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Life at Mansfield 

A Visual Reminiscence 



— Contributors — 


irmody, Sharor 

i Newhart, Christie 





Sheffer, Mary Mc 





Sweder, James 




Swinsick, Phyllis 


MftNIWiiD university 1 
•*■"•«•«. pa iew3-;i^ 



This book is dedicated to Hartley Dean and Tom Halloran 
as a token of appreciation for their years of loyalty to 
"Dear 01' Mansfield." 

Copyright 1984 


The following people have provided special assistance in the crea- 
tion of this book: 

Les Achey 
Audrey Baynes 
John Baynes 
Stephen Bencetic 
George Beyer 
James Carlson 
Ron Costello 
Vivian Dean 
Dale Dunmore 
Leona Dunmore 
Clarice Evans 
Les Evans 
Yvette Finkele 
Arlyne Garrity 
Jay Gertzman 
Ann Good 
William Goode 
Walter Grimes 
John Heaps 
Helen Hill 

Diane Largey Johnson 
Mitzi Johnson 
Eugene Jones 
Rod Kelchner 

Ann Klinger 

Kathleen Largey 

Linda Main 

A. T. J. Matthews 

Dennis Miller 

Olive Miller 

Larry Nesbit 

Barb Nichols 

Milford Paris 

Arlie Parks 

Winfred Keeney Phornton 

Yolande Flowers Rathbun 

Mary Mclnroy Sheffer 

Trudy Sherman 

Vincent Smichowski 

Harold Strait 

Richard Talbot 

Mary Ann Taynton 

Solomon Tesman 

Jolene Paris Tomlinson 

Robert Unger 

Myron Webster 

Lois Wilson 

Edwin Zdzinski 

I thank them and the many others who have supported the com- 
pletion of this project. 


This book is the fifth in a series of socio-historical portraits of life in Tioga County. Earlier portraits 
were done of Roseville (1973), Liberty (1974), Morris Township (1976), and Wellsboro (1980). This 
book, like the previous ones, is part of an effort by Mansfield University to be of service to the region — 
that is, to provide an appreciative understanding of its heritage. 

The book offers a glimpse of life at Mansfield over the past 125 years. It is based upon bits and 
pieces of information gathered from school catalogs, newspapers, yearbooks, departmental publications 
minutes of board meetings, diaries, recollections, and interviews with about twenty alumni. 

During the initial stage of the project, six students assisted in the data collection. They were: Sharon 
Carmody, Lynn Greenly, Scott Colder, Christie Jo Newhart, Richard Greene, and James Sweder. During 
the preparation of the manuscript, Phyllis Owen Swinsick ('30) patiently reviewed drafts, and offered a 
lot of sensible help. Her "spunky" spirit certainly made the work more enjoyable. She represents the best 
tradition of Mansfield graduates. 

While writing the book, I "lived" in Mansfield's past. I felt its ups and downs, wondering if the crises 
could have been avoided. But, of course, hindsight is easier than foresight. It is easier to be critical than 
constructive. In any case, it soon became apparent to me that Mansfield's true strength and char- 
acter is related to the simple fact that much has been learned over 125 years; and, indeed, Mansfield has 
lived by its motto: "Character is the essential; scholarship is the enrichment; service is the end of all 
worthy endeavors." 

Though the book traces developments in life at Mansfield, it is not truly a history of the institution. 
I will leave that task to a more able-minded hisorian. Instead, it is a humanistic sociological story based 
upon the interesting events and personalities, the changing rules of the institution, and the beliefs and 
myths which have promoted community spirit. 

As you browse through the book, I encourage you to probe the photographs. Many of them were 
selected because they include more than initially meets the eye. Here's a teaser: find the "Bare Leg." 
I'm sure you'll know it when you discover it. Moreover, in the process of looking, you'll note many items 
of interest. 

Much of the text consists of articles selected from the school newspapers and other publications. Some 
of them have slips in grammar and writing, but they do describe a significant event or they provide an in- 
teresting insight. Except for rather extreme errors, I have deliberately avoided editing the articles. I have 
done so with the hope of preserving authenticity. 

Thank you for your interest in the book. Enjoy your reading. Hopefully, it will enhance your appre- 
ciation of Mansfield. 

Gale Largey 


In addition to past issues of school catalogs, the Normal Quarterly, the 
Semaphore, the Spectator, the Flashlight, Cadence, the Mansfieldian, 

the Carontowan, departmental publications, and minutes of Board 
meetings, the following sources were referred to: 


1897 History of Tioga County, Pennsylvania. Harrisburg: R. C. 

Brown & Company 

Elliott, Simon B. 

1893 History of the Mansfield Normal School. Mansfield: Van- 

Keuren & Coles Printers. 

Jupenlaz, Fred (ed.) 

1957 Mansfield: Centennial Issue. Mansfield: The Advertiser. 

Retan, George 

1957 History of Mansfield Borough, 1857-1957. Mansfield: 

Council of Mansfield Borough. 

Sexton, John (General Historian) 

1883 History of Tioga County, Pennsylvania 1804-1883. New 

York: John L. Munsell & Company. 

Stone, William 

1918 The Tale of a Plain Man. Philadelphia: John C. Winston 



MANSFIELD CLASSICAL SEMINARY (1857-1862). In 1854, a group lead by Col. Joseph Hoard proposed the organization 
of Mansfield Classical Seminary . . . Three years later, the school opened, but at the start of the second term it was destroyed 
by fire . . . Plagued with economic difficulties, the school re-opened in August of 1859 . . . after a three-year struggle to re- 
cover, leaders had to turn to the state for support . . . the school became 

MANSFIELD STATE NORMAL SCHOOL (1862-1927). Despite state support, Mansfield continued to face severe financial 
difficulties, but through the remarkable leadership of Professor Allen, it gained public recognition for excellence ... in turn, 
the school underwent a steady, progressive expansion. During the 1870's, the original North Hall was constructed; during the 
80's, the original Alumni Hall and a gym were added; and, during the 90's, North Hall underwent renovation and expansion. 
Meanwhile, Mansfield became noted for its programs in education, music, and art ... In 1898, a Mansfield graduate, William 
Stone was elected the Governor of Pennsylvania. In the early 1900's, under the leadership of Dr. Andrew Smith, the school ex- 
panded its Conservatory Course of Music, focusing particularly on the training of church organist. Programs were also started 
in agriculture and business, but eventually they were phased out ... In 1910, the school strengthened its program in teacher- 
training after the state adopted a policy of supporting four year courses in the Normal Schools. Then, in 1914, Dr. Straughn 
assumed leadership of the institution. He fostered growth through the development of programs in domestic science (home 
economics) and manual training. Moreover, he initiated specialization in teacher education. He soon became recognized as an 
outstanding leader in the Pennsylvania system of higher education and his reputation enhanced Mansfield's reputation ... By 
1927, Mansfield Normal attained collegiate status and became the first state teachers college in Pennsylvania . . . 

MANSFIELD STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE (1927-1960). Enrollment slipped during the Great Depression; however, by the 
late 30's, the Mansfield campus assumed a forward-looking appearance with the construction of three new buildings — a home 
economics/music center, an educational center, and a new gym . . . During the 40's, World War II brought further changes 
to the school. With the shortage of male students, intercollegiate sports were temporarily suspended. But, at the same time, fe- 
male students gained an opportunity to be more active leaders at Mansfield. Meanwhile, the school broadened its role in edu- 
cation when student cadet nursing programs were established with Robert Packer Hospital (Sayre) and Hahnemann Hos- 
pital School of Nursing (Scranton) . . . During the post-war years, with the influx of ex-GFs, there was a sharp rise in 
enrollment and the traditional teacher-training programs regained popularity. Yet, throughout the 50's, the school steadily 
became a multi-purpose institution. In 1960, the institution was renamed 

MANSFIELD STATE COLLEGE (1960-1983). During the 60's, Mansfield underwent a dramatic change. The enrollment tripled 
from about 1000 to nearly 3000 students; and, by 1970, the institution developed a new identity as a liberal arts institution. 
There were many new faculty, new programs, new buildings, and a greater variety of students. In the early 70's, optimistic ad- 
ministrators projected that within a decade the institution would grow to about 5000 students but, instead enrollment declined 
to about 2500 students ... it then became necessary to retrench faculty from programs that had been expanded only a few 
years earlier. Meanwhile, new programs in business administration, computer science, and criminal justice administration be- 
came quite popular . . . Despite the problems of the 70's, Mansfield continued to mature as an institution of higher education, 
and in 1983 it became 

MANSFIELD UNIVERSITY (1983- ). In the fall of 1983, the enrollment reached 2900, the highest since 1975. Under the 

newly-appointed, interim-president Rod Kelchner, a strategic planning committee was formed to plan for the future. 

1857: Mansfield Classical Seminary 

I Ulanslrield K^laisicai S^t 



Kspenina Aanuaru 7 } 1857 


Winter Term commences 

Jan. 7th, 1857 

closes April 8th, 1857 

Spring Term commences 

April 16th, 1857 

closes July 16th, 1857 


Rev. J. R. Jaques, A. B., 

Acting Principal and Prof, of 

Math, and Ancient Languages 

Rev. T. B. Barker, 

Teachers' Department 

Mr. H. L. Jaques, 

Preceptress and Teacher of 

French and German 

Miss Ellen Seaver, Assistant 

Miss Eleanora Ryman 

Teacher of 
Ornamental Branches 


Com. Eng. Bran. 

(Pr T. of 13 weeks, $1.50 

Higher 5.50 
Ancient and Modern 

Languages 6.50 

Drawing and Painting 

Music and use of Piano 10.00 

Melodeon 8.00 
Board, including fuel, 

washing and furniture 

per week 2.00 

Incidentals, (per term) 25 

Room Heat, (per week) 12% 
Note: Students are required to 
arrange their Tuition strictly in 


The Mansfield Classical Sem- 
inary is located at Mansfield, 
Tioga Co., Pa., upon the line of 
the Tioga Rail-Road. No sec- 
tion of the State surpasses this 
in beauty of scenery, healthful- 
ness of climate, and morality of 
the community. 


The main Edifice is of Brick, 
172 feet long, including wings, 
all four stories high, suitably 
furnished for Boarding, Lodg- 
ing, Study, and Recitation. We 
have accommodations for board- 
ing over 150 Students. The 
Principal and Teachers reside 
in the Building, and board at 
the same table with the Stu- 

Board can be obtained in pri- 
vate families at reasonable 
rates. Those wishing to board 
themselves can obtain rooms in 
the village. Students are ad- 
mitted at any time during the 
Term, but it is desirable that 
they should enter during the 
first week. Each room for Stu- 
dents is furnished with a Bed, 
Bedstead, Chairs, Table, Wash- 
stand, Stove and Woodbox. 
Sheets, Bed-covering and other 
articles that may be required 
are to be provided by Students. 


J. S. Hoard, A. Bixby, D. L. 
Sherwood, J. B. Clark, P. M. 
Clark, P. S. Ripley, L. Beach, 
jr., Wm. Manning, J. Hubbell, 
R. Videan, jr., G. R. Wilson, 
B. M. Bailey, S. B. Elliott, Wm. 
Hollands, E. Burley. 


Revs. H. N. Seaver, S. W. Al- 
den, W. C. Matteson, C. M. 
Gardner, H. Hickok, Porter Mc- 
Kinstry, David Nutten, A. Par- 
cell, L. L. Rogers, C. Wheeler, 
H. Wisner, C. C. Summers, Esq. 
D. F. Brown, Esq. Ira P. Ben- 
nett, Esq. Hon. E. Dyer, Hon. 
Jas. H. Miles. 


During the spring of 1854, Mansfield was an unincorpor- 
ated hamlet of about 275 people. There were two stores, two 
small hotels, two churches, two sawmills, a woolen mill, and 
a tannery. Life was generally peaceful, but the tides of change 
were in the making. Politically, most of the people were sup- 
porting the abolition of slavery and they wanted to curb the 
"evil effects" of alcohol. Regarding the economy, they talked 
about a local boom with the opening of mines in the Bloss- 
burg coal region, and the expansion of lumbering operations 
throughout the area. Concerning education, a growing num- 
ber felt that public education should be extended to all 

It was within such a context that Colonel Joseph Hoard 
began to promote the idea of establishing the Mansfield Classi- 
cal Seminary, and Dr. Joseph Morris agreed to provide some 
land upon which to build a seminary. Soon, Rev. H. N. Seaver, 
Alvin Gaylord, and others joined them in the endeavor, and 
they sought the support of the East Genesee Conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal Conference. As proposed, the institution 
was to be a stock concern, with shares sold at $50.00 each. 
It was agreed that the principal of the school was to be a 
member of the church. But, the seminary was not to be a 
church or sectarian school. 

By August of 1854, a committee from Mansfield solicited 
$5,000 and they expected the Conference to pay for the bal- 
ance of the. costs. But then they faced their first major prob- 
lem. A group from the nearby community of Wellsboro 
appealed to the Conference to have the institution established 
there instead of in Mansfield. After much debate about the 
matter it was finally decided to locate the school in Mansfield. 
As described in the Tioga Eagle (November 30, 1854) : 

"... The good people of Mansfield had quite a jollification 
over the decision to locate the seminary in their community. 
Guns were fired, bells rung, and the stove "Mowed" in cele- 
bration of the unprecedented victory over the cohorts of 
Wellsboro and vicinity." 

On December 1, 1854, a charter was procured for the 
Mansfield Classical Seminary. When it was incorporated, 
some Board members protested against the use of the term 

"classical" because as later recalled by Simon Elliott (1905) : 

"There was not a classical scholar among them. They had no 
more use for the classics then they had for a two-year old 
robin's nest. They had no faith in an aristocracy of education." 

Nonetheless, the attorney who handled the incorporation in- 
sisted on calling Mansfield a "classical" seminary. 

The first Board meeting was held February 15, 1855, at 
which time plans were adopted for the construction of a four- 
story brick building, with a front one hundred feet long and 
two wings each running back seventy-eight feet. At the meet- 
ing, J. S. Hoard, D. L. Sherwood and Amos Bixby were selected 
to supervise the construction. It is noteworthy that this selec- 
tion was meant to underscore that the seminary was non- 
sectarian. Mr. Hoard was a Methodist; Mr. Sherwood, a Bap- 
tist; and Mr. Bixby, a Universalist. 

Construction commenced during the spring of 1856, and 
the institution steadily took shape. But, due to unforeseen 
costs, the trustees had to borrow more funds, and thus go 
further into debt. In the meantime, however, the trustees 
appointed Reverend J. R. Jacques as the principal and fac- 
ulty members were recruited in anticipation of the school's 

Rev. Jacques, a Methodist minister, came to Mansfield 
during the summer and was very active in organizing for 
the opening of the school. Simon B. Elliott (1905:19) later 
described Jacques as follows: 

"He was a scholarly man, in a restricted sense of that word 
— full of the textbooks and the methods of the schools . . . 
Unfortunately he was a little pompous in his manner as sug- 
gested by his habit of putting his right hand on his left 
breast, under his vest, something very much like an actor 
poses on stage. He spoke more in scholastic terms than in 
common ones. Once he came before the trustees and requested 
that the walk leading from the street to the school building 
should be 'bifurcated'. Of the whole board of trustees there 
were but two who understood what he wanted. They ex- 
plained to the others who then voted to have the walk 

The Mansfield Classical Seminary formally opened 
January 7, 1857, with 105 students. The second term began 
April 16th with 45 additional students, and the school seemed 
to be well on its way to success. But then, yet another set- 
back. On the morning of April 22nd, a fire destroyed much 
of the building. Though uncertain, the fire is believed to have 

been due to a defect in the chimney. Fortunately no one was 
injured in the fire. 

On the morning after the fire, the people of Mansfield 
gathered at the Methodist church to decide about the future 
of the institution. Their decision was clear. They decided that 
despite the setback they would not give up their dream. They 
pledged to rebuild the seminary. 


By September 1857, much of the first floor was rebuilt. 
But, due to a national financial panic, two of the insurance 
companies did not make payment to the Trustees. As a re- 
sult, the Trustees could not pay the contractors, and the con- 
tractor ceased to work. The outlook became gloomy. 

From the fall of 1857 to the summer of 1858, nothing 
more was done at the seminary except to secure the walls 
from collapse. Then once again, the optimists persevered. 
They organized a community picnic to save the school. 

In the History of the Mansfield Normal School (1893), 
Elliott noted that actually very little money was raised at the 
picnic because many contributions were in labor, board, grain, 
provisions, serving, lumber, cattle, and a wide range of in-kind 
contributions. Yet despite the lack of cash the Building Com- 
mittee resumed its work. A sense of the commitment and 
determination of the committee is evidenced in Mr. Elliot's 
personal account in the autumn of 1858: 

"Mr. Holland looked after making the brick and attended to 
such other matters as came to his attention. Mr. Clark took 
charge of the finances. How many turns and trades the 
Treasurer made Heaven only knows. Without money to do 
with, most men would have given up in despair, but he was 
just fitted for the work. Honestly and patiently he toiled, 
leaving his farm in the care of his family, and the work went 
slowly on. Only fifty cents in cash was paid out that summer 
and fall for labor, and that was to a chap who came along 
and represented that he was a bricklayer. Actually he was not, 
and so he was discharged by nine o'clock, and received just 
fifty cents." 

"All other labor and all materials, except lime and nails, 
were paid for in property of some sort, or turns made whereby 
subscribers could pay as they had promised. In order to raise 
money for lime and nails the lady friends would hold picnics 
on the "Island" every few weeks and the proceeds were appro- 
priated for that purpose. No one ever complained about furn- 
ishing the porvisions, and they were supplied generously. The 
other member of the building committee, who was himself a 
bricklayer, took some young men with him who never had 
experience of much moment — and some none — as brick- 
layers, and went to work on the walls. One of those young 
men was Capt. A. M. Pitts. Capt. Homer Ripley, now Regis- 
ter and Recorder of this county, was one, and Hon. Chas. 
Faulkner, of Kansas, another. With so little help and so large a 
building one could hardly see at a week's end that anything 
had been accomplished. But the walls grew, and by the time 
cold weather had set in the remainder of the first, all of the 
second, and a goodly portion of the third story were completed. 
As 1 look back 3/ years upon that and the next summer's 
work, 1 can scarcely realize that three men could have been 
found who would undertake such a hopeless task. In an ordin- 
ary business view it was folly — more, it was madness. No 
money in hand, and but little promsicd; no credit; $8,000 in- 
debtedness, and at least from $3,000 to $4,000 more need- 
ed than had been subscribed to complete the building, to say 
nothing about paying debts. But the scene is vividly before 
my eyes. Daily we toiled that and the next year and the walls 
climbed slowly upward. Although we could not soon reach 
the top most point of the structure, we could always look up 

there and sec Faith and Hope on the summit of the completed 

By the fall of 1858 the walls were once again secure and 
work was suspended until the following spring. 

In August 1859, Rev. James Landreth, a Methodist mini- 
ster, was chosen to succeed Professor Jacques. He was known 
as a feisty individual who lacked tact, but he was respected 
as a good teacher and a good organizer. Under his leader- 
ship the school re-opened in November with few furnishings 
and only the north wing of South Hall completed. 


Troubled times continued to plague the institution dur- 
ing the early 1860's. In July 1860, Professor Landreth, feel- 
ing very frustrated, resigned as principal and a committee was 
assigned to select a replacement. The committee recruited 
Professor Edwin Wildman, but then on the day of his meeting 
with the Board of Trustees, a member of the selection com- 
mittee, Rev. Holt, decided that he, not Professor Wildman 

ought to be the principal. And so to Professor Wildman's sur- 
prise, he was given a subordinate position. Meanwhile, finan- 
cial crises continued and attempts were made to sell the 
school at a sheriff's sale. 

By 1862, the internal problems of the school were com- 
pounded by the external problems of the society. When the 
school had started, there were about 6,000 adult males in 
Tioga County, and the school hoped to attract some of them, 
but during the Civil War, about 2,000 of them enlisted to 
fight. Thus, one might better understand the implications of 
an advertisement for the Seminary which periodically ap- 
peared in the local newspapers at the time. The advertise- 
ment read: 

"The success of the seminary during these times when the 
country's need demands the services of every able-bodied 
young man has been beyond the expectations of the most 
sanguine of its friends ..." 

Interestingly too, the advertisement concluded: 

"... all kinds of produce will be taken in payment for 
tuition and board at market prices." 

Despite the best efforts of the administration, the Sem- 
inary continued to be advertised for sale by the sheriff. 
In fact, in June 1862, it was actually sold, but the President, 
Mr. Cochran, got the sale set aside on technical grounds. 

Floundering with failures, on July 2, 1862, the Board of 
Trustees decided to make application to the state to have the 
seminary declared the State Normal School of the Fifth Dis- 
trict. In an effort to impress the examiners, two young women, 
Miss F. A. Bixby and Miss Mary Pitts raised funds so that 
the unfinished cupola could be finished because they did not 
want it to serve as a symbol of the dire financial situation of 
the school. Before the fall term the cupola was fully com- 

By the fall term of 1862, Mansfield seemed the be back 
on the road toward recovery. The faculty was expanded from 
four to seven members, and course offerings were increased 
to include seven foreign languages: Greek, Latin, French, 
German, Spanish, Italian, and Hebrew. Nearly 200 students 
enrolled, some of whom had to board in town. At the time, 
students who were the children of clergymen were granted 
half price for tuition. Students who came "from a distance" 
had their rooms furnished, but those from "within a few 
miles" were required to bring their own furnishings, except 
bedstead, table, chairs, washstand, and stove. All students 
were expected to bring their own towels, wash-bowl, pitcher, 
and mirror. 


By virtue of sundry writs oi Levari Facius, Fiori Facius, and 
Venditioni Exponas, issued out of the Court of Common 
Pleas of Tioga county, Pa., to me directed, will be exposed 
to public sale in the Court House in Wellsboro, on Monday 
the 25th day of August 1862, at 1 o'clock in the afternoon 
the following described property, to wit: 

— A lot of land in Mansfield, to wit: beginning at a post 
the north west corner hereof and the south east corner of 
land of J. P. Morris; thence along the east side of the 
Academy street, south 12 degrees, east 359 feet to a post; 
thence along land of J. S. Hoard and others, north 78 
degrees, east 719 feet to a post; thence along said Morris 
land north 21 1/2 degrees, east 364 feet; thence along said 
Morris land south 78 degrees, west 659 feet to the place of 
beginning — containing between five and six acres, be the 
same more or less and described in the plot of the village 
of Mansfield as the Seminary lot, all improved, with a brick 
Seminary building and some other out buildings thereon. To 
be sold as the property of the Mansfield Classical Seminary. 

Wellsboro, August 5, 1862 

H. STOWELL, JR., Sheriff 

Prof. Wildman, Principal 


In becoming a Normal School the prospects for mans- 
field brightened. Indeed, life at Mansfield once again reflected 
an air of great expectation. As described in the Elmira Press 
September, 1862) : 

"Mansfield is the central object of the popular hope — the 
pet institution of the county, the subject upon which 
all discords harmonize. No matter how much you differ 
with the people in religion, politics, or their private pur- 
suits, if you venture a guess against the prosperity of this 
institution, you strike a chord that vibrates on the public 
breast, and you are at once put upon your defense . . . well 
may the people of Mansfield and Tioga County be proud of 
their pet institution." 

Similarly, the Wellsboro Agitator (December 1862) 

"The citizens of Tioga County and particularly the people of 
Mansfield have reason to congratulate themselves upon the 
acceptance of the State of their Seminary as one of the State 
Normal Schools. The advantages to the educational interests 
of the county arising out of this action by the state are so 
numerous that we cannot enter upon them . . . Thus success 
comes as a just tribute to the energy, self-sacrifice, and untir- 
ing zeal of the people of Mansfield . . . The institution now 
enters upon a new career of usefulness ..." 

Mansfield was the third Normal School in the State follow- 
ing the earlier designations of schools at Millersville (then 
Millersburg) and Edinboro. It was intended to serve the edu- 
cational needs of Bradford, Lycoming, Sullivan, Susquehanna, 
Tioga, and Wyoming counties. It was designed to meet the 
teacher-training needs of the Commonwealth in accordance 
with the Public School Act of 1859. 

Reverend Professor Edwin Wildman was the Principal 
of the Seminary when it became a Normal School, but in 
March he was replaced by Reverend Professor William D. 
Taylor. In view of the turmoil at the school during Reverend 
Wildman's administration, some people might humorously re- 
call 1862 as a change from "a wild man to a normal man." 
However, while humor may help the memory, it betrays the 
reality. Describing Principal Wildman, Simon B. Elliott 
(Mansfield Quarterly, April 1905), recalled: 

"In some respects Professor Wildman was made the scapegoat 
for others whose schemes were neither commendable, nor just. 
Yet there is no doubt that his heart was always with the 
school. He was tactful, quiet in manner, a good teacher, and 
of rare executive and administrative ability." 

Reverend Taylor served as principal when the school 
officially opened as a State Normal School in the fall of 1863. 

A Methodist minister, he is remembered as "an earnest, 
zealous man, whose heart was always in the right place" 
(Elliott, 1895). Yet in his administration, despite state 
support, the school continued to experience financial difficul- 
ties until January 20th of 1864 when the Honorable John 
Magee loaned the institution $6,500 to pay the mortgage. 

Magee, one of the wealthiest individuals in the region, 
was involved with the construction of the Corning-Blossburg 
railroad and the opening of the Fallbrook coal field near 
Blossburg. He was born of poor Irish immigrants and he had 
received very little formal education. Yet, he had a high r&- 
gard for the value of education. It should be noted that after 
the school had paid about one-half of the loan, Magee in- 
formed administrators that it was unnecessary to pay the bal- 
ance. At the time, he was terminally ill and it seems that he 
felt a special sentiment for Mansfield since it afforded the less 
fortunate an opportunity for education. As noted by his biog- 
rapher (Howe, 1973:43) : 

"Magee had a strong sympathy with those who, like himself, 
•were obliged to struggle with privations and to surmount ob- 
stacles in the commencement of their careers." 

In July 1864, Rev. W. D. Taylor was replaced by Pro- 
fessor Fordyce A. Allen. Under Allen's administration, the 
school began to prosper. The buildings were fully furnished, 
the grounds were graded, and trees were planted. A Model 
School for teacher-training was established and the Music 
Department became prominent. In 1866, eleven men and three 
women received diplomas at the first annual Normal School 

By most accounts, the success of the school during the 
1860's is attributed to the remarkable leadership of Professor 
Allen. In every sense, he met the challenges. As noted by 
Elliott (1905): 

"The deplorable conditions of things was never a terror to 
Professor Allen, and, in fact, rather suited him. He could 
bring order out of chaos and make success a part and parcel 
of himself, which he did, literally building himself into the 
institution. Though not a college graduate, he was an edu- 
cated man in the true and full sense of the word, a remarkably 
good teacher and with discernment to select good teachers 
under him and to see that they did their work well." 
"He inspired teachers and students with the same zeal that he 
possessed, and lifted the school up to the plane and horizon it 
has since maintained." 

In honor of Professor Allen, many years later the insti- 
tution renamed one of its buildings Allen Hall. It remains so 

1866-68: DL jCife of a Student at WantfietJ State fjonnat 

One night in haying time I went down to Wellsboro 
in a hay wagon to hear Professor F. A. Allen, the principal 
of the Mansfield State Normal School, lecture on the benefits 
of an education. I went just because it gave me an excuse for 
going somewhere. I had heard people advocate the ben- 
efits of an education, and they did not interest me, but I had 
never heard Professor Allen lecture. From the first, he held 
my attention and interest. He closed by saying that want of 
money should not prevent anyone from obtaining an educa- 
tion. He said one could be had at the Normal School, and if 
there was any young man or woman there who wanted an 
education and had no money, they could come to his room 
at the hotel the next morning and he would show them how- 
to get it without money. I was much impressed with what the 
professor said. 

The next morning I got up early and walked to Wells- 
boro and called upon Professor Allen. I was the only caller. 
I told him I wanted to know how I could go through Normal 
School without money. He asked me a number of questions. 
The result was that when the Normal School opened in 
September I was one of the students. 

During the first year I swept the halls and attended to 
the fires in the building for my board and tuition. The second 
year, finding my duties interfered too much with my studies, 
the professor took a note for board and tuition. I graduated 
in June, 1868, but what a time I had. 

I would not have stayed there a week if it had not been 
for Alice Landis, a girl at the Wellsboro Academy I had learn- 
ed to like. She was of superior mind and a splendid scholar. 
I had great admiration and respect for her. She wrote me 
such letters of encouragement that I would have been 
ashamed to quit and have her say, "I was afraid you 
were a quitter. Well, there is no use of your trying any- 
more. Go back to the farm and forget ft." And so I hung on 
and worked. At first my work did not seem to do a bit of 
good. I could not or did not acquire the lessons, but I got a 
letter from Alice every day and I kept at it. After a while I 
found that to acquire anything I had to empty my mind and 

thoughts of everything else; that one could not fill a pitcher 
that was already full; that to fill it with milk you must first 
pour the water out; and so I gradually began to learn how 
to learn. I got over the idea of "What's the use of knowing 
Latin when no one in the world speaks it?" I grew to realize 
that the studies were to discipline the mind, as a drill discip- 
lines the soldier. 

I became quite a good student, thanks to Alice Landis. 
We were not in love ; neither of us expected to marry the 
other, but she was a natural missionary and she saw in me a 
first-class heathen. At one point, I joined a philosophy class 
taught by Professor Allen. In it, were 20 other young men and 
women, among them Leonard Austin. There were not books 
enough to supply each student the first day, Professor Allen 
distributed what he had and told us to borrow from each other. 
We were to meet the next day to recite. "Wells' Natural 
Philosophy" was the text-book used. The professor began 
at the head of the class and asked questions. He asked Austin: 
"What is natural physics?" Austin arose and blandly said, 
"Professor, I had no book, but I think I can answer that ques- 
tion." "Very well," said the professor, "What is natural 
physics?" "Salts, pills and castor oil," said Austin with evi- 
dent confidence that he had answered the question correctly. 
After the laughter had quieted and Austin saw his mistake, 
he asked to be excused from further attendance on the class 
that day. 

I found many congenial spirits among the students at 
Mansfield: A. D. Wright, Ben Van Dusen, George Doane, 
Harry Jones, Jim McKay, Francis Wright, Lizzie Hill, Fannie 
Climenson, Sue Crandall, Ezra B. Young and many others. 
I formed a very strong friendship for Jim McKay. He was a 
farmer's son from Delaware County. We roomed together 
and slept in the same bed. Our bedrooms were all on the third 
floor and the study and recitation rooms were on the first and 
second floors. The chapel was on the second floor. The kitchen, 
dining-room and store rooms were on the first floor. There 
was only one building then. This was divided by a partition, 
the girls occupying the east half and the boys the west half 
of the study and sleeping rooms. Our sleeping rooms opened 

into a large central room called the morgue. We had to pass 
through this room to get to our sleeping rooms. There was 
only one door into it from the landing at the head of the stairs. 
Our board was cheap in price, quantity and quality. 

At each table in the dining room, a boy would be 
seated with a girl to teach him manners. Professor Allen 
allotted the seats. There were about ten persons at each table, 
and we were a very happy family. Many friendships formed 
in the dining-room grew into courtships and subsequently 
ripened into marriage. The teachers, Professors Allen, Streit, 
Verrill, Jones, Miss Conard, Miss Biggs, and the preceptress, 
Mrs. Petercilia, were all very efficient and kind. Mrs. Peter- 
cilia was a widow. She had taken a degree at a homeopathic 
college of medicine and was our doctor as well as our teacher 
in some branches. She was a short, quick, snappy woman, 
and looked as if it pained her when she smiled. She was 
strong on decorum and propriety, and a good chaperon from 
a parental view, but unpopular with the girls. She had no 
humor and always wore little corkscrew curls on each side of 
her head and admitted the age of thirty. She could not have 
been more than fifty. Probably much nearer that than thirty. 

There were about two hundred students, half of whom 
were girls. Mansfield was a healthy place, but there were 
always some students sick. At one time, Jim McKay and I ate 
too many buckwheat cakes, our principal bread-food, and too 
much dried applesauce, our principal dessert, and we devel- 
oped an itchy trouble. From home experience we thought we 
recognized it, so we didn't consult Dr. Petercilia. We were both 
allopathists and doubted that homeopathy had any remedy for 
our complaint. Besides, we had full faith in an ointment which 
our mothers made out of brimstone, turpentine, red precipi- 
tate, rosin, lard and other things not palatable or fragrant. 
I never knew the pharmacy name for it, but it was called at 
home and in the neighborhood where it was popular "Itch 
Ointment." It was rubbed pretty fully over the skin, in a hot 
room, and would surely rout the itch and other members of 
the family. It was all right when two only slept in a room 
and both had it, but if only one had it he had to have a room 
alone. We both wrote home to our mothers for some of this 
ointment. We soon got over our scratches and forgot all about 
the ointment. 

At Christmas time Jim's mother sent him a box of 
a number of good things to eat. There were a roast turkey, 

two roast chickens, mince pies, pies of several kinds, bread, 
butter, cake and several kinds of jelly in little cups and jars 
with brown paper tied around their tops. Anyway, Mrs. 
Petercilia announced one morning at chapel that Mr. Angle 
was on the road to recovery from typhoid fever, but was very 
weak; that if any students had any little delicacies from home 
for him, they would be acceptable. After chapel was over Jim 
fished out of the box two or three jars of jelly and we took 
them up to Angle. Mrs. Petercilia opened the door of his 
room to our quiet knock. There lay poor Angle on his back 
with a face as white as a sheet. He could just recognize us 
by a look. Jim handed Mrs. Petercilia the jars. She tore off 
the paper cover of one and put some of the contents on the 
end of a case-knife. Angle opened his mouth and she gave 
it to him. Soon his face showed great distress and disgust. 
Mrs. Petercilia seized the jar and said, "What is that?" Jim 
looked at the jar, when he too showed great surprise, exclaim- 
ing, "By thunder, that is my itch ointment!" She reported us 
to the faculty, but we being guilty of no evil intent, and Angle 
surviving the incident, we were only cautioned to be very 
careful in the future; but for some time after that when Mrs. 
Petercilia saw us her nose turned up just a trifle. 

Dried apple dessert came every night at dinner about six 
o'clock. A teacher or some trusted monitor of the faculty sat 
at the head of the table. We could say nothing, but if looks 
would have soured apple-sauce, there would have been a 
break in the vinegar market. It was talked about in our 
rooms. Something had to be done. It was not Professor Al- 
len's fault; the trustees furnished the food. They had bought 
up all of the dried apples in the vicinity and they had to feed 
them to somebody. The third floor was reached by a long, 
wide stairway, starting just at Professor Verrill's door, and 
he was in charge of the boys, who were responsible to him for 
their conduct. There was an outside rail to the stairs. When 
he heard a racket on the third floor he would slip his feet into 
a pair of carpet slippers and step softly up-stairs in his night- 
shirt without any light, guiding his steps by his hand on the 
stair-rail. He could be among us before we knew it, and some 
thought it was not fair and that we should have some notice 
of his approach. Besides, he was not liked very much. He had 
red hair and was too popular on the other side of the build- 
ing, and he and the applesauce were our principal grounds 
of grievance. 

It was Jim McKay's fertile mind that relieved the 






difficulty. He and several other daring spirits went down 
into the kitchen after midnight. They found a tin clothes boil- 
er two-thirds full of the applesauce. They quietly brought it 
up-stairs and smeared the stair-rail with it, leaving the tin 
boiler on the stairs about two-thirds of the way up. Then 
they went up to the third floor and started a noisy row. Out 
came Verrill and started on his mission of investigation. He 
got up as far as the tin boiler when he fell over it and rolled 
and tumbled with it to the foot of the stairs. Hearing the 
noise, we ran down to light the lamp and help him. He was 
a pretty sight. His red hair, which was thought so pretty by 
the other side of the house, and his whiskers were full of 
applesauce, as was his nightshirt. He had fallen on the boiler 
and flattened it. He was not hurt much, but he was mad, and 
went into his room and slammed the door. Outside of his 
room the verdict of satisfaction was unanimous. Verrill was 
a proud, haughty high-stepper, and we knew there would be 
a prompt investigation. We held a whispered consultation in 
which secrecy and "never tell" were pledged. Fortunately, 
no one but the criminals knew who were in it. 

Next morning at chapel after the girls had been dismissed, 
the courtmartial began. Prof. Allen in a grave, sad voice, ad- 
dressed us and said the outrage to Prof. Verrill was one that 
could not be overlooked. The perpetrator must be punshed. 
He hated to lose Prof. Verrill, for he was a good teacher. He 
appealed to our patriotism, our manhood and everything else 
that he thought would influence us, but there was no response. 
He then asked that all who did not have a hand in the affair 
rise. We all stood up. He then asked that any one who knew 
anything about it rise. No one got up. We had been through 
this fire drill before. He then turned to Professor Verrill, who 
sat there, his hair and eyes snapping with anger. He jumped 
up and said, "Professor Allen has appealed to your patriotism 
and manhood, I will appeal to your cupidity." He took a ten 
dollar bill out of his pocket and said, "I will name a person 
who had a hand in this outrage." After a pause Roll Moore 
slowly got up. There were six pairs of eyes that looked dag- 
gers at him. He was the one who smeared the applesauce on 
the stair-rail. He said, "Professor, my mother is a poor wom- 
an. She works hard to send me to school. I have never earned 
anything to help her. Ten dollars would be of great help to 
her. I know who had a hand in this outrage." "Name him," 
said Verrill. Moore stepped up to the platform and Professor 
Verrill gave him the money. "Name him," cried Verrill. 
"Well," says Moore, "from all accounts. Professor, I think that 
you had a hand in it." We were hastily dismissed. 


For several days there were frequent sessions of faculty. 
Then one morning Prof. Allen said nothing would come by pub- 
licity. It would probably embarrass Professor Verrill more to 
have the story get out than to have the parties punished, and 
said that if we would promise to say nothing about it, the mat- 
ter would be dropped. We all readily promised by a unani- 
mous vote. Roll Moore kept the money. Verrill never asked 
him to return it. There was nothing yellow about Verrill. He 
just had red hair with all its accompaniments. He was a good 
teacher — a very good mathematician. 


When spring came and the nights were warm Professor 
Verrill would move his bed up to the third story and put it in 
front of the open door leading into the morgue. The boys 
could not get under it and could not get over it without waken- 
ing him. There was a large black cat that Professor Verrill 
fed and protected, and because of this she probably needed 
more protection. Jim McKay got four large walnuts and dug 
out the meat and shell inside through holes in the tops, and 
with strings fastened them on the cat's feet and smuggled her 
into our bedroom. There were no carpets on the morgue floor, 
stairs or halls. About midnight he let her go. As usual, she 
went straight to Professor Verrill. Her feet with the dry shells 

on the hard wood floors made as much noise as a running 
horse. She sprang on Professor Verrill and he, not knowing 
what it was, yelled out in fright. She sprang on to the floor 
on the other side through the open door and went thumping 
down the stairs. The noise wakened all the boys, who started 
in pursuit of her, Verrill and Jim leading the search. They 
chased the noise down the stairs, across the hall, down the 
lower stairs and through the halls. She was black and it was 
dark. They could not see her, but the noise and clatter were 
great. After much chasing they caught her, got a light and 
found the walnuts on her feet. The whole school was aroused. 
The girls were peeping down the stairs from their side, and it 
was some time before the house was quiet There was much 
quiet inquiry, but only Jim and I knew and we did not tell. 
The cat never could be coaxed into our room again. She would 
always look at her feet and raise her hair when she saw Jim. 

In 1867, George Rexford came to the school. He 
had lost a leg in the army, amputated. far above the knee. He 
hobbled around on one crutch, and on the bare floors he made 
a good deal of noise that was especially annoying to a nervous 
man like Verrill. Rexford was a good, natural, fun-loving soul 
and it amused him to see Verrill annoyed at him. Verrill had 
married during the vacation. His wife was consumptive, and 
her father was rich. One day Rexford lost his balance going 
down the stairs and stumbled and rolled, landing on his back 
in front of Verrill's room. Verrill rushed out and seeing Rex- 
ford there said, "Rexford, what on earth do you want?" Rex- 
ford grinned and said, "I want to marry a rich man's daughter 
with a bad cough." Unfortunately Verrill's wife lived only a 
year or two after their marriage. Verrill never got any of her 
father's wealth, never expected nor asked for any of it. 

At commencement in June, 1868, I was one of the 
students selected to deliver an address. I chose Thaddeus 
Stevens for my subject. I admired him for the great service 
that he had rendered the country in his support of Lincoln in 
Congress. I do not remember much about the address, but I 
do remember that I was criticised and ridiculed by the local 
Democratic newspapers. Probably justly. My public utter- 
ances were very crude affairs in those days." 

Editor's Note: The student, William Stone, became 
the Governor of Pennsylvania in 1898. The account 
is an excerpt from Stone's autobiography, The Tale 
of A Plain Man. (Philadelphia: Winston Co., 1918) 


On February 16, 1869, Professor Allen resigned and Pro- 
fessor J. T. Streit was appointed to succeed him. But, due to 
illness, Professor Streit never assumed the role of principal. 
Instead, Professor C. H. Verrill became principal. Elliott 
(1905) recalled: 

"Professor Verrill was a thorough and ardent teacher. Few 
ever surpassed him in the classroom. Somewhat impulsive, but 
with a generous heart, an earnest purpose, unflinching integ- 
rity, a warm friend of the school. I came to forget his im- 
petuous nature and look upon him with a warm and lasting 

During this period of time the entire school was located 
in South Hall. It was a custom to hold chapel exercises both 
in the morning and the evening at which time a wide range 
of topics were discussed. Many of the students were experi- 
enced teachers who had come to improve their skills and thus 
they were older than the typical students of today. The courses 
strongly emphasized mathematics; however, as indicated in 
the 1869 catalog: "Ladies may be permitted to substitute for 
mathematics courses for an equivalent amount of language 

The school year consisted of forty-two weeks. Upon com- 
pletion of their program, students were required to pass an 
examination on the entire course at one time. Commence- 
ments were originally held in the school chapel, but when the 
classes grew larger they were held either in the Methodist 
Church or at Smythe Park. For the first few years each mem- 
ber of the graduating class was required to write and deliver 
an original essay or oration, but when the classes grew larger 
the presentations were reserved for speakers selected by the 

During the 1870's the school continued its steady growth 
as Mansfield gained the reputation of being quite strict. In 
1870, local prohibitionists successfully enacted a law prohibit- 
ing the sale of intoxicating beverages within two miles of the 
Normal School. Then, in 1873, the Pennsylvania Act 271 was 
passed, stipulating: "The keeping of billiard rooms, bowling 
saloons, and tenpin alleys within two miles of the state Normal 
School at Mansfield is prohibited." (The act was not formally 
repealed until November 9, 1959.) 

In the school catalogs of the 1870's, parents were re- 
quested not to send children who had "bad habits." At the 
same time, too, they were assured that "Every care would be 
taken to remove temptations to wrong doing." Visitations 
were restricted to recreation hours because it was felt that 
they would interfere with studying. 

(Passed March 12, 1873) 

"The keeping of billiard rooms, 
bowling saloons, and tenpin alleys 
within two miles of the State Nor- 
mal School at Mansfield in the 
county of Tioga is strictly pro- 

In 1871, graduates formed the Alumni Association. 
The stated purpose of the organization was "to encourage and 
foster the spirit of friendship among graduates." Two years 
later, in 1873, Rev. Jason Fradenburg, Ph. D., was appointed 
Principal. Dr. Fradenburg was known as a very kind individ- 
ual, greatly respected for his wide range of knowledge. As 
later described by J. C. Doane (1905), "In his dealings with 
refractory students, Professor Fradenburg so tempered justice 
with mercy that offenders often became his most devoted 
friends." Under Dr. Fradenburg's leadership, the original 
North Hall was built and enrollment expanded. 

In September 1875, Professor Charles Verrill was elected 
principal for a second time. Then, two years later, Allen re- 
turned to assume leadership until his untimely death on Feb- 
ruary 11, 1880. During the remainder of that year, Professor 
Joseph Doane served as principal. 


1870's: RULES 


1. Students boarding in the building are requested to pro- 
vide themselves with slippers. 

2. The hours regularly assigned to study are to be faith- 
fully devoted to the preparation of the exercises re- 

3. All students are requested to attend the morning and 
evening Chapel exercises; the evening Chapel exercises, 
however, are voluntary on the part of those who do not 
board in the Normal Building. 

4. The study hours during the years are as follows: A. M., 
■ 8 to 12; P.M., 1% to 4y 2 , and from Evening Chapel 

(7 o'clock) till 9%. The retiring hour is 9% in the 

5. The Superintendent will visit each room, at least once a 
week, and if damaged, it may be repaired, or, if un- 
necessarily dirty, it may be cleansed at the expense of 
the occupant. 

6. No water, dirt, or other material may be thrown from 
the windows. 

7. Students are not allowed to visit one another's rooms 
during the regular hours of study, and no change of 
rooms must take place without permission from the 

8. Each student of Music on the Piano or Melodeon will 
have regular hours assigned for practice, during which 
time no spectator must be present to interrupt the exer- 
cises or divert the attention. 

9. All students who are tardy, unnecessarily, at meals, 
must forfeit them; all must conduct themselves at table 
in a becoming and orderly manner, and no one must 
leave before the rest without good reason and permission 
from the lady sitting at the head of the table. Any stu- 
dent sick or indisposed, and requiring attention, must 
have himself reported to the Matron, and he will be 
waited upon in his room. 

10. It is expected that the ladies and gentlemen of the Insti- 
stitution will treat one another with politeness, but they 
will not be allowed to assemble in the Chapel, Recitation 
Rooms or Halls, during Recreation hours, for conversa- 
tion, except at stated times when permission is given to 
assemble in the Chapel. At the close of evening lectures 
or Society meetingSj all will repair immediately to their 
respective rooms. Neither sex will be expected to tres- 
pass upon that portion of the building assigned to the 

11. Students will not visit the dining room, at any other 
time than meal time, the wash room, kitchen or the 
music rooms without permission. 

12. Loud talking, whistling, scuffling, etc., in the building 
are prohibited. Pupils violating this rule will forfeit 
their rooms. 

13. The use of tobacco, in any form, is strictly prohibited 
in the building. 

Source: MSNS Catalogs, 1870-79 



President Ulysses S. Grant Sends Congratulations 

The dedication of North Hall awakened much 
interest, not only in Mansfield, but throughout the 
entire county and adjoining counties, which were 
well represented in the large throng that winded its 
way to the Normal. The Mansfield Comet Band and 
the Orphan Band went to the train and escorted the 
visitors up town. At the corner of Main and Wells- 
boro streets the two bands consolidated, and marched 
to the Normal grounds to the tune of "Red, White 
and Blue," followed by a procession of visitors and 

The new building is a most imposing structure, 
and in its prominence is truly an ornament to the 
village and a credit to the energy and perserver- 
ence of the trustees. 

Prof. V. R. Pratt then read a letter at the dedi- 
cation from President Ulysses Grant, who regrets 
he could not attend. Afterward, the assemblage ad- 
journed to the dining hall of the new building, 
where the tables were arranged for dinner, and 
presented a most pleasing and tempting sight. Flow- 
ers, pyramids of cake, chicken pie, and hosts of 
other good things graced the tables, and gave evi- 
dence of the energy and excellent taste of the ladies 
who had the superintendence of those matters. — 
Hundreds after hundreds of the hungry multitude 
were fed, and the untiring refreshment committee 
still had something left. 

The school opened last Wednesday under the 
most encouraging circumstances and with the bright- 
est prospects for a prosperous and glorious future." 

Source: Wellsboro Agitator 

September 11, 1874 


1880'SI Reasons to Mend WantfielJ State Tjormal 


It is conceded by all who are acquainted with Mansfield, 
that it is one of the most moral and cultured towns in Penn- 
sylvania. The citizens are noted for their sobriety, intelligence 
and enterprise. 

There is not a town in the State where the young are less 
exposed to the influences of vice and immorality than here. 

By a special act of the Legislature no intoxicating liquors 
can be sold or billiard tables kept within a radius of two miles 
of this institution. 

The healthfulness of the place is excellent, and the scen- 
ery and beauty of surroundings unsurpassed. 

These are desirable features and will be a great induce- 
ment for parents to send their children to Mansfield State 
Normal School, where their moral and intellectual wants will 
be equally well cared for. 

Here is located the Soldiers' Orphan School, and also 
Prof. F. M. Allen's Commercial College, which has recently 
been opened and gives great promise of success and usefulness. 


Over $3000 has been expended upon improvements 
furniture, library and apparatus, and as much more will be 
expended the coming year. 

It is the design of the Trustees to make the State Normal 
School a first-class institution in every particular, and they 
will spare no pains in their efforts to keep the school fully up 
to the high standing and reputation which it has hitherto 


The government of the School is based upon the prin- 
ciple, "Do right because it is right." 

Special efforts are made to secure obedience to regula- 
tions by the cultivation among our pupils of a high sense of 

The positive regulations adopted are based upon the fol- 
lowing principles: 

1st. No student should be allowed to trespass upon the 
rights and privileges of another. 

2d. Privileges that all cannot enjoy, should be granted 
to none. 

If pupils are not doing well, either through indolence, 
negligence, or otherwise, their parents or guardians will be 
informed of it. 

The Kind of Students We Accept 

It is the determination to make this Institution a place 
where Students are taught correct moral principles, and where 
thoroughness and steady progress are prominent features. 
Therefore we desire Students only who come to us with the 
following definite purposes: 

1st. To make school duties their chief business. 

2d. To give their whole time and energy, during study 
hours, to school work. 

3d. To cultivate a teachable spirit and cheerfully ac- 
quiesce in all the regulations and requirements of the school. 

The Kind of Students We Do Not Accept 

1st. Those who come here to spend their money and idle 
away their time. 

2d. Those who have "fast" habits and who come here 
simply because they cannot bear the restraints of home. 

3d. Those who are unwilling to practice the self denial 
necessary for their own improvement, and for the general 
good of the school. 

General Remarks 

If those desiring to enter the school are not prepared to 
make any sacrifices, to make study the first and only aim while 
here, to work diligently and faithfully, to be honest in all 
things, they should go anywhere but to a Normal School. 

The Normal School is intended to be a self governing 
institution. The persons to whom it offers decided advan- 
tages, must of necessity be those who will understand what 
is requisite, in order that the largest return may be received 
by them for their outlay of time and money. If any, through 
inadvertency, give evidence that they have mistaken the school 
in this respect, there will be no hesitancy in granting them a 
perpetual furlough. 

Parents and guardians are earnestly reminded that under 
the most favorable circumstances, students who board out of 
the building cannot make as satisfactory progress as those who 
are under the immediate supervision of the school authorities. 

Source: The Normal Catalog, 1880-81 



Left to right, seated — Dr. Dennison Thomas, Professor 
Winfield Scott Hulslander and Professor Joseph Ewing. 
Standing — Professor William Cramer and Professor 
William Thoburn. 

Under the leadership of Dr. Dennison Thomas, Mansfield 
underwent rapid expansion during the 1880's. Described as 
"a thorough scholar, a good financer, and a builder of excep- 
tional executive ability," Thomas was determined to improve 
the school's standing as an academic institution, and thus to 
attract more students. He succeeded: in 1880, there were 30 
graduates; ten years later, in 1890, there were 97 graduates. 

Coinciding with the enrollment increase, a major con- 
struction program was undertaken to provide appropriate ac- 
commodations. In 1883 construction started on Alumni Hall 
and two years later it was completed. It included an auditor- 
ium and numerous classrooms. The auditorium was the set- 
ting for a wide variety of lectures and cultural events. The 
classrooms provided space for the Training School that was 
expanded to accommodate more students. In the early 1880's, 
the School consisted of students 8 to 14 years old crowded 
into five grades. But in 1886, the age range was changed 
to include students 6 to 16 years old, and it was divided into 
eleven grades. 

Most of the students who attended Mansfield during the 
80's were from the local area and they were interested in be- 
coming teachers in the Common Schools of Pennsylvania. At 
the time, if a student expressed an intention to teach in the 
Common Schools upon graduation, the student received 60 
cents / week while attending school. Upon graduating, the 
student received an additional $50.00 grant if he or she signed 
a contract to teach for two full years in a Common School. 
Besides teacher training, at this time there was also a growth 
of enrollment in the expanded Music Department, the newly 
formed Art Department, and the college preparatory program. 

Throughout the 1880's, the school attempted to raise its 
standards for admission. Advertisements made it quite explicit 
that prospective students were not wanted "if they were un- 
willing to practice the self-denial necessary for their own im- 
provement and for the general good of the school." Parents 
and guardians were assured that if their child attended the 
Normal School at Mansfield, they would be living in a virtuous 
atmosphere. Moreover, hinting that many other schools were 
located amidst urban decadence, the school advertisements ex- 
tolled the virtues of Mansfield. As pointed out in one adver- 
tisement: "There is not a town in the state where the young 
are less exposed to the influences of vice and immorality. It 


is conceded by all who are acquainted with 
Mansfield that it is one of the most moral and 
cultured towns in Pennsylvania. The citizens 
are noted for their sobriety, intelligence, and 

"Precision" and "discipline" were the key 
words describing academic and social life. For 
example, careful penmanship was strongly em- 
phasized, and all students were required to 
study drawing at last 40 minutes/day for 28 
weeks in order to acquire what the school then 
defined as a "necessary" skill. Music students 
were "strictly prohibited" from practicing either 
vocal or instrumental music other than that 
classified within the grade of their program of 
study. And, it was stressed that "pupils are not 
permitted to visit music rooms or to receive visits 
during the specified practice hours." 

In 1880, a Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion (YMCA) was organized and six years later, 
a YWCA. At this time, the associations domin- 
ated much of the social life of students. Com- 
mencement Week was the major event of the 
year. The week usually opened on Sunday 
when an invited minister preached a special 
sermon to all the graduates. On Monday, the 
Junior Class presented a program. Tuesday, 
which was called Class Day, usually entailed 
listening to a series of addresses: the class his- 
tory, class poem, prophecy, and so forth. In the 
evening, entertainment was provided by the Lit- 
erary Societies. On Wednesday, the Alumni 
Association conducted a program. And then, 
on Thursday, graduation exercises were held. 
Usually, the exercises lasted about four hours. 
The gentlemen were dressed in dark clothing 
while the ladies were attired in white. Each 
"lady student" also wore a bouquet of red roses. 
Essays were read by ten to fifteen selected 

Coinciding with the construction of a gym- 
nasium, in 1895, a Military Company was organ- 
ized for the males, and later one was organized 
for the females. Both companies were very 
active. Their frequent drills seemed to rein- 
force the atmosphere of discipline and sobriety 
which characterized the campus during the 80's. 




Jan. 2 — Finds me at Mansfield 
going to school. Nora Raker, Claire 
Brown and myself went down to 
the art gallery and got our pictures 
taken. It is very cold. 

Jan. 23 — I received four notes 
from Harvey in Philosophy class. 
I think he is just OK. 

Jan. 27 — There was a sociable 
in the Literary room tonight. I 
had a fine time. 

Jan. 30 — Very bad going. I 
got my papers in grammar got 
88%. Very bad marking. I am 
awful hungry for Friday night to 
come. There was a Temperance 
Lecture. I went with Mattie 

Feb. 6 — Another of Mrs. War- 
ren's children is dead. This makes 
three that have died out of a fam- 
ily of six. 

Feb. 14 — Very nice today. Just 
too nice to stay in that old chapel 
prison. I got a comic valentine 
from name unknown. 

Feb. 17 — Tonight is the night 
of all nights. The U. K. S. held an 
entertainment. Johnnie Fuller took 
Claire and she is as happy as a 
flower that sips the morning dew. 

Feb. 18 — I received a note from 
asking me to go to an enter- 
tainment. I refused because he is 
so homely. That is wicked but it is 
true. Poor boy. It pleases me some 
to think of the mittens worn by the 
Normal boys in general. 

Mar. 14 — 1 am just as mad as 
myself can be at Nora for letting 
Frank kiss her on the stairs. I 
think it's mean for I want her to 
go with Wiley. 

Mar. 1 8 — Nora and I did a big 
washing the first we ever did. We 
had 63 pieces to wash. 

Mar. 20 — More new students 
came today. Among them Miss 
Shaff is the most countrified child. 

Mar. 21 — More new students. 
They look as if they came off the 
same piece. I got $3 from home. 
We are expecting another girl from 
Potter Country. Are anxiously 
awaiting to see what kind of a look- 
ing thing she is. 

Mar. 23 — Miss Woodruff 
changed our seats in chapel. I sit 
alone by the window. Went to the 
train to meet Miss Hendrix who is 
to board here. She is awful prissie. 

Mar. 27 — Mr. B. of Normalite 
has gone crazy. 

Apr. 7 — Tonight Miss H got 
some maple syrup and we sugared 
off. There is a lot of measles and 
now some mumps. Had a lecture 
today by Prof. Thomas — subject 
girls and boys sitting together in 

Apr. 1 1 — Very warm today. 
Everyone had a summer hat on. I 
went walking with Frankie up by 
the "Rose Terrace". 

Apr. 27 — Mr. Alex Nelson 
came here to board. He is awful 

May 13 — Alex Nelson brought 
us a pineapple tonight and we ate 
it until our mouths swelled up. 

May 17 — Anna Dunsmore and 
Mr. Espry taught today. We draw 
from a pile of cards and the one 
that is drawn has to teach for 10 
min. and he draws for the next 

May 18 — Things very pleasant 
until 11:20 this AM when I went 
over to the Model School and my 
name was called. I got up nearly 
frightened to death and taught. 
Miss Sperry said she did not think 
I did know so much. I guess I will 
go out teaching for a living. I got 
marked 90%. 

May 31 — Tonite seniors are all 
through. All passed — a class of 

June 1 1 — We played croquet 
this afternoon. Leonard passed me 
a note asking me to go on an ex- 
cursion to Babbs Creek. I guess I 
will go. 

June 12 — We started to Babb's 
Creek at 9:30 in two special cars. 
It is 28 miles. We had a splendid 
time. I wore my "crushed straw- 
berry" hat and it was a hit. 

June 17 — Owen and I went 
walking down past the mill. 

June 18 — I skipped algebra ex- 
am today and played croquet. I got 
a new fan. Very pretty. 

June 28 — Any person reading 
my diary can tell I have a new 
bottle of green ink also a new stub 
pen all the style now. 

(End of term) 


Aug. 30 — School commences at 
Mansfield today. It rained awfully. 

Sept. 13 — Tonight I had a 
quite a chat with Ellwood Clark. 
He is just from New York City and 
I think he is just too exclusive for 
nothing. O I am perfectly gone but 
I don't believe it will last long as 
such passion never does last very 

Sept. 14 — I saw Ellwood again 
tonight up at the croquet ground 
and I am gone completely I have 

surely got an attack of the grand 
passion this time sure but the sad 
part is "he is not gone". It is just 
my confounded luck. 

Sept 21 — My birthday. I am 
17 years old. Also 2nd day of the 
Mansfield Fair. Pa brought over his 
oxen. We had a boss time. Came 
across Ellwood about 3 o'clock. 
Frank treated us to grapes, Ellwood 
to peanuts and chocolate drops. "O 
I tell you". 

Sept. 22 — Last day of the Fair. 
Ellwood and I had a boss time. 
Mansfield came out ahead in the 
ball game and they got $40 and a 
silver ball. 

Oct. 2 — I sent a letter to Nora 
this morning for .02 — the first 
one I ever sent for that as the law 
went into effect today. 

Oct. 5 — Luella Howe was up 
to school today. Had "taffy on a 
knitting needle" in Latin class. 

Oct. 12 — Examinations today. 
Ellwood gave me a V cent piece 
for a pocket piece. "O I tell you." 

Oct. 14 — This morning Ell- 
wood gave me a pearl-handled 
pocket knife. I got my Algebra 
paper 98% Arith 70% Didactics 
100% Spelling 100% LATIN 

Oct. 15 — Mr. J., Ellwood's 
uncle, died of delirium tremens. He 
said to his wife before he was taken 
sick "Goodbye, Emily, I am going 
to start for Hell and will get there 
Saturday" and now he is dead. 

Oct. 25 — Went through the 
clothes-pin factory. 

Nov. 19 — Went to the Metho- 
dist Church with Ellwood. I felt 
like I was pie when I went in. I 
never went to church with a boy 

Dec. 20 — Tonight Ellwood and 
I went to the Boro school enter- 

1880's: A MANSFIELD ROMANCE. Amanda Voorhees 
and Ellwood Clark. 

tainment. Nora and Foster Bush 
went along. I am awfully mashed 
on Foster. Gone, gonner, gonnest. 
If he was about 12 inches taller I 
would not or could not say that 
my heart was my own. I don't like 
Ellwood one bit. 

Dec. 21 — It snowed and snow- 
ed and everyone is having a ride but 
Nora and me. Ah! Me! My sons 
will be furnished with a horse and 
cutter and be made to take girls 
riding and don't you forget it. 

Dec. 22 — Today school ad- 
journs. Tonight there was a perfect 

jam down at the depot. I went 
sleigh riding with Ellwood — we 
went almost to Covington over to 
Mainesburg and so around home. 

Dec. 2 3 — Ellwood gave me a 
lovely Christmas card. There are 
8 girls and 6 boys left at school. 

Dec. 24 — Pa came after me at 
4 o'clock. We got home at 8:30. 

(Unfortunately if Amanda kept 
a diary after this one, it has since 
been lost. But love conquered all 
and Amanda and Ellwood were 
married on July 3, 1887 in Pine 
City, N. Y.) 



Construction of Alumni Hall 




1888: New Gymnasium 

It included a large drill hall for teaching students military discipline. 

1888: Mansfield's First Band 


looU S! C*xpan&ion of rr/uiic ^Department 
(new three-year course) 

A three year's course will be necessary to obtain 
a diploma in the Department of Instrumental Music 
at this school. 

1. No diploma will be granted unless the pupil 
is able to execute with taste and expression at least 
two pieces of the works of some standard author, as 
taught during the course. 

2. The pupil must be able to read at sight a 
piece of music of moderate difficulty. 

3. The pupil must also pass a satisfactory ex- 
amination in the Theory of Music and the Study of 

The following studies have been selected to con- 
stitute a three years' course: 

Lebert & Stark 
Richardson or Bertini's 

Theoretical and Practical Piano Schools 
Plaidy's Five Finger Exercise 
Czerny's Etudies re la Velocite, book 1, 2, 3 
Loeschhorn Studies, bood 1, 2, 3 
Cramer's Fifty Select Studies 
Clement's Gradus ad Parnassum 
S. Bach's Inventions 
Kuhlan's dementis Sonatinas 
Mozart's and Haydn's Sonatas 
Mendelssohn's Songs Without Words 
Mendelssohn's Capricciosas 
R. Schumann's Novellettes 
Weber's Compositions 
Beethoven's Sonatas; also pieces by 
F. Shubert, A. Rubenstein, J. Raff, 

M. Mosakowski, A. Jansen, A. Joseffy, 

F. Liszt 


Will be founded in the coming year, for which 
all persons, studiously inclined, and possessing talent 
and love for this art, may compete. 

Each applicant will be required to pass: 

1st. A satisfactory examination in the rudi- 

2d. In the Theory of Music. 

3d. In reading at sight a piece of music, select- 
ed by the Examining Committee, and 

4th. To play a piece of his or her own selection 
either from note or memory. 

To pass a satisfactory examination in No. 4, the 
following important points will be taken into con- 
sideration, viz: 

a. Position 

b. Execution 

c. Expression 

The Examining Committee will consist of: 
W. S. Hulslander 

Prof. Wm. Cramer, Director of Music 
Miss Libbie S. Shepard 

All applicants will please appear at the Music 
Room of the State Normal School, August 29, 1883, 
between the hours of 2 and 5 p.m. 

Applicants who pass a satisfactory examina- 
tion, as required by the term of scholarship, will be 
entitled to free tuition in music in this Institution for 
one year. 

Pupils are not permitted to practice either vocal 
or instrumental music which is beyond their grade 
of prociency. 

Free advantages to all students to entertain- 
ments in vocal or instrumental music. 

A Certificate of Proficiency is given after a 
satisfactory examination upon certain special studies 
— Piano, Organ, Singing, or Theory of Music. 

For further particulars, address Prof. Wm. 


1889: South Hall Remodeled 

In 1889 the building was enlarged and 
remodeled. The third and fourth floors 
were used as dormitories, the young ladies 
occupying the right or south side and the 
opposite sex the opposite side. An effec- 
tive partition separated the two halls. An 
additional set of rooms, next to the roof 
and lighted by skylights, were used when 
the school was crowded, but simply as 
sleeping rooms. 

On the first floor, beginning at the 
reader's left, the tower room was a library, 
the first two windows in the main part 
mark the Normal Literary Society room 
and the second two, a class room, later 
used by the Athenaean Society. In the rear 
of these two rooms, was the dining room, 
which seated 120 students. 

On the second floor, the Principal's office 
and apartments took up the front of the 
south wing, and professors' rooms the front 
of the north wing. The central part was 
all given up to the chapel. This was utilized 
as an assembly and study room. 

In the large cupola, hung the bell. It 
was rung every morning, noon, and night, 
and at every recitation period through the 
day. It may be interesting to know that 
the rising bell struck at 5 a.m. 

Each room contained a small box 
stove, fuel for which the students found 
at the common wood pile and transferred 
to the place where it would do the most 






• ..^^^MuzZf!^^^! 

* 1 





• .;.';..■ . ■.* 

r . i 


Prosperity continued during the 1890's. In 1891, plans 
were announced for the complete reconstruction and expan- 
sion of the Ladies Building (North Hall). At the time, North 
Hall was 150 feet in length and four stories in height. The 
plans called for it to become 270 feet in length by 700 feet 
wide, and five stories high. The building was to be heated 
by steam, and an elevator installed in the central portion of 
the building. 

The new North Hall included an elegant dining room, 
finished in oak, large enough to serve five hundred students. 
In addition, there was space for a kitchen, a bakery, a recep- 
tion room, dormitories for the ladies, an infirmary, and suites 
of rooms for the Art Department and the Normal School of 

In 1895, a natural beautification program was launched 
and a large number of trees were planted on the hill behind 
the school and throughout the campus. By the late 1890's, all 
of the buildings on the campus had electricity. 

Meanwhile, in 1892, Dr. Thomas was succeeded by Dr. 
S. H. Albro. As noted by Harvey J. VanNorman (1905): 

"With the advent of Dr. Albro as principal, there was in- 
augurated an era of high ideals . . . Loved and respected alike 
by teachers and students, he impressed everyone with the fact 
that he was a past-master in the art of instruction and discip- 
line. He was a fascinating speaker, his lectures never contained 
a dull statement, packed as they were with thought, expressed 
in clear simple diction, and enlivened by quiet humor." 

Under Dr. Albro's leadership, the number of faculty ex- 
panded from 13 to 18 members, and the enrollment steadily 
increased as a growing number of students from outside Tioga 
County began to attend Mansfield. In fact, by 1897, about 
one-half of the students came from outside the county. At 
the time, it was said that the expenses at Mansfield were 
lower than at any other school of its type in the Common- 


On the academic side, Dr. Albro initiated changes that 
reflected his training in Psychology. Beginning with his ad- 
ministration, the college catalogs advised prospective stu- 

"In this school, the student receives his knowledge of subject 
matter in his daily study and recitations; he acquires an ele- 
mentary knowledge of the laws of mental action by the study 
of Psychology." 

In 1893, the school established separate departments of 
Pedagogy, Language, Mathematics, Physical Science, History 
and Civil Government, Physiology, Hygiene and Physical Cul- 
ture, and the Arts Department. At the time, about 75-80 per- 
cent of the students were enrolled in the two-year teacher- 
training program; however, advanced (3-5 years) programs 
in Music, Art, and Science began to attract more students. In 
addition, Mansfield strengthened its College Preparatory pro- 
gram. Students who successfully completed the program were 
admitted without examination to Cornell University, Lafay- 
ette College, Bucknell University, and Pennsylvania State. 
With examination, students were accepted at Dickinson, Mich- 
igan, Pitt, Wellesley, West Point, Wilson, Yale, and other 
well-known schools. 

Throughout the 90's, Mansfield grew as a center for the 
fine arts. During this time, two major literary societies were 
organized: the Athenian, for ladies only; and, the Philathean, 
for gentlemen only. In 1892, the Normal School Monthly 
started publication, succeeded in 1897 by the Normal School 

During the 90's the Music Department continued to gain 
widespread acclaim. In 1893, the music director, Hamlin 
Cogswell, hired two nationally-known musicians to teach in 
the program. Mr. Julius Ormay, of the Paris Conservatory and 
a pupil of the great composer, Moretz Moszkowski was put in 
charge of piano instruction. Mr. Maxmillian Lichtenstein, a 
pupil of Joachim, taught violin. At the time, Joachim was ac- 
claimed as "the greatest living violinist." Unfortunately, the 
two musicians only stayed at Mansfield for one year, and the 
goal of further developing a conservatory was delayed for a 
few years. 

In the meantime, Mansfield began to move into other 
areas of education. In 1897, the Model School opened a kin- 
dergarten for 4 and 5 year olds. In 1898, an agricultural pro- 
gram was inaugurated, a new science laboratory was set up in 
North Hall, and the Museum was re-established. In 1899, the 
school developed a Department of Business. 

Throughout the 1890's, the school reflected a broadening 
of interests in athletics, music, art, and politics. In 1891, Mans- 
field organized a football team, and one year later, the first 
night football game in America was played at Smythe Park 
between Mansfield Normal and Wyoming Seminary. After a 
scoreless first half, the game was called amidst much con- 
troversy, but it still remains a Football First in the Archives 
of the Professional Football Hall of Fame. 

Indicative of political interest in 1897, students sent a 
special gold medal to Admiral Dewey to express their appre- 
ciation of his international efforts. Then, in 1898, there was 
a peak of excitement when William Stone was elected the 
Governor of Pennsylvania. He had graduated from Mansfield 
Normal in 1868. 




|^y MM 


Elmer French (1885) 

Joseph Clanden (1895) 


1891: First Mansfield Football Team 

Mansfield was also the first team to hold a spring football practice and the first one to hold a night football game. 29 

Mansfield State Normal School Faculty 

The principal, Dr. Albro, is seated second from the right. 




1890s: The New Sport of Basketball 

The required apparatus is an association foot-ball and 
two baskets attached at either end of the field, ten feet from 
the ground. The game may be played in the gymnasium or 
out of doors, with five, seven, or nine on a side, preferably 

The players are arranged along the field, each man hav- 
ing his individual opponent, who is expected to be always near 
to prevent the ball from reaching its destination, and to re- 
turn it, if possible, to his own side. Thus, if A and B are op- 
posing each other on the portion of the field nearest A's goal, 
B must be constantly on the watch, lest A dodge back and re- 
ceive the ball unmolested. 

The ball cannot be struck with the first, kicked or car- 
ried in any direction. It must be kept in play, only five sec- 
onds being allowed the holder in which to find one of his 
men, ready to receive it. 

The object of the game is to work the ball, which starts 
from the centre, down to the goal, when the goal thrower 
deposits it in the basket. 

Striking, holding, pushing, shouldering, tripping, or 
knocking the ball from another's hands are counted fouls and 
give one count, or a free throw for goal, to the opposing side. 

As soon as the ball has left your hands you can run to 
the assistance of the one holding the ball, and he in turn can 
place himself in a position to catch again, which little by-play 
should, of course, be intercepted by the other side. 

It is not, however, to the advantage of your side to get 
too far from your original place, lest the ball get into the 
hands of the other side and your opponent, unguarded, get 
the ball. Remember, there are at least six others working for 
your side, and you are not needed in all parts of the field at 
once. If you stay at home, keep your eyes on the ball and be 
ready when it comes your way, you will be doing your share. 

A goal made from the centre space counts three points, 
from between the centre and end two points. 

Source: The Normal Quarterly, Fall, 1897 

1890's: Gymnastics 

At the regular Commencement exercises, there 
was the annual exhibition of the gymnastics depart- 
ment. The young ladies appeared on Monday and 
the young gentlemen on Tuesday. The work on both 
days was given to music, the school orchestra ren- 
dering most satisfactory service. 

The following was the order: 

1. Introductions — Free standing. Aim: To 
prepare for work. 

2. Arch-Flexions — Section A, at bar; Section 
B, free standing exercise. Aim: To stretch muscles 
which tend to prevent raising of chest at inhalation. 

3. Heaving Movements — Horizontal ladder, 
ropes. Aim: To cultivate contractility of inspiratory 
muscles, to elevate the chest. 

4. Balance Movements. Free standing exer- 
cises. Aim: To correct general posture and cultivate 
good equilibrium in ordinary positions. 

5. Shoulder-Blade Movements — Of expan- 
sion, free standing (running) ; of localization, at stall 
bars and benches. Aim: To overcome "stooping 
shoulders," to cultivate mobility of shoulder joint. 

6. Abdominal Exercises. From kneeling posi- 
tion at benches and stall bars. Aim: To improve 

7. Lateral Trunk Movements — At horizontal 
bar, at stall bars. Aim: To develop waist muscles. 

8. Heaving Movements — Vertical ladder, 
horizontal ladder. 

9. Jumping and Vaulting — Vaulting, bars, 
face up; bars, with rope (men) ; box, face down, sit 
over, hand spring, hand spring lengthwise (men) ; 
leap frog (men) ; tiger jump (men). Jumping, run- 
ning high jump, springing from one foot, free stand- 
ing jumping. Aim: To develop speed, courage, pres- 
ence of mind. 

10. Respiratory Exercises — Free standing. 
Aim: To prepare for rest, to produce normal res- 

Source: The Normal Quarterly, Fall, 1897 


o» '* 


Delphic Room 

During the 90's the Delphics and Clionian fraternities became 
quite popular at Mansfield. 


North Hall 

An expansion was started in the mid-1890's, but not completed 
until about 1908. Note that some of the architectural features 
in the above drawing were never incorporated in the building. 


NORTH HALL DINING ROOM. As described in The Normal Quarterly (January, 1898): "Three times each day, at 7:00 
a.m., 12:15 p.m. and 6:00 p.m., the spacious dining hall is filled with students and teachers, and at such times, a picture is pre- 
sented full of animation and interest. Finished in oak, the dining room is architecturally of the Ionic order, the gilded capital 
blending harmoniously with the rich tints of the walls. One hundred and twelve incandescent lights furnish brilliant illumina- 
tion. The school is justly proud of the room and confiddently asserts that its equal is not to be found in any other educational 
institution of the State. 


1890's: Expansion of the Arts 

At the head of our art department stands a 
woman of keen artistic understanding, Mrs. Harriet 
Jenkins of Philadelphia. Mrs. Jenkins has been a 
pupil of the School of Industrial Art; of the Spring 
Garden Institute; and for six years has studied at 
the Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arts, three of the 
most noted art institutions of the East. In 1887 Mrs. 
Jenkins studied at the Imperial Museum of Amster- 
dam, Holland. Five years of faithful, ever laborious 
work she has spent in the galleries and art schools of 
Paris and of other art centres on the Continent. In 
'89 Mrs. Jenkins received her highest honor: she was 
admitted to the Paris Salon, an honor eagerly sought 
by artists the world over, and one which places them 
in the first rank of artists. 

Mrs. Jenkins enjoys an international reputation, 
for her work has been accepted not only in the Paris 
Salon, but in all the leading galleries of America. 
In the exhibit sent by Philadelphia to the Colum- 
bian Exposition, Mrs. Jenkins' work was conspicuous. 
The picture exhibited at the Paris Salon now hangs 
in the dining room of the Sherman House, Chicago. 
Many others of her paintings are owned and now 
hang in private houses in Chicago. 

Whatever the medium of her execution — be 
it paint, pencil, or crayon — skill lies in Mrs. Jen- 
kins' eye and hand and brain. Her aim is the attain- 
ment of the realistic in art, truth always. Because 
of this firm principle, she does not allow her pupils 
to copy, but insists rather on reproduction from na- 
ture and objects. Manual training, ambidextrous ex- 
ecution Mrs. Jenkins regards as the true founda- 
tion of an art education. 


The Normal Quarterly, Number 2, 1898 


1898: Electrification of Mansfield 

The new system of lighting has proven highly 
satisfactory. The electric plant was put in by a stock 
company, organized last summer. Four members of 
this company are also officers of the school. Many 
places of business and private dwellings in the town 
are also using the lights, although this method of 
lighting has not yet been adopted for the streets. 

The power-house is a one-story brick structure 
adjoining the Toy factory. The dynamo is run by 
the one hundred horse-power engine of the factory 
and is a double machine, one-half supplying the 
electricity for the 1,000 lights of the Normal build- 
ings and grounds, the other half the lights for the 

The wires are stretched along Main street to the 
Allen hotel, then up Sullivan street by the M. E. 
Church, along the Mainesburg road to the north en- 
trance to the school grounds, thence to the north end 
of the ladies' building. 

Thus far the current is transmitted at the high 
pressure of 2,300 volts. In the basement of North 
Hall it is transformed into a comparatively harmless 
current of 112 volts. 

The main wires, called risers, are brought up 
from the basement in the central or tower portion of 
the building. 

Along the ceiling of each corridor are con- 
ducted branch wires which again subdivide to send 
a pair of wires to each room. These wires are in- 
closed in grooved mouldings and thoroughly pro- 
tected. Thus on looking down one of these corridors, 
the main moulding with its numerous cross branches 
divides the ceiling into a series of squares or rec- 
tangles, resembling the plan of one of those cities 
which spring up so suddenly on paper with the 
streets all blocked out waiting anxiously for the 
houses to appear. 

There are two drop-lights with flat, fluted, por- 
celain shades in each student's room, while a gilt 
chandelier with two lamps and etched glass globes, 
adorns each teacher's room. 

The halls and corridors are all thoroughly light- 
ed. How much this means only those know who 
have striven to accomplish this result with oil-lamps. 
This is especially true of the square tower corridors, 

where there are twenty lights on each of the six 
floors, making one hundred and twenty lights in all. 
These corridors are now a place of beauty by night 
as well as by day. 

The dining-room is illuminated by one hundred 
and twelve lights. Fifty-eight of these are placed 
along the oak cornice of the room, and fifty-four 
around the nine Ionic pillars. The former are furn- 
ished with the flat, corrugated, porcelain shade; the 
latter, by means of rich gilt bands, are arranged in 
clusters of six just below the capital of the pillars, 
and fitted with etched glass globes. Our dining-room, 
beautiful before, is now rivaled by few and excelled 
by no other school dining-hall in the land. 

In Alumni Hall the lights are arranged in clus- 
ters of six beneath a large, flat, porcelain shade. 
Three of these clusters are fastened to each of the 
six wooden arches supporting the vaulted roof. In 
addition there are foot and side lights for the stage. 

The lights in the chapel like those in Alumni 
Hall are in clusters of six attached to the ceiling. 

Two arc lights of twelve hundred candle power 
were first placed in the gymnasium, but did not prove 
satisfactory. Five large circles of incandescents, each 
containing twenty lights, were substituted. 

The illumination of the grounds is not yet com- 
pleted. It will consist of a line of incandescents about 
twelve feet from the ground, following the terraces. 
It will be observed that no arc-lights are used. It is 
believed that the incandescents give a more diffused 
and serviceable light at less expense. 

The lights in the corridors of north and south 
halls, along the "covered walk" and on the grounds, 
are all controlled from a switch box near the Ste- 
ward's office in north hall. The contract calls for an 
all-night service. Sixteen candle-power incondes- 
cents are used. 

The school has long needed the introduction of 
this method of lighting only to put it on an equality 
with any Normal School in the State in the matter of 
complete equipment and modern improvements. 

The school is to be congratulated on a Board of 
Trustees ready to follow a liberal and progressive 

Source: The Normal Quarterly, June 1898 


1898: Mansfield Graduate Elected Governor of Pennsylvania 

• - 

rw -JiV". i 


*.T H 

GOV. WILLIAM STONE and his staff at Gettysburg. 




... . ■ . • . ■ - . - - ■ . ■ . - - . ■ . ■ . - . ■ . - - ■ 

Mansfield State 
Normal School 

Given to an 

% Intellectual 

\ ano 




Thorough training in Psychology and Pedagogy. 

Model Scli oof of over two hundred and fifty pupils. 

Three able and experienced critic teachers. 

.1 large class in Kindergarten worlc. 

Strong corps of teachers in all departments. 

New laboratories fitted a/> this year for work in 
Physics, Chemistry and Botany. 

New Department, this year, of Agriculture and 
Nature Study. Special attention given to Field Work. 

The best advantages for preparation for college: 
students admitted on certificate from this school to 
the best colleges. 

Superior advantages for special instruction in Elo- 

Music Department, well equipped with instructors 
in Piano, Voice and Violin. 

The very best opportunity for the study of Art, 
Drawing, Painting in oil and water colors. 

Beautiful grounds, magnificent buildings, electric 
lights. Large grounds for athletics. Elevator in 
Ladies' Hall. Hospital with attendant nurse. 

Fine tliimnasium .u-itli complete outfit of apparatus 
for Swedish Gymnastics with special teacher. 

Special Conn tor Ceacbers will begin /Iftav i. 

For Catalogue giving full information in regard to 
requirements for admission, courses for graduation, 
expenses, etc., apply to 

HLBRO, Ph.D., Principal. 


A New Regulation on Dancing 

In the matter of amusement, the ruling under 
the new administration is as follows: 

At public functions representing the school, no 
dancing of any kind whatever is permitted, the time 
being devoted to conversation, intellectual diver- 
sions, music, etc. 

In the half-hour recreation periods, given sev- 
eral evenings of the week after tea, when pupils of 
both sexes are allowed the freedom of the gymna- 
sium, under the chaperonage of members of the Fac- 
ulty, nothing in the nature of a "round dance" is per- 
mitted, but what is known as the "square dance" is 

This stand is taken (without raising the ques- 
tion of the right or wrong of dancing, or passing 
judgment upon those who dance) for the following 

1. Dancing is a debatable matter upon which 
equally good people disagree. 

2. The Principal of the school must stand in 
the place of parents, many of whom object. 

3. In the light of the above facts, he feels that 
he should respect the wishes of the anxious ones, 
and let the young people decide a debatable question 
like this when they have passed from school life into 

4. The simple "square dance" is permitted be- 
cause the rational objections urged against dancing 
do not apply to the "square dance" any more than 
they do to every form of innocent game in which 
movement of the body forms a part. 

Source: The Normal Quarterly 

October 1899 




In 1899, Dr. Albro retired and he was succeeded by Dr. 
Andrew Smith, the former Vice-principal of West Chester 
Normal. He was thirty-seven, newly married, and well- 
versed in teacher training. Like his predecessor, he had a 
special interest in psychology. 

In his first action, Dr. Smith prohibited dancing of 
any kind at public functions. Another of his initial ac- 
tions was to change the type of notebooks being used to the 
kind used at Harvard. The new ones were bound with red 
leather in which sheets of paper could be fastened and re- 
moved at will. Also, at his direction, it was agreed that Tues- 
days from 4:30 to 6:00 p.m. would be the designated time 
when the ladies of the faculty would be available to enter- 
tain visitors and friends from town. 

Under Dr. Smith's leadership, the institution continued 
to flourish. Between 1900 and 1909, enrollment increased 
steadily, and three additional faculty members were em- 
ployed. In college catalogs, parents were urged "not to look 
upon Mansfield as a reformatory and not to send to the school 
vicious or immoral persons . . . (because) a teacher must be 
a person of unsullied character and have a strongly formed 
habit of self-control." 

Teacher education remained the dominant program 
throughout the decade, helped by a statewide effort to in- 
crease the number of teachers and to upgrade the quality of 
teacher education in Pennsylvania. Beginning in September 
1901, students were given free tuition if they signed an agree- 
ment to teach two full annual terms in the common schools 
upon completion of their education. At the same time, 
the courses of study were made more difficult. The revised 
program added Solid Geometry, Plane Trigonometry, and 


Surveying as required courses. In addition, all students were 
required to take regular lessons twice a week in gymnastics 
unless excused on account of an "organic disease." Students 
were advised that "gymnastic work is primarily for the weak, 
not for those already strong." 

To meet the growing demand for educators, Mansfield 
also began to offer advanced courses in education to enable 
students to attain Bachelor and/or Masters Degrees in Peda- 
gogies. It was felt that teachers of the twentieth century 
would be better qualified if they had training in music and 
expression, so the school also further developed its special 
programs in the arts. 

In 1902, a three-year Conservatory Course of Music was 
developed with hopes of meeting the emergent demand for 
music instructors and church organists. By 1906, the school 

"The Normal Conservatory is recognized as one of the best 
equipped music schools in the country. It is constantly grow- 
ing in reputation and in numbers. The Organ Department 
is larger than ever before. The large number of organs being 
built in churches throughout the country creates a demand 
for competent organists." 

Besides learning basic music, it was also felt that pros- 
pective teachers should learn the art of expressing them- 
selves. So, during this time period, additional courses were 
offered in elocution, and a Department of Expression was 
organized. By 1908, the department had become so successful 
that students who completed the program at Mansfield were 
able to enter the highly-regarded Emerson College of Oratory 
as advanced students. 

Also at this time programs in Agriculture and Business 
were started. They began with great expectation, but neither 
program attracted many students, so they were eventually 
phased out. 

Despite the restriction on dancing, Dr. Smith fostered a 

great deal of school spirit. He and his wife frequently enter- 
tained students with Sunday evening sing-alongs, and they 
faithfully attended art exhibits, plays, and musical pro- 
grams. When there was an apparent waning interest in 
athletic events among students, it was not uncommon for Dr. 
Smith to issue notices informing students that it was their 
"duty" to support their teams — especially since most of the 
teams were "winners" throughout the decade. 

Indicative of his interest in students, in 1902, Dr. Smith 
planned a senior trip to Washington. He not only guided the 
tour of Washington, but he arranged for his students to per- 
sonally visit with President Theodore Roosevelt. Also, it is 
noteworthy that Dr. Smith's wife was very active in student 
affairs. Among other things, she rewrote the words of the 
Alma Mater and composed numerous poems in praise of the 

Throughout the decade, Mansfield enjoyed the political 
support derived from William Stone's gubernatorial election. 
At the time, three Mansfield graduates were in the House of 
Representatives (PA), and the President Judges of both Tioga 
and Bradford counties were Mansfield graduates. 

The major construction project at the time entailed 
the completion of North Hall. That project was completed in 
1908, about fourteen years after it had commenced. About 
the same time, Alumni Hall underwent some renovation. The 
floor of the auditorium was raised and the straight chairs in 
the auditorium were replaced with opera chairs. In South 
Hall shower baths were installed. 

Social life continued to center upon the activities of the 
societies. Interestingly, at the time, the female — as well as 
the male — societies were referred to as fraternities. Mock 
weddings were one of the frequent festive events of the Cleon- 
ian and Delphic fraternities that stirred excitement among 
students. In addition, Halloween and Thanksgiving were 
generally celebrated with much excitement, and in 1905, May 
Day was started. It's pomp and pageantry became an annual 
tradition at Mansfield which lasted for many years. 





To meet this growing demand the Normal School 
authorities have organized this department, and in 
it they offer the following courses: 

A Commercial Course 

Elementary Commercial Course — Subjects re- 
quired are Bookkeeping, Business Correspondence, 
Drill in Rapid Computation and Invoice Writing, 
the Elements of Commercial Law. To receive a cer- 
tificate of competence in this course the applicant 
must show himself proficient also in the following 
branches: Spelling, Penmanship, Arithmetic, Eng- 
lish Composition, American History, and Civics. 

Those who complete this Elementary Course, 
which will fit them for conducting an ordinary busi- 
ness in a systematic and approved manner, but who 
may wish to fit themselves for thorough office work, 
are offered the following 

Advanced Commercial Course — This course 
adds to the subjects of the Elementary Course, a 
thorough training in a Business Practice Depart- 
ment, a systematic course in Commercial Law, and 

A Stenographic Course 

This course is designed for such as may wish to 
fit themselves for office work, but who may not wish 
to become bookkeepers. It includes Stenography, 
Typewriting, and Business Correspondence. In order 
to secure the certificate of competence in this depart- 
ment, all candidates must show themselves proficient 
in the above named English Branches. 

Source: Normal Quarterly 

January 1900 


<i «fc * 






(Air — "Tramp, Tramp, Tramp") 

With a kindly smiling grace 
Shining o'er his placid face, 
With his arms outspread to guard our sacred walls, 
Stands the Watchman on the hill, 
Stands the faithful old Windmill, — 
Listen while his voice in creaking accent calls, 

Drink, oh drink, ye thirsty children, 
Drink the draught that will endure, 
Drink from Wisdom's hallowed spring, 
Of its wondrous power I sing, 
While I pump for you the mountain water pure. 
All the knowledge of the age, 
Song of bard and note of sage, 
May be yours in never failing rich supply; 
All the latest crystal thought 
To our reservoir is brought, 
Drink, for Wisdom's spring is never, never dry. 

— Lizzie Smith (wife of Principal Smith) 


On March twelfth, the presidents of the var- 
ious organizations of the school were delightfully en- 
tertained at dinner by Dr. and Mrs. Smith, who re- 
ceived in their usual pleasing manner. The party 
entered the Normal dining hall at six o'clock where, 
amid palms and flowers, they were seated at a table 
laid for twelve in the west alcove of the room. The 
table was exquisitely decorated, the center piece be- 
ing red carnations while over the snowy cover were 
arranged red carnations and smilax. At each plate 
was a card bearing the Normal colors and the follow- 
ing acrostic, written by Mrs. Smith: 

Normal, gladly now we pledge thee, 
Over these, thy colors fair, 
Reverent and sincere affections — 
Mansfield — name beyond compare! 
Alma Mater, we, thy children, 
Loving loyalty declare. 

With each course that was served came some 
delightful surprise in the form of decoration or en- 
tertainment. The enjoyable after-dinner chat over 
the cups which followed the sumptuous repast came 
to a close by a brief toast from Dr. Smith, to which 
the guests responded by reciting the acrostic on the 
dinner card. Withdrawing to the pleasant apart- 
ment of the host and hostess, who described in a 
simple but charming manner, curios and photographs 
collected in their travels, the time passed rapidly, 
and it was with reluctance that the guests withdrew 
from this highly enjoyed, memorable occasion. 

Source: Normal Quarterly- 
April 1902 


1902: Senior Trip to Washington 

Principal Smith with the students at Mt. Vernon. 


S. A. Johnson 
Mrs. G. C. Robertson 

Mrs. C. F. Palmer 

R. A. Husted 
H. J. Vannorman 

Mrs. Mary Jenks 
Emily L. Thomas 


J. H. Long 
I. M. Gayman 
Andrew Thomas Smith 
C. F. Palmer 

H. T. Colestock 
Mrs. H. T. Jenkins 
Edith Lownsbery 
Laura M. Shaw 

Amos P. Reese 
Eliza Boyce 
G. C. Robertson Alice Hobart 

Minnie M. Beard 


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1902: Mutiny at Mansfield 

(Reports in the Philadelphia Inquirer) 

(January 15) 

Great excitement was caused in 
the boys' building at Mansfield 
State Normal School to-day, when 
forty-two students commenced 
tearing up carpets, taking down 
pictures, etc., preparing them- 
selves to leave on the early train. 
Some of the students refused to 
go to classes and the determined 
look on the faces of the boys 
showed that for once the faculty 
and trustees were dealing with 

Monday, January 6, four stu- 
dents, two boys and two girls, for 
a slight violation of the rules of 
the school, were virtually expelled. 
After the two boys left the two 
girls were reinstated. The rest of 
the young men considered this un- 
fair. After the report was verified 
concerning the girls, the boys com- 
menced to collect in groups, dis- 
cussing probabilities. Soon the 
sentiment was voiced that unless 
the two boys be reinstated on the 
same conditions as the girls they 
would sever their connections with 
the school. The Y. M. C. A. room 
was made headquarters and a 
meeting was held, at which stand- 
ing room was at a premium. 

A petition was drawn up to the 
effect that the signers would leave 
school. Forty-two young men, 
among them the very best in 
school, made a resolution to abide 
by the petition. This was pre- 
sented to Dr. Andrew Thomas 
Smith by a committte of three. 
He, after careful consideration, 
explained the results that would 
follow such an action, namely, that 
by withdrawing under such condi- 
tions they would be expelling 
themselves. As this result was un- 
looked for by many of the boys, 
the old petition was declared void, 
and a new one to the same effect 

was drawn up. But, instead of a 
decrease, an increase of one was 
added to the petition. The peti- 
tion was then presented and the 
boys declared expelled. 

The members of the faculty and 
the trustees endeavored to per- 
suade the boys not to adhere to 
the petition; but none yielded. 
Next the faculty telephoned to the 
homes of three boys and parents 
were asked to compel their minor 
sons to have their names canceled. 
But to no avail. Then a meeting of 
the boys was called at 7 p.m. in 
which the pastor of the First Pres- 
byterian Church talked to the as- 
sembly. In his talk he said: "Be 
sure you are right, then go ahead." 
After the meeting he went with 
three of the members to the prin- 
cipal to plead the boys' cause, but 
as yet no settlement has been 

(January 16) 

The controversy between the 
students and the faculty at the 
Mansfield State Normal School has 
been settled amicably. Dr. Smith 
made a concession to the boys, 
who in turn granted one or two 
little requests that he made. 

All of the students have re- 
sumed work and the school may 
not lose more than one or two 
students. There seem to be no 
hard feelings harbored by any of 
the students against Dr. Smith and 
the members of the basketball 
teams reported for practice last 

(January 22) 

. . . The suspended students 
were not taken back, nor was any 
time fixed for their reinstatement. 


(January 22) 

The Mansfield Normal mutineers became 
docile on hearing from their fathers. Of late 
there has been considerable commotion in the 
Normal circles over the recent mutiny of the 
students, and a one-half sided account of the 
boyish scare has been forwarded to the Phila- 
delphia Inquirer, as was noticed in a previous 
issue of that paper. Also the sender of the 
article was kind enough to donate to the pub- 
lic a picture of the principal, Dr. Andrew 
Thomas Smith, whose manly expression plain- 
ly shows that he knows exactly what he is 
about, and does not need to have his moves 
dictated to him by a mob of boys. When 
there comes a time that a Normal school is to 
be run by a lot of impulsive youths, then it is 
high time that such a Normal school should 
shut down and go out of business. That is 
precisely the stand that Dr. Smith took in 
defense of his school. He is wholly justified 
in his actions towards the boys in the late 
difficulty. The facts of the case are these: 
Two couples were caught seriously disobeying 
the school regulations. Accordingly, they were 
suspended indefinitely, but the girls were 
afterward reinstated for this reason: Dr. 
Smith realized that should he send these two 
thoughtless girls home it would not only blight 
their lives, but also be the means of their 
ruination, viewed from a social standpoint. 
With the boys, everyone knows, it is different. 
To them it is a lesson; to the girls it would 
have been a move toward their eventual down- 
fall. Soon what kind of a school would we 
have here in Mansfield? Dr. Smith's course 
is justifiable. His actions are heartily en- 
dorsed by the community at large. 

Galeton Dispatch 

January 22, 1902 











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c. 1905: MODEL SCHOOL 


c. 1905: KITCHEN HELP 


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1900's: The Normal Spirit 










(Air — "Annie Lisle") 

Far above Tioga's waters 

With their silver sheen, 
Stands our noble Alma Mater 

On her shaded green. 

Chorus — 

Lift the chorus, sing her praises 

Over hill and dale, 
Hail to thee, our Alma Mater 

Normal, hail, all hail! 
By the purple hills encompassed — 

Guardians of her fame — 
Mansfield standeth crowned with honor, 

Hail, her stainless, name! 
Blest by love of all her children, 

Nothing can she lack; 
See her colors proudly waving, 

Hail — the red and black! 

Lizzie Smith 


God preserve our Alma Mater, 

Mansfield Normal, evermore; 
Look Thou on her with Thy favor — 

Keep her safely, we implore; 
Crown her still with strength and honor, 

Renew her youth from year to year; 
By Thy grace which never faileth 

Let her prosper without fear. 
May her foster children ever 

Loyal be to "black and red"; 
May her noble sons and daughters 

Added luster 'round her shed, 
God preserve our Alma Mater, 

Mansfield dear forever more; 
In the sunshine of Thy favor 

Guard her, keep her, we implore. 

S. A. J. 


Normal spirit is something good to possess. It stimulates 
one to action. It helps to win a victory on the athletic field. 
It helps to swallow a defeat, if necessary, in an athletic con- 
test. It keeps one awake when otherwise he is drowsy. It 
makes friends true and lasting. It keeps an individual off the 
grass when he is tempted to take a short cut across the campus. 
It challenges his truer and nobler self when he is tempted to 
cheat in class or in examination. It does, many other things; 
but above all, it makes one love the Institution. 

Genuine power is gained only through service. Do you 
realize that an individual can take with him from the Normal 
School no more than he has given to it, unless, perchance, he 
be a thief? 

Source : Normal Quarterly 

April 1905 

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1905: DRAMATIS PERSONAE CAST. Roy Rose, Herbert E. Fowler, Joe C. Doane, G. Walter Wilcox, Leonard Green, Ralph 
B. Gardner, Arthur Horton, Albert A. Johnson, Matthew E. Haggerty, Herbert R. Grant, Ralph C. Wells, Verne F. Garrison, 
John Curren, Coila Harding, Mary C. Head, Edith A. French. 


ly\jy. ZJhe f-^omp and [-'aaecintry of /P/ay oDa 


The afternoon of May 29, 
1905 saw the inauguration of 
the May Party. 

By five o'clock that Monday 
afternoon, the campus in front 
of North Hall was covered with 
a goodly number of students 
and friends from the town, 
when, to the sounds of a march 
played by the school orchestra, 
the Seniors entered in their 
"Senior Procession," passing 
down the front walk from the 
front entrance of the Hall, 
turning to the left when half 
way down the campus, turning 
again to the left, and marching 
to seats provided for them be- 
fore the terraces north of Alum- 
ni Hall. It was a memorable 
sight — the young ladies all in 
white, the gentlemen in black, 
marching between long ropes of 
laurel, carried by the members 
of the Class. 

After the seniors were seat- 
ed, Miss Johnson sang an ap- 
propriate May song — "Come 
Out." Whereupon two pages 
bearing a crown and sceptre ad- 
vanced to Miss Christine Pol- 
lock of the Senior Class, an- 
nounced to her her election as 
"Queen of the May," conducted 
her to the throne that had been 
previously erected and draped 
in green on one of the terraces, 
and duly crowned her as our 
first May Queen. A pretty 
queen she made. Expectation 
had been rife as to the name 
of the favored Senior; but the 
election had been in secret con- 
clave; and the secret had been 
well kept. 

The Estudiantina Club then 
sang "May Time," after which 
a group of young ladies from 
the Middle Class, dressed, of 
course, in white, performed the 
ever popular May Pole Dance. 

After the dance about the 

May Pole, the audience joined 
the Estudiantina Club in sing- 
ing to the air "Blue Bells" a 
song written for the occasion 
by Mrs. E. D. T. Cogswell, the 
words of which are as follows: 

May Day 

We welcome thee with gladness, 
fair daughter of the Spring! 

With flowers and birds and sun- 
shine to thee our homage 

Now all we Lads and Lasses, 
sing we a joyful lay 

As thy chariot passes — 'tis 
Nature's holiday. 

Chorus — 

May! Spring's fair one, 

Flower crowned May, 
We greet thee gladly 

Here this festal day. 
May! Spring's loved one, 

List to our song, 
We welcome thee, Sweet May 

And wish thee long. 

In honor of the Seniors, here 

on our shaded green 
We meet with dance and 

singing to crown our Fair 

May Queen. 
Our Alma Mater hails thee, 

thou lovely smiling May! 
Thou bringest with thee beauty; 

list to our roundelay. 

Chorus — 

Afterward, a spectacular 
dance was given in a Scarf Drill 
by 16 members of the Middle 
Class, after which all united in 
singing "Alma Mater." 

We predict that ere many 
years May Day will become a 
thoroughly established event in 
our Normal calendar. 


The Quarterly, July 1905 



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1905: MAY COURT 










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Source: The Normal Quarterly 

Winter, 1907-1908 
















1910: New Four Year Course 

At a meeting of the Normal School Principals 
and the Superintendent of Public Instruction, held 
in Harrisburg, April 20 and 21, 1910, a new course 
of study was adopted for the schools covering four 
years of prescribed study. 

Details of the course will be given in the school 
catalogs, but a few items of especial interest can be 
presented here. 

The course is arranged on the basis of the "unit 
system" as prescribed by the Carnegie Foundation 
and as employed by nearly all the universities, col- 
leges and secondary schools of note throughout the 

In it is required more work in Pedagogy than 
the present course offers, and rather more of alter- 
ation than of addition in the academic branches. 

Graduates of approved high schools of the first 
grade may be admitted to the work of the third year 
without examination by the faculty. 

Graduates of approved high schools of the sec- 
ond grade may be admitted to the work of the sec- 
ond year without examination by the faculty. 

Graduates of approved high schools of the third 
grade may be admitted to the work of the first year 
without examination by the faculty. 

Persons who enter thus upon certificate from a 
high school must present their certificate properly 
signed and giving their grades in each of the sub- 
jects enumerated. They will be conditioned in any 
subjects of the Normal School course which they 
have not satisfactorily completed in the high school. 

All other persons will be admitted, as new, upon 
examination; but to become regular members of the 
first year class, they must show a fair knowledge of 
Arithmetic, Reading, Orthography, Penmanship, 
United States History, Geography, Grammar, Physi- 
ology, Civics and the Elements of Algebra to Quad- 

ratics — all subjects that are now prescribed by law 
to be taught in every public school of the state. 

For graduation, persons must be in attendance 
at least two years, excepting that graduates of four 
year courses in colleges approved by the College and 
University Council may be graduated after a resi- 
dence of only one year. 

A point that is likely to be overlooked by most 
persons is this: Graduates of first class high schools 
can complete this Four Year Course in the same time 
that is now usually required by them (two years), 
and they can do it more easily than now because 
now they are required to pass examinations in the 
subjects of the first two years and to do it in one year. 

Another point, equally important, is this: Per- 
sons who have no high school advantages at their 
homes, but who are dependent upon the district 
school for their elementary education, can usually 
complete the new course in the same time that is re- 
quired of them for the present course. At the present 
time there are too many subjects in the junior year 
for such persons to finish in one year of study; con- 
sequently most of them must take two years for it. 
Under the new course, if they use well their oppor- 
tunities in the home school, they can still be gradu- 
ated from the Normal School in four years. 

The adoption of this Four Year Course places 
the Normal Schools of Pennsylvania abreast of the 
best in the country, and it accordingly wins recogni- 
tion for our graduates from the other states. 

Persons who wish to practice medicine or den- 
tistry in the future will be given that right in such 
states as New York and New Jersey upon the basis 
of this four year preliminary course, and they will 
not be so licensed upon completion of a preliminary 
course of only three years. 

Source: The Quarterly, Spring 1910 



In April 1910, a new course of study was adopted for 
Pennsylvania Normal Schools. Among the changes, one re- 
quired new students in the education program to undergo 
testing to demonstrate their proficiencies in physiology, read- 
ing, orthography, penmanship, history, and the elements of 
algebra to quadratics. In October, the music program was 
further upgraded with the installation of a new three-manual 
Austin pipe organ in Alumni Hall. In the prelude of the 
formal opening of the organ, Professor Shepherd, the school's 
organ instructor, played "Praise God From Whom All Bless- 
ings Flow." According to news accounts, every seat in the 
auditorium was filled and many people were standing. The 
music so stirred the standing room only audience that they 
burst into a chorus that is remembered as one of the most 
exhilarant experience in the history of Mansfield. 

By September of 1911, an increased enrollment necessi- 
tated the elimination of all single rooms; and there was ex- 
pectation of even greater enrollment with the establishment 
of the Manual Training, and the Domestic Science (later 
Home Economics) Departments. 

In 1912, Mansfield celebrated its fiftieth anniversary as 
a State Normal School. The celebration was highlighted by 
five days (June 16-20) of festivities. Stores and homes hung 
red and black banners. In observance of the occasion, 
the students had a memorial tablet carved and placed in 
Alumni Hall. It read, "Character, Scholarship, Culture, Serv- 
ice." — the school motto. 

Dr. Smith left the principalship in 1913 and was suc- 
ceeded by Dr. William Ringgold Straughn, formerly Super- 
intendent of Schools in DuBois, Pennsylvania. Straughn's 
vision of Mansfield's future was shaped by his training in 
ethics and sociology. In one of his first actions, he formally 
abolished fraternities on the grounds that they inhibited 
rather than facilitated the cohesion of the school. He felt 
that some students had become overly involved in fraternity 
affairs. In turn, he supported other student organizations, 
particularly the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA). 
Rather quickly, the YMCA became the dominant student 
group on campus and within four years, the school provided 
a special house for the members. 


Dr. Straughn strived to reaffirm Mansfield's image as a 
strict Christian setting where the use of alcohol was absolutely 
prohibited. In the 1914 catalog, four years prior to prohibi- 
tion, prospective students were informed that "There are no 
saloons, public bowling alleys, or billiard rooms within ten 

In the meantime, along with his support of the YMCA, 
Dr. Straughn also reemphasized the importance of religion. 
Attendance at a Sunday morning church service and the 6:00 
Sunday Evening Vesper services was required of all students 
unless they were given a special excuse by Dr. Straughn. An 
excuse was issued only if a student's parents requested one 
on grounds of religious belief. 

Perhaps as a reflection of his sociological sense, Dr. 
Straughn made a special effort to foster student identification 
with the institution. To promote involvement and commitment, 
he encouraged the creation of a Student Government Associa- 
tion ; and, he also initiated the publication of the first school 
newspaper The Spotlight. Most of the articles in the news- 
paper highlighted the accomplishments of the athletic teams, 
the plays, and departmental activities. Then, in 1918, for the 
first time, the school published a school yearbook, The Caron- 
towan. Interestingly, the title of the publication means "The 
Little Town on the Hill" — a title consistent with Straughn's 
effort to foster the student's sense of being part of a com- 

On the academic side, Straughn took steps to upgrade 
the training of teachers. In the first year of his administration, 
the separate town and country grade schools of the Mansfield 
area were consolidated and the students were bused by horse 
and wagon to the newly-built, twelve room Model School (now 
Belknap Hall). As a result, the enrollment in the Model 
School nearly doubled from about 200 to 350 students. Also, 
along with the expansion of the Model School, Straughn de- 
veloped specialized training for rural school teachers. In 
1915, a highly-publicized series of lectures were given by 
several prominent Superintendents of schools, and rural school 
experts on the unique problems of Rural Schools. Then, in 
a Model Rural Practice School was established to train teach- 
ers about the specialized needs of rural school students. 

Meanwhile, the growth of enrollment in the music pro- 
gram necessitated the purchase of a building about fifty yards 
northwest of North Hall which was used as the Music Prac- 
tice Hall. 

The steady growth in enrollment was accompanied by an 
increasing diversity in the student body. By 1919, about two- 

MODEL SCHOOL. Seated at the middle table (left to right), 
Phyllis Owen Swinsick and Matilda Jupenlaz McClelland. 

thirds of the students were from outside Tioga County; and, 
although the school remained all-white, there was a broader 
diversity of religious and ethnic backgrounds. In fact, at the 
time, there was a special train which brought students from 
the Scranton and Wilkes-Barre area. 

Throughout the decade, the school stressed self-sufficiency. 
In the kindergarten, the Montessori Method was adopted on 
the grounds that it fostered independent learning; and, in the 
Normal School, the importance of self-sufficiency was a com- 
mon theme in lectures and in vesper services. 

The outbreak of World War I reinforced the ethos of 
self-sufficiency. In 1917, school administrators set out a plan 
under which the school produced its own food supply; and, a 
140 acre farm was purchased. Within a year, the farm pro- 
vided most of the potatoes, beets, carrots, beans, onions, cab- 
bage, and other staples; the school raised its own 
poultry, sheep, and cattle; and, a well was drilled and a 
reservoir was constructed on top of Normal Hill so that the 
water could flow to the buildings through gravity — thereby 
reducing the need for an outside energy source. 


In 1917, the school added a hospital with a permanent 
apartment for a regular nurse. It was expected that a new 
hospital would enable the school to provide better medical 
care. The following year, the school's effort to "take care of 
its own" was successfully demonstrated during a severe epi- 
demic of Spanish influenza. As described in the 1918 catalog: 

"Nearly )00 cases were reported and attended. Ten nurses 
and two medical doctors made their home in the dormitories, 
and all cases were isolated in the hospitals and rooms. Every 
resource of the school was placed at the disposal of the medical 
attendants, classes suspended, and the best of care given. 
Several severe cases of pneumonia developed, but no lives were 
lost. After a week classes were resumed, and all students ex- 
cept a very few, were back at their studies." 

Throughout the decade, the success of the athletic teams 
served to reinforce the spirit of the student body. In 1912, 
a track team was organized and by 1917 and again in 1919, 
the teams won first place at the Annual University of Penn- 
sylvania Relay Carnival — widely recognized as "the biggest 
annual athletic event in the world." Likewise, the football, 
basketball, and baseball teams were "winners." The 1915 
football team claimed the Championship of all New York and 
Pennsylvania Normal Schools, and the 1919 Basketball Team 
was undefeated. 


Due to the large crowds at the basketball games, in 
1919, the east side of the Gymnasium was extended 20 feet 
to make room for seven tiers of seats to accommodate 700 
spectators. Also, due to an increased interest in tennis, sev- 
eral new tennis courts were constructed. 

Unfortunately, Orson Wilcox, one of the most outstand- 
ing athletes of the decade never had the opportunity to realize 
his dream of professional status. While serving in France dur- 
ing World War I, he was stabbed to death by some Parisian 

Unlike some other schools, Mansfield's enrollment did not 
decline during World War I because Mansfield offered train- 
ing not afforded in most other schools. In 1917, it was the only 
Normal School that organized a Military Company, and one 
year later, the federal government established a unit of the 
Students Army Training Corps (SATC) at Mansfield. The 
Corps consisted of about 200 male students who were directed 
by an officer of the U. S. Infantry. 

In short, despite hard times and a war, Mansfield con- 
tinued to prosper throughout the decade. 




Some one has said that the 
mission of the ideal woman is 
to make the whole world home- 
like; but before this ideal state 
of affairs can be realized, the 
institutions which we call 
homes must be made homelike. 
When is such a place "home- 
like"? Is it when, upon enter- 
ing, one is met by a maid in 
dainty cap and apron, who ush- 
ers you into a reception room 
where shades are drawn to ex- 
actly the right place to give the 
correct and subdued light — 
and to keep things from fad- 
ing; where the polished floor is 
covered with exquisite rugs, the 
mantel loaded with bric-a-brac, 
the hearth neatly swept and its 
andirons carefully burnished; 
where dainty gilt chairs are ar- 
ranged with utmost precision 
— in a word, where things look 
as if they were not intended to 
be used even though they are 

Is this the place in which 
mother and father can rest 
after their day's labors and en- 
joy their books and papers; 
where boys and girls would 
rather bring their friends than 
to meet them upon the streets 
or in cheap places of amuse- 

Yes, home is where parental 
love and devotion may express 
themselves unhampered. This 
will carry with it the idea of 
enough of this world's goodj to 
make pecuniary concern un- 
necessary. But the best homes 
will add to these very important 
factors, a breadth of intelli- 
gence and culture on the part 
of the home makers and skill 

in the arts of home making 
such as can use to advantage 
the material abundance with 
which they may be surrounded. 

It is for the accomplishment 
of these ends that Domestic 
Science is finding its way into 
the schools. With no thought 
of subtracting anything from 
the broadest culture that the 
schools can give, or of putting 
cooking and sewing in the place 
of wisdom and womanliness, it 
is noted that a woman's efficien- 
cy is greatly increased (no mat- 
ter how much or what else she 
may know) by making her able 
to perform these requisites of 
the home, and enabling her to 
see in them enough to call forth 
her largest wisdom in their en- 
thusiastic mastery. 

To meet this growing de- 
mand of the times, the depart- 
ment of Domestic Science has 
been established here. In addi- 
tion to the "simple" matters of 
cooking and serving, (each of 
which really contains great pos- 
sibilities) this department will 
deal with the chemistry of 
tools, the construction of suit- 
able menus, food value of the 
various edible products, etc., 
with textiles, suitability and rel- 
ative values of various dress 
materials, with personal adorn- 
ment considered from the eco- 
nomic and the artistic points of 
view, with house decoration, 
furnishing and care, and with 
the many other problems that 
enter into the acts of "complete 


The Normal Quarterly 

November 1911 





1912: SMILES? Photographers encouraged the sober, serious look. 


lvJ-Z' fl'lansfield (^eleoratei S^emi-centennial in f<\ed and (/Slack 

Black a n fc 1R e 6 

BLACK hangs the cloud of ignorance. 
And black is sorrow's somber pall, 
Black scowls the frown of discontent, 
In darkest shade the vicious crawl. 
From out this dismal, noisome gloom 
There comes a wail of sin and woe,-- 
"Your brothers perish in the dark, 
A better way they fain would know." 

SK 1VE, Give," a thousand voices cry— 
^•^ "Oh, ye to whom life has been kind,= 
Give us your sight to guide our steps. 
The halting footsteps of the blind. 
Give knowledge with its piercing ray, 
The poor befriend, the vile uplift, 
Give sympathy for those who mourn, -- 
Give us yourself—a priceless gift." 

BH, never since the birth of time 
Has evil been o'ercome by right 
Without the heart-blood's utter gift, 
Without the sacrificial might ; 
Despised, rejected, worse than lost 
Are gifts without the giver's heart, 
The poor, the dull, the vicious spurn 
The help that is from life apart. 

CJi HALL pleasure-lovers lightly cry, 

*** " These sights offend, these sounds annoy, 

And turn, self-satisfied, to grasp 

With dainty hand, life's tinseled toy? 

Shall brooding student coldly claim 

" My life is mine, my very own, 

My right it is to stand aloof, 

To cultivate myself alone?" 

7^ EVELOP seIf--'Tis God's command, ~ 
**' And in the task no labor shirk, 

That thou may'st come at length to prove 

How noble is God's highest work. 

Rejoice in light, but know, O Man, 

Though broad and strong and brave and wise, 

Thy life must still be incomplete 

Without the glow of sacrifice. 

/^ H, glorious red of sacrifice! 

'■* Oh, mighty power so strangely blest, — 
The Master's plan for fullest life, 
A joy unknown to selfish breast; 
Across the world-cloud's blackness cast, 
Thy hue doth gleam in color bright ; 
Sometime the darkness shall be past 
Through power of sacrificial might. 

Eli.iabctb Ocifren Smith. 


School Motto 


i aracter 

is the essential 


ii the enrichment 



the end of- all 
thu endeavors 




t^.* *^R»* *^»* . *^Ri.*- -Vfc* ..*<^»* *^^* -VR** . -VR»* . *^fc*. ..Vfc*- .*^»* *^»* ,*^»*-..*^»* s*SKf:.-*JKf:.*^?. ...?&* *^t' *^»* \T/ .*<^*. ,T<» *, %Wt -. •• * - . »W» *-. .- * -. .-VR» V .*Clb . <&» . .-*^R»* .. *^R» *.. .<*£&% *WK 







"We are here to celebrate this 
marvelous school . . . 1 have labored 
fifty-eight years for this important 
and magnificant institution, and 1 
am proud of its success." 

". . . always recall the purposes 
of its founders. Strive to make 
education universal; that the rich 
and the poor; the child of him who 
has power and place, and of him 
who treads the lowly paths of life, 
shall receive alike the blessings of 
education at Mansfield . . . Invite 
equally and alike, without distinc- 
tion of sex, or color, or race, or 
creed, or party, the children of all 
who may desire to participate of 
the opportunities here offered. That 
is the highest purpose for which 
Mansfield may be praised." 


He was one of the founders 
and most ardent supporters 
of Mansfield for many years. 
In 1912 he gave the Histori- 
cal Address. 

Fair Mansfield, we now to thy Jubilee throng, 

And, with blessings, surrender thee o'er, 

By these festival rites, from the age that is past, 

To the age that is waiting before. 

Oh, relic and type of thy founders' desire 

That has long kept their memory warm, 

Oh, fruit of their toiling and star of their hope, 

Bright rising through calm and through storm! 

To thy halls we were led in the bloom of our 

From the home of our earlier years, 
When our fathers had warned and our mothers 

had prayed, 
And had blessed us through fast falling tears; 
Thou then wert our parent, the nurse of our soul, 
We were nurtured and moulded by thee, 
Till, frighted and treasure of knowledge and hope, 
We were launched upon Destiny's sea. 

Now, as pilgrims, we come to re-visit thy shrine, 

On the morn of thy glad Jubilee, 

And, with kindlings of spirit at memory's flame, 

Pledge anew our allegiance to thee. 

Here the good and the great in the years that are 

Consecrated to labor and care, 
Poured the oil of their love on the fire of their 

That thy name might be honored and fair. 

Farwell! Be thy destinies honored and bright, 

While thy children thy motto defend, 

And, through "Character, Scholarship, Culture," 

For "Service," man's worthiest end; 
Nor let Wisdom out-worm, moor thy bark to its 

As the current of Progress glides by — 
Be the Bearer of Light and the Herald of Love 
While the red and the black wave high. 

Adapted from "Fair Harvard" for 
Mansfield Semi-Centennial, 1912 























■ 'JK' .'JK* ,*^,v 'JK' ,'JKt*.. ,*»*»•. sJK:. s&s S-&S *%*.*. sJnt:* t xKt**wK*?. s.JKr\**&i:. .%«.•■. .%»►:.. -%»»• ■*•*••.. ..vw.*.. .<%«.?.. . '<&*?■. ..-•*«.*, s&s.. ..*««.•, ..••^.•, ..%»•-. .*•<»*.. .-\W. .■■.*•■•. ,•-..». -. .-^a .••t^w.t-. ..-%«•*.. ..U&-.. .,%j 










The fraternity was disbanded by Dr. Straughn in 1914 but it continued to meet on a regular basis long afterward. Left to 
right — first row — Robert Dix, Clarence Mott, William "Slim" Lloyd, Olan Mittan, Harold Strait, Hormer Dudley. Second row 
— Tracy Laurenson, William "Buddy" Norman, Sheldon "Jack" Frost, Paul Allison, Burr Deivey, Charles Dickinson, Went- 
worth (Babe) Vedder. Third row — Virgil Dudley, Harold Adams, Myron Baxter, Rayburn Smith, Earl Hobbs, Dewey Miller. 
Fourth row — Fred Hardy, Leonard Reibe, Sanford Vedder, Professor George B. Strait, Clark James, Everett Stephens. 







- * jEt"- A ' 

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a -4- -i^X^* 

Jl. &. A 3 

iV 1 KW 





H^ - 










1914: Dr. William Ringgold Straughn Appointed Principal 



Dr. Straughn was born April 23, 1882, in Mar- 
della Springs, Wicomico County, Maryland, son of 
Reverend John Lee Straughn, a Methodist Minister. 

He received his early education in the public 
schools of Maryland and Delaware, later entering 
Baltimore City College, from which he was gradu- 
ated with honors in 1902. From City College he en- 
tered Johns Hopkins University, from which insti- 
tution he was graduated in 1905. While taking his 
post-graduate work at Johns Hopkins he taught in 
the public schools of Baltimore, and in Baltimore 
City College, later going to Millersville (Pa.) State 
Normal School as head of the department of English 
and Pedagogy. There he remained for six years — 
the last two years as assistant to the Principal. In 
1908 he received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy 
from Kansas City University. 

While at Millersville he was elected City Super- 
intendent of Schools in DuBois, Pa., remaining about 
two and a half years, until elected Principal of Mans- 
field Normal. 

He was a member of the American Political Sci- 
ence Association, of the Johns Hopkins Club, and of 
a number of literary organizations. 

For several years he was a reporter on Balti- 
more daily newspapers, and also an occasional writer 
for magazines, both of poetry and prose. His first 
book was "Home Authors — Pennsylvania." 

Dr. Straughn lectured at Teachers' Institutes, 
High School Commencements, and on special occa- 
sions. On literary and educational questions he was 
within his realm and held a unique place. Among 
the leading educators of the State he stood as a po- 
tent factor. By his prudence Mansfield Normal under 
his leadership made marvelous strides and took her 
place on the pinnacle with similar institutions. 

Dr. Straughn was a profound, broad and keen 
thinker, and a man of liberal thought. His affable 
manner, his generous desire to aid the humblest stu- 
dent was at all times in evidence. 

Source: The Carontawan, 1918 




1915-1916: RELAY TEAM. Left to right — Irvin Frances, Kim Marvin, Emory Rockwell (coach), Grant Carpenter, and 
T. Foley. 


1916-1917: Announcements 

DANCES — Only the old dances are permitted. A committee from 
the faculty is always in charge. On each Wednesday evening, imme- 
diately after supper, the younger ladies may dance in the lower corri- 
dor of North Hall. Victrola music is used. On Friday evenings, from 
6:30 to 7:15, all of the students who care to dance are permitted to use 
the gymnasium — one of the largest in the state. A new, hardwood 
floor has recently been constructed. Piano music is furnished by the 
students and members of the faculty. All of the dances are very in- 
formal, and because of the care taken, and exercise and pleasure de- 
rived, cannot be objected to by even the most pronounced opponents 
of dancing. Only one formal dance is given a year. This is to familiarize 
students with social customs. 

LITERARY — Four Literary Societies have taken the place of the 
exclusive fraternities. They are open to boys and girls. Members of 
the faculty attend the meetings and act as directing critics. The Normal 
Spotlight (purely a student publication) appears every two weeks. 

DINING ROOM — Students are carefully assigned to places by the 
preceptress. At the week end students are permitted to visit at other 
tables. In this way there is a freedom in the dining room that adds to 
the pleasure and profits of school life. 

HEALTH — We take every precaution to insure the health and 
safety of the students. The water and the milk are pure (frequently 
tested). The water at present is from mountain streams and private 
springs, and in a few months we expect to have our own private supply 
from several artesian wells (now being driven), thus affording the most 
complete assurance of protection to health. The school owns a herd of 
cattle, but also purchases a large supply from a local dairyman, who is 
well-known for sanitary precautions adopted by him. 

RELIGIOUS SERVICES — Attendance on Sunday mornings is com- 
pulsory, at the church of the choice of the student, unless excused for 
religious reasons. A short Vesper service, lasting a half hour on Sun- 
day evening, is conducted by the Principal or a member of the faculty. 

RESTRICTED ACTIVITY — There are no saloons, public bowling 
alleys or billiard rooms within ten miles of this Normal School. 

MOTION PICTURES — The Normal School is in possession of two 
high grade motion picture machines. One is a Pathescope (French 
made) which uses non-inflammable films; the other is a No. 6B Powers, 
of the latest type, which uses the so-called standardized films. The pur- 
pose of the school in installing these machines is to present, from time 
to time, the students and others interested with wholesome, elevating 
pictures — the kind that are educative as well as entertaining. To this 
end, films will be displayed which are adaptations of recognized works 
of drama, fiction and comedy. 

Model 3074 

Made of fancy material, trimmed 
with lace. Has low bust and long 
skirt, 9 ' 7 -inch front clasp and 4 
supporters. WHITE. Sizes 19-2S 
Price $1.50. This is one of the 
newest Kabo models and is very 
popular at the price. 

Advertisement which appeared in 
The Spotlight (May 1917) 


* -i 9 * * 







'■:: ... 


▼rttteo to 1917. 


Will George Butler, Mus. Doc 
Class of 1897 

Hitw 1 1 



1. Old Mans- field, high up - on the 

2. The world is bet - tcr for the 

3. We nev - er can for -get the 

4. The vis - ion that we caught ba 



east - em hill, DeartMans- field.hai! to thee! 
bea - con light Which thou hast shed a- broad, 
days we've spent With - in thy hal-low'd walls, 
-neath thy spell Has o - pened up th: way 



-p— r 




Thy loy - al sens and daughters 
Strong hearts are stronger for the 
We'll learn sometime what all your 
To op - por- tun - i - ty and 


with a will Sa - lute in rrel - o - dy. 
test - ing fight That leads men up to God. 
les - sons meant When lar - ger du - ty calls, 
serv - ing well Up - on the King J shigh-way. 

■ n b»- i I 

:&— fc 



/ \n m 


1 " V ' J 

« . S « € 


. - * i 

We bring 
In all 
For ev - 
We love 

a lau - rel wreath of praise, And pledge our love thro' a 
the va - ried walks of life. In peace- fu I paths and stre 
'ry law and rule of thine- Is made to fit our life 
the mem - 'ry of thy ways.Strong lads and lass - ies fai 





the days; 
of strife, 
de - sign, 
as fays; 

t- }■ . 

i"V I'll i i 

s b ii » -V-*- 

_* = b— 

-r- L I— ■ (■ 

■* • * * # 

r . r i i 


-H — F- 

i u i r ' 

— «< ■ 


r — h — b- 

TTT £ &' 1 f 



Our Al - ma Ma - ter, dear, all hail to thee! Old Mans- field, hail to thee! 

We find thy sons and daughters true to thee, Old Mans- field, hail to thee! 

We'll con • se- crate our lives to Truth and thee, Old Mans- field, hail to thee! 

Our Al - ma Ma -ter, dear, all hail to thee, Old Mans- field, hail to theel 

mB tft^HtH^Ftfrt^p ri 

Copyrighi 1917 by Will George Butlet 


Old Pennsylvania of Mine! 

Maestoso t tvirUaso. 

Words and Mnsic by Will George Butleb, Mna. Doo. 

, i i h. i ! 1 hi 


Q> 7 J I i «— i— - 

Ld-r— *— * •" 

j. j i j 

J? — *— J 1_ 



1 Old Penn - syl - van - i - 

2. With - iu the shade of 

3. I love thy for - est - 

4. The great red down, 

5. We thought it but a 

6. In Flan-decs' fields, in 

•* ' 4 m — *- J 

a of mine, I 
r ort Duquesne, In 
cov -ered hills Whe 
men of toil! Tim 
na-tion's birth, But 
Pi - car - dy, In 

m . -+- m -*- 

a » M_f_L> • , ^ r - 1 

bow me at thy sa-cred shrine And 
>eace, the far - mer sows his grain, And 
re sing the syni - pho nies of mills, Where 
glows a - bove the bat -tie's spoil, Was 
now we know that all the earth Was 
Saint Go -bain, in It - al - y Thy 

"*"" "P" * * - - - - ! 

fe&B •! » 

L-- » — •- 

» ■ §m^}w —=-- 

-*-• * — j m — 


j» ' w i 1 — 

r — k — ' — ^— 

i w — » 1 


V i | 




_, H . 

— f*-j — -H 




— •— - 

- f» -I 

1 . 

)5 - 







mar - 

be - neath God's vault 

- ing har - vests rich 
and iron and stone 

dis-oerned by tons 

- ing to the rev - 
tyred sons were glad 

_i_J — r-_Szn 

- ed dome I swear 
ly grow Where Sua - 

and wood Were stored 
of Penn Who here 
eil - le That ush - 
to fall That Lib - 

-' " *- f — '—^ — «-i 

a vow for home, sweet home! The 
que -han-na'a wa - ters flow. Where 

by Him who called them good. I 
de - clared the great A - men! Thro' 

era in the gold - en day! And 

er - ty might Live for all. Old 

_ -»- :£: -«-•-*--- 

•*-■!— 1— f— 1- -S- -«- 

ge : 

— # — 1» » — 

• - 

» ~ — » — • — »— 


r— i— 



k*— r- 


I • ' ' 

L- 1 

-^ — r- h 










Key - stone State that binds the whole, With pride we look np - on thy scroll And 
once the red man held his rule Now reigns the com - mon pub - lie school, And 
love the thrift that seeks these stores Wrought by the sons of ma - ny shores, Who 
Val - ley For - ge's win -tier's snows, Through Get-tys-burg's deep bit - ter throes The 
so thy In - de - pen-dtnee Bell Pro- claims the tid ings ''God moves well, "And 

Penn - syl - va - ni - a, to thee The world stands debt - or, purged and free, To 

" " "*" - ->-. _ . 1 

= m * — i—*- 1 — * a 


->-! — r 


-t — i 

1 1 J 




f> : * ! — J- 

-t|— *!— f- 

=s~: -* —2- 

— -j— 




5' ^.-4 « * 

read a - mong the 
where Wy - om - ing's 
by their sweat of 
mar- sballed mes- sen 
sings with all earth's 
thee we pledge our 

m • * — m — «— 

fr3H>— l • — • — •— 

I ^_- ^ ^ K 

bat - tie scars Thy 
war cries rang Re - 
brow and brawn Have 
gers of light Set 
flags on-furled The 
heart and hand, The 

m - -f" ff f- 

« - ! * *~ 

glo - ry writ in 
ver - ber - afces the 
brought ns to the 
pin - ioned dark - ness 
ho - ly free -dom 
fair - est state in 

an - 

— •— = 

— m— 

- en 


• to 


-aJ — 





-^ — p ' l^ — i 1 — 


-r— I r- 


H * — i — i — 



— & — 

-1 — 


Copyright, 1919. by Will George Butler. 

Copies of this song for school or community singing can be had at 25 cents a dozen, 
or §2.00 a hundred, if cash accompanies order. Address: 

MANSFIELD STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, Mansfield, Pennsylvania. 


DR. WILL GEORGE BUTLER. For many years he was Mansfield's 
most publicly acclaimed professor. A composer and musician, he 
wrote the Alma Mater, "Mansfield Hail" and numerous other musical 
compositions including "Old Pennsylvania of Mine" and "Long Live 
America". In 1931 he presented President Herbert Hoover with a copy 
of "Long Live America" after the hymn was officially selected by the 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission. 




DELIVER a message of Love in every- 
thing that you do. The world may be slow 
to recognize, but it will surely get the 

If you will love largely enough and 
be kind, some day, when you are not here, 
people will caress the inanimate objects 
you have touched and meditate deep and 

He that loves most, lives most, for 
love is the ruling passion of Immortality. 

The tree of Love bears the fruit of 
Kindness. One is the cause, the other, the 
effect. Neither can exist alone. 

The love we radiate will live after us. 
May the hate we have scattered abroad be 
interred with our bones. 

The KIND of love that produces help- 
fulness is active love, and there IS no other 

If you will love intensely enough the 
world may hate and crucify you, but a 
Passion for humanity on Calvary is trium- 
phant and will draw all men unto it. Love 
suffers long, is kind and learns to kiss the 

Will George Butler 
Source: The Spotlight, March 1917 


1917: THE SPOTLIGHT STAFF. Left to right, first row — Marjorie Reed, contributing editor; B. B. Powell, editor; 
Elaine Manley, contributing editor. Middle row — Donald B. Rockwell, associate editor; Myron B. Deily, associate edi- 
tor; Prof. Rupert, faculty adviser; Harold Strait, business manager. Top row — Maurice Woodrow, Rev. Dimmick, contribut- 
ing editor; Harry Taylor, assistant business manager; Joseph Clarke, contributing editor. 


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1918: JUL, 2> ea „, 

ZJne Senior L^ta.55 f-^reiident oDeliveri Ualedictoru ^Atddi 



"... People in general, and especially the generations that 
are to follow, will judge us not so much by the wealth we 
amass as by the service we render to our country and to the 
world. The bases will not be for what we do for ourselves 
but what we do for humanity. 

. . . Too soon our memories of Mansfield and the associations 
formed here may become but dreams of the distant past. 
Perhaps in that afterglow of life, when the past is more 
vivid than the present, memories of Mansfield will return 
to us more clearly ..." 

He was described in the Carontawan 
(1918) as follows: 

"Our Worthy President! Look at him! That 
patrician brow! Those deep-set eyes! That aristo- 
cratic nose. And forgive him these, he can't help it. 
He is an all-round man; athletics, Lit work, 
studies and social duties all claim a part of his time. 
He's dignified, efficient and responsible. We're proud 
of our president." 

After leaving Mansfield, Mr. Dean went to France and 
served in World War I. Then he joined the Postal Service. 
Throughout his life he lived the words of his valedictory ad- 
dress, and he always spoke fondly of Mansfield. 

In 1980, upon his death, Mr. Dean expressed his lasting 
commitment to Mansfield. He left over $380,000 to the 
school. The interest on the endowment is used to provide 
scholarships for needy students. 







:♦>•:«••:♦>•:«• •:♦> <♦:• <♦:• •»:••»:••:♦>•:♦> <«••:♦> •:♦> •:«• •:♦> a- •:♦>•:♦:• •:♦> •:♦> •:♦> •:«••:«• •»> •:♦:• •:«• •:«• •:♦><«• •:♦:• •:♦> •:♦:• •:♦> ■:♦> •:«■ 


1917-1920: jClfe at WansfJd 


September 11 — Arrived in Mansfield by Erie 
Flyer. Thence to a supper of spuds. Home was 
never like this! 

September 25 — Military Corn Soup for din- 
ner — one could occasionally find a kernel. 

September 28 — Dr. Straughn's Sociology 
class defines love. 

November 15 — Girls have knitting craze; 
carry it to chapel, but are gently and firmly 
barred by Dr. Straughn. 

November 30 — Dance after supper, during 
which Ray and Laura had a falling out. She has 
demanded her picture. 

December 2 — Dr. Swift of Anti-Saloon 
League spoke at Vespers. Gertrude Smiles is thrill- 
ed thru and thru. 


January 14 — Chief attraction — the Pond. 
Even faculty were there with skates on. 

February 8 — Dr. Straughn dismisses girls 
from chapel to give some paternal advice to boys. 

March 6 — Hartley Dean calls a class meet- 
ing to decide the "kind and cut" (quoting Hart- 
ley) of the girls' class day dresses. 

March 8 — Dr. Straughn's calm announce- 
ment "No more Sunday visiting until further 

March 13 — Dr. Straughn tells boys to wear 
their flannel shirts again at the first Gym Social 
in Spring Term. 

September 16 — A telegram! M. S. N. S. 
will have an S. A. T. C. 

September 17 and 18 ■ — ■ Maleless classes. All 
boys working (?) at the Fair. 

September 24 — More new men. Tables made 
larger. Megaphones in common use to talk with 
the hostess. 

October 5-6-7 — In-flu the "flu". - Nuff sed! 

October 8-9-10 — "Flu," "Flu," "Flu." 

October 11-12-13-14-15 — Flu still fluing. 

October 31 — "The Masquerade Ball." 

November 11 — Confirmation of German's 
rumored surrender!! Unbounded excitement!! 
Greatest in the annals of the Normal. Alternate 
dancing and parading. Pseudo cremation of the 
ex-kaiser. Score one for Peace!!! 

November 18 — the latest attraction — 
Army Shoes. 

December 4 — "The Birth of a Nation." 
Better late than never. Mansfield always gets 
there give her time. 

December 7 — First in the annals of the 
school — A "Military Ball", from 7 p.m. until 
11:45 p.m. Evryone had a fine time and 11:45 

came too soon. 


January 1 5 — Absence of fried potatoes for 
breakfast. Yea for Steward Brooks. 

February 12 — The "Y" house is opened. 
Twenty minute calls made by the girls (properly 
chaperoned) lest they go astray. 

February 18 — An extended "suffrage meet- 
ing" in the Library. Weighty question under dis- 

March 12 — Boy's night at the "gym". 
Foote and Kernan give a thrilling exhibition of 
"shimmy dancing." 

April 24 — Track team left for Philadelphia. 
Sent off with cheers from the students on the 

April 26 — The dancers frolic for an hour 
and a half in honor of our Relay Victory at 

September 12 — Gym social. Everyone out 
for the first dance. How nice the Gym looks 
with new seats. 

September 14 — First Sunday. Girls experi- 
ence first attack of "homesickness". Dr. Straughn 
speaks in Vespers. 

September 20 — Tennis courts are filled and 
"bench tennis" very popular. 

September 23 — No more sitting in back 
seats during chapel exercises. We get our cell 

October 8 — Everyone is happy or at least 
could be. Cider 5* a glass at Love's. 

October 12 — Boys "strike" for better eats. 
Great confusion as they left dining room. 

October 14 — The "sentenced" is pro- 
nounced, "strikers" are social-privileged." No 
more Sunday visiting until after Nov. 7. 

November 1 — Mansfield plays at Strouds- 
burg. With the beginning of the coal strike, we 
have "lightless" suppers, too. 

November 25 — Dr. Straughn gives the boys 
a little advice on how to get their lights out at ten. 

November 29 — Dance again, even a "Jazz 
Band" at the Gym. 


January 27 — Boys overstep the half-hour 
privilege at 9:30 p.m. As a result they now study 
until 9:45. 

February 8 — Boys anxiously awaited the 
arrival of the new nurse. Dr. Straughn very wise- 
ly selected a very motherly woman. 

February 26 — Boys do not eat too much, 
or rather too long at your Sunday dinner parties, 
for social privileges may be deprived. 

May 3 — Dr. Straughn announces that Mans- 
field is to be one of the four places in the State 
to have an Ambulance Corps. Cram! Cram! 
Cram! Cram! Exams. 

May 6 — Too many Love sets are at the 
Tennis Courts. Some are deprived of social priv- 

Source: Excerpts from "Chronicles" 
that appeared in 
Carontawans, 1918-1920 




1920: The New Normal School Course 

The new course of study as adopted and approved by the 
Department of Instruction on March 23, 1920 is perhaps the 
most advanced and far reaching educational program ever 
attempted in Pennsylvania. It has been carefully planned, 
criticized and revised through months of labor, and has the 
approval of the leading educators of the day. It places the 
training of teachers on the same broad basis as the training 
required for any of the great professions, dignifies and exalts 
the Normal Schools, which, beginning with next September go 
on a collegiate basis of two years, and the graduates here- 
after automatically, by the requirements for admission, are 
four year high school graduates, and, by the requirements for 
graduation, also will be received in the Junior year at college. 
In other words the New Course is two years of college work, 
with all the advantages which come to a young man or young 
woman who also holds a life diploma to teach in any grade 
from the kindergarten up to and including the high school. 

Fifteen units of high school work are required for ad- 
mission. A Secondary Department will be maintained to give 
students who lack required entrance units an opportunity to 
make up these separately or in connection with the Normal 
Course, if the program will permit. Students living in towns 
that maintain four-year high schools must obtain their required 
units at home, (except under very special conditions), but the 
Secondary Department will be of benefit to those who have no 
high school opportunities at home, or who have only three- 

year high schools, in which case they can board at the Normal 
with all the advantages it offers, at as small expense as in a 
neighboring town. A student may complete the required fif- 
teen units in the Secondary Department in whatever time his 
ability will permit, and is not kept back by pupils of slower 
growth. The tuition is free to all who are seventeen years old. 

After students have been in attendance in the Regular 
Normal Course a semester, they will elect the group, as Kin- 
dergarten-Primary, Intermediate Grades, Grammar and High 
School, or Rural, as major, with broad opportunities for elec- 
tives in all college subjects. However, graduation from one 
group does not limit the teaching to that group, but the di- 
ploma is good for any grade of teaching from Kindergarten 
up to and including High School. 

The special departments, as Music and Drawing Super- 
visors', Home Economics, continue and will require three 
years' attendance. State certificates, without further exam- 
inations, will be granted. The special Kindergarten course 
now maintained will be combined with Group I of the Normal 
as Kindergarten-Primary (two years), with life diploma. 

Extension and Correspondence courses will later be avail- 
able under the new plan. 

Source: The Normal Quarterly, May 1920 




Is Offered Through the Courses at 

Regular Normal — Group I, II, and IV for grade teaching, two 
years in length. College credit of two years allowed. Group 
III, preparing for teaching in Junior and Senior High Schools, 
three years in length. College credit of two to three years, 
depending upon electives taken. 

Music Supervisors' — Prepares for the teaching and the super- 
vision of music in the grades and high schools. Three year 
course. Best positions in the state opened to graduates of this 

Home Economics — Prepares for teaching and supervision in 
the grades and high schools. Three year course. One of the 
best courses that a young lady can take. The students manage 
their own cottage under teacher supervision. 

WILLIAM R. STRAUGHN, Ph. D., Principal 

In 1920, a new era of expansion began when the Com- 
monwealth purchased the school from the stockholders, and 
the State Department of Education announced further changes 
in the Normal School teacher training curriculum. Under 
the new standards, only high school graduates could be ad- 
mitted, and the two-year Normal course became recognized 
as two years of regular college work. A year later in 1921, 
the State Legislature made music a required subject in ele- 
mentary schools and the demand for music teachers increased 
sharply. Mansfield, along with West Chester and Indiana, 
were made the official training centers for Public School Music 
Supervisors, and eventually, Mansfield became the first state 
teachers college in Pennsylvania to grant a degree in music 

To meet the new demands in education, Dr. Straughn 
shifted the school's programs. By 1922, he phased out the 
special programs in art, elocution, business, and college pre- 
paratory; and he upgraded the teacher education, music, and 
home economics programs. In teacher education, four curric- 
ula were made available: Kindergarten-Primary, Intermediate 
Grades 4-6; Grammar/Junior High School, 7-12; and, Rural 
School Teaching. In the music program, the conservatory 
course remained, but it became overshadowed by a new pro- 
gram in Public School Music Supervision. In home economics, 
the program was reorganized not only to meet the need for 
home economics teachers, but to meet the expectations of the 
"new woman" — that is, the woman who had just gained the 
right to vote, who was intelligent, and who wanted to be the 
ideal homemaker. In fact, one college brochure describing 
home economics highlighted a quote attributed to Mrs. Calvin 
Coolidge: "I look for a revival of the homey household arts. 
Such a revival may not bring about the peace of nations, but 
I firmly believe it will aid in bringing peace within our homes, 
and this will be more far-reaching than we realize." 

During the 20's, prospective students were told that 
"there is but little sickness in Mansfield." The area was com- 
monly described as "The Garden of the Six Nations" — allud- 
ing to the Indian tribes that once lived in the region. Also, 
with the growing popularity of the automobile and the newly 
constructed Route 6, the brochures emphasized that "Mans- 
field is favorably situated in relation to Pennsylvania's im- 
proved roads . . . The Susquehanna Trail (Route 15) and 
the Roosevelt Highway (Route 6) cross at Mansfield." 


During this time, the enrollment expanded to about one 
thousand students, and the school had some trouble accommo- 
dating the growth. As a result, admission standards became 
more selective, the free tuition policy was eliminated, an in- 
creasing number of students were housed off-campus, the 
school year was reduced from 40 to 36 weeks, the summer 
school program was greatly expanded, and a branch of Mans- 
field was established at Muncy. 

Indicative of the pressure for housing, in 1927, prospec- 
tive students were advised that all rooms had to be converted 
to doubles. In fact, some of them were informed that they 
might have to temporarily share a bed. 

By the mid-20's, Dr. Straughn had become a prominent 
advocate of raising the State Normal Schools to a collegiate 
status. In 1926, the State Council of Education passed a reso- 
lution authorizing Mansfield to offer Bachelor of Science de- 
grees in elementary education, secondary education, music, 
and home economics. However, due to a legislative error, 
Mansfield officially remained a Normal School until May 1'3, 
1927. On that day, Mansfield Normal became the first state 
teachers college in Pennsylvania. Principal Straughn became 
President Straughn. 

Meanwhile, the school constructed a new house for the 
President, a new YMCA building, a heating plant, a new 
junior high school, and plans were prepared for the con- 
struction of a new auditorium to replace the one in old Alumni 

Despite the newly attained collegiate status of the insti- 
tution, students were referred to as "boys and girls" rather 
than "ladies and gentlemen" or "males and females." The 
terminology reflected the continuing paternalistic perspective 
of the administration. In Dr. Straughn's view, student life was 
to be closely supervised and it was to be based on the theme 
that Mansfield provided "A Straight Path to a Higher Life." 

Students were regularly lectured about proper etiquette. 
Although church attendance became "advised" instead of "re- 
quired," Straughn emphasized traditional religious values. 
Students were told that their dress should be "simple," and 
that "elaborate day and evening dresses should not be worn." 
As a general rule, lights were supposed to be out at ten o'clock 
in order that students received the proper rest. To maintain 
the beauty and orderly appearance of the campus, Dr. 
Straughn informed students that he would personally enforce 
punishment of those who walked on the grass. 

The students of the 20's were mostly females. In fact, 
usually there were about three or four females for every male 

student. The imbalance was obviously favorable for the male 
who wanted a date, but it often meant that many females had 
to organize their own activities. Thus, it is not surprising that 
most of the new organizations of the 20's were for females: 
Girls Athletic Club, Girls Hiking Club, Girls Outdoor Club, 
Domicilian Club, Girls Dramatic Club, The Downtown Wom- 
en's Council, and the Girls Glee Club. Most of the school rules 
relating to curfews and smoking were more restrictive for the 
females than for the males. However, it is also noteworthy 
that while "the boys" were required to pay a deposit fee for 
damages of ten dollars (§10.00), "the girls" only had to pay 
five dollars ($5.00). 

In sports, the competition became keener and the teams 
did not do as well as in former years; however, the 1926 and 
1929 basketball team did claim the state championship. Ten- 
nis lost some of its popularity as more students turned to 
swimming, hiking, and other outdoor activities. Musical pro- 
grams, operas, plays, and carnivals were quite popular, and, 
the main social event of the year became the Senior Prom. In 
1921, the school newspaper was renamed The Semaphore, and 
then in 1926, The Flashlight. 

In general, the Roaring Twenties were reflected in life 
at Mansfield. But, just as the- Stock Market Crash of '29 was 
a setback in progress for the society in general, so too it 
slowed growth at Mansfield. 


In Wilkes-Barre Examinations All 
Win High Positions. 

Last June when examinations were given in 
Wilkes-Barre for selection of candidates to fill city 
teaching positions, there were representatives from 
five Normal Schools, including Mansfield. The posi- 
tions were awarded according to the ratings and all 
Mansfield graduates passed with highest averages 
and were awarded the positions. This same thing 
has occurred many other times and we are proud 
of the Alumni and the School that has such an en- 
viable record. 

Source: The Semaphore 

November 27, 1920 



Y. M. C. A. 

"Erected in 1920 in the rear of 
the gymnasium, "The Y" is to be 
devoted exclusively to the religious 
and recreational activities of the 
boys. They have their own building, 
which contains reading room, rest 
room, and a large auditorium. The 
interior is as cozy as it is beautiful. 
A large fire-place is in one end of 
the building. Pennants, athletic 
trophies and pictures of school or- 
ganizations create an atmosphere of 
activity and loyalty. A large porch, 
ten feet wide, runs almost the entire 
length of the building. The struc- 
ture cost $10,000. Bowling alleys 
will soon be added. This building is 
under the supervision of a director. 
It is felt that the use of this, as plan- 
ned, will be a powerful uplift 
among all boys, as it is in no way 
sectarian. So far as we know, this is 
the only building of its kind at any 
of the schools, and is strictly in line 
with the purposes of this school to 
remain at the front in developing 
young men." 


The Normal Quarterly 

August 1920 



1920: A NEW 


/ / lanifield the ^J\eudt 


The Thirteen Normal Schools are passing thru a reconstruction. We are proud that Mansfield has caught the 
spirit, answered the challenge. Today, at the close of the first year of reconstruction, it stands out as setting a high- 
water mark among the Normal Schools in Pennsylvania. 

The idea behind the program of reconstruction is to make the teacher-training colleges of the State more effi- 
ciently meet the responsibility of fitting teachers to instruct our youth and mold public opinion. To do this properly, 
each School must reach out to the people with an interest more than purely local. The School must have a vision 
State-wide in its conception, with an ambition unlimited in the purpose of service to humanity and society in general. 
Such a program, efficient in the State, could not fail to be felt nationally, it would help solve the problems of adjust- 
ment to effects of the World War. 

Mansfield has admirably answered the challenge. We need only recall a few instances for proof that our Normal 
stands upon a high plane of accomplishments and indeed deserves the title of "Keystone". 

In November of this year, Mansfield, aided by the efforts of the Y. M. C. A., secured and made successful, the 
First Annual Student Conference of State Normal School Young Men's Christian Associations. By making this a suc- 
cess, has been instituted a program State-wide in its influence. Its aim to help the Schools train and develop young 
men for Christian leadership, is big enough to make it everlasting important and desirable to continue. 

Our Normal is the first in the State to provide its Y. M. C. A. with a building and our local Association is proof 
of our advanced position in this respect. 

Mansfield has been one of the three selected to maintain a Special Course in Music and its supervision for public 
schools. Our Conservatory of Music has become State-wide in reputation thru "Old Pennsylvania of Mine", written by 
our Supervisor, Dr. Butler. We rejoice with pride in this progressive position. 

Our Y. M. C. A. has caught the spirit of Community Service and thru the splendid help of Dr. Straughn and the 
co-operation of the School, their Gospel Team of young men was permitted the chance to reach the public in twenty- 
two community programs. Their aim is to encourage young people to be strong in "Playing the Game and Winning in 
Life," answering the call of an age which is demanding of them "For Man's sake to be Godly and for God's sake be 
Manly." This is a new program for any Normal School and has opened a big field for the right kind of Service as well 
as one of the best means for development of Christian leadership. The Y. W. C. A. has also sent out a Gospel Team of 
young ladies and their program is large for next year. 

May 14, 1921, the High Schools of this District were brought together by our Normal for the first time in a Field 
Meet. Interest in this was large and the meet will be an annual institution from now on. This gives an incentive to 
proper development and training of young men and young ladies in clean and wholesome athletics which contribute 
toward success in later life. 

Mansfield State Normal School is "there", she has "delivered the goods" of a big contract. To her belongs the high 
position she has won with merit. To her also comes the responsibility of maintaining this position and setting the pace 
for the whole teacher training force of Pennsylvania. She can do it. She will do it as long as her aims are high and 
energy boundless. This year passes on to the next the torch held high. May it ever "Light the Way to Better Teaching." 

Source: The Semaphore, June 1920 




Students became known as "soupies". 

CLASS OF 1923 


1920's DORM ROOM 



1920's: ROAD CONSTRUCTION. With more cars and improved roads, it became easier to travel to Mansfield. Commuting, 
going home on weekends, and visiting by friends and family became more commonplace. 


1920's: THE POOL. In order to swim in the pool an individual had to pass a special physical examination. Male and female 
students usually swam at different times. 








i cf - 






1 ' 




1926: THE MANSFIELD STATE NORMAL BAND. Professor John Myers is the director. 

1927: Mansfield Becomes Teachers College 

Tuesday, October 25, 1927, was a memorable date in 
the history of Mansfield State Normal School. At 11 o'clock 
on that day Mr. Henry Klonower, representing the State De- 
partment of Public Instruction, presented to the school through 
Dr. William R. Straughn, a decree which gave the school full 
power to give four year courses. With this came the power 
to grant the Bachelor of Science degree. 


Mansfield Students of the "Roaring Twenties" 



J10&i i 'aF'M» 


Illustrations by "Tibby" (Stephen Budash '28) 



MIKE "Gazook" GAZELLA. Playing 
with the New York Yankees, he shared 
the limelight with such stars as Babe 
Ruth and Lou Gehrig. 

JOE SHAUTE. In 1904, he became 
the first major league pitcher to win 
twenty games. At the time, he pitched 
for the Cleveland Indians. 



After the dance Saturday night it was felt that 
some new rules should be formed, so the self- 
appointed committee for Bigger and Better Dances 
got busy and this is the result of their labors: 

1. Must not neck while dancing. (There is a time 
for everything) . 

2. Girls should touch lightly partners' elbow. 
(And no love pats). 

3. Must dance at least 13 V2 inches apart. 

4. Dance with head and body erect, so that there 
will be no friction. 

5. Fellow must not stick out hips so girls can ride 

6. Should take slow stately steps regardless of the 

7. Dresses should be at least six inches below the 
knees. (Short dresses will not be tolerated). 

8. Must not crowd the faculty corner. 

9. Conversation while dancing must pertain to 
school, weather and true stories. 

10. No moonlight dances as they are suggestive of 
most anything in the minds of SOME people. 

Source: Flashlight, February 27, 1928 


With the approach of spring comes danger to 
the college campus. With the melting of winter 
snows and the downfall of spring rains the campus 
becomes soft and muddy. The greatest care must at 
this time be taken to insure a beautiful lawn later in 
the spring when students will appreciate it the most. 

If thoughtless individuals go rambling across 
the lawns, sliding down the terraces and cutting the 
sod up in general, they are due for a much deserved 
punishment. Dr. Straughn will deal personally with 
any offenders. He realizes the value of a beautiful 
campus and the necessity of unlimited care of it 
at this time of the year. He wants every student to 
feel some responsibility in gaining this end, a beau- 
tiful campus. Later in the spring many visitors will 
be coming to M. S. T. C and no student would be 
proud of lawns made unsightly by terraces that were 
cut up and lawns zig-zagged by a network of paths. 

Come on, everybody, let's co-operate with Dr. 

Straughn and help to keep the best looking college 

campus in the state. It's part of your duty - don't fail. 

Source: Flashlight, March 19, 1928 

1920: Rule Bending 

Cigarette smoking was forbidden to women, so 
in the afternoon when classes were over, there was 
an exodus to the cemetery on Pickle Hill. Students 
smoked nervously behind the monuments and yet 
felt secure in the knowledge that a graveyard was a 
most unlikely place to look for transgressors. It was 
a bit difficult to be decorous, choking and coughing 
and scrunched down behind a tombstone. 

The main objective in those days at Mansfield 
was getting away from the campus on weekends, to 
go to Elmira to to parties and dances not subject to 
early curfew and chaperones. It was a matter of ac- 
quiring a friend and co-conspirator in Mansfield and 
to whose house one could sign out for two days. Com- 
munity students were always geographically popular 
as . . . well, popular. 

Dancing in those days was a close encounter of 
the Twenties kind — campy, cozy, and cohesive. It 
involved the male clutching his partner to his manly 
chest while skylarking around the dance floor cheek 
to cheek. Invariably after a gym dance some of the 
girls were invited into the dean's office for a lecture 
on correct and ladylike deportment. And it was a 
matter of extreme bitterness that the females were 
always held solely responsible for the "improper" 
shenanigans. Imitations of the dean delivering her 
saintly sermons were a part of all dorm entertain- 
ments. And, of course, when tar paper, to dim the 
daylight was tacked over the gym windows for the 
Frosh Frolic (at 4 p.m.) the decoration committee 
received a memorable exhortation on "propriety" 
and "seemly behavior." 

In the late Twenties the MSC water tower hill 
was a forest of trees and bushes, a veritable lovers' 
nest, and officially off limits, but a scene of consider- 
able illicit necking (a dowdy word that). To lolly- 
gag in the shadow of a hemlock was shockingly sin- 
ful and invited harsh penalties. Even so, the "shad- 
ows" were often reserved by resourceful Romeos. 

The MSC girls loved tennis and they were mad 
at the current fashions, so they staged a fashion re- 
bellion which brought forth a stern admonition and 
a warning that calves were in and knees were out. 
Tennis being what it is the beleaguered dean found it 
difficult to enforce her idea of decorum in the midst 
of a full-speed rally. 

And students certainly did protest in those days, 
and criticized professors and staged a rally now and 
then. One lady teacher with a penchant for the 
young men in her class gave all A's to the goldbrick- 
ing males and C's and D's to the females. The re- 
action was vocal, loud, hostile, and definitely unlady- 
like and soon heard by the dean of instruction. After 
investigation he negotiated a mutual concession deal 
between the teacher and the indignant girls with 
ERA in their hearts and term grades on their minds. 
There is strength in union and a collective, indecor- 
ous tantrum won that round. 

Source: Phyllis Owen Swinsick, 

"The Good Old Days at Mansfield 
Offer Moments of Hilarity" 
Wellsboro Gazette, November 24, 


Frosh Rules For Girls 

Mansfield, Pa. 
September 10, 1929 
Dear Mother, 

We arrived safely at Mans- 
field about 4:30. I met several 
nice girls, and I hope I like 
school. Everything seems so 
large and I'm afraid I'll get in- 
to the wrong room. 

When unpacked I missed my 
ivory comb. I believe it's on my 
dresser; also my white pumps 
at the foot of my bed and I 
must have my bathrobe, as it's 
so cold up here in the hills. To- 
night for dinner we had boiled 
potatoes and roast beef and 
gravy. Nobody ate much. I 
was hungry, but didn't eat. If 
you have time, send me a choc- 
olate cake and some sandwich- 
es and a few pickles, too; any- 
thing will taste good. 

I must go to a meeting for 
the freshmen, will write later. 


The purpose of initiating the Fresh- 
men is to help them become better ac- 
quainted with upperclassmen and 
rules of M. S. T. C. Remember, girls, 
we were all frosh at one time, so be 
a sport! All rules last for a period of 
one week unless otherwise stated. 

Begins September 16, continues to 
September 22: 

1. Know school songs and cheers 
by the end of the first week. 

2. Know Social Regulations in a 
general way by October 1st. Examin- 
ation will be given by Tribunal. 

3. Don't cut chapel, classes, or 

4. Freshmen girls shall announce 
arrival of callers on social evenings 
— as appointed by Tribunal. 

5. Freshmen may not wear athletic 
letters or numerals earned in any 
other school or college except Mans- 

6. Deference must be shown to fac- 
ulty and upper classmen. 

(a) Open doors for faculty and up- 

(b) Rise when spoken to by faculty 
and upperclassmen. 

(c) Do not talk back to upperclass- 
men when being instructed by them. 

7. Freshmen may not use the up- 
holstered furniture until after Thanks- 

8. All freshmen must stay in M. S. 
T. C. the second week-end unless giv- 
en special permission by Tribunal. 

9. Freshmen must greet all persons 
they meet on campus. 

10. All freshmen must attend all 
college athletic events, all class meet- 
ings and pep meetings. 

11. By October 1st all freshmen 

must pay class dues, $1.00, and stu- 
dent government dues, 50e. 

12. All frosh girls must wear two 
green head bands touching the top of 
the eye-brow. After September 20th, 
these bands must be transferred from 
the head to the arm, until October 1. 

13. Wear lisle stockings for a per- 
iod of two weeks, beginning Septem- 
ber 16. 

Note — Lisle stockings will be nec- 
essary for gymnasium work. 

14. No cosmetics or jewelry of any 
kind may be worn for a period of one 
week, beginning September 16. 

15. No dates to be accepted by 
Frosh unless granted permission by a 
member of the Tribunal. If the Trib- 
unal sees fit such date must be accom- 
panied by a chaperone. 

16. A green crepe made of crepe 
paper must be hung in the middle of 
the door of each frosh's room. Names 
must be placed above these crepes. 

17. All frosh must sit in their des- 
ignated section at chapel. 

18. Frosh girls must not converse 
with frosh fellows. 

19. Frosh girls must surrender ten- 
nis courts after their first set, to the 
uperclassmen, during first month of 

20. Roll call will be taken at all 
times when freshmen are assembled 
by Tribunal. 

21. If at any time the members of 
Tribunal are in need of assistance, 
frosh must do so joyfully. 

22. Tribunal will give permission to 
any upperclassmen to punish any dis- 
respectful frosh when reported. 

Source : The Flashlight 

September 13, 1929 








The Great Depression stymied the growth of the col- 
lege. After having an enrollment of over one thousand 
students during the 1920's, there was a steady enrollment 
decline. In the fall of 1930, there were 746 students enrolled; 
by 1935, the figure slipped to 600, and by 1939 to about 570 
students. Still, throughout this period, Mansfield remained 
one of the largest of the fourteen state colleges, usually fourth 
in enrollment behind Indiana, West Chester, and Slippery 

Despite a decrease in enrollment, Mansfield developed in 
other respects: several new buildings were constructed, aca- 
demic standards became more vigorous, and the school as- 
sumed a more collegiate-like atmosphere. 

The decade began in the fall of 1930 with the dedication 
of Straughn Auditorium, a beautiful building named in honor 
of the college president. The fact that the building was named 
after Straughn reflected his tremendous influence and respect 
among both faculty and students. At the same time, while the 
construction of Straughn Audiorium represented the beginning 
of a new era, the closing up of the North Hall "Well" 
symbolized the end of a former era. For almost fifty years, 
students could stand in the heart of North Hall and look up- 
ward with awe, often hearing the sounds of music at the very 
top of the building. During the annual Christmas celebration 
students on each floor gathered at the well to sing in unison. 
But, in the interest of safety, the state requested that the well 
be sealed off on each floor. 

In 1931 it was expected that students would spend four 
years preparing to be teachers. As a consequence, a wide 
range of other changes took place. Course offerings were ex- 
panded, library holdings increased, and social life began to 
reflect the differences between the two-year and the four-year 

The students of the 30's remained mostly females who 
were interested in becoming teachers. For example, in 1932, 


about 75% of the students were females. There were no 
blacks, and no foreign students. There were only seventeen 
students from New York state, and one each from New Jersey, 
North Carolina, and Massachusetts. With regard to religious 
preference, most of the students were Protestants. For ex- 
ample, among the music students in 1932, there were twelve 
Methodists, four Presbyterians, three Lutherans, two Baptists, 
and one each of the Church of Christ, United Brethren, Evan- 
gelical, and Episcopalian faiths. At the time, there were no 
Jews and four Catholics. 

Interestingly, during this time the Irish influence which 
had begun in the 20's became more pronounced as students 
shared in special interest in the Irish music, and literature. 
Also, it is noteworthy that debating became quite popular. 
In fact, in 1931 Mansfield State Teachers College formally 
established debate teams and engaged in debates with Clarion, 
Bloomsburg, Elmira, and Kalamazoo Teachers College. The 
topics were as follows: resolved, that the present chain store 
tendency is detrimental to the American people; resolved, 
that state medicine should be adopted; and, resolved, that the 
European indictment of American culture is justified. 

In 1933 the school began to restrict enrollment to 200 
freshmen and admission standards were upgraded. Fresh- 
men were expected to be in the upper half of their high school 
class, and before being accepted, each one had to have a per- 
sonal interview to demonstrate that he was "free from any 
physical or mental defect." Indicative of the "bright new 
Mansfield student" of the 30's is the fact that over 10% of 
students in the freshman class of 1933 had been either the 
valedictorian or salutatorian of their high school class. 

Due to the increasing cost of providing activities for stu- 
dents, in 1933 the school began to impose a student activity 
fee. The fees were used to support a wide range of new 
activities. During this time, the popularity of the YMCA 
and YWCA began to wane in favor of a host of newly organ- 
ized Greek fraternities and sororities among which were 
Kappa Delta Pi, Phi Sigma Pi, Phi Mu Alpha, Pi Gamma Mu, 
Landa Mu, and Omicron Gamma Pi. At the same time 
the initiation/hazing of freshmen became quite popular; 
student government assumed a more direct role in student 
affairs; Homecoming Day was instituted (1936); and, the 
tennis, wrestling, and football teams gained prominence. In 
1935, and again in 1937, the wrestling teams were undefeated ; 
and in 1938, the football team was undefeated. In fact, the 
1938 football squad is considered one of the best in the col- 
lege's history insofar as only two points were scored against 
the team. 

Amidst the many changes among the students, there 
were also transitions in the leadership of the institution. In 
1936, after twenty-four years of service. Dr. Straughn died at 
the age of fifty-four. His friend, Dr. Arthur Belknap, then 
served as acting president, until the appointment of Dr. 
Joseph F. Noonan about a year later. 

Dr. Noonan was the first Catholic to become president 
of the college and his selection by the Board met with some 
religious prejudice. Nonetheless, Noonan quickly proved his 
administrative skill in reshaping the institution so that it would 
be less paternalistic and more "student-centered." He initi- 
ated a re-organization of the Student Government Association 
so that it would have more influence, and he urged student 
groups to become affiliated at the national level. He also in- 
stituted an advisory system under which each faculty member 
was assigned responsibility for 12 to 15 students. To broaden 
the intellectual experience at Mansfield, Noonan invited a 
wide range of lecturers to visit the campus. 

During Noonan's administration, a major construction 
program was undertaken to upgrade the facilities. Three 
buildings were completed: an arts building, to house the 
music and home economics departments, art and health class- 
rooms, and the home management apartment; a new gym- 
nasium; and a new elementary training school building (later 
named Retan Center). 

The site of the construction of the Arts Building be- 
came somewhat controversial because it greatly changed the 
visual appearance of the campus from downtown. Many 
townspeople wanted the lawns preserved so that North Hall 
would remain more dominant in its appearance. Moreover, 
many of them felt that it detracted from the beauty of 
Straughn Auditorium. Nonetheless, the administration was 
unable to find another suitable site. 

At the same time, with the construction of the new gym, 
the old one became the Student Center. And, with the new 
Education Center, the former Model School Building (Belk- 
nap Hall) was converted into college classrooms and offices. 

It is noteworthy that throughout the 30's, the state col- 
leges often charged that the state was "starving" them in 
order to feed the state-related schools such as Penn State. As 
a result, many people were surprised that Mansfield received 


the large appropriation for construction. It is difficult to as- 
sign credit for Mansfield's success in gaining support from 
Governor Earle's administration, but certainly some of it must 
be given to Mary Mclnroy (later Mary Mclnroy Shaffer). A 
Mansfield graduate, she had become quite active in Demo- 
cratic politics during Governor Earle's administration. Her 
service as chairperson of the college Board of Trustees during 
this period was probably a helpful factor in the college's suc- 
cess in obtaining state support. But in 1938, with the election 
of a Republican governor, both she and President Noonan 
were removed for political reasons. 

On August 1, 1938, Dr. Lester Ade, former State Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction, succeeded Dr. Noonan as 
president of the college. That same year, the state began to 
require four years of training in order for one to receive a 
teaching certificate, thereby setting the stage for further 
changes at Mansfield during the 40's. 

GLIMPSE OF NORTH HALL WELL. Imagine looking up- 
ward five stories with students from each floor gathered at 
the well and singing. 

THE WELL. According to a legend, at one time, a lovely 
music student sitting on the rail of the well on the upper- 
most floor of North Hall. Inspired, she began singing the Alma 
Mater with such beauty that all of the girls living there im- 
mediately stopped what they were doing and went to listen 
to her in awe. In their presence the young lady sang with even 
greater enchantment. But soon she reached a point of such 
emotion that she slipped and fell into the well. Of course, 
upon seeing her fall, the students screamed with horror, but 
the young lady did not. Instead, as she fell, she continued to 
sing the Alma Mater. In fact, for the few moments, it could be 
heard above the screams. It is said that the young lady was 
the most beautiful woman ever to appear on the Mansfield 
campus and that her spirit still seeks the hearts of Mansfield 
music students. It is also said that if one looks closely at the 
floor of the well one can find the imprint of her body. It 
moves in the rhythm of the Alma Mater. 





V-L-t-t ■? 

l ^«*i 


Editorial : 

Watch people as they go about the campus. Is 
that a more becoming coiffure? Is that a more care- 
fully gowned girl? Is that scheme of contrasting 
colors better than that girl has usually worn? Every 
girl is trying to sell her personality, especially, future 
teachers. Girls should wrap their personalities at- 

Source: Flashlight, February 27, 1932 

1933: THE ROSS MULTIPLE PIANO. It was patented by 
Prof. R. Wilson Ross of the music department. Its purpose 
was to enable a music teacher to instruct five or more students 
at one time with the "equal efficiency of the usual private 



A formal breakfast at a fixed hour 
became a thing of the past at the 
Mansfield State Teachers College this 
week, when the institution's new caf- 
eteria plan became effective. Students 
now enjoy individual service from 
7:00 to 9:00 each morning, a real 
convenience for those who have no 
early classes. 

There is a possibility that the ser- 
vice may be extended later to include 

Source: The Flashlight 

September 17, 1934 


Monopoly, the game which is 
sweeping the country today, was be- 
ing played in Mansfield more than 20 
years ago, according to Dr. William 
E. Straughn, president of the college, 
who gave the details, which follow: 

In the fall of 1914, Dr. Scott W. 
Nearing, then instructor in economics 
at the Wharton School of Finance, 
Philadelphia, devised a game which 
he named Real Estate. This he used 
in his classes to demonstrate the work- 
ings of great corporations and com- 
panies. During the Christmas holi- 
days, several of Dr. Nearing's students 
introduced the game in Mansfield, 
where it became quite popular. Some 
outfits have been preserved to date. 

When Monopoly first made its 
appearance last spring, Dr. Straughn 
and other Mansfield people recognized 
it immediately as Real Estate under 
another name. Excepting minor vari- 
ations, the two games are identical. 

Source: Flashlight 

February, 1936 




Economics Instructor, is supervising. 

MISS LU HARTMAN, Professor of Home Economics 





W * 

■i — 






MRS. GRACE STEADMAN, Professor of Music. 



Mary Mclnroy Sheffer ('21) 

I was appointed as a trustee of the Mansfield State Teach- 
ers College by Gov. Earle (elected in 1934) and David L. Law- 
rence, Democrat state chairman. My mentor, Emma Guffey 
Miller, Democrat National Committeewoman and sister of 
U. S. Senator Joseph F. Guffey, requested that my appoint- 
ment be made with the understanding of the other board mem- 
bers that I be named chairman of the board. 

I had requested, and Gov. Earle nominated, one holdover 
from the old board, Mrs. Mary V. Darrin. Her appointment 
had been made originally by Gov. Pinchot. She was the sister 
of the late E. A. Van Valkenburg, well known Philadelphia 
newspaper publisher and editor and one of former Pres. Theo- 
dore Roosevelt's closest friends. Both Miss Marion Stone, an- 
other member, and Mrs. Darrin were my very dear friends. 

One of my first unexpected observations in presiding at 
board meetings was that Dr. Straughn was accustomed to out- 
lining and really conducting the business of the meetings. The 
fact that I had my agenda set up seemed to irritate Dr. 
Straughn. In retrospect, I can understand and sympathize 
with his position. 

Dr. Straughn passed away on August 21, 1936. At his 
funeral I had a very upsetting experience when I heard some- 
one say loud enough for me to hear, "Wouldn't you think she'd 
have the good taste to stay at home?" This was simply an 
example of some of the encounters I would be experiencing as 
a board member. 

I soon learned that any decision concerning the college 
was expected to have the approval of four townsmen of Mans- 
field: Percy Coles, pharmacist; Edwin Coles, editor of the 
weekly Mansfield Advertiser; A. H. Vosburg, local banker 
and owner of the town's only ice cream parlor; and, Herbert 
Peterson, local merchant and Chamber of Commerce presi- 
dent. These gentlemen were leading Republicans in town, and 
our board, with one exception, was made up of Democrats! 

The Board's immediate concern was to find a new presi- 
dent for the college. We expected to conduct a search, but 
we had learned that the State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction, Dr. Lester K. Ade, already had someone in mind 
whom he expected us to elect to the position of president. 

Dr. Ade's preemptory attitude did not "set well" with 

me as chairman of the board. He was persistent and began 
calling the men board members individually to Harrisburg 
for conferences and to see favor. This further annoyed me, 
especially since I had learned that his proposed nominee, a 
former school official in a distant part of the state, had already 
been requested to relinquish his position there. 

The "cat and mouse" game grew in intensity. At each 
of our board meetings, one of the gentlemen members would 
quote Dr. Ade and speak in defense of his candidate. In the 
meantime, Mrs. Darrin, Miss Stone and I stood firm and con- 
tinued to seek a desirable candidate of our own selecting, not 
one dictated to us. 

Having learned of a very fine school superintendent in 
Mahonoy City, Schuylkill County. Miss Stone and I went there 
to observe Dr. Joseph F. Noonan. We were delighted with 
what we saw and heard, and then we contacted the president 
of the local school board. He stated that he didn't know how 
the board would get along without Dr. Noonan, but that he 
would not stand in his way were we to select him. 

Since I was employed in Harrisburg I was commuting to 
Mansfield practically every weekend for Saturday morning 
board meetings. One of the gentlemen would get up to nom- 
inate Dr. Ade's candidate or speak in opposition to anyone 
else being nominated, and I would rap my gavel and an- 
nounce the meeting in recess. Our campaign grew hotter, 
especially since we hadn't consulted the gentlemen in town 
about what their wishes were. 

Finally on March 13, 1937 the gentlemen, quite worn out. 
ceased their opposition, and Dr. Noonan, after a favorably 
received personal appearance before the board, was elected. 

Dr. Ade wasn't giving up easily and continued agitation 
against our selection, but the appointment was finally made 
effective May 1st. 

Dr. Noonan assumed office immediately and began a de- 
tailed reorganization of all branches of the school's admini- 
stration and activities. One of his first expressed views was 
that we needed another building to take care of the proposed 
increase in official activities. He also called for a greatly in- 
creased budget to include erection of the new building. The 
board stood solidly behind his recommendations. One of them 
was the need for a replacement for a disintegrating water 
reservoir. This was done in due time. 

As I look back now on what was really only a two-year 
(1937-39) association, it seems incredible to me that' Dr. 
Noonan and the board accomplished so much. 


Even before Dr. Noonan was officially appointed, there 
was a new problem to be faced. A rumor had been circulated 
all over Tioga County that Dr. Noonan was Roman Catholic 
and that I was personally interested in turning MSC into a 
Catholic school. Further, it was rumored that the Pope would 
be dictating the administration of the college. Remember, this 
was not many years after the hotly contested presidential cam- 
paign between Herbert Hoover and Alfred E. Smith for the 
U. S. presidency. 

On Dr. Noonan's arrival on campus, crosses in various 
parts of the country were burned, reputedly by anti-Catholic 
Ku Klux Klan members. I was referred to as "that girl" who 
would be introducing religious controversy into school affairs. 
Many folks, whom I considered friends, no longer spoke to me. 
Neither did the townsfolk. My father was bombarded by 
phone calls and even personal attacks by former friends. To 
add to the controversy was the fact that our Democrat county 
committee chairman, Joseph T. King, prominent Lawrence- 
ville businessman, was of the Catholic faith. 

Some of the attacks on me were so vicious that my father 
would not allow me to drive alone at night. I always had to 
be home at an appointed hour since he feared someone might 
"run me off the road." 

Somehow I lived through the controversy, and eventually 
it died down. Dr. Noonan's accomplishments and his com- 
plete dedication to the welfare of the college became more 
and more apparent. 

But ... ! 

A new controversy developed. Dr. Noonan's recommen- 
dation for the new Home Economics building on the north- 
west corner of the campus was approved by the board as was 
the budget, including costs. The project was ready for de- 
velopment. But it seemed we had omitted one of the un- 
written laws. We hadn't consulted the town's businessmen 
about where we would locate the building. 

The corner selected was locally and vocally opposed. It 
developed that the townspeople objected because the view 
of North Hall from the main street would be obstructed. 

On the day that I turned the first shovel full of soil for 
the foundation of the building, there were only four people 
to witness the occasion: Miss Stone, Mrs. Darrin, Dr. Noonan 
and Herbert Peterson, Chamber of Commerce president. 

Later in Straughn Hall there was an official dedication 
ceremony. I had asked Gov. Earle to officiate at the dedica- 
tion. There was a hue and cry that the "Governor will never 

come here!" But we went on with our plans. I was to speak 
and introduce the Governor. To local amazement, Gov. Earle 
arrived by plane. He landed in Williamsport and drove in 
just in time for the program. The auditorium was filled with 
many folks who were convinced he would not attend. I am 
forever grateful to him. 

I truly enjoyed every moment of my time as a member 
of the board. I recall that whenever our board meetings pre- 
ceded the college's luncheon hour, the trustees were invited 
to stay for lunch. One of my "pride and joy" duties included 
entering the dining room in North Hall, accompanied by Dr. 
Noonan and others, to the head table while the students, al- 
ready at their tables, stood and turned toward us. I could not 
help but remember how I had stood at attention during my 
undergraduate days when Dr. Straughn and his entourage 
entered the dining room. 

In the fall of 1938, Arthur James was elected governor 
and the Republican Party returned to state power. Our board 
met with Dr. Noonan and after summarizing our brief but 
very busy tenure, it was agreed that on the day after the in- 
auguration in January 1939 each board member would volun- 
tarily write and send a letter of resignation. This was a usual 
procedure since college trustees were subject to political 

Imagine our surprise the second day after the inaugura- 
tion when each of us received a certified letter notifying us 
that under provisions of the law we had been removed from 
the board! We did not need a 3? postage stamp and letter 
of resignation as we had planned. 

We had never inquired if Dr. Noonan had political views. 
I assumed because of his very successful administration of 
college affairs that he would be retained. Soon, however, he 
was dismissed. In turn, he was elected president of the East 
Stroudsburg STC. He remained there until he resigned to 
enter business in Philadelphia. 

I am one of twenty-one first cousins in the Mclnroy fam- 
ily on my father's side. Seventeen of us graduated from Mans- 

I've always felt indebted to MSTC for the teacher train- 
ing I received there and the friendships I made that continue 
to this day. I had many activities and duties in the State De- 
partment of Labor and Industry and in branches of the Demo- 
crat Party, but I hold my responsibilities at Mansfield in un- 
surpassed regard. Mansfield has a proud heritage and, in my 
opinion, has always lived up to it! 



I ft 

President, 1937-39 

Building). Miss Mary Mclnroy, Chair- 
man of the Board of Trustees is stand- 
ing with the shovel. 


BUILDING. Gov. Earle is 

in the fore- 

1940: ARTS (Home Economics 
and Music) BUILDING. 







Front row — Bonner, Zavacky, Brannan, Cecere, Dowd, Sito, Cheplick, Sloan, Lentini, Carter. Second row — Terry, Feldman, 
Manley, Scanlon, Yurcic, Smith, Lock, Jones, Silvi, Cunningham, Sheesley, Benson. Third row — Mahon, assistant manager; 
Butsavage, trainer; McGinley, Kisiliewski, Marcikonis, Hazelwood, assistant coach; Brion, Dwyer, Taylor, Casselbury, Coach 
Martin, graduate manager VanNorman. 


*c*o£"r st 



President, 1940-41 


President, 1941-43 

The 40's were turbulent times for Mansfield as the war 
brought many changes: there were three different presidents; 
the enrollment fluctuated dramatically; cooperative nursing 
programs were instituted, and, the sex and age composition 
of the student body changed. At the beginning of the decade 
the student body consisted of mostly females, during the war 
it became almost exclusively females, but then during the post- 
war period, with an influx of ex-GI's, it became mostly males. 

The 40's started with great expectations. The campus 
had a forward-looking appearance with the new buildings 
constructed in the late 30's and most people felt that the in- 
stitution was well-prepared to experience an era of expansion. 
In the fall of 1940, the new president. Lester Ade, established 
an Educational Museum in the former Model School to en- 
hance the image of Mansfield as the center for educational 
resources in the region. In addition, during his administration, 
a Psycho-Educational Clinic was created to serve the needs of 
school children in the region who were experiencing difficul- 
ties in adjusting to educational and social situations. 

In October of 1941, Dr. Ade was succeeded by Dr. Willis 
Pratt — a 35 year-old native of Pittsburgh who had been the 
superintendent of schools in Erie County. Quickly, Dr. Pratt 
sought to redefine the college's role in what he termed "the 
struggle to maintain the democracy." As a consequence, he 
organized a wide range of war-related activities. For example, 
a special Red Cross Nursing Home course was organized; a 
national defense book campaign was held; and Student Cadet 
Nursing programs were established in cooperation with Rob- 
ert Packer Hospital (Sayre) and the Hahnemann Hospital 
School of Nursing (Scranton). At the same time, too, as a 
war emergency measure, in 1942, the school announced a 
special three-year program to enable students to attain the 
bachelor degree. Under the plan, for the first time, students 
attended school for three straight years without a summer 
break. In January 1943, as a further effort to meet the war- 
time demands for training, Mansfield began to admit high 
school seniors who had completed all but the last half-year 


of the standard secondary course. To facilitate educational 
opportunities for full-time workers, the college offered a va- 
riety of courses on Saturdays. 

In June of 1943, the trend of two-year presidents con- 
tinued when Dr. Pratt accepted a commission in the Military 
Government Division of the United States Army, and Mr. 
James Morgan became the president. Unlike his predeces- 
sors, Mr. Morgan was thoroughly familiar with Mansfield. 
He had come to Mansfield in 1921 as Dean of Instruction and 
he had gained a great deal of respect and popularity. As ad- 
vice to students, he often referred to a philosophical quote 
attributed to William James: "The great use of life is to spend 
it for something that outlasts it." 

Among students, President Morgan was affectionately re- 
ferred to as "The Prexy." Morgan fostered student pride in 
the efforts of the institution to meet national needs, and he 
took special steps to honor the fifteen Mansfield students who 
died in the war. 

During the war, due to an uncertain male enrollment and 
the rationing of gas and tires, it was necessary to curtail the 
male intercollegiate sports program. Though disheartening 
for the few remaining male students, the action did have a 
positive side insofar as it afforded a unique opportunity for 
female students to use the sports facilities to develop their 
talents through an intramural program. It is noteworthy too 
that during the war, females assumed many leadership roles 
in the institution which had previously been held by male 
students. For example, in 1940, for the first time, a female 
(Margaret Thomas) became editor of the Flashlight. 

In 1946, with the return of male students, intercollegiate 
sports enjoyed a spectacular revival. In fact, both the un- 
defeated 1946 football team and the 1947 team won the 
state championship. With the influx of GI's, enrollment soared 
and the school faced a shortage of housing. To accommo- 
date students, Alumni Hall was used for temporary housing. 
At the same time, as the traditional teacher training pro- 
grams regained popularity and enrollment climbed, the school 
eliminated a program under which about 100 Penn State 
freshmen attended Mansfield before going on to University 

By 1949, the campus began to once again settle back to 
the atmosphere of the "pre-war era." The green skivvies and 
military jackets became less apparent. The "bull sessions" 
reverted from war stories to dating, new cars, and "what I'll 
do when I graduate." It was a period of settling. 


1940's: BOXING 



Female Students 

The dormitory, the classroom, and the village 
of Mansfield naturally govern the appropriate type 
of dress. Since youthful simplicity characterizes the 
wardrobe of the well-bred student, sports clothes and 
tailored frocks are first on the list which follows: 

1. Three wool skirts 

2. Six sweaters or blouses 

3. Two cotton dresses 

4. Two simple silk or wool dresses 

5. One evening gown 

6. One heavy coat 

7. One sports jacket 

8. One pair of sport shoes 

9. One pair of evening slippers 
10. One pair of dress slippers 

-'3 ^ *^PJ» -»• 

7»J i i ^ 



Male Students 

It is suggested that a standard of personal 
grooming and appropriateness be set up and main- 
tained dictating the type of informal and formal 
clothing to be selected. 

1. Slacks and sweaters or jackets 

2. One dark suit or one mixed color suit 

3. One light topcoat 

4. One heavy topcoat 

5. One pair of sport shoes 

6. One pair of dress shoes 

Source: MSTC Catalog, 1940-41 


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1942-1946: Anne Gordon Goes To 
Mansfield State Teachers College 

Anne Gordon was a high school senior when she ate a 
special salad prepared by Jane Martin, a Mansfield home- 
making student. It was so good that Anne became interested 
in going to Mansfield to learn homemaking. In turn, she 
attended a conference for homemakers at Mansfield at 
which she was informed, "Homemaking isn't just cooking 
and sewing: it is everything which makes for more effec- 
tive and happy personal and family living." 

Anne next met with Miss Wittemeyer, her high school 
guidance instructor. Miss Wittemeyer was quite enthusias- 
tic in supporting Anne's interest in Mansfield. She praised 
the program. 

Miss Wittemeyer told Anne: "Today, in professions 
and industries, women are placed on pretty much the same 
level as men. This means that the work of women in the 
home has been revised, that attitudes have changed, and 
that new demands must be met if one is to attain worthy 
home membership. This is where homemaking education 
may be most practically applied. Therefore Anne, on com- 
pleting the homemaking education courses at Mansfield you 

should be one of the new skilled workers who will help 
make these necessary changes." 

Anne entered Mansfield and on Homecoming Day she 
met Jane Martin. As the girls entered North Hall, Jane 
asked Anne: "And how do you like Mansfield and home- 

"Simply swell Jane — even better than you told me it 
would be," answered Anne. "Not only is there fascinating 
study and experiment, there's loads of fun — never a dull 

"Well, the next three years are going to be even more 
exciting," predicted Jane. "Next year, besides continuing 
your study of foods and clothing, you'll have the course in 
consumer education and that unforgettable course in ap- 
plied design, in which you study the history of costume and 
make those adorable marionettes illustrating the dress of 

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various periods. Remember the Queen Elizabeth on my bed 
at home? She was my project." 

After commencement, Anne lay on a hammock discus- 
sing her future with her aunt. The aunt asked : "Anne, what 
are you going to do with that degree?" 


'- »-i. ' 


Anne smiled. "Well Auntie, with that degree, I could 
do a lot of things. Want to know what?" 

Susan Gordon nodded. 

"Well, I could enter any one of a number of commer- 
cial or industrial fields. I could become a dietitian, a stylist, 
an interior decorator, a master saleswoman; and, finan- 
cially, I probably could do better following one of these 
aspects of homemaking than following some others." 

"Or, I can teach, work with young people — whom I 
love — continue to grow in my profession, and contribute 
something to the community." 

"Or," interposed Susan Gordon, "marry some nice 
young man, be a homemaker for yourself rather than for 
somebody else, and forget all these ideas of being a career 

Anne laughed. "Not so fast, Auntie. Just 'some' nice 
young man won't do. It's got to be a particular nice young 
man; and right now he has all he can manage if he is to 
complete his medical course next year." 

"No, I'm not ready to marry yet anyway, Aunt Sue," 
continued the girl. "First I want to teach — to pass on some 
of the skills I have learned and the ways of life I have 
mastered, and to play an active part in the life of my com- 
munity and my country." 

Source: Abbreviated account from a brochure entitled 
Anne Gordon, Homemaker which was used to advertise the 
Homemaking Department during the early 1940's. Anne 
was a mythical student who represented the ideals of the 

*::^:>:»: ;•»•:»:•:»: -a* ^^-^ •:«• •:♦>■ •:«• 










1943: MR. JAMES MORGAN, President 


'WAR YEARS" BAND (all female) 




He graduated from Mansfield in 1896. 

GEORGE W. MAXEY was born in Forest 
City, Susquehanna County, on February 14, 
1878, son of Benjamin and Margaret Evans 
Maxey. He attended the public schools of 
his native town. He was graduated from 
the State Normal School at Mansfield in 1S96, 
from the College Department of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan in 1902, and the Law 
Department of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1906. He was admitted to the Bar 
and immediately began the practice of law at 
Scranton. He was elected district attorney 
in 1913 and was re-elected in 1917. In 1919 
he was elected judge of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas of Lackawanna County for a ten- 
year term and was re-elected in 1 929 as the 
candidate of both the Republican and Demo- 
cratic narties. He was elected justice of the 
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, November 
4, 1930, for the full term of twenty-one 
years, term to begin on January 5. 1931, but 
due to the resignation of Chief Justice von 
Moschzisker, effective November 24, 1930, 
and the consequent promotion of the senior 
Justice Robert S. Frazer, to the office of 
Chief Justice, there impended a six weeks' 
vacancy on the Supreme Court. Thereupon, 
the then justice-elect, was commissioned as a 
justice of the Supreme Court f-ir six weeks, 
by Governor John S. Fisher. He entered 
upon his six weeks' appointive .erm on No- 
vember 24, 1930, and his full elective term 
on January 4, 1931. He became Chief Jus- 
tice on January 4, 1943. His term expires 
on the first Monday of January, 1952. He 
married Miss Lillian Danvers, of Scranton, 
in 1916. They have three children, Mary, now 
Mrs. George J. Schautz, Jr., Dorothy, now 
Mrs. Lesley McCreath, Jr., and Lillian Lou- 
ise. The honorary degree of Doctor of Laws 
has been conferred uoon him by the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, Temple University, and 
The Citadel, the Military College of South 
Carolina. He resides in Scranton. 




"Baseball buffs recognize the name immedi- 
ately, but those who do not will recognize that his 
record speaks for itself. Hughie was an 18-year 
major league veteran who attended Mansfield in 
1886 . . . He then went on to play shortstop for 
Baltimore of the National League in his prime." 

Jennings' real fame came after his playing days 
as a manager for the Detroit Tigers. He still owns a 
major league record by winning American League 
pennants in his first three years as a manager. 

While Jennings was managing his last years 
with the Tigers, two names were dominating the 
Normal School's athletic teams. They were Joseph 
Shaute and Michael Gazella. Both were outstanding 
collegiate football and basketball players, but it 
would be on the baseball field that they would play 

Source: Stan Heaps, "Early Sports 
at Mansfield State Normal School," 
pages 75-93. In From Buckskin to 
Baseball, edited by Paul O'Rourke. 
Wellsboro : Tioga County Historical 
Society, 1978. 


1946: UNDEFEATED CHAMPIONS (Victory Squad) 

Front row — R. Martin, P. Volante. Second row — R. Kodish, W. Wood, G. McEneny, R. Leskinski, N. Faduska, J. Azain, R. 
Magalski, F. Marra, J. Dunbar, A. Amendola, D. Cheplick, J. Bobkowski, R. Grant. Third row — Dr. Nosal, L. Scudder, J. 
Walsh, L. Overdorf, R. Kirshner, R. Bowman, P. Pazahanick, J. Katusz, T. Novak, P. Cunningham, S. Malle, C. Kovaleski, J. 
O'Donnel, J. Harrington, Mr. Van Norman. Fourth row — Mr. Pearcy, Mr. Casey, Mr. Decker, T. Randon, B. Johnson, C. Wa- 
silewski, F. Raykovitz, T. Dombroski, E. Wilson, A. Sundberg, V. Magdelinskas, F. Juzinak, L. McGinley, R. English. 




1947-48: Smoking and Skirt Length 




"I think that the new style is perfect. Although I do not wear long 
dresses, I definitely believe that the style is here to stay. It makes a 
woman look more feminine than the ordinary short dresses." 

— Beverly Evans, Corning, N. Y. 

"Women are not going to accept the longer lengths because they 
dress to please the men and the men are definitely not in favor of the 
changed styles. I don't intend to conform to the idea. I definitely be- 
lieve that they will be on their way out within the next year." 

— Donna Jean Fox, Susquehanna, Pa. 

"I think they look silly. I am definitely against it. I feel that a 
dress is like a sentence, it should be long enough to cover the subject." 

— Stanley Evans, Olyphant, Pa. 

"I am definitely against the long skirts. Some Madame Fifi from 
Paris gets a crazy notion of lowering the skirts and our giddy stylists 
follow her with the monkey see, monkey does attitude." 

— Francis Stracka, Peckville, Pa. 

Source: The Flashlight, October 1947 


One of the most informal and necessary (to some stu- 
dents) organizations on the college campus is the "600 Club." 
This group is made up of all those who indulge in the habit, 
be it bad or good as you may think, of smoking. The room 
set aside for this congregation of girls is situated on the beau- 
tiful and picturesque sixth floor of North Hall. From the win- 
dows of this large and spacious room one may see the breath- 
taking view of the town and surrounding countryside, if you 
can see it through the blue, dense smoke always being emitted 
from its doors and cracks. 

Miss Patricia Rohrery is the ringleader of the group being 
honored by the members as holder of the office of president. 
Her henchmen are Miss Patricia Wells, who keeps track of 
all the latest gossip which flows freely from the walls, "Bub- 
bles" Dader, who rakes in all the "dough," and those girls 
from the respective classes who try in vain to keep in line all 

their members, Jean Ford, Senior; Lyn Fehr, Junior; Elaine 
Davis, Sophomore; and Audrey Gombert, Freshman. 

In room "600" anything can happen and it usually does. 
The chorus girls — Mary McCawley, alias Minnie the Mooch- 
er, Mary Jane McNett, Pat Rohrery, Elaine Davis, Lyn Fehr, 
and Lou Lehner — liven up the girls' lonely hours by present- 
ing their nightly skits and floor show. Those who are inter- 
ested may play cards, gossip, put up their hair (or let it down), 
and last, but not least, study and smoke. 

All kidding aside, the girls appreciate some place where 
they can go for a cigarette and relax when the burdens of 
work and classes seem too much to bear. The girls care for 
their own room and they certainly do a fine job of it. More 
power to you, girls. 

Source: The Flashlight, December 1948 



1948: MAY COURT 



1949: MOUNTIE BAND. Professor Bertram Francis, director. 




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One obvious effect of the war on the college student of today 
has been an increase in the maturity of his attitude and behavior. 
It is no longer considered smart to carry a flask on the hip, to play 
practical jokes, or to act in as ill-mannered a fashion as possible. 

However, there is still a noticable lack of common courtesy 
among these young men and women, these persons to whom the 
world of the immediate future will look for leadership. For ex- 
ample, here at Mansfield we may observe a lack of proper respect 
for supervisors and also a dearth of common consideration for 
other members of the faculty. Thoughtless delays in keeping ap- 
pointments and carelessness in carrying out assignments may mean 
loss of valuable time and even extra work on the part of instruc- 
tors. Even such common courtesies as standing when elders enter a 
room or talking in a friendly manner with members of the faculty 
are often denounced by our unthinking students as "apple-polish- 
ing". This is unfortunate evidence that such persons are still im- 

The situation which often develops during the showing of 
movies in Straughn Hall is another case in point. Often the show 
cannot really be enjoyed by everyone because certain individuals 
laugh raucously at very witty remarks from the screen, while others 
strain their ears to catch the dialogue. Even this practice is not 
quite as disturbing as the loud and would-be clever remarks made 
during the more serious scenes. 

A stranger entering the college dining room would be at quite 
a loss to know just what the rules of procedure really are. People 
barge in front of him in line; slices of bread fly under his nose as he 
sits at the table; and at last he realizes what is missing — ■ etiquette. 

Then there is the everlasting rivalry between the sexes. The 
girls think that the boys are extremely rude because they do not 
"dress up" for dates and because they do not perform all the every- 
day courtesies, but when a boy docs hold a door open, "Miss Prim" 
often passes through without so much as a "thank-you" and gives 
him a disdainful look as if he were a paid doorman. 

These discourteous practices are not habitual with the majority 
of the students here at Mansfield, but it is the conspicuous minority 
who make the bad impressions. 

Wouldn't it be a wise idea for all of us to concer.trate on 
thoughtfulness, and to try a bit harder to observe the rules of good 
manners? — Doris Perschau 

Source: Flashlight, February 15, 1950 


The early 1950's were a period of relative calm. There 
was a sense of passive contentment with no hurry for change, 
just a desire for steady progress at Mansfield. With fewer 
and fewer veterans, the institution once again became more 
akin to an extended high school than an extended army bar- 
racks. In fact, by the fall of 1950, there were only about 150 
veterans on campus. 

Students of the early 50's were moderate in prayer and 
politics. They worried a bit about atheism and communism 
but they shunned radicalism. Editorials in the Flashlight ad- 
dressed such matters as "getting along with others," "eti- 
quette," "the importance of air raid drills," "curbing cheat- 
ing," and "school spirit." Assemblies were attended but not 
a source of much excitement. The once-popular YMCA and 
YWCA groups lost their appeal and were replacd by an active 
but less zealous Student Christian Association. 

During this time, the athletic teams did not fare too well, 
in part because several star athletes were drafted for the 
Korean War. But, there was a special moment of school pride 
when Pete Dokas was selected to play for the North in the 
1950 Blue-Gray Football Classic in Alabama. 

"Clean-cut" was the proper look and "straight" the proper 
manner. Students were generally content to follow the rules 
and they dutifully participated in such activities as "Courtesy 
Week." "Religion-in-Life Week," and the May Day celebra- 
tion. The Freshman Initiation program continued to be viewed 
as a way of promoting school spirit, but the hazing activities 
became less "rough." In fact, in 1954, the initiation involved 
not only the traditional campus clean-up, but also a com- 
munity clean-up. Throughout the borough freshmen washed 
windows, raked lawns, and cleaned awnings. 

Thomas Halloran, the Student Council president in 1955, 
typified the ideal student of the 50's. With dogged determin- 
ation, he organized a campaign to refurbish and transform the 
old "Y" Hut into a Student Union where students and faculty 
would have a place to relax and share their good times at 
Mansfield. His effort was a striking success that quickly earn- 
ed him the appreciation of students. In fact, in 1950 he was 
one of three persons to whom the yearbook was dedicated. 


Meanwhile, the campus itself began to change. In 1950, 
the era of modernization started with the demolition of "Old 
South" — the oldest building on campus. As the wrecking 
crews smashed the structure a note of nostalgia filled the air. 
Somehow it hurt to see the graceful old hall destroyed and 
replaced by "New South" — by contrast, a stark and simple 
structure that seemed to hint at the direction of the future. 

About the same time too, a new science building was con- 
structed and North Hall underwent renovation: in 1950, the 
kitchen was modernized; and, in 1953, the ten ornamental 
cupolas were removed. 

In May 1957, Mansfield celebrated its centennial. Shortly 
after, Dr. Lewis Rathgeber assumed the presidency and a ma- 
jor expansion program was initiated. Only 35 years old, Rath- 
geber had the distinction of being one of the youngest college 
presidents in the country. Yet what he lacked in experience, 
he balanced with his bubbling determination to uplift Mans- 
field. He set the tone in his first convocation with students 
when he told them: "The college will develop an atmosphere 
in which the intellectual processes will be so stimulated that 
Mansfield will produce graduates second to none in the 

When Rathgeber became president, Mansfield was often 
described as the last among the fourteen state colleges, and 
very quickly he sought to remedy the situation. He courted 
the Democratic political powers of Pennsylvania in the inter- 
est of the institution, while at the same time he consciously 
reshaped it. Steadily, Mansfield moved toward becoming a 
multi-purpose institution. 

Stressing the need to generate what he termed "an in- 
tellectual renaissance at Mansfield," Rathgeber pressed for the 
expansion of the library, the creation of more liberal arts 
courses, and an expansion of international education pro- 
grams. He hired more faculty members, especially persons 
with doctorates. And, in his attempt to enliven the institu- 
tion, he invited a wide range of notable Americans to speak 
at Mansfield including Eleanor Roosevelt, Governor David 
Lawrence, syndicated columnist Victor Reisel, and the histor- 
ian Henry Commager. 

From the perspective of some people, Rathgeber was too 
bold and he wanted too much change too quickly. However, 
among students he was generally popular. He advocated 
greater student freedom yet he also stressed the need for stu- 
dents to assume more responsibility for the enforcement of 
rules. He consistently involved himself directly with students 
and seldom missed a student function. 

In the summer of 1959, "Old Alumni" was razed and re- 
placed by "New Alumni" — a new library and administration 
building. And, by the fall of 1959, only two years after Rath- 
geber's arrival there was not a single structure on the cam- 
pus which had not undergone renovation, repainting, or major 

In November 1959, President Rathgeber announced that 
the Departments of Elementary and Secondary Education 
would be dissolved and replaced by the Departments of Edu- 
cation, Health and Physical Education, Science and Mathe- 
matics, Humanities, and Social Sciences. He felt that such a 
change would enable Mansfield to take maximum advantage 
of the eventual transformation of Pennsylvania State Teachers 
Colleges into multipurpose institutions. In other words, Rath- 
geber wanted to prepare the institution for its change from 
Mansfield State Teachers College to Mansfield State College. 


To many of us September, 1950, meant a new era in our 
lives, looking ahead to a great career — a college education. 
To countless others this month held an entirely different fu- 
ture. For many of the youths of our country it meant induc- 
tion and mobilization in the armed forces. Thousands of boys 
who planned for college will never get that opportunity and 
thousands more may never return. 

I am of the opinion that the men who remain in the col- 
leges and universities throughout the nation have assumed the 
notion that they don't rightfully deserve the opportunity 
of an education while others have had to make a sacrifice. 

This is the wrong attitude. We can't all make a direct 
contribution to this present conflict — that is quite definite, 
but there is one thing we can do as potential teachers. 

While military personnel and the leaders of civilian de- 
fense are spending billions of dollars in preparation of war, 
let us devote our time and effort in preparation of peace. 
We have an urgent need for highly trained men in all profes- 
sions, especially educators who believe that democratic ideals 
and principles begin in the school and the home. This is our 
duty as well as a professional service. 

In this way we will be reassuring our people at home 
and those abroad that young America is growing in strength 
and that its teachers will be responsible for the promotion of 
democracy for this generation and for those who will follow. 

— Ray Kepner 

Source: Flashlight, October 1950 





STUDENTS STUDYING IN OLD ALUMNI HALL. Though the building had been condemned, it was temporarily used for 
housing during the post-war college boom. 



One of the most vicious species of campus pests, which 
multiplies rapidly and is very difficult to exterminate, is the 
Chowline Charger. Like most beasts of prey, the Charger 
has a ravenous appetite which must be satisfied only at the 
expense of innocent bystanders. 

The female of the species is usually more subtle and dis- 
arming while chowline charging, but is as odious as the male. 
A female of a harmless species may defend herself against a 
Female Charger by staring at the latter coldly and fixedly un- 
til shame forces it to retreat. An innocent male, unfortunately 
often fails to fend off a Female Charger's attack, mistaking 
the beast for a Young Lady until the damage is done. 

The best defense against a Chowline Charger is a dem- 
onstration of bravery and outraged scorn. Victims must 
work together to defend and eventually rid our campus of 
this common disgrace. — Frances Hendricks 

Source: Flashlight, February 1951 

KNICKERBOCKER QUARTET. Standing, left to right — 
Gerry Darrow, Blaine Ballard, Harley Rex. Seated — Ben 
Evans. In 1953 they appeared on the popular Arthur Godfrey 
TV Show (CBS). It was a talent competition and they won 
second place. 


1951-52: NEW SCIENCE BUILDING. South Hall 
(men's dormitory) was also constructed at this time. 

PLAYING CANASTA. It was the most popular 
card game of the early '50's. 

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DINING HALL. Bob Zukowski, standing. 




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Ij/Jt— lyJJl Student Council [-^resident ZJom ^htalioran oLeadd ♦ 

oUrive for I lew Student Isfnion — J4e S^ucceedd! 





TOM HALLORAN. As Student Council president, he 
worked tirelessly to have the old "Y" Hut reconstructed 
into a Student Union Center. Through his happy-go-lucky, 
yet persistent manner, he gained the support of students, 
alumni and friends; and, after months of hard work his 
dream was realized. 

At the end of his senior year, when he stepped down 
as the Council president, Halloran wrote a letter to fellow 
students thanking them for their support. In it, he des- 
cribed his stay at Mansfield as "rich and rewarding." He 




noted that there are no limits to the heights of attain- 
ment if one can mobilize the whole-hearted support 01 
those one is serving. 

Mr. Halloran's lile has reflected the best of his learn- 
ing at Mansfield. He has not only become a successful 1 
businessman, but also a consistently loyal supporter of 
the school. It is appropriate that this book is dedicated 
to him in recognition of his numerous contributions to 


















Letter to the Flashlight 
Concerning Initiation 

Dear Sir, 

What is the modern generation 
coming to? The outlook is good. 
The members of the Freshman class 
of Mansfield State Teachers Col- 
lege received their initiation Fri- 
day. Under the watchful eyes of 
the Sophomores they engaged in a 
constructive program. Households 
throughout the boro received a gen- 
eral cleaning up. Windows were 
washed; even the girls climbed lad- 
ders to reach the second floor win- 
dows. Lawns were raked; roof gut- 
ters cleaned of debris; porches 
scrubbed; awnings taken down for 
the winter. To put a fine finishing 
touch to this unusual activity they 
joined in group singing. A group 
of boys did their stint working on 
a digging chore on the campus. 
Their spirit and morale were fine. 

Several freshmen were questioned 
as to their preference for the old 
ways of hazing or the new trend; 
the majority preferred the new. To 
these fine young people of the new 
class, and the sophomores who in- 
augurated this new idea, the towns- 
people wish to voice their appre- 

Don't look now, youngsters, but 
your maturity is showing. 

Sincerely yours, 

Mrs. Edward Holmberg 

Source : Flashlight 

October 19, 1954 








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up AT the w*refi Toi. 



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Cartoons that appeared in the FLASHLIGHT 
during the '50's. Ford Button, one of the car- 
toonists, has become nationally recognized. His 
cartoons have appeared in numerous magazines 
and other publications. 





second bottle 
of Milk at th£ 

DlNeJFe? TR6LE it I 


1955: Rules 

— Mansfield is proud of its tradition as the "friendliest cam- 
pus" so you are expected to speak to everyone you meet. 

— Students ill in the infirmary are not permitted to have visi- 
tors. Each student will supply his own hot water bottle. 

— All students are required to attend assemblies which are 
held every Tuesday at 2:00 p.m. in Straughn Hall. 

— Study hours are 7:30 p.m. to 10:00 p.m. Monday through 
Thursday. No student may make noise that would disturb 
others. Radios must be turned down so that they cannot 
be heard outside the room. 

— Students under 21 are not permitted to have automobiles, 
and automobiles may not be washed or serviced on campus 
parking lots. 

— There shall be as many cuts allowed as a course carries 
semester hours of credit for special situations. 

— A minimum of three systematic evaluations of student 
achievement shall be made during each semster. Wherever 
possible more than one type of test, including the subjective 
test, should be used by the instructor. 

— All library books, unless otherwise indicated, are charged 
out for 2 weeks. 

— Each student may send twelve pieces of plain laundry each 
week to a commercial laundry selected by the college. 

— In case of a fire in North Hall: turn on lights, put on shoes 
and coat, close windows, raise shades, and secure bath 

— Bath clogs may not be worn to and from bathrooms during 
study hours or night quiet hours. Radios may not be played 
after midnight. 

— Card playing is not permitted in student rooms during study 
or night quiet hours. 

— Students living in Mansfield in homes other than their own 
are expected to follow the same rules as students living on 

— Male students must wear coats and ties to dinner Sunday 
through Thursday. 

-Men's rooms will be inspected during afternoon hours. It is 
expected that beds will be made before noon each day, that 
pillows will not be used as cushions, that cigarette butts will 
not be stamped on floors, and that students will provide 
their own ash trays. 

-Women's rooms are inspected and graded weekly. Room 
ratings are incorporated into the personnel record of each 
student. Students are expected to: 

1. Make beds immediately after breakfast. 

2. Shake their dust mops and dust cloths on the third 
floor bridge or out of the hall windows over second 
floor bridge. 

-A woman student who wishes to entertain her father in her 
room may do so on Sunday afternoons from 2:00 - 5:00 p.m. 
after registering this intention in the Dean of Women's 

-After a campus dance for which a special late permission 
has been granted to the females, sophomores, juniors, and 
seniors may have automobile riding permission out of town 
by signing on a special registration sheet in the office of the 
Dean of Women. They may ride within a 15 mile radius, but 
may not visit places where beer, wine, or alcoholic bever- 
ages are served. Freshmen may ride ONLY in town. 

-Because of the danger of accidents, permission of parents 
must be granted before female students may ride in 

-Women students are not permitted to be in parked cars on 
the campus after 7:30 in the evening. 

-Female students must be in dormitory by 10:00 p.m. on 
Sundays through Thursdays, and by 11:00 p.m. on Friday 
and Saturday — unless a student receives special per- 

-No student is permitted to walk alone from the bus terminal 
after 10:00 p.m. 

-Card playing and cleaning of rooms on Sunday is not 

Source: The Password, 1953-1954 



Dr. Rathgeber assumed the 
presidency at age 35, thus mak- 
ing him one of the youngest col- 
lege presidents in the country. A 
native of Lock Haven, Pa., he was 
a historian, as well as an educa- 
tor. He received a Ph. D. from 
the University of Pittsburgh. 

He was well-attuned to the 
politics of Pennsylvania, and he 
maintained close contacts with 
the Democratic Party — a fact 
which undoubtedly helped Mans- 
field's growth. 

Dr. Rathgeber, a bachelor, 
lived with his mother in the pres- 
ident's house. At one point dur- 
ing his administration, there was 
a controversy because allegedly 
state funds were used to construct 
a house for his dog. But, the mat- 
ter was effectively resolved when 
the house was used as a center- 
piece for a Board of Trustees din- 
ner. Later, however, he left the 
school amidst another contro- 

Despite problems, Dr. Rath- 
geber was essentially an energetic 
optimist. He always enjoyed 
wearing a rose in his lapel. 





Persons desiring to make provision for a memor- 
ial or a gift to continue some specified type of edu- 
cation work, or who wish to establish and maintain 
scholarships, may do so, feeling assured that their 
wishes, as outlined in the deed of gift or will, shall 
be carried into effect as provided by law. Such a 
simple statement as follows will be sufficient in a 

Form of Will (Real Property) 

I give and devise to the Mansfield Teachers Col- 
lege, Mansfield, Pennsylvania the following real 
estate (here give the description of th Real Estate). 
This devise is to be administered by the Board of 
Trustees of the State Teachers College at Mansfield, 
Pennsylvania, under the Laws of the Commonwealth 
of Pennsylvania. 

Form of Will (Money Bequest) 

I give and bequest to the State Teachers College, 

Mansfield, Pennsylvania, the sum of 

dollars, to be paid by my executors 

months after my decease, to the Board of Trustees 
of the State Teachers College, Mansfield, Pennsyl- 
vania, to be administered unuder the Laws of the 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 



SPOTLIGHT ON POLITICS. Seated (left to right): Con- 
gressman Green, President Rathgeber, Congressman Bush, 
Committeeman Sick, and Committeeman Urell. Standing (left 
to right) : James Idle and Samuel Livingston. 

LyDy. ff/odernization at I tl lanifield . . . the Jower (Jj>cll ^Jolls 
for the tail time . . . ^Ariumni ^rfalt r\azed and f\.entacea 




I '1 


i| IS 

n 11 



1960: DEDICATION OF ALUMNI HALL. Gov. Lawrence addressed the audience. 


"Clearly the future of higher education in 
America belongs to public institutions. Already 
they provide education to a majority of stu- 
dents; within another generation they will, it 
is safe to prophesy, provide education for fully 
three-fourths of all students. They cannot 
leave to private institutions the responsibility of 
bold experimentation. To do so would be to 
contribute to the development of class educa- 
tion in America — and a class education with 
divisions along intolerable public and private 

Prof. Henry Steele Commager, 
a noted American historian, at 
Mansfield State College 
May 20, 1960 











.... 988 














. 2572 




3000 (Est} 

During the 60's, Mansfield became part of the national 
trend of growth in higher education. It grew by leaps 
and bounds. Within ten years, the enrollment nearly tripled 
from about 1000 to 3000 students. The number of faculty 
doubled, and the acreage owned by the institution also 
doubled. Many new buildings were constructed including six 
dorms, a field house, a gym, a music education center, a dining 
hall, an infirmary, a new "Hut", and a student union building. 
Moreover, amidst the growth, there emerged a new type of 
student — one less passive about socio-political issues, one 
more insistent about individual rights. Compared to the 50's, 
the 60's were very different. 

In a sense, the change at Mansfield began January 8, 
1960 when MSTC became MSC. The action officially changed 
Mansfield from a teacher-training institution to a multi-pur- 
pose liberal arts college. Though President Rathgeber had 
been preparing Mansfield for the transition, the announce- 
ment seemed to accelerate the transformation. 

To reshape the institution's image, Rathberger took some 
very visible steps. He continued to keep the school in the 
public spotlight by inviting notable public figures to speak 
on campus. They included Governor David Lawrence, U. N. 
Ambassador James Wadsworth, and Vincent Price. At the 
same time he initiated a Fine Arts Festival and he foster- 
ed the school's involvement with the regional Science Fair. 
In September 1961, Mansfield gained national attention when 
TIME magazine reported the school's involvement with the 
College Center of the Finger Lakes. The Center was a co- 
operative effort of Mansfield along with Alfred University, 
Elmira College, Corning Community College, and Hobart and 
William Smith Colleges. Sponsored by the Corning Glass 
Works, the Center sought to recruit more scientists into the 
region by cultivating opportunities for scientific learning and 
cultural appreciation. 

With the transition from MSTC to MSC, the academic 
programs at Mansfield also underwent a transformation. A 
new general education curriculum was established which re- 
quired students to complete two years of liberal arts courses 
before pursuing professional studies. And, at the same time, 
the school began to develop bachelor degree programs in the 
arts and sciences. 

In 1968, following the election of Republican Governor 
William Scranton, President Rathgeber resigned. In turn, 
Mr. Costello served as acting president for five months until 


the governor appointed Dr. Fred Bryan. At fifty-five, the new 
president was a bit more reserved than Rathgeber, but he 
quickly gained admiration and respect for his genuine com- 
mitment. Under his leadership, the rapid growth continued 
rather smoothly. In fact, in 1965 the Middle States Accredita- 
tion team made a special note of the high degree of faculty 
morale generated by the Bryan administration. 

Interestingly, during this time, prior to the completion 
of the new dorms, students living within thirty miles were 
asked to commute. In addition, to accommodate the increas- 
ing enrollment, Mansfield instituted a special admission pro- 
gram under which 100 students could start their freshman 
year in the summer, but then they had to wait until the spring 
semester to continue — that is, after the December gradu- 
ates left. 

In February 1968, Bryan resigned to become a professor 
of education at the University of Pittsburgh. Two months 
later, he was succeeded by Dr. Lawrence Park, a former vice- 
president for academic affairs at the State University of New 
York at Geneseo. Park came to Mansfield with great expecta- 
tions of attracting more students to the Liberal Arts program. 

Politically most of the MSC students of the 60's tended to 
be Republican. In the 1960 Presidential Election, they favored 
Nixon by a 2 to 1 margin over Kennedy. In the 1964 election, 
the incumbent Democratic President Johnson was preferred, 
but in 1968 the students again expressed a clear preference 
for Nixon instead of Humphrey. 

Throughout the 60's there was a variety of protests. In 
the early fall of 1962, some of the women students of North 
Hall staged a protest demonstration after the administration 
curtailed the sale of concessions in the dorm. At one point, 
signs demanding recognition of student rights were posted on 
bulletin boards and hung in the windows of North Hall. In 
addition, window shades were pulled down to symbolize what 
the students termed "the political darkness of the dormitory." 

During the spring of 1963, there was further turmoil 
amidst allegations of administrative mismanagement. As a 
result, the governor appointed a special investigatory commit- 
tee to assess the situation. After months of controversy, Dr. 
Rathgeber resigned. 

By the mid-60's, the Vietnam War had become a major 
political issue on many campuses around the country. At 
MSC, students were initially very supportive of government 

policies. In fact, in November of 1965, there was a "Rally for 
Unification" on the Vietnam issue and various speakers urged 
students to support American involvement. But, as support 
dwindled nationally, so too it dwindled at Mansfield. In 1967, 
Dick Gregory and in 1968, Dr. Benjamin Spock, both out- 
spoken critics of the war, spoke on campus. And, in May 1968, 
MSC gained public attention when the New York Times re- 
ported that it was the only state college or university in 
Pennsylvania in which both the president of the student gov- 
ernment (Michael Fullwood) and the editor of the campus 
newspaper (Keith Smith) were opposed to the war. On May 
1969, Muhammad Ali addressed students on the need to re- 
sist the war. And then, on October 15, 1969 Mansfield became 
involved in the nationwide Peace Moratorium Day. The 
events at Mansfield included a funeral march, a ringing of 
church bells, and a "Do Your Own Thing" session in Manser 
Hall. As described in the Flashlight, "The purpose of the day 
was to educate people about the Vietnam War." Students 
were told, "You can no longer sit back. It is time to take part 
in the action by joining many thousands of your peers." 

On the lighter side, there continued to be an interest in 
sports. During the 60's, Mansfield became widely recognized 
as a "Basketball Powerhouse." The 1960-61 team finished its 
regular season 18-0, one of two undefeated college teams in 
the nation ; and, the 1963-64 team advanced to National Cham- 
pionship Playoffs in Kansas City. In the play-off, the team won 
the first two games, but then it was eliminated by Pan Ameri- 
can, the defending national champions. Despite the loss, 
nearly 2000 people greeted and cheered the team members 
upon their return to Mansfield. 

Throughout the 60's, sororities and fraternities became 
more popular. The organization of new fraternities was en- 
couraged because they provided an opportunity for student 
social life, and they also helped to alleviate the temporary 
housing shortage. 

By the late 60's there was much talk about lowering the 
voting and the drinking age. It was widely argued that stu- 
dents who could be drafted should be treated like adults. At 
Mansfield, as elsewhere, there was a clear trend away from 
paternalism. The dress code was eliminated, dorm rules were 
liberalized, and the absence policy became less restrictive. 
Consistent with the trend, in 1968, atheist Madeline O'Hare 
addressed students about the need to recognize the rights of 
atheists; and in 1969, the liberal Supreme Court Justice Wil- 
liam Douglas spoke on campus of the need to recognize in- 
dividual freedom. Amidst the demand for recognition of free- 
doms, the students and the school entered the 70's. 


Or as Marie Antoinette would say 

"No more bread lines at 

RENCE SLICE CAKE. This Flashlight (October 10, 1960) 
cartoon illustrated a belief that Mansfield got its "fair share" 
of state support during the Lawrence Administration. 

1960: PROPOSED CAMPANILE. Dr. Stephen Bencetic 
proposed the construction of a campanile to preserve the clock 
and the bell of Old Alumni Hall, but his proposal was deemed 
too expensive. 


Joe Alteri and his partner dance 
during the student-faculty reception. 

In 1960, the Student Council formed a 
"Morals Committee." It became the sub- 
ject of much discussion. 


Students linger under the "Kissing Tree" 
upholding the tradition of many years. 

This happy couple is apparently sharing a pleasant 
time on the traditional stone bench. Located on front 
campus, the bench has always been traditionally re- 
served for engaged or married couples. It was donated 
to the college in 1915 by the Delphic Fraternity. 

MAY DAY — MAY 6, 1961 — Queen Patricia Rex. 



December 5th: 


They complain that the administration requires them to work 
more than their male counterparts, yet they receive the same 
pay. Miss Florence Ludy, Assistant Dean of Women agrees with 
students demand for immediate change. Dean Priscilla Morton 
disagrees. She says it is not timely. 

December 8th: 


The Phi Sigma Epsilon Fraternity is asking area legislators for 
aid in their dispute with the MSC administration regarding cam- 
pus privileges. 


Students are protesting the threatened dismissal of Miss Ludy. 
Students say if she goes they will not comply with dormitory 
regulations .... Miss Ludy decided to stay after offering 

March 16th: 


She claims she was harassed by other administrators and that 
President Rathgeber's mother struck her with a rolled-up news- 
paper. Students want Miss Ludy back. 

March 27th: 


He issues "open-door" invitation to all female students to resolve 


She is described as a "troublemaker". 

He denies report. 

March 28th: 


Rathgeber charges "partisan politics." He says the investiga- 
tion is a "political conspiracy." He notes that there is a newly- 
elected Republican governor. He points to five years of solid 
growth and increased prestige at MSC under his leadership. 

March 28th: 


Representative Warren Spencer reports that "the only solution 
to restoring the morale of the student body is to get rid of 



Governor's office claims that there has been a "mass of corre- 
spondence" from students alleging that the MSC administration 
is undemocratic and repressive. 

March 30th: 


Four MSC students gathered nearly 400 signatures on a petition 
in support of President Rathgeber. 



Some professors see need for greater order. Others, a need for 
more freedom. 


A clandestine student newspaper, "The Primer" is operating 
underground. In an article entitled "The Students," there is an 
illustration of a classroom with two vegetables, preceded with 
the following message: "See all the MSC students. See them 
all dress alike. Hear them all think alike. Think what they're 
told to think. Think . . . Think . . . Think. Someday they 
will teach others to think. Won't that be a riot?" 


North Hall is described as "antiquated." Students complain 
about foul quality of water, and Rathgeber agrees there is a 
problem. But, he says the water problem is "an act of God" — 
the spring rains. 




Her topic — "Thy Love I Share." 


In a 15-page report, the investigation team comcluded that Rath- 
geber was absent from campus excessively, that there was over- 
charging for books, that there was an unnecessarily high turn- 
over of faculty, and that the administration acted arbitrarily. 
But they also concluded that "Rathgeber had the good of the 
college at heart." 

August 9th: 


Tom Costello, Dean of Students, is appointed acting-president. 

Source: Selected issues of the 
Klmira Star-Gazette, 
December-September 1962-63 

1964: Dr. Bryan Assumes Presidency 

—"It is a great priiilcge to be the 
President of Mansfield . . . We 
are justly proud . . . We are in- 
tensely interested in working to 
the future . . . our goal is to 
have an undergraduate program 
which is of such quality that we 
will be worthy of the graduate 
status we are seeking." 

Dr. Bryan 



w t 

»v* SF ' e 


Row 1 — Bud Hulser, Tom Wallon, Terry Crouthamel, Jim Turner. Row 2 — Jim Kinsler, Joe Russell, John Machulsky, Paul 
Manikowski, Lee Felsburg. Row 3 — John McNaney, Bob Brisiel, Bob Wolf, Ron Markert. Row 4 — Trainer Melvin Dry, Dr. 
Bryan, Coach Bill Clark, Marion Decker, Assistant Coach Gordon Preston. 


1964: Mansfield Advances to National Playoffs 

A Word of Thanks from Coach Clark 

When a team is fortunate 
enough to extend an already - 
impressive history of past bas- 
ketball successes, perhaps the 
joy of victory on the court 
should be enough. Yet, the 
memories treasured by the 
1963-64 Mansfield Mounties 
are highlighted by a sense of 
gratitude for the loyalty and 
enthusiasm of the blend of col- 
lege and community which 
terms itself Mansfield. 

The season can be chronicled by the spontaneous bursts 
of pride in achievement which make up so prominent a part 
of that intangible called "Spirit". As squad members we shall 
always recall with a warm feeling: the standing roar of ap- 
proval as the century mark was reached in the season opener 

— the Mountaineer, the bell, the siren leading a bedlam of 
noise in the Bloomsburg tie-breaker — the "pilgrimage of the 
500" to defend the honor of "Dogpatch" — the initiation of 
the new scoreboard so thoughtfully provided by the Student 
Council — the three bus loads of MSC students at Erie — the 
cheerleaders who "got there somehow" at Beaver Falls — the 
unscheduled holiday after the Westminster game — home- 
coming to fire engines and a mob scene on Main Street — 
an 18-foot telegram at Kansas City — radio in the Hut and 
impromptu parades — telegraphed flowers from North Hall 

— an airmailed Flashlight extra — the pep band 1200 miles 
from home — return to Corning and pandemonium — Mans- 
field and 2000 people who "didn't know we had finally lost" 

— the "Key to the City" — elementary school cheerleaders 
and "We Love You, Mounties" — the fire-station platform 
and lumps in throats — the kitchen staff and a beautiful cake. 

BILL CLARK, Basketball Coach 



The Dorm Councils have made a new 
ruling concerning dating behavior on cam- 
pus. We are sure that most students will 
agree that it is a welcome "code." We re- 
capitulate the rule for those students still 
unfamiliar with it. 

"No necking or petting in public places on 
campus. T/yis includes the North Hall well, 
South Hall lounge, the arcade, the Mansfiehlian 
Room, and the benches scattered about the 

If the students didn't initiate action 
against public promiscuity the Administra- 
tion would have been forced to. However, 
for couples who want to exchange endear- 
ments and embraces, the Mansfleldian 
Room is available. It is out of the public's 
eye, is comfortable, and has a television set. 
Rules should be drawn up limiting the 
hours that any "private student area" can 
be used as a "hide-a-way". Also, a general 
code of behavior should be applicable to 
such an area. 

Perhaps the dorm councils, in cooper- 
ation with the deans, would consider this 
a liberal view. But surely there would be 
no complaints from the students. 

No one is trying to stop "making out" 
on the campus. The entire problem is that 
some rather selfish people just don't want 
to wait until they are alone and in private 
before commencing with love making. 

This is our campus, our college. Let's 
express ourselves in a mature fashion, both 
in our social contacts and in our protests. 
We will be better people for it. 



May 11, 1964 


1965: WISC Student &Ju Rallies -Against "Mot Protests".. 

L4nification r^allu is ^J^reta 

A crowd gathered in South Hall 
Parking lot early last Wednesday 
night and members of the Mans- 
field State College Band played 
the national anthem. Some of the 
people in the crowd sang along 
while others stood at strict atten- 

Student Council President, Jay 
Angel, walked to the microphone 
and announced the opening of the 
Mansfield State College Rally for 
Unification on the Vietnam issue. 
He stated that the rally was not 
organized to support or condemn 
government policy, but "to let the 
students of Mansfield State College 
go on record as being against the 
burning of draft cards and the do- 
nation of blood to the Viet Cong." 

He offered the microphone to 
anyone in the audience who desired 
to state his views on the issue ■ — - 
pro or con. 

A Student Speaks 

The first to take advantage of 
the offer was James Munketterick. 
He mounted the stand, lit a match 
and proceeded to burn a small white 
piece of paper that looked like a 
draft card. Then he jerked the 
flame away and asked his listeners, 
"Would you dare do an idiot thing 
like this?" 

He went on to quote Barry 
Goldwater, saying that "such acts 
border on treason." "All that anti- 
Vietnam war demonstrators offer 
us," continued Munkitterick, "is a 
rejection of the right of the Viet- 

namese people to be free." He also 
noted the bad effect their riots have 
had on the image of the American 
college students. "Are they mod- 
ern-day Nathan Hales or Benedict 
Arnolds? I know," he averred. He 
concluded by pointing out to stu- 
dents and faculty members present 
"... our one path in this issue 
is unity with the government." 

The Speakers Continue 

Dr. George Bluhm, chairman of 
the Social Science Department and 
local commander of the American 
Legion, then rose to speak. Com- 
menting on the makeshift speakers 
platform, he quipped, "Old soldiers 
never die, they just fall off tables." 
He noted that since 1608, no gen- 
eration of Americans has had to 
fight to defend the dignity of the 
American people and their love for 

Another student, Dan Nichols, 
took the microphone. He opened 
his presentation with the reading of 
a letter from a friend, a twenty- 
year-old corporal stationed near Qui 
Nhon. After vivid description of 
the conditions in the war, the letter 
closed with this phrase: "We're go- 
ing to win this war or I will die 
trying." Nichols called on the rally 
participants to be willing to sacri- 
fice for the war effort and received 
oral support. 

Jay Angel then returned to the 
platform to read a statement from 
President Fred E. Bryan. It ex- 
pressed his disappointment at not 


being able to attend the rally and 
his sincere support of the rally. It 
called on each to determine "... 
how to best support society." 

A Thousand Blank Spaces 

The band again played the Star- 
Spangled Banner and two minutes 
of silence were observed in com- 
memoration of the efforts of per- 
sons connected with the war. As the 
crowd was about to be dismissed, 
Professor Peter Hill of the Social 
Studies Department asked to speak. 
He noted that he disagrees with the 
government policy on Vietnam and 
challenged the Student Council to 
sponsor a forum to give selected 
persons an opportunity to speak on 

their viewpoints, both pro and con. 
Jay asked the crowd for their opin- 
ion, and received strong approval. 
He then indicated that the council 
would set up such a forum in the 
near future. 

The crowd then pressed forward 
to the wall of South Hall where a 
large poster was mounted. A 
thousand blank spaces were wait- 
ing for them to sign their names. 
The top of the poster read, "We 
are opposed to: the burning of 
draft cards and the donating of 
blood to the Viet Cong." 

Source: Flashlight 

November 15, 1965 


1960's: FAMILIAR 

During the 60's there 
was continuous con- 
struction on the cam- 
pus: new dorms, new 
dining hall, new gym- 
nasium, new student 
union, new infirmary 
building . . . 




f & i^t 

'_i?3 f|W." 

&^~-~' "~ < 






% - 

■i i fBJ 


J - ' 

STUDENT COUNCIL (1966). Seated: M. O'Donnell, S. Young, T. McGuffey, J. Haverstick, S. Johnson, J. Angel, M. Palumbo, 
Dean Costello, J. Thomas, L. Alderfer, P. Dantini. Standing: L. Hess, D. Knaus, A. Olm. 


1966: Middle States Report 

According to a report made by 
the Middle States Education Com- 

"Mansfield State College, in recent 
years, has weathered severe problems 
that had brought it to the brink of 
chaos through serious unrest and in- 
stability that affected students, facul- 
ty, administration and trustees. Of 
great consequence to the college and 
to the educational community gener- 
ally is the report that can properly be 
made that Mansfield College now 
seems to have many of these problems 
behind it. A sincerely dedicated presi- 
dent and a loyal group of colleagues 
have brought about changes in internal 
and external relations/yips which give 
promise of a more hopeful and con- 
structive future. The president's 
achievements in the space of two years 
have been outstanding in raising stu- 
dent and faculty morale, in winning 
the loyalty of facility and staff, and in 
elevating the hopes and aspirations of 
the entire college community. It was in 
this changed and improved atmosphere 
that this visitation took place and the 
report prepared." 

The preceding paragraphs were 
included in the preface to the 48 
page evaluation report presented 
to the Commission on Institutions of 
Higher Education of the Middle 
States Association of Colleges and 
secondary Schools in October, 1965. 

A central concern expressed by 
the team related to the liberal arts 
program at Mansfield, which seems 

to be given secondary consideration 
in a number of respects. It is rec- 
ommended that a separate admini- 
strative structure be established in 
liberal arts equal to the structure 
in teacher education. The liberal 
arts office should be concerned with 
all liberal arts degree programs, 
faculty and students and also for 
all liberal arts departments serving 
the education programs. 

Long - term planning in pro- 
grams, faculty, staff, and instruc- 
tional equipment to support the ac- 
ademic programs has been insuffi- 
cient to meet the projection of en- 
rollment and plans for the physical 
development of the campus. It is 
strongly urged that a plan, with em- 
phasis on academic planning and 
development, be prepared to sup- 
port the plans for these future pro- 

Faculty morale, although great- 
ly improved during the past two 
years, shows evidences of needing to 
be strengthened. Reference by some 
students to frequent faculty ab- 
sences from class indicates the need 
for constant attention to building 
faculty morale and to encouraging 
faculty involvement in the life of 
Mansfield. Participation in an in- 
stitution's growth and a concern for 
its advancement go hand in hand 
with strengthened morale. 

Source : Flashlight 

January 12, 1966 


Saturday, January 8, 1966, 
the Mansfield State College 
Board of Trustees at a meeting 
took steps to launch the col- 
lege's new graduate studies in 
music and elementary educa- 
tion and to increase the size 
and effectiveness of the liberal 
arts program. 

Dr. Fred E. Bryan's recom- 
mendations, that the position 
of Dean of Academic Affairs 
be established and that the du- 
ties of the Office of Admissions 
and the Placement Office be 
separated, were passed. 

The Dean of Academic Af- 
fairs responsibilities will be to 
coordinate the activities of the 
liberal arts, graduate studies, 
and teacher education curricu- 

The changes were made to 
comply with recommendations 
of the Middle States evaluating 
team which visited the campus 
in October of 1965. 

In asking for the reorgani- 
zation, Dr. Bryan told board 
members that it would "more 
nearly reflect our multi-purpose 
status and help maintain our 
high quality program of teach- 
er education." 

Source : Flashlight 

January 12, 1966 


1966: BUS STOP. Left to right — Don Smith, Jinny Breech, Gene Grey, Joe Kulasa, Diane Largey, Scott Young, Ron Hart- 
man, and Janis Troutman. Joe Kulasa (now Tony Craig) became a popular actor on the soap opera, The Edge of Night. 



A 200-aci'e tract of land 
atop Armenia Mountains, 
with an elevation of 1,929 
feet, has been deeded by Dr. 
and Mrs. Clifford E. Scout- 
en, of Sylvania, to Mansfield 
State College Student Serv- 

The mountain tract, en- 
hanced by three large ponds, 
is just 14 miles east of the 
state college and with the 
exception of a four - mile 
stretch of mountain road, is 
easily accessible by a two- 
lane macadam highway (Rt. 

Dr. Scouten, a native of 
that Bradford County area, 
was graduated from Mans- 
field State in 1915. He later 
studied at St. Lawrence and 
the University of Toronto. 
He was a dedicated teacher 
and .began his 30-year ca- 
reer in the profession in a 
one-room school in Sylvania. 


Mansfieldian, Fall 1967 

1967-68: THE ANTHROPOLOGY CLUB. Under the leadership of 
Professor Avery Sheaffer, the club engaged in numerous excavation 
projects throughout the region. 


State college students of Pennsylvania may not be getting their 
full share of state aid. 

In 1966 the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania was subsidizing every 
state college student by $802.59, but the same year the amount for sub- 
sidized students at the University of Pittsburgh was $1712 each, at 
Temple University, $1213 and at Pennsylvania State University, $1384. 

The aid to state college students has lagged for some time behind 
that provided to Penn State students. Aid to Temple University stu- 
dents began to surpass that of state college students in 1965 and became 
even more apparent in 1966. The University of Pittsburgh students who 
received only about half as much state aid as state college students in 
1955 received twice as much aid in 1966. Lincoln University, a private 
college, receives more money for students' aid than do the state col- 
leges. The private medical schools received four times as much aid per 
student as state college students. 

Pennsylvania is the only state in the United States that gives money 
to private colleges, and in 1966 private colleges received $82 million 
while the state colleges received $35 million. 

Source: Flashlight May 3, 1967 


Is Mansfield State growing too 

Already the dorms are packed to 
capacity with three, four and even five 
persons to a room. The cafeteria situ- 
ation is even worse. Classrooms are 
in demand, as are instructors. Yet 
next year the enrollment will go up 
even more. 

It was announced at the trustees 
meeting Saturday that applications 
will no longer be accepted by the ad- 
missions office. Only 120 will be ad- 
mitted. This adoption is to be praised. 

Source: Flashlight 

January 10, 1968 


BOARD OF TRUSTEES: President Fred E. Bryan, Paul Conner, Richard Marshall, Fred Jupenlaz, Robert E. Farr, Donald P. 
Gill, Milford Paris, A. F. Snyder. (Absent: Margaret McMillen, and Jo Hays). 



It's official, the cafeteria 
dress policy has been relaxed. 
Final action was taken on the 
matter at the dining room com- 
mittee meeting last Thursday 

Under the new policy wom- 
en will be admitted to the caf- 
eteria dressed in slacks, shorts, 
cut-offs and sweatshirts. Men 
are allowed to wear jeans, 
sweatshirts and cut-offs. The 
only requirement for this garb 
is that it be clean and neat. 

The committee, chaired by 
Jon Phillips, has been working 
on the revision since early 
September. The first step taken 
included a questionnaire issued 
at the first special dinner of 
the year. At that time over 
80 percent of the ballots favor- 
ed a change. 

The only exception to the 
casual rule is Sunday dinner 
and a few of the special din- 
ners. For Sunday dinners, only 
classroom or dress attire will 
be permitted. Some of the din- 
ners, Christmas for example, 
will require dress. 

The new stand makes 
Mansfield's policy among the 
most liberal in the state col- 


November 8, 1967 


1968: Dr. Lawrence Park Assumes Presidency 

PARK INAUGURATION. In April 1969, President Park was admin- 
istered the oath of office. The ceremony was followed by an inaugural 
ball and much pomp and pageantry. Compared to his immediate pred- 
ecessors, he appeared to be more politically detached. He raised horses. 



"I feel that this is an identity 
crisis of the school . . . they are 
taking away the tradition of the 
campus." Strong words? Yes. 
Sentiments? Stronger yet. Pro- 
fessor Sanford Chilcote of the 
MSC English Department is very 
adamant concerning the construc- 
tion of the new student union 
center which is being built direct- 
ly in front of North Hall, the 
former location of the Mountie 
steps. On last Wednesday, Thurs- 
day, and Friday Chilcote took it 
upon himself to let the admini- 
stration know his strong feelings. 

When asked why he decided 
to picket, he had a quick reply. 
"This (the area) is an object of 
symbolism, they are desecrating 
the people, the past." 

Chilcote has hopes of seeing 
stronger protests. He hopes stu- 
dents will organize and "... sit 
in the trees, and refuse to move. 
If the past has no value . . . 

they've missed something." Chil- 
cote feels that there are many 
other places for the building. He 
spoke of the state's eminent do- 
main, he feels they could have 
moved the building downtown. He 
said that the present location def- 
initely shows a "lack of taste." 

Apparently Professor Chilcote 
does not think it is too late. He 
said, "Nobody is doing anything. 
If it's in your dreams you have to 
do something. I always have 
hopes. This is as bad as Harvard 
tearing up the commune, or Con- 
gress tearing up the White House. 
It is very analagous." 

"The past is reflected here. 
This section is symbolic of the 
campus, the people who built it 
did it to last — it is being dese- 


March 26, 1969 


1969: Ali Speaks to Capacity Crowd 

Cassius Clay, undefeated heavy- 
weight champion of the world, re- 
cently spoke to a full house of 
Mansfield students, faculty, admin- 
istration, and friends. He did not, 
however, speak as Cassius Clay, the 
fighter, but as Muhammad Ali the 
minister of the Black Muslims. 

The Black Muslims, embracing 
the idea of complete separation of 
Blacks and Whites, have three basic 
aims: "justice, freedom, and equal- 
ity for 30 million so called Ameri- 
can Negroes." They feel that the 
only way there can possibly be 
peace is to separate. Ali cited sev- 
eral examples: in South Africa the 
whites and blacks have separated; 
Europe is making extradition laws 
to ship the colored people back to 

It is the nature of these two 
groups to remain opposite, and 
when people are opposite, they are 
automatically opposed. Ali said that 
it's time to quit this forced hypo- 
critical integration, because it will 
never succeed. 

Ali stated that it must be a 
peaceful separation because if there 
was ever a violent revolution the 
Negro would be annihilated. The 
whites, with their superior weapons 
and large mass of people would ut- 
terly destroy the Negro race in 
America. His last statement was 
that violence was the worst thing 
the Negro could resort to. 



May 14, 1969 





1 ufl 







GREEKS. During the 60's, seven new fraternities and sororities were organized. 


1969: Moritorium Day at Mansfield, October 15th — 
Students seek U. S. Withdrawal from Viet Nam 

The Vietnam Peace Moratorium 
Committee has organized events to 
take place. We suggest that any- 
one who is concerned enough about 
our dying GI's take an active part 
in these events: 


9:00 — All day the passing of leaf- 
lets and signing of petitions on 
campus and in town. 

11:00-1:00 — Petition signing in 

1:00 — Funeral march to Straughn 
Auditorium, upon reaching 
Straughn there will be a Me- 
morial Service. 

3:00 — The town church bells may 
be rung in unison. 

5:00-6:30 — Petition signing in 

7 :00 — Manser Hall Lounge — "Do 
Your Own Thing" microphone 
open to everyone. 

There will be a motorcade to Wells- 
boro immediately following 
the services at Straughn Audi- 
torium. This is not an officially 
sponsored activity; however, 
all interested parties are wel- 
come to participate. 

It is only by becoming a unified 
body that we can truly 



October 15, 








During the 70's, President Park was unsuccessful 
in his attempt to move the school forward. In 1970, 
he unveiled a "Master Plan" projecting that by 1980 
MSC would grow to about 5,800 students. Then in accord- 
ance with the "Plan," Park broadened the administrative 
structure and he expanded academic programs, such as his- 
tory, english, and foreign languages. He believed that the 
new programs would be especially attractive to a growing 
number of community college students who would be trans- 
ferring to MSC. In fact, he expected that by 1980 MSC would 
move to a point where 60^ of the students would be juniors 
and seniors. Interestingly, despite the anticipated growth, 
Park contended that "it is not Mansfield's intention to seek 
university status." 










_„. 3275 







..._ 3015 

1976-77 ____- 

_ 2859 




.. . 2533 












Unfortunately, the "Plan" for the 70's was never realized. 
By 1972, Park described the initial projections as "unrealistic" 
and "excessive," suggesting instead that "Mansfield may peak 
at about 4,000 students." He contended that because of its 
geographic location and a relative decline in state support 
for higher education, MSC could not attain the goals of the 
Master Plan. Five years later, in 1977, when Park left MSC 
the enrollment had slipped to about 2700 students, and there 
were newspaper reports suggesting that Mansfield might be 
closed by 1982 due to a declining enrollment. 

Between 1977 and 1979, Dr. Donald Darnton, former 
Vice-President of Academic Affairs, served as the Acting 
President. He viewed his role as being a temporary "consoli- 
dator." As he put it: "I don't expect to move the college in 
any particular direction; that's a permanent sort of thing." 
But, enrollment continued to decline and the budgetary crisis 

In 1979, after reviewing over 120 applicants for the posi- 
tion, the presidential search committee recommended the ap- 
pointment of Dr. Janet Travis, a philosopher and former pro- 
vost at the University of Northern Kentucky. In turn, upon 
being appointed by Governor Thornburgh she became the first 
female president of a Pennsylvania state college. 

Dr. Travis' first action was the elimination of 25 faculty 
members — mostly from the english, foreign languages, and 
history departments. She justified her action on the grounds 
that it was necessary in order to balance the budget and to 
provide resources for new programs. 


During the four years (1979-83) under Travis, the col- 
lege underwent many changes. She shifted program em- 
phases and she instituted an elaborate advising system for 
students with the hope of curbing attrition. With the help of 
a greatly improved admissions office, enrollment did increase 
during the Travis administration, but few faculty members 
gave her much credit. In fact, on two separate occasions, fac- 
ulty members gave her very negative evaluations on her per- 
formance. Moreover, following a report from the Middle 
States Accreditation team indicating that faculty governance 
at MSC had deteriorated under Travis, the Board of Trustees, 
the union, and students openly sought her resignation. In 
July 1983, she was transferred to the Pennsylvania Depart- 
ment of Education, and Rod Kelchner was appointed interim- 

Despite the difficulties of successive administrations dur- 
ing the 70's, there continued to be many highlights: 
the criminal justice, business administration, and infor- 
mation processing programs grew and became the school's 
major growth programs; moreover, programs became estab- 
lished in art, broadcasting, technical theatre, community psy- 
chology, regional planning, travel and tourism, medical tech- 
nology, music therapy, pre-engineering, public relations, social 
work, and special education. Throughout the 70's the continu- 
ing education program was a bright spot of growth. 

On the extra-curricular level there were also many high- 
lights: the Mountie Bands became nationally recognized for 
their excellence; the Mansfield Summer Festival Theatre be- 
came quite popular in the region; the 1973 Concert Choir re- 
ceived the Rome International Choral Festival Gold Medal; 
the 1979 Mountie baseball team won third place in the Na- 
tional College World Series; the women's volleyball teams 
advanced to the national playoffs in 1978, 1980, and 1981; 
the 1975 basketball team won the Pennsylvania State College 
Championship; and, the forensic teams were consistent win- 
ners — ranked 10th in the nation in 1976. In addition, many 
individuals gained recognition for outstanding achievement in 
their fields. 

Throughout the 70's, faculty members demonstrated high 
levels of achievement. An increasing number completed term- 
inal degrees in their fields and the number of professional 
papers, publications, concerts and other presentations given 
by faculty members steadily increased. 

In 1972, the MSC faculty, along with the faculty mem- 
ber of other state colleges, organized a union. From the per- 

spective of some administrators, the unionization contributed 
to the financial difficulties of the institution because of in- 
creased faculty salaries and benefits. However, from the per- 
spective of most faculty members, the unionization was a 
necessary and effective means of protecting faculty rights dur- 
ing a period of turmoil. In any case, coinciding with unioni- 
zation, the college attracted better trained professionals, and 
there was less turnover of faculty. As of 1982, about 80% of 
the MSC faculty belonged to the union. 

The students of the 70's reflected societal trends toward 
recognition of individual expression. For many years, fresh- 
men initiation had served as a means of molding each fresh- 
man into a "Mountie." It was a way of promoting the "we- 
feeling" — that is, a loyalty and commitment to Mansfield. 
But during the 70's, the initiation rituals became passe' as 
the so-called "me generation" of students insisted on individ- 
ualism and the right to be free and different. Students of the 
70's resisted requirements to attend MSC community events 
such as assemblies and commencement ceremonies. They de- 
manded and gained greater freedom with regard to drinking, 
using drugs, and sexual activity. They challenged and 
changed rules relating to study hours, attending class, grad- 
ing, and so forth. The pass-fail system was established; the 
student's right to challenge a grade became easier; and, 
stricter rules were adopted relating to the disclosure of in- 
formation about students. Both in and out of the classroom 
the expressions "I think" and "I feel" became more common- 
place, and the traditional authority of the teacher weakened. 

Amidst the foregoing changes, there were coinciding 
shifts in the academic majors and the sex ratio of the students. 
In 1970, when home economics and education were still the 
major programs at MSC, about 65% of the students were 
females. But, by 1983, with the growth of the new programs 
in business, criminal justice, and information processing, the 
percentage of incoming students who were female dropped to 
about 50 percent. In the meantime, however, the cultural and 
ethnic diversity of the students broadened. For example, the 
number of black students increased from about fifteen to a 
hundred between 1970 and 1983; and, the number of foreign 
students expanded from only a few to thirty-eight in 1983. 

In short, the past thirteen years have been intense and 
challenging times for MSC. Nonetheless, the period has added 
to the true character of the institution. Indeed, as MSC be- 
comes Mansfield University, it reflects the maturity of an in- 
stitution that has been seasoned with both triumph and 



On Wednesday, May 6 at 10 p.m. there 
was a meeting or rally at which the students 
were to strike, or to back the faculty's deci- 
sion to have a teach-in tomorrow. Rick Celsi, 
speaking for those students who wanted to 
strike, explained that the strike was to be 
against the government's policy in South East 
Asia, not against anything at the school. 
The students were exhorted to "know what's 
going on in the whole world, instead of just 
your own little world, show opposition to 
the SE Asian policy, find out about Cambodia, 
and the Kent State University's tragedy." 

President Park then presented the 
faculty resolution and stated that he and the 
Faculty Advisory Council were "here to find 
out what the students want" so they could 
finalize their decision. 

Brian Zeigler followed, stating that in a 
voice poll taken by Student Council, it was 
evident that "the majority of students are 
against further involvement in SE Asia," and 
that the Council would endorse the action of 
President Park. (Copies of the" faculty's reso- 
lution will be sent to other State College 
Presidents, Student Government leaders, Con- 
gressmen and President Nixon himself.) 

At this point, an irate young lady stood 
up and shouted that the President "was run- 
ning a college and not a fan club." To the 
young lady, one of the students replied: 
"You should be responsible for just a little 
more than what is in your life now." 

Dr. Finley backed up the President ex- 
plaining the faculty's view — he wanted to 
know how the students felt so that faculty 
could further decide upon what to do. 

Various arguments then ensued as to 
what the strike was for (it's not opposed to 
the faculty resolution and teach-in, but rather 
a reinforcement of it) ; what moral commit- 
ments were (if morally committed, take it 
upon yourself to become educated) ; and 
whether there are or are not enough volun- 
teer troops to go into Cambodia (one young 
man said there were, another said there 

Another young lady then took the micro- 
phone and gave an impassioned appeal — we 
didn't help East Germany, Poland, Bulgaria 
and Czechoslovakia when they asked, and 
look what has happened to them, if we don't 
stop them there (SE Asia) where will we? 
The islands in the Pacific? She was simul- 
taneously cheered and booed as she left the 

The students then called for a vote — 
strike or no strike, and President Park again 
strode to the podium, stating that the issues 
need to be discussed so the faculty knew 
what action to take. A question was then 
raised as to whether the faculty could be pre- 
pared on Thursday and Friday. Dr. Friedman 
answered that by saying that the faculty 
would like to better prepare, but would be 
able to go ahead if necessary. 

Another student then stated : "We have 
to know what's going on before we can 
strike," and a girl stood up and asked — 
"People are stirred up right now about Kent 
and Cambodia, but three-quarters of us do 
not know why . . . we won't care next week 
as much as we care now? 

For the next half hour, a vote was at- 
tempted but then halted for some further 
question and three proposals were stated: 

1. Move the strike from Wednesday to 
Thursday and Friday. 

2. Have Thursday, Friday and Wednes- 
day as teach-ins or strikes. 


3. Adopt the faculty's decision 

When a strike advocate claimed that "The 
faculty says we should strike, we're behind 
them," Mr. Murphy, a professor stormed to 
the stage and vehemently stated that "the 
resolution was for a teach-in not a strike." 
He said that the faculty would appreciate it 
if students would "hold off until faculty were 
better prepared to serve the purpose of a 

Finally President Park took the micro- 
phone and said that he thought there had 
been about enough bickering. The faculty 
had come to determine student feeling and 
then discuss it among themselves, and nothing 
was being accomplished. There were mur- 
murs of "let President Park conduct the 
vote," and hearing them he asked if he might. 
There was loud cheering as he took over. He 
read the three proposals, called for a hand 
count in each, and then thanked the students 
— the faculty resolution was supported by 
the majority of students present. 

Later that night, after the faculty discus- 
sion was over, President Park announced over 
the radio that, on recommendation of Student 
Council, the faculty had decided not to pen- 
alize students who didn't attend classes Thurs- 
day and Friday to go to teach-ins. 


May 12, 1970 




He served as the first 
President of the Union. 

Mansfield State College teachers 
signed their first collective bargain- 
ing contract and are now officially 
unionized. The agreement is sealed 
between the Association of Pennsyl- 
vania State College and University 
Faculties, Pennsylvania Association 
for Higher Education and the Com- 
monwealth of Pennsylvania. 

The new contract came into effect 
on September 5th of this year (1972) 
and it will not have to be renewed un- 
til August 31, 1974. 

Negotiations between the repre- 
sentatives of the faculty from fourteen 
state colleges and the state's negoti- 
ating team began back in November 
of 1971 and the contract was not final- 
ized until the end of June 1972. 

N. E. A. and P. S. E. A. provided 
professional negotiators to act only as 
mediators to diplomatically help iron 
out disputes. There were no admin- 
istration negotiators nor legal arbi- 

It was the first negotiating for 
both sides and no real precedent had 
been set. Naturally, both the Facul- 
ties and the Commonwealth, wanted 
to be careful to create a good model 
contract for others to follow. 

Each side had certain priority 
items that they wanted and fought 
hard for. This slowed the talks down 
because there had to be some give and 

Our faculty wanted more of a say 
in "local negotiations" such as, re- 
served faculty parking spaces and the 
drawing up of the school calendar. 

The Commonwealth used a phrase, 
"management prerogative" to skirt 
these issues. 

Concerning the calendar issue, 
many Mansfield faculty members are 
complaining because they have a 
shorter length of time to cover the 
subject material with their classes and 
finish grading papers and exams. But, 
many students prefer the new calen- 
dar because it gives a longer vacation, 
and a chance for a winter job. 

Ninety percent of the faculty are 
pleased with the new contract because 
the negotiations got them more ob- 
jectives in their favor. 

What does the new teacher con- 
tract do for the students? It demands 
that the professor must be in his office 
for five hours per week therefore cre- 
ating more contact hours for commun- 
ication between students and pro- 

imum. For the first time, the students 
have the legal right and duty to eval- 
uate professors. 



November 2, 1972 



Under the direction of 
David J. Dick, the Concert 
Choir toured extensively in 
Pennsylvania, New York, 
Maryland, and Washington, 
D. C. In 1973, the Choir won 
the first prize gold medal in 
the Rome International 
Choral Festival's collegiate 
division, performing in St. 
Peter's Basilica and Paris' 
Notre Dame Cathedral dur- 
ing the same trip. In 1975, 
the Choir sang at the Na- 
tional Cathedral of Wash- 
ington, D. C. and at the state 
capitol building in Harris- 
burg (picture). 

CONCERT CHOIR. Sopranos: K. Bayton, C. Bernardi, S. Eberhart, C. Guise, K. Hollenshead, L. Jacobs, J. Miller, E. Pineno, 
K. Savage, M. Strong, R. Sutton, P. Toth. Altos: N. Bailev, J. Costa, D. Daneker, G. Eisenhardt, K. Fye, R. Leathers, P. Pfleeg- 
or, E. Sheesley, C. Snyder, J. Valentine, C. Wadsworth, L. Walker, S. Willing. Tenors: D. Barron, D. Benn, W. Cutter, S. John- 
son, H. Palmeter, L. Payne, J. Rodgers, H. Stack, J. Smith, G. Tucker, G. Worden. Basses: J. Andrulis, D. Cross, D. Greenough, 
D. Hardock, M. Hartman, R. Justice, E. Sheer, J. Miller, J. Procopio, G. Sipes, S. Smith, B. Story. 


During the 70's, the 
student perspective of 
Mansfield was reshaped 
amidst trends toward 
recognition of more 
individual freedom. 


1970's: Mountie Marching Band - The BEST!! ! 

"I have been broadcasting university and professional football 
for about twelve years and this is unequivocally the finest band 
1 have ever seen or heard." 

CBS-TV Sports Broadcaster 
September 24, 1972 

RICHARD TALBOT. Under his leader- 
ship, the Mountie Band performed at 
four professional football games and 
twice they toured England. 


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1974: Streaking Craze 


by Linda Hollingshead 

Everyone applauds as they go by; they are in full view 
of all, yet they remain anonymous. Streaking, the fad of the 
year, has hit MSC. 

The typical Mansfield streaker is an inebriated male stu- 
dent between 18 and 22, yet there are a few females. Streak- 
ing attire ranges from sheets to sneakers to "nothing at all." 
Hats, however, are usually worn. 

Streakers usually confine themselves to campus, but a 
few brave ones have run around parking lots and down Route 
15. Most prefer to run at night. 

The question most people ask themselves is, "Why do 
streakers do it?" Many streakers claim they did it on a bet, 
while others mentioned "something to do," "for publicity pur- 
poses," "for excitement," "release of inner frustrations," and 
"because I was drunk." 

What are the aesthetic rewards of streaking? Almost 
all streakers said that they felt "great" while running; some 
mentioned being cold but exhilarated. They also said they 
felt good afterwards. No streaker mentioned feeling embar- 
rassment or regret. Some said their elation was due to the 
money collected from their bets. 

Source: Flashlight 

March 21, 1974 



Throughout the 70's 
North Hall was a "hot" 
topic of debate. Its 
demolition was sched- 
uled to follow the con- 
struction of the Cedar 
Crest Dormitory 
(1976), but due to a 
series of moratoriums 
it remains standing. 
Though vacant, the 
faces on its exterior 
walls seem to keep it 



(Only he knows if he really did) 





J. PAUL McMILLEN ('69). While he was 
director of the foundation it grew rapidly 
and provided support for many activities 
including the Mansfield Festival Theatre 
and the Mountie Band. 

During the 70's, smashing cars was a popular way to raise funds. In 
1974 (above), the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) held a 
smashing, offering two hits for a quarter. The CEC promoted aware- 
ness of and service to the mentally retarded children of the region, 
helped with the Special Olympics. Moreover, they engaged in many 
other worthwhile projects relating to exceptional children. 


1970's: Black Awareness 


Author of "Roots" 


Comedian - Activist 

Throughout the 70's many prominant professional blacks, including Julian Bond, Alex Haley and Dick Gregory lectured at Mans- 
leld. Black Awarenes Week became an annual spring event on the campus. 


In 1976, the Forensic Team was ranked tenth in the nation. 
Left to right — John Williams, Michael Lieboff (coach) and 
Keith Semmel. 


Despite the budgetery constraints in the 70's, the library staff 
gained recognition for their high degree in professionalism. 



CEDARCREST MANOR. Completed in 1976, it was the only major construction that took place during the 70's. 





PROFESSOR EIDENIER demonstrates skills in music 

PROFESSOR SLABEY discussing computer with Barbara 


PROFESSOR BUSS (pointing) teaching fish culture. 

Charles Heinly, criminal justice student intern, 
Dr. Edward Ryan, criminal justice faculty in- 
tern supervisor, and Governor Thornburgh. 


"Professor" McCrossen 

In the October 30 issue of the Tunk- 
hannock newspaper New Age, a former 
professor at Mansfield State College sug- 
gested that MSC should be "phased out 
permanently" along with a number of 
other state colleges. In a long letter to the 
editor, which was also sent to Governor 
Shapp, Auditor General Casey and the 
local representative and Senator, he term- 
ed President Park as "incompetent", the 
caliber of the professors "incredibly poor" 
and the constituency of the student body 
as being "appallingly low". 

He claims that during summer school 
all a student needs to do is sign up for the 
class and submit a blank piece of paper by 
mail for his final exam to receive an "A" 

Although very perturbing at first 
glance, when the letter is taken in its prop- 
er perspective, the entire thing contains 
elements of humor. 

In a discussion with President Park it 
was learned that V. A. McCrossen, the 
author of the letter, is a historical figure of 
some importance to MSC. He was chair- 
man in the languages department between 
the winter of '69 and the winter of '71, at 
which time he was asked to leave "for 

While at Mansfield, a high-ranking 
administrative authority alleged that Mc- 
Crossen commuted to Boston College and 
taught there. This was unknown to the ad- 
ministration and faculty at that time. It 
was also alleged that during this time per- 

iod, McCrossen lived out of his office, and 
at one time a cleaning lady found him 
sleeping in a broom closet. 

Park contends that McCrossen had 
forged letters of recommendation for his 
position at MSC and that he had also done 
the same thing at Wilkes College, where 
he was also asked to leave. 

According to Park, McCrossen left 
here and went to Waynesburg and "the 
next thing I knew, he was in the federal 
penitentiary on a forgery charge." 

While serving an 18 month term at 
the Lewisburg federal penitentiary, Mc- 
Crossen applied for and was one of the 12 
finalists for the presidency of Makato State 
College in Minnesota, at which time it was 
learned that he was serving a term in 

McCrossen is not completely fraudu- 
lent, however. He did serve 25 years at 
Boston College as a Professor of Language, 
and was a graduate of Dickinson College 
with straight A's except for one B grade, 
which Park alleged McCrossen changed to 
an "A." McCrossen also received a Ph. D 
in German. 

A number of faculty were questioned 
concerning McCrossen. The dominant re- 
sponse on the part of the faculty was some- 
what alien to a weak smile. It does hurt 
to get the wool pulled over your eyes. 



October 6, 




Mansfield — Slumping enrollments and increasing costs 
may force Mansfield State College to close its doors within 
the next five years, the state legislature was warned last 
Monday in Harrisburg. 

Testifying before the House Appropriations Committee, 
Arthur B. Sinkler, chairman of the Board of State College and 
University Directors, said Mansfield and California State Col- 
leges are suffering from decreasing enrollments as fewer stu- 
dents go on to college from high school. 

Mr. Sinkler urged the legislature to add $12,000,000 to 
the education budget, which was submitted to the legislature 
last month by Governor Milton J. Shapp. 

Without the additional funds, Mr. Sinkler said, tuition 
fees at Mansfield State College and the 13 other state-owned 
institutions will be forced to rise to $850 a year. 

Mansfield State College is located in a part of the state 
absolutely unserved by any other institution, according to the 
college's president, Dr. Lawrence Park. 

"Even if the enrollment dropped to 2,000 I would still 
consider it (the college) a success," Dr. Park said. 

Source: Williamsport Grit 

March 17, 1977 


Dr. Darnton served as the Acting President for two 
years while a search was conducted for a new presi- 
dent. He attempted to maintain stability by encour- 
aging faculty to retrain. He created a bit of contro- 
versy among alumni when he changed the conception 
of the "Mountie" from what he felt was a hill-billy 
image to one that was more representative of the 
region. Al Smith, electrician foreman at MSC served 
as the model for the "New Mountie." 



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1979: The erection of the sculpture "Unity" in front of 
Alumni Hall. 

1979: "Can Stacking" in the dormitory. 


1979: Dr. Janet Travis Assumes Presidency 

— First Female To Become A Pennsylvania State College President 

1979-1983: During her stormy presidency, the change in her personal appearance paralleled change at Mansfield. 


1979: Retrenchment of Faculty 

— Twenty-Five Positions Eliminated 


PROFESSOR G. ROBERTSON DILG, a retrenched historian 


Students Protest Retrenchment 

(but in vain) 

"Funeral" Is Held For "Dead" Faculty Members . . 
Each Is Eulogized 


1979: Mounties Advance to College World Series 

— Third Best In The Nation 




Under Dr. Heaps (far right), MSC became a "baseball powerhouse" with thirteen straight winning seasons and a host of con- 
ference championships and regional titles. Between 1970 and 1983, seventeen Mansfield players signed professional contracts. 


During the 1980's, the ROTC (Re- 
serve Officer Training) program ex- 
panded. One of the most popular 
training exercises involved rapell- 
ing off Laurel Dormitory. 


-Films and discussions highlight anti-nuclear programs at 
Mansfield . . . 1000 students, faculty members, and area 
residents signed petition calling for "a national U. S. - 
Soviet halt to the nuclear arms race" . . . volunteers dis- 
tributed anti-nuke information and sold bumper stickers 
and lapel pins. 

Pdncl Discussion: 

JIlJCLEpH fi^p ff{UZl 
Suicide or Jiurw/al? 

Should the Hi Jfop 

tow Jfoch (Wjcill q needed ? 

b >J^lwr£ldckniair^l? 



DR. JOHN DOWLING. An MSC professor of physics. Dr. 
Dowling organized numerous potential programs to educate 
the public about the consequences of using nuclear arms. He 
is a nationally-known reviewer of films about weaponry. 


TONY CRAIG (Joe Kulasa, '68). 

For six years he starred in the ABC- 
TV Soap Opera "The Edge of 
Night." In 1982 he appeared in the 
hit film "Tootsie". 

An actress, she stars in her own one- 
woman show about "The Mad 
Woman of Stratford." 

1979-80, he was an Iranian hostage 
for 444 days. When released, Mans- 
field gave him a warm homecoming 
in Straughn Auditorium. 

EDWARD YOB, M. D. ('70). He 
is a White House physician who at- 
tends to President Ronald Reagan. 

TOM BROOKENS. Former Mountie 
infielder, he now plays for the De- 
troit Tigers. 

is currently the director of the pop- 
ular ABC-TV show "Nightline." 


HON. ROBERT KEMP ('49). Presi- 
dent Judge, Court of Common Pleas, 
Tioga County (PA). 

ILA LUGG WILEY ('25; '28, BS). 
Prominent educator and political 
leader; Chairman of the Mansfield 
University Board of Trustees. 


Noted educator; very active in the 

Alumni Association and the Mans- 
field Foundation. 


KENNETH LEE ('48). Attorney. 
Speaker of the House of Represen- 
tatives (PA), 1967-68 and 1973-74; 
Majority Leader, 1963-64; Minority 
Leader, 1965-66. 

JAMES S. COLES ('34). Chairman 
of the Executive Committee, Re- 
search Corporation; Mansfield 
Foundation board member. 

JAMES WHITE ('49). President 
Perma Oil Corporation; Mansfield 
Foundation board member. 


1983: Mansfield Moving Forward 

DR. LARRY NEBB1T carrying the mace to the ceremony marking the 
transformation of Mansfield State College into Mansfield University. 


1983: Mansfield Becomes University 

Enrollment Climbing . . . Rod Kelchner Assumes Presidency . . . Hopeful Future 

REPRESENTATIVE FRED NOYE '68. He has been one of 
Mansfield's staunchest supporters. He is the Minority Leader 
in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives. 

PRESIDENT KELCHNER. He was appointed Acting-Presi- 
dent on July 1, 1983 with the strong support of faculty, alum- 
ni, and the Board of Trustees. 




6833 - 


Bookbinding I 

Granule PA 
JAN- JUNE 2001