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Full text of "Life-histories of Indian insects : Microlepidoptera"

LibKis^Clark^ 



> .* . X 



I E, W. CLASSEV. I'-.K.E.S.. A.B.A. I 



November, 1920 I Entomological Series Vol. VI, No. 1 

P(.i^ MEMOIRS OF THE 



n^. 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

IN INDIA 

LIFE-HISTOKIES OF INDIAN INSECTS 

MICROLEPIDOPTEKA 

/ 

I. PTEROPHORIDiE 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, R.N.,^F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S 

Imperial Entomologist 




AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE. PUSA 

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PREFACE 

The term " Microlepidoptera " is commonly and loosely 
applied to the (usually small) moths belonging to the groups Ptero- 
phorina, Tortricina, Tineina and Micropterygina. Strictly speaking, 
many comparatively large moths of the families Cossidse, iEgeriadse, 
Hepialid*, etc., should be mcluded amongst the " Micros," numerous 
species of which, by the way, are considerably larger than many 
Macros, but, as Mr. Meyrick has recently remarked, some families 
of the true Microlepidoptera are commonly appropriated by the 
collectors of the larger Lepidoptera without any justification. 
For the purpose of these papers the term Microlepidoptera is taken 
to include those families which are not included in the volumes 
on Moths in the Fauna oj British India series. 

It is only within the last fifteen years that any serious attempt 
has been made to acquire a knowledge of the Microlepidoptera of 
the Indian Kegion. In 1889, at the time of the publication of 
Cotes' and Swinhoe's Catalogue oj the Moths oj India, only 225 
species of Microlepidoptera were enumerated and this number 
included several synon}nns and species which are not true " Micros." 
At the present time 2,422 species, contain.ed in about 458 genera, 
have been recorded and we are still only beginning to learn what 
forms actually exist within the Indian Empire, in. which enormous 
areas are still absolutely unknown so far as concerns their micro- 
lepidopterous fauna. 

Our knowledge of the early stages of these little moths is still 
more incomplete, although numerous species are of considerable 
importance as pests of crops or of household or stored products. 
The Pink Bollworm {Platyedra gossypiella) and the Potato Moth 
(Phthorimcea oferculella), for example, do damage which totals 



PREFACE 



many millions of rupees annually, whilst every household in India 
suffers loss on account of the Grain Moth {Sitotroga cerealella), 
and what housewife, be she never so careful, but has found reason 
to bewail the damage caused by Clothes Moths {Tinea pellionella, 
TricJiophaga abruptella, etc.) ? 

The present and subsequent papers endeavour to indicate 
our present state of knowledge (I might almost better say our 
want of knowledge) of the life-histories of these small moths, so 
far as they are at present known in India, and some indications 
are given of the early stages of three hundred and ninety-six species, 
the information given being based upon records already published 
in various sources and on unpublished records derived from the 
files of the Entomological Section of the Pusa Kesearch Institute. 
The scattered manner in which these records have been published 
hitherto is indicated by the references given under each species 
and it is hopeless to expect the ordinary worker in India, without 
a veritable library specially gathered to this end, to be able to 
consult all these references at first-hand. I have therefore consider- 
ed it better to bring together all the published information, even 
at the risk of a certain amount of repetition. 

It is hoped that these papers will be of use, not only to the 
Entomological Staffs of the Agricultural Department who are 
interested primarily in crop-pests, but also to those collectors in 
India who ordinarily occupy themselves only with the butterflies 
and larger moths, mainly because of the scanty available informa- 
tion regarding the smaller forms. 

It should be emphasized that these papers deal only witli 
life-histories and not with control measures, in the case of pests 
or with classification. Both of these aspects may perhaps be treated 
of hereafter. 

Pusa: T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, 

25th Junef 1919, _ Imperial Entomologist 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN INSECTS 
MICROLEPIDOPTERA. 

I. PTEROPHORID^. 



BY 

T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., 

Imperial Entomologist. 

[Received for publication on 27th June, 1919.] 

' ; DIACROTRICHA FASCIOLA, ZELL. 

Diacrotricha fasciola, Zeller, Linn. Ent., VI, 399 (1852) (i) ; Meyr., T. E. S. 

1907, 471 (1908) (2) ; Fletcher, Spolia Zeylan., VI, 31-32, t. A f. 6, t. F 

ff. 5, 6, 8 («). 
Diacrotricha callimeres (Meyr., ined.), Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 528 (1909) (*). 

Originally described from Java (^>, this species is known to occur in 
India (2— *), Ceylon (2. 3) and the Kei Islands (New Guinea) (2). We have it 
from Galle (Ceylon), Gauhati and Pusa. It is probably widely distributed 
in India but has been overlooked. 

" Bred by Mr. H. Maxwell-Lefroy from pupae found on leaf of Averrhoa 
hilimhi ?, a tree of cultivation, so that it may be artificially spread " (2). 
These specimens were bred at Pusa from Averrhoa caramhola. 

" The short, stout, uniformly-coloured larva feeds on the flowers of the 
' bilimbi tree ' {Averrhoa hilimhi). The larvae vary much in colour, hardly 
two being alike. Uniform yellowish-grey, pale yellow, pale greenish-yellow, 
pale green, pale pink, and red, are all common colours. (Plate F, figures 
5 and 6) " (3). The young larva bores into flowers of A. caramhola at Pusa, 
the hole of entry being visible on the side of the imexpanded flower. 

'* The pupa is a very pretty object, being usually a bright light green 
(sometimes with black markings) with numerous fasciculated tufts of yellow 
spiny hairs. The sketch (Plate F, figure 8) gives a good idea of its general 

( 1 ) 



2 LIFE-HISTORIES OF PTEROPHORID^ 

appearance. It is generally attached to a flower-stalk, but sometimes to a 
flower-petal or fruit, or more rarely a leaf, of the foodplant " (^). 

** The transformations of this species are unusually rapid, the larva 
suspending itself and pupating in a few hours, the imago emerging after a 
pupal period of only four or five days " {^). 

B UOIQjERI A PALUDICOLA, FLETCHER. 

Trichoptilus 'pcdudicola, Fletcher, Spolia Zeylan., V, 20-32, 7 figures (1907) {}■) 
I.e. VI, 31, t. A f. 7 (1910) (2). 

This species was originally described from Diyatalawa (Ceylon) {}) and has 
also been recorded from Madulsima i^) and the Khasi Hills i}). It is probably 
widely distributed in India in kcalities where Drosera grows but is inconspicuous 
and easily overlooked. We have it from Diyatalawa and Kegalle in Ceylon, 
and from Shiilong. 

At Diyatalawa the larva \vas found to feed on Drosera Inmnanni, which 
is of common occurrence in India also. 

" Egg-laying. A female moth confined over plants of Drosera hurmanni 
laid several ova, most of which were deposited on the seed capsules and un- 
expanded flower-buds. One ovum was laid mid\^ay on a petiole on the edge 
of a young leaf. 

" Ovum. When first deposited the egg is of a pale shining green colour, 
showing prismatic tints. There seems to be a system of rather coarse reti- 
culation disposed regularly over the surface, but the enclosed depressions 
are very shallow. It is oval in longitudinal, circular in transverse, section. 
Its length is about 0-45 mm. and its diameter about O'lS mm. 
" Larva. There are apparently four instars : — 

" First inskir. The newly-hatched larva is about 1 mm. long. In colour 
it is a pale transparent yellow which takes a reflected tint from the Drosera 
leaves, thus making the young larva very difiiculfc to see ; the prothoracfc 
segment is a little darker, and the head is brown and comparatively very 
large. Scattered over the body are short white hairs, but they are neither 
conspicuous nor plentiful. No warts are visible. 

" The larva crawls about ^^ithout hesitation am.ongst the glandular hairs 
of the Drosera leaf, the gummy tips of the petioles standing up above it, so 
that it can walk about among their bases with impunity. In this stage it 
seems to feed entirely on the petioles and gum. 

" Before undergoing its first ecdysis the larva grows to about Vb mm. 
in length, and the segmental interstices are more plainly marked in a lighter 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 3 

yellowish colour, whereas the segments themselves have become of a darker 
greenish-yellow. 

" Second instar. About 2 mm. long and rather stout. Colour a greenish- 
yellow, paler below and on the sides on which the spiracles stand out darkly ; 
there are apparently small latero-dorsal tubercles which bear rather long white 
clubbed hairs. 

" If feeds on the glandular petioles, biting through the base and drawing 
the stalk into its mouth by a series of movements and finishing by devouring 
the drop of gum. It seems fairly voracious, but is evidently rather fastidious 
in its selection of the glandular hairs. 

" Third {? antepenultimate) instar. About 3 mm. long and fairly stout. 
Colour a pale green with interrupted pinkish latero-dorsal, lateral and supra- 
spiracular stripes. Tubercles green at base, brownish at points of emission 
of the white hairs 

" Fourth {ultimate) instar. A fully-fed larva on the point of pupation is 
just over 7 mm. long, moderately stout, stoutest about middle of body, tapering 
rather more rapidly towards the head. Colour pale green, a dark rather reddish 
narrow medio-dorsal stripe ; latero-dorsal tubercles red and surrounded with 
dark red dashes, which assume a rather longitudinal direction, so that the larva 
seems to have an interrupted rather broad latero-dorsal stripe. Head pale 
green with dark ocellar marks on either side. Jaws and mouth-parts reddish. 
Long palps on either side of jaws. 

" The larva?, however, vary much, but seem divisible into three types :— 

" (1) Pale green with a distinctly reddish tinge ; a narrow darker green 
dorsal stripe bordered on either side by a pale yellowish longitudinal line ; 
head pale green with dark reddish ocellar patches ; tubercles reddish-brown ; 
hairs white, as long as diameter of segmental interstices, slightly and regularly 
dilated towards apex ; prolegs pale green, alm.ost transparent. 

" (2) Paler green, on which the tubercles show up conspicuously as a bright 
dark red. 

" (3) Very much suflused with red, so as to appear of almost as red a colour 
as the Drosera itself. 

" The intensity of the dorsal stripe is very variable ; in some specimens 
it is very distinct, in others quite obsolete. 

" In its final instar the larva shows a decided preference for the buds and 
seeds of the Drosera, eating a hole in the side of the seed capsule and devouring 
the contents, but it also eats the leaves. 

" General remarJcs on the larval state. In all its stages the larva is extremely 
similar to the Drosera and difficult to distinguish. Even a full-grown larva 



4 LlFE-HlStORlES OF PTEROPHORIDiB 

may easily be passed over as a glandular leaf seen edgewise, and vice 
versa. 

" Ordinarily the larva seems sluggish, but can move along fairly fast 
when it likes. It has, indeed, little incentive to move from the foodplant. 
When resting across the centre of the plant, with plenty of food within reach, 
it seems to remain there for days, until a large pile of flaccid dark yellowish- 
green frass accumulates. 

" In some cases the frass is jerked away by a rapid movement of the anal 
extremity. In one instance which I noted it went about an inch up into the 
air and fell on to the Drosera plant about half an inch away from the larva ; 
but usually, I should imagine, it falls clear of the foodplant, or there would 
be no object in flicking it away in this manner. However, as noted above, 
the frass often does accumulate on the foodplant, so evidently this process 
of removal is not an invariable habit, but is a peculiarity confined to certain 
individuals. 

" When crawling onto a Drosera plant the larva seems very careful to keep 
clear of the gummy detioles, and is assisted to do so by its long hairs, m.ore 
especially those situated upon the head, for these hairs are seen to have en- 
larged basal attachments, which are evidently correlated with hypertrophied 
tactile nerves. 

" When crawling over the leaves the gum is often seen to adhere to the 
legs of the larva, which then stops, bends down its head, and cleans them 
by passing the gummy legs through its mouth. The whole process rather 
reminds one of a cat licking itself clean. 

" Piqycition. When searching for the larvse I must have examined several 
scores of Drosera plants, which either contained full-fed larvae or showed 
signs of havi'ng recently done so, but only in one case have I as yet found 
the pupa in a natural position, and, judging by the restless behaviour of 
larvse in confinement just prior to pupation, I am constrained to believe 
that the larva wanders away from the plant and fixes itself up for 
pupation on some grass stem or similar object, where its discovery would be 
rendered exceedingly difficult by its resemblance to a pendulous grass 
seed. 

" This pupa, which was found in situ in its natural position (on 27th 
August) was on a medium-sized Drosera plant, which was growing under the 
shade of a tuft of grass. The plant had evidently been badly eaten by the 
larva, and there was no flower- stalk. The pupa was attached by its cremastral 
hooks to a silken pad spun on the base of a leaf just below the central bud 
and was lying, dorsal surface ujipermost, across some leaves whose gummy 



t. BAINiBRIGGE FLETCHER " 

petioles had been eaten away by the larva. This pupa was of a greenish-yellow- 
brown colour, just the tint of the faded sundew leaves, and it looked rather 
like a grass seed which had fallen on to the plant and stuck to the gum ; it 
may be add-ed that ripe grass seeds are often so found. 

" In confinement the larva exhibits a certain preference for suspension 
from the flower-stalk of its foodplant, whose colour is of a reddish green. 
Even when the stem is growing at an angle, its double set of cremastral hooks 
enables the pupa to keep its ventral surface closely appressed to the lower 
side of the stem, so that it is not suspended freely. It seems possible that 
this pupa possesses a certain amount of colour adaptability, those pupa3 
attached to the reddish flower-stems having usually an increased red suffusion 
in comparison with those attached to glass or white paper. 

" When on an approxim_ately horizontal surface, the pupa is usually 
found dorsum uppermost ; otherwise it invariably suspends itself head down- 
wards and with the ventral surface appressed to its support. 

" In the case of a pupa in a horizontal position the cast larval skin is 
sometimes seen lying near it, but quite free and shrivelled up. The suspended 
pupa always gets rid of the larval skin entirely. This habit is the exact 
opposite of that found in Trichoptilus oxydactylus [BucUeria defectalis], whose 
discarded larval skin is not shrivelled up, but is stretched out along the stem 
just above the pupa. 

"When first formed the pupa is of a light apple-gieen colour, the \^ing- 
covers and appendages of a darker green, and a narrow darker m.edio-dorsal 
stripe. On either side of this last is a series of eight red tubercles, each bearing 
two black spines, both pointing longitudinally in opposite directions ; on 
about the eighth somite, however, the foremost of these two spines becom.es 
obsolescent and quite disappears before the anal extremity is reached. The 
cremaster consists of two portions approximately equal to one another, one 
in the centre of the ventral surface of the twelfth somite, the other at the 
anal extremity. 

" In some cases the newly-formed pupa is wholly suliused with a delicate 
pink flush, which almost becomes a dull red in some specimens. 

" After a couple of days the bright green begins to fade and ultimately 
becomes a dull uniform pale yellowish-brown, by which time the eyes and 
antennae are clearly marked in black. 

" The pupa is formed about thirty hours after the larva has suspended 
itself, and the moth emerges after about nine or ten days in the pupal state. 

"The moth always emerges in the morning, usually at ab^u*-- 
8a.m"(1) 



6 LIFE-HISTORIES OF PTEROPHORIDJE 

B U C KLER IA XERODES, MEYR. 
Trichoptilus xerodes, Meyr., T. E. S., 1886, 14 (i), I.e. 1885, 422(2), I.e. 1887, 

267 (3), B. J., XVII, 134 (1906) (*) ; Fletcher, Spolia Zeylan., VI, 30, 

t. A f. 9, t. F f. 4; (1909) (5) ; Meyr., Gen. Ins. Pteroph.. p. 5, tab. f 2 

(1910) (6). 

This species is widely distributed throughout Australia ('^ — 3) ^j^^ j^^s 
also been recorded from New Guinea('')/and Ceylon(^). We have it from 
Nagpur, where it was reared by Katiram Khamparia on 22nd November, 
1912, from a larva found on pods of Cajanus indicns, from Khurda, Pollibetta 
(Coorg), and from Trincomali and Haldummulla in Ceylon. 

A larva found at Peradeniya on 26th December, 1907, on Gynandropsis 
sp. (Capparidese) was described as " about 12 mm. long, cylindrical, mode- 
rately stout. Head yellowish with an orange tinge. Colour of other segments 
a uniform pale yellow. A large brown latero-dorsal wait emits a long white 
Lair and about five short ones. Below this is a small black supraspiracular 
tubercle emitting a single short white hair and bearing a short secondary 
hair. Spiracle small, black. A small black subspiracular tubercle emits 
(1) a short white hair directed forwards and downwards, (2) a longer white hair 
directed backwards and downwards. Below this and a little behind it is a 
small Mack wart emitting a single hair. Towards the ventral surface are 
two (? three) small black warts emitting white hairs. There are numerous 
small knobbed white secondary hairs. All warts are well raised above the 
surface of the skin, and the divisions of the segm_ents are well marked. (Plate 
F, figure 4)."'(") This larva was not reared and at the time was only supposed 
to be B. xerodes but later on Mr. Green informed me that he had bred this 
species from similar larvse on this foodplant. 

BeCKCERTA DEEECTALIS, WLK. (PLATE I, FIG. 1.) ; 

Pterophorus defectalis, Wlk., Cat. XXX, 943 {18U){');^'^:^J ^'^^^ - 
PteropJiorus congrualis, Wlk., Cat. XXX, 943 (1864)(2). 
Pterophorus oxydactylus, Wlk., Cat. XXX, 944 (1864)(3). 
Trichoplilus oehrodactylus, Fish, Canad. Ent. XIII, 142 (1881)(^) ; 

Fernald, Pteroph. N. Amer., 2nd edit., p. 15 (1898)(''>)- 
Trichoptilus compsochares, Meyr., T. E. S., 1886, 16 (1886)(''). 
Trichoptilus centetes, Meyr., T. E. S., 1886, 16-17 (1886)('), id., I.e. 1887, 

266 (1887)(«) ; Wlsm., P. Z. S., 1891, 494(''), id., I.e. (1897), 56('"). 
Trichoptilus ralumensis, Pag., Zoologica, XXIX, 239(i^). 
Aciplilia oxydaetyla, Wlsm. P. Z. S., 1885, 885(i-), Moore, Lep. Ceylon, III, 

529, t. 209, f. 16(^3). 



PLATE 1. 




^vvyy*--' 




fig. 1. Buckleria defectalis: — a. Larva feeding on fruits of Boerhaavia repens 
(x 10); b, larva, about half-grown, natural size and magnified (x 13). 




V vjyY".' 



Fig. 2. Buckleria wahlbergi: — a, Larva; b, pupa; and c, moth, natural sizes 

and magnified ( x 11 ). 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 7 

Triclwptilus congrualis, Fletcher, Spolia Zeylan., VI, 28-30, t. A f . 8, t. F fi. 2, 

3 (1909)('^). 
TrichopfAlus defectalis, Fletcher, T. L. S. (2) XIII, 312 (1909)(''^). 
BucBeria defectalis, Fletcher, T. L. S. (2) XIII, 398-399 (1910)("'). 

Originally described from West Africa(') and Ceylon (-• ■^), this is an 
extremely widely distributed species, recorded from the Southern United 
States, West Indies, Peru, West, South and East Africa, Mauritius, Farquhar 
Island, Amirantes, Coetivy, Seychelles, Chagos Islands, Ceylon, India, Fonrosa, 
China, New Guinea, North-East Australia and Hawaii(i*^). 

In India and Ceylon this seems to be a Plains species, found abundantly 
in all sandy areas where its foodplant, Boerhaavia, occurs. We have specimens 
from Trincom_ali, Colombo, Coimbatore, Pusa, Chapra, Bassein Fort (Bon bay), 
Lyallpur, Peshawar, and Hangu (Kurram Valley). 

The following description w^as made from, a larva found at Galle on 10th 
May, 1907 :— " The larva has just cast its skin (which remains alongside it, 
uneaten) and is probably just conmiencing its final instar. Length 5-5 mm. 
Breadth in thickest part (about middle) T 5 mm. Hairs about 1 mm. long. 
In shape it is cylindrical, moderately stout, tapering at either extremity. When 
crawling, the thoracic segm.elits, especially the prothoracic, are greatly extended 
and appear very slender and flattened. The head appears to be uniformly 
jetty-black, but under a high-pow-er lens the central portion and jaws are seen 
to be yellowish with a few shoit yellowish hairs. The ground-cokur along 
the side is a pale yellowish shade of diity grey with a tinge of red (this last 
colour is more pronounced in som.e specim_ens). There is a narrow^ medio-dorsal 
stripe of a shade rather darker than the ground-colour and a little redder. On 
the metathoracic segment the tw^o warts edging the medio-dorsal line are 
faintly marked with dark reddish-fuscous ; the four succeeding segm.ents have 
these warts distinctly marked with the same dark reddish-fuscous, and 
therefore show up like spots. (In other larvse all the dorsal warts are more or 
less m.arked with dark fuscous, shading off at either extremity of the larva.) 
A broad but indistinct fuscous subspiracular line. A rather bread ventral 
pale-greenish stripe. The prolegs are very long and slender and are of a pale 
greyish greenish-yellow, the hooks dark ; the legs are similarly coloured. The 
long hairs appear dark but there are numerous minute white knobbed glan- 
dular secondary hairs scattered over the segments, and these appear to secrete 
a viscous fluid "('^). 

Two full-fed larva) found at Colombo on 18th October, 1907, were described 
as " stout, stoutest about fourth segment, decreasing thence rapidly towards 
the head, anally gradually. Colour a pale yellow with a faint tinge of fuscous 



8 LlFE-fllSTORlteS OF PT^EROPHOtllD^ 

green. There is a broad dull reddish longitudinal spiracular stripe, on which 
the spiracles stand out as pale longitudinal blotches. The medio-dorsal stripe 
has a faint tinge of red in it, making it a little darker than the ground-colour. 
On either side of this, bordering the darker brown latero-dorsal tubercles, is a 
series of whitish longitudinal dashes, forming two interrupted dorsal lines — 
these markings absent in one larva. Head dark brown. The long hairs are 
black asid obviously sticky. A younger larva, about half-grown, is dark 
brown without any obvious markings, the hairs very distinctly clubbed at the 
apex." 

" The larva is generally rather sluggish but can be quite active, e.g., if 
searching for food. If it loses its foothold, it drops by a silken thread. It 
feeds on the unripe seeds of Boerhaavia repens, comm.encing by eating the 
viscid exudation on the outside of the perianth tube, through which it then 
gnaws a hole and excavates the contents. Small insects, especially ants, are 
often seen to be caught by this gum-m.y secretion, but the gum does not seem 
to incomm.ode the larvae at all ; probably their extrem^ely long prolegs are 
specially modified to carry them over it without touching it as they walk, and 
the long larval hairs prevent contact of the body with neighbouring drops 
of gum "('*). 

" The larva seem.s to pupate almost invariably on the slender stem just 
below a seed-head, although I have once found an empty pupa-case attached 
to the mid-rib on the under-surface of a small leaf. The pupa hangs freely 
suspended, the discarded larval skin not being shrivelled up but stretched 
out at full length along the stem just above it. The rain soon destroys the 
empty pupa-cases and one finds only the anal portion with the discarded 
larval skin. The colour of the pupa is very variable ; sometimes it is a light 
apple-green, sometimes a brownish-grey "(^^). 

DUCKLER LA. WAHLBERGI, ZELL. (PLATE I, FIG. 2.) 

Plerophorus wahlhergi, ZelL, Linn. Ent. VI, 346 (1852)(i). 
Pterophorus ruiilalis, Wlk., Cat. XXX, 943 (1864)(-')- V^^a^TT^^ .h^f. -. 
Trichoptilus pijrrJiodes, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales (2) IV, 1113 (1889)(3). 
Trichopiilus wahlhergi, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 134 (1906)(4) ; Fletcher, 8polia 

Zeylan, VI, 27-28, t. A f . 10 (1909)(^^). 
Buckleria wahlhergi, Fletcher, T. L. S. (2) XIII, 399, f. 2 (1910)(«). 

This is a widely distributed species recorded from South Africa, St. Helena, 
Seychelles, India, C-eylon and Queenslandl**). It is common thi-oughout 
India and Ceylon and we have it from Kandy, Haldummulla and Madulsima 



PLATE 



r 





y 



■^ 



Wr 




4- 







,y 



^;J^:7S^ % IT" l/f'-jjf (If. f T- f' 




^«^l » »» -^ 



Sphenarches caffer. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IL 

Sphenarches capfer. 
Fig. 1. Larva/natural size and magnified. 
,, 2. Pupa, natural size and magnified. 
,, 3. Moth, natural size and magnified. 

,, 4. Eggs and larva on leaf, showing colour variation in larva. 
,, 5. Larva attacked by a Hymenopterous parasite. 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 9 

(Ceylon), Palni Hills, Shevaroys, Coimbatore, Bangalore, Mercara, Pollibetta, 
Sidapur, Pusa, Shillong, Bhim Tal, Abbottahad, Peshawar and Parachinar. 

The egg has been described as "of a smooth elongate-oval shape and of 
a very pale shining greenish-white colour. In size it is about 0"47 mm. long 
by about 0'32 mm. broad and 0'28 mm. high, a transverse section thus being 
oval. The newly-hatched larva is whitish, with a black head and long black 
dorsal hairs "{^). 

The full-grown larva is about 6'5 mm. long and about r25 mm. broad, 
cylindrical, slightly tapering towards either extremity, segments distinct, pale 
yellow slightly tinged with greenish ; head pale yellow with some faint pinkish 
blotches and bearing longish hairs, these hairs especially evident on the front 
and some of them being knobbed apically ; other segments with a distinct 
pinkish-brown mid-dorsal stripe and with interrupted lateral stripes, ventral 
area pale greenish-yellow ; tubercles rather protuberant, each bearing a tuft 
of hairs of different lengths, the post-spiracular tubercle only havihg a single 
hair ; short secondary hairs scattered over segments ; spiracles protuberant, 
tubular ; five pairs of equally developed, rather long, pale yellow prolegs. 
The larva feeds upon Oxalis sp., pupation taking place upon a leaf of the 
foodplant. The pupa is pale apple-green with whitish hairs as shown in 
figure. 

SPHENARCHES CAFFER, ZELL. (PLATE II.) 

Oxyptilus caffer, Zeller, Linn. Ent. VI, 348-349 (1852) (i). 

Sphenarches caffer, Wlsm., Ind. Mus. Notes, II, 20 figs. (2) ; Cotes, I.e., p. 163 (3) ; 
Meyr., Fauna Geogr. Maldives, I, ii. 125(-^) ; Lefroy, Ent. Mem., I, 220('^) ; 
Fletcher, Spolia Zeylan., VI, 21-22, t. E fE. 8, 10, t.F f.ll (1909)(«) ; Lefroy, 
Ind. Ins. Life, p. 528, f .343 (1909)(7) ; Fletcher, T. L. S. (2) XIII, 399 (1910)(8), 
South Ind. Ins., pp. 443-444, f.320 (1914)(9), Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 44, 56, 306 (tab.) (1917)(io). 

Oxyptilus anisodaetylus, Wlk., Cat. XXX, 934 (I864)(i') ; Moore, Lep. Ceylon 
III, 528(i2);^A<-, ''^^^ '9*^^^ - ['1^'-) 

Pterophorus diffusalis, Wlk., Cat. XXX, 945 (1864)('^),- k^.^, ^r ^^>r.... 

Oxyptilus walkeri, Wlsm., T. E. S. 1881, 279-280 (1881)(i^). 

Sphenarches synophrys, Meyr., T. E. S. 1886, 17-18 (1886)(i^). 

This is a remarkably widely-distributed species ranging through the 

whole of West, South and East Africa, the Seychelles and Maldive Islands, 

Ceylon, throughout India, Burma, the Philippines, Japan, Sumatra, Java, '^Jl^Q, 

throughout Australia, New Hebrides, Tonga Islands, and the West Indies. 

This distribution has perhaps been caused to some extent by human agency. 



10 



LIFE-HISTORIES OP PTEROPHORID^ 



Life-history. The egg is oval, cylindrical in section, and measures about 
0-5 mm. in length. It appears smooth, though the outer surface is actually 
reticulate ; the colour is an indefinite bluish-green, becoming yellow before 
hatching. Eggs are laid in spots determined by the ability of the moth to 
assume a position of rest ; they never rest on the upper surface of a horizontal 
leaf but can rest on the lower surface of a leaf or place at any angle from the 
perpendicular to the horizontal ; they appear always to hang from an object 
rather than rest on it ; on the broad leaves of cucurbitaceous plants, eggs are 
laid on the lower surface ; on the alternative foodplant, pigeon-pea, they are 
laid on the flower-buds and young pods. Eggs are usually laid singly, often 
only one on a pod or flower-bud, several on a young leaf. In the Insectary, 
193 eggs were laid by two moths, all being laid at night. The eggs hatch in 
two days in warm weather up to six days in the colder weather of the North 
Indian winter : — 



Eggs laid 


Eggs hatched 


Duration 


7th September .... 


9th September 


2 days. 


8th „ .... 


11th „ ... 


3 „ 


9th „ .... 


12th „ ... 


3 ,, 


16th „ .... 


19th „ ... 


3 „ 


9th February .... 


15th February 


6 „ 



The larva emerges from, the egg by biting away a small portion and then 
pushing through. The empty egg-shell is not eaten. On hatching the larva 
is about a millimetre long ; the head is dark brown and shiny ; there is a distinct 
prothoracic shield ; the segments are well marked and on each segment 
there are five tubercles bearing from one to three hairs each ; these tubercles 
are regularly arranged and form rows along the body ; the round spiracle 
lies between the second and third tubercles. There are three pairs of thoracic 
legs and five pairs of prolegs. 

The larva is of a yellowish-green colour on hatching, becomjng green as it 
grows older and rem.aining of that colour ; on the pods of pigeon-pea, which are 
coloured usually in green with brown stripes, the larva also has a lateral brown 
stripe and assimilates very closely to the colour of the pod ; on green leaves 
of pumpkin, etc., it is green and this assimilates it to the puie green of the leaf. 
The larva alters little in appearance, during the various instars ; in the last 
instar the dorsal three black tubercles are developed into more prominent 
protuberances ; the first and third are yellow, the second black, each with 



T. BAINBUIGGE FLETCHER 11 

white hairs. There are also capitate smaller hairs on the upper part of each 
segment. 

The larva, about half -grown, was described as "Head yellow. Other 
segments pale brownish-yellow. A narrow dorsal, latero-dorsal, and spira- 
eular reddish stripe. Legs pale yellow, prolegs ard claspers dark. Hairs 
white , except the short clubbed hairs which are black "(^). 

The full-grown larva " is about 7 mm. long, cylindrical, rather stout, the 
segmental interstices well marked. Legs and prolegs long and slender ; pale 
greenish-yellow. Head unicolorous, very pale, trans^parent greenish-yellow ; 
m.outh-parts darker. Other segments pale greenish-yellow ; a narrow darker 
green dorsal \tne ; each segment with a large but ill-defined, pinkish-red, 
latero-dorsal spot, the series of these spots forming an interrupted longitudinal 
line. Two conjoined latero-dorsal tubercles emit a very long white hair 
directed upwards and a shorter white palmate hair directed upwards and 
forwards ; a supraspiracular tubercle emits a brown palmate hair directed 
upwards and forwards ; two conjoined subspiracular tubercles emit a short 
white hair directed forward and a long white hair directed downward ; there 
are also one or two latero-ventral tubercles emitting white hairs. The whole 
surface of the segments is also closely studded with shoit white clubbed 
secondary hairs "(^). 

The larvse feed on the leaves of pumpkin, eating small holes in them 
and not feeding in from the margin. In the case of pigeon-pea and other 
pulses, the larva eats into the flower-buds and pods, but never goes fully 
inside. The clothing of spines and hairs probably serves a protective 
purpose, since this larva feeds on hairy leaves and pods and is both in 
colouring and pilosity assimilated to the surface it is on ; it is sluggish in 
movement and clings tightly where it is openly exposed upon the leaf or 
pod. 

Pupa. Pupation takes place as follows : — The fullgrown larva spins 
silk upon the leaf or pod over a surface about 10 mm. by 8 mm. 
and then rests upon this, the anal prolegs firmly fixed in the end of it. The 
skin splits in front, and slips backwards along the body ; on the underside 
of the eighth abdominal segment is a distinct bunch of curved hooks (cremastral 
pad), which engages in the silk as the larva wriggles ; the hind end is then 
freed from the larval skin and the bunch of stiff recurved hairs on the eighth 
segment acting as a fixed point, the anal end by WTiggling fixes the tern inal 
bunch of hooks in the silk. The pupa is thus fastened by two points ; its 
anterior half is free and can be raised till it is almost at right angles to the 
fixed abdomen. 



V 



12 LIFE-HISTORIES OF PTEROPHORID^ 

" The pupa is about 7 mm. long and is attached to the undersurf ace of 
the mid-rib of a leaf of the focdplant. The appendage sheaths and anal 
portion are of a yellowish-green colour, the remainder of a very pale pinkish- 
red. The dorsal surface bears a system of highly specialized tubercles, the 
nature of which will be best undertstocd by a reference to the figure (Plate F, 
figure 11)"(«). 

The moth is shown in Plate II, figure 3. It measures 6-8 mm. and 
has a wing expanse of 13-15 mm. The wings are held out at right angles to 
the body when at rest. The moths are to some extent diurnal and fly by 
day ; coupling takes place by day or night and lasts about 12 hpurs. 

Duration of life-cycle. The winter life-cycle is longer than that of the 
hot weather or rains ; it occupies nearly two months : 

Egg .. 6 days. 
Larva . . 30 „ 
Pupa .. 22 „ 





Total . . 

Egg 

Larva . . 
Pupa . . 

Total . . 

Egg .. 
Larva . . 
Pupa . . 

Total . . 


58 „ 


In February-March, it is : 


6 days 
20-21 „ 
9 „ 




35-36 „ 


In September, it is : 


2 days 
17-20 „ 
5 „ 




24-27 „ 



Occurrence. This insect may be found in active life throughout the year ; 
there appears to be no definite stage in which it rests or hibernates, and the 
broods succeed one another irregularly from month to month. In the cold 
weather, as in the hot weather and rains, the larvse are found on the different 
foodplants ; these include the pigeon-pea (Cajanus indicus), kulthi {Dolichos 
lahlab), the Jcaddu or bottle-gourd (Lagenaria vulgaris) ; the plant known as 
calabash is also stated to be the foodplant in West Africa. They are most 
noticeable on the flower-buds and pods of pigeon-pea in the early or late cold 
weather, since they are then associated with damage to this crop, caused also 
by Exelastis aiomosa, Wlsm. It is uncertain how long the moth can live ; in 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 



13 



captivity they die in a week or less, but this is no guide since they are not in 
normal conditions. Actually there are probably always available foodplants 
in India ; cultivated or wild forms of this gourd are grown constantly and in 
great profusion ; the pigeon-pea and lablab bean are extensively grown over 
India. Besides Dolichos and Cajanus, the larva of S. caffer has been found 
feeding on Averrhoa bilimhi {bilimbi tree), buds of Luffa sp., petals of Hibiscus 
mutabilis, Biophytum sensitivum and Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant), so that 
it is decidedly polyphagous and would apparently be able to hold its own in ^^ 
the absence of cultivated crops. • ' / >^^ 

Practically nothing is on record regarding its distribution in India, but > j||>^ 
it seems to occur practically throughout India, Ceylon and Burma. The Pusa-- 
collection contains specimens from Madulsima, Haldummulla, Peradeniya, * ^^ 

Coimbatore, Anamalais, Ootacamund, Pollibetta, Bababudins, Sujat,>^' ^ 

Allahabad, Pusa, Bhim Tal, Sarai Saleh (Hazara), Peshawar, Shillong and '^ 
Maymyo. 

OXYPTILUS LACTUCiE, n. sp. 

Expanse 19 mm. Palpi porrect, second joint triangularly dilated with 
Jong scales, third joint long, slender ; ochreous, intermixed with white scales, 
third joint whitish above. Head tawny-ochreous. Antennae blackish, white- 
ringed. Thorax tawny-ochreous, tegulse ochreous. Legs whitish : posteriur 
tibiee broadly banded and dilated with reddish-brown scales at origin of spurs 
at 3/5 and apex ; spurs white, blackish apically, internal proxim.al spur 
longer than external and this latter longer than either of the equal distal pair ; 
posterior tarsi whitish, lined and banded with brown. (Abdomen broken.) 

Forewing cleft from slightly beyond | : first segment parallel-sided, 
narrow, rather falcate apically ; second segment broadening posteriorly, apex 
produced, strongly falcate, anal angle well marked, term.en concave : ochreous- 
tawny, irrorated with whitish and black scales ; an ill-defined whitish patch at 
base of cleft, tending to form a bar to costa ; first segment with narrow white bars 
at 2/5 and | of length, • these bars continued on to second segment. 
Cilia on costa broadly whitish opposite white bars, whitish before apex ; on 
termen whitish with fine brown streaks from apex of either segment ; on poste- --^ 
Ei©¥ margin of first segment pale ochreous to first white bar, from this to 5/6 
brownish intermixed with scattered black scales, from, 5/6 to apex ochreous 
white ; on anterior margin of second segment ochreous-brown with a few 
white and black scales and a strong row of black scales between i and 5/6 of 
segment ; on dorsum ochreous-brown, at ^ a tuft of white scales, from about 
I to slightly beyond first white bar on second segment whitish, beyond this 

2 



14 L1FE-HI8TORIES UF PTEROPHOKID^ 

darker, \\ itli slight black scale-teeth at | and | and wisps of blackish hairs at 
5/6 and anal angle, this last followed by a white wisp. 

Hindwing cleft from about 2/5 and 1/G : first segment narrow, parallel- 
sided, rather blunt at apex ; second segment narrower than first, gradually 
narrowing to apf^^x^ third segnvent almost linear, narrower than second, nar- 
rowing to apix-: tawny-brown, thickly iriorated with black. C'ilia dark tawny 
brown, paler within clefts ; posterior margin of second segment with an ill-defined 
whitish wisp beyond I, third segn^ent with a strong triangular black scale-tooth 
on dorsum at 2/3, between this and base dorsal area with a few scattered black 
and white scales, beyond this dorsal cilia faintly whitish basally. 

Dehra Dun, October t§tS. {OUenhach). Bred from larva? on lettuce. 
Three specimens, of which two are in poor condition. 

This species is superficially much like a large, dark, strong'y-marked 
S2)henarches cajfer, froni, which it may easily be separated by the entire absence 
of black scales on the aiiterior margin of the third segment of the hind\\ing. 
It is possible that this species may be 2C' Sphenarches, but 1 have been unable to 
determine satisfactorily the origin of vein 10 of the forewing. 

OXYPTILUS EPIDECTE8, MEYR. 

Oxyptilus epidectes, Meyr., T. E. ^. 1907, 476-177 {1908)(i) ; Fletcher, Spolia 
Zeylan, VI, 26, t. A f. 5 (1909) (^). e 

Originally described from Burma (MoijA, Nilgiris, Coorg, Ceylon (Mas- 
keliya) and Mauritius, this species is also known from Kandy and Madulsin^a 
and we have specimens from Madulsima and Haldummulla in Ceylon and from 
Pollibetta in tSouth Coorg. 

The moths have been bred from Biophylum sensitivum, which is evidently 
the foodplant(-). 

OXYPTILUS CHORDITES, MEYR. 

Oxyptilus chordites, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 106 (1913)(i). 
Described from Colombo and Karwar(^). 
Larva on Calycopteris JIoribunda{^). 

OXYPTILUS PELECYNTES, MEYR. 

Oxyptilus pelecyntes, Meyr., T. E. S. 1907, 177 (1908)('). 

This species was described from the Khasi Hills('), where it is common, 
the larva feeding on Scutellaria discolor. AVe have it from tShillong and from 
Halduninml'a (Ceylon). 






"*"ir?-"'»-Tf 






T. BAINBRIGCxE FLETCHER 15 

OXYPTILUS CAUSODES, MEYR. 

Oxyptilus causodes, Meyr., B. J., XVI, 582 (1905)(') ; Fletcher, Spolia Zeylan., 

VI, 24-25, t. A f. 4, t. E f. 9 (1909)(-'). 

Originally described from Peradeniya(^' -), this species also occurs in 
India and has been found at Pusa. The adult is, however, rarely seen, although 
easily bred from the larva which, in ('eyloii, feeds inside the fleshy fruits of 
Dillenia rctiisa. In India it n\ust have other foodplants, since, so far as I 
am aware, no species of Dillenia occurs at Pusa in the imn ediate vicinity of 
the locality where the adult moth has been taken. 

"The full-grown larva (suspended fr)r pupation) is about 13 mm. long 
by about 1"2 mm. broad, cylindrical, slender, shining, and appearing quite 
smooth and naked. There are two principal colour varieties, (1) wholly 
pale green without any noticeable markings except a narrow darker medio- 
dorsal stripe, and this is perhaps due to the vessels beneath showing through 
the skin rather than to any dermal pign^ented area ; towards the anal ex- 
tremity a pinkish suffusion is seen along the segmental interstices, (2) very 
pale semi-transparent pinkish flesh-colour, interstices of segments very pale 
semi-transparent green, as are also som.e patches along the sub-median area 
of most of the segments, but the pale green and pink so n^erge into one another 
that no definite areas can be described. Head very pale green. A pale red 
medio-dorsal line. But some larvae have no green markings, being wholly pink. 
The prolegs are very small and stumpy ; hooks dark reddish. The hooks 
on the fourth pair of prolegs are attached into the silken pupation-pad. The 
arrangement of the tubercles is shown in the figure (Plate E, figure 9) "(2). 

When full-fed the larva emerges from, the fallen fruit "to suspend itself 
for pupation on any neighbouring object." " The larva pupates very rapidly ; 
twelve hours is sufficient for it to emerge from the fruit, select a suitable place 
for pupation, suspend itself, and complete its metamorphosis." 

" The newly-formed pupa is of a bright light green colour, the capital 
extremity tinged with yellowish-brown about the base of the antenna-sheath ; 
but it soon becomes of an almost uniform, reddish grey-brown. The m^oth, 
which usually seems to emerge early in the morning, appears after six days "(2). 

XYROPTILA VAUGHANI, FLETCHER. 
Oxyptilus vaughani, Fletcher, Spolia Zeylan., VI, 23-24 (1909)('). 

This species was described from Ceylon (Madulsin\a, Alutnuwara, Trin- 
comali and Haldummulla). The early stages are as yet unknown, but the larva 
probably feeds inside the fruit of DimorpJiocalyx glahellus{^), and the moth 
has been reared from a pupa found on a leaf of this sLrub. 



16 LIFE-HISTORIES OF PTEROPHORIDJE 

An egg, extruded by a captured female moth, was about 0*35 mm. long 
by 0*20 mm. broad, the ends rounded, uniform salmon-pink, the surface 
shining and covered with a series of large depressions. 

DEUTEROCOPUS ALOPECODES, MEYR. 
Deuterocopus alopecodes, Meyr., B. J., XXI, 105-106 (19il)(i). 

Described from Karwar where the moths were found in August " from 
a single vine-plant on which the species was plentiful "(^). The larva pre- 
sumably feeds on this vine, but this species is unknown to me. 

DEUTEROCOPUS SOCOTRANUS, REBEL. 
Deuterocopus socotranus, Rebel, Denk. Math-Nat. Ak. Wiss., LXXII, pt. ii, 

pp. 85-87, fig. (1907)(i) ; Fletcher, T. E. S., 1910, 124-130, ff. 3, 4, t- 

44 f . 8, t. 45 f. 1(2). 
Deiiterocopus tengstrcemi {nee Zell.), Meyr., B. J., XVII, 134 (1906)(3). 
Deuterocopus viticola, Meyr., B. J., XXI, 104-105 (1911)(4). 

This species * is very widely distributed, its range extending from West 
Africa, S.E. and East Africa, Sokotra, through India, Ceylon, Sumba, Tambora 
and Amboyna to New Guinea and Queensland. In India, Ceylon and Burma 
it is common in most districts and we have it from Hambantota, Coimbatore, 
Surat, Pusa, Moulmein and Minbu. At Pusa it has been reared from larvae 
on Vitis trifolia. 

** The larva feeds in Ceylon on the flowers of the square-stemmed jungle 

vine {Vitis quadrangularis) The following is a brief description from 

a living larva found at Hambantota : — Length 7 mm.., stout, stoutest at 
about mid-length, decreasing rapidly anally ; head capable of retraction into 
or under prothorax. Incisions between segments distinctly marked. Colour 
a uniform pale green ; head yellowish-brown and prothorax dark blackish- 
purple. Prothoracic legs purple, other legs and prolegs pale green ; legs and 
prolegs rather short and stout. To the naked eye no hairs are visible except 
two pairs of short whitish curved hairs on the anal segment and a pair of short 
submedian hairs, directed forward, on each thoracic segment. Spiracles 
high-placed, about half-way up the side, fairly conspicuous from being out- 
lined in a slightly lighter green tint than that composing the general colour 

* Mr. Meyrick(*) considers that the form described by me as »ocotranus{^) consists of 
heterogeneous material. The true socotranus is possibly truly distinct, as indicated in my 
paper on this genus, but examination of over one hundred specimens ranging from West Africa 
to New Guinea failed to provide me with any satisfactory method of separating these into true 
species, and 1 adhere to my former expression of opinion op this |)oint. An nhnost exactly 
similar case is provided by Buckleria de/eclalis, Wlk. 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 17 

of the larva. Movements slow and deliberate, spinning a thread as it moves 
along and when it drops. Under the microscope the skin is seen to be covered 
with minute skin-points as if shagreened "(^). 

" The pupa is attached to a flower, flower -.stalk or stem of the foodplant, 
or more rarely to a leaf of the same, and is usually enclosed in a very flimsy 
cocoon composed of a few silken threads. It is possible, however, that these 
threads are merely fortuitous, having been spun by the larva during its f^earch 
for a suitable pupation-place or whilst preparing its cremastral pad. The 
pupa is about 6 mm. long, stout, smooth, rounded and blunt at the capital 
extremity. Its usual colour is a pale apple-green, marked with dark or pinkish- 
red on the dorsal surface, the markings usually consisting of (1) a narrow 
median thoracic stripe broadening posteriorly into a transverse bar extending 
obliquely downwards to about the edge of the wing-covers, and (2) a series 
of submedian patches on the second to fifth abdominal segm-ents forming a 
more or less interrupted longitudinal stripe. Some pupse, however, which 
had pupated in my boxes, were wholly of a dark-grey colour. The m^oth 
emerges in the early morning "(-). 

DEUTEROCOPUS PLANETA, MEYR. 

Deuterocopus planeta, Meyr., T. E. S., 1907, 473-474 (1908)(i) ; Fletcher, 

T. E. S., 1910, 131-134, f . 5, t. 44 f . 10, t. 45 f . 2 (1910)(-). 
Deiiterocopus ruhrodactylus {nee Pag.), Fletcher, Spolia Zeylan., VI, 20, t. E 

f. 7 {1909)(3). 

This species ranges from Ceylon, Khasi Hills and Burma to Portuguese 
Timor, Tenimber and New Guinea(-). We have it from the Bababudin Hills 
and PoUibetta (South Coorg). 

" The egg is about 0'44 mm. long by about 0*20 mm. broad ; in shape 
it is- ovo-cylindrical, the ends rounded and subequal, the micropylar area 
distinctly depressed ; the surface is very smooth and shining, of a very pale 
orange colour, suf!used with red at either pole "(2). 

The larva feeds on the flowers of Leea sambucina and is "pale green 
without any markings except red suffusion at either extremity. The skin 
is roughened into minute knobs (like shark skin) everywhere, but especially 
on the ventral region. A distinct subsegment is formed on the posterior 
ventral region of abdominal segments. The hairs, except (i), are very short 
and inconspicuous ; (i) is short, less than breadth of segment. The hairs are 
transparent whitish (glassy) and the tubercles very indistinct. The hairs 
are longest on thoracic and anal regions. The legs are extren eJy short and 
inconspicuous. There are no secondary hairs, these seeming to be reduced 



18 LIFE-HISTORIES OF PTEROPHORIDJE 

to skin-points or rather rugosites of the skin." A sketch showing the arrange- 
ment of the tubercles is given in Spolia Zeylanica, "VI, t. E. f , 7. 

The pupa is " brown with a broad lighter ochreous-fiiscous central band ; 
very few hairs or projections. It was suspended anally to a flower-stalk 
within a slight atteni} t at a cocoon — a few silken threads spun around it to 
form a sjiacious but flimsy enclosure, in whi(h the pupa was fully visible. 
The cast larval skin remained at the anal extremity of the pupa "(-). 

DEUTEROCOPUS RITSEM^, WLSM. 

Deuterocopits ritsemce, Wlsm., Notes Leyden Mus., VT, 243 (1884)(i) ; Fletcher, 

T. E. S., 1910, 134-138, f. 6, t. 44 ff. 11, 12 (1910)(-). 
Deutei-oscojnts ruhrodactylus, Pag., Abh. Ges. Zool., XXIX, 241 (^). 

This species occurs in Ceylon, Assam, Tenasserim, and from Borneo 
to New Guinea(-). We have specimens from Kandy and Pollibetta. 

The early stages are as yet practically unknown. The moth has been 
bred by me in June 1908 at Galle from pupa?," found suspended anally from 
the upper surface of leaves of Leea sambiicina, which is evidently the food- 
plant. The different n^ethod of suspension, as compared with the pupa of 
D. planeto, is noteworthy. On the san.e bnsh I found a larva feeding inside 
an unopened flower-bud ; it appeared to be very similar to that of planeta 
but wanted the terminal red sufi'usion ; unfortunately I failed to rear if. '\^). 

PLATYPTILIA CITROPLEURA, MEYrJ t-io f -f:^ "^ l^<) 
Platijptilia citropleum, Meyr., T. E. S., 1907, 482 (1908)(') ; Fletchei, 8pol. 

Zeylan., VI, 15 (1909)(-) ; Meyrick, Entom. Mitteil., Suppl. No. Ill, p. 46 

(Jan. 1914)C'). 

This species has been recorded from Maskeliya (Ceylon)('), the Khasis(') 
and Formosa(''). I found it not uncomm.only in the larval stage at Maskeliya 
in March 1909 but have never seen any specimens in the Khasi Hills. 

The larva feeds inside the seed-capsules of Begonia sj^., both cultivated 
and wild varieties. A full-grown larva found at Maskeliya on 7th March 
1909 was described as 6 mm. long, stoutly built, thickest about mesothorax 
and gradually tapering posteriorly ; head pale yellow without any markings 
except the black ocelli and ferruginous jaws ; other segments creamy-yellow 
with a narrow pale ferruginous median line ill-defined anteriorly ; a broader 
pale ferruginous lateral line passes just above the spiracles, which are high- 
placed ; each segment divided transversely by a vertical constriction of the 
skin-surface into two sub-segments of which the anterior is one-and-a-half 
to twice as large as the posterior ; legs and prolegs transparent pale jellow, 



PLATE III. 




Fig. 1. Platyptilia taprobanes: — 
a. Larva; 
b. Pupa; 
c. Moth, natural sizes and magnified. 




Fig. 2. Platyptilia brachymprpha: 
Pupa ( X 6 ) . 



PLATE IV. 




PLATYPTILIA PUSILLIDACTYLA. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV. 

Platyptilia pusillidactvla. 

Fig. 1. Twig of Lantana camara, showing leaves, flowers (orange-yellow variety) 

and fruits (natural size). 
,, 2. Egg, as laid on flower, nxagnified (X7). 
„ 3. Egg, more highly magnified (x43). 
„ 4. Flower attacked by larva. Note sickly appearance in comparison with 

healthy flower on left, 
„ 5. Flower attacked by larva, opened up, showing larva at base of flowers, 

magnified. 
,, 6. Larva, magnified (X 7). 
„ 7. Fruit-cluster formed from flower-head in which a larva has fed and 

pupated. Note scanty formation of fmits in comparison with 

healthy cluster on left. 
„ 8. Enlarged view of attacked flower-head in which a larva has pupated. 

The head of the pupa is seen projecting from the interior of cocoon 

which has been partially opened. 
„ 9. Pupa, magnified (X 7). 
J, 10. Moth, in resting position, natural size. 
-,„ IL Moth, with wings expanded, magnified. 



t. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 19 

hooks of latter black ; the whole surface of tlie body thickly covered ^\^ith 
minute black spiracles and more sparsely with short white secondary hairs ; 
primary hairs rather short white, warts inconspicuous. 

Another larva was of a pale greenish-yellow, the ferruginous markings 
barely represented by a slight darkening of the ground-colour. 

The pupa is attached to the outside of a seed-capsule of the foodplant. 
It is about 7 mm. long, moderately stout, dull pale yellow, with an indistinct 
dorsal ferruginous stripe and a broad ferruginous lateral stripe ]-eaching to the 
spiracles ; the sixth segment with a large flattened latero-dorsal tr 'cuspidate 
halberd-shaped i^ojection ; seventh to eleventh segments with smaller pro- 
jections directed anteriorly ; cremaster double. 

A larva which suspended itself on 8th March pupated that night and 

emerged on 17th March, ^v^-p ^opF I , J-^ • ^f ' n Lj, \ 

PLATYPTILIA TAPftOBAJ s^ES , FELB. (PLATE III, FIG. 1.) ^^-^ i f"^ • | (TT" J 

ytA C " — 

Platyptilia taprobanes,lF elder, Reis^-HJiayai^', t. 14 f. 54(^) ; -Moofer^^. 

G«yk«vJiI,-^&2^ ; Meyrick, T. E. S., 1907, 482 (1908)^) ; Fletcher, 

Spol. Zeylan., VI, 14 (1909)(^). 
PkUyptilia sijtJioffi, Snell., Tijd. v. Ent., XL VI, 54, t. 5 ff. 15, 16(5). 

This species is known from Ceylon (Hills)(^), Palnis(='), Khasis(-^) ^ and 
West Java('''). We have specimens from Madulsina, the Shevaroys, Coim- 
batore, Pusa and Shillong. 

At Shillong the larva feeds commonly on Scutellaria discolor. The figiire 
is taken from a spirit specimen, 

PLATYPTILIA PUSILLIDACTYLA, WLK. (PLATE IV.) T' b \fr "} (H'" ) 
Oxyptilus pusillidactylus, Wlk., Cat. XXX, 933 (1864)(i);^^ .^^^ '^r., - fi-j 
Platyptilia pusillidactyla , Wlsm., P. Z. S., 1891, 495(-^), id., I.e., 1897, 57(3) ; 
Meyr T E. S., 1907, 483 (1908)(^) ; Fletcher, Spol. Zeylan., VI, 13, 
t A f ' 2 t E ff. 5, 6 (1909)C^), T. L. S. (2) XIII, 313 (1909)(«), I.e., 399-400 
(1910)(^)', S. Ind. Ins., p. 444, f. 321 (1914)(7A), Entl. Note 7M1916)g 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 39 (1917)(«),^-.c-^ R^.^^-Hr<-^ ^-^ ^\ 
Platyptilia tecnidion, ZelL, Hor. S. E. Ross, XIII, 468-469, (t. 6 f. 162 (1877)(iO). " ^^ ^^^^ 
Platyptilia hemimetra, Meyr., T. E. S., 1886, 18(i'), B. J., XVII, 135 - 

(1906)(i-). 
Platyptilia lantana, Busck, Insec. Inscit. Menstr. II, 103-104 (1914)(i5). 

Oricrinally described from Jamaica(>) this species is very widely distri- 
buted and has been recorded from the West Indies(2' 3);Mexico(5), Reunion(i2), 
India(^-«), CeyIon(5), Hongkong(') and Hawaii("' i^). It was introducea 
into Hawaii from Mexico to aid in reduction of Lantana iiifestation, but its 



20 LIFE-HISTORIES OF PTEROPHORID^ 

distribution in other regions appears to be natural. It is abundant in India, 
Ceylon and Burma in every district which has been invaded by Lantana, 
and we have specimens from Trincomali, Kandy, Haldummulla, Madulsima, 
Peradeniya, Ootacamund, Sidapur, Pollibetta, Coimbatore, Bababudin Hills, 
Pusa, Shillong and Maymyc, and also from Honolulu. 

" The egg is about 0*4 mm. long by about 0*22 mm. broad, and is of a 
very pale greenish-yellow colour (almost colourless) ; one end seems larger 
than the other and this larger end is studded with little prominences, especially 
noticeable in the micropylar area "(°). 

The egg is 0*33 m.m. long and 0*17 broad, pale yellow, opalescent, in 
outline ellipsoid, somewhat flattened, translucent, the surface covered with 
an irregular network of ridges. It is laid among the spines on the sepals of 
the florets of Lantana camara, sometimes on the leaves or on the petals. (Y. 
Ramachandra Rao's Lantana Cage-slip 1.) 

Eggs laid at Coimbatore on 8th-9th December hatched on ]2th-13th 
December. 

The newly hatched larva is less than 1 mm. long, pale, translucent, head 
shiny black, prothoracic shield pale brown. 

" The larva is stout, pale yellow and naked — at least, no hairs are visible 
to the unaided eye. The larva is usually found coiled round at the base of 
the flower-tubes in the interior of a Lantana flower "(■''). 

The larva is about 6 mm. long and about 1 mm. broad, cylindrical, uni- 
form chrom.e-yellow ; head light brown ; five pairs of sm^all thin prolegs. 

The larva is found boring the thickened rachis [of Lantana camara] in 
which its tunnel may be found ; it also bores into the sessile fruits from inside 
the tunnel only to eat the substance of the seed. It never com.es out cf its 
tunnel. Before pupating it forms a sort of cocoon by lining the tunnel with 
white silk and covering the mouth of the tunnel by a silken arch on which 
black pellets of excrement may remain attached. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 
815). 

Besides Lantana camara, the larva feeds in the flowers of Lantana indica 
and Lippia gemirmta. 

" The pale yellow pupa is to be found in a sort of chamber gnawed into 
the side of the fruit receptacle, a regular cocoon being formed of bits of vege- 
table m.atter spun together with silk. The emerged pupee are usually found 
projecting half-way out of the cocoon amongst the ripening fruit, such bunches 
of fruit being far less productive than unattacked ones "(•''). 

The pupa is about 5 mm. long, cylindrical, tapering to a point posteriorly, 
uniform chrome-yellow ; legs-cases free ventrally and produced nearly to 



PLATE V 




Fig. 1. PlcUyptilia direptalis: — 
a. Moth, natural view size and magnified (x 9) ; 
d. Side view of head, more highly magnified. 




eumiffP^ CL. 



Fig. 2. Platyptilia direptalis: — 

a. Larva : 

b. Pupa, natural size and magnified. 



lii^ri- ^ 






T. SAlNfiRlGGE FLETCHER 21 

anal extremity ; each abdominal segment dorsall}^ with two raised elongated 
ridges ; anal segment with several thin curved-tipped hairs. (Pusa Insectary 
Cage-slip 815.) 

The pupal period is about four da^^s in the hot weather and about a week 

in the winter." rT/\Ro-?,f\^e S . rti^ %( L (s k^< 

PLATYPTILIAiiBR^CHYMORPHA, MEYR. (PLATE III, FIG. 2.) - o "l^^- / fT 

liPlcUyptilia brachymorpha, Meyr., T. E. S., 1888, 240 (1888)(i), B. J., XVII, 
135 (1906),(2) T. E. S., 1907, 483 (1908)(3) ; Fletcher, Spol. Zeylan , VI, 
12, t. A f . 3 (1909)(^), T. L. S. (2) XIII, 401 (1910)(5). 
a PlatypiUia seeholdi, Hofm., Iris, XI, 33 (1898)(«). 

This is a widely distributed species recorded from Syria, India, Ceylon, 
South Africa, Aldabra, and Hawaii(5), j^ India and Ceylon it seems to 
occur in the Plains. We have it from Kegalle, Sidapur, PollibtUa, Pusa, 
Chakradharpur and Pyinmana (Burm.a). 

It has been reared at Pusa from larvae collected on Celsia coromandeliana 
on 7th February 1906 and 1st March 1913 and from a pupa found on an un- 
identified yellow-flowered Solanaceous plant on 5th April 1918. 

The larva bores into flower-buds of Celsia coromandeliana and eats the 
anthers. It is, when full-grown, about 8 m-m.. long and rather n ore than 
1 mm. broad, cylindrical, tapering slightly towards either extremity, segments 
distinct, brownish-grey with a pinkish-grey dorsal line deeper in colour pos- 
teriorly ; head bilobed, shiny, translucent pale yellowish-brown with black 
specks and m.inute hairs ; thorax with minute black spots and dull-white tufts 
of hairs ; legs well developed ; abdominal segm^ents rather darker tinged ; 
prolegs pale yellow ; anal segm^ent with a large black spot ; tufts of small hairs 
on segments. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 978.) Another larva was described 
as yellowish-green, dorsal line deeper green. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 300A.) 

Pupation takes place on the foodplant. The pupa is about 8 mm. long 
and slightly more than 1 mm_. broad, yellowish-green with a pale crimson 
dorsal line posteriorly from thorax, abdominal segm.ents with pale crimson 
lines. The pupal period is seven or eight days. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 

978.) ^4. , p. Li,^ 

PLATYPTILIA DIREPTALIS, WLK. (PLATE V.) ^ ^ >? f f^' 

Oxyptilus direptalis, Wlk., Cat. XXX, 934 (1864)(');^^^ /^^ ")t-~- - - 
Platyptilia direptalis, Meyr., T. E. S., 1907, 485 (1908)(^) ; Fletcher, Spol. 

Zeylan., VI, 12 (1909)('^). 

Originally described from the Cape of Good Hope(^), this species has since 
been recorded from Ceylon (Pattipola), the Palnis, Nilgiris and Simla(2). 
We have it from Dungagali (8,000 feet ; Hazara District), Pusa and vShillong. 



22 LIFE- HISTORIES OP rTEROPIIORIT)^ 

At 8hillong the larva is found coniiiionly on Teucrium quadrifarium 
and Scutellaria discolor. Figures 1ft and \h are made from spirit specimens 
of the larva and pupa. 

PLATYPTILIA MOLOPIAS, MF.YR. . .'^ . J^V f [H'* J 

Platyptiliamolopias, Meyr., B. J., XVII. 135 nSOG)(') : Fletcher, Spol. Zeylan., 
VI, 12-13, t..Af. 1, t. Ef. 4 (1909)(^'). 
( • L}^ ^^-•Ii•^^This species is common in the Hill Districts of Ceylon but does not appear 
^^ ^ mT W^ to have been found in India hitherto. We have it from Maskeliya, Haldum- 
^^ ^ mulla and Pattipola. 

"^^IricU 1 ^^^ ■ " ^iie egg is about 0'47 mm. long by about 03 mm. broad, the micropylar 

end di tiiictly the larger and flattened ; in colour it is of a very pale green, the 
surface reticulated with large but shallow rounded depressions. 

" Larva3 were found on 18th May 1908 at MaduLsima, feeding on the 
flowers and unripe seeds of Teucrium tomentosum. The larva is of a very 
pale green colour and is very difficult to discern when in situ o*n the foodplant. 
Hall-^rown examples often seem to have a narrow reddish medio-dorsal stripe. 
lacking in adults, which latter have sometimes home lateral reddish markings 
on the thoracic segments. Like all " plume " larvse, however, this one is very 
variable in colour, and some examples might be described as reddish with a 
greenish latero-dorsal suffusion on the abdominal segments. The head is 
yellowish or pale green, the ocelli very distinctly m^arked in black. The 
segmental divisions are sharply distinct. All primary hairs are white ; the 
longest hairs are a little longer than the diameter of the segm.ents on which 
they arise. The legs are yellowish-green, extremities of claws yellowish. 
Proleo-s very transparent pale green, hooks reddish. Spiracles very incon- 
spicuous. Secondary hairs short, black. 

" The pupa is suspended freely by the tail from an empty flower-sheath 
of the foodplant. It is rather short, the appendage sheaths very long and well 
separated. Colour a pale flesh-pink, mottled longitudinally with brown; 
head and wing-sheaths pale greenish, the latter with longitudinal brown 
shading. Dorsal prominences sm^all, distinct, subequal, directed forward, 
except the first, which is extremely large, directed backwards, blunt, but 
tipped anteriorly with a sharp spine whose point is bent forward. This large 
prominence is sharply outlined by a deep brown shading which reaches 
obliquely anteriorly half-way across the wing-cover. A second brown shade, 
parallel to the first but less intense and narrower, occurs on the sixth segment, 
but barely reaches on to the wing-sheath. 

" The moth emerges from the pupa after about a week "(-). 



PLATK VI. 




'm f fi I a S . 




\ 



Ht 



Cuca Lee. . 







^^'resrw.- 



\ 





i)ra.-Aj^,or/,Art. Htj^^ 



^""■'f-r 



|,„s^n^'^*'="^»'* 




Outlines of dorsal segments of pupae of various species of Platyplilia [\ 7 ), 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHETl 23 

PLATYPTILIA CACALI^, n. sp. . - ' , ^'3 • ^ 

Male and female. Expanse IG mm. Palpi povrect; short, second joint 
dilated with scales, third with short rough scales, short, acuminate ; greyish, 
fuscous externally. Head greyish-fuscous. Antennae greyish, obscurely 
ringed with fuscous. Thorax greyish-fuscous. Legs whitish, dilated with 
brownish scale-tu.{ts at apices of tarsi ; posterior tibiae greyish, irrorated with 
fuscous and ob.^curely broadly banded at origins of spurs which are whitish, 
brownish at base and apex. Abdomen moderately long, greyish, irrorated 
with fuscous which tends to form a patch in middle of back, 

Forewing cleft from about | : first segment broadening posteriorly, apex 
falcate, posterior angle well marked ; second segment broadening posteriorly, 
both angles well marked, termen sinuately convex : brownish-grey irrorated 
with white and reddish-brown : costal area strongly irrorated with blackish ; 
an elongate blackish dot in cell beyond 1/3 ; a large blackish costal triangle at 
2/3, its apex running obliquely into basal half of second segment, its outer edge 
irregular and not touching base of cleft ; first segment with very ill-defined 
whitish bars at \ and f , first only evident towards costa, second followed by 
a clearly-defined terminal blackish suffusion narrowest at apex and broadening 
regularly to posterior margin of segment ; second segm.ent with clearly defined 
blackish suffusion on posterior fourth, preceded by an ill-defined whitish 
bar. Cilia on costa blackish with a few scattered whitish scales, beyond 
costal triangle narrowly whitish, and mixed with whitish before apex ; on 
termen ochreous-white^ black at base ; within cleft ochreous-white with a few 
scattered black scales, black opposite terminal black suffusion ; on dorsum 
ochreous-white with scattered black scales tending to form a broad weak 
scale- tooth at about 3/5. - . 

Hind wing cleft from about 2/5 and 1/6 : first segment dilated posteriorly.; 
second segnient dilated posteriorly, subtriangular, ap^very acute, termen 
concave, Ineder angle distinct ; third segment sublinear, tornus almost ob- 
solete : fuscous-grey, irrorated with fuscous-brown. Cilia brownish-grey ; 
around apex and tip of second segment blackish ; on dorsum paler, with a 
rather weak black scale-tooth at about |, preceded by a few scattered black 
scales and followed by a smaller number of weaker black scales. 

Coimbatore ; 5th December 1917 {Fletcher). Adults flying over flowers 
of Cacalia coccinea, in the flower-heads of which the larvse and pupse were 
found. Twelve specimens. 

This species is superficially very like P. molopias, but is evidently distinct 
from the form of the pupa. At the time of capture it was supposed to be 
P. molopias and no description of the larva was made. 



24 LIFE-HISTORIES OF PTEROPSORIDA 

PLATYPTILIA GONODACTYLA, SCHIFP. 

Alucita gonodactyla, SchifE. and Den., Schmett. Wien., p. 320 {1775)(i). 
Platyptilia gonodactyla, Tutt, Brit. Lep., V, 201-219 (1906)(2) ; Meyr., Rec. 

Ind. Mus., V, 217(3). 

This is a widely-distributed European species which extends into the 
Northern Dortion of the Indian Region. It has been recorded fromDarjiling(3) 
and Rawalpindi(3). 

In Europe the larva feeds on Tussilago farfara. The early stages are 
described at length by Tutt(-), but have not been found in India as yet. 

STENOPTILIA ZOPflODACTYLA, DUP. 

Pterophorus zophodactylus, Duponchel, Hist. Nat., XI, 668, t. 314 f. 4 

(1838)(i). 
Adkinia zophodactylus, Tutt, Brit. Lep., V, 319-334 (1906)(2). 
Stenoptilia zophodactyla, Meyr., Ent. Mo. Mag., 1907, 146 (1907)(3), T. E. S., 

1907, 504 (1908)(-*) ; Fletcher, Spol. Zeylan., VI, 10-11, t. E f . 3 (1909(-'^). 

This is a widely distributed species, known from Central and Southern 
Europe, Asia Minor, Armenia, India, Ceylon, Eastern Australia and Argentina. 
We have specimens from Lunugala (Ceylon), Ootacamund, Bababudin Hills 
(Mysore), Pusa, Peshawar, Abbottabad, Kashmir, Parachinar, Hangu (Kurram 
Valley) and Cherrapunji. 

Very detailed descriptions of the egg, larva and pupa, taken from English 
specimens, are given by Tutt, pages 322-331(2). The following descriptions 
of the larva and pupa were made from Sinhalese specim.ens : — " The larva, 
at rest and apparently about full-fed, is about 10 mm, long, stout, stoutest 
about third segment and tapering thence gradually. Head pale yellow with 
black ocelli. Colour a pale green, the spiracles narrowly ringed with black ; 
they are situated about half-way up the segments but do not seem raised 
above the skin-surface at all. There is a broad medio-dorsal stripe, purple 
at the edges, but very dark internally. This is narrowly and obscurely edged 
by a narrow whitish-green longitudinal stripe, of a tint slightly paler than the 
ground-colour. Half-way between the lower edge of this stripe and the 
spiracle is a second similar whitish-green stripe, and a third similar stripe 
occurs on the latero -ventral surface at a distance below the spiracle equal 
to that of the second stripe above it. The two latero-dorsal setigerous tubercles 
are situated at a horizontal distance apart equal to about one-third of the 
width of the segment ; the foremost one bears a short black hair, the afterm.ost 
a similar white hair ; the tubercles themselves are very sm.all and inconspicu- 
ous. Just above the spiracle occurs a short white hair, directed outwards. 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 25 

Just below the spiracle are (1) a very short white hair directed forward, (2) a 
short white hair directed backward. The whole body, particularly on the 
dorsal and ventral regions, is thickly covered with minute short black bristly 
hairs. The legs are fairly large and are yellowish in colour ; prolegs rather 
small, greenish yellow. The larva feeds on the flowers and seeds of Sopubia 
trijida. 

" In the case of another larva, the sixth and eleventh segments had a 
round pale spot in the purple dorsal stripe on each side of its central darker 
line, 

" The pupa is long and narrow, of a pa'.e yellowish-green colour with a 
broad purplish-red dorsal stripe ; the usual white hairs are so short that they 
are only just perceptible under a lens. The larval skin is discarded entirely 
and is shrunk up into a minute pellet. The pupa is capable of rapid and 
violent motions in the ventro-dorsal plane, the head being bent backwards 
dorsally until it touches the anal extremity. The pupa is suspended head 
downwards, ventral surface against support "(^). 

At Pusa this species has been reared from larvse found on Kukraunda 
(Blumea balsamifera) on 18th February 1908. The larvae were feeding on the 
green leaves from which they dropped by a thread when disturbed ; the larva 
does not eat the edge of the leaf but nibbles small holes in the upper, 
and occasionally in the lower, surface of the leaf. Its movements are 
sluggish. 

The larva was described as about 8 mm. long and 1*5 mm. broad, cylin- 
drical, tapering posteriorly, yellowish-green ; head green, tinged with yellowish 
or brownish anteriorly, covered with microscopic white hairs ; prothorax 
with two transverse rows of white spinous hairs and with smaller dark secondary 
hairs ; legs greenish-yellow ; abdominal segments distinctly segmented, with 
an irregular interrupted dull yellowish lateral stripe and a deep green dorsal 
stripe, tubjrcles armed with bunches of white spines and black hairs ; spiracles 
small, round, black. 

Pupation takes place on the surface of a leaf, the pupa being very similar 
in colour to the larva. Before pupation the larva applies a long narrow 
network of silken threads to the surface of a leaf and the pupa attaches itself 
to this by the double set of cremastral hooks. The pupa is about 8 mm. 
long and 1'5 mm. broad across thorax, head depressed, thoracic region pro- 
minent, tapering alm.ost to a point anally ; a few white spiny hairs scattered 
over surface ; a brownish dorsal stripe ; wing-cases nearly reaching anal 
extremity. One individual, which pupated on 26th February, emerged on 
7th March 1908. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 652.) 



-^ ^""^26 LIFE-HISTORIES OF PTEROPHORID^ 

^■"^^ : J)-)^t^ EXELASTlSlLIOPHANES, MEYR. 

g^^<^v»^^!^^^>'^>^ liojjJiayies, Meyr., T. E. S., 1886, 19(i). 

VmM.>^ \ ?-*^' Exelaslis liophanes, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 136(-) ; Fletcher, Spol. Zeylan., VI, 

C .''^^''^ ^\S^y ^^-^'^' *• ^ ^- 1^ (1909)(-'), T. L. S. (2) XIII, 403 (i910)(^). 

^^ r \ L: i^ Leioptilus griseodactylus, Hofm., Zoologica, XXIX, 240 {1900)('''). 

I^ji3^^' Originally described from Reiinion('), this species Jias been recorded from 

{.(/^'^ cJr r^'^ Barbados, Natal, Seychelles, Ceylon, Formcsa, China (Fiichau) and the 

io^^S^^^^ Bismarck Archipelago. It is abundant throughout the Plains of India, Burn a 

and Ceylon, and we. have specjirens from Haldummulla, Peradeniya, Coini- 

batore, Virajpet (S. Coorg), Cuttack, Hoshangabad, Pusa, Palamau, Lun ding 

(Assam), 8hillong, Lashio, Tatkon and Myitkyina. 

•This species was bred at Pusa in July 1910 from pupse found on the upper 
surfaces of leaflets of Oxalis sp. The larva has not been noted, but almost 
certainly feeds on Oxalis, probably on the flowers. 

EXELASTIS PHLYCT^NIAS, MEYR. " 

MarasmarcJia pJilyctcBnias, Meyr., B. J., XXI, 106 (1911). 

Described from Trincomali and Puttalam. and from North Coorg. We 
have specimens from Colombo, Kegalle and Haldunm^ulla. The early stages 
are unknown. 

EXELASTIS ATOMOSA, WLSM. (PLATE VII.) ; 

Aciptilia aiomosa, Wlsm_., P. Z. S., 1885, 885(i). 

Exelaslis atomosa, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 730(-) ; Lefroy, Ent. Mem., I, 210, 
ff. 67, 68(3), ina. Ins. Life, pp. 527-528, t. 53(^) ; Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins., 
pp. 444-445, t. 38 (1914)(5), Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 44, 56 (1917)('^). 

Exelaslis parasila (Meyr., ined.), Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Pests, p. 140, figs. 
Pterophonis ehalensis, Rebel, Lep. Sokotra, p. 84 (1907) 

nee 
Exelaslis atomosa, {nee Wlsm.), Fletcher, Spol. Zeylan., VI, 33, t. A f. 11 (1909) 

[= 2)Myclcenias, Meyr.]. 

Originally described from Bom.bay (^), this species is widely distributed 
in the Plains of India, but does not appear to occur in Ceylon, where it is 
replaced by E. plilyctcenias, Meyr, It is an important pest of Cajanus indicus 
and Dolichos lablah. We have it from Peshawar, Abbottabad, Pusa, Samasti- 
pur, Bilaspur (C. P.), Hoshangabad, Bhopal, Baroda, Poona, Yem.mjganur 
(Bellary) and Coimbatore. ki^r. 

'Outside of India, E. aiomosa is known from Natal, S«!>ifrTtTli, and New- 
Guinea. It will })r()bably be found to be widely distributed throughout the 
tropical regions of the Old "W^orld. 



'il\l\.-<l>. 



PLATE V. 




Fig. 1. Exelastis pumilio, Zell. (II liophanes, Meyr.) 

I, Lafva (X 5); b, Lateral and dorsal aspects of the pupa (X 5); e, Moth (X 5). 

The^smaller figures show the natural sizes. 



t 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VIL 

EXELASTIS ATOMOSA. 

Fig. 1. Eggs on pod of pigeon-pea {Cajanus indicus). 

2. Eggs, magnified. 

3. Larva, magnified. 

4. Second and third abdominal segments of larva. 

5. Pupa on pod of pigeon-pea {Cajanus indicus), magnified. 

6. Moth, in normal resting position. 

7. Moth, with wings expanded. 

(The hair-hnes show the natural sizes.) 



PLATE Vll. 



^: 




^'' 



• • 



e 






EXELASTIS ATOMOSA. 



T. BAINBRIGUE FLETCHER 27 

Life-history. The egg is oval in outline, round in section, measuring 
about half a millimetre in length. It is, when laid, light green or bluish, be- 
coming yellower as it aj)proaches hatching. Eggs are laid at night, each egg 
singly, several being found on each young pod, fliwer-bud or young leaf. 
They are difficult to find and escape notice unless one knows what they are 
like and is looking specially for them. Eggs hatch in three and a half to four 
days in warm weather, in five to six days in the winter in the Plains. The 
larva simply bites a hole in the egg and craM^ls out, leaving the empty white 
egg-shell which it does not eat. (Plate VII, figs. 1, 2.) 

Larva. The newly-hatched insect is about one millimetre long, yellow, LonA^'^ i>M/<i^"u";e^ 
the segments covered with short hairs. As it grows older the colour becomes ?/ ^^.|» uJ"i^ J| 
green, or green with brown markings, closely resembling the colouring oi the ( ^^^^^^i] Rem 
pod it is feeding on. The segments are clothed in hairs and capitate spines, A^^^t^ ^ p,^ (IT c^ 
the latter in distinct rosettes. There are five pairs of green prolegs. (Plate (w"^, K j'^'^ 
VII, fig. 3.) The larva, on hatching, eats into the pod and feeds upon. Tu^c. 15^ 

the seeds ; or it bites into the unopened flower-bud and attacks the developing 
anthers. It never actually goes completely into the pod but stretches in from 
outside. This caterpillar is much like that of Sphenarches caffer and is found 
abundantly with it upon the buds and pods of pigeon-pea in the cold weather. 
The larval life lasts for ] 6 to 21 days in warm weather, from 25 to 30 days in 
the cold weather. 

Pupa. Pupation takes place on the plant, openly. The manner of 
pupation is the same as that of SpJienarches caffer, and the pupa is similarly 
attached at two points to the silken pod by means of circinate spines forming 
two cremastral pads, one at the anal extremity and the other on the lower 
surface of the eighth abdom.inal segm^ent. It is green, grey, or brown, and is, 
like the larva, cryptically coloured. The pupal period is from, three to five 
days in the hot weather, seven days in the cold weather. (Plate VII, fig. 5.) 
Emergence from the pupa is effected by the rupture of the pupal integument 
along the median line from the vertex to the end of the midventral line of the 
thorax. 

The moth is shown in Plate VII, fig. 6 ; the wings are noimally held 
so that only the narrow forewing is visible. It is found flying in the dusk, 
resting by day on the lower surface of a leaf or on any convenient 
surface. Mating may take place soon after emergence, and oviposition 
the next night ; even in captivity without food the moths survive 
for ten days. In the insectary one moth laid a total of 9-1 fertile eggs, 
laying over thirty the first night, the remainder on four subsequent 
ni";hts.' 



28 



LIFE-HISTOKIES OF PTEROPHORID^ 



The following tables give normal life-histories in March- April ; the periods 
are longer in December- January as stated above : — 



Eggs laid j Eggs hatched 

1 


Larva? pupated. 


Moths emerged 


Total 


23-III 
24-III 
25-III 


27-III 
28-III 
29-III 


14 to 17-IV 
16-IV 
14-IV 


19 to 22-1 V 

21-IV 
17to]9-IV 


27—30 

28 
23—25 



Occurrence. In the life-history as detailed above, there is no stage in which 
long periods of rest would appear to be undergone and hibernation or any such 
resting stage would seem to be im-possible. Yet such resting periods must 
occur in actual fact ; the norm.al foodplant of this insect is the pigeon-pea 
(Cajanus indicus, known as arJiar, tur or red gram) which is sown with the 
monsoon^ say in July, and which flowers and bears pods in December- January 
in some parts of India, in March-April in others. There is thus abundant 
food for some months only, while this crop is coming into flower and pod, 
and it is then that it is found in abundance in all stages. The pest has been 
under fairly close observation in several places and there is a long gap between 
the crops of pigeon-pea which is apparently bridged in one of several ways. 
The leguminous plant hulihi or lablab bean {Dolichos lahlah) is an alternative 
foodplant found in the rains before the pigeon-pea is producing flower-buds, 
and to a very small extent this insect has been found breeding on this plant. 
This has not been recorded in Pusa and the only known way in which the 
moth is known to live over in Pusa from April to December is as an imago in 
shelter in thick grass. A considerable amount of attention has been paid 
to the fauna of thick grass and this species has been found occasionally during 
the months when it is known to breed. It has been found only in this way 
during this time and only in small numbers in the m.oth stage. 

We believe that normally it lives over from April to December as a m-oth 
in hiding, emerging when the pigeon-pea is coming into bud to breed ; in 
localities where there is a constant supply of its alternative foodplant, it 
emerges earlier and breeds in small numbers on this. That is, in some locali- 
ties where hulthi is regularly grown, a summer brood is found on it ; in other 
places it is not. We may contrast this with Sphenarches caffer which has 
these two foodplants, but also breeds on Cucurbitaceee, which are freely culti. 
vated from April to December, so that the latter can find foodplants throughout 
the year. It is possible that Exelastis atomosa has wild alternative foodplants, 
but there is as yet no evidence to support this and, had they occurred in Pusa^ 
we believe they would have been found. 



T, BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 29 

PTERQPHORUS LIENIGIANUS, ZELL. 

Pterophorus lienigianus, Zsllor, Linn. Ent., VI, 380 (1852)(i) ; South Entom., 
XV, 105, t. 2 f. 3(-^); Moyr., Handb., p. 439f ), T. E. S., 1907, 497(1908) (^) ; 
Fletcher, Spol. Zeylan , VI, 34-35 (1909)(^), S. Ind. Ins., p. 445, f. 322 
(1914)(^^), Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 288 (1917)^). 
Leioptilus seriniihanus, Maore, Lep. Ceylon, III, 527, t. 209 f. 14(^). 

This specjjSSr^eiidnally described from Central Eiirope('), occurs through- 
out India, VBurmaJand Ceylon. We have specimens from Anura- 
dhapura, Coimbatore, Godavari District, Peshawar, Pusa, Shillong, and 
Maymyo. 

In Europe the larva has been recorded as feeding o'n. the terminal leaves 
of Artemisia vulgaris and has been described as " pale bluish-green ; dorsal 
line broad, darker ; sub -dorsal yellow-whitish ; head brown, blackish- 
marked " (3). 

In India the larva feeds on brinjal (Solanum melongena) and has been 
described as " about 8 to 10 mm. long, moderately stout, hairy, very pale 
yellowish, head brown "C'), It has also been reared at Pusa from larvae found 
on 26th March 1917 rolling and feeding on leaves of an unidentified weed 
locally called khagra (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1538). 

PTEROPHORtTS MONODACTYLUS, LINN 

Alucita monodactyla, Linn., Syst. Nat. (ed. X) I, 542 (1758)(^). 

Pterophorus pterodactylus, Backler, Larvse Brit. Butt, Moths, p. 365] 

(1901)(2). 

TMs species is very widely distributed throughout Europe and North 
America, and occurs in the North-West Frontier Province and in Kashmir. 
We have specimens from Parachinar (Kurram Valley). 

The larva feeds on various species of Convolvulus, Chenopodium and 
Atriplex and has been described by Porritt(2) as about 15 mm. in length and 
stout in proportion, head polished and rather small, body uniform and cylin- 
drical, tapering a little posteriorly, segmental divisions well defined and deeply 
cut ventrally, each tubercle emitting a taft of short but rather strong hairs ; 
ground-colour bright yellowish-green, more decidedly green dorsally ; head 
pale yellow, mandibles light brown ; dorsal stripe narrow but distinct, yellowish 
white ; a much broader yellowish-white spiracular stripe, the space between 
this and spiracles freckled with streaks and spots of the same colour ; 
spiracles black, hairs^greyish ; ventral surface, legs and prolegs uniformly pale 
green. 

3 



30 LIFE-HISTORIES OF PTEROPHORID^ 

PSELNOPHORUS ALBITARSELLUS, WLSM. I 

Alucita albitarsella, AVlsm,, in Swinh., Cat. Lep. Het. Oxford Miis., II, 542 

(1900). 

This species was described from a single specimen from Ootacamund. 
I have examined this (type) specimen in the Oxford Museum and make it to 
be a Pselnophorus and not an Alucita. We have a specimen from the Palni 
Hills. 

" Larva white, about half an inch long, with a few long hairs scattered 
about its body. It burrows into the shoots of a common jungle plant. Pupa 
suspended by tail from underside of a leaf (Mmchin) ". 

ALUCITA NIVEODACTYLA, PAG. 
Alucita niveodactyla, Pag., Zoologica, XXIX, 240 (1900) (i) ; Meyr., T. E. S., 

1907, 490 (1908)(-') ; Fletcher, Spol. Zeylan , VI, 36, t. F f. 9 (1909)(3) ; 

Poulton, Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1909, p. 39(^). 
Aciptilia nivea, Snell., Tijds. voor Ent., XL VI, 56, t. 5 f. 17^^). 

This species is widely distributed and is recorded from the Bismarck 
Archipelago(i), Java(^), Cochin China('*), the Philippines (-) and Ceylon(^). 
In India and Ceylon it is apparently confined to the Hill districts. We have 
it from Shillong and Cherrapunji. 

" The larva feeds on the young leaves of an Ipomoea, eating the leaves 
from the outside and not entering within the unexpanded leaf in the manner 
of Sleganodactyla concursa. In colour it is of a uniform pale yellowish-green 
thickly studded with long fasciculated tufts of whitish hairs, of which those 
of the dorsal row are the longest and sometimes tipped with brown. These 
hair-tufts are extremely complicated, and their appearance will be best under- 
stood from the rough sketch of a larval segment (Plate F, fig. 9) ; under 
the microscope these tufts of long hairs recall the armature of spines exhibited 
by an Echinid "(3). 

" The pupa is green, thickly covered with pale green spinous hairs and 
with an interrupted dorsal and sub-dorsal row of black spots. The moth 
emerges after about a week "(•^). 

STEGANODACTYLA CONCURSA, WLSM. 
Stegayiodactyla concursa, Wlsm., Ent. Mo. Mag. 1891, 241('), Novit. Lepidopt. 

t. 12 f. 3(2) ; Fletcher, Spol. Zeyl., VI, 9, t. E ff. 1-2 (1909)f). 

This species is widely distributed in Ceylon and has been found in India 
at Belgaum and in Coorg. It has also been recorded fropi Sumatra by Hering 
[Stett. Ent. ZeiL, 1903, 96). 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 31 

"The larva feeds between the young unexpanded leaves of a common 
climbing Argyreia and also of Ipomosa populifoUa, eating the upper cuticular 
surface of the leaf into tell-tale patches. 

" The full-grown larva may be described as stout, rather flattened ; head 
pale yellow ; other segments a pale greyish-green, interstices of segments 
(only visible when expanded) darker green ; dorsal surface pale ; warts with 
a little orange-yellow about their bases, often forming a distinct orange-yellow 
or reddish median stripe ; an ill-defined broad dark lateral shade appears to be 
caused by the contents of the alimentary canal, as it disappears towards the 
anal extremity when frass is voided ; hairs white, usually very conspicuous. 

" In confinement the larva generally wanders off the f oodplant to pupate 
but occasionally attaches itself to the upper surface of the midrib of a leaf. 
I have never found the pupa in nature. 

" The pupa is usually suspended horizontally to a vertical support, being 
closely adpressed ventrally to the resting-surface by the double set of crem as- 
tral hooks. Its colour, which is variable, is some shade of pale green, but it 
always has a broad reddish medio-dorsal stripe. These colours fade into a 
greenish -brown shortly before emergence, which takes place after about six 
days, the moth generally appearing in the late evening, quite contrary to the 
usual habits of plume-moths. The pupa is comparatively extremely small, 
and it seems marvellous how such a large moth can emerge from a, pupa-case 
which does not seem sufficiently large to contain its abdomen alone ''(^). 

Mr. Senior-White has also reared this species at Matale from Lantana, 
which is an unexpected foodplant. 

AGDISTIS TAMARICIS, ZELL. 
Adactyh, tamaricis, Zeller, Isis^^^ 1847, 899(^). (,^^'^, 
Agdistis tamaricis, Zeller, Linn. Ent., VI, 325(-) ; Milliere, Icon., Ill, 237, 

t. 126 ff. 5-7(3) . Hofmann, Deut. Pteropli., p. 56(4) . wism., Entom. 

Rec, XIX, 5i-55 (1907)(5). 
Herhertia tamaricis, Tutt, Brit. Lep., V, 127-132 (1907)(6). 

This is a widely-distributed species known from Europe(i), Cape de 
Verdes Islands(5), West Africa(5), Algeria(5), Cape Colony(5), Egypt, Arabia(S), T.^-CM-w 
and Karachi(^). We have a specimen, apparently of this species, from 
Peshawar. 

The larva is described by Chapman(^). It feeds on Tamarix, but has 
not been found in India as yet. 

This sjiecies may be looked for in all sandy areas where Tamarix grows 
commonly. 



November, 19^0. Entomolooioal SiRifis. Vol. VI, No. ^ 

MEMOIRS OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

IN INDIA 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN INSECTS 
M ICROLEPIDOPTERA 

II. CARPOSINIDiE, PHALONIAD^, TORTRICIDiE AND 

EUCOSMID^ 

ft 

BY 

T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, R.N., F.L.S., F.E-S., F.Z.S 
Imperial Entomologist 




AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, PUSA 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED TOR 

THE IMPERIAL DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN INDIA 

BY 

THACKER, SPINK & CO., CALCUTTA 
W. THACKER & CO., 2, Crbbd Laub, LONDON 



PLATE VIII. 




^;n?::;sa^ 0- 




rig. 1. Carposina rcprohala: — «. Larva; h. moth, natural <izes and magnified. 




Fig. 2. Acroclila vigesccns: — Molli : i.al-irrd size and ma,ijni!ird. Below is seen a 

more rnlarued \ irw cf lli? Iiead f[(,ni '!ij side. 



33 



LIFE-HISTORTES OF INDIAN INSECTS. 
MICROLEPIDOPTERA. 

11. CARPOSINIDiE, PHALONIAD^, TORTRICIDiE AND 
EUCOSMID.E. 

BY 

T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S , F.Z.S., 
Imperial Eritomologist . 

[Received for publication on 27th June, 1019.] 

CARPOSINIDiE. lW<w^-\^ ^ 

MERIDARCHIS SCYRODES, MEYR. 
Meridarchis scyrodes, Meyrick, Exot. Mica-., II, 30 (Oct., 1916) (') ; Fletcher, 

Entl. Note No. 74 (1916)(2) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, i>. 251 (1917)(-^). 

Reared at Coinibatore " in February from larvae living in fruits of Zizyphvs 
jajuha (Rhamnaceae) " (') and has also been bred from Zizyjikus jujuha fruit 
at Pusa in March and April(2). Also reared at Nagpur and Surat from 
Zizyphus fruits. 

MERIDARCHIS REPROBATA, MEYR. MS. (PLATE VUI, FIG. 1.) 

This species has been reared at Nagpur and Surat from larvaj in fruits 
of Eugenia jamholana. We have also reared it from_ olive fruits sent to us 
from Kashmir by Messrs. Mitchell & Co., in October 1917. The larva is about 
10 mm. long and about I'o mm. across fifth abdominal segment, thence tapering 
towards either extremity (when the larva is at rest the hinder part of the 
abdomen appears very stout- see figure), dorsally pink, ventrally pale 
yellow ; head yellow-brown, glossy ; prothoracic shield large, longitudinally 
divided in middle, slightly darker than head ; skin of body soft, glossy ; tubercles 
brown chitinized spots bearing single rather long thin hairs ; five paiis of 
equally developed prolegs. Moths emerged from these larvai (at Pusa) between 
19th November and 3rd December. (Pusa Insec-tary (^age-slip 1724.) 



34 LIFE-HISTORIES OF PHALONIAD^ 

PHALONIAD^. 

n0 c 

CLYSIA AMBIGUELLA,/hB. 

Tinea amhiguella, Hubner. Tin., 153 (1801)(i). 

Clysia amhiguella, Meyr., Handbk., pp. 556-557 (1895)(2) ; Wlsm., A. M. N. 

H. (7) V, 488 (1900)(3) ; Kennel, Pal. Tortric, iii, 240, t. H f. 45 (1913)(*). 

Larva " pale brownish-yellow ; head and plate of 2 black "(2). A well- 

(^ known and very injurious pest of the vine in Europe, the larva feeding in the 

cL:''U-5 • flower-buds. Not yet noted as a pest in India, though it is known to occur 

in Assam (Cherrapunji ; Naga Hills), N, Manipur, and Pegu (Karen Hills). 

PHALONIA HYBRIDELLA, HB. 

Tinea hybridella, Hubner, Tin., 351 (^). 

Phalonia hybridella, Meyr., Handbk., p. 553 (1895)(2) ; Wlsm., A. M. N. H. 

(7) V, 486 (1900) (3) ; Kennel, Spuler's Schmett. Eur., II, 258, t. 84 f. 

30(4). 

Larva " pale pink ; head light brown ; plate of 2 yellowish, with four 
black dots ; in seed heads of Picris kieracioides "(2). 

A palsearctic species, recorded from Dharmsala(^). It is doubtful whether 
it is really Indian. r- 

|_PHALONIA MANNIANA, F.R. 

Cochylis manniana, Fischer v. Kosl., Abbild., p. 134, t. 51 f. 2(^), 
Phalonia manniana, Meyr., Handbk., p. 549 (1895)(2), Rec. Ind. Mus., V, 

217(3), P. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., XXXVI, 297 (1911) (*) ; Spuler, Schmett. 

Eur., II, 258, t. 84 f. 32.(6). 

Larva in Mentha and Lyco2ms{^) in Europe. 

This species has been recorded from India and Ceylon, extending to 
N. Australia(^), but in a later note Mr. Meyrick (Ent. Mo. Mag., 1916, 277-278) 
notes that the above record(^) is incorrect, the species in question being P. 
mellita, Meyr., whose early stages are as yet unknown.] 

TORTRICIDiE. 
bf)<^9 5§A. GAPtM INVALIDANA, WLK. 

Tortrix invalidana, ^\^k., Cat., XXVIII, 327 (1863)(i) ; Moore, Lep. Ceylon, 

III, 493 (1887)(2) . 
Epagoge invalidana, Meyr., B. J., XVIII, 617 (1908) (3). 
Capua invalidana, Fletcher, Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 300 (1917)(^)^ 

Originally described from Ceylon(i), this species has since been recorded 
from Coorg and the Khasi Hills(2), and was reared at Nagpur in December 
1915 from larvee feeding on betel-vine leaves. 



-U.^ Uo- ^ ^c^>r^^ K^-e^j^' f9?:.^v^^j ,c^ .^'^ ■ .. 



ncUi 



-^ih^ ^^fW<t/o.w.»^, ^^^ • [^ / 



t. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 35 

ADOXOPHYES PRIVATANA, WLK. 

Dichelia privatana, Wlk., Cat., XXVIII, 320 (1863)('). 

Moxophyes privatana, WJsm., A. M. N. H. (7) V, 481-482 (1900) (2) ; Meyr., 

Gardingr's Fauna Geogr. Maldives, I, 126 (1902)(3), Proc. Linn. Soc. 

N. S. W., XXXV, 209 (1910)(4), Eutom. Mitteil. Suppl., Ill, p. 47 (1914)(«). 

Originally described from Moulniein, this species is very widely distributed 
in India, Burma and Ceylon and from Korea to New Guinea. 

We have it from Coimbatore, Kallar (Nilgiris), Sidapur (Coorg) and 
Manantoddy (Wynaad). 

This species has been bred at Coimbatore by Y. Ramachandra Rao from 
larvae found in Lantana flowers. No description of the larva was recorded, 
but pupation took place in a folded leaf. 

The pupa is 8 mm. long and 2 mm. broad, cylindrical, truncated ante- 
riorly, anal segment conical, terminating in a flattened spatuloid chitinized 
process bearing four pairs of recurved hooks ; light translucent yellow, surface 
rather shiny. The wing-covers extend to the middle of the ventral surface of 
fourth abdominal segment. Dorsal surface of abdominal segments with 
three transverse ridges especially developed on fourth and succeeding segments, 
first ridge close to anterior margin and sharply excised, second ridge adjacent 
to first and carrying a row of sharp, short but rather stout spines, 
ranging from twelve to twenty in number, third ridge slightly behind 
middle of segment, sharp but with its edge broken into numerous close-set 
denticles. 

A larva which pupated on 26th December 1916, em.erged on 2nd February 
1917, and a second larva which pupated on 26th-27th December 1916, emerged 
on 3rd-4th February 1917. Y. Ramachandra Rao {Lantana Cage-slip 21). 

HOMONA COFFEARIA, NIETN. 

Tortrix coffearia, Nietn., Obs. Enemies Coffee Tree in Ceylon, p. 24 (1861)('). 

Homona fasciculana, Wlk., XXVIII, 425(2). 

Tortrix cojfearia, Moore, Lep. Ceylon, III, 494 (1887)(3). 

Hoynona coffearia, Fletcher, S. I. I., p. 452, f. 330 (1914) (*), Proc. Second ^ 

Entl. Meeting, pp. 20, 28 (1917)(6)^ ^«/vs^cwV^ i?^,lv^.i^c- ^.r^A^.. ii-b^-i^l.'^ 'V 
" Homona coffearia is widely distributed throughout the tea districts 
of North-East India and has occasionally occurred in sufficient numbers 
to be noted by planters and specimens have on one or two occasions been 
received at the laboratory of the Indian Tea Association from managers of tea 
gardens, generally in Assam. Speaking generally, however, this insect is of 
comparatively little importance as a pest of tea in these parts. 



36 LtFE-HtSTORtES OF tORTRICID^ 

" There are two periods of the year at which the caterpillars are most 
conspicuous, viz., March to May and August to September. They attack 
the topmost leaves of a [tea] shoot and the damage done in the early part 
of the season, though seldom serious, is greater than that done later in the 
season, for the following reason. The pest prefers succulent growth, and on 
this account will attack indigenous varieties of tea, on wliich the young leaves 
are soft and juicy, in preference to China or hybrid varieties, in which the 
young leaves tend to be m.ore dry. Similarly, the new growth on cut-back 
tea is more succulent than that on tea which has been top-pruned, and hence 
bushes pruned in the former nmnner are more liable to attack than top-pruned 
bushes. Should a cut-back bush be backward in its growth in March it is 
very liable to receive a very severe check if attacked by this pest, m.ore es- 
pecially so, as the rule at this time of year is to pluck such tea to a measure, 
leaving all bushes untouched which have not yet grown up to that measure. 
Should a shoot be attacked after reaching that measure, the damage done 
is negligible, as the pest and the attacked leaves are removed by the pluckers, 
and the main object, which was to allow the new shoots to attain a certain 
growth, has been achieved. In August and September, however, such condi- 
tions do not obtain. The main object then (for August and September 
are the two months during which growth is most rapid as a rule) is to 
get the leaf off. The caterpillars are removed by the pluckers almost 
as soon as the}' become established and only a sii all proportion attain 
maturity, 

" Thus ordinary garden operations as a rule exercise a sufficient check 
on the pest and, in cases where backward cut-back tea is affected in the early 
part of the season, it is now mxade a practice of plucking the affected tops off 
the shoots even if they have not attained the growth desired. The highest 
axillary bud then develops, and the shoot is afterwards left until it attains 
the desired measure. 

" Specimens of the different pests of tea are continually being collected 
in the field and reared in this laboratory in the hope of finding parasites, but 
so far no parasites have been found to attack Homona cqffearia." (E. A. 
Andrews, in litL, 17th January 1917.) 

Homona coffearia was recorded (^) as a t;ea-pest in the tea districts of 
Southern India on the authority of Mr. R. D. Anstead, and I have no first- 
hand Ittiowledge of its occurrence on tea in Southern India at all. Pjobably 
it does occur, together with Laspeyresia leucostoma and perhaps other species. 
Specimens of Homona coffearia, taken at Pollibetta in South Coorg by n^yself, 
had probably bred upon coffee, as there was no tea near by. It has 



l^'u^'^^v-? ijl^j 



t. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER ^7 

also been reared in Southern India by Y. Raniachandia Eao from larvae 
found feeding on Lantana at Kallar (Nilgiris) and Sidapur (Coorg). 

HOMONA MENCIANA, WLK. 

Pandemis menciana, Wlk., Cat., XXVIII, 310 (1863) ('). 

Godana simuland, Wlk., Cat., XXXV, 1801 (1866) (2). 

^W^f-^tTTpw^fe^mtM^tteHrr^^^ Eixt., XLIV, 68-e97-tT-5^^V«41^^H-(3)ri^ f-^ ^ ; ^ ^5^?=^' 

Ccuma menciana, Wlsnv, A. M. N. H. (7) V, 482-483 (1900) (*). .. , , 

Homona menciana, Meyr., T. E. &'., 1910, 432 (5);SU<^-^1'-^-tiL ^^ "^^-j !i (>i7-(p3^fAf^^,i5ioj ,^^ ^ 

Originally described from Shanghai, H. menciana has smce been recorded - '^^ 
from Japan, China, India, Java, Borneo, Celebes, Tinnir, Batian, and the '^^^^^^'^(^^■'^^^ , ^ 
Moluccas. In India it has been found at Cherrapunji('*), in the Naga Hills(^) ^^.T^ , 
and in Sikkim(^), and we have it from Shillong and Darjiling and also from 
Southern India. 

Homona menciana has been bred in Southern India by Y. Kamachandra 
Rao from larvae folding tips of branches of Lantana camara at Kallar 
and webbing flowers and leaves on tip of a LaiUana branch at Sidapur, 
Coorg. 

The Kallar larva, when about to pupate, was described as 12 mm. long, 
cylindrical, rather stout, pale greenish to pale yellowish, posterior extremity 
rather dark green ; head shiny black ; prothoracic shield rather lighter than 
head with a conspicuous narrow pale anterior margin ; shields on body rather 
large, circular, shiny, bearing rather long, slender hairs ; legs and prolegs 
normal. It pupated on 3rd January and a female m.oth emerged on 10th 
January 1917. 

The Sidapur larva was described as 19 nm. long, cylindrical, slightly 
flattened, brownish-green, with sparse grey ish-greeli hairs ; head small, flat- 
tened, reddish yelloAv, prothoracic shield greenish brown with a dark brown 
marginal line laterally and posteriorly but not anteriorly. It pupated on 
18th May and the moth emerged on 25th May 1917. 

Pupa (from Kallar larva) 12 mm. long and 3-5 mm. broad, reddish or 
yellowish brown, cylindrical, rather stout, blunted anteriorly, wing-sheaths 
barely reaching middle of dorsal surface of fouith abdominal segm.ent, anal 
segment produced into a long bhmt chitinized projection. Abdominal seg- 
ments with three transverse dorsal lidges, first plain and sharply excised 
posteriorly, second composed of a row of strongly developed spines, third 
composed of a row of nuirerous smaller spines (which, however, are not bo 
small or so numerous as in Lobesiu). (Y. Eamachandra Rao's Lantana Cage- 
slip 33 and un-numbered slip dated 13th May 1917.) 



38 LIFE-HISTORIES OF TORTRlClD^ 

CACCECIA MICACEANA, WLK. 

Caccecia micaceana, Wlk., XXVIII, 314 (1863)(^) ; Moore, Lep. Ceylon, III, 

492, t. 208 f. 1 {1887),2). 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. The larva has been found 
on guava and broad bean at Mandalay {K. D. Shrofi coll.). We have also 
moths from Minbu (Lower Burma) and from Peshawar. 

CACCECIA EPICYRTA, MEYR. 

l,^.^wV- ^^ ' Caccecia epicyrta, Meyr., B. J., XVI, 589 (1905) (i), T. E. S., 1910, 432 (^). 

\^ .kvcc- '^- Originally described from Ceylon, this siiecies has since been found in 

<_ ."i-%''' _ India and Java. In India it is widely distributed and ^^ e have it from Madul- 

sima, Maskeliya, the Shevaroys, the Palnis, Coimbatore, Pusa, Solan and 

Darjiling. 

At Coimbatore it has been bred from a larva on Duranta fruits, and 
at Pusa from a larva boring a guava fruit. 

Caccecia epicyrta has been bred in Southern India on several occasions 
by Y. Ramachandra Eao from larvse found on Lantana camara. The larva 
webs up adjacent flower-heads and feeds on the corollas, etc., as a rule, but 
is sometimes found also on shoots or on ripe fruits, which latter it webs up 
and feeds on their dried pulp and bores into the seeds but in most cases without 
injuring the embryos. It has been found on Lantana camara at Coimbatore, 
Kallar, Bangalore, Sidapur, Manantoddy and Yercaud. 

A larva 8 mm. long is described as dark grey, slightly hairy, head shiny 
yellowish-brown, prothoracic shield shiny dark-brown. This larva was 
found on 21st November 1916, and moulted on 24th-25th November, after 
which it was 12 mm. long, dark grey, rather hairy, the hairs arising from 
whitish wart-like shields, head shiny yellow-brown, prothoracic shield very 
dark brown anteriorly edged with light brown. On 29th November it was 
17"5 mm. long ; on 30th November it prepared a cocoon and pupated on 1st 
December, the moth emerging on 9th December 1916. 

The larva is occasionally greenish or brown, and the head may be reddish- 
brown. 

The pupa is about 10" 5 mm. long and 3 mm., broad, reddish-brown dorsally, 
yellowish ventrally, with the wing-sheaths reaching the fouith abdominal 
segment. Third and succeeding abdom.inal segments with three transverse 
dorsal ridges, first sharp and medially indented posteriorly to form a sharp 
angle, second ridge composed of four to eight rather large short spines, third 
ridge forming a posterior row of small, close-set, stout spines. The anterior 



^fTU 



^a 



rv ^-/>iw\^0 



IH . ) ' '0N3 . f • ^*'^ 






^ ' ^ ^ ^ , i^fg^ . ^ ■ -» 'ub j 






,^^,\^.,U^^ ^G^.TV^V;- W^^'^-^^ ^^^^'^'^^ 
T^..^^. .- Cct:^ w^A^ iifiA.^ . -ht-*~-$ ^^^ ) 



_ _ .._. ... . .Re^^v^ 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 39 

spineless medially recurved ridge is rather characteristic of the pupa of this 
species. (Y. Ramachandra Rao's Lantana Cage-slip 5.) ' 

This species has also been reared at Pusa from larvse sent from Solan 
in January 1916, as.,attacking orange leaves. 

; . CACCECIA ISOCYRTA, MEYR. M^ t^/T. rhA:&v. il_/b+0 OcX^. l^-^J 

A single larva was found at Pusa on 7th January 1917, in a rolled-up 
top of a lucerne plant, some of the top leaves being cut and dried and rolled 
up together. The moth emerged on 15th February. (Pusa Insectary Cage- 
slip 1914.) . 

CACCECIA PENSILIS, MEYR. MS. E^it. Kxca. ¥ /il^ ,-<>40 lOc/T. \'jt*J 

A single specimen was reared from a larva found boring into an orange 
fruit at the base of the stem ; the fruit was purchased in Madras City, but was 
probably brought from some other locality in Southern India. 

CACCECIA COMPACTA, MEYR. 
Cacoecia comjpacta, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 164-165 (1918)(i). 

Bred at Pusa in February-March 1916, from larvse found webbing up '^^^^ ' «"-^ -^ 
Salix leaves and feeding under cover of the webbing on the epidermis and ^""^-^^ icj.viti.\i 
mesophyll tissue of the leaves. The larvse were collected on 29th February, f— \- ^■^ ^ 
when they were about half -grown and pupated between 21st and 27th March, 'U-U^. -l ^- f '?. 
the moths emerging from 26th March to 6th April 1916. Pupation took place (Xir-j^U Tec 
within folded leaves, in a slight cocoon form.ed of white silken threads. 

The half -grown larva is about 10 mm. long and 1 mm. broad, cylindrical, 
dull green with scattered short pale-greenish hairs, head shiny yellowish- 
brown, prothoracic shield black and strongly chitinized. 

The full-grown larva is about 20 mm. long and 2 mm. broad, head pale 
brown, otherwise as above. 

The pupa is about 10 mm. long and 2*5 mm. broad across the thoracic 
region, cylindrical, tapering posteriorly, anal segment produced and terminating 
in a pair of short aciculate processes, brown, darker dorsally and lighter 
ventrally with a slight green tinge over ventral thoracic region. (Tahl Ram's 
Cage-slip 170.) 

CACCECIA DISPILANA, WLK. 

Pandemis dispilana, Wlk., XXX, 983 (1864) (i). 

Cacoecia dispilana, Meyr., Cat. Tortric, p. 18 (1912) (2). 

Archips mimicus, Wlsm., Swinh. Cat. Het. Oxf. Mus., II, 573 (1900) (3). 

The larva is recorded(^) by Minchin, from examples found at Ootacamund, 
as " green, head brown, slightly hairy. Leaf -roller on honey-suckle. Pupa 

{U^X (iU{v.-L^A,C<>vwr <^ ^;^,T^^ Ar^T.^>^ T}^,3«,, |).9 (^i^t; C*^*--^- ^^-^ 



1- V3-, r.*l> 



40 LIFE-HISTORIES OF TORTRICID^ 

The motli occurs throughout India {? except the North-West) from the 
Nilgiris and Wynaad to Bhutan and Assam and in Burma to Mergui. We 
have it from Shillong and Cherrapunji. 

CACCECIA PHILIPPA, MEYR. 
Cacwcia philippa, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 165 (1918)(i). 

" Bred at Abbottabad from larva on Hedem, June (Fletcher) (^)." 

ULODEMIS TRIGRAPHA, MEYR. 
U^^ ^■^\-J'^ , Uj^^^^-g trigrapha, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 736 {1907)(i), B. J., XXII, 771 

(1914)(2). 

This species was originally described from Bhutan(') and later recorded 
from the Khasi Hills(2). We have it from Darjiling and Shillong. At Shillong 
it was reared in October 1916, from a larva found feeding on the berries of an 
unidentified jungle shrub (? Viburnum sp.). 

PANDEMIS RIBEANA, HB. 

Tortrix ribeana, Hb., Samnil. Eur. Schm., f. 114 (1800)(0. 

Pandemis ribeana, Meyr., Handbk., p. 533 (1895) (2) ; WIsm., A. M. N. H. 

(7), V, 386 (1900)(3) ; Kennel, Pal. Toitric, p. 157, t. 8 ff . 21, 22 (1910)(*). 

This insect is a palsearctic species which occurs in North and Central 
Europe, Central Asia, the Himalayan Region, China, Korea, and Japan. 

The larva feeds in more or less spun-up leaves of Cratcegus, Rosa, Prunus, 
Pyrus, Quercus, Rhamnus, Fraxinus, Sorbus, Acer, Tilia, Betula, Ribes, Berbens, 
Geum, etc. It is described by Meyrick as "light green ; dorsal line darker ; 
head green, sometimes brown-spotted; plate of 2 green (2)." 

TORTRIX SEMIALBANA, GN. 

Caccecia semialbana, Guenee, Ann. S. E. Fr., 1845, p. 139(^) ; Kennel, Pal. 
Tortric, pp. 142-143, t. 7 f. 45 (1910)(^). 

Archips semialbanus, Wlsm., A. M. N. H. (7) V, 383-384 (1900)(3). 
Larva on Lonicera, Rosa, Chelidonium, Labium, Urtica, etc.("-) 
Another palsearctic species, which occurs along the Him^alayan region. 

from Kashmir to Sikkim. We have it from Dungagali (Hazara District ; 

8,000 feet) and Kasauli. ■♦- .i\-rv,sOp^- 

TORTRIX DUMETANA, TR. 

Tortrix dumetana, Treitschke, Schmett. Eur., X (3), p. 160 (1835)(i) ; Meyr., 
Handbk., p. 538(2) . WLsm., A. M. N. H. (') V, 451 (1900)(3) ; Kennel(3), 
Pal. Tortric, pp. 193-194, t. 10 f. 12 (1910)(-^). 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 41 

Larva in leaves or spun-iip slioots of Lonicera, Valeriana, Urtica, San- 
guisorba, Origanum, Dictamnus, Hedera, Thahjctrum, Rubus, UmbelUfercp 
ami Qaercus(^). 

A palscarctic species, rec()rded(^' *) from Kashmir. 

HARMOLOGA MISERANA, WLK. 
Teras miserana, Wlk., XXVIII, 301 (1863)('). 
Harmologa miserana, Meyr., P. Linn. See. N. S. W., XXXV, 270 (1910)(2), 

Entom. Mitteil., Suppl. No. Ill, p. 48 (191i)(3). 

"Larva rather slender, cylindrical, with scattered whitish hairs; grey- 
whitish, posteriorly ochreous-tinged ; two brownish-ochreous spots placed 
longitudinally on back of each segment ; lateral line moderately broad, reddish- 
fuscous ; head dark-fuscous ; segnrent 2 whitish, posteriorly tinged with 
ochreous, posterior angles suffusedly blackish : feeds between joined leaves 
of Ficus benjamina and another Ficiis not identified, rolling up a corner for 
shelter, in August (and doubtless most of the year) ; pupation in sam.c posi- 
tion(2)." 

The above description is from Australian examples. The insect occurs 
in Australia, Java, Formosa and Assam. 

CNEPHASIA ARGENTANA, CL. 

Phalcena argentana, Clerck, Icones 11,14('). 

Tortrix argentana, Meyr., Handbk., p. 542(2) ; Kennel, Pal. Tortric, pp. 196- 

197, t. 10 ff. 17, 18(3) . Wlsm., A. M. N. H. (7) V, 460(4) ; Durrant, P. 

Z. S., 1906, 498(5). 

Recorded to occur in N.-W. India(3), Kashmir (7,000-13,000 ft.)(^' ^' » ) 
and Sikkim (15,000 it.)[% 

PLANOSTOCHA CUMULATA, MEYR. ; 

Cacoecia cumulata, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 977 (1907)('). 
Platwstocha ciwiulata, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 13 (19r2)(2), Wytsm. Gen. Ins. 

Tortric, p. 50, t. 3 f . 45 (1913)(3). 

This species, originally dehcribed(') from. Ceylon and Coorg, we have 
from the Nilgiris, .Sidapur (Coorg) and Yercaud (Shevaioy Hills). 

At Sidapur it was reared from Lantana camara by Y. Ramachandra. 
Rao, but no description of the early stages seems to have been made. 

EBODA OBSTINATA, MEYR. 
Eboda obstinata, Meyr., B. J., XVIII, 624 (1908)('), Exot. Micr., I, 20 (1912) (-'). 
The larva is described(-), from Pusa records, as " slightly tapering 
posteriorly, greeUj, with a lateral row of whitish hairs ; subdorsal line 



42 LIFE-HISTOEIES OF TORTRICID^ 

indistinct, M^hitish ; head yellow-green, in rolled leaves of Cardiospermum 
(Sapindacese)." 

The moth is recorded from India (Pusa), Ceylon (Puttalam), Mauritius, 
the Comoro Islands, and S. Africa. We have it from Pusa only. 

The larva either rolls a single leaf of Cardiospermum sp. (Hindi BancJiaiail) 
or spins together two or three leaves, inside which it hides and feeds on the 
leaves. It is about 12 m.m.. long, cylindrical, slightly tapering posteriorly, 
with two lateral rows of whitish hairs and an indistinct whitish subdorsal 
line running from, m.esothorax to anal segment ; thoracic legs slender, pointed ; 
prolegs short, the anal pair directed posteriorly. When about to pupate, 
the subdorsal line becomes more distinct and changes in colour from white 
to bay ; it extends from first to eighth abdominal segm.ents ; the dorsal area 
between these lines becomes a brighter bay colour ; the eighth and ninth 
abdominal segments with two bay-coloured lateral dots. 

Pupation takes place within a rolled leaf. The pupa is 6 mm., long 
tapering posteriorly, reddish-brown, wings green. 

Larvse were found at Pusa on 9th August, 1907. Pupation comm.enced 
on 13th August and the m_oths emerged between 20th and 24th August 1907. 
(A. Mujtaba's Cage-slip 30.) 

PERONEA SIDEROTA, MEYR. 

Peronea siderota, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 171 (1918)(i). 

"Bred at Peradeniya in Decem.ber from larva mining in twigs of Cinna- 
momum camphora (Ilutherford)(')." 

PERONEA EPIDESMA, LOW. (PLATE IX.) 
Polyloplia epidesma, Lower, Tr. Roy. Soc. S. Austr. (1901) 71 (^). 
Oxygrapha porpacias; Meyr., B. J., XVIII, 625 (1908)(2). 
Peronea epidesma, Meyr., P. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., XXXV, 292-293 (1910)(3). 

Recorded from Australia(^' ^), Siam(-) and Ceylon.(2' ^). We have a 
long series from Pusa. 

The larvaj have been found at Pusa on 29th October 1911, and 15th Sep- 
tember 1917, rolling and binding together tender leaves of Polyalthia longifolia 
(Hindi Asokh). On the latter date they \N-ere found in very large nun.bers 
and were noted as doing considerable damage. 

The larva is about 15 mm_. long, rather flattened, tapering slightly towards 
either extremity, brownish grey sometimes with a greenish or dark tinge. 
Head shining pale yellow speckled with black. Prothoracic shield as head 
with a black collar -like bar posteriorly. Hairs as shoA\ n in figure rf, their 



\ je/yjvv-g-A a.S '^co(w« I Ivji^y^ I — 



PLATE. IX 




^ipii 



Feronea epidesma:-^a. Leaf of Folyalthia longijolia rolled by larva; b, larva; 
c, male pupa; d, female pupa; e, male moth: /. female moth; natural 
sizes and magnified. 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 43 

bases slightly tubercular. Spiracles rounded, narrowly ringed with brown. 
Tracheal tube white, thread-like, visible along line of spiracles. Five pairs 
of equally developed prolegs with booklets disposed in a circle. 

Pupation takes place in a thin white silken cocoon lining a rolled leaf. 
Before emergence, the pupa wriggles out to tome extent through one end 
of the cocoon. 

The pupa is from 8 to 10 mm. long, slightly compiessed dorso-ventrally, 
tapering posteriorly, yellow brown. Abdominal segm.ents with transverse 
rows of short spines bordering anterior margin and preceding posterior margin. 
The male pupa is longer than that of the female, the eighth and succeeding 
abdominal segments being elongated to acconrrcdate the 'ong anal claspers 
of the male moth. Anal segn.ent \\ithout special arn ature but provided 
with a few thin circinate hairs. 

From larvse collected on 15th September 1917, moths em.erged between 
24th September and 5th October 1917, and between 22nd and 28th Kovem.ber 
1911, from larva) collected on 29th October 1911.. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slips 
920, 1703.) • 

[PERONEA SCHALLERIANA, LINN. 

Tortrix schalleriana, Linn., Faun. Suec. No. 1339 (1761)('). 
Tortrix comparana, Hb., Samml. Eur. Schm., VII, t. 46, f. 284 (ante 1813)(2). 
Oxygrapha comparana, Wlsm., Swinh. Cat. Het. Oxf. Mus., II, 572 {ie00)(3). 
Peronea schalleriana, Meyr., Cat. Tortric, p. 62 (1912)(*). 

This- is a European species, recordfd(') fiom North and Central Europe 
and Maine. Lord Walsingham has recorded it("') from Ootacamaind, where 
the larva is stated to be very com.m.on, rolling up rose leaves ; this is doubtless 
an error, perhaps for extensana Wlk., and schalleriana should be removed from 
the Indian list pending further evidence.] 

EUCOSMIDiE. , . . 

SPILONOTA RHOTHIA, MEYR. 

Spilonota rhothia, Meyr., T. E. S., 1910, 368(i), Exot. Micr., I, 33 (1912)(2). 

Originally described from Mauritius, India (Pusa) and Ceylon (Maskeliya)(^). 

Widely distributed in India. We have it (or I have seen specimens) from 

Pusa,Nagpur, Balaghat (C. P.), Coimbatore and Koilpatti. 

Larva on Psidium gnava{^). Described from Pusa records, it is cylindrical, 
slightly tapering posteriorly, bright orange ; head flattened, yellow ; spots 
yellow -whitish, with very fine white hairs ; segments constricted transversely 
in middle ; in rolled terminal portions of leaves of Eugenia jamholana 
(Myrtace8e)(2). 



44 LIFE-HISTORIES OF EUCCSMID^ 

■ .This species was reared at Piisa at the end of March 1916, from small 
larvae found on tender leaves of Evgenia jamhohna on 10th March. One 
specimen of Polychrosis cellifera was also leaied with these, but the larvse 
were not distinguished. (Dwarka PraEad Singh's Cage-slip dated 10th 
March 1916.) 

At Nagpiir this species was said to have been reared from " balsam " 
and at Koilpatti it has been reared from, a larva' feeding on tender mango 
leaves. 

ACROCLITA CHERADOTA, MEYR. 
Acrodita cJieradota, MeVr., B. J., XXI, 856(i). 
Strepsipleura cTieradoto, Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 540 (1909)(2). 

Larva feeding in rolled leaves of Ficus religiosa at Pusa(i'2). Also 
recorded from Puttalam, in Ceylon('). We have specim.ens £rom Pusa and 
Cohnbatore, in both cases bred from_ larvae on leaves of Ficus religiosa, but 
no description of the larva seen s to have been n ade. It has also been reared 
at Pusa from a larva found on Ficvs glomerata in a gall caused by Pauroj)sylla 
depressa ; the larva was found on 25th December 1916, and emerged on 14th 
January 1917. 

ACROCLITA N^VANA, HB. 
Tortrix ncevana, Hubner, Tortric, 261('). 
Eudemis ncevana, Meyr., Handbk., p. 477 (]895)(2), 
RJiopobota nwvana, Wlsm., A. M. N. H. (7), VI, 441 {1900)(3) ; Kennel, Spuler's 

Schmett. Eur., II, 273, t. 85 f. 43('*). 
Acrodita ncevana, Meyr., B. J., XXI, 857 (1912)(5). 

Larva light grey -brown, sides more yellowish ; head black or blackish- 
brown ; plate of 2 black ; on blackthorn, holly, Vacciniuni, etc.(-). 

Occurs throughout India and Ceylon ; also in Europe and Japan. We 
have this from the Khasi Hills, where it is common, but it has not been 
reared in India. e^s^-.Wu-I.^^^ oo^ ^<T^^ 

ACROCLITA VIGESCENS, MEYR. M&./ (PLATE VIII, FIG. 2.) 

This species has been reared at Pusa frcm pupae found en 9th Mach 
1916, on leaves of Cordia niyxa and fitn^ lar\aL' found on 15th April 1916, 
joining together leaves of Cordia latifolia. The larva was described as pale 
brownish slightly tinged with green ; head brown with brown mouthparts. 
The pupae were found on either side of the leaf ; in sonie cases the cocoon 
consisted of fine whitish silken threads only, in others blackish pellets of 
excrement were attached to the silk. On emergence of the moth the 
chestnut-brown pupa is prctruded out of the cocoon. The moths emerged iii 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 45 

March and April. (C. S. Misra's Cage-slip dated 9th March 1916, and Rata 
Saran's Cage-slip dated 15th April 1916.) 

ANCYLIS GLYCYPHAGA, MEYR. ^-* "^^ C' ' 
A)xcylis glycijpliaga, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 32 (1912)(^). 

The larva, described from Pusa records, is subcylindrical, yellow, head 
flattened ; feeds on the sugary excretion of Phromnia murginella (Honioptera) ; 
pupa in a white cocoon('). 

In January 1910, a number of living nymphs of Phromnia marginella p \iJ jaV 
was received and with them a few leaves which were covered A\ith a thick, \ r^ 
hard, dry crust of their sugary excretion. All of these were placed on a living 
her {Zizyphus jujuba) plant and covered with a field-cage and later on these 
caterpillars were found in a hibernating condition inside their cocoons ; as 
all the caterpillars were found in the midst of the sugary excretion, which 
bore marks of having been nibbled, it was supposed that they had fed upon it. 
One of the caterpillars was parasitized by a dipterous grub which emerged 
from its host's pupa and then pupated inside the cocoon alongside this pupa. 

The full-grown larva is about 15 mm. long, sub-cylindrical, segments 
distinct, integument soft, yellow ; head shiny yellow, flattened ; prothoracic 
shield large, yellow ; mesothoracic and metathoracic regions dark ; body 
with sparse thin hairs ; prolegs equally developed. 

Pupation takes place in a white silken cocoon formed either in cracks 
in the crust of sugary Phromnia excretion on a leaf or on a leaf, preferably 
in a corner. 

Pupa about 8 mm. long, brown, with two transverse rows of minute 
backwardly-directed spines on dorsal region of abdominal segments ; anal 
•extremity rather blunt with several thin hairs with recurved tips around 
apex. The pupa emerges from the cocoon to some extent before the exit 
of the adult. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 821.) 

We also have this from Abbottabad. 



ANCYLIS CARPALIMA, MEYR. 

Ancylis carpalima, Meyr., P. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., XXXVI, 244 (1911)(M, 
.S^J., XXI, 861 (1912)(2). - 
Ce«mTOnriii fndia and Gey lon^ alee occurring in Queensland(^). 

ANCYLIS LUTESCENS. MEYR. ^ J^ h •^1') r' ^'^-^ i 
Ancglis lutescens, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 32 (1912)(i). 

The larva, as described from Pusa records, is cylindrical, tapering pos- 
teriorly, greenish, towards extremities yellowish, with short scattered whitish 



(^,rC■^^ 



•->>^^ • 



46 LIFE-HISTOKIES OF EUCOSMID-E 

hairs ; head rosy-yellowish ; second segment with shining yellow semicirculai 
lobes at anterior angles, not meeting dorsally ; in rolled leaves of Zizyphus 
jujiiha (Khamnaceee) ; pupa in cocoon in same position(^). 

Larvse were found at Pusa on 26th September 1907, rolling up her 
(Zizyplms jujuba) leaves and feeding on the epidermis of the upper surface 
of the rolled leaf, the lower surface of leaf (external, surface of rolled portion) 
not being eaten. Young green leaves m_ay also be eaten from the edge or in 
holes, but dry or partially dry leaves are not eaten. 

Young larva about 9 mm. long, cylindrical, tapering posteriorly ; light 
green, rather transparent, the visceral contents visible through the skin, 
anteriorly and posteriorly yellowish ; head shiny yellowish with a rosy tinge ; 
prothorax with shining yellow semicircular protuberant lobes at anterior 
angles, not meeting dorsally, with two lateral setigerous tubercles and 
smaller hairs on dorsal area ; abdominal segments distinct, with whitish 
dorsal and lateral hairs, the latter projecting outwards ; prolegs dull white. 
Full-grown larva about 30 mm. long, with irregular alternately brownish 
and light-green stripes along the back and sides. 

The larva rolls up the edge of a leaf by means of silken threads and lives 
in the hollow thus formed within a thinly woven white silken network. It 
pupates in this chamber. 

Pupa about 8 mm. long, cylindrical, blunt anteriorly, brown, abdominal 
segments dorsally with submarginal transverse rows of indented lines, first 
row behind anterior margin, second row before posterior margin and com- 
posed of finer indented lines than first row ; cremastral hooks six in number, 
in two rows of three each. The anterior third of the pupa is protruded from 
the cocoon for emergence of the moth, the posterior extremity being attached 
to interior of cocoon by the cremastral hooks. The pupal period is seven 
days in October. Larvae found on 26th September, emerged from 7th to 23rd 
October 1907. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 607.) 

We have this from Pusa, Hoshangabad and Gauhati. It has also been 
bred at Pusa from larvae in galls on her branches and from a larva boring in 
Blumea. 

ANCYLIS CYANOSTOMA, MEYR. 
Ancylis cyanostoma, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 16-17 (Oct. 1916)(J). 

" Bred at Pusa in January from larvae feeding in spun leaves of ZizyjJiiis 
jujuba "(^). 

Larvse rolling up 6er (Zizyphus jujuia) leaves and collected at Pusa on 
26th December 1915, emerged between 27th January and 14th February 
1916, one of the resultant moths being Ancylis lutescens and the rest 






bv*.c^i^ o. 



k^J^^'dA^^^K^, Fx^,L.^ H ^<^o - "^' ^^- '''^^'^ ""^ rDe<r^.^ ^^..^c^. ',5-H. 






^;S1^. dU,oc^t..,t^, E.<r.^-^ H<J^ „.^) ? l^-^-,® ^ .c^ J ^^tw, -kf-^^'^ 



f. BAiNBRIGGE FLETCHER it 

A. cyanostoma. No description of the early stages seems to have been taken. 
(Tahl Rain's Cage-slip 130.) 

DIPLONEARCHA INSINUANS, MEYR. , j 

Diplonearcha insinuans, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 274-275 (1914)('). 
Reared from Psyllid gall on Ficus at Peradeniya(^). 

EUCOSMA CRITICA, MEYR. ' ' 

Eucelis critica, Meyr., B. J., XVI, 587 (1905)(i) ; Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Pests, 
p. 143 (1908)(2), Ent. Mem. Dept. Agric. India, I, 221(3), i^^l, i^^ 
Life, p. 530, t. 55 (1909)(4) ; Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins., p. 450, t. 39 
(1914)(6), Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 12, 42 (1917)(6). 
Eucosma ludicra, Meyr., B. J., XXI, 867 (1912)(7). 
Eucosma tricJiocrossa, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 563-564 (1916){8). 
Laspeyresia trichocrossa, Fletcher, Entl. Note 76 (]916)(^). 

This polynomial species, originally described(') from specimens bred 
from larvEe in spiin-up shoots of Cajanvs iyidicus at Surat, has since been 
recorded* from North Coorg('), Southern India(^) and Piisa(^) and it pro- 
bably occurs throughout the Plains of India. We have it from Pusa, Surat 
and Coimbatore. Hitherto it has only been noticed to attack Cajanus indicus, 
of which it is a minor pest, the larva rolling and webbing together the top- 
leaves of its foodplant and also eating into flower-buds and boring into pods 
and devouring the seeds. At Pusa this species is active from March to May 
and again from August to October, hibernating in the larval state. The follow- 
ing is a summary of the life-history as noted at Pusa : — 

The egg is elongate with rounded ends, about 0'5 mm. long and 0"25 mm. 
in diameter. When laid it is of a creamy white with a greenish tinge but 
later on turns yellow and small reddish patches, usually forming two inter- 
rupted reddish longitudinal markings, appear on its surface. Eggs are laid 
at night and singly ; when several are laid close to one another they are usually 
placed in a row. They may be laid on any part of the foodplant — on the 
upper or lower surfaces of leaves, on petioles of leaves, or on the stem — but 
a groove or depression is always preferred as a suitable place for oviposition ; 
thus, on the upper surfaces of leaves most eggs will be found on a midrib or 
vein whilst on lower surfaces of leaves they will be found placed beside a 
midrib or vein, and the grooves of petioles or peduncles are very favourite 
places. A female moth, which emerged on 5th October, laid in confinement 

* It has also been recorded from other localities {e.g., Nagpur and Raipur) but it is doubtful 
how far soin® of these records really refer to E. critica. 



48 LIFE-mSTOEIES OF EUCOSMIDiE 

26 eggs on 7th, 34 on 8th, 29 on 9th, 13 on 10th, and died on 11th October, 
having laid 102 eggs in all. Of these 102 eggs, 31 were laid on the stem, 21 
on the grooves of petioles or peduncles of leaves, 26 on the upper and 24 on 
the lower surfaces of leaves^ The egg-stage lasts about three days, the larva 
gnawing a hole at one end and bursting open the egg-shell longitudinally. 
The empty egg-shell is not eaten. 

The newly-hatched larva is about 1 mm. long, cylindrical, tapering slightly 
posteriorly, uniformly yellow, with five pairs of fully developed prolegs ; 
head black, shiny, larger than following segments ; prothoracic shield small, 
shining dark brown. The larva changes but little in colour as it grows. 

The full-grown larva is about 10 mm. long, cylindrical, slightly tapering 
towards either extremity, yellowish, Math a few scattered hairs on each seg- 
ment ; head smaller than prothorax, shiny yellow, somewhat compressed, 
mouthparts brown, with two small black spots laterally and a third near 
antenna, ocelli arranged in a crescent ; prothoracic shield shiny, brownish 
yellow ; legs yellow ; spiracles rounded, rimmed with brown. 

The larva on hatching usually comes to the tender top-leaves if it does 
not happen to have emerged there. When these leaves are still in a folded 
state, it burrows into one of them and feeds from within. If the leaves have 
already unfolded, it begins to gnaw a midrib and the adjacent tissue on the 
upper surface of a leaf and soon hides itself under a very thin transparent, 
gummy stuff, to which duf-t-like gnawed particles of the leaf remain attached 
and which stretches over the midrib and larva onto the two halves of the 
leaf ; it works upwards until the two halves of the leaf becom.e folded together. 
During its whole life, the larva remains hidden, whether feeding on leaves, 
flowers, or pods. As it grows it brings together almost all the top-leaves of 
a shoot or of adjacent shoots and binds them together in a crumpled mass, 
within which it feeds and lives. These spun top-shoots are fairly conspicuous 
and their removal is indicated as a means of control. At Pusa hibernation 
takes place in the larval state, as full-grown larvse, collected from the fields 
on 7th January, lived in spun-up leaves until 18th February, when the first 
pupated and emerged as a moth on 6th March. 

Pupation takes place in a thin, papery, whitish, silken cocoon which usually 
lines a hollow space within a crumpled mass of spun leaves. It may, however, 
be placed inside a flower -bud or within a few dried flower-petals rolled together 
or, when the larva has fed in a seed-pod, inside the pod, in which case a hole 
of exit is prepared for the moth, this hole being covered with silk and frass. 
Before emergence, the pupa wriggles out of the cccoon for about half its length. 
The pupal, period is about four to six days. 



PLATE X. 





















Fig. 1. Eucosma melanaula:—a, Larva; /;, pupa; e, male moth; d. iemale molh; 

natural size;- and magnified. 




Fi-. 2. r.iuosma conciliata :— a, Larva : 6. pupa : r. nidli, iKiluial sizes 
° magnified. 



and 



PLATE XI. 




Eucosma melanaula. — Tliree varieties of Moth (x 10) : — a, male; b, and c, /emales 

(.Note black <ihiii<lular patch on hind wing of male. j 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 



49 



The pupa is about G nun. long, tapering posteriorly, but rather blunt 
at anal extremity, yellow brown ; abdominal segments dorsally with a row 
of small embossed points transversely across their anterior portion ; anal 
segment with six white cremastral hairs. 

The life-cycle is shown in the following table : — 



Eaas 


Larvie pupated 


Moths emerged 




Laid 


Hatched 


To 

duration 


23 August . 


. 26 August . 


8 September 


14 September 


22 


11 September 


. 


14 September 


27 September 


2 October 


21 


12 September 


• 


15 September 


28 September 


3 October 


21 


14 September 


• 


17 September 


30 September 


4 October 


20 



EUCOSMA MELANAULA, MEYK. (PLATE X, FIG. 1 ; and PLATE XI.) 
Eucosma melanauU, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 17-18 (Oct. 1916)(i). 

Described from the Khasi Hills, Pusa and Coimbatore, and doubtfully 
from Java. " Bred from larvae feeding in flowers or pods of Cajanus indicus 
and Phaseolus mungo (Leguminos8e)"('). We have it from Pusa, Chapra 
and Coimbatore. 

Eucosma melanmda, although only recently distinguished, is of common 
occurrence, probably throughout India, on various leguminous crop-plants. 
It has been found at Pusa on arliar {Cajanus indicus), mid (Phaseolus radiatus), 
mung (P. mungo), moth {P. aconitijolius) and Florida beggar-weed, the larva 
boring into flower-buds, flowers, top-shoots and seed-pods. In the case of 
pods, the seeds are eaten, and, when top-shoots are attacked, the larva tunnels 
to some distance even in the case of thick stems, the stem being killed back 
and the top leaves also being webbed over and eaten. In the case of flowers, 
they are spun together with silk and the larva lives concealed amongst the 
spun-up flowers. It is at times a decided pest and seems to occur at any suit- 
able time of the year but in greatest numbers from August to October, 

The full-grown larva is about 11 or 12 mm. long and TS to 2 mm. broad, 
moderately stout, somewhat compressed dorso-ventrally, sides of body nearly 
parallel, uniformly yellow, occasionally greenish ; head shiny yellow, yellow- 
bro^m or occasionally blackish ; prothoracic shield unicolorous with head 
or paler ; body segments distinct ; tubercles show as som.ewhat shiny spots 
carrying thin hairs ; legs and prolegs normal, unicolorous with body, booklets 
on prolegs brown and arranged in a complete circle. 



50 LtFE-HISTORIES OF EtJCOSMll)^ 

Pupation takes place within a white silken cocoon formed amongst spun- 
up top-leaves or between super-imposed blades of an older leaf, amongst 
spun-up flowers, or near the mouth of the tunnel in a bored pod. The pupal 
period is from five to eight days at the end of September. Before emergence, 
the pupa wriggles out through one end of the- cocoon to some extent. 

The pupa is about 6 to 7" 5 mm. long and r5 to 2 mm. broad, cylindrical, 
brown, anal extremity rather obtuse ; abdominal segments with a transverse 
row of short black spines extending across dorsum from spiracle and another 
similar but faintly-developed row across posterior portion of segments ; anal 
segment dorsally armed with six upturned black spines. (Pusa Insectary 
Cage-slips 517, 611, 1*644, 1689, and 1694.) 

The coloration of the imago is very variable, some of the more common 
forms being shown in the figures. 

EUCOSMA BALANOPTYCHA, MEYR. 
Eucosma halmioptijcha, Meyr., Kec. Ind. Mus., V, 218(^), Exot. Micr., II, 18(2). 
Originally described from Maskeliya, Puri and Konkan('). Since reared 
at Coimbatore on leaves of Pongamia glabra (Leguminos8e)(-) in October 
1914. We have it from Coimbatore (larva on Pongamia leaves) and from 
Ahmedabad (reared from larva eating galls on Pongamia glabra leaf). 

EUCOSMA CLEPSIDOMA, MEYR. 
•Eucosma clepsidoma, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 18 (Oct. 1916)(i). 

" Bred at Coimbatore in April from galls on an unidentified plant 
{FletcherY'i^). _ 

EUCOSMA CONCILIATA, MEYR. MS/ (PLATE X, FIG. 2.) 
Larvae were found at Pusa on 20th March and 20th April 1917, feeding 
on the flowers of palas {Butea frondosa). Some of the petals of the flowers, 
viz., the wings and the keel, are joined towards their bases and the larvse 
are usually found boring the thick conjoined parts, and they pupate in these 
parts in a sort of silken cocoon. The larva, when full-grown, is about 11 mm. 
long and TS mm. broad across mJd-body, slightly flattened, tapering towards 
either extremity, uniform pale yellow, the dorsal vessel showing through the 
skin and the primary tubercles looking like small brown points (under a lens) ; 
head smaller than prothorax, rather dark brown, shiny ; prothoracic shield 
medially divided, concolorous with head ; five pairs of equally developed 
prolegs. The pupal period in April is about six days. (Pusa Insectary Cage- 
slip 1536.) 



PLATE XIl. 







m^X:..r. 



..c.m, 













a 



«&: 



'm j;iv.;^V: 



;4 






u 









//- 




l-^^ 



•^^J 



\ 



t. BAli^BRlGGE FLEfCHER 5l 

EUCOSMA FCENELLA, LINN. 
Tinea Jcenella, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. X, p. 536 (1758)('). 
Epiblema JoeneUa, Mcyr., Handbk., pp. 496-497 (1905){2) ; Kennel, Spuler's 

Schmett. Eur., II, 283, t. 86 f. 26 (1910)(3). 
Eucosma Jcenella, WIsm., A. M. N. H. (7), VI, 340 (1900)(*). 

A palsearctic species, ran<^in<^ from Europe to Armenia, China, Korea 
and Japan, and recorded from Dharmsala('*). 

Larva yeUow-whitish ; head dark-brown ; plate of 2 brownish ochreous ; 
in stems and roots of Artemisia vulgaris. The larva is figured by Spuler('') 
(Nachtr., Taf. X f. 29). 

EUCOSMA ZELOTA, MEYR. (PLATE XII.) 

Eucosma zelota, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 18 (Oct. 1916) (^) ; Proc. Second Entl. 

Meeting, p. 264 (191 7) (2). 

Described from Abbottabad, w^here the larvae were found on 10th June 
1916, spinning together three or four young rose leaves into a bunch. The 
leaves (or at least two of them) are folded longitudinally and the larva feeds 
inside the leaves, passing from one to another through communication-pass- 
ages. The whole interior part of the folded leaves is thickly lined with white 
silk. 

The full-grown larva is about 9 mm. long, moderately stout, cylindrical, 
rather flattened, pale brownish yellow or orange-yellow or diity greenish- 
yellow, the contents of intestinal canal clearly visible through the skin ; head 
shining black ; prothoracic shield distinctly divided medially, shining black ; 
legs black ; prolegs yellowish ; lateral flange well defined ; body segments with 
scattered short whitish hairs arising from minute black warts. 

Pupation takes place in a silken cocoon formed inside the bunch of spun 
leaves. Moths emerged between 16th and 25th June 1916. 

EUCOSMA STEREOMA, MEYR. 
Eucosma stereoma, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 33-34 (1912)('). 

Larva, described from Pusa recoids, is cylindrical, greyish-yellow ; head 
flattened, yellow ; plate of second segment large, yellow ; spots \^ith longish 
white hairs ; in rolled terminal leaves of Acacia sp. (Leguminosse) ; pupa 
in a white cocoon(^). 

Eucosma stereoma was reared at Pusa in April 1911, from larvse found 
in rolled-up flowers of Pithecolohium dulce or Inga dulcis, and again on 2nd 
and 4th August 1911, from larvae found on 24th July rolling the top-leaves 
of a species of Acacia, living hidden and feeding on the leaves from within its 
tube. It pupates amongst the leaves in a white silken cocoon. 



52 LIFE-rflSTOKIES OF EUCOSMIDi: 

Larva about 8 mm. long, cylindrical, tapering very slightly posteriorly ; 
head flattened, yellow ; prothoracic shield large, yellow ; body soft, uniformJy 
greyish-yellow, segments moderately distinct, with longish white hairs arising 
from shiny chitinized plates concolorous with body ; prolegs equally developed. 

Pupa about 5 mm. long, cylindrical, tapering posteriorly, anal segment 
with yellowish cremastral hooks ; abdominal segments anteriorly with a 
transverse row of small spinous processes across dorsal area. (Pusa Insectary 
Cage-slips 880, 910.) 

EUCOSMA MELANONEURA, MEYR. , , 

Eucosma melanoneura, Meyr., B. J., XXI, 866 (1912)(^). 

Only known from the Khasi Hills(^). 

The larvae of this species are abundant at Shillong in September, spinning 
up the flowers of Rhus semialata into little knots and feeding on the flowers 
under cover of a silken tube covered with fragm.ents of the flowers. The 
attacked flower-heads are quite conspicuous and in many cases practically 
every flower is destroyed. Pupation takes place within the larval galleries, 
the moths emerging towards the end of September and in October. 

CROCIDOSEMA PLEBEIANA, Z. 
Crocidosema jpleheiana, Zeller, Isis, 1847, pp. 721-722(').|^ 
Crocidosema plebeiana, Wlsm., P. Z. S., 1907, lOof-lOoS [synonymy] (2); 

Meyr., P. Z. S., 1908, 720f ) ; Willcocks, Ins. Pests Egypt, I, i., 320-321, 

t. vii ff. 5, 6 (1916)(*). 
Eucosma pleheiajia, Meyr., Tr. Linn. Soc. (2) XIV, 268 (1911)(5), Entom. 

Mitteil., Suppl. Ill, p. 48 (1914)(6). 

This species is widely distributed around the Mediterranean Kegion(^' "- "*), 
St. Helena(2), West Indies(2), Central and South America(2), Australia(2) 
and Hawaii(2), and has also been recorded from Pundaluoya in Ceylon(2) 
and is doubtless of common occurrence throughout India, 

Larva on Althcea, Lavatera, Malva and allies(*). 

Willcocks(^) gives the following description of the early stages : — 

" Egg. The eggs are laid singly on the seed capsules or fruits and flower- 
buds of the ornamental hollyhock {Althwa sp.) The egg is 

0"6 mm. long by 0"36 mm. wide ; it is oval in form., convex, and the 

shell is very rugose in appearance. The colour is pale at first and then a 
horse-shoe-shaped irregular line of scarlet becomes visible and this m.ay gradu- 
allv spread until the whole egg becomes red or orange-red in colour. Before 
hatching the egg again becom.es pale with dark spot at one end formed by the 
head of the yo-ung larva and a pinkish or reddish line along one side. 



(5 J OJa^s£w>-o 



,0^ A-:!) (^k-ti. 'rM L i*^-^' c^'h-'^ . "" — — ' — " 






I 






ji. 0.:-^^ ; ^ ^^-J - >^-*-— > i-^c-^-io L<^K-- WTo^'-i ■ 



VoU^cW^'s c.ca^tt:J^J W'- i ^ J 



bOj 



l^oAvOT ^^^>r(L k^^^^ 







Fig. \.—Bactra tntcnlenta ; a, larva ; h, pupa ; c, d, moths, all natural sizes 

and magnified (x8). 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 53 

" Larva. The larvse feed on the green unripe seeds or in the undeveloped 
flower-buds. When full-grown the larva measures about 12 mm. in length 
and is green in colour with a brownish head. 

" Pupa. The pupa (Plate VII, fig. (>) is found in the dam.aged seed 
capsules. In general appearance it is not unlike the pupa of the pink bollworm 
[Platyedra gossi/pieUa], but with the aid of a magnifying glass it can be readily 
distinguished from the latter by the dorsal row of thorn-like projections 
on the basal margin of the abdominal segments and there is also a median row 
of these spines, but the latter are much smaller and less conspicuous than 
the others." 

Mr. Willcocks also states that he found on a green cottonboll an egg which 
he believed to beilong to C. plebeiana, but he failed to rear the larva. 

[BACTRA LANCEOLANA, HE. 

Tortriz lanceolana, Hubner, Samml. Eur. Schm., VII, t. 13 f. 80 (1797)('). 
Bactra lanceolana, Wlsm., A. M. N. H. (7), VI, 333-334: (1900)(2) ; Meyr., Pr. 

Linn. Soc. N. S. W., XXXVI, 253 (1911)(3). 

This species, whose larva feeds on rushes (as probably do most of those 
of the described Indian species), has been recorded from India(-) but doubtless 
in error (^), and should be removed from the Indian list.] 

BACXRA TRUCULENTA, MEYR. 

Bactra truculenta, Meyr., B. J., XIX, 586 (1909)(1);Ma^-^ f<<^>'^^ -'^^ 'hs^.l^r^' 

Originally described from North Coorg('), w^e have this from the Palni 
Hills, Coimbatore, Pusa and Peshawar. At Pusa and Coimbatore it has been 
reared from larvse feeding in stems of Cyperus rotundus. 



FETIALIS, MEYR. ■i<^ ^ Hx "^-Oia ,;^-b ^ <■ "I - 



This species has been reared at Pusa from a larva found feeding in a 
flower- head of Leucas sp. 

POfeYGHROSiS' CELLIFERA, MEYR. 

Polychrosis ceUifera, Meyr., B. J., XXI, 869-870 (1912)(>). 

Originally recorded from Colombo(') and Pusa('), this species has been 
reared at Pusa at the end of March 1916, from larvse found on tender leaves 
of Eugenia jambolana on 10th March. Only one specimen was reared, together 
with three of Spilonota rJiofhia, and the larvse were not distinguished. (Dwarka 
Prasad Singh's Cage-slip dated 10th March 1916.) 
11 Afyv^« c^^^cT^ , Ly, , c^^.iu:.. TTT ^-^5 {^'j-^n ; <5 V ' ' '^^^"''^^^ i^u^ L^f^ 



64 LII*E-HISTORIES OF EUCOSMID^ 

^ LOBESIA^EOLOPA, mEYR. '^^'^-^"^-''^^''''^ ' ^^ ^^ 

Y^^lT^ ^. Lohesia cBolopa, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 976 (1907)(i), P. Z. S., 1908, 716(2), Exot. 
i^''^\*n r.^^f-^- Micr., I, 565 (1916)(3). 

-• Originally described from Maskeliya and Peradeniya, in Ceylon, and 

'^^"^^ from Bombay('), this species has also been recorded from Cape Colony(2) 

and Reiinion(^). It seems to be widely distributed in India and Burma, 

the Pusa collection containing exam.ples from. Pusa, Coimbatore, Pollibetta, 

Mercara, Bangalore, Shillong and Moulmein. 

In Ceylon it was bred by Rutherford from Cajanus indicusi^). 
Lohesia ceolopa has been bred at Coimbatore and Mettupalayam by Y- 
Ramachandra Rao from larvae webbing flowers and leaves and feeding on 
fruits of Lantana camara. The pupal peiiod in Decen ber and January is 
from seven to ten days. 

The full-grown larva is described by Ramachandra Rao as about 8 mm- 

long, dark brown or clay brown M'ith a t'nge cf green in some segn.ents ; head 

shiny dark brown tinged with ye lie w ; prothoracic shield less shiny than 

head over whose posterior part it fits like a hood, semi-circular, broader than 

head, somewhat roughened ; body segments twice breadth of head, each 

segment with several (usually about three pairs dorsally, four pairs laterally 

and a few venfcrally) prominent yellowish-white shields which carry short 

setae ; legs normal, blackish brown ; prolegs normal. 

[^,^/Ve^ 6 r It has also been reared at Pusa from larvae found in the flowers of Leucas 

{"^jfloX^ ,^-^^ -< cephalotes on 14th December 1915, the moths emerging between 8th January 

! and 24th February 1916. 

LOBESIA GENIALIS, MEYR. 
(^^ Lobesia genialis, Meyr., B. J., XXI, 869 (1912)(i). 
|}'^'^ fijr '^*^" This species was originally described from Peradeniya(^ ) but seems to be 

>* ^.^^.v^pv-J^ '"^^-^ widely distributed in Southern India, and we have it from Coimbatore, the 
Anamalai Hills, Bangalore and Sidapur (Coorg). 

This species has also been bred at Coimbatore by Y. Ramachandra Rao 
from larvae webbing flowers of Lantana camara. The larva is distinguishable 
from that of L. ceolopa by its greenish colour. The eggs, laid en 23rd-24th 
December 1916, hatched on 27th December, a larva pupated on 10th January, 
and a moth emerged on 19th January 1917, so that the whole life-cycle occu- 
pies about four weeks. The stages are described by Ramachandra Rao as 
follows : — 

The egg is about 0"5 mm. in diameter, opalescent yellowish, very much 
flattened and very irregular in outline ; when laid it is probably semi-fluid 
and adapts itself to the surface on which it is laid. Under a low magnification 



PLATE XIII. 



Wi 



^ ^2r'3^ , 



iifi^T' 



'^ff0 



■■<?^i 






Fig. 1. Argyroploce illepida. 




Fig. 2. Argyroploce leucaspis: — a, Litchi leaf rolled by larvae ; 
6, larva ; c, pupa ; d, moth ( x 5). 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 55 

the surface of the eggshell appears to be reticulated, but under a higher power 
this reticulation is resolved into an exquisitely beautiful combination of many- 
rayed stellar ridges. In nature the egg is laid on leaves, leaf-buds, tops of 
flower-buds, or on fruits. 

The newly-hatched larva is about 1 mm. long, cylindrical, creamy yellow> 
covered with short hairs ; head large, flattened, shiny black ; prothoracic 
shield flattened, light brown. A week after hatching it is 6'5 mm. Icng, head 
with a lateral brown streak, prothoracic shield margined with black, brown 
posteriorly. 

The full-grown larva is about 9 mm. long, green, or yellowish-green, 
with prominent stiff setse ; head yellowish with a black lateral streak ; pro- 
thoracic shield yellowish bordered with black except anteriorly. 

Pupation takes place within a silken cocoon formed within a folded edge 
of a leaf. Pupal period about eight days. 

Pupa 6 mm. long and I'S nmi. broad across metathorax, rather slender, 
gradually tapering posteriorly, greenish brown, anal segment with five or 
six hairs with recurved tips. Posterior margin of each abdominal segment 
distinctly raised above anterior edge of its successor, each segment armed 
anteriorly and posteriorly with a submarginal transverse row of spines, com- 
posed anteriorly of rather large stout spines directed posteriorly, posterior 
row of much smaller, but far more num_erous and m.ore closely-set, denticles. 

ARGYROPLOCE CITHARISTIS, MEYR. 

Argyroj)loce citharistis, Meyr., B. J., XIX, 595 (1909)('), Rec. Ind. Mus., V, 

219(2). 

This species is known from Mouhrein('), the Khasi Hi]]s(^), North Ccorg(') G(^/v^A-*^' 
and Quilon (Tiavancore)(2). It is now recorded from Pusa where it was >^>-^'^^^***^ 
reared from a larva feeding in flow^er-heads of Leucas sp. 

ARGYROPLOCE ILLEPIDA, BUTL. (PLATE XIII, FIG. 1.) 
Terns iUepida, Butl., T.E.S., 1882, 42('). 
Cryptophlebia carpophaga, Wlsm., I.M.N., IV, 106, t. 7 f. 1 (1899)(2) ; Lefroy, 

Ind. Ins. Life, p. 531, t.28 ff. 11, 12 (1909)(3). 
Cryptophlebia Ulepida, Wlsm., Fauna Hawaii, I 681, t. 10 ff. 23-25{*). 
Argyroploce illepida, Meyr., Eec. Ind. Mus., V, 218 (S), Pr. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 

XXXVI, 265 (1911) (6), Tr. Linn. Soc.(2) XIV, 269 (1911)(7) ; Fletcher, 

South Ind. Ins., pp. 449-450, f. 327 (1914) («), Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

pp. 230, 234, 257. (1917)(9). 

Widely distributed throughout India and Ceylon, having been recorded 
from Calcutta(2> ''), Pusa(6), Guiarat(3) and Southern India(^). Also found 



iaJlr-^ 



56 LIFE-HISTORIES OF EUCOSMID^ 

in South Africa(^), the Seychelles('), Australia(5' ^), and Hawaii ('- ^' ^). We 
have it from Uudugoda, Coimbatore, Surat, Pusa and Chapra. 

Larva recorded in fruits of Cassia, Feronia, and NepheliumC). 

Lefroy(^) has given good figures of the Jarva and notes that it is found 
commonly in Gujarat, boring in the puIi? of fruits of wood-apple {Feronia 
elephanUini) and when full-fed preparing in the fruit a si'ken excrement -covered 
cocoon, from which the moth emerges after a week. 

A. illepida was originally described from India by Lord Walsmgham(2) 
under the name of Cri/ptophlehia carpophaga, from examples reared m Calcutta 
from pods of Cassia fistula and C. occidenialis, the male and female moths, 
larva and pupa-case bemg figured. 

These figures of the larva and pupa-case were reproduced in South Indian 
Insects{^), where a new figure of the moth was also given and tamarind [Tama- 
rindus indica) added to the list of foodplants. 

Litchi fruits, when available, seem to be a very favourite food of the 
larva and it has been found in these fruits at Pu^a in 1907, 1911, and 
1914 and probably occurs every year, although in some years it is far 
more abmidant than in others. Thus, I. H. Burkill notes that in May 
1901, ninety-n^ne per cent, of the litchi fruits in the Calcutta market were 
tenanted by these larvae which eat the funicle or stalk of the seed and 
bore into the seed itself ; the fmucle, being the way by which food passes 
to the seed, is probably highly nutritious as long as growth is actively 
going on and in it the larva tunnels until the fruit is perfectly ripe 
when the larva leaves it and emerges by biting through the wall at the 
base close to the stalk, and then spins its cocoon in some convenient 
crevice. 

Besides the foregoing foodplants, A. illepida has also been reared at Pusa 
from dhaincha {Sesbania aculeata) pods and from hael {Mgle marmelos) fruits ; 
at Coimbatore from pods of babul {Acacia arabica) and agathi {Sesbania 
grandiflora) ; and at Sabour in April 1917, froan pulp of a purchased 
orange fruit. In the case of dhaincha a few pcds were found bored in 
November 1917, the larvse being found wholly within the pod, feeding on 
the green seeds, the frass being extfuded through a hole in the side 
of the pod ; only a few larvae were found and the damage done was 
negligible. In the case of bael several larvae were found on 29th November 
191-3, eating the pulp of a fruit which showed little sign of attack 
from the outside except for a few small holes and a small crack in the 
hard shell of the fruit. In, the case of tamarind the larvse bore into the 
seed^. 



T. BAINBRIGGK FLETCHER 57 

It cannot be said, however, that A. illepida is much of a pest as a rule. 
Even in the case of a high infestation of litchi fruits, comparatively little 

tlamage is done to the fleshy edible portion of the fruit. , , -t^-p) ^ 

The full-grown larva is about 15 to 19 mm. long and 2 to 3 m,m. broad _ "^ L • r iJrJ>*^^* 

across the thorax, cylindrical, tapering slightly posteriorly, segments distinct, -— -^ri_ aj,,,..,^^*^'- 
skin soft and smooth, colour rather variable, usually light yellow, darker ^■^^ ■ ^ ^ p^ mvO 
dorsally, sometimes greyish with a yellow tinge, pinkish browii, reddish, or '^M'^' .a^ii 

racic shield large, shiny dark-browi^, divided medially ; tubercles rather large, 
rounded, brownish or yellowish, each bearing a single thin brown hair ; ana^ 
pla,te large, dark browai., rather glossy ; spiracles oval with a black rim, enclosing 
a clear space ; a wliitish tube connecting spiracles visible beneath the skin ; 
legs and prolegs normal ; prolegs pale yellow, booklets brown, disposed in a 
circle. 

Pupation takes place either w ithin the attacked fruit {dhaincJia, bael) or out- 
side of it (litchi) in a thin white silken cocoon wl ich cither lines the interic r 
of the larval gallery, one end of the cocoon being near an exit hole w^hich is 
covered with frass, or which is spun up in any convenient crevice. At emer- • 
gence of the moth, Avhich takes place seven to fourteen days after spinning up, 
the pupa is almost wholly protruded from the cocoon. 

The pupa is about 8 mm. long and 2 mm,, broad, cylindrical, tapering 
posteriorly, both extremities rounded, yellow-brown ; seccnd to seventh 
abdominal segments dorsally with two transverse rows of spines, one on 
anterior, the other on posterior, portions of segments ; eighth and ninth abdomi- 
nal segments wdth only one transverse row of spines dorsally ; anal segment 
with about eight cremastral hooks. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slips 537, 8£8, ' 
1019, 1064 and 1738.) 

ARGYROPLOCE APROBOLA, MEYR. -^^^ ^"-^-^ ^ --oo-^oVj 
Eccopsis aprohola, Meyr., T.E.S., 1886, 275(i). 

Platypeplus aprohola, Wlsm. in Moore, Lep. Ceylon, HI, 495, t.208 f.z (1887)(2). 
Argyroploce aprohola, Meyr, Rec. Ind. Mus., V,'218 (3) Pr. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 

XXXVI, 275 (1911)(4), Tr. Linn. Soc. (2) XIV, 269 (1911)(5), Entom'. 

Mitteil. Suppl. Ill, p. 49 {1914)(6) • Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 219, 

230, 267 (1917)('7).; .U,.v*'.u>-^ '^ W-.^c lLr.,ve^. ^ 1%-^ )^j^ icj.^ 

Occurs connnonly throughout India and Ceylon, ranging to the Sev- 
chel"les(='' 5) and Amirante Islands (5), Chagos Islands (S), Formcsa(6), Xew 
Guinea(*), Queensland(*) to Tonga(i- ^) and Tahiti(2). A^-^^ ^ • 

We have it from Pusa, Chapra, Palamau, Bass ein Fort (Bombay), Sur;;t. 
^allar, Coimbatore and Pollibetta (South Coorg). "Kc^cA..: . /\^,vvs(w, ^ p>^ .^f^(Jr -. Iv^j kT) 



58 LIFE-HISTORIES OF EUCOSMID^ 

At Coimbatore the larva has been found bormg mto rose buds and rolMng 
mango leaves, at Kallar (Mlgiris) on Lcmtana camaro, at Bassein Fort on mango 
and is said to have been reared at Nagpur on Dahlia flowers ('), whiht at Pu^a 
it has been reared from larvae foui^d rolling young leaves of mango {Mangijera 
indica), litchi {Nephelium litchi), rose, Cassia tora, and asokh {Polyalthia longi- 
jolia). Sometimes the larvse occur in considerable numbers and may do a 
little damage to the young leaves. 

The full-gro^\^l larva is about 16 td 20 mm. long and 2 mm. broad, cylin- 
drical, rather flattened, tapering slightly towards extremities, rather trans- 
parent uniform green or pale yellow ; head flattened, red-bro^Ti, broAAiiish or 
yellowish ; prothoracic sh^ield large, darker than head ; spiracles small, rcunded, 
rimmed with bro\^^l. ; body segments with small dull \\hite hairs; first two 
pairs of legs black, third pair green or yellow ; prolegs with very minute hook- 
lets. 

The larva rolls up tender leaves, feeding on them from under shelter. 
Pupation takes place inside a rolled leaf which is lined by a thm layer of white 
silk. Nearly the whole of the pupa is protruded from, the cccoon on emergence 
of the moth, which occurs after a pupal period of about ten days. 

Pupa about 10 mm. long, cylindrical, tapering posteriorly, brown ; dorsal 
portion of abdominal segments \nth two transverse rows of posteriorly-directed 
short spines ; anal segment with four cremastral hooks which are entangled 
in the silken lining of the cocoon. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slips 600, 809, 932» 
1302, 1448, 1691 and 1750.) 

ARGY^OPLOCE CENCHROPIS, MEYK^fS. 

,i;<,^.r>wi^. TL .^-^9 'r)r/r. iCj -X) 

Larvge were found at Pusa on Hth June 1917, in fruits of lashora {Cordia 
myxa), the attacked fruits shoeing no external symptom, of attack. The 
larvge seem to feed upon the kernel, g-na\nng a hole through the wall of the 
stone. Four larvae were found in about one hundred fruits examined. The 
larva is about 10 mm. long, white ; head yellow or brownish yellow ; protho- 
racic shield brownish; five pairs of short, equally developed prolegs. Pupa- 
tion occurred in, a silken cocoon spun on the bottom of the cage under a dry 
fruit. One moth emerged on 28th June. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1595.) 

ARGYROPLOCE EBENINA, MEYR. 
Argyroplobe ehenina, Meyr., Exot. Micr., 11, 20 (October 1916)('). 

Bred at Karwar, N. Kanara, " m July from larvae feeding gregariously 
between spun leaves of Diospyros (Ebenaceae) ; larva dark greenish-fuscous, 
with whitish hairs, head bro^n, plate of 2 black ; pupa beneath folded edge 
oi lea.! {Maxweim^y ., - 



T, BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 59 

ARGYROPLOCE EROTIAS, MEYR. 

Platypeplas erotias, Meyr., B.J., XVI, 584-585 (1905)(i). 

Argi/roploce erotias, Meyr., Proc. Linn, Soc. N.8.W., XXXVi, 269 

(1911)(2); Fletcher, Eiitl. Note 75 (1916)_(3), Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
p. 219(*); Ho^otA*^-- ^^ > ^ .^y^<i. &vr. fve^. N. ^^'>- Ow« )y^ ^ 

TJiis species ' was originally described from Cey]on(') and lias since been 
recorded from New Guinea(2), Timor(2) and India('' '). We liave it from 
Pusa, Bombay, Kallar, and Kandy. At Bombay the larva ^^■as found boring 
into n:iango shoots. 

Argi/roploce erotias " has been reared at Pusa from larvae found feeding 
on tender mango leaves' in March 1912. The larva is about 16 mm. long by 
2 mm. broad, slightly flattened, tapering towards the extremities, in colour 
uniform green, the skin soft and segments distinct ; head flattened, greyish 
yellow, smaller than prothorax which is entirely covered by a shield darker 
than the head ; all legs present and equally developed. The larva rolls up 
the tender leaves of young m,ango shoots by means of white silk threads, 
living in hiding and biting holes in the rolled leaves. When full-fed, it 
pupates in a cocoon formed of rolled leaf lined with white silk ; the pupa 
is protruded to some extent before emergence of the moth. We also have 
specimens reared in October 1905, from larvse boring mango shoots in 
Bombay(3)." 

This species has also been reared at Pusa in February 1915, from larvae 
webbing tender leaves of Lorantkus sp. and in December 1915, from leaves of 
Cynoglossum sp. 

Argyroploce erotias has also been reared by Y. Ramachandra Pao at 
Kallar from a pupa found in a folded leaf of Lantana caviara. 

This pupa was described as follows :— 8-5 mm. long and 2-5 mm. broad, 
yellowish or reddish brown, rather shiny, rather slender, cylindrical, anteriorly 
blunted ; frontal part of head with a pronunent raised flat ridge bounded on 
each side by depressions from wliich the antennae arise ; anal segment conical 
terminating in a slightly flattened heavily chitinized red-brown apex bearing 
six or eight strong recurved hooks ; abdominal segments anteriorly with a 
submarginal sharply excised ridge, following close upon which is a row of 
strongly developed posteriorly-directed spines (with al few smaller spines inter- 
spersed in some cases), and posteriorly with an ante-marginal transverse 
row of smaller but well-developed and more numerous spines ; second segment 
of abdomen on each side with a subdorsal prominently-marked shallow pit 
guarded by strongly-developed chitinous red-browi\ lips ; \nng-sheaths extend- 
ing to middle of fourth abdominal segment. 

5 



f50 LIFE- HISTORIES OF EUCOSMID^ 

ARGYROPLOCE LEUCASPIS, MEYR. (PLATE XIII, FIG. 2.) 

EuGoSma leiicaspis, Meyr., Gai diner's Fauna Geogr. Maldives, I, 126 (1902)(^), 

B. J.. XVII, 136 (1906)(2). . 
Argtjmploce leucaspis, Meyr., B. J., XIX, 592(3), Tr. Linn. Soc. (2) XIV, 270 

(1911) (*) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 229 (1917)(5). 

Recorded from Ceylon(2), the Maldive Islands(i), and the Seychelles (*). 
In India it is widely distributed and we have it from Pusa, Nagpur, the Khasi 
Hills and Kandy. 

A. leucaspis has beeii, reared at Pusa in August 1917, from larvae fomid 
rollin^^ tender litchi {Nephelium litchi) leaves. A single leaf may be rolled 
lono^itudinally or two or three leaves may be rolled up together. From larvae 
collected on 14th August 1917, moths emerged from 23rd August to 8th Septem- 
ber 1917. 

The full-grown larva is about 14 nmx. long and To mm. broad, elongated, 
tapering slightly towards either extremity, skin soft, myform, green with a 
yellowish tinge, the colour changing to coppery grey prior to pupation ; head 
yellow ; primary hairs thin and short ; prolegs equally developed, short. 
The larvae aie very sensitive and jump vigorously ^hen disturbed, usually 
taking several springs before conning to rest. (Pusa Ii^ectary Cage-slip 
1652.) 

ARGYROPLOCE PARAGRAMMA, MEYR. (PLATE XIV, FIG. L) 

Argyroploce paragramma, Meyr., B. J., XIX, 598 (1909)(^) ; Fletcher, Pusa 

Ann. Kept. 1917-18, p. 102, t.l7 f.l. (1918)(2). 

Bred at Pusa in September, from stem of bamboo(i). 

This species was bred in September 1905, at Pusa from larvae found 
boring into young bamboos. On 28th July 1917, larvae were again foimd at 
Pusa boring into bamboos, the younger larvae being usually found under 
and at the base of the loose leaf -like top portions of the sheaths, and larger 
larvae boring the tender stem under cover of the sheathis. In August 1917, 
the larvae were noted as being very common at Pusa ; not only were they 
found in young shoots but also in older shoots ten to twelve feet high, boring 
in at the eyes under the sheaths, their presence being indicated by the frass. 
On 1st September 1917, the larvae were again noted as being quite common. 
In cases where several larvae bore into a young shoot, this is killed ofi ; but in 
older shoots the larvae do comparatively little damage. This species, ho-wever, 
must be considered as a distinct pest of bamboo. 

The full-grown larva is about 15 to 17 nun. long, cylindrical, tapering 
slightly towards either extremity, brown ; head flattened, red-brown ; prothoracic 



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T. BATNBRIGGE FLETCHEK 61 

.sliield large, dark-browu, almost black ; prolegs equally developed ; the 
tubercles on body segments forming distinct rounded warts. 

Fu confiaement pupiition took place in a thin silken cocoon lining folds 
of paper or cloth or between fragments of bamboo -sheaths ; under natural 
conditions the cocoon is probably placed beneath the leaf-sheaths. The 
brown pupa protrudes to some extent through one end of the cocoon on emer- 
gence of the moth. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip; 132, 1631.) 

We have this from Pusa, Chapra and Gauhati. It is probablv widely 
distributed in the Plains. # 

ARGYROPLOCE POETICA, MEYR. 

Eaeo.vna mosaica {hcc Low.), Meyr., B. J., XVIII, 138-139 (1907)('). 
Arjyroploce podica, Meyr., B. J., XIX, -137 (1909)(-), Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 

XXXVI, 282-283 (1911) [Redescr.] (3). 

This species was originally described from Maskeliya (Ceylon)(') and 
the Palni Hills, and has since been recorded from North Australia(3). It 
has been reared a^- Pusa in October 1917, from larvae found rolling leaves of 
Polyalthia longifolia. 

ARGYROPLOCE RHYNCHIAS, MEYR. 

Platypeplus rhyncliias, Meyr., B. J., XVI, 586 {1905)(^). 

Argijroploce rhyncliias, Mevr., Exot. Micr., I, 275 (1914)(2)^ C«t., u-^j T-^-y^'i - -^-i fc(^-}^J^ 

Origina'ly described(*) from Ceylon, this species has been bred from 'I>^^ 

pois of Canavalia in Mauritius (-'). >- - *^^"* ^ f^-t--*- r^*--^ ^^ '^'-^ 

ARGYROPLOCE SEMICULTA, MEYR. 

Argyroploce semicuUa, Meyr., B. J., XIX, 604 (1909)('). 
Argyroploce semiculta., Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 20 (October 1916)(2). 

" Larva feeding among very tightly-spun terminal leaves of Alseodaphne 
semecarpijolia (Lauraceae) ; pupa beneath folded edge of same leaf 
{Maxivell){^)" 

Originally described from Hakgala, in Ceylon, and tlie Khasi Hills(^). 
Maxwell's record of the larva was presumably made in N. Kanara. 

ARGYROPLOCE TONSORLA, MEYR. 

Argyroploce tonsoria, Meyr., B. J., XIX, 592-593 (1909)(i). 

Bred from larva in fruit of Barringtonia racemosa from Bentota, in ^ 
Ceylon(i). A^-^o iKo^^i- ?.^ 'Bk'-^ - '^'-^ 'l'-^" f ^ 



62 LIFE-HISTORIES OF EUCOSraD^ 

T> " , LA6PEY RESI A K(ENI(AnA, FB.. nr ' )1 

Pymlis kmiigana, Fabr., Eiit. i^yst- III, ii, 279 (1794)('). 

Hemerosia auranliana, Pryer, Cist. Eut. II, 235, t.l f.]2 (2). 

Laspeijresia aurantiana, Meyr., Pr. Linn. iSoc. N.S.W., XXXVI, 292-293> 

(1911){3). 
Laspeijresia koenigana, Fletcher, S. lud. Ins., pp. 450-151, f. 328 (1911)(*). 

A very widely-distributed species in the Plains of India and Burma. 
The Pusa collection contains specimens from Coimbatore, Siruguppa (Bellary), 
Surat, Purulia, Chapra, Pusa, Minbu and Tatkon (Burma). 

At tSurat it is said to have bred from larvae on mogra {Jasminwn samhac) 
and at Ccimbatore it has been reared from larvae feeding on leaves of nim 
{Melia azadirachia). The larvae have also been found on nh>i at Serampur 
by Mrs. Drake. 

v;j\) (ft. 
LASPEYRESTA HEMIDOXA, MEYR. 

Laspeyresia hemidoxa, Meyr., B. J., XVIII, 145 (1907)(^). 

This lovely little moth was described from the Khasi Hills (^). 

We have it from the Khasi Hills (about 1,500 feet) and Taliparamba 
(Malabar). At Taliparamba a single specimen was reared on 2nd Augu&t 
1909, from a larva boring in shoots of pepper vine. 

(lj>).V LAOrEYREaiA LEUCOSTOMA, MEY^R. (PLATE XIV, FIG. 2.) 

Laspeijresia leucostoma, Meyr., B. J., X:KI, 876 (1912)('), Exot. Micr.. II, 23 
(1916) (-) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meetmg, p. 20 (1917)(3). 

Described originally from Ceylon (Maskeliya), the Palni and Khasi 
Hills(l). 

"Larva feeding in rolled leaves oi Thea sinensis (Fletcher)"(2). 

This species occurs also in the Nilgiris, having been reared at Coim,batore 
from larvae found rolling tea-leaves on Waterfall Estate in May 1915, and in the 
Kanan Devan Hills (Travancore) whence we received in April 1917, by kind 
courtesy of Mr. A. G. Murray, of Munaar Estate, specimens of larvae from 
which a moth was reared at Pusa on 14th May 1917. I have also seen a 
specimen from Assam. 

This caterpillar is commonly called ''* Tea Flush Worm, " in Southern 
India and its habits are apparently m,uch the same as those of Homona coj]earia. 
No detailed description was made but the accompanying figures show an 
attacked tea-shoot, larva, pupa and nwth of this species. (Pusa Insectary 
Cage-slip 1556.) 









III 


341- 


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T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 63 

Cj^-V LASPEYRESIA CAPPARIDANA, Z. ''^<^ ^-^ ^.-oO 

Grapholitha capparidana, Zeller, Isis, 1847, 734-7350; Rag., Ann. S.E. Fr. 

1894, 218(2). 

Originally described from Sicil^'C), this species has been found in India 
at Pusa and is doubtless widely distributed. Its specific name records the 
fact that it was originally found associated with a species of Capparis. 

The larva has been iomxd at Pusa boring steni,s of hagnnhi {Cap2)ans 
horrida), tunnelling right through the stem, and filling the tunnels with pellets 
of frass. Small holes are fomid here and there on the exterior of the afiected 
stem, their openings being covered with frass bomid together with silk. 

The larva is about 8 m,m. long, cylindrical, yellow, with equally developed 
prolegs ; head, prothoracic and anal shields yellow-brown. 

The larva pupates inside the stem in a thin white silken cocoon formed 
near a hole and with the head of the pupa turned towards the hole. At emer- 
gence of the moth, the pupa protrudes from, the cocoon to some extent and the 
empty pupa-cases may be seen protruding from, the attacked stems. 

The pupa is about 5 mm. long, broAvn ; abdominal segments with minute 
hooks arranged across dorsum ; anal segment rather truncate with two small 
upturned hooks dorsally and eight slender cremastral hooks arranged circularly. 

From stems collected on 10th February 1910, moths emerged between 
14th February and 20th March 1910. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 819.) 



av:. 



LAe«B¥RESM MAMERTINA, MEYll. MS: 

foi 



This species has been reared at Pusa from larvae found on 21st January 
1917, fastening together superimposed leaves of Loranthus and eatmg the tissues 
of the leaves whilst remaining hidden. The motlis emerged between 1st and 
7th March. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1519.) 

Cj'hJo. LA S PEYItESIA PTYCHORA, MEYR. 

Laspeyresia ptychom, Meyrick, B. J., XVIII, 147 (19G7)(^), Proc. Linn. Soc. 

N.S.W., XXXVI, 288 (1911) [Rede^ci.](2), Exot. Micr., I, 565 (1916)(3). 

Bred from larvae feeding in pods of Vigna sinensis, " cowpea," at Salisbm-y 
Rhodesia; also frorn Barberton, Transvaal. Doubtless spread artificially with 
its foodplant(2). 

Originally described from, Madulsima and North Coorg('), this species 
is also kno^^^l from, Queensland(2) and we have it from Coimbatcre, where 
it was bred on 21st February 1915, from a larva on pods of Cajantis indicvs, 
and from Cherrapunji. 



64 LlF:e-HISTORIES OF EUCOSMID^ 

Q)'^""'^ LASi>E¥RESIA_PYCNOCHRA, MEYR. ^«S, 

Bred at Coimbatore on 20th March t^l6, from a larva found in pods of 
agaihi {Sesbania grandiflom). 

Q^^o^ LASrEYRE OfA MALESANA, MEYR. -Mg. 
Bred at Coimbatore t)u 20th March 1^16, from, a larva in Parkinsonia 
pods. Also reared at Coimbatore from Cassia corynibosa pods,^^/^ M" 

C^"^^<K LASPEYRESIA D.EDALOTA, MEYR. 

Laspeyresia dcedalota, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 23 (October 1916)(i). 

Bred at Pusa "in July from flowers of Cassia Jistida (Leg\iimiioiise){^)." 
Larvae were found on 27th June 1915, damaging unopened flowers of Cassia 
fistula and nioths emerged between 8th and 15th July. No description of the 
early stages was made. (Tahl Eam's Cage-slip 22.) 



Qv< 



LASPEYRESIA JACULATRIX, MEYR. 



Laspeyresia jaculatrix, Meyr., Rec. Ind. Mus. V, 219(i) ; Lefroy, Ind. Ins. 
Life, pp. 530-531 (1909)(2). 

Described from Calcutta and Pusa, where the larvae were fomid beneath 
bark of Dalhergia sissi({^). The Pusa collection contains specimens from 
Pusa, Palamau and the Shevaroys. 

" The larvae are fomid in the bark of the sissu tree {Dalhergia sissu) and 
. . ^ [H'^^^ occur there abundantly. Pupation takes place m a fine silken cocoon. 
, , y^-oF^ "^^^^ c"*! Apparently these larvae are the hosts of a sniall Bombylid fl}% which has been 
ft rw>Jhll_-^^ V reared from a batch of larvae in sissu bark ; the food of the larva is not known 
uxrr^ V^ )i*^ ^^^ ^^ probably is the bark of the tree. 
1, u^ ■^'^Vv^ff^ \*^ "The caterpillars spend the winter in the bark of the tree and have a 

- '^ ^^ xcc/^ -^^^"^ curious habit of coming out at night during a few days m March, crawling 
. ^ 1-—-'^'''^ W^ about on the bark and, soon after daylight, retreating into the bark agam ; 
immense numbers of them can be seen in the early morning on these days and 
the phenomenon is apparently so regular that the crows know^ it, and we have 
in four successive years (1906-1909) seen crows collected romid trees on which 
these caterpillars were walkuig and feedmg on them. Apparently this proceed- 
ing is preliminary to pupating and is probably the search for a good sheltered 
nook in which pupation can be accomplished in such a way as to enable the 
moth to em,erge. The moths emerge at various dates during May and June 
and there are probably two broods, before the hibernation brood referred to 
above. The moths are found flying about gregariously and this species is quite 
commonly captured where the sissu grows abundantly (2)." 



September 1926 



Entomological Series 



Vol. IX, No. 9 



n^moirs of th^ 
b^partm^nt of flgriQultur^ 

in India 



bescription of Laspeyresia stirpicola, n. sp. 

(Lepidoptera) 



BY 



E. nEYRICK, F.R.S. 

With a short note on the Life-history and Status 

BY 

Rfll BflMflbUR C. S. niSRfl, B.fl. 




flQRICULTURflL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, PUSfl 



L 



Calcutta: Government of India 
Central Publication Branch 
1926 



DESCRIPTION OF LASPEYRESIA STIRPICOLA, n. sp. 
(LEPIDOPTERA) 

BY 

E. MEYRICK, F.R.S., 
with a short note on the Life-history and Status 

BY 

RAI BAHADUR C. S. MISRA, B.A., 

(Received for publication on 1st May 1926.) 

Laspeyresia STIRPICOLA, n. sp. 

(^ $, 12-15 mm. Head, thorax grey more or less speckled dark and pale. Palp 
whitish partially sufEused or speckled grey. Fore wings elongate, somewhat di- 
lated, termen somewhat obliquely rounded, dark grey, more or less whitish-speckled; 
costa blackish-tinged, with about eleven groups of 2-4 very fine whitish strigulse ; 
very oblique dark or blackish strigae from costa at about middle and two-thirds ; 
an oblique pale blotch from dorsum beyond middle very obscurely indicated, its 
anterior edge limited by a suffused blackish streak, becoming obsolete towards 
dorsum; some irregular very obscurely leaden-metallio strigea from costa posteriorly, 
in (^ obscured by a patch of whitish suffusion towards costa beyond cell; ocellus 
laterally edged leaden-metallic, containing three somewhat elongate black dots, 
above these three others less marked forming with them a rather curved series ; 
a small dark apical spot ; cilia grey with rows of white points. Hindwings dark 
grey, cubital hair-pecten whitish ; cilia grey-whitish, suffused grey on outer half, 
a dark grey basal shade. 

4 examples. An obscure insect, allied to Jacvlatrix. Locality : Daltonganj. 

Life-history. Eggs are laid in the axil of leaf-buds and larvae tunnel into the 
stem reaching the pith, on which they feed. The hole of entry of the larva into the / [ 

stem is quite conspicuous on account of scarlet coloured grannules of resin. The ( 

full fed larva (fig. 2) is 11-12 mm. long, 2.30-2.50 mm. broad. It has a shining 
dark, chocolate-brown, heavily chitinized head, with a triangular excavation in 
front. The mandibles are very powerful. The prothoracic dorsal plate is well 
chitinized and has a median longitudinal lighter stieak and is armed with a few 
whitish, porrect hairs. The rest of the body is creamy yellow, and armed with 

( «59 ) 



260 DESCRIPTION OF LASPEYRESIA STIRPICOLA 

hairs arising fiom brownish tubercles. When full fed the larva makes a silken 
gallery and pupates in it. The pupa (figs. 6, 7) is light brown in colour, with black 
eyes and prominent thoracic segments. The abdominal segments have two rows 
of short spines near each end, the anal segment has a few short hairs. 

Parasites. In a caterpillar collected from Daltonganj three triangulinids of 
Strepsiptera were discovered, two of them in the region of head and one in meso- 
thorax. The caterpillar was cleaned in potassium hydroxide and stained with 
€osin. So far this is the single instance of its kind, examination of adults has not 
revealed any triangulinids or adult Strepsiptera. 

Status. During a visit to Daltonganj in May 1925, the abnormal presence of 
these lepidopterous larvae, boring into the shoot of pollarded Butea frondosa (Palae), 
was first noticed. Practically every Palas tree in the locality was more or less 
afiected and in some branches as many as seven borers were found. The growth 
is stunted, galls are produced, bark becomes rough and hard and there is consi- 
derable outflow of resinous matter and the tree becomes unfit for propagation of 
lac. This insect may well be regarded as a serious pest of Butea frondosa, a tree 
used extensively for lac cultivation. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIV. 

Laspeyresia stirpicola, Mey. 



Dorsal view . . . . x*16 

Lateral view . . . . x*16 



1 Borer ..... 

2 Borer, immediately before pupation 

3 Mandible of the borer 
4-5 Spiracles of the borer 

6 Pupa 

7 Pupa 

8 Adult moth .... 

9 Triangulinids within the larva of the borer .... .... 

(much enlarged). 

10 Triangulinid Dorsal view . . . . x -300 



X-I20 

X -300 

Dorsal view . . . . X'16 

Ventral view . . . x*16 

Dorsal view . . . . x '12 



PLATE XXIV. 




t. BAINBRIGGE FLEtCHEll 66 

The above statement that the larval food is probably the bark of the tree 
is not correct ; the larva feeds on the leaves and apparently only hides under 
the bark m the intervals of feeding. Pupation may take place mider the 
bark or between two rolled or superimpos':d leaves, the cocoon lining the 
leaves being much larger thai^ seems requisite to contain the enclosed pupa. 
One individual which pupated amoi^gst leaves on 23rd February 1914, emerged 
as a moth on 7th March 1914 ; but the period of emergence is a prolonged 
one and specimens have been bred out between 30th April and 2nd July from 
larvae collected at the end of March and between 29th May and 20th July from 
larvae collected in the latter half of May, so that it appears that the broods are 
irregular and overlap one another. 

As noted above the larvae are attacked by a Bombylid fly whose maggots 
consume the entire' contents of their host after the latter has pupated and 
pupate mside its empty pupa-case. Thei-e Bombylid flies have been bred 
out between 15th and 24th April 1916. 

The larvae are also attacked by a Hymenopterous parasite which was 
reared between 24th March and 2nd April 1914. The parasitic grubs emerged 
from the body of their larval host and formed cocoons within rolled leaves 
but apart from the dead body of the host. 

The full-grown larva is about 10 mm. lon^', subcylmdrical, pale yellow ; 
head bro^^^l, flattened, small ; legs and prolegs normal, miicolorous with 
body. 

The pupa is about 5 nmi. long, cylindrical, slightly tapering towards 
either extremity, anal extremity blunted, reddish brown ; abdominal segments 
dorsally with transverse rows of minute spines ; anal segment with four 
cremastral hooks. {Pusa Insectary Cage-slips 336, 1030, 1056, 1391 ; C.S. 
Misra's Cage-slip 32 ; A. Mujtaba's Cage-slip 1.) 

Cj'bv.V L ASrEYRE ^A TRICENTRA, MEYR. 
Laspeyresia tricentra, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 734 {1907){i), P. Z. S., 1908, 721- 

722(2) ; Lefroy, ILL., p. 531, t.54 (1909)(3) ; Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins., p.451, 

t.40 (1914)(4) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meetmg, p. 70 {1917)(e). 
Dicrocrampha subsequana, Swinh., Cat. Mt ths India, p. 699 (1889), [nee Haw.](6). 

Larva in stems of Crotalaria{^). Widely distributed tln-oughout India 
and Ceylon. Also recorded from Transvaal (2). 

" L. tricentra, Meyr., is described from the Deccan, the larva tmmelling 
in the shoots of Sann-hemp {Crotalaria juncea){%" 

The Pusa collection contains specimens from Surat, Bassein Fort (Bombay) 
and Yercaud, and from Coimbatore (reared from cowpea pods). 



66 LIFE-HISTORIES OF EUCOSMID^ 

This species has been confused with L. pseiidonectis and it is doubtful 
whether the earlier Pusa records, ascribed to L. tricentra, are really referable 
to this species. 

C^iA(^ L:2tSPETTrESm PSEUDONECTIS, MEYR. (PLATE XV.) 

Laspeyresia 'pseudonectis, Meyr., B. J., XVIII, 146-147 {1907)(i) ; Lefroy, 

Ind. Ins. life, p. 531, t.54 [?] (1909) (^'); Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

pp. 69-70 (1917)(:^). 

Larva tunnels stems of Crotcdaria jiincea at Surat in October('). 

" L. pseudonectis, Meyr., has the same habit [as L. tricentra, Meyr.] and 
was reared from Hann-hemp at Sur^t, and in Bihar. It is a common pest to 
this crop, and with the proceeding [preceding] is probably widespread in India. 
[Plate LIV](-). " It n;ay be added that the Plate LIV here referred to is a 
very poor one and it is doubtful whether it really refers to L. j^seiidonettis or 
L. tricentra. 

" Laspeijresia pseudonectis attacks Sann-hemp whilst the crop is still 
young, about five or six inches high. At that stage of growth the caterpillar 
attacks the top-shoot which is formed into a charactei;istic gall. The attack 
does not stop altogether the growth of the plants which grows in length. In 
later stages of growth of the plant, the attack takes place at the axils of leaves, 
where also a swelling is formed. In this latter case, the fibre is affected. 
There n^ay be more than one gall in the same plant. The caterpillar feeds 
inside the gall and pupates there ; whilst young it is green but becomes a 
bright red before pupation. The caterpillar has been found to af[ect the 
capsules also, boring the seeds, but this is unusual and this habit lias only 
been observed hitherto during the winter months. The iivsect hibernates as a 
caterpillar from November to February and then aestivates from March to 
June ; it may be in the stem, if the plants remain in the field or, if the pods are 
collected, the caterpillars form, cocoons amongst the debris and remain there. 

" As regards control, in the case of young plants the removal and de- 
struction of the galled topshoots is necessary and this should reduce further 
damage (3)." 

L. pseudonectis occurred in destructive numbers on .Sann-hemp {Crotalaria 
juncea) at Sabour m November 1 909, and has also been reported as damaging 
this crop in the Central Provinces and at 8urat. The Pusa collection contains 
examples from Pusa, Coimbatore, Samalkote, Bassein Fort (Bombay) and 
Peshawar. 

At Samalkote it was reared on larvse on Sann-hemp and at Coimbatore 
from larvse on green gram (Phaseolus mungo) and on horse gram {DolicJios 
biflorus) 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XV. 

Laspeyresia pseudonectis. 

Fig. L Stem of Crotalaria juncea bored by larva, showing gall-like swelling. 

2. Shoot of C. juncea distorted by larva. 

3. Larva, natural size and magnified. 

4. Larva, about to pupate, natural size and magnified. 

5. Pupa, natural size and magnified. 

6. Moth, resting attitude, natural size and magnified. 

7. Male moth, natural size and magnified. (Note black suffusion on dorsal 
area of hindwing.) 

8. Female moth, hindwing, showing absence of black dorsal suffusion 
characte istic of male. 



PLATE \V. 



X. 




Laspeyresia pseudonectis. 



A'^ ^'f^'y^ i^^^f^ 



t. IJAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 6^ 

The full-grown larva is about 12 mm- long, cylindrical, tapering slightly 
towards either extremity, segments distinct, uniform orange yellow (tunung 
to brilliant red before pupation) ; head shiny black ; prothoracic shield shiny 
black, divided medially ; prolegs equally developed. (Pusa Iivsectary Cage- 
slips 397, 1194, 1422, 1422a.) 

Q>)v"ft LftSPEYRESIA TORODELTA, MEYR. 
Laspeyresia torodetta [mispiint for torodeUa], Meyr., B. J., XXII, 772 (1914)(') ; 

Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins., p. 451, f.329 {1914)(2) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

p. 56 (1917)(3). 

Larva upwards of 10 u\\n. long, slender, with short hairs scattered over 
the body, pale green with a reddish head. It bores into the growing tips of 
DolicJios lablab, devouring the tissues of the stem so that this droops and dies. 
Pupation in larval burrow. Pupal period about 10 days (2). 

Recorded from Coimbatore and Malabar in Decem,ber and January(^> -). 

This species is only known hitherto from Southern India. 

-:j^-'^ la^eyresm pomonella, linn. 
Tinea jJomonella, Um\., >Sy,st. Nat. ed. X, I, 538 (1758)('). 
Carpocapsa pomonella, Spuler, Schmett. Eur. II, 289, t.8G f.54(-) \et auct. 

num.] 
Cydia pomonella, Wlsm., A.M.N.H. (7), VI, 435 (1900)('5), P.Z.S. 1907, 1006(4). 
Laspeyresia pomonella, Meyr., P. Linn. Soc. N.8.W., XXXVI, 287 (1911)(fi) ; 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 249 {1917)(6). 

The notorious "Codling Moth," which is a most important pest of apples 
in Europe, America, Australia, and New Zealand, has been recorded from 
Kashmir (Dras Ladak, 7,000 feet)(3), but does not Tippear to be knowTi 
in any of the apple-growing tracts in India. An uixidentified Tortricid larva, 
fomid boring mto apple fruits in Kumaon in August 1918, is certainly not 
this species. [See page 197, posfea.\ 

h ^<^ LASPEYRESIAr PULVERULA, MEYR. 
Laspeyresia puherula, Meyr., B. J., XXI, 876 (1912)('). 

Originally described from the Khasi Hills (»), this species has been bred 
at Dehra Dun by Mr. C. Beeson ('). from sal {SJiorea robusta) collected at 
Jhafra on 27th January 1916, the moth emerging on 14th March (2) ; frcm 
sd log attacked by Sphcvrotrypes and collected in the Jara Range, Pililhit 
Division, before 10th April 1916, the moth emerging on 21st May; and (3) 
from sal log attacked by Sphcerotrypes, collected at Jabbokhet on 9th September 
1916, the one moth emerging on 18th October 1916. 



"8 LIFE-HIStORiES OF EUdOSMlD-a: 

PAMMENE ISOCAMPTA, MEYR. 
Panvmene isocampta, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 196-197 (1914) (i). 

Described from Peradeniya, where it was found "associated with 
Lecanium sp(i)." 

>^ ' PAMMENE THERISTIS, MEYR. 
Pammene theristis, Meyr., B. J., XXI, 874 (1912)(i) ; V. S. Iyer, Kept. Bd. 

Sci. Adv. India, 1909-10, p. 151(2). 

Described from Maskeliya and Kumaon(^). Bred from seedlings of 
Shorea rohusta{^). Larva attacking roots of one-year old 60^&eedlings ; also 
m sal tfruit ; apparently two generations in the year(2). 

CHLIDANOTIDiE. 

The Chlidanotidse form a small group, with about half-a-dozen described 
Indian sj^ecies, of whose life-histories nothing whatever is known at present. 
The Indian genera contained in this Family are Archimaga, Chlidanota, Ele- 
tracma, Matremis and Trymalitis. '' Ichthi/um'' argeniea, Butl. (111. Het. 
VI, 24, t.l02 f.l2 ; Hmpsn., Moths Ind., I, 176), described from Darjiling, 
also belongs to an midescribed genus of this group. 



J:" t-'m fi_. 



Noventber 1920, Entomological Series. Vol. Vt, No. 3. 



MEMOIRS OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

IN INDIA 



LIFE-HISTORIES OP INDIAN INSECTS 
MICROLEPIDOPTERA 

III. GELECHIADvE 

BY 

T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S 
Imperial Entomologist 




AGRICULTUKAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, PUSA 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED FOR 

THE IMPERIAL DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN INDIA 

BY 

THACKER, SPINK & CO., CALCUTTA 
W. THACKER & CO., 2, Cbeed Lane, LONDON 



PLATE XVI. 




Fig. 1. Sitotroga cerealella: — 1, Egg ; 2, larva ; 3, pupa inside grain ; 4 attacked 
grain afler emergence of moth ; 5, moth ; all natural sizes and magnified. 




.iW~*^-^ 




a. 



Fig. .1. dristotelia ingravata: — a, Tamarix twig bored by larva, showing 

two gails : b, larva ( x7) ; c, moth ( x 13) ; d, head of moth, 

from side, more highlv magnified. 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN INSECTS. 
MICROLEPIDOPTERA. 

III. GELECHIADiE. 

BY 

T. BAINBRTGGE FLETCHER, R.N., F L.S , F.E.S., F.Z.S., 
Imperial Entomologist. 

[Received for publication on 27th June IDlO.j 

SITOTROGA CEREALELLA, OLIV. (PLATE XVI, FIG. 1.) 

Alucita cerealella, Oliv., Enc. Meth.. IV (Ins. I.), 121 {r789)(i). 

Sitolroga cerealella, Wlsm., P. Z. S., 1907, 928 (1908) [synonymy |( 2) ; Fletcher, _ r. 

S. Ind. Ins., p. 456, f. 331 (19U)(3), Entl. Note 79 (1916)(4), -"-c'l^/l ^tf.W^j L 'W^^^:'^^^ 
A cosmopolitan species, the larva found on gram of all kinds ; known ^ (,^^ .^ ^ -^^ 
from N. America, S. Africa, Australia, Europe, India, Ceylon and Japan, f-^.^i^ l\~^^^/.^<)^^) 
It occurs commonly throughout India, Burma and Ceylon and we have it " 

from a number of localities ranging from Peshawar to Coimbatore and Manda- 
lay. North Indian specimens are much larger than those from South India 
but otherwise there seems to be no difference. 

The larva feeds on stored grain (rice, maize, etc.), and is always a minor 
and sporadically a major pest. Mr. Beeson has also reared this species from 
bamboo seeds. The whole larval life is passed inside the grain, a single grain 
sufficing for each larva. Breeding goes on throughout the year except when 
the temperature is low, the life-cycle taking about four weeks as a rule, but 
it may last for only three weeks or it may extend up to six weeks, the egg 
stage lasting for about six days and the pupal for about eight days. 

In the case of paddy grain, the egg is always placed inside the scale envel- 
oping one end of the unhusked grain, and from one to five eggs may be packed 
into this space. Rarely eggs are laid exposed on the grain. Sometimes also 
many eggs are laid in a cluster hidden in the midst of the grains. p]gps may 
be laid in the daytime as well as at night. 



70 LIFE-HISTORIES OF OELECHIAD/E 

The egg is about 0'5 mm. long and 0"26 mm. broad, cylindrical, rather 
stout, translucent white with longitudinal ridges and furrow§ ; the micropylar 
area, at one end, is flattened and contains a slight circular concavity ; the 
other end of the egg is rounded or slightly tapering. Within a day of deposi- 
tion the colour of the egg changes to yellowish and it continues to deepen 
until it is almost brown. The larva emerges by eating through the concave 
portion of the micropylar area ; some larvae eat a little more of the egg-shell, 
but only so much of the shell is eaten as is necessary for the emergence of the 
larva. The empty egg-shell is white. As many as 117 eggs were laid by one 
female moth between 25th July and 31st July, the moth dying on 3rd August. 

The newly-hatched larva is less than 1 mm. long, cylindrical, pinkish- 
yellow ; head brown ; five pairs of equally developed prolegs. It seldom 
bores into the grain on which the egg was deposited but wanders about and 
selects a grain into which it begins to bore by making a hole in the cavity left 
by the breaking away of the stalk. After boring a little way into one grain 
it may leave it and wander about again in search of another. When once it 
has really entered into a grain, hoAvever, it does not leave it again but passes 
the rest of its larval life in that grain. There is never more than one larva 
in one grain, at least in the case of rice. Before it has finally settled down, 
the larva is very quick in its movements, but when grown larger it can hardly 
walk and seems to be helj)less if removed from the grain, nor can it bore into 
another grain. The larva makes its way directly into the starchy part of the 
grain and the germ is left untouched. By the time that the larva is full-grown 
the whole of the starchy portion (of a rice grain) has been consumed. 

The full-grown larva is about 6 mm. long and about 1 mm. broad, body 
very soft with the segments fairly distinct, pure white, with scattered minute 
white hairs ; head smaller than prothorax, into which it is at times retracted 
pale yellow, mouthparts brown ; prothoracic shield large, pale yellow ; 
spiracles round, rimmed with yellow ; five pairs of reduced prolegs. 

Pupation takes place inside the grain in which the larva has fed. The 
pellets of frass are pushed to one side and there is formed a white silken cocoon 
lining almost the whole length of the cavity formed by the larva. The end of 
the cocoon next the capital extremity of the pupa is left open and the hard 
covering of the grain at this part is eaten just so much as to leave a thin membra- 
nous cover for the open mouth of the cocoon. This cover is broken through 
by the moth on its emergence. 

The pupa is about 5 mm. long and about 1-25 mm. broad, yellow-brown 
Thin hairs are present on the posterior abdominal segments and cremastral 
hairs on the anal segment, The last larval skin is pushed to the posterior epd 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 71 

of the cocoon and the cremastral hairs are not entangled in the fibres of the 
cocoon, although the pujia-case is left inside the cocoon on emergence of the 
moth. 

Eggs laid on 21st hatched on 27th July 1909, and moths emerged from 
these larvae between 18th August and 4th September. During cold weather 
the emergence of the moths is suspended until warmer conditions return. 
In the case of a quantity of afiected paddy grains kept at Pusa, the number 
of moths emerging became less and less as winter set in until the last moth 
emerged on 22nd December ; no more appeared until 16th January, when one 
moth emerged, followed by one moth on 10th Feljruary, and three on 14th 
February ; after that, the weather became warmer and many moths began to 
emerge. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 771.) 

TELPHUSA MELANOZONA, MEYR. 
Telphusa melanozona, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 65 (1913)(i). 

Reared at Pusa in August from larvae mining leaves of Euphorbia 
'XLeriijolia (}). 

Larvae were collected at Pusa on 15th August 1910, mining leaves of 
sij {Euphorbia nivulia). The larva mines the leaf, only a portion of which 
is sufficient to supply food for its whole larval life. A portion near the apex 
or about the middle of the leaf is attacked, the larva mining from the margin 
inwards, the attacked portion withering and turning brown. 

The larva is about 10 mm. long and about 1 mm. broad, cylindrical, yellow, 
soft-bodied, with short scattered hairs ; head rather darker. 

Pupation takes place usually inside the mine, the larva first preparing 
for the exit of the moth by making a small hole whose opening is closed by a 
thin membrane, and then lining the pupal chamber with a very thin layer of 
silk. The pupa is yellow-brown, the anal segment with a few small cremastral 
hairs which retain the pupa-case inside the cocoon on emergence of the moth. 
Occasionally the larva pupates outside of the mine on a leaf, and in such cases 
it forms a cocoon composed of silk and chewed- up pieces from the epidermis 
of the leaf. The pupal period is about six days in August. (Pusa Insectary 
Cage-slip 855.) 

ARISTOTELIA INGRAVATA, MEYR. (PLATE XVI, FIG. 2.) 
Aristotelia ingravata, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 118-119 (1918)(i). 

Bred at Pusa^ from larva forming galls in twigs of Tamarix gallica. Also 
recorded from Peshawar. 

The larva bores into a Tamarix stem, which swells up a little at the part 
bored, forming a sort of a gall inside which the larva is found, The larva 



72 " LIFE-HISTORIES OF GELECHIAD^ 

does not bore tip and down inside the stem but lives in tlie gall, several of 
which may be found on the same stem at quite short distances apart (Plate 
XVI, figure 2a). 

The larva is about 8 mm. long, cylindrical, slightly tapering towards 
either extremity, brownish-yellow, prothoi'ax and anal segment tinged 
with pinkish ; head black, shiny ; prothoracic shield large, black, 
shiny ; last two abdominal segments with black plates ; five pairs of short 
prolegs. 

Pupation takes place inside the gall, through one end of which the larva 
gnaws a round hole for emergence of the moth, this hole being stopped with a 
thin layer of silk, which is burst by the moth. The larva may pass the svmimer 
in a resting condition inside the gall. From larvae collected on 15th February 
1915, one moth emerged on 23rd April and another moth on 22nd October 
whilst larvae were still living in the galls on 29th September 1915. Moths 
have also been reared out in May. The larvaj are extensively parasitized. 
(Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1202.) 

LDXOPHAOTIS CHIRIDOTA, MEYR. 

Tdiophantis chiridota, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 201 (1914)(i). 

Reared at Peradeniya in May from galls produced by a Psyllid on 
Eugenia {^). 

ISTRIANIS CRAUROPA, MEYR. I 

Istrianis crauropa, Meyr., Exot. Micr.. II, 130 (1918)(i). 

" Bred at Dharwar, N. Kanara, in June from a larva feeding externally 
on lower surface of leaf of Bufea frondosa (Leguminosse) in May (Maxwell) ; 
pupa in spindle-shaped cocoon on leaf(i)."' 

EPHYSTERIS CHERS.^A, MEYR. 

Ephysteris clierscea, Meyr., P. Z. S., 1908. 725(i), Exot. Micr., II, 131 (1918)(2). 
Epithectis oschophora, Meyr., Rec. Ind. Mus., V, 219-220(3) . Fletcher, Entl. 

Note 80 (1916)(*). 

First described from the Transvaal (i) and afterwards from Maskeliya, 
Diyatalawa, Calcutta and Purneah(3), this species has since been recorded 
from the Tenimber Islands, New Guinea(2). We have it from Purneah, 
Coimbatore and Abbottabad. 

The larva is stated to feed in dry vegetable refuse(2). The moth was 
reared at Coimbatore in 1914, from cholam stubble(*). 



I&(f .^wc ^Lm . H-«^^j. , ^. "^^ - 




Fig. 2.—Ep7if/stfris rherstea. Moth, 
natural size and magnified (xli). 



/A't^rp tx t-v j3#iiAn»v^j^ i'^'^^ i^^f^- y^'i^Aii i-')'-t (j-^T-t ). cr7 . . . B- 












Vv*t-o 












T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 73 

EPITHECTIS STUDIOSA, MEYR. 

Epithectis studiosa, Meyr., B. J., XVI, 591-592 (1905)(i). 

Described from Peradeniya, where the larva was found feeding on dried 
plants in the herbarium(^). The Peradeniya collection also contains specimens 
under this name reared from rice received from Northern India. 

PHTHORIM^A HELIOPA, LOWER. 

Gelechia heliopa, Lower, P. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 1900, 417(i). 

Gnorimoschema heliopa, Meyr., P. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 1904, 320-321(2), B. J., 

XVI, 592 (1905) (3) ; Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Pests, p. 156(*), Ent. Mem. 

Agr. Dept. Ind., I, 224(5), jnd. Ins. Life, pp. 534-535(6), Agr. Jl. Ind., 

Ill, tab.(7) ; Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins., pp. 454-455, t. 43 (1914)(8). 
PhtJioi-imcea heliopa, Fletcher, Entl. Note 81 (1916)(^), Proc. Second Entl. 

Meeting, p. 272 {19n){^^)^t^ycJ^^^ t.M-^JU^ I. ir^-iri (/\)^. i^ioj 

Originally described from Australia(i) this species is widely distributed 
in India and Ceylon, and probably occurs in Java also. It occurs throughout 
the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon, but we have no records from North- 
Western India. Our records are from Hanguranketa (Ceylon), Coimbatore, 
Shevaroy Hills, Hagari, Penukonda (Anantapur District), Tharsa, Gujarat, 
Nadiad, Anand District, Pusa, Rangpur and Zigonkwin (Burma). In most 
districts this seems to be a minor pest of tobacco, the larva boring into the 
stem and causing a characteristic gall-like swelling, but it is sporadically 
serious and in Western India it is a major pest of tobacco. 

The egg is elongate-oval, about 0-5 mm. long, greenish at first, changing 
later to orange-yellow. The eggs are laid at night indiscriminately anywhere 
on the plant but especially on the lower surfaces of the leaves. In confinement 
one female laid 58 eggs during one night, dying next day. The egg hatches 
after about 19 days in December or 11 days in March. 

The newly-hatched larva is about 1 mm. long, cylindrical, translucent 
yellowish-white ; head large, black ; prothoracic shield small, black ; a few 
hairs scattered over segments ; five pairs of prolegs. It emerges from the egg 
by gnawing a hole at one end but the egg-shell is more or less burst open longi- 
tudinally. The empty egg-shell is not eaten by the young larva. As it grows 
the yellow tinge is gradually lost and the full-grown larva is about 10 mm. long, 
cylindrical, tapering slightly posteriorly, segments fairly distinct, translucent 
whitish or greyish ; head smaller than prothorax, dark-brown ; prothoracic 
shield large, black, divided medially ; fifth abdominal segment with a brownish 
patch ; spiracles round, rimmed with black ; five pairs of prolegs. 

(> 



74 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF GELEOHIAD^ 



I The young larva bores into the tissue of a tobacco leaf, usually near the 

~'^<^ ^'^'^^^y^ r place where it has emerged from the egg, in cases where the egg was laid on a 

Ckel*'^'^ '^(r ■ leaf, and mines into the leaf. If the egg was laid on a stem, the young larva 

^[>)^c^-A^j \ ^^ "^ bores directly into the stem. The mine in the leaf is not large as the larva, 



h 



i^^- 



M^^fiLyi^- 



'Uc-^'j^, 



as soon as it comes across a vein, bores into that until it reaches the midrib 
of the leaf, leaving a trail of black pellets of excrement behind it. The larva 
may take about a week to reach the midrib, the time depending on the distance 
it has to travel. In the case of young plants with hardly any stem the larva 
may remain in the midrib and pupate there ; but, when there is a stem, the 
larva bores into that through the midrib. In either case, whether in midrib 
or stem, the feeding of the larva produces a gall-like swelling which is a charac- 
teristic sign of attack. This swelling is not immediately evident but appears 
two or three weeks (in the cold weather) after the larva has reached the midrib. 
More than one larva may be present in one stem and thus slitting of the stems, 
as sometimes practised, does not ensure removal of all the larvse. 

Pupation takes place in the larval tunnel in the stem or midrib. Prior 
to pupation the larva prepares a hole of exit for the moth, the mouth of the 
hole being covered with a thin white silken webbing. The larva next prepares 
a thin brownish silken cocoon lining the tunnel and pupates in this. The 
pupa is about 6 to 7 mm. long, cylindrical, tapering posteriorly, brown, anal 
segment with small grey cremastral hooks. The empty pupa-case remains 
inside the cocoon. 

The moth is active only at night and passes the day resting motionless 
on the plants or any suitable object. The moths live in confinement for six 
to twelve daj^s. 

The following table shows the life-cycle during the winter but in the warm 
weather the period is much shortened : — 



Eggs laid 


Eggs hatched 


Larvae pupated 


Moth's emergence 


Duration 

days 


6-XII 


20-XII 


9-II 


9-III 


93 


6-XII 


20-XII 


4-III 


3I-III 


115 


8-XII 


21-XII 


3-II 


5-III 


87 


10-XII 


23-XII 


2-III 


20-III 


100 


1 8-XII 


6-1 


.. 


30-III 


102 


1 8-XII 


6-1 


.. 


2-IV 


105 


22-XII 


lO-I 


.. 


26-111 


94 


22-XII 


lO-I 


•• 


5-IV 


104 



VIA'VK Wll. 




PLATE XVIIl. 




Pht'horim;ea operculella. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVIII. 

Phthorimaea operculella. 

Fig. 1 A potato plant showing injury caused by the larvae. 

„ 2. Moth resting on plant. 

,3 3. Potato tuber showing evidences of caterpillar attack in the masses o{ 

excrement at the eyes. A cocoon on the tuber. 

„ 4. Potato tuber cut open to show damage caused by caterpillar. 

J, 5. Potato tuber showing tlie track of the caterpillar and the pupa, 

„ 6. Young larva. 

J, 7. Imago, male. 

'* f „ female. 

„ 9. > 

„ 10. Pupa. 

„ 11. Adult larva. 

,j 12. Sggs deposited at the eye of a potato tuber, magnified 

(The hair-hnes show the natural sizes.^ 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 75 

PHTHORIM^A BLAPSIGONA, MEYR. (PLATE XVII, FIG. 1.) 

Phthorimcea blapsigona, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 569 (May 1916) (i) ; Proc. Second 
Eiitl. Meeting, p. 288 (1917)(2)^?ioc.Xi> ,'^^. fKw»^^^ . I. i.^ '^A/^. ij'^J 
Described from specimens reared at Coimbatore in July and August from 
larvae feeding on buds of brinjal {Solanum nielongena){^). 

This species has been reared at Coimbatore, Saidapet and Nagpur from 
hirvte boring and feeding in flower-buds of brinjal. It is also reported to bore 
into the fruits at Nagpur, and is stated to be a decided pest in Madras and the 
Central Provinces. We have not been able to find this species at Pusa and p ^ r^ 

have no details of its early stages. '^^ (*-*-^ ^^ V '"Wo^ J-p ■ [ ^^J^:;;^\^'^^'^ \'^ , 

PHTHORIMiEA OPERCULELLA, Z. (PLATE XVIII.) 

GelecUa ^operculella, Zeller, Verh. ZB. Ges. Wien., XXIII, 262-263, t. 3, 

f. 17 (1873)(i). <i\ ^T^<v,^ 
PhthorimcBa ojjerculella, Wlsm., P. Z. S., 1907, 942 [synonymy]{2) ; Meyr., 

T. L. S. (2) XIV, 273 (1911) (3) ; Lefroy, Ind. Ins.Life, p. 535, t. 57(1909)(*), 

Agr. Jl. Ind., V, 19-28, t. 1 (Jan. 1910) (5) ; Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins., p. 455, ^ -- ^ £jf .H^-^ 

fc. 44(1914)(6); Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 286, 288 {I917)i'');^^^^^y^j^m.,^. i^-^j ; 

This species, which has been carried to almost all parts of the World „ ^ Ka.^'M'^'^ ^ ~^' 
with potato tubers, was brought into Bombay from Italy probably about "^v UyCt. h'-<^^j 
twenty years ago, and has now spread into most of the potato-growing districts -jf ")(j-i-'7"?o [Nm/. ^J'^J 
of India, where it is a very important pest of the stored tubers. It has also 
been found at Dharwar on one occasion mining brinjal leaves (Entomological 
Note 77). Our records include Mirpurkhas (Sind), Poona, Dharwar, Nilgiris 
to 6,500 feet, Coimbatore, Chindwara, Sitamarhi, Partabgarh, Bankipur, 
Bettiah, Pusa and Purneah, but there is no doubt that this species is still 
spreading and will ultimately invade all the potato-growing districts in 
India. 

In America and South Africa this species is well-known as a destructive 
miner in tobacco leaves, but it has not been noted to attack tobacco in India. 
It has also been noted on tomato, Solanum torvum, S. verbascifoUuni, S. caro- 
Hnense, S. nigrum, Phgsalis peruviana, Physalodes pJu/salodes, and Datura 
stramonium, but has not been recorded on these foodplants in India. 

The early stages have been described by Morgan and Crumb {U. S. A. 
Dept. Agric. Bull. 59 ; 1914) as follows :— 

" Egg. The egg is pale, translucent, yellowish-grey, and strongly irides- 
cent ; it is oval, 0*45 mm. long, 0*35 mm. broad at the middle, membranous, 
and without apparent sculpture. The side upon which it is deposited is slightly 
flattened, 



76 LIFE-HISTORIES OF GELECHIADiE 

" Larva. The full-grown larva is 7 to 14 mm. long. The head shield 
is 0-80 to 0-86 mm. broad and fuscous brown. The cervical shield is darker 
brownish-fuscous, with a pale mid-dorsal line, shining, the posterior margin 
medially straight. The anal shield is brown. The mesothorax and metatho. 
rax are deep maroon. The body varies in colour through green and grey and 
is overlaid dorsally with purplish as the larva nears pupation. It is slender, 
tapering from the mesothorax posteriorly and set closely and uniformly with 
minute granules each bearing a minute point, the granules of the thorax and the 
last abdominal segment being the larger. The tubercles and their setae are 
inconspicuous, brownish ; tubercle II is slightly larger than I. The legs are 

deep fuscous ; the prolegs, green The larva on potato is more greyish on 

the body., .and has the mesothorax and metathorax pinkish instead of deep 
maroon. 

"Pupa. The pupa is yellowish-brown, 5'5 to 7 mm. long and 1-5 to 2 
mm. broad ; it is broadest through the metathorax, tapering both anteriorly 
and posteriorly. The head is rather distinct and slightly nodding. The 
abdomen, excepting the last three segments, is set with very minute spinules ; 
it bears at the tip mid-dorsally a short, curved, erect, pointed horn flanked by 
about four pairs of long hooked spinules, and ventrally a pair of blunt, rounded 
lobes beneath which are about four pairs of long hooked spinules. Each 
abdominal segment is set with a transverse row of spinules near the anterior 
margin." 

A good deal of work has been done in India to combat the attack of this 
pest on stored potato tubers, and accounts will be found in the Agricultural 
Journal of India and in the Bihar Agricultural Journal. Storage undw sand 
has been found successful in some districts, and in others fumigation with 
petrol vapour and subsequent storage in moth-proof godowns is used. 

PHTHORIM^A ERGASIMA, MEYR. (PLATE XVII, FIG. 2.) 

Phthorimcea ergasitna, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 568-569 (1916)(i), l.^ II, 135 
(1918)(2); Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 288 (1917)(3);^cm. J>kJ^-^"^ ^^ ■ 

Described from Pusa(^). ■^s -' 

" Larva green, head and plate of 2 purplish ; mines a blotch in leaves of 
Solanum melongena (Fletcher)"(2). 

At Pusa the larvee mine brinjal leaves in January to March and in July 
and perhaps throughout the year, eating the tissues between the epidermal 
layers. The larva is able to emerge from its mine and walk about and enter 
a leaf again at another place. The mine is usually near the tip of a leaf. The 
larva is about 7 mm. long and about 1-25 mm. broad across the metathorax 












T^^i. ^ ^v^-A', i.5-^-- -^ 5-S^^J 






t. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 11 

whence it tapers prominently anteriorly and slightly posteriorly, rather flattened, 
segments distinct, yellowish with reddish dorsal and lateral stripes ; head 
flattened, smaller than prothorax, dark brown, shiny ; prothorax smaller 
than mesothorax, dark brown, with a shiny dark-brown medially-divided 
plate ; mesothorax slightly smaller than metathorax, with reddish markings 
dorsally ; metathorax entirely yellow ; five pairs of small, equally developed 
prolegs. Pupation takes place either inside the mine or under the shelter of a 
leaf fastened down with silk. The pupal period is about seven days in July 
and eleven days in February. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slips 952, 1328 and 
Dwarka Prasad Singh's Cage-slip dated 18th February 1916.) 

JsU^ -LJ^ w^v~:j b^'«('A^ ^Xj^^Ar^ ^ Me^JrVITi,-^-"'^ . 
PHTHORIMiEA OCELLATELLA, BOYD. 

GelechiaoceUatella, Boyd.,Entom. Weekly Intell., IV, 143(1858) (i) ; Stainton, 

Manaal II, 340 (1859)(2) ; Meyr., Handbk., p. 593 (1895)(3). 
Phthorimcea ocellatella, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 135 (1918)(*). 

This is a European species recorded from Western and Southern Europe, 
Madeira, Asia Minor and, within our limits, from Galle (Ceylon)(i). 

The larva is described by Stainton (2) as " pale greyish- white, with four 
dull reddish interrupted lines along the back ; head pale yellowish-brown. 
On the flowers of Beta maritinia." 

In Italy this species has recently been recorded by Del Gruercio as 
injurious to b^et, feeding on the tender leaves and then tunnelling into the 
root. (See Review Appl Entom., Ser. A, Vol. VII, page 193 ; May 1919.) 

S"i..^ s £ C \ ^ c ;-i- A , "2^^^ - 
STOMOPTERYX NERTERIA, MEYR - . 

Anacampsis nerteria, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 139 (1906)(i), Rec. Ind. Mus., V, 220 
(2), Ann. Transvaal Mus.,, II, 11 (1909)(3) ; Lefroy, Ent. Mem., I, 226 (*), 
Ind. Ins. Life, p. 534(5). 

Aprocerema nerteria, Fletcher, South Ind. Ins., pp. 457-458, f. 333 (1914)(6), 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 43, 47, 92 (1917)(7). ^ 

Stomopteryx nerteria, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 138 (1918)(8)-^/jr7U,^'^'l^"^ tJ((.M^^ 



Originally described from Maskeliya (Ceylon) (i), this species has since ' 
been recorded from India (2) and Pretoria (South Africa)(3). In India it is 
widely distributed in the Plains. Our records include moths reared at Coim- 
batore on Cajanus indicus, mining and folding the leaves ; at Pusa and Nagpur 
on soybean, on the young leaves and shoots ; on groundnut at Peradeniya, 
Coimbatore, Hagari, Dharwar and Fraserganj (Sundarbans) ; and on Psoralea 
corylifolia at Pusa and Nagpur. We also have moths from Peshawar and 



78 LIFE-HISTORIES OF GELECHlAD^ 

jMandalay. In Madras it is an important pest of groundnut and is well-known 
under the name of surul puchi. 

The whole life-cycle is passed on the foodplant, the egg being laid on the 
leaves or stems, the larva at first mining into the leaves and later on tying 
them together, and pupating in the larval shelter so formed. 

The egg is described by Green as " pale green, irregularly elongate-oval, 
surface coarsely pitted in irregular longitudinal series, under the microscope 
remarkably similar both in form and sculpture to seed of Arachis.'' It has 
also been recorded by T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar and Y. Ramachandra Rao as 
" about 0'35 mm. in length, longer than broad, somewhat flattened, with the 
proximal face resting flatly on the leaf and the distal one convex. Its external 
surface is ornamented with a system of ridges forming a kind of network, 
while its inner face, by which it is attached, is, except for a few obsolete ridges, 
more or less even. In colour it is creamy yellow when freshly laid ; it retains 
this tinge to a greater or less extent until the third day, when a black dot (the 
head of the larva) makes its appearance, and as it approaches the time of 
hatching it gradually turns dark." 

The egg may be laid on any part of the upper portion of the foodplant ; 
when laid on a leaf, it is usually placed on the lower surface ; as a rule the egg 
is laid in some slight depression on the plant. 

The eggs are laid singly by night, the maximum number laid by one 
'■ •> "^ female being noted as 97, and hatch after three days. 
.-c/na"^ I""^ f-p/ The newly-hatched larva is slightly over 0*5 mm. long, dull grey, flattened 

'rveooAe-*'^ " ip.,^ . anteriorly, slender posteriorly ; head black ; prothoracic shield light brown. 

-' — "'^ ' iWi*^ ^ I ^ 

If^t.t^^*"*' (,. jti ■^ It wanders about for a short time and then mines into a leaf, the mine after a 

H *^^ " . day or two showing up as a whitish-brown streak ; the interior of the mine 

^*^ ^''^ ^ is lined with a layer of silk. After mining for about eight. days, the larva bites 

its way out of the mine and webs together two or more leaflets and lives under 

shelter, forming a small oval silk-lined chamber about 8 mm. long in which 

the larva lives and ultimately pupates. After another three or four days it 

is full-grown and is then about 5"5 to G mm. long, rather stout, faint dirty 

green ; head, prothoracic and anal shields dark brown ; each segment with 

tubercles from which arise pale brown setae ; legs dark brown ; prolegs greenish. 

Male larva? show, between the fourth and fifth abdominal segments, a pair of 

asymmetrically-situated dark violet testes, which are clearly visible through 

the skin. Pupation takes place in a closely-woven torpedo-shaped cocoon, 

about 9 mm. long, and usually constructed in the larval chamber to whose 

sides it is rather loosely attached. The pupa is about 4 '5 mm. long, rather stout, 

yellowish or reddish brown ; cephalic and thoracic regions thickly covered 



PLATE MX 








r 




Platyedra gossypiella. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIX. 

Platyedra gossypiblla. 

Fig. 1. Eggs, enlarged. 
Young larva. 
Adult larva. 
Pupa. 

Infested cotton-boll. 
Larva inside cotton-seed. 

Moth. 
(The hair-lines show the natural sizes.) 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 

'•[ 

8. ) 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 79 

with minute velvety hairs ; abdominal segments with similar but longer hairs 
which are, however, confined to a median transverse belt on each segment ; 
anal segment with creniastral hooks which retain the pupa-case within the 
cocoon on emergence of the moth. The pupal period is about four days. 

The moth flies at night, hiding during the daytime in the soil, in crevices 
or under clods. It is strongly attracted to light at night. The moth has been 
found to live for sixteen days in confinement ; under natural conditions its 
life is probably much longer. 

The life-cycle is about three weeks, of which the egg stage lasts for twelve 
to fourteen days, and the pupal stage for four days. Under colder conditions, 
the cycle may be prolonged to six weeks. Under suitable conditions of tem- 
perature and presence, of foodplants, this insect seems to breed throughout 
the year and no regular broods can be distinguished. 

PLATYEDRA GOSSYPIELLA, SAUNDERS. (PLATE XIX.) 

Depressaria gossypiella, Saunders, T. E. S. (1), III, 285 (1842)(i). 

GelecMa gossypiella, Meyr., B. J., XVI, 592, (1905)(2) ; Wlsni., Faun. Hawaii, 
I, 731-733 (1907) (3) ; Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Pests, p. 93, ff. 104-106 (*), Ent- 
Mem., I, 223, f. 69(5), Ind. Ins. Life, p. 534, f. 344 (1909)(6) ; Durrant, 
Bull. Ent. Res., Ill, 203-206, fig. (1912)(') ; Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins., p., 454, 
t. 42 (1914)(8) ; Willcocks, Ins. Pests Egypt, Vol. I, pt. i, pp. 1-339, 17 
figs., 10 tabs. (1916)(9) ; Gough, Egypt Agric. Ent. Bull. 4 (1916)(iO) ; 
Fletcher, Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 10, 111-114, 127, 129, 130, 
(1917)(ii). 

Pectinophora gossypiella, Busck, Journ. Agri. Res., IX, 243-370, t. 7-12 (1917)(2) ; 

Ballou, Journ. Ec. Ent., XI, 236-245 (1918)(13). ,. ^ /WT • t '^""^ 

Platyedra gossypiella, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II. 136 (1918)(14)^5Wa .^-^ ^^ '^^ ^ '^^^^ ' 
This species, the notorious "Pink Bollworm " of cotton, was firsts \_ . J^^ 

described from Western India(^) and there is little doubt but that India was its'J^^'^'" '^/-aITT 

TT UAiT "^^^l '^^' ' 

original home, whence it has been carried in recent years with cotton-seed ii "^ > - ^ 
to most parts of the world, so that it is now very widely distributed and is ^r^^ki^j- • ' ^ 
known to occur in the Straits Settlements, Philippines, Japan (?), Hawaii, 1?.*°'' ^_ _"_ 
Zanzibar,. East Africa, Sudan, Egypt, Brazil, Mexico and the Southern United ^^^\jtj>ot-o^:^ ' ^ 
States. ' • ^ 

P. gossypiella occurs commonly throughout the Plains of India, Burma 
and Ceylon and is everywhere a pest of cotton, serious in most localities, espe- 
cially so in the United Provinces, North- West Frontier Province and Madras. 
It is especially evident towards the end of the season when a large percentage 
of the bolls and seeds is attacked. In all districts exotic varieties seem 



80 LII'E-HISTORIES OF GELECHIAD^ 

most liable to attack. The larva bores into the bolls, feeding on the seeds and 
spoiling the lint, and also does some damage to buds and flowers when bolls 
are not available, but when bolls are formed these are much preferred. Many 
of the attacked bolls drop off and there may be considerable loss of crop from 
this, or the bolls open prematurely and the fibre is short, dirty and 
comparatively useless. The oil content of the attacked seed is seriously 
lessened also, and the germination is affected if the seeds are used for sowing. 
The loss due to this insect in India alone rims to many millions of Rupees 
annually. 

As noted above, the larva is a serious pest of cotton, but has also been 
found in India breeding on Hibiscus ahelmoschus, Ahutilon indicum and doubt- 
fully on hollyhock. In Egj^pt and Hawaii it has been bred from Thesjpesia 
populnea and in Hawaii also from fruits of Hibiscadelphus Jmalalaiensis. In 
Egypt it has been reared from hollyhock, Hibiscus esculentus and H. cannabinus 
and it will probably be found to breed in these foodplants in India also. 

Very detailed accounts of the life-history have been given by Willcock&(8) 
and Busck(i2j and reference should be made to their publications for full 
details. Briefly, the life-history is as follows :— The egg is usually laid on a 
cotton-boll but may be deposited on a flower or leaf. It hatches in about 
six days (more or less according to season), and the small yellowish larva, 
which is very active, either bores into a boll at once, or bores into a flower or 
nibbles the leaves for a short time before entering a boll. Entered into a boll 
(or seed-pod, in the case of foodplants other than cotton) it feeds on the seeds, 
either completely eating out a single seed or nibbling several. It is full-fed 
after two or three weeks, by which time it is salmon pink and about 12 mm. 
long, and then emerges from the boll through a circular hole and pupates in a 
flimsy cocoon usually formed under some shelter on the ground (e. g., mider 
a fallen leaf, flower, clod, etc.). If the lint is picked whilst the larva is still 
feeding, it emerges when full-fed and may pupate in the lint or in any conve- 
nient shelter in the store-room. Rarely pupation takes place inside the boll. 
In some cases, however, usually towards the end of the season, the larva does 
not pupate at once, but goes into a resting condition which may last for many 
months. In the case of larvae feeding in stored cotton-seed, the larva usually 
attaches a second seed to the seed in which it is feeding and the presence of 
these double seeds is a sure sign of infection by this insect. After a variable, 
but often considerable, interval of time these resting larvge pupate and emerge 
as moths. Thus, from larvae collected at Pusa on 10th November 1907, one 
larva pupated on 12th March, and emerged on 28th March 1908, whilst another 
larva of this lot pupated on 4th June and emerged on 13th June 1908. The 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 



81 



following table shows the variation exhibited by larvse from eggs laid at the 
same time. 



Egg laid 


Egg hatched 


Larva pupated 


Moth emerged 


14-X-07 


19-X-07 


13-XI-07 


l-XII-07 


17-X-07 


23-X-07 


12-XI-07 


29-XI-07 


17-X-07 


23-X-07 


20-XI-05 


9-XII-07 


17-X-07 


23-X-07 





30-V-08 


18-X-07 


24-X-07 


14-XI-07 


4-XII-07 



Some larvae may, however, enter into a resting stage which lasts for two 
years or perhaps even longer. 

The egg is elongate-oval with rounded ends, about 0'53 mm. long and 
0"26 mm. broad, with minute longitudinal (but slightly zigzag) ridges ; at 
first translucent white, looking green against the green background of a leaf 
or boll, but turning light yellow before hatching, the head of the enclosed 
larva showing as a large black spot at one end. The young larva does not 
eat the empty egg-shell. 

The newly-hatched larva is about 1 mm. long, cylindrical, tapering poste- 
riorly, yellow ; head black, shiny ; prothoracic shield dark brown. When 
about half-grown, it is yellowish-white with pinkish suffusion around the 
spiracles and tubercles, head chestnut-brown, prothoracic shield brownish. 
When full-grown it is about 12 mm. long, rather stout, about 2-5 mm. broad, 
pinkish ; head brown ; prothorax broad, with a medially divided, light brown 
shield ; all segments (except head and anal segment) with a broad salmon- 
pink ring broken on each side by two delicate light-grey spots which form 
an interrupted lateral stripe ; anal segment with a small shield ; hairs 
moderate. 

The pupa is about 6 to 7 mm. long and about 2*6 mm. broad, yeUowish- 
brown, with short brown hairs densely scattered over the surface; anal segment 
with a black cremastral spine and numerous shorter hair-like hooklets. These 
cremastral hooks retain the pupa-case inside the cocoon on emergence of the 
moth. 

The moth flies in the evening, after dusk, remaining during the daytime 
hidden away under any convenient shelter ; when disturbed by day, it scuttles 
along and seeks another shelter, rarely taking to wing. It is attracted to light 
at night to some extent. 



82 LIFE-SISTORIES OF GELECHIAD^ 

Little is known, in India regarding any parasites or other natural enemies 
of this insect. Microbracon sp. and a Bethylid have been reared and at Suiat 
a Braconid was reared and is figured in Indian Insect Pests under the name of 
Urogaster depressaria\ In Egypt, Willcocks has given, on pages 233-269 
of his monograph (•). a list of the parasites met with, and in Hawaii Swezey 
has also listed the parasites of this species (Proc. Hawaii Ent. Soc, III, 101-109 ; 
1915). Busck has also published notes on Parasierola emigrata, Rohwer 
{Insec. Inscit. Menstr., V, 3-5 ; 1917) and Willcocks has recorded an Acarine 
parasite {Bidl. Soc. Ent. Egypt 1913, 68-72 ; 1914), and this last, or a very 
similar species, also occurs in India. 

GELECHIA TAMARICIELLA, Z. 
Gelechia tamariciella, Zeller, Stett. Ent. Zeit., 1850, 153 (i); Stainton, Tin. 

S. Europe, pp. 80-81 (1869)(2) ; Rebel, Cat. Lep. Pal., ii, 151 (1901)(3). 
Teleia tamariciella, Rebel, Iris, XXVI, 90 (1912) (*); Chretien, Ann. S. E. 

France, 1916, pp. 473-474 (May 1917) (5). 

Originally described from Tuscany (*), this species is also recorded from 
Spain (2), Southern France (3), North Africa, Syria (*), and Egypt (^). In India it 
appears to be widely distributed throughout the Plains and prcbably occurs 
wherever Tamarix grows. We have it from Peshawar, Cha[ra, Pusa and 
Basra. 

In Egypt the larva has been found on Tamarix{*) and has been described 
by P. Chretien(S) and at Pusa it occurs commonly on Tamarix gallica and has 
been collected in February, May and December. The larva feeds on the 
dry twigs, binding three or four twigs together and residing in the case so formed. 
It is about 10-11 mm. long and 1"5 mm. broad, tapering posteriorly, reddish- 
brown ; head pale brown, posteriorly irrorated with darker dots, and covered 
with scattered fine grey hairs ; prothorax pale brown ; mesothorax deep 
brown ; legs black, brownish apically ; warts I and II black, emitting three 
or four short black hairs ; lateral tubercles similar but larger, an ill-defined 
dark dorsal line bordered by minute white dots ; five pairs of prolegs. In 
another larva the head and thorax were described as green, other segments 
dull brown, green ventrally. 

The larva seldom emerges from its case which it sometimes carries about 
with it, retreating inside when disturbed. It is therefore easily overlooked. 
In captivity pupation took place inside a flimsy cocoon formed by fastening 
three or four twigs together and attaching them to the bottom of the cage. 
The pupal period is about eight days in May and fifteen days in February. 
(Pusa Insectary Cage-slips 644, 1052, 1171.) 






t. BAINBRiGGE FLETCltER 83 

STEGASTA VARIANA, MEYR. '^^^ (P ^"-^ I 

Stegasta variana, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., XXIX, 314 (1904)(i), B. J., 

XVII, 140 (1906)(2), Ann. Transvaal Mus., II, 12 (1909)(3), /. c, III, 65 

(1911)(*), Entom. Mitteil. Suppl., Ill, p. 50 (1914)(5). ^o^(^ 

Originally described from Eastern Australia(i) and afterwards^ from 

Ceylon (2), South Africa{^' *) and Formosa (^), this species is widely distributed 

in India and Ceylon, and we have it from Peradeniya, Coimbatore, Bassein 

Fort (Bombay), Hoshangabad, Katni (Central Provinces), Palamau, Cuttack» 

Pusa and Shillong. It has been reared at Pusa from larvae found webliing, 

and sometimes rolling, leaves of chakwar {Cassia tora) and chameli {Jasndnum 

sp.). The larva usually binds together two leaves, one above another, and 

lives in the shelter so formed, feeding on the epidermis and mesophyll substance, 

and leaving a thin layer of one epidermis. 

The full-grown larva is 8 to 9 mm. long, cylindrical, slightly tapering 
posteriorly, segments distinct, green (becoming pink before pupation) ; head 
flattened, black, shiny, smaller than prothorax ; prothorax smaller than 
mesothorax, wholly covered above by a black, shiny shield, ventrally black 
with a pinkish tinge ; mesothorax black with a pinkish tinge or (in other 
specimens) reddish-brown ; legs black ; tubercles small, black, emitting short 
grey hairs ; five pairs of equally developed prolegs. 

Pupation takes place in a sort of cocoon formed by lining the larval shelter 
with a thin layer of silk. The pupa is about 4 to 4 "5 mm. long, brown, anal 
segment with thin cremastral hooks which hold the pupa-case within the cocoon 
on emergence of the moth. The pupal period is five or six days in October. 
(Pusa Insectary Cage-slips 608, 803.) 

ONEBALA BLANDIELLA, WLK. 

Onebala Uandiella, Wlk., XXIX, 792 (i) ; Wlsm., in Swinh., Cat. Lep. Het. 
Oxf. Mus., II, 545 (1900) (2) ; M^y^^rr^^-^^ry-l^Ur'h&i^J^*^'^'-^^ 
" Larva greenish, naked, about an inch long. Leaf-roller on a common 

species of dead-nettle at Ootacamund. Imago emerges in February(2)." 
Also recorded from Ceylon(i) a nd Bu r ma (Monc)( -^. 

Crjjptolechia diluticornis, Wlsm. in Moore s Lep. Ceylon, III, 519, t. 209, f. 7 

(1887)(i). 
Pachnistis diluticornis, Meyr., B. J., XX, 707 (1911)(2). 

We have this from Surat (where it was reared from a larva on dry cotton- 
stalks), Chapra, and Pusa. 



84 LIFE-SISTORIES OF GELECHIAD^ 

This species has been reared at Pusa from larvae found on 25th January 
1906 under gular {Ficus glomerata) bark, and from larvse found on 27th January 
1917 amongst dry fallen leaves. The larva feeds on dry leaves. It is about 
15 mm. long, cylindrical, greyish, clothed with black hairs so densely that the 
segments are not distinguishable and the larva looks like a mass of hairs ; 
many hairs are longer and rise above the dense mass, these longer hairs being 
greyish ; head black, shiny ; five pairs of equally developed greyish prolegs ; 
legs black. Pupation takes place, within the cavity formed by dead dry leaves 
which have rolled up to some extent, in a blackish cocoon in which all the 
hairs from the body of the larva have been knitted. The moths emerge 
in March after a pupal period of four or five weeks. (Pusa Insectary Cage- 
slips 290, 1529.) 

THYRSOSTOMA GLAUCITIS, MEYR. 
Thyrsostoma glaucitis, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 736 (1907)(i), Exot. Micr., 11, 120 

(1918)(2). 

Described from Peradeniya where it was reared " from mango leaf "i}). 

Besides Ceylon, received from Coorg, Kanara and Assam ; attached 
to mango, apparently connnon(2). 

DACTYLETHRA CANDIDA, STT. 

V>^] ^^i^b^ "^'^narsia Candida, Stainton, T. E. S. (n. s.) V, 114-115 (1859)(i). 

^^.'l^o?^'^-^'*''^''* Dactylethra Candida, Meyr., B. J., XXII, 167 (1913)(2). 

fl^t*^ i'J^'^^J Originally described from Calcutta(i). Doubtless widely distributed 

in the Plains. We have it from Adoni, in the Bellary District, where it was 
reared from a larva making galls in stems of Tephrosia purpurea in August 
1912, from Koilpatti where the larva was found causing galls on tender shoots 
of a wild indigo in August 1907, and from Manganallur, where it was bred in 
SejDtember 1917 from wild indigo. 

.,^^ - ^^. LECITHOCERA CRYPSILYCHNA, MEYR. 

■^..^'^^ Brachmia crypsiUjchna, Meyr., B. J., XXII, 773-774 (1914)(i). 

Lecithocera crypsilycha, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 103 (1918)(2). 

Described from Bassein Fort, Bombay. The larva was found between 
spun leaves of Iponupa arvensisi}). 






LECITHOCERA EFFERA, MEYR. 



* cdU U-'^o"'-''^"^ ' ^ectY/iocera effera, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 104 (1918)(i) 



4- [^ t.^ Bred at Coimbatore from larva feeding on leaves of sweet-potato {Ipomc^a 

hatatds) in September. Pupa-case clothed with scattered erect hairs, a -^urious 



H ^,^^i^^> /yLjrX . ,C^^^. U.'^t^^ ^ \^^.w^^l^,,3 Cy^'.^i-toj^d^ 



■7,1, ^ \(,-ix, ^'C V- .M^ '^"'^-^ ^"-^^ ) ii^-^^ Jih- ^-^^ r 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 85 

feature ; four segments free. Also recorded from Surat(*). It has also been 
reared at Coimbatore on 9tli June 1913 from a pupa found on horse-radish. 

BRACHMIA ENGRAPTA, MEYR. 
Brachmia engrapta, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 114 {19l8){^)-^^y^,'^'^-^ ^^- f^^-/ J^- '^> 'J^^- "9^ J 

Bred at Lahore in July from larva on sweet-potato {I])omcBa hutatas). 
Also found at Coimbatore in October(i). 

BRACHMIA AROTR^A, MEYR. ^ 

Cladodes arotrcea, Meyr., T. E. S., 1894, 15(i). __ _ . ^ 

Brachmia arotrcea, Meyr., B. J., XX, 723 (1911)(2); ^Vl^^lV. 'W^ Eorf. >-*e*U; . L >^"- ^^- '9^y 

This species was originally described from Koni ( Burma) (i) and has 
since been recorded from Ceylon(2), the Khasi Hills(2) and Southern India(2). 
It seems to be widely distributed throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. 

It " has been bred in small numbers from larvae on rice leaves at Pusa 
and Katni (Central Provinces). We have it also from Cuttack and Palamau 
and it occurs in Burma and Ceylon. It is therefore likely to be found on paddy 
in most districts but is not a pest, so far as we know." (Proc. Sec. E. M., p. 
164.) It has also been reared at Samalkota on paddy. 

A larva was found at Pusa on 17th September 1907, rolling a rice leaf to 
form a shelter inside which it lives, feeding on the leaf and filling the roll with 
excrement. The full-grown larva is about 9 mm. long, cylindrical, tapering 
posteriorly, light green ; head shiny black, labrum reddish-brown ; prothorax 
with a shiny, black shield ; mesothorax with a black subdorsal dot ; metathorax 
with a thick black shield ; legs black, shiny ; abdominal segments with a 
light green dorsal stripe and several more or less interrupted lateral stripes ; 
primary hairs few, dark ; five pairs of dull white prolegs. Pupation takes place 
within the larval shelter. The pupa is 5 mm. long, cylindrical, tapering poster- 
riorly, brown. The pupal period is about six days. (Pusa Insectary Cage- 
slip 602.) 

BRACHMIA IDIASTIS, MEYR. ' ^ ^ f 

Brachmia idiastis, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 577 (June 1916)(i),"^/-^ ^'-<^^ ^.K-U^;; i.h3.Nw.l?2 

Described from Pusa, where it was bred in June from larva feeding on 
Panicum sp.(^). 

Larvse were found at Pusa on 5th April 1910 and 25th May 1914, rolling 
leaves of Panicum sp. The larva rolls a leaf longitudinally by folding the 
margins together, living inside the shelter so formed and eating the epidermis 
and also the mesophyll substance of the leaf, leaving entire one epidermal 
layer which turns yellow. 



86 LIFE-HISTORIES OF GELECHTAD^ 

The larva is about 10 mm. long when extended and about 1 mm. broad, 
segments distinct, light yellow ; head black, shiny ; prothorax with a shiny 
black shield divided medially by a narrow white line ; mesothorax dark 
dorsally ; metathorax and first abdominal segment wholly blackish ; second 
and following abdominal segments with a broad black submedian stripe, from 
which on the anterior part of each segment arises a narrower black marking 
which runs obliquely downwards to the posterior part of the segment ; hairs 
short, black, scattered ; legs black, shiny ; five pairs of equally developed 
yellow prolegs. 

Pupation takes place in a cocoon formed by twisting a leaf around twice 
to form a tube which is lined with a thin layer of silk. The pupal period 
is about five days. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slips 832, 1063.) 

BRACHMIA INSULSA, MEYR.^ ^ ; 

Brachmia insulsa, Meyr., B. J., XXII, 774 (1914)(i);teu,^^<'|^ ^^i!^^) 

This species was originally described from Pusa and we have it from 
Peshawar, Abbottabad, Pusa and Belgaum. It appears to be common through- 
out the Plains of India. At Pusa the moths are abundant in May and June 
and occur in smaller numbers in February and March. 

It has been reared at Pusa from a larva found on 1st February 1910 on 
potato. The larva rolls a leaf or binds two leaves together with silk threads, 
living in the shelter so formed and nibbling small holes in the leaf. When 
full-grown the larva is about 14 mm. long, cylindrical, pink with a dark tinge ; 
head shiny, dark brown, posteriorly almost black ; prothoracic shield large, 
prominent, black, shiny ; thoracic segments dark ; segments with scattered 
hairs ; five pairs of equally developed prolegs. Pupation takes place in a 
cocoon formed by lining the larval shelter with white silk. The pupa is about 
6 mm. long, brown, the anal extremity prolonged into a flattened, pointed 
process bearing two long thin stif? divergent hairs. (Pusa Insectary Cage- 
slip 827.) 

'PUIUA'P-A^^^^^ BRAGHMIA XEROPHAGA, MEYR. (PLATE XX, FIG. 1.) 

.,.^ \r-^ Brachmia xerophaga, Meyr., Ent. Mo. Mag. 1914, 219-220(1). 

The larva, dark red in colour, occurs in nests of Stegodyphus sarasinoruiria 
and doubtless feeds on the fragments of the numerous insects caught in the 
webs ; the pupa is also found in the nest, as is the moth itself. The latter may 
be seen resting on the outside of the web-nest or running freely into the galler- 
ies leading to its iiiterior(i). 




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T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 87 

Described from specimens from Guindy, Madras(i). Also found by 
Dr. Gravely at Puri, Orissa. 

HELCYST©€mAMMA HIBISCI, STT. 

Gelechia? hibisci, Stainton, T. E. S. (n. s.) V, 117(1). 

Gerechia ? hibisci, Snell., Tijd. voor Ent., XLVT, 43-44, t. 5, ff. 3, 4(2). 

Strobisin hibisci, Meyr., B. J., XX, 732 (1911)(3). „^^-fTiec->')n i ' 

Helcystogramma hibisci, Meyr., T. E. S., 1914, ^"0{^)^^^S-^-^,^^^JeM^^^ 1^-4 

Helcystogramma obseratella, Zeller, H. S. E. K., XIII, 371-373, t. 5^ fT\27, (rvJA/- '?^>) 

(1 .77)(«). 

Larva small, green, with the head black ; it feeds on the tops of the 
yellow Hibiscus(^) ; on Hibiscusi}). 

Widely distributed throughout India and Ceylon. We have it from 
Pusa, Nagpur, Pollibetta (Coorg) and Shillong. 

Outside of India it has been recorded from Java by Snellen(2), and " pro- 
bably from Cuba " by Zeller(5), this latter record being perhaps in error. 

The larva was found at Pusa on 17th September 1907, rolling leaves of 
Hibiscus esculentus. The larva was described as about 12 mm. long, cylindrical, 
slightly tapering posteriorly, yellowish-green ; head shiny black, with scattered 
minute whitish hairs, labrum greyish-red, antennae prominent ; prothoracic 
shield black, shiny ; body segments distinct ; warts small, dark, emitting a 
^ho.t whitish hair, five pairs of prolegs. 

Pupation takes place in a cocoon spun amongst loose leaves. The pupa 
is brown, cylindrical, broad apically, tapering posteriorly, dorsal and lateral 
areas with short hairs ; anal segment with four cremastral hooks which are 
entangled in the silken threads of the cocoon and which retain the pupa-case 
inside the pupal shelter on emergence of the moth. The pupal period is five 
or six days. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 601.) 

AUTOSTICHA AUTH^MA, MEYR. ^ 
EpiccBfiia authcema, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 141 (1906)(i). 

Described from Peradeniya, where the larva, in a heliciform case, feeds 
on moss-covered rocks(i). 

This is a Ceylonese species, not yet found in India. 

AUTOSTICHA CHERNETIS, MEYR/ 
E]nccenia chemetis, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 141 (1906)(l). 
Autosticha chemetis, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 459(2). 

Recorded from Peradeniya, where the larva lives in galleries on moss- 
covered rocks(i). 



88 LIFE-HISTORIES OF GELECHIADiB 

AUTOSTICHA EXEMPLARIS, MEYR. ' 
Autosticha exemplaris, Meja-., Exot. Micr., I, 586-587 (June 1916)(*). 

DesQi'ibed from Coimbatore, where it was bred in October, together 
with various other Lepidoptera, from refuse in the fork of a tamarind-tree. 
It is doubtful whether the present species is a refuse-feeder, it may only have 
entered for pupation or been carried in with leaves ; the known Ceylon larvae 
of this genus are lichen-feeders ; on the other hand, the Hawaiian species, 
pelodes, is a refuse-feeder and it is therefore possible that exemjplans may be 
one also. 

One of the specimens reared at Coimbatore from this lot was a teratological 
example, with two small duplicate hindwings on the right side. This specimen 
has been placed in the British Museum (Natural History) Collection. 

AUTOSTICHA PROTYPA, MEYR. 
Autosticha frotij-pa, Meyr., B. J., XVIII, 457-458 (1908)(i). 

Described from Ceylon (Maskeliya, Maturatta, and Peradeniya), where 
the larva lives in galleries on lichen on rocks(^). 

5 R/^ Tvi "< A C f^ A 4=rA44-^l«^>^re-bfti^ PARASPISTES PALPIGERA, WLSM. ^ 

GelecUa palpigera, Wlsm., T. E. S. 1891, 94, t. 4, f. 31 (1891);i). 
^j^OJ^-^Paraspistes ioloncha, Meyr., B. J., XVI, 600 (1905)(2), Tr. Linn. Soc. (2) XIV, 

X^^s^'^' (\vO 274 (1911)(-'^). ^^... 

^ -^ ^'^'^ L Lipitia crotalarielU, Busck, Bull. Dept.^Triniiad, IX, 243 (1910)(*). 

Paraspistes pdpigera, Busck, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XLVII, 10-11 (Apl. 

1914) ,5)^^^ fv^f^^- t^^j V t- . l^> (^r^ • ^1- ) 

Originally described from Delagoa Bay, East Africa(i), this species has 
been reared at Coimbatore in August and September 1916, in some numbers 
in indigo pods and also from larvse in pods of Cassia corymhosa and Cassia 
flora. At Manganallur it was also reared from wild indigo. We have this 
species from Puttalam (Ceylon), Pollibetta (Coorg), Coimbatore, Manganallur, 
and Bhamo (Burma), and it has also been recorded from Peradeniya(-), 
where it w^as reared in July from pods of Crotalaria{-), from the Seychelles("^), 
from the British West Itidies(*' ^), where the larva was also found in pods 
of Crotalariai*), and from the Bahamas(^), and Panama(^). 

HYPELICTIS ALBISCRIPTA, MEYR. 
Hypelictis alhiscripta, Meyr., B. J., XXII, 773 (1914)(i). 

Reared in North Kanara from pupa found between closely-spun leaves of 
Salixi^)' 




DiCHOMERIS lANTHES. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXI. 

DiCHOMERIS lANTHES. 

Fig. 1. An affected Java-Natal indigo plant. 

2. Egg, enlarged. 

3. Caterpillar, enlarged. 

4. Pupa, enlarged. 

V Moth in flying and resting attitudes. 
(The hair-lines show the natural sizes.) 



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T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 89 

.STROBISIA AMETHYSTIAS, MEYR. 

Zalithia amethystias, Meyr., B. J., XVII, UO (1906)(i). 

.Strobisia mmthjstias, Meyr., B. J., XX. 726(2), Exot. Micr., II, 144 (1918)(3). 
Originally described from Peradeiiiya(*). St, M^ "KJ^^'^' 

" Bred from a larva feeding in fungus-bed of Termites' nest {Green) "(3). 

-KtfO HOTAPHE GEOCHROTA, MEYR. 

Trichotaphe geochrota, Meyr., B. J., XXII, 775 (19U)(i). 6^ 

This species was reared from a larva found on leaves of an unidentified 
plant at Basssin Fort (Bombay) on 1st October 1909. The larva was described 
as about 8 mm. long, tapering towards either extremity, creamy white ; head 
yellowish ; prothorax with a minute reddish, dot on side just below head, 
a yellowish dorsal band, and below this band two yellowish dots on side, 
mesothoracic and following segments with a light chocolate-coloured dorsal 
ban! neirly completa ani straight on mesothorax and metathorax but slightly 
curved on abdominal segments ; these bands on abdominal segments (except 
on anal segment) are not complete, being interrupted dorsally, and bear two 
black dots on their ends ; legs pointed, creamy ; five pairs of prolegs, rather 
blunt, anal prolegs directed slightly p3st?riorly. Pupation took place under 
shelter of a leaf fastened to the bottom of the cage. The pupa was slightly 
over 5 mm. long, yellowish-brown. The pupil period was six days. (A. 
Mujtaba's Cage-slip 63.) 



DICHOMERIS lANTHES, MEYR. (PLATE XXI.) ^ 

Hjipsolophus ianthes, Meyr., T. E. S., 1887, 273-274(1). 

Yj)solophus ochrophanes, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 981 (1907) (2) ; Lefroy, Ind. Ins. 

Life, pp. .533-534 (1909)(3), Agricl. Jl. Ind., V, 161-162(%). img 
Ypsolophus ianthes, Meyr., Rec. Ind. Mus., V, 223(*), Tr. Linn. Soc. (2) XIV, 

275 (1911)(S). 
Dichomeris ianthes, Meyr., B. J., XXII, 172 (1913) («), Entom. Mitteil. Suppl., 

Ill, p. 51 (1914)(7) ; Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins., pp. 456-457, f. 332 (1914)(«) ; 

Rutherford, Tropl. Agric, XLIII (Sept. 1914) (») ; Proc. Second Entl. 

Meeting, pp. 61, 80 (tab.), 207 (1917)(iO),^<A^><I'-w<-ii ^-Wc/^ I. \^^ fWro- ^'j^) 

Widely distributed in India and Ceylon, extending to Reunion (^' ^) and 
the Seychelles^®) and Formosa^). Apparently not yet recorded from Burma. 
We have specimens from Cliamparan, Gondra, Muhammadpur. Pusa, 
Dalsing Serai, Bassein Fort, Palur and Mercara, 

7 



90 LIFE-HISTORIES OF GELECHIAD^ 

Larva described by Lefroy(3) and Fletclier(®). Feeds on Medicagoi^), 
Ci/amopsis{^'^^), and is a pest of indigo(-'' '^' ^*'j and luceme{*'' ^' "•). 

This species is quite of minor importance as a rule but in 1909 it appeared 
in the Champaran District as a serious pest of Java indigo and did considerable 
damage, as is instanced in the following report : — " The caterpillars seem to 
have made a pretty clean sweep of the field attacked ; there are very few 
plants unattacked, practically all have their feaves reduced to a dirty brown 
powder and many are merely bare sticks," young plants only a few inches 
high being attacked in August, September and October, the caterpillars webbing 
up the leaves at the top of the young shoot, feeding on them, and checking 
the growth of the plant. 

In confinement, a female moth laid 37 eggs between 8th and 10th October 
1909. The egg is elongate-oval, cylindrical with rounded ends, about 0'5 mm. 
long, light green when laid, gradually becoming yellowish, and pinkish just 
before hatching. The eggs are usually laid in the groove of the petioles of the 
leaves and nearly always on leaves near the top of the plant. On guar eggs 
were deposited alongside the raised veins on the under-surface of the leaf. 
The eggs may be deposited singly or as many as six in one place ; when several 
are laid, they usually lie lengthwise in the groove, touching each other. The 
larva hatches out after about four days, and does not eat the egg-shell. 

The newly-hatched larva is about 0*75 mm. long, cylindrical, light yellow 
with a greenish tinge ; head larger than other segments, shiny, dark red 
brown ; prothoracic shield shiny, reddish-brown ; primary hairs comparatively 
long ; five pairs of equally developed prolegs. 

The full-grown larva is about 7 mm. long and slightly more than 1 mm. 
broad, green ; head shiny black ; prothorax black, with a large shiny black 
shield ; prothoracic legs black, mesothoracic and metathoracic legs green ; 
minute hairs scattered over segments ; five pairs of equally developed prolegs. 

On hatching from the egg the larvae usually crawl onto the tender top- 
leaves, fold a leaf, live hidden inside it and so feed. They bite the leaf usually 
from the edge and go on eating until little is left to afford a shelter, then they 
leave the leaf and go to another. The leaf thus eaten withers and dries up. 
As they grow larger they bind two or three, or more, leaves together, the 
leaves retaining their fiat shape. The larval life is about fifteen days. 

Pupation takes place either between two leaves fastened together or in a 
rolled leaf or in the larval shelter of top-leaves bound together, the interior 
of the shelter being lined with a thin layer of silken fibre. The pupa is about 
5 mm. long, cylindrical, tapering to a point posteriorly, brown ; the anal 
(extremity prolonged into a process from the apex as well as from the base of 



^CoUmM^'S y^t^oU ^^^UyC I t;c<r.bv<CA.ll_^3-i Vo^ I^Xi ) ; k^Ji f,«>vv Q^^^ ^ k. 



. y^.i 









T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 91 

which arise many stiff brown circinate liairs which are entangled in the fibres 
of the cocoon. The pupal period is about six days. The whole life-cycle 
is thus about 25 days. (Pusa Insectary Cage-sli)i 790.) 

-^ / 

DICHOMERIS Ef IDANTIS, MEYR. 

Ypsolophus e^idantis, ]\Ieyr., B. J., XVII, 981 (1907)(i). 
Dichomeris ei^idantis, Meyr., B. J., XXII, 172 (1913)(2). 

Described from Pusa, in April and May. The larva rolls a green leaf of 
Dalbcrgia sissu or more commonly fastens together two leaves, living inside 
the shelter thus formed and nibbling the epidermis or gnawing holes in the 
leaves. The larva is about 24 mm. long and 2 mm. broad, slightly flattened, 
pale greenish yellow, the deep green dorsal vessel showing as a stripe ; head 
flattened, yelloM% speckled with brownish ; prothoracic shield large, pale 
yellow ; two faint interrupted submedian stripes and a similar subspiracular 
stripe ; spiracles round, rimmed with black ; primary hairs rather long ; five 
pairs of equally developed prolegs. Pupation takes place in a white silken 
cocoon formed inside the larval shelter. Pupa brown, anal segment rather • 
prolonged and armed with eight circinate hairs, which are entangled in the 
fibres of the cocoon, inside which the empty pupa-case remains on emergence 
of the moth, (Pusa Insectary Cage-slips 680, 896, 995.) 

ANARSIA ACERATA. MEYR. 

Anarsia acerata, Meyr., B, J., XXII, 169 (1913)(i), fefcAi.;^^ '» ^^.^^^-^ I .i^'S-(w^- 'n^ 

This species, originally described from Xorth Coorg(*), was reared at 
Saidapet, Madras, on 10th October 1906, from a larva found on Cajanus indicus. 

ANARSIA ALTERCATA, MEYR. 

Anarsia altercata, Meyr,, Exot, Micr,, II, 148 (1918)(i). 

" Bred at Pusa in July from pupa in rolled leaf of Seshama^'C^), 

ANARSIA DIDYMOPA, MEYR. 

Anarsia didymojya Meyr,, Exot, Micr., I, 583 (1916)(i). 

This was reared at Pusa on 23rd July 1908 from a pupa found on 18th 
July attached to the back of a leaf of hagnahi {Capparis horrida) and covered 
with another piece of leaf. The pupa was a little more than 4 mm. long, 
slightly tapering posteriorly, segments distinct, reddish-brown, wings reddish- 
yellow. (A. Mujtaba's Cage-slip 46.) 



92 LIFE-HISTORIES OF GELECHIAD^ 

/ 
ANARSIA EPHIPPIAS, MEYR. (PLATE XX, FIG. 2.) 

Anarsia ephippias, Meyr., Ent. Mo. Mag., XLIV, 197 (1908)(i) ; Lefroy, 

Ind. Ins. Life, p. 534, t. 56 (1909)(2) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 

51, 53, 91 (1917)(3) ; Fletcher, Ann. Kept. Impl. Entom., 1917-18, pp. 

103-104 (1918)(*)^ fW- ^ UTf •^^^^ T iCc , Me/- i<)w) 

This species is widely distributed in the Plains of India. In Bihar it 
has been found at Pusa, Chapra, Paddankaii and Gondra ; at Paddankaii 
(Champaran) and Gondra the larva occurred on indigo and at Pusa it has 
been found on groundnut, soybean, moth, urid and mmig. In Southern India 
it has been noted at Saidapet (larva on Cajanus indicus), and at Yirajpet, 
in South Coorg (larva on flowers of Acacia sp.). In the Punjab Madan Mohan 
Lai has recorded it as a fairly bad pest of groundnut (^), but I have seen no 
specimens from the Punjab. At Mandalay also K. D. Shroff has found a small 
larva, perhaps of this species, boring top-shoots of uridi^). At Pusa it is 
usually a minor pest of the crops mentioned above, the larva rolling the top- 
shoots and boring into the flower-buds, flowers and pods and eating the seeds. 

It may be noted that many closely-allied species of Anarsia occur in India 
and that many of these are attached to leguminous crops, so that careful 
discrimination of the species is necessary. 

The larva ties together with silk the top-leaves, flower-buds or flowers 
on which it is feeding. When full-grown it is about 10 mm. long and about 
1-75 mm, broad across mid-body, rather flattened, segments distinct, dark 
red-brown, deep pinkish-brown, or dark purple ; head rather flattened, yellow- 
brown, shiny ; protlioracic 'shield large, yellow-brown ; primary hairs short, 
arising from slightly raised tubercles ; legs black ; five pairs of equally deve- 
loped prolegs. 

Pupation takes place amongst the flowers or inside a rolled leaf. The 
pupa is about 5 mm. long, red-brown, anal extremity with a number of shoit 
circinate hairs on ventral surface and a few much longer hairs on apex. The 
pupal period is about five days in July and nine or ten days in November. 
(Pusa Insectary Cage-slips 72, 918, 1637.) 

J 
ANARSIA EPOTIAS, MEYR. 

Anarsia epotias, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 583 (June 1916)(i). 

Described from Pusa, where it has been reared from larvae found in Tamarix 
twigs on 10th May 1914. 

The larva webs several green twigs together lengthwise and lives hidden 
g,nd feeds from within. The larva is about 12 mm. long, cylindrical, pale 



..- . T. BAiNBRlGGfi FLETCHER 9^ 

greenish-yellow; head daric biowii, shiny; |)r()th()riix with dorsal dark brown 
shiny shield, ventrally dark brown ; tubercles on sej^iueufcs niinute black 
])oints emitting short grey hairs ; five pairs of proleg-^. Pupation takes place 
in a white silken cocoon formed inside the larval shelter. Moths have been 
bred in March and May. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slips 1054, 1180.) c^t\}<rJ '9^ 1 

ANARSIA EXALLACTA, MEYR, MS.^ ' 5"k,^i^ -l^ o ^^^ j^ ' '^_, ^^^^Y^ I 

This species was reared at Pusa on 7th October 1912 from at larva found \_^^^ 

on top leaves of arhar {Cajanus indicus). 

/ 
ANARSIA IDIOPTILA, MEYR. , 

Aivirsin idioptila, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 582-583 (June 1916)('). 

Described from Pusa, where it was taken from (\issia fistula in June('). 

This species was reared from a larva found at Pusa on 8th June 1913, 
folding or binding together several leaves of Casssia fistxla. living hidden and 
feeding on the leaves from within it^ shelter. The larva is about 7 mm. long, 
flattened, light greenish- yellow with a broad brown subdorsal stripe ; head 
flattened, yellowish brown ; thoracic segments blackish ; five pairs of prolegs. 
Pujmtion takes place within the larval shelter, the cremastral hooks of the 
pupa being fastened into a thin silken lining attached to one leaf. The pupa 
is about 4"5 mm. long and about PS mm. broad across thoracic region, cylindri- 
cal, tapering to a point anally, dark brown, shiny. The pupal period is about 

five days in June. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 996.) 

■J 
ANARSIA MELANOPLECTA, MEYR. (PLATE XX, FIG. 3.) 

Aiinrsia melanoplecfa, Meyr., B. J., XXII, 774 (1914)(') ; Fletcher, Entl. _ - ^-^- 

Note 78 (1916)(-0 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 221 {l9n)(');)U^j^,^'^^ ^"^'^^X 'v-^ 
Laiva boring in shoots of mango {Mangifera indica) in May at Pusa. 
This species is probably widely distributed, but overlooked. We have it 
from Pusa and Nagpur. At Pusa it has been found boring mango buds and 
twigs and feeding on mango inflorescence and at Nagpur it has been reared 
from mango flowers. 

The larva has been described as " about 8 mm. long by 1 mm. in breadth ; 
cylindrical, the segments well defined, in colour yellow with a pinkish tinge, 
the anal segment darker. The head and prothorax slightly smaller than the 
metathorax which is the broadest part of the body. The head is shining 
black, the prothorax dark grey with a prominent black shiny shield divided 
medially by a fine line. Five pairs of ecjually developed prolegs are present." 
The above larva was found at Pusa on 19th February 1912, boring the terminal 
shoot of a tender twig of mango. 



9i LIFE-HISTORIES OF GELECHIAD^ 

The foregoing description agrees substantially with a description of 
another larva found at Pusa on 2nd May 1906, boring into a mango twig. 
The larva bores into the twig from the tip until it reaches a limit of the new 
year's growth, and there it makes a silken lining to the chamber it has excavated 
and also provides an opening for the emergence of the imago. (Y. Kama- 
chandra Kao's Cage-slip 27.) 

ANAKSIA OMOPTILA, MEYR. ; , '^^^^^ 

:^ oAo Q^^^^_ft Anarsia omoptih, Meyr., Exot. Micr.. 11, 147 (1918)(i);}<^**-i,^;^^. lywj 

i,.^-j,j (vM. "Bred at Coimbatore in October from larva* feeding between folded 

o.(M^^^ leaves of CdjanKs indicus"{^). 

■J 
ANARSIA SAGITTARIA, MEYR. ^ ^ C J k^r 

Anwrsm suyittanu, Meyr., B. J., XXll, 774-775 {1914)(i); jT,^^^ rj^i<,w) 

Described from Fu8a(i). where it has been reared from larvte boring top- 
shoots of her (Zizyphus jujuba) in August 1907 and June 1908. but no descrip- 
tion of the early stages seems to have been made. 

/ 
ANARSIA SAGMATICA, MEYR. 

Anursia saij^naliccL Meyr., Exot. Micr., 1, 582 (1916)(i). 

p^ i\x-*^'^ '^ ^ This species has been reared at Pusa from a larva found on 16th February 

J«^ . I'j'L' -^ ^^^ 1914, rolling the apical part of a Loranthus leaf transversely and fastening it 

^^"5 \'^ ^ ^. into a cylindrical fold with white silk. The larva was living within this fold 

'^ ' ' and nibbling the leaf from within its shelter. The larva was about 8 mm. 

long and a little more than 1 mm. broad across mid-body, slightly flattened, 
slightly tapering towards either extremity, uniform coppery-brown, the 
thoracic region darker, head shiny yellow-brown ; segments not clearly 
marked, skin soft and smooth, small scattered hairs arising from minute 
2)apill8e ; legs dull black ; five pairs of equally developed prolegs. Pupation 
took place in a cocoon formed by lining the larval shelter with white silk. 
The larva pupated on 21st February, and the moth emerged on 7th March. 
(Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1029.) 

ANARSIA VERUTA, MEYR. 
Anarsia veruta, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 148 (1918)(i). 

" Bred at Pusa in February from pupa on Inga dulcis (Leguminos8e)"(*). 

W^lf'J^Ci-^^ ^CHELARIA PHACELOTA, MEYR. 

Ckelaria phacelota, Meyr., B. J., XXII, 166 (1913)(i),Exot. Micr., I, 279 (1914)(a). 
Recorded from Perademya(i' 2), where it was bred in July from Psyllid galls 
on Malloius p/nlippmensis{^). 









Q?^..^W^ •, M^-^L^-*— -3j 






\3 






t. iAINfeRIGGE FLETCHER 95 

CHELARIA RHICNOTA, MEYR. 

Chelarta rhicnota, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 580-581 (June 1916)(i), W^vn^^*^' ^ ^ w«t^^ ^ ''^ 
Described from the Shevaroy Hills and from Chittur, Madras Presidency(^)- ' ' f^ P^J 
Bred in February from larva found feeding on flowers' of Mangifera indica 

at Chittur ; the pupa with five abdominal segments fixed(*). 

eHELARIA SCOPULOSA, MEYR. 

Chelaria scopulosa, Meyr., B. J., XXII, 165-166 (1913)(i), /. c, 774 (19U)(2). 

Described from Karwar, where the larva was found bmi'owing in shoots 
of Careya arhorea, showing some excrement on opening of hole(^). 

CHELARIA SPATHOTA, MEYR. 

Chelaria spathota, Meyr., B. J., XXII, 165 (1913)(i) ; Fletcher, Entl. Note 82 

(1916)(2), Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 219 (1917)(3)^ P-ur. lir t^ "^u^-f -■ '^'^ ^H^' '^"^ 
Described from the Khasis and Konkan(i). It was reared at Pusa in 
December 1909 from a larva found eating mango leaves. It has also been 
reared from a larva found on tender mango leaves at Koilf)atti, Madras Presi- 
dency in November 1909(2). No description of the early stages seems to have 
been made. ''^^ ^i^- ^^ '^~ 7»^^ t-i-vmlt.^ (^ (3e> ^ U^ ^ 0_pU'>^ i^^^^e^ 

fyv/VcRoCcP^Ao 0£ ^GIK (ECOPHILA, STDGR. 

Macrocems cecophila, Stdgr., Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1876, 150(^). 

CE- ^cia maculata, Wlsm., P. Z. S., 1897, 11-112(2), Fauna Hawaii, pp. 649-650(3). 

OE Mpia cecophila, Meyr., T. E. S., 1915, 201 (*). 

Recorded from Sicily(*), West Indies(2), Brazil(2), Peru(*), Hawaii(3) and 
India(*). We have specimens from Pusa and Coimbatore. The moth occurs on 
the walls of houses and the larva is probably a domestic rubbish-feeder. We 
have it from Pusa ("on bee blanket "), Coimbatore ("on a wall "), and 



November, 1920. Entomological Skries. Vol. VI, No. 4. 

MEMOIRS OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

IN INDIA 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN INSECTS 
MICROLEPIDOPTEKA 

IV. COSMOPTERYGID^, (ECOPHORID^, PHYSOPTILIDiE, 
XYLORYCTIDiE, STENOMID^ AND ORNEODID^E 



T. BAINBKIGGE FLETCHER, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z,S 
Imperial Entomologist 




AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE. PUSA 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED FOR 

THE IMPEBIAL DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN INDIA 

BY 

THACKER, SPINK & CO., CALCUTTA 
W. THACKEK & CO., 2 Cbked Lank, LONDON 



^7:) 



LTFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN INSECTS. 
MICROLEPIDOPTERA. 

IV. C/OSMOPTERYGIDiE, (ECOPHORID^E, PHYSOPTILIDiTJ:, 
XYLOUYCTlDiE. «TENOMID^ AND ORNEODIDiE 



BY 

T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., 
Imperial Entomologist. 

(Received for jjublication on 27th June 1919 ) ' 

METACHANDIDiE. 

This family is typical of the Mascarene area, one s^Jecies (Meiachanda 
crocozona, Meyr.) being recorded from Assam and a few others from South 
Africa. Nothing seems to be known of the early stages of this group. 

COSMOPTERYGID^. 

ANATRACHYNTIS SIMPLEX, WLSM. 
Pyroderces simplex, Wlsm., T. E. S., 1891, 119-120, t. 6, f. 58 (i) ; Durrant, 

Bull. Ent. Res., Ill, 206-207, f. 2 (1912) (») ; Lamborn, I.e., V, 201 

(1914) (3) ; Willcocks. Ins. Pests Egypt, I, i, 317-320, t. 7, ff. 7-9 (1916(3a). 
Batrachedra coriacella, Snellen, Tijds. v. Ent., XLIV, 95; t. 6, f.(l7)(1901)(*). 
Stagmatophora gossi/pieUa, Wlsm., A. M. N. H. (7), XYIII, 178-179 (1900(6) ; 

Morstatt, Pflanzer, VIII, 253 (1912)(6). 
Stagmatophora coriacella, Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 536 (1909)('') ; Meyr.. 

T. E. S., 1910, 372(8). 
Pyroderces coriacella, Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins., pp. 158-459, f. 334 (1914)(9) ; 

Meyr., Entom. Mitteil. Suppl., Ill, p. 52 (1914)(10). 
Anatrachyntis coriacella, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 325 (1915)(ii). 
Aruitr achy litis simplex, Fletcher, Proc.^Second Entl. Meeting, p.* 114 (1917)(*2). 



98 LIFE-HISTORIES OF COSMOPTERYGID^ 

Larva in cotton-seed ('. 3- ^i, ^> ^> «' ^' ». 9)^ ^^ i^-^^^^ (7, ^^ Biinna( » ), 
Java( * ), Forniosa( lo ), Maiiritius( » ), E. Africa( ^ ), Egyi)t(2. ht, ^ ), and West 
Africa(^' ^). Described by Lefroy( ' ) and Wil]cocks( ^n ). 

" StagmalopJiom coriaceUa, .... can })e bred in abundance from dry 
cotton seeds left too long on the plant. The caterpillar is red, not unlike 
that of Gelechia gossi/piella, only smaller and is not found in the green boll 
or in unripe seed, as is the latter, and is not destructive. We have reared 
this from cotton-seed from many parts of India, and I. II. Burkill sent it in 
from Amherst, Burma"(''). 

Willcocks gives( ^a ) the following more complete description of the early 
stages and figures the full-grown larva and pupa [erroneously referred to on 
the plate as P. goss/jpieUa] : — ■ 

" Egg. Very minute, oval, convex, measuring about 0"36 mm. long by 
0*22 mm. wdde, the shell longitudinally striated. Laid on damaged ripe 
cotton bolls and the exposed parts of the interior. 

" Larva. The larvae feed on the injured seeds and fibre and general 
debris to be found in bolls Avhich have been attacked by bolhvorms. At 
first the larvae are white wdth a brownish head ; later and whilst still quite 
small, they may become pinkish or sometimes they will be found to be quite 
dark-coloured owing to their having fed on dark coloured decayed matter, 
which shows through the somewhat transparent skin ; or again, the 
skin may be covered and thus discoloured by the spores of the black sooty 
fungus frequently present in damaged cotton-bolls late in the year. When 
full-grown the larva (Plate VII, fig. 9) measures some 7 to 8 mm, long by 
rS mm. broad. The head is light yellowish-brown and the thoracic shield 
is of the same colour but paler. The body is pale or slightly yellowish with 
tW'O conspicuous and very distinct reddish-pink transverse and narrow bars 
on the back of each segment. The transverse barrings are so distinct that 
this character alone serves to distinguish the Pyroderces larva from the pink 
bollworm [Gelechia gossi/piella], in which the reddish-pink colour is much 
more generally suffused over the dorsum ; and moreover, Gelechia larvae of 
the size of the Pyroderces larva are, generally speaking, still white or white 
with faint pink suffusions around the hair tubercles. 

" Pupa. The pupa (Plate VII, fig. 8) may be found in the damaged boll 
enclosed in a light cocoon of silk. It is smaller and less robust than the pupa 
of Gelechia, and is of a different form as will be seen if the illustrations of the 
two species are compared. The pupa of the pink bollworm is hairy and 
has several small booklets near the tip of the abdomen. These are not present 
on the Pyroderces pupa." 






ft,,^;. .^ Ajvvc*-^ ftvl-^^-t.^ CJiii?^ .5:f_!::i5<-^ J .^ f>U«A»c- ^.u^ 



Reprinted from the Report of the Proceedings of the Fourth 
Entomological Meeting held at Pasa, 1921. 



Z2.—ANATRACHYNTIS FALCATELLA, STT. {PYRODERCES. 
SPODOCTHA, MEYR.). 

(Plate XLIV). 
By C. S. MiSRA, B.A., First Assistant to the Imperial Entomologist. 

Gracilaria falcatclla, Stainton. T. E. S. (n.s.) V, 121 (1859). 
Pyroderces spodochtha, Meyr. Bombay Journal, XVI, 607 

(1905). 
Anatrachyntis falcatella. Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 1917, 

p. 114. 
Anatrachyntis falcatella. Proc. Third Entl. Meeting, 1919, 

p. 149. 
Anatrachyntis falcatella, Meyr., Exotic Micro., I, 325, 1915. 
Anatrachyntis falcatella. Fletcher, Ind. Agric. Ent. Mem., VI, 

99 (Jan. 1921). 

The moth has hitherto been recorded as a rubbish feeder and has 
been recorded from : — 

Pusa 1913, 1914, 1916. From cotton, cotton buds, in cage 

containing Dactylopius sp., from Eublenima cage and on Lac. 
Calcutta. 

Shillong October 1916. 

Gobichettipalayam (Coimbatore District) on a rotten pomegranate. 

Kandy Larva in resinous masses of lac coccid Tachardia 

albizzicB. 
Bangalore January 1920. Larva in broodlac on Shorea talura. 

Last year when I began the study of the parasites and the predators 
of lac, my attention was drawn to a consignment of broodlac on Shorea 
talura received from Dr. Gilbert Fowler of the Indian Institute of Science, 
Bangalore. The first moth emerged on the 22nd September 1920 and 
a number of moths continued to emerge until the 24th October and 
for some time thereafter. Two other consignments were received 
subsequently and the number of moths that emerged from these was 
also large. The fourth consignment has been received only recently 
and from this too the moths have begun to come out. The large number 
of moths that emerged from the four consignments made it highly 
suspicious that the caterpillars were not altogether harmless, and from 
the observations that I have been able to make hitherto, it appears 
that the caterpillar feeds on the healthy lac females within resinous 
cells. The caterpillars occur in healthy broodlac ah-ng with Eubkmma 

1 



250 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FOURXn ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETINQ 

amahilifi, biit the two predators could be distinguished readily from 
their method of affecting the resinous cells containing gravid females. 
In the four consignments of broodlac received from Bangalore the 
number of Anatrachyntis falcatella was far in excess of Euhlemma ama- 
bilis and it is fortunate that it is so. Euhlemma amahilis is a serious 
pest in Northern India, and it will require patience and perseverence 
to limit the ravages of this serious pest. In some places I have seen 
it so bad, that the crop is extremely poor and the emergence of larvae 
is late and poor. The pest has remained unchecked so long, that the 
depredations committed by it have resulted in unsettling the market 
and causing unwarranted fluctuations. The lac-growers and the manu- 
facturers, who are not entomologists, cannot understand the situa- 
tion. They generally ascribe the poorness of the crop to climatic and 
such other conditions. No doubt these are important factors and 
cannot be easily overlooked, but the state of affairs now warrants a 
critical study of the parasites and predators which bring about such 
a state of afiairs. When such a study is undertaken it will be found 
that the parasites and the predators of the lac insect are factors not 
to be overlooked in any scheme of expansion of the industry. When 
this stage will be reached, I think further steps will be taken to obtain 
accurate data regarding distribution and damage brought about by 
each predator. It will then, I think, be necessary to restrict the dis- 
tribution of each predator within its own sphere of its activity. Euhlemma 
amahilis, so far as I have been able to consult the literature, and so far 
as my own experience goes, is mostly destructive to Lac in Northern 
India. By this I do not wish to create a false impression that it does 
not occur in South India. From occasional consignments received 
from Southern India, as well as those from Banganapalle, it is apparent 
that Euhlemma amahilis does occur there but not to such an extent 
as it occurs in the North. Anatrachyntis falcatella has not been reported 
damaging lac from Northern India. There is only one record and that 
too from Pusa, on the 22nd July 1913. Thereafter no moth has been 
either captured or reared from broodlac either on Ber or Palas at Pusa. 
In the Pusa collection the majority of the specimens have been from 
cotton either from buds, dry shoots affected either by the Bollworms, 
Earias fahia, E. i?isulana, Alcides leopardus, Phycita infusella, Phena- 
coccus hirsutus or Ph. corymhatus. It has been reared at Kandy (Ceylon) 
i ron\ larva in resinous masses of lac coccis, Tachardia alhizzice. {Bomhay 
Journal, XVI, 607 ; 1905). 

In the specimens of broodlac on Shorea talura from Bangalore hitherto 
examined by me both the predators, Euhlemma amahilis and Anatra- 
chyntis falcatella, have been found working side by side on the same 

2 



Page 251 



PLATE XLiV 



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'^''l-'-'f^.'^'fTXSrT^. 



rROCKF.DlNGS OF THF. FOUHTH ENTOAfOIOGICAT, MEETING 251 

broodlac sticks. The latter were far in excess of the former. Both 
affect the gravid females and destroy them. Eublemma amabilis cater- 
pillars work from the side as well as from the top side of the resinous 
cells enclosing lac females on the branches. AnatracJiyntis falcatella 
caterpillars prefer to work mostly from the sides of the resinous cells. 
The caterpillar gnaws a hole at the side of a resinous cell and penetrates 
into the resinous incrustation. The passage of Eublemma caterpillars 
could be easily detected by following the tunnel filled with flat, oval 
discs of resin mixed with body juices of their victims. In tome cases 
the resinous cells are completely hollow and are filled with dark crimson 
flat, ovalish discs. The cocoon of the caterpillar consists of whitish 
silken threads glued together with deep crimson, flat oval discs. Prior 
to pupation the Eublemma caterpillar makes a hole of exit, closes it up 
with whitish silken threads and pupates immediately below it. 

The AnatracJiyntis falcatella caterpillars also make their way inside 
the resinous intrustation by gnawing bits of resin and then attacking 
the females. The bits of frass left by these caterpillars in the tunnels 
made by them are different from those of the Eublemma caterpillars. 
In this case the granules of resin are small and round, quite unlike those 
of Eublemma caterpillars. Both resinous and other granules consisting 
of chitin, dye and other visceral portions from the body of the lac 
females lie about the tunnels made by the caterpillars. 

The full-fed caterpillar is light crimson of much the same colour 
as the lac females, and as such is quite distinct from Eublemma cater- 
pillars which are white or whitish crimson. It is 5-75 mm. long, and- 
a little over 1 mm. broad. It is light to bright pinkish in colour on 
account of its meal of the lac females. The head is jet black, with small 
whitish porrect hairs. The mandibles are jet black in keeping with 
the general colour of the head, and are pov/erful. There is a shiny black 
thoracic shield with an obsolete indentation in the middle. The meso 
and meta-thoracic segments are concolorous with the abdominal seg- 
ments which are light pinkish with white setae on them. The anal 
and the penultimate segments have a chitinous shield of a light fuscous 
brown colour with whitish hair pointing caudad. There is a fine trans- 
parent, longitudinal line from the first abdominal segment to the anal 
end through which the pulsation of the heart could be seen under high 
magnification. (Plate XLIV, fig. a). 

From what I have been able to observe hitherto, it appears that 
the caterpillar in its attempts to reach the dead and dry female lac 
cells bites its way through the living female cells as well and thereby 
causes death. In one case, a caterpillar was seen to enter the resinous 
incrustation on a Shorea talura stick from the side and within three 



252 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FOUKTH ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

days it had penetrated a length of 20 mm. when it began to pupate. 
It had thus killed off seven healthy lac females. The caterpillar, when 
full-fed, spins a thin, whitish cocoon. Prior to pupation it makes a 
circular hole on the resinous incrustation which it lines with a thin, 
silken webbing. Such holes of exit for the adult moth could be easily 
seen under the binocular with a little practice. If disturbed, it moves 
about and spins a fresh cocoon either within or between crevices of 
coalescing resinous cells. In the majority of cases examined, the pupa 
lies within the resinous incrustations, in a thin silken cocoon. The 
pupa, when taken out of the cocoon, is brick brown in colour with 
a slight bloom. It is 3 mm. long and a little over 1 mm. broad, the 
two black spots on the head representing the eyes. The three pairs 
of legs are folded on the sternum, the apices of the antennae reach the 
apices of the anterior wings which lie closely adpressed laterally. 
Dorsally the head is pointed anteriorly and broad posteriorly. The 
mesothoracic segment is the most prominent, nearly twice as long as 
pro- and metathoraces together. Eleven abdominal segments are 
distinct. There are a few short white hairs at the anal end. (Plate 
XLIV, fig. b). 

The adult moth is pale brown. When resting on lac-covered sticks 
it rests at an angle, the anterior part of the body being slightly raised. 
The moths are not very brisk fliers. They have hitherto been observed 
to be quiet during the greater part of the day. (Plate XLIV, fig. c). 

The addition of this moth to the list of predators on the lac insect 
increases the difficulties of cultivation. The lac insects have already 
a host of predators and parasites to contend with. It is just possible 
that this moth, in course of time, may divert its attention from cotton 
to lac and it will then be time to adopt rigorous measures to combat 
it ; when the question of the establishment of nurseries for the distribu- 
tion of broodlac is mooted it will be advisable to keep an eye on this, 
as well as other, predators. 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 99 

Our records have little to add to Mr. Willcocks' description given above 
The larvae sometimes bore into young unopened cotton leaves when they 
dry up under conditions of rearing. This moth has been reared at Pusa 
from dry cotton-bolls, cotton buds, hhindi {Hibiscus esciilentus), rotten peach 
fiuit, dry fallen g\dar (Ficus (jlomerata) fruit, rotten bamboo stalk, tur 
(Cajanus indicus) stem, dry pods of Vigna catjang and from wheat flour in 
company with Sitotroga cerealella ; at Coimbatore from cotton bolls and buds^ 
castor, maize cobs and cholam {Andropogon Sorghum) ear-heads ; at Hagari 
from cholam ear-heads webbed up by larva? of Stenachroia elongella ; at Gobi- 
chettipalayam (Coimbatore Eistrict) from a rotten pomegranate fruit ; and 
at Chidambaram, Belgaum, Surat, Shibpore Farm (Calcutta), Ferozepur, 
Rohtak, Sialkote and Myingyan (Burma) from cotton bolls. From the above 
records it would appear that this insect is merely a rubbish-feeder on vegetable 
refuse and not a pest. 

y 

ANATRACHYNTIS FALCATELLA, STT. 
Gradlaria ? Jalcatella, Stainton, T. E. S. (n.s.), V, 121 (1859)(i). 
Pyroderces spodochtha, Meyr., B. J., XYI, 607 (1905)(2) ; Exot. Micr., I, 280 

(1914)(3). 
Anatrachyntis jalcatella, Meyr.,. Exot. Micr., 1, 325 (]915)(*) ; Fletcher, Proc. ^ ^^-^ 

Second Entl. Meeting, p. 114 (l9r7)(S),1Uu'tw"^ iLH K^u^^ ^. ^^9 ^oj. ij^j ; "-'^ ' 

Reared at Kandv from larva in resinous masses of Lac Coccid, Tachardia ^' ' '^■S r 

. 2.n. r "4^ ' ^<' 

alhizzice{^). The pupa is described as " unusually stout, entirely without^ ' ^ - 

spines ; dehiscing by a longitudinal slit in head, not breaking up, antennalii*^*- ^^ >] 

cases fixed in pupal skin, abdominal seginents apparently all fixed (?), wing- '^ l^ 

cases firmly attached and reaching to end of seventh segment "(3). 

Originally described from Calcutta(i) . also recorded from Kandy(2). 
We have it from Shillong and. Pusa. At Pusa it has been reared from larvae 
on cotton shoots " in Euhlemma cage " and " on Dactylopius on cotton ". 
The Pusa collection also contains a specimen, identified as Jalcatella by Mr. 
Meyrick and reared from a rotten pomegranate at Gobichettipalayam (Coim- 
batore District) ; but this specimen looks to me like A. simplex. 

The larva seems to be predaceous on Coccida?, but has not been described. 

ANATMlAeTiS PLXJMIGERA, MEYr/ 

Anataractis plumigera, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 565-566 (May 1916)(^) ; Fletcher, o X-' 

Entl. Note, 83 (June 1916)(2) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 81 (1917)(»).j- ^^ ^ ''^- 
Described from specimens bred at Pusa and Coimbatore from larvae „ " ^ /"T: , ,, 

feeding in stems of Indigojerai}). "^ _ 



100 LIFE-HISTORIES OF COSMOPTERYGID^ 

" Anataractis flumigera. Meyr., reared from pupa in stem of Indigo at 
Piisa. 4 May, 1912 (C. No. 945). The stem was swollen into a gall and evidently 
the larva had fed inside the stem "(2). 

" Anataractis plumigera was reared from a gall in a stem of Indujojera 
iiiiifolia at Pusa, but we have not noticed it in any cultivated indigo "'(3). 

We have this from Pusa and Chapra. 

y 

PYRODERCES ALBILINEELLA, VAN DEVENTER. 

^jj^v^S^ ^^' J^yroderces albilineeUa, Dev., Tijds. voor Ent., 1904, 33-34, t. 2, f. 5(1); 
"m/^j T.vbo[^w-^r;' Meyrick, Exot. Micr., I, 310 (1915)(2), I.e.. I, 566 (1916)(3). 

Originally described from Java(i). Since recorded from the Kei Islands 
and Ceylon(2). 

Bred in April at Coimbatore from larva boring in pods of Cassia corymhosa. 
Pupa rather stout, all segments fixed except anal(3). 

It has also been reared at Coimbatore from larvae in indigo pods and we 
have it from Viraji)et (South Coorg). 

y 

PYRODERCES SEMICOOCINEA, STT. 
Cosmopteryx ? semicoccinea, Stainton, T. E. 8. (n.s.), Y, 123 (1859)(i). 
Pyroderces semicoccinea ^Meyr., B. J., XIX, 411 (1909)(2), Exot. Micr., I, 310 
(1915)(3)-V^,V.liL U<. ^^^-^j I . v^'o (Nd- ^^^j 

Originally described from Calcutta(l) ; also recorded from Queensland(3). 
Reared at Pusa from stems of Cajanus indicus in company with P. 
promacha, various Phycitids, etc. It aj^pears to be a rubbish-feeder. 

We have this from Pusa, the Shevaroys and Pollibetta (South Coorg). 

/ 
PYRODERCES PROMACHA, MEYR. 

Pyroderces jwomqcha, Meyr., Pr. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 1897, 351(1), Entom. 

Mitteil. Suppl., Ill, p. 54 (1914)(2)-^(^x'f'w^Vl t^- f^*^^/ ^-'^'o '.^^ '5"^^ 

Originally described from New South Wales(l), and since recorded from 

Formosa(2) and India(2). The Pusa collection contains specimens from 

Pusa, Coimbatore and Peshawar. 

It has been reared at Pusa from a tur {Cajanus indicus) stem and is also 

said to have been reared from a larva found mining Phaseolus mungo leaves 

at Pusa on 29th April 1 907, the moth pujjating on 5th May and emerging 

on 11th May 1907. This larva was described as " 2 nun. long, tapering 

posteriorly, orange-yellow ; head yellowish-brown, flattened ; thorax flattened ; 

a green median line running from prothorax to anal segment and two brown 

spots on either side of this median line. When about to pupate it turned 

red and prepared a cocoon of white threads. Pupa emerged half-way out 



PLATE XXII. 



I .W 






CZ_-^— ' 



Pyroderces callistrepta: — a. Larva ; b, pupa ; c, moth ; natural sizes and magnified. 



T. BAINBRTGGE FLETCHER 101 

of cocoon on exit of moth." (A. Mujtaba's Cage-slip 22.) It appears to me 
doubtful whether the above larva was really that of P. jyromacha. It is 
possible that the descri])tion refers to a Gracillariad leaf-miner, perhaps 

Olfphosticha coendea. 

/ 

PYBODERCES CALLISTREPTA, MEYR. (PLATE XXII.) 
Pi/roderces caUistrepta, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 38-39 (I917)(i). 

'' Bred at Pusa from larvae mining in leaves of teak {Tectona grandis) "(*). 

We have this from Pusa and Chapra. 

This species mines teak {Tectona grandis) leaves at Pusa at the end of 
February. The larva burrows under the epidermis on the upper surface of 
the leaf and produces large brown blisters, which are quite prominent on the 
green leaves and which are also visible from. beneath. Several larvae feed in 
one leaf and the entire surface of a leaf may show these brown blister-like 
patches, and practically all the leaves of large trees may be affected. Larvae 
were found abundantly on 20th February 1915 and moths emerged between 
25th February and 7th April. A large proportion of the larvae are parasitized 
by a Chalcidid ; from one lot of larvae collected twelve moths and sixty 
parasites emerged. If a leaf dries up, the larvae leave it and are capable of 
entering fresh leaves and forming new mines therein. 

The larva is about 5 mm. long, rather stout, flattened, tapering posteriorly, 
segments distinct, dirty white ; head flattened, narrower than prothorax, 
shiny brown ; prothoracic shield large, shiny brown ; legs dark brown ; prolegs 
minute. 

Pupation takes place within the larval mine, usually at one side of the 
mine and alongside a leaf-vein, in a white silken cocoon which is covered with 
a mass of pellets of frass. The cocoon may easily be located on inspection 
of the under-surface of the leaf, as the place where it is situated swells up a 
little and feels hard to the touch. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1161.) 

LIMNCECIA METACYPHA, MEYR. 
Litnncecia metacgpha, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 203-204 (1914)(i). 

Described from Peradeniya in October(i). " Cocoon firm, oval, white, 
with attached excrement, placed between spun leaves where the larva has 
apparently fed "(*). / 

LIMNGECIA PERONODES, MEYR. 

Limnwcia peronodes, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 318 (1915)(i). 

Reared at Pusa in May from larvae feeding in leaf-sheaths of bamboos(i). ^ tU**-^ ~" 

Our specimens are all from Pusa and have been bred from pupa found j^j^ ^<>r-*-^ 

QU bamboo, from larva on unnoted foodplant, and from larva " on Coccid?e f'^i^ "^ '*''"^ 



102 LIFE-HISTORIES OF COSMOPTERYGIDJE 

on bamboo (T. N. Jhaveri, 13th July 1908) ". The actual larval food seems 
uncertain. Flav/o fA^c \ATA ,\^<M . it^^ 

„ P n COSMOPTERYX MBfETiSr^kffiYil. - , 

Cosmoptenjx mimetis, Meyr., Pr. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 1897, 339(1), B. J. 

XIX, 417 (1909)(2), T. E. S., 1910, 372(3), Tr. Linn. Soc. (Z), XIV, 282 

(1911)(*), T. E. S., 1915, 205(5). 

Common throughout India and Ceylon and widely distributed from 
Australia(2), New Guinea(2) ^nd Borneo(2) to Mauritius(3. *), the Seychelles(*) 
and British Guiana(5). 

Mr. Meyrick has suggested that the larva is " probably attached to some 
plant of "cultivation "(3). It may be noted tliat Cosmopteryx pallijasciella, 
Snell. {Tijds. v. Ent., XL, 138-139, t. 6, f. 1 (1897)), described from Java, 
mines in sugarcane in its larval stage. 

C. mimetis has been bred at Pusa from larvae found mining leaves of 
motha grass {Ci/perus rotundus). The larva mines the leaf either in its middle 
or in its apical part, the mine running along and on either side of the mid-rib. 
From larvae collected on 15th September 1916, thirty-eight moths emerged 
from 25th September to 8th December, and eight Hymenopterous parasites 
were also reared. 

The larva is about 3 mm. long, tapering posteriorly, uniform light yellow ; 
head flattened, narrower than prothorax, the lobes much elongated posteriorly ; 
prothorax broader than following segments ; legs and prolegs small. (Pusa 
Insectary Cage-slips 1472, 1521.) 

We have C. mimetis from Peshawar, Pusa and Bassein Fort. It is 
probably widely distributed throughout the Plains of India. 

/ 
/ - MA"-^; ■" COSMOPTERYX BAMBUS^, MEYR. (PLATE XXIII, FIG. 1.) 
^^.^^-^-^ ~ Cosmoptenjx bamhusce, Meyr., Ent. Mo. Mag., LIII, 258 (Nov. 1917)(i). 
T \so iN^^'^ ^ " Pusa, bred in October from larvae mining blotches in leaves of bamboo 

{Fletcher) A pupa-case sent (very little discomposed by the emergence 

of imago through a small slit) shows only two abdominal segments free, the 
rest fixed, wing-cases reaching to end of penultimate segment "(i). 

Larvae were found at Pusa on 3rd January 1916 and 21st September 
1916, mining blotches in bamboo leaves. The larva mines the leaf, forming 
a sharply-defined yellowish-white patch in the middle of the leaf-blade and 
usually on one side of the mid-rib. There may be two or even three larvae 
in one leaf, forming mines on either side of the mid-rib or at different places 
on the same side of it. The mine commences as a narrow strip which gradually 



%c^,^^ -y K^, l'^^^, l;n-l-'^'^ 



PLATE HI 




) Fig. 2. Cosmopteryx mimetis. 

a. Mined leaf of Cypeviis I'otiindus, tip dried up: b. Larva (x 16): e, Pupa 
( : 16} ; d, Moth (x 16\ Smaller figures show natural sizes. 

Cosmo j>tery.x mimetis, Meyr. (Cosmopterygidse) was 
again bred from larvae mining leaves of Cypcrus ro fundus 



PLATK Will. 




<u 



1 




■■^>'m 



T. BAINBRTGGE FLETCHER 103 

widens and snddenly develops into a large whitish blotch. Wherever the 
mine may be started, the larva always works towards the apex of the leaf 
and hence the expanded portion of the mine always lies toAvards the apex. 
The narrowed portion of the blotch is filled with brown frass. 

The full-grown larva is about 7 mm. long and about 1 mm. across the 
prothorax and metathorax, which are the broadest segments, tapering pos- 
teriorly, flattened, segments well-defined and somewhat protuberant laterally, 
uniform pale yellow. Head flattened, much smaller than prothorax (into 
which it is partly retractile), brown. Prothoracic shield pale yellow. Spiracles 
form short minute protuberant tubes. Five pairs of short prolegs. 

When full-grown, the larva severs the margins of the broadened portion 
of its mine and rolls one layer longitudinally inwards and pupates inside 
the roll so formed. 

The larvse are extensively parasitized, and less than half the number 
of larvoe collected emerged as moths. Larvae collected on 2ist September 
1916 emerged between 11th October and 2nd November 1916, and others 
collected on 3rd January 1916 emerged between 5th March and ]4th April 
1916. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slips 1343, 1470.) 

COSMOPTERYX PH^OGASTRA, MEYR. (PLATE XXIII, FIG. 2.) 
Cosmojpteryx phceogastra, Meyr., Ent. Mo. Mag., LIII, 257-258 (Nov. ]917)(i) ; _ 

Fletcher, Ann. Kept. Impl. Entom., 1917-18, p. 101 (1918)(2) ?x«. ii[ 5wtf.lK*C;j- L.i5>o 

"Pusa; bred in July from larvse mining blotches in leaves of bean (^^■^1'^y 
{Fletcher):' 

Larvse were found at Pusa on 22nd November 1916 mining bean leaves, 
between whose epidermal layers the larva forms a cylindrical silken case 
which is always placed alongside a leaf-vein. The case is about 10 mm. 
long, narrowed towards one end and expanded towards the other, and inside 
it the larva lives, emerging or at least thrusting its anterior extremity out 
from the broader end of the case and mining the leaf, feeding only at night. 
The narrower end of the larval case is open and the black larval frass is 
extruded through it. Usually several larva, up to twenty or even more, are 
found on one leaf, and occasionally two cases are joined together side by side. 

The larva is about 6 mm. long and about 1 mm. broad across the middle 
of the body, rather stout, flattened, tapering slightly anteriorly and more pro- 
minently posteriorly, segments distinct, uniform pale yellow ; head shiny, 
dark brown, narrower than prothorax into which it is slightly retractile, lobes 
prominent posteriorly ; prothoracic shield yellow-brown, divided medially ; 
anal segment with a brownish shield ; five pairs of small prolegs. 

8 . 



104 LTFE-HISTORTES OF COSMOPTERYGID^ 

The larvae hibernated and the moths emerged througheut the month 
of July 1917. About one-third of the larvse were parasitized, the parasite 
emerging at the same time as the moths. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 
1602.) 

We have this from Pusa and from Coimbatore ; the latter specimens are 
labelled " on lablab creeper, 10th February, 1915," but it is not evident 
whether they were bred or not. 

GHOLOTIS CRYPSILOGA, MEYR. 

Cholotis crypsiloga, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 329-330 (1915)(i). 

Reared at Coimbatore in November from larva on Acacia{^). 

. GHOLOTIS PAOHNODES, MEYR. 

Cholotis pachnodes, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 44 (1917)(i). 

Bred at Pusa in May from larva feeding on twigs of Tamarixgallicai}). 

AGANOPTILA PHANARCHA, MEYR. 

Aganoptila phanarcha, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 334 (1915)(i). 

Bred at Pattipola, Ceylon (6,200 feet), in March from galls on undeter- 
mined tree(i). 

MIGROCOLONA CITROPLEOTA, MEYR. 

Microcolona citroplecta, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 49-50 (1917)(i). 

Described from Coorg and Pusa. The Pusa specimen, taken in July, 
was found on a stem of Eugenia jambolana, which may perhaps be the food- 
plant. 

BATRAGHEDRA ARENOSELLA, WLK. 

Gracilaria arenosella, Walker, Cat., XXX, 857 (1864)(i). 

BatracJwdra arenosella, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst., 1888, 181(^), Pr. Linn^ 

Soc. N. S. W., XXII, 302-303 (1897)(3), Exot. Micr., II, 30-31 (1916)(4). 
Batmchedra psilopa, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 982 (1907)(5). 

Originally described from New Zealand(i), this widely-distributed species 
is now known to occur also in Tasmania(3). Queensland (3), New South Wales(3), 
South Australia(3), and British Gviiana(*). Within our limits it has been 
recorded (*) from Maskeliya, Coorg, Bangalore, Calcutta and the Khasi Hills. 
We have it from Pusa. 

'' Larva amongst seeds of J uncus, joining them together with a slight web_ 
Pupa very slender, in a cocoon amongst the seeds '\^). 



»i^ t-1 /fv^.*»t- A*^ U/wo. <^.-^»''-j 'ca^u-S a Acacia. Cq-^cA/w I }>^-» -i » -p^"^ <:««;<-»». 






3vJ!^ *^ Oc/|/VIm^ fw^ \,•-^*^<^ btrv^'.^ n,.i~.4Lt_» /'WtCJ '1 UioL'ur^ ^ i^t-; a.v > 



C9 ^ 



,. 7^ 



•~^c~ , 



^j^juA^x^ ^^^t^^^^wtu. ,Vo^,l^x/r-)w.-c^. W il [IT'S I j u ^r- ; Biwl'e^3#vf (^^i^^jj 



T. BATNBRIGGE FLETCHER 105 

BATRACHEDRA SILVATICA, MEYR, 

Batrachedra silvatica, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 35 (1917)(i), 

" Bred at Kumaon (6,000 foet) from twigs of Pinus longifolia (Beeson). 
I think the larvse probably fed on dry refuse, as usual in the genus "(^). 

This species was bred in large numbers at Dehra Dun by Mr. C. Beeson 
in September 1915 from chi?- pine twigs attacked by a Ripersia scale, and 
collected before 20th August 1915 at Almora (6,000 feet). Mr. Beeson con- 
siders that this insect is probably predaceous on the Rijjersia. 

The larvse of Batrachedra seem to be feeders on dry refuse. The genus 
is noteworthy as containing a species {B. stegodyphohius) whose larva inhabits 
the nests of a social spider (Sfef/od >/))!) xs) in South Africa. 

CECOPHORlDiE. 

y 

ENDROSIS LACTEELLA, SCHIEF. 
Tima lacteeUa, Schiff., Syst. Verz. Schm. Wien, p. 119 (1776)(^j. 
Endrosis lacteella, Meyr., Handbk., pp. 688-689 (1895)(2), Rec. Ind. .VIus., 

v., 224(3) . Wlsm., Fauna Hawaii, p. 649 (1907)(*).. 
Endrosis Jenesfrella, Staint., Buckler, Lavvse, IX, 334-335, t. 162, f. 12 (1899)('^j. 

A cosmopolitan species, recorded from Kurseong(^) and Darjiling(^). We 
have it from Darjiling and Ootacammid. 

The larva feeds on seeds, flour dust and dry refuse generally. Buckler 
describes the full-grown larva as " about half an inch in length, slender, with 
reddish-brown head and darker mouth ; a plate of similar colour is on the 
second segment, but divided dorsally by the creamy-white ground colour of 
the body, and ha^dng a margin of this next the head ; the anal plate is faintly 
tinged with yellowish-brow^n : the segmental folds at the divisions show 
white " (^). The general colour is whitish or pale flesh-colour. 

BORKHAUSENIA PSEUDOSPRETELLA, STT. 

CEcophora pseudospretella, Stainton, Syst. Cat. Brit. Tin., p. 14 (1849)(i) ; 

Buckler, Larvse, IX, t. 162, ff. 13, 13a, 136 (1899)(2). 
Acompsia psetidospretella, Meyr., Handbk., p. 637, p. 634, fig. (1895)(3). 
BorTihausenia pseudospretella, Meyr., B. J., XX, 143 (1910)(*), Rec. Ind. 

Mus., V, 224(5). 

Recorded from Nuwara Eliya in Ceylon(*), the Khasi Hills(*) and Darji- 
ling(^). Probably originally American, it is now practically cosmopolitan, but 
probably confined to the Hills within Indian limits. We have it from Ootaca- 
mund and the Palni Hills, 



106 LIFE-HISTORIES OF CECOPHORID^ 

The larva is figured by Buckler("-), but without description. Meyrick 
describes it as " yellowish- white ; head red-brown ; plate of 2 pale ochreous ; 
on seeds, dried plants, skins, etc."(3). 

At Ootacamund a moth was found inside a bee-hive and in the Palni 
Hills this species has been found breeding on dry hides. 

MACROBATHRA NOM^A, MEYR. 

Macrobathra nomcm, Meyr., Exot. Micr.,'II, 212 (1918)(i). 

" Bred [at Coimbatore] from refuse lodged in fork of Tamnrindus indica 
(Leguminosae) ; no doubt the larva fed on the leaves as usual in the genus, 
which is wholly confined to the Leguminosae "(^). 

This species has been bred at Coimbatore from refuse found in the fork 
of a tamarind tree. 

TONICA BARROWI, BINGHAm/ 

Binsitta harrowi, Bingh., T. E. S., 1907, 177-179, t. 13(i). 

This species was described(i), from Maymyo, in Upper Burma, where 
the recently-emerged moth was found seated on the empty shell of the pupa 
which was fixed on to a twig of Bomhax malaharicum. " In colour the pupa 
is yellowish-brown, the head is blunt, and with the thorax and wing-cases 
broad and flattened. On the ventral side the fourth segment has two closely 
approximate tubercles placed transversely, between which is a longitudinal 
short white streak ; fifth to twelfth segments with trans'S'erse rows of small 
conical projections, constrictions between the segments strongly marked ; 
seventh segment with a large conspicuous rounded black tubercle on each 
side, behind each of which is a larger pale yellow or white tubercle ; on the 
broad flattened truncated head, dividing the ventral from the dorsal side, 
is an impressed dark line. The pupa is fixed by its tail end in a semi-erect 
position to the twig on which it was found, and bears a striking resem- 
blance to the head of a snake and, strange to say, of a bird-eating tree-snake 
(Lycodon aulicus, Linn.) which is far from uncommon in Burma. " 

TONICA NIVIFERANA, WLK. (PLATE XXIV.) 

Binsitta niviferana, Wlk., Cat., XXIX, 832(i) ; Wlsm., P. Z. S., 1885, 884(2) . 
Lefifoy, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 535 (1909) (3). 

Tonica nivijerana, Meyr., B. J., XX, 167 (1910)(*) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
p. 131, tab. (1917)(^);^^^-1^.5 ^•^^^o^v^j I.b"!^ l\)J^.l^^o) 
Widely distributed in India and Ceylon. Recorded from Andamans, 

Solan, Sikkim(*), Calcutta(2' *), Bombay(*), Karwar(*) and Peradeniya(*). 






M 






Pcc/voTecirvA^ O^n^^ojlo^^ J rw^Y^ Jl<^.|^.^0^^ 



FLATE XM 






/A 



'^ P^ *■* ^R/ ^ 







Toxica mvifer-ANa. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIV. 

TONICA NIVIFERANA. 

Fi». 1. Top of a young J5ow&ax maiaiaricwm tree showing damage. 

., 2. Egg, enlarged, 
Figs. 3 & 4. Larva, enlarged. 
Fig. 5. Pupa, enlarged 
Figs. 6 & 7. Moth, enlarged- 

(The hair-lines show the natural t^izes,) 



t. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 107 

Common at Pusa and C'hapra in Bihar. I have also seen a specimen from 
Nagpur, and we have it from Tocklai (Assam). 

The eggs are laid singly and in confinement they were laid on the bottom 
of the cage and not on the plant supplied. One female laid 57 eggs in con- 
finement. The egg is about 0-75 mm. long and about 0-35 mm. broad, cylin- 
drical, irregularly oval, one end rounded and the other end flattened, the 
latter with small papilla) all around its rim ; the egg-shell has prominent 
longitudinal ridges, which are toothed transversely throughout their length. 
(Plate XXIV, fig. 2.) 

The complete life-cycle does not appear to have been worked out. Young 
larvge, about 6 mm. long, were collected at Pusa on 2nd July 1914, boring 
into stems of Bomba.r malaharicum. At this stage the colour is miiform 
brownish-yellow, without any of the markings developed later on in the adult 
larva ; head and large prothoracic shield shining dark brown or black, anal 
shield dark brown ; primary tubercles showing as dull dark brown rounded 
spots ; five pairs of equally-developed prolegs. 

The larva bores into the axil of a leaf-sheath. It wanders about a little 
and selects a place where it means to bore in ; then it quickly applies some 
white silk over this place so as to make a net-like covering under the shelter 
of which it bpres into the plant, and the pellets of frass are attached to this 
net-work. As they become larger they bore into the stems, eating out the 
pith and reducing the twigs and branches to hollow^ tubes which are filled 
with the black larval extrement. 

The full-grown larva is about 25 mm. long and 3-5 mm. broad, cylindrical 
or slightly sub-cylindrical, the segments clearly defined ; head black, shiny, 
smaller than prothorax which is itself smaller than mesothorax ; a broad white 
band between head and prothorax ; prothoracic shield black, shiny, posteriorly 
yellow .; anal segment with its prolegs black, shiny ; other segments orange- 
yellow, dark-grey or black along lower portions of sides and ventral area ; 
primary tubercles showing as circular black spots, from which arise short 
hairs, the dorsal tubercles connected transversely by dark grey markings ; 
spiracles oval with black shiny rims ; five pairs of fully-developed prologs 
with crochets arranged in a circle. (Plate XXIV, figs. 3, 4.) 

When full-fed the larva emerges from the stem and pupates openly on a 
leaf, the anal extremity of the pupa being broadly attached by the numerous 
small curved-tipped cremastral hooks to a net- work of silk applied to the 
surface of the leaf. The pupa is about 12 nun. long and 6 mm. broad across 
the thoracic region, roughly tuberculated, brownish -grey. (Plate XXIV, fig. 5.) 
The pupal period in July is about six or seven days. 



108 LIFE-HISTORIES OF (ECOPHORID-S; 

When at rest the moth sits with its wings closed over the body and bears 
a very close resemblance to a bird's dropping. (Plate XXIV, fig. 6.) (Pusa 
Insectary Cage-slip 727 and unnumbered Cage-slip, dated 2nd July 1914.) 

Adult moths have been taken at Pusa in March, April, July, August and 
October. ' ,- 

TONICA TERASELLA, WLIC 
Tonka iemsella, Wlk., Cat., XXIX, 788(i). 
Tonka teratella, Meyr., B. J., XX., 167 (1910)(2). 

Originally described from Sarawak(^), this species has also been recorded 
from Sikkim(2) and Karwar(2). We have it from Sikkim. 

Pupa, erect on its tail, exposed ; found on a leaf of bamboo {Maxwell){^). 

Tso'R o S T ^ C 11 A "2 l^'< ^ H \ ;EONiOA -ZIZ¥EHi> STT. (PLATE XXV, PIG. 1.) 

Depressaria zizt/phi, Stainton, T. E. S. (n.s.), V, 115-116 (1859)(i). 
Depressaria angusta, Wlsm., in Moore, Lep. Ceylon, III, 508, t. 209, f. 5 
(1887)(2). 
V (? lii ^' Tonica zizypU, Meyr., B. J., XX, 167 (1910)(^) ; Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins., p. 459, 
'^ X.^^'^*^ '^"^^ *• ^^^ (1^14)(4); Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 211 (19l|)('5). 



rww/^; 



Originally described from Calcutta (i), where it was bred from Zizyjjhus 
jujuba{^). Since recorded from Ceylon(2), Puttalam, Kegalle and Maske- 
liya(3j, the Palni Hills('*; and Coimbatore(*). Common at Pusa and pro- 
bably throughout India. It seems to be widely distributed in the Plains 
and we have it from Coimbatore (larva on orange), Chapra, Pusa (larva on 
orange, lemon and Murmya), and Peshawar (larva on orange). 

Larva described as " about 8 nmi. long, slender, yellowish-green with a 
black head. It folds orange leaves longitudinally feeding on young leaves 
and the green matter of older ones. Pupa 6 mm. long, reddish-brown, in a 
cocoon of transparent white silk spun in the folded leaf ; pupal period about 
four to five days "'(*). It feeds on Citrus of various species and may some- 
times prove a pest by eating back the tender shoots of young plants(*). 

The larva feeds on leaves of Citrus spp, and Murraya kceniyii. We have 
not found it on Zizyphus. When young the larvae mine the leaves but after 
a short time they either tie up several apical leaflets together longitudinally 
or roll up a single young leaf by turning over the edge on to the blade and 
feed from within the roll ; young tender leaves are always selected. 

The full-grown larva is about 15 mm. long and 1 "25 nun. broad, cylin- 
drical, slightly tapering posteriorly, green in colour ; head dull brown ; pro- 
thoracic shield large, black ; mesothoracic and metathoracic legs pale greenish, 
yellow ; primary hairs on segments short, dark brown, placed on tubercles 



PLATE XXV 




(L 





^ 



I Jo V) S '^^'cK.fl 

Fi!i. 1. Tonica zizyphi: — a, Larva ; b, pupa ; c, moth ; all natural sizes 

and magnified. 






Fig. 2. Pseudodoxia palimpsesta: — a. Larva in case; b, larva removed from 

case ; c, hooks on larval prolegs ; d, section of case, showing pupa, 

cast larval skins and double cover to upper end of case. 

All magnified. 



H "l:-.ouw ^A^ov^cr.c.vc^ .i'^t^.W.V- j»- i"^") L\'Mt; ^J. Africa . 






Bf CC e. 












T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 109 

which are slightly protuberant above the general surface of the skin ; si)i)-acles 
almost circular, rimmed with black enclosing a clear yellowish space ; five 
pairs of equally-developed short prolegs. Prior to pupation the colour changes 
to pink or to a dull brown with a slight pinkish tinge. 

Pupation takes place in a thin silken cocoon formed inside the roUed-up 
leaflet or leaflets. The pupa is brown, dorso-ventrally compressed, about 
6 or 7 mm. long and about 2 mm. across the metathoracic region, tapering 
sharply posteriorly ; Aving-pads rather projecting over ventral surface of body ; 
anal segment with a few longish circinate hairs which are entangled in the 
cocoon. From larvae collected on 4th September 1917, fourteen moths emerged 
between 12th and 23rd September. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slips 789 and 1676.) 

CRYPTOLECHIA ARVALIS, MEYR. ^^ ^-^"9-o f^-'^^ 

Cryptolechia arvalis, Meyr., B. J., XX, 163 (1910)(i), % J .-.s.i -n? '.^i-^ ' 
Recorded from Karwar in North Kanara and from Coorg(i). " 
Larva greyish-green, head black ; feeds between two or more leaves of 

Carey a arborea, spun together so as to adhere flatly ; pupates in same position ; 

abundant in larval stage, but never met with on wing {Maxwell)(^. ' 

PORTHMOLOGA PARACLINA, MEYR. -SUa ^^-^ ^ 'i^'i-. ^ ,-f ^a 

Porthmohga paraclma, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 261 (1914)(i);^'^,^^^-Ti ^^-*'^-?. ^- '' . ""• '^' 
Recorded from Surat(i) and Pusa(i). Attached to Zizyphusjujuha{^). 
Has been reared at Pusa from larvae rolling leaves and boring shoots of 
ber {Zizyphus jujuba). 

PSEUDODOXIA CRETATA, MEYR. 
Pseudodoxia cretata, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 407-408 (1906)(i). 
Described from Matale and Peradeniya(i). 
Larva in case exactly like P. limulusi}). 

PSEUDODOXIA LIMULUS, ROGENH. 
Fumea ? limulus, Rogenhofer, Verb. ZB. Ges., XXXIX, p. 60(i). 
Pseudodoxia linmlus, Durrant, E. M. M., 1895, 107-109, figs.(2) ; Sharp, Cambr. 

Nat. Hist., Ins., II, 431 (1899)(3). 
Pseudodoxia sepositella {nee Wlk.), Meyr., B. J., XVII, 407 (1906)('^), I.e., XX, 

153 (1910)(5). 

This species is known from Kandy and Pundaluoya(2). 

The larva is of a fleshy-pink colour, the apex of the head black, truncate 
concave, forming an operculum to the tube ; thoracic segments reddish-pink, 
first six abdominal segments brownish, the remaining three yellowish. The 



ilO LIFE-HISTORIES OF (ECOPHORID^ 

larva lives in a case composed of minute fragments of mosS; sand and lichens. 
The anterior end of the case is dilated into a shield-like hood, which hides 
and protects the head of the larva when feeding. The materials worked into 
the under-surface of the hood in one specimen are composed entirely of minute 
fragments of mica. The larva, when disturbed, retires completely into the tube. 
It feeds upon small mosses and lichens upon rocks and trees. Before pupating, 
the larva folds down the edges of the hood over the mouth of the tube, like 
an envelope, fastening them with silk. The case is fixed to the rock or other 
support, and hangs there until the moth appears {Green){^}. 

PSEUDODOXIA PALIMPSESTA, MEYR. (PLATE XXV, FIG. 2.) 

Pseudodoxia palimpsesta, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 308 (1915)(^). 

Described from Hazaribagh. 

This species was reared from larvae found feeding on bark of mango twigs 
at Hazaribagh on 19th May 1911. In the Insectary they were placed on a 
growing mango plant but were observed to feed very little. They were therefore 
supplied with bare green twigs on which they were seen to feed a little, nibbling 
only the epidermis. 

The larva was described in May 1911 as about 8 mm. long, cylindrical, 
tapering posteriorly ; head dirty dark brown, with a roughened or somewhat 
pitted surface, provided with very thin longish hairs, perfectly flattened or 
truncated in front, the flat surface somewhat depressed in the middle ; pro- 
thorax entirely covered with a dirty dark brown shield, divided longitudinally 
in the middle by a faint yellowish line ; rest of body soft, pale yellow, posteriorly 
with a pinkish tinge ; segments distinct and wrinkled into transverse folds ; 
the thoracic legs dark brown or blackish, shiny ; five pairs of prolegs short, 
crochets arranged in an incomplete circle and difiering in size, crochets on 
anal prolegs arranged in a line. 

The larva lives in a cylindrical horn-shaped case, which is curved on 
one side, ab(»ut 16 to 18 mm. long, about 2 mm. broad across the anterior 
extremity and tapering almost to a point posteriorly, the broad end being 
truncated and open. The larva protrudes its head and legs through this 
anterior end of the case and thus hangs to the twigs and feeds. The posterior 
end of the case is also open but is blocked by the cast larval skins which are 
packed into this end. The interior of the case is clean and contains nothing 
but these cast skins, the pellets of frass being thrown out through the open 
end of the case. 

Pupation takes place within the larval case, the open mouth of which 
is closed by two layers of brown sillc. In captivity the case was not attached 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 111 

to anything for pupation but was lying on the bottom of the dish. The 
moth emerged by detaching the brown layers from the mouth of the case 
at one place, leaving the empty pupa-case inside. 

On opening one of these cases carefully, fourteen larval skins were found 
in it, shoM'ing tliat tlje larva had undergone at least fourteen moults. The 
mode of moulting is peculiar ; the flat part of the head opens like a lid, remain- 
ing attached at only one place near the mouthparts, and the larval skin is 
slid off and shoved towards the tapering end of the larval case. 

The larval period is apparently prolonged, at least on occasion. From 
larvae collected on 19th May 1911, three moths emerged on 24th October 
1911, one more moth on 8th October 1912, two larvae remained feeding on 18th 
April 1913 and one of these lived until 31st May 1913. 

PSEUDODOXIA PICROPH.EA, MEYR. 

Pseudodoxia picrophmi, Meyr., B. J., XX, 152-153 (1910)(i). 

Described from Hakgala, in Ceylon{^). Larva in portable case on lichens 
on trees and rocks(i). 

y 
fPSEUDODOXIA SEPOSITELLA, WLK. 

Gelechia sepositella, Wlk., Cat., XXIX, 630(i) ; Moore, Lep. Ceylon, III, 513 

(1887)(2). 
Pseudodoxia sepositella, Meyr., B. J., XX, 153 (1910)(3j. 

Described from Ceylon(i' 2j^ Maskeliya(3). 
' Larva in case on lichens. 

^ PROMALACTISJCORNIGERA, MEYR. 

Promalactis comigem, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 213 (1918){i). 

" Bred at Almora, 6,000 feet, in August from Pinus longifolia (? bark 
or wood) (Beeson) "(i). 

This species has also been bred at Dehra Dun by Mr. C. Beeson on 30th 
March 1916 from a chir {Pinus longijolia) log collected in the Dalhousie Range, 
Chamba State, on 26th January 1916. 

PROMALACTIS SEMANTRIS, MEYR. 
EpicaUima semantris, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 408 (1906)(i). 
Promalactis semantris, Meyr., B. J., XVIII, 806 (1908)(2j. 

This species has been bred out at Dehra Dun by Mr. C. Beeson from 
sal {Shorea robusta) logs obtained from (1) Guma Range, Goalpara Division, 
Assam ; (2) East Range, Haltugaon Division, Assam ; (3) Kheri Division, U. P. ; 



112 LIFE-HISTOEIES OF XYLORYCTID^ 

(4) Lachiwala Range, Siwaliks^ and also from a firewood log (of uncertain 
origin) of Eugenia jambolana at Dehra Dun. Emergence took place 3| to 6 
months after the logs had been placed in the breeding cages, ten moths 
emerging between 15th March and 1st April and one moth on 24th October. 

S ^ k cJir^ €yL' rJrCc, -ARrlSTElS THWAITESII, MO. 
hWAJz^a^''^^- Aprata thwaitesii, Moore, Lep. Ceylon, II, 107, t. 118, ff. 7, 7" (1883)(i) ; 

JTuJ^^U^ ,1>-V^-. Hampson, Faun. Ind. Moths, L 304 (1892)(2). 

"f^ryW ^ ^- ^°"^ Apparently confined to C'eylon(i' -). Larva in case on Eugenia (Syzygium) 

/v«^v<^J caryophylkcum{^). 

Mr. Meyrick informs me {in lift. 25th Feb. 1916) that this species is 
perhaps really native in one of the islands further East and carried to the 
Botanical Gardens at Peradeniya with its foodplant. 

PHYSOPTILID^. 
PHYSOPTILA SCENICA, MEYR. 

Physoptila scemca, Meyr., B. J., XXII, 777 (1914)(i). 

Described from Karwar, in North Kanara(i) ; in Pusa collection from 
Bababudin Hills, Mysore (November 1912). 

Larva in young (but not quite new) shoots of Careya arhorea ; can be 
detected by excrement protruded in a bunch from the original entrance-hole 
in stem {MaxweJJ){^). 

XYLOKYCTlDiE. 

PTOCHORYCTIS SIMBLEUTA, MEYR. 
){jjr^'^^-^^^' Ptochorydis simbleuta, Meyr., B. J., XVIII, 150 (1907)(i) ; Antram, Bark- 
Iv^-S ''^'"^ ' ^__eating Borers of Tea, pp. 14-16, f. 8 (1907)(2). 

Melathrinca simbleuta, Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 535 (1909)(^). 

Recorded from several parts of Sylhet, where the larva is a pest on tea- 
bushes, eating away the bark. 

Larva about 12 mm. long, dark red-brown, head black ; smooth and 
hairless. It builds on the bark a raised case made entirely of its own excreta 
spim together with silk, the upper and lower ends of this case being extended 
along the branch in the form of a loose web, under which covering the larva 
feeds, eating right through the bark into the wood of the stem. Pupa in 
silken cocoon attached to bark under the larval gallery ; light brown or 
yellowish, about 8 mm. long ; pupal stage occurs during the latter half of 
February and March (-). 






\ to CKA>\A/)otV5 'XoSoctw'a ^ Iv^Y^ <S-eji. (t - lo- i • 63 f - U 



PLATE X 




^:^^^^^^^£^^^ir^^^^^^V^^P^^^^^^^;^^f^m*'^^ 







Fi-. I. 0-Un 




sjioliatrix: — \iolh. natural size and mapiiiified. with more liiiihly 
enlaraed side-view of head. 



■J^^t':^?^ 




t 









i. 



Fig. 2. Procoiueiis trochala: — a. posterior portion of pupa I x6l : 6, moth, 
natural size and magnified ( x 4) . 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER ll3 

Mr. Andrews informs nie {in lilt. 7th March 1916) that he does not know 
this outside of Sylhet. 

ANTITHYRA VINEATA, MEYr/ 

Antithyra vineata, Meyr., B. J., XVIJ, 404 (1906)('). 

Described from Peradeniya. Larva in a peculiar case on minute algae 
and ]ichens(^). ' 

ODITES ATMOPA, MEYR. 

Odites atmopa, Meyr., B. J., XXll, 780 (1914)(i). 

Originally described horn Kandy('), this species has been reared a( Pusa 
on 20th March 1913 from larva on nim, {Melia azadirachta) leaves, 

ODITES RAMBUS^, WLSM. 

Odites bamhimv, VVlsm., hi 8winh. Cat. Het. Oxf. Mus., 11, 544 (1900)(i). 

Described from Ootacamund. Larva a leaf-roller on bamboo ; pale green, 
naked, smooth, rather more than an inch long('). 

ODITES HEDER^, WLSM.' 

Odites hedene, Wlsm., in Swinh. Cat. Het. Oxf. Mus., 11, 544-545 (1900)(i). 

Described from Ootacanimid. Larva pale green, about an inch long, 
head brown ; feeds on ivy, sometimes spinning two leaves together flat and 
living between them, sometimes rolling up the leaves. Pupa brown(^). 

ODITES MELITITIS, MEYR. MS. 

Has been reared at Coimbatore from pupa in field-beans, 3rd February 
1913, and from larva fomid on a road, 21st July 1913. 

ODITES SPOLIATRIX, MEYR. (PLATE XXVI, FIG. I.) 

Odites spolmlnx, Meyr., Exo^. Micr., I, 509-510 (191G)('). 

Described from Coimbatore and the Konkan('). 

Bred in August at Coimbatore " from larva forming gallery in nest of a 

social spider The larva presumably leeds on insect-refuse in the web ; 

this interesting habit is analogous to that of Brachmia xerojjhaga '"('). 

This has also been reared at Pusa, between 1st February and 21st April 
1916, from a nest of Stegodyjjhus sarasin&mm spun on Inga dulcis. One 
specimen was also reared at Pusa on 28tli .September 1915 from a collection 
of larvae and pupse found in rolled-up mango leaves, but it is not definitely 
known that the larva of this moth had fed on mango 

''V I «.-,-- A/W TC ^^<A~:c^ ; ^^ r^ <K f-^^.r f^ ^ Lr^ 'i-^'< ^>^ 



114 LIFE-HISTORIES OF XYLORYCTID^ 

PROCOMETIS TROCHALA, MEYR. (PLATE XXVI, FIG. 2.) 
-Vr . Ca^ Procometis trochala, Meyr., B. J., XVIII, 635 (1908)(i). P. Z. S., 1908, 730(2) ; 

(f^.tii f^y^-i l^^hoj, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 536 (1909)(3yj-X/(A^.i^.c.a'_ r,^. K«4:Aji ^J/^^^; 

^ o^^ (f\/y-i^^j Described from Pusa(i). Also in Pusa collection from Chapra In Bihar. 

" Larvae found feeding upon the dry fallen leaves of sugarcane. The 
larva fixes two leaves together with silk and lives within, moving gradually 
along and placing cross threads as it goes, so that its excrement is caught 
in the threads and the path of the larva can be traced for over a foot 
between the leaves. It feeds on the dry leaf and pupates between the webbed 
leaves "(3), 

This species has been reared at Pusa from larvae found webbing to- 
gether dry sugarcane leaves (trash strij^ped from the canes) lying on the 
ground. 

A larva found at Pusa on 3rd September 1906 was described as nearly 
31 mm. long, broad anteriorly, tapering slightly posteriorly, light dusky grey ; 
head broad, chitinous, dark reddish-grey, with distinct clypeus, dull-grey 
antennse thickened at scape, and strong, notched, dark-red mandibles ; pro- 
thoracic shield dark grey faintly speckled with irregular yellowish -brown 
dots ; mesothorax and meta thorax with a transverse dark grey line set with 
small grey hairs ; legs dull grey, greasy-looking, acuminate, penultimate 
segment with shiny chitinous patch ; posterior portion of abdominal segments 
whitish-grey with fine dark grey transverse lines across dorsum, and on these 
lines fine dull-grey hairs projecting forward ; anal segment with a thin dark- 
grey chitinous shield. 

The pupa, obtained from the above larva, was described as 11 mm. in 
length, cylindrical, tapering posteriorly ; head prominent with dark rounded 
eye-caps ; wing-pads deep red ; spiracles prominent, small, oval, eight abdo- 
minal segments visible. 

The larva pupated on 21th September and the moth emerged on 3rd 
October 1906. 

The larva constructs a long tubular gallery of dead leaves lined with 
silk which may be as long as 13| inches. It feeds on tlie epidermal layers 
and the parenchyma of the leaf. The pupa lives between the folds of the 
leaves and is never found on the ground. 

Besides sugarcane leaves this species has been bred at Pusa from larvae 
feeding on dried arliar {Cajanus indicus) stem and in dead castor branch, 
and once from a larva found boring into living sugarcane. There are 
apparently two broods annually, as we have moths taken in June and 
October. 



Hi 



(^X^ ^ 4>wvC 1^^^. ^^^-^^--^ 



PLATE XVI 8 




Fig. ^.—a, pupa ; b, Moth (magnified ; the smaller figures show the natural sizes). 




ml ■kmX 

".'■uU'. .■ ir.;';V/;.i'/;;,Tj 



jir:..:illl 

Kill •■,';;V' :,(•'■? 
Pi? ' ^-il^''^ 

jf,'r;M^^■:, ' ' ■\■'^\\l'4^'• 




iisiil 



mm ' 



Fig. 2.— Moth, resting position (magnified). 
Frocometis trochala, Meyr. 



PLATE 




NEPHANTIS SERINOPA. 



.ft<\ovim?. zs^WRvV^^Vl 



rftr.rn r. bffB 



.(01 


y) 


■ri^^A 


.s: 


•(^ 


X) 


ifMiqisisJ 


.e 


.(^ 


X) 


£qo*7 


4 


.(^ 


X) 


dlnrn olfTrf?"^! 


.e 


.(^ 


X) 


diTom 9lj;M 


.a 



.(^ X ) i97/fIo>T ,?AV^'v\^R\\^'3n ?uwv?.yi\?L .8 
.bnoil f.)95{ai5th5 riA .9 



NephanHs serinopa. 



1. Leaflet showing galleries of the caterpillar, a co( 
and a moth 



2. 


F'^gS 


(X 


10). 


3. 


Caterpillar 


(X 


4). 


4- 


Pupa 


(X 


4). 


5. 


Female mcjth 


(X 


4). 


6. 


Male moth 


(X 


4). 



7. Parasitized pupa ( x 4). 

8. Elasmiis nei)hantidi^, Rohwer ( X 4). 

9. An attacke<.l frond. 



Ne^vul^. ^....^« H-.^^, c^J ^-^•^•^■•^-^ >7-^ *'^-'';^';/''' ;^"ir^^ 

T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 115 "^ ""^^^ " ' 

NEPHANTIS SERINOPA, MEYr/ f"- '7^"'0 (O-i, ,^ic,'J if.v<fi^ ^ Cot.**--^' 

Nephantis sennopa, Meyr., B. J., XVI, 603 (1905)(i) ; Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Life, '^ ^^"^^ 
pp. 535-536 (1909)(2) ;• Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins., pp. 460-4G1, f. 336 (1914)(3) ; ^ ^ 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 259, 262 (1917)(4);te^/'t. I" E^. t^^. 1.1^7 T^tv/. ^y^ 

Originally described from Batticaloa, on the East coast of Ceylon('). 
Also occurs connftonly throughout the Plains of Southern India(2. *), Bengal(^) 
and Lower Burma(*), 

" The eggs, which turn pinkish after deposition, are laid in small batches^ 

of a dozen or twenty together amongst the frass and debris of larval gall eries( l;^;^ ,. A)raWI-'Jc)> '>- 
on palm leaves. The caterpillar constructs a gallery of silk and excremen-k'r3^c^):o(J^n/^ 
titious matter over the lower surface of palm leaves, eating away the green U^^^^^-jt-orellni^i Gvi 
matter and reducing the leaf to a thin membrane so that it dries up and dies.ir^ . .A~^T(?J~~f^ 
In cases of bad infestation, practically the whole leaf may be eaten ^a way, 7 q^ \- caJ 
only the ribs remaining. The caterpillar is about 25 mm. long, in colour ^ .' ^ " /^ _ 

greenish with faint paler lines along the body, and a black head. Pupaf- -^ x /I,"' 

slender, dark red-brown, in a cocoon spun in the larval gallery. Foodplants : — i^ ^ ei fl^>'<iLr 
Coconut and Palmyra palms "(3). MEZTlrT^.fi^*'^'*^' 

This species does not seem to occur at Pusa and has not been bred there|./}j^^^^^.lv; ^- ^^"^^ 
Our specimens are from Batticaloa (larva on coconut), Koilpatti and Coim-i ^t^j "^- ^V^J __ 
batore (larva on palmyra), Tirmnalai, S. Arcot (larva on coconut), Uttarpara (fi 1»«~^"^- n 



(Hughli) (larva on coconut), and Quilon (larva on coconut). 



„ ^ ^VuA.u 6^, fU. iat ""^ •'^' 



STENOMID.E. 

SYNCHALARA RHOMBOTA, MEYR. 

Agriophara rhomhota, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 981-982 (1907)(i). ^ ^ 

Synchalara rhomhota, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 60 (1917)(2)^-tt^A^ ,^'--uI BvX,fv^.T. .."-7 ^fV/v/. '?^ 
Described from the Khasi Hills and Silchar, in Assam('). _ , n 

Larva damaging tea-bushes, feeding between spun leaves and attacking ' t^'''"*J^^. ^^ 
bark when the foliage has been stripped off('). "^ ,.^'-- - 

" Very common in Assam and used to be a serious pest. The pujjse are ^lJi^^ 
found in large numbers, at this time of year, in the soil at the foot of the 
bushes, and by systematic collection of these when the bushes are being hand- 
forked in the cold weather the pest has been completely kept in check in this 
district [Cinnamara]. It is still very bad in the Margherita district of North 
Lakhimpur. " (E. A. Andrews, in litt. 7th March 1916.) 

STE?f©MA ICHN^A, MEYR. SU^ ^-K^ ^ l-Oi - '^0 ^^ 



y 



Stenoma ichnceo, Meyr., B. J., XXIII, 118 (1914)(i),"c\i'.l>vc^, 1 ^^ (i!/'?)^^' 
Described from North Kanara(l). 



116 LIFE-HISTOKIES OF OENEODID^ 

Larva feeding between spun leaves, or a broken portion spun on surface 
of a whole leaf, of Symplocos spicnfa ; puj^a very obese, making a constant 
clicking sound when disturbed {Maxive}l){^). 

ORNEODIDiE. 

Twenty-two species of Orneodes and one of Trisccedecia are known from 
the Indian region, but the life-histories of no species have been discovered in 
India or Cevlon. The only Indian species of whose early stages anything 
is known is 0. huhneri, Wlgn., which is widely distributed in Europe, South 
Africa and Canada and which has been recorded from Kashmir also. The 
larva of 0. huhneri, according to Hofmann {Iris, XI, 350-351 (1898) ), feeds 
in Europe in the flowers and seeds of Centcmrea jacea and Scahiosa {Knautia) 
arvensis, forsaking the Scahiosa flowers when full-fed and pupating in little 
cocoons made of petals of the dried flowers. In India the larvae may be 
looked for in flowers, and perhaps also in galls in stems, of Lonicera, Scahiosa, 
Stachys and Golquhounia coccinea. 

COPROMORPHIDiE. 

Four species have been described from Ceylon and Assam. The early 
stages of no Indian species are known as yet. 



OVKT0£|j\j^lVlj£ [l^ ^.^■^) 



(^ru^U, 'w>^g.(L-J,'^'-^7< , J^ j|.t ^Ob-To^jT-bl fl) 



Novetnber 1920, Entomological Series Vol. VI, No. 5. 

MEMOIRS OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

IN INDIA 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN INSECTS 
MICROLEPIDOPTERA 

V. HELIOZGLID^, HELIODINID^ GLYPHlPTERYGIDiE 
BLASTOBiSir^ AND HYPONOMEUTIDiE 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S 

Imperial Entomologist 




AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, PUSA 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED FOll 

THE IMFEKIAL DEPALTMENT OF AGBICVLTUKE IN INDIA 

BY 

THACKER, SPINK & CO., CALCUTTA 
W. THACKER & CO., 2, Creed Lane, LONDON 



PLATE XXVII. 




\ 



-^^ 



^ 





Antispila argostonia: — • 

a. mined leaf of Vitis trifolia showing two larval galleries, on right side 

a portion of leaf cut ready to make cocoon, on left side a portion cut 
and removed; 

b. Larva ( x 16) ; 

c. Larva in leaf-case ready to make cocoon ; 

d. completed cocoon ; 

e. Cocoon opened, showing pupa ; 
/, Puj,a: 

g. Moth. All magnified ( xl6). 



i.<vv*»0«^ , 






^^tC ^'^^^^^ «^l-*^ tActli i<C/IU^ f>^"-<cVo,vwo Av 'voi ^<ti T' 






f^^ 



LTFKHISTORIES OF INDIAN INSECTS. 
MICROLEPIDOPTERA. 

V. HH:LT0ZELID^, HELI0DIN1D.E, GLYPHIPTERYCtID.E, 
BL^STOBASTDvE AND HYPONOMEUTIDiE. 

r.Y 

T. BAINBRIGGK FLETCHER, R.N., P.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., 

Imperial Entomologist. 

(Received for publication on 27th June 1919.) 

HELIOZELID^. 

ANTISPILA ARGOSTOMA, MEYR. (PLATE XXVII.) 

Antispila argostoma, Meyr., Exbt. Micr., II, 8 (Oct. 1916)(i). 

Bred at Pusa " in August ■ from larva mining blotch in leaf of Vitis 
trijolia (Fletcher) ; cocoon sent is oval, similar in construction to preceding 
[aristarcha] but larger, greyish-oclireous, spinous filaments only 1-14 length of 
cocoon "(^). 

This species is common at Pusa during the Rains (July-September), 
and has been bred from larvae mining leaves of Vitis trifolia. Although it 
may be reared in numbers, the adult insect has never been noticed under 
natural conditions. The larva mines a portion of the leaf, leaving intact the 
two membranous epidermal layers. It commences the mine from any place 
on the surface. While the larva is young it causes a narrow zigzag yellowish- 
white line as it mines on and in the middle of this line a streak of black excre- 
ment is left along its whole length. The mine becomes gradually broader 
and then develops rather abrujitly into a large yellowish-white blotch and 
the quantity of excrement is also large, appearing like a large black patch 
in the middle of the mine. When the larva is full-grown, it lines an oval 
portion of the mine near the edge with brown silk and converts it into a flat 

9 



118 LIFE-HISTORIES OF HELIOZELID^ 

roughly oval case which is then cut off entirely from the leaf, leaving an oval 
hole in its place. The case is composed of two thin slightly concave pieces 
joined together on their concave faces. The margins are loosely fastened 
with silk. After cutting out this case, the larva behaves exactly like a case- 
bearer such as Macraeola inquisitrix and moves about, carrying the case and 
thrusting its head out at either end indifferently. As the larva is devoid of 
legs, it effects locomotion in a peculiar way by means of silk ; the head is 
thrust out of the case and silk is applied to the surface on which it moves, thus 
securing the case ; next, silk is stretched from the margin of the case to some 
point ahead and the case is drawn forward and fastened there ; thus the larva 
moves about in its case even on vertical surfaces. After some time the case 
is fastened to a suitable place, usually by two or more silken threads of which 
one end is attached to the margin of the case and the other to the supporting 
surface. In confinement the cases were attached to the leaves lying on the 
bottom of the cage, or to the walls or top of the cage. After securing the case 
to a suitable place, the larva spins a brown oval cocoon inside it and pupates 
in that. The cocoon is formed in the central part of the case, its longer axis 
lengthwise. When the cocoon is formed, the central portions of the two leaf 
epiderms forming the case are drawn much closer together, with the result 
that a longitudinal ridge appears at the middle of each. 

In some of these cases, there are a few short brown processes radiating 
from the margin (figure d) ; these are strands of silk which are applied 
to the margins of the case to connect it to the leaf while it is being cut out 
by the larva. 

The full-grown larva (figure h) is about 4 mm. long by about 075 mm. 
broad across middle, flattened, tapering posteriorly, segments distinct and 
rather protuberant laterally, pale yellow with a greenish tinge, somewhat 
shiny and transparent ; head smaller than prothorax, red-brown ; prothorax 
wholly dark brown ; thin hairs scattered on head and body ; legs and prolegs 
absent. 

The pupa (figure /) is about 2'25 to 2*5 mm. long, dorsally rather 
convex, narrowed towards extremities, brown (darkening before emergence 
of adult) ; a deep constriction behind head, differentiating this from thorax ; 
tip of wing case reaching penultimate segment and posterior legs reaching 
or even slightly exceeding anal extremity ; four abdominal spiracles on each 
side are white' tubular projections. Before emergence of the moth, the pupa 
wriggles out to some extent through one end of the cocoon, the empty pupa- 
case remaining protruding from the cocoon. The pupal period is about six 
days. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slips 1431, 1463.) 



AyU 






lA' -^^y^^T kvuovx, (Ltr^'j^ « re^'v^ rA^/v^rj rn^"o(A--Cb 0<_Cj»>r^'K, «vvv t\ t(.cZLa( 
^U>- ^,,..Cb j)*wr /^ iiu^ ; i^N itAC/fc^K,^ wji*.^x>^ jw^Uje (t^-vCvvT ^ 

^'-^ J. ^r c^ , tQ ^ ^u^ .wr^^ ^^^^^ ^ 



(-y-ui. 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 119 

ANTISPILA ARISTARCHA, MEYR. i ^^ '^^ t ^"'^ ' 
Antispila aristarcha, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 8 (Oct. 1916)(i). 

Bred at Karwar, North Kanara, " in August from larvae mining trans- 
parent blotches in leaf of VUis sp. (many larvae in a leaf) (Maxwell). Cocoons 
sent by Mr. Maxwell are apparently formed of two rather irregular grey discs 
of leaf -cuticle joined at the edges, with several projecting spinous filaments 
at each end, which are probably natural projections of the leaf, about ^ length 
of cocoon "(^). 

HELIODINIDiE. 

/ 

STATHMOPODA HEMITORNA, MEYR. 
Stathmopoda hemitonia, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 97 (1913)(') ; I.e., II, 62 (1917)(2). 
Originally described from Siruguppa (Bellary), this species has since been 
recorded from Dharwar and bred at Coimbatore " from refuse collected in 
fork of tamarind {Tamarindus indica) (Fletcher) ; probably therefore the 
larva feeds in the pods "(2). It seems more probable that the larvae were 
feeding on the dead leaves collected in the fork of the tree. 

STATHMOPODA THEORIS, MEYR. 
Moloscelis theoris, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 410-411 (1906)(i). 
Stathmopoda theoris, Meyr., t. c. p. 983(2), T. L. S. (2) XIV, 286 (1911)(3), 
Entom. Mitteil. Suppl, III, p. 56 (1914)(*) ; Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 537 
(1909)(«) ; Imms and Chatterjee, Ind. For. Mem., Ill, 32, t. 7, f. 23 
(1915)(«); Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 96 (1917)(7)-Lv^/u. ,?-.-t .fjie^-^^^^-J ^- "'^ 
Common throughout India and Ceylon(^) ; also recorded from Formosa(*). 
Larva feeds in flower-heads of sunflower {HeUanthus){^'^). 
Larva slender, black, naked, with five pairs of prolegs, head and pro- 
thoracic shield black ; found feeding in sunflower heads, the seeds apparently 
not eaten, but the dried remains of the flowers(^). 

" We have reared Strathmopoda theoris, Meyr., from lac received 

from Bhandara and Jubbulpore we have not reared a sufficient number 

of examples to definitely prove that it is an undoubted enemy of lac, and not 
merely only accidentally associated with it "(®). 

This species has been reared at Coimbatore on cholam ear-heads, from 
refuse found in the fork of a tamarind tree, and from palm-fibre chewed by 
Oryctes rhinoceros ; and at Pusa from sunflower heads, from a rotten peach- 
fruit, from ripe fallen gular (Ficus glomerata) fruit, from drying balsam leaves, 
from dry cotton and Acacia arabica leaves, and from cotton shoots badly 
affected by a mealy-bug. We have it also from Surat and from Dinanagar 
(Punjab). 



T M, ivt^. 



120 L1FE-HIST0RIE8 OF HELIODINID^ 

The larva seems to be a feeder on dead vegetable matter, spinning 
together dead or drying leaves and nibbling irregnlar holes in them. 

STATHMOPODA SYCOPHAGA, MEYU. 
Stathmoiioda symphaya, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 87-88 (19l3)(i). 

Reared at Pusa in May from larva; in figs of Ficus ylomerafa{^). 

Larvae were found at Pusa on 14th April 1907 in figs of Ficus glomerata 
and were described as about 15 mm. long, cylindrical, slightly tapering 
towards either extremity ; head and ])rothoracic shield brown, shiny ; body- 
segments distinct, pale yellow, segments with a brownish tinge and with 
small scattered hairs ; five pairs of prolegs. The larva bores into the figs 
and eats the florets. Pupation takes place inside the fig in a white cocoon 
in which the pupa-case remains on the emergence of the moth. The larvae 
are parasitized by two Dipterous and three small Hymenopterous flies. The 
moths from these larvae emerged between 29th April and 11th May 1907. 
(Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 529.) / 

STATHMOPODA BASIPLECTRA, MEYH^ 
Stathmopoda basiplecfra, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 97 (19i:^)(') ; hums and Chat- 

terjee, Ind. For. Mem. (Zool.), Ill, 32-3:3 (1915)(2). 

Described from Ranipur, in the Hardwar District, where it was bred in 
April from " larva burrowing in seeds of Alhizzia lebhek (Leguminosae) in 
December, afterwards eating a hole through the wall of pod to emerge "(^). 

" We have reared S. has i plectra, Meyr., from lac obtained from 

Ranipur in the Siwalik forests There seems to be little doubt that its 

larva devours the lac, but it does not appear in sufficient abundance to warrant 

its being regarded as a serious enemy. We have bred out the insect from 

April to July and there is a specimen in the Forest Research Institute Collection 

that was obtained in November and bred out from lac by Mr. V. S. Iyer "(2). 

/ 
STATHMOPODA PR^ALBATA, MEYR. 

Stathmopoda prcealhata, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 337 (1915)(i). 

This species has been bred at Pusa in February-March 1916 from fallen 

banyan {Ficus bengalensis) fruits collected in November 1915. We also have 

it from Chapra. 

STATHMOPODA SYCASTIS, MEYR. (PLATE XXVIII, FIG. 1.) 

Stathmopoda sycastis, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 62 (1917)(^) ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 251 (1917)(2);ijf^?-^^ Il><- N^>/:^T .i-6 ^-"^r^ 
Bred in July at Tarnab, Peshawar District, from larva feeding in figs 

of Ficus carica {Fletcher)!^' ^). 



PLATE XXVIII. 




Fig. 1. Stathmopoda sycoslis: — a. Moth, natural size and magnilied : /;. hind lei 
of moth, maonilied: c. side-\ie\v of head of moth, magnified. 




a 




Fig. 2. Slalhmopoda oviiicra: — a. Larva, natural size and magnified ( x 12) ; 
from a spirit specimen ; b, moth, magnified ( \ 12 ) . 




(;EDi:;MATOPOr)A CLERODENDRONELLA. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIX. 

(Edematopoda clerodendronella. 

Fig. 1. Top-shoot of plant of Glerodendran inforlunatum spun up by larva. 

„ 2. Larva, natural size and magnified. 

5, o. rupa, ,, ,, ,, 

„ 4. Moth, resting attitude, from above, natural size and magnified. 

,, 5 Moth, wings expanded, natural size and magnified. 






^vjt-i^ <A-a^ ') 



'I'. HAINhKKiOK I'LKrcttEK 121 

A larva was found hoi'lnji in a v\\w liif on .')r.l June I'.H'i. It pupated /''^-^ 
before 14th June in a wliite silken coeoon spun in a corner of the box and 
the moth emerged at I'usa oi\ I'Jth -lul\-. 

This caterpillar is well-known in the J'eshawar iJistricl, so luucli so that 
the local people are rather chary of eating ligs on account of the caterpillars 
in them. 

STATHMOPODA OVIGERA, MEYR. (PLATE XXVIII, FIC 2.) 
Stafhmopoda ovigera, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 93 (1913)(i). 

This species was originally described from Puttalam (C'eylon)('). It has 
since been bred from blackish larvae found in tiuify masses of Pulvinariu sp. 
on Ficus glo)ner(tt<i at Coiml)atore in December 191(). We have moths from 
Peshawar also, so that it is evidently widely distributed in^the Plains of India 
and Ceylon. 

.STATHMUPUJJA ADULATRIX, MEYR. 
Stathmopodii aduldlrix, Meyr., E.xot. Micr., II, Gl (1917)('). 

Bred in September in Almora (6,000 feet) from twigs of Fiiius loiKj/joli'i 
{Beeson){^). 

(EDEMATOPODA VENUSTA, MEYR. ' 
CEdematopoda venusta, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 97 (19i:3)(i). :5V 

Described from Jabalpur in the Central Provinces, where it was bred 
from colonies of Tachardia lacca{^). 

/ 
CEDEMATOPODA CYPRIS, MEYR. 

CEdematopoda rypris, Meyr., B. J., XVI, 603 (1905)(^). 

Reared in December at Kandy from colony of Lac Coccid, Tachardia 
iilbizzicB, on Thenhroma cacao. 






CEDEMATOPODA FLAMMIFERA, MEYR. C^^ ^^ .. (^ j^ ^^u^ 



(Edematopoda flammijera, Mevr., Exot. Micr., I, ,338 (1915)(i)o,^r," ^^'r' ■ '^•^'^ Jt^ <^^ -^ '_^°1 
Described from Pusa('), where it was reared in June 1907 from a \a,T\'A i^jl y^.^ ftu^ i^, 
in a mango shoot. This is the only specimen known so far. ^ ^-"-^/o- /i^y. "^ ^ 

CEDEMATOPODA CLERODENDRONELLA, STT, (PLATE XX tX.) 

Atkimonia cleroiendronella, Staint., T. E. S. (n.s.), V, 125 (1 859)0. 
(Edematopoda clerodemlroncUa, Wlsm.. T. E. S., 1889, t. 6, f. 7(2) : Lefroy, 

Ind. Ins. Life, p. 537 (1909)(3). 

Originally described from Calcutta('). Found commonly at Pusa and 
Chopra in Bihar. -r^-^^ <^' ro^^j^'^^' . 



t22 LIFE-HISTORIES OF tiELIOi)INlt)-ffl 

Larva brownish, with a few short hairs ; it webs up the top of a shoot 
and pupates in a thin silk cocoon in the bunch of leaves, the moth emerging 
inside the cocoon. Feeds on Clerodendrqif infortunatum and Anisomeles 
ovatai^). 

The larva is about 10 mm. long. It folds up a leaf or webs up the tender 
top-leaves by means of white silken threads, living in shelter and eating holes 
in the leaves from within. Pupation takes place in the folded leaves or 
amongst the flower-heads, when these are available. 

The adults occur at Pusa in March, June and July-August. 

ERETMOCERA IMPAOTELLA, WLK. (PLATE XXX.) 

Gelechia ? impactella, Wlk., Cat., XXIX, 637(i). 

Eretmocera itnpactella, Moore, Lep. Ceylon, III, 514, t. 209, f. 10 (1887)(^), 

Wlsm., T. E. S., 1889, pp. 34-35, 39, t. 6, f. 18(3) ; Hmpsn., Faun. Ind., 

Moths, I, 208, f. 135(*) ; Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 537 (1909)(5) ; Fletcher, 

S. Ind. Ins., p. 461, f. 337 (1914)(«) ; Proc. Second. Entl. Meeting, p. 296 

(1917)(7)-^./^,'irt.^ Uf.Ko^u:^ T.h-^ NrviJ^-^. 

Common throughout the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon. Also 
recorded from Singapore and Formosa. 

The larva feeds on Amarantus{^' ') and is sometimes a minor pest, webbing 
up the heads of the plants. It remains more or less hidden in the folds of the 
leaves which are spun together with white silken threads. It walks very fast 
and, when walking, a small hump is produced at the hind end of the body. 
When disturbed it is able to make small springs. 

The larva is about 10 mm. long, moderately stout, cylindrical, tapering 
slightly towards either extremity, brownish-grey or brownish-yellow with a 
broad submedian darkish stripe ; head bilobed, with an inverted Y-shaped 
mark in front, posterior external part of each lobe black, rest of head speckled 
with black, with long white hairs ; prothoracic shield dark, broadly divided 
media,Jly ; tubercles black, bearing several divergent longish white hairs, 
which give the larva rather a hairy appearance ; prolegs fully developed with 
crochets arranged in a circle. 

Pupation takes place in a cocoon of white silk, very fine and cottony, 
the cocoon being spun usually amongst the leaves. The larva rests for about 
a day inside this cocoon and then casts off the last larval skin which remains 
attached to the pupa, enclosing its anal segments. 

. The pupa is about 6 mm. long, uniform brown, and tapers prominently 
posteriorly ; wings and legs folded ventrally, their tip about reaching the 
eighth abdominal segment. There seem to be no cremastral hooks on the 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXX. 

Eretmocera impactella. 

Fig. I. Plant of Amarantus attacked by larva. 

2. Top-shoot spun up by larva. 

3. Larva, natural size and magnified. 

4. Cocoon. 

5. Pupa, natural size and magnified. 

6. Moth, „ „ 

7. Moth, resting attitude, from side, natural size. 

8. „ „ „ magnified. 

9. Moth, resting attitude, from above, natural size and magnified. 



PLATE \X\. 




Eret.mocera i.mpactella. 



f» BAlNBftlGGE FJLETCHER 1^3, 

anal segment, but all over the body and head there are scattered small stiff 
liairs with curved tips which are hooked into the fibres of the cocoon. On 
emergence of the moth, the empty pupa-case is left within the cocoon. (Pusa 
Insectary Cage-slip 702.) 

The life-cycle is between three and four weeks. A fertilized female 
confined with living Amarantus plants on 30th May 1911 died on 2nd June, 
after laying eggs which were not observed. Two young larvae were found on 
8th June and of these one spun up on 17th June and the moth emerged on 
27th June 1911. 

We have this from Coimbatore, Mangalore, Sidapur, Tranquebar, Surat, 
Nadiad, Bassein Fort, Multan, Peshawar, Abbottabad, Pusa, and Upper and 
Lower Burma. The moth varies considerably in markings, the yellow spots 
on the forewing being sometimes obsolescent and both wings suffused with 
blackish. 

GLYPHIPTERYGID^E. 

/ 
HILAROGRAPHA CAMINODES, MEYR. 

Hilarographa caminodes, Meyr., B. J., XVI, 610 (1905)(i) ; Green, Peradeniya 
Circ, II, 17, p. 250 [not namedj(2) ; Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins., p. 464 (1914)(3) ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 37 (1917)(*)^ V^^^-^n*:^^ ^^ ^^-^ ^- ''~^ (^^^- '^^J 
Described from Ceylon (Pundaluoya, Gammaduwa and Rangella) ; larva 

a pest on cardamom(^). We have it from Gammaduwa. 

Larva bores in the root of cultivated cardamoms and in wild Zingibgraceous 

plants. The eggs are laid on the exposed upper part of the bulb(^ *). 

IMMA MYLIAS, MEYR. 
Imtna mylias, Meyr., T. E. S., 1906, 173 (1906)(i) ; Exot. Micr., II, 191 

(1918)(*). 

Originally described from Ceylon(^), this species has been found at Coim- 
batore also. 

An example received from Mr. Fletcher, said to have been " bred from 
tamarind bark," Pupa with four segments fixed(2). 

PHYCODES MINOR, MO. 

Phycodes minor, Moore, P. Z. S., 1881, 378(i), Lep. Atk., ii, 152 (1882)(«) ; 

Cotes & Swinhoe, Cat. Moths Ind., p. 701 (1889(») ; Meyr., Rec. Ind. . r ;. W 

Mus., V, 226(*) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 2bl{%^i/^ r^^-Iii (^. W"-^ - '^7 ^'^■' 

Phycodes lucnsseni, Snell., Tijds. voor Ent., XLIV, 74, t. 5, f. 1 (1901)(6). 

Phycodes cymineuta, Meyr., B. J., XIX, 424-425 (1909)(7). 



324 LIFE-HISTORIES OF GLYPHIPTERYGID^ 

Recorded from N. W. India(2), Kulu(3), Bengal (Rajmahal)(*) and Kara- 
gola(2), from Haputale in Ceylon(6), and from Java(^). Conniion at Pusa 
in Bihar and apparently throughout the Plains of India. We have it from 
Peshawar, Hazara, Lahore, Poona, Pusa, CJauhati, Nowgong, and Minbu 
(Lower Burma). 

Larva on Ficus spp. The moth has been reared at Lahore from pupa 
found in leaf of Ficus carica and at Pusa from larvae rolling leaves of Ficus 
heterophylla. 

The larva is about 15 mm. long and 2 mm. broad across the metathoracic 
region, whence it tapers slightly in both directions, cylindrical, segments 
fairly distinct, light green ; head flattened, yellow, shiny, with a black lateral 
longitudinal marking ; prothorax with a more or less shiny shield, a portion 
between head and shield greenish-white ; mesothorax and metathorax dark 
smoke-colour, this colour extending in a less dark form on the ventral side ; 
legs black ; abdominal segments with dark smoky submedian patches forming 
an interrupted stripe, and with a similar Jess distinct spiracular stripe, white 
patches alternating with the smoky ones ; a white lateral stripe ; primary 
hairs white ; spiracles small, black, round ; five pairs of equally developed 
prolegs which appear like slender rod-like protuberances fi-om the abdominal 
folds, crochets on prolegs arranged in a circle. 

Pupation takes place in a white silken cocoon formed amongst rolled 
leaves or on a single leaf which is rolled into a boat-shape. A large quantity 
of silk i^ used to make the cocoon which consists of several layers of thin 
papery structure. Pupa brown, cylindrical, tapering posteriorly, and with 
a row of small posteriorly-directed spines on the anterior part of the dorsal 
surface of the abdominal segments. Before emergence of the moth, the 
pupa wriggles out tlirough one end of the cocoon to some extent. A Tachinid 
parasite has been reaied. From larva> collected at Pusa on 25th September 
the moths emerged between 8th and 12tli Octobei' 1917. (Pusa Insectary 
Cage-slip 1711.) 

PHYCODES RADIATA, OCHS. 

Chimcem radiata, Ochs., Schmett. Europ., II, 5-G (1808)(l). 

Phycodes himdimcornis, Guenee, Noct., II, 389, 1249, t. 13, f. 5 (1852)(2). 

Tegna hyhlaella, Wlk., Cat., XXXV, 1810 (180r))(3) : Forsayeth. T. E. S., 

1884, 379, 413, t. 14, f. ]0(*). 
Phycodes radiata, Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 538, t. 52, ff. 7-10 (1909)(«) ; 

Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins., pp. 463-464, f. 339 (1914)(6) ; Proc. Second Entl. 

Meeting, p. 251 (1917)(');^1'<u.^'w<-'W iK.UX:^ T.b'^ l(^,,. i<)wj 



.•>^ W- 



'i\ BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER I'iS 

Common throughout India (from Nepal and Dharmsala to Bombay and 
Madras) and Ceylon. We have it from Coimbatore (larva on Ficus), Hajj^aii 
(larva on leaves of Ficus tisela), Pusa (larva on leaves of Ficus reliyiosa and 
F. (jlomerata), Kulu, Gurdaspur, Garhshankar (Punjab) (larva on Ficus carica) 
and from Peshawar (larva on Ficus carica). 

Larva about 20 mm. long, moderately stout, rather flattened, smooth ; '■'^*' T 
with scattered short hairs, in colour dull yellowish-white with a broad inter- C^t ^ (HL—- ^^ ' 
rupted dark stripe along the side, head and prothoracic shield red-brown, a ^e^-^*-'^ * 
broad dark band transversely across the back of meso- and meta-thoracic v)** ) ' - 
segments. The caterpillar rolls leaves of Ficus. Pupa red-brown, in a tough ' ' 
paper-like cocoon, occasionally spun on a leaf but more usually in a crack 
of the bark or similar situation ; pupal period about 15 days(®). 

The egg has not been observed but is probably laid on tender fig leaves. 
The larvae roll tender leaves, either folding over the edge of a leaf or tying 
one leaf over another, and eat the epidermis from within the roll. 

A young larva, about 10 mm. long, is rather flattened ; head flattened, 
vellow-brown, smaller than prothorax ; prothorax smaller than mesothorax, 
wholly dirty dark-brown or blackish, with a shiny black shield ; mesothorax 
slightly smaller than metathorax, dirty dark-brown, anteriorly banded with 
yellow ; abdominal segments yellow ; legs black ; five pairs of prolegs 
vellow. 

The full-grown larva is about 22 mm. long, rather flattened ; head shiny 
yellow-brown, flattened, smaller than prothorax ; prothoracic shield large, 
shiny, dark brown ; prothorax laterally whitish, ventrally blackish ; meso- 
thorax and metathorax blackish dorsally, laterally and ventrally whitish ; 
a whitish band between mesothorax and metathorax ; first abdominal segment 
yellowish with a faint black marking on lateral margin of submedian region ; 
remaining segments greyish-white ; submedian jjortions of second to sixth 
abdominal segments black ; upper part of seventh abdominal segment black 
and of eighth abdominal segment yellow with a pair of black points ; ninth 
abdominal segment yellowish anteriorly and blackish posteriorly ; a few long 
wliite hairs on each segment ; spiracles oval, rimmed with black. 

Pupation takes place within a flattened, oval, disc-shaped, dirty brown 
cocoon of rather papery texture, about 15 mm. long and 7 mm. broad. In 
warm weather the cocoon may be formed within folded leaves but in winter 
it is always formed on the trunk of the tree. Before emergence of the moth, 
the pupa wriggles out of the cocoon for about half its length. 

The moth is diurnal in habit and may be seen sucking nectar from flowers 
during the daytime. 



126 LiFE-HlSfORlES OF GtYPHtPTERYGtD^ 

The larvae occur at Pusa from April to November. Hibernation appa- 
rently takes place in the pupal, and possibly also in the larval, state. From 
cocoons collected during the winter moths emerged in March-May. (Pusa 
Insectary Cage-slip 255.) 

■ SIMAETHIS OPHIOSEMA, LOWER. 

Simaethis ophiosema, Low., Trans. Royal Soc. S. Austral., XX, 167 (189G)(*) ; 

Meyr., Cat. Glyphipt., p. 35 (1913)(2). 
? Simaethis regularis, Pag., Jahrh. Nass. Verh. Naturk., XXXVII, 288 (1884)(3), 

Originally described from Australia(i), S. ophiosema has also been recorded 
from China(2), the Moluccas(2) and India(*). 

This species has been bred at Pusa from a larva found on 6th October 
1912, letting itself down by a silken thread from a bamboo overhanging the 
road. The larva was about 13 mm. long, cylindrical, tapering slightly towards 
either extremit}^, head brown, body uniformly light yellow spotted with black 
like the larva of Antigastra catalaunalis . The larva formed an elongated 
white cocoon of white silk lining a folded bamboo leaf on 7tli October, pupated 
on 8tli and emerged on 13th October. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 968.) 

We have this insect from Srinagar (Kashmir), Pusa, Coimbatore and 
Pollibetta (South Coorg). At Pusa the moths occur from October to January. 

SIMAETHIS ORTHOGONA, MEYR. ^<Ji ^^ (f).^o^ ^^ .^'^ f U 

Simaethis orthogona, Meyr., T. E. S., 1886, 287-288(1), Proc. Linn. Soc. 

N. S. W., XXXII, 114 (1907)(2), Rec. Ind. Mus., V, 226(3), Cat. Glyphipt., 

p. 35 (1913)(*) ; Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 538 (1909)(5). 
Simaethis inscriptana, Snell., Tijds. voor Ent., XVIII, 76, t. 6, f. 6 [^] (1875) 

[nee c?J(6). 

Recorded from India, Burma and Ceylon. Also in New Guinea and 
Celebes. We have it from Pusa, Chapra, Nadiad and the Shevaroys. 

Larva green with a brown head and a row of black tubercles on each 
side of the body ; it feeds on the leaves of Psoralea corylijolia, pupating under 
a slender white cocoon on the leaf(^). 

There appears to be some error in the above description. The larvae 

1^ \ have been bred on two occasions at Pusa by A. Mujtaba and the foodplant 

y. . J is recorded as sahora or sahra (Streblus sp.), whilst the larvae were described 

^-^ ' \ as 7 to 8 mm. long, tapering posteriorly, dark grey or honey yellow, head 

reddish-yellow, segments with numerous black dots from which white hairs 

arise. Pupa 5 mm. long, light-brown or lemon-yellow, wriggling half-way cut 






Q U.*>^ 3-"^ vw-.-«-^ /' -i»^ ) ^ 



uu-^ ^ u^ (U R-o« , CM-^ w.::b/cJ6 [i^-^^ ^ i^.v.^^ ^•'T, 



PLATE XXXI. 







t 







,'- ^ ^4 iKz 







Brenthia coronigt'ra: — a, Alolh. natural size and magnified ( xl6l ; b. side-view 
of head of moth, magnified : c, moth, resting attitude, magnified ( x 10). 



t. feAINSRIGGE FLETCHER 127 

of the cocoon on emergence of moth. From larvae taken on 13th July 1906, 
moths emerged on 21st and 23rd July, and a larva taken on 9th August 1907 
formed its cocoon the next day, pupated on Uth August and emerged on 
18th August. (A. Mujtaba's Cage-slips and 31.) 

SIMAETHIS ^GYPTIACA, ZELLER. 

Simaefhis wgijptiaca, Zell., Stett. Ent. Zeit, XXVIII, 36G (1867)('), T. E. S. 

(3), V, 461, t. 24, f. 1 (1868)(2) ; Meyr., Cat. Glyphipt., p. 36 (1913)(3) ; 

Rebel, Lep. aus. Siidarab. und Sokotra, p. 89 (1907)(*). 

This species was originally described from Egypt('' ^) and has since 
been recorded from the Transvaal{3), India(3) and Sokotra(*). 

We have it from Pusa, Chapra and Simla. At Pusa it has been reared 
from larvae webbing up tender leaves of Ficus glomerata. 

SIMAETHIS FABRICIANA, LINN. 
Tortrix jahriciana, Linn., Syst. Nat. (xii) 880(i). 
Simaethis jahriciana, Meyr., Rec. Ind. Mus., V, 226(2), (jat. Glyphipt., p. 36 

(1913)(3), Handbk., p. 707(*). 

Recorded from Europe, Asia Minor, Madeira, Canada and'British Columbia. 
Within our limits from Simla and Kashmir. We have it from Dungagali 
(8,000 feet), Hazara District (May 1915). 

" Larva ochreous-whitish, spots pale fuscous ; head and plate of 2 pale 
fuscous ; in a slight web on Urtica and Parietaria'\^). 

BRENTHIA CORONIGERA, MEYR. (PLATE XXXI.) 
Brenthia coronigera, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 194 (1918)(i). 

Bred at Pusa in February from a larva feeding on leaves of Cordia myxa 
(BoraginaceaB)(^). 

This species has been bred at Pusa from larvae feeding on leaves of Cordia 
myxa in February 1917 and 1919 and January 1917. The larva lives on the 
surface of a leaf under cover of a silken webbing to which stick the black 
pellets of frass. It gnaws the leaf-tissue -in characteristic patches, leaving 
the other epidermis entire. The portion thus gnawed is covered with the 
silken webbing. 

The larva is about 6 mm. long and about 1 mm. broad across the thoracic 
region, thence slightly tapering posteriorly, pale yellow with a green tinge ; 
head pale yellow ; primary hairs short, arising from tubercles which appear 
as black spots ; some black spots on the head also. Pupation takes place 
within a cocoon of pure white silken threads and the moths emerge at Pusa 
during the second half of February. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1516.) 



128 L[FE-HI.ST()K1E-! OF 15LAS I'OBASID^ 

The moths strut about jerkily with the hiudwings carried nearly at a 
right angle with the forewings, so that the wings form a sort of cone when 
seen from behind the insect. The eyes are pale green. This attitude is 
characteristic of other species of this genus. 

CHOREUTIS BJERKANDRELLA, THNB.v I 

bjerkandrella, Thunb., Diss. Ent., I, 30, t. 3, ff. 23-24 (1784)('). 

Choreutis hjerkandreUa, Meyr., Handbk., p. 706 (1895)(2) ; Spuler, Schmett. 

Eur., 11, 297-298(3) ; Meyr., Cat. Glyphipt., p. 39 (1913) [ synonymy ](*). 

A cosmopolitan species known from Europe, North, Central and South 
America, North and South Africa, Western Asia, India, Australia and New 
Zealand. 

Larva described by Spuler ; on leaves of Carlina, Inula, Carduus, etc.C''). 

Larva green, yellower laterally ; spots black ; head brown ; on Carduus, 
Inula, Erijngium, etc.(-). 

Larvae were collected at Pusa on kuhonda [l Blumea halsamijera) on 14th 
January 1910, the moths emerging between 14th January and 5th February. 
The larva was described as about 7 to 8 mm. long, cylindrical, slightly tapering 
towards extremities, uniform green ; head yellowish-green ; hairs arising from 
small black points, making the larva look minutely spotted under a lens ; 
five pairs of equally developed prolegs. The larva rolls a single leaf, or only 
the apical portion, or binds one leaf over another or binds together the top 
leaves ; it lives concealed and eats only the epidermis or the epidermis along 
with the mesophyll substance of the leaf, leaving one epidermal layer entire, 
so that when the leaf is unrolled the portion eaten appears as a transparent 
brown spot. Pupation takes place in concealment also in a cocoon of pure 
white silk lining a rolled-up leaf. The j)upa is about 4 to 5 mm. long, cylin- 
drical, tapering posteriorly, dark-coloured, the dorsal side of the anal segment 
produced into a short thick recurved hook-like process. The pupa wriggles 
out of the cocoon before the moth emerges. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 816.) 

The moth is plentiful at Pusa in February and March and occurs less 
commonly in April and June. We have it from Pusa, Parachinar and Simla. 

BLASTOBASIDiE. 

y 

BLASTOBASIS SPERMOLOGA, iMEYR. 

. lastohasis apertnoloc/d, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 597 (June 191 6)('). 

Described from Ceylon (Maskeliya, Madulsima and Undugoda), from the 
'.ainaad in S. Lidia, and from S. China. 



r. BAIXmtKJCK I'LKI'CILKR 129 

Bred in (lie Waiiiaad lioin tea-seed and ut Port Darwin, Nortli Australia, 
from dried smoked garlic imported from Hongkong('). 

We have this I'roni Fusa, where it was bred iu January IIJIG from laiva 
in fallen (/xlar {Picks (jlomerata) fruits. 

BLASTOBASLS DECOLOR, MEYR. 

Blasfobasis (decolor, Meyr., B. J., XVIII, 150-151 (1^07)('), Exot. :\licr., 

I, 596 (1916){2). 

Originally described from Bnttalam in Ceyloii('). Bred at Coirnbatore 
in October from refuse in fork of tamarind tree(2), and at Pusa in Julv 1914 
from larva in ripe fallen f/idar {Firus (jlomeratd) fruit. 

y 

BLASTOBASLS CRASSIFICA, MEYR. 
FAastobasis crassijica. Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 595-596 (June ]91G)('); ^A*,/-^.iiI EkK. Wr^ 

Described from Madulsinia and Pusa('). We have it from Pusa and Li^H)^ 
Coinibatore. 

Bred at Pusa in March from j^ods of Crofalaria juncea{^). Larvae of this 
genus appear usually to feed on seeds and dry refuse rather indiscriminately 
without being confined to particular ]ilant8(i). 

BLASTOBASIS TRANSCRIPTA, MEYR. 

bhstobasis transcnpfa, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 158 (1918)(i). 

" Bred at Alniora, 6,000 feet, from twigs of Pinus longij'oJia {Berson). 
Probably the larva feeds on refuse or in the cones"(i). 

This species was bred at Dehra Dun by Mr. C. Beeson between 8t}i and 
19th September 1915, from chir pine twigs attacked by a Ripersia scale and 
collected before 20th August 1915 at Almora (6,000 feet). Mr. Beeson 
considers that this insect is probably predaceous on the lUpersid. 

y 

EXINOTIS CATACHLORA, MEYR. 

Exinotis catachlora, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 599 (June 1916)('). 

Described from Ceylon (Madulsima and Kalutara) and from Southern 
India (Nilgiris, 3,500 feet)('). 

This species has been bred at Pusa from larvae in Hower-heads of ^yo;?/^;^/. 
whicli was determined in 1905 as Leonnrus sihiricus (Labiatae) and in 
1916 as Lencas sp. It is not clear whether these foodplants are really 
identical, 



130 LIFE-HISTORIES OF BLASTOBASID^ 

The larva remains liidden in the flower-heads, which show no external 
signs of injury, and eats the bases of the calyx tubes. It was described in 
1906 as about 10 mm. long, cylindrical, uniform yellowish-white, body regularly 
corrugated ; head flat, reddish-black, shiny ; a prothoracic shield and five 
pairs of prolegs. (Tnsectary Cage-slip 240.) 

The larva pupates within a calyx tube in a thin silvery- white silken 
cocoon. The pupa is about 5 to 6 mm. long by 1*75 mm. broad, shining 
brick-red ; head and prothorax bent downwards and thus not visible from 
above ; mesothorax longest ; metathorax nearly a third length of mesothorax ; 
eight abdominal segments very distinct ; wing-pad of anterior wing reaching 
base of eighth abdominal segment ; spiracles very prominent ; a small hair 
near spiracle on ninth abdominal (anal) segment. (C. S. Misra's Cage-slip of 
26th January 1916.) 

From larvae collected on 9th December 1905, and which commenced to 
pupate on 11th December, moths emerged from r2th February to 10th April 
1906, and from flower-heads collected on 26th January 1916 the moths 
emerged from 28th January to 25th February. 

PROSINTIS FLORIVORA, MEYR. , . ■ 

Prosintis florivora, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 598 (June 191 6) (i);^!^^^^^^^,^^^ 

Described from Madulsima and Pusa(^). 

Bred at Pusa in June from larva feeding in inflorescence of Mangijera 
indica{^). Also reared at Pusa in August from larva on mango. 

HOLCOCERA PULVEREA, MEYR. 
Blastohasis pulverea, Meyr., B. J., XVIII, 151 (1907)(i). 
Hypatima doleropa, Meyr., l.c.{^). 
Hyjxitima pulverea, Meyr., t.c, p. 638(3) • Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 536 

(]909)(*) ; Misra, Pusa Bull. 28, p. 24 (1912)(fi) ;■ Imms and Chatterjee, 

Ind. For. Mem. (ZooL), III, 31-32, t. 7, f. 24 (1915)(6). 
Blastohasis theli/moipha, Imms and Chatterjee, I.e., p. 32 (1915)('). 

Originally described from " India (without further locality). Bred from 
larvae feeding on colonies of Tachardia lacca "(^) and from the Satpura Range, 
Khandesh, where it was found " parasitic in lac in company with the Noctuid 
Euhlemma amahilis "(2). The name doleropa is a synonym of pulverea, Avhilst 
thelymorpha {thelymoipJia [sic !], Imms & Chatt.) is a nomen nudum. 

The larva feeds not only on the insect on the tree but in the dry shellac 
on the cut stick(^ ^). 

" Hypatima pidverea is even more abundant than Euhlemma amahilis 
and, in spite of its smaller size, is almost equally destructive. It is commoji 






(J) •^'-'U^ 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 131 

in all the forests from which we have obtained lac, with the exception of 
Hoshangabad. In the latter forests we have only bred out six examples 

from eleven separate consignments of lac. Its larva is predaceous, 

devouring both the Tdchardia and the lac incrustations and may be found 
in the lac during the greater part of the year. During the cooler months of 
December to March the moths are scarce and not often to be met with, but 
they are abundant during the whole season of April to November. Out of 
1,714 moths bred out from lac obtained from various forests in both the United 
and Central Provinces, only 47 emerged during the months of December to 
March. The largest number that emerged during any one month was 492 
during September. 

" The larvae of this insect are extremely destructive to stick lac and do 
not appear to be dependent upon living lac growing on the tree. The Hypatima 
larvae may be found, and the moths bred out, three months after the lac has 

been removed from the trees and it by no means follows that 

once the lac is gathered it may necessarily undergo no further destruction by 
insects, unless of course it is utilised very shortly after removal from the 
trees "(«). 

We have this from Kumaon (larvae on brood lac on arhar), Pusa (larvae 
on lac-insects on ber tree and on stored lae), Pratapganj, Bengal (larva on lac), 
Berar, C. P. (larva on lac on Butea frondosa), Palamau (larvae on lac on 
Schleichera trijuga), and Coimbatore (reared " from galls "). 

The larva is about 10 mm. long and 2 mm. broad, cylindrical, slightly 
tapering posteriorly, dirty brown ; head bilobed, brown, with fairly long dark 
hairs, labrum. and region immediately above it dark grey or black, frons with 
an inverted Y-shaped figure brown interiorly but on edges black or dark- 
grey ; prothoracic shield dark with a narrow medial brown stripe ; thoracic 
legs ringed with black ; spiracles oval, brown, ringed with black ; five pairs 
of well-developed prolegs, on which the crochets are arranged in circles. 

When full-fed the larva pupates in a thin white silken cocoon in which 
it sometimes rests for ten days or more before pupating. The actual pupal 
period is about seven days. Pupa about 5 mm. long and 2 mm. broad with 
six cremastral hooks and with other hooks with recurved tips on abdominal 
segments, these hooks entangled in the silk of the cocoon. (Insectary Cage- 
slip No. 665.) 

The genus Hypatima, Hb., in which this species has been placed hitherto 
in Indian literature, belongs to the Gelechiada3/ Holcocera, Clemens, is iden- 
tical with Hypatima, H. S. {nee Hb.) ; see Walsingham, Ent. Mo. Mag. 1909 ^^ af 
pp. 48-51. _. ' 



132 LIFK-HISTOHIES OF HYPONOMEL'TID.E 

SCYTHRIDID^. 

I t 
The early stages of no Indian species appear to have been observed- 

The larva) of some of the European species are leaf-miners when young, some 

times gregariously, but when older spin leaves together and feed on the cuticle. 

(See Stainton, Nat. Hist. Tii}., XII, 70, t. 3.) 

ELACHISTID^. 

Only a few Indian species of Elachistidee have been described and the 

'XejL (^' "^^"^ life-history of none is known. In Europe the larvae mine the leaves of 

Graminepp and C'vperaceae chiefly. (See Stainton, Nat. Hist. Tineina, Vol. III.) 

ARGYRESTHIA lOPLEURA, MEm 
Argijresthiu iopleura, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 187 (1918)(i). 

Bred at Almora (6,000 feet) from twigs of Pinus longijolia (Beeson) 
probably feeding in the shoots('). 

PRAYS CITRI, MILL. (PLATE XXXU, FIG. 1.) 
Acrolepia citri, Milliere, Pet. Nouv. Ent., V. 310 (1873)(i). 
:\f -^ \r\ td- P^'^y^ ^*^^'*' Mil^-' ^co"-' ^- ^^^^' ^^- l'^-^0(2) ; Spuler, Schmett. Eurp., II, 442(3) . 
. t*'.' T Ul^^tJAi^J Grandi, Disp. Ent. Agr., pp. 287-288, f. 285(4) ; Essig, Calif. Mthly. Bull.. 
~ II, 722-723, f. 389 (]913)(5) . Meyr., B. J., XXIII, 125 (1914)(6) ; :^letcher, 

Entom. Note No. 89, f. 16 (1916)0 ; Quayle, U. S. A., Agr. Dept. Bull. 
134, p. 22 (1914)(8) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 17, 212 (1917)(9). 
Prays nephelomima, Meyr., Pr. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 1907, 76(iO). 

A widely-distributed species recorded from the South of France, Corsica (^•'* ) 
SicilyC *• «), the Canary Islands, New South Wales( 10) and the Philippines(5 «). 
Within our limits known to occur in Ceylon (Colombo, Maskeliya and Madul- 
sima)(®), in North Coorg(^), and at Pusa(^) and will doubtless be found to 
,be widely distributed in India. We luive sjjecimens from Maskeliya and Pusa. 
The larva has been recorded as a serious pest of the orange and other 
species of Citrvs, feeding in the shoots and eating into all the flower organs, 
whilst in the Philippines the larva has been found to make a gall in the rind 
of orange fruits. 

Eggs are deposited apparently upon tlie calices or peduncle of the flower, 
usually just prior to opening, the young larvse boring through into the interior 
of the flower, which is destroyed ; pupation usually within the flower, but 
also in protected places on the leaves or forks of the twigs and branches(^). 












'?/^pu>i/» e.>NX»^,gA^^, ^^ 









^ U>-<u>C Ac^u-^ cvT^Hs^ 



iMwMi: \\\ii 




Fig. 1. Prays cilri. (The small outline (iiiire shows the natural si/t>.) 




Fig. 2. Comocritis picria:- — a. Larva: b. jiupa: c. moth: all magnified (\9l 



I |>V»»-^ Kv^.w>r« h'viXlVwA-9 L*^ ^ V~t^ . 






T, BA NBRIGGE FLETCHER 133 

HYPONOJfEUTA MALINELLA, Z. 

Hliponomeuta malineUus, Zeller, Iss 1844, 220 ; Wlsni., P. Z. 8., 1885, 883. 

Recorded from Poona by Lorl Walsingliain but probably in error. It 
is not otherwise known to be Indiai, aitliough quite liicely to be (or to have 
been) introduced with garden shrub;. Its distribution inchides Central and 
Southern Europe^ Asia Minor and Japm. 

HYPONOMEUTA LJLPIDELLA, WLSM. 
Hyponomeuta lapidellus, Wlsm., P. Z. S., 1880, 86. t. 12, f. 1. 

Described from Dhar)iisala(^), 

" Larva pale yellowish ochreous, wihh a double row of elongate black 
spots just touching each other on the middle of each segment, and connected 
by a slender black subdorsal line, except between the third and fourth segment, 
where it is interrupted by a band of the pG.le ground-colour. Below the 
subdorsal line is a row of reniform black spots on each segment after the 
fourth. Head black ; second segment with two brownish-fuscous plates 
divided by a yellowish line. Anterior legs black ; prolegs yellowish ochreous ; 
a few single scattered hairs on each segment. Larvae found at an elevation 
of about 4,500 feet near Dharmsala, 12th July, feeding on '' soongroo " (wild 
Salvia) ; moths emerged 1st August(^). 

/ 

•y 

ATTEVA fabriciella, swed. 

Tinea jahricieUa, Swederus, Kngl. Svensk. Vet. Ak. nya Handl, VIII, 277 

(1787)(i). 
Cofinea niviguttella, Wlk., Cat., XXVIII, 542-543 (1863)(2). 
Atteva Jabricielh, Wlsm., in Swinh. Cat. Het. Oxf. Mus., II, 559 (1900)(3) ; 

Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins., pp. 461-463, f. 338 (1914)(*)'Wa*. ,^-t.fiL u^.N-^~f t • '^«? '^'^- '''' 

Common throughout Southern India, from Bombay and Nagpur south- 
wards. Also known from Borneo. 

" The eggs are creamy-white, rounded, flattened, and beautifully sculp- 
tured ; they are laid, usually on the lower surface of leaves, either singly or 
in small groups. The caterpillars live gregariously in a common web of fine 
silk spun over the leaves and shoots of the foodplant, which, in conjunction 
with larvae of Eligma narcissus, they may sometimes completely defoliate. 
The full-grown caterpillar is about 20 mm. long, moderately stout, smooth, 
with scattered short hairs arising from small whitish warts, head blackish, bodv 
greenish-grey with paler longitudinal stripes, one faint one down the back 
edged on either side by a more distinct stripe, and a well-defined stripe along 
each side. Pupa orange-brown, in a transparent boat-shaped cocoon spun 

10 



134 LIFE-HISTORIES OF HYPON^MEUTID^ 

in the common web ; pui)al ])eri()(l ahout ten days. Foodplants : — Ailanthus 
excelsa ""(*), 

We have this species from Coimbatore, Tiimulgheri, Nagpur and Ahmeda- 
bad, in all cases bred on Ailanthus. 

r 

ATTEVA NIVElGUrTA, WLK. 
^Ai-,f>toUil^^- ^Wem niveigutta, Wlk., Cat., II, 526-5^7 (1854)(') ; Moore, P. Z. S., 1867 
rWC:j I.lta(W^ i<)^} 669(2) ; Wlsm., in Swinh. Cat. Het. Oxf. Mus., 11, 558 (1900)(3). 

Recorded from Bengal(^' ^) and SylJiet(''^). Lord Walsingham's record(*) 
of its occurrence in China is jn-obablv an error for A. hrucea, Mo, We have 
it from Sikkim and ? Bhutan. 

Larva feeds on Ailanthus excel-us, residing in a connnon very fine web,, 
at times a perfect pest, denuding the tret> of its leaves {Bonavia){^). 

.ETHERASTLS GIROULATA, MEYR. 'r ; 

9lAfcU^^'-i^ ' ^ Mtherastis circulata, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 190 (1918)('). 
''^^^J -^ L Bred at Trevandrum, Travancore, in May from larva on Eugenia 

anibolana{^). 

COMOCBITIS PIERIA, MEYR. (PLATE XXXII, FIG. 2.) 

<- .^-.iUi i**''^- Comocrids pieria, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 416 (1906)(') ; Antram, Bark-eating 
^Im . r^^J ^ Borers of Tea, pp. 16-17, f. 9 (1907)(2)-5U^ ,?^.1lL iM. t^T^ I -.bO iJfJ.i'j^J 

•51 .Vf'- '*''"'' - Originally described from Neboda, in Ceylon('). Also recorded from 

Assam(2), Duars(2), Cachar(2) and 8ylhet(2). We have it from Matale (Ceylon). 

Larva in galleries on bark of Hevea brasiliensis (Para Rubber)('). Larva 
pale yellow, much flattened, about 12 mm. long ; head brown, thoracic seg- 
ments enlarged. It forms a thin silken web, exactly resembling the bark of 
tea-bushes in colour ; this often covers a considerable portion of the stems, 
chiefly, however, the thicker branches, low down portions of the bush, and 
the under side of overhanging branches, this last being a very favourable site. 
The larva only eats a thin layer of bark from the surface. Pujia under the 
larval web. Adult emerges in April and May. Foodplant ; tea(2). 

" In Cachar and Sylhet, where the old style of pruning is still kept up 

these insects are more plentiful ". Checked in Assam by removal at 

pruning time of all twiggy growth, dead wood, etc (Andrews, in litt., 7th 
March 1916). 

ETHMIA ASSAMENSIS, BUTL. 
Hyponomeuta assamensis, Butl., T. E. S., 1879, 6(i). 
4zims assamensis. Cotes and Swinh., Cat. Moths Ind., p. 719 (1889)(2), 




*" «. -u>) J^-Ca-XTc-.^ (>-CI^<fx ILfys. I i-A.^ r^y V'-^^^ »X>.v^ 



»C.T- 


















'^RoWocMEoT A 5-rtRCoPlf, /k4^ 






T, BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 135 

Ethnia assamemis, Durrant, P. Z. S., 1906, 490(3) ; Meyr., Cat. Hypononiouta, 

p. 27 (1913)(4). 
Psecadin hockingella, WIsm., P. Z. 8.. 1880, 90-91. t. 12, ff. 8, 9, '.)n(^). 

Occurs from Kashmir and Dluirmsala along the Himalayas to Hikkini. 
Cachar and the Naga Hills. We have it from Khatmandu (Nepal). 

L'irva on " Poonah '' (jirobably Ehretid serrata) in April and May at 
Dharmsala. Described(^) as " wonderfully active with a snake-like .motion, 
exceedingly swift, either backwards oi' forwards at pleasure "" {Hocking). 

Description of preserved larva : — " pale yellow and black, with a tinge 
of orange at the side of each segment. Head black with a pale vellowish 
stripe across the face, second segment orange and black. Along the middle 
of back is a row of conspicuous pale yellow s))ots, two on each segment after 
the third, the anterior spot slightly indented at the sides and behind, sharply 
indented in front with black, tlie second somewhat square, with a black spot 
in its centre. On each side of the back is a reduplicated black stripe, contain- 
ing abdut three pale yellowish spots on each segment. The sides of the 
segments about the spiracles are pale 3'ellowish with an orange tinge, spotted 
with black ; and above the legs runs a narrow black festooned stripe. There 
are several wart-like tufts of thinly growing hairs on each segment. Anterior 
legs black, prolegs pale yellowish '"(®). 

ANTICRATES LUCIFERA, MEYR. 

Anticrates lucifem, Meyr., B. J., XXIII, 128-129 (1911)(i). 

Described from Karwar, in North Kanara ; larva on Sideroxylon tomen- 
tosum {Sapotaced) ; cocoon on leaf('). ^ 

COLEOPHORID^. tu^i^ , tfi^/i&tt; - 

The early stages of no Indian species seem to be known. 

Outside of India, the members of the genus Coleophora usually mine in 
leaves or seeds as young larvae, later on living in a portable case, composed 
of cut fraginents of leaf fastened together with silk, or of the empty husk of 
a seed which they have eaten out. The larvae have all legs present, but the 
abdominal prolegs are little developed, as they are not used for walking ; 
plate of 2 well-developed, usually dark and divided medially ; plates of 3 and 4 
usually developed, divided medially and transversely ; plate of 13 developed. 
Numerous life-histories in this group are described in Volumes 4 and 5 of 
Stainton's Natural History of the Tineina. 

Rh'fdinastis contains an Austialian species whose larva is a true 
gall- producer on Acacia. 



i-*t^~^ 



kove7nber, 1920, Entomological Serifs. 



Vol. VI, No. 6 



MEMOIRS OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

IN INDIA 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN INSECTS 
M ICROLEPIDOPTEKA 

VT. GRACILLARIAD^ 

BY 

T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S 
Imperial Entomologist 




— ^- — . ,^ ^^f, --- 

DIEU r] ET MONI — T dROIT 



AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, PUSA 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED FOR 

THE IMPERIAL DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN INDIA 



THACKER, SPINK & CO., CALCUTTA 
W. THACKER & CO., 2, Creed Lank, LONDON 



PLATE XXX Hi 




Lithocolletis tnarcha: — Moth, natural size and 

magnified. Below is seen a side-view of the 
head, considerably magnified. 



UKoOJuJrc. ViC^iA ^ ,K^,^/irvn. U^.W.^ \V| IjUj L (AA.^•^^-^3' 



LIFK-HISTORIES OF INDIAN INSECTS. 
MICROLEPIDOPTERA. 

VI. CIRACILLAPJADiE. 



BY 

T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., 
Imperial Entomologist. 

(Received for publication on 27th June 1919.) 

LITHOCOLLETIS TRIARCHA, MEYR. (PLATE XXXIII.) 

Lithocolletis triarcha, Mevr.. B. J., XVIII, 811 (1908)(i) ; Lefroy, Ind. Ins. ^ 

Life, p. 537 (1909)(2);'^vrAx. i^.l,orC!> :'-M.^^^. I'.io'i. ^,^n; ^ r^.iii c.H' . ^-^-^-^ i- 
Described from Pusa, where it was reared from larvae mining leaves of 
cotton('). Lefroy (2) gives the foodplant as tree-cotton, but most varieties 
of cotton may be attacked. 

Larva flattened, but all * legs present ; mines lower surface of leaf ; 
pupation in mine(2). 

This species is common at Pusa on cotton, especially on American varie- 
ties, and is probably widely distributed in the Plains, although not yet noted 
elsewhere. The larva mines the lower surface of the leaf which turns yellowish 
white with brown spots. The larva is about 4 ram. long, segments distinct, 
tapering posteriorly ; head small, pointed anteriorly, greenish or yellow ; 
prothorax broad with two brownish spots separated by a greenish band ; 
other segments yellow with a pinkish or greenish tinge, skin rather transparent 
especially on sixth to eighth abdominal segments ; anal shield green, shiny ; 
primary hairs short ; legs short ; yellow or green ; prolegs on third to fifth 

* Tliia statement is incorrect and based on an erroneous statement in A. Mujtaba's 
Oage«slip !J. 



Ibl 



x^ J^ ^--^^ 



138 LIFE-HISTORIES OF GRACILLARIAD^ 

abdominal segments, together with the anal claspers. Pupation takes place 
inside the mine, in a white silken cocoon. Pupa about 2'5 mm. long, brown. 
A large j^roportion of the larvae are parasitized, (Umrao Bahadur's Cage- 
slip 20.) 
\ LITHOCOLLETIS VIRGULATA, MEYR. (PLATE XXXIV.) 

Lithocolletis virgulata, Meyr., B. J., XXIII, 118-119 (1914)(i), Exot. Micr., 

II, 5-6 (1916){2). 

Originally described from Karwar, where it was bred from cocoons found 
on Ficus{^). 

Reared at Pusa from " larvae mining blotches on uj)per surface of leaves 
of B I (tea fro ndosa, iniir^ting within the mine. This is normal for the genus 
and is doubtless correct, but does not accord with Mr. Maxwell's account of 
the original specimens, bred from cocoons ' unusually large for the size of the 
moth ' found exposed on leaves of a tree at first stated to be a Ficus but 
this identification was subsequently withdrawn ; it seems likely that there 
must have been some error here, and that the moths did not really emerge 
from these cocoons ". 

Mined leaves of Butea frondosa, containing larvae and pupae, were found 
at Pusa on 22nd February 191G and 11th March 1916. The mines are situated 
on the upper surface of the leaf. Pupation takes place within the mine in a 
thin cocoon woven beneath the epidermis of the leaf. A large proportion of 
the larvae are parasitized by a small Hymenopteron, of which four to six 
grubs are found in each larva, these grubs pupating inside the body of the 
host which becomes twisted up like a rope (figure 2). (C. S, Misra's Cage-slip, 
dated 22nd February 1916.) 

LITHOCOLLETIS CONISTA, MEYR. (PLATE XXXV, FIG. 1.) 

Lithocolletis conista, Meyr., E. M. M., XLVII, 212-213 (Sept. 1911)(i), Wytsm. 

Gen. Ins. fasc, 128, p. 8, tab., f. 11 (1912)(2), Exot. Micr., I, 622 (1916) 

[descrij)tion amended] (3). 

Described from Pusa, where it was reared from larvae mining leaves of 
Triwnfetta neglecta (Tiliaceae)(i). 

Larvte were found at Pusa on 3rd June 1910 mining under the epidermis 
of the under surfaces of leaves of Triumjetta neglecta. Many larvae feed in 
one leaf, each mining an area of about one-seventh to one-fifth of a square 
inch. The mines are of an irregular shape, usually bounded by the larger 
leaf-veins, as the larvae never cross such veins. The larvae eat very little 
of the mesophyll substance and a newly-attacked leaf is hardly distinguishable 



PLATE XXXIV. 







g. 1. Larva and parasitized larva 
(X 16). 



Fig. 2. Mined leaf of Butea frondosa with 
empty pupa-cases protruding. 





Fig. 3. a. Pupa, natural size and magnified ( x 20 ) ; 6, moth, natural size and 

magnified ( x26) ; c, side-view of head of moth, highly magnified. 

LiTHOCOLLETIS VIRGULATA. 



PLATE XXXV 




Fig. 1. Lilhocolletis conista: — a. Leaf of Triumfetta neglecta, mined by larvae: 

h, arrangement of setigerous tubercles on larval segments ; c, a single hair, 

more high'y magnified ; d, moth, natural size and magnified ( x 12). 




Fig. 2. Epicephala chalrharmn: — Moth, resting poslure. 



t. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER l3^ 

from above, but when the larvic pupate it is easily distinguished on account 
of its crumpled appearance. 

When full-grown the larva is about 3"5 mm. long, slightly flattened and 
slightly tapering posterioi'ly, segments distinct, thoracic nuich broader thai: 
abdominal segments ; head pale yellow tinged with brownish, much smaller 
than prothorax, ftattened, tapering anteriorly ; general colour very pale yellow, 
the green contents of alimentary canal showing through the transparent skin, 
prolegs only on third to fifth abdominal segments together with the ana 
claspers ; hairs on segments long and thickened a little above the base, there 
being four such hairs on each segment. Before pupation the colour changes 
to orange-yellow. 

The larva pupates inside its mine. First the two opposite edges of the 
mine are drawn closer by means of silken threads passed across ; then a white 
silken cocoon is formed by lining this cavity with silk. The leaf becomes 
crumple:! on account of the edges of all the mines being drawn together in 
this way. 

The pupa is about 3 mm. long from head to anal extremity, cylindrical, 
tapering posteriorly, yellow ; head prolonged into a pointed process, as is 
also the dorsal portion of the anal extremity ; long hairs, bent posteriorly 
scattered on the segments ; sixth abdominal segment ventrally with a paired 
lateral stifi blunt process on its posterior portion. 

Before emergence of the moth, the pupa wriggles out at one end of the 
cocoon for more than half its length,, its ventral surface held away from the 
surface of the leaf. (Insectary Cage-slip 838.) 

LITHOCOLLETIS ITEINA, MEYR. 
Lithocolletis iteina, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 173 (1918)(^). 

" Bred at Pusa in March from larvse mining blotches on underside of 
leaves of Salix "('). 

This species was reared at Pusa from larvae found mining leaves of Salix 
sp. on 27th February 1916. The larva mines beneath the epidermis on the 
under surface of the leaf, there being usually only one larva in the same leaf. 
The epidermal layer, under which the larva works, becomes detached from 
the leaf tissue and contracts to a certain extent longitudinally, so as to form 
a sort of rib. The internal tissue of the leaf is not much eaten ; hence the 
mine is hardly visible from the upper surface in most cases. In some cases, 
however, portions of the mesophyll tissue are nibbled and some scattered 
yellow spots appear on the upper surface. The larva is about 3 mm. long 
and 0"5 mm. broad across midbody, cylindrical, tapering i)osteriorly, segments 



l46 LIFE-HiStORlES OF GRAClLL ARIADNE 

distinct, transparent whitish, fourth to eighth abdominal segments tinged with 
j-ellow ; head much smaller than prothorax, shiny, pale brownish, mouth- 
parts brown ; tubercles on body bearing long pale whitish hairs ; second to 
eighth abdominal segments with a large black hemispherical dorsal spot ; 
prolegs only on third to fifth abdominal segments, together with the anal 
claspers. 

Pupation takes place inside the mine. The pupa is dirty brown, about 
4'5 mm. long and 0"75 mm. broad across the thoracic region, cylindrical, 
tapering posteriorly ; head produced into a sort of short beak bent ventrally. 
Before emergence of the moth the pupa wriggles out of the mine to a certain 
extent and the empty pupa-case is left protruding from the mine. The moths 
emerged between 1st and 15th March and several Hymenopterous parasites 
were also bred. (Tahl Eam's Cage-slip 141.) 

LITHOCOLLETIS CLARISONA, IVIEYR. 

Lithocolldis clarisona, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 622 (1916)('). 

Bred at Peradeniya in July from mines in leaves of Urena lohata (Mal- 
vaceae) {Rutherford){^). 

LITHOCOLLETIS_BAUHINL-E, STT. I 

f^\ v^-u><,, ^^"^'^ithocolletis hauhimce, Stainton, T. E. S. (n.s.), HI, 303-304 (1856)(i). 
uaxCm «*'^ 'JT" ![^v^ Described from Calcutta('). 
*^ v^ ^^/Ui/N>»_ 't La^i'va mines the upper cuticle of the leaves of Bauhinia purpurea in 
^^"T^-— irregular circular or oval patches, the leaf remaining uncontracted. Before 

changing to pupa, the larva spins a slight silken cocoon, drawing together 
the two cuticles of the leaf in the centre of the mined part, and forming almost 
an exact circle {Atk-i)isoH){^). 

LITHOCOLLETIS DORINDA, MEYR. " . . 

Liihocolletis dorinda, Meyr,, Exot. Micr., I, 21 (1912)(i). 

Described from Pusa, where it was reared from larvae mining leaves of , 
Desmodium (Leguminosoe)( '), 

This species has been reared at Pusa from Desmodium leaves collected 
on 31st July 1907. The larva apparently mines the leaf although it does 
not seem to have been noted and our specimens were reared from pupse found 
inside the mines, three pupae being found in one mine. The pupa was de- 
scribed as 2 mm. long, tapering considerably posteriorly, yellowish-brown. 
(A. Mujtaba's Cage-slip 26.) 



^ ^ 






Ct) ^. _ o 



rwti -i «X/iv< . ju^ K*"^ l-<^AA/«_t t»v<;.^t'^ i~.,;^-«^ ^^ c — H'cLt^ '^ 






L'koOf<>LeX'^s/\c^(^lo io;<^ /xa^ |£;«jt-. f)v<<;,, TT ^ iT Qc(^ \<)-^0 ■ ^U'tU^ ; fc-^ n-vw. *tf/;tf l)<vi< . 



Lli^ocv mx^^' -fA^u|ln.Ywx^ ^U^,£7^nf,k:c^ WT r«6\ .5»H,3 ^l^^oj ?;jJ - , i^<^ 




Fig. 2. Lithoeolletis neodoxa, Meyr. 

a Mined leaf of lehhaini, epidermis cut open to show the caterpillar (x 4); bu Lateral view 
of larva (X 24); 62, Dorsal view of larva (x 24); e, Pupa (x 24); d. Moth (X 24). 
The smaller figures against b, e and d show the natural sizes. 



t. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 141 

LITHOCOLLETIS GANODES, MEYR. 

lithocolletis ganodes, Meyr., Exot. Micr, II, 172 (1918)('),''fc^'^ "^^-^ a^>^^;.T.Ibl ^^. 15^} 

" Bred in October from larva iniiiiiio; leaf of Pyrus malus "(') at Para- 
chinar, Kurrain Valley, N. W. F. I'roviiK-e. 

LITHOCOLLETIS INCURVATA, MEYR. -^^ '^^^ t^'^J 

Lithocolleds incurraht, Meyr.. Exot. Micr., I, 022 (19J())('). 

" Bred at Karwai', North Kaiuira, in August from larva^ mining blotches 
in leaves of SfrohihiHtl/rs cdllosus (jVeaiitliacea') "'(')• 

LITHOCOLLETIS NEODOXA, MEYK. 'TfjMJ^ ,^- vl'JV^i^ )• ^-'^'^ ^ 

Lithocollelis neodoxa, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, (;21 (191(i)('). t'-'^T)^-^!" ^f^^^^^^^^^^r^r^'^- 
Bred at Pusa in August from larva? mining in leaves of Cajanus indicus. ^ Tik^o-^ 

This has also been reared at Pusa from larva? found mining leaves of 
Rhyncliosia sp. (? 7?. minima) (Leguminosae) on 31st August 1917. The mine 
commences as a yellowish-white patch at about the centre of the upper surface 
of the leaflet. By the time the larva is full-grown the mine extends over the 
whole of the upper surface and looks like a yellowish- white thin membranous 
covering. From the under surface in most cases hardly anything is jjerceptible 
but in a few cases, when the niesophyll tissue has been nibbled, faint spots 
are to be seen. The larva pupates inside the mine under cover of the mem- 
branous pellicle. A silken cocoon is foimed and the two halves of the blade 
of the leaflet are partially drawn towards each other, the leaflet assuming the 
shape of a boat. The pupa wriggles out through one end of the cocoon and 
through the membranous pellicle before the moth bursts out of the j)upa- 
case and the empty j)upa-case remains partly protruding through the pellicle. 
Moths emerged between 3rd and 7th September. (Tnsectary Cage-slip 1668J 

PHRIXOSCELES PLEXIGRAPHA, MEYR. r / * 

Phrixosceles plexigmpho,, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 623 (191G)(i);':tXiv^ ^'^'^.IT^^IK .^^-^ ■^•'^' ''^n;AoJ 

" Reared at Pusa and Coimbatore fiom larvae feeding in pods of Cajanus 
indicus "('). 

This species has been reared at Pusa from a larva found on 23rd March 
1911, mining the surface of a green ai//((r {Cajanus indicus) pud on which broad 
zigzag whitish maikings had been produced. When full-fed the larva emerged 
from the mine and pupated in a corner of the cage in a white membranous 
cocoon covered with a number of small globules such as are found on the 
cocoon of Ejncephala chalybacma. Pupal period five days, the moth emerging 
on 8th April. (Insectary Cage-slip 1038.) 




142 LIFE-HISTORTES OF GRACILLARIAD^l 

EPICEPHALA CHALYBACMA, MEYR. (PLATE XXXVI.) ^^^ f 
Epicephda chahjhacma, Meyr., B. J., XVIII, 811 (1908)(i), Exot. Micr., I 

21-22 (1912)(2) ; Green, Pr. Ent. Soc, 1912, jsp. cvii-cix, figs. (1913)(3). 

Originally described from Peradeniya(i), this species has been recorded 
from Pusa(2) and also occurs at Calcutta, Nagpur, Serampore, Coimbatore 
and at Minbu in Lower Burma, and probably wherever Ccesalpinia (Poinciana) 
pulchenima is grown in the Plains of India. 

Larva without prolegs on 10, pale greenish-yellow ; head yellow ; when 
full-grown, with a red band on each of segments 2-12, a red spot on 13 ; feeds 
inside unexpanded flowers of Poinciana fulcherrwm (Leguminosse), showing 
no outward sign ; when full-grown, it gnaws its way out and pupates in a 
white cocoon covered with bubbles, usually on the upjjer surface of a leaf 
{Fletc}ier){^). 

Foodplants : — Poinciana pulcherri7na{^), Pithecolohiiim saman{^). 

" Larva small, but robust, measuring — when extended^about 6 mm. 
It is of a dull, pale, transhicent green colour, with an irregular crimson band 
completely encircling each segment '"'(3). 

The egg, which is small, whitish, elliptical in outline and somewhat 
flattened, is laid on the unopened flower-buds of the foodplant, which is usually 
Ccesal'pinia {Poinciana) pulcherrima, a common ornamental shrub in Indian 
gardens, although this species has been found also on gold mohur [Poinciana 
regia) at Pusa and on the rain-tree {Pithecolobium saman) at Peradeniya. 
The proximal face of the egg is flattened and the distal end rounded, with 
several parallel longitudinal striae. The larva, on hatching, bores into the 
bud and feeds mainly on the stamens and but rarely on the ovary. The 
entrance hole is too small to be noticed and also is probably closed by growth 
of the flower ; at any rate, no outward sign of damage is noticeable, although 
the bud may contain a full-grown larva and be filled with its reddish-brown 
])ellets of excrement. The young larva is uniform pale greenish-yellow. When 
full-grown it is about 6 mm. long and 1'3 mm. broad across mid-body, tapering 
in both directions, body segments distinct, skin soft ; head yellow ; other 
segments j^ale green with a crimson band which is continued, although inter- 
rupted, around those segments which do not possess legs or prolegs ; anal 
segment with a dorsal crimson spot ; prolegs only on third to fifth abdominal 
segments, with the anal claspers. 

When full-fed the larva gnaws its way out of the flower and usually drops 
by a silken threa^i on to the upper surface of a leaflet, where it forms a most 
curious cocoon, whose upper surface is ornamented with small bubbles. 
Occasionally this cocoon is formed on the lower surface of a leaflet. The 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXVI. 
Epicephala chalybacma. 

'Fig. 1. Shoot of CcBsalpinia pulchenima, showing a full-fed larva dropping by 
a thread from an attacked flower-bud and three cocoons on leaflets 
(natural sizes). 
., 2. Larva, natural size and magnified ( X 13). 
„ 3. Pupa, natural size and magnified. 
„ 4. Cocoon, with empty pupa extruded, magnified. 

5. Moth, resting position, natural size and magnified. 
,,,, 6. Moth, wings expanded, „ „ ,, .. 



PLATE XXXVl 




Epicephala. chalybacma. 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 14^) 

cocoon, wliicli is pure wliite, measures about 5 to (? mm. in length and about 
2-5 to 3 mm. in breadth, but the ground-work is much larger and may extend 
over the entire surface of a leaflet. The larva first of all applies a layer of 
silk over the surface of the leaf and this forms the giound-work, and then it 
begins to cover itself by forming the roof of the cocoon. Subsequent proceed- 
ings, and particularly the method of formation of the bubbles, may perhaps 
be best described in Mr. Green's words :— 

" The remarkable little cocoons are attached to the leaves 

and stems of many different plants, to posts and railings or to any material 
that mav happen to be in the neighbourhood. These white cocoons are 
elongate, with a median ridge or crest composed of minute glistening globules, 
the nature of whicli has hitherto puzzled me. 1 could never find the cater- 
pillars that were responsible for the structures. One particular post, that 
was constantly ornamented with the cocoons, has been watched day and 
night for some time. I naturally expected to find the caterpillars making 
the ascent. The ground at the base of the post was scanned minutely, but 
no wandering caterpillars were to be found. It really seemed that, if they 
did not come up from below, they must come down from above. One morning 
after concluding my search, I instinctively glanced upwards, and there — sure 
enough — -were several minute larvae, hanging by long silken threads from the 
overspreading branches of an Inga-smnan tree {Pithecolobiimi saman). They 
had let themselves down from a height of 30 or 40 feet, and were swinging 
in the breeze. This part of the mystery was now solved. They hung sus- 
pended until the wind drove them against something solid, and there they 
immediately attached themselves and constructed their cocoons. The con- 
struction of the cocoon is connnenced immediately the caterpillar obtains a 
foothold. The position appears to be a matter of no consequence. The work 
is completed within two hours, which accounts for my failure to find uncovered 
larvse. After weaving a thin silken covering, the creature rests for a few 
moments, and a convulsive movement of the posterior segments is noticeable. 
Very soon a globular pellet — ajjparently composed of dried bubbles — is voided 
whole. The caterpillar then turns round inside the cocoon, rapidly attaches 
the globule to the roof of the cocoon by a stout silken cord, bites a small hole 
close to the point of attachment, and pushes the globule and cord up through 
this aperture. The rent is then quickly repaired. This is followed by another 
short pause, the evacuation of a second pellet, and a repetition of the previous 
performance, the second pellet being placed at the opposite extremity of the 
cocoon, in consequence of the caterpillar having reversed its position in the 
cocoon. The same movements are continued, until the complete cr^st of 



144 LIFE-HISTORIES OF ORACILLARIAD^ 

globules is in position, when the labours of the little animal are over, and it 
composes itself for pupation. The number of pellets probably varies, but — ■ 
in one cocoon — I have counted more than forty of these little objects "(3). 

These observations have been corroborated by Y. Ramachandra Rao and 
by Mrs. Drake, of 8erampore. The former, in a note dated July 191G, wrote : — 
" These cocoons are remarkable owing to the fact that they are ornamented 
on the upper surface by a collection of numerous bubble-like balloonets. These 
are prepared at the hind end of the alimentary canal of the caterpillar and 
ejected, whereupon the larva makes a slit on the top of the cocoon, attaches 
a thread to the bubble, pushes it out, and then patches up the roof. Each 
balloonet, when examined carefully, is found to be made up of several cham- 
bers ". Mrs. Drake, in a letter dated 5th May 1914, wrote : — " The cocoons 
are generally made on the leaflets, and it is the making of the cocoon that is 
so exceedingly interesting. The caterpillar, after enclosing itself in so thin 
a covering that its red bands are still quite conspicuous, makes a little globule 
and, parting the threads at one end of its cover, thrusts out the globule. For 
five minutes it spins again, then turns completely round and thrusts another 
»lobule out at the other end. This it continues to do till its cocoon is covered 
with the glistening globules, taking five minutes for each globule and thrusting 
them out from alternate ends till they join in the middle of the cocoon. The 
way the globules come out is more like soap-bubbles than anything I can 
think of — indeed, I wrote my little daughter that I had found a caterpillar 
blowinc^ soap-bubbles. The cocoons I have had under observation have been 
made in the morning and the moth has emerged in the evening of the seventh 
day ". As the bubbles are thrust out, the cuts are closed with more silk applied 
from within. In this manner nearly the whole of the cocoon may be covered 
with these stalked bubbles. In a completed cocoon no openings can be seen 
and the stalks of the bubbles appear to arise from the surface of the cocoon. 
As regards the object of these bubbles, it has been suggested that enemies 
may be deluded into supposing that they are empty cocoons of parasites and 
that the cocoon is therefore untenanted. The larva is, ho\\ever, subject to 
attack by Chalcidid, and Braconid parasites. It may be noted that in the 
allied North American genus Marmara the exterior of the cocoon of M. 
salictella is described as " covered with little froth-like globules, which 
resemble minute pearls ". (Clemens, Tineina of North America, p. 212 
(1872).) 

The larva pupates inside this cocoon and the moth emerges after six or 
seven days. The pupa is about 4 mm. long, cylindrical, and rather less than 
I mm. broad, light yellow with a greenish tinge, the eyes black and prominent 



© ^ tD 






et,^i^,t,_5Ui;^ >- L^ V-^-^J 









T. BATNBRIGGE FLETCHER H5 

in advanced sta<];es ; the wing-cases reach to tlie sixth al)(h)iniiial seirment, 
the antenna-cases ahnost exceed the anal extremity and are a little h)nger 
than the hindleg-cases. The pupa wriggles out of the cocoon to some extent 
before emergence and the empty pupa-case is left protruding from the cocoon. 
Although the cocoons are seen abundantly on leaves of Cnsal pinid pulrher- 
riniu and the larv* nuiy be found commonly in the Hower-buds, the moth is 
less commonly seen, it sits in the characteristic Gracillariad position, with 
the head raised and the hinder extremity resting on the surface (Plate XXXV, 
fig. 2). 

EPICEPHALA ALBIFRONS, STT. 
Omix ? albifrons, Stainton, T. E. 8. (n.s.), V, 122 (18r)<J)('). 
Epicephala albifrons, Meyr., B. J. XVIII, 813 (I<)()8)(2); Rec. Ind. Mus., 

V, 227(3). l^!o 

Originally described from Calcutta, E. alhijmns has since been recorded 
also from Purneah(^), North C'oorg(2) and Travnncore(3). 

This species has been bred at Pusa from larvae found in fruits oi jar-nmla 
{Ph>/Uantkus Niniri), and we have it also from Katihar and Bassein Fort 
(Bombay). 

Larvae were found at Pusa on 19th November 191 1 in fruits of PhijUanthuft 
Niruri, feeding on the contents of the fruits. The young larva was described 
as 3 mm. long, cylindrical, slightly tapering posteriorly, segments distinct, 
head smaller than prothorax, pale yellow ; all other segments with a deep 
pink broad ring rumiing all around them, the intersegmental portions pale 
yellow (turning light blue prior to pupation), the pink ring interrupted dorsally 
on prothorax and the rings on metathorax and first abdominal segment con- 
joined ; prolegs only on third to fifth abdominal segments, besides the anal 
claspers. The gait of the larva is rather semi-looping. When full-grown the 
larva emerges from the fruit and pupates in any convenient nook in a cocoon 
formed under the shelter of a covering. From larvae collected on 19th Novem- 
ber three moths emerged between 13th and 23rd December 1911, but one 
larva was observed to be still resting in its cocoon on 15th January 1912 and 
remained in this condition until 2nd July 1912 ; on 1st August it was noted 
that the larva, which had been green until then, had turned yellow and 
appeared to be going to pupate and by the next day it had pupated, the moth 
emerging on 8th August 1912. The occurrence of this larval resting condition 
is noteworthy and may be compared with the long-cycle larvae of Platyedra 
gossypiella. The pupa wriggles out of one end of the cocoon to some extent 
before emergence of the moth. (Pusa Insectarv Cage-slip 921.) 



146 LIFE-HISTORIES OF PtRACILLARIAD^ 

ACROCERCOPS PENTALOCHA, MEYR. 
Aciocercops jjetitahcha, Meyr., Gen. Ins. fasc, 128, p. 15 (191 2)('), B. J., 
no XXIII, «3 (1914)(2). 

Bred at Karwar, in North Kanara, in August from larva mining blotches 
in leaves of mango {Mangifera indicn) ; ]iupa in external white flat oval 
cocoon {MaxurU){^). 

ACROCERCOPS ORDINATELLA, MEYR. ^-^ v-(-^ (f^ ■ ^o^ - ^^^J 
Gracilaria ordinatelh, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., T, 145 (1880)('). 
^^__,...-^_.^(Jo)iopomorpha ordinatella, Meyr., I.e., XXXII, 54 (1907)(2). 
r-'-'^X^^^Ti^ -^^^^ ordinatella, Meyr., B. J., XVIII, 816 (1908)(3), Exot. Micr., I, 285 

'^[,f^)'^'(■^■'^\ IV)) (1914)(*) ; Fletcher, Pusa Bull. 59, Note 85 (1916)(5) ; Meyr., Exot. Micr., 
tji.^^y^''^^^ ' I' 624-625 (1916) [redescr.](6). 

. f '; . Originally described from New South Wales('), this species also occurs 

\*J^^ ^ in Queensland(2), Ceylon(3. 4^^ Coorg(6), Mysore(5), Kanara(6) and apparently 

in Burma(^). We have it from Mysore and Virajpet (South Coorg). 

It has been reared in July at Peradeniya from larva mining leaves of 
Litsea and is also a pest of camphor, mining in the leaves(5). 

" Larva cylindrical, segments rather strongly marked, wholly oiunge, with 
tinge of crimson; mining blotch in upper '&\di^ oiX^^lai Alseodaiplme semecar- 
pifolia (Lauraceie) and an unidentified shrub (also recorded- from Litsea, there- 
fore probably feeds on several Lauracese) ; cocoon oval, orange, external, but 
occasionally within blotch, with two or three bubbles attached {Majcwell)"{^). 
Meyrick(^) says that the " brilliant amber-yellow " larvae described by 
Stainton under the name quadrifasciata [q. v.] " are presumably ordinatella." 

ACROCERCOPS SUPPLEX, MEYR. 

Acrocercops supplex, Meyr., Exot. Micr., 11, 175 (1918)(i);iUA*./^^-j^^jv,,, i^^ 

" Bred at Pusa in August from larvae mining blotches in leaves oiTermi- 
'nalia catappa (Combretacese), in company with A. erioplaca and undistin- 
guished from them ''(^). 

ACROCERCOPS QUADRIFASCIATA, STT. 
GracUaria qtiadrifasciata, Stt., T. E. S. (3), I, pt. iii, pp. 295-296, t. 10, f. 5 

(1862)(i). 
Acrocercops quadrifasciata, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 624-625 (1916)(-). 

Described from Calcutta where the larva? were found by Atkinson mining 
the under side of the leaves of Urena lohata and the upper side of the leaves 
of an unknown ])lant. Atkinson's description of these larvae was : — 

" Larva mining leaves of Urefia lohata, 25th May 1856. — Very pale whitish- 
green, dorsal vessel deep green ; head small ; jaws light chestnut ; legs 






-b ^^- b^;; [u«H ^^c;.< 0.^^ ^.^ j:^^ 5.^^^_^ P^/rI 






^ JAVA Q 



"^ . it) 







0) 



PLATE XXXV 11. 









Acrocerccps phaeospora: — a. Leaf of Eugenia jambolana, showing larval galleries 
and cocoons ; 6, larva ( x 10) ; c, pupa ( x 10) ; d, rnoth ( x 10). 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 147 

concolorou.s with the body. The larva first detaches the h)wer cutit le foi' tlio 
full extent of the mine, and then proceeds to devour tlio parencliyma. 

" Larva on ?, 4th June 1856. — Of a uniform brilliant amber- 
yellow, transparent, smooth, with slight depressions on the sides of each 
segment ; jaws reddish ; the alimentary canal, when full, gives the appearance 
of a deep green band down the back. The larva at first mines a very irre- 
gularly-contoited gallery uiider the upper cuticle, and whilst engaged in this 
operation it only consumes the juices which unite the cuticle with the paren- 
chyma. Gradually the greater part or the whole of the surface occupied by 
this gallery is mined, so as to form one chamber. The upper cuticle becomes 
wrinkled, and slightly contorts the leaf, so as to form a spacious apartment 
and the larva proceeds to devour the parenchyma. The leaf is not discoloured 
but appears blotched with white, from the colourless upper cuticle. When 
full-grown the larva quits the mine, and forms a compact orange or vermilion 
coloured cocoon in a depression of a leaf, or any other convenient place. After 
a few days the pupa thrusts one end through the cocoon, and the moth 
escapes "'('). 

" The name [quadrifasciata, Stt.] must be restricted to the specimens bred 
from pale green larvae mining blotches in under side of leaves of Urena lohata 
(Malvaceae) "(2). 

ACROCERCOPS PROSACTA, MEYR. 

Acrocercops 2irosacta, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 175 (1918)(');^^,^-"!i f^A-^f^^^^jUb^'J^'^' ^V 

" Bred at Pusa in August from larva mining blotch in leaf of Ipomcea 
batatas (Convolvulacese) "(i' 

Larvae were collected at Pusa on 26th July 1916 mining leaves of sweet- 
potato and the moths emerged between 4th and 6th August. No description 
of the early stages was made. (Ram Saran's Cage-slip, dated 26th July 1916.) 

ACROCERCOPS PH.EOSPORA, MEYR. (PLATE XXXVllj/^i^ «-^ ((>---io ) 

Acrocercops pha'ospora, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 627 (1916)(i)''k/t/(^,?^.Lii &v^. rKwT^j I . lb i lN,pf.\[ 

" Bred in August at Belgaum from larva mining a large elongate opaque 
much swollen blotch in leaf of Eugenia ja))ihol(ina (Murtacew) ; cocoon orange, 
external. {Maxwell) "(')• 

Also reared at Pusa from larva? found on 16th April 1917 mining green 
leaves of Eugenia jambolana, causing large blister-like swellings on the upper 
surface. There may be a single blister on either blade or two blisters on the 
two blades, each blister being of course caused by a single larva. The larva 
is small and delicate, about 3-5 mm. long, uniform pale yellow, head slightly 

11 



148 LIFE-HISTORIES OF GRACILLARIAD^ 

brownish. When full-grown the larva leaves the mine and forms a circular 
flat cocoon on a depressed corner {e.ij., by the side of a raised leaf- vein or on 
the upper side of the midrib) and pupales in it. The larvte are heavily- 
parasitized by a small black Hvmenojjterous (ly. The moths are on the wing 
at Pusa throughout May. (fnsectary Cage-slip Vu'l.) 

ACROCERCOPS TERMINALI^, STT. 
Gracilaria terminaliw, Stainton, T. E. S. (3), I, 298-299, t. 10, f. 8 (18G2)(i). 
. fl ^, ^. Acrocercops lerminalke, Meyr., B. J., XVIII, 817 (1908)(2). 

\r T lui ^r5f^ ^^^' Described from Calcutta from larvae mining the under side of the leaves 

of Terminalia Catappa. The larva was described by Atkinson as " small, 
but very active. It detaches the lower cuticle over a wide extent of surface ; 
it devours both layers of parenchyma, not continuously, but in very small 
oblong patches, so that the upper surface of the mined portion of the leaf 
which is blotched with purple, appears thickly sprinkled over with white dots. 
The lower cuticle, which is detached, is very thin and transparent, and, by 
slightly contracting, it curves the upper portion of the leaf, so as to form a 
very spacious vaulted chamber for the little resident. On attaining its full 
growth, the larva leaves tlie mine and spins in some convenient corner a 
compact white fcocoon "'('). 

ACROCERCOPS CATHEDR/EA, MEYR. 
Acrocercops cathedrcea, Meyr., B. J., XVIII, 817 (1908)(i), I.e.; XXIII , 11^ 

^m^{^) ; Fletcher, Entl. Note 84 (1916)t3)-fcev J-^.jiI e^+^-f^-^-"^^*^tf^ 
Acrocercops jjhalarotis [nomen nudum], Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 538 ( 1909)(*). 

Recorded from the Khasi Hills{'), Pusa(^' ^), Kanara( ' ^ ), Hajshahi(3) and 
Coimbatore(3). 

Larvar-fiftifiing-learv^s- of Achyrmdkes aspertt{^ *). 

Larva mining inconspicuous galleries in leaves of " Kungina " creepeT(*). 

Larva mining leaves of mango at Pusa in August 1908. Also recorded 
from Rajshahi in March 1911 and Coimbatore (31st May 1913). 

Larvse were found at Pusa mining leaves of chick ira {Achyrmithes aspera) 
on 11th September 1915, as many as nine or ten larvae in one leaf. The 
epidermal tissue of both surfaces is attacked and mined into large irregular 
patches measuring as much as 31 mm. in diameter (average about 22 mm.) ; 
the upper surface, where attacked, turns yellow and then brown and the 
lower surface to brownish-green. 

The larva is about 3'5 mm. long and 0'75 mm. broad, yellowy segments 
4istinct ; head short with brown cheeks, clypeus and mandibles ; hairs oq 



m 



•9 "oiJ 










■y '^)^A 




•1 -oi.-l 




T. RArNBRrrfflK FLETOFIKR 149 

segincufcs \-ery short, arisinn; Fro.ri sinal! sliiny yollow tubercles ; legs short, 
3'ollow. 

When full-grown the larva quits th(> miiip through a small hole tf)m in 
the u])per epidermal layer and ])upates on the green part of the upper surface 
of the same leaf in an oval white cocoon about -1 by 2 mm., constructed inside 
an outer fine irregular brownish covering, measuring about 5 by 2-5 mm. and 
usually placed in a slightly curved portion of the leaf. (Umrao Bahadur's 
Cage-slip 66.) 

Larva3 were also found at Pusa on 12th September 1916, mining leaves of 
Aclujranthes (ispera and from these a moth emerged on 22nd September. 
(Insectary Cage-slip 1192.) 

ACROCERCOi'S ORTHUSTACTA, MEYR. 
Acrocercops orf/ioslacia, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 174 (1918)(i). 

" Bred at Pusa in August from larvae mining blotches in leaves of Sida 
cordifolia (Malvaceae) "('). 

Larvae were collected mining hariar leaves at Pusa on 28th July 1916 
and the moths emerged between 1th and 10th August. No description of the 
early stages was made. (Ram Saran's Cage-slip, dated 28th July 1916.) 

Also reared in April 1918 from larvae mining leaves of Sida spinosa. 

^ ACROCERCOPS AUSTEROPA, MEYR. J ^\ ^ 'x. a 

Acrocercops austeropa, Meyr., B. J., XXIII, 121-122 (1914)('). ^^^'"'''^/X^ ' '^-^ f^ 
Described from North Kanara(i). Vi^Xk '\'*> , f i • (|i^tj C 'i>,^j^^ ^•c^i:ii£J^' 

Larva on " Akri "' ; cocoon very flat, attached to surface of leaf, whitish"' •.'■ ■ ■'■'J'~ , 
ochreous, with four scattered bubbles on its surface, a])parently similar to 
those on the cocoon of Ejncephcdd chalyhacnui{^). - ( < 

This species has been reared at Pusa from larvte mining leaves of Banhinia ' 
purpurea and B. variegata. 

ACROCERCOPS RESPLENDENS, STT. 'f^^• ♦U^ ^- ^>«*^-^J / '^^ ' . If* f 
Gracilaria resplendens, Stainton, T. E. S. (3), I, 294-295, t. 10, f. 4 (1862)(»). '_*^*^ "'"'^' 

Acrocercops resplendens, Meyr., B. J., XVIII, 818 (1908)(2), Wyt^m. Gen. 

Ins., fasc. 128, p. 16, tab., ff. 20 «.c (1912)(3). 

Originally described from Calcutta(*) and since recorded from the Khasi 
Hills(-). Common at Pusa, perhaps attached to Ficus religiosa, but not 
yet bred. We have specimens from Pusa, Chapra, Puri and the Khasi Hi)'?. 

ACROCERCOPS TRICYMA.^MEYR. 
Acrocercops tricyma, Meyr., B. J., XYIII, 819-820 (1908)(i). 
Described from the Khasi Hills(i) and Pusa('). Cj)^ 



150 LIFE -HISTORIES OF GRACILLARIADJE 

Bred at Pusa in April from larvae mining leaves of Blumea lacera{^). 

Larvae were found at Pusa on 22nd April 1907 mining leaves of kukraunda * 
(Blumea lacera), four or five larvae sometimes found in a single mine. The 
larva was described as 3 mm. long, rather flattened anteriorly, tapering poste- 
riorly, yellowish-green, head flattened, yellow. Pupation occurred within the 
mine in a cocoon of very white silk. Pupa 3-5 mm. long, yellow, slender. 
Moths emerged between 28th April and 5th May. (A. Mujtaba's Cage-slip 21.) 

y 
ACROCERCOPS .EMULA, MEYR. 

Acrocercops cemula, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 628 (1916)('). 

Bred at Pusa in February from larvae mining leaves of Cynoglossufn 
r. ^^ iBoraginacecB) (Fletcher)(^). We have it also from Virajpet (South Coorg) 
r^ I \,p-, and Abbottabad (larva mining Cynoylossum leaves). 

^.^'^ ■" j.f Larvae were found at Pusa on 6th February 1914 and 16th December 

tX^"-^ 1915, mining in leaves of kukraunda [Cynoglossum sp.). As many as four or 

•^ five larvae may be present in a single leaf mining in the epidermal layers of 

--' f^^j^-' *^'^'^ the, upper surface and feeding on the chlorophyll, the tunnels being situated 
'^ V. • CAA.^^^ ^^ ^^® middle of the leaves and not necessarily on the edges only. The larval 

\- excrement is deposited in one place within the mine and not in a line, and 

the mine is not linear but long and broad, although irregular in shape. If the 
upper epidermis is removed the larva is able to spin another thin webbing 
over it. The larva is yellow and about 6 mm. long by 0'7 mm. broad ; the 
head is the most highly chitinized portion and is dark brown, mandibles black, 
antennae three-jointed, third joint rather pointed and longer than the other 
two together ; legs blackish ; three pairs of prolegs and anal claspers ; each 
segment with a single small lateral hair situated near the spiracle ; dorsal 
area smooth, without hairs ; nine spiracles, each slightly protruded above the 
body-surface and tinged with brown. 

When full-fed the larva pupates in a silken web spun below the part 
mined and immediately below the upper whitened epidermis. The moulted 
skin is attached to the anal end of the pupa within the flatfish cocoon. The 
pupa is about 5 mm. long, yellowish-white, ventral surface flattened, dorsal 
surface smooth and cylindrical, head portion broadest and abruptly terminated 
in a point, each segment with very minute single dorsal hairs, segments distinct. 
From larvae collected on 6th February 1914 the moths emerged between 16th 
and 20th February, and from mined leaves collected on 16th December 1915 

• Under A. (emnla the name of kukraunda is given as Cynoglossum sp. In the case 
of some of these old records it is impossible to check these identifications, but 4t 
i;fmula has also been reared from Blumea balsamifera. 



t. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 151 

the moths emerged between 23rd December and 3rd January 1916. The 
larva is parasitized by a yellow Braconid. (Dwarka Prasad Singh's Cage- 
slip No. 1 and C. S. Misra's Cage-slip of 16th December 1915.) 

This species has also been reared at Pusa from larvaf collected on 21st 
December 1916 and found mining just under the epidermal layer on the upper 
surface of leaves of Blumea balsamifera. The mine was in the form of a blister 
extending on both sides of the midrib. These larvaj pupated in cocoons 
formed within the mine and the moths emerged between 2nd and 11th January 
1917. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1506.) 

ACROCERCOPS.ISONOMA, MEYR. 

Acrocercops isonoimi, Meyr., Exot. Micr,, I, 625 (1916)(i) ; Fletcher, Entl. 

Note 84 (1916)(2);^A^,,C^.1ir £M .^y^x^^^ l.tbt^A/^. ,<^i^^ 

Bred at Pusa in May from larva mining in leaf of Mangifera indica {^* ^). 

ACROCERCOPS ISODELTA, MEYR. ■ ' ; ■ 

Acrocercops isodelta, Meyr., B. J., XVIII, 820 (1908)(i), I.e., XXIII, 119 

(19U)(2). 

Recorded from Maskeliya, in Ceylon(i), and from Karwar, in North 
Kanara(2). 

Larva mining blotches in leaves of ColehrooTcea oppositijolia (Labiat8e)(^). 

ACROCERCOPS GEMONIELLA, STT. 

Gracilaria gemoniella, Stainton, T. E. S. (3) I, 297, t. 10, f. 6 (1862)(i). 
Acrocercops gemoniella, Meyr., B. J., XXIII, 120 (1914)(2), Exot. Micr., I, 628 

(1916)(3)-T^JW,^.MT^%b i^^\hj ,f^. ill tu^-kci^^^ I.ib-L^Wf/. icj'-o 

Originally described from Calcutta('), this species has been bred at 
Karwar, in North Kanara, from larvae mining blotches in leaves of sugarcane 
{Saccharum officinarum) ; pupa in external oval brownish-yellow cocoon in 
depression on surface of leaf {MaxweU){^). 

" Bred from green larvae mining large blotches in leaf of Semecarpua 
Anacardium (Anacardiaceae), several larvae in one blotch ; cocoon external, 
cream-coloured. {Maxwell.) The same species was previously sent by Mr. 
Maxwell as bred from sugarcane, but it would seem probable that there must 
have been some error in that record "(3). 

This species was bred at Pusa in January 1915 from a larva mining a 
leaf of Achras sapota. 



152 LIFE-HISTORIES OF GRAClLLAHlAD^ 

ACROCERCOPS BARRINGTONIELLA, DEV. 
Gracilaria barringtoniella. van Deventer, Tijds. voor Ent., XLYII, 14-17, t. ], 

ff. 5, 5«, 5^- (1908)(i). 
Acrocercops barringtoniella, Meyr., B. J., XXIII, 121 (1914)(2), 

Originally described IVoin Java('). Within our limits recorded from 
North Kanara(2). 

Larva mines m young leaves of Barrinylonia spicaia{^) and also mines 
blotclies in leaves of (Utreija arborea iLeci/fhidacece){^). 

'^f , ] 

ACROCERCOPS LYSIBATHRA, MEYR. -^-ee <^Ut, (j, • Hoj 

Acrocercops hjsibatlira, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, G26-627 (1916)('). 

Originally described from Pusa, tliis species has been bred at Pusa from 
a larva mining " bhagandhra " leaf. (A. Mujtaba's Cage-slip 24.) 

It has also been reai'ed from larva' collected at Pusa on 17th March 1916 
mining leaves of lasora {Cordia latiJoUa). The larva eats the upper epidermal 
tissue, the veins of the leaf being left untouched, and forms an irregular blister- 
like mine white around the margins and brown in the centre, as many as 
four larva' being present in a single leaf. The larva was described as 5 mm. 
long and about 1 mm. broad, slightly flattened, segments distinct, yellow with 
a greenish middorsal stripe on abdominal segments ; head small, flattened, 
brown ; thoracic segments broadest, prothorax brownish ; legs short, yellow ; 
only four pairs of prolegs, concolorous with the body. Pupation takes place 
outside of the mine. The moth is on the wing from March to May. (Ram 
Saran's Cage-slip, d;ited 17th March 1916.) 

ACROCERCOPS PHRACTOPA, MEYR. 
Acrocercops pJiraclopa. Meyr., Exot. Micr., 11, 177 (1918)(i). 

'■ Bred at Pusa in April IVotn lai\a' mining blotches in leaves of Ficus 
injectoria "('). 

ACROCERCOr.S GEOMETRA, MEYR. 
Acrocercops geoineha, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 626 (1916)(i). 
Described from Pusa and Coimbatore('). 

Larva mining blotch in leaf of Cordia myxa {Boraginacece) (Fletcher)(i). 

This species was also bred at Coimbatore from larvae mining Cordia leaves. 

Larva' ^^ere found at Pusa on lltli July 1908, and were described as 
about 5 nun. long, flattened, tapeiing ])osterio]-ly, red, head very small and 
armed with si flat yellow cap, prothoi'ax yellowish-red, legs creamy, prolegs 
red. The larva mines in the leaves of the foodplant and pupates externally 



AjAAU^^c^- ^^y^ oojikxj^ J ^'^^i ^?<(r^. Wwfc.. i\_ -L'i^-^•i^, [_''?'') 1^. "Bii^'^~fvl 






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PLATE XXXVIII. 






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•h. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 153 

ill a double-walled cocoon. Pupa rather less than 4 mm. long, brown, wings 
dark-brown ; pupal period five days. (A. Mujtaba's Cage-slip -IS.) 

ACROCERCOPS HYrHANTICA, MEYR. 
Acrocercops hyphaiUica, Me}^"., Exot. Micr., I, 25 (1912)('). 

Described from specimens reared at Pusa(i). 

Larva flattened, slightly tapering posteriorly, yellowish -green, head 
whitish-yellow ; mining leaves of Ccvsnlpinia honducella {Leguminosce) ; pupa 
in a cocoon ouiside the mine('). 

Pupa about 4 mm. long, head and anal segment yellow, wings yellowish- 
green, remainder green. Pupal period four or five days. Pupa emerges half 
way out of the cocoon. (A. Mujtaba's Cage-slip 56.) 

ACROCERCOPS EHEROeeSMAv MEYE. (PLATE XXXVIII, FIG. 1.) 
Acrocercops hierocosma, Meyr., Wytsm. Gen. Ins., fasc. 128, p. 18 (]912)(^) ; 

Fletcher, Entl. Note 86 (1916)(2), Ann. Kept. Impl. Entom., 1917-18, 

p. 104 (1918)(3)•^A^^^^•*'i i^v^f . rwr-; T. le'-T^n/. ^c/^ 

Originally described from North Australia, this species has been reared -■, \ - Jaajo^ ^^^ 
at Pusa from a larva mining leaves of Nephelium liicliU^). In August 1917 
quite appreciable damage was done at Pusa to the tender leaves of Nephelium 
^i^c/ji by the mining of this larva(3). , "^^^^^^^ '„. 

The larva first of all bores into the midrib which develops a dusky red '^'^^■^ 
colour ; it begins somewhere near the base of the leaf and works towards the 
apex. As it goes forward it mines the blade of the leaf on both sides of the 
midrib, along the veins, producing a characteristic palmate dusky-red mine, 
as the entire mined portion develops a dusky-red colour. In bad cases of 
attack the whole leaf dries up. 

The full-grown larva is about 5 mm. long and about 0'75 mm. across the 
anterior part of the body which tapers slightly posteriorly, segments distinct, 
uniform green, fourth pair of prolegs absent. 

When full-fed, the larva leaves the mine and forms a round scale-like 
flat cocoon on the leaf or stem wherever a suitable cover or concavity is avail- 
able. In confinement cocoons were formed in the corners of the cage or by 
the side of the protuberant midrib of the leaf. The cocoon is almost trans- 
parent, so that the contained pupa is partly visible. 

The pupa is slender, cylindrical, about 4'3 mm. from head to anal extre- 
mity, beyond which the extremity of the leg-case extends for another 1-5 mm. 
and about 0*75 mm. broad, frons with a curved spine with which the pupa 
pierces the cocoon ; colour green at fir.«t, afterwards turning yellow-brown. 




154 tlFE-HISTORlES OF GRACILtAIilAD^ 

On emergence, the pupa protrudes from the cocoon to some extent. Pupal 
period about seven days. (Insectary Cage-slij)s 1299, 1653.) 
The moths are found at Pusa from August to October, 

" ' ' ACROCERCOPS AURICILLA, STAINT. (PLATE XXXVIII, FIG. 2.) 

>^^^^ ^ Gracilaria ? auricUla, Stt., T. E. S. (2), V, 120-121 {1859)(i). 
(MATVAcd-^ ' -._. Acrocercops cramerella {nee Snell), Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 4 (1916)(2). 
^ ^ t>*^ Described originally from "near Calcutta ''('). "Reared at Belgachia, 

, V- - Bengal, in September from larvae mining in leaves of mahogany, Swietenia 

(Meliacese) "'(2). We have it also from Pusa. 

Specimens of affected mahogany leaves were received in the beginning 
of September 1915 from the Principal of the Veterinary College, Belgachia, 
who stated that the leaves were mined and that the trees looked in bad 
condition as a consequence. The leaves were tunnelled on both surfaces by 
mines which at first are long and narrow (not exceeding 0"5 mm.) and irregular 
but which expand into oval whitish blotches, averaging about 11 by 7 mm. 
When the leaf is mined at its edges the mined portion becomes papery, turns 
deep brick-red, and withers. The edges of the outer cover are thickened 
until there is made an elongate space sufficient to contain the pupa. In some 
cases the whitish blotches containing the pupse touch or coalesce with one 
another. 

The pupa is about 7 mm. long and 1 mm. broad ; head brown with a 
ventral triangular structure with dentate sides, eye-cap large, antenna-case 
brownish-yellow, reaching to first abdominal segment and spotted irregularly 
with black ; first pair of legs short, reaching to end of thoracic region ; second 
pair of legs reaching to anal extremity ; third pair of legs projecting 1"5 mm. 
beyond anal extremity ; thoracic region dorsally with short brown hairs 
arising from small rounded raised tubercles ; thoracic segments yellowish- 
brown ; abdominal segments pale, tinged with green and with short brown 
hairs on small rounded raised tubercles, spiracles distinct and appear like 
rounded brown holes at the anterior end of each segment. 



Vv U^- 



ACROCERCOPS TELESTIS, MEYR. 

Acrocercops telestis, Meyr., E. M. M., XLVII, 213 (Sept. 1911)(i) ; Lefroy, 

Jd^"^^-^' "^ Ind. Ins. Life, p. 538 (1909)(2) ; Fletcher, Entl. Note 87 (1916)(3). 

^^^ i- * yQ\ Described from specimens reared at Pusa from larvae mining leaves of 

_ ' Trewia nudiflora (Euphoj:hi8iCese){^>^). Also reared at Coimbatore in February 

1913 from larva) on Tre.wia, and at Pusa in August 1907 from Omelina arhorea 



tju. L *| rj aX(o ■ w> '^4l*^ ^ ^ 



PLATE XXXIX. 





Leaves ot Ficus glomerata mined by Acrocercops desiccata. 



t. BAINBRICJGE FLETCHER l55 

and in September 1913 from leaves of Eugenia jambolanai^). We also have 
this species from Moulmein. 

Larvae were found at Pusa on 24:th July 1907 mining leaves of yitha 
{Trewia nudiflom) . The larva was described as 3 mm. long, rather flattened, 
tapering posteriorly, yellow, head pale ; afterwards 4*5 mm. long, green ; 
only four pairs of prolegs. Pupated externally on upper or underside of 
leaves or in corners of the cage, cocoon of .very fine white silken threads. 
Pupa 4 mm. long, green, last two abdominal segments yellowish. Pupa 
protrudes about half its length from cocoon on emergence of moth ; pupal 
period about five days. (A. Majtaba's Oage-slip 25.) 

Larvae were also collected at Pusa mining leaves of Eugenia jambolana 
on 1st September 1913 and from these leaves moths emerged from 6th to 9th 
September. The larval mine forms a prominent blister-like blotch, inside 
which the larva moves freely about between the epidermal layers, filling the 
space with excrement. When removed from the mine the larva is unable to 
enter another leaf unless the epidermis is opened up artificially. (Dwarka 
Prasad Singh's Cage-slip, dated 1st September 1913.) 

ACROCERCOPS DESICCATA, MEYR. (PLATE XXXIX.) 
Acroce)-cops desiccala, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 4 (1916)('^). 

Described from Peradeniya and Pusa. At Pusa it was bred from larvae 
mining blotches in leaves of Ficus glonierata{}). 

The larva mines just below the epidermis on the upper surface of the 
leaf. The mine commences as a zigzag white line, quite prominent on the 
green leaf, and develops suddenly into a blotch. The full-grown larva is 
about 3 "5 mm. long, flattened, gradually taj^ering ])osteriorly, segments 
distinct, three pairs of thoracic legs and five [?] pairs of prolegs functional 
although small ; colour light green when young, changing to golden-yellow 
and ultimately to reddish before pupation. When full-fed the larva almost 
always leaves the mine and pupates elsewhere in a flatfish cocoon formed of 
well-woven silk and having a very thin almost transparent parchment-like 
appearance. Each cocoon is double, there being a small inner case inside a 
larger outer case. The cocoon is usually constructed in a corner or small 
concavity. Before emergence of the moth, the pujja wriggles out of the 
cocoon for about half its length, the empty pupa-case l>eing left protruding 
from the cocoon. Larv« were collected in Ficus glorterata leaves on 23rd 
December 1914 ; one formed a cocoon on 24th December and emerged on 
20th January and another pupated on 5th January and emerged on 24th 
January 1915. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1148.) 



156 LIFE-HISTORIES OF GRAClLLARIAD.4i 

ACROCERCOPS USTULATELLA, STT. /^^ t£^-{^-<i^ j 

Gmcilaria ? ustulatella, Stainton, T. E. S. (n.s.), V, 121-122 (1859)(i). 
Conopomorpha isochorda, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 746 (1907)(2). 
Acrocercops ustulatella, Meyr.,'B. J., XVIII, 825 (1908)(3). 

Originally described from Calcutta(^). Also recorded from Peradeniya(^). 
Larva mines in young leaves of ebony (2). 

/ 
ACROCERCOPS SYNGRAMMA, MEYR. (PLATE XL, FIG. I.) 

Acrocercops sijngramm.a, Meyr., B. J., XXIII, 120 (19U)(^) ; Fletcher, Entl 

'3^(j^f^^ h^- H^^^ Note 84 (1916)(2)j ^ju^^ux^ ^ tM. ^or^^j L n,i ' ^JrJ. i-/^ 

'Lu. (^fl*>- T Described from Karwar in North Kanara(^), where it was bred in July 

_ ^^^-j Ivia)- ' from larva mining a compact blotch in leaves of mango [Mangijera indica) ; 

' K'*'^ pupa in a detached oval brownish-yellow cocoon on surface of leaf {Maxwell){^), 

'-'^ ^ Eeared at Pusa in September 1907 and again in August 1908 from larvae 

AT \^'^ ■ . . . . 

^ mining mango leaves. Also taken at Bankipur in October 1911(2). We have 

it also from Pusa in September to November 1916, from Saidapet in January 
1907 and from Coimbatore in December 1914 and March 1915, in all cases 
reared from larvae mining mango leaves. 

The larva mines under the epidermis on the upper surface of tender mango 
leaves, causing large round or roundish blisters which are greyish-white in 
colour. The larva is about 5 mm. long and about 07 mm. across the thoracic 
region, cylindrical (or almost so), tapering posteriorly, segments well-defined 
and rather prominent later'ally, pale greenish-yellow, the dark contents of 
alimentary canal partially visible through the body ; head brownish-yellow, 
shiny, smaller than prothorax, which has a faint shiny yellowish shield ; a 
faint whitish tracheal line along the spiracular region; primaiy hairs short; 
legs and jn'olegs concolorous with body ; prolegs on tliiixl, foui'th, fifth abdo- 
minal and on anal segment. Froni leaves collected on 25th September moths 
emerged from 4th October to 1st December 1916, and from leaves collected 
on 2nd November 1916 moths emerged on 15th and 16th November. (Insec- 
tary Cage -slip 1478 and Ram Saran's Cage-slip, dated 2nd November 1916.) 

ACROCERCOPS LABYRINTHICA, MEYR. 

Acrocercops lahyrinthica, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 177-178 (1918)('). 

" Bred at Pusa in March and April from larvi^e mining blotches in leaves 
of Trema sp. (Urticacea^) "(')• 

Larvae were collected at Pusa on 16th March 1916 mining the upper 
surface of leaves of Trema sp. The larva was described as 5 mm. long by 



(z^>'MUt 



PLAT 



^W 






















b. 





^eroeereops syngramma, Meyr. 

a, Mineu mango leaf, natural size; i,. Lateral view of larva (x 12); 62, Dcpsal view of larva 
3on, the irregular outline is the upper epidermis which sticks to the cocoon (x U) ; d, Pupa 
Ih (;.; 12). 

The smaller figures against b, d and e ape li times the natural sizes, 



PLATE XI, 




Fig. 1 Acrocercops syngramma: — Moth, magnified (xl6). Below 
is seen a side-view of head of moth, more highly magnified. 




Fig. 2. Liocrobyla parachista: — Moth, magnified ( x 30 1 . Below is seen a 
side-view of the head, more highlv magnified. 






Aj^u^oo^ (Uvrv-O A.V^T^ (f^ ^^'^) 



T, lJAlNBKIG(iE FLETCHER 157 

1 mm. broad, flattened, dark green, yellowish laterally, segments distinct ; 
head small, brown ; thoracic segments bi'oadest ; prothoracic shield represented 
by two blackish dots ; only four pairs of prologs. Pupation occurs outside 
of the mine, in a white cocoon usually on the upper surface of the leaf near 
the midrib. The moth is on tli(> wing in March and April and probably later. 
(Dwarka Prasad Singh's Cage-slip, (lai<Ml IHth March lOlG, and Ram Saran's 
Cage-slip, dated- ;5rd April 10 1(3.) 

ACROCERCOPS ALLACTOPA, MEYR. 
Acrocercops allacfopa, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 627 (1916)(i). 

Bred at Karwar, in North Kanara, in July and August from larvse mining 
swollen blotclies in leaves of Eugpniit janihohiiui (Myrtacece), several larvae in 
one blotch ; cocoon external {M(txwcU){^). 

ACROCERCOPS BIFRENIS, MEYR. [-^^ oe^^.i-iij 
Acrocercops hifrenis, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 176 (1918)(i). 

" Bred at Khanapur, Belgaum, from larva^ mining numerous blotches in 
leaves of two unidentified plants, January, February. Larva when young 
light red, tapering posteriorly, when full-grown bright ci'imson and cylindrical ; 
blotch irregular, often confluent, each with an irregular roundish rent in the 
cuticle whilst still occupied by the larva ; pupa outside the mine^ in an oval 
orange cocoon ; imago quivers on its legs like vdutdd (Maxivell). Closely 
allied to vanula ; as that species feeds on Tertiiinalid (Combretacea)), it is not 
improbable that the foodplants of this are of the same order "('). 

ACROCERCOPS BROCHOGRAMMA, MEYR. 
Acrocercops hrocJio(jruiiini<(, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 285 (191J:)(^). 
Described from Peradeniya, where it was bred in June from leaves of 
Hibiscus sp. containing galls of a Phvt()])tid('). 

ACROCERCOPS CRYSTALLOPA, MEYR, (^ oJ^ (f-"^**") f (W^ I 

Acrocercops cryslallopa, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 627-628 (1916)(>). ^ZI^T^j 

Bred at Karwar, in North Kanara, in July and August from lai'va3 mining ^^ 
somewhat circular blotches in leaves of Memecylon amplexicaule {Melasto- 
macece), larva cylindrical with lateral prominences, emitting single rather Ion,' 
hairs; pu]ia internal in blotch, without cocoon {MaxweU){^\ 

ACROCERCOPS CYLICOTA, MEYR. 
Acrocercops cylicota, Meyr., B. J., XXIII, 119 (1914)(i). 
Described from Karwar in North Kanara (i). 

f\.c^i:c^^^\ Ko^^^^ ) ^ ^^W (V^^^^J - -^^^2 to^c^ ^^^ ^rS^^k^ 

tzit^^'-^v.'v.v.^ • '^'^ - ^^^ -^ Yf- ^'^ 7 ^--^-^ % j^^^^^^:^ 



h 



168 LIFE-HISTORIES OP GftACtLLAftlADJl 

Larva mining blotches in leaves of ColebrooJcea oppositifoUa (Labiatw) ; 
papa in cocoon in folded edge of leaf (MaxweU){^). 

ACROCERCOPS DIATONICA, MEYR. i-^^ ^ f^'^''-^'^ 

Acrocercops diatonica, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 625-G26 (1916)(i). 

" Bred at Shirve, in North Kanara. in December from larvae mining light 

blister-like blotches on upper side of leaves of an unidentified plant, occupying 

whole leaf; cocoon yellowish, within mine {Maxwell) '\^). 

J 
ACROCERCOPS ELAPHOPA, MEYR. , ' 

Acrocercops elaphopa, Meyr., B. J., XXIIT, 121 (1914)(i). 

Reared at Karwar, in North Kanara, in July from external cocoon on 
depressed vein of surface of leaf of " Total " creeper(*). 

ACROCERCOPS ERIOPLACA, MEYR. 
Acrocercops erioplaca, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 175 (1918)(^). 

" Bred at Pusa in August from larva? mining blotches in leaves of Termi- 
nalia caiappa (Combretaceae) '"(*). 

ACROCERCOPS EXTENUATA, MEYR. ^-ee «i*o d'-'^^^J 
Acrocercops extenuata, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 624 (1916)(^). 

" Bred at Karwar, in North Kanara, in July from larvae mining blotches 
on under surface of leaves of unidentified shrub, several blotches in a leaf 
separated by main veins (Maxwell) '"(')• 

ACROCERCOPS HEMIGLYPTA, MEYR. 
Acrocercops hemigUjpta, Meyr., Exot. Micr., 11, 1 (1916)(*). 

Described from Karwar, in North Kanara, where it was '" bred in August 
from larvae mining round blotches in leaves of an unidentified plant, cocoon 
external, white {Maxtvell) "('). 

ACROCERCOPS LOXIAS, MEYR. 
Acrocercops loxias, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 174 (1918)(^). 

" Bred at Jodhpur, Rajputana, in June from Eugenia jamholana 
(Myrtacf-a'). (Beeson) '"(')• 

ACROCERCOPS MACROCLINA, MEYR. 

Acrocercops macrodina, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 2 (1916)(^). 
• Described from Karwar, in North Kanara, where it was " bred in xlugust 

from larvae mining blotches on upper side of leaves of Wagatea spicata {Legumi- 
nosce), occupying whole leaf ; cocoon external, white (Maxwell) "('). 



A ^^ 






(3 



A0^^C^c4o W^^•C^^Wr-^'^ ^^'^' 



at ~ t^J 



c^c^ i^ru^r^ , \^, '^^ 1 «^^— ^^ ^ " f^ <*^ ^^^ '^^'^ ^^ '^ 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 159 

ACROCERCOPS PHAROPEDA, MEYR. ^^^ "-^^ r* "^-'T- ' 
Acwcercops pharopeda, Meyr., Exot. Micr., 1, 626 (1916)('). 

" Bred at Karwar, in North Kanara, in July from larva mining small 
semi-transparent blotch in leaf of unidentified creeper ; cocoon brownish- 
yellow, detached (Marivrll) "('). 

" " ACROCERCOPS SCANDALOTA, MEYR. 

Acrocercops smndalofa, Meyr., B. J., XXIII, 120 (1914)('), Exot. Micr., I, 628 

(1916)(2). 

Described from North Coorg('). 

" Bred in North Kanara from larva mining blotch in leaf of Helicieres 
isora (Sterculiaceae) {Maxwell) "(2). 

^^ 
ACROCERCOPS^SCENIAS, MEYR. 

Acrocercops scenias, Meyr., B. J., XXIII, 122 (191i)('). 

Described from Karwar, in North Kanara('), where it was bred in June 
from a bright green larva mining galleries in leaves of " Changana " l>ush, 
many larvae in each leaf ; pupa long, green, in oval white transparent cocoon 
on depressed vein of leaf {Maxweliy'{^). 

ACROCERCOPS SCRIPTULATA, MEYR. [■^ '^^^ (P'^'-J " 
Acrocercops scriptulata, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 2-3 (1916)(^). 

Described from Karwar in North Kanara, where it was " bred in July 
from unusually large irregularly elongate oval semi-transparent white cocoons, 
with three or four small attached bubbles, found on surface of leaf, each on 
a vein, scattered about on various sorts of bushes in neighbourhood of Termi- 
nalia paniculata (Combretaceae), which is probably the foodplant ; at consider- 
able distances apart, indicating a \vandering habit before pupating 
{Maxweliy\^). 

ACROCERCOPS TENERA, MEYR. 
Acrocercops teiiera, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 284-285 (1914)(').^ uM'>l^'c-.'l5^ ♦(>^ "''?'' C'^^^^ 

Bred at Peradeniya from larva mining \ea.veH oi Schleichera trijuga''{^).^ ( aIuca-*-^^*- 

ACROCERCOPS TRISCALMA, MEYR. 

Acrocercops triscalma, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, l.(1916)(i). 

Described from Karwar, in North Kanara, where it was " bred in August 
and September from larvae mining blotches on upper side of leaves of Wagatea 
spicata (Leguminosae), occupying whole leaf ; cocoon external, white {Majo- 
well) "('). 



160 LIFE-HISTORIES OF (iRACILLARIAD-^i 

ACROCERCOPS VANULA, MEYR. 

Acrocercops vaaula, Meyr., W\'tstn. Gen. Ins, fasc, 128, \). 17 (1912)('), 1^, J., 

XXIII, 121 (1914)(2). 

Described from Karwar, in North I\.aiiura('). 

" Larva mining large blotches in leaves of Terinhudia (o)nenlosa (Com- 
bretaceae) ; pupa yellowish, in large oval cream-coloured cocoon spun usually 
on vein inside the mine, the cuticle subsequently peeling ofi and leaving the 
cocoon exposed ; this seems the normal arrangement, but in captivity the 
larva sometimes makes an external cocoon in a recess on surface of leaf 
{Maxwell) ""(2). Mr. Maxwell {in lilt.) gives the nime of the food plant us 
T. 2i'iiiic>fla/f(. 

LIOCROBYLA PARASCHI8TA, MEYR. (PLATE XL, EKJ. :> ) ^ ^' 
Liocrobyla pamsdmta, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 5 (Oct. I916)(i); V^ /^ - Hi 
Parectopa labrodes, Meyr. MB. {ined.) Il<.^>^^; 1- itbMJn/. .5^. 

Reared at Manchikeri, North Kanara, " in May from larva) mining in 
leaves of Butea frondosa (Leguminosa?) {Maxwell), and at Pusa in February 
from larvae mining in leaves of Cajanus indicus {Fletcher) ; it may therefore 
probably feed in some other Leguminosa). Larva mines a blotch beneath 
upper cuticle of leaf, building up two heaps of excrement, between which the 
larva rests in a covered passage leaduig obliquely to under side of leaf, where 
a small open door exists in a dry opaque patch ; cocoon external, oval 
{Maxwell) "'('). 

This species has been reared at Pusa on several occasions from larvae 
mining leaves of Cajanus indicus in April, September, October and December, 
and from leaves of Desmodium gangeticuni in January and July. 

The larva mines just under the epidermal layer of either surface, but in the 
case of Cajanus usually the upper surface of the leaf, producing an extremely 
irregular brown patch measuring aliout one square inch in total area. 
(Plate XLl.) h\ the case of mines in Desmodium leaves the greater portion of 
the mine is not visible from the opposite side of the leaf ; a small portion 
only, where the mesophyll tissue also has been eaten, is visible from the 
opposite surface as a dry brown patch. The larva thrusts its anal extre- 
mity through a hole in the lower surface of the mine to eject its frass and 
the gallery is therefore kept clean. The larva is green, broadest across the 
thoracic portion, tapei-ing posteriorly, segments distinct ; head long, brown ; 
only four pairs of prolegs. The larva leaves the mine before pupation and 
forms a white cocoon, about G mm. long, on the surface of the leaf in any 
convenient corner, often alongside a midrib on the upper surface of a leaf. 



t\^r^U^U\^ -^.^gOAOMft , >>^^Vr, , -^ (f(i-'l->^- -^^ ) ^-^V 



PLATE XLl. 











o 



PLATE XLIl. 














o 



i-J 









'-^: :-^'^ s...^....c.n(u...)L^^.')i'^-----t-^-^^ 



C. Ca.vJ[^ov.«/(^<^ ,'^^^. r^*^ 



T. BAINBRICaE FLRTCHRR IGl 

The clark-l)ro\vii pupa protinidos t'i'om the cocoon on I'mergence of the, moth, 
(lusectaiy Cage-slip 1430 and Unuao Bahadur's Cageysli]) 112.) 

STOMPHASTLS l^him¥iei^rSiWi R. ^ 

Stomphastis pledic<(, Meyr., Wytsni. Gen. Ins. fasc, 128, j). 19, tab., ff. J, 20 

(1912)(i), B-. J., XXIII, 122 (1914)(2). 

Originally described from Karwar, in North Kanara('). Also recorded 
from South Africa(2). We have it from Bankura, Pusa and Surandi (Tinne- 
velly District). 

" Larva mining blotches in leaves of Sebastiana chamcelea (Euphorbiacese) ; 
pupa in detached oval white cocoon in depression on top of leaf, preferring 
the extreme tip [Maxwell) ''(2). Mr. Maxwell {i>i liil .) describes the larva as 
stout, tapering posteriorly ; head small, fuscous, body green. 

This species has been reared from larva) found at Bankura on 16th July 
1917, mining leaves of Jatmpha gossijpifolia (Euphorbiacea?), one or several 
larvse being found in one leaf, and at Pusa from larvtie mining '' bhagendra " 
leaf. Larva pale greenish-yellow, head brown, no prolegs on sixth abdominal 
segment. When full-grown it leaves the mine and forms a flattened whitish 
papery silken cocoon on any depression on the leaf or in any suitable corner. 
The pupa wriggles out of the cocoon on emergence of the moth. (Insectary 
Cage-slip 1609.) 

The Tinnevelly specimens are labelled " from wild castor leaves " ; pre- 
sumably Jatropha is intended. 

PARECTOPA COCCINEA, WLSM. 

Gracilaria coccinea, Wlsm., in Swinh. Cat. Het. Oxf. Mus., II, 576 (1900)(i). 
Macarostola coccinea, Meyr., B. J., XVIII, 827 (1908)(2). 

Described from Ootacamund where the larva is a leaf-roller on myrtle('). 



ACt^i-OCtf^Oo'PS /^ 



./ 



G¥«i©STfeSA C(]ERULEA, MEYR. "^^ A^'*. 

Cyphosticlia ccerulea, Meyr., Exot. Micr., 1,26 (1912)(') ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 42, 56 (1917)(2).;^uu. ,^.ill ^J^ . (KJUf/T^j 1 ,\h1 Nr). ij^o 
Described from Pusa(i), but probably widely distributed in tbe Plains T^.^!*,^ 

as we have it from Coimbatore also. -^^ ,-cc^-/^^ j ^■^- v ^'^-^^ ^'^ [^ ^ ^ - ;^ 

Larva somewhat flattened, slightly tapering posteriorly, greenish, 'qZ^Z^^^'< 

laterally pale yellow, with subdorsal reddish dot on each segment, head flat ; 

when full-grown, becomes wholly blood-red : mining a whitish elongate blotch 

in leaves of Crotalaria juncea (Leguminosse) or a brownish blotch iu leaves 

of Vigna sinensis (Leguminosas) "(!)• 



^. ,wA* 



162 LTFE-HISTORIES OF GRACILLARTAD^ 

Occurs commonly at Pusa and Coimbatore, mining in leaves of Cajanus 



f- To^*-''^- indicus{^) and DoUchos lahlah{^). 

— ^^ c i ^'^"^^ This species has been found at Pusa on numerous occasions, mining the 

^^^^!:^ ^ ^j^ '^ leaves of Dohchos lablah, T icia faba, PhaseoJus mungo, and Vtqna catjang from 

( (t^" v^ ."Zi^ru)^ "^ April to October. The larva mines the upper surface of the leaf, feeding just 

I _ "' w— "-^^ below the epidermal layer which turns brown or brownish-white. The mine 

I h'^'^—'^^^'^ starts as a narrow irregular line but later on widens into a broad blotch which 

feZ^ "^ ^^^^^ . shows up prominently on the leaf. (Plate XLII.) The larva is about 4 or 

Lf^ ji^"^ ^ ' Wjujrj/ 5 mm. long, rather flattened, segments sharply defined and slightly protrud- 

/lvjU»^A^^-v«c'-' . ing laterally, tapering posteriorly from thoracic region, uniform reddish- 

jj"^^^ brown, the green contents of the alimentary canal visible along the length 

of 'the body, and with a red submedian stripe ; head flattened, smaller than 

prothorax, light brown ; legs and prolegs well developed, reddish-brown ; 

prolegs only on third to fifth abdominal segments, together with the 

anal claspers. When full-fed, the larva emerges from the mine and 

pupates in a white silken cocoon afforded by the folding of any portion or 

by the side of a protruding leaf-vein. The pupa wriggles out through one 

end of the cocoon before the moth emerges and the empty pupa-case is 

left protruding from the cocoon. The pupa is about 3-5 mm. long, pale 

yellow, eyes red, wings and last two abdominal segments whitish-yellow. 

(Insectary Cage-slip 903, Dwarka Prasad Singh's Cage-slips, dated 9th May 

1914 and 16th April 1916, and Eam Saran's Cage slips, dated 17th and 

25th April 1916.) 

GRACILLARIA ACIDULA, MEYR. (PLATE XLIII.) 
Acrocercops acidulo, Meyr., E. M. M., XLVII, 213 (Sept. 1911)(i). 
Gracilaria acidula, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 26 (1912)(2), uL, I.e., II, 
178 (1912)(3). 
Described from Pusa(i). Larva on Alhizzia stipidata (Leguminos8e)(^). 
" Mr. Fletcher informs me that the larva mines leaves of Phyllanthus 
emblica (Euphorbiaceee), not of Alhizzia as originally stated through a mistaken 
identification of a native name "(^). 

This species is abundant at Pusa, the larvae mining in the leaflets of 
compound leaves of amlak (Phyllanthus emblica). The larva mines a part or 
a whole of a leaflet, usually on the under surface but also on the upper surface 
of the leaf, which turns pale brown or deep brown where mined. The mine 
usually commences near the apex of a leaflet as a narrow sinuous line which 
expands into an elongate blotch towards the base of the leaflet. (Plate XLIII, 
fig. 7.) The upper epidermis is completely separated from the lower, 
the intervening space being filled with blackish pellets of excrement. Th^ 



t-tt.f' 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLIII. 

Gracillaria acidula. 

Fig. 1. Motli, resting attitude, from side, natural size and magnified (x 16), 

,, 2. Pupa, natural size and magnified ( x 16). 

„ 3. Twig of Phyllanthus emhlica showing larval mines in leaflets and how 

the leaflets are twisted up to form cocoons (natural size). 

„ 4. A twisted leaflet forming a cocoon, magnified ( X 10). 

., 5. Full-fed larva, natural size and magnified ( x 16). 

„ 6. Moth, wings expanded, natural size and magnified (x 13). 



PLATE XLIIL 





Gracillaria ACIDULA- 



PLATE XLIV. 





Fig. ]. Details of larva of Gi acillaria acidula: — «. Head, from above, magnified 
( X 07 ) ; u. head, trom below, magnified ( x 67 I ; c, antenna, highlv magnified 
(x333j ; d, mesothoracic leg, right side, magnified i x 67 I . 



■:0%yfYT^^^ 




Fig. 2. (•raci/laria zachrysa: — o. Larva, natural size and magnified ( x 11) 
I from a spirit specimen I : h. pupa ; c. molh. natural size and 
masnified ( \ 1 1 I . 



■ 1 ' '- ')l 









T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCT[ER 1 03 

larvae are able to leave their mines freely and, if a branch is disturbed, almost, 
all the larva) leave their mines and walk about. 

The larva is about 3 mm. long, cylindrical, very slightly tapering poste- 
riorly, segments distinct, yellow, with thin scattered hairs ; head rounded, 
yellow ; prolegs only on third to fifth fibdominal segments, together with the 
anal claspers. (Plate XLIll, fig. 5.) 

When full-fed the larva leaves the mine through a round hole bitten 
through the upper epidermis and twists another green leaflet into a cone to 
form a pupal chamber. It first of all turns up the tip of the leaflet and fixes 
its apex to one side of the upper surface of the leaf with silken threads ; it 
then bites three or four small holes near the edge of the leaflet near the rolled- 
up apex and a few more holes about one millimeter nearer the base and 
proceeds gradually to bend and twist the leaflet until the whole of it is rolled- 
up into a cone. (Plate XLIII, fig. 4.) Many of these cones may be 
formed close together and look like a row of small fruits hanging from the 
rachis. (Plate XLIII, fig. 3.) Inside the cone a thin white silken cocoon 
is formed and inside this the larva pupates. 

The pupa is about 2*5 to 3 mm. long, cylindrical, yellow. (Plate XLIII. 
fig. 2.) In some examples the antenna-case projects beyond the anal 
extremity, in others it barely projects. The pupa wriggles out of the cocoon 
to some extent before the moth emerges. 

The moth rests in the usual Gracillariad manner and waves its antennae 
about briskly. (Plate XLIII, fig. 1.) It occurs at Pusa from March to 
June and probably throughout the year. 

GRACILLARIA OCTOPUNCTATaAuRNER. 

Gracilaria octopundata, Turner, Tr. Roy. Soc. S. Austral., 1894, 123(^) ; Meyr., 

Pr. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 1907, 65(2), B. J., XVIII, 828 (1908)(3), Rec. 

Ind. Mus., V, 227(4), Tr. N. Z. Inst., 1909, 73(5), i^^ XLVII, 228 (1915)(6) ; 

Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 538 (1909)(7). 

Originally described from Australia, where it is recorded from Queens- 
land(2' ^). Also known to occur in the Kermadec Islands(^> *') and in Africa (*). 
Within our limits it has been recorded from Pusa(3), the Khasi Hills(3)^ 
Darjiling(*), and North Coorg(3). We have it from Pusa, Lebong (Darjiling), 
and Bassein Fort (Bombay). 

The larva rolls the snuill leaves of Dalhergia sissu, forming a small mass 
of often dry leaves in which it lives and pupates. The pupa is sometimes in 
a web of very white glistening silk on a leaflet('^). 

12 



164 LIFE-HISTORIES OF GRACILLARIAD^ 

At Pusa it has been reared from a pupa found on Polygonum [? accidental 
pupation-place] and from larvae found on 14tli August 1906 rolling leaves of 
Dalbergia sissu (Leguminosa?). Sometimes several leaves are joined together 
and these masses of leaves are found to be dry and rotten. The larva was 
described as 6 mm. long, flattened, very slightly tapering posteriorly, yellowish- 
green ; head pale, prothorax with many small black sppts. Pupation takes 
place in a rolled leaf, the pupa being 5-5 mm. long, brown. The pupal period 
is about six days. (A. Mujtaba's Cage-slip 8.) 

GRACILLARIA ZACHRYSA, MEYR. (PLATE XLIV, FIG. 2.) ^-"^^ 
Gracilaria zachrysa, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 983 (1907)(i), I.e., XVIII, 829 (1908)(2), 
Wytsm., Gen. Ins. fasc, 128, p. 29, tab., f. 4 (1912)(3) ; Meyr., Exot. Micr., 
II, 179 (1918)(4); [nee Busck, Insee. Inseit. Mensfr., Ill, 42-43 (1915) = 
azaleella, Brants]. ^^ W-^,Cv«.t!i ^i(-'^^</-; 1. ib> Muv. ^y^) 
Originally described from Maskeliya in Ceylon(^). " Recently bred in 
India from larvae making cones on leaves of apple {Pyrus nialus) {Fletcher). 
Hence I was led to discover that azaleella. Brants { = azalece, Busck), bred 
from Azalea indiea imported from Japan into Europe and North America, 
and probably a native of Japan, is really quite distinct from zachrysa, and 
I was mistaken in asserting the contrary "(*). 

This species probably occurs throughout the apple-growing districts of 
Northern India, the larva feeding on young leaves of apple and being at times 
a considerable pest. We have it from Parachinar, Peshawar and Abbottabad 
and from Shillong, and I have seen attacked apple-leaves at Ramgarh 
(Kumaon). 

In its early stages the larva mines the leaf, but later on it leaves the 
mine and folds, or more rarely rolls, a young leaf. The attack is first noticeable 
as a rusty-yellow irregular blotch on the under side of a leaf. The enclosed 
larva is not visible on holding the leaf up to the light but on opening up the 
blotch it is found as a pale greenish-yellow or greenish-white larva with very 
strongly-defined segments, tapering anally. The larva mines on the lower 
surface of the leaf, often several in one leaf, sometimes as many as four or 
five. The gallery proceeds along and parallel with the interior {i.e., nearest 
to the midrib) side of a vein, apparently starting at the inner end and working 
outwards. When fresh, the mine is green and inconspicuous, slightly shiny 
like a snail-track ; it is filled with leaf-hairs and usually contains frass at the 
outer end. Later on, the larva bites a hole through the upper surface of the 
mine and leaves it. Apparently after the larva has left (? due to growth of 
the leaf) the mine usually forms a puckered fold in the leaf -surf ace. At one 










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GX<>^^t>:» xT'swyvXia.. , "^ . 









PLATE XLV. 



OLA »«..«« 

O^t'ti. u|> 




Kales e*t"«w "•'^ 

Apple leaves showing damage by larva of GraciUaria zachrvsa: — a. leaf showing 
mines, fold, and patch eaten, b. Lower surface of leaf showing cocoon, c, 
older leaf with young larva. Leaf opened out. The portion sewn together ( upper 
surface) marked with dotted line. Porticns of epidermis of leaf nibbled by 
larva (whitish), marked in black. cI. Young leaf. Edges sewn together longi- 
tudinally, e Halt-grown leaf containing larva, completely folded along edges, 
opened up, showing method of feeding of larva. 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 165 

end of the mine the upper surface of the leaf turns rusty-yellow ; otherwise 
the mine is only visible from above by the fold in the leaf. Sometimes, when 
near the edge of a leaf, the edge is folded over to form a sort of trough in 
which the mine lies ; it is not possible to say whether this is done deliberately 
by the larva or whether it is caused by the natural growth of the leaf. After 
leaving the mine^ the larva ties up a young leaf longitudinally, the edges of 
the leaf being joined together over the upper surface on which the larva feeds 
in its bag-like shelter, nibbling patches out of the epidermis of the leaf, the 
attacked portions turning rust-coloured. The leaf-hairs are detached and 
piled in a mass which is often mingled with frass to form a long roll and this 
is characteristic of the attack even when the leaf contains no larva, which is 
apparently often eaten by spiders and birds. More rarely, the larva makes 
a shelter by turning over a portion of the edge of a leaf. The adult larva is 
unicolorous, pale green or yellowish-green, segments less distinct than in the 
younger (mining) stage and it does not taper anally so perceptibly. 

The larva leaves the leaf to pupate in an elongate-oval cocoon of white • 
silk in which the pupa is dimly visible. In captivity the cocoon is spun in 
any convenient angle and under natural conditions it has been found on the 
lower surface of a leaf, where it was placed in a slight fold formed by drawing 
the haf together to form a trough, the edges of the trough being kept in place 
by white cross-threads. 

GRACILLARIA THEIVORA, WLSM. 

Gracilaria theivora, Wlsm., Ind. Mus. Notes, II, 49 (1891)(i) ; Watt and Mann, 

Tea Pests, pp. 228-232, ff. 23-25 (1903)(2) ; Meyr., B. J., XVIII, 829 ^ 

(1908)(3) ; Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 538 (1909)(4)-^-^ /^.(^ Ui .h^^j l..b3> J^'^- '?^ 
Described from Pundaluoya in Ceylon(i), where it has also been found 
at Madulsima(3) and ]\Iaskeliya(3). Lefroy(*) states that it occurs in India 
also. Watt and Mann also record it from Assam, Darjiling anfl the Kangra 
Valley(2) and we have it from Lebong and Margherita. 
The larva feeds upon tea (Camellia theifera). 

" The egg is deposited near the midrib and on the under surface of the 
leaf. On hatching, the minute caterpillar is at first a leaf-miner. It eats 
along, in a somewhat tortuous course, towards the margin. It then escapes 
and then becomes a leaf-roller, and subsequently causes the margin of the 
leaf,' for half an inch to an inch in length and perhaps less than one-eighth 
of an inch in breadth, to turn over itself. Within that enclosure it commences 
to eat the epidermis of the enclosed portion. Shortly after, however, it 
m' grates to a fresh leaf and now commences its more vigorous action. The 



160 LIPE-HISTORIES OF GRACILLARIAD^ 

overturned margin dies, and gives to the leaf a withered, discoloured and 

torn appearance The insect in fact^ during its larval existence, repeatedly 

changes its house and thus destroys a large numljer of leaves " Larva 

minute, yellowish-white, about 13 mm. long, with prolegs only on third to 
fifth abdominal segments, with the anal claspers. The larva carefully sews 
'' up the leaf as it rolls it round and when the conch-shell-like structure, thus 
formed, has been completely wound up and firmly bound together at both 
ends, the caterpillar proceeds to eat the leaf from the tip downwards. As 
it progresses, the excretory matter is carefully packed on one side, and parti, 
tioned off by a fold of the margin of the leaf brought down for that purpose. 
When the contained portions of the leaf have been devoured, the operation 
of winding up the leaf still further is renewed. Coil after coil is made, but 
usually not more than half the leaf is eaten. The insect then migrates and 
commences once more to roll a leaf around itself ". " When mature, the 
caterpillar spins a small silken cocoon about one- quarter of an inch long and 
little more than one-sixteenth in breadth. This will be found within depres- 
sions of the leaf or under the lee of a midrib. It opens by a circular mouth 
to allow of the escape of the perfect insect "(^). [This last point would seem 
to require verification.] 

GRACILLARIA SOYELLA, DEV. 
Gracilaria soyella, van Deventer, Tijds. voor Ent., XL VII, 22-25, t. 2, ff. 1, la 

(1904)(i). 
Gracilaria acrotherma, Meyr., B. J., XVIII, 830 (1908)(-). 
Gracilaria soijella, Fletcher, Entl. Note 88 (1916)(3) ; Proc. Second Entl. 

Meeting, p. 42 (1917)(4)^ir^x^''^-'^ L>(.iW^I.ItS '\^^.^)v>) 

Originally described from Java(^), this species has also been recorded 
from Colombo(2) ^ax^ Hakgala(2), in Ceylon. It is probably common through- 
out the Plains of India, as it occurs freely at Pusa{3) and Coimbatore(3) on 
Cajanus indicus{^) and has also been reared at Pusa from Phaseolus mungo. 

Larva in leaves of Soya hispida in Java(i), on Cajanus indicus and Atylosia 
candoUei in Ceylon(2). It is said to mine the leaves of Cajanus indicus in 
Ceylon(2), ^^t this is probably an error, as in India the larva has been noted 
on this plant both at Pusa and Coimbatore and found to roll up the tip of 
the leaf, each end of the chamber so formed being fastened down with silk. 
The larva turns over the apex of the leaf, usually on to the under surface, and 
fastens it down with silk and doubles and redoubles the fold until it has made 
a shelter within which it lives and feeds on the epidermis of the leaf, the 
interior of the cone being filled with excrement. The larva is about 6 mm. 



t. batnijiu(;(;e Fletcher 161 ( 

long, slender, cylindrical, uniformly pale yellow in colour, with only four , l-.^CcI^* '^°' ^ 

pairs of prolegs. Many larva) are parasitized by a small Clialcidid. Pupation --^""^^^^[^^iocv^^^* '^^*" 

nuiy take place within the cone or outside of it in any suitable depression ^'^V^ ^^ '^^ 

on a leaf, within a yellowish- white silken cocoon to wliich the pupa is attached '^^ '' (-j^c . i<)'«>) 

by four processes on the anal end of the pupa. Pupa about 5 mm. long and ^ _ -jj^ Uj^^'^ 
about 1 mm. broad across thoracic region, each segment furnished dorsally o^(^^- ^^^ ' 

with two transverse rows, on anterior and posterior margins, of spinous hairs, <? 'j-,,^ ^^- ^^w 

those of anterior row thicker and more distinct; similar rows of hairs are l^ i^v^^''" '^"-^ 

present also on the ventral surface but are much fainter. The pupal period 
is about eight days in February and six or seven days in June. This seems 
to occur throughout the year at Pusa on Cajanus indicus and Phaseolus mungo. 
(Pusa Insectary Cage-slips 6^6 and 1109.) 

GRACILLARIA ISEL^A, MEYPw 

Gracilaria iselcva, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 286 (1914)(i). 

Described from Peradeniya, where it was bred in April from larva3 on 
Spondias mangifera'{^). 

GRACILLARIA ? ? COFPEIFOLIELLA, NtETIC 

Gracilaria coffeiJolieUa, Nietner, Obs. on Enemies of Coffee-tree in Ceylon, p. 24 

(1861)(i); I.e., p. 16 (1880)(2); Moore, Lep. Ceylon, III, 525 (1887)(3) ; 

Koningsberger, Med. Plant. Java, XLIV, 2 (1901)(*) ; Meyr., B. J., 

XVIII, 832 (1908)(5). 

Originally described from Ceylon^^) ; also recorded from Java(*). 

Larva said to be common as a leaf-miner in coffee, but the identity of 
the species concerned is very doubtful('^). 

Mines are commonly found in coft'ee leaves in all the coffee-growing 
districts in Southern India, but I have never been able to breed any moths 
out of them, and most of those examined have contained Dipterous larvae. • 



Nove7iiber 1920. 



Entomological Series. 



Vol. VI, No. 7. 



MEMOIRS OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

IN INDIA 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN INSECTS 
MICROLEPIDOPTERA 

VII. EPERMENIAD^, PLUTELLID^E AND LYONETIADiE 

BY 

T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S 
Imperial Entomologist 




AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, PUSA 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED FOR 

THE IMPERIAL DEPARTiMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN INDIA 



BY 



THACKER, SPINK & CO., CALCUTTA 
W. THACKER & CO., 2, Creed Lane, LONDON 



PLATE XLVl. 




hlioglos.sa Iriacma: — a. Leai ol Coininellna bengaleiisis showing larval mine ; b, leaf 
of Commelina hengalensis showing tunnel through which larva moves from 
one side of the leaf to the other ; c. larva, natural size and magnified ( x 13) ; 

d, pupa, natural size and magnified ( x 13 I : e, moth, natural size and magnified 

1x13). 



Ib^ 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN INSECTS 
MICKOLEPIDOPTERA. 

YII. EPERMENIADiE, PLUTELLIDiE AND LYONETIADiE. 



BY 

T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., 

Imperial Entomologist. 

[Keceived for publication cu '29th June 1919.] 

EPERMENIADiE 

EPIMARPTIS PHILOCO^IA, MEYR. j ^ "-^ y ''-^'^ J 

Epimcwptis jMocoma, Meyr., B. J., XXII, 776 (1914)(i]7 Exot. Micr., II, G9 

(1917)(2). 

Described from Karwar, North Kanara, from a single specimen reared 
in September(i). Since recorded from the Khasi Hills(-). 

" Larva reddish (including head) ; lives i)i a A\hite web on midrib of an 
miknown plant, the web ■being on both sides of the leaf, kept off the surface 
by little pillars of excrement ; the webs on either surface of the leaf are con- 
nected by holes through the leaf itself, and the larva uses these alternative 
abodes as- a means of escaping observation, dodging through the holes with 
much agility ; cocoon separate, close to midrib, oval, resembling a bird- 
dropping "(1). 

IDIOGLOSSA TRIACMA, MEYR. (PLATE XLVI.) 
Idioglossa triacma, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 77-78 (1913)(i). 

Originally described from the Khasi Hills, this species has been reared 
at Pusa from larva- found on 14th November 191G nibbling leaves of Conimelina 
hengalensis (Commelinacea)). The larva forms a tuimel across the midrib 
of the leaf and through this tunnel it has access to both halves of the blade 
of the leaf. It feeds on one epidermis and tissue of the leaf, leaving the other 
epidermis entire and, over the part it feeds on, it spins a white silken webbirg^ 



l70 LIFE-HISTORIES OF PLUTELLID^ 

SO that it can live and feed hidden under this Avebbing. (Figs, a, h.) The larva 
is about 4 mm. long and about 0-75 mm. broad, cylindrical, creamy white ; 
head yellow, shiny, somewhat retractile into ]nothorax ; prothorax with an 
indistinctly chitinij^ed integument ; prolegs minute, five pairs present. The 
moths emerged between 24th November 19 fG and 15th February 1917. 

AMPHITHERlDiE. 

This family has been established by Mr. Meyrick {Exotic Micr., I, 154 ; 
Dec. 1913), to contain a small group of species developed from the PluteUidce. 
The only Indian genera are Agrioihera and Telethera, whose early stages are 
unknown. 

PLUTELLID^. 

ACROLEPIA MANGANEUTIS, MEYR. (PLATE XLVII, FIG. 1.) 
Acrolepia manganeutis, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 149(1 913)(^) ; Fletcher, Entl. 

Note 90, f. 17 (1916)(2), Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 297 (1917)(3). 

Described from C*alcutta, the Khasi Hills, and Ceylon (Maskeliya)(^). 
Also from Ootacamund(-). 

Larva on stored yams [Bioscorea) in Calcutta(^' -). Pupa in net-work 
cocoon. 

PLUTELLA MACULIPENNIS, GUPvT. 
Cerostoma maciOipennis, Curtis, Brit. Entom., IX, t. 420, expl., p. 2 (1832)('). 
Plutella crucijeramm, Zeller, Stett. Ent. Zeit., IV, 281-283 (1S43)(-) ; Quanjer, 

Tijds. voor Ent., 1906, pp. 11-17, t. l-2(-^). 
PluteUd maculipennis, Wlsm., Faima Hawaii, I, G52-653 (1907)(^) ; Lefroy, 

Ind. Ins. Pests, p. 152, ff. 170-171(-5), Ent. Mem. Agri. Dept. India, 

I, 225, f. 69(6), Ind. Ins. Life, p. 538, f. 345(") ; Meyrick, Rec. Ind. Mus., 

V, 229(8), Catal. Plutell, p. 59 (1914)(0) ; Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins., p. 464, 

f. 340 (1914)(i"), I'roc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp, 276, 277, 280, 282, 

283 (1917)(ii)^'C(iI U.KuXl,j l.lk(l4o\/.\ywJ 

This cosmopolitan species occurs throughout the world everywhere that 
man plants cabbages. It is abundant throughout our limits. 

The eggs are laid singly on leaves. The full-grown caterpillar is about 
8 nun. long, moderately stout, attenuated at each extremity, smooth, with 
short scattered bristly hairs ; in colour pale-green with a pale-brown head 
and prothoracic shield. Pupa in a slight silken cocoon of open net-like 
texture ; pupal period about ten days. On cabbage, cauliflovv er, radish, 
mustard and other cruciferous plants, the larva eating holes in the leaf(^^). 






^.^«^ -Sa^^ Tv,- rtXA4i U, , Jou^. Ew. . 0(. .1*1. xk\'-\lo^ i^\'(.3i>j .' 



L- 



/o-^x hv-i 



*N.-«^ 



Vj' **»«- , <-^ tv-^rv*^ , V^r^kCf Itj-Ah*. 4^L±^^ A*) /->-t*«>tV\-." CJ«- 






PLATE XLVII. 




Fig. ]. Ai/olepia inaiivant'ulis: — (The outline ligure^ <lio\v the natural jizes.) 




Fig. 2. f.t'ucoptera .sphciiogrupta: — a. Twig ol Da/hrri^ia .si.s.sii showing larval 

mines in leaves and rocoon on terminal leal : h. larva : c. |)u|)a : d. moth. 

jiatural size and masrnilied i \ l'!). 




PhYLLOCNISTIS CITfJELLA. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLVIIL 

PhYLLOCNISTIS CITRELLA. 

Fig. 1. Twig of Citrus with leaves mined by laiv*, natural size. 
„ 2. Leaf of Citrus, mined by larvae. On right-hand side the larva is seen in 

the mine. On left-hand side, near tip of leaf, the edge is bent over 

to form a cocoon for pupation of the larva which has quitted the 

mine (natural size). 
„ 3. Larva, natural size and magnified ( ; 17). 
„ 4. Pupa, natural size and magnified (x 17), from side. A dorsal view ol 

posterior extremity of pupa is also shown. 
„ 5. Moth, position at rest, natural size and magnified (x 17). 
,j, 6. Moth, wings expanded, natural size and magnified (x 17). 






LQ^C/oij~t^ P *-' tgo C/Q/Q \r ;^fi^ ^ P^*^ . 

\/^:«^ ; )>'~f^ u^ ^ u/kCC c)^vV* ' <yup) c^cxt^ oiJ^^<u 'tc ^^-^^i^ 






t. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER l71 

LYONETIAD/E. 

LEUCOPTEllA SPHENOGRAPTA, MEYR. (PLATE XLVII, FIG. 2.) 

Leucoptera sphenograpla, Meyr., B. J., XXI, 108-109 (l'Jll)('); Lefroy, Ind. 

Ins. Life, p. 539 (1909){-). 

Described I'roni Mult;in(') and Pusa('). We liave it from Pu:^a, Peshawar, 
Lyallpur and Asansol ; doubtless it occurs tlirougliout the Phiins of Northern 
India wherever Dalhergia sissu grows. 

Larva mining blotches in leaves of Dalhergia sissu{^). 

Larva mining lea\es of Dalhergia sissu, at times extremely destructive 
to young plants. ]\I()ths abundant in the cohl weather when the leaves of 
the sissu fall [about February at P'usa] ; when new leaves are put forth, they 
lay their eggs, a single small egg on each leaflet(^). 

The larva mines a blotch near the edge of a leaf of Dalhergia sissu, piac- 
tically all the new leaves being afiected in some years. When fresh, the 
mine is not very evident but later on it turns brown and is then conspicuous. 
Tlie moths are common at Pusa throughout the winter and often occur in 
countless thousands about the end of April, two months after the new Dalhergia 
leaves have been put forth. 

^^''^^^E^T^CJ^^'^'^- PHYLLOCNISTIS CHRYSOPHTHALMA, MEYR. ^^ ^-^ />'^''^J 

(\-^^^^ Phyllocnisiis chrgsophlhalma, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 317-348 (1915)(i). ^n^^J 

[ Described from Nortli Kanara('). Larva mining blotches in leaves of 

Cinna»io)nu)n :e/jhnurinii[^). 



PHYLLOCNISTIS CIRRHOPHANES, MEYR. S-^^ ^M^ ■(^- 



1(4- 



Phgllocnistis cirrhophanes, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 348 (1915)(i). ^ ^ ^ 

Reared in Xortl) Kanara in May from larv». mining blotches in leaves '"' 
of Alseodaphnc setnecarpifolia {Lauracea'){^). 

PHYLLOCNISTIS CITRELLA, STT. (PLATES XLVIII, XLIX.) SU^ oM^ ft> "^ I^J 

Phyllocnistis citrella, Stainton, T. E. S. (n. s.), Ill, 302-303 (1856)(i) ; Meyr., 
Ann. S. Afr. Mus., 1909, 360(2) . Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins., pp. 4G5-4G6, 
i. 341 (I914)(;5); Pvutherford, Trop. Agric, XLIII, 49-50 (July 1914)('^) ; ^ , 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 209, 210, 21G (1917)(5):iA-^ ,1U. liL ^>K- ^^^^ i "'^ 
Originally described from Calcutta(^), this species occurs throughout _ ' 

India, Ceylon (and Burma ?), and has also been recordecf from Cape Colony (-), 

whither it was doubtless mtroduced with its foodplant. 

■ — -* I . " - 

)v\«-C<% ^A r~ Ax r<^ . j 



112 LiPE-niSTORIES OF LYONETIAD^ 

The larva feeds on Citrus spp.^ hael [Mcjle marmelos) (Plate XLIX), 
Murraya koenigii, and bela {Jasminum sambac). In tlie case of orange, this 
insect is often a bad pest, especially of young plants, as practically every 
new leaf may be mined by one or more larvte. The larvae also mine under the 
epidermis of the green stems. The mines are usually found on the upper 
surface of the leaf and are winding and irregular in shape. The larva works 
just under the epidermis and feeds on the chlorophyll cells. The larva is 
about 2'5 mm. long, head and thoracic segments somewhat flattened, abdo- 
minal segments cylindrical, segments distinct, stoutest at mesothorax.tapering 
posteriorly almost to a point, uniform pale-yellow or pale-green, naked ; head 
smaller than prothorax, brownish pale green, with prominent antennae, mandi- 
bles and labrum feinged with light brown, ocelli four, black ; two lateral black 
specks on prothorax and mesothorax ; legs and five pairs of prolegs very 
minute and only visible under a lens. The larva moves more by contracting 
and expanding the body than with the help of the legs and prolegs. 

When full-grown, the larva leaves the mine and pupates in a white cocoon, 
formed on the leaf in any corner afforded by the folding of any part of the 
leaf (often under a small up-folded portion of the edge of the leaf) or by the 
side of a raised vein. Before emergence of the moth the pupa is protruded 
to some extent through one end of the cocoon. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 900.) 

/ 
PHYLLOCNISTIS IL\BROCHROA, MEYR. Tte <^ ([,|,-llt -IbJ 

-Ar^^ Phyllocnistis hahrochroa, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 349 (I915)(i). 

Described from N. Kanara, where the larva was found mining leaves of 

PHYLLOCNISTIS HELICODES, MEYR. (PLATE L, I'lG. 1.) 

Phyllocnistis helicodes, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 618 (1916)(i). 

Reared at Pusa in November from larvae mining leaves of Polyalthia 
longifolia (Anonaceae)(^). 

Larvae were collected at Pusa on 10th September 1917, mining leaves of 
asoka {Polyalthia longifolia). The mine is made just below the epidermis on 
the upper surface of the tender leaves. An old mine appears as a broad 
continuous convoluted brown streak with a whitish space on each side, running 
up and down the length of the leaf or across its breadth over the midrib. 
The brown white-edged streak constitutes the mine, the brown streak being 
the dried liquid excrement of the larva which feeds on either side as it proceeds, 
the whitish space being the dried mined epidermis of the leaf. When the 



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,«WwO t^ 



lAirJo oclb^ 0iJS^ «-/^ ^ e>ctA./«^«^ -/U*-<-l; *«. <<a/vH [vka ; i>-i* «< UU-^ 






r>\xv<^ 



(n^(^^ "J 






PLATE XLIX. 




Bael \/Egle marmelos) leaves mined bv larva; of FliyHoaiislis citrella. 



PLATE L. 





I 







■** 


^ 


. 








c 




— ' 


c 




~ 














^ 




*■ 




,^ 


r 




"*».j 


^" 


:c 


C: 




-«- 




3 








2 


iJC 


C! 










l«>a^O<v\_ 









o 



Q 






CD 









T. BAlNRIunOE FLKTCHER 173 

larva is full-fed, if it happens to be near the e(lo;e of the loaf, it turns over the 
edge of the leaf and forms a cocoon in which to pupate. If, however, it happens 
at that time to be somewhere near the middle of the blade, the cocoon is 
formed there in a sort of depression formed by drawing the contiguous portions 
of the blade together with silk. 

The larva is about 5 mm. long, flattened, segments distinct, uniform pale 
yellow ; head flat, tapering anteriorly, somewhat conical in outline and 
with two longitudinal furrows ; the first eight abdominal segments with a 
lateral protuberant spine, that on eighth abdominal segment the longest ; 
ninth and tenth abdominal segments tubular, the tenth elongated and 
bifurcated posteriorly into two long fleshy spines ; no legs or prologs visible 
(Fig. b). 

The pupa is about 3 mm. long, cylindrical, tapering slightly posteriorly, 
light yellow, the dorsal abdominal region blackish ; head tapering anteriorly 
and armed with a narrow black spine bent dorsally ; abdominal segments 
with a dorsal row of black posteriorly-directed short pointed spines ; anal 
extremity rounded and armed on either side with a tubular round-headed 
process (Fig. c). 

The moths emerged on llth September. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1684.) 

PHYLLOCNISTIS SELENOPA, MEYR. ] 

Phijllocnistis selempa, Meyr., Exot. Micr. I, 348-349 (1915)(i). 

Bred at Peradeniya from larvae mining leaves of Melia azedarach (^). 
This is a very minute species, only expanding three millimetres. 

PSYLLOGNISTIS SYNGLYPTA, meyr. ^ fM^ (j) • T-iJ^j 

Phijllocnistis sijuglypta, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 183 (1918)('). 

" Bred at Dharwar, N. Kanara, in February from light green larvee 
mining galleries in leaves of a small unidentified shrub, pupa internal in folded 
edge of leaf {Maxwell) "(^). .^ yM^^'^^ ,<>Wv^^ cka..<^ <:^\j^^^r^\ ,»vC«t^ ^ ^j^r^jt^.^^ ti'^^ 



^PHYLLOCNISTIS TOPARCITA, MEYR. (PLATE L, FIG. 2.) 



Phijllocnistis toparcha, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 182 (1918)(^) ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p.- 235 (1917)(-):^^>^-^^ ,^'v^fu R^.^Utxr^ I. ^<^ !(\i^.i<ivoj 
** Bred at Coinibatore m February from larvae mining leaves of grape- 
vine {Vitis vinijem) "(^). Common on vine at Coinibatore mining the leaves 
much in the same way as P. citrella mines in Gitrus{^). 



174 LIFE-HISTORIES OF LYONETIAD^ 

"r OvOSv'-- ->-■ ' "' BEDELLIA SOAINULENTELLA, Z. 

u r u- . 

^ .r-'^''' Lyonetia somniilentella, Zeller, Isis 1847, 894-895(^). 

BedeUia somnulentella, Wlsm., Fauna Hawaii, I, 723-724, t. 25, f. 28 (1907)(-). 

This species is found practic^ally all over the world, having been recorded 
from Euro|)e, North America, Peru, Hawaii, AustraHa, New Zealand and the 
Transvaal. In India j-fTs known from North Coorg ani may be expected 
to be found to be widely distributed. We have specimens from Peshawar^'iJii^i^' 
The larva mines in Convolvulus and Ijmmcea and may be expected to cccur 
\!>-^- - on sweet potato. ^-r- at,- <>^iAS Vw^/-- / 

^ lyS^- '*■ Le- t/^/CZ^ •* CROB YLOPHORA DARICELL A, ME YR^ tf . ^ ^ , b "y J 

t^*- Crobylophora daricella, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., V, 178 (1880)(i), 
T. E. S., 1894, 29(2), Ann. Transvaal Mus., VI, 41 (1918)(3). 
CrohyUphora stalerias, Meyr., B. J., XVT, 61,3 (1905)(4). 
fU- CrobylopJiora onychotis, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 345-310 (1915)(5). 

Originally described from Queensland (') and since recorded from South 
Africa('^), Ceylon(*), Rurma(-) and India (5), this sjiecies is probably originally 
a native of South Africa and has been distributed artificially with its foodplant, 
the garden Plumbago capensis, in whose leaves the larva forms blister-like 
patches, several larvae feeding in one mine. (See Aj^pendix also.) 

BUCCULATRIX CR.4lTERACMA, MEYR^ ' " 

Bucculatrix craieraona, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 184 (1918)('). 

" Bred at Pusa in October and November from larvae mining leaves of 
Bombax [malabaricwn] (Bombacacea?). Pupa with five abdominal segments 
free, in ribbed rosy-whitish cocoon attached to leaf. If the mining habit of 
larva is really persistent, it is exceptional in the genus '"('). 

Larvge were found at Pusa on 25th September 1916 on leaves of Bombax 
malabaricum. The larva feeds on the green substance of the upper surface 
of the leaf, leaving the lower tissue untouched, and usually commencing to 
feed in the middle portion of the leaf. The larva is 6 mm. long and 0'75 mm. 
broad, tapering towards either extremity, segments distinct, dark green,, 
rather transparent ; head smaller than prothorax, transparent, shiny, bilobed, 
brownish yellow ; thoracic segments yellowish-green, transparent ; abdominal 
segments transparent so that the internal organs are visible and the contents 
of the alimentary ca*nal make the body look dark green ; primary hairs black, 
situated on minute white seta) ; legs shiny transparent yellow ; five j)airs of 
equally developed prolegs. Pupation takes place in a cocoon about 8 mm. 
long and TS mm. broad, of which a cross-section is a half-circle, the general 






0^ 



PLATi; 




Fig. 1. Biicculalrix lo.xoplila: — Moth, natural size and magnified. Below is seen 
a side-view of the head of moth, more highly magnified. 




•^m 



y^-jp— SS!!MW^> 










Fig. 2. Pyloetis mimosae. (From Indian Museum Notes.) 



1).vcUJ;r^^ OVvCNJoC^.'Wr. '^ f|>.lir.llo,. 



T. BAINBETGGE FLETCHER 175 

appearance boat-sliaped, bulgiiio; in tlie middle, tlie surface ribbed longitudi- 
nally. The cocoon is fixed on a leaf, twig or wall of the cage. The pupa wriggles 
out of the cocoon before emergence of the moth and the enipt}^ pupa-case 
remains protruded from the cocoon. Moths emerged from 4th October to 
18th November. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1477.) 

BUCCULATRIX EXEDRA, MEYR. 

Buccuhtrix e.redra, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 354-355 (1915)(i). 

Originally described from the Khasi Ilills(') and North Coorg('), this 
species has been bred at Pusa on 5th June 1911 from a pupa enclosed in a slight 
silken hammock-shaped cocoon, but no cage-slip or record of foodplant is 
traceable. 

We have specimens from Pusa, Shillong and Pollibetta (Coorg). 

BUCCULATRIX LOXOPTILA, MEYR. (PLTEf. LI, FIG. 1.) ^ r,„,-i \ ■ 

Buccuhtrix hxopih, MejT., Exot. Micr., I, 209 (July 1914)(i).^-^'^-'' ^^^^ p^.'ff; ^.^^^ 

Originally described from Zanzibar, where it w^as "bred from larvae on T . i^^ /'Nrvi. l'^^ 
cotton {Gossypium) '\^). This is presumably the leaf-miner of cotton referred 
to by Aders {Zanzibar Protectorate, Economic Zoology Report for 1913, p. 86) 
under the name Gelecliia sp. ; Aders says : — " Throughout the season all experi- 
mental cotton was much infested. The leaves in many instances being covered 
with concentric tunnels. The young larva is white with a brown thoracic 
shield jneasuring 1 J mm. ; later it becomes pink, being a conspicuous object 
beneath the epidermis ; average measurement 3 to 4 mm. Pupation takes 
place on the dorsal side of leaf in an oval silken case. Pupal stage averages 
five days." 

In India this species is known to occur at Attur, Madras Presidencv, 
w^here it was reared in June 1907 from larvae " eating small holes in leaf of 
Caravonica cotton." (Y. Ramachandra Rao ; C. No. 170.) 

BUCCULATRIX MEND AX, IMEYR. 
Buccuhirix mendax, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 185 (1918)(i). 

" Bred at Pusa in March from pupa in white ribbed elongate cocoon on 
leaf of DaJbergia sissu (Leguminosa') "(^). 

/ 
BUCCULATRIX VERAX, MEYR " 

Bucculatrix verax, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 184 (1918)('). 

" Bred at Pusa in March from larva feeding externallv on leaf of Trewiu 
nudiflora (E\n^\iOvh'meesd)"{^). y^-w^ l^^o -^r "i^iL.,^ H .Xii -X^ — 21 ■ T .^ ^r- 



176 LIFE-HISTORIES OF LYONETIAD^E 

Larvae were found at Pusa on 12tli March 1916 eating lioles in leaves of 
Trewia nudiflora, feeding on one side of the epidermal and mesophyll tissue. 
The larva is about 4 mm. long and 0-75 mm. broad, cylindrical, tapering 
slightly towards either extremity, segments distinct, pale greyish green ; head 
much smaller than prothorax, pale yellowish with a slight green tinge ; pro- 
thorax with a horny plate ; short scattered pale greenish hairs on segments ; 
five pairs of prolegs. Pupation takes place in a thin white silken cocoon 
attached to leaves or the sides of the cage. The pupal period is five or six 
days in March. (Tahl Ram's Cage-slip 156.) 

PETASOBATHRA SIRINA, MEYR. 

Pefasobathra sirina, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 355 (1915)(i) ; Fletcher, Entl. Note 

91 (1916)(2),'^^^C<.uL LK.W^-< l.lb7ffV,^f.lr^; 

Described from Gorakhpur and Dalsing Serai in Bihar('' '^). 

Larva on top-shoots of indigo. " The larva is about 4*5 mm. long and 
about 0'75 mm. across the middle of the body which tapers towards each 
extremity ; the segments are distinctly separated by deep constrictions ; 
shape flattened ; head flat, yellow, somewhat elongate, smaller than pro- 
thorax ; colour uniform dirty white ; thoracic legs and five pairs of prolegs 
greyish. 

" The larva covers the top-shoots with a profuse web of fine white silk 
under cover of which it lives and nibbles small portions of the leaf-surface. 
It is often seen to walk over the webbing. When full-fed it spins a pu?e- white 
somewhat elongated cocoon in any suitable situation which provides some 
corner, e.g., along the midrib on the upper surface of a leaf or in a rolled or 
folded leaflet. The moth emerges after about a week and rests with the 
anterior half of the body well raised and the antennae held extended at right 
angles to the body "(-). 

OPOGONA CHALTNOTA, MEYR. 

Opogona chalinota, Meyr., Rec. Ind. Mus., V, 230 (1910)(i) ; Lefroy, Ind. Ins. 
Life, p. 540 (1909)(2). 

Described from Colombo, Puri in Orissa, and Pusa(i). 

Bred at Pusa in March from larvae feeding in dry stems of Polypodium 
quercifolium{^). Larvae found in January, reducing the stems to a mass of 
frass and dust amongst which the full- grown larvae pupate in white silken 
cocoons, covered with frass and dust. Moths emerged from 1st January to 
11th March(2). 



_ ,f ^ 5 ""^ ^ UioA^o^AS, h^^ txift. but^, II. , s'sl) O^^-^J I ^-^^ ', ^ f-^ '^ y'-.j-.c-.-^sj^ j<z^ ^ 






(I) 









_J -^ — (V^ 



T. BAINBRIGQE FLETCHER 177 

Larva) were found at Pusa on 23rd January 1007 in a dry gurur {Pohj- 
podimn quercifolium) sieni, almost tlie wliole intcrioi' of tlic stem having been 
reduced to dust in wliich the larviB lived and pupated. The larva was 
described as about 10 mm. long, slender, cylindrical, dirty white with small 
scattered hairs ; head red-brown, bilobed ; prothoracic shield brownish, 
skin rather transparent, the blackish internal organs visible through ; five 
pairs of prolegs. Pupation in a white silken cocoon covered with dust and 
excrement. Pupa rather over 4 mm. long, brown, posterior portion of leg- 
cases separate and extending to anal extremity. The pupa wriggles out of the 
cocoon to some extent on emergence of tlie moth. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 
501.) 

Jhis species has also been bred at Coimbatore from a larva found in 
bark of Papaya carica. 

OPOGONA FLAVOFASCIATA, STT. 

Lozostoma flavojasciala, Stainton, T. E. S. (n. s.) V, 124 (1859)(i). 
Opogonafavofasciata, Petch, Ann. K. B. G. Peradeniya, III, 229 (1906)(2) ; 

Meyr., Rec. Ind. Mus., V, 230 (1910)(3). 

Originally described from Calcutta('''^), this species has been recorded 
from Peradeniya(2) and is found abundantly at Coimbatore. We have it 
from the Anamalais (3,600 feet), Coimbatore, Rangoon and Mandalay. 

Larva in fungus-combs of termites' nests, which they reduce to a mass 
of excrementitious matter in a few days when cultures of combs are attempted, 
the cultures being resolved into a mass of black pellets. Though the moths 
are apparently confined to this habitat, it is remarkable that no trace of the 
larvse or their work has been observed in the termites' nest under natural 
conditions(-). 

OPOGONA PR.'ECINCTA, MEYR. 

Opogona prcecinda, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, G20 (1916)(^). 

" Found at Coimbatore under a log associated with the termite Odonto- 
ternies Jece {Fletcher) "(*). A single specimen was found on 29th July 1912. 
It is probable that the larva feeds in the nests of 0. Jece. 

OPOGONA LACHANITIS, MEYR. 

Opogona lachanUis, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 416-417 (1906)(i). 
Opogofia clialanitis, Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 540 (1909)(2). 

Described from Puttalam and Peradeniya, in Ceylon(';. 

Larva in fungus-beds of termites(^ -). 

33 



17<S LIFE-HISTORIES OF LYONETIAD.E 

Also occurs in India at Hoshangabad, where T found the moths j frophlv ^ 
attracted to fungus-combs newly dug out of termitaria. We have it also 
from Chitorgarh (Rajputana), Nagpur, Bangalore and Coinibatore. 

OrOGONA FUMICEPS, F. & r/ 
Opogona fumiceps, Felder, Lep. Novara, t. 139, f. 8 (1875)(i) ; Moore, Lep. 

Ceylon, III, 526 (1887)(-) ; van Deventer, Tijds. voor Ent., XLVI, 83; 

t. 10, ff. la, U (1904)(^) ; Meyr., B. J., XVII, 986 (1907)(4). 

Recorded from Ceylon('' ^' ■*) and Java(^' ^). 

Larva on Cocos micifera(^). The larva and pupa are described and figured 
by van Deventer(^). 

[The species described by Swezey {Hawaii. Sugar Planters' Assocn., Entl. 
Bull. 6, p. 19 ; 1909) as 0. jumiceps, the larva feeding in sugarcane in New 
Guinea, is probably 0. autophyia, Meyr., which is not Indian.] 

/ 
^ ERECHTHIAS ZEBRINA, BUTL. 

}^^ ^^^.rv^c^.ii Argyresthia zehrina, Butl, A. M. N. H. (5) VII, 403 (1881)('). 

^^,^ (Vt- ^'P^^ ■ Ereunetis lanceolana, Wlsm., P. Z. S., 1897, 158(2). 

tive> -' 't^^'^*^ ^ Ereunetis xenica, Meyr.. Tr. Linn. Soc. (2) XIV, 301 (1911)(3), Rec. Ind. Mus., 

r_ .^ ^'i^ V, 230(4). I'jio, ■ 

^^^ul-^^ ■ DecadarcJiis xenica, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 367 (1915)(S). 

' ""^ Erechtias zehrina, Meyr., T. E. S., 1915, 253^6). 

Ereunetis zehrina, Wlsm., Fauna Hawaii, I, 715-716, t. 25, f. 16 (1907)(^). 

This species has been recorded from the West Indies(^' *'), Brazil('), 

British Guiana(^), Hawaii(^' *'■ ^), Borneo(^' ^) and the Seychelles(-''- ^). 

Within our limits it appears to be plentiful in Ceylon, where it has been recorded 

from Puttalam, Kandy and Maskeliya('^), and is known in India from Cal- 

cutta(5), the Khasi IIills(3) and North Coorg(^). We have it from Shillong. 

The larva " is doubtless a refuse-feeder and artificially spread ''(•^), 

<t rA*^^ ^ ' o'^ V^^ PYLfBTIS MIMOS.^, STT. (PLATE LI, FIG. 2.) 

-^■^^^■'^^''^ Laverna ? mimosce, Stainton, T. E. S. (n. s.), V, 126 (1859)(i) ; Lefroy, Ind. 
Ins. Life, p. 536 (1909)(2). 
. ^ Ereunetis ? seminivora, Wlsm., Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, 107, t. f, f. 2 (1898)(3) : 

S^'^^^^^y^' Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 540 (1909)(-^). 

P^jC^**---*^'- Pyloelis ophio7iota, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 752 (1907)(^). 

PylcBlis mimosce, Meyr., Rec. Ind. Mus., V, 231 (1910)('^). 

Originally described from Calcutta(i) ; also recorded from Hooghly(2) 
and from Puttalam and Matale in Ceylon (•'^). I have also seen it from 






0^o5^£._^<yrJC£(>v^r;^W^ 'u^ (P.^^^) 



- Eaxckr.'coi U^^^i'^c^^ ^ h^^.^ c^c^rv... H ^.^\^l,r if^.J fVevo- 



• ', ".. r» >; C^ > 












lo5cK^> kest}'^,^^. ^ fil^j. 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 179 

Coimbatore and have taken it in March at Rajshahi, Bengal, so that it is 
doubtless widely distributed in the Plains of India and Ceylon. 

Larva in seeds of Acacia arahica{^), in pods of Cassia fistulai^), in pods of 
Cassia corymhosa at Coimbatore. 

DECADARCHIS MINUSCULA, WLSM. ^ 

Ereunetis minuscula, Wlsm., P. Z. S., 1897, 155-15G(^), Fauna Hawaii Micro- 

lep., p. 716, t. 15, f. 17 (1907)(2). 
Decadarchis minuscula, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 367 (I915)('^), Ann. Transvaal 
Mus., VI, 43 (1918)(^). 

A very widely-distributed species recorded from the West Indies('), ^^^-^^^^ , 
^•^ South Africa(-^), Hawaii(2) and Ceylonp), :i^vc .T^V, ^-*-<r-.^, fc./^i^^- . ^^--« - |, 

The larva feeds in dry vegetable refu8e('*). iJHc«Ji>*/^t+-^L±^''^'^^'^ ' — - 

DECADARCHIS DISSIMULANS, MEYR. ] (B' <f^ Y*^ ^^r d 

Decadarchis dissimulans, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 368 (1915)('). 

Ereunetis melanastra, Meyr., B. J., XVI, 617 (1905) [nee Meyr., T. E. S., 1886, 

291 = simnlans, Butl.](2). 
Described from Ceylon (Udagama, Peradeniya, Kegalle, and Kalutara)(^). 
We have it from Udagama. 

Larva feeding on decaying bark of dead Hevea hrasiliensis (Para 
rubber)(-), in dead bark and wood('). 

/ 
TISCHERIA PTARMICA, MEYR. 

Tischeria ptarmica, Meyr., Rec. Ind. Mus., II, 399 (1908)(i) ; Lefroy, Ind. 

Ins. Life, p. 540 (1909)(2) ; Imms and Chatterjee, Ind. Forest Mem. 

(Zool.), Ill, 32 (1915)(3)-^M^,C<.r!L ^M .i^^uAiL^ l . \(>f ('U^ ■ \<)^} 

Described from Puri, in Orissa, where the larvae were found " mining 
small elongate blotches in leaves of Zizyphus jujuha in J smnsiTy. The species 
occurred in great profusion, leaves an inch in diameter containing twenty 
or more larvae and the moths are described as ' swarming like a cloud of midges 
round the tree.' The mine, larval habits, and pupa are similar to those of 
European species "(^). 

Stainton (Nat. Hist. Tin., Ill, 228) says of the larval habits of the Euro- 
pean species : — " These mine the interior of leaves, and as far as is yet known, 
always the upper side, making large irregularly formed blotches of whitish 
or brownish colour ; the interior of the mine is always beautifully carpeted 
with white silk, but the peculiarity of these mines is, that they are kept perfectly 
clean, not a single grain of excrement being ever to be found within " 



180 LIFE-HISTORIES OF LYONETIAD^ 

" The larva never quits the mine, and changes therein to a pupa, not spinning 
any cocoon." 

" Stebbing [A Note on the Lac Insect {hid. For. Mem.) {Zool.), I, 21 (1910)] 
mentions that Dr. N. Annandale has bred out specimens of this small moth 
from lac obtained from Orissa "(^). It is more probable that the moths 
emerged from leaves on her branches on which the lac was collected. 

OPOSTEGA MYXODES, MEYR. (PLATE LII.) 

Opostega myxodes, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 619 (1916)(i). 

Bred at Pusa in September and October 1915 from larvae mining in leaves 
of Cordia mijxa (Boraginace8e)(*). 

Larvae were found at Pusa on 24th September 1915 mining leaves of 
Cordia myxa. The larva pupates outside of the mine on any convenient 
surface in a dull-white cocoon of uniform texture, pupation occurring in an 
inner cocoon spun inside the outer one. The moths emerged on 1st and 2nd 
October. 



PLATK LII. 







Opostega myxodes: — o, Moth, natural size and magnified (x27) ; b, hind les 
c, head of moth, seen from below, more highly magnified. 



Kovcmher, 19^0. 



Entomological Series. 



Vol. VI, No. 8- 



MEMOIRS OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

IN INDIA 



LIFE-HISTOHIES OF INDIAN INSECTS 
MICROLEPIDOPTEKA 

VIII. TINEID^ AND NEPTICULID.E 

BY 

T. BAINBRTGGE FLETCHER, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z. 
Imperial Entomologist 




AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, PUSA 



PRINTED AND PUBLISHED FOFv 



TEE IMPERIAL DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN INDIA 



THACKER, SPINK & CO., CALCUTTA 
W. THACKER & CO., 2 Cukkd Lane, LONDON 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN INSECTS. 
.MICKOLEPIDOPTERA. 

VIII. TINEIl)^ AND NEPTlCULIDiE. 

BY 

T. BAINBEIGGE FLETCHER, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., 

Imperial Entomologist. 

[Received for publication on 27th June 1919.] 

TINEIDiE. 

MELASINA ENERGA, MEYR. 

Melasma energa, Meyr., B. J., XVI, 616-617 (190.5){i) ; Fryer, T. E. S., 1913» 

420-422, t. 21, ff. 1-4(2). 

Described from Ceylon — Peracleniya('' -), Tangal!a(^) and Yatiyantota(^). 
We have it from Peradeniya. 

The larva has been described by Fryer as follows : — " The head is ovate 
in shape and is so attached to the first thoracic segment that the anterior 
snrface is directed upwards, bringing the mouth forward ; in colour it is dark 
brown with the surface finely shagreened. The first thoracic segment is 
elongated and in front is slightly broader than the head but behind is markedly 
constricted ; its surface is chitinous, brown in colour and finely shagreened, 
this latter feature being less evident than in the case of the head. The re- 
mainder of the body is cylindrical, tapering slightly posteriorly ; in colour 
it is greenish-grey, lighter ventrally ; hairs are present but they are sparsely 
scattered and are very minute. The legs are brown in colour, rather long, 
and directed forward. The prolegs are very short and are armed with a 
series of broad hooks, the suckers being hardly functional. The spiracles 
are brown, those on the penultimate segment being large and conspicuous. 
Length 23 mm. "(2). The larvae live in earthy tubes, projecting above the 
surface of the ground like worm-tubes. These tubes, when the larva is full- 
groWn, measure 100 to 150 mm. in length, two-thirds of the tube defecetiding 



182 LIFE-HISTORIES OF TtNEID^ 

vertically into the ground, whilst the remaining one-third lies horizontally 
on the surface or winds its way into a mass of dead leaves. The tube is cylin- 
drical in shape and measures from 6 to 8 mm. in diameter throughout its 
median portion ; towards the free-end it is funnel-shaped, widening out until 
at its termination it may measure 12 mm. in diameter. The subterranean 
end of the tube, when the larva is young, appears to open freely into the earth ; 
in the case of full-grown larvae it widens considerably, thus forming a pupal 
cell. In composition the tube is built of a strong, closely woven silk, to the 
outside of which grains of earth, pieces of dead leaf and broken twigs are 
attached, the earth covering the subterranean portion, while the dead leaves 
and twigs encrust that above ground. The pupal cell is formed by the terminal 
20 mm. at the bottom of the tube and differs from the remainder in its greater 
width and in the increased thickness of its silken walls. Inside the pupal 
cell lies a thin cocoon which is cylindrical in shape and flat at each end ; it is 
peculiar in that it is composed of fine silk matted together by some dark- 
coloured secretion. This cocoon fits fairly closely into the pupal cell, but 
for the greater portion of its length is only loosely attached to it by a few 
strands of silk ; at the extreme lower end, however, it is firmly woven to the 
lower lips of the cell so that the flat end of the cocoon entirely blocks the 
subterranean entrance. This arrangement seems peculiar for, while the walls 
of the pupal cell are very thick, the end is guarded solely by the thin flat 
silken disc which forms the bottom of the cocoon. The similar disc, which 
forms the upper end of the cocoon, is easily detached and on the emergence 
of the moth is pushed up like the lid of a box. In the few cases examined 
the empty pupa skin was found in the cocoon. 

The food of the larva consists of dead leaves and often decaying vegetable 
matter, feeding being accomplished only at night. {Fryer.) 

y 

MELASINA GRANULARIS, MEYR. 

Melasma gratiularis, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 609 (1916)(i). 

Bred at Peradeniya in March. " Larva in a long nearly cylindrical 
case of silk covered with refuse (length 12 mm., breadth 2 mm.), mostly whitish 
sometimes banded with grey, feeding on lichens beneath ledges of rocks and 
on trunks of trees {Green) "('). 

/■ 
MELASINA CAMPESTRIS, MEYR. ? (PLATE LIIL) 
Melasma campestris, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 611 (1916)(^). 

This species is abundant at Pusa about June and has been bred from 
larvae found living in silken tubes lying on the surface of the soil but it is not 



PLATF. 1,1 1 1 






;-i 


"M 


3 


y. 


"S 


' ' 


a 




„ 


rs 


as 


<D 


G,y3 


3 


•r^ 


a 




„ 


rt 


~Ci 


s 












l«^ 


^-*^ 


s 


cs 


« 


X 


v 


_ 


N 








Xl 


t) 




-D 


— • 


p 


« 




>-l 




3 




4-* 


CS 


« 


> 


s 


M 




cd 


CN 


J 





^ 

X 






c 



PLATE LIV. 




Myrmecozela leontina: — a, Larva ; 6, pupa ; c, moth, natural sizes and 

magnified ( x 5 ) . 



T. BAlNBRIGGtE FLETCHElt 183 

certain whether the following description applies to M. campestris or to M. 
devincta, Meyr., or M. rami f era, Meyr., as all these three species are common 
at Pusa and the larva) have not been distinguished. The larvae form silken 
tubes which go down practically vertically into the soil to a depth of several 
inches. In confinement the larvaj have been observed to go right down to the 
bottom of a glass jar through about six inches of earth. The tubes are generally 
formed in dry and rather dusty places. The larva feeds apparently on dead 
leaves and grasses available on the ground, but in confinement occasionally 
eats fresh leaves and has been observed to gnaw a cork. The larva is about 
25 mm. long, cylindrical, pale yellow, soft, with five pairs of prolegs ; head 
and upper surface of prothorax thickly chitinized and shiny, reddish-brown 
to black ; the surface of the head and prothoracic shield varies in different 
individuals from smooth to slightly corrugated transversely, but even when 
smooth there is a faint trace of corrugations. (It is not known whether this 
variation is individual or characteristic of specific differences, but no other 
differences were observable.) Pupation takes place in a stiff cocoon formed 
near the bottom of the tube below the surface of the soil. In the case of three 
pupae found on 27th May 1915 the tube in each case had been carried about 
40 mm. below the surface of the soil and at that depth had been closed entirely 
and a cocoon formed at this lower end ; this portion of the end of the tube is 
rather stiff, no doubt rendered so by the addition of a good deal of silk ; the 
remaining portion of the tube is soft like the tubes in which the larvae are found 
and the upj)er end is prolonged slightly above ground-level, its mouth being 
open ; the head of the pupa is turned towards the mouth of the tube and the 
upper end of the cocoon is closed with a rather thick silken membrane which, 
however, is easily burst. On emergence of the moth, the pupa wriggles to the 
surface and the pupa-case is left protruded from the end of the tube or may 
lie entirely clear of the tube. Tachinid, Ichneumonid and Clialcidid parasites 
have been bred from these larvse and pupae. Eggs, obtained from bred moths, 
were laid in a cluster, gummed to one another on the wall of a glass cylinder. 
The egg is slightly elongate-oval or cylindrical with rounded ends, about 
0*7 mm. long and 0*5 mm. broad, smooth, hardly shiny, creamy white. (Pusa 
Insectary Cage-slips 1229, 1387.) 

MYRMECOZELA LEONTINA, MEYR. (PLATE LTV.) 
Myrmecozela leonfina, Meyr., B. J., XXI, 12G('). 

Originally described from Kulu(^) twid Paiiiig ^, this species is abundant 
in the adult state at Pusa in June and Ju^y and we have it also from 
Chapra (Bihar). 



1$4 life-hiStorIes of tineid^ 

It has been bred at Pusa from larvae collected on Sth to 25tli June 1916 
in silken tubes amongst dahhi grass. On SOth June 1916 no more larvae 
could be found although pupse and empty pupa-cases were then found in the 
tubes. The larvae are found in silken tubes which extend almost vertically 
downwards for several inches into the soil. At the mouth of the tube bits 
of dry grass and other rubbish are knitted together and these lie on the ground 
and completely hide the presence of the tube. The larva is very like that of 
Melasma but is apparently distinguishable by its smooth head — transversely 
corrugated in Melasiim. The full-grown larva is about 18 to 20 mm. long, 
cylindrical, pale yellow ; head smooth, red-brown ; prothoracic shield large, 
lighter brown than head and divided by a narrow yellow medial line ; hairs 
on segments long, not arising from tubercles ; five pairs of equally developed, 
short prolegs. 

Pupation takes place within the larval tube, no special cocoon being formed. 
The pupa is about 12 to 14 mm. long and about 2*5 to 3 broad, cylindrical, 
slightly bent ventrally ; on the dorsal region of the anal segment there is a 
pair of pointed processes arising from a common transversely-flattened base 
and with their tips directed anteriorly. By wriggling movements and with 
the help of these processes, the pupa can move freely up and down the silken 
tube. Before emergence of the moth the pupa wriggles up to the mouth 
of the tube and partly issues out of it before the moth escapes. (Pusa Insectarv 
Cage-slip 1404.) 

MYRMECOZELA TINEOIDES, AVLSM. 
Setomorpha (iucoides, Wlsm., P. Z. S., 1886, 465, t. 41, f. 8(') ; van Deveiiter, 

Tijds. voor Entom., XLVl, 81-82, t. 9, f. 3 (1904)(-) ; Pagenstecher, 

Lep. Bismarck Archip., II, 232 (1900){'^) ; Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 540, 

t. 28, f. 10 (1909)(*). 
Amydnatmeoides, Wlsm., P. Z. S., 1907, 1018-1019 (1908)(S). 

Originally described from Mhow(i). "Not uncommon in India "(*) 
and probably widely distributed. 

Larva iigured by Lefroy(*) and van Deventer(2) ; ilie latter is |)robably 
more accurate and sh<>ws tlic larva as 5 to Ginm. long, whitish. Lead shining 
brown with lighter intersutural lines, plate of two large, narrowly divided 
medially, brownish, plates of 3 and 4 smaller, broadly divided, brownish ; it 
lives in a case about 6 to 8 mm. long by some 2 mm. broad, broadest and slightly 
flattened in the middle, slightly expanded at either end. 

Food : — Dried tobacco leaves (■^). 

Note. It is possible that Lefroy's figure, ascribed to this species, really represents the 
larfa o^ Selomorpha iii:>ectell/i.] 



I 



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t. BAINBRtGGE FLETCHER 185 

MYRMECOZELA ? CORTICINA, MEYR. 

Anit/dria ? corticina, Meyr., M.S. 

This species was reared at Pusa on 19th March 1914 from a larva found 
boring into bark of banyan [Ficus hengalensis) on 2Gth January. The larva 
was described as slender with a black head and prothoracic shield and five 
pairs of prologs, but, as a specimen of Lalypica albofasciella was also reared, it 
is uncertain to -which larva this description applies. (Pusa Insectary Cage- 
slip 1035.) 

-MACH.^ROPTERIS HALISTREPTA, MEYR. 

Machwropteris halistrepta, Meyr., B. J., XXI, 128-129 (191 1)('). 

Described from Puttalani in Ceylon, Gooty in Madras, and the Konkan(^). 
We have it from Coirabatore, Hospet (Bellary) and Pusa. 

Larva in elongate, nearly flat, parallel-sided case (12x4 mm.), both 
ends rounded, composed of silk and grains of refuse, but entirely coated with 
silk outside(*). 

It has been reared at Pusa from larvae found in tubes. 

HYPOPHRICTLS INCEPTRIX, MEY^R, (PLATE LV, FIG. 1.)' 

Hijpophrictis inceptrix, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, G05 (June 1916)(i), id.. I.e., II» 
'85 (1917)(2). 

Described from Ceylon (Haputale) and Karwar in North Kanara(i). 
Moths were also taken at Pusa in September 1908 and October 1911. 

" Larva found in nests of Cretnastogaster (Formicidse) at Ambalangoda, 
Ceylon, and imago bred in December at Pusa ; in a singular nearly flat case 
composed (apparently) of two dark grey sections of stout silk joined together 
round the edges, shaped somewhat between an ellipse and an hour-glass, or 
like two coalescing circles, length 15 mm., greatest width 8 mm., contracted 
in middle to 6 mm. ; pupa protruded from end in emergence "(-). 

lIYPOPHpJCTrS(T)^ PLANA, meyr!' us: 

This species lias been reared at Pusa from a larva found on a mango-trunk 
on 28th June 1906. The larva was described as about 12 mm. lont^, flat, 
tapering towards either extremity but more so posteriorly, segments well 
defined, pale yellowish- white ; head flat, black, shiny, smaller than i)rothorax ; 
prothorax and mesothorax wholly covered by a black shield ; five pairs of 
minute prolegs. The larva lives in a flat 8-shaped case consisting of two thin 
8-shaped parchment-like pieces attached to each other permanently by means 
of silk at the constrictions and coinciding along their margins. On the outside 



l86 LIFE-HISTORIES OF TINEID^E 

these side-pieces are dry-earth colour and whitish inside. The larva extrudes 
itself from one of the ends up to about the metathorax, whilst it walks and 
feeds, the remainder of the body being protected by the case. When disturbed 
it withdraws its head inside the case. Pupation takes place within the case, 
the pupa wriggling out to some extent to one eud of the case on emergence 
of the moth, which aj)pears in November. There seems to be only one brood 
annually. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 380.) 

HYPOPHRTCTIS SP. (PLATE LV, FIG. 2.) 

A Tineid larva, apparently belonging to a species of Hypophrictis, was 
found at Pusa in January 1916 underground in the nest of an ant, Puhjrhachis 
sp. It was enclosed in a flat silken case as shown in figure h. Unfortunately 
the larva died and no more have been found, so that the moth has not 
vet been reared. It may possibly belong to H. soUiciia, Meyr. {ExoL Micr., 
II, 85) which was also described from Piisa. 

SCARDIA SISTRATA, MEYR. 

ScarcUa sistrala, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 618 (1916)(>). 

Described from Puttalam, Wellawaya and Peradeniya in Ceylon and 
from Pusa(^). We have it from Pusa, Chakradharpur and Coimbatore. 

Larva feeding in decayed fungus {Polyporus)(}). At Coimbatore this 
species was reared from larvse in fungus and at Pusa from larvaa in fungus 
{Fomes sp.). 

Larvae were found at Pusa on 22nd August 1908, boring into the thick 
tissue of Fomes sp. and producing tunnels filled with pellets of frass. Extern- 
ally the presence of the larvae in the fungus is indicated by dry pellets of frass 
webbed together into small masses. The larva was described as about 20 
mm. long and 2*5 mm. broad, cylindrical, pale yellow, skin soft and trans- 
parent ; head and prothoracic shield brown, shiny ; five pairs of fully developed 
prolegs. Pupation takes place inside the tunnels in the fungus, the pupae 
being found near the mouths of the tunnels which open externally, the opening 
being closed with silk and excrement. The pupa is about 12 to 13 mm. long, 
cylindrical, brown ; third and following abdominal segments with two trans- 
verse ridge.5 across dorsum, the ridges surmounted by fine raised jDoints ; 
anal segment with a pair of curved hooks on ventral side. On emergence of 
the moth, the pupa wriggles out of the tunnel to some extent and, when the 
moths have emerged, many empty pupa cases are found projecting out of the 
body of the fungus. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 741.) 






CCYUm''"^ 






\ KJDIA 
J/WA 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 187 

EUCROTALA NUCLEATA, MKYll. 

Eucrotala nudeata, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, <»0 (L917)('). 

Bred in June from (bark or wood, probably, of) Shorea rohusta from 
Guraua Range, Goalpara District, Assam {Beeson){^). 

TIAl'SIFERA RUGOSELLA, STT. 

Cerostoma rugosella, Stainton, T. E. 8. (n. s.), V, 113-114 (18r)9)(^) ; WIsm,, 

P. Z. S., 1885, 883(2). 
Dasijses rugoseUus, Diirrant, Ind. Mus. Notes, V, 104, t. 15, f. 3 (1903)(-) ; 

Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 540 (1909)(4). 
Dasi/ses rugosella, Meyr., Ann. Transv. Mus., Ill, 335 (1913)(5). 
Psoricoptera ? hirsutella, Wlsm., T. E. 8., 1881, 261, t. 12, f. 29(6). 
Scalidomia hirsutella, WIsm., T. E. S., 1897, 65(7). 
Dasgses rugoseUus, Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 257 {\9n){\^^>^^'^-^ ^>^^-5 

Originally described from Calcutta(^), but widely distributed in and 
outside of India, being known from Natal ('^ ), GambiaC^) and French Congo(') ; 
also recorded from Barrackpur(^)*, Poona(2) and Peradeniya("^). We have 
it from Pusa, Dharwar and Coimbatore. 

Larva in galleries in fibrous stem of dead Cycas circinalisl^), in dead 
wood(S), in mango and gular bark and in frass of a Cerambycid borer in 
mango(^). Larva found in dead papaya tree at Pusa. Also bred from 
papaya stem at Coimbatore. 

The larva is about 25 mm. long, cylindrical, slightly tapering posteriorly, 
very soft, dirty pale yellow, skin almost transparent showing dark contents 
of alimentary canal ; head and prothoracic shield shiny dark-brown ; scattered 
grey hairs on segments ; five pairs of prolegs. Pupation in a white cocoon 
found in the wood-dust or in any small corner of the bark. The pupa wriggles 
out of the cocoon to some extent on emergence of the moth. The larva lives 
in (probably dead) bark of mango, Ficus glomerata and papaya. 

HAPSff'SRA SECLUSELLA, WLK. 

Cimitra seclusella, Wlk., Cat., XXIX, 780(i). 

Hapsifera seclusella, Moore, Lep. Ceylon, III, 499, t. 208, ff. 12, 13 (1887)(2) ; 

Warren, P. Z. S., 1888, 338(3). 
Amydria seclusella, Meyr., Entom. Mitteil. SuppL, III, p. 61 (1914)(*). 

* Note. Durrant's record from"' Bekpiir " is obviouslj' based on a misreading of a contrac- 
ion for Barrackpur. The sauie error occurs iu Swjiihoe's Catal. Ilel. Oxf, Mtis. in connection 
witli otlier species, 



-iQ,g LIFE-HISTORIES OF TINEID^E 

Originally described from Ceylon(^), tliis species is widely distributed 
in India, where it has been recorded from Campbellpur(^), and has also been 
found in Formosa (*). We have it from Peradeniya, Chapra and Pusa. 

At Pusa it has been reared from farmyard manure (cowdung) collected 
on 25th June 1916. The larva was boring the lumps of cowdung and living 
inside a silken tube around which pieces of cowdung and pellets of frass were 
fastened. Pupation took place in elongate-oval silken cocoons with stout 
walls and the pupa wriggled out to some extent through one end of the cocoon 
just before emergence of the moths, which took place from 13th to 23rd July. 
(Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1416.) 

SETOMORPHA INSECTELLA, FB. 
Tinea. insecteUa, Fabr., Ent. Syst., Illrii, 303 (1794)(').~ 
SefoniorpJm rutella, Zeller, Micr. Caf?r., pp. 94-95 (1852)(2) ; Wlsm., T. E. S.. 

1891, 81-82, t. 7, f. 73(3) . Cotes, Ind. Mus. Notes, 11, 9-10 (1891)(-^), 

t. c, p. 164 (1893)(5) ; de Nicev., I. c, V, 201-202 (1903)(6) ; Wlsm., Fauna 

Hawaii, I, 754 (1907)(7) ; Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 540 (1909)(8) ; Meyr., 

Tr. Linn. Soc. (2), XIV, 302 (1911)(''»). 
Setoynorpha insectella, Wlsm., P. Z. S., 1907, 1016-1019 (1908)(iO). 

A cosmopolitan species described, under at least eight other names, from 
North and South America, Hawaii, West -Indies, West and South Africa, 
Seychelles, India, Ceylon, Celebes, Makassar, and Queensland. [For more 
complete synonymy and distribution, see(^"').] We have it from Pusa, 
Rangpur, Coimbatore, Darjiling, Mercara, Pollibetta and Nagpur. 

Larva on dead animal and vegetable matter — on muscular fibre attached 
to skull of a hippopotamus(^'^), destructive to bales of country -blankets in 
Calcutta(^' ^), destructive to insect collections(?' ^°), on various dried vege- 
table substances(^). 

This species has been bred at Pusa on several occasions from larvae found 
feeding on dry tobacco leaves, also from larvae on stored coriander seeds, on 
Setaria italica grain in store, on wheat flour, and on Dolichos hiflorus (seeds ?), 
and at Nagpur it has been reared on bean (in store ?). 

The egg is about 0-25 mm. long by 0*17 mm. broad, pearly white, changing 
to very light-brown before hatching. The eggs are laid singly. Before 
depositing an egg the female extrudes her ovipositor for about 2 mm, and moves 
it from side to side, then raises it upwards between the wings and then with 
a jerk deposits an egg at the utmost reach of the ovipositor, and then moves 
to another place to lay another egg. The eggs hatch in about eight days, the 
young larva being about 1*25 mm. long, with a light-brown head. 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 189 

The full-grown larva is about 17 mm. long, cylindrical, dirty-wlnte, skin 
transparent, head red-brown, ])rothoracic shield greyish-brown ; spiracles 
black ; segments with minute scattered ))n)wii hairs ; five pairs of prolegs. 

Pupation takes place imongst the larval food {e.g., dried tobacco leaves) 
in a tough white cylindrical cocoon. I^ipa about 5 mm. long, cylindrical, 
tapering posteriorly, anteriorly light brown, posteriorly whitish. Pupal 
period about nine days in August. (P. G. Patel's Cage-slip 23.) 

LATYPICA ALBOFASCIELLA, STT. i. 

Cerostoma alhofasciella, Stainton, T. E. S. (n. s.), V, 114 (1859)('). 
Latypica alhofasciella, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 60(5 (191 6)(-). 

Originally described from Calcutta(^) and since recorded from Pusa(-) 
and Dibidi (Coorg)(-), we have this species from Chapra and the Shevaroy 
Hills, and from Pusa in April, June, September and November (mostly in June). 
A specimen was reared on 14th April 1914 from a larva found boring into bark 
of hani/an {Ficus bengalensis) on 26th January 1914 and described as slender 
with a black head and jDro thoracic shield and five pairs of prolegs ; but, as a 
specimen of Myrmecozela corticina was also reared under these data, it is un- 
certain to which larva this description really applies. (Pusa Insectary Cage- 
slip 1035.) 

ASABYRIA BUCEPIIALA, SNELL. 
Atahyria bucephala, Snellen, Tijds. voor Entom., XXVII, 166, t. 9, &. 1, 1", 

1^' (1884)(i) ; Meyr., Ann. Transv. Mus., Ill, 82(-). 

Originally described from Eastern Siberia(i), this species is widely dis- 
tributed and has been recorded from Borneo(-) and Natal(-). In India 
it is known from Chapra, Pusa, the Shevaroy and Khasi Hills. 

The larva has not been described but the moth was bred from cocoons 
about a fungus growth on a tree at Yercaud, Shevarovs. in May 1913. 

ELEGISTIS CUNICUL.4RIS, MEYR. 
Elegistis cunicularis, Meyr., B. J., XXI. 125-126. 

Described from Maskeliya and Peradeniya, in Ceylon, the larva tunnelling 
dead wood, making long external tubes of silk and refuse('). 

LEPIDOSCIA GLOBIGERA, MEYR. 
Lepidoscia glohigera, Meyr., B. J., XXI, 124-125('). 

Described from Haputale in Ceylon, the larva in a sub-globose, egg- 
shaped case of silk covered with grains of refuse, feeding on lichens ; length of 
case 8-10 mm., width 5-7 mm,(i). 




190 LIFE-HISTORIES OF TINEID^ 

1/ 
TINEA OPSIGONA, MEYR. 

Tinea opsigona, Meyr., B. J., XXI, 123(^). 

Occurs throughout India and Ceylon. We have it from Coiinbatore, 
Pusa, Chapra, Rajshahi and Gurdaspur. 

The larva does not seem to be known definitely, but in Ent. Mo. Mag., 
1898, p. 245, Lord Walsingham says that he knows " at least five Indian 
species [of Tinea] closely allied to vasfella, one of which {orientalis, Stt.) is 
also a horn-feeding species. " I do not know of any Indian Tinea described 
by Stainton as orientalis, which is probably a manuscript (unpublished) name 
equiv^alent with opsigona, Meyr., which has frequently been mis-identified 
with the African horn-feeding vasfella, Z. Frequent inquiries from sportsmen 
in India have so far failed to reveal any knowledge of the presence of a horn- 
feeding Tinea in India.* 

TINEA FRUGIVORA, MEYR. (PLATE LVI, FIG. 1.) 

Tinea frugivora, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 77 (1917)(i). 

Described from one specimen taken at Coimbatore in July and from a 
series bred in November and December from fruits of Trichosanthes (containing 
larvae of a Chcetodacus (Trypaneidge)) collected at Lashio, 3,000 feet, Northern 
Shan States, in August, but probably the dried remains of the fruit were 
attacked later on the journey or at Pusa. The moths emerged between 14th 
October and 4th December 1914. 

TINEA PELLIONELLA, LINN. (PLATE LVI, FIG. 2.) 
^a;U Tinea pellionella, Linn., Syst. Nat. (ed. X), I, 536 (1758)(i) ; Meyrick, Hand- 

"^^ ^""^^^^ book, p. 791 (1895)(2) ; Wlsm., P. Z. S., 1907, 1025 (1908)(3). 

(y-*- 'v,. H'^'*'*'^ ^ cosmopolitan household pest, recorded from Europe, North America, 

(\«\-*-j North and South Africa, West-Central Asia, Ceylon, Japan, Australia and 






O New Zealand.' We have it from Rawalpindi, Madras, Pusa and Coimbatore 

and it is doubtless common throughout our limits. 

Larva whitish ; head brown ; plate of 2 dark brown ; in a case on cloth, 
feathers, hair, etc.(-). 

A common household " clothes-moth," the larva feeding on furs, feathers, 
bird's nests, stuffed birds, woollens, clothes, carpets, etc. At Coimbatore 

* Note. Since the above was sent to press, I have come across two cases at Sadiya, in 
North-East Assam, in which dead buffalo horns had been attacked by a horn-feeding larva, 
the empty pupa-cases remaining protruding from galleries eaten through the surface of the 
horn. As no moths were obtained, the species concerned cannot be identified. I should be 
glad to hear of any similar cases in India or to receive specimens of horns attacked by 
larvffl. [T. B. F.] 






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Fig. 1. Tinea frugivoro: — a. Larva, natural size and magnified ( x 11) ; b, pupa, 
natural size and magnified (x 11) ; c, pupa, extracted from cocoon; 
natural sizes and magnified. 





Fig. 2. Tinea peUionclla: — a. Larva in case ; b. larva extracted from case ; 
c, pupa ; d, moth ; natural sizes and magnified ( x5j. 



PLATE LVIl. 




Fig. 1. Macraeota inquisilrix: — a. Larva in case ; b, larva extracted Irom case 
c. pupa ; d, moth ; natural sizes and magnified ( x5). 





traT 





Fig. 2. Crypsilliyris loiii^icoi iiis: — o. Larva, natural size, side view, and magnified 
( X 5) : b. larva, dorsal view, magnified ( xo) ; c, cocoon suspended from 
thread, with exieaded pupa, natural size, and magnified ( x t) ; (/. moth, 
\ natural size and magnified. 









I rvrO 



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T. BAlNBRiaGE FLETCHER 191 

it lias been bred from larvoe feeding on clotli lining of pith helmet, on woollen 
cloth, on Balaclava cap and on deer-skin, and at Pusa on clothes, on fur, on 
wool and on woollen cloth. It has also been sent in to us in February 1918 
as infesting stored brushes in the Army Clothing Depot, Madras, and in March 
1918 as attacking Kaslimir numdahs in the Army Divisional Suj^ply Dep6t 
at Rawalpindi. 

The larva Jives in a flattened silken case or bag covered with portions 
of the larval food. The larva is about 6 mm. long and 0'75 broad, cylindrical, 
dirty-white ; head and large prothoracic shield dark-brown, shiny ; five pairs 
of prolegs. Pupation takes place in the larval case, the pupa wriggling out 
through one end before emergence of the moth and remaining protruded from 
the Qmpty case. 

This is a destructive species to clothes, etc., of animal origin, breeding 
throughout the year. It is best kept at bay by frequent and regular sunning 
of clothes or by storing them with ample supplies of powdered naphthalene. 

TINEA /PACHYSPILA, MEYR. 

Tinea pachyspila, Meyr., B. J., XVI, 619 (1905)(i), Rec. Ind. Mus., V, 231 
(1910)(2), Tr. Linn. Soc. (2), XIV, 305 (1911)(-'^) ; Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Life, 
p. 540 (1909)(^) ; Fletch er , 8 . -liidT Insr, ^l^^^^^T^^H^^^^y^ 
Common throughout Ceylon('> •^) ; also recorded from Trivandrum(2) and 

the Seychelles^). ,\<:^ O^o, <^ ^ - ^-c-- "^^^ ^ , Van <^ , 
Larva living in a case on flannel, fur, etc.(^). 

TINEA FUSCIPUNCTELLA, HAW. 
Tinea fuscipimcteUa, Ha worth, Lep. Brit., p. 562(i) ; Meyr.,- Handbk., p. 

791(2), Rec. Ind. Mus., V, 231 (1910)(3) ; Wlsm., E. M. M., 1907, 267(-*). 

A cosmopolitan household pest, known to occur practically all over the 
world. In India recorded from Kurseong(3) and the Simla Hills(3). We 
have it from Calcutta and Simla. 

Larva in spun tube ; a refuse-feeder found on dried fruit, dried peas, etc. 
on all kinds of waste substances, on ofEal, in bird's nests, on meal-worm 
workings, etc.(^). 

MMift^tiaUA INQUISITRIX, IVIEYR. (PLATE LVIl, FIG. 1.) 
MacrcBola inquisitrix, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 602 (June 1916)(i). 

Described from Pusa, where it was bred from a larva feeding on a dead 
wasp(i). 

This species is abundant at Pusa in the larval stage, the larvae being 
seen creeping over walls inside houses, dragging about their small cases 

U 



192 LIFE-HISTORIES OF TINEID^ 

During the cold weather the larvse are not much in evidence and seem to 
hibernate, but from about the end of February onwards they are sufficient- 
ly common. The larva seems to feed on dead organic matter of animal 
origin, such as dead insects or insect excreta. The larva is about 5 mm. 
long and about 0"8 mm. across prothorax, the meso thorax and meta- 
thorax rather narrower, the abdomen broadening to about 1 mm. towards 
anal extremity, convex dorsally, flattened ventrally, whitish-yellow ; head 
dark chestnut-brown or black, shiny, with comparatively large antenna) ; 
prothorax with a black shiny dorsal plate narrowly divided medially and 
also a similar ventral plate ; mesothorax with a black shiny medially-divided 
dorsal plate and ventrally with a smaller ventral plate ; metathorax with a 
less strongly chitinized medially divided dorsal plate ; legs very develoi)ed, 
the second pair longer than the first, and the third pair longer than the second 
and about twice as long as the first; scattered whitish hairs on body; five 
pairs of minute prolegs. The larva lives inside a flattened grey silken case 
which may measure 10 mm. long by 2-5 mm. broad across the middle, tapering 
towards both extremities which are open and similar. The larva is not fixed 
inside the case but can project its head from either end at will. The exact 
length_^of life-cycle has not been noted. 

TINEOLA BISSELLIEI-LA, HUMM. 

Tineola hisselliella, Hummel, Essais Ent., Ill, 6-12, 13-14 (1823) (i); Wlsm., 

P. Z. S., 1907, 1026 [references](2). 

This is an almost world-wide species, doubtless spread artificially, and 
known to occur in Europe, North Africa, North America, Australia and New 
Zealand. It has not been recorded from India before, but we have it from 
Peshawar and it is probably widely distributed within our limits. 

The larva is described by Meyrick {Handbook, p. 782) as " whitish ; head 
brown ; on hair, wool, etc." Frohawk (Entom., XX, 233) records a larva 
which lived for three yeats, feeding on bird's feathers. 

TRICHOPHAGA ABRUPTELLA, WOLL. 

Tinea abruptella, Wollaston, A. M. N. H. (3) 1, 120 (1858)(i). 

Tinea hipartella, Eag., Bull. S. E. Fr., 1892, 93(2). 

Trichophaga abruptella, Wlsm., P. Z. S., 1907, 1020-1021 (1908)(3) ; Fletcher, 

Entl. Note 92 (1916)(4) , 
TricJiophagatapetzella, [nee Linn.], Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins., p. 467, f. 343 (1914)(^), 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 193 

Recorded from Madeira, tlie Canary Islands, Tunis, Egypt, Somaliland 
and Aden, Common tlirougliout India. We liave it from Pusa, Coimbatore 
and Bhutan. 

This species has been reared at Pusa from larva) found attacking the 
fur of a deer's hide. The larvae live next to the skin, liidden amongst the 
hairs, wliich they eat. The attacked hairs do not fall off at once, as their 
cut bases are bound up in a greyish silken webbing wliich the larva? exude 
and in which they live, their frass sticking to this webbing. At the slightest 
pull the hairs come of! in large tufts along with the silken webbing, leaving 
the skin quite bare. 

The full-grown larva is about 10 mm. long and about 1-25 mm. broad, 
cylindrical, yellowish dirty white, skin soft and transparent ; head yellow 
brown ; segments with thin white scattered hairs ; five pairs of equally deve- 
loped prolegs. 

Pupation takes place inside the silken webbing in a white silken cocoon. 
The pupa is about 6 to 7 mm. long, yellow brown ; anterior portion of dorsum 
of abdominal segments with a transverse row of small spines which increase 
in size on the successive segments towards anal extremity ; anal segment 
dorsally with hook-like spines with their tips bent anteriorly. The pupa 
wriggles out of the cocoon for about half its length before emergence of the 
moth ; in some cases the empty pupa case is entirely pulled out by the emerging 
moth. 

In spite of their concealed mode of life, the larvae are liable to be parasi- 
tized by a Tachinid fly. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 824.) 

CRYPSITHYRIS HYPNOTA, MEYR. 

Crypsithjris hypnota, Meyr, B. J., XVII, 753-754 (1907)(i). 

Described from Peradeniya, where the larva occurs in a case on lichens 
under rock-ledges(^). 

CRYPSITHYRIS LONGICORNIS, STT. (PLATE LVII, FIG. 2.) 

Tinea Jongicomis, Stainton, T. E. S. (n. s.), V, 113 (1859)(i). 
Crypsithyris longicornis, Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 539 (1909)(2). 

Originally described kom Calcutta(^). Also occurs at Pusa. 

The " larva lives in the little oval case found commonly on plastered 
walls in Indian houses ; the case is of fragments and apparently spiders' webb- 
ing woven up with silk and the larva moves slowly along the wall. Its nourish- 
ment is apparently the size in the whitewash or some similar organic material. 



194 LIFE-HISTORIE.? OF TINEID^ 

The pupa is in the case which is then hung from the ceiling by a thread, the 
pupa emerging at the upper end for the moth to escape "(2).* 

Larvae have been found at Pusa from November to March, walking on 
whitewashed walls. They rest motionless during the daytime and appear 
to move and feed only at night. The larva lives in a clumsy case which appears 
to be very large in comparison with its own size. It probably feeds on lichens. 

CRYPSITHYMS MESODYAS, MEYR. 

Crypsitkyris mesodyas, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 753 (1907)(^). 

Described from Peradeniya where it was bred from a larva feeding on 

lichens on rocks and trees(^). 

/ 
MONOPIS DICYCLA, MEYR. 

Monojns dicycla, Meyr., B. J., XVI, 618 (1905)(i), Kec. Ind. Mus., V, 231 
(1910)(2). 

Recorded from Maskeliya in Ceylon(^), and from Calcutta(-). 
Larva destroying woollen cloth(2). 

MONOPIS HEMICITRA,^MEYR. 
Monopis hemicitra, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 417 (1906)(i). 

Originally described from Puttalam (Ceylon)(^), this species was bred 
at Coimbatore in June 1916 from larvae in a Mantid egg-mass. 

MONOPIS M0NACHELL.4, HB. 
Tinea monachella, Hubner, Tin., f. 143(^). 
Tinea longella, Wlk., Cat., XXVIII, 479 (1863)(2). 

Blabophanes longella, Moore, Lep. Ceylon, III, 503, t. 209, f. 1 (1887)(3). 
Blabophanes monachella, Meyr. ,T.E.S., 1894, 27('t), Handbk., p. 785 (1895)(S). 
Monopis monachella, Wlsm., Fauna Hawaii, I, 727-728(*') ; Meyr., Entom. 

Mitteil. Suppl., Ill, p. 59 (1914)(7). 

A very widely distributed species, originally described from Europe(^), 
also recorded from Labrador, West and South Africa(^), Hawaii(^) and For- 
mosaC^). Within our limits it occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. 
We have it from Madulsima, Maskeliya, Nilgiris (4,300 feet), Palnis, Belgaum, 
Chapra, Pusa and Masuri. 

Larva among rubbish — in bird's nests — -in skiiis(^). 

* Note. I am uncertain whether this account really applies to this species. It almost 
certainly includes Macrceola inquisitrix (q. v.) whose larva lives on dead organic matter 
and is seen commonly in a little case as described. The case is of course suspended by the 
larva prior to pupation. [T. B. F.] 



(n^^U^^ S^ cK^c^iJCM.. ,^^^-^ ^ Cja£e^(l., U^, 6,r Wa ^- ^^-^^ 



u5K^ 36^^. !_fK^r"c^., .^_Ji£. \'I■tv.^^j 









r-6XAa , cu-«^ 






1". feAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 195 

INCURVARIAD^, 

The only species of this family recorded as Indian is Eriocottis fuscanella, 
Z., an inhabitant of South Europe and Asia Minor, recorded from Karachi 
by Cotes and Svvinhoe {Cat. Moths India, p. 704) and whose larval habits do 
not seem to be known. In the European genus Incur varia " the larva) either 
begin life as leaf-miners, afterwards living in fiat cases formed of two pieces 
of leaf, or they are shoot-borers." (Stainton, Nat. Hist. Tin., XIII, 56.) 

ADELIDiE. 

Some twenty-five species of the genus Nemotois have been recorded as 
occurring within our limits, mostly in the Hills, the moths being easily recog- 
nisable by their immensely long antennae and usually brilliant metallic markings, 
but the early stages of no Indian species appear to be known. In Europe 
the larvae " feed on seeds in their earliest youth, and afterwards construct 
flat, bivalve cases and feed on the lower leaves of their foodplant or on other 
leaves." (Stainton, Nat. Hist. Tin., XIII, 194.) 

NEPTICULID^. 

The known larva3 of Nepticula mine galleries or blotches in leaves, and 
are without developed legs or prolegs, but with paired rudimentary ventral 
processes on segments 3, 4 and 6-11, or occasionally quite apodous. Pupa 
in a firm cocoon, usually outside the mine. A full account of the group is 
given by Tutt {Brit. Lep., I, 162-360). 

NEPTICULA ARGYRODOXA, MEYR. 
Nepticula argyrodoxa, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 181-182 (1918)(i). 

" Bred at Pusa in November from larvae* mining leaves of Desmqdium 
sp. (Leguminosas) "(^). 

Larvae were found at Pusa on 13th November 1916 mining under the 
epidermal layer on the upper surface of the leaves of Desmodium sp. The 
mine is narrow and zigzag and may spread all over the surface of the leaf. 
Inside the mine there is a thin streak of excrement. When the larva is full-fed 
it leaves the mine and forms a roundish, flattened, scale-like, brown, silken 
cocoon either on the surface of the same leaf or on its stalk or stem or on another 
leaf. The pupa emerges partially through one end of the cocoon before the 
moth emerges, and the empty pupa-case is left protruding from the cocoon. 
Moths were reared between 21st November and 3rd December 1916. Several 
parasites were also bred out. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1496.) 



196 LIFE-HISTORIES OF NEPTICULID^ 

/ 
NEPTICULA ISOCHALCA, IklEYR. 

Nepticula isochalca, Meyr., Exot, Micr., II, 6 (Oct. 1916){^). 

" Bred at Pusa in June from Phyllanthus emblica (Euphorbiaceee) ; cocoon 
whitish "(1). 

On 27th May 1910, several flattened, white, silken cocoons were collected 
at Pusa on the upper surfaces of leaflets of Phyllanthus emhlica, only one 
cocoon being found on each leaflet. The contained pupa was flattened dorso- 
ventrally and the leg and antenna cases projected beyond the anal extremity. 
Before emergence of the moth, the pupa wriggled out of one end of the cocoon 
to some extent. The moths emerged between 3rd and 6th June. (Pusa 
Insectary Cage-slip 836.) 

NEPTICULA LIOCHALCA, MEYR. 
Nepticula Uochalca, Meyr., Exot. Micr., II, 6 (October 1916)(^). 

Bred at Pusa in July from larvae mining in leaves of Cyperus rotundus 
(Cyperace8e)(^). Mr. Meyrick further remarks that a sedge is a new and un- 
expected foodplant for this genus. 

The original description includes the following note on the larva from 
particulars supplied from Pusa : — " Larva yellow, transparent, shiny, head 
brown, somewhat bilobed ; the mine is commenced either from the top or 
middle of the leaf, the larva mines down for some length and then takes a turn 
and mines up, the second portion being exactly parallel to the first, excreta 
deposited in a streak all along the mine ; the larvse left the leaves and pupated 
in flat, oval cocoons of golden-yellow silk ; two examples were bred." 

MICROPTERYGID^. 

Only a single Indian species {Neopseustis calliglauca, Meyr.), from the 
Khasi Hills, is recorded, and nothing is known regarding its larval habits. 

A good recent account of the group is given by Tutt {Brit. Lep., 
I, 129-162). 



djljjuk. 1^'^ <2;c CA-e/7-«^*v^' (jcoC^ erx>>^ '^ -^ oK-'^U/f^ ujCci.*^ U^t^ ^ "^ (ij^ 



Noveiiibery 1920, Entomoloqical Series. Vol. VI, No. 9. 

MEMOIRS OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

IN INDIA 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN INSECTS 
M ICROLEPIDOPTEKA 

IX. APPENDIX. 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, R.N., F.L.8., F.E.S., F.Z.S 
Imperial Entomologist 







AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, PUSA 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED FOR 

THE IMPERIAL DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN INDIA 

BY 

TH ACKER, SPINK & CO., CALCUTTA 
W. THACKER & CO., 2, Creed Lane, LONDON 



PREFACE 

Since sending to press parts 1-8 of this volume a few addi- ; 

tional life-histories have been worked out at Pusa. Mr. W. M. • V 

Maxwell, I.C.S., has also kindly sent me some notes on various 
species reared by him in Bombay, and Mrs. Drake has forwarded 
notes on a new species of Antispila from Serampore. The opportu- 
nity is taken to add these supplementary notes to the present 
volume in order to have all our informatiori under one cover. 

Pusa, 5th April 1920. T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER. 



PLATE LVIII. 





Fig. 1. Cacoecia poiiiivora: — a. Larva, lateral 
view ( x4) ; b, pupa, lateral view ( x4); 
c, female moth ( x4) ; (L male moth { x4.|. 
The smaller figures show the natural sizes. 






Fig. 2. Vlodemis trigrapha: — a. Larva, lateral 
view <^ X 4) ; b, pupa, lateral view (, x 4) ; 
c, moth (x4). The smaller figures show the 
natural sizes. 



('97 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN INSECTS. 
MICKOLEPIDOPTERA. 

IX. APPENDIX. 



BY 

T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., 
Imperial Entomologist. 

[Received for publication on 24th April 1920.] 

TORTRICIDiE. 

ADOXOPHYES MODERATANA, WLK. 
Tortrix moderatana, Wlk., Cat., XXVIII, 328-329 (1863)(i). 
Adoxophyes moderatana, Meyr., Cat. Tortric, p. 14 (1912)(-). 

Walker originally described this species from Sarawak,(i) ]3^^^ perhaps 
in error, as Meyrick(-) only records it from India. We have it from Pollibetta 
in South Coorg. 

Bred on 3rd January 1912 [atKarwar] from larva found in spun leaves 
of Sipnplocos spicata. (Maxwell.) 

CACCECIA POMIVORA, MEYR. MS. ,^( PLATE LVIII, TIG. 1.) 
This species seems to be a local pest of apple at Ramgarh, Kumaon Dis- 
trict, the larva generally boring into the fruit from the apical end and driving 
a gallery right through the core, this gallery being widened laterally into the 
fruit itself which ultimately begins to rot. The external end of the gallery 
is closed with silken threads intermixed with frass. Only one larva is found 
iH each affected fruit. Examples of affected apples were received on 15th 
September 1919, through the kindness of Mr. Johnson, of Apple Garth Orchard, 
Ramgarh, and from the material sent moths were reared out at Pusa, between 
20th September and 13th October. 



198 LIFE-HISTORIES OF TORTEICID^ 

The full-grown larva (Plate LVIII, fig. la) is about 18 mm. long and 
2 mm. broad across mid- body, tapering slightly towards either extremity, 
yellowish-green or pale-yellow ; head black, glossy, flattened ; prothoracic 
shield large, black, medially divided ; other segments with a couple of elongated 
black sjjots and a round, white-centred, black spot on each side ; first two 
pairs of legs black, the metathoracic leg yellowish-brown, black apically ; 
five pairs of slender, equally-developed prolegs concolorous with the body. 

When full-fed, the larva leaves the fruit and pujsates in a very thin cocoon 
built in any convenient crevice. The pupa (Plate LVIII, fig. 16) is about 
10 mm. long, tapering prominently posteriorly, brown ; the second and third 
abdominal segments with a deep dorsal groove' on their anterior margins ; 
the succeeding segments up to the eighth have each a dark ridge in the same 
situation ; the second to eighth abdominal segments with a double, dorsal, 
transverse row of posteriorly-directed spines ; dorsal margin of anal segment 
protruded into a long cremaster provided with four recurved spines apically 
and two similar spines on each side, these circinate spines being entangled in 
the silken fibres of the cocoon. The pupal period was about eight days at 
Pusa. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1918.) 

ULODEMIS TRIGRAPHA, MEYR. {ante, page 4U.) (PLATE LVIII, FIG. 2,) 

This species was reared from a larva found boring into an apple fruit at 
Shillong in September 1919. The larva eats in at the flower-scar and bores 
a tunnel into the centre of the fruit and feeds on it. In the single case noted 
the larva did not penetrate into the pulp of the fruit. When full-fed, the 
larva emerges from the fruit and pupates in any convenient crevice. Although 
only a single specimen was noted, this larva is stated to be not uncommon 
as a borer in apple fruits at Shillong. Apparently the same species was also 
reared at Shillong from a larva found feeding in spun-up flowers of Colquhounia 
coccinea, w^ebbing up the bunches of buds and flowers and eating into the sides 
of the flower-tubes. The larva was described as about 14 mm. long, elongated, 
moderately slender, whitish-green ; head yellowish, with yellowish-brown 
markings laterally; prothoracic shield large, pale greenish-yellow edged 
laterally with black ; legs black, rather large ; prolegs (four pairs and anal 
claspers) rather short, whitish-green ; each segment with two dorso-lateral 
black tubercles, on same level, conspicuous, and large perpendicular black 
tubercle and others (less conspicuous) below this ; the tubercles emit 
longish white hairs. The moth from this larva emerged on 2nd October 
1919. 



PLATE LIX. 




AticyUs lutescens: — 

a. Top-shoot of Zizvphus. showing leaves rolled anrl twisterl hy larvae. 
h, Larva, natural size and magnified ( x 3Vi ' ■ 

c, Pupa, do. do. do. do. 

d. Moth, do. do. do. do. 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 199 

PERONEA AGRIOMA, MEYR. Mft: [^4 IV- . ^ ^^^ 
Reared at Shilloiig in July 1918 from larva on apple. Also feeds com- 
monly on rose at Shillong. 

EUCOSMID^. 

ACROCLITA VIGESCENS, MEYR. {atUe, page 44.) 
This speckles has again been reared at Pusa from larva? found on 2nd 
December 1919. on Cordia mijxa, tying the leaves one above another, living 
inside, and nibbling the green tissue from the surface of the leaves. 

The larva is about 10 mm. long and about TS mm. across the thoracic 
region., rather flattened and tapering posteriorly, skin soft and rather trans- 
parent pale-yellow tinged with greenish due to abdominal contents ; head 
rather flattened, brownish-yellow, glossy ; prothorax covered with a large, 
glossy, brown to dark-brown shield ; hairs rather short, white ; spiracles 
minute, yellow ; legs and five pairs of equally- developed prolegs pale- 
yellow. 

Pupation takes place between the leaves in a white silken cocoon covered 
with black pellets of frass. The pupa is about 4-5 mm. long and 1-25 mm. 
across thoracic region, tapering in either direction, brown-yellow ; second and 
following abdominal segments with an anterior dorsal transverse row of small 
posteriorly-directed spines ; anal segment rounded posteriorly and with the 
transverse row of spines on its dorsal margin. The pupa wriggles out of the 
cocoon to some extent before the moth emerges. Moths emerged between 
5th January and 3rd February 1920. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1973.) 

ANCYLIS GLYCYPHAGA, MEYR. {ante, page 4.5.) 
Bred in January 1915 from larvae found amongst spun leaves of Zizyphus 
rotundifolia , feeding on the lower surface ot the leaf, apparently when vouno- 
mining under the cuticle. Larva with head small, pale-brownish, much 
porrected and shiny ; body with segments strongly marked, pale greenish- 
ochreous. with scattered short bristles. {Maxwell.) 

The above record renders it probable that the larvge reared at Pusa were 
actually feeding on Zkj/jjhus leaves and not on the sugary excretion of 
Phromnia. ^ 

ANCYLIS LUTESCENS, MEYR. {ante, page 4o.) (PLATE LIX.) 
This has again been reared at Pusa from larvae collected on 27th September 
1919, rolling and eating top-shoots of Zizyphus jujuba, and the opportunity 
has been taken to add figures of the various stages which have been already 
described. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1947.) 



200 LIFE-HISTORIES OF EUCOSMID^ 

POLYCHROSIS ACANTHIS, MEYR. MS. (PLATE LX 

Larvae were found at Pusa on 26th November 1919, boring in stems of 
Justicia gendarussa. The larva bores at the top of the stem, which it usually 
enters at the axils of the leaves or branches, causing the top-shoot to wither. 
(Plate LX, fig. a.) The bored shoot breaks very easily at the place where 
the larva enters it. The larval tunnel usually runs along the axis of the stem, 
but may extend across it. Pupation takes place inside the bored stem in 
which the larva prepares a hole of exit for the future moth, the pupa 
wrio-gling out of the stem to some extent before the moth emerges. 

The full-grown larva (Plate LX, fig. b) is about 8 to 10 mm. long, 
sub-cylindrical, moderately stout, tapering very slightly posteriorly, pale, 
vellow slightly tinged with green ; head large, shiny, dark-brown, almost black ; 
prothoracic shield concolorous with head ; legs pale-yellow tinged with grey ; 
five pairs of equally-developed short prolegs concolorous with body. 

The pupa (Plate LX, fig. c) is about 4-5 mm. long, yellow ; head 
with a small anterior snout-like process ; abdominal segments anteriorly with a 
transverse dorsal row of posteriorly-directed spines and posteriorly with a 
similar but rather indistinct row of much smaller spines ; anal extremity rather 
rounded and provided with a few circinate hairs. 

Moths (Plate LX, fig. d) emerged on 8th and 15th December 1919. 
(Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1965.) 

LOBESIA A«eLOPA, MEYR. (anfe. page^) (PLATE LXI, FIG. L) 
This has also been reared at Pusa from larvae collected on Uth September 
1919 living and feeding in the calyces of flowers of gumma [Leucas carata). 
The larva (Plate LXI, fig. 1 a) is about 8 mm. long and 1 mm. across the 
middle, tapering slightly posteriorly, green with a yellowish tinge ; head shiny 
black ; prothoracic shield black, divided medially ; prothoracic legs black, 
others greenish-yellow. 

Pupation takes place within a thinly-built cocoon hidden amongst the 

calvx of the flower or sometimes placed inside a tubular floret. The pupa 

(Plate LXI, fig. 16) is about 4-5 mm. long and 1-5 across mid-body, dark 

rown with a greenish tinge. The moth (Plate LXI, fig. Ic) emerges 

after a pupal period of about seven days. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1916.) 

y 

ARGYROPLOCE APROBOLA, MEYR. {ante, page 57.) 
This has since been reared at Pusa from larvae found on 16th October 
1919, hiding among rose-petals and feeding on them ; as the larvae spin silk 
the petals do not fall off although they are cut basally. The larvae are sensitive 



PLATE LX. 



'"xy^!^' I 







Potychrosis acanthis: — 

a. stem of Jiistjria gendnnis.sa bored by larva, showing withered top-shoot. 
6, Larvn. natural size and magnified (x7). 

c, Pupa, do. do. do. do. 

d. Moth, do. do. do. do. 



PLATE LXL 






.^.^%P^=^ 



a 



<SCP5>5:^ 




Fig. 1. Lobesia'aeolopa: — a. Larva : b, pupa; c. moth (female) ; natural sizes 

and magnified ( x8). 






Fig. 2. Laspevri'sia perjrictn: — a. Larva ; h. pupa : c, moth, natural sizes 

and m.ignified ( x 8) . 



T. BAINBRIGO'E FLETCHER 201 

and jump when toiicliod. Tlie full-grown larva is about 20 mm. long and 2-5 
mm. across the middle, tapering towards either end, flattened, pale-yellow of 
different shades in individual larvae according to size and amount of food 
ingested, but the dorsal vessel is clearly visible in all ; head flattened, glossy 
brown (very dark in young larvae) ; prothoracic shield large, dark-brown^ 
rather dull, and with a faint dorsal line (in young larvae concolorous with 
head) ; first two pairs of logs dark, the third pair and five pairs of short equally- 
developed prologs concolorous with the body. 

Pupation takes place within rolled petals which have been lined with silk. 
The pupa is from 7 to 10 mm. long, cylindrical, tapering towards either extre- 
mity, brown varied with darker ; ab(h)miiial segments with double dorsal 
rows of posteriorly-directed spines ; anal segment with a number of circinate 
hairs which remain entangled in the fibres of the cocoon. 

From these larvae moths emerged between 29th October and 3rd 
November. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1936.) 

^^j"^^*^ LASPEYRESM CAPPARIDANA, Z. {ante, page G3.) 
This has also been reared at Pusa from larvae collected on 4th September 
1919 feeding in top-shoots of bcignahi {Cappariis sp.). These larvae 
commenced to pupate on 7th September, and moths emerged between 13th 
and 19th September. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1924.) 

The specimens reared from these larvae are very small and dark ; 
Mr. Meyrick remarks {in litt.) that the species appears to vary climatically or 
seasonally, perhaps also by feeding on different species of Capparis. 

^tj't-V LASPE-YRESiA PERFRICTA, MEYR. MS. (PLATE LXI, FIG. 2.) 
LarvEe were collected at Pusa on 3rd and 31st August 1919, boring into 
shoots of Pongamia glabra. The larva (Plate LXI, fig. 2a) is rather 
over 8 mm, long and 1-25 broad, pale-yellow ; head brown ; prothoracic 
shield small, light-brown, medially divided. Pupation generally takes place 
in a thinly built cocoon formed inside the stem within the larval tunnel. The 
pupa (Plate LXI, fig. 26) is rather less than 5 mm. long and rather more 
than 1 mm. broad, yellowish-brown. From larvae which pupated on 9th 
September, moths (Plate LXI, fig. 2c) emerged on 17th and 18th Septem- 
ber. Moths have also been reared out in December. (Pusa Insectary Cage- 
slip 1914.) 

PAMMENE QUERCIVORA, IMEYR. MS-. ^TCiV.UvCt- IL "Sil {Oc/IT. i^t^ 

Bred at ShiUong on 3rd July 1918 by Y. Ramachandra Rao from larvae 
feediixg on leaves of Quercus griffithii. 



202 LIFE-HISTORIES OP GELECHIAD.-B 

GELECHIADiE. 

STEGASTA VABIANA, MEYR. {ante, page 83.) (PLATE LXII, FIG. 1. 

This species has been reared again at Pusa from larvae found on 26tli 
November 1919 feeding between spun leaves of chdkmir {Cassia sp.). The 
larva binds one leaf over another (Plate LXTI, fig. la), lives between tbem and 
nibbles the green tissue. 

The full-grown larva (Plate LXTI, fig. 16) is about 8 mm. long and 
r25 mm. broad, subcylindrical, tapering at either extremity ; head smaller 
than prothorax, shiny black ; prothorax scarlet with a glossy black or dark- 
brown shield ; mesothorax scarlet ; other segments pale greenish-yellow 
tinged with pink ; hairs pale-yellow, arising from small black points ; spiracles 
small, round, with a black rim enclosing a clear space ; legs black, shiny ; 
five pairs of equally-developed pale-yellow prolegs. 

Pupation takes place between the spun leaves in a small white silken 
cocoon, the empty pupa-case being left in the cocoon on emergence of the 
moth. 

The pupa (Plate LXII, fig. Ic) is about 4 mm. long and 1-3 mm. 
broad across thoracic region, tapering prominently posteriorly, brownish- 
yellow, the hinder end rounded and provided with a few radiating fine hairs. 
From larvae which pupated about lst-2nd December, moths emerged between 
22nd December 1919 and 10th January 1920. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 

1969.) 

LECITHOCERA EFFERA, MEYR. (PLATE LXII, FIG. 2.) 

•t)Hj Two larvae were found at Pusa, on 5th November 1919, rolling and eating 

the leaves of Ipomcea reptans. Of these one was parasitized but the other 
pupated on 20th November, and emerged as a moth on 28th November. A 
few more larvae were obtained on 26th November, and emerged between 18th 
December and 14th January 1920. 

The larva (Plate LXII, figs. 2&, c) is about 12 mm. long and 1*5 mm, 
across the middle of the body which is slightly flattened and tapers towards 
either extremity ; head red-brown, glossy, flattened ; prothorax covered with 
a large blackish-brown shield ; the intersegmental region between prothorax 
and mesothorax with a white collar-like band interrupted mid-dorsally ; 
between mesothorax and metathorax there is a white band ; mesothorax, meta- 
thorax and first two abdominal segments velvety black; other segments yellow- 
ish-white marked on third, fourth, sixth and seventh abdominal segments 
with a velvety black band which passes over the anterior part of the segment 
and goes down obliquely posteriorly on each side, and on the posterior part 



PLATE LXII. 




I'ig. 1. SleyMsta variancr. — a. Leaves spun together bv larva : h. larva ; c, pupa ; 
d, moth; natural sizes and magnified (xl2). 







Fig. 2. Lecithocera effera: — 

o. Leaf rolled and eaten bv larva: 

6, Larva, about '''>\ grown, natural size and magnified 1x7) ; 

c. Larva, full-grown, magnified ( x7) ; 

d. Pupa, natural size and magnified (dorsal and lateral views) ( x7) ; 

e. Moth, natural size and magnified ( x7). 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 203 

of these segments there is also a transverse black bar almost toucliincr the 

arms of the band ; on the (iltli abdominal segment also there is a similar band 

but dorsally it is obscured by a large velvety black patch ; on eighth and ninth 

abdominal segments there is a large black anterior dorsal patch, that on eighth 

segment tending to form an oblique band, and posteriorly there is also 

a small black dorsal patch; tenth abdominal segment with a small black 

dorsal patch ; le^s black, shiny ; five pairs of equally-developed pale-yellow 

prolegs. 

Pupation takes place inside a leaf rolled longitudinally. (Pusa Insectary 

Cage-slip 19C)2.) 

0\Mr. V.ALA 

HE tCYSTOGR AaOTA LAMPROSTOMA, ZELL. 

Celech'a lainprostowa, Z-11.. Isis, 1847, 851-852('). 

Gelechia zulu, Wlsm., T. E. 8. 1881, 261-262, t. 12, f. 30 {1881)(-). 

Anacamjysis lamprosiomi, Wlsm., T. E. S. 1891, 94-95 (1891){"^) ; Stdgr.— 

Rebel, Cat. Lsp. Pal. II, 154, No. 2848 (1901)(^) ; Snell., Tijds. voor 

Ent. 1901, 88 (1901)(-'"') ; Spuler Schmett. Europ. II, 374 (1910)C5). 
Strohisia lamprosfoma, Meyr., B. J., XX, 732 (1911)('). 

Originally described from Sicily by Zeller('), this species has since been 
recorded from Spain(=^), Asia Minor(='), Gimbia(^), Natal(2' ^), and Java(''^), 
and, within our limits, from India('^) and Yala, in South-East Ceylon('^). 

It has been reared at Pusa in November 1919 from a larva rolling a //c/3 •'^tt'^'] 
leaf cf rpO))i(B(( reptansl 8ind in December 1919 from a larva rolling leaves of 
sweet-potato. - ^> r^^V'j i<^. ^iT AJ 

MXCONITA^ _^ -^ iw^l £^^. i^/^'c.. 

TftlCHOTAREfE PLUTELLIFORMIS, SNELL. tC 17 (^j^^--^ i^'^'b] 

Ceratophora plutelliformis, Snell, Tijds. voor Ent., XLIV, 84, t. 6, f. 4(i). 
Trichotaphe plufeUiformis, Meyr., B. J., XXII, 180 (1913)(2). 

Originally described from Java(^' ^) this species has since been recorded 
from Australia(2), Ceylon (Puttalam)(2), and North Coorg.(2) 

This species was reared at Pusa from larvae collected on 3rd and 14th Jr(^ — "^i? 
November 1919, on leaves of Iponicea repfans. The larva folds the two blades jfy^^f^" 
of the leaf together, fastening the margins with silk. It is about 7 mm. long, 
skin soft and uniform pale-yellow ; hairs black, arising from black points ; 
spiracles small, round, light-brown with a narrow dark ri?n ; head large, black, 
glossy ; prothorax entirely covered by a black, glossy shield ; legs and five 
pairs of equally-developed prolegs concolorous with the body. Pupation 
takes place within a rolled leaf. Moths emerged between 19th November 1919 
and 13th January 1920. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1955.) 

15 



204 LlFE-HISTORlES OF CECOPHORID^ 

JEaiG IIOTAniE PSEUDOMETRA, MEYR. 

Trichotcqihe jiseudometra, Meyr., B. J., XXII,^179 (1913)(i).o (^ 

Bred [at Karwar? ] on 31st August 1913 from larva found between spun 

leaves, and which pupated on 24th August. {Maxwell.) 
Originally described from North Coorg(i). 

CECOPHORID^. 

y 

PICROTECHNA OPHIODORA, MEYR. 
Picrotechna ophiodora, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 260 (1914)(i). 



1^^^ U^Y'''^^^ Described from the Khasi Hills(i). 
SO- 



^Ua ^- Bred [at Karwar?] from numerous larvae, each living separately but 
_ so crowded as to be almost gregarious, on an unidentified shrub which was 

V '(;-f((^- described as an erect woody jungle plant with deeply 5-palmate reticulately 

1\1. ["^I"^^-^ veined leaves with acuminate lobes, 7-nerved, alternately whorled on stem 
with long petioles. Each larva lives under a white web situated on one of the 
main nerves on either the upper surface or the under-side of the leaf. The 
central portion of the web is so tightly spun as to be opaque, concealing the 
larva. Under each web there is a round hole of escape to the other side of the 
leaf, and the larva emerges and feeds on both sides of the leaf, moving actively. 
The larva is opaque creamy to greenish, dorsal area often darker, body tapering 
considerably posteriorly, segments strongly marked, with rather long whitish 
hairs distributed as usual ; head large, greenish, with red-fuscous cheeks ; 
prothoracic plate centrally greenish, laterally red-fuscous ; anal claspers pros- 
trate. The pupa is altogether external, attached by the tail only, and lies 
prostrate on the under-side of the leaf ; in shape it is very like that of Tonica ; 
in colour pale-brown with darker-brown points and markings. Larv;e collected 
at Christmas 1914, emerged on 14th January 1915. {Maxwell.) 

PORTHMOLOGA PARACLINA, MEYrI (ante, page 109.) 
Bred in February 1916 from a pupa found on Zizijplms rotundijolia. The 
pupa was similar to that of Picrotechna ophiodora. {Maxwell.) 

CRYPTOLECHIA ARVALIS, meyr. {ante, page 109.) 
Bred from larva found between spun leaves of Careya arhorea. The 
larva has the head and prothoracic shield black and shiny, the body green, 
long and tapering, with a few bristles, subdorsal and spiracular lines fuscous, 
former rather] faint, latter strongly marked in the middle of each segment 
and heavily marked towards the head. Pupa between same spun leaves, 
attached by tail only. Imago very sluggish. {Maxwell.) 



PLATE LXIII. 





ll^tfc^^^ 




Fis. 1. Flocli'>rvrlis romria: — 
^ a, Apple-twi« bored by larva, showing (below) tunnel covered with silken tube, 
and (above) silken tube removed, showing bark eaten away; 

b, Larva, magnified ( x7) ; 

c, Larva, full-grown, natural size and magnified ( x5) ; 

d, Pupa, natural size and magnified (x5) ; 

e, Moth, natural size and magnified (x5). 





Fig. 2. Orneodes magadis: — a. Larva, lateral view ( x 13) ; 6, pupa, lateral 
view ( X 13) ; c, moth (xl3). 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 2C5 

XYLORYCTID^. 

PTOCHORYCTIS ROSARIA, MKYR. (PLATK l.XUI FIG, 1.) 

Ptochon/ctis rosaria, Meyr., B. J., XVII, 740 (1907)('). 

This insect, whioh has hitherto only been kaown from Bhutan('), 
is a serious pest of apple at Shillong, the red larva eating into the bark 
of young twigs under cover of a silken gallery (Plate LXIII, fig. \a). The 
angles formed between outgrowing twigs form a favourite place for attack 
by this larva, and considerable damage may be done by the stunting back of 
young growth. Larvae were collected at Shillong in October 1019 and brought 
to Pusa, where no apple is available, and they were supplied with twigs of pear 
on which they fed up to the end of February 1920. One was found pupated 
on 5th March and emerged on 9th March. 

The larva (Plate LXIII, figs. 16, c) is about 12 mm. long and about 
2 mm. broad across the head and thoracic region, cylindrical, tapering posteriorly 
very slightly and gradually, brick-red, with chequered whitish dorsal markings ; 
head dark-brown or almost black, shiny ; prothorax wholly covered by a 
brown, somewhat glossy plate ; ninth and tenth abdominal segments darker, 
the latter with a large dark-brown somewhat glossy plate ; tubercles dark- 
brown, shiny, with rather long white hairs ; trapezoidal tubercles large and 
round, making the larva look spotted ; spiracles small, rather oval, dark-brown, 
with a slit in the middle ; legs black, shiny ; five pairs of equally-developed 
rather short, pale yellow prolegs. 

Pupation took place under webbed-up frass on a twig. In nature it pro- 
bably occurs in the larval gallery. The pupa (Plate LXIII, fig. Id) is about 9 
mm. long and 2-5 mm. across the thoracic region, cylindrical, slightly and 
gradually tapering posteriorly, dark brown ; anal segment blunt, with a pair of 
short spines on the dorsal sm-face and with a flattened wing-like projection on 
dorsal margin of anal extremity ; anterior extremity of pupa rounded and 
with a roughened surface ; the dorsal side of thoracic region and anterior part 
of abdominal area has also a roughened surface. 

The moth (Plate LXIII, fig. le) is pure white, with a few antemarginal 
black dots on fore wing. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1988.) 

STENOMID^. 

\M£o5?A-:T(£ 
STfiJ^OMA ICHNiEA, MEYR. {ante, page 115.) 

Bred in North Kanara in January 1912 and 191 1 from larvae found between 
spun leaves of Sijmplocos spicata, generally laying one leaf (alive or dead or 



20G LIFE-HISTORIES OF ORNEODID^ 

even fallen from another tree) on the face of another, back to face in natural 
position, very inconspicuous, the larva usually retiring into a cocoon-like cell 
spun between the two leaves with an admixture of excrement. The full- 
grown larva is about 14 mm. long, tapering in either direction, especially 
posteriorly, segments strongly marked, green tinged dorsally with reddish- 
fuscous, alimentary canal visible, darker green ; head reddish-fuscous ; pro- 
thoracic plate darker ; a supra-spiracular series of black dots anteriorly on 
each segment, each dot emitting a longish pale bristle ; a series of smaller 
black dots, each emitting a shorter j^ale bristle, situated posteriorly on each 
of the first four abdominal segments, on each of which segments there are thus 
two dots obliquely situated, the anterior dot being higher than the posterior ; 
on last five abdominal segments traces of a third subdorsal row, more marked 
posteriorly, situated anteriorly on the segments ; anal flap rounded, with 
black edges. Pupa dark, red brown, short and stout, attached by tail in the 
web between leaves, emitting a frequent sharp clicking sound when disturbed. 
The moth is very sluggish by day. Larvse collected on 28th December 1911, 
emerged on IGth February 1912, and others collected at Christmas 1913, 
emerged on 17th January 1914. {Maxwell.) 

ORNEODID^. 

ORNEODES MAGADIS, MEYR. (PLATE LXIII, FIG. 2.) 

Omeodes 7nagadis, Meyr., T.E.S. 1907, 510 (1908)(i). : 

Originally described from Shillong(^). 

The larva (Plate LXIII, fig. 2a) feeds in Shillong within the flower-buds 
of Colquhounia coccinea, but is very difiicult to find as a rule within the flower- 
buds. If the flowers are collected, however, the larvae sometimes emerge to 
pupate externally and the moths may be bred fairly readily. 

The full-grown larva is about 5 mm. long, rather flattened and decidedly 
stout for its length, dirty yellowish-white, sometimes suftused with pink over 
dorsal areas except head and prothorax ; head pale-yellow or yellowish-brown, 
mouthparts reddish or reddish -brown, sharply divided ; the abdominal seg- 
ments each divided into a larger anterior and a smaller posterior subsegment 
and also with a sort of flange along the side above level of spiracles so that the 
dorsal portion stands out as a ridge ; the dorsal vessels (? silk glands) show as a 
dark green through skin of thoracic and anterior abdominal segments ; protho- 
racic shield not conspicuous ; short white hairs (only notable through a lens) 
on body-segments. The larva drops by a thread when disturbed^ when 
wandering externally. 



I 1 ; 





.."-^ 




'"«I|«|I||I,IIII\P,1\\*\"V;a»" 



Antispila anna (C. S. 1993). 

a, Cocoons on leaf. 

b, A single cocoon enlarged (x 16). 

e, Moth, natural size and enlarged ( »■ 16). 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 207 

Pupation takes place within a tliiii w]iito silken eoooon wliieh is normally 
.Rl)nn amongst the tlowers of the food-plant. Pupa- pal(> y('llo\vish-l)ro\vn. 
(Plate LXIII, fig. 2b.) The moth (Plate LXlil, (ig. 2c) may be beaten from 
buslies of ColquJioiinia cocrhico. 

HELIOZELID^. 

/ 
ANTISPILA AllISTARCHA, MEYR. {ante, page 119.) 

Bred in August 1913, at Karwar, from larv;e found on Vitis sp. in numerous 
transparent blotches formed between both cuticles. Numerous larvae were 
found in each leaf and the blotches were occasionally confluent. The excrement 
forms a wavy line in the deserted portion of the blotch. (Maxwell.) 

ANTISPILA ANNA, MEYR. MS. tr^^- ^^ ■ ii ■'^o^ ^"^^ '''^' ' 

This species has been found at Serampore by Mrs. Annie Drake who, in Ju/ll^^ ,^<^'-^^^- ^"^ 
her letter dated 21th November 1919, wrote :—" About the middle of July, '^^ '5"? " '^^ . ^ *^ > 
I noticed a curious wee thing like a fragment of leaf on a leaf of Eugenia 
jamholana, and on holding it up to the light could see the movements of the larva 
inside it. After a little over a week the moth emerged. I only found two more 
cocoons at that time and they had evidently been parasitized, each having 
a minute round hole at one side whereas the one from which the moth came 

had the pupal shell protruding from the top of the cocoon 

Yesterday I found more of these interesting cocoons, five of them on 
leaves and three on the trunk of the tree." Some of these cocoons were 
sent to Pusa and from them we were able to rear out the moths. In 
sending a further consignment of cocoons, in her letter of 20th March 
1920, Mrs. Drake wTote : " The moth appears to deposit its eggs singly at 
the apex of the leaves of Eugenia jambohtna, Lam., and to select the 
leaves on the highest branches. On holding the leaf up to the light one 
can see the larva between the epidermal layers. It seems to confine itself 
to one side of the mid-rib and keeps to the upper end of the leaf. When 
ready to pupate it cuts the leaf through around itself and lowers itself 
by a silken thread and is borne hither and thither by the breeze till at last 
it alights on a leaf or a branch lower down in the tree to which it at once 
fastens its cocoon. The moth emerges about a week later in the day time. The 
pupa is protruded from the apex of the cocoon. Those that are parasitized 
have a minute hole in the side of the cocoon from which the Hymenopteron 
has emerged." 



208 LIFE-HISTORIES OF GLYPHIPTERYGIDJE 

GLYPHIPTER YGID.^ . 

'—- ~ ' lac , 

SIMAETHIS/ORTHOGONA/MEYR. {ante, page 120.) (PLATE LXIV, FIG. 1.) 
/v ^ 

This has been reared again at Pusa from hirva^ found on 21st August 
1919, feeding on leaves and top-shoots of sinhora {StrchlNS asper ?). The larva 
(Plate LXIV, iig. la) is very active, jumping at the least touch ; it is about 
10 mm. long and 1 mm. across the middle, tapering slightly posteriorly ; general 
colour whitish-blue with numerous black spots ; head rather flattened, yellowish- 
brown. 

Pupation takes place in a double cocoon which is usually sjiun on a leaf, 
the outer cocoon being of thin texture whilst the inner one, in which the pupa 
rests, is stiff. Pupation occurs about two days after commencing to spin up 
and the moth emerges after another six days. The pupa (Plate LXIV, fig. 16) 
is about 5-5 mm. long and 1-75 mm. across the thorax, brown-yellow. The 
moths (Plate LXIV, fig. Ic) from these larvae emerged between 3rd and 6th 
September. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1915.) 



CHOREUTIS BJERKANDRELLA, THNB. {ante, page 128.) (PLATE LXIV, FIG. 2.) 

This has also been reared at Pusa from larvae found on 22nd October 1919, 
webbing the top-leaves of tnundi {Sphceranthus indicus), living hidden inside 
the webbed-up leaves and nibbling their surfaces. 

The fuU-o-rown larva (Plate LXIV, fig. 2o) was described as about 7 mm. 
long and slightly more than 1 mm. broad across the middle of the body which 
tapers slightly towards either end, skin glossy, soft and transparent, pale 
yellow, showing a slight green tinge when food is taken ; head rather glossy ; 
dorsal vessel faintlv visible ; short, yellow hairs arising from black points ; 
spiracles small, round, with a brown rim ; five pairs of equally-developed, 
slender, rod-like prolegs. 

Pupation takes place on the plant in thin white silken cocoons formed 
amongst the leaves. The pupa (Plate LXIV, fig. 2h) is about 4-5 mm. 
long and 1-3 mm. across the thoracic region, yellow-brown; -capital 
extremity blunt ; anal extremity tapering ; anal segment dorsally with 
an anteriorly-curved horn-like spine. When disturbed, the pupa does not 
wriggle but moves the anal extremity rapidly up and down. The pupal 
period is about five days. Moths (Plate LXIV, fig. 2c) emerged from these 
larvae between 28th October and 19th November. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 
1938.) 



PLATE LXIV. 



'a 



'f.'-. 



^- ^■'-*'5?!ai 













V 'H^Vrrrr^iK^^'^'^^'' 



Fig. 1. Simaethis orthogonrr: — a. Larva ; b, pupa ; c, moth, natural sizes and 

magnified ( x 7j. 



^ 








Fig. 2. Choieulis hjerkandreUn: — o. Larva ; b, pupa ; c, moth ; natural 
sizes and magnified ( x8). 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 209 

GRACILLAEJAD^. 



/ 



LITHOCOLLETIS VIRGULATA, MEYR. {ante, page 13S.) 
Bred [at Karwai] in Jaiuiaiy and May 19 1 G from larvtp found in a mon; 
or less regular oval or roundish blotch, measuring about 15 by 10 mm., formed 
on the ujjper surface of a leaf of Bulea Jrondosn. The cuticle over the blotch 
becomes tiglitly stretched and white, often puckering the leaf below it ; a 
small discoloured oval patch is often visible on the white stretched cuticle, 
probably representing the eaily location of the larva. Pupation takes within 
the blotch and in the case of one specimen the pupa was observed to be tightly 
enclosed in a fine white spindle-shaped cocoon resting on the leaf-surface, 
but in other cases it seemed to be in a fine, light-spun web. The pupa is pro- 
truded on emergence, puncturing the cuticle of the blotch by means of a sharp 
diamond-shaped rostrum on its heatl ; the position of the pupa on emergence 
is supine. One specimen was noticed to emerge at about 10 a.m. The moth 
sits with the head depressed, touching the resting surface , and the tail elevated ; 
this was observed in every specimen bred. (Maxwell.) 

Larvae were collected at Pusa on 9th Jmie 1919, mining blotches in the 
upper surface of leaves of Pongamia glabra. The mines were of various 
shapes and sizes, one being almost oval and measuring 10 by 9 mm., another 
being elongated and measuring 19 by 11 mm. Pupation took place inside the 
larval mines and the pupse pierced through the membranous covering of the mine 
and wriggled out to some extent before emergence of the moths, the empty 
pupa-cases being left sticking out of the mines. Moths emerged on 16th June. 
(Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1907.) 

LITHOCOLLETIS INCURVATA, MEYR. (ante, page 141.) 
Bred at Karwar in August 1913 from larva mining leaf oi" karvi^^ (Strobi- 
lanthes), forming a small blotch filling the space between two veins of the leaf, 
apparently between the two cuticles. The blotch is dilated, concealing its 
inhabitant. Pupation takes place internally, at one end of the larval blotch. 
The imago rests with its head down and tail elevated. (Maxwell.) 

ACROCERCOPS ORDINATELLA, MEYR. {ante, page 146.) 
Bred in North Kanara in July and August 1913 from larvae on Alseodaphne 
semecarpifolia and probably other species of Lauracege. The egg is almost 
invariably laid near the mid-rib of the leaf and the young larva proceeds by a 
fine gallery to the blotch which it inhabits for the rest of its life. The blotch 
is rather regular in shape, below the upper cuticle of the leaf which has a tightly 
stretched appearance, the excrement being gathered at the sides of the blotch. 



210 LIFE-HISTORIES OF GRACILLARIAD^ 

Several blotches are found on one leaf and these are usually occupied singly 
but sometimes coalesce. The larva is cylindrical with the segments rather 
strongly marked, orange with a tinge of crimson, the alimentary canal visible, 
red. AVhen disturbed in its blotch, the larva sometimes oscillates its head and 
anterior segments rapidly. The cocoon is orange-coloured and is occasionally 
formed within the blotch. The pupal period is six to eight days. The imago 
is very sluggish in the day time. {Maxwell.) 

ACROCERCOPS PHiEOSPORA, MEYR. {ante, page 147.) 
Bred in August 1914 and May 1916 at Belgaum from larvae found in large 
elongate, opaque galleries in leaves of Eugenia jamholana, both sides of the 
-eaves appearing swollen. The egg is laid at one side of the mid-rib on the 
under-surface of the leaf. The young larva mines in a single gallery along the 
mid-rib towards the base tor about the length of the final blotch, then returns 
along the mid-rib for a short distance before striking across the leaf in a single 
gallery to the side of its blotch, and then proceeds back along the leaf parallel 
to the original gallery. The orange-coloured cocoon is found exposed. 
(Maxwell.) 

ACROCERCOPS LYSIBATHRA, MEYR. (ante, page 152). 

Bred [at Dharwar ?] between 31st December 1915, and 4th January 1916, 
from reddish larva? mining a rather small irregular blotch on leaves of Cordia, 
the excrement following a line close to the margin of the blotch. The cocoon 
rather large, buff-coloured. (Maxwell.) 

ACROCERCOPS USTULATELLA, STT. {ante, page 156). 

Bred [? in North Kanara] from larvae found in large numbers on leaves of 

Diospjjros emhrijopteris, the larvae occupying isolated blotches on both surfaces 

of the leaf, the blotches becoming confluent in some cases. The appearance 

of the blotch is shown in the text-figure, where A rejoresents the discoloured 




Larval mine of Acrocercops ustnlatella. 
(From a sketch by Mr. Maxwell.) 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 211 

patch where tlie egg was laid, B the slender gallery, filled with the excrement 
of the young larva, leading to the main blotch, C the main blotch, irregular, 
balloon-shaped, with the larval excrement gathered in scattered heaps, D the 
remainder of the blotch, void of excrement, transparent, and E the larva 
feeding. (Maxwell.) 

y 

ACROCERCOPS BIPRENIS, MEYR. (.ante, page 157.) 

Bred at Khanapur, Belgaum, between 21st and 25th February 1915, 
from larvae found very plentifully in leaves of more than one unidentified 
food- plant ; one of these food-plants was described as having the leaves alternate, 
simple, smooth, acuminate, with opposite veins 4 to (3 or 8. The larval blotches 
were irregularly shaped, becoming confluent with other blotches in the same 
leaf, the whole of which is eventually left covered with the silvery cuticle only, 
the leaf underneath being discoloured with dry excrement, which is chiefly 
gathered around the edge of the blotches. Each blotch has an irregularly 
roundish tear in the cuticle covering it whilst still inhabited by the larva. 
The young larva is bright red, much ta^sering towards the tail ; when full-fed 
it is bright crimson, cylindrical . The orange-coloured pupa is found in an orange 
cocoon formed on the surface of the leaf. The pupal period is about seven to 
eleven days in February. The imago quivers on its leg< like A. vanula. 
{Maxwell.) 

ACROCERCOPS CRYSTALLOPA, MEYR. (ante, page 1.17.) 

Bred in July 1913 and also in 1915 at Karwar from larvae found on Meme- 
eylon edule and M, amplexicaule in regular oval or sub-circular blister-like 
blotches formed under the upper cuticle of the leaf by continuously mining 
around the edge of the blotch. The larva has a very large dilated head, the 
body cylindrical with lateral prominences from which protrude single rather 
long hairs. The j)upa is found inside the larval blotch and protrudes through 
the leaf- cuticle on emergence. The moth sits almost erect on its tail with the 
long antennae held outwards and (relatively to the body) downwards, vibrating 
so rapidly as to be nearly invisible except towards the base. (Maxwell.) 

ACROCERCOPS DIATONICA, MEYR. {a7Ue, page 158.) 

Bred in North Kanara from larvae, sometimes found singly but often in 
numbers, under the upper cuticle of an unidentified herbaceous plant. The 
cuticle forms a tight blister over the whole surface of the leaf, and inside this 
blister the larva lives and feeds on the leaf which it ultimately clears, leaving 
only the tip and the cuticle. Pupation takes place in an oval cocoon which 



212 LIFE-HISTORIES OF GRACILLARIAD^ 

turns yellowish after construction and which is formed under the blister, i.e. 
on the under-surface of the leaf-cuticle, but is apparently sometimes 
attached to the leaf also, especially to the mid-rib. (Maxwell.) 

ACROCERCOPS EXTENUATA, MEYR. {ante, page 158.) 

Bred at Karwar on 29th July 1913 from larvae found on 16th July in 

blotches on underside of leaf of " iaosin " creeper. The blotches were bounded 

by the main veins of the leaf, several larvae being thus contained in one 

leaf in separate compartments. {Maxwell.) 

/ 
ACROCERCOPS PHAROPEDA, MEYR. {anU, page 159.) 

Bred at Karwar on 25th July 1913, from a larva in a rather small regular 
semi-transparent blotch resembling that of A . ordiiiafella except that the 
excrement is gathered in a heap in the middle of the blotch. The larva when 
disturbed oscillates anteriorly like that of A. ordinatella. Pupation took place 
on 16th July, in a brownish-yellow cocoon formed on the surface of the leaf. 
{Ma'xwell.) 

ACROCERCOPS SCRIPTULATA, MEYR. {ante, page 159.) 

Bred at Karwar on 28th July 1913 from cocoons found scattered about 
on the surfaces of a variety of leaves in the neighbourhood of Terminalia 
paniculata, which may be the food-plant. The cocoons, which are unusually 
large, irregularly elongate-oval, semi-transparent, white, were found at consi- 
derable distances from one another, indicating a wandering habit on the part 
of the larva prior to pupation. (Maxwell.) 

ACROCERCOPS CIVICA, MEYR."^ 
Acrocercops civica, Meyr., B. J., XXIII, 119 (1914)(i). 

Described from Karwar(^). 

Bred in 1911 and in July 1913 [at Karwar] from pink or bright-red larvae, 
mining blotches in leaf of cinnamon. Many larvae were found in each leaf, 
apparently exceeding the capacity of the leaf for food. In another case larvae 
were found in small, distinct, roundish blotches on both surfaces of the leaf, 
but especially on the upper side. The larval excrement is gathered into 
heaps in the middle of the blotches. The orange pupa is found in an orange- 
coloured or creamy cocoon. (Maxwell.) 

ACROCERCOPS ZYGONOMA, MEYR. MS;f (PLATE LXV.) 

Acrocercop.s sp.. Annual Rept. Impl. Entom. 1918-19, p. 87, t. 7 (1919)(0. 

The larva of this species was found at Pusa on 12th September 1918, 
mining under the epidermal layer of the bark of a young cotton plant. 



PLATE LXV. 




C 



. ] croct' reaps zygunonio : — 
a. Cotton hramh altaike.l In larva; L Larva, dorsal view. naUnal .ize and 

magnified; 
c. Pupa, natural size and mainiiled; iL Moth, natural size and magnified. 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 213 

Extensive mines are formed, covering the greater portion of the stem and some 
of the petioles of tlie leaves. As a result a thin somewhat transparent whitish 
paper-like membrane is formed, under the shelter of which tlie larva is visible. 
(Plate LXV, fig. a.) 

The larva (Plate LXV, fig. b) is about 5 min. long, rather flattened, 
about 0*7 mm. across the thoracic region, thence tapering slightly posteriorly, 
last two segments much narrower, segments clearly marked, uniform yellow ; 
head flattened, smaller than prothorax into which it is partially retractile ; 
legs and very short prolegs uniform 3^ellow. 

When full-fed the larva leaves its mine and forms a circular paper-like 
cover in a corner or depression on a stem or leaf and pupates in this cocoon, 
each larva forming a separate cocoon for itself. Moths (Plate LXV, fig.f? ) 
emerged on 20th and 21st September 1918. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1852.) 

ACROCERCOPS MALICOLA, MEYR.'^'MS* tX^fVc^ TT 4i(, ]«^ ]<)v) j 
Bred at Shillong in June 1918 by Y. Ramachandra Rao from larvae 
feeding on bark of apple. 

EPERMENIAD^. 

EPIMARPTIS PHILOCOMA, MEYR. {ante, page 169.) 
Bred [at Karwar ?] from larva? found plentifully on leaves of Butea fron- 
(losa and Xylia dolahriformis. The larva is reddish-brown, prothoracic plate 
rather darker, the body-segments with dark spots, emitting hairs, each sur- 
rounded by a lighter ring. It leaves in a dirty-looking whitish and roundish 
web on the upper surface of the leaf. The web always adjoins a main vein 
and is kept off the surface of the leaf by five or six slender columns of excre- 
ment spun with silk, rendering the larva invisible. The excrement is also 
scattered on the outer surface of the web, giving it a rusty appearance, the 
rustiness being more marked in the case of webs formed on leaves of Xylia 
dolabriformis. Immediately opposite the upper web there is a similarly con- 
structed web of much smaller size on the under-surface of the leaf, connected 
with, the upper web by a small hole of escape through which the larva dodges 
with great agility when disturbed in either abode. Pupation takes place in a 
creamy spindle-shaped cocoon about 6 mm. long and pointed at both ends, 
often spun between two leaves, but sometimes exposed on leaf surface. In 
1911 a specimen was bred from a cocoon which was separate, close to mid-rib, 
oval, resembling a birds-dropping. From larvse which pupated in December 
1915 the first moth emerged on 8th April 1916, one day after the first rain. . 
The moth is very sluggish at night and appears to be diurnal. {Maxwell.) 



214 LIFE-HISTORIES OP LYONETIADJE 

LYONETIAD^. 

PHYLLOCNISTIS CHRYSOPHTHALMA, MEYR. [ante, page 171.) 
Bred in July and August 1913, in North Kanara, from larva mining an 
elongate wandering blotch in the underside of a leaf of cinnamon, the course 
of the larva being marked by the excrement which forms a wavy, continuous, 
fine dark line. Pupation takes place inside the larval mine at the extremity 
of the blotch, the leaf being puckered here sharply. Tlie pupal period is 
about eight days. {Maxwell.) 

PHYLLOCNISTIS CIRRHOPHANES, MEYR. {anlt, page 171.) 
Bred in July 1913, in North Kanara, from larva found mining beneath 
upper cuticle of leaf of Atseodaphne semecarjyifolia. The egg is laid near the 
edge of the leaf, from which the yt)ung larva proceeds at first in a spiral and 
afterwards in an undulating gallery, always confined to the extreme edge 
of tlie leaf, producing a blackish discoloration. When full-fed, the larva 
mines around the extreme edge of the leaf in a single gallery, finally pupating 
below the cuticle under a drawn-in edge of the leaf. The larva is flattened, 
shiny, tapering posteriorly, segments strongly marked, yellowish-green, last 
three segments more transparent ; head small, black ; prothoracic shield 
narrowed anteriorly, semi-transparent ; first seven abdominal segments with 
a spiracular prominence ending in a bristle ; anal claspers long, transparent, 
prostrate, divergent. The larva of this species is frequently noticed associated 
with that of Acrocercoj)S civica in the same lea|, although the food-jjlant is 
common ; in fact, the two are usually bred together. {Maxwell.) 

PHYLLOCNISTIS CITRELLA, STT. {ante, page 171.) 
Larva mining blotches in cinnamon and Alseoclaphne seinecarpifoUa. 
When ready to pupate the larva works around in a gallery by the edge of the 
leaf and pupates internally under the turned-over edge. The larva is often 
found in conjunction with that of Acrocercops civica, sharing the same leaf. 
{Maxwell. ) 

The pupal cell is often found occupied by a Mite which apparently attacks 
and destroys the full-fed larva and newly-formed pupa. 

PHYLLOCNISTIS HABROCHROA, MEYR. {ante, page 172.) 
Bred in North Kanara in August 1913 and January 1915 from larva 
mining an irregularly wandering gallery in leaves of an unidentified plant 
locally called " cheli " ; also found in a second imidentified leaf, which is 



PLATE LXVI 



m^ 



'im 



^: 




Fig. 1. Full snonn larva, dorsal view. Fig. 2. Pupa of male ( x44) ; also more 
"j ^26». enlarged view of anal portion I xl33). 




It it •■ 






V^ ''v'l 



Fi£. 3. Crob)loplwra dariceltd. Moth (x30). 



PLATE LXVII 





■\^m^ 



'^p'ihf'^f 









a 




o 




o 




u 




o 




•J 




,e 




;:s 


Cn 


'■'?^^ 


>— H 




Cs 


ife 


"-H 


:-« 


-^ 






e 


"a 


1^ 
o 


^ 


t 


=•0 


o 


r. 


"CS 


e 


^. 


to 


-o 


s 


o 


Q. 


>». 




^ 




o 


> 


K 




> 




u 




a 


t.i-1 




o 


>^ 


u 


^ 


o 






-a 


^4 

0) 


Qi 




s 


■>? 




p 


's 


c 


to 


o 


•i-A 






in 


B 




«J 


O 


O . 


m 


i>0 


"cc 


O 




-O 


OJ 



0) 

-J 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 215 

glandular and lias a red petiole and luid-rib. Pupation takes place in a cocoon 
connected with gallery and formed in a tightly puckered fold in the leaf or 
under a tightly bent-ov^er edge of the leaf. (Maxwell.) 

PHYLLOCNISTIS SYNGLYPTA, MEYR. (ante, page 173.) 

Bred [at Dharwar] in January and August 1916 from regular Phi/lloc- 
nistis type of galleries on upper surface of leaves of a small shrub, probably 
a species of Cappnris, which was described as having leaves whorled with a 
pair of thorns in axils, thorns straight when young but recurved when older, 
stems and leaves pubescent, leaves bluntly ovate, margin entire, reticulately 
veined, pedicel ^ inch long. The larva, which is light-green, can be seen 
distinctly at the end of its gallery, its course being shown by a thin dark 
line of excrement which runs down the middle of the gallery, leaving a white 
margin on either side. Pupation takes place within a folded-over edge of the 
leaf at the end of the gallery, the pupa being protruded on emergence of the 
moth. (Maxwell.) 

PHYLLOCNISTIS HAONOPA, MEYR. M9. ^^cot . tVc^ . U. .\^<^ JUc i?-^j 

This species was reared at Coimbatore in July 1917 from larvae mining 
in leaves of Ailanthus excelsa. The mine is figured in South Indian Insects 
(figure 338(1) ^^ p^g© 462). 

CROBYLOPHORA DARICELLA; MEYR. (ante, page 174.) (PLATES LXVI, LXVII.) 
This species was found abundantly at Pusa in June, July and December 
1919 by Mr. C. S. Misra, from whose notes the following account is taken. 
The egg is laid irregularly on the upper surface of the apex of a leaf of Plum- 
h'tgo, the largest number found on one leaf being ten. The egg is flattened, 
oval, dirty-white. The larva at first makes an elongate gallery which is after- 
wards developed into a rounded blotch, the frass being scattered irregularly 
within the mine. Several larvae may mine in one leaf. The larva is about 
3*5 mm. long, pale yellow, head rather elongated, pale-brown, body-segments 
l)road, flattened, distinct. When full-fed it emerges from the mine and pupates 
on the surface of a leaf under cover of a silken cocoon, two cocoons being 
united together at times. 

BUCCULATRIX UNIVOCA, MEYR. (PLATE LXVIII.) 
Biicculatrix univoca, Meyr., Exot. Micr., 11, 185 (1918)(i), i^ -IT 3s) |^c. 'f^) 

Described from Pusa(i). 

This has been reared at Pusa from larvao found on 11th October 1919, 
mining leaves of Jcalmi (Ipomoea reptans) (Plate LXVlII, fig. a). After 
some time, however, the larvae emerged from their mines and formed a sort 



216 LIFE-HISTORIES OF LY0NETIADJ5 

of transparent flat yellowish silken cocoon-like covering on the surface of 
leaf or stem and rested in a coiled posture inside this cell (Plate LXVIII, fig. h) 
for about two days, after which they underwent a moult and emerged again. 
This resting stage larva (Plate LXVIII, fig. c) is about 4-25 mm. long and 
about 0-5 mm. broad, cylindrical, with distinct segments, uniform yellow, 
smooth, with five pairs of equally developed prolegs. After moulting on 
completion of the resting-stage, however, the appearance and colour are quite 
changed, nor does it mine the leaf any longer but feeds openly on the leaf, 
nibbling the tissue. At this stage the larva (Plate LXVIII, fig. d) has a 
pale yellow head which is smaller than the prothorax and partly retractile 
into it ; the general colour is light yellowish-brown, the dorso-lateral regions 
dark-grey ; on all segments the tubercles are rounded protuberances each 
surmounted by a short yellowish hair ; legs and five pairs of equally -developed 
prolegs pale yellow. In this stage the larva grows to its full length of about 
6 mm., and when full-fed it forms anywhere on the leaf or stem an elongated 
brown longitudinally-ribbed cocoon (Plate LXVIII, figs, e, f) which is fixed 
to the resting surface throughout its length. Pupation takes place inside 
this cocoon, the pupa (Plate LXVIII, fig.^f) being about 3-5 mm. long by 
0'75 mm. broad across the thoracic region, yellowish-grey ; the head end 
with a short pointed process ; the spiracles slightly protuberant ; the anal 
extremity blunt, with a short outwardly-directed pointed lateral process on 
each side. The pupa wriggles out through one end of the cocoon before emer- 
gence of the moth (Plate LXVIII, fig. Ji), which takes place about twelve 
days after spinning up. From these larv», moths emerged between 28th 
Octol)er and Uth December. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 1952.) 

OPOGONA XANTHOCRITA, MEYR. 
Opogona xanthocrita, Meyr., B. J., XXI, 111 (Oct. 1911)(i),£%(V>^c.-'lL'iU '^c- 1^^ 

Described from the Nilgiris (3,500 feet) and North Coorg(^). It has been 
reared in April 1918 by Mr. K. Kunhi Kannan from imported sugarcane in 
Mysore State. It has also been bred from dead wood by Mr. Beeson. 

TISCHERIA HESTIAS,»MEYR. 

Tischeria hestias, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 354 (1915)(i). 

Described from Karwar('). 

Bred [in North Kanara] in August 1913 from a larva mining squarish 
blotch occupying space between two veins of a leaf of " Keivan " {Helicteres 
isora), no excrement being visible in the mine. Pupation takes place within 
the blotch, the pupa being protruded on emergence of the moth. (Maxwell.) 



PLATE LXVIIl 









Q \i 



■f-s<:=dt5i'*»':-»T;;irr.;:.~: 





«,-;i«*"*,>"^C 



Biiccuhitrlx mnvoca : — 

a. Leaf of Kalmi ilpomoea reptans) mined by young larva : 

b. Young larva resting for moult in a silken covering after coming out of tiie 

mine; 

c. Larva (b) shown separately, natural size and magnified ( x8l ; 

d. Full-grown larva, natural size and magnified (xol; 

e. f. Cocoon. Dorsal (e) and side (/) views, magnified {x8); 
g. Pupa, natural size and magnified I x 81 ; 

h. Molh. natural size and maanilied ( xol. 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER 217 

TlNKIDiE. 

ASYNDETAULA VAGULA, MEYR. 
Asj/ndetaula vagula, Meyr., Exot. M'lcr., II, 2G2 (November 19]9)('). 

" Assam, Shillong, Sei)t(Mnber {Fletcher). Taken flying commonly by 
day over a mossy bank, appaiently attached to the moss, on wliicli the larva 
probably feeds "('). 

INCERT^ SEDIS. 

CRYI'TOLOGA NYSTALEA. _'' ';. LV V^ y-r • — Jl. . >. "C?^ 

Bred in September 1913 [at Karwar] from larvte mining blotches beneath 

upper cuticle of leaf of " Karanj,'' giving the leaf a silvery appearance on the 

upperside. Pupa generally in turned-over edge of leaf, or puckering the leaf 

elsewhere. {Maxwell.) 

This species is unlmown to me and the names quoted by Mr. Maxwell 

are presumably manuscript ones given by Mr. Meyrick but as yet unpublished. 

Ifote.-The following species, lefeiied to in this Memoir under manuscript names, have 
recently been described by Mr. Meyrick in Part 11 of Volume II of Exotic Microlepidoptera 
(October 1920). 

Page 83. Meridarchis reprobata, Exot. Micr,, II, p. 338. 

,, 39. Cacaicia pensUis (I.e., pp. 3a9-340) and C isocyrla (1.6-, p. 340). 

,, 44. Acroclita vigescens, I.e., p. 343. 

,, 50. Eucosma coiiciliata. I.e., p. 345. 

„ 53. Polychrosis fetialis. I.e., p. 346. 

,, 58. Argyroploce cenchropis. I.e., p. 349. 

„ 64. Laspeyresia malesana, I.e., p. 352. 

,, 197. Cacwciapomii'ora, I.e., pp. 'iW-Sil. 

,, 199. Peronea agrioma. I.e., p. Sil. 

,, 200. Polyehrosis acanthis, i c. p. 34S. 

,, 201. Pammene quercivora, I.e., p. 351. 

,, 201. Laspeyresia perfricta. I.e., p. '652. 

a:Cof itoR \ 1^/C 



MEMOIRS OF THE 

DEPARTMENT OF AGIIICULTUKE 

IN INDIA 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SERIES 



Volume VI 




AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTEJPUSA 



PRINTED AND PUBLISHED FOR 

THE IMPERIAL DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN INDIA 



THACKER, SPINK <t CO., CALCUTTA 
W. THACKER & CO., 2, Chebd Lane, LONDON 



PRINTED BY 

THACKER. SPINK AND CO. 
CALCUTTA 



CONTENTS 

Vol. VI 

Paok 
No. 1, Flktchkr, T. Bainbrigqe;. Life-histories of Tudian Insects. 

Microlepidoptera. I. Pterophoridje (with seven plates of which 

three coloured) ... ... ... ... 1 

No. 2. Fletcher, T. Bainbriqge. II. Carposiuidie, Phalouiadte, 

Tortricidse and Eucosmidie (with eight plates of which one 

coloured) ... ... ... ... ... 33 

No. 3. Flktchkr, T. Bainbriggb. III. Gelechiadje (wiih six plates of 

which three coloured) ... ... .., ... 69 

No. 4. Flbtchek, T. Bainbrigge. IV. Cosmopterygidje, CEcophoridie, 

PhysoptilidiB, Xyloryctidse, Stenomidie and Orneodida; (witli 

five plates of which one coloured) ... ... 97 

No. 5. Fletcher, T. Bainbriggb. V. Heliozelidie, Heliodinidae, 

Glyphipterygidje, Blastobasidse and Hyponomeutidit' (with ^ix 

plates of which two coloured) ... ... ... 117 

No. 6. Fletcher, T. Bainbbigge. VI. Gracillariadee (with 13 plates 

of which two coloured) ... ... ... ... 137 

No. 7. Fletcher, T. Bainbriggb. VII. Epermeniadpe, Plutellidse 

and Lyonetiadje (with seven plates of which one coloured) ... 169 
No. 8. Fletcher, T. Bainbriggb. VIII. Tineidse and Nepticulidse 

(with five plates) ... ... ... ... 181 

No. 9. Fletcher, T. Bainbrigge. IX. Appendix (with 1 1 plates and 

one text-figure) ... ... ... ... 197 



INDEX. 



All species are inilexod under both tlieir generic and specific names, but page refer- 
ences are only given under the former. 

All names in italics are treated as sj'nonyms and page references are given under tlio 
corresponding generic or specific names in roman type. 



abruptclla, Trichophaga. 
acanthis, Polychrosig. 

acerata, Anarsia. 

acidula, Gracillaria. 
Acrocercops aemula, 150. 

„ allactopa, 157. 

„ auricilla, I5i. 

„ austeropa, 149. 

„ baningtoniella, 152. 

„ bifrenis, 1.57, 211. 

,, brochogramma, 167. 

„ catliedraea, 148. 

„ civica, 212. 

„ crystallopa, 157, 211. 

„ cylicota, 157. 

,, desiccata, 155. 

„ diatonica, 1.5S, 211. 

„ elapliopa, 158. 

„ erioplaca, 158. 

„ extenuata, 158, 212. 

„ geraoniella, 151. 

,, geometra, 152. 

„ hemiglypta, 158. 

„ hierocosma, 1 53. 

„ hyphantica, 153. 

„ isodelta, 151. 

„ isonoma, 151. 

„ labj'iir.thica, 156. 

„ loxias, 158. 

lysibatbra, 152, 210. 

,, macroclina, 158. 

„ malicola. 213. 

ordinatella, 146, 209. 

„ orthostacta, 149. 

„ pentalocha. 146. 

„ phaeaspora, 147, 210. 

„ pharopsda, 159, 212. 

„ phractopa, 152. 

„ prosacta, 147. 

„ quadrifasciata, 146. 

„ resplendens, 149. 

,, scandalota, 159. 



A — conti. 

Acrocercops scenias, 159. 

„ scriptulata, 159, 212. 

„ supplex, 140. 

,, syngramma, 156. 

,, telestis, 154. 

,, tenera, 159. 

,, terminalise, 148. 

„ tjicyma, 149. 

,, triscalma, 159. 

ustulatella, 156, 210. 

,, vanula, 160. 

,, zygonema, 212. 

Acroclita clieradota, 44. 
,, naevana, 44. 
., vigescens, 44, 199. 
Acroiepia manganeutis, 170. 
ncTotktrma, Cracillaria soyella. 
Adelidaj, 19.5. 
AdoxopKyes moderatana, 197. 

„ piivatana, 35. 

adulatrix, Statlunopoda. 
fegyptiaca, Simaethis. 
aemula, Acrocercops. 
aeolopa, Lobasia. 
ceoloscdis (Statlunopoda). 
^tliera'itis circulata. 134. 
Aganoptila plianarcha, 104. 
Agdistis tamaricis, 31. 
agrioma, Peronea. 
Aqtiophara rhombota (Syuchalara). 
albifrons, Epicephala. 
albilineella, Pyroderces. 
albisciipta, Hypclictis. 
albitarsellas, Pselnophorus. 
al bofasciella. Latypica. 
allactopa, AcroceJcop*?. 
alopecodes, Dcuteroeopui^, 16, 
altercata, Anarsia. 
Alucita nivpodactyla, .30, 
ambiguella, Clysia. 
ametliystias, Strobisia {Zalithia), 
Amphither-da?, 170. 



iNbEX 



A — conld. 
/\tA/> c-^uv- J^>-u^ l")") • 
Anacampsis nerteria (Stomopteryx). 
Anarsia aceiata, 91. 
„ alteicata, 91. 
„ didymopa, 91: 
„ ephippias, 92. 
„ epotias, 92. 
„ exallacta, 93. 
„ iclioptila, 93. 
„ melanoplecta, 93, 
„ oinoptila, 94. 
„ sagittai'ia, 94. 
„ sagmatica, 94, 
,, veruta, 94. 
Anataractis plumigera, 99. 
Anatrachyntis falcatella, 99. 

„ simplex (coriacella), 97. 
Ancylis carpalima, 45. 
,, cyanostouia, 46. 
„ glycypliaga, 45, 199. 
,, lutescens, 45, 199. 
angusta, Depreasaria (Tonica z'zyplii). 
anisodacti/lus, Oxyptilus (Sphenarclie; 

caffer). 
anna, Antispila. 
Anticrates lucifera, 135. 
Antispila anna, 207. 

„ argostoma, 117. 
„ ai'istarclia, 119, 207. 
Antithyra vineata, 113. 
Aprata tliwaitesii (Aristeis). 
Aproceremn nerteria (Stomopteryx). 
aprobola, Argyroploce. ^ 
arenosella, Batrachedra. 
argentana, Cnephasia. 
argostoma, Antispila. 
Argyrestliia iopleura, 132. 
argja-odoxa, Nepticula. 
Argyroploce aprobola, 57, 200. 
,, cenchropis, 58. 

„ • cithaiistis, 55. 
„ ebenina, 58. 

„ erotias, 59. 

„ illepida, 55. 

„ leucaspis, 60. 

,, paragramma, 60. 

„ poetica, 61. 

„ . rhynchias, 61. 
„ semiculta, 61. 

„ tonsoria, 61. 

aristarcha, Antispila. 
Aristeis (Aprata) thwaitesii, 112. 
Aristotelia ingravata, 71. 
arotrsea, Brachmia, 
arvalis, Cryptolechia. 
assamensis, Ethmia. 
Asyndetaula vagula, 217. 
Atabyria bucepliala, 189. 
Atkinsonia (OEdematopoda). 
atmopa, Odites, 



A — concld. 

atomosa, Exelastis. 
Atteva fabiiciella, 133. 
„ niveigutta, 134. 
auranliana, Laspeyresia koenigana. 
auricilla, Acrocercops. 
austeropa, Acrocercops. 
authsema, Autosticha. 
Autosticha arithaema, 87. 

„ achernetis, 87. 

,, exemplaris, 88. 

,, protypa, 88. 



B 



Bactra lanceolana, 53. 

„ truculenta, 53. 
balanoptycha, Eucosma. 
bambus?e, Cosmopter3'X. 
bambuste, Odites. 
barringtoniella, Acrocercops. 
barrowi, Tonica (Binsiita). 
ba'iiplectra, Stathmopoda. 
Batiachedra arenosella [psilopa), 104. 

„ silvatica, 105. 

bauhini*, Lithocolletis. 
Bsdellia somnulentella, 174. 
bifrenis, Acrocercops. 
Binsitia (Tonica). 

biparidla, Tiichophaga abriiptella. 
bisselliella, Tineola. 
bjerkandrella, Choreutis. 
Blahophanes (Monopis). 
blandiella, Onebala. 
blapsigona, Phthorimsea. 
BIastobasid3e,-128. 
Blastobasis crassifica, 129. 

„ decolor, 129. 

,, spermologa, 128. 

,, transcripta, 129. 
Borkhan.^enia pseudospretella, 105. 
Brachmia aiotrsea, 85. 
„ engrapta, 85. 
,, idiastis, 85. . 
„ ir.sulsa, 86. 
„ xerophaga, 86 
brachymorpha, Platyptilia. 
Brenthia coronigera, 127. 
btochogramma, Acrocercops. 
Bucciilatrix crateracma, 174. 

„ exedra, 175. 

,, loxoptila, 175. 

,, mendax, 175. 

„ univoca, 215. 

„ verax, 175. 
bucepliala, Atabyria. 
Buckleria det'ectalis, 6. 

„ paludicola, 2. 

„ wahlbergi, 8. 

„ xerodes, 6. 



Index 



cacaliae, Platyplilia. 
Cacoecia compacta, Ii9. 
„ (lispilana, 39. 

,. ej)icyrta, 3H. 

, isocyrta, 39. 

,: micaceana, 38. 

,. perwilih., 39. 

,, philippa, 40. 

), poiuivora, 1 97. 

caUiiih&res, Biaciotricha fasciola. 
callistrepta, Pyrodcrccs, 
caminodas, Hilarographa, 
campeatris, Mela-iina. 
Candida, Dactylethra. 
capparidana, Laspeyiesia. 
Capua invalidana, 34. 
carpalima, Ancylis. 
Carpocapsa ponionella (Lasp?yresia). 
carpophaqa, CiyplophUbia (Argyioploce 

illepida). 
Carposinidae, 33. 
catachloia, Exinotis. 
cathedra3a, Acrocercops. 
causodes, Oxyptilus. 
cellifera, Polychroiis. 
cenchropis, Argyroploce. 
centetei, Trichoptilus [Bvickletiei defectalis). 
cerealella, Sitotroga. 
chalanitis, Opogona laohanitis. 
chalinota, Opogoua. 
chalybacma, Epicepliala. 
Chelaria phacelota, 9i. 
„ ihicnota, 95. 
„ scopulosa, 95. 
„ spatbota, 95. 
cheradota, Acroclita. 
chernetis, Autosticha. 
chersfea, Ephy.steris. 
Chimmra radiata (Pliycodes). 
cliiridota, Idiopliantis. 
Chlidanotidae, 68. 
Cliolotis cryp^iloga, 104. 
„ pachnodes, 10< 
chordites, Oxyptilus. 
Choreutis bjerkandrella, 128, 208. 
chrysophthalma, Payllocnistis. 
cirrhophanes, PliyHocnistis. 
citharistis^, Argyroploce. 
citrella, PhyllocnLstis. 
citri. Prays. 

citroplecta, Microcolona. 
citropleura, Platyptllia. 
civica, Acrocercop-!. 
CTrzfZorfes arotrsea (Brachraia;. 
clarisona, Litliocolletis. 
clepsidoma, Eucosma. 
clerodendronella, Q^lderaatopoda. 
Cl3'sia ambiguella, 34. 
Cnepliasia argentana, 41. 



O — concld. 

coocinea, Parcctopa {Macarostola). 

ccuruloa, Cypho.sticlia. 

Coifearia, Hoiuona. 

colleifoliclla, Gracillaria? 

Coleopliorida}, 135. 

Coraocnfis pieiia, 134. 

conipacta, Cacoecia. 

compsocharcs, Trichoplilml Buckleria 

defectalis). 

conciliata, Eucosma. 

concurSa, Steganodactyla. 

congrualis, Trichoptilus (Buckleria~defec- 
talis). 

conista, Litliocolletis. 

Copromorphidfe, 116. 

coriacella, Anatrachyntis {Batrachedra, 

Stagmatophora ; Pi/roderces). 
cornigera, Promalactis. 
coronigera, Brenthia. 
corticina, Myrmecozela. 
Cosmopterygida;, 97. 
Cosmopteryx bainbusae, 102. 
„ mimetis, 102. 

„ phseogastra, 103. 

cramerdla, Acrocercops auricilla. 
crassifica, Blastobasis. 
crateracina, Bucculatrix, 
crauropa, Istrianis. 
cretata, Pseudodoxia. 
critica, Eucosma {Eucelis). 
Crobylophora daricella, 174, 215. 
Crocidos?ma plebeiaua, 52. 
crotalariella, Lipatia (Paraspistes' p il« 

pigera). 
crnciferarum, Plutella maculipennis. 
crypsiloga, Cholotis. 
crypsilychna, Lecitbocera. 
Crypsithyris hypnota, 193. 

„ longicornis, 193. 

„ mesodyas, 194. 

Cryptolechia arvalis, 109, 204. 
Cryptologa nystalea, 217. 
Ct?jptophhbia carpophaga (Argyroploce 

illepida). 
crj'stallopa, Aciocercops. 
cumulata, PlanwtocKa. 
cunicularis, Elegistis. 
cyanostoma, Ancylis. 
Cydia pomonella (Laspeyresia). 
cylicota, Acrocercops. 
Cypbosticha coerulea, 16L 
^pris, ffidcmatopoda. 



CrC vv-<-^ - 



Dactylethra Candida, 84. 
d:cdalota, Tiaspo^^'esia. 
diricella, Crobylo[)!\ora. 
Dasi/ses inigosellus (Hapsifera). 



INDEX 



D — concld. 

Decadarcbis dissimulaus, 179. 

„ ntinuscuia, 170. 

Dicadarchis xe.nica (P^echthias zebrina) 
decolor, Blastobasis. 
defectalis, Buckleria. 
desiccata, Acrocercops. 
Deulerocopiis alopeeodes, 16. 

„ plaiieta, 17. 

„ rifeemai, 18. 

„ socotranus, 10. 

Diacrotricha fasciola, 1. 
diatoiiica, Acrocercops. 
Dichomeris evidantis, 91. 

,, iantlres {cchrophanes), 89. 

Dichtorampha sicbseqv.ana (Laspeyi'esia 

trice ntra). 
dicycla, Monopis. 
didymopa, Anarsia. 

(Uffusalis, Pkrophorus (Sphenarches caffer). 
diluticornis, Zalithia. 
diieptalis, Platyptilia. 
dispilana, Cacoecia. 
dissimulana, Decadarchis. 
chleropa, Hijpatima (Holcocera pulverea). 
dorinda, Litliocolletis. 
diimetana. Tortrix. 



E 



ehahnsis, Exelaatis atomosa. 
ebenina, Argyroploce., 
Eboda obstinata, 41. 
effera, Lecithocera. 
Elachistidas 132. 
elaphopa, Acrocercops. 
ElegiAtis cunicularis, 189. 
Eadrosis lacteella, 105. 
energa, Melasiiia. 
engrapta, Brachmia. 
Epsnneniadis, 169, 213. 
ephippias, Anarsia. 
Ephyatetis cherssea, 72. 
Epicallima (Promalactis). 
Epicephala albifrons, 145. 

,, chalybacina, 142. 

Epic£nia (Autosticha). 
epicyrta, Cacoecia. 
epidectes, Oxyptilus. 
epidesma, Peronea. 
Epimarptis philoconia, 169, 213. 
Epithedis oschophora (Ephysteris chersasa). 
Epithectis studiosa, 73. 
epotias, Anaf ua. 
Erechthiaa zobrina, 178. 
Eretmocera impactella, 122. 
Ereundis lanceolana (Erechthiaa zel)rir.a). 

,, seminivora (Pylcetis iiiimos*). 

„ xcnica (E. zebrina). 
melanastra (Decadarchis dissimulans). 



El — conld. 

Ereunetis minuscula (Decadarcliis). 
eigasima, Phthcrimaea. 
orioplaca, Acrocercops. 
erotias, Argyroploce. 
Ethmia assamer.sis, 134. 
Euctlis (Eiico.^ma) ciitica. 
Eucosma balanoptycha, 5t'. 

„ clepsidoma, 5(>. 

,, conciliata, 50. 

,, critica, 47. 

„ fccr.ella, 51. 

,, melanaula, 49. 

,, melancueirra, 52. 

,, stereonia, 51. 

„ zelota, 51. 
Euco&ma (Crocidosema) plebeiana. 
Euccsniida', 43, j9&. 
Eucrctala micleata, 187. 
evidanti'^, Dichomeris. 
exallacta, Anar,;ia. 
exedra, Bucculatrix. 
Exclastis atomosa, 26. 
„ liophanes, 26. 
„ phlyctaenias, 26. 
exemplaris, Autosticlia. 
Exinotis cataclilora, 129. 
extennata, Acrocercops. 



P 



fabriciana, Simaethis. 
fabriciella, Atteva. 
falcate 11a, Anatrachyntis. 
fascicidnnn, Homor.a collearia. 
faiciola, Diacrotricha. 
fenpMrdla, Ti'ndrcti? lacteella. 
t'etialis, Polyclu'osi3. 
flammifera, O^-dematopoda, 
flavofasciata, Opogona. 
florivora, Prosintis. 
fcenella, Eucosma. 
fnigivora, Tinea, 
fumiceps, Opogor.a. 
fuscipmictella, Tinea. 



G 



ganodes, Lithocolletis. 
G:lechiada?, 69, 202. 
Gelechia gossypiella (Platyedra) 
,, liibisci (Hclcystogramnia) 
„ palpigcra (Paraspistcs). 
Gjlechia tamariciella,. 82. 
Gelechia Zulu (Helcystogramma 

lampvostoma) 
gemoniella, Acrocercops. 
g?nialis, Lobesia. 
geochrota, Trichotapbe. 
geomstra, Acjocercop=^. 



tNl)KX 



G — concld. 

glaucitis., Tliyrsostoma. 
globigera, Lepidoscia. 
glycypha^a, Ancyli.s. 
GlypliiptcrygidiT-, 123, 208. 
nofimosckc ina heliopa 

(Phtlioriinaea). 
gonocUctyla, Piatyptilia. 
gossypiella, Platyedra (Gelechia, 

Pedino phora) . 
goisi/indla, Stngmotophcta 

(Anatracb^'nlis simplex). 
Gracillaria acidula, 162. 

„ cofteitoliclla, 167. 

„ iseiaia, 167. 

„ octopunctata, 163. 

,, ijoyclla, 166. 

,, tlieivora, 165. 

,, zachrysa, 164. 
G;acillariadaj, 138, 209. 
granularis, Melasira. 
griscodactyliis, Exelastis liophanes. 



habrocliroa. Phyllocais tia. 
bagnopa, Phyllocnistis. 
haiistrepta, Machseiopteris. 
Hapsilera rugosella, J 87. 
„ seclusella, 187. 

Harmologa misorana. 41. 
hedeiJB, Odites. 
Helc3'3togramina hibisci, 87. 

V, lamprostonia, 203. 

„ obsernteUa (liibisci). 

helicodes, PhyllocnLstLs. 
Heliodinidse, 119. 
beliopa, Plithorimsea. 
Hjliczclida?, 117, 207. 
hemicitra, Monopis. 
bemidoxa. Laspeyiesia. 
hemiglypta, Acroceicop?. 
hemiimtra, Piatyptilia 

pusillidactyla. 
heaiitoma, Stathmopoda. 
hestias, Tischeria. 
hierocosma, Aciocercop.-. 
Hilarogiapha caminodes'. 123. 
hirsutdla, Pson'copteta (Hapsifera 

rugosella). 
hirudiniccrnis, Pliycodcs radiata. 
kockiugella, Psecadin (Ethmia 

assamensis). 
Holcocera pulverea, 130. 
Homona coffearia, 35. 
„ menciana, 37. 
hubneri. Orneodc?. 
hijhlmella, Tegna (Phycodc= 

radiata). 
hybridella, Phalonia. 



H — concld. 

lii/jxilima pulviTfa (Holcocera). 
Hypcliotis aibiscripla, 88. 
liypbantica, Acrocticop.s. 
hypnota, Crypsitiiyris. 
Hyponomeiita lapidella, 133. 

„ malineliii, 13:{. 

Hypoiioiiieutida>, 132. 
Hypoplirictia inccptrix, 185. 

„ plana, 1 85. 

sp.,186. 



ianthep, Dichonieris ( Ypsolophus). 
ichnsea, Stenoma. 
idiastis, Bracliniia. 
Idioglossa triacnia, 1()9. 
Idiophantis cliiridota, 72. 
idioptila, Anar'^ia. 
illepida, Aigyroploce. 
Inuna mylias, 123. 
impactella, Eretniocera. 
inceptrix, Hypophrictis. 
Iiicuivariadse, 195. 
incurvata, Lithocolletis. 
ingravata, Aristotelia. 
inquisittix, Macraeola. 
inscfipinna, Simaethis orthogona. 
insectella, Setoniorplia. 
iiisinuans. I>iplonearcha. 
insulsa, Brachmia. 
invalidana, Capua. 
iolonCjha, Paiaspistes palpigera. 
ioplenia, Argyresthia. 
i^eia^a, Oiacillaiia. 
isocampta, Painmene. 
isochalca, Xepticula. 
isnchorda, Ccnopomorpha (Aero* 

cetcops ustiilatella). 
isocyrta, Cacoccia. 
isodelta, Acroceicops. 
isononia, Acrocercops. 
Istriaiiis crauropa, 72. 
iteina, Litliocolletis. 



jaculatrix, Laspeyresia. 
K 



kotnii^ana, Laspeyresia. 



labroch.i, Pcntctofu (I/iocrobyla paiaschista 
labyrinthica. Acroceicops. 
laclianitis Opogona. 
lacteella, Endrosis. 



Wc^WaoY^ >^- ^"^ 



Index 



Li — concld. 

lactucse, Oxyptilus. 
lanceolana, Bactra. 
lanceolana, Ereunetis (Erechthias 

zebrina. 
lantana, Platyptilia pusillidactyla. 

lapidella, Hyponomeuta. 
Laspoyresia capparidana, 63, 201. 
„ daedalota, 64. 

„ bemidoxa, 62. 

,, jacUlatrix, 64. 

„ koenigana, 62. 

,, leuGOstoma, 62. 

„ malesana, 64. 

„ mamertina, 63. 

„ perfricta, 201. 

„ pomonella, 67. 

„ pseudoaectia, 66. 

„ ptycliora, 63. 

„ pulverula, 67. 

„ pycnochra, 64. 

,, toiodelta, 67. 

,, tricentra, 65. 

Latypica albofasciella, 189. 
Lecitbooera crypsilyohna, 84. 

effera, 84, 202. 
leontina, Myrmecozela. 
Lepidoscia globigera, 189. 
leucaspis, Argyroploce. 
LeuGoptera spbenograpta, 171. 
leuoostoma, lA"5peyresia. 
Jienigianus, Pberopborus. 
Limnoecia metacyplia, 101. 

„ peronodes, 101. 
limuUis, Prieudodoxia. 
liochalca, Nepticula. 
Liocrobyla paraschista, 160. 
liophanes, Exelastis. 

Lipnlia crotalandla (Paraspistea palpigera) 
.Lithocolletis baubinise, 140. 
„ clarisona, 140. 

,, conista, 138. 

,, dorinda, 140. 

,, ganodes, 141. 

,, incarvata, 141, 209. 

„ iteina, 139. 

,, neodoxa, 141. 

e ' „ triarcba, 138. 

virgulata, 139, 209. 
Lobesia seolopa, 54, 2C'0. 

„ goniabs, 54. 
lonjella, BlabopJianes (Alonopis'monacbellaV 
longicornis, Ciypsithyris. 
loxias, Acrocercops. 
loxoptila, BuGculatrix. 
lucit'era, Anticrates. 
ludicra, Eucosma. 
lutescens, Ancylis. 
Lyonetiadse, 171, 214. 
Jyaibatbia, Acrocercops. 



M 



Machaeropteris balistrepta, 185. 

Macrouola inquifeitrix, 191. 

Macrobatlira noiuaia, 106. 

Macroceras cecophila (Ql]cia). 

macrocHna, Acrocercops. 

tnaculata, (Ecia oecopbila. 

maculipennis, Plutella. 

magadis, Orneodes. 

malesana, Laspeyiesia. 

raalicola, Acrocercops. 

malinella, Hyponomeuta. 

mamertina, Laspeyresia. 

manganeutis, Acrolepia. 

manniana, Pbalonia. 

mdanastra, Ereunetis (Decadarchis dissi- 
raulans). 

melanaula, Eucosma. 

melanoneura, Eucosma. 

melanoplecta, Anarsia. 
melanozona, Telpbusa. 
Melasma campestris, 882. 
„ eneiga, 181. 
,, granulaiis, 182. 
m3lititis, Odites. 
msllita, Pbalonia. 
menciana, Homona. 
mendax, Bucculatrix. 
Meiidarchis leprobata, 33. 

,, sc.yrodeft, 33. 

mesodyaS, Crypsitbyris. 
Mstacixandidse, 97. 
metacyplia, LimncEcia. 
Metathrinca smibleuta (Ptocboryctis). 
raicacearaa, Caccecia. 
Microcolona citroplecta, 104. 
Micropterygidaj, 196. 
mimetis, Cosmopteryx. 
mimiciis, Caccecia dispilana. 
mimosa?, Pyloetis. 
minor, Pbycodes. 
minuscula, Decadarcbis. 
miterana, Harmologa. 
molopias, Platyptilia. 
monacbella, Monopis. 
raonodactyluH, Pteropborns. 
Monopis dicycla, 194. 
„ bemicitra, 194. 
„ monacbella. 194. 
mosaica, ArgjToploce poctica. 
mylias, Imma. 

Myrmecozela corticina, 185. 
„ leontina, 183. 

,, tineoides, 184. 

m5r!Codes, Opostega. 

N 

najvana, Acroclita. 
neodoxa, Lithocolletis. 



< 



INDKX 



N — concld. 

Nephantis scrinojia, 115. 
nephelominia, Pra3's citri. 
Nepticula argyrodoxa, 1 95. 

„ isoclialca, 196. 

,, lioohalca, 196. 

Nepticulida;, 195 
nerteria, Stomopteryx {Anacampsis, Aprc 

ceretna). 
nivF.n, niveodactyla, Alucita. 
niveigutta, Atteva. 
niveodactyla, Alucita. 
niviferana, Tonica (Binsitla). 
niviguttidla, C'orima (Atteva, fabriciclla). 
noiu;«a, Macrobathra. 
nucleata: Eucrotala. 



obstinata, Eboda. 

ocellatella, Phthoiimiea. 

ochroclaclylus, Trichoptilus (Buckleria defec- 

talis). 
chrophancs, Ypsolophns (Dichoaieii- ianthes). 
octopunctata, (! racillaria. 
Oditcs atmopa, 113. 

„ bambasae, 113. 

„ hedcrse, 113. 

„ melititis, 113. 

„ opob'atrix, 113. 
CEcia (Bcophila, 95. 
tecopliila, (E/cia. 
fficophoridai, 105, 204. 
CEdematopoda clerodendron?lIa, 121. 

„ dammifera,' '^* 

,, venusta. iT-v 

omoptila, Auarsia. 
Ouel)ala blar.diella, 83. 
onychotis, Crobylophora daticella. 
operculella, Phtliorimaea. 
opliiodora, Picroteclina. 
ophionota, Pyloetis mimosae. ' 
ophiosema, Simaethis. 
Opogona chalinota, 176. 

„ flavofa-ciata, 177. 

„ iumiceps, 178. 

„ lachanitis, 1 77. 

,, praecincta, 177. 

,, xantliocrita, 216. 
Opostega myxodes, 180. 
opsigona, Tinea, 
erdinatella, Acrocercops. 
Orneodes liubneri, 116. 

,, Tuagadis, 206. 
Omeodid^, 116, 206. 
ortliogona, Simaethis. 
oi'tliostacta, Acrocercops. 
oschophora, Epithectis (Ephysteris chersaea). 
ovigera, Stathmopoda. 



O — concld. 

oxydadylus, Tnchoptiltis (Buckleria dcfcc- 

talis). 
Oxyptilus caiisodes, 15. 

„ chordites, 14. 

„ epideotea, 14. 

„ lactiicie, 13. 

„ pek'cyntes, 14. 



paclmodes, Cliolotis. 
pachynpila. Tinea, 
palimpsesta, Pseudodoxia. 
palpigera. Paras pistes. 
paludicola, Buckleria. 
Paiumene isocanipta, 68. 
„ queicivora, 201. 

„ theristis, 08. 
Pandeinis ribeana, 40. 
paraclina, Portliniologa. 
paragramma, Ai'gyroplooe. 
parascliista, Liocrobyja. 
paraiita, Exelastis atomosa. 
Paraspistes ioloncha (palpigera). , 
Paraspistes palpigeia, 88. 
Parectopa coccinea, 161. 
Parectopa lalrodes (Liccrobyla paiascliista). 
Pectinopkoia gossypiella (P]at3'edra). 
pelecyntes, Oxyptilus. 
pellionella. Tinea. 
pensilJs, Caccecia. 
pentalocha, Acrocercops. 
perfricta, I-aspeyjesia. 
Peroneaagiioma, 199. 

,, epidesma, 42. 

,, schalleriana, 43. 

,, siderota, 42. 
|5eronodes, Limno?cia. 
Petasobatlira sirina, 176. 
phacelota, Chelaria. 
phseogastra, Cosmopteryx. 
phseospora, Acrocercops. 
phalarotis, Acrocercops cathedra;a. 
Plxaloniadae, 34. 
Phalonia hybridella, 34. 

,, nianniana, 34. 

„ mellita, 34. 

plianarclia, Aganoptila. 
pharopeda, Acrocercops. 
philippa, Caccecia. 
philoconia, Ejiimarptis. 
phlyctrenias, Exelastis. 
pluactopa, Acrocercops. 
Pkrixosceles plexigrapha, 141. 
Pbthorimaja blap^igona, 75. 
„ ergasinia, 76. 

„ heliopa, 73. 

,, ocellatella, 77. 

„ operculella, 75, 



INDEX 



"P—conti. 


P — concld. 


Phycodes minor, 123. 


Pseudodoxia picropliaea. 111. 


„ radiata, 124. 


„ sepcsitella. 111. 


Phyllocnistis clirytophthalma, 171, 214. 


pseudometra, Trichotaphe. 


„ cirrhophanes, 171, 214. 


pseudonectis, Laspeyresia. 


„ citrella, 171, 214. 


pseudospretella, Borkhausenia. 


habrochroa, 172, 214. 


psilopa, Batrachedra arenonella. 


„ hagnopa, 215. 


ptarmica, lischeria. 


belicodes, 172. 


ptdTodnctijlui, Pterophorus mor.odactylus. 


„ selenopa, 172. 


Pterophoridie, 1. 


synglypta, 173, 215. 


Pterophorus lienigianus, 29. 


„ toparcha, 173. 


„ monodactylus, 29. 


Plxysoptila scenica, 112. 


Ptochoryctiy rosaria, 205. 


Physoptilida?, 112. 


„ simbleuta, 112. 


picrophtea, P.jeudodoxia. 


ptychora, Laspeyresia. 


Picrotechna ophiodora, 204. 


pullatana, Iloniona menciana. 


pieiia, Comooritis. 


pulverea, Holcocera. 


plana, HypophTictis. 


pulveiula, Laspe3Tesia. 


planeta, JDiuterocopu?. 


pusilhdactyla, Platyptilia. 


Planostocha cumulata, 41. 


pycnoclira, Laspeyresia. 


PJatyedta go-«ypiella, 79. 


Pyloetis mimosse, 178. 


Platyptilia brachymorpha, 21. 


Pyroderces albilineella, 100. 


„ cacaliie, 23. 


,, calliHtrepta, 101. 


,, cittopleura, 18. 


,, promaclia, 100. 


„ direptalis, 21. 


„ semicocoinea, 100. 


,, gonodactyla, 24. 


Pyrcderces coriacella (Anatiachyntis 


„ jnolopia?,, 22. 


simplex) 


„ piisillidactyla, 19. 


Pyroderces spodochtha (Anatrachyntis fal- 


„ taprobanes, 19. 


catella). 


plebaiana. Crooidosema {Eucosma). 


pyrrkodes, Trichoptilvs (Buckleiia wahlbergi) 


plectica, Stomphastis. 




plexigrapha, Phfixosceles. 


Q 


plumigera, Anataractis. 




Plutella maculipennis, 170. 


quadiifasciata, Acrocercops. 


Plutellidaj, Hft. 


quercivora, Pammene. 


piutelliformis, Trichotaphe. 




poetica, Argyroploce. 


R 


Polyohro!?is acanthis, 200. 




„ celhlera, 53. 


radiata, Phycodes. 


„ fetialis, 53. 


ralmnensii, Ttichoptilus (Buckleria defec- 


pomivora, Cacoecia. 


talis). 


pomonella, Laspjyresia {Carpocapsn). 


re probata, Meridarchis. 


porpacias, Pe.ronea epidesma. 


resplendens, Aciocercops. 


Porthmologa paraclina, 169, 204. 


ibicnota, Chelaria. 


prsealbata, Stathmopoda. 


rhombota, Synchalaia (Agriopharn). 


prsecincta, Opogona. 


rhothia, Spilonota. 


Prays citri, 132. 


rhynchias, Argjroploce. 


privatana, Adoxophyes. 


ribeana, Par.demis. 


Proco metis trochala, 114. 


ritsemse, Djuterocopns. 


promacha, Pyroderces. 


rosaiia, Ptochoryctis. 


Promalactiy ooniigera, 111. 


rubrodactyhis, i)euterocopus rilsemso. 


„ spmantris. 111. 


rugosella, Hapsifera {Dasyses). 


prosacta, Acrocercops. 


Tutella, Setomorpha inpectella. 


Prosintis florivora, 130. 


rutilalis, Pterophorus (Buckleria vahlbcrgi). 


protypa, Autosticha. 




Psecadia hockingella (Etlimia assamensis). 


s 


P.^elrxophorus albitarsellus, 30. 




Pseudodoxia cretata, 109. 


sagittaria, ..^nar.sia. 


„ limulus, 109. 


sagmatica, Anarsia. 


„ palimpaesta, 110. 


scandalota, Acrocercops. 



INDEX 



S—co»td. 

Scardia sisttata, 18G. 
scenias, Acrocercops, 
sconica, Physoptila. 
schalleriana, Peionea. 
scopuloi^a, Clielaria. 
sori ptulata, Acr oceicops. 
scyrodes, Merrdarcliis. 
Scythridida^, 1152, 
seclusella, Hvpufera ICimifra). 
■ieeboldi, Platyptilia bracliynioi'plia. 
selenopa, Pliyllocniatis. 
soraanttis, Pstudofloxia. 
semialbana, I'oitrix. 
semicoGcinca, PyroderccH. 
seiuiculta, Argyroplocc. 
seminivara, Ereunetis (Pylcetis mimosa>). 
sepo-iitella, Pytiidodoxia. 
siHri'libanun, Pterophorus lienigianiif'. 
serinopa, Ncphantis. 
Setoiuorpha i«soct?lla [rutella), 188. 
siderota, Peronea. 
silvatica, Batraclicdia. 
Siinaothis jegyptiaca, 127. 
,, fabriciana, 127. 
,, opliiosema, 126. 
„ oitlioirona, 126, 208. 
simbleuta, PtoGhorj'ctis [Metathrinca). 
simulana, Homona mcnciana. 
sirina, Petasobathra. 
sistrata, Scardia. 
Sitotroga cerealcUa, 69. 
soGotiauus, ])auterocopus. 
somnulentella, Bedellia. 
soyalla, Gracillaria. 
spathota, Clielaria. 
spsrmologa, Blastobasis. 
Sphenarches caffer, 9. 
sphenograpta, Leucoptera. 
Spilonota rliothia, 43. 
spodoehtha, Pyroderces (Anatrachyntis 

falcatella). 
spoliatrix, Odites. 
S tag matop flora coriacella, gossypiella (Ana- 

trachyr.tis simplex). 
slaterias, Crobylophora daricella. 
Stathmopoda adulatrix, 121. 

„ basiplectra, 120. 

„ hemiton a, 119. 

„ ovigera, 121. 

„ pinealbata, 120. 

„ sycastit!, 120. 

„ sycophaga, 120. 

,, theoris, 119. 

Steganodactyla concursa, 30. 
Slegasta variana, 83, 2C,2. 
Stenoma iclina^a, 115, 205. 
Stenomida', 115, 205. 
Stenoptilia zopliodactyla, 2 
stereoma, Eiicosina. 



S — concld. 

Stomoptoryx nerteria, 77. 
StoniphaHti.s plectica, 101. 
Strobi-sia amttliywtia.s, 89. 
Strohisia hibisci (HtlcystograinJiui). 
stiidiosa, Epithcctis. 
supplex, Acrocercops. 
sycastis, StathmopocUx. 
sycopliaga, Statiuuc[)oda. 
Syiichalara rhombota, 115. 
syiiglypta, PliyllocnistLs. 
syngrainnia, Acrocercops. 
synophry.'^, SpheLaiclics caller. 
sythofp, Platyptilia tapiobanes. 



T 



tamaricicllii., Gclechia (Tchia). 

tamaricis, Agc'iistis. 

tapetzdla, 'I'richophaga abiuplclla. 

taprobanes, Platyptilia. 

tecnidinn, Platyptilia pusil'idactyla. 

Tegna hyblccella (Ph>code.i radiala). 

Teleia tamarieielia (Okchia). 

telestis, Acrocercop.s. 

Telphusa inelanozona, 7T. 

ten era, Acrocoicops. 

lengstrcemi, Deulerocopus Gocotianus. 

terasella (teratdla), Tonica. 

terminalise, Acrocercops. 

theivora, Gracillaria. 

thelymorpha Blastobasis (Kolcocera pul- 

verea). 
theoris, Stathmopoda. 
theristis, Pammene. 
thwaitesii, Ari&teis (Aprata). 
Thyrsostoma glaucitis, 84. 
Tinea fnigivora, 1 GO. 
,, fuscipunctella, 191. 
,, opsigona, 190. 
,, pachyspila, 191. 
,, pellionella, 190. 
Tineidaj, 181, 217. 
tineoides, IVlyrmecozela. 
lineola bisselliella, 192. 
Tisclieria hestias, 216. 

,, ptarmica, 179. 
Tonica barrowi, 106. 
,, nivilerana, lOG. 
„ terasella, 108. 
,. zizyphi, 108. 
tonsoria, Argyroploce. 
topaiclia, Pbyllccnistis. 
torodelta, Laspeyresia. 
Tortricidoe, 34, 197. 
Tortrix tlumetana, 40. 

,, semialbana, 40. 
traascripta, Blastobasis, 
triacma, Idioglossa. 
triarcha, Lithocollctis. 



10 



INDEX 



T — concld. 

tricentra, Ijaspeyresia. 
trichocrossa, Rucosma. 
Trichophaga abruptella, 162. 
TriGhoplilu.n (Buckleria). 
Tricliotaphe geoehrota, 89. 

„ pltitellifonuis, 203. 

„ pseudometra, 204. 

tric3')va, Acrocercops. 
trigrapha, Ulodemia. 
trisoaluia, Acrocercops. 
trooliala, Procoiiietis. 
truculenta, Bactra. 

D 

Ulodemis trigrapha, 40, 198. 
univoca, Bucculatrix. 
ustulatella, Acroceicops. 



vagula, Asyndetaula. 

vanula, Acrocercops. 

variana, Stcgasta. 

vaughani, XpoptiJa. 

venusta, (Edematopoda. 

verax, Bucculatrix. 

veruta, Anarsia. 

vigescens, Acroclita. 

vineata, Antitliyra. 

virgulata, Lithocollet's. 

viticola, Deuterocopus socotranus. 



W 

wahlbergi, Buckleria [Tiichoptilus). 
milktii, Oxijptilns (Sphenarches caffer). 



xanthocrita, Opogona. 

zenica, Eteunetis (Erechthias zcbrina';. 

xerodes, Buckleria, 

xci'ophaga, Brachmia. 

Xyloryctidte, 112, 205. 

Xyroptila vaiighani, 15. 



Ypsolophus (Dichomeris). 



zachryta, Gracillaria. 

Zalithia amethystias (Strobi&ia) 

Zalitliia diluticornis, 83- 

zebriua, P^iechtliias. 

zelota, Eucosma. 

zizyphi, Tonica. 

zophodactyla, Stenoptilia. 

Zulu, Gekchia (Helcystogramnia lamiiros- 

toiiia). 
zygonoma, Acrocercops. 



♦>. . '. ' 



s ■ ■■ ■ 






SMITHSONIAN .NSmUTiONUBRAR|ES 



^ ^^ nhent QL556.F6U