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Full text of "The life and death of Thomas Wolsey, cardinal : once archbishop of York and Lord Chancellor of England"

SOLEMN 

Distribution of Prizes 
$g 

ST. MICHAEL'S COLLEGE 
TORONTO 



obtained by M 

The Superior, 

The Professor, 




June, 
Prize ^ 



LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 



THE LIFE AND DEATH 

OF 

THOMAS WOLSEY 

CARDINAL 
nee Brcbbfsbop of H)otfc ano OLorfc Cbancellor of Bnglanfc 



CONTAINING 

1. THE ORIGIN OF HIS PROMOTION, AND THE) WAY 

HE TOOK TO OBTAIN IT 

2. THE CONTINUANCE IN HIS MAGNIFICENCE 

3. HIS NEGOTIATIONS CONCERNING THE PEACE WITH 

FRANCE AND THE NETHERLANDS 

4. HIS FALL, DEATH, AND BURIAL 

WHEREIN ARE THINGS REMARKABLE FOR THESE 
TIMES 



WRITTEN BY 

ONE OF HIS OWN SERVANTS, BEING HIS 
GENTLEMAN USHER 



EDITED BY 

GRACE H. M. SIMPSON 



R. & T. WASHBOURNE 

18 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON 

BENZIGER BROS. : NEW YORK, CINCINNATI, AND CHICAGO 

1901 
[All rights reserved] 





]HE author of this book, Sir William 
Cavendish, was Privy Counsellor during 
the successive reigns of Henry VIII., 
Edward VI., and Queen Mary. Preserving to the 
last great esteem and reverence for his old master, 
Cardinal Wolsey, he wrote his life. 

For a long time it remained only in manuscript, 
and is quoted by Lord Herbert in his ' History of 
Henry VIII.,' and by Burnet in his ' History of 
the Reformation.' It was at length printed for 
Dorman Newman, and dedicated to the Marquis 
of Dorset, in 1667. This is the first edition. 

I give below a short account of Sir William 
Cavendish, taken from the ' Biographia Britannica,' 
published 1748 : 

'William Cavendish, a great favourite and 
Privy Counsellor of three Princes, viz., Henry VIII., 
Edward VI., and Queen Mary, was the second 



VI PREFACE TO THE PRESENT EDITION 

son of Thomas Cavendish, of Cavendish, in 
the county of Suffolk, Clerk of the Pipe in the 
reign of Henry VIII., and was born about the 
year 1505, being descended of very ancient 
and honourable families, both by his father 
and mother, as appears by unquestionable authori- 
ties. He had a liberal education given him by his 
father, who settled upon him also certain lands in 
the county of Suffolk, but made a much better 
provision for him by procuring him to be admitted 
into the family of the great Cardinal Wolsey, upon 
whose person he waited in quality of Gentleman 
Usher of his chamber at a time when he lived 
with all the state and dignity of a Prince. ... As 
Mr. Cavendish was the Cardinal's countryman, and 
as he had a great kindness for his father, he took 
him early into his confidence, and showed him, 
upon all occasions, very particular marks of kind- 
ness and respect. 

'In 1527 he attended his master in his splendid 
embassy to France. . . . He returned with that 
great Prelate into England, and served him with 
the utmost zeal and fidelity as well in his disgrace 
as when in the highest favour, and was one of the 
few servants that stuck close to him when he had 
neither office nor salary to bestow upon them. 
This was so far from prejudicing him in the opinion 
of his Sovereign, that on this very account he took 



PREFACE TO THE PRESENT EDITION vii 

particular notice of him, and gave him singular 
intimations of his grace and favour ; and after the 
Cardinal's death, upon whom Mr. Cavendish waited 
to the last and delayed going to Court till he had 
seen his body interred, the King took him into his 
own family and service. He was also constituted 
one of the Commissioners for visiting and taking 
the surrenders of several religious houses, and in 
1531 he took several surrenders in that capacity. 
In 1540 he was appointed one of the auditors of 
the Court of Augmentation, and soon after had a 
very considerable grant made him of several lord- 
ships in the county of Hereford. In 1546 he was 
made Treasurer of the Chamber to His Majesty, 
and on Easter Day the same year he had the 
honour of Knighthood conferred upon him, and 
was soon after sworn of the Privy Council. He 
continued to enjoy both these honours for the 
space of eleven years, in which time his estate 
was much increased by the grants he received from 
King Edward VI. in several counties ; nor does it 
appear that he was less in credit or favour with 
Queen Mary, under whose reign he died, 1557. 
He married three wives. ... His third and last 
wife survived him. By her he had issue three 
sons and as many daughters. . . . 

' He appears from his writings to have been a 
man of great honour and integrity, a good subject 



Vlil PREFACE TO THE PRESENT EDITION 

to his Prince, a true lover of his country, and one 
who preserved to the last a very high reverence 
and esteem for his old master and first patron, 
Cardinal Wolsey.' 




THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY 

TO 

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE HENRY, 
LORD MARQUIS OF DORCHESTER 

|Y NOBLE LORD, 

True nobility and learning are the 
grand accomplishments which make 
your Honour outshine the most of your degree in 
the cynosure of all arts and sciences, of which 
your Lordship is so great a master and patron that 
you despise not the addresses of the meanest 
endeavours. 

My Lord, I have now presumed to dedicate to 
your Lordship the Life and Death of that famous 
Cardinal Wolsey, newly reprinted ; the subject 
whereof takes in the most remarkable occurrences 
of those times, not unworthy the perusal of ours, 
seeing it is no small advantage future times reap 
from former ages, and great men from their prede- 
cessors ; for they may inform themselves what 
made them shine, to provoke their imitation, and 



X THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY 

what it was that clouded them, to excite their 
caution. 

My Lord, this great person was then looked 
upon as the most able pilot to steer things aright, 
both in Church and State, whilst he was embarked 
in those two great offices of Lord High Chancellor 
of England, and Archbishop of York ; and so 
equally did he balance things in those troublesome 
times that one observes of him, 'That he never 
spake a word too much, and but one too little ' ; 
nor were his successes inconsiderable in begetting 
a right understanding between foreign nations and 
home ; as in the Netherlands, so especially in 
France, which he did with so much amity, as if he 
would cross that pleasant proverb, ' Kingdoms are 
never married.' 

My Lord, had this Cardinal been a man of no 
conscience (as some would have it), his Honour 
might have been more lasting, though we have 
reason to believe his own words (notwithstanding 
his great magnificence), i.e., that had he been as 
faithful to his Maker as to his master, he had not 
been deserted in his old age, when Fortune frowned 
on him ; though, indeed, he died rather neglected 
than quite cast off. 

My Lord, great men are set in the world like 
diamonds in a ring, and the first thing the vulgar 
look at is to observe their flaws ; which made 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY XI 

them think the Cardinal's prosperity might have 
been more durable, had it been more moderate ; 
but Rickets-like, growing too big in the head, it 
enfeebled its supporters, yet not so much as to 
make his own magnificence or memory to be 
forgotten. 

May it therefore please your Honour to counte- 
nance this new edition, since the old one hath 
survived his greatest enemies, and now hath ex- 
pired, Phoenix-like, to give place to this. I beg 
your Lordship's pardon for my bold attempt, and 
disturbing your serious affairs. And that your 
Lordship may long live, to shine in our English 
orb, is the prayer of 

Your Lordship's most humble servant, 

N. D. 




AN ADVERTISEMENT TO THE 
READER 

|HO pleaseth to read this history advisedly 
may well perceive the mutability of 
honour, the tottering state of earthly 
dignity, the deceit of flattering friends, and the 
instability of Princes' favours. 

This great Cardinal having experience of all 
this, witness his fleeting from honour, the loss of 
friends, riches, dignities, being forgotten of his 
Prince, whilst Fortune smiled ; having satiety of 
all these, and she bending her brow, deprived him 
of all terrestrial joys, who by twenty years' study 
and pains had obtained so great wealth and 
dignity and in less than one year lost all. 
And thus was his honour laid in the dust. 




THE PREFACE 

j]T seemeth no wisdom to credit every light 
tale, blazed about in the mouths of 
vulgars, for we daily hear how with their 
blasphemous trump they spread abroad innumer- 
able lies, without either shame or honesty ; which 
primd facie sheweth forth a visage of truth, as 
though it were an absolute verity, though indeed 
nothing less, and amongst the better sort those 
babblings are of no validity. 

I have read the allegations of divers worthy 
authors against such false rumours and opinions 
of the common people, who delight in nothing 
more than to hear strange things and to see new 
alterations of authority, rejoicing sometimes in 
such novelties, which afterwards do produce re- 
pentance. Thus may all men of understanding 
conceive the madness of the rude multitude, and 
not give too much credence to every sudden 
rumour, until the truth be perfectly known, by the 



XIV PREFACE 

report of some approved and credible persons, 
that commonly have the best intelligence. I have 
heard, and also seen set forth in divers printed 
books, some untrue imaginations, after the death 
of divers persons (who in their lives were in great 
estimation), invented rather to bring their honest 
names in question than otherwise. 

Now I intend . to write here some special pro- 
ceedings of Cardinal Wolsey, the great Arch- 
bishop, his ascending into honour and great pro- 
motion, his continuance in it and sudden falling 
from the same, a great part whereof shall be of 
mine own knowledge and some part from credible 
persons' informations. This Cardinal was njy 
Lord and master, whom in his lifetime I served 
and so remained with him in his fall continually, 
during the time of all his troubles, both in the 
south and north parts until he died. 

In all which time I punctually observed all his 
demeanours, as also in his great triumph and 
glorious estate. And since his departure, I have 
heard divers surmised and imagined tales concern- 
ing his proceedings and dealings, which I myself 
have certainly known to be most untrue, unto 
which I could have sufficiently answered according 
to truth ; but conceiving it to be much better to 
be silent than to reply against their untruths, 
whereby I might perhaps have rather kindled a 



PREFACE XV 

great flame of displeasure than have quenched one 
spark of their untrue reports, therefore I did refer 
the truth thereof to the Almighty, Who knows the 
truth of all things. 

Nevertheless, whatsoever any man hath con- 
ceived of him in his life or since his death, thus 
much I dare say without offence to any, that in 
my judgment I never saw this realm in better 
obedience and quiet than it was in the time of his 
authority, nor justice better administered without 
partiality, as I could justly prove, if I should not 
be taxed with too much affection. 

I will therefore here desist to speak any further 
by the way of apology, and proceed now to speak 
of his origin and of ascending through fortune's 
favour to high dignity and abundance of wealth. 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

. i. OF THE CARDINAL'S ORIGIN, AND WHO HE WAS 19 
ii. OF THE CARDINAL'S SPEEDY DESPATCH IN HIS 

FIRST AMBASSAGE TO THE EMPEROR MAXI- 
MILIAN - 25 

in. OF KING HENRY'S INVADING FRANCE IN -HIS 

OWN PERSON, WITH THE CARDINAL'S ASSIST- 
ANCE - - 31 

IV. THE KING PROMOTING HIS ALMONER, WOLSEY 
BEING MADE CARDINAL AND LORD CHAN- 
CELLOR OF ENGLAND - 35 
V. OF THE ORDERS AND OFFICES OF HIS HOUSE 

AND CHAPEL - -38 

VI. OF HIS SECOND AMBASSAGE TO THE EMPEROR 

CHARLES V. 43 

VII. OF THE MANNER OF HIS GOING TO WEST- 
MINSTER HALL - - 46 

vni. OF THE CARDINAL'S MAGNIFICENCE IN HIS 

HOUSE - - 49 

IX. OF THE ORIGINAL INSTRUMENT OF THE 

CARDINAL'S FALL, MISTRESS ANNE BOLEYN 55 
X. OF MISTRESS ANNE BOLEYN'S FAVOUR WITH 

THE KING - - 59 

XI. OF THE VARIANCE BETWEEN THE FRENCH 

KING AND THE DUKE OF BOURBON, ETC. - 63 
XII. OF THE DUKE OF BOURBON'S STRATAGEM AND 
VICTORY, WHEREIN THE FRENCH KING WAS 
TAKEN PRISONER - 67 

2 



XViil CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

XIII. OF THE FRENCH KING'S REDEMPTION OUT OF 

CAPTIVITY, AND OF THE CARDINAL'S AM- 
BASSAGE INTO FRANCE - 73 

XIV. OF THE FRENCH AMBASSADOR'S ENTERTAIN- 

MENT AND DESPATCH - IOO 

XV. OF THE KING'S DISCOVERY OF HIS LOVE FOR 
MISTRESS ANNE BOLEYN TO THE CARDINAL, 
WITH THE CARDINAL'S DISLIKE, ETC. - 112 
XVL A NEW COURT ERECTED TO DETERMINE THE 
KING'S CASE, TWO CARDINALS BEING JUDGES, 

AND OF THE ISSUE - - Il8 

XVII. OF CERTAIN PASSAGES CONDUCING TO THE 

CARDINAL'S FALL - - 136 

XVIII. THE CARDINAL ACCUSED OF HIGH TREASON 

IN THE PARLIAMENT HOUSE, AND MR. CROM- 
WELL'S DEFENCE FOR HIM - - 149 

XIX. OF THE CARDINAL'S FALL, AND HOW HE WAS 

ARRESTED OF HIGH TREASON - - 169 
xx. OF THE CARDINAL'S ENTERTAINMENT AT THE 
EARL OF SHREWSBURY'S, AND OF HIS DEATH 
AND BURIAL - - - ' 179 



LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 




OF THE CARDINAL'S ORIGIN, AND WHO HE WAS 

|RUTH it is Cardinal Wolsey was an 
honest poor man's son in the town of 
Ipswich, in the county of Suffolk, and 
there born, who, being but a child, was very apt 
to learn, wherefore, by means of his parents and 
other good friends, he was maintained at the 
University of Oxford, where in a short time he 
prospered so well, that in a small time (as he told 
me with his own mouth) he was made Batchelor of 
Arts, when he was but fifteen years of age, and was 
most commonly called the ' Boy Batchelor.' Thus 
prospering in learning, he was made Fellow of 
Magdalen College in Oxford ; after that he was 
made Master of Magdalen School, at which time 
there were the Lord Marquis of Dorset's sons 

2 2 



2O LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

there at school, committing unto him as well their 
education as their instructions and learning. 

It pleased this Lord Marquis against Christmas 
to send as well for the schoolmaster as for the 
scholars home to his house, for their recreation in 
that pleasant and honourable forest. They being 
awhile there, the Lord Marquis, their father, per- 
ceiving them to be well improved in learning for 
the time, he was so well contented, that he having 
a benefice in his gift (being at that present void), 
gave the schoolmaster the same in regard of his 
diligence. After Christmas, at his departure to 
the University, and he having the presentation 
thereof, repaired to the Ordinary for his institution, 
and being then furnished with all his instruments 
at the Ordinary's hands for his preferment, made 
haste without any further delay to his benefice to 
take possession thereof. Now you shall under- 
stand that the schoolmaster had not been long 
there, but one Sir James Pawlet, Knight, dwelling 
in the country thereabouts, took an occasion of 
displeasure against him, but upon what ground I 
know not, insomuch that Sir James was so bold as 
to set the schoolmaster by the heels during his 
displeasure, which affront was afterwards neither 
forgotten nor forgiven ; for when the schoolmaster 
mounted so high as to be Lord Chancellor of 
England, he was not forgetful of his old dis- 



THE CARDINAL'S ORIGIN, AND WHO HE WAS 21 

pleasure, most cruelly ministered unto him by 
Sir James, but sent for him, and after a very sharp 
reproof, enjoined him not to depart out of London 
without license first obtained, so that he continued 
in the Middle Temple the space of five or six years, 
who afterwards lay in the Gate-House next the 
stairs, which he re-edified and sumptuously beauti- 
fied the same all over on the outside with the 
Cardinal's arms, his hat, his cognizance and 
badges, with other devices in so glorious a 
manner, as he thought thereby to have appeased 
his old displeasure. This may be a good pre- 
cedent for men in authority, which work their own 
wills without wit, to remember that greatness may 
decay. And those whom they do punish more of 
humour than justice may afterwards be advanced 
to great honour (as this Cardinal was), and they 
abased as low as this Sir James was, which seek 
revenge. 

Who would have thought that when Sir James 
Pawlet punished this poor schoolmaster that ever 
he should have mounted to so great dignity as to 
be Chancellor of England, considering his mean 
parentage and friends ? These be the most 
wonderful works of God's providence, and I 
would that all men in authority would fear God 
in all ages in the time of their triumph and great- 
ness, considering that advancement and authority 



22 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

are not permanent, but many times slide and 
vanish suddenly away, as Princes' pleasures alter 
and change, or as all living creatures must of 
necessity pay the debt due to Nature, which no 
earthly creature can resist. 

Shortly after it chanced the said Lord Marquis 
died, after whose decease the schoolmaster, thinking 
himself but a weak beneficed man, and that he had 
left his Fellowship in the College, for (as I under- 
stand) if a Fellow of that House be once promoted 
to a Benefice, he shall by the rules of the same 
house be dismissed of his Fellowship ; and now 
being also destitute of his singular good Lord as 
well as of his Fellowship, which was most of his 
relief, though long to be provided of some other 
help to defend him from all such storms as he 
might meet with. In his travel thereabouts he 
grew acquainted with a very great and ancient 
knight who had a great place at Calais under 
Henry VII. This knight he served and behaved 
himself so discreetly that he obtained the special 
favour of his said master, insomuch that for his 
wit and gravity he committed all the care and 
charge of his said office to his said Chaplain. 
And as I understand, his office was the Treasurer- 
ship of Calais, who in regard of his great age 
shortly after was discharged of his said Office, and 
so returned into England, intending to live a more 



THE CARDINAL'S ORIGIN, AND WHO HE WAS 23 

private life. But through his instant labour and 
good favour his Chaplain was preferred to be the 
King's Chaplain. And when he had once cast 
anchor in the port of promotion, how he then 
bestirred himself I shall now declare. He having 
then just occasion to be daily in sight of the King 
in his Closet, not spending the rest of the day in 
idleness, would attend those men whom he thought 
to bear most rule in the Council, and were most in 
favour with the King, which at that time was 
Doctor Fox, Bishop of Winchester, and Lord 
Privy Seal, and also Sir Thomas Lovell, Knight, 
a very sage and wise Counsellor, being Master of 
the Wards, and Constable of the Tower. These 
ancient and grave Counsellors in process of time, 
perceiving this Chaplain to be a man of a very 
acute wit, thought him a meet instrument to be 
employed in greater affairs. 

Not long after it happened that the King had an 
urgent occasion to send an Ambassador to Maxi- 
milian, the Emperor, who lay at that present in 
the Low Countries at Flanders, and not far from 
Calais. 

Now, the Bishop of Winchester and Sir Thomas 
Lovell, whom the King most esteemed as the 
chiefest of his Council, one day were advising and 
debating with themselves upon this ambassage, 
and by this time they saw they had a convenient 



24 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

occasion to prefer the King's Chaplain, whose 
excellent eloquence and learning they highly 
commended unto the King's Highness, who 
giving ear unto them and being a Prince of an 
excellent judgment and modesty, he commanded 
them to bring his Chaplain (whom they so com- 
mended) before his Grace ; and being come, His 
Majesty (to prove his ability) entered into dis- 
course with him concerning matters of State, 
whereby the King had so well informed himself, 
that he found him to be a man of a sharp wit and 
such excellent parts, that he thought him worthy 
to be put in trust with matters of greater conse- 
quence. 




II 

OF THE CARDINAL'S SPEEDY DESPATCH IN HIS 
FIRST AMBASSAGE TO THE EMPEROR MAXI- 
MILIAN 

[HE King, being now resolved to employ 
him in this ambassage, commanded him 
thereupon to prepare himself for his 
journey, and for his despatch, wished him to 
repair to his Grace and his Council, of whom he 
should receive his commission and instruction, by 
means whereof he had then a fit occasion to repair 
from time to time into the King's presence, who 
had thereby daily experience of his singular 
wisdom and sound judgment. Thus, having his 
despatch, he took his leave of the King at Rich- 
mond, about four of the clock in the afternoon. 
He launched forth in a Gravesend barge with a 
prosperous wind and tide, and his happy speed 
was such that he arrived at Gravesend in little 
more than three hours, where he tarried no longer 



26 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

than the post-horses were provided ; and he 
travelled so speedily that he came to Dover the 
next morning, where the passengers were under 
sail to pass to Calais, so that long before noon he 
arrived there. Having post-horses prepared, he 
departed from thence without tarrying, making 
such hasty speed that he was that night with the 
Emperor, who, understanding of the arrival of the 
King of England's Ambassador, would in no wise 
delay time, but sent for him immediately, for his 
affection for the King of England was such that 
he was glad of any opportunity to do him a 
courtesy. 

The Ambassador declared the sum of his embassy 
unto the Emperor, of whom he craved speedy ex- 
pedition, which was granted him, so that next day 
he was clearly despatched, and all the King's 
requests fully accomplished and granted. At 
which time he made no further stay, but took 
post-horses that night, and rode without inter- 
mission to Calais, being conducted thither by 
divers nobles appointed by the Emperor. At the 
opening of the gates of Calais, he came thither 
where the passengers were ready to return to 
England, insomuch that he arrived at Dover 
between ten and eleven of the clock in the fore- 
noon. 

Having post-horses in readiness, he came to the 



THE CARDINAL'S FIRST AMBASSAGE 2? 

Court at Richmond that same night, where, taking 
kis repose until morning, he presented himself unto 
His Majesty at his first coming out of his bed- 
chamber to his Closet to Mass, whom when he saw 
he checked for that he was not in his journey. 

' Sir,' quoth he, ' if it may please your Highness, 
I have already been with the Emperor and de- 
spatched your affairs, I trust, to your Grace's 
content ;' and thereupon presented the King with 
his letters of credence from the Emperor. 

The King, wondering at his speedy return (he 
being so well furnished with all his proceedings), 
for the present dissembled his admiration and 
imagination in that matter, and demanded of him 
whether he encountered with his pursuivant, which 
he sent unto him with letters (imagining him to be 
scarce out of London), which concerned very 
material passages which were omitted in their 
consultation, which the King earnestly desired 
should have been despatched in his ambassage. 

'Yes, forsooth,' quoth he, 'I met with him 
yesterday by the way, and though I had no know- 
ledge thereof, yet notwithstanding I have been 
so bold (upon mine own discretion), perceiving the 
matter to be very necessary, in that behalf I de- 
spatched the same. And forasmuch as I have 
been so bold to exceed my commission, I most 
humbly crave your royal remission and pardon.' 



28 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

The King, inwardly rejoicing, replied : 

c We do not only pardon you, but give you our 
princely thanks, both for your good exploit and 
happy expedition.' 

He then dismissed him for that present, and 
bade him return to him again after dinner for a 
further relation of his ambassage ; and so the 
King went to Mass. 

It is not to be doubted but this Ambassador had 
all this while visited his great friends, the Bishop of 
Winchester and Sir Thomas Lovell, to whom he 
had declared the effect of his ambassage ; and also 
His Majesty's commendations did not a little 
rejoice the worthy Counsellors, forasmuch as he 
was of their preferment. And shortly after the 
King gave him for his diligent service the Deanery 
of Lincoln, which was in those days one of the 
greatest promotions that he gave under the degree 
of a Bishop. He grew more and more in estima- 
tion and authority, and was afterwards promoted 
to be Almoner. 

Now, not long after, when Death (that favoureth 
no estates, nor King, nor Emperor) had taken 
away the wife of King Henry VII. out of this 
present life, it was a wonder to see what practices 
and devices were then used about the young Prince, 
Henry VIII. ; the great provision that was then 
made for the funeral of the one and for the Corona- 



THE CARDINAL'S FIRST AMBASSAGE 29 

tion of the other by the now Queen Katherine and 
mother, after the Queen's Highness that now is, 
whose virtuous life Jesu long preserve. 

After the solemnizations and costly triumphs, 
our natural, young, courageous, lusty Prince and 
Sovereign Lord, King Henry VIII., entering into 
his flower and lusty youth, took upon him the 
royal sceptre and imperial diadem of this fertile 
nation, the two and twentieth of April, A.D. 1509, 
which at that time flourished with all abundance 
of riches, whereof the King was most inestimably 
furnished, called them the golden world. Now, 
shortly after, the Almoner, seeing he had a plain 
pathway to promotion, behaved himself so politicly 
that he was made one of the King's Privy Council, 
and increased in favour daily : to whom he gave a 
house at Bridewell, near Fleet Street, where he 
kept his house for his family, and so he daily 
attended upon the King, being in special favour. 

His sentences in the Star Chamber were ever so 
pithy and witty, that upon all occasions they 
assigned him, for the fluent eloquence of his 
tongue, to be Expositor to the King in all their 
proceedings. In whom the King conceived so 
great content that he called him still nearer to his 
person ; and the rather because he was ready to 
advance the King's own will and pleasure, having 
no respect to the case. 



30 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

Now, the King being young and much given to 
his pleasure, his old Counsellors advised him to 
have recourse sometimes to the Council about his 
weighty affairs ; but the Almoner, on the contrary, 
persuaded him to mind his pleasure, and he would 
take his care and charge upon himself (if His 
Majesty would countenance him with his authority), 
which the King liked well. And thus none was 
like to the Almoner in favour with the King. 




Ill 

OF KING HENRY'S INVADING FRANCE IN HIS 
OWN PERSON, WITH THE CARDINAL'S ASSIST- 
ANCE 

JHUS the Almoner, continuing in high 
favour, till at last many presents, gifts 
and rewards came in so plentifully that I 
dare say he wanted nothing, for he had all things 
in abundance that might either please his fancy or 
enrich his coffers, for the times so favourably 
smiled upon him, but to what end you shall 
hereafter hear. Therefore let all men to whom 
Fortune extendeth her favour and grace take heed 
they trust not her subtle and fair promises, for 
under colour thereof she carrieth an envious gall ; 
for when she seeth her servant in highest authority 
she turneth her favour and pleasant countenance 
into frowns. 

This Almoner climbed up Fortune's wheel so 
that no man was in estimation with the King but 



32 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

only he, for his witty qualities and wisdom. He 
had an especial gift of natural eloquence and a 
ready tongue to pronounce the same, so that he 
was able therewith to persuade and allure all men 
to his purposes in the time of his continuance in 
Fortune's favour. 

In the fifth year of the reign of King Henry VIII. 
it chanced that the realms of England and France 
were at variance, but upon what ground or occasion 
I know not, insomuch that the King was fully 
resolved in his own person to invade France with 
a powerful army. It was therefore thought very 
necessary that his royal enterprises should be 
speedily provided and furnished in every degree 
in things apt and convenient for the same. 

For expedition the King thought no man's wit 
so meet for policy and painful travel as the Almoner, 
to whom he committed his whole confidence and 
trust therein. The Almoner, being nothing scrupu- 
lous in anything that the King would command, 
although it seemed very difficult, took upon him 
the whole charge of the business, and proceeded so 
therein that he brought all things to good effect in 
direct order for all manner of victuals and pro- 
vision convenient for so noble a voyage and army. 
All things being thus prepared by him in order, 
the King not intending to neglect or delay any 
time, but with noble and valiant courage to advance 



KING HENRY'S INVASION OF FRANCE 33 

his royal enterprise, passed the seas between Dover 
and Calais, where he prosperously arrived. And 
after he had there made his arrival, and landed all 
his provision and munition and sate in consultation 
about his weighty affairs, he marched forth in good 
order of battle till he came to the strong town of 
Terouanne, to the which he laid strong siege and 
made a sharp assault, so that in short space it was 
yielded unto him, unto which place the Emperor 
Maximilian resorted unto him with a great army, 
like a mighty Prince taking off the King's wages. 

Thus, after the King had taken this strong town, 
and taken possession thereof, and set all things in 
good order for the defence and preservation thereof 
to His Majesty's use, then he retired from thence, 
and marched towards Tournay, and there laid 
siege in like manner, to which he gave so fierce 
assault that the enemies were constrained to sur- 
render the town to His Majesty, at which time the 
King gave unto the Almoner the Bishopric of the 
same see for his pains and diligence shown in that 
journey. And when he had established all things 
according to his princely mind and pleasure, and 
the same with men and captains of war for the 
safeguard of the town, he prepared for his return 
to England. 

But now you shall understand by the way that 
whilst the King was absent with a great power in 

3 
i 



34 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

France, the Scottish King invaded England, against 
whom the Queen sent a great army, the Earl of 
Surrey being General. The Scots were over- 
thrown at Balmston, called Hoddenfield, where the 
King of Scots was slain with divers of his nobility 
and 1 8,000 men, and they took all his munition 
for war. 

By this time the King returned into England, 
and took with him divers noble personages of 
France, being prisoners, as the Duke of Longuido, 
Viscount Clerimond, with divers others that were 
taken in a skirmish. 

And thus God gave him victory at home and 
victory abroad, being in the fifth year of his reign, 
A.D. 1513. 




IV 

THE KING PROMOTING PUS ALMONER, WOLSEY 
BEING MADE CARDINAL AND LORD CHAN- 
CELLOR OF ENGLAND 

IjHE King being returned into England, the 
See of Lincoln became void by the death 
of Doctor Smith, late Bishop there, 
which Bishopric the King gave to his Almoner, 
the Bishop Elect of Tournay, who was not negli- 
gent to take possession thereof, but made all 
speed for his consecration. The solemnization 
thereof being ended, he found a way to get into 
his hands all his predecessor's goods, whereof I 
have seen divers parts that furnished his house. 

It was not long after but Doctor Bambridge, 
Archbishop of York, died at Rouen in France, 
being there the King's ambassador. Unto this 
See the King presented the last new Bishop of 
Lincoln, so that he had three Bishoprics in his 
hands at one time, all in one year given him. 

32 



36 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

Then prepared he again for his translation from 
the See of Lincoln to that of York, as he did 
before to his installation. 

After which solemnization done, and being then 
Archbishop and Primus Angliae, he thought him- 
self sufficient to compare with that of Canterbury, 
and did thereupon erect his Crosses in the Courts 
and every other place, as well in the precinct and 
jurisdiction of Canterbury as any other place. 

And though Canterbury claimeth a superiority 
over York as well as over any other bishopric 
within England, and for that cause claimeth an 
acknowledgment as in ancient obedience of York, 
to abate advancement of his Cross in the presence 
of the Cross of Canterbury, notwithstanding, York 
did not desist to bear the same, although Canter- 
bury gave York a check for the same and told 
him it was presumption, by reason whereof there 
engendered some grudge between them. But 
shortly after he obtained to be made Cardinal and 
Legatus de Latere, unto whom the Pope sent the 
Cardinal's Cap and certain Bulls for his authority 
in that behalf. Whereupon he was installed at 
Westminster in great triumph, which was executed 
by all Bishops with their mitres, caps and other 
ornaments. And after all this he was made Chan- 
cellor of England, and Canterbury, who was the 
Chancellor, was dismissed. Now he being in the 
Chancellorship and endowed with the promotions 



MADE CARDINAL AND LORD CHANCELLOR 37 

of Archbishop and Cardinal de Latere, thought 
himself so fully furnished that he was now able to 
surmount Canterbury in all jurisdictions, and in all 
ecclesiastical powers to convocate Canterbury and 
all other bishops and spiritual persons to assemble 
at his Convocations, where he would assign and 
take upon him the conversion of all ministers and 
others within their jurisdictions, and visit all the 
spiritual houses in their Dioceses, and all manner 
of spiritual ministers as Commissioners, Scribes, 
Apparitors and all other necessary Officers to 
furnish his Courts, and did present benefices to 
whom he pleased through this realm and dominion 
and all other persons to the glory of his dignity. 
Then had he two great Crosses of silver, whereof 
one was of his Archbishopric and the other of 
his Legacy, borne before him wheresoever he rode 
or went, by two of the tallest priests that he could 
get in this realm. 

And to the increase of his gain, he had in his 
hand the Bishopric of Durham and St. Albans 
' in commendam.' Also when Doctor Fox, Bishop 
of Winchester, died, he did surrender Durham to 
the King and took himself to Winchester. He had 
also, as it were in farm, the Bishoprics of Bath, 
Worcester and Hereford, for the incumbents of 
them were foreigners. He had also attending 
upon him men of great possessions and the tallest 
yeomen for his guard in the realm. 




OF THE ORDERS AND OFFICES OF HIS HOUSE 
AND CHAPEL 

fOW, first for his house. You shall under- 
stand that he had in his hall three boards 
kept with three several officers that is 
to say, a Steward (that was always a priest) ; a 
Treasurer (that was ever a Knight) ; and a Con- 
troller (that was an Esquire) ; also a Confessor, a 
Doctor, three Marshals, three Ushers in the hall, 
besides two Almoners and Grooms. 

Then he had in the hall-kitchen two clerks a 
Clerk Comptroller and a Surveyor over the dresser; 
a clerk in the spicery, which kept continually a 
mess together in the hall ; also he had in the hall- 
kitchen two cooks and labourers and children, 
twelve persons, four men of the scullery, two 
Yeomen of the Pantry, with two other paste-layers 
under the yeomen. 

Then had he in his kitchen a master-cook, who 



ORDERS AND OFFICES OF HOUSE AND CHAPEL 39 

went daily in velvet or satin, with a gold chain, 
besides two other cooks and six labourers in the 
same room. In the larder, one yeoman and a groom ; 
in the scullery, one yeoman and two grooms ; in 
the buttery, two yeomen and two grooms ; in the 
ewcry, so many; in the cellar, three yeomen, three 
pages ; in the chandlery, two yeomen ; in the way- 
fary, two yeomen ; in the wardrobe of beds, the 
Master of the Wardrobe and twenty persons 
besides ; in the laundry, a yeoman and a groom 
and thirteen pages, two yeomen-purveyors and a 
groom-purveyor ; in the bakehouse, two yeomen 
and grooms ; in the wood-yard, one yeoman and a 
groom ; in the barn, one yeoman ; porters at the 
gate, two yeomen and two grooms ; a yeoman in 
his barge and a Master of his Horse ; a clerk of 
the stables and a yeoman of the same ; a farrier, 
and a Yeoman of the Stirrup ; a muleteer and 
sixteen grooms, every one of them keeping four 
geldings. 

Now will I declare unto you the officers of his 
chapel and singing-men of the same. 

First, he had there a Dean, a great divine and 
a man of excellent learning ; and a Sub-Dean, a 
Repeater of the Choir, a Gospeller, an Epistoler of 
the Singing Priests, a Master of the Children ; in 
the vestry a yeoman and two grooms, besides other 
retainers that came thither at principal Feasts. 



4O LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

And for the furniture of his chapel, it passeth 
my weak capacity to declare the number of the 
costly ornaments and rich jewels that were occupied 
in the same ; for I have seen in procession about 
the hall forty-four rich copes of one suit very rich, 
besides the rich candlesticks and other necessary 
ornaments to the furniture of the same. 

Now you shall understand that he had two 
cross-bearers and two pillar-bearers in his great 
chamber, and in his privy chamber all these 
persons : the Chief Chamberlain, a Vice-Chamber- 
lain, a Gentleman Usher, beside one of his privy 
chamber ; he had also twelve waiters and six 
gentlemen waiters ; also he had nine or ten Lords, 
who had each of them two or three men to wait 
upon him, except the Earl of Derby, who had 
five men. 

Then he had of gentlemen, cup-bearers and 
carvers, sewers, both of the great chamber and of 
the privy chamber, forty persons, six Yeomen 
Ushers, eight Grooms of his Chamber ; also he 
had of alms (who were daily waiters of his board 
at dinner), twelve doctors and chaplains besides 
them of his which I have rehearsed ; a Clerk 
of his Closet and two Secretaries, and two Clerks 
of his Signet ; four Counsellors learned in the 
law. 

And for that he was Chancellor of England, it 



ORDERS AND OFFICES OF HOUSE AND CHAPEL 4! 

was necessary to have officers of the Chancery 
to attend him for the better furniture of the 
same. 

First, he had a Riding Clerk, a Clerk of the 
Crown, a Clerk of the Hamper, a Chaser ; then had 
he a Clerk of the Check, as well upon the chaplains 
as upon the yeomen of the chamber ; he had also 
four footmen garnished with rich running-coats, 
whensoever he had any journey. 

Then he had a Herald-of-Arms, a Sergeant-of- 
Arms, a Physician, an Apothecary, four minstrels, 
a keeper of his tents, an Armourer, an Instructor 
of his wardrobe of robes, a keeper of his chamber 
continually. 

He had also in his house a Surveyor of York, a 
Clerk of the Green-cloth. All these were daily 
attending down-lying and up-rising. And at meat 
he had eight continual boards for the chamberlains 
and gentlemen officers, having a mess of young 
lords and another of gentlemen ; besides this, there 
was never a gentleman or officer or other worthy 
person, but he kept some two, some three persons 
to wait upon them, and all others at the least had 
one, which did amount to a great number of 
persons. 

Now, I have declared the order according to the 
chain-roll of his house and what officers he had 
daily attending to furnish the same ; besides, 



42 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOOLSEY 

retainers and other persons being suitors dined in 
the hall. 

And when shall we see any more such subjects 
that shall keep such a noble house ? Therefore here 
is an end of his household ; the number of persons 
in the chain-roll were eight hundred persons. 




VI 

OF HIS SECOND AMBASSAGE TO THE EMPEROR 
CHARLES V. 

1HEN he was furnished in manner as I have 
before rehearsed unto you, he was sent 
twice on ambassage to the Emperor 
Charles V., that now reigneth, and father to King 
Philip, now our Lord and Sovereign. 

Forasmuch as the old Emperor Maximilian was 
dead, and for divers other urgent occasions touch- 
ing His Majesty, it was thought fit that, about 
such weighty matters and so noble a Prince, the 
Cardinal was most meet to be sent on this ambas- 
sage, and he, being one ready to take the charge 
thereof upon him, was furnished in every respect 
most like a great Prince, which was much to the 
honour of His Majesty and of this realm. For 
first he proceeded forth like to a Cardinal, having 
all things correspondent ; his gentlemen, being 
very many in number, were clothed in livery coats 



44 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

of crimson velvet of the best and chains of gold 
about their necks, and his yeomen and all his 
mean officers were clad in fine scarlet, guarded 
with black velvet one hand breadth. Thus 
furnished, he was twice sent in this manner to the 
Emperor in Flanders, then lying at Bruges, whom 
he did most nobly entertain, discharging all his 
own charges and his men's. There was no house 
in the town of Bruges wherein any one of my 
Lord's gentlemen were lodged or had recourse 
but that the owners of the houses were com- 
manded by the Emperor's officers, upon pain of 
their lives, to take no money for anything that 
the Cardinal's men did take of any kind of 
victuals. No, although they were disposed to 
make costly banquets, further commanding their 
said hosts that they should want nothing which 
they honestly required or desired to have. 

Also the Emperor's officers every night went 
through the town from house to house, where any 
English had recourse or lodged, and served their 
livery for all night, which was done on this 
manner. First, the officers brought into the house 
of Castille a fine manchet, then two silver pots of 
wine and a pound of sugar, white lights and 
yellow lights, a bowl of silver and a goblet to 
drink in, and every night a staff torch. This was 
their order of their livery every night ; and in the 



HIS SECOND AMBASSAGE TO THE EMPEROR 45 

morning, when the officers came to fetch away 
their stuff", they would account for the gentlemen's 
costs the day before. 

Thus the Emperor entertained the Cardinal and 
his train during the time of their embassy. And 
that done, he returned into England with great 
triumph, being no less in estimation with the King 
than he was before, but rather much more, for he 
increased daily in the King's favour, by reason of 
wits and readiness to do the King's pleasure in all 
things. In the one and twentieth year of King 
Henry VIII.'s reign, A.D. 1529, this Emperor 
Charles V. came into England, who was nobly 
entertained. 




VII 

OF THE MANNER OF HIS GOING TO WEST- 
MINSTER HALL 

j]OW I must declare the manner of his going 
to Westminster Hall in the Term time. 
First, when he came out of his Privy 
Chamber he most commonly heard two Masses 
in his Chapel or Chamber. And I heard one of 
his Chaplains say since (that was a man of credit 
and excellent learning) that what business soever 
the Cardinal had in the daytime, that he never 
went to bed with any part of his service unsaid 
no, not so much as one Collect, in which I think 
he deceived many a man. Then, going into his 
chamber again, he demanded of some of his ser- 
vants if they were in readiness and had furnished 
his Chamber of Presence and Waiting Chamber ; 
he, being then advertised, came out of his Privy 
Chamber about eight of the clock, ready apparelled 
and in red like a Cardinal ; his upper vesture was 
all of scarlet or else of fine crimson taffeta or crim- 



MANNER OF GOING TO WESTMINSTER HALL 47 

son satin engrained, his pillion of scarlet, with a 
black velvet tippet of sables about his neck, hold- 
ing in his hand an orange, the meat or substance 
thereof being taken out and filled again with a 
piece of sponge, with vinegar and other confections 
against pestilent airs, the which he most commonly 
held to his nose when he came to the presses, or 
when he was pestered with many suitors. Before 
him was borne the Broad Seal of England and the 
Cardinal's hat by some Lord or some gentleman 
of worship right solemnly, and as soon as he was 
entered into his Chamber of Presence, where there 
were daily attending on him, as well noble men of 
this realm as other worthy gentlemen of his own 
family, his two great Crosses were there preceding 
him. Then cried the Gentlemen Ushers, that went 
before him bareheaded : ' On, masters, before, and 
make room for my Lord !' Thus went he down 
into the hall, with a Sergeant-of-Arms before him 
bearing a great mace of silver and two gentlemen 
carrying two great plates of silver, and when he 
came to the door there his mule stood trapped all 
in crimson velvet, with a saddle of the same. 

Then was attending him, when he was mounted, 
his two cross-bearers, his two pillar-bearers, all 
upon great horses, all in fine scarlet ; then he 
marched on with a train of gentry, having four 
footmen about him, bearing every one of them a 



48 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

poleaxe in his hand. Thus he passed forth till he 
came to Westminster, and there alighted and went 
in this manner up to the Chancery and stayed 
awhile at the Bar, made for him beneath the 
Chancery, and there he communed sometimes 
with judges and sometimes with other persons, 
and then went up to the Chancery and sat there 
till eleven of the clock to hear suits and to deter- 
mine causes. From thence he would go into the 
Star Chamber as occasion served him ; he neither 
spared high nor low, but did judge everyone 
according unto right. 

Every Sunday he would resort to the Court 
being at Greenwich with his former rehearsed 
train and triumph, taking his barge at his own 
stairs, furnished with yeomen standing upon the 
sails and his gentlemen within and about, and 
landed at the Three Cranes in the Vine Tree, 
and from thence he rode upon his mule with his 
crosses, his pillars, his hat, and his broad seal 
carried before him on horseback along Thames 
Street until he came to Billingsgate, and there he 
took his barge and so went to Greenwich, where 
he was nobly entertained of the Lords in the 
King's house, being there with staves in their 
hands as the Treasurer, Comptroller, with many 
others. He was conveyed into the King's chamber, 
and so went home again in the like triumph. 




VIII 

OF THE CARDINAL'S MAGNIFICENCE IN HIS 
HOUSE 

|E lived a long season, ruling all things in 
this realm appertaining to the King by 
his wisdom and all other matters of 
foreign regions, with whom the King had any 
occasion to meddle. All ambassadors of foreign 
Potentates were ever disposed by the Cardinal's 
wisdom, to whom they had continual access for 
their despatch. His house was always resorted 
unto like a King's house by noblemen and gentle- 
men, and when it pleased the King's Majesty (as 
many times it did), he would for his recreation 
resort unto the Cardinal's house, against whose 
coming there wanted no preparation of goodly 
furniture, with victuals of the finest sort that could 
be had for money or friendship. 

Such pleasures were here devised for the King's 
delight as could be invented or imagined ; banquets 

4 



50 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

set with maskers and mummers in such costly 
manner that it was glorious to behold ; there 
wanted no damsels meet to dance with the 
maskers, or to garnish the place for the time with 
variety of other pastimes. Then was there divers 
kinds of music, and many choice men and women 
singers appointed to sing who had excellent voices. 
I have seen the King come suddenly thither in a 
mask with a dozen maskers all in garments like 
shepherds, made of fine cloth of gold and silver 
wire and six torch-bearers, besides their drummers 
and others attending on them with vizards, and 
clothed in satin. And before his entering into the 
Hall, you shall understand, that he came by water 
up to the water-gate without any noise, where 
were laid divers chambers and guns charged with 
shot, and at his landing they were discharged, 
which made such a rattling noise in the air that it 
was like thunder. It made all the noblemen, 
gentlemen and ladies to muse what it should 
mean coming so suddenly, they sitting quietly at 
a banquet. In this sort you shall understand that 
the tables were set in the Chamber of Presence, 
and my Lord Cardinal sitting under his cloth of 
State, and there having all his service alone ; and 
then was there set a lady and a nobleman, a 
gentleman and a gentlewoman throughout all the 
tables in the chambers on the one side, which 



MAGNIFICENCE IN HIS HOUSE 51 

were made all joining, as it were, but one table. 
All which order was done by my Lord Sands, 
then Lord Chamberlain to the King, and by Sir 
Henry Guildford, then Comptroller of the King's 
house. 

Then, immediately after this great shot of guns, 
the Cardinal desired the Lord Chamberlain to see 
what it did mean, as though he knew nothing of 
the matter. They then looked out of the window 
into the Thames, and returning again, told him 
that they thought they were noblemen and 
strangers arrived at the bridge, and coming as 
ambassadors from some foreign Prince. 

With that said the Cardinal : 

' I desire you, because you can speak French, to 
take^ pains to go into the hall, there to receive 
themMnto the chamber, where they shall see us 
and all those noble personages being merry at our 
banquet, desiring them to sit down with us and 
take part of our fare.' 

Then went they directly into the hall, where 
they were received with twenty torches and con- 
veyed up into the chamber, with such a number of 
drums and flutes as I have seldom seen together 
at one time and place. 

Then, at their arrival into the chamber, they 
went two and two together directly before the 
Cardinal where he sat and saluted them very 

42 



52 

reverently, to whom the Lord Chamberlain for 
them said : 

' Sir, forasmuch as they are strangers and 
cannot speak English, they have desired me to 
declare unto you that they having understanding 
of this your triumphant banquet, at which were 
assembled such a number of fair dames, they 
could do no less (under the support of your Grace) 
than to view as well their incomparable beauties, 
as to accompany them to the "mumchance," and 
after that to dance with them, so to beget their 
better acquaintance. And, furthermore, they 
require of your Grace licence to accomplish this 
cause of their coming.' 

Then the Cardinal said he was willing and very 
well content they should do so. 

Then went the maskers and first saluted all 
the dames, and then returned to the most 
worthiest, and there opened the great cup of 
gold filled with crowns and other pieces to cast 
with. 

Thus perusing all the gentlewomen, of some 
they won and of some they lost. And having 
viewed all the ladies, they returned to the Cardinal, 
with great reverence, pouring down all their gold, 
which was above two hundred crowns. 

' At all/ quoth the Cardinal, and casting the die, 
he won it, whereat was made great joy. 



MAGNIFICENCE IN HIS HOUSE 53 

Then quoth the Cardinal to my Lord Chamber- 
lain: 

' I pray you go tell them, that to me it seemeth 
that there should be a noble man amongst them, 
that better deserves to sit in this place than I, to 
whom I should gladly surrender the same accord- 
ing to my duty if I knew him.' 

Then spake my Lord Chamberlain to them in 
French, declaring my Lord Cardinal's words, and 
they rounding* him again in the ear, the Lord 
Chamberlain said unto my Lord Cardinal : 

' Sir,' quoth he, ' they confess that among them 
is such a noble personage, whom, if your Grace 
can point out from the rest, he is contented to 
disclose himself and to accept of your place most 
willingly.' 

With that, the Cardinal, taking good advice, 
went amongst them, and at the last quoth he, ' It 
seemeth to me that the gentleman with the black 
beard should be he,' and with that he rose from 
out his chair and offered the same to the gentleman 
with the black beard, with the cup in his hand. 
But the Cardinal was mistaken, for the person to 
whom he then offered his chair was Sir Edward 
Nevil, a comely Knight, and of a goodly personage, 
who did more resemble His Majesty's person than 
any other in that mask. 

* ' Rounding,' sometimes spelt ' rowning,' i.e. ' whispering.' 



54 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

The King seeing the Cardinal so deceived in 
his choice, could not forbear laughing, but pulled 
down his vizard and Sir Edward Nevil's also, with 
such a pleasant countenance and cheer, that all the 
noblemen desired His Highness to take his place. 
To whom the King made answer, that he would 
first go and shift himself; and thereupon went into 
the Cardinal's bedchamber, where was a great fire 
prepared for him, and there he new apparelled 
himself with rich and princely garments. In the 
King's absence, the dishes of the banquet were 
clean taken away, and the tables covered again 
with new and perfumed cloths, every man sitting 
still until the King's Majesty with his maskers 
came in among them, every man new apparelled. 

Then the King took his seat under the cloth of 
State, commanding every person to sit still as they 
did before. And then came in a new banquet be- 
fore His Majesty of two hundred dishes, and so 
they passed the night in banqueting and dancing 
until the morning, and it much rejoiced the 
Cardinal to see his Sovereign Lord so pleasant at 
his house. 




IX 



OF THE ORIGINAL INSTRUMENT OF THE CAR- 
DINAL'S FALL, MISTRESS ANNE BOLEYN 

|OW you shall understand that the young 
Lord of Northumberland attended upon 
my Lord Cardinal, who, when the Car- 
dinal went to Court, would ever have conference 
with Mistress Anne Boleyn, who then was one of 
the Maids of Honour to Queen Katherine, inso- 
much that at last they were contracted together, 
which, when the King heard, he was much moved 
thereat (for he had a private affection to her 
himself, which was not yet discovered to any), 
and then advised the Cardinal to send for the 
Earl of Northumberland, his father, and take order 
to dissolve the contract made between the said 
parties, which the Lord Cardinal did, after a sharp 
reprehension, because it was contracted without 
the King's and his father's knowledge. He sent 
for his father, who came up to London very 



$6 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

speedily, and came first to my Lord Cardinal, as 
all great personages did that in such sort were sent 
for, of whom they were advertised of the cause of 
their sending for. And when the Earl was come, 
he was presently brought to the Cardinal into the 
gallery. After whose meeting my Lord Cardinal 
and he were in secret communication a long space. 
After their long discourse and drinking a cup of 
wine, the Earl departed, and at his going away, 
he sat down at the gallery end in the hall upon a 
form, and being set, called his son unto him and 
said : ' Son, even as thou art and ever hast been 
a proud, disdainful and very unthrifty waster, so 
hast thou now declared thyself; wherefore what 
joy, what pleasure, what comfort or what solace 
can I conceive in thee, that thus without discretion 
hast abused thyself, having neither regard to me 
thy natural father, nor unto thy natural Sovereign 
Lord, to whom all honest and loyal subjects bear 
faithful obedience, nor yet to the prosperity of 
thine own estate, but hast so unadvisedly ensnared 
thyself to her for whom thou hast purchased the 
King's high displeasure, intolerable for any subject 
to sustain. And but that the King doth consider 
the lightness of thy head and wilful qualities of 
thy person, his displeasure and indignation were 
sufficient to cast me and all my posterity into utter 
ruin and destruction. But he being my singular 



THE CARDINAL AND ANNE BOLEYN 57 

good Lord and favorable Prince, and my Lord 
Cardinal my very good friend, hath and doth 
clearly excuse me in thy lewdness, and doth rather 
lament thy folly than malign thee, and hath 
advised an order to be taken for thee, to whom 
both you and I are more bound, than we conceive 
of. I pray to God that this may be a sufficient 
admonition unto thee to use thyself more wisely 
hereafter, for assure thyself that if thou dost not 
amend thy prodigality, thou wilt be the last Earl 
of our house. For thy natural inclination, thou 
art masterful and prodigal, to consume all that thy 
progenitors have with great travail gathered and 
kept together with honour. But having the King's 
Majesty my singular good Lord, I trust (I assure 
thee) so to order my succession that thou shalt 
consume thereof but a little. For I do not 
intend, I tell thee, truly to make thee heir, for, 
thanks be to God, I have more boys, that I trust 
will use themselves much better and prove more 
like to wise and honest men, of whom I will 
choose the most likely to succeed me. 

' Now, good masters and gentlemen,' quoth he 
to the servants, ' it may be your chances hereafter, 
when I am dead, to see those things that I have 
spoken to my son prove as true as I now speak 
them ; yet in the meantime I desire you all to be 
his friends and tell him his faults, in what he doth 



$8 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

amiss, wherein you shall show yourselves friendly 
to him, and so I take my leave of you ; and, son, 
go your ways unto my Lord and Master and serve 
him diligently.' And he parted and went down 
into the hall and so took his barge. 

Then after long and large debating the matter 
about the Lord Percy's assurance to Mistress Anne 
Boleyn, it was devised that the contract should be 
infringed and dissolved, and that Lord Percy 
should marry one of the Earl of Shrewsbury's 
daughters. And so indeed not long after he did, 
whereby the former contract was broken and 
dissolved, wherewith Mistress Anne was greatly 
displeased, promising that if ever it lay in her 
power, she would do the Cardinal some displeasure, 
which she afterwards did. But yet he was not 
altogether to be blamed, for he did nothing but 
what the King commanded, whereby the Lord 
Percy was charged to avoid her company. And 
so was she for a time discharged at the Court and 
sent home to her father, whereat she was much 
troubled and perplexed. For all this time she 
knew nothing of the King's intended purpose. 
But we may see when Fortune doth begin to frown 
how she can compass a matter of displeasure 
through a far-fetch mark; now therefore of the 
grudge how it began that in process of time 
wrought the Cardinal's utter destruction. 




X 

OF MISTRESS ANNE BOLEYN'S FAVOUR WITH 
THE KING 

Lord, what a great God art Thou, that 
workest Thy wonders so secretly that 
they are not perceived until they be 
brought to pass and finished ! 

Attend now, good reader, to this story following, 
and note every circumstance, and thou shalt at the 
end perceive a wonderful work of God against 
such as forget Him and His benefits. Therefore, 
I say, consider after this my Lord Percy's trouble- 
some business was over, and all things brought to 
an end. Then Mistress Anne Boleyn was again 
admitted to the Court, where she flourished in 
great estimation and favour, having always a prime 
grudge against my Lord Cardinal for breaking the 
contract between the Lord Percy and herself, 
supposing it had been his own device and no 
other's. And she at last, knowing the King's 



60 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

pleasure and the depth of his secrets, then began 
to look very haughtily, lacking no manner of. rich 
apparel or jewels that money could purchase. 

It was therefore imagined by many through the 
Court that she, being in such favour, might do 
much with the King, and obtain any suit of him 
for her friends. All this while, being in this 
estimation in all places, there was no doubt but 
good Queen Katherine, having this gentlewoman 
daily attending upon her, both heard by report and 
saw with her eyes how all things tended against 
her good Ladyship, although she seemed neither to 
Mistress Anne Boleyn nor the King to carry any 
spark of discontent or displeasure, but accepted all 
things in good part, and with great wisdom and 
much patience dissembled the same, having Mis- 
tress Anne Boleyn in more estimation for the 
King's sake than when she was with her before, 
declaring herself indeed to be a very patient Grissel, 
as by her long patience in all her troubles shall 
hereafter more plainly appear. For the King was 
so enamoured of this young gentlewoman that he 
knew not how sufficiently to advance her. 

This being perceived by all the great Lords of 
the Court, who bore a secret grudge against my 
Lord Cardinal for that they could not rule in the 
kingdom as they would for him because he was 
'Dominus factotum' with the King, and ruled as 



ANNE BOLEYN'S FAVOUR WITH THE KING 6l 

well the great Lords as the mean subjects, whereat 
they took occasion to work him out of the King's 
favour, and, consequently, themselves into more 
estimation. And after long and secret consulta- 
tion with themselves how to bring this matter to 
pass, they knew very well that it was somewhat 
difficult for them to do absolutely of themselves. 
Wherefore they, perceiving the great affection and 
love the King bore to Mistress Anne Boleyn, sup- 
posing in their judgments that she would be a fit 
instrument to bring their earnest intentions to pass, 
therefore they often consulted with her to that 
purpose, and she, having both a very good wit and 
also an inward grudge and displeasure against my 
Lord Cardinal, was ever as ready to accomplish 
their desires as they were themselves ; wherefore 
there was no more to do, but only to imagine an 
occasion to work their malice by some pretended 
circumstances. 

Then did they daily invent divers devices how 
to effect their purpose, but the enterprise thereof 
was so dangerous, that though they would feign 
have attempted the matter with the King, yet 
durst they not, for they knew the great zeal the 
King did bear unto the Cardinal, and this they 
knew very well, that if the matter they should 
propound against him was not grounded upon a 
just and urgent cause, the King's love was such 



62 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

towards him, and his wit such withal, that he could 
with his policy vanquish all their enterprises, and 
then, after that, requite them in the like nature to 
their utter ruin. 

Therefore they were compelled to forbear their 
plots till they might have some better ground to 
work upon. And now the Cardinal, seeing the 
great zeal the King bore to this gentlewoman, 
framed himself to please her as well as the King. 
To that end therefore he prepared great banquets 
and feasts to entertain the King and her at his own 
house, she all the while dissembling he secret 
grudge in her breast. Now about the Cardinal 
began to grow wonderful inventions, not heard of 
before in England, and the love between this 
glorious lady and the King grew to such perfection 
that divers things were imagined, whereof I forbear 
here to speak until I come to the proper place. 




XI 



OF THE VARIANCE BETWEEN THE FRENCH KING 
AND THE DUKE OF BOURBON, WHO FLED 
TO THE CITY OF PA VIA, WHERE THE KING 
BESIEGED HIM 

j HEN began a certain grudge between 
the French King and the Duke of 
Bourbon to break out, insomuch that 
the Duke, being now at variance with the house of 
France, was compelled for safeguard of his life to fly 
and forsake his country, fearing the King's malice 
and indignation. The Cardinal having intelligence 
hereof, contrived that the King our Sovereign Lord 
should obtain the Duke to be his General in his 
wars against the French King, with whom our 
King had then an occasion to war, and the rather 
because the Duke of Bourbon had fled to the 
Emperor to invite him to a like purpose. And 
after the King was advised thereof and conceived 
the Cardinal's invention, he mused more and more 



64 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

of this matter until it came into a consultation 
amongst the Council, so that it was concluded that 
an ambassador should be sent to the Emperor 
about this matter, and it was further concluded 
that the King and Emperor should join in those 
wars against the French King, and that the Duke 
of Bourbon should be the King of England's 
Champion and General in the field. He had a 
number of good soldiers over and besides the 
Emperor's army, which was not small, and it was 
agreed that the King should pay the Duke 
monthly wages for himself and his retinue. 

For which purpose John Russell, who was after- 
wards created Earl of Bedford, lay continually 
beyond the seas in a secret place, both to receive 
money from the King, and to pay the same 
monthly to the Duke, so that the Duke began the 
wars with the French King in his own territories 
and dukedom, which the King had gotten into his 
own hands, being not perfectly known to the 
Duke's enemies that he had any aid from our 
Sovereign Lord ; and thus he wrought the French 
King much displeasure, inasmuch that the French 
King was constrained to at once prepare an army, 
and in his own person to resist the Duke's power. 
And battle being joined, the King drove him to 
take Pavia, a strong town in Italy, with his host of 
men for his security, where the King encamped 



THE KING AND THE DUKE OF BOURBON 65 

himself wonderfully strong, intending to close the 
Duke within the town, lest he should issue out and 
skirmish with him. 

The French King in his camp sent secretly into 
England a private person (being a very witty man) 
to treat or a peace between his master and our 
Sovereign. His name was John Jokin, or Joachin, 
who was kept as secretly as might be, no man 
having intelligence of his arrival, for he was no 
Frenchman born, but an Italian, a man of no great 
estimation in France, or known to be much in his 
master's favour, but taken to be a merchant. And 
for his subtile wit he was elected to treat of such 
an ambassage as the French King had given him 
in commission. 

This Jokin (or Joachin) was secretly conveyed 
to Richmond, and there stayed until such time as 
the Cardinal resorted thither to him, where, after 
Easter Term was ended, he kept his Feast of 
Whitsuntide very solemnly. In this season my 
Lord Cardinal caused this Jokin divers times to 
dine with him, who seemed to be both witty and 
of good behaviour ; he continued long in England 
after this, till at last (as it should seem) he had 
brought the matter which he had in commission 
to pass, whereupon the King sent out immediately 
a restraint to Sir John Russell that he should 
retain that month's pay still in his hands, until the 

5 



66 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

King's pleasure should be further made known, 
which should have been paid to the Duke, being 
then encamped within the town of Pavia. 

For want of this money the Duke and his men 
were much dismayed, when they saw no money 
come as it was wont to do ; and being in this 
dangerous case where victuals began to be scant 
and very dear, they imagined many ways what 
should be the reason that the King's money came 
not. Some said this, and some said that, mistrust- 
ing nothing else than the true cause thereof. 




XII 

OF THE DUKE OF BOURBON'S STRATAGEM AND 
VICTORY, WHEREIN THE FRENCH KING WAS 
TAKEN PRISONER 

jOW, the Duke and his soldiers were in 
great misery for want of victuals and 
other necessaries, which they could by 
no means get within the town. Hereupon the 
captains and soldiers began to grudge and mur- 
mur, being for want of victuals all like to perish ; 
and being in this extremity, they came before the 
Duke and said : ' Sir, we must of force and neces- 
sity yield to our enemies ; and better were it for us 
so to do than to starve like dogs.' But when the 
Duke heard this he replied with weeping tears : 
' Sirs, you have proved yourselves valiant men and 
of noble hearts in this service, and for your neces- 
sity, whereof I myself do participate, I do not 
a little lament. But I shall desire you, as you are 

S) 

4 



68 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

noble in heart and courage, so to take patience 
for two or three days, and if succour come not then 
from the King of England (as I doubt nothing 
less), I will then consent to you all to put our- 
selves and lives unto the mercy of our enemies.' 
Whereunto they all agreed, and tarried till two 
days were past, expecting relief from the King. 
Then the Duke, seeing no remedy, called his noble 
captains and soldiers before him, and, weeping, 
said : ' You noblemen and captains, we must yield 
ourselves unto our enemies or else famish. To 
yield the town and ourselves, will be to know well 
the cruelty of our enemies. As for my part, I care 
not for their cruelties, for I shall suffer death, I 
know very well, most cruelly if I come once into their 
hands. It is not, therefore, for myself that I do 
lament ; it is for your sakes, and for your lives, 
and for the safeguard of your persons ; for so that 
you might escape your enemies' hands I would 
willingly suffer death. Good companions and 
noble soldiers, I do require you all, considering 
the miserable calamities and dangers we are in at 
this present, to sell our lives most dearly rather 
than be murdered like beasts. Therefore, if you 
all consent with me, we will take upon us this 
night to give our enemies assault, and by that 
means we may either escape or else give them an 
overthrowal, for it were better to die like men in 



THE DUKE OF BOURBON'S STRATAGEM 69 

the field than to live prisoners miserably in cap- 
tivity. 5 To this they all agreed. 

'Then,' quoth the Duke, 'you all perceive the 
enemy's camp is strong, and there is no way to 
enter upon them but one, and that entry is planted 
with great cannons and strength of men so that it 
is impossible to attain to our enemies that way to 
fight with them in their camp. And also now of 
late you perceive they have had but small doubt of 
us, and so they have kept but slender watch ; 
therefore mine advice is that there shall issue out 
of the town in the dead time of the night from us 
a certain number of you that be most likely to 
assault the camp, and they shall give the assault 
secretly against the place of the entry, which is 
most strong and invincible, which force and valiant 
assault shall be to them of the camp so doubtful 
that they will turn the strength of the entry that 
lieth over against your assault to beat you from 
your purpose. Then I will enter out at the postion 
gate and come to the place of their strength newly 
turned, and there ere they be aware will I enter 
and fight with them in the camp and win their 
cannon which they have newly turned, and beat 
them with their own pieces, and then may you 
come and join with me in the field.' So this 
device pleased them all wonderfully well, and they 
did then prepare themselves all that day for that 



7O LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

device, and kept themselves secret and close with- 
out any noise or shot of pieces in the town, which 
gave the enemy the less fear of the assault, for at 
night they went all to their tents and slept quietly, 
nothing mistrusting what after happened. So, in 
the dead of the night, when they were at rest, the 
assailants issued out of the town, and there, ac- 
cording to the Duke's appointment, they gave so 
cruel and fierce an assault that they in the camp 
had much ado to withstand them. And then, 
as the Duke before had declared, they within 
were compelled to turn the shot that lay at the 
entry against the assault. Then issued out the 
Duke and with him about fifteen or sixteen 
hundred men or more secretly in the night, the 
enemy being ignorant of his coming until he 
entered the field. At his entry he took all the 
cannon that lay there and slew the gunners, then 
charged the pieces against the enemies, and slew 
them wonderfully, and cut down their tents and 
pavilions, and murdered many therein ere they 
were aware of his coming, suspecting nothing less 
than his entry, so that he won the field ere the 
King could arise. So the King was taken in his 
lodging before he was armed. And when the 
Duke had won the field, the French King being 
taken and his men slain, his tents robbed and 
spoiled and the King's coffers searched, the Duke 



THE DUKE OF BOURBON'S STRATAGEM ?I 

of Bourbon found the league under the Great Seal 
of England newly made between the King of 
England and the French King, whereby he per- 
ceived the cause of the withdrawal of his money 
which should have come to him from the King, 
having upon due search of this matter further 
intelligence that all this business was devised by 
the Cardinal of England. Whereupon the Duke 
conceived such indignation against the Cardinal 
that he went immediately to Rome, and there 
intended to sack the town and to have taken the 
Pope ; but at the first assault of the town the Duke 
was the first man that was there slain, notwith- 
standing the captains continued their assaults, and 
at last many of the town fled with the Pope to the 
Castle of Angell, where he continued in great 
calamity. 

I have written this history more at large because 
that you may see whatsoever a man doth propose, 
be he Prince or Prelate, yet God disposeth all 
things according to His pleasure and will, it being 
a folly for any wise man to take upon him any 
weighty enterprise of his own will without calling 
upon God for His grace and assistance in all his 
proceedings. 

I have seen Princes either when they would call 
a Parliament or any other great assembly that they 
would first call to God most reverently for His 



72 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

grace therein. And now I see the contrary, as it 
seems they trust more to their own minds and wills 
than to God's good grace ; and even thereafter 
oftentimes do their matters take effect, wherefore 
not only in this history, but divers others, may be 
perceived most evident examples. Yet I see no 
man almost in authority or high estate regard the 
same, which is the greater pity and the more to be 
lamented. Now here I desist to speak any further 
of this matter, and proceed to others. 




CHAPTER XIII 

OF THE FRENCH KING'S REDEMPTION OUT OF 
CAPTIVITY, AND OF THE CARDINAL'S AMBAS- 
SAGE INTO FRANCE 

PON the taking of the French King, there 
were divers consultations and various 
opinions amongst the Council. Some 
held that our Sovereign Lord the King could 
invade the realm of France, and might easily 
conquer the same, forasmuch as the King with 
the most part of the noblemen of France were 
in captivity ; some said, again, that the King, 
our Master, ought to have had the French King 
prisoner, forasmuch as he was taken by our King's 
Champion and Captain-General the Duke of Bour- 
bon and the Emperor, insomuch that the King was 
advised thereby to occasion of war against the 
Emperor because he kept the King of France out 
of our King's possession, with divers imaginations 



74 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

and devises as their fantasies served, which were 
too long to relate here. 

Thus were they in long consideration, whereof 
every man in the Court talked as his fancy served 
him, until at the last divers ambassadors from the 
realm of France came to the King, our Lord, 
desiring him to take order with the Emperor for 
the French King's delivery as his Highness's 
wisdom should think best, wherein my Lord 
Cardinal bore great rule. So that after great 
deliberation and advice being taken, it was thought 
good by the Cardinal that the Emperor should 
deliver the French King out of his ward upon suf- 
ficient pledges. 

And afterwards it was thought meet that the 
King's two sons, that is to say the Dauphin and the 
Duke of Orleans, should be delivered as hostages 
for security of the Emperor and the King our 
Sovereign Lord upon all such demands and re- 
quests as should be demanded of the French King 
as well by the Emperor as by our Sovereign Lord. 

The Cardinal, lamenting the French King's cap- 
tivity and the Pope's great adversity (who yet 
remained in the Castle Angell, either as prisoner 
or else for defence against his enemies), en- 
deavoured and laboured all that he could with 
the King and his Council to take some order for 
the benefit of them both. 



THE KING'vS REDEMPTION OUT OF CAPTIVITY 75 

At the last, as you have heard before, divers of 
the great States and Lords of the Council, with the 
Lady Anne, lay in continual wait to spy a con- 
venient occasion to take the Cardinal in a snare. 

Therefore they consulted with the Cardinal, and 
informed him that they thought it a necessary 
time for him to take upon him the King's commis- 
sion to travel beyond the seas, and by his wisdom 
to compass a present peace amongst these great 
princes and potentates, encouraging him thereto 
and alleging that it was more meet for his wisdom, 
discretion and authority to bring so weighty a 
matter to pass than for any other within the realm. 
Their intent was no other than to get him from the 
King that they might adventure, by the help of 
their chief mistresses, to malign him unto the King, 
and so in his absence bring him into his disgrace, 
or at the least to be in less estimation. 

Well, the matter was so handled that the 
Cardinal was commanded to prepare himself for 
the journey which he took upon him, but whether 
willingly or not I cannot say. But this I know, 
that he made so short abode after the perfect 
resolution thereof that he caused all things to be 
prepared speedily for his journey ; and every one 
of his servants was appointed that should attend 
him in the same. 

When all things were concluded and provided 



?6 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

for this noble journey, he advanced forward in the 
name of God ; my Lord had with him such of the 
Lords and Bishops as were not of the conspiracy. 

Then marched he forward from his new house 
at Westminster through all London, over London 
Bridge, having a great many of gentlemen in a 
rank before him in velvet coats, and the most part 
of them with chains of gold about their necks. 
And all his yeomen followed him with noble men 
and tall men-servants, all in orange-tawny coats, 
and the Cardinal's hat with T. and C. for Thomas 
Cardinal embroidered upon them and also upon 
his own servants' coats, and those of the rest of the 
gentlemen. His sumpter mules were twenty and 
more in number, and when all his carriages and 
carts and other train were passed before, he rode 
very sumptuously, like a Cardinal, with the rest of 
his train, on his mule, with his spare mule and 
his spare horse covered with crimson velvet and 
gilt stirrups following him. And before him he 
had his two great silver crosses, his two pillars of 
silver, the King's Broad Seal of England and his 
Cardinal's hat, and a gentleman carrying his 
valaunce, otherwise called his cloak-bag, which 
was made of fine scarlet all embroidered very 
richly with gold. Thus he passed through London, 
as I said before, and all the way in his journey he 
was thus furnished, having his harbingers in every 



THE KING'S REDEMPTION OUT OF CAPTIVITY 77 

place before, which prepared lodgings for him and 
his said train. 

The first journey he went two miles beyond 
Deptford in Kent, unto Sir Richard Wiltshire's 
house ; the rest of his train were lodged in Dept- 
ford, and in the country thereabouts. 

The next day he marched to Rochester, where 
he lay in the Bishop's Palace, and the rest were 
lodged in the city. 

The third day he rode from thence to Faversham, 
and there lodged in the Abbey, and his train in 
the town, and some about in the country. 

The fourth day he rode to Canterbury, where he 
was kindly entertained by the Bishop of the city, 
and there he continued four or five days ; in which 
season was the Jubilee and a great fair in the town, 
by reason it was the Feast of Saint Thomas, their 
patron, upon which day there was a solemn pro- 
cession, wherein my Lord Cardinal was in his 
Legatine ornaments, with his hat upon his head, 
who commanded the monks and the choir to sing 
the Latin after this sort : ' Sancta Maria ora pro 
Papa nostro clemente '; and in this manner perused 
the Latin through, my Lord Cardinal kneeling at 
a stool before the choir door prepared for him with 
carpets and cushions. All the monks and the 
choir stood in the body singing the Litany ; at 
which time I saw my Lord Cardinal weep tenderly, 



78 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

the which many conceived to be for grief that the 
Pope was in such calamity and danger of the 
Lance Knights. The next day I was sent with 
letters from my Lord to a Cardinal in Calais in 
post, so that I was the same night in Calais. At 
my arrival I found standing upon the pier without 
the Lantern Gate all the Council of the town, to 
whom I delivered up my message and my letters 
before I entered the town, where I lay until my 
Lord came thither, who arrived two days after my 
coming thither before eight o'clock in the morning, 
and was received of all the noble Officers and 
Council of the town with procession, the clerks 
being in rich copes having many rich crosses. In 
the Lantern Gate a stool with cushions and carpets 
was set for him, where he kneeled and made his 
prayers, at which time they censed him with 
censers of silver and sprinkled water. That done, 
they passed on before him in procession until he 
came into Saint Mary's Church, where, at the High 
Altar, turning him to the people, he gave them 
his Benediction and pardon, and then he repaired 
with a great number of noblemen and gentlemen 
to a place in the town called the Chequer, 
where he kept his house so long as he abode in the 
town, going immediately into his bed, because he 
was somewhat troubled with sickness by reason of 
his passage by sea. 



THE KING'S REDEMPTION OUT OF CAPTIVITY 79 

That night he called unto him Monsieur de 
Biez, Captain of Boulogne, with divers other 
gallants and gentlemen who had dined with him 
that day, and having some further consultation 
with my Lord Cardinal, he and the rest of the 
gentlemen departed again to Boulogne. 

Thus my Lord was daily visited with one or 
other of the French nobility. 

When all his train and carriage was landed, and 
all things prepared for his journey, His Grace called 
all his noblemen and gentlemen into the Privy 
Chamber, where, being assembled before him, he 
said : ' I have called you hither to declare unto 
you that I would have you both consider the duty 
you owe to me and the goodwill I openly bear to 
you for the same. I would show you further the 
authority I have by commission from the King, 
your diligent observance of which I will hereafter 
recommend to His Majesty, as also to show you 
the nature of the Frenchmen, and withal to instruct 
you what reverence you shall show me for the 
high honour of the King's majesty, and to inform 
you how you shall entertain and accompany the 
Frenchmen when you meet at any time. 

' Concerning the first point, you shall understand 
for divers weighty affairs of His Grace's, and for 
mere advancement of his royal dignity, he hath 
assigned me in this journey to be his Lieutenant. 



80 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

What reverence belongeth to me for the same I 
will show you. 

' By virtue therefore of my commission and Lieu- 
tenantship, I assume and take upon me to be 
esteemed in all honour and degrees of service as 
unto His Highness is meet and due, and that by me 
nothing be neglected that to his State is due and 
fitting ; for my part you shall see that I will not omit 
one jot thereof. Therefore, one of the chief causes 
of your assembly at this time is to inform you that 
you be not ignorant of your duty in this. I wish 
you, therefore, as you would have my favour, and 
also charge you all in the King's name, that you do 
not forget the same in time and place, but that 
every one of you do observe his duty to me accord- 
ing as you will at your return avoid the King's 
indignation or deserve His Highness's thanks, the 
which I will set forth at our return as each of you 
shall deserve. 

' Now, to the second point, the nature of French- 
men is such that at their first meeting they will be 
as familiar with you as if they had known you by 
long acquaintance, and will commune with you in 
their French tongue as if you knew every word ; 
therefore use them in a kind manner, and be as 
familiar with them as they are with you. If they 
speak to you in their natural tongue, speak to them 
in English ; for if you understand not them, no 



THE KING'S REDEMPTION OUT OF CAPTIVITY 8 1 

more shall they you.' Then, speaking merrily to 
one of the gentlemen, being a Welshman, ' Rice,' 
quoth he, ' speak thou Welsh to them, and doubt 
not but thy speech will be more difficult to them 
than their French shall be to thee.' Moreover, he 
said unto them all, ' Let your entertainment and 
behaviour be according to all gentlemen's in 
humility that it may be reported after our depar- 
ture from thence that you were gentlemen of very 
good behaviour and humility, that all men may 
know you understand your duties to your King 
and to your master ; thus shall you not only 
obtain to yourselves great commendations and 
praises, but also greatly advance your Prince and 
country. 

' Now, being admonished of these things, prepare 
yourselves against to-morrow, for then we purpose 
to set forward.' Therefore we his servants, being 
thus instructed and all things being in readiness, 
proceeded forwards. 

The next day being Mary Magdalen's Day, my 
Lord Cardinal advanced out of Calais with such a 
number of black coats as hath seldom been seen ; 
with the ambassador went all the Peers of Calais 
and Guienne. All other gentlemen, besides those 
of his train, were garnished with black velvet coats 
and chains of gold. 

Thus passed he forward, with his troop before, 

6 



82 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

three in a rank, which compass extended three 
quarters of a mile in length, having his crosses and 
all of his other accustomed glorious furniture 
carried before him, as I have formerly related, 
except the Broad Seal, the which he left with 
Doctor Taylor, then Master of the Rolls, until his 
return. 

Thus passing on his way, we had scarce gone a 
mile but it began to rain so vehemently that I have 
not seen the like for the time, which endured until 
we came to Boulogne, and ere we came to Stand- 
ingfield the Cardinal of Lorraine, a goodly young 
gentleman, gave my Lord a meeting and received 
him with much joy and reverence, and so passed 
forth with my Lord in communication, until we 
came near the said Standingfield, which is a re- 
ligious place standing between the English, French 
and imperial dominions, being a neuter, held of 
neither of them. 

Then there we waited for my Lord the Count 
Brion, Captain of Picardy, with a great number of 
Stradiots or Arbenois,* standing in array in a great 
field of green oats, all in harness upon light horses, 
passing on with my Lord in a wing unto Boulogne 
and so after into Picardy, for my Lord doubted 
that the Emperor would lay some ambush to 

* Stradiots and Arbenois were light-armed cavalry, said to 
be Greek mercenaries. 



THE KING'S REDEMPTION OUT OF CAPTIVITY 83 

betray him, for which cause he commanded them 
to attend my Lord for the safety of his own person, 
to conduct him from the danger of his enemies. 

Thus rode he accompanied until he came nigh 
to Boulogne, within an English mile, where all the 
worshipful citizens of Boulogne came and met 
him, having a learned man that made an oration 
in Latin to him, unto the which my Lord made 
answer ; and that done, Monsieur de Biez, Captain 
of Boulogne, with his retinue, met him on horse- 
back with all his assembly. Thus he marched 
into the town, alighting at the Abbey gate, from 
whence he was conveyed into the Abbey with pro- 
cession, and they presented him with the image of 
Our Lady, commonly called Our Lady of Boulogne, 
where were always great offerings. That done, he 
gave his blessing to the people with certain days 
of pardon. Then went he into the Abbey to his 
lodging, but all his train were lodged in the high 
and basse towns. 

The next day, after he had heard Mass, he rode 
to Montreuil, where he was in like manner saluted 
by the worshipful of the town all in livery alike, 
where also a learned oration was made to him in 
Latin, which His Grace answered, again in Latin. 
And as he entered in at the gate there was a canopy 
of silk embroidered with like letters as his men 
had on their coats. And when he was alighted, his 

6-2 



84 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

footmen had it as due to their office. There was 
also made pageants for joy of his coming, who was 
called in the French tongue whither ever he rode 
or came ' Le Cardinal de Patifagus,' and in Latin 
' Cardinalis Patifagus,' who was accompanied all 
that night with the gentlemen of the country there- 
about. 

The next day he took his journey towards 
Abbeville, where he was in like manner enter- 
tained and conveyed into the town, and most 
honourably welcomed with divers kinds of pageants 
both costly and wittily contrived at every turning 
of the streets, as he rode through the town, having 
a canopy borne over him richer than at Montreuil ; 
and so they conveyed him to his lodging, which 
was a fair house newly built with brick, at which 
house the French King Louis was married to the 
King's sister, who was married after to the Duke 
of Suffolk. In this town of Abbeville he remained 
eight or nine days, where resorted unto him divers 
of the French King's Council, every day continually 
feasting and entertaining him and the other Lords. 
At the time of his departing out of the town, he 
rode to a castle beyond the water, called by some 
the Channel Percequeine, standing and adjoining 
to the said water upon a great hill and rock, within 
the which there was a college of priests, the situa- 
tion whereof was much like to the Castle of 



THE KING'S REDEMPTION OUT OF CAPTIVITY 85 

Windsor in England, and there he was received 
with a solemn procession, conveying him first to 
the church and then to the cattle upon the bridge 
over the water of Somme, where Edward IV. met 
with the French King, as you may read at large in 
the Chronicles of England. 

My Lord was no sooner seated in his lodging, 
but I heard that the French King would come that 
day to the city of Amiens, which was not above 
six English miles from thence. And being desirous 
to see his coming thither, I took with me two of 
my Lord's gentlemen, and rode presently thither. 
Being but strangers, we took up our lodgings at 
the sign of the Angel, directly over against the 
west door of the cathedral church of Notre Dame, 
where we stayed in expectation of the King's 
coming. And about four of the clock came 
Madam Regent, the King's mother, riding in a 
very rich chariot, and with her within was the 
Queen of Navarre, her daughter, attended with a 
hundred or more of ladies and gentlewomen, follow- 
ing, every one riding upon a white palfrey ; also 
her guard, which was of no small number. 

And within two days after the King came in 
with a shot of guns, and there were divers pageants 
made only for joy of his coming, having about his 
person and before him a great number of noblemen 
and gentlemen in three companies. The first were 



86 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

of Soutches and Burgonians with guns, the second 
were Frenchmen with bows, the third guard was 
of tall Scots, who were more comely persons than 
all the rest The French guard and Scottish had 
all one livery, being apparelled with rich coats of 
white cloth, with a rich guard of silver bullion of 
a handful broad. The King came riding on a rich 
genet, and did alight at the said great church, and 
was conveyed with procession to the Bishop's 
palace, where he was lodged. 

The next morning I rode again to Pincquigny 
to attend upon my Lord, and when I came, my 
Lord was ready to go on horseback to ride towards 
Amiens, and, passing on his way, was saluted by 
divers noble personages, making him orations in 
Latin, to whom my Lord made answer 'extem- 
pore.' There was word brought him that the King 
was ready to meet him, wherefore he had no other 
shift but to alight at an old chapel that stood hard 
by the highway, and there he newly apparelled 
himself in rich array, and so mounted again upon 
another mule, very richly trapped with a foot-cloth 
of crimson velvet purled with gold, and fringed 
about the edges with a fringe of gold very costly ; 
his stirrups of silver gilt ; the bosses of the same 
and the checks of his mule's bit were all gilt with 
fine gold, and by the time he was mounted again 
in this gorgeous manner the King was come very 



THE KING'S REDEMPTION OUT OF CAPTIVITY 87 

near, within less than an English quarter of a mile, 
his guard standing in array upon the top of a high 
hill, expecting my Lord's coming, to whom my 
Lord made as much haste as conveniently he could, 
until he came within a pair of butt lengths, and 
there he stayed. The King perceiving that, 
caused Monsieur Vaudemont to issue from him 
and to ride to my Lord Cardinal to know the cause 
of his tarrying ; and so Monsieur Vaudemont, 
being mounted upon a very fair genet, took his 
race with his horse till he came even to my Lord, 
and then he caused his horse to come aloft twice 
or thrice so near my Lord's mule that he was in 
doubt .of his horse, and so alighted, and in humble 
reverence did his message to my Lord. That done, 
he repaired to the King. And then the King 
advanced forwards, seeing my Lord do the like, 
and in the mid-way they met, embracing each 
other with amiable countenances. Then came 
into the place all noblemen and gentlemen on 
both sides, who made a mighty press. 
Then the King's officers cried : 
' Marche, marche, devant, allez devant !' 
So the King, with the Lord Cardinal on his right 
hand, rode towards Amiens, every English gentle- 
man being accompanied by another of France. 
The train of these two great princes was two miles 
in length that is to say, from the place of their 



88 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

meeting at Amiens, where they were nobly received 
with guns and pageants, until the King had brought 
my Lord to his lodging, and then departed for the 
night, the King being lodged in the Bishop's 
Palace. And the next day, after dinner, my Lord 
rode with a great train of English noblemen and 
gentlemen unto the Court to the King, at which 
time the King kept his bed, yet nevertheless my 
Lord came into his bedchamber, where on the one 
side of the bed sat the King's mother, and on the 
other side the Cardinal of Lorraine, accompanied 
with divers other gentlemen of France, and after 
some communication and drinking of wine with 
the King's mother, my Lord departed and returned 
to his own lodging, accompanied with divers other 
lords and gentlemen. 

Thus continued my Lord at Amiens, and also 
the King, fourteen days, feasting each other divers 
times, and there one day at Mass the King and my 
Lord received the Holy Sacrament, as also the 
Queen Regent and the Queen of Navarre. After 
that it was determined that the King and my Lord 
should remove, and so they rode to a city called 
Compeigne, which was more than twenty miles 
from Amiens, unto which town I was sent to pro- 
vide lodging for my Lord, and in my travel I had 
occasion to stay by the way at a little village to 
shoe my horse. There came to me a servant from 



THE KING'S REDEMPTION OUT OF CAPTIVITY 89 

the Castle, perceiving me to be an Englishman 
and one of my Lord Legate's servants, who desired 
me to go into the Castle to the Lord, his master, 
whom he thought would be very glad to see me, to 
whom I consented because I desired acquaintance 
with strangers, especially men of authority and 
honourable rank ; so I went with him, who con- 
ducted me to the Castle, and at my first entrance 
I was among the watchmen who kept the first ward, 
being very tall men and comely persons, who 
saluted me very kindly. 

Knowing the cause of my coming, they adver- 
tised their lord and master, and forthwith the 
lord of the castle came out unto me. His name 
was Monsieur Crookesly, a nobleman born, and 
at his coming he embraced me, saying that I was 
heartily welcome, and thanked me that I was so 
gentle as to visit him and his castle, saying that 
he was preparing to meet the King and my Lord 
Cardinal, and to invite them to his castle ; and 
when he had showed me the strength of his castle 
and the walls, which were fourteen feet broad, and 
I had seen all the houses, he brought me down into 
a fair inner court, where his genet stood ready for 
him, with twelve other of the fairest genets that 
ever I saw, especially his own, which was a mare, 
for which genet he told me he had 400 crowns 
offered. Upon these twelve genets were mounted 



90 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

twelve goodly gentlemen, called pages of honour. 
They rode all bareheaded in coats of cloth of gold, 
guarded with black velvet, and they had all of 
them boots of red Spanish leather. 

Then took he his leave of me, commanding his 
Steward and other of his gentlemen to conduct me 
to his lady to dinner. So they led me up to the 
gatehouse, where then their lady and mistress 
lay for the time that the King and the Cardinal 
should tarry there. And after a short time the 
Lady Crookesly came out of her chamber into 
the dining-room, where I attended her coming, 
who did receive me very nobly, she having a 
train of twelve gentlemen that did attend on 
her. 

' Forasmuch,' quoth she, ' as you are an English- 
man, whose custom is to kiss all the ladies and 
gentlewomen in your country without offence, yet 
it is not so in this realm ; notwithstanding, I will 
be so bold as to kiss you, and so shall you salute 
all my maids.' 

After this we went to dinner, being nobly served 
as ever I saw in England, passing all dinner-time 
in pleasing discourses. 

And shortly after dinner I took my leave, and 
was constrained that night to lie short of Com- 
peigne at a great walled town called Montdidier, 
the suburbs whereof my Lord of Suffolk had lately 



THE KING'S REDEMPTION OUT OF CAPTIVITY 9! 

burned, and early in the morning I came to Com- 
peigne, being Saturday and market-day. At my 
first coming I took up my inn over against the 
market-place, and being set at dinner in a fair 
chamber that looked out into the street, I heard a 
great noise and clattering of bills, and looking out, 
I saw the officers of the town bringing a prisoner 
to execution, and with a sword cut off his head. 
I demanded what was the offence. They answered 
me, for killing of red-deer in the forest near 
adjoining. And immediately they held the poor 
man's head upon a pole in the market-place 
between the stag's horns, and his four quarters 
were set up in four places of the forest. 

Having prepared my Cardinal's lodgings in the 
great castle of the town, and seen it furnished, my 
Lord had the one half assigned, and the King the 
other half, and in like manner they divided the 
gallery between them. And in the midst thereof 
there was made a strong wall, with a window and 
a door, where the King and my Lord did often 
meet and talk, and divers times go one to the other 
through the same door. Also there was lodged in 
the same castle Madam Regent, the King's mother, 
and all the ladies and gentlewomen that did 
attend on her. 

Not long after came the Lord Chancellor of 
France, a very witty man, with all the King's 



92 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

grave Counsellors, and they took great pains daily 
in consultation. At which time I heard my Lord 
Cardinal fall out with the Chancellor of France, 
laying to his charge that he went about to hinder 
the League which before his coming was concluded 
upon by the King, our Sovereign Lord, and the 
French King, their master, insomuch that my 
Lord told him it was not he that should infringe 
the amiable friendship ; and if the French King, 
his master, being there present, would follow his, 
the Chancellor's, counsel, he should not fail shortly 
after his return to feel the smart which it was to 
maintain war against the King of England, and 
thereof he should be well assured. He arose and 
went unto his own lodging wondrously offended 
insomuch that his angry speech and bold coun- 
tenance made them all doubt how to quiet him to 
the Council, who was then departed in great fury. 
Now here was sending, here was coming, here was 
entreating, and here was great submission and 
intercession made unto him to reduce him to his 
former communication, who would in no ways 
relent until Madam Regent came to him herself, 
who handled the matter so well that she brought 
him to his former communication, and by this 
means he brought all things to pass that before he 
could not compass, which was more out of fear 
than affection the French King had to the matter 



THE KING'S REDEMPTION OUT OF CAPTIVITY 93 

in hand, for now he had got the heads of the 
Council under his girdle. 

The next morning after this conflict the Cardinal 
arose about four of the clock and sate him down to 
write letters into England unto the King, command- 
ing one of his Chaplains to prepare himself ready, 
insomuch that the Chaplain stood ready x in his 
vestments until four of the clock in the afternoon, 
all which season my Lord never rose to any meat, 
but continually wrote letters with his own hand. 
About four o'clock of the afternoon he made an 
end of writing, commanding one Christopher 
Gunner, the King's Sergeant, to prepare himself 
without delay to ride post into England with his 
letters, whom he despatched away ere ever he 
drank. That done, he went to Mass and Matins 
and other devotions with his Chaplain, as he was 
accustomed to do, and then went to walk in a 
garden the space of an hour or more, and then 
said Evening Song, and so went to dinner, and 
supper, making no long stay, and so went to bed. 

The next night following my Lord caused a 
great supper to be made, or rather a banquet, for 
Madam Regent and the Queen of Navarre and 
other noble personages, lords and ladies ; at 
which supper was Madam Louis, one of the 
daughters of Louis, the last King, whose sister 
lately died. These two sisters were by their 



94 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

mother inheritors of the Duchy of Brittany. And 
forasmuch as King Francis had married one of the 
sisters, by which he had one moiety of the said 
Duchy, he kept the said Madam Louis, the other 
sister, without marriage, to the intent that the 
whole 'Duchy might descend to him or his suc- 
cessors after his death for lack of issue of her. 

But now let us return to the supper or banquet 
where all those noble personages were highly 
feasted. And in the midst of the said banquet 
the French King and the King of Navarre came 
suddenly in, who took their places in the lowest 
part thereof. There was not only plenty of fine 
meats, but also much mirth and solace as well in 
merry communication as also the noise of my 
Lord's music, who played there all that night so 
cunningly that the two Kings took great delight 
therein, insomuch that the French King desired my 
Lord to lend them unto him for the next night. 
And after the supper or banquet was ended the 
lords fell to dancing, amongst whom one Madam 
Fontaine had the praise. And thus passed they 
the most part of the night ere they parted. 

The next day the King took my Lord's music 
and rode to a nobleman's house, where was some 
goodly image to whom he had vowed a night's 
pilgrimage. And to perform his devotion when 
he came there (which was in the night) he danced 



and caused others to do the same, and the next 
morning he returned to Compeigne. 

The King, being at Compeigne, gave order that 
a wild boar should be lodged for him in the forest, 
whither my Lord Cardinal went with him to see 
him hunt the wild boar, where the Lady Regent, 
with a number of ladies and damsels, were stand- 
ing, in chariots, looking upon the toil. Amongst 
these ladies stood my Lord Cardinal to regard the 
hunting in the Lady Regent's chariot, and within 
the toil was the King, with divers ladies of France 
ready furnished for the high and perilous enterprise 
of hunting this dangerous wild swine. 

The King was in his doublet and hose, all of 
sheep's-colour cloth, richly trimmed, in his slip a 
brace of very great greyhounds, who were armed 
as their manner is to defend them from the violence 
of the beasts' tusks. And the rest of the King's 
gentlemen that were appointed to hunt were like- 
wise in their doublets and hose, holding each of 
them a very sharp boar's spear. Then the King 
commanded the keepers to set free the boar, and 
that every person within the toil should go to a 
standing, amongst whom were divers gentlemen of 
England. 

The boar presently issued out of his den, and, 
being pursued by a hound, came into the plain, 
where he stayed awhile, gazing upon the people, 



96 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

and the hound, drawing near him, he espied a bush 
upon a bank. Under the bush lay two French- 
men, who fled thither, thinking there to be safe ; 
but the boar, smelling them, thrust his head into 
the bush, and these two men came away from 
thence as men are accustomed to fly from the 
danger of death. 

Then was the boar, by the violence of the 
hunters, driven from thence, who ran straight to 
one of my Lord's footmen, a very tall man, who 
had in his hand an English javelin, with which he 
defended himself a great while. But the boar 
continued foaming at him with his great tusks ; 
at the last the boar broke in sunder his javelin, so 
that he was glad to draw his sword and therewith 
stood upon his guard, until the hunters came and 
rescued him and put the boar once again to flight, 
to another gentleman of England, one Mr. Rat- 
cliffe, who was son and heir to the Lord Fitzwalter, 
now Earl of Sussex, who by his boar's spear 
rescued himself. There were many other passages, 
but I forbear prolixity, and return to the matter 
in hand. 

Many days were spent in consultation and ex- 
pectation of Christopher Gunner's return, who 
was formerly sent post into England with letters, 
as I said before. At last he returned with letters, 
upon receipt whereof my Lord prepared with all 



THE KING'S REDEMPTION OUT OF CAPTIVITY 97 

expedition to return to England. The morning 
that my Lord intended to remove, being at Mass 
in his closet, he consecrated the Chancellor of 
France a Cardinal, and put his hat on his head 
and his cap of scarlet, and then took his journey, 
and returned into England with all expedition he 
could, and came to Guienne, and was there nobly 
entertained of my Lord Sands, who was Captain 
of that place, and from thence went to Calais, 
where he stayed awhile for shipping of his goods. 
And in the meantime he established a mart to be 
there kept for all nations. But how long, or in 
what sort it continued, I know not, for I never 
heard of any good it did or of any assembly of 
merchants or traffic of merchandise that were 
brought thither, for so great and mighty a matter 
as was intended for the good of the town. This 
being established,' he took shipping for Dover, and 
from thence rode post to Court. 

The King was then in his progress at Sir Henry 
Wyatt's house, in Kent, of whom I and other of 
his servants thought the Cardinal should have been 
nobly entertained as well of the King as of his 
nobles. But we were all deceived in our expecta- 
tions. Notwithstanding, he went immediately to 
the King after his return, with whom he had long 
talk, and continued two or three days after in the 
Court, and then retired to his house at West- 

7 



98 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

minster, where he remained till Michaelmas term, 
which was within a fortnight after, and there he 
exercised his place of Chancellorship, as he had 
done before. 

And immediately after the beginning of the 
term he caused to be assembled in the Star- 
chamber all the noblemen, judges, and justices of 
the peace of every shire throughout England, and 
were at Westminster Hall then present. And 
there he made a long oration, declaring the cause 
of his ambassage into France, and of his proceed- 
ings therein, saying that he had concluded such an 
amity and peace as never was heard of in this 
realm between our Sovereign Lord - the King's 
Majesty, the Emperor, and the French King, for a 
perpetual peace which shall be confirmed in writing, 
under the Seals of both realms engraven in gold, 
and offered further that our King should receive 
yearly by that same out of the Duchy of Normandy 
all the charges and losses he had sustained in the 
wars. 

And also forasmuch as there was a restraint 
made of the French Queen's dowry (whom the 
Duke of Suffolk had married) for many years 
together during the wars, it was concluded that 
she should not only receive the same according to 
her just right, but all the arrears being unpaid 
during the said restraint should be perfected 



THE KING'S REDEMPTION OUT OF CAPTIVITY 99 

shortly after. The resort of Ambassadors out of 
France should be such a great number of noblemen 
and gentlemen to confirm the same as hath not 
been seen heretofore to repair thither out of one 
realm. 

This peace concluded, there shall be such an 
amity between them of each realm and intercourse 
of merchandise that it shall be seen to all men to 
be but one monarchy. Gentlemen and others may 
travel from one country to another for their recrea- 
tions and pleasure. Merchants also of either 
country may traffic safely without fear of danger, 
so that this realm shall ever after flourish. There- 
fore may all Englishmen well rejoice and set forth 
the truth of this embassy in the country. 

'Now, my masters, I beseech you and require 
you in the King's behalf that you show yourselves 
as loving and obedient subjects in whom the King 
may much rejoice.' 

And so he ended his oration and broke up the 
Court for that time. 



72 




XIV 

OF THE FRENCH AMBASSADOR'S ENTERTAINMENT 
AND DESPATCH 

the great long-looked-for ambassadors 
are arrived, being in number eight persons 
of the noblest and most worthy gentle- 
men in all France, who were nobly received from 
place to place, and so conveyed through London 
to the Bishop's palace in St. Paul's Churchyard, 
where they were lodged, to whom divers noblemen 
resorted and gave them noble presents (especially 
the Mayor of London), as wines, sugars, beef, 
mutton, capons, wild fowl, wax and other neces- 
sary things in abundance for the expenses of his 
house. They resorted to the Court, being then at 
Greenwich, on Sunday, and were received of the 
King's Majesty, of whom they were entertained 
highly. 

They had a commission to establish our King's 
Highness in the order of France, to whom they 



THE AMBASSADORS ENTERTAINMENT IOI 

brought for that intent a collar of fine gold with 
a Michael hanging thereat, and robes to the said 
order appertaining, which were of blue velvet and 
richly embroidered, wherein I saw the King pass 
to the closet and after in the same to Mass. 

And to gratify the French King for his great 
honour, he sent at once noble men here in England 
of the Order of the Garter, which Gaiter the 
Herald carried into France unto the French King, 
to establish him in the Order of the Garter and 
robes according to the same, the French Ambassa- 
dor still remaining here until the return of the 
English. All these things being then determined 
and concluded concerning the perpetual peace 
upon solemn ceremonies and oaths contained in 
certain documents concerning the same, it was 
concluded that there should be solemn Mass sung 
in the Cathedral Church of St. Paul's in London 
by the Cardinal, the King being present at the 
same in his travers to perform all things deter- 
mined. 

And for the preparation thereof, there was a 
gallery from the west door of St. Paul's Church 
through the body of the same up to the choir and 
to the High Altar into the transepts. 

My Lord Cardinal prepared himself to sing the 
Mass, associated with twenty-four mitred Bishops 
and Abbots, who attended him with such cere- 



102 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

monies as to him were then due by reason of his 
Legatine prerogative. 

And after the last Agnus the King rose out of 
the travers and kneeled upon a carpet and cushions 
before the High Altar, and the like did the great 
Master of France, chief Ambassador, that here 
represented the King's person of France. Between 
them the Lord Cardinal divided the Blessed Sacra- 
ment as a perfect oath and bond for security of 
the said Covenants of perpetual peace. That done, 
the King went again into the travers. This Mass 
being ended, which was solemnly sung by the 
choir of the same church and all the King's 
chapel, then my Lord took and read the Articles of 
Peace openly before the King and all others, both 
English and French, and there in sight of all the 
people the King put his hand to the Gold Seal 
and subscribed with his own hand and delivered 
the same to the Grand Master of France, as his 
deed, who openly did the like. That done, they 
departed and rode home with the Cardinal and 
dined with him, passing all the day after in con- 
sultation of weighty affairs touching the Articles 
and conclusion of the said peace. 

Then the King departed to Greenwich by water, 
at whose departure it was concluded by the King's 
device that all the Frenchmen should remove to 
Richmond and hunt there, and from thence to 



THE AMBASSADOR'S ENTERTAINMENT IO3 

Hampton Court, and there to hunt likewise. And 
the Lord Cardinal was there to make a banquet 
or supper or both, and from thence they should 
ride to Windsor and there hunt, and after return 
to the King at Greenwich, and there to banquet 
with him before their departure. 

This determined, they all repaired to their 
lodgings; then was there no more to do but to 
make preparation in all things for the entertain- 
ment of this great assembly at Hampton Court, 
at the time appointed by my Lord Cardinal, who 
called before him all his chief officers, as stewards, 
treasurers, clerks and comptrollers of his kitchen, 
to whom he declared his whole mind touching 
the entertainment of the Frenchmen at Hampton 
Court, to whom he also gave command neither to 
spare for any cost or expenses or pains to make 
them such a triumphant banquet, as they might 
not only wonder at it here, but also make a 
glorious report to the great honour of our King 
and this realm. 

Thus having made known his pleasure, to 
accomplish his commandment, they sent out all 
the carriers, purveyors and other persons to my 
Lord's friends to prepare ; also they sent to all 
expert cooks and cunning persons in the arts of 
cookery in London or elsewhere, that they might 
be secured to beautify the noble feast. 



IO4 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

Then the purveyor provided and my Lord's 
friends sent in such provision that it was a wonder 
to see it. The cooks wrought both day and night 
in many curious devices, and there was no lack 
of gold, silver or any other costly thing; the 
yeomen and grooms of his wardrobe were busied 
in hanging the chambers with costly hangings, -and 
furnished the same with beds of silk and other 
furniture for the same of every kind. 

Then my Lord sent me, being his Gentleman 
Usher, and two other of my fellows to foresee all 
things touching our rooms to be richly garnished, 
wherein our pains were not small, but daily we 
travelled up and down from chamber to chamber 
to see things fitted. 

Then wrought joiners, carpenters, painters, 
and other artificers needful, so that there was 
nothing wanting to adorn this noble feast. There 
was carriage and re-carriage of plate, stuff, and 
other rich ornaments, so that there was nothing 
lacking that could be devised or imagined for the 
purpose. 

There were also provided two hundred and eighty 
beds, with all manner of furniture, too long here 
to be related. The day assigned to the French- 
men being come, they were ready assembled before 
the hour of their appointment, wherefore the 
officers caused them to ride to Hanworth, a park 



THE AMBASSADOR'S ENTERTAINMENT IO5 

of the King's within three miles of Hampton 
Court, there to spend the time in hunting till night, 
which they did, and then returned, and every one 
of them were conveyed to their several chambers, 
having in them good fires and store of wine, where 
they remained till supper was ready. 

The chambers where they supped and banqueted 
were adorned thus. First, the great waiting- 
chamber was hung with very rich cloth of Arras, 
and so all the rest, some better than others, and 
they were furnished with tall yeomen to serve. 
There were set tables around the chambers, ban- 
quet-wise covered ; also a cupboard garnished with 
white plates ; also in the same chamber were four 
great plates, to give the more light, set with great 
lights, a great fire of wood and coals. 

The next chamber was the Chamber of Presence, 
richly hung also with cloth of Arras, and a 
sumptuous cloth of state, furnished with many 
goodly gentlemen to serve. The tables were 
ordered in manner as the other were, save only the 
high table was removed beneath the cloth of state, 
towards the midst of the chamber, with six desks 
of plate, garnished all over with fine gold, having 
one pair of candlesticks of silver and gilt with 
lights in the same ; the cupboard was barred about 
so that no man could come very near it, for there 
were divers pieces of plate of great store to use 



106 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

besides. The plates that hung on the walls to 
give light were silver and gilt with wax lights. 

Now were all things in readiness, and the supper 
being set, the principal officers caused the trumpets 
to blow to call them to supper. The officers con- 
ducted the noblemen to where they were to sup, 
and they being set, service came up in such abund- 
ance, both costly and full of devices, with such a 
pleasant noise of music that the Frenchmen (as 
it seemed) were rapt up in a heavenly paradise. 
You must understand that my Lord Cardinal was 
not there all this while. But the French messieurs 
were very merry with their rich fare. But before 
the second course, my Lord Cardinal came in 
booted and spurred suddenly amongst them, at 
whose coming there was great joy, every man 
rising from his place, whom my Lord Cardinal 
caused to sit still and keep their places. Being in 
his riding apparel, he called for his chair and sat 
him down in the midst of the high table, and was 
there as merry and pleasant as ever I saw him in 
my life. 

Presently after came up the second course, 
which was above one hundred different devices, 
which were so goodly and costly that I think the 
Frenchmen never saw the like. But the rarest 
curiosities of all the rest (which, indeed, was 
worthy of wonder) were castles with images 



THE AMBASSADOR'S ENTERTAINMENT 107 

in the same like St. Paul's Church; there were 
also beasts, birds, fowls, personages, most excel- 
lently made, some fighting with swords, some 
with guns, others with cross-bows, some dancing 
with ladies, some on horseback with complete 
armour, jousting with long and sharp spears, 
and many other strange devices, which I cannot 
describe. Amongst all I noted there was a chess- 
board subtilely made of spiced plate with men to 
the same. And because Frenchmen are very ex- 
pert at that sport, my Lord Cardinal gave that 
same to a French gentleman, commanding that 
there should be made a good care to convey the 
same into his country. 

Then called my Lord for a great bowl of gold 
filled with Hippocras, and putting off his. cap, said : 
' I drink a health to the King my Sovereign Lord, 
and next unto the King your Master.' And when 
he had drunk a hearty draught, he desired the 
Grand Master to pledge him a cup, which cup was 
worth five hundred marks, and so all the Lords 
in order pledged these great princes. 

Then went the cup merrily about, so that many 
of these Frenchmen were led to their beds ; then 
went my Lord to his Privy Chamber, making a 
short supper, or rather a short repast, and then 
returned again into the Presence Chamber amongst 
the Frenchmen, behaving himself in such a loving 



108 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

sort and so familiarly towards them, that they 
could not sufficiently commend him. 

And while they were in communication and 
pastime, all their livery were served to their 
chambers ; each chamber had a basin and ewer of 
silver and a great silver pot with plenty of wine 
and sufficient of everything. 

Thus furnished was every room about the house ; 
when all was done, then were they conducted to 
their lodgings. In the morning after they had 
heard Mass, they stayed and dined with my Lord, 
and so departed towards Windsor. And as soon 
as they were gone, my Lord returned to London, 
because it was the midst of the term. 

You must conceive the King was privy to this 
magnificent feast, who then intended far to exceed 
the same, which I leave till the Frenchmen's re- 
turn. Now, the King had given command to his 
officers to provide a far more sumptuous banquet 
for the strangers than they had at the Cardinal's, 
which was not neglected. After the return of 
these strangers from Windsor which place they 
much commended for the situation thereof the 
King invited them to the Court, where they dined, 
and after dinner they danced and had their pastime 
till supper-time. 

Then was the banquet-chamber in the little yard 
at Greenwich furnished for the entertainment of 



THE AMBASSADOR'S ENTERTAINMENT 109 

these strangers, to which place they were conducted 
by the greatest personages then being in the Court, 
where they did both sup and banquet, but to 
describe to you the order hereof, the variety of 
costly dishes, and the curious devices, my weak 
ability and shallow capacity would much eclipse 
the magnificence thereof. But thus much take 
notice of, that although that banquet at Hampton 
Court was marvellously sumptuous, yet this banquet 
excelled the same as much as gold doth silver in 
value. And for my part I never saw the like. 

In the midst of the banquet there was turning 
at the barriers of lusty gentlemen, very gorgeous 
on foot, and the like on horseback. And after all 
this there was such an excellent interlude made in 
Latin that I never saw or heard the like, the actors' 
apparel being so gorgeous and of such strange 
devices that it passeth my poor capacity to relate 
them. 

This being ended, there came a great company 
of ladies and gentlewomen, the chiefest beauties in 
the realm of England, being as richly attired as 
cost could make or art devise to set forth their 
gestures, proportions, or beauty, that they seemed 
to the beholder rather like celestial angels than 
terrestrial creatures, and, in my judgment, worthy 
of admiration, with whom the gentlemen of France 
danced and masked, every man choosing as his 



1 10 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

fancy served. That done, and the maskers de- 
parted, there came in another mask of ladies and 
gentlewomen more richly attired than I can express. 
These lady maskers took each of them one of the 
Frenchmen to dance with ; and here note that 
these noble women spoke all of them good French, 
and it delighted the Frenchmen much to hear the 
ladies speak to them in their own language. Thus 
triumphantly did they spend the whole night from 
five of the clock at night unto two or three of the 
clock in the morning, at which time the gallants 
drew all to their lodgings to take their rest. 

As neither health, wealth, nor pleasure can 
always last, so ended this triumphant banquet, 
which, being past, seemed in the morning to the 
beholders as a fantastic dream. 

Now, after all this solemn banqueting, they pre- 
pared with bag and baggage to return, and there- 
upon repaired to the King, and, in order, every 
man took his leave of His Majesty and the nobles, 
by whom the King sent his princely pleasure and 
commendations to the King their Master, thanked 
them for their pains, and after great communica- 
tions with the Great Master of that Ambassage, 
he bade them adieu. Then they came to West- 
minster to my Lord Cardinal to do the like, of 
whom he received the King's reward, which I shall 
hereafter relate. 



THE AMBASSADOR'S ENTERTAINMENT in 

First every man of honour and estimation had 
plate, some to the value of two or three hundred 
pounds, and some of four hundred pounds, besides 
the great gifts before received of His Majesty, such 
as gowns of velvet with rich furs, great chains of 
gold ; and some had goodly horses of great value, 
with divers other gifts of great value which I can- 
not call to remembrance, but the least of them had 
the sum of twenty crowns, and thus being nobly 
rewarded, my Lord, after humble commendation 
of them to the French King, bade them farewell ; 
and so they departed. The next day they were 
conveyed to Dover to the seaside, with all their 
furniture, being accompanied with many English 
young gallants, and what report of their royal 
entertainment they made in their own country I 
never heard. 




XV 

OF THE KING'S DISCOVERY OF HIS LOVE FOR 
MISTRESS ANNE BOLEYN TO THE CARDINAL, 
WITH THE CARDINAL'S DISLIKE, AND ALSO 
THE OPINION OF ALL LEARNED BISHOPS IN 
ENGLAND AND FOREIGN UNIVERSITIES 

]FTER this began new matters which 
troubled the heads and imaginations of 
all the Court namely, the long-con- 
cealed affection of the King for Mistress Anne 
Boleyn now broke out, which His Majesty disclosed 
to the Cardinal, whose frequent persuasions on his 
knees took no effect. My Lord thereupon being 
compelled to declare to His Majesty his opinion 
and wisdom in the advancement of the King's 
desires, thought it not safe for him to wade too far 
alone, or to give rash judgment in so weighty a 
matter, but desired leave of the King to ask counsel 
of men of ancient and famous learning both in 
divine and civil laws. 



THE KING'S LOVE FOR ANNE BOLEYN 113 

Now, this being obtained, he by his Legatine 
authority sent out his commissions for the Bishops 
of this realm, who not long after assembled all at 
Westminster before my Lord Cardinal. And not 
only these Prelates, but also the most learned men 
of both Universities, and some from divers cathe- 
dral colleges in this realm who were thought suffi- 
ciently able to solve this doubtful question. At 
this learned assembly was the King's case consulted 
of, debated, argued, and judged from day to day. 
But in conclusion, when these ancient Fathers of 
Law and Divinity parted, they were all of one 
judgment, and that contrary to the expectation of 
most men. And I heard some of the most famous 
and learned amongst them say the King's case was 
too obscure for any man, and the points therein 
were doubtful to have any resolution therein, and 
so at that time with a general consent departed 
without any resolution or judgment. In this 
assembly of Bishops and divers learned men it was 
thought very expedient that the King should send 
out his Commissioners into all Universities in 
Christendom, as well here in England as in foreign 
regions, there to have this case argued substantially, 
and to bring with them from thence every defini- 
tion of their opinions of the same under the Seal 
of every University. 

And thereupon divers Commissioners were imme- 

8 



114 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEV 

diately despatched for this purpose. Some were 
sent to Cambridge, some to Oxford, some to 
Louvain, others to Paris, some to Orleans, others 
to Padua, all at the proper costs and charges of 
the King, which in the whole amounted to a great 
sum of money ; and all went out of this realm 
besides the charge of the ambassage to those 
famous and notable persons of all the Universities. 
Especially such as bare the rule or had the custody 
of the University Seals were fed by the Commis- 
sioners with such great sums of money, that they 
did easily condescend to their requests and grant 
their desires. By reason whereof all the Com- 
missioners returned with their purpose furnished 
according to their commissions under the Seal of 
every University, whereat there was no small joy 
conceived of the principal parties. 

Insomuch that ever after the Commissioners 
were had in great estimation, and highly advanced 
and liberally rewarded far beyond their worthy 
deserts. Notwithstanding they prospered, and the 
matter went still forward, having now, as they 
thought, a sure staff to lean upon. These pro- 
ceedings being declared unto my Lord Cardinal, 
he sent again for the Bishops, to whom he declared 
the effect of these Commissioners' labours, and for 
assurance thereof showed them the documents of 
each University under their several Seals, and the 



THE KING'S LOVE FOR ANNE BOLEYN 11$ 

business being thus handled, they went again to 
consultation how things should be ordered. 

At last it was concluded that it was very meet 
the King should send unto the Pope's Holiness 
the opinions of both Universities of England, and 
also foreign Universities, which were manifestly 
authorized by their common seals. And it was 
also thought fit that the opinions of the worthy 
Prelates of England should be sent to the Pope 
comprised in a document, which was not long time 
in furnishing. 

Nor was it long after that the Ambassadors 
were assigned for this purpose, who took their 
journey accordingly, having certain documents, so 
that if the Pope would not thereupon consent to 
give judgment definitely in the King's case, then 
to require another Commission from His Holiness 
to be granted to his Legate to establish a Court 
here in England for that purpose only, to be 
directed to my Lord Cardinal Legate of England 
and to Cardinal Campeggio, Bishop of Bath 
(which the King gave him at a certain time when 
he was sent Ambassador hither from the Pope's 
Holiness), to determine and rightly judge accord- 
ing to their consciences. To which, after a long 
time and for the goodwill of the said Cardinal, 
the Pope granted their suit. 

Then they returned into England, relating unto 

82 



Il6 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

the King their expedition, trusting that His Grace's 
pleasure should be now brought to pass sub- 
stantially, being never more likely, considering the 
estate of the judges. 

Long was the expectation on both sides for the 
coming over of the Legate from Rome, who at last 
arrived in England with his Commission, and being 
much troubled with the gout, his journey was long 
and tedious ere he could get to London, who should 
have been most solemnly received at Blackheath ; 
but he desired not to be so entertained with pomp 
and vainglory, and therefore he came very privately 
to his own house without Temple Bar, called Bath 
Place, where he lodged, the house being furnished 
with all manner of provision of my Lord's. So 
after some deliberation and consultation in the 
ordering of the King's business now in hand by 
his Commission and Articles of the Ambassage, 
which being read, it was determined that the King 
and the good Queen, his lawful wife, should be 
judged at Bridewell and in Blackfriars, and that 
some place about the court should be kept for the 
disputation and determination of the causes and 
differences between the King and the Queen, who 
were summoned to appear before these two Legates 
who sat as judges, which was a strange sight and 
the newest device that ever was heard or read of 
in any story or chronicle : A King and a Queen to 



THE KING'S LOVE FOR ANNE BOLEYN 1 1/ 

be compelled to appear in a court as common 
persons within their own realm and dominions, and 
to abide the judgments and decrees of their sub- 
jects, having the royal diadem and prerogative 
thereof. 




XVI 

A NEW COURT ERECTED TO DETERMINE THE 
KING'S CASE, TWO CARDINALS BEING JUDGES, 
HAVING POWER TO SUMMON THE KING AND 
QUEEN THE ISSUE THEREOF 

|T is a wonderful thing to consider the 
strength of Princes' wills when they are 
bent to have their pleasure fulfilled, where- 
in no reasonable persuasions will serve the turn. 
How little do they regard the dangerous sequels 
that may ensue as well to themselves as to their 
subjects ! And amongst all things there is nothing 
that makes them more wilful than carnal love and 
various affecting of voluptuous desires, wherein 
nothing could be of greater experience than to see 
what inventions were furnished, what laws were 
enacted, what costly edifices of noble and ancient 
monasteries were overthrown, what diversities of 
opinion then arose, what extortions were then 
committed, how many good and learned men were 



NEW COURT TO DETERMINE THE KING'S CASE IIQ 

then put to death, and what alterations of good 
ancient laws, customs and charitable foundations 
were turned from the relief of the poor to the utter 
destruction and desolation, almost to the subversion, 
of this noble realm. 

It is a thousand pities to understand the things 
that since have happened to this land, the proof 
whereof hath taught all us Englishmen lament- 
able experience. If men's eyes be not blind, 
they may see, and if their ears be not stopped, 
they may hear, and if pity be not exiled, their 
hearts may relent and lament at the sequel of 
this inordinate love, although it lasted but a 
while. O Lord God, withhold Thine indignation 
from us ! 

You shall understand, as I said before, that 
there was a court erected at Blackfriars, London, 
where these two Cardinals sat as judges. Now I 
will describe to you the order of the court. First 
there were many tables and benches set in manner 
of a consistory, one seat being higher than another 
for the judges aloft ; above them three degrees 
high was a cloth of State hung and a chair royal 
under the same, wherein sat the King, and some 
distance off sat the Queen, and at the judges' feet 
sat the scribes and officers for the execution of the 
process. The chief scribe was Doctor Stevens, after- 
wards Bishop of Winchester, and the apparitor who 



120 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

was called Doctor of the Court was one Cooke of 
Westminster. 

Then, before the King and the judges sat the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, Doctor Warham, and 
all other Bishops. There stood at both ends 
within counsellors learned in the spiritual laws as 
well on the King's as the Queen's side. Doctor 
Sampson, afterwards Bishop of Chichester, and 
Doctor Hall, afterwards Bishop of Worcester, and 
divers others, and proctors in the same law were 
Doctor Peter, who was afterwards Chief Secretary, 
and Doctor Tregunmill with divers others. 

Now, on the other side there were Counsel for 
the Queen, Doctor Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, and 
Doctor Standish, Bishop of St. Asaph in Wales, two 
noble divines, especially the Bishop of Rochester, 
a very godly man, whose death many noble men 
and many worthy divines much lamented, who lost 
his head about this cause ere it was ended, on 
Tower Hill, as also another ancient doctor called 
Doctor Ridley, a little man but a great divine. 
The court being thus ordered as is before ex- 
pressed, the judges commanded the Crier to 
proclaim silence whilst the commission was both 
read to the court and to the people there as- 
sembled. That done, and silence being again 
proclaimed, the scribes commanded the Crier to 
call King Henry of England, whereunto the King 



NEW COURT TO DETERMINE THE KING'S CASE 121 

answered and said, ' Here !' Then called he again 
the Queen of England by the name of ' Katherine, 
Queen of England, come into the court,' etc. 
She made no answer thereunto, but rose imme- 
diately out of her chair where she sat, and because 
she could not come to the King directly by reason 
of the distance, therefore she came round about 
the court to the King and kneeled down at his 
feet, saying these words in broken English as 
followeth, viz. : 'Sir, I beseech you do me justice 
and right, and take some pity upon me, for I am a 
poor woman and a stranger, born out of your 
dominions, having here no indifferent Counsel and 
less assurance of friendship. Alas ! sir, how have 
I offended you ? what offence have I given you, 
intending to abridge me of life in this manner ? I 
take God to witness I have been to you a true and 
loyal wife, ever conformable to your will and 
pleasure ; never did I oppose or gainsay your 
mind, but always submitted myself in all things 
wherein you had .any delight, whether it were little 
or much, without grudging or any sign of discon- 
tent. I have loved for your sake all men whom 
you have loved, whether I had cause or not, were 
they friends or foes. I have been your wife this 
twenty years, by whom you had many children, 
and I put it to your conscience, if there be any 
cause that you can allege either of dishonesty or of 



122 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

any other matter lawfully to put me from you, I 
am willing to depart with shame and rebuke ; but 
if there be none, then I pray you let me have 
justice at your hands. 

' The King, your father, was a man of such an 
excellent wit in his time that he was accounted a 
second Solomon, and the King of Spain, my 
father, Ferdinand, was taken for one of the wisest 
Kings that reigned in Spain these many years. 
So they were both wise men and noble princes, 
and it is no question but that they had wise 
counsellors of either realm as be now at this day. 
Who thought at the marriage of you and me to 
hear what new devices are now invented against 
me to cause me to stand to the order of this Court ? 

'And I conceive you do me much wrong if you 
condemn me for not answering, having no counsel 
but such as you assigned me. You must consider 
that they cannot be indifferent on my part, being 
your own subjects, and such as you have made 
choice of out of your own Council, whereunto they 
are privy and dare not disclose your pleasure. 

' Therefore I most humbly beseech you to spare 
me until I know how my friends in Spain will 
advise me ; but if you will not, then let your 
pleasure be done/ 

And with that she rose, making a low curtsey 
to the King, and departed from thence, all the 



NEW COURT TO DETERMINE THE KING'S CASE 12$ 

people thinking she would have returned again to 
her former seat ; but she went presently out of the 
court, leaning upon the arm of one of her servants, 
who was her general receiver, one Mr. Griffith. 

The King, seeing that she was ready to go out 
of the court, commanded the Crier to call her again 
by these words : 

' Katherine, Queen of England, come into the 
court !' 

' Lo !' quoth Mr. Griffith, 'you are called again.' 

' Go on,' quoth she ; ' it is no matter. It is no 
fit court for me, therefore I will not tarry. Go on 
your way.' 

And so they departed, without any further 
answer at that time or any appearance in any 
other court after that. 

The King, seeing she was departed thus, and 
considering her words, said to the audience these 
few words in effect : 

'Forasmuch,' quoth he, 'as the Queen is gone, 
I will in her absence declare unto you all : She 
hath been to me a true, obedient wife, and as 
comfortable as I could wish or desire ; she hath all 
the virtues and good qualities that belong to a 
woman of her dignity, or in any meaner estate. 
Her conditions will well declare the same. 1 

Then quoth my Lord Cardinal : 

' I humbly beseech your Highness to declare 



124 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

unto this audience whether I have been the first 
and chief mover of this matter unto your High- 
ness or no, for I am much suspected of all 
men.' 

' My Lord Cardinal,' quoth the King, ' you have 
rather advised me to the contrary than been any 
mover of the same. The special cause that moved 
me in this matter is a certain scruple that pricked 
my conscience upon certain words spoken by the 
Bishop of Bayonne, the French Ambassador who 
came hither to consult of a marriage between the 
Princess, our daughter, the Lady Mary, and the 
Duke of Orleans, second son to the King of France, 
and upon resolution and determination he desired 
respite to advertise the King his Master thereof, 
whether our daughter Mary should be legitimate 
in respect of my marriage with this woman, being 
some time my brother's wife, which words I pon- 
dering, begot such a scruple in my conscience that 
I was much troubled at it, whereby I thought 
myself in danger of God's heavy displeasure and 
indignation, and the rather because He sent us no 
male issue, for all the male issue that I had by my 
wife died immediately after they came into the 
world, which caused me to fear God's displeasure 
in that particular. Thus, my conscience being 
tossed in the waves of troublesome doubts, and 
partly in despair of having any other issue than I 



NEW COURT TO DETERMINE THE KING'S CASE 125 

had by this lady, now my wife, it behoved me to 
consider the estate of this realm, and the danger it 
stands in for lack of a Prince to succeed me. I 
thought it therefore good, in release of this mighty 
burden on my conscience, as also for the quiet 
estate of this realm, to attempt a trial in the law 
herein as to whether I might lawfully take another 
wife without carnal concupiscence, by which God 
may send more issue. I have not any displeasure 
in the person or age of the Queen, with whom I 
could be well contented to continue (if our 
marriage may stand by the law of God) as with 
any woman alive, in which point consisteth all the 
doubt that we go about now to know by the 
learned wisdom of you our Prelates and Pastors of 
this realm and dominion now here assembled for 
that purpose, to whose consciences and learning I 
have committed the care and judgment, according 
to which I will (God willing) be well contented to 
submit myself and obey the same. And when my 
conscience was so troubled I moved it to you, my 
Lord of Lincoln, in confession, then being my 
ghostly father, and forasmuch as you were then in 
some doubt, you moved me to ask counsel of the 
rest of the Bishops. Whereupon I moved it to 
you, my Lord Cardinal, to have your licence for- 
asmuch as you are Metropolitan to put this 
matter in question, and so I did to all you, my 



126 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

lords, to which you all granted under your seals, 
which is here to show.' 

' That is truth,' quoth the Bishop of Canterbury, 
' and I doubt not but my brothers will acknowledge 
the same.' 

' No, sir ; not so, under correction,' quoth the 
Bishop of Rochester, ' for you have not my hand 
and seal.' 

'No ?' quoth the King. ' Is not this your hand 
and seal?' and showed it to him in the document 
with seals. 

' No, forsooth !' quoth the Bishop. 

' How say you to that ?' quoth the King to the 
Bishop of Canterbury. 

' Sir, it is his hand,' quoth the Bishop of Canter- 
bury. 

' No, my Lord,' quoth the Bishop of Rochester. 
' Indeed, you were in hand with me to have both 
my hand and seal, as other of the lords have done ; 
but I answered I would never consent to any such 
act, for it was much against my conscience, and 
therefore my hand and seal shall never be set to 
such a document (God willing)/ with many other 
words to that purpose. 

' You say truth,' quoth the Bishop of Canterbury. 
' Such words you used, but you were fully resolved 
at the last that I should subscribe your name and 
put to your seal, and you would allow of the same.' 



NEW COURT TO DETERMINE THE KING'S CASE I2/ 

'All which,' quoth the Bishop of Rochester, 
' under correction, my lord, is untrue.' 

' Well,' quoth the King, ' we will not stand in 
argument with you ; you are but one.' 

And so the King arose up, and the court was 
adjourned until the next day, at which time the 
Cardinals sat again, and the Counsel on both sides 
were there present to answer. 

The King's Counsel alleged the matrimony not 
good nor lawful at the beginning, because of the 
carnal copulation that Prince Arthur had with the 
Queen. 

This matter was very narrowly scanned on 
that side, and to prove the carnal copulation 
they had many reasons and similitudes of truth, 
and being answered negatively again on the other 
side, it seemed that all their former allegations 
were doubtful to be tried, and that no man 
knew. 

' Yes,' quoth the Bishop of Rochester, ' I know 
the truth.' 

' How can you know the truth,' quoth the 
Cardinal, ' more than any other person ?' 

'Yes, forsooth, my Lord,' quoth he; 'I know 
that God is the Truth itself, and never said but 
truth, and He said thus: " Quos Deus conjunxit, 
homo non separet." And forasmuch as this 
marriage was joined and made by God to a good 



128 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

intent, therefore I said I knew the truth, and that 
man cannot break any institution that God hath 
made and constituted.' 

' So much do all faithful men know,' quoth my 
Lord Cardinal, * as well as you, therefore this 
reason is not sufficient in this case, for the King's 
Counsel do allege many presumptions to prove 
that it was not lawful at the beginning, therefore 
that it was not ordained by God, for God doth 
nothing without a good end ; therefore it is not 
to be doubted that if the presumptions be true, 
which they allege to be most true, then the con- 
junction neither was nor could be of God. There- 
fore I say unto -you, my Lord of Rochester, you 
know not the truth, unless you can avoid their 
presumptions upon just reasons.' 

Then quoth Dr. Ridley : 

'It is a great shame and dishonour to this 
honourable presence that such presumptions should 
be alleged in this open court. No, my Lord, 
there belongs no reverence to this matter, for an 
irreverent matter may be irreverently answered.' 

And so he left off, and then they proceeded 
to other matters. Thus passed this court from 
session to session and day to day, till a certain 
day the King sent for the Cardinal to Bridewell, 
who went into the Privy Chamber to him, where 
he was about an hour, and then departed from 



NEW COURT TO DETERMINE THE KING'S CASE 1 29 

the King and went to Westminster in his barge. 
The Bishop of Carlisle, being with him, said : 

* It is a hot day to-day.' 

' Yea,' quoth the Cardinal ; ' if you had been 
as well chafed as I have been within this hour, 
you would say you were very hot.' 

My Lord no sooner came home but he went 
to bed, where he had not laid two hours but my 
Lord of Wiltshire, Mistress Anne Boleyn's father, 
came to speak with him from the King. My 
Lord commanded he should be brought to his 
bedside, who told him it was the King's pleasure 
he should forthwith go with the Cardinal to the 
Queen, being then at Bridewell in her chamber, 
and to persuade her by their wisdom to put the 
whole matter into the King's own hands by her 
consent, which would be much better for her 
honour than stand to the trial at law and thereby 
be condemned, which would tend much to her 
dishonour and discredit. To perform the King's 
pleasure, my Lord said he was ready, and so 
prepared to go, but quoth he further to my Lord 
of Wiltshire : 

' You and others of the Council have put fancies 
into the head of the King, whereby you trouble 
all the realm, but at the end you will get but 
small thanks both of God and the world.' 

Many other words and reasons did cause my 

9 



130 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

Lord of Wiltshire to be silent, kneeling by my 
Lord's bedside, and at last he departed. 

And then my Lord rose and took his barge, 
and went to Bath House to Cardinal Campeggio's, 
and they went together to Bridewell to the Queen's 
lodgings. She being in her Chamber of Presence, 
they told the Gentleman Usher that they came to 
speak with the Queen's Grace. The Queen was 
told the Cardinals were come to speak with her. 
Then she arose up, having a skein of red silk 
about her neck (being at work with her maids), 
and came to the Cardinals at the place where they 
awaited her coming, at whose coming quoth she : 

' Alack, my Lords ! I am sorry that you have 
attended on me so long. What is your pleasure 
with me ?' 

' If it please your Grace,' quoth the Cardinal, 
' to go to your Privy Chamber, we will show you 
the cause of our coming.' 

' My Lord,' said she, ' if you have anything to 
say to me, say it openly before all these folk, for 
I fear nothing that you can say to me or against 
me ; but I am willing all the world should both 
see and hear it, and therefore speak your minds 
openly.' 

Then began my Lord to speak to her in Latin. 

' Nay, good my Lord, speak to me in English,' 
quoth she, ' although I do understand some Latin.' 



NEW COURT TO DETERMINE THE KING'S CASE 13! 

' Forsooth,' quoth my Lord. ' Good madam, if 
it please your Grace, we come both to know your 
mind, what you are disposed to do in this matter, 
and also to declare to you secretly our counsels 
and opinions, which we do for very zeal and 
obedience to your Grace.' 

' My Lords,' quoth she, ' I thank you for your 
good will, but to make answer to your requests, 
I cannot so suddenly, for I was sitting amongst 
my maids at work, little thinking of any such 
matter, wherein is requisite some deliberation and 
a better head than mine to answer, for I need 
counsel in this case which concerns me so nearly, 
and friends here I have none. They are in Spain, 
in mine own country. Also, my Lords, I am a 
poor woman of too weak capacity to answer such 
noble persons of wisdom as you are, in so weighty 
a matter. And therefore be good to me, a woman 
destitute of friendship here in a foreign region, 
and your counsel I also shall be glad to hear.' And 
therewith she took my Lord by the hand and led 
him into her Privy Chamber, where they stayed 
awhile, and I heard her voice loud, but what she 
said I know not. 

This done, they went to the King and made a 
relation unto him of the passages between the 
Queen and them, and so they departed. 

This strange case proceeded and went forwards 

92 



132 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

from court day to court day, until it came to 
that time that every man expected to hear judg- 
ment given, at which time all their proceedings 
were openly read in Latin. That done, the King's 
Counsel at the Bar moved for judgment. Quoth 
Cardinal Campeggio : ' I will not give judgment 
till I have related the whole proceedings to the 
Pope, whose counsel and commandment I will in 
this case observe. The matter is too high for 
us to give hasty judgment, considering the persons 
and the doubtful occasions alleged, and also whose 
Commissioners we are, by whose authority we sit. 
It is good reason therefore that we make our Chief 
Lord counsel in the same before we proceed to 
definite judgment. I came not to please for any 
favour, reward or fear of any person alive, be he 
King or otherwise ; I have no such respect to the 
person that I should offend my conscience. And 
the party defendant will make no answer here, 
but rather doth appeal from us. I am an old man, 
both weak and sickly, and look every day for 
death ; what shall it avail me to put my soul in 
danger of God's displeasure, to my utter damna- 
tion, for the favour of any prince in this world ? 
My being here is only to see justice administered 
according to my conscience. 

' The defendant supposeth that we be not indif- 
ferent judges, considering the King's high dignity, 



NEW COURT TO DETERMINE THE KING'S CASE 133 

and authority within his realm. And we being 
both his subjects, she thinks we will not do her 
justice, and therefore to avoid all these ambiguities 
I adjourn the court for the time according to the 
Court of Rome, from whence our jurisdiction is 
derived ; for if we should go further than our 
commission doth warrant us, it were but a folly 
and blameworthy, because we shall be breakers of 
the Orders from whom we have, as I said, our 
authority derived.' 

And so the court was dissolved, and no more 
was done. 

Thereupon, by the King's commandment, stepped 
up the Duke of Suffolk, and with a haughty coun- 
tenance uttered these words : ' It was never thus 
in England until we had Cardinals amongst us.' 
These words were set forth with such vehemence 
that all men marvelled what he intended, the Duke 
further expressing some opprobrious words. 

My Lord Cardinal, perceiving his vehemence, 
soberly said : ' Sir, of all men in this realm you 
have least cause to malign Cardinals, for if I, poor 
Cardinal, had not been, you should not at this 
present have had a head upon your shoulders 
wherewith to make such a bray in dispute of us, 
who wish you no harm, neither have given you 
such cause to be offended with us. I would have 
you think, my Lord, I and my brother wish the 



134 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

King as much happiness and the realm as much 
honour, wealth and peace as you or any other 
subject of whatsoever degree he be within this 
realm, and would as gladly accomplish his lawful 
desires. And now, my Lord, I pray you show 
me what you would do in such a case as this, if 
you were one of the King's Commissioners in a 
foreign region about some weighty matter, the 
solution whereof was very doubtful to be de- 
cided. Would you not advertise the King's 
Majesty ere you went through with the same ? I 
doubt not but you would, and therefore abate your 
malice and spite, and consider we are Commis- 
sioners for a time, and cannot by virtue of a 
Commission proceed to judgment without the 
knowledge and consent of the chief authority, 
and without license obtained from him who is the 
Pope. Therefore do we neither more nor less than 
our Commission allows us, and if any man will 
be offended with us, he is an unwise man. There- 
fore pacify yourself, my Lord, and speak like a 
man of honour and wisdom, or hold your peace. 
Speak not reproachfully of your friends; you best 
know what friendship I have shown you. I never 
did reveal it to any person till now, either to mine 
own praise or your dishonour.' 

Whereupon the Duke went his way and said no 
more, being much discontented. 



NEW COURT TO DETERMINE THE KING'S CASE 135 

This matter continued thus a long season, and 
the King was in displeasure against my Lord 
Cardinal, because his suit had no better success to 
his purpose. Notwithstanding, the Cardinal ex- 
cused himself by his Commission, which gave him 
no authority to proceed to judgment without the 
knowledge of the Pope, who reserved the same to 
himself. At last they were advertised by a post 
that they should take deliberation in the matter 
until his Council were opened, which should not 
be till Bartholomew-tide next. 

The King, thinking it would be too long ere it 
would be determined, sent an ambassador to the 
Pope, to persuade him to show so much favour to 
His Majesty as that it might be sooner deter- 
mined. 

On this ambassage went Dr. Stephen Gardiner, 
then called by the name of Doctor Steven, Secre- 
tary to the King, afterwards Bishop of Winchester. 
This ambassador stayed there till the latter end of 
summer, of whose return you shall hereafter hear. 




XVII 

OF CERTAIN PASSAGES CONDUCING TO THE 
CARDINAL'S FALL 

the King commanded the Queen to 
be removed from the Court and sent to 
another place, and presently after the 
King rode on progress and had in his company 
Mistress Anne Boleyn, in which time Cardinal Cam- 
peggio asked to be discharged and sent home to 
Rome ; and in the interim returned Mr. Secretary, 
and it was concluded that my Lord should come 
to the King to Grafton in Northamptonshire, as 
also Cardinal Campeggio, being a stranger, should 
be conducted thither by my Lord Cardinal. And 
so the next Sunday there were divers opinions 
that the King should not speak with my Lord ; 
whereupon there were many great wagers laid. 

These two Prelates being come to the Court, 
and alighting, expected to be received of the great 
officers, as the manner was, but they found the 



PASSAGES CONDUCING TO HIS FALL 137 

contrary. Nevertheless, because the Cardinal 
Campeggio was a stranger, the officers met him 
with staves in their hands in the outer court, and 
so conveyed him to his lodging prepared for him ; 
and after my Lord had brought him to his lodging, 
he departed, thinking to have gone to his chamber 
as he was wont to do. But it was told him that 
he had no lodging or chamber appointed for him 
in the Court, which news did much astonish him. 
Sir Henry Norris, who was then Groom of the 
Stole, came unto him and desired him to take his 
chamber for awhile until another was provided for 
him. 

' For I assure you,' quoth he, ' here is but little 
room in this house for the King, and therefore I 
humbly beseech your Grace accept of mine for a 
season.' 

My Lord, thanking him for his courtesy, went 
to his chamber, where he shifted his riding 
apparel. 

In the meantime came divers noblemen of 
his friends to welcome him to the Court, by whom 
my Lord was advertised of all things touching 
the King's favour or displeasure, and being thus 
informed of the cause thereof, he was the more 
able to excuse himself. So my Lord made him 
ready and went to the Chamber of Presence with 
the other Cardinal, where the Lords of the Council 



138 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

stood all in a row in order in the chamber, and all 
the Lords saluted them both. And there were 
present many gentlemen who came on purpose to 
see the meeting and countenance of the King to 
my Lord Cardinal. Then immediately after the 
King came into the Chamber of Presence, standing 
under the cloth of State. 

Then my Lord Cardinal took Cardinal Cam- 
peggio by the hand and knelt down before the 
King, but what he said unto him I know not, but 
his countenance was amiable, and His Majesty 
stooped down, and with both hands took him up, 
and then took him by the hand and went to the 
window with him, and talked with him a good 
while. 

Then to have beheld the countenance of the 
Lords and noblemen that had laid wagers, it 
would have made you smile, especially those that 
had laid their money that the King would not 
speak with him. 

Thus were they deceived, for the King was in 
earnest discourse with him, insomuch that I heard 
the King say, ' How can this be ? Is not this your 
hand ?' and pulled a letter out of his own bosom, 
and showed the same to my Lord. And as I per- 
ceived, my Lord so answered the same that the 
King had no more to say, but said to my Lord 
Cardinal : 



PASSAGES CONDUCING TO HIS FALL 139 

' Go to your dinner, and take my Lord Cardinal 
to keep you company, and after dinner I will 
speak further with you.' 

And so they departed, and the King that day 
dined with Mistress Anne Boleyn in her chamber. 

Then there was set up in the Presence Chamber 
a table for my Lord and other Lords of the 
Council, where they dined together, and sat at 
dinner telling of divers matters. 

' The King should do well,' quoth my Lord 
Cardinal, ' to send his Bishops and Chaplains 
home to their cures and benefices.' 

' Yea, marry,' quoth my Lord of Norfolk, ' and 
so it were meet for you to do also/ 

' I would be well contented therewith,' quoth my 
Lord, 'if it were the King's pleasure, and with His 
Grace's leave to go to my cure at Winchester.' 

' Nay/ quoth my Lord of Norfolk, ' to your 
benefice at York, where your greatest honour and 
charge is.' 

1 Even as it shall please the King,' quoth my 
Lord Cardinal. 

And so they fell upon other discourses. For, 
indeed, the nobility were loath he should be so 
near the King as to continue at Winchester. Im- 
mediately after dinner they fell to counsel till the 
waiters had also dined. 

I heard it reported by those that waited on the 



140 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

King at dinner, that Mistress Anne Boleyn was 
offended as much as she dared, that the King did 
so graciously entertain my Lord Cardinal, saying : 

' Sir, is it not a marvellous thing to see into 
what great debt and danger he hath brought you 
with all your subjects ?' 

' How so ?' quoth the King. 

' Forsooth,' quoth she, ' there is not a man in all 
your whole realm of England worth a hundred 
pounds, but he hath indebted you to him ' (meaning 
of loan which the King had of his subjects). 

'Well, well/ quoth the King, 'for that matter 
there was no blame in him, for I know that matter 
better than you or any else.' 

' Nay,' quoth she, ' besides that, what exploits 
hath he wrought in several parts and places of this 
realm to your great slander and disgrace ! There 
is never a nobleman but if he had done half so 
much as he hath done, were well worthy to lose his 
head. Yea, if my Lord of Norfolk, my Lord of 
Suffolk, my father or any other man had done 
much less than he hath done, they should have 
lost their heads ere this.' 

' Then, I perceive,' quoth the King, ' you are 
none of my Lord Cardinal's friends.' 

' Why, sir,' quoth she, ' I have no cause nor any 
that love you, no more hath your Grace, if you did 
well consider his indirect and unlawful doings.' 



PASSAGES CONDUCING TO HIS FALL 141 

By that time the waiters had dined and were 
taking up the table, and so for that time ended 
their communication. You may perceive by this 
how the old malice was not forgotten, but began to 
kindle and be set on fire, which was stirred by the 
Cardinal's ancient enemies whom I have before 
mentioned in this treatise. 

The King for that time departed from Mistress 
Anne Boleyn, and came to the Chamber of Presence 
and called for my Lord, and in the great window 
had a long discourse with him, but of what I know 
not. Afterwards the King took him by the hand 
and led him into the Privy Chamber, and sat in 
consultation with him all alone without any other 
of the Lords, till it was dark night, which troubled 
all his enemies very sore, who had no other way 
but by Mistress Anne Boleyn, in whom was all 
their trust and confidence for the accomplishment 
of their enterprises, for without her they feared all 
their purposes would be frustrated. 

Now, at night was warning given me that there 
was no room for my Lord to lodge in the Court, 
so that I was forced to provide my Lord a lodging 
in the country about Easton, at one Mr. Empston's 
house, where my Lord came to supper by torch- 
light, it being late before my Lord parted from the 
King, who willed him to resort to him in the 
morning, for that he would talk further with him 



142 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

about the same matter; and in the morning my 
Lord came again, at whose coming the King's 
Majesty was ready to ride, desiring my Lord to 
consult with the Lords in his absence, and saying 
he would not talk with him. He commanded my 
Lord to depart with Cardinal Campeggio, who 
had already taken his leave of the King. 

This sudden departure of the King was the 
special work of Mistress Anne Boleyn, who rode 
with him purposely to draw him away, so that he 
might not return till after the departure of the 
Cardinals. 

So my Lord rode away after dinner with Cardinal 
Campeggio, who took his journey towards Rome 
with the King's reward, but what it was I am not 
certain. After their departure it was told the 
King that Cardinal Campeggio was departed, and 
had great treasure with him of my Lord Cardinal's 
to be conveyed in great amount to Rome, whither 
they surmised he would secretly repair out of 
this realm. Insomuch that they caused a post to 
ride after the Cardinal to search him, who overtook 
him at Calais and detained him till search was 
made, but there was found no more than was 
received of the King for a reward. 

Now, after Cardinal Campeggio was gone, 
Michaelmas Term drew on, against which my 
Lord Cardinal repaired to his house at West- 



PASSAGES CONDUCING TO HIS FALL 143 

minster ; and when the Term began, he went into 
the Hall in such manner as he was accustomed 
to do and sat in the Chancery, being then Lord 
Chancellor of England. After this day he never 
sat more. The next day he stayed at home for 
the coming of the Lords of Norfolk and Suffolk, 
who came not that day but the next, and did then 
declare unto my Lord that it was the King's 
pleasure that he should surrender up the Great 
Seal of England into their hands, and that he 
should depart unto Asher, which is a house near 
unto Hampton Court belonging to the Bishopric 
of Winchester. 

The Cardinal demanded of them to see their 
commission that gave them such authority. They 
answered that they were sufficient Commissioners, 
and had authority to do no less from the King's 
own mouth. Notwithstanding, he would in nowise 
agree to their demand without further knowledge 
of their authority, telling them that the Great Seal 
was delivered to him by the King's own person, to 
enjoy the ministration thereof, together with the 
Chancellorship during the term of his life, whereof 
for surety he had the King's Letters Patent to 
show. This matter was much debated between 
him and the Dukes, with many angry words, 
which he took patiently, insomuch that the Dukes 
were obliged to depart without their purpose at 



144 LIFE O F CARDINAL WOLSEY 

that time, and returned to Windsor to the King, 
and the next day they returned to my Lord with 
the King's Letters. Whereupon, in obedience to 
the King's command, my Lord delivered to them 
the Broad Seal, which they brought to Windsor 
to the King. 

Then my Lord called his officers before him and 
took account of all things they had in their charge, 
and in his gallery were set divers tables, upon 
which were laid divers and great store of rich 
stuffs, as whole pieces of silk of all colours, 
velvets, satins, damask, taffeta, grograine, scarlets 
and divers rich commodities. Also there were a 
thousand pieces of fine holland. The hangings of 
the gallery were cloth of gold and cloth of silver 
and rich cloth of baudkin of divers colours, which 
were hung in expectation of the King's coming. 
Also on one side of the gallery were hung rich 
suits of copes of his own provision, which were 
made for the colleges at Oxford and Ipswich ; 
they were the richest that ever I saw in all my 
life. 

Then had he two chambers adjoining the gallery, 
the one most commonly called the Gilt Chamber, 
the other the Council Chamber, wherein were set 
two broad and long tables, whereupon was set 
such abundance of plate of all sorts as was almost 
incredible. A great part were all of clean gold, 



PASSAGES CONDUCING TO HIS FALL 145 

and upon every table and cupboard where the 
plate was set were books reporting every kind of 
plate and every piece, with the contents and the 
weight thereof. 

Thus were all things furnished and prepared, 
and he gave the charge of the said stuff, with other 
things remaining in every office, to be delivered to 
the King as he gave charge. All things being 
ordered as is before rehearsed, my Lord prepared 
to depart, and resolved to go by water. But before 
his going, Sir W. Gascoigne, being his treasurer, 
came unto him, and said : 

' Sir, I am sorry for your Grace, for I hear you 
are to go straight to the Tower.' 

1 Is this the best comfort,' quoth my Lord, ' you 
can give to your master in adversity? It hath 
always been your inclination to be light of credit, 
and much lighter in reporting of lies. I would 
you should know, Sir William, and all those re- 
porters too, that it is untrue, for I never deserved 
to come there. Although it hath pleased the King 
to take my house ready furnished for his pleasure, 
at this time I would all the world should know 
that I have nothing but it is of right from him, and 
of him I received all that I have. It is therefore 
convenient and reason that I tender the same to 
him again.' 

Then my Lord, with his train of gentlemen and 

10 



146 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

yeomen, which was no small company, took his 
barge at his private stairs and went by water to 
Putney, at which time upon the water were abund- 
ance of boats filled with people, expecting to have 
seen my Lord Cardinal go to the Tower, which 
they longed to see. O wondering and new-fangled 
world ! Is it not a time to consider the mutability 
of this uncertain world ? For the common people 
ever desire things for the sake of novelty which 
after turn to their small profit and advantage. 
For if you mark the sequel, they had small cause 
to rejoice at his fall. I cannot but see that all men 
in favour are envied by the common people, though 
they do minister justice truly. 

Thus continued my Lord at Asher three or four 
weeks without either beds, sheets, tablecloths, or 
dishes to eat their meat in, or wherewith to buy 
any. But there was good store of all kinds of 
victuals, and of beer and wine plenty, but after- 
wards my Lord borrowed some plate and dishes 
of the Bishop of Carlisle. Thus continued my 
Lord in this strange state till after All-hallown 
tide, and being one day at dinner Mr. Cromwell 
told him he ought in conscience to consider the 
true and good service that he and other of his ser- 
vants had done who never forsook him in weal and 
woe. Then quoth my Lord : 

'Alas! Tom, you know I have nothing to give 



PASSAGES CONDUCING TO HIS FALL 147 

you nor them, which makes me both ashamed and 
sorry that I have nothing to requite your faithful 
services.' Whereupon Mr. Cromwell told my Lord 
that ' he had abundance of chaplains that were pre- 
ferred by his Grace to benefices of some thousand 
pounds, and others five hundred pounds, some 
more, some less, and we, your poor servants, take 
more pains in one day's service than all your idle 
chaplains have done in a year. Therefore, if they 
will not impart liberally to you in your great 
indigence, it is a pity they should live, and all the 
world will have them in indignation for their great 
ingratitude to their master.' 

Afterwards my Lord commanded me to call all 
his gentlemen and yeomen up into the great 
chamber, commanding all the gentlemen to stand 
on the right hand and the yeomen on the left. At 
last my Lord came out in his rochet upon a violet 
gown like a bishop's, who went with his chaplains 
to the upper end of the chamber, where was a 
great window. Beholding his goodly number of 
servants, he could not speak to them, while the 
tears ran down his cheeks, which being perceived 
by the servants, caused fountains of tears to gush 
out of their sorrowful eyes in such sort as to cause 
my heart to lament. At last my Lord spoke to 
them to this effect and purpose, saying : 

' Most faithful gentlemen and true-hearted yeo- 

10 2 



148 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

men, I much lament that in prosperity I did not 
do so much for you as I might have done and was 
in my power to do. I consider that if in my pros- 
perity I should have commended you to the King 
then I should have incurred the displeasure of the 
King's servants, who would not spare to report 
behind my back that there could escape the 
Cardinal and his servants no office in the Court, 
and by that means I should have run into open 
slander of all the world ; but now it is come to pass 
that it hath pleased the King to take all that I 
have into his hands, so that I have now nothing to 
give you, for I have nothing left me but the bare 
clothes on my back.' 

So he, giving them all hearty thanks, went 
away, and afterwards many of his servants departed 
from him, some to their wives, some to their 
friends, Master Cromwell to London, it being then 
the beginning of Parliament. 




CHAPTER XVIII 

THE CARDINAL IS ACCUSED OF HIGH TREASON 
IN THE PARLIAMENT HOUSE, AGAINST WHICH 
ACCUSATION MR. CROMWELL (LATE SER- 
VANT TO HIM), BEING A BURGESS IN THE 
PARLIAMENT, MADE DEFENCE 

]HE aforesaid Master Cromwell, [after his 
departure from my Lord,[ devised with 
himself to be one of the Burgesses of 
the Parliament. Being in London, he chanced to 
meet one Sir Thomas Russell, Knight, a special 
friend of his, whose son was one of the Burgesses 
of the Parliament, of whom he obtained his room, 
and by that means put his foot into the Parliament 
House. Three days after his departure from my 
Lord he came again to Asher, and I being there 
with my Lord, he said unto me with a pleasant 
countenance : 

' I have adventured my feet where I will be 
better regarded ere the Parliament be dissolved.' 



150 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

And after he had some talk with my Lord, he 
made haste to London, because he would not be 
absent from the Parliament, to the intent he might 
acquaint my Lord what was there objected against 
him, thereby the better to make his defence, inso- 
much that there was nothing at any time objected 
against my Lord but he was ready to make answer 
thereunto. Being thus earnest in his master's 
behalf, he was reputed the most faithful servant to 
his master of all others, and was generally of all 
men highly commended. 

Then was there brought a Bill of Articles into 
the Parliament House to have my Lord condemned 
of high treason, against which Master Cromwell 
did inveigh, so discreetly and with such witty per- 
suasions, that the same would take no effect. Then 
were his enemies constrained to indict him of a 
Praemunire, to entitle the King to all his goods 
and possessions which he had obtained and pur- 
chased for the maintenance of his Colleges of 
Oxford and Ipswich, which were both most 
sumptuous buildings. To the Judges that were 
sent to take my Lord's answer herein he thus 
answered : 

' My Lord Judges, the King knoweth whether I 
have offended or no in using my prerogative, for 
the which I am indicted. I have the King's license 
in my coffer, under his hand and Broad Seal, for 



THE CARDINAL ACCUSED OF HIGH TREASON !$! 

the executing and using thereof in most large 
manner, the which now are in the hands of mine 
enemies. Therefore, because I will not here stand 
to contend with His Majesty in his own case, I will 
here presently before you confess the indictment, 
and put myself wholly at the mercy and grace of 
the King, trusting that he hath a conscience and 
reason to consider the truth, and my humble sub- 
mission and obedience wherein I might well stand 
to my trial with justice. Thus much may you say 
to His Highness, that I wholly submit myself 
under his obedience in all things to his princely 
will and pleasure, whom I never disobeyed or 
repugned, but was always contented and glad to 
please him before God, whom I ought most chiefly 
to have believed and obeyed, which I now repent. 
I most heartily desire you to have me commended 
to him, for whom I shall, during my life, pray to 
God to send him much prosperity, honour, and 
victory over his enemies.' 

And so they left him. 

After this Mr. Shelley, the Judge, was sent to 
speak with my Lord, who understanding he had 
come, issued out of his Privy Chamber and came 
to him to know his business. He, after due saluta- 
tion, did declare unto him that the King's pleasure 
was to demand my Lord's house, called York 
Place, near Westminster, belonging to the Bishopric 



152 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

of York, and to possess the same according to the 
laws of his realm. 

f His Highness hath sent for all his Judges and 
learned Counsel to know their opinions for your 
assurance thereof, who be fully resolved that your 
Grace must make a recognition, and before a Judge 
acknowledge and confess the right thereof to 
belong to the King and his successors, and so His 
Highness shall be assured thereof. 

' Wherefore it hath pleased the King to send me 
hither to take of you the recognizance, having in 
your Grace such confidence that you will not refuse 
to do so; therefore I do desire to know your 
Grace's pleasure therein/ 

' Master Shelley,' quoth my Lord, ' I know the 
King of his own nature is a royal spirit, not re- 
quiring more than reason shall lead him to by the 
law. And therefore I counsel you and all other 
Judges and learned men of his Council to put no 
more into his head than law, that may stand with 
conscience, for when you tell him that this is law, 
it were well done you should tell him that, although 
this is law, yet it is not conscience; for law without 
conscience is not good to be ministered by a King 
or his Council nor by any of his ministers, for every 
Council to a King ought to have respect to con- 
science before the rigour of the law, for " laus est 
facere quod decet non quod licet." The King 



THE CARDINAL ACCUSED OF HIGH TREASON 153 

ought for his royal dignity and prerogative to 
mitigate the rigour of the law, and therefore in 
his princely place he hath constituted a Chan- 
cellor to order for him the same, and therefore the 
Court of Chancery hath been commonly called the 
Court of Conscience, for that it hath jurisdiction 
to command the law in every case to desist from 
the rigour of the execution. And now I say to 
you, Master Shelley, have I a power or may I 
with conscience give that away which is now mine 
for me and my successors? If this be law and 
conscience, I pray you show me your opinion.' 

' Forsooth,' quoth he, ' there is no great con- 
science in it, but having regard to the King's great 
power, it may the better stand with conscience, 
who is sufficient to recompense the Church of York 
with the double value.' 

' That I know well,' quoth my Lord ; ' but 
there is no such condition, but only a bare and 
simple seizure of another's right ; if every Bishop 
should do so, then might every Prelate give away 
the patrimony of the Church, and so in process of 
time leave nothing for their successors to maintain 
their dignities, which would be but little to the 
King's honour. Well,' quoth my Lord, ' let me 
see your commission,' which was shown to him. 
1 Then,' quoth my Lord, ' tell His Highness that I 
am his most faithful subject and obedient beads- 



154 LJ FE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

man, whose command I will in no wise disobey, 
but will in all things fulfil his pleasure, as you, the 
fathers of the law, say I may. Therefore I charge 
your conscience to discharge me, and show His 
Highness from me, that I must desire His Majesty 
to remember there is both Heaven and Hell.' 

And thereupon the clerk took and wrote the 
recognizance, and after some secret talk they 
departed. 

Thus continued my Lord at Asher, receiving 
daily messages from the Court, some good, some 
bad, but more ill than good, for his enemies, per- 
ceiving the good affection the King always bore 
towards him, devised a means to disquiet his 
patience, thinking thereby to give him occasion 
to fret and chafe, that death should rather ensue 
than increase of health or life, which they most 
desired, for they feared him more after his fall 
than they did in prosperity, fearing that he should, 
by reason of the King's favour, rise again and be 
again in favour and great at the Court ; for then 
they his enemies might be in danger of their lives 
for their cruelty wrongfully ministered unto him, 
and by their malicious surmises invented and 
brought to pass against him. Therefore they did 
continually find new matters against him to vex 
him and make him fret, but he was a wise man 
and did arm himself with much patience. 



THE CARDINAL ACCUSED OF HIGH TREASON 155 

At Christmas he fell very sore sick, most likely 
to die. The King, hearing thereof, was very sorry 
and sent Dr. Butts, his physician, unto him, who 
found him very dangerously sick in bed, and re- 
turned to the King. The King demanded, saying: 

' Have you seen yonder man ?' 

' Yes, sir,' quoth he. 

* How do you find him ?' quoth the King. 

' Sir,' quoth he, ' if you will have him dead, 
I will warrant you he will be dead within these 
four days, if he receive no comfort from you 
shortly.' 

' Marry, God forbid,' quoth the King, ' that he 
should die, for I would not lose him for twenty 
thousand pounds. I pray you go to him and do 
your cure upon him.' 

' Then must your Grace send him some com- 
fortable message,' quoth Dr. Butts. 

' So I will by you,' quoth the King ; ' therefore 
make speed to him again and you shall deliver 
him this ring from me for a token ' (in the which 
ring was engraved the King's image with a ruby, 
as like the King as was possible to be devised). 
' This ring he knoweth well, for he gave me the 
same, and tell him that I am not offended with 
him in my heart for anything, and that shall be 
known shortly ; therefore bid him pluck up his 
heart and be of good comfort. And I charge you 



156 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

come not from him till you have brought him out 
of the danger of death, if it be possible.' 

Then spake the King to Mistress Anne Boleyn : 

' Good sweetheart, as you love me send the 
Cardinal a token at my request, and in so doing 
you shall deserve our thanks.' 

She being disposed not to offend the King, 
would not disobey his loving request, but took 
immediately her tablet of gold that hung at her 
side, and delivered it to Dr. Butts, with very 
gentle and loving words. And so he departed to 
Asher with speed, and after him the King sent 
Dr. Cromer, Dr. Clement, and Dr. Wotton, to 
consult and advise with Dr. Butts for my Lord's 
recovery. 

Now, after Dr. Butts had been with him and 
delivered him the tokens from the King and 
Mistress Anne Boleyn, with the most comfortable 
words he could devise on the King's and Mistress 
Anne's behalf, he raised himself in his bed and 
received the tokens very joyfully, giving him 
many thanks for his trouble and good comfort. 
Dr. Butts told him further that the King's 
pleasure was that he should minister unto him 
for his health, and for the better and more 
assured ways he hath also sent Dr. Cromer, Dr. 
Clement and Dr. Wotton, all to join for his 
recovery. 



THE CARDINAL ACCUSED OF HIGH TREASON 157 

' Therefore, my Lord,' quoth Dr. Butts, ' it were 
well they were called to visit you, and to consult 
for your disease.' 

At which my Lord was contented, and sent for 
them to hear their judgments, but he trusted more 
to Dr. Cromer than all the rest, because he was 
the very means of bringing him from Paris to 
England and of giving him partly his exhibition 
in Paris. 

To be short, in four days they set him again 
upon his feet, and got him a good stomach to his 
meat. 

All this done and my Lord in a right good way 
of amendment, they took their leaves and departed, 
to whom my Lord offered his reward, but they 
refused, saying the King had given a special com- 
mandment that they should take nothing of him, 
for at their return he would reward them of his 
own cost. 

After this my Lord continued at Asher till 
Candlemas, before and against which feast the 
King caused to be sent to my Lord three or four 
loads of stuff, and most thereof, except beds and 
kitchen-stuff, was loaded in standards, wherein was 
both plate and rich hangings and chapel stuff, 
which was done without the knowledge of the 
Lords of the Council, for all which he rendered 
the King most humble and hearty thanks, and 



158 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

afterwards he made suit unto the King to be 
removed from Asher to Richmond, which request 
was granted. 

The house of Richmond a little before was 
repaired by my Lord to his great cost, for the 
King had made an exchange with him for 
Hampton Court. Had the Lords of the Council 
known of these favours from the King to the 
Cardinal, they would have persuaded the King to 
the contrary, for they feared lest his present abode 
near the King might move the King at some 
season to resort unto him, and to call him home 
again, considering the great and daily affection 
the King bore unto him. Therefore they moved 
the King that my Lord might go down to the 
north to his benefice there, where he might be a 
good stay, as they alleged, to the country, to 
which the King condescended, thinking no less 
but that all had been true according as they 
had related, being with such seriousness that the 
King was straightway persuaded to their con- 
clusion. 

Thereupon my Lord of Norfolk told Master 
Cromwell, who daily did resort to my Lord, that 
he should say to him that he must go home to his 
benefice. 

' Well, then, Thomas,' quoth my Lord, ' we will 
go to Winchester.' 



THE CARDINAL ACCUSED OF HIGH TREASON 159 

' I will, then,' quoth Master Cromwell, ' tell my 
Lord of Norfolk what you say ;' and so he did at 
his next meeting of him. 

' What should he do there ?' quoth the Duke. 
' Let him go to the rich Bishopric of York, where 
his greatest honour and charge lieth.' 

The Lords who were not his friends, perceiving 
that my Lord was disposed to plant himself so 
nigh the King, thought then to withdraw his 
appetite from Winchester, and moved the King 
to give my Lord a pension of 4,000 marks out of 
Winchester, and to distribute all the rest amongst 
the nobility and his servants, and so likewise to 
divide the revenues of St. Albans, whereof some 
had two hundred pounds. All the revenues of 
his lands belonging to his College at Oxford and 
Ipswich the King took into his own hands, 
whereof Master Cromwell had the government 
by my Lord's assignment, and it was thought 
very necessary that he should have the same still 
who executed all things so well and exactly, that 
he was had in great estimation for his behaviour 
therein. 

Now, it came to pass that any annuities or fees 
given by the King for term of life or by patent 
could not be good but only for and during my 
Lord's life, forasmuch as the King had no longer 
estate therein, but what he had by my Lord's 



l6o LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

attainder in the Praemunire ; and to make their 
estate good and sufficient there was no other way 
but to obtain my Lord's confirmation of their 
patents. To bring this about there was no other 
means but by Master Cromwell, who was thought 
the fittest instrument for this purpose, and for his 
pains therein he was worthily rewarded, and his 
demeanour, his honesty and wisdom was such that 
the King took great notice of him, as you shall 
hereafter hear. 

Still, the Lords thought long till my Lord was 
removed further off from the King, wherefore, 
among others of the Lords, my Lord of Norfolk 
said : 

' Master Cromwell, methinks the Cardinal thy 
master makes no haste to go northwards. Tell him, 
if he go not away, I will tear him with my teeth. 
Therefore I would advise him to prepare with 
speed, or I will set him forwards.' 

These words reported Mr. Cromwell to my 
Lord at his next visit, which was to Richmond, 
the Cardinal having obtained license of the King 
to remove from Asher to Richmond. In the 
evening, being accustomed to walk in the garden, 
and I being with him standing in an alley, I 
espied certain images of beasts counterfeited in 
timber, which I went nearer to take the better 
view of them. Among them I saw standing a 



THE CARDINAL ACCUSED OF HIGH TREASON l6l 

dun cow, at which I mused most of all. My 
Lord then suddenly came to me unawares, and 
speaking to me, said : 

' What have you spied there whereat you look so 
earnestly ?' 

' Forsooth,' quoth I, ' if it please your Grace, I 
here behold these images which I suppose were 
ordained to be set up in the King's palace, but 
amongst them all I have most considered this 
cow, which seems to me the artificer's master- 
piece.' 

' Yea, marry,' quoth my Lord, ' upon this cow 
there hangs a certain prophecy which perhaps you 
never heard of. There is a saying that 

' " When the cow doth ride the bull, 
Then, priest, beware thy skull," ' 

of which saying neither my Lord, that declared it, 
nor I, that heard it, understood the meaning, 
although the prophecy was then working to be 
brought to pass. This cow the King gave as one 
of his beasts appertaining from antiquity unto his 
earldom of Richmond, which was his ancient 
inheritance. This prophecy was afterwards ex- 
pounded in this manner. The dun cow, because 
it is the King's beast, betokens the King, and the 
bull Mistress Anne Boleyn, who after was Queen, 
because that her father gave the same beast in his 

II 



1 62 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

cognizance, so that when the King had married 
Queen Anne the prophecy was thought of all men 
to be fulfilled, for what a number of priests, religious 
and seculars, lost their heads for offending of those 
laws made to bring this matter to pass is not un- 
known to all the world, therefore it may well be 
judged that this prophecy is fulfilled. 

You have heard what words the Duke of Norfolk 
spoke to Master Cromwell touching my Lord's 
going into the north. Then said my Lord : 

'Thomas, it is time to be going, therefore I 
pray you go to the King and tell him I would go 
to my benefice at York but for lack of money, and 
desire his Grace to help me to some, for you may 
say the last money I had from his Grace was too 
little to pay my debts, and to compel me to pay 
the rest of my debts is too much extremity, seeing 
all my goods are taken from me. Also show my 
Lord of Norfolk and the rest of the Council that I 
would depart if I had money.' 

' Sir,' quoth Master Cromwell, ' I shall do my 
best.' 

And so, after other communication, departed, 
and came to London. Then at the beginning of 
Lent my Lord removed his lodging into the 
Charterhouse at Richmond, where he lay in a 
lodging that Dr. Collet made for himself, and 
every afternoon for the time of his residence there 



THE CARDINAL ACCUSED OF HIGH TREASON 163 

would he sit in contemplation with some one of the 
most ancient Fathers there, who converted him to 
despise the vainglory of this world, and there they 
gave unto him shirts of hair to wear next his body, 
which he wore divers time after. 

The Lords assigned that my Lord should have 
1,000 marks pension out of Winchester for his 
going down into the north, which, when the King 
heard of, he commanded it should be forthwith 
paid unto Master Cromwell. And the King com- 
manded Master Cromwell to repair to him again 
when he had received the said sum, which accord- 
ingly he did, to whom His Majesty said : 

* Show your Lord that I have sent him 10,000 
of my benevolence, and tell him he shall not lack ; 
bid him be of good comfort.' 

Master Cromwell, on my Lord's behalf, thanked 
the King for his royal liberality towards my Lord, 
and with that departed and delivered the money 
and joyful tidings to the Cardinal at Richmond, 
wherein my Lord did not a little rejoice. Forth- 
with there was preparation made for his going. 
He had with him in his train 150 persons and 
twelve carts to carry his goods, which he sent from 
his college at Oxford, besides other carts for the 
carriage of his necessaries for his buildings. He 
kept his solemn feast of Easter at Peterborough, 
and upon Palm Sunday he bore his palm and went 

II 2 



164 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

in procession with the monks, and upon Thursday 
he made his Maundy, having fifty poor men, whose 
feet he washed and kissed, and after he had dried 
them, he gave every one of them twelve pence and 
three ells of good canvas to make them shirts, and 
each of them had a pair of new shoes and a cask 
of red herrings. Upon Easter Day he rode to the 
Resurrection, and that day he went in procession 
in his Cardinal's vestments, and having his hat on 
his head, and sung the High Mass there himself 
solemnly. After his Mass he gave his benediction 
to all the hearers, and clean remission. From 
Peterborough he took his journey into the north, 
but made some stay by the way, and many things 
happened in his journey too tedious here to relate. 
At the last he came to Scroby, where he continued 
till Michaelmas, exercising many deeds of charity. 
Most commonly every Sunday, if the weather 
served, would he go to some poor parish church 
thereabouts, and there would say the Divine 
Service, and either said or heard Mass, and then 
caused one of his Chaplains to preach the Word of 
God to the people, and afterwards he would dine 
in some honest house in the town, where was dis- 
tributed to the poor alms as well of meat and 
drink, and money to supply the want of meat and 
drink if the number of poor did exceed. About 
Michaelmas next he removed from thence to 



THE CARDINAL ACCUSED OF HIGH TREASON 165 

Cawood Castle, within seven miles of the city of 
York, where we had much honour and love from 
all men, high and low, and where he kept a 
plentiful house for all comers. Also he built and 
repaired the Castle, which was much decayed, 
having at the least 300 persons daily in work to 
whom he paid wages. And while there all the 
Doctors and Prebends of the Church of York did 
repair to my Lord according to their duties, as 
unto the chief head, patron and father of their 
spiritual dignities, who did joyfully welcome him 
into those parts, saying it was no small comfort 
unto them to see their Head among them, who had 
been so long absent from them, being all that while 
like fatherless and comfortless children for want of 
his presence, and that they trusted shortly to see 
him amongst them in his own church to whom 
he made answer that it was the especial cause of 
his coming to be amongst them as a father and a 
natural brother. 

' Sir/ quoth they, ' you must understand the 
ordinances and rules of our Church, whereof, 
although you be the head and sole governor, yet 
you are not so well acquainted as we be therein. 
Therefore, if it please your Grace, we shall (under 
favour) open unto you some part of the ancient 
laws of our Church. The old law and custom 
hath been that our head Prelate and Pastor, as 



1 66 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

you now are, may not come above our choir door, 
until by due order he be installed. Nor if you 
should happen to die before your installation, you 
should not be buried above in the choir, but in 
the body of the church beneath. Therefore, we 
humbly desire and beseech you, in the name of 
all our brethren, that you would vouchsafe to do 
therein, as our ancient Fathers, your predecessors, 
have done, and that you would not break the 
laudable customs of our Church, to the which we 
are obliged by oath at our first admittance to 
observe with divers others, which in our Chapter 
doth remain upon record.' 

' These records,' quoth my Lord, ' would I fain 
see, and then you shall know further of my advice 
and mind in this business.' 

A day was fixed to bring their records to my 
Lord, at which time they resorted to my Lord 
with their register and books of records, wherein 
were fairly written their institutions and rules, 
which every minister of their Church was most 
principally and chiefly bound to observe and safely 
keep and maintain. 

When my Lord had read the records he deter- 
mined to be at the Cathedral Church of York 
the next Monday after All-hallown-tide, against 
which time due preparation was made for the 
same, but not in so sumptuous a manner as was 



THE CARDINAL ACCUSED OF HIGH TREASON 167 

done for his predecessors before him, nor yet in 
such sort as the fame and common report was 
afterwards made of him, to his great slander. I 
myself was sent by my Lord of York to see that 
all things there should be ordered and provided 
for that solemnity in a very decent form, to the 
honour of that ancient and worthy monastery of 
York. 

It came to pass that upon All-hallows Day 
one of the head and principal officers of the said 
Cathedral Church, which should have had most 
doing at my Lord's installation, was with my Lord 
at Cawood, and sitting at dinner, they fell into 
communication of this matter, and the order and 
ceremony thereof, he saying that my Lord 
Cardinal should go on foot from a chapel which 
stands without the gates of the city, called St. 
James's Chapel, unto the minster, upon cloth, 
which should be distributed to the poor after his 
said passage to the church. My Lord hearing 
this, replied and said : 

' Although perhaps our predecessors have gone 
upon cloth, yet we intend to go on foot without 
any such pomp or glory.' And therefore he gave 
order to his servants to go as humbly thither as 
might be, without any sumptuous apparel. ' For,' 
said he, ' I intend to come to you on Sunday to 
be installed, and to make but one dinner for you 



1 68 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

at the close, and the next day to dine with the 
Mayor, and so return hither again.' 

The day being not unknown to all the country, 
the gentlemen, Abbots, and Priors sent such pro- 
vision in that it was almost incredible for store 
and variety. The common people held my Lord 
in great estimation for his purity and liberality, 
and also for his familiar manners and good 
behaviour amongst them, and by means thereof 
he gained much love of all the people in the 
northern parts of England. 



XIX 

OF THE CARDINAL'S FALL, AND HOW HE WAS 
ARRESTED OF HIGH TREASON 




happened before his last troubles at 
Cawood is a sign or token from God of 
^**** that which should follow. I will now 
declare, God willing, how my Lord's enemies, being 
then at the Court about the King in good estima- 
tion and honourable dignities how, seeing now my 
Lord in great favour, and fearing the King would 
now call him home again, they therefore did plot 
among themselves to despatch him by means of 
some sinister treason, or to bring him into the 
King's indignation by some other means. 

This was their daily study and consultation, 
having for their especial help and furtherance as 
many vigilant attendants upon him as the poets 
say Argus had eyes. 

The King with these their continual complaints 
was moved to much indignation, and thought it 



I/O LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

good that the Cardinal should come up and to 
stand trial in his own person, which his enemies 
did not like, notwithstanding he was sent for, and 
after this sort. 

First they devised that Sir Walter Walshe, 
Knight, one of the King's Privy Chamber, should 
be sent down with a commission into the north, 
and the Earl of Northumberland, who was some- 
time brought up in the house of my Lord, being 
joined in commission with him, should arrest my 
Lord of high treason. This being resolved on, Sir 
Walter Walshe prepared for his journey with his 
commission and certain documents annexed to the 
same, and took horse at the Court gate upon All- 
hallows Day towards my Lord of Northumber- 
land. Now I will declare what I promised before 
concerning a sign or token of the trouble that 
ensued for my Lord. 

Upon All-hallows Day my Lord was sitting at 
dinner, having at his board divers of his Chaplains 
to bear him company for want of other guests. 
You shall now understand that my Lord's great 
cross which stood by fell, and in the fall broke 
Doctor Bonner's head, insomuch that some blood 
ran down. My Lord, perceiving the fall thereof, 
demanded of those that stood by him why they 
were so amazed. I showed him how the cross had 
fallen upon Doctor Bonner's head. Quoth my Lord : 



THE CARDINAL'S FALL 171 

' Hath it drawn any blood ?' 

1 Yea,' quoth I. 

With that he cast down his head and soberly 
said ' Malum omen,' aad thereupon suddenly said 
grace, rose from table and went to his bedchamber, 
but what he did there I cannot tell. Now mark how 
my Lord expounded the meaning thereof to me at 
Pontefract after his fall. First that the great cross 
that he bore as Archbishop of York betokened 
himself, and Doctor Augustine the Physician, who 
overthrew the cross, was he that accused my 
Lord, whereby his enemies caught an occasion to 
overthrow him. It fell on Doctor Bonner's head, 
who was then master of my Lord's faculties and 
spiritual jurisdiction, and, moreover, the drawing 
of blood betokeneth death, which did suddenly 
after follow. 

Now the appointed time drew near for Installa- 
tion. Sitting at dinner the Friday before the 
Monday that he should have been installed at 
York, the Earl of Northumberland and Mr. Walshe 
with a great company of gentlemen of the Earl's 
house and of the country whom they had gathered 
in the King's name to accompany them, came to 
the hall of Cawood (the officers being then at 
dinner), and my Lord, not having fully dined, knew 
nothing of the Earl's coming. 

The first thing that the Earl did after he had set 



1/2 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

the hall in order was to command the porter to 
deliver the keys of the gate to him, which he 
would in no wise do, although he was threatened 
and commanded in the King's name to make 
deliverance thereof to one of the Earl's servants, 
which he still refused to do, saying to the Earl 
that the keys were delivered to him by his Lord 
and Master both by oath and under command. 

Now, some of the gentlemen that stood by the 
Earl, hearing the porter speak so stoutly, said : ' He 
is a good fellow and a faithful servant to his 
master, and speaks like an honest man, therefore 
give him your charge and let him keep the keys 
still.' Then said the Earl : ' Thou shalt well and 
truly keep the keys to the use of our Sovereign 
Lord the King, and you shall let none pass in or 
out of the gates but such as from time to time you 
shall be commanded by us, being the King's Com- 
missioners, during our stay here ;' and with that 
oath he received the keys of the Earl at Master 
Walshe's hands. But of all these doings knew my 
Lord nothing, for they had stopped the stairs that 
none should go to my Lord's chamber, and they 
that came down could not go up again. At length 
one escaped up and showed my Lord that the 
Earl of Northumberland was in the hall, whereat 
my Lord wondered, and at first believed not till he 
heard it confirmed by another. Then quoth my 



THE CARDINAL'S FALL 173 

Lord : ' I am sorry we have dined, for I fear our 
officers have not provided fish enough for his 
entertainment with some honourable cheer fitting 
his estate and dignity.' But with that my Lord 
rose from the table and commanded to let the cloth 
lie that the Earl might see how far forward they 
were at their dinners, and as he was going down 
the stairs he encountered with my Lord of North- 
umberland, to whom my Lord said : 

' You are heartily welcome, my Lord ;' and so 
they embraced each other. 

Then quoth my Lord Cardinal : 

' If you had loved me, you would have sent me 
word before of your coming, that I might have 
entertained you according to your honour. Not- 
withstanding, you shall have such cheer as I can 
make you for the present with a right good will, 
trusting you will accept thereof in good part, and 
hoping hereafter to see you oftener, when I shall be 
more able to entertain you.' 

This said, my Lord took him by the hand and 
led him to his chamber, followed by all the Earls 
and servants ; and they were there all alone, saving 
I, which kept the door as my office required, being 
Gentleman Usher. While these two Lords stood 
at the window, the Earl, trembling, said : 

' I arrest you of high treason.' 

With which words my Lord was well-nigh 



174 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

astonished, standing still a good space without 
speaking a word. But at the last quoth my Lord : 

' What authority have you to arrest me ?' 

Quoth the Earl : 

' I have a commission so to do.' 

' Show it me,' quoth my Lord, ' that I may see 
the contents thereof.' 

' Nay, sir, that you may not,' quoth the Earl. 

Then quoth my Lord : 

' Hold you contented, for I will not obey your 
arrest, for there hath been between your ancestors 
and my predecessors great contentions and debate. 
Therefore, unless I see your authority, I will not 
obey you.' 

Even as they were debating the matter in the 
chamber, so likewise was Mr. Walshe busy in 
arresting Doctor Augustine at the door, saying : 

' Go in, thou traitor, or I shall make thee !' 

With that I opened the portal door, and he 
did thrust Doctor Augustine in before him with 
violence. The matter on both sides astonished me 
very much, marvelling what all this should mean, 
until at last Master Walshe, having entered my 
Lord's chamber, began to pluck off his hood, 
being of the same cloth as his coat, which hood he 
wore to the intent he should not be known, who 
kneeled down to my Lord, to whom my Lord 
said: 



THE CARDINAL'S FALL 175 

' Come hither, sir, and let me speak with you ;' 
and commanding him to stand up, said thus : 
' My Lord of Northumberland hath arrested me, 
but by what authority I know not. If you be 
privy thereunto and joined with him therein, I pray 
you show me.' 

' Indeed, my Lord, if it please your Grace, I 
pray have me excused. There is annexed to our 
commission certain instructions such as you may 
not see nor be privy to.' 

1 Why,' quoth my Lord, ' be your instructions 
such as I may not see nor be privy thereunto, yet 
peradventure if I be privy unto them I may help 
you the better to perform them, for it is not un- 
known to you that I have been of counsel in as 
weighty matters as these are, and I doubt not I 
shall prove myself to be a true man against the 
expectation of my cruel enemies. I have an 
understanding whereupon all this matter groweth. 
Well, there is no more to do, I trow. You are of 
the Privy Chamber ; your name is Master Walshe. 
I am contented to yield to you, but not to the Earl 
without I see his commission, and you are also a 
sufficient Commissioner in this behalf, being one of 
the Privy Chamber. Therefore, put your commis- 
sion in execution ; spare me not. I will obey you 
and the King, for I fear not the cruelty of mine 
enemies no more than I do the truth of my 



I ?6 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

allegiance, wherein I take God to witness I never 
offended His Majesty in word or deed, and therein 
I dare stand face to face with any having a differ- 
ence without partiality.' 

Then came my Lord of Northumberland and 
commanded me to avoid the chamber, and being 
loath to depart from my master, I stood still and 
would not remove. Then he spake again, and 
said : 

1 There is no remedy ; you must depart.' 

With that I looked upon my master as one who 
would have said, ' Shall I go ?' and perceiving by 
his countenance that it was not for me to stay, I 
departed and went into another chamber, where 
there were many gentlemen and others to hear 
news, to whom I made a report of what I heard 
and saw, which was great heaviness to them all. 

Then the Earl called into his chamber divers of 
his own servants, and after he and Master Walshe 
had taken the keys from my Lord, he committed 
the keeping of my Lord unto five gentlemen, and 
then they went about the house and put all things 
in order, intending to depart next day and to 
certify to the King and the rest of the Lords what 
they had done. 

Then went they busily about to convey Doctor 
Augustine away to London, with as much speed 
and privacy as possible, sending with him divers 



THE CARDINAL'S FALL 177 

persons to conduct him, who was bound to his 
horse like a traitor. 

And this being done, when it was near night, 
the Commissioners sending two grooms of my 
Lord's to attend him to his chamber (where he lay 
all night), the rest of the Earl's men watched in 
the chamber, and all the house was watched and 
the gates safe kept, that no man could pass or 
repass until the next morning. 

About eight of the clock next morning the 
Earl sent for me into his chamber, and commanded 
me to go to my Lord, and as I was going, I met 
with Master Walshe, who called me unto him and 
showed me how the King's Majesty bore unto me 
his principal favour for my love and diligent 
service that I had performed to my Lord. ' Where- 
fore,' quoth he, ' the King's pleasure is that you 
shall be about him as chief, in whom His High- 
ness putteth great confidence and trust.' And 
thereupon he gave me in writing the Articles, 
which, when I had read, I said I was content to 
obey His Majesty's pleasure, and would be sworn 
to the performance thereof, whereupon he gave me 
my oath. 

That done, I resorted to my Lord, whom I 
found sitting in a chair, the table being ready 
spread for him. But so soon as he perceived me 
come in, he fell into such a woeful lamentation, 

T2 



1/8 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

that would have forced a flinty heart to mourn. I 
then comforted him as well as I could, but he 
would not. 

' For,' quoth he, ' I am much grieved that I have 
nothing with which to reward you and the rest of 
my true and faithful servants, for all the good 
service they and you have done me, for which I 
do much lament.' 

Upon Sunday following, the Earl and Master 
Walshe appointed to set forward, for my Lord's 
horse and ours were brought ready into the inner 
court, where we mounted and came towards the 
gate ready to ride out. The porter had no sooner 
opened the same, but we saw without ready 
attending a great number of gentlemen and their 
servants, such as the Earl had appointed for that 
service, to attend and conduct my Lord to Pomfret 
that night. 

But to tell you the truth, there were also many 
of the rich people of the country assembled at the 
gate, lamenting his departure, in number about 
3,000, who after they had a sight of him, cried out 
with a loud voice, ' God save your Grace ! God 
save your Grace ! The foul evil take them that 
have taken you from us ! We pray God that 
vengeance may come upon them !' And thus they 
ran after him through the town of Cawood, for he 
was very well-beloved there, both of rich and poor. 




XX 

OF THE CARDINAL'S ENTERTAINMENT AT THE 
EARL OF SHREWSBURY'S, AND OF HIS DEATH 
AND BURIAL AT LEICESTER 

JFTER our departure from Cawood we 
came to Doncaster ; the third day we 
came to Sheffield Park, where my Lord 
of Shrewsbury lived within the Lodge, and the 
Earl and his lady and a great company of gentle- 
women and servants stood without the gate to 
attend my Lord's coming, at whose alighting the 
Earl received him with much honour, and em- 
bracing him, said these words : 

4 My Lord, you are most heartily welcome to 
my poor Lodge, and I am glad to see you.' 

Here my Lord stayed a fortnight, and was most 
nobly entertained ; he spent most of his time and 
applied his mind to prayers continually, in great 
devotion. It came to pass as he sat one day at 
dinner, I, being there, perceived his colour divers 

12 2 



180 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

times to change. I asked if he was not well. He 
answered me with a loud voice : 

' I am suddenly taken with a thing at my 
stomach, and am not well. Therefore take up the 
table and make a short dinner, and return to me 
again at once.' 

I made but little stay, but came to him again, 
and found him still sitting very ill at ease. He 
desired me to go to the apothecary and ask him 
if he had anything that would break wind upwards. 
He told me he had ; then I went and showed the 
same to my Lord, who did command me to give 
him some thereof, and so I did, and it made him 
break wind exceedingly. 

' Lo,' quoth he, ' you may see it was but the 
wind, for now I thank God I am well eased.' 

And so he arose from the table and went to 
prayers, as he used every day after dinner. 

In the afternoon my Lord of Shrewsbury sent 
for me to him and said : 

' Forasmuch as I have always perceived you to 
be a man in whom my Lord putteth great confi- 
dence, and I myself knowing you to be a very 
honest man ' (with many words of commendations 
and praise more than becometh me to rehearse), 
' I would tell you that your Lord and Master hath 
often desired me to write unto the King, that he 
might answer his accusations before his enemies. 



THE CARDINAL'S ENTERTAINMENT 181 

And this day I have received letters from His 
Majesty by Sir William Kingston, whereby I 
perceive that the King hath him in good opinion, 
and upon my request hath sent for him by the 
said Sir William Kingston. Therefore now I 
would have you play your part wisely with him, 
in such sort as he may take it quietly and in good 
part, for he is always full of sorrow and heaviness 
at my being with him, that I fear he would take 
it ill if I bring him tidings thereof. And therein 
doth he not well, for I assure you that the King 
is his very good Lord, and hath given me most 
hearty thanks for his entertainment. Therefore 
go your way to him in quiet till my coming, for 
I will not tarry long after you.' 

' Sir,' quoth I, ' if it please your Lordship, I shall 
endeavour to the best of my power to accomplish 
your Lordship's command. But, sir, I doubt 
when I name this Sir William Kingston that he 
will guess some ill, because he is Constable of the 
Tower and Captain of the Guard, having in his 
company twenty-four of the Guard to accompany 
him.' 

' That is nothing,' quoth the Earl. 'What if he 
be Constable of the Tower and Captain of the 
Guard, he is the fittest man for his wisdom and 
discretion to be sent about such a business ; and 
as for the Guard, it is only to defend him from 



1 82 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

those that might intend him any ill. Besides that, 
the Guard are for the most part such of his old 
servants as the King hath taken into his service to 
attend him most justly.' 

'Well, sir/ quoth I, 'I shall do what I can;' 
and so I departed and went to my Lord, and found 
him in the gallery with his staff and his beads in 
his hands. Seeing me come, he asked me what 
news I had. ' Forsooth,' quoth I, ' the best news 
that ever you heard, if you can take it well.' 

' I pray God it be true then,' quoth he. 

' My Lord of Shrewsbury,' said I, * your most 
assured friend, hath so provided by his letters to 
the King that His Majesty hath sent for you by 
Master Kingston and twenty-four of the Guard to 
conduct you to His Highness.' 

' Master Kingston !' quoth he, while he clapped 
his hand on his thigh and gave a great sigh. 

'May it please your Grace,' quoth I, ' I would 
you would take all things well it would be much 
better for you ; content yourself, for God's sake, 
and think that God and your good friends have 
wrought for you according to your desires. And 
you have much more cause to rejoice than lament 
or mistrust the matter, for I assure you that your 
friends are more afraid of you than you need be of 
them. And His Majesty, to show his love to you, 
hath sent Master Kingston to honour you with as 



THE CARDINAL'S ENTERTAINMENT 183 

much honour as is your Grace's due, and to convey 
you in such easy journeys as is fitting for you and 
as you shall command. And I humbly entreat 
you to take to heart this my persuasion in His 
Highness's discretion, and to be of good cheer, 
wherewith you shall comfort yourself and give 
your friends and poor servants great comfort and 
content.' 

' Well,' quoth he, * I perceive more than you 
can imagine or do know.' 

Presently after came my Lord to acquaint him 
with that I had so lately related. My Lord 
Cardinal thanked the Earl for his great love and 
called for Master Kingston, who came to him 
presently, and, kneeling down before him, saluted 
him in the King's behalf, whom my Lord bare- 
headed offered to take up, but he would not. Then 
quoth my Lord : 

' Master Kingston, I pray you stand up and 
leave your kneeling to me, for I am a wretch, full 
of misery, not esteeming myself but as a mere 
object utterly cast away, without desert ; therefore, 
good Master Kingston, stand up.' 

Then Master Kingston said : 

'The King's Majesty hath him commended 
unto you.' 

* I thank His Highness,' quoth my Lord ; ' I 
hope he is in good health.' 



1 84 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

' Yea/ quoth Master Kingston, ' he has com- 
manded me to bid you be of good cheer, for he 
beareth you as much goodwill as ever he did ; and 
whereas report hath been made unto him that you 
should commit against His Majesty certain heinous 
crimes which he thinketh to be untrue, yet he, for 
the ministration of justice in such cases requisite, 
could do no less than send for you that you might 
have your trial, mistrusting nothing your truth and 
wisdom, but that you shall be able to acquit your- 
self of all complaints and accusations extended 
against you. You may take your journey to 
him at your pleasure, commanding me to attend 
you.' 

' Master Kingston,' quoth my Lord, ' I thank 
you for your good news, and, sir, hereof assure 
yourself, if I were as able and lusty as ever I was 
to ride, I would go with you post, but alas ! I am a 
diseased man, having a flux, that maketh me very 
weak ; but the comfortable news you bring is of 
purpose to bring me into a fool's paradise, for I 
know what is provided for me. Notwithstanding, 
I thank you for your goodwill and pains taken 
about me, and I shall with speed make ready to 
ride with you.' 

After this I was commanded to make all things 
ready for our departure the morrow after. 

When my Lord went to bed he fell very sick, 



THE CARDINAL'S ENTERTAINMENT 185 

and the opinions of the physicians were that he 
had not above four or five days to live. Not- 
withstanding, he would have ridden with Master 
Kingston next day, had not the Earl of Shrews- 
bury advised him to the contrary ; but the follow- 
ing day after he took his journey with Master 
Kingston and them of the Guard, who, seeing him, 
could not abstain from weeping, considering he 
was their old master and now in such miserable 
case. My Lord took them by the hand, and 
would as he rode by the way sometimes talk with 
one and sometimes with another, till he came to a 
house of my Lord's standing in the way called 
Hardwick Hall, where he lay all that night very ill 
at ease. 

The next day he came to Nottingham, and the 
next day to Leicester Abbey. The following day 
he waxed very sick, so that he had almost fallen 
from his horse, and it was night ere he got to 
Leicester Abbey, where, at his coming in at the 
gates, the Abbot with all the convent met him 
with many lighted torches, whom they honourably 
received and welcomed with great reverence. 

My Lord said, ' Father Abbot, I am come to lay 
my bones amongst you,' he meanwhile riding still 
on his mule till he came to the stairs of his 
chamber, where he alighted. 

Master Kingston, holding him by the arm, led 



1 86 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

him upstairs, who told me after that he never felt 
so heavy a burden in all his life. And as soon as 
my Lord was in his chamber he went straight to 
bed. This was upon Saturday, and so he con- 
tinued. On Monday in the morning, as I stood by 
his bedside about eight of the clock, the windows 
being close shut, and having wax-lights burning 
upon the cupboard, I thought I perceived him 
drawing on towards death. He, perceiving my 
shadow at the bedside, asked who was there. 

'Sir,' quoth I, 'it is I.' 

' How do you ?' quoth he. 

' Well, sir, if I might see your Grace well.' 

1 What is it a clock ?' quoth he. 

I answered it was about eight of the clock. 

Quoth he, * That cannot be,' saying the same 
words divers time. ' It cannot be eight of the 
clock, for by eight of the clock you shall see your 
master's time draw near that I must depart this 
world.' 

With that, Doctor Palmes, a worthy gentleman 
standing by, bid me ask him if he would be 
shriven to make him ready for God, whatever 
chanced to fall out. This I did, but he was very 
angry with me, and asked what I had to do to ask 
him such a question, till at last Master Doctor 
took my part and talked with him in Latin and 
pacified him. 



THE CARDINAL'S DEATH 187 

After dinner Master Kingston sent for me and 
said: 

'Sir, the King hath sent unto me letters by 
Master Vincent, our old companion, who hath 
been in trouble in the Tower for money that my 
Lord should have at his departure, a great part of 
which money cannot be found, wherefore the King, 
at Master Vincent's request for the declaration of 
the truth, hath sent him hither with His Grace's 
letter that I should examine my Lord and have 
your counsel therein, that he may take it well and 
in good part. And this is the cause of my sending 
for you ; therefore I desire your counsel therein for 
acquittal of this poor gentleman, Master Vincent.' 

'Sir,' quoth I, 'according to my duty and by 
my advice, you shall resort unto him in your own 
person to visit him, and in communication break 
the matter unto him, and if he will not tell you the 
truth therein, then you may certify the King 
thereof, but in any case name not nor speak of 
my fellow Vincent. Also I would not have you 
delay, for he is very sick, and I fear he will not 
live past a day or two'; and accordingly Master 
Kingston went to my Lord and demanded the 
money, saying that ' my Lord of Northumberland 
found in a book at Cawood House that you had 
lately borrowed ^"1,000, and there is not so much 
as one penny to be found. Wherefore the King 



1 88 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

hath written to me to know what is become thereof, 
for it were pity that it should be holden from 
you both. Therefore I require you in the King's 
name to tell me the truth, that I may make a just 
report thereof unto His Majesty of your answer.' 

With that quoth my Lord : 

' O good Lord, how much doth it grieve me that 
the King should think any such thing of me, that 
I should deceive him of one penny, seeing I have 
nothing nor ever had (God be my judge) that I 
ever esteemed so much my own as His Majesty's, 
having but the bare use of it during my life, and 
after my death to leave it wholly to him, wherein 
His Majesty hath prevented me. But for this 
money that you demand of me, I assure you it 
is none of my own, for I borrowed it of divers of 
my friends to bury me, and to bestow amongst my 
servants who have taken great pains about me ; 
notwithstanding, if it be your pleasure to know, I 
must be content, yet I beseech His Majesty to see 
them satisfied of whom I borrowed the same, for 
the discharge of my conscience.' 

1 Who be they ?' quoth Master Kingston. 

'That shall I tell you,' quoth my Lord. 'I 
borrowed two hundred pounds of John Allen of 
London, another two hundred pounds of Sir 
Richard Gresham, and two hundred pounds of 
Doctor Hickden, Dean of my College at Oxford, 



THE CARDINAL'S DEATH 189 

two hundred pounds of Mr. Ellis, my Chaplain, 
and another two hundred pounds of a priest. I 
hope the King will restore it again, forasmuch as 
it is none of mine.' 

' Sir,' quoth Master Kingston, ' there is no doubt 
in the King, whom you need not distrust ; but, sir, 
I pray you where is the money ?' 

Quoth he : 

' I will not conceal it, I warrant you, but I will 
declare it unto you before I die, by the grace of 
God. Have a little patience with me, I pray you, 
for the money is safe enough in an honest man's 
hands, who will not keep one penny thereof from 
the King.' 

So Master Kingston departed for that time, my 
Lord being very weak, and about four of the clock 
next morning I asked him how he did. 

' Well,' quoth he, ' if I had any meat. I pray 
you give me some.' 

' Sir,' quoth I, ' there is none ready.' 

Then he said : 

' You are much to blame ; you should always 
have meat for me in readiness, whensoever that 
my stomach serves me. I pray you get some 
ready for me, for I mean to make myself strong 
to-day, to the intent I may go to confession and 
make me ready for God.' 

Quoth I, ' I will call up the cooks to prepare 



I QO LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

some meat, and also I will call Mr. Palmes, that he 
may discourse with you till your meat be ready.' 

' With a good will,' quoth he. 

And so I called Master Palmes, who rose and 
came to my Lord. Then I went and acquainted 
Master Kingston that my Lord was very sick, and 
not like to live. 

' In good faith !' quoth Master Kingston, ' you 
are much to blame to make him believe he is sicker 
than he is.' 

'Well, sir,' quoth I, 'you cannot but say I gave 
you warning, as I am bound to do.' 

Upon which words he arose and came unto 
him ; but before he came my Lord Cardinal had 
eaten a spoonful or two of cullis made of chicken, 
and after that he was at his confession the space 
of an hour. And then Master Kingston came to 
him and bid him good morrow, and asked him 
how he did. 

' Sir,' quoth he, ' I watch but God's pleasure to 
render up my poor soul to Him. I pray you have 
me heartily commended unto his royal Majesty, 
and beseech him on my behalf to call to his 
princely remembrance all matters that have been 
between us from the beginning, and the progress, 
and especially between good Queen Katherine 
and him, and then shall His Grace's conscience 
know whether I have offended him or not. He 



THE CARDINAL'S DEATH IQI 

is a Prince of a most royal carriage, and hath a 
princely heart, and rather than he will miss or 
want any part of his will he will endanger the 
one-half of his kingdom. 

' I do assure you I have often knelt before him, 
sometimes three hours together, to persuade him 
from his will and appetite, and could not prevail. 
And, Master Kingston, had I but served God as 
diligently as I have served the King, He would not 
have given me over in my gray hairs. But this is 
the just reward that I must receive for my diligent 
pains and study, not regarding my service to God, 
but only to my Prince. Therefore, let me advise 
you, if you be one of the Privy Council, as by your 
wisdom you are fit, take heed what you put in the 
King's head, for you can never put it out again. 

' And I desire you further to request His Grace 
in God's name that he have a vigilant eye to sup- 
press the hellish Lutherans, that they increase not 
through his great negligence, in such a sort as he 
be compelled to take up arms to subdue them, as 
the King of Bohemia was, whose commons being 
infected with WicklifFs heresies, the King was 
forced to take that course. 

' Let him consider the story of King Richard II., 
the second son of his progenitor, who lived in the 
time of Wickliff's seditions and heresies. Did not 
the commons, I pray you, in his time rise against 



LIFE OF CARDINAL WOOLSEY 

the nobility and chief governors of this realm, and 
at the last some of them were put to death without 
justice or mercy; and under pretence of having all 
things in common, did they not fall to spoiling 
and robbing, and at last took the King's person 
and carried him about the city, making him 
obedient to their proclamations ? 

' Did not also the traitorous heretic Sir John Old- 
castle, Lord Cobham, pitch a field with heretics 
against Henry IV., where the King was in person, 
and fought against them, to whom God gave the 
victory. 

' Alas ! if these be not plain precedents and 
sufficient persuasions to admonish a prince, then 
God will take away from us our prudent rulers, 
and leave us to the hands of our enemies. And 
then will ensue mischief, inconveniences, barren- 
ness, and scarcity, for want of good orders in the 
Commonwealth, from which God of His tender 
mercy defend us ! 

' Master Kingston, farewell ! I wish all things 
may have good success. My time draws on ; I 
may not tarry with you. I pray you remember 
my words.' 

Now began the time to draw near, and his tongue 
began to fail him ; his eyes were perfectly set in his 
head, and his sight failed him. Then we began 
to put him in mind of Christ's Passion, and caused 



THE CARDINAL'S BURIAL 193 

the Yeomen of the Guard to stand by privately, 
to see him die, and bear witness of his words and 
his departure, who heard all his communications. 
And then presently the clock struck eight, at 
which time he gave up the ghost, and thus de- 
parted he this life, each of us looking on one 
another, supposing he prophesied of his departure. 
We sent for the Abbot of the house to anoint him, 
who speedily came as he was ending his life, who 
said certain prayers before that the life was out 
of his body. 

The Cardinal being departed, Master Kingston 
sent post to London one of the Guard. Then was 
Master Kingston and the Abbot in consultation 
about the funeral, which was solemnized the day 
after, for Master Kingston would not stay the 
return of the post. 

They thought good that the Mayor of Leicester 
and his brethren should personally see him dead, to 
prevent false reports that he was alive. And in 
the interim, whilst the Mayor was sent for, his 
bones were laid in a coffin, and his shirt of hair 
and his over-shirt of fine holland were taken off 
and were put into the coffin together with all such 
ornaments wherewith he was invested when he 
was made Archbishop, as mitre, cross, ring and 
pall, and all other things appertaining to his 
office. 

13 



194 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

Thus he lay all that day with his coffin open and 
barefaced, that all that desired might see him. 
And about three of the clock he was buried by 
the Abbot with great solemnity ; and his corpse 
was set in the Lady-chapel of the church with 
many tapers and poor men about him holding the 
torches in their hands, who watched the corpse all 
that night whilst the Canons sung divers dirges 
and other Divine orisons. 

And at four of the clock next morning the 
Cardinal's servants and Master Kingston came to 
the church to the execution of many ceremonies in 
such manner as is usual at Bishops' burials, and 
that done Master Kingston went to Mass, where 
the Abbot did offer and divers others ; and then 
they went to bury the corpse in the middle of the 
said Chapel. By this time it was six of the clock, 
being St. Andrew's Day. 

Then we prepared for our journey to the Court, 
where we attended His Majesty. The next day I 
was sent for to the King, conducted by Master 
Norris, and the King was in his nightgown of 
velvet furred with sables, before whom I knelt the 
space of an hour, during which time His Majesty 
examined me of divers particulars concerning my 
Lord Cardinal, wishing rather than twenty thou- 
sand pounds that he had lived. 

He asked me concerning the fifteen hundred 



THE CARDINAL'S BURIAL 195 

pounds which Master Kingston had spoken of to 
my Lord. Quoth I : 

' I think I can perfectly tell your Grace where it 
is, and who hath it.' 

' Can you ?' quoth the King. ' I pray tell me, 
and you shall not be unrewarded.' 

' Sir,' quoth I, 'after the departure of Master 
Vincent from my Lord at Scroby, who had the 
custody thereof, leaving it with my Lord in divers 
bags, he delivered it to a certain priest safely to 
be kept for his use.' 

' Is this true ?' quoth the King. 

' Yea/ quoth I ; ' without doubt the priest will 
not deny it before me, for I was at the delivery 
thereof, who hath got divers other rich ornaments 
which are not registered in the book of my Lord's 
inventory or other writings whereby any man is 
able to charge him therewith but myself.' 

Then said the King : 

4 Let me alone, and keep this secret between 
you and me, and let no man be privy thereof; 
for your honesty and truth you shall be our 
servant in our chamber as you were with your 
master. Therefore go your ways to Sir John 
Gage, our Vice-Chamberlain, to whom we have 
spoken already to admit you our servant, in 
our chamber, and then go to the Lord of Norfolk, 
and he shall pay you your whole year's was, 



196 LIFE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY 

which is ten pounds. Is it not so ?' quoth the 
King. 

' Yes, forsooth, and if it please your grace,' 
quoth I. 

And said the King : 

' You shall receive a reward of the Duke of 
Norfolk.' 

So I received ten pounds of the Duke for my 
wages and twenty pounds for my reward, and His 
Majesty gave me a cart and six horses, the best 
that I could choose out of my Lord's horses, to 
carry my goods, and five marks for my charge 
homewards. 



THE END 



R. & T. Washbottrne, 18 Paternoster Row, London 



DA 334 ,W8 C3 1901 SMC 



Cavendish, George 
The life and 
Wolsey, cardi 



th of Thomas