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Full text of "Life-histories of African game animals"








FOR THE PEOPLE 

FOR EDVCATION 

FOR SCIENCE 






LIBRARY 

OF 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

OF 

NATURAL HISTORY 






LIBRARY 

OF 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



OSBORN LIBRARY OF VERTEBRATE PALAEONTOLOGY 

PRESENTED "3 o ?. '-l )lj 1 '^) 1 1 



LIFE- HISTORIES 

OF 

AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

VOLUME II 




1^ 



s 



11^ 



} M 



^ 



LIFE-HISTORIES «,. 

OF 

AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

BY 

THEODORE ROOSEVELT 

AND 

EDMUND HELLER 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS FROM PHOTOGRAPHS, AND FROM DRAWINGS 
BY PHILIP R. GOODWIN; AND WITH FORTY FAUNAL MAPS 



VOLUME II 



NEW YORK 

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 

1914 



Copyright, 1914, by / 
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 

O 

Published April, 1914 



;i4H 




CONTENTS 



CHAPTER XV 



PAGE 



BUSHBUCKS, SiTATUNGAS, KoODOOS, BoNGOS, AND ElaNDS . . 42I 

CHAPTER XVI 
The Waterbucks and Reedbucks 478 

CHAPTER XVII 
Duikers and Small Antelopes 527 

CHAPTER XVIII 
The Gazelles and Their Allies 579 

CHAPTER XIX 
The Dikdiks 622 

CHAPTER XX 
The Hook-Lipped or Black Rhinoceros 635 

CHAPTER XXI 
White or Square-mouthed Rhinoceros 659 

CHAPTER XXII 
The Common Zebra or Bonte-Quagga 673 

V 



vi CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XXIII 
The Grew Zebra 698 



PAGE 



CHAPTER XXIV 
Elephants 709 

CHAPTER XXV 

Equipment, Arms, and Preservation of Specimens . . . 743 



Bibliography of East Equatorial Africa . 757 

Appendix 775 

Index 779 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

The giant eland Frontispiece 

Photogravure from a drmving by Philip R. Goodwin. 

FACING PAGE 

The greater and the lesser koodoo 444 

Bongo and eland from East Africa 454 

The South and East African races of the eland 470 

Reedbuck 484 

Waterbuck, kob, and lechwi 492 

Mounted specimens of the Nile lechwi 518 

Nile lechwi 522 

From a drawing by Philip R. Goodwin. 

Duikers 54^ 

Bushbuck and small antelopes 566 

Grant and Thomson gazelles 582 

Gazelles and impalla 590 

Gerenuk from Somaliland 610 

Herd of impalla antelope on the banks of the Tana River near Fort Hall, 

B. E. A 616 

Black rhinoceros tossing a porter, Northern Guaso Nyiro district . . . 648 

From a drawing by Philip R. Goodwin. 

Living specimens of African rhinoceroses 654 

The Black and the White Nile African rhinoceroses 664 

Showing variations in dorsal color patterns of highland quagga zebra . . 688 

Living specimens of highland quagga and Grevy zebras 700 

vii 



viii ILLUSTRATIONS 

FACING PAGE 

A Nile group. White rhinoceros, elephant, hippopotamus, kob, water- 
buck, and hartebeest 710 

Fro7n a drawing by Philip R. Goodwin. 

The Abyssinian and West African races of the elephant 716 

The elephant herds in the Lado Enclave were often accompanied by flocks 

of white cow-herons 720 

From a drawing by Philip R. Goodwin. 

African elephant herd 732 

East African elephants from Mt. Kenia and the Uasin Gishu Plateau . 736 
East African elephants 740 



MAPS 

MAP PAGE 

12. Distribution of the races of the bushbuck 439 

13. Distribution of the species and races of sitatungas 443 

14. Distribution of the East African race of the lesser koodoo .... 447 

15. Distribution of the East African race of the greater koodoo . . . 451 

16. Distribution of the races of the bongo 457 

17. Distribution of the races of the giant eland 465 

18. Distribution of the East African race of the eland 475 

19. Distribution of the East African race of the rock reedbuck . . . 481 

20. Distribution of the races of the reedbuck 489 

21. Distribution of the races of the Defassa waterbuck 501 

22. Distribution of the races of the common waterbuck 507 

23. Distribution of the races of the kob 517 

24. Distribution of the species of lechwis 525 

25. Distribution of the races of the bush duiker 545 

26. Distribution of the races of the pygmy antelope 553 

27. Distribution of the races of the oribi 563 

28. Distribution of the East African race of the steinbok 569 

29. Distribution of the races of the klipspringer 577 

30. Distribution of the races of Grant and Peters gazelles 597 

31. Distribution of the races of the Thomson gazelle 607 

32. Distribution of the gerenuk 613 

33. Distribution of the East African race of the impalla 619 

34. Distribution of the East African race of long-snouted dikdik . . . 625 



MAPS 



MAP PAGE 

35- 



36 
37 
38 
39 
40 



Distribution of the races of the Kirk dikdik 633 

Distribution of the races of the black rhinoceros 657 

Distribution of the races of the white rhinoceros 671 

Distribution of the races of the quagga zebra 695 

Distribution of the Grevy zebra 707 

Distribution of the races of the African elephant ....... 739 



*,* The numerals 1, 2, 3, etc., on the maps mark the exact spots where specimens have been collected or 
observed by reputable sportsmen, and the lines limiting the distribution are drawn around these numerab so 
as to map the approximate area occupied by the race to which the numeral refers. 
Q Represents type locality or exact spot from which the type or original specimen came. 



LIFE-HISTORIES 

OF 

AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 



CHAPTER XV 

BUSHBUCKS, SITATUNGAS, KOODOOS, BONGOS, 
AND ELANDS 

Subfamily Tragelaphinee 

The tragelaphine antelopes of Africa form a compact 
natural group, comprising the bushbucks, sitatungas, koo- 
doos, bongos, and elands. They are best defined by their 
spirally twisted horns, but they also show a singularly close 
agreement in the color pattern of the head and body. The 
white transverse body stripes, which are found in all the 
genera to a greater or less degree, are characteristic of the 
subfamily. Other white markings which are common to 
the whole group are the two white spots on the cheeks, the 
white lips and chin, the white spots above the hoof on the 
front of the pasterns, the white bars on the inside of the 
limbs at the axillae and the groins, and the white inner sur- 
face of the ears. Some other markings which are almost 
universal are the white patches on the upper throat and on 
the chest and the white stripe down the inside of the legs. 
The group has an immense range in size almost equal to that 
of the family Bovida ranging as it does from the small har- 
nessed bushbuck to the immense bulk of the elands, the 
largest of all antelope. The withers are distinctly low in 
some members, being less in height than the hips. The 
snout is rather short and without a lachrymal gland. The 
ears are large and broad owing to the bush-haunting habits 

421 



422 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

of most of the members; narrow in only one species, the 
common eland. The tail varies greatly from the short, 
bushy tail of the bushbuck to the long, tufted tail of the 
eland. The skull has long nasal bones, short snout and short 
nasal cavity, and no lachrymal vacuity in front of the orbit. 
A large sinus is present between the nasal and lachrymal 
glands as in the waterbucks. 

The effort to divide this family into genera and species 
is fraught with difficulties that illustrate clearly how arti- 
ficial the terms *'genus," and "species" are. It is absolutely 
necessary to employ the terms and in some cases they meet 
all the needs of the situation, but in other cases, as with the 
tragelaphs, all that can be said is that they are necessary 
but that they are also unsatisfactory. 

Nearly all the species of the TragelaphincB are so closely 
allied that they might all be included in a single genus. 
Such an arrangement would, however, result in consider- 
able geographical confusion and obscure the real relation- 
ships of the species. Nevertheless, the attempt to make the 
genera of equal weight so as to express the relationships 
clearly, or avoid confusion, results in a multiplicity of 
genera; and this means splitting into groups a number of 
closely allied species. In fact, arguments of some weight 
can be advanced for either uniting all the tragelaphs into 
one genus, or for making almost as many genera as there are 
species; and in this same way arguments can be advanced 
for both splitting up into a large number of species, and 
for reducing the great majority of these from specific to 
subspecific rank. The genera adopted by most writers 
are based almost solely upon horn characters. As a single 
character, the shape of the horns is certainly the most re- 



BUSHBUCKS, KOODOOS, AND ELANDS 423 

liable guide to the natural affinities of the various species. 
A careful study of the skulls, however, reveals some impor- 
tant differences between species which have hitherto been 
combined in the same genus on account of horn resemblances 
solely. The genus of the koodoos, Strepsiceros, is an in- 
stance of this sort. The lesser koodoo, Strepsiceros im- 
berbis, is without doubt as closely allied to the bushbuck, 
Tragelaphus, as to the greater koodoo, as regards its skull 
characters and pattern of coloration. It is a geographical 
associate of both genera and deserves recognition as a 
separate genus in order to emphasize its true relationships. 
The nyala, Tragelaphus angasi, is another species which 
also must be accorded generic rank. Here, however, we 
have to do with a species showing almost identical horn 
characters with Tragelaphus, but differing distinctly in 
skull characters, pattern of coloration, and habits. 

The tragelaphine antelopes range over Africa south of 
the Sahara, from the northern limits of the Abyssinian high- 
lands and adjacent Red Sea coast south to the Cape. They 
are universally distributed throughout plains, forests, and 
swamps from sea-level to timber-line or the limits of forest 
growth. Geologically the subfamily is known as far back as 
the Miocene. Most of the fossil species are Eurasian and 
North African. Recently twisted horn-cores resembling 
those of the koodoo have been found by Merriam in the 
Pliocene of Nevada, but such forms were doubtful members 
of the tragelaphine group. Within the present year Gidley 
has described from a series of teeth from Pleistocene cave 
deposits in Maryland an American species of eland. It is, 
however, far from proven that the animal towhich these teeth 
belonged was an eland or a member of the Tragelaphince, 



<- 



424 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

which is an association founded upon horn and skull 
characters and not known to possess distinctive dental 
characters of much weight. It is highly improbable that 
the eland, if it did exist in America, lingered as late as the 
Pleistocene. Gidley's specimen doubtless represents a genus 
allied to the eland but peculiar to America. 

Key to the Genera 

Only males bearing horns 

Horns curved in a narrow spiral, triangular in cross-section and . jt/^ 
seldom exceeding the head greatly in length ' 

Hoofs normal; tail bushy; ears larger Tragelaphus 

Hoofs greatly lengthened; tail tufted; ears smaller ^ \-p 

Limnotragus ' 

Horns curved in a wide open spiral, circular in cross-section, 
greatly exceeding the head in length 
Male with a long throat mane; throat uniform in color 

Strepsiceros 

Male without throat mane; a white patch on forethroat and 
another on chest Ammelaphus 

Both sexes horned 

Horns curved in an open spiral, broadly elliptical in cross-section 
and flattened, without a keel; coloration rufous 

Boocercus 

Horns closely spiral, circular in cross-section and furnished with 
a prominent, rounded keel; coloration grayish or ful- 
vous Taurotragus 

BUSHBUCKS 

Tragelaphus 

Tragelaphus De Blainville, l8i6, Bull. Soc. Philom., p. 75; type T. sylvaticus 
of South Africa. 

The bushbucks are medium-sized antelopes in which 
the males are armed with short, spiral horns, the females 
being hornless. The horns seldom exceed the head much in 
length and are furnished with a wide keel which gives them 



^ 



BUSHBUCKS, KOODOOS, AND ELANDS 425 

their characteristic triangular flattened shape. The spiral 
is very close and consists usually of but a single complete 
turn. The withers are low, and do not exceed the height 
of the hips. The tail is short and very bushy, as in the 
American white-tailed deer. The ears are large and ex- 
panded. The snout is rather short and without a lachrymal 
gland in front of the eye. The hoofs are normal in shape. 
The color pattern is very diverse, ranging from races marked 
with both transverse and longitudinal white stripes like the 
harnessed antelope of West Africa to uniformly colored 
races like me7ieliki of Abyssinia. In the eastern races great 
sexual differences in color prevail, the old males being sooty- 
brown or black, and the females bright rufous-red. Certain 
of the white markings are common to all of the races. 
Such are the white chin, lips, and upper throat areas, the 
white bar across the lower throat, the two white spots on 
the cheeks, the white bar on the inside of the thigh of the 
foreleg, the white patch at the axilla, and the two white 
spots immediately above the hoofs. White chevrons on the 
nose are often present, but they show great individual 
variation and are of no value as a color character. The 
bushbucks may be split into two natural groups occupying 
different geographical areas. The Congo, West African, and 
the upper Nile regions support the fully striped races in 
which the sexes are alike in coloration, while eastern Africa, 
from Abyssinia to the Cape, is inhabited by the races 
showing great sexual differences in body color and a great 
reduction in the amount of white striping or spotting in 
the coat. A collar of short hair is usually present at the 
base of the neck, formed by an area two or three inches wide 
of short hair having the appearance of having been rubbed. 
It is best marked and widest on the nape. The occurrence 
of this collar has been used by some naturalists to divide 
the bushbucks into two groups, but the result is unsatis- 
factory and artificial. Several of the races show much in- 
dividual variation concerning its presence or absence, so 
that it cannot be relied upon as even a racial character. 
The only bushbucks which consistently lack the collar are 
the two highland forms inhabiting Abyssinia, and these 
mark the extreme northern extension of the genus in Africa. 
The bushbucks parallel closely the American deer in 



426 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

habits. Their haunts are forests or dense bush upon which 
they browse, and where they lead a sohtary Hfe. Like most 
of the deer they are very local and seldom range over an 
area of more than a few miles. In external appearance the 
resemblance in body and shape of head, ears, and tail is 
singularly close. The genus comprises a single species which 
splits up into numerous geographical races. Nowhere, how- 
ever, are two races found occupying the same territory. 
The nyala, a large, transversely striped antelope, bearing in 
the male a long throat mane similar to that of the greater 
koodoo, is usually considered a member of this genus; but, 
owing to its differences in coloration and other structural 
differences, it has been distinguished as a genus, Nyala. 
Tragelaphus ranges throughout the whole of Ethiopia from 
the Cape northward to the southern edge of the Sahara 
Desert and the northern limits of Abyssinia. The altitudi- 
nal range covers a wide area from sea-level to 9,000 feet. 
The only fossil species assigned to the genus is one from 
the Miocene of Germany, but it is of very doubtful identity 
with the bushbucks of Africa. 

The Bushbuck 

Tragelaphus scriptus 

The bushbucks range from the Abyssinian highlands and 
the adjacent Red Sea coast westward along the southern 
border of the Sahara Desert to Senegal, and south through- 
out the whole continent to the Cape. They are absent only 
from the open plains, waterless deserts, and from altitudes 
above 10,000 feet. 

Owing to the great geographical variation in color and 
the marked sexual color differences in some races, the species 
is difficult of definition. The forms which we now call races 
were nearly all described as species, owing to this great 
variation and the lack of specimens showing intermediate 
characters. 

Scriptus may be described as a bushbuck having a large 
white patch on the lower throat, another on the upper 
throat, two white spots on the cheeks below the eye, white 
lips, chin, and gular region, a white band at the axilla and 
the groin, a white stripe down the inside of the legs to the 



BUSHBUCKS, KOODOOS, AND ELANDS 427 

fetlocks, and two white spots above the hoofs in front of 
the pasterns. These white markings are always present. 
The body color ranges in shade from a bright tawny in 
females to a dark seal-brown in the males of some races, 
and in color pattern from ten white transverse stripes and 
one longitudinal one through every degree of spotting 
within the limits of these lines to races which are quite 
monocolored. The male in all races has a blackish breast 
and belly, or rather this area is always darker than the 
sides of the body, and the midline of the back is marked by 
a low mane of longer hair. The female lacks the dorsal 
mane and the darker coloration of the breast and belly. 
The young of the various races resemble closely their female 
parent in color, and the various races can be distinguished 
quite as readily at birth as can the adult female. The 
darker coloration of the male is gradually assumed during 
youth. The male is distinctly larger than the female. 

We found the bushbuck common in different forms, 
from East Africa through Uganda to the Lado. We found 
it in the high, wet, cold mountains, in the hot, dry, low 
country, and in the wet, low country. Everywhere it 
avoided the open and lived in the timber or brush. But it 
showed a degree of adaptability to changing conditions, 
such as, for instance, the roan and waterbuck also show, 
but which other species, like the topi and oryx, do not show. 
In the Lado the bushbuck — here a form of harnessed bush- 
buck — lived in the rather thin, rather scanty patches of 
thorn scrub with which the dry country was dotted. They 
were always within such distance of water that they could 
drink at least once in the twenty-four hours. But except 
when drinking they were as apt to be found miles from 
water as in its vicinity, and we saw them feeding in the im- 
mediate neighborhood of hartebeest, kob, and waterbuck, 
all in the same type of country. In East Africa and Uganda 



428 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

we never saw bushbuck in such country or in the neigh- 
borhood of such companions. In Uganda the bushbuck — 
another form of harnessed bushbuck — hved in wet, marshy 
ground, often where the water stood some inches deep 
among the tall grass and bushes. In much of East Africa 
we found the bushbuck — much less striped and spotted, 
and some of the males very dark-colored — living in thick 
forest, in the hills and broken country, where there were 
streams in the gullies and valleys, but where the forests 
themselves were dry; and there bushbuck were never seen 
in the open or on the feeding-grounds of the hartebeests 
or kob. In the Uasin Gishu the bushbuck were found in 
the belt of heavy timber along the river, and also in big 
reed beds, in places where reedbuck were also found; else- 
where we found them in the haunts of the duiker and im- 
palla. 

Bushbuck are solitary creatures. A buck and doe, or a 
doe and fawn, may be together, but generally we found them 
singly. As with other antelopes their times for feeding and 
drinking vary; in the Lado we came on them feeding in the 
bright daylight. But in East Africa they usually laid up 
during the day, and began to move about toward dusk. 
They trust for safety to skulking and hiding in the thick 
cover, and it is not easy to shoot them. They are rather 
noisy, and utter a deep bark when alarmed or disturbed; 
they sometimes utter this bark when they hear or smell a 
man or leopard. The leopard is their chief foe, as it lives in 
the same localities. Doubtless the lion kills them if it hap- 
pens to get a chance, but it is not sufficiently adroit to take 
them while in cover. The bushbuck evidently know this, 
and have no fear whatever of the lions in the thick brush and 



BUSHBUCKS, KOODOOS, AND ELANDS 429 

forest. In one place, by a stream, among the twisted, close- 
growing stems of big and little trees, in which lions habitu- 
ally made their beds, and evidently passed much of their 
time, we also roused a bushbuck out of its bed. This bush- 
buck had used this bed for some days, and it was within 
twenty paces of a trail along which the lions had been con- 
tinually passing and repassing. Evidently the buck, as a 
finished diver and skulker in thick bush, able to dodge at full 
speed through the most tangled cover, felt entirely safe 
from any rush or spring of his huge and formidable neigh- 
bors. Bushbucks are browsers, but sometimes eat grass 
also. In the Lado they were feeding on leaves, twig tops, 
and pods of the yellow-barked acacia. In the Uasin Gishu 
they were feeding on leaves, wild olives, and a little grass. 
The buck is much larger than the doe, and is by far the most 
truculent of all the lesser antelopes; indeed for its size it is 
probably the most formidable fighter among all the ante- 
lopes, and its horns are very effective weapons. It will, 
when wounded, charge a man, and has even been known to 
kill one, as recorded by Drummond; it has also been known 
to kill both the leopard and the wild dog — Drummond re- 
cording the former feat, and Stevenson-Hamilton the latter. 
On one occasion, when we were beating a reed bed, a doe 
rushed back through the line of beaters, and fairly charged 
one beater, knocking him over with her rush. It is a very 
curious thing that among the tragelaphs it should be the 
little bushbuck which is so fierce, while the larger members 
of the subfamily, the eland and even the koodoo, are mild 
and gentle animals by comparison. 



430 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 



Key to Adult Males of the Races of scriptus 

Neck without a collar of short hair 

No stripes or bands on body meneliki 

Sides marked by two longitudinal stripes decula 

Neck with a collar of short hair 
No stripes or bands on body 

Body color dark, chestnut or seal-brown 

Hind quarters marked with two or three white spots 

delamerei 

Hind quarters with many white spots massaicus 

Body color light, ochraceous or tawny 

Dorsal mane white dama 

Dorsal mane black 

Collar of short hair well marked multicolor 

Collar of short hair indistinct nigrinotatus 

Body color olive-gray, without reddish suffusion olivaceus 

Body crossed by transverse bands and one longitudinal stripe 

bar 

Highland Bushbuck 

Tragelaphus scriptus delamerei 

Native Names: Kikuyu, szvalika; Kikamba, ndwayia. 
Tragelaphus delamerei Pocock, 1900, Ann. i^ Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 95. 

Range. — From the highlands south and east of Lake 
Rudolf southward through the highlands of British East 
Africa to the southern coast of the Victoria Nyanza. 

The bushbuck named for Lord Delamere by Pocock, in 
1900, was assigned to Sayer, Somahland, erroneously, and 
has remained unrecognizable, partly owing to this confusion 
of locahty, and partly to the immaturity and faded condi- 
tion of the type specimen. Sayer is, however, in British 
East Africa. It is situated at the southern edge of the Lo- 
rogi Mountains, on the northeastern limits of the Laikipia 
Plateau, at an altitude of four thousand four hundred feet, 
and is on one of the old trade routes to Mount Marsabit 
and Lake Rudolf. A few years later Thomas described the 



BUSHBUCKS, KOODOOS, AND ELANDS 431 

adult male of the same race as haywoodi from a specimen 
taken at Nyeri, which is situated almost within the same 
watershed, but one hundred miles south of Sayer. Still 
more recently a specimen from Nakuru has been made the 
type of a new race, tjaderi, by Doctor J. A. Allen. 

The highland bushbuck is distinguishable by the dark 
seal-brown color of the old male, and the almost total ab- 
sence of white markings on the sides. The hind quarters 
usually show two or three spots, but occasionally they are 
absolutely wanting. The adult female is tawny rufous. 

The color of an old male is uniform raw umber-brown 
on the dorsal surface, but lighter on the rump, where there 
is some mixture with tawny hairs, and darker on the sides and 
breast, where the color becomes blackish seal-brown. The 
midline of the back is marked with a mane of long, white- 
tipped hair. On the sides are a faint indication of two 
transverse white stripes and two or three white spots on the 
flanks also. The tail is bushy; the dorsal surface and sides 
are rufous like the rump, the under-surface white, and the 
tip black. The legs are deep seal-brown like the belly, but 
are white on the inside of the axillae and at the groins. The 
inside of the forelegs from knees to pasterns and a similar 
stripe on hind legs from the hocks are tawny-ochraceous. 
The front of the pasterns is marked with a pair of large 
white spots. The neck is encircled by a well-marked collar of 
short hair at the base, which is bone-brown in color. The 
fore part of the neck is tawny with a short, black mane on 
the nape. There is a white bar at the base of the throat and 
a rectangular one on the forethroat. The crown and fore- 
head are bright-rufous, the snout umber-brown on top, and 
the sides of the face ochraceous-tawny. Below the eye on 
the cheek are two rounded white spots. The lips, chin, and 
upper throat are white. The ears are ochraceous-tawny on 
the back, with umber-brown tips and white inside. 

Immature males at an age when the horns are two or 
three inches long are like the adult females in color, but the 
collar at the base of the neck is darker and the indications 
of transverse stripes more pronounced. Males with horns 
half grown are less reddish than the females and quite uni- 
form wood-brown in color. The old adult female has the 
body bright russet on the midline of the back, and grades 



432 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

on the sides gradually into bright- tawny. The legs are 
marked as in the male, but the upper part is much lighter- 
tawny instead of seal-brown. The head is colored quite as in 
the male; the neck, however, is lighter tawny like the body. 
The median dorsal line lacks the mane found in the male, 
which is indicated only by a dark stripe with occasional 
streaks of white hair. There is no indication on the sides of 
spots or transverse bands. Younger females show a row of 
white spots on the sides and indications of one or two trans- 
verse white stripes. Newly born young are like the young 
females in color and pattern, but lack the dark leg stripes, 
and have the head colored as in the adult. The collar is in- 
dicated by the dark-brown color of the hair on the nape, 
which is no shorter than on the rest of the neck. It is sur- 
prising how slight the color differences are between the 
nursing young and the adult female in a group showing such 
great sexual color difference in the adults. The absence of 
any indication in the young of the remote ancestral color- 
ation would indicate great age in the present color pattern. 
The type specimen collected at Sayer by Lord Delamere 
is an immature female with the milk teeth and first molar 
only in use, and has every appearance, as far as the skull is 
concerned, of being a kid six months old. The skin is in a 
faded condition and apparently lacks the white areas on the 
inside of the legs. It is matched closely in color by some 
skins of adult females from the Aberdare Mountains which 
show the same wood-brown color and absence of all spots on 
the sides and hind quarters. The collar of short hair on the 
neck is not always well marked in adults and is occasionally 
lacking, as is the case in the type of haywoodi which was one 
of the distinguishing characters used by Thomas for the 
race. The amount of white spotting on the sides is quite 
variable and is sometimes absent, as in the type specimens 
of both delamerei and tjaderi. The white chevrons on the 
snout are also subject to great individual variation in con- 
stancy, and their presence is of no racial value as a char- 
acter. A large number of specimens have been examined 
from the Aberdare Mountains, Lake Naivasha, the Loita 
Plains, and the Uasin Gishu Plateau. This race is very sim- 
ilar in color to sylvaticus of the Zambesi region, the differ- 
ence being much less than in the Uganda bushbuck, with 



BUSHBUCKS, KOODOOS, AND ELANDS 433 

which it is closely associated geographically. Differences in 
coloration in bushbucks are a meridian affair with but slight 
latitudinal change. 

The flesh measurements of an adult male are: head and 
body along curve of back, 53 inches; tail, 8 inches; hind foot, 
14^ inches; ear, ^H inches. The female is somewhat 
smaller in size and measures in length, 50 inches; tail, 7^ 
inches; hind foot, 14 inches; ear, 5>? inches. The skull of a 
large male measures io>^ inches in greatest length. An 
adult female skull usually measures 83^ inches. The long- 
est horns in six males are 16 inches, measured on the curve 
of the keel. Average horns are somewhat less than the head 
in length and are approximately 10 inches long. Ward's 
record for this race is 18^ inches. 

Masai Bushbuck 

Tragelaphus scriptus massaicus 

Native Names: Kinyamwesi, pongo; Masai, el mungu. 
Tragelaphus massaicus Neumann, 1902, Sitz.-Ber. Ges. Nat. Freunde, Berl., 
p. 96. 

The Masai bushbuck was described by Herr Oscar Neu- 
mann from a specimen shot near Irangi, German East 
Africa, in the Rift Valley south of Mount Kilimanjaro. 
From the slopes of Mount Meru situated southwest of Kili- 
manjaro and some distance north of Irangi, Lonnberg later 
described a race, meruensis, which is quite indistinguishable. 
His male specimens were more fully adult and showed 
darker coloration than the immature one described by Neu- 
mann, which accounts for the differences he discovered. The 
absence of the white chevrons given as a character is of no 
racial value, owing to the great individual variation in con- 
stancy to which they are subject. 

The Masai bushbuck may be distinguished from dela- 
merei by its lighter body color in the male, and by the 
presence of three or four transverse white body stripes, and 
by the greater number of white spots on the hind quarters, 
which are present in both sexes. 



434 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

SWAHILI BUSHBUCK 

Tragelaphus scriptus olivaceus 

Native Names: Swahili, kungu; Taita, sariga. 

Tragelaphus scriptus olivaceus Heller, 1913, Smith. Misc. Coll., vol. 61, No. 
13. P- I- 

Range. — Eastern edge of Taru Desert from the German 
boundary of British East Africa north throughout the coast 
district as far as Lamu at least; Hmits of range unknown. 

The SwahiU race has been recently described from speci- 
mens secured at Maji-ya-Chumvi Station on the western 
edge of the moist tropical belt flanking the coast. A 
mounted specimen from Lamu in the British Museum rep- 
resents the northern limits of the range of the race. The 
dorsal coloration of the male is grayish-olive without any 
rufous suffusion. The sides and hind quarters are marked 
by white spots and the legs are seal-brown. The neck is 
short-haired, but without evident collar, and the dorsal 
mane is white. The female is cinnamon and has the sides of 
the body crossed by six to eight white cross-bars. There 
are white spots on the lower sides and on the hind quarters. 
From both the highland and the Masai bushbuck the 
Swahili race may be distinguished by the absence of any 
rufous in the coat of the male and the presence of a line of 
white spots on the sides of the body. The female is dis- 
tinguishable by the greater number of transverse white 
stripes on the body. 

The coloration of an adult male is grayish-olive spar- 
ingly lined by buffy, with the midline of the back crossed 
by an indistinct white bar. The lower sides are marked by 
a line of irregular white spots and the hind quarters are 
spotted by several conspicuous white spots. The breast 
is dark seal-brown with a white bar at the axillae; another 
back of the knee and a white spot on the inside from the knee 
to the pastern. The front of the pastern is marked by two 
large white spots. The hind legs are marked by a white 
spot behind the hocks and a broad white stripe on the inside 
of the legs from the hocks to the pasterns, the latter marked 
with two large white spots in front as on the forelegs. 
The tail is bushy and has the hair above and on the sides 
olive-brown, marked by a narrow streak of white on the 
under side; hair at tip is indistinctly blackish. The neck 



BUSHBUCKS, KOODOOS, AND ELANDS 435 

is brown, without a definite collar, being short-haired to the 
white bar on the lower throat, where the long olive hair of 
the body begins abruptly. The upper throat has a large 
median white spot. The snout is without white chevrons. 
The crown of the head and the snout are olive-brown and 
the sides of the head are ochraceous-tawny. The cheeks be- 
low the eye are marked by two large white spots. The upper 
lips, chin, and forethoat are white. The back of the ears is 
olive-brown and the tips are seal-brown, while the inside and 
the base are whitish. The adult female has the sides of the 
body bright ochraceous-tawny, with the median area much 
darker cinnamon-brown, through the centre of which ex- 
tends a thin white dorsal stripe from the withers to the tail. 
The sides of the body are marked with six or seven transverse 
white stripes, the anterior ones being the longest. The 
lower sides are marked by a line of white spots and the 
hind quarters with about a dozen similar spots irregularly 
arranged. The breast is buffy and lighter than the sides; 
the belly is white. The legs are bright-tawny with the white 
areas arranged as in the male. The tail shows much more 
white below than that of the male, only the median dorsal 
line being cinnamon like the body color. The collar on the 
neck is more distinctly marked than in the male. The 
crown of the head is bright-rufous, the snout dorsally olive- 
brown with narrow white chevrons from the eye to the snout, 
and the rest of the head is colored as in the male. 

An adult male buck measured in the flesh: 44 inches in 
length of head and body ; tail, 8 inches ; hind foot, I4>< inches ; 
ear, 5^ inches; length of skull, 9 inches. The horns of 
the type measure in length 12 inches on the curve of the 
keel. The specimen in the British Museum from Lamu has 
much greater horns, their length on the curve being i6f^ 
inches. The female is somewhat smaller than the male. 

Uganda Bushbuck 
Tragelaphus scriptus dama 

Native Names: Kavirondo, ngao; Luganda, engabi. 

Tragelaphus dama Neumann, 1902, Sitz.-Ber. Ges. Nat. Freunde, Bed., p. 97. 

Range. — From the Kavirondo country on the northeast 
coast of the Victoria Nyanza westward throughout Uganda 
and northward through the highlands as far as the latitude 



436 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

of Nimule. Absent from the low country bordering the 
Nile and the Victoria Nyanza, where the race bor occurs. 

Herr Neumann described this race from some flat skins 
which he obtained from the natives in the Kavirondo coun- 
try, where the race reaches its extreme eastern limits and 
is not so well marked as in central Uganda. Speke and 
Grant met with the bushbuck on several occasions in 
Uganda. Grant described one he shot very carefully and 
mentions the aversion the natives have for it, owing to their 
superstitious belief regarding the unwholesomeness of its 
flesh as food. This belief regarding the poisonous character 
of the flesh of the bushbuck is quite universal among the 
natives of British East Africa. 

The Uganda bushbuck approaches the highland race of 
East Africa most closely in color and size. It is distinguish- 
able from this race by the much lighter color of the old 
bucks, which never become seal-brown, but are a light 
ochraceous-tawny. They are marked more numerously by 
white spots, a row extending from the forelegs to the hind 
quarters, where they merge with an irregular assemblage of 
spots. No transverse white stripes are found in the old 
males. The body of the female is, however, crossed by 
from four to six transverse stripes, and she has also well- 
marked rows of spots on the flanks and hind quarters. The 
immature male is striped and spotted like the female, but 
has the blackish breast and belly and the dorsal mane of 
short hair of the adult male. From the Nile bushbuck this 
race is at once distinguishable by the absence of both trans- 
verse or longitudinal stripes in the adult male, and by the 
much larger body size. It does, however, approach the 
Nile race in the similarity in body color between the sexes. 
The line of spots on the flanks marks the position of the white 
longitudinal stripe in bor. 

No measurements of adult male specimens in the flesh 
are available. An adult female, however, measured in 
length of head and body 49 inches; tail, 83/^ inches; hind 
foot, I33<( inches; ear, 5>^ inches. The skull of an old male 
has a length of 9^ inches, with a length of horn along the 
curve of the keel of 143^ inches. 

Specimens have been examined from the Maanja River 
in central Uganda and the types from Kavirondo. Bush- 



BUSHBUCKS, KOODOOS, AND ELANDS 437 

buck from the headwaters of the 'Nzoia River immediately 
above the Kavirondo country are dark-colored like dela- 
merei^ old males from this elevated region being quite as 
dark as any from the Aberdare Mountains. The record 
horn length of this race recorded by Ward is i83<( inches, 
based on a specimen shot in Unyoro by F. A. Knowles, the 
district commissioner. 

Nile Bushbuck 
Tragelaphus scriptus bor 

Native Names: Djeng, bor; Bongo, tobbo; Dinka, pehr. 
Tragelaphus bor Heuglin, 1877, Reise, Nord-Ost Africa, II, p. 122. 

Range. — Upper Nile from the Albert Nyanza north to 
the limit of the bush country in the White Nile region, east 
to the Nile-Rudolf watershed and west over the Congo 
watershed to the headwaters of the Congo system. 

Heuglin described the bushbuck of the Bahr-el-Ghazal 
region in 1877, giving to it the name bor, by which it was 
known to the Djengs who dwell in the country lying be- 
tween the mouth of the Sobat and the Bahr el Zeraf. Doctor 
Schweinfurth also met with it during his travels in the up- 
per Bahr-el-Ghazal district in 1869. He makes mention of 
its extreme shyness, solitary habits, and the ease with which 
it is detected by the eye, owing to its striped coloration. 
In an appendix to his narrative of his travels he furnishes a 
long list of names by which the bushbuck is known to the 
various tribes he encountered. 

The Nile bushbuck is scarcely distinguishable from the 
typical race from West Africa. The male may be dis- 
tinguished by the collar on the nape, and the darker throat, 
but the color pattern is quite the same as in scriptus. The 
female cannot be distinguished from the typical form. It 
is quite remarkable that the bushbucks show practically no 
racial variation from the Nile to Senegal, a distance of three 
thousand miles, while eastward they break up into several 
races within an area of less than one thousand miles' width. 
From delamerei it is distinguishable by its numerous trans- 
verse stripes, the single longitudinal stripe, and the rufous 
color of the adult male. It approaches more closely dama 
in coloration, but is readily distinguishable by the presence 



438 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

of the longitudinal stripe and the more numerous transverse 
stripes, as well as by the smaller body size and much smaller 
ears. 

The adult male has the collar indicated upon the nape 
by an area of short, uniform bone-brown hair which does 
not reach more than half-way down on the sides. In the 
female the collar is not indicated, .either by color or length 
of hair. The male and female have the same color pattern, 
the body being crossed by eight to ten transverse white 
stripes, none of which are uniformly white. The lower sides 
are marked by a clear white longitudinal stripe extending 
from the shoulder to the middle of the body and continued 
to the hind quarters by elongate white spots. The hind 
quarters are marked by several rows of white spots which 
extend well up toward the base of the tail. The dorsal mane 
is blackish basally, and has the hair white-tipped, but is only 
indicated in the female by a dark stripe with occasional 
white hairs. The male has the breast seal-brown and the 
legs dark-brown with white areas as in delamerei. The 
female has the breast lighter than the sides, buffy-ochraceous, 
and the legs light-colored with only a median seal-brown 
stripe in front. The head is colored alike in both sexes and 
closely resembles delamerei in pattern and shade. The 
nursing young are like the female in color. 

An adult male in the flesh measured: 49 inches in length 
of head and body; tail, 7 inches; hind foot, I4>^ inches; ear, 
51^ inches. A female measured: 44 inches in length; tail, 7 
inches; hind foot, 13 inches; ear, 5 inches. Skull of a male 
measures in greatest length 9 inches, that of a female 8>^ 
inches. The longest horns measured ii>2 inches on the 
curve of the keel in a series of three adults. Ward's record 
is a Soudan specimen measuring i^Yz inches. 

A series representing all ages has been examined from 
Rhino Camp, Lado Enclave, and single specimens from Ni- 
mule and a locality eighty miles east of Gondokoro. Speci- 
mens from the two sides of the Nile are quite' alike, as are 
also those from the headwaters of the Congo tributaries of 
the Ituri and Welle. The race is not confined to the valley 
of the Nile, but extends westward into the Congo water- 
shed. 




MAP 12 — DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES OF THE BUSHBUCK 

1 Tragelaphus scriptus massaicus 2 Tragelaphus scriptus olivaceus 3 Tragelaphus scriptus delamerei 
4 Tragelaphus scriptus dama 5 Tragelaphus scriptus hor 6 Tragelaphus scriptus nigrinoiatus 

7 Tragelaphus scriptus meneliki 8 Tragelaphus scriptus viulticolor 9 Tragelaphus scriptus decula 
The heazy black line on this and the folloiuing maps indicates the route of Col. Roosevelt's African e.rf'cdliiou ofrooQ-ro. 

439 



440 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

SiTATUNGA 

Limnoiragus 

Limnotragus Sclater and Thomas, 1900, Book of Antelopes, vol. 4, p. 149; 
type L. spekei. 

The sitatunga has been accorded generic distinction from 
the bushbuck chiefly on account of its elongated hoofs and 
the more open spiral of the horns. In shape of body and 
coloration it closely resembles the bushbuck, but has the 
white markings of that species much less clearly marked. 
The tail is not bushy, but rather thin-haired basally, with a 
tuft at the tip. The ears are smaller than in the bushbuck, 
but have the same broad shape. The pelage is long every- 
where on the body, but there is no dorsal mane as in the male 
bushbuck. The hoofs are very long and sharply pointed, 
their length being more than twice their basal width. The 
back of the pasterns and the area about the false hoofs are 
naked and pad-like as in the lechwi, which is also a swamp- 
haunting genus. The elongate shape of the hoof is an adap- 
tation to give the foot greater support in the soft, swampy 
ground which the animal frequents. The horns are much 
longer than in the bushbuck, more openly spiral, with usu- 
ally more than one complete turn, and white tipped for an 
inch or more at the point. The skull exhibits a much 
smaller orbit than in the bushbuck, and has much narrower 
mesopterygoid fossa. Three forms are included which ex- 
hibit discontinuous distribution paralleling the lechwi some- 
what in this respect. One of these is known in Uganda, 
another from the swamps of the upper Zambesi, and a third 
from the mouth of the Congo and the West Coast of Africa. 
The differences in these races are in coloration chiefly, there 
being no difference in body size. 

Uganda Sitatunga 
Limnotragus spekei 

Native Names: Luganda, chobe ; Karagwe, nzoe. 

Tragelaphus spekei Sclater, 1863, Speke's Journ. Dlscov., p. 223. 

Range. — North and west drainage area of the Victoria 
Nyanza from Mount Elgon westward as far as Mount 
Ruwenzori and north to the Bahr-el-Ghazal district. 



BUSHBUCKS, KOODOOS, AND ELANDS 441 

Speke and Grant, while sojourning in Karagwe, west of 
the Victoria Nyanza, were presented by the ruler of the dis- 
trict, King Rumanika, with a live specimen and some heads 
of the sitatunga, obtained in some of the small lakes of the 
neighborhood. These specimens formed the basis for Scla- 
ter's description of the species in Speke's "^Journal of the Dis- 
covery of the Source of the Nile." Very few sportsmen have 
met with the sitatunga, however. Gedge, in 1893, secured 
a large number from one of the small islands of the Sessi 
group in the Victoria Nyanza. More recently one has 
been obtained near Kampala, Uganda, by Kermit Roosevelt. 
Sportsmen have also recorded them from swamps at the 
west base of Elgon, on the headwaters of the 'Nzoia River, 
east of Elgon, and the Bahr-el-Ghazal district. Although 
sitatungas have been secured by several sportsmen recently 
in the Bahr-el-Ghazal district, they are not yet known to 
occur in the intervening stretch of the Nile from the Albert 
Nyanza to the mouth of the Bahr-el-Ghazal. 

We only came on the sitatunga in the Uganda marshes. 
It is the most water-loving of antelopes, never leaving the 
marshes except at night to feed in the meadows in their 
immediate vicinity. Its exceedingly long hoofs make it a 
slow and clumsy runner on dry land, but enable it to thread 
its way with ease through mud and water among the high 
reeds. In the reed beds it is practically safe from all enemies, 
and it is rarely so much as seen; but at night when feeding 
outside them it is occasionally killed by the leopard, and 
even by the lion. In certain places it can be killed in time 
of flood from canoes, owing to having been drowned out of its 
proper haunts; but ordinarily the only way to get it is to 
have a marsh driven by beaters. It makes well-beaten 
paths through its haunts, in the papyrus, the reeds, and the 
long grass, and it sneaks through these so silently, and is so 
exceedingly shy that it is hard to get a glimpse of it as it 



442 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

slides over the treacherous mud, or swims where the water 
is deep. We found the sitatunga hving in papyrus where the 
water was waist-deep on a man. The stomach of the one 
Kermit shot was filled, not with grass, but with the leaves 
and twig tops of a shrub which grew in and alongside of the 
swamps. 

The Uganda sitatunga is readily distinguishable from the 
Zambesi species, selousi, by the marked sexual difference in 
color, the female being rufous and the male drab-brown. 
In selousi both sexes are drab-brown. The males of the two 
species are distinguishable by the more spotted and striped 
character of the coat in the Uganda sitatunga, which has 
faint indications on the body of the white stripes and spots 
of the female. From the Congo sitatunga there are only 
slight racial differences, the two forms being closely related 
by the similarity of the coloration of the females, which are 
rufous, with indications of transverse white stripes on the 
body. The male of the Congo race is much more distinctly 
banded and spotted on the sides of the body than is the case 
with spekei, although both are alike in the general drab- 
brown tone of coloration. 

The coloration of the male is uniform drab-brown with 
the median dorsal line marked by a whitish stripe. There is 
a white bar in front of the chest and a white spot on the fore- 
throat. The sides of the body are marked by three or four 
faint indications of white transverse stripes which reach only 
half-way down the sides. There are a few white hairs on 
the lower sides indicating the lower lateral line of spots in 
bushbucks, and the hind quarters are marked by several 
distinct spots. The breast is drab-brown, like the dorsal 
surface, and the belly whitish, the white extending down the 
inside of the hind leg to the hoof, where it merges with the 
white spots in front of the pastern; rest of leg drab-brown, 
like the body color. The foreleg is white at the axilla, the 
white area continuing down the inside of the leg to the pas- 
tern, as in the hind leg. The tail is tufted at the tip, the hair 
at the base being shorter and less abundant, and is colored 
above drab-brown, the under side being marked by a nar- 




MAP 13 — DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES AND RACES OF SITATUNGAS 

1 Limnotragus spekii spekii 2 Limnotragus spekii gratus 3 Limnotragus selousi 

443 



444 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

row line of white. The head is drab-brown and the snout 
is marked by two broad white chevrons from above the eye 
to the midhne of the snout, where, however, they are sepa- 
rated by a narrow space. The cheeks below the eye are 
marked by two white spots. The upper lips and chin are 
white. The ears are small but broad, and are seal-brown on 
the terminal half with the rest of back, base, and whole 
inside white. The female is bright tawny-rufous with a 
dark stripe following the median line of the back, with 
indications of several white stripes on the body, and the legs 
are striped with white, as in the male. The young show the 
transverse white stripes much more distinctly than the adult 
female. The characteristic white markings on the head, 
throat, and legs of the bushbuck are found in the sitatunga, 
but they are much less conspicuous. 

The male shot by Kermit Roosevelt measured in the flesh: 
in length of head and body, 54 inches; tail, I2j^ inches; 
hind foot, 19^2 inches; ear, 5^ inches, and height at the 
withers, 39>J inches. The skull of this specimen measures 
in length lof^ inches. The longest horns recorded by Ward 
are from the Bahr el Ghazal, and show a length around the 
curve of 35 inches. Average horns are, however, much less 
in length, 20 inches being the usual length. 

Lesser Koodoo 

Ammelaphus 

Ammelaphus Heller, 1912, Smith. Misc. Coll., vol. 60, No. 8, p. 15. 

The lesser koodoo has been given generic distinction from 
the greater owing to the more narrowly spiral horns, absence 
of a throat mane, and presence of the white patches on the 
throat and chest, as in the bushbuck. It is quite evident 
from these difl^erences in coloration that the lesser koodoo is 
no more closely related to the greater koodoo than it is to 
the bushbuck or the bongo. The color pattern is almost 
identical with that of the bongo in those features in which it 
differs from the greater koodoo, that is, the absence of a 
throat mane and the white patches on the throat and chest. 
The body stripes are practically the same in number and 
position as in the bongo, from which it differs decidedly by 







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LESSER KOODOO 

From Somaliland. Group in Field Museum, Chicago 

Mounted by Carl E. Akelev 




GREATER KOODOO 



From Somaliland. Group in Field Museum, Chicago 
Mounted by Carl E. Akeley 

THE GREATER AND THE LESSER KOODOO 



BUSHBUCKS, KOODOOS, AND ELANDS 445 

the difference in the shape of the horns, and their absence in 
the female, and the bushy tail. Besides the color differences 
from the greater koodoo, there are some distinctions in the 
skull. The snout is longer, the premaxillary bones being 
much longer than in the greater koodoo. The genus con- 
tains but one species, the lesser koodoo. 



East African Lesser Koodoo 

Ammelaphus imherbis australis 

Native Names: Swahili, kungu; Duruma, chakwa. 

Afnmelaphus imberbis australis Heller, 1913, Smith. Misc. Coll., vol. 61, No. 
13, p. 2. 

Range. — From Ugogo, in central German East Africa, 
northward through the Rift Valley to the British East 
African border, where it spreads eastward to the coast and 
northward to southern Abyssinia and Somaliland; not oc- 
curring above an altitude of three thousand feet. 

The typical lesser koodoo was first described by Edward 
Blyth in 1869, but it was not for several years afterward that 
the difference with the greater koodoo was clearly defined, 
owing to the absence of specimens in Europe. Sir John 
Kirk obtained the first specimens in East Africa, in 1873, 
at Brava near the mouth of the Juba River. Later Wil- 
loughby and Jackson obtained specimens in the Taita coun- 
try, east of Kilimanjaro. The present race was recently 
described from specimens secured by the Rainey expedition, 
south of Mount Marsabit. 

The lesser koodoo inhabits the level, bush-covered desert 
at low altitudes, usually occurring in rather dense thickets 
and seldom in scattered or open bush. The males are usually 
solitary, but the females are found in smaller groups of two to 
four, with their young. Usually such groups are made up 
of an old female with a yearling offspring and a nursing kid. 
When startled they sometimes utter a sharp, barking call, 
similar to that made by the bushbuck, and bound away in 
great leaps, at times clearing bushes six feet high. Their 
feeding time is at dusk and again at dawn. The hot hours 
of midday are spent in the security of some impenetrable 
thicket. Their food consists chiefly of the twigs of acacias 



446 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

and various other bushes. They are, no doubt, Independent 
of water, although they are seldom found in absolutely water- 
less deserts. They have not, however, been observed drinking 
at water-holes, to which other game resort for such purposes 
in the desert districts they inhabit. The East African lesser 
koodoo resembles imberbis of Somaliland closely, but differs 
by darker coloration, absence of the white spots on the front 
of the pasterns on the forelegs, and shorter horns. 

The coloration of the male is bright-tawny lined with 
black along the median dorsal region. The vertebral line 
is marked by an ill-defined white-and-black dorsal stripe and 
the sides are crossed by twelve to thirteen conspicuous 
transverse white stripes from the dorsal stripe to the under- 
parts. The lower sides and the breast are ochraceous, and 
the midline of the chest is marked by a broad black stripe, 
but the belly and groins are pure white. The forelegs are 
pure ochraceous, without the white spot on the front of the 
pasterns. The band above the hoofs and the back of the pas- 
terns are black. There is a black band on the back of the leg 
just above the knee, bordered below by a white band at the 
knee. The hind legs are ochraceous, with a white spot on the 
front of the pasterns and a black band above the hoofs, and 
the back of the pasterns are black. There is a white stripe 
on the inside of the leg from the white of the belly to the 
hock. The tail is tawny above, white below, and tip seal- 
brown. The neck is somewhat lighter than the body, being 
ecru-drab with a narrow black stripe on the nape from the 
head to the withers. There is a white patch on the forethroat 
and a larger oval one near the base of the throat. The crown 
of the head is seal-brown, banded in front by white chevron 
bars from the eyes to the snout. The median line of the 
snout is walnut-brown. The sides of the head are ecru-drab, 
with two white spots below the eye and a short white post- 
ocular stripe. The lips and chin are white, bordered by dusky. 
The back of ears is ochraceous, the tip narrowly margined 
by blackish; inside and base white. The female resembles 
the male closely in color, but is lighter, being ochraceous- 
tawny, very scantily lined by black, with the crown of the 
head lighter— tawny rather than seal-brown. The young are 
like the adult in pattern of coloration but in tone somewhat 
lighter. Sexes quite equal in size. 




/ fArr 



h'L DOLF 



0i Kt.UarsabIt 




MAP 14 — DISTRIBUTION OF THE EAST AFRICAN RACE OF THE 

LESSER KOODOO 

1 Ammelaphus imberbis australis 
447 



448 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

The measurements in the flesh of an adult female were: 
head and body, 59 inches; tail, 14 inches; hind foot, i8>^ 
inches; ear, 8 inches. Length of skull, 12 inches. Fully 
grown horns usually measure 30 inches on the curve. The 
record length recorded by Ward for British East Africa is 33 
inches. This specimen was shot by A. H. Neumann, the ele- 
phant hunter. Ward records a considerable number from 
Somaliland exceeding Neumann's head by an inch or two, 
the average horn length in Somaliland being about equal to 
the record of British East Africa. 

Greater Koodoo 

Strepsiceros 

Strepsiceros Hamilton Smith, 1827, Griffith's Anim. Kingd., V, p. 365; type 
species S. strepsiceros. 

The koodoo is best characterized by its immense spiral 
horns and long throat mane, both of which are found in the 
male sex only. The horns are a wide, open spiral in shape 
which make two or three complete turns. In section the 
horns are circular, with a rounded keel, not flattened or fur- 
nished with a sharp keel as in the bushbuck. They more 
closely resemble the open spiral horns of the nyala, which 
is also a bearded or throat-maned antelope with transverse 
white body stripes. The lesser koodoo has horns very similar 
in shape, and on this account has been associated genetically 
with the greater koodoo, but it differs by having the spiral 
much closer and lacking the throat mane. The female 
koodoo is hornless and without the throat mane, but in 
coloration is identical with the male. The tail is bushy 
throughout, the hair at the tip slightly longer than at the 
base and rather short in length, being intermediate in length 
between that of a bushbuck and an eland. The greater 
koodoo ranges from the Cape Colony northward to Angola on 
the West Coast, and on the east through the Zambesi Valley 
to Abyssinia. It is absent from the Congo basin and the re- 
gion north and west to the Sahara. Owing to the bushy char- 
acter of its haunts and its extreme alertness and shyness, the 
koodoo has persisted throughout most of its original range, 
even in Cape Colony. It is very local, the areas which it 
inhabits being widely scattered. A single living species is 



BUSHBUCKS, KOODOOS, AND ELANDS 449 

known. Two fossil species are described, one from the 
Pliocene of India and a more recent Pleistocene species 
from Algeria. 

East African Greater Koodoo 

Strepsiceros strepsiceros hea 

Native Names: Swahili, mama; Masai, olmaalo. 

Strepsiceros strepsiceros hea Heller, 1913; Smith. Misc. Coll., vol. 61, No. 13, 
P- 3- 

Range. — Rift Valley and coast desert drainage in Ger- 
man and British East Africa. Confined to isolated localities 
which are widely separated. 

The greater koodoo was first reported from British East 
Africa by Count Teleki, who obtained two in 1887, east of 
Lake Baringo, in the same district where Kermit Roosevelt 
obtained his specimens. Jackson early reported them from 
the coast district near the Taita Hills, and A. H. Neumann 
found a few in the hills near the south end of Lake Rudolf 
in 1895. Recently a few have been seen on the German 
border near the Southern Guaso Nyiro River. The present 
race was described from specimens shot by Kermit Roosevelt, 
at Donyo Gelasha, near Lake Baringo. 

Kermit was the only member of our party who came across 
the koodoo, the most beautiful of African antelopes. He 
found them east of Lake Baringo, in rough, dry, volcanic 
country. They were always found on rocky hills, covered 
with a jungle of thorn scrub and tree euphorbias. Usually 
they rested during the hot midday hours, but once Kermit 
came on two which were drinking in a stream exactly at 
noon. They were wary. The stomachs of the two which 
Kermit shot, a bull and a cow, were filled with grass; the 
beasts were grazing at the time. 

The East African race is similar to the Abyssinian race 
diora in the reduced number of body stripes, but decidedly 
darker in color on the median dorsal region, ear tips, and the 



450 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

bands on the pasterns. The pelage is longer and the white 
stripes are very distinctly marked. It is brighter-colored 
than the typical race from South Africa, the stripes being 
much more conspicuous although less in number. 

The coloration is ochraceous-tawny, but the median 
dorsal region is darker, being seal-brown with a white 
stripe following the vertebral column from the withers to 
the rump. The sides are marked by six or eight transverse 
white bands which extend from the median dorsal stripe 
to the ventral surface or lower sides. The under-parts are 
ochraceous with a broad blackish stripe extending medially 
on the breast. The groins and the inside of the legs are 
whitish and the front of the legs ochraceous. The band 
above the hoofs and the back of the pasterns are black, and 
the front of the pasterns are marked by a large blotch of whit- 
ish. The tail is tawny-ochraceous like the body, the tip 
darker walnut-brown, and the under side white. The neck 
is drab-gray, and the nape has a thin mane of long, dusky- 
brown hair, which is continued along the midline of the back 
to the tail. The throat has a long mane of brownish hair 
extending to the chest; the sides are buffy. The crown of 
the head is walnut-brown crossed on the snout by a wide 
diagonal white band from the eye, which meets its fellow on 
the snout. The sides of the face are ecru-drab and marked 
by two indistinct white spots below the eye. The lips and 
chin are white. The back of the ears is hair-brown, the ter- 
minal half being seal-brown, and the inside and base whitish. 
The female is usually longer-haired than the male and has 
the white body stripes more distinctly marked. The throat 
mane is absent and the dorsal mane is not so distinct. 

The koodoos found near Baringo are confined to a few 
square miles of country among rocky hills, and are widely sep- 
arated from any other group. One hundred miles north, near 
the south shore of Lake Rudolf, are a few others, while to the 
south the nearest ones occur on the German border near the 
Southern Guaso Nyiro River. Wide breaks of this sort, how- 
ever, are characteristic of the distribution of the greater koo- 
doo, owing, no doubt, to the isolated nature of the hilly and 
rocky country which they select as their haunts. 

No flesh measurements are available. The skull of the 
adult male measures i6 inches in greatest length. The 




MAP 15 — DISTRIBUTION OF THE EAST AFRICAN RACE OF THE 
GREATER KOODOO 

1 Strepsiceros strepsiceros hea 
451 



452 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

horns of the male shot by Kermit Roosevelt measure 47 
inches along the curve. Ward records a specimen from 
East Africa having a horn length of 61 inches. 

The Bongo 

Boocercus 

Boocercus Thomas, 1902, Jnn. l^ Mag. Nat. Ilisi., vol. X, p. 309; type B. 
eurycerus isaaci. 

The genus was founded by Thomas on the character of 
the horned female in distinction to the hornless females of 
the genus Tragelaphus, to which it was formerly assigned 
under the supposition that the females were hornless. The 
horns are, moreover, much broader and heavier than in the 
bushbuck. The coloration is quite different from that of the 
most fully striped bushbucks, the pattern consisting of trans- 
verse white stripes without the longitudinal stripes found in 
the harnessed bushbuck. The tail is bovine like that of the 
eland, not bushy as in the bushbuck. In the horned char- 
acter of the female, the striped body, and bovine tail, the 
bongo resembles the eland and may be considered its forest 
representative. Only a single species is known, which ex- 
hibits wide, discontinuous distribution. 

The genus occurs on the West Coast of Africa from the 
mouth of the Congo River north along the Guinea coast to 
Sierra Leone, and again appears in the highlands of Brit- 
ish East Africa, where it ranges from the Mau Escarpment 
to Mount Kenia. 

Bongo 

Boocercus eurycerus isaaci 

Native Names: Kikuyu, ndongoro; 'Ndorobo, stroya. 

Range. — Highland forest of British East Africa from 
the Mau Escarpment eastward through the Kikuyu Escarp- 
ment and the Aberdare Range to Mount Kenia. Not found 
below an altitude of six thousand feet. 

The bongo was originally described by Ogilby as early as 
1836, from a pair of horns of unknown origin. The color- 
ation was not, however, known until 1861, when Du Chaillu 
described it from a skin which he had obtained in the forests 



BUSHBUCKS, KOODOOS, AND ELANDS 453 

of the Gaboon, some distance north of the mouth of the 
Congo River. He gave it the name albo-virgattus, supposing 
it to be new to science. Although it was already named, he 
was the first to describe it fully and give it a definite local- 
ity. We owe also to Du Chaillu the name bongo, by which, 
he states, it is known to the natives of the Gaboon. Even 
at the present day the typical race is represented in museums 
by only a half-dozen skins, none of which are female, so 
that direct evidence is still lacking concerning the horned 
character of the female in the West African race. The race 
appears to be very local on the West Coast. Specimens have 
been secured in isolated localities north of the Gaboon on 
the Gold Coast, in Liberia, and In Sierra Leone. The first 
specimen secured in East Africa consisted of a pair of horns 
from the Ravine Station, on the Mau Escarpment, ob- 
tained from the native bushmen dwelling in the forest and 
sent by Jackson to the British Museum In 1897. They were 
erroneously identified by Sclater as horns of the nyala, a 
buck not known to occur north of the Zambesi drainage. 
In 1902 Isaac, who was then stationed at Ravine, obtained 
from the natives both skulls and skins, and these enabled 
Thomas to identify the animal positively. Recently sports- 
men have made special efforts to obtain specimens, but the 
bongo is so secretive and keen-sensed that very few have 
been successful. Specimens obtained from the 'Ndorobo, 
who catch them occasionally in pits, are not rare, and many 
of these are now in collections. 

Although in company with Lord Delamere and a number 
of ^Ndorobo friends of Delamere's we hunted several days 
for bongo, and followed their fresh trails for hours, the only 
member of our party who saw them was Kermit, who killed 
two, an adult cow and a half-grown one. Mr. George Grey 
(whose own lamentable death by a lion Is elsewhere re- 
corded) soon afterward killed a bull, which he most kindly 
presented to us, so as to complete the group for the Smith- 
sonian. When mounted, the label is to record the fact that 
he is the donor of the bull. 



454 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

The bongo is intermediate in size and bodily character- 
istics between a bushbuck and an eland. It is also in some 
respects intermediate in habits; like the former, it haunts 
dense cover, and, like the latter, is found in herds. But it 
differs markedly from both in many other respects. It is 
a beast of the dense forests and high timber; among big 
beasts its haunts are shared only by the forest hog and the 
leopard. The leopard preys on the young of both the hog 
and the antelope; but it does not attack the adult hog, and 
never meddles with an adult bongo — an animal as large as 
an Alderney cow, both sexes of which carry long and sharp 
horns. 

The dense, dark, wet forests in which the bongo dwells 
are filled with a mass of undergrowth — bushes, bamboo, 
plants of various kinds. It is impossible to see more than 
a few yards through this growth, and almost impossible for 
a man to traverse it noiselessly; whereas the bongo runs 
through it at speed and most often in a crouching position, 
getting under low limbs and through narrow openings in a 
way astounding for so big an animal. It is exceedingly shy 
and wary, and is such an adept in skulking, hiding, running, 
and watching that even the 'Ndorobo, the wild, naked hunt- 
ers of the dense forests, find it very difficult to kill; while 
only half a dozen white men, or even fewer, have ever shot it. 

We did not find the bongo nocturnal. The 'Ndorobo, 
with whom we hunted, said they never fed at night. We 
came across one solitary bull and four herds, and followed 
their trails for hours, studying what they did. The bull, 
and three of the four herds, lay down and rested in the 
middle of the day, and fed as they moved slowly forward 
through the forenoon and the afternoon. The fourth herd 




EAST AFRICAN BO.N'GO, MALE 

From Mau Escarpment, B. E. A. 
Presented by W. N. McMillan to the United States National Museum 




EAST AFRICAN ELAND, YOUNG MALE, DOMESTICATED 

Meru Station, Mt. Kenia 

BONGO AND ELAND FROM EAST AFRICA 



BUSHBUCKS, KOODOOS, AND ELANDS 455 

continued feeding, without lying down, from the middle of 
the forenoon, when we struck their tracks, until the middle 
of the afternoon, when we unfortunately alarmed the 
animals, whereupon they went straight up the mountain 
and over the rim rock. We twice found the night beds of a 
herd, which, as our 'Ndorobo trailers pointed out, had been 
occupied for the whole preceding night. It was cold, rainy 
weather, and the dark of the moon; perhaps they might 
feed under the full moon, and in better weather. They do 
not graze, but browse, cropping the leaves, flowers, and twigs 
of various shrubs, and eating thistles and the flowering tops 
of certain rank plants; the stomachs of Kermit's specimens 
contained leaves from a vine allied to the common grape, 
Cissus. The 'Ndorobo said they sometimes broke branches 
with their horns, and sometimes scored the earth with them. 
They wear deep trails through the gloomy mountain forests 
in which they dwell; these trails converge toward the rapid, 
foaming brooks which run between the steep, thickly 
wooded spurs of the mountains. 

The bongo resembles closely the typical species of West 
Africa, but appears to be larger and darker colored and per- 
haps marked with a few less transverse stripes. No exact 
comparison, however, can be made at present, owing to the 
lack of specimens from West Africa available for examina- 
tion. 

The color of an adult male is bright burnt-sienna or 
chestnut, the body marked by twelve to fourteen conspicu- 
ous white bands from the dorsal mane to the lower sides. 
The stripes cover the area from the base of the neck to the 
base of the tail. Along the median dorsal region extends a 
thin mane of black hair crossed at intervals by the white 
bands. The tail is burnt-sienna like the back above with 
a narrow band of white below and a long tuft of black hair 
at the tip. The breast and belly are solid black. The 



456 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

groins are white, the white extending in a narrow hne to the 
base of the tail and continued as a broad band down the front 
of the leg to the hoof, but interrupted by the dark hock-band 
and the band at false hoofs. There is a white bar on the inside 
of the forelegs followed below on the inside by a black one, and 
a white bar behind the knee and another on the front of the 
pasterns; the rest of the foreleg is black. The neck is dark 
seal-brown on the nape and black on the median line of the 
throat. The lower throat is marked by a wide transverse band 
of white. The crown of head is chestnut and the interorbital 
region black with broad white chevrons extending from the 
eye. The snout is black on the top and the sides to the throat. 
The lips and chin are white, and the orbital region and area 
below the eye are tawny. The sides of the cheek behind the 
eye are marked by two large white spots. The ears are large 
and broad; the back chestnut, the outside edge and terminal 
half black, and the inside white. There is much variation 
in the extent of the black. In some males only the throat 
is blackish, the nape being chestnut. The female has the 
same pattern of color as the male, but is brighter red, the 
body being Mars-brown and the dorsal mane chiefly white. 
There is much less black than in the male, the nape being 
without black, the legs being chiefly reddish and only the me- 
dian line of the belly is black. Newly born young have the 
color pattern of the adults, but the body is rich tawny and the 
dark areas are much suppressed. The tail is not bovine as 
in the adult but bushy throughout as in the koodoo, the tip 
being without a longer tuft. The muzzle and the median ven- 
tral stripe are hair-brown and the dorsal mane is white. Eight 
skins have been examined, six of which are adult males. The 
body stripes show considerable variation, and range from 
eleven to fourteen, and also show variations of number on 
the two sides. Twelve stripes seem to be the normal number. 

Most of the specimens secured from natives come from 
the Mau forest west of Njoro, but the bongo has also been 
obtained in the Kikuyu forests near Escarpment Station 
and in the forest on the south slope of Mount Kenia. 

The female shot by Kermit Roosevelt near Njoro meas- 
ured in the flesh: Sif^ inches in length of head and body; 
tail, I4>:4 inches; ear, I2>^ inches; and height at the withers, 
44 inches. The skull of a large male measures in length 
17 inches, that of the adult female 1 5 inches. The horns of the 




MAP 16— DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES OF THE BONGO 

1 Boocercus eurycerus eurycerus 2 Boocercus eurycerus isaaci 

457 



458 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

female are 20 inches, those of the largest male In a series of 
three specimens 28^2 inches. Ward's record male is 36^ 
inches in length of horns. 

Eland 

Taurotragus 

Taurotragus Wagner, 1855, Schreber's Saiigethiere, Suppl., vol. V, p. 439; 
type, T. oryx Pallas. 

In the eland the horns are present in both sexes, curved 
in a close spiral, and marked by a prominent rounded keel 
which is most pronounced basally. The horns usually exceed 
the head in length, and are heaviest in the male but longer 
in the female. The skull has practically no characters, the 
two species differing more from each other in shape and rela- 
tive sizes of the lachrymal, nasal, and premaxillary bones than 
do the other genera of the Tragela-phince. The body size is 
large, about equalling the ox, but the legs are more slender 
and the neck deeper. A dorsal mane extends from the head 
to the shoulders. The lower throat is adorned by a pendent 
dewlap which is best developed in the male. The hair on 
forehead becomes lengthened and bushy in old males. The 
tail reaches the hocks and is tufted. Both sexes are marked 
on the body by from ten to sixteen narrow white transverse 
stripes which become obsolete in old males. The inside of 
the foreleg above the knee is marked by a dark transverse 
bar and the breast and the belly along the median line are 
marked by a broad blackish band. The living species are oryx 
and derbiafius, both having one or more geographical races. 

The eland ranges in Africa from the Senegal and Gambia 
watersheds, the western affluents of the White Nile, Uganda 
and British East Africa from Gondokoro and Mount Elgon 
southward to the Cape region. They occur on open veldt 
and bush-covered country within a vertical range from sea- 
level to eight thousand feet. One Pliocene species is known 
from India and a later Pleistocene species from Algeria. 
The genus Paleoreas, which ranged from the Miocene to 
the Pliocene, is quite distinct, but shows the short rostrum 
of derbianus. It had, however, nearly vertically directed 
horns, like those of the koodoo, extending directly above 
the eyes. 



BUSHBUCKS, KOODOOS, AND ELANDS 459 



Key to the Species of Taurotragus 

Ears broad and rounded with a black bar on inside of hinder margin; 
mane on nape black, long and extended, covering 
whole nape and sides of neck; throat fringed by a 
narrow mane; a white bar across lower throat; 
cheeks with two large white spots; fetlocks banded 
in front by a black bar; horns very long, twice length 
of head; rostral part of skull short. derbianus 

Ears narrow and pointed, without a dark bar on inside; mane on neck 
when developed only covering nape and never black 
in color; no white throat bar or cheek spots; legs uni- 
formly colored on outer side; horns short, not greatly 
exceeding length of head; rostral part of skull elon- 
gate, oryx 

The Giant Eland 

Taurotragus derbianus gigas 

Native Names: Bari (Swaka), tukectuk; Bong Bong, boroku; Ojeng, qual- 
qual; Djur, adjur; Dor, newarreh. 

Boselaphus gigas Heuglin, 1863, Nova Acta Acad. Leop., vol. XXX, p. 19, 
pi. I, fig. 2 (horns). 

Range. — So far as known the giant eland is confined 
to the Bahr-el-Ghazal and Lado Enclave Provinces of the 
Egyptian Soudan. It is limited to the western drainage of 
the Bahr-el-Jebel Nile, extending roughly from the vicinity 
of Rejaf northward to the Bahr-el-Ghazal River and its 
continuation the Bahr-el-Arab; westward it reaches Dem 
Zubeir in the Dar Fertit country. The distributiouris lim- 
ited to the eastward by the Nile and northward by its 
chief western affluent, the Bahr el Ghazal; while westward 
the heights of the Nile watershed confine it. In this latter 
region, however, it extends to the very borders of the water- 
shed in the Niam-Niam country. 

Throughout this range it is distributed only locally and is 
so rare that it is a very difficult species to obtain. From the 
typical race inhabiting Senegal it is separated by a distance of 
two thousand miles, the whole drainage system of the Niger 
intervening. The two races are so similar that such isola- 
tion must be very recent. The case is somewhat paralleled 



460 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

by that of the white rhinoceros, which has the same range in 
the Bahr el Ghazal, but is widely isolated from its very 
close ally the southern white rhinoceros of South Africa. 

The giant eland was discovered by Martin Theodore von 
Heuglin during his travels in the White Nile region in 1863. 
He described the species from a pair of horns collected 
somewhere near the present position of Wau, probably 
east of it. Later, in 1874, Doctor Georg Schweinfurth pub- 
lished the account of his travels in the Bahr-el-Ghazal 
region in which he referred to the eland occurring about the 
Lehssy River and the village of Sabby in the same vicinity. 
During the last fifteen years specimens have been shot in the 
Bahr el Ghazal by various sportsmen, notably by Colonel 
Sargeant Boardman, Captain Haynes, Leo Franco, Cap- 
tain H. R. Headlan, "Bimbashi" Collins, and Prince E. 
Demidoff. More recently Colonel Roosevelt and his son 
Kermit shot three specimens in the Lado Enclave, and very 
recently F. C. Selous secured a female near Wau. The 
species, in 1894, was confounded with the common eland 
by Sclater and Thomas in the "Book of Antelopes," no 
skins at that time being preserved in any museum, the 
horns alone being represeni^ed. In April, 1905, Mr. A. L. 
Butler published in the Proceedings of the Zoological Soci- 
ety color descriptions of the two specimens shot by "Bim- 
bashi" Collins, and pointed out the close agreement of these 
with the Derby eland. Later in the same year the Honor- 
able Walter Rothschild published in Novitates Zoologicae 
a colored figure of a mounted head in the Cairo Turf Club 
with a note indicating the close relationship of this form 
and derbianus. 



The giant eland has the regular eland horns, although 
very much magnified, but otherwise it resembles a bongo 
almost as much as it does the common eland. It frequents 
open country, covered by a growth of thorn scrub, its haunts 
being much more like those of the common eland than like 
those of the bongo; but it breaks the higher branches with 
its horns like a bongo, something which we happen never 



BUSHBUCKS, KOODOOS, AND ELANDS 461 

to have known the common eland to do. These branches 
are broken to get at the leaves; we found them broken at a 
height of seven or eight feet, and the crack of the breaking 
was one of the sounds for which we Hstened as we followed 
the tracks of a herd. The stomach of one of the animals 
Kermit shot contained the leaves and pods of a small bean- 
tree, Lonchocarpus laxifiorus, and the leaves of the shea 
butter-tree, Butyrospermum parki, specimens of which were 
preserved by Kermit. 

The country in which we found the giant eland was at 
that time very dry. The flats of endless dust-colored thorn 
scrub, which hid everything at a distance of one or two 
hundred yards, were broken by occasional ranges of low, 
ragged hills. In the empty watercourses the holes were 
many miles apart. The thorn scrub was varied by occa- 
sional palms and patches of bamboo, and more often by 
trees with bright green leaves and large bean pods. The 
elands which we killed had been browsing on the bean pods 
and leaves of this tree, and of another less conspicuous tree. 
They had not been grazing. They drank at some pool 
before dawn, and then travelled many miles into the heart 
of the parched flats, browsing as they went. Before noon 
they halted, standing or more often lying down, in the scanty 
shade of some clump of thorn trees. By mid-afternoon 
they again moved off, feeding. They walked fast, and when 
alarmed went at a slashing trot. 

They were far more wary than the roan, hartebeest, and 
other buck found in the same locality. They were found in 
herds of from ten to thirty or forty individuals; the old 
bulls, as with all gregarious antelopes, were frequently 
solitary. The coloring of both the giant eland and the roan 



462 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

antelope harmonized well with the dry landscape, and they 
were more difficult to make out than the hartebeests. 

These eland are said speedily to leave a district if they 
are harassed by hunters. They wander far, their wandering 
being sometimes seasonal and sometimes due to individual 
vagaries. It is said that in the rainy season, when the grass 
is thick and tall, they are often killed by lions, which are 
then able to get so close as to seize them by the head; but 
that in the dry season few are killed by lions because then 
the big cat can rarely make his rush from such a short dis- 
tance as to insure a grasp of the head, while the quarry is 
so huge and strong that if seized elsewhere it can generally 
break away. 

The giant or Nile Derby eland differs from the typical 
race from the Senegal region chiefly by lighter color in the 
bull, the females of the two races being quite similar in color 
and size. In the Derby eland the old bull has the neck 
covered by long black hair, but in the Nile race the lower 
sides and throat lack the long black hair; this part being 
covered by thin grayish hair like the sides. The material 
available of the Derby eland, however, is very scanty. The 
only specimens examined were a male and female skin at 
the British Museum. The Nile race is much better repre- 
sented in collections and it is quite certain that uniformly 
black-necked bulls such as the Derby eland at the British 
Museum do not occur in the Nile district. The most 
heavily maned bull examined is that shot by Colonel 
Roosevelt in the Lado. The long black hair covers the 
whole nape in this specimen and extends half-way down on 
the sides. The younger bull from the same locality shows 
only a narrow dorsal mane on the nape. 

The old bull shot by Colonel Roosevelt has the ground- 
color of the body vinaceous-buif which becomes on the shoul- 
ders and the hind quarters ochraceous-buff and on the lower 
sides merges gradually into the cream-buff of the under-parts. 
A white dorsal stripe of irregular width extends from the black 



BUSHBUCKS, KOODOOS, AND ELANDS 463 

mane at the shoulders to theloins and is contlnuedon the rump 
by a black stripe. The left side of the body and the back are 
marked by twelve, the right by eleven narrow transverse 
white stripes at irregular intervals, the stripes being continu- 
ous with the white dorsal stripe and often forking before join- 
ing, but below they do not extend on to the under-parts. The 
tail, above, is light tawny and the brush of long hair at the tip 
black; but below it is white, sharply defined on the sides 
against the tawny. The legs, on the outside, are ochraceous- 
buff to the fetlocks, which are marked by a broad blackish 
blotch on the foreleg and a fainter dusky one on the hind 
leg. The pasterns behind and both the main and the false 
hoofs are encircled by black, but the front of the pastern is 
white. The under-parts and the inside of the legs are cream- 
buff. The breast and the belly are marked by a broad seal- 
brown stripe which is narrowest on the chest but widens pos- 
teriorly and covers the whole median portion of the belly. 
The foreleg is marked by a broad black bar on the inside below 
the elbow. The whole nape, from the base of the skull to be- 
tween the shoulders, is covered by a broad mane of long black 
hair which extends half-way down to the throat on the sides 
of the neck, where it reaches its lowest point just in front of 
the shoulder. The individual hairs of the mane are four 
inches long, and black for three-fourths of their length, with 
the tip buff, but the hair so thin that the brown tips have no 
appreciable effect on the general blackness. The sides of the 
neck are drab, in contrast to the lighter sides of the head and 
body, and the dark area is bordered on the throat pos- 
teriorly by a wide band of white. The median line of the 
throat is fringed by a narrow mane of blackish hair inter- 
mixed with buffy, which forms at the lower part of the 
throat a short, pendent dewlap. The cheeks and upper 
throat are vinaceous-buff. The chin and upper lips are 
white. The cheeks are marked by a white spot below the eye 
and the throat by a similar one. The crown of the head has a 
slightly bushy mat of ferruginous hair extending from the 
horn bases to the interorbital region, where it is bounded 
by a white chevron stripe from the eye, but the stripes of 
the two sides do not meet on the snout, where they are 
separated by a broad black area which extends to the muzzle. 
The front of the muzzle and the area below the nostrils 



464 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

posteriorly to the upper lips are white; the nostrils them- 
selves seal-brown. The whiskers are black. The area above 
the eye is white with a dark blotch just below the horn base 
and the lower eyelid is white also. The occipital portion of 
the head and the back of the ears are ochraceous-buff. The 
terminal half of the ears is dark seal-brown and the inside 
of the ears is white with a broad seal-brown bar extending 
from the posterior border to the centre. 

The female shot by Kermit Roosevelt is colored like the 
male, but differs distinctly in lacking the great bushy mane 
of the nape, this structure being represented by a narrow 
median line of black hair. The bush on the forehead is 
quite wanting and the ground-color of the body is more 
reddish, being ochraceous-buff without the vinaceous tint 
except on the lower sides. The dorsal mane of black is 
continued along the entire length to the root of the tail, and 
is crossed by the white side stripes which number fourteen 
on the left side and fifteen on the right. The greater 
number of stripes found in this female is not a sexual color 
difference but merely an individual variation. The black 
blotch on the front of the fetlocks is more distinctly marked 
than in the male and the mane on the throat is shorter-haired, 
the dewlap being hardly evident. 

The coloration of the calf is not known, but it is without 
doubt similar to that of the female, as is the case in its near 
relative, the common eland. The younger male shot by 
Kermit Roosevelt is quite identical in color and mane 
characters with the female, although its horns were longer 
than those of the old bull. It is an animal just reaching 
maturity, the milk molars having only recently been shed. 
As age advances in the male, the mane on the neck is 
extended, working its way gradually down the sides of the 
neck; the body hair becomes thinner and more vinaceous; 
the stripes less distinct, some of them disappearing entirely; 
and the black bar in front of the fetlock grows fainter and 
smaller. The chief color differences of this species from 
the common eland are the white bar on the lower throat, 
the two white cheek spots, the great black mane on the 
nape and shoulders, the black bar on the front of the hocks, 
and the broad, black-tipped ears with a black bar on their 
inner side. Such color differences are merely a reversion to 




MAP 17 — DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES OF THE GIANT ELAND 

1 TauTotragus derbianus derbianus 2 Taurotragus derbianus gigas 

465 



466 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

those of the bongo, this animal being much less specialized 
than the common plains eland, which has lost much of its 
bush coloration and the broad ears which are a mark of such 
environment. 

The skull characters of the Nile race are not determina- 
ble at the present time, owing to lack of skulls of the typical 
race from Senegal for comparison. In skull formation the 
species differs greatly from its nearest ally, the common 
eland. It is an eland by horn shape and bodily proportions 
only, its skull structure being quite similar to that of the 
bongo and bushbuck. In agreement with the two latter, it 
has the short nasal and premaxillary bones and the wide 
lachrymal bone so distinctive of them. In the common 
eland these bones are greatly lengthened, giving the animal 
an elongate snout. The Nile eland is intermediate between 
the bongo and the common eland in both color and skull 
characters. These differences in structure and color have 
no doubt been brought about by the gradual effect of the 
plains environment on the common eland which has for- 
saken its ancient bush habitat and browsing habits for the 
open plains and a grass diet. Its coloration has reacted to 
this change in environment by becoming paler, less striped, 
and less spotted; its ears have grown narrow; the muzzle 
has become more elongate; the hoofs have lost their pointed 
character and become broad; and the forehead has de- 
veloped a great bushy mat of hair. 

In size the giant eland is practically equalled by the com- 
mon eland. The subspecific name has reference chiefly to 
the much greater length of the horns, which were the only 
available part of the animal for comparison at the time the 
race was named. The neck is considerably larger and deeper 
and the body somewhat longer than the common eland, which 
it exceeds but slightly in size. In the flesh the largest male 
measured 9 feet 2 inches in length of head and body; the 
tail had a length of 28 inches; the height at the shoulder 
was 5 feet 8 inches; the greatest girth of the neck was 5 feet 
6 inches and the girth of the chest immediately behind the 
foreleg was 8 feet. The adult female nearly equalled these 
dimensions in length and height but was much less in girth 
of neck and chest or bulk of body. The skull of the old 
male, which is the largest, measures in greatest length 18^ 



BUSHBUCKS, KOODOOS, AND ELANDS 467 

inches. That of the female is one inch shorter. Large 
skulls of the common eland are decidedly longer, being igy^ 
inches in length. 

The horns are curved in a wide open spiral and are 
quite distinct from the narrow spiral of the common eland; 
the keel is also higher and more pronounced in the former. 
In length they greatly exceed the common species, aver- 
aging a foot longer and are proportionately greater in 
girth. The young male had the longest horns of the 
three specimens shot near Rejaf. These measure 41 inches 
straight, or 47 inches along the curve of the keel, and equal 
the known record for the Nile race. The horn length in 
the old bull is somewhat less, being only 33^ inches 
straight and 45 inches along the curve. 

East African Eland 
Taurotragus oryx pattersonianus 

Native Names: Swahili, mpofu; Masai, osirua; Kikuyu, namu. 
Taurotragus oryx pattersonianus Lydekker, 1906, Field (London), vol. CVIII, 
P- 579- 

Range. — From German East Africa northward through 
British East Africa as far as the Lorian swamp and Lai- j^(^V^^l^ 
kipia Plateau west through Uganda and the west side of 
the Nile as far as Mongolia; altitudinal range from sea- 
level to eight thousand feet (slopes of Mount Kenia and 
Mau Escarpment). 

The eland has long been known to sportsmen in East 
Africa. It was recorded in central German East Africa 
as early as i860 by Speke and Grant. Owing to its wide 
distribution it has been met by almost every traveller who 
has visited the country. Recently the race from East 
Africa has been described as -pattersonianus by Lydekker, 
from a specimen secured by Colonel Patterson on the Lai- 
kipia Plateau north of Mount Kenia. 

This huge, stately antelope, the size of an ox, was no- 
where abundant in East Africa; but we found it fairly com- 
mon in the Sotik, on the Athi Plains, and along the Northern 
Guaso Nyiro. Everywhere it was a beast of the dry, open 



468 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

plains— both those that were bare of everything except grass, 
and those that were covered with a thin growth of scrub 
and dotted with clumps of thorn-trees. We have seen it in 
the edges of forest. Its ordinary gaits are a walk and a 
slashing trot. If not pressed hard this trot does not tire 
the animal, and it will go for many miles. When closely 
pressed or much alarmed it breaks into a gallop. A heavy 
old bull cannot keep up this gallop for a mile without ex- 
haustion; but the cows, the lighter bulls, and the young 
animals run hard, although not as fast as the smaller an- 
telopes. Of all African game eland are the easiest to ride 
down on horseback. We have rounded up a herd quite 
as easily as we could round up old-style Texan cattle. 

It has one characteristic seemingly inconsistent with its 
great size and lack of speed, and that is its extraordinary power 
of leaping. When startled, and beginning a run, the huge 
cows, and even the bulls, bound like gazelles, leaping clear 
over one another's backs. It is extraordinary to see such 
bulky, heavy-bodied creatures spring with such goat-like 
agility. It would seem that the mechanical reasons which 
make the trot their natural gait, and make their gallop 
slower and more tiring than the gallop of the oryx or harte- 
beest, would also limit their jumping powers; but such is 
not the case. They are heavier-bodied than the moose or 
wapiti, with huge necks and barrels, and pendent dewlaps 
and wrinkled neck skin; yet, for a few seconds after starting, 
they make high jumps of a type which wapiti rarely, and 
moose never, attempt. The wapiti, however, although their 
normal gait is also the trot, and although heavy wapiti bulls 
are speedily exhausted by a hard gallop, at least sometimes 
run faster than running blacktail deer — we have seen this 



BUSHBUCKS, KOODOOS, AND ELANDS 469 

ourselves — whereas the eland is at once left behind by fright- 
ened oryx or hartebeest — as we have, also, ourselves seen. 
The moose is even more of a trotter than either eland or 
wapiti. Young moose will occasionally gallop, not only 
when frightened, but even when at play; but the old animals 
practically never break their trot, except that, as we have 
been informed by entirely trustworthy hunters, when sud- 
denly and greatly startled they may plunge forward for a few 
rods in a kind of rolling run. We ourselves once saw the 
tracks where a big (although perhaps not quite full-grown) 
moose had thus plunged for a few jumps at a gallop. These 
very big and heavy species of antelope and deer evidently find 
the trot, and not the gallop, their natural-speed gait, whereas 
the smaller deer and antelope find the gallop equally natural 
— although the gerunuk trots fast and the Rocky Mountain 
blacktail proceeds by buck-jumps. The big zebra trots much 
more freely than the small zebra. From these examples it 
would seem natural to lay down the rule that increase in 
size and bulk tends to make the trot mechanically prefera- 
ble to the canter and gallop. But this does not apply to 
cattle: bison and buffalo, unlike eland and moose, always 
gallop when at speed; and the giraffe, which is bigger and 
heavier than any of the pure trotters, never trots at all, 
passing immediately from a walk to a canter or gallop. It 
all illustrates anew how limited our knowledge really is, and 
how cautious we must be in dogmatizing, or in glibly advanc- 
ing explanation theories of universal applicability. 

The flesh of the eland is good, perhaps better than that 
of any other antelope; although personally we sometimes 
thought Tommy and reedbuck equalled it. We do not think 
the flesh of African antelopes as good eating as the venison 



470 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

of wapiti, deer, prongbuck, and mountain-sheep; but it is 
hard to dogmatize in such matters, for much depends on the 
cooking, the cHmate, and the surroundings. The eland is 
by preference a grass-eater, and is usually fat, which makes 
him a godsend in the African land of lean animals. We also 
found eland eating aloe leaves. When the country is so 
parched that the eland's food consists of dry leaves from the 
thorn-trees, the flesh is poor and tasteless. 

On the whole, eland are warier than any other antelope. 
They are soft-bodied, and are disabled by a wound which 
would not cripple one of the smaller antelope or an American 
deer. So many trustworthy observers report that African 
antelope are tougher than the deer of the northlands that we 
suppose they must be right; in our own experience it hap- 
pened that we were not able to discern any difference be- 
tween them. 

We found eland in herds of from half a dozen to forty 
or fifty individuals, the two or three big bulls looming above 
the cows and young stock. We also occasionally came on 
bulls singly or in pairs. The very old bulls, called blue bulls 
because the hide shows through the thin hair, were usually 
solitary. They are so big and dark that we have known an 
entire safari mistake one for a rhino when seen a little way 
off in thin bush. Although so big, eland are less pugnacious 
than any other big antelope; why the eland, and to a less 
extent the koodoo, are so mild-tempered, when their small 
kinsfolk, the bushbucks, are such ferocious fighters, it is im- 
possible to say. Eland are easily tamed. Our own govern- 
ment should make a business of importing, taming, and train- 
ing them; and the African governments should do so at 
once. In a few generations they would be completely domes- 




SOUTH AFRICAN ELAND, MALE 

Showing absence of body stripes and white chevrons on snout 





EAST AFRICAN ELAND, MALE 

Shot by Theodore Roosevelt at Loita Plains 

Mounted by J. L. Clark 

THE SOUTH AND EAST AFRICAN RACES OF THE ELAND 



BUSHBUCKS, KOODOOS, AND ELANDS 471 

ticated ; they would give excellent food ; they could be used 
as draught-animals; and lack of water and the dire fly- 
borne cattle diseases of Africa would have no terror for them. 
They would be a great addition to the world's stock of 
domestic animals. 

Where we came across eland they were drinking every 
twenty-four hours. But there seems to be no reason to 
doubt the fact that in certain desert regions eland, like 
giraffe and oryx, go many months without water. How this 
is possible for so huge and fat a beast, in a climate of such 
intolerable dryness and heat, we cannot imagine. No prob- 
lem is better worth the study of competent field naturalists. 

The eland, like the roan- antelope, and the full-grown 
buck Grant gazelle, possesses a coat which harmonizes 
well with the general hue of the landscape in which it dwells. 
It lacks the bold face markings of the roan, and the face 
markings and body stripes of the oryx, and therefore, in 
spite of its size, is perhaps a trifle less conspicuous than either. 
The thin stripes on its coat have not the slightest effect in 
either concealing or revealing it; seen sidewise, its body is 
neither more nor less conspicuous than the unstriped body 
of a roan antelope. On a bare plain or when coming to 
water all these and all other big antelope are conspicuous. 
In gray, dry thorn scrub the eland is sometimes hard to make 
out from a distance, if it is not switching its tail. But, as a 
matter of fact, it rarely stands still for any length of time 
without switching its tail; the only elands we ever saw in 
what might be called forest, revealed themselves to us when a 
hundred yards off by the switching of their tails. We doubt 
whether the eland's color is of even the smallest use to it as 
against its natural foes. As wild dogs always hunt purely by 



472 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

scent and leopards only occasionally kill an eland calf, the lion 
is the only foe that need be considered. On the rare occasions 
when lions hunt by day they do sometimes use their eyes. 
Governor Jackson has described a party of lions hunting 
eland by sight. But, unless wounded, the eland, though far 
less conspicuous in color than zebra, hartebeest, or wilde- 
beest, and even than oryx or roan, makes no more effort to 
hide than any one of these, its constant companions. It 
never crouches or slinks, or seeks to take advantage of cover 
like a bushbuck or oribi. A herd rests like cattle, lying down 
or standing; and always there is some little play of ears or 
tail, sufficient to insure the attention of any beast of prey 
which is on the lookout in the neighborhood. Moreover, the 
elands lie down or stand resting during the heat of the day, 
when no beast of prey is abroad. In the morning and after- 
noon they are feeding; they then make no effort to hide, and 
are sure to be seen by any watchful foe which is trusting to 
its eyes for success. Ordinarily lion trust far more to nose 
than eyes, until close up, when the shade or markings of the 
coat becomes utterly unimportant. At night, especially on 
the very dark nights when the lion is boldest, probably his 
sense of smell is his only guide until he makes his final rush; 
and, in any event, on such a night all colors seem alike. 
Therefore, although the eland's coloring, like that of the wild 
ass or male Grant gazelle, is probably more concealing than 
that of any of the other antelopes or of the zebras, it has no 
effect whatever on the animal's habits, and probably in actual 
practice is of no consequence to it, one way or the other, as 
regards its foes. At any rate, the coloration is not a factor 
of survival value. The stripes, which closet theorists have 
treated as of concealing value in the eland, are of no con- 



BUSHBUCKS, KOODOOS, AND ELANDS 473 

cealing value whatever. They are probably gradually dis- 
appearing; they diminish the farther the animals are found 
from the probable original centre of development in the Middle 
African forests; and in the form farthest from this, the South 
African form, which has certainly been the last to be dif- 
ferentiated, the stripes have completely disappeared. This 
of course means that they have no concealing value such 
as to make them in even the slightest degree a factor 
in securing through natural selection the survival of the 
wearer under the conditions of the existing environment. 
The eland is certainly less plentiful than the other antelopes 
which possess a more advertising coloration; and it is more 
shy, and, instead of seeking to elude observation, prefers to 
station itself where it can detect its foes at a distance and 
run off. If the color of its coat were of benefit to it, it would 
certainly act so as to get that benefit, and this it never does. 
Evidently its coloration is an entirely negligible factor so far 
as its survival is concerned. 

The East African race differs very little from livingstonii 
of the Zambesi Valley. It may be distinguished usually by 
darker coloration and longer head, but the difference is 
merely an average affair. The race was based by Lydekker 
upon a specimen showing white chevrons on the snout and 
a narrow bush on the forehead. These characters are, how- 
ever, juvenile, and are as prevalent in the immature eland 
of Mashonaland as they are in British East Africa. The old 
males in East Africa have the entire forehead covered with 
a heavy mat of hair and lack the white chevrons bordering 
the mat on the snout, as do also the old males from the Zam- 
besi. Two bulls shot from the same herd on the Loita 
Plains by Colonel Roosevelt show both styles of coloration. 
The younger bull, which was a fully grown animal, had the 
narrow bush of hair on the forehead and white chevrons on 
the snout, while the aged bull of the same body size had the 



474 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

entire forehead covered by a heavy mat of long hair, with- 
out any chevrons on the snout. Old bulls of both races 
retain a few of the body stripes even in old age. The black 
stripe on the chest and belly of patter sonianus is usually lack- 
ing in livingstonii. Specimens of the South African eland 
from the Kalahari Desert and Cape Colony, however, lack 
the body stripes even in immaturity in males, as is well 
shown by specimens in the National Museum. The skulls 
from East Africa exceed in length those from the Zambesi, 
but are less in breadth. We may describe pattersonianus as 
a longer and more slender-headed race with darker-colored 
mane and body. 

The body color of an old male is usually ochraceous-buff , 
the hair often being so thin that the dark skin shows con- 
spicuously and gives it a bluish-gray appearance. The body 
is crossed by two or three faint white transverse stripes. The 
nape of neck is covered by a broad mane of long wood- 
brown hair extending half-way down the sides and ending 
at the withers in a stripe which is continued on the back to 
the rump. The tail is thin-haired and is buff above and 
white below, with a tuft of long black hair at the tip. The 
under-parts have a broad seal-brown stripe from the chest 
to the middle of the belly. The belly and the sides of the 
body are light buff. The forelegs are ochraceous-buff in front, 
and white behind, with a broad black bar above and behind 
the knee. The border of the hoofs and the back of the pas- 
terns are seal-brown. The hind legs are like the fore in color 
but lack the black band above the knee on the posterior side. 
The forehead is covered by an immense bush of thick hair, 
three inches in length and cinnamon-brown in color, bounded 
behind and above the eye by a black stripe and in front on the 
snout by buffy bases to the hair. The snout is seal-brown to 
the lips. The upper lips and chin are whitish and the chin is 
bordered behind by an indistinct drab bar. The sides of the 
head and the orbital region are buffy-drab. The ears on the 
back are buff, the tips seal-brown, and the inside and the base 
whitish. The base of the throat has a dewlap or bell covered 
by a short mane of ochraceous hair. Younger males lack the 
bush on the head, which is usually represented by a median tuft 
of long hair bounded in front by white chevrons ; the nape mane 
is also greatly reduced in extent and confined to a narrow line 




MAP 18 — DISTRIBUTION OF THE EAST AFRICAN RACE OF THE ELAND 

1 Taurotragus oryx pattersonianus 
475 



476 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

and the body color is more reddish. The body stripes are 
more numerous and distinct and the dark stripe on the 
belly and above the knee is more pronounced. Often the 
snout is marked by conspicuous white chevrons extending 
diagonally in front of the eyes. The adult female is like the 
immature male in color, but usually brighter. The body 
color is ochraceous-orange crossed by twelve white stripes 
extending from the very distinct black dorsal stripe half-way 
down on the sides. The under-parts and the belly are marked 
as in the male. The nape mane is reduced to a narrow line 
of wood-brown hair which merges on the withers into the 
broad black dorsal stripe. The forehead is without a mat 
of long hair or white chevron stripes, and the snout is 
buffy-drab, not blackish as in the male. The throat has 
a well-developed dewlap covered by long blackish and buffy 
hairs. Newly born young have the color pattern of the adult 
female minutely reproduced, and are furnished with a dew- 
lap on the throat. The snout has a dark blotch as in the 
male. 

Flesh measurements of the Zambesi eland are not avail- 
able for comparison, but, judging by the size of the skulls, the 
East African race is fully as large as the southern one. The 
flesh measurements of a large bull shot by Colonel Roosevelt 
on the Loita Plains were: head and body along curve of back, 
io6 inches; tail, 32 inches; hind foot, 29 inches; ear, io>< 
inches. An adult female measures 4 inches less in body, 
I inch less in length of tail, i>^ inches less in hind foot, and 3^ 
inch less in length of ear. The largest male in the National 
Museum has a skull length of I9>^ inches. The average 
skull in a series of twelve is 18 inches in length, and 8 inches 
in greatest breadth. The female skulls average 17 inches 
in length. The horns in the male are very much heavier 
or greater in diameter than in the female, but they do not 
average any longer. The longest-horned specimen in a series 
of eight from British East Africa in the National Museum is 
273^ inches straight or 35 inches measured on the curve. The 
average horn length in the male is 25 inches. All old males 
have the tips of the horns greatly worn, and shorter by almost 
a foot than those of the younger males. Ward's record for 
East Africa is a specimen shot by Jackson measuring 31^ 
inches straight. The spread at the tips is usually about 12 



BUSHBUCKS, KOODOOS, AND ELANDS 477 

inches, but the horn direction varies greatly, and specimens 
exceeding i8 inches in spread sometimes occur. 

The eland are to a considerable extent local in distribu- 
tion, but they inhabit widely different sorts of country, from 
dry desert bush to moist highland meadows. In East 
Africa they have been found in the low desert district near 
the Taita Hills by Jackson. Selous has found skulls as far 
north as the Lorian swamp in the midst of the northern 
desert. These no doubt represent the skulls of eland which 
have strayed down the Northern Guaso Nyiro River from 
its headwaters on the Laikipia Plateau and perished in 
the desert, as they are not known on the lower reaches of 
the river. In the Nile Valley they reach the east bank of the 
Nile, and are there only separated by the river from the 
territory occupied by the giant eland. Lydekker has sug- 
gested that in this region intermediate individuals might • 
be looked for, which would bridge the gap existing between 
the two species. Upon this point we can assure him that 
the difference in skull structure and shape of ears and 
horns are of too fundamental a character to permit such an f 
assumption. The region east of the Soudan station of / 
Mongolia in 6° north latitude marks the extreme northern 
limit of the East African eland in Africa. 



CHAPTER XVI 

THE WATERBUCKS AND REEDBUCKS 

Subfamily Kobince 

The members of the Kobince cover a wide range in body- 
size, from the large, stately waterbucks to the small rock 
reedbucks. The group includes the waterbucks, lechwis, 
kobs, reedbucks, and rock reedbucks and is characterized 
by low withers, absence of the anteorbital gland, and the 
presence of horns in the male only. The horns are usually 
curved forward and ringed for the greater part of their 
length. The skull is without anteorbital fossa but shows a 
large lachrymal-nasal sinus on the sides of the snout. The 
range of the subfamily covers the continent of Africa from 
the Cape region northward to the southern edge of the 
Sahara Desert in the Senegal, Lake Chad, and Abyssinian 
regions. This subfamily has been usually known among 
naturalists as the Cervicaprincs ; but, owing to the genus 
Cervicapra having been found untenable, the genus Kohus, 
being the best known and most typical, has been selected 
as the type. 

Key to the Genera 

Horns sweeping backward and upward or with tips curved forward 
Tail short and bushy; body size small; horns short and sharply 

hooked forward jV 

all; orbit, u\ 



Horns shorter than head; lachrymal-nasal sinus small; orbit. \) 
large Oreodorcas 

Horns longer than head; lachrymal-nasal sinus large; orbit 
small Redunca 

Tail long and tufted; size large; horns slightly curved forward, 
greatly exceeding the head in length Kobus 

478 



1 




WATERBUCKS AND REEDBUCKS 479 

Horns S-shaped, bowed forward at the base and then recurved at the 
tips 
Back of pasterns haired; hoofs short; snout slender; horns shorter 

and narrower; tail short, not reaching hocks, without hXr^ 
tuft; ears longer Adenota 

Back of pasterns hairless; hoofs long; snout short and bulging; 
horns longer, broadly lyrate; tail long, reaching hocks, 
tufted at tip; ears shorter Onotragus 

Rock Reedbucks 

Oreodorcas 

Oreodorcas Heller, 191 2, Smith. Misc. Coll., vol. 50, No. 8, p. 13; type 
species Redunca Julvornfula. 

The rock reedbuck shows no striking external differences 
from the true reedbucks with the exception of the much 
shorter horns, the drab body color and the more bushy- 
tail. The genus is based chiefly on the skull differences 
which consist of smaller lachrymal-nasal sinus, larger orbit, 
and the smaller size of the sphenoidal processes of the basi- 
occipital bone. Oreodorcas has habits strikingly different 
from the swamp or plains haunting reedbuck. It dwells 
upon rocky hillsides and mountain slopes on the edge of 
the plains country, in close proximity to the haunts of the 
klipspringer. The genus includes a single species, fulvo- 
rufula, which covers a wide range of country in the eastern 
portion of Africa extending from Cape Colony north to 
southern Abyssinia. Over this region it exhibits some geo- 
graphic variation which has given rise to the recognition of 
several races. 

Chanler Rock Reedbuck 
Oreodorcas fulvorufula chanleri 

Native Names: Kikuyu, katabidi; Wakamba, ndabidi. 
Cervicapra chanleri Rothschild, 1895, Nov. Zool., p. 53. 

Range. — British East Africa from the German border 
northward to southern Abyssinia in the Rift Valley and 
higher parts of the coast drainage areas. 



480 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

During his explorations in British East Africa in 1893 
Chanler secured the type specimen of the species which 
now bears his name. The type specimen was shot on the 
slopes of the Jombene Range, northeast of Mount Kenia in 
the Tana River drainage area. Upon its arrival in London 
at Rowland Ward's establishment, it was recognized as a 
new antelope and described by the Hon. Walter Rothschild 
before being sent to the United States National Museum. 

These delicate and graceful kinsfolk of the reedbuck 
were found among the stony hills and small mountains in 
many parts of East Africa. Usually we found the does and 
fawns in couples or small parties, and the bucks singly. 
They were shy and elusive, but not wary in the sense that 
the bigger antelopes were wary. They lived on the steep 
slopes, among rocks and bush, and fed on the grass, the hill 
plants, and the leaves and twig tops of certain of the 
shrubs, and if frightened fled in frantic haste to the thickest 
cover, on the roughest ground. When alarmed a buck will 
occasionally utter a sharp whistle to warn its companions. 

The East African race differs but little from the typical 
race of South Africa. It is distinguishable by its lighter 
and grayer color, showing little of the reddish tint seen in 
true fulvorufula; and also by the smaller body size and 
shorter horns. The dark streak on the snout which was 
used by the original describer as a character is a variable 
feature. In a series of twelve skins from British East 
Africa in the National Museum only six show a dark nose 
stripe, and in only two of these is it well marked. Oscar 
Neumann described the Abyssinian race as new in 1902, 
basing his difference principally upon the absence of the 
dark streak on the snout in his specimens from Lake Abaya, 
Abyssinia. This, however, has been shown to be a character 
of no value in chanleri. Specimens from Abyssinia examined 
at the British Museum showed no color or skull differences 
from British East African specimens by which they could be 
distinguished. 




MAP 19 — DISTRIBUTION OF THE EAST AFRICAN RACE OF THE ROCK 

REEDBUCK 

1 Oreodorcas Julvorufula chanleri 
481 



482 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

The head and neck are ochraceous and distinctly different 
in color from the drab-gray body. The body is suffused 
Hghtly by buffy-tipped hairs, but the rump and hind 
quarters are paler drab-gray. The hind legs are decidedly 
lighter than the body, being cartridge-buff in color. The 
forelegs are drab-gray in front and pale olive-gray behind, 
with buff pasterns. The under-parts are white, sharply de- 
fined on the sides, but less so on the inside of the legs and on 
the lower throat. The tail is drab-olive, the tip, sides, and 
under-surface clothed by long, white hairs. The head and 
fore neck are bright ochraceous, and the nose near the tip 
has a slightly darker hair-brown median streak. There is 
an ill-defined whitish area above the eye. The upper throat, 
chin, and lips are white. The ear on the back is ochraceous, 
and the inside and base are white. There is a large dark bare 
spot below the ear. The sexes are alike in color. Nursing 
young are quite identical to adults in color, the body being 
perhaps slightly grayer and decidedly longer-haired. 

The female equals or perhaps exceeds slightly the male 
in size, the largest skull in a series of fifteen being that of 
a female. The measurements of a large male in the flesh 
were: head and body, 45 inches; tail, S}i inches; hind foot, 
133/^ inches; ear, ^^4 inches. The greatest length of the 
skull is : male, 9 inches ; female, 9 iV inches. Longest horns in 
a series of seven are 5^ inches measured along the curve, s}i 
inches spread at the tips. 

Specimens have been examined from the Athi Plains 
taken on Wami Hill, the Ulukenia Hills, and Kilima Kui; 
from the Loita Plains, from Lake Elmentaita, from the 
Northern Guaso Nyiro near the Ngare Ndare branch, and 
from southern Abyssinia. 



Reedbuck 

Redunca 

Redunca H. Smith, 1827, Griffith's Cuvier Animal Kingdom, V, p. 337; 
type Antilope redunca Pallas. 

The well-known genus Cervicapra, by which the reed- 
bucks have long been known, has been recently replaced 



WATERBUCKS AND REEDBUCKS 483 

by Redunca. The genus Cervicapra founded by Sparrman 
in 1780 was based upon Antilope cervicapra^ the common 
black buck of India. Smith a half century later founded 
the genus Redu7ica for the African reedbucks, basing it upon 
Pallas's description of the Senegal species, A7itilope redtmca, 
and this term must now be employed for designating the 
genus instead of the more familiar term Cervicapra^ which 
applies only to the Indian black buck. 

The dorsal coloration is uniform yellowish, but the legs in 
some races have a dark stripe in front. The size is medium, 
the height at the withers not exceeding three feet, and the 
tail is short and bushy. The short horns are curved forward 
sharply, and are ringed for at least half their length. The 
false hoofs are well developed. There is a rounded bare 
spot below the ear on the side of the head. The reedbuck 
is most closely allied to the rock reedbuck, but differs from it 
externally by much longer and more strongly hooked horns, 
by the shorter-haired tail, and larger body size. The sexes 
show some slight color differences, the female being marked 
by a dark blackish crown-patch which is absent in the adult 
male but present in the immature. The female almost 
equals the male in size, the difference in size of skulls being 
very little. The nursing young are longer-haired and much 
darker than the adults, being a uniform olive-drab grizzled 
by blackish on the upper parts with the dark leg stripes 
only present on the front of the pasterns, and the bare spot 
below the ear indicated by a growth of short white hair. 
The skull exhibits in comparison with Oreodorcas much 
larger nasal-lachrymal sinus and sphenoidal processes to the 
basioccipital, a longer snout having premaxillary bones 
which do not reach the nasals, and a smaller orbit. Two 
species are included in the genus; a large fulvous one, 
arundinum, inhabiting South Africa, and a smaller yel- 
lower species, redujica, inhabiting equatorial Africa. Reed- 
bucks range from Cape Colony northward through the 
East Coast drainage area to the Zambesi, where it spreads 
west to Angola and thence north throughout the whole 
extent of the continent as far as the southern borders of the 
Sahara Desert in Senegal, the Nile region, and northern 
Abyssinia. The only fossil species known is from the Pleis- 
tocene of Algeria. 



484 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

The pretty reedbuck, which is about the size of a white- 
tail deer, was plentiful in the Uasin Gishu and in Uganda. 
It was strictly a beast of cover, and unlike all the water- 
buck and their allies it was not gregarious, being found 
singly or in couples — usually a doe and her fawn, more 
rarely a buck and a doe. Like the oribi and klipspringer it 
utters a shrill whistle of alarm or curiosity, totally distinct 
from the whistle of either of the others. In Uganda the 
reedbuck were not wary, and in certain places were so plen- 
tiful that on a given flat of tall grass we might find a score 
or two in fairly close proximity, so that they looked almost 
like a herd, scattered out to feed; but when alarmed each 
went its own way without regard to the others. They were 
grass feeders, and their flesh was excellent. They were 
never found far from water; in no case that we happened 
to come across were they more than three or four miles 
from a stream or pond. They lived in grass, and in patches 
of bush or reeds. In the daytime we usually came on them 
lying up in the reed beds or in hollows among the tall grass, 
so that they offered rather hard running shots or very long 
standing shots. Favorite resting-places in the Loita Plains 
district, were the deserted grass-grown Masai kraals from 
which they were on several occasions routed. When dis- 
turbed they usually bounded gracefully over the walls of 
the kraal and sought cover in the nearest reed bed. Often, 
however, we saw them feeding in the morning or afternoon, 
and then they were not very difficult to approach. When 
hiding they would often let us get to within a few feet of 
them before making a headlong rush through the reeds or 
grass. When put up by a line of beaters they would either 
run while the beaters were still a long way off, or else wait 




SOUTH AFRICAN REEDBUCK 
In the New York Zoological Park 




SWAHILI REEDBUCK 

Shot by Dr. L. W. Abbott 

Taveta Kilimanjaro, B. K. A. 

United States National Museum 



CHANLER ROCK REEDBUCK 

Shot by William A. Chanler 

Jombene Mountains, B. E. A. 

United States National Museum 



REEDBUCK 



WATERBUCKS AND REEDBUCKS 485 

until nearly trodden on. Occasionally reedbuck, like bush- 
buck, lie up for the day in patches of brush or reeds con- 
taining lions or hyenas. We put a doe out of a clump of 
reeds from which we also put out and killed two hyenas. 
Another pair were driven from a reed bed, an acre or two 
in area, from precisely the same part of which a big, maned 
lion was driven a few seconds afterward. Evidently the 
reedbuck in such cover feel confident that they can detect 
and avoid any hostile approach of their neighbors. We 
never heard of their lying in such cover in company with a 
leopard. 

Key to the Races of redunca 

Dorsal color light, tawny-ochraceous lined with black; pelage long 
Horns sharply hooked forward; color lighter wardi 

Horns short and without pronounced forward hook; color darker 

ugandcB 

Dorsal color light, ochraceous-buff, without black lining; pelage short 
Horns long and wide-spread, not hooked forward much cottoni 

Horns short and narrow; hooked forward at a sharp angle tohi 

Highland Reedbuck 

Redunca redunca zvardi 

Native Names: Masai, erongo; Luganda, njazza. 

Cervicapra redunca wardi Thomas, 1900, Ann. i^ Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 304. 

Range. — Highland region of British East Africa from 
the German border north to the Turkwell River and from 
the Victoria Nyanza east to the headwaters of the Athi 
and Tana Rivers. 

Oldfield Thomas described this race from specimens re- 
ceived from Rowland Ward. The types were collected by 
F. J. Jackson on the Mau Plateau, no doubt somewhere in 
the vicinity of Eldoma Ravine Station. 



486 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

The highland reedbuck is a dark-colored race, with long 
pelage and with short, sharply hooked forward horns. The 
dorsal region is heavily lined by black-tipped hairs on a 
tawny-ochraceous ground, the legs are marked in front 
by a broad, ill-defined blackish band, and the under-parts 
are white, sharply defined against the tawny of the dorsal 
surface. 

The measurements of an adult male in the flesh were: 
head and body, 53 inches; tail, 7>^ inches; hind foot, i6>^ 
inches ; ear, 6 inches. Greatest length of largest skull : male, 
io>< inches; female, 9^8 inches. The longest horns meas- 
ure loX inches on the curve and 9^ inches in greatest 
spread, in a series of nine males. The specimens examined 
were collected in the Uasin Gishu Plateau, on the Mau 
Escarpment at Molo, Lake Elmentaita, the Amala River 
near the German border, the Athi Plains in the vicinity of 
Nairobi, and from the Maanja River of central Uganda. 

Nile Reedbuck 
Redunca redunca cottoni 

Native Names: Dinka, kao; Bari, bore. 

Cervicapra redunca cottoni Rothschild, 1902, In Powell-Cotton's " Sporting 
Trip Through Abyssinia," p. 470, two figures of skull and horns. 

Range. — The Nile Valley from the Sobat River and 
Bahr el Ghazal southward in Uganda as far as the Albert 
Nyanza and the Victoria Nile. 

The type of this race was collected by Major Powell- 
Cotton in the lowlands of the Nile between the main river 
and the branch known as the Bahr el Zeraf. It was de- 
scribed in 1902 by Walter Rothschild in an appendix to 
Powell-Cotton's "Sporting Trip Through Abyssinia," to- 
gether with another race, do7ialdso?ii, from a point midway 
between the head of Lake Rudolf and the Nile. The latter 
race, however, is indistinguishable in horn shape and color- 
ation, and must be regarded as a synonym of the race first 
described. 

The Nile reedbuck is readily distinguishable from other 
equatorial races by its wide-spread horns. The horns spread 
outward, the expanse usually exceeding the length, and the 



WATERBUCKS AND REEDBUCKS 487 

tips are hooked forward but little. The coloration is light, 
without the black lining so characteristic of wardi, the gen- 
eral dorsal color being ochraceous-buff. The stripe extend- 
ing down the front of the leg is pale, usually mouse-gray in 
color. The horn dimensions of a large male shot at Nimule 
are: length along curve ii3/^ inches, greatest spread 9 inches. 
Another large male collected by Donaldson Smith between 
Lake Rudolf and the Nile has longer and wider-spread 
horns, the dimensions being \\y^ inches in length, and 15 
inches in expanse. 

SWAHILI ReEDBUCK 

Redunca redunca tohi 

Native Name: Swahili, tohi. 

Redunca redunca tohi Heller, 1913, Smith. Misc. Coll., vol. 61, No. 7, p. 10. 

Range. — The moist coast belt from the Tana River 
southward to Kilimanjaro and German East Africa, but not 
occurring farther inland than the edge of the desert nyika. 

The Swahili reedbuck is local in distribution and of rare 
occurrence. It is found along the railway only at Maria- 
kani, where the type and several other specimens were 
secured in 191 2 by Heller. It occurred in this district in 
the grassy valleys and hillsides in groups of three or four 
consisting of an old female and two or three offspring of 
various ages. No adult bucks were seen. Usually they 
were found lying down in the long grass, and were not de- 
tected until bounding away in great bounds over the grass. 
Sometimes when startled they uttered their peculiar sharp 
bark or bleat. 

The Swahili reedbuck differs from wardi by smaller size; 
the basal length of skull being only 9 inches. The colora- 
tion is lighter and purer tawny, the black lining on the 
dorsal surface being much less evident. The dark leg streaks 
are much narrower or obsolete. The pelage is shorter and 
thinner, the length on the back being only three-fourths 
of an inch. 

The color is tawny and purest on the sides and the legs, 
the dorsal region being darkest owing to the prevalence of 
black-tipped hairs, which are absent on the sides and the 
limbs. The crown of the head is marked by a dusky-brown 



488 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

patch between the ears and the midUne of the snout is 
speckled by dusky. The sides of the head are pure yellow- 
ochre, but the orbital area is lighter buff in color. The chin 
and the upper throat are cream color. The back of the ear 
is much darker than the body, the general effect being snuff- 
brown, but the hair covering itself is tawny. The inner side 
and the base of the ears including the bare spot are cream- 
buff. The legs are ochraceous-buff with a narrow, dusky- 
brown stripe in front from the hoofs to the shoulder on the 
forelegs, but only reaching half-way to the hocks on the 
hind legs. The tail is tawny above, and white below, with 
the tip chiefly white. The under-parts are pure white, and 
sharply defined on the sides against the tawny-ochraceous; 
the white reaches as far forward as the chest, and also ex- 
tends as a narrow line down the inside of the legs. 

An adult female specimen measured in the flesh : 49 inches 
in length of head and body; tail, 7K inches; hind foot, I5>^ 
inches; ear, 6 inches. Greatest length of skull, 9>4 inches. 

Besides the specimens from the type locality, others have 
been examined from Taveta, on the east slope of Kiliman- 
jaro, collected by Doctor L. W. Abbott. Three of these 
specimens are males, and exhibit short, narrow, and sharply 
hooked horns, by which they are distinguishable from the 
larger-horned wardi. 

Ankole Reedbuck 

Redunca redunca Uganda 

Cervicapra bohor Uganda' Blaine, 1913, Jnn. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist., II, p. 291. 

Range. — Highlands of Ankole, southwestern Uganda. 

Mr. Gilbert Blaine has recently described from the 
highlands of Ankole in southwest Uganda a new race of 
reedbuck differing from zi>ardi by its shorter, less-hooked 
horns, and darker and browner color. Specimens in the 
National Museum, collected in central Uganda from the 
Maanja River, are not distinguishable from wardi from 
the Uasin Gishu Plateau either in color or horn shape. The 
three males from the Maanja River have their horns sharply 
hooked forward as in typical wardi. The form described as 
ugandcs may be a local race confined to the Ankole highlands 
while central and eastern Uganda is occupied by wardi. 




MAP 20 — DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES OF THE REEDBUCK 

1 Redunca reduiica tohi 2 Redunca redunca zvardi 3 Redu?:caredunca Uganda 

4 Redunca redunca cottoni 5 Redunca redunca bohor 

489 



490 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 



Waterbucks 

Kobus 

Kobus A. Smith, 1840, Illus. Zoology S. Africa, pt. VII, pi. XXVI; type 
K. ellipsiprymnus. 

The waterbucks form a well-marked genus of large- 
sized antelopes having long, heavily ringed horns sweeping 
backward, with a slight forward curve at the extreme tips. 
The withers are low and the body is covered by a coat of 
long, coarse hair. In size and carriage they resemble the 
European stag or the American elk, but in habits they 
are more permanently gregarious and less forest-haunting. 
They are approached closely in size within the subfamily 
only by the lechwis from which they are at once distin- 
guishable by the difference in horn shape, and the well- 
haired nature of the feet, the back of the pasterns being 
hairy. Waterbuck have a peculiar odor due to a glandular 
excretion from the skin. The skull is distinguishable by 
the flatness or depressed condition of the interorbital area, 
the large, hypsodont teeth, and the large sinuses in front 
of the orbit between the nasal bones and the lachrymal. 
Several fossil species are known from the Pliocene of India, 
China, and Algeria. The genus to-day occurs only in 
Ethiopia, or Africa south of the Sahara. It is found from 
Senegal and the Abyssinian highlands south throughout the 
whole continent as far as the Limpopo River, but is un- 
known in the Cape Colony proper. Two closely allied 
species, separable only by coloration differences, are com- 
prised in the genus. 

Key to the Species of Kobus 

Posterior surface of hind quarters white, in sharp contrast to the dark 
coat; tail tuft and legs from knee and hocks blackish seal- 
brown; coat often suffused with reddish; body size larger 

defassa 

Posterior surface of hind quarters marked on sides of rump by a wide, 
white, elliptical-shaped stripe, connected below with the 
white of the posterior surface of hind quarters but meeting 



WATERBUCKS AND REEDBUCKS 491 

across the rump, completely encircling the tail; tail tuft and 
legs not conspicuously darker brown than the body; body 
size smaller, coat without reddish suffusion 

ellipsiprymnus 

The Defassa Waterbuck 
Kobus defassa 

The defassa waterbuck is a singularly graceful buck with 
elk-like carriage and a long, rough coat of hair. It is some- 
what larger than the common waterbuck which it resembles 
closely in color, differing, however, by lacking the white 
elliptical stripe on the sides of the rump, and by its darker 
legs and more reddish body color. The sexes are very sim- 
ilar in size, the female being scarcely inferior to the male. 
The newly born young are without the distinctive white 
patch on the posterior surface of the thighs, the brown of 
the sides extending on to the hinder surface and merging with 
the whitish color of the inner surface. The legs are lighter 
than the body, not darker as in the adults. The defassa 
breaks up into a great number of geographical races which 
are distinguishable by slight differences in tone of colora- 
tion. The earliest described race is the defassa named by 
the Abyssinian explorer Riippell in 1840. Riippell described 
it under its native Abyssinian name of defassa. Another 
name which is often applied to this group is that of sing-sing 
used by the natives of Gambia for the West African race of 
the defassa. The typical defassa was met with by Riip- 
pell in the Abyssinian highlands near the shores of Lake 
Tana. It is one of the brightest-colored races, and has a 
large amount of reddish in its coloration. The defassa as a 
species is wide-spread throughout West and Central Africa, 
but nowhere does it reach the East Coast, its eastern limits 
being marked by the great Rift Valley, which extends from 
the Red Sea to Lake Nyasa. West of the Rift Valley the 
defassa ranges from the Abyssinian highlands and the south- 
ern edge of the Sahara Desert south to Angola and the Zam- 
besi Valley as far west as Lake Nyasa. 

This stately, shaggy-coated creature is close kin to the 
common waterbuck, differing chiefly in its white rump. 



492 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

On the average we found its horns longer, but this may be 
merely an accident of geography, for locality has much to 
do with the size of an antelope's horns, no matter what the 
species — and, extraordinary to say, the horns of one species, 
say the impalla, may be less than the average size in a 
region where the horns of another, as the waterbuck, may 
be larger. It seems curious, inasmuch as so many African 
antelope have short and even rather thin coats, to find these 
marsh-loving, thicket-haunting waterbuck, dwelling right 
under the equator, with coats as long and shaggy as those of 
northern deer. 

From Lake Naivasha westward we found the defassa; 
and from the Nyanza Lakes it extended down the Nile to 
the mouth of the Sobat. Everywhere the waterbucks were 
gregarious, and, therefore, polygamous, a heavy bull ac- 
companying each herd of cows and young. The exact 
habitat in which they were found varied in rather astonish- 
ing manner. Around Lake Naivasha their home was in 
the dense papyrus beds which fringed the lake. The high, 
close-growing stems of the huge reeds formed a well-nigh 
impenetrable cover, save where the waterbuck had trodden 
out their trails. These made a network, a labyrinth which 
extended almost, but not quite, to the lake's edge, meeting 
and being crossed by the broader hippo trails which, of 
course, did go down to — or rather come up from — the 
water's edge. When alarmed the herds at once fled to the 
papyrus for protection, and loud was the noise as they 
crashed and crowded along the trails, splashing through the 
mud and water while the dead stalks cracked and popped. 
These reeds were merely their refuge and resting-place, and 
held no food for them. They fed outside them, grazing in 



WATERBUCKS AND REEDBUCKS 493 

the wet meadows, and in the glades among the masses of 
vine-draped trees and bushes. They fed at all hours of the 
day and night. We saw a small party of cows feeding on 
an absolutely treeless stretch of wet meadow at noon. We 
found a herd feeding in the glades among thick clusters of 
trees in mid-forenoon, and another herd in the mid-after- 
noon. We also found them grazing by moonlight. 

In the Lado we did not find the waterbuck in the papy- 
rus, but out among the thin groves of scantily leaved acacias, 
often many miles away from the Nile or from any water 
save small ponds, in practically the same localities fre- 
quented by the Nile hartebeests. Indeed, we often found 
the species together. When alarmed these waterbuck sim- 
ply galloped off among the thickets, not heading for the reed 
beds, even if these were near by. In the Uasin Gishu coun- 
try also we often found the Jackson hartebeest and the 
waterbuck in the same country, and even in the same herd; 
for the hartebeests occasionally ventured into the fairly 
thick brush, dotted with trees, which came just outside the 
belt of dense timber which fringed the river haunts of the 
waterbuck; while the waterbuck occasionally ventured far 
out on the open, grassy plains, into the ordinary haunts of 
the hartebeest. As a rule, however, the two species kept 
separate, although their habitats overlapped on the edges. 
We once shot a hartebeest bull from the top of an ant heap; 
and a waterbuck cow with her calf continued to lie under 
one of the many surrounding bushes for some minutes. It 
would be quite impossible to say, from our experience, 
which of the two species was the wariest. We found in one 
place, or at one time, the waterbuck shyer than the harte- 
beest; and in another place, or at another time, the harte- 



494 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

beests were the more wary. We found waterbuck cows 
with calves so young that they had not yet joined the herd, 
on the Northern Guaso Nyiro in September, in the Uasin 
Gishu in November, and in the Lado in January; we beheve 
that there is no regular breeding time. 

The heavy bulls will not tolerate the presence of young 
bulls with the herds, forcing them out, to form bachelor 
groups of their own. The master bulls fight fiercely among 
themselves, and when at bay, especially if standing in a pool 
of water, are formidable antagonists to dogs. They are not, 
however, by any means as dangerous as sable, roan, oryx, or 
wildebeest. Against the lion, next to man their greatest 
enemy, they can make no eff^ectual resistance. 

Key to the Races of dejassa 

Pelage long and heavy- 
Body color reddish, cinnamon-rufous dejassa 

Body color darker brown with little rufous in the coat 

Body color cinnamon-drab, the nape and crown of head rufous 

nzoice 

Body color hair-brown or dusky-drab 

Snout black as far as the interorbital region; body color 
not suffused with cinnamon tjaderi 

Snout black only on anterior half; body color suffused 
with cinnamon raineyi 

Pelage short and thin 

Body color reddish, cinnamon-drab matschiei 

Body color drab or hair-brown 

Body size smaller, horns shorter harnieri 

Body size larger, horns longer Uganda 



WATERBUCKS AND REEDBUCKS 495 

Nile Defassa Waterbuck 
Kobus defassa harnieri 

Native Names: Dlnka, katambur; Bongo, boohoo; Bari, babu. 
Kobus harnieri Murie, 1867, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 3; colored figure and two 
text figures. 

Range. — White Nile district east to the foot of the 
Abyssinian highlands, south as far as the Albert Nyanza and 
westward throughout the Bahr-el-Ghazal watershed. 

Doctor Murie in a communication to the Zoological 
Society in 1867, concerning the travels of Baron Wilhelm 
von Harnier on the White Nile, quotes Kaup as the authority 
for the present race, based upon the two heads presented by 
Harnier to the Darmstadt Museum. We have, however, 
no further published record of Kaup's name for which 
Murie must now stand as the only authority. Harnier lost 
his life in the upper Nile district in attempting to rescue his 
native gun-bearer from the charge of a wounded buffalo. At 
the time of this catastrophe he was shooting near a Catho- 
lic mission station some distance south of Shambe between 
6° and 7° N. latitude, and it was from this locality presum- 
ably that the waterbuck named for him were obtained. 

The Nile race of the defassa may be distinguished by its 
short thin coat of hair, by the drab or hair-brown colora- 
tion which is without cinnamon suffusion on the body, and 
by its smaller body size and horns. It closely resembles 
the Uganda defassa, in color and shortness of coat, but may 
be recognized by its smaller body and shorter horns. The 
typical race from Abyssinia has a decidedly cinnamon or 
even rufous tinge to its coloration and has much longer and 
more abundant hair. A newly born young secured at 
Rhino Camp is covered with woolly hair, rather short and 
thick, of a uniform dusky-drab, but darker on the breast 
and the throat. The white patch on the hinder surface of the 
hind quarters is not evident, owing to the brown of the sides 
spreading over this area and merging with the grayish-white 
of the inner surface and belly. The legs are slightly lighter 
than the sides. The markings on the head and the neck 
resemble those of the adult, but the dark snout patch is re- 
stricted to a spot near the muzzle. 



496 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

Specimens of this race have been examined from Rhino 
Camp, Lado Enclave, and Gondokoro, Uganda. They are 
universally distributed in the vicinity of water and have 
been met with by every sportsman who has visited the 
upper Nile. Sir Samuel Baker, Von Heuglin, and Schwein- 
furth were some of the first to record the occurrence of the 
waterbuck in the Soudan. 

No flesh measurements are available of specimens. The 
largest skull examined is i^^s inches in length, which would 
indicate a somewhat smaller body size than the Uganda 
race in which the skulls are usually i6 inches in length. 
The longest horns recorded by Ward are a pair 33}4 inches 
in length from the Bahr el Ghazal collected by Mr. A. L. 
Butler, the game warden of the Soudan. Average horns, 
however, are very much smaller, 25 inches being a good 
adult size. The longest-horned waterbuck collected by the 
Smithsonian African expedition was one of this race shot 
by Colonel Roosevelt, near Rhino Camp, which measured 
30 inches. 

Uganda Defassa Waterbuck 

Kohus defassa ugandce 

Native Name: Luganda, nsama. 

Kobus unctuosus Uganda Neumann, 1905, Sitz. Ber. Ges. Nat. Freund. 
Berl., p. 92. 

Range. — From the western base of Mount Elgon west- 
ward throughout Uganda to the Semliki Valley north as 
far as the limits of the Victoria Nile drainage and south to 
Lake Kivu. 

The Uganda defassa was described by Herr Neumann in 
1905 from specimens shot on the Maanja River in central 
Uganda. Speke and Grant met with this antelope in 
Uganda and brought home with them two heads which were 
referred by Sclater to the sing-sing defassa of Gambia. At 
that time the preserved specimens of waterbuck were so few 
in number that the slight color differences now used to dis- 
tinguish the geographical races had not been detected. 

The defassa inhabiting Uganda and the Semliki Valley is 
a short and thin haired race like the Nile defassa, from which 
it is distinguishable by its larger body size and much longer 
horns. The color differences with the latter are slight, the 



WATERBUCKS AND REEDBUCKS 497 

color averaging somewhat darker. From the 'Nzoia defassa 
the Uganda race is readily distinguishable by its short pel- 
age and absence of cinnamon sulTusion to tiic body colora- 
tion, as well as by its hunger and more widely spread horns. 
Dimensions of specimens in the Hesh are not available 
for comparison, but those of the horns and skulls are abun- 
dantly recorded. Skulls of old adults usually measure six- 
teen inches in greatest length. The longest horns, as well 
as those showing the greatest spread, recorded by Ward are 
a pair shot by A. F. ji. Wollaston near Lake Albert Edward. 
This pair has a length on the front curve of 36^ inches 
with a spread of 36 inches. Several other heads of almost 
equal dimensions are recorded from the same general local- 
ity by Ward. The direction of the horns laterally, or the 
amount of spread, varies greatly from specimens In which 
it exceeds the length to ones having a spread only half the 
length. As a rule, however, the horns are remarkably wide- 
spread and exceed the horns of other races in this respect. 



Rudolf Defassa Waterbuck 

Kobus defassa matschiei 

Kohus unctuosus matschiei Neumann, 1905, Sitz. Ber. Ges. Nat. Freund. 
Bcrl., p. 92. 

Range. — Northern shores of Lake Rudolf north through 
the Rift Valley of southern Abyssinia as far as Lake Zwai. 

The defassa from the Lake Rudolf region and the Rift 
Valley of southern Abyssinia has been named for Doctor 
Paul Matschle by Herr Neumann from specimens which 
he shot at Lake Abaya during his journey across Abyssinia 
to the Sobat River in 1899. Some years earlier, Donald- 
son Smith reported waterbuck on the north shore of Lake 
Stephanie, and about the same time A. 11. Neumann met 
with this race of the defassa on the northeast shore of Lake 
Rudolf while elephant shooting. The race is distinguish- 
able from, the ty[)Ical defassa of the highlands of Abyssinia 
by its more grayish or drab coloration and by its much 
shorter and thinner pelage, in which respect it approaches 
the Nile defassa. It can, however, be distinguished from 
the latter by its more cinnamon coloration. Judging by the 



498 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

size of the skull, it is smaller than the races to the south of 
it in British territory. No measurements of the horns or 
body are recorded. 

'NzoiA Defassa Waterbuck 

Kobus defassa nzoice 

Native Names: Karamojo, ecoria; Kamasia, kisomere; Kavlrondo (Jaulo), 
irigut. 

Kobus defassa nzoia: Matschic, 1910, Sitz. Ber. Ges. Nat. Freund. Berl., 
p. 417. 

Range. — From the eastern edge of the Mau Escarp- 
ment westward to Mount Elgon and northward to the high- 
lands west of Lake Rudolf. 

Doctor Matschie, the describer of innumerable races of 
antelopes from East Africa, named the present race from a 
specimen shot by Major Powell-Cotton on the Uasin Gishu 
Plateau. Jackson was perhaps the first sportsman to meet 
with this race. He records it as abundant as far north as 
the Turkwell River drainage. The 'Nzoia defassa is a hand- 
some race with an abundance of long cinnamon-rufous 
hair in the coat. It is the reddest of all the East African 
races and has the heaviest coat of hair. Overlying the 
reddish hair is a heavy black Hning of dark-tipped hair. 
The forehead and the sides of the snout are usually bright 
rufous and the nape of the neck is strongly suffused by 
cinnamon-rufous. The horns are much shorter than those 
of ugandcE and are more parallel in outline, seldom showing 
the great divergence at the tips exhibited by that race. 

A fully adult male from the Uasin Gishu Plateau meas- 
ured in the flesh: 84 inches in length of head and body; tail, 
I5>^ inches; hind foot, 22 inches; ear, 8 inches. The horns 
of the largest male in a series of four are 26^ inches in 
length by 16 inches in spread. 

Rainey Defassa Waterbuck 
Kobus defassa raineyi 

Kobus defassa raineyi Heller, 1913, Smith. Misc. Coll., vol. 61, No. 13, p. 5. 

Range. — Southeastern drainage of the Victoria Nyanza 
from the headwaters of the Amala River in British East 



WATERBUCKS AND REEDBUCKS 499 

Africa southward across the German border to central 
German East Africa. 

The present race has recently been described from speci- 
mens shot by Paul J. Rainey on the headwaters of the 
Amala River near the German border of British East Africa. 
It is a large race, exceeding in body size that of any other in 
British East Africa. The coloration is nearest tjaderi of 
Laikipia, but differs by its more reddish body coloration and 
more restricted black snout patch which ends in front of 
the interorbital region. It is distinguishable from nwics by 
larger body size, narrower skull, and the absence of strong 
rufous suffusion on the nape. 

The body is cinnamon-drab in effect, the color being 
made up of a mixture of cinnamon hair with black tips inter- 
spersed sparingly with white hairs, the black tone due to 
black-tipped hairs which give a dark cast to the whole colora- 
tion. The back is darkest, the sides being lighter, and more 
grayish, and the breast fuscous-brown without cinnamon 
vermiculation. The belly and the posterior surface of the 
hind quarters are white, the latter in sharp contrast to the 
dark back and sides. The tail is darker than the back and is 
seal-brown without cinnamon mixture, but the narrow streak 
on the under side is whitish to within a few inches of the tip. 
The legs from the knees and the hock downward are uniform 
dark seal-brown with a fringe of whitish hair about the hoofs 
and the false hoofs. The neck is slightly lighter than the 
body. The sides and the throat are grayish with a white patch 
on the forethroat and with the nape decidedly cinnamon. 
The forehead is uniform rufous from the horn bases to the 
front of the eyes. The ridge of the snout as far as the muz- 
zle is black or seal-brown, variegated by a few scattered white 
hairs. The tip of the snout bordering the muzzle, the upper 
lips, and the chin are white. The sides of the snout are tawny, 
lined by black. There is a broad, white stripe above the 
eye extending from the middle to an inch in front of the 
angle on the sides of the snout. The cheeks below are 
grayish, like the sides of the neck. The backs of the ears are 
cinnamon, gradually growing darker toward the tip, where 
they are broadly seal-brown on both sides, and the inside ex- 
cept the extreme tip is white. The female is like the male in 
color but darker, owing to heavier black tips to the hair. 



500 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

and the ears are much more broadly tipped by seal-brown, the 
whole terminal half being dark. The rufous of the forehead 
is lined by black, but is not uniform as in the male. The 
tail on the dorsal surface is rufous, only the tip being seal- 
brown. 

A large male had the following flesh measurements: head 
and body, 79 inches; tail, 21 inches; hind foot, 22 inches; ear, 
9 inches. The average length of an adult male skull is i^}4 
inches. The largest is i8>^ inches, which equals large skulls 
of ugandcB from the Semliki River. The female skulls are 
smaller, usually 14^ inches in length. The horns of large 
bucks are seldom more than 25 inches in length, the longest 
in the National Museum being 28^ inches. 

In the eastern limits of its range on the German border 
this race associates with the common waterbuck, K. ellipsi- 
prymnus, living with it in the same meadows, but keep- 
ing apart in herds of its own kind. Captain Dickinson in 
"Big Game Shooting on the Equator" describes such asso- 
ciation of the two species on the border. The common 
waterbuck has been reported as far west as Ikoma, German 
East Africa, on the headwaters of streams flowing to the 
Victoria Nyanza. 

Laikipia Defassa 

Kobiis defassa tjaderi 

Cobus defassa tjaderi Lonnberg, 1907, Arkiv. Zool., Stockl., IV, p. 7. 

Range. — Laikipia Plateau west to the eastern edge of 
the Rift Valley, north as far as Lake Baringo, and south to 
Mount Suswa, at least. 

Recently a specimen of the defassa shot by R. Tjader at 
the extreme eastern limits of the species near the junction 
of the Guaso Narok and Northern Guaso Nyiro Rivers has 
been described as a new race by Lonnberg. The characters 
of this form are its dark coloration, the head being especially 
dark, the black color of the snout extending far up the fore- 
head well into the interorbital area of the forehead. In size 
it is somewhat smaller than the other races. 



J ^1 ^ 







! 

' t 






MAP 21 DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES OF THE DEFASSA WATERBUCK 



1 Kobus dejassa defassa 
4 Kobus dejassa tjaderi 



2 Kobus defassa harnieri 
5 Kobus defassa 7natschiei 
7 Kobus defassa nzoics 

501 



3 Kobus defassa Uganda 
6 Kobus defassa raineyi 



502 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 



Common Waterbuck 

Kohus ellipsiprymnus 

The common waterbuck is well characterized by the 
broad white ring on the rump, which encircles the tail and 
contrasts conspicuously with the dark-brown coat. This is 
the only very obvious difference from the defassa, but other 
minor points, such as the lack of reddish suffusion to the 
coat, the smaller body size, and the light-colored legs, may 
be made out upon actual comparison of specimens. No 
intergrading races are known between these two species, 
although they lack skull differences and occupy separate 
geographical areas, as is characteristic of races rather than 
species. At the northern limits of its range the common 
waterbuck shows a reduction in the rump ring, the middle 
portion across the back being often obsolete or wanting. 
The common waterbuck is in some parts of its range subject 
to albinism, a condition never met with in the closely allied 
defassa. Several geographical races are recognized which 
are based on differences in the general tone of coloration. 
The common waterbuck is limited to the eastern coast region 
of Africa east of the Rift Valley, from southern Somaliland 
south to the Limpopo River in the Transvaal. 

Key to the Races of ellipsiprymnus 
General dorsal coloration light, drab or hair-brown thika 

General dorsal coloration dark, warm sepia-brown kuru 

Highland Waterbuck 
Kohus ellipsiprymnus thika 

Native Name: Kikamba, ndoo. 

Kobus ellipsiprymnus thikce Matschie, 1910, Sitz. Ber. Ges. Nat. Fre., Berl., 
p. 411. 

Range. — From the Northern Guaso Nyiro River of 
British East Africa southward to the German border and 
westward through the Rift Valley; east along the Tana 
River and the flanks of the highlands to within a short 
distance of the coast, where it intergrades with the Swa- 
hili race. 



WATERBUCKS AND REEDBUCKS 503 

The highland waterbuck was described recently by 
Matschie from a specimen shot by Major Powell-Cotton 
on the Thika a few miles north of the Athi Plains. It is 
distinguishable from the other races by its lighter color, with 
the exception of pallidus of Somaliland, which is the lightest 
of all the races. The general tone of the dorsal coloration 
is drab or hair-brown without any cinnamon suffusion, and 
so light that the white rump stripe and the throat patch 
are not very conspicuous. The legs are little darker than 
the body, but are much more brownish, being uniform cin- 
namon-brown. A specimen from the Northern Guaso 
Nyiro has been described by Lonnberg as a distinct race, 
but we fail to find any color differences in specimens from this 
locality and those from Juja Farm which represent the high- 
land race. Along the lower reaches of the Northern Guaso 
Nyiro completely albino specimens are occasionally seen. 
Such individuals are described as having eyes of normal 
color and to occur associated in herds with normally colored 
specimens. Some of the albino females are reported as 
breeding, the offspring being normally colored. In the 
elevated region traversed by the Northern Guaso Nyiro 
through the eastern portion of the Laikipia Plateau the 
highland waterbuck meets and associates with the defassa. 

We met the common waterbuck only in the eastern part 
of East Africa; as we went westward it was supplanted by 
its close kinsman, the defassa. In habits the two species are 
identical; there were sometimes wide differences in conduct 
and behavior between the waterbucks of one locality and 
those of another, but these differences were within the same 
species, and were parallel in the two species. Waterbuck 
are highly polygamous, one big bull having perhaps a score 
of cows in his herd. A few young bulls, yearlings, or two- 
year olds, may be allowed to stay with the herd or hang 
around the outskirts; but eventually the master bull drives 
them off, and they wander singly, or in small parties, until 
one or another grows big enough to rob of his harem 



504 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

some master bull of failing thews; whereupon the latter, in 
his turn, begins a life of solitude. The master bull is not 
generally the herd leader; this function, as with the American 
wapiti, is usually performed by some old and wary cow. 
The carriage of the waterbuck is like that of the wapiti, 
proud and graceful, with the neck erect, instead of held 
almost in line with the back, as with the oryx; this 
proud port, and the long, shaggy hair, give it a look like 
that of some big northern stag. White waterbuck are in 
certain places not uncommon; it is certainly a singular thing 
that in a land teeming with beasts of prey any individual 
of such a strikingly conspicuous color should be able to 
reach maturity, and, as is frequently the case, to breed. I 
heard of one white waterbuck cow with a calf of the ordinary 
color. 

The waterbuck is not a water antelope in the sense that 
is true of the lechwi and sitatunga. It lives on dry land, 
feeding and resting among the trees and bushes. But it is 
never found very far from water, and when hunted it takes 
to the water readily, even when there are crocodiles near; 
it swims well and boldly, and if hunted by dogs it will, if 
possible, come to bay in a pool. In the early morning we 
found waterbuck feeding a mile or two from any cover, on 
the bare, short-grass plains of the Athi, but when alarmed 
they at once fled for the trees along the river course. In one 
instance we found a small party of waterbuck taking a 
siesta under some small, almost leafless thorn-trees, miles 
away from water, on a bare plain swarming with zebra. 
Ordinarily, however, the waterbuck keeps to the groves and 
glades, feeding and resting alternately at all hours through 
the day and night. The cow keeps by herself for a few days 



WATERBUCKS AND REEDBUCKS 505 

while the calf is very young. We have sat within a few 
yards of a cow and calf which were lying down, and 
watched them for many minutes before they took alarm. 
The food is usually grass, but sometimes the animals 
browse. 

Waterbuck are not as formidable fighters as the roan, 
sable, or oryx; but the old bulls — perhaps trained by their 
desperate battles among themselves — must be approached 
with some caution if at bay, for their horns are sharp, and 
the strength of their heavy bodies is great. Doctor Rains- 
ford was severely hurt by the sudden lunge and struggle 
of a wounded waterbuck bull when he attempted to cut its 
throat; and a white man with Major Bulpett was killed 
under similar conditions. A badly wounded bull attempted 
to charge Kermit and his gun-bearers. 

An adult male shot at Juja Farm measured in the flesh: 
79 inches in length of head and body; tail, i8 inches; hind 
foot, 21I/2 inches, and ear, g}i inches. Skull length, 15 
inches. The horns of this specimen were 23 ^^ inches on the 
front curve, while those of the longest are 25 inches. Ward's 
record for East Africa is 29 inches. The horns of the typical 
ellipsiprymnus of the Zambesi region are much longer, the 
record being 36^ inches. This record is equal to that of 
defassa, but curiously enough the geographical position of 
greatest horn growth is reversed in the two species, the short- 
est-horned defassa occurring in the south in close proximity 
to the longest-horned eliipsiprymfius. The identification of 
heads, however, is attended with much uncertainty unless 
the body color or the exact locality are known, owing to 
the close color and horn resemblance of the defassa and 
ellipsiprymmis. 



506 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

SWAHILI WaTERBUCK 

Kohus ellipsiprymnus kuru 

Native Name: Swahili, kuru. 

Kobiis ellipsiprymnus kuruWeWe.]:, 1913, Smith. Misc. Coll., vol. 61, No. 13, p. 6. 

Range. — Coast district from the Tana River southward 
along the coast into German East Africa and westward 
along the larger watercourses to Kilimanjaro. 

The race of the common waterbuck inhabiting the coast 
district of British and German East Africa has recently 
been described from specimens collected at Taveta by Doc- 
tor W. L. Abbott. The waterbuck mentioned by such early 
explorers of the coast district as Hildebrandt and Fischer 
refer to this race. Willoughby, Jackson, and several other 
sportsmen have given accounts of this race. The Swahili 
waterbuck is closely allied to thikce of the Athi Plains, but 
differs from this race by its darker, sepia-brown color, 
darker-brown legs, and lighter-colored snout, which shows 
little contrast to the color of the forehead. 

The color of the median dorsal region is uniform dark- 
brown or warm sepia, with the sides lighter, deep brownish- 
drab in color. The breast is drab and the belly whitish. The 
white stripe on the hind quarters is not continuous across 
the rump, but is broad and distinct on the sides. The tail 
is sepia like the back, the tip very little darker, and the 
under side has a narrow line of white. The legs from the 
knees and the hocks are uniform sepia-brown, and darker 
than the sides. There is a white fringe above the hoofs and 
the false hoofs. The neck is somewhat lighter than the 
body, being dark brownish-drab, but the nape is uniform in 
color with the throat. There is a whitish blotch on the 
upper throat. The sides of the head are like the neck in 
color. The dorsal surface of the snout is sepia-brown, but 
contrasts very little with the more reddish cinnamon-brown 
forehead. The rhinarium of the snout is bordered by a 
white band and the lips and chin are white. There is also 
a broad white area at the front angle of the eye about two 
inches long. The area about the eyes and the back of the 
ears is ochraceous-tawny. The tips of the ears are sepia- 
brown, and the inside is white. 




MAP 22— DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES OF THE COMMON WATERBUCK 

1 Kobus ellipsiprymnus thikcs 2 Kobus ellipsipryynnus kuru 

507 



508 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

No flesh measurements of specimens are available. The 
race is smaller somewhat than the highland form, the skull 
measuring only 14 inches in length. Horns average 23 
inches in length. 

The Kobs 

Adenota 

Adenota Gray, 1850, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 129; type Kobus kob. 

The kobs are easily distinguishable from the reedbucks 
and waterbucks by the peculiar S-shaped curve assumed 
by the horns. The horns near the base are bowed back- 
ward, but the tips are recurved forward and inward giving 
them the shape of an elongated "S" when viewed from 
the side. The back of the pasterns and the border of the 
hoofs are well haired as in the waterbuck. The tail is short, 
usually less than fourteen inches in length, and does not 
reach the hocks. The tip has a distinct tuft of long hair. 
All of the races, with the exception of the white-eared, are a 
uniform tawny-yellow color on the dorsal surface without 
any very bold markings, with the exception of the black 
leg stripes present in most races. The nearest allies of the 
kobs are the lechwis, which have somewhat similarly shaped 
horns, but differ decidedly by having the whole posterior 
surface of the pasterns and a narrow border surrounding the 
hoofs and false hoofs bare or hairless. The tail is also much 
longer, usually reaching to the hocks, and bearing at the tips 
a distinct tuft of long hair. The length of this member aver- 
ages four inches longer than in the kobs. The horn length 
is considerably greater in the lechwi, in which the horns are 
wider-spread, sublyrate, and less S-shaped. The skull is 
distinctly longer-snouted in the kobs, and is without the 
prominent swelling in the supraorbital region which is char- 
acteristic of the lechwi. The genus includes two species, 
vardoni, of the Zambesi region, which lacks the black leg 
stripes, and kob, of the equatorial region. 

The kobs range from the Zambesi watershed northward 
through the central lake drainage area to the Nile Valley; 
east to British East Africa, and westward through Nigeria 
to Senegal. 



WATERBUCKS AND REEDBUCKS 509 



Equatorial Kob 

Adenota kob 

The equatorial kob is characterized chiefly by its black- 
fronted or striped legs, and by its uniformity in body size 
and shape of horns. The female is very little inferior in 
size to the male. In some of the races it shows great indi- 
vidual and age color differences in the male sex in the color 
of the ears, which assume a white coloration as age advances. 
In one race the male often becomes quite a deep brown or 
black on the upper parts. The color of the female is, how- 
ever, quite constant in the various races. The nursing 
young have the general color pattern of their female parent, 
but are slightly lighter, the dorsal surface and head being 
ochraceous. They particularly resemble the female in the 
possession of dark, seal-brown ear tips and in the restricted 
white orbital area, but the legs are without the dark stripes 
in front, these being merely indicated by a slight darkening. 
The light hoof-bands are also but faintly indicated. 

The range includes equatorial Africa from Senegal and 
the Niger eastward to the Nile Valley and the Victoria 
Nyanza, and northward to the edge of the Sahara Desert. 



Key to the Races of kob 

Back of ears in male tawny like dorsal coloration or cream-bufF, but 
always with decided dark tips; female with leg stripes dark 
seal-brown and without a white preocular stripe on the 
snout. 
Size larger; coloration deeper tawny, pelage long; brain case deep; 
female lined with black on median dorsal surface thomasi 

Size smaller; coloration lighter tawny; brain case shallower; 
female without black lining on upper parts alurce 

Back of ears in the male wholly white or cream-bufF, the tip only 
slightly darker if at all; old males usually becoming deep 
seal-brown or black on dorsal surface, with white ears and 
orbital area; the female with leg stripes hair-brown, and with 
a white preocular stripe on the snout. leucotis 



510 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

Uganda Kob 
Adenota kob thomasi 

Native Name: Uganda, nsunnu. 

Adenota thomasi Neumann, 1896, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 192. 

Range. — Upper Nile watershed from the headwaters of 
the 'Nzoia River on the flanks of the Uasin Gishu Plateau 
westward through Uganda to the Albert Nyanza, north- 
ward along the Elgon highlands west of Lake Rudolf to the 
Soudan boundary at least. 

The Uganda kob has long been known to naturalists, but 
it has only comparatively recently been distinguished from 
the older species from Senegal and the Zambesi River. 
Speke and Grant brought heads from Uganda in 1863. 
These were the earliest specimens to reach Europe, and were 
confounded with the white-eared race by Sclater. Later, in 
1891, F. J. Jackson sent specimens to the British Museum 
from Mount Elgon which were referred first to the Zambesi 
species, vardo7ii, and later to the typical race, kob, of Senegal. 
Finally, Herr Oscar Neumann distinguished the race in 1896 
and described it under the present name, Adenota thomasiy 
naming it for Oldfield Thomas of the British Museum. 

We found this species in one form or another, common 
from the Uasin Gishu across to the White Nile, and down 
the White Nile to the sud; below the sud its place was 
taken by the white-eared kob. They are rather chunky 
animals, big bucks reaching a weight of nearly two hundred 
and fifty pounds. 

Although close kin to the waterbuck the golden-coated 
kob reminds the observer more of the impalla. Along the 
Uasin Gishu we found the kob in herds of twenty or thirty 
does and young animals, with a single master buck to each 
herd. Their range was much more limited than that of the 
waterbuck in the same region, for they did not go so far 
away from the river, out on the rolling and hilly plains, nor 



WATERBUCKS AND REEDBUCKS 511 

on the other hand did they stay in the belt of thick timber 
by the river brink. Their country was the strip of land, 
a couple of miles broad, which fringed this timber belt on 
either side. Reedbuck were scattered through the same 
country, and always sought to escape notice by hiding and 
crouching or sneaking off with bent legs through the tall 
grass. The kob, on the contrary, did not seek to escape 
notice. They were always in plain sight, trusting to their 
senses to warn them of the approach of foes. When they 
ran they occasionally made big bounds in the air, like 
impalla. They were fond of using the ant-hills as lookout 
stations, and it was curious to see a score of them covering 
the top and sides of a big ant-hill, with all their necks 
stretched out as they watched. They are grass-eaters. 

The Uganda kob differs from the typical race by its 
larger size and darker coloration, and from leucotis by the 
absence of the black coat in the old bucks, and the absence 
of wholly white ears. The color of the ears of the bucks 
shows much age variation. In old males of thomasi the 
ears are sometimes quite white with the exception of the 
tips, which are always darker, at least never lighter than 
tawny. From its nearest geographical ally, alurce of the 
west side of the Nile, it is distinguishable by the much 
darker dorsal color, which is due to the abundant suffusion 
of black-tipped hair. The female resembles the male in 
color, but the ears are tawny like the body, never whitish, 
and always with seal-brown tips. 

In the adult male the head and body are ochraceous- 
rufous, overlaid on the rump with black to a slight extent, 
but lightening on the sides and the limbs to ochraceous-buff. 
The cheeks are ochraceous-buff and considerably lighter 
than the forehead and snout. The orbital area is whitish, and 
most pronounced in front of the eye. The backs of ears are 
ochraceous-buff and the tips distinctly darker ochraceous- 
tawny. The base, lower sides, and inside of the ears are 



512 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

white, as are also the chin, throat, lips, and margin of the nos- 
trils. The whole lower throat is ochraceous and somewhat 
lighter than the nape. The under-parts and the inside of the 
legs to the hocks and the knees and the under-surface of 
the tail are sharply defined white. The legs have a broad, 
blackish-brown band extending from the whitish hoof-band 
to the shoulder on the forelegs, and to the hocks on the hind 
legs. The back part of the forelegs is whitish, but this area in 
the hind legs is ochraceous. The false hoofs are bordered by a 
much narrower band of white than the hoofs. The female 
is like the male, but easily distinguishable by the dark seal- 
brown tips of the ears and the small extent of white in the 
orbital region. The female resembles the female leucotis, but 
the dorsal color is much darker tawny-ochraceous, the sides 
are more ochraceous-buff, and show considerable contrast 
to the white under-parts. The backs of ears are like the body 
color, the tips are broadly tipped by seal-brown, and the base 
and inside are white. The orbital white area is not pro- 
duced forward as a preocular stripe. The legs have a dark 
streak in front which is deep seal-brown as in the females of 
alurcs. The hoof-band and the inside of the legs are buffy. 
The measurements of an adult male in the flesh from the 
Uasin Gishu Plateau are: head and body, 65 inches; tail, 13 
inches ; hind foot, 1 7 inches ; ear, 6}4. inches. Length of skull, 
1 1 >2 inches. The average length of the horns along the curve 
is 16 inches and the spread is 14 inches. The longest horns 
in a series of three adult males are 17^ inches, and the 
greatest spread is 11 inches. A series of both sexes from 
the headwaters of the 'Nzoia River in the Uasin Gishu 
Plateau region have been studied, also the types in the 
British Museum, including specimens from central Uganda. 

Lado Kob 
Adenota kob alurce 

Native Names: Madi, ha; Aclioli, til. 

Adenota kob alurce Heller, 1913, Smith. Misc. Coll., vol. 61, No. 7, p. 11. 

Range. — West side of the Nile from the Albert Nyanza 
northward to the Bahr-el-Ghazal drainage; limits of range 
not known. 



WATERBUCKS AND REEDBUCKS 513 

The Lado kob was described recently from specimens 
shot by Colonel Roosevelt at Rhino Camp on the west bank 
of the Nile a few miles north of the station of Wadelai. 

In the Lado, the territory was everywhere of much the 
same character, grassy plains covered with a sparse, scanty 
growth of trees and bushes; and the kob, like the other 
species, was far less specialized in its habitat than on the 
Uasin Gishu. Waterbuck, kob, and hartebeest were all 
found indiscriminately over the country, and often together; 
from the same spot in two shots, at only a couple of seconds 
interval, we shot a hartebeest bull and a fine buck kob. 
As a rule, none of the antelope were shy in the Lado. 

The Lado race is like the Uganda kob in color, but lighter 
and decidedly smaller. The skull is smaller and flatter in 
both sexes and the size of the hoofs is smaller. It approaches 
the typical kob of Senegal in its small size and stands quite 
intermediate between it and thomasi, but differs by having 
the head more extensively white, the entire orbital region 
being white and the ears also showing a tendency to white- 
ness, in some being uniform buft'y on the back without the 
blackish tip. The old males, however, never assume the 
black coat characteristic of this sex in leucotis nor do they 
show, as a rule, the white ears. The female is distinguish- 
able from the female Uganda kob by its lighter color and 
the absence of the black lining to the dorsal region. The 
hair is considerably shorter than in thomasi, being at the 
hair whorl three-fourths of an inch or less, while on the 
Uasin Gishu specimen it is one and one-fourth inches in 
length at the same point. 

The color of the head and body in the adult male is ochra- 
ceous, lightening on the lower sides and the midline of the 
throat to ochraceous-buff. The backs of the ears are lighter 
than the head, and are ochraceous-buff, but the tips are very 
little darker, being ochraceous-tawny. The orbital region, 
base and sides of ears, lips, borders of nostrils, chin, upper 
throat, chest, under-parts, inside of legs, under side of tail. 



514 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

and band above hoofs and false hoofs are white. The front 
of the forelegs from the light hoof band to the shoulders, 
the front of the hind legs from the hoof band to the hock, and 
the tip of the tail are blackish-brown or dark seal-brown. 

No flesh measurements of this race are available. The 
skull of an adult male measures ii^ inches in length. In 
a' series of six adult males the longest horns measure 2i>^ 
inches along the curve by 13 inches in greatest spread. 
These horn measurements exceed those of thomasi from the 
'Nzoia River by three or four inches and indicate a greater 
horn length for the Nile race, a difference which is further 
confirmed by the measurements given in Rowland Ward's 
"Records of Big Game." 

White-Eared Kob 

Adenota kob leucotis 

Native Names: Djeng, kul; Dinka, teel. 

Antilope leucotis Lichtenstein and Peters, 1853, N. B. Ak., Berl., p. 164. 

Range. — The White Nile region in the vicinity of the 
junction of the Sobat and Bahr-el-Ghazal aflluents eastward 
along the Sobat to the Abyssinian border. 

The white-eared kob was first obtained by Werne, a 
German traveller, on the Sobat River, and described in 
1853 t)y the well-known German naturalists Lichtenstein 
and Peters. This specimen was not one of the character- 
istic black males, but was of the tawny type like the re- 
cently described vaughani. Heuglin met with this species 
in 1 861 in the Sobat and Bahr-el-Ghazal regions, and de- 
scribed it under its native names of kul and ivuil. Sir Samuel 
Baker also met with the white-eared kob in his explorations 
of the Nile sources. 

This handsome antelope was found in herds along the 
mouth of the Bahr el Zeraf. Their habits were substan- 
tially those of the common kob. They were found on the im- 
mense dry flats, sometimes among the scattered thorn-trees, 
sometimes out on the stretches of short grass; although 



WATERBUCKS AND REEDBUCKS 515 

in the neighborhood of water, they sought it merely to drink. 
They were not very wary. They were grazers, hke the rest 
of this genus. Like the common kob they went in big 
bands, each composed of ewes and young rams with one or, 
rarely, two or three old rams; and the old rams were also 
found singly, and occasionally the young rams were in small 
parties by themselves. The old rams were strikingly con- 
spicuous, with their deep rich brown, almost black, coats, 
and the sharply contrasted black and white markings on 
their faces. Whether this dark coat is a permanent mark 
of advanced age, or whether the old rams only assume it 
seasonally, we do not know; some of the rams with horns 
as fully developed as those of any we saw were not in this 
adult pelage. It is certainly partly a matter of age and 
partly a matter of individual peculiarity. The young rams 
and ewes were a reddish-yellow, like the ewes of the white- 
withered lechwi. 

Vaughn's kob, which we found in the dry, thorn-studded 
flats beside the Bahr el Ghazal, is apparently only a color 
phase of the white-eared kob. Its habits were precisely the 
same. Watching a ram that stood almost concealed by tall 
grass, we were struck by the way in which its presence was 
betrayed by the incessant wagging of the ears, to drive 
away the biting flies. The ram stood otherwise motionless; 
and when we were too far off for its partly screened and 
dimly seen shape and color either to conceal or reveal it, 
the motion of its ears attracted attention. 

The most marked character in this long-known race is 
the white ear which in old adult males is wholly white with 
no trace of a darker tip. In immature specimens and in the 
females the ears are ochraceous or buffy with dark-brown 
tips. Another striking characteristic of this race is the dark- 



516 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

brown or black coat assumed by some of the old males, 
which is a color change not met with in any other kob. 
The female is distinguishable from the other races by the 
greater amount of white about the eye, which is continued 
forward on the snout as a preocular stripe, and also by the 
light color of the leg stripes which are hair-brown instead 
of seal-brown. 

A male in the dark phase has the dorsal surface of the 
head and the body uniform dark seal-brown. The sides are 
somewhat lighter, being bone-brown, and sharply defined be- 
low from the white of the under-parts. The nape of the neck, 
the crown, and the hinder surface of the thighs are mixed with 
tawny hairs. The upper surface of the tail is pure ochra- 
ceous-tawny, only the tip being black. The ears are wholly 
white as well as a broad area at the base. The orbital 
region is extensively white, the light color extending forward 
as a preocular stripe toward the muzzle. The chin, throat, 
lips, and margin of nostrils are white. There is a small white 
spot on the cheeks below the ear. The white of the chest 
extends far up the throat, leaving a rather narrow band of 
seal-brown across the throat. The rest of the under-parts, in- 
cluding the inside of the legs to the hoofs, and the whole of the 
pasterns are white. The white stripe on the hind legs covers 
the front surface from the hocks, the hinder part of which 
is brown like the body. 

At the northern limit of kobs in the Nile Valley the 
old males usually assume deep seal-brown or black upper 
parts similar to the adult livery of the sable antelope. 
Some individuals, however, do not assume this dark coat 
except to a slight degree, that is, only upon the sides of the 
throat, the shoulders, and the legs and flanks and snout. 
Such rufous-colored individuals were described as a new 
race, nigroscapulata, by Matschie in 1899. More recently, 
in 1906, Lydekker applied the name vaughani to similarly 
colored specimens from the same region. Both of these 
races are based on either immature or adult rufous-colored 
individuals of the white-eared kob with which they agree in 
having the ears white or cream-buff on the outer surface, 
and the lower parts of the legs, half-way to the knees, 
whitish. Some of these rufous individuals show, by the 
worn condition of their teeth and the obliteration of most 
of the sutures in their skulls, that they are really aged 




MAP 23 — DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES OF THE KOB 

1 Adeyiota kob leucotis 2 Adenota kob alurce 3 Adenota kob thomasi 

517 



518 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

animals, and it is quite evident that the black livery is to 
some extent an individual character, although chiefly an age 
affair. Selous, by the comparison of dates furnished by 
sportsmen, has come to the conclusion that the black coat 
is a seasonal change, but our experience throws consider- 
able doubt on this opinion. We found both color phases 
equally common at the same season, and in none of the 
specimens were there any marks showing shedding or any 
process by which a seasonal coat could be acquired. Speci- 
mens identical in coloration with both nigroscapulata and 
vaughani from the mouth of the Bahr el Ghazal were secured 
by the Smithsonian African expedition under the direction 
of Colonel Roosevelt. Some of the upper Nile specimens 
as well as the more remote ones from the Uasin Gishu 
Plateau known as thomasi occasionally exhibit whitish ears 
having the dark tips nearly obsolete. It is probable that 
somewhere in the upper Bahr el Ghazal, perhaps in the 
vicinity of Meshra-er-Rek, the two races meet. The white- 
eared kob is without doubt local and confined to the extreme 
northern limit of the range of the kobs in the Nile Valley. 
Westward we find little or no change in the coloration of the 
kobs between the Nile Valley and the Senegal or Nigerian 
regions, which is a really vast extent of country. 

The flesh measurements of an adult male are: head and 
body, 6i inches; tail, 14 inches; hind foot, 17 inches; ear, 6 
inches; greatest length of skull, 11 inches. Four adult male 
skulls have been examined from the Bahr el Zeraf and Lake 
No district. The average of horn dimensions in these speci- 
mens is 18 inches in length by 14 inches in greatest spread. 
Rowland Ward, however, records a great many specimens 
from the Nile of this race, all of which have horns exceeding 
20 inches, the maximum measurement being 24^ inches. 

The Lechwi 

Onotragus 

Onotragus Gray, 1872, Cat. Rum. Brit. Mus., p. 17; type Cohiis lechee. 

The genus Onotragus was founded by Gray in 1872 for 
the reception of the lechwi and based upon the character 
of the tufted tail and sublyrate shape of the horns in this 




NILE LECHWI, ADULT MALE 

Sliowins abnormal coloration, absence of white withers in' age 

Shot by Theodore Roosevelt, Lake No, White Nile United States National Museum 




NIl.l. Ll.ellWl. Alill.T MAI.l, 
lioia W hilc Nile liilJ Museum, ChicaKu 

MOUNTED SPECIMENS OF THE NILE LECHWI 



WATERBUCKS AND REEDBUCKS 519 

species. No mention was made of the naked character of 
the pasterns, or the short, bulging snout and wide nasal 
bones so distinctive of the lechwi. Gray associated with 
the lechwi the poku or Zambesi kob, an antelope of the 
genus Adenota, while the Nile lechwi, which closely resembles 
the true lechwi in the horn characters used by Gray, was 
placed with the waterbucks. Later naturalists have not 
recognized Gray's genera, but have lumped the lechwis and 
kobs with the waterbucks in the genus Kobtis. Most recent 
writers have adopted the arrangement of the species as 
given by Sclater and Thomas in the " Book of Antelopes," 
where the Zambesi lechwi is placed at the end of the line 
and the Nile lechwi widely separated from it and associated 
with the waterbucks under the subgenus Cobtis. 

The back of the pasterns and the border of the hoofs and 
the false hoofs are hairless, the skin being thickened and 
pad-like. The hoofs are long and slender. The tail is long, 
the tufted tip reaching the hocks. The horns are long, sub- 
lyrate in shape, and wide-spread. The snout is short and 
bulging. The lechwi shows important differences from the 
kobs and waterbucks in the short, wide nasal bones, the 
prominent swelling of the supraorbital region, and the great 
width of the basioccipital bone separating the tympanic 
bullae. There are but two species: the Zambesi lechwi and 
the Nile lechwi. 

The distribution is peculiar and discontinuous. The 
Zambesi lechwi ranges from Lake Ngami northward as far 
as Lake Mweru on the northern border of Rhodesia, while 
the Nile lechwi is confined to a very limited tract on the 
White Nile more than one thousand miles north of Lake 
Mweru. 

Nile Lechwi 
Onotragus megaceros 

Native Names: Dinka, abokk; Nuer, til. 

Adenota megaceros Fitzinger, 1855, Sitz. Ak., Wien, XVII, p. 247. 

Range. — Mouth of the Bahr el Ghazal at its junction 
with the White Nile. Apparently confined to the district 
near the mouth of the Bahr-el-Ghazal side and unknown 



520 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

east of the Bahr el Zeraf. Limits of range not known, but 
reported as far north as Taufikia opposite the mouth of the 
Sobat, and as far south on the Bahr el Ghazal as Wau. 

Soon after the discovery of this antelope by Heuglin in 
1853, and the accidental description of it by Fitzinger, it was 
described as Cobus maria by Gray from specimens received 
from Consul Petherick taken on the White Nile. Under this 
name it has since been known to naturalists, owing to Fitz- 
inger's description being considered inadequate. Fitzinger's 
name, however, is accompanied by a mention of its large 
horns and its general distinctness from the kob, and is more- 
over founded on a specimen still preserved at Vienna which 
was a few years later fully figured and described by Heuglin, 
so that the name is well founded. Fitzinger mentions 
Heuglin's intention of describing the species under the name 
Adenota megaceros, and refrains on that account from describ- 
ing it beyond giving the horn characters and the history and 
locality of the specimen. Heuglin not only collected several 
specimens of the Nile lechwi, but brought back to Vienna 
with him a live female specimen, which, however, lived at 
the Zoological Gardens but a short time. This is the only 
specimen which has ever reached Europe alive. Inasmuch 
as the rigid rules governing modern scientific nomenclature 
sometimes give rather absurd results, it is a relief that in 
this case they do justice, and enable us to substitute an 
appropriate name, given to this fine riverbuck by its dis- 
coverer, for an inappropriate name subsequently given to it 
by a closet naturalist who had nothing to do with its dis- 
covery. 

This interesting animal ought to be called waterbuck, 
for in its habits it is emphatically a buck of the water, 
whereas the true waterbuck merely lives in the neighborhood 
of water, on dry land. We found this lechwi on the flooded 
ground along Lake No and the mouth of the Bahr el Ghazal. 
It was first discovered by Heuglin, and for the fifty 
years intervening between his discovery and the date of our 
visit has been shot by various sportsmen and travellers, and 



WATERBUCKS AND REEDBUCKS 521 

occasionally described by closet systematists. It is a sin- 
gular proof of the extreme difficulty even good observers 
have in recognizing patent facts which are unexpected, that 
none of these men recognized that this White Nile antelope 
of the marshes was nearest of kin to the lechwi of the Zam- 
besi and other South African rivers. They persistently com- 
pared it either with the neighboring waterbuck, or more fre- 
quently with the neighboring white-eared kob; at least one 
of the systematists actually suggested that it was not dis- 
tinct from the latter. Yet it is difficult to understand how 
any observer of the animal in its haunts, or any student 
with specimens before him, could fail to see its real affinities. 
We had only read of the lechwi in the writings of Selous and 
other observers, but as soon as we saw the Nile riverbucks 
at home, we recognized their relationship to the riverbucks 
of the Zambesi. One of our number, when we reached 
Khartoum, wrote to Captain Stigand, who was on his way 
southward through that city, telling him that the white- 
withered antelopes were close kin to the lechwi; and, shortly 
afterward, when he had himself observed them. Captain 
Stigand confirmed this statement in a letter to Selous, which 
the latter showed us. 

We found the white-withered lechwi in large herds, some- 
times of forty or fifty individuals. These herds made a 
broad trail where they passed through the reeds or tall marsh- 
grass or the edges of the papyrus; and the long-hoofed an- 
telopes swam the deep channels without hesitation, and 
splashed their way over the soft black mire, and across the 
pools through the tough stems of the close-growing water- 
lilies. Often the marshes through which they made their 
way were so deep in water that it was up to our shoulders. 



522 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

They feed, however, where the ground is merely moist, or 
with only an inch or two of water, and where ant-hills dot 
the stretches of tall grass. They are grazers and crop the 
delicate grass of these moist stretches. Unlike the kob they 
never mount the ant-hills to watch; their trust is in skulk- 
ing under cover out of the reach of danger, and not in de- 
tecting danger afar off and then fleeing in the open. They 
are among the most noisy of antelope, continually uttering 
croaking grunts ; when a herd is suspicious or slightly alarmed 
these grunts make a perfect chorus. The animals almost 
always kept to the cover of the tall grass, walking and trot- 
ting with their necks outstretched, and the heads below the 
level of the blade tops. Looking out over the marsh from 
an ant-heap, we might at first see nothing; then, two or three 
hundred yards off, a dozen heads would pop up, gaze steadily 
at us, disappear, and then, after an interval of a couple of 
minutes or so, reappear several hundred yards farther off. 
Usually they skulked off at a trot or canter, with neck out- 
stretched; but occasionally they galloped, now and then 
making great bounds over the tops of the tall grass. At 
other times they would stand in the tall grass until we were 
but a score of yards off, although they were completely 
screened from our view; then away they would steal, some- 
times grunting loudly. The flexible pasterns and spread 
hoofs leave big marks in the mud. The beasts make a tre- 
mendous noise as they smash through the reeds and splash 
across the shallow lagoons. Some of the biggest-bodied 
bucks, with longest horns, did not have the white on the 
withers and the back of the neck. Perhaps, in addition to 
being a mark of sex and age, their white coloration only 
develops seasonally. 



WATERBUCKS AND REEDBUCKS 523 

This species resembles closely in body size and horn 
shape the Zambesi lechwi, but differs widely in coloration. 
The dorsal coloration of the male is bay or seal-brown with 
a large whitish patch on the withers extending along the nape 
and spreading over the crown of the head, the ears, and the 
orbital region. The tail is white with a black tuft at the tip. 
The under-parts and hoof bands are white. The female is 
uniform buffy in color on the dorsal surface, but the cheeks 
are dark-brown and the orbital region whitish with a light 
preocular stripe. In a normally colored adult male the dor- 
sal color of the body is raw sienna merging on the sides to a 
light olive-gray, the under fur being everywhere seal-brown 
and showing through on the sides where the olive-gray only 
overlies the hair lightly. The tail above is lighter, buffy, and 
the tip black. The sides of the neck and the throat have 
the seal-brown predominating like the sides, and overlaid 
sparingly by a few buffy hairs. The withers are marked by 
a large oval area of whitish hair overlaid by a wash of raw 
sienna, the light area extending forward along the nape to 
the crown, where it includes the ears and broadens out 
greatly; on the nape it narrows down to a mere line, the 
whole area being in outline much like a dumb-bell. The 
legs are dusky-brown like the sides, being overlaid by light 
olive-gray. The hoofs and false hoofs are marked by a 
light band of cream-buff above the hairless border. The 
under-parts are white from the chest to the base of the tail 
as well as the inside of the hind legs. The forelegs at the 
axilla and on the inside are dusky-brown with a patch of 
buffy on the inside of the thighs. The side of the head is 
uniform seal-brown to the lower margin of the orbit, the 
seal-brown area being continued across the snout and up 
the forehead to the base of the horns. There is a wide 
cream-buff or whitish supraocular stripe continuous with 
the white area of the crown and the ear base. The back of 
the ear is buffy and the base and the inside are white. The 
snout has a broad tawny patch on each side and the nos- 
trils and lips are bordered narrowly by white. The chin is 
white and merges gradually into the ochraceous-tawny fore- 
throat. The rest of throat to the chest is seal-brown like 
the sides and overlaid by light olive-gray sparingly. An 
old adult male is brighter red, the body behind ferruginous; 



524 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

the dark seal-brown color of the basal hair showing through 
conspicuously everywhere, and the white area of the with- 
ers, nape, and head suffused extensively by the ferruginous. 
The hind part of the quarters and hind legs are everywhere 
except in front of the hocks uniform ochraceous-tawny. 

An adult male intermediate in age between the tw^o 
males described is peculiar in coloration. It lacks all trace 
of the whitish wither and head areas, being in color quite 
uniform ochraceous-buff like the female. The color of the 
body is ochraceous, but becomes lighter on sides or buffy. 
The hind limbs are buffy and the forelegs buffy with a 
dusky blotch in front on the thighs above the knee. The 
nape of the neck is like the back in color. The sides of the 
neck and the throat are dusky-brown overlaid by buffy 
hairs. The crown of the head and the snout and the back 
of the ears are ochraceous. The inside of the ears and the 
supraocular stripes are white, and the sides of the face 
dusky-brown. The lips, the border of the nostrils, and the 
chin are white, the latter merging into the buff of the throat 
which extends as a narrow line to the chest. The under- 
parts are white but not sharply contrasted with the buffy 
sides and the inside of the legs. The tail is buffy above and 
white beneath with dark seal-brown tip. The old female 
specimen, which has the teeth much worn, has the dorsal 
color ochraceous-tawny but lacks the light patch on the 
withers and the head of the male, and very little of the 
dark-brown under fur shows through the tawny. The sides 
are lighter and buffy, and the limbs are uniform buffy with 
an indefinite drab streak on the front side from the hoofs 
to the knees and the hocks. The tail is buffy with a tufted 
black tip. The under-parts, the inside of the legs, and the 
under side of the tail are white. The throat and the chest 
are cream-buff in contrast to the tawny nape. The back of 
the ears, crown, and snout are ochraceous-tawny. The in- 
side of the ears and the base are cream-buff; and the supra- 
ocular stripe is similar in color. The eye has a seal-brown 
blotch below and the whole side of the face to the snout 
shows seal-brown under hair overlaid by buffy. The lips, 
chin, and borders of the nostrils are whitish. The general 
coloration is similar to that of the female leucotis, but is 
lighter and more buffy. 




MAP 24 DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES OF LECHWIS 

1 Onotragus megaceros 2 Onolragus lechee 

525 



526 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

The three specimens described above shot by Colonel 
Roosevelt at Lake No show great color variation. The 
youngest specimen, a fully adult male with horns twenty- 
three inches in length and premolars showing slight wear, 
has the white areas of the withers and head most distinct 
with the remaining dorsal surface darkest in color. In the 
oldest male the body color has become suffused strongly 
with rufous, the white and black areas showing a strong 
tendency to become uniformly rufous. The male of inter- 
mediate age is no doubt an abnormally colored specimen or 
freak, being somewhat lighter and more uniform than the 
female in color. Adult males showing distinct white with- 
ers and dark bodies have been examined at the British 
Museum, the Congo Museum at Brussels, and the Field 
Museum at Chicago, all of which showed well-developed 
horns and were without doubt fully adult. A large series of 
specimens, however, are needed to determine the individual 
and age variation in color in this species. It is quite possible 
that this species is subject to as great individual color 
changes as its geographical associate, the white-eared kob. 

An adult male showed the following flesh measurements: 
head and body, 63 inches; tail, 18^ inches; hind foot, 20 
inches; ear, 5/4 inches. The old female measured less in 
length of tail and hind foot, these measurements being i6>^ 
and 17 inches, respectively. In a series of three males the 
longest-horned specimen measured 29^ inches in length, 
20^ inches in greatest spread, and had a skull length of 
ii]4. inches. The female skull measures 10^ inches. The 
longest-horned specimen recorded by Rowland Ward in a 
series of 26 measures 33^2 inches. 



CHAPTER XVII 
DUIKERS AND SMALL ANTELOPES 

Duikers 

Subfamily Cephalophina 

The duikers form a very compact group of small and 
diminutive antelopes having short, straight horns project- 
ing backward in line with the dorsal profile of the head. 
The horns are quite straight and never exceed the head in 
length. A character peculiar to the duikers, and one by 
which they may always be recognized, is the linear arrange- 
ment of the anteorbital pores which form a long line on the 
sides of the snout in front of the eye. The duikers in gen- 
eral build are quite compact, with rather short legs and 
neck, low withers, and well-developed hind quarters. The 
hoofs are normal in shape, but the false hoofs show con- 
siderable specific variation in size. The tail is short but 
not rudimentary and is either well haired throughout or 
tufted. The female has four mammae. The skull has a 
large anteorbital fossa, quite equalling the orbit in size. 
The snout is of medium length with very broad triangular 
nasal bones expanding laterally and roofing over the ante- 
orbital fossa. Two generic groups are included, the typical 
or forest duikers and the bush or plains duikers, the latter 
being a recent offshoot which have forsaken the forest for 
a life in open bush country on the edge of plains. The 

527 



528 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

subfamily is distributed throughout all of Ethiopia and is 
the most wide-spread group of antelopes in Africa. In past 
geologic time duikers ranged as far as Algeria where they 
are represented by two Pleistocene species. 



Key to the Genera 

Horns projecting straight back in line with or slightly below the 
dorsal profile of the head, less than half the length 
of the head, with broad base and triangular in 
shape; hair unicolored without annulations 

Cephalophus 

Horns projecting backward and upward slightly above dorsal pro- 
file of head, the length more than one-half the head, 
base narrow, the horns long and cylindrical in shape; 
hair annulated, the coat being vermiculated 

Sylvicapra 

Forest Duikers 

Cephalophus 

Cephalophus H. Smith, 1827, Griffith's Anim. Kingd., V, p. 344; t3^pe C. sylvi- 
cultrix, the yellow-backed duiker. 

The forest duikers are characterized by their short, 
broad horns, which project backward from the skull slightly 
below the line of the dorsal profile of the head. The horns 
are much shorter than the head and often so diminutive 
as to be concealed by the long coronal tuft of hair. In 
distinction to the bush duikers the coloration is uniform 
or of solid colors, the hair not being annulated or vermic- 
ulated. The forest duikers occur only in heavy forest 
growth. Their centre of abundance is in the great Congo 
forest in much of which they are the only representatives 
of the Bovidcs. In distribution they are spread over all the 
forested areas of Africa south of the Sahara Desert, with the 
exception of Abyssinia. 



DUIKERS AND SMALL ANTELOPES 529 

Key to the Species of Cephalophus 

Body size not diminutive; false hoofs well developed 

Body size large, skull 9 inches or more in length, coloration of 
back and rurnp seal-brown or black spadix 

Body size medium, skull less than 8 inches in length; coloration of^ 
back and rump bright rufous 7iatalensis 

Body size diminutive; false hoofs minute; coloration fuscous or slaty 

monticola 

Red Forest Duikers 

Cephalophus natalensis 

The red forest duikers form a very distinct group of 
small bay-colored antelopes which are confined in their dis- 
tribution strictly to dense forest growth. In color they 
are bright or deep red with the whole top of the head and 
nape, chest, and legs blackish or dark in color. The tail 
is short with a bushy tuft at the tip showing a mixture of 
dark and light colors. The horns are short and so broad 
basally that they are quite triangular in shape. The fe- 
male is equal to the male in size, but possesses much smaller 
horns. The sexes are identical in coloration. The young 
or immature are quite blackish or deep brown in color on 
the forward half of the body, the bay color making its 
appearance first upon the rump and gradually spreading 
forward to the head in adult life. The red duikers are 
distributed in several geographical forms from South 
Africa northward throughout the breadth of Africa as far 
as the equator in East Africa, but extend much farther 
north on the West Coast to the southern edge of the Sahara. 
They are solitary in habits and move about chiefly at night 
in definite runways or paths in the forest along which they 
browse on the undershrubs. 

Key to the Races of natalensis 

Body bright red or bay color 

Legs lighter than the crown patch, walnut-brown harveyi 

Legs blackish like the crown patch in color ignifer 

Body tawny or cinnamon-rufous johnstoni 



530 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

Kilimanjaro Red Duiker 

Cephalophus natalensis harveyi 

Native Name: Swahili, nuno. 

Cephalophus harveyi Thomas, 1893, Ann. i^ Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), XI, p. 48. 

Range. — From the Juba and Tana Rivers southward 
along the coast to German East Africa and westward to 
KiHmanjaro and Mount Meru. 

Jackson collected the type which was named at his 
suggestion for Harvey, who had shot a specimen previously 
on the River Lumi near Taveta. The type specimen was 
obtained in the Kahe forest on the south slope of Kiliman- 
jaro. Several years previous to the discovery of the 
species by Harvey, Sir John Kirk sent a specimen to the 
British Museum from Malindi which had been referred to 
natalensis and then forgotten. Other specimens have been 
shot on the coast of German East Africa near Tanga, 
Saadani, and Dar-es-Salam. The northern record is based 
on specimens secured on the lower Juba River by Captain 
Bottego in 1894. 

The Kilimanjaro red duiker may be distinguished from 
the highland race of British East Africa by its lighter- 
colored legs, smaller body size, and absence of white on the 
inner side of the limbs on their basal portion. From the 
typical race, natalensis, of South Africa it differs by having 
the whole dorsal surface of the snout and head black or 
deep seal-brown in color. No flesh measurements of speci- 
mens are recorded. The skull length of the male specimen 
shot by Doctor L. W. Abbott near Taveta and now in the 
National Museum is 6^/i inches. The horn dimensions in 
this specimen are: length, 3^ inches; girth at the base, 2^ 
inches. 

Highland Red Duiker 

Cephalophus natalensis ignifer 

Native Name: 'Ndorobo, meindet. 

Cephalophus ignifer Thomas, 1903, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 226. 

Range. — Highland forest area of British East Africa 
from Mount Kenia westward over the Kikuyu and Mau 
Escarpments to Mount Elgon. 



DUIKERS AND SMALL ANTELOPES 531 

A red duiker obtained near Edoma Ravine was made the 
basis for the description of another race, ignifer, by Thomas 
In 1903. This specimen showed a smaller amount of black 
on the crown than the closely allied race, nigrifrons, of 
the Congo. It is distinguishable from harveyi by the dark 
color of the legs, by larger body size, and the presence of 
some rufous hair In the crown patch. Recently, specimens 
from Nairobi have been described as a different race, 
kenicSy by Lonnberg, who gives the color differences with 
harveyi as the character of his race. Nairobi specimens 
have been compared at the British Museum with the type 
of ignifer and with other specimens from Ruwenzori, and 
have been found quite identical in coloration. Two adult 
female specimens from Nairobi are in the National Museum 
which show considerable variation In the amount of black- 
ness on the crown, nape, and breast. The type has the 
color of the back bright bay or ochraceous-rufous, darken- 
ing forward on the neck and shoulders to dull brownish. 
The forehead Is mixed rufous and black. The crown and 
occiput are bright-rufous, like the back; and the coronal tuft 
is a deeper and more chestnut or vinaceous rufous. The lips 
and chin are white. The ears are dark-brown on the back, 
with white edges and inner surfaces. The throat Is rufous 
and the belly is brown mesially, grading into rufous, laterally. 
The Inner side of the forearms, the inguinal region, and the In- 
ner side of the thighs are white. The outer side of the thighs 
and the forearms is rufous. The feet are brown, darkening al- 
most to black above the hoofs. The tail Is rufous above, white 
belowproximally, with a mixed brown and white terminal tuft. 

The skull length of an adult male Is 6>^ Inches, that of 
a female 6^ Inches. The horn length of a male from 
Eldoma Ravine is 3^ inches with a basal diameter of 1% 
inches. The horns of an adult female from Nairobi are 
about one-half of these dimensions. They are ij/i Inches 
in length by ^ of an Inch in diameter at the base. 

Uganda Red Duiker 
Cephalophus natalensis johnstoni 

Cephalophus johnstoni ThomzSy 1901, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 89. 

Range. — Throughout the forest area of Uganda from 
the western base of Mount Elgon eastward to Ruwenzori, 



532 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

on the slopes of which It ranges to an altitude of 10,000 
feet. 

The Uganda race of the red duiker was named by 
Oldfield Thomas from a specimen collected in 1900 by Sir 
Harry Johnston in Toro during his administration as special 
commissioner of Uganda. The type unfortunately is quite 
youthful, having only the milk teeth in use and does not 
represent the adult coloration. Immature specimens of 
ignifer of the same age are quite like the type of johnstoni. 
Another species described by Thomas as riibidus, from a 
flat native skin without skull obtained in the same general 
region, is doubtless an adult of johnstoni and is much redder 
than the younger specimen, which is in the blackish pelage 
of youth. The Uganda red duiker may be known from the 
highland race by its larger body size and lighter or more 
tawny coloration, old adults being quite yellowish or 
ochraceous-tawny, similar to zueynsi of the upper Congo. 
In the young the head, neck, shoulders, and fore back are 
quite blackish or seal-brown with only the rump and the 
legs bright rufous. 

The heads of a male and a female from Kampala, pre- 
sented by District Commissioner Knowles to Colonel 
Roosevelt, are in the National Museum. The dimensions 
of these specimens are: length of skull, male, yyi inches; 
female, 7 inches; length of horns, male, 3^^ inches; female, 
i^ inches; diameter of horns at base, male, i^/i inches; 
female, ^ inch. 

Abbott Duiker 

Cephalophus spadix 

Cephalophus spadix True, 1890, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., p. 227. 

Range. — Forests of Kilimanjaro and the Usambara 
Range. 

The type specimen collected by Doctor L. W. Abbott 
at a high elevation on Kilimanjaro has remained unique 
for many years. Recently, the British Museum has re- 
ceived a head from the Usambara Range, at a point one 
hundred miles inland from Tanga, a port on the coast of 
German East Africa. This discovery would indicate that 
the species is not confined to the high forests of Kilimanjaro, 
but is distributed throughout the coast forests as well. 



DUIKERS AND SMALL ANTELOPES 533 

The Abbott duiker differs widely from any of the East 
African species by its large size. It resembles quite closely 
in size and color the black duiker of the West Coast of 
Africa, from which it differs by the absence of rufous on 
the chest and the character of the tail, which is long-haired 
throughout. The skull differs from that of the black 
duiker by its narrower mesopterygoid fossa and small 
tympanic bullae. Sclater and Thomas in the " Book of 
Antelopes" suggest that the close agreement which True 
detected between this species and the black duiker is not 
well founded, and that it is really a close relative of the 
red duiker, natale^isis. A comparison of skulls, however, 
shows close similarity in the shape of the palate between 
the Abbott and black duiker and less agreement with the 
red species. We are quite justified in considering it the 
East Coast representative of the black duiker of West 
Africa. It belongs in a general way to the group of giant 
duikers, of which the yellow-backed duiker C. sylvicultrix 
is typical. 

The color of the type, which is an adult male, is uniform 
chestnut-brown on the body and legs, the under-parts being 
quite as dark as the flanks. The hinder parts of the back and 
the rump are darkest, and seal-brown in color. The tail is 
dark, like the rump, and has a few white-tipped hairs at the 
tip. The dorsal surface of the head is chestnut, like the body, 
and the crown has a long tuft of blackish hair. The sides of 
head and the snout are light-drab. The ears are chestnut on 
the back with lighter inner surfaces. The type is in the 
National Museum and measures as mounted: head and 
body, 38 inches; tail, 3 inches; hind foot, 11 inches; ear, 
3^ inches. The skull measures in greatest length g}^ 
inches. Horn dimensions: length, 4^ inches; diameter at 
base, lyi inches. 

Blue Duikers 

Cephalophus monticola 

The diminutive blue duiker in its numerous geograph- 
ical forms is wide-spread throughout Africa from the ex- 
treme southern point north through all the forested regions 
to the southern edge of the Sahara on the west and the 



534 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

Nile Lakes and Tana River on the east. The bhie duikers 
may be distinguished from all other members of the genus 
by their small size and dark brownish or grayish coloration. 
In size they are among the smallest members of the Bovidc^y 
rivalling the pygmy and the royal antelopes for diminutive 
body size. Their horns are the shortest found in the genus 
Cephalophus, being only one-third the length of the head. 
They extend backward and curve inward at the tips and 
are heavily ringed, the latter character giving them a 
close resemblance to those of the pygmy antelope. The 
false hoofs are greatly reduced and relatively much smaller 
than in the red duikers. The sexes are alike in color and 
size, but the female is usually without horns in the East 
African races. Like the red duikers, they are confined to 
dense forest growth, where they are either paired or lead a 
solitary life. They travel about through the forest on 
definite narrow paths of their own construction and browse 
upon the leaves and twigs of various shrubs. In movement 
they are extremely quick and avoid their enemies by the 
rapidity of their pace as well as by their wariness and shy- 
ness. The recognizable races number about twelve, three 
of which occur in East Africa. 

Key to the Races of monticola 

Legs fuscous-brown, like the body 

Under-parts dark-colored, like the sides of the body; body size 
smaller cequatorialis 

Under-parts light grayish, contrasting conspicuously with the 
dark sides; body size larger musculoides 

Legs vinaceous-cinnamon, decidedly lighter than the brown body 

hecki 

Uganda Blue Duiker 

Cephalophus monticola aquatorialis 

Native Name: Luganda, entalaganya. 

Cephalophus csquatorialis Matschie, 1892, Sitz.-Ber. Ges. Nat. Freu. Berl., 
p. 112. 

Range. — Forests of Uganda from Mount Elgon west- 
ward to Ruwenzori and from the Victoria Nile southward 
to Karagwc and the Edward Nyanza. 



DUIKERS AND SMALL ANTELOPES 535 

The Uganda race of the blue duiker was described by 
Matschie upon some skins obtained by Doctor Stuhlmann 
near Kampala, in the Chagwe district. The Baganda use 
the skins for mantles and robes, for which purpose the skins 
are roughly tanned and sewn together in a single piece. 
Duiker-skins are a common commodity in the native mar- 
kets, where they are offered for sale. The animals are 
caught in snares set across their runways in the forest, 
and are trapped primarily for their flesh, of which the 
natives are very fond. The race may be distinguished from 
the Congo blue duiker, melanorheus, by its darker under- 
parts and the absence of horns in the female. No flesh 
measurements of specimens are available. The skull of 
an adult male from Kampala in the National Museum 
has a length of 4>^ inches, with horns ly^ inches in length 
by yi inch in diameter at the base. 



Nandi Blue Duiker 
Cephalophus monticola musculoides 

Native Name: Kavirondo (Jaluo), kised. 
Cephalophus monticola musculoides Heller, 1913, Smith. Misc. Coll., vol. 61, 
No. 7, p. 9. 

Range. — Summit and west flank of the Mau Escarp- 
ment from Eldoma Ravine Station west to Mount Elgon 
and southward to the Uganda Railway at Muhoroni. 

The Nandi blue duiker was described from specimens 
collected in the Kakumega forest at the base of the Nandi 
Escarpment. It differs from the Uganda race by the 
lighter-colored under-parts and larger body size, the skull 
being ^ inch longer than in csquatorialis. 

The median dorsal coloration of the head and the body 
is fuscous, merging on the sides and under-parts to ecru- 
drab. The legs are somewhat darker than the back, being 
benzo-brown. The hinder border of the rump and the base 
of the tail are fuscous-black. The terminal half of the tail 
is white; but the hair basally is fuscous. The midline of 
the belly, the throat to the chin, and the inside of the legs 
are whitish. The top of the head and the muzzle are uni- 
form fuscous, and the cheeks and the orbital region are 



536 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

ecru-drab which gradually shades into the whitish chin and 
throat. The ears are fuscous on the back, but the inner 
side is whitish, like the throat. 

The flesh measurements of an adult male are: head and 
body, 20 inches; tail, 3^ inches; hind foot, 6^ inches; 
ear, 2)4 inches. Length of skull, 4^2 inches. Horns, 1^4 
inches in length by ^2 inch in basal diameter. 

The Nandi race occupies the highland forest of the 
Nandi Escarpment, lying at an average altitude of some 
2,000 feet above the range of the Uganda race. The dif- 
ferences in color and size of the two races are, no doubt, due 
to this difference in altitude and environment. Specimens 
from the summit of the Mau, at Elgeyo, are in the British 
Museum collection. Owing to the forest habitat and the 
secretive nature of these small antelope, they are almost 
never met with by sportsmen. The recorded specimens 
have all been obtained from the natives who trap them 
for their flesh and skins. 



Coast Blue Duiker 

Cephalophus monticola hecki 

Native Name: Swahili, paa. 

Cephalophus hecki Matschie, 1897, Sitz.-Ber. Ges. Nat. Freu. Berl., p. 158. 

Range. — From the Witu district and the mouth of the 
Tana River south through the forest area of the coast to 
Mozambique. 

The blue duiker inhabiting the coast forest area is strik- 
ingly different from the Uganda race in color, but similar 
to it in size. The legs are light vinaceous-cinnamon, in 
marked contrast to the fuscous-brown body, and the under- 
parts are pure white, at least medially. The tail is quite 
bushy and white in color, with a narrow black dorsal stripe. 
The race was described from a specimen in the Berlin 
Museum from Mozambique and named for Doctor Heck, 
the able director of the Berlin Zoological Garden. Speci- 
mens have been examined at the British Museum from 
the Shimba Hills near Mombasa and from Zanzibar Island, 
collected by Sir John Kirk. This material is quite indis- 
tinguishable from specimens from the Mozambique coast. 



DUIKERS AND SMALL ANTELOPES 537 

Jackson, who appears to be the only sportsman who has met 
with this rare Httle antelope, records it from the forests 
near Witu. Robin Kemp, the mammal collector for the 
British Museum, has collected a specimen recently in the 
Shimba Hills. It will doubtless be found in all the larger 
forest area of the coast district upon careful investigation. 



Bush Duikers 

Sylvicapra 

Sylvicapra Ogilby, 1863, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 138; type Cephalophus grimmia. 

The bush or common duikers are usually placed in the 
genus Cephalophus together with the true forest duikers. 
They have, however, several points of difference from the 
latter, and there is less liability of confusion if they are 
treated as a separate genus, Sylvicapra. The horns differ 
from those of the forest duikers in direction, slanting up- 
ward at an angle to the dorsal profile of the skull. In 
shape they differ somewhat, being long, slender, and cir- 
cular in outline at the base, with no approach to the trian- 
gular flattened horns of the forest duikers. The female is 
distinguishable from the forest duikers by the absence of 
horns. The skull has a long, mesopterygoid fossa which ex- 
tends well in front of the lateral ones. The nasal bones 
are broadly triangular and project out on the sides, over- 
hanging the anteorbital fossa. The bush duikers inhabit 
scattered bush country on the edge of plains and are never 
found in the forests. They show great adaptability, being 
found throughout a greater altitudinal range than any other 
hoofed mammal in Africa. In equatorial Africa they are 
the only antelope which occurs as high as the alpine mead- 
ows near the snow-line. At such high altitudes they are 
quite as abundant as in the game country proper or in the 
maritime districts. The genus occurs from the Cape north- 
ward to the highlands of Abyssinia and westward across 
the Nile and Niger watersheds to Senegal. It is, however, 
absent from the Congo forest area, which is the centre of 
abundance of the forest duikers. The genus is represented 
by a single species, grimmia^ which is separable into numer- 
ous geographical races. The species attains its maximum 



538 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

size and darkest coloration in the Cape region. The sexes 
are ahke in coloration, but the female exceeds the male 
somewhat in body size. The young differ only from the 
adults in tone of coloration, being darker and uniformly 
vermiculated with blackish. The under-parts are drab 
rather than white, and the head lacks any indication of 
the bright tawny coloration of the adult, although the 
black median stripe is well marked on the snout and 
forehead. 



The duiker is widely distributed not only laterally but 
vertically. We found it feeding at night on the Aberdare 
Mountains when the temperature was below freezing, and 
we found it feeding at noon on the hot, dry plains of the 
Lado, where the leaves of the acacias were shrivelled and 
the thermometer stood high up in the nineties. It is a 
solitary little animal, even two being rarely found together. 
It is never found far away from thick cover, and when 
alarmed bolts into it without turning to look back. It runs 
with head extended, occasionally bounding high into the 
air, and in the bush it runs at full speed in zigzags through 
places which a hunter can hardly traverse at all. All these 
bush antelope— bongo, bushbuck, duiker — go at speed, nose 
straight out, through and under a tangle of branches which it 
seems literally incredible that they can penetrate. Duikers 
are browsers; they feed on twigs, leaves, bean pods, and 
fruits. We found them eating wild olives and also the 
berries of a plant that looked like nightshade; and in the 
Lado they ate grass tips and the stems and leaves of a low- 
growing bush plant. 

The commonest food of the bush duiker is the foliage 
and yellow berries of the nightshade, Solatium campylacan- 
thum. On the summit of the Aberdare Range we found the 



DUIKERS AND SMALL ANTELOPES 539 

stomach contents to consist chiefly of the twigs and leaves 
of the alpine shrub, Alche7nilla argyrophylla. At Voi the 
stomach contents of one individual consisted of the leaves 
and fruit of a native cucumber. Duikers are silent ani- 
mals without any alarm or recognition notes. 

Duikers are finished skulkers and hiders. They lie 
motionless, with neck outstretched, until the hunter is very 
close, if they think themselves concealed; and if they be- 
come suspicious they are adepts at sneaking quietly out 
of sight behind some bush and then making off rapidly 
through the cover for several hundred yards. 

Key to the Races of grimmia 

Ears shorter, less than 4 inches in length 

Body size smaller, skull less than 6 inches in length; lower part of 
feet brownish-drab roosevelti 

Body size larger, skull 6 inches or greater in length; lower part 
of feet fuscous-brown nyanscs 

Ears longer, exceeding 4 inches in length 

Pelage long and heavy, much vermiculated with black or dark 
brown; lower part of feet black altivallis 

Pelage shorter and more uniform with very little blackish ver- 
miculation; feet fuscous or seal-brown 
Dorsal color tawny or ochraceous-tawny hindei 

Dorsal color buff deserti 

Nile Bush Duiker 
Sylvicapra grimmia roosevelti 

Native Names: Dinka, amook; Bongo, deelg. 

Sylvicapra grimmia roosevelti Heller, 1912, Smith. Misc. Coll., vol. 60, No. 
8, p. 9. 

Range. — From the Albert Nyanza northward over the 
lowlands of the Nile drainage as far as the limits of the 



540 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

bush country or the southern edge of the sand desert of 
the Sahara in the White Nile region. 

The type of the Nile bush duiker was shot by Colonel 
Roosevelt near Rhino Camp, Lado Enclave, during his 
quest for the white rhinoceros in that district, and was 
described in 191 2 by Heller. The earliest mention of 
the occurrence of the bush duiker in the Nile Valley is 
apparently Heuglin's reference, in 1869, in his account of 
his explorations on the White Nile, to some skins offered 
him by the natives at Meshra-er-Rek in the Bahr-el- 
Ghazal district. Schweinfurth included it in his list of 
Nile mammals published in 1873, and gives the native 
names by which it is known in the districts through which 
he travelled. 

The Nile bush duiker may be known by its small size 
from any other race. Its distinctive color characters are 
the more grayish tone of the dorsal parts, the absence or 
faintness of the dark stripes on the legs below the knees, 
and the lighter brownish-drab color of the dark bands above 
the hoofs. Other characters are its short ears and the 
small size of the skull, which is less than six inches in length. 

The dorsal body coloration is wood-brown vermiculated 
with blackish and darkest on the median line. Basally the 
hair is ecru-drab. The sides of the body are lighter, be- 
coming pure fawn where they meet the white of the under- 
parts. The neck shows very little black vermiculation, 
being almost wholly cinnamon-brown, this color extending 
onto the head, where it deepens to russet on the crown and 
borders the black median stripe which extends from the rhi- 
narium to the base of the horns. The cheeks and sides of 
the face are lighter, being fawn color. The rump is more 
grayish than the back, the drab-gray predominating. The 
tail is marked by a heavy black dorsal stripe, the sides and 
lower surfaces are white, and the tip is chiefly white. The 
belly and the inside of the legs are white, and the hair at 
the extreme base is drab. The chest is mixed white and 
fawn with the drab of the basal part showing through. The 
lower throat is fawn, like the sides. The chin, upper lips, 
and throat are white. The tip of the chin is marked by 
dark-brown spot on each side separated by the white of the 
throat. The limbs are grayish-fawn, like the back, with a 



DUIKERS AND SMALL ANTELOPES 541 

brownish-drab band encircling the hoofs and covering the 
whole pastern region, while a stripe of the same color ex- 
tends to the knees on the forelegs. The outside of the ears 
is dark, and covered by minute scattered cinnamon hairs, 
the tips showing no darker borders. The inside of the ears 
is clothed by long white hairs. 

The flesh measurements of an adult male from Rhino 
Camp are: head and body, 31 }4 inches; tail, 4.J4 inches; 
hind foot, 10 inches; ear, ^H inches. The basal length of 
the skull from the condyles to the tip of the snout is 53^ 
inches. Three male specimens are in the National Museum 
collection, two of them from Rhino Camp and the third 
from Butiaba, a port on the northeast shore of the Albert 
Nyanza. The maximum horn measurements in these spec- 
imens are: length, straight, 33^ inches; spread at the tips, 
ij/i inches. 

Uganda Bush Duiker 

Sylvicapra grimmia nyansa 

Sylvicapra abyssinica nyansa Neumann, 1905, Sitz.-Ber. Ges. Nat. Freu., 
Bed., p. 89. 

Range. — From the southern limits of the Vfctoria 
Nyanza drainage northward through Uganda and the 
Elgon highlands as far as the latitude of Nimule; east- 
ward over the Mau Escarpment of British East Africa to 
the western edge of the Rift Valley. 

Oscar Neumann described the Uganda bush duiker in 
1905 from some flat native skins which he obtained in 1893 
from the Kavirondo of the Kisumu district of British East 
Africa. It is one of the small-eared races, resembling the 
Nile race in this respect, but may be distinguished from 
the latter by its larger body size, more ochraceous colora- 
tion, and darker-brown color of the pastern region of the feet. 
Specimens have been examined in the National Museum 
from the Uasin Gishu Plateau collected by the Smithsonian 
African expedition. Powell-Cotton collected specimens 
north of Mount Elgon and also in the Kedef Valley east 
of Nimule, which represent the northern limits of this race. 
An adult female from the Uasin Gishu Plateau gives the 
following flesh measurements: head and body, 38 inches; 



542 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

tail, 43/^ inches; hind foot, ioj4 inches; ear, 2H inches; 
basal length of skull, 6j4 inches. A male specimen from 
the same locality has horns 4^ inches in length by 2 inches 
in spread at the tips. 

Alpine Bush Duiker 

Sylvicapra grimmia altivallis 

Sylvicapra grimmia altivallis Heller, 191 2, Smith. Misc. Coll., vol. 60, No. 8, 
p. 10. 

Range. — Alpine meadows of the Aberdare Range and 
Mount Kenia. 

The summit of the Aberdare Range has supplied us 
with an alpine race of bush duikers. The soggy moor- 
land meadows lying at an elevation of 9,000 to 11,000 feet 
are inhabited by a shaggy-coated race of dark coloration 
to which the name altivallis was given by Heller in 191 2. 
The type specimen was shot by Colonel Roosevelt on the 
summit of the range where it is crossed by the Naivasha- 
Nyeri road. The spot was within a stone's throw of the 
safari camp at an elevation of approximately 10,500 feet. 
At this elevation the mountain range has a broad, flat- 
tened summit which extends in a north and south direction 
in a series of rolling downs for many miles. The downs 
are clothed everywhere by a thick carpet of alpine shrubs, 
chiefly various species of Jlchemilla, interspersed with a 
few tussocks of rank grass and widely scattered thickets 
of heather bushes. The wet, spongy ground is broken up 
into hummocks and the Alchemilla shrubs grow so densely 
that travel over the moorland is very much like wading 
through soft snow-drifts. The duikers do not live in the 
open moorland but frequent the heather thickets where 
the ground is firmer. At night, however, they wander 
about over these boggy and shrubby moors upon the 
shrubs of which they feed. Surrounding this moorland 
on the slopes of the range is a dense forest of bamboo 
including a scattered growth of trees. On the lower slopes 
of the range the trees form a dense forest to the exclusion 
of the bamboo. This fringing forest is not inhabited by 
any of the Sylvicapra duikers, which are strictly plains or 




ATHI BUSH DUIKER, MALE 

Kitanga, Athi Plains, B. E. A. 

United States National Museum 




Type Specimen and only one known 

Shot by Dr. L. W. Abbott in Kilimanjaro Forest 

United States National Museum 

DUIKERS 



DUIKERS AND SMALL ANTELOPES 543 

bush duikers, but serves as a barrier to their migration 
downward to the plains, which are inhabited by another 
closely allied race, hindei. We have the same conditions 
duplicated on Mount Kenia, the same race of high moun- 
tain duikers, altivallis, inhabiting the moorland down to 
the beginning of the dense bamboo and forest zone which 
absolutely limits their lower vertical range and keeps them 
apart from their close allies of the plains below. 

The dorsal coloration is ochraceous-tawny, heavily 
lined by black, the latter predominating and giving a 
Front's brown general effect, the hair basally being 
broccoli-brown. The rump is somewhat grayer than the 
back. The sides of the body and the neck are tawny-olive, 
the color merging gradually into the white under-parts. The 
neck and the sides are without black vermiculation. The top 
of the head is bright cinnamon-rufous, with a broad median 
band of black from the rhinarium to the coronal tuft ; the tuft, 
however, is chiefly cinnamon-rufous. The sides of the face 
are lighter or cinnamon. The under-parts are white, the 
hair basally being ecru-drab. The chest is mixed with fawn 
centrally. The lower throat is tawny-olive, like the sides. 
The throat and the median line of the chin and the upper lips 
are white, but the sides of the chin are seal-brown, in marked 
contrast. The hind legs are vermiculated with black, like the 
rump. The pastern region above the hoofs is seal-brown, 
which is continued a few inches above as a faint streak. 
The forelegs are vermiculated with black, like the hind, 
and the seal-brown of the pasterns is more extensive and 
extends up the front of the limbs nearly to the shoulders. 
The ears are clothed by short tawny hairs on the outside 
and inside with long white hair. 

Four specimens, two males and two females, of this 
race, from the summit of the Aberdare Range, have been 
examined at the National Museum. The larger male speci- 
men measured in the flesh: head and body, 34 inches; tail, 
4 inches; hind foot, 10^ inches; ear, 4^ inches. Length 
of skull, Gyi inches. The horns of this specimen measured 
4^ inches in length by i^ inches in spread at the tips. 
The two female specimens are slightly larger than these 
dimensions. 



544 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

Athi Bush Duiker 

Sylvicapra grimmia hindei 

Native Name: Masai, emhutuzvin. 

Cephalophus abyssinicus hindei Wroughton, 1910, Ann. i^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(8), vol. V, p. 273. 

Range. — From the northern slopes of Mount Kenia 
and the headwaters of the Northern Guaso Nyiro River 
and Lake Baringo southward throughout the high veldt 
to Kihmanjaro and central German East Africa. 

The Athi bush duiker was named by Wroughton from a 
specimen collected by Doctor H. S. Hinde at Fort Hall, 
where he was stationed for some years as district commis- 
sioner. The race is characterized by its bright ochraceous- 
tawny coloration and small amount of black vermiculation 
in its coat. It is readily distinguishable from the alpine 
race by the lighter or seal-brown color of the pasterns and 
the shorter pelage, but is indistinguishable from it in size. 
Specimens of this race were collected ^by the Smithsonian 
African expedition on the Athi Plains at Ngong, Bondoni, 
Ulu, and Machakos; near Fort Hall, at Chief Wambugu's 
village, on the northwest slope of Kenia, northeast of 
Nyeri, and on the Loita Plains, near the German border. 

Desert Bush Duiker 

Sylvicapra grinnjiia deserti 

Native Names: ?>\n?l\\\\\, ngruvu ; Duruma, j-^/j. 

Sylvicapra grimmia deserti Heller, 1913, Smith. Misc. Coll., vol. 61, No. 17, 
p. 4. 

Range. — Desert coast lands from the Tana River 
southward to German East Africa; inland as far as the 
east slopes of Kilimanjaro and Kenia. 

The desert bush duiker was recently described from 
specimens collected by the Rainey expedition at Voi. It 
is markedly lighter in color than the other equatorial Afri- 
can races, being buffy, with almost no darker vermiculation 
showing in the coat, and readily distinguishable from the 
tawny or vermiculated color of the other races. The male 
is distinguishable by his more vertically directed horns. 




MAP 25 DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES OF THE BUSH DUIKER 

1 Syhicapra grimmia abyssinica 2 Syhicapra grimmia roosevelti 3 Sylvicapra grimmia nyansiz 

4 Sylvicapra grimmia altivallis 5 Sylvicapra grimmia hindei 6 Sylvicapra grimmia deserti 

545 



546 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

The dorsal color is ochraceous-buff, speckled very lightly 
by narrow dusky vermiculations to the hair. The under- 
parts are white, with the breast showing, but a slight ten- 
dency toward the ochraceous color of hindei. The legs are 
buffy, like the body, but lack the darker vermiculation and 
are from the fetlocks to the hoofs solid fuscous-brown, this 
color being continued upward in front as an indefinite darker 
leg stripe. The tail is marked by a median black dorsal 
stripe, the sides and under-surface being white, in sharp 
contrast, and the tip mixed black and white. The head 
is ochraceous, marked by a broad seal-brown or black median 
stripe from the muzzle to the horn bases. The lips, chin, 
and forethroat are white, the chin being marked on the 
sides by two faint drab spots representing the blackish 
patches of hindei. The eyelashes and anteorbital stripe are 
black. The ears on the back are covered by a short scattered 
growth of ochraceous hair, but their general color tone is 
brownish, due to the dark skin showing through, while the 
inner side and the base are white. The throat and the nape 
are ochraceous-buff and slightly darker than the body. 

The body size and proportions are quite as in the Athi 
bush duiker. The horns of the type specimen are ^yi 
inches in length by 25 s inches in spread at the tips. They 
are directed upward from the dorsal profile of the skull at 
an angle of 130 degrees. Besides the Voi specimens, others 
were secured at Maji ya Chumvi and Mariakani Stations 
on the Uganda Railway. Deserti is a lowland race occupy- 
ing the Taru Desert as far east as the edge of the cocoa-palm 
zone fringing the coast. 

Subfamily Nesotragince 

We have in this group antelopes of small or diminutive 
size and of somewhat diverse characters, such as the pygmy 
sunis and royal antelopes, the oribis and the steinboks. 
They agree in having the anteorbital gland of large size 
and opening on the face by a rounded pore, in having rudi- 
mentary tails, and in the small size of the horns, which are 
confined to the male sex. The pelage is of normal texture. 



DUIKERS AND SMALL ANTELOPES 547 

The skull exhibits a large anteorbital fossa which usually 
equals or exceeds the orbit in diameter, being smaller than 
the orbit only in the steinbok, Raphicerus. The bones of 
the snout are normal in development and arrangement, the 
premaxillary bones being in contact with the nasals and a 
lachrymal-nasal sinus being present. The genera included are 
Nesotragus^ Ourebia, Nototragus, Raphicerus, and NeotraguSy 
the last named confined to the forested area of the Congo 
and the West Coast of Africa. 

Key to the Genera 

Anteorbital fossa large, the diameter about equalling that of the orbit; 
horns heavily ringed at least at the base 
Size diminutive, about equalling a hare; general coloration red- 
dish; horns small, projecting straight backward in line 
with the snout; lateral hoofs absent; no knee-brushes 

Nesotragus 

Size larger, in height equalling a goat; general coloration yellow- 
ish; horns small, projecting upward at an obtuse 
angle with the snout; lateral hoofs present; knee- 
brushes well developed; a bare spot on the side of the 
head below the ear Ourebia 

Anteorbital fossa small, the diameter only one-third that of the orbit; „ - \j-if%' 
horns smooth, not ringed Raphicerus /'' "" 

The subfamily N eotragince of Sclater and Thomas is a 
heterogeneous association of genera of small antelopes. It 
has been used almost universally by systematic naturalists 
as a left-over repository for the smaller species of antelopes 
which are not obviously allied to the better-marked divisions 
into which the larger may be arranged. It has thus come 
to be an association based almost solely upon small size. 
As constituted by its authors in 1892 it included the genera 
Neotragus, Nesotragus, Ourebia, Raphicerus, Oreotragus, and 
Madoqua. Gray, some years earlier, in 1872, proposed the 
family Nesotragidce for Nesotragus, Nanotragus {Neotragus), 



vr 



548 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

and Pediotragus (Raphicertis), placing Neotragus {Madoqud) 
in with the gazelles in the family Antilopidcs and Oreotragus, 
the klipspringer, in another family, HeliotragincB, together 
with Kobus, the waterbucks, and Tetraceros, the four-horned 
antelopes. 

This grouping by Gray is a more natural arrangement 
than that adopted by later authors, for Madoqua or the dik- 
dik is obviously, as witnessed by its skull characters, more 
closely related to the gazelles than to any other of the 
genera with which it has been placed. Oreotragus, however, 
though quite distinct in general characters from its asso- 
ciates in the Neotragincs, is certainly not an ally of A"o/^i^j or 
Tetraceros. 

In 1907 Knottnerus-Meyer removed from this assem- 
blage Raphicerus and Grysbock {Nototragiis) for which he 
formed the subfamily Raphicerotince, which he based upon 
differences in the lachrymal bone, but left the other genera 
assembled together as arranged by Sclater and Thomas. 
We do not, however, consider the somewhat smaller size of 
the anteorbital fossa in the steinboks of sufficient system- 
atic importance to justify the erection of a subfamily for the 
group. As the steinbok differs but little from the other 
genera included in the Neotragina, our ideas of their relation- 
ships are best expressed by leaving them in the subfamily. 

In order to show the true relationships of the various 
genera under consideration it is necessary to remove the very 
distinct Madoqua and Rhynchotragus and place them in a 
new subfamily near Aniilopince and also place Oreotragus in 
a separate subfamily owing to its peculiar skull and hair 
characters. Such an arrangement will give us the following 
natural groups or subfamilies: 

Nesotragincs: Snout normal, premaxillae long, and in con- 
tact with the nasal bones which are well developed; ante- 
orbital fossa well developed, usually exceeding the orbit 
in size. Genera included: Nesotragus, Neotragus, Ourebia, 
Raphicerus, Nototragiis. 

Oreotragince: Snout somewhat shortened, the nasals very 
broad and extensive in area, anteorbital fossa large as in 
Nesotragincs; pelage peculiar, coarse, and pithy like that of 
the American prong-horn, Antilocapra. Only one genus in- 
cluded, Oreotragus, the klipspringer. 



DUIKERS AND SMALL ANTELOPES 549 

Rhynchotragincs: Snout with the anterior nares greatly 
enlarged in order to accommodate the proboscis; nasal bones 
greatly reduced, the length not greater than the width; pre- 
maxillae greatly produced in the typical genus and turned 
downward at the tip; anteorbital fossa large as in the Neso- 
tragince. Genera included : Rhynchotragus and Madoqua. 

In the snout of Rhynchotragus we have a bony structure 
quite similar to that found in Saiga, which is also a proboscis- 

'Rhynchotraginae 

Saiginae 
^ntilopinae Nesotraginae 

Oreotraginae 




bearing antelope. In the saiga, however, the premaxillary 
bones are confined to the tip of the maxillary bones and the 
lachrymal bone is greatly enlarged and projects forward to 
the narial chamber, where it forms a considerable part of 
the wall, r This arrangement is a unique condition in the 
BovidcE. The relationships of the subfamilies described may 
be expressed in the above diagram, Gazella being assumed 
to be nearest the parent stock. 

Pygmy Antelope 

Nesotragus 

Nesotragus von Diiben, 1847, Oefvers, Akad. Forhandl., Stockholm, III, p. 
221; type Nesotragus moschatus. 

The pygmy antelopes are of diminutive size, about equal- 
ling a hare, and of rufous or reddish coloration. The tail is 
short, and the false or lateral hoofs are absent. The ante- 
orbital gland opens on the side of the face by a single 
rounded pore. The horns are present in the male only, and 
are short, not exceeding the head in length, and project 
straight backward in line with the profile of the snout. 
They are heavily ringed except at the extreme tip. The 



550 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

mammae are four. The skull resembles closely that of the 
West African royal antelope, Nesotragus, but differs by the 
presence of a maxillary-premaxillary sinus, by the larger 
anteorbital fossa, and the much broader nasal bones. The 
female equals the male in size. A single species is known, 
moschatus, which breaks up into several geographical races, 
and ranges from Mount Kenia and the Tana River south- 
ward through the coast drainage area to the Zambesi River 
and Zululand. It occurs also on Zanzibar Island. No fossil 
species are known. 

Key to the Races of moschatus 

Throat with a broad collar of the dark dorsal color separating the 
white areas of the upper and lower throat 
Dorsal coloration dark-fuscous akeleyi 

Dorsal coloration rufous and grizzled moschatus 

Throat with the white areas almost continuous along midline 

Color dark, rufous; legs, including pasterns, rufous; tail rufous 

kirchenpaueri 

Color light, tawny; legs ochraceous, pasterns dark; tail blackish 

deserticola 

Zanzibar Pygmy Antelope 

Nesotragus moschatus moschatus 

Native Name: Swahili, paa. 

Nesotragus moschatus von Diiben, 1847, Oefvers, Akad. Forhandl. Stockholm, 
III, p. 221. 

Range. — Two small islands. Grave Island and Bawe 
Island, at the entrance to Zanzibar harbor. Not known to 
occur on Zanzibar Island proper. 

The Zanzibar antelope was described by its discoverer. 
Baron von Diiben, a Swedish naturalist who obtained it in 
Zanzibar harbor in 1846. Sir John Kirk has, during his 
long residence at Zanzibar as the British Consul-General, re- 
ceived from the natives many specimens from the two small 
islands in the harbor where they were found living amid the 
dense growth of vines and bushes which clothe these small 
coral islands. The Zanzibar or typical form resembles the 



DUIKERS AND SMALL ANTELOPES 551 

Kenia highland race in the wide separation on the throat 
of the white areas of the upper and lower throat by a dark 
collar or bridge of the dorsal color of the nape, but differs 
by having the dorsal coloration decidedly rufous and 
grizzled rather than blackish or fuscous. 



Kenia Pygmy Antelope 

Nesotragus moschatus akeleyi 

Nesotragus moschatus akeleyi Heller, 1913, Smith. Misc. Coll., vol. 61, No. 7, 
p. I. 

Range. — Highland forest area of Mount Kenia, the 
Aberdare Range, and the Kikuyu Escarpment south as far 
as Nairobi or Ngong. 

The Kenia race was described from specimens collected 
by Carl E. Akeley from elephant pits in the depths of the 
forest on the southwestern slope of the mountain between 
the altitudes of six thousand and seven thousand feet. This 
race haunts only the deep forest and is quite as shy and 
elusive as the bushbuck. They feed by browsing on leaves 
and twigs and live a solitary life in the undergrowth flank- 
ing the forest streams. When flushed from such covert 
they bound away at great speed, twisting about among the 
trees and never stopping until well within the security of 
thick undergrowth. They are not known to utter any note 
of alarm. The race may be distinguished by the body color, 
which is much darker than moschatus, the dorsal region 
being chestnut-brown, and the white of the throat being 
separated medially for half its length by a fulvous band. 
The legs are darker, with blacker pasterns, and striped in 
front to the knee. The pelage is longer, the hair on the 
rump being one and one-fourth inches long. 

The median dorsal area of the body is chestnut-brown, 
changing on the lower sides to vinaceous-tawny. The legs 
are ochraceous-tawny, and the pasterns fuscous, with a black 
stripe in front to the knees. The tail is fuscous, and some- 
what darker than the body, and is marked below by a nar- 
row white line. The crown of the head is bay. The snout 
is marked by a broad streak of fuscous, and a small white 
spot above the eye. The cheeks are vinaceous-tawny in 



552 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

contrast to the white chin, Hps, and throat. The back of the 
ears is fuscous, and the inner side and the base are whitish. 
The middle throat has a broad band, four inches long, of vi- 
naceous-tawny, separating the white of the upper and lower 
throat. The under-parts are white, with a streak of white 
down the inside of each leg to the knee. The sexes are alike 
in color and length of hair, the hair on the forehead in the 
male being no longer or denser than in the female. The newly- 
born young resemble the adults minutely in color. It is a rare 
antelope, and only a limited number of specimens have been 
available for study. They are chiefly from Mount Kenia, 
Kijabe, and Ngong in the immediate vicinity of Nairobi. 

Desert Pygmy Antelope 

Nesotragus moschatus deserticola 

Native Name: Duruma, palla. 

Nesotragus moschatus deserticola Heller, 1913, Smith. Misc. Coll., vol. 61, 
No. 7, p. 2. 

Range. — Desert or nyika country flanking the moist 
littoral zone of the coast district, ranging, no doubt, from 
the Tana River southward to the German border. 

The type specimens were collected by the describer at 
the railway station of Maji ya Chumvi in the Taru Desert, 
in which district they were found inhabiting dense, impene- 
trable thickets of thorny bushes made up of several species 
of acacias, aloes, euphorbias, and sansevierias. At dusk 
they were occasionally seen on the edge of the thickets or 
crossing over paths and wood roads intersecting them. A 
mated pair were found associated, but no further instance 
of their association in pairs was observed. 

The color is much lighter than that of moschatus, being 
cinnamon-rufous, and only slightly darker on the median dor- 
sal region. The white of the throat is almost continuous, be- 
ing broken only by a narrow band of fulvous one inch wide. 
The legs are light-colored and fulvous, but the pasterns are 
dark-fuscous. The tail is very light whitish, only the median 
dorsal line being dusky brown. The pelage is short, the hair 
on the rump being but one inch long. The body size equals 
that of moschatus. 





litj MtJUaraabIt 



Lorian 
.Swatifp ■ 

^'' I "o 




MAP 26 DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES OF THE PYGMY ANTELOPE 

1 Nesotragus mosckatus akeleyi 2 Nesotragus moschatus deserticola 

3 Nesotragus moschatus kirchenpauri 

553 



554 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

The dorsal color of an adult male is bright cinnamon- 
rufous, the median area being only slightly darker, or hazel. 
The sides are cinnamon-buff, contrasting very little with the 
white under-parts. The legs are ochraceous-buff, lighter and 
brighter than the sides, and the pasterns are fuscous. The 
tail is grayish in effect, the sides and the under-surface being 
white, and the tip and the dorsal stripe fuscous. The crown 
of the head is cinnamon-rufous, bordered below by a whitish 
supraocular stripe. The midline of the snout and the orbital 
area are dusky. The cheeks and the sides of the head are cin- 
namon-rufous. The upper lips, chin, and throat are white, 
but the middle of the throat has the white areas separated by 
a narrow band of fulvous one inch wide. The ears are dusky 
on back, like the snout, and the inner side and base are 
whitish. The under-parts are silky-white, with a white stripe 
extending down the inner side of each leg to the knee. The 
sexes are alike in color. 

Measurements of an average adult in the flesh: head and 
body, 223^ inches; tail, ^}<l inches; hind foot, 6yi inches; 
ear, 2^ inches. Greatest length of skull, 4>^ inches. Horns 
of an adult male, 2}i inches long by if^ inches spread. 



Kilimanjaro Pygmy Antelope 

Nesotragus moschatus kirchenpaueri 

Native Name: Wachaga, sinii (Abbott). 

Nesotragus kirchenpaueri Pagenstecher, 1885, Jahr.-Ber. Mus., Hamburg, II, 
p. 36. 

Range. — Highland forest area of Mount Kilimanjaro 
ranging down to three thousand feet. 

Doctor G. A. Fischer during his explorations on Kili- 
manjaro in 1883 secured the type specimen of the species 
which Pagenstecher later named kirchenpaueri. In 1888 
Doctor Abbott obtained an immature male from the natives 
while at Taveta. These two specimens represent all the 
available material from Kilimanjaro. The type is an adult 
mounted male in the Hamburg Museum, where it has been 
examined. It is somewhat darker than Abbott's specimen, 
but shows the same extensive white areas on the throat and 
the dark pasterns which characterize this race. 



DUIKERS AND SMALL ANTELOPES 555 
The Oribi 

Ourebia 

Ourebia Laurillard, 1841, Diet. Univ. d'H. N., I, p. 622; type 0. scoparia 
of South Africa. 

There is nothing distinctive about the uniform tawny- 
yellow color of the oribi, but it may be known at a glance 
from the reedbuck, which it resembles in color, by its small 
body size, long, slender legs, and rudimentary tail. Other 
important characters are the long tufts or brushes at the 
knees, the bare space on the head immediately below the 
ear, the rounded opening of the anteorbital gland in front 
of the eye, and the short, parallel horns of the male, which 
are ringed at the base. At the groin are a pair of deep 
inguinal sacks, marked by a growth of long, peculiar, pithy 
hair. The skull is distinguishable by the large size of the 
anteorbital fossa, which equals the orbit in area, and by the 
lack of the sinus between the nasal and the lachrymal bones. 
The snout is more elongate than in the steinbok or pygmy 
antelope. The females exceed the males slightly in size, 
their skulls averaging one-fourth of an inch greater. The 
sexes are alike in color with the exception of the crown, 
which is marked between the ears in the female by a large 
dark-brown blotch and is much darker than that of the male. 
The coloration of the young does not differ from that of 
the adult female in pattern, tone, or extent of the dark crown 
patch. The oribi, though extremely local, has a wide distri- 
bution. It ranges from the Cape northward along the East 
Coast drainage to the highlands of Abyssinia, and thence 
west along the borders of the Sahara to the West Coast in 
Senegal, but is absent from the Congo forest area. Owing 
to the local character of its distribution, the oribi breaks up 
into numerous geographical races showing slight color char- 
acters, and on this account it is quite difficult to distinguish 
the races from the species. It is quite probable that not 
more than two or three distinct species are recognizable. 

This pretty and graceful little antelope was first met 
with by us on the Uasin Gishu Plateau, a fairly high, rather 



556 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

cool country; and we also found another form, closely re- 
lated to the first, abundant in the hot plains on both sides of 
the upper White Nile. The two habitats of these two va- 
rieties of the same species were very unlike; the Lado plains 
were physically and climatically more like the parts of East 
Africa from which the oribi is absent; perhaps some un- 
detected peculiarity in the flora conditioned this broken dis- 
tribution, which otherwise seems unaccountable. However, 
oribi are everywhere locally distributed. They live without 
water in some places, at least at Maji ya Chumvi, for in- 
stance, and in the coast desert strip. They resort to spots 
of bare earth for dunging. These patches of dung every- 
where characterize their haunts. 

The oribi is normally a skulking, cover-haunting, high 
grass and bush loving antelope, like the duiker, steinbok, 
and even reedbuck; and we often found it in the same patch 
of cover with both duiker and reedbuck, and behaving in 
exactly the same way. But, unlike all three, it also, when 
the long grass is burnt, wanders freely over the open plains 
and under these circumstances behaves precisely like a 
gazelle. The reedbuck is too big to hide when on plains 
of this kind, and rarely ventures out on them, away from 
cover. The steinbok and even the duiker venture on 
them, but when alarmed take advantage of the first patch 
of scanty cover and crouch. But the oribi, when out on 
such plains, never hides, never seeks cover, is always alert 
and on the watch, and trusts to its sharp senses, wariness, 
and speed for safety. In these respects, when on the plains, 
they behave exactly like Tommies, and, like Tommies, are 
often found in parties of ten or a dozen individuals ; but such 
a party does not form a true herd, and when alarmed tends 



DUIKERS AND SMALL ANTELOPES 557 

to split up into little groups, which may not come together 
again. Normally the oribi prefers to go singly or in couples. 
On the short-grass plains it must be stalked like a gazelle; 
elsewhere it must be shot like a duiker or steinbok. The 
oribi is a grass-eater. We generally found it near water, 
but in the Lado we came across individuals in the dry noon- 
day haunts of the giant eland, so far from water that we 
doubted whether they drank, although the vegetation was 
so parched that it was hard to believe that they could get 
along without drinking. Unlike the duiker and steinbok, 
the oribi is one of the noisy, whistling antelope; its squealing 
whistle of alarm or curiosity is loud and shrill, entirely dis- 
tinct from the whistling of either the klipspringer or the 
reedbuck. We have heard an oribi and a reedbuck each 
whistle, one after the other, as they sprang from the same 
patch of brush and made off with the usual pig-like rush 
under cover of grass so tall that neither could be seen. 
When in the open they run very fast, with great bounds; 
after going a couple of hundred yards they turn and face 
the hunter with their large ears thrown forward. The oribi 
offers a difficult mark to the rifleman. Its flesh is delicious. 
We found the oribi moving and feeding at all hours of 
the day and night. Once in the Lado we came on a couple 
of individuals unconcernedly feeding under the blazing sun 
at high noon, on a patch of short, green grass, while a fire 
was rolling through the long, dry grass close on either side 
of them. 

Key to the Races of montana 

Tail like the back in color, or with only a few black hairs at the tip 
Coat bright ochraceous-tawny, heavy 

Horns weakly ringed, smooth for most of their length 

montana 



558 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

Horns heavily ringed for half their length cottoni 

Coat dull, cinnamon-brown; horns well ringed aquatoria 

Tail black; contrasting conspicuously with the dorsal coloration 
Coat ochraceous-tawny, long; horns not compressed or keeled 

kenya 

Coat clay color or bufF, short; horns compressed and furnished with 
a keel on the posterior side haggardi 

Abyssinian Oribi 
Ourebia montana montana 

Native Name: Abyssinian, /ac^a. 

Antilope mo7itana Cretzschmar, 1826, Atl. RiippeU's Reise, Saug., p. 11, 
pi. III. 

Range. — Nile watershed of the Abyssinian highlands, as 
far east as the edge of the Nile lowlands and south to the 
headwaters of the Omo River and the highlands north of 
Lake Rudolf. 

The Abyssinian oribi has been known since RiippeU's 
early explorations in Abyssinia. The type specimen was 
obtained by one of his collectors on the Fazogloa Moun- 
tains, in close proximity to the Blue Nile, well down in the 
foot-hill region of the Abyssinian highlands and at the ex- 
treme western limit of its range. Riippell also met with it 
on the plateau region at elevations of six thousand feet or 
more. More recently Major Powell-Cotton collected speci- 
mens near the western edge of the highlands, west of Addis 
Abbaba and Lake Tana. The Abyssinian race resembles 
closely the Uasin Gishu race in color. Both are highland 
forms, having long, heavy coats of a bright, tawny color. 
The Abyssinian may be distinguished by its less heavily 
ringed and shorter horns. The horns are ringed for the 
basal third, the rings being quite low and less distinct than 
in the more southern race. The horn length averages four 
inches, which is one-half inch less than the Uasin Gishu race. 
From the Nile oribi this race may be recognized by its 
brighter color and longer hair, but resembles it closely in 
horn dimensions. Gilbert Blaine has recently described 
a new race founded on a specimen collected by W. N. 



DUIKERS AND SMALL ANTELOPES 559 

McMillan sixty miles south of Addis Abbaba, near Lake 
Helene. The character given for the race, absence of the 
dark crown patch, is, however, a sex affair and has no racial 
value. The dark crown patch is lacking in all the males of 
the East African races and present only in the females and 
young. Occasionally there is a slight indication of it in 
some males. 

Nile Oribi 
Ourehia montana cequatoria 

Native Names: Dinka, lohdj ; Bongo, heggoleh. 

Ourebia montana aquatoriaHeWer, 191 2, Smith. Misc. Coll., vol.60, No. 8, p. 12. 

Range. — Nile Valley, from the Albert Nyanza north- 
ward through the Bahr-el-Ghazal and Gondokoro regions 
to the Sobat River. 

The type of the Nile oribi was shot by Colonel Roose- 
velt in the vicinity of Rhino Camp in the Lado Enclave. 
Both Heuglin and Schweinfurth met with this race in the 
Bahr el Ghazal on their journeys of exploration in the '6o's. 
In the Nile Valley the oribi is not a local beast, but is gen- 
erally distributed and has been reported by the great ma- 
jority of travellers who have visited the region. 

The Nile race is intermediate between the Abyssinian 
and the Uasin Gishu oribi. It differs from the latter by its 
more brownish coloration, the coat being cinnamon-brown 
and somewhat shorter, but resembles it closely in shape and 
size of horns. From the typical race of Abyssinia it may 
be distinguished by its heavier-ringed and larger horns and 
duller coloration. 

The dorsal color of an adult male is cinnamon-brown, 
vermiculated by Vandyke-brown. The neck, rump, and 
sides are without the darker vermiculation, being tawny in 
color. The crown of the head is bright rufous, bordered on 
the sides by a broad white supraorbital band. The snout 
and the sides of the face are buffy. The rhinarium is bor- 
dered above by a broccoli-brown patch. The tail is tawny, 
like the rump, with a few black hairs at the tip, and bordered 
below by a few white hairs. The limbs are tawny, like the 
sides, but the clefts of the hoofs and the pasterns are whitish. 
The ears on the outside are buffy, with the extreme tip seal- 



560 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

brown, and lined on the Inside by long white hairs. The 
under-parts and the Inside of the Hmbs are silky white, the 
hair being white to the roots. The chest Is suffused with 
buffy, and the throat Is ochraceous-buff. The chin, upper 
lips, and gular region are white. 

The flesh measurements of this race are: head and body, 
37 inches; tall, 3>^ inches; hind foot, ii Inches; ear, 4^4 
Inches. Average length of skull: 6}4 Inches In males, 6^ 
Inches In females. The usual length of horn is 4 inches. 
The longest horns in a series of seven measure 4^ inches. 

A series of twenty specimens have been examined repre- 
senting the Lado Enclave, NImule, Gondokoro, and the 
highlands one hundred miles east of it, and the Bahr el 
Ghazal. There is no apparent difference in specimens from 
opposite sides of the Nile. Considering the low altitude 
and the torrid nature of the Nile Valley, this race shows 
comparatively slight color and pelage difference from cot- 
toni of the cold highlands of the Uasin Gishu Plateau. 



Uasin Gishu Oribi 
Ourebia montana coUoni 

Native Name: Kavirondo (Jaluo), ogundi. 

Ourebia coUoni Thomas, 1908, Ann. U Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 387. 

Range. — Western slope and crest of the Mau Escarp- 
ment, from the southern shores of the Victoria Nyanza 
northward beyond Mount Elgon to the headwaters of the 
Turkwell River. 

Throughout the grassy downs of the Uasin Gishu Plateau 
the oribi is abundantly distributed. In this locality Major 
Powell-Cotton collected the type of the race which now 
bears his name, but Jackson was the first sportsman to record 
the oribi from the Uasin Gishu, where he met with It on his 
pioneer trip to Uganda in 1889. Holllster, the assistant 
curator of mammals at the National Museum, described In 
1910, from a skull collected on the Uasin Gishu by J. J. White, 
a species which he named microdon, basing the name on the 
small size and the straight outline of the cheek-teeth. This 
skull, however, represents the extreme variation In size and 
shape of teeth In coUoni. The large series of skulls In the 



DUIKERS AND SMALL ANTELOPES 561 

National Museum show every intermediate condition, from 
skulls with large teeth, having tooth rows with convex out- 
lines, to small teeth with the straight tooth row of microdon. 

The characters by which the race may be known are the 
bright, tawny coloration, long pelage, and the large size and 
heavily ringed horns. In horn length it exceeds all other 
East African races. The average horn length is 4>^ inches, 
but horns over 5 inches in length are not uncommon. The 
longest specimen in the series of ten males in the National 
Museum is ^^ inches. Ward recorded one of 6>^ inches 
taken near the Uasin Gishu Plateau. The flesh measure- 
ments of an average male are: head and body, 39 inches; 
tail, 4 inches; hind foot, 4%^ inches; ear, 4 inches. Skull 
length: male, 6yl inches; female, 6}4. 

Specimens have been examined from the Uasin Gishu 
Plateau, the headwaters of the Amala River, on the German 
border, and Karungu, on the east shore of the Victoria 
Nyanza. They are known to occur at Londiana, near the 
highest point reached by the Uganda Railway, and also 
north of Elgon as far as the highlands forming the crest of 
the Nile-Rudolf watershed. 



Kenia Oribi 

Ourebia montana kenyce 

Ourehia kenyce Minertzhagen, 1905, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 169. 

Range. — Limited to a small area along the Tana River 
on the south slope of Mount Kenia, from Fort Hall east to 
Embu Station and southward as far as the Ithangi Hills. 

The Kenia oribi has recently been described by its dis- 
coverer. Lieutenant Minertzhagen from specimens which he 
collected near Fort Hall. The race has a very restricted 
habitat of a few square miles, and on this account has re- 
mained so long unknown. It is allied more closely to the 
coast oribi, haggardi, with which it was no doubt one time 
connected by way of the Tana Valley. 

Like haggardly it is distinguishable from other races by 
its black tail. In coloration it may be described as quite 
intermediate between the tawny cottoni and the clay color 
or buff of the coast race. From haggardi it is easily dis- 



562 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

tinguished by the bright ochraceous coloration, long pelage, 
and absence of a keel on the posterior border of the horns. 
In size or proportions it is not distinguishable from the other 
races. The average length of specimens in the flesh is 
40 inches. The horns are rather long, averaging, according 
to the series collected by the describer, 5J^ inches. 



Coast Oribi 

Ourebia montana haggardi 

Native Names: Swahili, lay a; Duruma, darendari. 

Ourebia haggardi Thomas, 1895, Ann. y Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 187. 

Range. — Coast of British East Africa, from the Lamu 
Islands and the Tana River south to the German border 
and as far inland as the eastern edge of the desert nyika. 

The coast oribi was first met with by Vice-Consul Hag- 
gard, of Lamu. In 1887 he sent to the British Museum from 
Lamu several skulls which were eventually described by 
Thomas as a new race. A year or two after Haggard's 
discovery three of the pioneer sportsmen of East Africa, 
Harvey, Hunter, and Jackson, met with the oribi in the 
Tana River district. Although so long known by its skull 
and horns, the coast oribi has remained to this day without 
a description of its coloration. This is due to the absence 
of skins in museums. A considerable number of other species 
of antelope are in a similarly unknown state, that is, they 
are well known to sportsmen by their horns and heads, and 
a considerable number are shot annually and recorded on 
the registers of various game wardens; notwithstanding, 
they remain unrepresented in the large museums by com- 
plete specimens of the skins. Notable examples of this sort 
are the giant eland, Nile lechwi, Hunter antelope, and 
many races of the commoner species which are confined to 
isolated districts. 

The dorsal color of the coast oribi is much lighter than 
that of any of the inland forms. An adult male collected 
at Mariakani Station by Heller is a uniform clay color on 
the dorsal surface, the crown and forehead being uniform 
in color with the back and without the contrast shown in 
the other races. The ridge of the snout is hair-brown, and 




MAP 27 DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES OF THE ORIBI 

1 Ourebia montana montana 2 Ourehia montana crqualoria 3 Ourebia montana coltoni 

4 Ourebia montana kenyce 5 Ourebia montana haggardi 

563 



564 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

shows considerable contrast with the Hght clay color of 
the sides. The white areas of the head consist of a broad 
stripe above the eye, the lips, chin, forethroat, and inside of 
the ears. The back of the ears are clay color, with the tips 
broadly margined by umber-brown. There is a conspicu- 
ous bare black space below the ear. The tail is seal-brown 
or blackish, in marked contrast to the clay-colored rump 
and white border of the basal part. The lower sides of the 
body and the legs are somewhat lighter than the back, 
being ochraceous-buff, and darkest on the outside. The 
breast and the belly are pure white and sharply defined 
against the darker sides. The inguinal region is black and 
hairless with the exception of the two rosettes of white pithy 
hair marking the opening of the inguinal sacks. 

The flesh measurements of this specimen were: head and 
body, 38 inches ; hind foot, i ij^ inches ; ear, 4 inches. Length 
of skull, 6}i inches. Horns, 4^ inches long. The longest 
horns recorded by Ward from the Tana Valley are ^yi inches. 
One of the striking characters of this race are the heaviness 
or prominence of the basal rings and the compressed shape 
of the horn so as to form a keel along the posterior margin. 
Specimens have been recorded by sportsmen from the vicin- 
ity of Lamu, the lower Tana Valley, the Sabaki River, and 
the station of Maji ya Chumvi. 

The Steinbok 

Raphicerus 

The steinbok is at once recognizable from all other an- 
telopes by its bright sorrel-red color and small size. It is a 
trim-built little buck with well-rounded hind quarters and 
slender legs. The tail is not evident to the eye, being a mere 
rudiment, as in the klipspringer. A striking peculiarity is 
the enormous development of the ears, which exceed in size 
those of most other genera and are especially marked among 
the narrow-eared antelopes of the plains. Such great ear 
development is no doubt due to its habit of lying in cover 
out of sight, depending chiefly upon its scent and hearing 
to detect the approach of enemies. Directly in front of the 
eye is placed the small, rounded opening of the anteorbital 
gland, which is quite reduced in size. The male is armed 



DUIKERS AND SMALL ANTELOPES 565 

with short horns which rise vertically above the orbits and 
are without rings. False hoofs are lacking in this genus, but 
are present in the closely allied grysbok of South Africa. 
The skull shows considerable peculiarity of structure in the 
small size of the anteorbital fossa, which is a small, deep pit 
much less in size than in the other genera of the subfamily. 
The sinus between the nasal bones and the anteorbital pit is 
of very large size and quite equal in area to the pit. The 
snout is of moderate length and has very broad premaxillary 
bones bordering the nasal aperture. The sexes are alike in 
color and equal in size. The newly born young are in no 
way different in color from the adults, but their pelage is 
somewhat more woolly in texture. 

The steinbok reaches in British East Africa its most 
northern limit. From the highlands near the base of Kenia 
it ranges southward along the East Coast to the immediate 
vicinity of the Cape. It, however, does not occur west of 
the Victoria Nyanza or Tanganyika drainage. The genus 
consists of a single species, campestrisy with two or more 
geographical races, the most northern of which reaches 
British East Africa. No fossil species are known. 



Masailand Steinbok 

Raphicerus campestris neumanni 

Native Names: Swahili, ishah; Masai, olbivansas ; Kikuyu, thiya. 
Pediotragus neumanni Matschie, 1894; Sitz.-Ber. Nat. Freu. Bed., p. 122. 

Range. — From German East Africa northward through- 
out the highlands of the Rift Valley and coast drainage area 
to the northern slopes of Kenia and Elgon, in British East 
Africa; east as far as the coast lowlands and west to the 
shores of the Victoria Nyanza. 

The Masai steinbok was named by Doctor Matschie for 
Herr Oscar Neumann, who was one of the pioneer natural- 
ists of East Africa. He collected the type specimen at 
Mount Gurui in central German East Africa. A specimen 
collected south of the Victoria Nyanza by Speke and Grant 
forms the first record of the species in equatorial Africa. 
Jackson, Willoughby, and other sportsmen who visited Kili- 
manjaro in the early days found the steinbok in abundance 



566 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

on the plains at the foot of the mountain. In 1908 Lonn- 
berg separated as a race specimens from Lake Natron, 
owing to the presence of the dark snout spot, a feature which 
Matschie had neglected to mention in his description of 
neumanni. An examination of the type specimen in Ber- 
lin, however, shows the existence of the dark snout patch, 
which is a characteristic marking of the steinbok through- 
out its whole range, from the Cape to the equator. 

The little steinbok is common over most of East Africa. 
It is a brush or grass antelope, depending for safety upon 
cover, but it is not found in the thick forests, and it is found 
even on the treeless plains where the grass is long and there 
are patches of bush. It is a solitary little creature, usually 
found alone, although occasionally one runs across a buck 
and doe or a doe and a well-grown fawn. It both grazes and 
browses, and, although it is not found in desert country, it 
seems fairly independent of drinking. The contents of the 
stomach of one shot at Nyeri included twigs, leaves, and 
berries of the thorny nightshade, Sclanum campactylanum. 
This was the only stomach examined. Steinboks are not 
shy. We saw them feeding at all hours, like the oribi and 
the small gazelle, often on bare plains. When alarmed they 
dash for cover, and when in cover they lie very close. We 
have mentioned oribi and Tommies in connection with stein- 
bok, because the three little antelopes, although often found 
in precisely similar ground, have such contrasting habits. 
The Tommy never seeks to escape observation, always 
avoids cover, always stands up when it spies danger, and 
trusts to its speed and sharp senses for safety. When alarmed 
it may run a mile or two, and then halts on the bare plain. 
The oribi, if on open plains of short grass, behaves precisely 
like a gazelle, but if in long grass or bush cover hides like a 










■IHSi^L. B^ ' ^K^' 


« 




l^^^^^^lH^^Bfj ^iiiirt^SftfTiii 




i^s.'^fflH 






^9 



ak1',li:y PYiiNn' axtki.opi;, male 
Nairobi (Ngong), B. E. A. 



lASIX (,ISHU ORIBI, ADUI.I MAM 
Sliiit b> IliL'.Jc.re Roosevelt, L'asin Gis^hu PlaK-au 



■HPi?^^f^^ 


B411^»in-«^|P^ 


i^^'' 


ii 


3^iLr 


^^^H^^I^^fr,^**^^^3KSS^^^^9H 


A 


ml^ 


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n 


mM 




NILE BUSHBLICK, IMMATLTRE MALE 
From Rhino Camp, Upper Nile 



MASAILAND STEINBOK, ADULT MALE 
Shot by Sir Alfred Pease, Kapiti Plains 




UGANl) \ I I 
Shot by The<)d<.[c R 



\l I 

I 1 M. I LIllJl 



MASAILAND KLIPSPRINCER, MALE 
Shut hv The.jdore Roosevelt, Luita Plain^, B. F. A. 




YOUNG HIGHLAND BUSHBUCK 
Loita Plains 



NAIVASHA KIRK DIK-DIK, ADULT MALE 
Lake Naivasha 



BUSHBUCK AND SMALL ANTELOPES 



DUIKERS AND SMALL ANTELOPES 567 

duiker or steinbok. The steinbok, no matter where it is, 
always seeks to hide, and always lies down when it spies 
danger, unless it thinks itself observed from near by. When 
forced to run, it races off for a few hundred yards, and lies 
down in another bit of cover. A Tommy lying down always 
feels at a disadvantage, and springs to its feet at the sus- 
picion of danger. A steinbok regards lying down as its natu- 
ral attitude at the approach of danger. Time and again 
we have seen a steinbok, when we were approaching from a 
distance, lie down beside or behind some bush or tuft of 
grass — it is astonishing how little cover will serve its needs 
— and watch us with head erect. If we approached too 
closely, or if it had been throughly alarmed and had already 
run once, it would lie with its head outstretched. 

It is a very curious fact that an antelope which trusts so 
much to cover and concealment and to escaping observation, 
and which does not live in thick cover, yet possesses a reveal- 
ing instead of a concealing coloration. The bright reddish 
of the steinbok's coat harmonizes with no background in 
which we have seen the animal, and never in our experience 
tends to conceal it. Doubtless there are exceptional cases 
where the coloration does tend to conceal it — there is no 
conceivable type of coloration which might not once in sev- 
eral thousand times harmonize with its environment — but 
we never happened to come across such cases. If the little 
animal was where it could be seen at all, and where any color 
could reveal it, in our experience the bright reddish coat 
always tended to reveal it. Yet no antelope trusts more 
persistently to hiding, to escaping observation. We have 
seen one when pursued slip round a small bush and lie flat 
with head and neck outstretched; but its color was too con- 



568 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

spicuous to permit it to escape being seen. If in thick grass 
it cannot be seen because of the physical screen of the cover. 
If in bush, or lying where there is shifting light and shadow, 
even from thin little trees, it may be difficult to make out, 
because under such circumstances, the play of shade and 
sunlight, the varying vistas, the interposed twiggery and 
patches of leafage, and the many different contours and color 
values tend to make it difficult for the eye to pick out any 
motionless object of any color. Moreover, absolute immo- 
bility will often render any object, of no matter what color 
or shape, likely to escape hasty notice. But, after making 
all allowances, it seems certain that on the whole the color- 
ation of the little steinbok is revealing; and its habits are 
such that concealing coloration would certainly be a benefit 
to it; and yet it is common, and it persists in the land much 
longer than most antelopes after man appears. Evidently 
the other qualities which have helped it in the struggle for 
life have so far outweighed the matter of coloration that it 
has been unaffected by the latter, or so little affected that 
the coloration has never become concealing. 

The Masai steinbok is distinguishable from the typical 
race from South Africa with difficulty. The general color- 
ation is somewhat darker and the white areas about the 
eyes and muzzle are more extensive. Specimens from the 
Zambesi River which we have compared are scarcely distin- 
guishable by coloration or size from British East African 
specimens. The presence of a dark crescent on the crown 
between the ears in the typical race is sometimes given as 
a character, but this dark patch is quite variable and is 
present in half the specimens from East Africa examined, 
irrespective of locality or sex. 

The color of the upper parts is bright sorrel or vinaceous- 
tawny. The hair is everywhere minutely speckled with white. 




MAP 28— DISTRIBUTION OF THE EAST AFRICAN RACE OF THE STEINBOK 

1 Raphicerus campestris neumanni 
669 



570 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

owing to the narrow white hair tips. The sides of the body 
are somewhat Hghter, but the dorsal color is sharply defined 
against the white breast and belly. The legs are less pink- 
ish than the body, usually being uniform cinnamon-buff, 
with the inside white as far down as the knees and hocks. 
The tail is very short, triangular in shape, and not differen- 
tiated by color or length of hair from the rump. The lower 
surface is naked. The hinder surfaces of the thighs are white 
in contrast to the sorrel sides, the hair on this portion of 
the body being lengthened considerably and forming a rump 
patch. The crown of the head is bright tawny, and is 
marked by a narrow, dark-brown crescent between the ears. 
The midline of the snout is marked by a triangular-shaped, 
seal-brown patch which extends from the muzzle half-way 
to the eyes. The sides of the head are vinaceous, and the 
eye is surrounded by a white ring. The lips, chin, and upper 
throat are white. The ears are grayish, margined narrowly 
by dark-brown; the back covered by short, buffy hair, and 
the inside by lines of long, white hair. 

Specimens in the flesh average 33 inches in length of 
head and body; tail, 2>^ inches; hind foot, 10 inches; ear, 
4>^ inches. Length of skull, 5>^ inches. The largest skull 
in a series of forty specimens is that of a female, which has a 
length of 53^ inches. The horns average about 3^ inches in 
length. The record in the National Museum is a specimen 
with horns 5 inches in length, shot by Sir Alfred Pease at 
his farm in the Mua Hills. Ward's record for British East 
Africa exceeds this specimen by J4, of an inch. 

The steinbok is very abundantly distributed over the 
high veldt region of British East Africa, but does not occur 
in the dry desert scrub of the nyika. The vertical range 
extends from three thousand to nine thousand feet. Speci- 
mens have been examined from the Kapiti and Loita Plains, 
northern slopes of Mount Kenia, Lake Naivasha, and the 
Kedong Valley. The steinbok is peculiarly uniform in col- 
oration throughout its range and is not separable into ge- 
ographical races in British East Africa. 



DUIKERS AND SMALL ANTELOPES 571 

The Klipspringers 

Subfamily Oreotragina 

The klipspringers are distinguishable from all other 
African antelopes by their coarse, bristly, and pithy hair 
and by the very narrow, cylindrical hoofs, the extreme tips 
of which alone support the animal's weight. Besides these 
peculiarities the skull exhibits a marked brevity of snout 
with immense anteorbital glands on its sides, which open in 
front of the eye by a large, rounded pore. The horns are 
short, seldom exceeding the head in length, and project ver- 
tically above the eyes, being wide apart basally and parallel 
throughout their length. The body is rather heavily built, 
and the legs are short. The hoofs are rounded at the tips 
and the false hoofs are very broad. The inguinal region is 
without pits or sacks in the skin. The female has four 
mammae. The skull is remarkable for the large size of its 
anteorbital fossa, which covers the entire side of the snout, 
almost equalling the orbit in area. The nasal bones are 
very broad and short, spreading out posteriorly so as to 
make them triangular in shape. The sinus between the 
nasal bones and the lachrymal is small and narrow or 
obsolete. 

The Klipspringer 

Oreotragus 

Oreotragus A. Smith, 1834, S. Af. Quart. Journ., II, p. 212; type 0. oreotragtis. 

The klipspringer is the only African antelope which has 
made an attempt to occupy the place in nature taken by the 
wild sheep and goats of the northern hemisphere, the 
chamois of Europe, the goral of Asia, and the white ante- 
lope goat of America. He has succeeded remarkably well 
and has widely differentiated himself from his kin. In the 
matter of hoofs fitted for rock-climbing he has become 
specialized beyond all other hoofed mammals, and has pro- 
duced for himself a very narrow but elongate hoof upon the 
extreme tip of which he walks, instead of upon the whole 
base. The narrow tips give him a firm footing on the 
steepest of rocks where often no foothold is visible on the 



572 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

closest inspection. We have in vain striven to find even 
minute inequalities on cliffs up which we have seen him 
easily make his way. He is, however, one of the smallest 
of the antelopes, so that he has little difficulty in carrying 
his weight on the tiny points of his stubby hoofs. The klip- 
springer has low withers, with full, rounded hind quarters, 
is short-legged, and has rather a heavily built appearance. 
He is abbreviated at both his extremities, being extremely 
short-necked, short-snouted, and short-tailed; indeed, the 
tail is a mere rudiment, not evident to the eye. In pelage 
he is strikingly peculiar among African antelopes. The hair 
is very coarse and pithy and closely resembles that of the 
American pronghorn and to a less degree the hair of the 
whitetail deer. 

The horns are short and parallel in direction, arising 
vertically above the orbits, and are ringed at the base. 
They are usually confined to the male sex, one race alone 
exhibiting horns in the female sex. There is no sexual dif- 
ference in coloration or size, nor is there any appreciable 
age difference in coloration, the young being minutely simi- 
lar to the adults in appearance. The genus to-day comprises 
a single species with several geographical races. One fossil 
species is known from the Pliocene of France. Klipspring- 
ers are confined to eastern Africa from the highlands of 
Abyssinia and the adjacent Red Sea coast south through the 
Rift Valley and coast drainage to the extreme southern tip 
of Africa. 

This lively and interesting little antelope is found on the 
rocky hills throughout East Africa. In the ordinary East 
African form the females have horns, in the desert form 
which occurs from the Northern Guaso Nyiro northward the 
females are hornless. It is an extraordinary climber and 
jumper, bounding among the cliffs with absolute sure-footed- 
ness. The tiny hoofs — which, like the brittle hair, are unlike 
those of any other African antelope — enable it to perch on 
the smallest pinnacle, and to climb by means of the most 
trifling cracks and irregularities in a rock surface; and it will 



DUIKERS AND SMALL ANTELOPES 573 

bound down a cliff like a rubber ball. The gait is somewhat 
like the stiff-legged bounding of a Rocky Mountain blacktail 
deer. It certainly serves wonderfully well up and down the 
precipitous slopes, grassy or rocky, in which the klipspringer 
dwells. The little beast often grazes on the level ground at 
the foot of the rocks — by daytime if the country is unin- 
habited, otherwise at night — but on the slightest alarm it 
betakes itself at full speed toward its fastnesses. The dung 
is usually deposited at particular spots on the rocky hillside 
or cliffs. It utters a shrill whistle, usually heard when its 
curiosity is excited or when it is apprehensive but not yet 
much frightened. It both browses and grazes, feeding and 
resting alternately, and at various intervals throughout the 
twenty-four hours. Seemingly it sometimes goes for long 
periods without drinking. The northern or desert form cer- 
tainly does not drink, but lives without water. The stomach 
contents of specimens of this race consisted chiefly of leaves 
and twigs of two small trees, Strychnos and Dodonea. It is 
usually found singly or in couples, but occasionally half a 
dozen individuals will gather together on a particular feed- 
ing-ground. 

The klipspringer is an alert little creature, always on 
the lookout for foes, and trusting not to escaping notice but 
to seeing its foes first and then escaping among the rocks. 
Yet its coat harmonizes so well with its ordinary background 
that it is often difficult to make out, even when its alarm 
whistle shows that it is not consciously hiding. Indeed, 
this is one of the very few antelopes that may at times be 
aided in escaping notice by its countershading. Appar- 
ently its coloration may fairly be called concealing, and yet 
apparently this quality of its coloration is of little or no aid 



574 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

to it, because of its habits. The case is directly the reverse 
of that of the steinbok, which does continually hide and 
skulk and try to escape observation, and yet has a colora- 
tion which is on the whole undoubtedly of revealing quality. 
From these facts it seems probable that in neither case has 
the color of the coat been developed for any utilitarian 
reason. 

Key to the Races of oreotragus 

Female hornless; body color uniform, legs lighter than the body in 
color and marked by a wide black band above the hoof 

aureus 

Female horned; rump lighter and grayer than the back, legs not 
lighter than the body in color and without black hoof band 

schillings i 

Marsabit Klipspringer 

Oreotragus oreotragus aureus 

Oreotragus oreotragus aureus Heller, 1913, Smith. Misc. Coll., vol. 61, No. 13, 
p. 7. 

Range. — From the drainage area of the Northern Guaso 
Nyiro River and the northern slopes of Mount Kenia north- 
ward to Lake Rudolf, west as far as Mount Elgon, and east 
in the lower desert region as far as the limits of the higher 
mountains, but not occurring in this region south of the 
Tana River. 

The Marsabit race was recently described from speci- 
mens collected by the Rainey expedition on Mount Lolo- 
lokwi, a large table-topped mountain lying between the 
Northern Guaso Nyiro and Mount Marsabit. The race 
is distinguishable from the Masailand klipspringer by the 
absence of horns in the female and the uniform color of the 
dorsal surface, the rump coloration showing no contrast in 
tone to that of the anterior part of the body. It is more 
closely allied to the Abyssinian klipspringer, with which 
it is in agreement in the character of the hornless female, 



DUIKERS AND SMALL ANTELOPES 575 

but rrtay be distinguished by its lighter-colored legs, brighter 
golden body color, more pronounced or extensive black 
bands above the hoofs, and dark-rufous forehead and 
crown. 

The dorsal color is bright buff-yellow, and is everywhere 
speckled by seal-brown, owing to the basal color of the hair 
showing beneath the narrow yellow tips. The yellow is 
purest on the neck. The midline of the back shows most 
blackish, and is uniform in color with the rump. The sides 
are sharply defined against the pure white of the under- 
parts. The tail is not differentiated by color or longer hair 
from the rump. The forelegs are lighter-colored than the 
back, being buffy, with less of the dark hair bases showing 
through on the outside, and the inside is uniform whitish, 
like the under-parts. A heavy black band encircles the 
hoofs and reaches half-way to the false hoofs. The hind 
legs are like the fore, but the inside from the hocks to the 
hoof is uniform in color with the outside. The crown of 
the head is russet, lined heavily by black. The snout is 
buffy on the sides, like the legs, but the median portion is 
blackish. The lips and chin are whitish. The midline of 
the throat is buff-yellow, without darker vermiculations. 
The backs of the ears are clothed by short, buffy hairs, but 
the central portion and margin are blackish, except on the 
lower inner border, which is marked by a white bar or spot. 
The inside and the base of the ear are whitish. 

The Marsabit race is practically identical in size with the 
Masailand form. An average specimen gives the following 
measurements in the flesh: head and body, 33 inches; tail, 
^yi inches; hind foot, 9 inches; ear, 3^ inches. Greatest 
length of skull, 5^2 inches. A single male is in the collec- 
tion. The horns of this specimen measure 3^ inches. 

Specimens of this race were secured on the summit of 
Mount Lololokwi, at six thousand feet altitude, and on the 
rocky kopjes which dot the west Kenia plateau. They were 
also seen on the slopes of Mount Uaragess, but nowhere 
were they encountered in the low desert region, and it is 
doubtful if they occur below an altitude of three thousand 
feet. 



576 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

Masailand Klipspringer 

Oreotragus oreotragus schillingsi 

Native Name: Masai, engine. 

Oreotragus schillingsi Neumann, 1902, Sitz.-Ber. Ges. Nat. Freu., Berl., p. 172. 

Range. — From the Rift Valley in central German East 
Africa northward to Lake Baringo and the southern slopes 
of Mount Kenia, east to the southern shores of the Victoria 
Nyanza, and west to the lower edge of the highland country, 
at least as far as Kitui and Makindu. Altitudinal range 
from three thousand to nine thousand feet. 

The Masailand klipspringer was named for Herr Schil- 
lings, the pioneer flash-light photographer of Africa, who has 
given us a vivid pictorial account in "With Flashlight and 
Rifle" of his exploits with the game animals of the Kili- 
manjaro district of German East Africa. He secured the 
type specimens on the small hill of Ngaptuk, situated north- 
west of Kilimanjaro and very close to the British East Africa 
boundary. Jackson was the first sportsman to report the 
klipspringer from British East Africa. In 1894, in "Big 
Game Shooting," he devotes a few lines to it and states that 
it is irregularly distributed upon rocky hills from the Taita 
district to the Turkwell River. The klipspringer, however, 
has been long known to inhabit South Africa and Abyssinia, 
the two extreme points of its range. 

The Masailand klipspringer is at once distinguishable 
from all other races by the presence of horns in the female. 
This striking character was not known to the describer of 
the race, Herr Neumann, who based his differences on slight 
color discriminations. His material consisted of some un- 
sexed skins with horned skulls which, he assumed, were all 
males, owing to the presence of the horns. The females are 
as well horned as the males; in fact, the longest-horned 
specimen in the series of twelve in the National Museum 
is that of a female shot by Kermit Roosevelt on the 
western edge of the Loita Plains. None of the females 
show rudimentary horns or any evidence of transition to 
the hornless condition of the races inhabiting the country 
north or south of them, nor do the females of such races 
show any trace of horns, not even such slight evidence as 




MAP 29 DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES OF THE KLIPSPRINGER 

1 Oreotragus oreotragus aureus 2 Oreotragus oreotragus schillingsi 

577 



578 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

bony knobs on the frontal bones of the skulls. The color 
differences of this race are very slight indeed, and it is dis- 
tinguishable with difficulty by coloration from the race oc- 
curring south of it, aceros^ in southern German East Africa, 
south to the Zambesi. It is difficult to account for the pres- 
ence of horns in the females of a race having no peculiar 
habits, and surrounded on all sides by races in which the 
females are not only hornless, but show no tendency to- 
ward the acquiring of such structures. 

Average male specimens measure in the flesh 33 inches 
in length of head and body; tail, 3^<( inches; hind foot, 11 
inches; ear, 3>^ inches. Females are fully equal in size to 
the males. The longest-horned specimen is a female in 
which the horns are 4^ inches in length. The longest male 
horns are 3^ inches. These horn dimensions are exceeded 
very little by Ward's record for East Africa of 434 inches. 
The skull length of the two sexes is quite equal, the longest 
female skull being 5^ inches, and the longest male 5^ 
inches. 

The distribution of the klipspringer is quite local, owing 
to their occurrence only on barren, rocky hills or mountain- 
sides. The Rift Valley, with its innumerable lava cliffs and 
rough broken surface, is a favorite haunt of this race. 
They are distributed throughout the valley from central 
German East Africa and Kilimanjaro north to Lake Ba- 
ringo. Upon the slopes of the volcanic cone of Longonot, 
immediately south of Lake Naivasha, they are particularly 
common and occur from its base to the summit, at nine 
thousand feet, where they reach their highest altitudinal 
range. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

THE GAZELLES AND THEIR ALLIES 
Subfamily Antilopince 

The gazelles are typical of the subfamily Antilopince, 
but with them are banded several peculiar or specialized 
genera. In East Africa we have two of these, the elon- 
gated, spidery gerenuk and the graceful, bush-haunting 
impalla. The various members agree, however, in having 
a large narial chamber, short nasal bones, and narrow cheek- 
teeth, and by these characters they may be distinguished 
from other antelopes. They are medium-sized antelopes 
with slender legs, short tails, and usually short-haired coats, 
showing fulvous or tawny coloration with black facial and 
flank stripes. The females are hornless in many of the 
genera and the mammae formula ranges from two to four. 
They are typically an open-plains or desert stock with short, 
narrow ears, but many of the members have taken to a life 
in bushy areas while others have invaded high mountain 
plateaux. The subfamily ranges from central Asia west- 
ward to southeastern Europe and southward over the whole 
of Africa except the Congo forest tract. Geologically, the 
group has been represented since Miocene time in Asia 
and Europe and in the Mediterranean region of Africa 
since the Pliocene. 

579 



580 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 



Key to the Genera 

False hoofs and anteorbital pore present; horns lyrate or parallel in 
direction 
Head rounded, snout short; neck and legs of normal length; face 
striped and flanks usually with a blackish band; female 
horned in East African species; mammae, two 

Gazella 

Head elongate, flattened; snout produced; neck and legs greatly 
lengthened; sides of face uniform in color and flanks 
without dark band; female hornless; mammae, four 

Lithocranius 

False hoofs and anteorbital pore absent; horns showing a tendency 
toward a spiral twist, broadly U-shaped and ringed; 
female hornless; body size medium Mpyceros 

Gazelles 

Gazella 

Gazella Lichtenstein, 1814, Mag. Nat. Freunde, Berl., VI, pp. 152 and 171; 
type G. subguturosa, fixed in Book of Antelopes, Sclater and Thomas, 1879, 
vol. Ill, p. 65. 

The coloration Is usually vinaceous or cinnamon on the 
dorsal surface and white on the under-parts. The face is 
marked by two or three bands and the tail is of medium 
length. The horns in the males are usually well developed 
and are lyrate or parallel. The females are usually horned 
and furnished with two mammae. The muzzle is simple, the 
nasal bones being short and in contact with the maxillary 
and premaxillary bones. The anteorbital fossa are moderate 
or large. 

The genus ranges from northern and eastern Africa 
south in the Nile Valley to the Victoria Nyanza and in East 
Africa to central German East Africa. Beyond Africa it 
extends through western and central Asia. 

This, the largest and most wide-spread genus of ante- 
lopes, contains some twenty valid species. It is known as 
far back in geological time as the Upper Miocene of Europe. 
Several species are known from the Pliocene of Europe, 



THE GAZELLES AND THEIR ALLIES 581 

Asia, and the Mediterranean coast of Africa. Later, in the 
Pleistocene age, gazelles became abundant in North Africa, 
as shown by the several species which have been discovered 
in deposits of this age in Algeria. 

Key to Species of Gazella 

Size large, horns long in the male, more than two times head; adult 
male without dark flank band usually 
Cinnamon coloration of back continued as a broad band on the 
rump to the tail and widely separating the white 
rump patch; horns short and diverging only slightly 
at tips; body size smaller petersi 

White rump patch undivided by cinnamon of back or at most 
dorsal color only continued as a narrow stripe to the 
tail; horns larger and more lyrate in shape, body size 
larger grafiti 

Size small, horns in the male much less than two times the length of 
the head; sides with a broad dark flank band 
Dark flank band bordering the white of the belly; sides with a 
conspicuous groin gland clothed by pithy yellow 
hair; a dark nose spot thomsoni 

Dark flank band separated by buffy band from the white belly; 
no lateral glands present; nose spot obsolete 

rufifrons 

Grant Gazelle 

Gazella granti 

Typical granti is found only in central German East 
Africa, in Ugogo, where it was originally discovered by 
Speke and Grant, in 1848, during their journey of discovery 
of the source of the Nile. This point marks the southern 
limit of Grant gazelles in Africa. Here it was found inhab- 
iting a dry, arid, saline valley at some 3,000 feet elevation. 
From this point the species ranges northward through the 
Rift Valley as far as Lake Zwai, in southern Abyssinia, 
where the race lacuum occurs. Westward the species 
spreads to the southern shores of the Victoria Nyanza and 
enters the Nile watershed. In this southwestern corner 



582 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

it has evolved a form with wide-spreading horns which has 
been named rohertsi. At the northwestern corner another 
race appears, brighti, which is the palest and the least 
banded of all. Near the coast at Kilimanjaro we find the 
darkest race, serengetcB, which is somewhat intermediate 
in color with the closely allied petersi. The latter species 
carries the granti type still farther west and north to the 
mouth of the Tana River. Peters gazelle is rnuch smaller 
and darker than any of the races of granti and is not known 
to intergrade. Occupying the central part of the range 
and also the most elevated region we have roosevelti. Lying 
between this elevated region on the southern edge of the 
Abyssinian desert we meet with the shorter-horned race 
known as raineyi. The horns reach their maximum spread 
in the southern race robertsi, but are also wide-spread and 
large in the neighboring typical granti. As we go north- 
ward the horns become more parallel and shorter until the 
extreme is reached in narrowness and shortness in brighti^ 
inhabiting the country draining into Lake Rudolf from the 
west. Notata is apparently a highly colored local form 
occurring only on the high plateau flanking the Lorogi 
Mountains on the southwest and bears no very close rela- 
tionship to the other races. The highland races known as 
roosevelti and robertsi are grazers, while the desert forms, 
such as brighti and raineyi, 3.Tt browsers. A structural 
difference in these races has been noticed which can be 
traced to differences in food habits. In the browsing races 
the snout has become enlarged as indicated by the greater 
length of the narial chamber. In raineyi the length of the 
nares from the tip of the nasal bones to the end of the pre- 
maxillaries or snout is much greater than the length of the 
nasal bones. In roosevelti, which is typically a grazer, the 
length of the nares is much less, equalling or only slightly 
exceeding the nasals in length. 

The Grant may be defined as a large-sized gazelle with 
immense horns, striped face, white rump patch, and white 
under-parts. The horns reach the maximum size among 
gazelles, ranging in the male from 20 to 30 inches in length 
along the curve. They are very heavy basally, where they 
are much compressed, or flattened laterally. They ascend 
vertically above the orbits and curve backward, ranging 




KILIMANJARO THOMSON GAZELLE, MALE 
Shot by Dr. L. W. Abbott, Taveta Kilimanjaro District United Stales National Museur 




ROOSEVELT GRANT GAZELLE, MALE 

Shot by Theodore Roosevelt at Bondoni, Kapiti Plains, B. E. A. United States National Museum 

GRANT AND THOMSON GAZELLES 



'* 



THE GAZELLES AND THEIR ALLIES 583 

from broadly lyrate to parallel In shape, and are heavily 
ringed for most of their length. The adult male is usually 
without the dark flank band characteristic of the female, 
but both sexes have a dark pygal stripe bordering the white 
rump patch. The general dorsal color ranges from cinnamon 
to fulvous. The young are striped like the female but 
have the white of the rump much less extensive. The skull 
is distinguishable from that of thomsoni by its shallower 
anteorbital fossa, larger nasal-lachrymal sinus, and the 
spatulate shape of the nasal process of the maxillary bone. 



This, the largest of the genus, is not only the most 
beautiful gazelle but one of the most beautiful of African 
antelopes. It is about the size of a white-tail deer. The 
long, lyre-shaped horns of the buck, the proud, graceful 
carriage of the head and neck, the supple and dainty 
strength of body and limbs, the delicacy of coloring, all 
combine to make the animal a pleasure to look upon. The 
many herds of these large gazelles which are scattered over 
the Athi and Kapiti Plains form one of the chief attractions 
to the traveller who rides across the long stretches of level 
or rolling grass-lands. In the Sotik country the horns of 
its bucks are even longer, with a more divergent bend. 
On the lower levels, near the coast, they are shorter. The 
does everywhere carry smaller horns than the bucks, less 
beautifully shaped. 

All gazelles are beasts of the open plains, avoiding 
forests. They are most at home on the reaches of grass- 
land where there Is not a shrub or a tree, but have no 
objection to thinly scattered thorns and are often found 
grazing or resting among them. They are primarily graz- 
ers, but occasionally become browsers; the stomach of one 
of the raineyi variety, killed on the Northern Guaso 



584 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

Nyiro, contained acacia pods. They are highly gregarious, 
going in herds of a score or two, each composed of a master 
buck accompanied by does, kids, and half-grown animals. 
Young bucks are often found in small parties of half a 
dozen individuals. Old bucks are sometimes solitary but 
are more often found with herds of other game, such as 
hartebeest or zebra; an animal of one of the gregarious 
types not only appreciates company because of the advan- 
tage of having other eyes and ears on the watch against 
foes, but probably also from sheer love of companionship. 
Both the big and the small gazelle occasionally associate 
with one another; in one such case the leader of the little 
band was a female Tommy whose four companions, all of 
them Grant gazelles, two bucks and two does, allowed her 
to take the initiative and followed wherever she led. When 
grazing or going to water herds of Grant gazelle often 
mingle with herds of all the other plains game, from wilde- 
beests down, into one big scattered herd. 

The specifically, or subspecifically, different big gazelle 
found along the Northern Guaso Nyiro, scientifically known 
as the raineyiy was in most of its habits identical with the 
true Grant gazelle, although somewhat smaller, with shorter 
and less handsome horns. There seemed to us to be one 
difference, however, which, if real and not merely a mis- 
taken observation on our part, was important. On the Athi 
and Kapiti Plains we were struck by the incessant switch- 
ing of the tails of the Tommies, whereas by comparison the 
Grant gazelles kept their tails quiet, waving them at times, 
but not in the incessant, nervous, electric-attachment man- 
ner of the Tommies. On the Northern Guaso Nyiro there 
were no Tommies, and here it certainly seemed to us that 



THE GAZELLES AND THEIR ALLIES 585 

the big gazelles were always switching their tails, almost 
precisely like the Tommies and not in the manner of their 
own kinsmen. This may have been an error of observation 
on our part, induced by the fact that on the Northern Guaso 
Nyiro there were no Tommies with which to make compari- 
sons. We wish other observers would look into the matter. 
The lives of these big gazelles were led under the same 
conditions as those under which the other plains game 
with which they associated — wildebeest, hartebeest, topi, 
zebra. Tommies — led their lives, and their habits were 
essentially the same. The bucks now and then fought 
fiercely for the mastery of the herds. There was no fixed 
mating season, as far as we could see; at any rate, we found 
fawns of all ages. The mother left the herd for a few days 
at the time of the fawn's birth, but soon rejoined it, the 
little fawn being able to run with its elders at an early age. 
The herd would feed for a few hours and then rest for a 
few hours, watering once or twice a day. We could not 
find that these hours were definitely fixed. Usually the 
herd rested during the heat of the day, but several times 
we found herds feeding at high noon, and once we found 
one at a water-hole at that hour. We also, at one water- 
hole, found that the gazelles as well as the hartebeests vis- 
ited it at night. We saw them grazing very early in the 
morning and very late in the evening. They differed 
widely and inexplicably in wariness, like so many other 
kinds of game. As a rule, they were not as wary as wilde- 
beest and were much more wary than Tommies; but one 
herd would flee when we were half a mile off and another, for 
no reason that we could see, would let us ride by them within 
a couple of hundred yards. In the morning we might find 



586 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

the antelope of a given band or bands shy to a degree; and 
in the afternoon, on our return to camp, they would let us 
pass reasonably close, even to windward of them, without 
showing alarm. Their eyesight was very good, and also 
their sense of smell. At night they were apparently more 
alert and uneasy than during the day. Perhaps this is true 
of all game, although, on the other hand, it is also true that 
game will allow a man to come closer in the darkness than 
in daylight. They rarely went where leopards could get 
at them; but lions occasionally preyed on them, although 
preferring the larger hartebeests or zebras; and they were 
objects of chase both for cheetahs and hunting hounds. 
They never sought to hide themselves or escape observation, 
although the adult males, which, unlike the females and 
young males, have no black side stripe, could, perhaps, be 
called concealingly colored — certainly as compared with 
impalla or Tommies or hartebeests or steinboks. Their 
trust was in their speed, eyesight, scent, and wariness. 
Sometimes, in time of drought, most of them desert a given 
district, in common with the other game, leaving only a few 
individuals behind. In other regions, as on the Athi and 
Kapiti Plains, they remain in practically the same country 
from year's end to year's end or make a shift of a few miles 
only. At any one time a herd will usually locate itself in 
a given area of a few square miles and lead a fairly regular 
and ordered life, so that each day at about the same time 
the individuals can be found in or near the same place 
doing about the same thing. While staying in a permanent 
camp or on a ranch we would frequently grow acquainted 
with some gazelle herd which, if unmolested, we could 
almost always find within a mile or two of the spot to 



THE GAZELLES AND THEIR ALLIES 587 

which, as experience had taught us, it resorted in the morn- 
ing or afternoon in the course of its daily round of exist- 
ence. In some places we found stamping-grounds, or areas 
of bare earth several roods in extent, to which, apparently, 
herds of these gazelles must have resorted at intervals for 
long periods of time, for they were thickly covered with 
dung pellets in various stages of dryness. 

At McMillan's ranch there was a tame doe of the big 
gazelle which was as friendly and as much at home as any 
domestic animal. 

Key to the Races of grand 

Cinnamon of back extending onto the tail as a narrow line separat- 
ing the white rump patch or else stopping within 
one inch of the base; tail chiefly black, only 
basal one-third white 

serengetce 

Cinnamon of back well separated by a broad white rump patch two 
or three inches wide; black of tail less exten- 
sive, confined to terminal one-half 
A dark flank band in adult males notata 

Flanks without dark band in adult males 

A dark pygal stripe bordering the white rump patch in adult 
males 
Horns turned outward and wide-spread, the tips hooked 
backward robertsi 

Horns evenly spreading and lyrate in shape, the tips ap- 
proaching one another 
Dorsal color lighter cinnamon, horns longer and 
wider-spread granti 

Dorsal color darker cinnamon, horns smaller and 
narrower roosevelti 

Horns more nearly parallel, not curved outward 

Dorsal color lighter, dark flank band obsolete in 
the adult female lacuum 



588 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

Dorsal color darker, dark flank band distinct in the 
adult female raineyi 

No dark pygal stripe bordering the white rump patch 

brighti 

Typical Grant Gazelle 

Gazella granti grand 

Gazella granti Brooke, 1872, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 601, pi. LIX (colored). 

Range. — German East Africa from Ugogo, in the vicin- 
ity of Kanyenye and Mpwapwa, northward at least as far 
as Irangi, but not reaching British East Africa; limits of 
range unknown. 

The large, stately gazelle which bears Colonel J. A. 
Grant's name was discovered by Speke and Grant at Kan- 
yenye, Ugogo district, in i860, during their journey of 
discovery of the source of the Nile. It was found inhab- 
iting a dry saline plain having an elevation of three thou- 
sand feet approximately. The discoverers recognized the 
species as new and took precautions to make sketches of 
the specimens in the field. The specimens collected were 
unfortunately lost in transit, so that it became necessary 
to describe the species from the notes and sketches of the 
explorers. Even at the present day specimens from near 
the type locality are preserved in only one or two European 
museums. The typical is really the least known form of 
Grant gazelle, owing to the region which it inhabits having 
seldom been visited by sportsmen or naturalists. The typi- 
cal race may be distinguished by the long, wide-spread 
horns, the light cinnamon body, and well-marked, dark 
nose spot and pygal band in the male. 

Roberts Grant Gazelle 

Gazella granti robertsi 

Native Name: Winyamwezi, kisi. 

Gazella granti robertsi Thomas, 1903, Proc. Zool. Soc, vol. II, p. 119, 2 figs, 
of skull and horns. 

Range. — Southeastern drainage area of the Victoria 
Nyanza from Speke Gulf, in German East Africa, northward 



THE GAZELLES AND THEIR ALLIES 589 

to the Amala River and Loita Plains district of British 
East Africa. Confined to the Nile drainage except at its 
extreme northeast limits on the Loita Plains, where it 
enters the Rift Valley system. South of this point and 
lower down the Rift Valley it meets or merges into the 
highland race of British East Africa, roosevelti. 

The Roberts race of the Grant gazelle was described by 
Oldfield Thomas from specimens collected by F. Russel 
Roberts and Gilbert Blaine in the vicinity of Mwanza, a 
lake port on the southern coast of the Victoria Nyanza. 
Ten years previous to this discovery Oscar Neumann had 
collected specimens of the same race on the Loita Plains 
of British East Africa and had noted their peculiar horn 
shape, but had regarded them as abnormal specimens of 
the typical race. In characters this race is distinguishable 
from the other races chiefly by the peculiar wide-spread 
horns which turn outward and diverge widely, the extreme 
tips turning backward. Normally the spread equals the 
length of horn taken along the curve, but in abnormally 
twisted horns the spread greatly exceeds the length. The 
females do not show the peculiar horn characters, but are 
distinguishable by their almost total loss of the dark flank 
band which is either obsolete or only faintly indicated pos- 
teriorly. Both sexes differ further from their nearest ally, 
roosevelti, by their lighter dorsal coloration. 

In size this race is practically equal to roosevelti. An 
average specimen measures: in length of head and body 
along the curve of the back, male 59 inches, female 53 
inches; length of tail, male ii^^ inches, female io}4 inches; 
length of hind foot from the hock to the tips of the hoof, 
male 17^ inches, female, 16^ inches; length of ear from 
notch, male 6^ inches, female 6% inches. The length of 
the horns along the curve in the record male, a specimen 
shot by R. J. Cuninghame on the Loita Plains and now in 
the United States National Museum, is 28^ inches, and the 
greatest spread at the tips is 39^ inches (record). The 
second longest-horned male in the same institution is very 
little above the average, measuring in length 25 inches and 
in spread 25^^ inches. The longest-horned female has horns 
15 inches in length with a spread of only Gj/i inches. The 
widest-spread female horns show a width of 11^ inches and 



590 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

a length of only lo inches. A large series of specimens have 
been examined in the National Museum from the Loita 
Plains and Amala River in British East Africa. 



Roosevelt Grant Gazelle 

Gazella granti roosevelti 

Native Names: Masai, olzvargas; Kikuyu, ndar atari. 

Gazella granti roosevelti Heller, Smith. Misc. Coll., 1913, vol. 61, No. 7, p. 4. 

Range. — Typical of the elevated Athi Plains district 
ranging southeast to Makindu, north as far as the southern 
slopes of Kenia, and westward to the Rift Valley, where it 
extends as far north as the south shore of Lake Baringo. 
West of the Rift Valley of British East Africa, it is separated 
from robertsi by the Mau Escarpment, and farther south 
in the valley it merges, no doubt, into typical granti and 
eastward into serengetce on the northwestern slopes of Kili-. 
manjaro. 

This race has been considered by sportsmen and nat- 
uralists as typical granti owing to the lack of specimens 
from the original locality in Ugogo for comparison of dif- 
ferences. The type specimen was shot by Colonel Roose- 
velt near Kitanga Farm, Mau Hills, Athi Plains, April 26, 
1909, and described recently by Heller as a new race. 
Others were shot in the same vicinity near Kapiti Station 
and near Kilima Kui, while other specimens were secured in 
the Rift Valley near Lakes Naivasha and Elmentaita. The 
Roosevelt Grant gazelle is nearest the typical granti of 
Ugogo, German East Africa, in color, but differs by its 
darker coloration and by the smaller and less wide-spread 
horns. From robertsi it differs by decidedly less widely 
spread horns and somewhat darker color in the males and 
further by the female being marked by a distinct dark flank 
band. From serengetce it differs by the wider and less 
divided white rump patch and considerably lighter body 
coloration. 

The dorsal color of the adult male is vinaceous-cinnamon 
paling toward the head and on the sides to pinkish-buff. 
The top of the rump and hinder border of the thighs is 
marked by a wide area of pure white which is continuous 




BLACK-SNOUTED THOMSON 
GAZELLE, MALE 

From British East Africa 
, Record horns, i6 inches 



EAST AFRICAN IMPALLA 

MALE 

British East Africa 



ROOSEVELT GRANT GAZELLE 
MALE 

Shot by Theodore Roosevelt 
Boiidoni, Kapiti Plains, B. E. A. 




ROOSEVELT GRANT GAZELLE, FEMALE 

Photograph by J. L. Clark at Juju Farm, B. E. /\. 

Presented by W. M. McMillan to National Zoological Park 



EAST AFRICAN IMPALLA, ADULT MALE 
Shot by Theodore Roosevelt, Loita Plains 








ROBLKIS GRANT GAZELLE, MALE 

Shot by R. J. Cuninghame, Loita Plains, B. E. A. 

Record spread and length of horns 



BLACK-SNOUTED THOMSON GAZELLE 

ADULT FEMALE 

Loita Plains, B. E. A. 



GAZELLES AND IMPALLA 



THE GAZELLES AND THEIR ALLIES 591 

with the white basal portion of the tail, the terminal half 
ot which is black. The rump area is bordered in front by 
a dark bistre pygal stripe one-half inch wide. The flanks 
show a very slight indication of the flank band, which is 
set off by a lighter band of light buff bordering the broad 
band of pinkish-buff above along middle of body. The out- 
side of the legs is pinkish-buff, like the sides ; and the hoofs in 
front are bordered by tufts of brown hair. The under-parts 
and the inside of the legs and the lower throat are silky white. 
The top of the head and the median line of the snout is cinna- 
mon-rufous, and the middle of the snout is marked by a large 
clove-brown blotch. There is a grayish border of hair about 
the horn bases, and a blackish blotch above the eyes. The 
sides of the face are marked by a broad white band above the 
eye extending forward to the dark snout spot, and bordered 
below by an ill-defined, narrow, dusky-cinnamon streak from 
the eye to the muzzle. The orbital area is white with a 
bistre-brown supraocular spot extending to the horn bases. 
The tip of .the snout is pale pinkish-buff. The lips and chin 
are white. The forethroat is white like the chin, but the 
midthroat is pinkish-cinnamon like the nape. The ears are 
pinkish-cinnamon, bordered at the tip by bistre, and the in- 
side and a spot below the base is white. The adult female re- 
sembles the male closely in general coloration with the excep- 
tion of the sides, which are marked by a broad flank band 
bordered above and below by an equally wide band of pinkish- 
vinaceous distinctly lighter than the cinnamon of the back. 
The dark pygal band is much wider than in the male. 
Newly born young are different in color from the adults, but 
the color pattern is quite similar. The dorsal color is drab- 
gray lined sparingly by black, and the hind legs are similar, 
but the forelegs are more buffy. The head markings of the 
adult are indicated, but the white areas are suffused with 
buffy and do not show much contrast. The crown of the head 
is buffy, not rufous, as in the adult. The dark flank band 
is much less distinct than in the adult female, and is mixed 
largely with buffy and does not show the light band below 
separating it from the white of the belly. The white rump 
patch is only indicated, being narrow and separated on 
the median line by the color of the back extending onto the 
tail, and is not pure white, but suffused with buffy. The 



692 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

black pygal stripe is very narrow and short. The young 
are distinguishable from the young of thomsoni of the same 
age by their larger size and more extensive white rump 
patch and white tail base. 

The measurements in the flesh of average adults are: 
head and body along curve of back, male 58 inches, female 53 
inches; tail, male 11 inches, female io>^ inches; hind foot 
from hock to tip of hoofs, male iS^4 inches, female i6>^ 
inches; length of ear from notch, male 6J4 inches, female 
6 inches. Length of horns along curve of largest male in 
the National Museum 24^^ inches, female^ i^H inches; 
greatest spread on outside curve in male 16 inches, female 
g)4 inches. Specimens have been examined at the National 
Museum from the Athi Plains, Kitanga, Bondoni, Potha, 
Rift Valley, Lake Naivasha, Lake Elmentaita, and Mount 
Suswa. The vertical range of the race extends from 3,000 
to 6,500 feet throughout the open grassy plains country. 



Rainey Grant Gazelle 

Gazella granti raineyi 

Native Name: Rendile, haul. 

Gazella gra^iti raineyi Heller, 1913, Smith. Misc. Coll., vol. 61, No. 7, p. 6. 

Range. — From the northern slopes of Kenia, north- 
ward throughout the desert region to the eastern shore of 
Lake Rudolf, eastward at least as far as the Lorian swamp. 
Limits of range not known owing to lack of specimens from 
the intermediate districts. 

The Rainey Grant gazelle was described from spec- 
imens shot by Paul J. Rainey near the junction of the 
Northern Guaso Nyiro and the Isiola Rivers, some sixty 
miles due north of Mount Kenia. Specimens from this 
district have long been known to sportsmen under the 
name of notata. The latter, although coming from the 
same general district, is a peculiar local highland form of 
the Lorogi Mountains, while raineyi is a close ally of brighti, 
from the Turkana country west of Lake Rudolf. The 
Rainey Grant gazelle resembles brighti closely, but differs 
by the presence of a distinct dark pygal band or border 
to the white flank patch, by darker dorsal color and larger 



THE GAZELLES AND THEIR ALLIES 503 

size and more wide-spread horns. It differs from lacuum 
by darker coloration and the presence in the adult female 
of a dark flank band. From roosevelti it may be distin- 
guished by the decidedly smaller and more parallel horns 
and by the smaller and lighter-colored dark nose spot. 

The dorsal color of the adult male is light vinaceous- 
cinnamon, paling toward the head and on the sides, where 
it becomes pinkish-buff. The top of the rump and the 
hinder border of the thighs is marked by a wide area of 
pure white, which is continuous with the white basal por- 
tion of the tail. The terminal half of the tail is black. The 
rump area is bordered in front by a bistre pygal stripe 
one-half inch wide. The flanks have a very slight indication 
of the flank band in the form of a lighter band of light 
buff bordering the broad band of pinkish-buff above. The 
outside of the legs is pinkish-buff like the sides of the body. 
The hoofs in front are bordered by brown hair. The under- 
parts and the inside of the legs and the lower throat are 
silky white. The top of the head and the median line of 
the snout are cinnamon-rufous. The middle of the snout 
is marked by a dark sepia blotch. There is a grayish patch 
about the horn bases and a blackish one above the eyes. 
The sides of the face are marked by a broad white band 
above the eye extending forward to the dark snout si)ot, and 
bordered below by an ill-defined, narrow dusky-cinnamon 
streak from the eye to the muzzle. The orbital area is 
white with a bistre-brown supraocular spot extending to 
the horn base. The tip of the snout is i)ale pinkish-buff. 
The lips and chin are white. The forethroat is white like 
the chin, but the midthroat is pinkish-cinnamon like the 
nape. The ears are f)inkish-cinnamon, bordered at the tip 
by bistre, and the inside and the base are white. The adult 
female is like the male in color, but has a well-marked dark 
flank band and broader and darker pygal stripes. The 
nursing young are buffy-drab in color, as described under 
roosevelti. 

Specimens collected by the Rainey expedition have been 
examined from the desert country watered by the Northern 
Guaso Nyiro from the junction of the Ngare Narok down 
as far as the Lakiundu junction. North of this latter point 
specimens have been examined from Karo, Longaya, and 



594 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

Merille in the country just south of Mount Marsabit. This 
race inhabits the low thorn-scrub desert between the alti- 
tudes of two thousand five hundred and one thousand feet. 
The measurements of an average adult are: head and 
body, along the curve of the back, male 55 inches, female 
53 inches; tail vertebrae, male ii}4 inches, female 10^ 
inches; hind foot from hock to hoof, male i8>^ inches, 
female \6}4 inches; ear from notch, male 6}i inches, fe- 
male 6 inches. The longest-horned male in the National 
Museum has horns 25 inches in length and a spread of loy^ 
inches. The widest-spread male horns in a series of fifteen 
measure 12 inches. An average pair is about 22 inches 
in length by 10 inches in spread. The female horns vary 
greatly in a series of seven, in which the longest pair is 
also the widest and measures 14^ by io3/8 inches. An 
average pair is somewhat shorter and much narrower, being 
12 by 6 inches. 

Bright Grant Gazelle 

Gazella granti brighti 

Gazella granti brighti Thomas, 1900, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 805. 

Range. — Northwest shore of Lake Rudolf west to the 
head of the Nile watershed. 

Doctor Donaldson Smith, who collected the specimens 
which led to the discovery of this race, has supplied prac- 
tically all of the material upon which our present knowledge 
of the race is based. These include the type and a few 
others from the Magois district, situated near the Nile- 
Rudolf watershed, one hundred miles west of the north 
end of the lake. Some months previous to Donaldson 
Smith's expedition Major Bright, for whom the race has 
been named, collected a female gazelle from the northwest 
shore of Lake Rudolf, which was later, upon the evidence 
supplied by Smith's specimens, determined as a member of 
the new race by Oldfield Thomas. In this race the dorsal 
coloration is very light, buffy-fulvous, the dark flank band 
is wanting, and the pygal stripe quite obsolete or but 
faintly indicated by a narrow line of dark hairs. The horns 
are small and extend almost parallel, showing very little 
spread at the tips. 



THE GAZELLES AND THEIR ALLIES 595 

Abyssinian Grant Gazelle 

Gazella granti lacuum 

Gazella granti lacuum Neumann, 1906, Sitz.-Ber. Ges. Nat. Freu., No. 9, 
p. 243. 

Range. — The Rift Valley of southern Abyssinia In the 
neighborhood of Lake Zwai, and thence southward to Lake 
Abaya. Limits of range not known. 

This, the most northern race, was described by its dis- 
coverer, Oscar Neumann, from specimens collected at Lake 
Zwai, supplemented by others from Lake Abaya. It appar- 
ently occupies an isolated plateau region north of and dis- 
tinct from the low desert where brighti is found. It Is 
described as a small race, but with larger and wider-spread 
horns than brighti, and with the dark pygal band fairly well 
marked. No dimensions have been given by the describer. 
Two specimens from Lake Zwai, collected by W. N. McMil- 
lan, have been examined at the British Museum. Only 
one of these Is without the dark side stripe, but both have 
the dark pygal band broad and the horns fairly wide-spread. 

LoROGi Grant Gazelle 

Gazella granti notata 

Gazella granti notata Thomas, 1897, Ann. l^ Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, vol. 
XV, p. 479. 

Range. — Southwest slope of the LorogI Mountains. 

The type was collected by A. H. Neumann while ele- 
phant hunting on the southwest slope of the LorogI Moun- 
tains, near a small lake or swamp known as Kisima. It 
was only on this high plateau, having an altitude of some 
five thousand feet, that this boldly marked race was found. 
The characters of the race are the presence of a dark 
lateral band present In the adult male, very wide and 
dark, extending from the shoulder to the rump patch, 
and the dorsal coloration very dark or rufous. The LorogI 
Grant gazelle is known only from the type specimen, which 
is a headless skin. 



596 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

Serengeti Grant Gazelle 

Gazella granti serengetcz 

Gazella granti serengetcB Heller, 1913, Smith. Misc. Coll., vol. 61, No. 7, p. 5. 

Range. — Serengeti Plains east of Kilimanjaro. Limits 
of range not known. 

The type specimens were collected by Doctor W. L. 
Abbott, near Taveta, in 1888, during his expedition to Kil- 
imanjaro. No other specimens agreeing with these in 
color have been examined from East Africa. The Serengeti 
Grant gazelle is most closely allied in size to the typical 
granti, from which it differs by having the white rump 
patch divided by a narrow streak of the cinnamon of the 
back extending to the base of the tail. In this character it 
approaches petersi, which, however, has the rump broadly 
divided by the color of the back and differs by the smaller 
and more parallel horns. 

The dorsal color in the adult male is mikado-brown 
paling toward the head and on the sides, where it becomes 
pinkish-buff. The top of the rump and the hinder border 
of the thighs are marked by a wide area of pure white, which 
is continuous with the white basal portion of the tail. The 
terminal half of the tail is black. The white rump patch is 
narrow, being one inch wide at the base of the tail as well as 
on the hinder parts of the thighs. The cinnamon of the back 
extends on the tail as a narrow dorsal stripe to the black 
tip, only the basal one-third of the tail being white, leaving 
the terminal two-thirds black. The white pygal band is well 
marked, but the dark flank band is absent. The outside of 
the legs is pinkish-buff, like the sides. The hoofs in front are 
bordered by tufts of brown hair. The under-parts and the in- 
side of the legs and the lower throat are silky white. The top 
of the head and the median line of the snout are cinnamon- 
rufous. The middle of the snout is marked by a dark sepia 
blotch. There is a blackish blotch above the eyes. The sides 
of the face are marked by a broad white band above the eye 
extending forward to the dark snout spot, and bordered below 
by an ill-defined, narrow dusky-cinnamon streak from the eye 
to the muzzle. The orbital area is marked by a bistre-brown 
supraocular spot extending to the horn bases. The tip of the 







l7iii/£/«jt?/"(to,. 



MAP 30 — DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES OF GRANT AND PETERS GAZELLES 

1 Gazella granti Tobertsi 2 Gazella granti roosevelti Z Gazella granti raineyi A Gazella grayiti brighti 
5 Gazella granti lacuum 6 Gazella granti notata 7 Gazella graiiti serengetce 8 Gazella petersi 

597 



598 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

snout Is pale pinkish-buff. The Ups and the chin are white. 
The forethroat is white hke the chin and the midthroat pink- 
ish-cinnamon hke the nape. The ear is pinkish-cinnamon, 
bordered at the tip by bistre, and the inside and the spot at 
the base are white. The female resembles the male in the 
darkness of the dorsal coloration. The dark lateral band 
is present as in roosevelti, but it is decidedly less distinctly 
marked or obsolete anteriorly near the shoulders. 

No flesh measurements of this race are available. The 
horns of the two adult males are very much alike in shape 
and size. They diverge gradually toward their tips, but 
are not bowed out or lyrate in shape, and closely resemble 
horns of the smaller species petersi. In length along the 
curve they measure 2i}i and 20>< inches, and in greatest 
spread 9^ and 12 inches, respectively. The horns of the 
two females are quite similar in shape to the males, but much 
smaller, measuring in length 14 and 12^ inches, and in 
spread 6^ and 6 inches, respectively. 

This race approaches the smaller gazelle of the coast 
district, petersi, really closely in horn characters and some- 
what in the color characters of the rump. It is, moreover, 
found occupying an intermediate territory. Peters ga- 
zelle is said to occur near Voi, some seventy miles east of 
Taveta, in the low desert flanking the Serengeti Plains, and 
it is quite probable that a series of specimens from this 
intermediate territory would exhibit intermediate characters. 
Peters gazelle occupies a distributional area distinct from 
that of any of the races of Grant gazelle, but adjacent to 
some of them, and has every appearance of being one of 
these races, though the lack of specimens prevents us from 
determining the exact status of this form. 

Peters Gazelle 

Gazella petersi 

Native Name: Swahili, sala. 

Gazella petersi Giinther, 1884, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 5, vol. XIV, p. 428. 

Range. — From the Taru Desert northward to the 
mouth of the Tana River and thence northeast along the 
coast through the Jubaland Province. 



THE GAZELLES AND THEIR ALLIES 599 

Doctor G. A. Fischer, during his exploration of the 
lower Tana Valley in 1878, collected the first specimens of 
this gazelle at Gelidja, near the delta of the Tana. This 
material was referred by Doctor Peters to Gazeila granti in 
his report on the collection of mammals made by Fischer. 
A figure of the skull and horns published by Peters led 
Doctor Giinther, some five years later, to the conclusion 
that they represented a species different from granti, owing 
to the difference in horn shape and size. He described the 
species as new, naming it for Doctor Wilhelm Peters, direc- 
tor of the Berlin Museum. 

Peters gazelle may be known by the following char- 
acters: white rump patch divided widely by the extension 
of the body color to the tail base, the dorsal bridge of cin- 
namon being almost as wide a separation as in Gazella 
thomsoni; width of white rump patch on sides of thighs 
much less than in granti; dark pygal stripe wide and pro- 
nounced, but dark lateral band wanting in adult males; 
horns short and narrow and without the lyrate spread or 
S-shaped curve backward as in granti; body size smaller. 

No flesh measurements of specimens are available. 
The horns seldom exceed 21 inches in length along the curve, 
or more than 8 inches in spread near the tips. Specimens 
are recorded from the Taru Desert, Mount Pika-Pika, 
Merereni on the coast of Formosa Bay and the mouth of 
the Tana River. 

Thomson Gazelle 

Gazella thomsoni 

The small gazelle of East Africa is distinguishable from 
the large Grant gazelle by many important characters other 
than size. The small size and parallel direction of the 
horns at once distinguish the male. The black lateral band, 
which is equally well developed in both sexes, is of a different 
character than the black band of the female Grant gazelle, 
in which the white of the belly is separated from the black 
by a narrower fulvous band. In the Thomson gazelle the 
black band borders the white of the under-parts, and is as 
well marked in old age as in youth. The Thomson gazelle 
differs further from its larger associate by the possession 



600 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

of a pair of large inguinal glands on the flanks, which are 
conspicuously marked by tufts of long white glandular 
hair. The tail of the Thomson gazelle is also quite different 
in character, being covered by long hair throughout, as in 
the impalla, and not short-haired at the base with a tufted 
tip, as in the Grant. The knees are furnished with brushes. 
The females exhibit short, crooked, irregular horns varying 
from mere stubs to six inches in length. No absolutely horn- 
less female specimens are known, although statements to this 
effect are occasionally recorded. It appears, however, that 
the females are gradually losing their horns, which are 
now subject to great irregularity and are no longer of value 
as weapons. The sexes agree closely in coloration. The 
male in age becomes lighter on the crown and nape, the 
reddish color being replaced by whitish. The young are 
dark, with little of the fulvous color of the adults, being 
drab in color. They exhibit the black flank band, the dark 
nose spot and eye stripe and the absence of white on the 
rump, and by these characters may be recognized from 
granti of the same age. The female is somewhat smaller 
than the male in body size. The skull shows much varia- 
tion in the size of the nasal and premaxillary bones, but 
differs from granti by its much deeper or larger anteorbital 
fossa. There is also marked variation in the shape of the 
horns, individual specimens showing much difference in 
the spread at the tips. A German naturalist, Knottnerus- 
Meyer, has recently divided the Thomson gazelle into 
many races, some thirteen, based on differences noted in 
the .horns and skulls of a few individuals. Such differ- 
ences, however, when applied to the large series of spec- 
imens in the National Museum, have been found to be 
individual and of no racial value. The two races here 
recognized were as many as appeared worthy of distinct 
names. The Thomson gazelle is essentially a highland ante- 
lope and typical of the Rift Valley and the highland region 
bounding it, throughout which it ranges from the Rift 
Valley of central German East Africa north to Kilimanjaro 
and Mount Kenia and westward to the south and east 
shores of the Victoria Nyanza. The distribution of the 
Masai tribe coincides quite perfectly with that of this small 
gazelle. 



THE GAZELLES AND THEIR ALLIES 601 



Key to the Races of thomsoni 

Snout without a darker patch near the tip; the dark stripe through 
the eye dark reddish, not blackish; dark pygal stripe 
narrow; horns parallel in direction with the tips close 
together thomsoni 

Snout marked by a large black patch near the tip; the diagonal 
stripe through the eye blackish; pygal stripe wide 
and distinctly blackish; horns wider-spread at the tips 

nasalis 

Kilimanjaro Thomson Gazelle 

Gazella tho7nsoni thomsoni 

Gazella thomsoni Giinther, 1884, Ann. y Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. XIV, p. 427, 
fig. of horns. 

Range. — From the Kilimanjaro region southward 
through the Rift Valley to Irangi in German East Africa. 

The Thomson gazelle bears the name of a noted explorer 
of British East Africa, Joseph Thomson. Thomson ar- 
rived at Mombasa in 1883 and journeyed inland by way of 
Kilimanjaro and the Masai highlands as far as Lake Baringo. 
During his travels he met frequently with this gazelle and 
brought back with him to England several pairs of the 
horns. No exact locality was attached to these spec- 
imens, nor was any mention made in his account of the 
journey in "Through Masailand," as to where the spec- 
imens were shot or regarding the occurrence of gazelles on 
his route. The horns were figured and described by Doctor 
Giinther as those of a new gazelle which he dedicated to 
Thomson, but no exact locality was given the specimens 
collected by him. In the absence of a definite locality 
the typical race has been assigned to the Kilimanjaro 
region, where Thomson spent considerable time in exploring 
the south, east, and north slopes of the great mountain. 
Willoughby, Hunter, and Abbott, a few years later, shot 
specimens on the plains flanking Kilimanjaro on the south- 
east. The first complete specimens of the gazelle received 
at the British Museum were sent by Jackson, and upon one 
of these was based the colored figure in the "Book of 
Antelopes." 



602 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

The typical form of the Thomson gazelle may be known 
by the absence of the dark patch on the nose and by the 
lighter color of the dark eye stripe of the face, which is 
rufous rather than black. The dark pygal stripe on the 
hind quarters is also narrower and less distinctly marked, 
usually being brownish in color. The horns of the Kili- 
manjaro race are more parallel in direction and less widely 
spread at the tips than those of nasalis^ but they are no 
shorter in length. No flesh measurements of specimens 
are available. The length of fully adult horns is stated by 
Willoughby to be 14 inches in length. The specimen in 
the National Museum, collected by Doctor Abbott at Taveta, 
has horns one inch less than this dimension. Specimens have 
been recorded by Oscar Neumann as far south as Mount 
Gurui in the Irangi district of German East Africa. 



Black-Snouted Thomson Gazelle 

Gazella thomsoni nasalis 

Native Names: Masai, ol-oilin; Kikuyu, enclaratali. 

Gazella thomsoni nasalis Lonnberg, 1908, Mams. Sjostedt Exp. Kilimanjaro, 
p. 46. 

Range. — From the southern and eastern shores of the 
Victoria Nyanza, in German East Africa, northward to Brit- 
ish East Africa as far as the southwestern slope of the Lorogi 
Mountains and eastward to the eastern edge of the high- 
land region as far as Makindu Station and Mount Kenia. 

The Thomson gazelle inhabiting the highlands of Brit- 
ish East Africa was named nasalis by Lonnberg, owing to 
the presence of a black nose spot by which the race may 
be distinguished from the typical form. Upon comparing 
specimens from Kilimanjaro with the colored figure of 
Thomson gazelle in the "Book of Antelopes," the differ- 
ence in snout coloration was discovered and led to the 
naming of the highland race as new. The describer, how- 
ever, assigned his race to northern Uganda and the Lado 
Enclave, under the assumption that such localities repre- 
sented the extreme northern range of the gazelle. The 
northern limits, however, fall many miles short of these 
territories, but as the name is based on a colored illustra- 



THE GAZELLES AND THEIR ALLIES 603 

tion which is founded on a mounted specimen secured by 
Jackson in British East Africa, it is available for the gazelle 
inhabiting the interior highlands. 

The Thomson gazelle, everywhere known as the Tommy, 
is an abundant animal on the plains of much of British 
East Africa. Its range roughly corresponds with the 
range of the common kongoni hartebeest and the wilde- 
beest; why it should not, like the zebra, extend this range 
to take in other stretches of country of seemingly the same 
character is hard to understand. It is another case like 
that of the hartebeests, like that of the topi and the wilde- 
beests, where the sharply drawn line of distribution seems 
entirely artificial, there being no difi^erence of flora or of 
climate to account for the abundance of the species in one 
place and its absence from another place substantially the 
same in character. 

The Tommy is the smallest of the true plains game. It 
is purely a beast of the open grass-land, and in its habits 
it does not differ materially from the bigger plains game 
with which it associates. It is generally found where 
there are no trees at all, but it does not object to the pres- 
ence of the thinly scattered acacias which in Africa one 
grows accustomed to associate with the sight of teeming 
wild life. It is one of the numerous antelope which 
never hide and never seek to escape observation. Its 
coloring is conspicuous because of the vivid black lateral 
stripe, and as its tail is twitching violently all the time, and, 
as it never seeks cover, it never, when adult, eludes the 
sight of any foe if the conditions are such that any animal 
can be seen at all. The fawns, as is the case with the 
young of all antelopes, and even of wild oxen, and probably 



604 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

of wild horses, do crouch flat and endeavor to escape the 
eyes of their foes; but the aduhs trust only to their keen 
senses and their speed for safety. Tommies frequently 
lie down, but they never seek to escape observation when 
lying down, and, on the contrary, usually seem more anxious 
and alert at such times than when standing. They seem 
to know that they are at a disadvantage when not standing. 
Their speed is great. Mr. Rainey's greyhounds were unable 
to catch them. When pursued by an ordinary dog they 
merely play along in front of him, bounding and cutting 
pranks, and treating the whole affair as a frolic. The 
cheetah, however, can run them down, as it can every other 
animal on the face of the earth. The fawns are preyed on 
by jackals, other small beasts of prey, and eagles, the 
adults by hunting hounds and cheetahs; but they do not 
wander into the domain of the leopard and are too small 
to be eagerly pursued by the lion, the arch enemy of all 
the bigger ruminants. 

Tommies are gregarious and polygamous. They are 
found in small parties and also at times in bands of forty 
or fifty individuals; and occasionally they are found singly 
or in couples, an old buck by himself or a doe with a couple 
of fawns or a couple of young bucks. The does are pro- 
lific; we found fawns of every age, and sometimes one, 
sometimes two, with the mother. Tommies are grazers. 
They feed and rest alternately for a few hours at a time. 
They may be seen resting, feeding, or drinking at every hour 
of the day. They are easily tamed and make pretty and 
amusing pets. We often ran across them in the houses 
of the Boer settlers on terms of the utmost familiarity with 
the children. Normally, they are the least wild of the 



THE GAZELLES AND THEIR ALLIES 605 

game. They do almost no damage to the settler, and they 
are so easily protected that there can be no excuse for their 
extermination or serious diminution. Any man or any 
woman interested in natural history could easily make an 
invaluable life study of these pretty and interesting little 
gazelles, because their tameness, their accessibility, and 
the nature of their haunts render it possible to study all 
their actions continuously and minutely from day to day 
throughout the seasons. Such a study, if serious and pro- 
longed, and by a competent and interested observer, would 
throw much light on many problems of animal psychology. 
Most, although not all, of the plains game lead substan- 
tially the same lives, and as a rule they are very simple 
lives; but there are queer breaks in and exceptions to these 
lives, and on some points the species differed widely from 
one another, while in others the differences are individual 
rather than specific; and we need to know both the general 
rules of their conduct and, so far as possible, the explanations 
for the seeming exceptions. 

The black-snouted Thomson gazelle is well character- 
ized by its name. Besides this distinguishing character, 
it may be recognized by its darker colored or blackish 
facial stripes and by the more pronounced black pygal 
stripe. The horns are usually distinguishable by their 
wider spread and by their slightly greater length. The 
differences in these dimensions average two inches more in 
spread at the tips and one inch more in length compared to 
the typical race. 

The coloration on the dorsal surface is a uniform cinna- 
mon from the base of the tail to the nape. The lower sides 
are marked by a broad black flank band extending from 
the shoulder to the hind quarters, bordered below by the 
white under-parts and above by a wide stripe of vina- 
ceous-buff distinctly lighter than the cinnamon dorsal 



606 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

color. The hind quarters posteriorly are white, the white 
area bordered by a prominent black pygal stripe in front 
extending from the rump toward the hock. The tail is 
black and clothed uniformly with long hair. The legs on 
the outer surface are vinaceous-buff, and white on the inside 
where they are connected with the white under-parts. The 
dorsal surface of the snout is rufous, except the tip, which 
is marked by a large black patch. The sides of the face are 
marked by a broad white stripe from the horn base and 
eye region to the muzzle, which is bordered above by the 
dark dorsal surface of the snout and below by a black band 
from the anteorbital pore to the muzzle. The upper lips, 
chin, and throat are white. The crown, back of the ears, 
and the sides of the head are vinaceous-buff. The inside 
and the tips of the ears are white. The female shows 
only slight differences in color from the male, which are 
confined solely to the head, the crown being rufous or 
brownish and the nape cinnamon in conformity with the 
back. The young do not show the fulvous coloring of 
their parents, but are quite dark in color. They are drab, 
lined lightly by black, and have the dark side stripe much 
less conspicuous than the adults. They show the dark 
snout patch and have the whole crown and ears brownish 
or dusky as well as having the pygal band and white area 
to the hind quarters indicated. 

The average measurements of adult male specimens in 
the flesh are: 47 inches in length of head and body; tail, 
9>^ inches; hind foot, I3>^ inches; ear, 4^ inches. The fe- 
male is somewhat less in size, being usually i inch less in 
length of hind foot. The average horn length in this race 
is 13 inches, but specimens 15 inches in length are by no 
means rare. The record length given by Ward is i6}4 
inches. The horns are really very uniform in length. The 
extremes in a series of sixty heads from British East Africa 
in the National Museum are: longest, 15^ inches; shortest, 
11^ inches. The width, however, varies greatly, the 
extremes in the same series being from 3 to %% inches. 
The horns of the females vary greatly in size and direction. 
Usually they are quite deformed and contorted and are 
seldom symmetrical. The extremes in length of a series of 
sixteen are: length, 2>^ to 5J/2 inches; spread, }i to 3>^ 




MAP 31 — DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES OF THE THOMSON GAZELLE 

1 Cazella thomsoni thomsoni 2 Gazella thomsoni nasalis 

607 



608 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

inches. A large series of specimens of this race have been 
examined in the National Museum, from the Kapiti and 
Athi Plains, the Rift Valley in the vicinity of Lake Naivasha, 
the Laikipia Plains north of Mount Kenia, and the Loita 
Plains and Southern Guaso Nyiro River district. 



Uganda Red Fronted Gazelle 

Gazella rufijrons albonota 

Native Name: Dinka, el hamra. 

Gazella rufijrons albonota Rothschild, 1903, Nov. Zool., vol. V, p. 480. 

Range. — From the northern frontier of Uganda, in the 
vicinity of Gondokoro, northward through the eastern drain- 
age area of the Nile as far as the Sobat River, and eastward 
to the crest of the Nile watershed. 

The Uganda race of the red-fronted gazelle was de- 
scribed by Walter Rothschild in 1903 from specimens col- 
lected near the Soudan station of Mongolia. In characters 
it differs from the northern Soudan race, salmi, by more 
contrasted head markings, the nose and lower half of the 
central face stripe being black mixed with rufous instead of 
buff, and the horns are wider-spread and more recurved 
backward with the points turned inward more. The general 
coloration resembles that of Gazella thomso7ii, but it differs 
by having the dark flank band bordered below by a buffy 
band which separates it from the white of the under-parts. 
The body size and length of horns are similar to G. thomsoni. 
Horns of males average 12 inches in length along the curve 
with a spread at the tips of 6 inches. 

The recorded specimens practically all come from the 
vicinity of Mongolia. Thomas, however, records a spec- 
imen of G. thomsoni collected by Donaldson Smith at a 
point ninety miles east of Mongolia, at the crest of the 
Nile-Lake Rudolf watershed, which may well be the Roths- 
child race of rufifrons. The Thomson gazelle is not known 
to occur in the Rudolf basin at all, its northern limits 
not extending beyond Lake Baringo and the Lorogi Moun- 
tains. The specimen recorded by Thomas is, moreover, well 
within the range of Gazella rufifrons albonota. 



THE GAZELLES AND THEIR ALLIES 609 



The Gerenuk 

Lithocranius 

Lithocranius Kohl, 1886, Ann. Mus. Wien, I, p. 79; type L. walleri. 

The gerenuk is a striking peculiarity among East African 
antelopes in almost all its characteristics whether of body- 
form or of habit. In Somaliland it is associated with an 
understudy, the dibatag, but in British East Africa, into 
which country it has but recently wandered, it stands 
alone. The grotesque figure of the gerenuk needs no de- 
scription. It can be recognized as far as it is visible by its 
extreme slenderness, gauntness, and spidery aspect. The 
body is very narrow and mounted on extremely long, slen- 
der legs. The great length and slenderness of the neck, 
however, is one of its chief peculiarities. This structure 
is almost equal to the body in length and merges quite 
imperceptibly into the narrow head. The snout is long 
and produced at the tip into a short, prehensile lip or pro- 
boscis. The ears are large and somewhat more expanded 
than in the typical gazelles. The tail is thin-haired and of 
medium length. The knees are furnished with well-marked 
brushes. The male is armed with horns of a peculiar ly- 
rate shape which are hooked forward sharply at the tips 
and ringed throughout most of their length, but the female 
is hornless. Four mammae are present in the female. The 
dorsal color is a uniform cinnamon-red without the dark 
side stripe or head stripes of gazelles. The skull is peculiar 
among gazelles in its great flatness and length, the posterior 
part being produced backward into a knobbed crest on the 
occiput. The bones of the snout or premaxillaries are very 
slender and bent downward at their tips, as in the dikdik, 
and are of the characteristic shape found among species 
possessing a proboscis. The males are distinctly larger than 
the females, but are not distinguishable in coloration except 
by the absence of a dark crown patch. The young resemble 
the adult female in coloration. A single species is known 
which ranges from Somaliland and southern Abyssinia south 
to Kilimanjaro and German East Africa. The peculiar 
structure of the animal and its adaptability to a desert 



610 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

habitat would suggest its origin in the Somaliland region 
and its extension later southward into British and German 
East Africa. 

Gerenuk 
Lithocranius walleri 

Native Names: Somali, gerenuk; Rendile, tange. 

Gazella walleri Brooke, 1878, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 929, pi, LVI. 

Range. — From Somaliland and southern Abyssinia south- 
ward throughout the coast and Lake Rudolf drainage area 
to the Kilimanjaro district and the Rift Valley of German 
East Africa as far south as the mouth of the Pangani River. 

The gerenuk was first described by Sir Victor Brooke 
from specimens received from Waller, supposedly from the 
Kilimanjaro region. Sclater and Thomas, however, in the 
" Book of Antelopes," refer the origin of these specimens to 
the coast district near the mouth of the Juba River, on infor- 
mation received from Sir John Kirk, from whom Waller is 
alleged to have obtained the specimens sent to Brooke. 
The species is of rare or local occurrence in the Kilimanjaro 
region and has been obtained by very few sportsmen in 
that district. North of the Tana River, however, and 
throughout Somaliland it is universally distributed and is 
well known to every traveller who has visited these regions. 
It is doubtless from this latter region that the specimens 
described by Brooke were obtained. Herr Oscar Neumann, 
in 1899, described the gerenuk of Somaliland as a new race, 
giving as characters larger body size, paler color, lighter- 
colored knee-brushes, and less extent to the white area on 
the back of the hind quarters. Specimens from the North- 
ern Guaso Nyiro district in the National Museum are fully 
as large as the dimensions of Somaliland specimens and 
resemble them closely in color and extent of the white on 
the hind quarters. The color of the knee-brushes in these 
specimens varies from light brown to seal-brown or black. 
We doubt very much If the Somali gerenuk can be distin- 
guished from specimens from British East Africa. 

This queer, long-legged, long-necked antelope, called by 
the Swahilis ** little camel," was common in the dry, thorn- 



THE GAZELLES AND THEIR ALLIES 611 

scrub-covered country along the Northern Guaso Nyiro. It 
was as wild and wary as the gazelle of the neighborhood was 
tame. It was always found singly or in small parties, some- 
times near the river, more often in the driest regions; and 
the gerenuk, which lived away from the neighborhood of 
water, certainly did not drink at all. They browsed on the 
twigs and withered leaves of the bushes and low thorn-trees. 
The stomach contents of two or three specimens included 
leaves of the tooth-brush bush, Salvadora persica ; wait-a-bit 
acacia leaves, A. mellifera ; and berries of nightshade. Sola- 
num campy lac anthum. All their attitudes are characteristic 
and unlike those of other antelopes. They frequently rise 
on their hind legs to snatch some bunch of leaves which is 
beyond the reach of their long necks, and when alarmed 
they sneak off at a trot through the bushes with the head 
and neck stretched straight in front of them. They were 
quite indifferent to heat, and we saw them feeding at noon 
as often as in the morning or evening. They were some- 
times found in the barren, open plains, crossing from one 
patch of scrub to another, and if surprised in such a place 
they would break into a gallop. More often they were 
found in the rather thinly bushed tracts — the bushes at 
the time of our visit being well-nigh leafless — and then they 
preferred to skulk and hide. 

The dorsal color of the body is uniform cinnamon- 
rufous and covers the back like a short blanket, being 
sharply defined along the middle of the sides by a band of 
lighter color, or buff-pink. The buff-pink extends over the 
middle and lower sides, and is defined in its turn sharply 
against the white under-parts. Upon the sides of the neck, 
however, there is no sharp contrast between the color of 
the nape and that of the throat. The limbs are uniform 



612 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

buff-pink like the sides of the body with the exception of 
the knee-brushes on the forelegs, which are usually blackish 
centrally and very conspicuous. The color of the body is 
continued on to the tail as a narrow crest of cinnamon hair 
to the black tufted tip. The under-surface of the tail is 
quite hairless. The crown is bright rufous from the horn 
bases to the tip of the snout, the red color merging 
gradually on the sides to the buff-pink. Above the eye 
is a conspicuous white stripe from the horn base to 
well in front of the eye. The region below the eye is also 
whitish, as well as the lips, chin, and a- median stripe extend- 
ing down the centre of the throat a short distance. The 
back of the ears is like the sides, buff-pink, and the inside 
is marked by a few diagonal rows of long white hairs. The 
female differs in coloration from the male by having a dark- 
brown or blackish patch on the crown and by dark tips 
and backs to the ears. The young have the dark crown 
patch of the female and are quite like their female parent in 
coloration. 

The dimensions of an adult male in the flesh were: head 
and body, 50 inches; tail, 11 inches; hind foot, 17 inches; 
car, 5^ inches. The largest male skull in a series of eight 
is 9^ inches in greatest length. An adult female skull 
measures S}i inches. Horns measuring 14 inches in length 
are not rare in British East Africa. The record is not 
greatly in excess of this average, being only 16 inches. 
The Somaliland record only exceeds this by one inch. A 
series of nineteen specimens from the Northern Guaso 
Nyiro are in the National Museum, collected by the Roose- 
velt and Rainey expeditions. These represent localities 
along the middle course of the river and northward in the 
desert near Mount Marsabit. Donaldson Smith has shot 
specimens much farther north at the north end of Lake 
Rudolf and others east of the lake on the headwaters of 
the Juba River. The southern limits of the range are 
marked by specimens shot in German East Africa by Schil- 
lings on the Pangani River south of Kilimanjaro. Hunter 
met with the gerenuk near Lake Jipe, southeast of Kil- 
imanjaro and also on the Tana River. Jackson records 
it as abundant on the coast at Merereni, north of the Sabaki 
River. 




MAP 32 — DISTRIBUTION OF THE GERENUK 

1 Lithocranius walleri 
613 



614 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

The Impalla 

jEpyceros 

JEpyceros Sundevall, 1847, K. Vet. Akad. Handl., 1845, p. 271; type 
A. melampus. 

The impalla is one of the aberrant members of the sub- 
family Antilopince, of which the gazelles are typical. It 
resembles the gazelles more closely in skull structure than 
any other group, and in conformity with them the snout 
shows a large narial chamber and broad, short nasal bones, 
but differs by having a large oval sinus on the sides of the 
snout between the premaxillary and maxillary bones. In 
the absence of anteorbital fossae it differs decidedly from 
African gazelles, but in this respect resembles such Asiatic 
members as the chiru, Pantholops, of Tibet and the Mon- 
golian gazelles of the genus Procapra. The absence of 
false hoofs distinguishes the impalla from all other large 
antelopes. Other characters which serve to separate it 
from the African gazelles are the absence of the anteorbital 
gland and pore on the face, the absence of horns in the 
female, the lack of stripes on the face or body, the bushy 
tail and the presence of four mammae in the female. The 
only gazelle marking in the coat is the black pygal stripe 
on the hind quarters. A color character, confined to this 
antelope alone, concerns the feet. The hind legs are marked 
on the cannon-bones by two oval black patches in which the 
hair is much longer and coarser and overlies a glandular 
area of the skin similar to the metatarsal glands of the 
white tail deer. The position of the fetlocks is marked by 
two smaller black patches. The sexes are alike in color, 
but the female is somewhat smaller than the buck in size. 
The newly born young differ in no way conspicuously from 
the coloration of their parents. 

The genus contains a single species which is confined to 
the Ethiopian region, where it ranges from the Orange 
River, in South Africa, northward on the East Coast as far 
as British East Africa and southern Uganda. In the south- 
ern part of its range it spreads westward to Angola, but is 
not found north of that district in the Congo forest area or 
the Nigerian region. 



THE GAZELLES AND THEIR ALLIES 615 

Equatorial Impalla 

Mpyceros melampus suara 

Native Names: K.inyzmwesi, suara ; Swah'iW, szvala ; KWiamhz, ndadai. 
Strepsiceros suara Matschie, 1892, Sitz.-Ber. Ges. Nat. Freu., Berl., p. 135. 

Range. — Occurring throughout German East Africa 
and extending north in British East Africa as far as the 
Tana River drainage and the northern slopes of Mount 
Kenia, thence westward to the Turkwell River. In Uganda 
it extends as far north as Ankole. 

The present name of suara, by which the equatorial 
impalla is now known in zoology, was applied by Matschie 
originally to an association of material consisting of the skull 
and horns of a lesser koodoo, the skin of a female impalla, 
and the painting of an impalla by Doctor Richard Bohm. 
Some years afterward, upon discovering his mistake, Matschie 
applied the name suara to the impalla in his monograph 
on the mammals of German East Africa, published in 1894, 
thus eliminating the koodoo element of the original descrip- 
tion. The impalla was first recorded in 1863 from East Africa 
by Speke and Grant, who met with it in German East Africa. 
Since their time it has been reported by practically every 
traveller in the region. Von Heuglin reported the impalla 
from the White Nile, but it is now known not to occur in 
the Nile Valley proper. This error may have been due 
to a confusion of the impalla with the kob, which it resem- 
bles closely in color and size, and from which it is not dis- 
tinguishable in life except on close inspection. 

The equatorial impalla is distinguishable with some 
difficulty from the typical form of South Africa. It differs 
chiefly by its lighter or brighter tawny coloration and by 
larger horns. From the Angola race, petersi, it is distin- 
guishable by the absence of a black face blaze and ocular 
stripes. Indications of these dark markings, however, are 
often found on specimens from British East Africa, where 
only the old males are without some faint trace of them. 

The dorsal coloration is bright cinnamon-rufous, and 
extends well down on the sides, where it is sharply defined 
against the ochraceous-buff of the sides, which covers a strip 
about three inches wide extending the whole length of the 



616 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

flanks and is well defined against the white of the under- 
parts and the inside of the hind legs. The hind quarters 
and rump are ochraceous-buff and marked by a black pygal 
stripe extending from the base of the tail one-third of the 
way to the hocks. The rump and the tail are marked by a 
black dorsal stripe which extends almost to the tufted tip 
of the latter, which is buff at the base and white terminally. 
The legs are ochraceous-buff like the lower sides. The hind 
legs are marked by two black oval patches on the cannon- 
bones, the black being continued down to another pair on the 
fetlocks. The pastern region above the hoof is whitish. The 
back of the hock is marked by a black spot. The fore limbs 
are like the hind in color, but lack the black patches, except 
the pair at the fetlocks. The head shows some decided 
contrast in color. The ears are conspicuous by their broad 
black tips and white inner side, and the eye region is re- 
lieved by a broad white stripe extending forward from the 
eye a short distance. The lips, chin, and throat are also 
white, the two latter areas being separated by a bar of 
ochraceous on the upper throat. The rest of the head is 
uniform cinnamon-rufous, with the exception of the crown, 
which is black between the horns in the male, while in the 
female the whole crown region is black. A majority of 
specimens show slight indication of a black face blaze and 
black diagonal stripe through the eye. These black mark- 
ings are most distinct on females and young. The latter 
often show in addition black leg stripes. 

An adult male shot by Colonel Roosevelt on the Loita 
Plains measured in the flesh: 59 inches in length of head 
and body along the curve of the back; tail, 14 inches; hind 
foot, 173^ inches; ear, 6>2 inches. This specimen represents 
the average size attained by the males. The females are 
somewhat smaller, judging from the flesh dimensions of a 
fully adult female from the same district, which measured: 
length of head and body, 54 inches; tail, 12 inches; hind 
foot, i6>2 inches; ear, 6 inches. The skull of this spec- 
imen measured 934" inches in length. Male skulls are con- 
siderably larger than this one and average io>^ inches 
in length. The longest-horned specimen in the series of 
twenty-seven males in the National Museum is a specimen 
measuring 29 inches in length on the curve. This specimen 



THE GAZELLES AND THEIR ALLIES 617 

was shot near the headwaters of the Amala River, close to 
the German border, by Heller. The average horn length 
in this large series is 24 inches. The record horn length for 
British East Africa, given by Ward, is 31^^ inches, while 
that for the typical race of South Africa is 27^ inches. 
The difference in these lengths represents fairly well the 
amount of difference in size of the two races. Specimens 
measuring 27>^ inches are not at all rare in British East 
Africa. 

In Millais's delightful ''Breath from the Veldt," a book 
which illustrates well why photographs can never approach 
in value true pictures of wild life by a competent nature 
artist, a special study is made of the springbuck. This 
South African gazelle is shown in all its extraordinary leap- 
ing postures. There are also pictures of the impalla, but 
not in its characteristic attitudes. It is a pity that Millais 
did not do for the impalla what he did so well for the spring- 
buck and for that most eccentric of four-footed beasts, the 
white-tailed gnu. Among all the horned animals of middle 
Africa the impalla is the one which when alarmed takes the 
most extraordinary leaps and bounds. When a herd is 
frightened in fairly thick but low bush, the animals go -off 
almost like birds, springing in every direction, clear over 
the bushes, or many feet into the air even when there are 
no bushes. Their carriage is beautiful, their movements 
are the perfection of grace and agility. Their annulated 
horns describe each a spiral, and their beautifully colored 
coats, contrasted red and white, have a satin sheen. Their 
coloring makes them very conspicuous, as it contrasts 
sharply with all their usual surroundings. The buck, when 
amorous, displays the coloration by strutting among the 
does with tail erect and the hair of the rump and sides 



618 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

raised; the head usually up and back, but sometimes 
stretched in front ; and often he grunts. 

Impalla are gregarious. Each master buck — or ram, as 
the males of all the lesser antelope are called in Africa — 
has a harem of twenty or thirty or forty does. Young 
bucks and very old bucks may be found solitary or in 
parties of half a dozen; a doe with a new-born fawn keeps 
by itself. Once we crept up to within ten yards of a doe 
and fawn lying down among the bushes. The big bucks 
fight fiercely for the mastery of the does. Kermit killed 
one with the broken horn of a rival imbedded in its neck. 
Evidently the two supple, vigorous beasts had bounded 
together with such force that the horn was broken off short ; 
the piece was about ten inches long, of which the tip to 
the extent of three inches or so was imbedded in the muscle 
so firmly that it was pulled out only with effort. The 
wounded animal seemed in perfect health. 

Impalla live in cover, sometimes thick, sometimes thin, 
and never go more than a few miles from water. On the 
Athi we found them grazing on the open plains, a mile or 
two away from water, with gazelles and hartebeests, early 
in the morning and late in the afternoon; if disturbed, the 
gazelles and the hartebeests ran in the open, whereas the 
impalla at once left them and headed for the cover which 
bordered the river, a thick growth of trees and bushes. In 
this cover they passed several hours during the heat of the 
day, usually lying down, sometimes feeding. On the North- 
ern Guaso Nyiro and the Sotik I never happened to see them 
more than a couple of hundred yards from cover. They 
are chiefly grazers. They feed and rest alternately, day and 
night, for a few hours at a stretch. Of course, where much 




MAP 33 — DISTRIBUTION OF THE EAST AFRICAN RACE OF THE IMPALLA 

1 ^pyceros melampus suara 
619 



620 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

pursued by man they lie hid in cover during the daytime. 
We found one herd coming to water early in the afternoon 
and another about sunset. They advanced in the fashion 
of most game, keeping in the open with no attempt to hide, 
continually halting and bounding away on false alarms. 
One herd took half an hour in traversing the last three 
hundred yards to the drinking-place; then they drank at a 
shallow place, evidently fearing crocodiles nearly as much 
as leopards. Impalla, like waterbuck, reedbuck, and bush- 
buck, drink frequently — two or three times a day — being 
wholly unable to stand thirst like the species of the plains 
and the desert. 

Some of them on the Athi were infected with ticks, 
which clustered at the bases of the horns. The leopard 
was their chief enemy. They were very shy on the plains, 
less so in the woods. We did not find them tenacious of 
life, as most African game is said to be; twice individuals 
succumbed to wounds which would hardly have prevented 
a blacktail or a whitetail deer from making off. 

Impalla are abundant about the slopes of Kilimanjaro, 
and are occasionally found in the adjacent desert tracts 
of Taita and the Taru, but are absent from the moist 
coast belt. Westward they are not uncommon along the 
German border as far west as the Victoria Nyanza, but 
their real centre of abundance is the Rift Valley. Both 
Count Teleki and Jackson have found them as far north as 
the Turkwell River, in which region they reach their extreme 
northern limit. The Ankole district in southern Uganda 
represents the northwestern limit of the range of the 
impalla, which is not known to occur farther north in the 
Nile Valley proper. Bohm, who furnished Matschie with 
the material for the description of the equatorial race of 
the impalla, obtained his specimen near Tabora, directly 
south of the Victoria Nyanza and east of the northern shores 



THE GAZELLES AND THEIR ALLIES 621 

of Lake Tanganyika. Specimens from the Northern Guaso 
Nyiro region have recently been described by a Swedish 
naturaUst, Inar Lonnberg, as a new race, based upon their 
apparently lighter color and longer nasal bones. The impalla 
from this region in the National Museum, however, show 
no differences in color or other characters by which they 
may be distinguished from specimens from the highland 
region. 



CHAPTER XIX 

THE DIKDIKS 

Subfamily Rhynchotragince 

The dikdiks are antelopes of very small size, having the 
snout produced into a short proboscis and the anteorbital 
gland of large size and opening by a circular orifice on the 
face. The tail is rudimentary, and less than two inches 
long. The male alone is horned. The horns are short, 
ringed, and project backward in a line with the profile of 
the snout. The female has four mammae. The hoofs are 
slender and the false hoofs are minute. The coloration of 
the sexes is alike, but the tuft of long hair on the forehead 
is decidedly coarser and denser in the male. The color pat- 
tern of the young at birth is identical to that of the adults. 
The female is distinctly larger than the male. The skull 
has the anterior narial opening greatly enlarged to accom- 
modate the proboscis, which is brought about partially by 
the nasal bones being much reduced, their length being not 
greater than their width. The premaxillae are very slender 
in the typical genus, and reduced so that they do not extend 
more than half-way to the nasal bones. The anteorbital 
fossae are much enlarged to accommodate the large ante- 
orbital glands. Young skulls in which the first molars are 
just erupting show well-developed upper canine teeth, but 
these are absorbed again by the time the second molars are 
erupted. Similar canine teeth are found in Gazella at the 

622 



THE DIKDIKS 623 

same age, but have not been observed in other genera of 
antelopes. 

The short nasal bones, the large anteorbital fossae and 
the great size of the narial opening of the dikdiks ally them 
closely to the gazelles and separate them fairly widely from 
the other groups of small antelopes with which they are usu- 
ally grouped. In the structure of the snout they resemble 
closely the proboscis-bearing Saiga, which shows an even 
greater reduction of the nasal and the premaxillary bones. 
The skulls of newly born gazelles are scarcely distinguish- 
able in shape of nasal bones or relative size of the narial 
opening from those of adult dikdik. There are two genera: 
RhynckotraguSy bearing a large proboscis, and Madoqua, 
having the proboscis smaller and the premaxillary bones 
normal. The latter genus is confined to Somaliland and 
Abyssinia, and is not known to occur in British East Africa. 

Long-Snouted Dikdiks 

Rhynchotragus 

Rhynchotragus Neumann, 1905, Sitz.-Ber. Ges. Nat. Freu., Berl., p. 88; type 
Madoqua guentheri Thomas. 

In the long-snouted dikdiks the coloration is much more 
subdued than in Madoqua, the colors never being bright 
orange. The body size is also larger and the proboscis is much 
more developed, being fully twice as great in length. The 
skull has the nasal bones more reduced and the premaxillary 
bones widely separated from the nasals. The last lower 
molar tooth has three folds to the crown instead of two as 
in Madoqua. The genus ranges from central Somaliland 
and Abyssinia southward through the coast and Rift Valley 
drainage area to central German East Africa. It is not 
known to occur west of the Rift Valley in the Nile drainage. 
An isolated species, damarensis, occurs in German Southwest 
Africa and Angola. No fossil species are known. 



624 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

We came across two species and several races of dik- 
diks. In these tiny animals the sexes are of almost equal 
size, the female being, if anything, slightly larger. The 
little creatures live in thick cover, and run under the 
branches like a civet or a mongoose. The voice is a bird- 
like whistle or chirp. They are always found singly or in 
pairs, or in pairs with one young one, and are shy, timid, 
and alert. They browse, graze, and eat roots; one was 
seen digging grass tubers at lo a.m. in the bright sunlight 
in the desert region of the Northern Guaso Nyiro. They go 
entirely without water; at least we found them in thickets 
which apparently they never left and which were miles 
from any water. In the desert they never came to water; 
it is possible that some of those in the highlands drink at 
pools. We thought we found signs that this was so. 

The tiny dikdik has one habit which it shares with the 
huge rhinoceros. It tends to deposit its dung in one place; 
at any rate, we found dung heaps which had evidently been 
resorted to for many weeks by one or two of the little crea- 
tures. On account of its habits and of the dense bush in 
which it dwells, it is rarely seen. The stomach of a spec- 
imen killed at the Northern Guaso Nyiro contained the 
leaves of two bushes, Strychnos and Sahadora, the latter 
the tooth-brush bush of the Somalis. Another specimen col- 
lected at Naivasha contained the leaves and parts of the hard 
yellow berries of a nightshade, Solanum campylacanthum. 

Key to the Species of Rhynchotragus 

Proboscis large and expanded; premaxillae short, only reaching half- 
way to nasals; nasals very short, only reaching as 
far as front of last upper premolar; belly white 
without fulvous margin on sides guentheri 




MAP 34 — DISTRIBUTION OF THE EAST AFRICAN RACE OF LONG- 
SNOUTED DIKDIK 

1 Rhynchotragus guentheri smithi 
625 



626 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

Proboscis smaller and narrow; premaxillae long, reaching nasals; nasal 
bones longer, reaching as far forward as front of 
tooth row; white of belly bordered by fulvous 

kirki 

Large-Snouted Dikdik 

Rhynchotragus guentheri smithi 

Native Name: Rendile, sagari. 

Madoqua guentheri smithi Thomas, 1900, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 804. 

Range. — From the Rift Valley of southern Abyssinia 
south through the Lake Rudolf region to Lake Baringo 
and the Northern Guaso Nyiro River of British East Africa; 
west as far as the Nile watershed and east at least as far as 
the Lorian swamp. 

The type specimen of this race was collected by Doctor 
Donaldson Smith thirty miles southeast of Lake Stefanie, 
on the Abyssinian border, during his journey in 1898-9 
from Lake Rudolf to the Nile. Lonnberg, in 1907, de- 
scribed another race from Lake Baringo which he called 
nasoguttata owing to the proboscis showing white flecks. 
A series of specimens from Lake Baringo have been 
examined in the British Museum and found to be indis- 
tinguishable from smithi in size or coloration. 

This race is at once distinguishable from all other Brit- 
ish East African dikdiks by the enormous development 
of the proboscis, which is fully twice the size of that of 
other races, and by the absence of a fulvous lateral band 
to the under-parts, which are wholly white. The skull 
differs decidedly by its small nasal bones, which are much 
broader than long, and by the shortness of the premaxil- 
lary bones, which reach only half-way to the nasals. The 
narial chamber is of enormous extent, greatly exceeding 
in length the interorbital breadth of the skull. 

The dorsal coloration is buffy-gray vermiculated with 
blackish, giving a pepper-and-salt effect. The tail is haired 
above and is like the back in color, but below it is naked. 
The legs to the knees and hocks are similar to the back in 
color, but the lower part of the limbs are ochraceous-buff. 
The under-parts are pure white without any indication of 
a fulvous band along the sides. The lower and middle 



THE DIKDIKS 627 

throat are vermiculated with blackish hke the nape; but 
the forethroat and chin are white. The head has the long 
tuft on the crown vermiculated like the back, but the buffy 
annulations are distinctly lighter. The snout and proboscis 
are bright tawny dorsally, but the sides of the face and the 
back of the ears are lighter or ochraceous-bufif. The lips 
and the inside of the ears are white. The anteorbital pore 
and eyelids are black. 

The average measurements of adults in the flesh are: 
length of head and body, male, 23^ inches, female, 25 inches ; 
tail, I y^ inches ; length of hind foot, male, 7^ inches, female, 
8 inches; ear, 3^^ inches. Greatest length of skull: male, 
4iV inches, female, 4^ inches; length of narial chamber, 
male, i^ inches, female, i^ inches. The longest-horned 
male in a series of ten adults has horns 3iV inches long 
in a straight line and i^ inches spread at the tips. Average 
horns are a half inch less than these dimensions. 

A large series of specimens collected by the Rainey 
expedition have been examined from the Northern Guaso 
Nyiro near its junction with the Lakiundu and from the 
region just north of this point on the Marsabit Road at 
Merille and Longaya. Specimens have also been examined 
from the juniper forest on the summit of Mount Lololokwi 
at an elevation of six thousand feet. Other specimens from 
the upper Turkwell River north of Mount Elgon, from 
Lake Baringo, and from the type locality near Lake Ste- 
fanie have been examined. The range of this species over- 
laps that of the kirki group in the region watered by the 
Northern Guaso Nyiro, where it is found associated every- 
where with a much smaller race, kirki minor. 



Kirk Dikdik 

Rhynchotragus kirki 

Range. — From the Northern Guaso Nyiro River and 
Lake Baringo southward through the Rift Valley and coast 
drainage area to central German East Africa. 

The Kirk dikdik differs from the guentheri group of 
the northern desert area by its much smaller proboscis and 
the broad fulvous border to the under-parts. The skull 



628 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

differs decidedly by the longer premaxillary bones which 
reach to the nasals. The nasal bones are longer, and reach 
forward as far as the first upper premolar; their breadth is 
decidedly less than their length. The length of the narial 
chamber is much less and never exceeds the interorbital 
width of the skull as in the large-snouted species. 



Key to the Races of kirki 

Dorsal coloration very light bufFy-drab without tawny suffusion 

minor 

Dorsal coloration darker, showing marked tawny suffusion 

Sides of body buffy, showing little contrast with the white 
under-parts 
Size small, length of hind foot 6^ inches kirki 

Size large, length of hind foot 7/^ inches nyikce 

Sides of body bright tawny-ochraceous, in marked contrast to white 
under-parts 
Size small, skull length ^^2 inches; ear small, less than 3 inches 
in length hiyidei 

Size large, skull length ^'^ to 5 inches; ear large, more than 
3 inches in length cave^idishi 



Typical Kirk Dikdik 

Rhynchotragus kirki kirki 

Neotragus kirkit Giinther, 1880, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 17; fig. head and skull. 

Range. — Coast district of Jubaland south at least as 
far as the Tana River. Occupies the northeastern limits 
of the range of the species. 

The typical race of Kirk dikdik was described by Doctor 
Giinther from specimens sent to the British Museum by 
Sir John Kirk, who obtained them from Brava, a port on 
the coast of Italian Somaliland a short distance north of the 
Juba River. Other specimens have been collected in the 
vicinity of Lamu near the mouth of the Tana River. This 
is the smallest race, the hind foot having a length from the 



THE DIKDIKS 629 

hock to the hoof of only 6yi inches. The northern race 
minor of the desert interior regions is scarcely of larger size, 
but kirki is much darker. In color it resembles the highland 
races hindei and cavendishi, but is somewhat less rufous, 
being more vinaceous on the sides. 



Northern Kirk Dikdik 

Rhynchotragus kirki minor 

Rhynchotragus kirki minor Lonnberg, 191 2, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. 
IX, p. 65. 

Range. — Watershed of the Northern Guaso Nyiro River 
northward to Mount Marsabit and eastward as far, at least, 
as the Lorian swamp, no doubt extending within a few 
miles of the coast, where it intergrades with the typical 
kirki. 

This light-colored desert race was described by Lonn- 
berg from specimens which he collected near Chanler Falls 
in the lower Northern Guaso Nyiro River. It may be dis- 
tinguished from the other races by its lighter color and 
smaller size. The body color is buffy-drab, and the legs 
and head are buffy-ochraceous. The color of the lower sides 
bordering the white under-parts is buffy, and shows very 
little contrast to the white. The measurements of adults in 
the flesh are: length of head and body, male, 233^ inches, 
female, 24^^ inches; tail, i}^ inches; hind foot, male, y^ 
inches, female, 8 inches; ear, 2^ inches. Greatest length oif 
skull: male, 4.}i inches, female, 4.}4 inches; length of narial 
chamber, male, i}4 inches, female, i^^^ inches. The longest- 
horned male in a series of six adults has horns 2^ inches, 
measured in a straight line, with a spread at the tips of 2)4 
inches. 

A large series have been examined in the National 
Museum from the Northern Guaso Nyiro River and its 
junction with the Lakiundu and from watering-places on 
the Marsabit Road at Merille, Longaya, and Koya. The 
race is confined to the lower desert levels to altitudes below 
two thousand five hundred feet and is unknown on the 
summits of the desert mountains. 



630 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

Nyika Kirk Dikdik 

Rhynchotragus kirki nyikcs 

Native Names: Duruma, kivi; Talta, sha. 

Rhynchotragus kirki nyikce Heller, 1913, Smith. Misc. Coll., vol. 61, No. 7, 
P- 3- 

Range. — From the eastern and northern slopes of 
Mount KiUmanjaro northward in the desert nyikae to the 
Tana River; westward on the slopes of the inland plateau 
to an elevation of two thousand five hundred feet. 

The type of this race came from Ndi near the railway 
station of Voi. In characters it resembles kirki most closely, 
but the size is decidedly greater, equalling that of hindei 
from which it differs by lighter coloration. The coloration 
of the dorsal region is ochraceous-tawny, changing gradually 
on the sides to buff. The whole dorsal region is vermicu- 
lated by dusky annulations to the hair. The under-parts 
are sharply defined against this vermiculated area by a wide 
band of light ochraceous-buff succeeded by the pure white 
of the median ventral area. The legs are uniform ochra- 
ceous-tawny. The tail is buffy-gray vermiculated by dusky, 
and the posterior border of the thighs is clothed by long white 
hair in sharp contrast to the buffy-gray rump and sides. 
The head has the coronal crest ochraceous-tawny vermicu- 
lated only in the central part by dusky, and the snout is 
lighter, being cinnamon-buff. The orbital area is white with 
a blackish diagonal streak extending through the eye to the 
anteorbital gland. The sides of the head are buffy faintly 
vermiculated with dusky. The back of the ears is buffy, 
and the inner side, the chin, and the lips are white. The 
forethroat is pure ochraceous-buff, but the middle throat is 
vermiculated heavily with dusky like nape. 

The body size equals that of hindei. The largest horns 
in a series of three males are: length, straight, 3 inches; 
spread at tips, 2^ inches. 

Specimens have been examined from the Voi district, 
Maji ya Chumvi, and from Taveta on the southeastern 
slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro. 



TilK \)\K\)\KS (y/A 

UkaMBA Ku'K DlKhlK 

Rhynchotragus kirki kindei 

NIad'j'jua kirki hindei 'J homa;?, i'/-i2, /Inn. '^ Ma?. Nat. IJist., vol. V, 
p. 242. 

Range. — Confined to iJjc foolliill re^/ion fi;)fikin;.'^ tiic 
hij^hlands from the southern boundary of Jiriti Ji f.ast 
Africa north to tfie southern slopes of Mourjt Kenia between 
the altitudes of two thousand five hundred and five thousand 
feet. 

llie ty[je of this species was collected at the ;^overn- 
rncni p(jst of Kitui by IJoctfjr S. L. Hinde, to whom the 
British Museum is indebted for ni;iny of its African types 
of small mammals. We have examined specimens in the 
National Museum from the Athi Plains and the station of 
Mtoto Andei. Sir Alfred Pease has recorded in a letter 
to Colonel Roosevelt his discovery of a family of spotted 
dikdiks on his Kitan^a Farm near Machakos. While out 
shcxjting he met a family party of three dikdiks: a male, 
female, and half-^rown youn^, all of which were marked 
by larj^e white blotches upon the flanks, shoulders, neck, 
and rump. With the exception of the spots they differed 
in no way from the ordinary dikdik found in the same 
locality. The discovery of one individual showing partial 
albinism of this sort would not be extraordinarily remark- 
able, but the discovery of three individuals all showing the 
same markings and associated together in a family is indeed 
a really remarkable occurrence. Apparently in this family 
at least the white markings are well established and are 
transmitted to the offspring. The dikdik were under ob- 
servation for some time at a distance of only fifteen yards, 
but owing to the tender regard in which they were held by 
the observer no attempt was made to collect a specimen. 
No other case among dikdik of partial or complete albi- 
nism is known to us. The proboscis occasionally shows 
small white spots or flecks, but these are n(tvitr numerous 
or extensive in area. 

The Lkamba dikdik may be known by its dark colora- 
tion and extensive tawny suffusion, the sides being fjright 
tawny and the legs more uniform tawny. \u azc it is 



632 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

larger than the coast and desert races, and only slightly 
smaller than the Naivasha dikdik. No flesh measurements 
are available. The longest horns in a series of three adults 
are: length, 2^<4 inches; spread, i^ inches. Skull: greatest 
length, 4iV inches; length of nasal chamber, i^ inches. 

Naivasha Kirk Dikdik 

Rhynchotragus kirki cavendishi 

Native Name: Masai, engomani. 

Madoqua cavendishi Thomas, 1898, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 278. 

Range. — Distributed throughout the Rift Valley of Brit- 
ish East Africa from Lake Baringo southward to the Ger- 
man border; spreading westward in the southern part of its 
range across the Loita Plains to the Amala River and the 
southeastern drainage area of the Victoria Nyanza. 

The specimen collected by Mr. H. S. H. Cavendish, 
which has formed the basis for Thomas's description and 
name of the present race, is of uncertain locality. The 
type was one of a number of specimens bearing no locality, 
which were collected in British East Africa by Cavendish 
and presented to the British Museum. The describer errone- 
ously attributed the dikdik to Lake Rudolf, which was one 
of the districts visited by Cavendish. The type specimen, 
however, agrees minutely with the large race found south of 
Baringo, a district also visited by the collector and without 
doubt the source of the type. The only race of kirki which 
may possibly reach the Rudolf basin is the small, pale- 
colored race, minor, with which it could not possibly be con- 
founded. In 1909 Doctor J. A. Allen, of the American 
Museum of Natural History of New York, described as 
Madoqua langi specimens collected by Herbert Lang near 
Lake Elmentaita. These specimens, however, are not dis- 
tinguishable from cavendishi, which came without doubt 
from a neighboring locality. 

This race attains the maximum of size of the kirki group 
and has also distinctly larger ears than other races. In 
color it resembles its nearest geographical ally, hindei, but 
is on an average somewhat less rufous, lacking the rufous 
suffusion of the throat, and in its general grayness of color- 




MAP 35 — DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES OF THE KIRK DIKDIK 

1 Rhynchotragus kirki kirki 2 Rhynchotragus kirki viinor 3 Rhynchotragus^ kirki nyikce 
4 Rhyyichotragus kirki hindei 5 Rhynchotragus kirki cavendishi 

633 



634 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

ation approaching nyikce. The flesh measurements of adult 
specimens are: length of head and body, male, 25 inches, 
female, 26 inches; tail, i}4 inches; hind foot, male, 7>^ 
inches, female, 8 inches; ear, 3>^ inches. Greatest length 
of skull, male, 4^ inches, female, 5 inches; length of narial 
chamber, male, i^ inches, female, lis inches. In a series of 
three males the longest horns are 3^ inches with a spread 
at the tips of 2}i inches. In British East Africa speci- 
mens of this race have been secured at Lakes Naivasha 
and Elmentaita, the Loita Plains, and the headwaters of 
the Amala River. 



CHAPTER XX 

THE HOOK-LIPPED OR BLACK RHINOCEROS 

Rhinoceroses 

Family Rhinocerotidce 

All of the living rhinoceroses are ponderous, thick- 
skinned mammals armed on the snout by one or two dermal 
horns. The structure of the horns is peculiar among mam- 
mals and quite unlike either the bony horns of the deer 
or the hollow, chitinous horns of antelopes and their kindred. 
The horn of the rhinoceros is made up of a compact, hard 
mass of agglutinated, hair-like fibres which are an outgrowth 
from the skin. The horns receive no bOny support from the 
skull but rest on the nasal bones, where they are firmly held 
in place by their continuity with the thick skin of the 
snout. A slight concession, however, is made toward their 
support by the part of the nasal bones upon which they 
rest, this portion being set with numerous small, bony 
tubercles. So constant are these bony tubercles that pale- 
ontologists are enabled by such evidence to determine the 
presence and position of horns of extinct species. The 
horns are not strictly a family character, although so prom- 
inent a feature of the later forms, for some of the oldest 
genera were quite hornless. Rhinoceroses are evenly three- 
toed, and are members of the odd-toed or perissodactyl 
division of the hoofed mammals. In the structure of their 
feet they are fairly closely allied to the tapirs and distantly 

635 



636 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

to the modern horses, only the remote ancestral forms of 
which were three-toed like the rhinoceros. In shape of 
body the rhinoceros is not very unlike the hippopotamus, 
the body being almost equally long, but the legs are in 
most of the forms decidedly longer, so that the animal is 
capable of travelling at really astonishing speed considering 
its immense size. The skin is very thick, dense in texture, 
and usually quite hairless. The skin of the two African 
genera resembles in general appearance that of the elephant, 
but it is of a very different quality, being much denser and 
more armor-like. The hair is confined in the existing 
species chiefly to the tips of the ears and the tail, but the 
recently extinct woolly rhinoceros, which lived far north in 
Europe and Asia, was clothed by a coat of long hair to pro- 
tect it from the cold. In dental characters the various 
genera of rhinoceroses exhibit much diversity, but the cheek- 
teeth show a peculiar pattern of folds which are character- 
istic of the family. The great bulk of the genera had well- 
developed incisor teeth in both jaws, and some of the very 
ancient types had canine teeth as well, but the living African 
forms lack all indication of either incisor or canine teeth. 
The cheek-teeth usually consist of the full number found 
in mammals, that is, four premolars which have milk pred- 
ecessors and three molars. The premolars and molars are 
quite alike in shape and size, except the first premolar 
which is usually small and sometimes wanting. The cheek- 
teeth, as a rule, are composed only of dentine and enamel 
and are broad-crowned, the crowns being thrown into two 
transverse folds projecting inward with deep valleys sepa- 
rating them. Certain forms, however, such as the white 
rhinoceros of Africa and the woolly rhinoceros of the boreal 



HOOK-LIPPED OR BLACK RHINOCEROS 637 

regions, have in addition to the dentine and enamel a thick 
layer of cement which enters to an important degree into 
the composition of the teeth. Such teeth represent the 
highest speciahzation in rhinoceroses, and have long crowns 
in which the folds are united so as to enclose the cement 
layer as islands surrounded by enamel. Rhinoceroses are, 
without doubt, long-lived forms, but little data, however, 
are available upon which to base an estimate of the length 
of life of an individual in its native state. As they are not 
known to breed in captivity, practically nothing is known 
regarding the length of the period of gestation. But one 
young is produced at a birth. In body size the female is 
but little inferior to the male. The mammae are two in 
number. 

The extinct forms of rhinoceroses are very numerous, 
many different genera being represented throughout North 
America, Eurasia, and Africa, but so numerous have been 
the lines of divergence that it is quite impossible to trace 
back through the maze of forms any of the modern genera. 
The most ancient genera were contemporaneous in the 
Oligocene in both Eurasia and North America, but in the 
latter countr}^ they died out early in the Pliocene. In 
Eurasia the family persisted to the present time, and the 
modern Asiatic forms were evolved there during the Pliocene 
and Pleistocene. Africa, no doubt, also played an important 
part as a field of rhinoceros evolution, but, owing to the 
almost complete absence of fossil-bearing deposits in that 
continent, this is chiefly a matter of conjecture. The black 
rhinoceros has been reported by Scott from the Pliocene of 
Natal, and two other fossil species are described by Pomel 
in the Pleistocene of Algeria. A more significant discovery, 



638 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

however, Is that made by Oswald,* recently, of a tooth of 
one of the ancient hornless rhinoceroses in Miocene beds at 
Karungu on the east shore of the Victoria Nyanza. This 
discovery seems to indicate nearly as great antiquity to the 
rhinoceros in Africa as in either Eurasia or America. The 
living species are confined to southern Asia, Sumatra, Java, 
Borneo, and Africa south of the Sahara Desert. Until very 
recently Siberia and northern Europe were the habitat of 
the woolly rhinoceros, which was contemporaneous with 
early man. The one-horned species of India and Java 
seem always to have been limited to southern Asia and the 
adjacent islands, in which region alone have fossil remains 
of allied one-horned species been found. Two-horned rhinoc- 
eroses, however, are found quite as wide-spread as '.the 
geographical limits of the family. The African genera, 
both of which lack teeth in the front part of the jaws, are 
not met with in a fossil condition beyond the limits of 
Africa, and they no doubt represent types peculiar to the 
Ethiopian region. 

Key to the Living Genera in Africa 

Skull short, the posterior part not produced beyond the condyles; snout 
produced into a pointed lip; nape of neck normal in 
outHne; teeth without the cement layer and with 
deep ridges on the inner side separated by open val- 
leys; the first premolar persisting, the cheek-teeth 
being seven on each side; base of first horn rounded 
in front. Diccros 

Skull greatly lengthened, the posterior part produced far beyond the 
condyles; snout ending square in front, the mouth 
being broadly truncate; nape of neck marked by a 
prominent fleshy hump; teeth with a thick cement 

* 191 3. Journ. E. Africa and Uganda Nat. Hist. Soc, vol. Ill, No. 6, p. 4. 



HOOK-LIPPED OR BLACK RHINOCEROS 639 

layer, the crowns solid and rectangular in shape, the 
valleys being filled with cement; first premolar shed 
early, the cheek-teeth in the adult being six on each 
side; base of first horn square in front 

Ceratotherium 

Black Rhinoceros 

Diceros 

Diceros Gray, 1821, London Med. Rapes., vol. XV, p. 306; type Rhinoc- 
eros bicornis. 

The black rhinoceros differs so widely in many impor- 
tant details of its structure from the other living forms that 
it has been found necessary to separate it generically from 
them. It has been the custom of naturalists to include all 
the living forms in one genus, Rhinoceros, owing to the small 
number of species. This has been done merely as a matter 
of convenience, but we feel that the more logical course is 
to classify the various forms on the merits of their struc- 
tural differences or affinities so as to balance them with 
other groups. Such a division into several genera will also 
facilitate the tracing of their relationships with the numer- 
ous fossil forms. In conformity with the white and the 
Sumatran, it carries two dermal horns on the snout, the 
rear one being situated directly behind the front one and 
usually is much smaller and compressed laterally into a 
blade-like knob. The genus Diceros, of which the black 
rhinoceros is the type, differs almost as radically from the 
other African genus, Ceratotherium, or white rhinoceros, as 
from either the single-horned Indian or the two-horned 
Sumatran rhinoceroses. It differs from the white by having 
a short head which is deeply concave in profile on the top 
owing to the great elevation of the occipital part. In these 
two characters it resembles the Asiatic one-horned and two- 
horned genera, but differs from them by its want of incisor 
teeth and the distinctness of the post-tympanic process. 
The genus is much less specialized than Ceratotherium; its 
short skull and the simple structure of its short-crowned 
teeth ally it much more closely to the remote ancestral 
forms. The black rhinoceros in its dentition still shows 
traces of the incisor teeth, and occasionally also of canines. 



640 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

but such teeth persist as mere rudiments beneath the gums 
and never become functional. A more permanent feature 
of this sort is the persistence of the first premolar through- 
out life. The genus to-day is represented by a single 
species, hiconiis, and is confined to Ethiopian Africa, but 
in the Pleistocene it occurred as far north as Algeria in the 
Mediterranean region. Besides the Pleistocene species of 
Algeria another has been described from Northern Rhodesia 
by Chubb, which is smaller but closely allied to the living 
bicornis. Scott described some cheek-teeth of a rhinoceros 
from the Pliocene of Natal, which he referred to a new 
species, but they are quite indistinguishable in size or shape 
from those of bicornis. It is evident from these discoveries 
that bicornis has long been an inhabitant of Africa and 
doubtless is a form which originated on that continent. 

The black or common African rhinoceros was fairly 
■plentiful in most parts of East Africa which we visited; there 
were stretches of territory, however, in which we found 
none, as, for instance, on the Uasin Gishu. Why the species 
was absent from these places we cannot say, for elsewhere 
we came across them in all kinds of country. They were 
found in the dense, rather cold forests of Mount Kenia ; they 
were found in the forest country near Kijabe; they were 
common in the thick thorn scrub and dry bush jungle in 
many places; and in the Sotik and along the Guaso Nyiro 
of the north, as well as here and there elsewhere, they were 
to be seen every day as we journeyed and hunted across the 
bare, open plains. " Plentiful " is, of course, a relative term ; 
there were thousands of zebras, hartebeests, gazelles, and 
other buck for every one or two rhinos; it is doubtful 
whether we saw more than two or three hundred black 
rhinos all told, and we do not remember seeing more than 
half a dozen or so on any one day. Probably they were 
most abundant in the brush and forest on the lower slopes 



HOOK-LIPPED OR BLACK RHINOCEROS 641 

of the northern base of Kenia, where, however, they were 
hard to see. They prefer dry country, although they need 
to drink freely every twenty-four hours. 

Apparently the cow does not permit her old calf to stay 
with her after the new calf is born. We never saw a cow 
with two calves of different ages (or, for the matter of that, 
of the same age); yet many times we saw a cow followed 
by a half-grown or more than half-grown beast that must 
have been several years old. Generally we found the bulls 
solitary and the cows either solitary or followed by their 
calves. Occasionally we found a bull and cow, or a bull, 
cow, and calf, together. There is no regular breeding time; 
the calf may be produced at any season. It follows its 
mother within a very few days, or even hours, of its birth, 
and is jealously guarded by the mother. When very young 
any one of the bigger beasts of prey will pounce on it, and 
instances have been known of a party of lions killing even 
a three parts grown animal. The adult fears no beast of 
the land, not even the lion, although it will usually move 
out of the elephant's way. Yet the crocodile, or perhaps a 
party of crocodiles, may pull a rhino under water and drown 
it. Mr. Fleischman, of Cincinnati, not merely witnessed 
but photographed such an incident, in the Tana River, 
where the rhinoceros was seized by the hind leg as it stood 
in the water, could not reach the bank, and after a pro- 
longed struggle was finally pulled beneath the surface. Such 
an occurrence must be wholly exceptional; for the rhi- 
noceros shows no hesitation in approaching deep water, not 
merely drinking but bathing in it. 

The animals are fond of wallowing in mud holes, and 
also at times in dusty places. Often the dung will be 



642 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

dropped anywhere, if the rhino is travelhng much; but 
where a rhino, as is often the case, is spending its whole 
time in one rather Hmited locahty, it returns again and 
again to the same place to dung. It kicks and scatters the 
dung about with its hind feet — not its horn. In one place 
we found a cow rhino which had evidently been living for 
many weeks in the river-bottom of the Athi. There was 
plenty of food in the brush jungle which filled the spaces 
between the trees, and which afforded thick cover; there 
was abundant water in pools near by; and evidently the 
rhino had kept close to the immediate neighborhood. The 
dunging place was kicked and ploughed up, and it looked 
as if the beast had rolled and wallowed much, in addition to 
kicking around the dung. This rhino spent its time in the 
immediate vicinity of its drinking-place, and during most of 
the day lay up in the dense shade of the green river-bottom 
jungle, apparently feeding at night and in the early morning 
and late evening. In other localities the animals differed in 
their habits. On the Northern Guaso Nyiro we found the 
rhinos drinking once every twenty-four hours, at night, and 
then travelling back at a good gait in a fairly direct course 
for eight or ten miles into the wastes of leafless thorn scrub, 
upon which they fed and in which they passed their noon- 
day hours of rest. In the Sotik the rhinos spent their whole 
time in the bare, open plains, drinking at one or another of 
the widely scattered, rapidly drying little pools. They usu- 
ally drank at dusk; that is, about nightfall, and again about 
sunrise. Sometimes during the noon hours they lay out in 
the open, without a particle of cover; sometimes they lay 
under an acacia, or wild olive, or candelabra euphorbia. 
They sometimes stood while resting, but usually lay down, 



HOOK-LIPPED OR BLACK RHINOCEROS 643 

either on their sides or in a kneeUng position. They not 
only fed on the thorny, partially leaved twigs — the black 
rhino is a browser, whereas the white rhino is exclusively 
a grazer — but also fed greedily in the bare plains on the 
low-growing, shrubby plants, only a few inches high, with 
woody stems. I do not believe that they were really graz- 
ing, but together with the shrub stems they cropped they 
swallowed the tough jointed grass. They also ate aloes 
and a kind of prickly euphorbia with a blistering juice; it 
is hard to understand how even their palates could stand 
the thorns and the acrid sap. We saw them feed at noon; 
once we stumbled on one feeding by moonlight; but their 
favorite feeding times were in the morning and afternoon. 

Like other game, rhinos are assailed by various insect 
pests. Biting flies annoy them much; even when resting 
their ears are usually in motion to drive away their winged 
assailants. The ticks swarm on them; loathsome creatures, 
swollen with blood, which might be so crowded under the 
armpits, in the groin, and in the soft parts generally that 
they looked like mussels on an old dock. We do not quite 
understand why the tick-birds fail to keep down these ticks. 
These tick-birds, rather handsome, noisy creatures, are in 
most places the well-nigh invariable attendants of rhinos 
when the latter dwell on the plains or in fairly open bush. 
They clamber all over their huge hosts, like nuthatches 
round a tree trunk, and usually go in flocks. So invariably 
are they attendants upon the big game that if we heard 
them chattering as we threaded our way among bushes we 
were always at once on the alert to see a rhino. Sometimes 
they are wary, and chatter and fly off on seeing the hunter; 
at other times they pay but little heed; and the rhino may 



644 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

or may not have Its suspicions aroused when they fly away. 
If a party is seen on the wing, by watching their flight until 
they Hght it may be possible to discover the rhino. 

The hook-lipped rhino is dull of wit and eyesight. Its 
sense of smell is good, and so is its hearing; but its vision 
is astonishingly bad. We doubt if it sees better than a very 
near-sighted man. Again and again we have walked up to 
one, on an absolutely bare and level plain, to within a hun- 
dred yards without its paying the least heed. We wore 
dull-colored clothes, of course, and made no abrupt motions; 
but it was unnecessary to take advantage of cover until we 
were well within a hundred yards. In thick brush it is 
often difficult to approach, for all bush-dwellers are harder 
to approach than plains-dwellers, as they cannot be seen 
until within a distance so short that both their hearing and 
their smell have in all probability given them warning. 
But in all places, bush, forest, and open plain, it is the easiest 
to approach of all the creatures that dwell in that particu- 
lar habitat, because of the dulness of its brain-matter and 
the poorness of its vision. It is the most stupid of the very 
big creatures. It seems to have a marvellous memory for 
local geography, as is shown by the way it will traverse 
many miles of country to some remote water-hole in the mid- 
dle of a vast and monotonous plain; and it has the patience 
to stand motionless for many minutes listening for anything 
suspicious. But these seem to be well-nigh its only lines of 
mental effort. Its life is passed in feeding, travelling to and 
from water, sleeping, and when awake and at leisure either 
fidgeting, or much more often standing motionless to rest. 
There is occasional love-making and the exhibition of occa- 
sional fits of truculence and petulance or of muddled curi- 



HOOK-LIPPED OR BLACK RHINOCEROS 045 

osity. When one rhino comes within ken of another the 
meeting always betrays bewilderment and incipient defiance 
on the part of both. Apparently the first suggestion that 
another rhinoceros is in the neighborhood always arouses 
suspicion and potential resentment in the bosom of the rhi- 
noceros to which the suggestion comes. Usually the rhino 
which has heard, smelt, or dimly seen another trots toward 
it quickly and then stands motionless for some minutes 
close to it, in the effort to decide whether to adopt an atti- 
tude of indifference or hostility — indifference almost always 
carrying the day. They are silent beasts, but very rarely 
utter a kind of squeal or squeak, apparently when courting. 
They utter a shrill and long, often a steam-whistle scream 
when dying; and they make a succession of puffs or snorts 
while charging or even when only startled. 

The recognized presence of men rouses in the rhinoceros 
several emotions, which in the order of their intensity we 
should put as bewilderment, fear, dull curiosity, and trucu- 
lence. If the men are merely seen, usually the only emo- 
tions aroused are bewilderment and curiosity; if smelt, fear 
is the usual result; but in a certain number of cases even the 
sight or the smell of men arouses senseless rage. Some 
rhinos are always cross and evil-tempered; but many others 
which are normally good-natured now and then have fits of 
berserker fury. Anything conspicuous which arouses their 
interest may also arouse their hostility. White has an evil 
attraction for them. Our friends the McMillans, while 
travelling through a rhino country, found that the two white 
horses of their cavalcade were so frequently charged that 
they finally painted them khaki-color. We have never seen 
them charge other game, and gazelles and hartebeests feed 



646 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

in their immediate neighborhood with indifference; yet we 
have been informed by trustworthy eye-witnesses of one 
rhinoceros charging a herd of zebra, and another some 
buffalo. The rhinoceros gets out of the way of the elephant. 
It will unquestionably on occasions charge men and domestic 
animals entirely unprovoked. Twice we have known of one 
charging an ox wagon; in one case an ox was killed; in the 
other the rhino got entangled in the yokes and trek tow, 
and the driver, an Africander, lashed it lustily with his 
great whip, until it broke loose and ran off, leaving the ox- 
span tumbled in wild confusion. The year before we were 
at Nyeri one killed a white man, a surveyor, near that sta- 
tion, charging him without any provocation at all. At that 
time all the rhinos in that immediate neighborhood seemed 
to suffer from a fit of bad temper; they kept charging any 
one they met, and killed several natives. At last the district 
commissioner undertook a crusade against them, and killed 
fifteen, evidently including the various vicious ones, for 
from that time all attacks on human beings ceased. Rhinos 
frequently attack the long lines of porters on a safari, if 
they pass to windward of it. Probably this is not, as a rule, 
done from ferocity, but from angry bewilderment, the rhino 
finding the scent of man in his nostrils whichever way he 
goes, and finally thinking he is surrounded, and charging the 
line. Usually he merely runs through the line, tossing any 
porter who happens to be in his way; but he may grow irri- 
tated and turn and hunt down a porter. One man was thus 
killed while we were in Africa. Von Hohnel, the companion 
of Teleki and Chanler on their explorations, was on one 
occasion thus hunted down and very badly wounded by a 
cow rhino which had charged through the safari and had 



HOOK-LIPPED OR BLACK RHINOCEROS 647 

then returned on her footsteps. Mr. Hurlburt, the head of 
the American mission at Kijabe, had been wantonly charged 
by a rhino which killed his mule. 

A dozen times we came across rhinos while we were on 
safari, or while we were on the trail of game. In such cases 
one of us kept watch over the rhino, rifle cocked, while 
the safari, or, if we were hunting, the trackers, marched so 
as to keep to leeward. Once or twice the rhino never no- 
ticed us. On the other occasions the beast saw us, but 
dimly, and evidently could not make out what we were. 
It would gaze toward us, head and tail up, and ears for- 
ward, and make little runs to and fro, perhaps even advanc- 
ing a few yards; but in no case did the beast actually charge. 
In one instance, however, it did charge and toss a man, a 
few minutes after we had left it. This was a rhino we had 
come across while we were trailing a buffalo herd. Cun- 
inghame did not wish to leave the trail, so Colonel Roosevelt 
went toward the rhino, and by waving his hat and shouting— 
not too loud, for fear of scaring the buffalo — he finally made 
it move off a couple of hundred yards, and he and Cuning- 
hame went on unmolested. But a quarter of an hour after- 
ward three of the porters returned to look for a knife which 
one of them had dropped while we were engaged in frighten- 
ing away the rhino; and this time the brute came for them, 
and tossed one, goring him in the thigh, and then galloped 
on without turning. Whenever they got our wind they 
always ran, except on one occasion when a cow rhino ad- 
vanced on us, unprovoked, from thick brush, tossing and 
twisting her head. We are not sure that she meant to 
charge; but when she got within forty yards we grew un- 
pleasantly uncertain as to her intentions and shot her. 



648 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

Stewart Edward White states that on one occasion, near 
the Tana River, he struck a locahty where rhinoceros after 
rhinoceros charged quite unprovoked, and he had to shoot 
half a dozen. We have known a rhino charge through a 
camp at night and cause wild panic; they not infrequently 
charge hunters or travellers after dark. 

Personally, we consider the rhinoceros the least danger- 
ous of all really dangerous game, although many good hunt- 
ers hold the contrary view. The first one any of us saw, a 
bull, charged savagely when mortally wounded at a distance 
of a little over thirty yards, and was killed just thirteen 
yards from the hunter. But we were never really charged 
again. Colonel Roosevelt hit and knocked over one animal 
which we had stalked, as it was galloping toward us at a 
distance of seventy or eighty yards, but we think that this 
rhino was curious rather than enraged, and would not have 
charged home. Kermit was charged by one which he had 
mortally wounded, but it turned upon receiving another 
and much slighter wound. Two or three of our American 
friends who have hunted in East Africa have had narrow 
escapes from rhinos which charged after being wounded, or 
when the effort was made to photograph them. 

Unquestionably, compared to his mild and placid 
square-mouthed kinsman, the hook-lipped rhino is a 
fidgety, restless, irritable, and at times dangerous, crea- 
ture. Yet his occasional truculence is more than offset 
by his stupidity and dull eyesight, so far as the actual con- 
test with the hunter is concerned. As far as we know but 
one white man has ever been killed while hunting rhinos in 
East Africa (the English official already mentioned was not 
hunting the beast which killed him). This was a German, 



HOOK-LIPPED OR BLACK RHINOCEROS 649 

Doctor Kolb, who killed scores of rhinos, and was finally 
mortally hurt by a cow which, upon being wounded, charged 
him and thrust her horn through his stomach. An English 
official was also crippled for life by a rhino he had wounded. 
In dense bush a rhino is undoubtedly a dangerous antago- 
nist at times, as well as being difficult to approach. On the 
open plains we found them easy to approach and easy to 
kill, and only occasionally dangerous; they were slow to de- 
tect us, and then spent some moments deliberating before 
concluding either to make off or to charge. But though less 
dangerous than other dangerous game when hunted, the 
rhinoceros is more prone than any other beast to act aggres- 
sively when entirely unprovoked. The very stupidity and 
dulness of sense which tend to render his truculence of little 
danger to the hunter immensely add to the menace which 
that truculence contains for the non-hunter, the wayfarer, 
who stumbles across him. He fails to make out the man 
until close by, and then waits, stupid and curious, until he 
suddenly thinks himself menaced, or is excited to rage by 
seeing the stranger near at hand, and forthwith charges. 
There are some rhinos which charge from sheer wickedness; 
but we are convinced that stupidity and curiosity are chiefly 
responsible for the conduct of the average rhino, which makes 
people think that it is about to charge them. When it does 
charge, however, it shows astonishing speed and agility for 
such an apparently unwieldy animal, whipping round in its 
tracks like a polo pony, and galloping at a pace that forces 
a horse to stretch himself. If it loses sight of the man it 
will sometimes quarter for him like a pointer dog, swinging 
its large head near the earth and snuffing for his tracks. 
The 'Ndorobo told us that they found the rhino more dan- 



650 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

gerous to assail than the buffalo, because it often had to be 
attacked where there were no trees. 

The rhinoceros, unlike the elephant and buffalo, does not 
haunt the neighborhood of the negro villages, to make raids 
on the fields and gardens. It is a beast of the lonely wastes. 
Even in the dry desert it is at home if there is an occasional 
pool of water; and it is only at these desert drinking-pools, 
when driven thither by thirst, that the solitude-loving beasts 
are found in any number. A score or over may congregate 
at night round such a pool, to which each has trodden his 
path through a dozen miles of barren wilderness; and there 
they may fight for the water. If two or three rhinoceroses — 
a cow and calf, or a bull and a cow, perhaps with a calf— come 
to such a pool together they do not loiter in the neighbor- 
hood. But we have seen a single rhino remain by such a 
pool, motionless for an hour, until another appeared, when 
the two beasts approached each other, as if for company. It 
seemed as if they had each known that the other would 
come there about that time, and had reckoned on the meet- 
ing. We have seen the same thing with other game, where 
one individual waited with evident expectancy, as if at a 
rendezvous, until another of the same species appeared. 
But of course it is possible that in these cases the waiting 
animal's keen senses made it aware that the other was some- 
where in the neighborhood long before the onlooker could 
discern the faintest hint of its presence. 

Key to the Races of bicornis 

Size larger, the skull exceeding 21 inches in length; concavity of upper 
profile deep, more than 2]^ inches bicornis 

Size smaller, the skull 20 inches or less in length; concavity of upper 
profile 2 inches or less in depth somaliensis 



HOOK-LIPPED OR BLACK RHINOCEROS 651 

Typical Black Rhinoceros 

Diceros bicornis bicornis 

Native Names: Swahili, jam; Masai, emune; Kikuyu, huria; Kikamba, 
•mbuzya. 

Rhinoceros bicornis Linnaeus, 1758, Systema Naturae, 10 ed., p. 56. 

Range. — In East Africa from German East Africa 
northward to the south bank of the Tana River, westward 
through northern Uganda as far as the east bank of the 
Nile, and north as far as Mongolia and the north end of 
Lake Rudolf; west of the Victoria Nyanza the northern 
distribution is limited by the Kagera River; absent from 
Uganda proper, the Kavirondo country, and the moist, 
tropical coast belt from the Sabaki River southward. 

The black rhinoceros has an extensive range in Africa 
from the Cape region northward to Upper Egypt and from 
the East Coast westward to Nigeria. It is lacking through- 
out the whole Congo basin and also locally throughout 
much of the range as here defined. Large rivers have a 
peculiar effect in limiting its dispersal locally. In the upper 
Nile region it is found only on the east bank and in northern 
German East Africa it is found no farther north than the 
south bank of the Kagera River. Moist or damp tropical 
districts seem to be distasteful to it, and on this account 
it is lacking from the Congo basin, central and western 
Uganda, and the moist strip of lowland flanking the East 
Coast from Mombasa southward. Dense upland forest 
is also avoided by them, although they may be found at 
times in the lower parts of such forests or in thick bush 
bordering them. 

The black rhinoceros is still found in Upper Egypt in 
the provinces of Kassala and Senaar and also in the Lake 
Chad region. From the Cape region of South Africa it 
seems to have been first made known to European civ- 
ilization in 1650. At the present time it is quite extinct 
in the Cape Colony and the region just north of it, and is 
not found in a wild state except in remote districts near 
the Zambesi River. Formerly, in this region, the rhinoce- 
roses were separated into two races, on the basis of horn 
shape, the normal one in which the front horn greatly ex- 



(;r>L> ATRICAN CAMK ANIMALS 

(I'l'dc'd llu- liar one hciii^ considered the rommon species 
and those having the two horns of nearly e(|ual size hein^ 
the keilloa rai e. Tliese (hsl ini t ions, liowever, have lon^ 
since been abandoned, and to-day a single h)rni is recog- 
nized tluou^liont tlie greater part of Africa and another 
sniaHer one in tlie desert re|!;i()n of I'.ast Alric a and Sonia- 
liland. Tlie iiorns everywhere show ^reat diversity of 
shape and no dependence for racial characters can be 
assi|j;ned to them. This is ovvinj.', in a measure, to their 
bein^ skin structures solely without any clelinite connection 
with the bony structure of the skull. They thus have ^reat 
freedom of form and position and show decided variation 
in number at times, 'rhree-hornecl spec imens are occasion- 
ally met with, and a live-horned one has recently been re- 
corded. This one is described by Rowland Ward in his 
well-known " Records of \V\^ ( lame," who cjuotes the original 
discoverer to the effect that besides the two front horns the 
three rear horns which follow are ^ood-sized, the shortest 
bein^ nine inches lon^, but they are not all in line; some 
s|)rin^ laterally from the bases of the others. 

Speke and (Irant met with j^reat numbers ol' black 
rhinoceroses in Kara^we, just west of the Victoria Nyanza 
and south oi" tlie Uganda l)oundary in what is now (lerman 
territory. Hesides the black species they fancied that the 
white also inhabited this district, and they referred certain 
lon^-horned sj)ecimens of the black to that species. In 
their account of the ^ame animals met with they state 
accurately the well-known difference in the shape ol the 
lips in the two rhinoceroses, but ^ive a li|;ure ol a typical 
pointed-li|)pecl rhinoceros head as that of a white sj)ecimen. 
The same re}j;ion was visited by Stanley some years later, 
and he also ^ives an account of the ^reat numbers ol rlii- 
iiocc'ioses met with and the killing ol several lor lood. lie 
refers to some of the spec imens as white, his statement re- 
ferring merely to tluii color, he bein^ apparently cpiite 
unaware of the existciu c of the sj^ecies to which sportsmen 
have ai)plied the name "white." Since these early days 
several sportsmen well accpiainted with the distinguishing 
characters of the two species have visited Kara^we and 
have found only the black s|)ecies in the district. 

The black iliinoceros of V/Ast Africa is occasionally re- 



HOOK-LIPPED OR BLACK RHINOCEROS or>:i 

ferred to in natural-history literature as a race, holmwoodi^ 
described by Sclater in 1893, and based on two extremely 
lon^ front horns having a length of more than forty inches, 
and (obtained l)y purcliase at Zanzil)ar l)y Hohnwood. The 
describer of the species supposed the horns to belong to a 
distinct race having very long and slender front horns. 
They, however, represent merely the extremes in length of 
several hundred horns which have reached Zanzibar as 
articles of trade accumulated by safaris in the interior of 
the continent. As the rhinoceroses of East Africa are not 
distinguishable by horn characters or by size from those of 
South Africa, the name holmzuoodi is at present not ap[)lica- 
ble to any race. We have examined several skulls of blac k 
rhinoceroses from South Africa in the British Museum and 
have found them quite indistinguishable from specimens 
from East Africa. 

The black rhinoceros has not received its common 
English name because its coloration is actually bhuker 
than that of other species, but rather to contrast it with 
the other African rhinoceros which has been so unfortunate 
as to have the designation of *' white" bestowed upon it. 
Under these circumstances we may descril)e the black rhi- 
noceros as slightly blacker than the white one, but both 
would be considered black in color by the average observer. 
The color of the skin of the black rhinoceros, upon close 
scrutiny, is found to vary from a deep neutral gray to black- 
ish-brown. The color is uniform over the whole dorsal 
surface, but becomes on the belly and under-parts slightly 
lighter and more grayish. About the groins and the 
axillae it is dull whitish and quite devoid of dark pigment. 
Both sexes are cjuite alike in color. The calves are usually 
deep neutral gray and usually a shade lighter than their 
parents. The body is absolutely hairless with the excep- 
tion of the tij)s of the ears, the tip of the tail, and the eye- 
brows, which parts are clothed by a fringe of black hair. 
7'he tail is furnished along the two edges of its compressed 
ti[) by a crest of hair which f)rojects stiffly out in line with 
the compressed surface, the two crests meeting at the ti[) 
but not forming a tuft distinct from the lateral crests. 
The hair has a length of from 4 to 6 inches and covers 
usually merely the terminal 5 inches of the tail. The hair 



%' 



654 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

covering of the ears is much shorter than that of the tail, 
being i^ inches in length and confined to the terminal 
third on the extreme edge of the ear-conch. The eyebrows 
are armed by a few stiff black hairs, but they are quite in- 
conspicuous in such a colossal animal. This scanty hair 
covering is black except occasionally at the tips where it 
fades to brownish. The skin is quite smooth, the only 
definite folds being a transverse one on the foreleg above 
the knee and another across the nape immediately behind 
the ears. This latter fold, however, disappears when the 
head is lowered in feeding. Besides these large folds, the 
sides of the body are streaked by narrow, rib-like folds, a 
peculiarity not found on other rhinoceroses. These folds, 
however, are quite independent of the ribs, although they 
show a similar arrangement and direction. The calves 
are marked by these peculiar rib-like folds quite as dis- 
tinctly as the adults. 

The black rhinoceros is very little inferior in size to 
either the white or the single-horned Indian species, but is 
somewhat different in body shape from both. From the 
white it may be distinguished, aside from the shorter head, 
by its slightly longer body and the absence of the fleshy 
hump on the nape. The great Indian rhinoceros is at 
once distinguishable from it by its folded skin, which has 
the appearance of plates of armor, and by its shorter legs. 
The largest specimen in bulk of body in the National 
Museum is an old male from the Loita Plains, British East 
Africa, shot by Colonel Roosevelt. This one measured, in 
the flesh: 12 feet 3 inches in length of head and body, 
measured along the contour of the back; tail, 30 inches; 
hind foot, from the hock to the tip of the middle hoof, 17^2 
inches; ear length from notch, g}4 inches; standing height 
at the withers, 4 feet 9 inches. The greatest length of the 
skull of this specimen is 2^}4 inches, measured from the tip 
of the nasal boss to the end of the occipital crests. The 
largest female is also a specimen from the Loita Plains shot 
by Colonel Roosevelt. She is but little less in size than the 
male and exceeded him in the height dimension; but this 
superiority in height is doubtless due to some error in 
taking the measurement rather than to an actual differ- 
ence, as the skull and length of the specimen are both less 




BLACk KllINiu 1 U<>>, FE.MALK, SEVEN YEARS OLD 

From Mwanza, German East Africa 
In the New York Zoological Park 











! *« -\ T>>> ^\ 



>!> 



> 



^ ji k 



.■* . 




I MALI. AMI -l I 



NILE WHITE Kill Mil 1,1< 

Rhino Camp near VVadelai 
From a photograph by Kermit Roosevelt 

LIVING SPECIMENS OF AFRICAN RHINOCEROSES 



HOOK-LIPPED OR BLACK RHINOCEROS 655 

than those of the male. This female measured: length of 
head and body along contour, ii feet 3 inches; tail, 26^ 
inches; hind foot, 17 inches; ear, 8^ inches; height at 
withers, 5 feet i inch. The greatest length of the skull is 
23 inches, which is but half an inch less than the male. 
Many of the old adults approach these dimensions very 
closely, and show surprisingly little variation in size con- 
sidering their great bulk. The skulls of fully adult animals 
from British East Africa range in greatest length from 2i>^ 
inches to 23^ inches. The female skulls may be distin- 
guished from the male by their lesser width across the back 
or occipital part. To this portion of the skull are attached 
the great muscles which move the head and make the horns 
effective in fighting, and it is no doubt this latter function 
which has carried the development of the occipital part of 
the skull in the male beyond that of the female. The nasal 
boss or rounded tip of the nasal bones upon which the front 
horn rests exhibits no differences in the two sexes such as we 
find in the white species, or rather genus. In conformity 
with this similarity in nasal bones in the two sexes we find 
the horns indistinguishable in size of base. Although the 
female does not carry a front horn^ having a smaller base, 
she usually carries the longer and more slender horns. The 
front and rear horns vary greatly, however, in respect to 
one another. The typical condition is a front horn three 
or four times the length of the rear horn, rounded in outline, 
tapering gradually to a sharp point, and curving backward 
in a wide arc. From such horns as these there is every 
intermediate condition of relative length to the keitloa 
variety in which the rear horn equals or exceeds the front 
one in size. The usual length of the front horn is approxi- 
mately 16 inches, but the record horns exceed this dimen- 
sion greatly. The longest specimen in the National Museum 
is one having a length of 29 inches, shot by Kermit Roose- 
velt near Meru, a government station situated on the north- 
east slope of Mount Kenia. The record horn for Africa, 
recorded by Rowland Ward, is one with a length of ^3/^ 
inches, from East Africa, now in the possession of Doctor C. 
H. Osman. The second longest is one of 47 inches in length 
belonging to the well-known district commissioner of Brit- 
ish East Africa, Doctor S. L. Hinde. We have examined at 



656 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

the National Museum some thirty specimens of skins and 
skulls from the Loita, Kapiti, and Athi Plains, the northern 
slopes of Mount Kenia and Taveta on the southwest flank 
of Kilimanjaro in British East Africa; from Gondokoro, 
Uganda; and Mashonaland, Southern Rhodesia. Other 
specimens examined at the British Museum have come from 
northern Abyssinia, British East Africa, and Mashonaland. 

Somali Black Rhinoceros 

Diceros bicornis somaliensis 

Native Names: Somali, wiyil; Galla, zuartses. 

Diceros bicornis somaliensis Potocki, 1900, Sport in Somaliland, p. 82. 

Range. — From the desert nyika zone of the northern 
Guaso Nyiro River and the north bank of the Tana River 
northward throughout the Lake Rudolf region to the Rift 
Valley of southern Abyssinia; east as far as western Somali- 
land and west as far as the east shore of Lake Rudolf. 

Count Potocki has unwittingly become the authority 
for the name of the small race of the black rhinoceros in- 
habiting western Somaliland and the desert south of it. 
In his account of his hunting experiences in Somaliland, as 
narrated in "Sport in Somaliland," he mentions the rhinoc- 
eros of Somaliland, giving its scientific name as Rhinoceros 
bicornis somaliensis, and states that it does not differ from 
the rhinoceros of central Africa, but that specimens first 
obtained by Captain Swayne some years previously in 
Somaliland are said to differ, and he therefore apparently 
applies the name somaliensis under the assumption that 
this is the name by which it is already known. Count 
Teleki was the first sportsman to call attention to this race, 
which he pointed out in Von Hohnel's narrative of his dis- 
covery of Lake Rudolf. He refers to it as a smaller race 
than that inhabiting the highland country of East Africa, 
and records meeting with it first a short way south of Lake 
Rudolf and thence northward along the east shore of 
the lake to its extreme northern end. In distribution it 
coincides in a general way with that of the reticulated 
giraffe, Grevy zebra, and desert wart-hog. Lydekker has 
recently given a short account of this race in the Proceed- 
ings of the Zoological Society of London for 191 1. 




MAP 36 — DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES OF THE BLACK RHINOCEROS 
1 Diceros bicornis bicornis 2 Diceros bicornis somaliensis 

657 



658 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

The Somali race of the black rhinoceros differs chiefly 
by being smaller than the typical form of British East 
Africa and the region south of it. The skull shows a flatter 
outline, the occipital crest being much less elevated than 
in the larger race. The depth of this dorsal concavity 
varies from i}{ inches to 2^ inches and averages a half 
inch less than specimens from the highlands of British East 
Africa. The body coloration is also slightly lighter, being 
neutral gray, and the ears have a shorter fringe of hair at 
their tips. Two specimens are in the National Museum, 
shot by Paul J. Rainey on the low desert plains in the 
vicinity of the Northern Guaso Nyiro. The skins of these 
two specimens are neutral gray and distinguishable by their 
lighter color and shorter growth of hair on the ear tips from 
specimens from the Loita Plains of British East Africa. 
Both of these specimens are females. The older and more 
typical one showed the following measurements in the flesh: 
head and body, 9 feet 8 inches; tail, 26 inches; hind foot, 
17 inches; ear, 7^ inches. The skull has a length of 21^ 
inches. A very old skull from Longaya Spring, with the teeth 
worn down almost to the gums, has a length of 2o3<( inches, 
which is the average length for the race. The horns do not 
differ in shape or relative size from those of the typical race. 
The length of the front one in the specimen of which the 
flesh measurements have been given was 28 inches, while 
another one has a horn length of 22 inches, but these are 
both exceptionally long-horned specimens, and were the 
longest seen among some thirty or forty observed in the 
field. The Somaliland record given by Ward is 29^^ inches. 
Besides the specimens examined at the National Museum, 
from the lower course of the Northern Guaso Nyiro and 
the region north of it toward Mount Marsabit, specimens 
from Somaliland have been examined in the British Museum 
and in Powell-Cotton's collection at Quex Park. 



CHAPTER XXI 

WHITE OR SQUARE-MOUTHED RHINOCEROS 

Ceratotheriuvi 

Ceratotherium Gray, 1867, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 1027; type Rhinoceros simus. 

The white rhinoceros, hke the black, represents a dis- 
tinct type of which it is the sole living member. In fact, 
it is the most highly specialized form living. Its extreme 
specialization is brought about by the lengthening of the 
skull until it has become remarkably dolichocephalic or 
long-headed. The teeth are quite as specialized as its 
skull, and in some respects parallel those of horses. Like 
the horses, the crowns have become very long or hypso- 
dont, and the cement layer has grown in thickness until 
it forms an important part of the grinding surface of the 
teeth. The teeth are no longer composed of loops which 
are separated by deep valleys and are open on the inside, 
but the loops have united and enclose the cement layer 
as islands or fossettes in the tooth. The crown is per- 
fectly flat and shows a complicated pattern of alter- 
nating folds of enamel, dentine, and cement. This tooth 
specialization has been brought about by the grass diet, 
the lengthening of the crowns and their increased surface 
being necessary in order to masticate the tough grass stems 
which form the chief part of their food. The dental appa- 
ratus of the other living species of rhinoceroses, which are 
chiefly browsing animals, consists of short-crowned teeth, 

659 



660 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

with a surface made up of ridges separated by open valleys. 
Such a tooth structure is capable of masticating the softer 
food of a browsing animal, but is less able to stand the 
wear which a grass diet would demand. The recently ex- 
tinct woolly rhinoceros was in some respects like the white, 
being a long-headed, long-toothed form, but it had a very 
peculiar snout, the nasal bones curving downward and unit- 
ing with the premaxillary in a solid, bony mass. This sort 
of structure gave it a long ridge-like or compressed base to 
the front horn, which projected forward, owing to the down- 
ward curvature of the nasal bones upon which it rested. 
Some naturalists have suggested a close blood relationship 
between the woolly and the white, but they are really only 
remotely related. The white rhinoceros resembles its geo- 
graphical associate, the black, in having two horns and 
lacking both incisor and canine teeth. The white rhinoc- 
eros is doubtless, like the black, a form which has had its 
origin on the continent on which it is still found. The 
only known member of the genus is the living white 
rhinoceros, of which two races are recognized, one, simum, in 
South Africa, occupying the territory from the Zambesi 
River southward, and the other, cottoni, widely separated in 
the upper Nile region. 

Nile White Rhinoceros 

Ceratotherium simum cottoni 

Native Names: Aluru, kenga; Sudani, khartyt; Bongo, hasha; Dy oor umzvok. 
Rhinoceros simus coito7ii Lydekker, 1908, Field (London), vol. Ill, p. 319. 

Range. — West side of the Nile from the Aran River 
opposite Wadelai northward through the Lado Enclave, 
along the west bank as far as Shambe, and west across the 
Bahr-el-Ghazal drainage to the Dar Fertit country, but not 
known to extend beyond the Nile watershed. 



WHITE OR SQUARE-MOUTHED RHINOCEROS 661 

The Nile race of the white rhinoceros is the only one 
which still exists in a wild state. The southern race at the 
present time is represented by some dozen living individuals 
which are strictly preserved on an estate in Zululand. These 
are the survivors of the immense numbers which formerly 
inhabited the country between the Zambesi and Orange 
Rivers. In the Nile Valley they are confined to the dis- 
trict west of the river and are of local distribution only. 
The southern limit is the Arau River, which enters the Nile 
opposite Wadelai. Here they occur abundantly in the 
vicinity of Rhino Camp and a few miles to the north of 
this spot. They are not again met with until we proceed 
some hundred miles northward to the stations of Lado and 
Kiro. The most northern record is one reported by Selous 
west of the Shambe. Far westward several hundred miles 
we have a further record by General Mahon of one shot in 
the Dar Fertit country near the headwaters of the Bahr-el- 
Ghazal drainage. 

The distribution of this species is everywhere bounded 
by rivers, both in the south of Africa and in the Nile Valley, 
They are found most abundantly in the close proximity of 
the Nile but do not occur on the east bank. In South 
Africa a similar impassable boundary was formed for the 
species by the Zambesi River. They formerly occurred 
abundantly on the south bank, but were never known to 
occur on the north side. To the south the Orange River 
formed the southern boundary. The river boundaries illus- 
trate forcibly the strong aversion these great quadrupeds 
have to crossing streams. This aversion must be due to 
their fear of drowning, for they are quite immune from at- 
tack by aquatic animals. 

During historic times the white rhinoceros has not been 
known to inhabit the region lying between the north bank 
of the Zambesi and the Lado Enclave. This is a great 
stretch of country of some eleven hundred miles and is 
apparently well suited to the habits of the species under 
consideration. At what period the white rhinoceros dis- 
appeared from this intermediate territory is not known but 
it is doubtless quite recent, for the Nile race has developed 
but slight structural differences. 

Explorers have reported the occurrence of white rhi- 



662 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

noceroses in various parts of equatorial and central Africa 
outside of the ranges here designated. Such records have 
all been found to be due to mistaken identity or confusion 
with the black species. The best known of such instances 
are the references of Speke, Grant, and Stanley to white 
rhinoceroses in Karagwe, German East Africa. The first 
Nile specimen to reach Europe was a skull collected by 
Major A. St. H. Gibbons, near Lado Station in 1900. This 
specimen was sent to Mr. Oldfield Thomas of the British 
Museum for examination, and upon its identification cre- 
dence was given to the records of occurrence in Karagwe 
by the early explorers. More recent investigation, however, 
has shown these earlier reports to be erroneous. The race 
was named by Lydekker several years after Major Gibbons's 
discovery from the evidence furnished by skulls collected 
by Major Powell-Cotton near the station of Lado. The 
differences detected by Lydekker, greater width of the 
nasal boss and its more forward projection, are sexual 
characters confined to the male and are of no racial value. 
The Nile race resembles very closely, in external appear- 
ance and size, the southern race which formerly inhabited 
the territory lying between the south bank of the Zambesi 
and the north bank of the Orange Rivers. It differs, how- 
ever, by the possession of a flatter dorsal outline to the 
skull, owing to the lesser production of the occipital crests 
above the dorsal plane, and by the smaller size of the teeth. 
The measurements of skulls of the two races show them to 
be of practically the same bodily size. The largest known 
skull in bulk is one secured in the Lado Enclave by Kermit 
Roosevelt, but this one exceeds only slightly the largest 
preserved one from South Africa. 

It has been said by first-rate observers that the square- 
mouthed rhinoceros is of exactly the same color as the 
hook-lipped rhinoceros. This did not seem to us to be the 
case when we saw the square-mouthed rhinos living; they 
seemed to be of a perceptibly lighter gray, which under 
certain conditions of sky-effect and sun-angle seemed very 
light indeed, although as dark as the ordinary rhino when 



WHITE OR SQUARE-MOUTHED RHINOCEROS 663 

the sun was at another angle, or when the sky-effect was 
different. A comparison of the skins shows that there is 
a very real difference of color, the hook-lipped rhino being 
of such a dark gray that it can legitimately be called black, 
while the square-mouthed species is of a smoky gray, a 
gray which can readily look whitish in certain lights. The 
ordinary name is by no means so much of a misnomer as 
we had supposed. The square-mouthed animal is totally 
unlike the hook-lipped one, so much so that it undoubtedly 
ought to go in a different genus; the two are at least as 
distinct as the moose and the wapiti. According to our 
observations the square-mouthed rhino averaged consider- 
ably larger than the hook-lipped, but there was overlapping 
between the smaller individuals of the first and the excep- 
tionally big ones of the second; and the same was true of 
the horns, which averaged longer in the square-mouthed. 

African big-game animals offer many puzzling examples 
of discontinuous distribution, and none more so than the 
square-mouthed rhinoceros. It was first known from the 
region between the Orange and the Zambesi, where it 
abounded, but was practically exterminated in the late 
eighties, so that now only a few individuals are left in a 
game reserve. North of the Zambesi it is not found until 
the great Nyanza Lakes are passed. Indeed, until Major 
Gibbons discovered it on the left bank of the upper White 
Nile, it was believed to be confined to South Africa. Exam- 
ination of the series of specimens we brought home shows 
that there is only the smallest distinction, hardly of sub- 
specific value, between these two widely separated groups 
of white rhinos. According to what Mr. Selous writes it 
appears probable that all the rhinos west of the Nile belong 



664 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

to the square-mouthed species, which is never found east 
of the river, in the domain of the hook-hpped species. It 
is an added singularity in the distribution of these African 
rhinos that in South Africa they should have abounded in 
the same localities, while in the north their ranges are 
sharply divided by the upper Nile. 

Our observations of the square-mouthed rhino were made 
during the three or four weeks we spent at and near our 
camp in the Lado, about midway between Lake Albert 
Nyanza and Nimule. All told we must have seen about 
fifty individuals. Of course we molested none after obtain- 
ing the full series needed for the collection; the extreme 
rarity of the species in collections rendered it of much im- 
portance that the series should be full. 

We found them rather more gregarious than the common 
kind. Once we found four, and once five, together; in the 
former case they were lying down, so that it was not a mere 
fortuitous gathering to graze. Ordinarily they were found 
singly, or a cow and calf — often two or three years old — 
together; or a bull might be with the cow and calf. They 
are purely grazers, grass-feeders, and live only where there 
are great plains covered with the dry African pasturage; 
but these plains are generally dotted with clumps of bushes, 
and with a scattered growth of scantily leaved thorn-trees, 
acacias. The country is crossed here and there by broad, 
smooth, well-trodden trails, made by the elephants with 
some help from the rhinos, and often travelled by other 
game. We found the rhinos going to water, either at the 
Nile or some pond, during the night. They would then 
feed slowly back into the dry wastes, their spoor through the 
tall grass or over the burnt places being readily followed by 




NILE WHITE RHINOCEROS, MALE 

Shot by Theodore Roosevelt, Rhino Camp, Lado Enclave 

Mounted by J. L. Clark in the United States National Museum 





BLACK RHINOCEROS 

Shot by J. T. McCutcheon 
Tana River near Fort Hall 



NILE WHITE RHINOCEROS, FEMALE 

Shot by Kermit Roosevelt at Lado Enclave 
Longest horned specimen, ;i inches 





BLACK RHINOCEROS, FEMALE NILE WHITE RHINOCEROS, MALE 

KEITLOA VARIETY Shot by Theodore Roosevelt at Lado Enclave 

Shot by Theodore Roosevelt at Loita Plains 

THE BLACK AND THE WHITE AFRICAN RHINOCEROSES 



WHITE OR SQUARE-MOUTHED RHINOCEROS 665 

expert trackers. About ten o'clock they lay down under 
some tree; occasionally standing motionless in the half- 
shade for an hour at a time. Usually we found them lying 
on their sides, but sometimes kneeling. When roused they 
sometimes jumped at once to their feet, and sometimes sat 
up on their haunches like a dog; once Kermit saw one that 
had been walking to and fro, trying to make out what he 
was, sit down in this position. About mid-afternoon they 
rose from sleep and began to feed, making their way to- 
ward the water after nightfall. They fed a good deal during 
the night also. They frequently rubbed their noses and 
horns against the big ant-hills, for what purpose we cannot 
say. In walking they held their heads very low, the huge, 
square muzzles almost sweeping the ground. They trotted, 
and, if alarmed, galloped at some speed. 

They were slow, dull, stupid beasts, rather mild-tem- 
pered. Once a badly wounded one made an attempt to 
charge Kermit, and on another occasion, after he had spent 
some time taking photographs of a cow and calf, he got so 
close that the cow finally charged, coming on at a fair pace, 
with the big, loose lips shaking from side to side. A big 
calf, over half-grown, also charged him, and he had to turn 
it by a shot in one cheek. None of the others of our party 
were charged, although we frequently watched the huge 
beasts close up, and then withdrew while they trotted to 
and fro. They were not as nervous and irritable as the 
black rhinos, and their eyes were even duller. Once having 
spent some time watching a cow and her big calf feeding, as 
we stood by a tree thirty yards off, they finally suspected 
our presence and stopped to look at us. We withdrew for 
forty yards or so, not wishing to have them charge and 



666 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

force us to shoot in self-defence. Then we found the skull 
of one of their dead kinsfolk; one of the party stopped to 
pick it up and give it to one of the porters. We were talk- 
ing and laughing; and all the time the two rhinos, their 
ears cocked forward, looked toward us with solemn bewil- 
derment. So off we strode, and left them still standing, 
foolish and puzzled, among the sparse and withered trees, 
in the dry landscape. 

If they got our wind the rhinos usually made off at once; 
but if they merely saw us they would stare at us and move 
to and fro, their ears up and perhaps their tails cocked, 
with dull curiosity. We frequently found cow-herons with 
them, and once a party of black-legged egrets. The herons 
perched on their heads and backs with entire indifference, 
and the result was that the rhinos generally looked as if they 
had been splashed with whitewash. Once, while walking 
through rather tall grass, we saw some white objects moving 
rapidly off in single file through the grass tops; and it took 
a second glance before we realized that they were white 
herons perched on the back of a rhino bull. 

We have never known of a white rhino attacking man 
or beast in wantonness; but one of the few white rhinos on 
the South African game reserve, a bull, was charged, and 
killed, by a stab behind the shoulder, by a solitary bull ele- 
phant, a big tusker, which was also on the reserve. 

The white rhino has been termed a slow breeder. Of 
course such a huge animal cannot breed like a guinea-pig. 
But our experience goes to show that it is for its size really 
a rather rapid breeder, that the cows breed before they are 
fully adult, and that they breed again before the calf they 
already have has left them. Two of the cows which we 



WHITE OR SQUARE-MOUTHED RHINOCEROS 667 

found accompanied by calves had not yet shed all their 
milk teeth; and one cow, accompanied by a good-sized calf, 
was nearly on the point of giving birth to another. 

The white or square-mouthed rhinoceros is a long- 
headed, tall-bodied animal with a flattened or truncate nose 
and a wide, square mouth. The excessively long head dis- 
tinguishes this species at once from all other living forms. 
The ears are much longer and the feet larger than in the 
black rhinoceros. One of the peculiarities of this species 
is the prominent, rounded, fleshy hump upon the nape of the 
neck just forward of the withers. This hump is purely a 
muscular structure and receives no support from the dorsal 
processes of the cervical vertebrae. With the exception of 
three short folds the skin is smooth and lacks even such 
shallow markings as the rib furrows which are so character- 
istic of the black rhinoceros. The best marked of these 
folds, and the only one which is permanent, is a transverse 
fold on the foreleg encircling the limb just above the elbow. 
When the head is held level with the back a prominent 
transverse fold is formed on the nape just behind the ears. 
This fold disappears when the head is lowered in feeding 
and another longer transverse one is formed on the throat. 
The young at birth do not difl^er from the adults in color 
or skin structure and but slightly in proportions. The 
changes which take place with age are chiefly the growth 
of the horns and the lengthening of the head. 

In size this species exceeds but slightly the big Indian 
single-horned species and but little the black African species. 
Measurements of the length and height of the Indian species 
given by Lydekker * are scarcely inferior to authentic di- 
mensions of the largest South African specimens. Measure- 
ments of mounted skeletons of these two species show the 
Indian very little less in size. The black rhinoceros of East 
Africa stands several inches lower and measures less in 
length of head. The superiority in size of the white rhi- 
noceros over the other living species has been greatly ex- 
aggerated. The utmost that can be said is that there is a 
slight average superiority. 

*" Great and Small Game of India, Burma and Tibet." 



668 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

In size the sexes are very similar, the male exceeding the 
female but little. The only appreciable secondary sexual 
characters are found in the size of the horn bases, the nasal 
bones which support them, and the general massiveness of 
the skull. The base of the front horn in the male is always 
greater than in the female, this dimension showing no rela- 
tionship to the length of the structure. The width of the 
nasal boss which supports the front horn is correspondingly 
greater in the male. Male skulls are usually actually wider 
than those of females and are always relatively so as well as 
being longer. So marked are these sexual characters in 
the skulls that they can be sexed with a fair amount of 
certainty. 

The species is normally two-horned, the front horn 
greatly exceeding the rear one in size. The front horn is 
situated on a prominent bony boss at the tip of the nasal 
bones and is immediately followed by the rear horn which 
is much compressed laterally and placed on the suture 
between the nasal and frontal bones. The front horn is 
squared in front where it partakes of the shape of the snout, 
and is normally curved backward as in the black rhinoceros. 
The usual length of this horn is two feet although occa- 
sional specimens attain a length of five feet. The record 
horn for the South African race is sixty-two and one-half 
inches. Such enlarged horns are attained only by the fe- 
males in which they project forward in advance of the snout. 
The rear horn is usually low, sharply conical, and con- 
siderably compressed. It seldom exceeds more than a few 
inches in height and is occasionally wanting. , The rear 
horn never approaches the front one in size as in the keitloa 
variety of the black rhinoceros in which the two horns are 
equal in size. The rear horn is so small that it is obviously 
disappearing, the species showing a marked tendency to 
become single-horned; but actual single-horned specimens 
are rare. 

The only parts of the body which show a growth of hair 
are the terminal margins of the ears and the apical one- 
fourth of the tail. The hair of the ears is quite soft and an 
inch or so in length. The hair covering of the tail is stiff 
and bristly, and confined to a streak along both edges of 
the flattened tip. In the two male skins the hair covering 



WHITE OR SQUARE-MOUTHED RHINOCEROS 669 



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670 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

these parts Is glossy black and quite profuse, but In the 
female skins the covering is much thinner and decidedly 
brownish In color. The young at birth are no more hairy 
than the adults, possessing only the ear and tail fringes of 
coarse hair. 

The skins of the white rhinoceroses cannot under the 
most lenient consideration be classed as white. They are, 
however, distinctly lighter than those of the black species, 
and may on this account be allowed to retain their popular 
designation of white. The blackness seen In the mounted 
specimens Is due to pigment put on by the taxidermists, 
and such specimens do not represent the natural color of 
the animal. Their true color is smoke-gray, as defined by 
Ridgway, a color conspicuously lighter than the dark clove- 
brown of their geographical ally, Diceros bicornis. The 
four adult skins from the Lado Enclave show some varia- 
tion, the color ranging from smoke-gray to broccoli-brown. 
The two male skins are lighter than the female but the 
color differences are not constant, the two female skins 
varying more in color from each other than they do from 
the mafe skins. 

Measurements of an adult male in the flesh shot by 
Colonel Roosevelt at Rhino Camp, Lado Enclave, are: 
length of head and body along contour, ii feet 9 inches; 
length of tail to end of vertebrae, 2 feet 5 inches; standing 
height at shoulders, 5 feet 8 Inches; length of ear, 11 Inches; 
length of hind foot (hock to tip of middle hoof), i foot 7 
inches. Skull of the largest male: greatest length, 2 feet 
9 inches; zygomatic width, i foot 3>^ Inches; length of 
upper tooth row, 10 Inches; projection of occipital crests 
above dorsal plane of skull, i^ inches. The largest-horned 
specimen in the National Museum is a female shot by Ker- 
mit Roosevelt. This horn measures 29^^ Inches in length 
and exhibits the peculiar forward pitch which is not infre- 
quently shown by specimens from South Africa. The pitch 
forward In this case is extreme, the point coming in con- 
tact with the ground In feeding, so that the point is worn 
flat on Its outer face. No other Lado horn showing this 
peculiarity of curvature has been seen. The longest horn 
in Major Powell-Cotton's collection Is 36 inches in length, 
and in shape curves backward in the normal way. This 




MAP 37 DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES OF THE WHITE RHINOCEROS 

1 Ceratotherium simum simum 2 Ceratotherium simum cottoni 

671 



672 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

is also from a female specimen and is the longest one which 
has been examined. Ward records a horn 40>i+ inches in 
length secured in the Bahr el Ghazal by Captain F. G. 
Poole. 

The specimens examined consist of the series collected 
by the Smithsonian African expedition under the direction 
of Colonel Roosevelt at Rhino Camp, Lado Enclave. The 
precise geographical position of this spot is latitude 2° 55' 
north, on the west bank of the Nile, some fifteen miles north 
of the station of Wadelai. This material consists of four- 
teen specimens: the complete skins and skeletons of two 
adult males, two adult females, one calf, and one mature 
foetus; the head skins and skulls of three adult females; 
the skull of a male, and four weathered skulls found on 
the veldt, two of which are undoubted males and two 
females. Besides this material in the National Museum 
the writers have examined specimens from South Africa 
in the British, Paris, and Hamburg Museums as well as 
Nile specimens in the Congo Museum at Brussels, and a 
large series in the private museum of Major Powell-Cotton 
at Quex Park, England. 



CHAPTER XXII 

THE COMMON ZEBRA OR BONTE-QUAGGA 

Horse Family 

Equidce 

The living members of the Equidcs are distinguishable 
from all other hoofed mammals by the single-toed charac- 
ter of their feet. They represent the highest specialization 
in foot structure of the odd-toed ungulates or perisso- 
dactyles but are united by intermediate fossil forms to re- 
mote five-toed ancestors of small size which lived during 
the Lower Eocene in both Europe and North America. 
Such ancient types showed little resemblance to the modern 
horse, being diminutive, carnivore-like mammals the size of 
a rabbit, and if they were not united by intermediate forms 
their equine relationship would scarcely be suspected. The 
family Equidce consists of horse-like genera having but a 
single toe to each foot, the lateral toes being represented by 
the splint-bones, which have lost all trace of false hoofs at 
their tips. The forms having three toes comprise a dis- 
tinct family of fossil horses intermediate between true 
horses and the diminutive five-toed ones. The dental ap- 
paratus of the modern horses also shows much specializa- 
tion. It is especially fitted to withstand a great amount 
of wear due to mastication. To serve this purpose all the 
cheek-teeth have become very long-crowned ; the crowns at 
their tips being broad and composed of alternate layers of 

673 



674 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

enamel, dentine, and cement, which form a perfect grinding 
surface. The great length of the crown gives the teeth a long 
period of wear. The horse is in this way fitted to masticate 
tough herbage rapidly and thoroughly and is placed at very 
little less disadvantage than the ruminant hoofed mammals 
which have an accessory pouch to the stomach from which 
the food is returned to the mouth and masticated at leisure. 
The incisor teeth are well developed in both jaws and are 
also very long-crowned and subject to a great amount of 
wear. The pits or "cups" in the crowns of these teeth are 
a peculiarity found only in the horse and its fossil allies. 
In age they disappear, but they persist for a period of 
eight or ten years, and by their relative size in the various 
incisor teeth the age of a horse is commonly determined by 
horse dealers. In addition to the incisor teeth, which 
provide the horse with a formidable biting apparatus, the 
males are furnished with well-developed canine teeth in 
both jaws. The females lack the canines, which are only 
represented occasionally by vestiges beneath the gums. 

During the last geological period or Pleistocene age the 
Equidce were a dominant type, and widely spread through 
North and South America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa; 
but to-day they are totally absent in a wild state from the 
New World and occur only in a small part of the Old, 
namely, in southern Asia and in the eastern half of the 
African continent. The fossil species were quite numerous 
and several distinct generic types were represented. At the 
present time there exist a single or at most two generic 
types, and some seven distinct species. Their extinction 
in the New World is of such recent occurrence that it was 
doubtless due to some insect-born infection akin to the 



COMMON ZEBRA OR BONTE-QUAGGA 675 

tsetse-fly diseases so prevalent among the big game of 
Africa to-day and not to any change in the cHmate, flora, 
or balance of large carnivorous animals which preyed upon 
them. 

Key to the Genera of Equidce 

Head not enlarged; skull wider, the snout or rostral portion not greatly 
lengthened; occipital portion of skull not produced 
backward beyond the condyles; lambdoidal crests 
narrow; coloration when striped having the dark 
stripes much wider than the light ones and the hind 
quarters crossed by diagonal or longitudinal stripes 

Equus 

Head somewhat enlarged and elongate or dolichocephalic; skull nar- 
rower, the rostral portion lengthened and the occip- 
ital or lambdoidal crests very wide and extending 
well behind the condyles; dark and light stripes 
numerous and equal in width over most of the body; 
rump crossed by transverse stripes to below the hips 

Dolichohippus 

Horses, Asses, and Zebras 
Equus 

Equus Linnaeus, 1758, Systema Naturae, p. 73; type E. caballus, the domestic 
horse. 

The modern representatives of the genus Equus show 
great range of coloration from the fully striped zebras 
through the partially striped asses to the unicolored horse. 
In body shape or in actual size there is comparatively little 
range if we exclude the giant domestic breeds of horses 
which have no standing in nature. The ears range from 
the great length found in some asses to the short, narrow ear 
of the horse and bonte-quagga. There is a progressive de- 
velopment in the size of the tail tuft from the small terminal 
tuft of the zebra to the complete tufted tail of the horse. 
The skulls, however, show surprisingly slight differences in 
shape or dentition and are scarcely distinguishable. The 
horse is more distinct than the other species and may be 
distinguished by its larger cheek-teeth in which the inner 



676 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

fold or protocone of enamel Is enlarged. Notwithstanding 
this similarity of structure, the various groups which are 
recognized by distinct English names have been employed 
as genera by some writers, who divide the genus up into 
zebras {Hippotigris), asses {A sinus), and the horse {Eqmis), 
on the basis of external differences. Unfortunately, when 
we come to consider the fossil species such differences cannot 
be employed, and we are at a loss to know whether in these 
extinct species we are dealing with zebras, asses, or horses. 
The fossil species first make their appearance in the Upper 
Pliocene and the genus continues on down through the 
Pleistocene to the present time. The former range covered 
North America, Europe, Asia, and North and South Africa, 
being absent only from South America. Recently the first 
specimen of fossil horse has been recorded from South 
Africa by Broom. It is based on some tooth remains from 
Pleistocene deposits near Cape Town, which Indicate a 
very large species apparently exceeding the horse In size. 
The existing representatives occur in a small part of central 
and southern Asia and Africa. In the latter continent they 
extend from the northeastern portion southward along the 
eastern half to the Cape region and southwest coast as far 
north as Angola. The number of living representatives 
does not exceed six or seven valid species, which are com- 
prised in the horse, two zebras, and three or four species of 
asses. 

The Bonte-Quagga or Quagga Zebra 

Equus quagga 

Equus quagga Gmelin, 1788, Systema Naturae, p. 213. 

The name quagga has been derived from the call of the 
zebra, which consists of a short bark, kwa-ha, repeated sev- 
eral times. The name came originally from the Hottentot 
word quaha, through the Cape Dutch, who applied It first 
to the true quagga and later distinguished the other or more 
fully striped races as bonte-quaggas. The quagga has by 
most recent writers been considered a distinct species from the 
Burchell zebra and its northern races owing to the restriction 
in the quagga of the stripes to the forward part of the body. 
It is, however, less widely separated in coloration from the 



COMMON ZEBRA OR BONTE-QUAGGA 677 

typical Burchell zebra than the latter is from its more north- 
ern fully striped races. There is a continuous progressive 
change in coloration from the immediate vicinity of the 
Cape or southern point of Africa, which was the habitat of 
the extinct quagga, to typical burcheili, inhabiting the Orange 
River district, and on through other striped forms in the 
Transvaal to the fully striped races of southern Rhodesia or 
Matabeleland. The typical Burchell zebra had only the 
body striped, the legs being uniform whitish and the hind 
quarters but weakly striped. The few specimens of the typi- 
cal quagga which are now preserved in museums show con- 
siderable variation in the extent of the striping, some in this 
regard being striped on the hind quarters almost as distinctly 
as true burcheili. The change from a partially striped animal 
to a fully striped one takes place in the southern part of 
the range of the species, or that portion south of the Zam- 
besi River. North of the Zambesi River no additional 
stripes or greater intensity of striping occurs, the races north 
of this point showing only slight differences in body size or 
color tone. Curiously enough, the most fully striped of all 
the races, crazvshayi, inhabits the middle region of the 
Zambesi, north of which races occur having a slightly 
less number of stripes but no less distinctly striped. We 
thus have in this zebra practically the whole range of its 
color scheme exhibited in the southern third of its range, 
while the northern two thirds show almost no variation. 
What the real significance of this break in the progressive 
color change is really due to is quite problematical. Two 
theories suggest themselves: one that it is a climatic affair, 
the country from the Zambesi River southward being in 
the temperate zone and consequently showing a gradual 
range of temperature which coincides with the gradual 
color change, the country north of the Zambesi River 
being tropical and of uniform climate; the other that there 
is an important time element involved — South Africa having 
long been the home of this particular species, the color 
differences have come about slowly in that region, but the 
zebra's extension northward to beyond the equator is of 
such recent date that there has not elapsed time sufficient 
for important color changes to take place such as are found 
in the south. 



678 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

In East Africa, north to the Northern Guaso Nyiro, the 
most plentiful big animal next to the hartebeest was the 
common zebra — not the very uncommon and narrowly 
limited mountain zebra of South Africa, but the bonte- 
quagga, which is found in a dozen different forms from the 
Orange River to beyond the equator. 

The zebra is eminently gregarious. Of course, an occa- 
sional stallion is found by himself, usually an immature, a 
weak, or an aged animal. But ordinarily zebras are found 
in herds of from a dozen to a couple of hundred ; and, more- 
over, half the time there are other animals mixed in with 
these herds— hartebeests, wildebeests, oryxes, elands, gazelles, 
or ostriches. Each herd is usually under the leadership of 
a master stallion. 

Zebras are vicious fighters. Against a lion they make 
no fight at all, and against man they are only dangerous in 
the sense that a bull moose or wapiti is dangerous; that is, 
they will bite viciously if approached when wounded ; and on 
rare occasions when crippled and brought to a standstill, 
but not wholly disabled, they will charge at the hunter from 
a distance of several rods. We, personally, have never 
known one do more than skin its teeth at us as we ap- 
proached it when on the ground, or perhaps as we galloped 
through a herd after some more desirable game; but Mr. 
Stewart Edward White was regularly charged. It would be 
interesting to know whether zebras can stand off wild 
hounds — those inveterate enemies of other game. We 
once saw a zebra make a race at a wild hound which 
had trotted near by, and drive it off, although the pied 
hunter did not seem much frightened; and Loring saw 
a zebra standing with two wild hounds near by to which it 



COMMON ZEBRA OR BONTE-QUAGGA 679 

paid not the slightest attention. But it is impossible to 
generalize from such instances; often game animals seem to 
recognize when beasts of prey are not after them, and then 
betray a curious indifference to the otherwise dreaded pres- 
ence. We have seen zebras trot a few rods out of the path 
of a lion and then turn to gaze at him as he walked by. 
The chief fighting is done by the stallions among themselves. 
When at liberty the beaten party can generally escape; but 
if a herd is captured and left overnight in a corral, by 
morning the weaker males are sure to have been frightfully 
savaged, and some of them killed. The jaws are very pow- 
erful and inflict a merciless bite. In captivity the animals 
must be carefully handled, as they sometimes grow very 
vicious. 

Zebras are noisy, much more so than any antelope. 
Their barking cry — qua-ha, or ba-ha — sounds not unlike 
that of a dog when heard at a distance; watching from 
behind a bush we have seen the stallions canter close by 
with ears forward and mouths open as they uttered this 
cry. They often utter it when leaving a pool after drinking, 
or when their alarm or curiosity is excited ; and often for no 
reason as far as we could discern. 

Game differ wonderfully in tameness and shyness, both 
individually and locally; and, moreover, individuals will 
be shy at one time, and, for no apparent reason, tame at 
another. On the whole, however, the common zebra is 
among the tamest of African game. It is, moreover, much 
influenced by curiosity. Again and again herds have stood 
watching us from different sides, even down wind, as we 
sat under a tree eating lunch or resting. Zebras are quick 
to catch motion, but will feed right up to a man lying 



680 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

motionless, especially if he is under or beside even the small- 
est and most scantily leaved bush. Their sense of smell is 
keen, as with all game. 

They are grass-eaters, and are emphatically animals of 
the open plains, seeming to be indifferent as to whether 
these are entirely bare of trees or are thinly dotted with 
occasional thorny acacias. We never saw them in anything 
resembling thick cover, not even in such cover as that to 
which their companions, the hartebeests, sometimes pene- 
trated; but in places they seemed to like the plains over 
which acacias were scattered, and would stand or rest at mid- 
day in their shade. As with other game, it was astonish- 
ing to see how they abounded, and how fat they became, in 
dry, open country, where water was scarce and the pastur- 
age brown and withered. As long as they could reach water 
once in twenty-four hours, and find abundant pasturage of 
the kind they liked — no matter how dry — within eight or 
ten miles of the water, they throve. In such a district they 
lived throughout the year, seeming to migrate much less 
freely than the wildebeest and some other game — in fact, 
the only migrations we heard of were those occurring when 
they had to leave a given district because the water and 
herbage failed outright. On the Athi and Kapiti Plains we 
were informed by the settlers that the zebras stayed all 
the time, with very slight shifts of a few miles one way or the 
other, as the different scries of pools dried or filled. In the 
Sotik we were informed that in times of drought the zebra 
and almost all the other game were obliged to abandon 
extensive regions in which they swarmed after the rains. 
Like so many big animals, zebras are not favored by a 
rank and luxurious plant growth. We never saw them in 



COMMON ZEBRA OR BONTE-QUAGGA 681 

the forests or thick, wet bush. There were none on the cold, 
well-watered slopes of Kenia, with their thick growth of 
bush grass. They were not abundant in any of the regions 
fitted for a thick, agricultural population. The country 
which they most affected was like our own Western ranch 
country: the grass grew thick and fairly high on it for a 
short period after the rains, but during most of the time 
it was dry, and the grass withered and short; the trees were 
acacias or euphorbias, or on the lower grounds palms. 

Few things are more interesting or puzzling to the natu- 
ralist in East Africa than the distribution of the various big 
animals. The limits of the range of many species seem in 
our eyes purely arbitrary, uninfluenced by any physical 
barriers; doubtless there is an explanation, but it has not 
yet been discovered. In most places the big and the small 
gazelles are found in abundance on the same plains, but, 
although there seems no change in the country, except that 
the altitude is lower, the small gazelles are not found north- 
ward along the Northern Guaso Nyiro, where one form of 
the big gazelle abounds. The wildebeest abounds in the 
Sotik and on the Athi and Kapiti Plains, but is not found 
along the Northern Guaso Nyiro. The hartebeests are the 
most abundant big mammals throughout their range; one 
species, the Coke, is the commonest game of the Sotik and 
the Athi, another, the Jackson, the commonest game in the 
'Nzoia country, neither intruding on the range of the other, 
and both being absent from the Northern Guaso Nyiro, 
where the oryx is common; and in this case the explana- 
tion of altitude, which can be given as regards the small 
gazelle, does not apply, for hartebeests are found on the 
Nile where the altitude is the same as that of the Northern 



682 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

Guaso Nyiro. But the common zebra covers the range of 
all these animals in East Africa. It is abundant in the 
Sotik and on the Athi and Kapiti Plains, although inferior 
in number to the Coke hartebeest, with which it there 
associates together with the wildebeest and big and little 
gazelles; but the causes, whatever they are, which so sharply 
limit the range of the Coke hartebeest and wildebeest do 
not affect the zebra, which is also plentiful along the North- 
ern Guaso Nyiro in company with the oryx and the big 
Grevy zebra. On the other hand, while the zebra's range 
overlaps that of the big hartebeests, the latter extend far 
to the westward of the regions in which the zebras are 
found; we found no zebras in the brush-covered and fairly 
well wooded and watered districts of Uganda in which 
hartebeests were not uncommon, and we saw none along 
the upper White Nile in regions in which hartebeests were 
plentiful and which were seemingly in their essential char- 
acteristics like the Sotik and the Athi, but they are known 
to occur locally in these regions. Moreover, while the 
hartebeests have become differentiated into sharply de- 
fined and totally distinct species, the common zebra ex- 
tends over a range which includes several of these harte- 
beest species, without itself undergoing anything like the 
same differentiation; in fact, the different varieties of the 
common zebra grade into one another, from the southern 
form with white legs to the more richly colored northern 
form with fully striped legs. 

Where water is plentiful and the pasturage good a herd 
of zebra will contentedly exist within an area of a dozen 
miles square, or less. In the absence of hunters such a herd 
normally leads an uneventful life, the placidity of which is 



COMMON ZEBRA OR BONTE-QUAGGA 683 

disturbed only by the ravages of the Hon. Most of the 
zebra's existence is spent in eating, and most of the remain- 
der in sleeping or in drowsy rest. If undisturbed and un- 
alarmed the herds, after drinking, graze off toward their 
favorite feeding grounds, or, if the grass is poor in the inter- 
vening country, walk or canter toward them, strung out in 
Indian file. After eating their temporary fill of grass they 
rest for three or four hours, sometimes lying down, more 
often standing. Most often they maj^ be found resting right 
in the open plain; but if a clump of thorn-trees is handy 
they may stand or lie in the slight shade of their thinly 
leaved branches. After resting the herd rises and slowly 
grazes back to the water-hole or river. They may drink 
only once a day, but they are thirsty animals and prefer 
to visit the water at least twice every twenty-four hours. 
We have seen them drink in the morning and afternoon 
and late evening; they also drink at night. Noon is their 
favorite hour for rest, but they are by no means regular, 
and they sometimes rest at night, although we believe that 
they generally spend the night feeding, and are then more 
alert than in the daytime. 

Night is the lion's hunting season, and the sight or 
smell of him or even the suspicion of him at that time 
throws the animals he hunts into a frenzy of terror. 
Under the influence of these ever-recurring panics, the 
zebras stampede in a mad rush. This habit makes them 
obnoxious to the settlers, for they are powerful animals 
with thick skins, and in such a stampede they go right 
through any wire fence; while they are of no value to 
the settlers except for their hides, as their flesh is not 
good eating from the white man's standpoint, although 



684 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

most of the natives devour it greedily. During the mo- 
ments of panic the zebra's terror is Hke the horrible fear felt 
in a nightmare, and under its influence the animal will rush 
anywhere; but as with other wild beasts the feeling is as 
short-lived as it is intense. If one of their number has been 
killed the herd may wander about for a few minutes whinny- 
ing; but after these few minutes they settle down to their 
ordinary life business, and feed, or rest, or make love, or 
fight as before. Night is a time of frequent panic, but 
during the day there is little fear of present molestation, 
and nothing either of remembrance of past or anticipation 
of future molestation. In approaching the drinking-places 
there is usually much watchfulness and suspicion, the ad- 
vance being made by fits and starts, with halts and sudden 
backward wheels; for, although the lion generally kills them 
on the open plain, he also often lies in wait for them by 
some much-frequented pool. 

We have already discussed the alleged " protective color- 
ation" of big game. As regards the game of the open plains 
protective coloration plays practically no part; and as re- 
gards the zebra it plays absolutely no part whatever. Under 
the glaring African sun, and in the African landscape, any 
animal, of any color or shape, is sometimes hard to see — a 
rhino, buffalo, giraffe, or zebra, or even an elephant; and 
there are exceptional circumstances under which any con- 
ceivable color or coloration scheme will merge the wearer 
with the surroundings. But the game animals of the East 
African plains do not rely on their coloration for their pro- 
tection; they are colored in all kinds of ways, and they are 
neither helped nor hurt by their coloration, whether it is con- 
cealing or revealing. The zebra has an advertising colora- 



COMMON ZEBRA OR BONTE-QUAGGA 685 

tion; that is, Its coloration reveals it far more often than it 
conceals it. It is less conspicuous than the wildebeest, 
sable, or topi; about as conspicuous as the hartebeest; and 
much more conspicuous than the eland, oryx, roan, Grant 
gazelle, or Thomson gazelle. When coming to water it is, 
of course, in motion, never attempts to hide or slink, and is 
always and under all circumstances conspicuous to every 
beast of prey in the neighborhood. After drinking it imme- 
diately returns to the open country, where it can be seen 
at once even by dull eyes. When standing or lying down 
under acacia-trees at noon it shows up as above indicated 
— more conspicuously than an eland or oryx, less so than a 
wildebeest. The stripes, when they can be seen at all, have 
an advertising effect; this is especially true of the broad 
rump stripes which advertise the animal at a distance at 
which the big Grevy zebra seems gray like an ass. At a 
distance the zebra is apt to look white or black, according 
as the sun strikes it, and then gray. Even while standing 
still under a thorn-tree, in the puzzling lights and shadows 
which tend to conceal any animal of any color, the zebra 
frequently whisks its tail, which at once attracts attention. 
All game animals with long tails are continually twitching 
or swinging them, and this motion catches the eye at once, 
even at a distance at which the coloration would neither con- 
ceal nor reveal the wearer. The only time we ever saw 
zebras helped by any concealing quality of their coloration 
was once when we found a few standing in partially burnt 
grass; the infrequent black or yellow stalks harmonized well 
with their coats, and made it difficult to see them. 

At nightfall all animals become hard to see, of course; 
and in thick darkness all are alike invisible. In dusk, in 



686 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

moonlight, and on very clear, moonless nights, we found that 
grayish, countershaded animals like domestic asses, and 
eland and oryx, were most difficult to see. Zebras were 
much more clearly visible; they seemed whitish; if close up 
their stripes could be made out. Mr. Selous has recorded 
an interesting observation to this effect: he found that even 
the Grevy zebra, which is less conspicuously colored than 
the common kind, showed up at night more plainly than 
eland, oryx, or koodoo, and that in the moonlight the 
stripes were very distinct, making the animal readily visible. 

On the Athi and Kapiti Plains ticks swarmed, and they 
clustered in masses around the eyes of the zebras and in the 
groin, and wherever there was bare skin. Yet, in spite of 
the abundance of these loathsome creatures, the zebras were 
fat and in high condition. Ticks were much less plentiful 
both in the Sotik and along the Northern Guaso Nyiro. 
Wherever they teemed, as they did on the Kapiti Plains, 
it was hard to understand how the game supported their 
presence. But the zebra and antelope were just as fat there 
as elsewhere. Evidently the ticks did not really trouble 
them, whereas the biting flies bothered them greatly. 

All animals which live in herds tend to develop a herd 
leader. This herd leader sometimes may, and sometimes 
may not, be the master male. Thus in a herd of wapiti, 
containing a heavy master bull, we have seen an old cow 
assume complete leadership, watching while the herd was 
at rest and leading the others whenever the herd was in 
motion. We also once saw a Tommy doe, which was asso- 
ciating with four Grant gazelles, take complete charge of 
the whole party, its big associates following it submissively 
wherever it led. It seemed as if in the zebra herds the 



COMMON ZEBRA OR BONTE-QUAGGA 687 

master stallion generally acted as leader, when there was 
any leader. He would round up the mares and drive them 
whither he wished; and he would trot a few paces toward 
any strange object, leaving the herd behind and watching 
intently, with ears pricked forward. We have never been 
able to watch a herd of wild game close enough to tell 
whether the individuals all fall into an ordered system of 
precedence, as ranch cattle do, where gradually each steer, 
bull, or cow seems to accept its exact place with reference 
to its fellows. 

Key to the Races of quagga 

Dark stripes blackish or deep seal-brown; light stripes (ground-color) 
cream color or whitish without ochraceous suffusion 
Body size smaller, skull length usually less than 21 inches; light 
stripes whitish granti 

Body size large, skull length usually greater than 21 inches; light 
stripes cream color bohmi 

Dark stripes, seal-brown or bistre; light stripes darker than cream 
color, usually pale ochraceous-buff. Body size small, 
the skull length less than 20 inches cuninghamei 

Highland Quagga Zebra 

Equus quagga granti 

Native Names: Masai, ol-oitigo; Kikamba, nthai; Kikuyu, njagi; Acholi, 
lagware ; Luganda, entulege. 

Equus burchelli granti DeWinton, 1896, Ann. ^ Mag. Hist., XVII, p. 319. 

Range. — The highlands of British East Africa west- 
ward through Uganda to the Edward Nyanza and north- 
ward on the east side of the Nile as far as the Mongolia 
district and the headwaters of the Sobat River northwest 
of Lake Rudolf, east to the eastern edge of the highland 
plateau down to an altitude of three thousand feet in Brit- 
ish East Africa, and north as far as the south bank of the 
Tana River; southern limits of range in German East 
Africa unknown. 



688 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

The highland quagga of British East Africa was described 
as a distinct race in 1896 by DeWinton, from specimens col- 
lected near the Thika River by Doctor J. W. Gregory, who 
has given us an account of his journey in *'The Great Rift 
Valley." In the original description, which is very brief, 
DeWinton makes no allusion to his use of Grant's name for 
this race. He has named the race, without doubt, for Colonel 
Grant of the Speke and Grant expedition, who mentions 
the zebra in his notes in the natural history account of the 
expedition, published in 1872, where he calls attention to 
the color differences between this race and the typical 
Burchell zebra of South Africa. Sportsmen, however, 
seem to be very uncertain as to the distinctness of this 
race from those found south of the Zambesi River and often 
refer to the East African race as "Chapman's." They have, 
no doubt, been led to this course by the occasional presence 
of faint shadow stripes in specimens which in this respect 
resemble the Chapman zebra. Although shadow stripes 
are occasionally present on the hind quarters in specimens 
from British East Africa, the absence of such stripes is much 
more common and must be accepted as one of the char- 
acters of the highland race known to naturalists as Equus 
quagga granti. Other characters for the race in compari- 
son with South African forms are the great width of the 
dark stripes on the hind quarters, the whiteness of the light 
stripes, and the fully striped character of the legs. The 
stripes are especially numerous on the pasterns above the 
hoofs, where they unite to form a wide black band covering 
nearly the whole pastern region. The quagga zebra, com- 
monly known as the Burchell zebra, covers a great expanse 
of territory in East Africa, as well as a great altitudinal 
range, and is consequently subject to great diversity of 
climatic conditions. Nevertheless, they show almost no 
color changes which agree with difference in environment. 
This is in marked contrast to their color behavior in South 
Africa as well as to the color behavior of the Grant gazelle, 
giraffe, and a host of other species with which they are in- 
timately associated in East Africa and which exhibit well- 
marked geographical differences in color over the same 
area. The zebra affords us a striking example of how 
independently species react to environment and how ob- 




HIGHLAND QUAGGA ZEBRA; MALE 
Shot by Theodore Roosevelt, Loita Plains 




nil. Ill \\ii ijr\(,(;A zi.uRA, MALI-: 
Shot by Theodore Roosevelt, Loita Plains 




HIGHLAND QUAGGA ZEBRA, MALE 
Shot by Theodore Roosevelt, Loita Plains 

SHOWING VARIATIONS IN DORSAL COLOR PATTERNS OF HIGHLAND 

QUAGGA ZEBRA 



COMMON ZEBRA OR BONTE-QUAGGA 689 

viously each is a "law unto itself." Not only does the 
coloration of the quagga zebras emphasize this point, but 
it goes much further toward breaking down our general 
theories by responding very diversely in color changes over 
the northern and southern parts of its range, or, in other 
words, the changes we find in effect in one part of the range 
cannot be used as a clew to what may be expected to occur 
over other parts of the range. 

A freak or abnormally colored specimen of the highland 
quagga zebra has been collected near Lake Nakuru, British 
East Africa, by G. H. Goldfinch and described recently as 
a new race, goldfi7ichi, by Ridgway. This specimen has a 
peculiar large, irregular white blotch across the middle of 
the back which is divided on the midline by the dark dorsal 
stripe. Two other similar specimens have been seen at the 
same spot which are, without doubt, blood relatives of the 
type. Specimens of this sort have no standing in nature 
as a race, but merely represent abnormal individuals. 
Colonel Delme-Radcliffe records, in the proceedings of the 
Zoological Society of London for 1905, a zebra observed by 
him near Rushenyi, Uganda, which was much more ex- 
tensively white, the stripes being evident only on the neck 
and the hind quarters, the rest of the body being quite 
albinistic. This specimen was associated with a large 
herd of normally colored zebras. An albino zebra is also 
recorded by Oscar Neumann from Manyara Lake in the 
Rift Valley of German East Africa. Albinism has also 
been observed by Percival among Grevy zebra in the vicin- 
ity of the Lorian swamp. 

The highland quagga is distinguishable from the coast 
and the northern desert forms by only average characters 
or slight differences. From bohmi, the race occupying the 
low coast lands, it is distinguishable by the smaller body 
size, the somewhat narrower stripes on the hind quarters, 
and by the whiter color of the light stripes which seldom 
show any buffy suffusion. The Northern Guaso Nyiro 
desert race, ctminghamei, differs from granti by smaller 
body size much as granti does from bohmi but has better 
marked color differences, the dark stripes being quite brown- 
ish, bistre or seal-brown, instead of black. The average 
length of male skulls in granti is 20 inches as against 19 



690 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

inches in cuninghamei and 21 inches in bohmi. The great- 
est width of the obhque stripes on the hind quarters on granti 
is 3 inches, while in cuninghafnei their width is only 2^ 
inches, but in bohmi they are greatest of all, being 31^ inches. 
The amount of actual color variation is slight but the color 
pattern is extremely variable in certain parts, especially in 
the region of the dorsal stripe and on the pasterns, that is, 
the part of the leg immediately above the hoof. Usually the 
dorsal stripe is bordered for its whole length by a white 
stripe so that the lateral stripes do not unite with it. But 
there is every intermediate condition from such an un- 
broken dorsal stripe to one which unites with practically 
all of the transverse and oblique stripes on the loins and 
rump. The pastern region varies, independent of age or 
sex, from a fully striped condition, in which the margin of 
the hoof is marked by a broad whitish border, to a condi- 
tion in which the lower half of the pastern is solid black 
and the light band immediately above the hoof wholly 
absent. There appears to be a fairly well-marked sexual 
color difference in the nose, which in the males is black 
only at the tip about the nostrils and the lips and bright 
tan posteriorly between the nostrils and the tips of the 
narrow forehead stripes. This area in the females is usually 
black like the nostril area, the whole snout being black. 
Shadow stripes occur on but a very small per cent of the 
specimens. In a series of fourteen males from the Loita 
Plains only two show shadow stripes, and in these they are 
confined to faint traces on the hind quarters. One female 
in a series of eight from the same locality shows shadow 
stripes similar in distinctness and position. The shadow 
stripes are individual affairs and are no more prevalent in 
the young than in adults, as witnessed in a series of three 
newly born young in which indications of shadow stripes 
are present in only one of the specimens. The lesser width 
of the stripes on the hind quarters, which is one of the 
characters of the highland form, shows less variation than 
the same dimension in the dorsal or the neck stripes. The 
oblique stripes on the hind quarters vary in different indi- 
viduals in greatest width from 2}^ to 3>? inches, the dorsal 
stripe from 2)4 to 5>^ inches, and the broadest neck stripe 
from 2^ to 4 inches. One of the distinctive features of this 



COMMON ZEBRA OR BONTE-QUAGGA 691 

zebra over crazvshayi of South Africa is the lesser number 
and broader character of the transverse stripes on the 
middle of the body between the shoulder stripe and the first 
oblique stripe. They number five in all the specimens, 
except two in which they are reduced to four. In crazvshayi 
they number six or more and are correspondingly narrower. 
The color of the dark stripes is black in all the adult speci- 
mens, but in the immature ones the stripes are usually less 
blackish, being seal-brown or, in very young animals, russet- 
brown. The light stripes or the ground-color are usually 
quite whitish or cream color. In some individuals there is 
occasionally a buff intermixture, but the immature animals 
and the very young are usually quite as whitish as the 
adults. The ears lose their dark markings to some extent 
in age. The dark tip is, however, never absent, but it is 
greatly reduced in old age when the ear becomes almost 
completely white in appearance. The hair coat is shortest 
in adults and longest in the young. In the nursing young 
it is usually quite woolly. In very old adults the mane, 
which in adults is usually some 5 or 6 inches long, becomes 
worn down to a thin fringe only i or 2 inches long, and so 
thin that the white stripes which are present in the perfect 
condition have been eliminated by wear, leaving only black. 
Specimens of this sort from the Uasin Gishu Plateau have 
been mentioned by Lydekker as perhaps representing a 
distinct race owing to their maneless condition. They are, 
however, only aged males in which the mane is normally 
greatly reduced. Female zebras do not, however, share 
in this mane reduction but retain well-developed manes 
throughout their lives. The tail tuft seems to be a more 
constant affair and has usually a length of 17 inches beyond 
the end of the tail vertebrae. It varies, however, from 15 
to 19 inches in length but appears not to show any decrease 
in age like the mane. 

The size variation in this race is really considerable if 
we take as a basis the dimensions of skulls which offer in 
this respect the most reliable data. The length of the skull 
in males varies from 19X inches to 2i>^ inches, which gives 
an actual variation of zyi inches. In the females the skull 
length varies from i8>^ inches to 20^ inches and shows an 
actual variation of 2 inches, which is practically the same 



692 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

as in the males. These figures are based on the measure- 
ments of some fifty specimens of adults in the National 
Museum. The skulls of females average an inch less in 
actual length than those of males, but in the living animals 
the two sexes appear quite indistinguishable in size, and 
flesh measurements show them to be very nearly equal. 
The largest-skulled male zebra in the series at the National 
Museum is one having a length of 2i>^ inches, shot by 
Colonel Roosevelt on the Loita Plains. This one measured, 
in the flesh: head and body, 87 inches; tail, 16 inches; 
hind foot, 22 inches; ear, 8 inches. A very large female 
from the Kapiti Plains nearly equals these dimensions in the 
flesh, the chief differences being in the length of the hind 
foot, which is Y^ of an inch less than in the male. The tail 
of this specimen is somewhat longer than that of the male, 
being 18 inches, which is the usual tail length of the race. 
At the National Museum a large series of skins and skulls 
have been examined from the Kapiti, Athi, and Loita Plains, 
Lakes Naivasha and Baringo, Laikipia and Uasin Gishu 
Plateaux. Others have been examined in the British 
Museum from the Rift Valley of British East Africa and 
the Athi Plains. 

The highland quagga zebra occurs wide-spread through- 
out British and German East Africa, except in the low 
coast country and in the northern deserts, where it is repre- 
sented by other races. In Uganda, however, it is much 
less abundant, owing to the growths of tall elephant-grass 
which cover much of the plains country and make the 
region unsuitable for open-plains game such as zebras. In 
places where open plains of short grass are to be found the 
zebra is found in small numbers. They occur in such dis- 
tricts near the Maanja River west of Kampala, and on the 
German border in the highlands of Ankole. Northward 
from Mount Elgon they are found over the highlands as 
far as the Soudan station of Mongolia where they reach 
their extreme northern limit in the immediate vicinity of 
the Nile, which stands as a barrier to their westward ex- 
tension. On the headwaters of the Sobat River they occur 
somewhat farther northeast, and here they reach their ex- 
treme northern limit. In this region they have been re- 
ported by but one sportsman, William N. McMillan, who 



COMMON ZEBRA OR BONTE-QUAGGA 693 

met with zebra in the plateau region of the Boma country 
at the head of the Kaia River, a tributary of the Sobat. 
Some distance east of this region, in this extreme northeast 
corner of their range, they meet the Abyssinian form of the 
quagga, jollce, in the valley of the Omo River. 

Kilimanjaro Quagga Zebra 

Equus quagga bohmi 

Native Names: Swahili, punda milia; Duruma, /orrw. 

Equus bohmi Matschie, 1892, Sitz.-Ber. Nat. Freu., Berlin, p. 131. 

Range. — Lowlands of the coast drainage from three 
thousand feet to sea-level, north in British East Africa as 
far as the south bank of the Tana River, and inland to the 
limits of the desert nyika zone; limits of range southward 
in German East Africa unknown. 

The zebra is known to the Swahili as punda milia, or 
striped donkey, and this name has been carried through the 
length and breadth of East Africa by the Swahili porters. 
The name is being constantly impressed on the minds of 
sportsmen by the insistent porter, whose stomach is always 
demanding zebra meat. Punda milia has thus become as 
familiar a term for the zebra to the European traveller in 
East Africa as quagga is to his cousins in South Africa. 
The coast race of the quagga zebra was described by Mat- 
schie in 1892 from a skin collected by Herr Kuhnert on the 
Pangani River south of Kilimanjaro and partly from a 
painting by Richard Bohm for whom the species was named. 
The original skin is now in the Berlin Museum, where it 
has been examined by Heller. It is a flat skin lacking the 
head and the feet. Faint shadow stripes occur between 
the broad stripes on the hind quarters but they are not 
well marked. Undue emphasis has been placed on the 
presence of shadow stripes in this race owing to their presence 
in the type, but they are really a variable feature and are 
of no racial significance. The type happens to be so marked, 
but specimens from Kilimanjaro lack the shadow stripes 
in at least fifty per cent of the individuals, and we have no 
doubt that the actual occurrence of shadow stripes will be 
found, upon the examination of a larger number of skins, to 
be a very much less per cent. A mounted specimen from 



694 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

Kilimanjaro in the British Museum is without indications 
of shadow stripes. There is in the National Museum a single 
old male specimen representing this race, collected by the 
Rainey expedition at Mtoto Andei Station in the desert 
nyika zone. This specimen Is decidedly larger than any 
of the highland race, has a larger skull, broader stripes on 
the quarters, and more buffy ground-color, but is without 
any trace of shadow stripes. It Is evident from this speci- 
men that the coast race is a larger form having a somewhat 
more buffy tinge to the light stripes. Owing to the aged 
character of this specimen the mane on the nape Is reduced 
to a thin line of short black hair an Inch in length. The 
nose has the tan blotch between the nostrils and the tips 
of the forehead stripes well marked as in the males of 
granti. The dark stripes are also deep black, as in granti, 
and are quite the same In arrangement. The width of the 
broadest stripes on the hind quarters is somewhat greater, 
being 3^ inches. The flesh measurements of this specimen 
were: head and body, 91 inches; tail, 18 inches; hind foot, 
22 Inches; ear, yyi Inches. The greatest length of the skull 
is 22 inches. 

The coast race is found In well-watered districts through- 
out the coast plain and the desert bush country. On the 
lower slopes or plains of Kilimanjaro it is especially abun- 
dant. In the thorn scrub of the desert nyika they are only 
found locally in the vicinity of a permanent water supply. 
Herds have been seen near Mtoto Andei Station and also 
near the coast at Majl ya Chumvi. They have also been 
reported on the lower Tana River and the lower Sabaki 
River. 

Samburu Quagga Zebra 
Equus quagga cuninghamei 

Equus quagga cuninghamei Heller, 1914, Smith. Misc. Coll., vol. 61, No. 
22, p. 3. 

Range. — Desert drainage area of the Northern Guaso 
Nylro from the eastern base of the Laiklpia Escarpment 
eastward to the Lorian swamp, south as far as the north 
bank of the Tana River and north at least as far as the 
Lorogi Mountains; northern and eastern limits of range 
unknown. 




MAP 38 — DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES OF THE QUAGGA ZEBRA 



1 Equus quagga granti 

3 Equus quagga cuninghamei 



2 Equus quagga bohmi 
4 Equus quagga jolla 



695 



696 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

The occurrence of the quagga zebra in the Northern 
Guaso Nyiro district has been reported by nearly every 
traveller who has visited the district, and the association of 
the quagga and the Grevy together in the same herds has 
often been commented upon. It is, however, not alone in 
this region that such association occurs, for the two types 
of zebra continue together northward over the desert area 
to their northern limits in Abyssinia. The quagga zebra 
inhabiting the Northern Guaso Nyiro district may be dis- 
tinguished by lighter coloration and smaller body size from 
the highland quagga of East Africa and Uganda and has 
recently been named for R. J. Cuninghame, the well-known 
safari leader of British East Africa. 

The race is distinguishable from granti by its darker 
ground-color as represented by the light stripes which are 
pale ochraceous-buff and the lighter color of its dark stripes 
which are bistre-brown instead of black. The skull differs 
from that of granti by the shortness of the rostral portion 
and the narrowness of the diastema between the cheek- 
teeth and the incisors. The skull averages smaller in length 
with narrower palatal width and wider lambdoidal crest 
than in granti. From bohmi, of the Kilimanjaro district, it 
differs in color the same way as from gra7iti, but is further 
distinguishable by its much smaller body size. 

The ground-color as represented by the light stripes is 
pale ochraceous-buff and shows considerable contrast to the 
white belly and inner surface of the hind quarters. The 
dark stripes are uniform bistre-brown on the body but 
darker somewhat on the head, where they become seal- 
brown in conformity with the seal-brown nose patch. The 
legs below the knees and hocks are marked by lighter stripes 
than the body, being snuff-brown and fully striped to the 
hoofs. The tail tuft is black with the exception of the 
mixture of a few white hairs in the upper part. The ears 
are cream-white, marked on the back at the tip by a broad 
area of bistre-brown and another brown area near the base. 
The mane is well developed, the hair having a length of 6 
inches, with an extent from the crown of the head to the 
shoulders, and is striped pale buff and seal-brown in con- 
formity with the stripes of the neck. The body stripes 
are arranged quite as in granti or hofwii, but there is no in- 



COMMON ZEBRA OR BONTE-QUAGGA 697 

dication of shadow stripes anywhere. The widest stripes 
are the obHque ones crossing the hind quarters, which have 
a width of 2^4 inches at their widest part. The body is 
crossed behind the shoulders from the last neck stripe to 
the first oblique stripe by four transverse stripes, which 
completely encircle the body and join the longitudinal ven- 
tral stripe. The neck is crossed by nine transverse stripes, 
the anterior of which are narrow and a few of the posterior 
very wide. The leg stripes are broken on the inner side on 
the upper part of the legs, but below the knees and the 
hocks they completely encircle the legs, and on the lower 
part of the pasterns, immediately above the hoof, they 
usually become fused into a solid dark band. 

There is in addition to the type skin at the National 
Museum another skin of the same age taken at the same 
time. This latter specimen is quite identical in color with 
the type. Specimens of granti of the same age from the 
Athi Plains differ from the type by their whitish ground- 
color and dark stripes which are seal-brown in color. The 
stripes of the old adults of cuninghamei, however, as observed 
in the live specimens in the field, are somewhat darker than 
the type but are never deep black as in granti. The lighter 
color of the dark stripes is no doubt due to the arid condi- 
tions and intense heat and sunlight to which the Northern 
Guaso Nyiro race is subject. Ciininghamei is a desert race 
occupying the Northern Guaso Nyiro watershed from its 
formation by the Guaso Narok and Guaso Nyuki Rivers 
eastward to its termination in the Lorian swamp. North- 
ward the race reaches at least as far as the northern slopes 
of the Lorogi Mountains. The quagga zebras occurring 
along the east shore of Lake Rudolf may be jollcz, the 
Abyssinian race, which was described by Camerano from 
the Rift Valley of central Abyssinia. 

A fully adult male from Archer's Post, Northern Guaso 
Nyiro River, had the following flesh measurements: head 
and body, 75 inches; tail, 18 inches; hind foot, 20 inches; 
ear, 6^^ inches. These flesh measurement are considerably 
less than adult males of the highland quagga. 



CHAPTER XXIII 

THE GREVY ZEBRA 

Dolichohippus 

Dolichohippus Heller, 191 2, Smith. Misc. Coll., vol. 60, No. 8, p. i; type 
D. grevyi. 

The Striped horses, or zebras, have been associated 
by some naturaHsts in a genus Hippotigris, a name by 
which they were known to the ancient Romans. Be- 
yond their striped coats, however, they have no other 
common character separating them from other existing 
Equidcs. This assemblage illustrates well the popular idea 
that all the striped horses are closely related. As a matter 
of fact, they differ more among themselves than they do 
from either asses or the domestic horse. In this connec- 
tion it may be well to call attention to the probability of 
many of the fossil horses having had striped coats and their 
probable close relationship with some of the African zebras 
rather than the horse. One, at least, of the living striped 
horses we believe deserves generic rank. The Grevy zebra 
stands out in shape of skull and proportions of head and 
body further from the other zebras and asses than does the 
horse, which is commonly regarded as the most highly 
specialized member. Considering the large number of 
fossil species, it is of some advantage to discriminate as 
finely as possible between the few existing species so as to 
show their probable relationships to such forms by means 
of distinct generic names. The enlargement of the head in 

G98 



THE GREVY ZEBRA 699 

Dolichohippus is decidedly great. The head in length is quite 
equal to that of a large draught-horse, an animal having 
twice the bulk of a Grevy zebra. The lengthening of the 
skull is due to the production forward of the rostral portion 
or the part in front of the grinding-teeth, which gives the 
skull a long diastema or break between the grinding-teeth 
and the incisors, and also gives the skull a long nasal cavity. 
The most distinctive feature of the skull is the great width 
of the occipital crests and their production backward be- 
yond the occipital condyles. The cheek-teeth are better 
developed than in the quagga, being larger in proportion. 
In general shape and size the skull of Dolichohippus re- 
sembles closely that of horses of Arabian stock, but is dis- 
tinguishable by the broader occipital crests. The skull of 
the wild horse, Equus prevalski, is shorter and more like 
that of the ass and differs more from the long, narrow skull 
of Dolichohippus than do some domestic races. By some 
recent writers the Grevy zebra has been considered the 
least specialized of the living Equidce^ and it has been there- 
fore assumed that its coloration may be taken as represent- 
ing that of the ancestral stock. Such a conclusion, however, 
does not agree well with the extremely long-headed nature 
of this zebra and the somewhat higher specialization of its 
dental apparatus. It has been shown by paleontologists 
that the lengthening of the head in the horse has been a 
progressive affair which has gone on simultaneously with 
the gradual elongation of the teeth and the complication of 
their folds. In both of these characters the Grevy zebra 
is slightly more advanced than any of the other living horse- 
like ungulates. Its coloration is distinctive but nearer, 
perhaps, that of the mountain zebra, E. zebra, which shows 



700 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

on the rump the beginning of the gridiron or transverse 
pattern of stripes which in the Grevy are lengthened out 
and extend below the hips. 

Dolichohippus is confined to the low desert area of 
northern British East Africa and southeastern Abyssinia. 
The range is so limited and uniform in climatic conditions 
that but a single species, grevyi, is recognizable. 

Grew Zebra 

Dolichohippus grevyi 

Native Names: Swahill, kangani: Samburru, kanga. 
Equus grevyi Oustalet, 1882, La Nature, X, p. 12, figs. 2. 

Range. — From the Northern Guaso Nyiro drainage and 
the north bank of the Tana River northward to Lake Zwai 
in Abyssinia, westward to the eastern shore of Lake Rudolf 
and the Omo River, and east to the limits of Abyssinia, but 
not known to occur actually within British Somaliland. 

The kings of Abyssinia have from the very earliest 
times sent as gifts from time to time living specimens of 
the Grevy zebra to rulers of friendly European nations. 
This custom early introduced the zebra to European civiliza- 
tion. The zebra shown in the Roman amphitheatre is sup- 
posed to have been this species and to be the one referred 
to by the ancients as Hippotigris. Menelik, the late ruler 
of Abyssinia, sent several specimens to various heads of 
government in Europe and America. One of these sent to 
President Grevy, of France, was described by Oustalet in 
1882 and named for the chief executive. Although the 
Grevy was without doubt the first species of zebra to 
be known to Europe, it remained unknown, or rather un- 
named, until described in 1882. Linnaeus, who founded 
our modern system of binomial nomenclature, mentioned 
in 1758 only the mountain zebra, to which he gave the 
specific name zebra, a name virtually applicable primarily 
to the present species. The Abyssinians appear to have a 
special fondness for the large Grevy zebra, which is the 
only one they capture, although the smaller, broad-striped 




!'. w-i« 



HIGHLAND QUAGGA ZEBRA, MALE AND FEMALE 

From German East Africa 
In the New York Zoological Park 




i^KL\'Y /.LLl'-. 



AB\ : -.IMA, 



Presented to Theodore Roosevelt by Emperor Menelik of Abyssinia 
In the National Zoological Park, Washington, D. C. 

LIVING SPECIMENS OF HIGHLAND QUAGGA AND GREW ZEBRAS 



THE GREW ZEBRA 701 

quagga is equally abundant in their domain and shares much 
of the same territory as the former. It is commonly as- 
sumed that the Grevy zebra occurs on the plains of Shoa, in 
the vicinity of Addis Abbaba, the capital of Abyssinia, but 
this is by no means the case. The Grevy zebra is confined 
to the Rift Valley of Abyssinia, from Lake Zwai south- 
ward, and is an inhabitant of low desert or semiarid 
country, very different in character from the cool, moist 
Abyssinian highlands of the capital. It is doubtless from 
the northern extremity of the range, in the vicinity of 
Lake Zwai, that the specimens donated by Menelik to 
foreign rulers have come. At the present time the Grevy 
zebra is not found as far north as that district, but its 
absence there may be due to recent extermination by the 
Abyssinians consequent upon the extensive introduction 
of firearms in the country. Specimens from the western 
frontier of Somaliland have been separated by Pocock as 
a race, owing to the dark stripes being seal-brown rather 
than black. Such color differences, however, are due merely 
to the fading effect of the intense desert light and heat. 
The specimens with which the Somaliland ones were com- 
pared were zoological-garden specimens, obtained by dona- 
tions originally from Emperor Menelik. The pure white 
character of their light stripes and the blackness of the 
dark stripes is due chiefly to the temperate climate in 
which they were living. There is practically no difference 
in environment and very little in geographical position to 
warrant a race in southeastern Abyssinia. In this connec- 
tion it may be stated that specimens from British East 
Africa are quite identical in shade of coloration of both the 
dark and the light stripes to those from Somaliland. Mat- 
schie, some years previous to Pocock's description of berber- 
ensis, gave the name faurei to a specimen living at the 
Zoological Gardens of Paris which had been sent by Menelik 
as a gift to President Faure of France. The name was 
based on a photograph of the specimen which gave it the 
appearance of having a white tail tuft, the character by 
which Matschie distinguished his race. The specimen in 
question, however, has the tail tuft normal in color, that is, 
white on the upper side or outside as it hangs down and 
black on the inner or lower side. The black inner side of 



702 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

the tuft is much narrower than the white part of the tuft 
and in a photograph is often quite invisible. Notwith- 
standing the long-known character of the Grevy zebra in 
Abyssinia, it has been known from the southern part of its 
range in British East Africa only recently. Count Teleki, 
during his journey of discovery of Lake Rudolf in 1888, was 
the first sportsman to report its occurrence in British ter- 
ritory. He met with it near the south end of Lake Rudolf 
and along its eastern shore. William Astor Chanler was, 
perhaps, the next sportsman to meet with it, in 1892, during 
his exploration of the Northern Guaso Nyiro River and the 
Lorian swamp. In 1898 A. H. Neumann, in his "Elephant 
Hunting in East Equatorial Africa," gave the first careful 
account of the habits and distribution of the species in 
British East Africa. 



The big zebra, which our porters called kangani, was 
only met with by us on the banks of the Northern Guaso 
Nyiro. The country was very dry, it being evident that no 
rain had fallen for many months, and under the blazing 
equatorial sun the grass had withered almost to straw, and 
the dry acacias and wait-a-bit thorns were almost leafless. 
The strange candelabra euphorbias, and trees covered by a 
mass of green, fleshy thorns instead of leaves, seemed to 
harmonize well with the landscape. The only water was in 
the Northern Guaso Nyiro or an occasional rare stream 
flowing into it. Back from the river were hills and buttes, 
bordering the dry plains, which were sometimes bare and 
sometimes covered with stretches of leafless thorn scrub. 
It was bad galloping, for the ground was rotten in places, 
and in other places covered with volcanic stones; but the 
game ran as if unhampered by either the stones or the 
rotten ground. 

On the bare, grassy plains, and more rarely where there 



THE GREVY ZEBRA 703 

was thin thorn scrub, the kangani were met with in small 
parties and troops of half a dozen to thirty or forty indi- 
viduals. Once we came on a plain where the troops had 
gathered into a loose herd of several hundred individuals. 
The big zebras mix freely not only with the oryx herds but 
also with the herds of the smaller zebra. It is curious that 
they should associate continually and on such good terms 
with the smaller zebra, and yet never breed with them. 
Apparently they treat their smaller cousins precisely as 
they do the various species of antelope. Sometimes the 
mixed herds of kanganis, bonte-quaggas, and oryxes are 
divided almost equally among the three species; more often 
one or two individuals of one species are found with a herd 
of another; and often, of course, the herd is composed exclu- 
sively of one species. The kangani herds usually contain 
one master stallion. The stallions fight viciously with one 
another. In several instances we killed stallions whose 
testicles had not come down, and were concealed within the 
belly wall. 

The gaits of the big zebra are a slashing trot and a 
gallop, whereas the small zebra canters. It has a peculiar 
screaming whinny, utterly unlike the barking cry of the 
common zebra. Its very long ears, thrown forward in curi- 
ous interest, enable it to be recognized at a distance. Its 
stripes, being narrow and uniform, fade into a general gray 
at a distance at which the stripes of the ordinary zebra, 
especially those on the rump, are still plainly visible; afar 
off the zebras look like wild asses. We found the big zebra 
much more wary than the common zebra, but in their habits 
of grazing, drinking, and resting the two species were not 
distinguishable; indeed in these respects they behaved much 



704 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

like the oryx, with which they were associated, although it 
Is said that the oryx can go without drinking while the 
zebra cannot, and so is found in much drier regions. The 
great enemy of the big zebra, as of the common zebra and 
the oryx, was the lion; and we also found one instance in 
which a leopard had killed a half-grown kangani and actu- 
ally dragged part of the carcass into the branches of a thorn- 
tree. 



Aside from the well-marked difference in color pattern, the 
Grevy zebra has distinctive differences in body proportions 
and shape. The head is decidedly enlarged and lengthened, 
the hoofs are broad, and the ears are greatly expanded and 
lengthened, exceeding in width the long ears of the African 
ass. The broad ears are apparently an adaptation which 
conforms with the brushy nature of their habitat, where 
acute hearing is of vital importance, and the broad hoofs 
are also to be attributed to environmental effect, that is, 
to the sandy and porous nature of much of the desert area 
in which they dwell. The tail tuft is rather small and con- 
fined to the extreme tip of the tail. The body coloration is 
quite distinctive. It consists of numerous, narrow trans- 
verse stripes, alternate whitish and blackish in color and 
of equal width, except on the neck, where the dark stripes 
are broader. An important distinction in the Grevy is 
the absence of diagonal or longitudinal stripes on the rump 
and hips, where the stripes are transverse. In the moun- 
tain zebra of South Africa there is a suggestion of this pat- 
tern in the narrow gridiron of the rump. In general, the 
color pattern resembles more closely that of the latter species 
than the quagga or bonte-quagga type. The stripes of the 
head are arranged quite as in the other two species. The 
sexes are quite indistinguishable in coloration, and the newly 
born young are essentially the same in pattern, though some- 
what lighter in color. The ground-color, or rather the color 
of the light stripes, is pale ochraceous-buff, except on the 
under-parts and inside of the legs, where it is more whitish 
or cream color. The dark stripes vary in intensity from 



THE GREW ZEBRA 705 

seal-brown to bistre, and are always a decided brown rather 
than black in tone. They are darkest on the neck and 
lightest on the rump and face, where they sometimes as- 
sume a reddish tint or chestnut color. The median ventral 
stripe is hair-brown and much lighter than the stripes on 
the dorsal surface. The nose is marked by a bright-tawny 
patch bordered behind by an unstriped area of pale-buff 
and in front by the white lips and chin. The terminal half 
of the ears is seal or bistre brown, in contrast to the pale- 
cream ground-color of the lower half and inner side. The 
tail tuft is rather shorter than in other zebras and measures 
only 9 or lo inches in length. In appearance it is cream- 
white above, lined below by black hair. From the crown 
to the withers extends a short, erect mane some 6 or 7 inches 
in height and striped alternately with light and dark trans- 
verse stripes continuous with their fellows on the neck. 
No variation in mane due to age, such as takes place in the 
quagga, occurs in this species. The newly born young are 
quite reddish on the body, due to the russet color of the 
body stripes, but the forward half of the body and the legs 
are striped by dark seal-brown, as in the adults. At this 
early age the nape mane is short and fuzzy and continuous 
along the midline of the back by a low mane covering the 
dorsal stripe. The striped pattern in the adult consists of 
twenty or twenty-two transverse dark stripes on the body 
between the shoulder stripe and the hip stripe, the stripes 
having a width of i to lyi inches, the light interspaces 
being somewhat narrower and measuring Y^, of an inch in 
width. They extend vertically from the light border of 
the dorsal stripe to the lower sides, but do not cross the 
belly and join the ventral stripe, but terminate abruptly 
on the lower sides. Posterior to the hip stripe the rump is 
marked by very narrow transverse stripes >< inch in width, 
which are somewhat diagonal in direction and become 
progressively shortened as the base of the tail is approached. 
Below the forking of the hip stripe the transverse leg stripes 
begin and continue down the hind limb to the hoof. The 
middle line of the back is marked by a broad dorsal stripe 
2 inches wide from the withers quite to the tail tuft and is 
bordered for most of its length by a broad light stripe of the 
ground-color, except on the withers, where the transverse 



706 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

stripes unite with it. The neck is marked by nine or ten 
transverse stripes varying much in width, the widest being 
the median ones, which attain a width of 2>^ or 3 inches. The 
crown of the head is marked by numerous very fine longi- 
tudinal stripes which terminate on the snout midway be- 
tween the tip and the eyes. The sides of the head and the 
cheeks are marked by wider transverse stripes which meet 
below on the throat. The legs are marked by numerous 
narrow transverse stripes which completely encircle the 
limb with the exception of the upper part, near the body, 
where they are broken on the inner side. A series of twelve 
adult skins from the Northern Guaso Nyiro district show 
very little variation in color. The stripes, however, vary 
considerably in different individuals or on different sides of 
the same individual. The transverse stripes of the back and 
neck often fork irregularly on the sides of the body, and the 
leg-bands are even more irregular in this regard. Albinism, 
though rare, is not unknown among Grevy zebras, but no 
instances of partial albinism have been reported. One of 
the British East African game rangers, A. Blayney Percival, 
collected a uniformly white specimen near the Lorian 
swamp from a herd of normally colored individuals. This 
specimen was presented by Percival to the British Museum 
and is now on exhibition in one of the galleries. Although 
it is entirely white, the dark stripes can be traced in its coat 
as faint darker shadows. 

An adult male specimen from the Northern Guaso Nyiro, 
shot by Colonel Roosevelt, measured in the flesh: head and 
body, 8 feet 3 inches; tail, 22 inches; hind foot, 24 inches; 
length of ear, 9 inches. These dimensions represent an 
average adult of either sex, the females being quite equal 
to the males in size. The largest skulls in a series of four- 
teen specimens in the National Museum measure in greatest 
length: male, 25 inches; female, 24>< inches. Specimens 
have been recorded by A. H. Neumann in British East 
Africa as far south as the junction of the Tana and Mac- 
kenzie Rivers, east of Mount Kenia, thence northward to 
the northeast slope of the Lorogi Mountains and northward 
along the east shore of Lake Rudolf to the mouth of the 
Omo River. No authentic records of Grevy zebra in the 
Turkana country west or southwest of Lake Rudolf have 




MAP 39 — DISTRIBUTION OF THE GREVY ZEBRA 

1 Dolichohippus grevyi 

707 



708 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

been found, and it appears that Lake Rudolf marks the 
eastern Kmits of its range. On the Northern Guaso Nyiro 
it is found along both banks throughout the low desert lands 
traversed by the river from its formation by the junction 
of the Guaso Nyuki and Guaso Narok down to its terminus 
in the Lorian swamp. North of the river it is found through- 
out the desert in the vicinity of springs or water-holes. 
Eastward toward the sea the limits of its range are not 
known except in the north where it extends as far east as 
the boundary of British Somaliland. As it has not been 
reported from the coast north of the Tana River, it doubt- 
less does not extend much farther east than the Lorian 
swamp. 



CHAPTER XXIV 

ELEPHANTS 
Family Elephantidcs 

The elephants are perhaps best characterized by their 
proboscis, or trunk, which in the true elephant has developed 
into a grasping or prehensile organ several feet in length 
and capable of as delicate manipulation as the hand of the 
higher apes. The great length of the proboscis in the 
typical elephants has given rise to the name Proboscidce, by 
which the order is known. This group comprises the living 
elephants and all of the fossil elephant-like mammals, the 
most primitive of which were quite unlike modern elephants, 
being no larger than tapirs, with very short trunks and 
tusks. The great bodily bulk of the living members, how- 
ever, is quite characteristic of the family Elephantidce. 
Combined with the great bodily size we find an adaptive 
leg structure, the legs being straight and columnar so as to 
support the great body weight, a condition also common 
to some extinct groups of giant mammals and such colossal 
reptiles as the giant dinosaurs. The primitive or remote 
ancestral elephant-like mammals had bent or angulated 
limbs similar to those of the hoofed mammals. The knees 
are placed low, being well outside the body and very differ- 
ent from the position they occupy in the horse and other 
hoofed mammals. The feet are primitive in structure, being 
evenly five-toed, but are united at the base into a more or 

709 



710 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

less solid hoof which shows evidence of three or four of the 
toes in the nail-like division on its margin. Placed almost 
immediately above the hoof we find the ankle, which occu- 
pies a position somewhat similar to that in man and the apes. 
This arrangement gives the foot great flexibility and enables 
the elephant to perform many movements of which the 
hoofed mammals are quite incapable. The head is im- 
mensely enlarged so as to support the tusks or canine teeth, 
the enormous size of which is a further peculiarity of ele- 
phants. In order to increase the size of the skull so as to 
give greater surface for muscular attachment, the occipital 
and parietal bones have been increased greatly in extent 
and thickness by the development of sinuses having a 
light honeycomb structure. The brain case has in this 
way attained a thickness of some fifteen or twenty inches, 
and it is this great mass of bony tissue surrounding the 
brain which makes the elephant so difficult an animal to 
kill, owing to the diflFiculty of locating the brain. The bony 
expansion of the skull is chiefly upward, over the occipital 
portion, in the form of a great dome, which is cut off abruptly 
at the back so as to build a great wall for the attachment 
of the muscles which move the head. A further striking 
peculiarity of the skull is the expansion of the premaxillary 
bones into great sheaths for the support of the immense 
tusks. The elephants also show marked specialization in 
the structure of their molar or cheek-teeth. These in the 
true elephants are made up of a series of folds of enamel and 
dentine, which are bound together by a cement layer form- 
ing a tooth with a very long crown, a foot or more in length 
and of great height, so that it can withstand an immense 
amount of wear. Only one or part of two teeth are in use 



ELEPHANTS 711 

at a time on either side above and below. As they wear 
down they are pushed forward and upward by succeeding 
teeth behind them. In this way the teeth are continually 
being moved forward, and pass through the jaws from be- 
hind forward as they are worn down. No other living 
group of mammals, with the exception of the manatees, are 
known to possess a similar method of tooth succession. 
The teeth usually number six on a side, the first three which 
pass through the jaw being considered the milk molars. 
The largest tooth of all in number of enamel plates and in 
size is the last one to appear, the number of plates usually 
being more than twice as many as in the first tooth. The 
lower jaw is extremely short in the typical elephants, and 
furnished only with molar teeth, but is armed in some of the 
more primitive elephants, such as the mastodon, by short 
incisor tusks. The living elephants are remarkably distinct 
from other mammals, and until recently paleontologists 
have not been able to trace them back to their probable 
remote ancestral forms. Recently, in beds of Eocene age 
at Fayum, Egypt, Doctor Andrews, of the British Museum, 
discovered fossil remains of some ancestral forms which 
tend to link the modern elephants with forms which show 
some aflrinity to the ancestors of the manatees. The exami- 
nation of the bones of these remote elephant-like mammals 
has led Doctor Andrews to believe that Africa was the orig- 
inal home of the elephants, and that later, during Miocene 
time, some of the more highly developed forms spread north- 
ward into Europe, Asia, and North America, and finally, 
during Pleistocene time, into South America. The fossil 
genera and species of elephants are very abundant in the 
Pliocene and Pleistocene of Europe, Asia, and North America. 



712 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

The ancient African evidence rests chiefly upon the Fayum 
beds, but elephant remains of Miocene age, representing an 
aberrant type, Dinotherium, have also been found near 
Lakes Victoria Nyanza and Rudolf, in equatorial Africa. 
A mastodon of Pleistocene age is also recorded from South 
Africa. There exists to-day only a small remnant of the 
family, representing but two genera, Elephas^ confined to 
southern Asia, and Loxodonta, confined to Ethiopian Africa. 

African Elephant 

Loxodonta 

Loxodonta F. Cuvier, 1827, Zool. Journ., vol. Ill, p. 140; type Elephas 
africanus Blumenbach. 

Although Cuvier established the genus Loxodonta for the 
African elephants more than eighty years ago, the African 
has been associated by naturalists generally with the In- 
dian elephant in the genus Elephas. Cuvier called attention 
to the much wider or lozenge shape and the lesser number 
of the enamel plates in the molar teeth in the African ele- 
phant in comparison with the Indian, and upon such distinc- 
tion the genus was founded. Owing, however, to there 
being but two living forms, no attempt has been made to 
recognize the generic distinction between the two except by 
some paleontologists, who have many species to consider 
and find such a generic division of importance in the classi- 
fication. Besides the differences in the molar teeth there 
are many other distinctions in structure which are of ge- 
neric value. The skull in the African elephant is evenly 
rounded on the crown, being perfectly dome-shaped and 
without the median depression which in the Indian separates 
the crown into two rounded knobs or bosses. An important 
external distinction between the two elephants is the enor- 
mous size of the ear in the African elephant, in which it cov- 
ers the entire neck and withers and reaches as low as the 
breast, the height often equalling half the standing height 
of the animal. The African also has a more sloping dorsal 
profile, the body sloping downward from the crown of the 



ELEPHANTS 713 

head rather than from the withers, owing to the higher car- 
riage of the head. Other differences are the presence of a 
nipple on the lower edge of the tip of the trunk as well as 
the one on the upper, the larger tusks, and the lesser number 
of hoof-like nails on the margin of the hoof in the African. 
The genus Loxodonta is a much less specialized group than 
Elephas^ as shown by the lesser number of enamel plates 
in the molar teeth and the rounded outline of the dorsal 
surface of the skull. The enormous size of the ears, the 
additional nipple on the tip of the trunk, and the lesser 
number of hoof-like divisions in the feet of Loxodonta are, 
however, specializations not found in the living representa- 
tive of the genus Elephas. In skull shape the African is, 
however, decidedly like the genus Mastodon^ being evenly 
rounded over the parietal or occipital part, and also convex 
in profile on the forehead above the nasal opening, instead 
of concave as in Elephas. In tooth structure it is somewhat 
intermediate between Mastodon or Stegodon and Elephas, the 
number of plates being intermediate in number and the teeth 
narrower and often showing, when unworn, a want of cement 
on the crown, so that the enamel plates project when unworn 
as ridges similar somewhat to the condition found in Mastodon. 
The teeth, however, are long-crowned, as in Elephas, and very 
different in this character from the short-crowned teeth of 
Mastodon. The Indian elephant, although having as many 
as twenty-four plates to its last molar tooth, is not the most 
highly specialized form in this regard, but such distinction 
belongs to the recently extinct hairy elephant, or mammoth, 
Elephas primigenius, of the boreal regions. The plates in 
the mammoth number as many as twenty-seven in the last 
molar and were narrower, much more crowded, and longer 
than in the Indian. The molar teeth of all elephants have 
progressively more and more ridges as we advance from 
the first to the last tooth in the order of their succession. 
Usually only the formula of the last three, or permanent 
set, is considered. In the African elephant the ridge formula 
in the permanent molars is: first, 6 or 7; second, 8 or 9; 
and last, 10 or 12. In the Indian this formula runs usually: 
first, 12; second, 16; and third, 24. The two living ele- 
phants are both less specialized than some of the extinct 
forms belonging to the same genera. In a broader way. 



714 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

the persistence of ancient types occurred among the genera 
in past geologic ages. Thus one of the primitive genera, 
Mastodon, hngered until the last or Pleistocene age in the 
northern hemisphere, in much of which territory it lived 
with and supplanted the more highly specialized genus 
Elephas. The African elephant, which is to-day the giant 
among the land mammals, was exceeded in height by some 
of the fossil species, notably by Elephas imperator, from the 
Pliocene of North America, which attained a height of 13 
feet or over at the withers. Another form of gigantic size 
was the Pleistocene species, Elephas meridionalis, of southern 
Europe, which attained a height of considerably more than 
12 feet and was, like imperator, one of the allies of the Indian 
elephant. A gigantic fossil species, antiquus, of the Pliocene 
of southern Europe, related to the African elephant and 
likewise a member of the genus Loxodonta, was scarcely less 
in height than imperator. The African elephant, which at- 
tains a height of 11 feet or slightly more at the withers, 
although exceeded in height by these fossil species, can 
scarcely be said to be a smaller animal in bulk. No fossil 
elephant is known which had a larger skull. The gigantic 
species, though taller, were relatively small-skulled forms. 
The tusks of many of the extinct species were very long and 
exceeded the average African tusks greatly in this dimension. 
The great length in the extinct species was often due to 
their having become of no functional use, so that, in the 
absence of wear, their points grew to immense length, curving 
either upward or inward in a large circle and overlapping 
one another, as in the case of some mammoths. Record 
tusks of the African elephant approach very closely in thick- 
ness or diameter to the largest of those of the gigantic fossil 
species. The disuse to which the tusks were subjected in the 
mammoths would account for the smaller size of the skull, 
there being less need for the development of bony crests for 
muscular attachment for wielding the tusks than in the 
living African species in which the tusks are subject to 
much use and wear. At the time these giant species were 
flourishing there were also pygmy species, some five feet in 
height, living actually with their larger kin on some of the 
islands in the Mediterranean, notably Malta and Crete. 
Such small species were related to the African elephant and 



ELEPHANTS 715 

may be considered members of the genus Loxodonta. A 
pygmy species living in West Africa has been described re- 
cently, but it has no standing in nature, being simply a 
young specimen of the West African elephant. The only true 
pygmy species at present known are the fossil ones from the 
Mediterranean basin. The genus Loxodonta was doubt- 
less of African derivation in late Miocene time. Allied 
forms derived from the African stock appeared in southern 
Europe and Asia in the Pliocene, but the genus continued to 
exist in tropical Africa, to which region it is now confined. 
The genus is represented by a single species of which three 
or four geographical races may be recognized by differences 
in shape of ears and body size. Elephants were until re- 
cently quite universally distributed over Africa, from the 
northern borders of Abyssinia and the southern edge of 
the Sahara Desert southward to the Cape, from sea-level 
to the limits of vegetation on the highest mountains. At 
the present time they have been exterminated over a con- 
siderable part of this area and exist only in the more remote 
and inaccessible tropical portions of the continent. 

Cape Elephant 

Loxodonta africana capensis 

Native Names: Swahili, temho ; Masai, ol-tome ; Luganda, njovu ; 
Acholi, leati. 

Elephas capensis Cuvier, 1798, Tableau Elementaire, p. 149. 

Range. — From the Cape region of South Africa north- 
ward throughout the East Coast and central lake region, 
through British East Africa and Uganda to the Abyssinian 
highlands and Somaliland; west as far as the Congo-Nile 
watershed; at present exterminated over much of this ter- 
ritory and confined, except where preserved, to the more 
inaccessible parts. 

The earliest name for the African elephant was pro- 
posed by Blumenbach in 1779, who applied to it the name 
africajia and described the range as Middle and South 
Africa. A decade later Cuvier described the African ele- 
phant as a species, capensis, not being aware of Blumen- 
bach's earlier name. In order to make Cuvier's name ap- 
plicable for the race occurring in southern and eastern Africa, 



716 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

we have applied the older name, africana, to the form in- 
habiting the Congo basin, which may be taken as repre- 
senting part, at least, of the area which Blumenbach called 
Middle Africa. Since the eighteenth century no new names 
for African elephants have been proposed until the year 
1900, when Matschie published a paper describing three 
new species, one from East Africa, another from Abyssinia, 
and a third from the Cameroons. Matschie recognized 
four species: capensis of South Africa, knochenhaiieri of 
East Africa, oxyotis of Abyssinia, and cyclotis of West Africa, 
typically the Cameroons. His species were founded upon 
differences in ear shape chiefly and, as far as our present 
knowledge is concerned, hold good as racial distinctions, 
with the exception of the distinctions drawn between the 
East African and the Cape elephant, which are apparently 
racially identical. The Cape or East African race is char- 
acterized by the large size of the ear, which has a height in 
adult bulls of from 4 to 5>^ feet, or quite half that of the 
standing height of the animal. The ear is rectangular in 
shape, being folded in at the top so that the upper outline 
runs parallel with the neck, and the point or lappet being 
formed by the lower margin and the hinder meeting at 
right angles below the throat, or rather in front of the chest, 
gives the ear its rectangular shape. This is the largest 
race, the record elephants in height of body and dimensions 
of tusks being South or East African specimens. In the 
highland region of Abyssinia, particularly the northern 
slopes of its plateau region in the area drained by the Blue 
Nile and the Atbara River, we find a second race of ele- 
phants, called by Matschie oxyotis. It may be distinguished 
from the East African race, or capensis, by the absence of 
the fold on the upper margin of the ears, the ears folding 
over the nape of the neck but not bent back upon them- 
selves. The ear is also more pointed or pear-shaped, being 
narrower, with a longer lappet. In some specimens the 
hinder and part of the upper margin of the ear is folded 
forward for a width of two or three inches, as in the Indian 
elephant. The species described from the Cameroons by 
Matschie as cyclotis is the most distinct in ear shape of all 
the races. The ear in this race is elongate and evenly 
rounded on its entire hinder border and is without any fold 




ABYSSINIAN ELEPHANTS 

In the New York Zoological Park 

Showing absence of folds on upper margin of ears 




CAMEROON ELEPHANT, MALE 

Type of Elephas pumilio 

In the New York Zoological Park 

Showing small circular ears typical of cyclotis 

THE ABYSSINIAN AND WEST AFRICAN RACES OF THE ELEPHANT 



ELEPHANTS 717 

on its upper margin. The elephants of this type are the 
smallest in Africa and have also relatively the smallest 
ears. A member of this race was described in 1906 as a 
pygmy race, for which the name pumilio was proposed. 
The specimen on which this race was based was a living 
specimen at the Hagenbeck Gardens and was at the time 
only 3>^ feet in height and weighed some 600 pounds, but 
was assumed to be at least half grown, the age being stated 
to be six years. It was, however, a small animal in 1906, 
when described, but has since grown up under the care of 
the New York Zoological Park and at present has a height 
of 5 feet 7 inches and a weight of 2,250 pounds. It is 
annually subject to some incurable skin disease, which has 
retarded its growth and no doubt accounts for its under- 
sized condition. The shape of the ears is quite identical with 
those of typical cyclotis of West Africa, from which region 
it is said to have come. Whether the Congo elephants have 
rounded ears, similar to those of cyclotis^ is not at present 
known, but it appears from photographic evidence that 
they are somewhat different in shape and are intermediate 
in size between the small-eared race, cyclotis, and the large- 
eared, capensis, and have an inward fold on the upper margin 
of the ears, as in the latter race. We have, accordingly, 
allowed them to stand as the typical race, africana, of 
Blumenbach. Since Matschie has pointed out the ear 
differences in the races here recognized, several other races 
have been described by other naturalists. We have failed 
to find, however, substantial proof of their distinctness in 
the specimens we have examined. Most of such races are 
based on slight distinctions drawn between individual 
specimens from various parts of East and South Africa, and 
represent, to a considerable degree at least, individual varia- 
tion. Differences in skull shape between the races here 
recognized have not yet been established, owing to the great 
individual variation to which the skull is subject. The size 
of the tusks influences the premaxillary region greatly, the 
size of the premaxillary bones which sheath the tusks being 
in direct relation to the size of the tusks, which are well 
known to have an immense individual variation. Distinc- 
tions based upon the relationship of the width to the length 
in such bones is on this account of questionable racial value. 



718 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

The depth or size of the fossa occupying the upper surface 
of the premaxillary bones Hkevvise depends upon the size of 
the tusks also. In a great measure the size of the skull is 
influenced by the tusks, the larger-tusked elephants having 
decidedly the larger skulls. Besides the individual varia- 
tions in skulls due to tusk diff^erences, there is a marked age 
variation. The dome of the skull as represented by the 
cellular mass of bony tissue which surrounds the brain 
grows throughout a long period and seems to keep pace in 
its development with the growth of the tusks. On this 
account only skulls of absolutely the same age may be com- 
pared as regards their shape or the relative proportion of 
parts. 

We found elephant in the cool forests and bamboo belts 
of Mount Kenia and among Its foot-hills; in the open plains 
and scanty thorn woods near the 'Nzoia River; in the tree 
jungle and tall elephant grass of Uganda; and in the hot, 
dry country along both banks of the upper White Nile. 

With the possible exception of the lion, the elephant is 
the wisest and most interesting of all the kinds of big game. 
Most wild animals lead very simple lives; and, while most of 
them at times perform queer and unexpected feats or show 
traits that upset the observer's previous generalizations, 
there is ordinarily not much variety or originality in what 
they do. But the lion is forced by the exigencies of a life 
of prey to develop abilities as marked as they are sinister; 
and the elephant, instead of growing in stupidity as well as 
weight, has become the most intelligent of graminivores, 
with an emotional and intellectual nature sufficiently com- 
plex to make him a subject of endless interest to the observer. 

The elephant's physical and mental equipment fits it for 
life under utterly diverse conditions. Most game animals 
live in narrowly circumscribed habitats; for instance, the 



ELEPHANTS 719 

bushbuck In the forests, the hartebeests on the plains, the 
oryx in dry, almost desert country. But the elephant wan- 
ders everywhere, being equally at home in the haunts of 
bushbuck, oryx, and hartebeest. It goes high among the 
cold bamboo belts of the mountains; it loves the hot, dense, 
swampy lowland forests; it lives in the barren desert where 
it has to travel a score of miles for a drink of bitter water. 
Sometimes herds make long migrations, swarming for sev- 
eral months in a locality, while during the rest of the year 
not an elephant will be found within a hundred miles of it. 
Elsewhere they may live in the same neighborhood all the 
year round. On the south slope of Mount Kenia we found 
the elephants living in the daytime in the thick forest, but 
at night often wandering down into the plain to ravage the 
shambas, the cultivated fields near the native villages. In 
the Lado we found herds of elephants living day and night 
in the same places, in the dry, open plains of tallish grass 
sprinkled with acacias and a few palms. The old bulls 
usually keep by themselves, alone or in small parties; herds 
exclusively composed of cows and calves are common; but 
often both sexes mingle in a herd, and some of the largest 
tuskers are always accompanied by herds of cows, which 
seem to take a pride in them and watch over and protect 
them. 

The wide individual and local variation in habits should 
make the observer very cautious about making sweeping 
generalizations; and, moreover, there is often an undoubted 
difference of personal equation in the observer. In Sander- 
son's capital book "The Wild Beasts of India" he states 
that elephant cows do not leave the herd to calve and that 
both bulls and cows habitually lie down. In the parts of 



720 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

Africa the Roosevelt safari visited the elephants practically 
never lie down at all; that is, the cases where they do are so 
wholly exceptional that they can be disregarded. We heard 
of such instances from the 'Ndorobo or Wakamba hunters, 
or from old white elephant hunters, but always as some- 
thing curious and unusual. In carefully following various 
herds and individuals, carefully examining the trails they 
had made during the preceding twenty-four or even forty- 
eight hours, we never came across an instance where any 
elephant had lain down. They slept and rested standing. 
But in the desert, north of the Northern Guaso Nyiro, 
Heller found them lying down. Whether the cows ever 
calve without leaving the herd we cannot say; in the only 
case brought to our attention of the site of a calf's birth 
being found, the cow had retired to an isolated place, 
where she had evidently spent the first two or three days 
after the calf was born before rejoining the herd. 

By the time the calf is a week old, the mother has joined 
the herd, usually composed of other nursing or expectant 
mothers and of half-grown animals of both sexes. The cow 
takes the utmost care of the calf; if it is drinking at a pool 
she will chase away any other member of the herd which she 
thinks may interfere with it. The cows guard the calves 
against the attacks of wild beasts. In extremely rare cases 
three-parts grown elephant cows or half-grown bulls have 
been attacked by parties of hungry lions; but, as a rule, an 
animal is safe after it is three or four years old. Young 
calves, however, are eagerly sought after by lions and even 
by leopards and hyenas. The cows are always on the alert 
against such foes, and drive them away in a twinkling if 
they are discovered, uniting in the rush against them, just 



ELEPHANTS 721 

as they frequently unite in a rush against the human hunter. 
Tarlton once witnessed such a charge by a party of elephant 
cows against a lion. They chased it several score yards. 
It just managed to escape into a belt of thick forest, which 
the cows in their rage then proceeded to wreck for an area 
of many yards. 

Elephants are at home in all kinds of ground. They 
climb astonishingly well, clambering up and down places 
where it seems extraordinary so huge a creature can go at all. 
They also frequent swamps and marshes and swim broad 
rivers, but they sometimes get mired down. The captain 
of the launch that took us from Butiaba told us that he once 
found three elephants still alive, but fast in the deep mud 
some distance from the bank of the Nile. They were young- 
ish beasts, nearly full grown. Elephants travel very great 
distances when thoroughly alarmed or when on migration; 
no other game comes anywhere near them in this respect. 
They prefer shade at noon, but do not find it essential. 
Again and again we saw herds standing throughout the hot 
hours, in bush no higher than their backs, in tall grass that 
did not reach as high as their backs, or in short grass among 
almost leafless acacias; and this not only among the fairly 
cool foot-hills of Kenia and by the 'Nzoia River, but by the 
banks of the White Nile. By the Nile the elephant herds, 
like the rhinos, and like the buffalo near Nairobi, were 
often accompanied by flocks of white cow herons. It was 
often possible to tell where the great beasts were by watch- 
ing the flocks of white herons circling over the reeds or 
perched in the tree tops near by. On burnt ground or in 
short grass the herons would all march alongside their 
hosts, catching the grasshoppers which were disturbed by the 



722 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

tramping of the huge feet. As soon as the elephants entered 
reeds or tall grass, the herons all flew up and lit on their 
heads and backs. With their trunks the elephants could 
readily have gotten rid of the birds, but from the oldest to 
the youngest — perhaps a pink calf — they evidently accepted 
the situation as a matter of course. 

Elephants, like most game, spend the major part of their 
time eating; but unlike most game their food is of great 
variety. They graze and browse indifferently. They are 
fond of making inroads on the fields of the natives, devouring 
immense quantities of beans and corn and melons, and 
destroying far more than they devour. They are fond of 
various fruits, some of them so small that it must be both 
laborious and delicate work to pick them in sufficient num- 
bers to stay the giant beasts' appetite. We have watched 
one feeding on grass; it behaved in the usual leisurely ele- 
phant manner, plucking a roll of grass with its trunk, per- 
haps waving it about, and then tucking it away into its 
mouth. In the stomach of another we found bark, leaves, 
abutilon tips, and the flowers and twig ends of a big shrub 
or bush Dombeya nairobiensis . They wreck the small trees 
on which they feed, butting or rather pressing them down 
with their foreheads, or getting on their knees and uproot- 
ing them with their tusks. They are fond of feeding on the 
acacias, although it is hard to see how they avoid wounding 
both their trunks and their tongues and jaws with the 
thorns. We have watched one break off^ an acacia branch, 
thrust it into its mouth, and withdraw it with the leaves 
stripped off. Many of the branches it will chew to get the 
sap, and then spit out; these chewed branches or canes, to- 
gether with the wrecked trees, mark plainly the road a herd 



ELEPHANTS 723 

has travelled. They do not often feed at noon; but during 
all the remainder of the day and night they feed at any 
time they choose. They drink great quantities of water; 
but in desert lands this may be only on every other day, and 
they may travel fifty miles between drinks. If much hunted 
they drink only at night. 

Elephants are interesting because they have such varied 
feelings, such a wide range of intelligent appreciation. 
Doubtless this is in part due to the possession, in the trunk, 
of an organ the development of which has itself permitted 
development of brain power. Very great brain power could 
not have been developed as an accompaniment merely of 
hoofs; hands, however imperfect, were necessary, or else 
something that would serve as a partial substitute for hands. 
By watching a herd of elephants any one can speedily see 
the wide range of uses to which the trunk is put, and the 
many needs and emotions which it develops and satisfies. 
During courtship the bull and cow caress one another 
with their trunks. Elephants are very curious, and the 
trunks are used to test every object which arouses their 
curiosity. The cow is constantly fondling and guiding the 
calf with her trunk. The trunk is used to gather every 
species of food and to draw water. It is used to spurt dust 
or water over the body; it is used to test rotten and danger- 
ous ground. It is in constant use to try the wind so as to 
guard against the approach of any foe. As one watches the 
great beasts the trunks continually appear in the air above 
them, uncurling, twisting, feeling each breath of air. Now 
and then a great ear is flapped. Now and then the weight of 
the body is slightly shifted from one colossal leg to another. 
The huge beasts are rarely entirely motionless for any 



724 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

length of time. Nor are they long silent, for aside from sub- 
dued squeaks or growls, and occasional shrill calls, there are 
queer internal rumblings. Their eyes are very bad. Like 
the rhino, they can see only as a very near-sighted man sees. 
At a distance of eighty yards or so, when in dull-colored 
hunting clothes, one can walk slowly toward them or shift 
position without fear of discovery. Even near by, if a man 
is absolutely motionless, he stands a good chance to escape 
observation, although not hidden. But the hearing is good, 
and the sense of smell exquisite. They make many differ- 
ent noises, and to none of these ordinary noises do the other 
elephants pay any heed. But there are certain notes, to our 
ears indistinguishable from the others, which signify alarm 
or suspicion, and it is extraordinary to see the instantane- 
ous way in which, on the utterance of such a sound, a whole 
herd will first stand motionless and then move away. 

From immemorial ages elephants have been hunted for 
their ivory. Whether the great Egyptian monarchs hunted 
the African elephant is uncertain, although on their Asiatic 
forays they certainly killed the Asiatic elephants which then 
existed in Syria and along the valley of the Euphrates. But 
the big tusks of the African elephants were already at that 
time obtained by barter from the negro tribes south of the 
deserts which border the lower Nile. For thousands of 
years the range of the great beast has slowly shrunk; but the 
slaughter did not become appalling until the nineteenth cen- 
tury. In that century, however, the white elephant hunt- 
ers, and later the natives to whom the white traders fur- 
nished fire-arms, worked huge havoc among the herds, the 
work of destruction being, beyond all comparison, greater 
than ever before. In South Africa, and over immense tracts 



ELEPHANTS 725 

elsewhere, the elephants were absolutely or practically ex- 
terminated. Fortunately there Is now efficient protection 
afforded them In many places by the laws of the European 
governments, especially by the British Government. In 
Uganda and British East Africa, and along certain parts of 
the Nile, the killing of cows and young stock has almost 
ceased, and the herds are quite or nearly holding their own. 
Naturally, where the beasts are much hunted they be- 
come exceedingly shy. They then drink only at night, and 
if possible never twice at the same place, and they travel 
extraordinary distances between times. The slightest taint 
in the air will stampede them, and they then go many miles 
without stopping. Sometimes their way will be for many 
miles across the burning plains, sometimes through dense 
jungle, sometimes through soft, wet soil. In which their feet 
punch huge holes. Under such conditions elephant hunt- 
ing becomes a work of wearing fatigue, entailing severer and 
longer-continued labor than any other form of the chase. 
But where the herds are not much molested they often show 
astonishing tameness and Indifference to man. Near one 
of our camps in the Lado we one morning encountered a 
herd of thirty or forty cows, calves, and young beasts, half 
and three-quarters grown. They were in a broad, shallow 
valley, evidently a swamp In the wet season. The valley 
was covered with tall, rank grass, burned off In places, and 
dotted here and there with ant heaps and bushes and 
acacias. A big flock of cow herons accompanied the herd. 
The beasts were feeding on the grass when we first saw them, 
and we approached them close enough to see that there 
were no big bulls. After finishing feeding they moved off 
up the valley, the herons riding on their backs, but dismount- 



726 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

ing to stalk through the burned places so as to catch grass- 
hoppers. The herd stationed itself for the day among the 
thorn-trees on one of the small rises of ground, the herons 
advertising the place by perching in a snowy mass on the 
acacias. In mid-afternoon the elephants again strolled 
forth to feed. They went to water, and were feeding when 
night fell. They spent most of the following day in the 
neighborhood. During all this time they were within a 
couple of miles of camp, and as we watched them close by 
we could distinctly hear an occasional camp noise, and the 
report of the shot-guns of the ornithologists of the expedi- 
tion. Yet the elephants were totally unconcerned. 

In regions where the natives are timid and unarmed the 
elephants sometimes become not merely familiar but dan- 
gerous. They are always fond of ravaging fields and gar- 
dens, and when they find that they can do this with impu- 
nity they are apt to become truculent toward mankind. 
In Uganda we more than once came across deserted villages, 
already far on the way again to becoming parts of the 
jungle, which we found had been abandoned by the inhabit- 
ants because of the ravages of elephants. At one camp 
the chief of a neighboring village called on us to ask us 
to kill a rogue bull, the leader of a small herd of elephants 
which were in its immediate vicinity. He said that the ele- 
phants were very bold, were not afraid of men, and that the 
bull had grown so vicious that he attacked every man he 
came across. Colonel Roosevelt and Kermit went after the 
rogue. They found the herd so close to the camp that they 
could hear the porters talking and the sound of the axes, 
and were charged by the bull as soon as he made them out, 
at a distance of some fifty or sixty yards. They killed him. 



ELEPHANTS 727 

We learned that the village, which was a couple of miles 
away, had been destroyed by these elephants, under the 
lead of the rogue bull. The elephants had begun by rav- 
aging the gardens and plots of cultivated ground; the natives 
tried to drive them away; the beasts grew bolder and finally 
one night when the natives yelled at them, they charged 
them, drove them into their huts, and then destroyed sev- 
eral of the huts; and one, the rogue bull, killed one and 
maimed another of the inhabitants. In out-of-the-way 
places wicked herds will sometimes thus attack hunters' 
camps, being attracted rather than repelled by the fire. Mr. 
Paul Niedieck in his "Rifle in Five Continents" describes 
an attack thus made on him in which he nearly lost his life. 
Not only are some individual elephants particularly vicious, 
but there are whole herds which are vicious. 

Elephant hunting, in addition to being ordinarily very 
hard work, is often dangerous. As we have elsewhere said, 
experienced hunters often differ widely in their estimates as 
to how the different kinds of dangerous game rank as foes. 
There are many men who regard elephants as the most dan- 
gerous of all; and again there are many others who regard 
the lion and the buffalo as beyond comparison more formi- 
dable. Our own view is that there is a very wide range of 
individual variation among the individuals of each species, 
and, moreover, that the conditions of country and surround- 
ings vary so that one must be very cautious about general- 
izing. Judging partly from our own limited experience, and 
partly from a very careful sifting of the statements of many 
good observers with far wider experience, we believe that, 
taking the average of a large number of cases under varied 
conditions, the lion is the most dangerous; that a buffalo 



728 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

that does charge, especially a bull, when It has actually 
begun Its charge, is more dangerous than a lion and much 
more dangerous than an elephant; that a single elephant is 
less dangerous to attack than a single buffalo, and that the 
charge of an elephant is more easily stopped or evaded than 
that of a buffalo; but that elephants are very much more apt 
themselves to attack than are buffalo, and that, therefore, 
there is more danger in the first approach to an elephant 
herd than is the case with buffalo. If a big tusker is in a 
herd of cows it may be impossible to kill him, because the 
cows charge with such savageness as soon as they detect the 
approach of the hunter — and, of course, a herd is much 
more apt than a single beast to detect him. At the sound of 
a shot the cows of a vicious herd, screaming and trumpeting, 
crash through the jungle in all directions, and may quar- 
ter to and fro down-wind, trying to catch the scent of their 
enemy. If a man is caught he is frequently killed ; but often 
he escapes, for the very hugeness of an elephant's bulk makes 
it unfit to cope with so small an antagonist. An elephant is 
more easily turned than a buffalo, when in full charge, al- 
though an occasional elephant, usually a vicious bull, will 
charge right through the shots, taking the punishment of the 
heavy bullets without flinching, and getting home. Of 
course, a ball that would cripple a charging lion may have 
no effect on the huge bulk of an elephant or the sinewy 
mass of a buffalo. 

An elephant that means mischief may charge in silence, 
the trunk hanging straight down and the great ears cocked 
at right angles to the head; it may extend the trunk, scream- 
ing or coming on silently; or it may scream loudly, and make 
the actual charge with the trunk curled, and this not only 



ELEPHANTS 729 

when it is passing through jungle, but even in the open. It 
is said that elephants only scream when the trunk is ex- 
tended, but if this is so, then in some cases the elephants 
must curl the trunk the very moment the scream is fin- 
ished, for the impression conveyed is that the screaming and 
the advent of the furious animal with its trunk curled are 
simultaneous. On one occasion, when an elephant charged 
us and was stopped by a right and left from Cuninghame 
when but a few feet distant, it threw its trunk high in the 
air on or immediately after receiving the bullets. Carl 
Akeley informs us that one elephant that charged him came 
on screaming and thrashing the tall grass, tearing up and 
tossing and plucking and brandishing branches and bunches 
of grass, so that it looked like a hay-tedder. If an elephant 
catches a man it usually falls on its knees and endeavors to 
stab him with its tusks; but sometimes it knocks him down, 
puts one foot on him, and plucks off his head or legs or arms 
with its trunk; and sometimes it snatches him aloft with 
its trunk and beats him against the ground, or perhaps 
against a tree. A wounded cow elephant, on being ap- 
proached by us, struggled to arise and uttered, not a scream, 
but a kind of roaring growl. 

We spoke above of the fact that elephants are sometimes 
found in the desert. This was a surprise to us. We had 
already found them high on the cold mountain slopes, in 
cool, park-like uplands, in wet, rank, steaming tropic jungles, 
in thick forest, and in hot, open, grassy plains. Our old 
hunting companion, Mr. R. J. Cuninghame, wrote us of his 
experiences with them in the desert north of the Northern 
Guaso Nyiro shortly after we left Africa : " From the Chanler 
Falls we went north 40 or 50 miles. The country is covered 



730 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

with thick, low thorn scrub, all the trees the same height 
and the ground flat and without land marks. It was abso- 
lutely waterless except a few water holes scraped in dry 
sand river beds, and these days apart, weather scorching hot, 
and ground covered with sharp quartz and granite, loose 
stones. Found our first water at noon on the second day; 
got the men in without loads, and the donkeys not until the 
next day. The water, which was almost undrinkable ow- 
ing to strong alkaline salts, was in old Rendile wells, 8 
and lo feet below the surface of the ground. What was my 
astonishment at 4 p. m., on the day we struck water to 
see a herd of elephants, cows, and totos (young and half- 
grown animals) pass within 50 yards of our camp, go and 
drink from our wells, and march off again. Eventually I 
found another water hole and lots more elephant. The 
water made the men sick. I found the next water 40 miles 
north of these wells and it was absolutely stinking and un- 
touched even by giraffe. It had not rained up here for 
^yi years and the heat was really very trying. 

"A word about your grand 450 [a Holland double-barrel, 
like Mr. Roosevelt's own] for it saved my life twice on this 
expedition when out elephant hunting. On the first occa- 
sion I had quite unexpectedly found three elephants standing 
under some palm trees on the bank of a dry river bed. I 
took my companion up to look over the animals. We were 
on the opposite bank of the dry river and we went up to 
about 30 yards to look them over. They proved to be 
two cows with calves and a three parts grown animal, sex 
undetermined. My companion wished to take a kodak as 
they made such a typical African scene. He fussed about 
with the kodak and I saw that the elephants had grown sus- 



ELEPHANTS 731 

picious. At length he pressed the button, which proved too 
much for the nervous system of the tembos [SwahiU for ele- 
phants]. With ears outspread and trunks curled up, and 
screaming like locomotives they seemed spontaneously all to 
charge straight for us. I knew my retreat, as I invariably 
make a study of the ground immediately behind and to each 
side of me when I go in to tackle elephants and I turned and 
fled to the only tree within reasonable distance. This was 
12 yards off. The other man bolted on and so did all 
the niggers (6 of them). On reaching my tree (15 
inches in diameter) I turned to face the charge and found 
the 3 animals just topping the bank from which we had 
been photographing (12 paces off). I picked out the 
leader, the largest cow, and fired. This brought her up all 
acheck [second mate's language*] but the others came and 
jostled her and she, with them, started for me again. The 
2d barrel killed her dead at 9 paces, and as I knew the 
others would get me if I stayed, I bolted for the river 
bed. The dead cow caused them to swerve and I escaped 
them by a very narrow margin. It was the nearest call I 
have had for quite some time with elephant. The other 
man's 450 double jammed in the safety bolt and he never 
fired but wisely kept on running like the niggers, through 
the bush. The whole incident was all over in 20 to 25 
seconds. 

"On the second occasion I was out with the same man on 
the foothills of south Kenia and camping in the same small 
open patch in the forest where you may remember I took 
you to [near where Colonel Roosevelt killed his first ele- 

*He had served on whaling ships in the Arctic seas; and we used to com- 
pare cow-punchers', lion hunters', elephant hunters', and whaling dialects. 



732 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

phant, a big bull, and not far from where Akeley was nearly 
killed by another bull]. We got a single bull elephant stand- 
ing about 15 yards off. I motioned my man to shoot, but 
he was decidedly jumpy over the business and made some 
noise. Round swung our friend and started to charge right 
on us. My companion let drive with one barrel and man- 
aged to hit one of the outspread ears! He had waited so 
long that it didn't give me a fair chance, but one shot of the 
'Roosevelt gun' brought him down dead as a nail barely 
ten yards from me. On this occasion there was absolutely 
no chance of escape as we could not move a step in any direc- 
tion in the mass of tangled vegetation." 

The coloration of the Cape elephant is decidedly of a 
gray cast, usually some shade of smoke-gray or light olive- 
gray, and is uniform in tint over the whole body except in 
the region of the axillae, groins, and lips, where a pinkish 
tone usually manifests itself. The calves are a lighter and 
purer gray than the adults. The coloration of the ele- 
phant, however, is not dependent upon the color of the 
actual skin, as in other pachyderms, but upon a roughened 
layer of dead epidermis which coats the skin. This dead 
epidermal layer is heaviest upon the crown of the head and 
over the back, where it is visible as a caked or flaking mass 
of dried grayish tissue. The tanned skins of elephants or 
the mounted specimens, as a rule, do not show the layer of 
dead epidermis, which is usually lost in the tanning process 
to which the skins are subjected, and such skins are on this 
account brighter or clearer in color and quite olivaceous- 
gray in tint. Albino specimens, such as the so-called white 
elephants occasionally found in India, are not known in 
Africa. 

The body of the East African elephant is clothed every- 
where by hair, but the individual hairs are so widely scat- 
tered and so short that they are only evident upon close 
scrutiny of the skin. Over the greater part of the dorsal 
surface the individual hairs stand half an inch or an inch 




AFRICAN ELEPHANT HERD 

Acacia Forest, Meru, Mt. Kenli 

From a photograph, copyright 1910, by Kcrrait Roosevelt 



ELEPHANTS 733 

apart and are roughly an inch or two in length, but on 
certain parts of the body they grow much more numerously 
and form a definite hair covering. Bordering the ear open- 
ing there is such an area forming a conspicuous fringe of 
buffy or whitish hair in the shape of a band one or two 
inches wide and several inches in length. The hair through- 
out the body generally, however, is black and quite unlike 
the fringe near the ear opening in color. The lips are mar- 
gined by a scanty growth of long black hair which is most 
abundant at the angle of the mouth. The eyelashes are 
formed of long black hair and are quite conspicuous. The 
trunk is armed at its tip and also at intervals along the sides 
by stiff, bristle-like tufts of hair somewhat in character like 
the tail hair, but quite short and bristle-like. The really 
only conspicuous growth of hair possessed by the elephant 
is the black tuft at the tip of the tail. It is composed of 
exceedingly stiff, wire-like hair the diameter of which repre- 
sents the maximum of hair growth among mammals. The 
hairs, which are individually some 15 to 30 inches in length, 
are confined to the edges of the flattened or compressed tip, 
and project out as a thin mane at right angles to the flattened 
surface. The tail hairs are individually very few in num- 
ber and cover a much greater extent on the lower surface 
of the tail, where they extend along the margin some 8 
inches, while above they occupy only half that distance or 
the terminal 4 inches of the tail. The flattened tip of the 
tail and the manner in which the hair projects from it in 
the same plane as the compressed surface are closely similar 
to the arrangement in the rhinoceros and the hippopotamus, 
both thick-skinned animals but quite unrelated to the 
elephant. 

The hoof-like divisions on the margin of the foot in East 
African elephants are four on the front foot and three on 
the hind, but usually there is some indication in the form 
of a slight knob of the fifth on the forefoot and the fourth 
on the hind. The Indian elephant possesses these addi- 
tional hoof or nail indications as well marked as the other 
nails, and the West African race, cycloiisy is also said to 
have them. The internal or bony structure of the toes, 
however, shows five to each foot in the East African, which 
does not differ in this respect from the Indian, and it is 



734 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

evident that the external, nail-Uke hoofs are no indication 
of any real differences in bone structure. 

There is a large sexual difference in size in the East 
African elephant, the males being in bulk fully a third 
greater than the females. In weight such difference 
amounts to approximately two tons, the adult female attain- 
ing an approximate weight of four tons and a large male 
six tons. The female averages in height at the withers 
lyi feet less than the male and is correspondingly less in 
size of skull, ears, and other dimensions generally. The 
sexual differences in size of tusks, however, do not follow 
this proportion, but they are much less in the female, being 
only a fourth the weight and size of those of the male. 

Much uncertainty apparently exists among sportsmen 
concerning the possible height to which the African elephant 
may attain. The recorded heights of large male specimens 
measured in the flesh by elephant hunters range from lo 
to 12 feet. The differences between these extremes, how- 
ever, do not represent the actual variation in specimens, 
but rather discrepancies due to differences in methods of 
taking measurements. Some of the difficulty of measure- 
ment is due to the immense bulk of a bull elephant, which 
prevents the body from being moved into a position favor- 
able for taking the height unless the animal has fallen on a 
level surface in such a way that the legs can be straightened. 
The tallest record which appears authentic to us is that of 
Major Powell-Cotton's of ii feet 6]/^ inches for a bull 
elephant which he shot near the station of Wadelai, on the 
upper Nile. Major Powell-Cotton has made many careful 
measurements of elephants in the flesh, and his measure- 
ments may be taken as fairly reliable. Mr. E. S. Grogan, 
while engaged on his "Cape to Cairo" journey, shot a simi- 
larly large bull elephant near the same locality, which he 
has recorded as ii feet 6 inches high at the withers. The 
tallest bull shot by Carl E. Akeley, who has recently devoted 
a number of years in East Africa to the securing of a giant 
specimen, was one measuring ii feet 4 inches at the withers 
from the Budonga forest. He has measured others having 
a height of 1 1 feet 2 inches from Uganda and one from Kenia, 
the latter bearing immense tusks weighing 250 pounds and 
now mounted in the Field Museum of Chicago. We know 



ELEPHANTS 735 

of no one who has been more painstaking in measuring ele- 
phants in the flesh than Akeley. He is of the opinion that 
his tallest bull, which was shot primarily for the large size of 
its tusks, does not represent the largest bodily size attainable 
by the African elephant, and that larger-sized though smaller- 
tusked bulls have been seen by him in Uganda. It would be 
of real service in this connection if a few of the largest-bodied 
specimens out of as large a herd of bulls as could be found 
together were collected and their skeletons deposited in 
some museum where they would be available for comparison. 
There are many other records by sportsmen of ii feet or 
more for elephants shot in East Africa. Selous, the veteran 
elephant hunter of the Zambesi, however, has never met with 
any having a height of 1 1 feet, but states that the range in 
height in that part of Africa is from lo feet to lo feet 6 inches. 
Another elephant hunter, A. H. Neumann, who has had a 
wide experience and was also a careful observer, gives ii 
feet 3 inches as the height of the tallest specimen he has 
killed, but states that the largest bulls he has shot in the 
Lake Rudolf region were less than this, and ranged from 
lo feet 6 inches to lo feet 9 inches in height. Our own 
measurements of the height of East African bulls fall within 
these limits. The tallest elephant in the National Museum 
collection is a rogue bull shot by Colonel Roosevelt in 
Uganda, having a height of 10 feet 9 inches at the withers. 
The bulkiest or largest bull, however, was the first one 
which he shot, on the southwest slope of Mount Kenia, 
which had a height of 10 feet 6 inches, and tusks weighing 
65 pounds apiece. Another large bull, which he shot later, 
near Meru, had a height of 10 feet 4 inches. The actual 
relative bulk of elephants may best be determined by a 
comparison of the size of their skulls. Using this sort of 
evidence, we are justified in concluding that the bull from 
the southwest slope of Kenia equalled the famous "Jumbo" 
in bulk, the skull being decidedly greater in greatest breadth 
(some 2 inches), which is a better comparison of relative 
size than the height at the withers. "Jumbo" is usually 
stated to have stood 11 feet, but Ward only credits him 
with 10 feet 7 inches, which is perhaps nearer his actual 
height and agrees with the height of his skeleton, 10 feet 
4 inches, as mounted at the American Museum of New 



736 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

York. Jumbo, however, was a member of another race, 
oxyotis; his ears, being without the inward fold on the upper 
margin, met one another and overlapped on the nape. 
The largest elephant skull examined by us in a series of 
some fifty in the museums of America and Europe is a 
specimen at the American Museum of Natural History of 
New York, collected by Akeley in the Budonga forest of 
Uganda. This skull is that of a bull just arrived at adult 
size, but not an old animal, and measures in basal length 
from the condyles to the tip of the premaxillary bones 40 
inches, and in greatest breadth 36 inches, in which latter 
dimension it exceeds the next largest by 2 inches. The 
tusks of this skull weighed loi and 102 pounds, and are 
far from record size. In order to ascertain the maximum 
size to which an elephant's skull may attain it is desirable 
to have the dimensions of the skulls from which record 
tusks have been obtained. In this connection the girth of 
the tusk is the important consideration, for both the weight 
and length affect the size of the skull less, as they vary 
without regard to the size of the skull. There are at present 
no skulls preserved in any museum to our knowledge from 
which record tusks have come. This is really unfortunate, 
for it is very doubtful if any elephants bearing really record 
tusks are still alive, owing to the slaughter to which large- 
tusked bulls have been subject in every part of Africa. 
The tusk record for both weight and circumference is that 
of an East African tusk now in the possession of Sir E. G. 
Loder, having a weight of 235 pounds and a circumference 
of 26 inches. This is really a very unusual tusk, being three 
times the weight of an average or normal one. Major 
Powell-Cotton, however, has a tusk from the upper Nile 
almost equalling this one in circumference, being but i inch 
less in this dimension. The largest tusk in the British 
Museum, which has a girth but little less, is 24^^ inches in 
circumference, and has a weight of 226^2 pounds, standing 
second to the record in this latter respect. The longest 
tusk is one of 11 feet 5 inches in length, also from East 
Africa and now in the National Collection of Heads and 
Horns of New York. The average tusk weight in old bulls 
to-day is not more than 40 pounds, but under normal con- 
ditions before the large bulls were shot for their ivory the 




EAST Al lUL .W M l.ni A \ I , 1 I \l A I 

Uasiii (;ishu Plateau 
From a photograph by Carl E. Akelcy 




EAST AFRICAN ELEPHANTS (oLD MALES FIGHTING) 

Shot on Mt. Kenia. The elephant with trunk raised, shot by Mrs. C. E. Akeley 
Group mounted by Carl E. Akeley in the Field Museum, Chicago 

EAST AFRICAN ELEPHANTS FROM MT. KENIA AND THE UASIN GISHU PLATEAU 



ELEPHANTS 737 

average was approximately 80 pounds per tusk. In this 
connection it is interesting to compare the dimensions of 
fossil tusks of the recently extinct hairy mammoth, Elephas 
primi genius, a species closely related to the Indian elephant 
and of considerably smaller body proportions than the 
African elephant. The tusks of this species were consid- 
erably greater than the African records in every dimen- 
sion. The record mammoth tusk has a length of 12 feet 
io>^ inches. The record one, according to Ward, in weight 
is estimated to have been 330 pounds, it having an actual 
circumference of 35 inches, but this gigantic tusk may not be 
referable to the hairy mammoth but rather to the giant- 
tusked Siwalik elephant, Stegodon ganesa. The record Indian- 
elephant tusk is surprisingly small compared with its close 
relative, the mammoth. The records for the Indian are: 
length, 8 feet 9 inches; weight, 102 pounds; girth, 18^ 
inches, or about half that of the mammoth. The average 
bull Indian elephant, however, has tusks little larger than 
those of the cow African elephant. The large bull from the 
southwest slope of Mount Kenia previously mentioned 
measured in the flesh: in length of head and body from the 
tip of the trunk to the base of the tail, 22 feet; in length of 
tail, 4 feet 7 inches; in length of trunk measured from the 
mouth, 6 feet 11 inches; in height of ear measured over the 
fold on the upper margin, 5 feet; in length of ear from 
the ear opening horizontally backward to the hinder border, 

3 feet 4 inches. The rogue bull shot in Uganda, which was, 
according to measurement, a taller animal, measured consid- 
erably less in length of body, the length from the tip of the 
trunk to the base of the tail being 19 feet 10 inches. The 
other dimensions were: length of the tail, 4 feet 8 inches; 
height of the ear measured over the fold on the upper margin, 
5 feet 8 inches; length of the ear from the ear opening to the 
hinder border, 3 feet 4 inches. The flesh measurements of 
a fully adult cow shot by Colonel Roosevelt at Meru, on 
the northwest slope of Mount Kenia, were: length of head 
and body from tip of trunk to base of tail, 18 feet 3 inches; 
length of tail, 3 feet 8 inches; height at withers, 8 feet 
9 inches; height of ear, including the fold on upper margin, 

4 feet 9 inches; length from ear opening to hinder border 
3 feet 2 inches. Another cow, a specimen shot by Paul J. 



738 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

Rainey near Mount Marsabit, a hundred miles north of 
Meru, measured quite the same as this cow in every dimen- 
sion. The skull of this specimen is also quite identical in 
shape and size. They were both aged animals, having all 
the plates of their last molars in use. The dimensions of 
this skull are: greatest length from the condyles to the tip 
of the premaxillary bones, 31^^ inches; greatest width across 
zygomatic arches, 26^ inches; greatest width across back 
of occipital expansion, 24^ inches. The tusks of this cow 
are very large and exceed in length any others known to us. 
The right is 5 feet 7 inches in length, the left 5 feet 10 inches, 
and both show a diameter of 10 inches. The heavier one 
weighs 28 pounds. The heaviest cow tusk of which we have 
a record is one recorded by Selous, from the Zambesi region, 
weighing 39 pounds. Cow tusks average 15 pounds in 
weight and vary in size much less than those of the bull, 
the normal limits ranging from 10 to 20 pounds per tusk. 
No size or proportional differences of a racial character be- 
tween this cow from the Marsabit desert country and the 
one from the Kenia forests have been detected, notwith- 
standing the great physical differences of the habitats of the 
two specimens. The measurements of large bulls, given by 
Neumann, of the Lake Rudolf country, which is a part of 
the Marsabit desert region, are quite the same as those of 
large bulls from the Kenia forest. At the present time, 
however, there is no migration between this region and 
Mount Kenia, and we doubt very much whether in the past 
the highland forest elephants and the desert ones ever left 
their respective environments for long periods. The Afri- 
can elephant seems capable of adapting himself to great 
differences in climate or environment without undergoing 
any noticeable change in external appearance, and on this 
account shows no characters of a geographical or racial sort 
except in a very broad or general way. 

The elephant, until comparatively recently, ranged over 
every part of Britjsh East Africa and Uganda, from the sea- 
coast to the alpine meadows of the high mountains, as high 
as an altitude of 12,000 feet. They migrated freely every- 
where over plains, through forest, in scattered bush coun- 
try, and even through low, arid deserts, where there is only 
a scanty supply of brackish water, confined to widely iso- 




MAP 40 — DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES OF THE AFRICAN ELEPHANT 
1 Loxodonta africana africana 2 Loxodonta africana capensis 3 Loxodonta africana oxyotis 

739 



740 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

lated springs. No other single species or race of mammal 
in East Africa shows such versatility or superiority over 
the environmental factors which control animal distribu- 
tion. To-day these conditions are much altered, owing to 
the persecution of the elephants by ivory hunters and the 
extermination of them over much of the territory. As late 
as thirty years ago the elephants roamed unmolested In 
East Africa, except, perhaps, in the country immediately 
adjacent to the coast, where they were subject to occa- 
sional onslaughts by Arab and European trading cara- 
vans. Count Telekl's expedition, in 1887 and 1888, met with 
extraordinary numbers of elephants under conditions which 
to-day are quite unknown. About the southern end of 
Lake Rudolf Teleki found elephants on open plains many 
miles from cover, and had no difficulty whatever in approach- 
ing them and shooting any which possessed large tusks. 
Some years later, in the desert region at the foot of Mount 
Marsabit, Lord Delamere found elephants living under 
similar conditions in open country. During his hunting 
operations there he took photographs of many elephants 
standing or resting in the open country, and found little 
difficulty in going up to within a few yards of them by exer- 
cising care to keep down-wind. At the present time ele- 
phants, although they still exist in limited numbers near 
these localities, are never found in such open country dur- 
ing daylight. The well-known migratory routes formerly 
used by elephants In East Africa in going from one feeding- 
ground to another are no longer in use, the elephants being 
at the present time so reduced in numbers that they are 
confined to certain patches of forest or bush, from which 
they fear to roam. The elephants remaining in British 
East Africa are to-day confined to the forest area on the 
.slopes of Mount Kenia; to the Aberdare forest; the western 
slope of the Mau Escarpment, in the Kisi country, east of 
the Victoria Nyanza and south of the Uganda Railway; 
the forested region of Mount Elgon, from which they wander 
occasionally east as far as the Uasin GIshu Plateau and the 
west shore of Lake Barlngo. From the Elgon region north- 
ward and westward they extend rather generally over the 
whole of Uganda and the Nile basin, but they are perma- 
nently found in this area only in certain forest tracts; 




EAST AFRICAN ELEPHANT, MALE 

Shot by Theodore Roosevelt at Meru, Mt. Kenia 

Showing inward fold of ear on upper margin 




EAST AFRICAN ELEPHANT, FEMALE (wiTH RECORD TUSKS) 

Shot by Paul J. Rainey near Mt. Marsabit, B. E. A. 

Showing inward fold of ear on upper margin 

EAST AFRICAN ELEPHANTS 



ELEPHANTS 741 

although they are occasionally met with throughout most 
of Uganda. A favorite place for them in Uganda Is the 
Budonga forest, east of the Albert Nyanza, where Akeley 
has recently secured specimens for the American Museum 
of Natural History. They are also to be found In the 
Bugoma forest, farther south; in the Semliki Valley, and the 
region about Ruwenzori generally; and the forest area at 
the mouth of the Kagera River, on the west shore of the 
Victoria Nyanza. North of Mount Elgon they occur in 
limited numbers In the forests clothing the slopes of the 
numerous high peaks such as Debaslen, Kizlma, and Agora. 
They occur also in the grass country near Gondokoro and 
throughout the whole Lado Enclave, or western side of the 
Nile north through the Bahr-el-Ghazal drainage. North- 
ward along the White Nile they occasionally occur still as far 
north as Kaka, where they reach the river by way of the 
streams flowing from the Abyssinian highlands. In the 
low but desert portions of British East Africa, which are 
quite uninhabited, the elephants still have considerable 
freedom of movement. The middle and lower Tana Valley 
is occupied by them, as is also the coast strip south of It, at 
least as far as the mouth of the Sabaki River. North of 
the Tana River we find them still in the desert region domi- 
nated by the Northern Guaso Nylro. At the present time 
they seldom or never come to the river, but are found a 
few miles north of it watering at the brackish desert springs 
and feeding on the foliage and twigs of the desert acacias. 
In this region they are found in small family parties north- 
ward to Mount Marsabit, Mount Nyiro, and throughout 
the desert generally as far as southern Abyssinia and the 
north end of Lake Rudolf. On the southern border of 
British East Africa a few elephants are still to be found In 
the Kilimanjaro forest. 

The total number of skins and skulls of the Cape ele- 
phant examined by us comprise some fifty specimens rep- 
resenting the following localities: Mount Kenia, Marsabit 
region. Lake Rudolf, Uasin Gishu Plateau, British East 
Africa; Lindi, German East Africa; Budonga forest, Albert 
Nyanza, Kisinga, Uganda; Rhino Camp, Wadelai, Lado En- 
clave; Fort Manning, Nyasaland; northern Rhodesia; Cape 
Elizabeth, South Africa. The East African and the Uganda 



742 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

specimens represent material in the National Museum at 
Washington and the American Museum of New York. 
Other specimens were examined at the British and Berlin 
Museums and in various other European institutions. 



CHAPTER XXV 

EQUIPMENT, ARMS, AND PRESERVATION OF 
SPECIMENS 

We do not think it necessary to go into details of the 
equipment of a safari for a trip in East or Middle Africa, 
because so much must depend upon the length of the trip, 
the locality traversed, and the purposes and individual hab- 
its and tastes of the party. A short hunting or collecting 
trip along the line of the Uganda Railway can be man- 
aged very inexpensively by any fairly competent tyro with- 
out a guide. A long trip, however, can only be undertaken 
either by a man who is thoroughly up to his work or who 
has some good and competent man with him to supply 
his own shortcomings. Our own recommendation is that 
the outfitting should be done on the spot, although pro- 
visions and equipment can readily be obtained in Lon- 
don also. Messrs. Newland, Tarlton & Co., of Nairobi, 
attended to our outfit, and were we to repeat the trip we 
would go to them again. According to American stand- 
ards, however, especially of the old-time West, the average 
East African sportsmen's outfit is rather needlessly elab- 
orate; nevertheless, we question whether a newcomer will 
know what it is safe to discard. Mr. Stewart Edward 
White in the appendix to his book gives some good recom- 
mendations from the standpoint of a hardy man who does 
not expect luxuries. Mr. White is wrong in some of his 

743 



744 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

comments, however; as, for example. In his unsparing con- 
demnation of "shorts," which leave the knees bare. Per- 
sonally, we do not use these. Kermit Roosevelt always 
used them, and in our judgment they are the best leg gear 
for those with tough enough skins to stand them. It must 
be remembered that East African hunting is based on the 
rather luxurious standards of India. Unquestionably, the 
country is not such as to permit men to rough it as in the 
Rocky Mountains and the north woods, and a safari for 
scientific purposes necessarily carries much equipment; but 
it is well to keep in mind that there is a tendency toward 
overelaboration of outfit in East Africa as in India. 

As for weapons, we, personally, believe in a heavy 
double-barrelled cordite, such as the English .450-calibre 
and .400-calibre modern rifles, for buffalo, rhinoceros, and 
elephant. The ordinary weapon to be used for nine-tenths 
of the game should be a first-class small-bore repeater of 
not more than .300 calibre. These two types of rifles are 
all that are necessary, and, at a pinch, the latter will serve 
all purposes. But the heavy gun should be used by those 
who intend regularly to hunt the different kinds of heavy, 
dangerous game; and if lion and leopard are to be hunted, 
it would be well to have an intermediate repeating rifle of 
about .350 to .405 calibre. This will not carry such long 
distances as the small calibre, but it is better for stopping 
purposes, and is yet very handy. We emphatically believe 
in a repeater for use against the big cats. 

From a zoological or museum standpoint the whole suc- 
cess of a shooting expedition hinges upon the successful 
preservation of the trophies secured by the hunters. It is 



EQUIPMENT, ARMS, AND SPECIMENS 745 

rare, however, to find a sportsman who devotes the proper 
attention and time to this feature of his expedition. Few 
indeed have the cardinal principles of skin preservation in 
mind, however good their intentions may be toward the col- 
lecting of the skins of the animals killed. The great ma- 
jority of sportsmen leave the work to ignorant and indolent 
native assistants, whose work is only of value when under 
the constant supervision of a responsible person. 

Specimens destined for scientific use in collections or 
museums should be carefully measured in the flesh. The 
four measurements universally required are: (i) the total 
length from the tip of the snout to the terminal end of the 
tail vertebrae, taken along the contour of the dorsal profile 
with the head stretched out in line with the body [sometimes 
this measurement is taken in a straight line between up- 
rights; Colonel Roosevelt took many in this fashion]; (2) 
length of tail vertebrae, taken by holding the tail at right 
angles to the body and measuring from the base of the angle 
to the terminal tip of the flesh, but not including the hair; 
(3) length of the hind foot, taken from the tip of the hoof or 
longest claw to the back of the heel or hock; (4) length of 
ear, taken from the inner notch as near the auditory meatus 
as possible to the extreme tip. The height is often taken, 
as it is a favorite measurement of sportsmen. Little reliance 
can be placed on its accuracy, however, on account of the 
very diverse conditions under which it is necessarily taken. 
In the live, standing animal the measurement of the height 
at the withers is of value when it can be obtained. The 
same measurement taken in dead animals is not, however, 
strictly comparable with this, owing partly to the fact that 
the shoulder-blade in the hoofed mammals is set free in the 



746 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

muscles of the shoulder, being without any direct bone con- 
nection with the trunk skeleton, and partly to the fact that 
an animal lying on its side has the weight of the body re- 
lieved from the forelegs which are then capable of being 
stretched out to varying lengths to accommodate the meas- 
urer's ideas of correct position. The measurement when 
taken should be the distance between uprights from the 
worn surface of the hoof or sole of the foot in carnivorous 
mammals, to the top of the withers with the foreleg held 
straightened but not stretched. If the specimens are in- 
tended for mounting, innumerable measurements of value 
may be taken of the circumference and thickness of the 
body and limbs at various points. The skeleton is, how- 
ever, of more value to the taxidermist than any number 
of careful measurements and should be preserved if facilities 
are available. If it is not possible to preserve the whole 
skeleton, the limb bones and pelvis should be collected, for 
they alone are of great assistance to the taxidermist in mod- 
eling the manikin. The sportsman should at least, in all 
cases, preserve the complete skull, for it serves a double pur- 
pose. After it has served as a model for the manikin of the 
taxidermist, it is of permanent value to the zoologist for 
study, and is often absolutely necessary for the determina- 
tion of the species. Photographs should also be taken of 
the specimen in the flesh as an aid to the taxidermist. 

At the present time skulls of several of the large African 
mammals are much needed for the determination of the 
racial characters of the described subspecies. This is par- 
ticularly true of elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, and 
giraffe. Of all skulls that of the elephant is the rarest in 
collections and the most valuable. What is particularly 



EQUIPMENT, ARMS, AND SPECIMENS 747 

desirable are the skulls of specimens with really large tusks 
which would show the changes of bone structure which ac- 
company gigantic tusk development. The largest skulls at 
present preserved in museums possess tusks of considerably 
less than two hundred pounds per pair, which are less than 
half the weight of record tusks. It is well to bear in mind 
that our large mammals are disappearing more rapidly than 
the smaller ones, and in the districts where they are now 
rare special efforts should be made to obtain and preserve 
specimens before their extinction. In order to determine 
the characters of the geographical races of a species it is 
necessary to have specimens for study from every district 
inhabited by the species. Game reserves can only protect 
or preserve species in certain limited areas, and we cannot 
therefore possibly preserve by such means all the geograph- 
ical races of widely distributed species. To carry out such 
complete preservation would require the protection of all 
the species of game animals throughout their entire ranges, 
which is obviously impossible. It should be our especial 
purpose to obtain specimens of the species which are disap- 
pearing most rapidly, in those districts where they are 
already rarest. 

The salt method of preservation here described is essen- 
tially that of Carl E. Akeley, and was the one employed by 
the Smithsonian African expedition under the direction of 
Colonel Roosevelt. Owing to the great quantities of salt re- 
quired both in dry-salting the skins in the field ^and later in 
packing them in barrels for shipment, it is a very expensive 
process. To the cost of the salt must be added the much 
greater cost of transportation of the skins in the field 
due to the added weight of salt. It has great advan- 



748 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

tages over other methods wherever quahty is of prime 
importance, and in most regions where drying cannot 
be resorted to. Salt leaves the skin in all its original 
pliability and strength, and is quickly removed by water. 
It performs the work of preservation with the minimum of 
danger either to the quality of the skin or to the coloration. 
The method which has been found most successful in equa- 
torial Africa in the preservation of the skins of large mam- 
mals concerns itself with the use of salt exclusively. All skins 
contain a large per cent of water, which combines with the 
other elements in the tissues after death to assist decay. 
In order to preserve the skin it is necessary speedily to ex- 
tract the moisture which the skin contains. Salt when ap- 
plied in a pulverized condition to the dermal side of skins 
acts at once upon the moisture in the skin, with which it 
unites. Its extreme solubility when in the presence of 
moisture allows it to penetrate into the skin through the 
pores and unite with the moisture in every part of the tissues. 
Salt has no other preservative effect, however, than drying; 
that is, it is not an insecticide or a poison to bacteria or 
other organisms which destroy skins. It must also be borne 
in mind that it is far from stable in its preservative qualities. 
As long as salt is in the skin moisture other than salt brine 
must be kept away, for there is constant danger of the salt 
being extracted by outside moisture, which may thus find 
entrance into the skin and cause its decay just as would 
have taken place originally had not the salt been present 
to extract the moisture and preserve the skin. The suc- 
cessful use of salt in preservation depends first upon apply- 
ing it to every part of the skin, and second in making its 
action universal throughout. In the case of large skins 



EQUIPMENT, ARMS, AND SPECIMENS 749 

paring down, to a thinness which will allow the salt to pene- 
trate through the dermal layer to the epidermis and preserve 
the hair covering, must be resorted to. The salt method is 
simple in application; its success depends chiefly upon eter- 
nal vigilance in seeing that it reaches every part of the skin 
in its action. 

Salt should be applied as soon after the removal of the 
skin as is possible. Usually this cannot be done until the 
skin reaches camp. Here it is spread out hair side down 
and carefully fleshed, all the fatty tissue being removed, as 
it forms an impenetrable barrier to salt. Finely pulverized 
salt is then spread over the skin in a uniform layer about a 
quarter of an inch thick. Skins in which the legs and neck 
have not been slit longitudinally will need to be treated by 
filling these members with salt, leaving the hair side turned 
out. It is then rubbed into the skin to insure its immediate 
action, after which the skin is tightly rolled, as smoothly as 
its folds will allow. In this state it is allowed to remain 
overnight, usually from twelve to twenty-four hours, so as 
to give the salt ample time to extract the moisture. At the 
end of this time it is unrolled, when it will be found that 
most of the salt has been dissolved by the moisture in the 
skin which now rests in pools of brine in the folds. This 
liquid is then drained off and the skin covered by a fresh layer 
of salt, after having been carefully inspected to see that no 
spots are left where the action of the salt has not penetrated 
and where decay is beginning to take place. Such spots may 
usually be detected by their softness, the skin being of a 
putty-like consistency, or by the ease with which the hair 
may be pulled out. Inspection of this sort of each skin 
should be continued daily for a few days until it is certain 



750 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

that the salt has entered into every part of the skin tissue, 
when it may be left for weeks either rolled up more or less 
moist or dried in the shade. Care should be taken with 
dried, salted skins not to subject them to the atmospheric 
moisture of rainy weather or of moist districts near the coast 
or otherwise, as the moisture in the atmosphere is then 
often able to extract the salt and cause the skin to decay. 
The best plan to follow is to pack the salted skins in barrels 
and cover them with brine or, if they have been thoroughly 
dried, pack them in tin cases and seal them up so that they 
may remain protected from any external moisture. Barrels 
for this purpose should be free from oil, grease, or infection 
of any sort which may be communicated to the skins. 
Packing in this way also prevents the action of skin-eating 
beetles or the growth of bacteria or fungi which may 
destroy the skins if left exposed. 

Salt not being available, the skins may be simply dried 
provided the climatic conditions will permit. The skins 
should be carefully spread out horizontally, hair side down, 
in the shade of trees or of a tent stretched either on poles or 
a series of lines, so as to allow free access of the air to both 
surfaces. In very dry regions perfect skins may be obtained 
by simply pegging the skins out on the ground in the shade, 
hair side to the earth. The drying must take place rather 
rapidly, that is, within a day or two, otherwise decay will 
set in. Drying skins in the sun usually causes them to 
decay and slip on the epidermal or hair side and then dry 
afterward. Such a dried skin has the appearance of a per- 
fectly dried specimen, but its condition is at once evident 
upon softening in water by the separation or sloughing of the 
hair as well as the epidermal layer. In the preparation of 



EQUIPMENT, ARMS, AND SPECIMENS 751 

dried skins powdered arsenic is of valuable assistance as an 
insecticide. It may be applied to the dermal side of the 
skin while it is still green, or the skin after being thoroughly- 
dried may be dipped into a solution of it and redried. This 
last process renders the whole hair surface, as well as the 
dermal layer, insect proof. 

The use of alum in any form is to be avoided except as a 
last resort in decaying skins. The astringent action which 
it exerts upon the skin has a killing or hardening effect on 
the tissues which remains in them permanently. Such ac- 
tion affects seriously their elasticity, and makes it difficult 
for the taxidermist to restore them to their natural shape. 
Alum is of use occasionally in decaying skins, for its astrin- 
gent action is powerful enough to set the hair which decay 
has already caused to slip. 

As the game trophies of sportsmen consist almost in- 
variably of only the head skin and horns, the skinning of the 
head is of first importance. Care should be taken to make 
all cuts from the under side of the skin so as to avoid cutting 
the hair bordering the incisions, particularly about the base 
of the horns where the hair is unusually long. The neck 
should be cut off at the shoulders, so that it may have 
enough length to give it a graceful appearance when 
mounted. Make the cut as far back as the withers and the 
base of the forelegs. From a point a few inches behind the 
horns make a longitudinal cut, following the midline of 
the nape to the withers; then connect the neck cut with 
both horn bases by a short cut to the back of the horn bases 
and continue the cut completely around each horn. Begin 
skinning at the base of the neck by pulling the skin forward, 
being careful to leave all the fat and skin muscle attached 



752 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

to the body, as it is much less difficult to get a clean skin at 
once than to flesh it after it has been removed. When the 
ears are reached cut the cartilage well down near the bone, 
where it is but a mere tube, then continue on forward to the 
eyes, where you will need to use some caution so as not to 
cut the lids. This may be prevented by cutting the skin 
close to the eyeball, using one of your fingers as a guide 
thrust into the eye from the outside. Continue on down 
to the mouth, cutting the lips off near the base of the gums, 
and being careful to cut the nose cartilage well back near 
its base so as to avoid cutting into the external nostrils. 
After the skin has been cut free of the head, begin by split- 
ting the lips and the eyelids as well as the nose cartilage. 
The splitting of such fine membranes is made necessary, 
owing to the failure of salt to penetrate membranes and to 
act only from the inside of tissues. The ears may now be 
skinned by turning or pulling the skin toward their tips, at 
the same time forcing the cartilage down; continue the 
process to the very tip of the ear so as to insure preserva- 
tion. It is not necessary usually to skin the cartilage on 
the inside as well, unless fat is present, in which case the 
salt cannot reach the inside until the cartilage is completely 
removed. 

In the skinning of the heads of hornless female antelope, 
the cut from the base of the skull along the median line of 
the nape will not be found necessary in species having nar- 
row heads. Never make the cut along the median line of 
the throat where it may show when the head is mounted 
and where the hair is usually so short that it will at all 
events be easy to detect. The heads of large carnivores 
can be skinned out from the shoulder cut by reversing the 



EQUIPMENT, ARMS, AND SPECIMENS 753 

skin over the base of the skull, which is very little broader 
than the neck. The lips in these animals need particular 
care, as they are usually mounted with their mouths open 
and should, therefore, be cut far back along the base of 
the teeth, which will give them the greatest possible length. 
Owing to the refractory nature of the heavy skin of the 
hippopotamus, the head skin must be cut down the entire 
length of the median ventral side from the chin to the chest. 
The rhinoceros head skin should be cut down the median 
line of the nape. Giraffe require similar treatment, the cut 
here following along the dorsal mane, which occupies the 
median line of the nape, and then forking at the horns and 
extending up the inside of each of the large horns and across 
their tips, as they require skinning to preserve their hair 
covering. The head of the elephant offers some exceptions 
to the general rule and is the only case, with the exception of 
the hippopotamus, in which the cut down the throat is pref- 
erable or rather allowable. After making the circular cut 
at the withers and shoulders, make a second extending from 
the tip of the trunk along the median line of the under side 
to the mouth, and through the chin down the midline of the 
throat to the chest. The great ears must be especially 
treated by a cut on their back or inside extending from the 
base or point of insertion back of the auditory meatus to 
the extreme tip or angle marking the termination of the 
folded upper border. From this longitudinal cut the carti- 
lage can be separated from the skin by cutting it free and 
then skinning down both surfaces of it as far toward the 
ear margin as possible without cutting through the skin 
which here is quite thin. When the ear cartilage has been 
skinned out as far as possible it should be severed along the 



754 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

whole margin and thrown away, as it is of no value in the 
the mounting and is very refractory when dried. The head 
skins of these four animals — the hippopotamus, rhinoceros, 
giraffe, and elephant — require to be pared down at least to 
half their original thickness in order to allow the salt to 
penetrate through the dermal layer to the epidermis. The 
necks of such large animals as buffalo, eland, and oryx also 
require a considerable amount of paring to insure preser- 
vation. 

The skins of antelope and the hoofed mammals generally 
can be most conveniently preserved as flat skins. In re- 
moving the skin for this purpose a longitudinal cut is made 
from the base of the tail forward to the point of the breast, 
to which four cuts are joined, one down the inside of each 
leg, beginning at the hoof. The cuts for skinning the head 
are made as usual on the nape. A further cut is made the 
whole length of the tail, following the median line of the 
under side. In skinning the body the leg bones are severed 
as far down in each hoof as it is possible to reach with the 
knife after first severing the bone at the fetlocks. In rhinoc- 
eros and hippopotamus the ventral cut must be continued to 
the chin, as it is not possible in such thick-skinned animals 
to peel the skin off over the head. In giraffe, however, it 
will be found necessary only to continue the neck cut along 
the dorsal mane to the withers. 

If the skins are desired for mounting it is better to make 
as few cuts as will answer the purpose of preservation. In 
such collecting, case skins may be advantageously made. 
In antelope and carnivores the cuts down the legs may be 
dispensed with, the leg bones in the case of antelopes being 
removed by first skinning down to the hock or knee from the 



EQUIPMENT, ARMS, AND SPECIMENS 755 

ventral cut and severing the leg and then, by making a short 
cut on the back at the fetlocks, the leg bones may be severed 
at that point and the skin of the leg stripped back to the 
knee or hock, as the case may be, and the bone removed 
from below. This method can only be employed where salt 
is to be used or where, as in carnivores, the skin can be com- 
pletely reversed and dried wrong side out. The method can- 
not be used on such thick-skinned mammals as rhinoceros, 
hippopotamus, giraffe, and elephant, in which the skin is 
too thick to be manipulated. Buffalo and eland are the 
limit of its possibilities. 

The preservation of the entire skin of the elephant pre- 
sents a special case; for, owing to its large size, it cannot be 
handled in one piece as is possible in rhinoceros and giraffe. 
Cow elephants and small bulls may be conveniently ma- 
nipulated by cutting the skins into three sections. The head 
is first cut off close behind the skull where the cut is hidden 
by the immense ears, and further cuts are made on the ears 
and trunk as already described. The body skin is then cut 
into halves by a cut extending along the median line of the 
whole length of the back from the neck to the tail and con- 
tinued on the ventral surface, following the median line of 
the belly to the throat. A cut along the inner side of each 
leg is then made from the hoof to the median ventral cut. 
An additional cut on the under side of the tail is made from 
the base to the tip. In very large bull elephants it is found 
necessary to again divide each half by a transverse cut ex- 
tending midway between the two legs from the dorsal cut 
to the ventral. This results in sectioning the elephant's 
skin into five pieces. 

In the preservation of skulls for scientific purposes great 



756 AFRICAN GAME ANIMALS 

care should be used in guarding them against breakage, 
especially such parts as the teeth and the delicate bony 
processes which are extremely important structures in their 
classification. A strong tendency is manifest among sports- 
men to remove as much meat as possible from the skull in 
the field so as to minimize the odoriferous effects which 
emanate from such dried specimens. The cutting of muscle, 
however, from skulls by the rough methods usually employed 
by native assistants often results in cutting off the delicate 
processes or in scarring the bones by knife cuts. As much of 
the meat as can be dried thoroughly on the skull serves as a 
protection to the bones, and is in no way a menace to its 
preservation. An ideal way of getting rid of the smell and 
the insect larvae which feed upon dried meat and bones is to 
soak the bones several hours in a solution of arsenic water 
after they have become thoroughly dry, and then redry them 
for a few hours in the sun. The arsenic not only kills the 
insects which are on them at the time, but it prevents further 
insect attack. The skulls of the smaller species should be 
carefully carried in boxes in the field to prevent their being 
knocked about and broken. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF EAST EQUATORIAL AFRICA 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF EAST EQUATORIAL AFRICA 

Akeley, Carl E. 1912. Elephant Hunting in Equatorial Africa. 
The American Museum Journal, vol. XII, no. 2, pp. 43-62. 

An account of elephant hunting in the Budonga forest of Uganda 
and on the slopes of Mount Kenia in British East Africa. 
Allen, J. A. 1909. Mammals from British East Africa, Collected 
by the Tjader Expedition in 1906. Bulletin American Museum of 
Natural History, vol. XXVI, pp. 147-175. 

A descriptive list of fifty-six species and subspecies of mammals 
from the highlands of British East Africa. 
Archer, G. F. 1913- Recent Exploration and Survey in the North 
of British East Africa. Geographical Journal of London, Nov., 
1913, pp. 421-430, I map. 

A general description of the topography of the Marsabit and 
Lake Rudolf desert region. 
Arkell-Hardwick, a. 1903. An Ivory Trader in North Kenia; the 
Record of an Expedition through Kikuyu to Galla-land in East 
Equatorial Africa. London, 8vo. 

A description of the author's hunting experiences in the Kenia 
district and the country traversed by the Northern Guaso Nyiro 
River. 
Austin, Herbert Henry. 1902. Among the Swamps and Giants of 
Equatorial Africa; an Account of Surveys and Adventures in the 
Southern Sudan and British East Africa. London, 8vo. 

Description of travel in the Soudan, the upper Sobat River, and 
from the Nile to Lake Rudolf and southward to Mombasa. 
Baker, Samuel W. 1866. The Albert Nyanza, Great Basin of the 
Nile, and Explorations of the Nile Sources. London, 8vo. 

Contains an account of the discovery of the Albert Nyanza. 
1874. Ismailia. London, 2 vols., 8vo. 

Devoted chiefly to African slave-trade suppression. 
1890. Wild Beasts and Their Ways. London, 8vo. 
Contains some chapters on African game animals. 

759 



760 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berger, a. 1910. In Afrikas Wildkammern. Berlin, 8vo. 

An account of the writer's hunting experiences in British East 
Africa and the Upper Nile, with an appendix by Paul Matschie of 
the mammals collected. 

Bland-Sutton, J. 191 1. Man and Beast in Eastern Ethiopia; from 
Observations made in British East Africa, Uganda, and the Sudan. 
London, 8vo. 

General observations on the fauna and flora. 

Bronson, Edgar B. 1910. In Closed Territory. Chicago, 8vo. 

A description of hunting experiences of the writer in British East 
Africa. 

Buxton, Edward North. 1902. Two African Trips. London, 8vo. 
A description of the game fields of British East Africa and the 
White Nile. 

Chanler, William Astor. 1896. Through Jungle and Desert: 
Travels in East Africa. New York, 8vo. 

A description of a trip up the Tana River to Kenia and north- 
east down the Northern Guaso Nyiro River to the Lorian 
swamp. 

Chapman, Abel. 1908. On Safari, Big Game Hunting in British 
East Africa; with Studies in Bird Life. London, 8vo. 

An account of the writer's hunting experiences with the game 
animals and birds of British East Africa. 

Churchill, Winston Spencer. 1908. My African Journey. London, 
8vo. 

A description of the writer's shooting experiences m British East 
Africa and the Upper Nile. 

Collie, George L. 1912. The Plateau of British East Africa and 
Its Inhabitants. Bulletin American Geographical Society, vol. 44, 

pp. 321-334- 

Descriptive of the geology and people of British East Africa. 

Decken, C. C. von der. i 869-1 879. Reisen in Ost-Afrika in den 
Jahren 1859 bis 1865. Leipsic, 4 vols. 

A description of the writer's explorations of the upper altitudes 
of Kilimanjaro. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 761 

Delme-Radcliffe, C. 1905. Rough Notes on the Natural History 
of the Country West of Lake Victoria-Nyanza. Proceedings of the 
Zoological Society of London, pp. 1 84-191. 

Notes on the distribution of game animals in Ankole and south- 
western Uganda. 

Dickinson, F. A. 1908. Big Game Shooting on the Equator. 
London, 8vo. 

Descriptive chapters devoted to the big-game mammals occurring 
in British East Africa. 

1910. Lake Victoria to Khartoum with Rifle and Camera. 
London, 8vo. 

A description of a shooting trip taken with Winston Churchill 
in the upper Nile region. 

Dracopoli, L N. 1913. Across Southern Jubaland to the Lorian 
Swamp. Geographical Journal of London, August, 191 3, pp. 128- 
143 with I map. 

Mainly a geographical and descriptive account of the country 
with occasional mention of game animals. Records the Hunter 
antelope from the Kismayu district, which is the most northern 
known record. 

Drake-Brockman, R. E. 1910. Mammals of Somaliland. London, 8vo. 
„ A description and accounts of the habits of all the species of mam- 

mals known to occur in Somaliland. 

DuGMORE, A. Radclyffe. 19 10. Camera Adventures in the African 
Wilds; being an Account of a Four Months' Expedition in British 
East Africa for the Purpose of Securing Photographs from Life of 
the Game. London, 4to. 

An account of the author's experiences in photographing the big 
game of British East Africa. 

Eliot, Charles N. E. 1905. The East African Protectorate. 
London, 8vo. 

A general description of the country with an historical sketch. 

Elliot, G. F. Scott. 1896. A Naturalist in Mid-Africa; being an 
Account of a Journey to the Mountains of the Moon and Tan- 
ganyika. London, 8vo. 

A description of the geology, fauna, flora, and peoples of British 
East Africa and Uganda. 



762 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Emin. 1888. Emin Pasha In Central Africa; being a Collection of 
his Letters and Journals. Edited by Georg Schweinfurth. Lon- 
don, 8vo. 

A collection of Emin's (Edward Schnitzer) letters relating to the 
peoples, administration, and natural history of the Nile Province. 

Engler, Adolf. 1895. Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nach- 
bargebiete. Berlin, 4to. 3 vols. 

A monographic work on the known species of plants occurring 
in German East Africa and the adjacent regions. 

FiLiPPi, FiLiPPO DE. 1909. Ruwenzori; an Account of the Expedi- 
tion of the Duke of the Abruzzi. London, 8vo. 

A description of the Duke of the Abruzzi's exploration of Ru- 
wenzori with special reference to the geology, flora, and fauna. 

Fischer, G. A. 1878-1879. Das Mapokomo-Land und Seine Be- 
wohner. Mitteilung der Geogr aphis chen Gesellschaft in Hamburg. 

A description of the lower Tana River and its inhabitants, 
1885. Das Massai-land. Hamburg, 8vo. 

A description of the upland country of German and British East 
Africa. 

Fitzgerald, W. W. A. 1898. Travels in the Coast Lands of British 
East Africa and the Islands of Zanzibar and Pemba, Their Agricul- 
tural Resources and General Characteristics. London, 8vo. 

Gibbons, A. St. Hilair. 1904. Africa from South to North, Through 
Marotseland. London, 8vo. 2 vols. 

A description of the writer's journey from the Cape region north 
through the lake region and the Nile Valley to Egypt. Contains 
an account of the discovery of the white rhinoceros in the Lado 
Enclave. 

Grant, J. A. 1864. A Walk Across Africa or Domestic Scenes from 
my Nile Journal. London, 8vo. 

A description of the people and natural history of the country 
traversed by Speke and Grant. 

1872. Summary of the Observations on the Geography, Climate, 
and Natural History of the Lake Region of Equatorial Africa, made 
by the Speke and Grant Expedition, 1 860-1 863. Journal Geo- 
graphical Society, London. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 763 

Gregory, John W. 1896. The Great Rift Valley; being the Narra- 
tive of a Journey to Mount Kenia and Lake Baringo. London, 
8vo. 

Devoted chiefly to geology and the exploration of the summit 
of Kenia. 

Heller, Edmund. 1910. A New Sable Antelope from British East 
Africa. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 54, part 6. 

The description of a new species of sable antelope obtained near 
Mombasa by Kermit Roosevelt as Ozanna roosevelti. 

191 2. New Genera and Races of African Ungulates. Smith- 
sonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 60, no. 8. 

The description of four new genera: Dolichohippus, Beatragus, 
Oreodorcas, and Ammelaphus, and six new races of antelopes from 
British East Africa and Uganda. 

1913. New Races of Antelopes from British East Africa. Smith- 
sonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 61, no. 7, July 31. 

New Antelopes and Carnivores from British East Africa. Smith- 
sonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 61, no. 13, Sept. 16. 

The White Rhinoceros. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 
vol. 61, no. I, October. A monograph on the Nile race based on 
the specimens shot by Colonel and Kermit Roosevelt in the Lado 
Enclave. 

New Races of Ungulates and Primates from Equatorial Africa. 
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 61, no. 17, Oct. 

New Races of Carnivores and Baboons from Equatorial Africa 
and Abyssinia. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 61, 
no. 19, November 8. 

1914. Four New Subspecies of Large Mammals from Equatorial 
Africa. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 61, no. 22, 
January 26. 

Heuglin, Martin Theodore von. 1869. Reise in das Gebiet des 
Weissen Niles und Seiner Westlichen Zufliisse. Leipsic, 8vo. 
Description of the flora and fauna of the Bahr-el-Ghazal region. 

Hildebrandt, J. M. 1879. Von Mombassa nach Kitui. Zeitschrift 
der Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde zu Berlin. 

Description of a natural-history exploration from Mombasa to 
Kitui. 



764 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

HoHNEL, LuDWiG VON. 1 892. Discovery of Lakes Rudolf and 
Stefanie. A narrative of Count Samuel Teleki's Exploring and 
Hunting Expedition in Eastern Equatorial Africa in 1887 and 1888. 
Vienna, 8vo. 2 vols. 

An account of Count Teleki's travels from Mombasa to Lake 
Rudolf by way of Kilimanjaro and Kenia, including a description 
of the ascent of these two snow-capped volcanoes. 

HoLLiSTER, N. 1910. Mammals Collected by John Jay White in 
British East Africa. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 
56, no. 2. 

A descriptive list of eighteen species of big-game mammals from 
British East Africa, with descriptions of two new species: Oryx 
annectens and Ourebia microdon. 

HopwooD, Francis J. S. (Lord Hindlip). 1905. East Africa 
Protectorate. London, 8vo. 

A general account of British East Africa; historical and com- 
mercial. 

House, Edward J. 1909. A Hunter's Camp Fires. New York, 
Svo. 

Contains several chapters on big-game shooting in the highlands 
of British East Africa. 

Jackson, F. J. 1894. Badminton Library, Big Game Shooting, 
vol. I. London, 8vo. 

Contains several chapters on the habits of the big game of East 
Africa and Uganda. This is the most comprehensive account of 
the distribution of the game animals of the region extant. 
1897. Field-Notes on the Antelopes of the Mau District, British 
East Africa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 
pp. 450-456. 

A list of twenty-three species with notes on their distribu- 
tion. 

Jessen, B. H. 1906. W. N. McMillan's Expeditions and Big Game 
Hunting in the Sudan, Abyssinia, and British East Africa. Lon- 
don, 8vo. 

A description of exploration in the unknown parts of southern 
Abyssinia and the Soudan. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 765 

Johnston, Harry H. 1886. The Kilimanjaro Expedition. Lon- 
don, 8vo. 

A description of the ascent of Kilimanjaro, and a summary of 
the natural histor}' and the history of its exploration. 
1902. The Uganda Protectorate; an Attempt to give some Descrip- 
tion of the Physical Geography, Botany, Zoology, Anthropology, 
Languages, and History of the Territories under British Protection 
in East Central Africa. London, 8vo. 2 vols. 

An elaborate general account of the peoples, fauna, and flora of 
Uganda and western British East Africa. 
191 1. Britain Across the Seas; Africa. London, 8vo. 

Contains an historical sketch of British East Africa, Uganda, 
and the Soudan. 

Johnston, T. Broadworth. 1908. Tramps Round the Mountains 
of the Moon, and Through the Back Gate of the Congo State. 
London, 8vo. 

Descriptive of Uganda, the Ruwenzori Range, and the Congo. 

Junker, Wilhelm. 1892. Travels in Africa During the Years 1882- 
1886. London, 8vo. 

An account of travels in the Bahr-el-Ghazal region and the adja- 
cent Congo or Welle River drainage. 

Krapf, Ludwig. 1 85 1. Journal seiner Reise nach Ukambani in 
1849. Verhandlung der Gesellschaft filr Erdkunde, vol. VIII, 

P- 193- 

A description of his journey from Mombasa to Kitui and the 
discovery of Mount Kenia. 

i860. Travels, Researches, and Missionary Labors During an 
Eighteen Years' Residence in Eastern Africa. London, 8vo. 

Contains an account of the travels and discoveries in East Africa 
made by the author and by his colleague, Rebmann. 

Lardner, E. G. Dion. 1912. Soldiering and Sport in Uganda. 
London, 8vo. 

Litchfield, E. Hubert. 1912. Rhinoceros Hunting; A Sportsman's 
Notes. The American Museum Journal, vol. XH, pp. 94-99. 

A description of some game animals shot in British East 
Africa. 



766 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Lloyd, Albert B. 1906. Uganda to Khartoum; Life and Adventure 
on the Upper Nile. New York, 8vo. 

General descriptive matter on Uganda and the Soudan. 

LoNNBERG, EiNAR. 1908. Mammals Collected by the Swedish 
Zoological Expedition to Kilimanjaro during 1905-1906. Heraus- 
gegeben von der Konigl. Schwedischen Akademie der Wissenschajten, 
Upsala. 

A description of a collection of mammals from Kilimanjaro. 
1912. Mammals Collected by the Swedish Zoological Expedition 
to British East Africa. Kunglich Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens 
Handlingar, band 48, no. 5. 

A description of the specimens obtained in the watershed of the 
Northern Guaso Nyiro River. 

LuGARD, Captain F. D. 1893. The Rise of Our East African Em- 
pire; Early Efforts in Nyasaland and Uganda. London, 8vo. 
2 vols. 

A description of British East Africa and Uganda. 

Lydekker, Richard. 1893. Horns and Hoofs, or Chapters on 
Hoofed Animals. London, 8vo. 

Descriptions of the species comprised in the families of the Suidcs, 
Cervidce, Bovida, and Rhinocerotidce. 

1904. On the Subspecies of Giraffa camelopardalis. Proceedings 
of the Zoological Society, vol. I, pp. 202-297. 

The writer splits the giraffe into ten geographical forms, based 
chiefly upon slight differences in coloration. 

1907. The Ears as a Race Character in the African Elephant. 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society, pp. 380-403. 

Twelve subspecies or geographical races of can elephants are 
recognized in this paper, based mainly upon differences of outline 
assigned to ears. 

1908. The Game Animals of Africa. London, 8vo. 

Brief descriptions and notes on all the game mammals described 
from Africa. 

MacDonald, Jas. R. L. 1897. Soldiering and Surveying in British 
East Africa in 1 891-1894. London, 8vo. 

MacQueen, Peter. 1910. In Wildest Africa; the Record of a Hunt- 
ing and Exploring Trip Through Uganda, Victoria Nyanza, the 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 767 

Kilimanjaro Region and British East Africa; with an Account of 
the Ascent of the Snow Fields of Mount Kibo, etc. London, 8vo. 

An account of the adventures of the writer in East Africa and 
Uganda. 

Madeira, Percy C. 1909. Hunting in East Africa. Philadelphia, 8vo. 
An account of the writer's hunting experiences in British East 
Africa. 

Matschie, Paul. 1895. Saugethiere Deutsch-Ost-Afrikas und der 
Nachbargebiete. Berlin, 8vo. 

Descriptions of all the species of mammals known in 1895 ^o in- 
habit German East Africa and the region immediately bordering it. 
1900. Ueber Geographische Abarten des Afrikanischen Elefanten. 
Sitzungs-Berichten der Gesellschaft naiurjorschender freunde, Berlin, 
no. 8, pp. 189-197. 

The writer splits the African elephant into four geographical 
races to which he gives subspecific names. 

1906. Einige noch nicht Beschriebene Arten des Afrikanischen 
Biiffels. Sitzungs-Berichten der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde, 
Berlin, no. 7, pp. 161-179. 

The author recognizes fifteen geographical races of African 
buffaloes to which he assigns distinctive horn characters. 

McCuTCHEON, John T. 1910. In Africa; Hunting Adventures in the 
Big Game Country. Chicago, 8vo. 

A humorous portrayal of a hunting trip in British East Africa. 

Melland, F. H., and Cholmeley, E. H. 1912. Through the Heart 
of Africa; Being an Account of a Journey from Northern Rhodesia 
to Egypt. London, 8vo. 

Chiefly an Jnographical account; some chapters devoted to 
elephant hunting near the Albert Nyanza and in Masindi. 

Meyer, Hans. 1891. Across East African Glaciers. London, 4to. 

A monographic account of the topographical features of Mount 
Kilimanjaro with some reference to the fauna and flora. 

Muff, H. Brantwood. 1908. Report Relating to the Geology of the 
East African Protectorate. Colonial Reports, Miscellaneous, no. 45. 
A general account of the geological structure of British East 
Africa. 



768 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Neumann, Arthur H. 1898. Elephant Hunting in East Equatorial 
Africa. London, 8vo. 

An account of a trip from Mombasa to Mount Kenia and north- 
ward to Lake Rudolf with special reference to the big game. An 
excellent account of the game animals. 
1899. Great and Small Game of Africa. London, 4to. 

Descriptions and illustrations of all the larger game animals; 
British East African species described by A. H. Neumann. 

Neumann, Oscar. 1900. Die von mir in den Jahren 1 892-1 895 in 
Ost und Central Afrika, speciell in den Massai-Landern und den 
Landern am Victoria Nyanza gesammelten und beobachteten 
Saugethiere. Zoologischen Jahrbuchern, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 529- 
562. 

A complete list of the mammals collected and observed by the 
writer with notes on their habits and distribution. 

New, Charles. 1873. Life, Wanderings, and Labors in East Africa; 
with an Account of the First Successful Ascent of the Equatorial 
Snow Mountain Kilima Njaro and Remarks upon East African 
Slavery. 

NiEDiECK, Paul. 1909. With Rifle in Five Continents. London, 
8vo. 

Contains a description of the author's shooting experiences in the 
Eastern Soudan. 

OsBORN, Henry Fairfield. 1910. The Age of Mammals in Europe, 
Asia, and North America. New York, 8vo. 

Contains references to the Tertiary mammals of North Africa 
and the theories regarding their derivation. 

Oswald, F. 1913. The Miocene Beds of the'Victoria Nyanza. Jour- 
nal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society, vol. HI, 
no. 6, pp. 2-8. 

The writer records fossil remains of Dinotherium, Aceratherium 
(a hornless rhinoceros), and other extinct types of mammals. 

Patterson, J. H. 1908. The Man-Eaters of Tsavo; and other East 
African Adventures. London, 8vo. 

A detailed account of the exploits of the man-eating lions infest- 
ing the low country during the construction of the Uganda railway. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 769 

1909. In the Grip of the Nyika; further Adventures in British 
East Africa. New York, 8vo. 

A description of a journey from Nairobi to Mount Marsabit by 
way of the Northern Guaso Nyiro River. 

Peters, Carl, 1891. New Light on Dark Africa; being the Narra- 
tive of the German Emin Pasha Expedition; its Journeyings and 
Adventures among the Native Tribes of Eastern Equatorial Africa, 
the Gallas, Massais, Wasukuma, on the Lake Baringo, and the 
Victoria Nyanza. New York, 8vo. 

The description of a military expedition up the course of the 
Tana River to Lake Baringo and thence to Mount Elgon and 
Uganda. 

Portal, Gerald. 1894. The British Mission to Uganda in 1893. 
London, 8vo. 

Powell-Cotton, P. H. G. 1904. In Unknown Africa; a Narrative of 
Twenty Months' Travel and Sport in Unknown Lands and among 
New Tribes. London, 8vo. 

Devoted chiefly to hunting exploits on Mount Elgon and the 
country north and west of it to the Nile. 

Rainey, Paul J. 191 1. The Royal Sport of Hounding Lions. 
The Outing Magazine, New York, vol. LIX, no. 2, November, 
pp. 131-152. 

An account of lion hunting with foxhounds in the highlands of 
British East Africa. 

Rainsford, W. S. 1909. The Land of the Lion. London, 8vo. 

An account of the writer's hunting experiences in British East 
Africa. 

Rebmann, John. 1849. Journal d'un Excursion au Djagga, les Pays 
des Neiges de I'Afrique Orientale. Nouvelles Annales des Voyages, 
vol. II, pp. 257-300. 

A description of the discovery of Kilimanjaro. 

Rhoads, Samuel N. 1896. Mammals Collected by Dr. A. Donaldson 

Smith During his Expedition to Lake Rudolf, Africa. Proceedings 

of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, pp. 517-546. 

A descriptive list of the seventy-seven species comprising the 

collection, twenty-five of which are big-game animals. 



770 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Roosevelt, Theodore. 1910. African Game Trails; an Account of 
the African Wanderings of an American Hunter-Naturalist. New 
York, 8vo. 

A description of a hunting trip through the game fields of British 
East Africa, Uganda, and the upper Nile. 

Schillings, C. G. 1905. With Flashlight and Rifle. New York, 
8vo. 

An account of the writer's experiences in photographing the 
game animals at night, with numerous illustrations of flashlight 
photographs. 

1907. In Wildest Africa; a Translation of Der Zauber des Ele- 
lescho. London, 8vo. 

An account of the writer's photographic experiences among the 
game animals of the Nyika and Masailand of the Kilimanjaro region 
of German East Africa. 

ScHWEiNFURTH, Georg. 1 873. The Heart of Africa: Three Years' 
Travel and Adventures in the Unexplored Regions of Central 
Africa, from 1 868-1 87 1. London, 8vo. 2 vols. 

Description of the Bahr-el-Ghazal region with some references 
to the flora and fauna. 

ScLATER, P. L. 1864. On the Mammals Collected and Observed by 
Captain J. H. Speke During the East African Expedition. Pro^ 
ceedings Zoological Society of London, p. 98. 

A description of the thirty-nine species obtained by Speke and 
Grant, most of which were antelopes or other big game. 
1 894-1900. (Sclater, p. L., and Thomas, Oldfield.) Book of 
Antelopes. London, 4to. 4 vols. 

Full account with descriptions and synonymy of the known 
species, accompanied by a colored plate of each species. 

Scull, Guy H. 1911. Lassoing Wild Animals in Africa. New 
York, 8vo. 

Describes the lassoing exploits of a party of American cow- 
boys in British East Africa under the direction of Colonel C. J. 
Jones. 

Sheldon, Mary French. 1892. Sultan to Sultan; Adventures 
Among the Masai and Other Tribes of East Africa. Boston, 8vo. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 771 

Smith, A. Donaldson. 1897. Through Unknown African Coun- 
tries; the First Expedition from SomaHland to Lake Lamu. New 
York, 8vo. 

The description of a trip of adventure from Somahland westward 
to Lake Rudolf and then eastward down the Tana River to Lamu. 
1900. An Expedition between Lake Rudolf and the Nile. 
Geographical Journal, pp. 600-625. 

An account of the tribes and game met with in the country be- 
tween the north end of Lake Rudolf and Fort Berkeley on the Nile. 

Speke, John Hannington. 1863. Journey of the Discovery of the 
Nile. London, 8vo. 

The first account of the journey of discovery of Speke and Grant 
to the source of the Nile. Devoted mainly to a description of the 
negro tribes inhabiting Uganda and the incidents of travel. 

Stanley, H. M. 1878. Through the Dark Continent; or the Sources 
of the Nile; Around the Great Lakes of Equatorial Africa and Down 
the Livingstone River to the Atlantic Ocean. New York, 8vo. 
2 vols. 

A description of an expedition through German East Africa, the 
circumnavigation of the Victoria Nyanza and Tanganyika and the 
journey down the Congo River. 

1890. In Darkest Africa or the Quest, Rescue, and Retreat of 
Emin. London, 8vo. 2 vols. 

Contains a description of Uganda, the exploration of the Albert 
Nyanza and the lower slopes of the Ruwenzori Range. 

Stigand, C. H. 1909. "The Game of British East Africa." London, 
4to. 

An account of the habits and haunts of the game animals of 
British East Africa and Uganda. 

1910. To Abyssinia Through an Unknown Land; an Account 
of a Journey Through Unexplored Regions of British East Africa 
by Lake Rudolf to the Kingdom of Menelek. London, 8vo. 

The description of the trip concerns itself chiefly with the people 
and the natural features of the country traversed. 
1913. The Land of Zinj; being an account of British East Africa, 
its Ancient History and Present Inhabitants. London, 8vo. 

An ethnological and historical treatise. 



772 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

191 3. Hunting the Elephant in Africa; and other Recollections 
of Thirteen Years' Wanderings. New York, 8vo. 

A miscellaneous collection of incidents and descriptions pertaining 
to east equatorial Africa. 

Stuhlmann, Franz. 1894. Mit Emin Pascha ins Herz von Afrika. 
Berlin, 4to. 

Contains a description of explorations in Uganda and of the 
Alpine region of the Ruwenzori Range. 

Sutherland, James. 1912. Adventures of an Elephant Hunter. 
London, 8vo. 

A detailed account of elephant hunting in western and southern 
German East Africa and in Nyasaland. 

Sykes, C. a. 1903. Service and Sport on the Tropical Nile; some 
Records of the Duties and Diversions of an Officer Among Natives 
and Big Game During the Reoccupation of the Nilotic Province. 
London, 8vo. 

Chiefly a record of the author's shooting experiences in the 
Soudan. 

Thomas, Oldfield. 1890. On a Collection of Mammals Obtained 
by Doctor Emin Pasha in Central and Eastern Africa. Proceed- 
ings of the Zoological Society of London, pp. 443-450. 

A list of nineteen species of mammals, chiefly rodents and in- 
sectivores. 

1892. On Two New Central African Antelopes Obtained by Mr. 
F. J. Jackson. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 
6, vol. XI, p. 385. 

Description of the white-bearded wildebeest, Connochcetes albo- 
jubatus, and Jackson's hartebeest, Bubalis jacksoni. 
1902. On the East African Representative of the Bongo and Its 
Generic Position. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 
series 7, vol. X., p. 309. 

The description of the bongo as a new genus and the East African 
form as a new race, Boocercus eurycerus isaaci, based upon specimens 
sent to the British Museum by Mr. F. W. Isaac. 
1904. On Hylochcerus, the Forest Pig of Central Africa. Pro- 
ceedings of the Zoological Society of London, vol. 2, p. 193. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 773 

A description of a new genus and species of forest pig, Hylochoe- 
rus minertzhageni, from the specimens sent to the British Museum 
by Lieutenant R. Minertzhagen from British East Africa. 
1910. Ruwenzori Expedition Reports. Mammals by Oldfield 
Thomas and R. C. Wroughton. Transactions of the Zoological So- 
ciety of London, vol. XIX. 

An account of the natural-history collections obtained by the 
British Museum expedition to Ruwenzori in 1905-1906. 

Thomson, Joseph. 1885. Through Masai-Land: a Journey of Ex- 
ploration Among the Snowclad Volcanic Mountains and Strange 
Tribes of Eastern Equatorial Africa. London, 8vo. 

A description of the writer's journey from Mombasa to Lakes 
Naivasha and Baringo, thence westward to Mount Elgon and the 
Victoria Nyanza. 

TjADER, Richard. 1910. The Big Game of Africa. New York, 8vo. 
Devoted to the author's hunting experiences in the highlands of 
British East Africa. 

Treves, Frederick. 1910. Uganda for a Holiday. London, 8vo. 
Descriptive of Uganda. 

True, F. W. 1890. An Annotated Catalogue of the Mammals Col- 
lected by Doctor W. L. Abbott in the Kilima Ndjaro Region, East 
Africa. Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum, vol. XV, pp. 
445-480. 

A descriptive list of forty-nine species of mammals, seventeen of 
which are big-game mammals. 

Tucker, A. R. 1908. Eighteen Years in Uganda and East Africa. 
London, 8vo. 2 vols. 

A history of the growth of Christian missions in Uganda. 

Wallace, Harold Frank. 1908. Stalks Abroad; Being Some Ac- 
count of the Sport Obtained During a Two Years' Tour of the 
World. London, 8vo. 

Contains several chapters on the big-game mammals of British 
East Africa. 

Ward, Rowland, i 892-1910. Records of Big Game and Measure- 
ments of Horns. London, 8vo; 6 editions. 

A brief description of the game animals of the world with measure- 
ments of their horns, weight of body, etc. 



774 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

White, Stewart Edward. 191 2. The Land of Footprints. New 
York, 8vo. 

An account of the writer's shooting experiences in British East 
Africa. 
1913. African Camp Fires. New York, i2mo. 

A description of hunting incidents in British East Africa. 

WiLLOUGHBY, J. C. 1 889. East Africa and Its Big Game; the Nar- 
rative of a Sporting Trip from Zanzibar to the Borders of the 
Masai. London, 8vo. 

A description of the shooting expeditions of the author, Sir 
Robert G. Harvey, and H. C. V. Hunter. This is the earliest ac- 
count devoted solely to the game animals of East Africa. 

Wilson, H. A. 1913. A British Borderland; Service and Sport in 
Equatoria. London, 8vo. 

WoLLASTON, A. F. R. 1908. From Ruwenzori to the Congo: a Natu- 
ralist's Journey Across Africa. London, 8vo. 

A narrative description of the journey made by the British 
Museum expedition to the Ruwenzori Range. 



APPENDIX 



APPENDIX 

The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution made public, Febru- 
ary 15, 1913, the list of those who contributed to the fund covering the 
expenses of the Smithsonian African expedition under the leadership of 
Colonel Theodore Roosevelt. This list is not complete, as it only con- 
tains the names of those persons who were willing that the Secretary of 
the Smithsonian Institution should make public their names. 

In a statement issued by the Secretary it is stated that up to Febru- 
ary, 1913, Mr. Roosevelt did not know who the contributors were, with 
the exception of Andrew Carnegie, and possibly one or two personal 
friends. 

The list includes the names of Edward D. Adams of New York, 
former Secretary Robert Bacon of Boston, Cornelius N. Bliss of New 
York, James Campbell of Saint Louis, W. Bayard Cutting of New York, 
Andrew Carnegie of New York, Cleveland H. Dodge of New York, E. H. 
Gary of New York, John Hays Hammond of Washington, H. L. Higgin- 
son of Boston, Hennen Jennings of Washington, J. S. Kennedy of New 
York, Ralph King of Cleveland, former Secretary George L. von Meyer 
of Washington, D. O. Mills of New York, former Secretary T. H. New- 
berry of Michigan, L. L. Nunn of Provo, Utah, H. C. Perkins of Wash- 
ington, Henry Phipps of New York, Mrs. Whitelaw Reid of New York, 
Elihu Root of New York, J. C. Rosengarten of Philadelphia, Jacob H. 
SchifFof New York, Isaac N. Seligman of New York, O. M. Stafford of 
Cleveland, former Secretary Oscar S. Straus of New York, and Isidor 
Straus of New York. 

From the contributions the Smithsonian's three-fifths share of all 
the expenses were paid; the other two-fifths were paid by Colonel 
Roosevelt, which covered all his personal expenses and those of his son, 
and their proportionate two-fifths share of the total expenses of the 
expedition. 

The following is the complete list of the collections made by the 
expedition that have been received by the institution: 

777 



778 APPENDIX 

Specimens 

Mammals 5,013 

Birds 4'453 

Birds' eggs and nests 131 

Reptiles and batrachians 2,322 

Fish 447 

Plants 5'i35 

Insects 3>5oo 

Shells 1,500 

Miscellaneous invertebrates 650 

Total 23,151 

As a result of this expedition the biological collections now in the 
National Museum from East Africa are probably the most complete of 
any in the world. 

Considerable interest is being taken by the public in relation to the 
disposition of the collections made by the Smithsonian African expedi- 
tion under the leadership of Colonel Roosevelt. The collections, when 
received, were distributed to the various departments of the National 
Museum to which they pertained — the birds were sent to the bird de- 
partment, the mammals to the mammal department, the plants to 
the botanical department, and so on. 

A number of groups of the large mammals have been prepared, and a 
number of individual specimens mounted for exhibition purposes. The 
greater portion of the specimens have been placed in the study series, 
and the duplicates will be distributed by exchange or otherwise. The 
groups of large mammals now mounted are on exhibition in the new 
museum mammal hall. 



INDEX 



INDEX 



Abbott, Dr. W. L., 9, 33, 274, 346, 
347, 369- 488, 506, 530, 532, 554, 
596, 602. 
Abbott duiker, 532. 
Abruzzi, Duke of the, 239. 
Abyssinian bush pig, 275. 

Grant gazelle, 595. 

oribi, 558. 
Acacias, 35, 36. 
Acacia fistula, 43. 

mellifera, 40, 41, 611. 

stenocarpa, 39, 41, 44. 

tortilis, 40, 41. 

verugosa, 40, 44. 
Acanthus, 32, 39. 

arboreus, 48. 
Acinonyx, 242. 

jubatus raineyi, 248. 

jubatus soemmcringii, 249. 

jubatus velox, 246. 
Acocanthera abyssinica, 43, 47. 
Adansonia digitata, 40. 
Adenota, 508. 

kob, 509. 

kob alurce, 512; map, 517. 

kob leucotis, 514; map, 517. 

kob thomasi, 510; map, 517. 
celiani, Phacochoerus africanus, 284. 
Mpyceros, 614. 

melatnpiis suara, 615; map, 
619. 
(Equatoria, Ourebia montana, 559. 
(Bquatorialis, Cephalophus monticola, 

534- 

aquinoctialis, Syncerus caffcr, 418. 

African buffaloes, 405. 

Afzclia cuanzensis, 39. 

Akeley, Carl E., 76, 180, 209, 223, 

235, 308, 551, 734, 735, 736, 747; 

bibliog., 759. 
Mrs., 209. 
akeley i, Nesotragus moschatus, 551. 



Albinism, 59; in Grevy zebra, 706; 
partial in highland quagga zebra, 
689. 
Albizzia, 39. 

fasti gala, 43, 47. 
albojubatus, Gorgon, 361. 

Gorgon albojubatus, 369. 
albonota, Gazella rufifrons, 608. 
Alchemilla, 542. 

argyrophylla, 50, 539. 
Allen, Dr. J. A., 431,632; bibliog., 759. 
Aloe, 40. 

Alpine bush duiker, 542. 
Alpine zone, character of vegetation, 

52, 53- 
altivallis, Sylvicapra grimmia, 542. 
alurce, Adenota kob, 512. 
Ammelaphus, 444. 

imberbis australis, 445; map, 447. 
amphibius. Hippopotamus amphibius, 

297. 
Andrews, Dr. C. W., 711. 
Ankole reedbuck, 488. 

spotted hyena, 264. 
annectens. Oryx beisa, 339. 
Antelope, desert pygmy; coloration, 
552, 554; measurements, 554; 
range, 552. 

Hunter; coloration, 360; descrip- 
tion, 388, 389; history, 359; 
measurements, 360; range, 359; 
10. 
Kenia pygmy; coloration, 551, 

552; habits, 551; range, 551. 
Kilimanjaro pygmy; description, 

554; range, 554. 
pygmy; description, 549, 550; 
Moschatus, key to races of, 550. 
roan; Equinus, key to, 327; de- 
scription, 327; habits, 328, 
329; range, 327, 328. 
sable, 15, 327. 



781 



782 



INDEX 



Antelope, Zanzibar pygmy; descrip- 
tion, 550, 551; history, 550; range, 

550- 
Antelopes, sable and roan, 326. 
Antilopince; description, 579; key to 

genera, 580. 
Appendix, list of contributors to 

Smithsonian African expedition 

fund, 777. 
Archer, G. F., bibliog., 759. 
Arkell-Hardwick, A., bibliog., 759. 
Arms, 744. 

Ariindinaria alpina, 32, 49. 
Athi bush duiker, 544. 

white-bearded wildebeest, 369. 
aureus, Oreotragus orcotragus, 574. 
Austin, Herbert Henry, bibliog., 759. 
ausiralis, Ammclaphus imberbis, 445. 
Avicennia officinalis, 38. 

Baker, Sir Samuel, 4, 75, 83, 332, 351, 
418, 496, S14; bibliog., 759. 

bakeri, Egoceros equinus, 332, 5. 

Bangs, Outram, 108. 

Bauhinia reticulata, 39. 

bea, Strepsiceros strepsiceros, 449. 

Beatragus hunteri, 359, 8; map, 373. 

beisa. Oryx, 338. 

Berger, Dr. A., 75, 255; bibliog., 
760. 

hergeri, Hycena hycena, 255. 

Bergson, 55. 

Betton, C. S., 267. 

Bibliography of equatorial East Af- 
rica, 759 to 774. 

bicornis, Dicer os bicornis, 651. 

Birds; effect of brilliantly colored 
plumage, 94, 95; how approached 
by foes, 93; value of coloration, 96, 
143, 144; needless slaughter of, 157. 

Blackburn, Dr. E., 278. 

Black rhinoceros, 7, 639. 

Black-snouted Thomson gazelle, 602. 

Blaine, Gilbert, 359, 488, 558, 588. 

Bland-Sutton, J., bibliog., 760. 

Blankctt, 2. 

Blue duiker, 533. 

Blumenbach, 715, 716. 

Blyth, Edward, 418, 445. 



Boardman, Col. Sargeant, 460. 
Bohm, Dr. Richard, 352, 615, 620, 

693- 

bohmi, Equus quagga, 693. 

Bongo, East African; characters, 454, 
455; coloration, 455; habits, 454, 
455; history, 452; measurements, 
456, 458; range, 452, 105; map 

457- 
Bongo, West African, 11; map, 457. 
Bonte-quagga or quagga zebra, 676. 
Boocercus, 452. 

eurycerus eurycerus, map, 457. 
eurycerus isaaci, 452; map, 457. 
bor, Tragelaphus scriptus, 437. 
Boswcllia, 41. 
Bottego, Captain, 530. 
Boutroux, 55, 67. 
Bovidce, diagram showing affinities of, 

323; key to, 324, 325. 
BovincE, 404, 405. 
BrachylcEua, 47. 
brighti Gazella granti, 594. 
Bright Grant gazelle, 594. 
Bright, Major, 594. 
Brindled wildebeest, 360. 
British East Africa Company, 11. 
Bronson, Edgar B., bibliog., 760. 
Brooke, Sir Victor, 610. 
Broom, 20. 

Bruguicra gymnorrhiza, 38. 
Bubalince; description, 348; key to, 

349. 
Bubalis, 374. 

cokci, 390. 

cokei cokei, 391; map, 395. 

cokci kongoni, 392; map, 395. 

cokei nakurce, 394; map, 395. 

cokei neumanni, 396; map, 395. 

lelwel, 397. 

lelwel insignis, 400, 11; map, 
401. 

lelwel jacksoni, 402, 11; map, 
401. 

lelwel kenice, 403; map, 401. 

lelwel lelwel, 398; map, 401. 

lehvel nicdiecki, map, 401. 

lelwel roosevelti, 399; map, 401. 
Buffalo, 118. 



INDEX 



783 



Buffalo, East African; characters, 415, 
416; horn shape, 415; variation, 415, 
416; coloration, 416; history, 415; 
range, 415, 417, 418; map, 419. 
Buffalo Jones, 204, 209, 320, 363, 383. 
Buffalo, Nile; characters, 418; history, 
418; measurements, 420; range, 418, 
420; map, 419. 
Buffaloes, African; characters, 405, 
406; habits, 407 to 414; herons, 409, 
410; history, 406; key to races of 
cafer, 414; nomenclature, 405. 
bufo, Phacochoerus africanus, 2S6. 
Burchell, 265. 
Burton, 3. 

Bushbuck; coloration, 426, 427; habits, 
427, 428, 429; key to, 430; range, 
426, 106. 

highland; coloration, 43 1,43 2; his- 
tory, 430, 431; measurements, 
433; range, 430; map, 439. 
Masai; coloration, 433; history, 

433, 14; map, 439. 
Nile; characters, 437; coloration, 
437, 438; history, 437; mea- 
surements, 438; range, 437, 5; 
map, 439. 
Swahili; coloration, 434, 435; 
measurements, 43 5; range, 434; 
map, 439. 
Uganda; coloration, 436; history, 
436; measurements, 436, 437; 
range, 435, 436, 13; map, 439. 
Bush duikers, 537. 

Bush pig; history, 271, 272, 273; races, 
273; key to, 273. 

Abyssinian; history, 275; range, 

275; measurements, 276. 
East African; coloration, 274; 
habits, 274; measurements, 
274; range, 273. 
Butler, A. L., 460, 496. 
Buxton, Edward North, 150; bibliog., 
760. 

Cabrera, 264, 352. 
callotis, Oryx bcisa, 346. 
Camera, value of, 159. 
Camerano, 697. 



CanldcB, 264, 265. 

Cape elephant, 715. 

Carissa, 43. 

Cassia didymohotrya, 44. 

Cats, spotted, range, 113. 

Cavendish, H. S. H., 632. 

cavendishi, Rhynchotragus kirki, 632. 

CephalophincE, 527. 

Cephalophns, 528. 

monticola, 533. 

monticola (Equator talis, 534. 

monticola hecki, 536. 

monticola musculoides, 535. 

natalensis, 529. 

natalensis harveyi, 530. 

natalensis ignifer, 530. 

natalensis johnstoni, 53 1 . 

spadix, 532. 
Ceratotherium, 659. 

simiimcottoni, 660; map, 671. 

simum simum, map, 671. 
chanleri, Orcodorcas Jidvorufula, 479, 

12. 
Chanler rock reedbuck, 479. 
Chanler, William Astor, 12, 480, 646, 

702; bibliog., 760. 
Chapman, Abel, 364; bibliog., 760. 
Chat; black, 108; white, 109. 
Cheetah; general description, 242 to 
24s; key to race, 246; 113. 

highland; characters, 246; colora- 
tion, 246, 247; measurements, 
247; range, 246, 248. 

Rainey African; coloration, 248, 
249; measurements, 249; range, 
248, 249. 

Soudan; history, 249; range 249. 
Cholmeley, E. H., and Melland, F. H., 

bibliog., 767. 
Chrysophyllum, 48. 
chui, Felis pardus, 239. 
Churchill, Winston Spencer, bibliog., 

760. 
Coast blue duiker, 536. 

hartebeest, 391. 

oribi, 562. 
Coke, Colonel, 391. 
Coke hartebeest, 390. 
cokei, Biihalis, 390. 



784 



INDEX 



cokei, Bubalis cokei, 391. 

Collie, George L., bibliog., 760. 

Collins, "Bimbashi," 460. 

Colobus, black and white, 7, 128, 129. 

Coloration; effect of climate, 126, 128, 
138; exceptions, 127; effect on 
animals of the same species, 59; 
effect on environment, 72; effect of 
sunlight, 82, 84; effect of twilight 
and night, 92; difference as to pur- 
pose, 58; experiments in, 64, 137; 
importance of study, 97; impor- 
tance of habits over coloration, 114, 
115, 124, 145, 146; surroundings in 
relation to coloration, 98; habits, 
importance of, 137; prevalence of 
monochrome over striped forms, 
125; recognition marks, horns, etc., 
58; sexual purposes, 59; stripes, 
effect of, 7 1 ; theories as to purpose, 
62; value of, in cat family, 117; 
value of, at drinking-places, 73, 74, 
75; why valueless, 64, 83, 100; un- 
importance of, in American game, 
118. 

Combreium, 39, 43. 

Commiphora, 40, 41. 

Common waterbuck, 7, 502. 

Conophryngia, 48. 

Coolidge, 182. 

Cope, 56, 128. 

Corydon, Major, 258, 259. 

coHoni, Giraffa camelopardalis, 14. 
Ourehia moniana, 14, 560. 
Redunca redunca, 486. 

Cougar; range, 116; coloration, 116; 
invisibility, 116, 117. 

Countershading; disappearance of, 86; 
effect on other animals, 93, 94, 139; 
examples of, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91; value 
of, 87, 96. 

Crocula, 256. 

crocuta fisi, 263. 
crocula germinans, 261. 
crocuta thomasi, 264. 

Crolon ellioUianus, 43, 47. 

Cuninghame, R. J., 209, 309, 371, 
372, 588, 696, 729; letter from, 729, 
730, 731. 732. 



cuninghamei, Equus quagga, 694. 
Cusonia spicata, 47. 
Cuvier, 712. 

dcemonis, Potamochosrus koiropotamus, 

273- 
dama, Tragelaphus scriptus, 13, 435. 
Damaliscus, 20, 349. 
Damaliscus, equatorial; description, 

350; key to, 350. 
Damaliscus korrigiim, 350. 

korrigumjimela, 351; map, 357. 
korrigiim Hang, 350; map, 357. 
Damaliscus, tiang; characters, 351; 
range, 351. 

topi; coloration, 352, 354, 355, 
356; habits, 354, 355; history, 
353; measurements, 356, 358; 
range, 351, 352, 353, 358. 
Darwinism, how accepted, 55. 
Decken, C. C. von der, 6, 391; bib- 
liog., 760. 
Decoys; ducks, 65; fish, 65; ostrich, 

66, 67. 
Deer; axis, 120, 121; blacktail, 119; 
fallow, 119, 120, 121; red, 121; 
whitetail, 119, 121, 145. 
defassa, Kobiis, 491. 
Defassa, Laikipia; description, 500; 
range, 500. 

waterbuck, 491. 
Delamere, Lord, 13, 14, 76, 180, 187, 
209, 232, 260, 279, 287, 430, 432, 

453, 740. 
delamerei, Phacocha'rus, 14, 287. 

Tragelaphus scriptus, 14, 430. 
Delme-Radcliffe, C, 415, 689; bib- 
liog., 761. 
Demidoff, Prince, 460. 
Desert bushbuck, 14. 

bush duiker, 544. 

pygmy antelope, 552. 
Desert striped hyena, 263. 

wart-hog, 287. 
deserti, Sylvicapra grimmia, 544. 
dcserticola, Nesotragus moschatus, 552. 
Dewar, 56, 61, 62. 
DeWinton, 304, 688. 
Diccros, 639. 



INDEX 



785 



Diceros bicornis bicornis,6si ', map, 657. 
bicornis somaliensis, 656; map, 
657. 
Dickinson, Captain F. A., 500; bib- 

liog., 761. 
Dikdik, description, 622, 623. 

Kirk; range, 627; characters, 627, 

628; key to races, 628. 
large-snouted; range, 627; his- 
tory, 627; characters, 626; 
coloration, 626, 627; measure- 
ments, 627; map, 625. 
Naivasha Kirk; range, 632; his- 
tory, 632; characters, 632; 
measurements, 634; map, 633. 
Northern Kirk; range, 629; his- 
tory, 629; coloration, 629; 
measurements, 629; map, 633. 
Nyika Kirk; range, 630; colora- 
tion, 630; measurements, 630; 
map, 633. 
typical Kirk; range, 628; history, 
628; characters, 628, 629; 
map, 633. 
Ukamba Kirk; range, 631; his- 
tory, 631; albinism, 631; colo- 
ration, 631; measurements, 
632; map, 633. 
Dinotherium, 20, 21. 
Dolichohippus ; range, 700; difference 
between Grevy and quagga, 698, 
699, 700. 

grevyi, 700; map, 707. 
Dodonea viscosa, 43. 
Dombeya nairobiensis, 42, 722. 
Doum-palms, 39, 40, 41. 
DraccBua, 47. 

Dracopoli, I. N., bibliog., 761. 
Drake-Brockman, R. E., bibliog., 761. 
Drinking-places, methods of approach, 

75- 

Drummond, 429. 

Duben, Baron von, 550. 

Du Chaillu, 452, 453. 

Dugmore, A. Radclyffe, 76; bibliog., 
761. 

Duiker, Abbott; characters, 533; color- 
ation, 533; history, 532; measure- 
ments, 533; range, 532. 



Duiker, Alpine bush; coloration, 542; 
habits, 542; measurements, 542; 
range, 542; map, 545. 

Athi bush; description, 544; 

range, 544; map, 545. 
blue; description, 533, 534; key 

to races of monticola, 534. 
bush; characters, 537; coloration, 

537; habits, 537, 538, 539; key 

to races, 539; range, 537. 
coast blue; description, 536. 
desert bush; coloration, 544,546; 

range, 544; map, 545. 
forest; description, 528; key to 

species of, 529; 9. 
highland red; description, 531; 

history, 531; range, 530. 
Kilimanjaro red; description, 

530; history, 530; range, 530. 
Nandi blue; coloration, 535, 536; 

measurements, 536; range, 535, 

536. 
Nile bush; coloration, 540, 541; 

history, 540; measurements, 

541; range, 539, 540; m^p, 545. 
red forest; description, 529; key 

to races, 529; 9, 11. 
Uganda blue; description, 534; 

range, 534. 
Uganda bush; history, 541; mea- 
surements, 541, 542; range, 

541; map, 545. 
Uganda red; description, 532; 

range, 531, 532. 
yellow-backed, West African, 9. 
Duikers, 106, 107. 

description, 527, 528; key to 
genera, 528. 
East African buffalo, 415. 
bush pig, 273. 
eland, 467. 
forest hog, 278. 
greater koodoo, 449. 
hippopotamus, 297. 
hunting dog, 267. 
leopard, 236. 
lesser koodoo, 445. 
lion, 222. 
roan, 329. 



786 



INDEX 



East African wart-hog, 284. 
Eastern spotted hyena, 261. 
EgocerincE ; key to genera, 325; de- 
scription of, 325. 
Egoceros ; nomenclature, 326; key to 
species, 327; characters, 326, 327; 
coloration, 326; range, 326. 
equinus, 327. 

eqidnus bakeri, 332; map, 337. 

equinus langheldi, 329; map, 337. 

nigerroosevelli, 15, 333; map, 337. 

Eland; description, 458; key to, 459. 

East African; characters, 473, 

476; coloration, 473, 474; 

habits, 468, 469,470,471, 472; 

history, 467; measurements, 

467, 466; range, 466, 467; map, 

475- 
giant; characters, 460, 461, 466; 
coloration, 462, 463, 464, 466; 
habits, 461, 462; history, 460; 
measurements, 466, 467; range, 
459,460; 5; map, 465. 
Elephant, African; difference between 
Africanandlndian,7i2, 713,714,715. 
Cape or East African; range, 
640, 715, 738, 741; history, 
715, 716; habits, 718, 719, 720, 
721, 722, 723, 724, 725, 726, 
727; hunting, experiences in, 
726, 727; danger of, 727, 728; 
coloration, 732; measurements, 
734, 735, 736, 737; map, 739. 
ElephantidcB, 709. 

Elephants, characters; trunk, 709; 
skull, 710; teeth, 710, 711; fossil 
remains, 711. 
Elephas, present range of genus, 712. 
imperator, size of, 714. 
meridionalis, size of, 714. 
primigenius, size of tusks, 737. 
Eliot, Charles N. E., bibliog., 761. 
Elliott, G. F. Scott, bibliog., 761. 
clllpsiprymnus, Kobus, 502. 
Emin Pasha, 6, 351, 418; bibliog., 762. 
Enccphalarlos hildcbrandti, 40. 
Engler, Adolf, bibliog., 762. 
Equatorial damaliscus, 350. 
impalla, 614. 



Equatorial kob, 509. 

Equidce ; description, 673, 674, 675; 

key to genera of, 675. 
equinus, Egoceros, 327. 
Equipment, camping and collecting, 743. 
Equus, 675. 
Equus quagga, 676. 

qiiagga bohmi, 693; map, 795. 

quagga cuninghanici, 694 ; map, 

795- 

quagga gratiti, 687; map, 795. 
Erythrina tomcntosa, 39. 
Eugenia cor data, 44. 
Euphorbia candelabrum, 40, 41. 

nyikce, 40, 41. 
Euphorbias, 35, 36, 41. 

Fauna; derivation, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 
24; present distribution, 25, 26, 27, 
28, 30; definition, 126. 
Faunal areas; description and bound- 
aries, 25; map, 24; Abyssinian des- 
ert, map, 24;Bahr el Ghazal, map, 
24; East African, map, 24; East 
Nile, map, 24; Uganda, map, 24; 
West Nile, map, 24. 
Felis leo, 162. 

Ico chui, 239. 

leo massaica, 222; map, 227. 
leo nyanzcB, 226; map, 227. 
leo roosevelti, map, 227. 
pardus, 229. 
pardus Jortis, 241. 
pardus ruwcnzorii, 238. 
pardus suahelica, 236. 
Ficus mallocarpa, 48. 
stuhlmanni, 44. 
Filippi, Filippo dc, bibliog., 762. 
Finn, 56, 61, 62. 
fisi, Cr acuta cr acuta, 263. 
Fischer, Dr. G. A., 7, 8, 506, 554, 599; 

bibliog., 762. 
Fitzgerald, W. W. A., bJ/)liog., 762. 
Fitzinger, 5, 249, 520. 
Five-horned giraffe, 10. 
Fleischman, 641. 

Flora; derivation, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 
24; present distribution, 25, 26, 27, 
28, 29, 30. 



INDEX 



787 



Forests; location, 44, 45, 46; char- 
acter, 45; soil, 45. 
Forest duiker, 9. 

hog; characters, 277; history, 105, 

276, 277. 
hog. East African; coloration, 
279; habits, 280; history, 278, 
279; measurements, 279, 280; 
range, 278, 280. 
leopard, 238. 
fortis, Felis pardus, 241. 
Fraas, 20. 
Franco, Leo, 460. 
Frick, Childs, 313. 
Fringe-eared oryx, 9. 

Game laws, necessity of, 158. 
Game preserves; value of, 149; dis- 
crimination necessary, 150, 151. 
Gazella, 580. 

granti, 5, 581. 

granti hrighti, 594; map, 597. 

granti granti, 588; map, 597. 

granli noiata, 595; map, 597. 

granti raineyi, 592; map, 597. 

granti robertsi, 588; map, 597. 

granti roosevelti, 590; map, 597. 

granti serengetcB, 596; map, 597. 

petersi, 598; map, 597. 

rufifrons albonota, 608. 

ihomsoni, 599. 

thomsoni nasalis, 602; map, 607. 

thomsoni thomsoni, 601; map, 
607. 
Gazelle, Abyssinian Grant; history, 
595 ; range, 595. 

black-snouted Thomson; color- 
ation, 605; history, 602; habits, 
603, 604, 605; measurements, 
606; range, 602. 

Bright Grant; history, 594; 
range, 594. 

coloration, 580; key to species, 
581; range, 580. 

Grant ; general description, 
species, and races, 581, 582; 
habits, 583; key to species, 587, 
588; range, 5, 581. 

Grant notata, 13. 



Gazelle, Kilimanjaro Thomson; his- 
tory, 601; characters, 602; range, 
601. 

Peters; characters, 599; history, 

599; range, 7, 598. 
Rainey Grant; coloration, 593; 
measurements, 594; range, 592. 
Roberts Grant; characters, 588; 
history, 588; measurements, 
588; range, 588. 
Roosevelt Grant; coloration, 590, 
591, 592; measurements, 593; 
range, 590. 
Serengeti Grant; characters, 598; 
coloration, 596, 598; history, 
596; range, 596. 
Thomson; black band, 104; 

action in hiding, 8, 107, 108. 
Thomson; characters, 599, 600; 
key to races of, 601 ; range, 600. 
Typical Grant; history, 588; 

range, 588. 
Uganda red-fronted; coloration, 
608; history, 608; range, 608. 
Gedge, 441. 

Geologic formation, 17, 18, 19. 
Gerenuk; coloration, 611, 612; habits, 
610, 611; history, 610; measure- 
ments, 612; range, 8, 81, 610, 612; 
map, 613. 
gerniinans, Crocuta crocuta, 261. 
Giant eland, 5, 459. 
Gibbons, A. St. Hilair, 14, 662, 663; 

bibliog., 762. 
Gidley, 423, 424. 

gigas, Taurotragus derhianus, 459. 
Girajfa, 302. 

camclopardalis reticulata, 304; 

map, 319. 
camelopardalis rothschildi, 10, 

314; map, 319. 
camelopardalis tippelskircki, 316; 
map, 319. 
Giraffe; affecting color concealment, 
83, 84; coloration minor features, 
84. 

five-horned, 10. 

Masai; habits, 318, 320; history, 
317; measurements, 320; range, 



788 



INDEX 



316; specimens, difference in, 
317; coloration of, 317, 318; 
map, 319. 
Giraffe, reticulated; animals, associa- 
tion, 311, 313; coloration, 305, 
312; habits, 306, 307, 308, 309; 
hunting experiences, 309, 310, 311; 
history, 304, 305; measurements, 
313; 13; map, 319. 

Uganda; characters, 314, 315; 
coloration, 315, 316; history, 
315; measurements, 316; range, 
314, 316; map, 319- 
Giraffidce, general description, 301, 302. 
Goldfinch, G. H., 689. 
Gordon, 7. 
Gorgon, 360. 

albojubatus, 361. 

albojubalus albojubatus, 369; map, 

373- 
albojubatus mearnsi, 370; map, 

373- 
Grant, Colonel J. A., 3, 4, 5, 6, 267, 
330, 369, 391, 415, 436, 441, 467, 
496, 510, 56s, 581, 588, 652, 615, 
662, 688; bibliog., 762. 
gazelle, 581. 
granii, Equus quagga, 687. 
Gazella, 5, 581. 
Gazella granii, 588. 
Gray, G. E., 5, 333, 5i9, 520. 
Greater koodoo, 8, 448. 
Gregory, John W., 13, 84, 688; bib- 
liog., 763- 
Grevy, President, 700. 

zebra, 700; map, 707. 
grevyi, Dolicfiohippus, 700. 
Grewia, 40. 

populifolia, 41. 
Grey, George, 193, 194; death of by 

lion, 194 to 203, 453. 
Grogan, E. S., 734. 
Groundsels, 51. 
Guaso Nyiro, Northern, 12. 
Giinthcr, Dr., 8, 391, 628. 

Haeckel, 55. 

Hagcnia anthelminlica, 49. 

Haggard, Vice-Consul, 562. 



haggardi, Ourebia monlana, 562. 
Harnier, Baron Wilhelm, 495. 
harnicri, Kobus defassa, 495. 
Haronga, 45. 

Hartebeest, coast; coloration, 391; 
history, 391; range, 391, 392; 
measurements, 392; map, 395. 
Coke; characters, 390; key to 

races, 391; range, 390. 
description, 374; habits, 377 to 
382, 384 to 389; key to 
species, 390; range, 59, 375, 

376, 377- 
Heuglin lelwel; characters, 398; 

history, 398; measurements, 

399; range, 398; map, 401. 
Jackson lelwel; coloration, 402; 

history, 402; measurements, 

402; range, 402; discovery, 11; 

map, 401. 
Kenia lelwel; characters, 403; 

measurements, 403 ; range, 403 ; 

map, 401. 
Kongoni; coloration, 392, 393; 

history, 392; measurements, 

393; range, 392; map, 395. 
lelwel; description, 397; key to, 

5, 15, 398. 
Nakuru; history, 394; measure- 
ments, 396; range, 394, 396; 
map, 395. 
Neumann; history, 397; mea- 
surements, 397; range, 10,396; 
map, 395. 
Roosevelt lelwel; coloration, 399; 
history, 399; measurements, 
399, 400; range, 399; map, 401. 
Uganda lelwel; characters, 400; 
history, 400; measurements, 
401, 402; range, 400; map, 401. 
Harvey, Sir Robert, 8, 352, 530, 562. 
harveyi, Cephalophns natalcnsis, 530. 
hassama, Polamoc/iwrus koiropolamus, 

275- 
Haynes, Captain, 460. 
Headlam, Captain H. R., 460. 
Heatley, 408, 409, 412. 
Heck, Dr., 536. 
hecki, Cephalophns rnonticola, 536. 



INDEX 



789 



Eeliochrysum, 51. 

Heller, Edmund, bibliog., 763. 

Heuglin lelwel hartebeest, 398. 

Martin Theodore, 5, 6, 250, 267, 
27s, 332, 351, 398, 418, 437, 
460, 496, 514, 520, 540, 559; 
bibliog., 763. 
Highland bushbuck, 431. 

cheetah, 246. 

leopard, 241. 

red duiker, 530. 

reedbuck, 485. 

quagga zebra, 687. 

striped hyena, 254. 

waterbuck, 502. 
Hildebrandt, J. M., 7, 369, 506; 

bibliog., 763. 
Hill, Harold, 182, 193, 194. 
Hinde, Dr. S. L., 544, 631, 655. 
hindei, Rhynchotragus kirki, 631. 

Sylvicapra grimmia, 544. 
Hippopotamus; general description, 

289, 290; amphibius, key to races, 

290, 291; characters, 292; habits, 
292 to 2-96; history, 291; range, 
292. 

amphibius amphibius, 297. 
amphibius kiboko, 298. 

Hippopotamus, East African; char- 
acters, 298, 299; coloration, 299; 
measurements, 299, 300; range, 
298, 300. 

Nile; range, 297, 298. 

Hodgson, 75, 405. 

Hohnel, Ludwig von, 9, 12, 646, 656; 
bibliog., 764. 

HoUister, N., 223, 339, 560; bibliog., 
764. 

Holm wood, 653. 

Hopwood, Francis J. S. (Lord Hind- 
lip), bibliog., 764. 

Hornaday, William T., 89, 112, 150, 

154- 
House, Edward J., bibliog., 764. 
Huerta, 352. 
Hunter, H. C. V., 8, 352, 359, 360, 

392, 562, 612. 

antelope, 10, 359; map, 373. 
hunteri, Beatragus, 8, 359; map, 373. 



Hunting dog; general description, 
265, 266; habits, 266; range, 266. 
East African; coloration, 267, 268; 
habits, 267; history, 267; meas- 
urements, 268, 269; range, 267. 
Hurlburt, Reverend Mr., 647. 
Huxley, 56. 
Hycena, 253. 

hycena bergeri, 255. 
hycena schillingsi, 254. 
Hycenida;, 251, 252. 
Hyena, Ankole spotted, description, 
264. 

desert striped; coloration, 255, 
256; measurements, 256; range, 

255- 
Eastern spotted; coloration, 262; 

history, 261; measurements, 

262; range, 261. 
highland striped; coloration, 255; 

measurements, 255; range, 254. 
Marsabit spotted; coloration, 263, 

264; range, 263. 
spotted; difference between Cro- 

cula and Hycena, 256, 257; 

key to Crocuta, 261; habits, 

257 to 260; range, 256. 
striped; general description, 253; 

habits, 253 ; key to races of, 254. 
Hylochcerus, 276. 

minertzhageni, 278. 
Hypericum lanceolatum, 50. 
Hyphcene coriacea, 40, 41. 

Ibea, 10. 

Ibean beisa oryx, 339. 

ignifer, Cephalophus natalensis, 530. 

Impalla, description, 7, 614. 

equatorial; coloration, 615, 616; 
habits, 617, 618, 620; history, 
615; measurements, 616, 617; 
range, 615, 620; map, 619. 

insignis, Bubalis lelwel, 11, 400. 

Isaac, district commissioner, 11, 453. 

isaaci, Boocercus eurycerus, 452. 

Jackson, F. J., 10, 11, 66, 333, 346, 
352, 369, 400, 402, 445, 449, 452, 
472, 476, 485, 498, 506, 530, 536, 



790 



INDEX 



560, 562, 565, 576, 602, 612, 620; 

bibliog., 764. 
Jackson lelwel hartebeest, 11, 402. 
jacksoni, Bubalis lelwel, 11, 402. 
Jaguar, 115. 

Jcssen, B. H., bibliog., 764. 
jimeld, Damaliscus korrigiim, 351. 
Johnston, Harry H., g, 10, 150, 264, 

315, 532; bibliog., 765. 
Johnston, T. Broadworth, bibliog., 

765- 
johnstoni, Cephalophiis natalensis, 531. 
Jones, Buffalo, 204, 209, 320, 363, 

383- 
"Jumbo," body size, 735. 
Juniperus procera, 47, 48. 
Junker, Dr. Wilhelm, 332; bibliog., 

765- 

Kaup, 495. 
Kearton, 84, 112. 
Kemp, Robin, 536. 
Kenia, 9. 

lelwel hartebeest, 403. 

oribi, 15, 561. 

pygmy antelope, 551. 
kenia;, Bubalis lelwel, 403. 
kenyce, Ourebia montana, 15, 561. 
kiboko, Hippopotamus amphibius, 

298. 
Kigelia ethiopica, 43. 
Kilimanjaro, 6, 9. 

pygmy antelope, 554. 

quagga zebra, 693. 

red duiker, 530. 

Thomson gazelle, 601. 
kirchenpaueri, Nesoiragus moschatus, 

554- 
Kirk, Sir John, 333, 334, 351, 352, 

44S> 53°, 536, 55°, 610, 628. 
dikdik, 627. 
kirki, Rhynchotragus, 627. 

Rhynchotragus kirki, 628. 
Kirkpatrick, Major H. J., 359. 
Klein, Alfred J., 279. 
Klipspringer; characters, 571, 572; 

habits, 572, 573, 574; key to races 

of, 574, 107. 
Klipspringer, Marsabit; characters, 



574; coloration, 574; measurements, 
575; range, 574, 575; map, 577. 
Masailand; measurements, 578; 
range, 576, 578; map, 577. 
Knottnerus-Meyer, 600. 
Knowles, district commissioner, 417, 

437, 532. 
kob, Adeuota, 509. 
Kob; description, 508; range, 508. 

equatorial; description, 509; key 

to races, 509; range, 509. 
Lado; characters, 513; colora- 
tion, 513, 514; measurements, 
514; range, 512; map, 517. 
Uganda; coloration, 511, 512; 
habits, 510; history, 510; mea- 
surements, 512; range, 510; 
map, 517. 
white-eared; characters, 514; col- 
oration, 515, 516, 518; habits, 
514, 515; history, 514; mea- 
surements, 516; range, 514; 
60; map, 517. 
KohincB, 478; key to genera, 478. 
Kobus, 490. 

dcfassa, 491. 

dcfassa harnieri, ^gy, map, 501. 
defassa niatschici, 497; map, 501. 
defassa nzoicB, 498; map, 501. 
defassa raineyi, 498; map, 501. • 
defassa tjaderi, 500; map, 501. 
defassa Uganda;, 496; map, 501. 
ellipsiprymnus, 502; map, 507. 
ellipsiprymnus kiiru, 506; map, 

507- 
ellipsipryynnus thikce, 502; map, 

507- 
maria, 5. 
Kolb, Dr., 649. 
kongoni, Bubalis cokei, 392. 
Kongoni hartebeest, 392. 
Koodoo, East African greater; colora- 
tion, 449, 450; habits, 449; history, 
449; measurements, 450, 452; range, 
449, 450; map, 451. 

East African lesser; coloration, 
446; habits, 445, 446; history, 
445; measurements, 448; range, 
445; map, 447. 



INDEX 



791 



Koodoo, greater; description, 448, 449; 
8. 

lesser; description, 444, 445; 8. 

lesser, Somaliland, 81. 
korrigum, Damaliscus, 350. 
Krapf, Ludwig, 2, 3; bibliog., 765. 
Kuhnert, 693. 
kuru, Kobus ellipsiprymniis, 506. 

Lado kob, 512. 
Lake Rudolf, 9, 12. 

Stefanie, 9. 
Lang, Herbert, 632. 
Langheld, Captain, 330. 
langheldi, Egoceros equinus, 329. 
Lardner, E. G. Dion, bibliog., 765. 
Large-snouted dikdik, 627. 
Latreille, 256. 

Lechwi; characters, 519; history, 519; 
range, 519. 

Nile, 520; coloration, 523, 524, 
526; habits, 521, 522; measure- 
ments, 526; history, 520, 521; 
range, 519, 520; map, 525. 
white-withered (see Nile), 5, 60, 

519- 

lelwel, Bubalis lelwel, 5, 15, 398. 

Lelwel hartebeest, 397. 

leo, Fells ; key to races of, 222; color- 
ation, 171, 172, 173; general intro- 
duction, 161, 162; danger from, 183 
to 186; habits, 164 to 171, 173 to 
183; hunting, methods of, 187 to 
193, 205; lassoing, 210; spearing, 
210; with dogs, 211 to 217; with 
traps, 215 to 220, 222; races, differ- 
ences in regard to, 162, 163, 164; 
coloration of, 163; range, 163, 164; 
skull, 164; marksmanship, impor- 
tance of, 209; rifles, 204. 

Leopard, East African; characters, 
237; coloration, 237; history, 236, 
237; measurements, 238; range, 236, 

237- 

(Felis pardiis) ; coloration, 230, 
231 ; comparison between forms, 
229, 230; key to races, 236; 
habits, 232, 233, 23s; man- 
eating, 235; range, 229. 



Leopard, forest; coloration, 240; his- 
tory, 239; range, 238. 

habits of concealment, 114. 
highland; characters, 241; color- 
ation, 241 ; measurements, skull, 
241, 242; range, 241. 
Nile; characters, 239, 240; color- 
ation, 240; measurements, 240; 
range, 239. 
Lesser koodoo, 8, 444; Somaliland, 81. 
leucotls, Adenota kob, 514. 
Lichtenstein, 514. 

Life zones; description and definition, 
28; map, 24; Congo, map, 24; des- 
ert nyika, map, 24; highland forest, 
map, 24; highland veldt, map, 24; 
tropical coast, map, 24. 
Limnotragus, 440. 

selousl, map, 443. 
spekel, 5, 440; map, 443. 
spekei gratus, map, 443. 
Linnaeus, 291, 297, 700. 
Lion, Abyssinian, map, 227. 

coloration of young as index to 
ancestral forms, in, 112; value 
of coloration, 103; value of 
coloration in mane, in. 
East African; charactrs, 223; 
coloration, 223, 224; measure- 
ments, 225; range, 13, 222; 
map, 227. 
Uganda; coloration, 226, 228; his- 
tory, 226; measurements, skulls, 
228; range, 226; map, 227. 
Litchfield, E. Hubert, bibliog., 765. 
Lithocranius, description, 609, 610. 

wallerl, 610; map, 613. 
Lloyd, Albert B., bibliog., 766. 
Lobelia gregoriana, 51. 

telekii, 51. 
Loder, Sir E. G., 736. 
Loita white-bearded wildebeest, 369. 
Lololokui, Mount, 221. 
Lonchitls pubescens, 47. 
Long-snouted dikdik, 623. 
Lonnberg, Einar, 223, 256, 261, 287, 
288, 500, 503, 531, 602, 621, 626, 
629; bibliog., 766. 
Lorian swamp, 12, 477, 702, 706. 



792 



INDEX 



Loring, J. A., i88. 
Loveless, 204, 209, 320, 383. 
Loxodonta, 712. 

africana afncana, map, 739. 
africana cyclotis, shape of ears, 

716. 
africana oxyotis, shape of ears, 

716; map, 739. 
africana pumilio, history of type 
specimen, 717. 
Lugard, Captain F. D., bibliog., 766. 
lupinus, Lycaon pictus, 267. 
Lycaon, 265. 

pictus lupinus, 267. 
Lydekker, Richard, 76, 314, 315, 317, 
352, 372, 398, 418, 467, 477, 516, 
656, 662, 667, 691; bibUog., 766. 

Macaranga kilimanjarica, ^"j. 

McAtee, W. L., 57, 62. 

McCutcheon, John T., bibliog., 767. 

MacDonald, Jas. R. L., bibliog., 766. 

McMillan, Wm. N., 332, 346, 412, 
559, 692. 

McMillan, Mrs., 209. 

MacQueen, Peter, bibliog., 766, 767. 

Madeira, Percy C, bibliog., 767. 

Major, Doctor Forsyth, 273, 274, 275. 

Mammoth, size of tusks, 737. 

Mangabey, 7. 

maria, Kobus, 5. 

Marsabit klipspringer, 574. 

Masai bushbuck, 433. 
giraffe, 316. 

Masailand steinbok, 565. 

massaica, Felis leo, 222. 

massaicus, Tragelaphus scriptus, 433. 

^lastodon, geologic range, 714. 

Matschie, Doctor Paul, 224, 254, 255, 
261, 317, 330, 352, 415, 497, 498, 
503, 516, 534, 565, 615, 620, 693, 
701, 716, 717; bibliog., 767. 

tnatschiei, Kobus dcfassa, 497. 

Means, 204, 209, 320, 383. 

Mcarns, Doctor E. A., 371, 418. 

mearnsi, Gorgon albojubatus, 370. 

Measurements of specimens in the 
flesh, 745. 

Megaceros, Onotragus, 5, 519. 



Melanism, 59. 

Melland, F. H., and Cholmeley, E. 

H., bibliog., 767. 
Menelik, King, 700, 701. 
Merriam, Doctor C. Hart, 140, 423. 
Meyer, Hans, bibliog., 767. 
Meyer, von, 223. 
Millais, 617. 
Minertzhagen, Lieutenant, 14, 276, 

278, 561. 
minertzhageni, Hylochcvrus, 15, 278. 
minor, Rhynchotragus kirki, 629. 
montana, Ourcbia montana, 558. 
monticola, Ccphalophiis, 533. 
Morris, Reverend W., 274. 
moschalus, Nesotragus moschatus, 

550- 
Mount Lololokui, 221. 
Movement, effect on vision, 99. 
Mrs. Gray's waterbuck, 5. 
Muff, H. Brantwood, 17; bibliog., 

767. 
Murie, Doctor, 495. 
Musa ensele, 45. 
musculo ides, Cephalophus monticola, 

535- 

Naivasha Kirk dikdik, 632. 
nakurce, Bubalis cokei, 394. 
Nandi blue duiker, 535. 
nasalis, Gazella Ihoynsoni, 602. 
natalcnsis, Cephalophus, 529. 
Natural selection; belief in, 56, 57; 

limit of, 138, 139; unimportance of, 

147. 
Nelson, E. W., 61. 
Ncsotragincc, 546, 547; key to genera, 

547- 
Nesotragus, 549. 
Nesotragus moschatus akclcyi, 551; 

map, 553. 

moschatus dcserticola, 552; map, 

553- 
moschatus kirchenpaueri, 554; 

map, 553. 
moschatus moschatus, 550. 
Neumann, Arthur H., 12, 13, 305, 
313, 339, 396, 403, 497, 595, 702, 
706, 735; bibliog., 768. 



INDEX 



793 



Neumann, Oscar, 12, 13, 223, 236, 
237, 330, 433, 480, 510, 541, 565, 
588, 602, 610, 576, 496, 497, 436, 
369, 689; bibliog., 768. 
neumanni, Bubalis cokei, 13, 396. 

Raphicerus campcstris, 13, 565. 
New, Charles, bibliog., 768. 
Newland, Tarlton & Co., Ltd., 743. 
Niedieck, Paul, 420, 727; bibliog., 768. 
Nile buffalo, 418. 

bushbuck, 427. 

bush duiker, 539. 

defassa waterbuck, 495. 

hippopotamus, 297. 

lechwi, 520. 

leopard, 239. 

reedbuck, 486. 

roan, 332. 

wart-hog, 286. 

white rhinoceros, 660. 
Noack, 224. 

Northern Guaso Nyiro, 12. 
Northern Kirk dikdik, 629. 
notata, Gazella granii, 595. 
notata Grant gazelle, 13, 595. 
nyayiscB, Sylvicapra grimtnia, 541. 
nyanzcB, Felis leo, 226. 
Nyika; rainfall, 39; location, 39; veg- 
etation, 39, 40. 
Nyika Kirk dikdik, 630. 
nyikcB, Rhynchotragus kirki, 630. 
'Nzoia defassa waterbuck, 498. 
nzoice, Kohtis defassa, 498. 

Observations; value of clearness, 79, 
80; mistakes easily made, 80; num- 
ber made, 131, 132; value of, 159. 
Ocotea usafttbariensis, 48. 
Ogilby, 452. 
Oka chrysophylla, 47. 

laurijolia, 47, 48, 49. 
olivaceus, Tragelaphtis scriptiis, 434. 
Olivier, Lieutenant-Colonel, 81. 
Onotragiis, 519. 

lechwi, map, 525. 
megaceros, 5; map, 525. 
Oreodorcas, 479. 

Julvorujula chanleri, 12, 479; 
map, 481. 



Oreotragince, 571. 
Oreolragus, 571. 

oreolragus aureus, 574; map, 577. 

oreolragus schillingsi, 576; map, 

577- 
Oribi, Abyssinian; characters, 558, 
559; history, 558; range, 558; map, 

563- 

characters, 555; coloration, 555; 
habits, 556, 557; key to races 
of, 557, 558; range, 8, 15, 555. 
coast; coloration, 562, 564; his- 
tory, 562; measurements, 564; 
range, 562; map, 563. 
Kenia; description, 561, 562; 

range, 561; map, 563. 
Nile; coloration, 559, 560; his- 
tory, 559; measurements, 560; 
range, 559; map, 563. 
Uasin Gishu; characters, 560; 
history, 560; measurements, 
560; range, 560; map, 563. 
Oryx heisa; description, 338; key to 
species, 339. 

heisa anneclens, 339; map, 345. 
beisa callotis, 346; map, 345. 
Oryx, fringe-eared; coloration, 346; 
history, 346; measurements, 346, 
347; range, 346, 347; map, 345; 9. 
Ibean beisa; coloration, 342, 343, 
344; habits, 339, 340, 341, 342; 
history, 339; measurements, 
344; range, 339, 346; map, 345. 
Osborn, Henry Fairfield; derivation 
of African mammals, 23; bibliog., 
768. 
Osman, Doctor C. H., 655. 
Ostrich; habits of brooding, 103, 104; 

coloration, 104. 
Oswald, F., 638; bibliog., 768. 
Ourebia, 555. 
Ourebia montana cequatoria, 558; map, 

563- 

montana cottoni, 560; map, 563. 
montana haggardi, 562; map, 

563- 
montana kenyce, 561, 15; map, 

563- 
montana montana, 558; map, 563. 



794 



INDEX 



Oustalet, 700. 
Oxytenanthera abyssinica, 32. 

Pallas, 483. 

Papyrus, 44. 

pardiis, Felis, 229. 

Patterson, Colonel J. H., 76, 177, 178, 

467; bibliog., 768, 769. 
pattersonianus, Taiirotragus oryx, 467. 
Pease, Sir Alfred, 193, 194, 209, 233; 

letters from, 194, 631. 
Percival, A. Blayney, 182, 2)2>2>i 689, 

706. 
Peters, Carl, bibliog., 769. 
Peters, Doctor Wilhelm, 514, 599. 
Peters gazelle, 7, 598. 
petersi, Gazella, 598. 
Petherick, 418. 
Phacochcerus, 281. 

africaniis celiani, 284. 
africanus bufo, 286. 
delamerei, 14, 287. 
Pigott, 174. 

Pigs (SuidcB), 270; key to genera, 271. 
Plains; soil, 43; character, 43. 
Pocock, 430, 701. 
Podocarpiis gracilior, 43, 47. 
milanjiana, 47, 48, 49. 
Portal, Gerald, bibliog., 769. 
Potamochcerus, 271. 

koiropotamiis dmnonis, 273. 
koiropotamiis hassama, 275. 
Potocki, Count, 656. 
Poulton, Professor, 57, 58, 62, 63, 64, 

126; theory as to minute observance, 

64, 65; why valueless, 67, 68. 
Powell-Cotton, 10, 14, 297, 315, 316, 

400, 420, 485, 498, 503, 541, 558, 

560, 658, 662, 670, 672. 734, 736; 

bibliog., 769. 
Preservation of skins, 744. 
Preservation of skulls, 746, 755. 
Prongbuck, 61, 64, 118, 138. 
Puma, 115. 

Pycraft, 99, 120, 122, 123, 126. 
Pygmy antelope, 549; map, 553. 

quagga, Equus, 676; map, 795. 
Quagga zebra or bonte-quagga, 676. 



radclijfei, Syncerus cafer, 415. 
Rainey, Paul J., 76, 180, 187, 209, 
235, 267, 330, 403, 417, 500, 592, 
658, 738; bibliog., 769. 
Rainey African cheetah, 248. 
defassa waterbuck, 498. 
Grant gazelle, 592. 
raineyi, Acinonyx jubatus, 248. 
Gazella granti, 592. 
Kobus defassa, 498. 
Rainsford, W. S., 505; bibliog., 769. 
Raphia, 44. 
Raphicerus, 564. 

campestris neumanni, 13, 565; 
map, 569. 
Rebmann, John, 2; bibliog., 769. 
Red Forest duiker, 9, 11, 528. 
Redunca, 482. 

redunca bohor, map, 489. 
redunca cotloni, 486; map, 489. 
redunca tohi, 487; map, 489. 
redunca ugandce, 488; map, 489. 
redunca wardl, 485; map, 489. 
Reedbuck, 482; map, 489; characters, 
483; coloration, 483; habits, 484, 
485; history, 483; key to races, 106. 
Ankole, 488; range, 488; map, 

489. 
highland; coloration, 486; history, 
485; measurements, 486; range, 
485; map, 489. 
Nile; characters, 486, 487; color- 
ation, 487; history, 486; mea- 
surements, 487; range, 486; 
map, 489. 
rock; description, 12, 479; map, 

4S1. 
Swahili; characters, 487; colora- 
tion, 487; habits, 487; history, 
487; measurements, 488; range, 
487; map, 489. 
Reighard, 95. 
reticulata, Girafa camelopardalis, 13, 

304- 
Reticulated giraffe, 304. 
Rhinoceros, black; range, 640; habits, 

641 to 646, 650; hunting, 647, 648, 

649; key to races, 650; 7; map, 

657- 



INDEX 



795 



Rhinoceros; characters, 635, 636, 637; 
extinct forms, 637, 638; key to liv- 
ing genera in Africa, 638, 639. 

description, 7, 14, 659, 660. 

Nile white; range, 660, 661, 663, 
664; history, 662; habits, 664, 
665, 666; characters, 667, 668; 
coloration, 670; table of flesh 
measurements, 669; measure- 
ments, 670; map, 671. 

Somali black; range, 656; history, 
656; characters, 658; color- 
ation, 658; measurements, 658; 
map, 657. 

typical black; range, 651; charac- 
ters, 652, 653, 654; history, 
652; nomenclature, 653; color- 
ation, 653; measurements, 654, 

655. 
Rhinocerolidce, 635. 
Rhizophora mucronata, 38. 
Rhoads, Samuel N., bibliog., 769. 
Rhynchotragince, 622, 623. 
Rhynchotragus, 623. 

guenthcri smilhi, 626; map, 625. 
kirki, 627. 

kirki cavendishi, 632; map, 633. 
kirki hindei, 631; map, 633. 
kirki minor, 629; map, 633. 
kirki nyikce, 630; map, 633. 
Ridgway, R., 689. 
Roan antelope, 326. 
Roan, East African; coloration, 330, 
331; history, 330; measurements, 
331, 332; map, 337. 

Nile; coloration, 332; history, 
332; measurements, 333; range, 
332; s; map, 337. 
sable, and oryx; introduction, 
321, 322, 323; map, 337. 
Roberts, F. Russel, 588. 
Grant gazelle, 588. 
robertsi, Gazella granti, 588, 
Rock reedbuck, Chanler; coloration, 
480. 482; habits, 480; history, 480; 
measurements, 481; range, 479; map, 
481. 
Roosevelt Grant gazelle, 590. 
Roosevelt, Kermit, 187, 193, 258, 315, 



316, 318, 329, 333, 334, 396, 417, 
441, 442, 449, 452, 453, 456, 460, 
464, 505, 576, 648, 655, 662, 665, 
670, 726, 744. 
Roosevelt lelwel hartebeest, 399. 

sable, 33S- 
Roosevelt, Theodore, bibliog., 770. 
rooscvelti, Bubalis lelwel, 399. 
Egoceros niger, 15, :iS3' 
Gazella granti, 590. 
Sylvicapra grimmia, 539. 
Rothschild, Walter, 315, 394, 396, 460, 

480, 486, 608. 
Riihiis, 48. 

Rudolf defassa waterbuck, 497. 
Rudolf, Lake, 9, 12. 
Rijppell, Edward, 275, 284, 491, 558. 
Ruwenzori, 10, 15. 
ruwenzorii, Felis pardus, 238. 

Sable, Roosevelt, 333; map, 337; col- 
oration, 334, 335, 336; history, iii'y 
measurements, 336; range, 333. 

Sable and roan antelopes, 326. 

Sable antelopes, 15, 327. 

Salt method of skin preservation, 

747- 

Salvadora persica, 611. 

Sambur, 112, 121. 

Samburu quagga zebra, 694. 

Sanderson, 719. 

Sansevieria, 40. 

Sayer, 430. 

SchilHngs, C. G., 150, 76, 254, 312, 
576; bibliog., 770. 

schillingsi, Oreotragus oreotragus, 576. 
Hyccna hycena, 254. 

Schweinfurth, Doctor Georg, 6, 106, 
250, 267, 332, 351, 398, 418, 437, 
460, 540, 559, 496; bibliog., 770. 

Scientific expeditions; value of, 151; 
petitions against African, Roosevelt, 
152, 153; attacks on, 152. 

Sclater, L., 11, 24, 81, 359, 369, 441, 
453, 510, 519, 533, 610, 460; bib- 
liog., 770. 

Scott, 20. 

Scott-Eliot, 400. 

scriptiis, Tragelaphus, 426. 



796 



INDEX 



Scull, Guy H., bibliog., 770. 

Selous, F. C, 79, 84, 92, 162, 209, 412, 

460, 477, 521, 663, 735, 738. 
Senecio keniensis, 51. 
serengetce, Gazella granti, 596. 
Serengeti Grant gazelle, 596. 
Seton, E. Thompson, 61, 99. 
Sheldon, Charles, 78; value of field 

observations, 78. 
Sheldon, Mary French, bibliog., 770. 
Sitatunga, 5, 440. 

Uganda; coloration, 442, 444; 

habits, 441, 442; history, 440; 

measurements, 444; range, 440; 

map, 443. 
Skinner, Doctor Henry, 135. 
Skinning elephants, cuts necessary, 

755- 
Skinning heads of large game, method, 

751- 
Skunk, spotted, 140, 141, 142. 
Smith, A. Donaldson, 12, 81, 180, 

305, 314, 396, 483, 487, 497, 594, 
608, 612, 626; bibliog., 771. 

smithi, Rhynchotragus guent fieri, 626. 

socmmcringii, Acinonyx jubatus, 249. 

Solatium campylacanthum, 528, 611. 

Somali black rhinoceros, 656. 

somaliensis, Diccros bicornis, 656. 

Soudan cheetah, 249. 

spadix, Ccphalophus, 9, 532. 

Sparrman, 483. 

Spathodea, 45. 

Specimens; measurements, 745, 746; 
preservation of, methods, 747; 
mounting of heads, 751, 752, 753; 
number secured by Smithsonian 
African expedition, 778; prepara- 
tion of skins, 754, 755; skulls, 
preservation of, 756. 

Speke, John Hannington, 3, 4, 5, 6, 
267, 330, 369, 391, 415, 436, 441, 
467, 496, 510, 565, 581, 588, 615, 
652, 662; bibliog., 771. 

spekci, Limnotragus, 5, 440. 

Spotted hyena, 256. 

Stanley, H. M., 4, 6, 652, 662; bib- 
liog., 771. 

Stefanie, Lake, 9. 



Stegodon ganesa, size of tusks, 737. 
Steinbok, 13, 564, 565; range, 107, 
108, no, 145, 565. 

Masailand; coloration, 568, 570; 

history, 565; habits, 566, 567, 

568; measurements, 570; range, 

565, 570; map, 569. 

Stevenson-Hamilton, Major J., 429. 

Stigand, C. H., 84, 209, 377, 378, 

521; bibliog., 771, 772. 
Stobc kilimandcharica, 50. 
Stone, Witmer, 96, 117. 
Strepsiceros, 448. 

strepsiccros bea, 449; map, 451. 
Striped hyena, 253. 
Stuhlmann, Doctor Franz, 534; bib- 
liog., 772. 
suahelica, Felis pardus, 236. 
suara, /Epyccros melampus, 615. 
Sutherland, James, bibliog., 772. 
Swahili bushbuck, 434. 

reedbuck, 487. 

waterbuck, 506. 
Swamp, Lorian, 12, 477, 702, 706. 
Swayne, Captain, 656. 
Sykes, C. A., bibliog., 772. 
Sylvicapra, 537. 

grimmia abyssinica, map, 545. 

grimmia altivallis, 542; map, 545. 

grimmia dcserti, 544; map, 545. 

grimmia hindei, 544; map, 545. 

grimmia nyansce, 541; map, 545. 

grimmia roosevelti, 539; map, 545. 
Syncerus, 405. 

cafcr aquinoctialis, 418; map, 
419. 

cajjcr radclijfci, 415; map, 419. 

Tapirs, American, 122, 123; Malayan, 

122, 123. 
Tarconanthus camphoratus, 43. 
Tarlton, 205, 209, 188; letter from, 

206, 207, 208. 
Taurolragus, 458. 

derbianus dcrbianus, map, 465. 
dcrbianus gigas, 439; map, 465. 
oryxpatter5onianus,^6-] -ynvdY), ^-j $. 
Teleki, Count, 9, 12, 449, 620, 646, 
656, 702, 740. 



INDEX 



797 



Temminck, 265. 

Thayer, Abbott, 57, 58, 62, 63, 64, 

69, 70, 72, 73, 77, 78, 93, 95, io9, 
115, 126, 136; theory as to colora- 
tion, 64, 65; experiments in, 69, 70, 
71, 72, 73, 78; value of observations, 
84, 85, 136. 
thikcB, Kohus cllipsiprymnus, 502. 
Thomas, Oldfield, 11, 14, 81, 264, 267, 
276, 278, 346, 369, 400, 415, 430, 
452, 453, 460, 485, 510, 519, 531, 
532, 533, 588, 594, 610, 662; bib- 
liog., 772, 773. 
Ihomasi, Adenota koh, 510. 
Crocuta crocuta, 264. 
Thomson gazelle, 8, 599; map, 607. 
Thomson, Joseph, 6, 13, 601; bib- 

liog., 773. 
thomsoni, Gazella, 599. 

Gazella thomsoni, 601. 
Tiang damaliscus, 350; map, 357. 
Hang, Damaliscus korriguni, 350. 
Tiger, value of stripes, 112. 
Tippelskirch, Herr von, 317. 
tippelskirchi, Gira^a camelopardalis, 

316. 
Tjader, R., 500; bibliog., 773. 
tjaderi, Kobus defassa, 500. 
tohi, Rcdunca redunca, 487. 
Topi, 8, loi, 351, 

Damaliscus, 351; map, 357. 
Trachylobiutn hornemannianum, 38. 
Tragelaphince, key to genera, 421, 

422, 423, 424. 
Tragelaphiis ; characters, 424, 425; col- 
oration, 425; habits, 426; range, 426. 
scriptus, 426. 

scriplus bor, 437; map, 439. 
scriptus dama, 425; map, 439. 
scriptus decula, map, 439. 
scriptus delamerei, 14, 430; map, 

439- 

scriptus mcncliki, map, 439. 

scriplus multicolor, map, 439. 

scriptus olivaceus, 434; map, 439. 
Treves, Frederick, bibliog., 773. 
Trichoclaudus malosanus, 48. 
Trotter, Spencer, 60, 126. 
True, F. W., bibliog., 773. 



Tucker, A. R., bibliog., 773, 
Typical black rhinoceros, 651. 

Grant gazelle, 588. 

Kirk dikdik, 628. 

Uasin Gishu oribi, 560. 

Ucinia, 51. 

Uganda, King of, 3; railway, 10, 177. 

blue duiker, 534. 

bushbuck, 13, 435. 

bush duiker, 541. 

defassa waterbuck, 496. 

giraffe, 314. 

kob, 510. 

lelwel hartebeest, 400. 

lion, 226. 

red duiker, 531. 

red-fronted gazelle, 608. 

sitatunga, 440. 
Uganda;, Redunca redunca, 488. 

Kobus defassa, 496. 
Ukamba Kirk dikdik, 631. 

Vasco da Gama, i, 

Vasse, M., 378. 

Vegetation; character of, 35, 36; zones, 

37, 38. 
Veldt; location, 42; character, 42. 
vclox, Acinonyx jubatus, 246. 

Walbcrgia ugandensis, 48. 

Wallace, Harold Frank, 57, 59, 68; 

bibliog., 773. 
Waller, 610. 

walleri, Lithocranius, 610. 
Ward, Rowland, 288, 346, 480, 485, 

652; bibliog., 773. 
wardi, Redicnca redunca, 485. 
Wart-hog, 281, 282, 283; key to spe- 
cies, 284. 

desert; characters, 287, 288; his- 
tory, 287; measurements, 288; 
range, 287, 288. 
East African; coloration, 284, 285; 
history, 284; measurements, 
285; range, 284, 285, 286. 
Nile; characters, 286, 287; his- 
tory, 287; measurements, 287; 
range, 286. 



798 



INDEX 



Wart-hog, Somali, 14. 
Waterbuck, 77, 490; key to species, 
490, 491. 

common; description, 502; key to 

races of, 502; 7; map, 507. 
defassa; characters, 491, 492; 
key to races, 494; habits, 491, 
492, 493; history, 491; range, 
491; map, 501. 
highland; characters, 503; color- 
ation, 503; habits, 503 to 505; 
history, 503; measurements, 
505; range, 502; map, 507. 
Mrs. Gray's, 5. 

Nile defassa; characters, 495; 

coloration, 495; history, 495; 

measurements, 496; range, 495 ; 

map, 501. 

'Nzoia defassa; description, 498; 

range, 498; map, 501. 
Rainey defassa; coloration, 498, 
500; measurements, 500; range, 
498, 499, 500; map, 501. 
Rudolf defassa; description, 497, 

498; range, 497; map, 501. 
Swahili; coloration, 506; history, 

506; range, 506; map, 507. 
Uganda defassa; coloration, 496, 
497; history, 496; measure- 
ments, 497; range, 496; map, 
SOI. 
Weapons (rifles), 744. 
Wehea africana, 48. 
Werne, 514. 
White-bearded wildebeest, 5, 11, 361; 

map, 373. 
White-eared kob, 60, 514. 
White, Edward Stewart, 209, 648, 

678, 743, 744; bibliog., 774. 
White, John Jay, 339, 560. 
White rhinoceros, 7, 14, 659; map, 

671. 
White-withered Icchwi, 5, 60, 519. 



Wildebeest, Athi white-bearded; color- 
ation, 370; history, 369; key to, 369; 
measurements, 370; range, 369, 370; 
map, 373. 

brindled, 360, 361. 
characteristics, 268 to 362; habits, 

loi, 268 to 362. 
Loita white-bearded; coloration, 
371, 372; measurements, 372, 
373; range, 371; map, 373. 
white-bearded; coloration, 361; 
range, 5, 11, 361. 
Willoughby, John C, 8, 254, 267, 2,2,2>, 
346, 369, 445, 506, 565, 602; bib- 
liog., 774- 
Wilson, H. A., bibliog., 774. 
Wolf, 130. 
WoUaston, A. F. R., 497; bibliog., 

774- 
Wood, Major, 305. 
Wroughton, R. C, 544. 

Yellow-backed duiker. West African, 9. 

Zanzibar pygmy antelope, 550. 
Zebra, Grevy; range, 700, 701, 708; 
history, 700; coloration, 701, 702, 
704, 705, 706; characters, 704; map, 
707. 

highland quagga; range, 687, 
692, 693; history, 688; color- 
ation, 688; measurements, 691 ; 
map, 695. 
Kilimanjaro quagga; range, 693, 
694; history, 693; coloration, 
694; measurements, 694; map, 

695- 

quagga; coloration, 677; range, 
577, 682; habits, 678; key to 
races, 687; map, 695. 

Samburu quagga; range, 694; 
coloration, 696, 697; measure- 
ments, 697; map, 695. 



AMNH LIBRARY 



1001 



3556