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Full text of "Life Histories Of Indian Microlepidoptera"

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LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTERA 

(Second Series.) 



ALUCITIDAE (PTEROPHORIDAE), 
TORTRICINA AND GELECHIADAE 



BY 

T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., 

Imperial Entomologist, Pusa. 




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LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTERA, 

Second Series. 
ALUCITID/E (PTEROPHORID/E), TORTRICINA AND GELECHIADAE, 

BY 

T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., 

Imperial Entomologist, Pusa. 

(Received for publication on 18th September 1931.) 
COSMOCLOSTIS AGLAODESMA, MEYR. 

Cosmodostis aglaodesma, Meyr., T.E.S. 1886. 12-13 (1880). 

Originally described from Sydney, New South Wales, this species has since 
been found to occur in Queensland, the Solomon Islands, Ceylon, South India (Kar- 
war) and Assam. Its life-history is still unknown but a specimen was reared at the 
Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, .from a pupa attached to a teak-leaf which 
was sent from Assam with other Lepidopterous larvae defoliating teak. This, 
however, is no evidence that the larva of C. aglaodcsma feeds on Tectona, a food- 
plant which is unlikely in view of the distribution of this insect. 

COSMOCLOSTTS PREMNICOLA, 11. Sp. (PLATE I). 

<J $. 12-14 mm. Head pale ochreous, paler or whitish between upper portion 
of eyes and white beneath, back of head with tuft of pale ochreous diverging hairs 
bifurcated apically. Antenna white, indistinctly ringed with pale ferruginous. 
Labial palpus short, filiform, drooping, white. Tongue well-developed. Thorax 
white, ochreous or fuscous-ferruginous posteriorly. Abdomen stout, whitish or 
whitish-yellow, in female the segments marked with white or whitish-yellow dorsal 
spots which form a posterior band on third segment and almost completely cover 
fifth, seventh arid ninth segments, intermediate segments mostly suffused with 
fuscous-ferruginous on which the ground-colour shows in irregular spots and trans- 
verse subdorsal streaks ; in the male the pattern is less pronounced but the anal 
tuft on ninth (last) segment is shining silvery-or yellowish-white. Legs white, 
incompletely banded with ferruginous ; hind tibia with distinct dorsal tuft at origin 
of inner spurs ; spurs long, white, broadly ferruginous basally and apically. Fore- 
wing narrow, cleft from about , segments linear, white marked with ferruginous 
and blackish scales ; costa irregularly suffused with ferruginous intermixed with 
darker scales ; a few scattered ferruginous scales along dorsum before cleft ; usually 
a patch of dark scales forming a small sub-costal spot at about 4 ; on first segment 
a dark dorsal 4ot at base, a transverse bar at J, irregular dots tending to form a 



* LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTERA. 

bar at f and a few scattered blackish scales beyond this ; second segment with a 
broad bar of scattered blackish scales at base, a strong broad black bar commenc- 
ing from middle and a short black ante-apical spot : cilia ochreous-grey, darker 
opposite dark bands and lighter (about whitish) opposite white spaces. Hindwing 
cleft firstly from about 1/12, secondly almost from base ; segments long and narrow ; 
whitish, with scattered ochreous-grey scales : cilia long, without scale-tufts, pale 
grey, darker on rosta and at apex of second segment. 

Pusa : eight specimens, bred in August and September 1930 from larva> on 
Premna ktifolia (C. S. 2534). 

Cosmoclostis prcmnicola seems to be most closely allied to C. pcsseuta, Meyr., 
described from Puttalam (Ceylon), which has the abdomen in the male white irre- 
gularly marked with ferruginous and in the female pale yellow, the last three seg- 
ments marked with ferruginous, and the palpi sprinkled with fuscous. Tt differs 
from 0. aghodeswa, Meyr. by wanting the large silvery-white dorsal spots on ab- 
domen ; from C. auxikuca, Meyr., described from the Khasi Hills, in its head not 
being white suffused with whitish-yellow, in details of the markings and in the non- 
ochreous cilia of f crowing ; from C. quadriquadra, Wlsm., only known from Christ- 
mas Island, in the colour of the thorax, in the forcwing not being yellowish-white 
and in the absence of the whitish basal quadrate patch on the abdomen. The 
larva feeds on leaves of Premmi latifolia, either nibbling the green tissue of the upper 
side of the leaf, leaving the lower epidermis, or eating round or linear holes through 
both surfaces of the leaf, and de-posits black pellets of frass on the leaves on which 
it has fed. It is about 7 mm. long, yellowish-green in colour, with rosettes of yel- 
low hairs, of which the subspiracular hairs are much longer than the dorsal and 
supraspiracular ones, some of both the dorsal and lateral hairs being bifurcated 
apically ; the subspiracular tubercle is much larger than the others ; thoracic legs 
well-developed, glassy-white ; prolegs well-developed, long, glassy- white ; spiracles 
small, circular, clear-centred, margined brown, that on eighth abdominal segment 
considerably raised above body-surface. 

Pupation takes place on the surface of a leaf on a thin mesh of silken threads 
in which the cremastral hooks are thrust. The pupa is about 6 mm. long by 1-3 
mm. broad, leaf-o^eon, thickly covered with groups of small yellow hairs ; the head- 
segment has two short protuberant tubercles, directed anteriorly and bearing nu- 
merous hairs ; the wing-cases and antenna-sheaths reach to the posterior margin 
of the sixth abdominal segment ; spiracles oval, whitish, slightly raised. The pupal 
period is about five days, in August. 

DlACROTRICHA FASCIOLA, ZELLER (PLATE II). 

The life-history was described briefly in Ent. Mem. VI, pp. 1-2, and has since 
been followed in more detail (see Plate II). The larva bores into unexpanded 
flowers of Averrhoa carambola or it may feed on the very young pinkish leaves which 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE II. 

Diacrotricha Fasciola, Zeller. 

1. Egg laid on bud of Averrhoa earambola X ( 

2. Egg X 40. 

3. Larva in second instar x 26. 

4. Larva, red form X 13. 

5. Larva, pink form X 13. 

0. Larva, green form ; full grown X 13. 
7 & 8. Pupao, colour forms, X 10. 
9. Moth x 7. 








8 




LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTERA. 3 

it eats from the margin. It is about 6 mm. long and 1-25 mm. broad, cylindrical, 
slightly convex dorsally, tapering gradually posteriorly and slightly anteriorly; 
head slightly smaller than pro thorax, glossy, very pale yellowish, with red-brown 
mandibles ; its colour is very variable but most often light pink (figure 5) with the 
central dorsal area greenish and with a greenish dorsal line ; the segments are dis- 
tinctly marked ; the tubercles bear groups of short whitish mid blackish hairs, the 
lateral tubercles being much larger than the dorsal ones ; thoracic legs glossy, colour- 
less or glassy white ; prolegs long, slender, glassy white, hooklets brown ; the spi- 
racles, situated between two tubercles, are pale, rather oval, narrowly rimmed with 
dark brown. 

Pupation takes place on the upper or (more usually) the lower surface of a leaf, 
the cremastral hooks being thrust into a slight webbing of silken threads, and the 
ventral surface of the pupa being appressed closely to the surface. The pupa is 
about 5 mm. long and 1 mm. broad, sub-cylindrical, rather flattened ventrally, 
slightly convex dorsally, usually light green in colour, the dorsal surface with groups 
of short light-yellow hairs arising from minute tubercles ; wings and legs lighter ; 
head anteriorly and at base of each eye with a glossy pale-yellowish cylindrical 
tapering process beset with minute yeHowish hairs; eyes yellow. As previously 
noted, the pupal period is very short, larvae which pupated on 10th September 
emerging as moths on 14th September. At Pusa there seems to be a cessation of 
breeding during the dry hot weather (March to Juno). 

TRICHOPTIUJS, WALSINGHAM. 

The species included under -the generic name Buckler iu, in Ent. Mem. VI, pp. 
2-9, should be placed under Trichoptilus, Wlsm., of which Buckkria is a synonym. 
Mr. Meyrick has suggested (Cat. Pteroph., p. 4 ; 19J3) that T. palwlicola, Fletcher, 
is a synonym of T. paludum, /ell., and also (Bull. llilL Mas. 11. 232 : 1928) that 
T. xerodes, Meyr., may be a form of T. siceliota, /eller, but it seems better to keep 
these distinct pending further evidence. T. paludicola occurs in the Khasi Hills 
at Laitlyngkot and Dumpep and is quite common in marshy places around Shil- 
long, but repeated searches there have failed to reveal any Drosera plants or any 
sign of its early stages. Droacra spp. occur commonly in the Palni and Nilgiri 
Hills in South India, but there I have been unable to tind T. paludicola, although 
it should occur. 

T. xerodes, Meyr., is now known to occur also in South and East Africa and in 
Palestine. Of T. wahlbergi, /eller, the larva has been noted on Ipomwa batatas 
and Vitis indica, but it seems to be attached to Oxalis as a rule. 

SPIIEN ARCHES CAFFER, /ELLER. 

S. caffer (Ent. Mem. VI, pp. 9-13, t. 2) has since been recorded from Pales- 
tine, New Guinea, Kermadec Islands, Samoa, Brazil, French Guiana, 



4 LIFE-HtSTOfctES OF 

Central Africa and the Sudan. It has been reared in the Malay Penin- 
sula from larvse on pumpkin (Corbett and Gates, Dept. Ayric. F. M. 8. 
Bull. 38, p. 11 : 1926). In the Sudan it has been noted to be parasitized 
by the Braconid, Apanteles paludicolae, Cam. 1908 (Wilkinson, Bull. Ent. 
Res. XX, 109 : 1929). 

OXYPTILUS CAUSODES, MfiYB. 

This species (Ent. Mem. VI, 15) has since been reared at Dehra Dim from larVao 
boring into fruits of Dillenia indica, which is probably its food-plant at Pusa also, 
although we have failed to find it as yet. It has also been taken at Kafwar. 

OxYPTlLUS ZANCL1STES, MfiYR. 

Oxyptilus zandistes, Meyr., B. J. XVI, 581-582 (1905) 1 ; Mcyr., Cat. Ptcroph., 
p. 5 (1913) 2 ; Corbett and Gates, Dept. Agric. F. M. S. Bull. 38, p. 11 
(1926) 3 . 

Described from Fort Stedman, in Burma 1 , 0. zanclistes is also known from 
Kandy and Maskeliya in Ceylon 2 and from Coorg and the Khasi Hills in India 2 , 
from Fort Darwin, N. Australia 2 , and from the Malay States 3 , where it was reared 
from larvae on flowers of cow-pea. 

XYROPTILA TECTONIOA, MEYR. 

Xyroptila tectonica, Mcyr., Entom. Mittcil., Suppl. Ill, p. 40 (1914) 1 ; Mcyr., 
Exot. Micr. II, 420 (1921 ) 2 . 

This species, originally described from Formosa, has since been recorded from 
Java 2 , where the larva was found on Bridelia tomcntosa (Euphorbiacese), the pupa 
standing erect on apex of abdomen on the midrib of leaf 2 . 1 have taken X. tecto- 
nica at Minbu (Burma) and at Ranchi and a single specimen has also occurred at 
Pusa. It is also known from Rhodesia and from Nyasalaml, in South Africa. 

PLATYPTILIA SYTHOFFI, SNELLEN. 

Platyptilia taprobanes [nee Felder], Fletcher, Ent. Mom. VI, 19, t. 3 f. 1, t. 6 
[fig. of pupa] (1921). 

The name of this species requires to be changed to sythojfi, Snellen. [See note 
under P. taprobanes]. 

PLATYPTILIA PUSILLIDACTYLA, WALKER. 

(Ent. Mem. VI, pp. 19-21, t. 4, t. 6 [fig. of pupa] : 1921.) 

In 1921 specimens, apparently of this species but in poor condition, were received 
from the Government Botanist, Quilon, who stated that he had reared them on 



PLATE 



PLATYPTILIA TAPROBANES, FELDER. 




1. Bored fruit X 3. 

2. Larva X 9. 

3. Pupa x 9. 

4. Moth ? X 6. 

(Smaller figures, life size.) 



LIFE-HISTORIES OP INDIAN MlCROLKPlDOVTKRA, 5 

UtricuJaria. Its distribution includes Fiji, Peru, Brazil, Colombia, Guiana, Central 
America, Florida, Bermuda Islands, W. Africa, S. Africa and the Seychelles, in 
addition to the localities previously cited. 

PLATYPTILIA TAPROBANES, FELDER (PLATE III). 

Awblyptilia taprobanes, Felder, Reise Novara, Lep. Het., t. HO f. 54 (1875) 1 . 
Platyptilia brachymorpha, Meyr., T. E. S. 1888. 240-241 (1888) 2 ; Fletcher, 

Ind. Agric. Ent. Mem. VI, 21, t. 6 [fig. pupa] (1921) 3 . 
Amblyptilia seeboldi, Hofmann, Iris XI, 33-34 (1898) 4 . 
Platyptilia crenulata, Barnes and McDunnough, Contrib. Nat. Hist. Lep 

N. America II, 185, t. 3 f . 8 (1913) 5 ; id., IV, 316, t. 41 f. 15, t. 50 f. 5 (1921) 6 , 
Platyptilia acanthodactyla var. phcenicodactyla, Chretien, Ann. S E. France 

LXXXIV, 295 (1915) 7 . 
Platyptilia terlizzii, Turati, Ann. Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. Milano LXV, 67-68, 

f. 28 (1926) 8 . 

Having examined Felder J s type of taprobanes, now contained in the British 
Museum Collection, I find that his name is referable to the species formerly called 
brachymorpha, Meyr. and not to the one which must now be known as sythoffi, Snel- 
len. JP. taprobanes was previously noted as " a widely distributed species", but 
its known distribution now also includes Queensland, Brazil, Florida, Arizona, S. 
California, Algeria, Cyrenaica, Cyprus and Mauritius. In Ceylon, India arid Burma 
it seems to occur mostly in the Plains although it ascends the Hills in the South, 
having been taken at ilaldummulla (about 4,000 feet) in Ceylon and at Ko.iaiktinal 
(7,000 feet) in the Palni Hills. It is common at Pusa but has not been observed 
further North in India, although it doubtless occurs. 

To the list of larval food-plants must be added fruits of LimnophiUi hrkrophylld 
and Veronica Anagallix and unripe seeds of Pcntsiemon. The larva usually feeds 
by eating a hole in the side of a fruit or seedpod and thrusting its anterior extre- 
mity inside to devour the unripe seeds. Larva) were found at Pusa on 9th April 
1913 and again in January 1931, feeding on the unripe seeds in the fruits of Lim- 
nophila helcrophylla (Scrophulariaceso). The full-grown larva was described as 
7'5 to 9 mm. long and about 1-3 to 1-5 mm. broad across the first abdominal seg- 
ment, cylindrical, tapering gradually posteriorly and very slightly anteriorly, light 
green in colour, head creamy-yellow, smooth and shining, marked with dull-brown 
spots grouped on the cheeks above ocelli and on vort'-x, mandibles dark brown, 
prothorax with a very thin, almost indistinguishable, dorsal chitinization, thoracic 
legs short, shining, glassy- whitish, abdominal segments distinct, covered with very 
minute scattered black spinous hairs with comparatively longer subdorsal and 
lateral hairs, a dark green o: \ inkish-purple mid-dovnal stripe, two longitudinal 
pale-yellowish or whitish subdorsal lines from mesothorax to eighth abdominal 
segment and a similar subspiraculav linn from tirst abdominal segment, prolegs 



O LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN 

rather short, slender, glassy-whitish, with minute brown booklets on incomplete 
rings, a small portion of the outer margin being devoid of booklets, spiracles small, 
slightly elevated, oval, rimmed with dark-brown, situated on pale grey areas. 

The pupa is about 7 to 8-5 mm. long and 1-25 to 1-5 mm. broad across the abdo- 
minal region which tapers gradually posteriorly, pinkish-brown, pinkish-grey or 
blackish, the segments not very distinct, third pair of legs reaching almost to apex 
of fifth abdominal segment ; on each side of the mid-dorsal line there is a thin ridge 
from metathorax nearly to apex of third abdominal segment ; all abdominal seg- 
ments closely but finely striated transversely ; spiracles oval, with dark rims. In 
some pupa) there is a blackish suffusion laterally on the abdominal segments and 
dorsally on the prothorax. The pupal period is about four days in April and about 
ten days in the cold weather. Pusa Jnsectary Cage-Slips Nos. 2257 and 2593). 

Other larva? were found at Pusa on 8th April 1925 on Veronica Anagallis, feeding 
on the seeds by boring into the freshly-formed fruits (C. S. No. 2307). Other larvse 
were found at Kodaikanal in August-September 1929 eating unripe seeds of Pent- 
stemon. 

PLATYPTILTA MOLOPIAS, MEYE. 

(Ent. Mem. VI, 22, t. 6 [fig. of pupa] .) 

This species has also been recorded from South India (Meyr., Cat. Pteroph., 
p. 13 : 1913) and Mr. Meyrick informs me that he has it from Dibidi (Coorg). P. 
wolopias has also been recorded from Madagascar, East South and West Africa, 
but it seems doubtful whether the African form is really molopias. 

PLATYPTILIA KHODODACTYLA, SCHIFFKRMULLER (PLATE IV). 

Alucita rhododactyla, Schiff., Wien Verz. p. 146 (1775) 1 . 

Cm< inidophoms rhododactylus, South, Entom XVIII, 275-277, t. 1 ff. 3, 

3 tt ' d (1885) [biol.] 2 ; Tutt, Pteroph. Brit., pp. 19-22 (1896) [biol.] 3 
Eucn&mdophoru* rftododactylus, Wlgn., Ent. Tidskr. II, 96 (1881) 4 ; Hof- 

mann, 111. Zeits. Ent. Ill, 129-131, tab. f. 4 (1898) [larva] 5 ; Tutt, Brit. 

Lep. V, 256-257 (1906) [biol.] 6 . 
PUttyptilia rhododactyla, Murtfeldt, Canad. Ent. XXXVI, 334-335 (1904) 

[biol.] 7 ; Meyr., Rev. Handb. p. 451 (1928). 8 

This well-known European Plume-moth, whose range extends practically through- 
out Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor, Central and North Asia and the North Atlan- 
tic States of America, is not uncommon in Srinagar, where its larva doubtless feeds 
on roses cultivated in the gardens there. 

The larva is about 12 mm. long and is described by Porritt as " cylindrical and 
strongly attenuated at the extremities, considerably retractile, and when at rest 
has a dumpy appearance ; head small, globular, smooth and shining grey with 
the cheeks and mandibles shining black ; segmental divisions strongly marked ; 



PLATE IV. 



PLATYPTILIA RHODODACTYLA, SCHIFFEBMULLHB. 




1. Larva feeding on rose shoot (after South). 

2. Pupa in position (after South). 

3. Larva enlarged, lateral view (after South). 
3a. Larva, dorsal view, enlarged (after Spuler). 

4. Abdominal segment of larva, showing arrangement of setae (after Hofmann). 

5. Pupa, enlarged (after South). 

6. Moth x 3 from a Srinagar specimen. 



PLATE V. 



EXELASTIS PUMIUO, ZELLEB. 




1. Larva x 12. 

2. Pupa x 12. 

3. Moth X 9. 
(Smaller figures, natural size,) 



LlfE-HISTORIES 0? INDIAN MICROLEPtDOFTEKA . 7 

skin soft, slightly rough in appearance, sparingly though conspicuously clothed 
with short hairs, light greenish-yellow or yellowish-green ; dorsal line conspicuously 
purple, from the second to the sixth segment it appears as composed of round purp- 
lish marks joined at the segmental divisions, and rather broad ; on the remaining 
segments it is much narrower and more uniform, but equally distinct ; subdorsal 
and spiracular lines yellow, only faintly indicated ; segmental divisions also yel- 
low ; ventral surface and prolegs uniformly dingy green or yellowish, according 
to the colour of the dorsal surface ; legs black and shining." 

It feeds on roses of various species, both wild and cultivated, feeding on the 
buds and flowers, sometimes also on the young shoots or leaf-buds, eating into an 
unexpanded bud from the side and hidden by drawing down a leaf ; when the blos- 
som is open, it draws down the petals. 

The pupa is attached to the shoot or bunch of buds on which the larva has fed ; 
hanging loosely from a small pad of silk ; it is pale green, the wing-cases whitish, 
eye, antenna and leg-cases, also the edging of the wing-cases, smoky black, and 
it is curiously sprinkled with fine hairs or long bristles, especially on the dorsal 
surface. (Porritt). 

EXELASTIS PUMILIO, ZELLER. (PLATE V). 

Mimeseoptilus pumilio, Zell., Verli. /.-b. Ges. VVien XX11I, 324 (1873) 1 . 
Marasmarcha liopltanes, Meyr., T. K. 8. 1886, 19 (1886) 2 . 
Leioptilus 1 griseodactylus, Pagenstecher, Zoologica XXIX, 240. (1900) 3 . 
Exela&vis liophancs, Fletcher, Ind. Agric. Ent. Mem. VI, 26 (1921 ) 4 . 

This species occurs commonly throughout the Plains of India as far North as 
Bihar, in Ceylon to about 2,000 feet, in the Andamans and in Burma, Outside of 
India, it is known from China, Formosa, Borneo, Bismarck Islands, New Hebrides, 
Fiji, Samoa, Society Islands, Marquesas, Austral Islands, Southern United States, 
West Indies, Barbados, S. Africa, Madagascar, Reunion and the Seychelles. 

As previously noted, it was bred at Pusa in 1910 from two pupa? found on the 
upper surface of leaflet of Oxalis. Since then, larva? were found in November and 
December 1920 at Pusa on Alysicarpus Vaginalis, feeding exposed on the small 
leaves and sometimes eating the tender stipules. The young larva may also bore 
into flower-buds. The larva was about 6 to 6-5 mm. long and about 1-5 to 1-75 
mm, broad across the middle of the abdomen, cylindrical, tapering gradually to- 
wards either extremity ; head small, globose, glossy greenish-yellow, with small 
black ocelli ; prothorax smaller than two following segments ; thoracic legs small, 
shiny, pale- yellowish ; general colour of body green or light yellowish-green ; a pur- 
ple or reddish purple middorsal stripe from mesothorax to eighth abdominal seg- 
ment, the anterior half of this stripe on each segment enlarged ; a subdorsal white 
line from mesothorax to ninth abdominal segment ; each segment also with fine 
purplish longitudinal lines ; hairs occur on the head and body, arising on the latter 
from white fleshy tubercles from each of which arises a tuft of fine black or white 



8 LttT E-HISl'ORIKS OF INDIAN 

hairs of unequal length ; spiracles small, oval, rimmed with brown ; prolegs green, 
thin. Prior to pupation, the full-fed larva loses most of the redish-purple dorsal 
colouration, of which only a thin line remains, the whitish subdorsal lines become 
yellow and the dorsal and lateral hairs become black. Pupation may take place 
anywhere on the foodplant, but generally on the surface of a leaf. The pupa is 
about 6 mm. long and 1-25 mm. broad across the middle of the abdomen, cylindri- 
cal, tapering posteriorly ; the wing-cases and legs reach the middle of the fifth ab- 
dominal segment ; the first to seventh abdominal segments are distinct, the eighth 
to tenth fused together ; spiracles rounded, slightly raised on second to seventh 
segments, and more prominent than in the larval stage ; the spiracle on the eighth 
abdominal segment is flush with the body-surface ; general colour a light yellowish 
green ; from the mesothorax to the eighth abdominal segment there is a raised whi- 
tish subdorsal ridge bearing fine, short and long, white hairs on each segment ; 
whitish longitudinal lines run laterally both above and below the spiracles ; there 
are white hairs on the head and mesothorax, and on the latter also a longitudinal 
row of short white hairs on either side. The pupal period varies from about four 
days in July to about two weeks in the cold weather. 

Similar specimens have also been reared from Dcsmodium sp. at Pusa. 

EXELASTIS CREPUSCULAR1S, MEYR. (PkATE VI). 

I'lerophorus crepuscularis, Meyr., Ann. Transv. Mus. II, 4, t. 2 f . 2 (1910) 1 . 
Ma-ras'twwcha crepmcularis, Meyr., Ann. Trans v. Mus. II, 219 (1911) 2 ; Meyr., 

Cat. Pteroph., p. 27 (1913) 3 . 
Exelastis pumilio [nee Zeller], Fletcher, Sci. Report. Agric. Res. Inst. Pusa 

1920-21, p. 40, t. 5 ff. 1 A-C (1921) 4 . 

Larvai collected at Shillong on a wild vetch wero brought to Pusa and reared 
on AlysiairpUK wiywiaUs. The larva was about 9 mm. long and 2 mm. broad, cy- 
lindrical, tapering slightly towards either extremity ; head small, round, pale yel- 
lowish ; body segments not very distinct, yellowish speckled with reddish-purplish, 
with a dark purple mid-dorsal line, each segment with a number of small tubercles 
bearing whitish hairs ; prolegs small, slender, pale yellowish ; spiracles inconspi- 
cuous. 

The pupa was about 7 mm. lon# and 1-5 mm. broad, pale yellowish-green with 
a dark purple mid-dorsal line and longitudinal purplish lines laterally ; a distinct 
subdorsal ridge ; the dorsal and lateral areas with small whitish tubercles, some of 
wrreti bear three white hairs and some one hair only. 

Those Shillong specimens were supposed at the time to be Exelastis [pumilio]- 
liophanes, but were afterwards named by Mr. Meyrick as crepuscular is, a species 
which is otherwise known from the Transvaal and North Australia. 

NOTE.- The exact identity of those small species of Kjcelnftliti 8eeni to bo rather uncertain at pre- 
sent. 1 think that more than one species may he mixed up under the synonymy given under E. pumilio f 
Possibly E. spinosa, Meyrick, described from Canton, may also occur within Indian limits. 



fiXELASTIS CfctittJSCtJLAKIS, MEY*. 



PLATE VI. 




A. Larva X 5. 

B. Pupa x 5. 

C. Moth X 5. 

(Smaller figures show natural sizes.) 



PLATE TO. 





EXPLANATION OF PLATE VII. 

Oidaematophorus lieniqianus, Zeller. 

a, 6. Caterpillar. 

c. Pupa. 

d. Moth. 



UFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MIOEOLEPIDOPT^KA. 9 

EXELASTIS ATOMOSA, WhSM. 

(Ent. Mem. VI, pp. 26-28, t, 7). 

The larva has been found parasitized by a species of ProUvpanteks (Braconidaj), 
as recorded by T. V. Bamakrishna Ayyar in Report of Third Entom. Meeting III, 
933 (December 1920). 

This species is also known from Aden (not Sokotra, as stated in Ent. Mem. VI, 
26), East Africa (Kilimandjaro, 2,500 feet), Transvaal, and Moluccas. 

OlDJEMATOPHORUS LIENIGIANUS, ZELLER. (PLATE VII). 

Pterophorus lienigianus, Fletcher, Ent. Mem. VI, 29 (1921). 

Pterophorus victorianus, Strand, Arch. Naturg. LXXV11I, A. 12, p. 130 
(1913). 

Oidaematophorus linus, Barnes and Lindsey, Contrib. Nat. Hist. Lep. N. Ame- 
rica IV, 409410, t. 47 f. 2, t. 52 f. 9 (1921). 

Outside of India, this species is now known from China, Japan, Korea, Siberia, 
Europe, West, South and East Africa, North, Central and South America, Bermuda, 
Queensland, and the Bismarck Archipelago. Its larva has been recorded on Arte~ 
misia vulgaris, A. campestris, A. maritima, Chrysanthemum, Pluchea and Solanum 
melongena, and at Pusa on a weed locally known as " Khagra ", which has since 
been identified as Xanthium strumii ium. 

On this last plant the larva occurs commonly during the cold weather, living 
in a sort of tent formed by spinning together the leaves along the midrib by means 
of silken threads, and feeding on patches (usually commenced from the apex) of 
the upper green tissue of the leaf surface, the lower epidermis being left untouched ; 
sometimes, the leafstalk is eaten also. Pupation takes place either in this shelter 
of folded leaves or on the exposed surface of dry leaves, with whose blackish tint 
the colour of the pupa harmonizes to some extent. 

Larvae were found again at Pusa on 21st and 22nd January 1931 on Xanthium 
strumarium. As a rule, a single larva is found on the upper suiface of one leaf, 
turning over a part of the leaf (usually the edge) and fastening it down with silken 
threads to form a shelter within which the larva lives and feeds on the green tissue, 
leaving the lower epidermis intact. 

The full-grown larva is about 9 mm. long and 2 mm. broad, cylindrical, tapering 
very slightly anteriorly from the thoracic region and also posteriorly from the se- 
venth abdominal segment ; the head, which is hidden under the prothorax from 
a dorsal viewpoint, is heart-shaped, glossy, creamy-yellow, with reddish-brown 
mandibles and black ocelli ; prothorax slightly narrower and longer than meso- 
thorax, with numerous medium sized hairs on its anterior margin arising from black 
tubercles ; legs rather short, glassy-whitish, terminal segments light-yellowish 
apically and bearing reddish-brown claws ; general colour light green, with a broad 



10 LItfE-HtSTORlES OF INDIAN MlCROLfcPfDOWEfcA. 

dark green dorsal stripe which is less evident on thoracic segments ; mesothorax, 
metathorax and first eight abdominal segments each with a pair of short, fleshy, 
creamy-whitish trapezoidal tubercles bearing hairs which are whitish, of medium 
length, and very minutely plumose ; a faint whitish interrupted subdorsal line from 
mesothorax to seventh abdominal segment ; spiracles small, rounded, with clear 
centres and black rims, situated on greyish patches ; prolegs rod-like, glassy-white, 
soles slightly enlarged with incomplete circles of brown hooklets, a short outer por- 
tion on each sole being devoid of hooklets. 

The pupa is about 7-8 mm. long and 1-5 mm. broad, light green, in some oases 
dorsal ly pmkish-piirplish ; wing-cases reaching apex of sixth abdominal segment ; 
all segments with tufts of white, minutely plumose hairs arranged as in the larval 
stage and there are also shorter hairs on the costal and subcostal areas of the wing- 
cases ; spiracle ; rather raised, that on second abdominal segment raisid more than 
the others, circular, with clear centres and brown rims. The pupal period is 9-10 
days at the beginning of February. A Braconid parasite emerged from some of 
the larva?. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip No. 2591). 



OlDJKMATOPIlORUS MONODACTYLUS, LiNN. (PLATE VIIJ). 

Ptcrophorux monodadylus, Ent. Mem. VI, 29. 

This species seems to be conlined to the North- Western portion of India, being 
known from Kashmir, Hazara, Parachinar and Masuri. Outside of India it occurs 
in Japan, Siberia, Central Asia, Asia Minor, throughout Europe, North Africa, 
East Africa (Kenya, 7,000 feet), Madeira aud Canary Islands, and in North America 
from South Canada to Mexico. 

The larva usually feeds on various species of Convolvulus and Ipvmwa but has 
also occurred on Chcnopodium album, Atriplex patula, Eupatariutn purpureum and 
Calluna vulyaris. 

A description of the larva was given previously and opportunity is now taken 
to add a figure. 

ALUCITA CANDIDALIS, WALKER. 

Aciptilus candidate, Wlk., Cat. XXX, 948 (1864) 1 . 

Aci'ptilm leucadactylus, Wlk., Cat. XXX, 949 (1864) 2 ; Moore, Lep. Ceylon 

111, 528, t. 209 f. 15 (1887) 2 . 
Alucita candidate, Meyr., T. E. S. 1907. 490 (1908) 3 ; Fletcher, Spol. Zeylan. 

VI, 36 (1909) 4 . 
? Pterophorus millierei, Montrouzier, Ann. Soc. Limn. Lyon, XI, 253 (1864) 5 . 

This species occurs in Ceylon, chiefly in the low-country but as high up as Mas- 
keliya and Haldummulla, in South India (Coimbatore and Coorg) and in the Khasi 



PLATES VIII. 



OIDAEMATOPHORUS MONODACTYLUS, LINN. 




1. Larva, natural size, on Convolvulous (after South.) 
-Larva, enlarged (after South and Spuler). 



2. -) 

& vLarva 

2n. J 



26. Abdominal segment of larva in first instar, showing setae (after Hofmaim). 

3. Pupa enlarged (after South). 

4. Moth X tt from a specimen from Kashmir. 



UffE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MIOROLEPTDOPTEBA. 11 

Hills. Outside of India it is known from Malaya, Philippines, Formosa, New 
Guinea, New Caledonia, Queensland, Samoa, Tonga, Now Hebrides, British East 
Africa, Central, West and South Africa. 

The larva is said to feed on Argyreia but has not been described. 



AT/UCITA NIVEOPAOTYLA, PACJENRTECHER. 

(Ent. Mem. VI, 30). 

The larva has been found on sweet potato in the Malay States by Corbett and 
Gates (Dept. Agric. F. M. Ft. Bull. 38, p. Jl ; 1926). 

In India A. niveodactyla also occurs in Travancore and we have it from Lumding 
and Tinsukia, in Assam. Outside of India it occurs also in Borneo, Sumatra, Solo- 
mon Islands and Queensland. 



AGDISTIS TAMARTCTS, ZELLER. 

(Ent. Mem. VI, 31 : 1921). 

This seems to have been noted so far only in North India, at Karachi and Pesha- 
war, but is probably more widely distributed wherever Taniarix occurs. The moths 
in this group are generally very difficult to find in the daytime, remaining closely 
hidden amongst their food-plants, and flying only at dusk, but are sometimes at- 
tracted to light, and A. tantaricis has been found on sugared trees in South France. 

Hofmann gives the following description of the larva and pupa after Milliere : 
" The larva hibernates in its first instar ; it is still very small in the Spring, of a 
brown colour, and continues to live closely appressed to the branches of its food- 
plant up to the Spring. After that, it grows very quickly and is full grown in the 
beginning of May [in South France]. The first segment is provided with four tuber- 
cles (warts) which end in a point and are comparatively small. The second, third, 
fifth and tenth segments each bear two warts, which are somewhat higher than 
those on the first segment ; the warts on the second segment are the highest. The 
eleventh segment carries a spike bent backwards, higher than the others. Head 
small, rounded, unicolorous with the body. Trapezoidals (i.e., dorsal warts) black, 
spiracles white. Typical colour dark reddish ; yet the larva varies much from 
light-grey to grass-green, mixed with redish colouring on the second, fourth, eighth 
and twelfth segments. It lives on Tamarix gallica all along the coast, frequently 
also on Myricaria germanica on the Islands in the Rhone, and attaches itself to 
the branches to pupate head downwards. The pupa has very long wing (and leg) 
cases terminating in a point and these do not lie close to the body for a half of their 
length. Colouring usually dark-reddish sprinkled with whitish points. The moth 
emerges after 20-25 days " [and is double-brooded in Europe]. 



12 LIFE-HISTORIES OP INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTERA. 

Later (Ber. Nat. Ver. Regensburg V, pp. 208-209 : 1896) Hofmann gave a further 
description of the pupa, as follows: " 10-11 mm. long, slender, at the capital 
extremity with a short, stumpy point directed backwards ; lateral keels present 
only on mesothorax ; the metathorax projects at its anterior margin in the form 
of a small stumpy hump ; lateral keels and warte arc wholly absent. The skin is 
strongly wrinkled transversely and only furnished, especially towards the end of 
the abdomen, with very small, short, white, isolated hairs only clearly visible under 
strong magnification. The cremaster is short above and stumpily cone-shaped, 
elongated beneath, swollen at the sides, hollowed out in the middle ; the anal aper- 
ture is marked by two small dark-brown tubercles, the sexual aperture by a dark- 
brown almost quadrangular plate. On the hinder-margin occur thickly-crowded 
pick-shaped bent hairs. Between the anal and the genital apertures run two dark 
brown parallel longitudinal lines. The veins of the wing-sheaths, which reach 
as far as the anterior margin of the fifth abdominal segment, are raised but not 
bristly. The very long and slender leg-cases reach to the middle of the seventh 
abdominal segment. The colour of the pupa is a dirty pale brown, darker on the 
wing- and leg-cases ; over the back of the abdominal segments run two clear yel- 
lowish longitudinal lines and on the outer side of each of the fourth to sixth seg- 
ments is a black roundish spot. The pattern is, however, hardly visible in many 
pupae ". 

Chapman's description (Tutt's Brit. Lep. V, p. 132 : 1906) of the larva of Ag- 
distis tamaricis is rather in comparison with those of other species of Agdistis, but 
may be added here to make it accessible to Indian workers : " The prothorax 
carries four trapezoidally-placed, humped, low and rounded tubercles ; also a central 
one at posterior margin of segment (with twin hair-base but no hair) ; three small 
tubercular bosses in line with the front trapezoidals, one above and two below spir- 
acle ; another small one above spiracle (apparently on a segmental element between 
those of dorsal tubercles, but to which spiracle belongs). The mesothorax carries 

two large tall pillars conjoined so that only their tops are distinct, and 

with a third tubercular boss on the outer posterior aspect, so that the pillar repre- 
sents three tubercles ; below these on either side is another flat tubercle, and lower 
two others at approximately similar levels ; a small one at base of leg. The meta- 
thorax has a dorsal tubercle with two hairs but no prominent boss ; below this is 
a small one, and two others lower, the posterior a little the higher of the two. On 
the abdominal segments i and ii are distinct, but very close together ; iii is close 
above the spiracle. The second and fifth abdominals have the curious prominences 
curved over to each other and carrying i and ii. On these and the other abdominal 
segments the minute hairs have [a] backward direction ". 

Tutt (t. c., pp. 128-130) further notes that the larva of Agdistis tamaricis is " high- 
ly specialized, having the caudal horn single and a central horn on the prothorax, 
[all hairs clubbed] ; a double front horn occurs on the mesothorax but not on the 
metathorax ; i and ii are small oji the abdominal segments and approximated 



LIFB-HISTOBIES OP INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTERA. 13 

except on 2 and 5, where they form peculiar processes like those seen on some Pyralid 
pupae ; on the eighth abdominal, i and ii are more pronounced, forming four black 
tubercles, whilst, on the ninth, they form a horn constricted at about half its length, 
after a swelling which represents two tubercles, and has a hair at each side, [and] 
the horn has a second pair of hairs at its tip. Each of the two tall mcsothoracic 
horns carries three tubercles, slight elevations with whitish tips, viz., a higher an- 
terior, a posterior, and a lateral one. On the abdominal segments iii (immediately 
above spiiacle), iv (a good way behind and rather below spiracle) and v (much below 
spiracle) each forms a small white point (? short hair). The anal segment has eight 
longish bristles. The spiracles are large and prominent, especially the prothoracic 
and eighth abdominal, which are set on > mall yellow knobs. 

" The detailed resemblance exhibited by the Agdistid larvae to their food plant 
for protective purposes is very striking. In the young larva of tamaritis, the se- 
cond and fifth abdominal segments are brown, and the mesothorax partly so, the 
rest green with a brown dorsal mark, and so mimicking the tamarisk. The brown 
larva has usually traces of a reddish or orange spiracular band, and, occasionally, 
a fullfed larva retains the green coloration, reminding one very much, both in colour 
and protuberances, of the larva of Geometra papilionaria when it assumes its spring 
clothing. It has a yellowish-white subspiracular band, only marked at the inci- 
sions, except on the forward and hinder segments, and interrupted by rich brown 
patches, especially on the meso and meta-thorax, and more or less to fifth abdomi- 
nal. The second and fifth abdominals are rich red-brown, and the humps on the 
mesothorax and eighth and ninth abdominals are brown, the front humps of the 
second and fifth abdominals nearly black ; there is a darker dorsal line, edged with 
paler, almost yellow. The general effect, however, is of a greenish larva with red- 
dish markings, which imitates closely the colouring of the green twigs of Tanuirix. 
just as the brown form does the older twigs on which the full-gro^ n larvae usually 
rest ", 

Lord Walsingham (Proc. Zool Soc. London 1907, p. 925 : 1908) notes that pre- 
served larveo of A. tamarids from Tenerife 4t show a curious modification in form, 
the tuberculous excrescences on the prothorax and mesothorax, and on the second, 
fifth and ninth abdominal somites, although similarly placed, are distinctly exag- 
gerated, being at least one-third longer than in European specimens, a peculiarity 
in which they are at least closely approached by larvae from Algeria ". 

PHALONIAD^E. 

It may be noted that Clysia ambigudla, Hb., referred to in Entom. Mon. VI, 
34, does not occur in the Indian Region. The Indian specimens formerly identi- 
fied as C. wMgwlla have since been separated as (1) C. iurbinaris, Meyr., from 
the Khasi and Naga Hills, N. Manipur, and Kareu Hills, and (2) Euxanthis am- 
phimnesta, Meyrick, from Kujnaon- The life histories of these species are unknown. 



14 LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLKPIDOPTERA. 

CLYSIA EUOALYPTA, MEYEICK. 

Clysia eucalypta, Meyr., Exot. Micr. Ill, 436 (1928) 1 . 

Bred in February from a case-bearing larva found at Bentota, Ceylon, on Soae- 
vola k&nigii (Qoodeniacese) (Fletcher) ; case consisting apparently of a flower-corolla, 
subcylindrical, 6 mm. x 3 mm., narrow at mouth (base), five-cleft at apex, rather 
densely hairy all over, brownish, hairs grey- whitish. 1 

From my Journal I note .urther that the moth was bred on 23rd February 1907 
from a larval case found on Sc i vola kcenigii on the beach at Bentota on 7th Feb- 
ruary. " The case looks just like a seed, and is attached by one end to any part 
of the leaf indifferently, but usually on the under surface. The pupa emerges for 
eclosion, only the caudal segments remaining in the case. The moth rests like a 
small Noctuid and seems very sluggish. Two minute Hymenopterous parasites 
also emerged from these cases ". 



TORTRICID^E. 

HOMONA COFFEARIA, NlBTNER. 

(Ent. Mem. VI, 25-27). 

This species has been reared in the Malay Peninsula on indigo (Corbett and 
Gates, Dept. Agric. F. M. S. Bull 38, p. 9 : 1926). 

HOMONA MENCIANA, WALKER. 

The synonymy, as given in Ent. Mem. VI, 37, requires amendment by the omis- 
sion of puttatana, Snellen, which is a distinct species belonging to the genus Ulo< 
demis. 

CACGECfA COMPACTA, MfiYRICK. 

(Ent. Mem. VI, 39). 

This has also been reared at Pusa, on 10 August 1923, from a pupa in rolled leaf 
of Cedrela toana. 

CACCECIA DISPILANA, WALKER. 

(Ent. Mem. VI, 39-40). 

This species has been reared in the Malay Peninsula from larvae rolling leaves 
of rambutan (Nephdium lappaceum) (Corbett and Gates, Dept. Agric. F. M. 8., 
Butt. 38, p. 9 : 1926). 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MIOROLEPIDOPTERA, 16 

CACCEOIA EDUCTANA, WALKER. 

Pandemis eductana, Wlk., Cat. XXVIII, 310 (1863) 1 . 

Cacoecia eductana> de Joannis, Ann. Soc. Ent. France XCIX, 713 (1931) 2 . 

Described from Moulmein 1 and known also from Borneo, Tonkin and Canton 
(8. China). In Tonkin the larva has been found on mulberry, withered flowers 
of tea, and on beans 2 . 

CACCEOIA EPIOYRTA, MBYRICK. 

(Ent. Mem. VI, 38). 

Also reared at Coimbatore from larvae on mulberry leaves and on green Chillies, 
and in Tonkin on tea and Ixora. 

CACCBCIA ISOOYRTA, MEYRICK. 

(Ent. Mem. VI, 39.) 

This has been reared in the Malay Peninsula from larvae folding the leaves of 
Citrus medico, acida (Corbett and Gates, Dept. Agric. F. M. S., Bull. 38, p. 9 : 1926). 

CACCECIA MICACEANA, WALKER. 
(En*. Mem. VI, 38.) 

This has also been reared in Tonkin from larvae on Phaseolus radiatus, " taros 
rouges, patates ", Hibiscus, strawberry, Soya, Ixora, tea and mulberry. 

CACCECIA POMIVORA, MEYRICK. 

Cac&cia pomivora, Meyr., Exot. Micr. II, 340-341 (1920) 1 ; Fletcher, Ind. 

Agric. Ent. Mem. VI, 197-198, t. 58 f. 1 (1921) 2 . 
Cac&cia pomivora also occurs at Shillong, where the larva has been found 

rolling leaves of apple and of rose. 

CACOECIA SOLIBA, MEYRICK. 

Cacavia solida t Meyr., B. J. XVIII, 614-615 (1908). 

C. solida occurs along the south slope of the Himalaya and is known from Dar- 
jiling and Kurseong in Sikkim, Masuri and Dehra Dun and from Srinagar. 

At Dehra Dun a larva, collected on Cedrela toana leaves on 13th September 
1915, pupated on 15th September and emerged on 23rd September. 

CACCECIA TBRMIAS, MEYRICK. 

Cacavia termias, Meyr., Exot. Micr. II, 164 (1918) <J 1 ; II, 340 (1920) ? 2 . 
Bred at Shillong from a larva found rolling apple leaves. It also occurs at 
Simla, 



16 LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MTCROLEPIDOPTERA, 

ULODEMIS TRIGRAPHA, MEYRICK, 

(Ent. Mem,. VI, pp, 40, 198 t. 58 f. 2.) 

Abo bred at Shillong from larva boring in rose-bud, and from a larva rolling 
Citrns leaves. It also occurs in Tonkin. 

DlACTENIS PTBRONEURA, MEYRICK. 

Diactenis pteroneura, Meyr., B. J. XVII, 980 #$ l ; Meyr., Wyts. Gen. Ins., 
fasc. 149, p. 49 [part.], t. 3 f, 35 (1913) 2 ; Meyr., Exot. Micr. Ill, 458 (1928) 8 . 

Bred at Pusa on 19th December 1927 from a pupa found on leaves of Nyctanthes 
arbor-tristis. 

This species has been recorded from Maskeliya 1 and Madulsima 1 , in Ceylon, 
and from Coorg. 1 

EBODA CELLIGERA, MEYRICK. 

Eboda ceUigera, Meyr., Exot. Micr. II, 170 (1917) 1 ; de Joannis, Ann. Soc* 
Ent. France XCIX, 714 (1931) 2 . 

This species occurs at Pusa and larvae have been found in Tonkin on leaves of 
litchi 2 . 

EBODA OBSTINATA, MEYRICK. (PLATE IX.) 
(Ent. Mem. VI, 41-42.) 

Larvae were found at Pusa in August 1922 rolling and binding leaves of a cree- 
per (Cardiospermum helicacabum), tying up two or three leaflets and feeding irre- 
gularly on the leaves or sometimes nibbling the upper surface. 

The full-grown larva is about 11 mm. long and 1 mm. broad, cylindrical ; head 
as long as prothorax, shining light yellow, with a few scattered fine hairs, and a 
small black spot behind the black ocelli ; prothorax smooth, very slightly chitinized, 
light green ; thoracic legs creamy, smooth ; body light green, segments distinct, 
with short hairs on tubercles and with an indistinct dorsal and prominent sub- 
dorsal and spiracular white lines from mesothorax ; spiracles minute, rounded, 
rimmed with pale brown ; prolegs short, light green, with booklets in complete 
circles. Before pupation a purplish-brown colour develops between the lateral 
stripes, which become less evident, whilst the middorsal line also becomes darker, 
patches of pinkish-purple develop below the spiracular line and the general body- 
colour becomes bluish-green, the meso-and meta-thorax having a pinkish-purple 
dot on each side. 

Pupation takes place in a white elongate-oval cocoon formed inside a rolled 
leaf. The pupa is about 6 mm. long and 1-5 mm. broad, cylindrical, gradually taper- 
ing posteriorly, the abdomen curved ventrally from the fifth segment ; brown j 



EBODA OBSTINATA, MEYRICK. 






a. Larva x 
6. Pupa X 
c. Moth X 



9. 
9. 
9. 



(Small figures, natural size.) 



PLATE X. 



PERONEA FLEXILINEANA, WALKER. 















1. Larva x 6. 

2. Pupa x 6. 

3. Moth x 6. 

(Smaller figures show the natural sizes.* 



LIFE-HISTORIES OP INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTBRA, 17 

wing-covers extending to fourth abdominal segment ; third to eighth abdominal 
segments with a double transverse row of spines, spines on third segment smaller, 
on fourth to eighth segments spines of anterior row (opposite spiracles) slightly lar- 
ger than those of posterior row, ninth segment with only one row of dorsal spines ; 
spiracles oval, rimmed with darker browm The pupal period is 5 or 6 days at the 
end of August. (Pusa Insectary Cage-Slip No. 2237.) 

PERONEA ENITESCENS, MEYRIOK. 

Peronea enitescens, Meyr., Bxot. Micr. I, 16 (1912) <J$ l ; Meyr., Ent. Mitteil, 
Suppl. Ill, p. 48 (1914) 2 . 

This species is common in the Khasi Hills around Shillong and we have it from 
Cherrapunji also. It has been bred in Shillong from a larva spining up a top-shoot 
of a wild Rubus. 

P. enitescens has been recorded from the Khasi Hills 1 and from Formosa 2 and 
also occurs in Java. 

PERONEA FLEXIIJNEANA, WALKER. (PLATE X.) 

Sciaphilafle^ilineana, Wlk., Cat. XXVIII, 345-346 (1863) 1 . 
Phricantkes macroura, Lower, Tr. R. Soc. S. Austral, XXXII, 322-323 (1908)*. 
P&oneafaxilirwarw, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., XXXV, 292 (1910)* ; 
Meyr., T. E. S., 1917, 14 (1917) 4 . 

P. faxilineana is known from Ceylon 1 (Puttalara, Kandy, Peradeniya, Hara- 
gama, Rambhukkana, Maskeliya), India (Gooty, Khasis, Andamans), Burma, Java, 
Philippines, New Guinea, Queensland 2 , and British Guiana 4 . 

It has been roared at Pusa in September and December 1928 and in July 1929 
from larvae found on Dilknia indica, binding together the two margins of a leaf 
and feeding on the upper surface of the leaf, leaving the lower epidermis intact, 
the larval frass accumulating within the shelter. The full-grown larva is about 
17 mm. long and 2 mm. broad, cylindrical, moderately stout, tapering slightly 
towards either extremity ; head shining yellow-brown with a black elongate "mark 
behind ocelli ; prothoracic shield shining, yellowish ; legs glossy, creamy or brow- 
nish ; general colour of body light green or creamy with a greenish tinge due to 
ingested food ; prolegs short, broad, with complete circle of booklets ; spiracles 
small, rounded, almost colourless ; the internal white tracheal tube visible through 
the skin below the spiracles ; anal plate shining, yellowish ; fine single hairs arising 
from warts, anterior trapezoidals much shorter than posterior. 

Prior to pupation, the larva becomes light yellowish. It forms a thin silken 
cocoon or lining in an enclosure formed by turning down the edge of a leaf. The 
pupa is about 9 mm. long by 2 mm. broad, cylindrical, tapering posteriorly, yel- 
lowish-brown, darker dorsally, wing-cases reaching to anterior margin of fourth 

B2 



18 LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTERA. 

abdominal segment, third to seventh abdominal segments each with two trans* 
verse rows of small spines dorsally, the spines of anterior row larger and running 
to spiracles, second and eighth segments with a single *ow of spines, spiracles oval, 
brown, that on eighth segment closed. The pupal period is 4 or 5 days in the Hot 
Weather. (Pusa Insectary Cage-Slip No. 2404). 



EUCOSMID^E. 

SPILONOTA CALCEATA, MEYRICK. 

Tmetocera cakeata, Meyr., B. J, XVIII, 141 (1907) <J $ *. 

Described from the Khasi Hills. 1 Reared at Shillong in May 1924 from larva 
found binding top-leaves and shoots of Pieris ovalifotia ; five or six leaves may be 
bound together in a bunch, in which the larva lives in a white cocoon-like shelter, 
eating the surfaces and margins of the leaves. 

The larva is about 12-5 mm. long and 2 mm. broad, cylindrical, tapering slightly 
posteriorly ; head as broad as prothorax, shining red-brown ; prothoracic shield 
chitinized, distinct, shining dark-brown, covering entire segment, dorsal end with 
a narrow median marking ; legs shining black-brown ; body dark pink, segments 
distinct, each with chitinized oval dark brown patches [ warts] situated trapezoid- 
ally along dorsum and on sides, each patch emitting a fine, short, brown hair ; pro- 
legs short, broad, cylindrical, glossy whitish, with complete circles of hooks on 
rather oval rims ; spiracles small, round, clear in centre, with dark brown oval 
rims. 

Pupation takes place in white cocoons which are generally covered with pellets 
of frass and which are formed within the larval shelter. (Mr. Bose's Cage-Slip, 
Shillong, No. 17.) 

SPILONOTA RHOTHIA, MEYRICK. (PLATE XI.) 

(Ent. Mem. VI, 43-44.) 

Spilonota rhoihia has been reared at Pusa from larvae found on Psidium guyava 
in November 1929 and on Eugenia jambolana in March 1930 and 1931, rolling the 
tenderer leaves and eating holes through the leaf-tissue. 

The full-grown larva is 10-14 mm. long and 1*6 2 mm. broad, cylindrical, 
tapering gradually posteriorly ; head small, glossy, creamy or yellowish-brown ; 
prothoracic shield chitinized, yellowish-brown with a black line on the hind mar- 
gin ; thoracic legs creamy, the two basal segments greyish ; general colour dull 
green with a darker mid-dorsal line from mesothorax to end of eighth abdominal 
segment, and a similar subdorsal line, the body bearing short fine hairs arising 
frojn whitist tubercles ; spiracles small, circular, with clear centres and parrow- blap- 



PLATE XI. 



ISPTLONOTA RHOTHIA, MEYMCK. 




1. Larva X 9. 

2. Pupa X 9. 

3. Moth X 7. 

(The smaller figures show the natural sizes.) 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLEPlDOPTERA. 19 

kish rims ; prolegs very short, cylindrical, glassy whitish with complete circles of 
brown booklets ; anal plate black with a white centre. 

The larva pupates in a flimsy cocoon formed within a shelter made by binding 
over a portion of a leaf. The pupa is about 6*25 7 mm. long and 2 mm. broad, 
cylindrical, tapering gradually posteriorly ; yellowish-brown ; second to eighth 
abdominal segments with two transverse rows of small spines, those of anterior 
row larger than those of posterior row, which are minute ; ninth and tenth segments 
with a single row of spines ; spiracles small, circular, rimmed with dark brown. The 
pupal period is about three weeks in December and seven or eight days in March, 
(Pusa Insectary Cage-Slips 2467, 2484.) 

We have this also from Shillong and Chapra. 

AOROCLITA CANTHONIAS, MEYRICK. 

Acroclita canihonias, Meyr., Exotic. Micr. II 343 (1920) 1 , III 438 (1928) 2 . 

Described from Pusa, where it was reared from larvee binding leaves of Lor an* 
thus, alo on the flowers and boring in the shoots 2 . It also occurs at Shillong. 

ACROCLITA CHERADOTA, MEYRICK. 

(Eid. Mem. VI, 44.) 

Acroclita dieradota seems to be attached to species of Ficus. It has been reared 
at Pusa from larva) on leaves of Ficus glomerata and If. religiosa, binding super- 
posed leaves with thick cords of silk and feeding between the leaf -veins on the green 
tissue so that attacked leaves become skeletonized. 

The full-grown larva is about 9 mm. long and 1*25 mm. broad, cylindrical, ta- 
pering gradually posteriorly ; head nearly as broad as prothorax, shining pale yellow 
with a central triangular brownish marking, a black patch on which the ocelli are 
situated and an elongate black patch behind this ; prothorax shining pale yellow, 
with a black mark above and behind the spiracle and a small black mark below 
and before the spiracle ; meso-ancl meta-thoracic segments rather larger than pro- 
thorax ; legs shining, piceous ; general colour light yellow or greenish yellow ; the 
mesothoracic to ninth abdominal segments suffused blackish aubdorsally and later* 
ally so that a pale yellowish dorsal stripe remains and the ventral area is also pale ; 
dorsal hairs shorter than lateral ; prolegs short, with complete circles of booklets ; 
anal plate blackish ; spiracles minute. 

Pupation takes place in a white cocoon which may be covered with frass. The 
pupa is about 6 mm. long and 1-5 mm. broad, cylindrical, tapering gradually, yel- 
lowish brown ; the first six abdominal segments distinct as their hind margins are 
darker brown ; seventh and following segments rather close-set ; spiracles promi- 
nent, rounded, with brown rims ; second to eighth abdominal segments with two 
transverse rows of spines, reaching to spiracles, those of anterior row larger and more 



20 LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTERA. 

separated than those of posterior ; ninth segment with a single row of minute spines ; 
wing-cases reaching fourth abdominal segment. The pupal period is 8-10 days 
in March. (Pusa Insectary Cage-Slip No. 2209.) 
A. ckewdota is also known from Tonkin. 

ACROCLITA H1CRORRHYNCHA, MEYR1CK. 

Acrodita microrrhyncJm y Meyr., M. 8. 

Bred at Parachinar, N. W. Frontier Province, from a larva feeding on apple 
leaves on 21st September 1917, and which emerged on 2nd October 1917. 

ACROCLITA PHYSALODES, MEYRICK. 

Rhopobota physalodes, Meyr., T. E. S., 1910, 368-369 (1910) <?$ *. 
Acrodita physalodes, Meyr., T. E. S., LXXVI, 495 (1929) 2 . 

A. physalodts was originally collected by ine in lie du Coin, Chagos Islands* 
and also at Galle, in Ceylon 1 . It has since been recorded from the Seychelles, 
Fiji and Austral Islands (Pacific) 2 . It has been bred in Fiji from larvae in flower- 
buds of Barringtonia. 

ANCYLIS AROMATIAS, MEYRICK. 

Ancylis aroniatias, Meyr., Exot. Micr., I, 31 (1912) 1 ; de Joannis, Ann. Soc. 

Ent. France XCIX, 716 (1931) 2 . 

Described from North Coorg 1 and has since been found in Tonkin, where its 
larva feeds on Zizyphtts jujuba 2 . 

ANCYLIS CAKPALIMA, MEYRICK. 

(Ent. Mem. VI, 45.) 

This is an Australian species and should be omitted from the Indian List. Indian 
specimens, formerly identified as A. carpalivna y were presumably A. lulewen*, Meyr., 
whose larva feeds on leaves of Zizyphus jujuba and which is also known from Tonkin. 

CROCIDOSEMA PLEBEIANA, ZBLLER. 

(Ei*. Mem. VI, 52-53.) 

This species seems to be South American in origin but is now very widely dis- 
tributed, occurring throughout Southern Europe and oven as far North as Devon 
(England) and Germany, all along Northern Africa, in British East Africa, the Sey- 
chelles, Farquhar Island, Rodriguez, Transvaal, Madeira and Canary Islands and 
St. Helena, Syria, Cambodia, Formosa, Australia, New Zealand, Tonga, Fiji, Samoa, 
Hawaiian Islands, Marquesas, Society Islands and Austral Islands in the Pacific, 



FLATE xn. 



EUCOSMA CONCILIATA, MEYRIOK. 




1. Larva x 'J. 

*' 2. Pupa X 9. 

3. Moth X 9. 

(The smaller figures show natural size.) 



PLATE XIII. 



EUCOSMA CONCILIATE (Shoot of Palas attacked) X ft. 




UFH-HtSTOBIBS OF INDIAN MlCBOLEPIDOFrJEHA. 2l 

California, Texas and Mexico, the West Indies, Brazil, Peru and Argentina. Within 
our limits it is known from Srinagar, Lyallpur, Muktosar (Kumaon), the Nilgiris, 
Coorg, and Ceylon. 

The larval foodplants include Althea rosea, Lavatem arborea, Maiva parviftora 
and other species, Malvastrum spicatum, Malvamscus dmmnwndi, Kostelvyzkya 
sp., Hibiscus esculenlus, //. militariv and //. rosa-svnensis. The larva feeds on the 
leaves, in seeds and on pods, and occasionally on the pollen of flowers. Structural 
figures of the larva and pupa are given by Heinrich (JL Ayric. Res. XX, 822-623, 
tt. 102, 103, 105, 106, 108 : 1921). 

It has been bred at Lyallpur from larvte boring buds of Hollyhock (AUhea rosea) 
and at Parbhani (Leccan) from larva in boll of Abutilvn indkum. 



EUCOSMA BALANOPTYCHA, 

(EtU. Mem. VI, 50.) 

This species has been reared in the Malay Peninsula from larva* folding the leaves 
of Denis ellvptica (Coibett and Gates, Dept. Agric. F. M. S., Bull. 38, p. 9 : 1926). 

EUCOSMA CERIODES, MEYRICKI 

Eucosnta ceriodes, Meyr., B. J. XIX, 607 (1909) <$ $ x ; Meyr., Exot. Mior. 
Ill, 441 (1928) 2 . 

A common species at Slullong where it seems to be attached to a wild Rabus 
but has not been bred. Also occurs in the Darjiliug District and in Tonkin, where 
the larva has been noted by Duport on a kk ronce " [bramble ; Rubus\ (de Joannis, 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, XCIX, 717 : 1931), thus definitely confirming the above 
supposition as to larval foodplant, arrived at by observation of the moths in Slul- 
long. 

EUCOSMA CONCILIATA, MEYRICK. (PLATES Xll AND Xill.) 

(EtU. Mem,. VI, 50.) 

This was reared at Pusa originally from larva) feeding 011 the llowor-petals of 
Palaa (Butea J'rvndosa). It has since been noted that, after the flowers are over, 
these larvae feed on the leaves and shoots. In July 1920 larvae were found at Pusa 
attacking tender leaves and even rather older leaves appearing on new shoots, the 
green leaf-tissue being eaten and the attacked portions rolled and crumpled. Small 
leaves may be crumpled up entirely, appearing as u brown mass on the end of the 
long stalk, and in such cases the shoot itself is partly bored, more than one larva 
often being present. (Pusa Insectary Cage -Slip No. 2053.) 

More larva) were found at Pusa at the end of February 1931 on fallen petals ot 
roitdoxa, boring in at the base which IB whitwh and slightly fleshy. The 



22 LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTERA . 

Irava is about 11 mm. long and 1-5 mm. broad, cylindrical, tapering gradually 
posteriorly ; head shiny reddish-brown or blackish-brown, its base concealed under 
prothorax ; prothoracic shield chitinized, shiny reddish-brown or blackish-brown, 
with a median creamy-yellow dividing line ; legs creamy-yellow, tinted light sepia ; 
general colour of body creamy-yellow ; segments distinct, bearing fine short hairs 
arising singly from minute chitinized pale-brown warts which are arranged 
trapezoidally on dorsum of first eight abdominal segments ; anal plate chitinized, 
shiny, brown ; prolegs short, stout, cylindrical, with brown hooklets arranged in 
complete circles ; spiracles minute, circular, with clear centres and dark brown 
rims. 

The pupa is about 6 mm. long and 1-5 mm. broad, cylindrical gradually taper- 
ing posteriorly, the wing-cases reaching to the end of the fourth abdominal segment ; 
yellowish-brown ; first abdominal segment distinct ; second to seventh abdominal 
segments with two transverse rows of pointed spines, those of the anterior row the 
larger ; eighth to tenth segments with only one row of spines ; spines on anal 
segment well developed ; spiracles oval, dark reddish-brown. The pupal period 
is six to ten days, according to temperature. The larvae are extensively 
parasitized by a Braconid. (Cage Slip No. 2612.) 



EUCOSMA CRITICA, MfiYRICK. 

(Ent. Mem. VI, 47-49.) 
Also reared at Pusa from larva boring pods of Crotalaria juncea. 

EUCOSMA DRYOCARPA, MEYRICK. 

Eucoma dryocarpa, Meyr., Exot. Micr. Ill, 142 (1925) $ ? l . 
Bred in March at Dehra Dun from larvee in acorns of Quercus dilatata obtained 
from Masuri (Forest Entomologist) 1 . 

EUCOSMA HAPALOSARCA, MEYRICK. 

Eucosiw hapakscvrca, Meyr., Exot. Micr., Ill, 67-68 (1924) $ $ *. 
Reared in April from larvae defoliating Populus euphratica in the Kureshia Forest, 
Multan (Beeson). 1 

EUCOSMA HYPSIDRYAS, MEYRICK. 

Eucosma hypsidryas, Meyr., Exot. Micr. Ill, 140-141 (1926)^$ l . 
Bred in June from lame in buds of Picea morinda at Deoband (9,000 feet)> 
Chakrata Division (Forest Entomologist) 1 . 



PLATE XIV. 



ANAL EXTREMITIES OF PUPAE OF BACTRA COMMENSALIS AND B. GRAMINIVORA 

X 28. 




Bactra 




commensaUs 



grarmnivora 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLEPIPOPTERA. 23 

EUOOSMA PHCENOOROSSA, MEYRICK. 

Eucosma phcenocrossa, Meyr., Exot. Micr. Ill, 141-142 (1925) <J $ l . 
Bred in February in Travancore from larvro on Careya arborea (Lecythidacese). 1 

EUCOSMA STEREOMA, MEYRICK. 

(Ent. Mem. VI, 51-52.) 

Eucosma stereoma has also been reared at Pusa, between 29th July and 1st 
September 1922, from larvae rolling leaves of Acacia catechu, binding together a 
few pinnae and living in the tunnel thus formed, and binding and feeding on the 
tenderer leaves. 

The fullgrown larva is about 9 mm. long and 1-75 mm. broad, cylinder, taper- 
ing towards either extremity ; head small, shining, yellow-brown, base retracted 
within prothorax, with a black mark above ocelli ; prothorax smaller than follow- 
ing segments, shield light brown, shining, chitinized ; legs pale yellowish or glassy 
white ; general colour dark green or blackish, according to alimentary contents ; 
segments distinct, with short fine single hairs arising from round dark-brown shin- 
ing chitinized warts ; spiracles rounded, minute, with yellowish centres and black 
rims ; prolegs short, cylindrical, with complete circles of booklets ; anal plate smooth, 
pale-yellowish. 

Pupation takes place in a white elongate-oval cocoon hidden amongst the leaf- 
lets. The pupa is about 5'5 mm. long and 1-5 mm. broad, brown, rather darker 
dorsally and lighter ventrally ; second to seventh abdominal segments with two 
dorsal rows of small spines reaching to spiracles, spines of anterior row the larger ; 
eighth to tenth segments with only anterior row of large spines ; spiracles minute, 
brown, slightly raised. (Pusa Insectary Cage-Slip No. 2235.) 

EUCOSMA ZELOTA, MEYRICK. 

(Ent. Mem. VI, 51, t. 12.) 

This species has also been found at Srinagar, Murrce, Masuri, and Ramgarh 
(Kumaon). At Ramgarh it was reared from a larva spinning up rose-leaves in the 
same way as originally described at Abbottabad. 

BACTRA COMMENSALIS, MEYRICK. (PLATE XIV.) 

Bactra commensalis, Meyr., Exot. Micr. II, 522 (1922) (J? 1 . 
Bactra trucuknta [nee. Meyr.], Ghosh, Kept. Fourth Entl. Meeting, p. 126 
[part], t. 23 f. c (1923). 

Bred at Pusa from April to June from larvae mining stems of Cynodon dactylan 
(Gramine). Also from Surat. Pupa without projecting anal papillae (reduced 



24 LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MlCROLEPlDQPTEfcA. 

to dote) , spines of segmented series very short and numerous, proeanal series usually 
of 5 or 6 spines. 1 

When this was reared, it (together with B. graminivora) was taken to be B. 
ti uculenta but it was noted that the larva was green with the thorax dusky or smoky 
(instead of being pale yellowish with purplish thorax). Whether this colour-differ- 
ence is individual or specific is not known definitely but it is supposed to be speci- 
fic. The larva formed a silken cocoon lining the tunnel in the stem and pupated 
on 7th June 11)20, the moth emerging on llth June. The pupa had a green abdo- 
men, with the head and thorax brown and the wing-cases brownish-yellow, and 
the anal processes were not so developed a** in those of B . yraminivora reared under 
C. S. 2021. (Pufla Insectary Cage-Slip No. 2021 A.) 

The foodplant seems doubtful. No foodplant is noted in C. S. 2021 A, which 
was apparently prepared for the green larvae collected with the yellow ones of C. S. 
2021, which were noted as found in stems of " Mootfia ". Originally this was entered 
as Cynod&n dactylou, but afterwards this name was struck out and Gyperus rotundus 
substituted, probably after determination of the ioodplant by the Botanical Survey. 
The latter name appeal's to be correct. 



BACTRA URAMINIVORA, MEYRICK. (PLATE XV.) 

Bactra graminivora, Meyr., Kxot. Micr, II, 521 (1922)^ $*. 

Bactra truculenta [nee Meyr.J Ghosh, Kept. Fourth Entl. Meeting, p. 126 

[part] t. 23, f. rf, [? ff. a, b\ (1923). 

Bred at Pusa from April to J une from larvau mining steins of Cynodon dactylon 
(Gramineae). Pupa with two distinct projecting anal papillae (in both sexes) ; spines 
of segmeutal series twice as long and strong as in comniemalis, rather less numerous, 
prasanal series usually of 3 spines. The pupa of B. truculenta does not possess these 
papillae (which are reduced to dots), the spines also are more as in comtncnsalis 1 . 

This species was reared together with B. commensalis and at the time these two 
species were not distinguished and were both supposed to be B. truculenta. It is 
not certain, therefore, if iig. a represents the larva of yrawinivora or of uownwn- 
batis, but fig. b apparently shows the pupa of yraminivora. Unfortunately the 
larva figured died before pupation but it was described as one of the yellow larvte, 
in opposition to the green larva) (B. commensalis). The original description of this 
larva, made on 31st May 1920, when it was about 7 mm. long, reads : rather flat- 
tened, tapering slightly posteriorly ; head brown-yellow, glossy, nearly as broad as 
prothorax ; prothoracic shield brown-yellow ; inesothorax, inetathorax, and par- 
tially the first two abdominal segments purplish, the rest of the body pale yellow ; 
anal plate yellow ; spiracles round, with clear centres and brown rims ; proiegs 
equally developed, with booklets in a circle. This larva grew to 12 mm. and died 
before pupation. 



PLA1B XV. 




a, 6. (apparently) Bactra graminivora X 8. 

c. Bdctra commensalis, X 8. 

d. Bactra graminivora, X 8. 



PLATE XVL 



POLYCHROSIS OELLTFERA, MRYMOK. 





^rt&ttw&t- 

jffc^-^^s^::^^ ^ip 
'Wji^^',-':!^^^^ 

HHfe.,,,.,*-' -,. .:>; 



^^gfli'l^P^ 

fi.v\^'|/r 




1. Larva} X 9. 

2. Cocoon X li. 

3. Pupa X 9. 

4. Moth X 9. 

(Smaller figures show the natural sizes.) 



tlPE-HISfORlES OF INDIAN MlCfcOtKPtDOFTERA. 25 

The pupa was described as 5 to 7 mm. long, cylindrical, pale brownish-yellow, 
before emergence turning grey-brown with the wing cases black ; third to eighth 
abdominal segments with two dorsal transverse rows of spines, the anterior row 
composed of comparatively large straight spines directed posteriorly, the posterior 
row of very minute spines ; ninth abdominal segment with a single row of large 
spines whose tips (or of at least two) are recurved anteriorly ; anal area rounded, 
with a pair of small pyramidal processes surmounted with hairs. (Pusa Insectary 
Cage-Slip No. 2021.) 

As noted under B. comntemalis, the foodplant was apparently Cyperus rotundus 
and not Cynodon dactylon. 

Another larva, apparently full -grown, was collected at Pusa in stein of Cyperus 
rotundus on 8th June 1920 and was described as about 15 mm. long by 1-5 nun. 
broad, elongate, slender, cylindrical, tapering very slightly posteriorly ; head glossy 
black, slightly smaller than prothorax, which has a dark-grey shield divided medial- 
ly ; colour uniformly rather glossy palc-ydlow, including legs and prolegs ; spiracles 
small, rounded, with clear centres and brown or black rims ; $ tracheal tube visible 
through the skin and connecting the spiracles ; prolegs equally developed, with 
booklets in complete circles. Pupal period about five days in June. (Pusa Insectary 
Cage-Slip No. 2032.) 

BACTRA TRUCULENTA, MEYRICK. 

(Ent. Mem. VI, 513.) 

B. truculenta, whose larva bores in the stems of Cyperus rotundus, is known 
from Ceylon (Anuradhapura and Ke^alle), India (Pahiis, Coiinbatore, N. Coorg, 
Andanians, Kharaghoda, Peshawar, Pusa), Iraq, Java, Celebes, Cambodia and the 
Philippines, from which last it has been introduced into tho Hawaiian Islands to 
control Nut-grass. 

POLYCHROSIS ACANTH18, MEYRICK. 

Polychrosis acanthi* , Meyr., Kxot. Micr. 11, 348 (1920) 1 ; Fletcher, Ind. Agrie- 
Ent. Mem. VI, 200, t. 00 (1921) 2 . 

Reared again at Pusa from larva boring topshoots of Justicia yendarussa ; larva 
ra8 collected 1 6th November, pupated 25th November, and emerged 5th December 
1921. 

POLYCHROSIS CKLLIFERA, MEYRICK. (PLATE XVI.)* 

(Ent. Mem. VI, 53.) 

Also reared at Pusa on 12th July 1924 from a larva found boring fruits of Eugenia 
jambolam. Other larva* were found at Pusa in April and May 1931, rolling tender 

* This epeoiea is now placed in the genus Aryyroploce. 



26 LIFE-HISTORIES OP INDIAN MIOROLEPIDOFTERA. 

loaves of Eugenia jambolana longitudinally, the two margins of the leaf being tied 
together by silken threads. The larva lives inside the folded leaf, nibbling the green 
tissue, its frass accumulating within the shelter. 

The fullgrown larva is about 12'3 mm. long and 1*25 mm. broad, cylindrical, 
tapering gradually posteriorly ; head creamy-yellow, with a small black spot pos- 
teriorly on the base of the cheek ; prothoracic shield chitinized, glossy, creamy* 
yellow ; legs glassy-white, apical segments slightly yellowish, claws brown ; general 
colour of body dull or dark green ; segments distinct, bearing fine median hairs 
arising singly from slightly chitinized circular tubercles arranged trapezoidally, 
the anterior tubercles being closer together on first to seventh abdominal segments, 
but the posterior trapezoidals being closer on the eighth segment ; prolegs short, 
cylindrical, glossy, light-green, with complete circles, of brown booklets; spiracles 
circular, with clear centres and narrow dark-brown rims ; anal plate glossy. Prior 
to pupation the larva becomes yellow-green or leaf-green in colour. 

Pupation takes place in a thin cocoon which may be formed in a leaf of the 
food plant by cutting the margin and turning back the edge of the leaf. The pupa 
is about 7-5 mm. long and 1-75 2 mm. broad, cylindrical, tapering gradually poste- 
riorly ; yellowish-brown, thorax and ventral surface yellowish-green ; wing-cases 
reaching anterior margin of fourth abdominal segment ; first abdominal segment 
smooth, dorsally slightly concave ; second to eighth abdominal segments each 
with a subdorsal broad, black, chitinized, rimmed pit, and with well-developed an- 
terior and smaller posterior transverse setae ; ninth segment with small setee ; tenth 
segment brown, broad, taperiug posteriorly, with a few cremastral hooks and a 
few minute dorsal setae ; spiracles oval, narrowly rimmed with brown, that on eighth 
abdominal segment being closed. The pupal period is five or six days in April-May. 
(Pusa Insectary Cage-Slip No. 2637.) 

POLYCHROSIS KPHIPPIAS, MfiYRIOK. (PLATE XVII.) 

Chrosis ephippias, Meyr., B. J. XVII, 731 (1907) 1 . 

Polychrosis ephippias, Meyr., B. J. XIX, 587 (1909) 2 ; Meyr., Ann. Transv. 
Mus. VI, 11 (1918) 3 ; Meyr., T. E. S. 1923. 547 (1924) 4 . 

Polychrosis ephippias is common and well-distributed in the Indian Region, 
being known from Puttalam, 1 Maskeliya 1 , Peradeniya, Kandy and Madulsima in 
Ceylon, from Bellary, Bombay 1 , Bandra, Bassein Fort, Chapra, Pusa, Kumaon, 
Kurseong, Gangtok, and the Khasi Hills in India, and also from Java, Tonkin, 
the Philippines, Natal 3 and Rodriguez 4 . 

Larv were found at Pusa on 26th September 1921 boring green stems of Com- 
mdina bengalensis, whose leaves consequently dry up. The larva is about 10 mm. 
long and 1-5 mm. broad, cylindrical, tapering very slightly posteriorly ; head jet 
black, shiny, nearly as broad as prothorax, which is also jet-black with a shield 
extending to spiracles and divided medially by aa obscure yellowish line ; first 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVII. 

Polychrosis ephippias, Meyrick. 

o. The stem showing tho base cut l>y larva, 
6. The larva X 12. 

c. The pupa X 12. 

d. The moth X 12. 

(SmaHer figures show the natural sizes.) 



PLATE XVII. 




POLYCHROSIS EPHIPPIAS, METBIOI. 



PLATE XVIIL 



AKUYROPLOCE APROBOLA, MEYHICK. 




1. Larva X 9. 

2. Pupa X 9. 

3. Moth X 7. 

(The smaller figures show the natural sizes). 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTEBA. 27 

pair of legs also black and glossy ; ventral surface of prothorax greenish tinged blac- 
kish ; other segments'leaf-green, second and third pairs of legs yellowish ; segments 
not very distinct, with short, fine hairs ; abdominal segments with two ill-defined 
subsegments posteriorly ; prolegs short, cylindrical, with complete circles of hook- 
lets ; spiracles rounded, with black rims. 

When full-fed, the larva emerges from the stem and pupates in a flimsy cocoon 
inside a folded leaf. The pupa is about 6 mm. long by 15 mm. broad, brownish- 
green ; third to seventh abdominal segments with two dorsal transverse rows of 
brown spines, those of anterior row the larger ; eighth and ninth segments with 
only one row of larger spines ; second segment with posterior row of smaller spines ; 
spiracles raised, prominent, oval, brown. The pupal period is about six days. (Pusa 
Insectary Cage-Slip No. 2195.) 

LOBESIA FETIALIS, MEYRICK. 

Polychrosisfetialis, Meyr., Exot. Micr. H, 346 (1920) C J 1 ; Fletcher, Ind. Agric. 

Ent. Mem. VI 53 (1921 ) 2 . 
Lohesia aeolopa [nee Meyr.], Fletcher, Ind. Agric. Eat. Mem. VI, pp. 54 

[partiin], 200, t. 61 f. 1 (1921) 3 . 

This species is a Lobesia, not a Polychrosis, and is the spocies referred to, as 
having been reared from Leucas cephalotes, in the last paragraph under L. aeolopa. 
The female moths of this species and of L. aeolopa seem to be indistinguishable, but 
the males are readily separated. 

Specimens that appear to be L.fetialis have also been reared at Pusa from larva) 
feeding on flowers of Averrhoa cararnbola in July 1929 and from larvge feeding on 
dry flowers of Soapnut (Hindi Eiiha). The latter larva was described as purple 
in colour, head brown, glossy, thoracic plato glossy dirty- brown with whitish an- 
terior margin, hairs on segments short and fine, arising singly from yellow warts. 
Pupation in a flimsy white cocoon. Pupa about 4*75 mm. long and 1*25 inm. broad, 
dark brown, head and prothorax lighter ; second to eighth abdominal segments 
each with two dorsal transverse rows of spines, those of anterior row longer, both 
rows on second segment smaller and fewer ; ninth segment with one row of spines ; 
wing-cases reaching apex of fourth segment, glossy. (Pusa Insectary Cage-Slip 
No. 2470.) 

ARGYROPLOCE APKOBOLA, MEYKICK. (PLATE XVIII.) 

(Ent. Mem. VI, 57-58.) 

Argyroploce aprobola has since been reared at Pusa from larva* rolling leaves of 
Legerstrcemia flos-regina< , on flowers of Loranthus, leaf of Salix tetrasperma and of 
Cassia tora, and on tender leaves of Schlcichera trijuga. We also have specimens 
from Nagpur said to have been reared from mango shoot* t>d on guava, but these 



28 LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTERA. 

records require confirmation. This species is common and widely-distributed 
throughout India and Ceylon, where it is found mostly in the Plains, although 
it is known from Madulsima and Pundaluoya in Coylon and from Slullong in the 
Khasi Hills. We seem to have no record of its occurrence in Burma, although 
it is doubtless to be found there. It is a species which is easily transported with 
litchi, mango or rose-trees, and, with its wide range of foodplants, is easily able 
to adapt itself to new localities, where it may well develop into a pest. Outside 
of India, it is known from the Chagos Islands, Seychelles and Amirante Islands, 
Java, Tonkin, Formosa, New Guinea, Queensland, Tonga, Samoa, Tahiti, Society 
Islands and Austral Islands. 



ARGYROPLOCE CODONECTIS, MEYRICK. 

Argyrophce codoncctis, Meyr., Exot. Micr. HI, 339 (1927) #$ *. 

Described from Dibidi, in North Coorg, and from Kuala Lumpur, in the Malay 
Peninsula. Bred at Kuala Lumpur from larvae feeding on shoots and leaves of 
Eugenia malaccensis and E. aquea (Myrtacese) 1 . It occurs also at Port Blair (An- 
damans). 

ARGYROPLOCE DISCANA, FELDER. 

Tortrix ? diswna, Feld., Rcise Novara, Hot., t. 137 f. 41 (1871). 1 
Argyreploce discana, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. XXXVI, 280 (1911) 2 ; 
d* Joannis, Ann. S. E. France XCIX, 720 (1931) 3 . 

A . discana has been found at Ganesh-Gudi, in North Kanara, but otherwise 
does not seem to have been noted within our limits. It may be overlooked and 
confused with the somewhat similar A. kucaspis, Meyrick. Outside of India, it 
occurs in Java, China, Hainan, Tonkin, Moluccas and the Solomon Islands. In 
Tonkin the larva has been found rolling young litchi leaves. 3 



ARGYROPLOCE ENCARPA, MEYRICK. 

Argyroploct encarpa, Meyr., Exot. Micr. II, 349 (1920) 1 ; de Joannis, Ann. 

S. E. France XCIX, 718 (1931) 3 . 

This was described from specimens taken off the coast of Ceylon and boring 
in fruit of Tangerine orange at Calcutta 1 (imported). It has since been recorded 
from Tonkin where the larva was feeding on litchi seeds. 2 It was also bred at 
Pusa on 16th March 1928 from a larva webbing her (Zizyphus jnjuba) fruit with 
leaf. Mr. Meyrick notes (in liU.) that probably lasiawlra, Meyr., is the male of 
this. 



PLATE 



ARGYROPLOCE'ILLEPIDA, BUTLER. 




1. Larva X 6. 

2. Pupa X 6. 

3. Moth X 4|. 

(The smaller figure* show the natural sizes.) 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTERA , 29 

ARQYROPLOCE KROTIAB, MKYRICK. 

(Era. Mem. VI, 59.) 

Argyroploce erotias has since been reared at Pusa from larvae on flowers of Aver- 
rhoa carambola, Mdlotus repandus, and Bauhinia purpurea, from a pupa found on 
leaf of Guazoma tomentosa, and from larvae on dry flowers of Sapindus mukwossi. 

This is another species which is easily transported with mango plants. Besides 
the localities previously given, it is known from Java and Tonkin, from numerous 
localities in Ceylon, and from Coorg, Bangalore and Sikkim. 



ARGYROPLOCE HERBIPERA, MEYRICK. 

Argyroploce herbifera, Meyr., B. J. XIX, 603-604 (1909) <J $ l ; Meyr., Exot. Micr. 

Ill, 604 (1930) 2 . 

Originally described from Maskeliya 1 (Ceylon) and the Khasi Hills 1 , this species 
has since been bred in Java from larvae rolling leaves of Cmnamwnum camphora 
(Verbeek)*. 

ARGYROPLOCE HOPLISTA, MEYRICK. 

Argyroploce hoplista, Meyr., Exot. Micr., Ill, 340-341 (1927) #? l . 

Described from Bombay, Belgaum and Sumatra (Sinabaeng ; 3,300 feet). Bred 
in Sumatra from Barleria sp. (Fulmek). 1 



ARGYROPLOCE ILLEPIDA, BUTLER. (PLATE XIX.) 

(Ent. Mem. VI, 55-57.) 

The egg, larva and pupa have been described by Swezey (Pror. Hawaii Ent, 
Soc. II, 14-15 : 1908) in Hawaii, where the larva feeds in pods of Acacia farnesiam, 
Koa pods and litchi seeds. To the recorded distribution should be added Sokotra, 
Java, Tonkin, China and Fiji, but the record of this species from South Africa (EnL 
Mem. VI, 56) should be deleted, as it applies to the South African A. peltastica, 
Meyr.; the Seychelles specimen was also presumably pcltustica. 

The larva is parasitized by Euagathis cryptophkbiac, Viereck, as recorded by 
T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar (Report Fourth EntL Meeting, p. 364 : 1921). 

It has also been reared at Pusa from a pupa in pod of Parkinsonia aculeata and 
from larvae boring pods of Bauhinia purpurca and in small, fallen fruits of Bael (Aegle 
marmelos). 

The life history has been described previously but opportunity is taken to add 
a better figure. 



30 LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MIOROLEPIDOPTERA. 

ARGYROPLOOB LACTJNANA, DUPONOHEL. 

Sericoris lacunana, Dup., Lep. France, Suppl. IV, 425-426, t. 84, f. 5 (1842) 1 -, 
Barrett, Lep. Brit, Isds. XI, 55-57, t. 477 ff. 3, 3 a-b (1907) 2 . 

Argyroploce lacunana, Kennel, Pal. Tortr. pp. 411-413, f. 30, t. 17, ff. 23-25 
(1916) 3 ; Meyr., Rev. Handb., p. 576 (1928) 4 . 

This species has been found within Indian limits at Gulmarg (Kashmir, 8,500 
ft.). It is widely distributed in Northern and Central Europe, Asia Minor, Siberia, 
Japan, North, West and East China. The larva has been found on various low 
plants, Salix, Rubus, Betula, Spiraea, Caltha> Mentha, Matricaria, Urtica, Conyza, 
Lamiuniy Cirsium, Anthriscus, Chrysanthemum and Ranunculus. The larva is 
described by Barrett as " cylindrical, rather elongated, very active, most puzzling 
from its great variability ; smoky brown, smoky black, green or liver colour with 
head and plates shiny black ; or else pale-grey, dull white or pale yellow with the 
head and plates light brown, or with the head and dorsal plate black and the anal 
plate brown, or yellow with a brown dot. May and June in the young shoots of 
almost all kinds of herbaceous plants and shrubs, feeding also in many instances 
in the blossoms and the joined or drawn together leaves, also on birch and other 
trees. The variations in the colour in the larva seem in many instances to be in- 
fluenced by their food ; but have no bearing on the perfect insectall the most 
singular forms of the larva producing ordinary and typical moths. Pupa shining, 
dark brown or black-brown. In a silken cocoon spun up anywhere except in the 
larval habitation "*. 

NOTE. The correct name of this species seems to be doubtful ; it may be cervana, IScopoli 1763= 
decussana, Fb. 1775=/actt7iawi, Schiff. 1776. Synonyms of lacunana, Dup., are micana [nee Hb.], 
Hw 1811obwktana, Steph. 1834~r*tama [nee. Hb.], Dup. 1836=wemetena, Treits. 1836^ 
decussana, Zett. 1840=Aer6ana, Gn. 1845=rooawa, de Graaf Iti61*=hofmanniana, Teich 1890 (var.) 
=(ncuminana, Kennel 1901. The exact synonymy requires to be worked out, but 1 leave it for the 
present. 

ARGYROPLOCE LASIANDRA, MEYRICK. 

Argyroploce lasiandra, Meyr., B. J. XIX 592 (1909) 1 ; Meyr. Exot. Micr. Ill 
H3 (1925) 2 . 

Originally described from Trincomali, 1 this species has since been bred in 
Fiji from hypocotyl of seedlings of Bruguiera rheedii (a mangrove). 2 It is probable 
that A. encarpa t Meyr., is the female of this. 

ABGYROPLOCE LEUCASPIS, MEYRICJK. 

(Ent. Mem. VI 60, t. 13 f. 2). 

Also reared at Pusa from larvae rolling leaves of Soapnut (Ritha : Hindi) (C. 8, 
2459). 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLtiPlDOPfttKA. 31 

ABGYBOPLOCE MOBMOPA, MEYBICK. 

Platypeplus mormopa, Meyr., B. J. XVII 136 (1906). 1 
Argyroploce mormopa, Meyr., Sarawak Mus. Jl. Ill 152 (1926) 2 . 
Bred at Quilon, Travancore, in July 1921, from larvae on Jambora vulgaris (R. M. 
Pillai's cage slip 440). 

Known from Maskeliya, 1 in Ceylon, from Quilon and Karwar, and also from 
Borneo 2 and Tonkin. 

ABGYBOPLOCE PUBPUBISSATANA, KENNEL. 

Penthina purpurissatana, Kennel, Iris XIII 252-253 (1900) J 1 . 

Olethreutes 'purpurissatana, Rebel, Cat. Pal. Lep. II 261, No. 1886 bis (1901) 2 . 

Argyroploce archirnedias, Meyr., Exot. Micr. I. 63 (1912) $%*. 

Semasia purpurissatana, Kennel, Pal. Tortric. p. 478, 1. 19 f. 2 (1916) [redescr.] 4 

Argyroploce purpurissitana, Meyr., Exot. Micr. Ill 604 (1930) 5 . 
A. purpurissatana is known from Sutsehan (*, 4 ) in South Ussuri, from Hong- 
kong 3 , and, within our limits, from Pusa, where a single specimen has been taken, 
and from Peradeniya, where it was bred in January from larvie in spun leaves of 
Litsea gliUinosa (Lauraceaj) 



ARGYROPLOCE RUYNCHIAS, MEYRICK. 
(Entl. Mem. VI 61). 

A, rhynchias has been found to occur at Bombay and is also known from tho 
Marquesas, Society and Austral Islands in the Pacific. 

ARGYROPLOCE TONSORIA, MEYRICK. 
(Entl. Mem. VI 61). 

Argyroploce tonsoria is also known to occur in Java and in the Andaman Islands, 
where it has been taken on Mount Harriet (1,200 feet) and bred at Port Blair from 
larva) boring topshoots of Barringtonia racemosa. 

ARGYROPLOCE TROPHIODES, MEYRICK. 

Eucosma trophiodes, Meyr,, B. J. XVIII 613 (1908) ^ 
Argyroploce [trophiodes], Meyr., B. J. XIX 592 (1909) 2 . 

This species is known from Ceylon (Maskeliya 1 , Madulsima 1 , Diyatalawa 1 , 
Hakgala 1 , Pattipola 1 , Nuwara Eliya 1 , and Namunakuli) from India (Nilgiris, 1 Coorg, 1 
and Khasi Hills 1 ) and from Java. Mr. Meyrick informs me (in litt) that it has 
been reared in Java from larvae in spun shoots of Glydne soya, 



32 LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MIOROLEPIDOPTBBA. 

ENABMONIA AMPHILEOTA, MBYRIOK, (PLATE XX). 

Laspeyresia amphilecta, Meyr., Exot. Micr. Ill 145 (1925) JJ} 1 . 

Bred at Pusa in July from a larva boring shoot of Cordia myxa. 1 
Larvae were found at Pusa on 14th July 1920 boring in shoots of Cordia myxa. 
The larva usually enters at the axil of a topleaf and the bored portion swells and 
forms a slight elongate gall, the larval frass usually forming a small mass around 
the hole through which it is ejected. Sometimes the gall formation does not extend 
throughout the bored portion ; the top of the shoot may be swollen, whilst the larva 
has bored down several inches from the top. The growth of affected shoots is 
checked to some extent but after some time they seem to recover and outgrow the 
attack. Examination of old shoots reveals swollen portions which have burst 
longitudinally, the corroded interior being thus exposed and covered with a corky 
growth. The larva, almost full-grown, is about 8 mm. long and 1-5 mm. broad, 
cylindrical, tapering slightly posteriorly ; head dark brown, shiny ; prothoracic 
shield dark brown, divided medially ; colour of body, including legs and prolegs, 
pale yellow ; skin rather glossy ; warts rather small, greyish ; prolegs equally deve- 
loped ; spiracles small, rounded, brown, connected by a whitish tracheal tube 
visible through the skin. 

Pupation takes place within the bored stem, the larva preparing a hole of 
exit whoso mouth is kept closed with a thin layer of bark. Pupa about 
6 mm. long by 1-75 mm. broad, cylindrical, tapering slightly towards either 
extremity ; brownish yellow ; second to seventh abdominal segments with two 
dorsal transverse rows of spines, those of anterior row the larger, but on second 
segment both rows minute ; eighth and ninth segments with one row of scattered 
large spines ; anal extremity rounded, dorsal edge with six spines rather upcurvod ; 
spiracles with prominent brown rims. (Pusa Insectary Cage-Slip No. 2057). 

ENABMONIA ANTICIPANS, MEYBICK. 

.Laspeyresia anticipans, Meyr., Exot. Micr. Ill 342 (1927) ?*. 

Bred at Pollachi (Coimbatore District) in August from a larva webbing flowers 
of Mangifera indica (Menon) 1 . 

ENABMONIA CHELIAS, MEYBICK. 

Laspeyresia chelias, Meyr., B. J. XVIII 145-146 (1907) J l ; Ann. 

Transv. Mus. II 229 (1911) 2 ; Meyr., Exot. Micr. Ill 342 (1927) 3 

E. chdias is known from Ceylon (Maskeliya 1 , Hambantota, Haldummulla and 

Pattipola), from Karwar in N. Kanara, and from Pretoria 2 in the Transvaal. It 

was bred in August at Karwar from a larva feeding among spun leaves on new shoots 

of Ochna (Ochnacett) ; pupa in a compact cocoon streaked reddish (Maxwell) 3 . 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XX 
Enarmonia amphUccto, Meyrick. 

a. Twig showing bored portion swelled up. 
6. Larva X 10. 
C. Pupa X 10. 
d. Moth X 10. 

(Smaller figures show natural size.) 



PLATE xx 




PLATE XXL 



tiNARMONlA KOENIGIANA, FABRICIUS. 

A 





1. Larva X 9. 

2. Pupa, X 9. 

3. Moth x 9. 

(Smaller figures show natural size.) 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLBPIDOPTERA. 



33 



ENARMONIA DBLINEANA, WALKER. 

Grapholitha delineana, Wlk., Cat. XXVIII 389-390 (1863) 1 . 

GrapholitJia apicatana, Wlk., Cat. XXVIII 390 (1863) 2 . 

Grapholitha tristriatana, Pag., Zoologica XXIX 224 (1900)*, 

Laspeyresia isacma, Meyr., B. J. XVIII 144 (1907) 4 . 

Laspeyresia delineana, Meyr., P. Z. R. 1908. 721 (1908) 6 . 

A widely-distributed species, known from China *, a , 5 , Bismarck Islands 3 ,, 
Transvaal 5 , Mauritius, 5 , and, within our limits, from Shillong and Cherrapunji 
(Khasi Hills), the Andamans, and Pusa. 

At Pusa it was reared on 2nd January 1929 from a larva found rolling Polyg- 
onum leaves. 

ENARMONIA JACULATRIX, MEYRICK. 

(Entl. Mem. VI 64-05). 

According to Hewlett (Ind. Ins. Life, p. 598 : 1909) the small Bombylid fly 
referred to by Lefroy in the note previously quoted, is Geron aryentifrons, Brunetti ; 
but it is possible that the Bombylid is a hyperparasite of the Hvmenopterous parasite 
which attacks these larva). 

The main emergence of the moths is usually about the first week in March, when 
small swarms may be seen dancing on the wing in the early morning until about 
9 A.M. 

Also occurs at Dehra Dun, Gurdaspur (Punjab) and probably whenever Da1her<iw 
xissoo grows in Northern India. 

ENARMONIA KOENIGIANA, FABRICIUS (PLATE XXI). 

Pyralis kamigiami, Fb., Syst. Entom., p. 653 (1775) 1 . 

Laspeyresia kccnigana, Fletcher, Ind. Agric. Ent. Mem. VI 62 (1921) 2 . 

This species was originally collected by Koenig in " India orient," by which we 
are to understand the Madras Presidency and probably Tranquebar. Wo know it 
from Coimbatore, Siruguppa (Coorg), N. Kanara, Belgaum, Surat, Karachi, Pusa, 
Chapra (N. Bihar), Purulia, from Minim and Tatkoii in Burma, Trincomali (Ceylon), 
Shangliai, Hainan, Tonkin, Kei Islands (New Guinea) and Brisbane (Queensland). 

Some specimens (e.g., from South India and Burma) have the forewing bright 
fulvous, whilst in others (mostly from North India) the fulvous ground-colour id 
marbled lighter and darker. At Pusa both forms may be brod at the same time 
and both seem to form only one species. 

Larvae were found at Pusa on 23rd November 1920 and on llth July 1929, in 
rolled or superimposed leaves of Nrm (Melia azadiracMa), nibbling the surfaces of 
the leave?. The larva is about 12 mm. long and 1-5 mm. broad, elongate, cylin- 
drical, tapering slightly posteriorly ; head yellowish-brown, glossy, partly retracted 

o2 



34 LTTB-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTERA. 

under prothorax ; prothoracic plate brown, not reaching pale yellowish anterior 
margin of segment ; legs pale greenish-yellow ; general colour dull greenish-yellow ; 
segmental interstices not well marked ; sotal hairs minute, brown, single ; prolegs 
pale yellowish, with complete circles of booklets. 

When young, the larva bores the tender topshoota of its foodplant and at that 
stage is yellowish-white with black head and prothoracic plate. Sometimes, the 
larva continues as a shoot-borer until it is full-grown, but most larvae seem to be 
leaf-feeders. 

Pupation takes place in a white cocoon formed in a fold made by rolling the 
margin of a leaf. The pupa is about 5-7 mm. long by 1-0-1 -5 mm. broad, cylindrical, 
tapering gradually posteriorly ; yellowish-brown, glossy ; segments distinct ; third. 
to eighth abdominal segments with two dorsal transverse rows of brown spines, 
those of the anterior row the larger ; second and ninth abdominal segments with 
only a single row of smaller spines ; spiracles oval, brown, cremaster dark brown, 
with eight brown hooked hairs. 

The pupal period varies from about five days in the Hot Weather to 
about twentyfour days in the Cold Weather. (Pusa Insectary Cage-Slips Nos. 2114 
and 2461). 

ENARMONIA MALESANA, MEYRICK. 

I/aspeyresia malcsaiw, Meyr., Exot. Micr. II 352 (1920) 1 ; Fletcher, Ind. Agrio. 

Ent. Mem. VI 64 (1921) 2 . 
This was also reared from pods of Cassia auriculata from Bombay (Beesou)*. 

ENARMONIA OCHROPA, MEYRICK (PLATE XXII). 



Liprptycka ochropa, Meyr., B. J. XVI 587 
Laspeynwa ochropa, Meyr., 11 J. XV11I 144 (1907) 2 . 

This was originally described from Kandy. 

Larvuu were found at Pusa in October 1920 and 1921 and in November and 
December 1920 rolling and binding together four or five leaves of Desmodium sp. 
by means of line silken threads on the underside, living inside a felted mass of leaf- 
hairs on the underside of the leaves and feeding on the green tissue of the leaf and the 
surface between the veins. Some larva* also boro in the buds and in the long hairy 
lanceolate stipules. 

When first found the larva was about 2-5 mm. long and 0*5 mm. broad, cylin- 
drical ; head prominent, black, bilobcd, with a basal depression, partly retracted 
within prothorax, which was pale yellowish, shiny ; legs small, glossy, whitish ; 
general colour pale yellowish ; body soft. 

The full-grown larva is about 4 mm. long and 0-75 mm. broad, cylindrical ; when 
not active the posterior half of the body is swollen, due to contraction of the 



PLATE XXIL 



ENARMONIA OCHROPA, MBYRIOK. 






a. Leaflets bound up X 5. 
6, Larva X 15. 

c. Pupa X 15. 

d. Moth X 15. 

SmaU figures X 1. 



PLATE XXIII. 



ENARMONIA STAPHIDITIS, MEYBICK. 








1. Caterpillar X 9. 

2. Pupa X 9. 

3. Moth X 9. 
(Smaller figures show natural sizes.) 



LtFE-HtSTORtES OF tNPlAN MICROLEPIDOITERA, 36 

segments ; head brown, posterior half retracted within the brown, chitinized pro- 
thoracic shield, vertical triangle of head conspicuously bordered with dark brown. 
Pupation takes place in a cocoon formed within a few leaves bound together. 
The pupa is about 3-6 mm. long and 1 mm. broad, light brown ; wing-cases reaching 
nearly to apex of fourth abdominal segment ; eye-cases rounded, black ; third to 
seventh abdominal segments with two dorsal transverse rows of small spines, those 
of the anterior row the larger ; eighth to tenth segments with single rows of brown 
spines ; spiracles small, light brown, oval. From a larva which pupated on 2nd 
December 1921 the moth emerged on 27th February 1922 ; the pupal period is 
doubtless much shorter in warmer weather. (Pusa Insectary Cage-Slip No. 2207). 

ENARMONIA PALAMEDES, MEYRICK. 

Laspeyresia palamedes, Meyr., Exot. Micr. I 564 (1916) <J l . 

Reared at Coimbatore and Pusa from larvae on tamarind leaves, also at Nagpur 
from larva in flower-buds of Bauliinia purpurea and at Ramandrug " on Lantana " 
(not apparent whether bred or captured as adult). It is also known from Java. 

ENARMONIA PERFRICTA, MEYRICK. 

(Entl Mem. VI 201, t. 61, f. 2). 

Also reared at Pusa from lurva boring in pods of Ponyamia ylabra, feeding on the 
seeds, and from larva boring shoot of Cordia myxa. 

ENARMONIA PSEUDONECTIS, MEYRICK. 

(Entl. Mem. VI 66, t. 15). 

Also reared at Pusa from larva boring topshoot of Tephrosia purpurea. It has 
also been received from Indore as attacking sann-hemp there. 

ENARMONIA PYCNOCHRA, MEYRICK. 

Laspeyresia pycnochra, Meyr., Exot. Micr. II 353 (1920) 1 ; Fletcher, Ind. 

Agric. Ent. Mem. VI 64 (1921) 2 ; Meyr., Exot. Micr. Ill 448 (1928) 3 . 
Of four specimens bred by the Forest Entomologist from seeds of Abrus preca- 
torius from Saharanpur, the female appears identical with the single female (type) 
previously bred at Coimbatore from larva in pod of Sesbania grandiflora.* 

ENARMONIA STAPHIDITIS, MEYRICK (PLATE XXIII). 

Laspeyresia stapMitis, Meyr., Exot. Micr. Ill 604-605 (1930) <J $*. 

Larvae were found at Pusa in November and December 1928 boring flower-bearing 
twiga of Bauhinia purpurea (Leguminosse). No outward sign of damage was visible 



36 LIFE-HISTORIES OP INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTERA. 

and the iarv were found in twigs collected at random. In a few cases larval frass 
may be seen on the twigs and in some cases the narrower twigs had holes, apparently 
holes of exit of larvae which had come out to enter into larger twigs. The larvao 
also bore in the flower-buds and in the pods. 

The full-grown larva is about 9 mm. long and 1 mm, broad ; head small, shiny, 
brown ; prothoracic shield chitinized, shiny, piceous ; general colour pale greenish, 
becoming creamy-yellowish when full-fed ; warts chitinized, bearing single hairs, 
dorsal tubercles arranged trape/oidally, anterior tubercles rounded and larger than 
the posterior, oval tubercles ; anal plate chitinized, pieeous ; prolegs small, with 
complete circles of booklets on the rounded soles ; spiracles small, with clear centres 
and black rims. 

Pupation takes place in a small oval cocoon covered with black pellets of frass. 
On emergence of the moth, the pupncase is extruded for two-thirds of its length 
from the cocoon, to which it remains attached. 

The pupa is about 6 mm. long by 1-75 mm. broad, yellowish-brown ; wing-cases 
reaching to middle of fourth abdominal segment ; second to seventh abdominal 
segments with two dorsal transverse rows of spines, those of anterior row the larger ; 
eighth segment with a single row of spines ; anal segment with six spines and the 
cremastral hairs ; spiracles, rounded, with broad dark-brown rims. The pupal period 
is about three weeks in December. (Pusa Insectary Cage-Slip No. 2413). 

ENARMONIA STIRPICOLA, MEYRICK. (PLATE XXIV). 

Laspeyresia stirpicola, Meyr., Ind. Agric. Ent. Mem. IX 259, t. 24 (1926) 1 ; 
Meyr., Exot. Micr. Ill 342 (1927) [redescr.] 2 . 

Notes on the life-history have been published by Rai Bahadur 0. S. Misra and 
are repeated for the sake of completeness. 

" During a visit to Daltonganj in May 1925, the abnormal presence of these 
lepidopterous larvae, boring into the shoots of pollarded Butea /random (Palas) was 
first noticed. Practically every Palas tree in the locality was more or less affected 
and in some branches as many as seven borers were tound. The growth is stunted, 
galls are produced, bark becomes rough and hard and there is considerable outflow 
of resinous matter and the tree becomes unfit for propagation of lac. This insect 
may well be regarded as a serious pest of Butea frondosa, a tree used extensively 
for lac cultivation. 

" Eggs are laid in the axils of leaf -buds and larvae tunnel into the stems, reaching 
the pith, on which they feed. The hole of entry of the larva into the stem is quite 
conspicuous on account of scarlet coloured granules of resin. The full-fed larva 
(Plate XXIV, fig. 2) is 11-12 mm. long, 2-3 2-5 mm. broad. It has a shining 
dark, chocolate-brown, heavily chitinized head!, with a triangular excavation in 
front. The mandibles are very powerful. The prothoracic dorsal plate is well 
chitinized and has a median longitudinal lighter streak and is armed with a few 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIV. 

Laspeyresia stir pic oh, Mey. 

1 Borer ....... Dorsal view . X '16 

2 Borer, immediately before pupation . , Lateral view . , . X -16 
a Mandible of *he borer .... .... X -120 

4-5 Spiracles of the borer ... .... X -300 

6 Pupa ....... Dorsal view . . X-16 

7 Pupa . ...... Ventral view , . X-16 

8 Adult moth ...... Dorsal view . X-12 

9 Triangulinids within the larva of the borer 

(much enlarged). 

10 TrianguliDi'd ...... Dorsal view . X -300 



&NARMONJA STIRPICOLA, MEYB. 
sia stirpicola, Moyr. 



PLATE XXIV. 




PLATE XXV. 



P5 
H 




x 

a 




LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICKOLBPIDOPTEEA. 37 

whitish, porrect hairs. The rest of the body is creamy yellow and armed with hairs 
arising from brownish tubercles. When full fed the larva makes a silken gallery 
and pupates in it. The pupa (Plate XXIV, figs. 6, 7) is light brown in colour, with 
black eyes and prominent thoracic segments. Tho abdominal segments have two 
rows of short spines near each end, the anal segment has a few short hairs." (C. 8. 
Misra, Ent. Mem. IX 259-260 : 1926). 

ENARMONIA TORODELTA, MEYRICK. 

(Entl. Mem. VI 67). 

Also from Ceylon, where it was reared at Suduganga (near Matale*), by R. Senior- 
White, from larva boring in seed of Phaseolus vulgaris, and it has also been found 
at Pusa, this being the first record from Northern India. 

ENARMONIA TRICENTRA, MEYRICK (PLATE XXV). 

(Entl, Mem. VI 65-66.) 

Larvae were found at Pusa in August and September 1920 boring in the tops of 
stems and branches of Tephrosia pur pur ea. The region of tho inflorescence of the 
plant is usually selected for attack, the topshoot leaves becoming shrivelled and the 
bored stem swollen into a sort of -gall. 

The full-grown larva is about 9 mm. long and 1-5 mm. broad, cylindrical, mode- 
rately stout, pale yellow ; head and prothoracic plate shiny yellowish-brown ; warts 
with small, white, single hairs (not shown in the figures) ; prolegs small, glassy white, 
with the booklets arranged in a complete circle. When full-fed and about to pupate, 
the larva becomes bright pink in colour. 

Pupation takes place in a white cocoon formed inside a rolled leaf. The pupa 
is about 4*5 mm. long and 1-5 mm. broad, rather stout, shiny yellow-brown ; second 
to seventh abdominal segments with two dorsal transverse rows of minute spines, 
those of anterior row slightly larger than those of posterior ; eighth to tenth segments 
with a single row of minute spines ; anal segment without any anal process except 
cremastral hairs ; spiracles oval, slightly raised, brown. The pupal period is about 
a week in October. (Pusa Insectary Cage-Slip No. 2083). 

This species also occurs in Tonkin. 

GELECHIADAE. 
APATETRIS CAECIVAGA, MEYRICK. 

Apatetris caerivaga, Meyr., Exot. Micr. Ill pp. 480 (December 1928) 481, 
(April 1929). 

Described from a single male stated to have been bred in April from Tamarix 
articulate from Gazighat (near Multan, Punjab), together with several examples 



38 LIFE-HISTORIES OP INDIAN MICROLEPiDOPtERA. 

of Trachypepla picromorpha, but, as the larva was not observed, the single example 
might have been introduced by chance 1 . 

PALTODORA OYTISELLA, CURTIS. 

Ckodora cytisetta, Curt., Brit. Entom. XIV, 67 1 (1837) 1 . 
Paltodora cytisella, Meyr., Rev. Handb. p. 605 (1928) a . 

This is an European species whose range extends to Eastern Siberia and Assam. 
It is known from Upper Shillong and probably occurs throughout the Himalaya. 
The larva is briefly described 2 as " dark red ; plate of 2 black-brown ; spiracles 
white ; in slight swellings in stem of bracken (Ptms aquilinn) ". 

ARISTOTELIA ^RTICTTLATA, MEYRICK (PLATE XXVI). 

Aristotelia articulata, Meyr., Exot, Micr. II, 119-120 (1918) 1 . 

Described from a single female from Coimbatore 1 , tin's has since been reared 
at Puna in June from larvae on spun leaves of Ammannia ap. (Lythracoce) 2 . 

Larvae were found at Puaa on 20th May 1921 on leaves of Ammannia sp., tying 
together the sessile lanceolate leaves with silken threads and feeding on the meso- 
phyll tissue, leaving only the lower epidermis and, in places, patches of uneaten 
green tissue. The larva? are very active. * 

The larva is about 7 mm. long by 0-75 mm. broad* cylindrical, rather elongate ; 
head and prothoracic shield blackish ; thoracic segments enlarging progressively 
posteriad ; mesothorax and metathorax dark pinkish-purple, paler ventrally ; 
mesothorax with an anterior subdorsal white dot ; logs rather short, black ; general 
colour of body light green tinged pale yellowish ; abdominal segments with a mid- 
dorsal and subdorsal and spiracular dull-green stripes, the subdorsal one slightly 
broader than the others and with yellowish interruptions ; hairs short, bristly, 
blackish, arising singly from minute black warts ; prologs small, rod-like, pale 
yellowish, glossy, with hooklets in complete circles ; spiracles minute, with blackish 
or dark-brown rims. Before pupation the body-colour of the larva becomes pale 
yellowish and the green stripes become bright purple. 

Pupation takes place in an elongate white cocoon spun on the surface of a leaf 
or under the curled edge of a leaf ; a small opening, for the emergence of the moth, 
is left at the anterior end of the cocoon. The pupa is about 3*25 mm. long and 1 mm. 
broad, cylindrical, tapering gjadually ; yellowish-brown ; tip of anal segment 
truncate ; spiracles very minute, brown. The pupal period is 5 or 6 days at the end 
of May. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip No. 2167.) 

ARISTOTELIA PALAMOTA, MEYRICK. 

Aristotelia palamota, Meyr., Exot. Micr. Ill, 274 (1926). 
Bred at Pusa in June from larvae on spun leaves of Ammannia sp. (Lythracese) 1 . 



PLATE XXVI. 



ARISTOTELIA ARTICULATA, MEYBICK. 




a. The plant showing eaten leaves. 
/>. Tlio larva X 10. 

c. Tho pupa x 10. ' 

d. The moth x[10. 

(Small figures show natural sizes.) 



XXVtl. 



>*-' 



^ 




PLATE XXVI11. 



BPHYSTERIS CHERSAEA, MEYBTCK. 




1 

1, 2. Section through basal portion of ratoon shoots of Sugarcane bored by larvae. 
3, 4. Larva enlarged and natural size. 

5. Diagrammatical dorsal view of larva. 

(Figures after Jarvis.) 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MtCROLEPIDOFTKKA. 39 

This was reared at Pusa from larvae collected on Ammannia sp. on 20th May 
1921. They were feeding on leaves in the same way as larveo of A. articulata, Meyr., 
but were not distinguished from those at the time. The pupal period was four days 
at the end of May. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip No. 2170.) Larvae were again found 
on Ammannia leaves at Pusa in October 1924 and October 1928, but were not des- 
cribed. 

EMPEDAULA INSIPIENS, MEYKICK (PLATE XXVII). 

Empedaula insijriens, Moyr., Exot. Micr. II, 149 (1918) 1 ; Meyr,, Exot. Micr, 
III 11 (1923) 2 . 

Originally described from a single female taken at Pusa and afterwards bred at 
Pusa from larvae rolling leaves of Breynia rJiamtioides (Euphorbiaoeoe) 2 . 

Larvae were found at Pusa on 18th April 1920 rolling and feeding on topshoots 
of Karjani (Breynia rlanwoifUx) but no description of the larva was made. It was 
noted that many pupated on 21st April and that moths i merged on 27th April (1), 
28th April (9), 4th May (3) mid 8th May (1) (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip No. 2001). 
It was also reared at Pusa on 1st May 1922 from larva rolling Breynm leaves. 

STRNOLKCHIA TRICHASPJS, MEYKICK. 

Rccurvaria trichaspis, Moyr., Exot. Micr. IT, 131 (1918) ;y i . 
Klenokchia tricJuispix, Moyr., Exot, Micr. Ill, 484 (1929) 8 . 

"Described from Maskeliya 1 , in Coy Ion, and subsequently stated to have been 
bre^ at Gulrnarg in April from Pinus excclsa. This latter record requires amend- 
ment flip l)r. Beefion informs me (in Hit.) that those examples were bred at Dohra Dun 
in Jm*e 1928 from clusters of needles of Pinus excclsa collected at the end of May 
in Ferozepur Nullah, below Gulmarg ; the needles then had larvso mining in them. 

EPHYSTERTS CHERSJBA, MEYRICK (PLATE XXVIII). 

(Entl Mem. VI. 72.) 

Ephysteris chersa* a Ghosh, Kept. Fourth Entl. Meeting, p. 127, t. 23, f . 2 
(1921) ; Jarvis, Queensland Bur. Sugar Expt. Stations, Entl. Bull. 
3 (2nd edit.) pp. 17-19, t. 1, ff. C, J. 1 (1927). 

The caterpillars occurred at Pusa in small numbers boring China stems in June 
and rice stems in July. The full-grown larva is about 6 mm. long and cylindrical in 
shape ; head reddish brown ; prothoracic shield blackish, divided medially ; general 
colour of body pale yellow, with a broad dark grey band on each segment ; prolegs 
equally developed. PUJ a about 4 mm. long, cylindrical, tapering posteriorly ; anal 
extremity rounded with a few short thin hooked hairs dorsally ; in colour yellow- 
brown. In one case the larva left the stem and pupated underground. (Ghosh). 



40 LIFE-HISTORIES OP INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTERA. 

Jarvis has described the larva as boring in cane shoots in Queensland. He states 
that this was bred for the first time in Queensland from young ratoon canos in 1919 
and " evidently attacks the crop at a very early stage of growth, nearly all the 

shoots collected in November having been destroyed before attaining a height 

of nine inches (stem growth). Outwardly the damage to young ratoons corres- 
ponds in general appearance with that caused by [other common borers], the des- 
truction of the central or heart leaves being a conspicuous and certain indication 
of such internal trouble. Upon removing the few short basal leaves surrounding 
the bottom of an affected ratoon one or more tiny pinholes in the side, near or under 
the ground level, are usually discernible, and if the shoot be pared away with a sharp 
knife r.t this spot a narrow section of its internal basal portion is seen to have been 
devoured transversely across the stem at one or two places in such manner as 
to completely sever the central core. The vascular tissue immediately above the 
seat of this injury soon reddens and gradually decays upwards throughout the length 
of the ratoon, while the heart leaves, deprived of their usual supply of moisture, 
quickly wither and turn light yellowish brown. In some instances sides of stems 
were found to be spirally ringbarked, as it were, near the ground ; no sign of such 
tunnelling, however, being noticed until the lower leaf sheaths had been removed. 
After destroying the heart leaves in this manner the larva proceeds to tunnel in a 
downward direction or travel upwards, in the latter case consuming first the dying 
tissue, and then often boring erratically around the side of the shoot among the 

softer portions The caterpillars of this tiny borer never feed upon or 

inhabit the central rotting core, often, indeed, vacating a shoot after having devoured 
the juicy basal part and entering another." 

Mr. Jarvis describes the larva as " pale creamy yellow, broadly banded trans- 
versely on dorsal surface of eleven body segments with a greyish-pink suffusion, 
the bands (when seen magnified) consisting of innumerable minute ring-like dots. 
Occasional specimens just before pupation are dark-reddish. First thoracic segment 
with two very irregular somewhat triangular or Y-shaped brown blotches, usually 
blackish posteriorly but sometimes wholly black, and composed of granular markings. 
Head light yellowish -brown, partly concealed in first body segment ; mandibles 
dnd outlining of eyes reddish ; ocelli six, four of them more or less obscured by an 
irregular black suffused blotch. Anal segment with two centro-dorsal, white, 
slightly tuberculate spots surrounded by a dark-brown ring of granular markings. 
Body subcylindrical, obtusely pointed at each end. Length about 5 mm." 



PEUCOTELES HERPESTICA, MEYRICK. 
Peucoteles herpestica, Meyr., Exot. Micr. IV, 57-58 (1931) 1 . 

Bred in September from Finns khasia from Shillong (Forest Research 
Institute) 1 . 



PLATE XXIX. 



TELPHUSA MELANOZONA, MBYRICK. 




a. Part of the plant showing a mined leaf. 
6. The larva x 13. 

c. The pupa X 13. 

d. The moth X 13. 

(Smaller figures show natural size). 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTKRA. 41 

APHANOSTOLA ATRIPALPIS, MEYRICK. 
Aphanostola atripalpis, Meyr., Exot. Micr. IV, 57 (1931) 1 . 
ftearod at Pusa from pupae found on leaves of Acacia catachu. 1 . 

TELPHUSA IMPROVIDA, MEYRICK. 
Tdphusa improvida, Meyr., Exot. Micr. Ill, 275-276 (1926). 

Reared at Karwar in September from a yellowish-green larva with dark green 
dorsal canal found on Odina wodier (Anacardiaceae) in a cell between overlapping 
edges of leaves spun flatly together, excrement ejected through a hole in underside 
of cell ; cocoon flat, spun between leaves (Maxwell) 1 . 

TELPHUSA MELANOZONA, MEYRIOK (PLATE XXIX). 
(Entl Mem. VI. 71.) 

Larvae were found at Pusa on 13th November 1920, mining the fleshy leaves of 
Euphorbia nmifolia, eating away the succulent fleshy tissues between the surfaces 
of tho leaf. The galleries open into small holes on cither surface and through these 
the frass is extruded. 

The larva is about 10 mm. long and rather over 1 mm. broad, elongate, cylin- 
drical, tapering very slightly towards either extremity ; head yellowish-brown, 
broader than long ; prothorax yellowish, shining, with slight plate ; legs shining 
pale yellow ; general colour dull yellow ; hairs short, single ; prolegs shining very 
pale yellow, with complete oval circle of booklets ; spiracles minute. 

The larva emerges from the mine when full-fed and spins a white silken cocoon 
in any convenient corner. The pupa is about 4-5 mm. long and 1-5 mm. broad, 
subcylindrical, tapering gradually posteriorly ; yellow-brown, glossy ; spiracles 
small (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip No. 2163). 

Larvae collected in November (at the beginning of the Cold Weather) formed 
cocoons then but remained as resting larvae for some months, in one case until 2nd 
March and in another until about 18th May, the moth in the latter case emerging 
on 24th May. This long resting-larva stage forms an interesting parellel to that 
found in Platyedra gossypiella. Other larvae collected in the Rains, on 20th July 
1921, showed no such resting-stage, but pupated on 25th July, the moths emerging 
after a few days. As more larv were found on 23rd August 1921 there would 
appear to be a constant succession of broods between about April and November 
and resting-stage larvae during the remainder of the year. 

GBLECHIA TAMARICIELLA, ZELLER. 
(Ent. Mem. VI. 82.) 

This is a common species throughout the Plains of Northern India in all districts 
where Tamarix occurs. 



42 LIFE-HISTORIES OP INDIAN MtCROLEHDOPTB&A. 

Larvae were found at Pusa on 14th March 1931 feeding on leaves of 
galliea. The full-grown larva is about 7 '5 mm. long and 1*75 mm. broad, reddish- 
purple, with very short bristly hairs arising singly ; thoracic legs colourless ; prolegs 
thin, cylindrical, colourless, with brown booklets ; spiracles minute. Pupation 
takes place in a thin, flimsy, transparent white cocoon spun between leaves of the 
foodplant. The pupa is about 0-25 mm. long and 1-5 mm. broad, cylindrical, tapering 
gradually posteriorly, yellowish brown ; segments distinct, except eighth 
to tenth abdominals ; wing-cases reaching to middle of fifth abdominal segment ; 
terminal segment with one prominent brown spine stouter than the fine cremastral 
hooks; spiracles minute, oval, slightly raised ; prothorax and all abdominal 
segments closely covered with small pits in each of which is situated a very minute 
single spine. Pupal period about nine days in March. (Pusa Insoctary Cage-slip 
No 2626.) 

PLATYEDRA UOSSYPIELLA, SAUNDERS. 

(Entl Mem. VI. 79-82, t. 19.) 

Further information on the Pink Bollworm of Cotton will be found in tho Roport 
of the Proceedings of the Third Entomological Meeting (Fletcher, I, 153 ; Fletcher 
and Misra, II, 445, 453 ; Gougli, II, 80-92 ; and Willcocks, II, 532-547 : 1920). It 
has been found in the Malay Peninsula on cotton (Corbett and Gates, Dept. Agric. 
F. M. S. Bull. 38, p. 8 ; 1920) and has invaded the Southern United States, Southern 
Europe, and Northern Australia. Good figures will be found in a paper by Heinrich 
in the Journal of Agricultural Research, XX, 808-809, t. 101 ff. A,B, t. 103 f. A, t. 105 
ff. C, E, t. 106 f. A, t. 107 ff. A-D (Mch. 1921). It is, of course, vory easily carried 
to new localities by larva) in cotton seeds, especially in uncleaned or badly cleaned 
cotton, but its normal ability for dispersal by natural means is much greater than is 
generally realized. Experiments and observations in America have shown that 
it may bo carried in the adult state by Upper Air Currents for as much as two hundred 
miles from its place of origin. Tho connection of such wide dispersal with any merely 
local methods of control is obvious. 

In the Sudan the Braconid, Microbracon kirkpatricki, Wilkinson, is an important 
parasite and attempts to distribute this have been mado by tho Imperial Institute 
of Entomology (Thompson, The Biological Control of Insect and Plant Pests, pp. 
104-105: 1930). 

STEUASTA VARIANA, MEYBICK. 

(Entl Mem. VI. pp. 83, 202, t. 62 f. 1.) 

This has been reared in the Malay Peninsula from larvae on groundnut, Cassia 
fistula (tying the leaves), and C. mimosoides (Corbett and Gates, Dept. Agric. F. M. S. 9 
'Bull. 38, p. 8 ; 1926). 

This has been reared from lame on leaves of Cassia tora at Pusa and at Tinsukia 
(Assam). 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTBEA. 43 

PHTHORIMJEA ATOMATINA, MBYEICK. 

Dr. C. Beeson informs me (in Hit., 8 May 1931) that this has been bred " from 
galls in Tamarix dioica stems collected near Ghazighat, Multan District ; caged in 
September 1928, emerged April-June 1929 ; the galls are elongate fusiform, up to 
an inch or so long, with a large chamber ; emergence hole circular, at one end. The 
larval remains are not good enough to describe." This species is not known to me 
and its description is still unpublished. 

PHTHORIBOEA BLAPSIGONA, MEYRICK. 

(Entt. Mem. VI. 75, t. 17 f. 1.) 

The larva) are parasitized by a Microbracon sp., as recorded by Ramakrishna 
Ayyar (Rept. Third Entl. Meeting III 933 : 1920). 

PHTHORIM^SA ERGASIMA, MEYRICK. 

(Entl Mem. VI. 76-77, t. 17 f. 2.) 

This has also been found mining brinjal loaves in Iraq, and it has been reared 
in the Malay Peninsula from Solanum melongena and S. verbasdfolium (Corbett and 
Gates, Dept. Agric. F. M. 8., Bull. 38, p. 8 : 1926). 

PHTHORIALEA HELIOPA, LOWER. 

(Entl. Mem. VI. 73-74.) 

Reared at Pusa in February 1928 from larvae boring in topshoots of Solanum 
melongcna, a hitherto unrecorded foodplant. 

This species has also been reared in the Malay Peninsula from tobacco (Corbett 
and Gates, Dept. Agric. F. M. S., Bull. 38, p. 8 : 1926) and in Palestine from Iarva3 
making galls in tobacco steins (Bodenheinier, Bull. Soc. Ent. Eyypte 1926, pp. 66-67, 
f. 1 : 1927). In the latter reference figures of the gall and moth are given. 

In India it has been noted to be parasitized by a Braconid of the genus Chelonella 
(Ramakrishna Ayyar, Rept. Third Entl. Meeting III 93-1 : 1920). 

PlITHORIM^SA OPERCULELLA, ZELLER. 

(Entl Mem. VI. 75-76, t. 18.) 

No parasites of this destructive pest, which is of comparatively recent intro- 
duction, have been rioted in India. In California an important enemy is Micro- 
bracon jolianseni, Viereck, and attempts are being made to cultivate this by the 
Imperial Institute of Entomology. (Thompson, The Biological Control of Insect 
and Plant Pests, p. 104 : 1930.) 



44 LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTERA. 

Its distribution within our limits has been extended to Shillong (August-October 
1919), Suduganga (Matale district, Ceylon ; August 1918), Ramgarh (Kumaon : 
August 1918). It has been reared at Pusa on more than one occasion from larvae 
mining potato leaves. 

NOTHRIS HASTATA, MEYRICK (PLATE XXX). 

Nothris hastata, Meyr., Exot. Micr. II, 152 (1918). 

Reared at Pusa 24th April 9th May 1928 from larva) found forming cocoons 
inside bamboo sheaths on 27th March and 5th April. The larvee do not scern to feed 
on the bamboo sheaths but merely go inside the fibrous tissue to form a cocoon 
under shelter. The real foodplant is not known. 

The full-grown larva is about 10 mm. long and 1-75 mm. broad, cylindrical, 
tapering slightly posteriorly ; head glossy, reddish-brown, ocellar region blackish ; 
thoracic shield black, chitinized, with a median dividing line, anterior edge colour- 
less ; thoracic legs blackish except for brownish terminal segment ; general colour 
of thorax and abdomen salmon-pink (this colour being perhaps only acquired prior 
to pupation) ; segments distinct, with transverse dorsal creases and folds ; hairs 
fine, minute, arising singly from minute, dark brown, chitinized tubercles, of which 
the anterior trapezoidals are the smallest whilst the lateral tubercles are larger and 
more prominent ; spiracles minute, rounded, with narrow blackish rims enclosing 
clear centres ; prolegs five, short, cylindrical, glossy, creamy yellowish, with hooklota 
on incomplete circles, a small outer portion being free of hooklets ; anal plate 
chitinized, blackish brown. Pupa riot described. Pupal period five to eleven days 
in April. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 2394.) This species was also bred at Pusa on 
25th February 1930 from a pupa found inside a bamboo sheath on 7th February. 

POLYHYMNO ALCIMACHA, MEYRICK. 

Polyhymno alciniacha, Meyr., Exot. Micr. II, 129 (1918). 

Described from South India and Assam. 

This species was reared at Pus* on 3rd July 1930 from a pupa found on a leaf 
of Acacia catechu. 

COLUBODES ACANTHOPA, MEYRICK. 

Idiophantis acanthopa, Meyr., Exot. Micr. IV, 64 (1931) 1 . 
Bred at Dehra Dun in September from Eugenia jambolana (Myrtacea*) 1 . 

COLOBODES CHIRIDOTA, MEYRICK. 

(Entl Mem. VI. 72.) 

This has been reared in the Malay Peninsula from Eugenia malaccensis, E.jawbos, 
and Durio zibethinm (galls) (Corbett and Gates, Dept. Agric. F.M.S., Bull. 38, p. 8 ; 
1926). 



NOTHRIS HASTATA, METRIC*. 



PLATE XXX. 






a. Larva X 0. 

b. Pupa X 9. 

c. Moth X 9. 

(The small figures are 1J tirnea the natural sizes.) 



PLATE XXXI. 



STOMOPTERYX SUBSECIVELLA, ZELLISR. 




1. Mined leaf upper surface, natural size. 

2. Larva X 15. 

3. Pupa X 12. 

4. Moth X 9- 

5. Head of moth X 18. 

(The small figures ehuw the natural sizes). 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTERA. 45 

STOMOPTEBYX SPHENODOXA, MEYRICK. 
Stotnopteryx sphenodoxa, Meyr., Exot. Micr. IV, 63 (1931) 1 . 

Bred at Mahableshwar in May from pupae in folded edge of leaves of Crotalaria 
(Leguminosae) ; empty mines of larvae observed in the leaves (JR. M. Maxwell) 1 . 



STOMOPTERYX SUBSECIVELLA, ZELLER (PLATE XXXI). 

Gelechia (Brachmia) subsecivella, Zell., Micr. Caffr. pp. 113-114 (1852) 1 . 
Xystophora modicella, van Deventer, Tijds. But. XLVII 4-7, t. 1 ff. 2, 2 rt (1904)*. 
Stomopteryx nerteria, Meyr. ; Fletcher, Ind. Agric. Ent. Mem. VI, 77-79 (1921) 3 . 

This little moth is one of those unfortunate insects which have suffered from 
an excess of nomenclature. Originally described by Zeller from a female from 
Rondebosch in South Africa, it was again described by van Deventer from Java, 
where the larva was found on Soya hispida, and redescribed by Moyrick in 190(5 
from Ceylon. It is, perhaps, as well that an earlier generic name, Harpayus, Ste- 
phens 1834, is invalid, being preoccupied by Vigors in Avos ; Spuler has, however, 
added the unnecessary generic synonym Schutzeia, Spuler 1910. 

S. subsecivella has been reared in the Malay Peninsula from larvae on groundnut, 
soybean and gingelly (Corbett and Gates, Dept. Agric. F.M.8., Bull. 38, p. 8 : 1926) ; 
it does not seem to have been noticed on gingelly (Sesanium indicum) in India. 
Rainakrishna Ayyar has recorded that the larva is parasitized by a species of Chelo- 
nella (Rept. Fourth Entl. Meeting, p. 365 : 1921). 

Larvae were found at Pusa on 9th January 1924 and on 24th November 1928, 
mining leaves of Psoralea corylifolia. The larva mines under the upper epidermis, 
anywhere on the upper surface of the leaf. Generally a single larva mines in one 
leaf, feeding on the entire green tissue between the leaf-surfaces, but any number, 
up to about a dozen, of larvae may be found in one leaf and, when this is badly mined, 
it crumples up and becomes brown and dry. After mining a small portion the larva 
prepares a silken gallery or pocket inside the mine, above which the upper surface 
of the leaf turns brownish ; this gallery servos as a recess for the deposition of frass, 
which collects in it, and alsj as a retreat for the larva which withdraws itself inside 
the gallery on disturbance. Having prepared this gallery, the larva extends its mine 
in front of it and feeds on the grem tissue of the leaf. If this gallery is cut open, 
the larva is able to repair it. If removed from its mine and placed on another leaf, 
the larva is capable of forming a fresh mine or it may bind two superposed leaves 
together and live in the shelter so formed. 

The full-grown larva is 5-6 mm. long and 1 mm. broad, moderately stout, cylin- 
drical, tapering gradually posteriorly from about the seven*;, abdominal segment ; 
head shiny, blackish, broader than long, nearly as broad as prothorax under which 
it is partially retracted ; prothoracic shield ohitinized, shiny, black, not reaching 



46 LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTERA. 

anterior margin of segment, with a fine yellowish median line which does not com- 
pletely divide it ; mesothorax and metathorax with fleshy folds anteriorly ; legs 
black, glossy, basal segment with an incomplete chitinized black ring ; general 
colour of body brown, mid-dorsally dull bluish edged with pinkish, or general colour 
light green with pale pinkish-purple sub-dorsal and spiracular stripes ; fine short 
brownish hairs arising singly from minute black tubercles which ar$ arranged trapo- 
zoidally on dorsum ; prolegs short, cylindrical, greyish or glassy whitish with a faint 
circular sooty basal band, with black booklets on upper and lower parts of sole, 
leaving the sides open ; anal plate slightly chitinized, shiny, blackish ; spiracles 
minute, circular, with clear centres and black rims. 

Pupation takes place inside the larval mine or between folds of leaves, in a thin 
white oval cocoon. The pupa is about 4-4'5 mm. long and 1-1-5 mm. broad, sepia- 
brown or blackish, shining ; wing-cases reaching nearly to apex of fifth abdominal 
segment ; all segments covered with numerous short fine light-brown or yellowish 
hairs, more prominent on dorsal surface of abdominal segments and on ventral 
surface not covered by wing-cases. The pupal period is about 6-15 days in the 
Cold Weather at Pusa. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slips Nos. 2280 and 2411.) 



ANACAMPSIS RIVALIS, MEYRICK. 

Anacampsis riralis, Meyr., Exot. Micr. II 141-142 (1918) 1 ; Meyr., Exot. Micr. 
Ill, 281 (1926) 2 . 

Described from tho Shevaroy Hills, 1 in South India, ami from KandyJ. arid bred 
at Kin-war in July by Mr. Maxwell. Larva elongate, strongly incised, 7 dull green, 
centre of each segment tinged reddish, a subdorsal series of undefined darker reddish 
spots ; spots black, witli long single bustles ; head orange ; plate of 2 orange, 
posterior edge black ; between spun leaves of Terminulia bdcrica (Combretaceae) 
(Maxwell) 2 . 

COCONYMPUA 1UIAUCHA, MtiYRlCK. 

Cvwnywpha iriarcha, Meyr., Exot. Micr. IV, 00 (11)3 1) 1 . 

Bred in December at Kakalundi, Malabar, from larva) feeding on leaves of 
Cocos nucifera (Y. Ramachandra Rao) 1 . 



TRICYANAULA ^METHYSTIAS, MEYRICK. 

Strobisia amethystias, Fletcher, 1ml. A^ric. Ent. Mem. VI, 89 (1920) 1 . 
Tricyatuiulci aincthyntias, Meyr., Wyts. Gen. Ins. fasc. 184, p. 131 (1926) 2 . 

Also found in South India 2 . Mr. Meyrick's collection contains a specimen from 
Dibidi, in Coorg. 



LIFE-HISTORIES OP INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTERA. 47 



BLANDIELLA, WAJLKBE. 

l Mem. VI, 83.) 

The third reference, with occurrence in Burma, refers to Onebala 
Zeller, and should be deleted. 

ONEBALA HIBISCI, STAINTON. 

Crasopola eudela, Turner, Proc. R. Soc. Queensl. XXXI, 160 (1919). 
Hekystogramma hibisti, Fletcher, Ind. Agric. Ent. Mem. VI, 87 (1920). 

This species is also found in Tonkin and N. Queensland. It is now placed in the 
genus Onebala, Walker 1864, of which Helcystogramma, Zeller 1877, is a synonym* 

ONEBALA LAMPROSTOMA, ZELLER. 

Hekystogramma lamprostoma, Fletcher, Ind. Agric. Ent. Mem. VI, 203 

(1920) 1 . 

Anacampsis scutata, Mey., T. E. 8. 1894, 14 (1894) 2 . 
Onebala blandiella [nee. Wlk.], Meyr., T. E. S. 1894, 16 (1894) 8 . 
Apron rema lamprostoma, Wlsm., E. M. M. XXXVII, 236 (1901 ) 4 . 
Onebala lamprostoma, Wlsm., E. M. M. XL, 267-268 (1904)*. 
Trichotaphe lamprostoma, Wlsm., P. Z. S. 1907, 943-944 (1908) fl . 

This was reared by Lord Walsingham in Tenerife from a larva on Convolvulus 
altha( oides* but the larva was not described. This species also occurs in Burma, 
where it has been found at Fort Stedman 2 and Mone 8 . 

MYCONITA PLUTELLIFORMIS, SNELLEN. 
Trichotaphe plutelliformis, Fletcher, Ind. Agric. Ent. Mem. VI, 203 (1920). 

This species is now placed in the genus Myconita, Moyr. 1923 (Exot. Micr. Ill, 27). 

Also reared at Pusa from larvae rolling sweet-potato leaf on 21st November 1919. 
The larva was described as about 12 mm. long and about 2 mm. broad, subcylin- 
drical, slightly tapering towards either extremity ; head shiny brown ; prothoraoio 
shield large, brown ; body uniformly pale yellow, acquiring a greenish tinge from 
ingested food ; hairs black, on minute black warts ; spiracles rounded, with clear 
centres and narrow dark-brown rims. Pupa 7-8 mm. long, tapering posteriorly 
to a point ; on each side of dorsal region a series of small black pits arranged longi- 
tudinally ; along mid-dorsal line the intersegmental areas between first four abdo- 
minal segments each with a black pit ; cremastral hairs entangled in silken fibres 
of cocoon formed in a rolled leaf. Pupal period about three weeks in December. 
(Pusa Insectary Cage-slip No. 1971.) 

NOTE. Of six larvae, one proved to be Onebala lamprostoma, Zeller, on emergence of moth. It 
i< possible, therefore, that the above description applies to 0. lamprostoma and not to M. pliUelliformi*. 
The description, however, agrees with that previously given of the larva of M . plutelliformis. 

T> 



48 LME-HISTOKJES OF INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTERA. 

METEORISTIS RELIGIOSA, MBYRICK, 
Meteoristis religiosa, Meyr., Exot. Micr. Ill, 28 (1923). 

Bred at Pusa in May from larva boring aerial roots of Ficus religiosa. It wa& 
also reared at Pusa on 10th June 1927 from larva in aerial roots of Ficus bengaknsis. 

EPIMIMASTIS GLAUCODES, MEYRICK. 

Epimimastis glaucodes, Meyr., B. J. XX, 461 (1910). 

Described from Maskeliya, in Ceylon. 

Has been reared in Travancore from larva on Calophyllum inophyllum (R. M* 
Pillai'e Cage-slip No. 525 [? S. 25]), but we have no details beyond the fact that 
the moth emerged on 18th February 1922. 

ANARSIA ACERATA, MEYRICK. 

(Entl Mem. VI, 91.) 

I think that the record of this from Saidapet (reared from larva on Cajanus 
indicus) may refer to Anarsia omoptila, Meyrick. The single female to which the 
record refers was'named as A. acerata (?) by Mr. Meyrick ; it is not in good condi- 
tion but is perhaps really A. omoptila. 

A. acerata has also been recorded from Tonkin. 

ANARSIA EXALLACTA, MEYRICK Ms. 

(Entl. Man. VI, 93.) 

The name exattacta is a nomen nudum and the information previously given should 
be referred to A. omoptila, Meyr. 

ANARSIA LINEAR ELLA, ZELLER (PLATE XXXII). 

Anarsia lineatdla, Zell, Isis XXXII 190 (1839) 1 . 

? Tinea puHateUa> Hb., Samml, Tin. t. 17 f. 118 (1796) 2 . 

Anarsia lineatella, F. R., Microlep. pp. 282-284, t. 94 ff. a4 % t. 95 fl. 1 a-ff 
(1841) 3 ; Herr.-Schaff., Schmett. Eur. V, 153 (1854) 4 ; Hein., Kieinschm 
Deutschl II, i. 3 348 (1870) 6 ; Spuler, Schmett. Eur. II, 353, t. 88 f. 58. 
(1910) 6 ; Marlatt, U. S. Dept. Agric. Ent. Bull. (n. s.) No. 10, p. 7 (1898) 
(econ. refs.) 7 ; Busck., Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XXV, 928-929 (1903) 8 . 

Anarsia ? piunidla, Clem., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., p. 169 (I860) . 

Anarsia lineatetta occurs within our limits in Kashmir. It is a widely distributed 
epecies, known from Central and South Europe, Asia Minor, Iraq, N. Africa, and 
N. America. It is a well-known pest of peach and of various species of Prunus, 
the larva boring in the shoots and fruits. In Iraq it is known to attack nectarine. 



PLATE XXXII. 



ANARSIA L1NEATELLA, ZLLLEB. 




a, a. Peach shoot showing boreholes of larvae. 

b. Larva, natural size. 
c, d, e. Larva ; details ; magnified. 
/. Pupa, natural size. 
g. Pupa, enlarged. 

h. Pupa, anal segment, more highly magnified. 
t. Moth, female. 

(Figures after Fischer von R >slerstamm). 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLEPIDOFTERA. 4:9 

ANARSIA MELANCHROFA, MEYRICK. 

Anarsia melanchropa, Meyr., Exot. Micr. Ill, 281-282 (1926) 1 . 
Bred at Dehra Dun in October from a larva feeding on flowers of Acacia gageana 
(Forest Entomologist). 

ANARSIA OMOPTILA, MEYRICK. 

Anarsia omoptila, Fletcher, Ind. Agric. Ent. Mem. VI, 94 (1921) 1 . 

Anarsia exallacta Fletcher, Kept. Third Entl. Meeting I, 155 (1920) 2 , Ind. 

Agric. Ent. Mem. VI, 93 (1921 ) 8 . 
? Anarsia acerata [neo Meyr.], Fletcher, Kept. Third. Entl. Meeting I, 155 

(1920) 4 , Ind. Agric. Ent. Mem. VI, 91 (1921 ) 5 . 

This species is found on Cajanus indicus. Mr. Meyrick's collection contains a 
specimen from Saidapet, and we have one from Saidapet (larva on red gram) which 
was determined as acerata ? by Mr. Meyrick but which is probably omoptila. 

ANARSIA TATULELLA, WALKER. 

Gelechia patuldla, Wlk., Cat. XXIX, 635 (1864) 1 . 

Anarsia patuklla, Meyr., B. J. XXII 168, (1913) 2 ; Meyr., Wyts. Gen. Ins., 

fasc. 184, p. 153 (1926) 3 . 

Described from Ceylon 1 , where it is known from Peradeniya 2 , Maskeliya 2 , 
Colombo and Trincomali. It also occurs in South India 3 , where it has been 
taken in the Nilgiris (3,500 ft.) 2 , and in Queensland 3 . 

It has been bred at Pusa on 14th August 1927, from a larva feeding on Tamarind 
leaflets, and I have taken it at Muktesar (Kumaon ; 7,000 ft.). 

ANARSIA SAGMATICA, MEYRICK. 

(Entl. Mem. VI. 94.) 

This species seems to be attached solely to Loranthu$> on which it has been reared 
at Pusa on several occasions, the larva boring in the flower-buds, whose contents are 
eaten out, and also feeding on the flowers and young leaves. When attacking the 
leaves, the larva usually binds together two opposite leaves with silken threads 
and lives within this shelter, eating holes in the leaves or nibbling the upper green 
tissue only. Sometimes also the larva feeds on tender twigs, eating them down- 
wards from the apex. The lafvee are found at Pusa mostly during the Cold Weather, 
from December to March, but also in May. 

The larva is about 11 mm. long and 2 mm. broad, cylindrical, tapering slightly 
towards either extremity ; head brown with a lateral black marking running up to 
the ocelli ; prothoracic shield yellowish-brown, margined black laterally and poste- 
riorly, and with a blackish spot before the spiracle ; mesothorax and metathorax 



50 LIFE-HISTOKIRS OF IKD1AN MICROLEPIDOPTERA, 

crimson-purplish ; legs small, with black joints ; general colour of abdomen purplish- 
brown, the mid-dorsal area creamy- whitish ; segments distinct, bearing fine minute 
hairs arising singly from slightly chitinized tubercles ; anal plate light brown, edged 
black, with 4 or 5 small black spiny hairs on hind margin ; prolegs 1-4 very small, 
with booklets in incomplete circles, a minute inner portion of sole being free of 
booklets ; anal claspers basally blackish-brown with an area of small spiny hairs. 
Many larvae fall victims to Hymenopterous parasites. 

The pupa is about 6 mm. long and 2 mm. broad, reddish-brown, light ventrally 
on wing-cases which reach the fifth abdominal segment ; spiracles small, oval, 
brown. The pupal period varies from about eleven to six days, according to temper- 
ature. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slips Nos. 2251, 2360.) 

This species is also known from Poona and is doubtless widely distributed in 
the Plains of India. 

HYPATIMA HALIOBAMMA, MEYRICK. 

Chelaria haligramma, Meyr., Exot. Micr. Ill, 282-283 (1926) 1 . 

Described from Anakapalli, in South India, where it was bred from larvae feeding 
on flowers of mango (Mangifera indica) (Ramachandra Rao) 1 . 

HYPATIMA SPATHOTA, MEYRICK (PLATE XXXIII). 

Chelaria spathota, Fletcher, Ind. Agric. Ent. Mem. VI. 95 (1921). 

This has also been reared at Pusa from larvae folding very tender leaves of Odina 
wodier in July and August 1922 and in August 1924. The larva folds the two edges 
of a leaf over the midrib so as to form a sort of pouch within which it lives and feeds, 
nibbling the surface of the leaf. The full-grown larva is about 11 mm. long and 
1 mm. broad, cylindrical, moderately stout, tapering slightly posteriorly ; head 
black, dull, rather square in shape, as broad as prothorax ; prothoracic plate well 
developed, chitinized, extending over whole segment to spiracles, black, with a fine 
median yellowish line ; prothorax crimson, with a narrow black linear patch before 
and below spiracle ; other segments pale yellow, with fine short hairs which on 
dorsum are arranged trapezoidally ; prothoracic legs pale grey ; mesothoracic and 
metathoracic legs creamy-yellowish, glossy ; prolegs short, cylindrical, shining 
creamy-yellowish with incomplete rings of booklets on oval soles ; spiracles minute, 
circular, with clear centres and black rims. Before pupation, the general colour 
becomes pink. No description of the pupa was made. The pupal period in July- 
August is seven to nine days. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip No. 2291.) 

H . spathota also occurs in Tonkin. 

The other species, quoted under Chelaria in Ent. Mem. VI, 94-95 (phacelota 9 
rhicnota and scopulosa) should also be referred to Hypatima, Hb. 1826-^Chelaria, 
Hw. 1828, Meyrick. 



LATE xxxiit 



HYPATIMA SPATHOTA, MBYRICK. 







1. Larva X 8. 

2. Pupa X 8. 

3. Moth, resting posture X 8. 

4. Moth X 8. 

(Small figures show natural sizes.) 



tiFE-HlSTOBI#8 OF INDIAN MlCROLKriDOPTKJlA. 6t 

HYPATIMA {STICTOCOSMA, MEYRICK. 



Chelaria stictocosma, Meyr., Exot. Micr. II, 303 (1920) 1 ; Meyr., Exot. Micr. 

IV, 71 (1931) 2 . 
Chelaria kvata, Meyr., Exot. Micr. II, 304 (1920) 3 . 

This species is known from Coorg 1 , Dharwar 1 and Pusa 2 , 3 . It has been bred 
at Pusa in August from larva feeding on Desmodium gangeticum (Leguminosse) 2 . 

HYPATIMA TAPHRONOMA, MEYRICK. 

Chelaria taphronoma, Meyr. M. 8. 

Larvae were found in August and September 1930 at Pusa feeding on leaves of 
Alms prscatarius binding together two or three or four leaflets and feeding on the 
entire tissue.' The larva is about 5-5 mm. long and 0-75 mm. broad, almost uniformly 
cylindrical, tapering very slightly posteriorly ; head shining, black ; prothoracic 
shield large, covering the whole segment, shiny, black, ventral surface of prothoraoic 
segment pinkish-purple ; first pair of legs black, the other two pairs creamy- 
yellowish ; segments with fine, small, single hairs, arising from minute black tuber- 
cles, arranged rectangularly on dorsal surface of first seven abdominal segments ; 
prolegs five, short, cylindrical, glassy whitish with brown booklets in complete 
circles ; spiracles small, rounded, with black rims and clear centres, that ou eighth 
segment larger and oval. 

Pupa about 3*5 mm. long and 0-8 mm. broad, cylindrical, posterior half of abdo- 
men incurved ; yellowish-brown ; spiracles small, round, with dark brown rims ; 
wing cases reaching to end of fifth abdominal segment ; eighth, ninth and tenth 
abdominal segments not clearly defined ; a few fine hooked cremastral hairs on anal 
segment ; all segments with very minute hairs. Moths emerged at the end of Sep- 
tember and beginning of October. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip 2558.) 

BUCOLARCHA GEODES, MEYRICK. 

BucolarcJia geodes, Meyr., Exot. Micr. Ill, 515 (1929) 1 . 

Described from Pusa and from Dibidi 1 (Coorg ; 3,500 ft.), in India, and from 
Weenen, in Natal 1 . At Pusa it was bred in July from larva feeding in pod of Acaoia 
catechu 1 . Mr. Meyrick says that " probably the species is native in India, and has 
been introduced into Africa with its foodplant." 1 

DAOTYLETHRA CANDIDA, STAIN TON. 

(EntL Mem. VI. 84.) 

This has also been reared by T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar on 12th May 1930 from 
larva in kolingi pods at Negapatam. 

E 



1)2 LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MIOROLEPlDOFTERA. 

BRACHYACMA PALPIGERA, WALSINGHAM. 

Paraspistes palpigera, Fletcher, Ind. Agric. Ent. Mem. VI, 88 (1920) 1 . 
Lathontogenus admtipmnis, Wlsm., P. Z. S. 1897, 88 (1897) 2 
Brachyacma epichorda, Turner, Proc. R. Soc. Queensl. XXXI, 163-164 (1919) 3 . 
Lathontogenus palpigera, Bottimer, Jl. Agric. Res. XXXIII, 812 (1926) 4 . 
Brachymacma palpigera, Leonard and Miles, JL EC. Ent. XXIV, 472-473 
(1931) 5 . 

This species also occurs in Texas, 4 Central and South America, Porto Rico, 5 
Tonkin and Queensland. 3 It is now placed in the genus Brachyacma, Meyrick 1886, 
of which Lathontogenus , Wlsm. 1897, Paraspistes, Meyr. 1905, and Lipatia, Busck 
1910, are synonyms. 

It was reared at Pusa on 17th December 1927 from a larva feeding on seeds of 
Parkinsonia aeuleata. It also occurs at Port Blair, Andamans. 

In Texas it has occurred in pods of Vactiellia farnesiana* and in Porto Rico in 
dry pods of pigeon pea 5 . 

DlCHOMERIS ERIDANTIS, MEYRICK (PLATE XXXIV). 

Dichomeris emdantis [lapsus], Fletcher, Entl. Mem. VI. 91 (1920). 

This species was found in 1928 in sufficient numbers to constitute it a pest of 
Dalbergia sissoo in the plantations of Changa Manga, Chichawatni and Khanewal, 
continuous breeding taking place from April to September (Forest Entomologist). 
It also occurred on Sissoo leaves at Pusa in some numbers in 1928 and was also reared 
at Pusa in 1927, 1929, and 1930. 

The larva binds together two leaves of Dalbergia sissoo and feeds on them. The 
full-grown larva is about 16 mm, long arid 2 mm. broad, subcylindrical, moderately 
stout, slightly tapering posteriorly ; head rather glossy, flattened, brown speckled 
with black ; prothoracic shield not covering whole segment, brown, with a fine 
rather indistinct median line and tinged with blackish on posterior and lateral 
margins ; mesothorax sometimes with a blackish band ; general colour brownish- 
yellow, with a pinkish mid-dorsal stripe, and sometimes with a blackish stripe below 
trapezoidal warts, which are small, round, black ; spiracles with clear centres and 
black rims ; legs blackish ; prolegs pale yellow. 

Pupation takes place in a slight cocoon amongst rolled leaves. The pupa is 
about 9-10 mm. long by about 2-5 mm. broad, brown ; on each side of mid-dorsal 
line about half of the hind margin of the first three abdominal segments bears a 
black, horny, concave patch, and the contiguous region of the succeeding segments 
is swollen and clothed with brown hairs ; anal segment with a black pointed process 
provided with cremastral hairs which remain entangled in the fibres of the cocoon. 
The pupal period is seven to ten days about the end of March. (Pusa Insectary 
Cage-slips No. 995 repeated and 2017.) 



DICHOMERIS ERIDANTIS, MEYRIOK. 



PLATE XXXIV. 






a. Larva x 6. 

b. Pupa X 6. 
r. Moth X 6. 

(The smaller figures show the natural sizes). 



LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLEPIDOPTERA. 53 

DlCHOMERIS IANTHES, MEYRICK. 

(Entl Mem. VI. 89-91, t. 21.) 

Also found in British East Africa and Mauritius, and in the Malay Peninsula, 
where it has been reared from larvae on indigo, Tephrosia Candida , T. purpurea, 
Desmodium gyroides, Sesbania sericca, and Tephrosia vogelii (Corbett and Gates, 
Dept. Agric. F.M.S., Bull 38, p. 8 : 1926). We have still no exact record from Burma, 
but it is almost certain to occur there also. 

It was also bred at Pusa from larvsB rolling bersim leaves from November 1927 
to March 1928. 

DlCHOMERIS QUERCICOLA, MfiYRICK. 

Dichomeris quercicola, Mey., Exot. Micr. II, 433 (1921) 1 . 

Described from a single female bred in August from larva on Quercus in Kangra 
(Beeson) 1 . 

CARBATINA PICROCARPA, MEYRTCK. 

Carbatina picrocarpa, Meyr., B. J. XXII 182 (1913) 1 . 

This was described from Japan, where I collected the first specimen at Hakodate 1 
over thirty years ago, and from the Khasi Hills in Assam. It also occurs in China. 
Mr. Meyrick informs me (in litt.) that the larva is a leaf-roller on peach, this informa- 
tion being given on the authority of Mr. Busck. 

CYMOTRICHA ANTISTICTA, MEYRICK. 

Cymotricha antisticta, Meyr., Exot. Micr. Ill, 511-512 (1929) 1 . 

Bred at Dharwar in June from a larva feeding in May amongst spun-together 
youngest leaves at end of shoot of Terminalia tomentosa (Combretaceae), pupating 
in same position. (Maxwell.) 1 

CYMOTRICHA t YMATODES, MEYRICK. 

Trichotaphe cymatodes, Meyr., Exot. Micr. I, 584 (1916) 1 . 
Cymotricha cymatodcs, Meyr., Wyts. Gen. las., fasc. 184, p. 188 (1926) 2 ; 
de Joannis, Ann. Soc. Ent. France XCIX, 726 (1931 ) 3 . 

This species is known from Assam and Tonkin, where the larva has been found 
on Stillingia sebifera.* 

CYMOTRICHA GEOCHROTA, MEYRICK. 

Trichotaphe geochrota, Fletcher, Ind. Agric. Ent. Mem. VI, 89 (1921). 
This species is now placed in the genus Cymotricha, 



54 LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MTCROLEPIDOPTKRA. 

CYMOTRICHA rsfitJDOMETRA, MEYRICK. 

Trichotaphe pseudometra, Meyr., B. J, XXII, 178-179 (1913) 1 ; Fletcher, Ind. 

Agric. Ent. Mem. VI, 204 (1921) 2 . 

This species is now placed in the genus Cymotricha. It also occurs in the Anda- 
mans (Mt. Harriet : 1,200 ft.). 

MACROCERAS ( ECOPHILA, STAUDINGER. . 

Oecia [dScia, error typogr.] wcophila, Fletcher, Ind. Agric. Ent. Mem. VI, 95 

(1921) 1 . 
Oecia acophila-, Meyr. ? Wyts. Gen. Ins., fasc. 184, p. 198, t. 5 f. 109 (1926) 2 . 

This species has also been found at Rangoon and Shillong and in Coorg (Dibidi ; 
3,500 feet). In the Malay Peninsula it has been reared by Corbett and Gates from 
paper and from rat's dung (Dept. Agric. F.M.8., Bull. 38, p. 8 : 1926). It also 
occurs in Egypt, where it has been recorded from Cairo by Rebel (Bull. S. E. Egypte 
1926, p. 189 ; 1927) and from Alexandria, where the larvae were found to be doing 
damage by burrowing in plastered walls of houses (Alfieri, Bull. 8oc. Ent. Egypte 
(n. s.) XII 1-4, t. 1 : 1929). 

HKLIANGARA MACARTTIS, MEYRIOK. 

Heliangara nuimritis, Meyr.. Rer. Tnd. Mus. V, 221 (1910) 1 ; Meyr., Wytsm. 
Gen. Ins., fasc. 184, p. 216 (1926) 2 ; Meyr., Exot. Micr. IV, 76 (1931 ) 3 . 

This pretty little species was originally described from Goalbathan (E. Bengal) 1 
and the Konkan 1 . I have taken it at light at Pusa and Sadiya (Assam), but nothing 
was known of its life-history until it was bred recently at the Forest Research Insti- 
tute, Dehra Dun, from larvae feeding on rotten stems of Jatropha curcas (Euphor- 
biacece) 3 . 

HYGROPLASTA .^POLIATELLA, WALKER. 

Gelechia spoliatella, Wlk., Cat. XXIX, 659, (1864) 1 . 

Zalithia diluticorms, Wlsni.; Fletcher, Ind. Agric. Ent. Mem. VI, 83-84 (1921) 2 

The name previously given requires to be changed, Walker's specific name having 
precedence and the species being now placed in the genus Hygroplasta, Meyrick 
1926. This species also occurs in N. Kanara. 

PlIILARACJINIS XEROPHAGA, MfiYRICK. 

(Entl. Mem. VI, 86-87, t. 20, f. 1.) 

This species has now been removed from Brachmia and has been placed in th,> 
genus Philarachnis, Meyrick 1926, 



PLATE XXXV, 



SRACHM1A AROTRAEA, MEYMC*. 




1. Larva dorsal view X 9. 

2. Pupa lateral view x 9. 

3. Moth X 9. 

4. Head of moth X 9. 

(The smaller figures show the natural size). 



(XT INttfAK MlCROLfcHDOPTKRA. 65 

BRACHMIA ARomaiA, MKYRIOK (PLATE XXXV). 

(Entl. Mem. VI, 85.) 

Larv were found at Pusa on 6th September 1928 on Rice (Oryza sativa), rolling 
the leaves longitudinally and feeding on the green tissue, leaving the leaf skeleto- 
nized. The larva is about 9 mm. long and 1-25 mm. broad, cylindrical, tapering 
very slightly posteriorly ; head glossy, black-brown, clypeal triangle yellowish- 
brown ; prothoracic shield shiny, black, chitinized ; mesothorax greenish dorsaliy, 
black laterally ; metathorax velvety-black ; legs shining, black, well-developed ; 
general colour of body light green with dorsal and two lateral black lines ; anterior 
trapezoidal hairs shorter than posterior ; prolegs short, rodlike, glassy-white, with 
incomplete circles of booklets ; spiracles minute, rounded, with clear centres and 
black rims. 

Pupation takes place in a thin transparent cocoon within the rolled leaf. The 
pupa is about 5 mm. long and 1-25 mm. broad ; wing-cases reaching anterior margin 
of fourth abdominal segment ; colour yellowish-brown, glossy ; spiracles oval, 
with brown rims ; anal segment blackish-brown with a few cremastral haits ; fine 
single hairs on other segments. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slip No. 2405.) 

B. aroint* a also occurs in Assam (Dibrugarh and Jhajhi). 

BRACHMIA coNVt LVULT, WALSINGHAM. 

Trichotaphe convolvuli, Wlsm., P. Z. S, 1907, 944, t. 51, f. 16 (1908) 1 . 
Brachmia convolvuli, Meyr., T* E. S. 1923, 547 (J924) 2 : Meyr., Wyts. Gen. 

Ins., fasc. 184, p. 249 (1926) 3 . 

Brachmia, crypsilychna, Meyr., B. J. XXII, 773-774 (1914)*. 
Ledthocera crypsilychna, Meyr., Exot. Micr. II, 103 (19 18) 5 ; Fletcher, Ind. 

Agric. Ent. Mem. VI, 84 (1921) 6 . 
Lectthocera effera, Meyr., Exot. Micr. II, 104(1918) 7 ; Fletcher, Ind. Agrio. 

Ent. Mem. VI, 84-85, 202-203, t. 62, f. 2 (1921) 8 , 
Brachmia effera, Fletcher, Kept. Third Ent. Meeting, I, 154 (1920)*. 
Brachmia dryadopa, Meyr., Ann. Transv. Mus. VI, 25 (1918) 10 . 
Brachmia convolvuli, Meyr., T.E.S., LXXVIII 313 (1930) 11 . 

Brachmia convolvuli was originally described from the Canary Islands 1 , 
crypilychna from Bassein Fort (Bombay) 4 , effera from Surat 7 , dryadopa from Natal 10 
and the Comoro Islands. 10 In 1926 3 Mr. Meyrick sunk these under convolvuli, and 
in 1930 11 gave the distribution of conrolvuli as S. Africa, Comoro Islands, Mauritius, 
Canary Islands, and the Indo-Malay&n Region. 

The first description of the larva of crypsilychna was previously omitted by over- 
sight and reads : tapering much posteriorly and slightly anteriorly, black ; collar 
banded with white ; plate of 2 smoky-black with a triangular brownish yellow 
space ; second and third interstices creamy-white, next three dull brown ; 7 t 8 



56 LIFE-HISTORIES OF INDIAN MICROLEriDOPTERA. 

and 10-12 with V-shaped creamy marks ; between spun leaves of Ipomwa arvensis 
(Convolvulacese) 4 . 

Lord Walsingham's description of the larva of convolvuli is as follows : " Bred 
from larvae reminding one much of those of Brachmia rufescens, Hw., in their black 
and white oblique striping. Head honey-yellowish, edged with blackish ; pronotal 
plate honey-yellow, posteriorly broadly black-margined Innately, suture honey- 
yellow ; mesothorax, metathorax and abdominal somites I-II blackish, mesothorax 
conspicuously separated by white from the metathorax and prothorax, the latter 
similarly separated from the head ; abdominal somites III-IX white, with blackish 
markings the lateral ma 1 kim s are oblique, as in rufescens, but having no pale 
dorsal stripe to interrupt them, anteriorly above, they form on each segment a 
complete arcuate band, followed on somites III-VII by a transverse bar of the 
same colour, but on V this bar is not apparent, owing to dark dorsal suffusion ; 
normal spots distinct, black ; legs black, abdominal claspers tipped with blackish ; 
long 15 mm. The larvse roll the leaves of Ipomcea quinquefolia in January, and 
are extremely abundant on this introduced plant at Santa Cruz, especially on a 
wall below the Quisisana Hotel." 1 

Larvae, which produced moths identical with co-types of Brachmia crypsilychna, 
Meyr., were found at Pusa at the end of June and beginning of July 1923 on Ipomwa 
turpethum, rolling a portion of a leaf or joining two edges of a leaf with fine silken 
strands so that the edges are joined together above the midrib, and feeding within 
this shelter by nibbling the upper surface of the leaf in irregular patches, leaving 
the lower epidermis untouched ; the larval frass collects inside this fold, which may 
contain one or two larvae. The full-grown larva is about 16 mm. long and 2 mm. 
broad, cylindrical, tapering slightly towards either extremity ; head small equal 
in size to prothorax, black, rather glossy, with a few fine brown hairs ; prothoracic 
shield chitinized, black, not quite reaching anterior yellow margin of segment which 
is edged with white ; incisions between thoracic segments ma ked in white ; legs 
black ; general colour of mesothorax, metathorax and abdominal segments dull 
velvety black ; segments distinct, with single black hairs ; third to eighth abdominal 
segments with white, slightly greenish- tinged, oblique bands, of which the first runs 
from base of first pair of prolegs to anterior lateral margin of third abdominal segment, 
the second runs from base of second pair of prolegs to middle of dorsum 
of third abdominal segment, the third runs parallel to second from base of third 
proleg, the fourth runs from base of fourth proleg to anterior lateral margin of sixth 
abdominal segment ; seventh and eighth segments with oblique white lateral band 
reaching to sixth and seventh segments ; eighth abdominal segment with narrow 
white posterior margin ; anal plate whitish, with a fringe of fine single hairs ; prolegs 
short, rod-like, pale-yellowish, shiny, with black longitudinal markings anteriorly and 
posteriorly, and with brown booklets arranged in incomplete circles, a small outer 
portion being unarmed ; anal claspers black dorsally and pinkish distally ; spiracles 
very minute, circular, with blackish rims. 



ttfE-HtSTORtES <3F INDJtAN MlCROLKPiDOPTERA. 57 

Pupation takes place within a rolled or folded leaf, wherein a small patch of white 
silken threads is placed to hold the pupa in position by means of the cremastral 
hooks. The pupa is about 8 mm. long and 1-75 mm. broad, cylindrical, yellowish- 
brown, glossy ; first three abdominal segments with a mid-dorsal black roughened 
notch-like process which fits into the anterior margin of the succeeding segment ; 
anal segment with a short cremastral process, armed with a small group of hooked 
hairs ; spiracles rounded, small, with narrow brown rims. (Pusa Insectary Cage- 
slip No. 2262.) 

BBACHMIA INSULSA, MEYRIOK. 

(Entl Mem. VI, 86.) 

This has been bred at Pusa in May 1918 from larva) found at base otjuar shoots, 
and a larva was also found at Pusa on 27th July 1927 feeding on dry sugarcane leaf- 
sheaths at the base of the stem. 

B. insulsa is probably widely distributed in the Plains of Northern India. It 
was common at light at Dehra Dun on 6th-7th July 1929. 

BBACHMIA PHILOMUSA, MEYBICK. 

Brachmia philomusa, Meyr., Exot. Micr. II, 114-115 (1918) 1 ; Meyr., Exot. 
Micr. Ill, 527 (1929) 2 . 

Described from Chapra 1 (North Bihar), and from Puttalam 1 and Galle 1 , in Ceylon. 
Larva mining or rolling leaves of Vernonia tinerea (Composite) 2 . This latter record 
was made at Pusa, although it is not so stated. 

Larva) were found at Pusa in December 1921 and in January and July 1922 and 
in December 1930 on leaves of Vernonia cinerea. When very young, the larva mines 
in a leaf, feeding on the green tissue between the two surfaces, and making a hole 
through which the frass is extruded and which also serves as a hole of exit for the 
larva when, at a later stage, it leaves the mine and begins to roll a leaf, feeding on the 
green tissue of the upper surface and leaving the lower epidermis intact but greenish- 
yellow in colour. The full-grown larva is about 7-9 mm. long and 1-1*75 mm. broad, 
cylindrical, tapering very slightly posteriorly ; head slightly smaller than prothorsx, 
shining, light brown in middle, blackish on cheeks, sides and base ; prothorax smaller 
than succeeding segments, with a chitinized shield anteriorly narrowly whitish or 
light yellowish and posteriorly blackish with a fine median line ; mesothorax, 
metathorax and abdominal segments dark pinkish-purple ; mesothorax and 
metathorax with narrow whitish band anteriorly ; third to ninth abdominal 
segments with an oblique reddish-purple band from base of proleg (where present) 
to anterior dorsal margin of segment, each band followed by whitish area, so that 
posterior half of each segment is whitish dorsally ; ventral surface of third abdominal 
and succeeding segments pale yellowish ; very minute fine hairs arising singly from 



66 LtPE-Hi8TORiES OF INDIAN 

, " * 
t 

warts on segments ; legs shining, black, with distinct gagman!* ; proiega slender, 
rod-like, glassy-white, with a small black bas.il marking ; spiracles minute, oval, 
with pale yellowish centres and dark brown or blackish rims. In young larvae the 
purplish colour is replaced by light yellowish-brown. 

Pupation takes place in a rolled leaf of the foodplant. (No description of the 
pupa was made.) The pupal period varies from about five days in July to about 
three weeks in January. (Pusa Insectary Cage-slips Nos. 2203, 2582.) 

BRACHMIA VBCORS, MEYRICK. 

Brachmia vecors, Meyr., Exot. Micr. II, 112 (1918) 1 ; de Joannis, Ann. Soc. 
Ent. France, XCIX, 727 (1931) 2 . 

B, vecors is known from South India, Tonkin and China. In Tonkin the larva 
is recorded as living " dans les gousses [pods] de flamboyant/' 8 by which perhaps 
Poiiiciana regia is intended. 



HI- 1-74 S 7-32 500.