora de la Matyr Thomas, of the Dis- 
trict. The fcene was reproduced in a large painting by Miss Sarah J. Eddy, of Provi- 
dence, R. I. 


Deep in her eyes bum fires of purpose strong; 

Her hand upholds the sceptre of God's truth; 
Her lips send forth brave words against the wrong; 

Glows in her heart the joy of deathless youth. 

Kindly and gentle, learned, too, and wise ; 

Lover of home and all the ties of kin ; 
Gay comrade of the laughing lips and eyes ; 

Give us new words to sing your praises in. 

Yet let us rather now forget to praise, 
Remembering only this true friend to greet. 

As drawing near by straight and devious ways. 
We lay our heart — ^love's guerdon — ^at her feet 

Blow, O ye winds across the oceans, blow 1 

Go to the hills and prairies of the West I 
Haste to the tropics, search the fields of snow. 

Let the world's gift to her become your quest 

Shine, sun, through prism of the waterfall, 
And build us here a rainbow arch to span 

The years, and hold the citadel 
Of her abiding work for God and man ! 

What is the gift, O winds, that ye have brought? 

O, sun, what legends shines your arch above? 
Ah, they are one, and all things else are naught 

Take them, beloved— they are love, love, love I 

Mrs. Blatch spoke eloquently for her mother, saying in part: 

I bring to you, Susan B. Anthony, the greetings of your friend and co- 
worker, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, greetings full of gracious memories. When 
the cause for which you have worked shall be victorious, then, as is the way 
of the world, will it be forgotten that it ever meant effort or struggle for 
pioneers; but the friendship of you two women will remain a precious mem- 
ory in the world's history, unforgotten and unforgettable. Your lives have 
proved not only that women can work strenuously together without jealousy, 
but that they can be friends in times of sunshine and peace, of storm and 
stress. No mere fair-weather friends have you been to each other. 

Does not Emerson say that friendship is the slowest fruit in the garden of 
God? The fruit of friendship between you two has grown through half- 
a-hundred years, each year making it more beautiful, more mellow, more 
sweet But you have not been weak echoes of each other; nay, often for the 
good of each you were thorns in the side, yet disagreement only quickened 
loyalty. Supplementing each other, companionship drew out the best in eacht 


and you have both been urged to untiring efforts through the sympathy, the 
help of each other. You have attained the highest achievement in demon- 
strating a lofty, an ideal friendship. This friendship of you two women is a 
benediction for our century. 

The last and tenderest words were spoken by Miss Shaw, whose 
tribute given with voice and manner that thrilled every one who 
heard, can only be most inadequately reported : 

A little over a hundred years ago there came men who told what freedom 
was and what freemen might become. Later women with the same love of 
it in their hearts said, "There is no sex in freedom; whatever it makes pos- 
sible for men it will make possible for women." A few of these daring souls 
went forth to blaze the path. Gradually the sunlight of freedom shone in 
their faces and they encouraged others to follow. They went slowly for the 
way was hard. They must make the path and it was a weary task. Sometimes 
darkness settled over them and they had to grope their way. Mott, Stanton, 
Stone, Anthony — ^not one retraced her footsteps. The two who are left still 
stand on the summit, great, glorious figures. We ask, "Is the way difficult?" 
They answer, "Yes, but the sun shines on us and in the valley they know 
nothing of its glory. Their cry we hear and we are calling back to those who 
are still in the valley to presb on." . . . 

Leader, comrade, friend, no name can express what you are to us. You 
might have led us as commander and we might have followed and obeyed, 
but there still might have been wanting the divine force of unchanging love. 
We look up to the sunlight where you stand and say, "We are coming." 
When we shall be fourscore we shall still be calling to you, "We are coming," 
for you will still be beckoning us on as you climb yet loftier heights. Souls 
like yours can never rest in all the eternities of God. 

Then a hush fell on the people and they waited for Miss An- 
thony. When at last she arose in all the majesty of her eighty 
years, something like a sob came from the throats of the great 
multitude. No one ever had seen her so moved as on this occasion 
when her memory must have carried her back to the days of bare 
halls, hostile audiences, ridicule, abuse, loneliness and ostracism. 
"Would she be able to speak?" many in the audience asked them- 
selves, but the nearest friends waited calmly and without anxiety. 
They had never known her to fail. The result was thus described : 

For a moment after gaining her feet Miss Anthony stood battling with her 
emotions, but her indomitable courage conquered, and she smiled at the audi- 
ence as it rose to greet her. The moment she began talking the shadow passed 
from her face and she stood erect, with head uplifted, full of her old-time 
vigor. "How can you expect me to say a word?" she said. "And yet I must 


speak. I have received letters and telegrams from all over the world, but the 
one that has touched me most is a simple note which came from an old home 
of slavery, from a woman oflF whose hands and feet the shackles fell nearly 
forty years ago. That letter, my friends, contained eighty cents — one penny 
for every year. It was all this aged person had. . . . 

I am grateful for the many expressions which I have listened to this after- 
noon. I have heard the grandson of the great Frederick Douglass speak to 
me through his violin. . . . Among the addresses from my younger co- 
workers, none has touched me so deeply as that from the one of darker hue. 
. . . Nothing speaks so strongly of freedom as the fact that the descend- 
ants of those who went through that great agony — ^which, thank Heaven, has 
passed away — ^have now full opportunities and can help celebrate my fifty 
years' work for liberty. I am glad of the gains the half-century has brought 
to the women of Anglo-Saxon birth. I am glad above all else that the time 
is coming when all women alike shall have the fullest rights of citizenship. 
I thank you all. If I have had one regret this afternoon, it is that some whom 
I have longed to have with me can not be here, especially Mrs. Stanton. I 
want to impress the fact that my work could have accomplished nothing if 
I had not been surrounded with earnest and capable co-workers. . . . 

I have shed no tears on arriving at a birthday ten years beyond the age set 
for humanity. I have shed none over resigning the presidency of the associa- 
tion. I do it cheerfully. And even so, when my time comes, I shall go on 
further and accept my new place and vocation just as cheerfully as I have 
touched this landmark. I have passed as the leader of the association of which 
I have been a member for so long but I am not through working, for I shall 
work to the end of my time; and when I am called home, if there exist an 
immortal spirit, mine will still be with you, watching and inspiring you. 

Thus the rich, strong voice sent forth a song of triumphant joy 
over this splendid flower and fruit of her fifty years* effort. The 
toil, the disappointments, the suffering, all were as nothing com- 
pared with the glorious results. And when she had finished, be- 
hold in place of thorns and stones, there were roses all about her 

In the evening the Corcoran Art Gallery, one of the world's 
beautiful buildings, was thrown open for the birthday reception. 
A colored orchestra, under the leadership of Mr. Douglass, ren- 
dered a musical program. President Kauffman, of the Board of 
Trustees, presented the visitors and the Birthday Committee as- 
sisted in receiving. Although Miss Anthony had attended a busi- 
ness meeting in the morning and been the central figure in the 
celebration of the afternoon lasting until six o'clock, she was so 
happy and vivacious during the entire evening as to challenge 


Takbn in thb Latb Nineties in the Studio of Bessie Potter, for Modeling Statuette. 




admiration. In this artistic and appropriate setting, robed in her 
stately gown of garnet velvet with its decoration of antique lace, 
the honored guest herself was the most beautiful picture of all the 
collection in this famous gallery. 

One of the many accounts sent to all parts of the country said : 

For two hours, without a moment's intermission, Miss Anthony clasped 
hands with those who were presented to her and listened to congratulatory 
expressions. A number of organizations of women and also the entire mem- 
bership of the Washington College of Law for Women, attended the recep- 
tion in a body. The guests all passed on to the second floor, where hung the 
fine portrait of Miss Anthony which was presented to the Corcoran Art 
Gallery last night by Mrs. John B. Henderson, wife of the former Senator 
from Missouri. . . . 

During the two hours everyone who greeted Miss Anthony appeared to 
have known her at some time and at some place long ago, and wanted to stop 
and converse with her. In speaking of the event after it was over, she said : 
"Wasn't it wonderful? It seemed as if every person in that vast throng had 
met me before, or that I had during my long life been a visitor at the home 
of some of their relatives. It was grand, it was beautiful. It is good to be 
loved by so many people. It is worth all the toil and the heartaches." 

From a little band apparently leading a forlorn hope, almost 
universally ridiculed and condemned, Miss Anthony had increased 
her forces to a mighty host marching forward to an assured vic- 
tory. From a condition of social ostracism she had brought them 
■ to a position where they commanded respect and admiration for 
their courageous advocacy of a just cause. The small, curious, 
ims)rmpathetic audiences of early days had been transformed into 
this large gathering, which represented the highest official life of 
the nation's capital and the intellectual aristocracy of all the 
States in the Union. It was a wonderful change to have been 
effected in the lifetime of one woman, and all posterity will rejoice 
that the leader of this greatest of progressive movements received 
the full measure of recognition from the people of her own time 
and generation. 



HERE was scarcely a paper in the United States 
that did not have something to say in regard to 
the famous eightieth birthday and among the com- 
ments then, just as many times before and after- 
wards, were some which, while admitting that Miss 
Anthony had made a considerable success of life, bewailed the 
fact that she had failed to achieve woman's highest destiny — 
marriage. One editorial which closed its panegyric by saying, 
"But after all there is an element of tragedy in the fact that Miss 
Anthony has missed wifehood and motherhood, the crowning 
honor and glory of a woman's life," was answered by the Cleve- 
land Leader with the following, which gave her no end pf amuse- 

It is undeniable that Miss Anthony has missed wifehood and motherhood, 
and in summing up a woman's life it is only fair that we should count the 
things she has missed along with the things she has gained. Miss Anthoiqr 
has gained the love and reverence of millions of people now living and of 
millions yet to be, but then she has never known the unspeakable bliss of 
nursing a family of children through the measles, whooping cough and mumps. 
She has lived a useful and perfectly unselfish life, but she doesn't know a 
thing in the world about the supreme happiness that lies in being housekeeper, 
cook, chambermaid, nurse, seamstress, hostess and half-a-dozen other things 
every day in the year till nervous prostration puts an end to the complicated 

She has stood on a thousand platforms and listened to the applause of vast 
audiences, but she doesn't know the glory and honor there is in picking up 
a bucket of hot water and climbing a step ladder to wash the doors and win- 
dows. All the joy and rapture of housecleaning in the beautiful month of May 
are as a sealed book to her. She has made the life of womankind broader, 
deeper and higher than women ever dreamed it could be, but she has no 

(I 190) 


conception of the breadth, depth and height of satisfaction to be found in 
nursing a baby through *'three-months-colic." 

She has made the world over but she is ignorant of the abandon of joy 
a woman feels when she makes over an old dress for the third time and then 
sees John start off on his summer fishing trip. She has been free and inde- 
pendent always and the women who are happier for her work will see that 
she never lacks for any good thing, but alas, she has never known the ecstasy 
of asking John for ten cents to pay street-car fare and she has never ex- 
perienced the bliss of hearing him growl about the price of her Easter bonnet 
and groan over the monthly grocery bill. Here the "element of tragedy" 
looms up very large indeed. 

It is said that on Miss Anthony's last birthday anniversary she received 
3/xx> letters congratulatory of the things she has gained in her eighty years 
of life. But there are wives and mothers who would cheerfully and heartily 
write her 500,000 more letters congratulatory of the things she has missed. 

The birthday celebration was followed by several days of 
committee meetings and then most of the official board went 
home, but Miss Anthony remained "to pelt the members of 
Congress," as she expressed it. The journal on February 22 
said : "I wrote eight letters to Senators this morning, enclosing 
petitions, and forgot to go to lunch.'* On the 23rd, accom- 
panied by Mrs. Chapman Catt, she went by invitation to the 
Congress of the D. A. R. and was for the third time presented 
to that body. She made a few strong remarks, and, as she after- 
wards observed, "had quite a recognition!" In Mrs. Catt's 
brief speech she said to the delegates, "The difference between 
your organization and ours is that you are celebrating history 
and we are making it." They then went to the Capitol and 
lunched with Senator Francis E. Warren, of Wyoming, to talk 
over the prospects of various bills relating to suffrage. On Sun- 
day Mrs. John B. Henderson gave a dinner party with a num- 
ber of distinguished guests present. 

Miss Anthony's chief reason for remaining in Washington 
was to take out incorporation papers for the Standing Fund 
which she proposed to raise at the earliest possible moment, the 
interest to be used in work for woman suffrage. Mrs. Hender- 
^9on and Mrs. Julia Langdon Barber joined with her as incor- 
porators and she had the promise of assistance from Mr. George 
W. Catt and other capable business men. Her mark was set at 

any sum from $100,000 to $500,000 and she believed that with 
Ant. Ill— 6 


her power for money getting she would be able to secure a large 
^ amount She realized that the work of the association and the 
. financial demands would continue to increase for many years to 
j come and she was determined that the leaders of the movement 
1 in the future should not dissipate their time and energy in the 
\ effort to secure the necessary means. She herself had had a 
lifetime of this struggle and she felt that others could discharge 
her official duties more easily than they could raise the money, 
so this was one of the reasons which led her to resign the presi- 
dency. Then, also, she thought that with the prestige which her 
long service had gained for her she would be welcomed at con- 
ventions of many kinds and permitted to present her cause where 
other women of less renown might be refused, and she saw here 
a promising field when release from office should give her the 
time. She was most anxious to prepare the next volume of the 
History of Woman Suffrage, whose first three were finished in 
1884. There were, besides, various minor undertakings to 
which she wanted to devote a part of her time, and so, at eighty 
years of age, she had mapped out a program of work which 
might well have appalled a woman of half that number of years. 
/ Upon arriving home the first herculean task which confronted 
/ her was the acknowledging of those 1,100 birthday letters and 
i telegrams and the scores of gifts. Relatives and friends im- 
' plored her to make out a cordial, appreciative form of letter and 
have it engraved or even typewritten, and only to write indi- 
vidual ones where it seemed absolutely essential. This she re- 
t fused positively to do, saying that a personal letter — ^**a respectful 
word," she phrased it — was the very smallest return to make 
for «uch birthday remembrances as she had received. Then they 
begged that she would use a rubber stamp for her signature, but 
she was sternly obdurate and they were forced to leave her to 
her fate. Immediately after breakfast each morning she sat down 
at her desk with the heaped-up basket of letters at her left hand 
and a stenographer at her right, and dictated steadily till noon; 
then the stenographer left to transcribe her notes. In the after- 
noon the second came and received constant dictation till evening. 
By that time the first lot were returned and as soon as supper 


was over, Miss Anthony began reading and signing them. When 
one seemed cold and formal or in any way inadequate she threw 
it in the waste basket and wrote another by hand. 

This routine was kept up without intermission for at least two 
months. As it was not possible to tell the secretaries which let- 
ters should be duplicated copies were kept of all of them. If noth- 
ing else remained this remarkable collection would be an index 
to Miss Anthony's prominent characteristics. They acknowl- 
edged gratefully the remembrance, whether large or small, wished 
the senders had been at the meetings, enclosed the birthday souve- 
nirs that were used, referred to some time when she had met them 
or had lectured in their city, sent love to their mothers, sisters, 
children, even grandchildren, and asked that they would try to 
visit her. In nearly every letter was a word of praise for some 
of her fellow-workers — Mrs. Stanton, Miss Shaw, Mrs. Catt, 
Mrs. Avery, Mrs. Upton — ^and always a tribute to somebody's 
good qualities. Then, almost without exception, she "got down 
to business," urged them to build up their suffrage clubs, to form 
new ones, to hold frequent meetings, to take the suffrage papers, 
to show their love for her by working for the cause. Wherever 
there was the slightest use she pressed them to take Life Mem- 
berships or to subscribe to the Standing Fund. "Do you ask me 
what good it will do you to become a life member?" she wrote. 
"First, it will give you the right to feel that you have given the 
weight of your name, your influence and your money to help the 
work of enfranchising women ; second, the right to attend all the 
executive sessions and receive all the publications; third, the 
right to feel that you are permanently identified with the Na- 
tional Association." To some of her own relatives who had sent 
her a generous check she wrote: "That was beautiful in you, 
and now I want you to send me a few thousand dollars for the 
Standing Fund. Send them while you are yet alive and then 
after you are done using your money leave it a few thousand 
more in your last will and testament." 

Really it is not surprising that Miss Anthony was unwilling to 
use a stereotyped form of letter! 

Of course there were many protests because she resigned the 


presidency and such she answered: "It is no longer necessary 
that I stand at the helm. The younger women of today have 
proved themselves equal to every demand. The time must have 
come very soon, if it had not now, and whenever it did come 
there would be a little roughing of the waters. I felt that this 
had better happen while I was yet alive to pour oil on them." 

The stage of the Lafayette Opera House had its limits, yet 
many there were who felt they had a right to sit thereon at the 
birthday celebration, and those who were not asked to do so told 
Miss Anthony about it in strong language afterwards. She was 
terribly distressed and to one who was so angry she left the city 
before the festivities, she wrote: "I cannot think without a 
heartache of that last sight and word with you in the elevator as 
I was going to the opera house and you said you were going to 
the train. Why in the world did you not tell me you had no ticket 
for the stage? I went to your room several times during the 
week and never found you in. I cannot forgive myself for not 
having learned for sure that you had one, but alas, no amount of 
regret can remedy the blunder. I feel certain that if we had 
those days to live over I would attend to my duty and had I 
failed you would have known it was a mistake and so would have 
gone to the exercises anyhow. That this should have happened 
to one of my life-long friends will ever be a source of sorrow to 
me, but I know you too well to believe that your love and faith 
in me or mine in you can ever change." 

To her old friends, General and Mrs. Rufus Saxon, the letter 
said: "The thought just crosses my mind that you were not on 
the platform. Can it be possible that you were not invited to be 
there ? If you were not I am sure the fault was mine. When the 
list of pioneers was submitted to me I fear that in the hurry and 
pressure I did not notice your names were omitted. I beg of you 
to let the blame fall on me and not on my young lieutenants if 
you were not invited to honor me and our cause by sitting on the 
stage that afternoon." In a letter to Miss Caroline Sherman : "I 
hope you had tickets, but alas, I have learned that some of my 
oldest and dearest friends were not thought of in time either by 
the committee or by me, and, worse still, they did not write or 


come to me to refresh my memory of them. I never go to Wash- 
ington without thinking of you and dear Ellen Sheldon and Ade- 
laide Johnson. I shall never forget any of you while memory 
lasts — ^how you used to come to me in the olden times, the mo- 
ment the papers announced my arrival, to see what you could 
do to assist me, and stay after your office hours till ten or eleven 
o'clock at night, week after week, helping about the conventions 
— ^and all without a penny of compensation. Surely the least I 
could have done was to give orders that each should be invited 
to my birthday celebration ! As I sat there listening to the women 
who spoke I thought over all of the helpers of bygone days and 
no names came to me then, or come today, as I look over the 
long, long past, whose owners I cherish more than yours." 

To one woman who grieved because she had no chance to 
"have a talk" with Miss Anthony the evening of the reception in 
the Corcoran Art Gallery she wrote: "No, there was no time 
for you or anyone else to speak what was in her heart, so you 
were not alone in your disappointment ; and I am sure that most 
of all that company did I r^ret that I could not say something 
helpful to every one whose hand I took." One who complained 
that in a tribute to the workers Miss Anthony did not mention 
her aunt, she reminded that her aunt had died before the present 
generation came on the stage of action and said : "Try to feel 
that all who work for humanity must do it for humanity's sake, 
and they and we and all the friends must be content if the world 
never praises nor thanks therefor." 

And oh, the poets — ^how most of their effusions did worry her, 
for she could not appreciate them no matter how hard she tried ! 
One wrote a severe letter because her tribute had not been read at 
the celebration and Miss Anthony replied : "It is always a safer 
plan for one who writes of a grievance against another to let 
both the writer and the letter sleep over night before sending it. 
I suppose there were fifty poems sent by my dear friends and 
children of my dear friends, such as you are, but it was utterly 
impossible for me even to look at them in Washington. Only 
one, that of Mrs. Coonley-Ward, was read and that by herself. 
The other forty-nine were not read till I came home, and now 


I am putting them all in a package to be examined by my bi- 
ographer when she writes the last chapter of my life!" 

In speaking of the death of Mrs. Lucinda H. Stone she said : 
"The papers very appropriately call her 'the mother of clubs/ 
She did a grtBt work and has had her reward on the way as she 
went along, though the old-fashioned mode of expressing it 
would be that she has now gone to her reward." To those who 
were trying to secure the submission of an amendment, she wrote : 
"But if defeat comes to you this time don't be discouraged; just 
work on with might and main until you do get a Legislature in- 
telligent enough to submit the question." In a letter to one who 
had been put out of office under Democratic regime and now 
hoped to get in again, she said : *It is very hard for a woman to 
get her foot into as good a position as you had in that post office. 
Cannot you turn your hand to some other business? So many 
thousands of men, all of them with votes and all promising to do 
something for the party, are hanging around Washington all the 
time that I don't see how women can dream of getting offices. 
There are too many hungry Republicans wanting them." 

The young women she urged to enter actively into the move- 
ment. "One of the things that rejoice me most in these days," 
she wrote, "is to see so many young women and girls coming 
forward to be educated into the work needed for our good cause, 
who will be ready to carry it forward when those now in charge 
must begin to lay it down. One thing you can do, whatever limi- 
tations you may have to your power of working, you can show 
your colors, let your friends know you are a suffragist, and your- 
self live such a strong, true, womanly life as shall make even the 
Ignorant and prejudiced respect the cause of which you are a 
representative." And again: "The most pleasant part of my 
birthday celebration to me was the feeling that I had in a meas- 
ure helped to make conditions better for women. The one way 
for the young people to show their appreciation of the labor of 
the pioneers is to give their names, their energies and their money 
to organized effort for securing the great essential not only to 
the best development of women but also to the highest good of 
the nation — ^the right to vote." To the girls of the Classical 


School Residence, Indianapolis; "One of the keenest pleasures 
I have comes from the knowledge that the girls and young 
women in our schools and colleges are being educated not only 
in the arts and sciences but also in the grand principles of free- 
dom and equality for all citizens. If the celebration of my birth- 
day had any significance for you it was in the fact that my life 
had been devoted to the work of gaining the constitutional recog- 
nition of equality of rights for the women of the United States." 

To one young woman who sent her $50, but who, Miss An- 
thony knew, was not in a financial condition to justify this, she 
wrote : "You will remember I told you I should put that money 
in bank to be drawn out and given back to you whenever you 
should need it to pay your board, buy you comfortable clothes 
or take you to your home and friends. So, my dear, whenever 
the time of want comes, remember you are to call on me for that 
$50." In making up the program for a meeting at Chautauqua, 
N. Y., she wrote to one of the committee : "Now we want an- 
other bright, young woman who will be new on our platform. 
Whom would you suggest? Of course I know there are scores 
who would like to try their wings there, but we must secure those 
only whose wings have been tried and who have proved capable of 
soaring in a way satisfactory to us." To one of the laborers in 
the cause who complained that women today did not appreciate 
what had been done for them in the past she said : "It is very 
true that most of the women who are enjoying the fruits of the 
seeds sown by those of fifty years ago do not realize their in- 
debtedness to the seed-sowers, but that fact should not deter any 
of the present generation from working their best and hardest, 
just as did the pioneers. So keep right on trying to educate the 
people in the fundamental principles of our politics and our re- 

Club women in all parts of the country sent congratulations 
and Miss Anthony did not let any of them escape without an ad- 
monition. To the corresponding secretary of the New York State 
Federation she wrote: "It was a great delight to me to hear that 
the representative women of my State really believe that my life- 
work has been *to raise the plane of true womanhood to one of 

IIQS life and work of SUSAN B. ANTHONY. [iQOO] 

liberty and high ideals/ and that they are *proud that I am a 
citizen of the Empire State/ Please extend to the officers and 
members my thanks and my hope that the Federation, 30,000 
strong, may ere long throw the weight of its great influence on 
the side of political equality for women. But until that good time 
comes I shall continue to be exceedingly grateful that it demands 
equality for them in the industrial, the educational and every 
other department of life. I am thankful because I know that soon 
or late every woman who thinks, talks and works to better the 
conditions of society must come to see that under a representative 
form of government her sex cannot accomplish the end she de- 
sires so long as it is disfranchised." 

To one clubwoman Miss Anthony wrote : "The way in which 
all women can best honor me personally, as you desire to do, is 
to educate themselves into the understanding of what is termed 
politics. The women of four States are now voting on every 
question to be decided at the ballot-box precisely as men are, and 
soon those of your State of Ohio will be called on to do the same. 
There is none too much time for those of every State to make 
themselves acquainted with the great principles of our Govern- 
ment and its practical methods." And to another : 

It was very good of you literary women to cast a glance at one whose life 
has been devoted almost wholly to securing political equality for all women. 
The time was in the olden days when the woman who aspired to literary 
culture was derisively dubbed a "blue-stocking*', but now it has become hon- 
orable, yea, fashionable, for women to be proficient in literature, art, science 
—everything but politics. The day is not far distant when woman's acquire- 
ments in political knowledge will be regarded as just as honorable. My one 
source of gratification in the present club-engrossment of our women is that 
they cannot work far in any direction without finding themselves crippled 
in their efforts by the lack of political force. It is good to have woman's 
moral influence on the right side of every question, but it would be better if 
to this she could add political power, for then she would be able not only to 
crystallize moral sentiments into laws but to enforce these laws after they 
were enacted. 

After Miss Anthony had thanked the Women's Branch of the 
Society for Ethical Culture in New York she said : "I remember 
that during the amendment campaign of 1894 Mrs. Stanton and 
myself spoke before your society. Then not all of your members 


felt sure that they wanted women to exercise their citizen's right 
to vote. I trust by this time every one of you has come to feel 
the necessity of placing the ballot in the hands of women, if not 
because of the abstract right of every citizen to hold it, then 
because the possession of it would enable those employed in the 
labor market of the world to be paid equally with men for equal 
work. The very foundation of ethics is justice, therefore the 
highest ethical culture for women must lie in the direction of 
securing justice for their own sex." 

To the women of temperance organizations Miss Anthony 
wrote : "Every man who wants liquor selling to continue has a 
vote to deposit in favor of it. When women get a vote they can 
deposit it against the traffic, but all their talking and singing and 
praying will do very little damage without the ballot Therefore 
I hope you will set yourselves to work to get the necessary 
weapons wherewith to battle." The Daughters of the American 
^ Revolution got this message : "If there are any women in the 
world who ought to believe in the practical application of the 
principles of Adams and Hancock and Jefferson, they should be 
found among the members of an association like yours. May I 
suggest that your chapters should study not only the history of 
. the Revolution of 1776 but also the great underlying causes which 
[brought about that war? And then that they should work for the 
application to the women of our country of the principles at the 
foundation of our Government? We should all remember that 
while we are studying the history of the past we are making the 
history which the future will study in its turn." 

One letter in this series which seems to merit preservation even 
more than the others read in part as follows : 

It does seem very strange to me that you should be "more interested in 
peace and arbitration between nations" than in the enfranchisement of the 
women of this so-called republic. It is so evident that if the women of our 
nation had been counted among the constituencies of every State Legislature 
and of the Congress of the United States, the butchery of the Spanish-Amer- 
ican War would never have been perpetrated. There is no possible hope of 
justice among the nations of the world while there is such gross injustice in- 
side of the highest and best Government of them all. Peace and arbitration are 
the outgrowth of justice, and while one-half of the people of the United States 


are robbed of their inherent right of personal representation in this freest 
country on the face of the globe, it is idle for us to expect that the men who 
thus rob women will not rob each other as individuals, corporations and Gov- 
ernment. The fact that the vast majority of our most earnest and highly 
educated women are perfectly willing to occupy themselves by cutting off 
here and there a bud or a twig of the Upas tree, instead of uniting in one 
gigantic force and striking a great and effective blow at the tap-root, is the 
reason why crime of every kind stalks abroad unblushingly within our coun- 
try, and the reason also why we as a nation are unable to enforce the prin- 
ciples of peace and arbitration. 

One can well understand why Miss AnthcMiy would write to a 
prominent member of her own association who was about to or- 
ganize a club ostensibly for the sole purpose of stud3dng laws 
relating to women but really to lead its members to recognize the 
need for the franchise: "I hope you will be successful in the 
undertaking. I feel most deeply that it is the duty of suffragists 
to join popular clubs of all sorts and secure inside of them the 
discussion and if possible the adoption of the demand for the 
ballot. The members of these various societies will not go to 
suffrage meetings to be converted, but suffragists can go to them 
in their own associations and there work for their conversion; 
so I rejoice to see them in every organization of women for every 
purpose under the sun." 

The greetings Miss Anthony always particularly enjoyed were 
those of business women, as a vital part of the early struggle for 
the rights of women was for the right to enter the professions 
and all occupations, and this now had been gained forever. To 
one woman she wrote : "I am happy to know you are the editor of 
a daily paper. It rejoices me every time I find a competent woman 
in a responsible position." And to a lawyer : "I am indeed glad 
you feel that you are reaping the rewards of the good work done 
half-a-century ago. No woman then could have possibly been 
admitted to the bar, and yet I think many of us feel that we are 
far from having accomplished all that we hoped for then. All 
that any of us can do, however, is to seize upon every opportunity 
and make the most of it, not only for our own personal develop- 
ment but for the good of the rest of the world. I am very glad 
that you have financial prospects which will enable you in the 














future to do more in a moneyed direction. It is a great pleasure 
to work for a good cause, but a greater when to that we can add 
the help of our money." Again : "None of the greetings received 
on my birthday was more welcome than that from the Govern- 
ment clerks. The best compliment you could pay me would be to 
organize yourselves into a political equality club and give at least 
one evening a month to the study of the science of government. 
You would soon learn woman's need of the ballot in order to lift 
the sex to the plane of industrial equality where no disfranchised 
class can ever stand. Degradation in the labor market always 
has been, is today and ever will be the result of disfranchise- 

The home-keepers always were remembered and appreciated 
by Miss Anthony. To one she wrote : "I was very glad to get a 
note from *one of the life-long privates in the war for equal 
rights.' It is the like of you who stand firm and true for justice 
to women, that enable us at the front to stand strong and steady." 
And to another : "It was very foolish of you not to come to me 
and give me the privilege of taking you by the hand. It cer- 
tainly is a comfort to me that so many of the best women through- 
out the entire country have been 'following me with love and 
faith all these years.' There is nothing that so sustains us few 
who stand at the front of the battle as the knowledge that thou- 
sands of the home women sympathize with us and long for the 
success of the cause." To a New York State acquaintance of 
fifty years, unknown to the world at large, she wrote: 

Yes, I always believed in you and knew that 3rou believed in me. I 
shall never forget your kindness to me all through those years of struggle 
and effort to carry on The Revolution. Your house was a haven of rest, and 
I shall ever think of you as one of the good angels who made it possible for 
me to go on. None of us — Mrs. Stanton, Lucy Stone, Mrs. Rose, myself or 
any other— could ever have done our public work but for the loving sympathy 
of women in the homes, like yourself. You were our background, our sup- 
port; you held up our hands, you cheered us along the pathway. 

I told some of our friends the other day that, as it had been a few of us 
who stood at the front that had had to take all the pelting when it was with 
moral brickbats and ugly epithets, while the women who stayed quietly in 
their homes got no such treatment, so now when the pelting for those of us 
who are left is of roses and good words, the women who stood behind us 


all through the hard times are getting no mention. It cannot be helped and 
there is a sort of justice in it, you see; but nevertheless, without the sup- 
port of those quiet ones our work could not have been done. 

Thirty women joined in the testimonial from California and 
to every one Miss Anthony sent a separate letter. She wrote to 
each individual woman connected with the gift from Utah, and 
one letter will serve as an example: "It was so nice of you to 
send me something useful. My pleasure in the rich brocaded 
silk is quadrupled because it was made by women politically equal 
with men. The fact that the mulberry trees grew in Utah, that 
the silk worms made their cocoons there, that women reeled and 
spun and colored and wove the silk in a free State, greatly en- 
hances its value. My dressmaker in the near future will make it 
into the most beautiful gown that your octogenarian friend ever 
possessed." And then came the inevitable: "I hope very soon 
your Legislature will wipe off from the civil code every vestige 
of the old common law which robs the wife of her right to her 
person, her wages, her property, her children. If I lived in any 
of the free States I would never vote for any man for office unless 
he were pledged to revise this code till it was just to women. 
. . . I am very glad if you have a good man to fill the place 
of Brigham H. Roberts. It was a shame for the Democratic 
party to nominate and elect a man to Congress who had used all 
his power to defeat woman suffrage in the constitutional conven- 
tion. If he had been entirely free from polygamous associations, 
such a hater of equality for woman should not have been allowed 
to represent Utah. I hope the two men the Republicans have 
nominated are absolutely free from all theories and practices that 
tend to degrade women." 

Miss Anthony had no patience with women who had obtained 
political power and did not use it to abolish all injustice toward 
their own sex. To one in Denver she wrote : "I am glad you are 
trying to establish a good business but am exceedingly surprised 
at what you say, that, while women vote, they cannot hold a seat 
on any of the stock boards in their own name — ^that a man must 
represent a woman and apparently own the seat. With women 
voting and women sitting as members of both Houses of the 


\ Legislature, it needs only a motion to make that law null and 
void. No woman should growl about the laws of the State when 
all that is necessary to secure justice to women in the statutes is 
to bring the matter before the Legislature. There is nothing that 
the women of Colorado really want today that they cannot get 
if they go about it in a business fashion, and I look to you women 
there to see that every invidious discrimination shall be elimi- 
nated from your code." 

Another letter said : "Is it not marvelous how our friends the 
enemy do keep finding somebody who has passed over one little 
comer of Colorado and so is competent to give his wise experi- 
ence that woman suffrage is a failure? I wish you Denver women 
would write out every good happening and everj^hing said by 
any prominent person in favor of woman suffrage and keep 
something of the sort floating around in the papers all the time. 
Of course the public men who are opposed in Colorado, as a rule, 
don't dare to say it is a failure, as this would lessen even their mi- 
nority vote at the next election ; for, as nearly as I can find out, 
those who have said this are the ones who have themselves failed 
to get the majority of the women's votes." 

Then to a Southern woman who had told her of starting a 
newspaper she wrote: "I am looking to Mississippi and all of 
the Gulf States for women who are ready and willing not only 
to study the history of the past but to make history in the direc- 
tion of securing political equality. I wonder if you are interested 
in the question of gaining the full suffrage? I hope you are, for 
the women of this nation can never make of themselves a great 
force for the uplifting of the world so long as they are contented 
to remain without the right of representation in the government 
of city, State and nation ; hence it seems to me the first duty of 
every intelligent woman to devote her best energies to getting 
the power of the ballot into the hands of all women. It is humiliat- 
ing indeed to be compelled constantly to see unprincipled men vot- 
ing for candidates who are opposed to every good measure in 
which the majority of women are interested." 

To Mrs. Ellen C. Sargent of San Francisco, she wrote: 
"There has not been a day since Mrs. Swift told me of your dear 


Elizabeth's death that I have not thought of you and your great 
sorrow. I know you do not mourn for her but for yourself so 
lonely without her cheering presence. Well, if we live after cross- 
ing what is called the river of death, which I think you feel sure 
of, you must now be certain that the spirits of father and 
daughter are in close communion — ^and yet no closer than is 
your own to theirs or theirs to yours." And to another who had 
lost an only daughter : "Your life is now indeed very lonely, but 
in thought and spirit you are constantly with your loved ones, 
and, if our hopes in immortality are to be realized, they are with 
you in thought and sympathy. You must, my dear friend, lift 
yourself out of this great bereavement, and there is no way given 
under heaven by which you can do this except by buckling on 
your armor and working harder than ever before to raise women 
and, through them, men and the race, to their highest level and 
best estate." 

The nimiber of these letters stretches out interminably, and 
yet extended quotations seem justified by the thought that they 
are in many instances far more than a friendly missive to an in- 
dividual — ^they are Miss Anthony's messages of hope, encourage- 
ment and admonition to all women of the present and future 

To her old comrade. Dr. Sarah R. DoUey, of Rochester, with 
whom she had many friendly controversies, she said : 

I am glad to know that Bishop McQuaid uses his influence to make tke 
Catholic schools as good as possible, but I deprecate more and more all sorts 
of private and sectarian schools. A republican government should be based 
on free and equal education among the people. While we have class and 
sectarian schools the parties supporting them will not give their fullest aid 
toward building up the public school system. If all of the rich and all of the 
church people should send their children to the public schools they would 
feel bound to concentrate their money and energies on improving these 
schools until they met the highest ideals. To be a success a republic must 
have a homogeneous people, and to do this it must have homogeneous schools. 
You may grow more and more in favor of sectarian schools, as you say, but 
I grow more and more opposed to them." 

To Mrs. Hannah J. Solomon, president, and to the members 
of the Jewish Women's Council, Miss Anthony wrote : "There is 


no association in our National Council which I love and appre- 
ciate more than yours. . . . What we all need, and shall get 
through the Council, is to know each other more fully. . . . 
I have heard of the struggle you liberals had at Cleveland. There 
is the same contest going on in nearly every one of the women's 
organizations, no matter what its special purpose. Liberty and 
slavery always will have a tussle, and in the long run freedom 
must come uppermost — ^but it is often very long in coming!*' 

To a rebellious member of an orthodox church: "You are 
quite right in your attitude against women's keeping silence in 
the churches. If all who feel with you that they should be 
clothed with equal power in the church, as well as in the State, 
would make their protest and refuse to get up fairs, dinners and 
'socials' to raise money to support men ministers who oppose 
equal rights for women, the church would very soon become a 
great power on the right side instead of being a dead weight 
against it. There is but one reason why the church does not stand 
as a unit for the enfranchisement of women and that is because 
the vast majority of its members, who are women, do not de- 
mand this. So, my dear, your work evidently must be among the 
women of your own church. They have no right to allow them- 
selves to be without a voice as to the articles of their creed, the 
minister who shall preach to them or any matters concerning 
church government." 

One woman wrote that she had talked with Miss Anthony 
nearly fifty years before but that she had never been able to "get 
off the fence" on the side of woman suffrage ; she said they had 
discussed phrenology at that time and Miss Anthony had told her 
that "her head was too flat." A part of the answer to this letter 

I am very sorry for you if in this almost half-century you have not found 
a reason for getting off the fence. The reasons that you give for balancing 
yourself at that height are the most important ones why women should vote. 
You say, "The fault of women is that they know too little of mankind and 
glory in it, and the men glory in keeping them simply ignorant creatures for 
their own personal benefit." The reason women do not know men better is 
because after they get their growth the sexes are kept so much apart in their 


work. Women will never understand men, or men understand women, until 
they are associated in all the weightier matters of life. 

I cannot say whether a copy of your book was received or not, for I have 
piles of books that I have not yet opened, but if, when I do come across it, 
I find you have proved that women should not have the right to vote I will 
inform you. I can assure you beforehand, however, that I know just as well 
now as I shall after reading it that neither you nor any other woman can 
prove that a condition of dependence, pecuniary or political, can bring about 
the best development of any individual or any class. Therefore if you should 
hear no farther from me you may conclude that I considered your effort a 
failure, and thought that you needed to set that "flat head" of yours to think- 
ing on the side of philosophy and facts. 

To Dr. Rachel S. Tenney, Kansas City : 

Dear fellow-worker of '67, how your name carries me back to the amend- 
ment campaign of thirty-three years ago! But for the disloyalty of the Free 
State leaders the women of Kansas would have been enfranchised then, and 
instead of now being beggars at the feet of ignorant voters they would be 
the peers of the best men, and they would have been working for the whole 
of this last generation to make Kansas the banner State for honesty, temperance 
and morality. It does seem such a cruel waste of the energies of one-half 
the people that instead of being allowed to help make conditions better they 
have been compelled to devote their time and brains to the task of persuading 
men to give them the power to work with I It was very brave of you in those 
early days to take the presidency of a suffrage club. A great drawback all 
along has been, and is today, that women of influence, even though believing 
in our cause, refuse to accept any place of responsibility in its organized 

There are letters of acknowledgment to Miss Anthony's old co- 
worker, the Rev. Wm. F. Channing; to Mrs. Priscilla Bright 
McLaren and other friends in Europe; to Mrs. Bertha Honore 
Palmer; to Mrs. Abby Morton Diaz; to Mrs. Fanny Garrison 
Villard, saying, "I loved you when a little girl and I love you 
none the less now ;" to "Grace Greenwood,'' "It was good for the 
audience to look you in the face and hear your voice that evening. 
Would that there had been time enough for you to have had 
more!" There was a letter to President David Starr Jordan, of 
Leland Stanford University, and one to Mrs. Jane L. Stanford 
which said : 

I wrote you a line and could hardly keep from rushing over to the hotel the 
moment I saw the notice in the paper that you were there. I was very 


anxious to meet you and talk over matters relating to women, not only in the 
world of education but of work also. . . . 

I trust your university is prospering even beyond your highest expectation. 
I have seen items lately that you have put out of your hands the control of 
nearly your entire estate. I hope that this is not true, for your power over 
the university and over various incorporated associations in which you are 
stockholder depends very largely on your holding the helm tightly in your 
own right hand. Nearly all women and very many men make the mistake of 
ceding or deeding away control of their property during their lifetime. You 
will remember how happy it made me when you told me about exhibiting the 
contents of the box of bonds and securities to the university trustees, then 
putting them back, locking the box and saying, "No one but myself will 
clip these coupons as long as I have the ability to do it." 

You will pardon me for this unasked advice; but, as you know, I feel this 
strong interest in your management of your millions because the world will 
credit the whole sex with your success or charge it with your failure. Thus 
far it seems to me that no man could have conducted his business with 
better judgment than you have yours ever since your dear husband left you 
all of his great responsibilities, so remembering all your good words and 
works, I am very lovingly and trustingly yours. 

To Mrs. Caroline M. Severance, Los Angeles : "Among all the 
delightful letters that have come to me none is more acceptable 
than this sweet one of yours. I see by the papers that you, too, 
were passing over your fourth-score into the fifth. I had for- 
gotten we were so nearly of an age. Well, my dear, it is a great 
and heroic work you have done through all these more than fifty 
years since the day you started out in Ohio. I can never forget 
that beautiful home of yours on Euclid Avenue, where so many 
of our pioneer friends used to meet — Frances Dana Gage, Mrs. 
Rose, Antoinette Brown, Lucy Stone, Abby Kelly — s, modest 
host, to be sure, but as grand women as any who have come to 
the front in these later days. Isn't it strange that the young edi- 
tors and orators cannot get rid of the idea that our pioneer 
women were coarse, masculine, badly-dressed and ill-mannered? 
I wish we had some kind of flying machine or, better still, some 
telegraphic conveyance, to carry me to your lovely cottage this 
spring morning where we could chat over all the old friends of 
those days and the new ones of these.'* 

r There is a delicious tone in this letter to that persistent foe of 
woman suffrage, Edward Rosewater, editor of the Omaha Bee: 

"It was indeed kind of you to send your congratulations to me on 
Ant. Ill— 7 


my eightieth birthday, and then in addition to pray that my life 
might be prolonged, when you feel from the bottom of your heart 
that if the end to which I have devoted that life were attained 
j the result would be not good but very bad for the world. I never 
' could quite understand how anyone could love and respect me 
while thinking that what I was working for was absolutely 
wrong. Nevertheless, Mr. Rosewater, if you cannot believe in 
the application to women of the underlying principles of our gov- 
ernment, I shall have to be grateful that you do believe in me." 

Miss Anthony was intensely in earnest but occasionally a 
lighter vein crept into her letters, as when she wrote to one el- 
derly lady: "Your mention of knitting while waiting for your 
train carries me back to the old days when I always had my 
knitting work in my travelling bag and improved every moment, 
but now neither at home nor abroad do I feel it absolutely neces- 
sary to keep my hands busy every instant." But to another who 
sent her a gold thimble she wrote: "It is very pretty but a 
thimble, however fine, is of but little use to one who holds a pen 
every waking minute when at home.'* And when a gold pen came 
she said in her answering note : "I am ever and ever so thank- 
ful, but I have never learned to write with anything but a steel 
pen in a big cork handle that I can get a good grasp on, and by 
this letter you will see that I may soon forget to use that, so 
rapidly are stenographer and t3rpewriter putting the pen into 

One can see the smile on Miss Anthony's face as she wrote 
to a friend as old as herself: "I hope you had a good time in 
Washington. I especially noticed that you and brother John 
Hutchinson were flirting togethet the evening we were all in the 
Corcoran Gallery. I kept my eye on you although I was obliged 
to stay in my place in the big chair on that elevated platform." 
\ As a rule, however. Miss Anthony looked at life seriously, and 
even in the writing of these birthday letters she seized upon every 
Opportunity they offered to further that cause which never was 
) absent from her thoughts and which literally absorbed her whole 
being. Always the one point on which her desires and hopes cen- 
tered was Congress — ^the submission of a resolution by that body 


{ for an amendment to the National Constitution. And so in writ- 
ing to Mrs. William E. Chandler she said : 

In going through my birthday letters and cards, I find yours. ... I 
want to ask you to inquire of your good husband if he does not think the time 
has come when the Senate of the United States should take a vote to show 
themselves and the world where they stand on the question of woman suffrage. 
For thirty years a large number of educated and respectable women have been 
importuning Congress to give to the State Legislatures a deciding voice as to 
whether the women of the nation shall be longer denied the exercise of "the 
citizen's right to vote." Remind your Senator, will you not, that because of 
the refusal of Congress to lift the arbitrament of this question from populace 
to representatives, women who love their homes as dearly as any women in 
the world have been compelled to leave them to canvass their States with 
petitions, hold meetings, circulate literature and raise money during the whole 
last half of this nineteenth century. . . . 

I know, my dear Mrs. Chandler, you feel with me that it is a great outrage 
to compel women thus to work and beg for the privilege of getting their 
rightful inheritance, while those in power thrust the ballot into the hands of 
foreign men almost the moment they step foot on our shores, and are now 
agonizing over the terrible wrong of governing Aguinaldo and the semi- 
barbaric men of the new island possessions without their consent ! Why is it 
that the right to vote is held so sacred for ignorant men of all colors and 
nationalities, and of no value to intelligent, native-bom women? I beg you 
to tell me what we can do to make our representatives in Congress see that 
woman's right to self government is just as sacred as is man's. 

When Miss Anthony began the stupendous task of acknowl- 
edging all these birthday remembrances she wrote of it to friends : 
"As General Grant said before Vicksburg, *It is a big job, but 
I'll do it if it takes all summer.' " It consumed the whole of the 
spring but when she had finished she wrote again: "It did 
prove a huge undertaking but it was an agreeable one, never- 
theless, to read and answer all those letters and acknowledge 
the beautiful presents. There was an immense amount of pleas- 
ure in it because it brought me into touch with so many dear 
friends who are doing their best to help the cause I love above 
all else. There is an old saying that one never knows how many 
friends he has until he is dead, but I think my eightieth birth- 
day must have discovered all I have on the entire face of the 




'HILE writing the birthday letters Miss Anthony 
did not neglect the work of the National Associa- 
tion. In a letter to the present writer dated March 
1 26 she said : "During the last fourteen days I have 
got off one hundred letters to Members of Con- 
gress in regard to our petitions. Then on Sundays, when of 
course I can't ask the stenographers to work, I have signed over 
fifty Life Membership certificates. I have secured these with the 
cash put into the treasury, and I have twenty-five more promised. 
I hope before this last year of the nineteenth century closes I 
shall be able to report at least a hundred new memberships. To- 
morrow I shall begin writing personal letters to every one who 
has put in her $50.* I will be mighty glad when you get here so 
that we can talk over and work over the letters and resolutions 
which must be sent to all the political conventions this summer. 
O, but there is a lot waiting to be done !" 

The largest task which awaited was the writing of the fourth 
volume of the History of Woman Suffrage. Readers of the 
events of the early years are familiar with the story of how the 
first three volumes were prepared by Mrs. Stanton, Miss An- 
thony and Mrs. Matilda Joslyn Gage.^ From the time the last 
one was published in 1885, Miss Anthony never had wavered in 
her intention to have another if she should live tmtil the time for 

^ Miss Anthony was able to obtain the one hundred life Memberships. It is believed 
that over half of the more than three hundred life members of the association were se- 
cured by her. She herself paid the fee of $50 for a large number of those who she felt 
ought to be placed on this roll of honor. 

* Volume II, page 612 and others. 



it, which she fully expected to do. She did not know who would 
write it or where she would get the money for it but she was 
absolutely certain that the book would be written and published 
The others closed the record with 1883, and she began from 
that date to save material for Volume IV. As the century was 
drawing near its close, and she knew that by the law of nature 
this must be true also of her own life, she grew more and more 
anxious that the work should begin. She realized its magnitude, 
for the others required the labor of a large part of ten years, 
and she felt quite certain that this volume would depend as much 
on her initiative and determination as the other three had done. 
In her letters at this time she wrote: "I am bound to see this 
History truthfully and properly written to the end of the cen- 
tury and the close of my official management of the National 
Association. When it comes to the making and writing of his- 
tory after the year 1900 I shall leave all to the women of the 
present generation." 

/ Through all the preparation of the Biography Miss Anthony's 
/mind was on the History — ^nothing must be destroyed that might 
be needed for it; matters strictly personal to herself must be 
separated from those of a wider scope ; repetition must be avoided 
as far as possible — ^it was a subject of constant thought. The 
writer trusts she will be pardoned for obtruding her own per- 
sonality here — it seems necessary to illustrate a strong phase of 
Miss Anthony's character. As the Biography neared completion 
and her references to the History grew more frequent I was over- 
whelmed with the consciousness that within the innermost re- 
cesses of her being was the intention that I should undertalce 
this stupendous task. The very idea of it paralyzed my faculties; 
I was almost sick with apprehension, and yet she never had ut- 
tered one word on which to base my fears. Often I would say 
to her: "I am placing carefully on these shelves the material 
which will be needed by someone in writing the History ;" or, "I 
am filing the papers that whoever writes the History will want to 
refer to ;" and she would answer in a matter-of-fact way, "Well, 
just make a memorandum of it.'* But all the time I grew more 
unhappy for not only did I feel absolutely sure that Miss An- 


thony would find a way to have me do this work, but my con- 
science was reinforcing her position with arguments which I 
could meet only with the most fallacious sophistry. Nevertheless 
I defied conscience and duty, devotion to the "cause,'' love for 
Miss Anthony, every good attribute that I ought to possess. 
When I went to bed at night I said, "I will not!" When I got up 
in the morning I repeated, "I will not!!" And all through the 
day I sat in my attic workroom and croaked to myself, "Never- 

Finally I decided to put an end to my misery and so one day 
I burst forth : "Now, Miss Anthony, of course you are not think- 
ing of having me undertake that History. To be shut away from 
the world and to pore over these faded letters and old documents 
and dig for dates and verify statements and write for facts to 
people who never answer and struggle to tell the truth and not 
offend anybody — surely a year-and-a-half of such a strain is all 
that ought to be asked of one woman!" When I stopped for 
breath she said calmly, "You realize the importance of having the 
History written, don't you?" "O, yes." "Then since you can't 
or won't write it, you will surely suggest the proper person to do 
it." I named an excellent writer. "She could not leave her fam- 
ily to come here and do this work." I mentioned another. "She 
has a profession which she could not give up for a year or two." 
I offered still another name. "A brilliant writer but in no sense 
a historian." "The country is full of competent women," I cried. 
"Very well ; you know the writers better than I do. There is no 
hurry about this; think up a suitable person and I'll arrange it 
with her." 

The matter never was referred to again. The Biography came 
out for the Holidays of 1898. I spent the winter in Washington 
as usual and did not see Miss Anthony. In the spring all of us 
went to England, for the International Council, but, although I 
was with her much of the time, she never mentioned the History. 
I did not return till December and the latter part of this month 
was sent by McClure's to Rochester, as mentioned in a preceding 
chapter. The last night of my stay, just as I was going to bed, 
Miss Anthony came into my room and without any preliminaries 


said : "When will you be ready to come here and begin work on 
the History?" I dropped into a chair, simply collapsed. After I 
had made all my feeble objections, which she brushed away as so 
much chaff, I at last finished by saying, "If you will only let me 
off irom this work 1*11 come back here and get everything ready 
and plan it all and put things in such shape that anybody can do 
it." Rising and throwing back her head, just as she used to 
when about to make a big speech, she said, "Think this over till 
morning, and if you decide that you will not undertake it FU 
bum up the material and that will be the end." Then her voice 
broke and her eyes filled with tears. "I'll do it. Miss Anthony, 
ril do it," I cried, and putting my arms around her neck I 
kissed her to seal the promise. 

The next morning we agreed that after the convention and 
the birthday festivities in Washington were over, I would return 
and Miss Anthony would put all else aside, so that we could 
give every hour of time to the History. I was only to stay until 
the MS. was ready for the publishers and was to be released 
from proof-reading, index-making and other wearisome details 
which are a part of bookmaking. 

I came to begin this work April 21, 1900, but alas, I could not 
leave until December 24, 1902, when the History was finished 
to the last particular. There has not been a day since then that 
I have not been thankful to Miss Anthony for compelling me 
to do my duty. And so in all parts of the country are women 
who can make a similar assertion. Not only did she labor with- 
out ceasing herself but she constantly stimulated others to work, 
sometimes by word, always by example. Thousands of women 
have said or written to her, "I was tired, discouraged, wanted to 
quit — ^but I thought of you, of what you had borne and how you 
had toiled for us, and I couldn't stop, I will always keep on." For 
all time the memory of Miss Anthony will be an inspiration for 
women to strive, to persevere, to hope, to conquer. 

Before work on the History was commenced in earnest some 
time was spent putting into shape a Memorial to be presented by 
the National Suffrage Association to each of the presidential nom- 
inating conventions during the summer, and different forms of 


letters to be sent from the headquarters in New York to all of the 
delegates of the different parties, 4,000 altogether.^ 

Miss Anthony always opposed women's forming organizations 
to work for parties and during this summer she expressed her 
reasons in a published article as follows : 

There is no point which ought to be so strongly emphasized, no fact which 
so needs to be impressed upon those women who are now organizing to work 
for the different political parties, as that of their utter powcrlessness to help or 
to hinder. Senator James H. Lane, of Kansas, always used to say to those who 
came begging him to assist their pet measures, ''Well, what do you propose to 
do for me in return?" This was a brutally blunt way of putting into words 
what every politician sa3rs in effect when he ignores the prayers and petitions 
of women. It is the philosophical and inevitable consequence of our demo- 
cratic-republican form of government, in which position and power are con- 
ferred by the electors. Those who desire promotion must establish themselves 
in the favor of those who can grant it, and there is nothing to be gained by 
catering to any other class. 

This may be placing government on a low plane. It is altruism with a limit ; 
a desire to help others in the proportion that others help us. It is the Golden 
Rule read backwards — ^have others do unto you in the precise ratio that 
you do unto them. Such is the present status — ^not the fault of the individual, 
but the result of the system. The electorate governs. It gives and it takes 
away. All outside of this body are without power to do either. 

This is the position of women. Their interest in political issues, their 
ability to comprehend them, their desire to influence them, cannot be ques- 
tioned. All of these become more evident with each national campaign. By 
the 6th of next November there will be scarcely a woman in the United States 
so devoid of patriotism as not to wish to cast her vote for one or the other of 
the presidential candidates. It is because women long to assist the party 
which represents their ideas on public questions, that they form their political 
organizations, open their headquarters, fly their banners, wear their badges, 
send out their literature, make speeches and march in processions. The party 
leaders welcome all the gfrist which comes to their mill; they do not reject 
any fuel which makes steam; they accept every element which increases the 
enthusiasm and they honestly desire the sympathy and co-operation of women. 

In politics, however, neither the labors nor the opinions of women have any 
appreciable influence unless enforced by the ballot. There are object lessons 
without number to prove this assertion. The old Abolitionists were per- 
fectly willing to have women share their obloquy and ostracism, but when 
they became a strong political party they refused to divide their power with 
women. The Prohibition party was feeble and ineffectual until reinforced by 

^ For full text of Memorial and letters see History of Woman Suffrage, Volume IV, 
Chapter XXIII. This chapter contains a complete r^ume of the work done for woman 
suffrage in political conventions and the treatment of this question by those of the van- 
ous parties. 


the eloquence, enthusiasm and organized efforts of the Women's Christian 
Temperance Union; but immediately after casting its largest vote, in the 
hope of increasing its strength, the woman suffrage plank was dropped from 
the platform. The Populist party, largely made up in the beginning of Farm- 
ers* Alliances and Granges, which always have advocated equality of rights 
for women, stood at first on this principle, but the moment a fusion with the 
Democrats gave promise of victory the women were thrown overboard. 

For a number of years women have had a National Republican Association, 
with auxiliaries in many States, working with might and main for the suc- 
cess of that party. Yet, notwithstanding all this, they never have been able 
to secure the slightest recognition of their political rights in the national 
platform of this party, and the first act of the present executive committee, 
has been to abolish the Woman's Bureau for the campaign of igco. 

In consideration of these indisputable facts would it not show more wisdom, 
common sense and self-respect in women to organize and work to make them- 
selves a part of the electorate before they labor in behalf of any political 
party? In allying themselves with the gold-basis element, for instance, they 
antagonize every man who believes in free coinage. In joining the forces of 
"i6 to i" they array in opposition all the men who advocate a gold standard. 
In taking sides for or against expansion of territory they arouse the animosity 
of all who hold the opposite view. In espousing the cause of Prohibition they 
repel not only the liquor dealers and the intemperate but also the believers in 
license and moderate drinking. No one party or one class of men will ever en- 
franchise women ; but it will have to be done by a combination of the friends 
in all parties and all classes. 

An entry in the diary April 29 said : "Took Mrs. May Wright 
Sewall to the Lehigh Valley Station this morning and decided 
to ride to the Junction with her. Returned in time for church. 
Mr. Gannett preached on "Material reasons for rejoicing in be- 
ing a Unitarian" — said he was thankful for having been bom 
one. So am I thankful for having been born a Friend — a Quaker. 
To be born into a free religious world is a blessing indeed.*' 

On Tuesday Miss Anthony spoke for the Jewish Club at their 
Home for Young Boys, and then to the Cooking Class for Girls 
of the Public Schools, and expressed the greatest enjoyment in 
both. She never lost her interest in young people but always 
entered into the spirit of their work and ambitions and showed a 
keen understanding of and a sympathy with youthful trials and 
disappointments, which are not always remembered by those who 
have left them far behind. She had the maternal instinct to a 
much higher degree than many a woman who has literally known 
motherhood. Indeed it may be said that in her feelings Miss 


Anthony stood in the relation of a mother to all young people — 
especially to all girls — ^with whom she was for any length of 
time associated, and they very soon learned to reciprocate her 
affection and regard her with love and reverence. 

Miss Anthony went to Syracuse on May i6 to assist at the 
funeral services of Mr. C. D. B. Mills, who had been her faith- 
ful and valued friend since the days before the Civil War when 
they faced the angry mobs while pleading the cause of the slave. 

The 2Sth of May saw Miss Anthony on the way to Boston in 
response to an urgent invitation to attend the New England an- 
nual suffrage convention in Park Street Church and the evening 
Festival in Faneuil Hall. Her lieutenants, the Rev. Anna Howard 
Shaw and Mrs. Chapman Catt, and her much admired friend, 
Mrs. Anna Garlin Spencer, were added to the Boston speakers, 
and, as she expressed it, "It was a regular old-time, wide-awake 
suffrage meeting." On this occasion a young woman in her ad- 
dress declared with pride that now so many young and educated 
college women were coming into the movement for suffrage, its 
success was assured, because their methods were so different from 
the crude and less cultured efforts of the first champions. This 
assertion roused Miss Anthony's loyal spirit and in her own 
speech she recalled the names of the splendid galaxy who first 
spoke and worked for the freedom of women. As she repeated 
one name after another — Florence Nightingale, Harriet Mar- 
tineau, Margaret Fuller, Lydia Maria Child, Abby Kelly, the 
Grimke sisters, Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucy 
Stone, Ernestine L. Rose, Madame Anneke, Maria Mitchell, 
Julia Ward Howe, Mary A. Livermore, Antoinette Brown Black- 
well, Matilda Josl)m Gage and a score of other noted orators, 
scholars and philanthropists — ^such a galaxy as had never been 
seen in any other reform throughout the ages — ^peal after peal 
of applause echoed throughout the old hall, which in all its his- 
tory had never witnessed a more soul-stirring scene. 

Miss Anthony was entertained by Henry B. and Alice Stone 
Blackwell in the home of Lucy Stone in Dorchester. She at- 
tended the banquet given by the New England Woman's Club at 
Hotel Vendome in honor of Julia Ward Howe; a dinner at the 


home of William Lloyd and Ellen Wright Garrison, in Brook- 
line, where William and Helen Bright Clark, of England, were 
guests ; all of them had afternoon tea on Sunday at West Med- 
ford with Mrs. Anna Davis Hallowell, grand-daughter of Lu- 
cretia Mott, and every hour of her visit was filled with pleasure. 
After it was over she gladly fulfilled the long-cherished wish of 
Miss Shaw that she should visit her summer home, the Haven, 
at Wianno, In this delightful cottage she spent a happy week, 
sitting on the veranda and listening to the murmur of the pine 
trees; walking on the shore of the ocean with Miss Shaw and 
her own beloved niece, Lucy Anthony, or driving with them 
along the picturesque roads of Cape Cod. They begged her to 
prolong the visit but she declined, saying, "The thought of that 
History hangs over me like a pall and I shall have no rest or peace 
of mind till it is finished." 

Miss Anthony had been home but a few days when at three 
o'clock on the morning of June 7 she received a telegram stating 
that her brother Merritt had died suddenly the evening before. It 
was a great shock for he was but sixty-six years old and appar- 
ently in perfect health. The weather was exceedingly hot, and, 
fearing the effect of a long journey, her brother D. R. telegraphed 
her several times not to come, as everything would be properly 
attended to. Nothing could detain her, however, and she started 
on the two days' trip to Kansas by the first train. It was too late 
for her to reach her brother's home in Ft. Scott before the fam- 
ily left for Leavenworth where the interment was to be made, so 
she went direct to the latter place. The funeral party arrived at 
beautiful Mt. Muncie cemetery at sunset on Sunday evening, and 
as the last simple rites were ended the moon shone upon the 
newly-made grave, a peaceful and solemn scene. 

Capt. Jacob Merritt Anthony, youngest of the six children, was 
bom in Battenville, N. Y., and went to Osawatomie in 1856, 
when he was just twenty-two years old. He was with John 
Brown through the "border ruffian" days and was one of the first 
to enlist for the Civil War, where he served bravely from 1861 
to its close in 1865. He was a member of Wm. H. Lytle Post, 
G. A. R. In the funeral sermon his old pastor, the Rev. C. W. 


Porter, of Ft. Scott, eloquently described his love of liberty and 
devotion to country, and said: "For twenty-five years I have 
known him as the friend of reform, the faithful law-abiding 
citizen, ready to labor and to give of his means for any cause that 
promised help to his fellow man." 

It seemed impossible for Miss Anthony to meet this sorrow 
with her usual fortitude and philosophy. There had been no 
illness to prepare her for the shock, she had fully expected her 
brother to survive her, and her devotion to her family was so in- 
tense she could hardly endure the severing of the bonds which 
united the only remaining four of them. She wept for days 
almost without ceasing. The journal said, "I have shed more 
tears than in years and years before. I thought I was done with 
them.'* She went to Ft. Scott — "For the first time no brother 
Merritt to meet me !" — and then to the house — ^*'Merritt's home 
and his visible presence gone out from it forever !" Then back 
again to Leavenworth she journeyed to look upon his grave once 
more. "I have had a restful drive," she wrote; "I have eaten 
breakfast and dinner and supper as of old, but my thought is ever 
upon mother's darling boy never more to be seen by us. I have 
been out to see the mound that covers his dear form — all so peace- 
ful after his long unrest — ^but oh, the longing to look upon his 
face again, to hear his voice once more — ^and yet there we must 
leave him — it is all over !" 

Many entries in the little diary ended with the agonized ques- 
tions — asked since the beginning of human life — "Has he joined 
dear father and mother, and do they all wait the coming of those 
left behind?" "Whither has his immortal part gone? Is it far 
away, or still here with our immortal part and we not capable of 
knowing its presence?" There cannot be the slightest doubt of 
Miss Anthony's passionate desire for an immortal life, of the in- 
tensity with which she clung to the hope that it might be realized. 
In her journal at the time of this deep grief she pinned the fol- 
lowing quotation from the great Unitarian scholar, James Mar- 
tineau, which she said expressed perfectly her own thought : 

I do not know that there is anything in nature, (unless indeed it be the 
reputed blotting out of suns in the stellar heavens), which can be compared 


in wastefulness with the extinction of great minds. Their gathered resources, 
their matured skill, their luminous insight, their unfailing tact, are not like 
instincts that can be handed down; they are absolutely personal and in- 
alienable, grand conditions of future power unavailable for the race but per- 
fect for an ulterior growth of the individual. If that growth is not to be, 
the most brilliant genius bursts and vanishes as a firework in the night. A 
mind of balanced and finished faculties is a production at once of infinite 
delicacy and of most enduring constitution; lodged in a fast-perishing or- 
ganism, it is like a perfect set of astronomical instruments misplaced in an 
observatory shaken by earthquakes or caving in with decay. The lenses are 
true, the mirrors without a speck, the movements smooth, the micrometers 
«xact ; what shall the Master do but save the precious system refined with so 
much care, and build for it a new house that shall be founded upon a rock. 

Miss Anthony had been home but three days when she went to 
Auburn, N. Y., to fulfil a promise made to Mrs. Eliza Wright 
Osborne and Miss Emily Rowland to speak at a farmers' picnic 
held on the shore of Lake Owasco near by. A heavy storm came 
up and because of her exhausted condition she took a severe cold 
and for nearly a week she remained in Mrs. Osborne's hospitable 
home skilfully cared for by physicians and nurses. 

Work on the History was suspended for the hot months but 
Miss Anthony kept her secretaries busy making the scrap books 
which would be needed when it was resumed. Only those who 
have resurrected from the depths of their storage the dusty and 
yellowed clippings of bygone years and tried to systemize and 
put them into usable shape can know what a nerve-wrecking 
process it is. Miss Anthony would rather have travelled around 
the globe and delivered two speeches a day, so it is not surprising 
that she made and kept a vow never to preserve another clipping 
after the History was finished. In addition to all that she ar- 
ranged for the nearly twenty years which the History was to 
cover, she prepared two large books entirely of extracts about 
Mrs. Stanton, which were completed afterwards with her hun- 
dreds of obituary notices. During the summer Mary Anthony 
said several times to friends : "Susan has always worked harder 
than anybody I ever knew, but she is breaking her own record." 

The visitor in the Anthony home who brought more bright- 
ness, cheer and happiness than any other was Anna Howard 
Shaw. If the others had been inclined to jealousy they would 


have said that a little warmer welcome always greeted her ar- 
rival, a little more regret attended her departure. After Mrs. 
Stanton retired from active work and Miss Anthony's association 
with her naturally grew less, she learned to turn to Miss Shaw for 
assistance which was never refused and never stinted. No 
woman ever gave to another woman more loyal, unselfish and 
complete devotion than Miss Shaw rendered to Miss Anthony 
from the time they first learned to know each other in 1888, and 
she received in return the deepest love and appreciation of that 
strong nature. As Miss Anthony gradually withdrew from con- 
tinuous public duties and the constant journeying to and fro, she 
enjoyed more and more keenly the visits of the younger woman 
who came fresh from the conflict and brimful of ideas, news and 
anecdotes. All work was suspended that not one moment of these 
brief stays should be lost, and, remembering the hardships of her 
own lecture days. Miss Anthony used to make every possible pro- 
vision for the comfort of the weary itinerant. The favorite dishes 
were cooked, the bath was made ready, the bed was prepared with 
her own hands; a laundress was furnished and a stenographer 
was assigned to relieve the burden of correspondence. On her 
part Miss Shaw considered no sacrifice too large to have these 
little visits. She would rise before day-break to take a train that 
would give her even a few hours at Rochester, or she would 
travel two entire nights to spend Sunday in this haven of rest. 
Each month when making out her schedule she would try to plan 
for a stop-over here, and Miss Anthony would mark that date in 
her calendar as a red-letter day. 

Miss Anthony was very fond of all the Business Committee of 
the National American Association — her "Cabinet,*' as she liked 
to call them — and she had long been desirous of entertaining them 
in her own home. This summer she felt that their visit must not 
be further postponed, although the careful Sister Mary sug- 
gested that she might not be equal to the strain. She scouted the 
insinuation, and on August 29 she had the great joy of welcoming 
under her own roof the entire National Board — Mrs. Chapman 
Catt, Miss Shaw, Mrs. Rachel Foster Avery, Miss Blackwell, 
Mrs. Harriet Taylor Upton, Miss Laura Clay, Mrs. Catharine 


Waugh McCuUoch, and the two private secretaries, Lucy E. An- 
thony and Elizabeth J. Hansen Those were three happy days 
for Miss Anthony. The business meetings were in session from 
early morning until late at night, but when, in the midst of their 
weighty discussions, the members discovered they were himgry, 
thanks to ever watchful Sister Mary, they always found the table 
spread and every want provided for. None of that little company 
ever will forget the hospitality of this simple, refined Quaker 
home. They left for Miss Mary, as a memento of their visit, 
seven silver spoons engraved with her initials and theirs. 

Mrs. Lydia Coonley Ward, who had come from her summer 
residence in Wyoming, N. Y., to dine with them one day, insisted 
that they should adjourn their sessions to her house. She sent 
them railroad transportation and they finished the week in her 
spacious and comfortable home. A public meeting in the village 
was arranged by her for the last evening, which was addressed 
by several members of the committee. The Wyoming Reporter 
said : "And last came Miss Anthony — our dear Miss Anthony — 
the noblest Roman of them all. As she entered into the question 
that she had made the persistent work of her life, while it de- 
veloped her courage and sweetness, she was the very personi- 
jfication of her subject. She stood before the audience like a 
(vision of the spirit of prophecy, so imbued with her unselfish 
longing that the angel of the covenant who has held up her hands 
and kept her from fainting revealed her as the inspired repre- 
sentative of her great idea. Dear Miss Anthony! Well may we 
love and reverence her, for she has given to us all that was hers 
and crowned the giving with herself.*' 

r^ ; For many years Miss Anthony had greatly desired that girls 
fl ^ ' should be admitted to the University of Rochester and had often 
tried to arouse public interest in the subject. In 1891, while Mrs. 
Stanton was visiting her, a meeting was held in her home to dis- 
cuss the question, with the president of the Board of Trustees, 
Dr. Edward Mott Moore, and a number of the faculty present. 



but it was declared impracticable with the funds on hand.* Many- 
times afterwards the matter was agitated by herself, by Mary 
Anthony, by the Political Equality Club and other organizations. 
Finally in the summer of 1898, the Board of Trustees, feeling the 
injustice of requiring the girls pf the city who desired a college 
education to leave home for the purpose, announced that if the 
sum of $100,000 was secured within a year women would be ad- 
mitted to the university on the same terms as men. Miss Anthony 
was greatly rejoiced at even this concession, but with her long 
experience in asking for money she knew the task would not be 
an easy one. A committee for raising the necessary fund eventu- 
ally was appointed at a meeting of the Women's Educational and 
Industrial Union, the Ethical Club and other organizations of 
women, with Mrs. Helen Barrett Montgomery as chairman and 
Miss Anthony, of course, a member.* She often expressed her 
relief that she was not required to have the full management of 
this great undertaking, but none the less she threw herself into 
the work with might and main, attended the committee meetings 
for several years and personally solicited subscriptions from her 
friends in the city and elsewhere. She felt that while in every 
instance she probably would divert money from the suffrage 
cause, the cause of co-education justified it. 

As the period for raising the money drew near the end it be- 
came apparent that the amount could not be obtained, but the 
women had striven so earnestly and the general sentiment was 
so evidently in favor of opening the university to girls, that the 
trustees at their annual meeting in 1899, reduced the required 
fund to $50,000 and extended the time another year. The women 
redoubled their efforts but large contributions which they had 
expected did not materialize and it was found that a vast propor- 
tion of the Alumni were strongly opposed to the scheme of co- 
education. Miss Anthony was so overwhelmed with the demands 
upon her in 1900 that she had not kept close watch on the progress 
of the fund, feeling sure that it was in capable hands. She re- 

1 Volume II, page 7x3. 

'Other members: Mrs. George C. Hollister, Mrs. Lewis Bigelow, Mrs. William East- 
wood, Mrs. William C. Gannett, Miss Olive Davis. 


turned from Wyoming Tuesday, September 4, so much fatigued 
by the strain of the week and the excessive heat that she was 
forced to recognize the necessity of sparing herself exertion for 
awhile. On Friday evening she was called to the telephone by 
Mrs. Fannie R. Bigelow, secretary of the Fund Committee, and 
informed that the time for raising the money would expire the 
next day; that she was the only other member of the committee 
in the city; that they lacked $8,000; that every expedient for se- 
curing this balance had been exhausted and that there was reason 
to believe the time would not be further extended. Miss Anthony 
was almost distracted. It was too late for any action that day 
but she arranged for Mrs. Bigelow to call early the next morning 
and then went to bed to pass a sleepless night, turning over and 
over in her mind every, possibility for getting that $8,000 and 
never admitting for an instant that it would not be obtained. 

The next morning Sister Mary was the first victim of the care- 
fully planned onslaught. She intended to bequeath $2,000 to the 
university if it should become co-educational. "Give it now," 
insisted Miss Anthony. "Don't wait or the girls may never be 
admitted;" — and thus the first two of the eight thousand were 
secured. Taking a carriage with Mrs. Bigelow she then went to 
the home of Mrs. Sarah L. Willis, to whom for nearly fifty years 
she had never appealed in vain when financial difficulties threat- 
ened, and here she received the second two thousand. The strug- 
gle then began in earnest. To stores, to offices, to factories they 
drove, Miss Anthony making her plea with all the eloquence and 
pathos she could command. It was said afterwards that Joan of 
Arc must have had just such an expression on her face when she 
led the hosts to battle. But it was all in vain ; some had already 
subscribed, others were opposed to opening the university to girls, 
and at noon not another dollar had been promised. Miss An- 
thony went home for dinner and the day was so oppressively hot 
her sister begged her to rest for a while but she would not listen. 
By half-past one she was in the carriage again. After an inter- 
view with one of the city's richest women, who cited her many 
expenses as an excuse for not contributing, Miss Anthony 
Ant. III-8 


dropped down on the cushions as they drove away and exclaimed, 
"Thank heaven I am not so poor as she is !" 

Finally when all resources seemed exhausted Miss Anthony, 
turned to the Rev. W. C Gannett, who with his wife had done a 
large amount of work toward securing this fund, and he quickly 
agreed to make himself and Mrs. Gannett responsible for $2,000. 
The afternoon was passing away; the Board of Trustees was in 
session and likely at any moment to adjourn, and in desperation 
Miss Anthony went to see Mr. Samuel Wilder, who always had 
responded to her calls but had already made his subscription. 
She explained the emergency, said if there were only more time 
she herself could raise the rest of the money and asked if she 
might guarantee in his name the last $2,000. He willingly con- 
sented. Almost overcome by physical weariness and mental joy 
she hastened with Mrs. Bigelow to the Granite Building where 
they met Mrs. Montgomery by appointment and were soon in the 
presence of the trustees. It was quite evident that their appear- 
ance was a surprise. "Gentlemen, Miss Anthony has a report to 
make," said Mrs. Montgomery ; and then, her voice shaking with 
excitement. Miss Anthony laid before them the pledges for the 
remaining $8,000. After consulting together for awhile they 
informed her that those for $6,000 were accepted but the guar- 
antee for the last $2,000 was not sufficient, as the guarantor was 
in precarious health and his estate could not be held for the 
money. For a moment Miss Anthony was stunned, then rising 
and walking over to the table she said : "Well, gentlemen, I may 
as well confess — I am the guarantor, but I asked Mr. Wilder to 
lend me his name so that this question of co-education might not 
be hurt by any connection with woman suffrage. I now pledge 
my life insurance for the $2,000." 

A brief and almost illegible entry was made in the diary the 
next evening : "Went to church today but had a sleepy time — 
such a sleepy time. It seemed as if something was the matter 
with my tongue — ^I had a feeling of strangeness— could not think 






what I wanted to say. — A queer sensation all the afternoon. — 
Mary asked me several times if anything was the matter. — I shall 
be better or worse tomorrow !" 

The next morning she would not talk and was evidently using 
all her will-power to enable her to meet an engagement with the 
secretary of the Board of Trustees in the afternoon to learn 
whether all the pledges had stood legal examination. There was 
a wavering line in her diary evidently written as soon as she re- 
turned home : "They let the girls in. He said there was no al- 

The press of the city had spread the joyful tidings and Monday 
evening the Anthony home was filled with people who came to 
express their great delight and their appreciation of Miss An- 
thony's heroic achievement. Among them were the score of girls 
Who were ready to enter the university at once. She sat in her 
usual arm-chair and tried to smile as they crowded about her, but 
she made no effort to speak and her face was very white. Sud- 
denly she slipped away ; the devoted sister, who had been watch- 
ing her with deepest anxiety, hastened to her room and found her 
lying unconscious on the bed. There was a lesion of a small 
blood-vessel in the brain, a touch of apoplexy light as the pressure 
of a baby's finger — but the axe had been laid at the root of the 

It has been said that the opening of Rochester University to 
women is not due to Miss Anthony ; that the trustees would have 
extended the time another year, during which the money would 
surely have been obtained. There certainly is no desire to min- 
imize the long and efficient work of the other members of the 
committee, who by two years of labor raised over $40,000 of the 
required fund. Since, however, the effort for its completion re- 
sulted in lessening to a great extent Miss Anthony's power to 
give to the cause she loved best that service to which she had 
dedicated the closing years of her life, there is much reason for 
wanting to know whether the sacrifice was necessary. 

The next day after Miss Anthony appeared before the Board 
of Trustees, September 11, 1900, the Rochester Democrat and 


Chronicle contained an article with double-column headlines 
which said: "Opens Its Doors to Young Women. Rochester 
University Henceforth a Coeducational Institution. Last $8,000 
Needed for the $50,000 Endowment Fund Raised by Susan B. 
Anthony Yesterday. What Seemed a Hopeless Task Accom- 
plished by Her Energy and Courage." After the introductory 
paragraph the article continued : 

For several days the question whether women would be admitted to the 
university has been in the balance. Those who hoped for the consummation 
of the project had about lost heart All summer long the fund necessary had 
remained in statu quo. There were only a few hours left in which the hopes 
of the young women could be realized. Women connected with the Co- 
educational Fund Committee had walked the streets during the long, hot 
months and made appeals for contributions. They were woefully unsuccess- 
ful. ... So the summer wore away. 

Yesterday it became a matter of hours when the crisis must be met Then 
something happened — Susan B. Anthony threw herself into the breach. 
Single handed she met the situation and raised $8,000 in money and pledges, 
the sum necessary to complete the $50,000. It was a remarkable achievement. 
. . . The plan for co-education was dismally near a failure, and, had it not 
been for the indomitable will and courage of Miss Anthony, it is probable 
that another year would have elapsed before women entered the university, 
if, indeed the whole project did not fall through. . . . 

Mrs. Montgomery was delighted with the turn aflPairs took yesterday after- 
noon. **1 think," she said, "this is a wonderful tribute to the personal power 
of Miss Anthony. What she has done is marvelous. A large number of us 
women have been trying to do this thing all summer and failed. Then Mis» 
Anthony accomplished it" 

The Other newspapers of Rochester spoke in the same vein. 
Soon after the opening of the college year the following letter 
was sent signed by twenty-five names : 

Dear Miss Anthony : The girls who have entered the University of Roch- 
ester are deeply grateful to all who have helped in the work of raising the 
fund and made it possible for them to share in the benefits of the institution. 
But we feel that we owe a special debt of gratitude to you, since it was your 
generous aid at the last that made the effort successful. 

We realize that the best possible way to show our gratitude is to make the 
utmost use of our opportunities, and we hope that in this respect we shall 
not disappoint our friends. 

Wishing you a speedy recovery from your illness, and all happiness and 
success in your work, we are gratefully yours. 

The Women Students of the University of Rochester. 


For the next six years Miss Anthony received similar letters 
from the different classes ; she was elected the first honorary mem- 
ber of the College Women's Club and was invited to all the girls* 
celebrations; mementos of her were placed in their room at the 
university and her picture hung by the side of Mary Lyons' ; they 
called frequently at her home and in every possible way acknowl- 
edged their great indebtedness to her. 

Before beginning this volume, in which this matter would have 
to be recorded as a historical fact, the writer made careful inves- 
tigation to determine whether the time for raising the fund would 
have been extended over a third year. The minutes of the trus- 
tees' meeting were examined and the question was thoroughly 
discussed with Mr. Charles M. Williams, who had been secretary 
of the Board of Trustees for twenty years. The results summed 
up were as follows : A very strong pressure against admitting 
women to the university had been exerted by the Alumni in vari- 
ous parts of the country ; the wealthy citizens of Rochester had 
shown a most discouraging apathy ; this September meeting had 
no authority to extend the time but that would have to be done, 
if at all, at the May meeting in 1901. Even if it were extended 
and the fund eventually raised, the admission of the women would 
be deferred two years. The conviction was clear that if Miss 
Anthony had not put forth the herculean effort at the critical 
moment there was a strong probability that the doors of the uni- 
versity would have remained closed to women for an indefinite 
length of time. 

Miss Anthony was under the constant care of her physician for 
/over a month. During the first week her power of speech was 

practically gone and it was doubtful whether she would recover it. 
J Gradually it returned so that no defect was noticeable but she 
/ never again had full confidence in her ability to speak in public. 

The very first time that she was able to go out in a carriage she 
, asked to be taken through the university campus, and that night 
; an entry in the diary said : "I thought with joy. These are no 

longer forbidden grounds to the girls of our city. It is good to 


feel that the old doors swing on their hinges to admit them. 
Will the vows made to them be kept ? Will they have an equal 
chance? AH promises well but the fulfilment is yet to be seen.' " 

By the middle of October, Miss Anthony had recovered suffi- 
ciently to go to the inaugural of Dr. Rush Rhees as president of 
the university, and the record in the journal for that day said : 
"Not a direct mention of the girls in one of the speeches ; the 
papers say the policy is to treat them as if they had always been 
there. Well, even if they had they would have deserved some 
mention — ^but no matter — ^they are in and there is no getting them 
out !" Not a murmur at the fearful cost she had paid for their 
privilege — only joy that it had been gained for them, only hope 
that it never would be taken away ! 

To the inexpressible delight of everybody Miss Anthony's fine 
mental faculties were entirely unimpaired by her illness, but she 
never fully regained her remarkable physical vigor or her won- 
derful buoyancy of spirit. As the days went by it became evident 
that her usual recuperative power was not equal to the present 
demand upon it. Finally in November, without saying a word to 
anyone, she went to her old friend of more than fifty years. Dr. 
Edward Mott Moore, the eminent specialist, and had a long, con- 
fidential talk. He told her that absolutely nothing could be done 
to restore her to perfect health ; that a second stroke of apoplexy 
might come at any time and it might be delayed for a number of 
years ; that henceforth she must take the best care of herself and 
. especially must avoid getting cold and meeting crowds of people. 

When on December i Miss Anthony packed her trunk and 
started for New York to attend the National Suffrage Bazar in 
Madison Square Garden, those who were nearest to her under- 
stood that her decision was made to "die in the harness;" that 
she did not care to secure a long lease of life by giving up active 
work and all that made existence worth while. She went to the 
bazar every day and evening for a week ; the place was very cold 
and for hours at a time she was surrounded by a throng of people, 
shaking hands daily with hundreds and having a cheerful word 
for all. When it was over she returned home apparently none the 


worse for the experience, and with the calm courage of a Stoic 
took up her daily round of work. 

On Christmas night these heart-breaking words were written 
in the diary : "This day finds me ashamed that I have done so 
little to make people happy. How can I begin to bless them after 
the fashion of others ?" 


MISS Anthony's varied work in conventions. 


O word of complaint ever was uttered by Miss 
Anthony that the cherished hopes and plans for the 
closing years of her life had been practically 
crushed. She bore the bitter disappointment with 
the fortitude which had characterized her entire 
life, utilized all the strength that remained to her, and, whenever 
this failed, waited not patiently but heroically till enough re- 
turned to enable her to take up the work again. For the first 
time in her life she had to remain indoors when the weather was 
inclement and leave her tasks unfinished because of physical weak- 
ness. Any public celebration of her eighty-first birthday on 
February 15 was forbidden, and, thinking that she might feel 
lonely, her friends Mrs. Rachel Foster Avery, of Philadelphia, 
Mrs. Emily Gross, of Chicago, and Mrs. May Wright Sewall, of 
Indianapolis, came to Rochester to spend the day with her. Mrs. 
Mary F. Hallowell, Mrs. Sarah L. Willis and Mrs. Mary T. 
Lewis Gannett joined them at dinner and a number of people 
called in the evening. Letters, telegrams and gifts were received 
from all parts of the country; the university girls gave her a 
growing palm; flowers, fruit and other delicacies were sent by 
friends in the city, and Mrs. Gross presented her with two Gov- 
ernment bonds worth $600 each; so the day was really a very 
happy one. When the great celebration of a year ago was re- 
ferred to she said, "Oh, I think today has been much pleasanter." 

On February 23, Miss Anthony was able to attend the first re- 
ception ever given at Rochester University by women students. 
It was held in the large, handsome room which had been set apart 
for their exclusive use, and invitations had been extended, to 


[iQOi] MISS Anthony's work in conventions. 1231 

various women's organizations. The morning paper said : "Susan 
B. Anthony was the guest of honor, and the young ladies seated 
her among the cushions on the divan where she held impromptu 
court during the hours of receiving." It was indeed a proud 
moment for her when she saw the girls moving freely and hap- 
pily through the halls of this old institution of which they were 
now a part. 

A During the spring a good deal of attention was attracted by 

iMrs. Nation's operations with a hatchet among the saloons of 

/Kansas, and in the course of an interview on the subject Miss 

/ Anthony said : "The hatchet is the weapon of barbarism, the 

/ ballot is the weapon of civilization. In a Government where one- * 

I half the people are denied the ballot, that half have no legitimate 

means by which to enforce their will, and the hatchet or other 

revolutionary weapon is their only resource." 

The second week in May the State Municipal Ownership 
League met in Rochester, and as Mrs. Isabella Beecher Hooker 
was paying Miss Anthony a visit they decided to make an effort 
to have the convention indorse woman suffrage. Miss Anthony 
did not feel equal to an address but she wrote a strong letter and 
went to the meeting with Mrs. Hooker who presented it with an 
eloquent speech showing how women had an equal interest with 
men in municipal ownership and how men needed women's votes 
to help this and all progressive measures. They were curtly in- 
formed by the president that the matter had been discussed in 
business session and it was decided that woman suffrage should 
not be brought before the meeting. "If not before a body met to 
consider a great economic question which directly affects every 
woman in the country, then where should woman suffrage be con- 
sidered?" asked Miss Anthony, and as there was no answer the 
two ladies went home. 

Miss Anthony was one of the speakers at a mass meeting held 
in the Jewish Temple the evening of May 18 to celebrate the as- 
sembling of the Court of Arbitration at The Hague. On the 25th 
she joined the Rev. Anna Howard Shaw at Buffalo and started 
for Minneapolis, where the National American Suffrage Associa- 
tion was to hold its annual meeting. They stopped over Sunday 


in Chicago, met other members of the national board, and on 
Monday a reception was given for them by the Woman's Club. 

The officers reached Minneapolis Tuesday and made their head- 
quarters at the West Hotel. The committee of arrangements, 
Dr. Cora Smith Eaton, chairman, had done its part so well that 
the convention proved to be one of the most successful in the long 
list of these meetings. It ppened May 30, the first in many years 
that had not been presided over by Miss Anthony, but the dele- 
gates felt profoundly thankful even for her presence. She was 
the first to speak, giving them the greetings of Elizabeth Cady 
Stanton and then her own. In the course of her remarks she said : 

If the divine law visits the sins of the parents upon the children, equally 
so does it transmit to them the virtues of the parents. Therefore if it is 
through woman's ignorant subjection to man's appetites and passions that the 
life current of the race is corrupted, then must it be through her intelligent 
emancipation that it shall be purified and her children rise up and call her 
blessed. • . . I am a full and firm believer in the revelation that it is 
through woman the race is to be redeemed. For this reason I ask for her 
immediate and unconditional emancipation from all political, industrial, social 
and religious subjection. It is said, "Men are what their mothers made 
them," but I say that to hold mothers responsible for the character of their 
sons, while denying to them any control over the surroundings of the sons' 
lives, is worse than mockery, it is cruelty. Responsibilities grow out of rights 
and powers. Therefore before mothers can rightfully be held responsible for 
the vices and crimes, for the general demoralization of society, they must 
possess all possible rights and powers to control the conditions and circum- 
stances of their own and their children's lives. 

The subject of the address sent by Mrs. Stanton was The Duty 
of the Church to Women at This Hour. While there were parts 
of its radical statements with which Miss Anthony agreed, she 
by no means indorsed it as a whole. Lo3ralty to Mrs. Stanton 
was so strong, however, and the memory of her great service to 
the cause of woman was so faithful, that, in the face of much op- 
position, she had the address in full presented to the convention. 

Two reports were made by Miss Anthony, as chairman of 
Committees on Congressional Work and on Convention Resolu- 
lutions, which illustrated a part of the immense labor she had 
performed during the past year and which it had been her inten- 
tion to continue every year. After describing the strong efforts 

[iQOi] MISS Anthony's work in conventions. 1233 

to secure recognition from the Presidential nominating conven- 
tions she said : "During the year I have also sent petitions and 
letters to more than one hundred national conventions of different 
sorts — industrial, educational, charitable, philanthropic, religious 
and political^ Below are the forms of petition : 

To the Senate and House of Representatives of the Fifty-sixth Congress of 

the United States: 

The undersigned on behalf of (naming the association) in annual conven- 
tion assembled at , 1900, and representing members, respect- 
fully ask for the prompt passage by your Honorable Body of a Sixteenth 
Amendment to the Federal Constitution, to be submitted to the Legislatures 
of the several States for ratification, prohibiting the disfranchisement of 
United States citizens on accoimt of sex. 

, President. 

, Secretary. 

To the Senate and House of Representatives of the Fifty-sixth Congress of 

the United States: 

Whereas, The trend of civilization is plainly in the direction of equal rights 
for women, and 

Whereas, Woman suffrage is no longer an experiment, but has been clearly 
demonstrated to be beneficial to society; therefore 

Resolved, That we, on behalf of (as above), do respectfully petition your 
Honorable Body not to insert the word ''male" in the suffrage clause of 
whatever form of government you shall recommend to Hawaii, Cuba, Porto 
Rico or any other newly-acquired possessions. We ask this in the name of 
justice and equality for all citizens of a republic founded on the consent of 
the governed.* 

"A number of large associations adopted these petitions and 
returned them to me duly engrossed on their official paper, signed 
by the president and secretary with their seal affixed ; and I for- 
warded all to the Senators and Representatives whom I thought 
most likely to present them to Congress in a way to make an im- 

"The General Federation of Labor at Detroit was the first to 
respond. I was invited to address its annual convention, and, 
after I had spoken, the four hundred delegates passed a resolution 

* Miss Anthony sent a special letter to each of these bodies worded to appeal particu- 
larly to the interests it represented. 

* For the contemptuous answer of Congress to this petition see History of Woman Suf- 
frage, Volume IV, page 346. 


of thanks to me, adopted the above petition for the Sixteenth 
Amendment by a rising vote, and ordered their officers to sign it 
in the name of their one million constituents. 

"The National Building Trades Council at Milwaukee had an 
able discussion in its annual meeting, based on my letter, and 
adopted both petitions. This body has half-a-million members. 

"The Bricklayers' and Masons' International Union of Amer- 
ica was held in Rochester, and invited me to address the delegates. 
They received me with enthusiasm, passed strong woman suffrage 
resolutions and signed both petitions. Afterwards a stenographic 
report pf my speech, covering two full pages of their official 
organ. The Bricklayer and Mason, was published with an excel- 
lent portrait of myself, thus sending my argument and me to 
each one of their more than sixty thousand members, all of whom 
subscribe to this paper as part of their dues to the union. 

"The National Grange, which has endorsed woman suffrage 
for many years, adopted the resolutions and petitions. 

"At the Federation of Commercial Schools of the United 
States and Canada, which met in Chicago, my letter was read, the 
question was thoroughly discussed and the suffrage petitions were 
adopted almost unanimously. 

"The Columbia Catholic Summer School, held at Detroit, gave 
a hearing to our national president, Mrs. Chapman Catt, at which 
she is said to have made many converts. A strong suffrage speech 
was made by the Rev. Father W. J. Dalton, and other prominent 
members expressed themselves in favor. 

"The contents of my letters to religious and educational bodies 
can readily be imagined, and one which was sent to the United 
States Brewers' Association in convention at Atlantic City, N. J., 
may be cited as an example pf the subject-matter of those to other 
organizations : 

Gentiemen: As chairman of the committee appointed by our National 
Suffrage Association to address letters to the large conventions held this 
year, allow me to bring before you the great need of the recognition of women 
in all of the rights, privileges and immunities of United States Citizenship. 

Though your association has for its principal object the management of the 
great brewing interests of this country, yet I have noted that you have adopted 
resolutions declaring against woman suffrage. I therefore appeal to you» 


[1901] MISS Anthony's work in conventions. 1235 

since the question seems to come within the scope of your deliberations, to 
reverse your action this closing year of the century and declare yourself in 
favor of the practical application of the fundamental principles of our Gov- 
ernment to all the people— women as well as men. Whatever your national- 
ity, whatever your religious creed, whatever your political party, you are 
either bom or naturalized citizens of the United States, and because of that 
are voters of the State in which you reside. Will you not, gentlemen, accord 
to the women of this nation, having the same citizenship as yourselves, pre- 
cisely the same privileges and powers which you possess because of that one 
fact of citizenship? 

The only true principle — ^the only safe policy— of a democratic-republican 
government is that every class of people shall be protected in the exercise of 
the right of individual representation. I pray you, therefore, to pass a resolu- 
tion in favor of woman suffrage and order your officers, on behalf of the as- 
sociation, to sign a petition to Congress for this purpose, and thereby put 
the weight of your influence on the side of making this Government a genuine 

Should yon desire to have one of our best woman suffrage speakers address 
your convention, if you will let me know as soon as possible, I will take 
pleasure in arranging for one to do so. 

"This was read to the convention, and the secretary, Gallus 
Thomann, thus reported its action to me : 

Mr. Obermann (ex-president of the association and one of the trustees) 
voicing the sentiments of the delegates, spoke as follows: "Miss Susan B. 
Anthony is entitled to the respect of every man and woman in this country, 
whether agreeing with her theories or not I think it but fair and courteous 
to her that the secretary be instructed to answer that letter, and to inform 
Miss Anthony that this is a body of business men; that we meet for busi- 
ness purposes and not for politics. Furthermore, that she is mistaken and 
misinformed so far as her statement is concerned that we have passed resolu- 
tions opposing woman suffrage. We have never taken such action at any of 
our conventions or on any other occasion. I submit this as a motion." 

The motion was unanimously adopted, and that part of Mr. Obermann's re- 
marks which related to the respect due Miss Anthony was loudly and en- 
thusiastically applauded. To the sentiment thus expressed, permit me, dear 
Miss Anthony, to add personally the assurance of my highest esteem.^ 

"Among the results of the work with State conventions it may 
be mentioned that the Georgia Federation of Labor, the Minne- 

^ Possibly Mr. Obermann may have believed his statement to be correct, but the national 
association, (notably at Milwaukee), and various State associations had passed resolu- 
tions against woman suffrage. Action taken in California will be found on page 886 of 
this Biography. In the Oregon campaign of 1906 the State Brewers* Association sent out 
official circulars urging all dealers to work and vote against the woman suffrage amend- 
ment Numerous other instances might be given. 


sota Federation of Labor, the State Teachers' Association of 
Washington and the New York State Grange signed the peti- 
tions and passed the resolutions. 

"As another branch of the work, copies of these two petitions 
were sent to each of the forty-five States and three Territories, 
with letters asking the suffrage presidents, where associations 
existed, (and prominent individuals in the few States where they 
did not), to make two copies of each petition on their own official 
paper, sign them on behalf of the suffragists of the State, and 
return them to me to be sent to the members of Congress from 
their respective districts. This was done almost without excep- 
tion and these petitions were presented by various members, one 
copy in the Senate and one in the House. Of all the State peti- 
tions, the most interesting was that of Wyoming, which, in de- 
fault of a suffrage association, (none being needed), was signed 
by every State officer from the Governor down, by several United 
States officials, and by many of the most influential men and 
women. With it came a letter from the wife of ex-U. S. Senator 
Joseph M. Carey, who collected these names, saying the number 
was limited only by the brief space of time allowed. 

"In all, more than two hundred petitions for woman suffrage 
from various associations were thus sent to Congress in 1900, 
representing millions of individuals. Many cordial responses 
were received from members, and promises of assistance should 
the question come before Congress, but there is no record of the 
slightest attempt by any member to bring it before that body. 

"In doing this work I wrote fully a thousand letters to associa- 
tions and individuals, in all of which I placed some of our best 
printed literature. There was a thorough stirring up of public 
sentiment which must have definite results in time, for it should 
not be forgotten that in addressing conventions we appeal to the 
chosen leaders of thought and work from many cities and States, 
and so set in motion an ever- widening circle of agitation in count- 
less localities." 

Miss Anthony not only gave practically all of her time and 
effort to the work of the National Association, but every year she 

i««c:7 «>. ^Kt. 


[igoi] MISS Anthony's work in conventions. 1237 

contributed at least $100 in cash, taken usually from money which 
friends had given her for personal use, and she never received a 
dollar of salary during her thirty-seven years' official connection 
with this body. It always distressed her, however, to see others 
working without compensation and it had long been her wish that 
the association might afford to pay at least small salaries to the 
other national officers who worked so hard and continuously year 
after year. The one who had served longest, Mrs. Rachel Foster 
Avery, was now to sever her connection with the board. For 
twenty-one years she had rendered most devoted and efficient 
service as corresponding secretary and had besides contributed 
large sums of money. Throughout this period, Miss Anthony 
often said of her, "She is not only one of the most lovable but 
also one of the most capable and level-headed young women we 
have in our ranks today, and all her words and actions are based 
on justice, right and truth." She respected Mrs. Avery's wish 
to retire from the office in order to devote her time for awhile to 
her young daughters, and she desired that the association should 
give her some substantial mark of appreciation. During the 
weeks preceding the convention she had quietly circulated some 
letters to this effect and at one of its morning sessions, after a 
resolution of thanks to Mrs. Avery had been adopted, she came 
forward and said : "I have in my hand a thousand dollars for 
Rachel Foster Avery. It has been contributed without her knowl- 
edge by about four hundred different persons — most of you are in 
the list. I asked for this testimonial because I felt that you would 
all rejoice to show your appreciation of her long and faithful 
service and her great liberality to our cause. I should never have 
been able so easi!y to carry on the work as president for these 
many years if it had not been for her able co-operation." The gift 
was accepted by Mrs. Avery in a few graceful words and amid 
much applause. Miss Kate M. Gordon was elected secretary. 

The Executive Committee passed a strong resolution against 
the adoption of the European system of State-regulated vice in 
the new possessions of the United States — Hawaii and the Phil- 
ippines — ^as was now threatened. Miss Anthony and Miss Shaw 
were appointed to carry this protest to the convention of the 


American Medical Association then in session in Minneapolis, 
which was reported to favor State regulation, and they did so, 
accompanied by a number of the delegates. When Miss Anthony 
was presented the entire convention rose and received her with 
much cordiality. She said in part: "It is with great fear and 
trepidation that I come before you this morning to speak on a 
question that is very near to the hearts of all true women. I pre- 
sume some of you are in favor, and I hope many of you are op- 
posed, to the system of regulating vice that evidently has been 
adopted in Manila. You may say that so long as the soldiers 
cannot be prevented from vice it should be made safe for them. 
I say in reply that the mothers of this country would rather their 
sons did not come home at all from service than to have them 
come in dishonor ; better death than ruin. • . . To treat thus 
even degraded women lowers respect for all women. ... I 
will not say more — it is not my habit to speak on an3rthing except 
my right to say yea or nay on all public questions." 

Miss Shaw followed with a dignified argument showing the 
effect of licensing this evil in other countries, and asking, "Is this 
the way to carry Christianity and civilization into our new posses- 
sions, to implant in them a discredited system from the Old 
World?" Sergeant-Major Louis Livingston Seaman, of New 
York, broke in with an irrelevant declaration that since the Post 
Canteen had been abolished contagious diseases had doubled, 
called the women "misguided enthusiasts," and threw the con- 
vention into an uproar. Miss Anthony was much agitated and 
begged to be allowed to reply to him, but the president stopped 
all discussion by calling for the order of business, and no action 
whatever was taken on the question. There was no doubt that a 
part of these physicians were in favor of licensing the social evil, 
and the delegates returned to their own convention more than ever 
impressed with the uselessness of hoping to effect any great moral 
reforms until women possessed political power. 

The Journal said of the final session : "The meeting last even- 
ing at the First Baptist Church was a fitting close for an inspiring 
and valuable convention. The church was packed, many standing 
the whole evening. While the entire program was much appre- 

[1901] MISS Anthony's work in conventions. 1239 

ciated, there was a special interest in the speeches of the venerable 
leader. Miss Anthony, who recently laid aside the responsibility 
of the work, and the brilliant young woman who shouldered it, 
Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt. When Miss Anthony came forward 
to say farewell the audience rose and stood to express its admira- 
tion and respect." 

A week was spent by Miss Anthony in the pleasant home of her 
cousin, Mrs. Hannah D. Boyle, on Lake Geneva, and here she en- 
joyed greatly the trips on the lake and the long drives over the 
beautiful, rolling country. Finally she started eastward with her 
sister Mary, and June 30, after five weeks' absence, they arrived 
at their own dear home, which they always- declared was the most 
comfortable spot they ever found in hot weather. 

Miss Anthony remained quietly at home the rest of the sum- 
mer, occasionally visiting or entertaining her oldest and dearest 
friends in Rochester and keeping in touch with the outside world 
through her voluminous correspondence. The Universalist Con- 
vention met in the city and the Democrat and Chronicle of July 12 

Susan B. Anthony's name was not on the program, but, true to a promise 
made the night before, that the convention should hear the great advocate of 
equal rights, she occupied a seat on the rostrum. She made one of her strong 
pleas for suffrage which was witty and trenchant, very much like the Miss 
Anthony of old, and, though her voice lacked somewhat of its usual strength, 
her arguments were as logical as ever. She was greeted by the Chautauqua 
salute, the large audience rising as she approached the speaker's desk. "I 
have been thinking as I sat here," she said, "of three other great conventions 
which are being held tonight — the Christian Endeavor Society at Cincinnati, 
the Epworth League at Los Angeles, and the National Teachers' at Detroit 
Who are the people composing these associations? They are — ^the vast pro- 
portion of them— disfranchised citizens and as such they have small influence 
over public conditions. If all these women held in their hands the ballot, 
what an immense force for good they would be and what tremendous reforms 
they could accomplish! But the demands of women are not heard because 
there is no political influence behind them. 

"I want you women to realize what a power you might be if you were en- 
franchised. Women constitute three-fourths of the church membership and 
for that reason ministers have small influence in politics. The Catholic priest- 
hood commands considerable respect from politicians because of the large 
number of men in its congregations, but the Protestant ministers are not re- 
spected by them any more than are the women who compose their congrega- 
Ant. Ill— 9 


tions. The same is true of the schools — ^three-fourths of the teachers women 
— and thus churches, schools and homes all are practically disfranchised." 

Miss Anthony then earnestly criticized the fact that no women speakers 
were on the evening programs of this convention and none invited to the 
platform, saying, "I resent this from the bottom of my heart, and I demand 
of you to practice what you preach — universalism !" In closing she called 
for a vote of those for and against woman suffrage and the former were 
largely in the majority, there being a few weak **noes" from the men. At 
this she said, "They tell us women can have the suffrage whenever they ask 
for it, but I notice that the voices which proclaimed against it all were men's." 

During the summer the McClure Ssmdicate brought out a series 
of five articles signed by Miss Anthony entitled, The Ideal Hus- 
band, What I would Have Done with a Bad Husband, How to 
Train a Husband, Marriages that Fail, Man's Wrongs. The 
topics were assigned and at first she declared that she would not 
waste a minute considering them. When finally prepared, how- 
ever, they were published with big headlines by newspapers in all 
the large cities and attracted much attention and wide comment, 
some of the latter of the most amusing character. Many of the 
editorials declared that Miss Anthony's ideas on these subjects 
had no weight because she never had been married. They failed 
to see that this position if carried to its logical conclusion would 
bar the great editors from expressing their valuable opinions pn 
any question of which they had not a knowledge through personal 
J experience. 

/ A Conference of the National Suffrage Association was held 
i in Buffalo September 9 and 10, during the Pan-American Expo- 
^ sition, followed by a three-days' session of the National Council 
of Women. Miss Anthony was in constant attendance on both 
and spoke several times, but the assassination and death of Presi- 
dent McKinley just at this time so saddened all hearts that neither 
V speakers nor audiences could feel the usual interest in the meet- 
ings. Miss Anthony was a devoted admirer of the President and 
for days every entry in her journal had some reference to the 
great calamity. On the day of the funeral she went to the Brick 
Presbyterian Church in Rochester to hear its minister, the Rev. 
Dr. W. R. Taylor, preach on Anarchistic Manifestations of the 
Present Day, and the journal that night said : "It was a splendid 

[1901] MISS Anthony's work in conventions. 1241 

address but he did not mention the lynching of negroes, the 
cruelest and worst manifestation of all. I waited and told him so. 
It seemed a pity to make a criticism but the mistake was too great 
not to call his attention to it !" 

Miss Anthony had long promised Miss Sarah J. Eddy a visit 
to her summer home at Bristol Ferry, R. L, to sit for her portrait 
but the years had been too full of work. Now the time seemed 
opportune, the hot weather was over and three months at home 
had given her a taste for a little journey. She started on the last 
day of September and stopped for a few days at the old Anthony 
homestead to visit the relatives in and around North Adams, 
Mass. ; then went to Boston and on down to Bristol Ferry where 
she met a cordial welcome. Miss Eddy was very dear to her as 
the granddaughter of her old friend of the Anti-Slavery Society, 
Francis Jackson, and daughter of Mrs. Eliza Jackson Eddy, who 
in years gone by had left her a legacy of $24,000, and she loved 
the daughter also for her own fine and generous character. In this 
restful home with its beautiful environment, Miss Anthony re- 
mained three-and-a-half weeks, a very long visit for her to make. 
Part of each morning was given to a sitting for the bust portrait 
and the large picture showing Miss Anthony at her eightieth 
birthday celebration with the children laying roses in her lap. In 
a letter to her sister she said : 

This is a cool, clear Sunday morning, calm and still after a gale last night 
I wish you could see the magnificent view, ocean and islands, hills and autumn 
foliage. It doesn't seem right for me to be enjoying it without you, and 
Miss Eddy wants you to come. We have two guests in the house now — Mrs. 
Mary H. Hunt, just from the New York State W. C. T. U. Convention, and 
Mrs. Mary F. Lovell from that of the Ami- Vivisection Society. I was out 
driving yesterday with Mr. and Mrs. Bolton, the next door neighbors, and 
they wanted me to go home to dinner with them, saying a slice of good roast 
beef would do me good — Miss Eddy is a strict vegetarian, you know — ^but I 
preferred to dine here. Such a good dinner as it was — ^first, dried pea-soup 
made with milk, and then, lo, and behold, slices of fine roast beef sent in by 
the Boltons "for Miss Eddy's cannibal friends;" — baked white and sweet 
potatoes, fresh string beans and sweet com that was really sweet, with baked 
apples and cream for a delicious dessert. 

Every afternoon I have the most refreshing sleep and when I wake the 
slanting rays of the sun are shining on Narragansett Bay and from all the 
five windows of my big room is the most glorious view imaginable. We have 


delightful drives over the old stone bridge that connects us with the main- 
land, to Tiverton and along the shores of Sconset River, which is really an 
arm of the ocean, and here we can see the whole length of the island with 
Newport in its beauty on the coast. It is ten miles away and wc went by 
train one day, took the famous ocean drive and passed the palaces of the 
nabobs. I went in the carriage one afternoon to call on Julia Ward Howe, 
whose summer home is six miles from here; she was charming and I had 
an interesting time. 

In another letter Miss Anthony wrote : 

Two most agreeable days were spent with Anna Garlin Spencer in Provi- 
dence. She lives in the old Eddy mansion and such big, handsome rooms I 
scarcely ever saw in a private house. I went with her one afternoon to the 
Woman's Club and heard Dr. Faunce, president of Brown University, speak 
on The Modem Uses of the Bible. He was most liberal in his views, said he 
did not doubt but Christ himself was influenced by the customs and opinions 
of his times. I enjoyed it very much but when he closed, to my dismay, the 
president of the club said they had one present — and then she gave me a 
great eulogy and asked me to speak to them. I was so taken by surprise that 
I flatly refused, but Mrs. Spencer whispered, "You must at least stand up 
and make your bow." This I did but it was of no use — ^they would have me 
go to the platform. Finally I pulled off my bonnet and walked up and said 
a few words, but I was dreadfully upset, as I had felt that here was one place 
where I could go and not be dragged out. I didn't do myself justice because 
I was thinking of myself all the time. I agonized over my failure the rest 
of the day and most of the night, but felt a little better when I saw the report 
in the morning paper — ^whoever wrote it was very kind. I must give up going 
anywhere henceforth or else expect to make a goose of myself— -but then I 
was always uncertain of my performance, and when I had a whole evening 
before me it was somtimes awful to stagger through it. 

The dean of Pembroke Hall, Miss Anna Crosby Emery, invited me to come 
Thursday morning and talk to the girls of that college, which is affiliated with 
the university. The professors go over there and repeat all their lectures 
to the girls and then the latter go to the university for the laboratory work, 
etc. As I knew beforehand that I was to speak I got through a little better 
than the day before. I told them the story of opening Rochester University 
to girls and said I had heard that this year the lectures on ethics were going 
to be delivered to the boys and girls separately, but why matters of ethics 
were not the same for both I couldn't see. "But," I said, "I suppose the girls 
at Pembroke Hall must make the best of the opportunities they have and 
keep on hoping that by-and-by old Brown will open wide its doors and give 
them equal chances with the boys." They clapped heartily at this, but some 
one told me afterwards that the dean looked rather serious. 

I went through the university, State House and public library; to the Histor- 
ical Museum to see the fine bust of Paulina Wright Davis and to the Academy 
of Science to look at the full-length portrait of Frederick Douglass, painted by 

[igoi] MISS Anthony's work in conventions. 1243 

Miss Eddy. We had gone to Providence by electric car but we returned by 
boat and had a most enjoyable sail up the bay to Bristol Ferry. 

Miss Anthony started homeward October 24 and stopped at 
Oswego, N. Y., to attend the State Suffrage Convention. 

Many writers came to Rochester these days to get interviews 
with Miss Anthony and make sketches of her and her surround- 
ings for their papers and magazines. Among them was Richard 
Lloyd Jones, who prepared for The Pilgrim an appreciative and 
finely-illustrated article in which he said : 

Miss Anthony has been characterized as a woman of one idea, a single 
theme— an advocate of a hobby. A reformer's life is full of misrepresenta- 
tions and it is the careless public that has been narrow in its perspective view 
of things — ^not the brave, good woman who has borne with cheerful hope and 
courage the onslaught of bitter words and hatred. She has only known the 
wholesome, righteous discontent that speaks for progress, peace and justice. 
Through her work for temperance and emancipation she was led directly to 
enfranchisement and in that she saw the solution of many existing wrongs. 
In the evolution of her great life-purpose it was the logical end. And so the 
many-sided woman — the woman with broad views— concentrated her her- 
culean energy and power into that single channel which, to her best judgment, 
would lead to the greatest good. . . . Her life, her soul, her conscience 
and her brain have been given in priceless service to the world, but her heart 
has never left the home. 

The writer of a long, interesting article in the Montreal (Can.) 
Daily Herald, (only her initials signed to it) , spoke thus of going 
into the attic work rooms where the Biography was written : "It 
was peaceful and still up there. The sun flickered through the 
trees into the windows and lay upon the old volumes neatly piled. 
They recorded fifty years of fighting against injustice; fifty years 
of working for equal rights ; fifty years of constancy of purpose. 
Miss Anthony showed us a copy of her biography. 'After I am 
gone,' she said, *Mrs. Harper will only have to add one little 
chapter and the story will be finished.' " 




^HE entry in the diary for January i, 1902, men- 
tioned those composing the household at that time 
and said, "All at work," — Miss Anthony's ideal 
state for everybody. Her niece, Lucy E. Anthony, 
who had been the Rev. Anna Howard Shaw's pri- 
vate secretary for thirteen years, was spending a month here while 
Miss Shaw made a trip to the West Indies, and her visits always 
were a season of much pleasure and comfort. The first break in 
the even tenor of the winter was made on February 8, when Miss 
/Anthony went to Washington. She started in the midst of a 
'terrific storm, reaching her destination at ten in the evening in- 
stead of seven. In a letter to her sister she said : "I had to wait 
in the Rochester station two hours and the men there begged me 
to go back home and remain until the road was cleared, but I 
just kept staying on and finally the train rolled in loaded with 
snow. We crept along with the snow plow in front of us for 
hours, but at last, for some reason, had to get out at Williams- 
port and wait for another train." The eighty-two-year-old lady 
did not mind these things, however, for she was going to her 
loved city, her dear comrades and the annual meeting which was 
the most enjoyable event of every year. The convention was 
held in the old First Presbyterian Church on Four-and-a-half 
Street, whose pastor for many years was the Rev. Byron Sun- 
derland, the inveterate foe of woman suffrage, but he had been 
succeeded by the Rev. T. DeWitt Talmage, its strong advocate. 
Especial value was attached to this meeting because of the at- 



tendance of many foreign delegates. The Washington Post 
said: "More than a thousand visitors were present yesterday 
afternoon at the first session of the Thirty-fourth Annual Con- 
vention of the National Suffrage Association and the first Inter- 
national Woman Suffrage Conference. Perhaps no other meet- 
ing of its kind has ever occasioned as much interest on the part 
of Washington women generally. The large audience room 
was packed to the doors. ... It has been arranged to hold 
overflow meetings in the church parlors/' The greetings to the 
foreign guests were given by Mrs. May Wright Sewall, president 
International Council of Women; Miss Clara Barton, president 
International Red Cross Association; Miss Anthony, honorary- 
president, and Miss Shaw, vice-president-at-large of the National 
American Suffrage Association; the response was made by the 
gifted Madame Sof ja Levovna Friedland, of Russia, and this 
was followed by the fine address of the president, Mrs. Carrie 
Chapman Catt. 

Miss Anthony presided over the Evening with Pioneers, and 
as she came forward she was presented with a large bouquet of 
red roses by the Loyal Legion of Women of Washington. Over 
forty of the early workers in the cause were seated on the 
platform. The Battle Hymn of the Republic, written by a vet- 
eran, Mrs. Julia Ward Howe, was sung by another, John Hutch- 
inson. Greetings from a pioneer in Great Britain, Mrs. Priscilla 
Bright McLaren, were presented by Mrs. Florence Fenwick 
Miller, of London. Mrs. Clara Bewick Colby read Mrs. Stan- 
ton's scholarly address on Educated Suffrage, written in her 
eighty-seventh year. Miss Anthony did not agree with the 
/changed position of her old friend, that there should be an edu- 
/ cational qualification for the franchise, but she took care that it 
'. should have the place of honor on the program and it had many 
I strong supporters in the audience. This proved to be Mrs. 
' Stanton's last message to the association of which she was presi- 
dent almost continuously for nearly a quarter-of-a-century, and 
whose platform she had graced by her noble presence and digni- 
fied by her eloquent oratory. 

It can be said without fear of contradiction that the National 


Suffrage Conventions will go down in history as the most nota- 
ble held by women during the present age, excepting, of course, 
those of an international nature. The lofty character of their 
demands, the courage, ability and earnestness of their speakers, 
the imswerving fidelity to one central idea, give them a dom- 
inating position which they will hold for all time. The present 
writer said of them in a press article: 

These conventions are pervaded by a remarkable spirit of democracy and 
fraternity. Those who come to scoff remain — ^not to pray but to have a good 
time. The reporters are all converted during the first two or three meetings 
and become members of the family. The delegates never wait for an intro- 
duction to each other; all have come together on the same mission and that 
is a sufficient guarantee. Nobody can remember afterwards what her neigh- 
bor wore and this proves that all were well dressed. The meetings are so 
systematic and business-like that one never feels she has wasted a minute. 
If points of serious difference arise they are taken up and settled by the 
Business Committee, out of sight of the public, but in all matters directly 
connected with the association every delegate has a voice and vote. 

These are trained and disciplined women. There is nothing hysterical, 
nothing fanatical about them. They are animated by the most serious and 
determined purpose, and, in order to effect this, all sectarian bias, all po- 
litical preference, all fads and hobbies in any direction are rigidly barred. 
Woman suffrage — that is the sole object The offices all represent hard work 
and no salary, therefore no unseemly scramble takes place to secure them, 
and the association has the most profound confidence in its National Board. 
Every dollar subscribed has a definite channel designated for its expenditure, 
and so there is no big treasury fund to quarrel over. There is always a 
sufficient number of experienced members to hold the younger and more 
impulsive recruits in check. Being one of the oldest women's organizations 
in existence it has accumulated a large store of wisdom and judgment. Even 
where people disapprove its purposes they cannot fail to respect its dignified, 
honest and orderly methods. 

It had been for some time the strong desire of Mrs. Chapman 
Catt to organize an International Woman Suffrage Association 
and in this she was warmly seconded by Miss Anthony, as it 

/ was the taking up again of the attempt made by Mrs. Stanton 
and herself while in Europe in 1883, which culminated five years 

, later in the founding of the International Council of Women. 
The time now seemed opportune for a movement toward an 
organization purely for suffrage and in response to the efforts of 
the past year ten countries were represented at the present con- 


vention. Several business conferences were held, Miss Anthony 
in the chair, and a number of most interesting reports were 
presented, which afterwards were published in a pamphlet. An 
I International Suffrage Committee was formed to take steps to- 
\ ward organization and report at the time of the International 
\ Council meeting in Berlin in 1904, and Miss Anthony was made 
jchairman of this committee, with Mrs. Chapman Catt as secre- 

The next day after this action was Miss Anthony's eighty- 
second birthday and among the many letters, telegrams and tes- 
timonials was the following read by Mrs. Miller : 

To Susan B. Anthony: We, the undersigned, Foreign Delegates to the 
first Interaational Woman Suffrage Congress, gladly take the opportunity 
of your eighty-second birthday to express to you our love and reverence, our 
gratitude for your life-long work for woman, and we arc rejoicing that you 
have lived to see such great steps onward made by the world at large in the 
direction in which you led at first under much prejudice. 

Praying that you may enjoy years of health, cheered by ever fresh advance, 
we remain your loving friends, Florence Fen wick Miller, England; Sofja 
Levovna Friedland, Russia; Carolina Holman Huidobro, Chili; Gudrun 
Drewson, Norway; Vida Goldstein, Australia; Emmy Evald, Sweden; An- 
tonie StoUe, Germany. 

Miss Anthony was so deeply affected she could scarcely re- 
spond and as she sank into her seat Miss Shaw came quickly to 
her relief and in touching words thanked the foreign delegates 
for the appreciation shown to the great leader of the suffrage 
movement. Then turning to Miss Anthony she said: "You 
have been more than a leader to us of your own country, more 
than a teacher, more than a counselor — ^you have been our be- 
loved friend." 

Many of the audience were in tears and to relieve the situation 
Mrs. Catt stepped forward and said she felt very sure Miss 
Anthony would consider that the highest appreciation of her 
services could be shown by a generous contribution to the work 
of the association. The delegates fully realized this and in a 
few minutes they answered with subscriptions of over $5,000. 
Miss Anthony*s friends would not let the matter rest here, how- 
ever, and in addition to many personal gifts they presented her 


with over $500 in money. In the afternoon a large reception 
was given by Mrs. John B. Henderson, and the next day a din- 
ner to which all of the officers and foreign delegates were invited. 
During these days Miss Anthony said in a letter to the present 
writer : "I wish you could be here and see the honors I receive, 
it would make you happy and be something for you to remember. 
It is very pleasant to be so kindly spoken to, but — ^all are telling 
of my past service, all knowing that my work-days are no more. 
Yes, it is pleasant — ^but sad to feel it is true. If only I can go the 
rest of the time allotted and not undo the things I have done — ^not 
make my friends wish I had died long before — ^that is all I ask !" 
/ A little incident which occurred at this convention illustrated 
/ Miss Anthony's entire lack of self-consciousness. As Mrs. Catt 
I was escorting her up the aisle one day after the session had 
\ opened, the audience burst into applause and Miss Anthony 
\ whispered, "I wonder what they are clapping about!" 

After the labors of the convention were ended Miss Anthony 
went for a ten days' visit at Belmont, the beautiful Washington 
home of Mrs. Julia Langdon Barber. During this time she at- 
tended the National Council of Women, the Mothers' Congress 
and the Congress of the D. A. R. Of her visit to the last the 
Washington Star said : ^ 

About this time it was discovered that Miss Anthony was in a box at the 
side of the stage. As though one person the congress of splendidly-gowned 
women rose and cheered the famous suffrage leader. The president-general 
in spontaneous enthusiasm snatched from her table a wisp of lace and linen 
and waved it toward Miss Anthony, which was a signal for others and in- 
stantly the congress looked like a snow storm. "In behalf of the Continental 
Congress of the Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution," said 
Mrs. Fairbanks, "it gives me great pleasure this evening to greet ^iss An- 
thony, the honored guest at any gathering and the great emancipator of 

Miss Anthony, looking stately and patrician, rose and bowed smilingly to 
the president-general and then to the congress. "I wonder," said one enthusi- 
astic delegate, as she wiped away her fast coming tears, "if that blessed 
woman who has made congresses like ours possible ever recalls how long, 
how drearily long, she has waited for this recognition. Isn't it glorious?** 

A little later after many calls for Miss Anthony, the president-general ap- 
pointed Mrs. Mary S. Lockwood and Mrs. Miranda Tulloch to escort her to 
the platform, where she was again greeted by an ovation that must have 
touched her, for it contmued two or three minutes until she had been intro- 



duced to the officers and had turned to greet the congress, which filled almost 
every seat in the theater. Miss Anthony saw an improvement in more than 
the methods of doing business in this congress. Two years ago, though 
descendant of a line of illustrious revolutionary heroes, her appearance upon 
the same platform was questioned, and the Star reported then the cool treat- 
ment accorded by many there who "did not want to get mixed up with the 
suffrage movement." Saturday night she was welcomed when she entered 
and when she left the stage as a queen might be cheered by her loving sub- 
jects. If Miss Anthony never again visits the national capital, as she has 
several times in the last week hinted, her declining days will certainly be 
brightened by the respect and admiration accorded her. "All things come 
to him who waits," and she has waited nearly fifty years to see scoffing and 
jeers turned into tributes and cheers. 

The difference in the reception to Miss Anthony now and two 
years ago was not due to a change in the sentiments of the con- 
gress but to a change in presidents. When Mrs. Charles W. 
Fairbanks turned to the box as Miss Anthony entered and wav- 
ing her handkerchief exclaimed, "Behold the emancipator of 
woman!'* the delegates felt that they were at liberty to show 
enthusiastic appreciation and they manifested their real feelings. 
Two years before they waited for a permission which they did 
not get. 

On the last day of February Miss Anthony went to Philadel- 
phia with her niece, Mrs. Helen Louise James. "I was an)rthing 
but well," the journal said, "and was glad indeed to get the 
*home feeling' in Louise's pretty house." She did not go there 
j any too soon, for the next day she was unable to leave her bed 

I and she continued seriously ill with pneumonia for three weeks. 
She had a trained nurse, the most devoted care from her niece 
and all the comforts of a well-ordered household and yet she often 
longed for the little bed-room at home, her own trusted physician 
and the gentle ministrations of Sister Mary. 

But at last it was all over and when she could sit up and hold 
a pen, then indeed she was happy and her sister received a letter 
every day. In the first of them she said: "How I did enjoy 
Mrs. Harper's letter telling of all the hard work done and yet to 
be done I" And in another: "I am so sorry I was not at home 
when Mrs. Swift was there. I do hope you put the rose blankets 
on the bed and the nicest spread and gave her ever3rthing of the 


very best." There was no end of directions in regard to sending 
suffrage literature to all the points of the compass and seeing 
that every letter which came was answered. Her sister had been 
confined to the house for some time with a broken wrist and Miss 
Anthony felt very anxious about it. To her secretary and com- 
panion, Miss Anna E. Dann, the mainstay of the house, she wrote 
often : "Don't fail to do everything possible for Sister Mary ; 
comb her hair and help her dress and look after her constantly. 
Do all you can to help Mrs. Harper in her work but let it be 
Sister Mary first and always." Again and again she spoke of 
the devoted care received from her niece, saying: "Louise has 
been as faithful as a lover for the past three months, in health 
and in sickness; she ha^ watched my every need and supplied 
my every want. How much I see in her of her mother — Sister 
Hannah! Mr. James has been equally kind; approved of all her 
attentions and done all he could himself. Now he is going to 
take us both to Atlantic City for two weeks." 

They went to this healthful seaside resort March 22, staying 
at Haddon Hall. On April i Miss Anthony wrote to her sister : 
"Tomorrow is your seventy-fifth birthday — ^how old we grow! 
I thought our mother was very old when she reached seventy- 
five, and when she lived on to eighty-two I wondered if I should 
ever be so old as that, and here I am! I hope you and I will 
stay on earth just as long as we keep our mental faculties and 
our physical strength; when they are gone may we soon pass 
over the river of death into — ^we know not what, but we have 
faith to believe that then all will be well. We can only enjoy 
life while we have the vigor of health ; when that is gone let us 
hope we will go calmly and quickly, but while we stay let us work 
to the fullness of our ability." 

The next evening Miss Anthony wrote from Philadelphia: 
"I was tormented all last night by the fear of fire ; the wind was 
blowing a gale and I couldn't see how we could save ourselves if 
once a big blaze started in those closely-built rows of wooden 
houses. The next morning while we were dressing I told Louise 
I was going to get out. She insisted that we should finish up 


the two weeks but I packed my trunk before going down stairs, 
and after breakfast she packed hers and we left at ten o'clock." 

That very day a fire broke out in Atlantic City, scores of 
houses were burned and for a while the whole place seemed to be 
doomed. Miss Anthony's friends and relatives, who supposed 
she was still there, were greatly alarmed and felt very thankful 
to learn that she had left before the fire occurred. In some way 
a sensational story was started and went the rounds of the papers 
that she had had a premonition of the danger, a vision of a vast 
conflagration and a warning to flee from the place. Her friends 
were much annoyed and begged her to contradict these foolish 
statements, but in a letter to the present writer she said that she 
thought it better not to break her rule of not replying to mis- 
representations in the press ; that to do so in the present instance 
would make too serious a matter of it — it had merely caused a 
ripple and would soon be forgotten. She stated definitely that 
her "premonition" was nothing more than the feeling any one 
would have to lie awake at night and hear the wind rushing 
through the streets lined with houses that would prove to be 
mere tinder boxes in case of fire. She had been in Atlantic City 
ten days and felt that she had received all the benefit required 
and would enjoy Philadelphia better. The fire did not come 
within a long distance of where she was staying and had she 
remained she would have suffered no injury unless perhaps a 
nervous shock. 

During Miss Anthony's convalescence she received news of 
the death of two old and valued friends in Rochester — Dr. Ed- 
ward Mott Moore, at the age of eighty-eight, and Mr. Samuel 
Wilder. The journal said : "I wanted so much to see both of 
them before I left home but the weather was so bad I could not 
go to call on them. My two best friends among men passed away 
while I have been ill here and could not speak a last word to 

Perhaps the greatest disappointment caused by Miss Anthony's 
illness was felt in Rochester where preparations were well under 
way to give her a large banquet on her return from Washington, 
which was to be in honor of her birthday, though necessarily 


belated. The art class of Mechanics' Institute was making the 
menus and programs and over two hundred men and women 
had engaged seats at the tables. It was not until the advices 
from Philadelphia showed that her return must be indefinitely 
postponed that the function, of which so much had been ex- 
pectedy was finally abandoned. 

All was not sorrow and disappointment, however, for in the 

midst of her illness had come news so gratifying that the family 

rightly judged it would do much toward restoring her to health. 

From the time Miss Anthony had pledged her life insurance for 

) final payment of the fund necessary to admit women to Roches- 

/ ter University, the committee had been unceasing in their efforts 

if to raise the sum necessary to release her from her obligation, 

I and they were now able to announce that the full amoimt had been 

\ obtained and that henceforth she would be freed from all anxiety. 

After Miss Anthony had practically recovered she spent part 

of her time with Mrs. Rachel Foster Avery and was entertained 

by her old friends, Mrs. Enoch Lewis, Mrs. Emma J. Bartol, 

Mrs. Lucretia L. Blankenburg and many others. Mrs. James 

had a "tea" for her and a large reception was given by the 

Political Science Section of the New Century Club. Twice she 

enjoyed the luxury of going to the theater, a recreation she was 

very fond of but seldom found time for. She saw Crane in 

David Harum, which she pronounced "splendid," and Jefferson 

in Rip Van Winkle, of which the journal said : "We all agreed 

that it made laziness and drunkenness very fascinating, and that 

the effect of the play on young men all these years must have 

been anything but moral." An incident of her stay was a drive 

one day with Mrs. Lewis, who had been a schoolmate of her 

sister Guelma and herself sixty-five years before in the boarding 

school of Deborah Moulson at Hamilton, a village outside of 

Philadelphia. They went to the spot where the school used to 

stand, now in the very heart of the city and occupied by the 

Hamilton House and Blockley Hospital, and enjoyed mutual 

reminiscences of those days so long ago. 

At this time Justice Baldwin, of the Connecticut Supreme 
Court, said in a decision that "no woman must feel she knows 


more than her husband," and that "girls would make better wives, 
mothers and housekeepers if they finished school at from fourteen 
to sixteen years of age." Of course this sent the reporters post 
haste to Miss Anthony and she is quoted as saying : "Suppose by 
some misfortune a woman were to marry an idiot ; must she still 
adhere to the views of this man from Connecticut and consider 
herself the mental inferior of her husband ? That doctrine might 
have sufficed for the women of a century or so ago but it will not 
do in this day of progress. I am convinced that a little learning 
has been a dangerous pitfall for Judge Baldwin. I believe the 
mother needs more to be educated than the father, in order to lead 
the children through their education." Miss Anthony then gave 
instances of her own observation where educated women had per- 
formed invaluable service for husband, children and home, and 
said : "A wife's intellectual superiority over her husband need 
not and probably will not cause any unhappiness. If happiness 
in wedded life depended upon the mental superiority of the hus- 
band in this progressive age I fear the divorce courts would be 

Miss Anthony lingered in Philadelphia in order to keep an en- 
gagement to attend the presentation to Bryn Mawr College of a 
medallion of herself. The ceremonies were to have taken place 
soon after the convention but her illness prevented, and now the 
following invitation had been sent out by the president. Miss M. 
Carey Thomas : "A bronze medallion of Miss Susan B. Anthony, 
sculptured by Miss Leila Usher, of Boston, will be presented to 
Bryn Mawr College by Dr. Howard A. Kelly of the Johns Hop- 
kins University Medical School, on Monday evening, April 21st, 
at eight o'clock, in the chapel in Taylor Hall. After the pres- 
entation Miss Anthony will address the students. ..." 

The occasion was made the subject of wide comment by the 
press and this description was sent to the Springfield (Mass.) 

A few evenings since, in the chapel of Bryn Mawr College, the old and 
the new met in striking contrast. In the presence of the entire student hody, 
who, in cap and gown met as at an academic function. Dr. Howard A. Kelly 
of Baltimore, a celebrated surgeon, presented to the college a portrait medal- 


lion of Miss Susan B. Anthony, the work of Miss Leila Usher, who did the 
well-known portrait medallion of Prol Frands W. Child for Harvard Uni- 
versity. The representation of Miss Anthony is of admirable simplicity and 
beauty. But even above the importance of the acquisition of so valuable a 
possession was the presence of Miss Anthony hersdl The white-haired 
woman of eighty-two came to see the work of women students whose very 
presence in an institution of learning she herself had done so much to make 
possible, and they came to see her and to express their gratitude. 

President Thomas opened the ceremonies by introducing Dr. Kelly, who 
gave a brief account of Miss Anthony's life and work, and explained why it 
had seemed to him fitting to present Bryn Mawr this portraiture of Miss An- 
thony. His address was interrupted again and again by applause as he men- 
tioned one after the other the triumphs Miss Anthony had won. After his 
address he unveiled the medallion, which had been draped in the American 
flag. Gmtinued applause greeted its appearance. President Thomas in a brief 
speech received the gift on behalf of the trustees and then presented to the 
audience Miss Anthony herself. For a space of half an hour Miss Anthony 
talked to the students in her own simple, direct way, telling them of the dif- 
ficulties she had met with, which could never meet the members of her 
audience. . . . More reminiscences followed, and then Miss Anthony told 
of her pleasure in seeing Bryn Mawr and paid a tribute to President Thomas 
that called forth enthusiasm among the students. . . . ^ 

Miss Anthony was the guest of Miss Thomas over night and a 
number of prominent men and women were entertained at dinner. 
This visit marked the beginning of her friendship with Miss 
Mary E. Garrett and Miss Thomas which grew stronger with 
every passing year. 

As Miss Anthony was not yet well enough to take up active 
work she went for a ten days' visit to her cousins, Mr. and Mrs. 
Lucien Squier, of South Orange, and Mr. and Mrs. George Vail, 
of East Orange, N. J. The former gave a large reception for her 
and the latter an afternoon "tea". She spoke to the Woman's 
Club, the Political Equality Oub, the pupils of the High School, 
made a number of calls and gradually began to feel that she was 
getting back her hold on life and its varied activities. On May 7 
she wrote to her sister: "Tomorrow I go to Mrs. Stanton's and 
then home. Just to think I shall have been gone over three 
months of this blessed year and not have done a thing but loaf!" 

A week was spent with Mrs. Stanton, the first time Miss An- 

1 The medallion was greatly admired and Miss Garrett afterwards had a replica made 
which it is her intention eventually to present to the University of Rochester. 

(Seepage 1253.) 

(Seepage 1413.) 


thony had slept under her roof since 1891, when the large home 
at Tenafly, N. J., was given up and the remaining members of the 
family moved into an apartment in New York. The absence of 
some one left a vacant room and Mrs. Stanton was very desirous 
that Miss Anthony should occupy it. She was entertained by a 
number of friends in the city — Mrs. William M. Ivans, Mrs. 
Charlotte B, Wilbour, Mrs. Edward Lauterbach, her cousin, Mrs. 
Lapham, her nephews, Arthur A. Mosher and Dr. Henry J. Baker, 
and others, but the most of her time was given to her beloved old 
friend, who, she could see, was drawing near the end of her long 
and valuable life. Her heart was growing weak but her wonder- 
ful brain was still strong and alert. She had not, like Miss 
Anthony, continued without swerving in the straight path leading 
toward the goal of suffrage, and an entry made in the diary dur- 
ing this visit contained these pathetic words : "It seems good to be 
here, though Mrs. Stanton does not feel quite as she used to. We 
have grown a little apart since not so closely associated as of old. 
She thinks the Church is now the enemy to fight and feels wor- 
ried that I stay back with the children — as she says — ^instead of 
going ahead with her." 

Miss Anthony went home May 14, enjoying through every 
moment of the trip the beautiful scenery from New York to 
Rochester, now in all the greenness and blossom of spring. She 
was familiar with its every aspect, having made this journey 
scores of times, and she loved every foot of the glorious Empire 
State. The journal said : "I was tired enough when I got to bed 
at nine-thirty — could not sleep for weariness — ^but at last all was 
well." She had promised her sister not to fail to be present the 
next evening at the Political Equality Club, which always held 
its first and last meetings of the season at the Anthony home, 
Miss Mary having been its president for ten years. The press 
and the people of Rochester had a cordial welcome for her and 
she was enthusiastically received by the sixty women students of 
the university when she attended their annual reception. 

There was much work to be done and it was Miss Anthony's 
earnest hope that she could remain at home without interruption, 
but on June 8 came an imperative summons to attend a meeting 
Ant. Ill— 10 


of the National Suffrage Board at Mrs. Chapman Catt's in Ben- 
sonhurst-by-the-Sea. She had written that she would not be 
present but as it seemed necessary she took the night train for 
New York. Here the pther members of the committee joined 
her and they reached the lovely home in time for luncheon. The 
meeting continued three days and the journal spoke in high com- 
pliment of the well-ordered household and the perfect movement 
of the domestic machinery. 

Miss Anthony stopped a day in New York to see Mrs. Stanton 
again, and there was this entry in the diary : "Nora Blatch was 
there, dressed in a white pomona trimmed with blue ribbons and 
it did look beautiful with her pink and white complexion!" 
Miss Anthony was much affected by Mrs. Stanton's condition 
and as she bade her good-by said with tears in her eyes, "Shall 
I see you again ?" "O, yes," was the cheerful and philosophical 
answer ; "if not here, then in the hereafter, if there is one, and 
if there isn't we shall never know it." This proved to be indeed 
their last meeting. 

That summer, for the first time in its existence, the Anthony 
household employed a colored maid, and one irreverent member 
of it had many an hour's amusement over the application and 
the failure of long-cherished theories in r^^rd to the oppressed 
race. The story of Miss Ophelia and Topsy was repeated with 
such additions as might have been expected had the New Eng- 
land spinster continued her guardianship of that interesting 
young person until she reached womanhood; and after the ex- 
periment ended it was thenceforth tabooed as a subject of con- 

Miss Anthony's task for the summer was the final reading of 
• the MS. and the printer's proof of Volume IV of the His- 
tory of Woman Suffrage. As she did not feel with this the 
great sense of personal responsibility that was attached to her 
Biography she found it a work of genuine pleasure. It was a 
source of grief to her that such rigid condensation had been 
necessary and if as much room had been given to everybody as 
she desired, two big volumes instead of one would have been 
necessary. "O, dear, I'm sure Mrs. will feel that we ought 


to have used more of her speech/' she would say; or, "I know 
that every woman at that convention will think she ought to 
have been mentioned and I can never look the most of them in 
the face again." When the chapters were carefully examined 
which told the story of her cherished National Suffrage Asso- 
ciation, her beloved child, she exclaimed, "Whatever must be 
sacrificed not a word of these chapters shall be omitted!" But 
more than a third of them eventually went into oblivion. 

The first half of the 1,144 pages, complete to the very punc- 
tuation marks, was sent to the publishers August 2, the last half 
August 30, and from that time imtil the Christmas holidays the 
proofreading, revising and index-making went steadily on. Miss 
Anthony seemed stimulated and sustained by this work. Each 
morning she would come up to the pleasant attic rooms fresh and 
buoyant, would hold one copy, the present writer a second, while 
one of the secretaries would read from a third, and not the small- 
est item would escape her watchful eye. Sometimes she would 
question a date or a statement and then proceedings had to stop 
till the authority was forthcoming. After dinner she would 
most unwillingly go to her room for the needed nap, but in a 
short time her head with its smoothly-combed silver hair would 
appear at the top of the stairs and she would present herself 
neatly dressed for the afternoon and eager to resume the reading. 

Work was suspended for the one day which her brother D. R. 

t spent with her, but most of her visitors were entertained by being 
invited to take a seat in the attic and listen to the performance. 
As most of them were ardent suffragists they felt highly hon- 
ored to attend these "authors' readings" and get the "advance 
sheets" even before the book reviewers. One of these friends 
was Mrs. Jane Amy McKinney, who had welcomed Miss An- 
thony in her home at Decorah, Iowa, thirty years before, when 
not many homes were open to her. Among other guests, but not 
all invited to the "top gallery", were Booker T. Washington, 
Mrs. Coralie Franklin Cook, of Howard University, Mrs. Har- 
riot Stanton Blatch, and her old pastor, the Rev. N. M. Mann, 
who had given her much assistance on the other volumes. Two 
visitors whom she was especially pleased to entertain were the 


Baroness Olga von Besdiwitz, of I>resden, secretary of the Ger- 
man G>uncil of Women, and Miss Vida Goldstein, of Melbourne, 
Australia, editor of the IVoman's Sphere. Each of these ladies 
had journeyed to Rochester for the purpose of seeing Miss An- 
thony in her own home. 

Much disquiet was caused this summer by the action of Presi- 
dent W. R. Harper, of Giicago University, in putting into sep- 
arate classes the men and women of the Freshman and Sc^ho- 
more years. Miss Anthony received an urgent letter from a 
woman lawyer of Chicago, representing the alumnae, which said : 
''We are in the midst of a crisis in woman's education and we 
are calling out the old war-horses who fought the battle for us in 
the early days. . . . How dishcxiorable to found an insti- 
tution upon the distinct understanding that it was to be co-edu- 
cational and then attempt to deceive people by a scheme of 'co- 
ordinate' education I We must take a stand and fight or soon 
another step will be taken." Miss Anthony was deeply stirred 
by this matter and in an interview she said : 

Yes, we women faave to figfat continually for oar rights and after we get 
them we have to watch constantly for fear they will be taken away just as 
we begin to feel safe and comfortable. When they can't keep the girls out of 
ooUege they resort to "segregation" and it is plain enough why it is done — 
the girls stand so much higher than the boys that it reflects anything but 
credit on the latter. Something has to be done or let the men go on record 
as unable to keep np with the intellectual pace the women set for them. We 
don't want the sexes separated in the class room. Half the stimulus is in 
competition and if the boys and grirls have separate recitations and examina- 
tions, how are we going to tell which rank higher? They must compete with 
each other — ^that is where the test and the fun come in. 

Oh, if I could but live another century and see the fruition of all the work for 
women ! There is so much yet to be done — I think of so many things I should 
like to do and say— but I must leave them for a younger generation. We old 
fighters have prepared the way and it is easier than it was fifty years ago 
when I got into the harness. Young blood, fresh with enthusiasm and with 
all the enligjitenment of the new century, must now carry on the contest. 
. . . People who do not look deeply into the subject often declare that the 
present status of women is simply the result of the evolution of the human 
race, the natural outcome of civilization and general progress, but as a mat- 
ter of fact, woman herself has been one of the biggest factors in the progress 
of humanity. The struggle which she has made and is still making for her 
riglitful place in the world has done much to educate and enlighten the race 
as a whole. She has had to fight for every step gained, for every concession 


made, and it looks now as if she would have to fight even more strenuously 
to maintain her hold on what she has obtained. 

The reporter asked Miss Anthony at this point if she believed 
the women of the whole United States ever would have the full 
suffrage and she answered : "Assuredly. I firmly believed at one 
time that I should live to see that day. I have never for one mo- 
\ ment lost faith. It will come but I shall not see it — ^probably you 
will — it is inevitable. We can no more deny forever the right of 
self-government to one-half our people than we could keep the 
negro forever in bondage. It will not be wrought by the same 
disrupting forces that freed the slave, but come it will, and I 
believe within a generation." 

An entry in the journal soon afterwards said: "Went to 
church this morning and heard a young fellow give a talk on 
Socialism — ^very crude. He said all reforms were indications 
of need of change but all began at the wrong end. I asked him 
at the close where he thought would be the right end for me to 
begin, as I had been working nearly fifty years now on one line." 
His answer unfortunately is not recorded. 

Another entry said: "Went to hear Prof. Edward Howard 
Griggs on Education from the Study of the Beautiful. It was a 
marvelous specimen of rhetoric and elocution but it did nothing 
to stir the soul to greater effort for the uplift of humanity." 
Miss Anthony never cared for lecture, sermon, book or poem 
that did not have a strong moral purpose. 

There was a little break in the routine of the summer when 
Miss Anthony, accompanied by Miss Mary, Miss Shaw and Miss 
Lucy, went for a few days at Lily Dale, the Spiritualist camp- 
meeting ground. For years one week each season had been set 
apart here for special consideration of the interests of women 
and Miss Anthony and Miss Shaw were usually among the 
speakers. They were sure always of large audiences and they 
enjoyed the sojourn in this pleasant place. This time they were 
the guests of the president of the assembly, Mrs. Abby Louise 
Pettengill — "a splendid woman," the diary said. At the break- 
fast table the last morning of their stay, she presented Miss An- 
thony with a check for $ioo and each of the others with one for 


$50. To quote again from the diary : "Mary couldn't believe it 
possible the money was for her and tried to make Mrs. Pettengill 
take it back, but she said, 'No, keep it and use it for whatever 
you most want' " Strange to relate Miss Mary contributed it 
to a society that was trjring to get the suffrage for women ! 

A very unusual and interesting event occurred in the Anthony 
home on the evening of October 9 — a wedding, the first in thirty- 
three years ! It was the marriage of Mr. Gilbert T. Mason to 
Miss Anna E. Dann, Miss Anthony's dearly-loved young secre- 
tary and companion. The daughter of a minister, she had come 
from Canada when scarcely eighteen and for five years had been 
like one of the family, able and ready not only to fulfil the duties 
of a secretary but also to answer all the complex demands of a 
household. The newspapers went into the usual hysterics over 
the affair, some of them declaring that Miss Anthony had bitterly 
opposed the marriage and tried to prevent it, others announcing 
in big headlines that she was to act as bridesmaid. As a matter 
of fact she had known for several years that it would ultimately 
take place, and, while she had much regret at losing the devoted 
service which had become so necessary to her, she fully realized 
that she would need it but a few years longer and she was 
glad to feel that the young girl would be safe and happy in a 
home of her own. She joined with the present writer in pre- 
senting her with an up-to-date sewing-machine, "to prove," as 
she laughingly said, "that strong-minded women were not wholly 
without the domestic instincts," and to this she added $50 and 
the expenses of the wedding. During the service Miss Anthony 
stood close beside the bride looking like a sweet old grandmother 
stepped down from a picture. The ceremony was performed by 
the Rev. Anna Howard Shaw, who said in part : 

You have come through the mysterious pathway which God in his in- 
finite wisdom has made for human souls drawn by the divine attraction of 
love. The greatest miracle ever wrought is the way two beings, bom in 
different parts of the world, travel through life and" find each other, and learn 
through this deep recognition of heart and soul that it is impossible longer 
to walk the pathway alone. You have met in the presence of these friends 
to exchange your vows of devotion. It is so serious, so solemn, for two 
persons thus to plight their troth that those only should do so who are moved 


■ by the deepest and holiest convictions. Believing that such are the motives 

I which have prompted you, that you desire to take life's journey together, 

I each helping the other to the highest and noblest development, each belong- 

/ ing to the other and each equally free— in this spirit I ask you to exchange 

your pledges. 

Each then made the same vow — ^to love, honor and cherish — 
and placed a ring on the hand of the other. An impressive 
prayer closed the ceremony.^ The bride turned first to Miss 
Anthony who kissed her tenderly and then kissed the young hus- 
band. At the wedding supper their health was drunk from Miss 
Anthony's loving cup filled with cold water, and when it was 
passed to her she said, "I can give no better sentiment than that 
so beautifully expressed by Lucretia Mott — 'May your inde- 
pendence be equal, your dependence mutual, your obligations re- 
ciprocal.' " This was an "equal rights" wedding; the bride did 
not promise to "obey", she was not "given away", the minister 
did not declare them joined together "until death do you part", 
but the marriage proved to be a happy one and Miss Anthony 
' was often a welcome guest in the new home. 

^Miss Shaw has officiated at twenty-five weddings and not one has been followed by a 
divorce. She sairs it is because those having the breadth of mind and the recognition of 
equality which lead them to desire a woman minister to unite them, carry these into mar- 
ried life and base it upon mutual respect and exact justice, the most stable foundation for 



jATE on Sunday afternoon, October 26, as Miss 
Anthony sat busily writing in her study, a tele- 
gram was handed her from Mrs. Harriot Stanton 
Blatch which said, "Mother passed away at three 
o'clock." She received the news with entire calm- 
ness for it was not unexpected, but an expression of great sad- 
ness settled upon her face and she sat in melancholy quiet in the 
little room, where Mrs. Stanton's portrait looked down from the 
wall, until the twilight deepened into darkness and her sister 
slipped softly in and begged her to come down stairs. 

That evening a reporter came and as Miss Anthony sat in her 
arm chair gazing into the glowing coals of an autumn fire she 
recalled many incidents of the long acquaintance of Mrs. Stan- 
ton and herself, their public work together having begun in 
1852, just half-a-century ago. "For fifty years there has been 
an unbroken friendship between us," said Miss Anthony. "We 
did not agree on every point, but on the central point of woman 
suffrage we always agreed, and that was the pivotal question. 
We never listened to stories of each other, never believed any 
tales of disloyalty of one to the other. Mrs. Stanton was a most 
courageous woman, a leader of thought and action. I have al- 
ways called her the statesman of our movement. Whenever I 
wanted an able document written, an appeal to Congress or 
Legislatures, I went to her. It spoiled me for writing myself as 
I could lean on her for these things." 

"What period of your lives did you enjoy the most?" was 



asked, and Miss Anthony replied quickly : "The days when the 
struggle was the hardest and the fight the thickest; when the 
whole world was against us and we had to stand the closer to 
each other; when I would go to her home and help with the 
children and the housekeeping through the day and then we 
would sit up far into the night preparing our ammunition and 
getting ready to move on the enemy. The years since the re- 
wards began to come have brought no enjoyment like that." 

Miss Anthony recalled many episodes of their long public 
career and spoke also of Mrs. Stanton's unsurpassed domestic 
qualities — "one of the finest housekeepers I ever knew/' she 
expressed it. In response to another question she said : "Mrs. 
Stanton used to talk about 'the other side' but she had no faith 
that we would have another life. She always said this world 
was so delightful she wanted to stay here just as long as possible. 
She believed in an immutable law for everything, and not in a 
special providence for herself or anyone else. . • . Yes, I 
think she wished to be cremated; in time this will be the uni- 
versal method of disposing of the dead." And then Miss An- 
thony continued : "I cannot express myself at all as I feel, I am 
too crushed to speak. If I had died first she would have found 
beautiful phrases to describe our friendship, but I cannot put it 
into words. She always said she wanted to outlive me so that 
she could give her tribute to the world." 

But later Miss Anthony did find words to say in her own clear 
and impressive style; "Even at the age of eighty-seven Mrs. 
Stanton was still a wonderful woman. As a speaker and a writer 
she was unsurpassed. Readers of history will find that nearly all 
of what may be termed State documents in the movement for the 
rights of women — legal and constitutional appeals and arguments 
before Legislatures and Congress — were prepared by her. She 
combined in herself a marvelous trinity — reformer, philosopher, 
statesman. Had she been of the orthodox sex she would have 
been United States Senator or Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court, but, belonging to the alleged inferior half of the human 
family, she died without having her opinions weighed in either 
the political or judicial scales of the Government." 


On Monday morning Miss Anthony went to New York. In a 
letter to the present writer penned soon after arriving she said : 
"Oh, this awful hush! It seems impossible that voice is stilled 
which I have loved to hear for fifty years. Always I have felt 
that I must have Mrs. Stanton's opinion of things before I knew 
where I stood myself. I am all at sea — but the laws of nature 
are still going on with no shadow of turning. What a world it is, 
it goes on and on just the same no matter who lives or who dies! 
The papers, I believe, have good editorials — I have read them but 
I do not know, I can think of nothing. The reporters have been 
to see me — but, oh, the lack of knowledge! I wish the History 
was finished so we could give it to every one who asks a question. 
How shall we ever make the world intelligent on our movement ?" 

The funeral was private with only a few of the most intimate 
friends present. Miss Anthony sat in Mrs. Stanton's arm chair 
near the coffin, looking with aching heart into the face which 
with the crown of beautiful, snowy hair was so grand in the 
majesty of death. A few touching words were spoken by the 
friend of a lifetime, the Rev. Antoinette Brown Blackwell, and 
an address of rare eloquence was made by the Rev. Moncure D. 
Conway which began: "A lighthouse on the human coast is 
fallen ! To vast multitudes the name of Elizabeth Cady Stanton 
does not mean so much a person as a standard inscribed with 
great principles. Roses will grow out of her ashes; individual 
characters will give a resurrection to her soul and genius, but 
the immortality she has achieved is that of her long and magnifi- 
cent services to every cause of justice and reason." 

Miss Anthony went with the family to Woodlawn Cemetery, 
where another old friend, the Rev. Phebe A. Hanaford, pro- 
nounced the committal to the earth, which thus ended : "O, Thou 
Infinite and Eternal Power, whom so many of Thy children love 
to call Our Father and Our Mother, into Thy hands we commit 
the spirit of our beloved one, assured that all is right where Thy 
rule extends." 

After spending the night in the city with the children of her 
old comrade Miss Anthony left at noon the next day for home, 
where she arrived about nine o'clock in the evening. She had not 

•■ .••'•^■•'^•'■■>;3' 

Cop>Tigrht, "Rockwood." 


At thb Agb of Eighty. 


sent any notice of her coming, so no one met her at the station, 
but she took a carriage and came to the house. As the little 
family of three members heard it drive up they hastened out to 
receive her, expecting to find her greatly prostrated physically 
and mentally, but her step was quick, her voice strong and she 
seemed to have more vitality and energy than for a long time. 
It was evident then and afterwards that Mrs. Stanton's death had 
strengthened the realization that her own life was nearing the 
end, and had nerved her to renewed effort toward finishing the 
work which she felt remained for her to do. 

Miss Anthony was requested by the North American Review 
and Collier's Weekly to prepare articles on the work of Mrs. 
Stanton and herself and the changes wrought. The former, en- 
titled Woman's Half-Century of Evolution, filled eleven pages in 
the issue of December, 1902. It began by saying : 

The title I claim for Mrs. Stanton is that of leader of women. They do 
not enjoy one privilege today beyond those possessed by their foremothers 
which was not demanded by her before the present generation was bom. Her 
published speeches will verify this statement. In the light of the present it 
seems natural that she should have made those first demands for women; 
but at the time it was done the act was far more revolutionary than was the 
Declaration of Independence by the colonial leaders. There had been other 
rebellions against the rule of kings and nobles; men from time immemorial 
had been accustomed to protest against injustice; but for women to take such 
action was without a precedent and the most daring innovation in all history. 
Men of old could emphasize their demands by the sword, and in the present 
century they have been able to do so by the ballot While they might, indeed, 
put their lives in peril, they were always supported by a certain amount of 
sympathy from the public. Women could neither fight nor vote; they were 
not sustained even by those of their own sex; and while they incurred no 
physical risk, they imperilled their reputation and subjected themselves to 
mental and spiritual crucifixion. Therefore I hold that the calling of that 
first Woman's Rights Convention in 1848 by Mrs. Stanton, Lucretia Mott 
and two or three other brave Quaker women, was one of the most courageous 
acts on record. 

The proceedings of the convention were described and the 
progress of its demands traced through the years to the present 
day, concluding as follows : 

The effect upon women themselves of these enlarged opportunities in every 
direction has been a development which is almost a regeneration. The capa- 


bility they have shown in the realm of higher education, their achievements in 
the business world, their capacity for organization, their executive power, have 
been a revelation. To set women back into the limited sphere of fifty years 
ago would be to arrest the progress of the whole race. Their evolution has 
been accompanied by a corresponding development in the moral nature of 
man, his ideas of temperance and chastity, his sense of justice, his relations 
to society. In no department of the world's activities are the higher qualities 
so painfully lacking as in politics, and this is the only one from which women 
are wholly excluded. Is it not perfectly logical to assume that their influence 
would be as beneficial here as it has been everywhere else? Does not logic 
also justify the opinion that, as they have been admitted into every other 
channel, the political gateways must inevitably be opened? 

There cannot be a doubt in the reasoning and unbiased mind that woman 
suffrage ultimately will prevail in every State in the Union. It will be the 
legitimate outcome of the spirit of our institutions, which are the direct ex- 
pression of individual opinion. A deep feeling of regret will always prevail 
that the Liberator of Woman, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, could not live to see 
the complete triumph of her cause, as did those other great emancipators, 
Lincoln, Garrison and Phillips; but she died in the full knowledge that the 
day of its victory is clearly marked on the calendar of the near future. 

The second article — Achievement of Woman — ^appeared in 
Collier's, January lo, 1903. In several columns it depicted the 
past and present status of women in Home, Society, Church, Edu- 
cation, Occupations, Laws and State. It was a complete resume 
and ended with this declaration : "To sum up the situation in a 
few words : The common remark that 'all has been gained for 
women except the suffrage' is by no means true. In not one of 
the seven departments above named do women possess perfect 
equality of rights, but in each so much has been granted as to 
make it logically sure that the rest will eventually follow. In 
every direction are life, activity and progress. The future con- 
tains more than hope — it shines in the clear light of certainty." 

The present writer thus closed a sketch in Pearson's Magazine, 
December, 1902, entitled Two Greatest Women Reformers : "It 
would be well if the name of every woman who fought those 
earliest battles against the old creeds and codes, the tradition, 
prejudice, ignorance and conservatism of the ages, could be en- 
shrined in tender memory, as none in all the future will require 
such courage, fortitude and self-sacrifice. The most of them, 
however, must be swept into oblivion by the engulfing waves of 
time, but two are carved on indestructible tablets in a hall of fame 


that is Itself immortal — ^two names which will be spoken by 
women reverently, as men say 'Lincoln/ 'Washington' — Eliza- 
beth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony." 

A second article in the New York Independent, November 6, 
1902 — ^The Passing of Elizabeth Cady Stanton — had this con- 
cluding paragraph : "Mrs. Stanton was born into the sternest 
and gloomiest theories and practices of the Calvinistic doctrines. 
. . . At the beginning of her work for the regeneration of 
women, she met with more violent opposition from the clergy 
than from all other sources combined. . . . She realized 
that the agencies of State and society together were not so power- 
ful in keeping women in subjection as the authority of the Bible, 
and she was, therefore, perfectly consistent and conscientious in 
her determined and unceasing warfare on the Church. There was, 
however, a steadfast refusal to recognize the immense change 
which has taken place within recent years in the attitude of the 
clergy toward the question of woman's enfranchisement, many 
of whom are now its warmest supporters, and most of whom, 
perhaps, approve of the entire equality of women in all other 
rights. Equally also did she fail to realize that the Scriptural 
authority for holding women in an inferior position is already 
so clearly on the decline as to need no dsmamite to hasten its 
end. All of Mrs. Stanton's early declarations, which were so bit- 
terly condemned, seen now in true perspective, are fully justified; 
and so her latest utterances on the religious phase of this ques- 
tion should be left to the verdict of posterity, that will be farther 
along on the highway of progress." 

The writer ventures to quote briefly from two more of her own 
tributes to Mrs. Stanton, the first published in the Review of 
Reviews, December, 1902 : 

How much of Mrs. Stanton's world-wide fame is due to Miss Anthony 
cannot possibly be computed. Never two persons more thoroughly comple- 
mented each other. Each was strong where the other was lacking, and the 
two made a perfectly rounded and most effective whole. It would not be 
amiss to say that Mrs. Stanton furnished the base of supplies to which Miss 
Anthony went for the ammunition to rout the enemy. Or that she repre- 
sented the loom and the warp, Miss Anthony the shuttle and the woof, and 
by the two was woven the enduring fabric of woman's present position. Mrs. 


Stanton had no intellectual superior among women, few among men, but 
she reared seven children to maturity and was a devoted mother, an un- 
surpassed housekeeper. It would have been inevitable, during the twenty- 
five or thirty years of her life, while these children were growing up around 
her, that she should have laid aside in a large degree both writing and 
speechmaking, had it not been for the relentless mentor who averted this 
calamity. . . . The happiest moments of Miss Anthon/s life were when, 
at the close of a great speech, she saw her beloved friend greeted with cheers 
and waving handkerchiefs and felt that the cause of woman had been moved 
forward a step. . . . 

The powerful influence of Mrs. Stanton and Miss Anthony on the revolu- 
tion which has taken place in the status of women during the past fifty years 
is sometimes denied, and the assertion made that this has been merely a part 
of the natural evolution of the race. The battle of Lexington did not secure 
the independence of the colonies, but here was fired the shot that echoed 
round the world. That First Woman's Rights Convention, and those which 
followed in the early '50's, did not obtain emancipation for woman, but they 
attracted the attention of the whole country to the injustice under which she 
struggled and set people to thinking. If these two leaders had waged their 
preliminary fight in any other State, it probably would not have made so 
widespread an impression; but a half-century ago, as now. New York set 
the pace for other parts of the Union. Although it made the innovation in 
1848 of empowering a married woman to hold property, it was not until i860, 
and after Miss Anthony and Mrs. Stanton had been circulating petitions and 
besieging the Legislature for ten years, that the sweeping laws were enacted 
which enabled the wife to carry on business in her own name, possess her earn- 
ings, bring action and defend suits, make a contract and a will and be joint 
guardian of her children. 

The Other of the articles appeared in the department "Cause 
of Woman" in the New York Sun of November 2, 1902. After 
a resume of her public work it said : *'Mrs. Stanton never grew 
old in mind. The writer of these lines remembers distinctly the 
dignified answer received when daring to suggest to her, about 
a year ago, that perhaps she would take a different view of a cer- 
tain subject if she were more closely in touch with outside life. 
'With the metropolitan newspapers laid fresh upon my table 
every morning; with the magazines, the great sermons and 
speeches and the new books of the day constantly at hand, I am 
never out of touch with any part of the world.' Think of this 
answer from a woman of eighty-six !" 

Then giving instances of her lively interest in this department 
the sketch continued : 

The past two years during the preparation of the fourth volume of the 


History of Woman Suffrage have brought weekly letters from Mrs. Stanton, 
who, with Miss Anthony wrote the first three volumes nearly twenty years 
ago. Almost invariably they began: "As I was wide awake last night for 
hours when I should have been asleep, I spent the time in thinking of you 
and your work." Then would follow pages of clear, logical suggestions as to 
subject-matter and arrangement, showing all the old-time force and acumen. 
She was kept informed of every step in its progress, and its editors were in 
constant apprehension lest she should pass away before the book was finished. 
When finally the large task was ended and all was in type, Miss Anthony 
wrote her offering to send the proof sheets, but she answered that it would 
be unnecessary, as she was getting all her work out of the way and every- 
thing in order so that she might take uninterrupted pleasure in having the 
whole book read to her as soon as it came from the publishers. It waited 
only the Index, but now it will never be read by the one of all others whom 
it was destined to honor. 

The disappointment is overwhelming, and it is only mitigated by the 
thought that within its pages are preserved for posterity an unsurpassed col- 
lection of Mrs. Stanton's own magnificent speeches. Through these eloquent 
addresses will speak to future generations one of the world's greatest re- 
formers, and as they read they will marvel that a Government calling itself 
a republic should have denied to such a woman a voice in its councils ; that a 
people boasting of their political liberty should have refused it to one with 
the soul of Samuel Adams, the spirit of Patrick Henry, the genius of George 
Washington. We look back with amazement and contempt on those who 
refused to women the right of free speech, of education, of employment, of 
ownership in property; but every man and every woman who would deny to 
them the right of individual representation in the Government belongs in that 
early category. Elizabeth Cady Stanton was in advance of her generation 
in the middle of the last century; she was in advance of the age at the be- 
ginning of the new century ; but she brought the world so nearly to her own 
ideas of justice that she was able to pass on in the supreme consciousness that 
the day is near at hand for their complete fulfilment. 

As the History was not bound when Mrs. Stanton passed away 
there was opportunity to add an account of her death, but after 
much consideration Miss Anthony said, "No, we will not sadden 
the pages with it. Let her go down to posterity in all the four 
great volumes in the full vigor of her matchless intellect which 
will live forever."* 

* There was another grievous disappointment in the death of Miss Helen Blackburn, of 
London, editor of the Englishwoman's Review. She had prepared for the History with- 
out financial compensation the very able chapter on Great Britain and her Colonies, and 
had shown the deepest interest in the book, writing often to know of its progress and 
send some bit of information for it The volume was almost ready to send to her, when 
the news came of her sudden passing away. It seemed as if every month during its prep> 
aration marked the death of some one whom the authors had expected to feel much pleasure 
because her name and work had found a place in its pages. 


At the last interview between the old friends, in June, it had 
been arranged that Miss Anthony should go to New York to 
spend Mrs. Stanton's eighty-seventh birthday with her — No- 
vember 12. Now to commemorate the day she went to Auburn, 
N. Y., to spend it with Mrs. Eliza Wright Osborne, whose aunt, 
Lucretia Mott, and mother, Martha C. Wright, Mrs. Mott's 
sister, had joined with Mrs. Stanton in calling and conducting 
the First Woman's Rights Convention. Mrs. Wright's home was 
one of Miss Anthony's most precious places of refuge in the early 
days of inhospitality and ostracism, and here Mrs. Stanton also 
was many times an honored guest. When the mother was no 
more, her devotion to these two women and to their cause passed 
to the daughter. Miss Anthony had sweet recollections of this 
village, which itself might have inspired Goldsmith's line, and 
with her during the week in Mrs. Osborne's beautiful home were 
Mrs. Elizabeth Smith Miller, daughter of Gerrit Smith; Ellen 
Wright (Mrs. Wm. Lloyd) Garrison, Emily Rowland and Anna 
Shaw — z gproup of cherished friends uniting with her in tender 
memory of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. 



1902 — 1903. 

HE closing months of 1902 passed quietly and un- 
eventfully. Miss Anthony noted in her diary the 
death of Mrs. Cornelia C. Hussey, of East Orange, 
N. J., who left a bequest of $10,000 to the National 
Suffrage Association. She pasted in the little book 
the notice from the New York Sun which ended ; "Mrs. Hussey 
frequently said there were many women who could speak and 
write for the cause of woman suffrage but the Lord had given 
her only one talent, that for making money. She said she did 
not mean to let that talent rest unused and she amassed a large 
fortune in real estate investments, from which she was a liberal 
contributor to the suffrage cause.*' Under this Miss Anthony 
wrote : "She has indeed been a generous giver to it and to me per- 
sonally for nearly twenty years. The dear woman came home 
on the same steamer with me nineteen years ago and we walked 
the deck and talked for hours on the woman question. She then 
declared that every penny of her surplus profits she should give 
towards suffrage and she has kept her word all these years." 
/ Miss Anthony went to more club meetings, church suppers, re- 
ceptions and little dinner parties than ever before in the same 
number of months, for it was the first time in her life that ever she 
had any leisure, and she would have had none now if she had been 
able to work. While she found some enjo3mient in these social 
affairs she often grew very restless and, although no word of com- 
plaint ever escaped her lips, it was evident that she felt rebellious 
against physical limitations which for the first time in her long 
career were making impossible the things she most desired to do. 
Ant. Ill— II (1271) 


She always found pleasure in the Sunday morning sermon and on 
one of these days she wrote in her journal : "Mr. Gannett gave a 
most instructive talk on The Changing Views of the Bible and 
said his grandmother read it through twenty-two times. Well, 
my grandmother read it through every year!'* One can almost 
hear the note of pride — other people also had religious grand- 
mothers ! 

I One day a postal card was received from a political committee 
directed simply " S. B. Anthony" and saying, "The records show 
/that you have not yet registered. Please do so at once." Members 
I'of the family begged Miss Anthony to "come back at the commit- 
j tee" but she refused flatly, said it would be of no use and she 
/ wouldn't be bothered with it. The present writer felt the chance 
/ was too good to be lost so she wrote on the postal: "In 1872 I 
I received a request like this and I did register and vote, for which 
I was arrested, convicted and fined $100. Excuse me if I decline 
to repeat the experience ;" signed Miss Anthony's name, put it in 
an envelope and sent it to the committee. The next morning when 
/ Miss Anthony opened her paper she was amazed to see in big 
headlines, Susan B. Anthony Scores One, followed by the con- 
tents of the card. It was widely copied with varying comments 
and she had as much amusement out of it as anybody. 

In November a letter came from Mrs. McKinley, (written by 
her nurse and companion), expressing the pleasure she had re- 
ceived from having read aloud to her Miss Anthony's Biography 
and asking if Miss Anthony would accept a pair of slippers which 
she had knit especially for her. The letter was accompanied by 
the slippers made of soft, grey wool and tied with pale blue rib- 
bons. Miss Anthony sent in answer the following letter : 

Dear Mrs. McKinley : I have often thought of you in your loneliness, but 
your dainty slippers cause me to do more than think. I now write you, which 
I have essayed to do many times since the going out from your home, but 
not your heart, of that dearly-beloved husband. How well I remember him 
the last time I saw him — the day he so graciously received our suffrage dele- 
gates in attendance at the convention of 1900— when after all had shaken 
hands with him, he said, "Miss Anthony, may I take you to see Mrs. Mc- 
Kinley, who does not, feel able to meet all the ladies?" I gladly accepted his 
proffered arm and he escorted me up stairs as tenderly as if I had been his 




mother. In your bright, sunny room I chatted with you and you bade him 
give me the flowers that stood on the table, and then he took me back to the 
parlor. I carried the beautiful lilies to the convention that evening and held 
them up before the vast audience and said, "Mrs. McKinley shakes hands 
with you all spiritually and sends you these lovely flowers." Then I told 
them of my interview with you. Mr. McKinley was a genial, lovable man — ^the 
like of him we shall never see again. 

Now my life-long friend and co-worker, Mrs, Stanton, has passed to the 
beyond. She was full of years, her work was finished. None may grieve over 
her going, for her spirit lives, her words for the education, elevation and en- 
franchisement of women still sound in our ears. Ralph Waldo Emerson said, 

"No accent of the Holy Ghost, 
This heedless world hath ever lost." 

So, like John Brown's, like William McKinle/s, Mrs. Stanton's soul goes 
marching on, and it is for us who are left to take up the refrain and do as 
they did — ^make the world better for our having lived. 

I am glad you are enjoying the reading of my Life and Work. Mrs. 
Harper has made a very interesting story of what seemed to me all the way 
but following along the path of simplest duty. When you have done with 
that you should have the ''Reminiscences of Mrs. Stanton" — ^they are delight- 
ful. Volume IV of the History of Woman Suffrage will soon be finished. 
You will rejoice over the progress woman has made in the last twenty yearSb 
:I shall take pleasure in sending it to you. Have you the other three huge 
volumes? If not I will send them at the same time. 

Thanking you again for the lovely slippers— I am yours in love and sym- 

A little note soon came back saying : "Mrs. McKiniey was very 
pleased to receive your kind, sympathetic letter. She hopes you 
will wear your slippers, for she will make you another pair when 
those are worn out. Mrs. McKinley will be delighted to receive 
the History of Woman Suffrage and the nurses will gladly read 
it to her." 

Mrs. Stanton died October 26. On the 22d she had dictated a 
letter to President Roosevelt asking with all her old-time elo- 
quence that he would recommend in his coming message an 
amendment to the National Constitution for the enfranchisement 
of women. On the 25th, just twenty- four hours before her death, 
she dictated a note to Mrs. Roosevelt, to be enclosed in the letter, 
begging her to urge her husband to this action and to use her in- 
fluence to rouse women to a sense of their duty on this question. 
Miss Anthony had been intending to write the President on this 
subject, and November 28, she sent the following letter : 


Dear Mb. President: It was most beautiful and appropriate that the last 
act of Mrs. Elizabeth Cady Stanton should have been to appeal to the Presi- 
dent of the United States for a recognition of that right which she had la- 
bored over half-a-century to obtain for women. It had been in my mind for 
some time to repeat a similar plea which I made to you a year ago, and 
since the death of my loved co-worker I have thought daily that I would add 
my sanction to her last words. They are fully endorsed also by the National 
Suffrage Association, and the only reason you have not received an official 
letter on the subject is because of the desire not to embarrass you at this 
critical time in your administration. 

I realize that at this hour your Message is finished, and I await with ex- 
treme anxiety to learn if Mrs. Stanton's request has had the effect of securing 
even the smallest recognition of woman in that important document I have 
the most profound admiration for the courage with which you have met the 
grave problems of the day, and the independence of party restrictions which 
you have shown. I would not ask you, even for the sake of the great cause 
which has absorbed my whole being for fifty years, to jeopardize your re- 
election; but every progressive step which you have thus far taken has but 
established you more firmly in the respect and affection of the people. Can 
you and will you not dare to take one more? 

Hawaii has been annexed with barriers against the enfranchisement of 
women such as never before have been imposed upon a Territory of the 
United States. In spite of the most unimpeachable testimony before the 
Congress as to the superiority of the Philippine women over the men of 
those islands, our Government is beginning already to grant a representation 
to their men which it denies to their women. 

It is probable that early in the session the Congress will pass an enabling 
Act for three Territories to enter Statehood. I cannot believe that any con- 
siderable number of people would be alienated from you if you would recom- 
mend that their Constitutions shall recognize the claims of women to the 
right of suffrage, instead of compelling them to beg it of the individual voters 
after the States are organized. 

A word from you, President Roosevelt, on any phase of the Woman 
Suffrage question would be of inestimable benefit and would give it a prestige 
and a sanction which would carry it immeasurably forward. This much you 
can do now, and two years hence it will be within your power to send it to 
assured victory. 

I may not be here then, as I should be nearly eighty-five years old, and so 
I take this opportunity to urge, by all that is just and sacred, that before 
you leave your high office you will recommend to Congress the submission 
of an Amendment to enfranchise women. It would be as noble an act as the 
Emancipation Proclamation of Abraham Lincoln, and would render you im- 
mortal. I need not suggest to you the immense advantage it would be if 
women could carry their cause to the Legislatures instead of to the electorate. 
I assure you that, with the incentive of this recommendation, the women of 
the country would roll up a petition which would give you and it and the 
Congress the support of a million names. 

It is not necessary for me to set forth to you, Mr. President, the value 

[1902]' 'placing the suffrage history. 1275 

which the suffrage would possess for women or the benefit which the Gov- 
ernment would derive from their votes. Its material interests require no as- 
sistance; its moral interests languish and suffer. Men have done their part 
grandly in the former ; women have been prevented from doing theirs in the 
latter. How eagerly they are looking to you — the only President who has 
ever offered them the slightest ground for hope — cannot be put into words. 
Thousands of men also are waiting for you to give the sign. Dear Mr. Roose- 
velt, let us not watch and wait in vain. 

The only answer from the White House was a mere formal ac- 
. knowledgment by a secretary, and neither this strong, dignified 
; appeal nor Mrs. Stanton's dying message ever received the slight- 
. est consideration from President Roosevelt. 
^ In December the long work on the History of Woman Suf- 
frage reached its close ; the last page of index-proof was read and 
dispatched to the publishers ; the debris of paste and paper, clip- 
pings and old letters, scrap books, Congressional Records, muti- 
lated speeches and documents galore was sent to limbo, and the 
attic work rooms were put in such perfect order they did not look 
natural. On Christmas Eve the one whose expected few months' 
stay had lengthened into more than two-and-a-half years bade 
good by to the two dear, old ladies and left them to a peace and 
comfort they could never know when she was "in their midst/' 


It has been said that one of the great projects Miss Anthony 
had in mind when she resigned the presidency of the National 
Association was the raising of a large fund the interest of which 
should be used for suffrage work. She had intended to begin 
this vast undertaking as soon as she had disposed of the accumu- 
lated business awaiting her return from Washington, but the blow 
that followed her heroic effort for the opening of Rochester Uni- 
versity to women left a physical prostration which even her strong 
will power could not overcome, and at last she was compelled to 
recognize the fact that her long-cherished scheme would have to 
be given up. About $3,000 toward this fund already had been 
sent to her and she was in doubt as to what should be done with 
\ the money. Miss Shaw and others begged her to ask the sub- 
scribers to permit her to use it toward publishing the History and 


j after much urging she did so. The principal donors were Mrs. 
Pauline Agassiz Shaw, of Boston, $i,ooo; Dr. Cordelia A. Green, 
of Castile, N. Y., $500; Mrs. Emma J. Bartcrf, of Philadelphia, 
$200; and they cheerfully assented, as did all the other contrib- 

. utors. They took the view that the money was intended to pro- 
mote the cause of woman suffrage and that this could be done in 

j no more effective way than by publishing and distributing this 

' record of the movement. Miss Anthony had received about 
$1,200 in money on her eightieth birthday, given for her own per- 
sonal use, but she had set it aside to apply on the History. Where 
the rest of the necessary sum was to come from she did not know, 
but, as has often been said, she never delayed action for this rea- 
son. The $500 presented on her eighty-first birthday was added 
to the $4,200 but the whole amount did not cover all the expenses 
connected with the publication of the 3,000 copies of Volume IV, 
their wide distribution and the rest of her broad project. 

There had remained of the first three volumes 1,000 sets of 
unbound sheets on which she had been paying storage for twenty 
years and she decided to have these bound and made ready to sell 
or give away. Those who were near to her implored her not to 
incur this great expense but they could not shake her determina- 
tion. To carry out the plan she had to draw on her slender bank 
account, and when the books were all ready she literally had not 
one dollar left on deposit. She had no publishers to advertise 
them, as she naturally had preferred to keep them within her 
own control, and so in order to give them publicity she adopted 
the plan of sending circulars. A t3rpe-writer was employed who 
did nothing else; lists of libraries, universities, etc., were ob- 
tained ; stamps were purchased $50 worth at a time; records were 
kept of all the letters sent, answers received and packages ex- 
pressed. This required the keeping of several ledgers which 
was done by Miss Anthony heriself. When no answer came 
after a certain length of time another letter and circular were 
mailed. Many copies were sent to the magazines and newspapers. 
Every library which had the other three volumes — and there 
were about 1,200 of them — ^was asked to state whether those were 
bound in muslin or leather so that the fourth could be sent to 


match them. This included much foreign correspondence, as the 
first three had been placed in all the large libraries of other coun- 

This work was commenced in the autumn of 1902 and con- 
tinued through the winter of 1903. There was much delay by the 
publishers and Miss Anthony became very impatient. Finally 
when the end of it seemed to be near, a fire broke out and de- 
stroyed all the bindings. This calamity was more easily borne 
because of the deep thankfulness that the unbound sheets and 
the plates had not gone also. It was March 6 when the first in- 
stallment of big boxes filled with books made their appearance, 
but after that they came rapidly. Miss Mary was driven to de- 
spair. After several tons had been carried to the attic she was 
informed that if any more went up there the house was likely to 
collapse. Then the cellar was packed till there was only space 
enough to put coal into the furnace and an accidental spark would 
cause a tremendous conflagration. The wood-shed was filled 
until there was just room to get in and out the kitchen door, 
and at last it was necessary to turn the daily arrival of huge 
boxes in the direction of a storage warehouse. All hands were 
now set to work doing up packages to fill the orders — Miss Mary, 
the secretary, the t3rpe-writers, the maid. Reams of wrapping 
paper were brought in, cord by the dozen balls, comer protectors 
by the pound, and the expressman was a daily visitor. It is hardly 
possible to realize the labor and time this meant for a private 
household, and there was more or less of it constantly for the 
next four years. 

Nobody, however, could grudge time, labor or expense in 
view of Miss Anthony's great joy and satisfaction in the com- 
pletion of this historical work. Her struggles in the preparation 
of the first three volumes, extending through ten years, have been 
many times related. For twenty years thereafter she had con- 
stantly in mind the fourth volume; the care of collecting and 
preserving the data that would be required; the feeling of re- 
sponsibility which came from the almost certain knowledge that 
upon her would depend the production of this book; and the 
assertion hardly will be questioned that except for her keen 


sense of its importance, her unflagging persistence and her genius 
for overcoming obstacles it never would have been written. Fol- 
lowing is a portion of the Preface to Volume IV : 

It is to Miss Anthony, that the world is indebted for this as well as the 
other volumes. It was she who conceived the idea; through her came the 
money for its publication; for several years her own home has been given 
up to the mass' of material, the type-writers, the coming and going of count- 
less packages, the indescribable annoyances and burdens connected with a 
matter of this kind. In addition she has borne from her private means a 
considerable portion of the expenses, and has endured the physical weariness 
and mental anxiety at a time when she has earned the right to complete rest 
and freedom from care. There is not a chapter which has not had the in- 
estimable benefit of her acute criticism and matured judgment. 

The demand is widespread that the information which this book contains 
should be put into accessible shape. Miss Anthony herself and the suffrage 
headquarters in New York are flooded with inquiries for statistics as to the 
gains which have been made, the laws for women, the present status of the 
question and arguments that can be used in the debates which are now of 
frequent occurrence in Legislatures, universities, schools and clubs in all parts 
of the country. Practically everything that can be desired on these points will 
be fotind herein. The first twenty-two chapters contain the whole argument 
in favor of the granting the franchise to women, as every phase of the ques- 
tion is touched and every objection considered by the ablest of speakers. It 
has been a special object to present here in compact form the reasons on 
which is based the claim for woman suffrage. In Chapter XXIV and those 
following are included the laws pertaining to women, their educational and 
industrial opportunities, the amount of suffrage they possess, the offices they 
may fill, legislative action on matters concerning them, and the part which 
the suffrage associations have had in bringing about present conditions. 
There are also chapters on the progress made in foreign countries and on 
the organized work of women in other lines besides that of the franchise. 
All the care possible has been taken to make each chapter accurate and com- 

Beginning with 1884, where Volume III closes, the present volume ends 
with the century. This is not a book which must necessarily wait upon pos- 
terity for its readers, but it is filled with live, up-to-date information. Its 
editors take the greatest pleasure in presenting it to the young, active, progres- 
sive men and women of the present day, who, without doubt, will bring to a 
successful end the long and difficult contest to secure that equality of rights 
which belongs alike to all the citizens of this largest of republics and greatest 
of nations. 

Miss Anthony said many times that when this volume was 
finished and placed in the libraries of the world with the other 



three she would feel that her life-work was practically ended. 
She was entirely satisfied with the book ; it received many columns 
of able reviews from the newspapers and magazines and not one 
disparaging criticism; she lived to know that it occupied its 
rightful position by the side of the others on the shelves of all 
libraries of consequence; and these facts gave much peace and 
happiness to her closing years. She contrasted many times the 
reception accorded this and the other volumes, which were far 
more interesting and valuable in subject matter, and she regarded 
it as an indication of the advance in public sentiment on the ques- 
tion of woman suffrage. As an apt illustration : The others were 
presented by her to Harvard University less than twenty years 
before and were declined by the authorities and returned to her. 
An unsolicited order accompanied by a check was sent for this 
volume by that institution. Orders were received from Yale, 
Michigan and other large universities and from many libraries 
long before the book was finished, sent merely from seeing stray 
paragraphs saying it was in preparation. Libraries and persons 
that were able to pay for it Miss Anthony permitted to do so, but 
to those that could not afford it but would make good use of it 
she gladly gave it without price. She received altogether about 
enough to replace the few thousands taken from her own private 
funds, but she never had a dollar of profit. This she did not ex- 
pect but felt a hundred-fold repaid in having the history of the 
movement for the emancipation of woman permanently recorded. 
The plates, copyright and remaining volumes were left as a 
legacy to the National American Suffrage Association. 

Many beautiful acknowledgments of Volume IV were received 
by Miss Anthony, among them a letter of thanks from the 
Countess of Aberdeen, ending, "With kindest regards from Lord 
Aberdeen and myself;" one from Lady Henry Somerset signed, 
"Yours in the ties which must always bind us very closely ;" one 
from Lady Battersea beginning, "I am much touched and grati- 
fied by your kind thought of me;" saying, "I treasure the re- 
membrance of the delightful talk we had at the house of my 


mother," (Lady Rothschild), and ending, "I should like to look 
forward to the possibility of meeting you at the International 
Council in Berlin next year;" one from Mrs. Creighton, wife of 
the Lord Bishop of London, concluding, "I am sure it would be 
a pleasure to many if you could go to the Berlin Congress." 

There were appreciative letters from William T. Stead, editor 
Review of Reviews; from Miss Emily Tanes, organizing secre- 
tary of the National Union of Women Workers, the largest so- 
ciety of women in Great Britain; from Mrs. Florence Fenwick 
Miller, member of the London School Board ; from Miss Flora 
Stevenson, LL.D. of the University of Edinburgh and Presi- 
dent of the Public School Board; from men and women eminent 
in many and varied activities. Her beloved friend, Mrs. Priscilla 
Bright McLaren, sister, wife and mother of distinguished mem- 
bers of Parliament, said in the course of a long letter : "When 
I read the Introduction I was more than ever impressed with 
what it has cost to try to persuade men to give the franchise to 
women — ^that simple act of justice — and how much the world has 
been held back by keeping woman out of her right place in it. 
. . . How lovingly you have labored ! There is no one whose 
work, whose intuitions, whose foresight have been equal to yours, 
and there is no one who has practiced such self-denial for the 
good of women." Miss H. M. White, principal of Alexandria 
College, Dublin, wrote: "We women who are enjoying the 
benefit which you and other pioneers so hardly won for us can 
never sufficiently recognize our debt to you, and I am always 
trying to impress this fact on my scholars." 

The Baroness Gripenberg, of Finland, said in her letter: "It 
has been a revelation and a source of constant inspiration for me 
to read this volume and to think that you at your high age have 
had the power, mental and physical, to send out such a work 
into the world. Often I wonder if you have an idea of how much 
you and Mrs. Stanton have influenced my life. You may know 
— ^you can see it — ^how much you have influenced the women of 
your own country ; but I want that you should know how vividly 
we Finnish women feel our gratitude to you, how we follow what 
you speak and write. Is it not wonderful how great ideas unite 

Copyright, Lafayette, Ix>nd(>n. 



different peoples ? Thousands of women here in Finland cannot 
read English, but still they know you, have read your speeches 
and enjoyed your articles." 

From Berlin the honored Fraulein Helene Lange wrote: "I 
am very happy to say that the precious volumes are safe in my 
hands, and the first use I shall make of them is to write an article 
for my magazine Die Frau, on your life and work." The 
Baroness von Beschwitz sent from Dresden warmest thanks for 
herself and the gifted Frau Marie Stritt, president of the German 
Council of Women. In the letter of Anita Augspurg, the only 
woman Doctor of Jurisprudence in Germany, she said: "This 
book is a profound source of valuable instruction in all details of 
the suffrage question. I am glad to have it also on account of the 
author, dear Miss Anthony, whom I adore with all my heart/' 
Frau Minna Cauer, editor of Frauenbewegung and a pioneer of 
the suffrage movement in Germany, wrote: "Your book gave 
me immense pleasure — ^nay, more — it showed me your grand 
work and gave me a still higher idea of the struggle of your 
whole life. We women of Germany look upon you as the one who 
has always had the flag in her hand, and who never let the flag 
drop down even when the hand grew tired and weak. I shall 
study this book, I shall write of it in my own and other papers, 
I shall recommend it to libraries." 

The leader of the work for woman suffrage in France, Madame 
Hubertine Auclert, wrote: "I will read this precious volume, I 
will speak of it in the journals of Paris, I will translate it, and 
it shall be as well known in France as if it were written in our 
own tongue." Theodore Stanton said in a letter from Paris: 
"You and Mrs. Harper deserve much credit for having sent out 
this book in such perfect form. It makes a fine ending to the 
series." He then proposed that the two authors should come over 
with his sister, Mrs. Blatch, and in his home in Paris all should 
prepare a biography of Mrs. Stanton. "You should have a good 
rest, dear Susan," he said, "the others would work and we could 
have a charming winter." 

These letters will convey an idea of the reception of the book 
abroad. It is manifestly impossible to give any adequate ex- 


amples of the letters from the United States. Many of the 
librarians sent with the receipt for the volume cordial messages 
of appreciation of Miss Anthony and the work of her long years. 
Individual letters were received from many eminent men and 
from the presidents of most organizations of women. Two or 
three instances will illustrate the scope. The Hon. Andrew D. 
White, former president of Cornell University : "I have written 
to the librarian of the library which bears my name at Cornell 
asking him to subscribe for this volume. It gives me great pleas- 
ure to do this for I recognize the immense value of your services 
to the country, and also the great present and future interest in 
this book that records the achievements of yourself and others 
engaged in the noble work which you have given your life to 
promote." From Wm. Lloyd Garrison: "You have preserved 
material of great value to future historians of the movement, 
and your work is a monument of labor and industry.'* From Mrs. 
Josephine Silone- Yates, president National Association of Col- 
ored Women and professor in Lincoln Institute, Missouri: "I 
consider this book, sent me by the most remarkable woman of the 
age — ^by one who has made it easier for all women, irrespective 
of race or color, to succeed — as the most valuable gift I ever re- 
ceived. I shall bequeath it to my daughter that she may not fail 
to know of the long and brave contest for equality of rights for 

Of these volumes Miss Anthony herself wrote: "These rec- 
ords will tell future generations of the heroic struggle made by 
the few for the masses of the unthinking, unphilosophical women 
of the past and the present." This is indeed true, and but for these 
books the story would have been forever lost, and but for Miss 
Anthony they would never have been written. 

The distribution of the History was not Miss Anthony's only 
work during this winter of 1903. It had long been a question 
with her what to do with all her books and historical documents 
after she had finished with them, but her old friend, Mr. Ains- 
worth R. SpoflFord, librarian emeritus of the Library of Congress, 
solved the doubt by asking her to place them there A careful 


selection was made of several hundred and then it was suggested 
to her that the value of these would be infinitely increased if she 
would put her autograph in each. With her this always meant to 
write a sentence or two, and on the last of January she said in 
a letter to the present writer : "That was a pretty task you set for 
me to do! Every blessed minute that I could spare during this 
whole month I have used in writing in those books/' Each con- 
tained her name and one or more lines on the fly-leaf and if this 
shall be found missing in the future it may be known that the 
temptation was too strong for the autograph collector. Four 
large wooden boxes of these books were sent to Washington on 
February 6. Among them were complete files of Garrison's 
famous Abolitionist paper. The Liberator, begun about 1832 and 
continued till the slaves were emancipated; of the Anti-Slavery 
Standard, which mmibered Wendell Phillips, Lydia Maria Child 
and Parker Pillsbury among its editors ; and of Miss Anthony's 
own loved paper, The Revolution, edited by Mrs. Stanton, Mr. 
Pillsbury and herself. There were files of The Woman's Journal 
and The Woman's Tribune, and sets of the Ballot-Box and Citi- 
zen, the Lily, the Una and other women's papers long since for- 
gotten. In the collection were the works of Mary WoUstone- 
craft and Lady Morgan, of the 18th century; old books written 
by Pillsbury and Stephen Foster and the Grimke sisters ; Bibles, 
hymn books, medical works and school books over a century old ; 
ancient speeches, poems and fables, and documents of various 
sorts long out of print. Many autograph copies from the authors 
were sent. In Mr. Spofford's opinion the most valuable part of 
the contribution was Miss Anthony's scrap books covering a 
period of over fifty years. 

It was at first the intention to place these books in an alcove 
by themselves but they were found to cover so wide a range of 
subjects that it was necessary to distribute them. They were 
catalogued, however, as the "Susan B. Anthony Collection" and 
a handsome book plate was designed for them. This was the 
first collection presented to the Library of Congress by a woman. 

The reporters always hastened to Miss Anthony for her opin- 


ion on all sociological questions that were attracting public at- 
tention and of course she was interviewed on President Eliot's 
statement that the average of Harvard graduates' children is 
less than two. "That is quite enough," she is quoted as saying. 
"Harvard graduates do not always make the best fathers. Why 
should we be agitated pver the too small families of the rich 
when there are so many children of the poor that are not cared 
for? The rich should make it their duty to raise up these chil- 
dren to a higher standard. ... It is not so much the uni- 
versity education that postpones marriage as the habits of men. 
Students often marry in the midst of their college course. Men 
of the world hate to give up their tobacco, liquor, sports, clubs, 
their luxurious habits, their freedom from responsibility. They 
prefer to flock together and so women are compelled to do the 
same. President Eliot talks as though the young women were 
sitting around anxiously and aimlessly waiting for the graduates 
to come and get them. He would find, if he should make the 
proper investigation, that a class of women is being developed 
who are demanding a higher standard of morals in men than 
did those of past generations, and if they cannot get husbands 
who reach this standard they are making very satisfactory careers 
for themselves outside of marriage. ... If every family 
reared but two children there would be no shortage of population. 
However that is a problem that will have to work itself out. It 
can not be regulated by law or public sentiment/' 

A campaign for a woman suffrage amendment to the proposed 
constitution for New Hampshire was in progress and those who 
had it in charge were very desirous that Miss Anthony should 
aid if only to the extent of sitting on the platform at the meetings 
and giving the moral effect of her presence. She declined to do 
this, saying that they might as well begin now as a little later to 
conduct their campaigns without her personal assistance. Her 
health at this time was far more precarious than those outside of 
her family suspected and there were frequent references in the 
diary to the condition of her heart: "It sometimes acts as if I 
had been running at the top of my speed, and then it almost 


Stops/' "I cannot lie on my left side with any comfort." "I hear 
its beating, awake or asleep." Of all this she made no outward 
sign but as far as her strength would allow kept steadily at the 
tasks she had set for herself. 

This winter was one of the few times that Miss Anthony 
spent her birthday in Rochester and she was glad of an oppor- 
tunity to celebrate it in her own house. A simple announcement 
in the newspapers stated that she would be "at home" from three 
to five and from eight to ten ; that the Rev. Anna Howard Shaw 
would be with her, and that she hoped all remembrances would 
take the form of contributions to the New Hampshire campaign. 
The 15th of February came on Sunday and Miss Shaw's birth- 
day was on the 14th, but the two anniversaries were observed on 
Monday. Dainty souvenirs had been prepared, little cards with 
a picture of Miss Anthony on one, Miss Shaw on another and 
sentiments from both on a third, tied together with yellow rib- 
bon.* As usual in that city near the lake there was a big snow 
storm but over two hundred men and women came to bring their 
greetings. There were scores of letters and telegrams, among 
the latter one from Eugene V. Debs which said : "My heartiest 
congratulations upon the triumphs of your noble life struggle. 
You are honored by a nation and will be remembered with love 
and gratitude by all mankind." The rooms were beautifully 
decorated with the plants and flowers sent by friends and the 
suffrage flags draped on the walls* Miss Anthony wore the hand- 
some old garnet velvet, which she always donned when she 
wished to show especial honor to audience or guests, and was 
very happy in receiving her own townspeople, treating those 
from all stations in life with the same genuine cordiality. 

The Rochester Post-Express, in a dignified editorial of over 
a column, showed the revolution which had taken place in the 
status of women since Miss Anthony began her labors and com- 
mented : "It can be said in all truth that the indirect result of the 
suffrage movement has been of priceless value to the women of 

1 In the diary that night was written, '*It seems so strange to link with mine any other 
name than Mrs. Stanton's." But since the time had come when there must be another 
she preferred Anna Shaw's to all others. 


the United States. ... It is because of Miss Anthony's 
work in removing the prejudice and thus enabling women to do 
whatever they please that we extend to her our heartiest con- 

The Democrat and Chronicle said editorially : 

Miss Susan B. Anthony is today receiving the congratulations of her 
friends, near and far, on the vigor of body and peace of mind she enjoys on 
this, her eighty-third birthday. Rochester unanimously joins in these con- 

The life of our distinguished townswoman has been heroic in its ideals, 
endeavors and accomplishments. The emancipation of womanhood from 
legal and social disabilities which formerly hampered the lives of her sex 
has been the one supreme purpose of Miss Anthony's life. She aimed far 
and high. Her program was comprehensive, and never by any concession to 
her opponents has she compromised her position or lowered her aim. . . . 
There are some persons who appear well in their achievements and writings 
but are a disappointment upon personal acquaintance. Miss Anthony is not 
one of these. There is ozone in the atmosphere of her personal influence. 
Her directness, common sense, vigor of thought and utterance, and honesty 
of spirit captivate and inspire all who will give her a hearing. She has al- 
ways had unshaken faith in her objectives, but has ever been ready to listen 
to and heed advice concerning methods if her judgment could be satisfied. 

But far be it from our purpose to speak of her as of the past. Though rich 
in years and in the records of an earnest and fruitful life, she is still of the 
present with all its intensity and activity, and thousands of friends are today, 
with their congratulations, sending sincere and cordial wishes that she may 
long remain to stimulate the life and thought of this generation as she did 
the thought and life of its immediate predecessors. 

At the very hour of this birthday celebration a mass meeting 
of n^joes was held in Cooper Union, New York, to protest 
against the disfranchisement of their race in the Southern States, 
and the following letter from Miss Anthony was read amidst 
much enthusiasm: "To refuse to qualified women and colored 
men the right of suffrage and still count them in the basis of 
representation is to add insult to injury and is as unjust as it is 
unreasonable. The trouble, however, is farther back and deeper 
than the disfranchisement of the negro. When men deliberately 
refused to include women in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth 
Amendments to the National Constitution they left the way open 
for all forms of injustice to other and weaker men and peoples. 
Men who fail to be just to their mothers cannot be expected to 


be just to each other. The whole evil comes from the failure to 
apply equal justice to all mankind, men and women alike. There- 
fore I am glad to join with those who are like sufferers with my 
sex in a protest against counting in the basis of representation in 
the Congress of the United States, or in the Legislatures of the 
States, those of any class or sex who are disfranchised." 

Ant. Ill— 12 




HE National Suffrage Convention of 1903 was held 
in New Orleans, La., March 19-25. Miss Anthony, 
her sister Mary and her friend and physician, Dr. 
Marcena Sherman-Ricker, left Rochester for that 
city on the 13th. They stopped two days in Wash- 
ington, as a winter never seemed complete to Miss Anthony 
without a visit to that scene of so many vital events in her life. 
The historic St. Charles Hotel was headquarters for the dele- 
gates and the meetings were held in the large Athenaeum, which 
had not sufficient capacity for the audience at any evening ses- 
sion. The reports in the daily papers were long and enthusiastic, 
and, under the management of Miss Kate M. Gordon and her 
capable committees, the convention was complete and successful in 
every detail. The delegates were entertained with typical Southern 
hospitality and routine proceedings were pleasantly diversified 
with receptions, trolley rides and boat excursions. They were 
welcomed by the Hon. Edgar Farrar and Mr. Thomas Richard- 
son, secretary of the Progressive Union, and Miss Anthony made 
the first response. The Picayune said : 

Seated upon the platform was Miss Susan B. Anthony, the woman who 
for two-score years stood the brunt of ridicule, sarcasm and cartooning, and 
never once was deterred from the course that she fully believed to be the 
just and true one. Of the great leaders in this movement she alone remains. 
. . . Spanning a distance of forty years stood at her side the younger 
woman who has taken up the battle, and grouped around were earnest young 
girls and middle-aged women fired with her enthusiasm and looking up to 
her with a reverence that was very beautiful and a most gracious tribute 
from youth to old age. When Miss Jean Gordon advanced to present her 


[1903] MISS Anthony's domestic life. 1289 

with a great cluster of Marechal Niel roses and took her so sweetly by the 
hand and in the name of the young women of today and of the Era Club 
thanked her for the battles she had fought, the scene was most touching, 
representing as it did the two extremes of the suffrage workers, those of 
half-a-century ago and those of today. 

The paper paid a glowing tribute to Mrs. Caroline E. Merrick, 
"the pioneer suffragist of Louisiana and life-long friend of Miss 
Anthony," who was also remembered with flowers, and said: 
"For a moment Miss Anthony and Mrs. Merrick stood together, 
and the audience, rising to its feet in a great rush of enthusiasam, 
waved handkerchiefs and fans in greeting." Miss Anthony gave 
enjoyable reminiscences of her previous visits to New Orleans of 
which she had only the most agreeable recollections. 

At the next evening session Miss Anthony presided, and then 
and throughout the convention every possible honor was shown 
to her by the audiences of the representative people of this old 
and exclusive Southern city. To quote from the Picayune's ac- 
count of the memorial meeting: "Miss Anthony was greeted 
with long and continued applause. She was beautifully gowned 
in rich black silk with a soft white vest of lace and chiffon, and 
looked the stately and elegant lady that she is. . • . In clos- 
ing her remarks she gave them Mrs. Stanton's message: 'The 
pioneers have brought you within sight of the promised land. 
There is no merit, however, in simply occupying ground that 
others have conquered. Go ahead; press forward! Those who 
watch already behold the dawn of a new day.' " 

Miss Anthony remained in New Orleans a few days to attend 
the executive meeting of the National Council of Women. On 
the way home she carried out a long-felt desire to visit Tuskegee 
Institute, the school of Booker Washington, and on Sunday 
afternoon, in the handsome new chapel, she addressed the 1,200 
young colored men and women, to their great delight. She was 
much pleased with the school and finding that they were trying 
to start a broom factory she at once agreed to raise $100 toward 
it. This she afterwards did, paying a good part of it herself, 
and one of the first whisk brooms made by the girls was sent to 


The two Sisters reached home April 2, the seventy-sixth birth- 
day of Miss Mary. The morning paper next day contained a 
two-column interview giving a lively account of the convention 
and showing, as the reporter said, that "when Miss Anthony 
felt the worst physically the best thing that could happen to her 
was to leave home and come into active touch with the work 
that has filled her whole life." "When are you going away 
again?" the reporter asked. "She is ready to go as soon as she 
is invited," answered Miss Mary. "Well," retorted Miss An- 
thony, "Mary thought she would come home ahead of me on this 
trip as usual but for once I held on to her and made her stay as 
long as I did." 

It had all the time been the intention when Biography and His- 
tory were finished, and the all-pervading litter and the three 
stenographers and the writer were out of the way, to regenerate 
the house from top to bottom. That happy period had now ar- 
rived and painters, paperhangers and decorators were set to work 
outside and inside. A few days of it were sufficient for Miss 
Anthony and then she gathered up her belongings and went to 
the pleasant home of her former secretary, Mrs. Anna Dann 
Mason, where she remained three weeks, going back occasion- 
ally to see how things were progressing and give some advice. 
When all was swept and garnished she returned to the house 
whose cleanness and sweetness delighted her fastidious soul, but 
Miss Mary, who had stuck to her post through it all, was now in 
a state of exhaustion. On July i they attended the silver wedding 
of Dr. and Mrs. J. E. Sanford, and two days later Miss Mary 
went with the Sanfords for three or four weeks in Maine. 

One of the many guests was Miss Margaret A. Haley, of Chi- 
cago* president of the National Federation of Teachers, whose 
remarkable work for the schools of that city had attracted the 
widest attention. She came to Rochester to lecture and Miss An- 
thony invited a number of prominent educators to dine with her. 
She was very anxious that Miss Anthony should attend the meet- 
ing of the National Educational Association in Boston, where 
the women teachers expected to have a struggle for their rights. 

[1903] MISS Anthony's domestic life. 1291 

Although Miss Anthony did not feel equal to going she took a 
keen interest in the convention and in a letter afterwards said : 

I note that there is not a woman on the general program and I do not like 
your saying that the women themselves are at fault because they have not 
asked for it They have been taught from time immemorial that if they 
would please men they must be modest, must not push forward, and now 
when they are modest and retiring and do not ask for a place on the plat- 
form it is counted against them. You in Chicago certainly demand your 
rights and you ought to make the "powers that be" feel that woman is not 
to be ignored any longer. Even at your separate conference of woman 
teachers you have men to talk to you. Why in the world didn't you get com- 
petent women teachers? There must be some women in all this broad land 
who are as capable as Dr. Winship and Mr. McAndrew and it is your busi- 
ness to "boost" them into notice. Men will get there anyway. You see I 
call you to account for not standing up for women as I think you ought. 

Miss Haley endeavored to set herself right and still offered 
every possible inducement for Miss Anthony to go to the con- 
vention but on June 27 she wrote : 

Your commands are very pressing and if I numbered only sixty-three 
instead of eighty-three I should be inclined to obey; but, as it is, I think the 
better part of discretion for me is to say no, though in spirit I shall be with 
you through the entire meeting. I shall live over fifty years ago this very 
summer when the New York State Teachers' Association met in this city of 
Rochester. Then no woman's voice had been heard in convention, though 
three-fourths of the members were women. I can see today the little hand- 
ful of men who sat on the platform and in the seats nearest to it, and the 
thousand women in the body of the hall. I shall never forget what con- 
sternation seized those men when I said, "Mr. President"— -but I will not go 
through that story. 

The right to speak in public is now admitted and the right to engage in all 
the different trades and professions; but that it is not easy for women to 
gain a position and salary equal to those of men is still true. The battle now 
is the same as fifty years ago — to get equal pay for equal work and equal 
eligibility to the highest salaried positions. Even in States where the law 
requires that there shall be no discrimination against women, men are 
appointed to the highest places as a rule. It is woman's necessity to earn a 
living that causes her to take less wages than a man receives. This is an 
appeal to the parsimony of the employer, for it is a law of economics to get 
as much work done as possible and as good as possible for the least amount 
of pay. Women must take what they are offered or nothing. I do not see 
any hope of a change in this matter until women are enfranchised and until 
they combine and control their work and wages as do men. If you tell the 
teachers of the East of what you have done in Chicago without the ballot 


and show them how much more you might have done with it, it seems to me 
that you will make the best argument that can be made for the enfranchise- 
ment of women. 

But even if the right to vote brought to woman no better work, no better 
pay, no better conditions in any way, she should have it for her own self- 
respect and to compel man's respect for her. He will never feel that she is 
his equal, in the school room or anywhere else, while she is denied the right 
of having her opinion counted upon every question that comes to the arbitra- 
ment of the ballot box. So, my dear president and my dear fellow teachers, 
after fifty years' study of the best way to equalize the work and wages of 
women, I see none save that of making them the political peers of men; 
giving them the vote with which they will have the power to shape and con- 
trol their own conditions in the home, the school, the work-shop and the 
State. They must have a voice in the election of every officer who makes or 
administers the laws. There is no other power given in this republican form 
of government whereby the different classes of citizens shall be equalized. 
Perfect equality of rights— civil and political — ^is and must continue to be 
the demand of all self-respecting women. 

A last letter was written on July 6, after the teachers were 
assembling for the convention : 

Your long letter and then your telegraph message came duly, but I could 
not say yea to them. I know you feel that I ought to be in Boston with 
you in this crucial hour, and if I could go "on the wings of the wind" and 
be set down there for a little while and then hie me back to my home, I 
might consider it, but the thought of the crowds of women that will be there 
overwhelms me. So you must give my love to all of them and tell them, 
each and all, that they must stand up for the rights of women, not only for 
themselves and for their own advancement, but for the rights of woman as 
woman. You teachers today will make the precedent for those of tomorrow, 
just as the teachers of the past made a precedent for you to be ignored on 
the program today. Had those of each year been true to woman's best inter- 
ests you would have a great deal easier time in asserting yourselves now. 
I hope you will maintain the right of women to be on the Program Com- 
mittee next year, and that you will insist upon their equal recognition with 
men in all positions of honor and emolument. Women should have equal 
pay for equal work and they should be considered equally eligible to the 
offices of principal and superintendent, professor and president. So you 
must insist that qualifications, not sex, shall govern appointments and sal- 

Miss Anthony, the Rev. Anna Howard Shaw, Mrs. Charlotte 
Perkins Oilman and others, went to Lily Dale, August 4, for a 

^ It is a matter of regret that because of limited space the spirited fight made at this 
convention by Miss Haley and her supporters, and its partial success, cannot be recorded. 

[1903] MISS Anthony's domestic life. 1293 

week of women's meetings. The "City of Light" was ablaze 
with yellow bunting and decorations ; a carriage was waiting for 
Miss Anthony which it was the intention to have drawn by men 
but a heavy rain caused horses to be substituted. She presided 
at part of the sessions, some of which were attended by 3,000 
people. As usual she was the guest of the president, Mrs. Abby 
Louise Pettengill, and she wrote in her diary : "Everything has 
been delightful, though it never can be quite as it was in dear 
Marian Skidmore's lifetime." 

When Miss Anthony returned home she found a little missive 
from Mrs. Gannett dated at the old Grandfather Anthony home- 
stead in the Berkshire Hills : "It is almost nine o'clock and Will 
and I are cosily settled in this dear, old-timey place with all its 
tender memories. We just love it and are so glad you put us up 
to coming here for the night. How beautiful it is — ^no wonder 
you cherish the place. We went by train to Williamstown, saw 
the town and college and then came here on our bicycles. To- 
morrow we shall see your birthplace. We feel as if we were your 
guests — only we wish we could have you here. Dear love from us 
both." And Mr. Gannett added a postscript : "Greylock has a 
great white scar down its side from top to bottom which you 
probably never saw — made by a cloud burst two summers ago. 
Yes, we're glad we came here. I've chosen the 'family room' to 
sleep in, even though Mrs. Daniels says the bed is harder than 
the one in her own guest room." 

Among the few existing copies of Miss Anthony's letters for 
the year is this answer to the maker of a bicycle calendar who 
asked for a sentiment : "Women generally live too much indoors 
and the bicycle helps to outdoor exercise and amusement and is 
therefore a godsend to them. A girl never looks so independent, 
so much as if she felt as good as a boy, as on her wheel. I think 
the bicycle has done more to emancipate women from the thrall- 
dom of fashion than any other one thing, and I hope it will not 
go out of use. But, after all, women must have a right to a voice 
in the government under which they live, they must be able to 
say who shall make the laws and who enforce them, before they 


can be free and equal with men. I look, therefore, for woman's 
entire emancipation to her full enfranchisement." Then came 
this delectable finish to the letter : ''I think the above will answer, 
but, whatever you leave out, do not omit my demand for the 
ballot. Anything else you may drop !" 

In August Miss Anthony wrote to Dr. George E. Vincent, 
head of the Chautauqua Institution : 

I have noted your grand symposiums on the liquor traffic and mob law; 
they have been productive of great good. This fact suggests to me that you 
would do well next year to have a symposium on the woman suffrage ques- 
tion. The opponents could surely find one woman or man*who could do their 
side justice, and we could find a great many women, and men, too, to pre- 
sent the affirmative. Our question has now assumed such importance as to 
be considered in all the magazines and newspapers of the country, and it 
seems to me that a whole week for its discussion would be none too much. 

The opinion of one-half the people on every public question is now ignored. 
If women's opinions were counted equally with men's there is no doubt that 
the liquor question could be settled in a more satisfactory manner and that 
the guilty parties in mob violence would be dealt with in a way to put an 
end to the outrage. All the social and religious matters of the day would 
become questions of importance to men because of women's opinions having 
to be reckoned with; whereas today, with only men at the ballot box, they 
receive but slight attention. They are talked of in moral reform and religious 
gatherings, but they do not enter into the political arena, and hence are not 
considered of any great moment. There can be nothing done to promote 
the highest and best interests of society equal to improving the character of 
the voting constituency. 

I hope you will take this request into serious consideration and will an-' 
nounce in your program for next year a week's sjrmposium on the Woman 
Question and have Miss Shaw, Mrs. Annis F. Eastman, Miss Ida C. Hultin 
or some other woman minister preach the Sunday sermon that week. Thus 
you would place the Chautauqua Assembly on the side of fairness to women 
and in favor of counting every responsible opinion in gathering up public 
sentiment to be crystallized into law. 

Dr. Vincent did not permit a woman minister to preach a 
Sunday sermon at Chautauqua — this never has been allowed 
there — but he did cheerfully consent to a symposium similar to 
the one suggested by Miss Anthony and offered to place arrange- 
ments for it in her hands and those of the board of the National 
Suffrage Association. It soon developed, however, that Miss 
Anthony herself and nearly all of the women she would want 

[1903] MISS Anthony's domestic life. 1295 

on the program would be in Europe during the summer of 1904 
attending the International Council of Women/ 

The women of Colorado were arranging for a jubilee during 
the autumn of 1903 to celebrate the tenth anniversary of their 
enfranchisement and they used every possible inducement to per- 
suade Miss Anthony to give it "the culminating glory of her 
presence." She longed to go but the uncertain state of her health 
made it imperative for her to refuse. 

The Business Committee of the National American Suffrage 
Association were invited to hold their fall meeting at Mt. Airy, 
a suburb of Philadelphia, in the home of Miss Shaw, vice-presi- 
dent-at-large. Miss Anthony and most of the board stopped in 
New York on the way and were the guests of the Equal Suffrage 
League, November 5, at a large meeting in the parlors of the 
Hotel Majestic, held in memory of Mrs. Stanton. Miss Anthony 
was very happy in Miss Shaw's pleasant home, tenderly cared for 
by her niece, Lucy Anthony, and surroimded by these trusted 
women into whose hands she had given her precious work. 

The suffragists of Philadelphia gladly seized upon this op- 
portune time to tender a banquet to Miss Anthony in the New 
Century Club rooms. About two-hundred-and-fifty were at the 
table, including representatives of the various women's clubs and 
a number of men. The address of welcome was made by the 
mayor ; Mr. Rudolph Blankenburg was among the speakers, and 
Miss Jane Campbell, president of the Philadelphia Suffrage Club 
of six hundred members, read one of the humorous poems for 
which she was noted. The Public Ledger thus began its report : 

Mrs. Lucretia L. Blankenburg, President of the Pennsylvania Woman 
Suffrage Association, presided, with Miss Anthony on her right. The ven- 
erable woman suffrage champion was easily the most distinguished and im- 
pressive looking person present. Although she will be eighty- four years old 
next February, her bright eyes beamed in turn with humor or benignity as 
she spoke or listened to those speaking. Apparently no one more thoroughly 
enjoyed the evening. Neither in appearance nor voice did she give signs of 

1 In the summer of 1905 most of the best speakers attended the National Suffrage Con- 
vention in Portland, Oregon, and remained on the Pacific Coast during July and August. 
In 1906 they went to the meeting of the International Suffrage Alliance in Copenhagen^ 
and the desired s3rmposium at Chautauqua has not yet taken place. 


her advanced years, although she referred to herself as the "grandmother" 
of most of those now actively engaged in the struggle for woman suffrage. 
Portraits of Miss Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were hung against 
the rear wall of the stage, where a woman played a golden harp, half con- 
cealed behind palms. 

Miss Anthony gave reminiscences of her first visit to Phila- 
delphia, in 1854, when she attended an anti-slavery meeting in 
Sansom Street Hall and was the guest of James and Lucretia 
Mott in their home on Arch Street. There was a strong note of 
optimism and cheer in her closing sentences admonishing the 
women not to be discouraged and assuring them of final victory. 

The attic work rooms in the Anthony home had been reopened 
during these autumn months and business resumed at the old 
stand. When the last volume of the History was published it 
was decided that after waiting a reasonable length of time for its 
statements to be questioned, all the letters and documents used 
in its preparation which were not to be permanently preserved, 
should be destroyed. As there had been no suits for libel and no 
challenges of any kind after it had had the widest circulation for 
six months, it seemed safe to begin the work of destruction, and 
the present writer, having a little time to spare, went to Rochester 
early in September. The mass of material used in the Biography 
was also still packed away in boxes taking up room needed for 
other things. Miss Anthony concluded she would give her per- 
sonal attention to this matter, so each morning she would seat 
herself on one side of the table, the writer on the other, and a big 
box of old letters would be dumped out between them. Then 
the writer would pick up a package and say, "These are from So- 
and-So and should be thrown away.*' "Well, I think they'd 
better be saved," Miss Anthony would answer and lay them 
aside. "This is a lot from Mrs. A. ; she is dead and they are now 
of no consequence whatever." "O, her children might want them 
and I believe we'll put them away." It soon became evident that 
the most of the documents were going back into the boxes again 
to be surely destroyed sometime in the future, and finally the 
writer said : "Now there is no use in my wasting time here for 
you are not going to allow this trash to be burned." "I can't 

[1903] MISS Anthony's domestic life. 1297 

overcome the habit of a lifetime," replied Miss Anthony, "which 
has been to save every scrap of writing, and the only way for me 
is to wash my hands of the whole business," which she proceeded 
to do literally and figuratively. 

Miss Mary rejoiced in the holocaust, it couldn't be made 
quickly enough. The time and labor these accumulations had cost 
her extended back into the dark ages and she could joyfully have 
imitated Nero while they were burning. This, however, proved 
to be a serious matter. It was begun in the furnace but soon it 
became evident that it could be done here only by someone's put- 
ting in the letters continuously, as every day they filled several 
large waste-baskets and the big clothes-hamper. They couldn't 
be sold to the ragman for obvious reasons. The city ordinances 
did not allow fires in back yards and Miss Mary never broke a 
law. At last she was simply forced to commit a misdemeanor — 
many of them — and every morning for weeks she slipped down 
stairs at daybreak, built a bonfire behind the woodhouse and 
stood over it with a big shovel to prevent its starting a conflagra- 
tion. The neighbors wondered where all the flying particles of 
burnt paper came from and the strain on Miss Mary's Puritan 
conscience was almost more than she could endure. All valuable 
autograph letters and all of historical importance were saved; 
the family letters were laid aside for Miss Anthony's disposal; 
all of her own were preserved; Mrs. Stanton's — ^hundreds of 
them — ^were sent to her children; Lucy Stone's to Miss Black- 
well, and many others to the families of the writers. The task 
consumed every working hour for almost a month. 

When all this was done it was decided to begin another "big 
job," as Miss Anthony tersely and appropriately termed the un- 
dertakings which went on under that roof. It had always been 
felt that the Biography was incomplete with only an index of 
proper names and that its value would be greatly enhanced by a 
thorough index of subjects. Now was the time to make it, before 
a second edition was published, and the writer agreed to do the 
work if Miss Anthony could stand the annoyance. So Miss Mary 
resumed her occupation of pastemaking and with the sacrificing 
-spirit of a martyr consented once more to have her kitchen made 


an annex to the attic work rooms. With the help of two and 
sometimes three assistants two full months were required simply 
to get the copy for this index ready for the publishers, the proof- 
reading being done elsewhere, but Miss Anthony was most 
pleased to have the book made complete. On December 4, 1903, 
the writer finished her work in this home which she had first 
entered February 6, 1897, and, although such a thing was little 
anticipated then, it so happened that she never visited it again 
during the lifetime of Miss Anthony. 

No woman in the United States had had so much written about 
her as Susan B. Anthony and yet the world at large knew only 
of her public work and nothing of her domestic life. Pearson's 
Magazine, wishing to present this side, sent an artist to Rochester 
to make interior views of the residence and requested the present 
writer to prepare an article. This appeared in the March number 
of 1903, entitled "Miss Anthony at Home," and is here repro- 
duced in part with the thought that it may possess an interest for 
present and future readers. 

"The time has almost but not entirely gone by when a woman 
who demands the franchise is by this very act arraigned, tried 
and convicted for being entirely destitute of the traditional wom- 
anly virtues. The four principal originators and leaders of the 
movement for woman suffrage, half-a-century ago, were Lucretia 
Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucy Stone and Susan B. An- 
thony. The first three married, kept house and brought up fam- 
ilies of children, and thus were able to refute by practical example 
the almost universal charge that a desire for the ballot destroyed 
every domestic instinct. Miss Anthony, however, remained single 
and thus made herself the conspicuous target for the arrows of 
criticism and reproach. The fact that she refused more than one 
advantageous offer of marriage because of her intense devotion 
to her father, mother and home offered no defense against the 
accusation, but only added one more act of disobedience to the 

[1903] MISS Anthony's domestic life. 1299 

Holy Scriptures, which make *cleaving^ to parents a secondary 

"The writer of this sketch speaks from the viewpoint of one 
who has spent the greater part of the last six years under Miss 
Anthony's own roof — ^first in writing her Biography and after- 
wards in preparing Volume IV of The History of Woman Suf- 
frage, The former work included the reading of hundreds of 
Miss Anthony's letters to her relatives, and the diaries which 
she has kept for over half-a-century, and at the end of it all the 
assertion can be conscientiously made that no woman ever pos- 
sessed in a greater degree the love of family and the instinct for 
home. Now, after more than fifty years of going up and down 
the earth, 'eating other people's bread and salt and climbing 
other people's stairs,' she still clings with the deepest intensity 
of her strong nature to the fireside around which once were 
gathered all those she held most dear, but where at this begin- 
ning of the new century she and one only sister sit alone. All the 
beautiful homes in which of late years she has been a welcome 
guest, all the distinguished people who have paid her honor, have 
not diminished in the slightest degree her devotion to her own 
modest home and the staunch but unassuming friends of the early 
days of misrepresentation and ostracism. 

"The two sisters have lived for almost forty years in Rochester, 
N. Y., in a home hallowed by the death of many members of 
the family, and among its sacred associations they expect to spend 
their remaining days. Good-naturedly sarcastic friends often urge 
them to hang out a sign — ^The Wayside Inn — ^for it is indeed a 
hostelry in the number of its guests. There is always an extra 
plate on the table, and a friend in the house at meal time always 
is pressed to stay. There is no fuss or worry but she enjoys the 
simple and wholesome fare as one of the family. If Miss An- 
thony's hospitality ended here it would present no problems to 
the Mary who should have been named Martha, but it is no un- 
common thing for three or four guests to arrive a few minutes 
before supper in response to a pressing invitation from Miss 
Anthony which she forgot to mention at home, and the larder 


always has to be kept in a state of preparation for these 'surprise 
parties/ The three 'spare beds' often prove none too many for 
those who stay from one night to seven or more. Rochester is on 
a highway between the East and the West, and it is a veritable 
Mecca for women, who look upon a visit at its shrine as the event 
of a lifetime, and arrange their journeys, often at great incon- 
venience, to spend a night under the roof of Susan B. Anthony. 
Sometimes, though not often, the gentle sister remonstrates, but 
Miss Anthony always answers, *The greatest happiness I have is 
in receiving my friends in my own home. Think of the people 
who have entertained me during all these years. I regard the 
many presents of money and household articles which have been 
given me for my personal needs as put in trust for me to use in 
this way.' 

"In looking over an old diary I find this entry made during 
the first days I ever spent in this pleasant home, when arrange- 
ments for celebrating her birthday were in preparation : 'What 
a housekeeper is Susan B. Anthony, domestic in every fiber of 
her body! What would the world say if it could see her, as I have 
done the past week, going from garret to cellar, hunting up cob- 
webs and dust that nobody else had seen, making out bills of 
fare with the cook, counting the dishes and table linen, taking the 
best sheets and towels out of the lavender-scented drawers, de- 
vising every means for the comfort of her guests — a perfect 
manager. The order and neatness here gratify my soul.' And 
again : 'We have been preparing a magazine article today and 
while I held the pen and we discussed the points, she sat by the 
fire and hemmed towels. "Oh, I wish I had nothing else to do the 
rest of my life," she said, "but to sit quietly down in my own 
home and dam stockings and hem towels, and gather my friends 
about me and have one read while the rest of us listened and then 
all discuss it." ' There are no girls of modern times who can take 
such infinitesimal stitches, learned in the days when women 
hemmed by hand all their own ruffles and furbelows and stitched 
the tucks and frills which adorned the shirt-bosoms of the men 
of the family. Miss Anthony never has suggested wasrs for re- 
pairing the damages of society with one-half the skill she em- 













[1903] MISS Anthony's domestic life. 1301 

ployed in teaching her nieces her wonderful method of darning 
rents in garments and household linen. 

"The very choicest guest is allowed to sleep under the Vose 
blankets* and the mother's bed-spread, and there is something 
exquisite in the touch which she gives to that fine product of 
her mother's weaving a hundred years ago. The favored guests 
also may drink tea from the mother's cups, imported from Eng- 
land before fine china was manufactured in this country, and 
may use the thin, silver spoons which were a part of the paternal 
grandmother's marriage dowry in the century before the last. 

"Miss Anthony's daily life is very simple and almost ascetic. 
She rises at seven, and, no matter what the temperature, steps at 
once into the bath tub. All her life she has used cold water, but 
since she was eighty she has been persuaded to allow the chill to 
be taken off. When she comes down to breakfast with her silver 
hair brushed softly over her ears and coiled smoothly in the back, 
and a big white apron tied around her waist, she looks like a 
lovely grandmother, and it wrenches the imagination to think of 
her standing on a platform and daring a mob, or rising in a court 
room and defying a United States Judge. She is womanly in 
every instinct, in the dainty toilet articles she likes on her dress- 
ing-table, the delicate bits of jewelry and lace which adorn her 
gowns, the love for the quiet, refined and artistic in everything. 
Her diet is strictly of the feminine order — tea and coffee, bread 
and butter, vegetables, a morsel of dessert and quantities of fruit 
— but unfeminine in its absence of pastry and confectionery. 
Her home is Quaker-like in its simplicity, very hygienic and very 
comfortable, with thick rugs and rocking-chairs, old-fashioned 
couches and beds that invite to more slumber than one is likely 
to get unless she retires early. 

"In this peaceful abode, however, the spirit of work reigns 
supreme. It has no room for idleness. Everywhere are books, 
magazines, newspapers and writing materials. Several times a 
day the postman comes heavily-laden, and several large consign- 
ments of mail are sent out daily. Since Miss Anthony's retire- 
ment from the presidency of the National Suffrage Association 


in 1900 her duties have been less exacting, but her whole thought 
has been centered for the past two years in the last volume of the 
History. Her one and only fear has been that she would not live 
to see it completed. It records the end of my work/ she said ; 
but on the contrary it will be *her work' that will go on until 
all for which she hoped and wrought has been accomplished. 
Every woman who is struggling today to secure absolute freedom 
for her sex, and all who will strive in the future, will act under 
her direct inspiration. Her written words will be an invocation, 
her memory a benediction, and it will be because she lived and 
toiled that other women will have courage and strength to carry 
her cause to its inevitable triumph. 

"Those who never have seen Miss Anthony ac home are in total 
ignorance of one side of her character, the soft and mellow side, 
the tender, considerate and affectionate side. Even here the 
Quaker inheritance prevents any declaration in words, but every 
act speaks. There is a constant watchfulness for the comfort of 
others and a sacrifice of self for somebody else. The young guest 
will find a hot-water bag in the foot of her bed on a cold night 
while the octogenarian will do without it. She always has an ex- 
cuse for the one who speaks a hasty word or does a selfish thing, 
but it is very hard for her to excuse a silly person. Miss Mary 
will tolerate a fool before she will a knave, but Miss Anthony 
has more patience with the knave. Her forbearance with women, 
however, is beyond an)rthing which can be put into words. What- 
ever their vices, frailties, follies or shortcomings, she is ever 
ready with an apology, and it is always that the world has no right 
to expect anything better from those it has treated as children, as 
playthings, as slaves ; that women must be absolutely free and in- 
dependent, and that there must be several generations of freedom 
and independence, before they can be justly held to a strict ac- 

"A little incident will illustrate her ever-present loyalty to her 
sex. She was summoned from the dinner table one day to receive 
a telegram announcing the arrival of a nephew's first baby — ^a 
daughter. When she came back she said : *I sent my love and 

[1903] MISS Anthony's domestic life. 1303 

congratulations, and I wanted to add, "A girl is as good as a boy," 
but thought I wouldn't pay for so many words.' 

"Miss Anthony's generosity is of an impulsive character and 
sometimes leads to domestic complications. One afternoon the 
house was pervaded with the delicious odor of baking ginger- 
bread, which the family looked forward to enjoying with their 
tea, but when supper time came no gingerbread was to be found. 
Skilful questioning elicited the information that a poor woman 
had come in quest of food and when she exclaimed, 'Oh, how 
good that cake smells !' Miss Anthony popped it into her basket. 
At another time the ample remains of Sunday's roast were set 
aside to furnish the washday dinner on Monday, but during the 
morning three things happened almost simultaneously : The roast 
disappeared from the pantry shelf, a tramp went out the back gate 
and Miss Anthony shut the kitchen door with a guilty look — 
which was understood when the family were obliged to partake of 
a meatless dinner. . . . 

"There never was a human being who loved her kith and kin 
with deeper and more steadfast affection. The reader must study 
Miss Anthony's Biography to appreciate fully this strong trait in 
her character. It begins with the passionate longing for those at 
home poured out on the pages of the boarding-school girl's diary, 
and finds expression again and again in the letters from the young 
school teacher, from the amateur lecturer, through the exacting 
days of the Civil War and the work of the Loyal League, and on 
and on, during all the life of the great reformer, with its long 
journeys, its heavy burdens, its sorrows and joys, its disappoint- 
ments and triumphs. There was always the yearning for home, 
the clinging to those around its hearthstone. She was never too 
busy, never too tired, never too much engrossed in public duties, 
I to write the almost daily letters to her family. The death of each 
member wrenched her heart-strings to the point of breaking, and 
although such anniversaries are now indeed many she never for- 
gets one. She is a thorough believer in cremation for the dead, 
but there is reason to think she will not request this method in her 
own case because of her overpowering desire to be laid in the last, 

long sleep by the side of her beloved in the beautiful cemetery 
Ant. Ill— 13 



overlooking the Genesee River. Had Miss Anthony married, she 
would have been a devoted wife, an efficient mother, but the world 
would have missed its strongest reformer and womankind their 
greatest benefactor. It will be of far more value to posterity that 
she gave to all the qualities which in marriage would have been 
absorbed by the few. 

• •••••• 

"Many women have said that they never can look at Miss An- 
thony's picture without being moved to tears at what she has suf- 
fered for them and their children. Certainly no one can gaze into 
her face, its every line telling a story of patience, fortitude, cour- 
age and persistence, without a feeling of deepest gratitude and 
admiration, mingled with one of resentment at the persecutions 
she suffered in the early days and the misrepresentations of all 
the passing years. To those who know her she is the embodiment 
' of the domestic virtues and the womanly graces ; the lover and the 
defender of the fireside; one who has given a long life of splendid 
endeavor to put the home on a juster and happier basis, to make 
women stronger and nobler, to bring the practices of this great re- 
public into harmony with its principles, to create conditions which 
will insure better citizens and purer government — ^ woman whose 
I every act and aim has been toward a higher civilization." 






fMONG the many beautiful letters received by Miss 
Anthony for Christmas and the New Year and for 
her birthday of 1904, two seem especially worthy of 
being preserved. One was from Mrs. Ellen Clark 
Sargent, of San Francisco, who sent a gift, ac- 
knowledged the receipt from Miss Anthony of Mrs. Stanton's 
essay on The Pleasures of Old Age and said : "I agree with all 
Mrs. Stanton writes about the pleasures of age. It brings no re- 
grets to me. I have learned to accept people as they are, with all 
the limitations and frailties that belong to the human family. I 
love them none the less for some faults but perhaps better, as a 
sort of divine pity accompanies the thought that what they do 
that is wrong may be accounted for by inheritance or environment 
which they could not control ; and we cannot know how sorry they 
may be for their errors nor how much they may desire to over- 
come their defects. As for old age, I can say that to be free from 
the carking cares which seem to belong to one's earlier years is in 
itself happiness. Old age is the spirit freed from most of the 
earthly follies. With all the disadvantages that I myself experi- 
ence I consider it, with few exceptions, the happiest time of my 
life. If we live to be old we must have parted with some of those 
who are nearest and dearest, but even that condition has its com- 
fort in sweet memories and sweeter hopes." 

The other letter was from Mrs. Jacob Bright, of England, in 
answer to the receipt of Miss Anthony's Biography in which she 
had put a copy of Mrs. Stanton's address on The Solitude of Self: 
"I am very glad to have the book. What a tremendous work you 
have done, what a life of self-sacrifice you have led! But can 



it really be called self-sacrifice when one is working for that which 
is nearest her heart — ^the good of humanity ? It is not the real self 
that is sacrificed, only the lower personality which gets very tired 
sometimes with the heavy demands made upon it. ... I have 
read with the greatest interest Mrs. Cady Stanton's address, but, 
dear Miss Anthony, does it not seem to you that to realize the 
grandeur of that solitude and be able to sustain it, requires a much 
larger mental and spiritual development than the mass of men 
and women are capable of? And would the one able to maintain it 
feel any interest whatever in the ephemeral political and social in- 
stitutions among which he might happen to live? The truth is 
that almost no one would be able to bear it, for there is a universal 
cry for union, love, helpfulness, sacrifice. The assertion of self 
against the world, necessary as it has been for the development of 
humanity in the past, has overtopped its meridian and will have to 
give place to a wider altruism." 

The winter of 1904 was so cold and stormy that Miss Anthony 
recorded in her diary, "Eleven Sundays since I have been able to 
go to church ;" and, "I have attended only four of the ten lectures 
given under the auspices of the Political Equality Club." She was 
1 1 therefore glad indeed to turn her face toward Washington, where 
/ the National Suffrage Convention was to be held February 11- 17. 
She went down on the 6th and stopped with the other national of- 
ficers at the Shoreham, where she was the guest of the proprietor 
and his wife. The Woman's Journal in its account of the meet- 
ings said : "Here is Miss Anthony, as full of interest as a young 
woman, and in so great demand by friends and reporters that the 
telephone wires leading up to her room are kept hot with requests 
for her to come down to the parlor and speak to somebody. When 
Mr. and Mrs. Devine, the genial proprietor of the Shoreham and 
his wife, invited her to visit their rooms at the top of the hotel 
and see the wide and beautiful view, regret was expressed that it 
would be necessary for her to walk up one short flight of steps. A 
friend remarked that she would not mind this, as she was in the 
habit of running up and down stairs as lightly as a girl. "No," 
said Miss Anthony, "I do not do that any longer because I don't 
think it wise, but I never walked up stairs till after I was eighty !" 


For several years Miss Anthony's active participation in these 
conventions had been growing less, but she still took a full part 
in the meetings of the Business Committee ; sat on the platform 
at all the public sessions ; made her brief speeches, which were of 
more force than other people's long addresses, and was, as ever, 
the center from which the interest and influence radiated. The 
Post said, "The opening session was an ovation to Miss An- 
thony." She presided on the evening devoted to Colorado, and 
the pride with which she introduced the speakers from that State 
was delightful to see — former Governor Alva Adams, Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction Helen Loring Grenfell, and other 
women prominent in the politics of the State, including the chair- 
men of the Democratic and the Republican Women's State Cen- 
tral Committees. Miss Anthony went one evening to the Army 
and Navy Reception at the White House, a ticket being sent with 
her invitation which took her carriage to the private entrance and 
enabled her to avoid the crowd. She was constantly surrounded 
by distinguished people and Miss Alice Roosevelt left a party of 
friends saying, "I must speak to Miss Anthony, she is my father's 
special guest." The next day she told the convention in her in- 
imitable way that when she was presented to Mr. Roosevelt she 
said, "Now, Mr. President, we don't intend to trouble you during 
the campaign, but after you are elected, then look out for us !" 

On Sunday, the 14th, Mrs. John B. Henderson gave a twelve 
o'clock breakfast in honor of Miss Anthony, and in the evening 
a quiet social reunion for the delegates and friends was held in 
the banquet room of the Shoreham. On the isth, her eighty- 
fourth birthday, all were received at the White House at two 
o'clock ; later they went to a reception in the interesting home of 
Miss Clara Barton, at Glen Echo, and greatly enjoyed seeing the 
decorations, jewels and trophies presented by the sovereigns and 
nations of the world, such as have been bestowed on no other 
American woman. The last evening, when Miss Anthony was 
presented to the convention, she brought Miss Barton with her 
to the front of the stage and the audience rose in enthusiastic 
recognition of the two great women. The founder of the Na- 
tional Woman Suffrage Association introduced the founder of 


the National Red Cross Society in words of affection and esteem, 
and Miss Barton responded in the same strain, giving her ad- 
herence then as always to Miss Anthony and the cause of woman. 
AAt this convention Mrs. Chapman Catt declined to stand again 
its candidate for the presidency, which she had held four years. 
{The association was most reluctant to have her leave the position 
she had so ably filled, but the impaired state of her health was so 
evident that the necessity for it was recognized. There was, of 
/ course, but one other woman thought of to take the place — the 
J Rev. Anna Howard Shaw — and she felt this to be impossible for 
1 the same reason which compelled her to decline it when Miss 
\Anthony retired from the office. She would not have yielded to 
the almost unanimous desire of the delegates but could not resist 
the earnest and long-continued entreaties of Miss Anthony, and 
so she accepted the great responsibility. 

. Miss Anthony presided at the hearing before the Senate Com- 
' mittee and in her closing remarks she spoke with a voice that 
faltered a little, in spite of her effort at self-control, of having 
made her appeals before the committees of every Congress since 
f 1869 ; she told how at the close of the Civil War the women were 
I bidden to stand aside and wait till the negro man had his rights, 
and then, after a pause, she said : "We have waited ; we stood 
aside for the negro; we waited for the millions of immigrants; 
now we must wait till the Hawaiians, the Filipinos and the Porto 
Ricans are enfranchised; then no doubt the Cubans will have 
their turn. For all these ignorant, alien peoples educated, Amer- 
ican-bom women have been compelled to stand aside and waitl 
How long will this injustice, this outrage, continue ?" 
j The association accepted an invitation to hold its next conven- 
tion in Portland, Ore., and it happened that the one of 1906 went 
'/ to Baltimore, so this was the last convention, and it was also the 
/ last committee hearing that Miss Anthony ever attended in 
j Washington. An interview which she gave at this time for the 
New York Sun closed as follows: "I have never lost my faith, 
• not for a moment in fifty years. In every great cause there must 
be infinite patience, supreme philosophy. These we have had and 
what is the situation today? Every demand made fifty years 



Aigo — ^with a single exception — has been granted in full or in 
/part ; the battle is so far won as to be practically conceded. . . . 
[ The world never has witnessed a greater revolution than in the 
1 status of woman during this past half-century." 
yMiss Anthony did not linger in the capital as usual but re- 
ytumed home on February 19, as she needed to utilize her strength 
/ in the preparations for the large undertaking which was before 
/ her — a trip to Berlin to attend the International Council and Con- 
V gress of Women ! When all started homeward after the meeting 
of the Council in London, in 1899, Miss Anthony, then in her 
eightieth year, said, "Now, g^rls, remember that you will have to 
manage the next Quinquennial without me," and here she was in 
her eighty-fifth year preparing to make the 4,000-mile journey 
and again take a hand in the "managing." Those who were ap- 
prehensive as to this action felt that even if attended with serious 
results it would not be so hard for her as to remain at home alone 
through the summer with all her nearest and dearest coworkers 
on the other side of the ocean at the sixteenth anniversary of the 
splendid organization which she had had so large a part in foimd- 
ing. Her longing to go, her desire to meet again her friends 
7 from all parts of the world, were so intense that not one who 
I loved her had the courage to voice an objection. It was consid- 
« ered very important, however, that Miss Mary should accompany 
her and this that lady most strenuously objected to. She had 
"done" Europe in 1899, she was seventy-seven years old herself, 
and she wanted to remain in the quiet and peace of her own home. 
But when it was pointed out that in case Miss Anthony should be 
ill nobody could understand her as she did, and that the near 
friends would have such urgent duties in connection with the 
meetings that it would be difficult for them to give the time that 
might be required, she uncomplainingly sacrificed her own de- 
sires, just as she had done all her life, and prepared for the 

^It may be said at this point that nobody at the Congress got more unalloyed enjoy- 
ment out of it than Miss Mary; that Miss Anthony was not ill a day all summer and was 
glad every hour that she made the trip; and that her presence was a pleasure to thou- 
sands of women and an inestimable benefit to the Council. 


The officers and committees of the German Council of Women 
who had charge of the arrangements for the international meet- 
ing were most anxious that it should have the prestige of Miss 
Anthony's presence. In October, 1903, she had received from 
Frau Marie Stritt, president, and the Baroness von Beschwitz, 
secretary, of the National Council of Germany, the following 
official letter : 

The Executive of the Bund deutscher Frauenvereine have charged us to 
present their respectful greetings to you and invite you to take part in the 
proceedings of the International Congress of Women to be held at Berlin in 
June, 1904. Your presence would largely contribute to the success of this im- 
portant gathering and be a source of satisfaction and enthusiasm for the 
women meeting here from all parts of the world. 

We fully recognize that our invitation involves a great sacrifice for you 
but we also know that in a measure you would be repaid by the unbounded 
gratitude of the whole Congress, and by your own feeling of rendering such 
an invaluable service to the cause of women. We should be happy to try to 
make everything as easy and pleasant as possible for you and we should 
consider the moment of your first address to the Congress a historical event 
in the Woman's Movement in Germany. 

We still have to thank you for the kind greetings sent to the recent meet- 
ing of the Executive of the International Council of Women in Dresden. 
Since then your wishes concerning the harmony, dignity and loyalty of the 
proceedings have been kept in mind and fulfilled, and all misunderstandings 
have been cleared. 

We beg to add to this official letter the expression of our personal respect 
and admiration, and are, dear Miss Anthony, with highest regards and 
heartfelt greetings, very sincerely yours. 

Later the Baroness said in a personal letter: "It makes me 
quite sad to think that you may be prevented from coming to 
Berlin. Every woman who will be here for this occasion would 
be happy to avail herself of the opportunity of seeing you and 
being able to thank you for what you have done for womankind. 
That I have already had this privilege is one of my most precious 
memories. It would be a great joy to meet you again and your 
dear sister also. Frau Stritt unites with me in love to you." 
From Fraulein Helene Lange, Chairman of the Committee on 
Education and Higher Culture, came the cordial words : "I hope 
with all my heart that you will be able to come over to the Con- 
gress. I do not think that will tempt you, but surely you would 


be the most beloved and revered woman of the whole gathering. 
We all know what you have done for women and I trust you will 
not disappoint those who wish to see you in person, among whom 
I myself am most desirous." Similar letters were received from 
many countries of Europe and from Australia and New Zealand, 
and these, added to her own strong wish not only to be present at 
the great meeting but to do whatever lay in her power to con- 
tribute to its success, decided her to go to Berlin. 

A number of farewell entertainments were given in Rochester 
for the prospective voyagers. One pleasant incident was the as- 
sembling in their home of the Eleventh Ward W. C T. U., of 
which Miss Mary was a member, with their husbands and chil- 
dren, about seventy-five in all, to say good-by. During the even- 
ing twenty-four pupils from School No. 2, where Miss Mary was 
so long principal, came in and sang a clever little song composed 
by Miss Florence Howard, with this stirring chorus : 

Hurrah I hurrah I for noble Susan B. 

Hurrah 1 hurrah! for dear Miss Anthony. 

Among our country's heroes, with the honored she shall be. 

When we have gained woman suffrage. 

This was followed by an interesting program, after which the 
president of the union, Mrs. W. L. Howard, told of the warm 
regard felt for the two sisters by their neighbors of many years 
and the desire to express that feeling through this meeting ; and 
Miss Anthony made a tender response for herself and Miss Mary 
which showed how much they appreciated this neighborly dem- 

All of the Rochester papers gave them editorial good-bys and 
best wishes. When they left home the morning of May 17 a 
large number of friends were at the station with books, flowers, 
fruit and other offerings to make the voyage pleasant, and while 
Miss Anthony maintained her composure Miss Mary could not 
restrain her tears. They remained in New York with their 
cousin, Mrs. Lapham, till the morning of May 19, when they took 
the North German Lloyd steamer Friedrich der Grosse. An im- 
mense crowd was gathered to watch the departure of the big 


ship, and as Miss Anthony walked up the gangplank there were 
cheering and clapping of hands from those on deck and on the 
pier, while the delegations from the suffrage clubs of New York 
and Brookl)^! waved flags and banners. Miss Anthony found 
many bouquets and baskets of flowers awaiting her, among them a 
large bunch of American Beauty roses from the Equal Suffrage 
Club of Washington, D. C. To those who understood it was a 
most touching scene — this grand old woman in her eighty-fifth 
year starting bravely and cheerfully for a journey to the other 
side of the world to attend a great international convention which 
was in itself the direct result of her own labors. It was a proud 
moment for the group of women who stood by her side and knew 
of the storm and stress through which she had come to this hour 
of recognition, respect and love. 

A telegram which awaited on board — ^*'Susan B. Anthony and 
Comrades: Welcome under German flag. Letters for you at 
Plymouth. Ottilie Hoffman, for the German Council." — ^made 
the delegates feel as if already they were the guests of the women 
of Germany; and this was the beginning of the delicate consid- 
eration, the thoughtful attention, that continued unceasingly as 
long as a foreign visitor to the Council remained in Berlin. The 
present writer takes the liberty of quoting freely from her own 
letters to the press of the United States, as they concern the 
greatest meeting of women ever held, and, written in the midst 
of its inspiring influences, have more vitality than anything which 
could be said after the lapse of years. 

Every morning we were awakened by the cheerful voice of Miss Anthony, 
who was always ready for breakfast at the bugle call and then made the 
round of the staterooms to laugh at the late risers. When the weather was 
so cold that the others were shivering in the cabin, she was on deck taking 
in new life through the bracing salt air, carefully wrapped up by the devoted 
Mary, who, being only in her seventy-eighth year, came along to take care 
of her distinguished sister Susan. On Sunday we held divine service with 
a sermon by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, and every evening after dinner we 
had a "round table" conclave, which the other passengers regarded with 
some envy, as there were bright stories and a discussion of many vital ques- 
tions in which the public mind is now interested.* 

* In the party were Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, Mrs. Mary Wood Swift, Mrs. Elizabeth 
B. Grannis, Miss Belle Kearney, Mrs. Lydia Kingsmill Commander, Mrs. Lucretia L. 


One evening each speaker was asked for an outline of the address she 
should make at the Council, in order that we might judge of the probable 
effect on a Gennan audience. The first announced that she should put in 
the strongest possible plea for total abstinence and for scientific temperance 
instruction in all the schools which should show the children the great injury 
to the stomach and brain and the demoralizing effects generally which were 
caused by alcoholic drinks. The second stated that she should argue for a 
recognition of the absolute equality of women in the Church, her admission 
to the pulpit and to all religious councils and her participation in all Church 
government. Another said she should demand the suffrage for every citizen, 
men and women alike, with the abolition of all class distinctions so far as a 
voice in State affairs is concerned. Still another was going to expound the 
new scientific theory that in the jelly-fish age there was no masculine ele- 
ment but only the feminine, that the male was an afterthought, of not much 
consequence, but somehow he had secured the upperhand, and it was time 
we got back to first principles. Then one declared that she should demon- 
strate that the entrance of women into the industrial field was wholly in- 
compatible with domestic life, and that, as they had entered this field per- 
manently, the home would have to be in a measure sacrificed and the number 
of children to the family greatly reduced or else the State must take care of 
them. About this time the whistling of the winds and the roaring of the 
waves seemed to take on an especially mournful sound, and we began to 
wonder if we could not get a ship at Bremerhaven, which would take us 
straight back home. 

When we arrived at Bremerhaven on a warm, sunny morning, great was 
our surprise and pleasure to see stretched across the railroad station of the 
North German Lloyd a white banner with the letters L C. W. — International 
Council of Women — ^and to be greeted by a hospitable delegation from 
Bremen. A telegram had met us at Plymouth, England, the day before, ask- 
ing if we would stop over and accept a ''tea" in our honor, and we had 
answered "yes" from Cherbourg, but we did not expect them to make a 
journey of an hour-and-a-half by rail to meet us at seven o'clock in the 
morning. "Traveling dress would be en r^le", the dispatch had said, but 
we went up to Hillman's Hotel and opened our trunks and arrayed ourselves 
in a manner that would be a credit to our native land. 

A procession of carriages, each containing a German lady who spoke 
English perfectly, carried us for several hours about this beautiful place, 
one of the three "free cities" of Germany, founded by Charlemagne in the 
eighth century. The moat which protected it when a fortified town still Rows 
around it, and the drive seemed through one continuous park, the broad 
streets lined with palatial homes, each having exquisite gardens and glass- 
enclosed verandas at front and back, with a luxuriance of flowers and vines 

Blankenbnrg, Mrs. Amelia and Miss Sadie American, Mrs. Alice Wheeler Peirce, Miss 
Nettie Lovisa White, Mrs. S. T. Bird and Mrs. Estelle Husted Froeb. Miss Shaw, Miss 
Lucy £. Anthony and others had gone on an earlier boat, and Mrs. Sewall came on a 
later one. 


that suggested the tropics instead of a seaport town as far north as Labra- 
dor. . . . 

The "tea" was given in a handsome clubhouse on the border of a lake in 
the park, and the American women were received by Fraulein Ottilie Hoff- 
man, president of the Bremen Council of Women, and a number of Frau 
Burgermeisters, Frau Baronesses, Frau Senators, Frau Professors and Frau 
Doctors, among them Frau Consul Diedrichs, the wife in Germany always 
taking the husband's title. U. S. Consul H. W. Diedrichs gave an address 
of welcome, expressing his belief in the fullest liberty and equality for 
women, and paying an eloquent tribute to Miss Anthony. There were 
speeches, refreshments and music — ^the ode "America" being printed on the 
program in English and German and sung by all. The delegates said this 
day alone was worth the trip across the ocean, and it was with happiest 
anticipations that all started the next morning for Berlin. 




'HEN the delegates from the United States to the 
International Council of Women landed at Brem- 
erhaven May 30 a telegram was handed to Miss 
Anthony — "Welcome on German soil for you and 
all your friends in the name of the National Coun- 
cil of Women of Germany" — signed by Frau Marie Stritt, its 
president. On their arrival at Berlin the day following the cor- 
dial reception at Bremen she and other Council officials were at 
the station with warmest greetings, and soon all were delight- 
fully settled in Das Palast Hotel, their headquarters. Here every 
possible courtesy was extended to them and Miss Anthony's room 
was decorated with flowers during her entire stay. Extracts 
from the present writer's syndicate correspondence must be de- 
pended on to give an idea of this occasion, but any written words 
are inadequate to do justice to this wonderful convocation extend- 
ing through two weeks — ^June 6-20. It attracted the attention of 
the entire civilized world as its proceedings were sent out day 
after day by the forty or fifty newspaper correspondents who 
were present at every session. 

"A Berlin I A Berlin !" was the warlike cry of Napoleon a generation ago, 
as with fire and sword he marched his vast army toward the Prussian capi- 
tal. And "A Berlin! A Berlin!" has been the rallying cry of an army of 
women, as from the four comers of the earth they journeyed to the seat of 
the German Empire. 

Discomfited, routed and humiliated, the French Emperor turned back with 
his journey forever unfinished, but the women have come, have seen, have 
conquered, and under the white banner of peace those of Germany and 
France clasp friendly hands; Australia and New Zealand bring greetings to 
Austria and Bulgaria; the Italian peninsula salutes the Scandinavian; South 



America presents her compliments to Great Britain, and the United States 
beams approvingly on all in her best "We-preserve-the-integrity-of-the- 
nations" style. 

This International Council and Congress has demonstrated in a high 
degree the wonderful organizing ability of German women, as the arrange- 
ments were entirely in their hands. It was a wholly new experience for 
them, but they put into it the same system and thoroughness with which for 
generations they have managed their households, and the German hausfrau 
is noted among the women of all nations. 

The Philharmonic, where the meetings were held, is one of the largest 
halls in the world, and has under one roof four great audience rooms, be- 
sides many others for various purposes. It was turned over to the Berlin 
committee of eleven women just three days before the Congress was to open, 
and at once they put a hundred people at work. Temporary partitions were 
made wherever needed, and thus long corridors and bare apartments were 
transformed into art galleries, drawing rooms, cafes, tea rooms, writing 
rooms, rest rooms, etc. Paint was used where it seemed necessary, draperies, 
tapestries and pictures were hung, rugs were laid, the platforms were 
banked with flowers, the court was transformed into a garden and the long 
entrance porticos into bowers of evergreens. 

A large room was equipped with every facility for reporters, including 
telephone and telegraph. The Government itself established a branch post 
office in the lobby. Not a detail was omitted which would add to comfort 
or convenience, and all this splendid arrangement was the work of women, 
and so perfectly planned that it could be carried to completion in three days. 

The programme itself was a marvel, a pasteboard covered volume of 140 
pages, well indexed. . . . Two hundred young women from the High 
Schools acted as ushers and doorkeepers, all speaking English. Their cour- 
tesy and efficiency were in keeping with the whole marvelous system. 
Especially beautiful was their devotion to Miss Anthony. Whenever she 
entered or left the hall half-a-dozen would go to her with every kindly 
assistance and end by kissing her hand. At first this embarrassed her but 
she soon retaliated by kissing them on the cheek. 

The hospitality of the Berlin women to the Council delegates and speakers 
can hardly be expressed in words. It has been overflowing, boundless, un- 
ceasing. . . . This Congress has set a pace in social entertainment which 
it seems hardly possible can ever be equalled. Five invitations for one after- 
noon have not been unusual. The opening of the Congress was preceded 
Sunday evening by a concert such as one can have only in Germany, the 
orchestra composed of one hundred young women perfectly trained by a 
woman leader. It was given in Philharmonic Hall and followed by a ban- 
quet to 2,000 invited guests. A theatre was rented for another evening by 
the Berlin Committee, who invited the delegates and speakers to a concert 
by the best artists in the city. At another time all were taken to a fine 
play in one of the large theatres. Musicales have been given in private 
residences with musicians from renowned opera companies. Many of the 
most beautiful homes have been opened for dinners, luncheons and recep- 

Erwin Raupp 


Prbsidbnt National Council of Wombm of Gbrmamy. 


tions. One noticeable afternoon tea was given in the large rooms of the 
German Woman's Club, the hostesses all doctors of philosophy and most of 
the guests graduates of the German Universities. This occasion was honored 
by the presence of many distinguished men who are university professors. 

The breakfast given by the Berlin Committee of Entertainment, whose 
chairman is Frau Hedwig Heyl, daughter of the founder of the North Ger- 
man Lloyd Steamship Company, has been one of the most notable events. 
The club house in one of the lovely parks on the shores of the River Spree 
was an ideal place, and every arrangement was perfect — ^music, flowers, 
toasts, souvenirs, not a detail lacking, even the bonbons bearing an excellent 
picture of Miss Anthony. An afternoon tea for Americans only was given 
by Mrs. Mary B. Willard, whose school for girls has been noted for nearly 
a quarter-of-a-century. The Ambassador, Consul-General Mason, the Rev. 
Dr. Dickie and other prominent Americans gave an atmosphere to the 
pleasant rooms that was highly appreciated by those who were several 
thousand miles away from home. 

Mrs. May Wright Sewall, the retiring president, has had three functions, 
an opening "coffee," a handsome luncheon of a hundred covers, and a large 
reception in honor of the new official board, all in the banquet room of Das 
Palast Hotel. At each of these Miss Anthony was placed at her right hand, 
sharing the honors with her and the Countess of Aberdeen, the incoming 
president. The first week's social festivities closed fittingly with the recep- 
tion of Ambassador and Mrs. Charlemagne Tower to the American dele- 
gates. They reside in a magnificent palace in an artistocratic part of the 
city. Mrs. Tower delayed her sailing for the United States a week in order 
to extend this courtesy; Miss Anthony received from her a special letter of 
invitation and was accorded every distinction. 

The entertainments which beyond all others have called forth the most 
enthusiasm and delight have been the garden parties. There are few cities, 
if any, where private mansions are surrounded by such grounds as in Berlin. 
The trees showing the growth of a century or more, the luxuriance of vines 
and shrubs which hardly can be put into words, fountains and statues, the 
wealth of roses and other fragrant flowers, the long stretch of green turf, 
realize one's dream of a modem paradise. But even these are surpassed by 
the splendid country estates, whose gardens are terraced down to the shores 
of river or lake. Afternoon parties have been given at half a dozen of these, 
the guests going out by train and the Government itself dividing courtesies 
with the hostesses by placing its own boats at their service for little trips 
on the water. 

One of the largest museums in Berlin excluded all sightseers for the 
afternoon, transformed its main hall into a handsome drawing-room and 
entertained the visitors with an elaborate "tea." For three afternoons the 
Lette-Verein kept open house for the foreign guests, and no experience of 
these wonderful weeks called forth such exclamations of surprise and de- 
light. This Lette-Verein is the largest and most complete school in exist- 
ence for training girls in the domestic arts and sciences and is now over 
forty years old. . . . 

One innovation connected with this Congress was in a way more sig- 


nificant than all else. There is in Berlin a spacious and beautiful American 
church, built a few years ago at a cost of $100,000, undenominational but 
strictly orthodox. Its pastor for the last ten years, the Rev. Dr. James 
Francis Dickie, a Scotchman, and formerly of the Presbyterian church of 
Detroit, placed his church at the disposal of the Council for three Sunday 
afternoons. When he asked advice on this point from Ambassador Tower, 
the answer was: "Certainly; let the embassy, the consul-generalate and the 
American church show every possible honor to the women of the United 

The church was filled to overflowing the first Sunday, and when the Rev. 
Anna Howard Shaw arose to offer prayer the audience resembled a field of 
wheat stirred by a breeze as it leaned forward to see a woman preacher. It 
seemed most fitting that the first woman who ever spoke from a pulpit in 
Germany should be Susan B. Anthony, for among the earliest demands 
made by Mrs. Stanton and herself in 1852 was one that women should be 
permitted to enter the ministry and have part in all church councils. It was 
a touching spectacle — ^this great apostle of freedom, in her eighty-fifth year, 
with a note of triumph in her voice, contrasting the position of women now 
and half-a-century ago. The inspiring address of Mrs. Carrie Chapman 
Catt, which followed, brought the audience so near to applause that Miss 
Shaw came quickly forward to pronounce the benediction and request that 
they observe reverently the day and place. Dr. Dickie looked proud and 
pleased as he offered his arm to Miss Anthony, literally to rescue her, as the 
entire congregation of women pressed forward and fairly took her in their 

f The chief social event was the reception by the Empress in the Royal 
I Palace of Berlin. ... No one can go to the palace in an ordinary hired 
conveyance, but must have a carriage of the first-class, with liveried coach- 
man and footman, and so, with all due pomp and ceremony, our democratic 
American representatives went clattering "unter den linden" at eleven o'clock 
in the morning. They walked through the large court and up the broad 
marble staircase past many guards in gorgeous livery, or, as Miss Anthony 
expressed it, "in uniforms covered with streaks of red and gold." During 
the few moments of waiting in an antechamber they studied the historical 
paintings, and she said that by far the most interesting to her was the one 
of "Victoria having her baby christened." Within the great reception hall 
they were ranged in a semi-drcle, with Lady Aberdeen the incoming and 
Mrs. Sewall the retiring president at the head, and next in line the Inter- 
national Board and Frau Stritt, president of the German Council ; then Miss 
Anthony, Mrs. Mary Wood Swift, of San Francisco, president of the United 
States Council, and the presidents of those of various countries. The pres- 
entations were made by Frau Wentzel-Heckmann, chairman of the Berlin 
Committee of Arrangements. In a few moments Count Knasebeck, master 
of ceremonies, came in with two ladies-in-waiting, and soon afterward Hof 
Marschall Graf von Mirbach entered with the Empress and the chief lady- 
Her Majesty was simply but handsomely gowned in mode broadcloth, 


slightly trained and heavily embroidered in white silk, the bodice filled in 
with duchesse lace and adorned with orders and decorations. Her jewels 
were large pearl earrings, pearl pin and a long gold chain set with many 
diamonds. Her soft, gray hair was waved and dressed k la pompadour and 
she wore a little bonnet trimmed in pink roses. Naturally the visitors were 
considerably flustered, but the above seems to be the consensus of opinion 
on the important point of toilet. But alas, all they can remember as to the 
gowns of the ladies-in-waiting is that one was blue and one was gray, while 
the third seems to range all along the chromatic scale, some of them indeed 
declaring there was no third lady but that the others "saw double." 

The versatility and the broad education and information of royalty were 

strikingly illustrated on this occasion, for, as Augusta Victoria passed down 

the line, shaking hands with every guest, not pnly did she address each one 

in her native language, but made a few remarks to her showing a knowledge 

of the particular line of activity she represented. It was indeed marvelous. 

When the Empress reached the grand old woman of America, she said at 

once, "Miss Anthony, you are the honored guest of this occasion," and then 

expressed appreciation of the great work she had done and asked several 

questions regarding it. Miss Anthony thanked her for her interest, and 

said she hoped that as Emperor William had raised Germany to a commer- 

j cial equality with the United States, he would go still further and give Ger- 

1 man women a higher place than was allowed to American women. The 

I Empress smiled and said, "The gentlemen are very slow to comprehend 

V^his movement." 

After she passed on, the master of ceremonies, ("the major domo" Miss 
Anthony called him), came and said: "Her Majesty requests that you will 
be seated." She sat down, but presently, fearing that it was not respectful 
to sit in the presence of royalty, she stood again. The Empress was well 
down the line by this time, but, illustrating her keenness of notice, in a 
moment her lady-in-waiting left her and came back, saying: "Her Majesty 
says she will be greatly distressed if you do not sit." When the Empress 
had reached the end of the line she passed back, bowing graciously to each 
visitor, but again stopped before Miss Anthony, shook hands with her and 
said good-by with the wish for a pleasant stay in Berlin. 

"Did you kiss the Empress's hand?" we asked. "No" said Miss An- 
thony, "I just bowed my head, as I would to any distinguished American 
woman, and told her I was a Quaker and did not understand the etiquette 
of the court, and she said gently for me to follow my own customs." "She 
is beautiful," continued Miss Anthony, "and she doesn't look a bit as if she 
had had seven children — such a lovely, graceful figure — and if I ever saw 
happiness in a woman's face it was in hers." 

And so the ladies came away, proud and happy, and those from the 
United States gathered in conclave in a big upper chamber of Das Palast 
Hotel to discuss the burning question as to whether we were most honored 
in England, when Queen Victoria allowed the whole body of delegates to 
look at her, but did not speak to any, and yet had tea served in the great 
St. George's Hall of Windsor Castle by her own servants in the royal livery ; 
or in Germany by Empress Augusta Victoria, who extended a personal 
Ant. Ill— 14 


recognition to our official representatives, and yet did no more than she 
was obliged to do if she gave any notice at all. The opinions were divided, 
but all were agreed that in both instances our delegates were quite as well 
received, to say the very least, as ever they had been in the Executive Man- 
sion of their own country. 

The second event of especial interest was the garden party, given by the 
wife of the Imperial Chancellor, Count von Buelow, and the wife of the 
Minister of Internal Affairs, Count von Posadonsky, as this also was an 
official recognition of the Council The Government here owns the homes 
of the "cabinet," just as that of the United States does the home of the 
President, and the massive stone buildings extend for many blocks on vari- 
ous streets, the gardens back of them being thrown together by opening 
gates in the dividing walls. The house now occupied by Chancellor von 
Buelow, therefore, is the one where the great Bismarck lived and ruled for 
so many years. It gave one a peculiar sensation to pass instantly from the 
deafening noises of a busy street in the heart of the city, through tall, iron 
gates and stone arches into what seemed to be the virgin forest extending 
beyond sight. Not a sound was heard except the songs of birds and the 
falling water of fountains. Every reminder of a city was blotted out Bal- 
conies gay with flowers overhung the gardens, and scattered about under the 
trees were rustic seats and tables with steaming coffee and tea urns, heaping 
bowls of strawberries, ices, cakes, sandwiches and the other edibles every- 
where so bountifully served. The hostesses and their distinguished hus- 
bands strolled among the guests, chatting in German, French or English. 
But there was no interest equal to that of walking from room to room in 
the palace of Bismarck, apartments so lofty and so spacious that a ball 
might be held in any one of them, and going into the study of the Chan- 
cellor, just as it was in his lifetime, with his full-length portrait above the 
desk, and feeling the very presence of the man who made the German 

"Do not think for a moment," we are told by those who assume to know, 
"that these ministers approve of this vast, progressive body of women who 
have descended upon Berlin, or that they wanted to give this garden party." 
Then why did they do it? Ah, why? What is the influence which has 
made it possible for this Interfiational Council of Women to come into this 
most conservative city and hold the largest and most successful Congress 
in its history of wonderful meetings? Can any one doubt that back of it 
all is the shrewdest man who ever occupied a throne? Can there be a 
question that, had there been a wish to do so, an intangible, imperceptible 
atmosphere might easily have been created which would have blighted the 
Congress as a frost destroys the flower and the fruit? Cleverest of rulers! 
Never did the Iron Chancellor himself outgeneral the nations of the earth 
with finer diplomacy than has William II outwitted the women of the world 
who came to Berlin expecting to find womanhood oppressed, free speech 
curtailed and public meetings frowned upon. 

The self-satisfied American woman has learned at least one lesson during 


the past two weeks, and this is that if she is going to keep on attending 
International Councils she will have to know more than her mother tongue. 
Much amusement was created by Miss Anthony's naive remark in one of 
her speeches that she now appreciated more than ever the need that there 
should be one language for all the world, and this should be English! At 
the London meeting it was generally acknowledged that American women 
carried off the palm, but here the German women are on their native heath, 
and those from the neighboring countries are not far from it Their skill in 
presiding, their fine voices, their self-possession and their outbursts of im- 
passioned oratory have been a revelation to those who have supposed that 
what is called "the new woman" had not yet found her way into continental 
Europe. Their speeches also have a distinct vein of humor and sarcasm, 
which meets with quick response from audiences that are unapproached in 
enthusiasm and appreciation. 

If, however, one dared to say that the women of any country had been 
honored above those of another, in this city of unsurpassed hospitality, this 
distinction might justly be claimed for those from the United States, or 
certainly for a few of the most representative. Far above and beyond all 
of these must be placed Susan B. Anthony, who was introduced as **Miss 
Anthony of the world." And so it has proved to be, for never in her own 
land, even in these later days, when she has been met with cheers instead of 
hisses and with flowers in place of stones, has she received greater ovations 
than from these cosmopolitan audiences in the capital of Germany. They 
have not been confined to the Congress, but have extended to the social fes- 
tivities, where in almost every instance she has been placed in the seat of 
honor, and always has been obliged to respond to the call for a speech, and 
not the voice of any speaker has been more easily heard. The newspapers 
have commented on the dignity and modesty with which she has accepted it 
all, and the generous sympathy and recognition she has shown to other 
speakers and the lines of thought they represented. Indeed herein lies the 
chief reason of her large and loyal constituency and her steadily increasing 
prestige and power. 

It was a fitting culmination of the most remarkable Congress of women 
ever held that it should close with an official reception by the Biirgermeister 
and Municipal Council of Berlin, capital of the vast and powerful German 
Empire. The Rathhaus, or town hall, is one of the many imposing edifices 
for which this city is noted, its interior rich with painting, sculpture and 
decorations. The broad marble staircase is so banked with palms and 
flowers as to have the appearance of a garden on either side. At the top is 
a lofty and spacious hall with massive columns, and in the centre a large 
fountain surrounded by garden and aquatic plants. Near this, with the 
ladies of the Berlin committee, stood the Board of Magistrates, with heavy 
gold chains and medals about their necks, to extend a cordial welcome to 
the guests. The latter numbered seven hundred — visitors to the Congress 
and prominent men and women of Berlin — ^and after the invitations were 
issued no pressure could secure one additional, so rigid and systematic are 
the restrictions which prevail here in everything. 


At nine o'clock the magnificent banquet hall— the Fest Saal— was thrown 
open, showing tables far more richly decorated than would be possible in 
our Presidential mansion at Washington. The marble pillars, coppered ceil- 
ing, carved oak doors, richly panelled walls, beautiful chandeliers, paintings 
and statuary made a picture not to be forgotten. There were music, flowers 
and champagne; but the toasts were the significant feature of the evening. 
It was not a slight and irrelevant circumstance that a Burgermeister of Ber- 
lin, an official of high rank, elected for twelve years, should for the first time 
in all history welcome a gathering of women in the Town Hall of the city. 
Nor was this a perfunctory and meaningless function; for, standing in the 
place of honor, with distinguished women from all parts of the globe on 
either side of him, and Susan B. Anthony at his right hand, he said, in the 
course of an extended speech: 

"Who can fail to recognize the fact that the woman's movement of today, 
pressing forward with the might of an elementary force, rests upon a sound 
and valuable foundation; that it ushers in a significant and promising epoch 
in the development of the human race? That this fact is recognized — will- 
ingly and joyfully recognized — among the men of this city, let this festivity 
tiiis evening bear witness to the women. And so, in behalf of the municipal 
authorities of Berlin, I welcome the members of the International Woman's 
Congress with all my heart as co-workers for the welfare of humanity in 
the sphere of public life. May all the hopes that the women themselves 
attach to this movement be completely realized, and may their cooperation 
bear rich and abundant fruit." 

Burgermeister Kirschner was followed by Dr. Langerhaus, president of 
the Board of Magistrates, or Aldermen, and for many years a member of 
the Prussian House of Deputies, who made a most progressive address in 
which he used these unmistakable words: 

"We fully support your efforts for justice and we gladly take our stand in 
favor of equal rights for women and men. . . . Rest assured that we 
have followed your proceedings with the greatest interest, and that we will 
cheerfully support you until you have attained your goal of equal rights for 
men and women." 

At the close of each of these addresses the whole company sprang to their 
feet with uplifted glasses and cries of "Hoch! Hoch!" whose fervor never 
can be understood till one has heard them given by an audience of Germans. 
And then in this great hall one woman after another, lifted to a chair that 
she might be seen and heard — Mrs. May Wright Sewall responding for the 
International Council — and noted German women for their own country — 
expressed their appreciation of the welcome extended by Germany to the 
Congress and its ideas, and voiced their determination never to cease their 
efforts till all that they stood for had been attained; and apparently there 
was not a dissenting opinion in all the throng of listeners. 

What was the feeling of the women of the United States as they looked 
and listened and reflected through all these hours? It was this: Twice has 
this International Council been held in our country, and during past years 
many other large meetings have called there the representative women of 
the world. Never have they received such official recognition from any city 


in which their conventions have been held. If this Congress should meet in 
New York or Chicago next year, neither Mayor nor Aldermen would notice 
its existence. There is not a Mayor or President of the Council in one of 
our large cities who would address a great convention of women and say: 
"May all your hopes be completely realized, and rest assured that we will 
cheerfully support you till you have attained your goal of equal rights." No; 
in America, the land of free speech, not one of them would dare to do it, 
nor could the most vivid fancy picture a City Council giving a banquet to a 
Congress of women. Oh, no; for their masters stand in the background 
armed with a more powerful authority than is vested today in any ruler who 
sits upon a throne. 

And yet, when our women return to the United States, they will be ex~ 
pected to lift up their voices and sing in joyful chorus: 

My native country, thee. 
Land of the noble free, 
Thy name I love. 

A generation ago the German Empire was bom, and it has made greater 
progress in the last thirty years than in all the centuries which preceded, but 
this has been principally of a military and commercial character. The time 
is now propitious for the finer and more spiritual force of womanhood to 
make itself felt, and some day in the future Germany will inscribe another 
date on the monuments which record its achievements — ^June, 1904 — the date 
which marked the founding of a new dynasty for the women of the nation. 

The International Congress is now but a memory — ^a recollection of warm, 
sunny days with scarcely a cloud in the sky ; of mornings filled with earnest 
work and intellectual stimulus ; of afternoons in lovely gardens, with the tea 
tables under the trees and the groups of interesting men and women gath- 
ered about them; of new friendships formed and new thought absorbed; of 
fresh hope and courage inspired by the knowledge that throughout all coun- 
tries life is growing brighter for women and they are striving to make con- 
ditions better for all mankind. 

Such beautiful memories we shall carry home across the sea! And with 
them will be the remembrance of the splendid city of Berlin, with its miles 
of magnificent buildings, strong, solid, enduring— emblematic of the German 
character. No city in America can approach it in beauty, in order, in cleanli- 
ness. . . . There is never a suspicion of scandal attached to its municipal 
government, which is looked upon as absolutely incorruptible. 

And yet, and yet — ^what is this indefinable chill which seems constantly to 
envelop one and which compels him to speak low and walk circumspectly? 
It is the ever-present and all permeating military discipline. Every particle 
of spontaneity is trained out of the children, and as soon as the boys are 
grown they are put into the army. The rigid obedience to authority there 
instilled goes with them through life and is apparent in every calling. The 
result is a deference of each class to the one above it, and, alas, the inability 
of any member of it to rise above the sphere in which he was born. But 



when the German goes to the United States and into its unattractive and 
badly governed towns and cities, he finds there a freedom of speech, a lib- 
erty of action, an opportunity for the individual development of himself and 
his children, worth far more to him than even the beauty and historic 
associations of his fatherland, and he seldom wishes to leave the new life 
and go back to the old. So, we women of America, seeing clearly the 
superiority of European cities in countless things and realizing fully the 
imperfections of our own Government, nevertheless believe that it holds far 
more promise for us and those we love than any other. Thus believing, and 
hoping that eventually its highest possibilities may be fulfilled, we return 
home with undiminished loyalty and allegiance. 

The one question of all others which was regarded as most dangerous at 
the inception of the International Council in 1888 was that of woman suf- 
frage. Although the originators of the idea and those who brought it to its 
full development were all suffragists, they felt that **to have the horns and 
hoofs appear" would hinder its success. Therefore, the most prominent 
refrained from taking the principal offices. There has been no time, how- 
ever, when every action has not been directed by those who believe in full 
enfranchisement, for this belief is entertained by practically all who are 
leaders of progressive movements among women. 

It required only time and experience to show the women of every coun- 
try their helplessness and lack of direct influence without the power of the 
ballot, and of late years, from the Councils in all parts of the world, has 
come the demand that the international body should adopt enfranchisement 
of women as one of its objects, and appoint a Suffrage Committee. The 
president, therefore, in the last year, sent to every Council this question for 
an official decision, and it was almost unanimously in the affirmative. As a 
result, this Quinquennial adopted the following resolution: 

"Under all Governments, whether nominally republican or monarchical, 
whatever political rights and privileges are accorded to men ought, on cor- 
responding conditions, to be accorded to women, . . . and this Council 
advocates that strenuous efforts be made to enable women to obtain the 
power of voting in all countries where a representative government exists." 

A Standing Committee on Woman Suffrage was formed and the Rev. Anna 
Howard Shaw of the United States was made chairman. This is the largest 
movement ever made toward woman suffrage, for it means that in twenty 
countries this vast organization of six or seven million members is pledged to 
throw its entire weight of influence and effort in behalf of woman's full en- 
franchisement. It means such a body of workers as the world never has seen 
banded together for any one object 

In the two weeks' almost continuous sessions of the Council every utterance 
in favor of suffrage has been received with tumultuous applause. The one 
evening and one day devoted exclusively to this subject, although coming at 
the end of a most fatiguing week, brought audiences of thousands — ^at least 
nine-tenths of them women — and, not satisfied with the many speeches, they 


demanded a general discussion. At the morning meeting the audience sat or 
stood from nine in the morning until two in the afternoon without interim for 
luncheon or rest. Such intense interest, such wild enthusiasm, never were 
; seen in the United States outside of a political rally in a heated campaign. 
Among the speakers were several distinguished Socialists, men and women, 
who declared that the enfranchisement of women never would come except 
through the Social Democratic party. This statement was wildly applauded 
by a considerable part of the audience, but they were overwhelmed by the cries 
of the opposition. 

At last Mrs. Chapman Catt, of the United States, was called for, and, coming 

from the audience to the platform, she made a most impassioned plea that the 

women would not ally themselves with any political party, and she warned 

; them that all. Conservatives, Liberals and Socialists alike, would sacrifice 

women without scruple whenever they could advance their own interests by 

doing so. She was followed by Miss Anthony, who, with all the fire of twenty 

> years ago, showed how this had been done again and again by the political 

\ parties of the United States — Abolitionists, Republicans, Prohibitionists, Popu- 

\ lists — ^and she begged women to put aside all religious and party affiliations 

V^and stand together in one united effort for their own political freedom. 

While the progressive women have been gathered here from all parts of the 
earth, advantage has been taken of the opportunity to form an International 
Woman Suffrage Alliance. It has no connection with the Council except that 
a number of the same persons were delegates to both organizations. Like the 
Council this Alliance had its inception in the United States. It was the dream 
of Mrs. Stanton and Miss Anthony twenty years ago, and it finally took defi- 
nite shape in a call by Mrs. Chapman Catt, president of the National American 
Suffrage Association, for delegates to meet in Washington in 1902. A number 
of countries responded and an International Committee was formed, with 
Miss Anthony as president and Mrs. Chapman Catt as secretary. Its members 
have been actively organizing for the past year and ten countries were repre- 
sented at this Berlin convention. 

At the opening meeting there was a spirited debate as to whether the news- 
paper reporters, a large number of whom were present, should be permitted to 
remain during the business sessions for forming the Alliance. After much 
discussion, in which all the American delegates advocated their staying and 
most of the others strenuously opposed it. Miss Anthony finally arose and 
said: "My friends, what are we here for? We have come from many coun- 
tries, travelled thousands of miles to form an organization for a great interna- 
tional work, and do we want to keep it secret from the public? No; welcome 
all reporters who want to come, the more, the better. Let all we say and do 
here be told far and wide. Let the people everywhere know that in Berlin 
women from all parts of the world have banded themselves together to de- 
mand political freedom. I rejoice in the presence of these reporters, and in- 
stead of excluding them from our meetings, let us help them to all the infor- 
mation we can and ask them to give it the widest possible publicity." When 
she had finished the long row of reporters clapped their hands and pounded 


their tables until their applause could have been heard in the royal palace, and 
it is needless to say that they remained through this and all other sessions. 

A strong Declaration of Principles was adopted and the United States, Great 
Britain, Germany, The Netherlands, Sweden, Australia, Norway and Denmark 
joined in an International Alliance, whose object is "to secure the enfranchise- 
ment of women of all nations, and to unite the friends of woman suffrage 
throughout the world in organized cooperation and fraternal helpfulness." 
Miss Anthony was made honorary president ; Mrs. Chapman Catt, president ; 
Mrs. Rachel Foster Avery, for twenty-one years corresponding secretary of 
the National Suffrage Association of the United States took the same office in 
the Alliance. There was a protest from this country against accepting the 
most important positions, but it was the unanimous request of the delegates, 
Fraulein Anita Augspurg, the first woman doctor of jurisprudence in Ger- 
many, and Mrs. Millicent Garrett Fawcett, of England, at the head of the 
British Suffrage Society, are vice presidents; Fraulein Kathe Schirmacher, 
Ph. D., author and linguist, of Paris, and Miss Johanna Naber,^ a prominent 
suffragist of The Netherlands, assistant secretaries; Miss Rodger Cunliffe, a 
talented young writer of England, treasurer. With the adoption of woman suf- 
frage as a part of the work of the International Council and the forming of an 
International Suffrage Alliance, the month of June, 1904, has witnessed the 
most important action ever taken in what has now become a world movement 
of women to obtain political rights. 

The statement would not be exaggerated that no event ever 
Jgave Miss Anthony such profound satisfaction as this one, in 
I which the women of all the nations of the earth pledged them- 
■ selves to take up and to carry to success the movement inaug- 
urated by herself and a few of her contemporaries half-a-century 
/ before in the face of such obstacles as never confronted any other 
[ undertaking in all history. She felt that now she could die con- 
i tent, in full faith that the powers which up to the present time had 
prevented women from obtaining equality of rights must in- 
evitably yield to the great force now preparing to make this 
struggle permanent until victory should be achieved. 

So much has been said that it is hardly necessary to go further 
into detail as to the individual attentions and honors received 
by Miss Anthony at this vast gathering. There was not a day 
that delegates from some country did not come to her with flow- 

^Misft Na!ber was obliged to resign within the year and her place was ably filled by 
Miss Martina Kramers, of Rotterdam, who was also secretary of the Council. 


ers and other testimonials of their love and appreciation, while 
most of the delegations when leaving sent her an official letter of 
farewell in the graceful fashion of foreign countries. She had 
hundreds of cards, letters and souvenirs from women and also 
from men. The invitations of a private nature were far too many 
to be enumerated. Pictures and sketches of her appeared in the 
papers of most of the European capitals and the wide knowledge 
of herself and her work was a revelation. The many courtesies 
shown to her and to the other delegates by the journalists in 
Berlin were most helpful and pleasant. If one dared discrim- 
inate, the names of William C. Dreher, of the Associated Press ; 
Dr. Stanley Shaw, of the Laflfan Bureau, New York, and Fred 
W. Wile, representing the Chicago Daily News, would especially 
suggest themselves — the first and last a Southerner and a West- 
erner of the United States, Dr. Shaw formerly of Trinity College, 

The beautiful hospitality of the German women could not be 
adequately depicted. Miss Anthony's g^ief and indignation, 
therefore, may be imagined when a scandal-mongering newspaper 
quoted her as making the severest criticisms of both German men 
and women. The moment she learned of it she repudiated the 
article emphatically, declared it to be absolutely false and said in 
a published statement that of the German men she knew but 
little ; that the universal habit of beer-drinking in the public gar- 
dens was novel to her but she had not felt called upon to make 
any criticism of it. She expressed the sincerest regret that she 
should have been accused of uttering sentiments so foreign to her 
real feelings and so ungrateful toward a nation that had given 
her so royal a welcome. The Congress, she said, was a most 
striking expression of the great ability of German women, and 
she was much impressed by their culture and intellectual attain- 
ments. She was impressed also by the prosperous air of the 
country and the well-cared- for homes of the people. The women 
of the laboring class were hard workers, she could see, but so 
were those of the same class in other countries. She closed by 
asking, "How could I have said those unkind things when they 


were not in my heart?" The above are her own words as nearly 
as they can be reproduced after two translations. 

Miss Anthony attended all the working sessions of the Council, 
and her printed program of the business which came before them 
is covered with pencilled memoranda showing how closely she 
kept watch of the proceedings and how many matters she herself 
proposed and discussed. She remained for several of these meet- 
ings after the Congress adjourned, but she could not linger for 
the many social affairs suggested or accept the urgent invitations 
to go to neighboring countries, as there were visits to personal 
friends which had first claim on her time and strength. On June 
23 she bade good-by to Berlin and thus ended one of the happiest 
experiences of her long and eventful life. 




JFTER the close of the International Council of 
Women, Miss Anthony went with her sister Mary, 
her niece Lucy, the Rev. Anna Howard Shaw and 
Mrs. Chapman Catt for a brief stay in Dresden. 
They visited the art galleries, went to the opera, 
had some pleasant drives and greatly enjoyed the afternoon teas 
given for them by Frau Marie Stritt and the Baroness vori Be- 
schwitz, president and secretary of the German Council of Women. 
Some most interesting days were spent in medieval Nuremburg, 
in Stuttgart and in Heidelberg. Their pleasure in the old uni- 
versity town was much enhanced by the courtesies of Fraulein 
Penepakker and Fraulein Etz, at the head of a noted private 
school for girls, who took them through the university, on charm- 
ing drives about the old castle and to many interesting places in 
this picturesque locality. One afternoon these ladies gave a 
lovely "garden tea," and one evening an entertainment at which 
a number of university professors and other distinguished people 
were present. The table was decorated with the Stars and Stripes 
and the German flag commingled. 

At Strasburg the party divided, three of them to take the trip 
down the Rhine, Miss Anthony and Miss Mary to go to Vev^y, 
Switzerland, to visit Mrs. Rachel Foster Avery, who was residing 
there temporarily with her two daughters. Ten happy days were 
spent here, resting, visiting, talking over the Berlin Council meet- 
ing and enjoying the exquisite scenery. At last with loving fare- 
wells they departed for Geneva. Three days passed delightfully 



in the beautiful home of Madame Chaponniere-Chaix, president 
of the Swiss Council of Women.^ It had a magnificent view of 
lake and mountains and Miss Anthony referred to it in her diary 
as "a bit of Paradise/' and said she "revelled in the fruits and 
vegetables." Their hostess went with them to Geneva, where 
they attended a meeting of the Women's Union (Qub). Here 
they met Mile. Camille Vidart, secretary of the Council, and the 
two ladies took them about the handsome city, to the college, the 
old church, the town-hall with its wonderful frescoes and historic 
associations, and other noted places ; and finally saw them safely 
aboard their train for Paris. Thence they went to Dieppe, across 
the Channel and by train to London. 

It was a long journey by land and sea to be made without a 
break by two ladies of eighty-four and seventy-seven, but they 
reached London at seven o'clock the evening of July 12, safe and 
sound, "yet," the diary said, "tired beyond the telling." A cor- 
dial welcome awaited them from Mr. Stanton Coit, leader of the 
London Ethical Society, and his equally gifted wife, whose guests 
they were to be while in the city. In this spacious and luxurious 
home, at 30 Hyde Park Gate, they were surrounded by every 
comfort and received every possible attention from the most de- 
voted of hosts and hostesses. Miss Shaw and Miss Lucy An- 
thony came in a few days, Mrs. Catt having joined her husband 
in London. As they could now be with Miss Anthony all the 
time, Miss Mary felt that her duties were ended, and in spite of 
protests, she sailed for home July 16, on the Minnetonka. At the 
last moment Miss Anthony longed to go with her but she had 
made engagements in England and Scotland which rendered this 

A garden party was given by the Central or London Branch 
of the British Society for Women's Suffrage in the beautiful 
grounds of Miss Holland, and several hundred guests accepted 

*Mi88 Anthony tried hard to persuade Mrs. Avery to go with them, even though she 
had not been invited, saying, "Of course Madame Chaponniire will be glad to have you; 
come right along;" and it was impossible for her to understand why she refused to ac- 
company her on a visit to the home of one whom at that time she had never even seen. 
Miss Anthony always felt sure of a welcome for all her friends and relatives at any 
place where she herself was invited, and never seemed to realize that in the opinion of 
her hostess there might be a difference in her "eligibility" and theirs. 


the invitation to meet Miss Anthony. Brief addresses were made 
by her, by Mrs. Catt, Miss Shaw, Mrs. Coit, Lady Frances Bal- 
four, president of the society, and Mrs. Millicent Garrett Fawcett, 
president of the national association. Many American as well as 
English men and women were present and it was a memorable 
occasion. Mrs. Fenwick Miller gave a luncheon for Miss An- 
thony at the Lyceum Club, and there were several "teas" in her 
honor, but most of the persons who had sent her pressing invita- 
tions earlier in the season were now out of town, and the many 
clubs that had been so desirous of entertaining her had adjourned 
for the summer. The Countess of Aberdeen was among her call- 
ers. She herself went to call on Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell and 
other pioneers in woman's work. 

The North-of-England Suffrage Society would not forego the 
opportunity of honoring Miss Anthony, and arranged a garden 
party in Manchester, the secretary writing her, "I enclose two 
letters out of the dozens I have received from people who are most 
anxious to meet you." She left London July 23, accompanied by 
Miss Shaw and Miss Lucy, and while at Manchester they were 
the guests of Mr. and Mrs. Harry Nuttall at their palatial country 
seat, Raynor Croft, Bowden. The spacious grounds of Mrs. 
Hylands, Victoria Park, had been offered for the fete, which took 
place on the 2Sth. A luncheon was given in the leading hotel for 
the visitors and the prominent guests and speakers. Hundreds 
were present at the garden party from Manchester, Liverpool, 
Cheshire and the country roundabout, members of the aristocracy, 
professional women and representatives from a number of 
women's trades unions. The ladies from Derbyshire brought a 
loving cup of fine English china. Miss Anthony and Miss Shaw 
were introduced by Miss Mason, daughter of the Hon. Hugh 
Mason, so long the women's champion in Parliament, and gave 
short addresses. Responses were made by Alfred Steinthal, 
M. P., and Mrs. E. C. Wolstonholme-Elmy, one of the ablest of 
the suffrage pioneers in England. 

After the garden party the three ladies, with Mrs. Elmy, went 
to Bolton for a visit to Mrs. John P. Thomasson, whose husband, 
the distinguished member of Parliament, had recently died. "The 


carriage and coachman were at the station/' Miss Anthony wrote 
in her diary, "and dear Mrs. Thomasson was at the door with a 
warm welcome, but not her good life-partner to greet me as of 
yore." After three quiet, peaceful days, visiting and driving 
about the lovely country, Miss Anthony and her little party went 
to Edinburgh. Dr. Agnes McLaren met them at the station and 
they were soon delightfully ensconced in the large, airy rooms of 
Newington House, the home of Mrs. Priscilla Bright McLaren, 
now in her ninetieth year. In letters to her sister Miss Anthony 

After having the nicest cup of tea we went to our rooms and dressed for 
dinner. Then Mrs. McLaren sent for us and there she lay in her dainty cap 
and pale blue lounging robe looking not a day older than she did five years 
ago, and just as sweet and bright as she was then. . . . Yesterday the Suf- 
frage Society had a tea and a public meeting in a hall down town. Miss Shaw 
spoke eloquently, and I said a few words. After it was over we took a long 
drive around the old city, and when we returned there was Mrs. McLaren 
sitting up in her chair in the drawing room, dressed in a soft lavender and 
white brocade, as pretty as a peach, ready to hear all about the meeting. I 
neglected to say she had sent a letter of greeting and they had returned a mes- 
sage to her. Tomorrow, Sunday, we dine with the Misses Stevenson, members 
of the School Board— one of them its president ! 

Sunday evening: We had a long interesting drive yesterday afternoon, out 
to Salisbury Crags and Arthur's Seat and Craigmiller Castle where Queen 
Mary used to seclude herself for a rest. Many working people were on the 
hills walking about and basking in the sun. Barefooted children by the hun- 
dreds were swarming over the historic spot where Queen Mary and her fellow 
—I can't think of his name— used to go to find solitude. . . . 

Tomorrow we leave. I have been into dear Mrs. McLaren's room for an 
hour and have bid her good by. I shall never see her again on this earth— but 
when and where shall we meet? 

Friday : We left Edinburgh at nine-thirty Monday morning for Bristol, via 
Leeds, booked for a through car on a through train, but at Leeds the guard 
put us out on the platform, bag and baggage, and there we had to stay till 
four-twenty in the afternoon ; so it was ten o'clock at night when we reached 
the home of my dear old friends, the sisters of Mrs, John Bright. The family 
consists of Mrs. Margaret Tanner, aged eighty-seven, Miss Anna Priestman, 
seventy-five, and Miss Mary, seventy-three— three of the loveliest spirits that 
ever existed. Their man met us and two maids were awaiting us with hot 
soup, chocolate and other nice things. I was tired as could be, slept like a top 
and the morning came all too soon. Mary took Miss Shaw and Lucy to see old 
churches and ruins the first day but I preferred to stay and visit with Margaret 
and Anna. The second morning we had a long drive over the high bridge and 
through the fine English country. In the afternoon about fifty members of the 


Liberal Federation, mostly women, came and presented me with large bou- 
quets of lilies and sweet peas and made an address. I responded and Miss 
Shaw talked beautifully for a few minutes ; then Mrs. Tanner slowly rose from 
the sofa where she was lying and spoke like an angel, her face all aglow with 
love and thankfulness. She was associated for years with Mrs. Josephine 
Butler in her great reform work. 

We left the dear sisters yesterday and I am writing this at Millfield in 
Somersetshire, where we are visiting a daughter of John Bright, Mrs. Helen 
P. B. Clark, her husband, William, and their splendid family of two sons and 
four daughters, all useful citizens. One daughter is married and a member of 
the school board; one is in business with her father and trustee of the hos- 
pital; one a reformer and public speaker, and one studying medicine. Our 
delightful visit ends today. 

The next three days were spent at Esher, on the Thames, the 
summer home of Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Bright. On Miss Anthony's 
first trip to England in 1883 she had visited them, and again in 
1899. It was Mr. Bright's bill in Parliament which had given 
Municipal Suffrage to women, and Mrs. Bright had rendered 
great service to this cause, so Miss Anthony felt closely connected 
with them not only by the ties of friendship but by mutual in- 
terest in a great work. Mrs. Annie Besant put aside all engage- 
ments to accept Mrs. Bright's invitation to spend these days at her 
home with Miss Anthony. This amusing account was given by 
one who was present : 

Miss Anthony was very desirous of enlisting the fine abilities of Mrs. Besant 
in the cause of woman suffrage and protested against her spending all her time 
and talents in the study of occult science when there was so much practical 
work needed at the present moment, and many were their discussions upon 
this point. One day after having listened a long time to Mrs. Besant expound- 
ing her theories, she asked, "When you have been taking your astral jaunts 
have you ever met Mr. Bradlaugh?" "Oh, yes, many times," calmly answered 
Mrs. Besant, "Well," said Miss Anthony, "how did he feel when he found 
that he was mistaken and there really was another life after this?" Mrs. 
Besant replied that he accepted it philosophically. "But what is he doing 
now ?" asked Miss Anthony, for to be alive and not doing something was un- 
thinkable to her. "Oh," was the reply, "he is still so bound to this world by 
political interests that he has not gotten far away from earthly occupations." 
"Well," said Miss Anthony, "I don't know anything better to engage his at- 
tention. I am sure I should be interested in every good cause just as I am 
now, and I think I could do a great deal more good by staying near at hand 
and helping those who are trying to carry on the reforms of this life than I 
could by soaring to the stars and consorting with the angels." 


A pressing invitation had been received by Miss Anthony from 
Mrs. Jane Cobden Unwin to visit her husband (Fisher Unwin) 
and herself at their country home in Midhurst, Sussex, "the land 
of Cobden," and she had asked also if she might arrange for 
Miss Shaw to speak in the Congregational Church. They went 
to her at once on reaching London and remained three days but 
unfortunately could not stay over Sunday, as they sailed on 

A few brief extracts from the letters received by Miss Anthony 
immediately after this round of visits will illustrate the almost 
invariable effect of her presence. From Mrs, Coit : "The privi- 
lege of knowing you intimately is a help for the rest of one's 
life." From Mrs. Nuttall : "It was most delightful to my hus- 
band and myself to have with us such large-hearted and broad- 
minded people. I trust most earnestly you will live many years 
and see great fruits of your work." From Mrs. Thomasson: 
"Wherever you are I know you are doing something for women. 
Here I felt every moment that I was learning from you. You 
have done a wonderful work for all women and I want to thank 
you for it and for your visit to me." From Miss Tessie C. 
Methuen, Secretary Edinburgh Suffrage Society : "I thank you 
for your visit in the name of our committee. You have done us 
all a great deal of good ; many say they received a fresh inspira- 
tion for the work, and we are thankful to have had you. We are 
glad you said that women are wanting in self-respect on this 
question — it is true — ^and we feel that many through your noble 
advice and example will find courage and dignity." From Miss 
Mary Priestman: "Your little visit was an ever-to-be-remem- 
bered pleasure to us. England will seem poorer when you have 
left it." From Mrs. Helen Bright Clark : "I want to tell you 
how truly grateful I am — ^and all the family share my feelings — 
for the great and stimulating pleasure of your visit. My dear 
aunts feel alike with me that we could almost weep to think of the 
world of waters that are so soon to separate us." These senti- 
ments will meet a response from all whom Miss Anthony visited 
in any country ; her presence was an inspiration to high thought, 
an incentive to earnest work ; small things shrank out of sight 


and only those worth while remained ; the memory of her pres- 
ence was more than a benediction — it seemed rather a perpetual 
call to arise, put. aside ease and indifference and go forth to the 
duties of life. 
f. The three ladies embarked on the Atlantic Transport Minne- 
ll tonka August 13. Unfortunately a few days before sailing Miss 
• Anthony received a letter from her sister announcing the serious 
illness of her brother, Col. D. R. Anthony, pf Leavenworth, Kas. 
/Although she had word as she boarded the ship that he was better 
and able to ride out, she understood his precarious condition, and 
' the anxiety of the long ten days without news deprived her of the 
, pleasure she usually experienced from a sea voyage. She bore it 
f bravely, however, and contributed as far as possible to the enjoy- 
i ment of others, even yielding to the entreaties that she would give 
' a little talk at the Sunday evening entertainment. A great lord 
was on board who was coming to the United States to represent 
King Edward at some function and he was invited to preside 
while Miss Anthony was given the seat of honor between him 
and the Captain. In response to his elaborate introduction she 
arose and after a moment's thought said : "I suppose you wish 
me to tell you why I want to vote. Well,*' turning to his lord- 
ship and laying her hand on his shoulder, "I want to vote for the 
same reason that this fellow does, and,'* putting her hand on the 
Captain's shoulder, "for the same reason that this fellow does !" 
His lordship fairly gasped, his eyeglass fell out and his eyes 
\ almost did the same ; the Captain, who doubtless had never cast a 
\ vote in his life, turned several shades redder ; the audience was 
\convulsed, but Miss Anthony calmly proceeded with her argu- 
ment entirely unconscious of the commotion she had caused. 

The ship sailed into New York harbor August 22, and Miss 

/Anthony was met by a message saying her brother's condition 

,* was favorable, which she answered at once with a telegpram of 

affectionate greeting. The inspector of customs seeing her name 

on her trunks, hastened to extend the courtesy of the port and 

passed them without examination. 

The next morning at eight-thirty Miss Anthony took the Em- 
pire State Express and even its speed seemed insufficient so great 
Ant. Ill— is 


was her desire to reach home. Miss Mary very wisely had re- 
frained from mentioning to any one the time of her coming and 
so there was no crowd at the station when she arrived at three- 
thirty, but the reporters were waiting on the steps of her resi- 
dence ! Friends called in the evening and her happiness at getting 
home never before was so intense. She was buoyed up by excite- 
ment and her animation indicated health and strength, but by the 
next morning the reaction came and for several weeks she was 
under the care of a physician, prostrated simply by exhaustion. 

The newspapers in all parts of the country had words of greet- 
ing for Miss Anthony, of admiration for her courage in making 
the journey, of pleasure that she had safely returned. The Dem- 
ocrat and Chronicle of her own city said : "The people of Roch- 
ester cordially welcome their distinguished townswoman, Susan 
B. Anthony, on her return from a journey to Europe extending 
over a period of nearly four months. Miss Anthony though an 
octogenarian is still vigorous in spirit and in labors. Her trip 
abroad was not a mere vacation saunter but a strenuous expedi- 
tion in behalf of the cause to which she has devoted the energies 
of her long and useful life. There are women suffragists and 
anti-women suffragists, but all Rochester people, irrespective of 
opinion, creed, race or previous or present condition of servitude, 
are Anthony men and women. We admire and esteem one so 
single-minded, earnest and unselfish, who, with eighty- four years 
to her credit, is still too busy and useful to think about growing 

Miss Anthony's wonderful recuperative powers came to her 
! assistance and towards the last of September she was able to take 
\ up again her daily round of work, far less than it used to be but 
•still exacting enough to prevent ennui and discontent. Her cor- 
respondence alone consumed a considerable part of every day, 
though now she seldom wrote any letters by hand. Her brother 
was very desirous that the sisters should come to Leavenworth 
and make him a long visit. "It is easier for you two to come 
West than it would be for a dozen of us to go East, and there are 
about that many who want a visit with you," he wrote. "There 
are only two of us in this big house and we have five good sleep- 


ing rooms, so you won't be crowded. I think if you come pre- 
pared to stay a month or two you will make no mistake and we 
will all enjoy your visit." Their longing was as strong as his 
own and so on September 23 they closed the house and started 
westward. The first stop was in Cleveland, as Miss Anthony had 
been invited to spend Saturday and Sunday with her friend of 
many years, Mrs. Louisa Southworth, and this proved to be their 
last visit, as Mrs. Southworth died the next year. 

The meeting of the Business Committee of the National Amer- 
ican Suffrage Association was to be held in Warren, Ohio, where 
the headquarters were now situated in charge of Mrs. Harriet 
Taylor Upton, the national treasurer, and Miss Anthony and her 
sister went there on Monday. They were the guests of Mrs. Up- 
ton, who gave a large reception for them. Advantage was taken 
of the presence of so many eminent women to hold a public meet- 
ing in the opera house, which was crowded to its capacity, and 
Miss Anthony was received with a cordiality which would have 
flattered her had she been in the least susceptible to flattery. 
There were five days of the business meetings which she always 
so much enjoyed, and then she and Miss Mary went to Chicago to 
the annual convention of the Illinois Suffrage Association. Miss 
Anthony attended and addressed the convention and went also to 
a meeting of the Jewish Women's Council, where she spoke to an 
immense audience. 

The two sisters reached Leavenworth on October 4 and their 
brother himself met them at the station with a warm welcome. 
The second day afterwards the three went to Lawrence to the 
celebration of its fiftieth anniversary, in which Colonel Anthony 
was to have participated, but he was not able to go to the plat- 
form, and this was the last time he left the house during their 
stay. They dined with the nephew D. R. Jr. and his wife; the 
niece Maude and her husband, Capt. Lewis Koehler, at Fort 
Leavenworth, and with various friends. After a ten days* visit 
they felt that even this small excitement increased the weakness 
of their brother, and, as Miss Anthony herself was far from 
well, they decided it would be best to return home. The parting 
was very hard for all of them, and the entry in the diary for that 


day said, "Dear brother Dan seems destined to go, but I hope 
against hope that he may recover.'* They arrived Sunday morn- 
ing and in the journal that night was written : "It seems so good 
to be at home. I looked over the more than a hundred letters that 
awaited me and then tried to sleep awhile but I keep up a think- 
ing about brother D. R. all the time. Shall I ever see him alive 
I again?" 

I Miss Anthony*s return enabled her to comply with the urgent 
\requests to attend the New York State Suffrage Convention, 
which met in Auburn. There was the greatest desire in all the 
States to have her at their conventions, as her presence always in- 
sured large audiences and resulted in many new adherents to the 
cause. When she reached the home of Mrs. Eliza Wright Os- 
borne, accompanied by her sister and Mrs. Mary T. Lewis Gan- 
nett, she was rejoiced to find there Miss Shaw, Mrs. Wm. Lloyd 
Garrison and her daughter Agnes, Miss Emily Rowland, Miss 
Harriet May Mills, Miss Lucy E. Anthony and Mrs. Nicolas 
Shaw Eraser. In the evening Mrs. Osborne gave a reception for 
her guests attended by several hundred of the representative 
people. One day the delegates were invited to visit the historic 
home and grounds of Wm. H. Seward. The newspaper report of 
the convention said : "Susan B. Anthony, the grand old woman 
of the suffrage cause, was called on to describe the recent meeting 
of the International Council of Women in Berlin, which she did 
in a broad and comprehensive way, with many humorous points." 
The prize for the club making the largest percentage of increase 
in membership — ^The History of Woman Suffrage — ^went to 
Nunda, and the presentation was made by Miss Anthony. Taking 
up the four volumes, one by one, she gave from memory a com- 
plete summary of their contents, told of speaking in Nunda with 
Frances Dana Gage in 1857, and related some interesting reminis- 
cences of her experiences in Auburn during the very first days of 
the woman's rights movement half-a-century ago. 

The autumn weeks were filled with anxiety as the brother was 
evidently nearing the end. A ray of brightness came with a little 
visit from Helen Stanton, of Paris, granddaughter of Elizabeth 
Cady, and daughter of Theodore Stanton, who brought her to 


Rochester in order that she might know and remember Miss 
/Anthony. On November 12 the long-dreaded telegram came — 
ithe beloved brother had died just after midnight. Those who 
•cherished Miss Anthony had hoped that she could be spared this 
blow, that her brother might outlive her, for he was so large a 
factor in her life. Since the death of her sister Hannah many 
years before he had been next to her in age ; he was much more 
like her than was any other member of the family and their 
similarity of characteristics had long been a matter of public 
comment. She had the most profound admiration for his com- 
manding intellect, his business ability, his courage, aggressive- 
ness and determination, and a strong pride in his achievements 
and the place he had made for himself in the history of his 
adopted State. But far deeper than this was her love for him 
because of his long years of devotion to her ; he never lost sight 
of her interests; her birthdays were always remembered with 
liberal presents ; railroad transportation was sent her times with- 
out number; a newspaper report that she was not well brought 
immediately a telegram of inquiry ; he was never too hurried on 
his eastern trips to stop off for a visit with the sisters. She felt 
that always and under all circumstances she could depend on him 
for whatever she needed, and now it seemed as if a great stay and 
support had been taken away just when she wanted it most. 

The two bereft and lonely women left by the earliest train for 
Leavenworth and arrived a few hours before the services. "The 
funeral took place from the home on North Esplanade and was 
attended by prominent men from all parts of the State. The 
casket was draped in the Stars and Stripes and the room where it 
lay was filled with floral offerings. Many colored people came to 
take a last look at the face of him who had ever been their friend. 
As the funeral cortege passed through the streets the bell on the 
city hall tolled for one who had thrice been mayor of Leaven- 
worth. When it passed the Soldiers' Home hundreds of veterans 
of the Civil War lined up along the roadway with bared grey 
heads, and then marched over into Mt. Muncie cemetery and 
there listened to the services of the Grand Army of the Republic 


as their departed comrade was laid to rest among the ancient oaks 
of the burial ground/' 

Col. D. R. Anthony had been mayor, postmaster, member of 
the Legislature and of various commissions; a member of the 
advisory board of the Associated Press, a Government director 
of the Union Pacific R. R. and the editor and owner of the Leav- 
enworth Times for over forty years. He was a national character 
because of his leadership of the Free State party before the Civil 
War ; because of his conspicuous services during that conflict, and 
because of his large part in Kansas politics for half-a-century. 
Newspapers throughout the country contained editorials on his 
death. The Chicago Inter Ocean summed up his characteristics 
by saying : "He was too radical to suit the majority, as a rule, 
and yet the majority were always yearning to honor him ; foes 
and friends alike respected him ; for there was no questioning his 
personal honesty or his personal bravery." And the Denver 
Times said : "He was loved ; he was hated ; but the entire State 
of Kansas will bow the head at the bier of the last of the sort of 
men who made it free. Scholars and priests, reformers and 
statesmen, sages and philosophers — for once stand aside while 
we revere the type of American of whom Anthony is the last !" 

The two sisters remained but a week in Leavenworth, and in 
Miss Anthony's journal she wrote : "Nephew D. R. went to the 
station with us, he must now take his father's place in all things. 
To his duties as mayor he must add the management of the paper, 
the care of the farms, all the business — 2l pretty heavy load for a 
young man of thirty-four, but he is equal to it." They reached 
home Tuesday evening, November 22, and the next morning the 
ever-thoughtful Mr. and Mrs. Gannett sent an invitation to have 
Thanksgiving dinner with them, so that day was relieved of much 
of its sadness. 

On his eightieth birthday, August 22, their brother D. R. had 
written his sisters asking if they had any suggestions to make re- 
garding his will, and those they sent were so characteristic that 
the temptation to quote them is strong. First they wanted him to 
leave to his wife a very considerable sum beyond all that he had 
intended, to replace some of her own money which she had put 


into his business years ago ; then $5,000 to the National Suffrage 
Association; a large amount to benefit in some way the city of 
Leavenworth; something to his faithful housekeeper; an addi- 
tional fund to maintain the cemetery lot in Rochester — for them- 
selves nothing. He did not forget them, however, as the will 
provided for a payment of $1,200 a year as long as they lived 

.and set aside $2,000 to be applied on a memorial for Miss An- 

jthony after her death. 

The second day of December was the one-hundred-and- 
eleventh birthday of Miss Anthony's mother and she commem- 
orated it by inviting twelve ladies to dinner, all but Mrs. Gannett 
I over sixty; Mrs. Lewia C. Smith, ninety-three; Mrs. Sarah L. 
, Willis, eighty-seven; Mrs. Mary L. Hallowell, eighty-three; Mrs. 
Maria Wilder Depuy, seventy-four; Mrs. Sarah C. Blackall, 
seventy-one; several of the others past seventy — such beautiful 
old ladies, old only in years, young in spirit and thought, living in 
the present, progressive in ideas, staunch believers in equality of 
rights for women — Miss Anthony's dearest, truest friends. 

Miss Anthony was a devout believer in the gospel of work ; it 
was her panacea for physical, mental and spiritual ills, her refuge 
in time of trouble or sorrow, and now, so far as her strength 
permitted, she occupied every waking moment. In a letter to the 
Countess of Aberdeen, acknowledging a Christmas remembrance, 
she told her that she was hoping to go to the National Suffrage 
Convention in Portland, Ore., and then down to help the women 
of California; described the avalanche of letters which she and 
the other members of the National Suffrage Board were heaping 
upon the committee which was considering Statehood for Okla- 
homa, and concluded : "Now I am going to drop another bomb, 
as a bill is before Congress to reduce the representation in the 
South according to the Fourteenth Amendment, and we will ask 
that this bill shall base the representation in every State upon the 
actual number of voters. It is a shame that such things are neces- 
sary in a country where every utterance of every Constitution, 
National and State, distinctly guarantees freedom and equality 
of rights for all!" 

MISS Anthony's opinions — ex-president Cleveland. 


fN New Year's Day of 1905 Miss Anthony took 
dinner with Mrs. Charlotte Wilbur Griffing, who 
had attended the first Woman's Rights Conven- 
tion in 1848, when it adjourned its meeting to Roch- 
ester. Her sister Mary, who also had been present on 
that historic occasion, and several old friends were there, and in 
the late afternoon they called on Col. and Mrs. H. S. Greenleaf, 
other cherished friends of many years. The day was a pleasant 
one but it had a sad ending, for it brought the news that the much 
loved cousin, Mrs. Semantha V. Lapham, was very ill with pneu- 
monia and could not recover. She died a few days later and to 
add to Miss Anthony's grief a severe blizzard made it impossible 
for her to go to that home in New York whose fine hospitality she 
had enjoyed for so many years. 

Although confined very closely to the house during the winter 
months Miss Anthony was busy every moment with her stenog- 
rapher and with the distribution of the History of Woman Suf- 
frage which she did not allow to lag. She had no stronger desire 
than to have this record placed within reach of every community 
and she felt that no one would ever take so vital an interest in it 
as herself. One entry in the diary said : "Enjoying a bright wood 
fire from the old cherry tree which stood so many years in the 
back yard. Mary cut it down last summer while I was in Europe 
— well, it was time it came down perhaps. No more cherries — 
but It does make a nice, cheerful fire." Miss Anthony managed 
always to attend the meetings of the Local Council of Women 


[1905] MISS Anthony's opinions. 1343 

which she had helped organize and in which she took an active 
interest, although it by no means came up to her ideal of what its 
efficiency and power ought to be. She was continually spurring 
on the members to public work of every nature, and the Rochester 
Post-Express said editorially of her remarks at the January 
meeting : 

Miss Susan B. Anthony was her own noble self— a chronic condition with 
her— when she made an earnest and pathetic plea for greater interest on the 
part of good women in this city in the welfare of unfortunate young women, 
some of them strangers, who, for one reason or another, are brought before 
the police court She thought the Local Council of Women should have a 
committee whose business it should be to inquire into the merits of special 
cases. She cited as examples several that she had been personally acquainted 
with of late. . . . This is a legitimate channel for the exercise of womanly 
sympathy and activity. It is suggestive of the old-fashioned usefulness com- 
mended in the words of the great teacher when he said, "Sick and in prison 
and ye visited me/' That is what Miss Anthony, with all her manifold activi- 
ties, has done; and if she can find time for helpfulness in individual cases 
surely it is within the power of any society or club woman to follow her gra- 
cious example. 

On every hand Miss Anthony saw work for women and she 
lost no opportunity to rouse their consciences. She recognized 
the value of the social side to all organized effort, and gladly left 
her own pressing duties to assist at the reception given by the 
Council president, Mrs. W. W. Armstrong, to its thirty affiliated 
societies. Another day she enjoyed a luncheon given by Mrs. 
William Eastwood to the committee which had worked so val- 
iantly to raise the fund for the admission of women to Rochester 
University. That afternoon she addressed the Mothers' Club of 
one of the Public Schools. No matter what the nature of the 
meeting she never failed to impress upon women that whatever 
work they undertook they could do more efficiently if they had 
that power which lay in the ballot — ^that public conditions in all 
cities were such as to neutralize largely the best efforts of women 
within and without the home. 

Invitations to address large bodies of men and of women came 
to Miss Anthony from all parts of the country and nothing would 
have afforded her so much joy, but to all she felt obliged to send 
the answer, "I am done with making speeches for any purpose 


whatsoever." Then she always added, "But I have some young 
lieutenants who are fully capable of filling any sort of a bill," and 
gave names and eulogies of Miss Shaw or Mrs. Catt or other 
suffrage speakers. This year Miss Anthony directed her sten- 
ographer not to make copies of her letters, and thus most of her 
latest correspondence is forever lost to the public, only a few 
letters having been preserved. She was always trying to help 
somebody and one letter was found written to Governor Higgins, 
of New York, in the interest of Mrs. Florence Kelley, who was 
being urged for State Factory Inspector and was admirably 
qualified. In this she said: "You know, of course, the great 
reputation of Mrs. Kelley's father, the Hon. Wm. D. Kelley, who 
represented Pennsylvania so many years in Congress; she par- 
takes very largely of his qualities ; you remember the saying that 
now and then there is a man's head on a woman's shoulders. I 
don't see why it should be expressed this way, for a woman is 
just as likely as a man to have a level head for business if she can 
get a chance at it, and I want you to give Mrs. Kelley an oppor- 
tunity to prove this. The salary will attract many male candi- 
dates but I beg that you will show a non-partisan spirit by giving 
the office to a non-voter." Although Governor Higgins was fa- 
vorable to woman suffrage a man received the appointment. 

A society in California wrote urging Miss Anthony to advise 
the women to work for high license instead of prohibition of the 
liquor traffic and she answered : 

My own city of less than 200,000 inhabitants licenses 700 saloons. Nearly 
all the children of the city on their way to school have to pass one or more of 
these saloons. The men going to their daily work have this temptation on 
every hand to spend the money which should go to the support of the children. 
So here are at least two classes that are much harmed. We hear a great deal 
about interfering with the liberty of men, but have they a right to spend on 
liquor the money that is needed to provide the necessaries of life for their 
families? And should we license a place which provides the means and the 
inducement for them to do this? I cannot favor anything but the absolute 
closing of the saloons, and also their annexes, the gambling houses and the 
brothels. I do not think that the abolishing of these institutions would imme- 
diately eliminate all evils, but I do hold that it would be of vast benefit to the 
community in every respect 

Women in business frequently said to Miss Anthony that they 

[1905] MISS Anthony's opinions. 1345 

had the highest admiration for her but they had a feeling of in- 
difference in regard to the suffrage. To a young newspaper 
woman who wrote in this strain she replied : 

I want to talk to you about being indifferent to woman's enfranchisement — 
you who occupy a place made possible by the agitation of the question of equal 
rights for women, and which would seem of all places one that would educate 
a woman into a knowledge of how she got it. Do you mean to say you are 
totally indifferent as to whether the Raines Liquor Law, for instance, is en- 
forced or repealed ? That you are indifferent to the arrest of the nine women 
found in a saloon of doubtful reputation, while all the men with them were 
allowed to go scot free, as reported in this morning's paper? Are you per- 
fectly satisfied with that injustice? Do you not see that so long as women are 
the disfranchised class they will suffer the whole penalty of that crime against 
society, while their partners in it are left at large to bring another grist to the 
mill ? Have you no resentment at the thousand discriminations against women 
because they have no voice in making and administering the laws ? When you 
analyze your feelings surely you will find that you are mistaken about being 

President Roosevelt made a great speech before the Republican 
Club of New York on Lincoln's birthday which he devoted 
principally to the race question, the key note being that the negro 
should be treated with regard to his merits and not his color. It 
was a strong plea for equality of rights, for justice alike to all 
citizens, and Miss Anthony could not let the occasion pass, so she 
wrote to the President : 

In your Inaugural Address I beg of you to speak of Woman as you do of 
the Negro^speak of her as a human being, as a citizen of the United States, 
as a half of the people in whose hands lies the destiny of this Nation. Woman 
is entitled to that share in the political life of the country which is warranted 
by her individual ability and integrity and the position she has won for her- 
self, just as the negro is. I could not have such confident faith as you have 
in the destiny of this mighty people if I had it in but one-half of them. For 
weal or for woe we are knit together and we shall go up or down together, 
and I believe that we shall go up and not down, that we shall go forward in- 
stead of halting and falling back, because I have an abiding faith in all my 
countrymen and countrywomen. And for their full development it is neces- 
sary that women, just as much as negro men, shall be granted perfect equality 
of rights. 

The eighty-fifth birthday of Miss Anthony was literally cele- 
brated from ocean to ocean. A big scrap book was filled with 


notices which were sent by the clipping bureau and pasted in by 
the careful hands of Miss Mary. The papers of the large cities 
contained her picture and columns of accounts of these festivities 
— ^receptions, dinners, luncheons, teas, with poems, sketches and 
tributes. Many of the last are well worthy of reproducing here 
but it would be a difficult matter to select and not do an injustice 
to many which would necessarily have to be omitted, therefore it 
seems best to describe only the observance of the day in her own 
city of Rochester. The reporters had long descriptions of visits 
to Miss Anthony on the eventful day, of finding her seated in a 
room filled with flowers and presents, among the latter a large 
mahogany Morris chair from the Political Equality Club; of 
letters and telegrams from many foreign countries and from emi- 
nent men and women throughout the United States. The College 
Women's Club sent a basket of tropical fruits, and the local chap- 
ter of the D. A. R. a large bouquet of violets with a tiny flag in 
the center. There were pictures, books, embroidered table scarf 
and doilies, gloves, handkerchiefs, slippers, shawls, and many 
gifts pf money. In presenting the chair an original poem was 
read by Miss Cora Britton Ruppert, of which space will permit 
but a few stanzas. 

Rest thee a little, far may seem thy goal. 

But right is strong, O, great and dauntless soul ; 

Rest thee a little, have no doubt or fear, 

The war will rage though thou shalt rest thee here. 

Rest thee and listen, thou canst plainly hear 
The thanks of thousands unto whom thou'rt dear ; 
Whence thou alone didst tread — O, music sweet — 
G)mes now the sound of many, many feet 

Rest thee a little, deathless is thy fame ; 
Through all of time will women bless thy name ; 
Will thank thee for their burdens made more light. 
As now we thank thee who are here tonight. 

The Post-Express thus began a long editorial : "Today Susan 
B. Anthony is eighty-five years old, and all Rochester offers cor- 
dial congratulations. She is indeed more widely known than any 
other resident of the city, for her fame has spread to the utter- 






a: I 

2 S 

a: ^ 
o t 


[1905] MISS Anthony's opinions. 1347 

most parts of the earth, and we all take a particular pride in her 
remarkable achievements. To American women she is specially 
dear, for her long life has been devoted to unselfish and unre- 
warded labors in their behalf." 

The Union and Advertiser said : "Miss Anthony is the last of 
that little band who started the equal rights movement with only 
a handful of women, which has gjown until now it encircles the 
globe. In those early years, she, with her co-workers, was re- 
viled and ridiculed. Today she is loved and honored not only by 
those who share her convictions regarding the suffrage but by 
all who recognize her great worth and her devotion to the large 
purpose of her life. She is a remarkable woman and Rochester 
is proud of her." 

In its editorial the Democrat and Chronicle said : 

Indeed Miss Anthony may well glory in her standing and record as an 
octogenarian, for is she not today in heart, in fixity of purpose and in energy 
of execution still a young woman and a standing rebuke to thousands of her 
sex who have not seen one-third of her years? Hers has been a life of 
untiring activity, usefulness and achievement. Through her more than 
through any other person, the conditions which restricted and crippled women 
when she began her work have been changed or wholly abolished. Her su- 
preme objective — ^the general recognition of women's right to the ballot and 
a direct share in the government — ^has not been reached; but scores of 
victories in collateral reforms are now woven into the silver which crowns 
her honored brow. 

All men — and women, of course — speak kindly and admiringly of Miss 
Anthony today; but there was a time years ago when she and her few as- 
sociates were chiefly the theme of ridicule, jest and caricature. The public 
did not understand her character and purpose; but whenever her marvellous 
personality could be brought to bear directly upon a fair and candid mind 
there was sure to be left a friend if not a convert. For Miss Anthony is the 
personification of sincerity and common sense, and she has that largeness of 
soul and depth of sjrmpathy which usually are found associated with a genius 
for bringing things to pass. 

The evening celebration was held under the auspices of the 
Political Equality Club, in the large, pleasant home of the Rev. 
and Mrs. W. C. Gannett in Sibley Place. The Evening Times 
began its account: "Judges, clergymen, presidents and profes- 
sors of universities, men prominent in every walk of life ; women 
more than making up in loyalty what they lacked perhaps in 


fame — ^all these and more assembled last evening to honor the 
birthday of Miss Anthony and pay heartfelt tribute to Rochester's 
great woman." 

Miss Anthony received the guests with Mrs. Gannett, Mrs. 
Jean Brooks Greenleaf, Mrs. Helen Barrett Montgomery, Miss 
Mary Anthony and Miss Mabel Clark, president of the club. On 
the programs were pictures of Miss Anthony and her sister, who 
was the club's president for eleven years ; and the addresses were 
a symposium on What the Women of the New Century Owe to 
the Woman's Movement of the Last Century and to Susan B. 
Anthony. Miss Ruth H. Dennis told What Woman's New Edu- 
cation Owes, and described Miss Anthony's part in opening the 
University of Rochester to women. Mrs. Montgomery spoke on 
What Woman's New Occupations Owe, beginning : "Our great 
leader who sits here tonight has been one of the women who has 
taught other women the joy of labor." 

Mrs. Greenleaf, in telling What Woman's New Social Service 
Owes, said in part : 

Asked to tell what Miss Anthony has done for the world socially, I would 
inquire, What has she not done? She has shown us that in truth all men 
are brothers, all women sisters, that this bond really binds, and no one can 
rise so high or sink so low as to sever it. She has shown us unfailingly our 
individual responsibility to our fellows. She has shown us that to no sex 
or color or nationality are the gifts of God limited, but that all are entitled 
to opportunity to do their best and win their reward. 

Miss Anthony has taught us the lesson of true hospitality ; that it does not 
consist in the loaded table and prodigal display, but in the heart-felt welcome 
to the home, the willingness to share ungrudgingly whatever may chance to 
be in the larder, without pettiness; that fraternal feeling is more than cere- 
mony. Nowhere in this country is there to be found more genuine hospitality 
than in the home of the Anthony sisters. Not only is there the welcome of 
rest and refreshment t)f the body, but hospitality for thought and opinion. 
Socially we are more indebted to Susan B. Anthony than to any other woman, 
for she has shown to the world the possibilities of true American woman- 
hood. Queen and Empress have recognized her worth and wisdom, as well 
as have the highest and best in her native land, but her cook and seamstress 
know them also. 

The New Dignity that Motherhood Owes was touchingly pic- 
tured by Mrs. Gannett, who said in closing: "The movement 
which Miss Anthony represents has given a new nobility to mar- 

[1905] MISS Anthony's opinions. 1349 

riage- In the ideal home the children believe that the mother 
shares the responsibilities with the father, not only in the home 
but in the community and in the State. ... To no one are we 
more indebted for the service that has helped women add greater 
beauty of mind and character to the home than to the woman 
who sits here." 

Miss Anthony's love for children was recognized when a tiny 
maiden, Dorothy Osborne, holding a lovely bouquet, told What 
the Coming Woman Will Owe : "I bring these flowers to speak 
for the new generation now coming forward, to tell our gratitude 
for the more beautiful life that you and your fellow-workers have 
opened to us. Everjrthing is flowering for us. The colleges are 
opening to us over the land. We shall make our living in a 
hundred ways where our mothers had one. So our heads and 
our hands will be strong to do more good for the world than 
women have ever before been able to do. And we feel that this 
new power will make our hearts larger and sweeter for all that 
home means. You have given your life for this flowering of 
womanhood, and the girls of the new century bring you flowers 
to say that — ^and to thank you." 

The laurels of the occasion were won by young Master Lewis 
S. Gannett, who said : 

And I, just a boy, want to thank you for us who are on our way to be 
men. The girls are not going to flower without us. The better "woman" 
there is in the world, the better "man" will stand by her side. If sisters can be 
better, if mothers can be dearer, than ours — though we don't see how they 
can — ^then boys are bound to be truer men to match them. So you have lived 
for us also. Though two, we are one, after all, and we shall grow nobler 
together. Come back to us fifty years hence, and we, working together to 
make them, will show you juster laws, more equal conditions, gentler homes 
— and to you and yours they will largely be due. The boys of the new cen- 
tury bring you their flowers and thank you.* 

Dr. Rush Rhees, president of the university, spoke of the 
emancipation that was coming to working men and to women and 

^The custom was widely instituted this year, and has been followed since, of present- 
ins large photographs of Miss Anthony to the public schools on her birthday in order 
that the children may become familiar with her face and interested in the work she rep- 


of the time when woman would be still more than now the com- 
panion of man. In the course of his remarks Judge Arthur E. 
Sutherland said : "I believe that in addressing Miss Anthony I 
have the honor of speaking to Rochester's most distinguished 
citizen. I wonder how it must feel to be eighty-five years old 
and to have lived such a life as she has lived ! When the black 
man was fleeing from his master in times of slavery, she lifted 
up her voice against that institution. We honor her for that. 
We honor her for lifting up her voice against the cruelties that 
have been practiced upon her own sex. Always she has been 
actuated by a deep sense of justice." 

Mr. Gannett read a letter from Mayor James G. Cutler saying : 

I regret that I must be absent from the city until after the date named. 
That I sympathize with any plan to honor Miss Anthony, you will believe 
when I tell you that in my address prepared for a public dinner in New 
York on Saturday, where I am to speak on Rochester, I have not forgotten 
her claim to recognition among those who have added to the city's fame. I 
ask you to convey to her my congratulations on her birthday and an expres- 
sion of my sincere regret that I cannot join with those who will commemo- 
rate the anniversary. However the citizens of Rochester may differ and, of 
course, do differ upon the question with which Miss Anthony's name is most 
often associated, there is no difference among them as to her high character, 
the beautiful devotion of her life to helpful work, and the high respect and 
esteem in which she is so deservedly held. 

After Mr. Gannett had added his own beautiful tribute to both 
of the sisters, Miss Anthony spoke very briefly but with much 
feeling, expressing her appreciation of all that had been said and 
adding, "You may compliment women, pet them, worship them, 
but if you do not recognize their claim for justice, it is all as 
nothing." She introduced with affectionate words Miss Nora 
Stanton Blatch, grand-daughter of her beloved Mrs. Stanton, 
who had come from Cornell University to spend the birthday 
with her. And then the guests could hardly be persuaded to go 
into the dining room because of the love-feast in the drawing 
room ! 

The birthday letters continued coming for a week or more and 
among them was one from Mrs. Russell Sage which said : "Be- 
ing greatly pleased by the truth and the form of statements in 

[1905] MISS Anthony's opinions. 135 i 

the.enclosed clipping I am sending it to you lest otherwise it may 
not come to your notice. . . . With undiminished delight 
in my grand and beautiful friend, I am yours affectionately." 
The enclosure was the following editorial from the New York 
Evening Telegram, fully half of the lines being underscored by 
Mrs. Sage : 

Susan B. Anthony is still receiving congratulations because of her eighty- 
fifth birthday. They come from various parts of the world. Kindly words 
speed over and under the wide, flowing seas, linking her with thousands of 
hearts to whom she stands not only as a high type of womanhood but also as 
the symbol of a social, moral and ethical idea. 

The time will come when woman suffrage will be a graciously accepted 
fact and the normal man of that time will wonder why it was necessary to 
make such a long and pertinacious fight for simple justice to the sex. Then 
will Susan B. Anthony be in the fullness of her life, though she long be dead. 
She is a remarkable woman at eighty-five, still glowing with the fire of en- 
thusiasm, still splendidly courageous and animated by that youth which single 
devotion to a cause puts into the hearts of its advocates. She is a monument 
to the worth of woman. Men who complain of lack of opportunity, who re- 
gard the struggle of life with misgivings and irresolution, may find here a 
lesson to hearten them. Miss Anthony has devoted her life to one purpose, 
the uplift of woman and the broadening of her field, believing that as woman 
is benefitted so is the nation. Which is true indeed, for woman is herself 
the nation. . . . 

Who builds on truth builds for all time. And therem lies the value of what 
has been wrought by Susan B. Anthony. 

The New York Press sent Edwin Tracey, a special writer, to 
Rochester, and published a page of pictures and his excellent 
interview of several columns. A few extracts will illustrate Miss 
Anthony's sane and sensible views in the late evening of life. 

... If a woman belongs to one or two good clubs and attends them as 
dutifully as her husband attends his club or secret society, she will be a more 
helpful wife and a better mother. To an unmarried woman the club offers 
inestimable advantages. It makes her independent of man even for her 
recreations and amusements. 

I think the girl who is able to earn her own living and pay her" own way 
should be as happy as anybody on earth. The sense of independence and 
security is very sweet. Women should be as free to enter all business occu- 
pations as men. College education is gradually bringing this about I can*t 
say that the college-bred woman is the most contented woman. The broader 
her mind the more she understands the unequal conditions between men and 
women, the more she chafes under a government that tolerates it. . . . 
Ant. Ill— 16 


One effect of our suffrage movement is that women are learning to do 
more for women. Hitherto when a rich woman died leaving a large legacy 
to some institution, it was usually one for men that derived the benefit. 
Women are now understanding that their own sex has the first claim. 
Throughout the land they are recognizing their duties as citizens; that, as 
members of a great nation, they have the same rights as all other members. 
They object to being considered simply in the light of wife and mother. 
Suppose, for instance, that President Roosevelt, when he made his great 
speech in New York the other day, had been welcomed solely as the good 
husband and father. He would have resented it, wouldn't he? Well, that is 
the way women feel; they want their birthright of self-sovereignty. Nothing 
quickens the conscience of a woman and strengthens her judgment like in- 
dividual responsibility. Nothing adds more dignity to her character. The 
anti-suffragist talk of sheltering women from the fierce storms of life is a 
lot of cant. I have no patience with it. These storms beat on woman just as 
fiercely as they do on man, and she is not trained to defend herself against 
them. It will not be so a generation hence. The modem girl sees the dawn 
of a new day. Women at the editor's desk, women teaching in the colleges, 
women healing the sick, women practicing in the courts, women preaching 
from the pulpit and lecturing from the platform— call them new women or 
what you please — ^they are the women the world welcomes today. 

During this month when the newspapers of the entire country 
were vying with each other in glowing tributes to Miss Anthony, 
the New York Herald devoted a page to an article crudely manu- 
factured to show that she and the other suffrage leaders upheld 
U. S. Senator Reed Smoot because they believed in polygamy. 
The animus of the paper was shown when it refused to publish 
the denials of the women whom it had pretended to quote liter- 
ally. Miss Anthony when interviewed dismissed the subject with 
contempt, saying the article was inspired by the anti-suffragists 
and that the Woman's Journal, in calling it "a clumsy lie,*' ex- 
pressed her exact opinion. 

The month of March was always inclement in Rochester and 
Miss Anthony this year accepted with pleasure an invitation 
which had been extended by Mr. and Mrs. Deloss A. Blodgett, 
of Grand Rapids, Mich., to spend it at their winter home in 
Daytona, Florida. Miss Shaw, who was just recovering from a 
^ severe attack of pneumonia, received a like invitation. Miss An- 
thony left home on March i, and broke the journey at Phila- 
delphia, where she was the guest for a few days of Mrs. Emma J. 
Bartol. While there she was much grieved to learn of the death 

[1905] MISS Anthony's opinions. 1353 

of Mrs. Leland Stanford in Honolulu. Their friendship dated 
back to 1886, when her husband was in the U. S. Senate, and 
during the intervening years she had shown Miss Anthony many 
courtesies. Not long before going to Hawaii she had written, 
"I am so thankful that God permits me to have in you so true 
and loyal a friend." Miss Anthony reciprocated this feeling and 
had the sense of a deep personal loss. She was having many such 
losses in recent years, as every one must have who passes the 
eightieth milestone of life, but she seldom gave outward signs of 
grief or spoke of it. When asked to write tributes she alwasrs 
answered, "I can not put my feelings into words."^ 

While in Philadelphia Miss Anthony attended a meeting of the 
Women's Branch of the Ethical Society, and although she made 
but a few remarks she greatly impressed a reporter present, who 
had this description in the Press of that city : 

The figure of Miss Anthony was simplicity itself, even though she stood 
there calmly talking about writing letters to the President of the United 
States reminding him of his duty to the women of the land. There is noth- 
ing of the '*brawn and muscle" that cartoonists give to the woman's rights 
woman about Susan B. Anthony. She is one of the sweetest old ladies in 
the world and no man could look at her without thinking of all he loved best 
in his own mother. Yesterday she spoke to the little circle of women around 
her without taking the platform, simply rising from her chair. A tall but not 
spare figure, she was as erect as her younger sisters and only the white hair 
told of eighty-five years. From out of spectacles, not eye glasses, looked the 
keen, kind, blue eyes, and she wore a bonnet, not a hat, this woman of women. 
Her dress was plain, dark gray with black trimmings, and somehow, to a 
man's eye at least, just the kind of dress that brings recollections of home 
and boyhood. And then, to crown all, beneath that homelike bonnet and 
over that homelike dress, there was thrown to shield her from draught — ^not 
a lace cloak, not a piece of rich fur, but a red shawl. 

That bonnet, with the kind blue eyes beneath it, those spectacles, that plain 
dress and quaint red shawl, and, above all, that sweet, gentle voice, spelled 
"mother" as plainly as the fine word ever was written. Not a hint of man- 
nishness but all that man loves and respects. What man could deny any 
right to a woman like that? 

Miss Anthony and Miss Shaw started southward March 3, and 
stopped to visit the interesting old town of St. Augustine before 

^Of the persons mentioned in the first two volumes of this Biography, who were living 
at the time it was written, one hundred and sixty-five, to the writer's knowledge, have 
since died, and doubtless the actual number is still larger. 


going to Daytona. A cordial welcome awaited them from host 
and hostess, they were soon installed in two large, sunny rooms 
and in this delightful home they remained nearly four weeks, 
seeing each day a gain in health and strength. "Mrs. Blodgett is 
a wonderful hostess," Miss Anthony wrote to her sister; and 
Mrs. Blodgett said to the present writer: "I never entertained 
so perfect a guest as Miss Anthony. She literally did not make a 
particle of trouble, required no waiting on, was punctual at meals, 
appreciated everything that was done for her, was always calm 
and sweet. Miss Shaw was just as nice and they both have a 
standing invitation to our home." Enjoyable drives were taken 
every day, among the orange groves, down the long beach, over 
to the famous shell mounds and through the picturesque country. 
One day they spent at the shore cottage of the family where a 
picnic dinner was served; one day they drove to Ormond with 
its gorgeous display of wealth ; and one to the City Beautiful at 
Sea Breeze to call on Helen Wilmans Post. Miss Anthony and 
Miss Shaw addressed a meeting of the Palmetto Qub in the 
opera house and the journal said: "Miss Shaw did beautifully; 
I stammered out next to nothing, but all seemed glad to see me, 
and she won their hearts." Other entries in the journal were: 
"We are kept pretty busy, Miss Shaw at writing letters and I at 
doing nothing." "It seems odd to be driving about with only 
light wraps and going down town with none and bareheaded 
while they are all snowed imder at home." "I wonder why Mary 
does not get my letters ; I give them to the coachman to mail — 
maybe they are still in his pocket." "I am too lazy for anjrthing, 
scarcely write a letter and don't even record in my diary book 
where we have been." 

The truth was that during all these days and weeks and months 
Miss Anthony was struggling against the physical prostration 
which only her strong will enabled her to overcome. While in 
Philadelphia the present writer had asked her in anguish of 
spirit, "Why are you so quiet? Why don't you talk as you used 
to?" And she had answered, "Because Thave scarcely strength 
to speak." A little later she wrote : "Now don't you worry about 
me. The hammer may as well fall one time as another — only 

[1905] MISS Anthony's opinions. 1355 

I did want to work a little longer." The splendid mind still re- 
tained its vigor and among the few letters she wrote during this 
month was a long one to her nephew D. R. Anthony, of Leaven- 
worth, who was now proprietor of the Leavenworth Times and 
was a candidate for re-election as mayor. She was most anxious 
that he should maintain for himself and his paper a high stand- 
ard, regardless of the consequences, and said among other things : 

I should think the women would vote for you on account of your attitude 
on street improvements. Now I hope you will take the right position on the 
liquor question, and, if there must be a license, demand that it shall be $i»ooo 
or $1,200 and at least kill off the "blind tigers'' and smoke out all the hiding 
places of the three vices. If the liquor law is bound to be circumvented, 
then force those who violate it to pay roundly for their action. But I should 
much rather see an honest effort to shut up those sinks of iniquity. I remem- 
ber asking your father once, when prohibition was being enforced in Leaven- 
worth, if he did not think there were more sugar and coffee and shoes and 
stockings bought for the families of the dty than when liquor was freely 
sold, and he said, "Yes, of course." . . . Well, do the best you can and 
don't crawl in the mire to get the vote of the whiskey element. The Presi- 
dent appointed not because he was fit for the office but because he 

delivered, or pretended to deliver, the Irish vote of his city. Don't be guilty 
of advocating a man for official position for political reasons when he is 
wanting in all that goes to make up a decent citizen. . . . 

Bessie, uphold your husband's hands in everything that is honorable and 
help him make a beginning of clean politics. Nothing makes dirty politics 
but that kind of men. If they were clean the politics would be. There is no 
way to cleanse them but for the politicians to wash their hands of corrupt 
practices, and I want D. R. to lead in this work of purification. 

Miss Anthony, accompanied by Miss Shaw, went for a few 
days' visit to the winter home of her cousin, Miss Melissa Dickin- 
son, at Orange City. The Woman's Club came for a Susan B. 
Anthony day, about sixty ladies present, representing twenty 
different States. They drove to Deland, the county seat; "a 
lovely drive," the diary said, "but, oh, the blasted hopes in those 
acres of frozen orange trees !" They visited the library and hall 
presented by the cousin to her town, and one afternoon drove to 
a Spiritualist camp-meeting at Lake St. Helen, where of course 
they both had to make speeches. 

When they returned to Daytona they addressed the colored 
high school and that night Miss Anthony wrote in her journal : 




"They are bright children but it is sad to feel that the moment 
any one of them holds up his head, shows signs of being a citizen, 
he will have a flat stone put upon it. It is a hard fate that lies 
before the colored people of this nation who are specially gifted 
— ^and yet the only way to solve the race question is to educate 
both races, the blacks to be equal to their opportunities, the 
whites to be willing to share their privileges." 

On the last day of March the travellers left the hospitable home 
of the Blodgetts, every spare comer of their baggage filled with 
oranges and grape fruit, of which Miss Anthony was so fond. 
They spent the night at Columbia, S. C, and the next day went 
up into the mountains of North Carolina for a visit with Mrs. 
Coonley Ward who was spending the winter at Tryon. The 
peach trees were in bloom and Miss Anthony thought nature was 
more beautiful than in tropical Florida. After a delightful week 
they went to Washington, for the meeting of the National Coun- 
cil of Women, joining Mrs. Mary Wood Swift, its president, at 
the Shoreham. 

The Council had the most enthusiastic greeting for Miss An- 
thony, one of its founders and its first vice-president-at-large. 
She did not take so active a part in its proceedings as in former 
days and several measures were adopted which she did not ap- 
prove but did not feel able to combat. When, however, a resolu- 
tion was presented that the Council would cooperate with Church 
and State to lessen the evil of divorce, she did protest most 
vigorously, saying in part : 

I do not consider divorce an evil by any means. It is just as much a 
refuge for women married to brutal men as Canada was to the slaves of 
brutal masters. I will never vote for a resolution to bar women from that 
refuge. No one class is more responsible for the evils of marriage than the 
clergy themselves. The vast majority of marriage ceremonies are performed 
by them and the cases are rare where they make close inquiry as to the char- 
acter of the applicants or refuse to unite them. Of late years there has been 
a flurry of reform on the part of a few to the extent of declining to marry 
divorced persons, but this is the most superficial and inefficient of remedies. 
What a crime to refuse to marry a man who has been divorced, and then, 
without an objection, to unite a pure woman to one who has lived a life of 
intemperance and immorality ! Or to decline to marry a divorced woman, and 

[1905] MISS Anthony's opinions. 1357 

then, without a question, bind in wedlock one who is a child in years and 
often evidently a runaway from home I 

Naturally Miss Anthony was severely censured by such of the 
clergy as came within the scope of her remarks, but she was al- 
most universally sustained by the secular press. The pathetic 
' letters of gratitude which she received from heartbroken women 
in all parts of the country, and even so far away as the provinces 
of British Columbia, if they could have been made public, would 
have given a stinging rebuke to those of their own sex who 
would shut this door of hope against the victims of an unfortu- 
nate marriage. 

At the close of the Council Miss Anthony visited Miss Shaw 
and her niece, Miss Lucy E. Anthony, at their home in Mt. Airy 
for a few days, and then, accompanied by the latter, went to New 
York, where she joined her nephew, D. R. Anthony and his 
wife at the Hotel Empire. After a pleasant four days receiving 
and visiting friends, she went with her nephew to Albany and 
thence to Greenwich and to Battenville, the old Anthony home 
sixty years before. The object of their visit was to attend to the 
placing of a monument over the graves of the maternal grand- 
parents in accordance with the will of D. R. Anthony, Sr., who 
had left a bequest for the purpose. 

Miss Anthony finally arrived at her own beloved home April 
23, after an absence of nearly two months. It was just at this 
time that ex-President Grover Cleveland, through the appropriate 
medium of the Ladies' Home Journal, of Philadelphia, made a 
ponderous attack on Women's Clubs, such as would have been 
made in the medieval ages had these institutions existed at that 
time. He gave a vicious side-cut at woman suffrage but the clubs 
were the especial victims of his heavy and involved rhetoric. 
Reporters from all parts of the country made a bee-line for Miss 
Anthony and to the one who was first to reach her she said, 'O, 
yes, she had seen the article, it had been sent to her from every 
point of the compass. What did she think of it? Ridiculous! 
Pure fol-de-rol !* She refused to consider it seriously but finally 
observed that she thought "Grover Cleveland was about the last 
person to talk of the sanctity of the home and woman's sphere;'* 


that "he dropped into poetry twice to inform us that *the hand 
that rocks the cradle rules the world/ but as boys had a way of 
climbing out of the cradle in a little while mothers were pretty apt 
to want to go after them and see what kind of a world they were 
getting into." She had no time to waste, she said, on anything as 
antediluvian as this diatribe ; she answered everything in it when 
she first began her public work nearly sixty years ago. 

The newspapers made the most of this and there was scarcely 
one in the country that sustained Mr. Cleveland in his position. 
Women by the hundreds attacked him in the press and the clubs, 
and the Cleveland Leader had a caricature of him enveloped in 
a swarm of bees into whose hive he had just poked with a pen. 
The ex-President was imquestionably stung, for he came back 
at the women with another article in the same magazine, which 
he began by saying that he had been greatly misrepresented and 
devoted wholly to an attack on woman suffrage. The Associated 
Press was the first to reach Miss Anthony when this came out 
and it soon had on the wires an interview which began: "He 
isn't worth bothering about. I have been telegraphed to by sev- 
eral newspapers to answer that article but what is there to an- 
swer? If he had said one new thing, given one new idea, there 
might have been a chance for argument, but no, — just hash, 
hash, hash of the same old kind !" 

This was enough for the newspapers and the St. Louis Glohe 
Democrat started the fun by saying: "The mild language em- 
ployed by Miss Anthony in dealing with Mr. Cleveland's article 
on the suffrage question shows the great reserve power for 
which the Anthony family is noted." Among the scores of car- 
toons was one of Miss Anthony seated at a table and Mr. Cleve- 
land, in the garb of a waiter, fairly staggering under a great 
dish of hash that he was about to serve her. Another one, atro- 
ciously funny, was called, What Shall We do with Our Ex- 
Presidents ? Mr. Cleveland was running at the top of his speed 
with a book under his arm entitled, What I Know about Wom- 
an's Clubs; close on his track was Miss Anthony with an up- 
lifted umbrella labeled Woman Suffrage which she was about to 
bring down on his bald head, while near by stood Uncle Sam 

[1905] MISS Anthony's opinions. 1359 

holding his sides with laughter. A jingle went the rounds be- 

"Susan B. 
Anthony, she 
Took quite a fall out of Grover C/' 
For weeks the newspapers kept up a fusillade of humorous and 
caustic paragraphs at Mr. Cleveland's expense; the one terse 
comment of Miss Anthony's was worth columns pf arguments, 
and never again was the public afflicted with that gentleman's 
views on any phase of the woman question. 




ISS ANTHONY could not understand why her 
friends should be surprised that she was going to 
jthe National Suffrage Convention at Portland, Ore- 
gon. "I always attend these annual meetings and 
why not this one ?" she asked. In a letter to a friend 
near her own age, living on the Pacific Coast, she wrote : "I am 
sorry you think you cannot go to Portland but each one knows 
her own limitations. I suppose if I paid much attention to mine 
I should stay at home altogether, but I feel that it would be just 
as well if I reached the end on the cars or anyv^^here else as at 
home. It would make a little more trouble for others but I cannot 
give up going about my work through constant fear of that.'* 
And after this sensible decision she began having some very nice 
dresses made for the prospective visit. 

Absence from home had made it impossible for Miss Anthony 
to attend the banquet of the college women early in April, and so 
before they separated for the summer about forty of them came 
to spend an evening with her. One day a note from Henry C. 
Maine, a Rochester friend, notified her that the Society of Artists 
would call to pay their respects, "armed and equipped with pen- 
cils, crayons and sketching pads," and she submitted laughingly. 
It had long been the custom for conventions and societies of 
every description meeting in that city to make a call on her a 
part of their program. 

Miss Anthony herself was the instigator of a little surprise 
party on June 14, when a number of old and intimate friends 
called on Mrs. Lewia C. Smith in remembrance of her ninety- 



fourth birthday, which found her in possession of all her facul- 
ties, able to go about as she liked and full of interest in affairs of 
the day. It had been the intention to make her a gift of a dollar 
for every year but it passed the limit, and Miss Anthony was 
chosen to present the twenty gold pieces, which she did, saying 
in part : "I don't know exactly how to make this presentation as 
I am not a speech-maker, and furthermore I have some hesitation 
because you are my senior I Your friends wish to express to you 
in some way their appreciation of your forty years' work for 
woman suffrage. I will say that you have been the champion 
beggar of this city. Whenever a special fund was needed you 
have systematically made out your lists and levied on your 
friends. I myself have benefited more than once by your efforts. 
We intended to give you a dollar for each of your years but your 
friends are so many that here are a hundred and you must live 
six more to earn it all. Be sure that you spend it on yourself." 
"Yes, don't give it to the suffrage cause, as Susan does all her 
presents," called out Miss Mary, amid much laughter. 

Many pleasant letters were received by Miss Anthony strength- 
ening her resolution to go to the far Northwest, among them this 
one from Mrs. Florence Kelley, executive secretary of the Na- 
tional Consumers' League : "I trust that I may have the privilege 
of meeting you in Portland. I cannot remember a time when 
my father did not respect and admire you more than any other 
woman and tell me to follow your example and fill my life with 
political activity. His example, however, proved stronger and 
economic questions got the upper hand first. It becomes more 
obvious, however, every year that political work and economic 
work are identical despite all efforts to keep them separate. 
During the next five years you will see some good strdces of 
mine for the suffrage, if my life be spared. Inside the organiza- 
tions in which I work I am getting together my own cohort to 
march under your flag. Your lifelong admirer." 

Miss Anthony accompanied by Miss Mary, to whom a national 
suffrage convention was meat and drink for a whole year, left 
home for Portland June 20. The officers of the National Associa- 
tion joined them at Chicago and the Woman's Club gave a 


large reception in their honor. Miss Anthony begged that in- 
stead of making an address, as had been planned, she might be 
allowed to meet every one personally. A long interview with her 
in the Examiner of that city began: "Personified optimism — 
that is Susan B. Anthony — ^who sees nothing but hopeful signs 
wherever she looks, not only for women but for the nation." 

Nearly a hundred delegates from various States assembled 
in Chicago and all started in special cars attached to the train 
which left the evening of June 23rd, a congenial and lively 
crowd. The papers had given them a wide advertising and their 
progress across the country was duly chronicled. At Boone, 
Iowa, a delegation from the Political Equality Club met them 
with bouquets and other remembrances and Miss Shaw spoke 
briefly; another was waiting at Council Bluffs, and at Omaha 
more than a hundred members of the Woman's Club and the 
W. C. T. U. were at the station with floral offerings, including 
American Beauties for Miss Anthony. They were greeted by 
Miss Mary Andrews, president of the club, and from an impro- 
vised platform Miss Anthony, Mrs. Catt, Miss Shaw, Mr. and 
Miss Blackwell and Miss Clay made short responses. Badges 
were sent them by the Commercial Club and the reporters here, 
as all along the line, were out in force. The World-Herald said : 
"They were a gentle, sweet and refined body of women, fit repre- 
sentatives of the women of this great republic." At Cheyenne' 
they were met by U. S. Senator and Mrs. Joseph M. Carey and 
other eminent citizens, and taken to the Capitol and for a drive 
about the city. The entire trip was a series of delightful experi- 
ences. The porter who accompanied the train said, "I ain't never 
travelled with such a bunch of women before — ^they don't fuss 
with me and they don't scrap with each other." 

The beautiful journey along the winding Columbia River, in 
view of the many snow-capped mountains, was made on June 27 ; 
a party of ladies and several reporters went to The Dalles to meet 
the travellers, and by noon they were comfortably settled in the 
Portland Hotel, the convention headquarters. None who were 
there will ever forget Miss Anthony's deep admiration for the 
snow-crowned mountain peaks. Her room commanded a full 


view of Mt. Hood and she never tired of gazing at that shining 
summit, emblem of purity, stability, eternity. Her mind seemed 
constantly to follow its grand upward reach into the glory of 
the infinite. 

Notwithstanding the Exposition was in progress and conven- 
tions were a matter of daily occurrence, none of the National 
Suffrage Conventions ever had fuller or fairer reports in the 
papers. Journal and Oregonian vied with each other in quantity 
and quality, being stimulated perhaps by the fact that woman 
suffrage was to be a political issue the following year. The man- 
agers of the Lewis and Clarke Exposition had sent one of their 
number, the Hon. Jefferson Myers, to the last convention, in 
Washington, D. C, to invite the association to bring its next an- 
nual meeting to Oregon with a view to opening a campaign in 
the State and had promised this a cordial support. Gov. George 
E. Chamberlain and Mayor Harry Lane, of Portland, welcomed 
the convention with an unequivocal endorsement of woman suf- 
frage; and during its sessions Judges, members of the school 
board, prominent politicians of all parties and leading clergy- 
men of nearly all denominations give unqualified approval and 
pledges of assistance. All declared that the State was ready for 
it and there was no doubt that it would receive a majority vote. 

The Oregonian thus began its first report : 

A band of notable women grown in less than forty years from a score to 
many thousands — ^the National Woman Suffrage Association — ^met in its 
Thirty-seventh Annual Convention yesterday in the First Congregational 
Church. One of the trio who took up the fight for woman's equality a half- 
century ago, Susan B. Anthony, was present and her appearance on the plat- 
form was the signal for a wild ovation. The large audience rose to its feet 
and cheered the pioneer who had done so much for the cause of equal 
suffrage and who is still the life of the great work. At the close of the ses- 
sion men and women rushed forward, eager to clasp her honored hand and 
pay her homage. There are many famous delegates present, women whose 
names are known in every civilized nation on the globe, but none shines with 
the lustre which surrounds that of Susan B. Anthony. . . . 

The response of Miss Anthony to the addresses of greeting, the event on 
the program which the big church full of people waited for, was a pleasant 
surprise. Reports have circulated around the country that she was feeble and 
no longer able to take an active part in suffrage affairs, but when she spoke 
her first words an astonished silence fell upon the house. Her voice is more 


vigorous than that of many women half her age and she speaks with fluency 
and ease. 

Miss Anthony was quoted as beginning her address: "I am 
delighted to see and hear in this church today the women repre- 
sentatives of the many organizations, and it is in a measure com- 
pensation for the half-century of toil which it has been my duty 
and privilege to give to this our common cause. The sessions of 
this convention will be treated by the press of America exactly 
as it would treat any national gathering that was representative 
in character and had an object worthy of serious attention. The 
time of universal scorn for equal suffrage has passed, and today 
we have strong and courageous champions among that sex, the 
members of which fifty years ago regarded our proposals as part 
of an iconoclasm which threatened the very foundation of the 
social fabric. . . . Elizabeth Cady Stanton and I made our 
first fight for recognition of the right of women to speak in public 
and maintain organizations among themselves. You who are 
younger cannot realize the intensity of the opposition we encoun- 
tered. To maintain our position, we were compelled to attack and 
defy the deep-seated and ingrained prejudices bred into the very 
natures of men, and to some of them we were actually commit- 
ting a sin against God and violating His laws. Gradually, how- 
ever, the opposition has weakened until today we meet far less 
hostility to equal suffrage than then was manifested toward giv- 
ing women the right of speaking in public and organizing for 
mutual advantage." 

A reception to enable the people to meet Miss Anthony, the 
officers and delegates, was given in the handsome Oregon Build- 
ing on the grounds of the Exposition June 30, which was "Wom- 
an's Day." The report said : "It was more largely attended than 
any event since the opening, and Miss Anthony stood for hours 
shaking hands with the men and women who crowded around 
her, receiving such an ovation as was never before accorded to 
any woman in Oregon." The large Festival Hall was placed at 
the service of the convention for its afternoon session that day. 
Another most interesting occasion on the Exposition grounds 
was the dedication of the beautiful bronze statue of Sacajawea, 


the young Indian woman who guided the explorers, Lewis and 
Clarke, through the wild Northwest. It was the work of a 
woman sculptor, Miss Alice Cooper, of Denver. Space was re- 
served for the officers of the National American Suffrage As- 
sociation on the platform facing the statue, where were seated the 
president of the Exposition, Mrs. Eva Emery Dye, president 
of the Sacajawea Association, the mayor, members of the Inde- 
pendent Order of Red Men and many other prominent men and 
women. The Rev. Anna Howard Shaw pronounced the invo- 
cation and the benediction, and Miss Anthony made a brief 
opening address in which she said: "This is the first statue 
erected in this country to a woman because of deeds of daring. 
. . . This recognition of the assistance rendered by a woman 
in the discovery of this great section of the country is but the 
beginning of what is due. Next year the men of this proud State, 
made possible by a woman, will decide whether women shall at 
last have the rights in it which have been denied them so many 
years. Let men remember the part that women have played in 
its settlement and progress and vote to give them these rights 
which belong to every citizen." 

The most noted of the speakers at the convention were invited 
to fill the pulpits of the churches on Sunday and Miss Anthony 
spoke in the White Temple, the large Baptist church, whose 
pastor, the Rev. J. Whitcomb Brougher, so warmly supported 
the suffrage movement. When she appeared on the rostrum, 
Sunday though it was, the congregation broke into hearty ap- 
plause, and inspired by their enthusiasm she made one of her fine 
old-time addresses. She presided at the first evening session. 
Miss Shaw insisting upon it, and the Oregonian said : 

A rare picture Miss Anthony made in the high-backed oaken chair, her 
snowy hair puffed over her ears in the olden fashion, and the collar of rose 
point lace, which seems to belong to dignified age, forming a lovely frame 
for her gentle but determined face. When she rose to call the meeting to 
order she was literally deluged with floral tributes, and drolly peering over 
the heaped-up flowers she said: "This is rather different from the receptions 
I used to get fifty years ago. They threw things at me then— but they were 
not roses. There were not epithets enough in Webster's Unabridged to ex- 
press their feelings. Things are changed now and I get flowers instead of 



eggs, compliments instead of epithets. I am thankful for this change which 
has come over the spirit of the American people. 

Through Mrs. Henry Waldo Coe, president of the Or^on 
Suffrage Association, and Mrs. Sarah Evans, chairman of the 
Press Committee, many enjoyable social functions were ar- 
ranged; the guests had drives about the City of Roses in car- 
riages, automobiles and tallyhos, and trips all too few to the Ex- 
position, which sparkled like a great, beautiful gem in the most 
exquisite of settings. A reception was given by the Woman's 
Club in the Chamber of Commerce. The New York delegation 
gave a dinner in compliment to Miss Anthony ; Mrs. May Ark- 
wright Hutton, of Idaho, gave one of thirty covers for Miss 
Anthony and Mrs. Abigail Scott Duniway. Under the able di- 
rection of Dr. Annice Jeffrey Myers, Chairman of the Commit- 
tee of Arrangements, the convention was a signal success and she 
was made auditor of the National Association. Miss Shaw, who 
was receiving a large share of the love and loyalty which had so 
long been accorded to Miss Anthony, was re-elected president. 
Mrs. Chapman Catt, feeling unable to continue as vice-president- 
at-large, Mrs. Florence Kelley was chosen for this office. 

From the time it became known that Miss Anthony would go 
to Oregon her many friends in California began to petition for a 
visit from her, which they had never dared hope to have again. 
She loved the State and its people and joyfully agreed to extend 
her journey southward, especially pleased to do so because it 
would enable her to accept another invitation which came from 
Mrs. Annie K. Bidwell, of Chico, Cal. After the close of the 
convention and a few more pleasant days in Portland, Miss An- 
thony, Miss Mary and Mrs. Emily Gross took the train July ii. 
They broke the journey by staying over the first night at Glen- 
dale; the second at Shasta Springs, part way up the mountain 
side, and the third at Red Bluffs. Here they boarded an early 
train, arrived at Chico at half-past six, were met by Mrs. Bidwell 
with her carriage and soon were at breakfast in her elegant home, 
the Mansion. The Chico Ranch of Gen. John Bidwell, originally 
comprising 25,000 acres, became known throughout the country 


at the time he was the Prohibition candidate for President, and 
the house and grounds are among the most noted in 'a State 
famed for beautiful homes. Mrs. Bidwell retained and man- 
aged much of the ranch after his death and was now about to 
present to the town for a park nearly 2,000 acres, comprising 
some of its most picturesque scenery. She had long known and 
loved Miss Anthony and had arranged to make the presentation 
when she could be assisted by her at the ceremonies. These took 
place on a lovely summer evening, with all the villagers gathered 
under the stately elms and pines on the lawn in front of the wide 
veranda where sat the minister, the official representatives of the 
town, Mrs. Bidwell and her Eastern visitors. The Chico Record 
thus reported : 

After the invocation Miss Susan B. Anthony was called to the front, and, 
in magnificent voice for one bearing the burden of eighty-five years of 
strenuous life, made a short speech which held her audience captive. She 
mentioned the fact that in 1848, six years after General Bidwell had come to 
California and acquired this beautiful grant, the first convention was held 
which was the initiative of the movement for the rights of women that has 
continued with increasing magnitude up to the present time; one of the re- 
sults of this had been to make it possible for Mrs. Bidwell to become pos- 
sessor of the immense estate which had been dedicated to public good, as 
before that time property rights rested only in the masculine sex. Miss An- 
thony urged all within sound of her voice to give assistance to the move- 
ment as offering a means for the betterment of society and the nation, and 
cited the domestic and public life of General and Mrs. Bidwell as an instance 
of the value to the community and the world of the just recognition of mutual 
rights. Her closing was marked by enthusiastic applause. 

An eloquent oration was pronounced by Mrs. Bidwell's at- 
torney, J. D. Sproul, and then she herself in touching language 
conveyed this splendid gift to the people among whom she had 
lived for almost forty years. In charging them to be faithful 
to the trust and careful in choosing the officials who would ad- 
minister it, she said : 

I hope the day is near when women will have a legal right through suffrage 
to co-operate in its management, as also in the management of all which 
concerns our race. There are gifts greater than parks, gifts such as our 
Lord gave— the gift of one's life, amidst scorn and persecution, for the bet- 
terment of humanity. We have the great privilege and honor of having with 
Ant. Ill— 17 


US this evening one who has broken the alabaster box of her life and poured 
out its rich treasure for us — ^men, women and children — for all rise or fall 
with woman. She has opened the door of education to woman; has broken 
bonds which have cruelly bound her, and now from being the crucified, she 
has risen to the crown with which the good of all nations have crowned her, 
Kings and Queens also delighting to honor her, our beloved Susan B. An- 
thony. "Give her of the fruit of her hands and let her own works praise her 
in the gates." 

Could General Bid well have been here tonight, he would have rejoiced to 
honor her, and to tell you how he admired and revered her from his earliest 
knowledge of her work. 

The ladies lingered for almost a week, walking among the 
groves and hedges of magnolias, oleanders and rhododendrons, 
driving over the five miles of roads in the grounds around the 
house and once the whole length of the ranch, eighteen miles, 
through the orchards of fruits, olives and almonds. Miss An- 
thony was invited to speak in several of the influential churches 
of Chico, but declined and went to the church and Sunday-school 
of a hundred Indians which Mrs. Bidwell maintained, spoke to 
them and took each by the hand. The reporter from the Sacra- 
mento Bee came over and got an interview which filled a page^ 
and the Chico papers had columns. At last a reluctant good-by 
was said and the travellers continued their journey. 

While in San Francisco, Miss Anthony was a guest in the 
home of Mrs. Ellen Clark Sargent on Van Ness Avenue. Mrs. 
Mary S. Sperry was there awaiting them with eighty-five big 
pink carnations from the Susan B. Anthony Club. Miss Shaw 
who had stopped on the way for several lectures, soon joined 
them, and on July 21, a large reception was given at the Hotel 
Sequoia by the various suffrage societies, attended by 1,600 rep- 
resentative people. Among other floral offerings eighty-five La 
France roses were presented to Miss Anthony. The next even- 
ing a meeting was held in the Unitarian Church at Oakland and 
hundreds were turned away for lack of room. Here for two 
days they were the guests of Mrs. Emma Shafter Howard and 
had some interesting drives about that city and its beautiful en- 
virons, and through the lovely college town of Berkeley, where 
a luncheon and reception were given for them at Qoyne Court. 
About seventy callers were received in one day while in Oakland. 


They returned to San Francisco for a large dinner party given 
for them by Mrs. Mary Wood Swift, president of the National 
Council of Women, in her handsome home filled with rare objects 
from all parts of the world. Mrs. Sperry, president of the State 
Suffrage Association, and Mrs. Isabel A. Baldwin, president of 
the Susan B. Anthony Club, were among the luncheon hostesses. 

Miss Anthony and Miss Mary visited the home of their niece, 
Mrs. Maude Anthony Koehler, at the Presidio, and enjoyed the 
noted drive through Golden Gate Park, past the Cliff House and 
over the heights looking out upon one of the fairest views in the 
world. Miss Anthony managed to find time to give a few sit- 
tings for the large portrait afterwards made by the well-known 
artist, Wm. A. Keith. On the 24th, under the auspices of the 
Equal Suffrage League, a mass meeting was held in the Al- 
hambra Theatre, where, in an exquisite stage setting of palms, 
ferns and flowers, a San Francisco audience looked for the last 
time into the face of Miss Anthony and listened for the last time 
to that voice which, the Call said, *'was clear and resonant, as 
she marshalled the battles of the past before her in review." 

After nine days filled to overflowing with every phase of hos- 
pitality, the journey was resumed. At San Jose about forty 
women, representing all the towns in Santa Clara Valley, were 
at the station with a large basket of peaches, plums and nec- 
tarines and great bouquets of roses and carnations. The train was 
held while Miss Anthony went to the station platform and made a 
tender and loving acknowledgment. After resting for a day and 
night at the Hotel Potter in Santa Barbara they reached Los An- 
geles July 27. They were the guests of Mrs. Charlotte Wills, ex- 
cept Miss Mary who stayed with Mrs. Caroline M. Severance in 
her lovely cottage embowered in vines and flowers. The next 
day a reception long-to-be-remembered was held in the large, 
attractive house of the Woman's Club. The Times thus began its 
inscription : 

It was a great array of clubwomen that gathered yesterday afternoon to 
bid welcome to the distinguished visitors, Miss Susan B. Anthony and the 
Rev. Anna Howard Shaw. The clubhouse bloomed with fair women and 
flowers. Over the platform where sat the guests of honor and the reception 


committee was a bower of blossoms. Yucca bells tinkled lighdy overhead 
and among nests of greenery white lilies grew. Through all the rooms was 
wafted the fragrance of many flowers. There must have been nearly a thou- 
sand present during the afternoon, and when they had greeted their hostesses 
and met the guests of honor and everybody was comfortably settled Miss 
Anthony was eagerly pressed to speak to them. "Really," she said, "I hadn't 
expected to say a word but I suppose you will all be disappointed if I don't 
say something about suffrage, always the subject nearest my heart." . . . 
After her little talk there were calls for Miss Shaw, who gracefully responded. 

They had reached Los Angeles just at the time when the 
woman librarian, who had given entirely satisfactory service, 
was about to be replaced by a man for purely political reasons, 
and they had been earnestly urged to attend a public indignaticm 
meeting held the evening of their arrival. This they had done 
to the great annoyance of the politicians. The hearing was such 
a farce and travesty on justice that their addresses before the 
club were largely devoted to this subject which they used to 
show the helplessness of women without political power, and 
those present could not have had a more potent object lesson. 

On Sunday all went to Venice, the famous seaside resort, 
where, in the big auditorium built on piles out in the ocean, 
Miss Shaw gave a most eloquent sermon before a large audience 
on the Influence on Woman of the Religions of the Past. Tues- 
day they returned to Venice, which was of the nature of Chau- 
tauqua, and the day was given to the County Equal Suffrage 
League. The Los Angeles Herald commenced its long report as 
follows : 

Equal Suffrage Day attracted 3»S«> people to Venice. The Rev. B. Fay 
Mills, president of the Assembly, made a brief address of welcome and then 
Mrs. Bertha Hirsch Baruch introduced Miss Anthony. When the famous 
suffrage leader stepped forward, she was received with applause so long and 
enthusiastic that she was forced to wait several minutes before she could be 
heard. In tones strong and clear as of old, Miss Anthony begao to speak of 
the first convention in which woman raised her voice for equal rights, and 
in short, crisp sentences told of the progress that has been made since then. 
A suffrage symposium followed during which Mrs. Severance and Mrs. Re- 
becca H. Spring made brief addresses. The latter showed a remarkable mem- 
ory for one of her age and recited several stirring poems.^ Afterwards Miss 

I While in Los Angeles Miss Anthony, aged eighty-five; Mrs. Severance, eighty-five, 
tnd Mrs. spring, ninety-five, had a group photograph taken. Mrs. Severance and Mrs. 
Spring were pioneer suffrage workers in the East contemporary with Miss Anthony. 


Shaw opened the "question box" and answered all sorts of pertinent and im- 
pertinent questions sent to her on slips of paper, and with caustic wit and 
brilliant repartee vanquished all the "unconvinced." In the evening she gave 
her incomparable lecture on The New Man. . . . 

Before the meeting a luncheon was given for Miss Anthony 
and the other guests by Mrs. Charles F. Joy, wife of the mem- 
ber of Congress from Missouri. Between the afternoon and 
evening meetings the Southern California Women's Press Qub 
gave a "high tea" on board the Cabrillo, a reproduction of a 
Spanish vessel used as a restaurant. The president of the club 
said in her opening remarks that this was an English "tea,** 
served on a Spanish ship by Italian waiters to American women. 
The one male speaker, after a few desultory remarks, launched 
forth into a eulogy of the "beautiful faces" before him. When 
Miss Anthony arose she began by sa3ring that "sensible women 
would be better pleased if men would praise their intellect instead 
of their physical charms, would try to find beauty in their minds 
instead of their faces !" 

While in Los Angeles Miss Anthony and Miss Shaw were 
visited by the secretary of the Laundry Workers' Association, 
Miss Celia Coyle, who wished to consult them in regard to the 
movement for a nine-hour day. Both women thought even that 
was too long; they gave her much sympathy and encouragement 
and many helpful suggestions ; and, as she left, Miss Anthony put 
an arm around her, patted her on the shoulder and urged her to 
continue the fight till the point was won. "We are heartily in 
favor of women's trades unions," were Miss Anthony's last 
words to her, "but you'll never get full justice till you have the 

Their hostess, Mrs. Wills, gave a large farewell reception at 
her handsomely-appointed home on one of the highest elevations 
of this city of hills. An approach by inclined railway is called 
"the angels' flight," and the winding drives command a glorious 
view of sea and mountains. 

The long journey eastward via the Santa Fe commenced the 
morning of August 2, and for those who have travelled through 
Arizona and New Mexico in midsummer no description is neces- 


sary. The snow caps of the mountains were seen in the far dis- 
tance and Miss Anthony exclaimed longingly, "Oh, for a drink 
of the delicious, cold water that is flowing down Mt. Shasta!" 
The dirty, degraded Indians swarmed about the stations and she 
said, "Treat them well; the Government has made them our 
superiors." Finally they entered Kansas and she ejaculated, 
"Well, even a good growth of weeds is refreshing!" and all day 
the two sisters feasted their eyes on the broad fields of com, 
wheat and alfalfa. They reached Leavenworth Saturday evening 
and were warmly welcomed into the home now visited for the 
first time since the death of the much loved brother. It was a 
hard experience for them and Miss Mary wrote to one who was 
very near to her: "The house seems so quiet and lonely; no 
brother with cordial greetings, always willing and glad to do 
everything possible for us when here for nearly fifty years. His 
hat hangs on the rack in the front hall and it seems every 
moment as if he would come in. We visited the cemetery today 
where he rests beneath the vines and flowers which Sister Annie 
constantly supplies, but it seems so strange that the strong, 
energetic, fearless man lies there so helpless and still." And 
Miss Anthony said in her diary Simday evening : "We have just 
come from Mt. Muncie ; half of our family sleep there now and 
half in Mt. Hope, where Sister Mary and I must soon be laid." 

The air was cool and pleasant, the house very comfortable, the 
long drives stimulating, and after a few days, rested and re- 
freshed, they continued on their way. The little record which 
Miss Mary kept of this summer closed thus : "Arrived home the 
morning of August lo, and, although we have spent the seven 
weeks and two days as pleasantly and profitably as on any trip 
we have ever taken, we rejoiced to be once more in our own 
home, which our good housekeeper, Carrie Bahl, had put in such 
fine order that we appreciated it even more than ever before." 

Miss Anthony was at home just five days and then went for 
her annual visit of a week at Lily Dale. Miss Shaw joined her 
there and lectured nearly every day. As usual nowadays Miss 
Anthony made only brief remarks, but the audiences were satis- 
fied if she would sit on the platform and let them look into her 


face and afterwards take her by the hand. When a crowd was 
around her women often were seen timidly pressing close enough 
just to touch her dress. On the way to Lily Dale she left a hand- 
some wrap in the railway car and all efforts failed to find it 
An entry in the diary said : "Mrs. Gross gave it to me ten years 
ago, but I'd just had a new lining put in and it was good as new. 
I carried that cape twice all over Europe and this stunmer across 
the continent and back, and never left it anywhere before, but 
now it is gone, hook and line." Mrs. Pettengill, president of the 
Assembly, replaced it with one equally handsome. 

A number of Miss Anthony's relatives visited her during the 
early autumn, as they were passing from East to West or back 
again, and this was, as always, a pleasure to her. She gave them 
the old-fashioned "chicken dinners," and drove with them out the 
Chili Road to the old home farm, and to Mt Hope cemetery, 
which was to her just the same as one of the homes where the 
family had at some time lived. She was terribly shocked and 
grieved to receive a message on October 8 announcing the death 
of Mr. George W. Catt, only forty-five years of age and a few 
days before in perfect health. In addition to her high regard 
for him as a personal friend, she mourned him as an earnest sup- 
porter of the cause of woman suffrage and as an ideal husband 
who had loyally sustained his wife, Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, 
in her years of service as an officer of the National Association. 
In every possible way she expressed her sympathy for the one so 
sadly bereaved. 

The New York Suffrage Association this year held its con- 
vention in Rochester, October 24-26, and as all the members were 
desirous of visiting the home city of Miss Anthony there was a 
large attendance, and, in the words of the Union and Advertiser, 
"the enthusiasm was unprecedented in the history of State gather- 
ings." That paper said of the opening session: "The official 
badge of the convention is in the form of a souvenir, the ribbon 
of yellow — ^the suffrage color — ^having on it a picture of Miss 
Anthony and her favorite motto, Terfect Equality of Rights for 
Women.' Miss Anthony was distinctly the honored guest and 
when she rose to speak the applause was hearty and prolonged.'* 


Mr. James G. Cutler, mayor of the city, presented Miss An- 
thony with a large cluster of American Beauty roses, and in the 
course of his address of welcome said : "It will not, I am sure, 
be considered as invidious if I refer to that distinguished woman 
who is deservedly regarded as one of the first citizens of Roch- 
ester, and whose personal influence in stimulating and encourag- 
ing the useful activities of her sex in matters of public interest has 
made her name known wherever there are civilization and culture 
over all the face of the earth. I esteem it a privilege, in this pres- 
ence and at this time, to pay my personal tribute of profound 
respect and admiration to Miss Susan B. Anthony." 

Throughout the meetings Miss Anthony took the liveliest in- 
terest in all the proceedings. She singled out from the audience 
five women, including her sister, called them to the platform and 
exclaimed, "Just think they were at that first Woman's Rights 
Convention in this very city fifty-seven years ago 1" Several per- 
sons said they would take a life membership if she would put her 
name on the certificate. "Yes, I'll write my name on a thousand 
if that will have any effect," she answered. A large number of 
women took annual memberships for the little ones of their 
family and she drily remarked, "The suffragists seem to have a 
great many children and grandchildren." One little Jewish news- 
boy came up with a radiant face to bring her a btmch of "pinks" 
and tell her he thought women had a right to vote. Arrange- 
ments for the business and pleasure of the meetings were under 
the able direction of Mrs. Emma B. Sweet, chairman of the com- 
mittee. A large reception was given at Powers Hotel, and one 
of the most enjoyable social features was the afternoon spent at 
the Anthony home.* 

The day following the convention Miss Anthony, Miss Shaw 
and Miss Lucy went to the summer home of Mrs. Lydia Coonley 
Ward at Wyoming, N. Y., to help celebrate the eighty-seventh 

*In preparing for this gathering Miss Anthony said to her niece Lucy: "Now those 
women may not have time to get their supper before the evening meeting and I want 
substantial refreshments for them. We will have hot rolls, chicken salad, coffee and ice 
cream." "O," said Lucy, "we can never manage all that for so many." "There won't 
be many, not more than forty or fifty." answered Miss Anthony. She was finally per- 
suaded to compromise and it proved necessary to make ten gallons of tea to serve th« 


birthday of her mother, Mrs. Susan Look Avery, one of Miss 
Anthony's old and cherished friends and a staunch advocate of 
woman suffrage. On November i. Miss Anthony and Miss Mary 
went for two days with Mrs. Elizabeth Smith Miller and her 
daughter Anne, in Geneva, N. Y., to have a visit with their 
guest. Captain John Robinson, of the Atlantic Transport Line, 
with whom all had crossed the ocean at various times. 

Miss Anthony had notified President Roosevelt that after he 
was re-elected she should call upon him, as has been described, 
but, although that event had taken place a year ago, she had thus 
[far been too much occupied. At the Portland convention it had 
been decided that he should be interviewed regarding his present 
attitude toward woman suffrage and an effort made to ascertain 
whether there could be hope of a favorable expression or any as- 
sistance from him. The fall elections took place November 7, 
and, feeling that his mind should now be at rest concerning po- 
litical issues. Miss Anthony took the train for Washington, No- 
vember II. Through Private Secretary William Loeb, Jr., an 
interview was arranged for the morning of the 15th, and at 
eleven o'clock Miss Anthony, Mrs. Harriet Taylor Upton and the 
present writer went to the White House. They were not re- 
quired to sit in the general waiting room but were invited into the 
large office of the secretary and after some delay were ushered 
into the Cabinet room. President Roosevelt was most cordial, 
expressed pleasure at meeting Miss Anthony, drew the chairs 
into a group and conversed for half-an-hour while eminent and 
impatient men waited on the outside. Miss Anthony acted as 
spokesman, the others saying only a few words when neces- 
sary. A memorandum of the following points had been made 
which she held in her hand : i. Ask him to mention woman suf- 
frage in his speeches when practicable. To this the President said 
he almost always mentioned women in his speeches. "Yes," he 
was answered, "as wives, as mothers, as wage-earners, but never 
with any reference to their political rights." 2. Put experienced 
women on boards and commissions relating to such matters as 
they would be competent to pass upon. He seemed favorable to 
this idea. 3. Recommend to Congress a special commission to 


/investigate the practical working of woman suffrage where it 
; exists. This request he asked to have more specifically stated in 
/ writing. 4. Call the President's attention to the action of Con- 
/ gress in forbidding the Legislature of Hawaii to extend the suf- 
; frage to women, a right which every other Territory possesses. 
[ Ask him to see that this outrage is not repeated in the Philip- 
pines. At this point he exclaimed with scorn, "What ! Give the 
franchise to those Oriental women!" He was reminded of the 
declaration of Governor Taft and Archbishop Nozaleda, of the 
Philippines, before the Senate Committee, that "if the suffrage 
were given to any of the Filipinos it should be to the women, as 
they were better fitted for it in every way." He seemed amazed 
1 and gave permission that this testimony might be sent him, 

promising to examine it. 
( To the fifth point, that he would say a word that would help 
j the approaching campaign for woman suffrage in Oregon, the 
.: President said he never interfered in State issues. To the sixth, 
' that he would speak at the suffrage convention in Baltimore, as 
he did at the recent Mothers' Congress, or would at least write 
a letter, he answered that any more speaking engagements were 
impossible, and as regarded the letter his attention should be 
called to it later. Then, with intense feeling. Miss Anthony said : 
"Mr. Roosevelt, this is my principal request — ^it is almost the 
last request I shall ever make of anybody. Before you leave the 
presidential chair, recommend Congress to submit to the Legis- 
latures a Constitutional Amendment which will enfranchise 
women, and thus take your place in history with Lincoln, the 
great emancipator. I beg of you not to close your term of office 
without doing this." Then struck by a sudden impulse she laid 
her hand on his arm and exclaimed earnestly, "And I hope you 
will not be a candidate for the office again!" Her two com- 
panions were aghast, but the President answered with all serious- 
ness, "Miss Anthony, I have not the slightest intention of doing 
so." He did not, however, commit himself in the smallest degree 
[ on her request. As they rose, the writer, determined to get some 
' expression from him, said : "Mr. President, your influence is so 
great that just one word from you in favor of woman suffrage 

Copyright, J. E. Hale. 





would give our cause a tremendous impetus." "The public 
knows my attitude," he replied. "I recommended it when Gov- 
ernor of New York." "True," she persisted, "but that was a 
long time ago. Our enemies say that was the opinion of your 
younger years and that since you have been President you never 
have uttered one word that could be construed as an endorse- 
ment." "They have no cause to think I have changed my mind," 
was his final sentence, as he shook hands again and said a pleas- 
ant good-by to Miss Anthony. 

The ladies knew that a crowd of reporters were waiting on the 
outside and agreed among themselves to give no intimation of 
what had been talked about. They gathered about Miss Anthony 
but she said with great dignity, "We did not call on the Presi- 
dent as women but as American citizens, and as such we were 
graciously received," and not another word could they get. It 
was the only time in her life that she resisted the temptatioil of 
a reporter. The three returned to the Shoreham and prepared 
the following letter : 

Dear Mr. President: During the interview which you so kindly accorded 
us this morning, you requested that we put into writing our idea as to the 
functions of the Special Commission from Congress which we requested you 
to use your influence in having appointed. 

We would have this Commission thoroughly investigate the practical work- 
ings of Woman Suffrage in Wyoming, Colorado, Idaho and Utah; also, if 
possible, in New Zealand and Australia. In all of these places women have 
the complete franchise on exactly the same terms as men. We would like 
this investigation to consider its effects on political, legal, civil, educational, 
industrial, social and domestic conditions; its effects on marriage, divorce, 
so-called "race-suicide,'' child labor, pauperism, gambling, intemperance and 
prostitution. In other words, ascertain what effect has the possession of the 
ballot by women on the State, the Church, the home and the women them- 

We venture to express the hope, Mr. President, that should this Commis- 
sion be appointed it will not be composed of members put thereon simply 
as a compliment to them, and because a place could not be found for them 
elsewhere; or of those who are known to be unconvertibly opposed to 
suffrage for women. We ask that it may be composed of those who will carry 
into this investigation judicial and impartial minds and will make a report 
which will be absolutely free from partisan bias. We would wish this to be 
a personal investigation, made by this Commission in the four above named 
States on unimpeachable evidence. Such evidence could be secured from 
New Zealand and Australia through their Premiers, their Members of Par- 


liament, their Justices of the Supreme Court, the Presidents of their Uni- 
versities and others whose testimony wotild have equal weight 

In this letter were inclosed pages 346-348, from Volume IV, 
History of Woman Suffrage, giving the official record of the tes- 
timony of Governor Taft and Archbishop Nozaleda as referred 
to, and the action of the Congressional Committee in regard to 
woman suffrage in Hawaii against the orotest of President Dole 
and Supreme Justice Freer. These were sent with a note to 
Secretary Loeb saying they had been requested, and he answered 
that they would be placed in the President's hands. 
^ From that time imtil the present — ^two years — there has not 
; been a word or an act of President Roosevelt's as a result of this 
effort, and with a presidential campaign now at hand it is not 
likely that he will make any appointments of women, recom- 
\ mendations of measures for woman suffrage or declarations in 
/ favor of a class who are wholly without a voice in politics. There 
/ is scarcely one other great measure of reform, hardly another 
question of human rights, for which he has not fotmd oppor- 
ttmity to use his dominating influence during the six years of his 
presidency, and, while it would not be fair to attribute ulterior 
motives, the fact must be recognized that behind all of them 
except woman suffrage lies more or less political power. 

Miss Anthony went from Washington to Mt. Airy for a 
visit to Miss Shaw, and while there they accepted an invitation 
from President M. Carey Thomas to come to Br3m Mawr Col- 
lege and inspect the magnificent new library and dormitory just 
completed. They had a delightful time with Miss Thomas and 
Miss Mary E. Garrett, and the entry in the diary that evening 
spoke of it and said, "The day was not overly hard." The next 
morning, as Miss Anthony afterwards described it, "I fainted 
away and was nothing; it seemed as if all the hold-together 
muscles just let go." For ten days she was entirely prostrated 
and under the care of Miss Shaw's physician, Dr. Jennie Medley. 
Her sister Mary came with her skilful ministrations and Miss 
Anthony slowly recovered, but she was not able to go down- 
stairs for Thanksgiving dinner. There was no prostration of her 
will-power, however, as a little incident showed. Her sister-in- 
law wrote from Kansas that she was coming East and would stop 


over at Rochester on a certain date. Feeling that it would be im- 
possible for Miss Anthony to go home, Miss Lucy sent her aunt 
a letter suggesting that she continue her journey on to New 
York and make her visit in Rochester as she returned. When 
Miss Anthony learned of this she instantly sent the nurse to the 
office with a telegram telling her not to change her plans, and, 
with a good deal of help, she dressed, got to the train and went 
home. Apparently no ill effects resulted. She always recovered 
as quickly as she became ill and never yielded to illness a mo- 
ment longer than she was literally forced to do. 

The flood of correspondence never lessened and letters ac- 
cumulated by the baskets full — from syndicate and lecture bu- 
reaus ; Judges of the Supreme Court, old soldiers, actors, singers ; 
women getting out "special editions,'* clubs for every conceiv- 
able purpose, celebrations of all kinds — ^begging for just a mes- 
sage, a line, a thought; women informing her that their articles 
had been rejected or their bills turned down by the Legislature; 
college girls describing their jokes and pranks; colored people 
telling of their enterprises; trembling lines from her old co- 
workers and notes from little children;* words of appreciation 
from the nobility and wealth of Europe and from the humblest 
women in the United States. Every struggling society wrote of 
its efforts to be a credit to her teaching, while the great organiza- 
tions declared their existence was due to her early work. People 
were always trying to claim relationship. "Are you connected 
in any way with the Brown family ?" one woman wrote. "If so, 
I think we have the same ancestry." Her Biography or the His- 
tory were sent almost daily for her to dedicate on the fly-leaf, her 
photograph to be signed or cards for autographs. Leaders of all 
reforms expected her assistance and it seemed as if everybody 
who wanted help of any kind thought first of her. 

And oh, the infinite patience and tirelessness with which she 
responded to all ! Until the last year or two she gave hours of 

^The following flltistrates the missives frequently received from children: Dear Miss 
Anthony: I am only a little school girl, but when I saw your picture in the paper your 
dear, kind face made me want to send you my best wishes on your birthday, and I hope 
you will see many more happy birthdays. My papa says you are one of the greatest women 
in the world and I know it must be so, for all good women and men seem to think so 
much of you. With best wishes I am your little friend, Olive B. Dorsett. 


every day at home to this task, and the wise counsel, the gentle 
admonition, the tender sympathy never failed, though the de- 
mands on them were endless. In a letter of this year the Rev. 
Marie Jenney Howe thus expressed it: "Dear Miss Anthony, 
how they all turn to you when they want favors — and perhaps 
forget you when it is the other way. Well, the Supreme Being is 
treated in the same fashion. People seldom think of God when 
they are happy but quickly turn to prayer in their hour of need. 
It is the way that children treat their mother, too, and you stand 
as a sort of Divine Mother to the women children of today." 
This was partly the case, but there were hundreds of women also 
who hastened to tell Miss Anthony first of all of their happiness 
and success. A letter illustrating this fact was received in the 
closing days of 1905 from Miss Margaret A. Haley, a founder 
of the Chicago Teachers* Federation of thousands of members 
and editor of its paper : 

I have been thinking of you so much lately and wishing I could tell you 
how important a part in the great civic movement in Chicago is falling un- 
questioned to women, a part that could not be taken but for you and your 
co-workers. It would do your heart good to hear the men acknowledge their 
inability to do what they as positively declare a woman can and does do. We 
are going to get woman suffrage because men are beginning to realize that 
the women must have it to do the work that must be done if our democratic 
institutions are to last ... I hope you are well and enjo3ring all the 
happiness you deserve so richly and have earned so fully. May the women 
of this age give to their children the right to bless them in the same measure 
that we bless you and the co-laborers of your age for your work to emanci- 
pate women! 

The little journal under date of December 24 had this entry : 
"Presents have been coming all the day — ^no very expensive ones, 
for which I am glad. People who send the most costly are often 
least able to do so, and I have often felt obliged to return them." 
It was indeed true that love for their great leader impelled many 
women to offer the "box of precious ointment,'* which her sense 
of justice would not permit her to accept. 

In the home of her loved minister and his wife, Mr. and Mrs. 
W. C. Gannett, whose warm hospitality she had so many times 
enjoyed. Miss Anthony spent the last Qiristmas of her beautiful 




^HE few scattered entries in the diary for January, 
1906, showed many busy hours with the stenog- 
rapher — ^twenty letters for one day being some- 
times recorded. No copies of these were made, but 
one was left on the desk — ^probably the original 
which never was sent — ^to a physician who had written Miss An- 
thony that on a certain day at a certain hour he had heard "spirit 
voices" and one of them was hers. He asked of it, "Why, when 
did you pass over?" and the voice answered, "I have not passed 
out of earth-life but just now my body is in a trance condition," 
and it then proceeded to "compliment his writings on reform 
questions." He hoped she would pardon him for relating his 
strange experience and he enclosed a stamp to learn what was her 
condition at the time specified. She replied: "Certainly, I will 
excuse you for telling me of your remarkable dream — for I sup- 
pose it was simply a dream. Such visions are very common — I 
have had them — ^but I place no stress on them because I know I 
am half-awake and half-asleep. I was not in a trance either be- 
fore, on, or after the date you mention. I have had a large ex- 
perience with mediums but I never have heard or seen a thing 
to convince me that the spirit of any of my departed was at work 
with the mind of the medium." Having answered his question 
Miss Anthony then proceeded to ask if he would not send some 
money for the Oregon campaign ! 

An unsent letter in Miss Anthony's own handwriting, doubt- 
less one of the last she ever wrote, was also found on her desk, ad- 



dressed to a newly-formed suffrage club in Seneca Falls, N. Y. 
In it she said she would send them the History of Woman Suf- 
frage and her Biography and urged them to ask Mrs. Stanton's 
daughters to present them with a copy of their mother's Remi- 
niscences. She thus concluded: "However small your society 
may be, do not, I beg of you, get discouraged, but stick to it and 
by-and-by your numbers will increase and you will grov/ stronger. 
Seneca Falls was for many years the home of Elizabeth Cady 
Stanton and the place where the first Woman's Rights Conven- 
tion was held. Two years from now will be its sixtieth anni- 
versary and I hope then your club will be large enough to invite 
the State Suffrage Convention to your little city. Tell your mem- 
bers that if I am on earth's surface in 1908 I shall expect to 
meet them on the very spot where that convention took place." 

As Miss Anthony intended to leave home early in February 
for an extended stay, her friends in Rochester decided td cele- 
brate her birthday before she went away, and February 2 was 
the date chosen. A morning paper said in its account : 

The commodious home of Mr. William and Miss Kate Gleason, was the 
scene last night of a brilliant reception in honor of Rochester's well-known 
citizen, Miss Susan B. Anthony, who on the 15th of the month will have 
completed her eighty-sixth year. Southern smilax and palms lent their beauty 
in decorating the rooms, which from eight to ten were thronged with repre- 
sentative people of the community. Previous to the reception the members 
of the Political Equality Club gathered around Miss Anthony, exhibited to 
her the names of 122 women who had just been added to the roll, and then 
presented her a purse containing eighty-six dollars in gold. Following this 
there was introduced to the venerable suffragist a band of thirty High School 
girls who had formed a Susan B. Anthony League and pledged themselves to 
work for the movement to which she had devoted her life. Miss Anthony 
was deeply touched by this encouraging evidence of youthful interest in the 
cause most dear to her heart and greeted the young girls warmly. . . . 

Delightful music was furnished by an orchestra of women and refreshments 
were served throughout the evening. . . . Addresses highly eulogistic of 
the honored guest were given. The Rev. Dr. C C. Albertson, of the Central 
Presbyterian Church, said in his tribute: "I not only believe in Miss An- 
thony but I also believe in her cause." A letter from Mrs. Jean Brooks 
Greenleaf said: "What an inspiration in the lives of these two sisters — 
simple, steadfast and true; fearing nothing, shrinking from no ostracism, un- 
kindness or ridicule, if, by enduring much, they could gain some advance for 
humanity. Thank God for such women !" 


During all the day and evening of this birthday party a genuine 
northern New York blizzard raged, with cutting winds and a 
heavy downfall of snow. Every possible care was taken of Miss 
Anthony; she went and returned in a closed carriage and was 
warmly wrapped, but her power of resistance was not strong and 
the next day she developed a severe cold. She hoped to overcome 
it and that evening started with her sister for Baltimore. 

During the annual meeting of the National Association in Port- 
land, the preceding year, the by-law of the constitution which 
said that every alternate convention shall be held in Washington 
was changed to read "may be held." It was most amusing to 
hear Miss Anthony insisting that this change should be made, 
when she had always vigorously opposed holding even alternate 
conventions in any other city; and Henry B. Blackwell strenu- 
ously objecting to the change, when for years he had advocated 
taking each convention to a diflferent place. It was a striking 
illustration of the softening of one's prejudices by age. This 
action made it possible to accept the invitation of the Maryland 
Suffrage Association to come to Baltimore in 1906. The date 
was fixed for February 7-13 and the Call for the convention said : 
"At no time in its history has this organization had so much 
reason to feel confident of the future. . . . Never have we had 
so much cause to issue a Thanksgiving Proclamation. Never 
has it been so easy to love our enemies, for they have combined 
in their courses to fight for us. The inevitable log^c of events is 
with us." 

When Miss Anthony had visited President M. Carey Thomas, 
of Bryn Mawr College, and Miss Mary E. Garrett, the last No- 
vember, she had talked of the approaching convention, expressed 
some anxiety as to its reception in so conservative a city and 
urged them to do what they could to make it creditable to the 
National Association and to Baltimore. They expressed much 
interest, asked in what way they could be of most assistance and 
talked over various plans. Both belonged to old and prominent 
families in that city, Miss Garrett had the prestige of great wealth 
also, and Miss Thomas of her position as president of one of the 

most eminent of Women's Colleges. Miss Anthony was desirous 
Ant. Ill— 18 


of having the program in some way illustrate distinctively the 
new type of womanhood — ^the College Woman — ^and eventually 
Miss Thomas took entire charge of one evening devoted to this 
purpose, which will ever be memorable in the history of these 
conventions. A day or two after Miss Anthony's visit she re- 
ceived a letter from Miss Garrett saying: "I have decided — 
really I did so while we were talking about the convention at 
luncheon yesterday — ^that I must open my house in Baltimore for 
that week in order to have the great pleasure of entertaining you 
and Miss Shaw under my own roof, and to do whatever I can to 
help you make the meeting a success." 

The large family mansion had been closed for the winter and 
Miss Garrett was staying with Miss Thomas, but she opened it 
completely; invited as house guests Miss Anthony, Mrs. Julia 
Ward Howe, Miss Jane Addams and other distinguished women, 
and gave a series of entertainments which conferred upon the 
convention a social eclat possibly more necessary in that city than 
in some others. 

Miss Anthony had looked forward to this visit with the keenest 
pleasure, but by the time she reached Baltimore neuralgia and 
other complications resulting from the cold had manifested them- 
selves, and she soon became alarmingly ill. As the convention 
did not open for several days there was hope that she might re- 
cover sufficiently to attend. Dr. Mary Sherwood, a skilled physi- 
cian and a friend of Miss Garrett's, was at once summoned, and 
during all of Miss Anthony's stay gave her most devoted atten- 
tion, declaring it to be an honor and a privilege to render service 
to one who had done so much for all womankind. Later Dr. 
Henry M. Thomas, clinical professor of nervous diseases in the 
Johns Hopkins Medical School, brother of President Thomas, was 
called in consultation several times. Both Dr. Sherwood and Dr. 
Thomas refused to render any bill for their medical attendance. 
The trained nurse from the Johns Hopkins Hospital willingly 
consented to assume the garb of a maid in order that her patient 
might not know she was so ill as to need professional attendance. 

Miss Anthony grew a little better but could not go to any of the 
preliminary meetings of the Business Committee, and she was so 


restive over this that Miss Shaw, who had felt it advisable to re- 
main at the hotel with the rest of the National Board, had to go to 
her each day with a full report of all its transactions and every de- 
tail of the work. She inquired after all the delegates and their re- 
ports and not a point of interest was forgotten or overlooked by 
her, although she was suffering intense agony every moment with 
the neuralgic pains in her head. Neither medical skill nor her own 
heroic efforts could enable her to attend the opening session of the 
convention, but Miss Shaw found time in the midst of the pres^ 
sure of duties to send a little note : "Dear Aunt Susan, it is good 
to know you are growing better. Do not try to do anything that 
will tire you today. I miss you as a body must miss its soul when 
it has gone out, and I long every moment to look at you and see 
if I am doing as you wish me to do. I am putting just a<^ much of 
your spirit into everything as I am able and I am so glad to tell 
you that all is going beautifully. My heart goes put to you in 
tenderest sympathy and I am yours with dearest love." 

This Thirty-Eighth Annual Convention was held in the large 
Lyric Theatre and its general management was in the capable 
hands of Mrs. Emma Maddox Funck, president of the Maryland 
Association and Chairman of the Committee of Arrangements. 
The attitude of the press was all that could be desired, the Sun, 
American, News, Telegram, etc., welcoming the convention in 
cordial and dignified editorials which showed a spirit fair and 
open to conviction, while the reports were full and accurate and 
well illustrated with portraits of the prominent women. The 
wide scope of the program was especially noteworthy, as it in- 
cluded a woman speaker from Australia and one from South 
America ; women's trades unions were officially represented and 
there were addresses by several women office holders ; men prom- 
inent in public life spoke on municipal questions of great moment ; 
the convention sermon was given by Mrs. Maud Ballington Booth 
of the American Volunteers; the ministers pronouncing the in- 
vocations came from all religious denominations, while at one 
evening's session Dr. William H. Welch, Professor of Pathology 
in Johns Hopkins University, presided, and at the College Wom- 
en's Evening the president of that institution. 


The first evening's session was opened with prayer by the Rev. 
Dr. John B. Van Meter, dean of the Woman's College, and the 
welcome of the State was extended by Governor Edwin Warfield, 
who said in the course of his remarks: "I have faced many 
audiences since I have been Governor, but never before have I 
addressed such an assemblage of notable and distinguished 
women, having for their sole purpose the promotion of the rights 
and interests of their sex — ^women who have made their influence 
felt in the uplifting of humanity, the advancement of morality 
and civic pride — ^women whose fame is world-wide, whose adher- 
ence to principle is unwavering and whose fidelity to their work 
for social advancement has won universal admiration and made 
a notable impress upon the public mind." 

The mayor being ill, the welcome of the city was given by the 
Hon. William F. Stone, Collector of the Port, who warmly en- 
dorsed the Governor's sentiments and added his own glowing 
eulogies. Secretary-of-the-Navy Charles J. Bonaparte had writ- 
ten that the pressure on his time would prevent his speaking but 
that he expected to be present at the meetings. 

The disappointment at Miss Anthony's absence was intense, as 
she was to have presided and made the response. The president, 
the Rev. Anna Howard Shaw, after a graceful acknowledgment, 
said, "I am not taking Miss Anthony's place, no one ever can do 
that, for in all the world there is but one Susan B. Anthony, but 
it is also true that in all the world there is but one Clara Barton, 
but one Julia Ward Howe, and these grand women we have with 
us this evening." Miss Barton, who, in her dress of soft, plum- 
colored satin with fichu of white lace, her dark hair parted 
smoothly over her forehead, did not seem over sixty, although 
she was eighty-four, was enthusiastically received. The scene 
was especially touching when one remembered that it was near 
this very city, forty-five years before, Miss Barton commenced her 
grand work for the soldiers of the Civil War. She said in part : 
"As I stand here tonight my thoughts go back to the time when 
Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were pioneers 
struggling for this righteous cause. I think the greatest progress 
ever made for any reforms in our country has been along the 


lines on which they worked. A few days ago some one said to 
me that every woman should stand with bared head in the pres- 
ence of Miss Anthony. *Aye/ I answered, 'and every man, too, 
for I believe that man has benefitted by her work as much as 
woman.' " Mrs. Howe, who made a lovely picture in a gown of 
mauve satin, with a creamy lace scarf draped about her head and 
shoulders, began by saying : "I have not come to preach but I 
will give you a text. 'What came ye into the wilderness to see — 
a reed shaken by the wind ?' You have not come here to see reeds 
shaken by the wind, but, as the people went to see John the Bap- 
tist, you have come to see the prophets." 

In her President's address Miss Shaw said in part : 

In his Message to Congress President Roosevelt recommends the De- 
partment of Commerce and Labor to make a thorough investigation of the 
conditions of women in industry. This recommendation will meet with the 
hearty approval of suffragists everywhere. Realizing as we do its importance 
to women and to the nation, our association has been urging it for years, 
but hitherto our efforts have been futile to direct the attention of the govern- 
ment to it. The variety of claims and counter-claims which have been made 
by those interested in women's industrial condition and its effect upon the 
character and life of the nation have so confused the ordinary mind that 
there is little rational thinking upon the subject. 

To draw sweeping conclusions in regard to a matter upon which there is 
an "almost complete dearth of data" is never wise. While it is true that 
marriage and the birth rate have decreased within recent years, yet before 
the results are charged to the participation of women in industry many ques- 
tions must be answered. It is no new thing for women to be engaged in 
industrial pursuits. From primitive times they have been great industrial 
factors, and modem economic conditions, instead of introducing them to in- 
dustries, have introduced to the world's markets the multiform industries 
in which women from the earliest times have been engaged, with ever widen- 
ing circles of activity as inventive genius has developed and civilization 

If conditions surrounding their employment are such as to make it a 
"social question of the first importance," it is unfortunate that President 
Roosevelt had not recommended that women, the most deeply interested factor 
in the problem, should constitute at least a part of any commission author- 
ized to investigate them. I trust that a resolution will be passed by this con- 
vention petitioning the Government of the United States to place women upon 
every commission that investigates the conditions which so deeply affect their 
lives and the lives of their children. 

But if the required investigations should be made, even with women upon 
the committee, what power would the 5,000,000 disfranchised workingwomen 


possess to secure beneficent laws or enforce needed reforms ? One cannot but 
wish thati with his desire for "fair play" and his policy of a "square deal/' 
the President had recognized the fact that, since Sjooofioo American women 
are employed in gainful occupation, every principle of justice known to a 
republic demands that these 5,000,000 toilers be enfranchised in order that 
they may be able to obtain and enforce legislation for their own protection. 

In her delightfully sarcastic manner Miss Shaw then took up 
the pronunciamento of ex-President Cleveland and the more 
recent one of Cardinal Gibbons as to the rights and duties of 
woman, and declared the inability of woman to obey the man- 
dates until the "oracles" agreed among themselves as to her 
proper place and work. Her scoring of the "oracle of Baltimore" 
in the Cardinal's own city was received with unmistakable ap- 

At the afternoon session the delegates had been welcomed by 
the State president and by the presidents of the State Federation 
of Women's Clubs, the State W. C. T. U., the Baltimore Twen- 
tieth Century Club and the Council of Jewish Women. Later in 
the week greetings came from the National W. C. T. U., the 
Ladies of the Maccabees, the American Purity Alliance and other 
large organizations. 

Because of its unique character and the prominence of the 
speakers the evening devoted to College Women was the leading 
event of the week. The program, arranged by Miss M. Carey 
Thomas was as follows : 

Programme of the 


February 8, 1906. 

Presiding OMcer. 
Ira Remsen, Ph.D., LL.D., President of Johns Hopkins University. 

Students of the Woman's College of Baltimore in Academic Dress. 


Mary E. Woolley, A.M., LittD., L.H'.D., President of Mount Holyoke Col- 
Lucy M. Salmon, A.M., Professor of History, Vasscar College, 
Mary A. Jordan, A.M., Professor of English, Smith College, 


From a Portrait Painted in 1899 by John S. Sargbnt: Gift to the College by its Alumnae. 


Mary W. Calkins, A.M., Professor of Philosophy and Psychology, Wellesley 

Eva Perry Moore, A.B., Trustee, Vassar College; President of the Associa- 
tion of Collegiate Alumnae (over three thousand college women); 
First Vice-President of the General Federation of Women's Clubs. 

Maud May Wood Park, A.B. {Radcliffe College), President of the Boston 
Branch of the Equal Suffrage League in Woman's Colleges and Found- 
er of the League. 

M. Carey Thomas, Ph.D., LL.D., President of Bryn Mawr College. 

A tribute of gratitude from representatives of Women's Colleges. 

What has been accomplished for the higher education of 
women by Susan B. Anthony and other woman suffragists. 
. L 

^'; \ *i No one ever can know the effort necessary for Miss Anthony 
(^ .;" to be present on this occasion, but she conquered her pain and 
weakness by almost superhuman power, and when she appeared 
on the stage and the great audience realized that she actually was 
with them their enthusiasm was unbounded. She was so white 
and frail as to seem almost spiritual but on her sweet face was an 
expression of ineffable happiness; and it was indeed one of the 
happiest moments of her life, for it typified the intellectual tri- 
umph of her cause. 

The theatre was crowded and a large section was filled with 
college girls in cap and gown, while others acted as ushers. The 
American thus began its account : 

With the great pioneer suffrage worker, Susan B. Anthony, on the plat- 
form, surrounded by women noted in the college world for their brilliant 
attainments, as well as those famed for social work and in other professions, 
and with a large audience, the session of the Woman Suffrage Convention 
opened last evening. If the veteran suffragist thought of more than the 
pleasure of the event, it must have been the contrast of this occasion with the 
times past, when, unhonored and unsung, she fought what must have often 
seemed a losing fight for principles for which the presence of these women 
proclaimed victory. ... It had been announced as "college evening" but 
it might just as well have been called "Susan B. Anthony evening," for, 
while the addresses dealt with various phases of the woman question, all 
evolved into one strong tribute to Miss Anthony. 

This was indeed true, but, what was much more to Miss An- 
thony's taste, all but that of Miss Jordan declared unequivocally 
I for woman suffrage. It is a matter of regret that space will not 


permit on these pages a reproduction in full of those notable ad- 
dresses, which reviewed Miss Anthony's long years of work 
whose direct result was the wide opportunity and achievement 
of women today. 

In the course of her scholarly address Miss Woolley said : 

Deeds which speak for themselves need no elaboration and there could be 
no better tribute to Miss Anthony than a simple recital of what she has done 
and been. If there were an opportunity for each one here this evening to 
add what she knows of the lines of usefuhiess in which this life has been 
lived, this would be the most protracted session ever known in the history 
of this organization. It will not be possible in the limited time given to the 
representatives of colleges for women to do more than suggest what has been 
accomplished for the higher education of women by Miss Anthony and other 
woman suffragists, but it is a pleasure to have this opportunity to add our 
tribute of appreciation. . . . Simply to enumerate her direct efforts to 
promote higher education for women would take all the time which is ours. 
Higher education has been aided also by the establishment of great principles 
in other movements for the uplifting of humanity. . . . 

Miss Anthony has lived to see the work of her hands established in the 
gaining of educational and social rights for women which might well be 
called revolutionary, so momentous have been the changes. In temperance 
work, on school and health boards, in prison reform, in peace conferences, in 
factory and shop inspection, in civil service reform, in attempts to solve 
social and industrial problems, women are not only a factor but in many 
cases the chief workers. It seems almost inexplicable that changes, surely 
as radical as giving to women the opportunity to vote, should be accepted 
today as perfectly natural, while the political right is still viewed somewhat 
askance. . . . 

Some movements in history have been brought about by a stroke of the 
pen or a sudden uprising of the people, like a great tidal wave sweeping 
everything before it ; others have come slowly as the result of the cumulative 
force of years of effort and represent the gradual growth of conviction. The 
time will come when some of us will look back upon the arguments against 
the granting of the suffrage to women with as much incredulity as that with 
which we now read those against their education. Then shall it be said of 
the woman who, with gentleness and strength, courage and patience, has 
been unswerving in her allegiance to the aim she had set before her : "Give her 
of the fruit of her hands, and let her own works praise her in the gates." 

Miss Salmon described the various stages of development 
through which she had reached the conviction of the justice of 
woman suffrage and said : 

College women are coming to realize that they have been taught by these 
pioneers, both through precept and by example, to look at the essential things 


of life and to ignore the unessential and for this they are grateful. Thus 
they are learning that the enemy of society is not the woman in Colorado who 
votes, but the woman in New York who plays bridge; it is not the woman 
who takes an intelligent interest in the public life of which she is a part, but 
the woman who sits by the window and watches the callers of her neighbor 
across the way and the arrival of new furniture at the house next door; it 
is not the woman who through change in industrial processes works in the 
shop or the factory, but the woman whose days are passed at the bargain 
counter; it is not the woman who is interested in keeping the streets clean, 
but the woman who sells chances in articles offered at church fairs; it is 
not the woman who earns money, but the woman who wastes it because she 
has never learned its value. . . . The college woman is beginning to 
wonder if it is worth while to reckon the mint, anise and cummin while the 
weightier matters of the law are forgotten. . . . 

For a larger outlook on life we are all indebted to Miss Anthony, to Mrs. 
Howe and to their colleagues. We are indebted to them in large measure for 
the educational opportunities of today. We are indebted to them for the 
theory, and in some places for the reality, of equal pay for men and women 
when the labor performed is the same. We are indebted to them for making 
it possible for us to spend our lives in fruitful work rather than in idle tears. 
We are indebted to these pioneer women for the substitution of a positive 
creed for inertia and indifference. And from them we also inherit the weighty 
responsibility of passing on to others in degree, if not in kind, all that we 
have received from them. 

After a consideration of the "woman's college", Miss Jordan 

The suffragists lent us Maria Mitchell and they felt severely the loss they 
sustained in her increasing absorption in the class room and in the require- 
ments of modern scientific work. When we had taken Maria Mitchell they 
turned to us in friendship, Mrs. Livermore, Mrs. Julia Ward Howe, Miss 
Anthony, Miss Elizabeth Peabody, Mrs. Cady Stanton, Lucy Stone, Mrs. 
Blackwell, Lois Anna Green, Mary Dame — and never failed to stir our minds 
with their urgent appeals for our thoughtful consideration of the causes they 
presented and the interest they took for granted. The last was their strong 
point They simply implicated us in whatever was good and true. Their en- 
thusiasm was infectious, and we "caught" it — to our own lasting spiritual 
benefit. ... I do not believe that I was over-fanciful, when I used to 
feel that Lucy Stone and you, Miss Anthony, looked at us as if you would 
say, "Make the best of your freedom, for we have bought it with a great 
price." . . . 

In her able address Miss Calkins said in part : 

I wish to indicate this evening the definite form in which I think the grati- 
tude of all college women might be expressed to Miss Anthony and to the 


Other leaders of the equal suffrage movement for their service to the cause 
of women's education. In other words, I wish to ask what have these veteran 
equal suffrage leaders a right to expect from university and college students, 
and, in particular, from the students and graduates of our women's colleges? 
. . . Equal suffragists, if I may serve as interpreter, demand just this — 
that women trained to scientific method should make equal suffrage an ob- 
ject of scientific analysis and logic. Equal suffragists ask of college women 
that they cease being ignorant^ or indifferent on the question ; that they adopt, 
if not an attitude of active leadership or of loyal support, at least a position 
of reasoned opposition or of intelligent hesitation between opposing argu- 
ments. To ask less than this really is an insult to a thinking person, man or 
woman. . . . 

The student trained to reach decisions in the light of logic and of history 
will be disposed to recognize that, in a democratic country governed as this 
is by the suffrage of its citizens, and given over as this is to the principle and 
practice of educating women, a distinction based on difference of sex is 
artificial and illogical — ^and, thus, suspicious. . . . For myself, I believe 
that the probabilities favor woman suffrage. Since the men vastly outnumber 
the women among our foreign immigrants, whereas the girls outnumber the 
boys in our schools, there seems to me good ground to expect from equal 
suffrage a lowering in the proportion of the ignorant vote. 

College-trained women students who grant this probability scarcely can 
escape the force of the fundamental argument for equal suffrage. Dearly 
it will be their duty so to choose their words and so to shape their actions 
that equal suffrage, when it comes, may find among women, and among 
men, the highest possible level of intelligence and the greatest number of 
trained civic leaders. 

The present need — so I end as I began — ^is for fair consideration. Equal 
suffragists as little want uncritical support as prejudiced opposition. They 
ask that thinking men and women cast aside that curse of a prosperous 
and self-satisfied society like our own — an ignorant content with things as 
they are. 

In a fine appreciation Mrs. Moore said : 

The women of today may well feel that it is Miss Anthony who has made 
life possible to them ; she has trodden the rough paths and by her unwearied 
devotion has opened to them the professions and higher applied industries. 
Through her life's work they enjoy a hundred privileges denied them fifty 
years ago; from her devotion has grown a new order; her hand has helped 
to open every line of business to women. 

She has spoken at times to thousands of girls on the public duties of 
women. . . . Her life story, when written, must epitomize the victorious 
struggle of women for larger intellectual freedom in the last century. . . . 
The world does move. Those who are aware of the great and beneficent 
changes made in the laws relating to the rights of property, in the civil and 
industrial laws pertaining to women and children, may estimate the good 
accomplished by these pioneers. 


Miss Anthony is a hopeful enthusiast; her life is great in that it has made 
a larger life and higher work possible to other women who share her as- 
pirations without her irresistible force to carve their way. Her courage and 
strength, the patient devotion of a life consecrated to the education, advance- 
ment and elevation of womanhood, her invincible honor, her logic, her power 
to touch and sway all hearts, are recognized by every student of woman's 
progress. We perceive in her the advocate of that liberty which knows no 
limitations, a freedom which means the certain advancement of the race. 

Mrs. Park, speaking from the standpoint of the young college 
woman, said : 

When I first saw her, as we see her tonight, and heard her speak, as I 
hope we shall hear her, and in those meetings when one after another of 
the speakers referred to the early days and told about the struggles, the trials, 
the sacrifices, all the long persistent efforts of that woman to get college edu- 
cation and industrial opportunities for the women of today, I came to realize 
what Miss Anthony's life had been. I came to realize what she and other 
women might have gained for themselves if they had chosen to spend for 
personal ends the power that had been given them. For I suppose it is true 
that all through history individual women have been able, sometimes by 
cajolery, sometimes by personal charm, sometimes by force of character, to 
get for themselves privileges far greater than any that the most radical advo- 
cates of woman's rights have yet demanded. But in the case of Miss An- 
thony and the other early suffragists all that force of character was turned 
not to individual ends, not to getting great things for themselves, but to 
getting little gains, step by step, for the great mass of other women; not for 
the service of themselves, but for the service of the sex, and so of the whole 
human race. . . . 

The object of the G>llege Women's League is to bring the question of 
equal suffrage to college women, to help them realize their debt to the 
women who have worked so hard for them, and to make them understand 
that one of the ways to pay that debt is to fight the battle in the quarter of 
the field in which it is still unwon; in short, to make them feel the obliga- 
tion of opportunity. 

The eloquent address of Miss Thomas was received with en- 
thusiastic approval by the audience. She said in part : 

In the year 1903 there were in the United States, according to the report 
of the Commissioner of Education, 5,749 women studying in women's col- 
leges and 24,863 women studying in co-educational colleges. If the annual 
rate of increase has continued the same, as it undoubtedly has during the 
past three years, there are i|i college at the present time 38,268 women stu- 
dents of true college grade. Although there are in the United States about 
1,800,000 less women than men, women already constitute considerably over 
one-third of the entire student body, and are steadily gaining on men. This 


means that in another generation or two one-half of all the people who have 
been to college in the United States will be women, and just as surely as the 
seasons of the year succeed one another, or the law of gravitation works, just 
as surely will this great body of educated women wish to use their trained 
intelligence in making the towns, cities and States of their native country 
better places for themselves and their children to live in; just so surely will 
the men, with whom they have worked side by side in college classes, claim 
and receive their aid in political as well as in home life. The logic of events 
does not lie. It is unthinkable that women who have learned to act for them- 
selves in college and have become awakened there to civic duties, should not 
care for the ballot to enforce their wishes. The same is true of the women 
in every woman's club, and of every individual woman who tries to obtain 
laws to save little children from working cruel hours in cotton mills, or to 
open summer gardens for homeless waifs on the streets of a great city. 
These women, too, are being irresistibly driven to desire equal suffrage for 
the sake of the wrongs they try to right . . . 

In all matters of social welfare we must argue not so much from abstract 
right and justice as from observed facts. It seems very clear that on the 
whole universal manhood suffrage, unsatisfactory as it is, works the least 
injustice to the enfranchised multitudes of men, and that the trend of modern 
civilization is setting itself irresistibly in this direction. Experience also proves 
that women as well as men need the ballot to protect them in their special 
interests and in their power to gain a livelihood. Our new reform school 
board of Philadelphia contains not one woman among its twenty-five mem- 
bers to represent the interests of women. No women teachers receive the 
same salaries as men teachers for the same work, and no women, however 
successful, are appointed to the best paid and most influential school posi- 
tions. . . . 

If, then, women need the ballot to protect their labor — ^and they do need it 
beyond all question — it seems to me in the highest degree ungenerous for 
women like those in this audience who are cared for and protected in every 
way, not to desire equal suffrage for the sake of other less fortunate women. 
And it is not only ungenerous but short-sighted of such women not to desire 
it for their own sakes. There is nothing dearer to women than the respect 
and reverence of their children and of the men they love. Yet every son 
who has grown up reverencing his mother's opinion must realize when he 
reaches the age of twenty-one years, with a shock from which he can never 
wholly recover, that in the most important civic and national affairs her 
opinion is not considered equal to his own. . . . 

I confidently believe that equal suffrage is coming far more swiftly than 
most of us suspect. Educated, public-spirited women will soon refuse to be 
subjected to such humiliating conditions. Educated, public-spirited men will 
recoil in their turn before the sheer unreason of the position that the opinions 
and wishes of their wives and mothers are to be consulted upon every other 
question except the laws and government under which they and their hus- 
bands and children must live and die. Equal suffrage thus seems to me to 
be an inevitable and logical consequence of the higher education of women. 


And the higher education of women itself is, if possible, a still more in- 
evitable result of the agitation of the early woman suffragists. . . . 

We who are guiding this movement today owe the profoundest debt of 
gratitude to these early pioneers — Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucy Stone, Julia 
Ward Howe — and above all and beyond all, Susan B. Anthony. Other women 
reformers, like other men reformers, have given part of their time and energy. 
She has given to the cause of women every year, every month, every day, 
every hour, every moment of her whole life, and every dollar she could beg 
or earn — and she has earned thousands and begged thousands more. 

Every heart thrilled as, in conclusion, Miss Thomas turned to 
the honored guest of the evening and said : 

To most women it is given to have returned them in double measure the 
love of the children they have nurtured. To you. Miss Anthony, belongs by 
right, as to no other woman in the world's history, the love and gratitude 
of all women in every country of the civilized globe. We, your daughters in 
the spirit, rise up today and call you blessed. 

In those far-off days when our mothers' mothers sat contented in darkness, 
you, our champion, sprang forth to battle for us, equipped and shining, in- 
spired by a prophetic vision of the future like that of the apostles and 
martyrs, and the heat of your battle has lasted more than fifty years. Two 
generations of men lie between the time when in the early fifties you and 
Mrs. Cady Stanton sat together in New York State, writing over the cradles 
of her babies those trumpet calls to freedom that began and carried forward 
the emancipation of women, and the day, eighteen months ago, when that 
great audience in Berlin rose to do you honor — ^thousands of women, from 
every country in the civilized world, silent, with full eyes and lumps in their 
throats, because of what they owed you. Of such as you were the lines of the 
poet Yeats written: 

"They shall be remembered forever. 
They shall be alive forever, 
They shall be speaking forever, 
The people shall hear them forever." 

After the applause had ended there was a moment of intense 
silence, and then, as Miss Anthony came forward, the entire 
audience arose and greeted her with waving handkerchiefs, while 
tears rolled down the cheeks of many who felt that she would 
never be present at another convention. "If any proof were 
needed of the progress of the cause for which I have worked,'* 
she said, in clear, even tones, distinctly heard by all, "it is here 
tonight. The presence on the stage of these college women, and 
in the audience of all those college girls who will some day be the 
nation's greatest strength, tell their own story to the world. They 


give the highest joy and encouragement to me. — I am not going 
to make a long speech but only say thank you and good night." 

It was all she had the strength to say but she never would 
publicly confess it. "I am not able to make a speech," some 
women would have said, and thus awakened sympathy, but she 
preferred they should think that her remarks were brief because 
the hour was late. An incident during the evening lightened a 
little one heart that was aching. When the audience was making 
a big demonstration over some particularly fine tribute which a 
speaker had paid to Miss Anthony, she joined in the applause, 
and Miss Shaw whispered, "It isn't your turn to applaud now, 
they are talking about you." "O, no, they're not," she answered, 
"it is just about the cause." Nobody ever lived so completely 
oblivious to personal compliments. The next day Miss Shaw 
said in a little note to her, speaking of this evening : "I am so 
glad you can keep right on helping things along. It is splendid 
that you have so lived and worked that now, when you are at the 
rest-time of life, your influence is just as great as when you were 
out in the field, and that the cause needs you just the same and is 
profiting all the time by what you have done." 

Miss Anthony was entirely unable to go to the convention the 
next day, and on the morning of the second day the president 
expressed the great regret of all at her enforced absence and their 
gratitude for the excellent care she was receiving at the home of 
Miss Garrett; but when the afternoon session opened, in she 
walked ! She had learned that the money was to be raised at this 
time and knew she could help, so she conquered her pain and 
came. When contributions were called for she was first to re- 
spond and holding out a little purse she said : "I want to begin 
by giving you my purse. Just before I left Rochester they gave 
me a birthday party and made me a present of eighty-six dollars. 
I suppose they wanted me to do as I liked with the money and I 
wish to send it to Oregon ;" and with this example the contribu- 
tions soon reached beyond $4,000.^ 

* Afterwards the seventeen five-dollar gold pieces were distributed by the national treas- 
urer among various friends who gave ten dollars apiece for them, and thus $170 were 
realized for the Oregon fund. 


This was on Saturday and Miss Anthony was closely confined 
to the house until the next Monday evening. At that time Mrs. 
Howe was to give an address but she had been attacked by ton- 
silitis, which was epidemic in the city, and could not be present. 
Miss Anthony was so distressed at the many disappointments 
which had been caused by her own inability to attend the meetings 
that she determined to go in Mrs. Howe's place, and again exer- 
cising supreme self-control she took her place on the platform 
and remained throughout the evening. It was not supposed that 
she would be able to speak, but, stimulated by the occasion and 
longing no doubt to say what she felt might be her last words, 
she came forward near the close of the meeting. A report in the 
New York Evening Post said, "The entire house rose and the 
applause and cheers seemed to continue for ten minutes." It thus 
continued : 

Miss Anthony looked at the splendid audience of men and women, many 
of them distinguished in their generation, with calm and dignified sadness. 
"This is a magnificent sight before me," she said slowly, "and these have 
been wonderful addresses and speeches I have listened to during the past 
week. Yet I have looked on many such audiences, and in my lifetime I have 
listened to many such speakers, all testifying to the righteousness, the justice 
and the worthiness of the cause of woman suffrage. I never saw that great 
woman, Mary Wollstoncraft, but I have read her eloquent and unanswerable 
arguments in behalf of the liberty of womankind. I have met and known 
most of the progressive women who came after her — ^Lucretia Mott, the 
Grimke sisters, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucy Stone— a long galaxy of 
great women. I have heard them speak, saying in only slightly different 
phrases exactly what I have heard these newer advocates of the cause say 
at these meetings. Those older women have gone on, and most of those who 
worked with me in the early years have gone. I am here for a little time 
only and then my place will be filled as theirs was filled. The fight must 
not cease; you must see that it does not stop." 

These were indeed Miss Anthony's last words to a woman 
suffrage convention, and they expressed the dominant thought 
which had directed her own life — the fight must not stop ! 

The social features oi this convention deserve special mention 
as they were on a more extended scale than was customary at the 


meetings of this organization, which is a working rather than a 
"visiting" body. The officers, speakers and delegates were in- 
vited by President Remsen to visit Johns Hopkins University 
where every attention was shown ; to a special exhibit at the Art 
Gallery ; to a large reception by the Baltimore Suffrage Society 
and to a handsome afternoon tea at the rooms of the Arundel 
Club. These were the usual courtesies extended in all cities, but 
the series of entertainments given by Miss Garrett, in order that 
the representative men and women of Baltimore might become 
acquainted with the distinguished visitors, was especially note- 
worthy. She gave a dinner and a luncheon every day, formal in- 
vitations being sent some time in advance. Those to the first 
dinner read, "To meet Miss Susan B. Anthony and Governor and 
Mrs. Warfield ;" others, "To meet Miss Anthony and the Speak- 
ers of the College Evening" — on each invitation of the week 
Miss Anthony's name preceding all other guests of honor. At 
one luncheon thirty of the city's most conservative women were 
invited to meet the officers of the National Suffrage Association 
and the prominent speakers of the convention. All of the repre- 
sentatives of the colleges were Miss Garrett's guests and after the 
College Evening's exercises she gave a reception attended by 
several hundred residents of the city. The American said of it : 

The handsome old Garrett mansion, after having been comparatively closed 
for several seasons, was thrown open last evening by its present owner. Miss 
Mary £. Garrett, for one of the largest and most brilliant receptions of the 
season. . . . The entire first floor, including the famous art gallery, was 
used for the occasion, each apartment being lavishly decorated with cut 
flowers corresponding with it in color. A profusion of American Beauty 
roses, with red shaded lights, adorned the dining room, where a bountiful 
supper was served. During the receiving hours, from ten to twelve, music 
was rendered by an orchestra. Miss Garrett wore black lace over white 
satin and chiffon; Miss Anthony was in black satin and point lace, Mrs. 
Howe in peachblow velvet and Miss Shaw in violet crepe and duchesse 
lace. . . . 

No one present ever will forget the picture of Miss Anthony 
and Mrs. Howe sitting side by side on a divan in the large bay 
window, with a background of ferns and flowers ; at their right 
stood Miss Garrett and Miss Thomas, at their left Miss Shaw and 


the line of eminent college women, with a beautiful perspective 
of conservatory and art gallery. "Miss Anthony, this evening is 
a fitting climax of your glorious career!" the present writer said 
to her. "Do you really think so ?" she answered with a happy 
smile and a gentle pressure of the hand. 

It meant a great deal for Miss Thomas to take her most valu- 
able time to carry out her part of this week's signal demonstration, 
a part which only her commanding influence could have accom- 
plished. And it meant equally as much for Miss Garrett to open 
her large house, fill it with guests, have a dozen elaborate social 
functions and give to the movement for woman suffrage in Mary- 
land a distinction that it could not otherwise have achieved. 
Best of all, however, was the great pleasure given to Miss An- 
thony, for there was nothing in the closing days of her life that 
offered such encouragement and hope as to see women possessing 
the power of high intellectual ability, wealth and social position, 
taking up the cause which she had carried with patient toil 
through poverty and obscurity to this plane of recognition. 

During this visit of Miss Anthony, President Thomas and Miss 
Garrett asked her what would be the greatest service they could 
render to advance the movement for woman suffrage. She an- 
swered that the strongest desire of her later years had been to 
raise a large fund for the work which was constantly crippled 
: for the lack of money, and that her deepest regret now was that 
the physical disability of the last five years had prevented her 
from carrying out her plans to secure this fund. Its need was 
frequently discussed during the week, and before the convention 
closed Miss Garrett and Miss Thomas promised Miss Anthony 
that they would try to find a number of women who, like them- 
selves, were unable to take an active part in working for woman 
suffrage but sincerely believed in it, who would be willing to join 
together in contributing $12,000 a year for the next five years to 
help support the work and to show in this practical way their 
gratitude to Miss Anthony and her associates and their faith in 

this cause. 

Ant. Ill-— 19 


At the close of the convention Miss Garrett invited the Busi- 
ness Committee of the association to dine with her and announced 
that Miss Thomas and herself would do their best to place at the 
disposal of the committee this fund of $60,000 to be paid into the 
treasury in installments of $12,000 a year. Later Miss Shaw and 
Mrs. Upton, the treasurer, took to Bryn Mawr the books of the 
National American Association and a careful examination was 
made of the financial needs. This showed that the regular income 
from dues and subscriptions was barely sufficient to carry on the 
routine business, which was continually increasing in volume, 
and that nothing was left for salaries or for particular lines of 
work, such as State campaigns, special publications, travelling 
expenses of speakers to address national organizations, labor 
unions, granges and other assemblies of men and women, which 
is an important part of suffrage work. 

No words can express the joy and relief of Miss Anthony that 
this last and dearest wish of her heart was to be in a large measure 
fulfilled. There was never a day afterwards that she did not 
refer to it with contentment and thankfulness, expressing her 
satisfaction that some of the national officers who for years had 
been giving their whole time and strength to the work with no 
financial compensation, would now be enabled to continue it with- 
out wasting their energies in constant anxiety as to the necessary 
funds and one or two of them as to living expenses. She felt very 
sure that with the rapid progress in public opinion more could be 
accomplished in the next five years than had been done in the past 
twenty-five, and that by the end of this time there would be a 
sufficient number of people in favor of the movement to furnish 
all the assistance needed. And so her mind was filled with peace 
as to the future of her beloved association, her child that she had 
nurtured and sustained from infancy to full maturity. 

Before Miss Thomas and Miss Garrett went abroad for the 
summer the following committee was formed : Miss Garrett, Bal- 
timore, Chairman ; Mrs. Quincy A. Shaw, Boston ; Mrs. David P. 
Kimball, Boston; Mrs. Lydia Coonley Ward, Chicago; Mrs. 
Henry M. Wilmarth, Chicago ; Mrs. Henry Villard, New York ; 
Mrs. Richard Aldrich, New York; Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson, 


Whosb Cbnbrous Gifts Madb Possiblb thb Opening of the Medical School of Johns Hopkins 

University in 1893. 

From a Portrait Painted in 1904 by John S. Sargent for the University, by Order of the 

Trustees of the University and the Johns Hopkins Medical School. 


Philadelphia; President M. Carey Thomas, Bryn Mawr, Treas- 

The active work in securing subscriptions, which was done 
principally by Miss Garrett and Miss Thomas, was commenced at 
the time of Miss Anthony's birthday the following year, Febru- 
ary, 1907, and by May i, the full amount of $60,000 had been 
subscribed, most of the donors declaring it to be a pleasure and a 
privilege to give to this fund. The subscribers were as follows : 
Mrs. Russell Sage, New York, $5,000; Miss Garrett, $2,500; 
Mrs. Henry Villard, $2,500; "A Friend," New York, $2,500; 
Mrs. Quincy A. Shaw, $2,500; Mrs. Lydia Coonley Ward, 
$2,500; Mrs. Henry M. Wilmarth, $2,500; Mrs. David P. Kim- 
ball, $2,500; Mrs. Emma J. Bartol, Philadelphia, $2,500; Miss 
Mary A. Bumham, Philadelphia, $2,500; Mr. and Mrs. Isaac 
Clothier, Philadelphia, $2,500; Mr. and Mrs. William P. Hensey, 
Philadelphia, $2,500; Miss Emily Rowland, Sherwood, N. Y., 
$2,500; Mrs. Robert Abbe, New York, $500; Mrs. Frederick 
Nathan, New York, $500; "A Friend", Providence, R. I., $500; 
Miss Ella Mench, Philadelphia, $500; Dr. Anna P. Sharpless, 
Philadelphia, $500; Mrs. Elizabeth Smith Miller, Geneva, N. Y., 
$1,000; Miss Anne Fitzhugh Miller, Geneva, N. Y., $500; Mrs. 
William M. Ivins, New York, $500; Mrs. Lucretia L. Blanken- 
burg, Philadelphia, $500; "A Friend", $20,000. Total, $60,000. 




^HE National Suffrage Association never had 
failed to have its representatives make their ap- 
peals to the committees of each Congress at its 
first session and therefore it was planned to send 
a delegation from the Baltimore convention for this 
purpose. It closed on February 13 and the next day the official 
board and many delegates went to Washington, where the hearing 
had been set for the morning of February 15. Arrangements had 
been under way for some time to celebrate Miss Anthony's birth- 
day that evening in the city where it had so many times been beau- 
tifully observed. She had only been able to attend the convention 
and bear her part in Miss Garrett's entertainments by almost 
superhuman effort and it did not seem possible for her to go on 
to Washington. She was, however, so reluctant to disappoint 
her friends there who had been arranging for the birthday that 
she determined to make the attempt. Miss Garrett sent with her 
the trained nurse who had been in constant attendance, with in- 
structions not only to remain with her in Washington but not to 
leave her until she was safe in her own home in Rochester. On 
the brief journey of less than an hour Miss Anthony gave no sign 
of pain and was almost cheerful, but when they reached the 
Shoreham she said, "Take me to my room quickly, I have been 
suffering the most excruciating torture ever since we left Balti- 
more." She received all the care possible but was not able to 
attend the hearing at the Capitol the next morning, and those who 
went were so anxious and depressed, and so missed the one who 


[1906] MISS Anthony's last birthday. 1403 

for nearly two-score years had been the inspiration on these occa- 
sions, that they could scarcely make their arguments before the 

It had been impossible to secure an opera house and there was 
no desirable hall in Washington, so the Church of Our Father 
(Universalist) seemed the most suitable place for the birthday 
celebration. It had been the scene of many suffrage conventions, 
and there, six years before, Miss Anthony had resigned the presi- 
dency of the National Association. The trustees no longer rented 
it for public meetings, but at the earnest request of the minister, 
the Rev. John Van Schaick, they placed it at the service of the 
committee without price. Floor and galleries were crowded to 
their capacity when Miss Anthony made her appearance on the 
platform and the audience rose and remained standing until she 
was seated. The papers spoke afterwards of her fine voice and 
said she appeared to be in excellent health, but this was a super- 
ficial view. Those who were near to her and knew the circum- 
/ stances of the past week, understood that only the courage of a 
I Spartan enabled her to be present, and they sat in anguish not 
I knowing what moment that marvelous self-control might be com- 
l pelled to yield. Upon Miss Shaw this strain was most severe, 
} for in presiding the full responsibility of the evening rested upon 
her and she had to be her usual smiling, witty, entertaining self 
in carrying out the program, no matter with what a sinking heart. 
f Miss Anthony, however, did not fail, but met the ordeal with the 
; splendid heroism which had characterized her whole life, and was 
\ grandly equal to the occasion until the last word had been spoken 
• and the curtain had fallen upon her last appearance on that plat- 
form whose most conspicuous figure she had been for fifty years. 
It had been decided that this would be an opportune time to 
^give some of the members of Congress and other officials a chance 
.1 to express themselves, and letters were sent by Miss Shaw to a 
number of those who, she had reason to think, were friendly in 
^ their attitude toward woman suffrage. As it was the very busiest 
time of the year in official life and at the height of the social sea- 
son, for which invitations were accepted weeks in advance, it was 
not supposed that many would be able to be present, but those who 


were addressed were asked to send a message of greeting, and a 
surprisingly large number responded. While a few from whom 
courage and loyalty had been expected were disappointing in their 
answers, most of these were cordial and appreciative, as a few 
quotations will illustrate. 

Vice President Charles W. Fairbanks : "I thank you for the 
invitation, which I should gladly accept were it not that my en- 
gagements forbid." 

Secretary of War William H. Taf t : "I have a very profound 
respect for Miss Anthony, her character and the splendid service 
she has rendered humanity during her long and honored life, and 
it will give me great pleasure to be present I have a dinner en- 
gagement so that I do not know at what hour, but I shall be glad 
to come for a short time if possible." 

Senator Chauncey M. Depew, New York: "I deeply regret 
that my engagements will prevent my joining in the meeting to 
do honor to Miss Susan B. Anthony, whose life-time of unselfish 
devotion has done her country and the world such valuable and 
lasting service." 

Senator Thomas C Piatt, New York: "Miss Anthony is en- 
titled to the respect and admiration of every citizen of this nation 
— in fact of every nation — for her magnificent efforts in behalf 
of the uplifting of humanity and the strengthening of the prin- 
ciples of government on which our nation rests. It would give me 
immeasurable pleasure to testify by my presence the esteem in 
which I hold Miss Anthony." Both of the New York Senators 
had at various times expressed their belief in the justice of woman 

Senator Jacob H. Gallinger, New Hampshire : "It is a matter 
of much regret to me that I am unable to accept your kind invita- 
tion and by my presence and words give assurance of my appre- 
ciation of the heroic and unselfish service that Miss Anthony has 
performed in behalf of the principles of justice and in advocacy 
of a genuine Republican form of government. To honor Miss 
Anthony is to do honor to the cause to which her life-work has 
been devoted, and I beg to be counted among those who subscribe 

[1906] MISS Anthony's last birthday. 1405 

to the principles she has so ably contended for and the success of 
which is but a question of time." 

Senator Albert J. Beveridge, Indiana : "Nothing would give 
me greater pleasure than to be present at the meeting in honor of 
Miss Anthony and to utter some earnest words of admiration for 
her long and beneficent career and her noble and exalted char- 
acter. I find, however, that my engagements are so arranged that 
it is impossible. May I express to you in this more formal, 
though less satisfactory way, my appreciation as an American cit- 
izen of this superb representative of American womanhood, 
whose life has been devoted with such single-heartedness to the 
ideals of our Christian civilization." 

Senator Thomas M. Patterson, Colorado: "I am satisfied that 
on account of the large amount of work cut out for the Senate 
in the immediate future, I will not be able to attend the meeting, 
but my heart is with the cause it stands for, and particularly in 
doing honor to the noble character whose eighty-sixth birthday it 
commemorates. While there seems to be a lull at this time in zeal 
for the extension of equal suffrage, the movement must go for- 
ward and ultimately triumph throughout the country. Ridicule 
or belittle it as fashionable women and thoughtless men do, the 
movement has reached permanent success in a number of the 
States and has added to a wonderful extent to the rights and 
privileges of women in the matter of property, labor, wages, their 
children and their social and public influence. The good work in 
behalf of equal suffrage should not be allowed to lag, and the 
meeting in honor of Miss Anthony's birthday should give it new 
zeal and impetus. Believe me cordially and sympathetically 

Other Senators from the four States where women vote sent 
similar letters. Senator W. B. Heyburn, Idaho, wrote : "It af- 
fords me great pleasure to be able to accept your kind invitation 
to attend this meeting and pay tribute to the high character and 
splendid attainments of one of America's noblest women." 

Senator Charles W. Fulton, Oregon : "Miss Anthony is one 
of our greatest and best characters. By her noble life and works 


she has earned and will be accorded a permanent place in the 
history of the American people." 

Representative Sereno E. Payne, New York: "I should be 
very glad to honor Miss Anthony's wonderful personality and to 
say a fitting word in recognition of her long life and service of 
devotion. She has made a notable struggle for a cause which for 
many years seemed hopeless, but with unfaltering faith and cour- 
age she has lived to see her labors crowned with some degree of 
success. It is true that woman suffrage has not been extended to 
a large portion of our people but her efforts have brought many 
strong supporters to her cause. May her last days be her best 
days and may her life be spared for other anniversaries." 

Representative William Alden Smith, Michigan: "I greatly 
appreciate the high compliment, for the privilege of testifying to 
the worth and value of Miss Anthony is an honor indeed, and I 
would gladly accept your invitation if it were not for the fact that 
I am obliged to leave for Michigan on the 12th. With best 
wishes to you and congratulations on the great work you are 
doing, always at your service." 

Representative James E. Watson, Indiana : "If I were to be 
in Washington on that date it would be a great pleasure for me to 
attend the meeting and add my voice to the general acclaim. The 
career of Miss Anthony has been a very remarkable one and 
serves to illustrate the beneficial results flowing from a life of 
integrity and lofty purpose impelled by pure and noble motives." 

Representative Julius Kahn, California: "I cannot let the 
occasion pass without expressing the hope that Miss Anthony 
may be spared for many more years to continue her work for the 
betterment of mankind. While we may not all agree as to the 
practicability or advisability of woman suffrage, we can all ad- 
mire the sterling character of one of its noblest advocates. Miss 
Anthony's work in behalf of womanhood stamps her as a great 
leader of the present epoch." 

Representative Francis W. Cushman, Washington : "I assure 
you that it would be a pleasure to me to do honor to that noble 
woman, whom I was taught from my earliest childhood, by my 

[1906] MISS Anthony's last birthday. 1407 

father and mother, to admire and revere, and whose career I have 
followed with great interest." 

Representative Burton L. French, Idaho : "We all pay tribute 
to Miss Anthony for the noble woman she is and for her defense 
of the principle of an equal and just share in the responsibility of 
government by those governed. The development of the idea of 
liberty has been slow — slow to be established as a principle of 
right and still slower to be established as a principle of actual 
living. As the days pass by we shall witness the expanding of 
this idea with cumulative energy until the rights of men and of 
women shall be defined in the same language. That will be a 
great day in the world's history, and that day will usher in higher 
ideals in social and in civic life. The magnificent service for 
mankind that Miss Anthony has rendered appeals to thoughtful 
men and women the world over, and to them is an inspiration 
prompting higher thinking, nobler living and more earnest real- 
ization of man's responsibility to man." 

There were cordial letters from Senator Fred T. Dubois, of 
Idaho, Representative Warren Keifer, of Iowa, W. A. Reeder, 
of Kansas, F. W. Mondell, of Wyoming, and other Western 
Congressmen, accepting the invitation to speak; also from the 
Hon. William Dudley Foulke, former Civil Service Commis- 
sioner, who had been on the program at the Baltimore convention. 
- / While a number of the writers of these letters expressed them- 
• / selves unmistakably in favor of woman suffrage, there was on the 
' ' part of many a marked avoidance of an absolute endorsement, and 
this was very evident to Miss Anthony as she listened to their 
1 1 reading on the birthday evening. Finally as a climax came the 
t much desired letter from the President, addressed to Miss Shaw, 
^ as follows : 

My Dear Madam: Pray let me join with you in congratulating Miss 
Anthony upon her eighty-sixth birthday and in extending to her most hearty 
good wishes for the continuation of her useful and honorable life. 

i Miss Anthony could endure it no longer. Rising and coming 
J to the front of the stage, while the listeners sat breathless, she ex- 
i claimed with all her old-time vigor, "When will the men do some- 


thing besides extend congratulations ? I would rather have 
President Roosevelt say one word to Congress in favor of amend- 
ing the Constitution to give women the suffrage than to praise 
me endlessly!" The audience caught her spirit and burst into 
approving applause. She expressed the feeling she had had a 
thousand times when listening to the platitudes and fulsome com- 
pliments of men who had not the moral courage to endorse the 
cause for which she stood, and into that single sentence she put 
not only her own indignation and contempt but those of thousands 
of women who are compelled to hear these inanities and hypoc- 
risies from a large proportion of the men who address meetings 
of women. 

The address of welcome was made by the Hon. Henry B. F. 
McFarland, president of the District Board of Commissioners, 
who gave unequivocal endorsement to the principle of woman 
suffrage. The Rev. Charles G. Ames, of Boston, made a brief 
but effective address. The Rev. Antoinette Brown Blackwell 
spoke for the pioneers, and there were a letter from Mrs. Isabella 
Beecher Hooker and a telegram from Mrs. Caroline E. Merrick, 
co-workers of forty years, the latter saying, "I thank God you 
have been given to the women of America." A letter from Mrs. 
Russell Sage sent *'best wishes for your health and congratula- 
tions on the rewards of your long and zealous labors for the good, 
through womankind, of all humankind;" and one from Mrs. 
Mary Seymour Howell closed, "I shall ever love you and hold 
you in my heart. You will be a great light on the world's high- 
way for the coming centuries." Messages came from organiza- 
tions of many kinds in foreign countries and the United States, 
including an affectionate greeting from the Shakers of Mt. 

On account of her extreme weakness it was not expected that 
Miss Anthony would speak, but at the close of the evening she 
seemed to feel that she must say one last word, and rising, with 
a tender, spiritual expression on her dear face, she stood beside 
Miss Shaw and explained in a few touching words how the great 

^The only gift presented on the platform was a purse of gold from the friends in the 
District of Columbia, but many other valuable presents were received. 

[1906] MISS Anthony's last birthday. 1409 

vork of the National Association had been placed in her charge; 
1 uming to the other national officers on the stage she reached out 

ler hand to them and expressed her appreciation of their loyal 
support, and then, realizing that her strength was almost gone, 
she said : "There have been others also just as true and devoted 
/to the cause — I wish I could name every one — ^but with such 
I women consecrating their lives" — here she paused for an instant 
and seemed to be gazing into the future, then dropping her arms 
to her side she finished her sentence — "failure is impossible 1" 

These were the last words Miss Anthony ever spoke in public, 
and from that moment they became the watchword of those who 
accepted as their trust the work she laid down. They had been 
the keynote of her own life and in her last public utterance she 
sounded the slogan under which an army of women will march 
to victory. 

When Miss Anthony returned to her hotel, stimulated by the 
excitement of the evening, all pain had left her and she felt almost 
well. She believed it was one of the sudden recoveries she had 
had so many times and her first thought was that now she could 
keep her promise to attend the celebration of her birthday in New 
York, which had waited on the one in Washington. During all 
her illness she had grieved over having to disappoint the women 
who had worked so hard to make it a success. By morning, how- 
ever, the reaction had come ; her strong will had to yield to the 
inevitable, and her only desire was to reach her own home, but it 
was necessary to wait till evening in order that she might take a 
sleeping car. As the sun was setting she went to a window of 
her room in the Shoreham which looked on the Washington 
Monument and for some time stood motionless gazing upon it. 
At last she turned to Miss Shaw and said, "I think it is the most 
beautiful monument in the whole world." "I prefer that of 
Bunker Hill," Miss Shaw answered. "O, no," Miss Anthony 
replied, "this is much grander." And then with deep earnestness 
she said : "Every one who sees it must feel the love of freedom 
and justice and want to be true to the principles it stands for." 
This was her farewell. Accompanied by her devoted sister 


^and the capable nurse, she left Washington on the evening train 
and arrived at home in safety the next morning. 

Elaborate preparations had been under way in New York to 
give a birthday luncheon in honor of Miss Anthony at Hotel 
Astor on February 20 which should surpass any previous affairs 
of the kind. It was to be under the auspices of the Interurban 
Equality Council of Greater New York, composed of over twenty 
Suffrage Societies, Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, president. They 
had expected to have about two hundred guests but long before 
the day nearly four hundred places were taken. Mr. and Mrs. 
William Mills Ivans had issued cards for a large afternoon recep- 
tion at their home pn the 22nd "to meet Miss Susan B. Anthony." 
The disappointment, therefore, can be imagined when it was 
learned just a few days before these events that the guest of honor 
could not be present ! Invitations for the reception were recalled 
but it was thought best to have the luncheon as planned. The 
New York World devoted an entire page to the occasion, which 
it began by saying : "The path blazed by Miss Anthony nearly 
sixty years ago is now an easy one to follow. There are few 
dangers to be encountered now in the wilderness of woman's 
rights; in fact it is not a wilderness any more but a land of 
promise well settled by many citizens. Today to proclaim one's 
self an advocate of equal suffrage is to own fellowship with the 
cleverest, noblest women of the country. The women who as- 
sembled around the thirty tables at this luncheon represented 
nearly every profession, to all of which women have been ad- 
mitted since Susan B. Anthony knocked on the closed doors and 
presented her card." 

Each of the city papers had a column or more of descriptions 
and illustrations. It was the largest luncheon ever given at this 
hotel noted for such entertainments and was perfect in all its 
appointments; jonquils predominated in the handsome floral 
decorations, the candle shades were yellow and the flags which 
draped the walls were caught up with broad yellow satin ribbons. 
The tables were set in the great ball-room ; at the right hand of 

Copyright, Judge Co. Photo by Mrs. C. R. Miller. 


Takbn at thb Baltimore Convbntion. Onb Month Bbforb Hbr Death. 

[1906] MISS Anthony's last birthday. 141 i 

Mrs. Catt were the Rev. Anna Howard Shaw and Edwin Mark- 
ham, at her left William Lloyd Garrison and Mrs. Charlotte B. 
Wilbour, president of Sorosis, while the other speakers extended 
along the side. At one round table were twenty-one club presi- 
dents; one was occupied entirely by women lawyers, another by 
women physicians. There were women ministers, sculptors, 
painters, designers, actresses, singers, editors, writers, civil en- 
gineers, architects, nurses, settlement workers, trades union 
women, university graduates and club women without number. 
Mrs. Catt presided with the dignity, grace and tact in which she 
was unexcelled, and began the program by reading a telegram 
from Miss Anthony which said, "The word of a woman of 
eighty-six cannot be relied upon like that of a girl of sixteen," 
and conveyed her affectionate greetings. It was voted at once to 
send her a message of love and remembrance with the hope that 
she would be with them on her eighty-seventh birthday.^ 

Mrs. Wilbour gave a most interesting recital of the early days 
of her acquaintance with the great suffrage leaders and told of 
her part in arranging for the celebration of Miss Anthony's 
fiftieth birthday in this same city. The auditors were captivated 
by Mrs. Harriot Stanton Blatch's clever stories of her mother's 
and Miss Anthony's experiences. Miss Alice Henry, of Aus- 
tralia, spoke entertainingly of the practical effects of woman suf- 
frage in that progressive country. Edwin Markham's exquisite 
poem of seventeen stanzas — Song to the Divine Mother — "writ- 
ten to the glory of Susan B. Anthony," the author prefaced by 
saying : "This song should be read in the light of the deep and 
memorable truth that the divine feminine as well as the divine 
masculine principle is in Grod — ^that he is Father-Mother, two in 
one. It follows from this truth that the dignity of womanhood 
is grounded in the divine nature itself. The fact that the deity 
is man-woman was known to the ancient poets and sages and was 
grafted into the nobler religions of mankind." 

^ Besides this Mrs. Catt sent her own message: "You may be sure now, as always, that 
you have the tender affection and sympathy of all the suffragists in the land, and that 
the army of those who love you and stand ready to help the cause is continually growing 
in numbers and strength." And that from Miss Shaw said: "Your heart would have 
warmed with happiness at the universal expressions of love, appreciation and gratitude." 


William M. Ivans, recently the candidate for mayor, repre- 
senting the reform element in New York, made a speech remark- 
able for a man prominent in politics at a critical time, in the 
course of which he said : 

I am here today because I believe this to be my place. It is the duty of 
every man to uphold the hand of every woman in her efforts to redress a 
great and unspeakable political wrong. How can any man with a heart and 
a soul and an intellect look his wife or daughter in the face and say that he 
is entitled to any political right which she does not possess? That man 
has the soul of a hypocrite who tells you that he believes himself entitled 
to the ballot for the protection of his life, liberty and property and yet wishes 
to deny to his wife, the mother of his children, an equal right in the main- 
tenance of hers. Such an attitude of mind is inconceivable to me. 

I can never make a good advocate of woman suffrage because to me the 
assertion of woman's right to the ballot is the same as the assertion that two 
and two make four. Suppose some people maintained that two and two 
made six, and others declared that two and two made eight, and that an 
assemblage of the people were finally to rule that two and two made seven, how 
would you go to work to prove to them that two and two made four? I 
find it just as difficult to prove woman's right to the ballot. We ought to 
put the question in another way: By what right does man withhold that 
right? Not in the name of right at all, but in the name of might, unthink- 
ing and brutal. ; 

And if I cannot conceive of the denial of this right by man, still less can 
I understand its denial by woman. Of all inconceivable things on earth, the 
women anti-suffragists are the most so. They consider themselves qualified 
to discuss these questions but not qualified to cast a vote. They organize 
societies to clean our streets and promote good government of all kinds, yet 
refuse the ballot which would enable them to choose servants to do these 
very things. They prefer privileges to duty. Let them do their duty and not 
be so supremely unwomanly as to seek nothing but privilege. 

History shows us that women are the civilizers of society. They are the 
beings who make the characters of men, and to assert that they have not 
tl^e right to vote by the side of men is the absolute negation of reason. 

Mr. Ivans closed with a tribute to Miss Anthony as "the great- 
est and finest historical character which America has yet pro- 
duced," and said, "When we come to fill our Pantheon with our 
true gods and goddesses Susan B. Anthony will occupy the 
highest place." 

Several noted women, beloved friends and children of old 
friends of Miss Anthony were introduced — Mrs. Elizabeth Smith 
Miller, daughter of the famous Abolitionist, Gerrit Smith ; Mrs. 

[1906] MISS Anthony's last birthday. 141 3 

Eliza Wright Osborne, niece of Lucretia Mott ; Mrs. Fanny Gar- 
rison Villard, daughter of William Lloyd Garrison ; Countess de 
Resse, daughter of Mrs. Elizabeth B. Phelps, in whose spacious 
home in East Twenty-third Street Miss Anthony's cherished 
paper. The Revolution, had its beginning. Mrs. Catt presented 
also Mrs. Adelaide Johnson, the sculptor, whose beautiful bust of 
Miss Anthony had that day been given to the New York Metro- 
politan Museum by Mr. and Mrs. Murray Whiting Ferris. 

Miss Shaw spoke briefly but touchingly, bringing them precious 
messages from Miss Anthony and telling them how best they 
could honor her and make her happy. The scholarly address of 
William Lloyd Garrison was listened to with deep interest as he 
compared the careers of his illustrious father and Miss Anthony, 
and said : 

I have no words to speak my own reverent regard for this dear old friend 
of fifty years. I can recall her earnest pleas for the slave's freedom when 
abolition was the all-absorbing question and before emancipation opened 
wider opportunities for women and she became a recognized leader of the 
woman's movement 

However it may have been in past times, wonderful good fortune has been 
the part of many once despised and rejected reformers within living mem- 
ory. They have survived not only to witness, as Miss Anthony has done, 
great changes in the direction of social reformation, but to see prejudice 
and hatred yield to personal appreciation and regard. The recent Baltimore 
ovations from the wealth and fashion of the town show how Mayfair itself 
is finally conquered, when the social barometer rises to fair weather in 
places not long ago storm centres of woman suffrage. But even the present 
change of public sentiment from freezing ridicule and contempt to respectful 
consideration and regard, cannot take from the days of trial their glorious 
memories. No one who has not been in the small minority when truth was 
assailed and its defenders persecuted, can realize their uplift of heart and 
spirit In retrospect the hardships of the Abolitionists and the advocates of 
Woman's Rights seem glorified and enviable — ^not only seem, they were. 

To delicate and sensitive natures the misunderstanding of family and 
friends, the coldness and bitter feeling of a conservative atmosphere, were 
harder to bear than bodily discomforts and risks. It is the wounded spirit 
through which reformers with high hopes and brave endeavor chiefly suffer. 
But how vast the compensation ! To say nothing of the joy inseparable from 
consciousness of duty done and self-respect maintained, no words can esti- 
mate the felicity of close companionship with men and women living for 
ideals. To be emancipated from trivial and transient matters and to move 
in a realm where the great realities absorb attention — ^what prompting to 
effort and aspiration! 


I love to recall the words of John Stuart Mill : *lf you aim at something 
noble and succeed in it you will generally find that you have not succeeded 
in that alone. A hundred other good and noble things which you never 
dreamed of will have been accomplished by the way, and the more certainly, 
the sharper and more agonizing has been the struggle which preceded the 
victory. Though our best directed efforts may seem wasted and lost ninety- 
nine times in every hundred, the himdredth time the result may be greater 
and more dazzling than we had ever dared hope for. ..." 

When I think of my father's reception at the London Breakfast in 1867, 
with England's noblest men to greet him, and of Miss Anthony, whether in 
England, Germany or her own country, welcomed with a deference and dis- 
tinction which those bom to the purple might covet, I gain faith in the 
supremacy of justice and the ultimate triumph of human rights. 




HE journey from Washington, after the celebration 
of her eighty-sixth birthday in that city, was made 
by Miss Anthony without great discomfort, her 
sister Mary and the trained nurse from the Johns 
Hopkins Hospital giving her the most careful at- 
tention. They reached home in time for breakfast on February 
17. Miss Anthony was so tired that she did not go up stairs 
during the forenoon, saying she would lie on the couch in the 
back parlor until after the midday dinner and then go to her room 
f for an afternoon nap. This she did and never afterward was 
V able to go down stairs. The severe neuralgia yielded to treatment 
in a few days and the nurse returned to Baltimore, as it was 
hoped that rest and quiet would be sufficient to overcome the com- 
plete physical prostration. For the past three years the Anthony 
home had been blessed with a thoroughly competent housekeeper, 
Miss Carrie Bahl, who was also skilful in the sick-room and 
whom Miss Anthony liked to have about her. Miss Mary's gentle 
care always was a supreme comfort to her, and in a short time 
her niece, Miss Lucy E. Anthony, came to add an ever-welcome 
help and companionship. Miss Anthony had so much confidence 
in her physician, Dr. Marcena Sherman-Ricker, that she often 
said she felt better as soon as the doctor came into the house. She 
would rather be in her own room in her own home when she was 
ill than anywhere in the world, so all the conditions were favor- 
able to her recovery. 

/ For a few days Miss Anthony seemed slowly to improve, took 
Ant. Ill— 20 ( 141 5 ) 


/ an interest in affairs and was cheerful and hopeful. Lucy read to 
her such extracts from the daily letters as would give her pleasure 

^and she sent messages to the writers. Notwithstanding every 
care, however, pneumonia soon developed and for awhile there 
appeared to be no chance of recovery. Two of the most thor- 
oughly trained nurses in the city were placed in charge, competent 
physicians were called in consultation and everything known to 
science was done for her relief. Her strong constitution enabled 
her to rally a little and those about her were much encouraged, 

I but on March 4 both lungs became involved. Even then so g^eat 
was her vitality that the double pneumonia yielded to treatment 
and the lungs became practically clear, but she could no longer 
retain food and steadily lost strength. She herself felt convinced 
that she would not recover and said that she was quite ready to 
go, that if she grew better she would soon have all this to go 
through again and the end might just as well come now. She had 
not a fear, not a r^ret, only calmness, courage and rational sub- 
mission. Through all her illness her mind was perfectly clear, 
which was a great satisfaction, as she had always wished that she 
might not lose her faculties and still continue to live. 

Through all these days Miss Anthony was thoughtful of every- 
body around her, urged the housekeeper to take some rest and 
begged the nurses not to let her make them any unnecessary 
trouble. To her niece she said often, "You have always been a 
ministering angel in this house." She was not willing that any 
one but her sister should comb her hair and each morning she 
would say, "O, Mary, there are no hands like yours/' She seemed 
to be thinking constantly of those who had been most intimately 
associated with her and named the keepsake that should be given 
to each, seeming to divine just what would be most desired. She 

^ was absolutely without self-consciousness and there was scarcely 
a moment which was not occupied with thoughts of the work for 
suffrage ; of those who had been with her in the past and of the 
ones to whom it must now be left. Above all else her mind was 

[ concentrated on the approaching suffrage campaign in Oregon, 

1 where a victory seemed almost assured. She had not expected to 
go to that State herself but had intended to raise a great deal of 



r money — had done so in fact — and to help in many ways ; and she 
had been urging her sister to go, partly to represent her and 
partly to care for Miss Shaw, who, she feared, would break down 
under the heavy responsibility. All the time she was thinking 
and planning as her life slowly ebbed away, and leaving mes- 
sages for friends and directions about the work even after she 
^ad ceased to be able to speak above a whisper. 

At the time of Mrs. Stanton's death the present writer prepared 
a number of magazine articles which gave Miss Anthony especial 
pleasure because they were accurate in statement and showed an 
intimate knowledge of Mrs. Stanton's character and work. She 
said then and often afterwards, "I hope you will live to do that 
service for me." When it became publicly known that she was 
nearing the end, urgent requests came from various magazines 
for sketches which must be ready for use when they went to 
press the middle of the month. The writer felt that her duty to 
Miss Anthony lay rather in remaining in Washington and pre- 
paring these than in joining the anxious watchers at the home 
where no assistance could be rendered ; and so all these sad days, 
and nights also, she tried to tell the story of that noble life in 
fitting words, and the last of five articles was finished on the 
evening of the day when the one they had attempted to portray 
was laid to rest beneath the winter's snow. The Rev. Anna How- 
ard Shaw, one of those nearest and dearest to Miss Anthony, 
was at her home in Philadelphia performing another duty in her 
preparations for going to Oregon to conduct a three months' 
/campaign, but was getting daily word from Rochester and hoping 
I against hope. As she was finally at the bedside almost every 
^ hour of the last week her account of those precious days possesses 
\a value beyond that of all others.. 

**0n the morning of March 7 I awoke with a feeling that Miss 
Anthony wanted me. It grew upon me so that I finally said, *I 
must go to Aunt Susan today, I am so strongly impressed that 
she needs me ;' and at noon, not sending word ahead, I took the 
train for Rochester, arriving there at nine o'clock at night. On 
reaching the house I found a placard on the door requesting that 


no one should ring the bell, so I passed around the side and saw 
Miss Mary sitting at the table in the old place reading, and, with- 
out her hearing me, entered and stood beside her. Looking up 
she exclaimed, 'Oh, Anna Shaw, we have been wanting you all 
day ! Early this morning Sister Susan said she must see you and 
talk with you. She insisted so much that I should write you that 
I finally did so and about an hour ago mailed the letter. I never 
saw her so persistent in anything and what she wants to talk with 
you about is in regard to having everything she possesses put into 
the fund which Miss Thomas and Miss Garrett are going to raise 
for suffrage work/ I answered, 1 felt so impelled so come that, 
even though I feared I might not be permitted to see Aunt Susan, 
nevertheless I determined to come and hear directly how she is 
getting on, but do not let her know I am here until tomorrow.' 

"On the arrival of the doctor the following morning, Miss An- 
thony was told of my presence in the house and immediately in- 
sisted upon seeing me. Although she was very weak, the doctor 
felt there would be less danger in this because of her great 
anxiety to do so than if she were denied. I shall never forget the 
expression of intense joy on her face when I leaned over the bed 
and spoke to her. Clasping my hand in both of hers she said, 
*I have longed for you so much and I have wanted to tell you 
so many things.' The doctor feared to have her become excited 
because of the extreme weakness of her heart action, and only 
allowed the conversation to last for a very few minutes, but al- 
most at once Miss Anthony said : *I want particularly to tell you 
{ that I wish to revoke every other money gift which I have made 
' in previous letters of request to my executors, because the small 
' amount which I possess, when divided up, would be very little 
■ for each one, but all together it would help the fund. I want 
. every dollar I have to go for that purpose, for I believe it will 
do more for the cause that way than in any other.' She then 
* spoke of some money which had been borrowed from her and 
her sister, but which lihey had not been able to collect, saying, 
*It is a shame that those men will take our little bit of money, 
which is so much needed in our work; $1,500 would do a great 
deal to help it along.' I replied, 'Perhaps they will pay it now 


that they know it is your last request that it should go to the 
cause/ She often said she wished she had been able to raise more 
money and make the work easier for those who remained. 

"In one of these interviews she looked up and there was an 
expression of infinite tenderness upon her face as she said, 'These 
have been wonderful years/ and reaching out she took my hand 
and patted it affectionately, sajring, *How many happy, happy 
times we have traveled about together ! Day and night, in stage 
coaches, on freight trains, over the mountains and across the 
prairies, hungry and tired, we have wandered. The work was 
sometimes hard and discouraging but those were happy and use- 
ful years/ On one occasion when she was very tired and could 
not speak clearly and seemed trying to remember something, I 
understood her to say, 'Can you recall the trouble?' and suppos- 
ing she was thinking of one particular trouble, I asked if she 
wanted to speak of that unhappy time. Smiling she said, 'Oh, 
no! Let us recall nothing that was unhappy, the unhappiness 
isn't worth remembering, it is only the good that counts.' 

"She spoke of the different workers with whom her life had 
been associated and said, 'Their faces pass before me, one by one, 
I cannot call their names but they are a host of splendid, loyal 
women and I remember and love them all. How good they have 
been to me ! I wonder if we shall know each other in the here- 
after. Perhaps I can do more over yonder than I have done 
here.' She referred often to the members of the National Board, 
who had served with her so many years ; of their unselfish labor 
for the cause, of their loyalty and devotion to her, speaking of 
them just as a mother would talk of her children and telling of 
her affection for them. Among those to whom she sent special 
messages of loving interest was Rachel Foster Avery who had 
been as a daughter to her for many years, and who was now in 
Europe with her own daughters. She admonished her to educate 
them so that they might be helpful to their generation as their 
mother had been to hers, and she spoke of the beautiful years 
of Mrs. Avery's young womanhood when she had devoted not 
only herself but her means so generously to the work. 

"She never wearied in hearing me talk of the Baltimore con- 


vention, of the valuable service rendered by President Thomas 
and Miss Garrett, of their affectionate care of her during her 
illness at Miss Garrett's home, and said no daughters could have 
done more for her than they did. And then she recalled many 
others whose hospitality she had enjoyed during all the years. 
She never forgot a kindness and was appreciative of every little 
thing that was done for her. She was particularly pleased at the 
thoughtful tenderness of the young college girls, who frequently 
sent flowers and other tokens of remembrance through these days. 

"At one time she talked of the money which her brother, Col. 
D. R. Anthony, had given to her sister Mary to be used at any 
time there should be a movement of the women of the country 
for a memorial to her, and said, *I hope there will be no effort to 
put up a shaft or any monument of that sort in memory of me or 
of the other women who have given themselves to our work. The 
best kind of a memorial would be a school where girls could be 
taught everything useful that would help them to earn an honor- 
able livelihood ; where they could learn to do anything they were 
capable of, just as boys can. I would like to have lived to see such 
a school as that in every great city of the United States.' 

"She never complained, but once, when the consciousness of 
approaching death seemed strongly to impress itself upon her, 
she said, holding up her hand and measuring a little space on one 
finger, 'Just think of it, I have been striving for over sixty years 
for a little bit of justice no bigger than that, and yet I must die 
without obtaining it. Oh, it seems so cruel !' *Yes, it is cruel,' I 
answered, *but remember what you have done for other women 
in all these years. Your grand struggle has changed life for 
women eversrwhere. Think of all the splendid opportunities open 
to the young women of today, largely through your efforts.' *0h, 
yes,' she said, *it is very different now, and most of the young 
women who are benefitting by it haven't the least idea how it 
came about. They do not realize the change, they don't know 
what it has cost other women to get it for them, but some day 
they will learn.' She spoke of these opportunities for young 
women on two or three occasions and seemed to be thinking 
about them a great deal. 



"I was allowed to see her four or five times a day and each 
time it seemed as if she had been thinking up something to tell 
me in connection with the work. She was particularly anxious 
that I should warn women ever3rwhere not to become over san- 
guine by a little success or greatly depressed by any adverse ac- 
tion, but should assure them that the strong need of the hour 
was steadfastness of purpose and unfaltering confidence in final 
triumph. She said to impress upon them that there was no power 
on earth which could prevent it and that it would be hastened by 
the faithfulness and loyalty of the women themselves. 

"I tried to make her feel that she would get well but she was 
wiser than I and knew better. It had been very hard for me to 
accept the presidency of the association and I did so only at Miss 
Anthony's earnest and oft-repeated solicitation. Fearing that 
after she had passed away I might give it up, she besought me 
over and over again to promise her that I would devote all the 
remaining years of my life to this one cause. This promise I 
made her, that so long as the association desired my services in 
any capacity and felt that I could be useful I would give my entire 
time to it, and would work for woman suffrage the remainder 
of my life in the best way I could, either in or out of the associa- 
tion. Over and over again she repeated her request and I re- 
peated my promise. She particularly urged me not to be in- 
fluenced by too great haste, but to keep steadily on, agitating and 
educating, to strike a blow whenever an opportunity arose, to 
take what came without fear, not to expect too much of people, 
especially not to expect gratitude or feel annoyed if any par- 
ticular effort were not appreciated, but as far as possible strive 
to do the right thing and then bravely accept whatever results 
might come. She spoke of the changing attitude of public senti- 
ment and many times assured me that I need have no fear as 
to the outcome, because justice must prevail sometime, and what 
was needed was constant patience and continual work. 

"Once I said to her, 'Aunt Susan, as you look back on the past, 
if you had to live it over again, would you do the same?' And 
without a moment's hesitation she answered, 'Oh, yes, Td do it 
all again ; the spirit is willing yet ; I feel the same desire to do the 


work but the flesh is weak. It's too bad that our bodies wear out 
while our interests are just as strong as ever.' Each day we 
talked of the prospect of carrying Oregon and I would cull from 
the letters and newspaper clippings a fresh bit of hope to give 
her. Her dear face would lighten up, and when she had not even 
strength to turn her beautiful head on the pillow, her eyes would 
brighten, and, with an intensity of feeling that thrilled me, her 
faltering voice would say, 'Oh, if I were only able to be there! 
I long for it so !' 

"One day when my heart was breaking I said, 'I do not know 
how I can live and do this work without you. I have been so ac- 
customed to come to you for advice and help that I shall be ut- 
terly lost without your counsel. For nearly twenty years we have 
been together in every campaign and in all the great meetings 
and I have not learned to walk alone. You have always been at 
hand whenever we needed you.' *I don't know much about the 
other life,' she answered. *Some people think they know a great 
deal and they tell us what will and will not happen. I cannot 
say, but this I do believe, that if anyone there can help or in- 
fluence those who are left behind in this life, I will come to you. 
If the existence beyond the grave is, as most of us believe, a con- 
scious existence, I do not see how my interest in this cause can 
change or why I should desire less to work for it than when I^ 
am here in the body. I am sure that in every effort for woman's 
freedom and better service to the world I shall be as deeply con- 
cerned as I have been here, if there is any way of knowing about 
it, and if it is possible I will always be where I am most needed.' 
^ "She seemed to improve each day after my arrival and by 
. Sunday she was so much better that I thought I would go home 
J for a short time, fearing that her desire to talk might injure her 
chances for recovery. That morning I spoke to her about it and 
at first she objected, but when I told her the doctor thought it 
would be better for her if she did not talk so much about the 
work, she seemed content to let me go with the promise that I 
would return in two or three days. Later I told her I was going 
to dine with the Gannetts, and that after I returned we would 
have one more visit before I started for home. She seemed very 


cheerful, sending affectionate messages to Mr. and Mrs. Gannett 
and their daughter and son. When I left the room she waved her 
hand and said, *Come back soon; Til sleep while you are gone 
and then we'll have a good visit, doctor or no doctor.* She had 
rebelled all along against the prohibition of more than fifteen 
minutes' talk at a time. 

"I felt almost happy for it seemed as if Miss Anthony really 
might recover, but when I returned at three o'clock the nurse 
met me with the information that she had grown suddenly worse 
and they had telephoned for the doctor. I hastened to her room 
and found her in great pain and unable to speak and in a few 
minutes she became unconscious. On the arrival of the physician, 
I saw from the expression of her face that there was no hope. 
Up to that time the doctor had given us encouragement to look 
for Miss Anthony's recovery, but she had had serious valvular 
heart trouble for the past six years, and the weakness from pneu- 
l^monia finally caused the action of the heart to fail. 

"From half-past three o'clock on Sunday afternoon Miss An- 
thony seemed even to her physician to be unconscious, but for 
hours I knelt at her bedside holding her hand and hoping for a 
recognition. At length I was called from the room and a niece, 
Mrs. Margaret McLean Baker, took my place. When I returned 
I sat at the head of the bed and placed my hand on Miss An- 
thony's forehead. In an instant she reached up and took it and 
the doctor said, *I think she knows you.' I knelt at her side, 
clasped her hand in mine, laid my face on it and asked her if she 
knew me. It seemed as if she tried to speak, and I said, *If you 
know me, I wish you would press my hand.' Immediately she 
pressed it and made an effort to speak, and I asked, 'Do you 
want me to promise you again that I will never give up the work 
as long as I live ?' Immediately she drew away her hand and laid 
it on my head as if in benediction, and then taking my hand she 
drew it to her lips and tried to kiss it. Several times thereafter 
during the long night, she would press my hand, and probably 
for twelve hours after she was stricken she was more or less con- 
scious. After that I could get no response from her, and yet she 
could feel the moment my hand unclasped and would reach after 


it. The nurse said she missed its warmth, as one in sleep nestles 
toward warmth and comfort; but I felt that in those last weary 
hours it was her longing to feel comradeship, which even in her 
partial unconsciousness remained with her. 

"By morning Miss Anthony had apparently passed into pro- 
found unconsciousness and made no sign but all that day I re- 
mained at her bedside and she clung to my hand. It seemed as if 
when she was entering into the Dark Valley she still held fast 
to the human friendships. Her sister Mary, with the silent forti- 
tude that had governed her entire life, sat by the bedside motion- 
less and speechless through all those long hours, and only they 
who understood the deep devotion of that heroic soul to her elder 
sister could know the agony that she endured. 

"At the midnight hour the brave heart had almost ceased 
its beating, and at twenty minutes before one on the morning of 
Tuesday, March 13, it was stilled forever." 

Never was the adage, "A prophet is not without honor save 
in his own country," more fully disproved than in the respect 
shown to Miss Anthony in her own city of Rochester, which had 
been her home for more than sixty years. On the day of her 
death the Democrat and Chronicle contained a sketch of her life 
filling more than nine columns; the Union and Advertiser and 
the Herald had over seven columns each ; the Post-Express, the 
afternoon paper, had six columns and the Evening Times about 
the same. All published large portraits and editorials of a column 
or more. For the next three days each paper filled several col- 
umns daily with copies of letters, telegrams, resolutions and 
tributes. On the day after the funeral the Democrat and Chron- 
icle devoted nearly eight columns to the services and other mat- 
ters connected with the occasion ; the Evening Times more than 
a page, and the other papers many columns. It would have been 
wholly impossible for the newspapers of any city to do more 
to prove their esteem and appreciation of a citizen. On the 
morning of her passing away the Union and Advertiser said in 
its sketch : 

Copyright, (irace A. Woodworth. 





The last weeks of Miss Anthony's life were in eminent keeping with her 
whole career; the magnificent struggle which the aged patient made against 
death was as fearless as was her lifelong battle in the cause which she espoused 
and did so much for— equal suffrage and woman's rights. Time and again 
when it seemed as if Miss Anthony must succumb to the demands of advanc- 
ing years, she rallied her enfeebled forces and with a tenacity that was heroic 
and inspiring clung to life, while the whole country waited and watched with 
prayerful interest the life and death struggle which was going on in the modest 
Madison street home. It was only when her heart, worn out by the long battle, 
was no longer able to respond to the powerful will that Susan B. Anthony 
gave up her life work. 

The Post-Express said in the afternoon of that day : 

The same quiet peace and restfulness which permeated the life into which 
Susan Brownell Anthony came as a child of Quaker parents living in their 
refined and comfortable but unostentatious home in Massachusetts eighty-six 
years ago, now lend a halo of calm to the house and household where her re- 
mains rest awaiting the last rites and honors of the citizens of her adopted 
community, and the tokens of respect from her admirers all over the United 

A Quaker bom, a Unitarian in death, the tenets of her faith are beautifully 
expressed this morning in the rays of sunlight that are permitted, unchecked 
by blinds, to stream into the rooms of the saddened, grief-stricken gathering 
of women who have watched lovingly over the last days, hours and minutes of 
the life of Susan B. Anthony. A wreath of lovely, fragrant violets hung on the 
door is all that betokens a distinction between that house and others in the 
secluded street. 

In a double column of heavy black-faced type the Evening 
Times said : 

Wgmen well may mourn. The soul of a system and a creed left the world 
last night when Susan B. Anthony crossed the Great Divide. The dominant 
mind that guided the destinies of the greatest woman's movement of the cen- 
tury is stilled. A soul, the greatness of which it remains for posterity to dis- 
cover, shook off its fettering clay and soared to its place in the empyrean. 
Women well may mourn. 

As a pioneer of woman suffrage she braved ridicule until she won her meed 
of respect and admiration. As the leader of a movement of recognized worth 
and power she lent dignity to the cause. In her life her labor was the sustain- 
ing power of what is as truly a creed as the tenets of a church. Her death, 
calm, resigned and peaceful, was a benediction on that creed. She gave to it 
all her worldly possessions. 

In the greatness of her thought there was no blemish. She was an apostle 
as truly as the men who followed the Nazarene ; a patriot as truly as the lead- 
ers who fought for the freedom of a nation even as she fought for equality and 


freedom from the yoke of custom ; a martyr as truly as those sainted ones who 
gave their lives for a principle. 

In the garish brilliancy of a world's admiration she turned to Rochester as 
"home." Her heart was here ; for sixty years her work had its inception here ; 
in the Flower City the bud of a mighty force blossomed to its fullness ; through 
her Rochester was honored of the world. Well may the women of Rochester 
mourn with the women of the world.* 

The mayor of the city offered his appreciation and afterwards 
ordered the flags at half-mast as follows : 

In the death of Susan B. Anthony Rochester loses a citizen who for many 
years has commanded the respect and admiration of our people without regard 
to belief in or dissent from the principle for which no sacrifice was too great, 
no effort too hard for her to make. If she had not been so well and widely 
known as the champion of woman suffrage as to overshadow every other in- 
terest of her life, more people would think of her, as might well be done, as 
the unwearied worker in every cause for the uplifting not only of her sex but 
of humanity. 

Tomorrow (Thursday) will be held the funeral services for Susan B. An- 
thony. It is fitting that this should be made the occasion for a tribute of re- 
spect as unusual and marked as were her personal qualities and efforts for the 
many causes to which her life was devoted. It is suggested, therefore, that 
flags be displayed at half-mast throughout the dty, and the attention of the 
custodians of all city buildings is called to this request' 

The papers contained columns of testimonials from prominent 
citizens, and extracts from a few of these will illustrate the char- 
acter of all. President Augustus H. Strong, of the Rochester 
Theological Seminary (Baptist) said: 

Miss Anthony had strong natural force of character and great nobility of 
soul. She espoused the cause of the whole sisterhood of women and gave her 
life to uplift them. She had some masculine qualities as well as feminine. 
She could meet a rough and bitter opponent with a sarcasm and ability that 
fairly benumbed and silenced him, but for all that she was a true woman, a 
woman of large heart, great kindliness of spirit, compassion for the world and 
determination to right the wrongs. There have been few such examples of 
life-long devotion to a great cause, and we honor ourselves in doing honor to 
her memory. 

^ Editorials of Rochester papers and those of other cities will be found in the Appendix. 

>On the day of Miss Anthony's funeral the flags on the State House of Kansas, in 
Topeka, and on the City Hall of Leavenworth and the City Hall of Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia, were flown at half-mast. 


President Rush Rhees of the University of Rochester said in 
the course of his eulogy : 

The trait of Miss Anthony which most strongly impressed those who had 
anything to do with her was her untiring moral energy. Nothing could have 
been more characteristic of her life than the determination manifested in her 
last days to dedicate every atom of her strength, every particle of her influence 
and every dollar that she possessed or could secure to the promotion of the 
cause which she regarded as essential to the fullest development of the largest 
influence and the truest liberty of her sex. Those who have not been con- 
vinced by the arguments for woman suffrage that seemed to her conclusive, 
yield to none in admiration for the sterling worth, the valid renown, the re- 
markable intellectual power and the exalted moral earnestness of Susan B. 

"She was the foremost woman in all the world," said Mrs. 
W. L. Howard, president of the Local Council of Women, "and 
yet it was marvelous how she could be interested in the smallest 
affairs of everyday life, and was never too busy to talk and coun- 
sel with women about their children and the affairs of their 
home life." Mrs. Mary T. Lewis Gannett, who was on terms 
of closest intimacy with her, said in ending her tribute: "She 
was a wonderful combination of strength and gentleness. Chil- 
dren loved her. The world knew of her intense earnestness, her 
great force, but the knowledge of her sweetness and tenderness, 
of her beautiful, womanly graciousness, is the especial heritage 
of the wom.en of her own city, and the benediction of her life will 
be with us and inspire us as long as we live." 

The Rev. Dr. Clarence A. Barbour, of the Lake Avenue Bap- 
tist Church said in part : "Now that the blow has fallen, we can 
only thank God that He has given to this community the glory 
and the privilege of having had Miss Anthony's home among 
us. Her single-hearted devotion to her conviction of truth and 
justice has made her one of the great women of the ages." 

Mrs. Helen Barrett Montgomery, now the most prominent 
woman of the city, expressed the universal feeling when she said : 

In the death of Miss Anthony Rochester has lost not only its most eminent 
citizen but a rare and beautiful personality. Great as is her work, the woman 
herself was greater and finer. To keep as she kept at eighty-six her sense of 
humor and proportion, her interest in people, her kindling enthusiasm, her 


faith in the future and her capacity for friendship undimmed, is a more difficult 
achievement than any to which she set her hand. No one came into association 
with Miss Anthony who did not feel the atmosphere of unselfish devotion, sin- 
cerity and comradeship in which she lived. No little kindness was too small 
for her to do, no service too slight for her to recognize. She made all women 
feel that she had found the secret of keeping charm, interest and vitality to the 
end of a long life in the abandonment of her whole being to the accomplish* 
ment of a great and unselfish purpose. 




T was at first the wish of the family that the funeral 
services should be held in the Unitarian Church, 
which Miss Anthony had attended for over 
fifty years, but it was strongly urged upon them 
that in justice to the public, to whom in a great 
measure Miss Anthony belonged, a larger one should be selected. 
The Brick Church (Baptist), the Jewish Temple and the Central 
Presbyterian were offered; the last was chosen because of its 
special adaptability. The desire of the people to look upon her 
face once more was so manifest that it was arranged to have her 
lie in state from ten o'clock till half-past one on the day of the 

During Tuesday and Wednesday Miss Anthony lay in an 
upper chamber of her home, and here just those who had been 
the very nearest and dearest to her in life came often to gaze 
on their beloved and commune with the spirit that seemed still 
to linger in this sacred place. Wednesday evening they brought 
her down into the front parlor and laid her in the casket of 
Quaker gray on its downy bed of white silk and chiffon. She was 
robed as in life in her soft, black satin dress with its usual gar- 
'niture of delicate lace, and on her breast was the Wyoming pin, 
the little enamelled flag with its four diamond stars typifying 
the four free States. The silver hair crowned the classic head 
with a shining halo, the noble face seemed chiselled in purest 
marble and she was grandly beautiful in death. At the head of 
the casket, on the old, round mahogany table on which the Wom- 



an's Declaration of Rights had been written in 1848, were the 
handsome floral pieces sent by National Associations, while both 
parlors were filled with cut flowers and blooming plants from so- 
cieties and individuals in many cities. All of the arrangements at 
the house were under the careful supervision of Mrs. Mary T. 
Lewis Gannett. 

The relatives and a few of the most intimate friends were 
gathered here on Thursday morning, and after all had looked 
again and again into the dear face and whispered their farewells, 
the casket was reverently borne from the home to the church 
through the heavily falling snow. It was placed in front of the 
pulpit with a background of palms holding in the center a sheaf 
of wheat wreathed in white roses. On the casket lay a large clus- 
ter of violets and a sflk American flag was draped across the foot. 
A Guard of Honor had been chosen from the young women of 
the Political Equality Club and the Susan B. Anthony League, 
and four at a time, dressed in white and standing at either end of 
the casket, remained on duty while the body lay in state: Char- 
lotte Gannett, Gertrude Blackall, Charlotte Anthony, Helen 
Raynsford, Florence and Marian Mosher, Charlotte Dann, Ida 
Kennon, Florence Howard, Helen Bowlby, Mrs. Florence Fisher, 
Mrs. Florence Alexander. 

Four policemen stood guard at the residence and ten were on 
duty at the church. The Post Express said of this deeply solemn 
occasion : 

Flags at half-mast spoke the city's mourning for Susan B. Anthony ; crowds 
at Central Church and all the avenues leading to it testified to the respect and 
affection of the citizens of Rochester for their greatest woman. The business 
men, many of whom had been converted from ridicule to belief in the doctrines 
that Miss Anthony promulgated, showed their respect by lowering their flags 
and drawing their blinds as the procession went by from the house to the 
church. . . . 

In the quiet church, surrounded by no masses of flowers, no twinkling tapers, 
no uniformed guards, lay the body of a once humble-minded woman, before 
whose simplicity and steadfastness the etiquette of the strictest court in Europe 
had been laid aside and whom the mistress of that court had been pleased to 
call friend. 

But it was not Susan B. Anthony, the leader of movements and the president 
of councils, that drew so many people to Central Church today to look upon 


her immobile face and say their brief prayer as they passed through the aisle. 
It was rather "Aunt Susan," the sharer of many joys and griefs, the fighter of 
small battles for close friends, the white haired guest for whom homes were 
always open, the courteous, sweet-souled mistress of the little castle in Madison 
Street that she called home. 

Women from the outer world brought the note of homage to a leader. Roch- 
ester made no secret of its personal grief. There must have been people of 
every creed, political party, nationality and plane of life in those lines that kept 
filing through the aisles of Central Qiurch. The youth and the age of the land 
were represented. Every type was there to bow in reverence, respect and grief. 
Professional men, working men, financiers came to offer homage. Women 
brought little children to see the face of her who had aimed at being the emanci- 
pator of her sex, but whose work had ended just as victory seemed within reach. 
Priests, ministers of the Protestant faiths, rabbis of the Jewish congrega- 
tions, came to look upon her who had more than once given them inspiration 
in dark moments. Never failing in faith, believing in the doctrine that to labor 
is to pray. Miss Anthony had a wonderfully invigorating effect on her friends. 
This morning many spoke of this in sorrow that it was no longer theirs to 

f A noticeable feature was the many negroes who passed the bier. Their emo- 
'tion was indicated in the typical forms of their race. One old, white-haired 
/ man, limped down the aisle, stood for a moment at the casket and plucking a 
i leaf from a wreath said, "FU keep this to 'member Miss Anthony by." . . . 

In a beautiful description Mrs. Isabel C. Barrows said: "It 
was an impressive picture, the g^eat church, the casket draped 
in the American flag, with well-won palms and garlands, the 
white-robed girls, with downcast eyes, like angelic forms keep- 
ing vigil beside it, and the ceaseless procession that filed past the 
silent sleeper." 

It was estimated that nearly 10,000 people passed by the bier, 
' and when it was necessary to close the doors and prepare for 
the services hundreds were still in the line outside, while other 
hundreds were waiting at the four entrances to the church to 
take the places assigned. Special sections were reserved for the 
Board of Education, the heads of the city departments, Women's 
Educational and Industrial Union, Political Equality Club, Local 
Council of Women, W. C. T. U., the various associations of Col- 
lege Women, the Women's Medical Society, official representa- 
tives of the schools and other bodies, and delegates from suffrage 
societies over all the State. The National Woman's Christian 

Temperance Union was represented by its vice-president, Miss 
Ant. Ill— 21 


Anna Gordon ; the National Suffrage Association by its treasurer, 
Mrs. Harriet Taylor Upton; the New York State Suffrage As- 
sociation by its president, Mrs. Ella Hawley Crossett. 

The nine trustees of the church acted as ushers. Two nephews, 
D. R. Anthony, of Leavenworth, and Wendell P. Mosher, of 
Minneapolis, and four trustees of the Unitarian church, the Hon. 
George Herbert Smith, Eugene T. Curtis, Dr. H. W. Hoyt and 
J. Vincent Alexander, served as active pall-bearers, while the 
honorary pall-bearers were selected from the University of Roch- 
ester: Misses Ina M. Coe, president Students' Association for 
Women ; Ethel J. Kates, president Senior Class ; Evelyn O'Con- 
nor, president Alumnae Association ; Beulah E. Fuller, president 
Junior Class; Bertha G. Adams, president Freshman Class; 
Laura Lawless and Enid Morris, representing the College Young 
Women's Christian Association and the Women Students' Ath- 
letic Association. 

The entrance of the honorary bearers in their black gowns and 
mortar boards announced the coming of the family and imme- 
diate friends. They brought with them the flowers from the 
house, and the space around the casket was soon banked with 
roses, carnations, hyacinths, violets, lilies of the valley and 
mignonette, filling the church with fragrance. It was quickly 
crowded to its entire seating capacity of 2,500 and many hun- 
dreds were turned away sorrowful. On the rostrum were the 
Rev. C. C. Albertson, pastor of the church; the Rev. William 
Channing Gannett, minister of the Unitarian Church ; the Hon. 
James G. Cutler, mayor of the city; Dr. Rush Rhees, president 
of the University of Rochester; Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, 
president of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance; the 
Rev. Anna Howard Shaw, president of the National American 
Woman Suffrage Association ; Mr. William Lloyd Garrison, Mrs. 
R. Jerome Jeffrey, the Rev. William S. Carter, assistant pastor 
of the church. 

The music finely rendered by the organist, Elbert Newton, 
was of a hopeful and inspiring character — ^a grand selection from 
Lohengrin, the prelude from Parsifal, and, as the family en- 
tered, Mendelssohn's "Consolation." The church quartette pre- 


ceded the service with two hymns, Chadwick's "It Singeth Low 
In Every Heart," and Whittier's "All as God Wills, Who Wisely 
Heeds ;'' after the prayer Miss May Marsh sang with deep feel- 
ing, Tennyson's "Crossing the Bar" ; at the conclusion the con- 
gregation united in singing, Gaskell's, "Calmly, Calmly, Lay Her 
Down." The Ninetieth and Seventy-first Psalms and other se- 
lections from the Scriptures were read by Dr. Albertson. It 
was said of the prayer of Mr. Gannett : "It seemed more in the 
nature of a song of thanksgiving than a prayer. Almost a smile 
of exaltation was on the face of the pastor — of whose congrega- 
tion the great suffragist was so long a member — ^as he expressed 
exultant gratitude for the life that had been lived." 

It is like the close of a day in which the winds have been high, and there 
have been storm and stress, and the air has been cleared by the storm and 
stress ; and now the day is done, the shadows are lengthening and we sit in the 
first moment of the afterglow, and the skies are still bright with the sun that 
has set. Let us lift our prayer of trust and of thanksgiving for the glory of 
the day. 

^Father, what have we to think when we stand in the presence of death? 
What to say? That thou art never so much the good God to us as just at 
these moments when the voice to which there is no echo comes into the home 
and says, "It is I, be still, fear not, for I am God." And then something passes, 
the quiet settles on the face, and the eyes that greeted us with love are closed, 
and the hands whose touch has grown familiar no longer respond— and we call 
it Death. But underneath our sadness we feel the tides of gladness, and un- 
derneath the wonder and the mystery of it we feel the glory of the assurance 
that death is but the shadow that the great light causes. So our hearts begin 
to sing and rise to strains triumphant ; and we feel never so within thy heart, 
O God of light and love, as when our faces whiten and our eyes are filled and 
our hands are empty. 

We come in this sad, glad mood today and listen to what death teaches us of 
the deathlessness of life, to catch the supreme message that thou dost send to 
mortal heart. 

Father, we thank thee. Sad — of course ; our hearts are aching, but we come 
in gladness of heart. Thanksgiving fills our hearts and lips. What do we 
thank thee for? For herself, her woman's self; the gentle greatness of her 
spirit; the woman's self who loved the home; who loved it well enough to 
pledge herself to make the homes of earth more beautiful, wherever word of 
hers could go. We thank thee for herself — for the way in which thou didst 
choose and commission her to do high service, and for the way in which she 
took her part and said unto herself: "I go in the strength of right, to make 
the right triumphant on the earth; I go in the name of the undone right to 


make it real ; I go in the name of the forgotten justice to make it remembered 
in high places and in low ; I go in the name of the silent and the silenced ones 
to give them voice." 

We thank thee for the heart of duty in her. We thank thee for the dauntless 
will in her. We thank thee for the way in which she heard the contumely of 
the world and listened not, but listened to the voices that called her on and on 
through all. 

We thank thee for the perfect and persistent consecration of her life to that 
high will revealed to her. We thank thee for her utter selflessness, by which 
all that was in her of strength of body, strength of soul, of mind and heart, 
was made a perfect one with the cause that she felt was laid upon her to fulfil 
on earth. 

We thank thee for the way in which, taught by thee, her heart learned the 
old secret that throbbed in Jesus' heart, that those who lose their life for right 
and God shall find it. 

And Father, still our prayer 01 thanksgiving goes on. We thank thee for her 
service. We thank thee for the world made whiter, justice made more just, 
since she has lived and spoken upon the earth, tired yet tireless in her efforts. 
We thank thee for the beauty of new womanhood that has dawned above us 
and around us. We thank thee for that dream she dreamed of men and women 
in a true togetherness, a perfect equalness, each with the other's hand, each 
with the other's mind, each with the other's heart, each with the other's con- 
science, and so walking, true, two and two, through the light and through the 
night, through suffering, sorrow, joy, through failure, through success, helping 
to make the world more beautiful, together. 

And Father, we thank thee that there is something left for us to do. We 
thank thee that her dream did not come real, as she so longed to have it ; that 
she dreamed a larger dream than one life could fulfil ; that it was hers to say 
at last: 

"Others shall sing the song. 
Others shall right the wrong. 
Finish what I begin. 
And all I failed of win." 

We know that her heart ached while she listened to thy word, "I have caused 
thy eyes to look upon the land, but thou shalt not enter into it." So we take it 
as her bequest to us to do the unfinished work, that her dream may be realized 
— to establish the new justice and equality of right. 

God, speed her on into a more perfect consecration and selflessness — ^if it be 
possible — ^where angels walk I God, bless her ! All our hearts are blessing her. 
We fear nothing for her. We fear nothing in her presence, as she lies here 
silent. We hear her word, "Failure is impossible" for right, for good ; for God 
is God, and they who serve his will are doomed to success. God, bless her; 
comfort those who miss her ; inspire those who knew and loved her to do thy 
will I Amen. 

The first address was made by William Lloyd Garrison : 


The world has long discerned and duly acknowledged the noble character 
and service of Susan B. Anthony. On each recurring birthday of her ripened 
years, she has received the respectful homage of men and the passionate 
tribute of grateful women. Devoid of vanity and oblivious of self, her constant 
thought was of the great movement to which her life was given. 

The change in woman's outlook and opportunity since her early days was 
full of cheer, but the self-evident justice of her cause made the delay in grant- 
ing it a source of wonder and constant disappointment. No rest could come to 
that active mind and tireless body while a legal shackle rested upon her sisters. 
Star after star broke out in the darkened firmament to which her eyes unceas- 
ingly turned. Four States of the Union lifted from women all political dis- 
abilities; Great Britain and Scandinavia yielded a modified suffrage; and in 
New Zealand and Australia the battle was fully won. Yet how our friend 
longed for the complete triumph in her own land I She was willing to bear the 
ills of age if only the jubilee could be sounded while her living ears could 
receive the glad tidings. 

Remembering Miss Anthonsr's indifference to personal eulogy, which she in- 
variably turned to the credit of the cause, I shall not try to repeat in varying 
words the tribute of love and appreciation so often paid. Let me rather recur 
to half-a-century ago, when the fresh and earnest Quaker school mistress en- 
tered upon her consecration to the cause of the imbruted slaves and to the up- 
lifting of oppressed womanhood. Out of the first movement the second grew, 
and what more natural than the impulse which led the new disciple to seek 
acquaintance with the Abolition leaders ! 

In my father's crowded household she came a welcome gfuest, a helper and 
not a hindrance. Unassuming, earnest, sympathetic, attractive to children, she 
won easily and completely my mother's heart It was a time of stress for the 
tired housekeeper, who, with scanty means, must furnish hospitality to all 
coming in the name of human liberty. Some were indeed burdens but more 
were sources of delight, and, like "Susan", which she became at once, even to 
infant tongues, melted into the family like those of kin. Indeed the ties of 
unpopular reformers are often closer than those of blood. 

At that time the struggle for woman's rights was already launched. The 
London Anti-Slavery World's Convention, in 1840, to which the American 
women delegates were refused admission on account of sex, with Lucretia 
Mott and Mary Grew among the rejected, marks the inception of the organ- 
ized woman's movement which later developed. 

The heroic Grimke sisters of South Carolina and Abby Kelly were the first 
to tread the bitterly hostile path of public speaking, forced to assert their 
rights as women to plead for black men in chains. Lucy Stone, in her charm- 
ing youth, fresh from Oberlin, a curiosity as the product of a college, had fol- 
lowed closely these elder pioneers. But ridicule and coarse invective, verging 
on the brutal, were still to be encountered, and Miss Anthony faced them with 
undaunted courage. Personal dangers were little feared, but to tender and 
sensitive women the constant wounding of the spirit to which they were sub- 
jected, both from men and from unthinking and conventional women, was 
indeed a trial. 

In retrospect, however, these indignities counted as naught, a thousand times 


offset by the precious association into which such self-effacement for an ideal 
brought kindred souls. What were the sneers of subsidized editors, or the 
social slights of fashionable women, or even misunderstood motive, compared 
with the friendship of Parker, Garrison, Whittier, Phillips, Curtis, Pillsbury, 
Foster, Gerrit Smith, Frederick Douglass, and their compeers, occupying the 
stage where the real history of the times was making? Although a period of 
national darkness, it was to actors in the momentous drama one of exaltation 
and joy. Faith in the supreme laws, fidelity to conviction, the larger life that 
blesses those who follow truth, brought a peace of mind past comprehension 
and dwarfed the everyday annoyances that shut out the sunlight. The period- 
ical conventions were full of excitement, interest and refreshment Harmoni- 
ous in purpose but with lively differences of opinion, they were fruitful in 
animated discussions. To reformers' children of those days, no modem enter- 
tainment can compare to these. 

The felicitous conjunction of Miss Anthony and Mrs. Stanton will long re- 
main a type of faithful friendship. Each brought separate offerings to the 
cause, the lack of one supplied by the abundance of the other. Both will be 
linked in the history of the struggle. One can imagine Mrs. Stanton the mag- 
net of a salon, a Madame de Stael, whose quick wit and gracious presence 
charmed and attracted; but there was no better place to view Miss Anthony 
than on the platform. There, with ease not exceeded by Mrs. Stanton in the 
social circle, she made the audience her guests and friends. She attempted no 
set speeches, pretended to no felicity of diction, caring nothing for periods 
but everything for clarity and directness, reaching her point, "straight as a 
line of light". Simple, practical and ingenuous, her unpremeditated remarks 
carried that quality of nature that makes the whole world kin. To hear her 
for only five minutes was to dissipate for all time the prejudices of an oppo- 
nent. Whatever might be the disagreement with her sentiments, the onlooker 
could never afterwards doubt the sincerity and lovable character of this re- 
markable woman, who inspired such enthusiasm and loyalty among her co- 
workers. It was impossible for her to escape being "Aunt Susan" to all the 
younger members of the faith. 

Dissensions are inevitable in all human organizations, those of reform in- 
cluded. The contrary points of view regarding methods, and the personal 
equations which always enter, cause lines of cleavage and make grievances that 
rankle. The wounds of the enemy are marks of honor, but those of fellow 
reformers pierce to the marrow. No one experienced these tribulations more 
than did this positive and self-reliant leader. Within or without the society 
she maintained a firm front against all antagonists, assured of the rectitude of 
her motives and the soundness of her judgment It was no pride of opinion, 
for she was ever amenable to reason. The interest of her cause was her first 
and final consideration. These breaches lessened, if they were not altogether 
healed, as the victory neared. Estranged comrades again united. It will be 
with the woman suffrage as it was with the anti-slavery movement when the 
goal is reached — the internal friction will be lost sight of in the grand result, 
"As morning drinks the morning star." 

The familiar figure, that to some of us has seemed perennial as the seasons, 
will be missed sorely when the anniversaries accentuate her absence. What 


has become of that indomitable spirit, the wisest know not. No realm can be 
wherein this gentle yet rugged reformer would not find something to improve. 
No primrose path of dalliance could bring happiness to her being. But we are 
grateful that in our time and sphere she spent her mortal Hfe. "What would 
not a man give," said Socrates, "if he might converse with Orpheus and 
Musaeus and Hesiod and Homer? Nay, if this be true, let me die again and 
again. I, too, shall have a wonderful interest in a place where I can converse 
with Palamedes and Ajax, the son of Telamon, and other heroes of old V* And 
if the possibilities suggested by the ancient philosopher exist, what infinite 
delight awaits our friend, who carries with her the blessings of the down- 
trodden and the gratitude of her generation ! 

Mrs. R. Jerome Jeffrey, a woman of education and influence, 
who had lived in Rochester many years and been often at the 
Anthony home, spoke as follows : 

We, the colored people of Rochester, join the world in mourning the loss of 
our true friend, Susan B. Anthony. Years ago, when it meant a great deal to 
be a friend to our poor, down-trodden race, Susan B. Anthony stood side by 
side with William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips, Lucy Stone, Abby Kelly 
Foster, Frederick Douglass and others, fighting our battles and espousing the 
cause of an enslaved people. 

Well do we remember the 12th of December last, at the centennial of the 
birth of WiUiam Lloyd Garrison, in the Zion Church, when she stood in the 
pulpit and told of the struggles of Garrison and the trials of the noble women 
and men engaged in the anti-slavery movement Then she spoke of her life 
work, the suffrage movement. She bade us look forward to better and brighter 
days that would surely come to us as a race, and as we looked up into her 
sweet face and listened to her words, they seemed like a benediction. 

Little did we think it would be her last address to us as a race. With you, 
her dear sister Mary, we sympathize in your great loss. The colored churches 
in this city, the National and State Federations of Colored Women, the fed- 
erated clubs of the association, the little Girls of Busy Bee, who at their last 
meeting stated that they would send with their offering of flowers money for 
Oregon, all extend to you their tender sympathy ; your loss is our great loss. 

The members of the Susan B. Anthony Club of this city bow their heads in 
sorrow for their great leader. She was our friend for many years— our cham- 
pion. Sleep on, dear heart, in peace, for we who have looked into thy face, we 
who have heard thy voice, we who have known something of thy great life 
work — we pledge ourselves to devote our time and energies to the work thou 
has left us to do. 

Mrs. Chapman Catt said in her eulogium : 

Every century has produced a few men and womc 
world has adjudged worthy of perpetuation. The dear friend who has gone 

t/ Every century has produced a few men and women whose memories the 


from us was one of our century's immortals. Both friends and foes of the 
causes she espoused are agreed that this honor is hers. Her eighty-six years 
measure a movement whose results have been more far-reaching in the change 
of conditions, social, civil and political, than those of any war of revolution 
since history began. 

When this woman opened her eyes upon the light of our world there was 
scarce a civilized nation whose standards were not tainted by the protection of 
human slavery somewhere within its domain. Not a woman was there in any 
land, or among any people, who did not live under the shadow and the oppres- 
sion of laws and customs which should have been found alone in barbarism. 
When Miss Anthony laid down her self-appointed task of uplifting the world 
to a more just order of things, these iniquities had passed away as the result 
of that mighty movement There is today an infinitely broader field of oppor- 
tunity, of happiness and of usefulness for women than when she came. There 
is an immeasurably sounder, healthier and more rational relationship between 
the sexes than when she began her work. There is a higher womanhood, a 
nobler manhood and a better humanity. This woman for a large part of half- 
a-century was the chief inspiration, counselor and guide of that movement. 
Few workers have been privileged to see such large results from their labors. 

There were great women associated with her from time to time, women of 
wonderful intellect, of superb power, of grand character, and yet she was 
clearly the greatest of them all, the greatest woman of our century, and per- 
haps the greatest of all times. Although she possessed intellectual attributes 
in full measure and was an acknowledged power upon the platform, there were 
other women equally well endowed. Her greatness lay in the rare qualities of 
her character, which have not been duplicated in any other leader. 

Well do I remember my first intimate work with Miss Anthony sixteen years 
ago in a campaign in South Dakota. She was then seventy years of age. 
Should we hear of man or woman of those years today going into a new and 
sparsely settled country to conduct a campaign, we should marvel at it. Yet so 
full of energy and determination was she that no one thought of her age. She 
remained there for months, living under hardships and privations of which she 
never complained. Toward the close of that campaign, women began to whis- 
per to each other and to say: "Oh, if we lose this amendment it will kill Miss 
Anthony. She has so set her heart upon it that at her time of life the shock 
of defeat will surely prove fatal." So we all redoubled our efforts, working no 
longer for the cause alone but for her sake as well. The day after the vote 
was taken, we gathered in the headquarters at Huron to hear the returns. As 
the reports piled up the adverse results. Miss Anthony passed from one to an- 
other, giving a cheerful word everywhere, smiling always, and bringing back 
the fleeting courage of all with her strong, "Never mind, never mind, there 
will be another time. Cheer up, the world will not always view our question 
as it does now ! By and by there will be victory." This incident is indicative 
of her true greatness. 

It was that hope which hoped on when others saw nothing to hope for ; that 
splendid optimism which never knew despair; that faith which never forgot 
the eternal righteousness of her cause; that courage which never recognized 
disappointment, that tenacity of purpose which never permitted her to deflect 


in the slightest from the main object of her life, which combined to make her 
gp'eater than others. This is the combination of qualities which has produced 
martyrs. It is the character of a Savonarola or a Bruno. She never knew de- 
feat. When that happened which others called defeat, she was wont to think 
of it merely as the establishment of a mile post to indicate the progress which 
had been made, and she never doubted that victory was just ahead. 

We had hoped that this wonderful woman might remain with us for many 
years to come. We believed our hopes were warranted by the youth which 
she preserved in spite of her advancing years, and by the activity and ardor 
which never forsook her. We had hoped that she might see the full fruition 
of her desires. All over the world there had been prayer without ceasing that 
she might remain until her dearest hope should become an established fact. 
But I believe I speak for all enlightened womanhood when I say that we al- 
most forget the grief and disappointment in the prayer of thanksgiving that 
this great soul has been permitted to live even thus long and to give its splen- 
did service to the world. We realize that her life has given to many nations a 
higher perception of life and duty and that it has lifted society to a higher 
plane, and we are grateful. We are rejoiced that she was permitted to make 
her life a continual and triumphal march of well-doing until the very end. 

She seemed to have been especially called to do a work which none but her 
could do. That work was not completed; but where in the beginning there 
was but a tiny force of workers, now there is a vast army to carry it on. This 
army has its leader, a superb and fearless leader, and I feel sure that I speak 
for every man and woman in this army when I say that we, one and all, at the 
grave of her whom we have loved, pledge anew our loyalty to that leader 
and fresh devotion to our common cause. Perhaps, then^ the world did not 
need her any more. Perhaps she could now be spared to go to her well-de- 
served rest. 

But we mourn her today, and every heart aches that we must let her go. We 
admire, we revere and we honor her because she was great, but we mourn her 
because we loved her. Who can tell why we love? There was something in 
her one may not describe which won our hearts as well as our devotion. Per- 
haps it was her simplicity, her forgetfulness of self, her thoughtfulness of 
others, which made us love her. We have not lost a leader alone, but a dear, 
dear friend, whose place can never be filled. We shall never see her like again. 

Had the poet wished to put into verse that which was the motto of her life, 
the spirit which always actuated her, he could not have worded it better than 
when he wrote : 

"To the wrong that needs resistance. 
To the right that needs assistance. 
To the future in the distance 
Give yourself." 

We can pay her no higher tribute and build her no grander monument than 
to write those words in our hearts and make them the guide for the remainder 
of our lives, as we go on with the work she laid down. 

The final tribute was offered by Miss Shaw, of whom an ac- 


count said: "She had sat through the service with white face 
and tremulous lips, showing more plainly than others how greatly 
she was bereaved. It was with difficulty that she controlled her- 
self at the beginning of her address, but she gained self-posses- 
sion as she proceeded. It was deeply eloquent, given with feeling 
so intense that one fancied the words were watered with tears. 
When she spoke of Miss Anthony's last utterances her voice 
broke; and when she had finished she retired to her seat as if 
wholly exhausted, bowing her head and pressing a trembling hand 
to if' 

Your flags at half-mast tell of a nation's loss, but there are no symbols and 
no words which can tell the love and sorrow that fill our hearts. And yet, out 
of the depths of our grief arise feelings of truest gratitude for the beauty, the 
tenderness, the nobility of example, of our peerless Leader's life. There is no 
death for such as she. There are no last words of love. The ages to come will 
revere her name. Unnumbered generations of the children of men shall rise 
up and call her blessed. Her words, her work and her character will go on to 
brighten the pathway and bless the lives of all people. That which seems 
death to our unseeing eyes is to her translation. Her work will not be fin- 
ished, nor will her last word be spoken, while there remains a wrong to be 
righted or a fettered life to be freed in all the earth. You do well to strew 
her bier with palms of victory and to crown her with unfading laurel, for 
never did more victorious hero enter into rest. 

Her character was well poised. She did not emphasize one characteristic to 
the exclusion of others. She taught us that the real beauty of a true life is 
found in the harmonious blending of diverse elements, and her own life was 
the epitome of her teaching. She merged a keen sense of justice with the 
deepest love. Her masterful intellect never for one moment checked the ten- 
derness of her emotions. Her splendid self-assertion found its highest realiza- 
tion in perfect self -surrender. She demonstrated the divine principle that the 
truest self-development must go hand in hand with the greatest and most 
arduous service for others. 

Hers was the most harmoniously developed character I have ever known ; a 
living soul whose individuality was blended into oneness with all humanity. 
She lived and all humanity lived in her. Fighting the battle for individual 
freedom, she was so lost to the consciousness of her own personality that she 
was unconscious of her existence apart from all mankind. 

Her quenchless passion for her cause was that it was yours and mine, 
the cause of the whole world. She knew that where freedom is, there is the 
center of power. In it she saw potentially all that humanity might attain when 
possessed by its spirit. Hence her cause — ^perfect equality of rights, of oppor- 
tunity, of privilege for all, civil and political — ^was to her the bed-rock upon 
which all true progress must rest. Therefore she was nothing, her cause was 
everything. She knew no existence apart from it In it she lived and moved 


and had her being. It was the first and last thought of each day. It was the 
last word upon her faltering lips. To it her flitting soul responded when the 
silenced voice could no longer obey the will, and she could only answer our 
heart-broken questions with the clasp of her trembling hand. 

She was in the truest sense a reformer, unhindered in her service by the 
narrowness and negative destructiveness which often so sadly hamper the 
work of true reform. Possessed by an unfaltering conviction of the primary 
importance of her own cause, she nevertheless recognized that every effort by 
either one or many earnest souls toward what they believed to be a better or 
saner life, should be met in a spirit of encouragement and helpfulness. She 
recognized that it was immeasurably more desirable to be honestly and ear- 
nestly seeking that which in its attainment might not prove best, than to be 
hypocritically subservient to the truth through a spirit of selfish fear or fawn- 
ing at the beck of power. She instinctively grasped the truth underlying all 
the great movements which have helped the progress of the ages, and did not 
wait for an individual or a cause to win popularity before freely extending to 
its struggling life a hand of helpful comradeship. She was never found in the 
cheering crowd that follows an already victorious standard. She left that to 
the time-servers who divide the spoil after they have crucified their Savior. 
She was truly great — great in her humility and utter lack of pretension. 

On her eightieth birthday this noble soul could truthfully say, in response to 
the words of loving appreciation from those who showered garlands all about 
her, "I am not accustomed to demonstrations of gratitude or of praise. I have 
been a hewer of wood and a drawer of water for this movement Whatever I 
have done has been done because I wanted to see better conditions, better sur- 
roundings, better opportunities for women." 

Speaking of Miss Anthony, Lady Henry Somerset said : "She has the true 
sign of greatness in that she is absolutely without pretension. No woman of 
fame has ever so thoroughly made this impression of modesty and unselfish- 
ness upon my mind." This was the impression she made upon all who knew 
her, and, leaving her presence, one would say, "How humble she is !" Viewing 
her life achievements, one would exclaim, "How transcendently great she is !" 
No wonder she has won a name and a fame world-wide, and that she has 
turned the entire current of human conviction. One indeed wrote truly who 
said of her : "She has lived a thousand years if achievement can measure the 
length of life." 

She whose name we honor, whose friendship we reverence, whose love we 
prize as a deathless treasure, would say, "This is not an hour for grief or de- 
spair. If my life has achieved anything, if I have lived to any purpose, carry 
on the work I have to lay down." In our last conversation when her prophetic 
soul saw what we dared not even think, she said : "I leave my work to you and 
to others who have been so faithful. Promise that you will never let it go 
down or lessen our demands. There is so much to be done. Think of it ! I 
have struggled for sixty years for a little bit of justice and die without se- 
curing it." 

Oh, the unutterable cruelty of it ! The time will come when at these words 
every American heart will feel the unspeakable shame and wrong of such a 
martyrdom ! 


She did not gain the little bit of freedom for herself, but there is scarcely a 
civilized land« not even our own« in which she has not been instrumental in 
securing for some women that which she herself did not attain. She did not 
reach the goal, but all along the weary years what marvellous achievements, 
what countless victories! The whole progress has been a triumphal march, 
marked indeed by sorrow and hardship but never by despair. The heart some- 
times yearned for sympathy and the way was long, and oh, so lonely, but every 
step showed some evidence of progress, some wrong righted, some right estab- 
lished. We have followed her leadership until we stand upon the mount of 
vision where she today leaves us. The promised land lies just before us. It is 
for us to go forward and take possession. Without faltering, without a deser- 
tion from our ranks, without delaying even to mourn the loss of our departed 
Leader, the faithful host is marching on. Already the call to advance is heard 
along the line, and one devoted young follower writes : "There are hundreds 
of us now who will try to keep up the work she so nobly began and brought so 
nearly to completion. We will work the harder to try to compensate the world 
for her loss." Another writes : "I believe, as you go forth to your labors, you 
will find less opposition and far more encouragement than heretofore. The 
world is profoundly stirred by the loss of our great General, and in conse- 
quence the lukewarm are becoming zealous, the prejudiced are disarming and 
the suffragists are renewing their vows of fidelity to the cause for which Miss 
Anthony lived and died. Her talismanic words, the last she ever uttered be- 
fore a public audience, 'Failure is impossible,' shall be inscribed on our banner 
and engraved on our hearts." 

She has not only blessed us in the legacy of her work and example but she 
has left us the dearest legacy of her love. The world knew Miss Anthony as 
the courageous, earnest, unfaltering champion of a great principle and the 
friend of all reforms. Those of us who knew her best knew that she was all 
this and more ; that she was one of the most home-making and home-loving of 
women. To her home her heart always turned with tenderest longing, and for 
the one who made home possible she felt the most devoted love and gratitude. 
She inscribed upon the first volume of her Life History, "To my youngest 
sister, Mary, without whose faithful and constant home-making there could 
have been no freedom for the out-going of her grateful and affectionate sister." 

To this home-making sister the affection of every loyal heart will turn, and 
we, her co-workers, will love and honor her, not alone for this devotion to her 
sister, but for her loyal comradeship and faithful service in our great cause. 
She is our legacy of love, and it will be the joy of every younger woman to 
bestow upon her the homage of affection. 

On the heights alone such souls meet God. In silent communion they learn 
life's sublimest lessons. They are the world's real heroes. Hers was a heroic 
life. By it she has taught us that the philosophy of the ancients is wrong; 
that it is not true that men are made heroic by indifference to life and death, 
but by learning to love something more than life. Her heroism was the hero- 
ism of an all-absorbing love, a love which neither indifference nor persecution 
nor misrepresentation nor betrayal nor hatred nor flattery could quench; a 
heroism which would suffer her to see and know nothing but the power of in- 
justice and hatred to destroy, the power of justice and love to develop, all that 


is best and noblest in human character. To the causes which such souls 
espouse, "Failure is impossible." Truly did President Thomas say in her ad- 
dress at our last National Convention, *'0f such as you were the lines of the 
poet Yeats written : 

'They shall be remembered forever, 
They shall be alive forever, 
They shall be speaking forever. 
The people shall hear them forever.' " 

Miss Shaw pronounced the benediction and then Dr. Albertson 
said : "While we have been sitting here sheltered from the storm, 
some hundreds, if not thousands of men, women and children 
have been standing in the snow, waiting to look upon her face 
once more before we put this precious dust away. It will be a 
gracious thing if the congregation will remain seated till the 
people outside have had this opportunity." 

The calmness and self-control of Miss Mary Anthony had been 
marvelous, but this last, long ordeal was almost more than she 
could endure. An account said: "The sister on whom this 
crushing blow had fallen with greatest force, appeared worn 
almost to the point of collapse by the stress of body and mind. 
Throughout the service, however, she maintained a remarkable 
command of herself. It was only at its close, after hundreds of 
persons had come forward to see the dead, that her grief seemed 
about to break through her self-control. She pressed her hand- 
kerchief hard to her lips, and, though her face was gray and 
drawn with anguish, she tried to keep back the sounds of grief 
that struggled for utterance. She bore up bravely until a poor, 
old colored woman came in, hobbling on a crutch and assisted 
by one of the ushers ; she had been standing outside in the storm 
so long that she was completely covered with snow, and as she 
gazed on Miss Anthony's face she sobbed aloud. Miss Mary 
could endure no longer ; the tears streamed down her cheeks and 
it seemed as if her heart would break." 

Mrs. Barrows said in her description : 

Every seat in the church was filled, but no one stirred. Tramp, tramp, 
tramp, came an army in single file, marching with quick but decorous step up 
one aisle, past the casket and down the other aisle. People who had sat calmly 
through the whole service broke down and sobbed as this living stream went 


by. It was a biting storm with a searching wind, and as the people came in, 
old and young and little children, the snow covering their shoulders, clinging 
to their hats, blown through their hair, it was evident enough that no mere 
curiosity had held them in that fierce storm for an hour-and-a-half waiting for 
this privilege. They were the plain people, the people whom Abraham Lincoln 
and Susan Anthony loved, and who returned that love without making many 
words about it Once in a while a seal-skin sack went by, which an umbrella 
had protected, but most of the passers had not even had an umbrella, as their 
clothing showed. Black and white followed one another, for Rochester has 
many colored people who appreciate what a friend Miss Anthony has been to 
their race. The old and the decrepit were in line with the bright-faced school 
girls, who will always remember the day and sometime learn how truly Miss 
Anthony lived for them. For three-quarters of an hour the people passed 
without haste and without cessation while the organ played softly selections 
of beautiful music Then the good grey head and the placid features were 
shut away from mortal gaze forever. . . . 

The public were not expected to go to the cemetery — ^they 
could not have done so in that heavy snow storm — but the few 
carriages of the relatives and close friends went slowly on the 
long journey through the city streets, along the country road and 
at last up the broad drive which led to the beautiful elevation on 
Mt. Hope where the fir trees stood tall and stately in their robes 
of snow. Often in recent years Miss Anthony had said, "Anna, 
I want you to speak the last word," and as the casket slowly sank 
into its final resting place. Miss Shaw, in tender and reverent 
voice, pronounced the solemn words: "Dear friend, thou hast 
tarried with us long; thou hast now gone to thy well-earned rest 
We beseech the Infinite Spirit who has upheld thee to make us 
worthy to follow in thy steps and carry on thy work. Hail and 

And then they turned away in the gathering darkness and left 
her there with her father and mother and sister whom she loved 
and longed for ; at rest after four-score years of ceaseless work ; 
at peace after a lifetime of noble strife; gone from a world which 
was infinitely better because she had lived and wrought. 

A little while afterwards Mrs. Harriet Taylor Upton wrote: 
"Somehow there was a holiness about it all and we felt that Miss 
Anthony had but gone on a journey. There was nothing uncanny 


about the house when we returned, and as we gathered for the 
evening meal we felt how happy she was if she could see how 
closely we clung to the sister left alone, and how determined 
we were to win our cause. Each one rejoiced that her path had 
led that way; each one consecrated herself anew. Oh, this blessed 
mother of us all, how glad are we that we were permitted to 
lighten her burden a little, to inspire her with trust, to help her 
lay down her work peacefully ! The thought of those nearest her 
seems to be the thought of all her followers, for upon returning 
to the headquarters we find letters from all parts of the country, 
expressing sorrow, profound sorrow, but filled, too, with this 
spirit of determination never to give up the fight. And this spirit 
will grow and grow as the echoes of her last publicly-spoken 
words reach a widening and ever widening circle — "Failure is 

Just before Miss Shaw started on the journey to Oregon, a 
week after Miss Anthony had been laid to rest, she sent this mes- 
sage to the officers of the National Association : 

With what words can I express to you the longing I have to see you all to- 
day? If we could only meet together here and go out to our various lines of 
work from this office of our dear Leader — ^the little room from which she has 
sent to us and to the world so many messages of inspiration, love and counsel 
— I think we should carry a benediction with us which would both comfort our 
hearts and inspire our service. As I sit here alone today I seem to be sur- 
rounded by the unexpressed longings which she tried to utter as her spirit was 
about to take its flight . . . She talked of our Official Board and its mem- 
bers, and expressed her hope and belief that each one of us would be faithful 
and never let our association go down or diminish our demands one iota until 
all were granted. 

From this hour it is my purpose to devote every minute of my time to this 
one cause. I shall try to give my service in the same spirit in which she gave 
hers, not by narrowly excluding thought of all other reforms but in any way 
that will be helpful to ours as a primary purpose of life. We have all heard 
her say, over and over again, '*I know nothing but woman and her disfran- 
chised." So I say today, ''Henceforth I shall know nothing but woman and 
her disfranchised." The cause is still with us. Our task is yet to be done, 
with the added responsibility and burden which she has bequeathed to us as 
her legacy. Her work is finished and now we must go on with ours. 




N the day of Miss Anthony's death the Senate of 
New York passed the following resolution, con- 
curred in by the House : 

Whereas, at her residence, in the city of Rochester, at an 
early hour this morning, the career of Miss Susan B. Anthony came to a 
close; and 

Whereas, because of the distinguished character of her services during 
the eighty-six years of her life, she had become one of the most famous and 
remarkable women of her time; and 

Whereas, because of her unceasing labor, undaunted courage and unselfish 
devotion to many philanthropic purposes and to the cause of equal political 
rights for women, her death creates a loss which will be mourned, not alone 
in this country but throughout the world; therefore 

Resolved, That the sympathy of the people of the State be extended to her 
family in their bereavement, and that a copy hereof be transmitted to her 
sister. Miss Mary S. Anthony. 

The resolution was presented by Senator W. W. Armstrong, 
Miss Anthony's townsman and personal friend, a consistent ad- 
vocate of woman suffrage, and in offering it he read an editorial 
from the morning's Democrat and Chronicle, of Rochester, sum- 
ming up her life and work, and said, "It recites some facts we 
may have forgotten." The honor of the Senate was sullied, and 
not for the first time, by Thomas F. Grady, who said he thought 
that body should not put itself on record in relation to Miss An- 
thony's work for woman suffrage. With this one exception the 
resolution was unanimously adopted in both Houses of the Legis- 

On the same day the Rochester Board of Education adopted the 
following memorial : 



In the death of Susan B. Anthony Rochester loses not only its most dis- 
tinguished citizen but also a strong and radiant personality that was one of 
the moral assets of the city. Behind the great movements with which her 
name has been identified was the force of her own character, adding strength 
and dignity to every cause which she espoused. 

Her fellow citizens cannot forget and should not allow their children to 
forget those personal gifts and qualities which have won for her the deep 
love and admiration that find spontaneous expression today. To steadfast 
purpose she added a gallant courage which enabled her to overcome opposi- 
tion that would have crushed a weaker nature. The figure of the ardent 
reformer familiar to the public for many years, her fellow townsmen supple- 
mented by a portrait dearer and more intimate, made up of unselfish kind- 
ness and gracious womanliness. In this hour of her death there is broken 
many a box of ointment very precious whose fragrance fills the city. Young 
students whom she has helped, struggling authors whom she has encouraged, 
girls to whom she has thrown open the doors of a more generous education, 
sorrowful women whose burden she has lightened, and all the multitude of 
those to whom her faith and courage and devotion have brought fresh con- 
fidence and renewed strength will be among the number. 

In testimony of the honor in which her life is regarded and her memory 
cherished be it resolved that a copy of these resolutions be sent to her 
sister. Miss Mary Anthony, and that the Board of Education of the City 
of Rochester attend in a body the funeral services of Susan B. Anthony.* 

The Grand Jury of Monroe County adopted a resolution which 
expressed "deep regret and sorrow at the death of Susan B. An- 
thony" and said : "She represented the highest type of woman- 
hood in her unselfish devotion to the cause of liberty and right and 
equal justice for all, regardless of sex. Her loss to the community 
and to the world at large will be keenly felt. As a mark of respect 
to her, we, as a body, adjourn to view the remains which lie in 
state in the Central Presbyterian Church." 

During the weeks of Miss Anthony's illness there had come 
letters, telegrams, messages and offers of assistance al- 
most without number. After her death they were multiplied 
many-fold, running up into the hundreds. It is not possible 
to make individual mention of each ; space will not permit and 
there is a reluctance to discriminate, but perhaps there will be no 
criticism if enough are referred to simply to give an idea of their 
wide scope and character. They came from the presidents of col- 

^At the hour of the funeral impressive services were held in all the public schools of 
the city. 

Ant. Ill— 22 


leges, from the presidents of almost all kinds of organizations of 
women and from many associations of men. There were cable- 
grams from the Coimtess of Aberdeen, president of the Interna- 
tional Council of Women, and from the National Union of Wom- 
en's Suffrage Societies of Great Britain; telegrams from Mrs. 
May Wright Sewall, honorary president of the International 
Council ; Mrs. Mary Wood Swift and other officers of the Na- 
tional Council of the United States ; Mrs. Isabella Charles Davis, 
secretary King's Daughters and Sons; Mrs. Josephine Silone 
Yates, president National Association of Colored Women; Mrs. 
Lillian M. N. Stevens, president National Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union; Mrs. Elizabeth B. Grannis, president Na- 
tional Christian League for Social Purity; Mrs. Pauline H. Ro- 
senberg, president National Council of Jewish Women ; from the 
Ladies of the Maccabees and from many other national associa- 
tions. Messages came from State societies and clubs in every part 
of the Union and from individuals in cities and towns from ocean 
to ocean. 

The letters were as universal in their representation, but brief 
extracts from a few must suffice. From Mrs. Millicent Garrett 
Fawcett, president National Union of Women's Suffrage Socie- 
ties of Great Britain : 

All our group of suffrage friends here arc deeply moved and deeply 
grieved by the news of the death of our dear friend and leader, Miss Susan 
B. Anthony. I venture to call her our leader because I think suffragists all 
over the world claimed her and looked up to her as their leader, courageous, 
loyal and far-sighted. Certainly all sections of English suffragists had 
learned to love and trust her and she will be almost as deeply mourned on 
our side of the Atlantic as on yours. But indeed I feel that at the close of 
a beautiful, faithful life like hers, lasting in full vigor to ripe old age, the 
predominant note ought not to be mournful but thankful that we have had 
her so long and that she has given us so splendid an example of undaunted, 
unwearied work for the cause which she has promoted so greatly. 

From Madame Chaponniere-Chaix, president National Council 
of Women of Switzerland : 

This is no official letter but a word of deep sympathy in your great loss 
which is ours also and the world's. I was longing for some account of the 
last days on this earth of your blessed sister and then the papers came and 


it was a sad joy to be able to follow day by day as it were the coming oa 
of the solemn event and the entering into rest of the valiant one whose 
example will abide in the hearts of us all. To you, dear Miss Mary, who 
made for her the home, and who stood so lovingly by her side, goes our 
most heartfelt sympathy. 

I shall never forget those two days spent by you and your revered sister 
in my country home in Celigny, in 1904; never forget .that Sunday morning 
under the pines. How grand she was in her absolute simplicity and what a 
privilege it was to have been permitted to know her! My heart is so full 
and I know so little how to express what I feel so deeply, but you will 
understand how it is that having known your beloved sister even so short 
a time I yet feel that I have lost a dear friend and one whom it was so 
helpful to look up to and to reverence. But we will not speak of loss; she 
herself would tell us that she had left us for a little time passing on to 
grander scenes, to fuller life and usefulness, to deeper consciousness and to 
higher work for those whose needs she carried in her large, warm heart. 

Tomorrow at our Geneva Union a small gathering will be held where 
Miss Vidart will give a short account of Miss Anthony's life; later on in a 
larger meeting we shall render homage to her work. 

From Dr. Aletta H. Jacobs, president National Woman Suf- 
frage Association of The Netherlands: "Today the papers 
brought us the very sad news of the loss of the dearest of all 
women, our blessed saint, Miss Anthony. All womanhood will 
shed bitter tears, we loved her so much. But you, dear Miss 
Mary, have lost everything that made life desirable. I do not 
write to try to console you — only a few words of sympathy I 
want to send you. I wept the whole day with you." 

From Baroness Olga von Beschwitz, secretary Council of 
Women of Germany: "The sad news of your revered sister's 
death has filled my heart with deepest sympathy for your great 
loss. Having enjoyed the privilege of taking part for one day 
in your happy home-life, of seeing the love and unity which 
bound your life to that of your sister, I feel your deep sorrow 
with you and ask permission to add a few simple words of 
reverence and love to the tributes of gratitude for the great 
leader's work, which have come to you from all over the world." 

Baroness Alexandra Gripenberg, president Finnish Women's 
Association : "My heart is full of sorrow and sympathy for you. 
I loved your sister so dearly, and I owe to her so much, that I 
cannot yet realize that she has left us. From the first time I 


heard her name she has been a constant inspiration to me. How 
widely known she is you will see by the fact that already, March 
18, our leading Finnish paper has had a column about her death. 
Blessed be her work and memory !" 

From Mrs. Ella M. Dietz-Glynes, president Society of Amer- 
ican Women in London : 

My happiest memory of Miss Anthony is of seeing her preside over the 
first International Council of Women at Washington. During that memora- 
ble week she guided all the meetings with clear head, firm hand and cool 
judgment. In power, foresight and presence of mind she towered above all. 
That week must have been as the fruition of many years of toil to her, and 
her happiness shone in her face through all the long sessions. 

I saw her again after the Berlin Congress here in London and she spoke 
a few kind words referring to the Sorosis breakfast she attended during my 
presidency. I trust that your grief may be comforted by the thought of the 
good to the race wrought by God through her self-sacrificing life. 

From Alfred H. Love, president Universal Peace Union : 

. . . It is our selfishness that would keep her longer with us, and yet 
we feel to rejoice that she passes on with all the honors of a noble life and 
with the sincerest affection of all who knew her. I speak not only for 
myself but for my entire family and for our Universal Peace Union. We 
have had the pleasure of her visits, and I have joined her at our Peace 
Meetings, at Progressive Friends' Meetings and at suffrage and reformatory 
meetings since far back in the sixties, and it is but a slight and inadequate 
testimonial that I can place upon a life's record, when I say she was always 
true, firm and foremost for the right. She saw with clearest vision the road 
to happiness, prosperity and peace and she was courageous and independent 
enough to proclaim it and brave enough to walk therein. She was always a 
strength to me, and her efforts to bring about equal justice to all, liberty to 
the oppressed, an uplift to humanity in every condition of life, will ever 
secure for her the blessings of mankind and place her upon the roll of 
honor as one of Heaven's messengers. 

Let us cherish her memory as a talisman for truth, virtue and justice 1 
Let us hold fast to the victories she has won and show our love and rever- 
ence by extending them! Let us as far as possible emulate her example as 
we revere her character and thank God for his beneficent gift. I can truth- 
fully and feelingly say, "None but thyself can be thy parallel." 

From p. H. Coney, Commander G, A. R. Department of 
Kansas: "Miss Anthony was one of the world's most noted 
women. She lifted the status of woman in society and in busi- 
ness as had not been done in all previous time. She gave her sex 


a Standing equal to that of man, except for the full right of 
franchise, and for this she accomplished more than any one pre- 
ceding her. She has carved a niche in human history that cannot 
be obliterated by time and she will be lovingly remembered as 
long as this history shall be studied. Her name and fame are 
enduringly impressed upon the minds of the people throughout 
the world and she will be remembered as one of the greatest of 
Americans and humanitarians." 

From Professor John Bascom, of Williams College, Mass., and 
Mrs. Emma C. Bascom: "In labors abundant, in journeys ex- 
hausting, in perils oft, in weariness, mid scorn and derision, mid 
honor and praise, she has persistently striven for human justice, 
and her life of sacrifice has blessed, is blessing and will forever 
bless all humanity. With what joy can she give an account of her 
stewardship !" 

From the Rev. Dr. John K. McLean, president Pacific Theo- 
logical Seminary: 

The intelligence we have been anticipating reached us through this morn- 
ing's papers, that our revered and beloved Miss Anthony has laid down the 
implements of her earthly warfare for her rest and for what new and high 
activities we know not Sure we may be, however, that she will not enjoy 
her heaven unless there be great enterprises and wide opportunities. She 
rests from the labors, the fatigues, the solicitude, the intensity of desire, 
but her works do follow her. The labor of her life has a vitality of its own. 
It is as a child bom to her or a family of children to survive her and it is 
already embodied in hundreds of other earnest lives. The future care and 
toil will be theirs; the impulse and inspiration will be hers. So she shall 
continue to live on an even wider and grander scale than in these eighty- 
six rich and fruitful years. 

Mrs. Ellen C. Sargent, of San Francisco, in closing her letter 
wrote : "Was it not Queen Mary who said that if her heart could 
be examined after death 'Calais' would be found engraved there- 
on? I think *Equal Rights for Women' would be found deeply 
stamped on the heart of Susan B. Anthony." 

The Rev. Newton M. Mann, of Omaha, for a long time Miss 
Anthony's minister in Rochester, said in his letter : "Your illus- 
trious sister and my great friend of forty years is no more. The 
dear, unswerving, undiscourageable soul! It is a memorable 


thing in any one's life to have known her, while to have had her 
friendship is to be counted among the supreme blessings." 

From the Rev. Samuel E. and the Rev. Annis Ford Eastman, 
pastors of Park Congregational Church, Elmira, N. Y. : ''Your 
great sister now belongs to the ages, but I am not sure that makes 
ft any easier for you, missing her dear presence ! May the spirit 
of the universe from whom she came forth comfort you, ennoble 
you with the testimony to her greatness that rises like incense 
from grateful hearts all over the world, and sustain you by those 
precious memories of your own with which no stranger inter- 
meddleth. We are exalted by the privilege of being today of 
the vast company of them that mourn and give thanks with you." 

In the letter of Mrs. Mary Church Terrell, member of the 
School Board, Washington, D. C, she said : "The country has 
lost one of its most distinguished citizens, and women their best 
friend. The debt of gratitude I owe Miss Anthony is two-fold, 
for I am a woman and a member of the race for whose freedom 
she labored so faithfully and so long. The debt which the women 
of all the world owe her is great indeed, but the debt of colored 
women is greater than all the rest." 

From Mrs. Coralie Franklin Cook, professor in the Wash- 
ington Conservatory of Music : 

In the telegram my husband and I sent you yesterday morning we bor- 
rowed from God*s word what seemed best to express our heart's deep dis- 
tress. As a "Cedar of Lebanon" did she not always tower above her com- 
panions? How often has she been storm-swept by doubt, misunderstanding 
and persecution, but deep-rooted conviction held her fast and the Great 
Conqueror only has been able to overthrow her. The greatest among us 
"has fallen!" Tliousands of torches lighted by her hand will yet blaze the 
way to freedom for women, nor will her promotion take her where she 
can not share in that victory when it comes. She will know and will rejoice 
with us. I am grateful for the life of Susan 6. Anthony. Its breadth, its 
strength, its beauty have been, will ever be an inspiration and a benediction 
to all humanity. 

Priceless to me is the memory of my sojourn under your roof. Into those 
two days were crowded experiences that will never be forgotten and will al- 
ways be helpful. Surely no woman ever had so many other women to share 
her grief as you have. Only think that in every land, wherever there is a 
woman who has awakened to woman's needs, there a heart grieves because the 
Great Friend of Women is no more ! Aye, not only women's hearts but men's 


hearts have been touched by the sublimely unselfish, the self-consecrated life 
of Susan B. Anthony and they too mourn her passing away. 

From Clinton N. Howard, president of the Prohibition Union 
of Christian Men : "On the eve of my departure for Portland to 
make the address at the Centennial of the birth of Neal Dow, 
who will live in history as foremost in the battle against the 
saloon, I send this word of Christian sympathy in your bereave- 
ment of a sister who will always stand first in the battle for in- 
dividual liberty. We who believe that she was right will re- 
double our efforts for the cause to which she gave her life, and 
we believe that from the other shore she will be permitted to see 
the early triimiph of woman's complete emancipation." 

Mrs. Mary Lowe Dickinson, president of the King's Daughters 
and Sons, said in her message of sympathy : "In what ought to 
be its best beloved cause, all womanhood must mourn its best 
beloved leader.'* On March 14, Margaret Stanton Lawrence, 
daughter of Mrs. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, wrote: "So dear 
Susan has gone and left you! I wonder if she and mother are 
walking hand in hand in the great beyond ? A long time ago a 
sculptor here in New York made a cast of mother's and Susan's 
hands clasped. I got it out yesterday, threw a yellow silk kerchief 
over a pillow and laid the hands thereon. Then I got out numer- 
ous pictures that I have and placed them around — one of Susan, 
mother and Mrs. Miller on the porch at Lochland; another of 
Susan, mother, your niece Lucy and myself on your porch at 
Rochester ; another of Susan and Nannie Miller. In front of this 
group I stood a vase of yellow flowers. I quite felt with all these 
pictures and with the clasped hands that both mother's and 
Susan's souls were with me in my little home." 

From Charles E. Fitch, chief of Records Division, New York 
State, Department of Education : 

Not only would I pay tribute to Miss Anthony as the most earnest, de- 
voted and resourceful woman of her time, whom trials never api>alled and 
triumph only inspired for fresher fields of action, but I would also express 
something of the emotion I feel at having been honored with the friendship 
of one so great and yet so gracious. I can recall the days when she was 
reviled and persecuted and the dignity with which she met rebuffs and 


reproaches. All that, however, passed away in the latter and better days 
and she became as widely honored as she always was beloved by those who 
knew her best The world uncovered before her and she died amid mii- 
versal sorrow. Her work will go on, stimulated by her zeal and directed 
by her counsels. This is your consolation. It is ours, who believed in and 
honored her, to trust that the high emprise to which she consecrated her- 
self, and which she was not permitted whoUy to accomplish, will go on 
conquering and to conquer until all shall be equal in administering the laws 
of the land. 

A portion is here given of one letter only to illustrate hun- 
dreds of similar ones received from women in all parts of the 
country. It is from Miss Janet Jennings, for twenty-five years a 
well-known journalist of Washington, and was written to Miss 
Anthony just before her death : 

I remember so well your early meetings in Washington which were all so 
new to me, a Western girl, ignorant and timid, with a moral courage waver- 
ing because undeveloped, but from that time steadily you developed it and 
gave me a strength invaluable ever since. With every convention, as the 
years went by, I realized more and more that I owed everything to you and 
your teachings — everything which helped me to grow, to lift myself to a 
broader plane of self-support, to a higher sense of the dignity of labor — 
self-respecting and respected by others. It is due to you that I am what I 
am — not much perhaps but never lacking in moral courage, in truth, in sense 
of justice. You know my work in the newspaper world, but you do not 
know how I turned from the aimless life of fashionable people once a year 
when you came, and Mrs. Stanton, Lucy Stone and the other great leaders, 
with the convention. It seemed as pure and fresh and strengthening as a 
mountain stream after a murky pond. 

As it is impossible to do more than indicate the character of 
the letters, so is this the case as to the resolutions passed by dif- 
ferent bodies. They came from the uttermost parts of the earth, 
from associations in almost every State in the Union, and ap- 
parently from every city and village in the State of New York. 
Some of these have been referred to. In Rochester resolutions 
were passed by organizations as varied as, for instance, the 
Socialist party, which paid its tribute of esteem and reaffirmed 
its "adherence to the* principle of equal suffrage for all citizens 
regardless of sex"; the Striking Printers of Typographical 
Union 15, who expressed "heartfelt s)rmpathy" and "as a mark 
of respect for Miss Anthony's efforts for the cause she cham- 


pioned, and with due regard to her noble character, adjourned the 
regular meeting as a tribute to her memory" ; and the Labor Ly- 
ceum, which declared its belief in ''equal opportunity and equal 
suffrage for all citizens," and its appreciation of "the long, ardu- 
ous, unselfish and eificient labors of Susan B. Anthony in the in- 
terest of a higher and better civilization." 

The Principals' and Teachers' Association said in their resolu- 
tions : "As a woman with noble ideas for her sex ; as a wise coun- 
selor looking toward the uplift of all womankind ; as a citizen of 
our city and a friend of teachers, we can say without fear of 
challenge that she had no equal." The College Woman's Club 
resolved that "the life of Susan B. Anthony has been the greatest 
source of inspiration to all women in their effort for liberty and 
higher education." The resolution of the Students' Association 
of Women said : "To our beloved benefactor, Susan B. Anthony, 
is due in a large part the privilege of a college education. The 
nobility of her love and ambition for us shall always be for the 
women students of the University of Rochester a sacred inspira- 
tion toward lives of unselfish devotion and untiring zeal for 
service." In the course of the resolutions of the Alumnae these 
beautiful sentiments are found : 

Susan B. Anthony possessed no negative forces. Every endowment of 
her nature was aggressive and positive. Others might find it necessary to 
reason from premises to conclusions, but Miss Anthony, by a process of 
evolution peculiarly her own, was quickly aggressive on one side or the 
other, and, viewed from the standpoint of equal rights to all, she was never 
arrayed on the wrong side. What privileges her sex enjoys today, com- 
pared with what it possessed when Susan B. Anthony entered the arena in 
its behalf, are beyond enumeration; and, while all she sought has not been 
attained, the progress achieved by the indomitable courage, persistency and 
ceaseless energy of the champion of Woman's Cause has been so marked 
that the only wonder of closely following generations will be that all she 
struggled to attain was not long ago conceded. 

The Alumnae of the University count it one of their most cherished be- 
quests that Miss Anthony was a loved and honored resident of Rochester, 
that she gave of her great talent liberally to the advancement of her sex in 
this beautiful city and especially in the Alma Mater of this Alumnae, where 
there would have been no such Alumnae had there not first been just such 
a grand and noble character as Susan B. Anthony. 


The Local Council of Women spoke in its resolutions of the 
keen interest Miss Anthony always had taken in that body "as 
the last and the youngest of the organizations over which she 
exercised a personal supervision," and said : "She possessed the 
instinct of the true mother who leaves the older children to take 
care of themselves while she sits by the cradle tending the young- 
est and seemingly best." 

The resolutions of Irondequoit Chapter D. A. R., after speak- 
ing of Miss Anthony's patriotic ancestry, said: "This chapter 
has been blessed in the membership of such a woman. In the 
precious amber of memory let us keep all that she has meant and 
been to us. We loved her ardent courage and her never-failing 
faith in the might of right ; we revered the selflessness that en- 
abled her to give herself, body and spirit, to the service of hu- 
manity. She was not disobedient to the Heavenly Vision, but 
what sight was given her to see, that she followed, undeterred 
by opposition and undismayed by difficulties." 

The Political Equality Club said in part: "For more than 
sixty years she has given to the cause of woman every moment, 
every thought of her life. To her belongs as to no other woman 
in the world's history the love and gratitude of all women. To 
her mother-heart all women were her children." 

One of the series of eloquent resolutions adopted by the Jew- 
ish Council of Women said : "More than any other woman of her 
day, Miss Anthony embodied true love for humanity. Her 
liberal mind knew no prejudice and her broad s)rmpathy knew no 
bounds. While always loyal to the cause to which she pledged 
her life, she identified herself with every movement that meant 
progress and uplift, regardless of distinctions of class, race or 

At a meeting of the trustees of the Unitarian Church the fol- 
lowing memorial was adopted : 

Susan B. Anthony, one of the world's grandest women, has laid down her 
earthly burden and gone to rest after many years of earnest devotion and 
unceasing activity seldom equaled in the span of one human life. 

While she will be remembered as the champion of the rights and liberties 


of her sex, it will not be forgotten that her voice was ever raised in behalf 
of the down-trodden and oppressed without regard to race or sex. 

She loved justice and hated tyranny, and held in contempt shams of every 
nature. While her power of invective was strong and ever directed against 
all forms of injustice and unrighteousness, she was yet possessed of all the 
feminine qualities of tenderness, S3mipathy and human kindness; and as has 
been said of another: "Were every one to whom she did a loving service 
to bring a blossom to her grave, she would sleep beneath a wilderness of 

Reared in the Hicksite branch of the Quaker faith, when their meetings 
were discontinued in this city she naturally turned to the liberalism of the 
Unitarian Society, and for more than fifty years she has been a devoted 
and faithful attendant of this church. 

With feelings of sorrow, mingled with gratitude that she was permitted 
to pass while yet in the full vigor of her intellect, we transcribe on our 
minutes this tribute to her memory and worth. 

No woman's organization in Rochester so fully represents 
all classes, creeds, races and shades of opinion as the Women's 
Educational and Industrial Union, which is also the largest as to 
membership, and the resolutions adopted by the Board of Direc- 
tors of this body may be accepted as the consensus of sentiment 
in the city where Miss Anthony spent nearly three-fourths of her 
long life. 

Susan B. Anthony, the foremost citizen of our city, the most honored 
American woman, has gone to her well-earned rest. 

The sorrow of her passing falls heavily upon the Women's Union. Its 
organization was due to her; all its efforts met her most cordial support; 
she was the warm personal friend of its active workers, who were ever sure 
of her tender, womanly sympathy. The union's last reception was honored 
by her presence; during that entire afternoon and evening she added to the 
pleasure of each guest, who little thought that most of them would see her 
face no more. Her death brings a deep sense of personal bereavement and 
a renewed intention to live nearer the ideal she ever held before us. Thir- 
teen years ago, the day the Women's Union was organized, she said from 
the platform : "We want a solidarity of the women of Rochester. When the 
women speak they can be heard through this club; then when one woman 
speaks every woman in Rochester will be speaking and those who it is 
intended shall hear will have to hear. It means all the women in Rochester 
united in every good work." And the union is striving toward the goal she 
set before it. 

The debt the Women's Union owes Miss Anthony but faintly typifies 
humanity's indebtedness to one of the greatest and most loving women of 
her generation. We who have entered into her labors can scarcely appre- 
ciate how great the cost, can hardly realize the industrial, educational and 


legal conditions of woman's life as she found them. Every young woman 
in our university owes her opportunities there to Miss Anthony; every 
young woman seeking wider industrial opportunities owes much of their 
possibility to Miss Anthony; every mother in our State owes her legal right 
to her own property, her own earnings and even to her own children, to 
Miss Anthony. 

With indomitable courage, with energy unsurpassed, with faith scarce 
equaled, with love almost divine, through evil and through good report, 
through all the long years of her long life. Miss Anthony labored for the 
right as God gave her to see the right; and now with eye undimmed and 
natural force hardly abated, she has passed from earth and into the presence 
chamber of the King, secure of her welcome, bearing the love of all who 
knew her and the honor and admiration of the world The inspiration of 
her life is a benediction to all who would leave the world better than they 
found it. 

The union extends most heartfelt sympathy to the dear, bereaved sister, 
whose tender, devoted, watchful care prolonged Miss Anthony's life and 
made the heroic endeavors of her later years possible. Until the going down 
of the sun hath she stayed her sister's hands; may He who gave her this 
inestimable privilege sustain and comfort her in the lonely hours of her 
great sorrow. 

The resolutions quoted were practically duplicated in character 
by those adopted by organizations in all parts of the world. 
Among the copies sent to Miss Mary Anthony were memorials 
from the National Women's Political Association of Australia, 
Canterbury Women's Institute of New Zealand, Women's Suf- 
frage and Local Government Association of Ireland, Society of 
American Women in London, Alumnae Association Ontario 
Medical College for Women, Toronto Local Council, Montreal 
Woman's Club ; from National Councils of Women and National 
Woman Suffrage Societies in every country ; from all the asso- 
ciations referred to in telegrams and letters above; from Uni- 
tarian Conferences; from National and State Granges, National 
and State Women's Christian Temperance Unions, National 
Congress Daughters of the American Revolution, State Federa- 
tions of Women's Clubs, Hospital Alumnae Associations, Eco- 
nomic and Civic Clubs, Young Women's Christian Associations, 
Societies of Friends, Leagues for Progressive Thought, Socialist 
Clubs, Ethical Societies, Business Associations of Women, Wom- 
en's Republican Clubs, Women's Health Protective Associations, 
Women's Press Clubs, Floral Emblem Societies, Children Clubs, 


Alumnae of Colleges, Normal and High Schools, Women's Re- 
lief Corps, Mothers' Clubs, Council of Club Presidents ; and from 
Women's Clubs and Suffrage Clubs by scores if not by hundreds/ 

Before any attempt could be made to acknowledge the receipt 
of these resolutions, accounts of memorial services began to pour 
in, from other countries and from every comer of the United 
States. Many of these were held during the time of the funeral, 
and they continued to take place from the middle of March 
throughout the spring months until the beginning of summer.* 
They were largely attended and addressed by prominent men and 
women. Among the more noteworthy was one in the Hudson 
Theatre, New Yprk, on Sunday afternoon, March 25, with an 
audience of over 1,500, nearly all women, under the auspices of 
the Interurban Political Equality Council, composed of over 
twenty suffrage clubs. The ushers were college girls in caps and 
gowns. There was one in Brookl)m the following Sunday in the 
old, historic Plymouth Church. The W. C. T. U. of Chicago 
had a meeting in Willard Hall at the noon hour on the day of the 
funeral, at which many men were present, and resolutions "to 
continue Miss Anthony's work" were unanimously adopted. A 
beautiful "home service" was held in Miss Anthony's own Uni- 
tarian Church of Rochester the Sunday following her funeral. 

The Executive Committee of the International Council of 
Women, of which Miss Anthony was one of the founders, met 
in Paris, June 12-17, 1906, with members present from eighteen 
countries. In her opening address Lady Aberdeen, president of 
the Council, paid eloquent tribute to Miss Anthony, saying: 
"We can scarcely imagine a Council meeting without her strong 
and genial presence. ... It not only spoke to us of the 

^A resolution was offered at a district Methodist ministers' meeting in Asbury Park, 
N. J., saying simply: "Miss Anthony has cleared the way for the women of the present 
and future generations to a higher, better and more useful life as business managers and 
educators, and opened the doors of the professions to them for all time, etc." This body 
was so agitated that an executive session was held to consider the resolution and after 
a great deal of discussion it was laid on the table. Many ministers, however, in all parts 
of the country, paid tribute in their sermons to Miss Anthon3r*8 life and work and spoke 
at the memorial meetings. 

* A little gleam of humor lightened up this record of sorrow when a prominent woman's 
club in a Southern city refused to hold a memorial meeting "because Susan B. Anthony 
and Henry Ward Bcecher brought on the Civil War!" 


past but inspired us for the future, for both by her voice and her 
life she ever sounded the trumpet call to press forward in a spirit 
of indomitable perseverance and faith. When she left us in Berlin 
she made a tryst to meet us in Canada in 1909. She cannot keep 
that tryst but she has left us a precious legacy in the memory of 
her large-hearted and devoted life, crowned as it was with honor 
and the love of her fellow workers, on whom it now devolves to 
carry forward the work which she has laid down." All of the dele- 
gates expressed their personal loss and that of their Councils 
in the death of the great American. 

The International Woman Suffrage Alliance, which Miss An- 
thony helped to found and of which she was honorary president, 
held its first convention in Copenhagen, August 7-1 1, 1906. The 
session in which greatest interest centered was that in memory 
of Miss Anthony, and not in her own land could deeper feeling 
and appreciation be shown. After a sketch of her life and achieve- 
ments had been given by her biographer, tributes were offered by 
delegates from Finland, Australia, Denmark, Germany, Great 
Britain, Canada, Norway, Hungary, Sweden and The Nether- 
lands, each expressing the indebtedness of her own country to 
the great pioneer. Those most impressive in their significance 
were from the countries where women had gained their full en- 
franchisement ; Australia, where this had been secured in 1902; 
Finland, where it had just been placed in the new constitution ; 
Norway, where it was almost assured and was granted the next 

The official report from the National Australian Women's Po- 
litical Association, prepared by its president, Miss Vida Gold- 
stein, and read by Mrs. Henry Dobson, said in part : "We be- 
lieve that to Miss Anthony the women of Australia owe their 
advanced position. She never visited these far distant shores, 
but her name and work were a constant inspiration to our work- 
ers. They knew her life of real self-sacrifice; they realized that 
she kept her finger on the pulse of the woman-movement in all 
parts of the world, and they were eager that, if only for her sake, 
Australia should show a good report of effort and achievement. 
Her work and influence were so far-reaching that the fact cannot 


be disputed that had it not been for Susan B. Anthony the women 
of Australia would not have the suffrage today." 

Baroness Gripenberg, president of the Finnish Women's As- 
sociation, eloquently expressed the love and appreciation of the 
leaders among the women of Finland, and the courage and in- 
spiration they had received from their knowledge of Miss An- 
thony's long years of work for womanhood and their constant 
thought that she sympathized with their efforts and would rejoice 
with them when their victory was gained. She told of their deep 
disappointment that this came just too late for them to send to 
her the glad tidings. 

The pioneer of the woman suffrage movement in Norway, 
Miss Gina Krog, said in her appreciation : 

More than twenty years ago three large volumes came to the University 
library of Christiania and on the title pagt was written in Miss Anthony's 
bold, clear handwriting: "To the women of Norway." It was the History 
of the Woman Suffrage Movement in the United States. We were indeed 
fortunate in having these books when we united to work for women's 
rights. Those of us who had read in them of the heroic battle which had 
been fought for women's political enfranchisement did not for one moment 
doubt that woman suffrage must be put to the front and that it must be 
taken up to its whole extent and as an independent question. The demand 
must be, "The vote for women on the same terms as for men," and our 
banner must be lifted high over all party divisions. 

In 1885 when I gave the first lecture in our country demanding suffrage 
for women I kept to this standpoint; and on this basis we organized, I be- 
lieve to great advantage for our future work. This only gives a glimpse of 
how the American pioneers influenced the women in a small and far-off 
country. Although I read with admiration of all those remarkable women 
who took up the battle against the whole world, one of them stood out in 
stronger and clearer outlines than the others; that one was Susan B. An- 
thony, and she seemed to me the very personification of a great hero. 

It is good both for men and women to have her image before them. 
When they speak of the weaker sex we point to her and say, "Look at that 
undaunted courage, that unquenchable hope, that indomitable will! Do you 
call that weakness?" But most especially do those women who have taken 
up the same work find strength and encouragement in her grand example. 

Among the many touching incidents related was one by an 
eminent woman suffrage lecturer of Sweden, Mrs. A. M. Holm- 
gren, who said : "On a cold morning of one of our long, dark, 
winter days when I started out I felt thoroughly disheartened, 


but as I looked at the North Star I thought of Susan B. Anthony. 
Then all at once it flashed over me that this was her birthday. I 
hastened to a telegraph office and sent her a message of greeting, 
and then I went on my way sustained and strengthened." 

The last speaker was the Rev. Anna Howard Shaw, president 
of the National Suffrage Association of the United States. After 
a beautiful description of Miss Anthony's last hours she showed 
how her lifetime of effort had always centered around one point 
— freedom for woman — ^not as a sex or a class but as human be- 
ings ; and how the object of her life had been to awaken in women 
the consciousness of the need for freedom and the courage to de- 
mand it. She asked that women should be politically free not as 
an end but as a means by which they could build up a higher hu- 
manity. "Miss Anthony," she said, "was the humblest, simplest, 
most single-minded being who ever lived and wrought for a cause. 
She was just but tender ; she exalted intellect but not at the ex- 
pense of sentiment ; and she was the incarnation of optimism and 
faith, as expressed in her last words from a public platform — 
'Failure is impossible.' " 

When the recital of Miss Anthony's life and work was finished 
at the beginning of the services the entire audience arose and re- 
mained standing reverently for several minutes, while many were 
in tears. When Miss Shaw closed the exercises with her match- 
less tribute she was called again and again to the front of the 
stage to respond to the outbursts of enthusiastic approval. 

What greater proof could be offered than has been placed on 
these pages to silence forever the constantly repeated assertion 
that "women do not and did not appreciate Susan B. Anthony?*' 
In their own words the testimony has been given which demon- 
strates that no other woman ever was so beloved and honored 
by those of her own sex. The leaders of all great movements 
among women offered eloquent and heartfelt tributes of recog- 
nition, gratitude and affection, and they voiced the sentiments of 
millions of women whom they represented. No other reformer 


/ever lived to receive in so full a measure the appreciation of those 
/ for whom the struggle had been made. 

In a preceding volume there is mention of an annuity that was 
secured for Miss Anthony through the effort of Mrs. Rachel 
Foster Avery, who collected among friends $5,000, which pro- 
duced an income of $800 a year. This annuity was presented to 
her on her seventy-fifth birthday. Before Mrs. Avery went 
abroad in 1903 she arranged to have paid to Miss Anthony from 
her own means $400 a year. As long as Miss Anthony was able 
to lecture she received some money from this source, although 
for practically all public speaking connected with suffrage she 
contributed her services. Thus she gave to this cause platform 
work from which she might have received many thousands of 
dollars. Her brother D. R. Anthony was always generous to her, 
and she was the recipient of many presents from women in 
various parts of the country and of a number of bequests. Many 
of her handsome dresses and wraps were given to her and all of 
her laces, jewelry, etc. Usually when she made a journey some 
one who loved her sent money for travelling expenses. Her sister 
Mary owned the home and had a moderate income. They lived 
in an extremely simple manner and as economically as was pos- 
sible with comfort. Miss Anthony's personal wants were very 
few, and after these were supplied every dollar that came into her 
possession was expended in some way for the cause of woman 
suffrage. She left the following Will, made January 4, 1904, 
and properly witnessed. 

First: I direct the payment of my funeral expenses and my just debts, 
if any. 

Second: I give and bequeath to the National American Woman Suffrage 
Association, the electro-type plates of the History of Woman Suffrage, to- 
gether with the entire number of books that are printed, to be used in its 
educational department. 

Third : I give, devise and bequeath all of said rest, residue and remainder 
of my estate, both real and personal, to my sister Mary S. Anthony, my 
niece Lucy E. Anthony and my friend Anna H. Shaw. 

Likewise, I make, constitute and appoint the said Mary S. Anthony, Lucy 
Ant. Ill— 23 


E. Anthony, Anna H. Shaw and Rachel Foster Avery, executors of this my 
Last Will and Testament, hereby revoking all former Wills by me made. 
And I hereby request that no bond shall be demanded of my executors. 

Although Miss Anthony could feel certain that her money as 
thus disposed of would be very largely used to further the cause 
of woman suffrage, the desire became strong in her last days to 
leave it directly for this purpose. She may have thought that 
such action would influence other women to make a similar dis- 
position of their property. As has been related in a preceding 
chapter she sent for Miss Shaw and made her request. In com- 
pliance with it a Memorandum was attached to the Will as fol- 
lows : 

On March 7th, 1906, Miss Anthony verbally requested Miss Mary Anthony 
and Miss Anna Shaw to see that the whole of what money she had should 
be put into the fund Miss Thomas and Miss Garrett are raising for the 
Woman Suffrage Cause. 

It is the intention of the undersigned to comply with and carry out this 
last request. Anna H. Shaw, Mary S. Anthony, Lucy E. Anthony. . 

Six or eight years before her death Miss Anthony had loaned 
about $750 to a man to save him and his family from disgrace, 
and a note was given for its payment. Although afterwards this 
might have been paid she never received even the interest, and 
when toward the last she attempted to realize on the note she 
found to her great distress that it had been adroitly worded so 
that she had no recourse in law. Her life insurance of $2,000, 
on which she had paid the premium for fifty years, she had as- 
signed to her sister two years before to obtain from her the 
money to loan to a woman whose extreme necessity for it had 
been presented in such a way as to make Miss Anthony feel that 
she must come to her relief. These two loans reduced Miss An- 
thony's already slender means by over $3,000. One year after her 
death, the Executors made a final settlement as follows : 

Account of the Estate of Susan B. Anthony. 
Debit* ^^^cutors in Account with Estate of Susan B, Anthony: 

Balance from Security Trust Co. of Rochester, N. Y $i»3S8.75 

Monroe County Savings Fund, N. Y 7.05 

Prbsidsnt National Woman Suppragb Association. 

Vick-Prhsidbnt of Association. 

NiBCB OF Susan B. Anthony. 



Fidelity Trust Co., Rochester, N. Y 1,10734 

Rochester Savings Bank, N. Y 2.49 

Deposit of Interest Coupons of two (2) U. S. Government 

Bonds, for nine (9) months 22.50 

Deposit of one dividend on five (5) shares of stock of Old 

National Bank of Ft. Wayne, Ind 20.00 

Interest on account at West End Trust Co. (This acc't was 

opened for the Estate by the Executors) 16.35 

For Inheritance Tax (Transfer Tax) contributed by the Ex- 
ecutors 99-04 

For expenses of Administration and Collectors Expenses, al- 
lowed to Executors by Surrogate's Office, Rochester, N. Y. ; 
contributed by Executors 230.00 

Total $2,87352 


(i) To Mae B. Nichols (Nurse) $56.30 

(2) " Consulting Physician 40.00 

(3) ** Margaret A. Shanks (Nurse) 78.00 

(4) " Box at West End Trust Co 4.00 

(5) " Cost of Publishing Will 32.70 

(6) " Marble Headstone 25.00 

(7) " Inheritance Tax (Transfer Tax) 99-04 

(8) " Expenses of Administration and Collectors' 

Expenses 230.00 

Total $565.04 


Balance of cash on hand $2,308.48 

Personal Estate: list op secxtrities. 

Two (2) United States (jovemment Bonds of five hundred dollars 

($500.00) each, bearing 3 per cent. 
Five (5) shares of stock of the Old National Bank of Ft. Wayne, Ind., 
quoted at $165.00 per share. 
• •••••• 

Real Estate: 

Two (2) Lots at Fort Scott, Kansas. 
One (i) Lot at Beatrice, Nebraska. 

Received from the Executors, Anna H. Shaw and Lucy E. Anthony, the 
above named securities. Mary E. Garrett. 

(Chairman of the Committee of the Susan B. Anthony 

Memorial Guarantee Fund of $12,000 a year for five years. 

M. Carey Thomas, 
Bryn Mawr, Pa., March 17th, 1907. Treasurer. 


The securities which are omitted from the above list were re- 
turned to the executors by the chairman and treasurer of the 
Fund Committee as being apparently without value. 

The executors declined to accept the commissions allowed by 
the court, and themselves paid the inheritance tax, in order that 
Miss Anthony's bequest to the cause of woman suffrage might 
not be diminished. Its total amount was less than $4,500. 

For a number of years Dr. Marcena Sherman-Ricker had given 
Miss Anthony the most devoted service. During her last illness 
of three-and-a-half weeks she visited her two or three times a day, 
and toward the last she transferred most of her practice to other 
physicians and remained at the Anthony home day and night. 
The last forty-eight hours she scarcely left the bedside, doing all 
in her power for the relief of her beloved patient. When Miss 
Mary asked for her account she said : "I have none. I owe it to 
Miss Anthony that I am able to practice medicine. It has been a 
blessed privilege to care for her. I could not accept a dollar for 
that service, and I want you to promise that you will let me take 
care of you on the same terms as long as you live." 

Mrs. Helen M. Millar, a lawyer, who had been for many years 
in the office of Surrogate W. Dean Shuart, had given legal advice 
to Miss Anthony and Miss Mary for twenty years and made no 
charge but declared that all had been a labor of love and duty. 
Judge Shuart, who had aided Miss Anthony in a long contest in 
the courts to secure the Clapp legacy, and in many other ways, 
had contributed his services as a mark of his friendship for her 
and for her cause. ^ 

The funeral directors, Ingmire and Thompson, when their bill 
was paid, returned $25 with the request that it 'Tbe used for the 
cause so dear to Miss Anthony's heart." 

The New York State Suffrage Association sent $100 to the 
National Association to put the nurses. Miss Margaret A. Shanks 
and Miss Mae B. Nichols, on its roll of life members. 

The earnest request that the friends, instead of spending money 
on flowers at the time of the funeral, would send it for the Oregon 

^Volume II» page 763. 


campaign fund, resulted in a contribution of between $400 and 
$500 for that purpose, and in addition the house was literally 
filled with flowers. Hundreds of dollars also were sent to the na- 
tional headquarters for the fund from various parts of the coun- 
try, the donors stating that it was because of Miss Anthony's 
great anxiety lest the work in Oregon should be crippled for lack 
of money. 

At the unanimous request of the teachers and patrons of Public 
School, No. 2jy in Rochester, the name Susan B. Anthony was 
given to it by the School Board. On Arbor Day, the following 
May, School No. 26 planted an oak tree in her memory in the 
most beautiful part of Seneca Park and dedicated it with appro- 
priate ceremonies, and it is to be marked with a bronze tablet. A 
tree was dedicated to Miss Anthony that spring in Elysian Park, 
Los Angeles; one in Cherokee, Indian Territory; and doubtless 
this was done in many other places that sent no notice of it to her 

Immediately after the death of Miss Anthony the question of 
suitable memorials began to be considered. On March 23, eight 
days after she had been laid to rest, a public meeting was held 
in the Chamber of Commerce in Rochester, called by the officers 
of the Women's Educational and Industrial Union, Mrs. Helen 
Barrett Montgomery, president, and attended by a large number 
of the club presidents of that city and other prominent women. 
The object of the meeting was thus stated : 

In the death of Susan B. Anthony, there is presented to the women of 
Rochester, who have been blessed by the presence and friendship of this 
great woman, an opportunity to lead in the movement to establish a worthy 
memorial of her life and service, in this her home city. The university of 
Rochester opened its doors to women in 1900^ as the result of a movement 
in which Miss Anthony was deeply interested and eflRciently active. It is 
therefore peculiarly appropriate that a building should be provided for the 
use of women students to be known as the Anthony Memorial Building. 
In this could be included a gjrmnasium, rooms for social purposes, dormi- 
tories for out-of-town students, and also some personal memorial of Miss 

The executors, Mary S. Anthony, Lucy E. Anthony and Anna Howard 
Shaw, have been consulted as to the form of memorial and arc agreed that 
nothing could be more in accord with Miss Anthony's life purpose. 


By invitation Miss Shaw was present and she announced that 
Miss Mary Anthony would give toward this memorial one-half of 
the $2,000 bequest of her brother, Col. D. R. Anthony, for a me- 
morial to their sister. She said : "Suggestions have been made 
to erect a building for club purposes. I am more favorable to this 
other idea. A business building or club headquarters have a limit 
to their life just as a human being has. I understand that the life 
of a business building is only about twenty years. So it would be 
with the club rooms. I don't think Miss Anthony will ever die. 
She will be bom again in every generation, but the sentiment we 
feel so strongly now will pass away. It is strange how soon new 
interests, new leaders and new lines of thought crowd out those 
of the past. G:>nstant trouble in maintaining other memorial 
buildings is experienced, but college buildings live on and on. 
Care is bestowed on them by the college and they are kept in good 
repair. The theories of suffrage may not be propagated in the 
college but while Miss Anthony was vitally interested in suffrage, 
she was also interested in all things that would advance the wel- 
fare of women." 

The Democrat and Chronicle, in referring editorially to this 
matter said : 

In presenting the subject to the union, Mrs. Montgomery seems to have 
struck the correct ke3mote and one which finds general response, in suggest- 
ing that the memorial should be one to which friends of Miss Anthony, the 
country and world over, could consistently contribute. A building for 
women at the university, she argued, would benefit young women other than 
those resident in Rochester, as well as those who belong to Miss Anthony's 
own immediate community. 

It is owing to the labors of Miss Anthony, more than to any other single 
individual, that women were admitted to this university on equal terms with 
men. She recognized clearly the advantages which would accrue, not only 
to the young women of this city but to others who might desire a liberal 
education. While her friends and admirers in Rochester will contribute 
liberally for this building, an opportunity might well be given for large and 
small contributions regardless of locality. Miss Anthony belonged to the 
world and devoted her long life to labor for the betterment of the world, 
and, if given an opportunity, the world will erect for her an appropriate and 
fitting memorial. 

At this meeting the Susan B. Anthony Memorial Association 


was formed with Mrs. Mary T. Lewis Gannett president of the 
Executive Committee, which is composed of women prominent in 
various lines of work in Rochester. A National Committee was 
formed of eminent women in all parts of the country. The cost 
of a suitable building to be erected on the campus of the univer- 
sity was placed at $75,000 and the committee began at once a sys- 
tematic effort to raise the money, which they realized would re- 
quire considerable time. Its circular, after reciting the gains al- 
ready made for women, said : 

All this uplift, emancipation, enlargement, taken together, constitutes the 
"Woman's Movement" and it literally has been brought about within our 
own life-time. Of the five great movements of the wonderful sixty years 
just gone — ^that in science, that in religion, that in industrialism and to- 
wards democracy, that now beginning in international relations, and that 
for the uplift of woman from conditions of inferiority to conditions ap- 
proaching equality with man — ^this last one, affecting half the race and com- 
ing close to all through home-life, may by and by be recognized as the most 
fundamental and far-reaching. Shall not we elders, men and women, who 
have lived through these sixty years, watching with joy this rise in woman's 
status and profiting by it ourselves, bear united testimony to our thankful- 
ness for it and our confidence in it? 

Of this Woman's Movement, in all its forms and in its every struggle, no 
one, on the whole, has been so unique and all-around a representative as 
Susan B. Anthony. From youth to age she offered herself, body and mind 
and heart and soul, to all the strains and bruises of the cause. Others with 
her, many others; but no one, perhaps, so completely spent herself for it as 
she. Most of these others had also the joy and strength of home, husband 
and children; her life was given wholly to human service — ^to ennoble all 
womanhood, and through women to ennoble mankind. The opportunity 
now is ours to testify to the movement and to honor the woman in one and 
the same memorial 

At the meeting of the Executive Committee of the National 
Council of Women in Toledo, Ohio, in April, 1906, a resolution 
was adopted that memorial meetings should be held in all parts of 
the country under the auspices of the Council and collections taken 
for the fund to be raised by the National Suffrage Association ; 
also, "that there may be a permanent Memorial of Miss Anthony 
so placed that it may be recognized as national, it is recommended 
that the National Council shall secure a duplicate of the bust re- 
cently placed in the Metropolitan Museum in New York; and 


further that the Council shall secure for this bust an appropriate 
place in the Capitol at Washington/ 

The National Suffrage Association at its annual convention in 
Chicago, in February, 1907, adopted tht following report of the 
Executive Committee : 

Whereas, The sentiment in favor of woman suffrage has so far pro- 
gressed throughout the world that its early adoption is now assured, and 

Wheseas, The rapidity with which women will be fully enfranchised in 
the United States of America depends upon the ability of the advocates of 
woman suffrage to bring it to the attention of those intelligent people whom 
they have not yet directly reached, and 

Whereas, It was Miss Anthony's plan and constant wish to devote all 
funds, which friends of suffrage contributed, to the immediate purpose of 
advancing the cause each day, as rapidly as the means available for that day 
permitted; now, therefore, be it 

Resolved, That, as the most fitting memorial, the National American WomaQ 
Suffrage Association shall raise a fund of at least $100,000 to be called ''The 
Susan B. Anthony Woman Suffrage Fund," and to be used exclusively by this 
association to continue the suffrage work of Miss Anthony and those who la- 
bored with her for woman's enfranchisement; 

Resolved, That all friends and admirers of Susan B. Anthony and all be- 
lievers in the justice and humanity of the cause to which she devoted a long 
life of heroic effort shall be invited and urged to contribute to this fund. 

Resolved, That the General Officers of this association elected by this 
convention shall select and nominate eleven women to act as Trustees of 
this fund, six of whom shall be General Officers of said association. 

Resolved, That said fund, or so much thereof as may from time to time 
be in hand, shall be used for the furtherance of the woman suffrage cause in 
the United States of America, and in such amounts and for such purposes 
as the General Officers of the National American Woman Suffrage Asso- 
ciation shall from time to time deem best. 

' At this convention about $25,000 were subscribed to this fund, 
which is entirely distinct from the fund of $60,000 collected by- 
Miss Mary E. Garrett and Miss M. Carey Thomas and not avail- 
able for the current expenses of the association. The Susan B. 
Anthony Woman Suffrage Fund was incorporated under the 
laws of Illinois, and the names of Miss Jane Addams, Chicago; 

1 The present writer used to talk with Miss Anthony about what would be done to per- 
petuate her memory, and once, when a statue was mentioned, said there ought to be one 
in the pretty, little park almost opposite her home, through which she had passed hun- 
dreds of times when out for an evening walk. "I never can bear to see the statue of a 
woman exposed to the cold and rain and snow," she answered, "and I don't like to think 
of one of myself out of doors." 


Mrs. Fanny Garrison Villard, New York ; Mrs. Pauline Agassiz 
Shaw, Boston ; Mrs. Mary McHenry Keith, Berkeley, Cal. ; Miss 
Lucy E. Anthony, Philadelphia, were added to those of the Na- 
tional Board. 

It is a significant fact that the first memorial to take actual 
shape was a window in the new A. M. E. Zion Church of Roch- 
ester, which was unveiled August 20, 1907. This window of 
stained glass bears a portrait of Miss Anthony and underneath 
it her last words spoken in public, "Failure is impossible." It was 
presented by Mrs. R. Jerome Jeffrey in the name of the Susan B. 
Anthony Club. Eloquent addresses were made by Mrs. Jean 
Brooks Greenleaf and Mrs. Hannah B. Clark, two of Miss An- 
thony's oldest and dearest friends. A window to Frederick 
Douglass had been dedicated the evening before, and it seemed 
peculiarly appropriate that the woman and the man should be 
thus commemorated at the same time in the city where both had 
begun their struggle for human freedom half-a-century ago. 




, HE death of no woman ever called forth so wide an 
editorial comment as that of Miss Anthony, except 
possibly that of Queen Victoria, whose years in pub- 
lic life numbered about the same. On the desk 
where this is written are almost one thousand edi- 
torials, representing all the papers of consequence in the United 
States and many in other countries, and they form what may be 
accepted without reserve as the consensus of thought in the early 
years of the twentieth century in regard to Miss Anthony and the 
work she accomplished.* Compared with the newspaper comment 
of fifty years ago they offer the best illustration that could be had 
pi the revolution of ideas during this period, for, although edito- 
rial expression is largely the personal opinion of the one who 
happens to fill the editor's chair at the moment, yet that of the 
country taken as a whole is a fair indication of public sentiment 
It has been possible to quote only a few paragraphs in most in- 
stances, but selections have been made with a view of including 
all sections of this country and all shades of opinion, and the ut- 
most care has been used to give the proper credit. These editorials 
come from the secular and the religious press, from labor journals 
and fashion magazines, and they demonstrate clearly that in a 
consideration of the so-called woman question political bias plays 
no part and sectional location but little, especially as between the 
East and the West. The prevalent idea that the Western spirit is 
the more liberal toward woman suffrage is not supported by this 

^ For a large part of the editorial comment see Appendix. 




It is a peculiar fact that some of the most appreciative edito- 
rials were found in papers that always had shown themselves hos- 
tile to the enfranchisement of women. Instances will be seen in 
those from the Boston Herald, Brooklyn Eagle and Philadelphia 
Press in the East ; The San Francisco Chronicle and Los Angeles 
Times in the West and a number between these two extremes. 
But one paper of consequence in the entire country had an old- 
fashioned, contemptuous diatribe — ^the Washington Post. It was 
a literary curiosity, jumbling Jael and Ruth, Chaucer and Don 
Quixote, Darby and Joan, Volumnia and Boadicea, Margaret of 
Anjou and Madame de Stael into one amazing and incomprehen- 
sible whole, which was used to rebuke Miss Anthony and her co- 
workers. Under ordinary circumstances it would have been re- 
ceived with universal laughter, but at this sorrowful moment it 
aroused much indignation. The Post refused to print any of the 
protests and its course was inexplicable to the many women who 
had been attending the suffrage conventions in Washington for 
years and had always found in this paper a strong supporter of 
their cause. They did not know that it had passed under the con- 
trol of John R. McLean, who took this opportunity to settle a 
grudge against Miss Anthony which dated from the time when 
she refused the request to assist his candidacy for Governor of 

The Chicago Chronicle, which has since suspended publication, 
contained an insulting editorial, and there were a few of that 
nature in small local papers. The leading characteristics of prac- 
! tically all, however, were their fairness, dignity and seriousness, 
j in itself the strongest possible illustration of the improved status 
V of women. Words could not express more beautiful eulogiums 
than were written of Miss Anthony and her achievements. While 
these afforded the greatest comfort and happiness to her friends, 
one could not but think how quickly Miss Anthony herself would 
have hastened over the personal compliments to search for ap- 
proval not of what she had done but of the one thing that she had 
tried longest and hardest to do. A number of the editorials did 
declare unequivocally a belief in the justice and ultimate success 
of woman suffrage, while many considered it not improbable that 


it would eventually come. Almost all expressed much tolerance 
toward the idea and thought it was making progress, but the 
Brooklyn Eagle called it "one of the world's lost causes;" the 
Brooklyn Times said ; "It has made no new conquests in the last 
thirty or forty years and lacks the aggressive and resourceful 
leadership it once had;" the New York Observer observed that 
"Miss Anthony's peculiar views on this question would be soon 
forgotten ;" the Buffalo Times said : "Miss Anthony's taking off 
is a great blow to the movement and there appears to be reason for 
belief that it will gradually subside." A number of Southern pa- 
pers expressed similar views, but, taking the editorial comment 
as a whole, these were in an infinitesimal minority. 

One never so fully appreciated the value of the subjunctive 
mood, however, as in perusing these panegyrics : "Whatever pne 
may think of Miss Anthony's cardinal doctrine;" "even though 
we cannot agree with her conclusions;" "although many may 
widely differ ;" "whether or not all may sympathize ;" "it does not 
matter if one should not approve;" "even those who may be hos- 
tile to her cause ;" "it is not essential that one should coincide with 
her extreme views." Over and over magnificent editorials were 
impaired by these stereotyped phrases — which Miss Anthony 
hated — by this hedging on the part of the writers, leaving a loop- 
hole of escape from this semi-political question ; nothing could be 
gained by committing oneself, something might be lost perhaps. 
What was the cause, moral cowardice or simply a little of the 
moss and mold not yet rubbed off? But, notwithstanding a con- 
siderable evasion of the main issue, the editorial expression, taken 
altogether, showed a decided advance of sentiment even since the 
death of Mrs. Stanton three-and-a-half years before, which called 
forth wide and able comment of a very progressive character. 

A few of the editors tried to translate the "regret" which Miss 
Anthony expressed in her last hours into a confession that her 
work had been a failure. This point is admirably considered in 
the second editorial quoted from the Boston Herald. It was, of 
course, a matter of keenest regret to Miss Anthony that complete 
suffrage for women had not been obtained in a larger number of 
States. The legal, educational and industrial gains she regarded 


as collateral, and, while fully appreciating their value, she consid- 
ered the suffrage of much more importance. She held, with all 
the leaders of this movement, that if women could have obtained 
political influence in the beginning they would not have had to 
struggle fifty years for the other rights ; that many of these are of 
uncertain tenure and may be taken away by the same powers that 
granted them ; and that disfranchisement is a much greater disad- 
vantage than the usual limitations of sex. She fully realized that 
the right of suffrage is more difficult to obtain than all the others 
combined, because this alone has to receive the consent of a ma- 
jority of all the voters in a State, while the others depended sim- 
ply on the will of a Legislature, of a board of trustees, of individ- 
\ ual employers. She was sorely tried at seeing the body of male 
electors constantly augmented by ignorance and prejudice against 
the equality of women, as in the enfranchisement of a million ne- 
groes immediately after the Civil War; of thousands of Indians 
in recent years, and of hundreds of thousands of foreigners every 

f On the other hand Miss Anthony found great encouragement 
/ in the rapidly increasing influence of women in every direction ; 

/ she saw the number in the colleges approaching that of men, and 
the number of girls in the high schools far exceeding that of boys ; 
she saw women under liberal laws acquiring property and finan- 
cial power ; she saw an army of them enjoying the independence 
of self-support ; she saw millions united in various organizations, 
and these, in their work for social betterment, brought face to face 
with legislative bodies and taught their helplessness without a 

/ vote. The National Suffrage Association, which she had founded 
with a mere handful of women and carried through years of 
weakness and poverty, she saw expanded into a great organiza- 
tion, with affiliated branches in nearly every State ; with a strong 
corps of officers; with spacious headquarters, a large office force, 
a press bureau and a newspaper ; with a demand for literature that 
called for 600 pieces a day ; with an income ten times as large as a 
few years ago. She saw women of all classes, creeds and interests 
entering into the movement for the franchise, and an absolute 
revolution of public sentiment in its favor, as evidenced in the 


newspapers, magazines and utterances of eminent men and 

In the United States and many other countries Miss Anthony 
saw the growing tendency toward a destruction of aristocracy of 
place, wealth, political power and sex, and the establishment of a 
democracy along all lines. In the widespread imrest and changing 
ideals she saw the way preparing for the coming of women into 
their own, for the recognition of their absolute equality of rights. 
There is no question that she died in perfect confidence of the 
complete success of the movement to which she had devoted her 
life. On her eighty-fifth birthday she wrote: "We are likely to 
be cahn, cool and philosophic as we grow older. I certainly feel 
very much less anxiety about the final result of our cause than 
fifty years ago. Then I thought woman suffrage was coming 
right away, but now I know it is to come only through the slow 
process of education, and the results of that education are now re- 
vealing themselves all along the line." On returning from Cali- 
fornia she said in an interview, July 28, 1905 : "My work has al- 
ways progressed and it is making more rapid headway to-day 
than ever before. I can truthfully say, in looking back over my 
eighty-five years, that were it possible to live them over again, I 
would follow the same lines. Nearing the end, I am happy and 

The most noticeable point about these editorials was that, while 
unqualifiedly approving and indorsing all the gains which had 
been made for women by Miss Anthony and her coworkers, a 
considerable proportion expressed very grave doubts as to the 
possibility or desirability of woman suffrage. If they had been 
written a generation ago, the same grave doubts would have been 
expressed in regard to property rights, higher education, indus- 
trial opportunities and organizations of women with all that these 
imply in the way of travelling to and fro, speaking in public and 
importuning legislative bodies. Forty years ago all of these in- 
novations were opposed with just as much ridicule, vituperation 
and awful prophecy as were used against woman suffrage at that 
time. Now, by the general public sentiment which this mass of 
editorial expression represents, they are accepted with approba- 


O d 

< i 

< a 

Qi I 

Cl. == 

O hi 






tion and rejoicing, and toward the suffrage itself there is no viru- 
lent opposition, but simply a scepticism as to its ever arriving or 
its being necessary or even desirable. 

There never was so striking an illustration of that utter absence 
of logic which marks the usual discussion of woman suffrage as 
appeared in these editorials. They united in acknowledging Miss 
Anthony's foresight, judgment, clear thinking and fine reasoning 
powers ; they called her a public benefactor ; they agreed that all 
the rights which she demanded for women that had been secured, 
had resulted "not only in the betterment of women but of men 
also ;" that "their denial now would seem a reversion to barbar- 
ism;" that "they have been an essential factor in the elevation of 
the race ;" that, "through their concession, American womanhood 
and the American people have received a great uplifting toward 
purity, intelligence and justice." They declared also that "all 
these have been accomplished without any such impairment of the 
home or of womanhood as was predicted ;" and they asserted that 
"all these gains have come as the result of the agitation for 
woman suffrage." Having laid down these emphatic premises, 
they then deducted the conclusions that Miss Anthony's judgment 
might have been wrong in demanding the franchise ; that its effect 
upon the home, society and women themselves is problematic, and 
that it is doubtful whether women really want or need it. In 
reading these editorials one is confirmed in the belief that men in 
general are incapable of applying their ordinary reasoning proc- 
esses to a consideration of the question of woman suffrage. 

A very large per cent, of the editorials said women did not ap- 
preciate Miss Anthony and that she should have converted those 
of her own sex. If these three volumes of her Biography prove 
nothing else they certainly do offer indisputable proof of the in- 
tense devotion of women to Miss Anthony, not only those of her 
own country but also of many others. There is no example in all 
history of a woman so universally appreciated and loved by other 
women. From the continual harping on the necessity of convert- 
ing her own sex one would logically suppose that all of the other 
gains for women had been made because the majority demanded 
them, while as a matter of fact, not one of them had back of it the 


smallest fraction of the demand by women that they have for 
years been making for the suffrage. Great reforms have never 
been brought about because of the demand of the masses but 
always because of the foresight, wisdom and ability of their lead- 

Whenever a roll is made of the eminent women of this country 
who will be known to posterity, it is found to be composed almost 
wholly of those who have stood for the enfranchisement of their 
sex : Abigail Adams and Mercy Otis Warren, of Revolutionary 
times ; Lydia Maria Child, Abby Kelly, the Grimke sisters, of the 
early "abolition" days; Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, 
Susan B. Anthony, Lucy Stone, Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell, Harriet 
Beecher Stowe, Mary A. Livermore, Anna Dickinson, Elizabeth 
Peabody, Qara Barton, Dorothea Dix, Julia Ward Howe, Myra 
Bradwell, Maria Mitchell, Harriet Hosmer, Frances E. Willard, 
Jane L. Stanford, Jane Addams, Florence Kelley, Carrie Chap- 
man Catt, the Rev. Anna Howard Shaw, President M. Carey 
Thomas, Mrs. Russell Sage, Margaret A. Haley — ^there is scarce- 
ly an end to the distinguished names. 

To make a complete list of those living and working at the 
present time who are outspoken in favor of the franchise would 
be to name almost every one who is prominently connected with 
the organized life of the women of today — educational, philan- 
thropic, reformatory, civic, industrial — ^the presidents of nearly 
all large associations, the leaders of all progressive movements. 
It would be a list including practically all the representative 
women in the United States, and to this could be added an endless 
roster of those in professional life throughout the length and 
breadth of the land. No one class in this country ever made a de- 
mand for the suffrage which even approached in magnitude that 
which is now being made by women. 

This reiterated injunction to the advocates of woman suffrage 
to convert their own sex is simply the last refuge of opponents 
who have seen everything in the shape pf an argument refuted 
and demolished. 

The small organization of women known as the Anti-Suffrage 
Association will receive no solace or support from these editorials. 





One of its stock arguments is that the advantages women now 
/ enjoy are in no way due to Miss Anthony and the woman suffrage 
• movement. When nearly one thousand editors make the distinct 
i and unequivocal statement that these advantages are the direct 
' result of the work of Miss Anthony and her associates, and that 
the women of all time will reap the benefits of it and be under ob- 
ligations for it, we may accept this as a verdict which cannot be 
set aside. The Anti-Suffragists will find cold comfort in the oft- 
repeated statements that if all women were like Miss Anthony it 
might be advisable to entrust them with the ballot; and in the 
half-concealed sneers at the incompetence of women and the un- 
mistakable assumption of their general inferiority — sentiments 
which always will be found at the bottom of opposition to woman 

Some of the editorials said Miss Anthony would be better re- 
membered for her work for other reforms than for woman suf- 
\ frage; that she gave her best efforts for other causes; that she 
was gradually led to the belief in woman's right to the franchise ; 
' that she did not begin her labors for this imtil after the Civil 
, War. Miss Anthony commenced her actual public work in 1852 
— for temperance — and that year in a published appeal she de- 
• clared "the right of woman to march to the ballot box and deposit 
j a vote."* From this very year while she labored without ceasing 
: for temperance, for better laws for women and for the abolition 
\ of slavery, she subordinated every cause to that of woman suf- 
\ frage. If all that she accomplished along other lines had to be 
forgotten she would wish to be remembered for her work for 
the enfranchisement of women, which she always regarded as 
infinitely beyond and above all other reforms. Nothing irritated 
her so much as the superficial statement that "everything has been 
gained for women." She invariably answered, "Without the suf- 
frage they have the shadow, not the substance." 

Other editorials said the laws were now better for women 
than for men, that they had more legal rights in regard to 
property, etc. This assertion cannot be justified in a single State. 
Others prefixed the adjective "masculine" to Miss Anthony's 

^Volume I, pag« 71. 

Ant. Ill— 24 




Strongest attributes — "man-like courage," "power almost mas- 
culine" — everything great was masculine. Still others laid much 
stress on her "womanliness," and in the same breath objected to 
women's voting because "it might make them unwomanly to 
enter public life." A few were "glad for the sake of the home 
that she was not the typical woman." They failed to see that it 
would not be well for the home if all men followed the life of a 
reformer, and yet that homes are made safer, better and happier 
because a few brave men and women do consecrate their lives to 
the securing of reforms affecting domestic affairs and the con- 
ditions of community and State. 

The Savannah News said, "One of Miss Anthony's reforms 
was to have a recognition of God in the Constitution of the 
United States," an assertion which had not the slightest founda- 
tion. Other papers quoted her as saying: "Our cause will suc- 
ceed because God wills it ;" "we can never fail so long as God is 
God"— expressions that she never used.* An editorial in a Buf- 
falo (N. Y.), paper contained over twenty mistakes in dates, in- 
cidents, etc. Errors of a biographical or historical nature were, 
however, remarkably few. 

In all the newspaper comment there was a refreshing and en- 
couraging absence of such reference to "spinsterhood," "woman's 
sphere," "special functions" and the like as would have been uni- 
versal less than a generation ago. This indicates that the time has 
come when a woman may be judged in her individual capacity, 
just as a man is judged, which is one of the conditions Miss An- 
thony worked to bring about. With but few exceptions the per- 
sonality and career of this great woman were considered in the 
same spirit as those of a great man would be, and this universal 
expression of respect and appreciation is far more than a national 
eulogium on Miss Anthony. It is a recognition of her work 
which lifts it to an exalted plane and inspires with zeal and 
courage all who are earnestly striving to carry it forward. Thus 
even in death this grand, heroic soul continues the dominant pur- 
pose of a noble life. 

> See references to the Deit,y in preceding volumet. 













During the preparation of the Biography and the Fourth Vol- 
ume of the History of Woman Suffrage the present writer spent 
the larger part of seven years in the home of Susan B. An- 
thony. Taught to reverence her in childhood, an acquaintance in 
maturity had increased the profound admiration for her strong 
and beautiful character; but the study of her life and the years 
of close companionship revealed heights and depths undreamed 
of and at their end she seemed an infinitely greater woman than 
at their beginning. In remembrance of those inestimable years the 
writer offers as her personal tribute a few extracts from articles 
written at the time of Miss Anthony's death. 

(From Syndicate Article.) 

It has been said of Pericles, the great statesman and ruler of Greece, that 
"he found Athens brick and left it marble." This may be said of Susan B. 
Anthony as regards the status of woman, for she wrought as wonderful a 
transformation. ... No personal sacrifice was too great for Miss An- 
thony to make if she could advance the cause to which she consecrated her 
time, strength, ability, money, all there was of her — body, mind and heart 
She left the home she loved, she gave up marriage, she defied the conven- 
tions of society, she braved the world, for the single object of obtaining 
for women the rights of which they had been so long deprived, and without 
which they would always remain subordinate and undeveloped. 

Miss Anthony was the chief object of the early persecution for several 
reasons. She was unmarried, which a generation or two ago was an espe- 
cial reproach to a woman and a justification for making her a target; she 
struck her blows straight from the shoulder, called things by their right 
names, was absolutely fearless, accepted no compromises, was never silenced, 
never deceived, never turned aside from her purpose; she held men strictly 
to account and demanded justice; roused women from their self-compla- 
cency and made them realize their true position. She was the most danger- 
ous foe to the established order of things and therefore the one who must 
be crushed. But Miss Anthony never was crushed. Never for one moment 
did she cease from effort or doubt the ultimate success of her work. Her 
closest friends were always of the highest character and by the sheer force 
of her own strong personality she lifted her cause to a plane of universal 

A principal reason for the large following of loyal and devoted adherents 
which she retained through all the years was that she never rose to place 
and power on the shoulders of other people. Her hands were ever out- 
stretched to lift others up with herself, and she was always on the alert to 
discover ability in other women which she could help them utilize. One 
secret of her unfailing optimism was her absolute faith in women, which 


nothing could shake. If they proved a disappointment she would say, '^t is 
their inheritance, their environment, the next generation will do better." 
The vast reservoir of her trust in the final triumph of justice and right was 
never exhausted, and she left her faith and optimism as a priceless legacy 
to those who had already accepted her work as a sacred heritage. 

(From article "The Lighter Side") 

A leading quality of Miss Anthony was common sense, and there never 
was a more zealous adherent of the gospel of work. If she were utterly 
exhausted she would say: "I'm so lazy that I'm not doing anything today." 
When a woman came to her and said: "I'm praying for you all the time," 
she answered, "Well, pray with your hands and your feet; I like prayers 
that take the form of work." At the close of one of her speeches she said: 
"Now, I don't want all you women to rush up here and tell me how much 
you love me. If you really do love me you'll go home and get right to 
work." . . . Some one asked her if she didn't get very tired shaking 
hands with so many people. "Not so tired as I used to get when nobody 
wanted to shake hands with me," was the answer. 

Miss Anthony never would allow one woman to speak to her against an- 
other, but would always say, "Why can't you give other people credit for just 
as good motives as you have yourself?" She never descended to small poli- 
tics; personal animosities had no part in her life; all resolved itself into one 
question, "Will it help or hurt the cause?" In late years Mrs. Stanton used to 
accuse her of growing conservative, but she was simply tired of controversy, 
and, besides, she saw no benefit in arousing antagonism against woman suf- 
frage by advocating extraneous matters. Her unchanging belief was that 
women should get the suffrage first and then there would be positive force 
behind their opinions on all questions. 

There was a prevalent belief that Miss Anthony hated men. It would not 
have been strange if this were true, for she was misrepresented, ridiculed, be- 
rated and maligned publicly by them in her early years, and privately when 
general sentiment would no longer tolerate outspoken criticism. The laws she 
condemned were made by men ; the petitions she carried to legislative bodies 
were scorned by men; the questions she and her organization were obliged 
to submit to the voters were defeated by men almost continuously for forty 
years. They deceived her, they broke their promises, they lied to her, and they 
exulted over her because they had power to do these things. It would have 
been most natural for her to hate men — but she did not hate them. For many 
of them, indeed, she felt a profound contempt, and the h3rpocritical compli- 
ments to herself personally by those who were the enemies of all she stood for 
filled her soul with weariness and disgust In this she was no exception to 
other women who have had the same experience. 

But for men who were fair and broad enough to recognize the justice of her 
cause and to treat it and its advocates with respect, she had the highest appre- 
ciation, and for those who reached a helping hand she felt the deepest grati- 
tude and friendship. She enjoyed nothing more than a conversation with an 


educated, progressive man, and when to these qualities he added soundness of 
moral principles and integrity of character, no one exceeded her in admiration. 

As to herself marrying Miss Anthony often said to the writer : "Any woman 
will marry if the man she loves asks her. I am no different from other 
women." Once she said: "No woman is ever wholly independent who has 
yielded to her love nature either in marriage or out of it." Very few men 
came up to her standard for a husband, and in her young days the men who 
proposed marriage had no attraction for her. As she grew older she was so 
completely absorbed in her work that she did not have time to think of marry- 
ing. Once she actually had her secretary answer the letter of an old admirer 
who had become a widower and wished to renew their acquaintance. 

There is no doubt, however, that with her innate sense of impartial justice 
and personal independence the conditions of marriage in early days must have 
made it seem repugnant, for the wife in law and custom was literally a chattel, 
the property of the husband. 

For many years the announcement of Miss Anthony's presence anywhere 
was sure to attract a very large audience, and she was generally willing to 
give it if in this way she could help her cause, but of late she said many 
times: "Oh, I am so tired of being the white elephant to draw the crowd; if 
only I could feel that it was not really necessary and that I might stay at 
home !" She also grew very tired of having things attributed to her which she 
never said or did, and she often exclaimed : "Will I ever cease to be a target 
for anybody and everybody to aim at? I think I should like to be forgotten 
for awhile." 

Miss Anthony can never be forgotten, because the work she did will live for- 
ever and keep her memory fresh and beautiful. The little incidents here re- 
lated show simply the lighter side of her character ; volumes would be required 
to give an idea of its deeper currents. 

(From the New York Independent, March 22.) 

On the roll of America's great women the name of Susan B. Anthony must 
always stand at the head, because there never will be required of any other 
woman the long and hard pioneer work performed by her. Women of the 
present and of future generations will labor to bring about reforms and to ad- 
vance the interests of humanity, but they will never meet such conditions as 
Miss Anthony and her associates faced when they began their struggle to 
emancipate woman. That foremost of rights — ^the right to speak in public — 
was forbidden by a sentiment stronger than law. A custom equally potent pro- 
hibited them from advocating their cause in the newspapers. Wives — and 
most women were married — had practically no legal existence, could not own 
property, make a contract, bring suit, give testimony in court or control their 
wages. Women were not recognized as industrial factors and had almost no 
employment outside the home. They had no form of organization. Not a 
high school was open to them, while a college education was hardly dreamed 
of. Their position in every respect was much inferior to that of men. Their 
opinions on any question outside of domestic affairs had no weight whatever, 


and, indeed, the number who had any such opinions was infinitesimal. For 
the few brave ones who wished to change existing conditions, to carry their 
case before the public, to make their appeals to legislative bodies, there were 
only ridicule, contempt and denunciation. Most discouraging of all was the 
fact that these came from women as well as men, and that the strongest ob- 
stacle they met was the very class they were striving to benefit. 

Miss Anthony held the gavel at more conventions than any other woman, 
and as a presiding officer she was not equaled by any. She participated in 
more State campaigns than any other woman. She lectured from ocean to 
ocean and in almost every State and Territory, her platform work covering 
a period of fifty-seven years. She was the only woman, and, indeed, the 
only person, who gave over half-a-century of continuous work in the interest 
of one reform. She was the pioneer in securing for women every right 
and privilege they enjoy today — in laws, in education, in business oppor- 
tunities, in suffrage, in almost unlimited personal freedom. She struck the 
blows which undermined the wall of prejudice and custom that had sur- 
rounded women for ages and held them in a condition not far removed 
from actual bondage. She laid the foundation on which the women of all 
the future will build. Beyond all others she was made the target of ridicule, 
scorn, abuse and misrepresentation, because she was the most fearless, per- 
sistent and outspoken. Others would try to make converts by soft words, 
by concessions, by feminine attractions, but she, while always dignified and 
womanly, hewed to the line, told the unvarnished truth, never temporized, 
admitted no compromise. 

But in proportion as her early experiences were more severe, her later life 
had richer rewards than ever came to any other woman. Beyond all others 
she was recognized, honored and loved. Men and women alike paid tribute to 
herself and her work. She lived to see most that she fought for accomplished, 
and to know beyond any doubt that all she demanded would eventually be se- 

(From Collier's Weekly, March 31.) 

Many years ago the Chicago Tribune, edited by Joseph Medill, said of Miss 
Anthony: "She has stood the storm of abuse that she has aroused with 
perfect equanimity, and while others were cowed by the ridicule, which was 
hardest of all to bear, she used this opportunity to show to women the real 
opinion of them entertained by the stronger sex." 

This keen and truthful statement explains why, in the early years. Miss 
Anthony was more abused and hated by both men and women than any of 
the other reformers. She turned on the light. The masses of women had been 
for ages deceived into believing that men loved them because they were 
dependent and inert, and reverenced them because they accepted with meek- 
ness their inferior position. She pointed out to them that at their first effort 
to assert their liberty and independence they were overwhelmed with the 
derision and contempt of men who did not consider them worthy or capable 
of either. This angered the men and humiliated the women and both made 


common cause against the one who had dared disturb the existing order. But 
the old regime began to disintegrate and a new and infinitely better one to 
evolve. As the evolution of women themselves has continued the most of 
them have accepted each new opportunity as their birthright, with no more 
thought of those who secured it for them than has the child of the mother 
who risked her life that it might live. But to the credit of the sex and the 
race there are countless thousands who go back to the first cause, and they 
find it in those dauntless souls who suffered crucifixion for the salvation of 

(From the April Review of Reviews,) 

It is not possible to put into words the inferior status of women in the 
middle of the last century, when Miss Anthony, a young woman of thirty, 
stood forth as a leader of the most forlorn and hopeless cause that ever 
called for recognition and assistance. She started out to move the world 
without a spot on which to rest her lever. Those she wished to regenerate 
were for the most part an inert mass, who, when roused to action, only pro- 
tested against being disturbed. There was no homogeneity, no esprit de corps^ 
among women; each lived her narrow, isolated life, reaching out feebly to 
help those within immediate touch, but utterly unconscious of responsibility 
to the community in general or the world at large. They suffered from many 
wrongs, but they had been taught for countless generations that to protest was 
rebellion against the Divine Will. Church, State and Society combined to 
rivet their chains and when one came who would set them free, the oppres- 
sors crucified her and the oppressed gave sanction to the act. To face this 
situation, to stand almost single-handed against the tyranny, bigotry, preju- 
dice, ignorance and deep-seated customs of the ages, to have no precedent 
for a guide, no past victories for an inspiration, no present sympathy or grati- 
tude — this was what it meant to wage the battle for the rights of women 
half-a-century ago. Now practically all of these hard conditions have been 
met and conquered, so there never will be, there never can be, another Susan 
B. Anthony. She will forever stand alone and unapproached, her fame con- 
tinually increasing as evolution lifts humanity into higher appreciation of 
justice and liberty. 

The most persecuted of all women in her early days. Miss Anthony was 
the most honored of all in the closing years of her life. In her own country 
she long has stood without a peer. At the great International Council of 
Women in London, in 1899, and again at the one held in Berlin, in 1904, she 
was welcomed by representatives of all nations as leader of the women of the 
world. None ever has received such recognition because of service rendered 
to humanity. In history she will be known as the Liberator of Woman, and 
endless generations will read the story of her life with gratitude and rever- 

(From the April North American Review.) 

The world in its progress reached a period about the middle of the last 
century when it needed just such a reformer as Susan B. Anthony. The time 


had come for the regeneration of that half of humanity neglected in the 
struggle for existence through which the race has evolved from savagery to 
civilization. In this struggle, woman, handicapped hy motherhood, domestic 
requirements and physical limitations, had not been able to keep pace with 
man, and, as the natural result, had become wholly subject to his laws, cus- 
toms and commands. When the claims of material necessities began to grow 
less strenuous, there came an opportunity for the more spiritual forces to 
gain recognition, and thus dawned the era of free womanhood. 

A few prophets among women had been crying in the wilderness for a 
number of years when Elizabeth Cady Stanton sounded her trumpet-call for 
a gathering of the believers in 1848. Its echoes reached to the East and the 
West and slumbering forces were roused to action. The spirit of unrest con- 
tinued to spread; women began to wonder and ask questions; the time was 
ripe for a revolution and the one to direct it was at hand, for just as the 
century turned into its second half, came Susan B. Anthony. No one who 
makes a careful study of the great movement for the emancipation of woman 
can fail to recognize in Miss Anthony its supreme leader. Her powers of 
speaking and writing were surpassed, perhaps, by the splendid abilities of 
Mrs. Stanton; but, as a planner, an organizer, a manager, a politician in the 
best sense of the word, Miss Anthony was unequaled. The qualities of these 
are even more essential in the campaign work necessary to a cause which 
enters the domain of politics than are those of the orator or the writer. 

But there were other traits possessed by Miss Anthony which made her 
leadership pre-eminent. She had a keen discernment of special gifts in other 
women which could be utilized and a faculty for bringing and keeping them 
in the work. Almost beyond any other, she had the power to create a fol- 
lowing which would remain unwaveringly loyal and devoted in the face of 
repeated disappointments and defeats. She was endowed, as few others have 
been, with an unflinching courage, determination and spirit of personal sacri- 
fice, which were needed more in her especial work than in any other ever 
undertaken by woman. But the strongest reason why Susan B. Anthony will 
\ be ever acknowledged the general-in-chief of this long contest for the free- 
dom of woman is that she is the only one who gave to it her whole life, 
- consecrating to its service every hour of her time and every power of her 
I being. Other women did what they could; came into the work for a while 
and dropped out; had the divided interests of family and social relations; 
turned their attention to reforms which promised speedier rewards; surren- 
dered to the forces of persecution which assailed them. With Miss Anthony, 
the cause of woman took the place of husband, children, society; it was her 
work and her recreation ; her politics and her religion. "I know only woman 
and her disfranchised," was her platform and her creed. 

On the evening of February 15, the eighty-sixth birthday of Miss Anthony 
was celebrated in Washington, the city which had welcomed her so many 
times during the past forty years. Letters of congratulation were read from 
the President of the United States, from Senators, Representatives, many dis- 
tinguished men and women. Those she loved were gathered around her and 


all about was the earnest, sympathetic audience which had ever been her 
inspiration. Robed in her soft, black gown, relieved as always with delicate 
lace, her silver hair parted over her noble brow, she sat there just as she had 
so many times before — ^and yet there was a difference. The great reformer, 
the orator, the planner of campaigns, seemed to have faded into the back- 
ground and left instead only the beautiful, beloved woman, with an expression 
so spiritual that to every heart came the thrill of sorrowful thought— This is 
the last I One month from that night the snow was falling on her new-made 




EADERS of these volumes of the Biography of 
Susan B. Anthony doubtless have noticed how 
closely through the warp and woof of her life has 
run the thread of that of her sister Mary, who was 
seven years her junior. From the birth of the 
younger sister the two lived under the same roof and for seventy- 
nine years they enjoyed the closest companionship. Two persons 
were never more unlike in temperament or more alike in aims 
and ideals, while in the practical affairs of life, each was the 
needed complement of the other. Although so different by nature, 
yet so strong was their character, so complete their self-control, 
so deep their affection, that impatient words, misunderstandings 
or opposing actions were wholly absent. Miss Anthony had a 
national reputation for almost forty years before the general pub- 
lic knew of the quiet sister at home, who all this time had been 
her moral, physical and many times her financial support. The 
two sisters a little older and a little younger than Miss Anthony 
married at an early age and remained behind when the family 
removed from Eastern to Western New York in 1845. The two 
brothers went to Kansas to reside in the early fifties, and thence- 
forth Susan B. and Mary S. were the only ones at home. After 
the death, in 1862, of the father, who had always been a tower 
of strength to Miss Anthony, she learned to depend on the 
capable, steadfast, loyzl sister, and this dependence increased, as 
the years went by, up to the last hour of her life. 

Mary Stafford Anthony was born April 2, 1827, in Battenville, 



Washington Co., N. Y., the next year after the family removed 
there from Adams, Mass. She was but ten years old when the 
fortune of her father was swept away by the panic of 1837, and 
she grew to womanhood under conditions of the closest economy, 
the lessons then learned remaining with her through life. Mr. 
and Mrs. Anthony educated their daughters carefully, which was 
unusual for those early days, and at seventeen Mary taught the 
district school at Fort Edward, receiving $1.50 a week and 
"boarding round." The family soon afterwards settling on a 
farm near Rochester, she found plenty of occupation at home for 
the next eight years, but all of her spare hours were given to study 
and she was especially proficient in mathematics and history. In 
1854 she returned to her old home and taught one year in the 
district school and one in a private school at Easton, N. Y. She 
entered the public schools of Rochester as a teacher in 1856, and 
became principal of Ward School No. 2 in 1868, where she re- 
mained until 1883. At this time she resigned her position, having 
devoted thirty years to the profession of teaching, twenty-seven 
of these in the public schools of Rochester. She was an excellent 
disciplinarian and teacher, and many of the prominent men and 
women of that city recall with pride the days when they were her 
pupils. She retained always the keenest interest in schools, teach- 
ers and all matters connected with education.^ After the father 
died the family left the farm and went into town and for ten 
years before the mother's death, in 1880, she was an invalid, the 
last six years entirely helpless. During all this time Miss Mary 
had full charge of the house and of her mother, and during much 
of it the additional care of young nieces and nephews. It was a 
time when there had to be a stove in every room, when there was 
no running water or any of the modem conveniences, and when 
most of the food had to be prepared at home. Every morning 
before going to school she put the house in order, bathed and 
dressed her mother, cooked her breakfast and gave it to her and 
did the day's marketing. She slept on a couch in the sick room 
and was up to look after the invalid many times every night. In 

^ For instances showing Miss Mary's strong stand for woman's rifl^t to equal pay see 
Chapter XII, pages 191, 192. 


the chapters devoted to those years numerous instances may be 
seen of the help and encouragement she found time to give to her 
sister, who was passing through the severest stress and storm of 
her existence. 

The whole life of Mary Anthony was one of self-sacrifice and 
service to others. When her mother had passed beyond need of 
her care and she had given up the duties of the schoolroom, she 
did not pause for the rest she had so fully earned but turned at 
once to other fields of usefulness. An earnest member of the 
W. C. T. U. she did all in her power to promote its aims ; she 
was also an active worker in the Red Cross Association and was 
with Miss Clara Barton through all the calamity of the Johnstown 
flood. Every line of the varied activities of the Unitarian Church 
received her assistance. She was an officer of the city's Committee 
of Charities and gave her personal attention to scores of individ- 
ual cases. Many days of every year were devoted to mending and 
making over for poor children garments which she had collected 
from friends, and no day was too inclement for her to carry these 
and baskets of food where they were needed. She substituted 
without charge for teachers who were ill and could not afford to 
lose their salary ; and she took care of sick mothers whose daugh- 
ters were obliged to go away from home to earn the daily bread. 

In the years preceding and during the Civil War her very soul 
was enlisted in the effort to abolish slavery, and after this had 
been done she felt always the strongest friendship and sympathy 
for the negro race, which she manifested in many helpful ways. 
As was the case with her sister, however, the dominating interest 
of her whole life was in securing equality of rights for women. 
When that immortal first Woman's Rights Convention of 1848 
adjourned from Seneca Falls to Rochester, she and her father 
and mother joyfully attended and signed the "Declaration." 
Nearly fifty years afterwards, at the urgent request of the Unity 
Club, she gave at one of its meetings some "reminiscences" of the 
old Unitarian Church on Fitzhugh Street long since swept out of 
existence by the inroads of business, in which she said : 

This church was memorable to me personally for two distinct epochs in my 
life that I have always counted among the most fortunate. It was the church 


Agbd About Twbnty-Fivb, from a Dagubrrbotypb. 


in which my father for the first time felt that he could conscientiously listen 
to what the Society of Friends called "hireling ministry," a paid minister, 
music and all the accompanying formalities of church service. Those of you, 
who when young loved music, can appreciate my pleasure in the change from 
the long and often silent Quaker meeting, broken at last only by the hand- 
shaking, to one where instrumental and vocal music was followed by a good 
sermon, interesting to old and young alike, and then more music. The liberal 
preaching of William Henry Channing in 1852 proved so satisfactory that it 
was not long before this was our accepted church home. . . . 

The other event was the meeting here of the first Woman's Rights Conven- 
tion, July 2, 1848, to commence the great struggle for woman's equality. 
... At its close dear Lucretia Mott thanked the members for their liber- 
ality in opening the doors of the church to such a convention, and said that, 
a few years before, the Female Moral Reform Society of Philadelphia ap- 
plied for the use of a church in that city in which to hold their annual meet- 
ing. They were finally allowed to use the basement, but only on condition that 
no woman should speak. Accordingly one clergyman was called in to preside 
and another to read the reports of their work which the ladies of the society 
had prepared. 

As deeply interested as Miss Mary was in all progressive move- 
ments she never had dreamed it possible that she could raise her 
voice in their behalf in public. The most modest and unassuming 
of women she had cheerfully remained in the background, not 
even seeking to shine by the reflected light of her sister's renown ; 
but her worth and ability were gradually becoming known and 
Miss Anthony was constantly urging her to take a larger part in 
public work. In 1892, against her protest, she was made presi- 
dent of the Rochester Political Equality Club and continued in 
this office for eleven years — until she insisted on resigning at the 
age of seventy-six. In 1893 she was elected corresponding secre- 
tary of the New York State Suffrage Association. Her work 
during the great amendment campaign is described in Chapter 
XLII, and at the end of it she was made secretary emeritus. 

Through the developing experience of the local club work Miss 
Mary became a most acceptable presiding officer and speaker. 
Retiring as was her nature she had nevertheless much self-pos- 
session ; her appearance was pleasing, her voice was excellent and 
she had always something of interest and value to say. Under 
her presidency the club flourished and reached a membership of 
over two hundred, and the first and last meetings of the year 
always were held in her home. Her addresses, which were much 


in demand in Rochester and the neighboring towns, were keen, 
logical and marked by the quiet humor and good-natured sarcasm 
which were so apparent in her conversation. Among the subjects 
considered were. Growth of Suffrage Sentiment in England and 
America; What Constitutes Christian Citizenship? Do the Ma- 
jority of Women Want to Vote? Woman Suffrage Catechism; 
Mile-stones Showing Progress of Women; Arguments of the 
Anti-Suffragists; Origin and Advance of the Woman's Rights 
Movement. Her annual president's address always showed a 
close study of current events. During the later years of her life 
she made several long journeys, accounts of which were embodied 
in delightful papers that were read before a number of clubs. 
Some of these were, A Tour of Europe (1899) ; To the Pacific 
Coast and Home Again; Berlin and the International Council, 
comprising thirty-one typewritten pages. These papers illus- 
trated her acuteness of observation, common sense views and 
logical deductions, while they were diversified by bits of descrip- 
tion showing her fine appreciation of the beautiful and historic. 

As Miss Mary gained confidence in herself and the long-re- 
pressed nature expanded, she ventured to send brief articles to the 
newspapers, always making her point in a few strong sentences. 
Especial attention was attracted by her Protests against paying 
her taxes when she had no representation. She began making 
these Protests in 1897, continuing them for ten years, and as 
they were widely published they had a very considerable effect in 
calling attention to the injustice of taxing women and allowing 
them no voice in levying and disbursing the taxes or in choosing 
the persons who should do this. A few examples will indicate 
her logical position. 

1901: Enclosed find $62.63, city tax, which I pay under protest, still be- 
lieving that taxation without representation is just as great "tyranny** today, 
under the so-called republican government of the United States, as it was in 
1776 under the monarchical government of King George III. Yours for 
Equal Rights. 

1902 : At the expense of $1,000,000 collected from the men and women tax- 
payers of the United States, 3,000 Indian men in Oklahoma, many of whom 
cannot read or write and do not pay a dollar of taxes into the public treasury, 
have just had the suffrage thrust upon them. Thus they are made by the 


Government the political superiors of women in all the States but four- 
Wyoming, Colorado, Utah and Idaho. With profound admiration for this 
'*jewel of consistency," added to the many others in the crown of our re- 
public, I herewith enclose $15.33 county tax levied on my property for 1901 
and, as heretofore, wish it distinctly marked on your books, "Paid under pro- 
test." Yours for the right to vote as well as for the privilege of being taxed. 

1903: We are cheered by the news that the next accession to the "Crown 
of Citizenship'' will probably be the remains of the various tribes of Indians 
in this State of New York, blankets, feathers, war-whoop and all, to help 
guide our "Ship of State" into ports of safety. It will be a matter of pride 
to see them standing side by side with our other lawmakers, helping to enact 
the laws for 200/xx) intelligent, educated, law-abiding, taxpaying women of 
the State to obey. In the name of all that is honorable and fair, I protest 
against such injustice. 

1904: Once more all women politically classed with minors, criminals, 
lunatics and idiots are compelled to contribute to the support of a Government 
which denies them any voice in the control of its affairs; and once more I 
pay my taxes under protest. Please so record it. 

1905 : Another instance of the old-time "chivalry :" In the new Statehood 
Bill for Oklahoma and Arizona, as presented to Congress, women are classed 
with minors, illiterates, criminals, lunatics and idiots — ^as unfit for self-govern- 

A minor may live to become of age, the illiterate to be educated, the crimi- 
nal to be pardoned, the lunatic to regain his reason the idiot to become intelli- 
gent — when each and all can help decide what shall be the laws and who 
shall enforce them — but the women — ^never. They must ever and always sub- 
mit to the injustice of being governed in whatsoever manner the male por- 
tion of the citizens see fit The shame of it ! 

I protest against paying taxes to a Government which allows its women to 
be thus treated. 

1906: (Referring to a flagrant case in Rochester.) . . . Until when 
women are on trial they can have the presence of women, not only in the 
audience, but to serve in pleading their cases and to constitute one-half the 
jury, equal justice cannot be rendered. Men alone are no more capable of 
dealing out justice to women than women alone could be trusted to deal out 
justice to men. The combined judgment of both men and women would surely 
be better than either alone. 

At the expense of being flippantly termed "reformers" by one of our daily 
papers, a few women ventured to defy criticism and witness the kind of 
justice meted out to the voting and non-voting participants in the illegal 
transactions, and were made to see more clearly than ever before the neces- 
sity of possessing the right of franchise— the right protective of every other 
right. Again I protest against paying taxes while refused this right 

1907: (Last protest) It is almost inconceivable that even now, in this 
twentieth century, intelligent men still continue to choose the aid in govern- 
mental affairs of the most ignorant and depraved classes of men, even of 
pardoned criminals, while politically ignoring the intelligent and educated 
women of their own households. 


As ever and always, I still protest against helping to support a Govern- 
ment manifestly so unjust to one-half of its people. 

This spirited action on the part of Miss Mary soon encouraged 
other women to follow her example, and so many demanded that 
"Paid under protest" should be placed on the record that one of 
the daily papers advised the treasurer to open a new set of books 
for the "protesting" citizens. 

The conviction that the question of the vote for women was 
paramount to every other grew stronger each year and to this 
Miss Mary finally devoted nearly all her contributions of labor 
and money. At a public meeting in 1905, when donations for a 
certain purpose were called for and Miss Anthony urged her to 
subscribe, she answered firmly, "No; my money is going where 
other people's will not go, and that is to the cause of woman 
suffrage." One of many instances of this kind which might be 
given is found in her letter to a prominent man who asked for a 
subscription to the George Junior Republic : 

My life work thus far, together with what means can be spared from my 
little income, has been religiously devoted to the task of making our senior 
republic true to itself. A republic, according to the best authority, is a state 
where the sovereign power is exercised by representatives elected by the 
people, not one which ignores one-half and at the same time compels them 
to help support a government managed by the other half. 

The "Junior Republic" lad who was here last year informed us, with all 
the assurance of Young America, that the girls in that republic had been 
allowed to vote that year the same as the boys, but the experiment was not 
considered a success and probably would not be continued. I have not heard 
the results of his prophecy. Probably, following in the footsteps of the senior 
republic, the girls there have been forced to give up their rights and meekly 
submit to the dictatorship of the boys. Such ruling cannot fail to work harm 
to both classes, causing the one to feel and act in many cases the part of the 
unjust judge, while the other, in yielding to such usurpation, loses the inde- 
pendent force and will-power necessary for great achievements. Yours for 
a true republic, senior or junior. 

It had always been a source of much regret to Miss Mary that 
women were not admitted to the University of Rochester and she 
had many times agitated the question. When a fund was being 
raised for this purpose in 1900, she decided to give at once the 
$2,000 for a scholarship which she had intended to leave in her 


will. After the women were admitted and before the money was 
paid over, several things occurred which raised a doubt as to 
whether they were really to enjoy the full privileges of the uni- 
versity, among them the refusal to allow women students to com- 
pete for the prizes, and she wrote several letters to obtain assur- 
ance on this point. One of them, to Mrs. Ellen C. Eastwood, 
treasurer of the Fund Committee, was as follows : 

You and many of the women who have devoted so much of their time and 
labor to give our girls the advantage of a college education may think me 
entirely out of the way in my demands for strict adherence to the pledge of 
the university trustees for the perfect equality of rights and privileges for 
them, but experience teaches us that failure to adhere to a pledge in any one 
respect, only serves to make it easy to violate it in another and still another 
instance, until it virtually amounts to nothing. 

Since the wealthy women of our city would not come to the front in this 
work, it was left for those to do, many of whom, like myself, have spent the 
greater part of life in steady, plodding labor preparing for the "rainy day," 
but fully alive to the necessity of giving the young women of our city broader 
opportunities to fit themselves for work. To give of money which has 
"fallen into one's lap" without effort of her own is an easy matter, but to 
give large amounts from the hard earnings of years is quite a different thing. 
It is only from a deep sense of justice to our girls that I could think of 
contributing so large a sum as $2,000, and it is only that same feeling which 
makes me insist that they shall have the full benefit of the sacrifices made 
for them. 

I am not alone in my anxiety on this question, and, as treasurer of the 
fund, it seems to me you should see that a plain statement from the trustees 
is presented to the public assuring them that if any departure from the orig- 
inal pledge has been made it shall be rectified and the pledge adhered to in 
every particular. 

The treasurer could give no definite information and Miss 
Mary then wrote to the Board of Trustees, saying in part : 

I have been reading of the action of Chicago University "segregating" the 
sexes in that institution, and also of the proposed "adjustment of questions 
incident to the admission of women on equal terms with men in Rochester 
University," neither of which is at all re-assuring to lovers of Fair Play. . . . 

It is in no spirit of fault-finding that I have expressed my views but from 
a most earnest desire that the young women who are brave enough to meet 
the new conditions in school life shall receive their full share of encourage- 
ment. No one can question the stimulus derived from their competing with 
the young men, not only in every day studies, but also for prizes— as the 
Ailing prize for Debate, the Dewey prize for Declamation and all premiums 
Ant. Ill— 2S 


for good scholarship.. If "the prize money was given by people who had 
no thought or wish that young women should share its benefits," so also 
when the money was contributed for the college itself there was no thought 
that young women would ever share its benefits. Does not the pledge under 
which we made our subscriptions cover both cases? Yours for justice to boys 
and girls alike. 

To this appeal the president of the board, Rufus A. Sibley, sent 
a curt answer, giving no assurance whatever as to her points of 
inquiry. She was very reluctant to pay her subscription under 
these circumstances, but was finally prevailed upon to do so, 
largely through the position taken by the Rev. W. C Gannett that 
"the main thing had been accomplished in opening the educational 
advantages of the university to girls," and that "there must of 
necessity be many details left to the judgment of the trustees." 
She was not, however, fully satisfied, and in her letter to the 
treasurer of the fund she said : 

The pledge on the first page of the subscription book says: "The uni- 
versity will admit women to it, and to all its departments and branches of 
instruction, and to all privileges pertaining thereto, including scholarships, 
etc., in the same manner and upon the same terms and conditions as those 
which govern the admission and membership of men;" and furthermore that 
"the money herein subscribed shall be paid only when its trustees by ap- 
propriate and irrevocable action admit women in the manner hereinbefore 
mentioned." This certainly, so far as I can see, covers the entire question. 
Nevertheless, trusting that right will prevail and that perfect equality of 
privileges will be made the supreme law of the university, I fulfil my part 
of the obligation contained in the pledge of the subscribers by enclosing my 
check for $2,000. 

On May 13, 1899, in company with Dr. and Mrs. J. E. Sanford 
and daughter Madeline, and Mr. and Mrs. D. M. Anthony and 
daughter Gertrude, all of Rochester, Miss Mary sailed for a tour 
of Europe. They travelled 12,000 miles, visiting the principal 
points in France, Italy, Switzerland, England, Scotland and Ire- 
land, and stopping in London for a part of the International 
Council of Women. Miss Mary was at this time seventy-two 
years old and during the entire trip she was not ill an hour, never 
complained of fatigue, was equal to every undertaking, even that 
of climbing Mt. Vesuvius, appreciated and enjoyed everything, 
and came home, well, happy and eager to resume her duties. On 


May 19, 1904, as related in Chapter LXIV, she went again to 
Europe, attended the International Council of Women in Berlin 
and visited friends in Switzerland and England with Miss An- 
thony. As soon as she felt that her sister no longer needed her 
companionship there she hastened home, arriving July 26, in good 
health and cheerful spirits, "glad to get back to my native land 
and my native language," the diary said. While abroad her let- 
ters to friends had been given by them to the papers and pub- 
lished imder conspicuous headlines, and on her return she was 
"interviewed" to the extent of several columns. The reporters, 
not only in Rochester but elsewhere, had been learning in late 
years that she had some very interesting things to say. 

Miss Anthony had tried to keep Miss Mary in England to make 
a round of visits with her, but neither then nor at any previous 
or subsequent period could she be convinced that people cared to 
know or entertain her except for the sake of her sister, and it 
often required all the persuasive powers of the latter to induce 
her to accept invitations and other attentions. At councils and 
conventions she would take the simplest room at the hotel and 
keep herself modestly in the background, perfectly contented just 
to see the work and listen to the speeches for the cause which was 
to her the dearest thing in life; and she was supremely happy at 
the universal recognition of Miss Anthony, whose early trials she 
so vividly remembered. But Miss Mary was deeply loved for her 
own admirable qualities by those who learned to know her well, 
and affectionately regarded by the hundreds who enjoyed the 
courtesies of that most hospitable home, where she so capably 
filled the double role of Mary and Martha. In looking over the 
letters she received it seemed as if every one spoke of some kind 
and helpful act. On April i, 1901, the Rev. Anna Howard Shaw 
wrote her : 

I may not have time to run ap to 17 Madison St., tomorrow morning on 
my way through Rochester, to give you my congratulations on your birthday, 
so I will write a little love note. I am glad you were bom and wish it had 
not been quite so long ago, but as I was not consulted in time the mistake 
of having you too soon was made. I only hope the good health and wide 
interests which keep you so active and useful will stay with you through 
the many years in which I trust you may still bless your community. Here 


is my sincere appreciation of your long life full of happiness and helpfulness 
as it has been in the past. I want to declare my affection for you and my 
gratitude for the many kindnesses you have shown me and the warm welcome 
you give me every time I go to your home. My greatest ambition is to be 
worthy of the unselfish love of yourself and Aunt Susan. May the good pow- 
ers above keep and bless you. 

Do take Mrs. Harper's and my advice to get all the good times you can. 
Go wherever you feel that you will enjoy things. Take the trip to Minneap- 
olis and Leavenworth with Aunt Susan and make a swing of visits. The 
house will stand. 

On the same date Miss Lucy E. Anthony wrote : 

As I get out a sheet of my best paper on which to pen a little birthday note 
to you it brings to my mind the time when I was a youngster in your home 
and you used to give me your prettiest note paper and lend me your gold pen 
to use in writing special letters, Christmas, birthday, etc. And this leads me 
on to thinking and thinking of how you have always been willing and ready 
to give of your best thought and service to all of us, and always have had time 
to listen with sympathy to all of our plans, aspirations and troubles. Surely 
your nieces and nephews are blessed in having such an aunt, and when we 
realize that we have a pair of them in you and Aunt Susan — we are indeed 
twice blessed I 

My dear Aunt Mary, I think of you every day, and I have realized every 
day for many years what you did for me all those years I was in Rochester 
and I wish that you might really know the gratitude and thankfulness I feel. 
... If ever a phrase "seventy-four years young*' were applicable it cer- 
tainly is in your case — for you do not look a day over sixty-four, and your 
pretty complexion and pink cheeks — like Grandma's — give no sign of age. 

May all blessings be yours this new year and if you receive in a hundredth 
measure as you have given they will shower upon you. 

When Miss Mary started from London on her long voyage 
home in 1904, alone except for one or two acquaintances on board, 
Lucy wrote in her "steamer" letter : "How I wish you could have 
remained with us ! We will look after Aunt Susan the very best 
we can. You know she is difficult to keep in line but we will try 
hard to deliver her safely into your hands the last of August. 
. . . You have taught me many, many lessons, dear Aunt 
Mary, both by example and precept, but, unlike most teachers, 
yours have been chiefly by example. I think you don't begin to 
realize how many people are constantly learning from your lovely, 
thoughtful and generous ways, but many are, and many of us 


know that the truest generosity is in the giving of one's own self, 
one's time, strength and thought for others, and that is your life." 
And in her letter Miss Shaw wrote : 

It has been a real pleasure to us all and to me in particular to have had a 
little nearer acquaintance with you. Somehow at home you are always occu- 
pied with the house and the local work, and we, when we have come to 
Rochester, have had so much business to look after that we have not had 
time to sit down quietly and know each other. This trip has done more for 
us in that line than all the years of suffrage work and I am thankful for it 

Dear Aunt Mary, I want you to realize how much I care for you person- 
ally. You get so in the habit of feeling you are Aunt Susan's sister that you 
forget you are yourself and as yourself are appreciated and loved. It has 
been a pleasure to see you enjoying your trip and I am sure you will feel 
the better for it after you go home. Take things easily and don't use up all 
your strength. You have a good deal of it now and must keep it, and if you 
take ordinary care of yourself — ^just half the care of yourself that you give to 
Aunt Susan — ^you will be good for many years of useful service. 

Again I want to tell you I love you very dearly and appreciate your un- 
selfish devotion to all of us who in any way serve our cause. I know of 
no other woman who gives her life in the quiet, unassuming way in which 
you do, and yet you are unconscious of any sacrifice or merit. Heaven keep 
you on this trip ! We all hate to have you go home without us and it would 
have added to the pleasure of all of us if you had stayed until we went too. 
We will do our best to look after Aunt Susan. 

Among the letters of 1905 is the following from the Hon. 
George Herbert Smith, trustee of the Unitarian Church in Roch- 
ester and member of the Legislature from that district : 

I am so glad that the celebration was of the birthdays of you both. 

Your unfailing devotion, your splendid work and your countless sacrifices 
for the cause have been an encouragement and a shining example for many, 
in addition to the good accomplished by the work itself. 

I wonder if you can know or guess how many people in Rochester, and 
elsewhere too, are ready to believe in your stand for political equality be- 
cause you were once their teacher and they are sure you must be right. 
That you may abide long in the land with us and continue to point out things 
that we may do for the cause of woman, is the devout wish of yours most 

As Miss Anthony grew older and less strong Miss Mary took 
upon herself more and more of her sister's work. She had long 
been accustomed to keep in scrap books matters connected with 
her club and those of local interest, but after the last volume of 


the History of Woman Suffrage was finished in 1902 and Miss 
Anthony ceased her own scrap book collections of fifty years. 
Miss Mary began at once to preserve the newspaper clipping^ of 
national affairs relating to women and especially everything con- 
nected with her sister. She spent many days of every month cut- 
ting and pasting, and had it not been for her scrap books and the 
carefully kept records of the journeys of the last three or four 
years, some of the most valuable material for the writing of this 
volume would have been forever lost. Only those who have 
dwelt under the same roof can ever know the extent of her per- 
sonal service to her sister. This is referred to particularly in the 
account of her seventieth birthday celebration, Chapter XLIX, 
and in many other places in these volumes. Miss Anthony's at- 
tachment to her home and family was so intense that, if they had 
suffered by her absence, she would not have done her public work, 
but she had always the knowledge that every need of the house- 
hold was looked after by the efficient, faithful, ever-present sister. 
During the nearly sixty years of Miss Anthony's public life they 
always exchanged letters several times a week when she was away 
from home. Figuratively and almost literally Miss Mary kept 
the candle in the window for her return from her hundreds of 
journeys, her room in readiness and every comfort provided. 
She did Miss Anthony's shopping and all her errands, mended 
her clothes, put the lace and ruching in her dresses, helped pack 
her trunks, looked after the tickets and went with her to the sta- 
tion. During the last years she was sister, mother, daughter ; she 
warmed the overshoes and wraps when Miss Anthony was going 
out, cooked special articles of food, prepared the bath and carried 
her through the many slight attacks of illness. Miss Anthony 
had always the fullest appreciation of these services which she 
many times expressed in public and private. When her Biog- 
raphy was finished in 1898 she wrote in the first copy: "To my 
youngest sister, Mary, without whose faithful and constant home- 
making there could have been no freedom for the outgoing of her 
grateful and affectionate sister." 

During Miss Anthony's last illness Miss Mary was so calm and 
outwardly so cheerful that those in the house thought she did not 


know the end was near. She did, however, fully realize it but 
her self-control was so perfect that she made no sign. What the 
severing of the ties of nearly eighty years meant to her was be- 
yond all expression in words, but she met the crushing sorrow 
with the sweet serenity and noble courage that had characterized 
her entire life. 

The feeling of all was expressed by an editorial in the Union 
and Advertiser which said in part : 

Women's hearts are saddened far and near today as the news spreads that 
Susan B. Anthony has gone from earthly life, but none is so heavy with grief 
as that of the sister whose life was bound in the existence of the great de- 
parted reformer and whose every thought and effort was for the success 
of what the elder was striving for even unto the very end of her long career. 
To that bereaved one goes out the warmest sympathy from every quarter of 
the world, and were it possible Mary Anthony's burden of sorrow would be 
taken from her as she looks on the quiet form lying in the house where so 
many happy and busy hours were passed by the sisters. . . . The home on 
Madison Street, kept bright and cheerful by "Sister Mary," was a haven of 
rest after long and arduous trips, and the scene of hard work as well. Miss 
Anthony loved it with the true feminine love of the hearth-stone. It is hushed 
and desolate now with the living presence of the famous woman gone forever. 

Many of the letters received by Miss Mary at this time are 
given in a preceding chapter; a few of a more personal nature 
seem to belong here. Mrs. Charlotte Perkins Oilman wrote: 
"This is only to say that while the world mourns its great loss, 
while a million women miss their leader and their friend, I am 
grieving especially for you. It is hard to live on glory and the 
good of the people when one's heart aches. Love, courage and 
strength to you." From a very old friend and co-worker, Mrs. 
Martha J. H. Stebbins, came the message : "Wherever Susan B. 
Anthony's name is written in words of loving appreciation your 
name will always stand by its side, as all know that her work was 
possible only because you were unflagging in a service that never 
wavered or failed however great the effort required. . . . With 
sincerest sympathy from all the friends and members of the club." 
Mrs. Jean Brooks Greanleaf, one of the nearest and dearest to her, 
sent this loving tribute : 

You are constantly in my thoughts. Words mean so very little at such a 


time and yet we must say them to ease our heart's effort to help those 
we love. You have so much that is beautiful to help you bear this trying but 
perfectly natural sorrow. No unperformed duty to your sister can be remem- 
bered to add to your grief. Your perfect union, while it makes the sense of 
loss keener, is such a precious link between you still. To know how the 
world has come to love and appreciate the great soul is in itself a consola- 
tion. But more beautiful than all is the knowledge that Susan B. Anthony 
went home with her intellectual forces undimmed by age or disease, with her 
noble heart as full as ever of the passionate love of