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"Out of the old fielde*, as men caith, 

Coraeth all this new corn fro* year to jerr| 
And out of old bookea, in good (kith, 
Cometh all this new science that men lero." 


LONDON : %.; ' ^ -, > ; v \. 

J3 w 



^rtoUd by Hazell, Wmtsoo, A Viney, Ld., London nd Aylwbuiy. 



century now drawing to a close is remarkable 
beyond all others for the spirit of inquiry into the 
physical constitution of the earth, into the forces playing 
upon its surface, and into the phenomena of life, both plant 
and animal The rise of the natural sciences in the modem 
sense may be said to date from its beginning. In this 
great renascence geology has borne an important part 
It has opened out new and almost endless avenues of 
thought, giving us, on the one hand, the history of the 
ever-changing earth, from the remote time when it was 
sufficiently cool to allow of water resting upon its surface, 
and, on the other, the long and orderly procession of animal 
life beginning with the lowest invertebrate forms and 
ending in Man, In this latter connection it enabled Darwin 
to grasp the principle cf evolution that now influences our 
view of life as a whole in the same way as the law of 
gravitation has affected our view of matter, not only in the 
eavth, but also in the universe. To us, living at the end 
of the century, it is difficult to realise the conditions under 
which the pioneers lived and worked, because through their 
labours the conditions have wholly changed In this short 



Life of Dr. Buckland, written under considerable difficulty 
and nearly four decades after his death, we are brought 
face to face with the old order of things, and we can realise 
how great is the evolution that has taken place since his 
time. It is a sketch of no mere personal interest, but 
valuable as throwing light upon social and scientific con- 
ditions which have long passed away. It illustrates the 
position of science at Oxford during the first fifty years 
of the century. 

It also fills a blank in the history of the founders of 
geology William Smith, Sedgwick, DC la Beche, Mur- 
chison, Phillips, and LyelL Among these Buckland stands 
in the foremost rank. He began his work earlier than any 
of them, excepting William Smith, and the main difference 
between him and Sedgwick lies in the fact that he was 
a geologist from his youth up, while Sedgwick, strangely 
enough, was allured into geological studies by being 
appointed Woodwardian Professor at Cambridge. 1 

In this preface, made at the request of the authoress, I 
shall draw attention to those points in Buckland's geolog- 
ical career which appear to me, an Oxford man long after 
his time, and profoundly influenced by his work, to be most 
noteworthy. Of the other aspects of his many-sided genius 
I shall say nothing. Nor shall I say anything about his 
advancement in the Church or of his social position at 

1 This statement sounds almost incredible. We have it, however, 
on Sedgwick's own authority. On his appointment, he said cha- 
racteristically: "Hitherto I have never turned a stone, now I will 
leave no stone unturned." His friend Dr. Ainger, congratulating him 
on the appointment, writes that it will sometimes lead you to pile 
tip stones, as well as to range them in your lecture-room." 


Westminster in his later years. Most men cease to be 
interesting after they have gained their success in life. 
Buckland was full of interest to the end. 

Buckland graduated with distinction at Corpus Christ! 
College, Oxford, in 1804, in the golden days long before 
honours and class-lists were dreamt o Five years later 
he was ordained and elected Fellow. As a boy he had 
taken a keen interest in the rocks and fossils of his 
Devonshire home, and at Winchester, where he was at 
school, and, early on his arrival at Oxford, had fallen 
under the influence of William Smith, "the Father 
of English Geology." He took his first lesson in field 
geology from one of William Smith's friends. The fruits 
of this walk to Shotovcr formed the nucleus of the collection 
which ultimately expanded into the present Geological 
Museum. There was in those days nothing c'* the nature 
of a Museum in Oxford, excepting the miscellaneous 
collection of curiosities and antiquities founded by Elias 
Ashmole. Buckland turned his rooms into a museum, 
and Murchison has graphically described him sitting in 
the only empty chair, in his black gown, cleaning out 
a fossil bone from its matrix, and surrounded by rocks, 
shells, and bones in dire confusion. Academical dress, 
it must be noted, was then worn in walks into the country 
even as far as Shotover. 

In 1813 he was appointed Reader in Mineralogy, and 
his influence as a lecturer xvas so strongly felt that five 
years later the Readership of Geology was created for 
him in the University, in the very year when Sedgwick was 
appointed to the old-established Woodwardian Professor- 


ship at Cambridge. His wit, humour, and eloquence 
attracted both young and old, and the memory of his 
geological expeditions had not. perished when I was an 
undergraduate in 1859. His rooms at Christ Church, to 
which he had migrated on his appointment as Canon, 
became a centre of attraction for all who cared for the new 
learning that by this time was grievously vexing the minds 
of mediaeval Oxford. How strong was the feeling of anta- 
gonism, even after many years, may be estimated by the 
pious ejaculation of Dean Gaisford in 1852: "Buckland 
has gone to Italy, and we shall hear no more, thank God, 
of this geology ! " They were, however, to hear more, both 
of this and of other things too, until the spirit of narrow 
intolerance received its crushing defeat in the memorable 
Darwinian controversy in 1860. In this widening of 
thought, and in sweeping away the old worn-out ideas 
of Nature, Buckland did most important service to the 
University. Single-handed, he brought about a revival 
in the direction of natural science, analogous to the 
movement in religious thought brought about by Newman 
and the Oriel School. 

The phrase " gnoscitur e sociis " applies to all men, but 
with peculiar force to a professor. Buckland was in close 
touch with the most brilliant men of the day and of most 
varied pursuits. Whately, Whewcll, Sir Robert Peel, 
Cuvier, Humboldt, Liebig, and Sir Joseph Banks were 
among his friends. It is, however, by his influence on his 
students that he can best be measured. Among these, two 
young Christ Church men may be mentioned Viscount 
Cole, afterwards the Earl of Enniskillcn, and Philip Egcrton, 


.afterwards the baronet Both these men moulded their 
lives on his teaching, and enriched geological science by 
their papers and collections. Among his students now 
living, Sir Henry Acland, Storey Maskelyne, and Ruskin 
have borne witness in these pages to his power. He was 
the founder of the new learning in Oxford, and he started 
the movement which has borne fruit in the present place 
of the natural sciences in the studies of the University." 

Buckland's influence, however, was felt as a teacher and 
master far beyond Oxford. To him Murchison owed his 
first lesson in the field, and his first " true launch " in 1824 
into the line of work in which he was in after years to do 
so much. To him, in 1831, Murchison turned for advice 
and assistance when he had decided to attack the difficult 
problem of Welsh geology, and from him he obtained the 
clue to the true sequence of the rocks below the Old Red 
Sandstone on the banks of the Wye that led ultimately 
to the Silurian System. To him, too, is due the discovery 
of the value of the phosphates in the coprolite beds that 
has contributed so much to the development of modern 
agriculture. In this connection Lord Playfair bears ample 
xvitncss, and tells us in this Life how much he owes to 
Buckland's friendship and guidance. 

When the history of the progress of geological knowledf- 
comes to be written, the work the Geological Society 
of London in organising and directing individual effort 
will be fully recognised Founded in 1807 by Grenough, 
it attracted some of the acutest intellects of the day^ ' 
Wollaston, Warburton, Fitton, and others. Buckland 
joined it in 1817, and Scdgwick in the following year. 


In 1824, when it was formally incorporated by charter, 
Buckland became its President It was composed "of 
robust, joyous, and independent spirits, who toiled well in 
the field, and did battle and cuffed opinions with much 
spirit and great good will" Murchison and Lyell were 
among the younger members. Bucklaiid took a leading 
share in the debates of the Society and in contributing 
papers down to the middle of the century. He was one 
of the first to recognise the existence of glaciers in this 
country, and wrote a paper in 1840 on their evidences in 
Scotland and in the north of England. In the debate 
he was vigorously opposed by Murchison and Whewell, 
and equally vigorously supported by Lycll and Agassiz. 
Buckland in reply summed up the arguments, and con- 
demned all who dared to doubt the orthodoxy of the 
grooves and scratches of the ice-worn mountains to " suffer 
the pains of eternal itch without the privilege of scratching." 
This characteristic debate, following papers by Agassiz and 
Buckland, marks the beginning of the glacial controversy, 
which has divided geological opinion ever since. 

Buckland also was one of the founders of the British 
Association, and was the first President after its formal 
organisation at Oxford in I832. 1 It was this meeting 
which made the Association an assured success. It is no 
small testimony to the high place of geology among the 
sciences at this time, that Sedgwick should have succeeded 
to the presidential chair in the following year at Cambridge. 
In the first thirty years of the century the Diluvial 

1 The first meeting was at York in the previous year, which Buckland 
was unable to attend. ~ : 


theory, or, in other words, the Noachian deluge, was held 
to be a sufficient explanation of the sand, gravel, and clay 
containing marine and freshwater shells, and the bones of 
mammalia, which lie scattered over wide areas on the land 
and occur also in the ossifcrous caverns. With this idea 
in his mind Buckland explored in 1821 the bone caveat 
Kirkdale, and recorded the general results of his examina- 
tion of caves and of the diluvium in Britain and on the 
Continent in the " Reliquiae Diluvianze." While he accepted 
the general evidence as to the Noachian deluge, he fully 
recognised that the Kirkdale cave was a den of hyenas, 
and that they had dragged in the other animals found in 
it for food. This book led to the more minute study of 
bone caverns, and ultimately to the wonderful discoveries in 
the caves of this country and of the Continent, which have 
revealed to us the existence of man hunting the reindeer, 
musk-sheep, and mammoth in France, Germany, and 
Britain, and living at a time when all the animals found 
in Kirkdale could wander freely northwards and westwards 
from the Alps and Pyrenees to the coast now marked 
by the hundred-fathom line in the Atlantic. It was this 
work that led me in 1859 into the path of comparative 
osteology, and to. the exploration of Wookey Hole and 
other ossiferous caverns. 

The " Reliquiae Diluvianse" still remains the best book 
on caves. Buckland, it must be remarked, gave up the 
diluvial theory, as he came to recognise the power of ice, 
and the truth of the uniformitarian doctrine of the opera- 
tion of existing causes in past times. It is not a little 
strrnge that it should have been revived by Prestwich, his 


successor at Oxford, and by Howorth, some fifty years 

In concluding these remarks I would remind the reader 
that Buckland belongs to the heroic age, when Natural 
Science was young, and that he belongs to a type of man 
nott extinct Whatever estimate may be formed of his 
life and works, it cannot be denied that he was one of 
the makers of modern Oxford, and one of the founders 
of the science of Geology. 


September 22nd, 1894. 





Early Life The Valley of the Axe W. D. Conybeare 
Winchester Oxford Fellow of Corpus College Ordination 
Poem by Philip Duncan Buckland's Collections I 

1808 1822. 

Geological Tours in England, Wales, and the Continent, 1808-17 
41 Paramoudras " Geological Maps Foreign Tour Italy- 
Hungary -Roadside Quarries Reader in Mineralogy, 18x3 
Professor of Geology Importance of Geology "VIndiciae 
Geologicse" Work in Oxford Expedition to Shotover 
Buckland's Lectures The Smel! of Uxbridge Sir H. Acland's 
Reminiscences Conversational Powers Tour in France, 
1820 Whately's " Epitaph " Buckland's Collections Cap- 
tains Ross and Beechey Geological Collection at Oxford- 
The Oxford Museum . ... . . . . . "..^-.--v II 


"Reliquiae Diluviancr.** Kirkdale Cave Hyenas Conybeare's 
Caricature Paviland or Goat Hole Duncan's Verses Dream 
Lead Mine Gailenrcuth The Siberian Mammoth Success 
of "Reliquiae Diluvianac" Dudley Caverns Buckland's Blue 
Bag -First President of the Royal Geological Society, 1824 . 55 




The Garden at Islip Experiments at Islip Drainage of Otmoor 
Work at Islip The Cholera The Wollaston Medal The 
Dean's Illness Death of Dean Buckland Conclusion . . 255 


TITLES. .... ^i -, r,^J- : : : ' ; -'.f.v- i:l>- -' *75 


* DR. BUCKLATTD. (From a picture by T. C. Thomson, RJJ.A.) Frontis. * 

ANDREAS8ERG TO ELBINGRODE, SEPT. lj t l822 . . . 7 * 

HAT.T.F, 1822 : 'V '''.>:' . . . -*y^ . -;V/ :: ." ; -;, . 17 / 




LECTURE IN ASHMOLEAN, l822 . ^ . . . facing $2 ^ 


KJRKDALE CAVE .... ' ^'';.' ':'i".K ^" ->" "'?'*" . $7 


by the Rev. W. Conybeare.) . . V/' . ". ; . . 61 


DERBYSHIRE . . . . . V v . 71 


A DR. BUCKLAND, FULL LENGTH. (From a picture by R. Ansdtll % /?_<4. ) 85 


> ANCIENT DORSETSHIRE. (Sir H. de la Bfche^i . . facing 1 16 ' 
AWFUL CHANGES! . . . . ^ , " 127 

4 COSTUME OF THE GLACIERS . ^ :. . ;>5 s faing 145 

AXMOUTH LANDSLIP. . V. ^ ; ^ fc . . ^ . .174 


a drawing by WaUrhouse Hawkins) . i v facing i<$< 

THE RECTORY, ISUP . . .>-.*. .1 fating 2$7 




, 17841808. 

W r ILLIAM BUCKLAND was the eldest son of the 
Rev. Charles Buckland, Rector of Templeton and 
Trusham in the county of Devon. He was born at 
AxminsU-r, on the I2th of March, 178*. His mother, 
whose maiden name was Elizabeth Oke, was the daughter 
of Mr. John Cke, a landed proprietor, living at Combpyne, 
near Axminster, whose family had since the Stuart period 
occupied extensive property in that neighbourhood. 

The birthplace of William Buckland was singularly 
adapted to develope his peculiar genius. Near his 
home, in the picturesque valley of the Axe, are large 
quarries of lias, abounding in fossil organic remains ; in 
this same valley are also found abundant traces of a 
buried forest ; here, too, lay embedded among the roots 
of the trees the bones of fossil elephants. His father 
(who for the last twenty-two years of his life was blind 
from an accident) early made his son the companion of 
his walks and tastes. Together they ransacked the 


lias quarries, collecting ammonites and other shells, which 
thus became familiar to the lad from his infancy. From 
his childhood his innate faculties for observation were 
encouraged. Writing of this early period of his life to 
the late Sir H. de la Beche, Dr. Buckland himself 
says : " The love of observing natural objects which 
is common to most children was early exhibited by 
my aptitude in finding birds' nests and collecting their 
eggs. I also made observations on the habits of fishes in 
the Axe particularly flounders, minnows, roaches, eels, 
and miller's thumbs." 

One of William Bucldand's earliest and most intimate 
companions, the late William Daniel Conybcare (after- 
wards Dean of Llandaff), has noticed the peculiar con- 
currence of circumstances which fostered the natural 
genius of the boy. In the following extract from a 
letter written to Frank Buckland, Mr. Conybeare speaks 
of his friend's youthful days : 

"All the circumstances of Buckland's early life were 
calculated to impress that character of mind which so 
peculiarly qualified him to become the pioneer of the rising 
science of Geology, which began to unfold itself during the 
very period when his powers first acquired mature de- 
velopment Those powers were, from a child, marked by 
an eager curiosity of investigation, and by resolute and 
unwearied activity of observation and research ; anything 
at all novel and striking at once attracted his eye, and 
he was discontented until he had succeeded in tracing out 
all the dependencies connected with the objects which 
attracted him, and had thus fully made out and illustrated 
their history. 

"The very place of his birth itself did much to call his 

1784-1808.] EARLY LIFE. 3 

early attention to the marvels of the fossil remains of the 
organised beings which had occupied our planet in its 
earlier stages of progress, and the various strata of its 
coast in which these singular relics He embedded. The 
town of Axminstcr, on the confines of Devon and Dorset, 
is situated in a valley based on that peculiar rock forma- 
tion, the lias, which is most rich in organic remains, and 
exhibits so many of their most striking and interesting 
forms. ^ Axminster is within a few miles of the most 
illustrative of those coast sections exposing the structure 
and contents of that rock, and its connexion with various 
other overlying secondary deposits of oolitic and cre- 
taceous rocks and underlying masses of the new red 
sandstone. All these features are brought so prominently 
forward and exhibited in so close a compass, that a child 
of sagacity, growing up among them, could hardly fail 
to have its mind impressed with the elements of practical 
geology, though as yet ignorant of the science. 

'The young Buckland could not take a stroll in the 
neighbouring fields without stumbling, at almost every 
step, on lias quarries, and finding, on ascending every 
hill, that its summit consisted of an entirely dissimilar 
formation chcrtsand. If he extended his rambles to 
the shore at Lymc Regis or Charmouth, crowds of little 
urchins ran after him to tempt him with pretty little 
golden serpents (pyritous ammonites) or wonderful 
thunderbolts (bclemnites), and he must soon have learnt 
to find for himself the situations in which these treasures 
abounded. He must have found himself able to walk 
for miles over the slabs which the lias protruded into the 
sea, without placing a foot beyond the numerous circles of 
the larger varieties of his serpent-stones, and found the 
supposed belcmnitcs aggregated in thousands in particular 
portions of the cliff. If therefore, turning home, he 
sauntered over Lyme Cobb, his eye must have been caught 
by the rich and variously coloured panorama of the co*ast 
section before him. We seldom find a child brought up 
near the sea as ignorant as an inland child ; his little box 
of treasures generally is filled with various shells and 


marine curiosities, and he readily learns to discriminate 
the peculiarity of their forms ; and if he has any curiosity 
he will naturally be led to speculate on the uses of their 
several parts. This was particularly the case with 
Buckland, for both in early and in later life he was always 
distinguished by his tact in illustrating extraordinary by 
common and familiar objects." 

When, in 1814, Mr. Conybeare was about to leave 
Oxford for a country living, William Buckland, faithful 
to his scientific interests, hoped that the Suffolk parsonage 
a might prove to be founded on a bed of elephants." 

Nor was it only at Axminster that Buckland, in his 
youthful days, found incentives to his pursuit of geological 
science. Speaking as President of the Geological Section 
of the British Association during its meeting at Bristol in 
1836, he says that in the neighbourhood of Bristol he had 
learnt a part of his geological alphabet " The rocks of 
this city were my geological school. They stared me in 
the face; they wooed me, and caressed me, saying at 
every turn ' Pray, pray be a geologist ! ' " 

At the age of thirteen the boy was sent to an ancient 
grammar school at Tiverton, founded in the seventeenth 
century by Blundell, a cloth manufacturer. A year later 
Mr. Pole Carew, Speaker of the House of Commons, 
obtained for him from Dr. Huntingford, the Warden, a 
nomination at Winchester. His uncle, the Rev. J. Buckland, 
Rector of Warborough in Oxfordshire, and Fellow of 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, attracted by the ability 
of his nephew, advised his father to spare no expense in 
his education. M As William," he writes, " appears to excel 
your other boys by many degrees in talent and industry, 

!784-'.So8.] EARLY LIFE. 

he will probably make a better return for any extraordinary 
expense you may incur on this occasion." To his uncle's 
judicious care and assistance Dr. Buckland doubtlt s 
owed much in his progress through life. A sagacious, 
energetic, stern-minded man, he was ever at his nephew's 
elbow, urging him to renewed efforts with encouragement, 
rebuke, and assistance. 

As a boy at Winchester he became familiar, as he 
himself states, " with the chalk formation, from the fact of 
the pathway to the playground on St Catherine's Hill pass- 
ing close to large chalk pits, which abounded with sponges 
and other fossils, and from the practice of digging field 
mice from their holes in the surface of the chalk." Even 
in his schoolboy days he had already begun to collect 
objects of natural history, and was eager in the pursuit, 
or observation of the habits, of the mole-crickets, which 
abounded in the valley of the Itchen. 

As a bey he was slow to learn, but what he once under- 
stood he never forgot. On one occasion, when he had 
regained several places which he had lost in class, the Head 
Master, Dr. Goddard, said to him, " Well, Buckland, it is 
as difficult to keep a good boy at the bottom of his class 
as it is to keep a cork under water." In later life he kept 
up his old Winchester associations by attending the yearly 
Wykehamist dinner in London, and he sent his sons Frankt 
the well-known naturalist, and Edward, who was for many 
years in the Treasury to that school. William Buckland's 
name may still be seen inscribed on a marble tablet upon 
the walls of the Seventh Chamber. 

In 1801 he was elected Scholar of Corpus Christi 


College, Oxford. He thus makes known his election in 
a letter written to his father on May I3th: " I am happy 
to inform you that I have just been elected the Senior 
Scholar for Devonshire, after a course of many days' 
rigorous examination against eight competitors." His 
interests were already turning in the direction of geology. 
" In my early residence at Oxford," he says himself, " I took 
my first lesson in field geology in a walk to Shotover Hill 
with Mr. Broderip, who knew much of fossil shells and 
sponges from Mr. Townsend, the friend and fellow-labourer 
of William Smith, ' the Father of English Geology/ The 
fruits of my first walk with Mr. Broderip formed the 
nucleus of my collection for my own cabinet, which in forty 
years expanded into the large amount which I have placed 
in the Oxford Geological Museum." 

But although his special bent was, even in his under- 
graduate days, thus strongly developed, he did not neglect 
the necessary studies of the University. In 1804 he took 
his degree of B.A. He did not take honours, as there were 
no class examinations in those days ; but he nevertheless 
distinguished himself, for in a letter to his uncle he says : 
"Before I came out of the schools they told me I had 
passed extremely well, and after the Liceats were given 
out they came up to me in the quadrangle, and said they 
were extremely sorry they had not publicly thanked me 
in the schools, but that I had passed a most creditable 

His scholarship at Corpus, eked out by the income 
derived from pupils, supported him for the next few years. 
Meanwhile he was free to follow the course of studies in 

1784-1808.] EARLY LIFE. 

which he was especially interested. "The interval/* he 
writes, " between my Bachelor's and Master's degree 
afforded me leisure to attend the lectures of Dr. Kidd on 
Mineralogy and Chemistry, and of Sir Christopher Pegge 
on Anatomy ; and rny position as a Scholar of Corpus 
Christi College gave me the advantage of rooms and a 
small income from the College, which I augmented by 
taking pupils. Without the liberal aid of the endowments 
of the University, I could not have had the means which 
I enjoyed, during a residence of nearly forty-five years in 
Oxford, from April 1801 to December 184$, of acquiring 
knowledge during term time, and of enlarging it by 
extensive travelling during vacations." 

I n I 809 he was elected Fellow of his College, and in the 
same year was admitted into Holy Orders at the Chapel 
Royal, St. James's. Whether as a preacher or a tutor, 
Dr. Buckland, it may be mentioned, always wrote his 
sermons and lectures upon small slips of paper; and 
many years after, when preaching in the Chapel Royal, in 
the presence of the Queen Dowager, by some unfortunate 
accident the contents of his sermon case came fluttering 
down in all directions from the high, old-fashioned 
pulpit. The Doctor's old servant speedily came to the 
rescue, and, picking up the dispersed slips, handed them 
up to the preacher, who proceeded with his discourse, 
nothing disconcerted. 

The vacations of his earlier Oxford time were often 
spent near Lyine Regis. For years afterwards local 
gossip preserved traditions of his adventures with that 
geological celebrity, Mary Ann Anning, in whose company 


he was to be seen wading up to his knees in search of 
fossils in the blue Has ; " of his breakfast-table at his 
lodgings there, loaded with beefsteaks and belemnites, 
tea and terebratula, muffins and madrepores, toast and 
trilobites, every table and chair as well as the floor 
occupied with fossils whole and fragmentary, large and 
small, with rocks, earths, clays, and heaps of books and 
papers, his breakfast hour being the only time that the 
collectors could be sure of finding him at home, to bring 
their contributions and receive their pay ; of his dropping 
his hat and handkerchief from the mail to stop the coach 
and secure a fossil ; of the old woman who, finding him 
asleep on the top of the coach, relieved his pockets of a 
quantity of stones ; of his travelling carriage, built extra 
strong for the heavy loads it had to carry, and fitted up 
on the forepart with a furnace and implements for assays 
and analysis." 

Buckland's election to a fellowship enabled him to 
pursue those studies which made him, in the words of the 
historian and President of his College, "one of the most 
famous of English geologists, and indeed one of the 
creators of the science/' His sitting-room, continues Dr. 
Fowler, was " a large room in the front quadrangle, now 
appropriated to the uses of an Undergraduates' Library, 
which was fitted up by him, irrespectively of personal 
comfort, as a Geological Museum probably the earliest 
collection of the kind in Oxford, or perhaps in England, 
arranged on anything like scientific principles." 

This is the roon; which, in its state of chaos, Mr. Philip 
Duncan so well describes in a poem dated May 1821 : 

1784-1808.] EARLY IJFE. 


11 Procul, este Profani, 
Procul lucu." 

"Away, ye ignorant and vain! 
Away, ye faithless and profane! 
Jesters and dainty dandies, fly hence! 
But enter thou, dear son of science I 
And here in mild disorder hurled 
Behold an emblem of the world 
In that chaotic state of old 
When Hints in Paramoudras rolled! 
Here see the wrecks of beasts and fishes, 
With broken saucers, cup*, and dishes ; 
Tiic pnc-Auamic system jumbled, 
With sub-lapsarian breccia tumbled, 
And post-Noachian bears and flounders 
With heads of crocodiles and founders ; 
Skins wanting bones, bones wanting skins, 
And various blocks to break your shins: 
No place is this for cutting capers 
'Midst jumbled stones and books and papers, 
Stuffed birds, portfolios, packing-cases, 
And founders fallen upon their faces. 
He'll see upon the only chair 
The great Professor's frugal fare, 
And over all behold illatum 
Of dust and superficial stratum. 
The sage amidst the chaos stands, 
Contemplative, with laden hands, 
This grasping tight his bread-and-butter, 
And that a flint, whilst he doth utter 
Strange sentences that seem to say, 
1 1 see it all as clear as day.' " ! 

1 "Fugitive Poems connected with Natural History and Physical 
Science," collected by the late C. G. Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
(Oxford: Parker & Son. 1861.) 


Another description of the same rooms this time in 
prose is given by Sir Roderick Murchison. 

"On repairing," he says, " from the Star Inn to Buck- 
land's domicile, I never can forget the scene that awaited 
me. Having, by direction of the janitor, climbed up a 
narrow staircase, I entered a long, corridor-like room, which 
was filled with rocks, shells, and bones in dire confusion, 
and in a sort of sanctum at the end was my friend in 
his black gown, looking like a necromancer, sitting on one 
rickety chair covered with some fossils, and clearing out 
a fossil bone from the matrix." 

It is not, perhaps, surprising, especially if the social and 

intellectual conditions of the University at t t% e beginning 

of the century be taken into consideration, that Buckland's 

conduct alarmed the older generation of College Fellows. 

Some dreaded lest his example should drive the am&nitates 

academiccz out of fashion ; others suspected that the new 

studies might prove to be dangerous innovations. His 

goings and comings were therefore watched with an 

interest which was not wholly devoid of fear. When, in 

the early stages of his career, he started on a tour to the 

Alps and Italy the results of which enabled him to 

produce one of the boldest and most effective of his 

writings an authoritative elder is said to have exclaimed : 

41 Well, Buckland is gone to Italy ; so, thank God, we 

shall hear no more of this geology ? 

The prophecy happily proved false, and Oxford dons 
were doomed to hear a good deal more of the obnoxious 





' La vie des savans nous enseigne chaque page que les gran des 
veritds n'ont 6t6 decouvertes et 6tablies que par des dtudcs prolongees, 
solitaires, dirigees constamment vers un objCt special, guidees sans cesse 
par une logique meliante et r^servee." CUVIER. 

IN the summer of 1808 Buckland made his first geolo- 
gical tour. Alone and on horseback he travelled from 
Oxford across the chalk hills of Berks and Wilts and 
Dorset to Corfe Castle in the Isle of Purbcck. In the 
vertical strata of hard white limestone on which that 
castle stands he recognised the chalk, but the relations 
of the strata above and below that formation were the*' 
unknown. In the following year he explored in the same 
way a large part of South Devon, visiting the granite of 
Dartmoor, examining minutely the formations, and collect- 
ing specimens of the geology of the district In 1810 he 
made a tour through the centre and north of England, 



examining the then unknown extent of the various strata, 
and colouring the results on Carey's large map of England. 
Other journeys followed in annual succession. Thus 
in 1813 Buckland, adopting the true Wykehamical fashion 
of going two and two, made a tour with his friend Mr. W. 
Conybeare in Ireland. In collaboration with his travelling 
companion, he published his first important paper "On 
the Coasts of the North of Ireland." Among the organic 
remains in many of the chalk pits from Moira to Belfast 
and Larne he discovered some curious siliceous bodies 
known by the name of ' Paramoudra." This word, which 
he could trace to no authentic source, Dr. Shuttleworth, 
late Warden of New College and Bishop of Chichester, 
contrivec to hitch into verse if not into rhyme : 

'When granite rose from out the trackless sea, 
And slate, for boys to scrawl when boys should be 
But earth, as yet, lay desolate and bare; 
Man was not then, but Paramoudras were." 

No two of these curiously shaped pot-stones are exactly 
alike, their length commonly varying from one to two feet 
and their thickness from six to twelve inches. The sub- 
stance of these bodies is in all cases flint; in all cases, also, 
they have a central aperture, or pipe passing through their 
long diameter. They are found in different positions : 
sometimes they lie horizontally ; at other times they are 
inclined or erect Buckland conjectured that the para- 
moudra may have possessed a character intermediate 
between a gigantic sponge 1 and an ascidian, and he 

'. : \ 
1 Mr W. Gray, M.A.F.A., of Mount Charles, Belfast, an authority 

iSoS-iS22.] PARAMUDRAS? 13 

connected its mineral history with that of many other 
spongiform bodies which are found in the chalk flints. 
" Through the kindness/' he writes, " of my learned friend 
Dr. Bruce, of Belfast, a very perfect specimen from Moira 
has been deposited in the Ashmolean Museum." 

The origin of the word is, as has been said, uncertain. 
But the following story, told by the late Mr. Mant of 
Teddington, an Oxford pupil of Buckland's, gives an 
explanation of the term which is at least creditable to 
the quick-witted peasantry of Ireland. 

On a hot, dusty day in Ireland, these " paramudras," as 
they should be correctly spelt, were first discovered as 
stepping-stones in a river. The Doctor apologised to his 
party that they must walk the rest of the journey, and that 
the stones must take up the carriage room. At the same 
time, taking a shilling out of his pocket, he asked a 
countryman /hat he called those stones. At first there 
was no response ; but when a second shilling appeared, 
Pat said, " Paramudras." When asked by his priest after- 
wards why he invented this word, " Faith," he replied, " the 
gentleman would have some name, and I hadn't one for 
him ; so para means * against/ and paramudra (the stepping 
stone), * against mud.' " 

It was on this Irish tour that, after a very long and wet 
day among the cliffs, the two geologists, Conybcare and 
Buckland, entered at dark a lone hut, occupied by an aged 
female. Tired, hungry, and covered with mud and dirt, 

upon flints, writes to the biographer (November 1893): " Dr. Buckland 
was the first to call them sponges, and the voyage of the Challenger 
has confirmed the correctness of the opinion." 


they deposited their fossil bags and demanded refresh- 
ments. The old woman, much puzzled to make out their 
real character, set about her hospitable preparations. By 
the time they were complete, she had made up her mind. 
Placing the eggs and bacon on the table, she exclaimed : 
"Well, I never! fancy two real gentlemen picking up 
stones ! What won't men do for money ? " 

Among his tours must also be mentioned the extensive 
journeys which he made with Mr. Greenough in the 
years 1812-15, for the purpose of collecting materials 
for the Geological Map of England. His letters fre- 
quently allude to this elaborate work, on which he was 
long engaged. Writing in April 1814 to Conybcarc, he 
says : 

"I was not a little surprised to find from Greenough 
that he was in great hopes you wpuld go with him to Paris 
to see Kings and Emperors, and Cuviers and Crocodiles. 
Should this actually take place, I need not, I trust, remind 
you to return loaded with a grand suite of specimens for 
the museum, and to establish a correspondence between 
Oxford and Paris, founded on an exchange of specimens. 
Illuminate Cuvier on the gypsum of Shotover, and press 
him to come and see us if he visits England. My lecture 
on the basin of Paris will be among the last of the set, so 
that you will be back in time to enrich it with your 
importation piping hot. I have made considerable pro- 
gress with Scrlc in the last three days in arranging the 
specimens in the lower cabinets, from granite to mountain 
limestone. If you go to Paris, pray send me the notes 
you had begun touching Moses and Huttonianism, and 
which you took with you to finish, should there be 
opportunity. Send me also your map of Germany, if you 
do not take it with you, that I may transfer its contents to 
my map of Europe for the lectures." 


In another letter, dated Corpus Christi College, April 
29th, 1814, he writes to Conybeare: 

"The publication of Smith's map, which I sent for 
yesterday will preclude the necessity of my Divine you 
any trouble in finishing that which 7 you L* b^unTo 
colour for me. I have prepared and coloured sections 
of he country round Oxford, and of the whole system 
of the detail of the stratification of your grand section 
for the last week I have been unpacking* a barre I r 

S an ? J aV< i madC C0nsidcrablc Progress in the arrange- 
mcnt of the owcr strata, assisted by Scrle, who before 
his departure last week disposed of the metals 

"I send you by the coach a parcel containing two maps 
of mine ana three of your own. If you can possibly find 
time, before Saturday in next week, to lay in the great 
outlines of the mountain chains of Europe as you had 
made them out in the map you took to town, ! shall be 
thankful if you forward it me by Saturday the 7 /// : as 
tms is a matter 01 the first importance to me, you will I 
trust, have the goodness to take it in hand first '-Vith this 
you wiH send me back the map of Xorih America, having 
written in the corner of it the explanation of the colour^ 
At your leisure you will much oblige me by insertin^ in 
your map of France an outline of the chalk with its 
superior formation, of the groups of granite and other 
rocks which you know in that country. I send with it your 
map, which, from the lines inscribed on it, appears to 
contain much of the requisite information, and add your 
coloured map of the Netherlands, which will assist you in 
the process. Have you taken to town your sketches of 
the coast at the Giants' Causeway, as they would be of 
much service to illustrate the doctrine of subsidences? 
1 ray send them me, if they arc not in Oxford. I suppose 
you have had no leisure to think of Moses or Creation?" 

His enthusiasm was infectious. Not only was he assisted 
m these map surveys by his friends Conybeare, De la 


Beche, and Greenough; he had also enlisted the zealous 
interest of some ladies of high culture living at Penrice 
Castle, in the district of Glamorganshire known as Gower. 
In June 1815 he writes that "the information on the 
geology of Glamorganshire which he hoped to receive from 
the Lady Mary Cole and the Misses Talbot will be wanted 
for insertion in the Geological Society's Map of England, 
now far advanced in the hands of the engraver." He re- 
quests " that that part of the map of Glamorganshire which 
includes the hundred of Gower may be forwarded as soon 
as convenient," and hopes " to secure also the remaining 
parts of Glamorganshire, enriched by the geological obser- 
vations of the approaching summer which he trusts the 
ladies will have the kindness to record upon it" He en- 
closes "a drawing and description of some extraordinary 
coal-plants on the authority of an eye-witness, Mr. 
Walter Calverly Trevelyan, on 'whose father's property 
near Newbiggin they are found, and who promises to 
bring to Oxford in October drawings of every variety 
that he can find of fossil vegetables in that district" 
44 These drawings will," he adds, " form a valuable subject 
of comparison with those of the South Wales coal-fields, 
should there be any collection of the latter in existence ; 
if there be not, Mr. Buckland would venture to suggest 
to Miss Jane Talbot that she would afford an invaluable 
acquisition to the science of Botany and Geology, and 
acquire immortal reputation in both departments, by select- 
ing a scries of the most perfect fossil vegetables of the Welsh 
coal strata as her first essay in the noble art of lithography, 
for which also he hopes to bring her back some worthy 




specimens from the mosses of the Carpathian Alps and 

In 1815 Buckland published the first comparative table 




[CH. II. 

of the strata of England and those of the Continent, as 
arranged by Werner. This he enlarged in 1816, and dis- 
tributed in Germany and France during a tour he made 
that year with John Conybeare and Greenough to Germany. 
This expedition was the first of a scries of similar journeys, 


in more than one of which Buckland was accompanied by 
Count Breiiner. The Count was a skilful draughtsman, 
with a keen sense of humour, and it is to his pen that 
we owe the illustrations of episodes which occurred on a 
subsequent tour. In 1816 the travellers proceeded through 
Silesia to Poland, Austria, and Italy. From Weimar 

iSo3-i822.j ITALY HUNGARY. 19 

Buckland writes : " We saw Goethe, and at Frcybcrg visited 
Werner, who gave us a grand supper, and talked learnedly 
of his books and music, and anything but Geology." 

In another letter, written after his return to England, 
he says : " The journey occupied five months of intense 
labour, employed in seeing every collection and professor 
that could be heard of, and purchasing every map, book, 
and print that has been published relative to our favourite 
science, or to the political economy of the countries we 
passed through." 

His friends at Penrice Castle were also kept informed 
of his movements. In a long descriptive letter, written 
in April 1817, Buckland tells Lady Mary Cole that he has 
made " a rich collection of the shells of the Sub-Apcnninc 
Hills, many of which resemble those of Hampshire and 
Sheppey Island, and it would have been more perfect had 
he not been arrested in the act of making it and sent back 
fifteen miles to prison at Parma!" In spite of this 
misfortune, he returned 

" highly satisfied with his tour, having accomplished every 
point that was in contemplation before he set off. 
Entering Hungary, he descended by the gold-mines of 
Kremnitz and Schemnitz over a most picturesque country, 
full of extinct volcanoes, to the great plain at the head of 
which stands Prcsburg ; thence to Vienna, where arc noble 
collections in Natural History, by Styria and Carinthia 
(countries equal to Switzerland in sublime Alpine scenery) 
to Venice ; hence by the Euganean Hills (extinct vol- 
canoes breaking up through chalk), Viccnza, Verona, 
Mantua, and Parma, visiting by the way the fossil fish 
quarries of Monte Bolca, which arc in a formation above 
and lying on chalk, and allied to the English Sheppey clay 



and French calcain grassier. Monte Bolca has also the 
same fossil plants as Sheppey." 

Another letter to Lady Mary Cole is too characteristic 
to be omitted 

* You have no doubt been wondering what is become of 
me and my projected tour into Glamorganshire, and I am 
sorry to inform you that all my movements have been 
beranged, and my plans thwarted, by an accident that 
befell me a month ago near Sidmouth, from the falling 
of an ignited spark of iron from my hammer into the 


cornea of my eye, which I did not discover to l>e fixed 
there till some days after, when it began to oxydate. The 
result has been a series of five or six operations to cut out 
the minute rusty fragments, and a degree of inflammation 
which has prevented me from reading or writing during 
the last three weeks. I am happy to say the cause of 
injury is now totally removed, and in a few days I shall 
again take wing for Oxford. As I like always, to extract 
all possible good out of the evil that befalls me, I have 
learnt two curious facts in physiology from my oculist at 
Exeter. First, that he once drew a tooth out of a patient's 
eye (literally an eye-tooth), growing between the bony 

1808-1822.] ROADSIDE QUARRIES. 21 

orbit and ball of the eye, and I /tavg seen tht specimen. 
Second, that the belladonna leaf has the singular and 
useful property, if laid on the eyelid, of causing a great 
expansion of the pupil and iris, which is of the highest 
service, in cutting for cataracts, to render visible the inner 
chambers of the eye, and, in cases of diseased pupil, by 
drawing the iris backwards in every direction, preserves it 
from contact with the central injury. 

'But, what is most important, I have been taught to 
appreciate still more highly than I did before the value of 
the organs of vision as the fairest inlets of knowledge and 
pleasure to the soul. 

" Passing yesterday over Kilmington Common on my 
way ro Exeter, I was at a loss to find a reason why a small 
portion of that common is the only spot in England on 
which the Lobelia urens has ever been found native. 
Pray propose this as a hard question to Miss Jane, who 
I know loves difficulties, and oblige me with her theory 
on this subject This is one of those curious questions 
relating to the geography of plants for which I despair of 
obtaining a satisfactory solution, unless from Humboldt or 
herself. I fear I have imposed on her kindness a severer 
task than I was aware of in asking for a nomenclature to 
my marine plants, the value of which will be mightily 
increased by her assistance in the arrangement of them." 

Wherever he travelled, his eye was eagerly on the watch 
for points at which he could observe geological strata, or 
hunt for specimens. Quarries were irresistible attractions 
to him, and, fortunately enough, he possessed a friend and 
servant who tolerated his tastes. On the journey between 
Oxford and Axminster, which he made once or twice 
every year from 1812 to 1824, he rode a favourite old 
black mare, frequently caparisoned with heavy bags of 
fossils and ponderous hammers. She soon learnt her 
duty, and seemed to take an interest in her master's 


pursuits ; for she would remain quiet, without any one 
to hold her, while he was examining sections and strata, 
and then patiently submit to be loaded with the specimens 
collected Ultimately she became so accustomed to the 
work that she invariably came to a full stop at a stone 
quarry, and nothing would persuade her to proceed until 
the rider had got off, and examined, or, if a stranger to 
her, pretended to examine, the quarry. On one occasion 
Dr. Buckland was in some danger from the falling stones 
as he was climbing up the side of one of these quarries ; 
when told of his danger by the bystanders " Never 
mind," said he, " the stones know me." 

Buckland's enthusiastic labours were not without reward. 
Not only the University of Oxford, but Lord Liverpool's 
Government recognised the services of the man to whom, 
in the words of Professor Brockhaus, "undoubtedly 
belonged the honour of reducing the study of Geology to 

a science." 

In 1813 Buckland succeeded to the Readership of 
Mineralogy which Dr. Kidd had resigned; The lectures 
which the new Reader delivered in that capacity were 
not confined to Mineralogy, but embraced the latest 
discoveries and doctrines of Geology. His courses 
attracted in a high degree the attention and admiration 
of the University, and very largely contributed to the 
public recognition of Geology as a science by the en- 
dowment in 1819 of a Professorship. The stipend of the 
Professor was allotted from the Treasury, at the instance 
of His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, for the delivery 
of an annual course of lectures on Geology. To this new 


office Buckland was appointed a position which Sir 
Joseph Banks said " No one in England is so competent 
to fill." Writing in anticipation of this appointment to 
his friend Lady Mary Cole, in December 1818, he 
says : 

"DEAR LADY MARY, I have just received a large 
importation from North America, and expect daily my 
stalactitic head and bones of Niobe from Venice. 1 hope 
soon to have a proper room prepared for their reception 
in Oxford, which is the least thing the University can do 
to meet the grant which you will be glad to hear I have 
obtained from the Crown for the establishment of a 
Professorship of Geology which I am to hold with my 
former office of Reader in Mineralogy. Nothing can 
exceed the strong exertions and flattering civilities I have 
received from Lord Grenville and Mr. Peel during the 
progress of this business, or the powerful representations 
which have been made to Lord Liverpool on my behalf. 
Sir Joseph Banks, too, on hearing of my Memorial to the 
Crown voluntarily requested Sir Everard Home :o express 
to H.R.H. the Prince Regent that he felt great pleasure 
in the prospect of an establishment for Geology in Oxford, 
and considered no man in the country so proper to fill 
the situation as Mr. Buckland. Sir W. Scott and Lord 
Eldon have also given their assistance. 

" I assure you I feel quite proud of the high considera- 
tion which is given to the noble subterranean science 
by such exalted personages, more especially by Lord 
Grenville, whom I am going to visit next week at 
Dropmore on my return to Oxford. During the last 
week I have been down to sec Lord Tankerville's splendid 
collection at Walton, containing the finest shells and 
corals in the country, and extremely rich in fossil organic 
remains. He has a drawer full of Tortoises and Encrinites 
from the Sussex chalk, also of Pentacrinites from chalk, 
and lovely starfish. The plants in his hot-houses exceed 
in health and luxuriance any I have ever seen." 


A letter written by Lord Grenville to Buckland in 
November 1820 speaks warmly of the tatter's zeal, in the 
cause of geology. " I am delighted," he writes, and the 
words are the more important as the writer was then 
Chancellor of the University of Oxford, "to learn that 
the interesting science which you arc pursuing is making 
such rapid progress here and elsewhere, in consequence 
(I must say) in a very great degree of your indefatigable 

To Buckland his " noble subterranean science," as he 
called it, appeared the most fascinating of pursuits, and 
his admiration for it was warmly expressed in the Inaugural 
Address which he delivered upon his appointment In the 
course of his Address he acknowledges the "gracious 
encouragement " which His Royal Highness the Prince 
Regent had given to this infant establishment, and "the 
ardent zeal with which my application to the Crown 
on this occasion was furthered by Lord Grenville, the 
Chancellor of the University, whose care for good learning 
in this place it is impossible for me too highly to appreciate." 

Modestly enough he pleads for Science forming a sub- 
ordinate part in the University curriculum, while at the 
same time he would not surrender " a single particle of our 
system of classical study," which he regards as better than 
that prevailing on the Continent " For some years past," 
he continued, "these newly created sciences have formed 
a leading subject of education in most universities on the 
Continent, and a competent knowledge of them is now 
possessed by the majority of intelligent persons in our 

i>8-i832.] IMPORTANCE OF GEOLOGY. 25. 

In reply to the arguments of utilitarians, who ask how 
far the science of geology can be made profitable, he 
observes : 

" The claims of geology may be made to rest on a much 
higher basis. The utility of Science is founded upon other 
and nobler views than those of mere pecuniary profit and 
tangible advantage. The human mind has an appetite 
for truth of every kind, physical as well as moral, and the 
real utility of science is to afford gratification to this 
appetite. The real question, then, more especially in this 
place, ought surely to be, how far the objects of Geology 
are of sufficient interest and importance to be worthy of 
this large and rational species of curiosity, and how far its 
investigations are calculated to call into action the higher 
powers of the mind. Now when it is recollected that the 
field of the geologist's inquiry is the Globe itself; that it is its 
study to decipher the movements of the mighty revolutions 
and convulsions it has suffered, convulsions of which the 
most terrible catastrophes presented by the actual state 
of things (earthquakes, tempests, volcanoes), afford only a 
faint image, the last expiring efforts of those mighty 
disturbing forces which once operated, these surely will 
be admitted to be objects of sufficient magnitude and 
grandeur to create an adequate interest to engage in their 


With arguments forcibly and clearly stated, the Professor 
goes on to show how Geology, which he regarded as the 
handmaid of Religion, holds the keys of one of the 
kingdoms of Nature ; how closely it is allied to Mineralogy 
and Chemistry ; how it can claim the application of pure 
Mathematics ; and how it is connected with Hydrostatics 
and with Astronomical speculations. And then, passing; 
into a higher region, he points out its connection with 
Natural Theology, and shows that the working of the Great 


First Cause is not less demonstrable from the structure of 
the earth than are His wisdom, power, and goodness. 

This lecture was afterwards published under the title ol 
u Vindiciae Geologicae ; or, The Connection of Geology with 
Religion explained." The object of his lecture was to show 
that the study of Geology, so far from being irreligious or 
atheistic in its consequences, had a tendency to confirm 
the evidences of Natural Religion ; that there could be no 
opposition between the works and the word of God ; and 
that the facts developed by it were consistent with the 
accounts of the Creation and the Deluge as recorded in the 
Book of Genesis. The inaugural lecture may still be read 
with pleasure for the ability and elevated feeling with 
which the Professor defended Geology, and every other 
science, from the narrowness of utilitarians. But while 
arousing interest he also excited opposition, and every 
onward step that he made towards giving the science of 
Geology a position in the University created opponents to 
its claims. Sometimes the opposition was serious enough, 
his opponents being men who feared that the study of 
God's earth would shake the foundations of Christianity ; 
sometimes the objections raised only elicited a hearty 
laugh from the Professor. His friends had their jokes at 
the expense of the enthusiastic geologist Here, for example, 
is a couplet suggested by Pope's on Sir Isaac Newton, 
from the pen of Shuttleworth : 

"Some doubts were once expressed about the Flood; 
Buckland arose, and all was clear as muoV 

Deeply engrossed though Professor Buckland was in 
geological pursuits, they were far from exclusively 

1808-1822.] WORK IN OXFORD 27 

absorbing his interests. Every project for improving or 
advancing the condition of the University and the City 
of Oxford as a place of residence received his careful 
attention. In 1818, in the face of strong opposition, he 
succeeded, with the aid of several influential men, in 
lighting Oxford with gas, and was for many years chair- 
man of the Company. He also did good service to the 
city by promoting plans for the improvement of the 
sewerage and of the water supply. His labours as a 
sanitary reformer were indeed unremitting, and the experi- 
ence thus gained by the Professor at Oxford was, as will 
be seen later on, turned to excellent account by him as 
Dean of Westminster. 

It is always the busiest men who know how to find 
leisure, and Buckland's advice and active assistance were 
asked for a variety of good deeds, and never asked in vain. 
His power of work and his willingness to help were indeed 
well-nigh inexhaustible. If his ardour sometimes made 
him a little impatient, his genuine kindness of heart, com- 
bined with a keen sense of humour, speedily corrected 
the momentary impulse. However strong his convictions, 
he was never so wedded to his own judgment as to shrink 
from opposition. 

As Professor his classes at Oxford were always well 
attended, and his genial good-humour and apt description 
of things around him made every one happy, and therefore 
in a humour to listen, learn, and recollect 

Outside the University his gifts as a lecturer were also 
warmly appreciated. Miss C. Fox records in her journals 
that Buckland says " he feels very nervous in addressing 


large assemblies till he has once made them laugh, and 
then he is entirely at his ease." He always liked to have 
a picture to show his audience, where specimens were 
not available, and in a letter to Sir Henry de la Bche, 
he says : " With respect to a block (engraving), it was 
ready to go to the printer to-morrow if you approved ; 
though bad, it is better than nothing, and I like always 
to tell my story by a picture if possible." 

Buckland, whilst staying with Miss Fox, one wet day 
gave a lecture in the drawing-room. " We listened," Miss 
Fox says, " with great and gaping interest to a description 
of his geological map, the frontispiece to his forthcoming 
Bridgewater Treatise. He gave very clear details of the 
gradual formation of our earth, which he is thoroughly 
convinced took its rise ages before the Mosaic record. He 
says that Luther must have taken a similar view, as in the 
translation of the Bible he puts ' 1st' at the third verse of 
the first chapter of Genesis, which showed his belief that 
the two first verses relate to something anterior. He ex- 
plains the hills with valleys between them by eruptions 
underground. He compared the world to an apple-dumpling, 
the fiery froth of which fills the interior, and we have just 
a crust to stand upon ; the hot stuff in the centre often 
generates gas, and its necessary explosions are called on 
earth volcanoes. He gave descriptions of antediluvian 
animals, plants, and skulls. They have even discovered a 
large fossil-fish with its food only partially digested." 

A characteristic story is related of Buckland, to the effect 
that he and a friend, riding towards London on a very dark 
night, lost their way. Buckland therefore dismounted, 

* <L-^? r $r* L ~* A Jt 

$W " a; | | '/r5 




and taking up a handful of earth, smelt it " Uxbridge," 
he exclaimed, his geological nose telling him the precise 
locality. He was very fond of " field lectures " as an adjunct 
to his ordinary course, and they were always well attended, 
both by students and others interested in the practical study 
of geology. On one occasion, when lecturing on Shotovcr 
Hill, a member of his class, Mr. Howlcy, afterwards Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, discovered a lark's nest with eggs in 
it, and bringing it to the lecturer, asked if he considered it 
to be of the " oolite formation." Buckland also delighted 
in giving a new class of equestrian listeners a practical 
lesson in geology, by sticking them all in the mud to make 
them remember the Kimmeridge clay. He would often 
give out as a notice at the end of a lecture, " To-morrow 
the class will meet at the top of Shotover Hill at ten 
o'clock "; or, " The next lecture will take place in the fields 
above the quarry at Stoncsficld "; or, " The class will meet 
at the G. W. R. Station at nine o'clock ; when, in the train 
between Oxford and Bristol, I shall be able, to point out 
and explain the several different formations we shall cross ; 
and, if you please, we will examine the rocks and some of 
the most interesting geological features of Clifton and its 
neighbourhood." The true meaning of the terms " strati- 
fication, denudation, faults, elevations, etc., could never be 
learnt in a lecture-room," he would say. 

Sir Henry Acland, one of the few of Buckland's pupils 
still living, tells a characteristic story of his manner of 
lecturing. It shall be given in his own words : 

" You have asked me," writes Sir Henry to the biographer, 
a to tell you how I was attacked by Professor Buckland, 

1808-1822.] IWCXLAXD'S LECTURES. 31 

and why, in the middle of one of his exciting and graphic 

" It was in this wiseand, as you desire it, the whole 
story must be told. 

" When I was a boy my father took me to Sir 
Benjamin Brodic and said, 'Sir Bcnjrffhin, I want to 
make this boy a physician. What is to be done?' I was 
frightened out of my wits as the eagle-eyed man looked 
at me from head to foot. He replied, 'What is your 
University ? ' ' Oxford/ said my father. * Send the boy to 
Oxford/ said the great surgeon quickly. While there he 
is not to attend to anything connected with his future 
profession, but be as though he was to be like you in Parlia- 
ment. W'hen he has taken his degree, let him come to me, 
and I will tell him what to do then/ In another minute we 
were out of the room. Some fifty were waiting elsewhere. 

" When in 1835 I went to Christ Church, your father got 
hold of me, being very friendly with mine ; assured me 
geology had nothing to do with medicine, and bade me 
attend his lectures. 

" I can never forget my dtbut as his pupil though it was 
not our first acquaintance, for I had made diagrams for 
his great evening address at the British Association in 
Edinburgh in 1834, and knew his ways. 
^ " He lectured on the Cavern of Torquay, the now famous 
Kent's Cavern. He paced like a Franciscan Preacher up 
and down behind a long show-case, up two steps, in a 
room in the old Clarendon. He had in his hand a huge 
hyena's skull. He suddenly dashed down the steps 
rushed, skull in hand, at the first undergraduate on the 
front bench and shouted, 4 What rules the world ? ' The 
youth, terrified, threw himself against the next back se:-t, 
and answered not a word. He rushed then on me, pointing 
the hyena full in my face 'What rules the world? 1 
1 Haven't an idea/ I said. * The stomach, sir/ he cried 
(again mounting his rostrum), ' rules the world. The great 
ones eat the less, and the less the lesser still' " 

The Professor's forte as a lecturer in these early days 


excited the rhyming propensities of his College friend 
Shuttleworth, afterwards Warden of New College, and 
subsequently Bishop of Chichester. The lecture which 
suggested the following lines was probably delivered 
early in 1822. 

"In Ashmole's ample dome, with look sedate, 
'Midst heads of mammoths, heads of houses sate ; 
And tutors, close with undergraduates jammed, 
Released from cramming, waiting to be crammed. 
Above, around, in order due displayed, 
The garniture of former worlds was laid: 
Sponges and shells in lias moulds immersed, 
From Deluge fiftieth, back to Deluge first; 
And wedged by boys in artificial stones, :'," 
Huge bones of horses, now called mammoths 1 bones; 
Lichens and ferns which schistose beds enwrap, 
And understood by most professors trap. 
Before the rest, in contemplative mood, 
With sidelong glance, the inventive Master stood, 
And numbering o'er his class with still delight,. 
Longed to possess them cased in stalactite. 
Then thus with smile suppressed : * In days of yore 
One dreary face Earth's infant planet bore; 
, Nor land was there, nor ocean's lucid flood, 

But, mixed of both, one dark abyss of mud ; 
Till each repelled, repelling by degrees, 
This shrunk to rock, that filtered into seas; 
Then slow upheaved by subterranean fires, 
Earth's ponderous crystals shot their prismy spires; 
Then granite rose from out the trackless sea, 
And slate, for boys to scrawl when boys should be- 
But earth, as yet, lay desolate and bare ; 
' Man was not then, but Paramoudras * were. 
Twas silence all, and solitude ; the sun, 
If sun there were, yet rose and set to none, 

1 Paramoudras: see page 13. 

t\ \ iV . - ^ k/ ' :L.~*& - ; ><r 
*i^_ ; - \^ 3TO ^>?rr. vv ^^^ 
- -* 


-I I 


ft-r^r.' \r ^ I HfeS*^ ; " 

l^^?KiJfe-w?= f iea 

ii^S ' : -'^te^^-^~?^ 

',jjF$mpnr= '. j 

i8oS-i822.] BUCKLAN&S LECTURES. 33 

Till fiercer grown the elemental strife, 
Astonished tadpoles wriggled into life; 
Young encrini their quivering tendrils spread, 
And tails of lizards felt the sprouting head. 
(The specimen I hand about is rare, 
And very brittle; bless me, sir, take care!) 
. And high upraised from ocean's inmost caves, 
Protruded corals broke the indignant waves. 
These tribes extinct, a nobler race succeeds: 
Now sea-fowl scream amid the plashing reeds; 
Now mammoths range, where yet in silence deep 
Unborn Ohio's hoarded waters sleep. 
Now ponderous whales . . . 

(Here, by the way, a tale 
I'll tell of something, very like a whale. 
An odd experiment of late I tried, 
Placing a snake and hedgehog side by side ; 
Awhile the snake his neighbour tried t* assail, 
When the sly hedgehog caught him by the tail, 
/ V And gravely munched him upwards joint by joint, 
The story's somewhat shocking, but in point) 
Now to proceed : 

The earth, what is it? Mark its scanty bound, 
Tis but a larger football's narrow round; 
Its mightiest tracts of ocean what are these? 
At best but breakfast tea-cups, full of seas. 
O'er these a thousand deluges have burst, 
And quasi-deluges have done their worst."* 

The lecture ends with a couplet which the facetious 
writer observes of its own accord " slides into verse, and 
hitches in a rhyme " : 

" Of this enough. On Secondary Rock, 
To-morrow, gentlemen, at two o'clock." 

Another witness to Buckland's impressiveness as a 
lecturer was Colonel Portlock, President of the Geological 
Society in 1875. 



"His invariable cheerfulness," he writes, "and humour 
threw light over the description of any subject he took 
in hand ; and whether describing with his pen or with 
his tongue, the ancient inhabitants of the earth, such was 
the vivid reality of the picture that he drew, that they 
appeared to act and speak before us, so that we may 
fairly designate him the ^sop of extinct animals alas ! 
himseif now extinct ! how can we hope to see again in all 
its fulness a second Buckland ? To form a correct notion 
of the powerful manner in which Dr. Buckland influenced 
the progress of Geological Science, it would be necessary, 
not only to pass in review the long series of his geological 
contributions, but also to realise the effect he produced on 
his hearers, and on the University generally, by his lectures. 
It is impossible to convey to the mind of any one who 
had never heard Dr. Buckland speak, the inimitable effect 
of that union of the most playful fancy with the most 
profound reflections which so eminently characterised his 
scientific oratory. To him more than to any geologist 
are we indebted for unexpected suggestions, curious 
inquiries, and novel kinds of evidences." 

Frank Buckland writes, in his account of the sale 
in January 1857 of his father's minerals, fossils, etc.: 
"There was great competition for the hammers; these 
relics are much prized by the possessors, for by means of 
them my father hammered out much information from the 
breast of mother earth." Mr. Ethcridge tells the story of 
Buckland when travelling in Scotland, in order not to 
shock the feelings of the Scotchmen on Sunday, carrying 
his hammer up his sleeve. 

The charm that marked Buckland's lectures was felt 
also in his character and conversation. When Mr. Ruskin 
was an undergraduate of Christ Church, the Professor of 
Geology was a Canon of the Cathedral. 


"There was/ 1 says Mr. Ruskin in his "Pneterita," 1 "a 
more humane and living spirit, however, inhabitant of the 
N AV. angie 01 the Cardinals square ; and a great many of 
the mischances which were only harmful to me through 
my own folly may be justly held, and to the full, countlr- 
balanccd by that one piece of good fortune, of which 
I had the wit to take advantage. Dr. Buckland was a 
Canon of the Cathedral, and he, with his wife and 
family, were all sensible and good-natured, with originality 
enough in the sense of them to give sap and savour to 
the whole College. ... All were frank, kind, and clever, 
vitalm the highest degree; to me, medicinal and saving. 
Dr. buckland was extremely like Sydney Smith in his staple 
of character: no rival with him in wit, but like him in 
humour, common sense, and benevolently cheerful doctrine of 
Divinity. . . . Geology was only the pleasant occupation 
of his own merry life." 

Another distinguished Oxonian speaks enthusiastically 
of Buck-land's vivacity, mirthfulness, and power as a 
talker. Wriing in 1892, Professor Storey Maskelyne 
says : 

"Dr. Buckland's wonderful conversational powers were 
as incommunicable as the bouquet of a bottle of champagne, 
but no one who remembers them as I do, can ever forget 

"It was indeed at the feast of reason and the flow of 
social and intellectual intercourse that Buckland shone. 
'A merrier man within the limit of becoming mirth I 
never spent an hour's talk withal. 1 Nothing came amiss 
to him, from the creation of the world to the latest news 
in Town ; from the flora and fauna of ages long past to 
the last horticultural meeting at Chiswick or Exhibition 
at the Zoological Gardens ; through all intermediate time 
he was equally at home. Nihil tetigit quod non ornavit, 

1 Ch. xi., pp. 375, 376-7, 381. 


there were few subjects which he could not more or less 
illustrate. In build, look, and manner he was a thorough 
English gentleman, and was appreciated in every circle." 

Sowerby has recorded an anecdote of Buckland galloping 
off with a huge ammonite over his shoulders, his head passed 
through the opening occasioned by the loss of the central 
volution, when his companions dubbed him on the spot 
" Ammon Knight." " A man of devout spirit, strong of 
mind and strong in body, working hard and setting others 
to work, gathering and giving knowledge, a patient student, 
a powerful teacher, a friendly associate, a valiant soldier 
for geology in days when she was weak, an honoured 
leader in her hour of triumph." 

One of the most notable and lasting of scientific friend- 
ships was formed between two of his pupils, Sir Philip de 
Malpas Grey Egerton, Bart, and Viscount Cole (afterwards 
Lord Enniskiilen), both of whom were at Christ Church 
at that time. In the Long Vacation of 1820 these two 
young men set out on their geological travels through 
Europe. Dr. Buckland sent them first after William of 
Wykeham's fashion of " two and two " to collect bones and 
work out for him the latest discovered cave in Bavaria. 
Mr. Etheridgc, of the Natural History Museum, says that, 
before starting on their journey, these two friends made 
their wills. In case of the death of cither, the joint collec- 
tion was to belong to the survivor for his life ; on his death 
the collection was to be sold, and offered first to the 
British Museum, then to their Alma Mater of Oxford, 
after that to Cambridge and Paris. If not purchased by 
any of these bodies, the world in general was to have the 

i8o8-i822.] TOUR IN FRANCE. 37 

option of buying. The Americans would have given 
twice the sum for these valuable and unique specimens; 
but they were purchased by the British Museum for a 
sum of several thousand pounds. 

Sir Philip Egerton's brother, the Rev. W. H. Egerton, 
Rector of Whitchurch, Salop, writes that " the bulk of both 
collections consisted of fossil fishes. When a slab con- 
taining a specimen was split in halves the two friends 
tossed up for first choice, the one half containing the 
bones of the fish the other the impression. This was 
the case with a vast number of specimens chiefly from 
Solenhofen the two collections being brought together 
at Kensington form a complete whole." 

The ample vacations which Buckland enjoyed as an 
Oxford Professor enabled him to continue his geological 
tours at home and abroad. Thus in 1820 he made an 
expedition to France with his friend Conybeare. Writing 
from Lyons to Sir John Nicholl, he says: 

14 Three days brought me from London to Paris, where my 
first business was to call on Cuvier, who after receiving me 
with the greatest cordiality, and saluting my cheeks with 
more than English familiarity, immediately made a dinner 
for me. inviting Humboldt, Biot, Cordier, Bowditch the 
African traveller, Frederick Cuvier, and several others of 
the savants of Paris, and giving me admission to the entire 
establishment of the Jardin du Roy. I attended three 
lectures on geology by Cordier, two on entomology by La 
Traille, and three on ornithology by Geoffrey St Hilaire. 
I admired exceedingly the French style of lecturing; the 
manner and matter were extremely good, but the classes 
as ill-looking and ungentlemanly a set of dirty vagabonds 
as ever I set eyes on, and not more numerous than my 
own at Oxford. I attended also a meeting of the Institute 


at which was announced the death of poor Sir Joseph 
Banks, who is not less regretted in France than in our own 
country. I saw there Guy Lusac, Mcnard, Vaguelin, 
Henry Raymond, Brockard, Bindon, and most of the first 
scientific men of France, whose love of Science, how- 
ever, does not induce them to attend without receiving 
abcut eight shillings a head for their hour's work. 

" I find the best geologists in France to be Cordier, the 
successor of Fangas St. Ford as lecturer in geology, and 
Bindon, who is curator of the King's collection under 
Count Bourdon, and is on the point of publishing an 
excellent work on the geology of Hungary, with a map 
and lectures, that will be extremely good, for he thoroughly 
understands his work. He was sent to Hungary by the 
King two years ago. I find them all most deplorably 
deficient in knowledge of their country, as well as in 
general geology. Our Society would number at least 
thirty members that would beat the best of them, and 
never did I feel myself more highly gratified in the article 
of pride than I was by the manner in which they flocked 
round me to propose their difficulties, and the passive 
obedience with which they received my oracular decisions. 

" I saw a great deal of Humboldt, whom I liked exceed- 
ingly, and with whom I am likely from henceforth to be 
in continual correspondence. He talks more rapidly and 
more sensibly than any m'an I ever saw, and with a 
brilliancy that is indicative of the highest degree of genius. 
He is on the point of publishing a most interesting work, 
a comparative view of the geological structure of Europe 
and South America, and, according to the documents he 
showed me, the identity of the phenomena of the two 
continents is more absolute than the most sanguine wishes 
could have anticipated. He has given me a section of 
the valley of Santa Fe de Bogota, which is the exact 
counterpart of the valley of Glamorganshire, which I shall 
publish with my account % of the Severn district in our 
Transactions. He will make use of my list of the order 
of succession of English strata, and in almost all points 
but the history of the Old and New Red Sandstone, which 

=:- s&i i i 


is the great stumbling-block of continental geologists, we 
are fully agreed. On this, however, I have made a convert 
of Bindon, and hope soon to convince Humboldt 

" I left Paris with most pressing invitations to visit it 
again on my return, having allowed myself time to attend 
to nothing there but my undergroundology, and dashed 
directly into Auvcrgne. At Clcrmont I made a con- 
siderable collection of petrified fruit baskets, and took the 
tour of the volcanic chain and summit of Puy-de-D6me. 
It is the finest thing by far in Europe ; according to 
Humboldt it exactly resembles a similar chain in Mexico, 
and presents more than fifty craters nearly in a line from 
north to south, many of which are larger and finer than 
that of Vesuvius. The streams of lava also are not less 
decided ; one of them is three miles broad and six miles 
long. They arc all post-diluvian, though there are no 
records of the time when they were in action ; they stand 
on, and have burst up through, an enormous mass and 
elevated plain of granite, which is covered first by trap 
and this, again by lava. The portion of Clermont is, 
perhaps, the finest thing in France, and the mountains I 
have crossed between Clcrmont and Lyons, being entirely 
granitic, arc yet beautiful, presenting that second-rate style 
of mountain scenery which we have in the best part of 
Monmouthshire. I am disappointed in Lyons, because 
I had heard too much of it. It is certainly a bad thing 
to have too good a character." 

In this letter he alludes to the death of Sir Joseph 
Banks. Before starting on his journey he had called to 
take leave of this famous patron and encourager of travel- 
lers and science. He never saw him again alive, and it 
is this farewell interview which Count Breliner has cleverly 
sketched. Sir Joseph was then much invalided with the 
gout, but, though a martyr to the complaint, he is said 
to have had such self-control that he never showed any 
irritability. Both at Christ Church and at Islip Buckland 

i8o8"i822.] WHATELYS "EPITAPH." 41 

planted yellow banksia roses in memory of his friend, 
who had been for forty-one years President of the Royal 

Buckland was greatly pleased, on his return from this 
long sojourn on the Continent, to be greeted with the 
following epitaph written by his friend Whately, afterwards 
the famous Archbishop of Dublin. He had the verses 
lithographed, and gave copies to his friends, so that they 
are more known than many of the clever verses written by 
Dr. Shuttlcworth and Mr. Duncan. 


Intended for Professor Buckland. December i */, 1820. 

"Mourn, Ammonites, mourn o'er his funeral urn, 

Whose neck ye must grace no more; 
Gneiss, granite, and slate, he settled your date, 

And his ye must noxv deplore. 
Weep, caverns, weep with unfiltering drip, 

Your recesses he'll cease to explore ; 
For mineral veins and organic remains 

No stratum again will he bore* 

"Oh, his wit shone like crystal; his knowledge profound 

From gravel to granite descended, 
No trap could deceive him, no slip could confound, 

Nor specimen, true or pretended ; 
He knew the birth-rock of each pebble so round, 

And how far its tour had extended. 

44 His eloquence rolled like the Deluge retiring, 

Where mastodon carcases floated ; 
To a subject obscure he gave charms so inspiring, 

Young and old on geology doated. 
He stood out like an Outlier; his hearers, admiring, 
In pencil each anecdote noted. 


14 Where shall we our great Professor inter, 

That in peace may rest his bones? 
If we hew him a rocky sepulchre, 

Hell rise and break the stones, 
And examine each stratum that lies, around, 
For he's quite in his element underground. 

* If with mattock and spade his body we lay 

In the common alluvial soil, 
Heil start up and snatch those tools away 

Of his own geological toil; "V 

In a stratum so young the Professor disdains 
That embedded should lie his organic remains. 

"Then exposed to the drip of some case-hardening spring 

His carcase let stalactite cover, 
And to Oxford the petrified sage let us bring 

When he is encrusted all over; 

There, 'mid mammoths and crocodiles, high on a shelf, 
Let him stand as a monument raised to himself." 

Almost at the same time when Dr. Buckland was 
making these extensive tours in Great Britain to collect 
materials for a geological map of England, and in foreign 
countries to procure valuable and unique specimens for 
his museum, a kindred spirit was inaugurating a similar 
movement in America. A young Scotch merchant, 
William Maclure, born in Ayr, author of the " Pioneers of 
Discovery," went forth, with his hammer in his hand and 
his wallet on his shoulder, to make a geological survey 
of the United States. Pursuing his researches in every 
direction, often amid pathless tracts and dreary solitudes, 
he crossed and recrosscd the Alleghany Mountains no less 
than fifty times. He encountered all the privations of 
hunger, thirst, fatigue, and exposure, month after month, 
year after year, until his indomitable spirit had conquered 
every difficulty and crowned his enterprise with success. 


It was during his journeys, at home and abroad, that 
Buckland laid the foundation of a collection which became 
famous as the first of its kind in Europe. In its forma- 
tion he expended a large portion of his private fortune, 
and if there was a good specimen to be anywhere 
obtained, he would secure it at any price. The collection 
of cave bones from England and the Continent is unique. 1 
The other specimens were selected with a view to their 
fitness for illustration of certain definite points. Some 
are of the most delicate texture ; others again arc of 
such gigantic size and ponderous weight that they show, 
as Professor Phillips remarked, " the courage of the man." 

Not only did he spend his own money, time, and strength 
in the formation of his collection ; friends were also 
working for him in all parts of the globe. Writing in 
1819 to Lady Mary Cole, he says: 

" My treasures in Geology continue more than ever to 
accumulate. I have just heard from town that three large 
Russian boxes from Mr. Strangways are sent off to Oxford, 
and in his last package I received a diploma from Moscow, 
for which I am indebted to his kindness. You will be 
pleased to hear I am likely to get extensive importations 
from all the British colonies over the world, through the 
kindness of Lord Bathurst, who lately sent me a message 
requesting I would draw up a list of instructions for 
collecting specimens in Geology, of which he wouM 
transmit copies to all the colonies connected with his 
office, and adding that it is his intention to deposit the 
specimens that may be sent home for the purpose of 
illustrating my lectures." 

1 F. Buckland's memoir of his father, prefixed to the " Bridgewater 
Treatise, " 3rd edition. 


And the collection, adds Buckland, " is becoming one 
of the most valuable in Europe." 

Among the specimens with which his friends enriched his 
collection were treasures gathered from the Arctic regions 
by adventurous explorers. In the progress and results of 
the various Polar expeditions he was keenly interested. 
With most of the officers who were engaged he was 
personally acquainted ; to more than one he had given 
valuable assistance in the preparation of geological 
reports ; and in the classification and arrangement of 
their collections his aid was often invoked. It was there- 
fore an appropriate tribute to his geological services when 
his name was bestowed, by Captain Beechey, on a new- 
found island and a newly discovered river. 

Of Captain Ross's expedition he writes, on December 
I4th, 1818, a long account to Lady Mary Cole at Penrice 
Castle: ^| 

" The philosophical world here," he says, " is much oc- 
cupied with the question of the Polar expedition ; Captain 
Ross and his under officers give different accounts, and 
three books are in preparation. I saw Captain Ross a 
few days ago at Sir Joseph Banks', and was at the British 
Museum on the arrival of the animals and boxes of 
specimens. Captain Ross had a chart of Baffin's Bay 
corrected by daily soundings and observations. At the 
extreme point which they reached, after sounding in 
calm water 1,000 fathoms, the sea shallowed gradually 
to 300, and a lofty ridge of mountains on the right, as 
they sailed forward, seemed to close round and shut up 
the end of the bay. Of this he had little doubt ; but 
his officers thought otherwise, and they sailed in at 
evening, hoping to establish the fact. But at night a gale 
came on, and they were obliged to turn back, and were 


never again able to enter this bay, I believe, from ice or 
fogs which followed the storm. So there remains still a 
point at which land has not been seen, and a possibility of 
a passage, but no probability. 

"On turning the ship to come out of this bay, the needle, 
which had been steady as they sailed inwards before the 
wind, became exceedingly irregular as soon as they began 
to beat against it. Something of this they attribute to- 
the form of the ships, and two ships, differently constructed 
from each other, are to repeat next year the experiments 
that have been made. The question is still undecided 
whether Greenland be an island, and it highly becomes 
this country to ascertain the point, if possible, and correct 
the charts of the Polar seas. 

" Near the north end of Baffin's Bay, on the east side, 
at Lake Sir Dudley Digges, along six miles of coast they 
found extensive irregular patches of red snow on the 
country of the new tribe of Esquimaux, whose language 
was much more intelligible to the interpreter who ac- 
companied the expedition than he was to the ship's crew. 
There seems little doubt of the colouring matter being 
caused by birds, which swarm on this coast in one small 
pool of water amid an ocean of icebergs. Captain Ross 
told me his boat's crew shot, in four hours, 1,600 birds, 
which were drawn to this as the only spot where they 
could find their food, consisting of shrimps and medusa, 
which also constitute the food of the whales. Fish 
are rare in these cold latitudes. The birds are beautiful 
chiefly puffins, gulls, auks, guillemots, of which great 
numbers are imported ; many specimens of the ivory gulls, 
which are extremely rare; also marine animals of the 
lower orders. 

" Red snow may be seen in rabbit warrens, and De 
Saussure mentions it in the Alps at Mt Breven and St 
Bernard. The Bishop of Oxford and Mr. Honey have 
also seen it on the Alps. De Saussure wishes to believe 
it the pollen of plants, but is at a loss where to find the 
plants. He says it only stains the surface to the depth 
of a few inches, not exceeding three, and seems to be a fine 


powder washed down into the hollows of the snow. It 
has been suggested that the colouring matter may be 
derived from the lichen Tartareus (Roccella or Orchill of 
commerce), which is imported largely from Corsica and 
Sardinia for the use of dyers ; but as this plant must be 
steeped in a solution of ammonia to extract its red colour, 
'and is not likely to meet that substance on the high Alps, 
we must refer the colour to the same source as in Baffin's 
Bay. I believe the colour obtained from this lichen is 
called Cudbear, and enclose a specimen of it for Miss Jane, 
which comes from Scotland ; it is most luxuriant on granite 
rocks. I must request her indulgence for all the errors 
I may have made touching the history of this lichen, and 
shall hope to be corrected where I am wrong. My friend 
Mr. Duncan has another theory more pretty than any of 
the rest, if it were but true, and which he has committed to 
verse as follows : 

"'Of yore 'tis said a heavenly red 

The cheeks of modest maids o'erspread : 
Some say with innocence it fled 
But where it went no man could know; 
The truth our modern travellers show 
It went to dye the Arctic snow.' 

" The natives of this poetically coloured region, says Sir 
Dudley Diggcs, have harpoons and knives made of iron 
beat flat between two stones. This iron no doubt fell 
from the clouds, like the mass of native iron found by 
Pallas in Siberia ; and it is only in such cases that 
malleable iron has been found native, being always 
accompanied by nickel. That used in the harpoons has 
three-hundreds of nickel ; a small knife has been made in 
London from twenty-six grains of it. Captain Ross could 
not make out the size of the block from which the natives 
obtained it, nor its position ; but it is beyond doubt 
meteoric. 1 

" Blocks of fir and fragments of ships are drifted occasion- 

1 Baron Nordenskiold has proved that this is native and not meteoric 


ally on the coast ; but the natives find the bone of whales 
and teeth of walrus best calculated, from strength and 
lightness, to make their sledges, of which a good specimen 
is brought home. They burn whale oil r making a wick 
of moss, which serves also for fuel. They have scarcely 
any plants but mosses, and no quadrupeds except bears, 
hares, dogs, and white foxes. The dogs resemble wolves 
with short legs, are very strong, well fitted for sledge 
harness, and perfectly gentle. There is a live fox which 
I saw this morning at the Museum basking in the hoar 
frost ; he prefers staying on the outside of his house in 
the coldest nights, and is quite white and by no means 

"As to the rocks, the west coast of Baffin's Bay, on 
the only spot they touched, resembled Derbyshire in its 
limestone and trap. The blocks floating on the icebergs 
were chiefly granite mica, slate, and trap ; and the coast of 
Greenland near Disco, trap with a bed of imperfect coal 
in it. 

" The other ships have not done so much as those from 
Baffin's Bay. I have seen none of their officers, but have 
been on bo^rd the Alexander, which was with Captain 
Ross, and obtained specimens of the mosses, which I will 
soon forward to Penrice. The Spitzbergen ships were 
impeded by their accident from proceeding : one of them 
was right between two masses of ice, and raised out of the 
water ; her side was forced in. and a barrel of meal within 
pressed flat as a pancake. The only mode of repairing 
her was lashing her to an iceberg, and pulling her mast 
downwards, until her side rose out of the water sufficiently 
to have planks laid on the outside. She was much too 
damaged to proceed. I saw yesterday at Murray's some 
drawings which will be engraved of the situation of the 
ships in a storm amidst the icebergs, dashing every minute 
against enormous floating rocks of ice, from which it 
seems miraculous how they ever could have escaped." 

In May 1825 the Blossom, under Captain Bccchcy, was 
sent out to afford such assistance as might be required by 


Captains Franklin and Parry, who had started the previous 
year on a second voyage of discovery to the Arctic regions. 
During the autumns of 1826 and 1827, Captain Beechey 
was to await in Behring Straits the appearance of one 
or both of these officers. As his vessel would have to 
traverse in her route a portion of the globe hitherto little 
explored, it was intended to employ her in surveying and 
exploring such parts of the Pacific as were within her 
reach, and for this purpose the ship was provided with 
both naturalist and surveyor. In the group of the Bonin 
Islands, Captain Bcechcy found one composed of basaltic 
pillars ; " far grander," he writes to Buckland, " than the 
Giants' Causeway." He named it Buckland Island, and 
adds that "on the south side it is possessed of a good 
harbour." In July 1826 the Blossom anchored in Kotzebue 
Sound, there to await the arrival of Captain Franklin. 
Captain Beechey employed the time in surveying and 
exploring as much of the coast as possible. He visited 
the extraordinary ice formation in Eschscholtz Bay men- 
tioned by Kotzebue as being "covered with a soil half 
a foot thick, producing the most luxuriant grass," and 
"containing an abundance of mammoth bones." Sailing 
up the bay, which was extremely shallow, he landed at a 
deserted village on a low sandy point, to which he gave 
the name of Elephant Point, from the bones of that animal 
being found near it 

V - ".;';, - .* . ; -.' "W-Or * 

"The cliffs in which this singular formation was dis- 
covered begin near this point, and extend westward in 
a nearly straight line to a rocky cliff of primitive formation 
at the entrance of the bay. The cliffs are from twenty to 


eighty feet in height, and rise inland to a rounded range 
of hills between four and five hundred feet above the 


Leaving Mr. Collie, the ship's surgeon, with a party to 
examine the cliffs in which the fossils and ice formation 
had been seen by Kotzebue, Captain Beechey proceeded 
to the head of the bay in a smaller boat 

" We landed upon a muddy beach, and were obliged to 
wade a quarter of a mile before we could reach a cliff 
for the purpose of having a view of the surrounding 
country. Having gained its summit, we were gratified 
by the discovery of a large river coming from the south- 
ward and passing between our station and a range of 
hills. At a few miles' distance the river passed between 
rocky cliffs, whence the land on either side became hilly, 
and interrupted our further view of its course. The width 
of the river was about a mile and a half, but this space was 
broken into narrow and intricate channels by banks, some 
dry and others partly so ; the stream passed rapidly 
between them, and at an earlier period of the season a 
considerable body of water must be poured into the sound, 
though from the comparative width of the channels the 
current of the latter is not much felt. The shore around 
us was flat, broken by several lakes, in which there were 
a great many wild-fowl. The cliff we had ascended was 
composed of a bluish mud and clay, and was full of deep 

" Meanwhile Mr. Collie had been successful in his search 
among the cliffs at Elephant Point, and had discovered 
several bones and grinders of elephants and other animals 
in a fossil state. Associating these two discoveries, I 
bestowed the name of Elephant upon the Point, to mark 
its vicinity and the place where the fossils were found; and 
upon the river that of Buckland, in compliment to Dr. 
Buckland, the Professor of Geology at Oxford, to whom 


I am much indebted for the arrangement of the geological 
memoranda attached to this work. In consequence of the 
shallow water, there was much difficulty in embarking the 
fossils, the tusks in particular, the largest of which weighed 
1 6b Ibs., and it took the greater part of the night to 
accomplish it" 1 

On his return, Captain Beechey writes to Buckland from 
Harley Street in October 1828, "The bones arrived 
yesterday in good order at the Admiralty," and begs him 
to come with all speed and unpack them, " as the ' cases ' 
are very large and occupy the Hall." The most perfect 
series was selected for the British Museum ; 2 another series, 
including some of the largest tusks of elephants, was sent 
to the Museum at Edinburgh; others to the Geological 
Society of London. * 

Another Arctic explorer, who was Buckland's old and 
valued friend, was Sir John Franklin. After his return 
from his second voyage to the Arctic regions, he came to 
Oxford as the hero of the day to receive the honorary' 
degree of D.C.L. On this occasion he and his daughter 
were the guests of Buckland at Christ Church. Always 
taking the keenest interest in Arctic discoveries, Buckland 
was one of Lady Franklin's chief advisers in the several 
expeditions organised to search for the lost explorers. Sub- 
sequently both Sir Leopold M'CHntock and Admiral Ingle- 
field were frequent guests at the Deanery of Westminster. 

F : -* - :i - 

1 Beechey's "Voyage to the Pacific." 

1 Now to be seen in the Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, 
South-East Gallery, Ground Floor, Cases 10, 16, and 31. 


During Buckland's lifetime his collection was placed in 
the Clarendon Buildings. A room had been prepared 
for its reception, and the Professor writes in the highest 
glee to Lady Mary Cole, on April 3rd, 1822, to tell her of 
the fact " You will be pleased to hear that my Lecture 
Room is to be put to rights and fitted up with 300 worth 
of cabinets between this and midsummer, when Mr. Miller 
of Bristol is to come here, and arrange and catalogue my 
collection, and clear my room of boxes." 

Buckland was particularly careful to put descriptive 
labels on all specimens that came into his possession, 
and these were usually written, or rather painted, by 
his wife. Fron. long practice, she acquired a knack of 
finding the best place on which to mark them, and 
her clear labelling may be seen on specimens in all 
parts of the Oxford Museum as well as in Cromwell 

Ultimately Buckland bequeathed the collection to the 
Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford for the use 
of the Professors of Geology who might succeed him, with 
all the geological charts, sections, and engravings that 
might be in the Clarendon Buildings at the time of his 
death. Professor Phillips, who acted as deputy Reader 
during Dean Buckland's last illness, and succeeded to his 
Chair, proposed that the collection should henceforth be 
known by the name of the Bucklandean Museum. A new 
building was erected about 1858, to which the collection 
was removed, and a marble bust (by Weekes) of Buckland, 
the founder of the Geological Collection, was erected by 
his friends and admirers : 


Marmor hoc egregii Viri 

Soc. Reg. Lond Soc., Gall. Inst. Sod., Adscr. 

in Ecclesia Wcstmonastr. Decani 
Geologix apud Oxonicnses Professoris insignissimi 
oris atque animi lineament* referens 

effingi curaverunt 
et in hac /Ede studiis naturalibus 

inter longinquae vetus vetustatis rudera 

antiquitatis primitias 

ope sua et industria excavatas 

in perpetuum conservari voluerunt 

Amici et Discipuli superstites. 

A.D. i860. 

The subsequent history of the collection is a melan- 
choly record of neglect. Owing to a variety of causes, 
a great part of this valuable bequest to the University 
remains in the same condition (and with perishing labels) 
in which it was removed from the Clarendon thirty-six 
years ago. The Hebdomadal Council at Oxford were 
urged to apportion a space, when the enlargement of the 
Museum buildings was contemplated, for the "collec- 
tion in the cellars," as it was called, and within 
the last two years a large room has been placed at the 
disposal of the Professor of Geology. There the matter 
rests, and, it is feared, will continue to rest, unless the 
University makes a special grant to rescue this bequest 
from oblivion. Not only does this collection consist of 
Dr. Buckland's gatherings of the first-fruits of the new 
science, but, as he was the greatest authority on geology 
at the beginning of the century, it includes specimens 

i8o8-i822.] THE OXFORD MUSEUM. 53 

sent him from all parts of the world. Fortunately for 
science, Dr. Buckland sent duplicate specimens to the 
British Museum. 

Professor Boyd Dawkins 1 writes respecting this once 
famous collection : 

"In 1857 Dr. Buckland's collection was in the old 
Clarendon Buildings, partly in upright glass cases and 
partly in drawers below. Professor Phillips let me have the 
run of them, and I spent a good deal of time in working 
at them ; they were all accessible and were mostly un- 
packed. They were removed to the new Museum, and the 
arrangement disturbed, so that at present the collection is 
in a state unworthy of Oxford. The Buckiandean tradition 
and name, which were maintained in Oxford down to the 
death of Phillips, are now almost unknown. The Buck- 
iandean collections are now scarcely known as such." 

Among the most interesting, and to his class most familiar, 
specimens which his collection contained, was the skull of 
a hyena. 

" In the Oxford Museum/' says Frank Buckland, " is a 
very perfect skull of one of our ancient British Cave 
Hyenas ; and my father, in his usual clever manner, often 
made it appear in his lectures (and with good reason too) 
that this skull was that of the old cannibal, Paterfamilias 
of his cave, who devoured and survived all his relations. 
The following verses were composed by one of the class 
upon ' The Last English Hyena ' : 

" ' High on a rock, which o'er the raging flood 
Reared its bleak crag, The Last Hyena stood. 
Beneath his paws a kindred skull was seen; 
And he, with commons short, looked grim and lean. 

1 W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A. (Oxon.). F.S.A., F.G.S., Professor of 
Geology and Palaeontology in the Victoria University, Owens ColL, 


" ' Potent his jaw to crack his bony rapine, 
Potent his stomach as a " pot of Pappin " ; 
O'er this last bone of many a murdered brother 
He growled, for he in vain had sought another. 

"'Full oft, like Captain Franklin, did he prey 
On bones neglected on a former day ; 
But now th* o'erwhelming surge had buried all, 
In caves below, of beasts both great and small. 

"'But ere it rose to mix him with the rest, 
Thus did he growl alou 1 his last bequest : 
"My skull to William Buckland I bequeath." 
He moaned and ocean's wave he sank beneath. 

* * 

"'Southward the flood from Yorkshire chanced to travel 
And rolled the monster deep in Yorkshire gravel. 
Behold the head of that Hyena grim, 
Who through Diluvium deeps essayed to swim.' 

a After vast labour and much accurate observation, Dr. 
Buckland at length made the evidence of the former 
existence of hyenas in England quite complete ; so com- 
plete indeed, that on one occasion, when surrounded by 
the actual bones and specimens knocked out of the 
Kirkdale stalactite by his own hammer, and brought to 
Oxford by his own hand, and sitting in his Professor's 
chair in his own museum, he appealed to one of the most 
learned judges of the land, who happened to be present 
at his lecture. After having, with his usual forcible and 
telling eloquence, put his case, to prove not only the former 
existence of hyenas in England, but even that they were 
rapacious, ravenous, and murderous cannibals, he turned 
round to the learned lawyer and said, ' And now, what do 
you think of that, my lord? 1 * Such facts/ replied the 
judge, ' brought as evidence against a matt, would be quite 
sufficient to convict and even hang him/ " * 

1 F. Buckland, "Curiosities of Natural History," 2nd scries, pp. 52, 53. 




1822 1824. 

IN 1822 Dr. Buckland addressed to the Royal Society, 
of which he had been elected Fellow in 1818, a paper 
describing his researches in the bone cave of Kirkdale, 
which had been discovered in the preceding year in the 
Vale of Pickering, about twenty-five miles from York, and 
was the first fossil cave known in England. This paper 
was printed in the Philosophical Transactions for 1822, 
and made so considerable an impression that its author 
was, in the same year, honoured with the Copley Medal 
of the Royal Society. 

In 1823 Dr. Buckland published in a quarto volume his 
"Reliquiae Diluvianae." This important work made his 
name still more widely known. To its value and influence 
Professor Boyd Dawk ins of Owens College, Manchester, 
bears warm testimony: 

" I give you the impression of one who as an under- 
graduate fell under the influence of Dr. Buckland's name 
handed down by tradition at Oxford, and who afterwards, 



as a teacher, has had some experience of the value of his 
work. When I went up to Oxford in 1857, Dr. Buckland's 
name was a great memory in the University, and Professor 
Phillips, who had worked with him side by side almost 
from the beginning of his geological work, was giving 
lectures in the Old Clarendon Buildings facing the Broad. 
The parts of these lectures which left a Listing mark on 
me were those relating to the liassic reptiles, and the 
Reptiles and Mammalia from Stoncsficld, both of which 
had been cither discovered, or specially dealt with, by Dr. 
Buckland in the Bridgcwatcr Treatise, and were in his 
collection. There were also the large collections from the 
bone caves of Germany and England described by him in 
the ' Reliquiae Diluviana:,' which profoundly impressed me 
and caused me to take up more particularly that section 
of the history of the earth about which I have written in 
' Cave Hunting/ 

u I therefore in my own person can speak of the great 
influence which Dr. Buckland's work has aad on me, 
cither directly from his collection, or through his friend 
Professor Phillips. I shall never cease to venerate his 
name. His books still, in my opinion, belong to the classics 
of Geology, although of course during the last seventy 
years the theories as to the Deluge and the -doctrine of 
Final Causes have changed. The facts, however, have not 
changed, and, in my work as Professor in Owens College, I 
still use as a class-book the last edition of the Bridgcwater 
Treatise edited by Phillips for the Reptiles, the Stoncsfield 
Mammalia, and the Pentacrinoids. My book on 'Cave 
Hunting* is a lineal descendant of ' Reliquiae DiluvianaV 
and probably I should never have taken up that question 
had Dr. Buckland's book never been written," 

When Dr. Buckland was writing this essay on Kirkdale 
Cavern, he took great pains to compare the bones there 
found with recent bones, in order to make his story quite 

* In the Kirkdale cave he found a portion of a skul 




which he believed belonged to a young hyena, and although 
nearly certain that it was what he thought it to be, he 
ransacked all the collections he knew for a recent skull 
of a young animal for comparison ; and not finding one, he 
requested Mr. Burchell, the great African traveller, to send 
him a young hyena from the Cape. In course of time the 
baby-beast arrived in the Docks ; a pretty tame little beast, 
a great favourite with the sailors, who had christened him 
4 Billy,' doomed nevertheless to be slain for the sake of 
science. The late Mr. Cross, then of Exeter 'Change, and 


afterwards of the Surrey Zoological Gardens, acted as agent, 
and undertook the delivery of poor ' Billy.' The little brute, 
however, by his good temper and playful manners, quite 
won the heart of Mr. Cross, who begged hard for his life, 
and at length obtained a respite on the condition that 
the skull of a young hyena should be forthcoming. Mr. 
Cross, we suppose, turned out all his drawers and cabinets 
in search ; anyhow, he, within the given time, produced 
a skull, which was not the skull of poor Billy. His life 
was spared, and he was forthwith taken to Exeter 'Change, 
and thence removed with the rest of the wild beasts to the 
Surrey Zoological Gardens. 


"'The Companion to the Royal Menagerie, Exeter 
'Change, containing concise descriptions, scientific and 
interesting, of the curious foreign animals now in that emi- 
nent collection, derived from actual observation, by Edward 
Cross, Proprietor, 1820,' describes Billy, then in his youth, 
but amiable withal : * The hyena in a cage at the end of 
the room is possessed of a large share of .good humour, and 
entertains the visitors at feeding time by the gesticula- 
tions of delight he manifests at the moment, and by his 
curious imitations of the human voice resembling laughter. 
This animal suffers himself to be caressed, and is so 
familiar with the keepers, that when any repairs arc 
wanting in his cage they have no hesitation in going 
in with him. (N.B. This was before the day of Van 
Hamborough, and other lion kings.) He is a native of the 
Cape of Good Hope, and is frequently called the Tiger 
Wolf/ Billy arrived in England in the year 1820, and 
he died in his den a peaceable quiet death, January I4th, 
1846, having lived just a quarter of a century within this 
metropolis. . . . 

" At his decease (the cause of death, fins old age, 
being an enormous goitre in the throat), Dr. Buckland 
presented his carcass to the Royal College of Surgeons, 
reserving, however, the skin for himself. . . . Billy first 
made his dtbut as the youngest hyena in England ; he 
ended his career grim and grisly as the oldest hyena 
in England, and probably in Europe. The stuffed skin 
is now at the College of Surgeons in company with his 
skeleton, having been bought at the sale (of the Dean's 
effects, January 1857) by Professor Quckett. Not only 
was Billy subservient to the cause of science when dead, 
but even when alive he unknowingly gave much important 
assistance to his former owner, then busy with the ' Reliquia; 
Diluvianae,' for Billy cracked the marrow-bones of oxen, 
and refused those bones which contained no marrow, 
exactly as did his ancestors ages before him in the wilds 
of Yorkshire, as yet untrodden by the foot of man. So 
wonderfully alike were these bones in their fracture, that, 
judging from this point alone, it was impossible to say 

822-1824.] HYENAS. 59 

which bone had been cracked by Billy and which by the 
aboriginal hyena of Kirkdale. Again, Billy polished with 
his feet and hide the sides and floor of his den of wood, 
as his ancestors did the sides and floor of their den of 
stalactite in the Yorkshire hills ; and as the ancient beasts 
deposited album grcccum in abundance after a dinner of 
bones, so did Billy deposit pounds of the same substance, 
even in this minute circumstance illustrating the history 
of his ancient British forefathers." l 

No one then believed either in the probability or 
possibility of wild beasts, which now exist only in warm 
climates, having lived and died in our Yorkshire wolds. 
Hence Dr. Buckland was bound to give proof of his 
assertions, and, as usual, spared no pains or trouble in 
verifying the novel and extraordinary results of his 
examination of the cave. He took Sir Humphry Davy 
to visit it, and writes to the Rev. W. Vcrnon Harcourt that 
the eminent scientist " is satisfied with the accuracy of my 
facts." He adds : " We have had this week in Oxford 
a Cape hyena who has performed admirably on shins 
of beef, leaving precisely those parts which are left at 
Kirkdale and devouring what are there wanting, and 
leaving splinters and scanty marks of his teeth on the 
residuary fragments which are not distinguished from 
those in the den." 

Dr. Buck-land's interest in hyenas caused some amusement 
to his friend Lyell, who writes to Dr. Mantell, in 1826: 
"Buckland has got a letter from India about modern 
hyenas, whose manners, habitations, diet, etc., are every- 

1 Frank Buckland's "Curiosities of Natural History," 2nd series. 


thing he could wish and as much as could be expected 
had they attended regularly this course of his lectures." 

Buckland found in the Kirkdale cave not only remains 
of hyenas, but teeth and bones of twenty-three different 
animals among them tiger, bear, wolf, elephant, rhino- 
ceros, hippopotamus, horse, ox, three species of deer, hare, 
rabbit, water-rat, mouse. Of birds' remains, he also 
found raven, pigeon, lark, snipe, and a small species of 
duck resembling the anas sponsor or summer duck. This 
wonderful cave no longer exists, having been quarried 
away. Buckland says : " The workmen on first discover- 
ing the bones at Kirkdale cave supposed them to have 
belonged to cattle that died of a murrain in this district 
a few yea**s before, and they were for some time neglected 
and thrown on the roads with the common limestone." 
It was to the kindness of the Bishop of Oxford (Legge) 
that the Professor was indebted for the first information 
as to the existence of the cave. He visited it in December 
1821, and described the entrance as "a hole in the perpen- 
dicular face of the quarry about three feet high and five 
feet broad, which it is only possible for a man to enter on 
his hands and knees, and which expands and contracts 
itself irregularly, from two to seven feet in breadth and 
two to fourteen feet in height, diminishing however as it 
proceeds into the interior of the hill." 

From Dr. Buckland's minute account of the contents of 
the cave the following abridged extract may be taken : 

"The bottom of the cave, on first removing the mud, was 
found to be strewed all over like a dog kennel, from one 
end to the other, with hundreds of teeth and bones, or 




rather broken and splintered fragments of bones, of all the 
animals above enumerated ; they were found in greatest 
quantity near its mouth, simply because its area in this 
part was most capacious; those of the larger animals, 
elephant, rhinoceros, etc., were found co-extensively with 
all the rest even in the inmost and smallest recesses. 
Scarcely a single bone has escaped fracture, and on 

- x^\v 3Ts> 3K> NJ 

. ^xX^Cv^ ^ 

"^I^S^^^^ -^^"^^ V ^^N 





* >^.-~ N 


some of the bones, marks may be traced, which, on 
applying one to the other, appear exactly to fit the form 
of the canine teeth of the hyena that occur in the cave. 
The hyena's bones have been broken, and apparently 
gnawed equally with those of the other animals. Not one 
skull is to be found entire; fragments of jaw-bones are 
by no means common ; the ordinary fate of the jaw-bones, 
as of all the rest, appears to have been to be broken to 


pieces and swallowed, the teeth being rejected as too hard 
for mastication, and without marrow. The greatest 
number of teeth arc those of hyenas and the ruminantia. 
Mr. Gibson alone collected more than three hundred canine 
teeth of the hyena, which at the least must have belonged 
to seventy-five individuals, and adding to these the canine 
teeth I have seen in other collections, \ cannot calculate 
the total number of hyenas of which iherc is evidence at 
less than two hundred or three hundred. The only remains 
that have been found of the tiger species are two large 
canine teeth and a few molar teeth. There is one tusk 
only of a bear, which exactly resembles those of the extinct 
Ursns spclaus of the caves of Germany, the size of which, 
M. Cuvier says, must have equalled those of a large horse. 
It is probable that the cave at Kirkdale was, during a long 
succession of years, inhabited as a den by hyenas, and that 
they dragged into its recesses the other animal bodies 
whose remains are found mixed indiscriminately with their 
own." 1 

Buckland's friend the Rev. William Conybeare made 
a caricature of the Professor entering the cave, and wrote 
the following amusing verses : 

" But of all the miraculous caves, 
And of all their miraculous stories, ... ~. 
Kirby Hole all its brethren outbraves, 
With Buckland to tell of its glories. 

"Ages long ere this planet was formed, 
(1 beg pardon before it was drowned,) 
Fierce and fell were the monsters that swarmed, 
Roared, and rolled in these hollows profound. 

" I can show you the fragments half-gnawed, 
Their own album gracum I've spied, 
And here are the bones that they pawed, 
And polished in scratching their hide. 

1 " Reliquiae Diluvianae," p. 1 5. 

1822-1824.] GOAT HOLE. 63 

"I know how they fared every day, 
Can tell Sunday's from Saturday's dinner; 
What rats they devoured, can say, 
When the game of the forest grew thinner. 

"Your elk of the bogs was a meat 
That each common hunt might obtain, 
But an elephant's haunch was a treat 
They only could hope now and then. 

" Mystic cavern ! the gloom of thy cell, 
Shedding light on each point that was dark, 
Tells the hour by Shrewsbury clock 
When Noah went into the ark. 

"By the crust on the stalactite floor, 
The post-Adamite ages I've reckoned 
Summed their years, days, and hours, and more, 
And hnd it comes right to a second. 

"Mystic cavern! thy clearness sublime 
All the chasms of history supply; 
What was done ere the birthday of Time, 
Through one other such hole I could spy." 

Another famous cave was Paviland or Goat Hole, in 
the district of Gower. This discovery is on the coast of 
Glamorganshire, fifteen miles west of Swansea, between 
Oxwich Bay and the Worm's Head, on the property of 
C. M. Talbot, Esq., of Penrice Castle. It consists of two 
large caves facing the sea in the front of a lofty cliff of 
limestone, which rises more than one hundred feet perpen- 
dicularly above the mouth of the caves, and below them 
slopes at an angle of 40 to the water's edge, presenting 
the bluff and ragged shores to the waves, which are very 
violent along this north coast of the estuary of the 
Severn. These caves are altogether invisible from the 


land side, and arc. accessible only at low water, except by 
dangerous climbing along the face of a nearly precipitous 
cliff, composed entirely of compact mountain limestone, 

"One of them only called Goat's Hole," writes Buck- 
land in the ' Reliquiae Diluvianae,' " had been noticed when 
I arrived there. ... Its existence had .been long known 
to the farmers of the adjacent lands, as well as the fact 
of its containing large bones, but it had been no further 
attended to till last summer, when it was explored by the 
surgeon and curate of the nearest village, Porteynon, who 
discovered in it two molar teeth of elephant and a 
portion of a large curved tusk, which latter they buried 
again in the earth, where it remained till it was extracted 
a second time, on a further examination of the cave by 
L. W. Dillwyn, Esq., and Miss Talbot, and removed to 
Penrice Castle, together with a large part of the skull to 
which it had belonged, and several baskets full of other 
teeth and bones. On the news of this further discovery being 
communicated to me, I went immediately from Derbyshire 
to Wales, and found the position of the cave to be such as 
I have above described ; and its floor at the mouth to be 
from thirty to forty feet above high-water mark, so that 
the waves of the highest storms occasionally dash into it, 
and have produced three or four deep rock basins in its 
very threshold, by the rolling on their axis of large stones, 
which still lie at the bottom of these basins; around their 
edge, and in the outer part of the cave itself, are strewed 
a considerable number of sea pebbles, resting on the native 
limestone rock. . . . Where the pebbles cease, the floor is 
covered with a mass of diluvial loam of a reddish yellow 
colour, abundantly mixed with angular fragments of lime- 
stone and broken calcareous spar, and interspersed with 
recent sea shells, and with teeth and bones of the following 
animals, viz. elephant, rhinoceros, bear, hyena, wolf, fox, 
horse, ox, deer of two or three species, water-rats, sheep, 
birds, and man. 

" 1 found also fragments of charcoal, and a small flint, 

1822-1824.] GOAT HOLE. 6$ 

the edges of which had been chipped off, as if by striking 
a light. 1 . . . 

" In another part I discovered beneath a shallow cover- 
ing of six inches of earth nearly the entire left side of 
a human female skeleton. The skull and vertebrae, and 
extremities of the right side were wanting ; the remaining 
parts lay extended in the usual position of burial and in 
their natural order of contact In the middle of the bones 
of the ancle was a small quantity of yellow wax-like sub- 
stance resembling adipoccre. All the bones were stained 
superficially with a dark brick-red colour, and enveloped 
by a coating of a kind of ruddle, which stained the earth, 
and in some parts extended itself to the distance of about 
half an inch around the surface of the bones. The body 
must have been entirely surrounded or covered over at the 
time of its interment with this red substance. Close to 
that part of the thigh bone where the pocket is usually 
worn, I found laid together and surrounded also by 
ruddle about two handsful of small shells of the Nerita 
littoralis in a state of great decay, and falling to dust on 
the slightest pressure. At another part of the skeleton, 
viz. in contact with the ribs, I found forty or fifty fragments 
of small ivory rods. ... In another place were found 
three fragments of the same ivory, which had been 
cut into unmeaning forms by a rough-edged instrument, 
probably a coarse knife, the marks of which remain on 
all their surfaces. One of these fragments is nearly of 
the shape and . size of a human tongue. No metallic 
instruments have been as yet found amongst these remains, 
which, though clearly not coeval with the antediluvian 
bones of the extinct species, appear to have lain there 
many centuries. The charcoal and fragments of recent 
bone that are apparently the remains of human fooa, 
render it probable that this exposed and solitary cave has 
at some time or other been the scene of human habitation, 

1 Dr. Buckland states that the most remarkable of the remains of 
these animals are preserved in the collection at Penrice Castle, and in 
the museum at Oxford. 




if to no other persons, at least to the woman whose bones 
I have been describing. 

" The ivory rings and rods and tongue-shaped fragment 
are certainly made from part of the antediluvian tusks 
that lay in the same cave ; and as they must have been cut 
to their present shape at a time when the ivory was hard, 
and not crumbling to pieces as it is at present on the 
slightest touch, we may assume to. them very high 
antiquity, which is further confirmed by the decayed state 
of the shells that lay in contact with the thigh bone, and, 
like the rods and rings, must have been buried with the 
woman. The circumstance of the remains of a British 
camp existing on the hill immediately above this cave, 
seems to throw much light on the character and date of 
the woman ; and whatever may have been her occupation, 
the vicinity of a camp would afford a motive for residence 
as well as the means of subsistence in what is now so 
exposed and uninviting a solitude. 

" The fragments of charcoal and recent bones of oxen, 
sheep, and pigs, are probably the remains of culinary 
operations ; the larger shells may have been collected, 
also for food, from the adjacent shore, and the small ncrite 
shells either have been kept in the pocket for the beauty 
of their yellow colour, or have been used, ^s I am 
informed by the Rev. Henry Knight, of Newton Nottagc, 
they now arc in that part of Glamorganshire, in some 
simple species of game. The ivory rods also may have 
been applicable to some game, as we use chess men or 
pins of a cribbage board ; or they may be fragments of 
pins, such as Sir Richard Hoarc has found in the barrows 
of Wilts and Dorset, together with large bodkins also of 
ivory, and which were probably used to fasten together the 
coarse garments of the ancient Britons. It is a curious 
coincidence also, that he has found in a barrow near 
Warminster, at Cop Head Hill, the shell of a ncrite and 
some ivory beads, which were laid by the skeletons of an 
infant and an adult female, apparently its mother. 

" That ivory rings were at that time used as armlets, 
is probable from the circumstance of similar rings having 



also been found by Sir Richard Hoare in these same 
barrows ; and from a passage in Strabo, lib. 4, which Mr. 
Knight has pointed out to me, in which, speaking of the 
small taxes which it was possible to levy on the Britons, 
he specifics their imports to be very insignificant, consist- 
ing chiefly of ivory armlets and necklaces, Ligurian stones, 
glass vessels, and other suchlike trifles. The custom of 


<iV- *' '.>' 4 ~r ' s**F?, f^. - . 

' - -* > 


burying with their possessors the ornaments and chief 
utensils of the deceased, is evident from the remains of 
this kind discovered everywhere in the ancient barrows; 
and this may explain the circumstance of our finding with 
the bones of the woman at Paviland the ivory rods, and 
rings, and ncritc shells, which she had probably made use 
of during life. I am at a loss to conjecture what could 
have been the object of collecting the red oxide of iron 
that seems to have been thrown over the body when laid 


in the grave: it is a substance, however, which occurs 
abundantly in the limestone rocks of the neighbourhood. 
From all these circumstances there is reason to conclude 
that the date of these human bones is coeval with that of the 
military occupation of the adjacent summits, and anterior to, 
or coeval with, the Roman invasion of this country. . . . 

" It remains only to describe a long, cavernous aperture 
that rises like a crooked chimney from its roof to the 
nearly vertical face of the rock above : its form and 
diameter are throughout irregular, the latter being about 
twelve feet where longest, and in its narrowest part about 
three feet ; so that it is impossible the large elephant, 
whose bones were found in the cave below, could have 
been drifted down entire through this aperture. It ex- 
pands and contracts irregularly from D (see Plate), its 
lower extremity in the roof of the cavern, to K, the point 
at which it terminates in the face of the cliff". 

" Along this tortuous ascent are several lateral cavities, 
L.L.L. the bottoms of which afford a place of lodgment 
for a bed of brown earth, about a foot thick, and derived 
apparently from dust driven in continually by the wind. 
In this earth I found the bones of various birds and 
fish, and a few land shells, of moles, water-rats, and mice, 
and their presence here can only be explained by 
referring them to the agency of hawks, and fish-bones to 
that of the seagulls. The land shells arc such as live 
at present on the rock without, and may easily have 
fallen in. Had there been any stalagmite uniting these 
bones into a breccia 1 they, would have afforded a per- 
fect analogy to the accumulation of modern birds' bones, 
by the agency of hawks, at Gibraltar ; where Major Imric 
describes them as forming a breccia of modern origin in 
fissures of the same rock which has other cavities filled 
with a bony breccia of more ancient date, and which arc 
of the same antediluvian origin with the older parts of the 
bones that occur on the floor of the cave at Paviland." 2 

1 Breccia consists of fragments of different rocks cemented together. 
* Miss Talbot, the present owner of Penrice Castle, writes from 

1822-1824.] DREAM LEAD MINE. 69 

The following jeu cf esprit on the female skeleton found 
by Dr. Buckland in the Paviland Cave is from the pen of 
Mr. Philip Duncan : 

14 Have ye heard of the woman so long underground ? 
Have ye heard of the woman that Buckland has found, 
With her bones of empyreal hue ? 
Oh, fair one of modern days ! hang down your head, 
The antediluvians rouged when dead 
Only granted in lifetime to you!" 

A third cave was that which was discovered in the 
Dream Lead Mine, Derbyshire. The lead mine called 
the Dream is in the hamlet of Caelow, about one mile 
from Wirksworth, and on the property of Philip Cell, 
Esq., by whose exertions nearly the entire skeleton of a 
rhinoceros was extracted, together with some considerable 
remains of the horse, ox, and deer. 

Buckland thus describes the cave and its contents: 

"In December 1822, some miners engaged in pursuing 
a lead vein had sunk a shaft about sixty feet through solid 
mountain limestone, when they suddenly penetrated a large 
cavern, filled entirely to the roof with a confused mass of clay 
and fragments of stone, through which they attempted to 
continue their shaft perpendicularly downwards to the vein 
below ; in this operation they were interrupted by the earth 
and fragments beginning to move and fall in upon them 
continually from the sides until the roof of a large cavern 
became apparent. It was nearly in the centre of this 
subsiding mass, and at the height of many feet above the 
floor of the cave, that the workmen discovered the bones of 
a rhinoceros. They lay very near to each other, and prob- 
ably formed an entire skeleton before they were disturbed. 

Margam December 13th, 1892: 'We have a number of bones at 
Penrice Castle which were found in Paviland Cave, but I belisve the 
bulk of them were taken to the Swansea Museum." I 


The bones arc in a state of high preservation, and from a 
nearly full grown animal, and, being found so close together, 
are without doubt portions of a skeleton which lay entire in 
the middle of the cave before the materials that had filled it 
began to subside. There were no supernumerary bones, to 
indicate the presence of a second rhinoceros ; but in the 
same cave were found some teeth and bones of a horse, and 
many entire bones from the legs of a very large ox, all 
apparently from one individual ; also many bones of deer 
from at least four individuals, and fragments of horns, none 
so large as those of red deer. From the circumstance that 
none of these bones have marks of partial decay on one 
surface only, we may infer that they were derived from 
animals that perished by the waters that introduced them 
to the cave : they are of a yellowish brown colour. . . . 

" For some time after the cave was penetrated there was 
no apparent communication between its interior arid the 
surface ; but as the loose materials that at first filled it 
subsided into and were taken out by the shaft, a sinking 
appeared in the field above at I, and a further mass of 
the same kind, viz. clay and fragments of limestone, mixed 
with a few rolled pebbles of quartz, continued to fall down- 
wards into it (like the contents of a limekiln, sinking to- 
wards the lower aperture by which the lime is extracted), 
until a large open chasm D, more than six feet broad, and 
fifty feet deep, was left entirely void, and seemed to form 
a direct communication from the side of the cave to the 
surface of the field above. Till undermined in this manner, 
the fissure D had been entirely filled, and the surface 
afforded not the slightest indication of its existence ; at 
present it is restored to the same state of an open chasrn 
in which it probably was before the access of the diluvian 
waters, that appear to have swept into it the mud and 
rocky fragments which filled both it and the cave below ;> 
and on examining its sides, I found the projecting parts of 
them rubbed and scratched by the descent of these heavy 
bodies as they dropped in from above. 

"From the situation of the rhinoceros* bones in the 
middle of this drifted mass, and in the centre of the cave, 



added to the juxtaposition of so many of the component 
parts of one entire skeleton, which are neither rolled, or 
gnawed, or broken, except by the movement they have 
recently undergone, and the pickaxes of the miners, it 
seems probable that they arc the remains of a carcase that 
was drifted in entire at the same time with the diluvial 
detritus, in the midst of which they were found embedded : 


had they been washed in singly, they would have been 
slightly rolled and scattered irregularly, and we should 
probably have found parts of more than a single individual ; 
and had they been derived from an animal that fell into 
the fissure, and perished before the introduction of the 
diluvium, they would not have been suspended, as they 
were, altogether nearly in the middle of it, but would have 
lain either on the actual floor of the cave beneath the 
loam and pebbles, or have been scattered and drifted 


irregularly to different and distant parts of its lowest 
recesses. I could discover no stalagmite 1 and but few 
traces of stalactite in any part of this cavern, or of the 
fissure immediately connected with it" 1 

Although Buckland describes several German caves in 
his "Reliquiae Diluvianae," it will suffice to select the cave 
of Gailenreuth, near Muggcnendorf, in Bavaria, which he 
visited in 1816, and again in 1822. It is by far the most 
remarkable cave in Germany, both for the quantity and 
high preservation of the bones that have been extracted 
from it, and, like other foreign caves, differs from those of 
our own country by having its mouth still open, and in 
the appearance of having been inhabited also in the post- 
diluvian period. 

Buckland describes the Gailenreuth cavern as 

"situated in a perpendicular rock, in the highest part 
of the cliffs which form the left side of the valley of the 
Weissent River, .at an elevation of more than three 
hundred feet above its bed. . . . The cave consists princi- 
pally of two large chambers, varying in breadth from ten 
to thirty feet, and in height from three to twenty feet : 
the roof is in most parts abundantly hung with stalactite ; 
and in the first chamber, the floor is nearly covered with 

1 Stalactites are like icicles of stone hanging from the roofs of caverns, 
formed by the dropping of water containing particles of lime through 
fissures and pores of rocks. Stalagmites are a deposit of stalactitic 
matter on the floors of caverns, sometimes rising into columns which 
meet and blend with the stalactites above. 

* "Reliquise Diluvianae," pp. 6 1 to 64. The bones from the caves of 
Gailenreuth and Kirkdale, and a bit of the red woman's bone from 
Paviland, can be seen beautifully arranged in a case on the right hand 
side of the Geological Gallery of the Natural History Museum at 
South Kensington. 




stalagmite, piled in irregular mamillated heaps, one of 
which in the centre is accumulated into a large pillar 
uniting the roof to the floor. We descend by ladders 
to a second chamber, the floor of which also appears to 
have been once overspread with a similar stalagmitic 
crust: this, however, has been nearly destroyed by holes 
dug through it, in search of the prodigious quantities of 

* -^ffi-'- *"""*^^ ^UA / - 

52^'i^T ^!L * '^ 


bones that lie beneath. The cave is connected by a low 
and narrow passage, with a smaller cavern, at the bottom 
of which is a nearly circular hole, descending like a well 
about twenty-five feet, and from three to four feet in 
diameter, into which you let yourself down, as in climbing 
a chimney, by supporting the hands, feet, and back 
against the opposite sides. The circumference of this 
hole is for the most part composed of a breccia of bones, 
pebbles, and loam, cemented by stalagmite : on one side of 


it is a lateral cavity, which is entirely artificial, and is the 
spot from which the most perfect skulls and bones have 
been extracted in the greatest abundance ; the lowest cavity 
is also entirely surrounded with the breccia above described. 
The roof and the sides of the artificial cavities, having 
been dug in the breccia, are crowded with teeth and bones ; 
but these latter do not occur in the roof or sides of any 
of the upper or natural chambers above the level of the 
stalagmitic crust that covers their floor ; this applies 
equally to all the other caverns I have been describing." 

One more passage may be quoted from " Reliquiae 
Diluvianae." The passage describes the Siberian mam- 
moth {Mammoth Elephas Primigenius) preserved in the 
Museum of the Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg. The 
specimen has much of the dead skin still covering the 
head and feet Its carcass was originally found entire, 
buried in frozen mud near the mouth of the river Lena, 
in Siberia, and the skeleton was brought to St Petersburg 
by Adams in 1806. A portion of its skin and hair was 
presented to Dr. Buckland, and he esteemed this relic as 
one of his greatest treasures. In 1825 he writes to the 
Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, telling him that the Bishop of 
Durham, Shute Harrington, to whom he had dedicated the 
" Reliquiae Diluvianae," 

" has required me to have the lock of hair, etc, of the 
Siberian mammoth preserved in some appropriate manner 
at his expense. I mean to place it under crystal in the 
cover of a box of fossil ivory, if I can get any sufficiently 
hard, which I have not here ; but I remember that a 
lapidary and curiosity collector at Burlington, whose name 
you probably know, but I forget, has just such a piece of 
a tusk from that coast A great part of it had actually 
been made into boxes, and the remainder was in his 

1822-1824.] THE SIBERIAN MAMMOTH. 75 

collection, being four or five inches long, and for which he 
asked a very high price, four or five guineas. If I can 
get one and a half inches long from the most perfect end 
I shall not quarrel with the price." 

Eventually these precious relics of the mammoth were 
enshrined in a silver box. In the "Reliquiae Diluvianse* 
the monster itself is thus described : 

"The fossil elephant differs from any living species 
of that genus, but approaches more nearly to the Asiatic 
than to that of Africa. The term mammoth (animal 
of the earth) has been applied to it by the natives of 
Siberia, who imagined the bones to be those of some 
huge animal that lived at present like a mole beneath 
the surface of the earth. It appears from the wonderful 
specimen that was found entire in the ice of Tungusia, 
that this species was clothed with coarse tufty wool of 
a reddish colour, interspersed with stiff black hair, unlike 
that of any known animal ; that it had a long mane on 
its neck and back, and had its ears protected by tufts of 
hair, and was at least sixteen feet high. 

" The bones of elephants occurring in Britain had from 
very ancient times attracted attention, and are mentioned 
with wonder by the early historians. The old and vulgar 
notion that they were gigantic bones of ihe human species 
is at once refuted by the smallest knowledge of anatomy. 
The next idea, which long prevailed, and was considered 
satisfactory by the antiquaries of the last century, was, 
that they were the remains of elephants imported by the 
Roman armies. This idea is also refuted : first by the 
anatomical fact of their belonging to an extinct species of 
this genus ; secondly, by their being usually accompanied 
by the bones of rhinoceros and hippopotamus, animals 
which could never have been attached to Roman armies ; 
thirdly, by their being found dispersed over Siberia and 
North America, in equal or even greater abundance than 
in those parts of Europe which were subjected to the 
Roman power. The later and still more rational idea, 


that they were drifted northwards by the diluvian waters 
from tropical regions, must be abandoned on the authority 
of the evidence afforded by the den at Kirkdale ; and it 
now remains only to admit that they must have inhabited 
the countries in which their bones are found. 

"In the streets of London the teeth and bones are often 
found, in digging foundations and sewers, embedded in 
the gravel ; e.g. elephants' teeth have been found under 
twelve feet of gravel in Gray's Inn Lane ; and lately at 
thirty feet deep, in digging the grand sewer, near Charles 
Street, on the east of Waterloo Place. At Kingsland, near 
Hoxton, in 1806, an entire elephant's skull was discovered, 
containing two tusks of enormous length, as well as the 
grinding-teeth ; they have also been frequently found at 
Ilford, on the road from London to Harwich, and, indeed, 
in almost all the gravel-pits round London. The teeth 
arc of all sizes, from the milk-teeth to those of the larger 
and most perfect growth ; and some of* them show all 
the intei mediate and peculiar stages of change to which 
the teeth of modern elephants are subject In the gravel- 
pits of Oxford and Abingdon, teeth and tusks, and various 
bones of the elephant, arc found mixed with the bones 
of rhinoceros, horse, ox, hog, and several species of deer, 
often crowded together in the same pit, and seldom rolled 
or rubbed at the edges, although they have not been found 
united in entire skeletons. 

"In the Ashmolean Museum there are some vertebrae, 
and a thigh bone of an enormous elephant, at least sixteen 
feet high, which are in the most delicate state of preserva- 
tion, and were found in the gravel at Abingdon four or five 
years ago. In the same pit with them were collected also 
fragments of sixteen horns of deer. . . . About three years 
since a large molar tooth of an elephant was dug up in a 
gravel-pit in one of the streets of Oxford, in front of 
St John's College. ... At Ncwnham, in Warwickshire, 
near Church Lawford, about two miles west of Rugby, two 
magnificent heads and numerous bones and teeth of several 
individuals of the Siberian rhinoceros, with many large 
tusks and teeth of elephants, and some stags' horns, and 

1822-1824.] "REUQUIJE DILUVIANsE." 77 

bones of the ox and horse, were found, in the year 1815, 
in a bed of diluvium, which is immediately incumbent on 
stratified beds of lias. . . . One of these heads, measuring 
in length two feet six inches, together with a small tusk, 
and molar tooth of an elephant, have, by the kindness of 
Henry Hakewell, Esq. (of architectural celebrity), been 
deposited in the museum at Oxford." 1 

A curved tusk, from the same place, measuring seven 
feet in length, together with a highly valuable collection 
of the bones of rhinoceros, 1 were deposited in the Oxford 
Museum till Dr. Buckland placed his collection in the 

The book achieved a remarkable success. Buckland 
writes to the Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, December 3rd, 

" I am very proud of the rapid sale my book has had ; 
not a copy has been left for some time. Mr. Murray is 
very busy in bringing out a second edition of one *housand 
copies more. You of course have seen the very flattering 
review of it in the Quarterly it is by Dr. Coplcston." 

Later on in the month he says : 

" The second edition of my first volume comes out this 
week, and Mr. Murray tells me he has already sold four 
hundred copies of it to the booksellers, and expects the 
whole edition (one thousand copies) will be out of print in 
six months. I cannot but think myself very successful in 
my first attempt at :. quarto vol. 

" I have just been to London to sit on a Committee of 

1 Reliquix Diluvianae," pp. 174 to 177. 

* Many of these latter have been engraved in Cuvier's "Animaux 
Fossiles," vol. ii., from drawings by Miss Morland, whom Dr. Buckland 
afterwards married. 


the Royal Society for selecting the best granite for the 
new London Bridge." 

In another letter to the same friend he writes, two years 
later : 

u I have just received a gold snuff-box set with mosaic 
from the Emperor of Russia, in acknowledgment of a 
copy I sent him of my * Reliquiae Diluvianae.' I am just 
returned," he continues, " from exploring two more hyenas' 
dens in Devonshire. They were less populous than 
Kirkdalc, but have abundance of splinter and a fair supply 
of toes and teeth. I found the teeth of rhinoceros in 
addition to hyenas, bears, and tigers, which have been 
noticed there by Trcvclyan, and found also a flint knife of 
the same kind as the one I have from Paviland, showing 
both these caves to have been inhabited by people who 
used such knives, i.e. aboriginal Britons. In the other at 
Chudleigh I delighted Lord Clifford by finding, under a 
thick crust of virgin stalagmite, bears and hyenas of 
enormous size, and plenty of splinters and gnawed frag- 
ments in a bed of mud more than five feet deep and of 
which I did not reach the bottom. I passed for a conjurer 
by telling them where the bones would lie before the crust 
was touched, and the more so as in three subsequent 
experiments hardly any bones were found ; it was the 
finest proof possible of the verity of my theory, for it was 
precisely in the spot where, according to that theory, they 
ought to occur in the greatest abundance that they were 
so found, according to the entire convictions and con- 
version of Lord Clifford, who had before been persuaded 
by G. Pcnn to be an unbeliever in my book. Sir T. 
Acland was with me in my examinations of both these 
caves, and dug as if he had been member for Cornwall 
rather than for people who, like my constituents, live above 

When the u Reliquiae Diluvianse " was published, the lime 
caverns at Dudley had never been opened ; but as the 

1822-1824.] DUDLEY CAVERNS. j 79 

subject of bone caves will not call for attention & a later 
period of the narrative, it will not be out of place he.TC 
to translate an account written of them by a scientific 
foreigner, who made Buckland's acquaintance and was in 
his company when these caves were illuminated. The 
author, who is a German naturalist, 1 thus tells his story : 

" These lime caverns, although only the work of art, are 
nearly one English mile in length and about a hundred feet 
high ; the breadth may be about seventy-five feet But for 
what purpose were such gigantic caverns made by the 
hands of man ? The neighbouring iron works use, as 
a flux in smelting, great quantities of lime, and Lord 
Ward furnishes this requisite from the Dudley Caverns, 
which belong to him. We can form an idea of the 
quantity of lime excavated for this purpose, when we 
learn that the above-mentioned caverns were begun less 
than ten years ago by the excavation of this stone, and 
(according to several estimates given to me) the owner 
draws from these lime-pits a yearly income of from 1 5,000 
to 20,000. Another, and a still larger, cave, beg^n in the 
same way, is even now becoming profitable. Lord Ward, 
on the occasion of the meeting of the British Association 
at Birmingham 1839 (under the Presidentship of the Rev. 
W. Vernon Harcourt), for the convenience of the company, 
had this vast subterranean vault most brilliantly lighted. 
It must have cost him many hundreds of pounds, for the 
number of lights erected was almost incredible, and in 
addition, at short intervals throughout the whole extent 
of the cave, artificial lights were burning in galleries hewn 
out for the purpose. 

"In order to reach the entrance, we descended from a 
considerable height through an excavation, and boats were 
ready to take us along the canal leading to the interior. 

1 " Mittheilungcn aus dem Rcisetagcbuche cines deutschen Natur- 
forschers Eng." (Basel, 1842.) 


As the illumination of the Dudley Caverns is of very rare 
occurrence, thousands of people flocked from the surround- 
ing country, in spite of the abominable weather, in order 
to witness the unusual and beautiful spectacle. Naturally 
only a small part of the crowd could be conveyed by the 
boats, and the greater part had to proceed by the galleries. 
Just as the foremost boat, in which I was, passed through 
the doorway, which had been boldly blasted in the rock, 
and we had cast the first glance over the immeasurable 
sea of light and flame, the long vault resounded with 
thunder crashes and rollings in quick succession. We 
thought the foundations of the earth were moving, that 
they were on the point of giving way, that a great 
geological catastrophe was approaching which would bury 
unlearned and learned alike in the bowels of the earth, in 
order to furnish to posterity some materials of comparative 
anatomy for the precise definition of the organisation of 
the Adamite creation. But it was only weak man who 
made this noise ; at the farthest end of the cavern a huge 
mass of limestone had been blown up by gunpowder in 
order to show the company how the caverns were begun, 
and millions of pieces of stone were torn from the bosom 
of the earth. 

" Whilst the more fortunate of the visitors to the cavern 
pressed on to the interior of the hill comfortably in 
their boats, and were alone in a position to see the whole 
of the fairy-like spectacle, the crowd was obliged to twist 
and jostle each other through the higher passages and 
paths ; but the moving throng indispensably contributed 
to the artistic life of the scene. As the floor of the hcwn- 
out galleries is sometimes broad and somewhat steep, we 
were able to survey completely the moving masses, and 
watch the most wonderful groups form themselves and 
vanish again in the manifold lights. Sometimes the 
people's faces shone in a greyish red light ; sometimes there 
appeared, alongside and in front of us, a crowd of ghostly 
corpses pacing the Lower Regions, so pale and ashy did 
the people in their stony heights seem to us in our little 
boats. The miners had been obliged to leave at short 

1822-1824.] DUDLEY CAVERNS. 81 

distances massive pillars of limestone, to support the 
over-lying hill ; this row of columns gave to the long 
cavern an artistic effect, and the moving human stream, 
alternately hidden by the pillars and re-appearing in 
the free spaces, presented a singular appearance. Very 
peculiar, also, was the noise produced by the footsteps and 
the simultaneous talking of some thousands of people, 
and also the oars of many boats, through the re-echoing 
arches of the caverns ; indeed so loud was the humming 
and buzzing that we could scarcely hear ourselves 

" When we had nearly reached the farther end of the 
cavern, the flotilla of boats was ordered to stop and the 
foot- passengers stood still. Then Murchison, who had 
made these regions an especial subject of his researches, 
ascended to a high point, and announced to the assembled 
crowd that he would give them a short description of the 
geological condition of the surrounding hill. ' Silence, 
silence ! ' sounded from a thousand throats along the cave, 
and in a few moments the buzzing noise had ceased, 
and in its place reigned the most complete silence. 
Murchison's voice had formerly been accustomed to com- 
mand a regiment, and had lost nothing of its penetrating 
power, which under the prevailing circumstances stood 
him and his listeners in good stead. In a clear and 
concise speech the distinguished Scottish geologist sought 
to make us contemplate the condition^ of the surrounding 
mountain mass, and to give an idea of the peculiarity of 
the formation of coal in general. 

u It needed a voice of thunder in order to be understood 
by all present in that gigantic subterranean dome. But 
that the thirst for knowledge of every one might be satisfied, 
Buckland went to the gallery, placed himself on a mighty 
block of stone, and lectured for more than an hour, he 
and his numerous audience being veiled in the wreathing 
sulphur smoke, upon the subject already handled by 
Murchison, but in so original and humorous a manner 
that he held the attention of his listeners in a way seldom 
witnessed. Next he sketched an extremely suggestive 



picture of the origin of the surrounding country, and the 
primeval plants and animal world which lie buried in it 
As is well known, the English have a peculiar love of 
regarding Nature from a theological point of view, and the 
celebrated Oxford geologist, as he proved by his last geo- 
logical work, is no exception to the rule. The immeasurable 
beds of iron-ore, coal, and limestone which are found in the 
neighbourhood of Birmingham, lying beside or above one 
another, and to which man has only to help himself in 
order to procure for his use the most useful of all metals in 
a liberal measure, may not, he urged, be considered as mere 
accident. On the contrary, it in fact expresses the most 
clear design of Providence to make the inhabitants of the 
British Isles, by means of this gift, the most powerful and 
the richest nation on the earth. This theme was treated by 
Buckland with every permissible variation, to the no small 
edification of the listening country people, and to my own 
great pleasure, even though I may not be able to accept his 
leading idea. 

" A rich field for oratorical and humorous development 
opened itself now, for the first time, as the speaker spoke 
of the importance of iron. Indeed, where would man be, 
had not kind fate given him in abundance this plain- 
looking metal? The possession of this good gift alone 
enables our race to reach the high level of culture 
which it holds at the present time. Without it man 
could never have gained his power over Nature, or 
enjoyed the immeasurable riches, pleasures, and advan- 
tages which the industrial and commercial worlds possess 
to-day. Without it man's mental horizon would be confined 
to much narrower limits ; his intellectual development 
could not have made its present advances, were not iron 
spread with such a lavish hand over the surface of our 
own country. When Nature gave this metal to man, she 
lent him an extraordinary power, bestowed upon him a 
mighty tool, and raised him from weakness to power, 
and to the lordship of this earth. If, therefore, there is a 
provident" 1 metal, it is neither gold nor silver, however 
highly man may estimate them. No, it is iron. 

1822-1824.] - : DUDLEY CA VEPNS. 83 

" Let us think, if we were deprived of this metal, what 
should we be from a physical view ? Thousands of bene- 
fits, thousands of conveniences, which we unconsciously 
enjoy every hour, would be withdrawn from us ; and how 
many indispensable necessaries it would be impossible to 
satisfy! Iron, then, has already become incalculably 
precious ; its value to the human race has become, in 
the highest sense of the word, inestimable. Yet still it 
continues to open out possibilities of immeasurable 
importance on quite a new side. By its capability of 
receiving magnetism of extraordinary strength in a 
moment, and of losing it again in as short a time, iron 
becomes an inexhaustible source of power. It ministers 
a mechanical strength to the household, which we can raise 
according to our inclination and render subject to our rule. 
It needs no great boldness of imagination to represent the 
mighty influence which the use of iron has exercised on 
our social relations. As the magnetic power of iron has 
for the last century allowed us to find our way across 
distant seas, so it will, perhaps at no distant period, bring 
together men by land and sea, bridging over vast spaces 
with a speed that outstrips the power of steam and vies 
with the swiftness of the wind. 

" I cannot end my comments upon this metal of metals 
without telling my readers that the excellent Buckland 
related the history of an old shoe with the most delightful 
humour. It fell into the hands of an African king, and 
brought him riches, renown, and respect, owing to there 
being nails in it ! Out of this small piece of iron was 
prepared I do not know how or of what kind a tool, 
which his African majesty lent far and wide for gold dust 
and other precious things, and through its means greatly 
raised the amount of his royal revenue. 

" After another half-hour's stay underground we gladly 
sought daylight again, and, amid the singing of ' God save 
the Queen ' from a thousand voices and the thundering 
crashes of blasted rocks renewed once more, boats and 
walkers alike left the remarkable vaults of Dudley 


In 1824 Dr. Buckland secured a Royal Charter for the 
Geological Society, 1 and was appointed its first President 
In February of that year he writes to the Rev. W. Vernon 
Harcourt an account of the first occasion on which he 
presided : 

a We had a great meeting in Bedford Street on 
Friday last, the largest I ever remember. The great 
attraction was the entire Plcsiosaurus which I have pur- 
chased for the Duke of Buckingham, and of which Mr. 
Conybcare on that evening read a description ; the speci- 
men is nearly entire, and, though a young animal, is ten 
feet long ; when full grown it must have been twenty feet 
at least. The neck has the very unusual number of forty 
vertebrae, head like a lizard, neck like a snake, body of a 
crocodile, paddles like a turtle and two feet long, tail very 
short, nearly equal to the length of a saddle ; its neck 
(double as long in proportion as the swan) is an anomaly 
as yet unique. I had also a paper on the Stonesficld 
Megalosaurus ; so that with two monsters of such a kind, 
and so crowded an audience, my first evening of taking the 
chair as President was one of great eclat" 

The meetings held at Somerset House were termed 
" Noctes Geologic^," and very brilliant these gatherings 
were when De la Bcche, Conybearc, Smith, Sedgwick, 
Lyell,* Murchison, Owen, Daubeny, Buckland, and others 

1 The Geological Society, which was founded on November 1 3th, 
1807, first occupied apartments of its own early in 1809, at No. 4, 
Garden Court, Temple. In 1816 the Society removed to Bedford Street, 
Covent Garden, and on April 23rd, 1825, while still in Bedford Street, 
the Society was incorporated by a Charter, obtained by Buckland (and 
others), xvho was at that time President, Charles Lyell being one of the 

* Sir Roderick Murchison says : " If Buckland had done nothing 

r-c.. ~'J*\;*r.~~*~.~z' 
j' t ' .'-'' -"I 

*"."./>'''. 1"V*"'" .'' 
' V ..V'>.' .''/.." .*V' :'.*'*:. : ; 

// /'/////'//I- , S'SI/C/k/MrH// 

,'/nt<utf /I///'////// tll'i'ttf 

1822-1824-] BUCKLANffS BLUE BAG. 85 

met in animated debate. On these occasions Buckland 
would draw from his never absent blue bag specimen 
after specimen to enforce his arguments ; while his quaint 
descriptions would gradually overcome the reserve of his 
learned associates and inspire the circle with the geniality 
of his temper. One of this select band, which Sir R. 
Murchison loved to call the " Old Guard of Geology/' the 
late Rev. Gilbert Hcathcote, Subwardcn of Winchester, told 
the writer that he well remembered being present on one 
of those evenings and hearing Sir Charles Lyell shatter one 
of Dr. Buckland's theories. " The veteran laughed heartily 
at the demolition of his own theory" by his illustrious 
pupil. This is only one of the many instances of 
Buckland's largc-mindcdncss and of the heartiness with 
which he always welcomed any opinion which seemed a 
nearer approach to the truth than he had himself (as a 
pioneer) been able to form. Jealousy of those who were 
labouring in the same field with himself was entirely foreign 
to his nature; he placed his stores of learning at the 
service of others, and writers like Murchison and Agassiz 
were indebted to him for the most constant and generous 
aid. It was, it may be mentioned, through Buckland's 
influence that Murchison adopted the title of "Siluria" 
for his book. 

The blue bag was an inseparable companion of Buck- 
land's, and it figures largely in all caricatures of the 
Professor. "The greatest honour," he used himself to 

more than educate a Lyell, a Daubeny, and an Egertoa, he would 
justly have been placed among the most successful instructors of our 


say, "which my bag ever had was when Lord Grenville 
insisted on carrying it ; and the greatest disgrace it ever 
had was when I called on Sir Humphry Davy three or 
four times one day, and always found him out At last 
Sir Humphry Davy asked his servant, ' Has Dr. Buckland 
not called to-day? 1 'No, sir; there has been nobody 
here to-day but a man with a bag, who has been here 
three or four times, and I always told him you were 



1825 1830. 

IN 1825 Professor Buckland was presented by his Col- 
lege to the living of Stoke Charity, Hants. In July of 
the same year he was appointed by Lord Liverpool to a 
canonry at Christ Church, Oxford, and received the degree 
of D.D. The appointment necessitated a change of resi- 
dence. He writes to the Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt on 
September loth, 1825 : " Many thanks for your congratula- 
tions on my appointment to Christ Church, where I find 
the hunting of bricklayers and carpenters for the present 
entirely supersedes that of crocodiles and hyenas." 

He carried with him to his new home an enthusiasm 
for science which was not shared by many of his colleagues. 
It was not long before he discovered that among the bene- 
factions of Christ Church was one which was available for 
the promotion of scientific study. Dr. Lee had left a con- 
siderable property to the College for a variety of purposes, 
including the erection and maintenance of an Anatomical 



Museum 1 The property came into the hands of Christ 
Church in 1766, and in the following year the Museum 
was built In the accounts of the Trust entries from time. 
to time occur of purchases of subjects for dissection. But 
in 1828 Buckland discovered that a considerable sum had 
accumulated which might be claimed for the benefit 
of the Museum. In July 1828 he writes to Sir R. 
Murchison in great delight at his discovery. " I am going 
to town in a day or two to attend the opening of Brooke's 
sale, for I have found out 1,200 that we can lay out 
for our anatomical school at Christ Church, which will 
quite set us up, unless we find powerful rival bidders in 
the two new London Colleges." The account books at 
Christ Church show that large purchases were made. " Dr. 
Kidd" (then Lee's Reader in Anatomy), "on account of 
purchases made at Brooke's sale, 500." l The smallness 
of the sum expended compared with that available seems, 
however, to show that Buck land's fears were realised, and 
that the Oxford school had found rivals wealthier than 

In this appropriation of a portion of Lee's benefaction 
to science, Buckland, though neither the Lecturer nor one 
of the Trustees of the fund, took a leading part, as his 
letter to Murchison clearly proves. Nor was this the 
only direction in which he used his new position for the 
advance of scientific research. He was prompt to avail 
himself of the services of the masons employed at work 
on the old Residence attached to the Canonry to make 

1 Communicated by the Ven. Archdeacon Palmer. 

1825-1830.] TOADS IN STONES. 89 

receptacles in slabs of stone for experimenting on toads. 
The house which he occupied has since been assigned as the 
residence of the Archdeacon of Oxford, and Archdeacon 
Palmer, who now resides there, has placed the stones inf 
a rockery in his garden in memory of these experiments. 

" In consequence," Buckland writes, " of many stories of 
toads being found alive in stones I began in 1825 a scries 
of careful experiments. Twelve circular cells were pre- 
pared in a block of sandstone, to each of which a plate of 
glass was fitted. Toads were then placed in these cells 
and buried beneath three feet of earth, where they were 
left for over a year. Every toad shut up in sandstone 
died ; but the greater number of those in the porous 
limestone were still alive, though greatly emaciated : these 
were again shut up ; the end of the second year every toad 
had died. I also enclosed four toads in holes cut in the 
trunk of art apple-tree, and closed the holes with a plug of 
wood ; all these toads were found dead at the end of a 
year. It seems from these experiments to follow that 
toads cannot live a year totally excluded from atmo- 
spheric air, or two years entirely excluded from food. 
Admitting that toads are found in cavities of stone and 
wood, we" may account for it by supposing that the toad 
seeks a cavity while in the tadpole state, and feeds on 
insects which, like itself, seek shelter within such cavities. 
It then becomes too large to leave the hole ; but there is 
always some small crack by which air and food can come 
in to support life. This tiny aperture is very likely to be 
overlooked by workmen, who are the only people whose 
work on stone or wood leads them to disclose cavities in 
these substances. No examination is made until the toad 
is discovered by breaking the mass in which it was con- 
tained, and then it is too late to ascertain, without carefully 
replacing every fragment (and in no case that I have seen 
reported has this been done), whether or not there was 
any crevice or hole by which the animal may have entered 
the cavity." 


The following anecdote illustrates Buckland's practical 
activity and ingenuity in gaining information. When the 
turrets of " Tom Tower " of Christ Church, Oxford, were 
undergoing repair during the long vacation, he had reason 
to suspect that all was not right. It was impossible for 
the Canon to ascend by the slender scaffolding to these 
turrets ; so, from the windows of his house at Christ 
Church, he bethought him of watching the masons through 
an excellent telescope, which he used to examine distant 
geological sections, etc. At last the unsuspecting mason, 
working, as he thought, far above the ken of man, put in 
a faulty bit of stone. Buckland, on the watch below, 
detected him through the telescope, and almost frightened 
the man out of his wits when, coming into the quadrangle, 
he admonished him to bring down directly " that bad bit 
of stone he had just built into the turret." 

The year in which he obtained his canonry was also the 
year in which he married. His wife was Mary Morland, 
the eldest daughter of Mr. Benjamin Morland, of Sheep- 
stead House, near Abingdon. The marriage took place on 
December 3ist, 1825. In a letter to the Rev. W. Vernon 
Harcourt, Buckland thus announces the approaching 
event : " I'm speedily about to follow your example in 
entering into the holy estate, and propose early in the 
beginning of the year to set off for Italy and Sicily on a 
tour of nine or ten months ; if you have any commissions 
in those regions, pray send them me." 

Mary Morland, whose mother died when she was 
only an infant, was the eldest of a large family of half- 
brothers and sisters. The greater part of her childhood 

1825-1830.] MRS. BUCKUWD. 

was spent at Oxford, where she resided with the famous 
physician Sir Christopher Pegge, whose childless wife took 
great delight in the lovable and intelligent child. In the 
University City, and. perhaps, through her acquaintance 
with the learned Professor of Mineralogy, she acquired that 
love of natural science which was such a joy to her 
through all her life. Within a few hours of her death 
she was working at the microscope, ever looking expec- 
tantly for a clearer light in the next world to be shed on 
the wonders learnt here. Sir R. Murchison, writing of the 
happy union between Buckland and his wife, calls Mrs. 
Buckland "a truly excellent and intellectual woman, 
who, aiding her husband in several of his most difficult 
researches, has laboured well in her vocation to render 
her children worthy of their father's name." 

Miss Caroline Fox, in her journal for October 8th, 1839, 
records the following story, which may have some founda- 
tion in fact : 

11 Davies Gilbert tells us that Dr. Buckland was once 
travelling somewhere in Dorsetshire, and reading a new 
and weighty book of Cuvier's which he had just received 
from the publisher ; a lady was also in the coach, and 
amongst her books was this identical one, which Cuvicr 
had sent her. They got into conversation, the drift of 
which was so peculiar that Dr. Buckland at last exclaimed, 
'You must be Miss Morland, to whom I am about to 
deliver a letter of introduction. 1 He was right, and she 
soon became Mrs. Buckland. She is an admirable fossil 
geologist, and makes models in leather of some of the rare 

The wedding was celebrated at Marcham Church, 1 near 
! Dr. Buckland discovered a curious stone in Marcham Church, which 


Abingdon, the Rev. G. Wells, Rector of Boseford, performing 
the ceremony. The ringing of the wedding bells was 
the signal for the old man-servant to fire off a gun at 
Sheepstead House, where Mr. Morland lived. The reason 
of this salute was not made known to the family till some 
days afterwards. Mrs. Buckland, befo r e her marriage, had 
a beautiful white Spanish donkey, which she used to drive 
about for miles in a little chaise, in search of freshwater 
and land shells, of which she made a very fine collection. 
The animal, which was a great pet, had grown very old, 
and the servant had been told to make away with it, 
without letting the family know when its end came. He 
was much pleased with his ingenuity, therefore, in firing 
this feu-Jc-joic and at the same time despatching the 

The wedding tour, which was spent upon the Continent 
and lasted nearly a year, is described with much minuteness 
and vivacity by Mrs. Buckland in a journal which from her 
girlhood she had been in the habit of writing. Naturally 
enough her early entries have a geological flavour, and the 
scenery and associations of the spots visited are perhaps 
less carefully described than the character of the rocks. 
The diary, under date of February 25th, 1826, describes 
the visit of the newly married couple to Paris. They 
called on Humboldt and Arago, and had much scientific 

he mentions in one of his Ashmolean papers. This stone is said to be 
an Anglo-Saxon dedication stone ; the word AELEGY AELEGY-IIOLY was 
repeated twice on it, and as the church is dedicated to All Saints, it is 
suggested that the word might have occurred again in the third line and 
have been broken off. 

i82 5 -i83aj WITH CUVIER IN PARIS. 

talk with the latter, who showed them his instruments 
at the Observatory and described his experiments and 

" Arago," writes Mrs. Buckland, " is the most Englishlike 
Frenchman I ever saw; the most unpretending person 
possible in his manner, and the most intelligent in his 

" From the top of the Observatory," she continues, 
" we saw Paris in its full extent, built within the basin 
called by its name, and which is surrounded by low hills, 
of which Montmartre is the highest. Compared with 
London, it looks very small, and the absence of smoke 
gives a coldness so peculiar that it looks like a city of the 

Before her marriage Mrs. Buckland had been in corre- 
spondence with Cuvier, and had made drawings for his 
works. She and her husband had now the pleasure of 
receiving his hospitality and of spending a morning with 
him in the Jardin des Plantes. The famous naturalist 
welcomed them with much kindness, and at his house they 
met Cordier, at that time the most distinguished geologist 
in France. " The Cuvier's parties," writes the young wife, 
" are by no means brilliant ; he is very taciturn, and so 
cautious that he never utters an opinion in company ; but 
though so cold in appearance, he is very friendly in his 

From Paris the travellers journeyed southwards. 

" At Vauclusc," says the diary," when we turned into the 
steep ravine through which the Sorqucs flows, we were agree- 
ably surprised by the picturesque forms of the rocks, which 
arc nearly destitute of vegetation, and have nothing but their 
form and their dazzling whiteness to recommend them to 


the traveller in search of the picturesque. But to me they 
possessed other attractions, for I found several varieties of 
land shells which were new to me, and in the fountain an 
abundance of ncrites and patellae. The spring or fountain 
of Vaucluse, from which the Sorques takes its source, is a 
subterranean river (a phenomenon not uncommon in the 
Alps), which issues immediately from the bottom of a cliff 
whose height must be at least eight hundred feet from the 

" The quarries near the Pont du Card and the aqueduct 
itself are a very coarse calcaire grassier^ as like as possible 
to our Norfolk crag, but the mountains which support the 
Pont on either side are a compact Jura limestone. The 
great aqueduct, part of which is the Pont du Card, is still 
traced to Nismes, and is chiefly underground. It has been 
much destroyed by persons using the materials for building. 
In the part forming the aqueduct over the Card, a crust 
of stalactite has been formed more than a foot thick. We 
came to Massa, which is the capital of the little duchy of 
Massa, now in the possession of the Archduchess, mother 
to the Duke of Modena, who will inherit it. Buonaparte 
united this with Lucca, and gave it to his sister, Madame 
Eliza, who was a wise and good princess and did much for 
her little kingdom. To her the people owe an excellent 
road to the town of Carrara, which is situated in a fertile 
valley at the foot of the ridge of marble mountains so- 
famous in all ages. The marble is associated with 
argillaceous and mica slate, but no granite occurs ; you see 
the schist passing into marble, by degrees, till the whole is 
a mass of limestone, which changes its colour according as 
it possesses iron. Thus fine pure white passes into every 
shade of bluish grey. We walked to the quarry from 
whence the statuary marble is procured, and were surprised 
to find so little of fine quality ; indeed it rarely occurs, and 
is, consequently, very expensive, being a louis d'or per 
square foot. A characteristic of the best is that it is highly 


An incident, that occurred at Palermo on the wedding 

1825-1830.] SANTA ROSALIA. 


tour, was in 1851 still remembered and told by the Consul 
to illustrate Dr. Buckland's acuteness in the observation 
of bones. 

The Patron Saint of Palermo is Rosalia, daughter of 
a distinguished nobleman, and born about 1130 A.D. At 
the age of twelve, Rosalia fled from her father's house to 
the neighbouring mountains, and passed her whole time 
in devotion and penance. At length she retired to a 
cavern on Monte Pclcgrino, where she died ; but no one 
knew of this retreat During the plague of 1624, when 
all efforts to stay its ravages proved ineffectual, Rosalia 
appeared in a dream to a citizen at Palermo, and revealed 
to him where her bones lay unburied. The bones were 
reverently gathered up and placed in charge of the 
Archbishop ; yet still the pestilence raged. At last a 
certain man named Vincenza Bonelli, as he wandered on 
the mountain, encountered a beautiful damsel, who told 
him she was Rosalia and showed him her grotto. Bonelli, 
plucking up courage, asked her why she abandoned the 
city to such cruel ravages. She answered, " It is the will 
of Heaven ; but I am now sent to declare that, as soon 
as my bones are carried in procession through the city, 
the plague will be stayed." Bonelli told his confessor of 
this meeting, and, in obedience to the saint's commands, 
the relics were carried in procession through the city, 
and the plague ceased. 

The grotto, thus miraculously revealed, was consecrated, 
a magnificent shrine erected, and a statue to the saint 
placed there. The bones lay exposed to view behind a 
grille, and the faithful flocked to the shrine. 


When Dr. Buckland was at Palermo on his wedding 
tour in 1826, he, as all strangers did, visited the shrine, 
and with his keen eyes saw in a moment that the bones 
never belonged to Rosalia. "Those are the bones of a 
goat," he said, " not of a woman ! " Of course the priests 
were greatly scandalised, and declared that the saint would 
not permit him to see what only the faithful could discern. 
From that time, however, the bones were enclosed in a 
casket, and neither faithful nor heretics were any longer 
permitted to scan the sacred relics too closely. 

It was on this tour that the Professor recognised the 
comparatively late geological date of the great upward 
movement of the Alps, and declared some of the highly 
inclined rocks to be contemporaneous with our lias and 

On their return journey from Italy, Buckland and his 
wife visited the cavern of Lunel, near Montpellier, which 
yielded to the Professor's strong arms and capacious bags 
many valuable spoils, which were deposited in the Oxford 

His account of this visit, which was made for the purpose 
of instituting a comparison between Lunel and the caves of 
England, is extracted from a volume of the Proceedings 
of the Geological Society. 1 

"The result of the examination has established nearly a 
perfect identity in the animal and mineral contents of the 
caverns, as well as in the history of their introductions. 
In working a free-stone quarry of calcaire grossicr, the side 
of the present cavern was accidentally laid open ; it is a long 

1 Proceedings of the Geological bociety, 1^26 1833. 

1825-1830.] CAVERNS IN FRANCE. 97 

rectilinear vault of nearly a hundred yards in length, and 
of from ten to twelve feet in width and height The floor 
is covered with a thick bed of diluvial mud and pebbles, 
occasionally reaching almost to the roof, and composed at 
one extremity chiefly of mud, whilst at the ether end 
pebbles predominate. Stalactite and stalagmite are of rare 
occurrence in the cavern of Lunel ; hence neither its bones 
nor earthy contents are cemented into a breccia. On 
examining the bones collected in the cavern by M. Marcel 
de Serres and his associate M. Cristol, Dr. Buckiand found 
many of them to bear the marks of gnawing by the teeth 
of ossivorous animals ; he also discovered in the cave an 
extraordinary abundance of balls of album gmcum in the 
highest state of preservation. Both these circumstances, 
so important to establish the fact of the cave of Lunel 
having been inhabited, like that of Kirkdalc, as a den of 
hyenas, had been overlooked by the gentlemen above 
mentioned. The more scanty occurrence of stalactite and 
the greater supply of album gracum in this cavern arc 
referred to one and the cimc cause viz., the introduction of 
less rain water by infiltration into this cave, than into that 
of Kirkdale ; in the latter case a large proportion of the 
remains of xhe hyenas appear to have been trodden upon 
and crushed at the bottom of a wet and narrow cave, whilst 
at Lunel they have been preserved in consequence of the 
greater size and dryness of the chamber in which they were 
deposited. The animal remains contained in this cavern 
differ little from those of Kirkdale ; the most remarkable 
addition is that of the beaver and of the badger, together 
with the smaller striped, or Abyssinian, hyena." 

In October of the same year, while still on his wedding 
tour through the east of France, he visited the Grotte 
d'Ozclles, or Quingey, on the banks of the Doubs, five 
leagues below Bcsancpn. He described the Grotto in a 
French article, from which the following extract is taken : 

" La grotte d'Ozciles si celcbre par son c-tendue et par 



la quantit^ extraordinaire et !a beaut dc ses stalactites 
je resolus de la visiter dans le but de m'assurcr si clle 
ne prescntait pas quelque phenomene semblable a ceux des 
cavernes a ossemens d'Allemagne et d'Angletcrre. ... A 
1'endroit ou est situee la caverne, une haute colline, 
composee de la variet6 compacte du calcaire Jurassique, 
forme la rive gauche du Doubs, ct s'e*leve sous un angle 
trop aigu pour pcrmcttre la culture a la charruc. L'on 
cntre par une ouvcrturc de la grandeur d'unc porte de 
chambrc, a pcu pres dc six picds de haut ct de trois ou 
quatrc picds dc large. Ccttc ouvcrturc cst & environ 
cinquante picds au-dcssus du nivcau dc la riviere. . . . 

" Lcs colonncs ct Ics masses dc stalactites qui rcmplisscnt 

une grande partic dc 1'etcnduc dc la grottc, cxcedcnt dc 

bcaucoup en nombrc, ct d'galcnt en bcautc ccllcs dc la 

cclebrc cavcrnc dc 1'ile dc Sky ou d'aucunc autrc caverne 

que j'aic jamais vuc, ct 1'imagination dcs visitcurs qui 

m'ont precede, s'cst plue a Icur y faire trouvcr toutcs Ics 

especes de rcsscmblancc qu'cllc pouvait Icur fournir cntrc 

ces stalactites ct dcs animaux, dcs vegctaux ou des 

morccaux d'architecture ; mais pcrsonnc avant moi n'avait 

songe a chcrchcr des ossemens sous la croutc dc stalagmite 

qui s'cst accumulee au pied de ces stalactites, ct a 

forme sur le sol un large tapis ou pave de diffcrcntcs 

cpaisscurs. . . . Ce ne fut pas sans pcinc que je parvins a 

persuader a mes guides dc m'aidcr a rompre ccttc surface, 

jusqu'alors laissc intacte, afin d'y rechcrchcr dcs rcstcs 

d'animaux ct de detritus diluvicn que, d'aprcs 1'analogie 

qui cxistc cntrc cettc cavcrnc ct d'autrcs je m'attendais 4 

trouvcr dcssous ; Icur surprise fut tres grande dc voir ma 

prediction sc verifier a Tcgard dc Tcxistcnce d'un lit dc 

limon mcl<: dc fragmcns dc picrrcs ct dc cailloux roulcs, 

au-dcssous dc cc qu'ils consideraicnt commc le pav<S solide 

ct impenetrable du soutcrrain, ct Icur c"tonncmcnt augmcnta 

encore, en trouvant a chacunc Ics quatrcs places que je 

choisis pour mon experience, cc detritus accumule" a une 

profondcur que nous nc pumcs pcrccr avcc une barrc dc fcr 

dc trois picds dc longueur, ct dc plus entrcmele d'unc grande 

quantitc dc dents ct d'os fossilcs. . . . Ainsi, . . . 1'abscnce 

1825-1830.] LIFE AT CHRIST CHURCH. 99 

de toute marque de dents sur les plus grands os, tendent 
a improuver ['action destructricc des Hyenes dans cette 
grotte, et a montrer que les Ours en taient les principaux 
habitans. Ccs os lorsqu'ils sont sees happent fortement 
a la langue commc tous les osscmens ante-diluviens des 
autres cavern es. Vers le centre de cette file de grottcs, Ton 
arrive dans la plus spacieusc dc toutes appclee la sallc a 
danscr, parcequc sa grandeur et 1'egalite du sol Ton fait 
choisir pour 1'cndroit ou sc rafraichissent ct ou dansent les 
personnes qui vicnncnt voir les singulieres bcautcs de cc 
lieu. Ccttc chambrc a, dit-on, plus dc cent pieds de long, 
ct dans quclques endroits cinquantc dc large. . . . 

"Jc desire mentionncr un indice auqucl j'ai deja fait 
allusion, ct quc j'ai trouve tres utilc pour fairc distingucr 
les os ante-diluvicns, quc 1 'on rencontre dans les pcntes 
ct les crevasses, dc ccux des animaux rdccns qui, dans 
les temps moderncs, sc sont introduits dans les memcs 
ouverturcs, ct par accident ont ete mis en contact avec 
des rcstes ancicns d'cspcccs ctcintcs. C'cst la propriete" 
dc happcr a la langue, lorsqu'on les y applique tandis 
qu'ils sont sees, propricte qui apparemment derive de la 
perte qu'i's ont eprouvce de gelatine animale, sans qu'elle 
ait ete remplacee par aucunc matiere mineralc. . . . 

" La propriete de happer n'appartient que tres-rarement 
aux os de toutes especcs d'alluvion ou de tourbiere, et 
n'existe pas non plus dans les ossemens humaines que j'ai 
examines, qui venaient des tombcaux remains d'Angleterre 
et des tombcs druides des anciens Bretons, ni dans aucun 
dc ccux que j'ai ddcouvcrts dans les cavcrnes de Paviland, 
Barrington ct Wokcy Hole, et que j'ai dccrits dans mon 
ouvrage intitule: ' Rcliquia Diliivtantz?" 

The love of natural history in all its branches made 
Buckland's home at Christ Church a scene of animal life 
not a little strange to the reverend and learned persons 
who visited its owner. The house, which was destined to 
be the Professor's home for twenty happy and active years, 


is thus described by Mr. Thomas I. Sopwith, the famous 
mining engineer, who visited it in the " thirties " : 

" Dr. Buckland's house is one of those venerable fabrics 
which form the principal quadrangle of Christ Church. 
As soon as the old-fashioned door is opened, abundant 
evidence is presented that the residence is that of a zealous 
disc pie of Geology. A wide and spacious staircase has 
its floor and even part of its steps covered with ammonites, 
fossil trees and bones, and various other geological fragments, 
and in the several apartments piles upon piles of books 
and papers are spread upon tables, chairs, sofas, book- 
stands, and no small portion on the floor itself." 

Writing when he was again the Canon's guest, and had 
the pleasure of meeting Mr. Ruskin, Mr. Sopwith says : 

a Dr. Buckland's house is truly characteristic as the 
residence of a geologist and scholar. . . In the breakfast- 
room was a series of piles of books, boxes, and papers ; in 
short, such a combination of book-stands, chairs, sideboards, 
boxes, all blended together in one mass of confusion, 
which I was informed had not been invaded by the dust- 
cloth for the last five years. The drawing-room at Dr. 
Buckland's had its share of variety, and the great interest 
of a tolerable deal of confusion through which a person 
might range a whole day and find some new index every 
moment pointing to weeks and months and years of 
occupation. One of the round tables is formed entirely of 
coprolitcs. Another presents on its highly polished sur- 
face all the variety of lava, etc., found at Mount Etna." 

Mr. Sopwith adds that " the most interesting part of 
this interesting mansion is the domestic comfort which so 
eminently prevails." The writer judged truly that the 
Christ Church home was a happy one. Buckland and his 
wife had a large family, nine altogether, four of whom 

iS2$-i83<x] FAMILY UFE. 101 

were buried in the vault in Christ Church Cathedral. The 
surviving children were all blessed with excellent health, 
good tempers, and loving dispositions. If they never 
quarrelled, the reason must have been that they never had 
idle playtime. There was always something to do, 
their animals to feed, or their gardens to tend, or, if a wet 
day came, they all adjourned to the dining-room and sat 
round the big table helping Mrs. Buckland to cut and paste 
cardboard into strong neat little trays for specimens, while 
one of the party read aloud, generally from a book of 
travel or Arctic voyage. If the book was not illustrated 
and illustrated books were rare fifty years ago Mrs. 
Buckland would be sure to have found some old pictures 
or illustrations of some sort to show them on the subject 
Like their father, she never taught her children without 
a picture or a piece of paper and charcoal at hand. To 
give zest to their Bible readings they had some quaint 
engravings in Mrs. Trimmer's two little square books. 
Anthony Trollopc once told one of the children, when, 
years later, they were talking together over the days of 
their youth, that his mother used the same little books for 
him, and that he "loved them." 

On one point only Dr. Buckland was a strict father. 
He never allowed his children to be unemployed. Those 
who were too young to work, folded up old letters, !ccpt 
ready to be made into spills for the lighting of their 
father's Winchester Taper, which he always used to read 
by. When postage stamps first came into use, it was the 
children's work to cut them up and stick them on the 
envelopes. Pennies were earned for doing these little 


tasks neatly and quickly, and the only pocket money 
which the children had, was earned by the quantity and 
quality of the work that they did. They were taught Dr. 
Watts' hymns, and their mother, if she ever found them 
unemployed, would make them repeat the lines : " Satan 
finds some mischief still for idle hands to do." Their father 
attributed almost every disaster to laziness, " which was," 
he said, " the root of all evil." 

The family life of the Bucklands is described so vividly 
in the " Life of Frank Buckland," that no apology is 
needed for extracting a passage from that volume: 

" In his early home at Christ Church, besides the stuffed 
creatures which shared the hall with the rocking-horse, 
there were cages full of snakes, and of green frogs, in the 
dining-room, where the sideboard groaned under successive 
layers of fossils, and the candles stood on ichthyosauri's 
vertebrae. Guinea-pigs were often running over the 
table ; and occasionally the pony, having trotted down 
the steps from the garden, would push open the dining- 
room door, and career round the table, with three laughing 
children on his back, and then, marching through the 
front door, and down the steps, would continue his course 
round Tom Quad. In the stable yard and large wood- 
house were the fox, rabbits, guinea-pigs and ferrets, 
hawks and owls, the magpie and jackdaw, besides dogs, 
cats, and poultry, and in the garden was the tortoise (on 
whose back the children would stand to try its strength), 
and toads immured in various pots, to test the truth of 
their supposed life in rock-cells. There were also visits to 
the Clarendon, where Dr. Buckland was forming the nucleus 
of the present Geological Museum of Oxford, and to the 
Ashmolean Museum, then under the wise and genial care 
of the brothers, John and Philip Duncan, where the 
children might ride the stuffed zebra, and knew all the 
animals as friends, if not yet as relations. 




" In summer afternoons, after the early three o'clock 
dinner, Dr. Buckland would drive out Mrs. Buckland and 
their children in a carriage, known as the bird's-nest, to 
Bagley Wood, to hunt for moles and nests, or to Port 
Meadow to gather yellow iris and water-lilies, and fish 
for minnows, and often to set free a bright-hued king- 


fisher (they were plentiful in those days) which he had 
redeemed from some mischievous urchin with a sixpence. 
Or another day to Shotover, to dig in the quarries for 
oysters and gryphites ; or again to Iffiey, to gather snakes' 
heads {Fritillaries). Both father and mother were devotedly 
fond of flowers, and their horse stopped automatically at 
every nursery garden, as at every quarry. Some of the 
graver dons were perhaps a little scandalised by such 


vagrant proceedings, but how much happiness and 
wisdom were gathered in these excursions ! " l 

The Rev. George Gaisford used sometimes to tell the 
story of his watching with Frank at the window to see 
the Dean's (Gaisford) carriage as it passed round the 
corner of Tom Quad. The moment it was out of sight, 
he turned to Frank and cried, " Now then, Frank, let's 
put the crocodile into Mercury" (the pond in the middle 
of Christ Church Quadrangle, so called from a little 
stone statue of Mercury in the centre, used as a fountain). 

Mr. Ruskin writes in " Praeterita " : 

" At the corner of the great Quadrangle of Christ Church 
lived Dr. Buckland, always ready to help me, or, a greater 
favour still, to be helped by me, in diagram drawing for his 
lectures. My picture of the granite veins in Trewavas 
Head, with a cutter weathering the point in a squall, in the 
style of Copley Fielding, still, I believe, forms part of the 
resources of the geological department ... At his breakfast- 
table I met the leading scientific men of the day, from 
Herschel downwards, and often intelligent and courteous 
foreigners. . . . Every one was at ease and amused at that 
breakfast-table, the menu and service of it usually in 
themselves interesting. I have always regretted a day of 
unlucky engagement on which I missed a delicate toast 
of mice ; and remembered with delight being waited upon 
one hot summer morning by two graceful and polite little 
Carolina lizards, who kept off the flics." 

"Your father the Dean," Lord Playfair writes to Mrs. 
Gordon, "was a born experimentalist, and I recollect 
various queer dishes which he had at his table. The 
hedgehog was a successful experiment, and both Liebig 
and I thought it good and tender. On another occasion 

1 " Life of Frank Buckland," pp. 8, 9. 

1825-18300 HOME LIFE IN OXFORD. 105 

I recollect a dish of crocodile, which was an utter failure. 
The Dean's experiment in quaint gastronomy used to 
remind me of the dinner on garden snails at which Black, 
Hutton, and Playfair determined to get over their natural 
prejudice; but though the three philosophers took one 
mouthful, they could not be persuaded to swallow it, and 
rejected the morsel with strong language. The crocodile 
at your father's table had a similar fate," 

On the opposite side of the Christ Church Quadrangle 
lived Dr. Pusey, who was a most kind friend and neighbour 
to both Dr. and Mrs. Buckland, and his spiritual minis- 
trations afforded much comfort to Mrs. Buckland at the 
time of the death of her son Adam when only nine years 
old. Adam, also called Conybeare Sedgwick after his 
godfathers Dr. Conybeare, Dean of Llandaff, and Professor 
Sedgwick, was buried in Christ Church Cathedral, in a 
vault where already lay two elder children by name- 
Willie and Eva. 1 

Buckland was a kind and affectionate father, and always 
liked to have his children about him. The return from 
his frequent journeys was awaited by them with eager 
expectation, for from the famous blue bag would be turned 
out for them on the dining-room floor some strange (in 
those days) foreign fruit, such as a bundle of bananas, 
or a cocoanut in its big outside shell, or a M forbidden 
fruit" (lime), which the little ones fondly imagined might 
have grown in the Garden of Eden. On one occasion, 
in addition to the blue bag, a large mysterious bundle 
was brought in, wrapped in a travelling rug. The children 
were told that it was a " wild beast " of some sort, that 
it would not hurt them, and that whoever guessed what 


it was would be rewarded with a penny. The wild beast 
proved to be the carcases of a bear, which had been seen 
hanging up outside a barber's shop as an advertisement for 
the celebrated Bear's Grease a pomatum for the hair, then 
much in vogue. The beast had been prepared just like a 
sheep at the butcher's, only that the skin had been left on 
the head and hind-legs to show that it was the veritable 
animal A luncheon party was invited to partake of 
joints of bear, and the fat from the inside was given to 
the nurse to make into pomatum for the family use. 

The young people were always presented to the nu- 
merous learned foreigners and illustrious travellers who 
came to Oxford to see the Professor's world-famed 
collection of fossils and bones at the Clarendon ; and 
at dessert in the evening they were told, shortly and 
graphically, what these great men were famous for. They 
heard that Agassiz came from Switzerland, and how he 
once lived in a little hut on a glacier in order to watch 
the frozen river slowly move down the valley between the 
snow mountains about one inch a year ; that Ltcbig was 
a great German chemist, Sir John Franklin the famous 
Arctic voyager, Warburton an African traveller, and so on. 
Occasionally one or two ill-clad foreigners with very large 
appetites would be entertained with boundless hospitality 
and courtesy. At such times the children would listen 
with curiosity to the rapid talk in a strange language, and 
watch the lively gesticulations, and wonder how, at the 
same time, the speakers could manage to empty plate after 
plate of food. 

Mrs. Buckland took great interest both in the spiritual 

1825-1830.] POOR JEWS. 107 

and bodily welfare of a settlement of Jews living in 
St. Ebbe's parish, a very poor part of Oxford. When 
several families were once burnt out of house and home, 
she greatly befriended them. One man she set up as a 
pedlar ; and for many years he travelled about the country 
with a mahogany box strapped at his back. Twenty 
years after he had thus commenced business, the family 
were chiefly living at Islip, during the illness of the Dean. 
The pedlar was a regular caller at the Rectory, where, he 
would display his wares silver thimbles, trinkets, and 
brooches tastefully arranged in trays on pink wadding 
and generally sold some silver thimbles, which were bought 
as gifts to the girls who were the best darners and menders 
in the village school. These poor Jews, soon after the fire 
had destroyed all their goods, came to Mrs. Buckland to 
borrow a glass goblet, which was required for a wedding 
that was about to take place. Mrs. Buckland, who lent 
them a handsome cut glass one, was invited to the wedding. 
She took with her one of her children, a little fellow of 
five or six. In the middle of the ceremony a glass was 
smashed ; the child called out at the top of his voice, 
greatly to his mother's consternation, " Oh, Mamma, 
there's your best glass broken!" It is needless to say 
that a substitute had been provided to be smashed, and 
that the lent goblet was returned safely. Regularly as 
the Feast of the Passover came round, half a dozen of the 
large thin wafer-biscuits, about twelve inches across, the 
" Passover Bread," were sent as a present to Mrs. Buck- 
land, in token of respect and gratitude from the Jewish 


Buckland was very fond of his garden, and brought 
plants from all parts of the Continent to place in it, often 
with the view of acclimatising them. A fig tree, which is 
still in existence at Christ Church, was brought from Aleppo 
by Dr. Pocock. 1 The Professor was especially fond of 
sweet-scented flowers, and it was the children's business 
to provide him always with a Sunday button-hole. The 
first violet and cowslip were actively searched for, to be 
succeeded by woodbine, cabbage-rose, southern-wood (old 
man), jessamine, and clove-pink ; and then, when all the 
flowers were gone and autumn had set in, a sprig of 
lemon verbena picked from a greenhouse plant brought 
from Sicily. 

Dr. and Mrs. Buckland trained their children to take 
an interest in the conversation going on at meals, and 
always, when they came down to dessert in the evening, 
.their father would have some anecdote or curious fact to 
tell them, and they on their part were expected to have 
something of interest to tell him or some question to ask. 
This was no great difficulty, for the children were never 
taken for a dull "constitutional" walk, but were always 
sent on some special errand. Sometimes, for instance, 

1 Edward Pocock, Chaplain to English merchants, Aleppo, 1620. 
The Laudian Professorship was founded in his honour by Archbishop 
Laud, 1632. He was Professor of Hebrew and Canon of Christ 
Church, and was sent at Laud's charges to purchase and collect Arabic 
manuscripts now in the Bodleian Library. Professor Margoliouth, who 
is at present indexing these manuscripts, adds that Pocock was highly 
distinguished as a theologian and Orientalist ; and that in the opinion 
of Hallam he did more than any other one man to familiarise Europeans 
with the East 

1825-1830.] OXFORD CASTLE. 109 

their errand would be to take some M alicarnpanc " an 
old-fashioned herbal remedy made up with sugar in pink 
and white squares, bought from some old Meg Merrilies 
in the market to a barge-man with a bad cough, who, 
with the aid of his family, was unlading the barge as it 
lay under the shadow of the fine old Norman Keep from 
whose postern gate, as they were told, the Empress 
Maude escaped in a white sheet over the frozen river to 

This old-world corner of Oxford, with the high earth 
mound adjoining, and the Gaol, or Castle, as it was then 
called, was always full of mysterious interest to the little 
people. There were no railways then, and several gaily- 
painted barges were often to be seen moored along the 
Canal Wharf, supplying the city with coals, salt, or pottery. 
However grimy their cargo might be, the owners contrived 
to keep fresh and bright the gay lines of colour on the sides 
of the little cabin at the end of the long black hull. Dr. 
Buckland, or occasionally a good-natured bargee, would lift 
the children into the empty barge and allow them to peep 
into the snug little abode, reeking with the savoury smell 
which issued from a black iron pot on its small hob, while 
from the tiny low chimney-pipe curled the prettiest 
possible wreath of blue-grey smoke. 

Never was a word of gossip or evil speaking permitted ; 
the good clever mother would always say, "My dears, 
educated people always talk of things ; it is only in the 
servants' hall that people talk gossip." Thus the family 
were trained from childhood to live in charity with all 


One summer day, on the Duke of Cumberland visiting 
Oxford, Dr. Buckland had undertaken to lionise him and 
a number of gentlemen. The children, returning from 
their favourite walk by the house-boats in Christ Church 
meadows, came across the distinguished party. " Come 
here, children," said Dr. Buckland, "and make your 
curtseys to the Royal Duke." The kind old gentleman 
patted one on the head, and said, " How old arc you, my 
little maid ? " " Please, sir, I am ten." " How can you 
say so ? " exclaimed the more truthful younger sister ; 
" you arc only nine and a half." At which the Duke 
laughed heartily, and said, " Little lassie, you'll not be so 
anxious to make yourself older when you have lived more 

Dean Gaisford was very fond of these two little girls. 
Whenever Dr. and Mrs. Buckland dined at the Deanery, 
the Sedan chair a most convenient conveyance for 
collegiate buildings which had carried Mrs. Buckland to 
the six o'clock dinner, was sent for the children, who 
were carried safely into the large dining-room, and took 
their places on either side of the kindly old Dean, whose 
pleasure it was to keep them well supplied with dessert. 

The Sundays at Christ Church were the children's red- 
letter days. Buckland always went to the morning service 
in the Cathedral, and to the University sermon at St. 
Mary's. It was their never-failing delight to watch the 
procession of the Vice-Chancellor, preceded by the beadle 
and college dignitaries, students, and graduates in their 
robes, wending its way to the Church of St. Mary in the 
High Street, whose spire is one of the glories of the city, 

1825-1830.] SUNDAYS IN OXFORD. in 

and entering by the porch which has In a niche over the 
door an image of the Blessed Virgin. In 1640 Archbishop 
Laud was charged with many offences. He had repaired 
crucifixes ; he had allowed " the scandalous image " to be 
set up in the porch of St. Mary's ; and Alderman Nixon, 
the Puritan grocer, had, so he declared, seen a man bowing 
to the scandalous image. Alderman Nixon's picture, with 
that of his wife, is to be seen in the fine old council 
chamber of the Guildhall. This lady's portrait, it may be 
added, is the only likeness of a woman admitted among 
the interesting collection of Aldermen, with the exception 
of a fine full-length portrait of Queen Anne. Mrs. 
Buckland took the younger members of the family to 
the simple morning service at St. Ebbc's Church, of which 
the Rev. F. Waldegrave, an excellent evangelical preacher, 
was in charge. Mrs. Buckland was an assiduous worker 
in Mr. Waldcgrave's poor parish. 

After the early dinner came the treat of the week a 
walk with their father in Christ Church meadows, or, if the 
floods were out, up Hcadington Hill. No plant, tree, or 
stone escaped observation, and special notice was taken of 
the dates of the reappearance of palm blossom, or the first 
return of daisies, and other spring delights. The family 
never missed evensong in the Cathedral. The scat allotted 
to the Canon's ladies was like a very long saloon railway 
carriage, with a scat running along one side of it As this 
pew had only occasional oval openings in the heavy wood- 
work to admit the light and air, its dreariness and stuffiness 
may be imagined. 

The yearly assizes were a great annual function in 


Oxford, and were very awe-inspiring, solemn events. The 
week began with an assize sermon at St Mary's, which the 
Judge attended in state. Dr. Buckland used to take his 
children to see the stately procession of the Judge, and 
other dignitaries of the law, as it traversed the whole 
length of Oxford from the Judge's house in St Giles' to 
the Town Hall in St Aldates'. The Judge, attired in wig 
and robes and seated in his ponderous coach, was driven 
by a fat coachman, whose mighty weight seemed to have 
caused a depression on the box-seat, covered with hammer 
cloth fringed round with gorgeous coloured tassels ; two 
or three footmen stood behind the coach, long wands in 
hand. At the entrance to the Town Hall, the beadles 
were collected to keep order, for there were of course at 
that time no policemen. These pompous individuals wore 
a quaint dress and cocked hats, long frock-coats lined with 
red with brass buttons, and carried in their hands stout 
wands of office. 

The prisoners were brought from the old castle to the 
Town Hall to stand their trial. The new gaol with its 
adjacent judgment hall or law court was not then built 
The Rev. Gilbert Heathcote, Sub- Warden of Winchester, 
tells a curious tale which shows the inconvenience arising 
from the want of space in the Town Hall buildings. 
When he was an undergraduate, he attended Dr. Kidd's 
lectures. The Regius Professor of Medicine had a male 
and female skeleton suspended from the ceiling, on either 
side his lecture table, which he could pull up and down 
as required. The male skeleton was of almost gigantic 
stature, and was that of a man who was tried for murder 

1825-1830.] VISIT TO LYME. 113 

and convicted in the Town HalL The bodies of the 
criminals in those days were handed over for anatomical 
purposes to the Professor of Medicine. This big culprit, 
finding the case was going against him through the evidence 
of a witness, stretched out his long arm over the witness 
box, and with one mighty blow felled the unfortunate 
man to the ground and killed him on the spot, so that 
one murder begat another. 

On another occasion, the Judge had passed sentence of 
imprisonment upon a woman. As she was leaving the 
dock, she took off one of her shoes (boots were not worn 
in those days), and threw it with such good aim and with 
so good a will at the Judge, that he was not a little 
discomfited in fact, his Lordship was nearly sent reeling 
from the Bench. 

After the death of the little boy Adam, the family went 
by coach for change of air to Lyme. The shore in this 
neighbourhood is a vast charnel-house of fossil bones of 
the monsters that must have at one time lived, preyed on 
one another, and ultimately died, at or near this very 
spot On the lias beds of this happy hunting ground 
of geologists, Dr. Buckland took the children fossilising, 
and made them acquainted with the local celebrity Mary 
Anning, who, from the early age of ten, gained her 
livelihood and supported a widowed mother by collecting 
specimens on the beach. It was in 1811 that she made 
her first great discovery of the ichthyosaurus, which, with 
the vertebrae of a fish, partook partly of the character of 
the crocodile, but differed materially from any existing 
reptile of the lizard kind. At Lyme also lived Sir Henry 



dc la Beche, who had ample leisure and opportunity to 
picture to himself the shape and habits of the former 
dwellers on this sea-girt coast, as, by the daily action of 
the tides, vertebrae (called there vertcberries) and portions 
of shells and skeletons were exposed to view, or washed 
up from their bed of soft blue lias. Here the remains of 
extinct monsters were picked up or disinterred as " curiosi- 
ties " by Mary Anning, described for the first time by 
Buckland, and restored to life by the clever pencil of Sir 
H. de la Beche. Some of the largest of the ichthyosauri 
were over thirty feet long, the jaw sometimes exceeding 
six feet. They were aquatic carnivorous animals, but 
breathing air. 

" When we see," says Dr. Buckland, " the body of an 
ichthyosaurus still containing the food it had eaten just 
before its death, and its ribs still surrounding the remains 
of feeding that were swallowed ten thousand or more than 
ten thousand times ten thousand years ago, all these vast 
intervals seem annihilated, come together, disappear, and 
we are almost brought into as immediate contact with 
events of immeasurably distant periods as with the affairs 
of yesterday." 

Miss Anning received the sum of twenty-three pounds 
from the British Museum for this specimen. Later on 
she discovered the plesiosaurus, another of these extinct 
monsters. It must not, however, be supposed that these 
immense fossils, which we see so admirably arranged in 
the Reptilian Gallery of the British Museum of Natural 
History, were extracted from the rock in which they had 
been embedded for ages without considerable trouble 
perseverance ; often the remains were found in a 

1825-1830.] MfSS ANN/NO. 115 

fragmentary condition, and the greatest judgment and 
care were required in arranging the disconnected parts. 1 
Miss Anning kept a little curiosity shop at Lyme, which 
is admirably described in the King of Saxony's account 
of his journey through England and Scotland in 1844 : 

" We had alighted from the carriage, and were proceeding 
along on foot, when we fell in with a shop in which the 
most remarkable petrifactions and fossil remains the 
head of an ichthyosaurus, beautiful ammonites, etc were 
exhibited in the window. We entered, and found a little 
shop and adjoining chamber completely filled with fossil 
productions of the coast. It is a piece of great good 
fortune for the collectors when the heavy winter rains 
loosen and bring down large masses of the projecting 
coast. When such a fail takes place, the most splendid 
and rarest fossils are brought to light, and made accessible 
almost without labour on their part. In the course of the 
past winter there had been no very favourable slips ; the 
stock of fossils on hand was therefore smaller than usual : 
still I found in the shop a large slab of blackish clay, in 
which a perfect ichthyosaurus of at least six feet was 
embedded. This specimen would have been a great 
acquisition for many of the cabinets of Natural History 
on the Continent, and I consider the price demanded 
15 sterling as very moderate. I was anxious at all 
events to write down the address, and the woman who 
kept the shop, for it was a woman who had devoted herself 
to this scientific pursuit, with a firm hand wrote her name 
' Mary Anning ' in my pocket-book, and added, as she 
returned the book into my hands, ' I am well known 
throughout the whole of Europe." 

1 It took Miss Anning ten years to extract the entire skeleton of the 
plesiosaurus from its watery grave in the lias rocks, only accessible 
at low water. Lately a man has spent two years of patient labour in 
extracting from its rocky matrix the fossil skeleton of a turtle from 
the Cape, which is now placed in the British Museum of Natural 


The tiny old " curiosity shop " close to the beach is still 
in existence ; but there are none of the pretty little boxes 
of shells or tastefully arranged bunches of seaweed of former 
days to be seen now. Foreigners long continued to write 
for specimens, little realising that the moving spirit and 
indefatigable collector of these old-world treasures had 
passed away. Miss Anning's collection was broken up at 
her death. The best portion of it passed into the hands 
of the Misses Philpot, and is now in the Natural History 
Museum, South Kensington ; but a small part of the col- 
lection is at Oxford. Mary Anning was born in 1800, and 
died in 1847. Buckland succeeded in obtaining an annuity 
for her. A stained-glass window was erected to her 
memory in Lyme Church, with the following inscription : 
a This window is sacred to the memory of Mary Anning, 
of this parish, who died March 9, 1847, and is erected by 
the Vicar of Lyme and some of the members of the 
Geological Society of London, in commemoration of her 
usefulness in furthering the science of geology, as also of 
her benevolence of heart and integrity of life." 

Before concluding the account of the visit to Lyme Regis, 
allusion should be made to the interesting group of fossil 
animals discovered in the neighbourhood. An illustration 
of these is given, after the drawing of Sir H. dc la Beche, 
of which the following is an explanation : 


Dr. Buckland always kept a good supply of his old friend's clever 
representation of these monster inhabitants of ancient seas, and 
frequently after his lectures distributed copies in order to bring to the 

li - ". -> ^^ > / r^f"^ '' 




1825-1830) "DUMA ANTIQUIOR." 117 

minds of his audience the reality of the subjects on which he had 
been speaking. 

In the centre of the plate, at fig. I, is seen the mighty Ichthyosaurus, 
or the Lizard Fish in form and structure not unlike the marine 
mammalia of the present day. The Ichthyosaurus was an air-breathing 
creature, and this is known, firstly, on account of there being an entire 
absence of that peculiar modification of the bones which support the 
gills in fish ; secondly, because there are found true bony nostrils, and 
not olfactory bags, placed in the skin, unconnected with bone, as in 
fish ; thirdly, the articulation of the ribs to the spine is similar to 
those in recent air-breathing animals. Ichthyosaurus had fins or paddles 
at its side, and a long tail, at. the end of which, according to Professor 
Owen's recent discoveries, was a vertical fleshy fin. It could do what 
no whale or grampus of the present day is capable of accomplishing, 
viz., could crawl upon the shore, and that most likely at periodical 
times, as do the seal, walrus, etc. It had an enormous eyeball, which 
was larger in proportion to the skull than the eye of any other kind 
of animal ; and this eye, having no eyelids, contained delicate humours, 
which, being liable to injury in a chopping sea, were composed of 
numerous thin and (probably) flexible bones, which encased the pupil 
Owl-like, it probably pursued its prey at dusk of evening, by moonlight, 
or at early morning. It had a formidable array of teeth, each of which 
was undermined by the germ of its successor, so that if a violent snap 
or a too vigorous captured prey broke away the old tooth, the new 
one would come up in its place. In the engraving it is represented 
as making good use of these teeth, for it has caught and is about to 
devour a Plesiosaurus (fig. 3). 

This also was a curious whale-like creature, which has aptly been 
likened to "a turtle threaded through with the body of a snake." This 
animal was marine-aquatic in its habits ; but unlike the Ichthyosaurus, 
which was a deep-sea animal, it was a shore creature, and lived in the 
estuaries of brackish water; and there, lurking under the oar-weed 
and other marine vegetations, obtained its prey by darting out it: long 
neck and seizing its prey with its sharp and formidable teeth, as is 
seen in fig. 4 (and also in the distance), where an unfortunate 
Pterodactyle has not got out of the way quickly enough, and is suffering 
for his laziness; while his frightened companions are wheeling about 
in the air overhead, like frightened seagulls when one of their comrades 
has been captured or shot. 

This Pterodactyle, or wing-fingered saurian, was a monstrous beast, 
a true saurian, but yet with leather-like wings like a bat ; the only 


living approach to them is the insignificant little Draco- Volans of the 
isles of the Indian Archipelago. 

At fig. 5 Is seen a fish whose name is Dapedius, so called on account 
of its " pavement-like " scales ; it has encountered in its peregrinations 
an Ichthyosaurus, who is making short work of him, and is about to 
gorge him down into its capacious stomach in the same manner that 
a jack does a roach or dace. We know that Ichthyosaurus fed upon 
this fish, because its scales are found in the fossil coprolites. 

In the Oxford Museum is the fossil stomach of an Ichthyosaurus 
that had died shortly after its dinner, as it had not had time to digest 
entirely the fish it had swallowed. The Ichthyosaurus (as seen in the 
engraving) did not refuse to eat cuttle-fish, and we know this because 
the ink of the cuttle-fish is found staining the fossil coprolites. 

Other fossil fishes whose remains are found are seen swimming about 
in company with young Ichthyosauri, all enjoying life, and following 
the laws of nature which ordained that they should both prey upon one 
another and be preyed upon themselves. 

Sailing along the surface of this sea, upon which no human eye ever 
rested, may be noticed a fleet of the beautiful Ammonite shells. Their 
remains are seen at the bottom of the sea, where they would become 
gradually covered with mud and converted into fossils, a theme for 
the geologists and for the adornment of our cabinets. 

At fig. 6 we see growing in great luxuriance a remarkable form 
of life the Pentacrinite, or Stone Lily, so called on account of the 
pentangular or five-sided shape of its supporting column. It consisted 
of innumerable calcareous joints, united by a fleshy material ; it was, 
in fact, a "stalk star-fish," which is represented in existing seas by the 
Comatula, or Feather-star, of our own shores, and by the rare and all 
but extinct Pentacrinites of the West Indies. 

For a full and beautifully illustrated description of the Pentacrinite, 
as well as of the Ichthyosaurus, Plesiosaums, Pterodactyle, and other 
creatures represented in the drawing, I must refer my readers to 
Dr. Buckland's Bridgewater Treatise. 

At fig. 10 is represented the Zamia, or " bird's nest," of the Portland 
quarry men, together with restorations of vegetation which once 
flourished in luxuriance, but which is found now only in a fossil state. 

At the bottom of the primaeval sea are strewed the bones and 
carcases of its inhabitants, both small and great. Satirians, fishes, 
molluscs, and shells have all yielded up their remains in obedience 
to the dictum which pronounces the sentence of death upon everything 
that has ever been or ever will be animated with the breath of life. 

1825-1830.] "DURIA ANTIQUIOR." 119 

In their unknown graves for thousands of past centuries, converted 
into hard marble-like rocks, they have lain, and hundreds of skeletons 
will lie, till time is no more, leaving but a bare record of their former 
existence engraved in tablets of stone on the shores which once formed 
the bed of an ancient ocean, now long passed away. 

Meanwhile let it be our privilege to read and interpret the history 
of our planet as it existed when yet young in the starry firmament. 
Let us compare extinct forms of animal life with their modern living 
prototypes ; and from the habits and instincts of animals around us, 
learn, not only the laws which govern them as well as ourselves, 
the physiological causes which regulate our bodies as well as their 
bodies, but also endeavour to leam pleasurable lessons from daily 
scenes, and to withdraw the veil which frequently obscures the most 
enchanting scenes of nature from ordinary observation. 

Above all, let us join with the inspired writer when he admonishes 
us : " But ask now the beasts, and they shall teach thee ; and the fowb 
of the air, and they shall tell thee : or speak to the earth, and it 
shall teach thee : and the fishes of the sea shall declare unto thee." 




1831 1841. 

year 1831 brought to light the first germ of the 
JL British Association. Mr. (afterwards Sir David) 
Brewstcr proposed that a "craft should be built wherein 
the united crew of British science could sail." His 
notion found an enthusiastic supporter in the Rev. W. 
Vernon Harcourt, a great lover of science, who invited all 
Philosophical Societies in Great Britain to meet at York. 
Buckland, who was unable to be present, owing to the 
death of a child, writes to express his " bitter disappoint- 
ment " at his enforced absence. He was chosen President 
of the next meeting, which was held the following year 
at Oxford 

An old geological pupil of his, the Rev. W. Egerton, the 
present Rector of Whitchurch, Salop, has kindly placed at 
the service of the biographer Buckland's humorous letter 
of congratulation to his brother, Sir Philip Egerton, 


1831-1841.] SfX PHILIP EGERTON. 121 

upon his intended marriage, and visit to Oxford for the 
meeting of the Association. 


"January lyd, 1832. 

" MY DEAR SIR PHILIP, Mrs. Buckland begs to unite 
with me in the offering of our most sincere congratulations 
to you on the brilliant Discovery announced in your last, of 
a Jewel of great price which you have resolved to make 
your own, and to submit to the inspection of the learned, 
at our proposed scientific meeting in June next The only 
rival specimen I have heard of as likely to be present, and 
which has the reputation of being the greatest Beauty in 
the mineral world, is a specimen that will be brought by 
the Marquis of Northampton, who has joined our Society, 
and has lately possessed himself of a fossil lizard enclosed 
in amber more exquisitely beautiful than the fairest of the 
fossil Saurians, and which your specimen alone I expect 
to find possessing the power to eclipse. Your scientific 
description of that specimen is, I presume, submitted to 
me as a paper to be read at the meeting, when all who 
may be present will have opportunity of ascertaining its 
fidelity by comparison with the original, and of applauding 
the taste and discretion you will have exhibited by the 
selection you have made. I presume our friend Lord Cole 
will appear in his unenviable state of single blessedness. 

" Again repeating our united congratulations, and with 
most sincere wishes for your happiness, I remain, 

" Yours always very sincerely, 


To Sedgwick he writes requesting him "by all your 
love of Professional Unity and the eternal fitness of things 
to locate yourself in a fraternal habitation within my 
domicile during the orgies of the next week, beginning the 
3rd of June " ; and then goes on to tell him of the arrange- 
ments that Mrs. Buckland had made for his comfort, and 


that of the friends whom he would probably meet Among 
these was the Duke of Sussex, 1 who was to be his guest at 
Christ Church. Sedgwick had rather ridiculed the notion 
of such a gathering when it was first proposed, and had 
protested that he would not leave Wales for either York 
or Oxford. Murchison, however, maae him break his 
resolution in favour of the latter city, and his friend's 
warm invitation clinched the matter. 

It may be said that at Oxford the British Association 
made her most brilliant dt'but. Only thirteen years pre- 
viously had geology been recognised by the University as 
a science, when its Professor was appointed, and, after much 
opposition to the new learning, all Oxford seems to have 
united in welcoming with boundless hospitality the 
savants of the day. The Vice-Chancellor, Dr. Jones 
Collier, gave a public breakfast in Exeter College Gardens, 
and a free supply of refreshments was furnished to the 
evening meetings in the Clarendon Buildings. The Arch- 
bishop of York (Vcrnon Harcourt) sent a fatted buck from 
Nuneham Park ; the Duke of Buckingham also supplied 
venison ; and never before were there witnessed such 
scientific enthusiasm, goodwill, and friendship among all 
classes in the old University and Cathedral town. 2 

One burning question which the Committee of the 

1 The Duke of Sussex was at this time President of the Royal 

* "We ascribe the success of the Association exclusively to its 
migratory character. The learned junta, now so gigantic and over- 
whelming, sprang from a lowly origin. Four years ago a few unpre- 
tending individuals, full of zeal for experimental science, met together 
at York for the formation of a philosophic union, in modest imitation of 


Association had to decide was whether or not women 
were to be admitted to the meetings. " I was most 
anxious to see you," writes Buckland to Murchison in 
1832, "to talk over the proposed meeting of the British 
Association at Oxford in June. Everybody whom I spoke 
to on the subject agreed that, if the meeting is to be of 
scientific utility, ladies ought not to attend the reading 
of the papers especially in a place like Oxford as it 
would at once turn the thing into a sort of Albemarle- 
dilcttanti-meeting, instead of a serious philosophical union 
of working men. I did not sec Mrs. Scmerville ; but her 
husband decidedly led me to infer that such is her opinion 
of this matter, and he further fears that she will not come 
at all." In the end Mrs. Somerville decided not to attend 
the meeting, for fear that her presence should encourage 
less capable representatives of her sex to be present. In 
this respect, as in many others, at Oxford and elsewhere, 
the lapse of sixty years has made vast alterations. 
Another change which is not unworthy of notice is in the 
attitude of the great newspapers towards such gatherings 
as that of the Association at Oxford. Almost the only, 
if not absolutely the only, reference to the meeting which 
occurs in the Times is contained in a leading article for 
June 28th, 1832: "We have received," says the article, 

certain ambulatory societies in Germany. These excellent persons, not 
aware of their own possible importance, formed the most moderate 
prognostics of success, and were even apprehensive of total failure. 
Professor Buckland, however* with a generosity most chivalrous, invited 
the infant body to the hospitable halls of Oxford. Here its numbers 
doubled, and the celebrity of the place gave celebrity to the institution." 
The Oxford University Magazine, November 1834. 


u some notices from correspondents respecting the character 
and proceedings of the present meeting of scientific men 
at Oxford," and it goes on to give its reasons for thinking 
that such meetings are useless. 

The proceedings opened in the Sheldonian Theatre by 
the President requesting Mr. Murchison to present to the 
"Father of English Geology," Mr. William Smith, 1 the 
Wollaston Medal, awarded to him by the Geological 
Society. The death of the great Cuvier, which had 
recently occurred on May ijth, 1832, called forth from 
the President an eloquent and graceful tribute. 

u I cannot," he said, " utter the name of Cuvier without 
being at once arrested and overwhelmed by recollections 
of mortality, melancholy and painful. We have at this 
moment to deplore, in common with the whole philosophic 
world, the loss of the greatest naturalist, and one of the 
greatest philosophers, that have arisen in distant ages to 
enlighten and improve mankind. The names of Aristotle 
and Pliny and Cuvier will go down together through every 
age in which natural science and natural history, in which 
philosophic talent and learning, and everything which, next 
to religion and morality, give dignity and exaltation to 
the character of man, shall be respected on earth. It was 
the genius of Cuvier that first established the perfect 
method after which every succeeding naturalist will model 
his researches. He has shown that the frame and 
mechanism of every animal present an uniformity of design 
and a simplicity of purpose which prove to demonstration 
that every individual, not only of the existing species, but 
of those numerous and still more curious species which 

1 According to Professor Phillips, in the Life of his uncle, it was at 
Dr. Buckland's suggestion that a memorial tablet to William Smith was 
placed in All Saints' Church, j Northampton, by a subscription among 
geologists. >> 

1831-1841.] MEMORIAL TO CUVIER. 125 

have lived and perished in distant ages, and our know- 
ledge of which is due to discoveries in Geology, was 
formed and fashioned by the same Almighty Hand. At 
the age of sixty-three, in the vigour of his mind, he has 
been called to an early grave. The gratitude of the great 
nation to whose philosophic fame his genius has added 
so bright a wreath has already displayed itself by a liberal 
provision for his family, and has fixed his widow during 
the remainder of her mortal life in that honoured and 
well-known mansion in the Jardin des Plantes, which 
during a quarter of a century has been ever opened in 
friendly hospitality to every son of science assembled at 
Paris from every nation under heaven. I fear my feelings 
of respect and love and gratitude have transported me 
beyond the limits which the task I have undertaken 
should impose on me ; still I cannot but rejoice in the 
opportunity which this august assembly affords of inviting 
you to partake in this great and glorious work, and thus 
publicly to record your gratitude to that immortal man, 
whose friendship I have ever counted among the most 
distinguished honours of my life, and whose genius will 
be ever venerated so long as science shall be cultivated or 
virtue venerated upon earth." 

Nor was Buckland content with words only. It was, it 
may be added, mainly owing to his suggestion and active 
exertions that a considerable sum of money was collected 
in England, and handed over to M. Cordot, who acted as 
treasurer of the fund raised in Paris to commemorate the 
memory of the great philosopher and naturalist 

Among the noticeable events of the week was a lecture 
delivered by Buckland on the summit of Shotover Hill 
to a large class of the members, including both veterans 
in science and ladies. It was at this lecture that, for 
the first time, attention was drawn to the importance of 
the application of a knowledge of geology to agricultural 


improvements. In the course of his remarks the Professor 
pointed out many defects in the ordinary system of 
drainage which could be remedied by a knowledge of the 
structure of the strata, and adverted to the possibility of 
reclaiming the peat bogs. 

Still more remarkable was the interest excited by his 
lecture upon the megatherium, which was delivered on 
the last day of the meeting. The occasion was the first 
on which a fossil monster had been described to an 
unscientific audience of ladies and gentlemen. The whole 
address forms an excellent illustration of Buckland's power 
of imparting interest to the subjects on which he touched. 
"How true," wrote Sir Richard Owen in 1853 to Mrs. 
Buckland, "is all that you say in the comparison of the 
poor Dean's style of communicating knowledge with that 
of the best of us. His like will never be listened to again ! 
Only those who have heard him can appreciate the loss. 
It was the most genial inspiration ever vouchsafed to a 
teacher of the Creator's doings of old." 

Though the megatherium does not figure in the sketch 
given on p. 127, the picture affords an amusing comment 
on the enthusiasm of the lecturer, whose personality pos- 
sessed that marked originality and individuality which lend 
themselves readily to caricature. 

The following is Sir Charles Lyell's graphic account of 
this celebrated lecture before the Association at Oxford. 
Writing to Man tell, June 1832, he says: 

"Buckland was really powerful last night on the 
megatherium a lecture of an hour before a crowded 
audience : only standing room for a third. Lots of anatomists 
there; paper by Clift ; the gigantic bones exhibited, and 





"A change came o'er the spirit of my dream.** BYRON. 

& ::f %^rbXj^^ 

^i*-~ ' . /-V-W^io] /-.. , >>v^ . ' 

A LECTURE. "You will at once perceive," continued Professor 
Ichthyosaurus, " that the skull before us belonged to some of the lower 
order of animals; the teeth are very insignificant, the powcr^of the jaws 
trifling, and altogether it seems wonderful how the creature could have 
procured food." 

still to be seen there, but likely to be removed by-and-by. 
Buckland made out that the beast lived on the ground 
by scratching for yams and potatoes^ and was covered 
like an armadillo by a great coat of mail, to keep thc r dirt 
from getting into his skin, as he threw it up. As he'was 
as big as an elephant, the notion of some that he burrowed 


underground must be abandoned. ' We may absolve him 
from the imputation of being a .borough-monger ; indeed, 
from what I before said, you will have concluded that he was 
rather a radical.' He concluded with pointing out that 
as the structure of the sloth was beautifully fitted for the 
purpose for which he was intended, so was the megatherium 
for his habits. * Buffon therefore, and Cuvier even, in de- 
scribing the sloth, and Cuvier the megatherium, as awkward, 
erred. They are as admirably formed as the gazelle/ etc 
It was the best thing 1 ever heard Buckland do." l 

In the possession of the writer is the original manuscript 
from which Buckland gave the lecture, written out for him 
in his wife's clear handwriting. From this document a 
few extracts may be given which will show the careful 
manner in which he arrived at the habits, form, and 
character of this monstrosity, whose fossil remains arrived 
at such a very opportune time. 

" It has occurred that within these few days there 
has arrived in London a large portion of an animal 
apparently the most monstrous of the monster kind, an 
animal of which one fragment only had, till within the last 
few days, ever reached this country. The fragment to 
which I allude has been for several years in the Ashmolean 
Museum, to which it was presented by his late Royal 
Highness the Duke of York this a portion, and an 
unimportant portion, of the skeleton of the animal whose 
entire restoration you there see, 2 a restoration not founded 

1 " Life of Sir Charles Lyell," vol. i., p. 388. 

* A very fine skeleton of the megatherium is to be seen in the Natural 
History Museum, Cromwell Road. It is a cast, while that at the College 
of Surgeons is partly Sir Woodbine Parish's original specimen placed 
there in 1832 and partly a restoration. Dr. Buckland took the greatest 
pains and interest in setting up the bones, and persuaded Sir Francis 
Chantrcy, one of his oldest and most intimate friends, to allow casts 
of them to be taken in his foundry. From his friend Dr. Clift's 

1831-1841.] THE MEGATHERIUM. 139 

on imagination, not founded on the putting together of 
many and various dislocated fragments discovered at distant 
times and intervals, but founded on one entire animal 
disinterred from the alluvial districts in the neighbourhood 
of Buenos Ayres. 1 

"The history of the megatherium in plain English, 'Great 
beast ' is very remarkable. It is most nearly allied to the 
family of the sloth, whose structure is very anomalous, 
and has been misunderstood by almost every naturalist, 
including Buffon, and even the immortal Cuvier himself. . . . 

" I will illustrate by one example, the specimen before 
us, the method of investigation, which Cuvier has pointed 
out and followed, that beautiful and simple method of 
investigating the structure of every animal, whether of this 
world or of the past The system of Cuvier is to begin 
with the parts that are most important, first with the head 

anatomical knowledge he says he derived most important aid in hia 
investigation of the animal, and this gentleman's beautiful drawings 
of the teeth and head were used on the occasion of the lecture. 
Dr. Buckland begged his audience to judge of the " gigantic " size of the 
pelvis by the following fact, that Mr. Clift, loaded with all his honours, 
passed bodily through it, ' so that he has come a second time into the 
world through this cavity in the pelvis of the megatherium ! ** ;Y 

1 This enormous animal, the megatherium, had been brought to 
England by Woodbine Parish, his Majesty's Consul at Buenos Ayres. 

It was discovered by a peasant, who, passing the river Salado in a 
dry season, threw his lasso at something he saw half covered with 
water, and dragged on shore the enormous pelvis of the animal ; the 
rest of the bones were obtained by turning aside the current by means 
of a dam. The animal was about eight feet high and twelve feet -ong, 
and its teeth, though ill adapted for the mastication of grass or flesh, 
are wonderfully contrived for the crushing of roots. The fore feet, 
nearly a yard in length, were armed with three gigantic claws, each 
more than a foot long, and forming most powerful instruments for 
scraping roots out of the ground. The most curious history is that 
of the megatherium, with his double skull, like a fireman's helmet 
See " Bridgcwater," 3rd edition, p. 144. 



and teeth, then to go downwards through the neck and 
back to its extremity in the tail. . . . 

" In all animals the teeth are indicative of the character 
of the animal ; and next to the teeth the feet, and in the 
feet the claws, are indicative of the character : therefore, if 
we have the teeth and the feet alone, we are able at once 
to see, in the absence of all other parts, the class and genus 
of the animal whose teeth and feet we possess. 

" We have before us a gigantic quadruped, which at first 
sight appears not only ill-proportioned as a whole, but 
whose members also seem incongruous and clumsy, if con- 
sidered with a view to the functions and corresponding 
limbs of ordinary quadrupeds. Let us first infer from the 
total composition and capabilities of the machinery what 
was the general nature of the work it was destined to 
perform ; and from the character of the most important 
parts, namely, the feet and teeth, make ourselves acquainted 
with the food these organs were adapted to procure and 
masticate ; and we shall find every other member of the 
body acting in harmonious subordination to this chief 
purpose in the animal economy. In some parts of its 
organisation this animal is nearly allied to the sloth, and 
like the sloth presents an apparent monstrosity of external 
form, accompanied by many strange peculiarities of internal 
structure, . . . 

"The megatherium affords an example of most extra- 
ordinary deviations and of egregious apparent monstrosity ; 
a gigantic animal exceeding the largest rhinoceros in bulk, 
and to which the nearest approximations that occur in the 
living world are found in the not less anomalous genera of 
sloth, armadillo, and chlamyphorus ; the former adapted 
to the peculiar habit of residing upon trees ; the two latter 
constructed with unusual adaptations to the habit of bur- 
rowing in search of their food and shelter in sand ; and all 
limited in their geographical distribution, nearly to the 
same region of America that was once the residence of 
the megatherium. 

" The bones of the head most nearly resemble those of 
a sloth. The anterior part of the muzzle is so strong and 

1831-1841.] TEETH OF MEGATHERIUM. 131 

substantial, and so perforated with holes for the passage 
of nerves and vessels, that we may be sure it supported 
some organ of considerable size ; a long trunk was needless 
to an animal possessing so long a neck ; the organ was 
probably a snout, something like that of the tapir, suffi- 
ciently elongated to gather up roots from the ground ; such 
an apparatus would have afforded compensation for the 
absence of incisor teeth and tusks. Having no incisors, the 
megatherium could not have lived on grass ; the structure 
of the molar teeth shows that it was not carnivorous. 

" The composition of a single molar tooth resembles that 
of one of the many denticulcs that are united in the com- 
pound molar of the elephant ; and affords an admirable 
exemplification of the method employed by nature, where- 
by three substances of unequal density, viz. ivory, enamel, 
and crusta petrosa, or cajmcntum, are united in the con- 
struction of the teeth of graminivorous animals. The teeth 
are about seven inches long, and nearly of a prismatic form. 
The grinding surfaces exhibit a peculiar and beautiful con- 
trivance for maintaining two cutting wedge-shaped salient 
edges in good working condition during the whole exist- 
ence of the tooth ; this is the principle of t : ie mechanism 
which is adopted in the graminivorous animals. The 
various edges are always kept up ; inside and outside them 
are depressions, the consequence of which is that the state 
of the large tooth is in the state of a millstone kept sharp 
by doing its work ; therefore I say it is the perfection of 
machinery to keep itself in the highest order by doing the 
hardest work. The same principle is applied by tool- 
makers for the purpose of maintaining a sharp edge in 
axes, scythes, bill-hooks, etc. An axe or bill-hook is not 
made entirely of steel, but of one thin plate of steel inserted 
between two plates of softer iron, and so enclosed that the 
steel projects beyond the iron along the entire line of the 
cutting edge of the instrument : a double advantage 
results from this contrivance ; first, the instrument is less 
liable to fracture than if it were entirely made of the 
more brittle material of steel ; and secondly, the cutting 
edge is more easily kept sharp by grinding down a portion 


of exterior soft iron, than if the entire mass were of hard 
steeL By a similar contrivance, two cutting edges are 
produced on the crown of the molar teeth of the mega- 
therium. As the surfaces of these teeth must have worn 
away with much rapidity, a provision, unusual in molar 
teeth, and similar to that in the incisor teeth of the beaver 
and other rodentia, supplied the loss that was continually 
going on at the crown, by the constant addition of new 
matter at the root, which for this purpose remained hollow 
and filled with pulp during the whole life of the animal. 

" His teeth indicated a peculiarity of structure : they were 
not calculated to eat leaves or grass ; they were not calcu- 
lated to eat flesh ; he was an cater of vegetables. What 
then remained for him but roots ? He has a spade and he 
has a hoe and a shovel in those three claws in his right 
hand. You have seen a bull enraged or a dog scratching 
the ground ; these arms would give the action of a dog or a 
bull to this animal with a claw such as that, such expand- 
ing claws as you now sec in this animal of South America 
in some degree. He is the Prince of sappers and miners. 
I speak it in the presence of Mr. Brunei, the Prince of 
diggers. Mr. Brunei eyes him and says, ' I should like 
to employ him in my tunnel.' * No/ say I, ' he is not 
a workman for you ; he is not a tunneller ; he is a canal 
digger, if you please, so I pray you give him the first job 
you have to do ! ' He will not go an inch below a foot and 
a half : he would dig a famous gutter ; he would drain all 
Lincolnshire in the ordinary process of digging for his 
daily food. If you could get him to march in a straight 
line in the Cambridgeshire fens, he would dig a gutter of 
incomparable utility. . . . I know from experience the pain 
of digging in the position in which that animal stood to 
dig ; the construction of the human form is such that a 
position on all fours, digging with your own claws, as I 
have often done, at the bottom of caves, is a very painful 
thing, and there is a dreadful coming on of lumbago after 
a quarter or half an hour's work. Now, though the 
megatherium was digging from morning to night, he never 
could have tired ; he might go on for ever ; he stood on 

1831-1841.] DR. BUCKLANETS ADDRESS. 133 

three legs as easily or more easily than other animals stand 
on four. The whole structure of his posterior extremities 
was rigid ; the pressure was all perpendicular ; he stood 
like the poles of a scaffold there was no muscular exertion 
to keep them in their place, therefore he was never 

" I say he fed on potatoes ; he lived in those sandy 
barren plains of the Pampas where you have roots of that 
description. If his potatoes had been planted by nature 
more than one foot and six inches deep in the earth, he 
would have starved before he could have got them. Pota- 
toes, as every one knows, grow from two inches to one foot 
below the surface of the earth ; therefore I say the capacity 
of his engine for digging and delving shows the depths of 
the soil where these roots grew which formed his food. 
We find in addition to that nose a snout, a little longer 
than that which the tapir now has. The snout would 
pick up the food as the tapir does, and would put it in 
as the elephant puts in his apples, arid with those sixteen 
pegs, as they are contemptuously and sillily called, those 
beautiful engines which keep themselves constantly set, he 
would munch and munch till he was satisfied. His busi- 
ness was to be a gardener, a digger, and culler of simples ; 
he was a digger up of potatoes and other roots ; he stood 
still in dignified composure, and all his concern with other 
animals was to keep himself from their annoyance ; he 
troubled not them, and woe be to the least beast who 
dared to trouble him ! " 

This account of the first meeting under the presidency 
of Dr. Buckland may be fitly closed with the concluding 
words of his address : 

" 1 congratulate each individual here present on the 
attainment of what I consider almost the highest beati- 
fication of which we are capable in our present state- the 
attainment of that personal knowledge and familiar inter- 
course which this meeting affords with those whose kindred 
minds and congenial pursuits have been long familiar to 


us through the medium of their works ; a meeting in which 
they whose heads and hearts we have from a distance long 
esteemed and loved and venerated are thus brought close 
together in friendly and brotherly association, and permitted 
(though but for a short, yet most delightful and intellectual 
week of their existence) thus to hold sweet counsel and 
communion together amid these our palaces of peace." 

Professor Sedgwick, who required so much persuasion 
to attend the meeting, seems from the following speech 
to have enjoyed himself. In thanking Dr. Buckland for 
the delightful manner in which he had presided over the 
meeting, he says : 

" All who have witnessed the exercise of his great 
powers combined with extraordinary tact and temper, so 
that througl his governing influence the jarring elements 
of a society not yet organised had been brought to order 
and harmony, must have been struck with admiration. 
During the long Philosophic banquet of which they had 
been partaking while in his presence, all seemed to have 
been living in intellectual sunshine. He looked forward 
with confidence and pleasure to the results of this union 
between men of common feeling and common sentiments, 
who possessed one common object, the promotion of truth 
and the improvement of mankind." 

The British Association, after meeting in the four Uni- 
versity cities of the United Kingdom, selected Bristol for 
the place of its next assembly, in 1836. Buckland was 
President of the Geological Section. The paper read on 
Wednesday, August 24th, was on " Saurian Remains," and 
in the course of the discussion which followed, Buckland 
mentioned the valuable collection at the Hotwells, which 
had been of great service to him in the preparation of his 
Bridgewatcr Treatise. He also produced a human rib as 


a geological puzzle. It was filled with lead, and his 
explanation of the problem, which was abandoned by the 
learned company as insoluble, was that it belonged to one 
of the " unfortunate beings who perished at the Custom 
House at the riots in this city. The animal matter has 
been roasted out of it by intense heat, and the cavities 
have been filled with lead." 1 

During his stay at Bristol, Buckland was the guest of 
the father of Miss Caroline Fox. The young lady writes, 
August 3 ist, 1836: 

" We were returning from the British Association Meet- 
ing, and Dr. Buckland was an outside compaction tic 
voyage, but often came at stopping places for a little chat 
He was much struck by the dearth of trees in Cornwall, 
and told of a friend of his who had made the off-hand 
remark that there was not a tree in the parish, when a. 
parishioner remonstrated with him on belying the parish, 
and truly asserted that there were seven." 

This meeting of the Association at Bristol also finds 
mention in the Life of Mary Carpenter. 

"She entered," it is said, "with* alacrity into all the 
preparations made to receive the savants at this meeting. 
The acquaintance then begun with many distinguished 
men who gathered at her father's table, was occasionally 
renewed afterwards. ' In the afternoon,' she wrote in 
October, ' Professor Buckland called on his way back to 
Oxford.. He stayed half an hour, conversing in r. most 
agreeable and sensible manner about his book, 3 and the 
contested point of the Creation ; he very wisely determines 
not to attempt to reason with those who shut their eyes 
and say that the geologists invent facts. With regard to 

1 Bristol Gazette, September 1st, 1836. 
* The Bridgcwater Treatise. 


the progress! vcn ess of the Creation, proved by geologists, 
he remarked : " Let man be placed in the early periods of 
the earth ; deprive him of oxen, horses, and all domestic 
animals " (you know that none arc to be found in the 
limestone) ; " put him to live among the crocodiles and 
mammoths, and he would die." ' n l 

In u course of Bampton Lectures preached at St. Mary's, 
Oxford, in 1833, the British Association was attacked as 
mischievous and absurd ! The attack induced Buckland 
to write to Mr. W. Vcrnon Harcourt: 

" In my humble opinion it is highly expedient for the 
interests of the Association and of the University that you 
should take up the subject in a manner which no man can 
do as well as yourself, to set the question at issue before 
the public on its right footing." 

The attitude which was assumed by many theologians 
towards science, and especially towards geology, was at 
this time exceedingly hostile. Nor did the Professor escape 
attack "Buckland is persecuted," writes Baron Bunscn 
to his wife in April 1839, "by bigots for having asserted 
that among the fossils there may be a pre-Adamite species. 
'How!' say they; 'is that not direct, open infidelity? 
Did not death come into the world by Adam's sin?' I 
suppose then that the lions known to Adam were originally 
destined to roar throughout eternity ! " 

It was about this time that Buckland was asked by the 
rector of the parish in which William Smith was born, 
if the geologist was not an ignorant old humbug. On 
another occasion, when he was stating some geological 

1 "Life and Work of Mary Carpenter/' by J. Estlin Carpenter. 

1831-1841.] PROFESSOR AGASSIZ. 137 

truths concerning saurians to a hunting and shooting 
clergyman near Lymc, in whose parish they abound in the 
quarries of lias, his sporting friend stopped the Professor 
by saying, " Tis very well for you to humbug those fellows 
at Oxford with such nonsense ; but we know better at 
Mugbury ! " " Such is the honour of prophets in their 
own country!" adds the Professor. 

Among the numerous foreigners whom common tastes, 
interests, and pursuits made known to Buckland was Pro- 
fessor Agassiz. Their life-long friendship began in 1834, 
when Agassiz was Buckland's guest at Christ Church, and 
was received by scientific men with a cordial sympathy 
which left not a day or an hour of his sojourn in 
England unoccupied. Dr. Buckland writes to Agassiz 
August 1834: 

" I am rejoiced to hear of your safe arrival in London, 
and write to say that I am in Oxford, and that I shall be 
most happy to receive you and give you a bed in my house 
if you can come here immediately. I expect Monsieur 
Arago and Mr. Pentland from Paris to-morrow (Wednesday) 
afternoon. I shall be most happy to show you our Oxford 
Museum on Thursday or Friday, and to proceed with you 
towards Edinburgh. Sir Philip Egerton has a fine collec- 
tion of fossil fishes near Chester, which you should visit on 
your road. I have partly engaged myself to be with him 
on Monday, September 1st, but I think it would be desir- 
able for you to go to him on Saturday, that you may have 
time to take drawings of his fossil fishes. 

" I cannot tell certainly what day I shall leave Oxford 
until I see M. Arago, whom I hope you will meet at my 
house on your arrival in Oxford. I shall hope to sec you 
Wednesday evening or Thursday morning. Pray come to 
my house in Christ Church with your baggage the moment 
you reach Oxford." 


Agassiz always looked back with delight on his first 
visit to Great Britain. Guided by Buckland, to whom 
not only every public and private collection, but every 
rare specimen in the United Kingdom, seem to have been 
known, he wandered from treasure to treasure. Every day 
brought its revelations, until, under the accumulation of 
new facts, he almost felt himself forced to begin afresh the 
work which he had believed to be well advanced. He 
might have been discouraged by a wealth of resources which 
seemed to open out countless paths, leading he knew not 
whither, but for the generosity of the English naturalists, 
who allowed him to cull, out of sixty or more collections, 
two thousand specimens of fossil fishes, and to send them 
to London, where, by the kindness of the Geological 
Society, he was permitted to deposit them in a room in 
Somerset House. The mass of materials once sifted and 
arranged, the work of comparison and identification became 
relatively easy. He sent at once for his faithful artist, Mr. 
Dinkel, who began, without delay, to copy all such speci- 
mens as threw new light on the history of fossil fishes, a 
work which detained him in England several years. 1 On 
October I3th, 1834, Dr. Buckland writes to Mr. Vcrnon 
Harcourt : " My fishing excursion with Agassiz has ended 
most prosperously ; he has caught too large a multitude for 
his publication without expansion beyond its already bulky 
dimensions." Again in 1835 he writes: " I hope you will 
be able to get Agassiz another grant of 100 in considera- 
tion of his labours." In a letter to Murchison, written 
in the same year, he says : " Harcourt seems to agree in 

1 Louis Agassiz : His Life and Correspondence.' 

1831-1841.] AGASSIZ AND BUCKLAND. 139 

the propriety of asking for another grant to Agassiz, if he 
brings with him some good work done out of English 
Fishes since last meeting." He knew well the hard struggle 
Agassiz had with life, and in his generous large-heartcdncss 
did all he could to assist him. Both Dr. Buckland and his 
wife had the greatest affection and esteem for the simple- 
minded young Swiss Professor, and both cordially sympa- 
thised with him in his enthusiastic love of science, as well 
as in his belief that scientific facts arc in truth but transla- 
tions into human language of the thoughts of the Creator. 
For such aid and sympathy Agassiz was deeply grateful 
His private letters contain touching passages, in which, 
in the most natural manner possible, his enthusiasm breaks 
to the surface, or he regrets his want of money, not for 
himself, but for the work he longed to complete, or 
expresses his heartfelt gratitude towards all those who 
helped him to bring out his splendid addition to the science 
of geology. 

Not only in his indefatigable energy in the cause of 
science, but also in his forgctfulness of his own domestic 
comfort, Agassiz greatly resembled Buckland. It might 
have been Buckland, if it had not been Agassiz, who 
if the story be true prepared his coffee in the morning 
and his tea in the evening in the same saucepan in which 
all day he was boiling up specimens for skeletons ! The 
two friends were alike also as lecturers and founders of 
museums and scientific societies, and in their power of 
communicating to others their own enthusiasm. Change 
Neuchatel into Oxford, and the following description of the 
Swiss Professor might have been written of Buckland : 


" II se montra, des scs debuts, un professeur mervcilleux, 
qui communiquait sa flammc a ses auditcurs et Ics cntrat- 
nait a la conquctc dc la verite*. II sc produisait sous 
son influence un rcmarquablc mouvement scicntifiquc, que 
les eVd-ncmcnts de 1848 devaicnt brusquemcnt intcrromprc, 
de cette poque datcnt la fondation dc la Socicte* des 
Sciences Naturellcs ct 1'extcnsion du richc muse*e." 

Agassiz was fired with the same love and passion for his 
museum which inspired Buckland. The Swiss Professor 
had many brilliant offers of advancement, but " cc que le 
retenait surtout en Amdriquc, c'etait son muse"e de Cam- 
bridge, sa creation, 1'ceuvre dc sa vie en favcur dc laquclle 
il avait su e*veillcr I'intdrct gc'ncVal." l 

Though the two men were equal in their love for their 
respective museums, they were not equally fortunate in 
obtaining recognition of the value of their collections. 
The appreciation of the new geological science by Ameri- 
cans in 1858 forms a striking contrast to the neglect of 
it which was evinced by the Oxford University in 1856. 
The legislature of Massachusetts gave a valuable site to 
Agassiz for his museum ; a private individual bequeathed 
50,000 dollars ; and private subscriptions were raised 
which amounted to 71,000 dollars. Buckland's museum, 
on the other hand, which was the result of forty years 
of travel, toil, and self-denial, has almost perished for want 
of a few hundred pounds from the University chest to 
unpack and arrange it in the new building to which it 
was removed in 1856. 

Agassiz was at this time engaged in working out his 

1 " Louis Agassiz " Philippa Godet. 

1831-1841.] GLACIERS. 141 

glacial theory, and found in Buckland an uncompromising 
opponent " We have made/' writes Mrs. Buckland in 1838 
to the Swiss Professor, " a good tour of the Oberland, and 
have seen glaciers, etc., but Dr. Buckland is as far as ever 
from agreeing with you." It is no slight proof of his 
openness of mind that he frankly acknowledged his error, 
when he found that the discoveries of Agassiz satis- 
factorily explained the existence of boulders and large 
water-worn stones in positions far above what is now the 
reach of the agencies to which they must have been at one 
time subjected. To complete the glacial theory, the two 
friends travelled together to Aberdeen to confer with the 
celebrated Professor Fleming, to whom in his monograph 
on Fossil Fishes Agassiz refers. " We have found/' writes 
Buckland in 1840 to the Aberdeen Professor, " abundant 
traces of glaciers round Ben Nevis." To the glacial theory 
he became an enthusiastic convert, and was not satisfied 
till he had made other leading geologists recognise the 
importance of the discovery. " Lyell," he writes to Agassiz, 
" has accepted your theory in toto \ \ On my showing him 
a beautiful cluster of moraines within two miles of his 
father's house, he instantly accepted it as solving a host 
of difficulties that have all his life embarrassed him." 
Buckland himself supported Agassiz with an elaborate 
paper of observations on the polished, striated, and furrowed 
surfaces of the sides of mountains. In writing to tell his 
Swiss friend that the paper was being prepared, he adds : 
"I expect Murchison will be converted by the inspection 
of the moraines near Lyell's house. I have found similar 
polish and scratches on the rock of Edinboro* Castle, and 


have sent an artist to daguerrotype them." Among the many 
diagrams and drawings left by him to Oxford University 
is an interesting sketch of the primitive habitation a block 
of schist on the great moraine in which Agassiz lived on 
the "Aar glacier. It was known in the scientific world by 
the name of " L'Hotel des Neuchatelois," and on the sketch 
Buckland has written the words " Given me by Agassiz." 

Buckland's championship of the glacial theory was the 
subject of a poetic " Dialogue between Dr. Buckland and 
a Rocky Boulder," written by his friend Philip Duncan. 
The following are the lines : 

" Buckland, loquitur. 

" Say when, and whence, and how, huge Mister Boulder, 
And by what wondrous force hast thou been rolled here? 
Has some strong torrent driven thee from afar, 
Or hast thou ridden on an icy car? 
Which, from its native rock once torn like thee, 
Has floundered many a mile throughout the sea, 
And stranded thee at last upon this earth, 
So distant from thy primal place of birth ; 
And having done its office with due care, 
Was changed to vapour, and was mixed in air. 

"Boulder, respondit. 

41 Thou great idolater of stocks and stones, 
Of fossil shells and plants and buried bones ; 
Thou wise Professor, who wert ever curious 
To learn the true, and to reject the spurious, 
Know that in ancient days an icy band 
Encompassed around the frozen land, 
Until a red-hot comet, wandering near 
The strong attraction of this rolling sphere, 
Struck on the mountain summit, from whence torn 
Was many a vast and massive iceberg borne, 

8131-1845.] GIJIC1AL THEORIES. 143 

And many a rock, indented with sharp force 
And still-seen strice, shows my ancient course; 
And if you doubt it, go with friend Agassiz 
And view the signs in Scotland and Swiss passes." 

How effective was Buckland's support of the views of the 
young Swiss Professor is shown by the testimony of men 
who were afterwards eminent in science. Thus Professor 
Prestwich writes : " I was a young man during Dr. Buck- 
land's latter years, and used to listen at the Geological 
Society to his vigorous and successful advocacy of a glacial 
period." So, too, Professor Bonney declares that " it is 
to Dr. Buckland we owe the recognition of the action of 
glaciers in the country." 

Of the glacial theory of Professor Agassiz, Buckland gave 
the following description in an Ashmolean lecture : 

"Agassiz considers the glacial period was between the 
ancient and present state of our planet, and that the 
melting of this ice was the cause of enormous deluges, 
which have produced in the low lands many of the great 
accumulations of gravel to which the name of diluvium has 
been applied. There is abundant evidence of the effects 
of glaciers (such as now exist in Switzerland) in most of 
the valleys proceeding from the higher ranges of moun- 
tains in this country. It is well known that large pieces 
of rock constantly fall on the glacier margin. The 
progressive motion of the ice carries these stones partly 
on the surface and partly at the bottom of the glacier. 
Every glacier is thus thickly set with fragments fixed 
firmly in the ice, like the teeth of a file, and these being 
slowly forced against the sides and bottom of the valley 
are continually producing a scries of scratches and grooves 
upon the rocks they pass. The expansive force that 
moves the glacier is caused by the successive thawings and 
freezings of the ice. Precisely similar effects appear to 

144 UFE OF DE^tf BUCKLAND. [CH. v. 

have taken place in the north of England and in Scotland 
in the period before our epoch. That the glaciers in 
Switzerland once occupied a very different level from their 
present one, is evident from the fact that the surface of 
the valley of the Arvc, descending from the Grimscl, shows 
scratches several thousand feet above the level of the present 
glacier. I found similar scratches over a breadth of two 
or three miles in a high valley on the north shoulder of 
Schiehallion in Perthshire ; the scratches are most dis- 
tinctly preserved on the surface of two dykes of porphyry, 
but are also apparent on the harder kinds of slate stone. 
Traces of the action of glaciers down to the present level 
of the sea are distinctly visible, between high and low water 
mark, upon the surface of the granite on the left margin 
of Loch Leven, and also at Bunaw Ferry on Loch Etive. 

" Large round blocks of granite are brought down by 
the glaciers. Similar cases of transport by ice occur at 
the present time in the Arctic regions, where vast masses 
of stone and mud are drifted annually to sea on icebergs, 
to be stranded on distant shores. In this way we can 
explain the condition of the cast coast of England, where 
blocks of Scandinavian porphyry have been stranded by 
icebergs from the Baltic." 

The parallel roads of Glcnroy may also, Buckland says, 
be satisfactorily referred to a lake produced by two glaciers 
descending from the north and east sides of Ben Nevis to 
the valley of Glen Spean. He also discovered similar signs 
of glacial action in Wales. Mr. Murray Browne says that 

"Dean Buckland pointed out distinct traces of glacier 
action at Aberglaslyn Pass, near Beddgclert This was (I 
believe) the first time that traces of glacier action were 
pointed out in Wales." (Every one can now see them at 
every corner.) " The Dean made a note to this effect in the 
visitors' book at the Goat Hotel, Beddgclert The page in 
which this was written was cut out and framed, and for 
many years hung up in the hotel. Recently, owing to a 

[Fattp. 145. 

1831-1841.] THE COSTUME, OF THE GLACIER. 14$ 

change of ownership, it has passed into other hands, and is 
now, I believe, in the possession of a Mr. Jones of Mailing- 
ton, Chester, who owns property in Beddgelcrt The Dean 
was ridiculed about it at the time, as mentioned in Frank 
Buckland's Life." 

Mr. Sopwith, who was Dr. Buckland's companion in 
some of his tours in search of glacier scratches, made a 
semi-caricature of Buckland, who, encumbered with the 
numerous heavy cloaks, thick travelling boots, bags of 
fossils, and rolls of maps, presents a figure fancifully like 
a glacier. The sketch is entitled "The costume of the 
glacier." Dr. Buckland is represented as standing on a 
smooth bit of rock covered with scratches under his feet, 
and the explanation is then given : " The rectilinear course 
of these grooves corresponds with the motions of an 
immense body, the momentum of which does not allow 
it to change its course upon slight resistance." By his 
side are drawn "specimen No. I, scratched by a glacier 
thirty-three thousand three hundred and thirty-three years 
before the creation ; No. 2, scratched by a cart wheel on 
Waterloo Bridge the day before yesterday ; the whole 
picture being scratched by T. Sopwith." 

Of Buckland's English friends, the Archbishop of York 
(Vernon Harcourt) and his family were among the greatest, 
and, of course, when the Archbishop came to reside at 
Nuneham, near Oxford, the intimacy between the families 
greatly increased. From the Harcourt papers, lately pub- 
lished for private circulation only, it is interesting to read 
the correspondence which the Archbishop carried on with 
most of the illustrious people of the day, both scientific and 
political It was the Rev. William Vernon Harcourt at 



whose instigation Buckland discovered in the cave at Kirk- 
dale in 1821 the fossil remains which became the nucleus of 
the York Museum, 1 and it was also he who, ten years after- 
wards, was the mainspring and active secretary of the 
British Association in 1831. During the summer term at 
Christ Church scarcely a week passed without a party from 
Nuneham coming over either to breakfast (breakfast parties 
were then the fashion) or to luncheon. The frequency of 
such arrivals vividly impressed Dr. Buckland's butler. He 
had, he says, " good cause to remember those parties, for 
two or three carriage loads would come over at a time, 
and eighteen or twenty would sit down to luncheon, and 
Master Frank was always sent round the table to show 
the guests the Siberian mammoth, which had been 
mounted in a silver box. The children always came 
down to the drawing-room aftenvards, to see the company 
before they went off to the Museum." 

In June 1841 the Archbishop had the honour of enter- 
taining the Queen and the Prince Consort at Nuneham, 
during their visit to Oxford. Mrs. Buckland notes in her 
journal her regret that, owing to the serious illness of 
one of her younger children, she is unable to leave the 
house to take part in the enthusiastically loyal reception 
given by the citizens and students of the University city 
to the Royal visitors. The unusual bustle in the beautiful 
streets may be imagined. The Queen and Prince arrived 
on the I2th of June, and coaches, flys, tandems, and every 

1 This Museum was the origin of the establishment of the Yorkshire 
Philosophical Society, of which William Vernon Harcourt was chosen 

1831-1841.] ROYAL VISIT TO OXFORD. 147 

available vehicle, were filled with anxious subjects, whose 
loyalty and curiosity kept pace with each other. Nuneham 
Park, with its velvet lawns sloping down to the Thames, 
was thrown open to all by the courtly hospitality of its 
venerable owner. The result was that thousands of spec- 
tators (and among them the village schoolchildren in their 
white dresses) witnessed the arrival of the Royal Party, 
escorted by the Oxford Yeomanry. From all sides the 
progress of the distinguished visitors was saluted with 
tremendous cheering. 

On the following day, June I3th, 1841, Prince Albert 
drove into Oxford to be present at the annual com- 
memoration in the Sheldonian Theatre. It was hoped 
that the Queen and Prince would both attend it ; but 
Her Majesty was " dissuaded," says the Times, by cogent 
reasons from accompanying her Royal Consort Amongst 
these reasons it is sufficient to particularise this one. The 
University authorities would have been compelled, by 
ancient prescription, to grant an additional vacation of an 
entire term, a concession which wouM have been attended 
by great inconvenience. The Prince Consort was met 
at the Schools by the Duke of Wellington, who was 
the Chancellor of the University; the Vice-Chancellor, 
Dr. Wyntcr, President of St. John's College ; and by the 
Heads of Houses, all wearing Court dress. At 10.30 a.m. 
the procession, headed by Prince Albert, entered the 
theatre. After the proceedings in the theatre * were over, 

1 Professor Keble delivered the Creweian Oration in Latin. The 
prize essays were then recited. The Latin essay was by Benjamin 
Jowett, late Master of Balliol. 


Prince Albert was taken to the Town Hall, where in the 
council chamber addresses were presented to him by the 
City of Oxford and by the County. Immediately after 
the address the Prince proceeded to St John's College, 
a sumptuous entertainment being served up in the hall. 
The hall doors were thrown open even during the luncheon, 
and strangers were permitted to view the whole proceedings. 
Every part of the College exhibited the most boundless 
hospitality. In fact open house was kept, and vast num- 
bers availed themselves of the opportunity of indulging 
in College fare. 

The present President of St. John's, the Rev. Dr. Bellamy, 
relates a curious incident connected with the Prince's entry 
into St John's quadrangle. In order to provide a better 
approach, the College authorities had caused an opening 
to be made from the street through the middle of the wall 
which bounds the bank opposite the central gate. The 
bank being higher than the footway in front of the 
College quadrangle, they caused planks to be placed 
between it and the College gateway, so as to make an 
inclined plane. Then they covered the plane, as indeed 
the whole space between the opening made in the wall 
of the bank and the President's lodgings, with red cloth, 
intending that the Queen (whom they hoped to see) and 
Prince Albert should alight from their carriages at that 
opening and walk on the red cloth from it to the President's 
door. When, however, the arrival took place, the Duke of 
Wellington's carriage drove up first, and to their horror, 
for they feared the planks would give way, went straight 
through the opening and down the inclined plane over the 

1831-1841.] ROYAL VISIT TO OXFORD. 149 

red cloth into the College. The Prince's carriage and the 
other carriages followed ; but no ill consequences ensued, 
the planks, though only intended for pedestrians, sup- 
porting bravely the weight of the carriages. 

After the luncheon the Prince and his party visited the 
chief objects of attraction in the University, including 
Buckland's Museum, and afterwards attended Divine 
Service in the Chapel of New College. 





* Agriculture feeds us; to a great degree it clothes us; without it 
we could not have manufactures and we should not have commerce. 
These all stand together; but they stand together like pillars in a 
cluster, the largest in the centre and that largest is Agriculture." ' 

IT has been most truly said that Dr. Buckland devoted 
all his varied scientific knowledge and experience to 
the benefit of his fellow-men. "This craving," to quote 
the words of Professor Williamson, 2 "to be useful in 

1 Words spoken by Daniel Webster, American orator and statesman, 
responding to the toast of distinguished strangers, at the meeting of the 
Agricultural Society in Queen's College Quadrangle, 1839. 

* Professor W. C. Williamson, LL.D., F.R.S., Professor of Botany 
in the Victoria University, Owens Coll., Manchester. The biographer 
is greatly indebted to this distinguished gentleman for the assistance 
he rendered her when she commenced this memoir. Buckland's 
shrewdness in the discovery of great talent is to be seen in the 


1839-1845.] AGRARIAN RIOTS. 151 

promoting the welfare of the world around him charac- 
terised his entire life." 

So far back as 1818 the subject of agriculture had 
occupied his attention. And, apart from the natural 
affinity between agriculture and geology, there were 
special circumstances in the condition of the time which 
appealed strongly to so ardent a philanthropist The fall 
of prices after the Peace of 1815 produced wide-spread 
ruin, and, for the moment, the distress was aggravated by 
the displacement of labour which was temporarily effected 
by the introduction of machinery into agricultural opera- 
tions. Riots of agrarian origin were not infrequent; 
machine-breaking, rick-burning, and the destruction of the 
shops of butchers and bakers, testified to the almost uni- 
versal distress and discontent in country districts. Buck- 
land's letters illustrate the disturbances, which became, 
from i3i$ to 1845, a common feature in English rural life. 
Thus, in November 1830, he writes to Murchison a letter 
from which the following passage is extracted : 

" If it be a very hard-run thing, I shall feel it my duty 
to come up to town, and vote for Herschel as President 
of the Royal Society ; but I shall be very sorry to leave 
home on Monday next without a most urgent necessity, 
for my wife's father and mother, six miles from here, are in 

following letter written by him in 1834 to the learned Professor, then 
quite a youth: "I was much gratified at seeing that the Editor 
of the Literary Gazette took the same view which I have done of your 
interesting account of the British Tombs. I am happy to have been 
instrumental in bringing before the public a name to which I look 
forward; as likely to figure in the annals of British Science. I trust 
you will not fail to receive in your native town that encouragement 
which strangers, as far as their means extend, are ready to proffer you.* 


hourly expectation of a mob from Abingdon to set fire to 
their premises, and there are threats of a mob coming 
into Oxford from the neighbourhood of Benson, and our 
streets, every night, are on the point of a row between the 
town and gown. 

" My brother-in-law has just come in with seven prisoners, 
and has lodged them in Oxford Castle for to-night To- 
morrow he will take them to the jail at Abingdon, where 
there was a rescue this morning of seven out of eight 
prisoners brought in from Hungerford, and a rescue will be 
attempted to-morrow when the men are taken over from 
Oxford Castle. Not one soldier is to be found in the 
land ; and my brother-in-law is fighting with a party of 
fox-hunters, . turned into special constables, and galloping 
sixty or seventy miles a day during all the past week." 

On so kind-hearted a man as Buckland, the agricultural 
distress, with which his frequent journeys through the 
country made him unusually familiar, produced a profound 
impression. Convinced as he was that the true remedy 
was to be found in improved methods of cultivation, and 
in the utilisation of all the assistance that science could 
supply, he endeavoured, both by example and by precept, 
to help forward the work of agricultural progress. 

Among his MSS. lectures and notes 1 are some very 
interesting remarks on the possibility of reclaiming bogs. 
It was, perhaps, his oft-repeated maxim, that "there is 
no waste in nature," which induced him to take endless 
trouble to visit, examine, and make notes on all the 
different bogs, morasses, fens, and marshes in the United 

1 The biographer is much indebted to Professor Green for Jis great 
courtesy and kindness in allowing her access to these MSS. and 
Portfolios, which have greatly assisted her in compiling this memoir. 

1839-1845.] LAND DRAINAGE. 153 

Kingdom, with a view to the possibility of their being 
rendered useful for agricultural purposes. " The question 
was becoming urgent The demand for food grew daily 
greater, and the falling prices and general agricultural ruin 
which followed the Peace of 1815 reduced the supply. 
The population of the country was increasing at an enor- 
mous rate, while at the same time there was a constant 
recurrence of bad seasons. 

The mass of information which Buckland collected 
extends over a period from 1818 to 1847, and apparently 
has never been published. Public attention was by him 
directed to the commercial good that would attend the 
draining of marsh lands so as to render them capable of 
" yielding their increase," and to the improvement which 
might be effected in the health of the dwellers in fen 
districts. Among his memoranda occurs such an entry 
as this . " Within the last few years Seaton fever and 
Cambridge fever have happily become extinct" On the 
possibility of reclaiming peat bogs he writes : 

"A mere peat bog, whether wet or drained, is a mass 
of inert vegetable matter, which, till some method be dis- 
covered of exciting putrefaction, must remain unproductive 
for ever. The plan of burying the surface under a covering 
of new matter is one which can only be practised in places 
where the neighbourhood supplies the necessary materials 
by sinking a shaft and raising the under stratum, whether 
clay marl or limestone gravel This system may be adopted 
in most of the bo^s of the great central belt of Ireland, 
they being generally based on the limestone rock, and 
abounding in hillocks and ridges of limestone gravel, for 
the burning of which the peat supplies fuel. But, in the 
majority of the mountain bogs, the distance of lime and 
the exposure of their situation render the capability and 


advantages of reclaiming them problematical, although 
their inclined position would much facilitate their drainage. 
If a bog be covered with a new and artificial crust, without 
doubt that crust will be productive, or, if the whole sub- 
stance of the mass be floated off and carried away, the 
surface that had been buried will naturally be recovered ; 
but the command of water and the necessary materials are 
so esscntjrj to the execution of these expedients that to 
apply them on the large scale is almost impossible. It is 
on the edges of large bogs and near the limestone ridges 
and hummocks that daily encroachments are made upon 
the bogs of Ireland ; but the pieces enclosed are so small, 
and distributed among such numbers of peasants, whose 
time is of little value, that the expense, however great, 
becomes imperceptible. The land that had been covered 
by the great moss of Kincardine, near Stirling, was 
regained by the removal of the entire substance of the 
moss by Lord Kaimes. The same thing has been done on 
a less scale in a moss near Londonderry. Bogs are not 
unhealthy. Ireland abounds with lakes and bogs which 
might be supposed to have some influence on the climate 
and animal economy of the inhabitants ; but it docs not 
appear that it is anywhere unhealthy. No people are 
more healthy than those who live in the midst of the most 
extensive and wettest mosses ; their atmosphere is entirely 
free from those putrid vapours which are the constant 
attendants of more fertile fens and marshes ; even the 
smoke of peat that constantly clouds their cabins is said 
to be beneficial to the health of the inhabitants. The 
symmetry and athletic frame of the Irish, their ardent 
passions and constant flow of animal spirits, which render 
them always cheerful, often turbulent and boisterous, are 
to be attributed to that uninterrupted health and vigorous 
constitution which are derived from the salubrity of the 

" Those bogs with which Ireland is in some places over- 
grown are not injurious to health. The watery exhala- 
tions from them are neither so abundant nor so noxious 
as those from marshes which become prejudicial from the 

1839-184$-] DRAINAGE OF BOGS. 155 

various animal and vegetable substances that are left to 
putrefy as soon as the waters are exhaled by the sun. 
Bogs are not, as one might suppose, masses of putrefaction ; 
but, on the contrary, they are of such a texture as to resist 
putrefaction above any other substance we know of. I 
have seen a shoe neatly stitched taken out of a bog entirely 
fresh; from its fashion it must have been there some 
centuries. I have seen butter, called rouskin, which had 
been hid in hollow trunks of trees so long ..that it was 
become hard and almost friable, yet not devoid of unctu- 
osity ; the length of time it had been buried must have been 
very great, as ten feet of bog had grown over it. 

"Captain Cook found peat water did not become putrid 
after being long kept in warm climates. The antiseptic 
quality of peat is imparted to water in which it has been 
infused, and extends to all substances that may chance to 
be buried in it. In the Phil. Trans, for 1747 is an account 
of the body of a woman found under a moss in Lincoln- 
shire, which from the antique sandals found on her feet 
had remained there for centuries ; yet the body had 
suffered nothing by corruption, the hair and nails were 
fresh ;-s when living, the skin soft and strong, but had 
acquired a tawny colour I should rather say, tanned. A 
human body was found twelve feet deep in the estate of 
Lord Moira. It was clothed in garments made of hair, 
and yet, though they must have been buried before the 
introduction of the use of wool, the body and clothes 
were no way impaired. A piece of cloth found ten feet 
deep in a moss at Glassford, Lanarkshire, was perfectly 
fresh and well preserved. In 1786 a woollen coat of coarse 
net-work was found in a bog at the depth of seventeen 
feet . . . 

" Ireland is inferior in fertility to England, because that 
which is the most productive of all our strata (the red marl) 
is in the far greater part of Ireland entirely wanting, and 
because it possesses not such districts as the marsh lands 
of Cambridge and Lincoln and the south of Yorkshire. It 
is true that, in passing from London to Holyhead, you see 
but little of our most prolific strata ; but cross the island 


from Exeter to Carlisle, and you will scarce pass over a 
mile of uncultivated ground. Marsh lands are, for the most 
part, exceedingly unhealthy, from the putrid vapours that 
arc exhaled from their animal and vegetable contents ; 
the fens of Lincolnshire and Essex and Romney Marsh 
afforded, before their drainage, too convincing a proof. 
Where stagnant water that has not been impregnated with 
moss prevails, nothing is more common than intermittent 
fevers and malignant epidemics. The soil of the English 
marshes is a black spongy moor of rotten vegetable 
matter. The bogs of Ireland consist of inert vegetable 
matter, covered more or less with unproductive vege- 
tation and containing a large quantity of stagnant water. 
The difference between these soils is, that the rotten vege- 
table matter of the one produces unrivalled crops of corn 
and grass, whilst the inert vegetable matter of the other 
throws out no kind of plant useful to man. 

"In Ireland wood is scarcely ever used for fuel, and the 
great supply for the poor is from the extensive bogs, which, 
near great towns, become on this account a valuable pro- 
perty. A bog near Limerick sold for So an acre. Much 
turf is consumed in Dublin and Limerick. . . . The tolls of 
the Dublin turf boats alone produce an income of .10,000 
per annum. The season for cutting, drying, and carrying 
home turf is considered in Ireland, and many parts of 
Scotland, to be of as much importance as the harvesting 
of corn. An idle alarm has often been excited by the 
plans of draining and reclaiming bogs, as if the stock of 
fuel would be thus destroyed. But, after a bog has been 
drained and covered with a thin stratum of earth, the mass 
below, thus becoming the subsoil, will be so compressed 
as to afford a better fuel than before, and in a state that 
requires much less drying. The stock indeed would in 
this case be exhaustible, whereas at present it replenishes 
itself. But there can be no question but that it would 
be a national advantage to convert to the purposes of 
supplying food to man those bleak, barren, and dreary 
wastes which now answer no other purpose than that of 
supplying fuel." 


In 1839 Buckland, whose natural talent for organising 
societies was further excited by his strong conviction of 
the intimate connection between Agriculture and Geology, 
succeeded, together with Sir Thomas Acland, Mr. Philip 
Puscy, and others, in offering a reception at Oxford to the 
new science of Agriculture as enthusiastic as that which 
the University City had accorded seven years previously to 
the sister science of Geology. The founder of the Agricul- 
tural Society, and its first President, Lord Spencer, was 
a keen agriculturist Dr. Gilbert, the Vice-Chancellor 
(afterwards Bishop of Chichcstcr), was a great friend of 
Dr. Buckland's, so there was no difficulty in inducing the 
University authorities to allow the quadrangle of Queen's 
College to be roofed over for the reception of the expected 
visitors. This was considered a wonderful achievement,, 
and it took a fortnight to accomplish. On the evening 
before the meeting two thousand guests sat down to dinner 
in the covered quadrangle. Buckland made an eloquent 
speech, detailing the many advantages which the promoters 
of the Society hoped would arise from associating practice 
with science. Many allusions record the effect produced 
by his address ; but at that time there were no reporters, 
and, therefore, no connected record is preserved of this 
and many other speeches. It is curious to see, as has 
been already noticed, how meagre the reports were, for 
many years to come, even of large meetings like the British 
Association. The first day of the meeting finished with 
another large dinner in the quadrangle, where Sir Thomas 
Acland proposed the toast of Dr. Buckland, President of 
the Geological Society, who had done so much for science 


in Oxford and in the world at large. In the course of 
his reply, Buckland suggested that a joint Committee 
should be formed from members of the Agricultural Society 
and of the Geological Society, in order to co-operate for 
the improvement of agriculture. 

" We all," he said, " have to deal with one common 
parent, the Earth. It is our business, as geologists, to 
consider the history of its origin and the cause of its 
present condition ; and it is your business to operate on 
the surface, and extract from it the abundant riches with 
which Providence has stored it. From such a combination 
we may anticipate the most splendid results." 

In the following year there was a meeting of the 
Agricultural Society at Cambridge, after the precedent 
set them by the British Association. In the hall of Trinity 
College Buckland again pointed out the great advantages 
to be derived by agriculture from the study of geology. 
In conjunction with Mr. Murchison and Mr. de la Bcche h 
he also undertook a gratuitous survey for the Society ; and 
when, in March 1840, the Agricultural Society obtained a 
Royal Charter, Buckland was the first honorary member. 

In an address at one of the Society's meetings (he 
hardly ever missed one) he said : 

"The scientific research for water and the scientific con- 
version of barren soils to fertility by the practical application 
of geology must obviously be impotent in some of their 
most fundamental points without a knowledge of the com- 
position of soil and structure of the eartk" 

In 1840 Dr. Buckland bought some clay land at Marsh 
Gibbon, a few miles from Oxford, in order to try practical 
experiments upon draining heavy clay soil. He used to- 

1839-1845.] MARSH GIBBON. 159 

drive his younger children over with him in a capacious 
yellow carriage, drawn by a tall, gaunt, gentle horse, called 
"Old Owen," two or three times a week, in order to 
superintend the work himself, for it was one of his favourite 
sayings, " If you want a thing done well, do it yourself." 
In these early days of drainage and of sanitary building, 
it was very necessary that the workmen should be in- 
structed at every step. The farmhouse had the foundations 
of the walls laid in brick, with large slates laid on the top 
crosswise, as a damp-proof course. Perforated air bricks, 
made under his direction at the adjacent brickyard, were 
inserted in the walls, as well as chimney ventilators ; even 
the stables and cowsheds were also ventilated, though this 
was considered at the time a very unnecessary waste of 

In proof of the success resulting from scientific draining 
and cultivation Dr. Buckland exhibited at the Ashmolean 
in 1 844 an enormous turnip, measuring a yard in circum- 
ference, which had been grown on land that before had 
lain waste. 

Marsh Gibbon has retained its fascination for scientific 
experiment, and has been made by the Ewelmc trustees 
into a model sanitary village, with excellent labourers' 
cottages let at very reasonable rents. Buckland's work 
there and his personality arc still remembered in the parish, 
and the Rector, the Rev. Edward Holmes, thus writes to 

" As regards the farm which Dr. Buckland sold in 184$, 
the present owner, Mr. David Jones, says that the drainage 
pipes were made in two pieces, upper and lower, for main 


drainage, and that these were still of benefit on the ploughed 
land. Dr. Buckland used soot with the wheat, and rags 
used to be ploughed in." 

Dr. Buckland was a great favourite among the farmers. 
He endeavoured to convey to their minds great facts in 
an amusing strain, and was therefore generally successful 
in his attempts ; and he was, in a marked degree, a 
sympathetic friend and adviser to the labourer, miner, 
and mechanic, from whom, as he was wont to say, " he had 
learnt many a lesson." 

In 1842, as the following extract from a letter written to 
Sir H. de la Bcche in November of that year shows, he 
was contemplating the purchase of another experimental 
farm at Torrington. 

" I am going," he writes, " to look at an estate near 
Torrington to-morrow with a view to purchasing it, if on 
examination it should prove capable of great improve- 
ment by thorough draining, sheepfolding, and alternating 
crops of green and grain. I fear the climate is bad, 
four hundred feet above sea, and within twenty miles 
of Dartmoor, over which pass all the south-west winds that 
come to Torrington. The whole is barren coal measures. 
What think you of their reclaimability by Scotch and 
Norfolk husbandry, and of the convertibility of the wet 
rushy clay fields into good meadows by thorough draining ? 
The climate cannot be worse than Scotland." 

The following letter, written by Sir Robert Peel in 1842, 
illustrates Buckland's readiness to appreciate and adopt 
any agricultural improvement Smith of Deanston, whose 
successful experiments on his Scottish farm revolutionised 
the old ideas of drainage, was at this date unknown even 


to so energetic an agriculturist as the Premier. The letter 
is written to Philip Puscy, himself one of the promoters 
of the Agricultural Society, and one of the foremost 
champions of " Practice with Science." 

" MY DEAR SIR, I comply, with the greatest pleasure, 
with your wish that I should give you the particulars 
respecting the field which I drained and subsoilcd, the 
produce of which was sent to you by our common friend, 
Dr. Buckland. 

" I was riding with him over a part of my estate in the 
autumn of 1840. He remarked a quantity of manure put 
upon a field, of poor soil, very wet, and in bad condition 
generally, and said the tenant who placed it there went 
to very needless expense, for that manure would be of no 
service while the land remained undraincd and in the state 
in which it then was. He said also that the land in Scot- 
land, which had been so much improved by Mr. Smith of 
Dcanston, was naturally no better than that on which we 
were riding, and that in its original state it resembled that 
land in respect to the quality and properties of the soil in 
many particulars. 

" These remarks of Dr. Buckland did not pass unheeded. 
I selected the worst field I could find, and determined 
strictly to follow the plan of Mr. Smith in respect to it, so 
far as draining and subsoiling are concerned. I first pro- 
posed to the tenant that he should retain the field and 
do the work under my directions ; but he thought it too 
expensive for his means, and preferred giving up the field 
and letting me take it into my own hands. 

" Enclosed are the details with respect to the mode of 
treatment conveyed in answers to queries put by me. 
The produce you have, I believe, from Dr. Buckland. 
The weight given is of the turnips, with the tops, but 
without the fibrous roots I was advised by very good 
practical farmers not to sow turnips, but to have a fallow 
for wheat ; they thought the land not very well suited for 
turnips, and that the best period for sowing them was 



gone by. But I was desirous to exhibit the result of my 
experiment, which I had mainly undertaken for the pur- 
pose of encouraging others in my neighbourhood to follow 
my example, 

a Believe me, dear Sir, 

" Very faithfully yours, 


" WHITEHALL, January i $th t 1 842. " 

It is scarcely an exaggeration to say that, in 1845, 
" famine was sore in the land." The potato disease had 
broken out with great virulence, and it was suddenly found 
that this crop was as important as the wheat crop. Sir 
Robert Peel conferred anxiously with Buckland at this 
important crisis, which both these pre-eminently practical 
men had foreseen. When in 1845 the potato disease 
assumed alarming proportions, Buckland devoted himself 
vigorously to the task of ascertaining the causes and 
remedies for this severe blow to agricultural prospects. 

Having mastered all the facts he could collect by per- 
sonal experiment, observation, and inquiry, he read a 
lecture on the subject before the Ashmolean Society at 
Oxford on November 5th, 1845. He afterwards, at very 
considerable expense, printed his remarks and distributed 
them throughout the whole of England, sending a copy 
to the mayor or civil authority of every town, village, and 
hamlet Not only did he give practical advice on the best 
means of combating the existing evil ; he also indicated the 
substances which formed the best substitutes for potatoes 
among the poorer classes, by whom the failure of this 
useful vegetable was most severely felt His exertions in 
this cause were fully appreciated, and conferred much 

i839-*845-J ALLOTMENTS AT ISUP. 163 

benefit on many who, but for his intervention, would have 
had no opportunity of obtaining information while there 
was still time to turn it to practical use. 

As potato disease still exists in a more or less degree, 
Buckland's practical advice for its cure may still be interest- 
ing. He says : 

"It is important that all leaves and stems should be 
burnt, in order to destroy the spawn of the fungi. For 
next year's planting, small and sound tubers should be 
selected, and planted whole ; or, if cut, the select parts 
should be shaken in a sieve with quicklime ; care should 
also be taken to keep those selected for seed dry." 

In the early part of 1846, as soon as he was established 
at the Deanery of Westminster, he went down to Isiip and 
prospected there for ground suitable for allotments. He 
chose a piece of land on the top of the hill, overlooking 
a moor, and well exposed to the sun. This ground was 
converted, by permission of the Duke of Marlborough, 
to whom it belonged, into allotments, one of which 
Buckland rented himself in order to experiment upon 
growing different sorts of wheat ana barley. Greatly to 
the delight of the tenant and of his whole family, a 
splendid crop of red-coloured wheat, grown from Egyptian 
seed, came up, in spite of the bad season, with well- 
filled ear and tall erect stem, rustling golden red 1 in 
the summer sunshine, a magnificent advertisement to the 
I slip labourers of what the earth would grow with care and 
trouble. At this time any ray of hope that could be held 

1 Just the colour of the African gold tribute in the gem room of the 
British Museum. 


out was greatly needed. Agricultural prospects were at 
a very low ebb, and every sort of advice was looked upon 
with the utmost contempt and scorn by the John-Trot 
geniuses of farming. The more ignorant a man is, the 
more conceited he is; and, in order to convince both 
farmer and labourer that science was any good, it was 
very important to be able to point to practical proofs of 
its benefit 

Buckland's conviction of the immense value which 
Geology might confer on Agriculture was abundantly veri- 
fied by his discovery of the fertilising qualities of coprolites* 
It is difficult for the farmer of to-day, who is provided by 
chemistry with numerous agencies to stimulate and enrich 
the soil, to appreciate the value and importance of this 
discovery. At that time the farmers' saying "Nothing 
like muck" was certainly true, for muck was the only 
manure that was available. No artificial substitutes were 
invented, and guano was still unknown except at almost 
prohibitive prices. 

In Baron Liebig's " Letters on Chemistry " the following 
passage occurs, which foreshadows the important results 
that have since followed the use of this unexpected source 
of agricultural wealth : 

a To restore the disturbed equilibrium of constitution to 
the soil, to fertilise her fields, England requires an 
enormous supply of animal excrements ; and it must 
therefore excite considerable interest to learn, that she 
possesses beneath her soil beds of fossil ' guano,' strata of 
animal excrements in a state which will probably allow 
for their being employed as manure at a very small 
expense. The coprolites discovered by Dr. Buckland (a 

1839-2845.] &X & PEEL AT DRAYTON. 165 

discovery of the highest interest to geology) are these 
excrements ; and it seems probable that in these strata 
England possesses the means of supplying the place of 
recent bones, and therefore the principal conditions of 
improving agriculture." 

Speaking of the same valuable discovery, Sir Roderick 
Murchison recalls, not without a touch of true pathos, the 
" fervid anticipation " with which Buckland was 

" led to hope that these fossil bodies would prove of real use 
in agriculture ; and one of the many regrets I have experi- 
enced since his bright intellect was clouded, was that my 
friend had not been able to appreciate the truly valuable 
results that have followed from this his own discover)' t which, 
at the time it was made, was treated as a curious but 
unimportant subject, and almost scouted as being too mean 
for investigation. The hundreds of tons of these phosphatic 
coprolites and animal substances which are now extracted, 
to the great profit of the proprietors of Cambridgeshire 
and the adjacent counties, for the enrichment of their lands, 
is a warning commentary to those persons of the ' cui 
bono' school who are ever despising the first germs of 
scientific discovery." 

It was the delight of Sir Robert Peel to gather round 
him at Drayton Manor the most distinguished men of the 
day in art and science and literature. From these parties 
Buckland was hardly ever absent He was, indeed^ a 
frequent visitor at Drayton at other times, and both from 
Sir Robert and Lady Peel he always received the greatest 
kindness and goodwill. These parties at Drayton gener- 
ally consisted of about five or six persons eminent in their 
various branches of science and information. The names 
of George Stephenson, Smith of Deanston, Dr. Lyon 
Playfair, Baron Liebig, Mr. Mechie, Sir W. Follett, Mr. 


Arkwright, Mr. Philip Pusey, Professor Owen, Sir H. de 
la Beche, etc., suggest the abundance of the stream of wit 
and knowledge that must have passed from mind to mind 
under the worthy presidency of Sir Robert himself. It 
was at one of these meetings that the following incident, 
which is recorded in Smiles's " Life of George Stephenson," 
took place : 

"On one occasion, an animated discussion took place 
between Mr. Stephenson and Dr. Buckland on one of the 
great engineer's favourite theories as to the formation of 
coal The result was, that Dr. Buckland, a much greater 
master of tongue-fence than Stephenson, completely 
silenced him. Next morning before breakfast, when 
Stephenson was walking in the grounds, deeply pondering, 
Sir William Follett came up, and asked him what he 
was thinking about ? ' Why, Sir William, I am thinking 
over that argument I had with Buckland last night. I 
know I am right, and if I had only the command of words 
which he has I'd have beaten him.' ' Let me know all 
about it/ said Sir William ; * and I'll see what I can do for 
you.' The two sat down in an arbour, where the astute 
lawyer made himself thoroughly acquainted with the 
points of the case ; entering into it with all the zeal of an 
advocate about to plead the dearest interests of his client. 
After he had mastered the subject, Sir William rose up, 
rubbing his hands with glee, and said, ' Now I'm ready for 
him.' Sir Robert Peel was made acquainted with the 
plot, and adroitly introduced the subject of the controversy 
after dinner. The result was that, in the argument which 
followed, the man of science was overcome by the man ot 
the law ; and Sir William Follett had, at all points, the 
mastery over Dr. Buckland. 'What do you say, Mr. 
Stephenson ? ' asked Sir Robert, laughing. ' Why,' said he, 
1 1 will only say this, that of all the powers above and 
under the earth, there seems to me to be no power so 
great as the gift of the gab. 1 M 


It was, however, not so certain that the victory rested 
with the lawyer. Frank Buckland says : 

" Although unwilling to spoil a good story, I cannot resist 
calling Dr. Lyon Playfair into the witness-box to tell his 
story also. He was present at this very party, and tells me 
that, although Sir William Foilctt, armed with practised 
rhetoric, made a brilliant charge upon Dr. Buckland's 
theory, yet that the Professor, relying on the stern, 
stubborn, undisputed facts of geology, and using the 
v/capons of common sense, stood his ground well, honestly, 
and unshaken in this intellectual assault of arms." l 

Another story is told of Dr. Buckland and George Ste- 
phcnson, when both were staying with Sir Robert Peel at 
Drayton. The party had just returned from church, and 
were standing together on the terrace near the hall, when 
they observed in the distance a railway-train flashing along, 
throwing behind it a long line of white steam. " Now, 
Buckland," said Mr. Stephenson, " I have a poser for you : 
can you tell me what is the power that is driving that 
train ? " 

" Well/' said the doctor, " I suppose it is one of your 
big engines ? " 

" But what drives the engine ? " 

" Oh, very likely a canny Newcastle driver." 

" What do you say to the light of the sun ? " 

" How can that be ? " asked the doctor. 

"It is nothing else," said the engineer: "it is light 
bottled up in the earth for tens of thousands of years; 
light absorbed by plants and vegetables being necessary 

1 Memoir, "' Bridgcwater," 3rd edition, pp. 64, 65. 


for the condensation of carbon during the process of their 
growth, if it be not carbon in another form. And now, 
after being buried in the earth for long ages in fields 
of coal, that latent light is again brought forth and 
liberated, and made to work, as in that locomotive, for 
great human purposes." 

Like a flash of light, the saying illuminated in an instint 
an entire field of science. 1 

The following letter, 'written by Lord Playfair to the 
biographer, recording some memories of Buckland, may 
be appropriately inserted in a chapter mainly devoted 
to the Dean's agricultural investigations, since Lord 
Playfair's brilliant discoveries in chemistry have themselves 
proved of such infinite service to the scientific farmer. 

"My DEAR MRS. GORDON, You ask me for some 
personal memories of your father, Dean Buckland, who was 
one of the best and dearest friends of my youth. I forget 
the circumstances of my introduction to him, but it must 
have been in 1840. I had before that year met him 
at scientific assemblies, and was an admirer of his scientific 
books; but until 1840 I do not think that I knew him 
personally. However, we were introduced, most probably 
by our mutual friend Sir Henry dc la Bechc. Our acquaint- 
ance ripened into a closer and more intimate friendship 
than appears possible by the relations of a man of 
world-wide fame, in mature years, with a young Scotch 
youth who had just emerged from his scientific studies 
at College. The kindness of Buckland's heart explains 
this anomaly. I had published one or two original 
investigations in Germany, which had attracted some 
attention among chemists, and I found to my surprise that, 
both at Berlin and in London, the young chemist of 

1 ' Cyclopaedia of Nature Teachings," Hugh Macmillan, LL.D. 


twenty-one was welcomed as a colleague by men whose 
names still remain revered in the history of science. Of 
these men your father had most influence upon my career, 
and was certainly my most intimate friend. 

11 Dr. Buckland had for some time taken much interest 
in the relations of geology to agriculture, but had found 
these to be of a complicated character, for, though the 
rock beneath the soil influenced the crops in a marked 
degree, it was less dominant in its influence than the 
surface soil, which frequently consisted of detritus having 
little relation to the geological structure beneath. This 
led your father to look to chemistry as a science which 
might be brought into more useful practical connection 
with agriculture. Liebig had shortly before written his 
masterly work on Agricultural Chemistry, which I intro- 
duced to this country by an English translation. This 
made me the natural exponent of Licbig's views in 
England, specially as I kept myself in close correspondence 
with my great master, and became acquainted with all his 
new researches. In these your father was much interested, 
and did much to popularise them among agriculturists. 
Personally I did not then sec much of your father, as I 
resided in Clitheroe and afterwards in Manchester; but 
I visited him in Oxford on two occasions, and we had 
lively conversations as to the best *nethods of inducing 
farmers to throw the light of science on their important 

"In 1842 Baron Liebig offered to pay me a visit in 
Manchester, when I was living in humble lodgings, ill 
calculated to receive my illustrious friend. On consulting 
Dr. Buckland he suggested that I should induce Liebig to 
make a tour in Great Britain, where he was certain to 
be received with welcome and with honour. Though I 
became ' personal conductor ' of this tour, your father 
joined us in part of it and contributed much to its success. 
We went together to the meeting of the Royal Agricultural 
Society, which will explain the fact that, in the published 
print to which you refer, his portrait appears standing 
beside Lord Ducic, Baron Liebig, T. C. Morton, and 


myself. This tour, in which your father took such an 
active part, did a great deal to stimulate the leading 
agriculturists of the country to carry out the motto of 
the Royal Agricultural Society, ' Practice with Science. 1 
Among other houses which he visited were those of Sir 
Robert Peel at Drayton Manor, Lord Ducie at Portworth, 
Lord Fitzwilliam at Wcntworth, Lord Essex at Cassiobury, 
Philip Pusey, then the ruling spirit of the Agricultural 
Society, Mr. Webb and Mr. Miles at Bristol, and Mr. 
Crosse. The opportunity was taken of our visits to hold 
meetings in the neighbouring towns, and the genial, 
amusing speeches of your father contributed much to 
their success. Baron Licbig always spoke in German, so 
my function chiefly consisted in rendering his speeches 
comprehensible to the audience, by repeating them in 
English after he had finished. 

44 One notable fact should not be omitted. Your father 
had shown that the coprolites found in various rocks 
could not be anything but the fossil dung of extinct 
animals, as the intestinal marks were still obvious. Dr. 
Buckland took us to sec these coprolites in the strata in 
which they occur. Licbig, on being convinced of their 
probable origin, said they must contain abundance of 
phosphate of lime, the most needed manure for our 
exhausted soils. By the post of the same day I sent 
some to my laboratory in Manchester, where it was found 
that they abounded in phosphate of lime. Later, on his 
return to Germany, Licbig made complete analysis of the 
coprolites, and what your father termed ' pseudo-copro- 
lites,' which were also found to contain this important 
earth. This was the origin of the great industry of Super- 
phosphates, which has done so much for agriculture. 
During part of our tour Dr. Daubeny was with us, and he 
suggested that mineral phosphates such as he had seen in 
Estramadura might be used when coprolites failed, and 
this source is now largely used in agriculture. 

" I hope that I have answered your question as to 
whether your father did much to promote the application 
of science to agriculture. In relation to this you ask me 


another Question, whether Dr. Buckland and the great 
Minister Sir Robert Peel worked together for this purpose. 
To make this clear to you I must interpolate an anecdote 
of my own personal history. While I was Honorary 
Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution of Man- 
chester, the chair of chemistry at the University of 
Edinburgh became vacant, and for this I was an unsuccess- 
ful candidate, though I was second in the running. While 
smarting under this disappointment I received a letter from 
Faraday saying that the University of Toronto in Canada 
had entrusted him with the selection of a Professor of 
Chemistry, and that he nominated me. As there was 
little opening at that time for any chemist in this country, 
I accepted the appointment. This was a grief to your 
father, who did not wish me to leave the country. No 
doubt he represented his views to Sir Robert Peel, for at 
this time the latter invited me to pay him a visit at 
Drayton Manor. As I had never seen this great states- 
man, I was much astonished at the invitation, which of 
course I accepted with much pleasure. On going to 
Drayton Manor I found a large party, including your 
father. Next morning we found that all the neighbouring 
landlords and farmers met at Drayton Manor, and they 
were addressed by Dr. Buckland and by myself, as well 
as by Sir Robert Peel, on the application of science to 
agriculture. Reporters were present, and these speeches 
at the time produced an effect on the public. After 
staying at Drayton Manor for a few days, Sir Robert Peel 
told me that he had wished to form his own opinion of 
me, and that he entirely agreed with Dr. Buckland that I 
should not take a foreign Professorship, offering his power- 
ful influence to get me employment if I resigned it. It 
is needless to state that I did, and I am proud to say Sir 
Robert Peel honoured me with his friendship till his death. 
On my future visits, which were numerous, to Drayton 
Manor, I generally met your father. On one of these 
occasions the Deanery of Westminster became vacant, 
and your father thought that Sir Robert Peel would offer 
it to him. Though it was not a bishopric, Dr. Buckland 


had the genuine feeling of ' nolo episcopari/ and thought 
it was his duty to refuse it 

" For at least an hour in my bedroom I had to combat 
his scruples of conscience, or rather of his modesty, until 
at last I got his promise to accept the appointment if it 
were offered. Other persons more competent than I am 
will tell you about his life as Dean of Westminster. Not 
that I am ignorant of it, for there was scarcely a week 
that I did not dine at the Deanery, and continued in the 
enjoyment of his friendship till the cloud came over his 

4< But I may conclude with a short estimate of his cha- 
racter. Dean Buckland was one of the most active-minded 
men I ever met. To all subjects under his attention he 
gave the best efforts of his mind. Of course geology was 
his special science, but he did not limit himself to it 
Whenever he thought he could be useful to humanity, he 
threw himself into the work with heart and soul. He 
often co-operated with me, for instance, in promoting 
public health, while I acted as a commissioner to investi- 
gate into the sanitary condition of the United Kingdom. 
He was deeply impressed with the opinion that 'cleanliness 
is next to godliness/ and he was a most robust preacher 
on this subject During the cholera he rather startled the 
congregation on the Day of Humiliation by preaching on 
the text * Wash and be clean/ and an admirable sermon 
it was. His geniality and love of humour, and even of 
downright fun, made him a charming companion. 

" I need not tell his daughter of the deeper qualities of 
the man, of his love of truth, of the real reverence of his 
nature notwithstanding the exuberance of his spirits. 
His kindly nature few could know better than myself, 
though I am sure there are many men of science who 
could testify, as I can, that they owe much to his warm 
sympathies and active friendship when they were fortunate 
enough to win it. 

" I am, dear Mrs. Gordon, 

" Yours sincerely, 




ON Christmas Day, 1839, occurred the remarkable land- 
slip at Axmouth, the extent of which, says Buckland, 
" far exceeds the earthquakes of Calabria, and almost the 
vast volcanic fissures of the Val del Bove on the flanks of 
Etna." Dr. and Mrs. Buckland were both quickly on the 
spot, and while the Professor made careful investigations 
into the cause of the catastrophe, his wife, with her clever 
pencil, made a series of careful drawings of this curious 
phenomenon, from one of which the illustration on the 
following page is taken. Buckland at an Ashmolean 
meeting thus describes the event : 

"The recent sinking of the land and elevation of the 
bottom of the sea at Axmouth, Devon, which occurred 
during two days, December 2$th and 26th, have no analogy 
to the motions of an earthquake, but come from an entirely 
different cause. The cliffs on that part of the coast consist 
of strata of chalk and cherty sandstone, resting on a thick 
bed of loose sand or fox-mould, beneath which is a series 
of beds of fine clay impervious to water. Owing to the 

f/ 1 /* 


/ A 

r^* /wla s 



N \ -^es^jnr <' - j 




long continuance of wet weather in the last autumn, the 
lower region of the fox-mould had become so highly 
saturated with water as to be reduced to semi-fluid quick- 
sand. The coast from Axmouth to Lyme Regis presents 
vertical cliffs of chalk about five hundred feet above sea 
level, between which cliffs and the beach d space, varying 
from a quarter to half a mile in extent, is occupied by 
ruinous fallen masses of chalk and sandstone, forming an 
undcrcliff similar to that in the south coast of the Isle of 
Wight. The landslip at Axmouth began in the night of 
December 24th, 1839, and during the following day slight 
movements of the undercliff were noticed ; a few cracks 
also appeared in the fields above. 

" About midnight of December 2 5th the inhabitants of 
t\vo cottages in the undercliff were awakened by loud sounds 
produced by the grinding of slowly moving masses of the 
adjacent rocks ; they found the floors of their houses rising 
upwards towards the ceiling, and with difficulty escaped. In 
a few hours one cottage was thrown down. About midnight 
also the two coastguards observed a huge reef of rocks 
gradually rising out of the sea at a short distance from the 
shore ; they moved slowly upward during December 26th, 
until a reef or breakwater was formed half a mile long and 
ranging from ten to forty feet in height, between which 
and the shore was a basin of salt water about five acres 
in extent and in some parts twenty-five feet deep. The 
men who saw the reef rising fled to the top of the cliffs, 
where they soon found the fields on which they trod 
intersected by chasms, from which they made their escape 
with difficulty. Fifty acres were gradually severed from 
the mainland during December 26th. Of these a portion 
subsided about fifty feet below its former level, and the 
rest sank into a tremendous chasm extending three 
quarters of a mile from east to west and varying in breadth 
from two hundred to four hundred feet. Towards the face 
of the new cliff, a portion of the mass presents a most 
picturesque appearance of ruin and confusion, arising from 
the fact of its having broken up into fragments, which 
having sunk to unequal depths and being divided by deep 


chasms give the appearance of castles, towers, and pinnacles. 
The upward movement of the reef was simultaneous with 
the downward movement of the land. A similar elevation 
of a reef was produced in March 1 790 by the subsidence of 
about eight acres of chalk in the parish of Beer, three miles 
west of Axmouth. A third example of the same kind 
but on a minor scale took place last February in the day- 
time at Whitlands, about a mile and a half west of Lyme. 
The most decisive confirmation of the theory of hydrostatic 
pressure causing the elevation of reefs beneath the sea was 
afforded at Whitlands by the rising of two reefs at a short 
distance from the shore, which were seen to rise as the 
undcrcliff descended." 

Buckland concluded his address by giving a list of land- 
slips which have occurred along the coast at various times, 
and by stating that similar landslips, under similar conditions, 
often occur on the sides of inland valleys. A stratum of 
solid stone, resting on a bed of permeable sand, beneath 
which is a bed of impermeable clay, are the conditions of 
most of the landslips from the sides of hills into the 
adjacent valleys. 

In the cause of his beloved science a journey to the 
extreme North of Great Britain was nothing to Buckland. 
A large artificial lake under the Pentland Hills, some 
sixty feet deep, had dried up after a season of great 
drought As many parts of the bottom of this lake were 
calculated to throw much light upon several important 
phenomena in geology, an opportunity occurred of acquir- 
ing evidence of which Buckland was not slow to avail 
himself. One of the phenomena which were thus illustrated 
was the manner in which several species of locomotive 
fresh-water shells were found congregated in one dense 


bed, extending over a small area near the lowest bottom 
of the pond to which the water had subsided. Other 
beds of sediment at the bottom of the pond were found 
crowded with bivalve shells deeply embedded in mud, to 
the exclusion of shells of the more locomotive univalves. 
These facts seemed to throw light on the appearance in the 
Pctworth and Purbeck marbles of only one species of uni- 
valve shells, and the non-existence of these univalves in 
other beds of the same marble which contain exclusively 
bivalve shells. Another point was the collection of fish in 
one spot The fish which had survived were congregated 
with the surviving molluscs in the remaining shallow water, 
and, if this dried up entirely, the first bed of mud formed 
by the returning water of the next flood would bury them 
in one stratum, after the manner of fish that arc entombed 
in miscellaneous shoals in the strata of Solenhofcn and 
other places. Another phenomenon in the pond was the 
occurrence of recent footsteps of animals and birds on the 
surface of the soft beds of mud and sand since the water 
had subsided These illustrate many similar footprints 
which have been discovered upon the jlabs of stone in the 
new red sandstone formations. 

From all parts of the world came specimens and collec- 
tions, on which Buckland was asked to report. Thus in 
1827 he was called upon to examine some fossil animal 
and vegetable remains collected by Mr. Crawfurd on a 
voyage up the Irawadi from Rangoon to Ava of five 
hundred miles. The specimens were principally collected 
from a tract of country on the east bank of the Irawadi, 
near the town of VVctmasut, about half-way between Ava 



and Prome. The bones were found in soil which chiefly 
consisted of barren sandhills mixed with gravel intersected 
by deep ravines ; beneath these hills are strata containing 
shells and lignite, through which wells are sunk about two 
hundred feet to collect petroleum. Buckland, in his report, 
suggests that it would be an interesting subject " of 
inquiry, whether any fossil remains of elephant, rhinoceros, 
hippopotamus, and hyena exist in the diluvium of tropical 
climates ; and, if they do, whether they agree with the 
recent species of these genera or with those extinct species 
whose remains are dispersed so largely over the temperate 
and frigid zones of the northern hemisphere." "It deserves 
remark," he adds, " that the gavial and several other 
pachydcrmata found by Mr. Crawfurd l do not now inhabit 
the Burmese country. 

In 1835 another large consignment of specimens arrived 
from Connecticut and other parts of America. The most 
important of these were the fossil footprints preserved in 
sandstone of a gigantic Dinosaur, a link between reptiles 
and birds, whose feet measured sixteen inches in length 
exclusive of a large claw measuring two inches. The 
most frequent distance which intervenes between the larger 
of these footsteps is four feet ; sometimes they are six 
feet asunder : the latter were probably made by the animal 
while running. There were also tracks of another gigantic 
species, having three toes of a more slender character : these 
tracks arc from fifteen to sixteen inches long, exclusive of 
a remarkable appendage extending backwards from the 

1 Mr. Crawfurd was the first to find these extinct animals in Asia ; 
most of his specimens are at the Geological Museum, Jermyn Street. 


hcei eight or nine inches, and apparently intended (like a 
snow-shoe) to sustain the weight of a heavy animal walking 
on a soft bottom. The impress of this appendage resembles 
those of wiry feathers or coarse bristles, which seem to have 
sunk into the mud an inch deep, while the toes had sunk 
much\ deeper. Round their impression in the mud was 
raised a ridge several inches high, like that round the track 
of an elephant in clay. The length of the step of this 
creature appears to have been six feet ; the footsteps on 
the five other kinds of tracks arc of smaller size, and the 
smallest indicates a foot but one inch long and a step from 
three to five inches. The length of the leg of the African 
ostrich, it may be added, is about four feet, and that of the 
foot ten inches. These tracks appear to have been made 
on the margin of shallow water, that was subject to changes 
of level, and in which sediments of sand and mud were 
alternately deposited. 

The next collection came from India, and contained the 
first specimens ever brought thence to this country. In 
1836 Dr. Buckland examined a number of fossils from the 
hill-slopes and ravines that traverse that part of the Siwalik 
Sub-Himalayan range of hills which lies between the 
Jumna and the Sutlcj rivers. He describes 

"a large ruminating animal called the Sivathcrium, ap- 
proaching the elephant in size, discovered in the . Q ub- 
Himalayan range of hills. The jaw of this animal is twice 
as large as that of a buffalo, and larger than that of a 
rhinoceros. The front of the skull is remarkably wide, and 
retains the bony cores of two short, thick, and straight 
horns, similar in position to those of the four-horned 
antelope of Hindostan. The nasal bones are salient in 
a degree without example among ruminants, and exceed 


in this respect those of the rhinoceros, tapir, and palaeo- 
therium, the only herbivorous animals that have this sort of 
structure. Hence there is no doubt that the sivatherium 
was invested with a trunk, and probably this organ had an 
intermediate character between the trunk of the tapir and 
that of the elephant" 

The Sivatherium is one of a group of a remarkable series 
of animals, all of which (with the exception of the girafTc) 
are extinct Buckland pointed out the importance of these 
newly discovered fossil animals in filling up intervals in the 
order of pachydcrmata, where links were previously wanting 
to connect many living genera, between which the distance 
is much wider than in any other species of mammalia. 

The famous Moa or Dinornis was also brought before 
Buckland. On May 29th, 1843, h e rcac * some interesting 
letters detailing the discovery of the bones of a gigantic 
bird, which must have recently inhabited New Zealand, 
even if it did not prove to be still an inhabitant of that 
colony. The announcement of its supposed existence 
was conveyed in a letter from Dr. Buckland's Torquay 
friend, Mr. William Williams, dated February 28th, 1842. 
The writer says that, hearing from the natives of an extra- 
ordinary monster which inhabited a cave on the side of 
a hill near the river Wciroa, he was induced to offer a 
reward to any person who produced either the bird or one 
of its bones. In consequence of this offer a large but 
much worn bone was found, and, shortly after, another of 
smaller size was discovered in the bed of a stream which 
runs into Poverty Bay. The natives were then induced to 
go in large numbers to turn up the mud in the bed of 
the same river, and soon brought to Mr. Williams a large 


collection of bones, which proved to have belonged to a bird 
of gigantic dimensions. The length of the large bone of 
the leg is two feet ten inches. The bones were found a little 
below the surface in the mud of several other rivers, and 
in that situation only. The bird to which they belonged 
is stated to have existed at no very distant period and in 
considerable numbers, as bones of more than thirty in- 
dividuals had been collected by the natives. Mr. Williams 
had also heard of a bird having been recently seen near 
Cloudy Bay in Cook's Strait by an Englishman, accom- 
panied by a native, which was described to be not less 
than fourteen or sixteen feet in height, and this creature 
he supposed to be about the size of that to which the 
bones belonged. Of these bones, one case had already 
arrived and a second was daily expected 

A letter from Professor Owen, dated January 2 1st, 1843, 
detailed the contents of the box which had arrived ; and 
from these fragments it was clear that they had belonged 
to the species of birds which the Professor had already 
described in the Zoological Transactions * from a fragment 
of the femur which he had received some time previous. 
The bird forms a new genus, on which Professor Owen 
bestowed the name M Dinornis Nova? Zelandias." His 
diagnosis of the species, size, and character of the bird was 
a remarkable testimony to his extraordinary sagacity. By 
the process of severe philosophical induction, and not by 
mere guesswork, he was enabled to describe the bird with 
the utmost accuracy from the inspection of the solitary 

1 Vol. iiL, p. 32, pL iii. 


small fragment of the thigh which was then the only bone 
of the creature in Europe. The description in every 
particular was confirmed by the arrival of Mr. Williams' 

In all projects which could promote the spread of 
scientific and technical knowledge, especially of subjects 
connected with his favourite studies, Buckland took a 
prominent part The foundation of the School of Mines 
in Jermyn Street was largely due to his efforts. 1 

Mr., now Sir B. W., Richardson, in his book of extracts 
from Mr. Sopwith's Journal, mentions that on June 8th, 
1837, "Two events of importance took place: one a visit 
to the famous Dr. Buckland, father of the late Frank 
Buckland, at Oxford; and a second, the projection of a 
School of Mines, arising, as it seems, out of that visit." 

" In the breakfast-room," Mr. Sopwith says, "Dr. Buckland 
introduced me to Mrs. Buckland and to Dr. Davics Gilbert 
Dr. Buckland said that he had been applied to to recom- 
mend some one as a proper person to undertake the office 
of Mining Commissioner on the part of the Free Miners. 
' I told them/ said the Doctor, * that they must have nothing 
short of Newcastle, and I named Mr. Buddie and yourself.' 
I sat next to Dr. Gilbert, and had with him and Dr. Buckland 
a conversation on the subject of a School of Mines. Dr. 
Gilbert said that great advantages had been derived from 
the institution of a Polytechnic School in Cornwall, of 
which he has been an active promoter. Before leaving, 

1 At the suggestion of Sir Roderick Murchison, and at the generous 
expense of many of the most eminent scientific men of England, a bust 
of Buckland was placed on December 2nd, 1860, in the Geological 
Walhalla of the Jermyn Street Museum, in company with the busts of 
Sir H. de la Beche, Professor E. Forbes, Greenhough, Playfair, Smith, 
Hutton, and Sir James Hall. 


he made me write a minute to the effect that Mr. Buddie 
and I should dine with him at the Geological Club in 
London on the following Wednesday." 

In the autumn of 1838, at the meeting of the British 
Association at Newcastle, Buckland again conferred 
with Mr. Sopwith, Sir Charles Lemon, and others upon 
the best mode of bringing the subject of an application 
to Government on Mining Records before the Association. 
" It was," he said, " indispensable for the country to have 
a scientific education in connection with manufacture and 
mining." The immediate outcome of his efforts was a 
grant of money from the Association for the purpose of 
collecting and preserving information as to the geological 
structure and mineral riches of the country. The oppor- 
tunity was one which was not to be lost. Sections of the 
strata on the numerous railroads in various parts of the 
United Kingdom, many of which traversed important 
mineral districts, were exposed in cuttings, and, before 
they again became covered, would afford much valuable 

The collection of all this information in one central spot 
was one of the objects which Buckland had in view in his 
projected School of Mines. But the more he considered 
the scheme, the more varied appeared to be its utility. 
The Jermyn Street Museum and School was to serve as 
the central map office of the Geological Society ; as a 
Mining Record office, where all plans of mines abandoned 
or existing are registered and kept ; as a statistical office, 
in which might be collected all the documents that bear 
upon the mineral produce of the country ; and, finally, as 


a technical college, where students are trained in mining 
and assaying. The necessity for such an institution 
became every day more apparent. 

It was not long before his persistent efforts were re- 
warded. He was able to announce to the Geological 
Society that he and his friends had obtained the co- 
operation of the Departments of Woods and Forests and 
of the Ordnance, of the British Museum, of the Institute 
of Civil Engineers, and of the British Association, " in 
furthering and advancing the knowledge of the structure 
of the earth." He had made out a strong case in favour 
of such a school when he insisted on 

"the pecuniary value and statistical utility of geological 
investigations in directing the researches of industry to 
those points where they may be profitably applied, and 
in preventing such large expenditures of capital as, under 
ignorance of the internal structure of the earth and the 
peculiar productions of such geological formation, we have 
in times past seen thrown away in ruinous searches after 
coal, when the slightest knowledge of geology would have 
given information that no coal could possibly be found. 
Never more shall we witness a recurrence of such un- 
pardonable waste of public money as that which is said 
to have been lavished in sending lime from Plymouth 
to build the fortress of Gibraltar, on a rock exclusively 
composed of limestone." 

The projected School of Mines was also to serve as a 
Museum, in which might be exhibited specimens of the 
various stones, marbles, and granite which were employed 
both at home and abroad in building. Buckland had 
already collected similar samples in the Oxford Museum, 
in order that ocular demonstration might afford to architects 


and engineers information respecting the relative durability 
of building materials which could be supplied in no other way. 

At the Society of Civil Engineers Buckland was a 
well-known figure, and on some points a recognised 
authority. He rarely missed the reading of any paper of 
importance at the meetings of the 'Society, taking an 
active part in the discussion. Whenever his personal 
aid and influence could be useful, they were cheerfully 
given. His archaeological knowledge was sometimes of 
great service to the Society. Acquainted with every 
Roman villa then known in the country, he had not only 
observed the Roman method of building, draining, and 
warming their houses, but had also examined the cement 
in which the beautiful tessclated pavements are so firmly 
fixed, and had caused models to be made of the peculiar 
fan-tailed tiles which he discovered at Whcatley Villa, 
near Oxford. It was a definite article of his archaeological 
creed that Roman villas would not have fallen into ruins 
so completely, had not snails absorbed the mortar to 
make their own natural coverings. He constantly, it may 
be added, brought home from Stonesfield and Wheatley 
Villas some of the large edible snails that live there ; but 
they did not long survive in the Islip garden. 

In London Buckland put his knowledge of the relative 
durability of different stones to valuable account He 
was convinced that the lavish use of Bath stone in the 
metropolis was a gross mistake, and when Dean of West- 
minster he would allow none to be used in the Abbey. 
He preferred Normandy stone or Yorkshire stone, both of 
which were as cheap and more enduring. 


His opinion on this subject was recognised as so authori- 
tative that his advice was often asked by practical men in 
important undertakings. The old breakwater at Weymouth 
having been much injured by the pholas boring into the 
limestone, the engineer consulted Dr. Buckland upon the 
best stone to be used in making the new one. After many 
exhaustive inquiries, he recommended that Portland stone 
(of which St. Paul's is built) should be used, as the 
pholas will not bore into it on account of the quantity of 
silica or flinty matter it contains. In 1841 he published 
a paper in the Proceedings of the Geological Society upon 
the agency of land-snails in corroding and making deep 
excavations in compact limestone. He examined the 
peculiar hollows on the under surface of a ledge of carboni- 
ferous limestone rock, and, as he found in them a large 
number of the shells of Helix aspersa, he concluded that 
the cavities had been formed by snails, and that probably 
many generations had contributed to produce them. He 
intended to ascertain whether the cavities were hollowed 
out by these snails by means of an acid secreted by them, 
or by means of their rasp-like tongues. In a speech 
delivered before 'the Geological Section of the British 
Association at Cambridge in 1845, he discussed the ques- 
tion at some length. The following extract from the 
Times gives a summary of what he said : 

" Dr. Buckland described the agency of land-snails in 
forming holes and trackways in compact limestone. His 
attention had first been called to the subject by a discussion 
on the perforations sixty feet high at Tcnby Castle, which 
were by some taken to be evidence of a raised beach, but 


which he considered as the workmanship of land-snails. 
He considered that by means of the acid with which they 
were provided snails could make perforations into the most 
solid forms of limestone, but the perforations were unlike 
those made by any other animals, or those made by the 
salt of the sea and the carbonic acid of the atmosphere. 
These perforations were never found where the rain and 
frosts could operate, and always had the aperture down- 
wards. From observations made at Richborough last year, 
he had concluded that these perforations were not made 
to a greater depth than an inch in a thousand years." 

Subsequently he seems to have leaned to the opinion 
that the perforations were bored by the rasp-like tongues 
of the snails. It was with a view to the establishment or 
disproof of this theory that his wife and her youngest 
daughter Caroline during his illness at Islip made a large 
collection of the tongues of both land and fresh-water 
snails, which they mounted in Canada balsam, and careful 
drawings were made of them. 

Another favourite topic of discussion at the Society of 
Civil Engineers was the water supply of large towns. 
The following extract from the Bridgcwatcr Treatise on 
artesian wells shows the practical value Professor Buck- 
land attributed to this " prime necessary of life," as well as 
the poetic view with which he regarded it : 

11 In some places application has been made to economical 
purposes, of the higher temperature of the water rising from 
great depths. In Wurtemberg, Von Bruckmann has 
applied the warm water of artesian wells to heat a paper 
manufactory at Heilbronn, and to prevent the freezing of 
common water around his mill wheels. The same practice 
is also adopted in Alsace, and at Canstadt, near Stuttgard. 
It has even been proposed to apply the heat of ascending 


springs to the warming of greenhouses. .Artesian wells 
have long been used in Italy, in the duchy of Modena ; 
they have also been successfully applied in Holland, China, 
and North America. By means of similar wells, it is 
probable that water may be raised to the surface of many 
parts of the sandy deserts of Africa and Asia, and it has 
been in contemplation to construct a series of wells along 
the main road which crosses the Isthmus of Suez. 1 . . . 
Among the incidental advantages arising to man from the 
introduction of faults and dislocations of the strata into 
the system of curious arrangements that pervade the 
subterranean economy of the globe, we may further 
include the circumstance, that these fractures are the most 
frequent channels of issue to mineral and tJiennal waters, 
whose medicinal virtues alleviate many of the diseases of 
the human frame. 

" Thus in the whole machinery of springs and rivers, and 
the apparatus that is kept in action for their duration, 
through tae instrumentality of a system of curiously con- 
structed hills and valleys, receiving their supply occa- 
sionally from the rains of heaven, and treasuring It up in 
their everlasting storehouses to be dispensed perpetually 
by thousands of never-failing fountains, we see a provision 
not less striking than it is important. So also in the 
adjustment of the relative quantities of sea and land, in 
such due proportions as to supply the earth by constant 
evaporations, without diminishing the waters of the ocean ; 
and in the appointment of the atmosphere to be the 
vehicle of this wonderful and unceasing circulation ; in 
thus separating these waters from their native salt (which, 
though of the highest utility to preserve the purity of the 
sea, renders them unfit for the support of terrestrial animals 
or vegetables), and transmitting them in genial showers to 
scatter fertility over the earth, and maintain the never- 
failing reservoirs of those springs and rivers by which 
they are again returned to mix with their parent ocean ; 

1 The French have since this time successfully sunk a series of 
artesian wells in the Sahara. R. HUNT. 


in all these circumstances we find such evidence of nicely 
balanced adaptation of means to ends, of wise foresight, 
and benevolent intention, and infinite power, that he must 
be blind indeed who refuses to recognise in them proofs 
of the most exalted attributes of the Creator." 

Pisciculture was a subject to which Buckland devoted 
much attention. It was from his father that Frank 
Buckland must have inherited his taste for fish-hatching. 
In 1844 Buckland gave an account of his visit to the experi- 
mental ponds at Dumlanrig, in company with Professor 
Agassiz, who was himself conducting a series of analogous 
experiments on the trout of the lake of Neuchatel. The 
Doctor alluded to the great probable advantages of hatching 
the ova in artificial ponds with a view to the preservation 
of the young fry. In the experiments of Agassiz and Sir 
F. Mackenzie it was found necessary to feed the fry with 
the paunches of sheep. The growth of the salmon after 
it descends to the sea was stated by an old fisherman at 
Axmouth to average a pound a month, and the fish of the 
different rivers appear to return to spawn at different 
periods. The food of the salmon in the sea is probably the 
jelly-fish, for the stomach has many blend sacs and seems 
adapted for rapid digestion. Dr. Buckland referred to Mr. 
E. Forbes* observations on the shelly molluscs, the young 
of which when hatched are locomotive, float about with 
little wings, and perhaps furnish food for the salmon. 
He alluded also to the advantage of assisting the salmon 
by staircases, where the falls of rivers are too high to be 
cleared by a single leap of the fish. 

His remarks upon the locomotion of fishes are interest- 
ing, as the subject is now happily illustrated at the Brighton 


Aquarium. Thus he describes gurnards as " closing their 
fins against their sides, and, without moving their tails, 
walking along the bottom, by means of six rays, three 
on each pectoral fin, which they placed successively on the 
ground. Their great heads and bodies seemed to throw 
hardly any weight on these slender rays or feet, being 
suspended in water and having their weight further 
diminished by their swimming bladder." A flagstone, to 
which he gave the name " Ichthyopatolites," was sent to 
the Professor from a coal shaft at Mostyn, with an impres- 
sion on it like the trackway of a fish, crawling along the 
bottom by means of its fins. 

The late Rev. Gilbert Hcathcotc, Sub- Warden of Win- 
chester, used to tell the following story in connection with 
the Professor's observations on the locomotion of fishes. 1 

Dr. Buckland was Mr. Hcathcotc's guest at a New 
College "gaudy" dinner, when a turbot was brought on the 
table. The Doctor, being at that time interested in the 
question of the movement of fishes, said, " I should like 
that fine fellow's head and shoulders to examine just 
what I wanted : do you think I can have it ? " 

"Certainly," said his host, and, when the fish was 
removed to the side-table, he offered to have it put on 
one side for him. 

" Thank you," said the Professor, " but I would rather 
cut it off myself, as I can tell better what I want." So up 
he jumped, napkin in hand, and in a few minutes returned 
in great glee, with the coveted specimen in his hand, 

1 Mr. G. W. Hcathcotc had observed that a pike can creep along 
the grass. 


wrapped up carefully in the napkin, which he promised to 
return. The parcel was thrust in the big outside pouch- 
pocket worn in the dress-coats of those days. 

After the dinner was over, Mr. Hcathcote was called 
upon to propose the toast of Dr. Ingram (the celebrated 
author of" Memorials of Oxford "). He was a junior Fellow, 
and was rather taken aback at being thus unexpectedly 
asked to make a speech, and when he got up he could not 
for the life of him think of what to say about this well- 
known dignitary. Dr. Buckland happily came to his 
rescue, and, making a funnel of his hands, whispered, " Say 
there is so much to say on the subject that you don't 
know what to say first" Mr. Hcathcote took the hint, 
and that utterance gave time for the particular compliment 
to Dr. Ingram as an author to come to his mind, and 
the whole party cheered the allusion to Dr. Ingram's 




" We can read Bethel on a pile of stones, 
And, seeing where God has been, trust in Him." 

LOWELL, Cathedral. 

IN 1830 Dr. Buckland was requested by the trustees under 
the will of the late Earl of Bridgewater to write one 
of the eight treatises designed in accordance with the will 
to "justify the ways of God to man." " Geology and 
Mineralogy Considered with Reference to Natural Theo- 
logy " is the title of the book which is best known to the 
public in connection with Dr. Buckland's name. That some 
portions of this valuable work have grown obsolete by the 
progress of these sciences is a matter of course. But the 
main argument is as powerful as ever, and has been 
accepted by men who, like Professor Owen and Professor 
Phillips, occupy an unassailable position in the scientific 
world ; and so little has it been superseded by any other 
work on the subject that Professor Boyd Dawkins uses it 
as a book of reference at the present day in Owens College, 
Manchester. The Treatise, which was six years in writing 



and was not published until 1836, was widely read and 
won a distinguished reputation for its author. Most of 
his work was done at night, and his habits in this respect 
made it difficult for him to write except at home. " I 
have about as much command of time here," he writes to 
Murchison when on a visit the year that the Treatise was 
published, "as a turnpike man, and as I have not your 
valuable military talent of early rising I cannot steal a 
march upon the enemy by getting over the ground before 

The third edition, brought out after the Dean's death 
in 1856, was edited by Professor Phillips, and prefaced 
by a short memoir by Frank Buckland, who thus writes 
of Mrs. Buckland : 

" Not only was she a pious, amiable, and excellent help- 
mate to my father ; but being naturally endowed with great 
mental powers, habits of perseverance and order, tempered 
by excellent judgment, she materially assisted her husband 
in his literary labours, and often gave to them a polish 
which added not a little to their merits. During the long 
period that Dr. Buckland was engaged in writing the Bridge- 
water Treatise, my mother sat up night after night, for 
weeks and months consecutively, writing to my father's 
dictation ; and this, often till the sun's rays, shining through 
the shutters at early morn, warned the husband to cease 
from thinking, and the wife to rest her weary hand." 

The labour of preparing a work which broke new ground 
in so many directions was enormous. Speaking of the book 
before the British Association at Bristol in 1836, Buckland 
explains the causes which had delayed its appearance, 

" Let any person," he says, " the least conversant with 
books of a similar description ; let any person who knows 


what it is to have drawings, many of them from microscopic 
objects, made by artists, of new and unfamiliar subjects 
let him consider that five or six different artists have 
been employed that all their errors had severally to be 
corrected, that these engravings consist of seven hundred 
and five figures then I repeat that he alone who has had 
a full experience of the difficulty will be able to appreciate 
the causes of the delay. For my own part I am astonished 
it has been finished so soon ; and of this I assure you, that 
such is the intricacy of the subject, such the tiresomeness 
of the details, that were the work to be done over again, 
no power on earth should induce me to undertake it." 

In the second chapter of the Bridgewater Treatise Dr. 
Buckland uses an argument, which is now familiar, but was 
then comparatively ignored. He urged that the Bible was 
not written to teach scientific truth, but to reveal God and 
to instruct us in the Divine Life. Nay more ; he does 
not hesitate to say that, if the Bible had been made an 
adequate text-book of science, men would have found it a 
source of perplexity and not of enlightenment. 

" We may fairly ask of those persons who consider 
physical science a fit subject for revelation, what point they 
can imagine short of a communication of Omniscience at 
which such a revelation might have stopped, without im- 
perfections of omission, less in degree, but similar in kind, 
to that which they impute to the existing narrative of 
Moses? A revelation of so much only of astronomy as 
was known to Copernicus, would have seemed imperfect 
after the discoveries of Newton, and a revelation of the 
science of Newton would have appeared defective to La 
Place ; a revelation of all the chemical knowledge of the 
eighteenth century would have been as deficient in com- 
parison with the information of the present day, as what is 
now known in this science will probably appear before the 
termination of another age. In the whole circle of sciences 


there is not one to which this argument may not be 
extended, until we should require from revelation a full 
development of all the mysterious agencies that uphold the 
mechanism of the material world." 

This argument is unanswerable, and in an article on 
the work in the Quarterly Review (April 1836), it is so 
treated by the reviewer, who regards the Treatise as one cal- 
culated to " astonish and delight all lovers of science, if any 
such there be who may be ignorant of the extent of the 
field which geology has laid open." In concluding his 
notice of this " most instructive and interesting volume, 
of which every page is pregnant with facts inestimably 
precious to the natural theologian," the author of the article 
thanks Dr. Buckland for his 

" industry and research, and for the commanding eloquence 
with which he has called forth the very stocks and stones 
that have oeen buried for countless ages in the deep recesses 
of the earth to proclaim the universal agency throughout 
all time of one all-directing, all-pervading mind, and to 
swell the chorus in which all creation * hymns His praise/ 
and be a witness to His unlimited power, wisdom, and 
benevolence.' 1 

It is interesting to observe that the Edinburgh Review 
(April 1837), in an elaborate article on geological science 
suggested by the same work, writes in a similar strain, 
and praises the book "as pregnant with the deepest in- 
struction and calculated to inspire the most affectionate 
veneration for that Great Being who has made even the 
convulsions of the material world subservient to the civilisa- 
tion and happiness of His creatures." Later on, the writer, 


like his predecessor in the Quarterly, praises Dr. Buckland's 
" lofty and impressive eloquence," and adds : " We have 
ourselves never perused a work more truly fascinating, or 
more deeply calculated to leave abiding impressions on the 

Other criticisms were not so favourable. In one of the 
few letters which have been preserved of Mrs. Buckland's, 
she alludes to the attacks that were made upon her husband 
in the press. 

"A note from Dr. Shuttlcworth thanks you for your 
present (of the Bridgewatcr Treatise), which he considers 
'to be a valuable addition to the philosophical literature 
of our country, or rather of our planet, as we nowadays 
express ourselves/ I could not resist opening this as 
well as Drs. Frowd's and Simmonds' notes, and I hope 
you will keep your letters of thanks for my perusal. 
Keep the St. James's Chronicles, every one of which has a 
rap at you ; but I beseech you not to lower your dignity 
by noticing newspaper statements. I have not seen the 
Standard nor John Bull ; but I hear they are in the same 

The novelty of many of the conclusions at which Buck- 
land arrived easily accounts for divergencies of opinion as 
to the work But no one who reads the Treatise can fail 
to be struck with the lucidity of the style. Not even Paley 
in his " Natural Theology " is clearer than Dr. Buck-land, 
and the second volume, which consists of plates, makes 
the whole subject intelligible to persons who have, never 
had a scientific education. In the chapter on the Fossil 
Vertebrated Animals occurs a passage upon Cuvier, which 
may be quoted as a noble tribute from a distinguished 
man of science to the genius of the great Frenchman. 


"The result of his researches/ 1 Dr. Buckland writes, 
"as recorded in the 4 Ossemcns Fossiles/ has been to 
show that all fossil quadrupeds, however differing in 
generic, or. specific details, are uniformly constructed on 
the same general plan, and systematic basis of organisation, 
as living species ; and that throughout the various adapta- 
tions of a common type to peculiar functions, under 
different conditions of the earth, there prevails such 
universal conformity of design, that we cannot rise from 
the perusal of these inestimable volumes without a strong 
conviction of the agency of one vast and mighty intelli- 
gence, ever directing the entire fabric, both of past and 
present systems of creation. Nothing can exceed the 
accuracy of the severe and logical demonstrations, that 
fill these volumes with proofs of wise design, in the 
constant relation of the parts of animals to one another, 
and to the general functions of the whole body. Nothing 
can surpass the perfection of his reasoning, in pointing 
out the beautiful contrivances, which are provided in 
almost endless variety, to fit every living creature to its 
own peculiar state and mode of life." l 

Of Buckland, as of Cuvier, it may be truly said that both 
men wrote and studied with the same high object in view, 
and that both, in the course and by the means of their 
studies, were alike impressed with an assurance of the 
existence of one Supreme Creator of all things, and, to 
quote the words of Boyle, with " the high veneration man's 
intellect owes to God." 

The following extracts from the " Essay/ 1 as Buckland 
modestly called it, serve to illustrate the general argument 
of the whole, and the special examples by which the 
argument was enforced. The section which is devoted 

1 Bridgewater, vol. i., p. 141- 


to recent discoveries earned for the author the apt title of 
"the ^Esop of extinct animals." 1 

On the general history of fossil organic remains 
Buckland writes : 

44 As ' the variety and formation of God's creatures in 
the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms ' are specially 
marked out by the founder of this Treatise as the subjects 
from which he desires that proofs should be sought of 
the power, wisdom, and goodness of the Creator ; I shall 
enter at greater length into the evidences of this kind, 
afforded by fossil organic remains, than I might have done, 
without such specific directions respecting the source from 
which my arguments are to be derived. . . . 

"From the high preservation in which we find the 
remains of animals and vegetables of each geological 
formation, and the exquisite mechanism which appears in 
many fossil fragments of their organisation, we may collect 
an infinity of arguments, to show that the creatures from 
which all these are derived were constructed with a view 
to the varying conditions of the surface of the earth, and to 
its gradually increasing capabilities of sustaining more com- 
plex forms of organic life, advancing through successive 
stages of perfection. Few facts are more remarkable in the 
history of the progress of human discovery, than that it 
should have been reserved almost entirely for the researches 

1 Mr. Waterhouse Hawkins, after a continuous mental and bodily 
labour of more than three years, presented to the public notice in 
the gardens of the Crystal Palace at Sydenham restorations of no less 
than thirty-three extinct animals, known to us only by their fossil 
remains. He told Mr. Frank Buckland that in modelling his restora- 
tions he had received the greatest assistance from the Plates in the 
Bridgewater Treatise, many of which were drawn by Mrs. Buckland. 
Mr. W. Hawkins gave to Mrs. Buckland the original sketch from his 
own pencil, which is here reproduced, of his marvellous models of 
ancient marine saurians, the originals of which are now at Sydenham. 

For description see Bridgewater, p. 38. 

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of the present generation to arrive at any certain knowledge 
of the existence of the numerous extinct races of animals, 
which occupied the surface of our planet in ages preceding 
the creation of man. ... 

" We can hardly imagine any stronger proof of the unity 
of design and harmony of organisations that have ever 
pervaded all animated nature, than we find in the fact 
established by Cuvier, that from the character of a single 
limb, and even of a single tooth or bone, the form and pro- 
portions of the other bones, and condition of the entire 
animal, may be inferred. This law prevails no less 
universally throughout the existing kingdoms of animated 
races, than in those various races of extinct creatures that 
have preceded the present tenants of our planet ; hence, 
not only the framework of the fossil skeleton of an extinct 
animal, but also the character of the muscles by which each 
bone was moved, the external form and figure of the body, 
the food, and habits, and haunts, and mode of life of crea- 
tures that ceased to exist before the creation of the human 
race, can with a high degree of probability be ascertained. 
The study of organic remains, indeed, forms the peculiar 
feature and basis of modern geology, and is the riain cause 
of the progress this science has made since the commence- 
ment of the present century. We find certain families of 
organic remains pervading strata of every age, under nearly 
the same generic forms which they present among existing 
organisations. Other families, both of animals and vege- 
tables, are limited to particular formations, there being 
certain points where entire groups ceased to exist and were 
replaced by others of a different character. The changes 
of genera and species arc still more frequent ; hence it has 
been well observed, that to attempt an investigation of the 
structure and rcvc'.utions of the earth, without applying 
minute attention to the evidences afforded by organic 
remains, would be no less absurd than to undertake to 
write the history of any ancient people, without reference to 
the documents afforded by their medals and inscriptions, 
their monuments, and the ruins of their cities and temples. 
The secrets of Nature, that arc revealed to us by the history 



of fossil organic remains, form perhaps the most striking 
results at which we arrive from the study of geology. It 
must appear almost incredible to those who have not 
minutely attended to natural phenomena, that the micro- 
scopic examination of a mass of rude and lifeless limestone 
should often disclose the curious fact, that large proportions 
of its substance have once formed parts of living bodies. 
It is surprising to consider that the walls of our houses are 
sometimes composed of little else than comminuted shells, 
that were once the domicile of other animals, at the bottom 
of ancient seas and lakes. It is marvellous that mankind 
should have gone on for so many centuries in ignorance of 
the fact, which is now so fully demonstrated, that no small 
part of the present surface of the earth is derived from the 
remains of animals that constituted the population of 
ancient seas. Many extensive plains and massive mountains 
form, as it were, the great charnel-houses of preceding 
generations, in which the petrified ex u via: of extinct races 
of animals and vegetables are piled into stupendous 
monuments of the operations of life and death, during 
almost immeasurable periods of past time. ' At the sight 
of a spectacle,' says Cuvier, ' so imposing, so terrible, as that 
of the wreck of animal life, forming almost the entire soil 
on which we tread, it is difficult to restrain the imagination 
from hazarding some conjectures as to the causes by which 
such great effects have been produced.' 1 The deeper we 
descend into the strata of the earth, the higher do we ascend 
into the archai-ological history of past ages of creation. 
We find successive stages marked by varying forms of 
animal and vegetable life, and these generally differ more 
and more widely from existing species as we go further 
downwards into the receptacles of the wreck of more 
ancient creations. 

" When we discover a constant and regular assemblage 
of organic remains, commencing with one series of strata, 
and ending with another, which contains a different 
assemblage, we have herein the surest grounds whereon 

1 Cuvier, "Rapport sur le Progres des Sciences Naturelles," p. 179. 

SHELLS. 201 

to establish those divisions which are called geological forma- 
tions. . . . Thus it appears, that the more perfect forms of 
animals become gradually more abundant, as we advance 
from the older into the newer scries of depositions, whilst 
the more simple orders, though often changed in genus 
and species, and sometimes losing whole families, which 
arc replaced by new ones, have pervaded the entire range 
of fossilifcrous formations. . . . Minute examination discloses 
occasionally prodigious accumulations of microscopic shells, 
that 'surprise us no less by their abundance than their 
extreme minuteness ; the : mode in which they arc some- 
times crowded together, may be estimated from the fact 
that Soldani collected from less than an ounce and a half 
of stone found in the hills of Casciana, in Tuscany, ten 
thousand four hundred and 'fifty-four ; microscopic cham- 
bered shells. The rest of the stone was composed of 
fragments of shells, of minute spines of Echini, and of 
a sparry calcareous matter. Of several species of these 
shells, four or five hundred weigh but a single grain ; 
of one species he calculates that a thousand individuals 
would scarcely weigh one grain. . . . Similar accumulations 
of microscopic shells have been observed also in various 
sedimentary deposits of fresh-water formation. A strik- 
ing example of this kind is found in the abundant 
diffusion of the remains of a microscopic crustaccous 
animal of the genus Cypris. Animals of this genus arc 
enclosed within two flat valves, like those of a bivalve 
shell, now inhabiting the waters of lakes and marshes. 
Certain clay beds of the Wcalden formation below the 
chalk are so abundantly charged with microscopic shells 
of the Cypris Faba, that the surfaces of many laminae into 
which this clay is easily divided, are often entirely covered 
with them as witii small seeds. The same shells occur 
also in the Hastings sand and sandstone, in the Sussex 
marble, and in the Purbcck limestone, all of which were 
deposited during the same geological epoch in an ancient 
lake or estuary, wherein strata of this formation have 
been accumulated to the thickness of nearly a thousand 
feet .,. . In the case of deposits formed in estuaries, the 


admixture and alternation of the remains of fluviatile 
and lacustrine shells with marine exuviae, indicate condi- 
tions analogous to those under which we observe the 
inhabitants both of the sea and rivers existing together 
in brackish water near the deltas of the Nile, and other 
great rivers. Thus, we find a stratum of oyster shells, 
that indicates either the presence of salt or brackish water, 
interposed between limestone strata filled with freshwater 
shells, among the Purbeck formations ; so also in the sand 
and clays of the Wealdcn formation of Tilgate Forest we 
have freshwater and lacustrine shells intermixed with 
remains of large terrestrial reptiles, e.g., Mcgalosaurus, 
Iguanodon, and Hyla_-osaurus ; with these we find also the 
bones of the marine reptiles Plcsiosaurus ; and from this 
admixture we infer that the former were drifted from the 
land into an estuary, which the Plesiosaurus also having 
entered from the sea, left its bones in this common recept- 
acle of the animal and mineral exuviae of some not far 
distant land." 

It will be remembered that in 1820 the Professor had 
visited the caves of Monte Bolca, when his friend Count 
Breiiner depicted him in his "fishing" costume. It may, 
therefore, not be uninteresting to hear the account which 
he gives in the Treatise of the quarries : 

"The circumstances under which the fossil fish are 
found at Monte Bolca seem to indicate that they perished 
suddenly on arriving at a part of the then existing seas, 
which was rendered noxious by the volcanic agency of 
which the adjacent basaltic rocks afford abundant evidence. 
The skeletons of these fish lie parallel to the laminae of the 
strata of the calcareous slate ; they are always entire, and 
so closely packed on one another that many individuals 
are often contained in a single block. The thousands of 
specimens which are dispersed over the cabinets of 
Europe have nearly all been taken from one quarry. All 
these fish must have died suddenly on this fatal spot, 


and have been speedily buried in the calcareous sediment 
then in the course of deposition* From the fact that 
certain individuals have even preserved traces of colour 
upon their skin, we arc certain that they were entombed 
before decomposition of their soft parts had taken place." l 

The Stonesficld quarry, near Oxford, which yielded 
such prolific spoils to his geological hammer, is described 
in the following words : 

" At this place, a single bed of calcareous and sandy 
slate, not six feet thick, contains an admixture of terres- 
trial animals and plants with shells that are decidedly 
marine ; the bones of Divelphys (Opossum), Mcgalosaurus, 
and Ptcrodactyle are so mixed with Ammonites, Nautili, 
and Bclcmnites, and many other species of marine shells, 
that there can be little doubt that this formation was 
deposited at the bottom of a sea, not far distant from 
some ancient shore. We may account for the presence, 
of remains of terrestrial animals in such a situation by 
supposing their carcases to have been floated from land 
at no great distance from their place of sub-marine 
interment." * 

It was in these Stonesfield quarries that the mcgalo- 
saurus was discovered ; but, before giving Buckland's 
account of the monster, it may be convenient to mention 
the specimen which Frank Buckland calls, in his 
"Curiosities of Natural History," "the great gem of the 

Stonesfield fossils, the jaw of the Phascolotherium,* a 
small marsupial or pouched animal (hence such a big 
name for such a little creature : phascolos^ a leathern bag, 

1 Bridgewater, voL i. t p. 124. 
f Bridgewater, vol. i., p. 122. 

* Lower jaw and teeth of Phascolotherium Bucklandi from great 
oolite (Stonesfield). Oxford Museum, table-case 14 ; Ftp. 97, B.M.N.H. 


and tJurium^ a beast), the first, and, at one time, the 
sole evidence of mammalian life having existed at the 
earlier period of the earth's history ; it has found a good, 
and, we trust, a lasting home in the museum at Oxford, 
but a few miles from the place where, ages and ages ago, 
it roamed over the neighbourhood of Woodstock. Little 
did this tiny beast think that one day its under jaw would 
cause Dons to open their eyes with astonishment, and 
Professors to tax their memories and brains for appro- 
priate words wherewith to descant upon its beauty, and 
upon the deductions logically to be inferred from it as to 
the climate and state of animal and vegetable life at the 
time it existed." l 

Cuvicr, 2 to whom Dr. Buckland had dedicated his 
memoir on the megalosaurus (big lizard), speaks of his 
discovery in the following terms : 

"L'un des hommcs qui honorcnt la g6olc^ic par les 
observations precises et suivics, ct par la resistance la plus 
constantc aux hypotheses hasardecs, Monsieur le profcsscur 
Buckland, a fait depuis plusieurs annexes cette belle d6cou- 
verte, et j'en ai vu les pieces chez lui a Oxford en 1818 ; 
j'y en ai memc dessine quelques-unes ; mais il a eu, depuis, 
la complaisance dc m'adrcsscr le mdmoire qu'il va donner 
sur ce sujet dans le Rccucil de la Societ6 Geologique dc 
Londres, ou il fait connaitre exactement les os qu'il possede 
et les circonstances de leur gisement ; c'est de cet crit 
que je tire les principaux materiaux du prdsent article." 

" Although," says Buckland, " no skeleton has been 
found entire, so many perfect bones and teeth have been 
discovered in the same quarries, that we arc nearly as well 
acquainted with the form and dimensions of its limbs, as 
if they had been found together in a single block of stone. 
From the size and proportions of these bones, as compared 
with existing lizards, Cuvicr concludes the Megalosaurus to 

1 " Curiosities of Natural History," 2nd scries. 

1 "Ossemens Fossiles," vol. v., p. 2. (Paris, 1825.) 


have been an enormous reptile, measuring from forty to 
fifty feet in length, and partaking of the structure of the 
Crocodile and the Monitor. As the femur and tibia 
measure nearly three feet each, the entire hind leg must 
have attained a length of nearly two yards. The bones 
of the thigh and leg are not solid at the centre, as in 
crocodiles and other aquatic quadrupeds, but have large 
medullary cavities, like the bones of terrestrial animals. 
We learn from this circumstance, added to the character 
of the foot, that the Megalosaurus lived chiefly upon the 
land. . . . The form of the teeth shows the Megalosaurus to 
have been in a high degree carnivorous : it probably fed 
on smaller reptiles, such as crocodiles and tortoises, whose 
remains abound in the same strata with its bones. It 
may also have taken to the water in pursuit of Plcsiosauri 
and fishes. The most important part l of the Mcgaiosaurus 
yet found consists of a fragment of the lower jaw, con- 
taining many teeth. The form of this jaw shows that the 
head was terminated by a straight and narrow snout. . . . 
In the structure of these teeth we find a combination of 
mechanical contrivances analogous to those which arc 
adopted ir the construction of the knife, the sabre, and 
the saw. When first protruded above the gum the apex 
of each tooth presented a double cutting edge of serrated 
enamel. In this stage, its position and line of action were 
nearly vertical, and its form like that of the two-edged 
point of a sabre, cutting equally on each side. As the 
tooth advanced in growth, it became curved backwards in 
the form of a pruning knife, and the edge of serrated 
enamel was continued downwards to the base of the inner 
and cutting side of the tooth. ... In a tooth thus formed 
for cutting along its concave edge each movement of the jaw 
combined the power of the knife and saw ; whilst the apex. 
in making the first incisions, acted like the two-edged 
point of a sabre. The backward curvature of the full- 

1 This ' most important part" is in a case in an upper gallery of the 
Oxford Museum, while the rest of the specimen is in a separate case 
on the ground floor. 


grown teeth enables them to retain, like barbs, the prey 
which they had penetrated. In these adaptations, we see 
contrivances, which human ingenuity has also adopted, in 
the preparation of various instruments of art. 

a In a former chapter I endeavoured to show that the 
establishment of carnivorous races throughout the animal 
kingdom tends materially to diminish the aggregate 
amount of animal suffering. The provision of teeth and 
jaws, adapted to effect the work of death most speedily, is 
highly subsidiary to the accomplishment of this desirable 
end. We act ourselves on this conviction, under the 
impulse of pure humanity, when we provide the most 
efficient instruments to produce the instantaneous and 
most easy death of the innumerable animals that are daily 
slaughtered for the supply of human food." l 

Those readers who are curious to see the big wild-beast 
and the big lizard the Megatherium and the Mcgalo- 
saurus may see Mr. Waterhouse Hawkins's wonderful 
restorations of these and other fossil monsters in the lower 
lake of the grounds of the Crystal Palace. On a pro- 
minent point of the lake arc placed some half-bird, half- 
bat-likc creatures called Pterodactyles, which have also 
been discovered, together with the little opossum and the 
big lizard, in the Stoncsficld quarries. 2 

44 The structure of these animals," says Buckland, " is so 
exceedingly anomalous, that the first discovered Pterodac- 
tyle (or Flying Lizard) was considered by one naturalist 
to be a Bird, by another as a species of Bat, and by a 

1 Bridgewater, vol. i. f p. 227. 

f What a picture we might have of Old World life at Stonesfield if 
a representation could be made in the Oxford Museum of the fauna 
and flora found there, and of which no entire record has ever been 


third as a flying Reptile. This extraordinary discordance 
of opinion respecting a creature whose skeleton was almost 
entire, arose from the presence of characters apparently 
belonging to each of the three classes to which it was 
referred ; the form of its head and length of neck resem- 
bling that of Birds, its wings approaching to the pro- 
portions and form of those of Bats, and the body and 
tail approximating to those of ordinary Mammalia. These 
characters, connected with a small skull, as is usual among 
reptiles, and a beak furnished with not less than sixty 
pointed teeth, presented a combination of apparent anomalies 
which it was reserved for the genius of Cuvier to reconcile. 
In his hands, this apparently monstrous production. of the 
ancient world has been converted into one of the most 
beautiful examples yet afforded by comparative anatomy, 
of the harmony that pervades all nature, in the adaptation 
of the same parts of the animal frame to infinitely varied 
conditions of existence. . . . 

" The Ptcrodactyles are ranked by Cuvier among the most 
extraordinary of all the extinct animals that have come 
under his consideration. * Ce sont incontestablcmcnt de 
tous les etres dont ce livre nous rcvele 1'ancicnnc existence, 
les plus extmordinaires, et ceux qui, si on les voyait vivans, 
paroitraicnt les plus etrangers a toute la nature actucllc ' 
(Cuvier, * Osscmcns Fossilcs,' vol. v.). We are already 
acquainted with eight species of this genus, varying from 
the size of a snipe to that of a cormorant. 1 

"In external form, these animals somewhat resembled 
our modern bats and vampires : most of them had the 
nose elongated, like the snout of a crocodile, and armed 
with conical teeth. Their eyes were of enormous size, 
apparently enabling them to fly by night. From their 
wings projected fingers, terminated by long hooks, like the 
curved claw on the thumb of the bat. These must have 
formed a powerful paw, wherewith the animal was enabled 

1 Some fragments of Pterodactylc bones from the green sand, 
Cambridge, must have belonged to one of gigantic dimensions, and could 
not have been of less expanse from wing to wing than 27 feet. 


to creep or climb, or suspend itself from trees. It is 
probable also that the Pterodactyles had the power of 
swimming, which is so common in reptiles, and which is 
now possessed by the vampire bat of the island of Bonin. 

"Thus, like Milton's fiend, all qualified for all services 
and all elements, the creature was a fit companion for the 
kindred reptiles that swarmed in the seas, or crawled on 
the shores of a turbulent planet. 

' The fiend, 

O'er bog or steep, through strait, rough, dense, or rare, 
With head, hands, wings, or feet pursues his way, 
And swims, or sinks, or wades, or creeps, or flies.' 

Paradise Lost, Book II., line 947. 

With flocks of such-like creatures flying in the air, and 
shoals of no less monstrous ichthyosauri and plesiosauri 
swarming in the ocean, and gigantic crocodiles and tortoises 
crawling on the shores of the primaeval lakes and rivers, 
air, sea, and land must have been strangely tenanted in 
these early periods of our infant world." * 

* As the most obvious feature of these fossil reptiles is the 
presence of organs of flight, it is natural to look for the 
peculiarities of the Bird or Bat, in the structure of their 
component bones. All attempts, however, to identify them 
with birds are stopped at once by the fact of their having 
teeth in the beak, resembling those of reptiles : the form 
of a single bone, the os qiiadratum, enabled Cuvier to 
pronounce at once that the creature was a Lizard : but a 
Lizard possessing wings exists not in the present creation, 
and is to be found only among the Dragons of romance and 
heraldry ; while a moment's comparison of the head and 
teeth with those of Bats shows that the fossil animals 
in question cannot be referred to that family of flying 
mammalia. As an insulated fact, it may seem to be of 
little moment whether a living Lizard or a fossil Ptcro- 
dactyle might have four or five joints in its fourth finger, 

1 Geological Trans. (London), N. S., vol. iii., Part I. 


or its fourth toe ; but those who have patience to examine 
the minutiae of this structure, will find in it an exemplifica- 
tion of the general principle, that things apparently minute 
and trifling in themselves, may acquire importance, when 
viewed in connection with others, which taken singly 
appear equally insignificant Minutiae of this kind, viewed 
in their cogent relations to the parts and proportions of 
other animals, may illustrate points of high importance in 
physiology, and thereby become connected with the still 
higher considerations of natural theology. If we examine 
the forefoot of the existing Lizards, we find the number 
of joints regularly increased by the addition of one, as 
we proceed from the first finger, or thumb, which has 
two joints, to the third, in which there are four ; this 
is precisely the numerical arrangement which takes place 
in the three first fingers of the hand of the Ptcrodactyle. 
Thus far the three first fingers of the fossil reptile agree in 
structure with those of the forefoot of living Lizards ; but 
as the hand of the Ptcrodactyle was to be converted into 
an organ of flight, the joints of the fourth or fifth finger 
were lengthened to become cxpansors of a membranous 
wing. As the bones in the wing of the Pterodactylc thus 
agree in number and proportion with those in the forefoot 
of the lizard, so do they differ entirely from the arrange- 
ment of the bones which form the expansors of the wing 
of the bat The total number of toes in the Ptcrodactyles 
is usually four ; the exterior, or little toe, being deficient : 
if we compare the number and proportion of the joints in 
these four toes with those of Lizards, we find the agree- 
ment as to number, to be not less perfect than it is in the 
fingers ; we have, in each case, two joints in the first or 
great toe, three in the second, four in the third, and five in 
the fourth. As to proportion also, the penultimate joint is 
always the longest, and the antepenultimate, or last but two, 
the shortest ; these relative proportions are also precisely 
the same, as in the feet of lizards. The apparent use of this 
disposition of the shortest joints in the middle of the toes of 
the Lizards, is to give greater power of flexion for bending 
round, and laying fast hold on twigs and branches of trees 



of various dimensions, or on inequalities of the surface of 
the ground or rocks, in the act of climbing or running. 
All these coincidences of number and proportion can only 
have originated in a premeditated adaptation of each part 
to its peculiar office ; they teach us to arrange an extinct 
animal under an existing family of reptiles; and when we 
find so many other peculiarities of this tribe in almost 
every bone of the skeleton of the Pterodactyle, with such 
modifications, and such only as were necessary to fit it for 
the purposes of flight, we perceive unity of design pervading 
every part, and adapting to motion in the air organs 
which in other genera are calculated for progression on the 
ground, or in the water. . . . 

" With regard to their food, it has been conjectured by 
Cuvicr that they fed on insects, and from the magnitude 
of their eyes that they may also have been noctivagous 
(wandering by night). The presence of large fossil 
Libcllula;, or Dragon-flies, and many other insects, in the 
same lithographic quarries with the Ptcrodactyles at 
Solcnhofcn, and of the wings of coleopterous insects, mixed 
with bones of Ptcrodactyles in the oolitic slate of Stones- 
field, near Oxford, proves that large insects existed at the 
same time with them, and may have contributed to their 
supply of food. We know that many of the smaller lizards 
of existing species are insectivorous ; some are also carni- 
vorous, and others omnivorous ; but the head and teeth of 
two species of Pterodactyle are so much larger and stronger 
than is necessary for the capture of insects, that the 
larger species of them may possibly have fed on fishes, 
darting upon them from the air after the manner of Sea 
Swallows and Solan Geese. The enormous size and 
strength of the head and teeth of the P. crassirostris would 
not only have enabled it to catch fish, but also to kill and 
devour the few small marsupial mammalia which then 
existed upon the land. 

"The entire range of ancient anatomy affords few more 
striking examples of the uniformity "of the laws which 
connect the extinct animals of the fossil creation .with 
-existing organised beings, than those we have been 


examining in the case of the Pterodactyle. We find the 
details of parts which, from their minuteness, should seem 
.ns,gnmcant, acquiring great importance in such an investi- 
gation as we are now conducting ; they show, not less 
distinctly than the colossal limbs of the most gigamk 
quadrupeds, a numerical coincidence and a concurrence of 
proportions which it seems impossible to refer to the 
effect of [accident, and which point out unity of purpose, 
and deliberate de S1 gn. in some intelligent First Cause 

SY'Wi th , Cy W T a " derH ' ed Wc have cn that 
whikt all the laws of existing organisation in the order 

of Lizards arc rigidly maintained in the Pterodactylcs still 
as Lizards modified to move like Birds and Bats in the' 
air, they received, in each part of their frame, a perfect 
adaptation to their state. Wc have dwelt more at length 
on the mmutia: of their mechanism, because they convey 
us back- into ages so exceedingly remote, and show that 
even in those distant eras, the same care of a common 
Creator, which we witness in the mechanism of our own 
bodies, and those of the myriads of inferior creatures that 
move around us, was extended to the structure of creatures 
that, at hrst sight, seem made up only of monstrosities." ' 

Among the treasures of the Bucklandcan Collection at 
Oxford is a cast of the Mosasaunts. It bears an inscrip- 
tion on the edge of it, "Given by the Museum of Natural 
History at Paris to Dr. Buckland," and was presented to 
Buckland by Cuvier, who was then omnipotent at the 
French Museum, as an evidence of his friendship, and 
of the high esteem with which he regarded him. This 
relic possesses so carious a history, that it may be inter- 
esting to make a further extract from the Bridgcwatcr 
Treatise concerning the history of the great animal of 

1 Bridgewater, vol. i., pp. 216-227. 


" The Mosasaurus (the river Meuse and saurus, a lizard) 
has been long known by the name of the great animal 
of Maestricht, occurring near that city in the calcareous 
freestone. ... A nearly perfect head of this animal was 
discovered (1780) in the quarries under the hill of St. 
Pierre, by Dr. Ilofmann, Surgeon to the Forces quartered 
in the town of Maestricht. 1 This celebrated head during 
many years baffled all the skill of Naturalists : some 
considered it to be that of a whale, others of a crocodile ; 
but its true place in the animal kingdom was first suggested 
by Adrian Camper, and at length confirmed by Cuvier. 
By their investigations it is proved to have been a gigantic 
marine reptile, most nearly allied to the Monitor.'-' The 
geological epoch at which the Mosasaurus first appeared 
seems to have been the last of the long series during which 
the oolitic and cretaceous groups were in process of 
formation. In these periods the inhabitants of our planet 
seem to have been principally marine, and some of the 
largest creatures were saurians of gigantic stature, many 
of them living in the sea, and controlling the excessive 

1 It is recorded of this fossil that one of the canons of the cathedral 
church of Maestricht brought an action at law against the discoverer, 
Dr. Hofmann, and obtained possession from him; but he was not 
allowed to hold his prize long, for, when the French Revolution broke 
out, and the armies of the Republic advanced to the gates of Maestricht, 
1795, the town was bombarded, and at the suggestion of the committee 
of savants who accompanied the French troops to select their share 
of the plunder, the artillery was not allowed to play on that part of the 
town in which the celebrated fossil was known to be preserved. After 
the capitulation of the town, it was seized and carried off in triumph. 
The specimen has since remained in the museum of the Jardin des 
Plantes in Paris, and a cast of it is now in the British Museum. 

* The monitors form a genus of lizards, frequenting marshes and 
the banks of rivers in hot climates ; they have received this name from 
the prevailing but absurd notion that they give warning by a whistling 
noise of the approach of Crocodiles and Caymans. One species, the 
Lacerta Nilotica, or lizard of the Nile, which devours the eggs of 
Crocodiles, has been sculptured on the monuments of ancient Egypt. 


increase of the then existing tribes of fishes. From the 
lias upwards, to the commencement of the chalk formation, 
the Ichthyosauri (ichf/ins, a fish) and Plesiosauri (f/esios, 
near to) were the tyrants of the ocean ; and just at the 
point of time when their existence terminated during the 
deposition of the chalk, the new genus Mosasaurus appears 
to have been introduced, to supply for a while their 
place and office, 1 being itself destined in its turn to give 
place to the Cetacca of the tertiary periods. As no saurians 
of the present world arc inhabitants of the sea, and the 
most powerful living representatives of this order, viz. the 
crocodiles, though living chiefly in water, have recourse 
to stratagem rather than speed for the capture of their 
prey, it may not be unprofitable to examine the mechanical 
contrivances by which a reptile, most nearly allied to the 
monitor, was so constructed as to possess the power of 
moving in the sea with sufficient velocity to overtake and 
capture such large and powerful fishes as, from the enormous 
size of its teeth and jaws, we may conclude it was intended 
to devour. 

"The head and teeth point out the near relations of 
this animal to the monitors ; and the proportions main- 
tained throughout all the other parts of the skeleton 
warrant the conclusion, that this monstrous monitor of 
the ancient deep was fivc-and-t\venty feet in length, 
although the longest of its modern congeners docs not 
exceed five feet. The head here represented measures 
four feet in length ; that of the largest monitor does not 
exceed five inches. The most skilful anatomist would be 
at a loss to devise a scries of modifications by which a 
monitor could be enlarged to the length and bulk of a 
grampus, and at the same time be fitted to move with 
strength and rapidity through the waters of the sea ; yet 
in the fossil before us we shall find the genuine characters 

1 Remains of the Mosasaurns have been discovered by Dr. Mantell 
in the upper chalk near Lewes, by Professor Owen in the upper chalk 
of both Kent and Sussex, and by Dr. Morton in the green sand of 
Virginia. V 


of a monitor maintained throughout the whole skeleton, 
with such deviations only as tended to fit the animal for 
its marine existence. 

" The Mosasaurus had scarcely any character in common 
with the crocodiles, but resembled the iguanas, in having 
an apparatus of teeth fixed on the ptcrygoid bone 
and placed in the roof of its mouth, as in many serpents 
and fishes, where they act as barbs to prevent the 
escape of their prey. The other parts of the skeleton 
follow the character indicated by the head. The vertebrae 
are all concave in front, and convex behind ; being fitted 
to each other by a ball and socket joint admitting easy 
and universal flexion. From the centre of the back to 
the extremity of the tail, they are destitute of articular 
apophyses, which are essential to support the back of 
animals that move on land : in this respect they agree with 
the vertebrae of dolphins, and were calculated to facilitate 
the power of swimming ; the vertebrae of the neck allowed 
to that part also more flexibility than in the crocodiles. 
The tail was flattened on each side, but high and deep 
in the vertical direction, like the tail of a crocodile, forming 
a straight oar of immense strength to propel the body 
by horizontal movements analogous to those of sculling. 
Although the number of caudal vertebrae was nearly the 
same as in the monitor, the proportionate length of the 
tail was much diminished by the comparative shortness 
of the body of each vertebra ; the effect of this variation 
being to give strength to a shorter tail as an organ for 
swimming ; and a rapidity of movement which would 
have been unattainable by the long and slender tail of the 
monitor, which assists that animal in climbing. There is 
a further provision to give strength to the tail, by the 
chevron bones being soldered firmly to the body of each 
vertebra, as in fishes. The total number of vertebrae was 
one hundred and twenty-three, nearly the same as in the 
monitors, and more than double the number of those in 
the Crocodiles. The ribs had a single head, and were round, 
as in the family of lizards. Of the extremities, sufficient 
fragments have been found to prove that the Mosasaurus, 


instead of legs, had four large paddles, resembling those of 
the Plesiosaurus and the Whale : one great use of these 
was probably to assist in raising the animal to the surface, 
in order to breathe, as it apparently had not the horizontal 
tail, by means of which the Cetacca ascend for this purpose. 
All these characters unite to show that the Mosasaurus 
was adapted to live entirely in the water ; and that 
although it was of such vast proportions compared with 
the living genera of these families, it formed a link 
intermediate between the Monitors and the Iguanas. How- 
ever strange it may appear to find its dimensions so much 
exceeding those of any existing Lizards, or to find marine 
genera in the order of Saurians, in which there exists at 
this time no species capable of living in the sea, it is 
scarcely less strange than the analogous deviations in the 
Mcgalosaurus and Iguanodon, which afford examples of 
still greater expansion of the type of the Monitor and 
Iguana, into colossal forms adapted to move upon the land. 
Throughout all these variations of proportion, we trace the 
persistence of the same laws, which regulate the formation 
of living genera ; and from the combinations of perfect 
mechanism that have, in all times, resulted from their opera- 
tion, we infer the perfection of the wisdom by which all 
this mechanism was designed, and the immensity of the 
power by which it has ever been upheld." l 

One more extract shall be given, i brief but eloquent 
passage on Fossil Footsteps the marks of reptiles of 
whose bones no remains have been found 

" The Historian or the Antiquary may have traversed 
the fields of ancient or of modern battles ; and may have 
pursued the line of march of triumphant conquerors, whose 
armies trampled down the most mighty kingdoms of the 
world. The winds and storms have utterly obliterated the 
ephemeral impressions of their course. Not a track remains 
of a single foot, or a single hoof, of all the countless millions 

1 Bridgewater, vol. i, chap. xiv. 


of men and beasts whose progress spread desolation over 
the earth. But the Reptiles that crawled upon the half- 
finished surface of our infant planet, have left memorials 
of their passage, enduring and indelible. No history has 
recorded their creation or destruction ; their very bones are 
found no more among the fossil relics of a former world. 
Centuries, and thousands of years, may have rolled away, 
between the time in which these footsteps were impressed 
by Tortoises upon the sands of their native Scotland, and 
the hour when they were again laid bare, and exposed to 
our curious and admiring eyes. Yet we behold them 
stamped upon the rock, distinct as the track of the passing 
animal upon the recent snow ; as if to show that thousands 
of years are but as nothing amidst Eternity and, as it 
were, in mockery of the fleeting perishable course of the 
mightiest potentates among mankind." l 

The variety and number of these impressions have created 
a new science, and Ichnology has taken a definite place as 
a branch of palaeontological research. It may be added that 
the slabs bearing the footprints to which he alludes in the 
Treatise had been used to form a garden wall, from whence 
four of them were taken, full of beautiful impressions of the 
feet of these animals, with a cast of the nails as perfect as 
if they had been taken in wax. Dr. Buckland was in the 
quarry himself, and assisted one of the workmen to raise a 
slab on which were these prints, which had never seen the 
sun since the time they were first made. It was while 
he was writing the Bridgevvater that a slab of sandstone 
with these footmarks had been sent him to decipher. He 
was greatly puzzled ; but at last, one night, or rather 
between two and three in the morning, when, according to 

1 Bridgewater, vol. i., chap. xiv. 


his wont, he was busy writing, it suddenly occurred to him 
that these impressions were those of a species of tortoise. 
He therefore called his wife to come down and make some 
paste, while he went and fetched the tortoise from the 
garden. On his return he found the kitchen table covered 
with paste, upon which the tortoise was placed The 
delight of this scientific couple may be imagined when 
they found that the footmarks of the tortoise on the paste 
were identical with those on the sandstone slab. Lecturing 
one day in Scotland on the fossil footsteps of animals, 
including the Chcirothcrium, 1 one of his auditors at the 
end of the lecture referred to his diagrams exhibited, and 
said : " It seems, Dr. Buckland, from your drawings that all 
your animals walked in one direction/' 

" Yes," was the reply. " Chcirothcrium was a Scotchman, 
and he always went south." 

Professor Buckland finishes his book with the following 
words : 

" The whole course of the inquiry which we have now 
conducted to its close, has shown that the physical his- 
tory of our globe, in which some ha^e seen only waste, 
disorder, and confusion, teems with endless examples of 
economy, and order, and design ; and the result of all our 
researches, carried back through the unwritten records of 
past time, has been to fix more steadily our assurance of 
the existence of one supreme Creator of all things, to exalt 
more highly our conviction of the immensity of His perfec- 
tions, of His might and majesty, His wisdom, and goodness, 
and all-sustaining providence ; and to penetrate our under- 

1 The form, shape, and structure of the creature who made the 
footprints being unknown, the name of Cheirotherium, or beast with a 
hand, was given to it. 


standing with a profound and sensible perception of the 
'high veneration man's intellect owes to God/ 1 

" The Earth from her deep foundations unites with the 
celestial orbs that roll through boundless space, to declare 
the glory and show forth the praise of their common Author 
and Preserver ; and the voice of Natural Religion accords 
harmoniously with the testimonies of Revelation, in ascrib- 
ing the origin of the universe to the will of one eternal 
and dominant Intelligence, the Almighty Lord and supreme 
First Cause of all things that subsist * the same yesterday, 
to-day, and for ever/ * before the mountains were brought 
forth, or ever the Earth and the World were made, God 
from everlasting and world without end/ " 2 

1 Boyle. 

* Bridgewater, vol. i., chap. xxiv. 



" T NEVER," said Sir Robert Peel, "advised an appoint- 
1 ment of which I was more proud, or the result of 
which was in my opinion more satisfactory, than the 
nomination of Dr. Buckland to the Deanery of West- 
minster." . 

The appointment was made in 1845, in succession to 
Dean Wilbcrforce, who was promoted to the Sc^ of Oxford. 
Soon afterwards Dean Buckland was inducted to the living 
of I slip, near Oxford, bequeathed by Edward the Confessor 
to the Abbot of Westminster. Mrs. Buckland writes to Sir 
Philip Egcrton from Christ Church in November 1845 :- 

" It is indeed true that Dr. Buckland is to be Dean of 
Westminster. I have one son in the Treasury ; the other, 
Frank, will soon also be a resident in London, pursuing 
his call to surgery To have a home for these boys would 
of itself be a recommendation to me for a permanent 
residence in London, and Sir Robert Peel's kindness has 
conferred upon my husband the only piece of preferment 
that would suit him in all respects. It comes wholly 
unexpected ; while we were at Havre this summer Peel 
offered Dr. Buckland the Deanery of Lincoln, which he 
declined, and never supposed Westminster would be 


220 UFE OF DEAN BUCKLAND. [en. ix. 

thought of for him. I think Sir R. Peel has shown much 
moral courage in making choice of a person of science, 
for it was sure to raise a clamour, and among good people 
too. It has always been quite unintelligible to me how it 
happens that on the Continent, where there is far less 
religion than in England, a man who cultivates Natural 
History, who studies only the works of his Maker, is highly 
considered and raised by common consent to posts of 
honour, as were Cuvicr, Humboldt, etc., while, on the 
contrary, in England, a man who pursues science to a 
religious end (even who writes a Bridgewater Treatise) is 
looked upon with suspicion, and, by the greatest number 
of those who study only the works of man, with contempt. 
Perhaps you can comprehend this anomaly, I cannot." l 

She adds : " The house is large and very good, but it 
docs not look like a very lively abode, for it opens into the 
Abbey and contains the Jerusalem Chamber." 

The Deanery would indeed easily make four houses, 
the different wings being separated by large landings 
and passages ; and there were sixteen staircases. A long 
corridor, in which hung portraits of former deans, led into 
the Abbey, Abbot's Place or Palace, and death-chamber of 

1 It is noteworthy that Professor Burdon Sanderson, in his late 
address at the British Association, had still cause to lament the little 
assistance and encouragement that scientific research receives, either 
from the Government or the nation, in Great Britain. Buckland in 
1819, on his appointment as first Professor of Geology, in his inaugural 
address, \vhen speaking of this "new learning," says: "For some 
years past these newly created sciences have formed a leading subject 
of education in most Universities on the Continent." Professor 
Sanderson tells us, seventy-four years afterwards, "Those who desire 
cither to learn the methods of research or to carry out scientific 
inquiries have to go to Berlin, to Munich, to Breslau, or to the Pasteur 
Institute in Paris, to obtain what England ought long ago to have 


the Lancastrian King whose death it was foretold should 
take place at Jerusalem. 

11 Bear me to that chamber there 111 lie, 
In that Jerusalem shall Harry die." 

Dean Buckland thought that the antechamber through 
which it was approached was probably the scene of Prince 
Henry's wild grief over the crown. In a later day the 
Jerusalem Chamber has become a household word as 
the room in which meets the restored Convocation of 

The entrance to this oldest part of the Deanery remains 
exactly as it was in 1848. In the "Robing Room," as 
the antechamber was called, might be found at all seasons 
of the year a blazing fire, and here for thirty years 
the excellent portress, Mrs. Burrows, was in attendance 
twice daily, to air the linen surplices of the canons in 
residence, as it was highly necessary that these elderly 
dignitaries should be protected as far as possible from the 
well-known deadly cold of the Abbey. 1 

1 " The apartments of the Abbot of Westminster are nearly in the 
same state, at the present hour, as when they received Elizabeth (widow 
of Edward IV.) and her train of young princesses. The noble stone 
hall, now used as a dining-room by the students of Westminster 
School, was, doubtless, the place where Elizabeth seated herself in her 
despair ' alow on the rushes, all desolate and dismayed.' Still may 
be seen the circular hearth in the midst of the hall, and the remains of 
a louvre in the roof, at which such portions of smoke as chose to leave 
the room departed. But the merry month of May was entered when 
Elizabeth took refuge there, and round about the hearth were arranged 
branches and flowers, while the stone floor was strewn with green 
rushes. At the end of the hall is oak panelling latticed at top, with 
doors leading by winding stone stairs to the most curious nests of little 


The Abbot's quarters were over the antechamber, and 
from them he had communication both with the Abbey 
and the Jerusalem Chamber. These rooms have of late 
years been repaired, and Dean Bradley now occupies the 
upper rooms. In Dr. Buckland's occupation of the Deanery, 
the old wainscot was so dilapidated and the rooms so cold 
and dismal that his servants disliked sleeping in them, 
and complained of the queer noises and gusts of wind 
blowing their candles out. At length, one stormy night, 
a piece of the wainscot of the narrow passage leading into 
the Abbot's gallery in the south-west end of the Abbey 
nave fell down with a crash, and discovered a well-like 

rooms that the eye of antiquarian ever looked upon. These were, 
and still are, the private apartments of the dignitaries of the Abbey, 
where all offi es of buttery, kitchen, and laundry are performed under 
many a quaint gothic arch, in some places, even at present, rich with 
antique corbel and foliage. This range, so interesting as a specimen of 
the domestic usages of the middle ages, terminates in the Abbot's own 
sanctum or private sitting-room, which still looks down on his lovely 
quiet flower garden. Nor must the passage be forgotten leading 
from this room to the corridor, furnished with lattices, now remaining, 
where the Abbot might, unseen, be witness of the conduct of his 
monks in the great hall below. Communicating with these are the 
State apartments of the Royal Abbey, larger in dimensions and more 
costly in ornament, richly dight with painted glass and fluted oak 
panelling. Among these may be noted especially the organ-room, and 
the antechamber to the great Jerusalem Chamber which last was the 
Abbot's state reception-room, and retains to this day its gothic window 
of painted glass of exquisite workmanship, its curious tapestry and fine 
original oil portrait of Richard II." AGNES STRICKLAND'S Oucens of 
England, vol. iii., p. 409. 

Miss Strickland adds in a note that "the fireplace, before which 
Henry IV. expired, had been enriched by Henry VII. with elaborate 
wood entablatures, bearing his armorial devices ; an addition which is 
the most modern part of this exquisite remnant of domestic antiquity." 


opening,, The alarm was great among the domestics ; but 
the Dean's sons were delighted at the discovery, and, having 
first ascertained that the air was pure by letting down a 
lighted candle, one of them descended by a rope and found 
a worm-eaten wooden bedstead and table, both in a state 
of crumbling decay. It was said to have been one of Dean 
Attcrbury's hiding-places. Another of these hiding-places 
was in the wall of the library, a fine old room of sixty feet 
in length over the south cloisters. The drawing-room 
extends over the entrance to the Deanery from the cloisters 
and over the college kitchen. Under the floor of these 
rooms the rats had taken up their quarters, and when the 
house was quiet would run riot in all directions. These 
invisible guests, for none were ever seen, were the horror 
of the servants ; but the Dean, to prevent his children 
from being frightened, told them stories of the rats' clever 
doings, and how on one occasion they emptied a small cask 
of choice apricot wine, which his aunt had made for him 
in his college days, by dipping their tails into a hole that 
they had gnawed. 

Buckland may be said to have kept open house at the 
Deanery. Friends were always coming to breakfast or to 
luncheon; and this continuous stream of visitors served to 
fill his home with life and movement The house was the 
centre also to which men of science resorted, and where 
many of their discoveries were explained or illustrated. 
The following note to Professor Faraday, written on 
June 1 3th, 1849, will serve as an example: 

" MY DEAR PROFESSOR, If you can give us the pleasure 
of your company at lunch to-morro\v at two, or any time 


between two and four, you will meet William Harcourt and 
some other naturalists, and sec chloroform administered to 
Beast, Bird, Reptile, and Fishes. 

" Very truly yours, 


Among the interesting " fixtures " at the Deanery is a 
drawing, by Canaletti, of the procession of the Knights 
of the Bath, painted for Dean Wilcocks in 1747, who, like 
his predecessor Atterbury, also held the See of Rochester. 
The Dean of Westminster is cx-officio Chaplain of the 
Order, and the tradition of the picture is that Bishop 
Wilcocks was so proud of the position assigned him in the 
procession of walking next the King, that he caused the 
picture to be painted in order to commemorate it, and to 
mark as v ell the completion of Mr. Christopher Wren's 
towers. The Dean of Westminster on all official occasions 
wears the badge of the Order, attached to a wide red ribbon. 
The badge is emblematic of the sacredness of the Order 
three garlands twisted together in honour of the Holy 
Trinity, and supposed to be derived from Arthur, founder 
of British chivalry. The motto is " Tria numina juncta in 
uno," and there is a rose, shamrock, and thistle in the 
centre. The Dean wears the robes on a " collar day " when 
he goes to Court 

The leads over the rambling old Deanery made a delight- 
ful playground for Buckland's children, who found that 
the novelty of growing mustard and cress in boxes on the 
roof was quite as interesting as sowing their names in the 
Oxford soil. There was much more light and sunshine 
on the leads than in the high-walled Oxford college garden, 
and they could always find a snug sheltered corner, which- 


ever way the wind blew. But their favourite leads were 
those over the drawing-room, college hall, and Jerusalem 
Chamber, looking v/est Magnificent sunsets were to be 
seen from these, particularly in the short winter days, when 
the wreaths of blue smoke came curling up from the 
chimneys of the low red-tiled roofs of old Westminster 
slums, and formed into fantastic-shaped purple and golden 
and crimson clouds as they caught the rays of the setting 
sun over St. James's Park and Buckingham Palace, 

It was natural that the Dean, with his turn for geology 
and sanitary science, should carefully examine the soil on 
which the Abbey is built, and this is his report : 

"Thorney Island, the site of the Abbey and adjacent 
parts of Westminster, between the Thames and the lake 
in St. James's Park (which was once a swampy creek 
crossing between Charing Cross and Whitehall into the 
Thames), is a peninsula of the purest sand and gravel, 
which may l>c seen in the foundations of the Abbey and in 
the new deep graves in the Churchyard of St. Margaret's. 
The surface of the peninsula is several feet above high 
water mark ; its north frontier is marked by the steps 
ascending from the Horse Guards Parrde to Duke Street, 
and by the Terrace, covered with houses, on the south of 
Birdcage Walk, whence it extends under Wellington 
Barracks to Buckingham Palace Gardens and Hyde Park. 
By the isthmus under this terrace, the peninsula of Thorney 
Island is connected with the gravel beds of Hyde Park, 
from whence the rain-water which fills the lower region of 
that gravel, and of the gravel in the Palace Gardens, has 
unbroken communication with the pure sand and gravel 
of the so-called Thorney Island (really a peninsula), and 
hence pure and much sought after water is supplied to the 
well and pump in Dean's Yard, and other wells in St 
Peter's College, and to a pump near the north end of St. 
Margaret's Church." 


No doubt this stream, which Dean Stanley calls the 
"vivifying centre of all that has grown up and around," 
had much to do with the monks' settlement on Thorney 
Island 1280 years ago. The monks practised the " healing 
art," and, though medical skill in those days was rude and 
simple enough, the monks knew that the secret of good 
health consisted in drinking pure water, and hence a Holy- 
well, or a Wishing-well, is to be met with in the precincts 
of most ruined Abbeys. No local traditions, it has been 
said, are "so durable as those writ in water." In 1845 * ne 
bright pure water from the old pump in Dean's Yard was 
still considered beneficial as an eye water, and Buckland 
prescribed it as such with the best results. London was 
not then supplied with water, as at the present time. 
Every day, and all the morning long, might be seen a 
continuous stream of water-carriers men, women, and 
children coming for the life-giving beverage. But it was 
in the middle of the day, when the " boys " came rushing 
out of school, that the scene became exciting between 
water-carriers and scholars. Buckets were hurled over the 
tall iron railings enclosing the playground, alongside which 
stood the famous pump ; the wooden yokes and chains, 
upon which the buckets hung, followed ; pitchers were 
seized, and the contents thrown in all directions. Great 
was the scrimmage ; plentiful the splashing, and loud 
the cracking of pottery ; boisterous often were the jokes ; 
and lively was the merriment for a few minutes, and 
then, boy-like, some other diversion was thought of, and 
the lads in their quaint black-tailed coats and white 
" chokers" dispersed. / *i 


But these merry scenes belong to the past In making 
the Metropolitan Railway, twenty-four years ago, the spring, 
which supplied the Dean's Yard pump, and formed on 
its way the King's scholars' pond in Tothill Fields, was 
cut across ; and two engines arc now employed, night and 
day, at the Victoria underground station, one pumping 
away the water from the spring rising in Hyde Park at the 
rate of 1200 gallons per minute, the other pumping away 
the sewage from the King's scholars' sewer. By draining 
the subsoil at Westminster, the Dean's Yard well is dried 
up as also several other wells in the neighbourhood ; and 
the trees in the Dean's Yard arc, it is to be feared, in 
danger of dying from drought. 

As Dean of Westminster the busiest portion of Dean 
Buckland's always busy life began, and in all the good 
works which were set on foot he was warmly seconded by 
his wife. Yet he was never so busy as to be prevented 
from journeying to Oxford to lecture on his favourite science. 
Rising soon after seven, he worked incessantly till two or 
three o'clock the next morning, allowing himself scarcely 
time for meals, and less for recreation. One of the practical 
tasks to be accomplished was the removal of many great 
abuses that had crept into Westminster School. " In that 
foundation," Sir Roderick Murchison writes, "education 
could be no longer obtained except at costly charges, and 
even when these were paid, the youths were ill fed and 
worse lodged. All these defects were speedily rectified by 
the vigour and perseverance of Dean Buckland. The 
charges were reduced ; good diet was provided ; the rooms 
were well ventilated, and the buildings properly under- 


drained ; so that, these physical ameliorations accompany- 
ing a really sound and good system of tuition, the fame 
and credit of this venerable seminary was soon restored." 

It is difficult, in the light of modern sanitary reforms, to 
realise the condition of the school about fifty years ago. 
Among a large collection of MS. papers in the Oxford 
Museum, chiefly consisting of notes of lectures, to which 
Professor Green has kindly allowed the biographer to have 
access, is found a practical letter l of Buckland's, giving 
details of his proposed alterations, and announcing a 
promised subscription from Her Most Gracious Majesty 
the Queen of 500, and from the Archbishop of York 
300, and further donations from old Westminsters. 

Dean Buckland followed the precedent set him by Dean 
Atterbury in appealing to the Crown for a subscription 
towards the contemplated improvements. As in the case 
of his predecessor, the domestic comfort of the Queen's 
scholars was the first matter to engage his attention. In 

1 " Improvements in Westminster School. " The Dean and Chapter 
of Westminster take this method of making known to the old West- 
minsters that they have resolved to increase the comfort and diminish 
the expense of the Queen's scholars in the following manner. 

" 1st By providing all their meals at the cost of the Establishment. 

2nd. By fitting up large and convenient rooms for study, etc, in 
the entire cloister under the dormitory. 

"3rd. By building a sanatorium at the end of the dormitory, \vith 
rooms for a resident matron. 

"4th. By refitting the present lavatory and necessary offices with 
improved hydraulic apparatus. 

"5th. By undertaking that the necessary charge* on the Queen's 
scholars shall not exceed ^45 per annum, exclusive of books, clothes, 
washing, and journeys, and the leaving fees, if the subscriptions should 


many ways, but happily not in all, these two Deans 
resembled each other in character. Both were men of 
powerful intellects and of exhaustless energy ; both were 
eager to remove abuses and to attack prejudices ; and 
both possessed the gift of persuasive eloquence. Dean 
Buckland, however, was eminently truthful: the most 
splendid speech Attcrbury ever delivered was in vindica- 
tion of his innocence when charged with intriguing for the 
Pretender. Yet it is known that he had been plotting 
with the Jacobites all along, and on the death of Queen 
Anne had even offered Ormond to proclaim the Pretender 
at Charing Cross in his lawn sleeves. 

In 1713 the School dormitory was in the monks' granary 
on the west side of Dean's Yard. " The gaping roof and 
open windows freely admitted rain and snow, wind and 
sun ; the beams cracked and hung with cobwebs, the 
cavernous walls with many a gash inflicted by youthful 

be adequate to the costs of the contemplated improvements, which are 
estimated at from .3,000 to 4,000. 

11 6th. It is intended in no degree to diminish the present expenses 
of the Dean and Chapter, and that all reductions oi charges that may 
arise from better management shall be for the benefit of the Queen's 

41 The Dean and Chapter having ascertained that the present dormitory 
was built more than a century ago, by contributions from persons 
educated at Westminster, in addition to large grants from the Crown 
and from Parliament, have thought it reasonable to appeal again to the 
Crown and to old Westminsters of the present time for their aid to 
render more accordant with modern manners the building which has 
hitherto, with much inconvenience, been applied to the manifold 
purposes of station, study, and dormitory. 


, 1846 


Dukes and Earls in their boyish days ; the chairs scorched 
by many a fire and engraven deep with many a famous 
name. 01 Again and again Dean Attcrbury urged its 
rebuilding in the college gardens ; but the Canons pre- 
ferred that it should remain where it was, as their houses 
looked on the gardens. It was only by the casting vote 
of the Dean that a motion was carried in favour of re- 
building the dormitory over the wide cloister which 
extended along the gardens' western side. 

Buckland found that Dean Atterbury's dormitory, after 
over a hundred years' use as bedroom, sitting-room, and 
play-room, was in a most dismal condition, with the 
walls blackened by smoke, and, here and there, hung with 
moth-eaten green baize curtains ; the tables and lockers 

seamed and scarred in all directions, and the floor 

Taking his children to see the place, their father asked, " Well, 
children, what's this floor like ? " The answer was prompt. 
" The fossil ripple marks in our hall at home." (A fossil 
slab of ripple marks now in the Oxford Museum.) The 
floor was only cleaned once a year, so that its rough 
surface was not to be wondered at, as the boys did a great 
deal of cooking there amongst their other diversions. 
The windows were prison-like, small and near the ceiling. 
Mr. F. H. Forshall, the School chronicler, relates that, fifty 
years ago, " as a rule, the windows were kept broken and 
a slide was sometimes formed down college in a time of 
hard frost On one occasion the floor was converted into 
a draught board ; the Under Elections formed the pieces, and 

1 Dean Stanley's (< Memorials of Westminster." . 


two seniors, standing on tables, directed their movements. 
When a king was made he was represented by one of the 
bigger boys with a small one on his back." l 

The lavatories were in a far worse condition than those 
of Winchester, to which Buckland had been accustomed 
in his youth. A ditch filled with black mud a creek 
of the Thames it was said to be came up as far as these 
buildings ; but apparently no tide ever succeeded in 
washing back into the river any of its murky contents. 

Such insanitary conditions were intolerable to Buck- 
land, and he set himself with characteristic energy to 
improve both the dormitory and the lavatories. His 
scientific reputation and his determination overpowered 
all resistance. Yet a weaker man would have been power- 
less. " I doubt," writes the Rev. E. Marshall, one of the 
late masters at Westminster^ " if any one with a less com- 
manding scientific reputation than Dr. Buckland, even with 
all the power of the Dean, could have overcome the 
prejudice which at that time was entertained against the 

The cloister under the dormitory ir the college garden 
was converted into day-rooms ; a matron's house and sick- 
room were instituted ; and convenient offices were built 
These thorough reforms may be said to have been carried 
out by his force of will. Mr. Forshall states that "the 
advantages to the boys of these reforms were almost 
incalculable. Thinking that the Queen's scholars were 
entitled to free commons, he provided breakfasts in Hall ; 

1 F. H. Forshall, " Westminster School Past and Present" 


and by erecting a sanatorium, obviated the necessity of 
their using boarding houses, thus effecting a saving to each 
boy's parents of at least 30 per annum. Fully to 
appreciate this we must remember that the School had no 
fees of its own, but was entirely dependent on the Dean 
and Chapter ; so what was spent was practically taken from 
the incomes of the Dean and Prebendaries." 

In all these new arrangements Dean Buckland took a 
personal interest Every Sunday morning, after the 
Abbey service was over, and after he had, according to 
the old Christ Church fashion, taken his children for a 
walk in St James's Park to see the water-fowl, and to be 
rewarded with a penny if they spied any new importation 
among the feathered flock, he took them the round of the 
School premises, beginning always with the " sick house," 
chatting with any of the seniors they met, inquiring how 
the new arrangements he had made for them suited their 
convenience, and asking them for practical suggestions. 
He also constantly visited the college kitchen to see that 
the food provided for the boys was of proper quality and 
properly dressed, and daily a " bever " * loaf was sent in 
from College Hall for his own breakfast. 

Among other additions to the comfort of the boys, he 
secured an excellent butler, Cleghorn by name, who had 
been a prominent member of the police force, and almost 
killed by sheep stealers. Cleghorn used to tell the boys 

1 " Bever, " from the old French beuve boirf, to drink ; refresh- 
ments consisting of bread and beer, formerly served in the afternoon 
in College Hall, answering to our five o'clock tea, now applied to the 
rolls on the Hall table. 


of the trouble the Dean took in looking after the details 
of food and drink, and instead of the everlasting mutton, 
they had new dishes and pies and puddings never before 
seen at college dinners. The severe conservatism, however, 
of the Westminster boys at first resented the innovation, 
and the puddings were thrown at the cook's head ! But, 
as Mr. Forshall, himself an ardent Old Westminster, and 
the chronicler of the history of his beloved School, admits, 
41 We were all, notwithstanding, extremely glad afterwards 
of the improvements introduced by the Dean in our 
diet" And he adds : " As a Queen's scholar I have a lively 
recollection of the Dean's presence, and of his loving, hearty 
way of speaking. I very vividly remember also his intro- 
ducing Dr. Liddcll to us in the great schoolroom as our 
new Head Master, the first who had not been educated at 
Westminster. The Dean made a most earnest and affec- 
tionate speech to us, standing in front of the sixth form 
by the side of Dr. Liddcll. Though his figure and manner 
are before my eyes at this moment, the words have vanished 
save, 4 ! present to you Dr. Liddell a lexicographer of 
European reputation.' " 

The Dean often gave lectures on " common subjects " to 
the boys in their new sitting-room. Soon after Dr. Liddell's 
appointment as Head Master, Buckland gave a conversazione 
in die chamber recently constructed under the dormitory. 
Invitations were issued to meet the lately consecrated Bishop 
of Adelaide, an old Westminster scholar. Mr. Marshall 
thus describes the gathering: 

14 The dignified proportions and solidity of the room, the 
crude white of the walls glaring in the light of the unshaded 


gas, 1 the fresh and obtrusively level floor, and the unusual 
sight of ladies in the boys 1 sitting-room, were all contrary 
to ordinary experiences. 

"The Bishop proposed that some of the great public 
schools of England should contribute a sum of money to 
buy land, then naturally very cheap in the colony, and that 
the land so acquired should be the endowment of scholar- 
ships in his college, to be named respectively after the 
various schools. He paid his own school the compliment 
of coming to it first. The proposal was received with 
acclamation, and money afterwards subscribed to earn' 
out the object. The proceedings of the evening concluded 
by the handing of some choice Luncl wine, to which no 
one made any conscientious objections. I vividly recall 
the geniality of the Dean's manner, and the kindness and 
hospitality shown me by both the Dean and Mrs. Buckland 
at the Deanery." 

There is a tablet, it is said, in the Hall of St. Peter's 
College, Adelaide, which records the foundation of this 
scholarship, which took place on St Peter's Day, 1847. 

Dr. Short was consecrated Bishop of Adelaide with three 
other colonial bishops, Dr. Gray, Bishop of Capetown ; 
Dr. Perry, Bishop of Melbourne ; Dr. Tyrrell, Bishop of 
Newcastle : the bishoprics of Adelaide and Capetown being 
endowed by the munificence of Miss (now Baroness) Burdctt- 
Coutts. It was while this solemn ceremony, which lasted 
four hours, was going on in the Abbey that a fight took 
place in the "Green," the square enclosure within the 
cloisters. Mr. Walter Severn, the son of the well-known 
artist who soothed the dying hours of Keats, thus tells 
this highly characteristic story of Westminster School life 

1 Then for the first time used in college. 


" fifty years since." Fights, it may be added, have since 
been discontinued, owing to the rule being made that they 
must take place before early morning school : 

" It was in 1847, a few weeks before I left Westminster, 
that the following incident occurred : I was rowing up the 
river in one of the ' heavy fours ' which went out daily 
during the rowing season, and as we were returning our 
boat had a race with one of the other 4 fours/ during which 
a 'foul* occurred. The two boats drifted close together, 
and our oars got mixed up. At this moment a tall youth 
in the other boat snatched some of the jackets out of ours 
and threw them into the water. On this, my crew at once 
called on me, as the biggest boy in the boat, to knock him 
over, which I promptly did, with an oar. Immediately on 
landing at the ' barges, 1 he came up and challenged me 
in the usual formal style to fight in the * Green/ and the 
news was quickly carried down College Street to Dean's 
Yard that a fight would take place next day. With 
thoughts of the morrow in my head, I wended my way 
home to James Street, Buckingham Gate, wherr my father 
then lived. Should I inform my parents about it ? I had 
often confided in my mother, who was quite a Spartan 
mother, and not likely to interfere in a fair fight ; but my 
father was essentially, as he called himself, a man of peace ; 
and I decided that I must not let oat a word at home. 
He had already been extremely put out on the occasion 
of a former fight I had with a boy called Stanton. I may 
mention here that fights in those days were conducted 
exactly like prize-fights, and were not interfered with by 
the authorities. I have heard it said that about 1843 some 
of the fights that took place in the Green actually appeared 
in Belfs Life ; but this was too much even for Williamson, 
who interfered and stopped the reports. After partaking 
of late dinner or supper at home, it suddenly occurred to 
me that my braces were worn out and shabby, and I was 
determined to get new ones, so as to make a good appear- 
ance when ' stripped * for the coming fight. I had consider- 


able difficulty in persuading my mother to give me the 
necessary money, as she could not understand my wishing 
to get them at so late an hour. A shop in York Street 
was still open, and I secured a pair of bright-red braces, 
which were such a novelty that there was slight applause 
from the ring on the morrow when my outer garments were 
removed. I may as well mention for the uninitiated that 
th : s ancient fighting-green is the quiet, peaceful-looking 
grass-plot in the centre of the cloisters, under the shadow 
of our grand and venerable Abbey. The Green presented 
an animated appearance, with an unusually large ring, 
which took up most of the space. At that time the 
cloisters all round were very much out of repair, almost in 
ruins, and on two sides the broken arches extended to the 
ground, so that there were many exits to and from the 

" The day was one of the many ' saints' days f which 
were kept as holidays. I think Drydcn, who was an * Old 
Westminster,' alludes to the extraordinary number of these 
holidays in his time. 

u There happened to be a grand consecration of four 
colonial bishops in the Abbey, so that we were not with- 
out solemn music to give falat to our little entertainment 
outside. I distinctly remember that I went into this fight 
with a cheerful heart and a perfectly clear conscience. My 
antagonist was not a popular boy, and the fact that I was 
going to fight him was very much approved of. He was 
bigger and stronger than I was, but I was more active and 
a better boxer, having practised the art with a prize- 
fighter who used to give lessons to some of the older 

41 Round succeeded round for more than an hour, until we 
were both becoming somewhat exhausted, when a sudden 
interference took place which stopped the fight. Officials 
from the Abbey had several times tried to put an end to 
our noisy entertainment, but they had water of a very ruddy 
colour thrown over them, and were so roughly used that 
they had to beat a hasty retreat. As the fight drew to a 
close the shouts increased, and the authorities, finding the 


noise intolerable, got one of the masters (Weare, second 
master) to enter the Green and stop the fight, which, as I 
learnt afterwards, had lasted an hour and five minutes. I 
believe there is an account of this fight in the old ledgers 
of the centre boarding-house in Little Dean's Yard. I 
was put into a cab and sent home, where my mother and 
sisters, somewhat dismayed, took charge of me, and I was 
made to stay for a day or two in bed. 

" Within a month I got a clerkship in the Privy Council 
Office, and had to appear with blackened eyes and a bruised 
face. The Lord President, Lord Lansdowne, and two 
senior clerks, Harry Chester and Charles Villiers Baylcy, 
were greatly interested in my fight, and I think helped me 
in getting promoted afterwards. 

" More than twenty years after this event I was staying 
with my father in Rome, and when dining at a very large 
hotel dinner I recognised my old antagonist and spoke to 
him. He was a clergyman in poor health, and died a few 
years later. Some ten or twelve years later I was dining 
at the house of our neighbours in Earl's Court, Mr. and 
Mrs. Bliss, and met there Bishop Short of Adelaide, and 
got introduced to him and asked him about his consecra- 
tion. Yes, he was consecrated with three other colonial 
bishops in the Abbey in 1847. I asked him if he could 
remember anything unusual that happened, and he at once 
said, ' Oh yes, there was a fight of Westminster boys, and 
the noise was so great that we had to complain/ He was 
surprised and amused when I told him that I was one of 
the combatants." 

Nor did Westminster School monopolise Buckland's 
attention. It is almost needless to say that the Abbey 
itself occupied much of his care. " He paid the greatest 
attention," his son Frank writes, " to the keeping in repair of 
the monuments, etc., inside the Abbey, and the reparations 
of its external walls, applying his fund of general know- 
ledge to the minutest details/ 


The Rev. W. H. Turle says : 

u I can remember how thankful we all were when Dean 
Buckland had the pavement in the cloister thoroughly 
repaired, and the gas laid on ; also he had Great Dean's 
Yard pavement renovated and a new gateway entrance 
built. The whole place was in a shamefully dilapidated 
condition ; the broken stonework of the bays in the 
cloisters was merely held together with bits of wood." 

The Dean also restored all the pinnacles and buttresses on 
the south side of the Abbey. The monks 1 burying-ground 
the cloister garth, the " fighting-green " of Westminster 
School was turned into a stonemason's yard for several 
months, so great were the external repairs that were 
needed. Buckland carefully superintended the mason's 
work, whether external or internal, that was going on in 
the Abbey or in any other collegiate buildings in which he 
was interested ; he examined with his own critical and 
experienced eye the various kinds of cement, the blocks of 
building-stone, and the means adopted to repair and keep 
in order the regal and other monuments ; and, above all, 
he took special care that no faulty bits of stone Were used, 
and that no broken pieces of monuments were thrown 

On one occasion he received a brown-paper parcel 
carefully done up, containing a piece of black oak-wood 
about the size of a match. A letter came with it, 
stating that the writer, when a boy, had cut this off the 
coronation chair in the Abbey, and that, repenting in his 
old age, he returned it in the hope that it might be refitted 
to its old place. Buckland frequently told this story as 
a warning to unscrupulous collectors. At another time he 


received from America two small marble heads, which had 
been taken as a relic from Major Andre's tomb by some 
American, who, on his death-bed, had desired that they 
might be returned to the Abbey. With his own hands 
the Dean replaced these on this beautiful bas-relief. 
Every Sunday afternoon Buckland took his children round 
the Abbey, with the numerous guests who usually came 
to luncheon. His sharp eyes would quickly discover 
any fresh mutilation to any of the monuments, and he 
insisted on its being looked after at once. A light feather- 1 
brush v/hich he carried in his hand served not only as a 
pointer, but removed the dust which always settled on the 
noses and outstretched fingers of the statues. 

In those days it was far less common than it now is 
to display a reverent regard to public worship, and to 
take care that everything in connection with the house of 
God should be done with decency and order. The Dean 
kept a strict eye over the manner in which the services were 
performed, and corrected many abuses. Finding that the 
Abbey choristers spent their time between the services in 
sailing their toy boats in puddles made by the sinking of 
the gravestones in St. Margaret's Churchyard, or, if it were 
dry weather, in playing marbles on the flat slabs of the 
altar-tombs, he looked about for a suitable place in the 
precincts which could be used as a schoolroom. He found 
his site, opened his school, appointed an old Oxford friend 
to be master, and the behaviour of the choir-boys, both 
in and out of the Abbey, quickly improved. He made 
new arrangements for the greater convenience of visitors, 
and himself instructed the vergers in the most interesting 


contents of the side-chapels and other parts of the Abbey 
which had not hitherto been shown to the public. To the 
duties of the night watchman he attached great import- 
ance, and in Poets' Corner fixed a tell-tale clock, which 
registered the punctuality with which the watchman every 
quarter of an hour went his rounds. The cold was so 
intense at times in the Abbey that, as he used to say, " the 
fellow might go to sleep and the Abbey be burnt, as York 
Minster had been, from an alarm not being given in time." 
One of his first acts, on coming into residence, was to 
overhaul the fire-engine, which he found in a very crippled, 
useless condition. Great amusement was caused to the 
dwellers in the precincts by the various trials of its effici- 
ency, and by the exercises through which the firemen were 
put in Dean's Yard. 

In 1848 the interior of the Abbey choir was restored. 
The stalls and sittings were entirely reconstructed, and, 
in spite of numerous objections, the Dean removed the 
heavy oak screens in the north and south transepts, thus 
adding fifteen hundred sittings to the accommodation. He 
took great pleasure in drawing attention to the woodwork 
of the stalls, many of the bosses and finials of which were 
carved from nature by Messrs. Ruddle, of Peterborough, 
showing that the modern carvers can compete in skill with 
their ancient brethren in the craft. The cost of these 
restorations amounted to over 7,000. The " marigold " 
window in the south transept (Poets' Corner) was filled 
with stained glass by Dean Buckland, as the " rose " 
window of the north transept had been by Dean Atterbury. 

At the same time the Abbey organ was improved at the 


cost of nearly 1,000 by Messrs. HilL It was the first 
cathedral organ in England to be divided into two parts 
and played in the middle of the screen gallery. Mr. Hill 
very well recollects Buckland asking how a thirty-two feet 
pipe could lie across the aisle, which was only thirty feet 
wide a pertinent question, which Mr. Hill's father answered 
by explaining that the modern sharp pitch is really a note 
higher than that in vogue a hundred years ago, and reduced 
the length of the pipe, so that it would just go into the 
available space. It was in connection with this restoration 
of the organ that Frank Buckland performed an experi- 
ment of fishing in Westminster Abbey. One of the great 
open diapason pipes (wood) had become the coffin of a 
deceased cat, for which the future Inspector of Fisheries set 
to angle, through the top of the pipe, with a salmon hook. 
In a short time he was successful and brought up " Master 
Cat " in trir.mph. 

Miss C. Fox, in her journal, speaks in the following 
words of a visit to the Abbey : 

" Then to the Dean of Westminster (Dr. Euckland) in his 
solemn habitation : he took us through the old Abbey, so 
full of death and of life. There was solemn music going 
on, in keeping with the serious Gothic architecture and the 
quiet memory of the great dead. The Dean was full of 
anecdote historical, architectural, artistic, and scientific 
We got a far grander and truer notion of Westminster, 
both inside and out, than we ever had before." 

On Easter Day, April 23rd, 1848, the Abbey was re- 
opened, after complete restoration of the choir, the congre- 
gation sitting for the first time in the transepts. On the 
Continent it was a year of revolutions, and the discontent 



at home gave serious ground for disquietude. The state 
of public affairs v/as in the mind of Buckland, who preached 
in the evening. In his sermon he went back to the church 

u built on Thorney Island, once occupied by the pagan altars 
of the Roman conquerors of Britain a site on which was 
raised one of the first sanctuaries for preaching of the gospel 
to our heathen forefathers, a site consecrated to God and 
Christ by the piety of our Scbert, and our OfTa, and our 
Edgar, our Ethclred, our Alfred, and our Saxoa Edward, 
and nearly six centuries ago reconstructed in its actual 
state of unexampled 'beauty of holiness* by our Henrys 
and Edwards, in times coeval with the Crusades. ... In this 
most holy temple I and some of you have, within the last 
ten months, enjoyed the privilege of witnessing the un- 
exampled ceremony of the simultaneous consecration of 
a chosen band of colonial bishops, who have gone forth 
under the national sanction of the Government of this 
country to preach the gospel in many of the extreme 
regions of the world. . . . Never before did the compass of 
Christianity circumscribe so vast a circle. 

u Our modern schools of philosophy have changed their 
moral phases within the present century. In the days of 
our fathers and during the youth of many who are still 
living, the study of philosophy was too often, and some- 
times too justly, suspected to be allied to infidelity : the 
study of second causes halted short of arriving at the First. 
Modern professors, in carrying their researches more closely 
into God's laws, by which He regulates the movement of 
the material world, have been permitted to gaze more 
intensely on the great source of light and life, and in every 
fresh discovery they find a further and another revelation 
of the infinite wisdom and power and goodness of the 

4 Deum namque ire per omnes 
Terrasque tractusque maris coclumque profundum.' . . . 

* In the last quarter of a century the renewed spirit of 


piety has planted in our island niore new churches and 
schools than have been founded w any one or in all the 
centuries since the Reformation of the English Church; 
and already we are reaping the fruits thereof in sweet and 
holy experience, that 'the work of righteousness shall 
be peace ; and the effect of righteousness quietness and 
assurance for ever* (Isa. xxxii. 17). 

" The God of Nature has determined that moral and 
physical inequalities shall not only be inseparable from our 
humanity, but coextensive with His whole creation. He 
has also given compensatioas co-ordinate with these 
inequalities, working together for the conservation of all 
orders and degrees in that graduated scale of being which 
is the great law of God's providence on earth. From the 
mammoth to the mouse, from the eagle to the humming- 
bird, from the minnow to the whale, from the monarch to 
the man, the inhabitants of the earth and air and water 
form but one vast scries of infinite gradations in an endless 
chain of inequalities of organic structure and of physical 
perfections : * There are also celestial bodies, and bodies 
terrestrial . . . and one star differcth from another star in 
glory' (i Cor. xv. 40, 41). 

" So also there never was, and, while human nature 
remains the same, there never can be, a period in the 
history of human society when inequalities of worldly 
condition will not follow the unequal use of talents and 
opportunities originally the same : industry and idleness, 
virtue and vice, lead the same talents, with the same means 
and opportunities, well used or abused, to most unequal 
results. . . . Equality of mind or body, or of worldly condi- 
tion, is as inconsistent with the order of Nature as with the 
moral laws of God. . . . There may be equality in poverty : 
equality of riches is impossible. Equality of poverty is the 
condition of the negro, the bushman, and the Esquimaux. 
Equality of wealth and property never has and never can 
exist, except in the imagination of wild transcendental 
theorists, so long as human nature shall continue to be that 
imperfect thing which God has placed in this world in a 
state of moral probation, and not of perfection. . . . 


" One more last word of consolation and congratulation 
before we part In the years of peril and perturbation which 
agitated Europe ha'f a century ago, it was the personal 
character of the king of this country (King George III.) 
which, under Providence, was mainly instrumental to pre- 
serve us from the sanguinary revolutions which then overran 
the fairest part of the Continent. It is the personal character 
of his rightful heir and royal successor upon the throne of 
her ancestors which, under God's blessing, will, we trust and 
pray, preserve us also from the returning hurricanes of 
European political revolution. We know that the fervent 
prayer of the righteous availcth much ; and when the God 
of heaven beholds our most religious and gracious Queen 
practically affirming with the holy Joshua, * As for me and 
my house, we will serve the Lord,' on her bended knees 
joining with her household in prayer and supplication to 
the King of kings and Lord of lords, we may humbly trust 
that the Majesty of heaven will accept the prayer of His 
anointed servant and minister upon earth, and in His 
mercy vouchsafe to hide her and the subjects of her 
kingdom from * the gathering together of the froward, and 
from the insurrection of wicked doers/ 

" England, it has been truly said, has almost always 
prospered under her queens. In the sacred person of o^ir 
most gracious Sovereign (who within these holy walls has 
been anointed to rule over us), we are at this awful crisis 
blessed with a queen who in every relation of domestic 
life is a pattern of conjugal and maternal virtues, and 
who in her most 'exalted public station is the honoured 
exemplar of regal dignity, the object of the love and 
faithful service and loyal obedience of her subjects, the 
type and repository of mercy and clemency and supre- 
macy, in the rule of that great united kingdom and justly 
balanced constitution at the head of which a gracious 
Providence has placed her. Blessed with such a sovereign, 
though the heathen may furiously rage together and the 
people imagine a vain thing, the throne, we trust and pray, 
will be exalted in righteousness and the blessing of God 
descend on us and our posterity." . . . 


The spring of 1848 was a memorable one in London. 
On April loth was the great Chartist meeting, and every 
preparation was made to secure the Abbey and its precincts 
from any rough treatment by the mob. Great alarm 
prevailed all over London. A hundred and fifty thousand 
volunteers from every walk and condition of life were 
sworn in as special constables. Among those who were 
thus sworn in was Louis Napoleon, afterwards President and 
subsequently Emperor. In a caricature which appeared in 
Paris he was represented in policemen's clothes, wielding a 
truncheon, with this legend : " J'ai fait plus que mon oncle, 
j'ai battu les Anglais dans les rues de Londres." Buckland 
kept his stock of these truncheons stored in the outer 
drawing-room for use by the Westminster specials. Every 
precaution was taken, and a strong guard placed in the 
Record Office, which then occupied the Chapter House, 
and in other important places. It was a remarkaHe feature 
of the day that, along the whole line of the procession, 
from the City to Kcnnington Common, the appointed 
rendezvous of the malcontents, scarcely a shout was raised, 
and only a few feeble cheers were heard. 

As Fcargus O'Connor was earnestly addressing the peti- 
tioners at Kennington, and entreating them not to damage 
their cause by any acts of violence or disorder, an eagle 
was seen to be soaring over their heads and flying towards 
Westminster ! This naturally was hailed as an excellent 
augury ! The bird was Frank Buckland's eagle, which had 
escaped that morning from the little courtyard in which 
it was kept. A chicken, tied by its leg to the end of a 
high pole, caught its keen sight towards sundown. As an 


eagle never lets go its prey, the string was pulled directly 
it had seized the bird, and down came the eagle. It was 
easy then to throw a rug over it and cut the bird's wing. 
Buckland had taken his children up to the top of the 
Abbey tower in the morning to view the procession ; but 
the streets were empty, and as deserted by traffic as if it were 
Sunday. Tired of so dull a look-out, the children descended, 
and it was not till after their third journey up the innumer- 
able stone steps leading to the tower roof that a cab was 
seen driven into the Palace Yard, through a drizzling rain, 
with the charter tied on to the top of it. It was, they 
thought, a very poor sight after a whole day of anxious 
expectation. No soldiers were to be seen ; and Buckland, 
in common with the rest of London, praised the " good 
tact " of the Duke of Wellington, who placed the troops in 
the houses and gardens of Bridge Street and Parliament 
Street, to be ready in case of emergency, but out of sight 
of the mob. Mrs. Andrew Crosse tells of these troublous 
times in an amusing story in the " Red-Letter Days of My 

"Other visitors there were at Broomfield [Dr. Andrew 
Crosse's home] in those years, notably a party of four 
distinguished men Dr. Buckland (the then Dean of West- 
minster), Dr. Daubeny, Lord Playfair (then Dr. Playfair), 
and Baron Licbig. These gentlemen had been inspecting 
the cheese-making process of Cheddar, and, arriving at 
Bridgewater, ordered a carriage and pair at the hotel, 
requiring to be driven to Broomfield without loss of time. 
It was the summer of 1848, the year of revolutions abroad 
and Chartist alarms at home. The inn-keeper, hearing a 
foreign language spoken, and learning their destination, 
jumped to the conclusion that these strangers might be 


plotting against Church and State, and forthwith communi- 
cated with the police, with the result that the suspicious 
quartet were closely watched. When the Dean of West- 
minster, who dearly loved a joke, heard the story subse- 
quently, he was highly delighted with the impression they 
had made on the quidnuncs of Bridgewater." 

In May 1848 Buckland and two of his daughters were 
attacked with typhoid, or " Westminster fever," as it was 
calbd, for it did not spread beyond the precincts. Every 
one was taken ill on the same day. Some workmen, in 
making alterations in Little Dean's Yard, accidentally 
opened some old drainage, and neither Buckland, who was 
superintending the work at the time and saw the mischief 
done, nor any one who was conversant with the facts, had 
any doubt as to the origin of the outbreak. Several deaths 
occurred : the unusual sound of the tolling of the Abbey 
bell drew attention to the fever, and caused great gloom 
throughout Hie neighbourhood. As soon as Buckland was 
restored to health, he lost no time in applying his scientific 
knowledge to the thorough cleansing and making of sewers. 
The system of pipe-drainage which he introduced was the 
first of its kind ever laid down in London. It proved 
completely successful. "This experiment," he says, "on 
the drainage and sewage of about fifteen houses and an area 
of about two acres affords a triumphant proof of the efficacy 
of draining by pipes, and the facility of dispensing entirely 
with cesspools and brick sewers throughout London." 
The experiment for such it then was succeeded most 
triumphantly. He was, therefore, deeply wounded when 
this outbreak of fever was ascribed to his sanitary reforms. 
That the charge was most unfounded is proved by the 


report of the Commission employed to look into the health 
of London. The Commissioners reported as follows : 

a During the cleansing of the Westminster Abbey pre- 
cincts, in the autumn of 1848, four hundred cubic yards of 
foul matter had been removed from the various branches of 
the ancient sewers, which were obliterated and filled up 
with earth. An entirely new system of drainage by pipes 
alone was then substituted, and not a single case of faibre 
had been discovered by careful examinations made weekly 
ever since the new pipe-drainage had been laid down." 1 

As a member of the Institution of Civil Engineers Buck- 
land exerted himself actively in the improvement of the 
supply of pure water for the Metropolis, and examined the 
projects for obtaining it from the Thames and from other 
rivers, and from wells sunk in the chalk. Of all the various 
plans an artesian well in the Isle of Dogs was at that time 
found to yield the purest water. On the outbreak of the 
cholera, in 1848, Buckland, anxious as ever to benefit his 
fellow-creatures, collected a mass of information less on the 
treatment of the disease than on its prevention by care in 
sanitary arrangement of the houses both of rich and poor, 
and on the properties of disinfectants, with the most effica- 
cious mode of applying them. He was far ahead of his 
day in sanitary science, and, like sanitary reformers of the 
present time, met with endless objections to his advice to 
"clean up." In a sermon which he preached in the Abbey 
on November i$th, 1849, the day of thanksgiving to God 
for the removal of the cholera, he observed in allusion to 
the Westminster fever, " A warning voice had not been 

1 " Report of the Metropolitan Commission of Sewers." v 


raised in vain, and in God's mercy we have been entirely 
spared during the pestilence that has surrounded us," 
This sermon on the prophet's words to Naaman, " Wash 
and be clean," raised a great stir at the time. The Dean 
showed how frequent and repeated were the purifications 
and bodily washings " enjoined under the Mosaic Law," 
and how important the small details of cleanliness arc 
for us all. 

" The greater number of the poor who perish," he said, 
" are the victims of the avarice and neglect of small land- 
lords and owners of the filthy, ill-ventilated habitations in 
which the poorest and most ill-fed and helpless are compelled 
to dwell. Fatal diseases are continually engendered from 
lack of adequate supplies of water, withholdcn from the 
dwellings of the poor by the negligence of the owners, or 
by the jealousy of interference by public officers or public 
Boards of Health with parochial or with city authorities, or 
with privileges or corporations, or with places and per- 
quisites of individuals, or with established companies. It 
will be the fault of man, of the selfishness, or the folly, or 
avarice of the owners of poor houses, or of the jealousy 
or pride of officers and interested individuals, and it will 
be the fault of Parliament also, if we do not instantly 
begin to remedy these crying evils, if in two or three years 
our city is not duly supplied with water. Above all things, 
cleanse your hearts, and not your garments only, and turn 
unto the Lord your God." 

The offertory on this occasion was for the widows * 
orphans of those who had died of the cholera in West- 

In medical science Dean Buckland felt a special interest 
His son Frank writes : 

/ During my career at St George's Hospital he took the 


most lively interest in all that was going on there, requir- 
ing me to tell him what I had learnt at the lectures as well 
as the details of the more interesting cases under treat- 
ment in the wards. At the annual Hospital meeting at 
St George's Hospital in 1849, at the request of the 
Governors, he undertook the distribution of the prizes 
to the students. It not unfrcqucntly happens that these 
prizes arc given into the hands of the successful candidates, 
accompanied merely by a few simple words of congratula- 
tion from the chairman ; but by those who were present on 
the occasion of Dr. Buckland's giving away the prizes, it 
will be well remembered that upon almost every subject 
Anatomy, Physiology, Materia Mcdica, Practice of Physic, 
Surgery, Chemistry, etc. he made such appropriate and 
apt remarks from his vast fund of general information that 
he seemed to throw a charm round subjects which other- 
wise would be dull and uncntcrtaining to those not specially 
engaged in their study. . . . Amongst his numerous titles 
Dr, Buckland was Doctor of Medicine of the University of 
Bonn, which honour was conferred upon him, probably, 
under the idea that he was a Doctor of Medicine and not 
of Divinity. He was also Honorary Fellow of the Royal 
Medical and Chirurgical Society ; and my friend and much 
respected tutor in surgery, Mr. Caesar Hawkins, as 
President of that Society, March 1857, thus writes of him 
in his obituary notice : 

" ' It is, I presume, the connection of geology with com- 
parative anatomy and physiology, and through them with 
our profession, which induced the Council in 1825 to 
recommend Dr. Buckland as Honorary Fellow of this 
Society. As a comparative anatomist, Dr. Buckland and 
the late Mr. Clift were long consulted as the chief autho- 
rities in palaeontology, by whose decision the supposed 
examples of exhumed bones of deceased giants were 
transformed into those of a modern ox or an antediluvian 
ichthyosaurus. Of his sagacity and readiness of conjecture, 
and the ingenuity with which he followed out to their 
consequences the relation of one fact or discovery with 
another in anatomy and physiology, many examples might 


be given : the magnificent skeleton of the Mylodon is a 
beautiful instance in which his reasoning on the probable 
use of the enormous air cells between the tables of the 
skull in connection with the trees it uprooted was con- 
firmed by the safety of the real covering of the brain, 
and the recovery of this large creature from enormous 
fracture of the outer table, received we know not how 
many thousand years ago. It was but the necessary 
tribute to his eminence in these sciences that, on his 
becoming a resident of the Deanery of Westminster, Dr. 
Buckland should be appointed a trustee of the British 
Museum ; and also one of the trustees of the Hunterian 
Museum at my own college, where he was a frequent donor 
and visitor. Among the principal of his gifts to the 
museum of the Royal College of Surgeons may be 
mentioned, besides numerous fossil bones, etc., the skeleton 
of the now well-known gigantic bird the Dinornis or Moa, 
the bones of which were sent to him by a gentleman 
named Williams, whom Dr. Buckland had requested to 
transmit to him any fossil bones he might find in his 
missionary excursions in Nexv Zealand ; the skeleton of 
Billy the Hyena, that lived nearly a quarter of a century 
under the care of the late Mr. Cross at Exeter Change, 
and subsequently at the Surrey Zoological Gardens. The 
skeleton of an enormous bull-trout caught near Drayton 
Manor, and presented by the late Sir Robert Peel, was 
rescued from the kitchen, at Dr. Buckland's suggestion, for 
a more glorious fate. 1 

"* Whenever lectures on any interesting subject were 
given in the theatre of this most valuable, noble, and 
priceless institution, Dr. Buckland was ever present, note- 

1 " Since becoming Inspector of Salmon Fisheries I have examined 
a painting of this fish in the possession of Professor Owen at his house 
in Richmond Park. I believe it was an old salmon kelt very much out 
of condition. Fancy a Prime Minister and his learned friends sitting 
down to eat an old kelt at a dinner-party ! I fear none of the savants 
present at Drayton knew much of the salmon or of the science of 
salmon culture." See Note by Frank Buckland, Bridgewater, 4th ed. 


book in hand ; but on no occasion was he a more assi- 
duous attendant than when his friend Professor Owen gave 
his admirable demonstrations on Comparative Anatomy/ 
" Dr. Buckland also applied his knowledge of human 
anatomy to questions interesting to the antiquarian. He 
was present at the opening of some Saxon barrows on 
Breachdown, near Canterbury, when he found ' the thick 
skull, apparently, of a peasant warrior bearing marks of 
a fracture received during life.' He also describes the 
flattened and polished surfaces of the warrior's molar teeth, 
indicating that he had eaten hard food probably parched 
peas and beans. This fact he had frequently observed in 
the teeth from the graves of ancient Britons, and also in 
the teeth of modern uncivilised races of men. On another 
occasion Dr. Buckland described the claw of an eagle and 
the bones of other birds found by himself in the ruins of 
a Roman villa near Wcymouth, and conjectures that they 
were sacred birds connected with augury, or votive sacri- 
fices to Esculapius ; of which we have an example in the 
cock which Socrates in his dying moments commanded to 
be sacrificed to that deity." l 

The spiritual welfare of Westminster was not neglected 
by the Dean. Partly through his exertions two additional 
churches were built, and, after he was himself incapacitated 
by his illness, Mrs. Buckland carried on his various plans 
for the alleviation of the condition of the poor. One of 
the new churches, dedicated to St. Matthew, was erected on 
a site, and included a district, known as the " Devil's acre." 
In Pye Street in this parish Mrs. Buckland set on foot a 
coffee house, to which Her Majesty the Queen subscribed 
,50, and in which many of the nobility and eminent men 
of the day were interested. The Rev. R. Malone, the 
first incumbent of St. Matthew's, writes : 

1 F. Buckland, Memoir to Bridgewater, 4th ed. 


" Mrs. Buckland permitted me to draw up rules and to 
manage this novel institution. She got lecturers, and 
among them Frank Buckland, to give weekly lectures, and 
a good library was formed. It answered only too well for 
nearly two years, but then the police informed me it was 
made the meeting-place for thieves, and that they formed 
there schemes of burglary. On one occasion in the middle 
of the day I found it full of idle men, and the manager 
told me that directly he suggested it was not meant for 
a lounge for loafers, they ordered more food and kept him 
continually at work. I then spoke to them, and said we 
were anxious to make the house a comfortable and a quiet 
club for working men ; but that our end would be defeated 
if the idlers, loafers, and men who would not work crowded 
the rooms all day long. This was the crisis of the club, 
and from that day it ceased to pay, and before it failed 
it was thought better to close the doors." 

The institution was then opened as an Industrial School 
for street boys. On the Committee were several barristers, 
among the most active of whom were the present Baron 
Pollock and the late Judge Bristowe. Mrs. Buckland 
took the greatest interest in the scheme, and helped with 
a large subscription. The boys were taught to make 
paper bags and to print ; and as they were fitted for 
employment, they were drafted off, and many of them 
became useful workmen. This coffee house was one of 
the first to be started in London, and was modelled upon 
a like refreshment place for working men in Edinburgh. 
Nor was it the only philanthropic scheme in which the 
Dean and his wife were interested. 

" Mrs. Buckland," writes Mr. Malone, " gave me a small 
sum of money to lend out to the deserving poor, and this 
sum lasted a considerable time and was the means of 


tiding over some of the strait places in which industrious 
working men are sometimes placed. I well remember 
what a loss to my poor parish the removal of Mrs. Buck- 
land and her family from Westminster at the death of 
the Dean was. It was not only her aid in money, but 
her practical good-sense, her kind sympathy, and her 
influential position, that sustained and supported." 

In these charitable labours Mrs. Buckland received 
excellent counsel from Dean Hook. " Be thankful," he 
wrote, "for your successes, ignore your failures, and 
always be attempting something new." 



T SLIP, which was regarded by the family as their country 
A home, lies on the high road between Worcester and 
London, seven miles from Oxford. Situated on what was 
formerly a great thoroughfare, it was once an active, 
bustling village, and is a place full of historical remini- 
scences. The first and most interesting of its associations 
with history is that it was the birthplace of Edward the 
Confessor, who endowed his newly founded Abbey at 
Westminster with his mother's birthday gift. Mr. Parker, 
in his " Early History of Oxford," says : 

" Eadward ' the Confessor/ elected King, was probably 
in Normandy at the time, and the preparations were such 
that he was not crowned till Easter in 1043, anc * tnen at 
Winchester. No traces in any charter or in any of the 
historians occur of his visiting Oxford. Yet one might 
have expected it, for it is but a few miles across the 
meadows on the north of Oxford to the place where he 
was born. This fact we do not obtain from any chronicler, 
but from the chance mention of it in a charter respecting 
a grant of land to this newly founded, or rather restored, 
abbey in Westminster. It runs as follows : 

" * Eadward, King, greets Wlsy, Bishop, and Gyrth, Earl, 
and all my thanes in Oxncfordesyrc kindly. And I would 



have you to know that I have given to Christ and to Saint 
Peter, unto Westminster that " cotlif " in which I was 
born, by name Githslcpe, and one hide at Mersce scot-free 
and gafol-free, with all the things therein that thereto 
belong in wood and fn field, in meadow and in waters, with 
church and with church-jurisdiction, as fully and as largely 
and as free as it stood to myself in my hands : so also as 
Elgiva Imma my mother at my first biithday gave it to me 
for a provision.' " l 

The font in which, according to tradition, Edward was 
baptised, stood in the Rectory garden ; but Buckland, who 
pronounced it to be fourteenth-century work, had it care- 
fully cleaned, and presented it to a church which was being 
restored in the neighbourhood. The form of I slip is not 
that of a village, but of a town ; and a " town " it is still 
called, with streets branching out from an open centre 
which might have been a market-place, and where a cross 
once stood in front of the church. This cross was replaced 
by a lofty elm tree, which Dean Ireland had supported by 
large Stonesfield slates. The village stocks were here. The 
Rectory was built by Dr. South, Prebend of Westminster, 
the famous preacher and wit, who was for thirty-eight 
years Rector of the parish. Although living occasionally 
in the place, he never occupied the parsonage ; neither did 
his successor, Sir R. Cope, Chaplain to the House of 
Commons, who was Rector for forty years ; and it had 
therefore to be restored, as, at the beginning of this century, 
it was in a ruinous condition. 

The Rectory, 2 and the garden, which had evidently been 

. "The Early History of Oxford, 7271100," Parker, p. 176. 

* The roof slates are from the Stonesfield quarries, \vhere Dr. Buck- 
land often worked and which he frequently took his pupils to examine. 


\\"' >>-3L' T C-'^V w-i ^JfcV^- " ^^^-rV-**"^. 

'* r^V^ 2^. \ V/" ^r>SW>fV-4f 

1 -"' ' -* *K+&'*- ** '-v ^S^^^f^^v^* 


quarried out of solid limestone, stood on a rock elevated 
nearly thirty feet above the level of the river Ray, and 
looked upon the bridge on which Cromwell defeated the 
Earl of Northumberland, Lord Wilmot, and Colonel Palmer. 
The garden to the south was laid out in terraces, and was 
surrounded on all sides by walls. In this sheltered, sunny 
spot the Dean and Mrs. Buckland were able to cultivate 
a great variety of plants : stonccrop and rock cistus throve 
amazingly ; vines and peaches flourished ; the strawberry 
beds, which can be seen in the foreground, were famed 
far and wide ; and from some Alpine plants, brought from 
Switzerland, would be often picked a dish of fruit quite 
late in the autumn. "The roses," writes Mrs. Buckland 
to Faraday, in July 1849, " are now blooming, and the 
strawberries ripening. Our small garden is exquisitely 
rich in perfume." Fruit and flowers were not often to be 
seen in such profusion, growing side by side, as in that 
old seventeenth-century garden. In 1807 ^ e garden had 
much good fruit planted in it by a tailor who rented the 
house from Sir R. Cope. Dean Vincent added a great deal 
more. " The best of all sorts, there is no finer fruit any- 
where, and the soil is favourable," writes old Dean Vincent 
in a manuscript book of notes about Islip which was kept 
in the Parish chest, and which the present Rector, the 
Rev. T. Fowle, kindly lent the biographer. The village 
school is of Dr. South's foundation ; he managed it himself 
while living, and the first annual account bears date 1717, 
the year after his death. 

Twenty-one boys, chosen from Islip in preference, then 
from the nearest parishes, are always to be in the school, 



nominated, admitted, dismissed, or chosen apprentices by 
the Rector or curate. Like the Rectory, which was often 
called the " Isle of Roads," the school stood at the entrance 
roads to the village, and was surrounded b/ roads. The 
lads wore the usual blue-coat costume, and were admirably 
taught the three R's by the schoolmaster, Mr. Chapman, 
a very intelligent man, whom Buckland employed to 
survey and measure out the allotments which he started, 
and also to keep record of their respective yields. Mrs. 
Buckland, in spite of serious remonstrances from neigh- 
bours and friends, gave the boys instruction in geography 
and the use of the globes, which she had made of paper 
and inflated, showing them at the same time on the map 
the homes of foreign products, and supplying specimens of 
the sugarcane, the tea tree, and other articles of daily use. 
Many amusing letters did she receive, protesting against 
such unnecessary teaching, which was only supposed to put 
foolish notions into children's heads. However, the keen 
interest which she awakened in their minds led ultimately 
to the emigration of several labourers and other families to 
Australia, where they have done well and have become 
landed proprietors. One or two have revisited their native 
town from time to time, but only to see their friends, and 
soon returned to their new possessions. Outfits were 
provided, and the Dean himself secured their passages, 
and commended them to the care of the captain. He 
also packed cuttings from gooseberry and currant trees in 
tin boxes filled with honey and soldered down to exclude 
the air a mode of packing that answered well, and the 
emigrants had the pleasure of seeing fruit trees from Islip 


growing in their new gardens. All the details of their 
journey were carefully planned and personally super- 
intended by the Dean. Vans met the emigrants at 
Paddington, and they were driven to the Deanery and 
hospitably entertained before going down to the docks 
for embarkation. " Be um aloive ? " was the general 
exclamation as Buckland's country friends passed the 
Horse Guards sentries and saw London for the first 
time. . 

The family usually spent the summer and autumn 
months at Islip ; and soon after taking up their residence 
at this pretty Rectory, schemes were set on foot for the 
good of the villagers. The Dean provided allotments 
for the labourers and directed how to lay them out 
Many a summer evening was spent in chatting with 
and advising the labourers about the cultivation of these 
plots, and gaining from their practical experience much 
useful agricultural information. He would show them the 
result of the experiments he had made in a piece of 
ground, adjoining the allotments, which he rented for the 
purpose. Here, as formerly at Marsh Gibbon, experiments 
of one kind or another were always being made. Even 
the turf of Christ Church was, in former days, turned to 
useful account by the enthusiastic and practical farmer. 
Canon Jclf of Rochester, the son of Buckland's next-door 
neighbour as Canon of Christ Church, remembers an 
agricultural feat of the future Dean's. On the turf in Tom 
Quad, he sowed the word " guano" in this material, which 
had just begun to be imported from a Pacific island 
frequented by birds, and in due course the brilliant 


green grass of the letters amply testified to its efficacy 
as a dressing. 

Some of the Westminster Prebends used to come on 
progress every summer to Islip an old custom now 
obsolete. They met their tenants with the Dean at dinner 
at the Old Red Lion Inn, in the yard of which was said 
to have stood the Confessor's residence, with its adjoining 
chapel, which had been converted into a barn. The barn 
was still standing in the early part of this century. After 
the dinner was finished, and the rents were paid, these 
dignitaries would adjourn to the Rectory terrace for coffee, 
fruit, and frolic, the fruit picked by the children just before 
the guests arrived, " with the taste of the sun in it," as 
Archdeacon Jennings would say. The frolic consisted 
in being introduced to the various pets the eagle, 
monkey, and bear, and to the tadpoles, which were kept 
in a pan on the terrace, and devoured one another, as 
did the saurians of old. A game of thimblerig followed 
on one occasion, played by these sedate old gentlemen 
with empty flower-pots. Hosts and guests were indeed 
a very merry company for an hour or so, after which 
solemn state was resumed, and the progress continued 
to Fcncott and Mcrcotc on Otmoor, where more Dean 
and Chapter property was visited and tenants inter- 

The inhabitants of these low-lying villages suffered 
greatly from ague ; but Islip fortunately stood just at 
the edge of the flat swampy stretch of land known as 
Otmoor. The traditional origin of the name is that a 
charitable lady received a promise from a great landowner 


that he would give her, for the benefit of the poor, as 
much land as she could ride round while a sheaf of oats 
was burning. Otmoor was like a vast lake in winter ; but 
in spite of its apparent uselcssness and swampiness, very 
serious riots occurred when the district was enclosed some 
sixty years ago. There are to be seen the remains of a 
fine Roman road across the moor, and the Dean would 
point out to the way-wardens of the fen villages how the 
Romans, the best road-makers in the world, made solid 
foundations for their streets or ways, keeping them well 
raised in the middle, with ditches on either side. These 
open drains lasted for centuries, and slabs of stone can still 
be plainly seen which lined the deep watercourses. After 
much persuasion, he succeeded in getting the roads in 
these marsh villages raised, the ditches kept dug out, freed 
from vegetable growth, and properly levelled, so that the 
water might flow away freely instead of becoming stag- 
nant This simple plan soon made its advantages felt; 
ague disappeared, and the health of these low-lying villages 
wonderfully improved. It must not be supposed that 
this result was gained by a few casual visits. Buckland's 
efforts for the health of the people were unwearied, and 
he never ceased to impress on his children's minds that any 
work undertaken, if it was to be of any value or success, 
must be " taken trouble with." " Never spare yourself/' 
he said. 

In 1846 the dark shadow of famine crept over the land. 
Not only in Ireland was the potato crop a total failure, 
but in England also the disease was universal. Wheat 
was both scarce and costly ; but, till the time of scarcity 


came, the real importance of the potato crop had not 
been recognised Buckland met the difficulty in his usual 
practical way. In his own household he set the example 
of using maize 'as a substitute for flour, which he only used 
for bread. He encouraged the villagers to make loaves of 
barley grown on their allotments, but could not over- 
come their prejudice to black bread. Personally Buckland 
enjoyed the reminiscence of his travels in Germany, when 
for months he subsisted on little else but barley bread 
and eggs. He supplied the village shops with sacks of 
hominy and Indian meal, which were sold for a penny 
or twopence a pound, and any of the " townsfolk " who 
liked might come to the Rectory to be taught the various 
ways of cooking it Experiments were made in the 
manufacture of arrowroot from those tubers which were 
only partially affected with the disease. The whole family 
was set to work to grate the potatoes into pans of water ; 
the pulp gradually settled to the bottom, where it remained 
till the next day. The water was then poured off, the 
brown scum removed from the settlement, fresh water 
poured on, and, after three washings, the starch would be 
found snow white at the bottom of the pan. Excellent 
food was thus obtained, which was stored in tin boxes for 
the use of the poor people who had lost their winter supply 
of potatoes. " No waste in Nature," Dean Buckland 
would say. 

Among other good services rendered by the Dean to 
Islip was the building of a cottage at the end of the large 
old tithe barn, one room in which was fitted up as a 
recreation room for the village lads. There also a night 


school, then a novel institution, was held three times 
a week, when some of the family were bound to be 
present to provide some recreation, which often con- 
sisted of a talk about a coal, salt, or other mine always 
accompanied, if possible, by pictures or specimens, both for 
illustration and " making them remember." If only a few 
lads were there, the microscope was fetched. Interest was 
at once keenly aroused ; and though Mr. Webb, the super- 
intendent and village saddler, did his utmost to impress 
upon the youths his favourite adage, " Civility costs nothing, 
and gains everything," the struggles of the boys to get 
" a good look through un " became somewhat difficult 
to manage. Especially vigorous were the pushing and 
pummelling of the spectators, when the object on view was 
the last snail's tongue mounted by the Dean's youngest 
daughter, or a freshly collected specimen of blight, etc, 
The elder lads and men Mrs. Buckland would nave up to 
the Rectory, and teach them how to write letters and direct 
the envelopes. 

Dean Buckland always took his share of Sunday duty 
with the resident curate, He left a large collection of 
manuscript sermons, which for the most part are earnest, 
eloquent exhortations on thoroughly practical matters. 
He had, moreover, in a marked degree the faculty of 
adapting his discourse to the members of his congrega- 
tion, whether the learned magnates of Oxford, the simple 
labourers of Islip, or the mixed audience of Westminster 

The poor who were receiving parish relief were regu- 
larly visited ; and when bread supplied by the rates was 


bad, as it often was in those days of dear wheat, the 
Dean would cut off a piece of the loaf, and send it to 
the guardians that they might themselves judge of its 
quality. The parish doctor was a most kind old gentle- 
man, who took almost as great an interest in Frank 
Buckland's hospital progress as his father himself. On 
most Saturdays, when the young medical student came 
down from town, the big old Rectory kitchen would be 
filled with lame, halt, and blind, sent up by the doctor 
for Frank to report upon and treat in the most approved 
modern way. One of his sisters had to go round with 
him, and take down his directions, which she would see 
carried out during the week a training, or rather experi- 
ence, that has proved of the greatest value to her during 
a lifetime spent in a country parish. 

The cholera was very fatal in Oxford in 1849, and there 
was a great panic in all the surrounding villages, especially 
in those which, like Islip, supplied the Oxford market twice 
a week with dairy produce, ducks, and crayfish. Islip was 
no exception to the usual insanitary condition of country 
parishes, and was worse than many, owing to the constant 
floods from the river Ray, a small tributary of the Cherwell, 
which brought down a considerable amount of detritus 
from the neighbouring villages on Otmoor. At this crisis 
the Dean took his children with him, and visited every 
cottage in his cheery, genial way, assuring the poor folk 
that, if they would only keep their premises clean and 
follow the advice he gave them, they need not be afraid 
of cholera. Again and again he would go round the 
village and see that his advice had been carried out. " If 


you want a thing done well, do it yourself," he would 
say ; and, indeed, it was no easy matter to overcome 
the prejudices or lazy customs indigenous in a village 
community. The instinct of self-preservation, however, is 
as strong in the poor man as in the rich, and people can 
soon be brought to see the importance of keeping the well 
free from soakage and impurities of any kind, if only 
sufficient trouble and personal interest are taken to explain 
to less educated brethren the importance of cleanliness. 
" Us have never give they things a thought," was often 
remarked to the Dean, " but we'll clean up now a'wever " 
(however), " as you have showed us all about it." Happily 
no cholera came ; but it was very striking to find how 
these practical suggestions and home-to-home visits allayed 
the panic, which is all the more terrible when circum- 
stances prevent people leaving a district in which an 
outbreak of disease has occurred. It may be added here 
that Buckland was the last Dean of Westminster who held 
the living of Islip, 

In his conspicuous position as Dean of Westminster, as 
well as in the active administration of his retired country 
parish, Buckland threw his best energies into the work 
before him. Public honours showed the esteem which he 
won by his laborious and useful life. 

" Perhaps of all the varied marks of honour and respect,' 
Frank Buckland writes, " which were heaped upon him at 
various times by the learned societies in all parts of the 
world, none yielded him higher gratification than the 
reception, on February I2th, 1848, from the hands of Sir 
H. de la Bcche, of the Wollaston Medal. This is the 
highest mark of honour known in geological science, and 


would doubtless long before have been paid to him 
but for the frequency of his election to office in that 

In his reply to the address of the President, the Dean 
used expressions such as could only be uttered by a 
geologist convinced of the grand destiny of his science, 
and conscious of his own right to be remembered among 
the authors of discoveries whose names are inscribed on 
the annals of the physical history of the globe. 

" How vast are the requirements of this our own master 
science, geology, with such manifold subordinates ! " said 
the Dean. " What a mighty miracle is the earth which it 
is our province and privilege to investigate ! How highly 
calculated is the study of its structure to awaken many 
of the most exalted feelings of our spiritual nature 
feelings kindred to those of which original first discoverers 
of the laws and principles that govern the material world 
must occasionally be conscious feelings of grateful and 
humble admiration of the Great Author of all created 
things, which exalt us in the scale of beings, and which I 
once experienced when, standing on the highest summit 
of the Mendip Hills, at the close of an elaborate investi- 
gation of the structure of the surrounding country, I 
recollected that I was the first individual of the human 
race to whom it had been permitted to unravel the 
structure and record the history of that portion of the 
works of God that lay within the horizon then around 

u It has been the high privilege of our time which our 
successors cannot enjoy to be the pioneers of a great and 
comprehensive master science ; and wherever we have 
pushed forward our original discoveries, these discoveries 
will have indelibly inscribed our names on the annals of 
the physical history of the globe. We have established 
landmarks and fixed physical and chronological horizons, 


which must endure so long as men regard the structure, 
and contents, and physical history of the earth which God 
has given to the children of men. 

"Geological knowledge, i.e. the knowledge of the rich 
ingredients with which God has stored the earth beforehand, 
when He created it for the then future use and comfort 
of man, must fill the mind of every one who acquires this 
knowledge, with feelings of the highest admiration, the 
deepest gratitude, and the most profound humility. The 
more our knowledge increases, of the infinity of the wisdom 
and goodness of the Creator, greater and greater becomes 
the consciousness of our own comparative ignorance and 
insignificance. The sciolist alone is proud ; the philo- 
sopher is humble, and duly conscious of the comparative 
littleness of his most extended knowledge. We may be 
gratified by our discoveries, and by the recognition of the 
value of our labours by our fellow-men. We may and 
ought to be gratified, but we are not made proud ; we feel 
that pride was not made for man ; we learn the lesson of 
humility ; increasing more and more continually, as our 
knowledge of the works of God becomes more and more 
expanded ; and to those who have laboured diligently and 
successfully in their calling as investigators of the wonders 
of creation, it is permitted to hope that they have done 
good in their generation, and that their labour has not been 

in vain." 

The presentation of the medal was almost the last 
important occasion on which Buckland appeared in public. 
The words already quoted from his speech which, as Sir 
Roderick Murchison writes of his old friend, "embody 
a humble confession of the comparative littleness and 
incompleteness of all human knowledge "were but "too 
prophetic of the approaching close of his own valuable 
and honourable career." 

The first few months of the Dean's mysterious illness 


were spent at the Deanery. The best medical opinions 
were consulted in vain. The cause of the illness baffled 
the highest skill, but to the last it was hoped that the 
malady might disappear as mysteriously as it had come. 
Acting on the advice of the first doctors of the day, 
Buckland continued to hold his Deanery, the duties of 
the office being discharged by the Sub-Dean, Lord John 
Thynne. " Lord John," writes Mrs. Buckland to Faraday, 
u has carried on the business of the Chapter for my poor 
husband. You may judge how deeply I feel indebted to 
him." But science proved unavailing. Nothing relieved 
the apathetic gloom and depression which gradually settled 
down upon this gifted man. As the symptoms became 
worse, his doctors recommended the quiet and fresh air of 
Islip, since medical 'remedies proved of no avail against 
the peculiar and apparently unprecedented malady of 
which he was the victim. 1 The sight of the garden and 
his favourite allotments seemed to cheer him for a time, 
but the terrible weakness, torpor, and loss of flesh rapidly 

1 Frank Buckland writes : " In a medical point of view Dr. Buck- 
land's illness is at once most interesting and important The best 
medical opinions could decide only as to the symptoms and treatment 
of the malady ; the real cause of the cerebral disturbance, and 
consequent mental suffering, was never suspected, and was ascer- 
tained only after death. No symptom of it, strange to say, was ever 
exhibited in life, and even if it had been, medical aid would have been 
unavailing. Those who made the examination ascertained that the 
brain itself \vas perfectly healthy in every respect; but the portion 
of the base of the skull upon which the brain rested, together with the 
two upper vertebrae of the neck f were found to be in an advanced state 
of caries, or decay. The irritation, therefore, communicated by this 
diseased state of the bones above was quite sufficient cause to give 


increased. Sir Roderick Murchison would often visit his 
well-beloved friend, and endeavour to interest him in 
his old pursuits; but nothing roused him. The "Leisure 
Hour" Frank Buckland says, "was the only publication 
my dear father would read during his illness, and the 
volumes were always on the table ; he would look at 
nothing else, save the Bible." 

During the Dean's illness Mrs. Buckland and her 
daughters lived chiefly at Islip, within reach of all the 
old Oxford friends, and constantly visited by Murchison, 
Owen, Harcourt, Conybeare, and others. In a letter of 
invitation to Faraday she writes: 

" This place has no fine scenery, but 1 think you and 
Mrs. Faraday will like the village quiet and the sunny 
terrace. I shall not attempt to lionise you, far less to 
make lions of you ; but you shall have the sincere welcome 
which I rnve so much pleasure in offering to my poor 
husband's valued friends. He is, as usual, well, and not 
unhappy when left in perfect repose a strange contrast to 
his former existence ! " 

rise to all symptoms; this irritation being considerably augmented 
by continuous and severe 'exercise of the brain in thought/ My 
parents, when travelling to a scientific meeting in Berlin, met with a 
severe accident; the diligence was overturned, my father fell from 
the top and was stunned, and unable to render any assistance to my 
mother, who received a deep cut on her frontal bone. Professor 
Ehrenberg, who fortunately was with them, attended to the injuries 
they there received, which proved the ultimate cause of death in 
both. Dr. Buckland's vertebrae were injured, and a bony tumour was 
discovered to have formed at the back of the cut on Mrs. Buckland's 
frontal bone, which, for the last two years of her life, occasioned 
attacks of unconsciousness, in one of which she died" 


Sir Roderick Murchison was constantly with the 
Bucklands ever ready with sympathy and advice, the 
very beau tdfal of a friend. The following letter is an 
evidence of the regard he had for both the Dean and 
his wife: 

"July $(&, 1854. 

" MY DEAR MRS. BUCKLAND, If you had been in town, 
it was my intention to have begged your acceptance of my 
'Siluria 1 ; and if you are now at I slip, will you tell me 
whether and how to send it to you ? 

" You will be the only lady to whom a copy is sent, and 
I make this special exception out of sincere regard for 
yourself and gratitude to your husband, who helped on the 
old soldier to make his way as a geologist. I have in a 
prelude to the work explained how Dr. Buckland was the 
first person who incited me to examine the very tract in 
which I opened out the mine that proved so rich and 

"I well recollect our pleasant visit to you in 1831 on 
our way to Wales, and when I was looking out for some 
entirely fresh pastures and exercises for my restless mind. 
Alas ! what changes since ; among these none grieved me 
more than the visitation with which you and your family 
were afflicted. 

"My book necessarily deals little with the subjects in 
which my eminent friend most distinguished himself, but the 
two or three allusions made to him will, I trust, gratify you. 
Lyell, albeit my last chapter pokes him very hard, has 
complimented me much on the work, and particularly for 
the manner in which I have handled the Cambrian shadows 
which have melted away before the labours of so many 
good men : none of them certainly were paid or bribed 
by me. 

" My case is simply that of truth, as old Lonsdale writes] 
and I cannot be put aside. 


" My preface and the three lines of dedication to De la 
Bche, with a map literally made from the Government 
surveys, prevent all further dispute. 

" Ever your sincere friend, 


Dean Buckland died August I4th, 1856, at the advanced 
age of seventy-three. He was buried at the west end of 
the churchyard at Islip. The spot, which was selected by 
himself, lay beside the terrace gravel walk with its row of 
elms. From it he had often taken his children to gaze on 
the beautiful sunsets lighting up the wide stretch of low, 
level landscape, with Kidlington spire " pointing up to 
heaven like a needle," he would say, in the golden haze 
which melted into the purple of the Witham Hills on 
the distant horizon. Curiously enough, his grave had to 
be hewn out of the solid limestone, and blasting powder 
was used in considerable quantities to excavate the 
rock. Mrs. Buckland restored the chancel, at the cost of 
500, in memory of the Dean, and replaced Dr. South's 
very ugly cast window by new stone tracery, which, after 
her death at St Leonards in the following year, November 
1857, h cr children filled with stained glass, to the memory 
of both their parents. 

With the permission of the Dean and Chapter his children 
placed a monumental bust in the south aisle of Westminster 
Abbey, near the door leading to the cloisters. The follow- 
ing is the inscription on the plinth, written by the Rev. the 
Sub-Dean, Lord John Thynne : 








Endued with superior Intellect, 
He applied the Powers of His Mind 
To the Honour and Glory of God, 
The advancement of Science, 
And the welfare of Mankind. 

BORN MARCH 12, 1784: DIED AUGUST 14, 1856. AGED 73. 

"For the Lord giveth wisdom : out of His mouth cometh knowledge and 
understanding." PROVERBS ii. 6. 


After Buckland's death his widow and children went to 
Brighton for a few months, to look for a new home, which 
was found at East Ascent, St. Leonards. Although in 
feeble health, Mrs. Buckland continued to work at the 
microscope, with her daughter Caroline, upon marine 
zoophytes and sponges, as she had done at I slip on fresh- 
water animalcuias and plants. Dr. Bowerbank, F.R.S., 
her valued friend, in a letter to Mr. Henry Lee, thus 
kindly expresses his appreciation of Mrs. Buckland : 

a I can assure you I feel in no small degree indebted to 
my late kind friend Mrs. Buckland, who assisted me with 


rare specimens of sponges collected by her at Guernsey 
and Sark, which I certainly should not have had to 
describe in my work on those subjects without her aid. 
During her residence at St. Leonards I spent many very 
pleasant hours in her society, and she was an earnest and 
acute observer to the last. On November 29th, 1857, 
the day preceding her decease, I spent the morning with 
her in microscopical investigations, and when I took leave 
of her at two o'clock she made me promise to come on 
the Monday following to renew our observations ; but on 
the evening of the day following our meeting she was no 
more, to the deep regret of all who knew and appreciated 
her talents and her amiability." 

Mrs. Buckland is buried in the same grave with her 
husband ; and their son Frank, in his fourth edition of 
the Bridgewater Treatise, published in 1869, writes: 

" A simple but lasting monument of polished Aberdeen 
granite records the last resting-place of as good a man 
and wife as ever did their duty towards God and towards 
their fellow-creatures." 





Dean of Westminster, 1845. 

Canon of Christ Church, Oxford, 1825. 

Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in the University of 

Oxford, 1818. 
Fellow of the Royal Society, 1818 : Copley Medal, 1822 ; Member 

of the Council from 1827 to 1849; Vice-president, 1832 33. 
Trustee of the British Museum, 1847. 
Fellow of the Geological Society : "(twice) President, 1824 25,, 

1840 41 ; Wollaston Medal, 1848. 
President of British Association, 1832. 
Fellow of the Linnxan Society, 1821. 

Hon. Fellow of the Medico-Chirurgical Society, London, 1836. 
Fellow of the Geographical Society. 

Royal Institute of British Architects, Hon. Member, 1846. 
Fellow of the Zoological Society. 
British Archaeological Society, Member. 
The Naval and Military Library and Museum, Whitehall, Hon. 


The Institution of Civil Engineers, Hon. Member, 1842. 
Royal Agricultural Society of Great Britain, Member. 
Ashmolean Society, Oxford, Member. 
Shropshire and North Wales Natural History and Antiquarian 

Society, Hon.* Member, 1823. 

The Philosophical Society of Bristol, Hon. Member, 1823. 



The Worcestershire Natural History Society, Hon. Member. 
The Cambrian Society of Geology, etc., Swansea, Hon. Member, 

The Northern Institution of Science and Literature of Inverness, 

Hon. Member, 1825. 
The Natural History Society of the Counties of Northumberland, 

Durham, and Newcastle, Hon. Member, 1829. 
The Whitby Literary and Philosophical Society, Hon. Member, 


The Bedford Natural History Society, Member, 1832. 
The Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, Hon. Member, 1835. 
The Warwickshire Natural History and Archaeological Society, 

Hon. Member, 1837. 
The Geological and Polytechnic Society of the West Riding of 

Yorkshire, Hon. Member, 1838. 

The Birmingham Philosophical Society, Hon. Member, 1838. 
The Literary and Philosophical Society of St. Andrews, Hon. 

Member, 1838. 
The Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester, Hon.* 

Member, 1843. 

Member of Dr. Johnson's Club, 1829. 
Hon. Member of Tasmanian Society. 


American Geological Society, at New Haven, Connecticut, Hon. 

Member, 1822. 
The American Academy of Art and Sciences, Massachusetts, 

Fellow, 1825. 

The New York Lyceum of Natural History, Hon. Member, 1828. 
The Literary and Historical Society of Quebec, Fellow, 1834. 
The Geological Society of Pennsylvania, Corresponding Member, 


The Boston Society of Natural History, Hon. Member, 1837. 
The National Institute for the Promotion of Science, Washington, 

Corresponding Member, 1844. 



The Imperial Societies of Mineralogy and Natural History at 
St. Petersburg and Moscow, Member, 1818. 

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, au Jardin du Roi, Corresponding 
Member, 1821. 

Socie'te' Gc-ologique de France, Member, 1821. 

Socie'ta Reale Borbonica Accademia delle Scienze, Naples, 
Corresponding Member, 1821. 

Ccesare Leopoldino Carolina? Academix Natune Curiosamm 
Bonence, Fellow, 1822. 

Die Naturforschende Gesellschaft zu Halle, Corresponding 
Member, 1823. 

Gesellschaft des VaterUndeschen Museum in Bohmen, Diploma, 

Academia Scientiarum Instituti Bonaniensis, Fellow, 1833. 

Die Naturforschende Gesellschaft zu Frankfurt-am-Main, Corre- 
sponding Member, 1833. 

L 'Accademia delle Scienze di Bologna, Diploma, 1833. 

The Asiatic Society, Bengal, Hon. Member, 1834. 

Physiographibica Sallskapet I. Lund (Sweden), Corresponding 
Member, 1837. 

University of Bonn, Diploma Doctoris, 1838. 

Institut de France, Academic Royale des Sciences, Corresponding 
Member, 1839. 

Socie'te' Fra^aise de Statistique Universelle de Paris, Member, 

Socie'te* d' Agriculture et des Arts de Boulogne-sur-Mer, Hon. 
Member, 1839. 

Institut des Provinces de France, Corresponding Member, 1841. 

Societas Artium et Doctrinarum apud Theno Trajectinos, Di- 
ploma, 1842. 

Die Naturevissenschaftliche Gesellschaft in Dresden, Diploma, 


L' Accademia Valdarno, Corresponding Member, 1846. 
University of Prague, Diploma Doctoris, 1848. 



i. Description of an Insulated Group of Rocks of Slate and 
Greenstone in Cumberland and Westmoreland. Geo- 
logical Society Transactions, IV., 1817. 
2. Description of a Series of Specimens from the Plastic Clay 

near Reading, Berks. Geol. Soc. Trans., 1817. 
3. Description of the Paramoudra, a singular fossil body that is 
found in the chalk of the North of Ireland. Geol. 

Soc. Trans., 1817. 
4. Notice on the Geological Structure of a Part of the Island 

of Madagascar. Geol. Soc. Trans., V., 1821, and Journ. 

de Physique, XCIII., 1821. 
5. Description of the Quartz Rock of the Lickey Hill in 

Worcester, etc. Geol. Soc. Trans., V., 1821. 
^.^-Instructions for Conducting Geological Investigations and 

Collecting Specimens. Sillimans' Journal, III., 1821. 
7. On the Structure of the Alps, and their Relation to the 

Secondary and Transition Rocks of England. Thomson, 

Ann. Phil. T., 1821. 
3. Account of an Assemblage of Fossil Teeth and Bones of 

elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, bear, tiger, hyena, 

and sixteen other animals, discovered in a cave at 

Kirkdale, Yorkshire, in the year 1821. Phil. Trans., 

1822, and various other Journals in 1822 and 1823. 
9. On the Excavation of Valleys by Diluvial Action, as illustrated 

by a succession of valleys which intersect the South 

Coast of Dorset and Devon. Geol. Soc. Trans., 1824. 
10. Observations on the South-Western Coal District of England. 

Geol. Soc. Trans., I., 1824. 


ii. Notice en the Megalosaurus, or Great Fossil Lizard of 

Stonesfield. Geol. Soc. Trans., I., 1824. 
12. Reply to some Observations in Dr. Fitton's Remarks on 

the Distribution of the British Animals. Edinb. PhiL 

Jour., XII., 1825 
13. On the Discovery of the Anoplotherium Commune in the 

Isle of Wight. Thomson, Ann. Phil., X., 1825. 
14, Relation d'une de*couverte re*cente d'os fossiles faite dans 

la partie orientale de la France. Ann. Sci. Nat, X., 

i5.On the Interior of the Dens of Living Hyenas. Edinb. 

New. Phil. Journal, XIV., 1827. 
16. Observations on the Bones of Hyenas and other Animals 

in the Cavern of Lunel. Edinb. Journal Sci., VI., 1827. 
17. Notes sur les traces de Tortues observers dans le Ores 

rouge. Ann. Sci. Nat., XIII., 1828. 
1 8. On the Formation of the Valley of Kingsclere and other 

Valleys by the Elevation of the Strata that enclose 

them, etc. Geol. Soc. Trans., 1829. 
19. Geological Account of a Series of Animal and Vegetable 

Remains and of Rock collected by J. Crawfurd, Esq., 

on a Voyage up the Irawadi to Ava in 1826 27. Geol. 

Soc. Trans., 1829; Ann. Sci. Nat, XIV., 1828. 
20. On the Cycadeoidese, a Family of Fos:il Plants found in the 

Oolitic Quarries of Paviland. Geol. Soc. Trans., II., 1829. 
21. Supplementary Remarks on the Supposed Power of the 

Waters of the Irawadi to convert Wood to Stone. Geol. 

Soc. Trans., II., 1829. 
22. Letter on the Discovery of Coprolites in North America. 

Phil. Mag., VIII., 1830. 
23. On the Fossil Remains of the Megatherium recently 

imported into England from South America. Brit 

Assoc. Rep., I., 1832. 
24. Appendix to Mr. de la Beche's paper on the Geology of 

Nice. Geol. Soc. Proc., I., 1834. 


25. On the Discovery of a New Species of Pterodactyle, and 
also of Faeces of the Ichthyosaurus and of a Black 
Substance resembling Sepia, in the Lias at Lyme Regis. 
Geol. Soc. Proc., I., 1834. 

26. On the Vitality of Toads enclosed in Stone and Wood. 
Zool. Jour., V., 183234. 

27. On the Occurrence of Agates in Dolomitic Strata of the 
New Red Sandstone Formation in the Mendip Hills. 
Geol. Soc. Proc., I., 1834. 

28. On the Discovery of Fossil Bones of the Iguanodon in the 
Iron Sand of the Wealden Formation in the Isle of 
Wight, and in the Isle of Purbeck. Geol. Soc. Proc., 
I., 1834, and Geol. Soc. Trans., III., 1835. 

29. Observations on the Secondary Formations between Nice 
and the Col di Tende. Geol. Soc. Trans., III., 

30. Uber den Bau und die mechanische Kraft des Unterkiefers 

des Dinotherium. Leonard u. Breun, N. Jahrb., 1835. 
31. Notiz uber die hydraulische wirkung des Sephons bei 

den Nautilear Ammoniter, u. anderen Polythalamien. 

Leonard u. Breun, N. Jahrb., 1835. 
32. On the Fossil Beaks of four Extinct Species of Fishes, 

referable to the genus Chimcera, that occur in the 

Oolitic and Cretaceous Formations of England. Phil. 

Mag.,VIIL, 1836. 
33. Bernerkungen uber das genus Belemnosepia und uber den 

fossilen Dinten-sack in dem vorderen Kegel der Belem- 

niten. Leonard u. Breun, N. Jahrb., 1836. 
34. On the Adaptation of the Sloths to their peculiar Mode of 

Life. Linn. Soc. Trans., XVII., 1837. 
35. Account of the Fossil Footsteps of the Cheirotherium, etc., 

in the stone quarries of Storeton Hill, near Liverpool. 

Brit. Assoc. Rep., VII., 1838. 
36. Notice of a Newly Discovered Gigantic Reptile. Geol. Soc. 

Proc., II., 1838. 


37. On the Occurrence of Silicified Trunks of Tree^ in the New 
Red Sandstone at Aliesley. Geol. Soc. Prcc., II., 1838. 

38. On the Discovery of Fossil Fishes in the Bagshot Sands. 
Geol. Soc. Proc., II., 1838. 

39. On the Discovery of a Fossil Wing of a Neuropterous Insect 
in Stonesfield Slate. Geol. Soc. Proc., II., 1838. 

40. On the Foss ; l Fishes in the Bagshot Sand at Goldworth 
Hill, four miles north of Guildford. Phil. Mag., XIII., 

41. On the Action of Acidulated Waters on the Surface of the 
Chalk near Gravesend. Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1839. 

42. On the Agency of Animalcules in the Formation of Lime- 
stone. Ashmolean Soc. Proc., XVIL, 1840. 

43. On Modes of Locomotion in Fishes. Ashmolean Soc. 
Proc., II., 184352. 

44. On Recent and Fossil Semicircular Cavities caused by air- 
bubbles in the surface of the soft clay, and resembling 
impressions of rain-drops. Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1842. 

45. On the Former Existence of Glaciers in Scotland and in the 
North of England. Edinb. New Phil. Journ., XXX., 
1841 ; Geol. Soc. Proc., III., 1842. 

46. On the Agency of Land -Snails in corroding and making 
deep excavations in compact Limestone Rocks. Geol. 
Soc. Proc., III., 1842. 

47. On the Glacio-diluvial Phenomena in Snowdonia and the 
adjacent parts of North Wales. Geol. Soc. Proc., III., 

48. On Artesian Wells. Edinb. New Phil. Journ., XXXVII., 

49. On the Mechanical Action of Animals on hard and soft 

Substances during the Process of Stratification. Brit 

Assoc. Rep., 1845. 
50. On Ichthyopatolites, or Petrified Trackways of Ambulatory 

Fishes upon Sandstone of the Coal Formation. Geol. 

Soc. Proc., IV., 1843. 


$!. On the Occurrence of Nodules (called Petrified Potatoes) 
found on the shores of Lough Neagh, Ireland. Geol. 
Soc. Journ., II., 1846. 

^2. On the causes of the general presence of Phosphates in the 
strata of the earth, and in all fertile soils ; with observa- 
tions on Pseudo-coprolites, and on the possibility of 
converting the contents of Sewers and Cesspools into 
Manure. Agric. Soc. Journ., X., 1849. 

Buckland) William, and Conybeart. 

Observations on the South-West Coal District of England. Geol. 
Soc. Trans., I., 1824. 

Buckland, William, and de la Btche. 

On the Geology of Wcymouth and the Adjacent Parts of the 
Coast of Dorsetshire. Geol. Soc. Proc., I., 1834. 

Buckland, William, and Milne. 

Report of the Committee appointed in 1842 for registering the 
Shocks of Earthquakes, andi making such Meteorological 
Observations as may to them appear desirable. Brit. Assoc. 
Hep., 1843. 

The above list is condensed from the Royal Society's " Catalogue 
of Scientific Papers published between 1800 and 1863," but it 
does not include : 

Reliquiae Diluviame ; or Observations on Organic Remains Attest- 
ing the Action of an Universal Deluge. London, 1823. 

Vindicix Geologica* ; or, the Connection of Geology with Religion 
explained in an Inaugural Lecture delivered before the 


University of Oxford, May i5th, 1819, on the Endowment 

of a Readership in Geology by H.R.H. the Prince Regent. 

Oxford, 1820. 
On Geology and Mineralogy considered with reference to Natural 

Theology. Two Vols. London, 1836. 
Addresses to the British Association, 1832 and 1833. 
Addresses to the Geological Society, 1840 and 1841. 


ACLAND, Sir Henry, 30, 31, 157 
Agassi z, Professor, 137-143 
Agricultural Society, 157, 158 
Albert, Prince, 147-149 
Anning, Mary Ann, 7, 113, 115, 116 
Arago, M. Francois, 92, 93 
Ashmolean Society, 162 
Atterbury, Dean, 224, 228, 229, 230 
Axminster, I, 3, 21 
Axmouth, landslip at, 173-176 

BAMPTON Lectures, 136 

Banks, Sir Joseph, 40, 41 

Harrington, Bishop, 74 

Bathurst, Lord, 43 

Beche, Sir H. de la, 1 6, 114, 116, 

158, 265 

Beechey, Captain, 47-50 
Bellamy, Rev. Dr., 148 
Bonney, Professor, 143 
Bovverbank, Dr., 272 
Breuner, Count, 1 8 
Brewster, Sir David, 120 
Bridgewater Treatise, 28, 193-218 
British Association, 120-136, 183 
Brockhaus, Professor, 22 

Broderip, Mr., 6 

Browne, Mr. Murray, 144 

Buckland, Frank, 34, 53, 193, 203, 
249-252, 268, 269 

Buckland, Rev. Charles, I 

Buckland, Rev. J. f 4 

Buckland, William 

agricultural experiments, 158- 


appointed Dean of Wcstmin* 
ster and Rector of Islip, 219 

appointments and literary 

titles, 275-277 

B.A. degree, 6 

Bridgewater Treatise pub- 
lished, 193 

Canon of Christ Church, 87 

elected Fellow, 7 

elected F.R.S., 55 

epitaph intended for, 41 

experiments on toads, 89 

foreign tour, 92-96 

geological tours at home and 

abroad, 11-22 

his ancestry, I 

his Geological Collection, 51-53 



Auckland, William, Holy Orders, 7 

home life, 99-1 12 

illness and death, 267-272 

list of published writings, 278- 


marriage, 90-92 

" Noctes Geologicae," 84, 8$ 

Oxford, 5 

Pisciculture, his taste for, 


Professor of Geology, 22 

inaugural lecture, 26 

projects a School of Mines, 

183, 184 

Reader of Mineralogy, 22 

receives degree of D.D., 87 

" Reliquiae Diluvianae," 55, 


sanitary reform, 247-249 

school life, 4, 5 

the Wollaston Medal, 265- 


vacations, 7 

Buckland, Mrs., 90-92, 107, in, 193, 

219, 252-254, 269, 272, 273 
Bunsen, Baron, 136 

CARPENTER, Mary, 135 

Chartists, the, 245 

Cheirotherium, the, 217 

Civil Engineers, Society of, 1 8$ 

Clifford, Lord, 78 

Cole, Lady Mary, 16, 19, 43, 51 

Cole, Viscount, 36 

Collie, Mr., 49 

Conybeare, W. D., Dean of Llandaff, 

2-4, 12, 15, 37,62 
Copleston, Dr., 77 
Cross, Mr., 57 

Crosse, Mrs. Andrew, 246 
Cuvier, Baron, 37, 93, 124, 125, 197, 
204, 211 

DAUBENY, Dr., 9 

Davy, Sir Humphry, 59, 86 

Dawkins, Professor Boyd, 53, 55, 

56, 192 % 
Dinornis, the, 180, 181 
Dream Lead Mine, 69, 70 
Dudley Caverns, 78-83 
Duncan, Philip, Mr., 8 

EGERTON, Sir Philip de Malpas 

Grey, Bart., 36, 121 
Egerton, Rev. W., 120 

FARADAY, Professor, 269 

Forshall, F. H., 231 

Fowle, Rev. T., 257 

Fox, Miss C, 27, 28, 91, 135, 241 

Franklin, Sir John, 48-50 

GAILEXREUTH Cavern, 72-74. 
Gaisford, Dean, 1 10 
Cell, Philip, 69 
Gilbert, Dr., 1 57 
Goddard, Dr., 5 
Goethe, J. W. von, 19 
Gray, W., 12 
Greenough, Mr., 14, 18 
Grenville, Lord, 24 

HAKEWELL, Henry, 77 

Harcourt, Vernon, Archbishop, 

145* H6 

Hawkins, Waterhouse, 198, 206 
Heathcote, Rev. Gilbert, 85, 190, 




Holmes, Rev. Edward, 159 
Humboldt, Baron von, 37, 38 

INGLEFIELD, Admiral, 50 
Ingram, Dr., 191 

Islip, 163, 219, 255-265, 268, 269, 

JELF, Canon, 259 

KIDD, Dr., 22 
Kirkdale, 56, 57, 60-62 

LIDDELL, Dr., 233 
Liebig, Baron, 164, 169 
Lunel, Cavern of, 96', 97 
Lyell, Sir Charles, 59, 126-128 
Lyme Regis, 7, 113 

MACLURE, William, 42 
Malone, Rev. R., 252, 253 
Mant, Mr., 13. 
Marshall, Rev. E., 231, 233 
Maskelyne, Storey, Professor, 35 
M'Clintock, Sir Leopold, 50 
Mcgalosaurus, the, 203-206 
Megatherium, the, 126-133 
Miller, Mr., 51 
Mosasaurus, the, 211-215 
Murchison, Sir Roderick, 10, 84, 85, 
165, 267, 270, 271 

NICHOLL, Sir John, 37 

OWEN, Sir Richard, 126, 181, 192 
Oxford, Royal visit, 146-148 

PALMER, Archdeacon, 89 
Parker, Mr., 255 
Paviland Cave, 63-68 
Peel, Sir Robert, 161, 162, 165, 219 
Phillips, Professor, 51, 193 
Playfair, Lord, 104, 168-172 
Pocock, Edward, Professor, 108 
Portlock, Colonel, 33, 34 
Pusey, Dr., 105 

RICHARDSON^ Sir B. W., 182 
Ross, Captain, 44-46 
Ruskin, John, 34, 35, loo 

SANDERSON, Professor Burdon, 220 
Sedgwick, Professor, 105, 121, 


Severn, Walter, 234 
Shuttleworth, Dr., 12, 32, 33, 196 
Smith, William, 124, 136 
Somerville, Mrs., 123 
Sopwith, Thomas I., ico, 145, 182 
Sowerby, James, 36 
Stanley, Dean, 226 
Stephens, George, 166, 167 
Strangways, Mr., 43 

TALBOT, Mr. C. M., 63 

Miss Jane, 1 6 

Tankerville, Lord, 23 
Townsend, Mr., 6 
Trollope, Anthony, IOI 
Turle, Rev. W. H., 238 


VINCENT, Dean, 257 


< Vindiciae Gcologicae," 26 

WESTMINSTER, the Deanery, 220- 

the Abbey 225, 237-241, 271, 


Westminster, the School, 227-237 
Whately, Archbishop, 41 
Williams, William, 1 80 
Williamson, Professor, 150 
Winchester, 5 

Printed by HazelJ, Watson, A Vtney, Ld. ( London and Aylwbury. 

J**f, 1804, 



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