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Full text of "The life of George Peabody / by Phebe A. Hanaford ; with an introduction by Joseph H. Hanaford"

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Enteiedi aj)cording tq Agtof^ Congas, in the year 1870, by 
*• *.•* PHSbV4 Jlil^Al'ORD, 
In the Qetk*$Q£5^ of ll)^P«9tnat Court of th^-District of Massachusetts. 



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AMERICA has been rich in great men whose 
intellectual superiority or moral excellence 
bade them tower above the masses, or whose vast 
possessions, wisely used, as in the case of the sub- 
ject of this Memoir, entitled them to high place in 
the regard of a grateful and appreciative people. 
And it is now conceded, that 

M Among the few, the immortal names 
.' That were not bom to die," 

is to be read in glowing characters the name of 
George Peabody. A wide interest attaches to the 
events of his life and the record of his noble deeds, 
because he showed so truly that he valued wealth 
on account of the power it gave him to do good, 
and benefit others than himself and his immediate 
family or nearest relatives. His life is an example^ 

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in some grand respects; and is therefore worth 
reporting to future generations. 

We do not present him as a perfect man, nor 
yet as one who professed to be perfect. He was 
remarkably unassuming ; and by his deeds^ more 
than by his words, must he be judged. If we had 
a larger store of materials, in the shape of letters 
and private memoranda, the volume might be 
larger; but the gist of the whole matter — the 
points of his character most desirable to be known 
in order to awaken the emulation of others — can 
be presented in the compass of this smaller vol- 
ume. Besides, a large volume would probably be 
commensurate with the artistic skill of those em- 
ployed to prepare it, and therefore be too expen- 
sive for the million. To obviate this diflficulty, this 
book is prepared, and also because we hope to do 
good by helping to spread abroad the record of a 
life that was in some respects unique, but noble, 
and a benevolence worthy of world-wide imitation. 

As a member of the Essex Institute (whose 
headquarters are in Salem, Mass., near the birth- 
place of Mr. Peabody), the writer takes the pen 
with an emotion of gratitude to one who mani- 
fested so great an interest in the objects of our 


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association, and whose munificence, as will be 
shown in the following pages, so enhanced our 
means of prosecuting historical and scientific re- 
search, as to make his name illustrious, and his 
memory fragrant, among us forever. 

BsADiKG, Mass. P. A. H. 


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The Boy IbreBhadowing the Man. — Ancestry. — Birthplace. ~ Childhood. — > 
TheYoxmg Store-Keeper.— NewbiUTport 81 



The Commercial Assistant. — Bosiness-Habits. — Loye-Htory . ~ Qoing Sonth . 45 


The Citizen Soldier. — The First Partnership. •— The TraTclling Memhor of 
the Firm. — LUS» in Baltimore ..••'..•••• 66 



Removal to London. — IMsinterestedness. — Kindness to Americans. — Saving 
the Credit of his Country at the Crystal Palace 68 



Help to find Sir John Franklin.— Donation to Danvers.— The Peabody Insti- 

tate in Peabody. — The Pnbllo Reception of the Benefactor .... 80 

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10 con;tents. 



The Donation to Thetford, Vt. — Grandfather Dodge. — The Wood-sawing 
Story 102 


BTHiL Giving. 

Peabody Institute at Baltimore. — Letter of Mr. Peabody. — Proceedings in 
Regard to the Donation. — Mr. Peabody's Remarks • .... 116 



Amelioration of the Condition of the Poor in London.— Magnificent Beqnest 

of Mr. Peabody. — Description of the Buildings ...... 124 



Becomd Visit to his Native Land. — The Freedom of the City of London. — The 

Queen'sLetter.— The Oueen>s Portrait.— The Peabody Statue ... 142 



The Flood of Letters.- The Gift for Education in the South.— Mr. ^abody's 

Letter.— What the Money is doing 164 



Money for Museums at Yale and Harvard. — Correspondence in Reference to 
theseDonations.— The Value of the Gift IfiS 



Peabody Academy of Science in Salem.— Essex Institute.— Mr. Peabody's 
Letter. — His Love for his native County of Essex •«...' 183 


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MasBacfansetts HiBtorical Society. — Eenyon College, and Mr. Peabody's Dona- 
tion to it.— Dociuneiits in Regard to the Acceptable Oifta .... 201 



Memorial Chnrch at Georgetown.— Mr. Peabody>8 Love for his Mother.— 
Hymn for the Dedication, by John Q. Whittier.— Gifts to his Family and 
Friends 208 



Mr. Peabody's Speech at the National Peace Jubilee.— BlneBs of Mr. Pea- 
body.— Return to England.— Sir Curtis Lampson .217 



The Lightning News. — The Comments of the Press. — Respect shown to Mr. 
Peabody's Memory. — Portraits of Mr. Peabody .•••.. 228 



Westminster Abbey. — Transportation of the Remains to America. — Descrip- 
tion of the Ship " Monarch."— Poem suggested by the Funeral Procession 
on the Ocean 233 



Reception of the Remains in America.— Prince Arthur of England. —Mr. 
Winthrop'sEulogy.— The Funeral in Harmony Grove 246 


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Kewman Hall on Gteorge Peabody. — Tribntes from Various Sooroes. — Poetlo 
Tribute from "The Lomdoa Evening Standard.^— The Pulpites Voioe In 
Praiseof hi« Beneficence.— List of hia Donations 260 



The Lessons of €^rge Peabody's Life. —Money is Power. — A Ck>nsecrated 
Parse is that of Fortonatos 280 


Portrait of Kr. Peabody FrontUpiece, 

Birthplace of George Peabody • • . • . 85 

Peabody and Danvers Institutes 86 

Peabody Square, Islingtoni London 129 

Peabody Sttttuei London; and Peabody Institute, Baltimore • ... 140 


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OP the myriads of human beings who flit across the 
stage of life, but few, conjparatively, ever become 
really eminent ; but few ever thrust themselves, so to speak, 
unwittingly, it may be, upon the popular observation, or 
organize and achieve a marked success. But few are will- 
ing to burst the shackles of sensuous thraldom, and gird on 
the whole panoply of a true and elevated manhood, and 
enter the arena of life's conflict, yielding to the nobler im- 
pulses of the higher nature, the intellectual and moral, 
necessitating the complete subserviency of the lower and 
mere animal nature. But few raise high the standard of 
attainment, basing the purposes of life upon clear and vivid 
ideas and potent aspirations, and then concentrate the 
developed and expanding energies of the soul with perti- 
nacious and indomitable courage. These few stand out in 
bold relief, like the majestic oak on the hill-top, or like 


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Bom^r^.'bFight/Mtticulfir-star/* suddenly emerging fipom 
the ]{^orizop3 mpxipg . upwacd in majesty, foil-orbed and 
nttJiantJ iricJrea&ing' in- iize •And brilliancy, and sending its 
beams of light to the remotest regions. Some of these 
remind us of the meteor as it dashes across the heavens, 
blazing with its own native fires; sometimes seemingly 
erratic in its course, yet true to its nature, and controlled 
by fixed and immutable laws, startling and awing the ob- 
server, or challenging respect, and admiration. Such 
organize and decree success and distinction in obedience to 
the laws of mind, not only by unremitting efibrt and toil 
even, but by a wise adjustment of means to ends, having 
regard to principles as definite and undeviating in their 
applications as those which guide the chemist in the labora- 
tory, the physician at the bedside, knd the surgeon in the 
operating-hall. Their success is not the result of accident, 
" luck," unusual mental endowments, aid of fi:iends, but 
rather the legitimate and necessary sequence of industry, 
perseverance, energy, clearness of perception, oneness of 
purpose, fixedness of effort, and strength of will. If the 
circumstances and surroundings are not favorable, no ener- 
gies are squandered in useless hesitancy or unmanly mur- 
murings, but are modified, and, if possible, made subservient 
to the great purposes of life, or may be utterly ignored ; 

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while the aspiring candidate for distinction and an enviable 
pre-eminence determines never for a moment to entertain 
the idea of a "cessation of hostilitieis," — never admits 
into his vocabulary the word fail. 

Mr. Peabody was a marked man, a representative man, 
towering in giant proportions among the prominent and 
successful business-men of the age, — a model financier. 
He courted no special favors, no exclusive privileges, but 
was ready to enter business - life ** single-handed," and 
become the architect of his own fortune, or personally 
share the fete due to those who ignobly fcil. 

His success as a financier is attributable rather to his 
inherent qualities of mind, and, to a certain ex4;ent, of 
body, — personal appearance, — than to any specially 
favoring circumstances. K there were any apparently 
favoring circumstances, we may claim that he either pro- 
duced these, or adroitly availed himself of them ; appropri- 
ating whatever might be conducive to his advantage. 
Though not in abject poverty, as often stated, it is certain 
that he rose firom the humbler walks of life, and, of course, 
is estimated more feirly by the progress made than by the 
simple fact that he rose to a high position in society, 
socially and financially, winning unequalled laurels on both 
hemispheres. No wealthy friend or relative ever furnished 

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funds to aid him in commencing a business-life, or exerted 
in his behalf any specially favorable influence as a means 
of giving him advantages at the commencement of his busi- 
ness career, when counsel and material aid are ordinarily 
of great service. Commencing active business-life while 
still in his minority, his education was necessarily limited, — 
far more so than that of most young men of the same age at 
the present time, with the educational advantages now pos- 
sessed. His was only a .** common-school '* training, that 
afforded, about a half-century since, only a partial course, 
— but a- fraction of the meagre facilities for a preparation 
for a commercial life presented to the youth of an age* far 
less auspicious than the present. Yet, like all other obsta- 
cles, this was fairly and fearlessly met ; self-culture compen- 
sating, at least measurably, for these manifest disadvantages : 
affording a fine illustration of the fact, that native good 
sense, industry, and mil are sufficient to insure victory 
under almost any circumstances. Those who were famil- 
iar with him, who understood his conversational powers, 
his general intelligence, would ordinarily have accorded to 
him the advantages of a good, if not of a liberal education. 
Indeed, his correspondence was remarkable for its compre- 
hensiveness, its terseness of style, elegance of diction, and 
chasteness rf expression. 

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These most assuredly indicated culture and refinement, 
by no means usual in business-circles, in those more famil- 
iar with bonds, coupons, notes of hand, &c., than with sci- 
ence and literature. It is, indeed, a matter of surprise that 
one so devoted to his business-pursuits ; one who personally 
attended to even the details of his financial transactions, 
— such duties often demanding nearly twice the number 
of hours of toil now required of the mechanic and artisan 
in this country ; so methodically exacting in every thing 
relating to these duties ; so remarkably devoted to his busi- 
ness, — it is surprising that such a man should have availed 
himself of the fragments of leisure moments, devoting them 
to self-culture, or that he should have had any taste for 
mental pursuits and literary recreations. This anomaly is 
only explained by the fact,* that Mr. Peabody was emphati- 
cally a man of energy, decision of character, remarkably 
industrious, intellectually inclined ; a man of method and 
system, scrupulously dividing his time as existing circum- 
stances might demand. 

Gentlemanly in his bearing, honorable in his transac- 
tions, genial in his intercourse with men, — with honorable 
men, — though his frown was suflSciently scathing toward 
the mean, fraudulent, conniving, and false, his indigna- 
tion sufficiently marked, and his words of denunciation 


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sufficiently pointed and personal, towards those unworthy 
of confidence, — scrupulously honest as a business-man, he 
could not but command the respect of those engaged in 
similar pursuits, and enjoy the confidence of those familiar 
with him in the ordinary walks of social life. Prompt and 
methodical, he avoided many of the vexations and disas- 
ters experienced by men of the opposite business-habits. 
With him the appointments of business were sacred, the 
day and the hour to be observed with the most undeviating 
certainty on his part ; while those who failed in these re- 
spects, if unable to offer a satisfactory excuse for such dehn- 
quency, would not ordinarily escape a decided reprimand, 
or more frequently forfeit confidence and business-relations. 
Financial obligations were promptly met at the appointed 
time, in strict accordance with the literal structure of the 
contract, when he was the obligor ; while it was at least 
injudicious for others to be less scrupulous towards him. If 
there was sometimes seeming severity, such must be attrib- 
uted to his marked methodical habits, and to an idea of 
commercial obligation and justice. 

Mr. Peabody was a man of good natural abilities ; had a 
large volume of brain, as the most casual observer may no- 
tice ; his noble bearing well calculated to command respect, 
not less than confidence. His were clear perceptions, — 


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those of a carefiil and discriminating observer of men and 
things. His brain was neither beclouded by the narcotic 
influences of the " vile weed," as he was not accustomed 
to the use of tobacco in any of its forms; nor inflamed, set 
on fire, by the use of alcohoUc stimulants. Such indul- 
gences, indeed, would have been inconsistent with his large 
success, and incompatible with the performance of his mani- 
fold duties, his almost crushing labors, which would have 
exhausted the energies of almost any man less scrupulous 
and less consistent in his personal habits. Nor did he stul- 
tify himself with the indulgences of the gourmand, — a 
slave of appetite: far from it. He gave and attended 
banquets ; yet, of all present, he was the most simple in his 
habits, the most abstemious, often partaking of but a single 
dish, and that of the simplest quaUty, though the table 
might groan under the weight of the luxuries of all climes. 
There was neither wasting of his energies in sensual indul- 
gences, the gratification of the lower nature, nor a dissi- 
pation, a scattering, a frittering-away of his powers in 
unmanly amusements and senseless frivolity. He was no 
mere pleasure-seeker; though it is reasonable to suppose 
that he was not averse to a consistent " unbending," after 
exhausting and overburdening the mind by excessive effort. 
It is certain that he was conscientious in regard to the 


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more usual amusements; not partial to theatricals, since, 
in the finish of th3 " Memorial Church," he gave special 
directions to avoid certain decorations calculated to '^ re- 
mind one of the theatre ; " though that church was finished 
in elegance, taste, and beauty, without regard to expense, 
to *' last one hundred years without a stroke of repairs," 
in the language of the donor. 

The key to his marked success is seen in these promi- 
nent characteristics. Inheriting a firm physical constitu* 
tion, a vigorous and discriminating mind, the energies of 
the one were husbanded by a remarkable abstemiousness 
and temperance, the normal vital forces not only retained, 
but increased in their powers of endurance by correct hab- 
its ; while the other was called into harmonious activity, 
developed by eflFort, expanded by observation, and refined 
by self-culture, his personal habits being favorable to such 
physical and mental development. 

As a business-man, Mr. Peabody had a single idea, a 
oneness of purpose^ — success in financial pursuits. He 
was not only industrious, almost without a parallel in busi- 
ness-circles, but his energies were centred, concentrated 
with a marked persistency and vitalizing energy, upon this 
one object, this one life-pursuit. Finance was his study, — 
if the expression is allowable, — and success, eminence in 


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his avocation^ his great object ; though an avaricious spirit, 
a mere love of money as such, were not fiurly attributed to 
him. He was neither, diverted from his chosen pursuits hy 
the enticements of pleasure-seeking, nor by the allure- 
ments of fashion, nor yet by the blandishments of the 
court and the applause and attentions of the sovereign of 
his adopted land. It is a remarkable fact, that the kind 
regards of the Queen, the honors bestowed upon him, the 
many, many temptations to accept, not court, the favors and 
distinctions almost thrust upon him by those occupying the 
highest position in the realm, were not sufficient to capti- 
vate him. It was not until after he retired from business 
that he could be induced to specially notice these proffered 
distinctions and regards ; never having been presented to 
the royal fiimily until after his retirement from the harass- 
ing cares and labors of business-life. 

Nor is it to be supposed that he never encountered diffi- 
culties or experienced disasters in his financial pursuits, since 
these are the necessary concomitants of a life of business. 
He is a wise man, worthy of success, who encounters diffi- 
culties without misgivings, irresoluteness, or murmurings, 
and boldly and resolutely attempts the removal of all obsta- 
cles ; throwing himself into the van, in the conflicts of life, 
collecting to become the victor^ Aft;er Mr. Peabody had 


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passed the meridian of a business-career, misfortunes came, 
for a time jeopardizing his financial prospects. After the 
age of fifty years, — at which time his wealth was compar- 
atively small, far less than that of many of our successful 
business-men of perhaps half that age, — most of his vast 
accumulations were acquired ; the last few years of busi- 
ness being, probably, by far the most remunerative. His 
earlier life seemed to have been preparatory, prefatory ; a 
time for the deposit of the seed afterwards to germinate, and 
yield its fruits ; a time in which to lay the foundation on 
which prosperity was to be reared near the close of life, 
and the creation and adjustment of plans and Jnstruraen- 
talities by which success was afterwards made almost or 
quite certain. 

But the "crowning glory," the brightest halo that 
encircles the brow of Mr. Peabody, is that connected with 
his munificent donations ; those of a general character, but 
especially those intended for the lowly, — the poor of Eng- 
land and of this country. This benevolence was but the 
outgrowth of his compassionate nature, and was early 
developed; though but little was known of him, in this 
respect, beyond a certain circle, publicity not being sought. 
He was commendably devoted to his mother and many 
other relatives and personal ftiends ; and on these he early 

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bestowed favors, though, of course, not as lavishly as in 
after-life, when his means would justify generous bequests. 
With a son's devotion, an affectionate brother's solicitude 
and tenderness, he cared for those more nearly connected 
by family ties ; while others were educated, that in busi- 
ness relations, professional duties, &c., they might encoun- 
ter less of the disadvantages than himself in the avocations 
of active life. 

While cherishing these kindly impulses in early man- 
hood, nurturing them by judicious bestowments, we may 
reasonably infer that the idea of these larger and royal do- 
nations, royal in magnitude and design, were contem- 
plated long before their public recognition ; reposing in his 
capacious and far-seeing mind, — an embryotic existence, — 
to be developed and assume vast proportions in due time. 
Cherishing a tender regard, an affectionate solicitude, for 
the lowly of both hemispheres, — the unfortunate from the 
force of circumstances, the peculiarities of government, 
&c., in the one, and the terrible degradation of slavery in 
the other, — may we not infer that this was the cherished 
l>enevolent impulse of his life ; and that, with his far-seeing 
intellect, as he foresaw the magnitude of the results of such 
a gift in the elevation and the humanizing of the down- 
trodden, this was the one great aspiration of his life, 

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long reposing in the bosom of the future, as the helpless 
infant calmly sleeps on its mother*s breast, and nourished 
there for future activities ? This was indeed a munificent 
gift, worthy of the man who bestowed it. Yet its mere 
financial proportions do not constitute its most important 
significance. The design of reaching the lower stratum 
of society, educating those who must have remained in 
relative ignorance and degradation, aside from such gifts 
giving life, energy, and courage to the despairing, iurnish- 
ing the means of self-elevation, self-improvement, these 
features overshadow all otheis ; these aspects determine 
the magnitude and the true benevolence of these vast chari- 
ties. Having no children of his own, he conceived the 
grand idea of adopting the unfortunate of his native and 
his adopted countries ; wisely bequeathing to them, with an 
affectionate regard, the means more wisely granted than by 
personal bestowments, squandered or exhausted in a brief 
period as it might have been under some circumstances, 
by which future generations would be blessed, remember- 
ing the name of the donor as a fether indeed, who had 
more regard for future benefits, real prosperity, and con- 
tinuous fruitage, than for brief and temporary gratifications. 
Such a monument will outUve marble and granite ; such a 
record is indeed indelible. 


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To the yoiing men of this country, the' noble example 
of Mr. Peabody as a business-man, a man achieving and 
deserving success ; his remarkable prosperity ; his brilliant 
career; his large-heartedneas, as seen in the outcropping 
in his vast charities, almost prodigally scattered, all sug- 
gesting the idea of magnitude, vastness, — to such his 
whole life has a peculiar significance. In a country like 
ours and a government like ours, based on morality and 
universal intelligence, with the schoolhouse and the 
church-edifice as the " front-guard and the rearward," the 
foundations cemented with as pure blood as ever flowed 
in patriot veins, " large expectations " are peculiarly ap- 
propriate. While the invitation, " Go up and possess the 
land," seems imprinted in bold relief on our public institu- 
tions, or is rung out in the pealing notes of the bells that 
call the young to the halls of learning, — the humbler 
ones, the " people's colleges," not less than the higher in- 
stitutions, — the youth of our favored country may well be 
emulous, raise high the standard of attainments, and aspire 
to enviable positions. Still in its infancy, by no means 
having reached the vigor, strength, and self-sustaining 
force of maturity, but even now joyous, exuberant, viva- 
cious, and active, as if in the springtime of life, with a vast 
domain unexplored, and still more but partially developed, 


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with mineral resources uufathomed, natural advantages un- 
paralleled and unappropriated, our country is peculiarly 
the nursery of enterprise and industry, and the foster- 
mother of generous and noble aspirations. Here the ave- 
nues to wealth, social eminence, enviable distinction in 
science, literature, oratory, the professions, to a wide field of 
research, — all are thrown wide open to the lowly as well 
as to those occupying higher social positions, as our records 
in the past amply demonstrate; the meed of praise and 
the badge of honor having been bestowed upon the off- 
spring of some of the most lowly of our citizens. A good 
education, one far superior to that acquired by the young 
Peabody, is attainable by every young man in New Eng- 
land, at least, if blessed with even medium capabilities and 
Si will; attainable, indeed, with but a slight expenditure of 
funds, since the State has adopted the fundamental and 
ennobling idea, that it costs less to educate the masses than 
to punish crime. With such an education, not only wisely 
and mercifully proffered, but almost thrust upon the recipi- 
ent, success is attainable if merited. 

It is important for the young men of this country to 
remember that Mr. Peabody was not merely a man of 
finances, not merely a business-man, and that wealth was 
not obtained simply for its possession. As soon as relief 


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from his crushing cares and labors would admit, and proba- 
bly far sooner, in some degree, ^t least, he cast about him- 
self to decide what judicious disposition should be made of 
such vast accumulations; in what manner he might bless 
society, that the far-reaching results might more than com- 
pensate for the toils, anxieties, and unceasing efforts de- 
manded for its accumulation. The mere accumulation, 
the mere possession, with no high and noble impulses, no 
characteristic philanthropic emotions, would dwarf the in- 
tellect, congeal the generous outgushings, make man a 
miser, the despised among men, instead of the philan- 
thropist, the friend of the lowly, held in grateful remem- 
brance in at least two of the most powerful nations of the 

Again : the avenues to distinction are open to the young, 
aside from those leading simply to wealth. There are 
higher honors than those usually merited by the financier 
(Mr. Peabody modified an^ added to his by his judiciously- 
bestowed charities), — those sought in paths of learning, in 
the labors of the philanthropist, &c. ; though financial suc- 
cess seems the basis of other enterprises, ftirnishing the 
means of producing great results. 

An age may produce but one identical philanthropist- 
financier Uke Mr. Peabody ; yet the major part of the 


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young of this age, if ready to throw themselves into the 
arena of life's struggles and laborSy if willing to make a 
sacrifice of personal ease, if they will study the principles 
of success, concentrate effort, taking Mr, Peabody as a 
model, may make their mark, be remembered in succeed- 
ing ages for their noble deeds and their meritorious attain- 
ments. To succeed as he succeeded demands the same 
instrumentalities, the same temperance, the same favorable 
personal habits, the same industry, and the same business 

I cannot better close this chapter than by transcribing 
the beautifiil poem of Longfellow, so full of inspiration and 
encouragement to the young : — 

'" Tell me not, in moamfal numbers, 
Life is bat an empty dream ; 
For the sonl is dead that slambers. 
And things are not what theljr seem. 

Life is real, life is earnest, 

And the grave is not its goal : 
Bust thou art, to dust retomest. 

Was not spoken of the soul. 

In the world's broad field of battle, 

In the biyonac of life. 
Be not like damb, driren cattle ; 

Be a hero in the strife. 

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Trust no future, howe'er pleasant ; 

Let the dead Past bury its dead : 
Act, act in the living Present, 

Heart within, and God overhead. 

Lives of great men all remind us 

We can make our lives sublime. 
And, departing, leave behind us 

Footprints on the sands of time, — 

Footprints that perhaps another. 

Sailing o'er Life's solemn main, — 
A forlorn and shipwrecked brother, — 

Seeing, shall take heart again. 

Let us, then, be up and doing, 

With a heart for any fate ; 

Still achieving, still pursuing. 

Learn to labor and to wait." 

J. H. H. 


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Ancestry. — Birthplace. — Childhood. — The Young Store-Keeper. 
Newbury port. 

** A flower, though offered in the bud, 
Is navain sacrifice." — Watts, 

** They that seek me early shall find me.'' — Pbov. viii. 17. 

jT IS often said that "the child is father of the 
man ; " and in no small degree this can be af- 
firmed of every prominent statesman or phi- 
lanthropist. The traits evident in childhood 
are often prophecies of distinction in certain paths then 
indicated, when the years shall have given gray hairs to 
the brow, and maturity to all the mental powers. 

This was eminently true of George Peabody, the finan- 
cier and the benevolent giver of great gifts. His child- 
hood foreshadowed the glory of his later years. And yet 
his childhood was not marked by incident, or memorable 



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for peculiarities. Whatever the little eccentricities of after- 
years, his childhood was not in any sense that of an odd- 
ity. Men and women thought of him as the good boy, 
the faithful son, the dutiful chUd, the industrious student, 
the honest youth; and, if they sometimes called him a 
" mother-boy," it was not because he was shy and effemi- 
nate, and wanting in boyish energy and daring, but be- 
cause he loved his mother ; and it was the joy of his young 
life to add any thing to her happiness. 

That he was brave and honest, upright and conscien- 
tious, is not at all strange when we consider his ancestry. 
However any may sneer at heraldic emblems, it is yet 
true, that, as the Scriptures declare, " the glory of children 
are their fiithers ; " and none may therefore rightfiilly de- 
spise a piire and noble ancestry. The genealogy of the 
Peabody family has been compiled by the late C. M. En- 
dicott of Salem, and revised by WUliam S. Peabody of 
Boston, with a partial record of the Rhode-Island branch 
by B. Frank Pabodie, in the spirit of those who adopted 
the language of Job : " For inquire, I pray thee, of the 
former age, and prepare thyself to the search of their 

In the same spirit, Nehemiah Cleveland, Esq., in his 
address at the Topsfield Bi-Centennial Celebration, thus 
spoke of the origin of the Peabody family in America : — 

" From a very early period in the history of this town, 
the Peabody name has been identified with it. Thanks to 
the spirit of family pride or of antiquarian curiosity, great 


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pains have been recently taken to dig out the roots and 
follow out the branches of the old Peabody tree. Old it 
may well be called, since if has already attained to a 
growth of nearly two thousand years. Boadie, it seems, 
was the primeval name. He was a gallant British chief- 
tain, who, in the year A.D. 61, came to the rescue of his 
noble and chivalrous Queen Boadicea, when 'bleeding 
from the Roman rods.' From the disastrous battle in 
which she lost her crown and life, he fled to the Cambrian 
mountains. There his posterity lived, and became the 
terror of the Lowlands. Thus it was that the name * Pea,' 
which means ' mountain,' was prefixed to ' Boadie,' which 
means ' man.' There was a Peabody, it seeips, among the 
knights of the Round Table ; for the name was first regis- 
tered with due heraldic honors by command of King Arthur 
himself. At the period when the business transactions of 
this town begin to appear on record, Lieut. Francis Pa- 
body (this was the orthography of the name at that period) 
was evidently the first man in the place for capacity and 
influence. He had emigrated from St. Alban's, in Hert- 
fordshire, England, about seventeen miles from London, in 
1635, and settled at Topsfield in 1667, where he remained 
until his death in 1698. His wife was a daughter of Re- 
ginald Foster, honorably mentioned by Sir Walter Scott 
in * Marmion ' and ' The Lay.' Of tl^s^ large family, 
three sons settled in Boxford, and two remained in Tops- 
field. From these five patriarchs have come, it is said, all 
the Peabodys in this country. Among those of this name. 


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who nave devoted themselves to the sacred office, the Rev. 
Oliver Peabody, who died in Natick almost a hundred 
years ago, is honorably disflnguished. Those twin Pea- 
bodys (now, alas I no more), WiUiam Bourne Oliver and 
Oliver William Bourne, twins not in age only, but in 
genius and virtue, learning and piety, will long be remem- 
bered with admiration and respect. The Rev. David Pea- 
body of this town, who died while a professor in Dart- 
mouth College, deserves honorable mention. A kinsman 
of his, also of Topsfield, is at this moment laboring, a de- 
voted missionary, in the ancient land of Cyrus. The Rev. 
Andrew T. Peabody of Portsmouth, and the Rev. Ephraim 
Peabody of Boston, are too well and favorably known to 
require that I should more than allude to them. Prof. 
Silliman of Yale College is descended from a Peabody. 

" The Peabody name has abounded in brave and patriotic 
spirits. Many of them served in the French and the Rev- 
olutionary Wars. One of them fell with Wolfe and Mont- 
calm on the Plains of Abraham. Another assisted at the 
capture of Ticonderoga and of Louisburg, and in the siege 
of Boston. Another was among the most gallant combatants 
on Bunker Hill. Another commanded a company in the 
Continental army, and sent' his sons to the army as fast as 
they became able. One more, Nathaniel Peabody of At- 
kinson, N.H., commanded a regiment in the Revolutionary 
War, and subsequently represented his State in the Conti- 
nental Congress. In medicine and law, the reputation of 
the name rests more, perhaps, on the quality than the 


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number of practitioners. In commerce, too, this family 
may boast at least one eminent example, — an architect of 
a princely fortune. I need not name him." 

With such an ancestry, how could any thing but honor 
and honesty be expected from George Peabody? A 
" mountain man " was he, indeed, from his very boyhood : 
brave and noble in thought and action, lofty in purpose, 
and prompt whenever the call of duty came. Well said 
th^ editor of the published account of the " Danvers Cen- 
tennial Celebration," "Might we invade the sanctuary of 
his early home, and the circle of his immediate connec- 
tions, we could light around the youthful possessor of a few 
hundred dollars — the avails of the most severe and untir- 
ing eflForts — a brighter halo than his elegant hospitalities,- 
his munificent donations, or his liberal public acts, now 
shed over the rich London banker." 

That rich banker was born a poor boy, in the town 
of Danvers, Mass., on the eighteenth day of February, 
1795 ; not at all in abject poverty, but in circumstances 
which afibrded him but little opportunity for education, 
save for the first decade of his life in the common schools. 
Hon. Alfred A. Abbott, at the laying of the comer-stone 
of the Peabody Institute in Danvers, remarked concerning 
this Danvers boy, " The character and history of Mr. Pea- 
body have, by the natural course of things, become so 
familiar to us within the last year, that, like his name, they 
have almost come to be household property. How, nearly 
threescore years ago, in a very humble house in this then 


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quiet village, he was born, the son of respectable parents, 
but in humble circumstances; how from the common 
schools of the parish, such as they were from 1803 to 1807, 
to use his own simple words, he obtained the. limited edu- 
cation his parents' means could afford, but, to the prii.ciples 
then inculcated, owing much of the foundation for such 
success as Heaven has been pleased to grant him during a 
long business-life," — all this Mr. Abbott thought familiar 
to the Danvers people ; and so it was and is. In his native 
place, as much as anywhere, George Peabody's memory is 
precious ; and, however it may be with prophets, with this 
successful and beneficent merchant it is not true that he 
is " not without honor save in his own country and among 
his own people." In fact, the town where he was born is 
now called by his name. First it was a part of Salem ; 
then, for a century, it was known as Danvers 4 for a season 
it was called South Danvers ; and it is now known as Pea- 
body, in honor of him whose brief and necessarily imperfect 
memoir is here presented. 

On the occasion of his visit to Danvers in 1866, Hon. A. 
A. Abbott said to his fellow-^citizens, '' Here was Mr. Pea- 
body's home ; here slumbered the honored dust of his 
feithers ; here, ' native and to the manor bom,' he passed his 
youth and the pleasant days of his early life ; here were 
many of those who had ^een his schoolfellows and play- 
mates : and when young ambition, and devotion to those 
whom misfortune had made his dependants, and the first 
stirrings of that great energy alrestdy indicating the future 


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triumph, led him forth to other and broader fields of labor, 
the eyes of his townsmen, hke their prayers and best 
wishes, followed him ; and, from that day to this, the events 
of his life and his whole career have been a part of the 
public and most treasured property of the town. And, all 
along, what returns have there been 1 and how warmly has 
this regard been reciprocated 1 There has been no time 
when we have not been in George Peabody's debt. Sepa- 
rated from us by the wide ocean, hving amid the whirl 
and roar of the world's metropolis, engrossed with the 
weightiest concerns, flattered and caressed by the titled 
and the great, that * heart untravelled ' has yet clung stead- 
fast to its early love. While, wherever his lot has been 
cast, every worthy object of charity and every beneficent 
enterprise has received his ready aid, in an especial man- 
ner has he remembered and endowed us. When fire 
desolated our village, and swept away the sacred house 
where in childhood he listened to those truths which have 
been the guide and solace of maturer years, he helped to 
rebuild the rafters and point again the spire to heaven. 
When a pious local pride would rear an enduring monu- 
ment to the memory of our fathers who fell in the first 
fight of the Revolution, it was his bounty, although he 
lived beneath the very shadow of the crown from which 
that Revolution snatched its brightest jewel, that assisted in 
rearing the granite pile, and transmitting to future ages 
the names and heroic deeds of our venerated martyrs. So, 
when, advancing a new step in the cause of public educa- 


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tion, this town established two high schools for the better 
culture of its youth, it was his untiring generosity that 
awoke new life, and kindled fresh desire for knowledge, by 
ordaining a system of prize-medals, carefully discriminating 
and judicious, and which will embalm his name in Ihe 
aifections of unborn generations of youthful scholars. 
And, lastly, when, four years ago, the town of Dan vers 
celebrated the centenary of its municipal life, it was the 
same constant, faithful friend that sent to our festival that 
noble sentiment, 'Education, — a debt due from present 
to future generations;' and, in payment of his share of 
that debt, gave to the inhabitants of the town a munificent 
sum for the promotion of knowledge and morality among 
them. Since that day, his bounty has not spared, but has 
flowed forth unceasingly, until the original endowment has" 
been more than doubled, and until here, upon this spot, is 
founded an institution of vast immediate good, and whose 
benefits and blessings for future years, and upon the gen- 
erations yet to come, no man can measure. Such are some 
of the reasons why the news of Mr. Peabody^s contem- 
plated visit to this country was received with peculiar 
emotions here ; why every heart was warmed ; why all the 
people, with one accord, desired to see his face and hear 
his voice ; and why the towns of Danvers and South Dan- 
vers, in their corporate capacities, and in obedience to 
the popular will, extended to him, on his arrival upon our 
shores, an invitation to visit their borders." 

Hon. Robert S. Daniels also spoke of the early home of 

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the subject of this record, and of him, in fitting words, as 
follows : — 

"It is now more than forty years since Mr. Peabody 
was a resident of this town ; and many and great are the 
changes which have taken place during that period. Many 
of them are of a pleasing character : some of them, how- 
ever, which are the result of the universal law of Nature, 
will be remembered with sorrow. And I would ask with 
reference to these changes, in the language of Scripture, 
*The fathers — where are they?' They are all gone. 
Their seats in our halls and in our churches are all vacant. 
The active business-men of that day have all passed from 
time to eternity. 

" The population of Dan vers, at that period, was about 
three thousand : now more than ten thousand. We then 
had but two churches : we now have nine. The salaries 
paid the ministers were about a thousand dollars, and now 
estimated at ten thousand dollars. We then had but two 
or three public schoolhouses : now some fifteen, and a num- 
ber of them large and costly buildings, and thronged with 
hundreds of happy children. We then appropriated about 
two thousand dollars for their support : now about ten thou- 
sand dollars ; and are trying to pay the debt due from pres- 
ent to fixture generations. Our old public avenues are 
filled with dwellings and stores. Many new streets have 
been located, and built upon. The power of steam was 
then almost unknown. Railroads are now laid m all di- 
rections through our town, and almost thirty trains per 


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day pass through this village. We then had no banks, and 
no post-offices : we now have three banks and four post- 
offices. And I feel warranted in stating that the business 
of the town would show a greater increase than any thing 
else. • 

" Mr. Peabody left this place with no capital but a good 
character and his inherent energy and firm resolve. He 
now returns to us under circumstances known to you all : 
his unparalleled success has not blotted from his memory 
his old home and his old friends." 

It was Mr. Peabody's privilege, and he always felt it to 
be such, to minister to the comfort of his widowed mother ; 
and the minds of his surviving relatives, who knew him 
in childhood and youth, are stored with precious memo- 
ries of his noble deeds. It has been said that "Mr. 
Peabody did not bestow many gifts to relieve individual 
poverty or distress : he thought that much of the money 
thus contributed only tended to increase the evil it sought 
to alleviate." But it is certain that his immediate friends 
and relatives were never at a loss to know the character 
of his feelings toward them. He manifested his good will 
by word and deed, as freely, in proportion to his means, 
when he had but a few hundred dollars, as when he pos- 
sessed millions. 

From a child, George Peabody had to rely on his own 
exertions. At the early age of eleven, he was apprenticed 
to a Mr. Sylvester Proctor, who kept a " country store " 
of groceries, drugs, &c., in Danvers. Here, for four years. 


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he was a faithfiil laborer, giving great satisfaction by his 

honesty, promptness, and fidelity. But, at the age of 

fifteen, he began to be disconfented. He longed for a 

change, and for a larger field of action. He wanted to 

engage in business on a larger scale. Accordingly, after 

he had spent a year with his maternal grandfather in* 

Vermont (of which year mention will be made in another 

chapter), he joined his elder brother, David Peabody, in 

a dry-goods or " draper's " shop, in Newburyport. This 

was in 1811. Here he was the same faithful young man, 

exact and prompt in business, and winning the respect of 

all who knew him. It is said that " the first money Mr. 

Peabody earned outside of the small pittance he received 

as a clerk was for writing ballots for the Federal party in 

Newburyport. This was before the day of printed votes.'* 

His penmanship was superior in beauty. His letters were 

usually brief, and very much to the point ; but they were 

easily read, and specially enjoyable, because of his clear 

and nice chirography. 

Among the incidents concerning Mr. Peabody's early 
life, " The Boston Transcript " is responsible for the fol- 
lowing : — 

" Two gentlemen are living, who were friends of Mr. 
Peabody in boyhood, and who willingly paid his share of 
the cost of sailing and fishing parties, tenpins^ &c.,* during 
the war of 1812-14 ; his excellent company being con- 
sidered more than an ofiset to his lack of ftmds. 

" The late Rev. Daniel Dana, D.D., of Newburyport, 

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was the clergyman whose preaching first attracted Mr. 
Peabody's attention when a lad. Dr. Dana was uncle to 
Mr. Samuel T. Dana of this city, who has been Mr. 
Peabody's agent of late years." 

During young Peabody's stay in Newburyport occurred 
*a great fire, which destroyed a large amount of property, 
and, by the burning of his brother's store, was the means 
of Causing him to leave that town. Mr. Peabody, in 
after-life, claimed to be the first to give the alarm. He 
was putting up the shutters at his brother's store, when 
he discovered the enemy. Shortly after, he went away. 
The years of his boyhood were fully past. He was a 
young man, and a promising merchant. He departed to 
new scenes and to new triumphs. But he never forgot 
that town ; and afterwards showed, by a munificent gift, 
his interest in it. " The Herald " of that place says, — 

" The cause of Mr. George Peabody's interest in New- 
buryport was not alone that he had lived here for a brief 
period, or that his relatives had lived here ; but rather it 
was the warm friendship that had been shown him, which 
was, in fact, the basis of his subsequent prosperity. He 
left here in 1811, and returned here in 1857. The forty- 
six intervening years had borne to the grave most of the 
persons with whom he had formed acquaintance. Among 
those he recognized were several who were in business, or 
clerks, on State Street in 1811, — Messrs. John Porter, 
Moses Kimball, Prescott Spaulding, and a few others. 
Mr. Spaulding was fourteen years older than Mr. Pea- 


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body, and in business when the latter was a clerk with his 
uncle, Col. John Peabody. Mr. Peabody was here in 
1857, on the day of the Agricultural Fair, and was walk- 
ing in the procession with the late Mayor Davenport, 
when he saw Mr. Spaulding on the sidewalk, and at once 
left the procession to greet him. 

'* Mr. Spaulding had rendered him the greatest of ser- 
vices. When Mr. Peabody left Newburyport, he was 
under age, and not worth a dollar. Mr. Spaulding gave 
him letters of credit in Boston, through which he obtained 
two thousand dollars' worth of merchandise of Mr. James 
Reed ; and Mr. Reed was so favorably impressed with his 
appearance, that he subsequently gave him credit for a 
larger amount. This was his start in hfe, as he afterwards 
acknowledged ; for at a public entertainment in Boston, 
when his credit was good for any amount, and in any part 
of the world, Mr. Peabody laid his hand on Mr. Reed's 
^shoulder, and said to those present, ' My friends, here is 
my first patron; and he is the man who sold me my first 
bill of goods.' After he was established in Georgetown, 
D.C., the first consignment made to him was by the late 
Francis Todd of Newburyport. It was from these facts 
that Newburyport was always pleasant in his memory ; 
and the donation he made to the Public Library was on 
his own suggestion, that he desired to do something of a 
public nature for our town." 

The fact was, George Peabody loved to give, and was . 
a grateful, appreciative man ; and this chapter concerning 

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his early days cannot be better closed than by quoting one 
of the best things said by him, — spoken at the late re- 
union in his native town : — 

''It is sometimes hard for one, who has devoted the 
best part of his life to the accumulation of money, to spend 
it for others; but practise it, and keep on practising it, 
and I assure you it comes to be a pleasure." 


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The Commercial Assistant. — Going South. — Basiness-Habits. — Love 


** A "Wit's a feather, and a chief a rod : 
An honest man's the noblest work of G-od." — Pofb. 

" Proyide things honest in the sight of all men.''— Bom. xii. 17. 

)HE burning of his brother's store in Newbury- 
port left George Peabody without employment. 
But he was not one to eat the bread of idleness. 
He sought for employment ; and his uncle, John 
Peabody, who had settled in Georgetown, adjoining the 
Federal capital, invited young George to become his com- 
mercial assistant. To the South, for the first time, he 
went ; and there he tarried two years, managing with pe- 
culiar ability a large part of the business, though still in 
his teens. His honesty was unquestionable, his tact un- 
usual. Of course, he succeeded in winning friends and 
securing trade. 

No wonder that he always felt an interest in the South. 
Thither he had gone when the avenue to business-success 

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seemed closed to him at the North by the misfortune of 
that great Newburyport fire ; and, with his well-known 
gratitude, it is not strange, that, in after-years, to him the 
South was remembered more as the refuge of the young 
seeker after profitable employment than as the antipodes 
of the North. In those days, there was no North or South 
mentioned in contrast : but to him the vicinity of the Fed- 
eral capital was as much a part of his native land as any 
other portion ; and he loved it all. So the South became as 
a home to him ; and he always looked back to Georgetown 
and its vicinity as a child looks back to the shelter and 
comfort of a father's roof. 

Here the young merchant made many friends by his af- 
fability and consistent politeness. According to testimony 
gathered from those who knew him personally. Dr. Hana- 
ford states, that, — * 

" Unlike most persons in similar circumstances, — and, 
indeed, those possessing far less wealth and enjoying far 
less reputation, — he never seemed to assume unusual im- 
portance, or demanded special favors. He was bland, so- 
cial, and genial ; indicating by his general manner £^ willing- 
ness to converse with those with whom he accidentally 
came in contact, yet never arrogating to himself the right 
to monopolize conversation. It seemed to be his wish to 
travel like other men, mingle with his fellows as an equal ; 
manifesting a commendable retiring and modest spirit. At 
the station, if he wished attention, his baggage disposed of, 
he was willing to await his turn ; manifesting no impatience, 


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and then saying that he had ' baggage to put in the room, 
when you are at liberty,' &c. ; never manifesting by his 
manner that he claimed any special attention or favors : 
while he never failed to express his gratitude and acknowl- 
edgments for favors and attentions extended to him. 
Politeness seemed a special and remarkably prominent 
characteristic, manifested on what would be ordinarily re- 
garded as unimportant occasions ; yet he seemed to regard 
all occasions, while mingling with his fellows, as of suffi- 
cient importance to justify respectful consideration, and the 
manifestation of a refined politeness commanding the re- 
spect of all who knew him. It is probable that his success 
in business was attributable, in part at least, to his respect- 
ful bearing, his affability, and his general correctness of 

" In this connection, it is proper to say that Mr. Peabody 
was a remarkable man in his intercourse with his fellows. . 
It was the remark of a station-agent, — qjie intimately ac- 
quainted with him, — that he was a ' comfortable man to 
have around ; ' that he would be a ' popular man if he was 
not worth a dollar.' Though a man of large wealth, — 
one who was the object of general admiration, not for \u& 
money only, but for his own sake, on whom many^ and 
distinguished honors were bestowed with a lavish hand, — 
he was apparently unconscious, of remarkable merit. 

" Mr. Peabody was scrupulously exact and punctual in 
the discharge of his obhgations ; not only those relating to his 
financial transactions, but personal obligations, — those con- 


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nected with his intercourse with his fellows in the ordinary- 
walks of life. The following incidents will well illustrate 
his characteristics in these relations. While spending a 
short time with his sister, Mrs. Daniels, at Georgetown, 
in 1857, he said to Mr. P., the conductor, ' Mr. P., J 
am considerably isolated, and do not see the papers . as I 
would wish. Please bring me some of the Boston dailies.' 
When asked what ones he would prefer, he decided to see 
* The Advertiser ' as a commercial paper, and ' The 
Post,' that he might read both sides in politics. These 
were promptly delivered by the gentlemanly and accommo- 
dating conductor, who was very willing to indicate his re- 
spect for such a man by an act of kindness ; never think- 
ing that he should merit or receive any special notice from 
the financier, 

" Some weeks after, while riding in the cars, as he fre- 
quently did, between Georgetown, Boston, Salem, &c., 
Mr. Peabody asfced his indebtedness to the conductor for 
the papers, &c. He was assured that he was very wel- 
come, and that he esteemed it a privilege to confer such 
favors upon one who was doing so much for humanity ; and 
that it was a very trifling affair on his part. But little was 
said on the subject, and they parted at the station. 

" Some months afterward, the conductor received by ex- 
press a beautiful morocco case, which, when opened, was 
found to contain several photographs of Mr. Peabody, 
taken in different postures, &c., executed in different parts 
of Europe ; an embossed silver vase, about eight inches in 


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height, of exquisite workmanship, with the conductor's name 
engraved on it, and the name of the distinguished donor. 
It also contained an autograph-letter, in which he was re- 
quested to * transmit these articles to his children as a 
memorial-gift,' indicating the esteem of the donor for the 
recipient. It is probable that the conductor's gentlemanly- 
bearing toward the distinguished traveller, his poHteness, 
and general accommodating spirit, may have suggested the 
honor conferred, since he had been heard to say that he 
always felt at home in his train ; as other travellers will 
also testify." 

" The Boston Post," shortly after the departure of Mr. 
Peabody, contained an article concerning his personal and 
business habits, from which the following extracts are 
taken: — 

" Mr. Peabody, say his old friends and neighbors at Sa- 
lem, was eminently a peculiar man. Possessing a strong 
will and firm determination in the carrying-out of his pur- 
poses, he obtained at once the respect and admiration of 
those with whom he came in contact. Although, like a 
genuine Yankee, Mr. Peabody was fond of a good bar- 
gain, his every action was beyond the breath of a suspi- 
cion of meanness. His desire was only to be treated as 
other men were. Several years ago, there lived in Salem 
a hackman named Davis, who was more remarkable for his 
independence and plain-speaking than for the quality of his 
accommodations. His prices, also, were below those of 
his competitors. Mr. Peabody rode with this hackman 

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one day, and, on arriving at his destination, tendered the 
usual fee of fifty cents. 

" ' Here's your change, sir,' said Davis, returning at the 
same time fifteen cents. 

" ' Change I ' exclaimed Mr. Peabody : * why, I'm not 
entitled to any.' 

'' ' Yes, you are : I don't tax but thirty-five cents for a 
ride in my hack.' 

" ' How do you live, then ? ' 

*' *By fair-dealing, sir. I don't believe in making a man 
pay more than a thing is worth just because I've got an 

" Mr. Peabody was so pleased with this reply, that he 
ever afte^* sought Davis outj and gave him the bulk of his 
patronage. This, however, was not very remunerative. 
Mr. Peabody cherished an inveterate dislike to parade, and 
carried this feeling sometimes to a ridiculous length. When 
at the zenith of his fortune, he has been known to stand 
out-doors for some minutes in a drenching storm because 
he preferred a horse-car to a hackney-coach. This feeling 
extended ev,en to his dress. His plain and substantial garb 
exhibited no token of the wealth of its wearer, and was 
shaped in the plainest and most substantial manner. He 
very seldom wore an article of jewelry. His watch was 
attached to a plain, black-silk guard ; and pearl buttons only 
were visible in his shirt-bosom. Until his last visit to this 
country, Mr. Peabody reftised, notwithstanding the repeat- 
ed solicitations of his friends, to employ a valet ; preferring 

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to discharge the duties of his own toilet. These duties, 
however, became irksome with declining years; and he 
finally consented to lay them off his shoulders. He there- 
fore took with him to Englani a favorite and trusty ser- 
vant who had been in the family of a relative for many 
years, and whose position was rather that of a confidential 
fiiend than a menial. This man was with Mr. Peabody 
firom the time of his departure, last August, up to the hour 
of his death, and will accompany the remains to this coun- 

Newspaper reports are often unreliable, but yet full of 
interest ; and when, among the questions asked concerning 
Mr. Peabody, came this, " Why was he never married ? " 
" The Boston Transcript " made a partial attempt to solve 
it in these words : — 

" About a quarter of a century ago, Mr. Peabody was 
so much pleased with an American lady visiting London, 
that he offered her his hand and fortune, which were ac- 
cepted. Learning, a short time afterwards, that she was 
already engaged, — a fact of which she had kept him in 
ignorance, — he rebuked her lack of sincerity, and broke 
off the engagement." 

Another newspaper created a sensation with an article 
headed, " A Romantic Episode in the Life of George Pea- 
body," and went on to state as follows : — 

" The reason why George Peabody, the great philan- 
thropist, remained a bachelor all his life, may be explained, 
perhaps, by the following chapter in his history : — 

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" When Mr. Peabody was just entering upon his career 
of success as a business-man, in Baltimore, he met by 
chance a poor girl, who was but a child, but whose face 
and gentle manner attracted his notice. Questioning her 
in regard to parentage and surroundings, he found her in 
every way worthy his regard, and a fit subject for his bene- 
faction. He at once adopted .her as his ward, and gave 
her an education. As she advanced in* age, her charms of 
person, as well as brightness of intellect, won^ the affections 
of her benefactor. Through this relationship, he had an 
ample opportunity of watching her progress ; and day by 
day her hold upon his aflpections grew stronger. 

" At length, as the ward bloomed into womanhood, 
though much her senior in years, Mr. Peabody offered her 
his hand and fortune. Greatly appreciating his generosity, 
and acknowledging her attachment for him as a father, she, 
with great feeling, confessed that honor compelled her to 
decline the acceptance of this his greatest act of generos- 
ity ; informing her suitor that her affections had been given 
to another, a clerk in the employ of her benefactor. 

" Though disappointed and grievously shocked, the phi- 
lanthropist sent for his clerk ; and, learning from him that 
the engagement had been of long duration, Mr. Peabody at 
once established his successful rival in business, and soon 
after gave his benediction upon the marriage of his ward. 
This, it is said, was the first blow his heart received ; and it 
is possible that from this episode came the inspiration that 
made the future of Mr. Peabody so universally distin- 

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guished, ard has rendered his name famous as a remark- 
able public benefactor." 

But '' The Providence Journal " claims to be best in- 
formed of any, and publishes from an anonymous corre- 
spondent the following : — 

" A story has been going the rounds of the newspapers, 
giving as a reason why Mr. Peabody was never married, 
that he adopted a young girl, whom, after she grew up, he 
wished to make his wife ; but, finding that she preferred a 
clerk in his establishment to the chief of the house, he 
* never told his love,' but calmly gave her up, and saw 
her married to a younger rival. Of the truth of that story 
I know nothing ; but I can vouch for thi9 that I am now 
going to relate : — 

" More than thirty years ago, in the far-famed school of 
that prince of teachers, John Kingsbury, was one of the 
fairest of all the fair daughters of Providence, celebrated 
far and near though that city has ever been for its lovely 
girls. Her school-education finished, she went with friends 
to Europe ; not, however, before having given her youth- 
ful affections to a young man whom she had met in a sister- 
city. But, before marriage had consummated their happi- 
ness, adversity came upon him, and he found himself in no 
situation to marry. He was not willing she should waste 
her youth and glorious beauty in waiting through long 
years for the day to come wheh he could call her his own : 
so he released her from her vows, and they parted ; she. 
going, 83 I said before, to Europe. 

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" There she met George Peabody, then, comparatively 
speaking, a young man, but one who was already making 
his mark, and whos^ wealth was beginning to pour in on 
every side. 

" He saw her, and was struck (as who that ever saw her 
was not struck ?) with her grace, her winning ways, her 
exceeding loveliness; and, after a while, he 'proposed.' 
Her heart still clung to her loved one across the wide At- 
lantic ; but, after some time, she yielded perhaps to the 
wishes of her friends, perhaps to the promptings of worldly 
ambition : who can tell ? Who can fathom the heart of a 
young and beautiful maiden ? She became the aifianced 
wife of Mr. Peabody. After a little interval, she came 
back to this countiy, and, soon after her arrival, met her 
first love, and, after-events justify me in saying, her 
*only love.' At sight of him, all her former afifection 
came back, — if, indeed, it had ever left her, — and Mr. 
Peabody, with his wealth and brilliant prospects, faded 
away ; and she clung with fond affection to her American 
lover, and was willing to share a moderate income with the 
chosen of her heai;t. All was told to Mr. Peabody ; and 
he, with that manliness that characterized his every action, 
gave her up, and in due time she was married, and settled 
in a city not more than three hundred miles from Provi- 
dence. What she suffered in coming to a final conclusion 
was known to but few. Her fair cheeks lost their round- 
» ness, and grew wan and pale ; her lovely eyes had a 
moumftil wistftilness that touched every heart. Some 

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blamed her: others praised her. Those who were am- 
bitious of worldly honors pronounced her ' mad,' * foolish,' 
to throw over a man like George Peabody, whose ever-in- 
creasing wealth would bestow every luxury upon her, and 
place her in a position in London that would make her lot 
an envied one, to marry a man who might never have more 
than a limited income to live upon. Others — and shall I 
say the nobler part ? — justified her in thinking that love, 
true love, was more to be desired than wealth or earthly 

" The painiul conflict was at length ended. Her true 
womanhood vindicated itself, and she wavered no more. 

" I well remember, when in London, twenty-eight years 
ago, hearing all this talked over in a chosen circle of Ameri- 
can fiiends; and also, at a brilliant dinner-party given by 
Gen. Cass in Versailles, it was thoroughly discussed in all 
its length and breadth. Whether, in his visit to this coun- 
try, Mr. Peabody ever met his once-aflSanced bride, I can- 
not say ; neither do I know whether, when she heard of 
his more than princely wealth, her heart ever gave a sigh 
at the thought, ' All this might have been mine.' 

" After several years of wedded bliss, death took her 
husband from her side, when the glorious loveliness of 
her youth had ripened into the full luxuriance of perfect 


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The Citizen-Soldier. — The First Partnership. — The Trayelling Member 
of the Firm. — Life in Baltimore. 

** Breathes there the man with Bonl bo dead 
Who never to himself hath said, 

* This is my own, my native land » ? » — Soott. 

" Every man to his own conutry." — 1 Kings xxil. 36. 

{MONG the peculiar characteristics which Amer- 
icans have exliibited, or at least among the 
virtues they have made prominent in their 
national career, is love of country. Patriot- 
ism,, from the hour when this land was declared free from 
all other jurisdiction, has always been found in the Ameri- 
can heart ; and the dear old flag has ever had its faithful 
followers. Some of George Peabody's ancestors were 
among the Revolutionary heroes ; and so it was not strange, 
that in the war of 1812, which occurred when he was a 
young man, and during the early part of the Georgetown 
period of his life, he exhibited qualities which proved that 
he was not unworthy of them. The war with the mother- 


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country, long threatened, appeared inevitable; for the 
British fleet had ascended the Potomac, and were menacing 
the capital. This roused the patriotism of the young mer- 
chant ; and, though he had not yet reached the age when 
mihtary service could be required of him, he joined a vol- 
unteer company of artillery, and soon found himself on 
duty at Fort Warburton, which commanded the river- 
approach to Washington. " Appletons' Journal " states, 
that " for this service, together with a previous short ser-- 
vice at Newburj'port, Mr. Peabody lately received one of 
the grants of one hundred acres of land, bestowed under 
certain conditions, by act of Congress, upon the defenders 
of the Republic at this perilous time ; " and, to use the 
words of an American writer, " if he gained here no mili- 
tary honors, at least he showed that he had within him the 
soul of a patriot and the nerve of a soldier." 

After spending two years in the employment of his 
uncle, he entered into partnership in a wholesale drapery 
business with Mr. Elisha Riggs ; Mr. Riggs fiimishing the 
capital for the concern, and young Peabody agreeing to 
transact the. business. It is said, that, " when Mr. Riggs 
invited Mr. Peabody to be a partner, the latter said there 
was one insuperable objection, as he was only nineteen 
j^ears of age. This was no objection in the mind of the 
shrewd merchant, who wanted a young and active assist- 
ant." His unfaltering perseverance and indomitable 
energy had full scope ; and they who may be supposed to 
know of the matter, say, that, to all concerned, the part- 
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nership of Riggs & Peabody proved a most successful 
and satisfactory arrangement. In 1815, the house was re- 
moved to Baltimore ; and, seven years later, its extended 
operations were such as to justify the establishing and 
opening of branches at Philadelphia and New York : and 
about the year 1830, by the retirement of Mr. Riggs, 
George Peabody found himself the senior partner and the 
virtual director of one of the largest of mercantile firms. 

In one of the large, illustrated English papers, — 
" The London News," — a fair portrait of Mr. Peabody is 
given, and a brief sketch of his career, in which the 
writer, from his stand-point, thus describes the Baltimore 
partnership of which mention has been already made : 
" The short war being over, his proved skill and diligence 
in trade brought him the offer of a partnership in a new 
concern. It was that of Mr. Elisha Riggs, who was about 
to commence the sale of ' dry goods ' — all sorts of 
clothing -stuffs, as distinguished from 'groceries' — 
throughout the Middle States of the Union. . . . Peabody 
•acted as bagman, and often traveHed alone on horseback 
through the western wilds of New York and Pennsylva- 
nia, or the plantations of Maryland and Virginia, if not 
farther ; lodging with farmers or gentlemen slave-owners, 
and so becoming acquainted with every class of people 
and every way of living. . . . Mr. Peabody's character 
as a man of superior integrity, discretion, and public spirit, 
already distinguished him from others. He coveted 
no political office ; he courted the votes of no party ; he 

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waited upon no ' caucus ; ' put his foot down upon no 
* platform ; ' went for no * ticket ; ' but held aloof from the 
hatefiil strife* of rival American factions. He chose rather 
to bestow on his native Commonwealth the most perfect 
example of justice, honor, and liberality in social life, 
with the quiet self-culture of individual manhood. A 
republic composed of such persons would have small need 
of poUtical cunning. The honest man was so much 
greater than the state or nation, that, while he sat at 
home, they came to him for aid and counsel. His private 
morality and prudence were invoked to redeem the disas- 
ters of public finance. So it has often happened in the 
history of such afiairs : the worth of one good citizen, as 
it saved Maryland from bankruptcy, would save a whole 
empire in many a similar case." 

The allusions of the English writer will be more easily 
comprehended by reading the subjoined extract from the 
address of Gov. Swann of Maryland, when, on the 
1st of November, 1866, Mr. Peabody was welcomed to 
the State by the Trustees of the Peabody Institute, which 
his Uberality had established, and of which further men- 
tion will be made. 

The governor said, '*In the financial crisis of 1887, 
which spread over this whole Union, affecting more or 
less almost every State within our limits, when we re- 
quired countenance and support abroad, you, sir, stood the 
fast friend of the State of Maryland [applause] ; and by 
your efforts, by the weight of your great name, pointed 


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US to that career of prosperity and success in the manage- 
ment of our financial affairs which has placed us torday, 
I will not say in advance, but by the side, of the most 
prosperous of our sister States. For this, Mr. Peabody, 
the State of Maryland owes you a debt of gratitude. 
[Applause.] And I consider myself fortunate that this 
opportunity is afforded me, in the presence of this vast 
audience here assembled, to make this acknowledgment, 
due to the important services rendered to our State. . . . 
Your career has been one of uninterrupted prosperity. In 
all the business of life, you have adorned by your honesty 
and straight-forwardness every position in which you have 
been placed. And no man, Mr. Peabody, whether living 
or dead, in this country or any country, has attracted a 
larger share of the public attention by works of disinter- 
ested charity and benevolence. [Applause.] You have 
not lived for yourself alone. ' Two hemispheres attest your 
princely libei-ality. • Returning to your native country 
after so many years' absence, crowned with all the honors 
that human applause can bestow upon a private citizen, 
not excepting the applause of royalty itself, I feel proud, 
standing within the walls of this noble institution, the work . 
of your own hands, for which we are indebted to your 
unaided liberality, to say, sir, that I speak here to-day, not 
only the sentiments of the vast crowd before me, but of 
the whole State of Maryland, when I assure you, that, in 
honoring George Peabody, we honor ourselves." [Ap- 


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Mr. Peabody's response to these words of Gov. Swann 
have such reference to his life in Baltimore, that it is here 
inserted : — 

"Your Excellency, Ladies and Gentlemen, — I 
thank you most kindly for the honor which the Governor 
of Maryland has done me in the sentiment which he has 
expressed ; and I thank yoti, ladies and gentlemen, for 
the enthusiasm which you have been so kind as to mani- 
fest at the mention of my name. [Enthusiastic applause.] 
The Governor of Maryland has referred to the assistance 
which he gives me the credit of performing thirty years 
ago, or more, for the resuscitation, in some measure, of the 
credit of the State of Maryland. The same compliment 
was yesterday paid me by the Mayor and Council in ref- 
erence to the same subject. I will, therefore, only say to 
you, that what I did at that time, any pledge that I ever 
made at that time, has been folly sustained by the State 
of Maryland throughout the duration of that time. 

" It is upward of half a century since I came from 
Georgetown, in the District of Columbia, where I had for 
some time been in business, to reside in this city. I was 
then but twenty years of age, and commenced business in 
company with Mr. Elisha Riggs of Georgetown, at 215|- 
Market Street, then called * Old Congress Hall ; ' and 
there it was that I gained the first five thousand dollars 
of the fortune with which Providence has crowned my 
exertions. From that period, for twenty years of my life. 


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though a New-England man, and though strong prejudices 
existed, even at that time, between the Northern and 
Southern States, I never experienced from the citizens of 
Baltimore any thing but kindness, hospitality, and confi- 

" It would, then, be strange indeed if I were not deeply 
attached to Baltimore ; and from the time of which 7 have 
spoken, to the present moment, I have ever cherished the 
warmest and most grateful feelings towards the inhabitants 
of this beautiful city, where I entered upon a business- 
career which has been so prosperous. 

" And although I have lived abroad for more than thirty 
years, under the government of a queen who is beloved 
not only in her own realm, but throughout all civilized 
countries, and who has bestowed upon me very high 
honor, yet my appreciation (warm though it is) of kind- 
ness and honor bestowed upon me in England has never 
effaced the grateful remembrance and warm interest which 
I must ever connect with the home of my early business 
and the scene of my youthful exertions. 

"I am, therefore, glad to meet you here; to stand 
again where I can look upon the scenes which recall so 
many memories of my younger days ; and still more glad 
to receive from you this warm greeting, the token that my 
course of life has met with your approbation. 

" But yet I come to you now, in some degree, with a 
saddened heart, at finding that nearly all my early ac- 
quaintances in Baltimore have left the stage of life, and / 


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am left so nearly alone among them all; and, in lately 
looking over a list of the principal importing merchants of 
Baltimore (headed by Alexander Brown & Son, and 
George & John Hoffman), attached to a circular ad- 
dressed to our shipping-merchants in Europe, dated fifty- 
one years ago, and containing ninety-three firms, composed 
of one hundred and forty-five names, I can now trace out, 
as living, but seven persons, of whom I am one. And, 
having but once before visited my native land in thirty 
years, I feel now as if addressing a community to whom I 
am personally almost wholly unknown ; and as if I were 
standing here a relic of past years, and addressing a gen- 
eration to which I do not myself belong. 

"But my interest both in the present and in future 
generations is, I trust, not less than in that which has 
passed or is passing away. The fathers of many of you 
who hear my voice were among my intimate friends ; and, 
thus situated, I hope I may not be presuming in what I 
shall have to say. 

" Since my last visit, nearly ten years ago, many and 
great changes have taken place. I then had the pleasure 
of expressing my regard for this city, and my desire for 
the good of its future citizens, by the establishment of the 
institution in which I am now addressing you. I could 
then hardly expect to address you here at tliis time ; but 
God has been pleased to prolong my years beyond the 
threescore years and ten allotted to man, and to enable 
me to carry out at this time the views I then entertained 


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with regard to the operations and benefits of this institn 

" With the details of the scheme and organization of 
the Institute I do not propose to interfere. I am fully 
confident that I leave them in the hands of those who are 
devoted earnestly, and even enthusiastically, to devising 
and carrying out such plans as will, for all coming time, 
work for the highest good and culture of those for whom 
its benefits were intended. But I am sure you will par- 
don me, my fellow-citizens, if, on one point to which Gov. 
Swann has eloquently alluded, — the spirit of harmony in 
which all should be carried out, — I speak a few words, 
coming as they do from the very depths of my heart, and ap- 
pealing to you, — you^ the people of Baltimore, with whom 
rests the success or failure of this Institute. For as years 
advance, and what were forebodings for the future have 
become merged in the past, the earnest desire for unity 
and brotherly feelings which I cherished and expressed 
ten years ago, in the terms referred to by the Governor 
of Maryland, has become deeper and more intense. It is 
my hope and prayer that this Institute may not only have 
and fulfil a mission in the fields of science, of art, and of 
knowledge, but also one to the hearts of men, teaching 
always lessons of peace and good-will ; and, especially, 
that now it may, in some humble degree, be instrumental 
in healing the wounds of our beloved and common country, 
and establishing again a happy and harmonious Union, — 
the only Union that can be preserved for coming ages, and 


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the only one that is worth preserving. And here I may 
well refer to a subject, which, though of a personal nature, 
has its bearings on what I have said. I have been told 
several times that I have been accused of want of devo- 
tion to the Union : and I take this occasion to place my- 
self right ; for I have not a word of apology, not a word 
of retraction, to utter. 

" Fellow-citizens, the Union o( the States of America 
was one of the earliest objects of my childhood's rever- 
ence. For the independence of our country, my father 
bore arms in some of the darkest days of the Revolution ; 
and from him, and from his example, I learned to love 
and honor that Union. Later in life, I learned more fully 
its inestimable worth ; perhaps more fully than most have 
done : for, born and educated at the North, then living 
nearly twenty years at the South, and thus learning, in 
the best school, the character and life of her peoifte ; 
finally, in the course of a long residence abroad, being 
thrown in intimate contact with individuals of every sec- 
tion of our glorious land, — I came, as do most Americans 
who live long in foreign lands, to love our .country as. a 
whole ; to know and take pride in all her sons, as equally 
countrymen ; to know no North, no South, no East, no 
West. And so I wish publicly to avow, that, during the 
terrible contest through which the nation has passed, my 
sympathies were still and always will be with the Union ; 
that my uniform course tended to assist, but never to in- 
jure, the credit of the government of the Union ; and, at 


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the close of the war, three-fourths of all the property I 
possessed had been invested in United-States Government 
and State securities, and remain so at this time. 

** But none the less could I fail to feel charity for the 
South ; to remember that political opinion is far more a 
matter of birth and education than of* calm and unbiassed 
reason and sober thought. Even you and I, my friends, 
had we been bom in the South, — born to the feehngs, 
beliefs, and perhaps prejudices of Southern men, — might 
have taken the same course which was adopted by the 
South, and have cast in our lot with those who fought, as 
all must admit, so bravely for what they believed to be 
their rights. Nevei% therefore, during the war or since, 
have I permitted the contest, or any passions engendered 
by it, to interfere with the social relations and wann 
friendships which I had formed for a very large number 
of the people of the South. I blamed, and shall always 
blame, the instigators of the strife, and sowers of dissen- 
sion, both at the North and at the South. I believed, and 
do still believe, that bloodshed might have been avoided 
by mutual conciliation. But, after the great struggle had 
actually commenced, I could see no hope for the glorious 
future of America, save in the success of the armies of 
the Union ; and, in reviewing my whole course, there is 
nothing which I could change if I would, nor which I 
would change if I could. And now, after the lapse of 
these eventftil years, I am more deeply, more earnestly, 
more painftdly convinced than ever of our need of mutual 


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forbearance and conciliation, of Christian charity and for- 
giveness, of united effort to bind up the fresh and broken 
wounds of the nation. 

" To you, therefore, citizens of Baltimore and of Mary- 
land, I make my appeal ; probably the last I shall ever 
make to you. May not this Institute be a common 
ground where all may meet, burying former differences 
and animosities, forgetting past separations and estrange- 
ments, weaving the bands of new attachments to the 
city, to the state, and to the nation ? May not Baltimore, 
her name already honored in history as the birthplace of 
religious toleration in America, now crown her past fame 
by becoming the daystar of political tolerance and charity ? 
And will not Maryland, in place of a battle-ground for 
opposing parties, become the field where milder counsels 
and calm deliberations may prevail ; where good men of 
all sections may meet to devise and execute the wisest 
plans for repairing the ravages of war, and for making the 
future of our country alike common, prosperous, and glo- 
rious, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from our north- 
em to our southern boundary ? " 


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RemoTal to London. — Disinterestedness. — Kindness to Americans. — 
Saving the Credit of his Country at the Crystal Palace. 

** A snflle for one of mean degree, 
A conrteouB bow for one of high; 
So modulated both, that each 
Saw friendship in his eye."— Hirst. 

" Be ye kind one to another.''— Rom. zii. 10. 

JITH characteristic manner, " The London 
News " adds to the statement before given, 
" But the time arrived, happily for this coun- 
try, and well, perhaps, for the English race 
on both sides of the Atlantic, when Mr. Peabody came to 
London. His first visit to us was in 1827, while he was 
still chief partner of the Baltimore firm. From this he at 
length withdrew, and fixed himself here as merchant and 
money-broker, wdth others, by the style of. 'George 
Peabody & Co. of Warnford Court, City.' He held depos- 
its for customers, discounted bills, negotiated loans, and 
bought or sold stocks. As one of three commissioners 


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appointed by the State of Maryland to obtain means for 
restoring its credit, he refused to be paid for his services. 
He received a special vote of thanks from the Legislature 
of that State. Americans in Europe were always glad to 
know* Mr. Peabody, from whom they gained, if they 
deserved it, the most useful assistance, as well as the 
kindest welcome. His private hospitality — not less deli- 
cately than freely oflFered, though he was a bachelor, simply 
and cheaply living in chambers — was exerted without stint 
of cost for the pleasure of those who called on him with a 
letter of personal introduction. He used to give them 
pleasant little dinners at his club, or at Richmond, or 
Hampton Court, — places dear to the American visitor. 
The anniversary of American Independence — the 4th 
of eJuly — he used to celebrate with a semi-public dinner 
at the Crystal Palace. Mr. Peabody, indeed, was, of all 
men, least like a, hermit or ascetic ; but his taste was, to 
be social in the enjoyment of all good things. He would 
spend little for himself: his only solitary gratification, we 
believe, was the peaceful sport of the angler, in which, 
like Mr. Bright, he was quite an adept. These fittle per- 
sonal habits of a man so much beloved are not unworthy 
of recollection." 

A writer on this side the water says of Mr. Peabody, 
that, " without being in the slightest degree a gourmand, 
he prided himself very highly upon his table, and took 
especial pleasure in the selection of the viands. Mr 
Peabpdy generally possessed a hearty appetite. His taste. 


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however, was more for wholesome, well-cooked food than 
for luxuries. He seldom indulged in pastry or cake, but 
was passionately fond of fruit, which he kept upon his 
table at all seasons of the year." And yet it is declared 
that ** Mr. Peabody's personal expenses never exceeded 
three thousand dollars during the last ten years of his 
life." Evidently Mr. Peabody thought of the tastes, 
comfort, and needs of others, more than of himself ; and 
in this disinterestedness lies one of the chief glories of 
his character. He was just as well as generous. " The 
Boston Transcript " says, " Mr. Peabody was strongly 
opposed to fraud in little matters. The conductor on an 
English railway once overcharged him a shilling for fare. 
He made complaint to the directors, and had the man 
discharged. ' Not,' said he, * that I could not afford to 
pay the shilling ; but the man was cheating many travellers 
to whom the swindle would be oppressive.' " 

It is said to have been '* one of the peculiarities of Mr. 
Peabody, that he never would have a house of his own. 
He cared little for himself in all things. It was his habit, 
for instance, to dine off a mutton-chop at the grand din- 
ners, he used to give, where every luxury was spread 
upon the table. He used to live in London in the most 
retired manner; and his name did not appear in any 
directory or * Court Guide.' " 

He was a banker only in the American sense of the 
term ; for while, like the Rothschilds and the Barings, he 
loaned money, changed drafts, bought stocks, and held 


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deposits for customers, yet he did not pay out monay, as 
English bankers do, and therefore was not deemed a 
banker in England. " The 'magnitude of his transactions 
in that capacity, perhaps, fell short of one or two great 
houses of the same class ; but in honor, faith, punctuality, 
and public confidence, the firm of George Peabody & 
Co. of Wamford Court stood second to none." As 
already shown, Mr. Peabody had not been long across the 
waters, when those unfortunate failures occurred which 
shook American credit abroad, and brought so much 
reproach in certain business-circles upon the American 
name. " The default of some of #the States, and the 
temporary inability of others to meet their obligations, 
and the failure of several of our moneyed institutions, 
threw doubt and distrust on all American securities. 
That great sympathetic nerve of the commercial world, 
— credit, — as far as the United States was concerned, 
was for the time paralyzed. At that moment, — and it was 
a trying one, — Mr. Peabody not only stood firm himself, 
but he was the cause of firmness in others. His judg- 
ment commanded respect ; his integrity won back the 
reliance which men had been accustomed to place upon 
American securities." And a late writer has truly said, 
that " it is because Mr. Peabody at that trying time rose 
far above the mere financier, — coming to the rescue with 
his true American heart, as well as with his English purse 
and English credit, — that he rose at once into the rank 
of public benefactors." 


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" The Boston Advertiser " is responsible for the follow- 
ing anecdote, which illustrates the quick wit of the London 
banker, and, to the candid mind, does not compromise his 
loyalty : — 

*' The fame of Mr. George Peabody rests so exclusively 
upon the immense gifts of the last years of his life, that 
some peculiar incidents of his earlier career as an Ameri- 
can merchant in London, illustrating other traits of char- 
acter than splendid Uberality, are apt to be overlooked. 
Mr. Peabody was never a commonplace man ; and, in 
many situations of life, he did things which brought him 
strong friends and made him bitter enemies, and caused 
controversies which would be now remembered, but for 
the great torrent of giving which has swept them out of the 
memories of most people. At the time of the Great Exhi- 
bition of 1851, Mr. Peabody earned the gratitude of Amer- 
icans in London and at home, and became more widely 
known than his wealth, already great, had made him, by 
advancing a large sum, for which no provision had been 
made, to enable the products of American industry to be 
displayed in the Crystal Palace. In the same year, he gave 
his iSrst great Fourth-of-July feast, at WiUis's Rooms, to 
American citizens and the best society of London, headed 
by the Duke of Wellington. It was ' the affair of the sea- 
son.' Mr. Peabody, after this, extended his hospitality to 
a larger extent than ever before ; established the unprece- 
dented practice of inviting to dinner every person who 
brought a letter of credit on his house ; and celebrated 

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every Independence Day by a special dinner to the Amer- 
icans in London, inviting some distinguished English 
friends to meet them. 

" At these banquets, it was the invariable custom of the 
host to have the first toast in honor of the Queen. After 
her, the President's health might be drunk. It was Mr. 
Peabody's own preference, and nobody had a right*to 
object. But, in 1854, a number of Americans, led by 
Mr. Daniel E. Sickles, who was then secretary of legation 
at London, proposed a special subscription-dinner on the 
4th of July, as a more purely national affair. During the 
preparations, Mr. Peabody expressed an acquiescence in 
the project, but asked to be allowed to provide the dinner, 
which might be managed, as to the matter of invitations 
and toasts, by a committee of arrangements. His proposal 
was gladly accepted; and, as it was supposed that the 
great merchant had desired to imply a willingness to con- 
form to the general preference in the matter of the senti- 
ments, all was left in his hands, and no committee of 
arrangements was appointed. After the material portion 
of a luxurious repast was over, Mr. Peabody arose, and 
said, in deference to her sex, if not to her position, he 
would propose as the leading toast, * The health of her 
Majesty, Queen Victoria.' The astonishment and wrath 
of some of the guests were very great. Not a few, headed 
by Mr. Sickles, left the room in ostentatious anger. 
Others, among whom was Mr. Buchanan, the American 
minister, reftised to ^se. There was an uproarious min- 

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gUng of hisses with the cheers which followed the toast. 
Tiie affair seems at this distance of time a small one, and 
undoubtedly the result of a misunderstanding; but it 
caused great bitterness of feeling in 1854, and gave rise 
to enmities which only the death of Mr. Peabody has 

The testimony of the late President Felton of Harvard 
College, given at the Danvers reception, is so much in 
point, that it is here inserted : — 

*^ I am one of that femous tribe of ^ wandering Arabs ' 
who have crossed the ocean, and have, shared in the hospi- 
talities of your distinguished guest ; and I am indebted to 
him, — it is not egotism that prompts me to say it, but a 
desire to add my tribute to the chaplet of honor with 
which you have crowned him to-day, — I am indebted to 
him, I say, for much of my enjoyment in the Old World. 
I reached London a stranger to him, having no letter of in- 
troduction to him, not even a letter of credit. [Laughter.] 
He sought me out, and invited me to one of those almost 
regal entertainments ; and the hours that I spent in the 
society gathered by him on that delightfol occasion are 
among the most pleasant reminiscences of my foreign tour. 
I well remember the society brought together on that 
occasion. The noble sons and lovely daughters of Eng- 
land came, honoring by their presence your fellow-citizen, 
who had honored them by his invitation ; and they felt it 
so : and there I listened to words of friendship towards 
the American nation which would make every heart in 

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this assembly throb with delight if they could hear them, 
as I heard them, spoken by the most eloquent lips of 

" I think, Mr. President, if there is any Englishman 
here present, he must have felt that the sentiment of 
friendship for that great and illustrious nation — the 
foremost nation in modem civilization, the great bulwark 
of liberty, whose language, as has been well and truly 
said by one of their great writers, is the only language 
upon the face of the earth in which the accents of freedom 
can be uttered — is congenial to the American heart ; he 
must have felt that the words of good will so often uttered 
on those festive occasions of which Mr. Peabody was the 
originator have found a ready response from the people 
of this country, as proved by this multitudinous assembly. 
And I must confess, republican as I am, ultra republican 
as I am [cheers], that my heart beat quicker when the 
mention of the royal lady of England was received with 
three hearty cheers from this republican assembly; for 
that sovereign lady illustrates, in her high position, all 
those domestic and household virtues, which, while they 
give dignity to the lowliest position, are the ornament and 
the pride of the most exalted. It is true, we owe her no 
political allegiance; but the virtues of the Queen of 
England, while they secure to her the love and loyalty of 
her subjects, entitle her to the willing fealty of every hon- 
orable man in republican America." [Loud cheers.] 

"The Advertiser" also remarks that "it was in the 

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banking-business that the bulk of the huge fortune was 
made. Mr. Peabody had a strong faith in American 
securities. He dealt in them largely and confidently. 
That keen business-instinct, indescribable, unacquirable, 
inborn as much as the power of poetry or of art, secured 
for him the happy result of a wise selection among invest- 
ments which certainly were not universally perfect. The 
result was, that his wealth, not previously remarkable, 
began to roll up rapidly and enormously. He remained a 
shrewd business-man to the end of his long life. Munifi- 
cently as he gave away, he never, in the strict matter of 
making money, grew lax or unbusiness-like. Very prop- 
erly, he kept the two functions entirely distinct, and did 
not confound liberal generosity with merchant-like deal- 
ing. In private life, his habits were little changed by the 
acquisition of riches. Frugal from necessity in early life, 
frugal he remained, so far as the gratification of his own 
tastes was concerned, to the end. But hij hospitality was 
exceptionally wide-spread and sumptuous, and such as is 
always considered to be needful and becoming' in the 
complete picture of the ideal * merchant-prince.' Men 
who spent lavishly for luxuries and show often pointed 
with something like a sneer at his modest bachelor quar- 
ters. But while he was sheltering the poor of a great 
kingdom, and educating the ignorant in a mighty republic, 
he could afford to let the cavillers have their say. He 
was content to find his chief and quiet pleasure at his 
favorite game of whist, in congenial company. . . • 

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" Though the temptations of business, and perhaps of 
taste, induced Mr. Peabody to expatriate himself for so 
many years, it is needless to say that he never ceased to 
be at heart an American citizen. Unlike most men who 
belong to two countries, he slighted neither for the other, 
but distributed his affections and his money between them 
in a manner which left room for nothing but gratitude on 
the part of each. Americans will long remember and 
long miss his hearty friendship in a foreign land." 

According to " The Boston Transcript," " When Mr. 
Peabody first resided in London, he lived very frugally ; 
taking breakfast at his lodgings, and diiyng at a club-house. 
His personal expenses for ten years did not average six 
hundred pounds per annum. 

"He had a very retentive memory, particulariy in 
regard to names and places. He would give the most 
minute particulars of events that occurred between fifty 
and sixty years ago. 

" He first appeared in print as the champion of Ameri- 
can credit in England at the time our State securities 
were depressed on account of the non-payment of interest 
by Pennsylvania. 

" He was very fond of singing ; Scottish songs being his 

" He was a good talker : at the table, few men were his 
equals. His idea of a pleasant dinner-party was where 
there was a great deal of talk, and he could take the lead 
in conversation. 


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" The favorite games of Mr. Peabddy were bacKgan^ 
mon after dinner, and whist in the evening. He was as 
fond of the latter, and as rigorous a player, as Charles 
Lamb's friend, Sarah Battle, who neither gave nor took 

At the time of the Great Exhibition of 1851, in Eng- 
land, Mr. Peabody redeemed the good name of his coun- 
trymen by promptly supplying a sum of fifteen thousand 
dollars, which was greatly needed, in order to place in 
suitable array the contributions to the World's Fair from 
America, and to save his native country from appearing 
unworthy of its pjiblic and private enterprise. On the 
occasion of Mr. Peabody 's public reception by his native 
town, in 1856, Hon. Edward Everett thus eloquently al- 
luded to this generous deed of the London banker ; saying, 
"We are bound as Americans, on this occasion particularly, 
to remember the very important services rendered by your 
guest to his countrymen who went to England in 1851 
with specimens of the products and arts of this country 
to be exhibited at the Crystal Palace. In most, perhaps in 
all other countries, this exhibition had been a government 
affair. Commissioners were appointed by authority to 
protect the interests of the exhibiters ; and, what was more 
important, appropriations of money were made to defray 
tlieir expenses. No appropriations were made by Con- 
gress. Our exhibiters arrived friendless, some of them 
penniless, in the great commercial Babel of the world. 
They found the portion of the Crystal Palace assigned to 


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our country unprepared for the specimens of art and 
industry which they had brought with them; naked 
and unadorned by the side of the neighboring arcades and 
galleries fitted up with elegance and splendor by the rich* 
est governments in Europe. The English press began to 
launch its too ready sarcasms at the sorry appearance 
which Brother Jonathan seemed likely to make; and 
all the exhibiters &om this country, and all who felt an 
interest in their success, were disheartened. At this 
critical moment, our fiiend stepped forward. He did 
what Congress should have done. By liberal advances on 
his part, the American department was fitted up ; and 
day after day, as some new product of American ingenuity 
and taste was added to the list, — McCormick's reaper, 
Colt's revolver, Powers's Greek slave, Hobbs's unpickable 
lock. Hoe's wonderful printing-presses, and Bond's more 
wonderful spring governor, — it began to be suspected 
that Brother Jonathan was not quite so much of a sim- 
pleton as had been thought. He had contributed his full 
share, if not to the splendor, at least to the utilities, of 
the exhibition. In fact, the leading journal at London, 
with a magnanimity which did it honor, admitted that 
England had derived more real benefit &om the t;on- 
tributions of the United States than from those of any 
other country.'* 


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Help to find Sir John Franklin. — Donation to Danvers. — The Peabodj 
Institute in Peabodj. — The Public Reception of the Benefactor. 

" For his boimtyi 
There was no winter int : an autumn twas. 
That grew the more by reaping." 

Shakspeabe : Antony and Cleopatra, 

" He that giveth, let him do it with simpUcity."— Bom. zii. 8. 

?N 1852, Mr. Peabody again showed himself a 
generous giver to good and nohle objects. 
That friend of humanity in America, Henry 
Grinnell, had generously offered a vessel owned 
by himself, — " The Advance," — for a second expedition, 
under the brave and dauntless Dr. Kane, to the Arctic 
seas, in search of poor lost Sir John Franklin. Sympa- 
thizing with the pluck and energy and perseverance of the 
American explorer, and also with the deep sorrow of the 
devoted Lady Franklin and other English friends, who 
mourned the unexplained delay of the intrepid adventurer, 
Mr. Peabody felt it to be his privilege to aid in the matter. 


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According to " The Boston Transcript," " a private indi- 
vidual offered a vessel for the purpose, on condition that 
Congress should make a grant of money in aid of the ex- 
pedition; and when time ran on, and Congress seemed 
inclined to do nothing in the matter, Mr, Peabody pro- 
vided the means of equipping ' The Advance.' By this 
timely aid. Dr. Kane was enabled to carry out his enter- 
prise ; and the name of ' Peabody Land ' will be found 
marked upon part of the northern shores which that gal- 
lant discoverer then visited." 

In the month of June, 1852, the town of Danvers held 
its centennial celebration, and Mr. Peabody was invited to 
be present. 

" Although Mr. Peabody had long been absent, yet the 
many proofs by which he had, in previous instances, 
evinced his regard for the place of his birth, gave him 
peculiar claims to be included among the invited guests. 
Accordingly, an invitation was early forwarded to him, by 
the committee of the town, to be present at that festival, 
with a request, that, if unable to ^ttend, he would signify- 
by letter his interest in the occasion. In his reply, after 
stating that his engagements would allow him to comply 
only with the latter part of the request, he said, * I enclose 
a sentiment, which I ask may remain sealed till this letter 
is read on the day of celebration, according to the direc- 
tion on the envelope.' 



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" The indorsement on the envelope of the sealed packet 
was as follows : — 

*' * The seal of this is not to be broken till the toasts are 
being proposed by the chairman, at the dinner, 16th June, 
at Dan vers, in commemoration of the one hundredth year 
since its severance from Salem. It contains a sentiment 
for the occasion from George Peabody of London.' 

** In obedience to the above direction, at the proper mo- 
ment the reading of the communication was called for ; 
and the following was received by the delighted audience 
with loud acclamations : — 

" ' By George Peabody of London : — 

" ' Education, — A debt dm from present to future gen- 

" ' In acknowledgment of the payment of that debt by 
the generation which preceded me in my native town of 
Danvers, and to aid in its prompt fixture discharge, I give 
to the inhabitants of that town the sum of twenty thou- 
sand DOLLARS for the promotion of knowledge and moral- 
ity among them. ^ 

" ' I beg to remark, that the subject of making a gift to 
my native town has for some years occupied my mind ; 
and I avail myself of your present interesting festival to 
make the communication, in the hope that it will add to 
the pleasures of the day. 

" ' I annex to the gift such conditions only as I deem 
necessary for its preservation, and the accomplishment of 


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the purposes before named. The conditions are, that the 
legal voters of the town, at a meeting to be held at a con- 
venient time after the 16th June, shall accept the gift, and 
shall elect a committee of not less than twelve persons, to 
receive and have charge of the same, for the purpose of 
establishing a lyceum for the delivery of lectures upon 
such subjects as may be designated by a committee of the 
town, free to all the inhabitants, under such rules Is said 
committee may from time to time enact; and that a 
library shall be obtained, which shall also be free to the 
inhabitants, under the direction of the committee. 

** ^ That a suitable building for the use of the lyceum 
shall be erected, at a cost, including the land, fixtures, iur- 
niture, &c., not exceeding seven thousand dollars; and 
shall be located within one-third of a mile of the Presby- 
terian Meeting-House, occupying the spot of that formerly 
under the pastoral care of the Rev. Mr. Walker, in tlie 
south parish of Danvers. 

*^ * That ten thousand dollars of this gift shall be in- 
vested by the town's committee in undoubted securities, 
as a permanent ftmd ; the interest arising therefrom to be 
expended in support of the lyceum. 

^^^In all other respects, I leave the disposition of the 
affiurs of the lyceum to the inhabitants of Danvers, — 
merely suggesting that it might be advisable for them, by 
their own act, to exclude sectarian theology and political 
discussions forever from the walls of the institution. 

^^ ' I will make one request of the committee ; which is. 


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if they see no objection, and my venerable friend, Capt. 
Sylvester Proctor, should be living, that he be selected to 
lay the corner-stone of the lyceum building. 
" * Respectfully yours, 

" ' George Peabodt.' " 

The citizens of Danvers accepted the trust, in a proper 
manner expressing then* gratitude for the gift. 

"Mr. Peabody afterwards added ten thousand dol- 
lars to his first donation ; the whole to be so expended, 
that seventeen thousand dollars should be appropriated for 
the land and building, three thousand to the purchase of 
books as the foundation of a library, and ten thousand to 
remain as a permanent ftmd. Further donations have 
since been received, swelling the aggregate of Mr. Pea- 
body's gifts to the Institute to an amount exceeding fifty 

thousand DOLLARS." 

This was the amount in 1856, when the memorial vol- 
ume was written. Since then, the gifts to Danvers have 
increased, till now, ft is said, the Peabody Institute has 
received nearly two hundred thousand dollars from its 
generous founder. 

The memorial volume, printed to commemorate Mr. 
Peabody's reception in his native place, thus speaks of the 
edifice which bears the honored name of " Peabody Insti- 

"The difficulty of procuring a suitable lot of land 
within the prescribed distance from the meeting-house 


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'•* .•• 


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caused some delay in the erection of the building.' But 
at length a site was selected on Main Street ; and the cor- 
ner-stone of the new structure was laid, with appropriate 
ceremonies, on the 20th of August, 1853 ; Hon. Abbott 
Lawrence, an intimate friend of Mr. Peabody, performing 
the part assigned to Capt. Sylvester Proctor, who had 
deceased. The building was finished in the course of the 
following year, and dedicated to its future uses on the 29th 
of September, 1854. Hon. Rufus Choate delivered an 
eloquent address on that occasion. 

" It is a stately edifice, eighty-two feet in length by 
fifty in breadth, built of brick, and ornamented with brown 
Connecticut freestone. On its front, a slab of freestone 
bears the words, Peabody Institute, in relief. The 
lecture -hall, occupying the whole of the upper story, 
is finished with neatness and simplicity, and is furnished 
with seats for about seven hundred and fifty persons. 
Over the rostrum hangs a fiill-length portrait of Mr. Pear 
body by Healy, which has been pronounced by connois- 
seura to be a chef d^ceuvre of that artist. It was sat for 
by him at the request of the citizens of the town ; but, at 
its completion, was presented to them. The library- 
room, in the lower story, is commodiously arranged for 
Ae delivery of books. The shelves for books are placed 
around the walls of the room ; but, by the addition of al- 
coves, its capacity can be greatly increased. 

" Courses of lectures have been delivered in the lyceum- 
hall to large and attentive audiences. The situation of 


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Danvers — within an hour's ride, by railroad, of the me-, 
tropolis — is highly favorable for availing herself of the 
best talent in this field of literary labor." 

^^ In December, 1854, a donation of books was unex- 
pectedly received from Mr. Peabody; affording a new 
proof of his generosity and his continuing interest in the 
institution that bears his name. These books, in all about 
two thousand five hundred volumes, were selected by his 
order, in London, by Mr. Henry Stevens, agent of the 
Smithsonian Institute. They comprise many valuable and 
even rare works ; among which may be mentioned ' The 
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society,' and a 
complete set of ' The Gentleman's Magazine.' " 

At the laying of the corner-stone of this noble edifice, 
which has since been enlarged and made more elegant in 
appearance, Hon. Alfred A. Abbott reminded the hearers, 
" how, at the early age of eleven years, in the humble 
capacity of a grocer's boy, in a shop hard by where we 
now stand, he commenced his life of earnest but successful 
toil; how, four years after, having sought promotion in 
another sphere, he found himself, by his fiither's death and 
his brother's misfortunes, an orphan, without means, with- 
out employment, without friends, and all in the most 
gloomy times; but how, buoyed up by firm resolve and 
a high endeavor, he turned his back upon the endeared 
but now desolate scenes of his boyhood, and sought under 
a southern sun those smiles of fortune denied him by the 
frowning skies of his northern home ; how, there in George- 


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town, in the District of Columbia, he became, while not yet 
nineteen years old, — such was his capacity and fidelity, — 
partner in a respectable firm, which afterwards removed to 
Baltimore, and had branches established in two or three of 
our principal cities ; and how, at length become the head 
of his house, and having crossed and recrossed the ocean 
many times in the transaction of his foreign business, he 
at last, in 1847, established himself permanently in Lon- 
don, having now created an immense business, and amassed 
a princely fortune ; how, through all this career from pov- 
erty to opulence, that simple heart and kindly nature, 
which in youth divided with his orphan brothers and sis- 
ters the scanty earnings of his toil, and in later and more 
prosperous days expanded in social amenities and timely 
charities to his countrymen in a strange layd, — how this 
true nature remained ever the same, untainted by that 
proud success which too often corrupts, mellowed only by 
those growing years which seldom fail to blunt our finer 
sensibilities; and, lastly, how, while with a private life 
above reproach, and a professional character distinguished 
eyen among the merchant-princes of ]£ngland, he had 
come to be pointed out, both at home and abroad, as the 
model of a man and a merchant ; how, all this time, his 
heart fondly turned to his native country ; and how, true 
to her interests and her honor, in the darkest hour of her 
adversity, he stood up manfully in her defence, and, 
throwing patriotism, energy, and capital into the breach, 
sustained her credit, vindicated her good name, and won 


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the gratitude • and received the thanks of sovereign 

The Hon. Abbott Lawrence laid the comer-stone, pre- 
viously saying, " I came here as the representative of Mr. 
George Peabody ; and upon that it may generally be asked 
how Mr. Peabody achieved so much good for his country. 
I know him well. I have known him for many years. I 
have seen him day by day, month after month, and year 
after year ; and, for the benefit of the younger portions of 
this audience, I will tell you how he has achieved all that 
has been so eloquently portrayed by the honorable gentle- 
man who preceded me. In the first place. Nature gave 
him a good constitution and a sound mind ; secondly, he 
is a man of indomitable moral courage ; thirdly, he has 
patience, perseverance, industry, and, above all, the strict- 
est integrity. 

"Ladies and gentlemen, I know him well: and I can. 
say here, in the face of this summer's sun and this audi- 
ence, that I deem Mr. George Peabody the very soul of 
honor ; and that is the foundation of his success. Those 
traits of character I have mentioned — this integrity of 
purpose and determination — have given him all the suc- 
cess he has achieved." 

When the beautiftil edifice was dedicated, the eloquent 
Rufus Choate, himself an Essex-County boy, delivered the 
address. After saying that the community was happy in 
such educational provisions, he went on to say, — 

" Happy, almost above all, the noble giver whoge heart 


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is large enough to pay of the abondance which crowns his 
Hf% — to pay out of his single means — the whole debt this 
generation owes the future. I honor and loye him : not 
merely that his energy, sense, and integrity have raised 
him from a poor boy, waiting in that shop yonder, to 
be a guest, as Curran gracefully expressed it, at the table 
of princes, to spread a table for the entertainment of 
princes ; not merely because the brilliant professional career 
which has given him a position so commanding in the mer- 
cantile and social circles of the commercial capital of the 
world has left him as completely American, the heart as 
wholly untravelled, as when he first stepped on the shore 
of England to seek his fortune, sighing to think that the 
ocean rolled between him and home ; jealous of our 
honor ; wakeful to our interests ; helping his country, not 
by swagger and vulgarity, but by recommending her 
credit ; vindicating her title to be trusted on the exchange 
of nations ; squandering himself in hospitalities to her citi- 
zens ; a man of deeds, not of words, — not for these merely 
I love and honor him ; but because his nature is afiection- 
ate and unsophisticated still ; because his memory comes 
over so lovingly to this sweet Argos ; to the schoolroom 
of his childhood ; to the old shop and kind master, and the 
graves of his father and mother ; and because he has had 
the sagacity and the character to indulge these unextin- 
guished afiections in a gift, not of vanity and ostentation, 
but of supreme and durable utility. With how true and 
rational a satisfaction might he permit one part of the 


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charitable rich man's epitaph to be written on his grave* 
stone : ' What I spent, I had ; what I kept, I I^^st ; 
what I gave away remains with me ' 1 " 

On the ninth day of October, 1866, Mr, Peabody was 
publicly received in his native town. It was a grand ova- 
tion. Willing hearts, heads, and hands planned and exe- 
cuted the various details. It was no forced greeting in 
solemn mockery of the real public sentiment, but a genu- 
ine expression of gratitude and respect. There was a 
grand procession, in which the schools formed a prominent 
part ; an address of welcome in behalf of the citizens, by 
Hon. Alfred A. Abbott ; a public dinner and an evening 
levee, for the purpose of affording opportunity to many of 
a personal introduction to the man whom Danvers de- 
lighted to honor. The day was lovely, the route filled 
with interested spectators, the houses and streets finely' 
decorated, and the welcome entire. 

Mr. Peabody hJd been offered public honors by the citi- 
zens of other places, but wpuld accept none save that invi- 
tation which came from his native town. His admirable 
reply to the New- York deputation is here inserted, that 
bis own pen may tell with what spirit he came back to the 
land of his birth : — 

*< Newport, Monday, Sept. 22, 1866. 

" Gentlemen, — Your letter of the 16th inst. is before 
me. Allow me to say, without affectation, that no one 
can be more surprised than myself at the cordial welcome 
which you extend to me. Had my commercial and social 


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life in London produced even half the results with which 
your kindness endows it, I should esteem myself more than 
repaid for all labors there by such a letter, subscribed as it 
is by many old and dear friends, by gentlemen whose names 
in letters are co-extensive with the knowledge of our own 
language, and by merchants whose enterprise has carried 
the flag of our country into every sea that commerce 

" If, during my long residence in Lond(m, the commer- 
cial character and honor of our countrymen have stood 
upon an elevated position, it has not been the result of my 
humble efforts. In common with many of you, I have 
tried to do my part in accomplishing these ends. That 
the American name now stands where it does in the com- 
mercial world, is mainly owing to her merchants at home, 
who have extended her commerce till its tonnage equals 
that of any other nation ; who have drawn to her shores 
the wealth of other lands ; under whose directions the fer- 
tile fields of the interior have been made accessible and 
peopled ; and whose fidelity to their engagements has be- 
come proverbial throughout the world. 

" It has been my pleasure, during a long residence in 
London, to renew many old friendships, and to form many 
new acquaintances, among my countrymen and country- 
women ; and it has been my good fortune to be permitted 
to cultivate these in social life, where I have endeavored 
as much as possible to bring my British and American 
friends together. I believed, that, by so doing, I should, in 


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my humble way, assist to remove any prejudices, to soften 
political asperities, and to promote feelings of good will and 
fraternity between the two countries. It gives me great 
pleasure to be assured that my countrymen at home have 
sympathized in these objects, and have believed that they are 
partially accomplished. The recent temporary estrange- 
ment between the two governments served to demonstrate 
how deep and cordial is the alliance between the interests 
and the sympathies of the two peoples. By aiding to 
make individuals of the two nations known to each other, 
I supposed that I was contributing my mite towards the 
most solid and sure foundation of peace and good will 
between them ; and, while the, power remains to me, I shall 
contiime in a course which you approve. 

" In returning to my native land, after an absence of 
twenty years, I had several objects in view. I wished 
once more to see the land of my birth and early youth, 
and the surviving members of my family ; once more to 
greet my friends in every part of the country ; and to see 
and know the new generations that have come up since I 
left, and who are to be their successors. I also desired to 
visit every section of the Union, and to witness with my 
own eyes the evidences at home of the prosperity of which 
I have seen abundant proofs abroad. The twenty years 
that have elapsed since my last visit are the most impor- 
tant twenty years in the commercial history of America. 
Like Rip Van Winkle, I am almost appalled at the won- 
derful changes that already meet my eyes. Although, as 


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you well know, I have not slumbered meanwhile in a Sleepy- 
Hollow, I stand amazed at the energy and activity which 
characterize your city. It is my wish and purpose to re- 
main in the country long enough to understand these 
changes and their causes. 

" On mature reflection, gentlemen, I think, that, if I 
accept the hospitalities which have been tendered to me 
by yourselves and by friends in Baltimore, Philadelphia, 
Boston, and other cities, I shall very seriously interfere 
with the objects of my visit. I have, therefore, been 
obliged to come to the conclusion to refuse all invitations 
to dinner, with the single exception of my native town of 
Danvers in Massachusetts. I assure you most sincerely 
that I regret very much that my plans thus compel me to 
decline the high honor which you propose to confer upon 
me, and to deny myself the pleasure of meeting so many 
personal friends. 

" With great esteem and respect, 

" I am, gentlemen, your faithfril servant, 

"George Peabody. 

'' Messrs. Nathaniel L. & George Griswold ; Brown Brothers & Co ; 
Duncan, Sherman, & Co. ; Grinnell, Mintum, & Co. ; Gkiodhue 
& Co. ; Wetmore, Cryder, & Co. ; Spofford, Tileston, & Co. ; A. 
& A. Lawrence & Co. ; Washington Irving ; William B. Astor ; 
Daniel Lord ; George Newbold ; John J. Palmer ; WLQiam J. 
Wetmore ; Charles Augustus Davis ; E. Cunard ; and others. 

To the eloquent address of welcome Mr. Peabody made 
the following response : — 

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" Mr. Abbott and Fellow-Townsmen, — I have lis- 
tened to your eloquent words of welcome with the most 
intense emotions, and return you for them my wannest 
acknowledgments. My heart tells me that this is no 
common occasion. This vast gathering, comprising many 
old associates, their children and their grandchildren, to 
welcome me to the home of my childhood, almost unmans 
me. Though Providence has granted me an unvaried 
and unusual success in the pursuit of fortune in other 
lands, I am still in heart the* humble boy who left yonder 
unpretending dwelling many, very many years ago. 

*'I have felt it necessary to decline many proflFered hospi- 
talities : but I could not resist the impulse which prompted 
me to accept yours, and to revisit the scenes once so &mil- 
iar ; to take you again by the hand, and to tell you how it 
rejoices my heart to see you. 

" You can scarcely imagine how the changes to which 
you have referred impress me. You have yourselves 
grown up with them, and have gradually become familiar- 
ized with all ; but to me, who have been so long away, 
the effect is almost astounding. It is gratifying to find, 
however, that these transformations have gone hand in 
hand with your prosperity and improvement. 

" The solitary fields which were the scenes of my boyish 
sports now resound with the hum of busy labor ; and the 
spirit of improvement, not content with triumph on land, 
has even converted Foster's mill-pond into solid ground, 
and made it the scene of active enterprise. 


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^^Bnt time has also wrought changes of a painful nature. 
Of those I left, the old are all gone. A few of the 
middle-aged remain, but old and infirm ; while the active 
population consists almost entirely of a ngw generation. 

" I now revert to a more pleasing theme, and call your 
attention to the brightest portion of the picture of the 

^^ One of the most pleasing and touching incidents of this 
morning is the large number of scholars who have come 
forth to bid me welcome, and who now surround me. In 
addressing a few words to you, my dear young friends, I 
would bid you remember that but a few years will elapse 
before you will occupy the same position towards your 
own children which your parents now hold towards your- 
selves. The training you are now receiving is a precious 
talent, for the use or abuse of which each will, on a future 
day, be called upon to give a severe account. May you 
then be ready to render up that talent with * usury ' 1 
There is not a youth within the sound of my voice whose 
early opportunities and advantages are not very much 
greater than were my own; and I have since achieved 
nothing that is impossible to the most humble boy among 
you. I hope many a great and good man may arise from 
among the ranks of Danvers boys assembled here to-day. 
Bear in mind, however, that, to be truly great, it is not 
necessary that you should gain wealth and importance. 
Every boy may become a great man in whatever sphere 
Providence may caU him to move. 


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" Steadfast and undeviating truth, fearless and straight- 
forward integrity, and an honor ever unsullied by an 
unworthy word or action, make their possessor greater 
than worldly succjpss or prosperity. These quaUties con- 
stitute greatness : without them you will never enjoy the 
good opinion of others, or the approbation of a good 

" To my young female friends I would say. Remember 
that there have been and are great women as well as 
great men, — great in their domestic graces, as daugh- 
ters, as wives, and as mothers ; and I trust that future 
times may record many a name so distinguished, whose 
seeds of good were sown within this town. And al- 
low me to hope that my eye now rests upon some of 

" May the advice I have given you be impressed upon 
your young hearts 1 It is given with great sincerity by 
one who has had much experience in the world; and, 
although Providence has smiled upon all his labors, he has 
never ceased to feel and lament the want of that early^ 
education which is now so freely offered to each one of 
you. This is the first time we have met ; it may prove 
the last : but, while I live, I shall ever feel a warm interest 
in your welfare. God bless you all ! " 

At the dinner, there were also addresses ; among them, 
one by Henry J. Gardner, then Governor of Massachusetts. 
He said, — 


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" In response to a sentiment complimentary to Massa- 
chusetts, I am always proud to raise my voice; and, 
responsive to this allusion in honor of her institutions, I 
think to-day, in this presence, an answer may be pecu- 
liarly fitting. I have never before participated in an 
occasion of this kind. Where was" there one ? A young 
man, with no other capital, as you well said, but his hands 
and his integrity, going abroad across the waters unher- 
alded and unknown ; by his own industry and integrity 
distinguishing himself among his fellows, and, in the good 
gifts of Providence showered upon him every hour of 
every year, seeking how he might benefit his countrymen 
at home [cheers] ; rendering his name illustrious, also, for 
his princely hospitality, and his commercial house, to 
which you refer, a proverb upon the marts and commer- 
cial highways of nations, — to see such a one return, so 
honored and so beloved, to the scene of his birth, is indeed 
a new and interesting event. 

" But I cannot, I will not, detain you. I cannot, how- 
ever, but refer to one circumstance in the career of your 
distinguished guest, which makes me peculiarly proud, 
and feel deeply honored now to address him. He is a 
merchant : he belongs to that fraternity to which my own 
humble life and services have been devoted. It has not 
the glittering attraction of the warrior, whose fame can be 
carved out by his sword upon the battle-field ; it has not, 
ladies and gentlemen, that attraction which he who 
spreads abroad the glad tidings to all nations finds in his 

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profession ; it has not the attraction of legal or of politi- 
cal excitement ; it has not, necessarily, — though there 
are many exceptions, — it has not, I say, necessarily, that 
connection with the cultivation of the intellect, the 
improvement of the mind, which the learned professions, 
so called, always require : but, sir, you and I know it 
has its pride and its value. There must be patient atten- 
tion to petty details, to exacting, minute transactions ; 
there must be great and carefiil and prudent attention 
paid to them all, hour after hour, and day after day : but, 
when the successful result is reached, there is a compen- 
sation in that very success itself, and high honor in the 
means by which it has been attained. 

" And, sir, in your career there is much that the young 
merchants of Massachusetts can profit by. In the first 
place, they can take a lesson from that integrity of pur- 
pose of which we all to-day have read upon banner, upon 
house, upon staff, and upon the faces and in the words of 
our citizens. We can see, too, in your career, — where 
the siren Hope in early days beckoned you where deeper 
waters ran, and pointed to the furled sail at the mast- 
head, — how you stood resolutely on in your own path of 
duty, and defied the siren-song. There is in that a lesson 
for the young merchants of Massachusetts to remember. 

*' But ftirther, beyond and above all this, when Provi- 
dence in his mercy has filled your treasury to overflowing, 
when you have reached the goal of all your anticipations, 


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— all you ever could have hoped or desired, — ay, there is 
a lesson, my friends, for the young and the old merchants 
all to bear in mind as to the manner in which those 
rich rewards have been distributed." [Loud cheers.] 

The Hon. Edward Everett also spoke eloquently, and, 
among other true words, said, — 

"Mr. Prbbident, — I suppose you have called upon 
me to respond to this interesting toast chiefly because I 
filled, a few years ago, a place abroad which made me in 
some degree the associate of your distinguished guest in 
the kindly office of promoting good will between the two 
great branches of the Anglo-Saxon or Anglo-Norman 
race (for I do not think it matters much by which name 
you call it) — 'the fair mother and the fairer daughter ' 
— to which the toast alludes. At all events, I had much 
opportunity, during my residence in England, to witness 
the honorable position of Mr. Peabody in the commercial 
and social circles of London; his efforts to make the 
citizens of the two countries favorably known to each 
other; and, generally, that course of life and conduct 
which has contributed to procure him the well-deserved 
honors of this day, and which shows that he fiilly enters 
into the spirit of the sentiment just propounded from the 

** Your quiet village, my friends, has not gone forth in 
eager throngs to meet the successful financier ; the youth- 


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fill voices to which we listened with such pleasure in the 
morning have Hot been attuned to sing the praises of the 
prosperous banker. No : it is the fellow-citizen, who, fi-om 
the arcades of the London exchange, laid up treasure in 
the hearts of his countrymen; the true patriot, who, 
amidst the splendors of the Old World's capital, said in his 
heart, * K I forget thee, O Jerusalem ! let my right hand 
forget her cunning ; if I do not remember thee, let my 
tongue cleave to the rooJF of my mouth.' It is the dutiful 
and grateful child and benefactor of old Danvers whom 
you welcome back to his home. 

" Yes, sir ; and the property you have invested in yon- 
der simple edifice, and in providing the means of innocent 
occupation for hours of leisure, — of instructing the minds 
and forming the intellectual character, not merely of the 
generation now rising, but of that which shall take their 
places when* the heads of those dear children who so 
lately passed in happy review before you shall be as gray 
as mine, and of others, still more distant, who shall plant 
kind flowers on our graves, — it is the property you have 
laid up in this investment which will embalm your name 
in the blessings of posterity, when granite and marble 
shall crumble to dust. Moth and rust shall not corrupt 
it : they might as easily corrupt the pure white portals of 
the heavenly city, where ' every several gate is of one 
pearl.' Thieves shall not break through and steal it : they 
might as easily break through the vaulted sky, and steal 
the brightest star in the firmament." 


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GREAT ANI> QOOiytoTS. : r/j* t. T: JUJi: 

Mr. Everett concluded by playfiilly referring to the sen- 
timent sent by Mr. Peabody to the centennial assembly, in 
these words : " Now, we all know, that, on an occasion 
of this kind, a loose slip of paper, such as a sentiment is 
apt to be written on, is in danger of being lost : a puff of 
air is enough to blow it away. Accordingly, just by way 
of paper-weight, — just to keep the toast safe on the table, 
and also to illustrate his view of this new way of paying 
old debts, — Mr. Peabody laid down twenty thousand dol- 
lars on the top of his sentiment ; and, for the sake of still 
greater security, has since added about as much more. 
Hence it has come to pass that this excellent sentiment 
has sunk deep into the minds of our Dan vers fiiends, and 
has, I suspect, mainly contributed to the honors and pleas- 
ures of this day. 

" But I have occupied, Mr. President, much more than 
my share of your time ; and, on taking my seat, I will 
only congratulate you on this joyfiil occasion, as I con- 
gratulate our friend and guest at having had it in his 
power to surround himself with so many smiling faces and 
warm hearts." 

Other excellent speeches and many good letters also 
marked this pleasant occasion; but space forbids further 
reference to them. Are they not all chronicled finely in 
the memorial volume published by order of the committee 
of arrangements ? 


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• • • •• 

• •• ••• ••• ••• • • • 

:.! -.!• . .; : • •• 

• • • • ••• 

•- •• 



The Donation to Thetford, Vt. — Grandfather Dodge. — The Wood- 
Sawing Story. 

** What you deidre of him, he partly begs 
To be desired to give. It much would please him, 
That of his fortunes you would make a staff 
To lean upon.'' — Shakspeare : Antonif a/nd Cleopatra. 

" Give, and it shall be glyen."~LDKE vi. 88. 

\0 a communication addressed to the tnistees of 

the Peabody Library at Thetford^ Vt., the 

Rev. A. T. Deming, Chairman of the Board, 

very kindly responded as follows : — 

" We have, as yet, no printed account of Mr. Peabody's 

gift; though we hope to have one soon in connection with 

the printed catalogue. 

"The following embraces, I think, the material facts 
which you desire. 

" During the fall of 1866, Mr. Peabody, while visiting 
• friends here, expressed his desire to do something in be- 


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half of the place. The citizens 'assembled Aug. 6, 1866, 
and passed the following resolutions : — 

*' ^Jtesolved^ That we most gratefully appreciate the 
benevolence of Mr. George Peabody, and do extend to 
him our hearty thanks for the very generous and munifi- 
cent gift which he proposes to make us for the purpose of 
a village library ; and will most cheerftilly carry out the 
plan he presents in establishing it; and, in accordance 
therewith, have elected Dr. H. H. Niles and Isaiah Co- 
bum as trustees, to act with those already chosen by him. 

" ^Mesolvedy That the Ubrary shall take the name of its 
munificent foimder, and be called " The Peabody Library." 

" ^jResolvedy That Rev. Charles Scott be appointed a 
committee to present the above resolutions to the donor, 
and request him to make such conditions and regulations 
respecting said ftmd as he may deem proper.' 

" The resolutions were accordingly forwarded, and the 
following response from Mr. Peabody received : — 

" * Geoboetowk, September, 1866. 
••'To Rev. C. Scott, Chairman of Peabody-Library Committee, 
Post Mills, Vt 

" ^Dear /Sir, — I have to acknowledge the receipt from 
you of the resolutions of the citizens of Post Mills in 
regard to my proposed gift of a library to that village; 
and, in accordance with the desire therein expressed, I beg 
to state my wishes in regard to the management of the 


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" ' Of the f 5,000 whidi I proposed giving for the pur- 
pose mentioned, I have placed f 1,500 in the hands of 
Samuel T. Dana, Esq., of the firm of Dana &.Co., South 
Market Street, Boston, subject to your order when money 
shall from time to time be required for building-purposes 
or for the purchase of books ; he allowing you interest at 
the rate of five per cent per annum in account. 

'' ' For f 1,500 of the remainder, I have employed Mr. 
H. G. Somerby of London (a friend who has bought 
largely for me for other libraries) to purchase standard 
and useful books as the foundation of your library ; and I 
am sure they will prove cheaper and better than we could 
get them in this country. I think they will be here by 
the first of January next. You can, therefore, go on with 
your building accordingly. 

" ' With the remaining $2,000 I have purchased two 
gold-bearing coupon-bonds of the United States, of the 
denomination of $1,000, numbers 33,194 and 60,182,— 
popularly called five-forties. These I bought for you on 
my return, and they are now worth nearly seventy dollars 
over cost ; the two bonds being in the hands of S. T. 
Dana, who holds them for your account. 

" ' It is my wish, and a condition of my gift, that this 
sum of $2,000 shall always remain and be kept perma- 
nently invested by the trustees or library committee in 
United-States bonds or other safe securities as a library- 
ftmd, the income of which shall be applied to the purchase 
of books or other wants of the library, as then* discretion 
may determine. 

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** ' It is my wish that the privileges of the library shall 
bo enjoyed (under such restrictions, as to suitable age or 
character, as may from time to time be made by the trus- 
tees, or committee having it in charge) by the inhabitants 
of the two school-districts in the town of Thetford, which 
are comprised in the village of Post Mills ; and I would 
suggest that these privileges may be extended in particular 
cases, at the discretion of the library-officers, to others, who, 
though not within the above limits, may reside near them, 
and may be in the habit of doing business at the village 
of P-ost Mills. • 

" ' And wishing, as I have ever done, to encourage and 
cherish a spirit of harmony and good will among all, it is 
my desire that at no time shall any preference or distinc- 
tion be made in the selection of books, or in any matter 
connected with the library, on account of any political 
party or religious sect ; and it is my wish, that, whenever 
a minister or ministers of the gospel are or may be settled 
in Post Mills Village, he or they may be upon the library 

" * The motive which has most strongly impelled me to 
make this gift is my sense of gratitude for kindness shown 
me in my early life by my late revered uncle, Elipxialet 
Dodge, and his excellent wife, who still lives in your vil- 
lage. It is therefore my desire that there shall always be 
three of their descendants, and bearing their .name (so long 
as there shall remain so many of them inhabitants of Post 
Mills Village), among the trustees of the library, sanc- 
tioned by yourself ^d others. ^ig ,,ed by Google 


" * I have selected as a site for the library-building a lot 
of land which has been given for the purpose by Harv*y 
Dodge, Esq., and which appears to me to be central, and 
eminently suitable for the location. 

" * I will send you Mr. Dana's letter of acknowledgment 
for the two bonds, and the money, in a few days. 
" ' I am, with great respect, 

** ' Your obedient servant, 

"* George Peabody.' 

** Sept. 15, a meeting of the inhabitants of the village 
was held, the above letter of Mr. Peabody read, and a 
series of resolutions passed unanimously. 

" The resolutions provided for the appointment of offi- 
cers, and otherwise carrying out the wishes expressed in 
the preceding letter. 

" March 1, 1867, Mr. Peabody penned the following : — 

" *91 Lafayette Stbeet, Salem, Mass., March 1, 1867. 

*' * Dtar Sir^ — Understanding from your letter to me, 

received to-day, that your library-building will require, to 

complete it, $500 in addition to the sum allowed for that 

♦purpose from the $5,000 already given, I enclose a check 

on New York for the same, payable to your order. 

44 4 Yery respectfully yours, 

"'George Peabody. 
«'Mr. Wm. DoDOB.' 

"Aug. 17, 1869, a ftdl-sized portrait of Mr. Pea- 

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body was received at the library. A series of resolutions 
passed by the trustees upon its reception was published in 
* The Vermont Chronicle,' tosstbly you have seen them. 
" On receiving intelligence of Mr. Peabody's death, the 
trustees and friends of the library passed the following tes- 
timonial of respect to his memory : — 

** * God, in his providence, having removed by death 
Mr. George Peabody, the founder of this library ; and it 
being eminently fitting that some record should be made 
of our appreciation of his excellences, and our gratefiil 
sense of his benefactions : therefore 

" ^Jltesolved^ That we bow in humble submission to the 
all-wise providence of God in the removal of this our 
friend and bene&ctor ; remembering that to this same all- 
wise and gracious providence Mr. Peabody was accus- 
tomed to attribute all the honor of what he was enabled 
to become and to accomplish. 

" ^Resolved^ That we record, with thankfulness to the 
Father of all mercies, our high appreciation of the charac- 
ter and life of Mr. Peabody, our high estimate of his pre- 
eminent financial abilities, of his sterling integrity, and of 
his republicai) simplicity, unshaken by the applause of the 
multitude or the attentions of the great. 

" ^ Resolved^ That, with a still deeper gratitude, we re- 
cord our high sense of the value of his work as a philan- 
thropist, in ministering with princely munificence to the 
education of the ignorant, and to the comfort and eleva- 


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tion of the poor ; and this both in the land of his adoption 
and in his native land, elsewhere and in this community. 

" ^Hesolved^ That, with eqiial gratitude, we record his 
earnest eflForts to heal the wounds of war and spread the 
arts of peace in the two leading nations of the earth ; and 
express the hope that his name, now received as a heritage 
by England and America, may form another strand in the 
cord binding these 'great powers together in amity. 

" ^Meaolved^ That, as trustees and fidends of this library, 
we pledge ourselves anew to carry out the wishes of the 
benevolent donor, and to hold up for imitation before us, 
and before the minds of the people of this community, his 
commendable traits of character and of life.' " 

A writer in " The Boston Traveller " says, concerning 
the donation to Thetford, "All the newspaper biogra- 
phies of the great philanthropist state, that, at the age of 
fifteen, he spent a year with his grandfather at Post Mills 
Village, Thetford, Vt. ; and all lists of his benefactions 
mention his gift of some thousands of dollars for a library 
in that village. This gift was made while on a visit to his 
relatives there, during his last visit but one to his native 
country. Perhaps some things which I happen to know 
about the grandfather and family and residence may in- 
terest some of your readers. 

" Post Mills is a little village in the north-west corner of 
Thetford, containing, at the time ^f George's visit, a grist- 
mill and saw-mill, a schoolhouse, one or two variety-stores, 


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a blacksmith's shop, a tavern, and probably a yoang phy- 
sician ; though Dr. Niles may have settled there a year or 
two later. The rest of the people were farmers of mod- 
erate means : some of whom, however, occasionally made 
shoes or put up bams for their neighbors. The nearest 
house of worship was five miles south, on Thetford Hill, 
where lived the Rev. Asa Burton, D.D., well known 
throughout New England as a teacher in theology, and as 
the great promulgator and defender of the ' Taste Scheme.' 
Jeremial^ Dodge, George's grandfather, lived in a small, 
neat, white, two-story house, a little out of the village, 
on the north side of the road leading east to the Connec- 
ticut River, and Oxford, N.H. His son Eliphalet lived 
a few rods farther east, on the south side of the road, in a 
one-story farmhouse, impainted, unless it had once been 
slightly tinged with Spanish brown. Their farm was 
almost wholly on the south side of the road. I do not 
know its exact size ; probably one hundred acres or more : 
much of it, around the houses, beautifully level, and rea- 
sonably fertile. He had a large family of boys and girls, 
by whose help the labor of the farm was done. 

^' Another son, Daniel, was a ^ master mariner,' and 
lived with his father when at home. He commanded a 
ship which sailed from New York for Canton, with orders 
to trade between Canton and Acheen in Sumatra three 
years, and then load at Canton and return. Before the 
three years had quite expired, he inferred from the news- 
papers that war was imminent between the United States 


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and England, — the war of 1812. He therefore loaded 
and returned to New York as quickly as possible ; arriving 
just in season to escape capture by the first British squad- 
ron sent to blockade the coast. As his trips to Acheen 
had been successful, and as the price of China goods had 
risen, and continued to rise, on account of the war, the 
voyage proved very profitable to the owners. 

"Jeremiah Dodge, when I first knew him, some ten 
years afterwards, was a white-headed old man, too feeble, 
from age, for the severe labor of the farm, but still erect 
in his posture, and commonly busy about, such light work 
as he needed to keep him from the tedium of idleness. 
He was a very quiet man ; never obtrusive, but always 
affable ; never excited, never talkative ; but showing, when 
occasion called for it, — which was not often, — a keen, 
quiet wit, which raised a smile among the hearers, and 
commonly closed an argument to which he had been 
listening. • His wife was several years younger, more ac- 
tive, and, though not a talkative woman, was more ready 
to engage in conversation than hfer husband. They were 
both members of the church in Thetford : but, about the 
time last mentioned, a house of worship was erected at 
Post Mills ; and they, with the other Congregationalists at 
that place, transferred their membership to the church in 
"West Fairlee, worshipping there and at Post Mills on 
alternate sabbaths. As church-members, they were too 
old to be very active ; but nobody ever accused them of 
any thing, either in the way of omission or commission, 
inconsistent with their profession. .. 

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"With such grandparents and such surroundings, 
George Peabody's year at Post Mills must have been a 
year of intense quiet, with good examples always before 
him, and good advice whenever occasion called for it ; for 
Mr. Dodge and his wife were both too shrewd to bore him 
with it needlessly. It was on his return from this visit 
that he spent a night at a tavern in Concord, N.H., and 
paid for his entertainment by sawing wood the next morn- 
ing. That, however, must have been a piece of George's 
own voluntary economy: for Jeremiah Dodge would never 
have sent his grandson home to Danvers without the 
means of procuring the necessaries of life on the way ; and 
still less, if possible, would Mrs. Dodge. Perhaps he told 
them that he did not need any help, relying on his own 
ability to make his way home, without burdening them 
with the expense; but, more probably, he just saw a 
chance for an hour or two of profitable labor, and took 
advantage of it to save money for other uses. 

" The interest with which Mr. Peabody remembered 
this visit to Post Mills is shown by his second visit so late 
in life, and his gift of a hbrary, — as large a library as 
that place needs. Of its influence on his character and 
subsequent career, of course, there is no record. Perhaps 
it was not much. But, at least, it gave him a good chance 
for quiet thinking, at an age when he needed it ; and the 
labors of the farm may have been useful both to mind and 

" It has been reposted that he wished his relatives at 


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Post Mills to give a lot for the library-building ; but tliey 
declined. It may be that he mentioned such a thing ; but 
I cannot believe that he urged it. The people oC that vil- 
lage are better able to buy a suitable building-lot than they 
are to give it ; and the building is placed in a better loca- 
tion than could be found for it anywhere on their farm. 
From the well-known character of the family, it may be 
fairly presumed that they contributed their just proportion 
for the purchase of the lot." 

Dr. Hanaford furnishes the following explanation for 
this chapter : — 

" In this connection," he says, " it is proper to refer to 
at least one of the *many erroneous statements that have 
appeared in the pubUc prints, and, of course, gained some 
credence, in reference to the early history of Mr. Peabody. 
I refer to the statement, that, in his poverty, he was obliged 
to walk from Georgetown to Thetford, and that he sawed 
wood for his lodging while spending the night at Concord, 
N.H. Perhaps there was more foundation for this report 
than for some others ; though his father was in humble cir- 
cumstances, yet not so much so as to demand such fatigues 
and privations of the lad. The foundation for some of the 
items of the report were the following : While Mr. Pea- 
body, in the latter part of his life, was spending a short 
time in that place, on one occasion, while in the company 
of Judge Upham and others, one of the company asked 
him if he had ever visited Concord before. He replied 
that he had in his early life, and that he sawed wood for 


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his lodging at the hotel. At that moment something 
occurred to divert his attention, and he foiled to explain 
the circumstances. In his boyhood, when about to visit 
friends at Thetford, a marketman who had been to the 
city, and was on his return, stopped at his fether's house, 
and a passage for the lad was engaged. In accordance 
with the custom of the times, the food was probably taken 
(sometimes, in winter, * bean-porridge,' frozen, with a 
cord in it, and hiing upon the load), demanding only lodg- 
ing for the driver, &c. The night was spent at Concord. 
The marketman arrived before night : but, as there was 
no convenient place to stop north of Concord, where the 
night would overtake him if he drove on, he decided to 
spend the night there ; which, gave the young Peabody 
some little time to look about. He soon made the ac- 
quaintance of a boy of about his own age ; and, being pas- 
sionately fond of fishing, he asked his new friend to go 
with him. But the boy, who was connected with the 
hotel, informed him that he had a stint, or ' stent ' as it 
was generally pronounced, and that he could not go until 
his task was pierformed. Accordingly, the two finished 
the labor, and then enjoyed their recreation. 

" When the man called for his bill the next morning, 
he declined to ' take any thing for that boy, as he helped 
my boy saw wood.' These circumstances, probably, gave 
rise to the whole* statement ; the principal foundation being 
that he did pay for his lodging in that manner, though the 
sawing of the wood was not intended for that purpose. 


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It is highly probable, however, that he would not have 
declined any honest employment if necessary, even in 
after-life, if the circumstances had demanded such service ; 
since he was a man who would prefer menial service to a 
dishonorable act, while he was remarkable for his industry, 
and strict and methodical attention to business." 


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Feabodj InBtitute at Baltimore. — Letter of Mr. Feabodj.^-Proceedingfl 
in Begard to the Donation. — Mr. Feabodj's Remarks. 

'* The classic days, those mothers of romance, 
That roused a nation for a womim's glance^ 
The age of mystery, with its hoarded power, 
That girt the tyrant in his storied tower, — 
Have passed and faded like a dream of yonth; 
And riper eras ask for history's truth." — Bbtaitt : T7te Ages. 

** Every man also to whom God hath given riches and wealth, and hath given him 
power to eat thereof, and to take his portion, and to rejoice in his labor, —this is the 
giftof Gh)d.»— KccLES. V. 19. 

iMONG the gifts of the man whom God greatly 
prospered after he removed to England was 
one of great value to the city of his early busi- 
ness success. After an absence of twenty 
years from his native land, Mr. Peabody fulfilled his inten- 
tion, long before formed, of founding in the city of Balti- 
more an Institute comprising a large free library, the 
periodical delivery of lectures by eminent literary and sci- 
entific men, an academy of music, a gallery of art, and. 
kindred purposes. 

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A trustee of that Institute says, " The annals of Bal- . 
timore, ever since Bakimore could boast the honors of 
a city, exhibit no act of private munificence, no act of asso- 
ciated philanthropy, nor, perhaps, even of public oflScial 
benefaction, which, in the scope of its design of usefulness 
to the community, or in the prodigal generosity of the 
means contributed to its accomplishment, may claim the 
admiration and gratitude of our citizens bj^a merit- so clear 
and unquestionable as the Institute which George Peabody 
this day offers to the city. An endowment amounting to 
a million of dollars has been appropriated to the establish- 
ment and completion of a broad and permanent structure 
of public education, which, when brought to its full devel- 
opment, is destined to become the well-spring of perennial 
and profuse bounty to many generations of the people of 
Baltimore and Maryland." 

These words of the trustee were spoken on the day 
when the Institute was inaugurated in 1866 ; and he fur- 
ther said, — 

" The stately edifice in which we are -now assembled is 
but the first flower of this noble design. A great part of 
the work is not yet even begun. When the whole is fin- 
ished, the Institute will stand in this apex of the city, the 
fairest of the buildings that adorn its triple hills. Here, 
in the centre of the most beautiful city-landscapes, its ma- 
jestic figure reposing at the foot of the matchless column 
which symbolizes the imraoYtality of the Father of our 
Union, it will be the second object to challenge the admi- 


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ration of the passing stranger ; wliilst it will ever attract 
the veneration and gratitude of our own people, and the 
thousands of their descendants, who, through the lapse of 
years, shall be privileged to frequent its halls, and draw 
from its wells of living water exhaustless draughts of wis- 
dom and virtue. Still more distinctly will it stand a cher- 
ished monument to perpetuate in the aflPection of our 
posterity the enviable memory of a patriot who ser^'ed his 
country with imperial munificence. Let us add, it will 
stand for ages as the memorial of a good man whom Prov- 
idence had blessed with a prosperity almost as lavish as 
his virtue, with a renown almost as rare as his wise appre- 
ciation of the true use of riches." 

In his first letter,' referring to his benefaction, dated 
Feb. 12, 1857, Mr. Peabody^ after expressing his wishes 
in reference to the scope and character of the Institute, 
closed with the following excellent suggestions : — 

" I must not omit to impress upon you a suggestion for 
the government of the Institute, which I deem to be of the 
highest moment, and which I desire shall be ever present 
to the view of the board of trustees. My earnest wish to 
promote at all times a spirit of harmony and good will in 
society, my aversion to intolerance, bigotry, and party 
rancor, and my enduring respect and love for the happy 
institutions of our prosperous republic, impel me to express 
the wish that the Institute I have proposed to you shall 
always be strictly guarded against the possibility of being 
made a theatre for the dissemination or discussion of secta- 


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rian theology or party politics ; that it shall never minister, 
in any manner whatever, to political dissension, to infidel- 
ity, to visionary theorieia of a pretended philosophy, which 
may be aimed at the subversion of the approved morals of 
society ; that it shall never lend its aid or influence to the 
propagation of opinions tending to create or encourage 
sectional jealousies in our happy country, or which may 
lead to the alienation of the people of one State or section 
of the Union from those of another : but that it shall be 
so conducted, throughout its whole career, as to teach 
political and religious charity, toleration, and beneficence, 
and prove itself to be, in all contingencies and conditions, 
the true friend of our inestimable Union, of the salutary 
institutions of free government, and of liberty regulated 
by law. I enjoin these precepts upon the board of trus- 
tees, and their successors forever, for their invariable 
observance and enforcement in the administration of the 
duties I have confided to them. 

" And now, in conclusion, I have only to express my 
wish, that, in providing for the building you are to erect, 
you will allow space for future additions, in case they may 
be found necessary; and that, in its plan, style of architec- 
ture, and adaptation to its various uses, it may be worthy 
of the purpose to which it is dedicated, and may serve to 
embellish a city whose prosperity, I trust, will ever be dis- 
tinguished by an equal growth in knowledge and virtue. 
" I am, with great respect, 

" Your friend, 

"George Peabodt," 

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The munificent donation of Mr. Peabody was partially 
expended in the erection of a white-marble edifice, which 
was completed in 1861. The sad years of civil war for- 
bade its formal dedication till Oct. 25, 1866, when Mr. 
Peabody was able to be present. Rev. Dr. Backus, pas- 
tor of the First Presbyterian Church, offered prayer, in 
which he said, "We thank Thee that Thou hast put 
it into the mind and heart of Thy servant, whom Thou 
hast so highly blessed and prospered, to employ so large a 
portion of the talents intrusted to him in securing the 
wellrbeing and happiness of this community ; that, allured 
from grosser pleasures and inferior pursuits, they may seek 
that intellectual and moral improvement which may tend 
to their true elevation, refinement, usefiilness, and pleas- 
ure, — binding them together in social harmony and unity; 
making this city a centre of increasing light and purity, 
and exerting a happy influence throughout the land. 

" May he be spared to see the ripe fruits of his noble 
and generous benefactions, experience the satisfaction of 
having been in Thy hands the instrument of lasting good 
to his race, and receive not only the gratitude of those 
who shall enjoy the benefits of this Institute through com- 
ing ages, but also be replenished with the richest blessings 
of Thy providence and grace, so that his declining years 
may be ftiU of peace and hope and joy ! and, when h« 
has accompUshed his work on earth, may he be gathered 
to his fathers, full of honors, enjoying the respect of man- 
kind, peace of conscience, and an abundant entrance into 


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the kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ ! and 
may numbers rise up, not only to call him blessed, but also 
to imitate his example ! " 

After this, the Governor of Maryland addressed Mr. 
Peabody in language appropriate to the occasion ; and Mr. 
Peabody responded. A portion of the governor's speech, 
and the whole of Mr. Peabody's reply, are already given 
in a previous (5hapter. 

On the Friday after the dedication of the Institute, the 
school-children, some twenty thousand in number, greeted 
Mr. Peabody ; and from the steps of the Institute he ad- 
dressed them in the following excellent words : — 

" When I arrived in Baltimore on Wednesday, my dear 
young friends, I did not expect to meet you thus; but 
finding, by a visit from your School-Commissioners' Board, 
that such was your desire, I concluded to meet you, even 
should it be necessary to postpone my departure from Bal- 
timore beyond the time originally fixed. And I take to 
myself no credit for doing so : for I assure you that my 
desire to see ypu is as strong as yours can possibly be to 
see me ; and never hav^ I seen a more beautiful sight than 
this vast collection of interesting children. The review of 
the finest army, with soldiers clothed in brilliant uni- 
forms, and attended by the most delightful strains of mar- 
tial music, (?t)uld never give me half the pleasure "that it 
does to look upon you here with your bright and happy 
faces. For the sight of such an army as I have spoken of 


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would be associated with thoughts of bloodshed and human 
suffering, of strife and violence : but I may well compare 
you, on the other hand, to an army of peace ; and your 
mission on earth is not to destroy your fellow-creatures, 
but to be a blessing to them ; and your path, when you go 
out from these public schools, is to be marked, not by rav- 
ages and desolation, but, I trust, by kindly words and 
actions, and by good will to all you meet. 

" "With such an assemblage as this, therefore, I am glad 
to have my name associated, as I see that it is by the 
badges w^orn by many of you : and I shall feel it to be a 
very great honor if the medals thus bearing my name shall 
continue, as I am informed they have heretofore done, to 
prove incentives to application, diligence, and good con- 
duct ; and I shall ever take a sincere interest in those to 
whom they are awarded. 

" There is another relation in which I look upon you ; 
and that is, the future guardians of the Institute from which 
I speak to you. For, in a few short years, you will have 
left the places you now occupy, and, taking the positions of 
those now in active life, will have the care and enjoy the 
privileges of this institution. And I hope most earnestly 
that it may be the means of all the good to you that was 
contemplated in its foundation ; and that you, on your part, 
may see that it is carried on always with kind feeling and 
harmony. And so I trust, my dear young friends, that in 
passing by this edifice, young though you are now, you 
will feel, in looljing upon it, not that it is one for grown-up 

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men and women, and with which you have no concern, 
but that it is yours also ; that you will at no distant day have 
a right in it as your heritage ; and so will even now, in 
your tender years, take an interest in it and all things con- 
nected with it. 

'^ I have now but little advice to give you; fori am sure 
that your parents and teachers have bestowed, and always 
will bestow, upon you the kindest and ^ost earnest coun- 
sel : but I would say. Attend closely to your studies, and 
remember that your close attention to them is a thousand 
times more important to you than to your teachers. Bear 
in mind, that the time of your studies, though it may now 
appear long to you, is, in reality, very brief; and at a future 
day, when it is, perhaps, too late, you yourselves will feel 
that it is so. Do not be ashamed to ask advice and take 
counsel from those older than yourselves : the time will 
come when you, in your turn, may advise those younger 
than you, and who will follow in your footsteps. Strive 
always to imitate the good example of others. I am glad 
that your assemblage is in this most interesting place : for 
I hope that your future recollections of this- occasion may 
be connected with the thought of him whose statue crowns 
yonder beautiful monument, — the illustrious father of 
his country, -r- and that you may be induced to take him 
more and more for your model ; for he, pre-eminently 
great among men, was also great and good in his boyhood 
and youth. As time has passed, it has rendered eulogy of 
him as superfluous as if it were to praise the sun for its 

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brightness; and it is as the most perfect example for imita- 
tion the world has ever seen that we must look upon the 
character of Washington. Remember, then, his youthful 
life ; the instances, too familiar to need repeating by me, 
of his truthfulness, his self-denial, his integrity, his perse- 
verance, his reverence for age, his affection for his parents, 
and his fear of God. Finally, strive always to act as if 
the eye of your heavenly Father were upon you ; and, if 
you do this, his countenance wiU always smile upon you. 

" I fear, my young friends, this is the last time I shall 
ever speak to you, I therefore bid you farewell. God 
bless you all 1" 

From the report of the treasurer, it may be seen, that, in 
all, George Peabody gave to the Peabody Institute in Bal- 
timore the sum of one million dollars. A princely benefac- 
tion for a desirable end I 


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Amelioration of the Condition of the Poor in London. — Magnificent Be- 
quest of Mr. Peabodj. — Description of the Buildings. 

" O ye who bask In Fortnne's sun, 
And Hope's bright garlands wear I 
Your blessings from the God of love 
Let his poor children share.''— Mbs. Hale. 

** He that hath pity upon the poor, lendeth to the Lord; and that which he hath 
given will he pay him again." — Pbov. xlx. 17. 

JHEN, in 1859, Mr. Peabody returndd to Eng- 
land from a visit to his native land, he set 
about giving effect to his long-cherished inten- 
tions of doing something for the laboring poor 
of London. For this purpose, he donated $1,750,000 be- 
tween March 1, 1862, and Dec. 5, 1868. It is said that 
Mr. Peabody did not bestow many gifts to reUeve individ- 
ual poverty or distress. He thought that much of tlie 
money thus contributed only tended to increase the evil 
it sought to alleviate. "The Philadelphia Press" con- 
trasts the wisdom of George Peabody, who was the execu- 
tor of his own liberal schemes, with the folly of Dr. Rush 


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of that city, who left a million-dollars' bequest in such a 
shape that no one is satisfied. 

CoL J. W. Forney, in his interesting "Letters from 
Europe," speaks of the magnificent bequest of Mr. Pea- 
body, and describes his •visit to Peabody Square ; previ- 
ously mentioning Mr. Peabody as he saw him on board 
" The Scotia " when he was returning to England. His 
glowing sentences are cheerfiilly inserted here. Says the 
colonel, " A more congenial company never sailed fi:om 
the New World to the Old ; and, when we separate, the 
regret at parting will be increased by the recollection that 
our intercourse might have been profitably prolonged. 
Of course, George Peabody is the central figure of our 
circle. As I studied the venerable philanthropist, yester- 
day, as he lay dozing on one of the sofas in the forward 
saloon, I confessed I had never seen a nobler or more 
imposing figure. Never has human face spoken more 
humane emotions. The good man's soul seems to shine 
out of every feature and lineament. His fine head, rival- 
ling the best of the old aristocracy, and blending the ideals 
of benevolence and integrity, his tranquil and pleasing 
countenance, and his silver hair, crown a lofty form of un- 
usual dignity and grace. The work of this one plain 
American citizen silences hypercriticism, and challenges 
gratitude. He has completed it without leaving an excuse 
for ridicule or censure. He has given millions to deserv- 
ing charity, without pretence or partiality. The wealth 
gathered by more than a generation of honest enterprise 

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and business sagacity he distributes among the poor of the 
two nations in which he accumulated it, first liberally pro- 
viding for his own blood and kindred. If this is not an 
honorable close of a well-spent life, what is ? That the 
example of George Peabody -will awaken imitation in 
England, I do not know. Unhappily for the British 
aristocracy, they do not respond to the call of a genial 
philanthropy ; and it may b^ claimed that none but an 
American can truly feel for the sufferings oi the un- 
friended poor. Therefore I am not surprised, that, before 
Mr. Peabody left the United States, he was satisfied that 
what he has done for London will be surpassed by two of 
his opulent friends for the city of New York. . . . Mr. 
Peabody leaves 'The Scotia' at Queenstown, Ireland, 
where he will stay for some time to enjoy the salmon-fishing, 
in company with his old friend. Sir Curtis Lampson, an 
American, recently made a baronet for his services in con- 
nection with the Atlantic Telegraph. As showing the 
difference between the great landholders of Great Britain 
and the sturdy farmers of the United States, it deserves to 
be recorded, that, for the privilege of catching trout and 
salmon for six months, Mr. Peabody pays the neat sum of 
$2,500 in gold to the nobleman who owns the stream^, in 
which he intends to angle. These preserve^ of game and 
fish are, therefore, not only a source of pleasure, but of 
large profit, to their titled proprietors. Mr. Peabody has 
offered me letters to his agents in London, which I will 
not fail to use, for the purpose of personally inspecting the 


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commencement of the great work in that city, which will 
associate his name with all that is noble and generous, as 
long, as the genius of Shakspeare and Milton is remem- 
bered and cherished among the sons of men," 
A few days later, Col. Forney wrote, — 

" Liverpool, England, May 18, 1867. 
" Mr. Peabody and over sixty of the passengers of * The 
Scotia ' took leave of us about midnight of Friday in an 
open tug and in the midst of a smart shower, which, be- 
fore they reached the shore, increased to a heavy storm of 
rain. • . • On the day he bade us farewell, a character- 
istic incident took place between Mr. Peabody and the 
committee appointed by the Americans on board, when 
they tendered him their resolutions of grateful respect for 
his many friendly acts of benevolence. One of the reso- 
lutions referred to the fact, that, whereas Smithson and 
Girard had bequeathed their benefactions to the care of 
posterity, Mr. Peabody had enhanced the value of his ex- 
ample by courageously becoming his own executor, and by 
giving his personal care to the execution of his splendid 
trust. When this resolution was read to him, he asked 
that it might be read a second time ; after which, with a 
winning courtesy I shall not soon forget, he said that he 
would be greatly obliged if the whole passage could be 
stricken out of the proceedings. * Whatever may be said 
of me,' he added, ' and however just your abstract view 
may be, yet even the shadow of a contrast that might be 


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construed into a criticism upon these two illustrious men 
should be carefiilly avoided. They did their best, and 
they did nobly, and, if they had thought of it, would 
probably have taken exactly my course/ The suggestion 
was instantly complied with." 

"May 25, 1867. 
** This morning, in company with Sir Curtis M. Lampson, 
one of the trustees of the Peabody Fund for the benefit of 
the poor of London, and Mr. Somerby, the secretary of 
the board (both born in the United States), I made my 
promised visit to Peabody Square, Islington, one of the 
five structures already in use, or soon to be devoted to the 
noble objects of the generous founder. Mr. Lampson, a 
native of New England, was, in October, 1866, created a 
baronet by Queen Victoria, in token of His numerous pub- 
lic services, but particularly for his connection with the 
successful enterprise, — the Atlantic Telegraph Cable. I 
found him, like Mr. Somerby, nevertheless, a devoted ad- 
mirer of America and her institutions, and a genuine 
sympathizer in her progress and her principles. The 
management of the trust has been properly confided to 
gentlemen of known American proclivities. Lord Stanley 
is president, assisted by Sir Curtis Lampson, Sir Emerson 
Tennett, Mr. J. L. Morgan the eminent banker, and Mr. 
Somerby as secretary; and the manner in which they 
have so far discharged their duty is proved by the singu- 
lar success that has crowned their labors. With the 


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exception of the secretary, they all serve without remu- 
neration. The first difficulty they met was how to define 
the phrase 'the poor,' and decide in what shape (after 
that problem was solved) the money should bo distributed. 
After careful reflection, they resolved to confine their 
attention, in the first instance, to that section of the labo- 
rious poor who occupy a position above the pauper ; and 
to assist these by furnishing to them comfortable tenements 
at reasonable. rates, in healthy locations. It will be seen 
at a glance that more good can be effected by this course 
than by attempting to alleviate the condition of those who 
are thrown upon the public charge, and are necessarily 
objects for the care of merely charitable institutions, such 
as almshouses, hospitals, dispensaries, &c. The working- 
classes of London, more than the working-classes of any 
other city in the world, need exactly such benefactors as' 
Mr. Peabody ; and the plan thus agreed upon benefits them 
directly, without impairing their self-respect. The honest 
laborer always shrinks from becoming an object of charity, 
and thousands prefer the pangs of want to the pangs of 
dependence; and the effort of the trustees to prevent 
the tenements from becoming merely establishments for 
the abject poor is obvious in all their arrangements. The 
impossibility of obtaining good tenements at a reasonable 
rent, in this swarm of humanity, has thrown the laboring- 
classes into the vilest haunts of vice, disease,.and filth ; and 
the sure effect has been to pollute their children in mind 
and body. The Peabody benevolence meets at least one 

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part of this demand ; with the double advantage of provid- 
ing good tenements for the industrious poor, and of adding 
the small rents they pay to the general fund, so as to per- 
petuate the good work, and to increase the number of 
tenements with increasing years. Sir Curtis Lampson 
estimates, that, if the money thus accumulated is honestly 
administered for two hundred years, it will have accumu- 
lated enough to provide for three-fourths of all the indus- 
trious poor of London. That this is not an extravagant 
expectation can be shown by a simple calculation of the 
annual interest of the nearly million of dollars donated, 
with the regular accretions from the moderate funds. 
There are many interesting incidents on record of the 
growth of small bequests, in the course of time, into enor- 
mous charities. 

" The premises at Islington consist of four blocks of 
buildings; comprising, in all, one hundred and fifty-five 
tenements, accommodating six hundred and fifty persons, or 
nearly two hundred families. The whole cost of these 
buildings, exclusive of the sum paid for the land, amounted 
to ,£31,690. The principle and organization in each of 
these extensive structures are the same. Drainage and 
ventilation have been insured with the utmost possible 
care ; the instant removal of dust and refuse is efiected by 
means of shafts, which descend from every corridor to cel- 
lars in the basement, where it is carted away; the passages 
are all kept clean, and lighted with gas, without any cost 
to the tenants ; water, from cisterns in the roof, is distrib- 


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uted by pipes into every tenement ; and there are baths 
free for all who desire to use them. Laundries, with 
wringing-machines and drying-lofts, are at the service of 
all the inmatQS, who are thus relieved from the inconve- 
nience of damp vapors in their apartments, and the conse- 
quent damage to their furniture and bedding. 

" Every living-room, or kitchen, is abundantly provided 
with cupboards, shelving, and other conveniences ; and 
each fireplace includes a boiler and an oven. But what 
gratify the tenants, perhaps, more than any other part of 
the arrangements, are the ample and airy spaces which 
serve as playgrounds for their children, where they are 
always under their mothers' eyes, and safe from the risk 
of passing carriages and laden carts. 

"In fixing the rent for all this accommodation, the 
trustees were influenced by two considerations. In the 
first place, they felt it incumbent on them, conformably 
with the intention of rendering the Peabody Fund repro- 
ductive, to charge for each room such a moderate percent- 
age on the actual cost of the houses as would bring in a 
reasonable actual income to the general fund* In the sec- 
ond place, they were desirous, without coming into undue 
competition with the owners of house-property less favora- 
bly circumstanced, to demonstrate to their proprietors the 
practicability of rendering the dwellings of the laboring 
poor healthful, cheerful, and attractive ; and, at the same 
time, securing to the landlords a fair return for their in- 


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^' At the present moment, owing to the vast changes in 
the metropolis, by which the houses of the laboring poor 
have been demolished to so great an extent, the cost of 
accommodation for them has been greatly increased. It, 
of course, varies in different localities ; but, on an average, 
the weekly charge for a single room of a very poor descrip- 
tion is from two shillings and sixpence to three shillings, — 
about seventy-five cents American money ; for two rooms, 
five shillings, or five shillings and sixpence ; and for three, 
from six shillings and sixpence to seven shillings. But the 
mere test of rent affords no adequate standard by which 
to contrast the squalor and discomfort of one of these tene- 
ments with the light and airy and agreeable apartments in 
the Peabody buildings : and, for one room there, the charge 
per week is two shillings and sixpence; for two rooms, 
four shillings ; and for three rooms, five shillings. 

" As Mr. Peabody had directed by his letter that the 
sole qualification to be required in a tenant was to be in 
* an ascertained condition of life such as brings the indi- 
vidual within the description of the poor of London, com- 
bined with moral character and good conduct as a mem- 
ber of society,' it became the duty of the trustees to 
ascertain by actual inquiry, — first, that the circumstances 
of the person proposing himself as a tenant were such as 
to entitle him to admission; and secondly, that, in the 
opinion of his employers, there was nothing in his conduct 
or moral character to disqualify Kim from partaking in the 
benefits of the fund. 


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"These two conditions once established, the tenant, on 
taking possession of his new residence, finds himself as 
free in action, and as exempt from intrusive restraint or 
officious interference, as if he occupied a house in one of 
the adjacent streets. His sense of independence is pre- 
served by the consciousness that he pays for what ho 
enjoys ; and by this payment he provides himself with a 
dwelling so much superior to that which he had formerly 
been accustomed to, that the approach to his home is no 
longer accompanied by a feeling of humiliation. As the 
result of the above inquiries, several applications for admis- 
sion were declined, on the grounds either of a condition in 
Ufe too easy to entitle the individual to be classed with the 
laboring poor, or of a moral character which could not 
bear investigation, because of habitual drunkenness, or 
conviction before a legal tribunal. In some instances, too, 
the families of persons desirous to become tenants were 
found to be too numerous for the accommodation availa- 
ble; and these, to avoid unwholesome crowding, were 
unavoidably excluded. 

" The number of persons who took possession of their 
new homes in Spitalfields was upwards of two hundred ; 
including such classes as char- women, monthly nurses, 
basket-makers, butchers, carpenters, firemen, laborers, 
porters, omnibus-drivers, seamstresses, shoemakers, tailors, 
waiters, &c. 

" In the buildings at Islington, which were opened in 
September, 1865, the inmates are of the same class, with 


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the addition of persons employed in other trades, — watch- 
finishers, turners, stay-makers, smiths, printers, painters, 
laundresses, letter-carriers, artificial-flower makers, dress- 
makers, and others. The entire community there now 
consists of six hundred and seventy-four individuals; of 
whom nineteen are widows, the rest married persons and 

" In evidence of the improved salubrity of the buildings, 
the superintendents report that ill health is rare ; and that 
the number of deaths since the first buildings were opened, 
nearly three years ago, have been one man aged thirty, 
who died of a chronic complaint, and four children, one 
of whom was under five, and two under two years old. 
The social contentment of the tenants is freely expressed. 
No complaints have been made of any of the arrangements 
provided for their comfort ; and they all speak approvingly 
of the unaccustomed advantages they enjoy. Amongst 
these', they particularize the security of their furniture and 
effects, which are no longer liable, as they formerly were, 
to be taken in distress, should the landlord become a de* 

" As regards the moral conduct of the tenantry, the 
superintendent reports that habitual drunkenness is un- 
known, and intoxication injfrequent ; and where the latter 
does occur, to the annoyance of others, it is judiciously 
dealt with by giving notice to the offender, that, in the 
event of its recurrence, he must prepare to leave. There 
has been but one person removed for quarrelling and dis- 


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turbing the peace, and one expelled for non-payment of 
rent. These exceptions, out of a community of eight 
hundred and eighty persons, speak strongly for the self- 
respect and moral principles by which they are influenced. 

"There are four other squares, two of which have 
already received occupants ; and the others will soon be 
completed. The main buildings are of stone, five stories 
high ; four being occupied by the families, and the last, or 
upper range, used for the pui-pose of a laundry for drying 
clothes, where fine baths are provided for general use. I 
conversed with many of the inmates : they were all clean, 
healthy, and happy. The men were off at work, and the 
women seemed to be industrious and tidy. The contrast 
between their condition and that of the poor in the misera- 
ble houses around us was painful in the extreme. In some 
of the rooms of the latter, as many as seven people were 
crowded. In other sections, the difference was even more 
saddening. The airy and comfortable quarters' of Mr. 
Peabody's tenants, with the neat kitchens and comfortable 
bedrooms, and the fine playground for the children, the 
garden for common cultivation and use, and the work- 
shops for such of the men as might prefer working on the 
premises, proved that the architect had given a conscien- 
tious study to his work. 

" Mr. Peabody's example will be followed, now that its 
complete success is established, in both hemispheres. Mr. 
A. T. Stewart of New York has already procured copies 
of the plans, and photographs of the buildings, I have 


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attempted to describe. Parliament has repeatedly noticed 
the work itself; and the owners of the colossal fortunes — 
the Plutocracy of England — cannot resist the eloquent 
invocation to their consciences and pockets. They cannot 
afford the reproach that they have been indifferent while 
England's honest poor have been relieved by an Ameri- 
can. Indeed, the trustees have already received a bequest 
of thirty thousand pounds sterling from a worthy gentle- 
man. The romantic stories founded upon wills and lega- 
cies in this country, taken, in most cases, from the facts, 
may well lead to the hope that other rich men, to prevent 
their falling to the crown, will throw their estates into this 
noble fund. There is hardly a great city in America in 
which Mr. Peabody's Uberahty should not be followed up ; 
and there is not one in which infinite good cannot be 
wrought. ' The poor ye have always ; ' and as I saw 
thes§ happy children enjoying their spacious playground 
thig morning, and talked with their gratified parents, and 
heard the report of the superintendent, I felt proud that 
, the author of all this splendid benevolence was an Ameri- 
can, and predicted that his royal generosity would find 
many imitators in his own and other countries." 

A recent writer in " The Boston Journal " thus tells of 
a visit to Peabody Square : — 

" I must tell you of my visit to Mr. Peabody's model 
buildings near Islington ; or, rather, the buildings which 
the trustees of his fund built according to their own ideas. 


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Told that Peabody Square was the most favorable speci- 
men of these groups of workmen's homes, I drove down 
there, on a recent Sunday and a foggy one. My route 
lay through Islington ; and, long before coming there, we 
drove through one of those interminable streets called 
roads in London, where one sees only immense museums 
of trade and horrible poverty. . . . But the neighborhood 
was more respectable towards Peabody Square. The fog, 
however, was of the consistency of cream, and seemed to 
strike us in the face as we cut through it. At last, cabby ' 
showed me up a narrow and dark alley, which finally 
opened on a square, around which were ranged four fine 
five-story stone blocks, each exactly like the other. Here 
were no quarrelling or fighting children, no drunken women, 
no discouraged-looking men. There were flowers in the 
windows, and bright, happy faces looked out from among 
them ; but the blocks had a prison-like appearance, never- 
theless. There T^as not a blade of grass, or a twig, to be 
seen in the stone-paved yard ; and the fog settled down into 
the area worse than outside. The outer doors were open ; 
and I soon made the acquaintance of a brawny English- 
woman in the porter's lodge of one of the blocks. How 
many femilies were there in each building ? 
" * Forty-two ; and p'raps six in a family, sir.' 
** So I began to question her on the internal arrange- 
ments of this London Sybaris ; because you often hear it 
said that Mr. Peabody's money has been misused, and 
that the workmen pay too highly for their tenements. 

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*' ' Me'n my husban' has been porter («ic) here for 
more'n two year; an' my man was here from the beginnm', 
sir. We likes it ever so much. We pays four shillin' a 
week for these two rooms ; and most o' them generally 
pays the same. 'Tisn't dear, — oh, nol but it's aboat all 
most o' them can pay. Still ' — 

*' We looked into some of the rooms. It depended 
on the taste, more than the resources, of the individual 
tenant, how comfortable he made himself. There were 
neatly tiled floors, whitewashed walls. The rooms were 
small, but planned as economically, as to space, as a trav- 
elling-jacket. I noticed, especially, that each room was 
well lighted and ventilated. Some famihes had three 
rooms, so planned as to avoid any of the lamentable lack 
of decency which large families crowded into small tene- 
ments sometimes exhibit in- London and New York and 
Boston. Each floor is divided into lettered sections, which 
are traversed by spacious corridors. !E)ach tenement, or 
suite of rooms, has one door, numbered, opening on these 
corridors. There are iron traps in the halls in each story, 
into which the dirt and rubbish from each tenement is 
swept ; so that there is no chance for an accumulation of 
filth. In the upper story of each building is a co-opera- 
tive laundry, which the women also consider as their ex- 
change, and where they get acquainted over their work. 

" ' Most all on us knows every other one on us here,' 
said the portress. Pity Mr. Peabody didn't specify that 
all the tenants under his fund should be taught grammar 1 


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There was gas in many of the rooms ; but that was paid 
for as an extra. * Are these workmen, living here, of what 
you would call the better class ? ' I asked. 

" ' I rather think not, sir,' was the answer. * Most o' 
them does common sort o' work; 'n sometimes they hasn't 
any in the dull season : but they manages to stick by the 
square, in any case. Me'n my man does all the hirin' 
rooms ; and we never has any disputes. All pays, allers.' 

" Which rather proves that the workmen find it cheap 
and advantageous to live there ; because collecting rents 
elsewhere, in the dens which are made to serve the poor 
as houses, is sometimes even dangerous. But you have 
only to put a man in a den to make him a beast. 

" So, in this square, here are one hundred and sixty- 
eight families, averaging six members each, renting com- 
Artable rooms, in a clean, airy, and respectable quarter of 
the city, for about five dollars per month, per tenement. 
Their condition is much improved by the arrangements 
made for them ; and any drunkenness or fighting in the 
building is never known. I saw, in many of the rooms, 
the men at home, evidently enjoying the society of their 
fiunilies, instead of swilling beer at the public-house. I 
should give my testimony in favor of the success of Mr. 
Peabody's money as a most practical beneficence." 

" The London Illustrated News " thus refers to the 
bene&ction of Mr Peabody : — 

" On March 12, 1862, Mr. Peabody addressed a letter 

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to Mr. C. F. Adams, American minister, the Right Hon. 
Lord Stanley, Sir J. E. Tennet, Mr. (now Sir) Curtis 
M. Lampson, Bart., and Mr. J. S. Morgan, his own 
partner in business, informing them that a sum of 
•£150,000 stood in the books of Messrs. George Peabody 
and Co., to be applied by them for the amelioration of the 
condition of the poor of London. 

" The gentlemen above named duly entered on their 
trust, which has been applied in the mode indicated by 
the donor ; namely, in the erection of model dwellings for 
working-men. In January, 1866, Mr. Peabody added 
another X 100,000 to the fund; and, on Dec. 5 last, 
he made a further donation of about fifteen acres of 
land at Brixton, 5,642 shares in the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany, and X 5,405 in cash, — making a, total of X 100,000; 
thus raising the amount of his gift to London to X 350,000. 
This gift is held by the trustees under two deeds, the first 
having reference to the X 150,000 first given, and the 
second including the remaining X 200,000; which latter 
was not to be put in operation until July, 1869, and has, 
therefore, but now begun to be dealt with. It appears, by 
the statement of the trustees for the year 1868, that they 
now hold property under the first deed valued at X173,- 
313; the increase being the produce of rents on the build- 
ings, added to the interest on unexpended capital. Four 
ranges of buildings have been already erected, which 
house a population of 1,971 individuals, composed of the 
families of working-men earning wages, on the average, 


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under twenty-one shillings a Week. The trustees have 
acquired other sites, on which they are about to complete 
further blocks of houses for similar purposes. 

"By the last will and testament of Mr. Peabody, opened 
on the day of his funeral, his executors, Sir Curtis Lamp- 
son, and Mr. Charles Reed, M.P., are directed to apply a 
further sum of <£ 150,000 to the Peabody Fund in London. 
This makes half a million sterling bestowed by Mr. Pea- 
body for that single object." 


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Visit to his Natire Land. — The Freedom of the City of London. — The 
Queen's Letter. — The Queen's Portrait. — The Peabodj Statue. 

" Praise Is but virtue's shadow.'' 

Heath's ClanuteUa, 

" Honor to whom honor."— Bom. xiii. 7. 

IHE munificence of the man who rememhered 
the poor of London was appreciated by the 
people of England. The merchants and capi- 
talists of London showed their appreciation of 
the noble deed by causing a costly statue of Mr. Peabody 
to be placed in one of the squares of that city ; and, 
shortly before he left England for a visit to his native 
land, he received other tokens of appreciation from the 
people of his adopted home, and from the sovereign lady 
of the realm. But his characteristic modesty made it 
difficult for a grateful and admiring people to express their 
appreciation in a tangible form. The same feelings that 
led Mr. Peabody to decline the public acknowledgments 
of the cities of liis native land in 1857 prevented him 


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from accepting the honors which Englishmen were ready- 
to shower upon him. The freedom of the city was 
bestowed upon him by the corporation of London, and 
acknowledgments from many other public bodies were 
freely offered. Arrangements were also entered into for 
the erection of his statue. The only occasion on which 
he appeared in public was at the close of the Working- 
Classes' Exhibition in the Guildhall in 1866, when he 
received an enthusiastic welcome which even royalty itself 
might eiivy. 

A short time before his saiUng for America in 1866, 
a proposal was inade to confer on Mr. Peabody either a 
baronetcy or the Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath ; 
but he decUned them both. When asked what gift, if any, 
he would accept, he replied, " A letter from the Queen of 
England, which I may carry across the Atlantic, and 
deposit as a memorial of one of her most faithful sons." 
To this modest request a ready response was given by the 
following letter : — 

"Windsor Castle, March 28, 1866. 

" The Queen hears that Mi?. Peabody intends shortly to 
return to America; and she would be sorry that he should 
leave England without being assured by herself how 
deeply she appreciates the noble act, of more than princely 
munificence, by which he has sought to relieve the wants 
of her poorer subjects residing in London. It is an act, 
as the Queen believes, wholly without parallel ; and which 
will carry its best reward in the consciousness of having 

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contributed so largely to the assistance of those who can 
little help themselves. 

** The Queen would not, however, have been satisfied 
without giving Mr. Peabody some public mark of her 
sense of his munificence ; and she would gladly have con- 
ferred upon him either a baronetcy or the Grand Cross of 
the Order of the Bath, but that she understands Mr. 
Peabody to feel himself debarred from accepting such dis- 

" It only remains, therefore, for the Queen to give Mr. 
Peabody this assurance of her personal feeUngs; which she 
would further wish to mark by asking him to accept a 
miniature portrait of herself, which she wiU desire to have 
painted for him, and which, when finished, can either be 
sent to him in America, or given to him on the return 
which she rejoices to hear he meditates to the country 
that owes him so much." 

To this letter Mr. Peabody replied : — 

«Thb Palace Hotel, Buckingham Gate, 
London, AprU 3, 1866. 

" Madam, — I feel sensibly my inability to express in 
adequate terms the gratification with which I have read 
the letter which your Majesty has done me the high honor 
of transmitting by the hands of Earl Russell. 

" On the occasion which has attracted your Majesty's 
attention, of setting apart a portion of my property to 
ameliorate the condition and augment the comforts of the 

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poor of London, I have been actuated by a deep sense of 
gratitude to God, who has blessed me with prosperity, and 
of attachment to this great country, where, under your 
Majesty's benign rule, I have received so much personal 
kindness, and enjoyed so many years of happiness. Next 
to the approval of my own conscience, I shall always prizse 
the assurance which your Majesty's letter conveys to me 
of the approbation of the Queen of England, whose whole 
life has attested that her exalted station has in no degree 
diminished her sympathy with the humblest of her sub- 
jects. The portrait which your Majesty is graciously 
pleased to bestow on me I shall value as the most gra- 
cioua heirloom that I can leave in the land of my birth ; 
where, together with the letter which your Majesty has 
addressed to me, it will ever be regarded as an evidence 
of the kindly feeling of the Queen of the United King- 
dom toward a citizen of the United States. 
*' I have the honor to be 

*' Your Majesty's most obedient servant, 

"George Peabodt." 

A writer in a Boston paper states, that, — 

** After the completion of the Institute at Peabody in 
1854, its founder made it the depository of all those 
appreciative personal testimonials which are commonly 
the heirlooms of families, and which, in America, consti- ' 
tute the only substitutes for the decorations, arms, and 
insignia of rank. It is well known that the intimation 

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that Mr. Peabody would decline a baronetcy, or any other 
title or decoration with which England usually recognizes 
and rewards merit, induced the queen to offer her minia- 
ture as a substitute for the honors he declined, aild a 
testimonial of her appreciation of his benevolence to the 
poor of London. On the occasion of Mr< Peabody's visit 
to this country in 1866, he informed the trustees of the 
Institute that the miniature would be confided to their 
* personal charge and custody ; ' and a share of the large 
additional sum which he then gave for the enlargement 
of the Institute building, and the increase of its funds, was 
expended in the construction of a vault in which to pre- 
serve the valuable gifts which* he had received a9 an 
acknowledgment of his various charities. 

" Among the gifts deposited in the vault are the gold 
box containing the freedom of the city of London ; a gold 
box from the Fishmongers' Association of London ; a book 
of autographs which Mr. Peabody collected himself, and 
which he highly prized, as a memorial of his wide ac- 
quaintance, and of a more general appreciation of his 
character than gifts alone could supply; a presentation- 
copy of the Queen's first published book, with her auto- 
graph in the usual form ; a cane which belonged to Ben- 
jamin Franklin, and which, given to one of Franklin's 
London friends in the last century, can be traced from one 
donee to another, until it became the property of Mr. 
Peabody; the Congressional medal which was presented 
in tok^n of that magnificent educational gift to the South, 

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which, in its all-embracing charitj, makes no distinctions 
of race or color ; and the miniature of the Queen, and her 
autograph-letter in which the gift is suggested. The 
great pecuniary value of the portrait, the unusual and 
generous character of the gift, and its inestimable value as 
an international courtesy, rendered it desirable, that, as 
far as human means permitted, it should be placed beyond 
the reach of accident. 

" This picture is mounted in an elaborate and massive 
chased frame of gold. On the frame, above the miniature, 
is the royal crown. The miniature is a half-length, four- 
teen inches long, and ten wide. When the Queen sat for 
the picture, she was attired in such demi-robes of state as 
she has worn on a few public occasions since the decease 
of Prince Albert. Her dress was of black silk, with a 
dark-velvet train, both of which were trimmed with 
ermine. Her head-dress was the favorite Mary-Stuart 
cap, surmounted with a demi-crown. The Koh-i-noor 
and a jewelled cross were her principal ornaments. The 
portrait is in enamel, by Tilb, a London artist. It is the 
largest miniature of the kind ever attempted in England ; ' 
and a furnace was specially built for the execution of the 
work. Its cost has been estimated at from thirty thousand 
to fifty thousand dollars in gold ; but it is not known that 
any one in this country has information of the exact sum. 

The likeness, though a good deal idealized, like the 
beautifril but too flattering portrait on porcelain, is said to 
be remarkably good ; and a near inspection of the work . 

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shows that the artist has not been so supple a courtier as 
to neglect the impress which time and care, motherhood 
and widowhood, have left on that once handsome and 
joyous fece. Such is the situation of the vault, the 
arrangement of the light, and the facilities for moving the 
picture, that it is conveniently and advantageously exhib- 
ited without removal. 

"The library contains about thirteen thousand volumes; 
among which are many rafe books and rarer serial publi- 
cations, either collected by Mr. Peabody, of purchased 
atid presented by him, from time to time, for the use and 
endowment of the Institute. The collection is particu- 
larly rich in reviews and magazines, and includes one of 
the very few sets in the country of ' The London Times.' 
The library-room also contains busts of Shakspeare, Mil- 
ton, Webster, Hawthorne, and the founder of the Insti-. 

" The splendid full-length portrait of Peabody by 
Healy — ordered by the citizens of Danvers soon after 
the announcement of the original gift, and placed over the 
rostrum in the lecture-hall a few days before the dedica- 
tory-exercises in 1854 — represents Mr. Peabody as many 
will recall him, and as he appeared on the occasion of his 
visit in 1856, — ftiU of life, vigor, .and health, his manly 
form unshrunken by age and disease, and his fine face 
retaining a larger share of the cheerftilness of youth than 
usually survives the vexations and cares of sixty years. 
A fine picture of Rufus Choate, who began his wonderful 

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a • • 


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professional career in Danvers, and who always recalled 
those early associations with pleasure, also adorns the hall. 
The portrait of Edward Everett, a warm friend and 
admirer of Mr. Peabody, and the most eloquent of his 
eulogists, as those who recall his speech at the Peabody 
banquet in 1856 will .readily admit, is also in the place of 
honor over the rostrum. Both of these pictures are by 
Ames, the American artist." 

" The Christian Leader " thus refers to the inaugura- 
tion of the Peabody statue : — 

" George Peabody gave the poor of England a princely 
sum ; 80 gave it, that it will prove a stream of beneficence 
so long as London shall have the poor with it. The good 
Queen honors him, and presents him with her portrait, 
paying therefor the sum of seventy thousand dollars. The 
people of London honor him, and, by subscription, raise a 
ftmd to procure his statue, to be placed conspicuously in a 
city square. Mr. Story, the American sculptor, had the 
honor of executing the work. The Prince of Wales pre- 
sided at the ceremony of * unveiling.' It was not looked 
forward to as a ' sensation.' The depth of London's love for 
the philanthropist was not at all comprehended. Where 
hundreds were expected, the people came by thousands. 
* The popular excitement,' says ' The Tribune's ' corre- 
spondent, * surpassed expectation, and made the matter 
loom larger than the proceedings would have done without 
the huge crowd as a background. Mr. Peabody has, of 

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course, a great popularity in London ; but no eflTort seems 
to have been made to bring it forward. People came 
spontaneously; and as they could not be admitted into the 
enclosure, nor get within sight or sound of what was going 
on, they filled all the open spaces about the band and in 
front of the Royal Exchange. Threadneedle Street was 
crammed; and Comhill overflowed into all the cross- 
streets. There were more thousands of men than could 
be counted ; and they occupied the leisure half-hour, before 
the speeches began, in the true British pastimes of cheer- 
ing and chaffing the successive arrivals of the lucky few 
who had tickets to the enclosure. It looked, at one time, 
as if the police had more than they could do to keep a pas- 
sage open. With the help of a troop of the Honorable 
Artillery Company, they did well. The Lord Mayor, Mr. 
Motley, and Mr. Story the artist, were present. It is with 
uncommon satisfaction we put into conspicuous type the 
Prince's brief address, at the same time calling special 
attention to the closing sentences. He said, — 

" * The name of George Peabody is so well known to 
all of you, that, really, I feel some difficulty in recounting 
any thing new. But, at the same time, it affi^rds me the 
deepest gratification in paying a mark of tribute and 
of respect to the name of the great American citizen, 
the great philanthropist, — I may say, the citizen of the 
world. England can never adequately pay the debt of 
gratitude which she owes to that man ; London especially, 
to which his wonderful charity has been so liberally dis- 

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tributed. For a man not bom in this country to give a 
sum of, I believe, more than a quarter of a million of 
pounds sterling towards benevolent objects is a fact which 
is unequalled. His name will go down to posterity as one 
who has, as Sir Benjamin Phillips so justly remarked, 
tried to ameliorate the condition of his fellow-citizens, 
and especially to benefit their moral and social character. 
I have not yet had the opportunity of seeing the statue 
which is shortly to be unveiled ; but, from having the 
privilege of knowing the sculptor (Mr. Story) for a space 
of now about ten years, I feel sure it will be one which is 
worthy of being placed here, and worthy of the man to 
whom it is dedicated. Before concluding the few imper- 
fect remarks which I have ventured to address to you, let 
me thank Mr. Motley, the American minister, for his 
presence on this occasion, and assure him what pleasure it 
gives me to take part in this great, and, I might almost 
say, national ceremonial of paying tribute to the name of 
his great and distinguished countryman. Be assured that 
the feelings which I personally entertain towards America 
are the same as they ever were. I can never forget the 
reception which I had there nine years ago ; and my ear- 
nest hope and wish is that England and America may go 
hand in hand in peace and prosperity.' " 

" The Tribune " correspondent tells us that Mr. Mot- 
ley stood by the side of the Prince, and bowed his response 
to these sentences, which were spoken with much more 
emphasis than the Prince commonly puts into his words, 


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and with evidently genuine feeling. Mr. Motley's reply 
is as durable a monument to Mr. Peabody's memory as 
the marble itself. He said, — 

** May it please your Royal Highness, my Lord Mayor, 
ladies and gentlemen : I thank you sincerely for the very 
cordial reception you have given me, and his Royal High- 
ness for the kind and courteous words he has spoken. I 
should be glad, as an American citizen, to pronounce a fit 
eulogy on our great philanthropist; but the brief and 
rapidly-fleeting moments allotted on this occasion will 
not permit such eulogy. Nor is it necessary. His name 
alone is eulogy enough. Most fortunate and most gener- 
ous of men, he has discovered a secret for which misers 
might sigh in vain, — the art of keeping a great fortune 
to himself so long as time shall be. In this connection, I 
have often thought of a famous epitaph inscribed on the 
monument of an old Earl of Devon, — one who was com- 
monly called ' the good Earl of Devon.' No doubt, the 
inscription is familiar to many who now hear me : 'What 
I spent, that I had; what I saved, that I lost; that 
which I gave away remains with me.' And what a mag- 
nificent treasure, according to these noble and touching 
words, has our friend and the poor man's friend pre- 
served for himself till time and he shall be no more I 

' And tongues to be his bounty shall rehearse 
When all the breathers of this world are dead.' 

*' Of all men in the world, he least needs a monument ; 

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but, as it was to be erected, I am glad that th^ task has 
been committed to the great American sculptor whom I 
have had the honor and happiness of calling my intimate 
friend for many years. And, during a recent residence in 
Rome, I had the good fortune of seeing this statue, which 
has just been unveiled in this busy heart of England's 
great metropolis by the royal hand of England's Prince. 
I saw it grow, day by day, beneath the plastic fingers of 
the artist ; and it was my privilege on one occasion — a 
privilege I shall never forget — of seeing Mr. Peabody 
and his statue seated side by side, and of debating within 
myself, without coming to a satisfactory conclusion, 
whether, on the whole, if I may be allowed so confused an 
expression, — whether the statue was more like Mr. Pea- 
body, or Mr. Peabody more like the statue. It is a 
delightful, it always will be a delightfril thought, that the 
thousands and tens of thousands who daily throng this 
crowded mart will see him almost as accurately as in the 
flesh. And the future generations — generations after 
generations, the long, yet unborn, but, I fear, never-ending 
procession of London's poor — will be almost as familiar 
with the form and the features of their great benefactor as 
are those of us who have the privilege and the happiness 
of knowing him in the flesh. Your Royal Highness and 
my Lord Mayor, I beg to thank you for your courtesy." 


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The Hood of Letters. — The Gift for Education in the South. — Mr. 
Peabody's Letter. —His Gift seconded by Publishers. 

" Tifl education formg the common mind : 
JuBt 88 the twig iB bent, the tree's inclined." — Pope. 

"To do good and to communicate, forget not; for with such sacrifices Qod is well 
pleased." ~Heb. ziii. 16. 

|T is said that Mr. Peabody " was of course very 
much annoyed, during his last visits, by appeals 
to his purse, as well as by impertinent intru- 
sions upon his privacy. To individual appeals 
for assistance he never listened. All his letters were opened 
and read by his sister ; and she exercised her judgment 
about letting him see them, or throwing them into the 
fire. Begging-letters of any sort he never wished to 
read. Even deserving charitable institutions got nothing 
from him if they asked for it. He gave only as the mood 
tpok him ; and it may be safely said, that all his benefac- 
tions were the spontaneous outgrowth of his own ideas of 
what the world needed, and what could be most easily 
and efficiently put into practical operation. He was, in 


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short, a philanthropist without sentiment ; a man of ten- 
der heart and generous impulses, who believed that the 
highest duty of the rich was, not to dole out small sums 
for the reUef of the improvident, but to put the common- 
wealth in the way of diminishing improvidence by general 
education, and helping, the poor to live in decency and 
virtue. There was no imaginable reason why he should 
not rigorously carry out his principle, that, while the public 
had claims upon him, individuals had none. It will be a 
part of his panegyric, in time to come, that he took this 
plain, sensible view of his duties ; that he saw so clearly 
how he could make his money go farthest." 

A perfect flood of letters poured upon him when last 
in America ; they were to be numbered by hundreds, 
every day, it is said: but he rarely read one of them. 
The sound of his munificence had gone abroad ; and, very 
naturally, there were needy ones who desired to share his 
bounty, and felt at liberty to ask it. He felt at liberty to 
refuse, so long as he gave so liberally in other directions. 

His crowning donation was that of nearly two million 
dollars to build up the cause of education in the South. 
This last fiind was placed in the hands of trustees of the 
highest character for integrity and zealous interest in the 
cause of education ; and was to be applied to assist schools, 
and to promote the education of the people, without dis- 
tinction of race or color, in the Southern States. 

An appropriate acknowledgment of this last generous 
gift was made by the Government of the Unitefi States. 


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A costly and elegant gold medal was presented to him 
in pursuance of an act of Congress, bearing on one side 
a fine profile portrait of the recipient, and on the other 
the inscription, " The people of the United States to 
George Peabody, in acknowledgment of his beneficent 
promotion of universal education." 

The following is a copy of the letter of Mr. Peabody 
to the trustees of the Southern Educational Fund : — 

" To Hon. Robert C. Winthrop of Massachusetts ; Hon. Hamilton Fish 
of New York ; Right Rev. Charles P. Mcllvaine of Ohio ; (Jen. 
U. S. Grant of the United-States Army ; Hon. William C. Rives 
of Virginia; Hon. John H. Clifford of Massachusetts; Hon. 
WiUiam Aiken of South Carolina ; William M. Evarts, Esq., of 
New York ; Hon. William A. Graham of North Carolina ; Charles 
McAllister of Pennsylvania; George N. Riggs, Esq., of Washing- 
ton ; Samuel Wetmore, Esq., of New York ; Edward A. Bradford, 
Esq., of Louisiana ; George N. Eaton, Esq., of Maryland ; and 
George Peabody Russell, Esq., of Massachusetts. 

" Q-enilemeny — I beg to address you on a subject 
which occupied my mind long before I left England ; and 
in regard to which, one at least of you (the Hon. Mr. 
Winthrop, the distinguished and valued friend to whom I 
am so much indebted for cordial sympathy, careftil consid- 
eration, and wise counsel in this matter) will remember 
that I consulted him immediately upon my arrival in May 

" I refer to the educational needs of those portions of 
our beloved and common country which have suffered 


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from the destructive ravages and the not less disastrous 
consequences of civil war. 

" With my advancing years, my attachment to my native 
land has but become more devoted. My hope and faith in 
its successful and glorious future have grown brighter and 
stronger ; and now, looking forward beyond my stay on 
earth, as may be permitted to one who has passed the 
limit of threescore and ten years, I see our country, united 
and prosperous, emerging from the clouds which still sur- 
round her, taking a higher rank among the nations, and 
becoming richer and more powerful than ever before. 

" But, to make her prosperity more than superficial, 
her moral and intellectual development should keep pace 
with her material growth ; and, in those portions of our 
nation to which I have referred, the urgent and pressing 
physical needs of an almost impoverished people must, for 
some years, preclude them from making, by unaided effort, 
such advances in education, and such progress in the diffii- 
sion of knowledge among all classes, as every lover ei his 
country must earnestly desire. 

" I feel most deeply, therefore, that it is the duty and 
privilege of the more favored and wealthy portions of our 
nation to assist those who are less fortunate ; and with 
the wish to discharge, so far as I may be able, my own 
responsibility in this matter, as well as to gratify my desire 
to aid those to whom I am bound by so many ties of 
attachment and regard, I give to you, gentlemen, most of 
whom have been my personal and especial friends, the 


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sum of one million dollars, to be by you and your suc- 
cessors held in trust, and the income thereof used and 
applied in your discretion for the promotion and encour- 
agement of intellectual, moral, or industrial education 
among the young of the more destitute portions of the 
Southern and South- Western States of the Union ; my 
purpose being, that the benefits intended shall be distrib- 
uted among the entire population, without other distinc- 
tion than their needs and the opportunities of usefidness 
to them. 

" Besides the income thus derived, I give to you per- 
mission to use from the principal sum, within the nest two 
years, an amount not exceeding forty per cent. 

" In addition to this gift, I place in your hands bonds 
of the State of Mississippi, issued to the Planters* Bank, 
and comihonly known as Planters' Bank Bonds, amounting, 
with interest, to about eleven hundred thousand; the 
amount realized by you from which is to be added to and 
used for the purposes of this trust. 

** These bonds were originally issued in payment for 
stock in that bank held by the State, and amounted, in all, 
to only two million dollars. For many years, the State paid 
the interest, without interruption, till 1840 ; since which 
no interest has been paid, except a payment of about a 
hundred thousand dollars, which was found in the treasury 
applical)Ie to the payment of the coupons, and paid by a 
mandamus of the Supreme Court. The validity of these 
bonds has never been questioned ; and they must not be 


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confounded with another issue of bonds made by the State 
to the Union Bank, the recognition of which has been a 
subject of controversy with a portion of the population of 

" Various acts of the Legislature, viz. of Feb. 28, 184&, 
Feb. 23, 1844, Feb. 16, 1846, Feb. 28, 1846, March 4, 
1848, and the highest judicial tribunal of the State, have 
confirmed their validity ; and I have no doubt, that, at an 
early day, such legislation wiU be had as to make these 
bonds available in increasing the usefulness of the present 

" Mississippi, though now depressed, is rich in agricul- 
tural resources, and cannot long disregard the moral 
obligation resting upon her to make provision for their 
payment. In confirmation of what I have said in regard 
to the legislative and judicial action concerning the State 
bonds issued to the Planters' Bank, I herewith place in 
your hands the documents marked ' A.' 

*' The details and organization of the trust I leave with 
you ; only requesting that Mr. Winthrop may be chairman, 
and Gov. Fish and Bishop McHvaine vice-chairmen, of 
your body: and I give to you power to make all necessary 
by-laws and regulations ; to obtain an act of incorporation, 
if any shall be found expedient ; to provide for the expenses 
of the trustees, and of any agents appointed by them ; and, 
generally, to do all such acts as may be necessary for carry- 
ing out the provisions of this trust. 

" All vacancies occurring in your number by death, res- 

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ignation, or otherwise, shall be filled by your election, as 
soon as conveniently may be, and having in view an 
equality of representation so far as regards the Northern 
and Southern States. 

"I furthermore give to you the power, in case two- 
thirds of the trustees shall, at any time after the lapse of 
thirty years, deem it expedient to close this trust, and of 
the funds which at that time shall be in the hands of your- 
selves and your successors, to distribute not less than two- 
thirds among such educational or literary institutions, or for 
such educational purposes, as they may determine, in the 
States for whose benefit the income is now appointed to be 
used. The remainder may be distributed by the trustees 
for educational or literary purposes, wherever they may 
deem it expedient. 

" In making this gift, I am aware that the fund derived 
fi*om it can but aid the States which I wish to benefit in 
their own exertions to diffiise the blessings of education 
'and morality; but if this endowment should encourage 
those now anxious for the light of knowledge, and stimu- 
late to new efforts the many good and noble men who 
cherish the high purpose of placing our great country fore- 
most, not only in power, but in the intelligence and virtue 
of her citizens, it will have accomplished all that I can 

" With reverent recognition of the need of the blessing 
of Almighty God upon this gift, and with the fervent prayer, 
that, under his guidance, your counsels may be directed 

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for the highest good of present and fiiture generations in 
our beloved country, I am, gentlemen, with great respect, 
" Tour humble servant, 

"George Peabody," 

" The Boston Journal " states, that at the annual meet- 
ing of the trustees of this fund, held in Washington on the 
15th of February, 1870, Hon. Robert C. Winthrop opened 
the meeting by an address, in which he made appropriate 
mention of the great loss they had sustained by the death 
of the founder of the fund. He also paid a high compli- 
ment to Dr. Sears, the general agent of the board, and 
stated that the work which Dr. Sears had performed met 
with the cordial approbation of Mr. Peabody. Mr. Win-, 
throp made the following interesting remarks : — 

" You all remember, that, on the first day of July last, 
our board held a special meeting at Newport, R.I., at the 
immediate request of Mr. Peabody. He had informed me 
confidentially, before I took leave of him in London in the 
previous summer, that he intended to visit his native coun- 
try again, God willing, during the present year ; and that 
he should then make a considerable addition to our fund. 
He was then strong and hopeful, and had great confidence 
that he might live at least ten years longer. But his 
health soon afterwards began to decline ; and, as the next 
spring opened, he was led to entertain serious apprehen- 
sions that he mig&t not live even until another year. Af- 
ter a careful consultation with his medical advisers^ he 



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suddenly resolved to come over at once and complete his 

" On the very day of his arrival in Boston, he informed 
Dr. Sears, Gov. Clifford, and myself, who had met him at 
the station, and accompanied him to the hospitable home 
of his friend Mr. Dana, that the first desire of his heart, 
and that which he had crossed .the Atlantic especially to 
gratify, was to meet our board once more, and to increase 
our means for carrying on the great work in which we 
were engaged. He met us, accordingly, at Newport, and 
added a second million of dollars to our cash capital, be- 
sides adding largely to the deferred securities which he 
had included in the original donation ; all of which he had 
the fullest faith would, at no very distant day, become 
productive. * 

" In the letter addressed to us, communicating this sec- 
ond princely gift, he used the following language : — 

" ' I have constantly watched, with great interest and 
careful attention, the proceedings of your board ; and it is 
most gratifying to me now to be able to express my warm- 
est thanks for the interest and zeal you have manifested in 
maturing and carrying out the designs of my letter of 
trust, and to assure you of my cordial concurrence in all 
the steps you have taken. 

" ' At the same time, I must not omit to congratulate 
you, and all who have at heart the best interests of this 
educational enterprise, upon your obtaining the highly 
valuable services of Dr. Sears as your general agent, — 

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services valuable, not merely in the organization of schools 
and of a system of public education, but in the good effect 
which his conciliatory and sympathizing course has had, 
wherever he has met or become associated with the com- 
munities of the South in social or business relations. 

" * And I beg to take this opportunity of thanking, with 
all my heart, the people of the South themselves, for the 
cordial spirit with which they have received the trust, and 
for the energetic efforts which they have made, in co-oper- 
ation with yourselves and Dr. Sears, for carrying out the 
plans which have been proposed and matured for the diffu- 
sion of the blessings of education in their respective 

" This letter of Mr. Peabody concluded as follows : — 
" * I do this with the earnest hope, and in the sincere 
trust, that with God's blessing upon the gift, and upon the 
deliberations and future action of yourselves and your gen- 
eral agent, it may enlarge the sphere of usefulness already 
entered upon, and* prove a permanent and lasting boon, 
not only to the Southern States, but to the whole of our 
dear country, which I have ever loved so well, but never 
so much as now in my declining years, and at this time 
(probably the last occasion I shall ever have to address 
you), as I look back over the changes and the progress of 
nearly three-quarters of a century ; and I pray that Al- 
Daighty God will grant to it a future as happy and noble, 
in the intelligence and virtues of its citizens, as it will be 
glorious in unexampled power and prosperity.' This sec- 

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ond letter has, indeed, proved to be, as he himself antici- 
pated, his last letter to this board." 

The publishing-houses of D. Appleton & Co. and of 
A. S. Barnes & Co. evinced their appreciation of Mr. 
Peabody's gift to the South, — the former by a donation 
of a hundred thousand volumes of school-books, and the 
latter by a gift of five thousand volumes of " The Teach- 
ers' Library " and twenty-five thousand school-books. 

The Rev. Dr. Bamas Sears, late President of Brown 
University, has accepted the post of general agent } and 
the generous gift of Mr. Peabody, under his judicious 
administration, will doubtless prove a great benefit to the 


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Money for Museums at Tale and Hanrard. — Correspondence in Reference 
to these Donations. — The Value of the Gift. 

Boldly and wisely in that light thon hast : 
There is a Hand above will help thee on.^'-'BAii.ET's Fetttu, 

" The lips of knowledge are a precious jewel.''— Pbov. xx. 16. 

JHILE Mr. Peabody founded institutions bear- 
ing his name in his native town and in the 
cities of his adoption, he was not unwilling to 
add to the influence of institutions already es- 
tablished lii the land of his birth. Gratitude and courtesy 
sometimes led those ancient institutions to compliment the 
donor by calling some branch of their organization after 
his name. In that way Yale College honored him, and 
showed its gratitude by giving his name to a museum. 

The second annual report of the Sheffield Scientific 
School of that college, in 1866-67, contains the following 
statements in regard to the generous ^ft : — 

" It is already well known that George Peabody, Esq., 

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of London, In October last, made the generous donation of 
a hundred and fifty thousand dollars, to found, 'in con- 
nection with Yale College,' a museum of natural- history. 
Although this munificent gift is designed to benefit all de- 
partments of the university, it will obviously and necessa- 
rily be of more immediate advantage to the students of 
natural science connected with this school ; and hence the 
donor's letter to his trustees, and the accompanying instru- 
ment of gift, may be fitly given here. 

MR. PEABODY's letter. 

"* New- York, Oct 22, 1866. 
** * To Prof. James D. Dana, Hon. James Dixon, Hon. Robert C. Win- 
throp. Prof. Benjamin Silliman, Prof. George J. Brush, Prof. 0th- 
niel C. Marsh, and George Peabody Wetmore, Esq. 

" * Crentlemen^ — With this letter I enclose an instru- 
ment giving to you one hundred and fifty thousand dollars 
($150,000), in trust, for the foundation and maintenance 
of a museum of natural history, especially of the depart- 
ments of zoology, geology, and mineralogy, in connection 
with Yale College. 

" ' I some years ago expressed my intention of making 
a donation to this distinguished institution^ and convinced 
as I am of the importance of the natural sciences, and of 
the increasing interest taken in their study, it now affords 
me great pleasure to aid in advancing these departments 
of knowledge. 

***The rapid advance which natural science is now 

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making renders it necessary to provide for the fiiture 
requirements of such a museum, as well as its present 
wants ; and I trust that the portion of the fund designed 
for this purpose will be found sufBcient. 

" * On learning of your acceptance of this trust, and of 
the assent of the President and Fellows of Yal^ College 
to its conditions, I shall be prepared to pay over to you 
the sum I have named ; and I may then have some addi- 
tional suggestions to make in regard to the general 
management of the trust. Confident that under your 
direction this trust will be faithfully . and successfully 

" ' I am, with great respect, your obedient servant, 

" ' George Peabody.' '* 

the instrument of gift. 

•* * I hereby give to James D wight DaAa of New Ha- 
ven, Conn., James Dixon of Hartford, Conn., Robert C. 
Winthrop of Boston, Mass., Benjamin SilHraan of New 
Haven, Conn., George Jarvis Brush of New Haven, 
Conn., Othniel Charles Marsh of New Haven, Conn., 
and George Peabody Wetmore of Newport, R.I., on his 
attaining his majority, the sum of one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars, to be by them or their successors held 
in trust, to found and maintain a museum of natural his- 
tory, especially of the departments of zoology, geology, 
and mineralogy, in connection with Yale College, in the 
city of New Haven, State of Connecticut. 

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" * Of this sum, I direct that my said trustees devote a 
part — not to exceed one hundred thousand dollars — to the 
erection, upon land to be given for that purpose, free of 
cost or rental, by the President and Fellows of Tale Col- 
lege, in New Haven, of a fire-proof museum-building, 
adapted to the present requirements of these three depart- 
ments of science, but planned with especial reference to its 
subsequent enlargement; the building, when completed, 
to become the property of said college for the uses of this 
trust, and none other. 

" * I further direct that the sum of twenty thousand dol- 
lars be invested, and accumulate as a building-fund, until 
it shall amount to at least one hundred thousand dollars, 
when it may be employed by my said trustees, or their 
successors, in the erection of one or more additions to the 
museum-building, or in its final completion ; the land for 
the same also to be provided, free of cost or rental, by llie 
President and Fellows of Yale College, in New Haven ; 
and the entire structure, when completed, to be the property 
of Yale College, for the uses of this trust, and none other. 

"*I further direct that thirty thousand dollars, the 
remaining portion of this donation, be invested, and the 
income from it be expended by my said trustees, or their 
successors, for the care of the museum, increase of its col- 
lections, and general interests of the departments of sci- 
ence already named ; the part of the income remaining, 
after providing for the general care of the museum, to be 
apportioned in the following manner, — three-sevenths to 

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zoology, three-sevenths to geology, and one-seventh to 
mineralogy ; the said collections, as well as the museum- 
building, to be exclusively for the benefit of the various 
departments of said college. 

" * The board of trustees I have thus constituted shall 
always be composed of seven persons, of whom not more 
than folir shall at any one time be members of the Faculty 
of Yale College. They shall have the general manage- 
ment of the museum, keep a record of their doings, and 
annually prepare a report setting forth the condition of the 
trust and funds, and the amount of income received and 
paid out by them during the previous year. This report, 
signed by the trustees, shall be presented to the President 
and Fellows of Yale College, in New Haven, at their an- 
nual summer session, and be by them filed in the archives 
of said college. 

" * In the event of the death or resignation of either of 
my said trustees, I direct that his successor be the Gov- 
ernor of Connecticut, who, ex officio^ shall forever after- 
ward be a member of the board. Any other vacancy that 
may occur in the board of trustees, either by I'esignation 
or by death, filled by the remaining tnistees within 
a reasonable time after such vacancy shall have occurred. 

" ' I give to my said trustees and their successors the 
liberty to appoint a treasurer, and to enter into any agree- 
ments with the President and Fellows of Yale College, 
not inconsistent with the terms of this trust, which may in 
their opinion be expedient. " ' Geobge Pbabody. 

« * New York, Oct 22, 1866.' Dig tized by Google 


"This generous donation provides for one great and 
pressing want of the university, — a fire-proof museum- 
building for preserving the extensive and valuable col- 
lections which have been accumulating during the last 
half-century, and are now rapidly increasing. It is under- 
stood to be the intention of the trustees to commence the 
erection of the first wing of the museum at an early day. 
When completed, this part will, it is thought, be amply 
sufficient for the requirements of the immediate future, or 
until the reserved building-fund shall have increased suffi- 
ciently to provide for the erection of the main or central 
building ; and this, in turn, will serve until the completion 
of the whole structure. 

" Students of natural history in all departments of Yale 
College, and in all time to come, will be grateful to Mr. 
Peabody for thus rendering secure the collection and pres- 
ervation of such a museum as the institution has long been 
in need of.'* 

In October, 1866, Mr. Peabody testified his regard for 
the oldest college in his native land by giving Harvard a 
sum of money for a museum, which is now known by his 
name. His letter and instrument of gift are as follows : — 

, " Georgetown, Oct 8, 1866. 

" To the Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, His Excellency Charles Francis 
Adams, Francis Peabody, Stephen Salisbury, Asa Gray, JefiTries 
Wyman, and Greorge Peabody Russell, Esquires. 

" Gentlemen^ — Accompanying this letter, I enclbse an 


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instrument giving to you one hundred and fifty thousand . 
dollars ($160,000), in trust, for the foundation and 
maintenance of a museum and professorship of American 
archaeology and ethnology in connection with Harvard 

" I have for some years had the purpose of contributing, 
as I might find opportunity, to extend the usefulness of 
the honored and ancient university of our Commonwealth ; 
and I trust, that in view of the importance and national 
character of the proposed department, and its interesting 
relations to kindred investigations in other countries, the 
means I have chosen may prove acceptable. 

" On learning of your acceptance of the trust, and of 
the assent of the President and Fellows of Harvard Col- 
lege to its terms, I shall be prepared to pay over to you 
the sum I have named. 

" Aside from the provisions of the instrument of gift, I 
leave in your hands the details and management of the 
trust ; only suggesting, that, in view of the gradual obht- 
eration or destruction of the wdrks and remains of the 
ancient races xy£ this continent, the labor of exploration 
and collection be commenced at as early a day as practi- 
cable ; and also, that, in the event of the discovery in 
America of human remains or implements of an earlier- 
geological period than the present, especid attention be 
given to their study, and their comparison with those found 
in other countries. 

" With the hope that the museum, as thus established 

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and maintained, may be instrumental in promoting and 
extending its department of science, and with fullest confi- 
dence, that, under your care, the best means will be adopted 
to secure the end desired, 

" I am, with great respect, your humble servant, 

"Gbokge Peabody." 

** I do hereby give to Robert C. Winthrop of Boston, 
Charles Francis Adams of Quincy, Francis Peabody of 
Salem, Stephen Salisbury of Worcester, Asa Gray of 
Cambridge, Jeffries Wyman of Cambridge, and George 
Peabody Russell of Salem, all of Massachusetts, the sum 
of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, to be by them and 
their successors held in trust, to found and maintain a mu- 
seum of American archaeology and ethnology in connec- 
tion with Harvard University, in the city of Cambridge, 
and Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

*' Of this sum I direct that my said trustees shall invest 
forty-five thousand dollars as a fund, the income of which 
shall be applied to forming and preserving collections of 
antiquities, and objects relating to the early races of the 
.American continent, or such (including such books and 
works as may form a good working library for the depart- 
ments of science indicated) as shall be requisite for the 
investigation and illustration of archaeology and ethnology 
in general, in main and special reference, however, to the 
aboriginal American races. 

*' I direct that the income of the further sum of forty- 

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five thousand dollars shall be applied by my said trustees 
to the establishment and maintenance of a professorship of 
American archaeology and ethnology in Harvard Univer- 
sity. The professor shall be appointed by the President 
and Fellows of Harvard College, with the concurrence of 
the overseers, in the same manner as other professors are 
appointed, but upon the nomination of the founder or the 
board of trustees. He shall have charge of the above- 
mentioned collections, and shall deliver one or more courses 
of lectures annually, under the direction of the govern- 
ment of the university, on subjects connected with said 
departments of science. 

" Until this professorship is filled, or during the time it 
may be vacant, the income from the fimd appropriated to 
it shall be devoted to the care and increase of the collec- 

"I further direct that the remaining sum of sixty 
thousand dollars be invested and accumulated as a build- 
ing-fund until it shall amount to at least one hundred 
thousand dollars, when it may be employed in the erection 
of a suitable fire-proof museum-building, upon land to be 
given for that purpose, free of cost or rental, by the Presi- 
dent and Fellows of Harvard College ; the building, when 
completed, to become the property of the college, for the 
uses of this trust, and none other. 

" The board of trustees I have thus constituted shall 
always be composed of seven persons : and it is my wish 
that the office, of chairman be filled by Mr, Winthrop ; in 

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the event of his death or resignation, by Mr. Adams ; and 
so successively in the order I have named above. The 
trustees shall keep a record of their doings, and shall an- 
nually prepare a report, setting forth the condition of the 
trust and funds, and the amount of income received and 
paid out by them during the previous year. This report, 
signed by the trustees, shall be presented to the President 
and Fellows of the college. 

" In the event of the death or resignation of Mr. Win- 
throp, I direct that the vacancy in the number of the board 
be filled by the President of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, who, ex officio^ shall forever after be a member of 
the board. In the event of the death or resignation of 
Mr. Peabody, the vacancy to be filled by the President 
of the scientific body now established in the city of Salem, 
under the name of the Essex Institute ; of Mr. Salisbury, 
by the President of the American Antiquarian Society ; 
of Prof. Gray, by the President of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences ; and of Prof. Wyman, by the Presi- 
dent of the Boston Society of Natural History, — all of 
whom shall forever after be, ex officio^ members of the 

" Should the president of either of the societies I have 
named decline to act as a trustee, such vacancy, and all 
other vacancies that may occur in the number of the trus- 
tees, shall be filled by the remaining trustees, who shall, 
within a reasonable time, make the appointment or appoint- 

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" I give to my said trustees the liberty to obtain from 
the liOgislature an act of incorporation, if they deem it 
desirable ; to make all necessary by-laws ; to appoint a 
treasurer ; and to enter into any arrangements and agree- 
ments with the government of Harvard College, not in- 
consistent with the terms of this trust, which may, in their 
opinion, be expedient. 

(Si^ed) " Gbobgb Peabody. 

** Geokoetown, Oct. 8, 1866.'* 

Rev. Dr. Walker, in referring to this munificence of 
Mr. Peabody, and the fact that officers of Harvard Col- 
lege and officers of the Massachusetts Historical Society 
were to be also trustees of the Peabody Museum, said, 
, " Mr. Peabody, as it seems to me, has shown great wis- 
dom by connecting his new institution, to some extent, 
with two of the oldest of these societies; so that, hereafter, 
we may have the benefit of both agencies, acting with 
more effect because more likely to act in harmony and 
together for a common object." 

Rev. E. E. Hale then remarked, — 

" I should not venture to add any thing, Mr. President, 
to what has been so fitly said, but that you have asked me 
to say something in acknowledgment of so great a gift to 
science, because, in some sort, I represent here the gov- 
ernment of the American Antiquarian Society. In the 
establishment of the proposed museum, and of the 

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professorship connected with it, under Mr. Peabody's 
munificent endowment, the Antiquarian Society saw .the 
fulfilment of a cherished wish which it had entertained 
for half a century ; and its government is confident, that, 
in the administration of this endowment, the studies of 
the American antiquary would be redeemed from any 
unfair suspicion which has considered them petty, or 
unworthy of profound scientific attention. 

"Have we not been somewhat disposed to think that 
these arrow-points and pestles and stone axe-heads, such as 
I have brought down stairs fi*om our own collection, were 
hardly worth a place in our museum ? Or, if any 
explorer southward or westward brought us his contribu- 
tions of the work of our own native tribes, have we not 
been apt to think that they were mere curiosities, with* 
little value for science ? Now, in the recent study of the 
antiquity of the human race, these very illustrations of 
what has been called the Stone Age are claiming a place 
of the very first importance in the study of the real 
primeval history of the world. 

** And, Mr. President, so far as I am aware, Mr. Pea- 
body, in his letter of gift, is the first person who has 
publicly called attention to the invaluable illustration 
which the antiquarian study of this country will thus 
give to this new science, which seeks to set in order 
the social progress of the world, — its moral palaeon- 
tology, if I may hazard the expression, — of which we 
here can illustrate some of the steps far better than 


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they can be fllustrated in Europe. The little specimens 
which I have placed on the table — some of them the 
work of Nature, and some, to appearance much less care- 
fully wrought, the undoubted work of man — will show 
how difficult it is for an untrained observer to say with 
certainty, in a given instance, whether a relic from another 
age is or is not a memorial of human art. In point of 
fact, the tools from the alluvium of the Somme, figured 
by M. Boucher de Perthes in his * Antiquit^s Celtiques,' 
were so rudely shaped, that many persons supposed they 
were stones which owed their peculiar forms to accidental 
fracture in a river's bed. In such ways the whole series 
of questions connected with the memorials of the stone 
age discovered in Europe have been embarrassed, from 
the fact, that the scientific men of Europe, in studying 
that age, with them so distant, have been obliged to con- 
struct their theories simply from the handftd of specimens 
preserved through so many intervening ages, — materials 
which were themselves the material under discussion. 
We here, however, have the stone age at hand : we can 
match these arrow-points and axe-heads from our own 
collections of thousands of such articles, — the work of a 
race not yet passed away. If we wish, we can question 
the men who have used them; nay, can see them as 
they make them. And here is one more instance to be 
added to so many which are successively forced upon 
*us, which show that our antiquarian studies are, in fact, 
not the baby-talk of the infants of a new world, but are 



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studies relating to the very oldest world, and, indeed, to 
the very foundation of social order. 

" You remember, Mr. President, how often Mr. Agas- 
siz dwells upon the fact, that, when* it pleased God to 
divide the land from the water, — when 'fields grew 
green,' where for thousands of years * oceans only had 
gathered,' — the first beach which rose above the icy 
waves was the strip of land which Mr. Agassiz calls * the 
Laiirentian Hills.' It is the strip which we have all 
heard described so many times — and in the language of 
geology also — as *the highlands dividing the waters of 
the St. Lawrence from the waters of the Atlantic' That 
was the phrase used by Adams and Franklin in our first 
treaty with England; and the commissioners chose that 
oldest ridge of land to be the eternal division between the 
two countries which were just then parted. All of us 
have noticed the curious revelation of recent science, 
which has pointed out the fiict, that this region, made so 
familiar to us in the struggles of diplomacy, should prove 
to be really a landmark so ancient. Now, with every 
fresh revelation of science, sir, we are seeing more dis- 
tinctly that the studies of this older continent are in every 
way essential to the studies of our younger sister continent 
on the other side of the ocean. 

"It seems to me a very striking illustration of the 
comprehensive views of Mr. Peabody, that, while he was 
engaged in that work for the world to which a great mer- 
chant is called, he should have perceived the intimacy of 


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the connection between the antiquarian study of this 
country and what I have a right to call the newly-created 
antiquarian science of Europe. These views of the 
antiquity of man, in which Professor Lyell has excited 
such wide popular interest, are but just now announced 
to the European world. Mr. Peabody has instantly seized 
on the fact, that, in this older world, we have peculiar 
advantages for illustrating them. Deeply interested him- 
self in the new studies by which the geologists of Europe 
are illustrating the antiquity of the race, he has seen that 
we have here peculiar opportunity for contributing to 
those studies facts of great interest, and observations 
impossible excepting where the forms of the oldest social 
order may be studied while still alive. Observing this, 
with the most liberal eixdowment he creates the new 
institution which is to preserve the memorials and give 
persistency to the studies which are necessary in the 

" I hold in my hand, and should gladly read here if I 
had not occupied so much of the society's time, a letter 
from Mr. Abbott Lawrence, written when he was our 
minister in England, acknowledging in the most cordial 
way the important services which Mr. Peabody again and 
again rendered in preserving a kindly feeling between 
America and England. He seems to have consecrated 
the immense influence which he has so worthily acquired 
to thos8 friendly offices which best unite two lands that 
should bo parted only by the qcean. The last great ser- 


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vice we acknowledge to-day, in which Mr. Peabody shows 
us how the antiquarian science of each continent may 
contribute to that of the other ; how essential, indeed, for 
the deepest research of. each continent, is the kindred 
research, which, at the same moment, presses its inquiries 
in the other, — this last great service fitly illustrates that 
work of mediation and good feeling to which this distin- 
guished man has so successfully devoted the efforts of his 

The value of Mr. Peabody's gift will be best appre- 
ciated by those interested in the objects of the museum ; 
and, that these may be better understood, the circular 
stating their wants and wishes is here given : — 


" Through the munificence of Mr. George Peabody 
of London, a museum of American archaeology and eth- 
nology has been established in connection with Harvard 
College. In carrying out the wishes of the founder, it is 
intended to bring together all objects illustrative of or 
bearing upon the origin, early history, manners and cus- 
toms, and progress towards civilization, of the aboriginal 
races of North and South America. In fiirthering the 
objects of the above foundation, the undersigned, the 
executive committee, in behalf of the board of trustees, 
are desirous of obtaining any of the following articles : tt 


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^^ 1. Implements of stone, snch as axes, gouges, chisels, 
clabs, pestles, sinkers, tomahawks, mortars, arrow-heads, 
spear-heads, &c. 

** 2. Articles of earthenware, snch as vases, pots, pipes, 
bowls, or images of any kind. 

" 3. Bows, arrows, quivers, spears, rattles, drums, 
shields, snow-shoes, knives, lodges, medicine-bags, tobacco- 
pouches, cooking-utensils, articles of dress, either of purely 
aboriginal make, or such as show the gradual contact of 
the savage and European races. 

" 4. Mummies, skeletons, or parts of skeletons, of any 
of the North or South American races. Of the parts of 
skeletons, the skulls are always of great importance ; and 
the long bones of the limbs, and the hip-bones, are of 
much value. 

" 6. Antiquities, in the form of images or other sculp- 
tures, or the casts of them, from Peru, Mexico, Chili, or 
Central America. 

*' 6. Any articles made by or relating to the Esqui- 
maux, and the Fuegians, or the Patagonians. 

" It is within the plan of the founder to make collec- 
tions relating to the archaeology and ethnology of other 
aboriginal races, especially of such articles as have a bear- 
ing upon, or help to illustrate the history of, the American 
races. The trustees are, therefore, desirous of obtaining 
crania, skeletons or parts of skeletons, weapons and 
implements of all kinds, pottery, or any other articles of 
aboriginal make, from any portion of the world; also 


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drawings or casts of them which may serve to show the 
differences or resemblances between the varions hmnan 
races in their earliest stages of existence. 

"RoBEBT 0. WnnmGtop,'! 

ABA UBAT, f Committee.'' 

Jeffbies Wymak, J 


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Peabody Academy of Science in Salem. — Essex Institute. — Mr. Pea- 
body's Letter. — His Lore for his native Comity of Essex. 

« Some there are 
By their good deeds exalted, lofty mindB, 
And meditative authors of delight 
And happiqesfl, which, to the end of time, 
'Win live and spread and flourish." — Wobdswobth. 

" Receive my instmction, and not silver; and knowledge rather than choice gold. 
For wisdom is better than rabies ; and all the things that may be desired are not to 
be compared to it.''— Pboy. viii. 10, 11. 

fS intimated in the Prefece, George Peabody 
was not forgetful of the Essex Institute in 
Salem. With his usual liberality, he bestowed 
a la^ge sum upon those banded together in 
Essex County for historical and scientific purposes, and 
founded, in connection with the Essex Institute, whose 
library, museum, and officers were in Salem, an Acad- 
emy of Science, so called, to be known henceforth by his 
name. The following characteristic letter accompanied 
his gift : — 


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" Salem, Mass., Feb. 26, 1867. 

«To Francis Peabody, Esq., Prof. Asa Gray, William C. Endicott, 
Esq., George Peabody Russell, Esq., Prof. Othnlel C. Marsh, 
Dr. Henry Wheatland, Abner C. Goodell, jun., Esq., Dr. James 
R. Nichols, and Dr. Henry C. Perkins. 

^^GenUemeny — As you will perceive by the enclosed 
instrument of trust, I wish to place in the hands of your- 
selves and your successors the sum of one hundred and 
forty thousand dollars for the promotion of science and 
useful knowledge in the county of Essex. 

" Of this, my native county, I have always been justly 
proud, in common with all her sons; remembering her 
ancient reputation, her many illustrious statesmen, jurists, 
and men of science, her distinguished record from the 
earliest days of our country's history, and the distinction 
so long retained by her, as eminent in the education and 
morality of her citizens. 

"I am desirous of assisting to perpetuate her good 
name through future generations, and of aiding, through 
her means, in the diffusion of science and knowledge; 
and after consultation with "some of her most eminent 
and worthy citizens, and encouraged by the success which 
has already attended the efforts and researches of the 
distinguished scientific association of which your chair- 
man is president, and with which most of you are con- 
nected, I am led to hope that this gift may be instrumental 
in attaining the desired end. 

"I therefore transmit to you the enclosed instrument, 


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and a check for the amount therein named ($140,000), 
with the hope that this trust, as administered by you and 
your successors, may tend to advancement in intelligence 
and virtue, not only in our good old county of Essex, but 
in our commonwealth and in our common country. 
" I am, with great respect, 

" Your humble servant, 

"George Peabody." 

During the session of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, which was held in Salem, Mass., 
in the summer of 1869, the dedicatory services of the 
Peabody Academy of Science were held In the Taberna- 
cle Church; the building owned by the academy being too 
small for the audience. 

According to " The Salem Observer " of Aug. 14*, 
1869, "The exercises were opened at three o'clock 
with prayer by the Rev. C. R. Palmer, pastor of the 
church; which was followed by the singing of a hymn 
written for the occasion by Rev. Jones Very, and which 
was well rendered by a select choir from the Salem Orato- 
rio Class. The dedicatory address was then delivered by 
Mr. Endicott ; and it was universally regarded as a very 
appropriate, excellent, and eloquent discourse. Remarks 
were afterwards made by Ex-Gov. Clifford, Mayor Coggs- 
well, B. H. Silsbee, Esq., of the Marine Society, Dr. 
Wheatland, and Pres. Foster. Benediction by Rev. Mr. 


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The address of the mayor, Gen. William Coggswell, as 
reported in the same excellent newspaper, was as fol- 
lows : — 

"Mb. Pbbsident and Gentijsmbn, — I know that I 
speak the sentiments of the people of this city when I 
congratulate you, sir, and your associate trustees, upon 
the successM establishment in our midst of the Academy 
of Science, under the wise and beneficent trust of that 
world-wide benefactor whose name stands at the head of 
your institution. - 

" Though your labors were at the outset clouded and 
increased by the great loss which we all felt here in the 
death of the first president of your board, yet the citizens 
of this place, which has been honored by the location of 
this Academy, though its purposes are to be devoted to 
the broader field of the whole county of Essex, have 
witnessed ^th pleasure the great and rapid progress 
which has been made in the discharge of the duties of 
your important trust. They are aware of the vast 
amount of labor, under the careful and able supervision 
of yourself and associates, which has wrought out all this. 
They are sensible of the good results which must inevita- 
bly flow therefrom ; and therefore it is, that, with honor 
and with pride, they feel they can join you this day in the 
dedication of the Peabody Academy of Science, and bid 
it, as they do now bid it, All hail, welcome, and God 
speed 1 


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" Dedicated to the cause of science, — that cause to 
which all look for truth, instruction, and the ^explanation 
of the hidden mysteries of life ; through which we learn to 
understand the ways 'of Nature, and to make useful all the 
powers which God has given ; from which we learn to 
read aright the lessons of experience, and to make more 
perfect the labors of mankind ; science, which leads, not 
from, but to, a better, higher, nobler appreciation of God 
and his infinity, — dedicated to this great study, and in this 
presence of the eminent scholars of science of our land, 
who shall attempt to set forth its useful results, its perfect 
work, its future, or its effect upon the important study to 
which it is now dedicated and set apart? Who will follow 
out its influences, unbounded and without a limit as they 
will be, as from father to son, from generation to genera- 
tion, it shall send forth the influence and energy of de- 
veloped truth i^to the great struggle of hfe and into the 
current of the great river of knowledge ? 

*> When we reflect upon the immense scope of its study, 
— touching every interest and inquiry of life ; sifting and 
exposing error ; imderlying the superstructure of govern- 
ment, of Ufe, of health, of knowledge, and of wisdom ; 
opening to us the secrets of Nature ; bringing us all, 
whether we will or not, up to a higher, broader, better 
plane of existence ; leading us to discard error and preju- 
dice, and to adopt the truth ; training the lightning to do 
its bidding ; exchanging, as it does this day exchange, the 
thoughts and wishes of continents, and publishing the 


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edicts of Nature in "the twinkling of an eye;" — when 
we call to mind that all' things yield up their secrets to 
the all-searching, never-tiring eye of the man of science ; 
when we consider more particularly its relation to the 
body politic, — that upon it government must depend 
alike for its implements of war and its arts of peace, — 
railroads, canals, surveys, harbor -improvements, the 
census, the levying of tax, finance, the waging of war, 
the commerce of the seas, the products of the soil ; that 
' the end of the institution, maintenance, and administra- 
tion of government is to secure the existence of the body 
politic, to protect it, and to furnish the individuals who 
compose it with the power of enjoying in safety and tran- 
quillity their natural rights and the blessings of life ; ' — 
when we consider all this, and that government, in all its 
branches and departments, in all the intricate machinery 
of administration, must follow the laws of science, or follow 
not at aU, who but will welcome every aid in its behalf? 
who but will give thanks and praise at the founding of 
each and every academy devoted to its great and enno- 
bling labors ? and who but will love and revere the man 
whose never-failing spring of love to his fellow-man has 
builded in our midst this temple in its honor ? And most 
especially does it become the municipality which has been 
made the favored recipient of such a trust to take a deep 
and abiding interest in all that appertains to its welfare 
and success. 

" I feel, gentlemen, the difficulty under which I labor 

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in speaking to the caase of science in this presence ; for I 
am as a stranger in its fields : but I can bear my willing 
testimony to the vast amount of good it has already 
accomplished. I feel that to it all things are possible ; 
and I know that I reflect the feelings of the citizens of 
Salem when I greet this as the dawning of better and 
more glorious days in the history of this our city, so fiill 
now of its proud memories which we all delight to. honor, 
and in whose welfare we all take a loving and an earnest 

" I shall fail, however, in my duty here, if I omit to 
pay my tribute of respect to- the genius, the skill, the 
industry, and the devotion of those gentlemen, who, if life 
is spared to them, and they are spared to you, are destined 
to make your trust a perfect and a famed success. I refer 
to the present professors of your Academy. It is a deli- 
cate matter to speak of* them in their presence ; yet I can- 
not help saying, what everybody knows, that fortunate 
indeed is the institution which can claim them as its own. 

" But, sir, I shall turn away from any attempt to speak 
the feelings of those I have the honor to represent, or of 
myself, — the feelings of admiration and gratitude and 
respect towards him whose bounty, reaching from conti- 
nent to continent, has fallen upon our heads ; for I feel 
that all words of praise would be commonplace, that all 
expressions of gratitude would be trite, and that all words 
of compliment would be empty, when brought by me and 
laid at the feet of so great a doer of good. 

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** And now allow me to say, that with the Essex Insti- 
tute, so favorably known, under its wise and active man- 
agement; with our Peabody Academy of Science, so 
recently inaugurated ; with the far-famed East-India Mu- 
seum, brought now to a more public use ; and with the 
eminent men connected with them, — fortunate and happy 
indeed must be the city which holds them all within its 
limits ; and I feel that I can pledge you at all times the 
hearty and unbounded support and co-operation of the 
citizens of Salem." 

The Essex Institute of Salem, which was the institution 
from which the Peabody Academy of Science is but an 
outgrowth, is greatly indebted to one man especially for 
its success. His untiring zeal, energy, and perseverance, 
and his acknowledged ability as secretary and Kbrarian 
and manager-in-general of the aflretirs of the Essex Insti- 
tute, have, in a large measure, been the source of its suc- 
cess. That man is Dr. Henry Wheatland of Salem, whose 
silver hairs are a crown of glory, and whose afternoon of 
life is so radiant, that it seems as if his sun stood still, as 
in the days of Gideon, while he battles on the fields of 
historic and scientific research. 

He said, on the occasion of the dedication of the Pea- 
body Academy of Science, and in response to a deserved 
tribute paid the Essex Institute, — 

"I thank you, Mr. President, in behalf of the Essex 
Institute, foifyour kind notice on this occasion. 

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" The Institate has only to say, that it has been humbly 
following out the plan handed down by past generations 
for the promotion of education and general culture, liiodi- 
fied in some degree to meet the wants of the community 
and the requirements of the age. What little success may 
have attended its efforts is mainly due to the examples 
and precepts of those who have preceded. These early 
pioneers in the cause of science have borne the heat and 
burden of the day, and have prepared the way, thus leav- 
ing it comparatively easy to follow. 

"We have an honorable record. Each successive period 
in our history, from the landing of Conant, of Endicott, 
and Higginson, from the time of Roger Williams and 
Hugh Peters, to the present, has enrolled many names 
illustrious for professional attainments, mechanical indus- 
tries, and commercial enterprises. 

^^ These materials did not crystallize into any permanent 
form until about the middle of the last century, when it 
assumed that of a social club, composed of the leading 
spirits of the day, and holding weekly meetings, where the 
principal topics of the day were discussed, especially those 
of a literary and scientific character. One was the sug- 
gestion for the formation of a library similar in its char- 
acter to that which Franklin had established in Philadel- 
phia some twenty-five or thirty years previous, and that 
at Newport by Redwood a few years afterwards. This 
movement resulted in the formation of the Social Library 
in 1761. These meetings were held at Pratt's Tavern, 

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located on the north-east comer of Essex and Washington 
Streets. At that time, the tavern was the great place of 
resorb for the people ; and meetings of the various clubs, 
committees, &c., were always held there. 

** Some twenty years roll away, and we behold the 
privateer ship * Pilgrim,' Hugh Hill, commander, owned 
by the Messrs. Cabot, bringing into the neighboring port 
of Beverly a collection of books, being a part of the 
library of the celebrated Irish chemist. Dr. Richard Kir- 
wan, which was taken from a schooner captured during 
the early part of the year 1781 in the English Channel. 
These books, comprising the * Philosophical Transactions 
of the Royal Society of London,' * M^moires de TAcad^- 
mie Royale des Sciences,' Paris, ^ Miscellanea Beroli- 
nensa,' Boyle's * Works,' * Bemouilli Opera,' ' Wolfii 
Elementa Matheseos,' and others, were purchased by a 
company of gentlemen; and thus was constituted the 
Philosophical Library. This addition gave a new impulse 
to scientific investigation, and aided many in their re- 
searches. The late Dr. Nathaniel Bowditch, when a 
young man, had access to these works, and thus was en- 
abled to develop more fully that genius which enabled him 
to be the expounder of La Place, and to take a leading 
position among the mathematicians of his age. In his will, 
Dr. Bowditch makes honorable mention of his indebtedness 
to this library in his early studies. Among the proprietors 
of this library may be mentioned Rev. Joseph Willard, 
afterwards President of Harvard College ; Rev. Dr. 

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Manasseh Cutler of the Hamlet in Ipswich, one of oxir 
earliest botanists, and the originator and conductor of a 
company who emigrated from this county in 1786 to the 
West, and thus founded the settlement at Marietta, on the 
banks of the Ohio; Drs. E. A. Holyoke and Ome of 
Salem ; and others. 

^^ Another score of years pass, and we behold in a small 
room, in the third story of a brick building erected on the 
site of the old tavern previously mentioned, and now 
occupied as a part of the printing-o£Sce of ^ The Salem 
Observer,' the nucleus of a museum originated by several 
of our citizens engaged in the East-India trade, then the 
leading business in Salem, and around which, by gradual 
accretions, has grown the &mous East-India Museum, the 
re-arrangement of which with the scientific collections of 
the Essex Institute the trustees of the Peabody Academy 
of Science this day dedicate to the public. 

^^ It is perhaps needless to trace further in detail the 
growth of our institutions: the principal facts in their 
history have appeared in the printed publications of the 
Institute. Suffice it to mention that the Salem Athe- 
naeum was incorporated in 1810 : the Essex Historical 
Society, organized in 1821, and the Essex-County Natural 
History Society in 1833, were united and incorporated in 
1848 under the name of the Essex Institute. 

" The building of Plummer Hall in 1866, from funds 
bequeathed by the late Miss Caroline Plummer of Salem, 
and in which are deposited the principal libraries, consti- 



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tute an important era in our history. It is a singular 
coincidence, that this building is erected on the site of the 
house in which Prescott the historian first saw the light 
of day. 

" The donation of Mr. Peabody in 1867, and the con- 
sequent formation of the Trustees of the Peabody Acad- 
emy of Science, — a full account of which has been so ably 
and so eloquently presented by you, Mr. President, on 
this occasion, — has relieved the Institute of a portion of its 
duties, some of which have already been transferred to*the 
Academy, — the care and maintenance of its museum, 
and the publication of scientific papers, especially those 
that illustrate the natural history of the county. This 
forms another very important epoch in our histoi*y. 

" This donation of Mr. Peabody came very opportunely, 
at a time when the materials were at hand to organize an 
institution on a good basis, with large and valuable muse- 
ums and a corps of able workers. The Museum of the 
East-India Marine Society had been accumulating for 
many years, and had acquired a well-merited reputation. 
The Essex Institute had, within the past few years, gath- 
ered together a corps of active young naturalists and of 
historical students, and had awakened a deep interest in 
scientific studies and historic research by its field and 
other meetings, its lectures and publications ; at the same 
time, added largely to its library and its various collections ; 
awaiting, as it were, for some such endowment as that of 
Mr. Peabody to galvanize them into a more active sphere 

of usefulness. Cr\r\n\o 

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" The Institute has cause for great congratulation that 
one of its cherished departments is so well cared for; and 
that, under the auspices of the Academy, an accurate 
survey of the natural resources of the county will be 
made, that the same may be developed to the fullest 
extent ; and that a knowledge of the sciences, especially 
their application to the arts, be diffused among the people, 
so that, by the aid of skilled labor, the greatest practical 
results can be obtained with the least expenditure of time 
and capital. 

" The Essex Institute in its organization recognizes 
three departments, — those of natural history, history, and 

" The first, as has been before mentioned, is in good 
hands. It is immaterial who does the work, or who has 
the credit for doing the same, provided that it is well done. 
The second and third have received no special endow- 
ment; and what little pro\'ision they obtain must come 
from the ordinary income, or from future acts of munifi- 

" The horticultural department has taken, in years past, 
a prominent position in the doings of the society. The 
exhibitions of fruits and flowers have been considered as 
ranking favorably with those of similar institutions. This 
city and the vicinity have always had a goodly array of 
enthusiastic and successful cultivators of the choicest pro- 
ductions of Flora and Pomona. Among those of the past, 
the name of Robert Manning the elder stands prominent 

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as a pioneer in the cultivation of fruit, especially of the 

" The garden of J. F. Allen exhibited for several sea- 
sons a fine display of that gorgeous lily, the Victoria 
Regia; and his excellent treatise on this flower, with 
superb illustrations, finds a place in every public library. 
Yet later, Allen's Hybrids and Rogers's Hybrid Seedling 
Grapes are attracting the attention of all the cultivators 
of this choice and delicious fruit. 

" Essex County is one of the oldest in New England. 
Her records date back to an early period. Its children 
have been and are now among the prominent in all the 
greatest enterprises of their respective periods, and have 
received their . merited reward. Let us cherish their 
memories with strict fidelity, and transmit the same, unim- 
paired, to the latest posterity. 

" To this end it is necessary to preserve with the great- 
est care all papers, loose manuscript-leaves, interleaved 
almanacs with inserted notes, old records, diaries, &c., 
that are scattered through our county. They are found 
in the archives of our towns, in the various parishes, and 
in almost every hamlet. 

" The county commissioners have, with a wise fore- 
thought, done a good work in having the papers belonging 
to the old quarterly courts properly arranged and placed 
into volumes, the whole carefully indexed under the 
superintendence of W. P. Upham, one of our most care- 
ful and zealous antiquarian scholars. Thanks to the corn- 
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missloners for what has thus far been done. May they be 
induced to extend the same protecting care to all the 
other records that are deposited in the various county 
offices 1 

" It is very desirable that the Essex Institute should be 
placed in a condition to collect and arrange in a similar 
manner all the scattered materials that will elucidate our 
history. If the originals cannot be obtained, exact copies 
of the same should be carefully made. Many of these 
papers will undoubtedly be found worthy of being 
printed ; and, if no provision should be made that the 
same be done, an opportunity is here offered for some 
liberal-minded son or sons of Essex to c(totribute to this 
worthy object. In no better and more enduring way can 
one be remembered in the future than by cherishing a 
due regard for the memory of those who have contributed 
so much for the comfort and happiness of the present 

The whole of the above address is given, because it con- 
cerns the county which was nearest Mr. Peabody's heart, 
because it was his native county. It will be seen by 
the address that the Peabody Academy of Science does 
not take the place of the Esse« Institute, nor is it over- 
shadowed by the latter. They work together. Accord^ 
ing to the reliable statements of Dr. Wheatland, — 

" The real status of the Essex Institute is nearly this : 
An institution with several hundred members resident 


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in all the towns of Essex County, its headquarters in Sa- 
lem, its rooms in Plummer Hall, where is deposited its 
library of some twenty-five thousand volumes, and a large 
collection of historical matter. It owns a fine collection 
of specimens of natural history, deposited with the Pea- 
body Academy. It holds, in the summer-season, some 
half-dozen assemblies in fit localities, occupying a whole 
day at each : the forenoon is spent in explorations and re- 
search, and the afternoon given to discussions and reports. 
These occasions, called * field-meetings,' are open to every 
one, and are always highly diversified and agreeable, com- 
bining the ease of the picnic with the profit of the lecture- 
room. In the 'winter-season, evening meetings are held 
on the first and third Mondays of each month ; and, occa- 
sionally, courses of historical and scientific lectures are 
given. The publications consist of a volume of historical 
collections annually, of some three hundred ^ages, and the 
* Bulletin,' a record of meetings,' short communications 
on subjects of which the Institute takes cognizance, dona- 
tions, correspondence, &c. Papers of a strictly scientific 
character, requiring illustrations, may probably be printed 
by the Peabody Academy, or arrangements to that effect 
will probably be made ; otherwise by the Institute, under 
the appellation of * Memoirs.' 

" Thus we have in Salem two institutions, working in 
a common cause, having organizations entirely different in 
character, — the Academy, a close corporation of nine 
members, holding funds for specific purposes, and employ- 
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ing agents to perform duties not inconsistent with the 
instrument of trust ; the other a popular institution of 
some hundreds of members, including a large portion of 
those citizens of the county who are interested in the 
promotion of general culture and refinement. The one 
supplements the other ; and there is no reason why the 
two may not continue, as now, to co-operate harmoniously 
in the performance of the important duties committed to 
their care, and thus build up an institution, or a series of 
institutions, which will shed a brilliant lustre for a long 
term of years thoughout our land, and be a beacon-light to 
the investigation in history, science, art, and literature. 

" In conclusion, it may be mentioned that Mr. Peabody, 
in his instrument of trust, empowers his trustees to make 
such arrangements and agreements with the Essex Institute 
as may be necessary or expedient for carrying into effect 
the provisions of his instrument ; also that all the trustees, 
the director, the curators, and assistants, are members of the 
Institute ; and those who reside within the limits of the 
county hold either an office or a place on some important 
standing-conmiittee, as president, vice-president, superin- 
tendent, corresponding secretary, and curators. 

"Though entirely distinct in their organization, these 
two institutions may, in part, be considered as one ; many 
of the offices in both being held by the same persons. 
Thus linked together in a common bond of union, no diver- 
sity of interest can exist ; each having its respective field 
of operations, and line of duty." 


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After a meiabership of nearly ten years, commencing 
while a resident of Essex County, and never relinquished, 
because so highly valued, the writer of this memorial vol- 
ume can only add to Dr. Wheatland's remarks an em- 
phatic " Amen." 


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Massachusetts Historical Society. — Kenyon College, and Mr. Peabody's 
Donation to it. — Documents in Regard to the Acceptable Gifts. 

" And while ' Lord, Lord I ' the plons tyrants cried, 
Who in the poor their Master cmeifled, 
Bis daily prayer, far better understood 
In acts than words, was simply doing good."— WHimfiR. 

" Through wisdom is a house builded; and by nnderstanding it is established; 
and by knowledge shall the chambers be filled with all ^redons and pleasant 
riches."— Peov. xxiv. 3, 4. • 

{MONG the excellent institutions, of Massachu- 
setts is its Historical Society, which elected 
Mr. Peabody an honorary member on the 
12th of July, 1866 ; and, at the society-meeting 
in September following, the corresponding secretary read 
a letter from Mr. Peabody, stating his acceptance of the 
honor. At the November meeting of the same year, the 
president of the society (Hon. R. C. Winthrop) laid be- 
fore the society a copy of the letter and trust-instrument, 
whereby Mr. Peabody established a museum and profess- 
orship of American archaeology and ethnology in connec- 
tion with Harvard University, in which he named the 


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President of the Massachusetts Historical Society, ex officio^ 
forever one of the trustees : whereupon the following reso- 
lution was submitted : — 

" Besolvedy That Mr. Peabody's letter, and instrument 
of trust, be entered in full on the records of this society ; 
and that the president be instructed to communicate to 
Mr. Peabody the deep and grateful sense which is enter- 
tained by us all of the interest and importance of the insti- 
tution which he has thus founded, and of the munificence 
and wisdom with which he has provided for its manage- 
ment and support." 

The remarks which followed the reading of this resolu- 
tion are already mentioned in a previous chapter. 

In January of the following year, the Massachusetts 
Historical Society was called on to be grateful in its own 
behalf particularly. At the meeting in January, the presi- 
dent said that he had received a communication from our 
distinguished honorary member, Mr. George Peabody, 
which he was sure would be listened to with high gratifi- 
cation and with deep gratitude by every member present. 
He then proceeded to read the following letter : — 

" Boston, Jan. 1, 1867. 
"To the Hon. Bobert C. Winthrop, President of the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society. 

" My dear Sir^ — I have for some time desired to grat- 
ify a wish which I once expressed to you, and while I 


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should, at the same time, mark my strong personal esteem 
and regard for yourself, and my appreciation of the past 
labors and researches of the venerable and distinguished 
society of which you are president, to contribute, in some 
degree, to extend its future usefulness, and preserve its 
valued memorials. 

" With these objects in view, therefore, I beg to present, 
through you, to the Massachusetts Historical Society, the 
sum of twenty thousand dollars in the five-per-cent ten- 
forty coupon-bonds of the United States, bearing accrued 
interest from the 1st of September last ; which bonds, or 
their proceeds, shall be held by them as a permanent "trust- 
fund, of which the income shall be appropriated to the 
publication and illustration of their proceedings and me- 
moirs, and to the preservation of their historical portraits. 

" I will thank you to do me the favor to communicate 
this to the society at their next meeting, to be held on the 
10th inst. 

" I am, with great respect, your humble servant, 

"George Peabody." 

Dr. Ellis then oflPered the following resolutions : — 

" Resolved^ That the members of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society have listened with profound gratification to 
the reading, by their president, of the letter of Mr. George 
Peabody, accompanying his gift to the society of twenty 
thousand dollars ; and that it is with the sincerest gratitude 
to the munificent donor that we thus find ourselves 


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sharers in the comprehensiye generosity which has been 
exercised in England and in the United States with such 
varied, discriminating, and admirable adaptation to so many 
noble interests of humanity, science, and liberal culture. 

" Resolved^ That we recognize this noble gift as espe- 
cially opportune in time and occasion, and as peculiarly 
adapted, in the purposes which its donor ai^igns for it, to 
what have recently been felt to be the most pressing wants 
of the society. We, therefore, hereby pledge ourselves, 
and would bind our successors, to a faithful keeping and 
improvement of the fund, to be called henceforward 
* The Peabody Fund,' of which we are thus put in posses- 
sion ; having regard alike to the conditions so intelligently 
set forth by Mr. Peabody, and. to the importance of the 
special objects he has aimed to serve. 

" Mesolvedy That our best appreciation of this gift, and 
the most fitting return which we can make to its donor, 
will be in our finding in it, individually and as a society, 
a new and continued incentive to industry, earnestness, 
and fidelity in pursuing the investigations and labors for 
which we are here associated. 

" Resolved^ That the president be requested to commu- 
nicate to Mr. Peabody a copy of these resolutions, and to 
assure him that his gift is grateftdly received, and shall be 
faithfully used." 

Dr. Ellis then spoke as follows : — 

" While we are content to repeat much the same famil- 


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iar words and forms of speech in asking for favors, we 
often wish that we had new and fresh terms for acknowl- 
edging them. We should be glad to have a more ample 
range, and a fuller variety of expressions of recognition 
and gratitude. We feel that we might then adapt our 
acknowledgments of obligation for a favor received to the 
special occasion, to the opportuneness, and to the present 
and prospective value, of the benefit conferred, and thus 
avoid the generalities and commonplaces of thankful ac- 

"So, at least, I felt, Mr. President, when, at your 
request, I set myself to draw up the formal resolutions of 
gratitude to our new benefactor, that should, at the same 
time, convey a personal tribute which we might hope 
would be acceptable to him, and express our high estimate 
of the opportuneness and value of his gift. There is 
something about the personality and the individuality of 
that honored and munificent man ; something in the nature 
and method of his wide liberality; something in the con- 
cise forms and in the dignified simplicity of the writings 
which accompany his trust-funds, defining their conditions 
and uses; there is something in the style in which he 
thus confers great favors, — which would naturally prompt 
the recipients of them to make a careful choice of their 
words of thankfulness and appreciation. For if, of any 
one benefactor of his own and of coming generations, a 
wide notoriety for the multiplicity and variety and amount 
of his gifts might prompt a reiteration of the same epithets 


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and praises, it will be diflScult for writers in newspapers, 
and drawers-up of resolutions, to vary their eulogiums of 
him who now stands before the world as the example of a 
more than princelj munificence, distributed in his native 
and in his adopted country to the most wisely-chosen and 
the best-discriminated objects. We can well imagine that 
all fulsome and extravagant terms would fail to find in 
him the weak spot of vanity or susceptibility ; while still 
his modesty is conjoined with so true a discernment, and 
so practical a good sense, that he will not be indifferent to 
the fitness of the responses made to him by those whom 
he favors. He will expect to be assured of their purposes 
of fidelity in holding and using the trust-funds which he 
commits to them. Indeed, it has seemed to me that the 
more ambitious of our rising young business-men, who are 
eager for great acquisitions, may find Mr. Peabody betray- 
ing to them, in some sort, the secret of the method of his 
vast gathering of wealth, in the method of his distribution 
of it. Those accumulations of his, we know, with what- 
ever felicities of good fortune he had to help him, must 
have engaged the patient, steady, and persistent exercise 
of an inquisitive and discreet mind given to practical deal- 
ing with the complicated affairs of business. He devotes 
much careful thought and scrutiny to informing himself 
about the enterprises and institutions to be benefited by 
his generosity. Putting himself into relations of confi- 
dence with their official representatives, he learns their 
actual purposes and wants. The impulse or the aid which 


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he gives to any object that commends itself to him is ac- 
companied, in its announcement or direction, by some 
sagacious counsel, readily inferred, if not distinctly ex- 
pressed. I suppose, Mr. President, though you have been 
silent on the point, that we are at liberty to imagine some 
friendly offices of your own in behalf of the society, through 
your confidential relations with Mr. Peabody. He has cer- 
tainly become well acquainted with our wants, and has met 
them when and where we have most sensibly felt them." 

Remarks were also made, in grateful acknowledgment 
of Mr. Peabody's benefaction, by Col. Aspinwall, Judge 
Savage, and Leverett Saltonstall, , Esq. On motion of 
Hon. Stephen Salisbury, it was voted to place a bust or 
portrait of Mr. Peabody in one of the rooms of the soci- 
ety. It was afterwards voted to allow Prof. Wyman to 
select aboriginal relics from the collection belonging to the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, and remove them to the 
Peabody Museum at Cambridge, with the idea, that, by 
connecting them with a large collection of other archaeo- 
logical objects, they will be made better to accomplish the 
purpose of the original donors. 

Mr. Peabody also donated the sura of twenty-five thou- 
sand dollars to Kenyon College, Gambler, O., of which his 
friend. Bishop Mcllvaine, was then president. Want of 
space forbids the insertion of the documents, which indi- 
cated the purpose of the donor, and the gratitude of those 
who were benefited by his gift. 


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Memorial Church at Georgetown. — Mr. Peabody's Love for his Mother. — 
Hjmn for the Dedication, bj John G. Whittier. — Gifts to his Family 
and Friends. 

« My mother I at that holy name, 
Within my bosom there's a gush 
Of feeling which no time can tame; 
A feeling, which for years of fame 
I would not, could not, crush.'' — Geo. P. Morbis. 

" Forsake not the law of thy mother." — Prov. 1. 8. 

|N 1839, the town which was the birthplace of 
George Peabody's mother, and is now the 
residence of his sister, Mrs. Daniels, had its 
name changed from New Rowley to George- 
town, in honor of Mr. Peabody. The special corre- 
spondent of " The Washington Chronicle " says that " it 
has always been one of his favorite retreats when in this 
country. The people respected his wish for retirement ; 
and this tact on their part was fully appreciated by Mr. 
Peabody, who said, when he was making arrangements in 
regard to a farewell reception, previous to his departure 
for England in 1867, that he * should like to take each 


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resident by the hand; for he had never, in any visit in 
Georgetown, been annoyed by calls or letters, and that not 
one of the citizens had ever in any way solicited help from 
him.' This fact he considered very remarkable, and with 
reason ; for among the begging-letters which he constantly 
received, and which were never answered, but quietly 
turned over to his sister, was oxie from Georgia containing 
forty chBely-wriUen page%. 

" Here Mr. Peabody erected a church to the memory of 
his mother, to whom, in death as in life, he was devoted ; 
giving her the first dollar he earned in boyhood, and 
bestowing the last thoughts of his honored old age upon a 
memorial of her Christian character. . . • Mr. Peabody's 
devotion to his mother and family was as thoughtful as 
that of a woman ; and, after he became very wealthy, 
the old townspeople used to revive reminiscences in that 
direction concerning him. I recollect hearing my mother 
say, that, as soon as he was established in Baltimore, he 
wrote to his mother that 'he should be able, for the ftiture, 
to supply the family with flour ; ' and Mrs. Peabody 
remarked, as she mentioned the circumstance to a friend, 
that ' it was a great comfort to have George prosperous 
enough to bear the expenses/ And, from that day to her 
last, George never allowed his mother to want any thing 
that filial love could bestow. 

" Mr. Peabody, as everybody knows, was a great lover 
of peace and concord. Nothing would disturb him more 
than the thought that any act of his might create strife. 

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This tendency was strikingly manifested at his farewell 
reception in Georgetown, when, referring to the Memorial 
Church, he distinctly stated that it was created solely as a' 
tribute to his mother, and T^as given to her denomination, 
— Orthodox Congregational, — from reverence for her 
memory ; and that it would have been given with equal 
satisfaction had she belonged to any other persuasion : 
thus showing his intention to deprive the gift of any 
sectarian bias which might cause bitterness. 

" I used, as a child, to study the portrait of Mr. Pea- 
body which hung in his sister's parlor. It represented a 
singularly handsome middle-aged man, I was always 
greatly impressed by the tone of mingled pride and aflFec- 
tion with which his sister spoke of him ; and I remember 
hearing a gentleman, in some discussion with this lady, 
ask her if she ever saw a person who had never told a 
lie : to which she promptly replied, * Yes : I am sure that 
my brother George never told a lie.' I used io connect 
this statement, as children will, with the kind blue eyes 
and bright brown hair of the portrait ; and occasionally, 
as I saw ' G. P.' in our Sunday-school books, indicating 
that Mr. Peabody had given them to us, I thought of him 
as the man who had never told a lie. I do not remember, 
however, that I ever saw him till 1866 ; when I was glad 
to recognize in the aged but still majestic man a striking 
likeness to the picture which had won my childish admira- 
tion. During this visit in 1866, he gave the town a 
public library, — a gift by which all the inhabitants could 

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be benefited ; and here, on the afternoon of his farewell 
reception, he reviewed the children of the pubHc schools, 
standing with uncovered head on the steps of his sister's 
house as they filed past, bearing tiny flags of our national 
red, white, and blue. It was a pleasant sight ; and many 
a teacher preached a sermon to her little flock from the 
text, — * Seest thou a man diligent in business ? he shall 
stand before kings ; he shall not stand before mean men,' — 
with the courtly yet genial man, who had smile4 and 
spoken so kindly to them, as a living illustration. . . . 

" Here, during his last visit, he added a lecture-room 
to his previous gift of a library, and made arrangements 
for free lectures, and a fund for the support of the library. 
And, having completed every thing to his mind, he said 
smiUngly to Mr. R. S. TenneyJ the gentleman with whom 
he and his sister made their home, *Well, I believe I 
have paid all my debts to this town : I believe I do not 
owe it any thing.' To which Mr. Tenney very happily 
replied, * We cannot say the same of you, Mr. Peabody : 
we shall always owe you.' And Mr. Peabody responded 
with great feeling, * If it has been as pleasant to you to 
receive as it has been to me to bestow, you have enjoyed 
a great deal.' " 

The above paragraphs firom the letter of Mrs. A. W. 
H. Howard to a Washington paper are of special interest. 
The story of the long letter from Georgia suggests addi- 
tion of the statement of some paper, that " Mr. Peabody 

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received one letter of thirty-six. foolscap pages from a 
decayed English gentleman, who solicited a loan of a few 
thousand pounds to establish the claims of his family to an 
estate. Mr. Peabody wrote in reply substantially this : 
' That you should have written such a letter would sur- 
prise your friends: tliat I should have read it would 
indeed surprise mine.' " 

But it is of the Georgetown church mention should 
here be made. According to " The Newburyport Her- 
ald " of Jan. 10, 1868, " The church is a substantial and 
elegant brick structure, in the English style, one hundred 
and twelve feet long, sixty-eight feet wide, and one hun- 
dred and twelve feet high to the top of the tower. It is 
finished in chestnut, with black-walnut mouldings; the 
interior harmonizing in all its details with the general 
architectural plan. It contains one hundred pews, capable 
of seating seven hundred persons. It is lighted by gas ; 
the chandelier and sidelights numbering forty double burn- 
ers. The bell, which is of twenty-eight hundred pounds 
weight, and the clock, a fine piece of mechanism, were 
sent by Mr. Peabody from London. The organ is one of 
Hook's best instruments, built at a cost of four thousand 
dollars. ... At the end of the church, opposite the 
entrance, are three marble tablets with dedicatory inscrip- 
tions. Over the pulpit the legend is, * Dedicated to the 
service of Almighty God. Holiness becometh thine 
house, O Lord! forever.' The one on the right of 
the pulpit has the following : * This house, erected in 

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1866-7 for the use of the Orthodox Congregational 
Church and Society, is affectionately consecrated by her 
children, George and Judith, to the memory of Mrs. 
Judith Peabody, who was born in this parish July 25, 
1770, and who died June 22, 1830.' 

" The surroundings of the church are in perfect keeping 
with the edifice. . . . There is a massive iron fence in 
front, a commodious range of sheds in the rear ; while the 
vacant space between the church and the library-building 
is being graded and laid out, preparatory to the planting 
of trees and flowers. . . . The cost of the house is esti- 
mated at one hundred thousand dollars. It has been 
* about a year and a half in building ; and the result is the 
finest place of worship in this section, a grand monument 
of Mr. Peabody's liberality, and an honor to all concerned 
in its erection." * 

At the dedication, a letter was read from Mr. Peabody. 
The sermon was preached by Rev. Dr. M. P. Braman 
of Danvers, and the consecration-prayer offered by Rev. 
John Pike of Rowley. The following touching memorial- 
hymn by John G. Whittier was sung : — 

Thou dwellest not, O Lord of all I 

In temples which thy children raise : 
Onr work to thine is mean and small, 

And brief to thy eternal days. 

Forgive the weakness and the pride, 

If marred thereby our gift may be; 
For love, at least, has sanctified 

The altar which we rear to thee. ^^ , 

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The heart, and not the hand, has wronght. 

From sunken base to tower abore, 
The image of a tender thought, 

The memory of a deathless love. 

Though here should never sound of speech 

Or organ-anthem rise or fall. 
Its stones would pious lessons teach, ' . 

Its shade in benedictions fall. 

Here should the dove of peace be found, 

And blessings free as dew-&ll given; 
Nor strife profane, nor hatred, wound 

The mingled loves of earth and heaven. 

Thou who didst soothe with dying breath 

The dear one watching by thy cross, 
Forgetful of the pains of death 

In sorrow for her mighty loss, — 

In memory of her sacred claim, 

Mary's Son ! our oflTering take. 
And make it worthy of thy name. 

And bless it for a mother's sake. 

An editor says, — 

" We recently had the pleasure of seeing, at the house 
of Mr. George J. Tenney, one of the last presents be- 
stowed by Mr. Peabody before his final departure from 
this country. It consists of a heavy pitcher and goblet of 
solid silver (the latter lined with gold), enclosed in a har^d- 
some case ; and the following inscription upon the pitcher 
tells the story -of the gift: 'George Peabody and his 

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sister Judith to Charles Carleton, in appreciation of his 
skill and fidelity as superintendent in the erection of the 
Memorial Church at Georgetown,' " 

Mr. Peabody's benefactions to his family and immedi- 
ate personal friends were worthy of mefition; but it is 
not the purpose of this volume to record many beside his 
public benefactions. To the city of Newburyport, Mr. 
Peabody gave the sum of §fteen thousand dollars, in 1867, 
for the enlargement of the Public Library ; saying, in his 
letter, that he wished to mark his memory of that portion 
of his youth that was passed in that town, and his grateful 
appreciation of the kindness there shown to him. About 
a year ago, he manifested. a continued interest in that city 
by sending the following letter, addressed to E. S. Moseley, 
Esq. : — 

" 64 Queen Street, CnEAPSiDft, London, E.G., 
April 8, 1869. 

" Dear Sir^ — Some time* last spring, I had an intima- 
tion, as coming from you as chairman of the Peabody 
Trust Fund, that a portrait from me, for their library, 
would be highly appreciated. 

" I therefore employed one of the best of the Queen's 
portrait-painters, and gave him the last sitting a few days 
ago. The portrait is pronounced excellent. I shall ship it 
by an early steamer to Boston, and send you a bill of lading, 
with freight and all charges paid. 

" Very respectfully and truly yours, 

"George Peabody." 

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Besides these gifts above mentioned were those of 
twenty-five thousand dollars to the Phillips Academy at 
Andover, Mass., and ten thousand dollars to the Sanitary 
Commission during the war. Truly the wealth God gave 
into George Peabody's hands was widely, and it would 
seem wisely, scattered. 


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Illness of Mr. Peabody. — Return to England. — Sir Cartia Lampson. 

" Adiea, adieu I my native shore 
Fades o'er the waters hlue."— Childe Haroij>. 

" And, like some low and mournful spell, 
To whisper hut the word, Farewell I ** — Park BENJAMnr. 

*< Borrowing most of all for the words which he spake, that they should see his face 
no more.'*— Acts xx. 38. 

sT is said that the last time Mr. Peabody spoke 
in public was at the National Peace Jubilee in 
Boston. His health was then failing ; but he 
had a notion — a strange one, when we con- 
sider how many tons of coal-dust there are always floating 
about in the London atmosphere — thajb his life would be 
prolonged by remaining in London. 

" On this point I am somewhat of a Cockney," he would 

say : " I believe in London air and London living. It is 

my intention to revisit America; but I shall return to 

England." . 

And he did return to England, leaving his family and 


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friends to feel that he had spoken to them his last fare- 
well. He was to be seen no more in America. 

" Mr. Peabody was slightly above the medium height. 
His full, round face beamed with goodness. He laughed 
seldom, but had a smile for everybody. There was noth- 
ing ideal or poetical about his face : it Was what we tritely 
term ' a good face.' He never spoke hurriedly. His na- 
ture was not impulsive." 

But, having resolved, he carried out his purpose ; and to 
England, though feeble and worn, " The Scotia " carried 
him. Col. Forney has already described his appearance 
on the voyage. His friends say that he always preferred 
English steamers, believing them to be more safe. 

" The Baltimore Sun " gives an interesting memoran- 
dum of a conversation with Mr. Peabody, furnished by 
Dr. J. J. Moorman, a resident .physician of White Sul- 
phur Springs, Va. ; whither Mr. Peabody went for, his 
health during his last visit to America. Dr. Moorman 
says, Aug. 22, 1869,— 

** During my professional attendance on Mr. Peabody 
for the last four weeks, I have had various short but inter- 
esting conversations with him on general subjects, and 
to-day a more lengthy one. I note down some of his re- 
marks, for future reference. 

" On my observing to him that he had great cause of 
gratitude to God for having been made the instrument of 
doing so much for his fellow-men, Mr. Peabody replied, and 


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with much more than usual animation, * I never faO to take 
that view of it ; and always, in my prayers, thank God that • 
he.has enabled me to do what I have done.' He said that 
the attention he receives from the world seemed strange 
to him ; * that he feels himself to be a very humble indi- 
vidual, and is enahled only by the attentions and opim'ons 
of the world in reference to his acts to regard himself as 
differing from others.' 

" On my expressing the opinion that not the least of 
the great benefits that would result from the liberal distri- 
bution of his large wealth during his lifetime, for charita- 
ble objects, would be the representative character of such 
a course, inducing other men of wealth to do likewise, he 
said he assented to the sentiment; and then remarked, 
* Such may not be the case during my Ufe, as men do not 
generally like to seem to be influenced by their contempo- 
raries ; ' but added, * I hope and expect such an ultimate 

^^ I observed to him that the fact of hia not having for- 
gotten his relations in the distribution of his large estate, 
gave, in my opinion, a beautifril symmetry to his benevo- 
lence. He said, ' Yes ; I should have thought I was doing 
very wrong if I had done so : ' and then remarked, ' I have 
made all my near relations rich. I have given them all 
enough, — perhaps more than enough.' He then stated 
the amount he had given to each, — to Mr. George Pea- 
body Russell, three hundred thousand dollars ; to a sister, 
three hundred thousand dollars ; to another nephew, three 


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hundred thousand dollars ; to another, two hundred thou- 
sand dollars ; and to none less than one hundred thousand 

" Mr. Peabody described the character, and what would 
be the operations, of his great gift for the poor of London ; 
contrasted it with other great schemes that had been in- 
augurated for the benefit of that class, that contained im- 
portant reservations for the benefit of the families of the 
donors, while in his case he had entirely divested himself 
and his heirs of any ulterior benefit that might accrue ; 
and said, that, if the donation alluded to was * judiciously 
managed for two centuries^ its accumulations would amount 
to a sum sufficient to buy the city of London.' 

" Mr. Peabody was evidently much and very properly 
gratified at the great attention paid to him both in Eng- 
land and in this country ; and especially with the London 
statue, and its unveiling under circumstances so imposing 
and so honorable to him; and with the Queen's autograph- 
letter to him, which he showed me. 

"It being absolutely necessary for Mr. Peabody to 
reach a warm climatfe before cold weather set in, that he 
might have the slightest chance of lengthening his days, 
and his mind being somewhat balanced between Florida 
and the south of France, he formally submitted it to me, 
as his physician, to decide the question. In comparing all 
the advantages and disadvantages of the two places for his 
winter residence, I preferred the south of France, and the 

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city of Nice ; and advised that he should proceed directly 
there, and with as little delay as possible after leaving the 
mountains. He adopted my views promptly and entirely 
upon the subject, and immediately wrote to secure a pas- 
sage on a steamer to sail the 28th of September ; saying to 
me, he would remain a few days only with a friend in 
London to attend to some necessary business, and then 
proceed directly, by a route which he pointed out, to 
Nice, so as to reach there before the setting-in of cold 

But it was too late. The days of '* the philanthropist 
of two worlds " were numbered, and his friends all felt 
this ; so that his last public visit to Peabody, Mass., is thus 
described : — 

*' The last visit of a public character which Mr. Pea- 
body made to his native town was in the summer of 1869, 
when he invited a number of personal friends, and several 
of the trustees of his various charities, to meet him at the 
Peabody Institute. An elegant lunch was served in the 
library, and the treasures of the Institute exhibited. 
Among the distinguished public characters present on that 
occasion were the Hon. Charles Sumner, Hon. Robert C. 
Winthrop, Ex-Gov. Clifford, Oliver Wendell Holmes, and 
others. Wealth was represented by such heavy weights 
as James M. Beebe and Stephen Salisbury. The aggre- 
gate wealth of the twenty or thirty gentlemen who were 
entertained at that board was said to be fifty miUion dol- 

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lars. Brief remarks were made by several of the gaests ; 
and Mr. Holmes read a short poem, which was afterwards 
pubHshed. Later m the day, the party visited the Pea- 
body Institute at Danvers. It was not a day of unalloyed 
pleasure. Mr. Peabody's health was rapidly declining ; 
and the thought must have been suggested to all his 
guests, that the occasion must be to some, and might be 
to all, the last time they would partake of his elegant 
hospitaUty, or witness his participation in the only happi- 
ness which survives health and the ordinary blessings of 
life, — the happiness which is the reward of unselfish 
devotion in the service of mankind. It was on that 
occasion that he made his final gift of fifty thousand dollars 
to the original Peabody Institute." 

Mr. Peabody never " kept house," but usually, when in 
London, dwelt in famished lodgings, or made his home at 
the elegant residence of his friend and business-associate, 
Sir Curtis Lampson, an American, who, for his commen- 
datory course in reference to the Atlantic cable, was 
knighted by the Queen, 


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The Lightning News. — The Comments of the Press. ~~ Respect shown to 
Mr. Peabody's Memory. — Portraits of Mr. Peabody. 

" So live, that, when thy suxnmoiui comes to Join 
The immmerable caravan that moves 
To that mysterioHB reahn where each shall take 
« His chamber in the silent halls of death, 

Thon go not like the qnarry-slave at night 
Scourged to his dungeon ; bat, sustained and soothed 
By an unfaltering trust, approach thy grave 
Like one that draws the drapery of his couch 
About him, and lies down to pleasant dreams.** 

Bbtaht's ThanatopHs, 
•< And as we have borne the image of the earthy, we shall also bear the image of the 
heavenly.»~l Cob. xv. 40. 

JCROSS the British cable, at the midnight 
hour, there came a solemn message. ^' George 
Peabody is dead 1 " was the report. The light- 
ning news flies rapidly; and, before many 
hours, America had learned, from east to west, from 
north to south, that the man who had given away so 
many millions while he lived had gone to that world 
where dollars are no longer needed, but where he would 

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find that the money given away judiciously is really 

"London, 4th, midnight. — George Peabody died at 
half-past eleven o'clock to-night, at his residence in this 
city," was the telegram. And forthwith the newspapers 
of England and America vied with each other in fiimish- 
ing biographical sketches of the departed, with illustrations 
showing his well-known lineaments or the place of his 
birth. The name whigh Victoria wrote sounded from the 
lips of the little newsboy as he besought the wayfarer to 
learn the latest intelligence. The London papers. were 
filled with expressions of mingled regret and respect. 
" The London Times " said, — 

*' The news of Mr. Peabody's death will be received 
with no common sorrow on both sides of the Atlantic. 
The sentiment of regret will not be a mere passing tribute 
of gratitude to a munificent benefactor. Mr. Peabody, 
through a long life, accumulated manifold titles to be 
lamented. He was an ardent patriot^ and loved abroad as 
much as at home^ He was no courtier ; yet he was hon- 
ored by sovereigns and princes. He was profuse in his 
charity, which pauperized nobody. He was a philanthro- 
pist, who was liked as well as honored. There was noth- 
ing hard or narrow about his philanthropy. He simply 
did whatever good came in his way." 

"The Post," in its obituary article, said, "Mr. Peabody 
was one of the few whose private virtues are followed by 
public fiune, and whose virtues may be cited as exaipples. 


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In laying the foundation of wholesome and cheerful homes 
for the working-classes, he acted upon a high sense of 
duty, and touched the mainspring of civilization. He 
made his means the measure of his philanthropy. 
Throughout his whole life, his conduct displayed a purity 
of character that could not fail to elevate and refine the 
feelings his generosity inspired.'' 

" The Telegraph " said, *' Mr. Peabody's lot was 
doubly happy. The inscription on his mausoleum may 
tell, with unquestioned truth, of the man who loved his 
kind, and served two countries." 

" The Daily News" said, "Mr. Peabody was not a man 
of impulsive, emotional benevolence, but rather of judi- 
cious, widely-spread beneficence. His liberality was not 
posthumous. He gave from his own substance, and did 
not surrender what death wrested from him. His services 
both to his native and adopted country were fittingly and 
graciously recognized in royal letters and the thanks of 
Congress. Merchants, in passing his statue daily, do not 
need to learn from the consummate man of business how 
to gain money : his career may teach them how it may 
be wisely spent." 

The governor of his native State did not fail to recog- 
nize the claim of Mr. Peabody to honorable mention in 
his inaugural address ; and, after saying that he should do 
injustice to his own feelings if he did not notice his de- 
parture. Gov. Claflin went on to say, — 

" Greorge Peabody has been a faithftd representative of 

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the people of his state and nation in a* foreign land. . His 
personal character and commercial success would command 
respect anywhere ; but the nobleness of his nature, which 
led him to make such munificent and princely gift^ for the 
benefit of his fellow-men in both hemispheres, without re- 
gard to rank or color, has given him world-wide fame, and 
no title could add lustre to his name. His remains are to 
rest in the soil of his native State, whose people will ever 
honor him as the benefactor of his race. His influence 
survives him in the noble institutions which he founded ; 
and generations yet unborn will bless his name and revere 
his memory.** 

The doors of the Peabody Academy of Science in Sa- 
lem were draped in mourning, and the following resolu- 
tions at once passed : — 

" Itesolved^ That the trustees of the Peabody Academy 
of Science recognize in the death of the distinguished 
founder of this academy the termination of a life actuated 
by a noble ambition to benefit and instruct mankind. 

" Mesolved^ That here in his native county, among the 
many noble institutions he has founded, we are keenly sen- 
sible of the greatness of his work, and the magnitude of 
our loss; yet a famie so pure and a life so good leave 
nothing to be said in praise. 

^^Mesolvedy That, while the people of two continents 
are paying their tributes to his memory,' we tender our 
sympathies to his Jdndred and friends in their bereave- 

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ment ; and rejoice that his life was prolonged to witness so 
much good accomplished by his wise and munificent chari- 
ties, and the assurance of their great future usefulness. 

" Resolved^ That the president be instructed, in behalf 
of the trustees, to co-operate with other institutions in pay- 
ing proper respect to the memory of Mr. Peabody, and in 
making the necessary preparations for his funeral. 

" Resolvedy That a copy of these resolutions be sent to 
the immediate relatives of the deceased." 

The Legislature of Massachusetts did not fail to notice 
Mr. Peabody's departure, and paid due respect to his 
memory by the following resolutions : — 

^^ JResolved^ That the Legislature of Massachusetts re- 
ceives with deep regret the intelligence of the death of 
George Peabody, who, by the ntre simplicity of his life, 
his constant and untiring industiy, his upright and honor- 
able career as a merchant, his broad and liberal charities 
as a philanthropist, and his steady devotion to republican 
principles, whether at home or abroad, has won for him- 
self the admiration of his countrymen, and left his life and 
character to future generations as a model of the true 
American citizen. 

^^ Bs9olvedy That the unusual sagacity which prompted 
him to become the executor of his own estate, and, while 
living, to distribute his vast means in a way to bless the 
ignorant, degraded, and needy for all time to come, de- 
serves especial approbation ; while the still more remarka- 

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ble spirit of catholicity which pervaded all his acts of 
benevolence entitle him to the grateftd praises of all the 

^^Besohed, That a joint special committee, consisting 
of five on the part of the Senate, and ten on the part of 
the Honse, be appointed to attend the funeral of the de- 
ceased, as a special tribute to hi^ memory in behalf of the 

^^JResolvedj That his Excellency the Governor be re- 
quested to cause a certified copy of these resolutions to be 
forwarded to the family of the deceased. 

^^ Meaolved^ That, as an additional testimonial of its re- 
spect, each House do now adjourn." 

Resolutions of a similar character were passed by vari- 
ous cities, towns, states, and by Congress itself. Salem 
thus testified her respect : — 

^^ Whereas The death of George Peabody has been 
an occasion of grief to two continents, — his remains be- 
ing now brought to this country under distinguished hon- 
ors; and whereas we desire to place upon record some 
testimonial of our respect for this distinguished philanthro- 
pist : therefore be it 

'* Resolved^ That in the death of George Peabody the 
world has lost a benefiictor, the nation a citizen whose acts 
of benevolence have reflected honor upon his native coun- 
try, and our city one who has honored his place of resi- 
dence by the foundation of a most useful Academy of 

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" Resolved^ That the City Council will signify its appre- 
ciation of the distinguished and noble services of the de- 
ceased by attending his funeral in a body. 

^^ Mesolvedy That these resolutions be entered in full 
upon the records of the City Council, and that a copy of 
them be transmitted to the family of the deceased." 

Peabody passed the following resolutions : — 

"At a meeting of the citizens of Peabody, held last 
evening, to take action in regard to the funeral obsequies 
of the late George Peabody, Lewis Allen, moderator, 
Hon. Benjamin C. Perkins offered the following resolu- 
tions,~ which were adopted : — 

" JResolvedj That we, the citizens of the birthplace of 
George Peabody, deeply sympathize in the emotions of 
sorrow, veneration, and love, which, on both continents, 
have been occasioned by the death of the philanthropist 
of the age. 

" Resolved^ That our memories associated with his life 
are personal as well as public. Here was his birthplace, 
and the home of his childhood ; here was his first public 
endowment of the Institute which bears his name, and 
which will speak to generations to come of the love he 
bore to his native town. .To us he has confided the cus- 
tody of those sacred relics which were dear to him as 
tokens of the gratitude of both his native and adopted 

^^BeBolved^ That the munificent endowments of institu- 

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tions of science and learning bear the impress of the im- 
mortal maxim which prompted his first pubhc endowment . 
in this town: ' Education, — a debt from the present to fu- 
ture generations.' Moved by the principles of this maxim, 
from the accumulations of his industry he has with his 
own hands spread the table to which he has. invited future 
generations to partake of * the treasures of science and the 
delights of learning.' 

" Itesolvedy That, while we mourn his death, we unite 
in gratitude to God that he has given the world such a 
sample of practical Christianity, knowing no creed, no 
sect, no party ; and, while death may hide from us the 
manly form, that is left to us which cannot be hidden, — 
his great example of wisdom and amiability, which will 
teach the world that he who seeks fame the least is most- 
sure to gain it. 

" Resolved^ That we deeply sympathize with the rela- 
tives of Mr. Peabody, who were deprived of the sad pleas- 
ure of performing the last kind offices. 

" Mesolvedy That in pursuance of the last wish of Mr. 
Peabody, that his funeral services should take place in his 
native town, we will make the necessary arrangements for 
the services upon the arrival of his remains ; and that we 
choose a committee, consisting of the board of selectmen 
and nine others, to co-operate with the trustees of the Pea- 
body Institute, with fiill powers to carry into effect the 
object of these resolutions. 

^^liesolvedj That these resolutions be placed upon the 

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records of the town, and that copies be sent to the near 
relatives of Mr. Peabody." 

By the following, it will be seen that the Congress of the 
United States also noticed suitably the departure of Mr, 
Peabody : — 

" Public Resolution, No. 6. 

" Joint ReBolution of Tribute to the Memory of George Pech 
hody^ deceased. . 

^^ Whereas^ In the death of George Peabody, a native 
of the United States, and late a resident of England, our 
country and the world have sustained an inestimable loss ; 
and whereas the Queen of Great Britain, the authorities 
of London, and the Emperor of France, have made ex- 
traordinary provision for the transfer of his remains to his 
native land : therefore 

" 5e it resolved by the Senate and Souse of Representa- 
tives of the United States of America in Congress assembled^ 
That the President of the United States be authorized to 
make such preparation for the reception of the body of our 
distinguished philanthropist as is merited by his glorious 
deeds, and in a manner commensurate with the justice, 
magnanimity, and dignity of a great people. 

'^ And be it further resolved^ That the expenses incurred 
by such ceremonial as the President may adopt in the 
premises shall be paid by any money in the treasury not 
otherwise appropriated. 

•* Approved Dec. 23, 1869." 


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Portaraits of Mr. Peabody became at once in great de- 
mand ; and engravings and photographs of the rare giver 
soon multiplied. One published by B. B. Russell of Bos- 
ton has received the commendation of l^Jr. Peabody's 
relatives and friends, and is adorning many homes where 
his name is honored. 


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Westminster Abbey. — Transportation of the Bemains to America. — De- 
scription of the Ship "Monarcl^" — Poem suggested by the Funeral 
Procession on the Ocean. * 

" All flesh is grass, and all its glory fades 
Like the fair flower dishevelled in the wind ; 
Riches have wings, and grandeur is a dream : 
The man we celebrate must find a tomb.''— Cowpeb. 

" A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches, and loving favor rather than 
silver and gold." — Prov. xxii. 1. 

|R. PE ABODY'S remains were embalmed ; as 
it was his desire that his remains should be 
conveyed to America, to be laid in the tomb 
which he had built at Danvers, and in which 
he had placed the body of his mother. But his executors 
— Sir Curtis Lampson, and Mr. C. Reed, M.P. — complied 
with the public wish to let a funeral-service be performed 
over his coffin in Westminster Abbey before its removal. 
This ceremony, which took place on Friday week, was 
attended with no extraordinary pomp, saving the presence 
of the lord-mayor and sherifls in their official robes, and 
the number of carriages, including those of the Queen 


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and Prince q{ Wales, that followed the hearse &om Eaton 
Square. But the Prime Minister and the Secretary of 
State for Foreign Affairs were also present among the 
mourners ; and Gen. Grey, as representative of her 
Majesty. The interior of the abbey was crowded in 
every part by a silent and sympathizing congregation, 
most of whom wore mourning apparel. The multitude 
outside, in Broad Sanctuary and Victoria Street, consisting 
chiefly of workmen's wives and other poor women, seemed 
equally impressed with the feeling of the occasion. 

The coffin, which was covered in black velvet, and 
surmounted by a wreath of immortelles, was carried by 
ten men, and deposited on a stage in &ont of the steps 
leading up to the altar. The mourners took their places 
on seats reserved for them on each side of the sacra- 
rium ; and inside the rails of the communion-table were 
seated the lord-mayor, sheriffs, and under-sheriffs, together 
with Mr. Gladstone and the Earl of Clarendon, and Gen. 
Grey in private dress, as the representative of her Ma- 
jesty. The " Sentences," " I am the Resurrection," hav- 
ing been sung, and the ninetieth Psalm, " Lord, thou hast 
been our refuge," having been chanted by the choir. 
Archdeacon Jennings read the Lesson from 1 Cor. xv. 
The Lesson ended, the funeral procession was resumed ; 
and, while an anthem was sung, the coffin was carried 
back, as before, into the nave, and placed by the side of 
an opening three feet deep, into which it was lowered, 
the service at the grave being read by the sub-dean, the 

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Rev. Lord John Thynne. At the conclusion jof the ser- 
vice, the " Dead March in Saul " was played on the 
organ ; while the mourners one after another stepped for- 
ward to take a parting look at the cofBn as it lay in its 
shallow receptacle, near the third arch from the western 
door of the nave. The cofBn-lid bore the following 
inscription : — 

<< Geobgb Feabody, bom at Danvers, Mass., Feb. 18, 1795. Died 
in London, England, Nov. 4, 1869." 

The Bishop of London preached a funeral sermon in 
the abbey on Sunday morning. 

The honors to Mr. Peabody on both sides of the Atlan- 
tic are as unusual and unparalleled in the case of a pri- 
vate individual as are exceptional the magnificent acts of 
benevolence which illustrated the life of this great philan- 
thropist. It was a worthy idea, first suggested by " The 
London Telegraph," to convey the remains of Mr. Pea- 
body to his native country in the first war-vessel of the 
United Kingdom, " The London Telegraph " says, — 

" The rarely paralleled honor of sending a Queen's 
ship as the * funeral-barge ' of George Peabody will be 
enhanced by the selection of perhaps the noblest vessel 
at her Majesty's disposal; and he who began life as a 
grocer's boy will be borne to his transatlantic grave on as 
proud a bier as any dead king could have. The people 
of England will thank and applaud their sovereign and 

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her government for this last and crowning recognition 
of the noble-hearted giver, whose inexhaustible love for 
his race has revived the almost forgotten standard of per- 
fect charity. The people of the United States, too, will 
solemnly welcome to their shores the stately vessel which 
brings to them these sacred relics ; seeing, in her, proof 
that we have regarded George Peabody as an ambassador 
of peace and unity between the Anglo-Saxon nations as 
well as a common benefactor, and that we restore to 
America the body of such an envoy with the insignia 
which become his grand commission and high moral 

^^ It is not possible to put these feelings into more majes- 
tic or more emphatic language than will be conveyed by 
the spectacle of our great war-ship's arrival beyond the 
ocean, bearing this honored corpse. Words are easily 
written and spoken ; but acts make history, and reach the 
hearts of men through their eyesight. And the eyes of 
the whole world, in a sense, will be directed upon this 
new employment of a first-rate ship-of-war. Humanity 
will note the weighing of that stem liner's anchor, with 
that novel freight of a trader's coffin ; humanity will fol- 
low the passage of the swift engine of war across the 
billows upon her unaccustomed mission of peace and 
sad courtesy ; and humanity will watch the reception of 
the superb chief mourner in the waters of the Western 
Republic. There has never really been paid, within the 
memory of man, so pure a tribute to virtue and to worth. 

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apart .from all those considerations which nsually govern 
the attribution of national homage. 

" It is true that the benefactions of , the generous Amer- 
ican were such and so great, that, by their mere amount, 
he had made two empires his debtors. But the perfect 
loving-kindness, and unstained integrity and benevolence, 
with which he gave away his gold to house and to teach 
the poor, sank into the hearts of his fellow-countrymen on 
both sides of the Atlantic more deeply than the weight of 
the gold itself would have done. He made his magnifi- 
cent gifts richer by the simplicity and sincerity of his 
giving ; and, being dead, we now carry him back to rest 
among his own kindred, as not only the friend, but also 
the noble examplar, of the two empires. Sailors usually 
object to convey the dead on board their ships ; but there 
will be no such feeling on the present occasion. If any 
burden could be honorable to carry, if any freight could 
hallow and protect a vessel upon the sea, it would be the 
mortal remains of (Jeorge Peabody, who was the brother 
and the friend of every one that speaks English, and such 
a man as, living or dead, it was and is good to have to do 

" There will be left for us in England only the memory 
of the generous gentleman, when our mourning man-of- 
war sets sail and steers for the lights of Portland harbor. 
But they who watch for the Queen's ship upon the other 
side will confess that we have done all that we could do 
to make that memory green and beautiftil among our chil- 

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dren, and to pay the princely merchant all imaginable 
respect. They will have read, before the majestic vessel 
approaches their coast, how tender and solicitous the 
Queen has been in regard to Mr. Peabody's health ; how- 
she longed to see him, and chat * quietly ' with him ; how • 
she intended to call at his London home, and shake hands 
with * her friend,' but that the rapid progress of the fatal 
illness made it impossible. They will know, too, that, 
yesterday, we paid to his relics the last observances of the 
Christian ritual ; nay, at the very time when the organ 
was pealing the Dead March through the columns of the 
abbey, and the funeral-bells were rocking in its tower, 
strains of melodious mourning and sympathetic knells in 
the cities of America were responding across the expanse 
of the ocean. They will have heard how we gave him, 
so far as we could give, those obsequies of reverence and 
regard as an honor reserved for the greatest among our 
dead; nor would a resting-place in the ancient abbey 
have been for a moment denied to his relics, if we had 
had the right to lay his noble dust among that of our 
worthies and our sovereigns. But the dying man desired 
to sleep ' with his fathers ; ' and America has the indispu- 
table claim to enrich her soil with those precious remains : 
so that it was only left to the Queen and to the people of 
England to show, with * maimed rights * and such signs of 
affection and gratitude as were possible, what was thought 
of the Danvers merchant in proud and aristocratic Britain. 
When they reflect in Mr. Peabody's country upon what 


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we have done, and see the great man-of-war sail into port 
with ensign at half-mast aftd minute-guns firing, they will 
not be dissatisfied with us, nor sorry that George Peabody 
breathed his last among the English half of his fellow- 
citizens. They will say that we have done ourselves and 
them and virtue honor in thus reverencing the consum- 
mate humanity which was in this king of givers ; and it 
will happen, as we have said before, that the dead body of 
George Peabody will complete the work done by his liv- 
ing hand and heart. There will arise, out of this funeral 
voyage of the Queen's new fighting-ship, a thought calcu- 
lated to take the trade away from fighting-ships altogether ; 
a feeling which advances civilization with a voiceless 
charm of impulse. Men will be set meditating, on both 
sides of the Atlantic, how much wiser, better, and higher 
is the spirit of peace than the spirit of war ; how strong 
must be that spirit of peace and union which can control 
men. even from the shroud and the cerements ; and, 
above all, how shameful and strange in the eyes of civili- 
zation the spectacle would be, if the land that sent home 
George Peabody's remains, and the land which received 
^ the noble heart that beats no more,' should ever again 
bandy words of menace and hatred." 

Among the tributes early paia to Mr. Peabody's mem- 
ory were those of Louis Blanc and Victor Hugo. The 
following is an extract from Victor Hugo's letter, published 
in " Tha London Times : " — 


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<< Hautbyillb, Dec. 2, 1869. 

" Monsieur, — Your letter came to me Dec. 2. I 
thank you. It brings me to this souvenir. I forget the 
Empire, and think of America. I was turned toward 
night : I turn toward the day. You ask a word from me 
on George Peabody. In your sympathetic illusion, you 
believe me to be what I am not, — a voice from France. 
I am, I have said before, but a voice from exile. No 
matter, monsieur : a noble appeal like yours can be heatd. 
Little as I am, I ought to respond, and do so. 

" Yes, America has reason to be proud of this great 
citizen of the world and great brother of all men, — 
George Peabody. Peabody has been a happy man who 
would suffer in all sufferings, a rich man who would feel 
the cold, the hunger, and thirst of the poor. Having a 
place near Rothschild, he found means to change it for 
one near Vincent de Paul. Like Jesus Christ, he had a 
wound in the side : this wound was the misery of others. 
It was not blood flowed from this wound : it was gold 
which now came from a heart. 

" On this earth there are men of hate and men of 
love : Peabody was one of the latter. It is on the face 
of these men that we can see the smile of God. What 
law do they practise ? One alone, — the law of frater- 
nity, divine law, humane law ; which varies the relief 
according to the distress ; which here gives precepts, and 
there gives millions ; and traces through the centuries in 
our darkness a train of light, and extends from Jesus poor 
to Peabody wealthy. 

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" May Peabody return to you, blessed by us ! Our 
world envies yours. His fatherland will guard his ashes, 
and our hearts his memory. * May the moving immensity 
of the seas bear him to you ! The free American flag 
can never display enough stars above his coffin." 

" The Times " also published the following : — 

"London, Dec. 9, 1869. 

" Sir, — The death of so good a man as George Pea- 
body proved himself to be is a public calamity, in which 
the whole civilized world ought to share. I feel, there- 
fore, in duty bound to express, in answer to your appeal, 
how deeply I mourn, as a Frenchman and as a man, for 
the illustrious American whose life was of such value to 
the most needy of his fellow-men. 

" It was but natural, that in a country like this, where 
so much is thought of long lineage, and station in life, 
George Peabody should receive, as the only fit token of 
public gratitude, the same kind of respect which is paid to 
kings, princes, and men of noble birth, as well as men of 
noble deeds ; and that his mortal remains should be com- 
mitted to a temporary resting-place beneath the nave of 
Westminster Abbey, to be sent afterward in a ship-of-war 
to his native land, — the land of freedom. Nor is there 
any thing to complain of in this national mode of testifying 
to the high estimation in which the British nation held 
the eminent philanthropist.. Yet I cannot help lamenting 
that there should be for men of that stamp no particular 


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sort of homage better calculated to show how little, com- 
pared to them, are most of kings, princes, noblemen, 
renowned diplomatists, world-famed conquerors. 

" It was not the kind-hearted republican trader who 
was honored by the feet of being consigned to rest in 
Westminster Abbey, but rather those who were consid- 
ered to be worthy of sleeping there their last sleep, on 
account of their rank, not of their virtue. 

" The number of mourners assembled within the pre- 
cincts of the sacred edifice, their silent sorrow, the tears 
shed by so many, and, in several parts of London, the 
readiness of the shopkeepers to give expression to their 
grief by closing their shops and lowering their bUnds, — 
these were the homages really in keeping with the affec- 
tionate admiration due to one whose title in history will 
be this (the highest a rich man can ^.spire to), ■^— the 
friend of the poor. 

I am, sir, obediently yours, 

"Louis Blanc. 
" Col. Berton, Chairman American Committee." 

For want of space, a ftdl description of the war-ship 
" Monarch," in which Mr. Peabody's remains were for- 
warded to America, cannot be given. Suffice it to say, that 
it was one of the largest iron-plated ships in the. English 
navy, with an armament of nine guns. The guns in " The 
Monarch's " turrets are said to have no peers on land or 
sea. The room in which the coffin of Mr. Peabody was 


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placed was appropriately draped, and candles were kept 
burning throughout the voyage. " The Monarch " was 
convoyed by an American and a French vessel detailed 
for that service, to add to the honor old England was 
conferring on the man who gave millions away. 

"The Hearth and Home" published the following 
poem, entitled 


All in the winter silence, 

Rapt with a sense of awe, — 
A vision half, and half a dream, — 

This was the sight I saw : — 

A vision of the sea. 

And consort-vessels two : 
The red cross on the flag of one ; 

And the other, red, white, and bine. 

No ripple at the prows. 

No wake of shimmering spraj : 
Like cloudlets white in the pale moonlight 

They glided on their way. 

Sentinels paced the deck 

With solemn tread and still : 
" Peace ** was the watchword that they gave ; 

The answering word, " Good wiH." 

An angel at the helm • 

Stood, all in garments white ; 
And angels hovered o'er the keel, 

And gnided tbroogh the night 


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They bring no crown^ king ; 

Theirs is a holier trust : 
Thej bear a treasure from afar, — 

A good man's sacred dust, 

Mourned by the rich he taught, 
Mourned by the poor he fed, 

Mourned by a race with whom he broke 
A nobler food than bread. 

To the soil that gave him birth 
They bring him for his rest : 

Blue shall his native violets be 
Above his honored breast. 

A vision of the sea, 

And .consort-vessels two : 
The red ctoss on the flag of one ; 

And the other, red, white, and blue. 

All in the winter silence, 
Rapt with a sense of awe, — 

A vision half, and half a dream, — 
This was the sight I saw. 


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Reception of the Remains in America. — The Funeral in Harmony Grove. 
— Mr. Winthrop'&Eulogj. — Prince Arthur of England. 

« Unrivalled as fhy merit be thy fiune." — Tickell. 

*' Glory, honor, and peace to every man that worketh good,— to the Jew first, and 

also to the GkntUe."— Rom. U. 10. 

JREAT preparations were made in America for 
the reception of Mr. Peabody's remains. Legis- 
latures adjourned to attend in a body. Pub- 
lie dignitaries paid due respect to his memory 
by their presence ; and private individuals thronged the 
wharves of Portland when " The Monarch " arrived, and 
attended every motion of the body towards its final resting- 
place. The following poem by Howard Glyndon may be 
taken as an exponent of the sentiment of Americans who 
appreciated the noble deeds of the distinguished dead : it 
is entitled " The Coming of the Silent Guest : " — 

" Lo I England sends him hack to ns, 
With sealM eyes and folded palms : 
He drifts across the wintry sea, 
Which chants to him its thousand psalms. 

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We proudly name and claim him ours ; 

We take him, England, fix)m ihj hreast ; 
We open wide our doors to him 

Who Cometh home a silent guest. 

We lent him thee to teach thy sons 

The lesson of the Open Hand, 
Lest famished lips should bless them less 

Than him, — the stranger in their lan4. 

We lent him, living, unto thee, 

To be a solace to thy pain ; 
But now we want his noble dust. 

To consecrate it ours again. 

England, we take him from thine arms ; 

We thank thee for thy reverent care : 
If thou and we were ever friends. 

We should be so beside his bier. 

His memory should be a spell 

To banish spleen and bitterness. 
Have kindlier thoughts of us, — for he 

Was tender unto thy distress, — 

As we have kindlier thoughts of thee 

Because of honor done to him ; 
For, while we weep, we turn to see 

That English eyes with tears are dim." 

Space forbids that much should be said concerning the 
reception of the honored remains. They were removed 
to the City' Hall in Portland, and lay in state there, and 
afterwards in the town of Peabody, visited by thousands, 
wh6 could see only, however, the catafalque and its sur- 
roundings. Sentinels were on guard, and every possible 

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honor paid by all to the memory of the departed. Oars 
were fitted by the Eastern-Railroad Company with special 
reference to the funeral ; and bells rang while minute-guns 
pealed at his funeral in Dan vers (or Peabody, as it is now 
called). According to '• Zion's Herald," "The church 
exercises were impressive, if not solemn. Draped walls ; 
lamps dimly burning; high pulpit, looking higher in its 
new robes of death ; the body lifted high up before it, — 
the fifth of its prominent resting-places on its way to the 
grave ; wreaths, crosses, and crowns of flowers, whose 
funeral fragrance sweetens and sickens the air, — these 
were the Kfeless accessories of the event. The living 
ones were, first, the brother and sister of the deceased, 
with a score or two of relatives ; next behind them sat the 
Prince and his guite, — he in black, they in gold and the 
red uniforms of the army." The Governor of Massachu- 
setts and his suite were near, and " dignitaries of alF sorts 
and origins followed these heads of rival States ; and the 
old-fashioned church was speedily filled with a more solid 
mass of rank and fame than was probably ever gathered 
before in a New-England Congregational meeting-house." 
Music appropriate to the occasion formed a part of the 
funeral-exercises. Rev, Daniel Marsh of Georgetown 
read the Scriptures ; and Hon.. Robert C. Winthrop deliv- 
ered the following funeral-oration : — 

" While I have been unwilling, my friends, wholly to 
decline the request of your committee of arrangements, or 

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to seem wanting to any service which might perchance 
have gratified him, whom, in common with you all, I have 
so honored and loved, I have still felt deeply, and I Cannot 
help feeUng at this moment more deeply than ever before, 
that any words of mine might Veil have been spared on 
this occasion. 

" The solemn tones of the organ, the plaintive notes of 
the funeral-chant, the consoling lessons of the Sacred Scrip- 
tures, the fervent utterances of prayer and praise, — these 
would seem to me the only appropriate, I had almost 
said the only endurable, interruptions of the silent sorrow 
which befits a scene like this, 

" Even were it possible for me to add any thing worth 
adding to the tributes, on both sides of the ocean, which 
already have well-nigh exhausted the language of eulogy, 
the formal phrases of a detailed memoir or of a protnu^ted 
and studied panegyric would congeal upon my lips, and 
fall frozen upon the ears and hearts of all whom I address, 
in presence of the lifeless form of one who has so long 
been the support, the ornament, the dear delight, of this 
village of his nativity. 

" We cannot, indeed, any of us, gather around these 
cherished remains, and prepare to commit them tenderly 
and affectionately to their mother-earth, without a keen 
sense of personal affliction and bereavement. He was too 
devoted and loving a brother, he was too kind and 
thoughtful a kinsman, he was too genial and steadfast a 
fiiend, not to be missed and mourned by those around me 

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as few others have ever been missed and mourned here 
before. I am not insensible to my own full share of the 
private and public grief which pervades this community. 

" And yet, my friends, it is by no means sorrow alone 
which may well be indulged by us all at such an hour as 
this. Other emotions — I hazard nothing in saying, far 
other emotions — besides those of grief are even now rising 
and swelling in all our hearts, — emotions of pride, emo- 
tions of joy, emotions of triumph. 

'^ Am I not right ? How could it be otherwise ? What 
a career has that been, of which the final scene is now, at 
length, before us ! Who can contemplate its rise and 
progress, from the lowly cradle in ttis South Parish of old 
Danvers — henceforth to be known of all men by his 
name — to the temporary repose in Westminster Abbey, 
followed by that august procession across the Atlantic, 
whose wake upon the waters will glow and sparkle to the 
end of time, growing more and more luminous with the 
lapse of years, — who, I say, can contemplate that career, 
from its humble commencement to its magnificent com- 
pletion, without an irrepressible thrill of admiration, and 
almost of rapture ? 

" Who, certainly, can contemplate the immediate close 
of this extraordinary life, without rejoicing, not only that 
it was so painless, so peaceful, so happy in itself; not only 
that it was so providentially postponed until he had been 
enabled once more to revisit his native land to complete 
his great American benefactions, to hold personal inter- 


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course with those friends at the South for whose welfere 
the largest and most cherished of these benefactions was 
designed, and to take solemn leave of those to whom he 
was bound by so many ties of affection or of blood, — but 
that it occurred at a time and under circumstances so 
peculiarly fortunate for attracting the largest attention, 
and for giving the widest impression and influence, to his 
great and inspiring example ? 

" For this, precisely this, as I believe, would have been 
the most gratifying consideration to our lai^^ented friend 
himself, could he have distinctly foreseen all that has hap- 
pened since he left you a few- months since. Could it 
have been foretold him, as he embarked with feeble 
strength and faltering steps on board his favorite * Sco- 
tia' at New York on the 23d of September last, not 
merely that he was leaving kinsfolk and friends and native 
land for the last time, but that hardly four weeks would 
have elapsed after his arrival at Liverpool before he 
should be the subject of funeral honors by command of 
the Queen of England, and should lie down for a time 
beneath the consecrated arches of that far-famed minster, 
among the kings and counsellors of the earth ; could it 
have been foretold him that his acts would be the theme 
of eloquent tributes from high prelates of the Church, and 
from the highest minister of the Crown, and that Great 
Britain and the United States — not always, nor often, 
alas I . in perfiact accord — should vie with each other 
in furnishing their proudest national ships to escort his 


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remains over the ocean, exhibiting such a funeral-fleet as 
the world in all its history had never witnessed before, — 
could all this have been whispered in his ear as it was 
catching those last farewells of relatives and friends, he 
must indeed have been more than mortal not to have 
experienced some unwonted emotions of personal gratifica- 
tion and j)ride. 

" But I do believe, from all I have ever seen or known 
of him, — and few others, at home or abroad, have of late 
enjoyed more of his confidence, — that far, far above any 
feelings of this sort, his great heart would have throbbed 
as it never throbbed before with gratitude to God and 
man, that the example which he "had given to the world 
by employing the wealth which he had accumulated dur- 
ing a long life of industry and integrity in relieving the 
wants of his fellow-men wherever they were most appar- 
ent to him ; in providing lodgings for the poor of London ; 
in providing education for the children of our own deso- 
lated South ; in building a memorial-church for the parish 
in which his mother had worshipped ; in founding or en- 
dowing institutes and libraries, and academies of science, in 
the town in which he was born, in the city in which he 
had longest resided, and in so many other places with 
which, for a longer or a shorter time, he had been con- 
nected, — that this grand and glorious example of munifi- 
cence and beneficence would thus be so signally held up 
to the contemplation of mankind in a way not only to 
commend it to their remembrance and regard, but to com- 

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mand for it their respect an^ imitation. This, I feel as- 
sared, he would have felt to be the accomplishment of the 
wannest wish of his heart, the consummation of the most 
cherished object of his life. 

" Our lamented friend was not, indeed, without ambi- 
tion. He not only liked to do grand things, but he liked 
to do them in a grand way. We all remember those 
sumptuous and princely banquets with which he some- 
times diversified the habitual simphcity and frugality of 
his daily life. He was not without a decided taste for 
occasional display, — call it even ostentation, if you will. 
We certainly may not ascribe to him a pre-eminent meas- 
ure of that sort of charity which shuns publicity, which 
shrinks from observation, and which, according to one of 
our Saviour's well-remembered injunctions, * dbeth its 
alms in secret.' He may or he may not have exercised 
as much of this kind of beneficence as any of those in 
similar condition. around him : I fully believe that he did. 
We all understand, however, that 

' Of that best portion of a good man's life, — 
His little, nameless, un remembered acts 
Of kindness and of love,' — 

there can be no record except on high, or in the* grateful 
hearts of those who have been aided and relieved. That 
record shall be revealed hereafter. The world can know 
little or nothing of it now. 

" But any one must perceive at a glance that the sort 


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of charity which our lamented friend illustrated and 
exercised was wholly incompatible with concealment or 
reserve. The great trusts which he established, the great 
institutions which he founded, the capacious and costly 
edifices which he erected, were things that could not be 
hid, which could not be done in a corner. They were, in 
theii own intrinsic and essential nature, patent to the 
world's eye. He could not have performed these noble 
acts in his lifetime, as it was his peculiar choice to do, and 
as it will be his peculiar distinction and glory to have done, 
without suffering himself * to be seen of men ; ' without 
being known and recognized and celebrated as their author. 
He must have postponed them ,all, as others have done, 
for posthumous execution, he must have refrained from 
parting with his millions until death should have wrested 
them from a reluctant grasp, had he shrunk from the 
notoriety and celebrity which inevitably attend upon such 
a career. 

" He did not fail to remember, however, — for he was 
no stranger to the Bible, — that there were at least two 
modes of doing good commended in Holy Writ. He did 
not forget that the same glorious gospel, nay, that the 
same incomparable Sermon on the Mount, which said, 
* Let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth,' 
said ^Iso, * Let your light so shine before men, that they 
may see your good works, and glorify your Father which 
is in heaven.' This, this, might almost be regarded as the 
chosen motto of his later life, and might not inappropri- 
ately be inscribed as such on his tombstone. ^ . 

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" Certainly, my friends, his light has shone before men, 
Certainly they have seen his good works. And who shall 
doubt that they have glorified his Father which is in 
heaven ? Yes, glory to God, glory to God in the highest, 
has, I am persuaded, swollen up from the hearts of mil- 
lioijs in both hemispheres with a new fervor as they have 
folbwed him in his grand circumnavigation of benevo- 
lence, and as they have witnessed, one after another, his 
multifold and magnificent endowments. And his own 
heart, I repeat, would have throbbed and thrilled as it 
never thrilled or throbbed before with gratitude to God 
and man, could he have foreseen that the matchless 
example of munificence which it had been the cherished 
aim of his later years to exhibit would be rendered, as it 
has now been rendered, so signal, so inspiring, so endur- 
ing, so immortal, by the homage which has been paid to 
his memory by the princes and potentates, as well as by 
the poor, of the Old World, and by the government and 
the whole people of his own beloved country. 

"I have spoken of the exhibition of this example as 
having been the cherished aim of his later years ; but I 
am not without authority for saying that it was among the 
fondest wishes of his whole mature life. I cannot forget, 
that in one of those confidential consultations with which 
he honored me some years since, after unfolding his plans, 
and telling me substantially all that he designed to do, — 
for almost every thing he did was of his own original 
designing, — and when I was filled with admiration and 


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amazement at the magnitude and sublimity of his pur- 
poses, he said to me, with that guileless simplicity which 
characterized so much of his social intercourse and conver- 
sation, * Why, Mr. Winthrop, this is no new idea to me. 
From the earliest years of my manhood, I have contem- 
plated some such disposition of my property ; and I have 
prayed my heavenly Father, day by day, that I might be 
enabled, before I died, to show my gratitude for the 
blessings which he has bestowed upon me by doing some 
great good to my fellow-men.' 

" Well has the living laureate of England sung, in one 
of his latest published poems, — 

* More things are' wroaght by prayer 
Than this world dreams of/ 

That prayer has been heard and answered ; that no- 
ble aspiration has been more than fiilfilled. The judg- 
ment of the future will confirm the opinion of the hour ; 
and History, instead of contenting herself with merely 
enrolling his name in chronological or alphabetical order 
as one among the many benefactors of mankind, will 
assign him, unless I greatly mistake her verdict, a place 
by himself, far above all competition or comparison, first 
witliout a second, as having done the greatest good for 
the greatest number of his fellow-men — so far, at least, 
as pecuniary means could accomplish such a result — of 
which tliere has thus far been any authentic record in 
merely human annals. 


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" It would afford a most inadequate measure of his 
munificence were I to sum up the dollars or the pounds 
he has distributed, or the number of persons^ whom his 
perennial provisions for dwellings or for schools will have 
included, in years to come, on one side of the Atlantic or 
the other. Tried even by this narrow test, his benefi- 
cence has neither precedent nor parallel. But it is as 
having attracted and compelled the attention of mankind 
to the beauty, the nobleness, the true glory, of living and 
doing for others ; it is as having raised the standard of 
munificence to a degree which has almost made it a new 
thing in the world ; it is as having exhibited a wisdom 
and a discrimination in selecting the objects and in arran- 
ging the machinery of his bounty, which almost entitle him 
to the credit of an inventor ; it is as having, in the words 
of the brilliant Gladstone, ' taught us how a man may be 
the master of his fortune, and not its slave ; ' it is as hav- 
ing discarded all considerations of caste, creed, condition, 
nationality, in his world-wide philanthropy, regarding 
nothing human as alien to him ; it is as having deliber- 
ately stripped himself in his lifetime of the property he 
had so laboriously acquired, delighting as much in devis- 
ing modes of bestowing his wealth as he had ever done 
in contriving plans for its increase and accumulation, — 
literally throwing his bags like some adventurous aeronaut 
who would mount higher and higher to the skies, and ^ 
really exulting as he calculated, from time to time, how 
little of all his laborious earnings he had at last left for 


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himself; it is as having furnished this new and living and 
magnetic example, which can never be lost to history, 
never be lost to the interests of humanity, never fail to 
attract, inspire, and stimulate the lovers of their fellow- 
men, as long as human wants and human wealth shall 
co-exist upon the earth, — it is in this way that our 
lamented friend has attained a pre-eminence among the 
benefactors of his age and race, like that of Washington 
among patriots, or that of Shakspeare or Milton among 

" I do not altogether forget those Maecenases of old 
whom philosophers and poets have so delighted to extol. 
I do not forget the passing tribute of the great Roman 
orator to one of the publicans of his own period, as having 
displayed an incredible benignity in amassing a vast for- 
tune, not ' as the prey of avarice, but as the instrument 
of doing good.' I do not forget the founders of the Royal 
Exchange in London, and of the noble hospital in Edin- 
burgh, the princely merchant of Queen Elizabeth's day, 
or the ' Jingling Geordie ' of England's first King James. 
I do not forget how strikingly Edmund Biirke foreshad- 
owed our lamented friend, when he said of one of his own 
contemporaries, ' His fortune is among the largest, — a 
fortune, which, wholly unencumbered as it. is, without one 
single change from luxury^ vanity, or excess, sinks under 
the benevolence of its dispenser : this private benevo- 
lence, expanding itself into patriotism, renders his whole 
being the estate of the public, in which he has not 

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reserved a pecuiium for himself of profit, diversion, or 
relaxation.' I do not forget the Baron de Monthyon of 
France, whose noble benefactions are annually distributed 
by the Imperial Academy, and whose portrait has been 
combined with that of our own Franklin on a medal com- 
memorative of their kindred beneficence. I recall, too, 
the refrain of an ode to a late munificent English duke on 
the erection of his statue at Belvoir Castle, which might 
well have been sung again when Story's statue of our 
friend was recently unveiled by the Prince of Wales : — 

* O my brethren ! what a glory 
To the world is one good man ! ' 

Nor do I fail to remember the long roll of benefactors, 
dead and living, of whom our own age and our own 
country and our mother-country — New England and 
Old England — may so justly boast. But no one imagines 
that either Caius Curius, or Sir Thomas Gresham, or 
'George Heriot, or Sir George Savile, or any Duke of 
Rutland, or Monthyon, or Franklin, or any of the later 
and larger benefactors of our own time or land, can ever 
vie in historic celebrity, as a practical philanthropist, with 
him whom we bury here to-day. 

" Think me not unmindful, my friends, that, for the 
manifestation of a true spirit of benevolence, two mites 
will suffice as well as untold millions ; a cup of cold water 
as well as a treasure-house of silver and gold. Think me 
not unmindful, either, of the grand and glorious results 

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for the welfare of mankind which have been accomplished 
by purely moral or reBgious influences ; by personal toil 
and trust ; by the force of Christian character and exam- 
ple ; by the exercise of some great gifts of intellect or elo- 
quence ; by simple self-devotion and self-sacrifice, without 
any employment whatever of pecuniary means ; by mis- 
sionaries in the cause of Christ ; by reformers of prisons, 
and organizers of hospitals ; by Sisters of Charity ; by visit- 
ors of the poor ; by champions of the oppressed ; by such 
women as Elizabeth Fry and Florence Nightingale, and 
such men as John Howard and William Wilberforce ; 
or, to go farther back in history, by men like our own 
John Eliot, the early apostle to the Indians ; or like the 
sainted Vincent de Paul, whose ^ memory has been so 
justly honored in France for more than two centuries. 
But philanthropy of this sort, I need not say, stands on a 
somewhat different plane, and cannot feirly enter into this 

" It is enough to say of our lamented friend, as we have * 
seen and known him of late, that in him were united — as 
rarely if ever before — the largest desire and the largest 
ability to do good ; that his will was, at least, commensurate 
with his wealth ; and that nothing but the limited extent 
of even the most considerable earthly estate prevented his 
enjoying the very antepast of celestial bliss : — 

• ' For, when the power of imparting good 

Is equal to the will, the haman soul 
Requires no other heaven.' 

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" And now, my fipiends, what wonder is it that all that 
was mortal of such a man has come back to us to-day 
with such a convoy and with such accompanying honors 
as well might have befitted some mighty conqueror or 
some princely hero ? Was he not indeed a conqueror ? 
Was he not indeed a hero? Oh I it is not on the battle- 
field or on the blood-stained ocean alone that conquests 
are achieved and victories won. There are bsfttles to be 
fought, there is a life-long warfare to be waged, by each 
one of us, in our own breasts, and against our own selfish 
natures. And what conflict is harder than that which 
awaits the accumulator of great wealth? Who can ever 
forget, or remember without a shudder, the emphatic tes- 
timony to the character of that conflict which was borne 
by our blessed Saviour — who knew what was in man 
better than any man knows it for himself — when he said, 
' How hardly shall they that have riches enter into the 
kingdom of God ! ' and when he bade that rich young 
man sell all that he had, and distribute to the poor, and 
then come and follow him ? 

" It would be doing grievous injustice to our lamented 
friend, were we to deny or conceal that there were ele- 
ments in his character which made his own warfare in 
this respect a stem one. He was no stranger to the love 
of accumulation. He was no stranger to the passion for 
gaining and saving and hoarding. There were in his 
nature the germs, and more than the germs, of economy, 
and even of parsimony ; and sometimes they would sprout 

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and spring up in spite of himself. Nothing less strong 
than his own will, nothing less indomitable than his own 
courage, could have enabled him, by the grace of God, to 
strive successfully against that greedy, grudging, avari- 
cious spirit which so often besets the talent for acquisition. 
In a thousand little ways, you might perceive to the last 
how much within him he had overcome and vanquished. 
All the more glorious and signal was the victory. All 
the more deserved and appropriate are these trappings of 
triumph with which his remains have been restored to us. 
You rob him of his richest laurel, you refuse him his 
brightest crown, when you attempt to cover up or disguise 
any of those innate tendencies, any of those acquired 
habits, any of those besetting temptations, against which 
he struggled so bravely and so triumphantly. Recount, if 
you please, every penurious or mercenary act of his 
earlier or his later life which friends have ever witnessed 
(if they have ever witnessed any), or which malice has 
ever whispered or hinted at (and malice, we know, has 
not spared him in more ways than one), and you have 
only added to his titles to be received and remembered 
as a hero and a conqueror. 

"As such a conqueror, then, you have received him 
from that majestic turreted iron-clad which the gracious 
monarch of our mother-land has deputed as her own mes- 
senger to bear him back to his home. As such a con- 
queror, you have canopied his funeral-car with the flag of 
his country ; ay, with the flags of both his countries, be- 

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tween whom I pray God that his memory may ever be a 
pledge of mutual forbearance and affectionate regard I As 
such a conqueror, you mark the day and the hour of his 
burial by minute-guns, and fire a farewell shot, it may be, 
as the clods of his native soil are heaped upon his breast. 

" We do not forget, however, amidst all this martiul 
pomp, how eminently he was a man of peace ; or how 
earnestly he desired, or how much he has. done, to incul- 
cate a spirit of peace, national and international. I may 
not attempt to enter here, to-day, into any consideration 
of the influence of his specific endowments, at home or 
abroad, American or English ; but I may say, in a single 
word, that I think history will be searched in vain for the 
record of any merely human acts, recent or remote, which 
have been more in harmony with that angelic chorus, 
which, just as the fleet with this sad fi'eight had entered 
on' its funeral-voyage across the Atlantic, the whole Chris- 
tian world was uniting to ring back again to the skies 
from which it first was heard; any merely human acts, 
which, while, as I have said, they have waked a firesh and 
more fervent echo of ' Glory to God in the highest,' have 
done more to promote * peace on earth, and good will 
towards men.' 

'* Here, then, my friends, in this home of his infancy, 
where, seventy years ago, he attended the common village 
school, and served his first apprenticeship as a humble 
shop-boy ; here, where, seventeen years ago, his first large 
public donation was made, accompanied by that memora- 

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ble sentiment, ' Education, — a debt due from present to 
future generations ; ' here, where the monuments and me- 
morials of his affection and his munificence surround us on 
every side, and where he had chosen to deposit that unique 
enamelled portrait of the Queen, that exquisite gold medal 
the gift of his country, that charming little autograph-note 
from the Empress of France, that imperial photograph of 
the Pope inscribed by his own hand, and whatever other 
tributes had been most precious to him in life'; here, 
where he has desired that his own remains should finally 
repose, near to the graves of his father and mother, enfor- 
cing that desire by those touching words, almost the last 
which he uttered, ' Danvers, Danve#6. 1 don't forget I ' — 
here let us thank God for his transcendent example ; and 
here let us resolve that it shall neither fail to be treasured 
up in our hearts, and sacredly transmitted to our children 
and our children's children, nor be wholly without an in- 
fljaence upon our own immediate lives. Let it never be 
said that the tomb and the trophies are remembered and 
cherished, but the example forgotten or neglected. 

" I may not longer detain you, my friends, from the sad 
ceremonies which remain to be performed by us ; yet I 
cannot quite release you until I have alluded, in the sim- 
plest and briefest manner, to an incident of the last days 
and almost the last hours of this noble life which has come 
to me from a source which cannot be questioned. While 
he was lying, seemingly unconscious, on his deathbed in 
London, at the house of his kind friend, Sir Curtis Lamp- 
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son, and when all direct commuiiication with him had been 
for a time suspended, it was mentioned aloud in his pres- 
ence, in a manner and with a purpose to test his con- 
sciousness, that a highly- valued acquaintance had called to 
see him ; but he took no notice of the remark. Not long 
afterwards, it was stated, in a tone loud enough for him to 
hear, that the Queen herself had sent a special telegram 
of inquiry and sympathy ; but even that failed to arouse 
him. Once more, at no long interval, it was remarked 
that a faithful minister of the gospel, with whom he had 
once made a voyage to America, was at the door ; and his 
attention was instantly attracted. That ' good man,' as 
he called him with his latest breath, was received by him, 
and prayed with him more than once. ' It is a great mys- 
tery,' he feebly observed ; ' but I shall know all soon : ' 
while his repeated ' amens ' gave audible and abundant 
evidence that those prayers were not lost upon his ear or 
upon his heart. The friendships of earth could no longej 
soothe him ; the highest honors of the world, the kind 
attentions of a sovereign whom he knew how to respect, 
admire, and love, could no longer satisfy him : the ambas- 
sador of Christ was the only visitor for that hour. 

" Thus, we may humbly hope, was at last explained and 
fulfilled for him that mysterious saying of one of the an- 
cient prophets of Israel, which he had heard many years 
before as the text of a sermon by one whom he knew 
and valued, which had long lingered in his memory, and 
which, by some force of association or reflection, had again 


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and again been recalled to his mind, and more than once, 
in my own hearing, been made the subject of his remark : 
'And it shall come to •pass in that day, that the light 
shall not be clear nor dark ; but it shall be one day which 
shall be known to the Lord, not day, nor night: but 
it shall come to pass, that at evening-time it shall be light.' 

"At evening time it was indeed light for him. And 
who shall doubt, that, when another morning shall break 
upon his brow^ it shall be a morning without clouds, — all 
light and love and joy ? ' for the glory of God shall lighten 
it, and the Lamb shall be the light thereof.' 

" And so I bid farewell to thee, — brave, honest, noble- 
hearted friend! The village of thy birth weeps to-day 
for one who never caused ^er pain before. The ' flower 
of Essex ' is gathered at thy grave. Massachusetts mourns 
thee as a son who has given new lustre to her historic 
page ; and Maine, not unmindful of her joint inheritance 
in the earlier glories of the parent State, has opened her 
noblest harbor, and draped her municipal halls with rich- 
est, saddest robes, to do honor to thy remains. New Eng- 
land, from mountain-top to farthest cape, is in sympathy 
with the scene, and feels the fitness that the hallowed 
memories of ' Leyden ' and ' Plymouth ' — the refuge and 
the rock of her Pilgrim Fathers — should be associated 
with thy obsequies. This great and glorious nation, in all 
ifs restored and vindicated union, partakes the pride of thy 
life and the sorrow of thy loss. In hundreds of schools of 
^e desolated South, the children even now are chanting 

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thy requiem, and weaving chaplets around thy name. In 
hundreds of comfortable homes provided by thy bounty, 
the poor of the grandest city of the world even now are 
breathing blessings on thy memory. The proudest shrine 
of Old England has unlocked its consecrated vaults for 
thy repose. The bravest ship of a navy * whose march is 
on the mountain-wave, whose home is on the deep,' has 
borne thee as a conqueror to thy chosen rest ; and as it 
passed from isle to isle, and from sea to sea, in a circum- 
navigation almost as wide as thy own charity, has given 
new significance to the memorable saying of the great 
funeral orator of antiquity : ' Of illustrious men, the whole 
earth is the sepulchre ; and not only does the inscription 
upon columns in their own land point it out, but in that, 
also, which is not their own, there dwells vnth every one 
an unwritten memorial of the heart.' And now around 
thee are assembled not only surviving schoolmates and 
old companions of thy youth, and neighbors and friends of 
thy maturer years, but votaries of science, ornaments of 
literature, heads of universities and academies, foremost 
men of commerce and the arts, ministers of the gospel, 
delegates from distant States, and rulers of thy own State, 
all eager to unite in paying such homage to a career of 
grand but simple beneficence as neither rank nor fortune 
nor learning nor genius could ever have commanded. 
Chiefs of the Republic, representatives and more than 
representatives of royalty, are not absent from thy bier. 
Nothing is wanting to give emphasis to thy example ; 

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nothing is wanting to fill up the measure of thy fame. 
But what earthly honor, what accumulation of earthly 
honors, shall compare for a moment with the supreme 
hope and trust which we all humbly and devoutly cherish 
at this hour, that when the struggles and the victories, the 
pangs and pageants, of time shall be ended, and the great 
awards of eternity shall be made*up, thou mayst be found 
amongst those who are 'more than conquerors through 
Him who loved us ' ? 

" And so we bid thee farewell, — brave, honest, noble- 
hearted friend of mankind I " 

After Mr. Winthrop had concluded his remarks, the 


" Their sun shall no more go down," 

was sung by the choir, and the Rev. Mr. Marsh offered a 
solemn prayer. The services were closed with Watts's 
hymn, commencing, 

" Unveil thy bosom, faithful tomb ; " 

and the benediction was then pronounced by Rev. Mr. 

The congregation were most devout throughout the ser- 
vice. The greatest attention was paid by Prince Arthur 
to the eulogy, and at some portions of it he was observed 
to be deeply affected. 

It was a touching tribute of respect to the royal mother 

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of Prince Arthur that he should be found among the 
mourners at the funeral of London's benefactor, m his far- 
off native land ; and his princely bearing while on his late 
visit to the United States has won the esteem of the na- 
tion, and reflected credit upon the mother whom England 
and America dehght to honor. 


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Kewman Hall on George Peabody. — Tributes from Varions Sources. — 
The Pulpit's Voice in Praise of his Beneficence. -- List of his Donations. 

" Nor let thy noble spirit grieve 
Its life of glorious fiune to leave : 
A life of honor and of worth 
Has no eternity on earth."— Longfellow. 

" Bender therefore, to all, thehr daes." —Ron. ziii. 7. 

)HE mortal remains of the great benefactor now 
repose in Harmony Grove, — the spot select-, 
ed by himself. This is a beautifully wooded 
rising ground near Salem, and bordering upon 
that part of Danvers now known as Peabody. " Upon 
the principal street of the latter, the visitor still sees the 
house, with its small shop-front, in which, as the boy of 
the village-store, many of the youthful days of the great 
philanthropist were spent. The little window of its nar- 
row attic is that of his bedroom." From it, doubtless, he 
often looked out on the green spot where his body rests. 
He has gone to the grave with the highest honors two 


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great nations could pay. England and America buried 
him, and France looked on with sympathy at the funeral. 

Eulogies fell from eloquent lips on both sides of the sea. 
Rev. Newman Hall preached a sermon in reference to 
his departure, from* which the following extracts are 
taken : — 

" The old arches of Westminster Abbey never looked 
down on a spectacle more solemnly impressive, more 
touchingly eloquent, more sublime in its simplicity, than 
when, two •days ago, the remains of George Peabody 
were deposited beneath its sacred pavement. What a 
sermon did that ancient cathedral preach to the assembled 
thousands, as they waited in sorrowful silence the arrival 
of all that was mortal of the deceased philanthropist I . . . 
All the centuries of England's grand old history were 
looking down upon us. Spirits of Saxons and Normans, 
•of steel-clad kings and feudal chiefs, of sturdy barons and 
mitred prelates, of mailed crusaders and shaven monks, 
of Cavaliers and Roundheads, of statesmen and jurists, of 
poets and orators, of philosophers and philanthropists, 
seemed to gather round, intent to watch the accession 
which this day would bring to those venerated vaults. . . . 

" Many a scene of pomp and splendor has that abbey 
witnessed ; but far more in harmony with its solemn . 
architecture, impressive antiquity, and monuments of 
death, was such a scene as last Friday witnessed. The 
spacipus building was crowded in every part by a multi- 
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tude clad in mourning attire, and bearing in their features 
and demeanor the expression of a reverential sorrow. If 
any spoke, while waiting till the appointed hour, it was 
with bated breath, so as not to disturb the expressive 
silence which was broken only by the solemn knell from 
the old tower pealing ever and anon through the arches 
so long familiar with the sound. ... 

" The funeral now solemnized was of a private citizen, 
who had sought no distinction of rank or title, but who, 
by industry and sagacity, accumulated vast treasures, 
which it was his delight to employ for the benefit of the 
poor. His was a warfare against want, in waging which 
he built many homes, and desolated none. His was a 
statesmanship which simply looked at suflPering, and at 
once mitigated it by a generosity which could give no 
occasion to party diflPerence, by a law of love which none 
would 6ver wish to repeal. An American citizen, his 
business and home were for many years in London. 
Here he beheld the miseries of the teeming multitudes of 
the poor, often Crowded together in unhealthy abodes, 
forbidding comfort, cleanliness, and decency. Blessed by 
Divine Providence with great prosperity in business, he 
felt it his pleasure to distribute of his treasures to the poor, 
rather than to go on augmenting the heap, so as to have 
the questionable credit of dying richer than most of his 
compeers. Besides large benefactions in his own country, 
successive donations have reached the sum of half a mil- 
lion sterling, invested in trustees, to be employed for the 

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benefit of the poor of the metropolis throughout future 
generatfbns. Noble was his gift, and just has been the 
nation's appreciation. The Queen, some time since, sent 
him a special mark of her personal honor and regard, and 
earnestly desired to see him ; inviting him to Windsor to 
meet her quietly for personal intercourse, and then pro- 
posing to visit him at his own residence. But, alas 1 ill- 
ness and death frustrated the monarch's gracefiil and char- • 
acteristic purpose. And now, though his body was finally 
to rest in the land of his birth, all that could be done in 
honor of him dead was done, — a funeral in Westminster 

'* And now the solemn procession is entering firom the 
cloisters ; and Scorn afar we hear the wailing notes of the 
choristers, as in long array they slowly move up the nave 
between the multitudes of sympathizing spectators. Very 
slowly they pass along; their plaintive voices — now most 
sad, now swelling forth in tones of hope — mingling with 
the notes of the great organ. The coffin is borne along, 
followed by mourners of both nations, into the choir, 
where every seat had long been occupied by representa- 
tives of all parties in the State, waiting thus to do homage 
to the memory .of the poor man's friend. The chanted 
psalm is now heard ringing in the vaulted roof, and the 
sublime words which tell of victory over death through 
Jesus Christ our Lord. Again the solemn procession is 
seen emerging from the choir, and traversing the cathedral, 
till it reaches the grave, where the concluding prayers are 


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offered up, and the final anthem sung, — * His body/ 
Then the principal mourners stood for a while gazing into 
the grave. The Premier of England, as representing the 
government and the nation, stood there, thoughtful and 
devout, rendering the willing homage of his great and 
sympathizing nature. And the Secretary for Foreign Af- 
fairs was there, as representing the empire in its relations 
with all other lands, and especially with the great nation 
to which the deceased belonged. And beside him was the 
Queen's chamberlain, as representing her own personal 
admiration, and paying her own personal tribute to the 
deceased benefactor of her people. And the lord-mayor 
and magistrates of London were there, to testify their 
'Obligations to so princely a benefactor to their city. 
And amongst these, and others of varying celebrity, was 
the American ambassador, his keen eye taking in every 
feature of the scene, his high intelligence marking well its 
significance. And what did it mean? It meant some- 
thing more potent than his diplomacy, or that of any states- 
man of either country, anxious as they may be to remove 
all misunderstanding, and consolidate a lasting peace. 
More than conferences, protocols, treaties, explanations, 
compensations, — far more is done by suchdeeds as those of 
Peabody, and such appreciation as was witnessed that day, 
to cement together our two nations. George Peabody, 
the American, amassing a princely fortune to bequeath to 
the poor of Great Britain ; George Peabody, the Ameri- 
can, buried with a nation's lamentation among her princes 



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and statesmen in Westminster Abbey ; George Peabodjr, 
his body, after the highest honors Great Britain could pay 

* it, carried across the ocean in a British ship-of-war, there 
•to be interred for its final resting-place in his own land, — 
George Peabody is a link of peace and love between the 
two nations, which must never be broken. And as 
American and British statesmen stood around that open 
grave ; as American and British citizens blended their 
voices in the prayer to * our Father in heaven ' to forgive 
us our trespasses as we forgive each other ; as, at the same 
hour when this solemn service was performing in West- 
minster Abbey, the cradle of both nations, siniilar ser- 
vices were being conducted in America, while flags were 
lowered and bells were tolled, — I felt, that, whether diplo- ' 
macy has yet finally and formally completed its business 
or not, there never .again can be a question about the 
maintenance of friendship. All thoughts of the possibihty 
of quarrel must forever pass away ; and in the grave of 
Peabody, both at Westminster and at Danvers, must 
every remaining suspicion and memory of evil be buried ; 
both nations resolving that no deeds or words of menace 
or' ill will shall again be exchanged, and that not mere 
rigid justice, but generous love, shall settle all matters still 
in debate. The interests of civilization, the cause of lib- 

» erty, the claims of reUgion, the welfare of the world, 
demand, that as we are essentially one nation, so we shall 
ever be bound together in the closest ties of bi'otherhood, 
each seeking the honor and welfare of the other, and both 

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co-operating to lead the van in the triumphant march of 
universal civilization, freedom, and peace. Other thoughts 
then crowded on my mind. The first was this : How 
wise, yet how rare, the course which Mr. Peabody pur-v 
sued I Having attended to personal claims, he had vast 
wealth remaining, — far beyond what he needed for him- 
self. He did not care to squander it in idle ostentation. It 
was impossible to exhaust it on his own wants or luxuries, 
had he been so disposed. Where would be the advantage 
of leaving behind him, to be disposed of by others, so vast 
a sum, when he might have the happiness of being his 
own almoner ? How petty the ambition of dying worth a 
fabulous sum of money I As we can take nothing with 
us, we cannot die worth any thing. Rich and poor alike 
came naked into the world, and naked they must leave it. 
It is certain we can carry nothing out. Why not, then, 
use it while we may, and enjoy the luxury of making 
others happy ? How awful it is to die rich, when such 
riches have been accumulated by neglecting the claims of 
religion and charity! With a thousand claimants for 
help ; with philanthropic machinery of all kinds standing 
still, or working inefficiently, for want of the fuel we 
possess and cannot use ourselves ; with the hungry crying 
for food, and the ignorant claiming instruction, and sinners 
needing the gospel, * perishing for lack of knowledge,' — 
it is a fearful responsibility to possess great wealth, an aw- 
ful crime to die rich, after a life of ' covetousness w^hich is 
idolatry,' ^11 honor to I^r. Peabody^ that, in his lifetime, 

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he recognized the responsibility, as well as enjoyed the 
privileges, of wealth ; and that he derived greater satisfac- 
tion in scattering his possessions amongst the poor than in 
indefinitely augmenting his store I " 

" The London Evening Standard " contained the fol- 
lowing poetical tribute while the remains of Mr. Peabody 
were taking their solemn way across the deep : — 


We send him home. 
England sends home her son, — her son (for he 
Is yours, and ye our first-bom) ; sends him home 
As nations send the men they honor most, — 
In pride and state -and pomp of splendid death. 

We send him home. 
The land he loved to his own loying land, — 
The loan to the lender ; and we add thereto 
A royal nsury, — a people's tears. 

We send him home, — 
The good, kind heart, the simple gentleman, — 
And, sending, say, '' This body spans the gulf. 
We stretch across as with a fleshly arm, 
And our own flesh (oh, never doubt !) will clasp 
The hand of brotherhood with strong right hand. 
Wipe out the past, — all but the old kind years 
Before an oft-regretted harshness snapt 
The filial link ; the years when England still 
Was * home ' to far-off hearths, and saw with pride 
Her Titan offspring towering into strength* . . . 


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Wipe out the past, — the wrongs, the annatnral strife. 
And the red blood that English hands have poured 
From English veins. War is a curse ; but war 
Betwixt one race, one kindred, doubly cursed." 

What gain in war ? No gain ; but loss of much 
Of life, of treasure. Gain of honor, then ? 
The weaker falls : what honor to the strong ? 
O war 1 what honor hast thou ? Honor none. 
But war treads down the blossoming rose of peace ; 
With iron heel stamp§ out the smouldering sparks 
Of spiritual fire, and the strugglings iaint 
Of poor, blind, dumb humanity for light 

We send him home 
• Who showed a* better way. With good, not ill. 
He nobly conquered, and, where darkness reigns 
Amidst the abodes of night, made day, himself 
Llnmined by the brightness that he gave. 

He taught us love ; and let us learn the theme, — 
Prelude alike and close of all that is. 
And whilst with stooping flag and mufSed march 
The great ship bears the lowly to his rest ; 
Whilst twice ten thousand brazen lips ring woe, 
And thousand thousand hearts re-echo it ; 
Yea, whilst the funeral-peal is thundering forth 
Eveil from the black cannon-mouths agape for war, — 
Join we our hands above the gracious dead. 
And, mingling tears in one long sorrow, swear 
To write thi& epitaph above him, — Peace. h. o. p. 

* The palpit on both sides of the Atlantic gave its voice 
in favor of his beneficence, and made the name of George 
Peabody ^, household word. 


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The following is a list of his donations, in a convenient 
form for reference ; and it embraces all the more important 
public gifts of Mr. Peabody to various institutions and 
charities during his lifetime, including the bequests con- 
tained in his last will and testament : — 

To the State of Maryland, for negotiating the loan of $8,000,000, $60,00< 
To the Peabody Institute, Baltimore, Md., including accrued in- 
terest 1,500,000 

To the Southern Education Fund ,. : 3,000,000 

To Yale College 1 50,000 

To Harvard College 1.50,000 

To Peabod^pAcademy, Massachusetts 140,000 

To Phillips Academy, Massachusetts ^ 25,000 

To Peabody Institute, &c., at Peabody, Mass 250,000 

To Kenyon College, Ohio 25,000 

To Memorial Church in Creorgctown, Mass 100,000 , 

To Homes for the Poor in London 3,000,000 

To Libraries in Georgetown, Mass., and Thetford, Vt 10,000 

To Kane's Arctic Expedition 10,000 

• To different Sanitary Fairs 10,000 

To unpaid moneys advanced to uphold the credit of States 40,000 

Total $8,470,000 

In addition to the above, Mr. Peabody made a large 
number of donations for various public purposes, ranging 
in sums from <wo hundred and fifty to one thousand dol- 
lars, and extending back as far as the year 1835. 

The amount of property left by him at his death is 
estimated at about four million dollars in value. With the 
exception of a few bequests in the will, this amount is 

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directed to be distributed among his relatives, including 
one brother, one sister, and about fourteen nephews and 
nieces. On his last visit to this country, he divided among 
them one million five hundred thousand dollars ; and the 
property left at his death is to be distributed in the same 
proportions to each as were awarded by him in that gift. 


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The Lessons of George Peabody's Life. — Money is Power. — A Conse- 
crated Parse is that of Portunatas. 

" We tell thy doom withoat a sigh ; 

For thou art Freedom's now, and Fame's,^ 
One of the few, the immortal names 
That were not bom to die."— Haij[.eck. 

" Be not overoome of evil ; but overcome evil with good."— BoM. xH. 21. 

}RACE GREENWOOD paid a beautiful trib- 
ute to Mr. Peabody in an article entitled 
" The Good Giver." We have only space for 
a part of her true words. She said, — 
" The honors paid to the memory of the late George 
Peabody are a cheering sign of the state of moral senti- 
ment in England. The English people, from the Queen 
to her humblest subject, reverenced this good giver as 
no other American citizen was ever reverenced in the 
mother-country. It shows that deeds of benevolence are 
getting to be more esteemed than deeds of valor, even in 
that land of military heroes. ... 


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" When this man died, as he had lived, a simple Ameri- 
can citizen, the honors paid him by the great of his 
adopted country were personal rather than national trib- 
utes, altogether voluntary and loving p while his sincerest 
mourners were among the humblest of the poor. * The 
blessing of those ready to perish ' canopied his hearse. 
We may almost think of angels as walking in his funeral- 
procession. ... 

'" Would that our rich capitalists might take home the 
lesson of George Peabody's wise and generous benefac- 
tions, and allow themselves the almost divine luxury of 
distributing their 6wn charities of giving^ not willmg ! 

" Who can doubt that the rich banker found a sweeter 
happiness, if not a keener pleasure, in scattering abroad, 
than he had ever found in amassing his' splendid fortune ? 
He cast his bread on the waters with a liberal hand ; and 
though he had here no return in kind, and needed none, 
amid the pleasant pastures of the better land, on the 
gi'een banks of the river of Ufe, it will all come back 
to him." 

The following poetical tribute appeared in " The New- 
York Independent : " — 

" Nations have Tied to do him honor, — him 
Whose royal heart went oat to all his kind ; 
Whose hand e'er proved the princely almoner 
To do its generous bidding. Now in death 
Each throbbing pulse is stilled. Fold the white hands 
Upon the quiet breast : their work is done ! 


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Give him brief place 'mongst England's titled dead. 

Where kings and warriors, borne with regal pomp 

And rites imposing, lie in gilded state, ^ 

While o'er them banners wave, and mnsic swells ; 

Where, wreathed with fadeless laurel, poets sleep. 

Vain are these empty pageants 1 Better far 

The widow's blessing and the orphan's tear. 

In grateful memory of such kindly acts 

As graced his life, and crowned it at its close. 

Blow gently, gales I and waft o'er summer seas 
The gallant convoy with its precious freight 
In his far childhood's home, *mid rural scenes. 
In sweet seclusion from the world's turmoil. 
There let the good man rest I 

No costly pile, 
Grayen with the shining record of his deeds, 
Shall tell th^ world that here a conqueror lies : 
His cenotaph is reared in every clime; 
On every shore where sweeps the ocean-surge 
Lingers the echo of his nobler fame." 

The lessons of his life are before the people of England 
and America. They are indicated on every page of this 
volume. Introduction and Memoir teach the same great 
lessons ; and, while his eulogist at the final funeral allowed 
that be bad faults, the hearts of all who remember bis 
benefaction will gladly echo the words of large-souled 
Gilbert Haven: "The great snow monument piled up 
by the hands of Heaven over his grave on the very night 
of his burial is a felicitous symbol of the whiteness of his 
fame. Cleaned of all spots by the washing of death and 
grace and time, it shall stand forth in the future, pure as 

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the driven snow, an incentive to all men of wealth so to 
use their acquisitions, that when they fail, as fail they must, 
these shall receive them into everlasting habitations. . . . 
Will not such an example aid the man of wealth in con- 
quering this demon, and making it his slave, and not his 
master? Begin young, O man of business! as he began, 
to devise liberal things. Let not your money insnare you, 
or ruin yours. Give to your brother, the church, the 
poor, the ignorant ; and ye shall have treasure in heaven." 

Money is power, for good or for evil. George Peabody 
made it an instrument for good. He made "friends of 
the mammon of unrighteousness " by using his great 
gains for the benefit of humanity. The following is a 
copy of the main provisions of his will,' as taken from the 
books of Doctors' Commons, London : — 

*'l, George Peabody, gentleman, do make this my last- 
will and testament : — 

" Firstly, I direct that my remains shall be sent to my 
native town of Danvers, now incorporated by the name of 
Peabody, in the County of Essex, and Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts, in that part of the United States of 
America called New England, and be deposited in the 
ground appropriated to that purpose in the cemetery of 
Harmony Grove in Salem, in said county, near the Pea- 
body town-line, under the direction of my executors herein- 
after named. 

** Secondly, I give and bequeath to Henry West, of 22, 

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Old Broad Street, London, £2,200; and, in the event 
of his decease, to his wife, Louisa West; and, in the 
event of her decease, to his surviving children. 

" Thirdly, I give and bequeath to Thomas Perman, of 22, 
Old Broad Street, London, the sum of £1,000 ; and, in 
the event of his decease, to his wife, Annette Emma 
Perman-; and, in the event of her decease, to his surviv- 
ing children. And I empower my executors to pay the 
above-named legacies within six months after my decease, 
and free from any tax, duty, or charges, whatever. 

" Fourthly, I give and bequeath to the Right Hon. Lord . 
Stanley, the American minister at the court of St. James 
for the time being, the Right Hon. Stafford Northcote, 
Bart., Sir Curtis Miranda Lampson, Bart., and Junius 
Spencer Morgan, Esq., trustees of the Peabody Donation 
Fund, and their successors, trustees of the said fund, the 
sum of £150,000, upon trust, for the building of lodging- 
houses for the laboring poor of London, as defined in my 
late letters to said trustees ; and I direct that this legacy 
be considered a part of the second trust, and disposed of 
in accordance with the said trust. And I direct that my 
London executors shall, of the said sum of £150,000, pay 
to said trustees of the Peabody Donation Fund £100,000 
on the first Monday of October, 1873 ; and the sum of 
£50,000 at any time during said year of 1873. As this 
work progresses, the labor and responsibility increase ; 
and I therefore deem it essential that another trustee be 
added, who will have the necessary time, and possess the 


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requisite knowledge of all that may be needed for the 
successful prosecution of the trust. Without assuming 
to dictate to the trustees, I would mention the name of 
Charles Reed, Esq., M.P., who is well known to me for 
his high aod most honorable character, as a most suitable 
person to fill that office. 

" Fifthly, I nominate, constitute, and appoint Sir Curtis 
Miranda Lampson, of 80, Eaton Square, Pimlico, Middle- 
sex, and of Rowfant, in the parish of Worth, Sussex, 
Bart., Charles Reed of Erlmead House, Hackney, Middle- 
sex, Esq., M.P., George Peabody Russell, Esq., of Salem, 
Essex County, State of Massachusetts, U.S., R. Singleton 
Peabody of Rutland, in the State of Vermont, counsellor, 
and Charles W. Chandler of Zanesville, in the State of 
Ohio, counsellor, executors of this my last will and testa- 
ment ; fully* authorizing the said Sir Curtis Miranda 
Lampson and said Charles Reed, called my . London 
executors, to act independently of said • George Peabody 
Russell, said R, Singleton Peabody, and said Charles W. 
Chandler, called my American executors. And I also 
authorize my American executors to act independently of 
my said London executors: that is to say, my London 
executors to have ftill management and control of my per- 
sonal estate in England ; and my American executors to 
have full management and control of my real and personal 
estate in America. But it is my wish and hope that all my 
executors, both London and American, may act together 
with the utmost harmony for the best interests of the 
estate. ^ i 

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" Sixthly, I direct that all and each of my executors 
aforesaid be exempt and excused from giving bonds to any 
court or magistrate, or otherwise, for the performance of 
their duties or offices as my executors. 
. " Seventhly, I give and bequeath to the said Sir Curtis 
Miranda Lampson and said Charles Reed £5,000 each for 
their services. 

" Eighthly, I give and bequeath to the said George Pea- 
body Russell, R. Singleton Peabody, and Charles W, 
Chandler, my American executors, £5,000 each. 

" Ninthly, I give and bequeath to the said George Pea- 
body Russell, R. Singleton Peabody, and Charles W. 
Chandler, all the rest, residue, and remainder of the 
property, both real and personal, of which I shall be pos- 
sessed at my decease, or which may afterwards come or 
fall into my estate, upon trust to sell, exchange, or retain, 
and the interest accruing on the same to divide semi- 
annually (re-investing the same in the case of minor chil- 
dren) among the parties named as beneficiaries in the 
family-trust, of which Messrs. J. M. Beebe, S. T. Dana, 
and S. Endicott Peabody, are trustees, according to the 
proportions of the sums allotted to each in said trust, or 
such other proportions as I may hereafter prescribe to 
them, my said American executors. 

" In witness whereof, I, the said George Peabody, de- 
claring this to be my last will and testament, written on 
seven pages of paper, have hereto set my hand and seal, 
this ninth day of September, 1869. 

*' George Peaboby." 

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By this will, it is seen that Mr. Peabody sought to exert 
his power as a man of wealth to induce harmonious 
action between Americans^ and Englishmen. This desire 
to promote peace between the two nations was very evi- 
dent in Mr. Peabody's life and character ; and the wealth 
used for such a purpose may certainly bg deemed con- 
secrated. A writer declares that " the munificent 
charities that h^e made the name of Peabody a house- 
hold word in two hemispheres were not the* promptings 
of temporary vanity, or a sudden freak of old age to win 
the applause of mankind : on the contrary, they were 
but the fulfilment of a long-cherished design formed in his 
own mind, as a matter of duty, more than a quarter of a 
century ago, and which had constituted his chief incen- 
tive to the acquisition of wealth. While in this city, last 
summer, he said to his old partner in business, who had 

known him intimately for thirty-five years, ' Mr. J , 

it has been my constant prayer to God for upwards of 
twenty years, that I might be enabled to accumulate a 
large sum of money to bestow in charity to the poor.' It 
will scarcely surprise those who believe in the efficacy of 
prayer to be told, that, during all those years, there was 
not a single business enterprise which he undertook that 
did not prove successful, and hardly a thing which he 
touched that did not turn to gold in his hands." ' 

It was this effort to spend his money for the good of 
others that secured him the applause of the public. Not 
the wealthy merchant, but the benevolent man, did his 


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fellow-citizens and townsmen delight to honor. It may 
not be amiss to place on record a report rather more ex- 
tensive of the honors paid to th^ remains of Mr. Peabody 
in his native town. "The Boston Post" thus describes 
the scene : — 

*' The arrival or the train was the signal for the tolling 
of the bells and the firing of minute-guns. The citizens 
of the surrolinding towns seemed to have come to witness 
the ceremonies, and the vicinity of the d6p8t was packed 
with people. The body was first taken from the train, 
and placed upon the funeral-car. This was a structure 
about eleven feet in length, seven feet in width, and ten 
feet high, covered with black velvet appropriately fes- 
tooned, and trimmed with silver lace and fringe studded 
with stars. On the top rested the casket containing the 
remains. Underneath the casket were winged cherubs in 
silver ; on each corner an elaborate bronze vase, two 
feet and a half high ; on the front and back ends the 
coat of arms of the deceased, and on one side the Eng- 
lish, and on the opposite the American coat of arms, in 
gold ; on each comer the monogram of the deceasecl, in 
silver, enclosed with laurel-wreaths. The car was drawn 
by six horses covered *with black housings trimmed with 
silver* The four companies of United-States Artillery 
which accompanied the remains then disembarked, and 
escorted the procession; the Sutton Guard acting as a 
guard of honor, and the different committees who came 

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on the train following in double files. A direct route was 
taken for the Institute, which was reached about sunset. 
The artillery drew up in Jine, and the civic portion of the 
procession passed into the hall, which was appropriately 
draped as below described. Soon after all had entered, 
the body was brought«in and placed in its proper position, 
and a guard posted ; and the procession passed around the 
head of the catafalque, and out of the hall. 

"The funeral decorations in the Institute building at 
Peabody were arranged with taste and beauty. On enter- 
ing the library-room, the emblems of mourning were seen 
at once; the windows and railing having been heavily 
draped with black, with a white border on either edge, 
and tastefiiUy trimmed with rosettes of black and white. 
At the end of the room, seen through the catafalque, is 
the picture of her Majesty, and above it the royal flag 
of England and the American flag, both artistically 
draped with crape. At the other end of the room, the 
bust of the deceased, that occupies the space above the 
door, is also draped with the sombre hues of mourning. 
Above, in the lecture-room, the portrait of the deceased is 
draped in black and white, with the cross of St. George 
and the stars and stripes on either side, covered with 
crape; and above them an elegant original. fresco rep- 
resenting Britannia and Columbia by female figures 
reclining over an urn containing the ashes of the dead, 
and guarded by the British lion and American eagle on 
either side. 

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^* The catafalque is a raised dais, ten feet in length and 
six feet in width, covered with black velvet. From each 
comer rises a standard, supporting a framework of the 
same size as the base, and about six inches in width. 
Pendent from this are heavy black-velvet hangings, 
artistically cut, and trimmed with a wreath of silvery 
stars enclosing a large star on each of the four 
sides, and heavy silver-bullion fringe, with wide silver 
braid above it, and massive silver tassels appropriately 
placed. Above the hangings, a neat silver moulding on 
a black-velvet groundwork meets the eye. Above this is 
a row of silver stars, and another moulding that rises to a 
peak on each of the four sides, containing emblems of 
mourning, in silver. The one on the front end has two 
reversed torches crossed ; on the rear, the hour-glass, 
with the wings of Time, are to be seen ; and on either 
side a large silver star, encircled by its emblem of 
eternity, — an endless snake. On each comer arises an 
elegant arabesque ornament in silver, surmounted with 
handsome funeral-plumes. In front, on the base, is the 
monogram of the deceased, in silver letters, on a black- 
velvet groundwork, enclosed in a laurel-wreath in silver, 
pendent from a leaning pole, surmounted by a knot and 
• rosette of silver. On each comer of the base are 
cherubs' heads with angels' wings in silver; the whole 
being arranged in the ancient Grecian style, that is at 
once elegant and artistic." 


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We have already referred to the funeral-services, and 
need add no more here in regard to those unrivalled 
obsequies. Further services in honor of Mr. Peabody 
took place a few evenings afterward at the Peabody 
Institute in Dan vers, which was appropriately decorated 
for the occasion by Mrs. E. G. Berry. The exercises 
began at seven o'clock with the singing of the anthem, 
" Blessed is he that considereth the poor," by the united 
choirs of the town, under direction of Mr. John S. 
Learoyd. Prayer was then offered by Rev. George J. 
Sanger. It was followed by another anthem, reading of 
the Scriptures by Rev. S. I. Evans, and a choral song by 
the choir. Rev. James Fletcher then delivered an ele- 
gant eulogy on the deceased. He began by a reference 
to the traits of character developed by Mr. Peabody in 
early life, when entering upon his business-career, amid 
circumstances of great discouragement and trial. During 
that period of several years, he displayed the tough fibres 
of his nattire, — his hardihood, perseverance, unbending 
integrity, high sense of honor, and commanding traits as 
a business-man. These qualities shone all through his 
mercantile career. He was undismayed by danger, and 
preserved his integrity and manliness of character in the 
severest of trials. His great services in upholding Ameri- 
can credit abroad were referred to, and then his deport- 
ment in the time of prosperity depicted. He felt that 
God had bestowed his great wealth upon him that he 
might do good with it ; and, with that'feeling and purpose, 

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he distributed his riches with more than princely munifi- 
cence for the benefit of his fellow-men. He believed 
that God raised him up to accomplish some grand benefit 
for his race. Unlike many others, when his wealth came 
to him, he had the elevation of spirit and the affluence of 
soul to give it away, instead of adding to it. He gave in 
the full tide of a prosperous life, and for purposes which 
displayed benevolence of the highest order. 

The simplicity and modesty of Mr. Peabody's charac- 
ter were next touched upon. He never boasted of his 
success, or sought the applause of men. His devotion to 
his mother and sisters, and his love to his birthplace, were 
alluded to in feeling terms ; and the reverend gentleman 
concluded with a fine tribute to the breadth of Mr^ Pea- 
body's character, the benignity of his life, and the bless- 
ings he had conferred on his fellow-men on both sides of 
the ocean. 

The services closed with an ode by Rev. James Brand, 
and the benediction. 

Among the tributes already mentioned was that of Rev. 
Newman Hall ; and a further quotation from it will show 
that the London preacher rightly apprehended the value 
of that power which accompanies money. He said, 
" There is danger, lest, in admiration of Mr. Peabody's 
princely gifts, some may suppose that such liberality, of 
itself, is religion. Even the teachers and preachers of 
Christianity may unintentionally mislead the public by too 
unqualified and indiscrimmating admiration. I yield to 

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none in appreciation and honor of Mr. Peabody's noble 
gifts and life of benevolence. Nor have I any reason to 
doubt that such generosity sprang from the very highest 
motives. But it is the duty, at such a time, of Christian 
teachers to brave the possibility of being misunderstood, 
and to testify, in the midst of all this well-deserved 
applause, that we are not saved by our benefactions either 
to relieve the poor or to promote religion. We are rebels 
against God, and can only be saved by being reconciled 
to him through Jesus Christ. We must preach repent- 
ance towards God, and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ, as 
the only way of salvation. He taught us, that, if we should 
do all our duty, we should still be ' unprofitable servants,' 
— only just doing what is required. But, as none of us 
do this, how plain it is that ' by grace we are saved, 
through faith M ' If I give all my goods to feed tlie poor, 
and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing.' 

"Then came the other thought, — that, with faith in 
Christ, and reconciliation to God, as the foundation, there 
must be, and will always be, the superstructure of good 
works. ... Certainly, of the two, it would be better to 
have good works of charity, however defective their 
motive, and without true Christian faith, than to have only 
the pretence of possessing faith and no good works. The 
former case has something to show, which, at least, may 
benefit our fellow-men : the latter case has absolutely 
nothing ; for * faith, if it have not works, is dead, being 


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" Then came this thought, — that the privilege of per- 
forming good works and serving Christ is not confined to 
the wealthy. A large gift strikes our imagination because 
its obvious benefit is large. Thus man judges of benefi- 
cence. But God looks to the motive, measures the means, 
sees the amount of self-sacrifice, and approves and re- 
wards accordingly. He who has only a shilling in the 
world, and gives away sixpence, thereby depriving himself 
of half a meal, may be as acceptable in the eye of God as 
he who gives half a million, but has half a million left. 
Jesus said that the poor widow who threw into the treas- 
ury her two mites had actually given more than the rich 
who cast in liberally, but did it out of their abundance. 
This is not to disparage great and liberal benefactors ; but 
it is to encourage all, however poor, — even so that they 
can give merely a cup of cold water, — that they shall not 
be unrewarded ; and that if the smallest sum is given in a 
right spirit, and in proportion to our ability, and with self- 
sacrifice, as he that receiveth a prophet in the name of a 
prophet shall receive a prophet's reward, so he that gives 
away a penny in the spirit of a benevolent millionnaire shall 
receive a benevolent millionnaire 's reward. 

" And then a concluding thought was this : Two 
nations — yea, the civilized world — are admiring the 
gifts of the rich man, who was still rich in spite of his 
benefactions. How should we esteem Him, who, though 
he was rich, yet for our sakes became poor, that we by 
his poverty might be made rich " 1 

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A correspondent of " The New- York Tribune " tells the 
foUowmg anecdote concerning Mr. Peabody's use of that 
money which gave him power, and of the way in which 
he liked to have others use money : — 

"When Mr» Peabody was in the United States last 
year, he visited the Institute at South Danvers which 
bears his name, and inquired particularly into its opera- 
tions ; going over the accounts, and discussing with the 
trustees the cost of its maintenance and the annual income 
from the fond. I suppose I am telling no secret, and 
hurting nobody's feelings, when I say that even so good 
and benevolent a man as George Peabody was not exempt 
from the misfortunes of age and bodily infirmity, and that 
he consequently allowed himself at times to criticise pretty 
freely — not to say unjustly — the policy of the custodians 
of his benefactions. On this occasion, he is said to have 
fretted a great deal. From various causes, not necessary 
to mention, and certainly not easy to avoid, the revenue 
from the endowments had not kept pace with the in- 
creased expenses which followed the general rise of prices 
during the war; and the benevolent founder felt mora 
keenly how far the Institute fell short of his expectations 
than how much it really had accomplished. * You spend 
too much money,' he complained ; * you spend too much 
money. You pay your lecturers too much. You must 
get them cheaper.' And so he went on for a while, until 
the momentary irritation passed away. His face soon 

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brightened, and a soft expression began to play about his 
mouth. * Well, well,' said he, drawing something from his 
pocket, * I must give you fifty thousand dollars more, and 
get you out of trouble- And I must sdy,' he continued, 
* that none of my foundations have been so admirably 
administered and given me so much satisfaction as this one 
at my native place.' So the good old man continued for a 
long time praising every thing connected with the Insti- 
tute, and assuring his delighted friends that they had ful- 
filled his wishes in the smallest particulars. It is well 
known that the South-Danvers foundation was his favorite 

" The Boston Journal " expressed its idea of the public 
feeling in regard to the Peabody obsequies, saying that 
those who regarded his life as useful and noble were 
expressing sincere respect for his memory, and adding, — 

" George Peabody was a representative man of his era 
and of his country. We would not adopt the curious idea 
of Victor Hugo, that John Brown and George Peabody 
are America's characteristic contributions to the historic 
figures of this age. It is true, however, that the one did 
not more truly embody the Puritanic conscientiousness 
and dauntlessness of our country than the other exem- 
plified its thrift, animated by pure motives, and ending in 
boundless but well-directed philanthropy. The latter 
showed the world that the phrase, * the almighty dollar,* 
supposed to carry with it an American stigma, really 


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included a foil share of those attributes of beneficence as 
well as of power which belonged to the epithet. Set 
down amid an aristocracy whose accumulated wealth 
dated from the middle ages, George Peabody set them a 
lesson in the act of true benevolence. The poor of 
London to-day know his name better than they do the 
names of those who have in their veins ' all the blood of 
all the Howards.' Like a true American, also, he remem- 
bered most fondly his own countrymen ; ,and his benefac- 
tions, completely unexampled in amount and extent of 
application, will send their enriching influences down to 
foture generations. Let all honor, then, be paid to the 
memory of one who founded his fame on the great good 
he has done to his fellow-men." • 

" The New- York Albion " speaks in highly eulogistic 
terms of Mr. Peabody, saying without reserve, — 

" George Peabody was, in a wider sense than is often 
appKcable, a new type of manhood. In him were com- 
bined in finely, almost perfectly, balanced proportions, 
three qualities seldom found in close association, — the 
shrewd intuitive perception necessary to the acquisition of 
great riches, the moral impulses which prompt to a benefi- 
cent distribution of them, and the masculine judgment 
which exercises such a mastery over both as to prevent 
their running into mischievous excess. A life which 
exhibits to us these characteristics on a colossal scale 
fomishes scope for highly profitable study ; but, in order 


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to this, we need to see it in its internal development 
rather than in its external incidents ; or, rather, we should 
be more correct in saying that any knowledge we may 
obtain of the latter will be valuable only as it may help to 
disclose the former. Whence originated this felicitous 
opposition of qualities so rarely to be seen in conjunction ? 
To what extent were they due to natural constitution or 
to ancestral history? How much of their strength did 
they derive from early training ? and of what sort was that 
training ? In what respects were they owing to circum- 
stances ? and what were the circumstances, if any, which 
account for the extraordinary bias of this man's will? 
We want to observe his character in its first manifesta- 
. tions, nn its growth, and in the influences which fused 
into unity tendencies so commonly antagonistic to each 
other. Of course, we cannot expect to find what we want 
in the bare compilations which appear in the columns of 
•a newspaper. The biography of the late George Pea- 
body, to be written as it well deserves to be, would de- 
mand a high order of intellectual and sympathetic skill 
and an indefatigable spirit of research, and would un- 
doubtedly present to the world one of those contributions 
to psychological study which give a new direction and a 
powerful stimulus to human motive and effort. 

" Of Mr. Peabody's business aptitudes, his commercial 
success is the best proof. It is not by any means impos- 
sible to find his parallels as to this feature of his character. 
Modern times have been peculiarly favorable to the pro- 


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duetion of millionnaires. The sudden expansion of the 
means of locomotion, the marvellous facilities provided 
for quick and frequent intercourse, and the stupendous 
works which the application of science to industrial pur- 
suits had made not merely feasible, but almost indispen- 
sable, have opened the way to many men endowed with 
competent abilities to acquire for themselves fortunes 
which in any previous age woufd have been deemed 
fabulous. In regard to this matter, Mr. Peabody had a 
considerable number of compeers. But it is worthy of 
note, that the grand moral traits of his character stood 
out in high relief before the world, in connection with his 
pursuit of wealth, long before they were publicly dis- 
played in the distribution of it. That he was rapidly 
amassing riches in the country of his adoption was not 
more widely surmised, perhaps, than it was known, that, in 
all the methods of acquisition employed by his house, the 
soul of mercantile integrity and honor was eminently 
conspicuous. His rectitude, like the granite of his native 
State, was immovable. It invited trust, and never gave 
way under any weight of responsibility resting upon it. 
It armed him with a reputation which enabled him to 
negotiate loans for public bodies, even when their credit 
had been tainted. His own name amply sufficed as a 
guaranty for the fulfilment of engagements entered into, 
not merely on his own behalf, but on behalf of defaulting 
legislatures. Wherever he saw fit to pledge it, men built 
their speculations upon it with a sense of security. To be 
true was one of the necessities of his being, r^ t 



" To his remarkable talent for acquiring wealth was 
conjoined a noble purpose in the daily pursuit of it. He 
cared little for the selfish and garish pleasures for which 
affluent means are commonly desired. His tastes were 
simple. They had been formed, probably, upon the tradi- 
tions of his Puritanic forefathers, and by that atmosphere 
of opinion which surrounded him in his younger days. 
His personal wants were few and inexpensive. He hated 
the very semblance of ostentation. As he had not been 
born into a system which made extravagant expenditure 
a duty owing to his station, so he aspired not to be 
identified with it. He preferred to occupy the position 
of a tenant in trust. His gains were sought and obtained, 
not as an end, but as means to an end ; not with a view 
to himself, but with a view to others. He held himself io 
be a debtor to his kind ; and his accumulations were used 
in the faithful discharge of that debt. This moral con- 
viction was evidently deeply rooted in his heart. It with- 
stood all the influences which would otherwise have 
destroyed it. When vast wealth is only in prospect, it is 
not at all uncommon, because not at all difficult, to enter- 
tain the most generous intentions as to what shall be done 
with it, and to lose sight of them in proportion to the 
extent to which that prospect is realized. Mr. Peabody, 
on the contrary, instead of allowing the inflowing tide of 
his riches to submerge his sense of responsibility, thought 
and purposed and lived so as to keep it evermore upper- 
most ; and, as his means increased, his anxiety to make 

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them subservient to the well-being of others increased 
also. Great prosperity, instead of closing his hand, 
opened it the wider; and, in reverse of the usual order 
of things, age enlarged rather than contracted the scope 
of his liberality. 

" But impulsive benevolence, oftentimes the offspring of 
weakness and indolence, seems to have had no power to 
guide the career of this truly remarkable man. No one 
knew better than he how to say * No ' to applications for 
aid which did not commend the approbation of his reason. 
He spared no pains to ascertain how he could direct his 
beneficence into the most serviceable channels. He laid 
out his immense wealth with as conscientious a careful- 
ness as he might have done if he had expected to be 
called upon to account for and justify every shilling of his 
expenditure. Rarely has the life of a plutocrat exhibited 
so perfect an illustration of the idea of stewardship as 
did George Peabody's. Few intelligent men of this 
generation will forget the letter in which he sketched, 
for the intended trustees of his bounty to the poor of 
London, his own views of the object to which it might be 
usefully devoted. Pauperism had no attractions for him : 
industrious and struggling poverty chiefly engrossed his 
sympathies. Indeed, it was a marked feature of his 
beneficence, that it almost invariably had respect to some- 
thing beyond and better and more enduring than the 
immediate benefit it might confer. Sometimes patriotism, 
sometimes international amity, gave direction to his liber- 


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ality. He set the highest store upon education ; and, in 
applying his resources for the advantage of his own coun- 
trymen, he selected precisely those modes of assisting 
them which were most peculiarly adapted to their posi- 
tion and wants. The Peabody Institute at Danvers, 
the Literary and Scientific Institute at Baltimore, and 
his munificent contribution to the Southern Educational 
Fund, bear testimony to his quick appreciation of the 
special needs of the times. The means of intellectual 
refinement, where they could become available, and of 
elementary instruction where they were most lacking and 
most urgently required, drew forth his readiest and largest 
bounty. London presented a different claim upon his 
purse. Even education could do but little for the indus- 
trious poor of the English metropolis until they were 
better housed. His penetrating glance fastened at once 
upon the special need of the capital ; and, in supplying the 
remedy, his head and heart united in doing the very best 
that could be done. 

" Mr. Peabody's life was an impressive homily from 
beginning to end. It was full of the most timely lessons, 
enforced upon society not by words, but by deeds. He 
has rebuked the narrow sectarianism of the day by his 
display of ' good will to men,* quite irrespectively of their 
religious differences. He has illustrated in his own 
history how it is possible to combine with ardent patriotism 
a breadth of sympathy extending beyond merely national 
limits. He has set an example of wise philanthropy. 

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capable of being initiated on the largest scale without 
undermining the self-reliant spirit of the poor. Above all, 
he has taught us the true uses of wealth, on what con- 
ditions it should be held by its proprietors, in what ways it 
may be fruitfully employed, and what durable honor and 
happiness it may be made to achieve for the comparative 
few to whom it is given. Rich and poor aUke may con- 
template his career with practical advantage. London, 
especially, will keep alive his memory with grateful admi- 
ration ; and, let us trust, his name, emblazoned by his 
works, will exercise a talismanic influence in persuading 
the prosperous to recognize their responsibilities, and to do 
what good their hands can find to do whilst they yet live 
to superintend and rejoice in the effects of their benefi- 

While these pages were passing through the press, a 
writer in " The New- York Tribune " furnished an account 
of the Peabody homestead and the birthplace of the great 
giver, which is so graphic, and in many respects so inter- 
esting, that, although it did not appear in season for the 
early chapters of this memoir, it may, perhaps, be allowed 
to appear at the close: — 

" The town of South Danvers, in which George Pea- 
body was bom, in which he served his apprenticeship to 
a country shopkeeper, in which he founded one of the 
noble institutes of popular education that bear his name, 
and in which, after this magnificent funeral-procession of 

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a whole month's duration, his remains will at last repose, 
is, to all intents and purposes^ a part of Salem, and in 
some of its features not unlike that ancient and ghost- 
haunted seaport. I speak of it as South Danvers ; for it 
has come so lately into its new name of Peabody, adopt- 
ing, after a fashion not uncommon with legatees, the 
family appellation which belongs with the property, that the 
change has not yet renewed the faces of the sign-boards, 
and is only half recognized in the talk of the inhabitants. 
The^ain street of Salem runs out along the crest of a 
hill, with a general determination toward the north-west, 
but with erratic impulses now and then to the right and 
left. It never gets into the country; and its broad, 
quaint, comfortable old houses are scarcely far enough 
apart to have even a suburban look, before up the elm- 
shaded street comes a persistent smell of leather. The 
road pitches down into a little valley full of tanneries ; 
then up another hill whose slopes are mostly hung with 
hides, and upon whose crest stands the brick-and-granite 
building of the Peabody Institute ; down once more into 
a second hollow, likewise given up to leather ; and there 
you are in the heart of South Danvers. A single-track 
horse-railway, with infrequent turnouts and still more 
infrequent cars, stretches from here through Salem. You 
may come that way if you are in no particular hurry ; but, 
if pressed for time, you had better walk. 

"It is not natural to look for beauty in a village which 
devotes itself to tanning hides and spreading tan -bark 

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around its door-yards, only varying these useful pursuits 
by the cognate industry of manufacturing glue ; but Pea- 
body, in spite of unsavory smells, is a pretty place, and the 
pilgrims who visit it during the appr6aching ceremonies 
will find the Massachusetts Mecca not unworthy of its 
shrine. A Massachusetts village — especially an old Massa- 
chusetts village, in which the shade-trees have had years 
enough to develop their beautiful proportions, and spread 
their arms across the wide roadway, and whose best 
houses were built before the day of staring white clap- 
boards and prim green blinds (you know the kind of 
house I mean, — front-door close to the street, holly- 
hocks, phlox, and prince's-feather under the garlor win- 
dows) — is always a pleasant sight; and even in this 
gloomy season, with bare trees and muddy roads, Peabody 
has a clean, thrifty, substantial, and, withal, tasteful appear- 
ance. It is pretty well stricken in years for an American 
village. The old houses are many enough and prominent 
enough to give it an antique aspect, in spite of the factories ; 
and flavors of the half-forgotten past, such a's hung around 
Hawthorne's custom-house down at the port, are wafted 
along its quiet road. Off to the right, at the foot of the 
ridge, there is a pond or inlet of brackish water : a steam- 
railway runs along there, and there most of the factories 
are built. But in the main street on the hill there is little 
to break the stillness. Just by the side of the road there 
is an old graveyard. Right opposite^ on the other side of 
the water, lies Harmony Grove, a newer and more fash- 

20 ■ Digitized by CjOOQLC 


ionable place of sepulture, where the upper classes may be 
interred with all the modem improvements, including a 
patent burial-case and a granite monument. Mr. Pea- 
body's remains will be placed in this grove ; but the precise 
spot for their permanent resting-place has not yet been 



*'In company with Mr. Poole, the courteous librarian 
of the Institute, I went to see the house in which Mr. 
Peabody was bom. It is on the outskirts of the village, 
and, eighty years ago, was probably quite in the country. 
What it was eighty years ago it is not now in any 
respect, save that most of the old building remains and 
can be identified. A long L has been added ; a small 
kitchen, which was anciently attached to the rear like an 
excrescence, has been moved away; and improvements, 
enlargements, and alterations have been made to such an 
extent, that the old place has all the external appearance 
of a modem Yankee-village house. A few rods in the 
rear is a tannery : a few rods away, at one side, is a glue- 
factory ; and the owner of the factory, Mr. Upton, is also 
the owner, though not the occupier, of the house. We 
met the lady of the house near the door ; and she very 
kindly gave us permission to enter, and showed us all that 
remains of the old house where Thomas Peabody lived, 
and his son George was born. It was a two-story house, 
with a short hall and narrow stairway in the middle, and 


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on each floor a single small room on each side of the hall, 
— four rooms in all. These, with the kitchen-outhouse, 
now removed, comprised the whole. The front -door 
opens close to the ground, and only a foot or two from 
the street railing. There is no porch ; and the front of 
the house is almost as bare as if it had been shaved off 
with a plane. Bare and ugly enough the place must 
have been when the old Peabody family held it ; though 
now, with its enlarged proportions, bright paint, and neat 
appearance, it is so far improved, that a sensitive man 
might, perhaps, live in it without absolute unhappiness. 
The original rooms have not been altered. On the first 
floor, they are only a little over six feet high ; and across 
the middle of the ceiling runs a beam, which tall visitors 
must stoop to pass. The heavy timbers of the framework 
are also conspicuous at the corners. But for these, with 
the fresh wall-paper, bright carpets, and modern furniture, 
there would be nothing in the appearance of the rooms to 
remind you of their age. ' I have tried everywhere,' said 

Mrs. , ' to get some furniture which belonged to the 

old place ; but not a bit can be found. I would like, above 
all things, to make at least one of these rooms look as it 
did when the Peabodys had it.' 

" ' You must be very much annoyed with visitors,' said 
I ; * and I am ashamed of my own intrusion upon your 

" ' Oh, not at all I I know that strangers like to see the 
house, and I am very happy to show it.' But, before the 

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funeral is over, I fear the kind lady's good nature will be 
taxed to its uttermost limits." 

" America gratefully receives back the ashes of her dis- 
tinguished son and citizen, and commits them to the 
earth. They are to mingle with the soil on which he was 
bom, and for which he had such an affection. There is 
not a citizen of this country whose ear is not open to 
catch every syllable of the funeral-words. There is not 
a heart in the land that is not present at his open grave. 
He comes home to be enshrined. If we of this time 
would henceforth undertake a new pilgrimage, let it be to 
the burial-place of the man who has taught the world 
anew, as never man taught it before, how much more 
blessed it is to give than to receive. The name of Pea- 
body is to stand, for the future, synoriymous with Philan- 
thropy. This single word shall be his lasting monu- 



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In all parts of the United States 


Subscription Books and Engravings. 

liadiee will find the business, hfter a little experience, both 
profitable and ag^reeable. 




And I am constantly adding new subjects of Engravings. 


B. B. fiUSS^LL, Publisher, 




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The American home should be made beaatiful and attractive. This can be done 
by really fine works of art at a moderate cost. The taste for engravings increases 
every day. In houses where you find the most, we are more likely to sell new sub- 
jects. Colored prints may take the eye at first; but there are none that wear and 
continue to please like a good steel engraving. 

"From Shore to Shore/* an allegorical engraving, suggestive of life's 
Journey firom childhood to old age. 

In Childhood's hour, with careless Joy 

Upon the stream we glide ; 
With Youth^s bright hopes, we gayly speed 

To reach the other side. 

Marihood looks forth with careful glance; 

T^me steady plies the oar, 
While Old Age calmly waits to hear 

The keel upon the shore. 

Suited to frame 16x20}. Price $2.00. 

"Nazareth" (just issued); very beautifully representing Joseph, Mary, and 
the child Jesus, on their return from Egypt. ** And he came and dwelt in a city 
called Nazareth." Suited to frame 16x20|. Price $2.00. 

" The Babe of Bethlehem,'' the best representation of the nativity of our 
Saviour ever published. The grouping of the picture is admirably portrayed. The 
figures consist of Joseph, Mary, and the Babe ; the shepherds, who haye brought a 
sacrificial lamb ; tmd a mother and child as interested spectators : the whole making 
a fine picture, and an excellent match for the above or •* Christ blessing Littie Chil- 
dren.» Suited to frame 16x20|. Price $2.00. 

" American Methodism," the only historical picture published to commemo- 
rate American Methodism. It contains pictures of all the Bishops, with noted his- 
torical scenes. Suited to frame 16x20|. Price $2.00. 

Either of the above sent, postpaid, on receipt of the price. Address 

B. B. RUSSELL, Publisher, 

55 Cornhill, Boston, 


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JSMradng a Record of nearly ciU the Important National Events which have 
occurred in Ewrcpe during the last half of a century, 



of "History of Napoleon !,» "French Revolution," "Civil War in 
America," " Livee of the Presidents," &c., &c. 

" This work well becomes, in its size and mechanical execution, the subjects of 
which it treats. France of all countries, the French of all nations, and Louis 
Napoleon of all rulers, furnish the most interesting materials for a readable book. 
Those who know with what romance Mr. Abbott's pen invests every subject of 
which it treats may well expect, in this royal octavo, interest as well as information. 
Nor will they be disappointed. The author has had access to all the facilities needed 
for the full development of his subject. From the first Napoleon, the annals of 
France have been full of thrilling interest. The present emperor has become in six- 
teen years the leading spirit in modern history, and is a marvel in himself. Mr. 
Abbott has been careful to give documentary proof for his statements ; and those 
that jfind fault with his details must blame history, and not the historian."— Port- 
land {Me,) Christian Mirror, 

The book is a royal octavo of about 700 pages; finely illustrated by nine pure 
line steel engravings, executed in Paris expressly for the work; and sold only by 

For terms, address 

B. B. RUSSELL, Publisher, 

55 Comlilll, Boston, Mass. 

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A Book for every Household in America. 


yroin "Wasliiiiittoii to the I>reseiit Time. 



Author of the " CivU War In America," " Life of Napoleon," " Hiatory of the 
French Revolution,'' " Mother at Home," &c., &c. 

«• It is hardly necessary to speak well of a hook written to carry out a practical 
idea, and hy one of the most practical writers in America. Thei^ is not a politician, 
a newspaper editor, or intelligent citizen, who will not find this work of vast im< 
portance to him, saving much lahor, and therefore time. It is not only a resume of 
the leading events in the characters of those who have presided over the Govern- 
ment, bat is accompanied by philosophical reflections, and by what we are pleased 
to notice, — the frank objections of the biographer to such errors as mfey have been 
conmiitted by these Chief Magistrates. It is a wonder that the idea of such a book 
has not before been carried out; and we are glad that it has fallen into the hands of 
a gentleman whose experience, discrimination, and intelligence qualify him to give 
us a complete and standard work of reference." — Washington Chronicle, 

The work is an octavo volume of 520 pages, handsomely illustrated by eight steel- 
plate illustrations, and thirty-six engravings dn wood ; and sold exclusively by can< 
vassing Agents. 

For terms, addresi 

B. B. RUSSELL, Publisher, 

55 Comhlllf Boston, Mass. 


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