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Full text of "Life in the army, in the departments of Virginia, and the Gulf, including observations in New Orleans, with an account of the author's life and experience in the ministry"

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HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




THE BEQUEST OF 
EVERT JANSEN WENDELL 

(CLASS OF 1882) 
OF NEW YORK 



1918 




PllUMTI*FIKC-K. 



The Soldier's Ratimi. 



I.ir« In the Army. 



LIFE IN THE ARMY, 



DEPARTMENTS OF VIRGINIA, AND THE GULF, 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS, 



ACCOUNT OF THE AUTHOR'S LIFE AND EXPERIENCE IN THE HINISTBT. 



BT 

Rbv. J. CHANDLER gREGG, 

OP TBK 
PRILADELPBIA AKVUAL COVFXBXSCI. 



PHILADELPHIA : 
PERKINPINE & HIGGINS, 

No. 56 NORTH FOURTH STREET. 
1866. 



"^ S (i^oSO . 7/ 



Entered according to tho Act of Oongreas, in the year 1866, by 

PEREINPINE k HIQGINS, 

In the Olerk's Office of the District Goort for the Eastern District of PonnsjlTania. 

WBTOOn a TBOIOOV, SXtBIOrTPIBS. 



5 -.•'■'■,-..•,- 



,m 2 2001 



. \ 



TO 

THE OFFICERS AND MEN 

AND ALL THE BRAVE DEFENDERS OF OUR NATION, 

WHO, RALLTIKO BOUND THEIR COUNTRY'S FLAG, 

UATB VINBXCATXD ITS HONOR, ANB SSCURKD FOR THEIR FOSTSRITT 

l%e Birthriffh* of lAbeHy, Vnion, and Peace; 

TO THE MEMORY 

OF XnE MULTITUDE OF WORTHY PATRIOTS, 

WHO HAYS BACRXFICBD THEIR LIVES UPON FREEDOM'S ALTAR; 

AND TO 
MT FELLOW-LABOiElEBS IN THE GOSPEL^ 

WHOSE FRIENDSHIP I CHERISH, 

THIS WORK 

iS AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED, 

BY THE AUTHOR. 



PREFACE. 



The reader, may deare to know the why, and wherefore of 
€ajB publication. It is due that I should briefly meet, and satisfy 
such an inquiry. 

When appointed Chaplain to the St. James' Army Hospital in 
New Orleans, La. I beguiled an occasional hour of loneliness, hy 
jotting down some observations of men and thmgs, whidi to me 
appeared novel, and wortihy of note. To this I added, as time 
allowed, the reminiscences of my experience in the Army of the 
Potomac, during the starring period I was in active service, with 
my recollections of great batties, and brave men. I then, to give 
a degree of completeness to this memoranda, tried to recall the 
scenes of my early yonth, my conversion to Grod, entrance into 
the ministry, and the events of several active years, on various 
fields of labor, withia the bounds of the Philadelphia Annual 
Conference. 

On my return from the Department of the Gulf, and after 
being honorably mustered out of the service of my countiy, I 
occupied a short respite from duty in arranging the desultory 
material thus collected, and now yield to the request of my fiiends 
in giving my manuscript to the public, in the form of a booL It 
1* 6 



i 



b PBEFACB. 

is simply a record of facts, ezperienoe, and observations, ^tiiout 
pretension to literary ezcellenoe or merit; and hastOy prepared, 
Without the advantage of diaiy, journal, or access to sources from 
which, a more extended, and accurate production might have 
been compiled. My Tolume will merely claim an humble place 
among the many which have been the offspring of the great re- 
bellion, and will stand as a memorial of many eyents, connected 
with the gallant Eegiment, with which I had the honor to serve, 
and with my own personal history. To my friends, I hope its 
perusal will be a source of pleasure and profit, and to all into 
whose hands it may &11, a means of some good. 

J. C. Gbeog. 

Phzlaoelphia, Febrwtry 22d, 1806. 



CONTENTS. 



L-AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

CHAPTBR I. 

BOYHOOD. 

ttrtlHlilaee— Region of the Alleghaniev— Wnd Beasts of the Forefi— Ttfioni klndi 
of Itepti]et->The Battlewmake— Mode of Captare— Good for Food when Smoke- 
dried— The Copperhead— Character— Great Battle with Sxwkee— Victory— Hj 
Opinion of Copperheads in General— ^Fknning Work— TraTol in the Moon- 
tains— Education under BiiBcnItles— Doty to Parents— My Father, Thomas 
Gregg, an InrentiYe Genius— Iron Mann&ctnre— First Cat Nail*— Aocoont of 
the Fint Iron-clad Monitor— The Tme InTentor— Berertes in Fortnn»— The 
"Bock of Faith**— Conversion— Experience— A Praying MotheiMhi the 
Terge of Jordan ^ :............«. 17 

CHAPTER II. 
CONTEBSION. 

Tialt to Relations near Wilmington, I>ei— ConTietton of Bin— A Mother's 
Prayers— AboDt to Flee like Jonah— Attended Protracted Meeting— Sermon 
by Dr. Castle— Became a Pablic Seeker of Religion— Rer. S. W. Thomas 
Conrerslon— Promptings to do Good— Return to PennsylTani*— The Family 
Altar— Neighbors Conrerted— Thoughts about the Ministry— Education Prof- 
fved by tiie Episcopalians S6 

CHAPTER III. 
PREACHING. 

Second Visit to Delaware— School Teaching— Smyrna Circuit— License to Preach 
—Sent to Greensborough Circuit— Dr. Quigley— Rer. J. B. Ayera— Happy 
Times— Numbers Converted — Accomac, Virginia— Rev. D. Dail«y— Rer. 
Charles HOI— DiiBcuIties with Slaveholders— Rev. A. Wallace— A Snccesnftil 
Tear. — « «. 80 

r 



8 CONTENTS. 

OHAPTEB IV. 

THE mNEBANOT. 

SflcdTad on TriMl !n tha PbUadelphia Aniraal Oonferflnce— Appnintod to B«r1in 
Cixcnlt, li^^BeT. Wm. Mexrill— Bcmilti of Protractod Heet{Dg»-Laxs« 
ZnereMe— Conference of 1850— Appointed to Ghnrch Creek Circnit with Rer. 
H. Bandenon— New Sabbath Schools Organised— CSrenlation of Periodicals- 
Election Bay— A Tonng Lawyer Snnbbed— Camp Meeting Scenes— A Dis- 
. tarbtrSettted ^ 34 

CHAPTBE V. 
CHUBCH BUILDINO. 

Ordained Deacon— A " Break Keck Hill " Appointment— Character of Blackwater 
Girenit— Whisky Drinking People— The Bines— My First Sabbath— Gloomy 
'Prospect— Qood Beeolotions— Acttve Work— Three Churches to be rebnilt— 
One New Chnrch to be Erected— The Work Begins, Proceeds— And is Com- 
jAeted— Dedication of Alr^s Chapel— PTeebom Oarretson— Old Times— Doo* 
tars Roberts and Williams— Success— Dedication of Scott* s Chapel— GrilBths— 
BerlTal- A Harrest Time— Tl^ New Chnrch— Rer. A. Manship— " Oregg 
Chapel''— A Good Dedication— Gamp Meeting- Array of Preachers— Oreat 
Po w er— Summing up of a Sncoessftil Year— Second Tear on Blackwater Cir- 
cuit—Another Camp Meeting— Ministers Freeent— Opposition, and the Wea- 
pons used to Conquer it— ReV. Dr. Thompson— Close of my Term 37 

CHAPTER VI. 

ORDINATION. . 

Annual Conilnrence— Ordained Elder^-Wioonisoo— Mountains— Church Debt Paid 
•-4'eitital— Ingathering to the Church— Warm Pziends— Hunundstown— 
Church R^psired— Re-qpening— Rer. Messrs. Bishop, Hellner, and Csrson— 
Missionary Colleetion— Astounding Stinginess— A Pree Gospel— Reflections- 
Opposition to Rerindi— A ** Peter Cartwright" Argument— Victory on the 
Lord** Side — 4A 

CHAPTER VII. 

LOTALTT. 

Appointed to Bainbridge—ReTlTal— Reappointed— Commissioned Chaplain— Pre- 
sented with a Beautiftil Sword— Off to the Field— Return-Appointed to. .. 
Montgomeiy Square— Opposition— An Old Disloyal Psxmer^-fiishop Hopkins - 
on Slarety— ReviTal— An Incident— Visit to President Lincoln— Interrlew . 
with Secessionists— A Jew Nonplussed- Running the Churches— Estimate of - 
Mr. Lincoln— Nominated for Hospital Chaplain— Confirmed— Ordered to D^ . 
partment of the Gulf— A Word to " All Whom it May Concern '>............^...... Si 



CONTENTS. 9 

OHAPTEB VIII. 
PERSONAL. 

V10WI OS thft'Effldenoy of tho Mialstry— Oommon StSM and LiTiag V«tth B^tttr 
than DMtd Languaget— StriTala of Religion lanctionad 1^ Scrip ta rt M iarion 
of MfthodiaxB— Panonal— KIndnaM of Fiiandt— Rer. Jamat Riddla— Ranutfte>' 
abia ProTidanoat— Ratcoa from Browning— Fall from a Hoaaa E way fbom 
Rob b wa T lia Oloory giran to Ood^.......................^....^M..M..M...^...^«.M.. M 



H— ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

OHAPTEB IX. 

IITJSTERING. 

Iba Oraat Upriting of the Nortb— A Patriot*a Dntj— Organintion of Uia Oaa 
Hnndrad and Twantj-aarenth Regiment— Bfarching Ordais— Washington, Di. 
O— AeroM the Potomao— Fort "Bthan Allan"— Second Boll Rnn Battle 
Antietam— Our Tonng Oolonal^The ** Chriitian Body "—Ordered to Join the 
Army of tha Potomac— HeaTj March— AmniiBg Soanee— A Splendid Shot— 
Sdenttflc Pork-Butchering— BlB^q;>earance cf a Bail Fenca— A Frightened 
atixan— Tha "Elerenth Maine"— Tha Ohm>lain Bamboodad— Militaij Na- 
caMity— Acqnia Creak— OomibrtleM Qoartara— General Bomaide^ Amy— 
. Oamp Alleman— Mi4or4}enara]i Oonch and Howard.......... — ....... .......... M 

CHAPTER X. 
WAR. 

Oamp Brokafr—Mareh to the Front— Ftaderiekabnrg—Fr^paratloni ftir Battto— 
RaligtoQi Meetingi— Opening of the Fight«-Terriflc Oannonada— Pontoona— 
Rebel Sbazp-Shooten Routed— A Daring Xxploit— Captain Fox Mortally - 
Wonnded— Oor Regiment Ordered Acroei— Under Fire— Oaenaltiai— The 
Rebel Tell— Three Bayi^ Terrible Slanghtei^Befeat of Oor Army— OaoMa— 
Retreat to Our Old Camp-** T17, Try Ag«ln." 76 

CHAPTER XI. . 
WIMTJBR IN CAMP. 

Ailw fha Great Battla— Muile in Camp— ChaerfUneM Ratnma— Reriaw by Gen. 
Snmner— Elnd Wordi to tiie Chi^ilaln— Whiiky Rationt Fun in Camp— 
Snow-Balla in Plaoe of ** Miniae "-^An Inanlted F. F. T.-The Little Brummar 
—St Patrick^ Bay— Berotion Succeeded by Brunkenneis— Qorae Radng^ 
Exhortation by Mi^orGeneral Howard. Sale of Liquor Stopped— Gamblera 
-Siding on a Bail— Rrtigious Meetinger^ReriTal, and Numban C on vert e d....... 88 



10 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XII. 
HOOESB'S CAMPAIGN. 

PAfll 

Hooker*! Campaign— The Condition of th« Anny— The Troope in Motion— Crow- 
ins of ^« Bappahannook— Prayer Before BatUe— An Erentfiil Sabbath— Be- 
flections— Capture of the ''Heigbti"— Brening Sermon in Fredericksboq;^ 
The Army Tictorlone— A Strange Time to Betreat— Killed, Wonnded, and 
Miaring— Where the Blame Liee-The Final Defeat of Whisky— Our Offloen 
Tme to Temperance— Tenn of Serrice Expired— Ordered to Beport at Hairia- 
boig^-Homeward Boond— Grand Beception— Cala Bay— Conclasion.....» ...... 90 

CHAPTER XIII. 
THE ONB HUNDBBD AND TWENTT-SETENTH PENITA TOLUNTEEBS. 

Distingniahing Characteristtca of the Offioere and PriTatea of the One Hundred 
and Twenty*eeTenth Bcgiment PennsylTania Tolonteen— Field Officer*— C«>- 
lond W. W. Jenninga— Pen and Ink Sketchee— Teatimonial by the Officer*— 
Colonel Jennings, Junior— lieatenantColonel Alleman— A Working Officer- 
Handsome Present— The Lienteoa&&Colonel in Pursuit of a Bebel Spy— Sold 
—The Spy a Woman— Hint to the Ladies— Mi^or Bohrep— Surgeon E. H. 
Homer-Stair Officer*— AMistant Surgeon H. L. Yastine— Chaphdn J. Chan- 
dler Oregg— Quartsnnaster John F. Orth— A<Uatant A. C. Chayne-^Line OiB* 
oera— Captain J. Wesley Awl, Ac, Ac^— Lieutenants, and Their Besidencea— 
Mvatea— A Bespeetabls Body-Oood Morale— Table, Showing where Be* 
crnlled— The ChH>lain*8 IkrewelLl*..^ 98 

CHAPTER XIV. 

NOTES OF TBATEL. 

Om^im^A to New Orleana— En Boute-New Tork— The Methodist Book Concern— 
IUt. Dr. Porter— Sanitary FUr-Brooklyn— On Board the Steamer United 
Htitaa Out at Sea— Army Officer»-Their Wicked Conduct-Gambling— Pro- 
ftmtT^Bisloyatty'-fiublimity of the Ocean— Moorehead City— Beaufort, K. 
O^-Oolored Schoob— Mias Luck^— Sea Shells— Oflf Again— Preaching and 
Sidling on Sabbath— Opinion of an Old Tar— Key West— Porpoises and Fly^ 
iarlldH-Gulf of Mezio(H-Oir tlM Mississippi— Pilot Town— The Sea Gulls— 
H^ tiie Birer— Forts Jackson snd St Philip— Quarantine Hospital— The 
Oolorad People—^ Glory to Qod'—Arri'val at New Orleans— Description of the 

i BiTer— Algiers. .". U8 



CONTENTS. 11 

nL-OBSEEVAnONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 

CHAPTER XV. 
NEW ORLEANS. 

OlMerratioiit in New Orleans— Loeatioii—Cominerdal Statfitiee— Danger from In- 
nndationi— EfEBCtB of a Heary Shower— Damage to Crinoline— Snmmndingf— 
Lake Pontchartrain— Streets and PaTements— Cleanliness— Health of the 
City— Street Oars— Boildings— Tiles— Gardens— Shmbbecy-Fmit Trees— 
The Bebels, lUse Prophets— Stagnation in ImproTements— General Bnticc^^ 
His Claims to Gratitode— Ouuracter of the People— A Cosnu^Iitan City— 
Children— ^ Types of ]iankind"—IntelUgenoe— Newspapers— Tarious Lan- 
gnagee— A Second Babel— Beligion— Gaiety in Dress— Fast Amy Officers— 
A Strange Fact— Avocations and Habits— Snpply of Water— Sleeping Accom- 
modations— Mosqnitoes and Their Propensities— Pride of the People— Fast 
Living— Amnsements— Hatred of Northern People— Epithets Applied to the 
Universal Yankee— The Duty of the North— Need of Education— Bebels StOl 
—How Barbarism may be Prevented and the People Converted from Treason 
to Loyalty « „ 124 

CHAPTER XVI. 
OBSERVATIONS CONTINITEa 

The Clay Monnment— Immcvtal Words— Rebnke to Treason— The Jackson Statoe 
.<« The Union Must and Shall Be Preserved"— Public Squares and Circles- 
Custom House— City Hall— State Convention— Emancipation— St Charles 
Hotel !..« ^ 145 

CHAPTER XVII. 
OBSERTATIONS CONTINUED. 

The Moral Condition of the City— Indifference to Religion— Sabbath Desecration 
—Street Cars— Cock-n^ting^Drunkenness— Statistics of Rum Traffic— Sun- 
day Theaters— Musio— Revelry— The Catholic Religion— Effects of Disloyalty 
—Foreigners and their Tices—Gambling^Houses— Slavery— The Devil*s Work- 
shop— Pride and Poverty— A Great Home Missionary Field— A Difficult Way 
to Heaven by New Orleans ISO 



12 CONTEin^S. 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
OB8EEYATION8 OOJSTnCUZD. 

Folly and ]£adn«M of Bebellion— ATConge of Bviutwiy SUtm Sltre Hontlos in 
the Bwampt— " Pioni " Mafter*— BngUdi NentraU^p^HotiTM of the Britidi— 
A Not for Lord John BnaMll to C^ack— Secret lleetingi for Treaaonable Pur* 
poeee— Character of the Policemen— Indignitlee to Union Soldiers—** StrawB,** 
Showing how the Wind Blowa— Foreign Language a Cloak to Ikvaaon— Bo* 
man Catholidim Favourahle to Beepotiam— Difloyaltj of the Women— Hatred 
of the Flag— Starvation nnder Jefll BaTis* Bynaity— Pwrtiality to Behel Pri- 
■onera— The Texan Battle-Cry— Petticoat Goremment— Union Offleera in the 
Hands of Delilah— Heart Captorea— Free Masonry in the Sonth— No AflUiation 
with Yankees— Unacooontable Partiality of the Poor Whites for the Syftem 
of Slavery— Their Tme Interest and Position— Sabbath-School Books and 
BeUgious Papen Destroyed— Ifadness and Infktnation of the Pro-Slavery 
Party— Three Secession Merchants ** Dried Up **— " Olorions News P*— God on 
the Side of theUnion...^ » 158 

CHAPTER XIX. 
0BSEBTATI0N8 OONTINUXD. 

Union Men in New Orleans— State Convention— LegisUtore— Loyal Ladiea— De- 
liverance firomBebel Misrule— A Minister bids his Slaves go Free 1— A Brighter 
Day at Hand - 177 

CHAPTER XX. 
OBSKBTATIONS CONTINXTED. 

Unmanly Snbaervienoy to Bebels— Faithless Officials— Cormption of Parties in 
Power— Union Men Neglected— Oencral Canby— Prospect of Coxrecting 
Abases 181 

CHAPTER XXI. 
OBSEETATIONS CONTINUSD. 

Scenes and Incidenta^-Coffee-Honses— A Disappointed Mijor— A Wooden-Legged 
Hero, and One-Armed *'Beb''— A Lost Boy Toms Up— Opinion of an Ex- 
Slaveholder— The Patriotism of a Color-Sergeant— Sacrifices for Coantry— 
**The Wrong Boat"— Algiers M. E. Church— Snnday School 18/ 



CONTENTS. 18 

CHAPTEB XXII. 
OBSEBTATIOKB CX>NTIN17SD. 

9AaM 

Methodist 8oldi«n— Testimony to Their Beligious Zeel— The Source of Power— A 
Preminm on IMdojalty— Oontreband T^mfSo— Back-Door Boeineee Sc en e In 
aChnreb. ; 180 

CHAPTEB XXIII. 
OBSSBTATIONS CONTINinSD. 

OfBoenP General Hoepital— St Jameit' Hotel — Capacity— Suveona— Experience 
with the Sick and Wonnded— Testimony of the Ikying— Captain Tonng, Mc^-~ 
Chaplains.........^^ - ~ ».. 108 

CHAPTEB XXIV. 
0BSEBYATI0N8 CONTINXnSD. 

"The Patriots Cemetery"— Wisdom of General Butler— My Cousin Thomas D. 
Gregg— Chalmette Battl^Gronnd— Monument Cemetery— The Mantle of" Old 
Hickory. '*—rarragnt and Butler— God for the Canae of Liberty- The Soldiers* 
Last Besting-Plaoe : 108 

CHAPTEB XXV. 
OBSEBYATIONS CONTIMinBD. 

Taxable Property— Wealth of the Colored People— Their Piety— Power In Prayer 
— Thdr " Moses "—Denominations— Large Secession fhnn the Church South- 
Admixture of Baces— Wrongs Endured— A Remarkable Wedding— Father 
Boes— The Great Emancipation Celebration— The Military — ^Prayer and Ora- 
tions—Immense Parade— Song by the Children— The First Colored Regiment 
— ^A Scn4» of ffistory— The Organisation of Colored Troope— Their Adi^ttation 
to Climate, Drill, and Biscipline— Their Victories— Equal Rights— The Na- 
tion's Duty to the Colored Man. ^ ^ 30X 

CHAPTEB XXVI. 
OBSERVATIONS C0KTINT7ED. 

Rev. J. P. Newman, D.D— Position and Influence— An Old La^y** Prayer— Uncle 
Sam, the Greatest President— All Saints' Day— Burying Above Ground— Cli- 
mate— Toung America^— Ignorance ot Some of the Colored People— Singular 
Names— The Ifarrying Business— Christmas— Sabbath School Bshlbitiona— 



14 CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

WatcU Night— Laxy MethodiBts— A Di^r of Jubilee— Tha Chrtotiaii and Sani- 
tary CommiBBioiiB— Steamboat CoIUbioiu— Tha City as a Military Camp— 
Three Thouaand Colored Children at the Ciroaa— A Raid on the Gambling- 
Honaea— Sabbath Deaecration Prerented— AnniTeraary of the Battle of New 
Qrleaoa— Inangsration of GoTemor Wella— Great Tom Oat of the Fire De- 
partment—Eloquent Prayer— A Memorable Day— Talnable Servicee of Dr. J. 
V. B. Smith— The Boll of Honor. 214 



CHAPTER XXVII. 
OBSERVATIONS OONTINITED. 

News of Victory— Tidinga of the Aasaaaination of President Uncoln-^oy Tamed 
to Moaming— Great Day of Homiliatlon— Immenae Gathering at La Fayette 
Square— Tears and Woe— Monmftil Mode— Flaga at Half-Mast— Baildinga 
' Draped— A City Filled with Sorrow^Prayer by the ReT. Dr. Newman— Pablic 
Addreasee by Generals Horlbat and Banka— Meeting at Dr. Palmer'a Church 
—Prayer by Dr. Pcame— Stirring Addreasea— Contrast— Rotribation for Se- 
cesh Preach6i»-Great Scare of the Rebels— Their Houses in Sackdoth^Re- 
flections— The Republic Still Lives! », ^ 232 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 
OBSERVATIONS CONTINUED. 

The Black Code of Louiaiana^K^ it Beforo the People— The Voice of Sages— 
Christian Patriota— Stateamen, Philoaophera and Philanthrqpiata, in Condem- 
nation of Human Slavery— What the People can now UniTeraally Exclaim— 
Union and Liberty.......... « 238 

CHAPTER XXIX. 
HOMEWARD BOUND. 

0£r for Cairo— The Steamer ** Commonwealth*'— Secesh Officers— The Oaptain*a 
Opinion of Green Back8->-Treatment of a Union Soldier by the Clerk— A Rebel 
Lieutenant geta ** Tight"— Opinion of a Paaaenger, aa to Where the New Cpn- 
atitution of Missouri waa Prepared— His Preference for European GoTemment 
—A Female Advocate for Poor Jefll— Abandoned Plantations— Port Hudson 
—Baton Rouge— Natchee— Real Character of a Professed Union Bian— Vicks- 
burg— The Great Siege and Capture— General Dayidson— Election— Rebels in 
the Ascendant— Martial Law Stm Necessary— Lake Providence— The Fourth 
July on Board— Napoleon— Memphis— Inddenta— Scenery— Waste Lands— A 
Drowned Man— Arrival at Cairo— Home Again. 247 



CONTENTS. 15 



IV.-CONCLUSION. 

CHAPTER XXX. 
CONCLUSION. 

PAOI 

Mustered Oat— Beview of Foar Tears— ObMrrations on the ProMcation of the 
Wai^-]>08perstion of the EnemT^^Neck or Nothinc^Abenrdity of the Milk- 
and-water PoUoy— MoanneM of Northern Alliei of Jefd Davit— The Oonstita- 
tion—Self-Preeenration— Traitors Should be Hung— Coming Xrents^nio 
South a Spoiled Child— Beoonstmction— The Pistol and Bowie Knife Policy— 
Character of the Men who Fought the Fight— Bravery and Endurance— A 
Just Cause— Faith in God— Orerthrow of SlaTery— The Future of the Colored 
Baoe— Southern Hatred— Oppression— Sworn Enemies Should not be Allowed 
to Control the Country— Equality to All— No Danger of Collision— The N*- 
tion's Needs— A General BevlTal of Religion— The T^e Bond of Union— Les- 
sons of the War...... » 267 



LIFE IN THE ARMY. 

AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 



CHAPTER I. 
SOTHOOD. 



BIBTH-PLACE-REOION 07 THB ALLEGHAIOIS-WILD BEASTS OF TBB 
FOREST— YARIOUS KINDS OF BEPTILE8-THE BAITLE-SNAKE-MODS 
OF CAPTURX-OOOD FOR FOOD WHEN SMOKE-DRIED— THE 00?PERHXAl> 
— CHARACTER-OREAT BATTLE TTITH SNAKES— TICTORT— MY OFINIOK 
OF COPPERHEADS IN GENERAIr-FARBUNO WORK— TRAVEL IN THE 
MOUNTAINS— EDUCATION UNDER DIFFICULTIES— DUTT TO PARENTS-- 
MT FATHER, THOMAS GRBOO, AN INTENTIVE GENIUS— IRON MANU- 
FACTURE—FIRST CUT NAILS— ACCOUNT OF THE FIRST IRON-CLAD 
MONITOR-THE TRUE INTENTOR-RETXRSES IN FORTUNE-THE "ROCK 
OF FAITH »-<X)NTERSION—EZPERIENCE-A PRATING MOTHER-ON 
THE TSRGE OF JORDAN. 

I WAS born in Fayette County, Western Pennsylvania, 
within the wild ranges of the Alleghany mountains, 
where the howl of the wolf, the scream of the panther, 
the cry of the catamount, the barking of the fox, the 
cooing of the owl, and the wail of the wild cat, formed 
a medley of music, which, during the first years of my 
life, was most fiimiliar to my ears. My boyhood's days 
were spent in friendly companionship with pet hears, 

»• 17 



18 LTFB IN THE ARMY. 



Birth-place. ABSodationt. Battl*«xi«ke8. 

and familiarity with foxes, racoons, ground hogs, opos- 
sums; rabbits, and squirrels. Besides this array of ani- 
mals, my investigations led me into close proximity with 
numerous classes of dangerous reptiles. 

Among the number, whose distinguishing character- 
istics, I might name, were, the Black Snake, the Eattle- 
snake, and the Copperhead. 

The Black Snake was found often from ten to twelve 
feet in length, with a white ring round the neck : this 
species, were called racers on account of their great speed. 
They are said to possess the power to charm young 
children, birds, and small animals; yet they were not 
generally regarded as a very dangerous enemy. 

The Eattle-snake was found in that region, in large 
numbera. They were about three feet in length, and 
sometimes as thick as a man's arm. They were con- 
sidered very poisonous: but from the fact that they 
usually give an alarm with their rattles, when about to 
strike, you can be aware of their presence, and may keep 
clear of danger. I have frequently assisted in capturing 
the Rattle-snake, by placing a forked stick over its neck, 
and then quickly cutting off the head. In this manner 
the reptile so shunned and dreaded, may be turned to 
some advantage, and I can testify that when well smoked, 
and cured, it is equal to smoked beef, and may be eaten, 
as tender, palatable, and wholesome food. 

There were also to be found great dens of the Copper^ 
head Snake, and this species were considered the most 
polsonotcsy deceptive, dangerous and mean of all the snake 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 19 



The Ooppeiiiead tpecies. Farm work. Travol in the moantainB. 

family. And strange to say, after exploring many por- 
tions of the Alleghany mountains I never found one 
iriend of the Oopperhead — their presence was dreaded 
by both man and beast. I remember while a boy, 
having a great pitched battle with a battalion of them, 
and afler a closely-contested engagement, gaining a com- 
plete victory — ^by killing them all. I might have cap- 
tured a few of them as prisoners of war, but, being so 
well acquainted with their wicked and deceptive nature, 
I considered it a very dangerous experiment. . This was 
my opinion of Copperheads, years ago, and after some 
recent observation and experience, I entertain the same 
opinion to-day. 

My chief occupation was working on the farm from the 
age of eight years until I was seventeen. I took my les- 
jsons in planting com, ploughing and harrowing among the 
rocks; manufacturing sugar, cider, apple butter and sour 
krout; felling trees, splitting rails, &c, &c During 
this period of time I crossed the great Alleghany ridge 
seventeen times, a distance of 120 miles. I had some 
regard to the sixth commandment, and did all in my 
power to honor and serve my aged parents. The. great 
amount of healthy out-door exercise I was of necessity 
compelled to take, served a good purpose, in securing 
me a robust constitution, and preventing me firom be- 
coming a dyspeptic. 

My early educational advantages were few, and far 
between ; for during my boyhood, I was only permitted 
to attend school a few weeks during the winter season of 



20 LIFE IN THE A£MT. 

Bdvcation. Begard to parenta. ThomaaOregg. Iron mannftctara. 

the year, and even then, not more than three days out 
of the week. With the care of the family and fiirm, to 
a great extent resting on my young shoulders, the snow 
often a foot to two feet deep, and the school-house several 
miles distant, my reader will perceive that my pursuit 
of knowledge was under difficulties. 

The amount of education I have been enabled to ac- 
quire, has been in the hard school of adversity; for, 
while other boys and young men of my acquaintance 
were enabled to attend school r^ularly, and graduate at 
some college, I was compelled by a sense of duty, and 
the force of circumstances, to spend my time in laboring 
to maintain my parents, of whom, I deem it just and 
proper at this point to introduce a short sketch. 

My fether, Thomas Gregg, was bom in New Castle 
County, Delaware, near the City of Wilmington. His 
father and grandfather were members of the Society of 
Friends, and he being brought up a strict Quaker, was 
also a member of that persuasion. While yet a young 
man, after writing five years for the Court at New Castle, 
he removed from his native state to Western Pennsylva- 
nia, where he engaged in the manu&cture of cut nails ; 
he being the first person who had produced this article 
in the west. 

The nails he made commanded twenty-five cents per 
pound. This was about the year 1802. 

He also turned his attention to making salt, but de- 
voted himself chiefly to iron manufacture, and invented 
the first ftimaoe ever used for smelting ore by the use of 



AUTOBIOQEAPHY. 21 



Inrentiye genlni. The lint iron-elAd. 



ADthracite coal. Had he obtained a patent for this im- 
portant discovery, it would have resulted in immense 
advantage to him pecuniarily. 

But while absent in Delaware, his foreman, who had 
been left in charge of the works, to test thoroughly the 
invention, made a clean sweep of all his papers, patterns, 
and drawings, and fled to England, where he, and others 
speedily became rich on the results of another's genius. 

My father, while still an iron master, during the war 
of 1812, turned his attention to a subject which has 
lately obtained the widest and highest prominence, in 
naval history. He actually invented and patented an 
Iron Clad monitor war ship. As a matter of interest 
and curiosity the following extract, giving some histori- 
cal facts relating to this subject is introduced : 

A BALL JPBOOF TB88BL IK 1814. 

Thomas Oregg, of Connelsyille, Fayette oounty, Pemu^lvania, 
invented a haU proof vessel in 1813, and received a patent on 
the 9th March, 1814, which bears the names of James Madison, 
P^ffldent ; James Monroe, Secretary^ of State ; and Bichard ' 
Eush, Attorney-General of the United States. This patent was 
renewed in 1837. 

On the Journal of the House of Representatives for Thursday, 
March 24th, 1814, may be found the following account of pro- 
ceediDgs: 

"Mr. Wilson presented a memorial of Thomas Oregg, of 
Pennsylvania, stating, that, he has invented a new haE proof 
v&isd, or floating battery, and presenting a model for the Exa- 
mination of Congress, and requesting that its efficiency may be 
tested by experiment Ordered, that the said memorial be re- 
ferred to the Committee on Naval affairs." 



22 LIFE IN THE AKMT. 

A Ball Proof Yeesel in 1814. 

On Friday, March 25tli, 1814, Mr. Lowndes of South Carolina, 
moved that the Committee on Naval affairs he discharged fi^m 
the consideration of the petition of Thomas Gregg, and that it 
he referred to the Secretary of the Navy. This "Mr. Lowndes** 
conceived a prejudice against the invention, and hecame, without 
reason an enemy to Mr. Gregg, using all his influence to defeat 
his plans. 

The modd presented, was humed in 1836. 

Commodore Dupont, of Delaware, did on one occasion put this 
vessel to a severe test ; and was much pleased with the prindple. 

He wrote to the Hon. Messrs. A. Stewart and D. Surgen, of 
Pennsylvania, and Hon. Messrs. John M. Clayton and K Bayard 
of Delaware, commending to their favorahle notice this valuahle 
invention, and they all concurred in his opinion. 

A short extract from the full description and explanations laid 
hefore the Authorities, and approved hy scientific men, will ^ve 
the reader some notion of the vessel: "The ohject is, to make 
the vessel hqU proof, and impenetrahle^ In construction, it is 
framed on an angle of ahout eighteen degrees, all round the hull. 
The top timhers elevate the halls, and the lower ones are designed 
to direct them under the keel. The power is applied between the 
keels, where there is a concave formed to receive the motive ma- 
chinery. The power may be reversed to propel the vessel either 
way. The elevation of her timbers, will be proportioned by her 
keel and tonnage. 

This principle protects men and machinery effectually, and is 
capable of performing more service than any four vessels now in 
use, and at one-fourth the usual expense of even one ordinary 
ship of war, as only eight or ten guns are needed, and men in 
proportion.** 

This principle would have saved the government in 1814, 
$500,000, had it been fairly tested, as the " Fulton* ' boat proved a 
perfect f^ure, which cost that amount: besides, what an immense 
saving there would have been in human life, as well as treasure. 



AUTOBIOGKAPHY. 28 



A cnrlous history. The true invention. Merit nnrevarded. Keyenet. 

Congress should look into this matter. Mr. Gregg spent a 
large amount of money in his efforts to benefit the goYemment, 
and like many of the truly original men of the country, amassed 
nothing, and died comparatively poor. A liberal appropriation 
should be made to his widow, who is in circumstances to appre- 
ciate such generosity — or, as it would be in truth an act of sheer 
justice. 

Had Thomas Gregg lived until these days, he, and not the par- 
ties who borrowed his idea, would have been recognized as the 
inventor of ''^ Iron Clads,'^ 

My father always said that his invention would 
only be useful for harbor defence. This idea, time and 
experience seems to have confirmed, during the past 
three years, and .the judgment of the original inventory 
is the conclusion of most scientific men to-day. 

While sharp competition has been carried on both in 
France, England and this country, as to who is entitled 
to the credit of this invention which promises to revolu- 
tionize the old established system of naval warfare, I 
humbly submit, that a reference to the records of the 
Patent Office at Washington, and to some witnesses who 
are still living, will incontestably establish the claim of 
Thomas Gregg, and do justice to his genius, as the real 
inventor. 

At one time my father was comparatively wealthy, 
but the hand of Providence swept away the fortune he 
toiled to build up. To this he submitted witli becoming 
philosophy and fortitude, and he afterwards attributed, 
to this event such a change in his views, as led bim to 



24 LIFE IN THE ABBtY. 



Rock of ftitlu ConTenion. Ezperienca. 

give attention to the concerns of his soul, and to seek 
the salvation of God. 

He was converted on the 23d of March, 1845, upon 
the summit of a high mountain, near his residence. The. 
spot was notable as being near a large rock. This he af- 
terwards called the " rock of faith." Tlie following verses 
written by him convey some account of his experience: 

Burdened with Bin, with guilt distressed, 

I searched in vain for fall release ; 
But still the weight was on mj breast, 

I found no joy, or lasting peace. 

I wandered to one quiet spot, 

And mused with sadness day bj day. 
The mercy of my God I sought. 

And lingered there to weep and pray. 

One evening, and the sun went down. 

The moon and stars came out above. 
And wrestling there with doubt and gloom, 

I longed to know a Saviour's love. 

A trembling seized upon my frame. 

In, agony I prayed that night, 
\rhcn to my troubled spirit came — 

The answer, as a flash of light ! 

With heavenly joy my heart o'erflow'd, 

Hy tongue unloosed, began to praise 
The goodness of a pardoning 6od» 

To him this monument I raise. 

Now journeying on in blessed hope. 

With all my powers tolTesus given, 
I trust his grace to raise me up 

Bedeemed, and saved, at last to heaven. 



AUTOBIOGBAPHT. 25 



Acroitic Seath of my father. A praying mothar. 

Among his papers was found another effusion, in the 
form of an acrostic, which, as an indication of his re- 
ligious &ith, I take the liberty here to introduce : 
AcnosTic. 

Tntyelling onward to the grsre, 
•Hii faith in Christ his sonl will sare ; 
0, glorious hope ! blessed plan ! 
Hercy is free for sinful man ! 
A sure foundation for repose, 
Seonre from all surroanding foes. 
Give me, my God this better part, 
Begenerate my sinful heart, 
Encourage all my doubts awaj. 
Grant me through all my life's short day, 
Grace to labor, watch and pray. 

He became a member of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church after his conversion, and spent the remnant of 
an eventful life in the service of Grod. He died on the 
3d day of January, 1854, in the seventy-fifth year of 
his age, and as I trust, and believe, ripe and ready for an 
entrance into the mansions of rest. 

My mother was bom in Western Pennsylvania, and be- 
came, at an early age, a member of the Episcopal Church, 
to which her parents were attached. She still lingers on 
the shores of time at the age of seventy-six, waiting in 
Christian hope until her change come. She has been 
emphatically " a praying mother,** presenting her chil- 
dren at the throne of grace, and devoted to their happi- 
ness and welfare. I might add much, in relation to her 
faith in Divine Providence, and her bright experience, 
after life is ended, that she will rest with Jesus. 

3 



26 LIFE IN THE ARMY. 



Tisit to Delaware. OonTietioii. 



CHAPTER II. 

coNVEnsioy. 

VISIT TO RELATIONS NEAR WILMINGTON, DEL.— CONTICTION OP SIN— A 
MOTHER'S PRAYERS— ABOUT TO FLEE LIKE JONAH-ATTENDED PKO- 
TRACTED MEETING— SERMON BT DR. OASTLS— BECAME A PUBLIC 
SEEKER OF RELIGION— REV. 8. W. THOMAS-OONVERSION— PROMPT- 
INGS TO DO GOOD— RETURN TO PENNSYLVANLA— THE FAMILY ALTARr- 
NEIGHBORS CONVERTED— THOUGHTS ABOUT THE MINISTRY— EDUCA- 
TION PROFFERED BT THE EPISCOPALIANS. 

In the spring of 1848, 1 left my Pennsylvania home 
to visit my uncles, who resided on their &rms near 
Wihnington, Del., and it veas while I was in that neigh- 
borhood that I became a subject of the saving grace 
of God. Among the numerous instrumentalities that 
were employed in leading me to see the error of my 
ways, and the necessity of a change of heart I attribute 
to the unceasing prayers of my mother the most ^port- 
ant part^ While she was engaged pleading for me at a 
throne of grace, the Spirit powerfully followed me, and 
convinced me of sin. For three months I sought religion 
in a secret way, and sincerely desired to become a true 
Christian. I had been raised to believe in a very quiet 
kind of religion. I was opposed to noise and excitement, 
and wanted the blessing in my own way; but like 




AUTOBIOGEAPHT. 27 



A Jonah. Seeking religion. 



thousands who presume to arrange for themselves the 
mode of the Holy Spirit's operation, I found no peace. 

I determined at tliis juncture, to go to sea, and in- 
formed a pious aunt and my brother, of what I had 
made up my mind to do. They understood my case, 
and although I bad not revealed to them the state of my 
feelings, and the burden that lay heavy on my heart, yet 
they suspected the cause of my restlessness, and at once 
united in efforts to dissuade me from the course I was 
about to take. They invited and urged me to accompany 
them to a protracted meeting then in progress at Mt. 
Salem M. E. Church near the City of Wilmington. 
Here my prejudice against night meetings afforded me a 
pretext to refuse, but my kind aunt persisted in her 
arguments until I had to consent, out of respect for her, 
to accompany them to the meeting. I took my seat 
back near the door, and listened to the sermon. During 
the prayer-meeting, no less than five different ministei's 
approached me, and urged me to seek salvation. My 
friends had doubtless sent them to me, but I would not 
yield that night. I promised the last one that talked 
with me, however, that if he would let me alone, I would 
think about the matter, and probably go forward the 
following night: accordingly, the next night I attended 
with my aunt, and heard a sermon preached by the 
Eev. Joseph Castle, D. D., which made a deep impression 
on my mind. At its close the Rev. Samuel W. Thomas 
invited me to the altar, saying he would go with me. I 
then abandoned all my preconceived notions and preju- 



28 LIFB IN THE ABMT. 

First impreMioDa. I>oiiig good. 

dices, and rose up, and was Roon bowed at the altar 
of prayer, crying to Grod for mercy. I think I should 
have be^n blessed in a few moments, but Satan whispered 
"rfot now." The following night I was again at the 
altar, a great work was in progress, the meeting continued 
until a late hour, and between 11 and 12 o'clock, God 
for Christ's sake, converted my soul, and gave me such 
a dear evidence, that I have never doubted from that 
hour to the present, the divine change wrought in my 
heart 

The very first emotions of my mind were to urge and 
invite others to come to Christ. I joined the Mt. Salem 
Church the following Sabbath, October 1st, 1849, and 
felt it to be my duty and privilege to engage in distribu- 
ting religious books and tracts, in which work I continued 
for several months. I then returned to Western Penn- 
sylvania to visit my former home, and enjoyed happy 
seasons with my dear aged mother, in fiimily prayer and 
religious communion. My heart was stirred to recom- 
mend a crucified Saviour to my neighbors and firiends, 
among whom I had been brought up, and the Lord 
owned my humble instrumentality in a very signal 
manner. I conducted a protracted meeting where dis- 
plays of divine power in awakening and conversion, 
were often witnessed, and a number of my associates 
were made to rejoice in Grod. 

A conviction rested on my mind that I ought to give 
myself wholly to the work of calling sinners to repent- 
ance. This I resisted, having no desire to become a 



;i3i^ 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 29 



Gall to preach. A kind offer. 



minister of the gospel ; yet I prayed to be directed in 
the right way. It had often been intimated to me, even 
before I was converted, that my future course would be 
that of a preacher. While I was halting at this point, 
and refusing to go forward in the road Providence seemed 
to indicate, the members of the church, who had known 
me all my life, took up my case, and recommended me 
for license to exhort. 

I can look back on a strict moral life from my youth 
up, and can testify, that from my childhood, the Spirit 
of Grod strove with me. I had been in the habit of 
praying night and morning, during my entire life, before 
I became experimentally a Christian. Often the impres- 
sion crossed my mind that Grod had something for me to 
do in the world, yet the distinct idea of becoming a 
Christian minister, was something I could not realize. 
It seemed so sacred, and so exalted, as to be far beyond 
my attainment I have been led, since that time, to 
believe, that a call to preach the gospel comes not only 
to the individual ear and conscience, but that there is a 
concurrent feeling and conviction in the church and 
community in every case, which will clearly foreshadow 
the true line of duty to one who is timid in regard to 
this important matter. 

About this time a proposition was made by the Epis- 
copal Church, to give me an education for the ministry 
of that denomination, but circumstances shaped my 
oourse in another direoti<m| whether to my loss or gain, 
fitemif¥ mmfc dindoMb 



30 



LIFE IN THE ARMY. 



Second TMt to Delaware. 



Beginning to preach. 



CHAPTER III. 

JPBBACHnrG. 

SSGONB TISIT TO BELAWASB-SCHOOL TEACHING— SUTBNA CIBCUIT— 
LICENSE TO PREACH — SENT TO GEEENSBOROUOH CIRCUIT— DR. 
QUIGLBT— RET. J. B. ATERS— HAPPY TIMES— NUMBERS CONVERTED— 
AOCOMAC, VIRGINIA— REV. D. DAILET— REV. CHARLES HILL— DIF- 
FICULTIES WITH SLAVEHOLDERS-REV. A. WALLACB-A SUCCESS- 
FUL YEAR. 

In the summer of 1852, 1 again visited my uncle's, 
in Delaware, and engaged in teaching a school in Kent 
County, within the bounds of the Smyrna Circuit. 

Here I was invited to assist the preachers in their 
Sabbath work, and began to attempt in an humble way 
preaching the glorious gospel of salvation. One Sabbath 
evening, at the commencement of a protracted meeting 
at a place named Kenton, I tried to preach, and the 
Holy Ghost was present; seventeen persons came for- 
ward as seekers of religion, and five of them were that 
night happily converted. 

Thus in Delaware, as well as Pennsylvania, God 
blessed my labors, before I was licensed to preach, and 
it is iny firm conviction, that every member of the 
church ought to work for Christ, in seeking to save souls, 
and they would be rewarded with much fruit, if active 
in the cause. 




AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 81 



Greensboroiigh Gircnit. Accomac. 



At the last Quarterly Conference of this year for 
Smyrna Circuit, I was examined, and received license as 
a Local preacher in the M. E. Church. Eev. T. J. 
Quigley, D. D. was the Presiding Elder, and Rev. Bro- 
thers T. Newman and Joseph Gregg the traveling 
pi^eachers on the circuit 

In the spring of 1853, 1 was sent as junior preacher, 
with Rev. J. B. Ayers in charge, to Greensborough Cir- 
cuit. We had a pleasant and profitable year's work, 
having had over one hundred souk converted and added 
to the church. I received much kindness from Dr. 
Quigley and Bro. Ayers during this year ; both are true 
friends and wise counsellors of young men. 

In the spring of 1854, 1 was employed by Rev. D. 
Dailey, Presiding Elder of the Snow Hill District, and 
appointed to Accomac Circuit, Eastern Shore of Virginia. 
The Rev. C. Hill was preacher in charge, and a finer 
colleague no young man need ever desire. God blessed 
oOr labors during the year with some revivals, although 
vice and sin abounded, and some of the people, who 
profess godliness, were so wedded to the idol of slavery, 
and so sensitive when strangers were among them, that 
they were more ready to watch for, and abuse abolition- 
ists than to say their prayers. Some of this class pro- 
fessed not to like me, because they suspected my prin- 
ciples, which were to befriend their poor oppressed and 
neglected slaves ; and I can assure them there was no 
love lost. They respected me fully as much as I could 
find it in my heart, to esteem any man or woman, who 



82 LIFE IN THE ARMT. 

SeiuitiTe alaTeholdera. End of the wicked. 

claimed absolute ownership in human beings, made and 
redeemed by the same God and Saviour with themselves, 
and who without the least compunction, bought, sold, 
traded, whipped, and ruthlessly separated fitmilies of 
these suffering people, as if they had no feelings of 
attachment to localities, or relations, among themselves. 

The accursed spirit of slavery, which subsequently 
culminated in the great rebellion, was a fruitful source 
of strife at that time in Accomac Misrepresentations 
and slanders were originated there about me, which for 
some years were retailed about, and repeated to my dis- 
paragement by some of my own brethren, before the 
Philadelphia Conference. 

Time has wrought wondrous changes in old Virginia. 
Where are now the " bullies" and " rowdies," who used 
to go about to our meetings, cursing the Methodist 
preachers, and calling them opprobrious names ? Gone 
in the whirlwind of the rebellion! Dead! most of them, 
having fallen under a traitor's flag, and their blasphemies 
with them down to a rebel's grave ! And the man they 
would have lynched, still lives, and lives to rejoice over 
the downfall of rebeldom, and the extirpation from this 
feir land of slavery. 

To the glory of God, I record the conversion of over 
one hundred immortal souls, that eventful year. With 
my beloved colleague I labored in harmony, and spent 
many pleasant hours with Rev. Adam Wallace, on the 
adjacent charge. He has been, since the first day I knew 
him my steadfast friend, and I hope our acquaintance 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 88 



Rer. A. Wallace. Rev. S. Dallej. 



began on earth, may be continued througboat an endless 
eternity. To him I accord the praise justly due, for his 
candor, in showing me the faults and deficiencies of 
character which, in common with most young men, re- 
tarded my progress and usefulness. His words to me 
Iiave often been the counsels of a true friend and brother. 
I have enjoyed the benefit of correspondence with him 
through all the subsequent years and changing events 
of my career thus fitr. 

My venerable Presiding Elder, Brother Dailey, soon 
after this year retired from the active work, and has 
since died and gone to glory. 



84 LIFE IK THE ARMT. 



Sec«iTed on triaL Berlin Circnit. 



CHAPTER lY. 

XHB ITiyBBAXCT. 

RSCKITED ON TRIAL IN THE PHHiADELPinA ANNUAL CONFERENCE- 
APPOINTED TO BERLIN CIRCUIT, MD.— REV. WM. MERRILL-RESULTS 
. OF PROTRACTED MEETINGS— LARGE INCREASE— CONFERENCE OF 1850 
—APPOINTED TO CHURCH CREEK CIRCUIT WITH REV. H. SANDERSON 
—NEW SABBATH SCHOOLS ORGANIZED— CIRCULATION OF PERIODI- 
CAL&-ELECnON DAT— A YOUNG LAWYER SNUBBBD-CAMP MEETING 
SCENES— A DISTUHBER SETTLED. 

In the spring of 1855, 1 was received on trial by the 
Philadelphia Annual Conference of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, a body of ministers, who for intelligence, 
patriotism, and zeal, are not surpassed in tlie known 
world. Tlie honor of having my name on the record of 
such a body I estimate as the highest which man can 
aspire to on earth. "With this privilege, however, there 
are responsibilities which may well lead a young man to 
Inquire " who is sufficient for these things ?" 

My appointment was announced with the Rev. Wm. 
Merrill, for Berlin Circuit in Worcester County, Mary- 
land. This was a large and laborious 'field of labor. 
Extra meetings began in September, and were continued 
until, the following March. All the churches were 
visited in turn, and the result of revival eflforts 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 86 



Conference of I860. Chnrch Creek. Discomforts. 

about two hundred and seventy-five souls who professed 
to be converted to God, two hundred of whom united 
with the church on probation. 

I was greatly encouraged this year by such wonderful 
scenes of the outpouring of the Spirit as were witnessed 
all around us. My colleague labored hard and with 
great success. 

At the conference commencing March 26thy 1856, 1 
enjoyed happy seasons, intermingling with my brethren, 
and at its close received my next appointment to 
Church Creek Circuit, with the Rev. Henry Sanderson, 
as preacher in charge, 

This circuit was about thirty miles in extent, and 
embraced some ten or twelve appointments. Several of 
these were on little islands, to reach which, we had 
to traverse marshes, and use the indispensable canoe. 
In the summer season, the people were greatly pestered 
with mosquitoes, and myriads of other flies, which 
swarmed in every place, irritating both man and beast, 
sometimes to a degree of frenzy. In the winter, this 
region of the country was very desolate, and the roads 
were in shocking condition with mud. Yet we had a 
successful year's work, and took into church fellowship 
over one hundred. 

Three new Sabbath Schools were organized, and a fine 
large list of subscribers obtained for our excellent Church 
paper, the Christian Advocate and Journal. The peo- 
ple we found to be warm-hearted, hospitable, and very 
kind. The spirit of seicession which I learn, has since 



LIFE IN THE AEMT. 



Slectlon day. The right! of nuui. 



that time, turned many away from the old paths, had 
not then begun its diabolical work. 

On election day I went to the polls, to do what every 
good citizen has the right to do — ^that is, vote, A young 
limb of the law, assumed to be dictator as to whether, 
and where I ought to vote. His interference on that 
occasion, reacted slightly on his own head. I felt my 
manhood, doubled my fist, and after giving him the 
benefit of a short special sermon, coolly walked up and 
deposited my ballot in the name of constitutional liberty. 
Had the gentleman supposed I was going to vote for his 
favorite, James Buchanan, there would have been no 
objection. And this is the reason some shallow-pated 
partizans raise the- hue and cry against Methodist 
preachers being politicians, because they dare act for 
themselves, and be independent, and fiur seeing enough 
not to be led by the nose in this matter. 

We held a Camp Meeting this year, and among other 
incidents which I recall, was one of a poor ignorant, 
vicious fellow, who persisted in coming in around the 
altar, interrupting the exercises, until, as a religious 
necessity I had to drag him forth^ and pitch him over a 
fence. 

It was my rule at all our protracted meetings, to keep 
the peace, when disorderly characters were around, and 
threatening to be troublesome. God has given me a 
stout frame, and a strong arm, and the rowdies generally 
gave me a wide berth, when we were likely to come to 
close quarters. • 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 87 



Ordained a deaooiL Bithop Waagh. 



CHAPTER V. 
cmxmcn buzzdikg. 

OBDAINED DEACON— A " BREAK NECK HILU* APPOINTMENT— CHAKACTER 
OF BLACKWATER CIRCniT— WHISKT PRINEINO PEOPLE— THE BLUBS 
—MY FIRST SABBATH-GLOOMY PROSPECT-GOOD RESOLUTIONS— 
ACnVB WORK— THREE CHURCHES TO BE REBUILT-ONE NEW CHURCH 
TO BE ERECTED— THE WORK BEGINS, PROCEEDS— AND IS COMPLETED- 
DEDICATION OF AIRETS CHAPEL— FREEBORN GARRETSON-OLD TIMES- 
DOCTORS ROBERTS AND WILUAMS-SUCCESS-DEDICATION OF SCOTTS 
CHAPEL— GRIFFITHS— RETITAL— A HARVEST TIME-THE NEW CHURCH 
—REV. A HANSmP—** GREGG CHAPEL"— A GOOD DEDICATION— CAMP 
MEETING— ARRAY OF PREACHERS-GREAT POWERp-SUMMING UP OF A 
SUCCESSFUL YEAR— SECOND YEAR ON BLACKWATER CIRCUIT— 
ANOTHER CAMP MEETING— MINISTERS PRESENT— OPPOSITION, AND 
THE WEAPONS USED TO CONQUER IT-REV. DR. THOMPSON— CLOSE OF 
MY TERM. 

At the Couference in the spring of 1857 — ^after due 
examination, and a solemn charge from the presiding 
Bishop, I was received into full connection, and elected, 
and ordained a Deacon in the Church of God, by the 
venerable Bishop Waugh. My destination this year was 
a little circuit called " Blackwater," embracing part of 
Dorchester County, Md., and lying between Cambridge 
and Vienna. I had been looking over the pages of a 
book entitled " My Father Braddock,'* and thought the 
title and description of ^^ Brea^ neck hill" appointment, 



38 LIPB IN THE ARMY. 

INfoonragemeiit. First Sabbath. 

suited my new field of labor exactly. There were, all 
told but seventeen members, that I could identify in the 
whole charge, and most of them were poor in circum- 
stances, and unable to do much toward my support. 

The few churches were in a miserably dilapidated 
condition, and through long neglect, for they were cut 
off from adjacent circuits, and set adrift, it was difficult 
to draw the people together to hear preaching. Indeed 
I was informed on my way to this locality, that the 
favorite Sunday pastime of the people was hunting 
musk rats, and drinking whisky, a representation which 
I found by actual observation to be not &r firom the 
truth. 

This was then properly a mission field, but there was 
no appropriation made towards its cultivation, and I had 
to take the situation of things as I found them, go to 
work with all my might, or turn away discouraged, and 
cease to be a traveling preacher. At first I was dis- 
heartened. I had thoughts which were not at all compli- 
mentarj' to those by whose authority I had been appointed. 
The Presiding Elders and the Bishop, I suppose, sent 
me, and it was a strong conviction in my mind for a time, 
that somebody had made a mistake. Filled with gloom 
I repaired to my work, and shall never forget my first 
Sabbath's labors. It was a rainy, dull, morning ; about 
twenty persons were out to hear the new preacher. The 
rain poured down, the house leaked badly, the doors 
were off the hinges, and things in general were in an 
unhinged state. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 89 



The ** blaat." Philosophy. Good oat of «t1L 

Cheerfulness predominates in my disposition^ and it 
was well for me that day that I was enabled to look on 
the brightest^side of the case, and avoid a severe attack 
of the blues.^ A kind-hearted gentleman invited me 
home with him to dinner^ and the continued rain pre- 
vented my filling the afternoon appointment. 

While musing in that gentleman's parlor that gloomy 
Sunday, I thought of the happiness of my previous years, 
and contrasted them with my present prospects, until my 
reflections began to take a sour turn, and I was tempted 
to think, with the enemies of our Methodist economy, 
that injustice and oppression are often the only reward 
of faithful labor, and a wide departure from the strict 
impartiality we should expect in the appointing power, 
is bearing hard on some, while others are &vored, flat- 
tered, and always receive choice appointments. I con- 
fess to be somewhat ashamed now to recall the course of 
my reflections. I ought to have remembered that some 
one must go to the poor places, — that no place was so 
wretched that it might not be made better, and that 
what seems darkest to us, is Gk>d'8 way to prove our 
fiiith, and bless our souls. The result of two years on 
this little cast-off charge, now convinces me, as it will 
the most sceptical, that Divine Providence rules our ap- 
pointments, and in no place within our bounds, could I 
have found a field of toil more ripe for the harvest, or 
better adapted to my temperament, and personal reli- 
gious improvement, than "Blackwater Circuit." 

I saw that something must be done to make the 



40 LIFE IN THE ARHT. 

" Bise up and bnUcL" Airey** ChHwl* 

churches attractive and comfortable; to rouse up the 
people to exertion and hope ; and inspire them with for- 
titude, as well as myself, in meeting the apparently in- 
surmountable difl&culties, by which we seemed to be sur- 
rounded. So, after prayer to God for assistance and 
direction, I remembered the days of Nehemiah, and re- 
solved that I would try to build up the walls and waste 
places of Zion, trusting in his God for help. 

I soon found favor in the eyes of the people, and en- 
gaged workmen to superintend the rebuilding of three 
of our old churches, named Airey's, Scott's and Grif- 
fith's, and also procured a builder from Baltimore to 
erect a new church at a point where it was agreed that 
we needed and must have a place of worship. I soon 
found my hands full, with four churches under way, 
and the workmen all looking to me for the money tie- 
cessary to meet expenses, as they accrued every week. 
I was enabled by driving early and late, to meet my en- 
gagements, and satisfy all parties. The work had to be 
done with the best materials, and in the best manner, 
and in due time we rejoiced together over our complete 
success. 

Airey's Chapel was originally named after the family 
of that name, who were ihe early and stead&sl firiends 
of Freeborn Garretson, and it was in this vicinity that 
he was arrested for preaching the Grospel, by the Sheriff 
of Dorchester County, and carried to Cambridge jail, 
from which he preached and exhorted tlie people through 
the iron bars of his prison-window, until they were com- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHT. 41 



Dedication. Sootf i Chap«L 



pelled to release him, and let him proceed od* his mis- 
sion^ as the pioneer of Methodism through this region 
of country. 

1 felt it to be no insignificant honor that the work of 
rebuilding this old time-honored and historical church 
devolved on me. The amount expended on it was five 
hundred and fifty dollars. 

We secured the services of the Eev. Dr. Roberts, 
of Baltimore, and the Bev. Dr. Williams, of Comers- 
ville, Maryland, for the dedication ; both preached with 
power ; we had a glorious time, and every cent of the 
indebtedness was cheerfully raised at the morning ser- 
vice. 

Scott's Chapel about the same time was completed, at 
a cost of about five hundred and forty dollars, and was 
rededicated by the Eev. J. Dickerson of the Philadelphia 
Conference ; Eev. John Hersey, and the Eev. Dr. Thomp- 
son of Cambridge, also giving their aid ; we all felt 
happy ; for Christ was in our midst, and this church, 
like Airey's, was presented to Grod free of debt. In con- 
nection with this building there was a tract of land 
w^hich had been donated to the church, but which a cer- 
tain person claimed to belong to him. We had to 
" Sheriflf " him to obtain our rights, and succeeded in 
raining the property, clearing up our title, and malting 
this covetous party pay the costs of the suit 

Our new Church in the neighborhood of the Nanti- 
ooke Eiver was duly finished, and the day of dedication 
appointed. This service was performed by the excellent 

A* 



42 LIFE IN THE ARMT. 

Rer. A. Manihlp. Oragg Chi4>eL 

and origfnal Rev. Andrew Manship of the Philadelphia 
Conference. 

Although the weather turned out to be un&vorable, 
yet the people were there in troops, and the preacher 
interested all, in his usual happy style, until many 
shouted " glory to God.'' All the money we needed 
was raised in the morning, and besides, twenty-five per- 
sons gave each one dollar to Bro. M. to make me a life 
director of the Tract Society, which he represented. 

The Trustees then, after consultation, insisted on a 
name for the new church. They communicated their 
desire to Brother Manship, and he baptized the place as 
Gregg Chapel, a name which it has borne ever since; 
This was against my consent, but they would have it so, 
and so it is. 

Griffith's Church now remained to be completed, and 
this was soon done, at an outlay of one hundred and 
fifty dollars. The ministers engaged to officiate, having 
failed to reach the church on account of inclement 
weather, the task of rededication devolved on myself. 
The money was all collected at the meeting in the morn- 
ing. In the evening I preached again and invited souls 
to Christ ; and there were over thirty persons converted 
in less than one week. This occurred during the busy 
season of wheat harvest, and was to us a glorious in- 
gathering of souls ; to God be all the praise. 

Thus by the Divine blessing^^ on which I cast my 
reliance at the outset, we succeeded in having three 
churches rebuilt at an outlay of over twelve hundred 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 43 



BeTival. Colored people. Gump Meeting. 

dollars^ and in erecting a neat new chnrch, which cost 
over one thousand dollars; all the work was accom- 
plished^ the funds raised^ and bills paid, in less than 
five months from the time I arrived upon the circuit. 
The result gladdened my own, and the hearts of the 
people, and we never lacked for good congr^tions, 
good collections, and happy meetings, while I remained 
among them. 

In this connection I might add, that I assisted the 
colored people to the extent of my ability in building 
one new church, and rebuilding another, both of which 
I had the pleasure to dedicate for them. This, of course, 
offended some of the rabid pro-slavery party, who were 
extremely sensitive and jealous, about extending any 
notice, help, or encouragement to these poor people. 
What I did, thank God, I was not afraid or ashamed to 
do, as a minister of the Lord Jesus Christ, who owns, 
among this class of persons, many jewels of Christian 
piety, who, when their proud oppressors shall be for- 
gotten, will stand before the throne, clothed in white 
robes, having come up through great tribulation. 

We held a Camp Meeting on the Circuit, consisting 
of one hundred and twenty tents, white and colored. 
The following preachers rallied round me, and preached 
with great power and success : Rev. H. Colclazer, Pre- 
siding Elder, Rev. J. Dickerson, Rev. H. Sanderson, 
and Rev. J. B. Quigg, of my own Conference ; Rev. J. 
W. CuUum, Rev. Mr. Thrush, and Rev. Prof. Hank, 
of the Baltimot*e Conference. We had excellent order. 



44 LIFB IK THE AKMT. 

^ • 

There was such manifestaticHis of the presence and iDfln- 
enoe of the Spirit, that pfomenading was abandoned, 
and even despisers were led to wonder and tremble be- 
fore the power of God. A great many found peace in 
believing, and the tented grove was to ns all a place of 
great rejoicing. 

In summing up the results of that year, which b^an 
so gloomy, I find that the people raised and paid about 
two thousand, five hundred, and fifiy-eix dollars, for 
church building, missionary and tract cause, and other 
demands made upon them, besides several hundred dol- 
lars, collected among the people of color, to pay off their 
church liabilities. 

I have always endeavored to extend the circulation of 
our religious literature wherever I have been, and even 
on this comparatively barren field, I obtained a large 
number of subscribers for the "Advocate." Out of the 
number converted to God this year, one hundred united 
with us in church fellowship, and the year closed up in 
great peace and, as the reader cannot &il to perceive, in 
unexpected and most signal prosperity. Surely " Grod 
moves in a mysterious way7His wonders to perform." 

In the Spring of 1858, 1 was reappointed to Black- 
water Circuit, and this time went to my charge with 
very different emotions from what I experienced the 
preceding year. The work moved on, the congregations 
were large, and the classes were well attended. 

We held another Camp Meeting, having one hundred 
and twenty-five tents. The ministers in attendance were 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 45 



Opposition. A good report. 



Rev. William L. Gray, Rev. H. Colclazer, Rev. A. 
Manship and Rev. T. J. Thompson, all of whom preached 
with life and liberty, and success crowned their eflforts 
in extending the Redeemer's kingdom. 

During my two years' work on this Circuit, the chief 
opposition I met with was from ministers of other deno- 
minations, dave-holdersj and the DevU. I had occasion- 
ally to &11 back on the inalienable rights of man, and 
defend myseli^ by collaring the uncivilized, and shaking 
them into decent behaviour — yAien moral suasion &iled 
of effect 

I found a friend and valuable helper in the Rev. Dr. 
Thompson, of Cambridge — father of Rev. C. I. Thomp- 
son of the Philadelphia Conference, who manifested an 
abiding interest in the spiritual welfare of the people. 
And they with myself will long remember him for his 
kindness and attention. My second year closed^ with 
what was regarded as "a good report." 



46 LIPB IK THS AKMY. 



Ordination. WieonlnO). 



CHAPTER VI. 

OMl>lJrATIOK. 

ANNUAL OONFERENCS-OROAINED ELDEB^WICONISOO-MOUNTAINS— 
CHURCH DEBT PAnX-FESTITAL— INOATHJCRING TO THS CHUBCH— 
WARM FRIENDS— HCMMELSTOWN-^HURCH REPAULXD— REOPENING 
—RET. BIES8RS. BISHOP, HEILNER, AND CARSON— MISSIONARY COL- 
LECTION— ASTOUNDING STINGINESS— A FREE GOSPEL-REFLECTIONS 
—OPPOSITION TO RETITALS— A "PETER CARTWRIGHT" ARGUMENT- 
TICTORT ON THE LORD'S SIDE. 

The Annual Conference of 1859 convened in Phila- 
delphia^ on the 26th day of March, and was to me a 
verj pleasant and memorable session. The ^' coarse of 
Study" prescribed for young preachers, and the annual 
examination in committee-room Avas now completed. 
After due representation in my case I was elected to 
Elders' orders, and on Sabbath, the 29th of March, 1859, 
I was ordained by the Bev. Bishop Scott, in company 
with the class of 1855, with each of whom I was happy 
to be associated, and will always rejoice to name them 
among my special friends. 

My appointment this year was to Wiconisco among 
the mountains of Dauphin County, Pa., where, as Rev. 
John F. Chaplain informed my fiiends in Cambridge, 
Md., the sun does not rise until ten o'clock in the morn- 
ing ! Indeed a greater contrast in scenery could hardly 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 47 



Kind people. Itinerating. 



be imagiDcd than that between my fields of labor for 
the past few years, and that to which I was now as- 
signed. Instead of low lands, level marshes, and the 
ebb and flow of tides, I was surrounded with lofly hills, 
rapid rivers, delightful and healthy atmosphere, and 
stirring enterprise. 

Our church at this place being in debt and the money 
to pay it needed, my first duty was to confer with the 
Trustees in regard to raising the necessary funds. We 
determined to make an effort, and accordingly, after my 
first sermon, the congregation wei*e asked to contribute 
one hundred dollars. This amount was given in a few 
minutes, and we were much encouragea to go forward. 

On the Fourth of July we had a public celebration. 
The ladies were exceedingly active in preparations for a 
good time, and with the most commendable zeal, they 
provided a sumptuous dinner, from the proceeds of 
which enough money was obtained to pay off the entire 
debt remaining on the church. 

The year passed away pleasantly. The people were 
extremely kind to me, and their names are still cherished 
in memory among my best Christian friends. We did 
not forget the interests of our church periodicals, raised a 
large missionary collection, and received into the church 
sixty-nine probationers as the result of a gracious 
revival. 

In the spring of 1860, 1 was appointed to Hummels- 
town Circuit, and found the work to be very laborious. 
The appointments were several miles apart, and I had 



48 LIFE IN THE ARMT. 

StiDKfneaa. My friend the Datchmui. 

often to ride twenty-five miles and preach three times 
the same day. 

We repaired the Hummelstown church and had a 
good bell placed upon it^ then arranged for special ser- 
vice at the re-opening. It was an occasion of great 
interest. The Rev. Wm. Bishop, of Harrisburg, Rev. 
S. A. Heilner, of Lykens, Pa., and Rev. Robert J. Car- 
son, of the Philadelphia Conference, officiated with 
acceptability and profit. All the money asked for was 
cheerfully contributed, and this enterprise throughout 
was a success. 

At one of mv appointments on the circuit I made 
special arrangements for a grand missionary collection, 
and secured the services of a certain Rev. M. D., to 
preach the sermon. He performed his part with ability, 
and to his astonishment, when the offerings of the people 
were received, and all the funds carefully counted, the 
result of the appeal and all our previous plans, was, the 
sum of one hundred and fifty cents, to send the word 
of life to the perishing heathen ! ! 

There was in a certain locality a wealthy gentleman 
of Dutch descent, who professed to be a great friend and 
admirer of the preacher. He regularly attended my 
ministry with his fiimily, and I was regarded as quit€ a 
favorite. At the close of the year, my good friend was 
solicited by one of the stewards for a liberal contribution 
towards the support of the gospel. I suppose he made 
it a subject of careful thought, if not of prayer, before he 
came forward with his amount: but when it did appear. 



AUTOBIOQRAPHT. 49 



Lore of money. Stealing gospel. 



it consisted of the handsome (?) sum of twenty-five cents, 
for one year's preaching to him and his house the 
unsearchable riches of Christ! 

He is one of the many — ^I am glad to think the num- 
ber is growing less every year, who believe in a free 
gospel, and 'are afraid to connect themselves with any 
denomination of Christians, from the dread of current 
expenses, and their innate stinginess of soul, regarding 
every call and claim of benevolence in the light of a 
nuisance, and living, laboring, and saving only for self. 
With such, the. love of money becomes an absorbing 
mania; and a man of this stripe will even deny himself 
and his &.mily the common necessaries of life, through 
this vice of avarice, and a growing fear of coming want 
They do not reflect on the^ meanness involved in stealing 
their preaching, by dodging around, without a regular 
Church home, and in evading the Scriptural obligation 
to support the ministers of Grod. 

Another class of people, however, go even beyond 
this. They oppose, by every means, the progress of a 
living, real Christianity; and such a thing as revival 
operations, is to them a source of torment. They are 
the fitting, and willing- tools of the Devil, who employs 
and assists them. I had several encounters with both 
ministers and members of other denominations this year, 
and by Grod's help, we not only withstood their rage, 
but pushed the conquest of the cross into their own lines, 
and had a number of our enemies converted in our 
revival meetings, who united -with lis, and learned to 

6 




£0 urs or imi jlsxt. 



Aont the pnise of dni God, vte lad c peBe d dieir 
Uinded c^nes, and brcn^lit dion. hr bis Spiii^ 
blcnedand hapfif cxpericDoe. 

Dorii^ tlie pragres of oar meebngat 
, SDnie of die blue— M- 1 
infloeDeed, » I ms led to befiere.W 
of odier chmdies, to atand oar serviees. ^ndi die deago 
of interrapdi^ die meedng. I bad read sooie skeCriies 
of die Bev. Peter Gtrtwi^bt, D. D^ and at onoe eon- 
doded to adopt his tactics in die preoiises.. 

A strong guard was stadooed in andaroandtbediorcb. 
Tbe preacher had to son hold of an nnrahr frUow oe- 
caaooallv; and thns by pladi^ oorsdves on tbe defen- 
sive, and prosecodng some of tbe rii^eadcR, tbdr old- 
fogj abettors, and bigoted parents, who belong to a oer- 
taincborch, hot are totally ^norant of troerdigion^irere 
finled and disappointed. 

Tbe work of God moved on, and both bcfe and at 
Hnmmelstown, we had a glorious meetii^, and gathered 
quite a large number into the fellowship of the Meth- 
odist £iilh, whom, may the God of our Fathers bless, 
and establish, undl, after a life of zeal for his cause on 
eardiy th^ gain 

—^ The blest fields, on tlie buiks of the rirer. 
And fhont hallelDJah, for erer, and erer." 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 61 



Opposition to reviYBls. Bainbridge. 



CHAPTER VII. 

1jOYAJ.TY. 

APPOINTED TO BAINBRIDOK-RETITAL— REAPPOINTSD-COBfMISSIONSD 
CHAPLAIN— PRESENTED WITH A BEAUTIFUL BWOBD— OFF TO THE FIELD 
.RETURN-APPOINTED TO MONTGOMERY SQUARE-^PPOSTHON-AN OLD 
DISLOTAL FARMER^BISHOP HOPKINS ON SLATERT— RETITAL-AN IN- 
CIDENT— TISIT TO PRESIDENT IINOOLN— INTERVIEW WITH SECESSION. 
ISTS— A JEW NONPLUSSED— RUNNING THE CHURCHES— ESTIMATE OF 
MR. UNOOLN— NOMINATED FOR HOSPITAL CHAPLAIN-CONFIRMED- 
ORDERED TO DEPARTMENT OF THE GULF— A WORD TO ** ALL WHOM IT 
MAT CONCERN." 

At the Conference held March 20th, 1861, 1 received 
my appointment to Bainbridge, Pa. This is a pleasant 
village located on the east bank of the Susquehanna 
river. As usual in all our smaller towns in this region, 
denominational lines were strictly drawn here. My first 
and constant desire in all my appointments, was to labor 
in harmony with my fellow-Christians, and live on terms 
of peace with all who love our Lord Jesus Christ, but to 
press forward in the work of getting sinners converted. 
Where offense has been taken at the mode I employ, and 
professed ministers of the gospel, arise to oppose the 
work through prejudice, or a fear that their ot\ti fabric 
may be invaded, and &I1 down before the onset of Holy 
Ghost religion, I simply move on, in the course I deem 



52 LIFE IS THE ABMY. 

Loyalty. Appointed Qutplain. 

best, and think it useless to open controversies, or engage 
in arguments, while souls are perishing. Through much 
opposition, I had the pleasure of seeing a good work at 
fiainbridge, and many souls were added to the Lord. 

I was returned to the same charge in 1862. At this 
period the Nation had become aroused to the magnitude 
of the rebellion, and all the true friends of Liberty and 
Union had to speak out, and act ovt their convictions. 

Of my own record, since the firing of the first gun 
that inaugurated the slave-holders' rebellion, I have no 
reason to be ashamed.^ On the 16th of August, in this 
year, I was appointed and commissioned Chaplain of the 
one hundred and twenty-seventh Regiment Pennsylvania 
Volunteers, by his excellency, Governor Andrew Gregg 
Curtin. 

My regiment was under marching orders, and I had 
to bid my congregation farewell. After preaching to 
them on the Sunday evening before my departure, I was 
presented with a magnificent sword, by the following 
worthy and patriotic gentlemen, as a token of their 
esteem : Dr. R. H. Jones of Bainbridge, Prof. Samuel 
Eby of Elizabethtown, Pa., and Abi-aham Collins, Esq., 
merchant of Falmouth. This ofiended some of the 
friends of Jeff. Davis, in that community, but their 
wrath was of no account, in view of the overwhelming 
tide of loyal sentiment in good old Lancaster County. 
May God bless all her patriotic sons and daughters. 

Of my adventures and experiences in the army, the 
reader of these pages will find a full account in the pro- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 53 



A pro^lavery man. Hopkins' book. 

per place. My term of service expired in the spring of 
1863, when, returning to my Conference and regular 
work, I was sent to Montgomery Square, a pleasant sta- 
tion, in the vicinity of Philadelphia. I found here 
some of the kindest Christian people I have known, and 
spent a very happy term among them. 

As I had been in the army, of course I was a mark 
for the hatred of rebel sympathizers. One man, lately 
from the city, where he had experienced some rough 
usage on account of his Southern proclivities, tried to 
strengthen his cause by misrepresentation and slander of 
me ; but my people were not disposed to ignore a true 
Union man, or be influenced against one who had served 
his country in the field, by a weak, although wealthy 
advocate for the " institution " of slavery. 

This person had the assurance to distribute copies of 
Bishop Hopkins' book, wherever he could find a reader, 
and went so far as to deposit them in the front yards of 
some of my members. He and all the hissing tribe who 
followed his counsel, failed to do me the slightest injury. 
I was enabled to move forward with steady steps, and 
God blessed us in the work of revival. "We had a meet- 
ing of extraordinary power. The word of the Lord 
spread like fire in dry stubble. Over fifty souls were 
converted, and what is remarkable, there were several 
among the number who were over sixty years of age. 

After preaching on the morning of Christmas day, I 
was about to dismiss the congregation, when, to my sur- 
prise, one of the stewards rose and requested the people 

6 * 



54 



LIFE ES THE AKMY. 



I>(mfttlOa: 



Tbe Pf eif dent. 



A tecah Lad j. 



to be s^ted, as he wished their attention for a few mo- 
tuents< He theo addr^sed himself to me, ia a neat 
speech, and in the name of those who were attendants 
on mj ministjyj presented me with a poeket book con- 
taining fifty dollars in greenbacks } and in the name of 
the yonng ladies of the congregation^ a beautiful pair of 
gloves. I tried to return my thanks for such substantial 
tokeus of sympathy and confidence^ and remarked that 
the feelings which prompted such generosity were of 
more real vahie than anything else. I was happy to 
know &at I was surrounded by such kind people. 

On the 18th day of February, 1864, 1 visited Wash- 
in gton, and was perroitt^ to have an interview witli 
President Lincoln. I shall never forget a scene I wit- 
n^sed on that ooc^sion. It endeared that honored man 
to my heart, and gave me a strong impression of his wis- 
dom and firmness in dealing with the enemies of the 
GoTemment, 

While I was seat^ in his office, a lady who was a 
secessionist, and a resident of Washington City, forced 
herself into his presence, and approaching him said : 

** ifr. President, my son is a prisoner of war, and ho 
now desir^ to take the oath of allegiance," 

" Under what circumstances was your son captured?" 
inquired Mr. Lincoln. 

' " While on his way to the rebel army, sirj" the lady 
replied 



'i 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 55 



A Rebel captain. A Jew cornered. 



" In WashiDgton, sir/' she answered, " he having re- 
turned home sick/' 

Mr. Linoohi then said, ^^ You kept him concealed in 
your house — ^fattened him up— and then sent him back 
to the rebel army to assist in destroying this government; 
and further, madam, I have no confidence in you, or 
your son." 

'* But, sir,'' said she, " my son is a reliable man." 

" No doubt he was," Mr. Lincoln replied, " when he 
had a rebel musket on his shoulder." 

This ended the dialogue, and the lady retired. 

Soon another party entered the apartment — a Jew, ac- 
companied by a lady and gentleman. The Jew approached 
the president and said : 

^^ Mr. Lincoln, this lady is the wife of a rebel Captain 
who is now a prisoner, and he desires to take the oath 
of allegiance." 

The President looked the Jew in the face, saying : 

^^ The Captain has become quite penitent^ I suppose, 
since he has been captured by our forces," and added : 
^^ he is too big a fish for me to allow to take the oath, 
and thereby extend to him a chance to return to the 
rebel army the first opportunity regardless of his oath, 
as many of them have done already." 

The Jew said; "Mr. President^ he is perfectly re- 
liable." 

" I believe that^" responded Mr. Lincoln, " when in 
command of a company of rebel soldiers." 

** But, sir, I will vouch for him," said the Jew. 



56 LIFE or THE ABMT. 

Bwmfag tb« ^mnhm. SagMity of Xr. finrolii. 

" And pray, gir/' said Mr. Lincoln, ** who are you ?" 

The man answered that he kept a store in Washington, 
and that he was acquainted with Mrs. Lincoln. The 
President inquired where he became acquainted with 
Mrs. Lincoln. 

"At my place of business, sir,'* ssdd he. 

Mr. Lincoln remarked that he did not believe that he 
knew Mrs. L. At the same moment he rang the bell, 
and a messenger appeared, whom he directed to go and 

ask Mrs. Lincoln if she was acquainted with Mr. 

The messenger soon returned, and informed him that she 
said she did not know such a man. 

The President looked the embarrassed Jew in the eye, 

and said, "Do you hear that Mr. ? Now, sir, you 

can leave." 

On the 24th of March, 1864, Mr. Lincoln, in a con- 
versation between himself, Mr. Stanton and a certain 
Bishop, informed them that he had not engaged to "run 
the churches." 

I recall these incidents, to show the impartiality and 
sagacity he displayed in his' administration during the 
deepest trials of the country. My opinion is that there 
was not a man in the civilized world who was as true a 
representative of republicanism as the Honorable and now 
revered Abraham Lincoln. 

Honest as a politician, pure as a patriot, devout and 
humble in the sense of his dependence on, and accounta- 
bility to the great God, he has well deserved the title so 
generally accorded to him, as " the second Washington." 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 57 



Hospital ChaplAin. GuthrieTille. 



On the 18th of February, 1864, 1 was nominated by 
this great and good President for the position of Hospital 
Chaplain, and my appointment was sent to the Senate 
of the United States for confirmation. 

Pending action in my case, I attended the session of 
Conference in Wilmington, Del., and was by Bishop 
Ames appointed to Guthrieville Circuit In two days 
after this was announced, my appointment as a Chaplain 
was confirmed by the Senate. On the 18th of March, I 
received my commission from the President, and was 
ordered by the Surgeon-Greneral to report for duty to the 
Medical Director of the Department of the Gulf, for 
assignment to one of the Greneral Hospitals in New 
Orleans, La. This change of programme I believed to 
be in accordance with the will and direction of Provi- 
dence, and immediately turned my attention to the new 
sphere of duty which had opened before me. Bishop 
Ames kindly transferred me from the charge to 
which I had been assigned, and gave his concurrence 
to my appointment as Chaplain in the United States 
Army. 

The above will explain why I did not go to my field 
of labor ; for I wish it distinctly understood that I have 
never refused to do the work, or go to the post of duty 
assigned me by the Bishop and his council. The sup- 
position by some that I did not go to the Guthrie\dlle 
Circuit because it was regarded as*a poor and unpromis- 
ing field of labor, is far from being correct All my 
appointments in the past were understood to be among 



58 LIFE IN THB ABMY. 

A son in the gospel. To whom it may concern. 

the hardest portions of our work, but I have labored 
cheerfully, and by the blessing of God, have tried to 
bring up, and improve every place I have occupied. I 
may also say, for the information of all whom it may 
concern, that I never received more than one hundred 
and fifty dollars besides my board and traveling ex- 
penses, on any charge, and very frequently less than that. 
It will be seen, therefore, that I have had no very 
special favors from the appointing power, but I have 
acted as an obedient son in the gospel, and do not regret 
tliat I have labored, suffered, and borne reproach for the 
sake of our common Master and his blessed cause. 



AUTOBIOGBAPHT, 69 



An efflcitnt ministry. Xdocatton. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

TIEWB ON THE EPFICIENCY OF THE MIKI8TRT— OOUHON SENSE AND 
IJYING FAITH BETTER THAN DEAD LAN0UA0E8— BSTITALS OF RE- 
LIGION SANCTIONED BT SCRIPTURE— MISSION OF HETHODISH— PER- 
80NAL-KINDNSSS OF FBIENDS-RET. JAMES RIDDLE-REMARKABLE 
PROTIDENCES-RESCUE FROM DROWNING— FALL FROM A HORSE- 
ESCAPE FROM ROBBERS-THE GLORT GPnCN TO GOD. 

Befobe conclading this department of my book, I 
have thought it would not be out of place for me to 
write down some reflections, which have long occupied 
my mind, respecting an efficient ministry. 

Is it absolutely necessary that a man converted and 
called of God to preach repentance and the remission 
of sins to his dying fellow-men, must turn aside from 
the work to which the Holy Spirit and his ardent nature 
prompts him, and settle down to the study of Greek, 
Latin, or Hebrew? Must he spend a few valuable years 
of his fresh and vigorous youth in learning philosophy, 
figuring abstract problems, or plodding wearily over the 
pages of old Pagan poets? "Gaining knowledge,'' said 
the wise and practical Wesley, "is a good thing, but 
saving souls is better.'' I do not undervalue learning, 
but simply inquire whether that species called the classics 
is essential to success in the Methodist itinerancy? 




60 LIFE IN THE ARMY. 

Is a colltge diploma necessary to success f The &tbert. 

The controversy on this subject is waxing warmer 
every year, and some probabilities seem to point in the 
direction of a collegiate course, as a prerequisite for 
admission into an annual conference, and the regular 
work of the Methodist pastorate. Some of the bishops, 
it is said, favor this arrangement, atid editors, presidents, 
and the whole corps of college professors clap their hands 
in glee, and say "amen" to it. 

There is, moreover, a kind of distinction springing up 
betw^een brethren, which, if allowed to obtain, will prove 
very unbecoming, and will serve to bring us into con- 
tempt before the world, as a house divided against itself. 
The new-fledged graduate, no matter what amount of 
brains he may possess, is often seen stepping around on 
the stilts of his supposed superiority, and putting on airs 
in the presence of his fellow-laborers, who have no 
"A. M." or "B. A." tagged on to their names, which is 
calculated to bring them into discredit. 

My candid opinion is, that we have as good men, and 
as great men, in every respect, who never studied the 
dead languages, as any who boast of proficiency in that 
direction. CJolleges never did, and never will, give a 
man brains; nor can they impart a deeper endowment 
of holy earnestness, or the unction of the Spirit^ which 
qualifies for most eminent success. The larger portion 
of our clergy, still, are of that class whom I denominate 
self-educated men. 

The generations of our predecessors, — men who shook 
this continent by their power, came forth, not from 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 61 



Source of true power. Ministers must be sdfHMcrificing. 

seminaries, but from shoe-benches, and the plough; from 
humble and ordinary oocupations, hardy through toil, 
happy in the enjoyment of good health, and, above all, 
men of one work, for which God called them, and to 
which they were baptized with the Holy Ghost and fire 
sent down from heaven. 

When the day comes, if it ever does arrive in the his- 
tory of American Methodism, that shall witness a rule 
requiring every young man who feels moved to take 
upon himself the work of preaching the gospel, to turn 
his attention first to the study of Greek and Hebrew, 
the cause of Christ and perishing souls will sufier, and 
the ardor, freshness, and power of such young men will, 
by entering a college as students, wane and languish, 
and some of them will either backslide, or become a dry 
literary incumbrance on the church. ;. . 

What I mean, is, so far as my observation has ex- 
tended, self-educated men are fully up to the standard 
by which we should test ministerial character, and are 
often successful and generally useful among the masses, 
and are found to be available for the conversion of this 
world of sinners to God. They should not be discarded; 
nor should unkind reflections be cast upon them, and on 
t!ie Fathers of Methodism, by this modern hue and cry 
about the need of Colleges, Universities, and Biblical 
Institutes. If the common sense that characterized the 
brave old legions of a past generation shall descend on 
their sons and successors, and like them, we be men of 
simplicity in manner, energy of action, and self-sacrifice 

6 



62 LIFE IN THE ABMY. 

BeriTAlfl BcriptnrmL Who o|ypoM Uimd. 

for the promotion of holiness through all the land, we 
can take the world for Christ I do not argne against 
classical education, or despise the gaining, of knowledge, 
but, while I admire, and wish great good to the ** D. 
D's.,'' and bid the educators God speed, I think the 
hardest and largest part of our '^ork must be done by 
men who, instead of ^^recitations," and speculations, and 
parchment credentials, shall live and labor for eternity, 
and spend their short life in the most practical manner 
of glorifying God, and whose highest ambition is to hear 
at last the Master say, "Well done, good and fiiithful 
servant" 

On the subject of revivals of religion, I desire to pre- 
sent a few words. I am a firm advocate of these "times 
of refireshing," and believe in the outpouring of the 
Spirit on set and special occasions, in answer to prayer, 
and the use of the means appointed and improved, for 
bridging awakened souls to the cross, and uniting Grod's 
people in faith, love, and zeal. 

The ministry of the Apostles was honored with fre- 
quent baptisms of the Holy Ghost, and we learn that 
under revival efforts and influences, much people were 
added to the Lord. Through all the history and pro- 
gress of the true church of Jesus Christ, we have illus- 
trations of the value, and indeed the absolute necessity 
of awakening and saving grace. 

How then can any lover of Christ oppose a work of 
this kind? We ought to rejoice and be exceeding glad, 
instead of grumbling and fault finding, when we see the 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 63 



Special effort naoemry. Idle minitten. 

tide of salvation risings and rolling on in majesido power, 
sometimes including whole neighborhoods, and falling 
on both the aged and the young in its soul-saving in- 
fluence. 

My^own soul was converted to God at a revival of 
religion, and I have witnessed the conversion of large 
numbers of others during my ministry, when the power 
of the gospel was manifested to save. 

As a church, we should never ignore them. Our 
growth in numbers, and success in every department, 
has been through the instrumentality of revivals. Mil- 
lions on earth and in heaven to-day, were awakened, 
converted, and brought into the fold of Christ on these 
occasions, and, if summoned to give their testimony, 
would tell of many a camp meeting, or protracted effort, 
where they were saved, and without which, in all proba- 
bility, thqr would never have been aroused to the need of 
regeneration by the Spirit. I have in these pages fre- 
quently observed, that ministers and members of certain 
denominations where I have labored, did all they could, 
to discredit the work, and oppose all who were in &vor 
of spiritual Christianity. What mannerof men are they^ 
who stand all the day idle, themselves, half asleep, or 
wholly indifferent to the salvation of the people, and when 
they are waked up, by the noise of sinners crying for 
mercy, or saints of God shouting on the battles of Im- 
manuel, get angry, and growl over it, calling it wild-fire, 
enthusiasm, and fimatical folly, and warning their own 
poor bigoted, sober-sided, and deluded followers, to have 



64 LIFE IN THE ABMT. 

Truth wUl triumph. M«thodinn a Ugfat to all. 

nothing to do with these Methodists ? That we are and 
ought to be enthusiasts I admit, but that there is either 
fanaticism or folly in our modes of operation I take the 
1 iberty to deny. We are a missionary church, and intend, 
in obedience to the command of the Captain of our sal- 
vation, to battle on against every opposition that may be 
employed by earth or hell ; aud as sure as truth is on our 
side, error shall fade and fall before us ; spirituality shall 
increase, and warm into life, the cold, dead formality by 
which many churches and some parts of our own is par- 
alyzed. We cannot, we dare not^ allow souls for whom 
Christ has died to go down to the pit, without advancing 
our skirmish lines and trying, by a double-quick move- 
ment, to snatch them as brands from the fire. 

Oh that we may be, more than ever in the past, a re- 
vival church ; a light to all around us, as the city that 
is set on a hill, which cannot be hid. Where other 
churches fail we must succeed. WTiat tl^ey are unable to 
do, we must by God's grace accomplish. For this we 
were raised up : for this we have been preserved and 
made strong, and in tliis work we must go forth cryiug, 

" Lord peTire as ! Lord perire ns ! 
All oar help mast oome fh>m thee." 

In all the allusions I have made to the work of the 
Ijord under my own feeble labors, I hope none will at- 
tribute to me a spirit of vain-glory — such allusions had 
to come in naturally, in the narhitive of my life, and will 
be to many, as well as to myself, in reading them, like 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 66 



Explanation. A tritrate to Mendthip. 



green spots in the desert, and welk of water in a thirsty 
land. 

I cannot close this account of my experience in the 
ministry without some personal remarks^ which those to 
whom I may refer will please pardon me for making. I 
was, as the kind reader will recollect, early compelled to 
commence the struggle with this rough and rugged world, 
and literally to pioneer my own patliway up to man- 
hood. 

The truest friends I ever found, have been those in# 
the traveling and local Ministry within the bounds of 
the Philadelphia Conference. I could easily record a 
long list of names on this page, that are cherished in my 
heart, and to whom for special attentions I am indebted, 
more deeply than I can express, or ever hope to repay. 

The Rev. James Riddle, of Wilmington, Delaware, 
who has always shown himself a true and timely friend 
of young men, entering, and in the ministry, has from 
the hour I was converted until this day, never ceased to 
evince for me the generous and noble kindness of his 
warm Irish heart. The only way T can imagine, in 
which to reciprocate such disinterested friendship, is, to 
call upon him, whenever I have a favor to ask, and never 
fear to tax his kindness too &r. 

In regard to my present prospects : I feel that God is 
good to me, and his presence is with me in the way to 
heaven. My sincere desire is, to serve Grod and the 
Church of my choice more faithfully in the future. I 
ask an interest in the prayers of the Christian reader— 

6» 



66 LIFE IN THB ARMY. 

6od*8 providence. 8f ved from drovming. 

that I may be kept "steadfast, unmoveable, always 
abounding in the work of the Lord, and that my labor 
may not be in vain in the Lord." 

When I. sometimes retrospect my past life and mark 
the particular providences of God in my behalf, I am 
led to adopt the language of the beautiful hymn, and 
ask: 

" When all thy mercies, my God, 
My rising soul surveys ; 
Transported with the view, I'm lost, 
In wonder, love and praise/' 

Truly he has led me in a way I have not known ; — 
in perils, privations, and danger; and has been ever 
reacly to shield me from sudden and violent death. 

I remember, when quite a small boy, once bathing in 
a certain river. The current was strong, and carried me 
out in deep water. As I could not swim, I was sinking 
to a w^atery grave, when a gentleman rescued me. This 
made a deep impression on my mind at the time, and 
so vivid is my realization of the interposition of Provi- 
dence — that the event seems but as yesterday. 

Once, while skating, on the same river, all alone, I 
was warned to get off, as the ice was moving rapidly be- 
neath my feet towards the falls some distance below. 
When I looked at the situation, it was appalling. The 
ice had become detached from theishore, and ^vas career- 
ing down with the force of the flood. I have heard it 
said that there were times when a person's hair has been 
known to stand up straight on their head through 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 67 



Escape. Bemarkable deliTenuice. 



fright.' Well, if ever mj hair stood up straight upon 
my head, that was the time. I was compelled to spring 
into the deep and rapid current, and struggle for my life, 
among the broken fragments of ice, several pieces of 
which passed over me as I tried to reach the shore, 
which I did at length, through a merciful and kind Pro- 
vidence. 

I also remember being thrown twice from a horse, 
each time the horse falling on me. An Indian pony 
once kicked me in the face, and I have known persons 
to be maimed, or even lose their life from a less cause. 

While crossing the Alleghany Mountains when a 
boy, I put up at a hotel, and about midnight a robber 
and murderer entered my room. I was again the child 
of Providence, and to God I give the praise for my de- 
liverance on that occasion. On another occasion in 
1855, danger and death appeared imminent. I was 
attacked by three robbers a few miles east of Bedford, 
Pa., while traveling on horseback. During my itine- 
rancy, I have often experienced the watch-care of one 
who is nigh at hand to help and save. When thrown 
from my carriage t^^ce with great violence, I was gra- 
ciously preserved without harm. 

And, that the bullet has sped by me, or the shell and 
shot has not been allowed to molest or make me afraid; 
that I live to-day, rejoicing in my beloved country ^s 
triumph, and with a heart to thank God for all his good- 
ness to me, is all through his unmerited grace. 

Whatever may be my future course, 1 can say in the 



68 



LIPB IN THB ARMY. 



Pndse to and trust in God. 



words of the Psalmist : " My heart is fixed, O Grod, my 
heart is fixed 5 I will siDg and give praise.'* 

''This, this is the God I adore. 

My faithfal unchangeable friend. 
Whose lore is as great as his power. 

And neither knows measure nor end. 
'Tis Jesus the first and the last, 

Whose Spirit shall guide me safe home, 
ril praise Him for all that is past, 

And tnut Him for all that's to come." 





Soldier's Life. 



Llft» In the Army, p. i 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 



CHAPTER IX. 



THE GUKAT OTRISINQ OF THE NOBTH— A PATBIOrS DUTI— OBOANI- 
ZATION OF THE ONE HT7NDBSD AND TWENTT-SETENTH BEOI- 
MENT— MARCHING ORDERS— WA8HIN0T0N, D. C— ACROSS THE PO- 
TOMAC— FORT "ETHAN ALLEN"— SECOND BULL BUN BATTLE— 
ANTDETAM-OUB YOUNG COLONEL-THE "CHBIStlAN BODY**— OR- 
DERED TO JOIN THE ARMY OF THE POTOMAG-HEATY MARCH- 
AMUSING SCENES— A SPLENDID SHOT— SCIENTIFIC PORK-BUTCHER- 
ING—DISAPPEARANCE OF A RAIL FENCE— A FRIGHTENED CITIZEN— 
THE ** ELEVENTH MAINE"— THE CHAPLAIN BAfifBOOZLED— lOLITABY 
NECESSITY— ACQUIA CREEK-COMFORTLESS QUARTERS-GEN. BURN- 
SIDFS ARMY— CAMP ALLEMAN — MAJOR42ENERAIS COUCH AND 
HOWARD. 

With the great tiprising of the northern people on 
acooont of the firing on our time-honored flag, I "was 
drawn into hearty and active sympathy. When it be- 
came evident that secessionists, in their blind in&tuation 
and rage, were determined on war, every true man was 
bound to show his colors. It thrilled my soul to hear 
of the great heart of the people being filled and fired 
with patriotic ardor. The stirring sound of fife and 
drum, the hurried movement of troops, the formation 
of camps, and the rapidity with which an army was col- 

69 



70 LIFE IN THE AEMY. 

A patriot's duty. Off to Washington. 

lected, equipped^ and placed around the Capital, gave 
ample evidence, that the Union was dear to the great 
masses, and would not be surrendered without a struggle 
to maintain the right against despotism. 

I entered into the glorious cause without a question as 
to my duty, and assisted to the extent of my influence in 
recruiting companies for the war. I felt that I owed 
everything to my government in the struggle pending, 
until victory should crown her eflbrts in the suppression 
of the rebellion, and the external overthrow of its prime 
moving cause, slavery. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-seventh R^ment Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers was organized at Camp Curtin, on the 
13th day of August, 1862, and left Harrisburg for Washing- 
ton on the following morning. I have already intimated 
my connection with this body of troops as regularly com- 
missioned Chaplain. We reached Washington, D. C, 
on the 16th of August, crossed the Potomac into Vir- 
ginia, and went into camp, which we named "Jennings," 
in honor of our Colonel. We remained here only a 
short time, under General Whipple, and were ordered to 
" Fort Ethan AUen,'^ where we remained on guard duty 
during the second Battle of "Bull Run." We could 
hear occasionally the roar of rebel cannon in the distance, 
and the sensation was peculiar for the first time. We 
next received orders to go into camp, and called it 
"Camp Boas," in honor of Colonel Boas, of Harrisburg. 

Our duty here was to guard the Chain Bridge. Dur- 
ing the Battle of Antietam, we were under command of 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. . 71 

Amtuement in camp. A Chiiitian soldier 

General Abercrombie, and spent two months at this 
post. 

Here we held regular religious meetings, and spent 
the time very agreeably in such amusement as the sol- 
dier needs to while away the time. A company of men 
numbering about one thousand, will, if idle, invent many 
ways to have fun, and break the monotony of what 
would be a very dull mode of life. 

Our youthful colonel displayed qualities which con- 
stitute the true soldier. He was kind to his command, 
but a strict disciplinarian, and won the respect and confi- 
dence of both officers and men. 

Our next move was about three miles toward the 
front, where we' formed a camp, and called it " Roherer,*' 
in honor of our Major. In this location we remained 
but twenty-four hours, when we were ordered to our 
former post, near " Fort Ethan Allen." Here we estab- 
lished Camp " Awl," in honor of one of our captains, a 
gentleman, a scholar, and a noble Christian, with whom 
I was proud to be associated. We were formed into a 
brigade, of which our colonel was placed in command, 
leaving the charge of the regiment in the hands of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Alleman. 

While in Camp Awl, I formed an association embrac- 
ing all the professors of religion, which we termed- a 
"Christian body." This afterwards proved a great 
blessing to the men of our regiment. Our meetings 
were kept up with interest, and were largely attended. 

On Sabbath, the 10th of November, much to our sur- 



72 LIFE IN THE ARMY. 

To the front. Bmrj march. 

prise, as quite a namber of the officers had erected winter 
quarters, we received orders to be ready to march on the 
following morning to join the Army of the Potomac, 
then encamped near Fredericksburg, Va. Accordingly, 
on the morning of the 11th of November, 1862, we fell 
in, and took up the line of march during a heavy rain 
storm. Our route was through Washington, and down 
the north side of the Potomac to Acquia Creek. 

The first day's march was very severe on the men, 
many of whom became exhausted with &tigue. I tried 
to relieve the most weary, by allowing them by turns to 
ride my horse, while I shouldered their muskets, and 
kept step to the music of the Union. 

Wfi passed through several counties of Maryland, 
where nearly all the inhabitants appear to be strong se- 
cessionists ; and from their manner it was evident their 
sympathies all turned in fiivor of Jeff. Davis. The sol- 
diers, knowing this, did not spare the poultry yards, as 
they passed along. I witnessed, one day, a very re- 
markable specimen of skill on the part of one of our pri- 
vates, who, seeing two chickens in a barn-yard standing 
directly in line, raised his gun, and witli a minie ball 
cut both their heads off. The trophy was soon slung 
over his shoulder, and he jo^ed on with the prospect 
of a good supper, and the applause of his companions, 
for being the best marksman in the ranks. Another 
man, taking it into his head to have a steak of fresh 
pork, boldly charged on, and captured a pig, which I 
saw him afterwards tie up to a tree, and with all the de* 




< 



ARBIY OF THE POTOMAC, 78 

A icared citixen. The ohaplain on goard. 

liberation and skill of a scientific butcher, proceed to 
dress, to the amusement of all who witnessed the trans- 
action. 

One evening as we had halted, and were arranging 
our camp for tiie nighl^ with the aid of my servant boy 
Dick, I constructed my tent with one end supported by 
a rail fence ; but as a military necessity, the men of the 
brigade very soon appropriated every rail of that fence 
to cook their coffee, and as a consequence, down came 
my tent, flat upon the ground. " Well," said I to Dick, 
" it is too late now to build another, let us look for lodg- 
ing at that farm-house," which stood near by. • 

As we reached the place, a farmer who lived about a 
mile distant made his appearance, very much frightened 
and excited. He enquired for the commander, saying 
that the soldiers were killing his cattle and hogs, and 
that they threatened to shoot him if he interfered with 
them. I directed him to the Brigade Head-quarters, but 
the boys, supposing him to be a rebel, pointed out the 
wrong man, and the poor fellow became bewildered, and 
soon returned to me, exclaiming, " My Grod, I do not 
know what to do." I then inquired if he was a Union 
man. He answered that he was. " Well," said I, " if 
you will furnish me with supper and a good bed, and 
breakfast in the morning, I will go home with you and 
act as your guard." To this he agreed, and we were 
soon at his house. As I sat by the fire, the farmer 
looked down the lane and cried out to me in a very ner- 
vous way, " Yonder they come." " Keep cool," said I, 

7 



74 LIFE IN THB ARMY. 

Outwitted. Good fitre. Blockade miming. 

" and I will manage the soldiers." So I waited until they 
approached so near that I heard voices in the hen-roost. 
I then went out and said, " Good evening, men." They 
stopped proceedings on finding me there, and I told 
them I hoped they would not take ^y thing, for the 
owner said he was a good Union man, and he had al- 
ready suffered to the amount of eight hogs. " Well," 
said the soldiers, " if he is a Union man we will not dis- 
turb his poultry, but it is a principle with us to pitch 
into the live stock of all secessionists, and set it down to 
the credit of Uncle Sam." I inquired to what regiment 
they belonged, and they answered, "The Eleventh 
Maine," and took their departure. The cream of the 
joke was, that they all belonged to my own regiment. 
But they put on so many airs, that I did not know a 
mother's son of them. I enjoyed a good night's rest 
and an excellent supper and breakfast, and this, after a 
weary march, was very refreshing. My Union friend 
presented me, in addition to the contract, with two well 
dressed chickens, and two pounds of butter, to r^ale 
myself with as we journeyed on: Thus ended my first 
and last guard duty. 

There were quite a number of amusing circumstances, 
irhich transpired on this march, and which I have not 
here space to give in detail. 

All along the route, secesh chickens, hogs, geese, ducks, 
turkeys, horses, mules, <&c., were missing about their accus- 
tomed homes, and I suppose the citizens either put it doT\Ti 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 75 



Acqnia Creek. Gunp Allenum. 



to military necessity, or made up their losses by blockade 
running. 

We reached the Bay or Eiver opposite Aoquia Creek, 
on the 18 th of November, and crossed over to the Vir- 
ginia side, in rain and snow. The men suffered a great 
deal, having no dry place to lay their heads during that 
stormy night 

November 30th, we again took up our line of march'and 
arrived within the lines of the Army of the Potomac on 
the afternoon of the 21st. We went into camp, which 
we named "Camp AUeman," in honor of our Lieutenant- 
Colonel, and here we had a little rest after our march of 
eight days. The officers and men stood the fatigue re- 
markably well, and proved themselves good soldiers. 
Our regiment was then placed in the second army corps, 
imder Major-General Couch, and Major-General Howard, 
as Division Commander. 

This began to look like war, in earnest, and the 
mighty army, of which we now formed an integral part, 
seemed to be impressed with the idea that serious busi- 
ness was near at hand. Awaiting the deliberations of 
the master minds, who were in war counsel, and corre- 
spondence with Washington, these tens of thousands 
were ready, at a word, to advance and meet the enemy. 
The chaplains were all industriously engaged, meetings 
were held, and the mails collected and conveyed a large 
number of letters from our men to their friends at home^ 



76 LIFE m THE ARMY. 



Pnparatioiis for tMittle. Religioai MriounMi. 



CHAPTER X. 

WAM. 

CAMP BROKEN— HABCH TO THE FBONT— FREDERICKSBUBG— PBEPARA- 
TIOKS FOR BATTLE-RELIGIOUS MEETINGS-OPENING OF THE FIGHT— 
TERRIFIG CANNONADE— PONTOONS-REBEL SHARP-SHOOTERS ROUTED 
—A DARING EXPLOIT— CAPTAIN FOX MORTALLY WOUNDED-OUR REG- 
IMENT ORDERED ACROSS— UNDER FIRE— CASUALTIES— THE REBEL 
YELL— THREE DAYS' TERRIBLE SLAUGHTEB.-DEFEAT OF OUR ARMY- 
CAUSES— RETREAT TO OUR OLD CAMP— *' TRY, TRY AGAIN.'* 

On November 22d, 1862, our camp "Alleman'^ was 
thrown into a state of unusual excitement, by orders 
received that we must prepare to move on the 23d. 
Our prayer and experience meetings on that evening 
were well attended, and deep seriousness seemed to fall 
upon the hearts of all. The men knew that they were 
DOW near the foe, and that a desperate battle was im- 
pending. Thoughts of home, and the many friends they 
had lefl behind; thoughts of the future, — ^the numerous 
risks of the battle-field, the probability, nay, the almost 
certainty, of some of the present company felling — all 
combined to bring a crowd of solemn reflections to every 
mind. We had a good meeting, and many expressed 
the hope, through Jesus, if no more permitted on earth 
to mingle our songs and supplications, that we should 
have a glorious meeting in the land of everlasting rest. 



ARMY OF THB POTOMAC. 77 

The army in motion. Pontoons. 

According to previous notice, the morning of the 23d 
found us early astir. The roll of drums, and the hurried 
formation of ranks of armed men, with the evolutions 
of artillery getting into position, produced a scene of be- 
wildering confusion, while occasionally the startling sound 
of cannon broke upon the ear, and quickened the blood 
coursing in our veins. By eight o'clock, A. M., the 
whole army was in motion, and ready for the command 
^^ forward,'' to the field of carnage and blood. It was a 
thrilling spectacle to see the thousands of officers and 
men, all obedient to one governing mind, wheel into 
their positions, and move away from their pleasant 
quarters, to try once more the issue of battle. 

The Army of the Potomac was at this time in splendid 
condition, and capable of great achievements for their 
country and its glorious flag. Mingling with the enthu- 
siasm of the movement, there could be observed a spirit 
of intense seriousness among the men. Many requested 
an interest in our prayers, and on every countenance 
could be plainly read the feelings of the heart, which 
were to conquer or die. 

Our section of the army was halted just in front of the 
city of Fredericksburg. 

We found the engineers busily engaged in laying 
pontoon-bridges across the river. This was a hazardous 
undertaking, and cost many a noble life. Again and 
again was the work interrupted by a murderous fire, 
kept up by rebel sharp-shooters on the other side: but, 
just as often, our brave fellows dashed on, and at length 

7* 



78 IJFB IN THE ARMY. 

Rebel Bhurp-chooten. Terrific eumoniida. 

completed their task about three o'clock in the after- 
noon. 

During this time, besides the sharp firing of musketry 
which was constantly kept up, about seventy-five of our 
cannon, which had been ranged on the heights, were 
belching forth their thunder, and raining desolation on 
the city, and rebel works around it. 

A brave band of .men volunteered, and crossed the 
river in a boat, to silence the rebel sharp-shooters. They 
w^ere watched by thousands of eager eyes, as, amid the 
storm of bullets now directed on themselves, they landed 
and quickly stormed the rifle-pits, with such boldness 
and determination, that the sculking murderers either 
ran or surrendered. 

One of that number was a private of Company I of 
our regiment, and few exploits of the war have evinced 
more true heroism than this expedition. 

The bridges being now in order for the passage of * 
troops, while our hea^y ordnance was making the 
ground to tremble beneath our feet, and amid the yell- 
ing, cheering, and the wildest excitement, there was a 
dash made to cross the Eappahanock, and support our 
brave pioneers who held their ground on the opposite 
side. We coiild hear their shouts, and very soon they 
had reinforcements, which enabled them to advance and 
take possession of the city. 

Quite a large number of our men were killed and 
wounded while engaged in laying the pontoon bridges, 
and among the slain of that heroic few who first crossed, 



AKMY OF THE POTOMAC. 79 

I^eatb of Captain Fox. The battle rages. 

was the noble Chaplain Fuller, of Massachusetts, killed, 
it is said, by a minie-buUet, and that fired by a <Ae 
rebel. 

Our brigade was the. first column of troops ordered to 
the other side, and our regiment was the third in the 
order of crossing. 

The enemy, of course, directed his fire on the bridge 
while crowded with our troops. Shot and shell came 
hurtling &st and furious on their devoted heads. Cap- 
tain Fox, a gentlemanly, intelligent, and Christian sol- 
dier of our regiment was mortally wounded, by a frag- 
ment of shell, and died in a couple of hours. I per- 
formed the melancholy duty of assisting to bury his 
body the next day, under rebel artillery fire. Our 
Colonel was a target for the foe, and was fired at, but 
led the One Hundred and Twenty-seventh bravely on 
regardless of danger, until he entered the city, about 
half of ^hich was occupied by our forces that night, 
and the balance next morning. 

November 24th, the battle commenced in earnest, in 
the rear of the city, and also on our left, where General 
Franklin, having crossed below, engaged the enemy. 
Our regiment was ordered into the fight at about one 
o'clock, p. M., and remained in an exposed situation for 
several hours. A galling fire of rebel infantry and 
artillery, from concealed points, swept through their 
ranks, until they fell back under cover. 

During this first day's engagement. Colonel Jennings 
was severely wounded in two places, but, lik% a brave 



80 LIFE IN THK ABMT. 

Oar U t rnm . TlMnbel 7«n. 

man, be refused to leave the bead of bis regiment. Cap- 
tains Henderson and Ball, and also Lieutenant Novioyer, 
were wounded. Lieutenant Sboemaker was killed. He 
was a man of intelligence and courage. A number of 
other officers were injured, and several of our men were 
killed and wounded. I r^ret having no correct list of 
their names to insert here, as their bravery entitles them 
to the most honorable record posterity can bestow. 

November 25th, our regiment was again under fire, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Alleman commanding. Tlie expo- 
sure and carnage was even greater than the previous day. 
The Lieutenant-Colonel, Adjutant Chayne, and several 
of the men were wounded, and our list of killed was. 
considerable. In the three days' fighting our r^ment 
lost in killed, wounded, and missing, about one hundred 
men. 

I was near enough at times to the rebel lines during 
these three terrible days, to hear their unearthly, fiendish 
yell, such as no other troops or civilized beings ever 
uttered. It was not a hearty cheer, or hurrah, or roar, 
but a kind of' shriek as dissonant as the ^^ Indian war- 
whoop," and more terrible. 

Major-Greneral Franklin's Division on our left suc- 
ceeded in capturing seven hundred prisoners, and in 
driving the rebel forces some distance at one time during 
the battle. 

During the night of the 26th, the whole army re- 
treated back across the river, without gaining any material 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 81 

OauMS of defeat Heavy loMes. 

advantage, and after having lost immense numbers of 
the bravest and best men in our ranks. 

Why were we defeated? In my judgment it was, 
first, because the rebel army had had every advantage 
over us. They fought behind stone walls, and had 
natural intrenchments which made their position a very 
strong one, while our men were compelled to attack them 
and fight in an open field. 

Secondly. I fear there was a great lack among our 
general officers of that concert of opinion and action 
which was necessary to success. Jealousy and disloyalty 
liad much to do with the defeat of our noble army 
before Fredericksburg. 

The commanding general, I think, should not be 
charged with this disaster. Great injustice has been 
done General Burnsid^, by placing the entire responsi- 
bility on his shoulders. He is a skilful commander, a 
brave soldier, and a high-minded Christian gentle- 
man. 

The sum total of our losses in the three days' fight, is 
reported at fourteen thousand men, which estimate in- 
cludes the killed, wounded, missing, and prisoners, who 
fell into the hands of the enemy. 

It is no wonder that both officers and men of the 
Army of the Potomac should feel dispirited as they fell 
back to their old camps again, after such a fearful sacri- 
fice of life and limb. But still there was a determina- 
tion to "pick flint" and try again. That secesh rag 
must be humbled to the dust. Those haughty rebels 



82 LIFE IN THE ARKT. 

mast oome to grief. This gigantic rebellion mugt be put 
down, and the Union most and shall be preserved. 
Sach a determination oonld easily be read in every 
&oe. 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 88 



After the battle. Power of mtiiic. 



CHAPTER XI. 

WINTEB IN CAMB. 

APTER THE GBEAT BATTLK-HUSIC IN CAlfP— CHEERPULNESS ESTUltNS— 
RETIEW BT GEN. SUMNER— KIND WORDS TO THE CHAPLAIN— WHI8KT 
RATIONS-PUN IN CAMP— SNOW-BALLS IN PLACE OP " MINIES"— AN IN- 
SULTED P. P. T.— THE LITTLE DRX7MMSR— ST. PATRICE'S DAT— DETO- 
TION SUCCEEDED BY DRUNKENNESS— HORSE RACING— EXHORTATION 
BY MAJORGENERAL HOWARD-SALE OP LIQUOR STOPPED-GAMBLBRS 
RIDING ON A RAIL-RSUGIOUS MEETINGS— REVITAL, AND NUMBERS 
CONVERTED. 

Cheerfulness soon began to prevail, and the gloom 
consequent on oor discomfiture at Fredericksburg, was 
dispelled by the hope of future success. 

The officers and men of our regiment, finding they had 
to make the best of their present quarters for the winter, 
displayed their ingenuity in ways and means to pass the 
time as comfortably as possible. Our excellent regimen- 
tal band did much toward reviving, and keeping up the 
spirits of the men. The power of martial music is won- 
derful, and we all felt indebted io the musicians for their 
unwearied efforts to amuse and cheer us, and to Mr. 
Ball, the efficient leader, and all the members of our. late 
band, we owe a thousand thanks, for their assistance in 
our religious meetings, by discoursing sacred music so 
frequently. 



84 LIFB IN THE AEMT. 

Review of the troops. A fHend to the chaphdne. 

While Major-Greneral Sumner was reviewing the right 
grand division of the Army of the Potomac one day, I 
was standing in my proper position as a staff officer of 
the regiment, and he rode up, accompanied by a dashing 
staff, and stopping where I w'as, inquired very kindly 
if I was Chaplain. I answered that I was. He then 
inquired if any of the officers opposed me, and if I 
visited the hospitals. I informed him that I visited the 
hospitals twice a day, and received no opposition to my 
work from any one. He then said, " Chaplain, if any 
of them interferes with you in the future, let me know 
his name and rank.'' I thanked the Major-General veiy 
sincerely, and told him that was the style I liked, and 
would certainly report to him, if any shoulder-strapped 
gentleman crossed my way in the performance of my 
duties. The General then put spurs to his charger, and 
passed on to review the troops. 

Such an act of kind consideration shown me, in this 
public manner, by the distinguished Sumner, gave me 
great encouragemenfr, and exalted the General to a very 
elevated place in my esteem, as it evinced very plainly 
his decided countenance for good order, morality, and re- 
ligion in the army, and his sympathy and friendship 
toward the often slighted, and much abused chaplain. 
If all other Major-Generals had followed his example 
toward a worthy and excellent body of men, as it was 
both their duty and interest to do,the act would have been 
more creditable, and the results more beneficial than was 
often the case. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. / 85 



Honl qoaliflcations. A temperance r^;iment. 

That officer, I care not who he is, who gives his sanc- 
tion, directly or indirectly, to profenity, vice, and immo- 
rality, is a disgrace to the service, and ought to be 
dismissed at once. 

After General Hooker took command, an order was 
issued, aUowing whisky rations to be distributed to the 
army. As soon as I became aware of this arrangement, 
I asked our Colonel if he was going to allow the issuing 
of whisky rations to the men of his command, remarking 
at the same time, that he had under his care the sons of 
many praying fethers and mothers, and that I thought 
this course would demoralize the men, and awaken in 
them such an appetite for strong drink as would be 
highly dangerous, and might lead some of them to ruin. 
The gallant and noble-minded Colonel informed me in 
an emphatic manner that there should not be one drop 
of whisky distributed among either officers or men of his 
regiment. I thanked him, and repaired quickly to my 
tent, where on my knees I gave glory and praise to God 
for having such a Colonel, and that he had a proper 
respect and care for the moral wielfere of his command. 

He differed very widely from many others of his grade 
in this particular. What a blessing it would have been 
if all had been actuated by the same principle. 

As the dull, weary days of winter rolled on, the offi- 
cers and men devised many a scheme of innocent fun and 
amusement in Camp Alleman. Snow-balling was one 
of the most popular and exciting pastimes resorted to. 
Sometimes our regiment and the Sixty-ninth New York, 

8 



86 LIFB IN THE ARMT. 

Snow^wUiiig. Au " F. F. Y .» in trouble. 

that was encamped very near us, would get up a r^ular 
pitched battle, and instead of the " minie," would try to 
demolish each other with volleys of snow-balls. At 
times the Sixty-ninth would bring out their time-honored 
and bullet-riddled battle-flag, and challenge our boys to 
try and capture it Again our men would display their 
colors, and dare the others to come and take it. While 
the two regiments were engaged one day in a regular 
^^ set-to," a secesh citizen was riding past, and received 
a tremendous whack from a snow-ball which was thrown 
by one of the little drummer boys. The instant Mr. 
Secesh was hit, he jumped from his horse and ran to- 
wards the boy, as though he intended to knock him 
down. At that moment two of our men who were 
watching the movement stepped forward, and informed 
the Johnny Reb not to dare to lay the weight of his fin- 
ger upon that little boy. So the insulted Virginian, 
concluding that discretion was the better part of valor, 
remounted his poor old steed, and rode on his way a 
wiser if not a better man. 

While we lay in Camp Alleman, First Lieutenant 
Wm. R. Orth died. He was an exemplary young man, 
of amiable character, and was much respected and be- 
loved for his many fine traits. Having lived as a Chris- 
tian should, he departed with a hope bright and full of 
a blessed immortality. 

Saint Patrick's day was a notable period in the army, 
especially among the Iri^h Catholics. The pious of tliis 
persuasion had a grand time of religious services in tlie 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 87 

G«D«nl Howard. Bxhortotion. 

morning, and this was quickly followed bj a general 
spree. Drunkenness, horse-racing, and fist-fighting be- 
came the order — or rather the disorder of the afternoon, 
and the day closed in a r^ular " Tipperary " fashion. 

I met Major-Greneral Howard on one occasion, under 
circumstances that I shall never forget This pure pa- 
triot, and brave soldier, is known to be a sincere Chris- 
tian, and everywhere feels it to be both a privilege and 
duty to stand up for Jesus. The occasion I refer to was 
on a certain Sabbath. I was preaching to my men on 
the subject of the last judgment, and on concluding my 
sermon, learned that Greneral Howard had been one of 
my hearers. I at once introduced him to the officers 
and soldiers who composed my congregation. 

The General stepped up and addressed them, saying, 
" Officers and men of the One Hundred and Twenty- 
seventh B^ment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, I am glad 
to see so many of you out to hear preaching this Sab- 
bath morning, and I would to Grod, that all the men of my 
command were true followers of Christ Jesus, the Lord. 
Soldiers, allow me to express, with your Chaplain, the 
sincere desire of my heart, that we may meet at die right 
hand of the Great Judge in that day, which he has de- 
scribed to us. Soldiers, may God bless you all." 

That short address made a deep and lasting impression 
on our men, and caused them to think more highly of the 
Greneral than ever before. He is not only a true friend, 
but an active and practical helper of the Chaplains, ia 
their sacred calling in the army, and has been known to 



88 



LIFE IN THE ARMT. 



Whisky rattons. GambUog on 8>bbatfa. 

kneel by the side of the wounded and djing soldier, and 
tell him of Christ and salvation. 

I was put in possession of the fact one day, that the 
Brigade Commissary was selling liquor to officers and 
men, by the canteen full, and determined at once to stop 
the traffic, 

I rode down to General Howard's head-quarters, and 
made known my case. He promptly issued an order 
prohibiting it. 

A few days afterwards some of the officers of the Bri- 
gade, and a certain officer of my own regiment, informed 
me that Greneral Howard had ordered the Commissary 
not to sell them any more whisky. They, of course, 
knew nothing of my connection with this business, smd 
did not dream that I was the cause of stopping their 
rum, at this particular time. If they but knew how 
much poisonous strychnine was probably in that stuff, 
they ought to have regarded any one as a bene&ctor and 
philanthropist who put forth exertions to stop the trade, 
and prevent the evil consequent on using it. 

One Sabbath morning there were two Virginia gamblers 
who came into our camp, and induced some of the men 
to play cards with them. When Colonel Jennings heard 
of it, he sent a guard down to the spot where the gam- 
blers had begun operations, and had the two " profes- 
sionals" marched up in front of his tent. He then gave 
them a reprimand, and by his suggestion they were both 
honored with a ride upon a rail. In this he served the 
scamps exactly right, only, in my judgment, it would 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 89 

I 
- BeriTftl in camp. Soldien conyerted. 

have set off the matter a little more effectually to have 
allowed them, and all their kin, a coat of tar and fea- 
thers before mounting them. This would have capped 
the climax, and made a good Sabbath sermon on the sin 
of gambling and its consequences. 

Our " Christian body" continued to maintain its iden- 
tity and efficiency. We had preaching every Sabbath 
when the weather would admit, an experience-meeting 
every Sabbath night, and prayer-meeting every night of 
the week in my tent. God honored the means em- 
ployed, and blessed us with a gracious revival of reli- 
gion in camp, which lasted several weeks, and resulted 
in the conversion of a number of souls. 

We had many seasons of refreshing from the presence 
of the Lord, and it is a matter of joy to me that many 
of our men returned home from the service of their 
country better than when they enlisted. It is my prayer 
that they all may be made partakers of saving grace, be- 
come valiant soldiers of Jesus, and when discharged on 
earth, that they may live forever in thte kingdom of 
God. 

8* 



i 



90 UFB IN THE ABMT. 



Another etasptigo. XDfagtmtiit opens. 



CHAPTER XII. 

HOOKJBS^S CAMJ^AIBV. 

HOQKSrS GAHPAI6K— THB CONDITION OF THB ABMT— THS TB00P8 IN 
MOnON-GBOSSlNG Of THE RAPPAHANNOCK— PRATER BEFORE BAT- 
TLE—AN EVEN T FU L SABBATH— REFLECTIONS-CAPTURE GM THE 
^ HEIGHTS**- EVENING SERMON IN FREDERICKSBURG— THE ARHT 
TICTOBIOUS— A STRANGE TIME TO RETREAT— KILLED, WOUNDED, 
AND MISSING— WHERE THE BLAME LIES— THE FINAL DEFEAT OF 
WHISKY— OUR OFFICERS TRUE TO TEMPERANCE— TERM OF SERTIGB 
EXPIRED- ORDERED TO REPORT AT HARRISBURG — HOMEWARD 
BOUND--GRAND RECEPTION-GALA DAT— CONCLUSION. 

On the 1st of May, 1863, we again find the army in 
fine condition. Major-General Hooker having been 
placed in command, brought every arm of the service up 
to the highest degree of efficiency for the opening cam- 
paign. At this date, we had been in Camp Alleman for 
five months, when the order came to prepare for a for- 
ward movement. On the 2d of May the whole army 
was in motion, and a battle impending. The main body 
crossed the Rappahannock at "United States Ford,'' 
while Sedgwick's Corps crossed below the City of Fred- 
ericksburg. The advance was soon engaged with the 
enemy, who, aware of our intentions, was determined to 
contest our progress every foot of the way. Being on 



AEMY OF THE POTOMAC. 91 

Prayer before battle. The noiee of war. 

the eve of battle, I was much exercised in prayer for 
myself, the raiment, and our whole army. 

I believe God heard my prayer, for I felt composed 
during the excitement incident to the terrific engage- 
ments which ensued. Often in the very path of danger, 
and with death and destruction all around, I felt secure 
in the confidence of my heavenly Father's protection 
and care. 

On Sabbath morning, the 3d of May, instead of 
wending my quiet way to the house of Grod, or engaging 
in divine service in the field, the exigencies of another 
sanguinary battle demanded all my attention. 

I cannot in these pages attempt any description of 
military evolutions, or account for consequences, by tell- 
ing how " fields were lost or won.'' My business was 
to cheer the faint, to succor the weary and wounded, and 
to minister to the wants of those dying on the cold 
ground or in our temporary hospitals, &t fi*om ^ends 
and home. The heights "of Fredericksburg on that 
memorable Sabbath presented a scene of activity and 
terror &x beyond my powers of description. The noise 
of battle rolled on, the belching flame, and heavy clouds 
of smoke, the din and dreadful strife between contending 
hosts, all combined to make an impression on my feelings 
in contrast witli the memories of home, and the fact that 
whilst tens of thousands of my fellow-citizens were being 
summoned by the sweet tone of tlie church-going bell, 
to pray and ofler praise peacefully to -God, thousands 



92 LIFS IN THE ARMY. 

Sermon in the citj. Brayery of chaplatm. 

here were dying for the right, for the cause of Grod, hu- 
manity, and constitutional liberty. 

After several hours of hard fighting, Sedgwick's corps 
on the right, assisted by our division on the left, suo- 
ceeded in capturing the &mous heights of Fredericks- 
burg. 

Twelve pieces of artillery and four hundred prisoners 
fell into our hands. I never left the field all that day 
of sorrow and pain. 

The battle closed late in the aft^emoon, with our forces 
in possession of the city and its surroundings. As our 
regiment was ordered back to the city to do guard duty, 
I gathered a congr^ation of soldiers, including a few 
of the citizens, and preached in one of the Methodist 
churches at nighty under circumstances of extraordinary 
interest. 

What a Sabbath day's work this was to me ! I only 
hope that some good was done that eternity alone will 
disclose. It was really one of the most eventftil days 
of my past life,' and I am glad to testify that I was not 
left without the comforting presence of God. 

The chaplains, as a general thing, displayed true 
Christian courage, and a commendable zeal in the per- 
formance of their duties. 

At the post of danger, wherever their respective rai- 
ments were called to stand, there these men of God 
were ready to point the dying soldier to Christ the Sa- 
viour of the .world, and by needftil attention to the 
\Y.ounded, to save valuable lives. 



ABMY OF THE POTOMAC. 98 

Order to retreat. List of cMualtioB. 

No remark is more trae than that made by General 
Howard, and it does honor to both liis head and heart, 
"Thp faithful chaplain is the man of the regiment" 

While in our position on the 4th of May, and confi- 
dent of success, an order was issued to &11 back, and the 
whole army retreated to the north side of the Eappa- 
hanock Kiver. The casualties to our regiment, in the 
late battle, indicate how close we were to the work 
of death, and how bravely our officers and men pressed 
forward in the fight. Lieutenant Ningley was wounded 
severely, and died soon afterwards. He was a gentle- 
manly young man, and a fine soldier. Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Alleman was struck with a piece of shell, knocked 
from his horse, and severely injured. Sergeant Hum- 
mel was struck in the forehead with a fragment of shell, 
and died from the effects of his wounds in a few days. 
The sergeant was a native of Harrisburg, and was a very 
fine young man. 

A number of others were killed or wounded, making 
the entire loss of our regiment, in the two great battles 
under Bumside and Hooker, one hundred and twenty. 
The loss of our army in the recent battle, including 
killed, wounded, and missing, with those taken prisoners 
by the enemy, was eight thousand. 

It was unaccountable to me then, and is so to this 
day to many of the officers, why we were ordered to 
retreat Certainly "Fighting Joe" and the brave army 
who followed him were not defeated. The rebels admit 
an immense loss; and we had large numbers of reserve 



94 - LIFE IN THB ABMY, 

Our forcM not defeated. The last Whisky attack. 

troops who were not in action; but waiting and ready to 
be ordered to advance. There was no sign or feeling 
of defeat among oar forces. The troops came out of bat- 
tle in good spirits, full of vigor and hope^ and all ready, 
at a moment's notice, to move forward again. To say 
at that time, in the presence of any of our officers or 
men, that we had been whipped, would have been 
resented as an insult. These considerations, all taken 
together, prove conclusively that, whatever induced the 
commander to relinquish his position on the very eve 
of a signal victory, it could not be the fkct of disaster. 
It must have been the apprehension of defeat. 

Soon after these occurrences I had another difficulty 
on the whisky question. An order was issued from 
head-quarters that the entire army should be regularly 
supplied with whisky rations. When the order came to 
our regiment Colonel Jennings happened to be field- 
officer of the day, and Lieutenant-Colonel AUeman was 
in command of the regiment. I was not in camp at the 
time; but, thank Grod, our Lieutenant-Colonel sent word 
down to head-quarters that he could not allow the dis- 
tribution of whisky under any circumstances to our men. 
They then sent up a second order, and he firmly per- 
sisted in his refusal to allow it. He was then politely 
requested to appear at head-quarters, and, just as he was 
about to start, I returned to camp. He informed me 
of the whole affiiir, remarking that he supposed they 
would take his sword. "Well," said I to him, "you 
stand firm as a rock, and do not take a word back. Let 



ABMT OF THE POTOMAC. 95 



Time ea^pired. Beflecttons on intempennoe. 

them take your sword. Oar term of service has expired ; 
and if they dare to take it for doing your duty I will 
publish the whole matter; and the men of our r^ment 
intend to present you with a better sword as soon as we 
reach Harrisburg." The Lieutenant-Colonel did stand 
"firm as a rock/' and they did not take his sword. We 
carried the day, and from first to last did not allow our 
men to be poisoned with their abominable "whisky 
rations." 

Both Colonel Jennings, and Lieutenant-Colonel AUe- 
man of the One hundred and twenty-seventh Pennsylva^ 
nia Volunteers, deserve the gratitude of all friends of 
morality and temperance, for their uncompromising op- 
position to this curse of humanity. For all sensible men 
must admit that drunkenness, and everything that leads 
to it, in the army and elsewhere, has been productive of 
" evil, and only evil, and that continually." 

Those who have been conversant with the fiicts, know 
that abundance of liquor has always been smuggled into 
our armies by the connivance of high officials, and that 
officers of superior grade have frequently imbibed too 
much, thereby rendering them unfit to command our 
brave patriotic men ; and that intemperance has wrought 
disaster, and caused blunders, and mistakes on many a 
bloody field. 

Yes, in some instances, where there was no other 
ostensible cause for retreats and defeats, the whisky 
bottle may be set down as the worker of immense mis- 
chief. I care not how great the general may be, or 



96 LIFE IN THE ARMT. 

Drunken offloera. Mottered oat. 

bow skilful to command an army, when bis brains be- 
come addled by too much " Jersey lightning," he is not 
fit to drive a decent mule team, much less plan and direct 
an important campaign. 

Sobriety, and a cool clear head, is just as necessary to 
our Grenerals, Colonels, Captains, and Lieutenants, who 
have the management of men, as military science ; and 
indeed the one will not avail much, without the other. 
Many of the privates of our large armies, have been an 
example in this respect to their superior officers, and have 
passed successively through various ordeals without being 
either drunk, or addicted to the use, in any form, or to 
any extent, of intoxicating liquor. 

On the 13th of May, 1863, our term of service having 
expired, we received orders to report at Harrisburg. 
Consequently we left for Acquia Creek, and secured 
transportation for our destination, where, without further 
mishap, we in due time arrived on the morning of the 
17th. Our return had been expected, and the brave One 
hundred and twenty-seventh, with its noble officers, 
bearing, many of them, their honorable scars, met with a 
cordial and enthusiastic welcome home. 

That day will long live in our memory. The heads 
of the various departments, crowds of citizens of the city 
and surrounding country, ladies with bright smiles and 
waving banners, the resounding hurrah! and all the 
associations of our generous reception, was a fitting and 
full reward for what we had endured in weary marches, 
and braved on bloody battle-fields, in the performance 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 97 

Grateful thanks. End of anuy experience. 

of that high duty, for which we had given ourselves to 
the service of our beloved country. 

Many towns and cities have done well in furnishing 
men and means for the war, and have extended kindly 
greetings to the returning soldier, but in these respects, 
none has exceeded Han*isburg, the Capital of our glorious 
and patriotic Commonwealth. Her sons and fair daugh- 
ters are an honor to the Keystone State, and in behalf 
of the One Hundred and Twenty-seventh, I take the 
liberty here to express my most sincere and fervent 
thanks for our grand reception, and such a recognition 
of our services as was then and there publicly given us. 

Thus ended my experiences of army life in camp and 
field. I shall next try to recount my views in other de- 
partments of the service, if the kind reader will follow 
the lines of my hurried pen. 



98 LIFE IN THE AKMY. 



Colonel JenniogB. A model •oldier. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE ONE Bruyi>REI> ANJ> TWmHTT'SEVESTa rEyNSTL- 
TASUL rOLTTNTEEBS. 

DIStJNGUISHINQ CHABACTEBISTICS OF THE OFnCSRS AND PBIYATES 
OP THE ONE HUNDRED AND TWBNTT-SBTENTH EBGIliENT PENN- 
SYLVANIA V0LTINTEER8-PIELD OFPICERS-OOLONEL W. W. JEN- 
NINGS—PEN AND INK SKETCHES— TESTIMONIAL BT THE OFFIOSBS 
—COLONEL JENNINGS, JUNIOR— LIEUTENANT-COLONEL ALLEMAN— A 
WORKING OFFICER-HANDSOBIE PRESENT— THE LIEUTENANT-COLO- 
NEL IN PURSUIT OP A REBEL SPY— SOLD— THE SPY A WOMAN- 
HINT TO THE LADIES— MAJOR ROHRER— SURGEON E. H. HORNER— 
STAFP OFFICERS— ASSISTANT SURGEON H. L. V A8TINE-CHAPLAIN • 
J. CHANDLER GREGG— QUARTERMASTER JOHN F. ORTH— ADJUTANT 
A. C. 'CHAYNE— LINE OFFICERS-CAPTAIN J. WESLEY AWL, Ao^ *c— 
LIEUTENANTS, AND THEIR RESIDENCES-PRITATES— A RESPECT- 
ABLE BODY— GOOD MORALS— TABLE, SHOWING WHERE RECRUITED— 
THE CHAPLAIN'S FAREWELL. 

Field Officees. Colonel W, W. Jennings, who 
commanded the One Hundred and Twenty-seventh 
Pennsylvania Regiment, is a young man of good judg- 
ment, rather quiet in his disposition, of few words, 
decided in his opinions, of steady and temperate habits, 
and possessing a kind heart; always making a true 
fHend, as there is nothing hidden or deceitful to be found 
in his noble nature ; always ready and willing to listen 
to the complaint of the private soldier, and extend to 



AKMY OF THE POTOMAC. 



Elements of character. 



him his sympathy and protection. He possessed those 
peculiar characteristics which at once distinguish a 
model man. 

While on duty he was Colond Jennings; but off duty 
he caused all to feel easy and at home in his presence. 
Kecognizing in each a fellow-soldier, he. never gave evi- 
dence that he considered himself a superior. It was this 
particular feature in his character which rendered him 
so popular with the men of his command. He is calm 
and self-possessed, and as a general thing free from ex- 
citement. He is very plain in his dress, entirely free 
from those manifestations of vanity that stand out so 
promin(!btly in the character of many of our military 
officers. The time spent by many in combing, brushing 
and dressing, our Colonel spent in studying military 
tactics, reading, and conversation ; or enjoying innocent 
fun with his clerk. Whenever you would see a large 
pipe made out of the root of a tree, with a stem about 
two feet long, moving about through camp, you might 
expect to see the Colonel in its rear. When this ma- 
chine was fired up, you might see great clouds of smoke 
rolling upward like the mists of morning. The pipe, 
in camp, was his intimate friend and companion. The 
Colonel £tred sumptuously every day. He was very 
careful to see that the wants of his inner man were sup- 
plied with provisions of the best quality that the market 
and circumstances afibrded, without consulting expense. 
He is a young man of industrious habits, but was not 
the earliest riser in camp, and seemed confident that the 



100' LIFE IN THE AKMT. 

MetbodiBt parentage. FideUtj. 

sun would rise regularly whether he did or not. If he 
will excuse me I may inform his friends that many of 
us were accustomed to think we had the best4ooking 
Colonel in the Army of the Potomac. He is an excel- 
lent singer, and had his training in the choir of the 
Locust Street M. E. Church in the city of Harrisburg, 
before joining the army; and I might add, that his very 
wortliy parents have been members of that church for a 
number of years. The fact that he was rocked in tjie 
cradle of Methodism, and educated under Methodist 
influences, is one of the great causes why he stands to- 
day a true and upright man. 

He seems to have been blessed with natural military 
abilities, as is proven by the feet that the commanding 
generals under whom our regiment was placed, mani- 
fested a great interest in him. They discovered that he 
had the qualities of a true soldier centered in him; hence 
he was often placed in command of brigades, over colo- 
nels older than himself both in years and experience. 
He was always kind to me, attended public preaching, 
and encouraged others to do so. He was brave in battle; 
for although severely wounded in the early part of the 
first engagement, he kept it concealed from his men, and 
remained in command until his r^mentwas ordered 
off the field ; and the next day, while in the hospital in 
Fredericksburg, unfit for duty, at a time when there was 
every prospect of the rebels shelling the city, I tried in 
vain to convince him of the propriety of his bang car- 
ried across the river, beyond the range of the enemy's 



AKMY OF THE POTOMAC. 101 

The Junior colonel. Testimonial. Lieutenant-colonel Alleaauai. 

cannon. He answered me, "Chaplain, I want to remain 
with the men of my regiment." I need scarcely add to 
this picture of his character, that he was very popular 
with the officers and privates of his raiment. At the 
close of our term of service, the commissioned officers 
presented him with a costly silver service as a token of 
our esteem. We also presented his little son, Colonel 
Jennings, Jr., with a beautiful silver memento, hoping 
at the same time that he might live to become as distin- 
guished as his father. 

Col. Jennings is a native and resident of Harrisburg, 
and is a citizen of whom that city may well be proud. 

Lieutenant-Colonel H. C Alleman is a young man of 
marked ability as a public speaker, and a lawyer of great 
energy, determination, and tireless industry. This ha^ 
contributed greatly to his success in life as a public man. 
It matters very little what opposition may confront him, 
his indomitable will and untiring perseverance enable 
him to surmount it. He was truly the working man of 
our regiment, doing much of the public writing. He 
was always ready and willing to write for, or aid in any 
way possible, the officers or enlisted men of the regiment 
who might desire his services. He was not off duty one 
day during the first four months of our term of service. 
He has an obliging, kind disposition ; but is a man of 
strong prgudice, very emphatic in his language, and de- 
cided in his opinions. He was a strict disciplinarian, 
and a v^eiarian in his diet, not even drinking coffee or 



102 LIFE IN THE AKMY. 

A ffword prefented. Pursuit of « ipy. 

tea at his meals. He never drinks intoxicating liquors 
of any kind, and may be considered a truB friend of the 
cause of temperance. He proved himself to be an effi- 
cient and brave officer in each of the great battles. It 
will be remembered that during the last battle he was 
struck with a piece of shell and knocked off his horse. 
The colonel of the regiment requested me to convey him 
off the field, but he refused to go with me, saying he 
wished to remain with the regiment He is very gay in 
his dress, and in that particular excelled any of our offi- 
cers. He is a man that enjoys a good joke, and is full 
of fun, often seeing objects to laugh at that others would 
pass by unnoticed. He was very kind to me, and at- 
tended public preaching, encouraging others to do so. 
The privates of the regiment presented him with a very 
costly and handsome sword at the expiration of our term 
of service, as a token of their esteem. The following 
joke is told of him. One day while he and another 
officer were returning from battalion drill across the 
Chain Bridge, the guard informed him that a person 
whom they considered a spy, had just passed, dressed in 
woman's apparel: our lieutenant-colonel spurred his fine 
cream-colored steed, moving forward with his compan- 
ion in hot pursuit, at the rate of two-forty on a plank 
road. They had concluded it would be a big thing to 
capture a spy : but lo and behold, the supposed spy 
turned out to be a lady, and she got beyond our lines 
before being captured by her pursuers! The colonel will 
excuse me if I inform the ladies of Harrisbuig that al- 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 108 

Onr Major. The surgeon*. 

though he &iled to make a capture then, he is still con- 
tinuing the piursnit. May he soon succeed in capturing, 
not a rebel female spy^ but one of the fair daughters of 
the Keystone State as the future Mrs. H. C. AUeman, 
and may he realize that there is more pleasure in posses- 
sion, than even in pursuit on horseback. He is also a 
resident of the city of Harrisburg. 

Major J. Bohrer was a quiet, self-possessed man, kind 
and social, temperate in his habits, and decided in his 
opinions. He displayed good judgment, and proved 
himself to be a worthy, efficient, and brave officer, per- 
forming his duties with &.ithfulnes8 and success. He 
made many friends among the private soldiers, by frank- 
ing their letters, and other acts of kindness shown them. 
If the Major will pardon me, I might add that in the 
opinion of many he was considered a very fine-looking 
officer. Residence, Middletown, Pennsylvania. 

Staff Officers. Surgeon E. H. Homer, by promo- 
tion, is a Christian gentleman of superior abilities as a 
medical man. He possesses an amiable disposition, and 
proved himself to be a very efficient officer. He attended 
public preaching, and gave me every possible encourage- 
ment in my daily visits to the hospital. 

Assistant Surgeon H. S. Vastine was a young man of 
undoubted medical abilities, temperate in his habits, 
possessing a kind heart, very mischievous and full of 



104 LIFE IN THE ARMT. 

A tell oflloer. A mmleal a^fntent Line offioen. 

fun, and very popular with the r^ment^ Besidence, 
Cattawissa, Pennsylvania, 

Chaplain, the reader's humble servant, John C. Gre^, 
of the Philadelphia Conference. 

Quartermaster John "W. Orth was a young man of 
energy and enterprise, and somewhat gay in his dress. 
When this tall young officer was riding upon his tall 
gray horse, he had a tall time of it, and they made a 
very tall appearance. When his fast steed was under 
full speed, it always reminded me of a thunder storm, 
with flashing lightning. He made an excellent officer. 
Eesidence, Hummelstown, Pennsylvania. 

Adjutant A. C. Chayne is a young man of a good dis- 
position, gentlemanly and Christian in his conduct, and 
of a fine soldierly appearance. He made a very good 
adjutant. This young officer was in the habit of exer- 
cising his vocal organs in such a musical style, that in 
passing his tent he often caused many of us to halt and 
listen with pleasure and delight to his melodious voice, 
and the charming vocal music he discoursed to our great 
edification. Residence, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 

Line Officebs. Captains. Captain J. Wesley Awl 
commanding Company B, is an intelligent. Christian 
young man, a good public sj^eaker, an able lawyer, and 
a very efficient officer, possessing fine military abilities. 
He is a man of few words, of a very quiet disposition, 
of unassuming manners, and very plain in his dress. 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 105 

Captain Awl. An origiiiaL 

He is the calmest and most self-possessed man thai I 
ever met; entirely free from excitement in the hour of 
danger, never in a huny, but always in time. The 
Captain displayed a great amount of coolness, self-pos- 
session, undaunted courage and bravery in each of the 
batdes in which our regiment was engaged. He was 
very popular with the men of his company, although a 
strict disciplinarian. He assisted me in holding and sus- 
taining my religious meetings, more than any other 
officer of the regiment. He stood by me as Chaplain 
only as a £iithful Christian could, being ready at all 
times to assist and encourage by his influential presence 
the work of doing good among the men, I pronounce 
him a model young man, and think he deserves the sin- 
cere thanks of all the parents, sisters and brothers of the 
privates of our re^ment, for the noble stand he took in 
fe.vor of morality and religion during our term of ser- 
vice. 

Were you to meet a man passing quietiy about through 
camp, keenly, but unostentatiously observing everything 
occurring around him, with his pantaloons stuck inside 
his boots, a very broad-brimmed, low-crowned slouch 
hat on his head, stepping along with great stolidity upon 
the heel of his boots, and the inevitable pipe in his 
mouth, you might very readily conclude him to be the 
original Captain J. W. Awl. I often visited him in his 
tent and al wajs found him quietly enjoying himself, heels 
higher than his head, in reading or smoking. If the 
Captain will pardon me, I will say that in and out of his 



106 • LIFB IN THB ARMY. , 

Captain Hendcnon. Captain Keene. Bonj^and ready. 

tent^ in all his movements, be reminded me of a con- 
firmed bachelor, Eesidence, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 

Captain James Henderson, commanding Company C, 
is a kind, gentlemanly man, very intelligent, and an ex- 
cellent medical officer. He took good care of the men 
of his company, and was very brave upon the 'battle- 
field ; -attended public preaching, and gave his influence 
in favor of others doing so. Besidence, Hummelstown, 
Pennsylvania. 

Captain James B. Keene, by promotion, commanding 
Company D, is a young man of religious habits, was a 
member of our Christian body, and a faithful and brave 
officer. He attended a.11 my religious meetings. Eesi- 
dence, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 

Captain L. L. Greenwalt, commanding Company E, 
is a man of very steady habits and entirely free from any 
exhibition of vanity in his dress. The captain is what 
many would call a rough and ready man, just the 
kind of men we need to command our armies. The 
many starched-up, kid glove, and band-box officers of 
our army, have proven to be a great nuisance, from a 
want of mind, heart, and preparation for the work of 
I>utting down the rebellion. We need rough and ready 
men to command, as well as in the ranks. I have ofl:en 
been amused at the manifestations of pride on the part 
of many of the officers of our army, and concluded that 
if fine dress and making a great show would conquer a 
peace, there has been enough of it exhibited to put down 



ARlfT OF THE POTOMAC. 107 

A cniioDS Chrictnutf-tree. Cai»tain Bhott. 

twenty rebellions. Captain Greenwalt is a Christian 
gentleman of large experience, having traveled through 
California and many other parts of the country. He 
was very popular with the men of his company, and 
made a very reliable, brave, and excellent officer. He 
was considered by many a very fine-looking man. He 
attended divine worship and assisted me in my work. 
His residence is Lebanon, Pennsylvania. 

Captain Wm. H. H. Hummel, commanding Company 
F, is a young man of fine social qualities, and enjoyed 
the confidence of the men of his command. He was an 
excellent and brave officer, having performed his duties 
with fidelity and success. Residence, Harrisburg, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Captain John J. Ball, commanding Company 6, is a 
very pleasant man and an excellent drill-master, always 
cheerful and full of fun. On Christmas day, while in 
camp, the captain prepared a Christmas tree that excited 
much laughter and fun. He had it trimmed off beauti- 
fully with old shoes, empty bottles, <S^ He succeeded 
well iu performing his duties, was brave in battle, and 
kind to his men. Residence, City of Harrisburg. 

Captain John R. Shott commanding Company H, is a 
gentlemanly man, and commanded his company with 
ability and success. He was on detached duty the 
greater part of the time of service. His only son and 
only child, who was a member of his company, died 
during our terra of service. This great loss almost 



108 LIFE IN THE ARMT. 

Captain Niailey. CH>tain I>oiighert7. 

broke the Captain's heart. Besidence, Middletown, 
Pennsylvania. 

Captain C. A. Nissley commanding Company I, by 
promotion, is a fine-looking, gentlemanly young man of 
soldierly bearing: an intelligent, brave, and efficient 
officer. Under his command, Company I improved in 
drill and appearance. He attended public preaching, 
and influenced others to do so. All I could say would 
be in the Captain's favor. Residence, Hummelstown, 
Pennsylvania. 

Captain J. W. Dougherty, commanding Company K, 
by promotion, is a young man of intelligence, very lively 
in his disposition, and full of animation. He was very 
gay in his dress, always wearing a large feather in his 
hat, from which one would conclude that he was rather 
a fast young man ; but I cannot admit the correctness of 
that conclusion. In one particular he was very much 
like our Colonel, that is, he was very fond of good living. 
This young Captain made a very efficient officer, and suc- 
ceeded well in his work. If he will excuse me, I will 
say that the same remark I have heard made about 
Captains Greenwalt, Awl, Nissley and Keene, I have 
heard expressed in his case, namely, that the young ladies 
of the far-famed Keystone State ought to enter their 
solemn protest against either of them living any. longer 
in the state of single blessedness. What say, yon fair 
daughters of Pennsylvania? Wh$k ,^ J^M, brother 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 109 

Hints to bacbelon. Boll of Lieuteoants. 

bachelors, in self-defence? Captain J. W. Dougherty 
resides in Lebanon, Pennsylvania. 

Lieutenants. The following are the names and 
address of the Lieutenants of the One hundred and 
twenty-seventh regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers. 

First Lieut A. J. Fager, Compaoj B. Besidenoe, Harrisbnrg, Pa. 
Second Lieut. Wm. MeCarroll, Company B. Besidenoe, Harrisburg, Pa. 
First Lieut. Charles D. Wise, Company C. Besidence, Hummelstown, Pa. 
Second Lieut David Hummel, Company C. Residence, Hummelstown, Pa. 
First Lieut Charles Osbom, Company D. Besidence, Lucerne Co., Pa. 
Second Lieut Marcus Noringer, Company D. Besidence, Millersburg, Pa. 
First Lieut. Wm. P. Carmony, Company E. Besidence, Lebanon, Pa. 
Second Lieut J. A. Bowman, Company E. Besidence, Lebanon, Pa. 
First Lieut John T. Morgan, Company F. Besidence, Harrisburg, Pa. 
Second Lieut T. G. Sample, Company F. Besidence, Harrisburg, Pa. 
First Lieut George Hynicka, Company G. Besidence, Harrisburg, Pa. 
Second Lieut Hudson Denny, Company G. Besidence, Luzerne Co., Pa. 
First Lieut Isaiah Willis, Company H. Besidence, Middletown, Pa. 
Second Lieut Nizsley, Company H. Besidence, Middletown, Pa. 
First Lieut Jerome W. Henry, Company L Besidence, Annyille, Pa. 
Second Lieut Wm. W. Beed, Company L Besidence, Harrisburg, Pa. 
First Lieut D. S. Long, Company E. Besidence, Lebanon, Pa. 
Second Lieut J. W. Barr,- Company E. Besidence, Schuylkill Co., Pa. 

The Lieutenants above named were a very fine body 
of young men, gentlemanly in their conduct, brave in 
battle, and very efficient officers. They performed their 
duties with faithfulness and success. All I could say of 
them would be in their fiivor as a body. Many of them 
attended Divine worship. 

The reader will perceive that I have spoken &vorably of 
the officers of my late regiment. I have done so^ because 
in my sincere judgment there never was a more worthy 

10 



110 LIFB IN THE ARMY. 

Where recruited. The priTtte toldi^rt. 

corps of officers placed in command of any r^ment of 
men. 

The following shows where the different companies 
of tlie regiment were recruited: 

Company B in and around the City of Harrisbarg, Pa. 
Company C in and around Hummelstown, Pa. 
Company D in and around Harrisbnrg, Pa. 
Company E in and around Lebanon, Pa. 
Company F in and around Harrisbnrg, Pa. 
Company G in and around Harrisbnrg, Pa. 
Company H in and around Middletown, Pa. 
Company I in Lebanon and Adams Counties, Pa. 
Company K in Lebanon and Schuylkill Counties, Pa. 

In speaking of the privates of the One Hundred and 
Twenty-Seventh Regiment^ Pennsylvania Volunteers, I 
am happy to be able to testify in their favor as a body. 
I would remark, 

First, They were intelligent above the average, as is 
proven by the fact that in one company there were eleven 
school-teachers and three lawyers, and each of the others 
had quite a large proportion of very intelligent men. 

Secondly, They were a noble-minded body of men, 
the most of whom were incapable of performing a mean 
act. 

Thirdly^ They were men of good moral character and 
respectability at home. Many of the best families of 
Dauphin, Lebanon, and Adams Counties were repre- 
sented in our regiment. 

Fourthly y They were temperate in their habits; for I 
never saw but three of their number_under the influence 



ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. HI 

Serriog God in camp. ChxtetUns in the irmy. 

of intoxicating liquors during our term of service. I 
desire all the cowardly sympathizers with armed rebel- 
lion, that remained at home to aid the rebels, to learn 
that they belie and slander the noble private soldiers 
of our army when they pronounce them a body of drunk- 
ards. I take great pleasure in informing die enemies^ 
of the private soldiers of our army that, if they wish tc 
find drunkards, they may look at home, and they will 
find countless multitudes in civil life, and increase the 
number by including themselves. It is a well-known 
fact that the great majority of the enemies of our glorious 
cause at home, are those drunken, degraded wretches, 
that seldom, if ever, draw a sober breath. They, there- 
fore, should cease to accuse the private soldier of that for 
which nine-tenths of them are not guilty. 

lyVdyj They were brave in battle; having fought for 
their country and her cherished institutions with becom- 
ing manliness and courage. 

SixOdj/j Many of them were Christians, and united 
with us in our "Christian body'' in camp. I would 
again inform the enemies of out soldiers at home that 
they slander the great multitudes of Christian men in 
our armies when they declare that none can live a Chris- 
tian life when there. I assert that the men who say so 
could not live as Christians themselves, for lack of brains, 
courage, and decision of character. Many of the most 
pious men of the land were to be found in the army 
among the private soldiers; for, with many others of my 
regiment, I can testify that we never attended church so 



112 LIPS IN THE ABMY. 

The chaplain approved. Partiog worda. 

frequently, or served Grod so faithfully at home, as we 
did when far from home and friends. A common want 
of divine assistance drove us to the mercy-seat. I firmly 
believe that our soldiers in the army serve God more 
faithfully than many who make loud professions of 
Christianity at home. 

At the close of our term of service I was unanimously 
recommended by the commissioned officers to the Presi- 
dent for a re-appointment in the army as chaplain. They 
in this way testified to my efficiency, and manifested 
their appreciation of my labors. 

I would inform my brother officers that I heard Colo- 
nel Jennings declare, a few moments before we were 
mustered out of service, that he had never seen cause to 
regret having made any of his appointments. This I 
consider a high compliment to all who obtained their 
appointments through his influence. 

In conclusion, I would say to all the officers and 
privates of our regiment who may read this sketch, that 
I shall ever retain a kind regard for tliem, and, with the 
feelings of a friend, I would request all who are not 
Christians to give their hearts to Christ the Lord. To 
those who are followers of Christ I would say, Dear 
brethren in the Lord, as we had so many glorious relig- 
ious meetings together while in camp in tents below, let 
us all live true to God, the Church, and each other, so 
that if we never all meet on earth, we may iBnally meet 
in heaven, to part no more. Officers and private^ of my 
late regiment, may God bless you. Farewell. 



NOTES OF TRAVEL. 113 



Kn route. New Tork city. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

jrOTJBS or TBAVJBZ. 

ORDERED TO NEW ORLEANS— EN ROUTE— NEW TORK— THE KETHODIST 
BOOK CONCERN— RET. DR. PORTER-SANITART FAIR— BROOKLTN— 
ON BOARD THE STEAMER UNITED STATES-OUT AT SEA— ARMY OF- 
FICERS—THEIR WICKED CONDUCT— 0AMBLING—PROFANITT—DISLOT- 
ALTY— SUBLDOTY OF THE OCEAN— MOOREHEAD CITY— BEAUFORT, 
N. C.-COLORED SCHOOLS-MISS LUCKEY— SEA SHELLS-OFF AGAIN— 
PREAGHINO AND FISHING ON SABBATH— OPINION OF AN OLD TAR- 
KEY WEST— PORPOISES AND FLYING-FISH-OULF OF MEXICO-OFF 
THE MISSISSIPPI— PILOT TOWN— THE SEA GULLS— UP THE RITER— 
FORTS JACKSON AND ST. PHILIP-QUARANTINB HOSPITAL-THB 
COLORED PEOPLE-" GLORY TO GOD"— ARRIVAL AT NEW ORLEANS- 
DESCRIPTION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER— ALGIERS. 

My appointment as Hospital Chaplain, by President 
Lincoln, and its confirmation bj the Senate, with the 
order to report for duty in the Department of the Gulf, 
at New Orleans, has already been referred to. In obe- 
dience to orders, I prepared to embark for my destina- 
tiop, and reached New. York on the afternoon of Friday, 
April 14th, 1864. Having never been in this magnifi- 
cent city before, I determined to improve the time by 
looking around me and visiting a few places of interest. 
I may here state that I was somewhat disappointed in 
mj expectations of the great metropolis. The apparent 
10 * 



114 LIFE IN THE ARMY. 

The great M. E. Book Concern. Another location needed. 

disorder prevailing in every department of business, the 
rush and hurry of men, the arrangement of the streets, 
and the generally confused aspect of things, presented a 
striking contrast to the staid and r^ular character 
of the city of Brotherly Love, >vith which I was &mil- 
iar» A stranger in this modern Babel cannot repress a 
feeling of commiseration for his fellow-beings who are 
doomed to live, labor, and pass their daily existence in 
such a place. 

As a Methodist preacher, the first object of interest I 
felt inclined to acquaint myself with, was the great Book 
C!onoern, at 200 Mulberry St, the central source of our 
denominational literature, and the head-quarters of our 
great missionary and other evangelical institutions. 

Accordingly, I took a survey of this renowned loca^ 
lity, externally, and in its interior arrangements. 

The impression made upon my mind was, that in re- 
gard to accommodations, we are fkr behind the times. I 
am glad to know that others more recently surest, and 
insist upon a change of location, to Broadway, for in- 
stance, where buildings of suitable respectability and 
magnitude may be erected and occupied by our agents 
and editors. 

The spirit of the times, the credit and character of 
Methodism, and the actual necessities of the business 
demand such a change. 

I had the honor of meeting Rev. James Porter, D. D., 
one of our worthy book agents, during my walks about 
the " Concern." The doctor is said to be one of the 



NOTES OF TRAVEL. 115 

Rev. Dr. Porter. Methodift machinery. 

shrewdest, of that clear-headed, active, and enterprising 
race denominated "Yankee," and here, it would seem, 
he is in his native element, with scope as wide as the 
hemisphere for his planning faculties, and a routine of 
urgent daily duties and responsibilities to meet, that, 
would set some men crazy. Dr. Porter, however, msdn- 
tains his equilibrium, good humor, and systematic activ- 
ity in his intercourse with visitors, and correspondence 
vnih the thousands whose tastes and wishes are to be 
consulted in the prosecution of the complicated business 
devolving on our agents. 

To say that I was delighted with Dr. Porter, and that 
I have the utmost confidence in the capacity, integrity, 
and management of both Carlton and Porter, our agents, 
at present, is saying but little. May they be long spared 
to the church ; for if ever the right men were in the 
right place, I believe the General Conference has hit the 
mark in their continued appointment. 

The agents, and the editor of the Advocate, our great 
thunderer, stand very closely related to the whole family 
of Methodists, and I regarded it as no ordinary privi- 
lege, after many years of business connection with them, 
during which I frequently felt like doing as the Indian 
said, " shake hands with them in my heart," to meet 
them face to fiice, amid the machinery, which keeps the 
wheels in motion, and our system vigorous in its con- 
templated plan to conquer the world. 

I next visited the great sanitary fair for the benefit 
of our brave soldiers and their £imilies, and was led to 



116 LIFE IN THE ARMY. 

Rev. Dr. Crooks. Onr Bteamer. 

thank God for having put it into the hearts of the good 
people of New York to devise so liberally for this 
worthy object. Many a sick and wounded soldier has 
sent his prayers and blessing to Heaven for the unknown 
benefactors who have lavished their means to contribute 
to his welfare. 

On Sabbath morning, the 17th of April, I attended 
Divine service at the Seventeenth Street M. E. Church, 
a spacious and beautiful edifice, filled with a large and 
attentive cx)ngregation. I was privileged to hear the 
Rev. Dr. Crooks preach two very able sermons morning 
and evening. 

Next day, April 18th, I crossed the East River to the 
city of Brooklyn, and was much pleased with its appear- 
ance, from the short stay I was permitted to make. 

The steamer United States, on board of which I had 
secured a berth, was all ready to sail on the 19th, and 
bidding farewell to terra firma for a while, I went on 
board, and soon the harbor was left behind, as we rapidly 
neared the narrows, and then stood out to sea. I found 
the officers of the boat kind and gentlemanly. Quite a 
large list of army officers were passengers, the majority 
of whom soon displayed their ruling passion, and kept 
up their favorite pastime of gambling, swearing, and 
drinking during the entire voyage. 

I have known some of these miscalled gentlemen, so 
infatuated by the vice of gambling, as to continue with- 
out intermission all night. I was pained by &e reflec- 
tion that so many men entrusted with important and 



. . „-.^Jcy>i .U^.L-: i^fflJFL.UHl 



NOTES OF TEAVEL. 117 



IHsgraceful condact. Infidel offlcen. 



* respectable positions should be so immoral, pro&ne, and 
recklessly wicked, in the face of the prevailing Christian 
sentiment of the country, and while so many associations 
in the north are engaged to Christianize and save the 
men of our noble armies. What society, I thought, 
will undertake the task of teaching our officers to respect 
themselves and fear God, to read the Bible and keep the 
Sabbath day holy ; to countenance morality, prayer, and 
religious profession- among the private soldiers, a thing 
many of them now prevent out of sheer wickedness? 

And yet, it is a &ct, that these corrupt and dissolute 
fops, who by the partiality of friends and the power of 
influence have obtained their shoulder straps, must admit 
that the bravest and best men of their commands are the 
men who pray and try to live a Christian life. 

The reason why many of our army Chaplains have 
not succeeded better, is because of the needless, and wan- 
ton opposition, which some of the officers have shown 
to their work. Numbers of these seem to be more op- 
posed, to the principles of religion than they are to the 
principles of the rebellion, and show more determined 
obstinacy in contending against the cause of God, tlian 
they have ever manifested on the field of battle, against 
the rebels. 

During this voyage I was led to pray, " O God have 
mercy on all officers of our army who speak of religion 
with contempt; who sneer at Chaplains and their work; 
who would drive from the ranks every praying man ; 
and would, if they could, in their shallow-brained non- 



118 LIFE IN THE AEMT. 

Work for the hangnuin. Out at >ea. 

sense, and corrupt-hearted purposes, reason Thee out of • 
existence, and the Bible into the fire ! Pity, Lord, all 
such ninnies, and for Christ's sake make their hearts as 
soft as their heads. Amen." 

Another feature of character was developed during 
my observations among these men, which I am ashamed 
to be compelled to notice and make public Here we 
had fellows commissioned by the government and sworn 
to loyalty, who evinced the spirit of downright treason, 
and talked flippantly about those in authority, as if they 
were engaged to support the cause of Jeff. Davis and 
the Devil, and bring discredit to the country, for whose 
service and defence they had been engaged. When the 
time comes to hang traitors, I hope the Secretary of 
War will- string up a few who have, from Major-General 
down to Second Lieutenant, showed the strongest sym- 
pathy with rebellion, and absolute hatred to liberty and 
Union. 

After this tedious disgression, let us return to the 
voyage. April 20th, out of sight of land. Above, the 
sky; around, a boundless .waste of water. 

This was my first experience on the mighty ocean, and 
the sensations awakened in my mind were peculiarly 
grand and awful. The prominent idea that took posses- 
sion of me was the immensity, grandeur, and almighti- 
ness of Grod. Truly He " rides upon the stormy sea, 
and calms the roaring seas." Standing on deck, and 
watching the giddy waves roll and dash against the bul- 
warks of our noble ship, the language of the poet oo- 



NOTES OF TRAVEL. 119 

BabUmelmpreflBioiis. Moorebead City. 

corred to me as the sublime and fitting expression of 
my feelings : 

■ ** Great sonrce of being, beauty, ligbt, and love! 
Creator, Lord ! The waters worship thee. 
Ere thy creative smile had sown the flowers. 
Ere the glad hills leaped ; or the earth 
With swelling bosom waited for her child; 
Before eternal love had lit the san ; 
Or time had traced his dial-plate in stars; 
The Joyful anthem of the ocean flowed. 
And chaos like a frightened felon fled, — 
While on the deep, thy Holy Spirit moved." 

April 21st, the sea calm, and oyr vessel speeding on 
her southward course. To-day an incident occurred 
which might have resulted in terrible disaster, but for 
timely remedy. The ship caught fire, and for a moment 
confusion and consternation reigned. The fire, how- 
ever, thanks to a kind Providence, was speedily extin- 
guished. 

Arrived at Moorehead City, N. C. this evening. This 
is a small village situated on a very barren tract of land, 
with no object of interest to attract the attention of the 
curious, or please the tourist who is seeking the pictu- 
resque and beautiful in sea-shore scenery. The govern- 
ment has a general hospital at this point, which appeared 
to be conducted and kept inr good condition. Rev. W. 
C. Whitcomb is the Chaplain. He is an intelligent and 
deeply pious Minister of Christ. One of the soldiers 
on board our vessel, who had been sick, was removed to 
the hospital and died there very suddenly. I attended 
his funeral while we remained. 



120 LIPB IN THB ARMY. 

Colored Khools. PrMchiag and llthiof . 

The goverDment has erected a strong fort near this 
place which commands the channel and guards the en- 
trance to both Moorehead City and Beaufort, another 
poor straggling village on the opposite bank of the river, 
about one mile and a-half farther up. It presents a 
better appearence from a distance than the reality on 
closer inspection will be found to exhibit There are 
two colored schools there ; one appears to be in a flour- 
ishing condition, under the management of a Miss 
Luckey, of New York, The coast is covered with 
beautiful sea shells, but we had no taste or time to get 
up a collection for future use, to adorn the parlor of our 
prospective home. The Sabbath came while we were in 
port, and I took occasion to preach a sermon as well as 
to get up a patriotic meeting on board our ship. 

April 28th, received four hundred and fiify colored 
troops on board, and found them to be orderly and 
soldier-like in all their deportment. Left port and 
turned our course direct for New Orleans on the 29th. 
During the 30th we were steaming away down the South 
Carolina coast, with nothing remarkable to disturb the 
monotony of our voyage. 

May 1st being Sabbath, I preached on board. The 
sailors have been fishing all day, and succeeded in catch- 
ing a number of king fish, weighing from sixteen to 
twenty-five pounds each. 

One of the old Jack tars declared to me that fish in 
the sea alwa^'s bite better on Sabbath, than on any other 
day of the week. 



NOTBS OF TRAVEL. 121 

-■'■-'- " - I ' ' — - 

Pilot TowB. The forts. Qiiarantin«b 

May 2d, off the Florida reefe, in the Gulf Stream, 
where the water forms a rapid current always setting one 
way. The porpoises swim along-side of our ship in droves, 
and great quantities of flying-fish are seen on the surface. 

May 3d, in the Gulf of Mexico, and going at the rate 
of ten knots an hour, sea very rough, and Key West to 
be seen in the dim distance. 

We reached the mouth of the Mississippi River on 
the 5th of May. Found quite a number of boats there. 
A small village located near the outer bar is called Pilot 
Town. We were cordially welcomed by the sea-gulls, 
who seemed glad to see us, and were boisterous in their 
overtures of friendship as they followed us up the river in 
large flocks. There is a bar formed across the mouth of 
the river by deposits constantly coming down with the 
current This impediment frequently detains steamei*8 
of heavy draught sometimes for days before they can 
proceed up the river. 

Fort Jackson is located on the right bank of the Mis- 
sissippi, and Fort St. Philip on the left, at a distance of 
thirty-six miles from the mouth, and seventy-eight miles 
below the city of New Orleans. They were both objects 
of great interest to us as we steamed pas^ and scanned 
them closely. They appear very strong, and well ar- 
ranged to resist attack ; but the brave old Admiral Far- 
ragut and his thundering mortars, with Major Greneral 
Butler's forces, made quick and effectual work when they 
combined to reduce them and the traitorous crew who 
resisted the legitimate authority of the government. The 
n 



122 LIFE IK THE ABBIY. 

Colored people happy. The tfintelppL 

r " 

quarantine hospital is on the left bank^ seventy-two miles 
below the city. All steamers and vessels are here over- 
hauled by a surgeon appointed for that purpose, and if 
any on board are found sick with contagious or danger- 
ous diseases, the vessel is detained ten dajrs or more. 

During our passage up the river, many of the colored 
people appeared along the shore cheering and bidding us 
welcome; some of them were shouting, "Glory to God." 
Even the little children appeared to be filled with a frenzj' 
of joy, and would firequently exclaim, "We are all free!" 
The appearance of these things to me was quite affecting, 
and will never be forgotten by those who witnessed such 
exhibitions of delight and gratitude. 

On the 5th of May, 1864, at 9 P. M., we arrived at 
the city of New Orleaus ; and before closing this chap- 
ter, if the reader please, I will add a few words descrip- 
tive of the great Mississippi River, which I consider in 
many respects the most wonderful in the known world. 
This magnificent river is, on the average, from three- 
quarters to a mile in width, and from fifty to two hun- 
dred and fifty feet in depth. The channel is so bold that 
vessels of the largest class can lay up to its banks any- 
where, and receive or discharge their cargoes without the 
aid of a wharf. The force of the resistless and never- 
ceasing flow of its waters is such that it is slowly wear- 
ing away its banks, and in some instances altering its 
own course. In front of New Orleans the river is over 
two hundred feet deep, and by the movement of the 
stream round a graceful curve, the opposite bank, upon 



NOTES OF TRAVEL. 128 

which the town of Algiers, containing a population of 
over two tl^ousand inhabitants, is situated, is gradually 
caving in ; and in the opinion of many, the whole site 
of this town will in the course of time be washed away, 
and every vestige of Algiers be obliterated. 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 



CHAPTER XV. 
VEW OBLJEAXS. 



0B8ERTATI0NS IN NEW ORLEANS— LOCATION— €X)MlfSBGIAL STATI8TIGS 
—DANGER FROM INUNBAnONS-EFFECTS OF A HEATY SHOWER— 
DAMAGE TO CRINOLINE-SURROUNDINGS— LAKE PONTCUARTRAIN— 
STREETS AND PAYEMENTS-CLEANLINESS— HEALTH OF THE dTF— 
STREET CARS— BUILDINGS— TILES-GARDENS-SHRpBBERY—FRUrr 
TREES— THE REBELS, FALSE PROPHETS— STAGNATION IN IMPROVE- 
MENTS-GENERAL BUTLER-HIS CLAIMS TO GRATITUDE-CHARAC- 
TER OF THE PEOPLE-A COSMOPOUTAN CITY— CHILDREN— « TTPE8 
OF MANEIND^-INTELLIGENCE-NEWSPAPERS— VARIOUS LANGUAGES 
—A SECOND BABEIr-RELIGION-GAIETY IN DRESS— FAST ARMY 
OFFICERS-A STRANGE FACT— AVOCATIONS AND HABITS-SUPPLY 
OF WATERS-SLEEPING ACCOMMODATIONS— MOSQUITOES AND THEIR 
PROPl^SITIES— PRIDE OF THE PEOPLE— FAST LIVING— AMUSEMENTS 
— HATRED^ OF N(»ITH£RN PEOPLE— EPITHETS APPLIED TO THE 
UNIVERSAL JTANKEE— THE DUTY OF THE NORTH— NEED OF EDU- 
CATION—REBELS STILL— HOW BARBARISM MAY BE PREVENTED 
AND THE PEOPLE CONVERTED FROM TREASON TO LOYALTY. 

Hayxng become a resident for the time being of the 
Crescent City, so called because of its half moon forma- 
tion around a sweep of the mightj river, on the west 
bank of which- it stands, I propose to give some facts 
and features of its character, which to a stranger may 
prove of passing interest The observations I have been 

. 124 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 125 

t 
Danger from inimdfttions. Effecti of a shower. 

enabled to make, by keeping my eyes and ears open, are 
noted at lergth, not for the purpose of contributing to 
history, but as a memorial of the period, which, in the 
performance of my duty, I passed within its limits. 

The traveler from New York will have to pass over 
sixteen hundred and fifty miles, and from Washington 
eighteen hundred before reaching this point. The first 
impression made upon the mind of a stranger is *one of 
wonder that such a large city should have been built 
where there seems to be constant danger of inundation. 
The surface of the ground is so low in places back firom 
the levee, that but for this embankment, the river, the 
surfiioe of which is higher than the ground, would sweep 
it away. Indeed it has sometimes occurred, that a break 
in the levee has threatened' terrible disaster, and over- 
flowed a considerable portion of the city. 

A heavy fistll of rain at times fills the place with water, 
and drives pedestrians off the streets; wooden bridges 
are swept away, and both men and horses, unaware of 
the traps before them, tumble into the culverts and chan- 
nels left thus uncovered. Sometimes legs are broken, 
and other damages received, fix)m attempting to navigate 
the streets in the low and levd portions of the city. A 
gentleman or lady may go out dressed up in the neatest 
attire, and if caught in a sudden shower, have to wade 
homeward in the most pitiable plight, with their dean 
linen, or crinoline dismantled and bedraggled beyond all 
comparison. If there is an unusual quantify of rain, all 
travel must be suspended for a time, and boats become 
11 » 



126 LIFE O THE A&lfY. 



mrtoria] ikctch. 



more oonvenient as a means of transit than a hack or 
cab. This sorplos of water, however, slowly disaj^Kars 
bj a very good system of drainage, which only requires 
time, from the level natare of the land, to perform its 
important office. 

I have sometimes been compelled to employ a vehicle 
to convey me from my boarding-honse a few squares, 
otherwise I should have had to wade that distance, the 
water being from one to three teei deep. 

New Orleans has a very interesting history, the &cts 
of which, to be known, must appear surprising. Its 
first settlement was made by Bieunville, in the year 1718. 
At the time it passed from the possession of France to 
that of Spain in 1743, it contained a population of only 
a little over three thousand inhabitants. Eighty years 
then elapsed before it was ceded to the United States in 
1803, at which time its population was only about eight 
thousand. But from the date of its cession to the United 
States, the city b^an to grow. Its dimensions became 
enlarged, and a rapid increase is noticed in its popula- 
tion. Now, after a litde more than half a century from 
that time, we find it embracing a population of over one 
hundred and fifty thousand, covering an area six miles 
long and two wide, and adorned with such evidence of 
art and taste, as to equal almost any other dty in the 
union.' 

This result, as may be seen, is owing to sodlsd and 
commercial intercourse with other cities in every part of 
our great I'epublic. 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS, 127 

Commerdal growth. Cotton trade. 
r 

This city not only made great progress in population, 
bat situated as it is, near the outlet of the Mississippi, it 
received at its levees nearly all the products of the great 
and growing West Its wealth, therefore, advanced pro- 
portionably, with its population and its commerce. 

The first newspaper published in New Orleans was in 
1794, and was called the " Moniteur." In 1860 there 
were published in this city, ten daily newspapers, besides 
several periodicals of a literary and commercial charac- 
ter. 

Among the oldest of public buildings, is the ^^ Charity 
Hospital,** founded in 1786- Probably the oldest edifice 
of any note in the city, is a building erected for the use 
of the Ursuline nuns, about the year 1730, and known 
as the " Ursuline Convent." 

It is very interesting to examine the increase of ex- 
ports from about the date of cession to the United States 
in 1803. The exports then amounted to about three 
million and a half of dollars. In 1860, the exports 
amounted to 07ie hundred and eight million of dollars ! 
In 1841, the southern and western produce, received in 
the city, amounted to about eighty-two millions of dol- 
lars. In 1860, they amounted to one hundred and eighty- 
five millions I 

The cotton crop received in New Orleans in 1836 was 
four hundred and ninety-five thousand and forty-tliree 
bales. In 1860, the number was increasedto two millions 
two hundred and fifty-five thousand four hundred and 



128 LIFB IN THE ABMT. 

Banking tytUm. BU|^t of ■ooewJou 

fifty-eight bales. This was one half of all the crop 
raised in the entire cotton states. 

Such, has been the wonderful increase of the dty of 
New Orleans, in population and wealth, since the desti- 
nies of Louisiana were united with the other states of 
the great western republic 

And it will be observed, that in previous years, with 
all her advantages, she remained for half a century 
nearly stationary. 

The banking system of this city, before the war, was 
regarded as the safest and best in the Union. There 
were eleven Banks, with an aggregate capital of about 
eighteen millions of dollars. Thus in every element of 
prosperity, it will be seen, that it was at its very highest 
and most flourishing condition, when the demon of seces- 
sion invaded and entered the heart of the people. 

The changes wrought during the past four years are 
fearful to note. From bemg the largest cotton market 
in the world, and counting her receipts by millions of 
bales, she now considers herself fortunate if she can re- 
ceive a few thousand. 

Her commerce has also fallen off fearfully. In 1860, 
two thousand two hundred and twenty-five clearances 
were issued from the custom house, covering a tonnage 
of one million two hundred and forty-eight thousand 
five hundred and twenty-six tons. 

In fiict, the city of New Orleans was the second in 
the United States, in the amount and value of her ex- 



OBSEBYATIONS IN NEW OELEANS. 129 

Meani of raooeit. Lake Pontchartrain. 

ports, and no city in the world counted at its wharves so 
large a number of steam-boats. 

Yet, notwithstanding this great prosperity, the &na- 
tical citizens seceded from the Union through whose in- 
fluence and trade she had been brought out of her obscu- 
rity and insignificance, and had become influential and 
respected among the oilier great cities of this glorious 
country. But enterprise and capital are again finding 
their way in this direction, and investments are being 
made, which will have a tendency to revive the present 
prostrate condition of things. In my judgment, if the 
merchants are allowed to resume and pursue commerce 
in its legitimate channels, the speedy resuscitation of the 
business of the city cannot be a matter of doubt for one 
moment. Under the present r^ulations business js 
much more active than it was, and is rapidly increasmg. 
That it will continue to increase and again in the provi- 
dence of God under Yankee brain, energy, and industry, 
reach a position that shall challenge the wonder and 
admiration of the world, and even surpass her former 
greatness and glory, I have no hesitation to predict 

The overthrow of slavery, and the abominable aristo- 
cracy founded on this system, will enlarge and encourage 
general industry and popular enterprise. 

ZAKJS TONTCHAJCTBAiy 

gives to the ci<y one of its chief attractions. This is a 
beautiful sheet of water located at a distance of six miles 
in a westerly direction fi*om the city. The lake has been, 



130 LIFE IN THE ABMT. 

BwamiM and oottos4leldt. Barrw ranroaodingi. 

and still is a great place of public resort^ the steam cars 
making several trips a day to and from its shores. There 
are also two splendid shell roads extending from the city 
to the lake, which afford a beantiful means of travel ; 
these roads being very smooth and level, they are nsed 
by large numbers of the citizens to drive out of an even- 
ing for health and pleasure, and occasionally to try the 
speed of their fast horses. 

There are also two canals, or basins, extending from 
the river to the lake, through which a considerable 
amount of trade is carried on. It is surprising to a 
stranger to find large swamps, and dense tracts of wood- 
land located so near the limits of a large d^ like this. 
If the swamps were cleared up and properly drained, 
and the woods cut down, the health and comfort of the 
inhabitants, in my judgment would be greatly improved. 
Fresh air is a great desideratum in this warm climate. 

We look in vain for the beautiful suburban residences 
and country seats, which are found in the vicinity of all 
northern cities, in the neighborhood of New Orleans. Im- 
provements are quite meagre, and there is but little to be 
seen on the outskirts that would attract the eye, or arrest 
the attention, except the immense fields of cotton and sugar 
cane, in all the richness and redundancy of their beautiful 
appearance. The orange-tree, the fig, lemon, banana, and 
pomegranate, abound everywhere around us, and present a 
very pleasant feature of the scenery. There is also a greai^va- 
riety of otherspeciesof fruitgrowing in and around thecity. 

The climate I found to be much more salubrious and 



OBSBEVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 181 

CUnutte. Streets and parementB. 

less changeable than I had anticipated ; for instance, I 
was frequently told in the North by those who profe&sed 
to know, that during the middle of the day, in the 
summer season, the heat would be almost suffocating, 
and in the evening an overcoat would be necessary for 
comfort These conjectures and representations are quite 
incorrect. I may state here, that during the entire sum- 
mer I spent here, I never needed an overcoat in the 
evening, but always found the temperature warm and 
pleasant. Of course it is warmer here than in the North, 
but those who imagine the heat to be so intense as to 
nearly burn them up alive, may be relieved by the 
assurance that there is a fresh and pleasant breeze which 
comes from the gulf, and greatly moderates the torrid 
heat of the summer season. 

STJRJSETa JLITD ^AVEMBNTS. 

New Orleans can boast of having some of the most 
substantial flag-stone pavements, as well as some of the 
best paved streets to be found on this continent. They 
are, moreover, kept very clean, being swept and washed 
every twenty-four hours, so that filth and garbage is not 
allowed to accumulate anywhere. It is owing to this 
fact that the city is, unquestionably, at this time, the 
healthiest in the United States. Although this is the 
warmest, (June 1864), and considered the most unheal- 
thy season of the year, yet the mortality report of the 
past week shows only one hundred and twenty-one 
deaths from all causes. 



182 LIFE IN THE ABICT. 

Street railroads. Buildings. 

Several of the streets are very broad, with a beautifnl 
lawn twenty-five feet in width in the centre. This lawn 
is covered with grass, with two rows of splendid shade 
trees, between which the track is laid for the stl^t cars, 
with a well-paved carriage-way, about twenty feet wide 
on each side. 

The street cars run regularly on all the principal 
thorough&res every few minutes. The city railways 
differ from those in our Northern cities in some pecu- 
liarities. The cars are drawn by mules which usually 
proceed on a gallop. They have no conductors on some 
of the lines, the companies relying on the honesty of pas- 
sengers, who are expected to deposit their exact fare in a 
box provided for that purpose. The driver is allowed to 
change your money, but in no case is he .permitted to 
deposit it. This arrangement appears to me, to work 
well, as every person is under the eye of his fellow-pas- 
sengers, and also that of the driver, until he forks over 
his picayune. 

BUIZJDJOrGS. 

There are quite a large number of fine granite build- 
ings in the city, but of dwellings, the majority are frame 
structures, one or one and a-half stories in height. The 
old-&shioned Spanish style predominates largely in these 
buildings, and they are mostly covered with "tiles.*' 
The sight of them brought vividly to my recollection the 
bold and emphatic declaration of Martin Luther, the 
great reformer, which has aided to give immortality to 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 138 

Gardens and flowen. No improremeoti. 

his name. Many of the private residences of the city * 
are set back from the street, with a large yard in front 
filled with charming flowers and refreshing shade trees. 
Some of these private residences occupy an entire square, 
and give a beautiful variety with their luxuriant gardens, 
and embowered surroundings, resembling West Phila- 
delphia for splendour and taste. 

IMl^MOVJEMBJrTS. 

It could hardly be supposed that improvements would 
progress anywhere during the period in which our country 
was engaged in a fierce struggle for national life. Here 
there is utter stagnation in this department, and the con- 
trast is indeed remarkable when we look at the facts and 
figures relating to this subject in Philadelphia alone. In 
1863, there were .three thousand five hundred substantial 
brick buildings erected there, and this in the midst of 
war's alarms and the constant call for men to recruit the 
wasted ranks of our armies. The rebels of the South 
have proved themselves false prophets in everything, and 
in no particular more signally than in this: that business 
would be entirely suspended, and that grass would grow 
in the. streets of our principal northern cities in conse- 
quence of the war. Oo themselves, by their wicked re- 
bellion, these predictions have been turned with a ven- 
geance, and it is true of many a town, all over the South, 
that grass actually is growing on their paved streets and 
places of former prosperity in business. 

But while industry has been crippled, business broken 

12 



184 LIFB IN THE AEMT. 

BeTivAl of trade. MiOor^eneral Bntlcr. 

up, and agricultural improvemente almost entirely sus- 
pended in this city and vicinity since the outbreaking of 
the slaveholders' rebellion^ we discover some indications 
of a revival. One most important matter is receiving 
needed attention ; that is, the drainage of the swamps, 
and other subjects, very intimately connected with the 
general health and prosperity of the people. 

Whatever may be said or thought by these bitter foes 
of the North in regard to Major Greneral Butler, his 
name will live and be encircled with renown to later 
generations, for the sanitary measures and general im- 
provements he suggested and inaugurated here. He did 
more for New Orleans than any man living. Our pres- 
ent exemption, from the usual epidemics of the season, 
is owing in a great measure to his system of ilniinage — 
street cleaning, and attention to the poor. 

About forty-five thousand of the hungry and suffering 
were fed by him ; the lazy and idle were compelled to 
bestir themselves, and cleanliness became the law of life 
under his reign. No man has been more bitterly ma- 
ligned. North and South, than he; yet the day may 
come when a monument will be erected to his worth 
even here, and the country will remember his services 
with as much pride and vastly more gratitude than those 
of many who cut a higher figure and made more noise 
during their day of brief authority. 

All Union men in New Orleans concur in saying Gen- 
eral Butler was " the right man in the right place.'' 



# 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 185 

The Tidng generation. Foreign element. 

THE PEOrZB. 

In general appearance the people of New Orleans 
differ from those of northern cities in many particular 
traits and shades of character. Here yoa may meet with 
all conceivable sizesy shapes^ &g6s, complexions, and 
nationalities. The author of the "Types of Mankind*' 
would find here a wide field of investigation, in pursuit 
of his &vorite study, and abundant material for a few 
more volumes treating on the endless varieties of the 
germs homo. 

The population seem to be partial to out-door life, as 
at all hours of the day and evening you may encounter 
crowds on every street. A more prolific place for chil- 
dren it would be hard to find. Thousands upon thou- 
sands of them swarm in the various thoroughfitres, and 
are seen on door-steps, side-walks, and in every possible 
nook and corner. The blending of races and colors 
apparent, suggest curious, if not sad reflections, and the 
palpable fact that multitudes of them are ill^timate, 
and consequently poor, friendless, and homeless, excites 
indescribable pity, when we remember the hopeless pov- 
erty and abandonment to which they are heirs. 

The cosmopolitan character of the city suggests a 
reason for this order of things. The bringing into such 
close proximity so many nationalities, has produced a 
greater individuality and intensity of character here than 
elsewhere. Grood and bad qualities are developed in a 
more positive and earnest manner than would be likely 



J 



136 LIFE IN THB ARMY. 

Itcnch mannen. LaaguafM. 

where some preponderatiog influenoes might mould and 
control the mass. 

It is supposed that one half the population of the city 
are foreigners. A large proportion of their descendants 
remain so, to all intents -and purposes, and their ideas 
of religion and law are as marked and strange as though 
they had been bom abroad. 

It is true that a great many of the people are refined 
and intelligent The habits and manners of this class 
are more nearly allie4 to the French standard than any 
other. More than one third of the whole population are 
either French, or of French descent, which accounts for 
that style and suavity among them peculiar to the people 
of France. 

In their bearing toward strangers they are for a time 
distant and reserved, but invariably polite and kind. 
As acquaintance ripens they become more free and &mil- 
iar, and are excessively courteous at all times to ladies. 

THjEiB zjureuAess. 

I have concluded that the people of this city speak 
more languages, jargons, and gibberish, than the cele- 
brated Elihu Burritt could ever hope to master. Ap- 
parently there is as great a confusion of tongues as existed 
among the bricklayers at the tower of Babel! A con- 
tinued hum' of voices, from male and female, comes upon 
your ears, in which are mingled the low guttural sound 
of ^^mine fader land,'' the musical ring of the Spanish, 
the sharp intonations of the French, with the mellifluous 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 137 



for an unknown ton^ne. Tired of Jargon. 

roll of the Italian, and occasionally a word of honest, 
hearty Anglo-Saxon, or a "bit of the brogue," to remind 
you that you are not in Naples, but in New Orleans, an 
American city. 

I would suppose that at least two thirds of the people 
speak French, and apparently nine tenths use some 
other than the English. The reason for this excess 
of foreign dialects in the street is, as I have been in- 
formed, that many of the citizens have an understanding 
among themselves not to speak English on the street, in 
order to prevent the Yankees from understanding their 
^conversation when they wish to exchange views on the 
state of the country. 

It is a strange &ct, tliat quite a number of them can- 
n6t speak the English language. Another singular fact 
is, that several of the newspapers of the city are pub- 
lished one-half in English, and the other half in French. 
It requires some energy and self-denial in a northern 
man to bring himself to remain here long at a time, on 
aceount of the wide dissimilarity existing between his 
views and tastes, and those with whom he is brought in 
daily contact. I have sometimes heard northerners play- 
fully remark, that they were sick of this interminable 
jargon, and wanted to return to America I The man- 
ners and customs of the majority of people here are not 
American. They seem to take a pride in maihtaining 
the usages, and following the customs of Europe. 

12* 



138 LIFE IN THE ARMY. 

Religion. DreM and Cuhion. 

o The Boman Catholic religion has the ascendancy in 
wealth and numbers. The following is a correct list, so 
far as I have been able to ascertain, of the different Pro- 
testant Charches within the limits of the city. Seven 
Presbyterian; seven Methodist Episcopal; three German 
Methodist; three Baptist; four Episcopalian; and one 
Unitarian. These churches had quite a large member- 
ship before the war ; but as many of the members, and 
ministers too, went into the rebel army, I cannot give a 
Correct list of their numbers. 

The Methodist Episcopal Churches at the time of 
this writing are all under the charge of the Rev. J. P. 
Newman, D. D., of New York, and the Doctor manages 
to have all the pulpits filled by loyal ministers of the 
gospel every Sabbath. The Young Men's Christian 
Association has lately been reorganized under the imme- 
diate control of the different Christian denominations, 
and promises to become an instrumentality of good In 
tile community. 

The people of the city are considered as a general 
thing to be fond of gaiety, and are great votaries of 
fashion. The ladies are up with the times in all the 
new improvements in Paris millinery and stylish dress. 
Articles of foreign production always receive the prefer- 
ence, and home manufactures are discarded as unsuited 
to their wants. 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 139 

Staff ofBcen. ATocattona. 

Among those who dress very gay at present, I must 
include a number of our jtrmy officers, particularly the 
staff officers, who may have little else to do than adorn, 
their persons with all the gew-gaws and trappings, which 
are thought necessary to set off a gentleman. And it is 
a noticeable fact here, as well as at other places occupied 
by our soldiers, that the most &shionable and showy, 
those who drive the finest team, and "go it," with the 
most reckless disr^jard to expense, belong to the Quar- 
termaster's Department! 

The avocations of the people are as varied as their 
character and habits are diverse. In this respect also 
you are reminded of European and Asiatic cities. The 
shoemaker or cobbler takes his bench out into the open 
air, and plies his craft under the eye of the multitude. 
Here are eating booths ; yonder, fruit stalls ; and farther 
on, you come in contact with candy shops, pea-nut 
stands, cake wagons, and boot-blacking establishments. 

The picayune is the smallest amount of money in use 
here, and you cannot purchase a row of pins or a needle 
without paying the five cents. The cent piece so com- 
mon in all retail business in the north is seldom seen 
" on change" in this city. 

The meals are usually taken — in the morning from 
seven to nine, dinner from two to five, p. M., and tea 
from seven to nine, in the evening. 

Rain-water, when on hand, is generally used for drink- 
ing and cooking purposes. It is secured in large cisterns, 
which form a necessary appendage to every dwelling. 



140 LIFE IN THE ARMY. 

Bleeping aceomiDodationt. If oiquitoei. 

The nature of the soil precludes the possibility of obtain- 
ing good water from wells; and during a continued dry 
spell the supply in the cisterns becomes very offensive, 
unless improve by the addition of ice. Ice, however, 
is a luxury which because of its cost, the poor cannot 
afford to enjoy. It has been sold at ten cents a pound 
during the warm season. 

The accommodations forsleeping are somewhat peculiar, 
and in my judgment very superior. The beds, and bed- 
steads, are the best I have ever seen. An admirable 
contrivance is attached to each, by which musquito bars 
are used, and afford the sleeper a sure defence against 
attack during the night-watches. If ever poor plagued 
humanity needed fortifications against these guerrillas, it 
is in New Orleans ; for a more rampant, blood-thirsty, 
and persevering foe, never laid siege to a citadel, or 
fought harder for spoils than they do. I think they bite 
the severest, when they do. get a chance, and are the big- 
gest, wickedest^ and most noisy fellows I ever encoun- 
tered. 

For nine months of the year they wage war, and by 
all the modern tactics of corps, division, brigade and 
battalion drill, by skirmishing and flank movements 
they environ you, and like the chivalry of their native 
south, seem determined to conquer their rights, or die in 
the last ditch. 

Nothing can exceed the luxury of lying down inside 
your " bars" of a midsummer night, and feeling secure 
from their voracious bills, as they hum ai'ouifd your 



OBSBEVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 141 

SoQthern airogance. Conquered bat not conrerted. 

room, and try to " come it,'' but find an abatis in their 
way, which effectually checks their advance, and allows 
you to &11 gently asleep amidst' the music of their 
wrath. 

The arrogance so notorious in southern society, puts on 
its loftiest airs in this city. It is amusing to witness 
these scions of an imaginary nobility strut about as if 
they were lords of creation, and look down with super- 
cilious disdain on northern people as beneath their notice. 
It chafes them very much to be confronted by a common 
sense Yankee, who returns their contempt with interest, 
and a little mixture of pity in it, and takes occasion to 
remind them that their foolish '^ airs" are all bosh, that 
their glory has departed, and that the saddest day they 
ever saw, was the day they went into ecstacies over the 
firing on our time-honored flag, which they tried to 
dishonor and bring to the dust, but which now and ever 
shall float protftily over their heads, .the symbol of 
authority and power to which they must bow in obe- 
dience, although in their hearts they continue to curse it, 
and the benign government it represents on land and sea. 

Many of the people here live /owf, that is, beyond 
their means, and are dissipated in their habits. Living, 
as a large number of them did heretofore, on the sweat 
and toil of the poor negro, and now disinclined to work 
or apply themselves to business, these drones of society 
must seek some other latitude, and leave the field to 
popular enterprise and honorable labor. 

All places of public amusement are patronized very 



142 LIFE IN THB ARMT. 

Public ainxnements. Ihtrad to TaakeM. 

liberallj. Wherever cheap amusement is to be had, joa 
may see a moving mass of human beings eager for it, 
pressing into the theatres and beer gardens, and follow- 
ing street organs and itinerant fiddlers, apparently carried 
away by the vapid and supernatural trifles which waste 
valuable time, and cost a great deal of money. 

8PJB1T or ram pbopze. 

It is a &ct that the great majority of men, and women, 
too, in this city, and I suppose in all parts of the South, 
still hate and despise Northern people. Generations 
have been succeeded by generations, who seem to have 
been bom and reared up with this bitterness predomi- 
nant in their nature. Although compelled to depend on 
the great enterprising North for many of the essentials 
of life, yet they take delight in sneering at everybody 
and everything of Yankee origin, as lliough they were 
the bene&ctors and owners of the whole domain. I have 
traveled through five different Southern States, and spoit 
six years of my life in slave territory, and have been 
irresistibly led to the conclusion that a d^ree of estrange- 
ment and repugnance, and deep-seated hatr^ prevails 
on their part, which will Require time and determined 
treatment to eradicate. For years before the war their 
insults were carried even to the National Congress, and 
vented everywhere, and in every possible form against 
us. During the war this spirit has assumed the shape 
of downright ferocity, as may be remembered at the first 
Bull Eun Battle, at Lawrence, Kansas, and at Fort Pil- 



OBSBBVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 343 

ContemptQOiu epithets. Bdocation needed. 

low, at which places they murdered many of our citizens 
and soldiers in cold blood. 

Their treatment of, and bearing toward our prisoners, 
also furnishes evidence that cries out against their hu- 
manity, honor, and religion, and must live a stinging 
and lasting reproach and lie to their boasted chivalry. 

I do not believe they are changed one whit for the 
l^etter, or that kindness and leniency will cure them or 
bring them to a better mind. 

Their show of allegiance to the government, I believe, 
to be all a sham, and that they, or any considerable por- 
tion of them, are converted f]X)m treason to patriotism, 
is merely moonshine. 

Although soundly thrashed, they have the unblushing 
assurance to keep alive their favorite epithets applied to 
all Northern people of " mudsills, loafers, petty jobbers, 
miscreants,'* and "the scum of creation!" 

Men of the great north and west, show these deluded 
mortals that you are not their inferioraj as they imagine! 
Educate them to broader views, and make the whole 
south, by your brain and enterprise, what it ought to be, 
in common with the undivided Union, to which you 
have bound it as with hooks of steel, " the land of the 
free" and the home of civil and religious liberty ! I am 
firmly persuaded that the so-called Confederacy, even 
had it gained independence and general recognition, would 
have been short-lived, poverty-stricken, and as effete and 
useless as are now many of the miserable States of South 
America, where intelligence is beclouded, liberty dead, 



144 LIFE IN THE ABMT. 

TankM aDterpriM. Hope dftwnlnf. 

the people priest-ridden, and where barharism is coining 
slowly and sorelj back again. 

As an integral part of the ^' Universal Yankee Na- 
tion/' there is a dawning of hope for the cities and people 
of the late rebellions States. Let the light shine and 
spread until darkness and hate shall be boned forever, 
and this motto so dear to our Grod-directed nation be 
written everywhere, not only on our banners, but on all 
hearts 2 "Virtue, liberty, and independence." 



OBSEEVATIONS IK NEW OELEAKS. 145 



The Claj monoment K«buke of treMon. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

OBSBBVATIONS CONTZKUJED. 

THE CLAY MONUMENT— lUMOBTAL WOKDB— BEBUKE TO TREASON— THE 
JACKSON STATUE-" THE UNION MUST AND SHAIX BE PAESEBTEiy^ 
PUBLIC SQUABES AND CIBGLES-CUSTOH H0U8E-GITT HALL— STATE 
CONTENTION— EMANCIPATION— ST. CHABLES HOTEL. 

The Clay Monument is located in the centre of Canal 
St.^ near St Charles. This is an eligible position, and 
reminds one, by its sarroundings, of the Merchants' Ex- 
change in Philadelphia. The street cars start from this 
point every few minutes for different parts of the city. 
The hacks and cabs congregate here also for the conve- 
nience of the public 

This beautiful monument to the memory of the dis- 
tinguished statesman who, for sage counsel and farnseeing 
philanthropy, stood peerless in his day among the re- 
nowned men of the nation, reflects the greatest credit on 
the body who projected and the artist who executed it. 

The imposing statue represents Clay in a standing 
posture, jEts if delivering one of his masterly arguments 
or orations. The front overlooks the fether of waters, 
which rolls on its irresistible tide to the ocean, and al- 
though mute iu marble stillness, yet there seems a voice 

13 



146 LIFE IN THE ARMY. 

Wordf for the timas. * Jitckton munamfiQt 

in it which utters a stern rebuke to treason and rebel- 
lion. 

Major General Butler caused the following extract 
from one of his great speeches on the slavery question 
to be chiseled in legible characters on the front base of 
the pedestal : 

"If I COULD BE INSTRUMENTAL IN ERADICATINO 
THIS DEEP STAIN, SLAVERY, FROM THE CHAJtACTER OF 
OUR COUNTRY, I WOULD NOT EXCHANGE THE PROUD 
SATKFACnON WHICH T SHOULD ENJOY, FOR THE HONOR 
OP ALL THE TRIUMPHS EVER DECREED TO THE MOST 
SUCCESSFUL CONQUEROR," 

Noble words! which possess a significance in these 
evil times, that never were attached to them before, and 
definitely assigns to thdr author a high place among the 
immortal band whose hearts beat strong and high for 
universal fi-eedom. 

The Jackson Monument forms the main attraction of 
the square which bears its name. It is located on the 
levee, in the French portion of the city. It is one of 
Mills' equestrian statues of the hero of New Orleans, and 
from its symmetry and beauty, challenges the admiration 
of all who behold it General Butler, in his efibiis to 
right up things in his department, quickly discovered 
something wanting, in the completeness of this monu- 
ment also. The rebels, among their first acts of van- 
dalism, had efluced certain letters which were engraven 



OBSBEVATIOKS IN NEW ORLEANS. 147 

Bebel T&ndaUsm. <Hd Hickory. 

on it, and he forthwith had the obliterated record re- 
stored. It is the world-renowned declaration, "The 
Union must and shall be pbesebved.^^ Under this 
as their rallying cry the hosts of the north have marched 
forth to battle. In the spirit of these great living words, 
thousands have fought and nobly fallen, and with a firm 
faith in them, as the sheet anchor of our hopes for the 
future, and a birth-right of happiness to unborn mil- 
lions, "the last man and the last dollar," have been 
pledged to suppress the rebellion, and preserve our glo- 
rious Union. 

I could not repress a rising wish, while frequently 
gazing on the monument, and lingering over this decla- 
ration that the man who uttered it, or one with his spirit 
and determination were living to-day, who could com- 
prehend the depth of iniquity Involved in rebellion, and 
with all the resources placed at his command, push on 
the war until not a fragment or vestige of treason should 
be left .in the land. O I for a second Andrew Jackson, 
with the nerve to punish this stupendous crime as it de- 
serves, and deal with half-way meriy and milk and water 
pclioyj in a manner that would compel obedience and 
unconditional submission to the national authority. 

PUBLIC SQUABES. 

New Orleans possesses several beautiful public squares, 
which as " breathing places," or as they are termed in 
London, "the lungs of the city," are of great value to 
health and recreation. 



148 LIFE IN THE AEMY. 

Public squaroi. Costom-^iOTiM. 

La Fayette Square is located in front of the City Hall, 
on St, Charles Street It is tastefully laid out^ and 
forms one of the most popular places of resort 

Jackson Square is the handsomest park in the city. 
Here the equestrian statue of the brave old hero already 
referred to stands, and the grounds are filled with choice 
flowers, shade trees, and shrubbery of every variety, and 
trimmed and tended with skill and care. 

Congo Square is located on Bampart street, and de- 
rives its name from the district in Africa which bears 
that name. It is devoted to the use of the colored peo- 
ple, who hold their convocations and festivities there. 

There are several other attractive squares in different 
parts of tljp city, and a place called "Tivoli Circle," 
which adds to its embellishment, and contributes greatly 
to the comfort and pleasure of the citizens. 

The cdbtom-hotjse is a noble specimen of architecture, 
and one of the most striking features of the ciiy» It is 
built of granite, covers the area of an entire square, and, 
although it cost the government an enormous amount 
of money, is still in an unfinished condition. The post- 
office occupies a part of this building. 

The ctfy haix is finely located, fronting on La 
Fayette Square, and appears to have been erected at 
great cost In this building the late convention held its 
sessions. Here they formed the new state constitution 
and passed the act of emancipation. It has been used as 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 149 

City Hiai and St. Cbarlec 

the seat of government since the state capitol at Baton 
Rouge was destroyed by fire. 

The St. Chakles hotel is famed throughout the 
country for its high reputation and first-class manage- 
ment. It is a grand^ imposing, and commodious edifice, 
with heavy columns in front, which gives it ^ majestic 
appearance. It is conducted on the European plan, tod 
is the finest building of its class in the city. 

13* 



150 LUB IN THE ARMT. 



Monl condition. Penonal obterrationt. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

OBSBBVATIOKS COKTIKUBB, 

THE MORAL CONDITION OF THE CITT—INDIFFBRENCE TO RELIGION^ 
SABBATH DESECRATION— STREET CARS-COCK-FIOHTINO— DRUNKEN- 
NESS— STATISTICS OF RUM TRAFFIC-SUNDAT THEATER&-MUSIO— 
REYELRT— THE CATHOLIC REUOION— EFFECTS OF DI8L0TALTT— 
FOREIGNERS AND THEIR VICES-GAMBLING-HOUSES-fiLAVERY— THE 
DBTIL'S WORKSHOP— PRIDE AND POVERTY— A GREAT HOME MIS- 
SIONARY FIELD— A DIFFICULT WAY TO HEAYEN BY NEW ORLEANS. 

I BEMEMBEB to have heard and read much, when a 
boy, of the wickedness of the people of New Orleans. 
No person, however, not actually conversant with the 
habits, manners, and character of the people here, can 
have a vivid realization of the magnitude and variety 
of the forms which vice, iireligion, and immoraliiy 
assume in the crescent city. After being a resident 
here sufficiently long to know personally whereof I 
affirm, I must bear witness that the half has never been 
told me. The evidences which establish here a bad 
preeminence in regard to immorality abound on every side. 
After making due allowances for the unsettled condition 
incident to war, I may be allowed to stet^ that I con- 
bider this one of the most immoral cities, according to 
population, in the whole Union. 

There are thousands upon thousands who never attend 



OBSEEVATIONS IN NEW OELEANS. 151 

SabbAthrbreaking. Sabbath amutements. 

religious service anywhere, but give their whole time to 
the service of sin and the devil. 

I have observed the following fads : 

First. The claims of tlie Holy Sabbath are by many 
totally disr^arded. No sacredness or sanctity seems to 
be connected with it. 

Second. The theatres are open on the evenings of the 
Lord's day, and are generally crowded by men, women, 
and children, whose moral sense, if they ever had any, is 
by this means sinking into deeper degradation constantly. 
No sadder sight is conceivable, in the mind of a northern 
Sabbath observer, than to witness these great crowds of 
dying mortals, wending their way to the various haunts of 
amusement, and vice, when it would seem they ought to 
be engaged in prayer, and listening to the teachings of 
Grod's word. 

Bands of music are out on balconies playing, and no 
means which may seduce and attract the multitude to 
Sabbath-breaking, is left untried. How often these 
sounds, so discordant amid the stillness of the holy Sab- 
bath evening, have pained my heart, and made me wish 
and long to be beyond thdr influence. 

Third. The street cars run all day on Sabbath, as on 
any other day of the week, and multitudes are seen 
riding in them, and in private carriages for mere plea- 
sure. • 

Fourih. Cock-fighting is a popular pastime on the 
Sabbath, and attracts crowds to witness this barbarous 
practice, which is highly demoralizing in its influence. 



152 LIFE IN THE ABlfT. 

DnmkMUMpL Btittittci of rmn traJBc 

Fifth. Drnnkenness abounds. The hotels, grog-sh^s, 
saloons, and other places where whisky is sold, are 
crowded. There seems to be no restriction on the sale 
of intoxicating liquor, except* the license, which is one 
hundred dollars, for everyplace of this character. There 
are six hundred and thirty-seven licensed groggeries, or, 
as they are here called ^^ Coffee-houses," and many of 
them are temptingly open night and day. 

There are five hundred and twenty-eight groceries, 
also licensed to deal in strychnine whisky, or what some 
one appropriately calls ^'damnation;" making in all 
eleven hundred and sixty-five places, where the public 
may purchase rum. This is a larger proportion than 
can be enumerated in any city of its population in Chris- 
tendom. 

It will also be noted, that in view of the heavy cost 
of license, they must all contrive to sell large quantities, 
to enable them to pay expenses. Thousands of barrels 
are therefore consumed annually ; for they all seem to be 
making money, and amassing fortunes, by the manu- 
facture of drunkards, and all the ills and woes which 
follow in the train, both here and hereafter. 

Some.apologize for this excessive use of intoxicating 
drink, on the ground that health demands a certain 
amount of stimulus. This I pronounce untrue. The 
men who take no intoxicating liquor enjoy the best health. 
Hear this, ye devotees of Bacchus, and all ye who en- 
courage them in their ruinous course. It is a lament- 
able fact that some of our army oflBcers have fallen into 



OBSBKVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 158 

Dnmken mirgeont. Licentioiime«. 

this delusion, and have become addicted to the same evil 
habits. It is perilous to themselves, and most prejudicial 
to others, by their influence and example. The surgeon 
that will advise jou to this course, is likely to be a rum- 
sucker himself, and is therefore a blind guide, in matters 
of this kind. I have known patients to die in the 
hospitals crying " I am drunk," and why was this ? Be- 
cause the surgeon in attendance administered liquor. 

What a fearful responsibility that Doctor will incur 
when he stands before the judgmentrseat, who has used 
his authority to increase drunkenness, and under the 
derangement occasioned by intemperance, has sent souls 
into the presence of God their maker ! 

Sixth. The statistics of vice represent the city as cursed 
with houses of ill-fam^ where unblushing licentiousness 
is going on day and night. Iniquity of this species is 
said to be utterly unbridled throughout the city. 

Seventh. The few, comparatively, who attend church 
seldom go more than once on Sabbath, and are reasonably 
supposed to spend the balance of its sacred hours in idle- 
ness. 

EigJdh. Another cause, and perhaps the chief one, in 
accounting for the. low state of public morals in this 
city, is, the prevalence of the Boman Catholic religion. 
The history of the past will show as the fruits of this 
system, a state of ignorance, and a standard of morality 
exceedingly low. 

Ninth. The &ct of disloyalty may be cited as a cause 
of immorality. Wherever the blight of secession and 



154 LIPE IN THE ARMY. 

DUoyalty. Ignorance OamblinclMKiMt. 

treason has appeared — there may be gathered the evi- 
dence of wrong-doing in every department of social life. 

Rebellion was inaugurated against the light of con- 
science and convictions of right, and truth. Losing 
sight of their high and holy obligation to preserve alle- 
giance to the " powers that be," general recklessness of 
character and conduct has here, as elsewhere been the 
result 

Tenth, The subject of education has not received the 
attention here which has been given to it in northern 
cities. Certain classes have been entirely neglected, and 
the tendency has been fiital to virtue and morality. 

Elevenih. The foreign element in this city being, as I 
have shown, a large proportion of the population have 
brought their loose views and low vices with them from 
other lands, and in the enjoyment of a larger liberty than 
they ever had before give nnrestricted development to their 
depraved habits, and help to demoralize community 
around them. 

Twdfih. Gktmbling-houses abound and are constantly 
in full blast, decoying young men into their meshes, and 
destroying their morals. 

This specific evil is regulated, or rather licensed by 
the authorities, and there is hardly a voice raised in con- 
demnation of it The press, which ought to be the con- 
servator of good morals everywhere, is so submissive to 
public opinion, that it dares not speak out as it should 
on this question. A leading article in one of the papers 
recently said, " It is a very nice point, a delicate question; 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 155 

The proM. SlaTery. 

and a great deal can be said on both sides; whether pub- 
lic morality can be best served by licensing gambling- 
houses, or enacting prohibitory laws against them." 

Out upon such base subserviency, even in appearance, 
to the clamor of a depraved and perverted taste. The 
really moral and good people of New Orleans, as of all 
other dties, who look at the subject from a proper stand- 
point, must know that the prohibition of vice, not only 
prevents its commission very frequently, but is actually 
demanded as a safeguard for society. 

Thirteenth. The existence of human slavery, after 
all, is the prime cause of that low state of morals for 
which this city is preeminent. This parent evil has 
brought forth au innumerable progeny of peculiar vices. 
It is the cause of idleness among the white population, 
and this is generally the source of bad habits. An idle 
mind, as the homely phrase has it, is the '^ devil's work- 
shop." While it would drive the poor bondman to his 
work by the lash, and chain him to his toil from day to 
day, it exempted the mastex and his race from earning 
their bread by the sweat of their own brow, as the great 
law of Scripture requires. The indolence engendered, 
therefore, by slavery, becomes a hot-bed for prolific 
sins. 

I may add, to these facts, that there are numerous 
femilies who are too proud to attend church without pay- 
ing their way, and yet, are so straitened in their circum- 
stances, that they cannot afford to do it. They conse- 
quently remain away from worship, and parents, and 



156 LIFE IN THB ARMY. 

AdTentoren. A miMioiuay fleld. 

children, are growing up without the influence of the 
means of grace. 

Again, there are a very considerable number of young 
men, clerks, and artisans, who are here but temporary 
sojourners, their object being to make a fortune, and 
then, as they hope, to leave here for more congenial sur- 
roundings elsewhere. This class are entirely alienated 
from everything like religious influence, although many 
of them were brought up at their distaut homes to respect 
the Bible and fear God. 

With all these considerations before us, who can doubt 
that this city and vicinity, and, indeed, the state at large, 
is a very appropriate field for the work of home mis- 
sions. 

It is true, and I admit with great pleasure, the excep- 
tion, that there are some excellent i>eople here, as there 
are in other parts of the South. If th^re had not been a 
little salt this whole region would long since have been as 
Sodom. I assert, notwithstanding, that the picture here 
is substantially true of the great majority, and any com- 
parison that may be instituted between the North and 
South, will show a large preponderance in the scale of 
morality in favor of the former. 

I hope, and will earnestly pray for better days, when 
a free gospel shall here run and be glorified, and these 
tens of thousands who are without God and hope in the 
world, will be awakened powerfiilly, and soundly con- 
verted from the error of their ways. 

At present, it is my deliberate judgment, that it is 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 157 

A bard road to hMTen. 

no easy matter to go to heaven by the way of New 
Orleans. 

I do not mean by this that a good man cannot main- 
tain pnrity of life and conduct anywhere, but it is not at 
all desirable to be so circumstanced that the liability to 
&11 into temptation is increased a hundred-fold. The 
possibility of &Iling from grace is one of the doctrines 
of my creed, and I have always believed that a Chris- 
tian's safety and peace is best promoted by avoiding even 
the appearance of evil. 

14 



158 LIFE IN THE ABBiY. 



Folly of Seoenlon. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

OBSBBVJLTIOVS COlTTiyUJSIP. 

FOLLT AND HADNESS OF REBELLION— ATZRAGE OF BUNAWAT SLATES 
-SLATS HUNTIN6 IN THE SWAMPS — << PIOUS " MASTERS— ENGLISH 
NEUTRALITT— MOTITXS OF THE BRITISH— A NXTT'FOE LORD JOHN 
RUSSELL TO CRACK -SECRET MEETINGS FOE TREASONABLE PUR- 
POSES-CHARACTER OF THE POLICEMEN— INDIGNITIES TO UNION 
SOLDIERS— "STRAWS," SHOWING HOW THE WIND BLOWS— FOREIGN 
LANGUAGE A CLOAK TO TREASON— ROMAN CATHOLICISM FATOURr 
ABLE TO DESPOTISM— DISLOTALTT OF THE WOMEN— HATRED OF THE 
FLAG— STARVATION UNDER JEFF. DAVIS* DYNASTY- PARTIALITY TO 
REBEL PRISONERS— THE TEXAN BATTL&CRY— PETTICOAT GOVERN- 
MENT—UNION OFFICERS IN THE HANDS OF DEULAH— HEART CAP- 
TURES-FREE MASONRY IN THE SOUTH— NO AFFILIATION WITH 
YANKEES— UNACCOUNTABLE PARTIALITY OF THE POOR WHITES 
FOR THE SYSTEM OF SLAVERY— THEIR TRUE INTEREST AND POSI 
TION— SABBATH-SCHOOL BOOKS AND REUGIOUS PAPERS DESTROYED 
—MADNESS AND INFATUATION OF THE PRO-SLAVERY PARTY— THREE 
SECESSION MERCHANTS "DRIED UP **—" GLORIOUS NEWS I**— GOD ON 
TUB SIDE OF THE UNION. 

From the prosperity which had ever attended this state 
and city, since coming nnder the jurisdiction of the 
United States, and from the disposition which the peo- 
ple evinced to delight in the gi'owing greatness of the 
" fair City of Perth," and in the advent of any, and 
everything that might add to her wealth, or enhance her 
beauty, it might reasonably be supposed they would have 



OBSBKVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 159 

Blindnen of the pnople. SeoeMioo no pMnUol to the Revolution. 

been the last to lift the hand of rebellion against our glo- 
rious government. 

It is, however, a palpable fiwst, which history has piit 
down on imperishable record, that against all experience, 
all obligation, and all her interests, she was as blind as* 
the rest of her misguided sisters in their " wayward '' 
course to dishonor and wreck. And imbibing the baleful 
spirit of treason, her leading citizens embarked their all 
in the false "Sogma of ^' State rights," or southern inde- 
pendence. 

So pernicious were the teachings of these leading spi- 
rits, and so potent their influence, that it is the opinion 
of Sensible and reliable men, nearly if not quite nine- 
tenths of the original citizens are either downright re- 
bels, or in sympathy with their unholy cause. Jeff. 
Davis himself is no more disloyal than arc many of these 
people to-day. 

In their mad and baffled rage, they inform us that 
they hold the same relation to us of the north, that we 
did to England before the revolutionary war: that the 
causes which induced them to rebel, and the objects they 
have in view, are as pure, honorable and holy, as those 
of our fathers when they cast off tlie British yoke. 
What a delusion ! 

If they had reasons for resistance and rebellion against 
the parent government, why did they not present their 
grievances, as was done in former days to England, be- 
fore firfkg on the flag? They may have had some ima- 
ginary and some real cause of complaint against nortliern 



160 LIFE IN THE ARMT. 

The rebellion ciiiueleei. Bnuawfty tlaTet. 

men and some of the northern states ; bat they could 
find no fiiult with the general government, since it was 
it the very time of the outbreak, partly under the con- 
trol of bold, bad men, thoroughly wedded to their own 
interests. Any charge of wrong, or oppression against 
it, would, if calmly and respectfully made, have been 
patiently considered, and if founded in truth, redressed. 
To allege that they were oppressed, or that their inte- 
rests were disregarded, would have been fiilse, and they 
know it. The enlightened sense of mankind testifies 
emphatically as to the cauaelessnesSj and the utter insa- 
nity of their course. Nothing could have occurred, 
more sviddal to New Orleans and her people than seces- 
sion. Why then did they secede? Only twenty-eight 
of their slaves on an average, escaped annually to the 
north. 

A larger number may have fled from the cruelty or 
lust of the master, or the lash of the soulless overseer, 
into the neighboring swamps ; but would secession make 
the swamps less intricate or remove them further away? 
I have been informed that masters, professing to be 
piouSy hunted their runaways in these places with blood- 
hounds, to recover possession of their human property ! 

The attitude of England toward us and toward the 
so-called Confederate States is one of strange inconsist- 
ency. It can only be accounted for by the cupidity and 
jealousy of that nation: first, to break down the colossal 
power of our growing and mighty Union; and secondly, 
to embrace every chance, whether the means be fair or 



OBSEKVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 161 

Attitade of Great Britain. Measure for measure. 

foul, to make money. That the ambitious and selfish 
demagogues of the south were instigated and encouraged 
in the work of rending the Union in twain is not to be 
doubted ; and that for once the biter has been severely 
bitten must be a source of high satisfaction to every just 
and honorable mind. It. is the order of God in regard 
to nations as well as individuals, '^ With what measure 
ye mete, it shall be measured to you again." And the 
day may come when the doctrines of Lord John Russell 
and some of his hypocritical abettors may be convenient 
as a basis of action in certain coming contingencies. Let 
poor Ireland arise and strike for republican liberty, and 
then let us as a neuJbral power act toward England on the 
principles which English statesmen have laid down as 
law and right, the tables will l>e effectually turned, and 
if the old lion dares to growl, we can, by the help of 
God and the memory of Washington, turn to and whip 
the whole of them a ihird time. But it is to be hoped 
that no occasion of this kind will arise. Bather do. we 
wish for universal peace, and cultivate " good will to 
men." 

The future of this great nation is a fixed reality. 
England, southern aristocracy, and the devil combined, 
have not succeeded in impairing, one iota, our unity, 
perpetuity, and power. A brighter destiny than ever is 
before us. Our flag again floats over every foot of 
American soil. We stand shoulder to shoulder to defend 
that banner, to maintain the Monroe doctrine, to demand 
respect firom European nationalities, and to take Mr. 
u * 



162 * LIFE IN THE ARMY. 

John Boll in a tight plaoe. Babel wplm, 

John Bull by the horns at any time he becomes uproari- 
0US9 and shake him down into propriety and repentance 
for his many and mean acts, of which he stands con- 
victed at the bar of public opinion. 

It is curious to observe the change that has come over 
the minds of the rebels in regard to their expected ally 
across the ocean. Deserting their sinking cause when 
his own schemes are hopeless, he has gained their hearty 
and undisguised contempt 

I have learned on good authority, that the rebels and 
their sympathizers in this dty, hold secret meetings on 
certain evenings of each week, to devise ways and means 
to oppose and embarrass the government, and aid the 
cause of rebellion. It is also understood that they have 
agents engaged for pay, whose duty it is to frequent the 
hotels and other places where Union officers congr^te, 
and collect all the information they can, and then make 
their report to the rebel head-quarters. I have myself 
seen these spies deliberately draw up their chairs near 
where our officers were engaged in conversation, and 
without seeming to be interested, attentively note every 
syllable uttered. I have found it to be a difficult mat- 
ter at times to restrain my hands from their coat collar, 
and my feet from performing an act which, although un- 
dignified, is yet justly due to all such rascals. Kind 
and courteous treatment is lost on such bitter opponents 
of everything and everybody pertaining to the Union. 
They have upon all occasions treated us as enemies, 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 168 

Secret meeting!. The police force. 

while we have too frequeDtly treated and trusted them 
as friends. 

The police force of this city are considered by many to- 
be of similar stripe with the majority of the citizens^ that 
is — disloyal. There may be a few, and I believe otdy a few 
exceptions. As a body, I have seen enough to substan- 
tiate the charge I make against them. They show every 
symptom of gratification when they can arrest and mis- 
use a poor straggling Union soldier that unfortunately 
falls into their hands ; and this inhumanity always de- 
lights the rabble, whose contempt poured on pur soldiers 
is a notorious and oft repeated fact Indeed the police, 
the rowdies, and the most noted rebel citizens, are always 
on the best of terms, and I have no doubt, conspire toge- 
ther for their own nefarious ends. Many of them, it is 
known, have been in the rebel army, and after sundry 
campaigns, have now become jpeoce officers in our midst. 
That such a thing as this can exist, is a disgrace — a 
burning shame; giving them the power to control to 
any extent the soldiers, who are here in the service of the 
government, defending its honor, and upholding its 
authority. 

That part of the population who are foreigners by 
birth, and who have been educated to despise a repub- 
lican form of government, very naturally fall into the 
position of hostile foes. They do not understand the 
nature and workings of our system, and are ever ready 
and ripe for revolution. We can make some allowances 
for this class, and only demand that they shall learn to 



164 LIFE IN THE ARMT. 

AbuM of power. Preference for deepotinn. 

adapt themselves to our usages, and respect our legiti- 
mate authority, or return to the old world, and allow 
their places here to be filled with better men. The in- 
solence and ignorance of many of them is a great an- 
noyance to those who love to breathe the pure air of 
freedom, and who love their land as they love their 
life. 

It would seem to us that foreigners of all others ought 
to appreciate their position, and become the most in- 
tensely loyal to a country that has lifted them up out of 
degradation, aud spread its wings of protection and 
plenty around them, to a degree they never could have 
reached under the despotic governments of Europe. 

The absurd idea of erecting a kind of monarchy here 
in the South, for the purpose of maintaining the effete 
aristocracy which built its foundation on human slavery, 
took very generally with these foreigners; but the dream 
of their dynasty has melted away, and there will shortly 
be no room here for the friends of despotism. By right 
of conquest, the hardy, earnest sons of liberty, have 
made, and will maintain this undivided domain — ^^ the 
land of the free and the home of the brave." 

I have already adverted to the significant fact, that 
citizens here converse, when in the presence of Union 
men, in a language which they do not understand, and 
thus may indulge to the greatest extent in treasonable 
talk with impunity. Much of the jargon we hear in our 
intercourse with the more influential people, would, 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 165 

The Roman Catholic Church. In syippathy with treason. 

doabtless, if translated and uuderstood, commit them to 
imprisonment and the penalty due to traitors. 

The prominence of the Roman Catholic Church, and 
the blind adherence to her teachings which is given by 
multitudes, may account for their disloyalty. It is a 
well-known fact that this semi-political hierarchy is 
opposed to republican liberty. Of course there are indi- 
vidual exceptions by some devotees of this faith, who rise 
far enough above the spirit and teachings of ^^ mother 
church,^* to appreciate the birth-right of freedom ; but 
it is a matter of history that the large body of Bomanists 
in these United States, have always voted according to 
the dictum of their priests, and the policy of the priests 
has ever been to seek and secure political power. There- 
fore, whatever party has promised them the largest 
advantage, has invariably secured their support 

We would not be uncharitable, or allow bigotry to per- 
vert judgment, and yet we say that this body is loyal 
only so far, and in such proportions as her interests are 
subserved. It is to her great discredit, and must remain 
a stigma on her name, that during this terrible war, her 
bishops, priests, and people, have either taken sides 
openly with our enemies, or refused to say a good word 
in behalf of the Union cause. In fact, they occupy the 
position of the man on the fence in all such important 
issues, and are waiting to jump to either side as worldly 
policy may suggest. 

I am glad to record such honorable exceptions as 
Bishop Purcell of Cincinnati, and some of the generals 



166 LIFE IN THE ARMT. 

Loyal CathoUct. PioNono. OntboUc pren. 

and officers of our army, whose hearts beat true for 
" Liberty and Union, one and indivisible." Such illus- 
trious names as Rosecrans, Corcoran, Meagher, and the 
renowned Phil Sheridan, are noble types of loyalty and 
bravery, but this is not because, but in spite of the poor 
pitiful policy of a creed that bends before every blast, 
and overlooking settled principles adjusts itself to cir- 
cumstances. 

No press in the country has taught treason wiiih a 
more virulent and persistent intent, than that under 
Catholic control. Between their papers published in 
New York or Boston, and the organs of the bogus Con- 
federacy at Richmond, there has been a marked simi- 
larity of tone, and a perfect agreement in principle, so 
that ages cannot wipe out the record of complicity which 
this church has earned with the traitors of the South. 
The rebels seem to understand this matter, and boast- 
ingly claim the prestige and patronage of Roman 
Catholicism on their side, both in this country and 
abroad. It is said that the only foreign power that was fool 
enough to recognize the South, was that vested in an old 
man at Rome by the name of Pio Ncno ! 

No doubt our Catholic population look with especial 
favor and approbation on the course of Napoleon with 
reference to Mexico, and that, true to all the p^st history 
of this Church, any change in human government would 
be dt?i!iirnblc that secures to her the praspect of temporal 
M well as spiritual power. 

tt is confenscd to be a darling and fundamental article 



OBSEEVATIONS IN NEW 0RLEAK6. 167 

Ko return to deqMtisin. Design of popery. 

of her fiuth, that the Pope ought to be sapreme head of 
the State— of all State governments — as well as sole ar- 
biter of all moral, spiritual, and eternal interests relating 
to mankind : but the world has outlived such theories 
as thb, and the nineteenth and twentieth centuries are 
not likely to retrace the progress of freedom's car, or 
relinquish the boon of liberty of conscience, to gratify 
the lust for power and ascendency which forms the lead- 
ing characteristic of this Church. 

From the stand-point here raised, we may be able to 
account for the indifference she has manifested for the 
success of the cause of human freedom, and the aid and 
comfort she has given to our enemies, not caring appa- 
rently which party, the insurgents or the loyal force, 
might succeed if this success should or could tend to her 
advancement 

On the 4th July, 1864, the Eoman Church of this 
city, by her chief ecclesiastics, celebrated a "High Mass" 
for peace. What kind of peace, I wonder, would suit 
such pious rebels ? Some compromise, doubtless, with 
ultra southern views, or concession to Jeff., Tom Walker, 
Napoleon, or the Pope, not forgetting a personage at the 
bottom of all their schemes, and familiarly known as 
" his Satanic Majesty." I had more faith in the music 
of fife and drum, and the arguments of one-hundred 
}K)unders, at that date, in securing peace, than in high- 
falutin display of mummery around the altars of a Cath- 
olic church. 

It is exceedingly unpleasant to be compelled to class 



168 LIFE IN THE AKMT. 

Kebel women. Tb«ir i]iwl«oo«. 

the great majority of the women of this dty with the 
most bitterly disloyal and unfriendly to the government 
represented by the Stars and Stripes. 

They have various ways in which their hostile spirit 
is manifested, in the public streets, as well as at their 
liomes. In dress it is easy to discern, by certain blend- 
ing of colors, who are and who are not " sound on the 
eagle," An arrangement of red, white, and red ribbons 
or flowers indicates in a moment that the person is a reb. 
Ton will see this class avoiding all contact witli others 
who sail under the good old red, white, and blue, and 
shunning, as if it were contagious, the presence of a 
Union officer or soldier. Their expressions, also, in the 
cars, and in other public places, are often intended to 
convey a stinging insult to persons of Union sentiments. 
Not one of them was to be found visiting the hospitals 
where our sick and wounded soldiers lay, while crowds 
of them sought admission among the rebel prisoners to 
load them with luxuries, and encourage them not to take 
the oath of allegiance. 

It is strange that such a large proportion of the £dr 
sex, should be on the wrong side, since it is a maxim 
that women almost by intuition are on the side of 
humanity, purity, and truth. 

-We have heard some of their children declare in 
company, to the great mortification of the haughty 
mother, that before the Federal fleet arrived off the city, 
they were reduced to corn bread and water as their daily 
diet ; and notwithstanding many of these persons have 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS, 169 

Th« Texan battle cry. Hatred of tbe flag; 

' s 

been fed and clothed, their children saved from naked- 
ness and starvation, and employment given to their 
husbands by the government, during the past two years, 
yet these very women are engaged night and day, in 
doing all they can to aid the rebellion. 

Their disloyalty, and ingratitude, must be the result 
of that perversity and wickedness, which as we have 
seen, is everywhere cropping out as the fruits of the 
mania of secession. 

I heard one of the ladies (?) of this city, urge a paroled 
Texan prisoner to gratify her by giving the Texan battle 
yell, and offering to reward him for so doing; but the 
poor Texan either had better sense, or was afraid to give 
the desired exhibition, and the other had to pass on 
without the coveted pleasure. 

Our flag was a great eye-sore to these women. In 
one of the churches it was hung over the pulpit, and 
they requested that it might be removed, as the sight of 
it made them feel like fainting! Had it been the ^^ stars 
and bars," the effect would have been different. 

Many of these high-toned females know that the sup- 
pression of the rebellion will sweep away the chief prop 
on which it rests, that is slavery, and such a consummation 
is to them a deplorable calamity; for the force of cir- 
cumstances will compel them to do what they have been 
educated to consider a disgrace, viz. to toorh 

If it should happen that some of them will have to 
take the oversight of their own kitchen, which now is 
left to the exclusive superintendence of " Dinah," they 

15 



170 LIFE IN THB ARMY. 

Satilngation. Haart captnrw. 

0> ■ 

will feel like a cat in a strange garret, and will' have to 
begin life anew, by devoting themselves to something 
more practical than novel reading and fine dress. Work 
will be to them the greatest of blessings, if they only 
knew it. The changes that are inevitable in the whole 
structure of southern society will conduce to better health 
and more happiness than has ever been the case before. 

After all the abuse and scorn heaped upon General 
Butler, for his common sense views, and sfarictly just 
dealing with this people, it appears to any impartial mind 
that he was right in every measure tending to subjugate 
the obstinate and unmannerly bearing of these she rebels, 
toward a people who came as their best friends, and 
brought deliverance to their city, and security to their 
homes. 

One remarkable &ct in r^ard to these ladies, has ar- 
rested my attention : although they exhibit such contempt 
for the Yankees, yet strange to say, many of them have 
allowed their hearts to be captured and have gracefully 
yielded themselves up to the officers and soldiers of our 
glorious army. 

With all their secession proclivities, I have not heard 
of one of them refusing to marry a good-looking Union 
officer, when the chance was fiiirly offered. A great 
many captures of this tender kind are reported, and so 
far as they go, will, I suppose, have some influence in 
restoring the Union. 

Another matter forces itself on my pen. It may be 
contraband to say what I am about to write, but I take 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 171 

Petticoat goTenunent. Free Maaomy. 

the responsibility. Some of the most designing and dan- 
gerous of these secesh women appear to have gained a 
wonderful inflaence over certain of our army officers, 
and can obtain any information, or secure any favor that 
suits their purposes. It is even whispered that they 
have wormed out secrets which have been rapidly trans- 
mitted to our enemies in the field, and wiiich have turned 
against us the &te of more than one severe engagement. 
Now if such things are so, and there is strong probability 
of the charge being true, the officer who allows himself, 
and the cause he is commissioned and sworn to defend, 
to come under this kind of petticoat government, ought 
to be cashiered the service at once. 

The rupture caused by secession extended not merely 
to political and dvil relations, but also to every social 
tie and fraternal order in the south. It was sometimes 
intimated, when the doud of war was gathering in black- 
ness and fury in the horizon, and the wisest and best 
men of the nation were seeking some basis of compro- 
mise, that the ancient and powerful order of " Free Ma- 
sonry'^ formed in itself a bond of union between nortli 
aud south that no power could break or destroy. But 
ihe madness which seized the " chivalry,'' so perverted 
all their principles of honor and obligations of fellow- 
ship that they repudiated their brethren, and declared 
against affiliation with either lodges or members of the 
order beyond their own circumscribed boundary. 

In New Orleans there are a number of lodges, and 



172 UPB IN THB AEMY. 

A bond ci union. ^nnuwonic conduct. 

the castomaiy card of invitation to strangers was before 
the eye of the public, when a couple of our officers be- 
longing to a regiment stationed here, concluded to seek 
admission, being members in high standing, and eli- 
gible to enter the portals of any lodge room in the world. 
They were refused admission, solely, as may be conjec- 
tured, on the ground of their uniform ; when if they had 
been dressed in rebel gray, and belonged to the army of 
Jeff. Davis, no doubt they would have met with a warm 
welcome. 

All who look at a transaction of this kind from the 
proper stand-point must see that such unmasonic con- 
duct by the free masons of this city is a significant straw, 
which shows which way the wind blows. Non-inter- 
course is their policy as far as they can, and as long as 
possible, with those who have taken any part in vindi- 
cating the honor of their nation's flag. 

If any human obligation can be stronger or more 
sacred than that just referred to, it is the common im- 
pulse and holy bond of the religion of Christ ; but this 
has been trampled upon as recklessly as the other. Fre- 
quently they leave the house of God, because the minister 
officiating followed in prayer the requirements of the 
Divine word, and remembered at the throne of grace 
"all in authority." At other times they evince their 
contempt, if a pious soldier is called ou to lead in prayer, 
or rises to relate his Christian experience. 

I have known parents to encourage their children to 
destroy our Sabbath School library-books and papers, 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 178 

BookB destroyed. Porerty and pro^larery prciJadlcee. 

becaose they were supposed to contaiD something on the 
subject of slavery, or against that institution. They 
Iiave also destroyed religious tracts, books, and papers, 
because they had a picture of our starry banner printed 
on the cover. 

It struck me as a very remarkable fact, that many of 
the poorer people, who never owned a slave, were among 
the most rabid pro-slavery secessionists. They are so 
ignorant and deluded, it has not entered their mind that 
slavery has kept (hem poor and in a degraded condition ; 
that by this system they have been placed at a serious 
disadvantage in all the relations of life ; and that the 
rich owner of men and women looks down upon them 
as only a little removed from the negro in point of social 
condition, and to be used as the colored slaves are, for 
the exclusive benefit of the wealthy. 

And yet these poor whites, of their own free will and 
accord, defend slavery, thereby increasing the causes 
which have made and which keep them dependent. 

Let slavery be swept away, and their greatest disabil- 
ity — ^their worst enemy is removed. Then a chance will 
be opened to them for improvement and social elevation, 
which will result in self-respect, enterprise, and a larger 
equality. 

Another ** straw" which indicates the tendency of the 
times here, is the prominence and^ popularity given to 
such papers as the " New York News," " The World," 
and other northern sheets that have earned a '^ bad pre- 
eminence" by their opposition to the general government. 

15 ♦ 



174 LIFE IN THB ARMY. 

Bebel editors. Effect of news. 

These papers have done us more harniy by misrepresenta- 
tions of the state of affairs at home and abroad^ and 
have given more aid and comfort to the enemy than can 
be estimated. 

Even the oflScers and privates of our army are often 
led astray by their wholesale lies and secret inuendoes, 
and sometimes have wavered for a time in their &ith, as 
it regards final success and the triumph of the prindples 
of right over foul and cruel wrong, by such teaching. 

I think the editors of such papers, with their fellow- 
traitors at Richmond and elsewherej have richly earned 
the nation's reprobation, and when mercy asserts her 
sway, they ought to be among the exceptions, and either 
patronize a piece of hemp, or go to some penitentiary for 
the balance of their natural liv^. 

In case of a slight reverse to our arms at any point 
on the wide theatre of war,, these disloyal people are the 
first to smell it out and magnify our losses, while their 
countenances express the highest exultation over their 
own success. 

It is a hard discipline for loyal men who live in the 
midst of traitors to remain quiet and hopeful while their 
enemies sneer at them and rejoice over temporary advan- 
tages gained in their unholy cause. At such moments, 
what aggravates the case, is an increasing insolence, and 
more bold defiance in their bearing towai-d our army of- 
ficers and the boys in blue. 

Under such circumstances, it is really terrible to con- 
template their infatuation. What are they seeking? To 



OBSBRVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS, 175 

Dflspention. Glorioiu tidings. 

what lengths are they determined to proceed ? Despot- 
ism, desperation, death, rather than defeat and the bless- 
ings of a free government ! Bondage entailed on mil- 
lions, and a tremendoos pei^centage of the class doomed 
to hopeless slavery, their own ofi&pring ! A corner-stone 
for their fabric of nationality, of groans, tears, and un- 
utterable, indescribable woe I This is secession. 

If the news of our reverses lit up the countenances 
of secessionists in New Orleans, tidings of victory to 
the Union army was always a bitter pill. One day a 
news-boy was hurrying along with his extras, crying out 
the thrilling news of the capture of Atlanta; while pass- 
ing three merchants, they ordered him to " dry up," and 
just at the instant, Lieutenant Eddy, son of Ex-Grover- 
nor Eddy, of Ehode Island happened to be within hear- 
ing. He immediately exclaimed "Shoot those three 
rebels !" when all three in an instant retreated out of 
range, and took good care to " dry up" themselves, and 
keep in the bdck-ground for a time. 

They tried to disbelieve, as successive dispatches came 
in, recounting our successes and the evident caving in of 
the rebellion, and to the very last persisted in hoping 
their dark cause would prevail. It must have been that 
they were given over to a reprobate mind to believe a 
lie and to reap w^at they had sown ; for no intelligent 
mind with the Bible and its revealed Grod before him 
could see wherein, or how, consistently with the charac- 
ter of 'that great Being, and in a manner harmonizing 
with his attributes of justice and righteousness, a cause 



176 ^ LIFE IN THE AEMY. 

Retrflmtion for the oppraaaor. 

founded on such iniquity could flourish or succeed. He 
has declared " The day of vengeance is in mine heart, 
and the year of ray redeemed is come." Let the slave- 
holder, therefore tremble ; for retribution is before him ; 
and let the oppressed rejoice : for with a strong hand, 
and a mighty arm hath the Lord set them free. 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 177 



Wheat UDong tares. Honored i 



CHAPTER XIX. 

OBSBBrATZOKS COJSTINTTBB. 

UNION MEN IN NEW OBLEANS-STATB CONTBNTION— LEQISLATUSB- 
LOYAL LADIE&-DSLITEBANGE FROM REBEL MISRULE— A MINISTER 
BIDS HIS SLATES 60 FREE!— A BRIGHTER DAT AT HAND. 

It affords me the greatest pleasure to torn over a new 
leaf in my narrative, and make memorial of the fact that 
pure patriotism has existed, and still lives in this city, 
in the midst of an overwhelming tendency to disloyalty. 
A few ladies and gentlemen from the beginning of the 
war, and 'through all its varying fortunes, have been 
found true to the Union. 

The arrival of the Federal fleet and armies, was, to 
this class of persons a ^^ great salvation," and the pre- 
sence of those who ^' rally round the flag'' in their be- 
loved city, is to them a matter of sincerest joy.* Like 
an oasis in the desert is the smile of their &ce and 
flriendly grasp, where scowling treason, and bitter hatred 
meets the northern man. 

Among the number who composed the State Conven- 
tion which passed the emancipation act, we find these 
prominent and fearless champions of the right; and in 
the Legislature, now in session, such honored names 
as E. K. Howell, Judge Durell, T. J. Durant, and men 



178 LIFE IN THB ARMY. 

Suffering for the rif^t ** A iMtd egg.** 

of their stripe, are standing ap boldly and bravely, to 
remodel the whole structure of society, and carry out 
the provisions of the new Constitution, in its require- 
ments bearing on human liberty and a just recognition 
of the rights of all. 

The triumph of the government, and the utter subju- 
gation and overthrow of the rebellion, will be to the 
Union people of New Orleans the dawn of a glorious 
era. They have been taunted, mocked, imprisoned, and 
persecuted without mercy. Some have lost property, 
and not a few have sacrificed their all in alliance to 
their country, during the dark days of rebel misrule. 
What a victory it will be to them when the accursed 
Confederacy and all its allies and supporters are buried 
in the last and deepest ditch that can be dug for them, 
and where they will never have a resurrection ! 

These loyal citizens have been just as largely inter- 
terested in, and benefited by slavery as any others, and 
vastly more so than thousands of the foolish humbugs 
who have taken up arms against their flag; but, from the 
firing of the first gun, they have had common sense 
enough to see that the "peculiar institution" was doomed, 
and that slavery — as the boys would say — ^was a " bad 
egg." They rejoice with us tliat an eternal qa,idxi» is 
about to be given to the "vexed question," and are 
rapidly adapting themselves to the new order of things, 
which has recently taken place in the State of Louisiana. 
Nay, more, they heartily wish that the course pursued 
here may be imitated elsewhere, and everywhere through- 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS, 179 

God in history. Southern patriots. 

out the South, until the whole nation, and even the 
entire American Continent shall be the home of uni- 
versal freedom. 

" Grod moves/' the poet says, " in a mysterious way, 
his wonders to perform,'' and out of the mystery of 
iniquity, in this case, he has brought forth such '^won- 
ders," as proclaim his hand, and reveal his power, and 
wisdom, and goodness, too, in the overthrow of this 
great wrong and sin in this land. 

Soon we can sing, and say, **Hail Columbia!" with- 
out the remembrance of that sad and harrowing history 
of chains and fetters which has been clanking their dis- 
cord so long. 

On the memorable day when the city capitulated to 
General Butler, and the dear old flag was again spread 
to the simlight, from the topmost elevation of the public 
buildings, a certain gentleman, a minister of the gospel, 
called all his slaves around him and said, ^^ Ton are all 
free now, and I thank God for it." Like a sensible. 
Christian man, he read the determination of events, and 
accepted the issue under the providence' of Grod. He 
saw plainly that with the success of the armies of the 
Union, slavery became a dead letter, and must go down 
to the shades of oblivion. The conviction and hope 
among these Southern patriots, is, that with the removal 
of this curse, their fair and fertile land will rise to a de- 
gree of greatness, power, and prosperity, far beyond any- 
thing recorded in her former history. With the passing 
away of darkness will break a morning of light and a 



180 IJPB IN THE ARMY. 

SUtm Mt frM. A good time coming. 

day of joy. Barbarism will yield to hamane laws, and 
ignorance will be replaced with the spread of knowledge, 
and the foundations of society, instead of idleness and 
vice, will find a firm basis on the eternal rock of truth 
and freedom. 



OBSKBYATIONS IN HEW OKLEAKS. 181 



toKdMli. Oonvpt olBdalL 



CHAPTER XX. 

OB8KRVATIOV8 COIFTJjnTBlK 

URMAKLT SUBSERTIS9CT TO KEBELS— FAITHLESS OFnCXALft-OORBUP- 
TION (39 PASTIES IK POWEB^-TKION MEN in»LBCTEI>-GENERAL 
CANBT— PBOSPBCT OF CCttBSCICIO ABUSES. 

CoNSiDEBATiOK skowii to a vanqaished foe, when it 
springs from pure and loffy motives, is noble and com- 
mendable; bat to see union men, who are identified with 
the purest cause, in defense of which the sword was ever 
drawn, doing all in their power to obtain a nod of recog- 
nition from some haughtj rebel, who has only been able 
to retain his wealth bj adding peijuiy to treason, is 
indeed heart-sickening to an independent and honorable 
man. Yet in this city such a thing is almost of every- 
day occurrence. Within the inner-chambers of certain 
officers, in the military and civil departments connected 
with the government of the United States, scenes are 
enacted which ought to make those subordinates, clothed 
with a little brief authority, blush for their manliness. 

Even those of higher grade, to whom we might rea- 
sonably look for firmness, competency, and unbending 
loyalty, are often found uniting in an unholy alliance 
with the former, to promote the interests and shield the 
persons of notorious rebels, by procuring for them lucra- 

16 



182 LIFE IN THS ARMY. 

Rebels in office. Spoils dirided. 

tive offices and profitable contracts, -while the modest 
applications of true anion men for office or employment 
are treated with supercilious n^lect^ and totally disre- 
garded. Is this right? is it just? In imagination I 
seem to hear the united voice of millions of true-hearted 
men, in thunder-tones, answer — ^No! 

There are at the present time in this city well-known 
persons, who have been in the rebel army, who are 
making immense sums of money out of positions given 
them under the government. 

I have been informed that some of these office-holders 
were imprisoned by General Butler for their open, undis- 
guised treason, but released by the authorities subse- 
quently, and actually admitted to intimacy and fellowship 
with certain parties high in power, who have strangely 
overlooked their- duty in elevating such persons to the 
dignity and responsibilities of a share in the government 
they tried to rend and destroy. Verily, "Consistency, 
thou art a jewel.'^ It is strongly suspected that some 
of our government officials fiivor these men with the 
understanding that they pocket a large per-oentage of 
their gains. Under such a state of affidrs good men have 
but small chance for justice. If they make complaints 
they endanger their own liberty, property, and even life, 
and consequently must endure, in silence and sadness, 
the rule of unrighteousness, hoping for better days. 

Greneral Canby, who has recently assumed command 
of this department, is a man wl^ will look sharply into 
these abuses, and, with a strong and impartial hand^ 



OBSBEVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 188 

General Oaahj. A reckoniog. 

correct those which are known to exist Under his 
administration there is a prospect of securing right and 
justice to' all, and of bringing the guilty to merited 
punishment. 



184 LIFB IN THE ABMY. 



Coffeehouses. A Jlsjor nonplussed. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

OBSJEBVATIONS CONmiUJEB. 

SCENES AND INCII)ENTS-<X>FFEE-HOUSES— A DISAPPOINTED MAJOR-^ 
WOODEN-LEGGED HERO, AND ONE-ARMED «REB»— A LOST BOT TURNS 
UP— OPINION OF AN EX-SLATEHOLDER— THE PATRIOTISM OF A COLOR 
SERGEANT— SACRIFICES FOR COUNTRY—" THE WRONG BOAT"— ALGIERS 
M. E. CHURCH— SUNDAY SCHOOL. 

" Coffee-houses," as I have heretofore stated, abouDd 
in this city, but the kind of beverage furnished on de- 
mand within their precincts, is not invariably the extract 
of " Rio." A Major of our army, one day, attracted by 
tiie sign, walked into one of these places, and ordered a 
cup of coffee. The proprietor, a genuine Dutchman, 
replied that he could give him a glass of whisky, but the 
other article was not in his line. The Major looked him 
sternly in the eye, and inquired, " Is not this a coffee- 
house?" The Teuton said that was only its name, the 
real intent being a place to obtain " bitters," " slings," 
" cocktails," and " mint-juleps." 

The Major, thus enlightened, took his departure, a 
wiser man, not knowing before, that all the whisky 
shops, even down to the lowest hell-hole, adopt the 
decent name and character of a " Coffee-house." 

Instances of true Iieroism among our private soldiers 



OBSSBVATIONS IH KEW OBLEAKS. 185 

A woodm-kned bero. TVe lort boj foond. 

have not been rare. T saw one of diese veterans one 
day engaged in an exciting dispute with a returned rebel 
soldier. The Federal had a wooden leg, and the other 
an empty sleeve. I suppose they had bem comparing 
notes, and split on the merits of the main question. The 
man with but one iegy was holding forth in an eloquent, 
patriotic strain, and said, ^ Yes, iS£r, I lost that leg in 
fighting for my country, a glorious cause, no need to be 
ashamed of a woodoi 1^, in place of the old one shot 
away. Yes, I am willing to fight on until the other one 
goes, and then my right arm, and after that my left arm, 
and will give my life, if necessary, to crush this d— — d 
rebellion." 

The '' B^A^ was silenced, and slunk away, apparently 
ashamed that the scar he bore was not an honorable one, 
but would be to him and his posterity a lasting disgrace. 

In the hospital I had charge o^ there was a little 
English boy, who ran away fit)m his home in Canada, 
soon after the breaking out of hostilities. His parents, 
not hearing from him for a long period, and having no 
knowledge where he had gone, gave him up as lost^ 
Niews was sent to them of his whereabouts, to Uieir great 
delight. He had been in our army, and unlike many of 
his countrymen, who did all they could to widen the 
breach, and encourage the rebellion, he eq>oused our 
cause, and gave all his service for the honor of his adopted 
country's flag, and the putting down of this wicked re- 
sistance to the government. 

I listened to a conversation one day, between two ex- 
16 ♦ 



186 LIFE IN THE ARMT. 

Opinion of ex-alaTvholden. Tbeeo1or«ergeant. 

slaveholders, on the state of the couptrj. One of them 
remarked to the other, that the time wodd come, in the 
history of Louisiana, when her soil would be tilled by 
more than ten thousand Irishmen, and that he believed 
the free-labor system would bring about a degree of un- 
exampled greatness and prosperity, when it should be in- 
troduced and generally adopted. 

This man entertained a correct view of the situation, 
and I have no doubt at all, but it will be more than 
realized, if events are allowed to pursue their pathway, 
unobstructed by sectional prejudice, or that narrow po- 
licy, which sometimes, as the adage says, ^^ cuts off one's 
nose to spite the face." 

. Benjamin Franklin Walls was color-sergeant of the 
Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania Volunteers, and was for several 
weeks a patient in the St James' Hospital. He had 
been in the field nearly three years, having joined our 
forces from Cumberland Valley, Pa., his native place. 
He brought in forty men, recruited through his influ- 
ence when he enlisted. This entitled him to a captaincy, 
but he declined that position, declaring that he aspired 
to no higher honor than to carry the flag of his country, 
for which his &ther fought before him in the last war 
with England. The honor was cheerfully conferred on 
him, and through six severe battles he bore it in tri- 
umph and with alacrity, although he was over sixty 
years of age. .While he was in the Hospital the sur- 
geon offered to procure for him an honorable discharge, 
in view of his sickness and advanced age. This he 



OBSBEVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 187 

Som of PenmylTanU. Algiers Jl. S. Church. 

refused to aooept, preferring to retom with his brave 
comrades in arms at the end of the war, and bear his 
beloved banner back untarnished to the Keystone State. 
Pennsylvania may justly feel proud of such a son ; yet 
he is but the type of thousandsi who for the int^ity 
and unity of this great nation gave up lucrative employ- 
ment, bid adieu to home comforts, and bravely fought, 
and many of them alas ! nobly fell with their &ce to the 
foe. Sergeant Wells was worth when he entered the 
service about one hundred thousand dollars, but pa- 
triotism was with him a stronger passion than the pur- 
suit or care of wealth. May he, and all who like him 
have given such evidence of devotion to the stars and 
stripes be spared to a green and happy old age, and 
dying at last, 

"Aj sleep the bntre who sink to rest 
By all their oonntry's wishes blest," 

may they find a rich reward in the bosom of their 
God, 

On account of the scarcity of Union ministers in the 
city and its surroundings, I had to take pastoral char^ 
of the M. E. Church in Algiers, just across the river 
from New Orleans. The duties involved in this charge, 
added to those connected with my Hospital, made mj 
life a somewhat busy one. Hundreds of times I have 
crossed the Mississippi in going to and &om my cliurcb. 
Most of the people among whom I mingled 
bitter hostility to the UnioD, my experienQ 




188 LIFB IN THB AEMY. 

Totariet of Satan. Sundaj-iohool childrtn. 

ODe. Between insults, provocation, and not nnfreqnently 
amusing incidents, I tried to discharge with fidelity the 
trust committed to my care. During an extra meeting 
I held there, large numbers of secessionists attended. 
Some of them had the assurance to walk up and take the 
front seats in the church, refusing to kneel in time of 
prayer, besides disturbing the meeting by laughing and 
talking. This did not continue very long before they 
found out that they were " aboard of the wrong boaf 
I compelled them not only to behave with becoming 
decorum, but also to conform to our usage by kneeling 
during prayer, or else leave the cjiurch. I could not 
reconcile it with my sense of the fitness of things to allow 
these votaries of Jeff. Davis and zealous finends of his 
arch instigator with the horns and cloven foot from 
below, to disturb and interrupt loyal people while wor- 
shipping the living God. 

My relation as Sunday School Superintendent was 
quite interesting and pleasant, as but few of the children 
in attendance manifested a spirit of stubborn disloyalty. 
When I referred to subjects connected with the war for 
the Union, and required obedience to the " powers that 
be," it did not seem to offend them, thus showing that 
they had better sense and more love of country, than 
their parents. 



OBSEKVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 189 



Methodist loldien. Hen of prayer. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

OBSEnVATIOKS COyTINUJEl}. 

METflOBIST SOLDIERS— TESTDIONT TO THEIR RELIGIOUS ZEAIr-THE 
SOURCE OF POWER— A PREMIUM ON DISLOTALTT — CONTRABAND 
IRAfTIC— BACK-DOOR BUSINESS— SCENE IN A CHURCH. 

DuBiNG my term of service as Chaplain in the Army 
of the Potomac, I found it invariably the case that the 
soldiers on whom I oould rely with most confidence for 
help in carrying on prayer-meetings, were mostly mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and not a few 
Chaplains of other denominations have admitted the 
same thing to be true in their experience. I have also 
been told by agents of the Christian Commission that 
the Methodist soldiers were of more practical service to 
them in their religious operations than any, and all others 
combined. Hospital Chaplains, also, have stated to me 
the same fact. The reason of this, evidently is, that it 
forms a prominent part of the teaching and training of 
this Church, to make all its members do their own pray- 
ing, and not rely on those of .others — even the minister, 
for help in the time of need. Learning thus to pray at 
home, they find it easy to pray abroad, to pray anywhere, 
and to " pray without ceasing.'^ 

Every Church, I think should aim, to stir up the gifts 



190 LIPB IN THB ARMY. 

SooTM of power. GbMriag ibcta. 

and bring oat the talents of all its members, in the man- 
ner peculiar to Methodism, and then there would be 
more useful Christians in the world. The "burning 
and shining lights" would appear everywhere, flashing 
condemnation in the fiice of all sin, and showing wander- 
ers the path to heaven. 

Many, I might say, most of those now in the ranks 
of the Methodist ministry, men of acknowledged talent 
and power, were it not for the active system of mutual 
labor to which they were inured when young in the 
kingdom, would to-dai-y be in the back ground, and per- 
haps not on " the walls of Zion," proclaiming salvation. 
Everything appertaining to the welfere and honor' of 
■ this denomination, of which I am happy to be a member 
and minister, is of deepest interest to me. Hence the 
&cts I have gathered, and here record as a memorial of 
worth, energy, and spirituality, according to the testi- 
mony from many sources of our Grod-appointed Metho- 
dism. No other Church in this land has been taxed so 
heavily for soldiers to recruit the ranks of our armies, 
and yet, no other Church has been so studiously over- 
looked, or neglected, in the bestowment of government 
patronage. The Episcopal, and Roman Catholic 
Churches, known to be less loyal, seem to have fiir more 
influence at head-quarters, in securing good positions for 
their members as officers and Chaplains, than any other. 
This would seem to put a premium on disloyalty, and 
reward tlie lukewarm, while the earnest and fiiithful, 
who have borne the heat and burden of the war, are left 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 191 

CoBtrabuid trade. Indignaiit rebels. 

to feel aggrieved if they choose, or take what others may 
relinquish, in the way of subordinate appointments. 
On history, mainly, however, we must rely for the jus- 

--tice which, I feel free to say, has not been meted out 
to us. Posterity will duly estimate our claims, and not 
let the remembittnce of our labors perish. 

Many attempts have been made on the part of the 
government to stop contraband trading with the enemy, 
but thus far without success : for, as the business is car- 
ried on in an indirect way on the back-door principle, 
and the gains on cotton and tobacco are considerable, 
money outweighs patriotism, and the love of it, with 
many, is a stronger passion than either honor, fear, or 
loyalty. It is strongly suspected that this extensive in- 
tercourse with the rebels would not, or could not be car- 
ried on successfully, were it not that many in the employ 
of the government, in a secret way give encouragement 
to those known to be engaged in this species of trade by 

' shielding them from arrest, and sharing in the profits, 
which are extraordinary, on the capital invested. 

During my pastorate at Algiers, an incident occurred, 
quite in character with the general spirit of the leading 
citizens. On a certain Sabbath morning, after preaching 
in the M. E. Church, a colored child was brought for- 
ward for baptism. When the minister began the cere- 
mony, three of the male members arose, and in a very 
abrupt and insulting manner left the house, declaring 
they would never enter its door again. The subject for 
baptism was certainly a proper one, and the rite was 



192 UFS IN THE ABMT. 



administered with all dae decency and solemnity, but 
these hot-headed followers of Jesos (!) were offended, 
like the mistaken disciples of old, thdr chief cause of 
complaint was the undue prominence given to a mere 
''nigger/' Can such enter the kingdom of- heaven? 
One of the three repented of his toUj and returned — 
the other two hold out fiuthful to ''southern rights," 
and doubtless are still on the road to the Devil. 



0B8EEVATI0NS IN NEW OBLEANS. 193 



8t Jamfw* botpltol. Gapadtj fbr jAtfenti. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

OB8BBTATZON8 COJfTZmriSP, 

OmCEBff 6ENSBAL HOSPITAL— ST. JABCES* HOTIL-GAPACITT^-SU&- 
GEONS— EXPERISNOE WITH THE SICK AND WOUKDEIX-^TSSIIMONT 
OF THE DTINQ-OAFTAIN TOUNG, fte^-CHAPLAINS. 

The hospital to which I have occasion so frequently 
to refer, called St. James', and in which my duties chiefly 
lay, was devoted to officers, and very finely arranged and 
located for the purpose to which itwas^evoted by the 
military authorities. Before the war it was used as a 
first class hotel. It stands on Magazine St., in the busi- 
ness portion of the city, and contains one hundred and 
seventy-five lodging-rooms, with ample parlor accommo- 
dations. It is five stories high, with ornamental front, 
and very imposing appearance. The government pays 
ten thousand dollars a year for the use of it This offi- 
cers' general hospital is under the charge of Surgeon S. 
M. Horton, of the regular army. He is a Pennsylva- 
nian, and the old Keystone commonwealth has no reason 
to be ashamed of him. He is not only an honor to his 
native State, but to the entire country. His assistants 
are Dr. H. C. Heilner and Dr. S. Cadin. The former 
is also a Pennsylvanian, and is a young man of great 
promise, reflecting honor on the Jefierson Medical 

17 



great j 

id 



OBSEEVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 195 

Chaplains among the sick. Joyfol experience. 

frightfully wounded. He lingered about five weeks, and 
was in the full possession of all his &culties up to the 
time of his death. He took a decided interest in reli- 
gious exercises, and professed conversion to God while I 
was engaged in singing and prayer with him. For five 
weeks I visited him every day, and always found him in 
a happy frame of mind, relying on God, through the 
merits of Jesus Christ, for acceptance and salvation. 
Frequently I have known him to break forth in songs 
of praise and holy joy. He had no fear of dying, and 
as the hour approached, he said to me, '^ Chaplain, tell 
my mother that God is with me." This was his last 
message to his mother, who no doubt will derive comfort 
irom the knowledge that, although away^om home, her 
son died in the glorious hope of a home ra heaven. His 
funeral took place from the Carondolet St. Methodist 
church, and was attended by Rev. Dr. Newman and sev- 
eral other prominent clergymen, with myself, showing 
the esteem in which this brave young oflScer was held 
by all who knew him. 

Chaplain Keely, of the Thirteenth Maine, departed 
this life on the 25th of June, 1864. As the last moment 
approached, a sweet smile of heavenly triumph lit up his 
countenance, and gave assurance to all around that ** he 
feared no evil" in the dark valley. His afiectionate 
son. Lieutenant Keely, was by his side day and night, 
watching over him withHrue filial tenderness as a guar- 
dian angel, until the sad task alone remained to close tlie 
eyes of that beloved father in the sleep of death. If 



196 LIFE IN THE ABMT. 

libdf on chaplalM. A dyiag cotporaL 

kindness and oonstanqr is rewarded on earth, that son 
will sarely prosper on account of his devotion to a sick 
and dying fiither, who has gone from labor to reward. 

Chaplain Dwyer, of the Second New York Veteran 
B^iment, died in great peace on Wednesday morning, 
June 29th, 1864. He was a ve^y fine Christian gentle- 
man, and was very favorably known to several of the 
Chaplains in and around the city, as a devoted servant of 
God. 

I am not prepared to believe the libels of many 
abusive and drunken Congressmen and others who have 
from time to time cast slurs, and sneering misrepresenta- 
tions upon the character, piety, and disinterested zeal of 
the Chaplains : for I have fomid them, both in the Army 
of the Potoimfc, and in the Department of the Gul^ to 
be an intelligent, pious, and singularly excellent and 
faithful body of men ; serving Grod and their generation 
with a single eye to his glory, and the welfare of immor- 
tal souls. 

I have had as many as six Chaplains under my care, 
in the Hospital at one time, and always found them con- 
sistent and true to their sacred calling. 

Corporal Casey, of the Sixty-seventh Indiana Regi- 
ment, is another example of the power of faith and sus- 
taining grace in a dying hour. He had for years been a 
devoted member of the M. E. Church, and therefore 
when he fell covered with wouads, he knew Him whom 
he had believed, and was resigned to the will of the 
Lord. His sufferings were intense, but his fortitude, 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 197 

** Meet me in heftTen." 

cheerfulness, and Christian hope never forsook him. 
His last message to his wife and children, was, to meet 
him in heaven, each, and all, in the bright and happy 
land, where pain, and parting tears shall come no more 
forever. Oh, that my last end may be like his. 

In conclusion, I humbly thank Grod for the degree of 
success which attended my labors in this Hospital. 
Many, very many, I saw happily converted, some of 
whom afterwards died shouting victory through the 
blood of the Lamb. 

17 • 



198 UFK IN THE ABMT. 



0nT»>7ardt. The Patriot's ocnMtanr. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

OBSJEBTATJOya COKTJNUEJK 

*'TnE PATRIOTS CEAIETERT"— HOSDOM OF GEKSKAL BITTLSB— IfT 
COUSIN THOMAS D. 6RBGG— CHALSIETTE BATTUtGROUXD— MONU- 
MENT CEMETERY— THE MANTLE OF "OLD HICKORT "— FARRA6UT 
AND BUTLER-OOD FOR TQE CAUSE OF LIBERTT— TUX SOLDIERS' 
LAST RESTING-PLACE. 

A MELANCHOLX interest will ever linger round the 
places where our brave men lie buried in the south, who 
fell in battle, or wasted away in weary marches, and 
gave their precious lives for eountry and liberty. 

Nearly four thousand men, w^ho once in all the pride 
of health and patriotism, stepped forth to the music of 
the Union, sleep their last sleep in Grove Cemetery near 
New Orleans. This resting-place of the dead is located 
at Metaire Ridge, a distance of three miles from the city. 
Its selection as a burying-ground for our soldiers was 
one of those clear indications of the excellent judgment 
of General Butler, He had a portion of the grounds 
neatly fenced in, and a magnificent arch constructed over 
the entrance, surmounted by an American eagle, and 
flag-staff bearing aloft the banner so dear to the soldier 
of the Union, and wrapped in the folds of which his 
comrades bore his body to this beautiful spot for military 




A Soldier's last resting plaee. 



LiiSB in the Army, p. I!>8. 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 199 

Thomas D. Gregg. Chalmotte b&ttle-gi'ouDcL 

interment. Inscribed upon the arch may be read in 
legible characters " The Patriot's Cemetery." 

Within this enclosure rested for a time the body of 
Thomas D. Gregg, a cousin to the wTitei\ He belonge<l 
to the First Delaware Battery, and was a very promising 
young man, possessing many noble qualities of mind and 
heart. He owned a fine farm near Wilmington, Dela- 
ware, at the time of his death. This property has 
remained in our name for over one hundred and forty 
years. His remains have been removed to his native 
home, and now sleep side by side with his parents and 
friends near Wilmington. 

Chalmette battle-ground is celebrated in history as 
being the place ^vhere Greneral Jackson defeated the 
British under Gibbs and Packenham, in 1814. It is. 
located six miles below the city, on the west bank of the 
great river. Since the 6th of May, 1864, this notable 
spot has been cliosen as a burying-place for our soldiers, 
by the military authorities, and is now used for this pur- 
pose. It is called " Monument Cemetery." The site is 
all that could be desired, both on account of its Eistorio 
interest and favorable location. An unfinished monu- 
ment is erected there to the memory of the conqueror 
and hero. General Jackson. 

The rebels had thrown up extensive breastworks there, 
intending to make a stand against our foix^es approaching 
the city. They were no doubt inspired with some vague 
notion that the spirit of the old General, and the help of 
God might aid them in keeping the Union army at bay. 



200 LIFE IK THE ARMY. 

God for th« nnioii. Monument oomttery. 

Bnt both resources failed them, and they ignominiottsly 
fled, thinking it best to cave in, and capitulate, as they 
were on the wrong side this time. If the spirit and 
mantle of ^' Old Hickory" was there at all, it must have 
rested on the invincible Farragut, and his brave coad- 
jutor Butler, as they battered to the dust the flag and 
forts of traitora, and thundered up the river the memo- 
rable words in smoke and flame, '* The Union it must and 
shall be preaervedJ^ 

The bodies of our deceased soldiers, are now conveyed 
to Monument Cemetery, by a small steamer plying twice 
a day, and chartered for this exclusive purpose. I have 
attended the funeral of as many as thirty-three in one 
day at that locality, and every one of them, as I suppose, 
leaving a sad gap, not only in the ranks they were proud 
to fill, but in home circles far away. Oh I how many 
hearts bleed for those who shall return no more. 

May the great Physician be present to heal the sorrows 
of the wife bereaved, the mother in mourning, and the 
children, robbed by this cruel and relentless war, of the 
counsel and care of a beloved fiither. 

Time, and the nation's sympathy will do much to 
soften and soothe the hard lot of those left desolate. 
Time will make the grass green above the single grave 
or mound where no battle sound can again reach the ear 
of the fallen : and a redeemed nation will gratefully 
cherish the memory of every soldier, who on its altar 
laid down his life, that children's children might enjoy 
the birthright and blessing of free government for ever. 



OBSERVATIONS IK NEW ORLEANS. 201 



Taxable property. Induatrj and morali. 



* CHAPTER XXV. 

OBSBBFA^TJOira COXTTIXUED, 

TAXABLE PROPEKTT— WEALTH OF THE COLORED PEOPLE-THEIB PXETT— 
POWER IN PRAYER— THEIR ** MOSES^— I>EN0HINATI0N8— LABOS SB- 
CESSION FROM THE CHURCH SOUTH— ADMIXTURE OF RACES-WRONGS 
ENDURED— A REMARKABLE WEDDING— FATHER ROSS— THE GREAT 
' EMANCIPATION CELEBRATION— THE MILITARr— PRATER AND ORA- 
TIONS—IMMENSE PARADE-SONG BY THE CHILDREN— THE FIRST 
COLORED REGIMENT— A SCRAP OF HISTOUY— THE ORGANIZATION OF 
COLORED TROOPS— THEIR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE, DRILL, ANDDISQ- 
PUNE-THEIR TICTOBIES— EQUAL RIGHTS— THE NATION'S DUTY TO 
THE COLORED MAN. 

Th]^ amount of taxable property in this city before 
the war was one hundred and four millions, of which 
the colored people owned, and paid taxes on fifteen mdllions 
of dollars ! Who would have supposed this? 

The colored population is estimated at forty thousand 
souls, and many among them are intelligent, influential, 
and wealthy people. As a class, they are noted for good 
morals, and in general character and conduct, are ex- 
amples of uprightness. - 

Some of them are the finest-looking colored people I 
ever saw. About two-thirds speak the English language, 
and the balance, the French, Spanish, and Italian 
They published a daily, and a tri-weekly newspaper, 



ian. I 



202 LIFE IH THE ARMT. 

Selifknis dgmwitiMitioM. L^jmlty at eolorad pcopta. 

the French and English languages, called the ^New 
Orleans Tribane," which has quite a large drcaladon. 
The majority are attached to the Protestant faith, and a 
large proportion of them are Methodists. They have 
four Methodist churches in the city, which, until reooitly, 
were connected with the church south. About three 
thousand of their number have attached themselves tons, 
and are now included in the old loyal and anti-slavery 
church of our fathers, under the general oversight of the 
Rev. Dr. Newman. 

They were glad of the opportunity to renounce the 
southern branch of the Church, and show their love for 
true Methodism and their loyalty to the government by 
coming over to us. There are three African and four 
. Baptist churches, also sustained by them, in the city, and 
two. hundred and thirty schools, now under their own 
control, in the state. 

No fact is more fully established at present than that 
of the true, hearty, and unfaltering devotion of the 
southern colore<l people to the union. Everywhere they 
have given unquestioned evidence of their sincere patriot- 
ism. Without their information and guidance many a 
campaign would bave closed without success, many a 
union prisoner would have pined and died in hopeless 
dungeons, and many a dangerous rebel would have con- 
tinued secretly to ply his wicked work of opposition to 
the lawful authorities. 

They are, moreover, among the most devout, God- 
fearing, and &ithful Christians, according to their light 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 203 

Temperate and Law-abiding. Tbe modern " Moees." 

and opportunities, which this nation, or any other, has 
known. They are a people of prayer, of patience under 
provocation, of meekness in suffering, and, as a general 
thing, consistent in character, with the strictest rules 
of Church discipline. 

In New Orleans it is a rare sight to see a colored per- 
son in the hands of a civil officer, and never, in all my 
experience, have I seen one of them on the street drunk. 
They are sober, industrigus, and economical, supporting 
themselves out of their own earnings, andxlividing, with 
generous liberality, their substance for the maintenance 
of their own poor and the cause of religion. It is a great 
error to suppose that the government is .burdened with 
their support. Only a few of the old and helple&«5, 
who have been turned adrift upon the world, need the 
care and rations of the commissary department. 

Whatever is done for them in this way is appreciated 
with sincere thankfulness, while thousands of the impov- 
erished whites, who have become pensioners on the bounty 
of the government, actually curse the hand that supplies 
their daily wants, and sneer at those who keep them 
from starving. 

The name of President Lincoln was their strong tower, 
and tens of thousands among them sent up their prayers 
to heaven for blessings on his head. He stood before 
them, as Moses did among the Israelites in former days, 
and if earnest love and incessant supplication ever helped 
a man to heaven, the martyred president is surely near 
the throne. Who, that believes his Bible, can doubt but 



ea J 

sar 1 



204 LIFE IN THE ARMY. 

Amalgamation. G«n«ral obMnrationi. 

that this oppressed people have power with God, and 
that the wondrous results of these days, shaped, as they 
are, by an unseen and Almighty arm, are the answers to 
a century of groans and crying. 

Among the wrongs endured by these poor, defenseless 
people, perhaps the greatest and most cruel is that which 
ignores virtue and chastity, and has, up to this time, 
violated all the sacredness of the "holy estate of matri- 
mony" among them. The southern people are the very 
last in the world who ought to cry out against amalga- 
mation. The evidences are all around you here of the 
extent to which this practice has been carried. Look at 
a few facts bearing practically on this question. Accord- 
ing to general report the "mulatto" is one half white 
blood, the "quadroon" one fourth negro, and the "octo- 
roon" one eighth. 

A very large proportion of the entire colored popula- 
tion, belong to one or other of these classes, and a ge- 
nuine African, is more of an exception than the rule in 
this city. Many of the "octoroons," are so white, that 
you can scarcely distinguish them from their white fa- 
thers ! yes, fathers who held them in bondage, and sold 
them like cattle ! But the days of the auction block are 
past and gone, never to return; and for this every 
humane heart in the nation ought to sing the doxology 
at least once a day. 

Six years of my life have been spent in southern 
states, during which time I have observed the cruel trea1>- 
ment of masters, mistresses, overseers, and in fact, nearly 



OBSERYATIOKS IN NEW ORLEANS. 205 

OpprsMion. Prqjudioe of eaito. 

everybody else resident there toward the poor slave, I 
have heard them cursed on every hand, and seen them 
whipped, sold, and treated in the most inhuman man- 
ner. 

I have seen the gallery-doors of a church I once built 
in Maryland locked against them, as if they were unfit 
to enter the same building with white people, to worship 
God together, as if the n^ro had no soul, or was of an 
entirely different order of creation. I do not remember 
ever to have heard one, even of the most pious masters 
invite them into family-worship, or impress upon them 
the propriety of attending church. It is now the oft re- 
peated cry, that they are unfit for freedom, and should 
titill be kept in the back ground, as it regards education, 
and the means of moral and religious improvement. 
Who are to blame if the colored man is ii: ignorance, 
and deficient in almost every element of social life ? 
How can it be expected that he would be otherwise kept 
so long in degradation and in&ncy, as to all the great 
purposes of manhood? Let him have even half a 
chance, and in education, enterprise, and social position, 
he will work out his own salvation, and earn the right 
to any privilege accorded to a free American citizen. 
The prejudice against caste or color will melt away like 
the morning mist, and will only be remembered in the 
future as an unreasonable, and unchristian feeling, 
founded on wrong principles, and fostered only as a 
relic of barbarism. 

Many scenes occurred under my notice, in this city, 

18 



ifA UTz or Tzz asjet. 



f'jT r^fce! f^ite. 'Lsi&s bwaatlj Tsted tie 
a.vi ironid lio^er aaoog t&e £C3:vei of tiroof^. wkile I 
I aT<( kw/tPift f&CK to 2&tni dot ]MBt of t&e grosads 
^{vere »!»ie of car bare eokscd ^fJdferF 5e IwriedL 

lirift^ or (ijiog, or ereo dead, dwse; Ri.i.i'1'w.wi'iri kite 
all wiio laETe earn^IIed tfi^ifk*rfT« mAr At fig of de 
fre^7 to tattle fer the r%bt, aod sbtc^ ftr sAer gcnen- 
tloftt aa imdrnded natioiialitT. 

There are sfne militarf scImoIs fi>r tbe lostmetiQo of 
fr/>ored cbildren witbin tbe limm of the citr, with 
ao arerage attendance of two tboosamd, four hundred 
^^er papib, all alire to the importmoe of edocatioii. 
The ^American Missiooanr Assodatioiiy'' h^ about 
iwettij Ua^shen in this department, some of whom are 
ry/nnected with colored regiments, giTing at every leisure 
ri.#>f»ent instmedons'to the men, manj of whom are apt 
learners, and are rapidlj advancing to that degree erf* 
prf/fiden<7, in which thev will be able to read the 'Bible 
arid the Con«titation, a thing idiich thoosands of the 
white population have not vet attained to and nev^ will. 

Thi« assodation has also a Sandav-school under its 
c^>/itrol, nambering about six hundred sdiolars. 

I attended a remarkable wedding, which took plaee 
one evening in St, Paul's colored M. E. church. "Fatlier 
K//jw/^ the venerable preacher in charge, first held a short 
prayer-meeting, and then put on bis spectacles, and with 
bfx^k in hand, came down from the pulpit, and standing 
at the altar railing, he ordered, in a commanding tone 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 207 

Remarkable wedding. Cclebratioii. 

of voice, the parties who were present to be married, to 
come at once forward. At this moment all the official 
members arose and took theii* places on the right and left 
of the officiating minister. 

The couple also presented themselves in front, and the 
ceremony proceeded. After the usual questions were 
asked, the bridegroom gave assent by nodding his head. 
This, however, did not satisfy Father Eoss. He cried 
out sternly, ^^ ^ I wilV is the answer!" and insisted on 
both giving audible responses. When the ceremony was 
concluded, the old minister commanded the already 
frightened bridegroom to kiss his bride, which he pro- 
ceeded to do in such a style as to produce a general smile 
among the lookers on. 

I had heard of such a custom as this before, and sup- 
pose it is an importation from some parts of Europe, 
but never witnessed the practical operation of it, except 
on this occasion. It seemed to me, that before a large 
assembly, especially, this salutation, as the finale of the 
marriage rite, would be more highly "honored in the 
breach than in the observance." 

The 11th of June, 1864, \k^s a high day at Congo 
Square. It was the celebration of the Emancipation Pro- 
clamation, and was an occasion of thrilling interest. 
Many a secessionist in anticipation had prayed that the 
day might be rainy, or otherwise unfavorable; but in 
this, as in numerous other instances, the Good Being did 
not, or would not, hearken and grant the request of trai- 
tors, and the weather was most propitious. ' A number 



206 LIFE IN THE ABMY. 

Rebel toldiert. Schools and popilft. 

which I could attribute only to emply-headed ignoraDce, 
or rebel spite. Ladies fi^uently visited the cemetery , 
aud would linger among the graves of traitors, while I 
have knoA^n them to shun that part of the grounds 
where some of our brave colored soldiers lie buried. 

Living or dying, or even dead, these secessionists hate 
all who have enrolled themselves under the flag of the 
free^ to battfe for the right, and save, for after genera- 
tions an undivided nationality. 

There are nine military schools for the instruction of 
colored children within tlie limits of the city, with 
"an average attendance of two thousand, four hundred 
eager pupils, all alive to the importance of education. 
The "American Missionary Association," has about 
twenty teachers in this department, some of whom are 
connected with colored raiments, giving at every leisure 
moment instructions to the men, many of whom are apt 
learners, and are rapidly advancing to that d^ree of 
proficiency, in which they will be able to read the Bible 
and the Constitution, a thing which thousands of the 
white population have not yet attained to and never will. 

This association has also a Sunday-school under its 
control, numbering about six hundred scholars. 

I attended a remarkable wedding, which took place 
one evening in St. Paul's colored M. E. church. "Father 
Ross," the venerable preacher in charge, first held a short 
prayer-meeting, and then put on his spectacles, and with 
book in hand, came down from the pulpit, and standing 
at the altar I'ailing, he ordered, in a commanding tone 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 207 

Remarkable weddiug. Ckilebratioii. 

of voice, the parties who were present to be married, to 
come at once forward. At this moment all the official 
members arose and took their places on the right and left 
of the officiating minister. 

The couple also presented themselves in front, and the 
ceremony proceeded. After the usual questions were 
asked, the bridegroom gave assent by nodding his head. 
This, however, did not satisfy Father Eoss. He cried 
out sternly, ^^^IwUT is the answer!" and insisted on 
both giving audible responses. When the ceremony was 
concluded, the old minister commanded the already 
frightened bridegroom to kiss his bride, which he pro- 
ceeded to do in such a style as to produce a general smile 
among the lookers on. 

I had heard of such a custom as this before, and sup- 
pose it is an importation from some parts of Europe, 
but never witnessed the practical operation of it, except 
on this occasion. It seemed to me, that before a large 
assembly, especially, this salutation, as the finale of the 
marriage rit«, would be more highly "honored in the 
breach than in the observance." 

The 11th of June, 1864, \k^s a high day at Congo 
Square. It was the celebration of the Emancipation Pro- 
clamation, and was an occasion of thrilling interest. 
Many a secessionist in anticipation had prayed that the 
day might be rainy, or otherwise unfavorable ; but in 
this, as in numerous other instances, the Gk)od Being did 
not, or would not, hearken and grant the request of trai- 
tors, and the weather was most propitious. * A number 



208 LITE IN THB ARMT. 

Martial BMMie. Aitirriaf pnyw. 

of colored r^maitSy with burnished steel and banners 
flying, took part in the parade, and then formed into a 
hollow square, encircling the lai^ platform, which was 
most appropriately decorated. These soldiers, in tlieir 
bearing and precision of movement, made a very fine 
appearance, and contribnted greatly to the imposing cere- 
monies of the occasion. 

The music was soul-stirring, and touched the heart- 
strings of twenty thousand people, old and young, mak- 
ing them vibrate with the highest feelings of thankful- 
ness and joy. 

After the meeting was called to order, one of tihe col- 
ored clergymen present offered a most eloquent and im- 
pressive prayer to the Almighty, in which he thanked 
Grod that they as a people were permitted to witness this 
day of jubilee, the greatest, the brightest, the best day 
they had ever seen. They had prayed for it, and waited 
long in hope, and now, said he, ^^ O God, roll on the 
tide of freedom, until every slave in the whole land is, 
as many here are to-day; until the oppressed everywhere 
shall rejoice in possession of liberty. O Lord, bless 
General Banks, and may he continue to shed light on 
us poor colored people. Father in heaven, bless Grene- 
ral Butler. We thank thee that thou didst ever send 
him along this way. Bless him now, at the head of his 
army, and may it be in thy good providence that he shall 
soon return to us here again. O our God and. King, 
bless the great Union army and navy with courage and 
success, until our flag shall cover the earth as the waters 



0BSEBVATI0N5 IN NEW ORLEANS. 209 

Orations. Speech by the Govemor. 

cover the great and mighty sea. May the ^Star-spangled 
Banner' soon beoome the acknowledged flag of the wide- 
spread earth! O God, bless to-day thy servant, our 
chief executive, the President of these United States, 
and make this nation the greatest empire on the face of 
the globe.'' 

At the conclusion of the prayer, the throng of colored 
people raised a general cheer, moved to this expression 
of their appreciation, I suppose, by its solid ring of 
loyalty. 

I noticed among other distinguished persons present 
Major-Greneral Banks, Grovemor Hahn, Rev. Mr. Gil- 
bert, Rev. Mr. Bass, and Rev. C. Strong. 

There were two very able addresses delivered, one in 
English and the other in French by colored orators, and 
from the eager and undivided attention given to their 
words, and the tremendous applause which greeted 
them, I should think the effort of each was a grand 
success. 

Grovemor Hahn also made a brief, and very telling 
speech, which was enthusiastically received. 

The following is one of the songs which was sung on 
the occasion, and which produced a great effect. It was 
sung by the colored Sabbath School children, under the 
leadership of the gentlemanly and efficient Chaplain 
Conaway, who has bestowed a large amount of attention 
on their training in morals, religion, and correct views 
of government: 

18* 



210 LIFE IN THE ARMY. 

Cbildrtn't song. InunenM parade. 

SONO 

IN HOKOR OP EMANCIPATION, 

Air—" Our LiitU Meeting," Natire Melody. 
Slavery's chain is bound to break, 
Slavery's chain is bound to break, 
Slavery's chain is bound to break, 
And Massa and I must part — 

So fare yon well poor massa ; 

May God Almighty help yon, 

I'll never feel your lash again. 

For Freedom's got the start ! 

Our ransomed race is bound to take. 
Our ransomed race is bound to take. 
Our ransomed race is bound to take 
The road that leads to light. 

So fare yon well, poor massa, 

May God Almighty help yon ; 

I'll never feel your lash again, 

For God is with the right ! 

Louisiana's star is shining bright, 
Gekeral Bakes is giving light. 
Our Convention is doing right, 
And now we all are free. 

So fare you well, poor massa, 

May God Almighty help you ; 

I'll never feel your lash again. 

For now we all are free ! 

At the close of the interestiDg exercises in the square^ 
the large concourse of people, including the military, ixkA. 
accompanied with music, paraded through the princi^i;^^. 



OBSSRVATIOVS IK KSW OBLBANS. 211 

OolondwldiflEt. ▲ aenp of htotory. 

8treet8y and then broke ap without disorder. The whole 
affiiir was a novel spectacle and a grand success. 

It may sorprise some to hear that np to this time 
there have been twelve thoosand seven hundred colored 
soldiers recruited in this department^ and all of them 
that I have seen . under arms make a very fine appear- 
ance. Their general conduct is said to be ezcellent| and 
no doubt need be entertained of their braverj under fire. 
History will record its testimony on this point 

It is claimed that the very first colored regiment en- 
. listed in the United States service was formed here by 
order of Mqor-Greneral Butler, who assumed the respon- 
sibility, and called the troops by the name of "the Na- 
tive Home Guard," reminding the astonished and dis- 
gusted chivalry of a scrap of history which, perhaps, 
they had forgotten, viz, that both Greneral Washington 
in the Revolution, and Greneral Jackson in the last war 
with Great Britain, enrolled colored soldiers in the ranks 
of the American army. We all remember with what 
intense earnestness the rebels and their Northern allies 
plead and protested against making the colored man a 
soldier. It was argued that the white troops would not 
bear the infliction of such disgrace as this arrangement 
contemplated to them — ^that they would leave the service 
m masse if required to fight alongside of the n^ro, and 
that it was a waste of time and energy to undertake the 
drill, discipline, and command of colored r^ments ; for 
they would run at the first fire, and would prove incom- 
petent in every quality of a good soldier. All this was 



212 LIFE IN THK AEMY. 

AdapUbiUtj. ' Tb« rifle and baUot 

urged time and again ; bat the government in the hands 
of such men as the now revered Lincoln, and the inflexi- 
ble Secretary Stanton, persevered, and what are the fiicts: 
the world knows their proud record of endurance, 
bravery, discipline, and success, when, and wherever the 
order has been " forward.'* The wisdom of recruiting 
them by tens of thousands is now vindicated by their 
adaptation to service in the Southern climate, and their 
perfect subordination when fairly used and properly paid. 
Yes, they have not only helped to conquer the rebels and 
carry the flag of the free in triumph over the territory • 
where they were denied even the rights of manhood; but 
they have won for themselves the respect and regard of 
the nation. They have conquered an enemy almost as 
formidable as the rebellion itself, that is, the prejudice 
which everywhere met them, and paralyzed their efforts 
at self-elevation and social improvement. 

Whatever my judgment is worth, I give it, that the 
hand which lays down the rifle, with the return of peace, 
has earned the privilege to deposit a ballot, and while 
thousands of the time-serving trimmers of the border 
states, and the actually disloyal, north and south, who 
have tried to destroy this government, should be forever 
disqualified for part or participation in the elective fran- 
chise, the good, honest, loyal, intelligent colored man, 
should be recognized as a citizen, and enjoy the most 
perfect equality before the law. It should be the duty of 
the general, and state governments, as well as of the in- 



OKSMTATSOSS JS XSV 0BLKAS8. 218 

tdl^ent and homaiieeverprhere to reach forth a helping 
handy and lift him op. 

Christianitjr too, in all its noble dictafps, requires os to 
overoome die tzivi^ and nnreasooaUe antipathies, whidi 
too loi^ have beep dowed to aKfnafe the strong from 
this weaker pcmmBf the great fimiilj of one Almighty 
Father, and giT^the goqpd, with a free, unsparing 
Uberdity to thoae who have been suddenly disenthralled, 
and east upon die ijmpathies of those who profess to love 
the Lord Jesns Christ. My hearts desire and prayer to 
God ftr this people is, that they may be Int^aght to the 
knowledge of aalvatian, and made a pecoliar people in 
hdinesi^ and aealoos of good works. 



214 LIFE IN THE ARMY. 



A raluable flitnd. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

OBSEBVATIOXa COJTTIinrJBIh 

RET. J. P. NXWMAN, D.I)w-POSinON AND INFLUENGE-AN OLD LADTS 
P&ATSBp-UNGLE S ah, the GBEATSST president— all SAINTS' DA Y— 
BURYING ABOTE GROUND-CLIMATE-YOUNa AKERICA— IGNORANCE 
OF SOME OF THE COLORED PSOPUt-SINGULAR NAME&-THE MARRY- 
ING BUSINESS-CHRISTMAS-SABBATH SCHOOL EXHIBITIONS— WATCH 
NIGHT— LAZY METH0DI8TS-A DAY OF JUBILEE-THB CHRISTIAN 
AND SANITARY COMMISSIONS-STEAMBOAT COUISIONS-THB CITY 
AS A MILITARY CAMP— THREE THOUSAND COLORED CHILDREN AT 
THE CIRCUS— A RAID ON THE GAMBLING-HOUSES-SABBATH DESE- 
CRATION PRETENTED-ANNITERSARY OF THE BATTLE OF NEW 
ORLEANS— INAUGURATION OF GOTERNOR WELLS-GREAT TURN OUT 
OF THE FIRE DEPARTMENT— ELOQUENT PRAYER-A MEMORABLE DAY 
— TALUABLE SERYICES OF DR. J. T. E. SMITH— THE ROLL OF HONOR. 

My residence in New Orleans, brought me in contact 
with many persons, and peculiarities in social and official 
life, which demanded a few paragraphs, descriptive and 
explanatory, for the information or amusement of those 
who may be pleased to read these pages* 

With all the incidents of an active round of duties, 
and the novelty to me of various customs and habits 
among the people, I think, my stay would have been 
much more dreary, and my position far less agreeable, 
had I not formed the acquaintance, and experienced the 
friendship, counsel, and Christian regard of a gentleman, 



OBSEMTAimSS JS SEW CmiMASS^ 215 



to wbose naniie I cnmol gi\B too jnmmak a ftaat, 
cidier in mj book, cr heufs besl esteen. Let mt m- 
trodoee Idmis 



The appoiiitiDenl of Dr. 'Sewwaan as 
of die misBioo work of the Mfihodist Epiaoofal Chiirak 
in thk dqiutment, lefledB the hi^WEl honor on the 
judgment and sagadtv of our ezoelleni Bi^op Ames.. 
And that the Doctor himself shoold eoosenl to exile 
finom die more ooi^enial associations of his nordiem 
homey to &oe and giappk with die difBmhies inTotred, 
is gread J to his credit and chamcter, as a sdf^aoiliGing 
minister of Jesus. 

Etct since his anJTal, the whole eommonitjr have tA 
the tarn of his eloquence, and die eanse of CSod and his 
coontiy has realized s^oal ad^anta^ firom his timdf 
oovmsek and fftidifbl ministiations. 

In the polptt and prayer-meetiiig, and on the phtlbrm, 
his ability, genioe^ and intense devotioDy have dione out 
as a lig^t in darkneaSy and no man in dus ci^ oecppies 
to-dajr A more inflfiential poodon than he. How he 
mam^es so modi woiky is a mjsteijy hot here he i^ one 
hoor leading a daas^die next po^iaps dosetedwidia 
commander of die army, or fiimiliar widi the ddibera- 
tiooB of monicipal officers, or called to give Us views on 
grave matters of state policy, and dien, off to some re- 
mote pcnnt to meet another engi^onent growii^ oot of 
his complicated and lespon^le task. 



216 LITE IN THE AEMY. 

An e«mett minitter. ** Uncle Sum.** 

He boldly tears the mask from vice, exposes rascality 
in every form', and is the champion of virtue, right, and 
trae religion, making the press, as well as the rostrum 
tributary to this great end, and in the work of conver- 
i>ion, he aims not only to bring sinners to God, but out 
of all treasonable sentiments to earnest loyalty. He has 
been largely .blessed with success in his protracted meet^ 
ings, and honored by a precious revival. His course of 
sermons to young men were attractive, convincing, and 
masterly discourses, and his ^^ half-hour" sermons to the 
people, drew crowds to the house of prayer. Not un- 
frequently you might there see a Major-Greneral seated 
side by side with a private soldier, listening to the word 
of life and salvation. The Doctor is the man for such 
an important outpost of Zion, and will be an honor to 
the church he represents, as long as it may please God 
to spare his valuable life. 

AK OLJ> SECB8H I^ADY 

whom Dr. Newman met with one day, while out recon- 
noitering, with a view to organize a loyal Methodist 
society, in a village near the city, told him, with great 
confidence that the south would certainly succeed. "How 
do you know ?" said he. " Because," replied the sister, 
'^ I have 'prayed for it !" 

'' VXCLE SAM" THE GMJSATJ3ST I'BJBSIDJSJrT. 

I heard a colored man declare one day, after hearing 
of the success of the union army and the progress of 



KTAX»53 IS XKW OmiXJLSS. 217 



ipstioo, dm^ in his opinioii, '^Unde Sam" inis 
the greitesi prasidcnt erer dected to the wfiile house. 



«4££ jLAXsrrr* aax: 

Tlie oOaidar of Ae Boman Gitliolie Clmrch, as all 
are aumre, is crv ud cd widi ''saiDts"' days, whidi are 
obsenred as rtSgtaas fedraR The 1st of Norember is 
temied ^All Saints' d^," and ms a notable occasion in 
diecitj. The pieiioiBeraiing is denominated ^Hallow 
eve^" and is a time of great hihrit j. On this occasion 
the rehUives of deceased persons visit the grave-yards, 
and pboe garlands on die vanhs and tombs where the 
remains of friends are interred. Prayers are offered, 
also, by the priesti^ fijr die dead, on this particular day. 



MOMJB8 TOM THM nXAJK 

There are a large nnmber of very beaatifiil and costly 
monuments and vaults in die diffi>rent cemeteries in and 
around the city. These places are kept in very nice 
order, and are rarely without visitors. All who are able 
to afford it have the remains of their friends placed in 
vaults, constructed on the sur&oe of the ground, for the 
reason that the soil is naturaUy low and level, and graves 
dug in it soon become filled with water. 

These recqptades are built from five to twenty feet 
high, and, to a person coming here from the high and 
rolling lands of the north, they present a curious contra^ 
with the usual order elsewhere. 

19 



218 LIFS IN THE ARMT. 

Tailetlet of eUmate. Tonng America. 

tAX CLIMATJB OJP XEW OMZJEjUTS. 

During the &31 season, from the last of September to 
the first of December, the climate here is as delightful as 
can well be imagined ; but, from December to March, a 
change occurs which makes a disagreeable interval of the 
year. A great quantity of rain fiills during this season, 
and the cold is more severe than many in the north sup- 
pose. It is necessary to have fire in your dwelling most 
of the time, and out of doors persons are compelled to 
move more rapidly, and put on gloves and overcoat to 
feel comfortable. 

The spring is mild and very pleasant. During the 
months of April and May vegetation reaches an extraor- 
dinary state of maturity. Flowers burst into bloom, and 
fruits develope with tropical rapidity. 

I have experienced all the changes of the year, and 
can testify that in general there is but little danger to 
health, if prudence and care be exercised in guarding 
against the efiect of sudden transitions in the atmosphere, 
until a person becomes fully acclimated. 

YOUJfG AMBBICA 

is here in all the precocity which has marked his char- 
acter elsewhere. One fine morning, as I was hurrying 
along toward the hospital, a very little boy hailed me 
with the utmost confidence, and asked the favor of a 
match to light his cigar. He could not have been much 
over two feet high, and four summers old, and yet he 



iTlSBER a SWW imLKOB. 219 



AaAnftMHv BHiiA. 



[ to ftgowhSs SBokc^B iMHimi otlarger 

This is but OBeont of buej iiiriiiMrn in wUdi I hare 
seen die suae tnit crapping out as&diicdT ss it eoold 
wdl be defined smoor Ae TsnlEees dovn eut. 



On the 2Tth of April, 18M, diefe voe fimr hundred 
and fi% eokrad soUEes finom ''Port Hndson" ndmittad 
into die Gorps d'Afiiqpie genenl Wmphi, and, out 
of die whole number, onl j Skr of dieni eoold tdl their 
proper names and the otganiiations to which dier be- 
longed. Poor fidkms! dieir joodi'had been spent in 
the eane-farske and cuiion field, widioBt cnhrntion, or 
contact widi the ncCiTC^ thinking and intdKgoit worid 
aroond them; and mind in diem was almost an otter 
blank; their whole being seemed merged into passive^ 
doll, and iimiufstiniiiiig obedience and sobmisBion to the 
win and antl in rity of others. 



In looldng Ofvcr the FBOord of die Corps d' Afiiqoe 
Ho^itsl, anj person baring a lilm^ for faigfa soonding 
titles, fiunoos names, and fimnj soobriijoetB, can ccfj at 
willanotsUelbt There are now here seventeen George 
Wadiingfconsy one Genersl Tsjlor, one General Jackson, 
three Andrew Jacksooc, one John die Baptist, and one 
Oliver GromwelL Here also we find Edwin Forrest^ 
Charles Booneearrie, John Blaaes, Dan Tod^er, Thomas 




220 LIFE IN THE ARMY. 

Matrimonial MTitaL CbristmM. 

Monday, Tom Sunday, Raphel Raphel, the Prince of 
Orange, &c., &c In some instances the negroes are 
named after the plantation where they are bom, and 
most generally bear the name of their owner. 

MjLBBFING bttraobdikjlby. 

Whenever our armies take possession of slave territory, 
great numbers of colored people make application to the 
chaplains of regiments to be married, although many of 
them have been living together as man and wife for years 
before. This fact shoTS's that they understand and ap- 
preciate the " holy estate" and its responsibilities, and 
most powerfully reflects on the Christianity, and even 
civilization, of their former owners. I have had the 
pleasure to join a large number of them in the relation 
which is pronounced by the lips of the apostle as " hon- 
orable among all men," and which signifies the ^^ mystical 
union which exists between Christ and his Church." 

The signs of the times clearly indicate that this dark 
stain will be wiped out, and marriage, with all its heaven- 
sanctioned blessings, will be as sacred among the colored 
people as it is among the white race. 

CSBISTMJJS ZS IfBW OJBZJSAX8. 

Christmas day was appropriately observed in all the 
churches by suitable sermons and other exercises bearing 
on the glorious advent of the world's Redeemer. In 
the Catholic churches there were profuse decorations, and 
the image of the " babe of Bethlehem" was on exhibi- 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 221 

8ixncUy-«chooI ezhibittons. Eutartainment 

tion, and seemed to be an object of great veneration by 
the devout of both sexes and all ages. Quite as much 
interest was manifested in that little wax figure as was 
possible, almost, if the real person had been before them. 
I never witnessed such a display of Christmas toys, cakes, 
confectionery, Ac., as was offered here, while the streets 
and shops were thronged with people. Canal street pre- 
sented a very lively app^urance, being the chief prome- 
nade of ladies and gentlemen who could afford to make 
a gay appearance in their fixing up, and happiness seemed 
everywhere to prevail. 

8ABBATS SCHOOL JEXH£BITI0N8, 

On Christmas eve there was a Sabbath School exhibi* 
tion in the Carondolet St M. E. Church, which ^vas very 
tastefully decorated for the occasion. On each side of 
the platform there was a beautiful Christmas tree, trimmed 
and loaded with the most tempting fruit, consisting of 
bon-bons and articles dear to the eye and heart of child- 
hood. 

The addresses, recitations, and dialogues of the children 
were delivered with neatness and remarkable ability, and 
delighted the crowded audience very much. Great 
credit is due the managers of this affair, and particularly 
Mrs. Dr. Iffewman, to whose skill and tact was due 
mainly the succe&s of the occasion. 

There was a similar celebration held in the Felicity 
Street Church, and one across the river at Algiers, where 
I had the pleasure to preside. The speaking surpassed 

19* 



222 UPE IN THB AEMY. 

Wfttch-oight Celebration. 

all our expectations, and at the dose, our Christmas trees, 
and other sources, pelded a sumptuous entertainment to 
teachers and children. 

As Methodists, although in a strange land compara- 
tively, we kept up the time-honored custom of watch- 
meeting, on the last evening of the year, and, while the 
hosts of our Israel in distant towns and cities, were en- 
tering into covenant with the God of Wesley, and our 
fiithers, we met them at the throne of grace, and in two 
of the principal churches enjoyed a season of refreshing 
&om the presence of the Lord. Some of the members 
of the Methodist church in this city looked upon this 
observance as a strange thing, and I suppose are either 
too sleepy, or too proud, to be found on their knees at 
midnight on the last day of the old year. New year's 
day, coming on Sabbath, gave interest to the religious 
services, and helped to crowd the churches. Calls, and 
congratulations usual on this day, were deferred until 
Monday, by the military and state officers, which was 
right. 

A JDAT OF JTTBIZBE. 

The 24th of January, 1865, was celebrated in this city 
as a day of rejoicing, in honor of the edicts of Emancipa- 
tion passed by conventions, representing the loyal people 
of Missouri and Tennessee, declaring the fi'eedom of all 
slaves within their borders, and forever prohibiting 
slavery or involuntary servitude in those states. At an 



OBSEBYATIONS IN NSW 0BLBAN8. 228 

Orcttt pand*. Tb« ** ChriitUn CommiitoM." 

early hoar in the moraiDg, thousands of colored people 
were seen wending their way toward La Fayette Square. 
At the residence of the Grovemor, an immense concourse 
of soldiers and citizens were assembled, eloquent speakers 
addressed the multitude, and then a line was formed and 
the whole concourse paraded through the principal streets 
of the city. Banners streamed from every available 
point, music rose in its most soul-stirring strains, and as 
the prooesdon moved on, cheer after cheer made the 
welkin ring* 

Everybody seemed to be joyful except the poor ex- 
slave-holders, whose faces were elongated, and their souls 
became very sad, under the inspiring shouts of freedmen 
and the prospect to them, of their last hope, the accursed 
confederacy crumbling to deserved infamy, and ruin. 
Let the states come on in line, and each one raise upon 
its highest pinnacle, the emblem of '^ Liberty throughout 
all the land, and to all the inhabitants thereof." 

THJB CHBISTIAJr A2n> 8AKITABY COMMXSSIOm. 

The work of the Christian Commission in this dqMuri- 
ment has been very extensive, supplying the soldiers in 
every camp, barrack, and hospital with good religious 
literature, and with living teachers of the truth as it is in 
Jesus. The Sanitary Commission has also performed a 
noble work among the thousands of soldiers in this de- 
partment The ^^Home" in this city, has proven a great 
blessing to many a care-worn soldier ; for here the de- 
tached, discharged, or furloughed, can obtain board and 



224 LIFE IN THE ARMY. 

The Soldien* Home. ColUsioiis on the river. 

lodging free of charge. This institution is under the 
jurisdiction of the able and efficient commander of the 
defenses of the dty, General Sherman. 

The idea of a Soldiers' Home is, I believe, original 
with the American people, and is an outgrowth of the 
exigencies of the war. It is said to have been first in- 
stituted in the city of Baltimore in 1861, when troops 
began to move toward the theatre of war, and many had 
to be kept stationed there : for it was then a regular hot 
bed of secession, and furnished incalculable aid and com- 
fort to the rebels, both in men, money, and munitions 
of war. I am glad to know that loyalty triumphed 
there, as it will everywhere, by the fiivor of Almighty 
God. 

These commissions have done such a glorious work, 
that I cannot helping saying, " God bless every one con- 
nected with them in their origin, design, and practical 
benefits to our brave armies." The history of adventure 
and achievement connected with their influence will 
hardly be less wonderful than that of the war itself. 

STEAMBOAT COLLISIONS 

have for many years furnished the newspapers tales of 
harrowing horror. Their frequency on the great " father 
of waters,'' may in part be accounted for by the fact, 
that dense fogs are prevalent all along its winding course. 
I have known the fog to be so heavy, while crossing the 
ferry, that you could not discern an object five feet from 
the boat, or at night see the gas lights burning, a short 



OBSSKVATIOKS IK NSW 0BLSAK6. 225 

A military caap. TIm drcia. 

distance firom either shore. Our fenj-man informed me 
that he often lost his reckoning on acooont of the fi)gy 
and fiiiled to make his proper landing on the opposite 
side of the river. It is no wonder therefore that steamers 
collide under such circumstances, especially as the hands 
on board are not celebrated for prudence, but on the con- 
trary, are generally reckless of consequences, and disposed 
at all times to '^ let her rip !" 

THB CUT AS JL MILJTAMT CAMT, 

can be viewed to the best advantage at the time when 
the field ofScer of the day takes his rounds to every 
post, and with a quick scrutinizing eye, ascertains that 
everything is in good order. Following him you may 
discover the points where guard-mounting is a r^olar 
practice, and the whole <itj is one great camp, r^ulated 
by the s^ct rules of military order and discipline. 
This, instead of being a disadvantage, as the secessionists 
declare, tends to geno^ safdy, sobriety, and the firee 
enjoyment of all the rights and privil^es of dtizenship, 
and breaking up the terrorism of lawless characters, has 
purified, and been a blesang to New Orleans. 

CHULDnXS AJTD THB CIRCUS, 

Major B. Kush Plnmley, president of the board of 
education for the instruction of colored children, having 
xnade the necessary arrangements, one day, gratified three 
thousand, by a visit to ^^ Howe's European Circus," and 
I understood the sights and scenes they witnessed there 



226 LEFB IN THE ABMY. 

Gambling-houses closed. Gen. Hurlbnt. 

produced a tremendous sensation of pleasure. They 
rolled their optics, and made a display of ivory that was 
wonderful to behold. Such a pleasure to them was a 
marked day in their memory, and the considerate Major, 
I am sure, was amply repaid by the delight he helped to 
bestow. He is an untiring advocate for the enlighten- 
ment of these young minds, and his efforts are being 
crowned with well deserved success. 

A BAIB Oy THJB GAMBLING' HOUSES. 

Major-Greneral Hurlbut, the able and efficient com- 
mander of the Department of the Gulf, has placed all 
Christians under obligations to him, for his timely efforts 
to improve the morals of this city. At the time when 
the State Legislature was about to confirm the law passed 
by the late Convention, licensing gambling-houses, this 
friend of morality had the good sense and courage to 
issue an order closing all the places of this character, 
that have so long been a curse and blight to New Orleans. 
It was also by his order that the theatres were prohibited 
from having performances on the Sabbath day. All offi- 
cers and soldiers were also interdicted from visiting 
whisky shops on the Sabbath. This is a proper exercise 
of j)0wer, and will redound to the credit of the general 
commanding. It is incalculable what vice, and wretched- 
ness, and crime, such prohibition prevents. Every 
friend of honesty, temperance, and good order, will ap- 
prove the act, and admire such soldiers as Gtenerals 
Hurlbut and Canby, for their efforts to redeem this 



OSSKKTAnOSS EST KEW OKLRASS. 2Zl 



lUfy 7«an ago. 

almost milled dtj from disopatioii, gamblings and the 
desecration of the holj Sabbath. 

TSJr MIGHTB or ^AJTUAMT. 

The fiftieth annhrosaiy of the Battle of New Qrkaiis 
happenii^ cm the Sabbath, all noisy demonstratioiis 
w^re defored ontQ Monday, and the Sabbath passed in 
a manner befitdi^ the stillness and sanctity of the day. 
Some few, however, supposing it would not do to wait, 
went off and became intoxicated, and had thdr accus- 
tomed spree. 

On Monday morning the slnmbering citizens were 
aronsed by the thundering of artillery, fifty guns were 
fired in honor of the event, by order of the commanding 
general, and then ensued a general enfilade of small arms^ 
and snch a rackd; as is customary in other localities on 
the Foorth of Joly. 

Before the rebellion this was an occasion of great en* 
thusiasm, and the annual celebration was partidpated in 
by all the citizens who remembered with pride and 
pleasure the adiievements of the immortal Jackson and 
his brave battalions in their heroic defense of the dty, 
and the defeat of a proud and boasting foe. The value 
of victory on that day 2md field, may be estimated by the 
consequences which would have ensued by the defeat of 
our army. This dty would have &llen, of course, the 
State of Louisiana and the whole upper valley of the 
Mississippi would have been captured and conquered, 
and the war prolonged. 



228 LIFE IN THE AEMT. 

Homee for all. In&ngmtioii day. 

The whole nation, therefore, should keep alive the 
memory of such a glorious and important event, and be 
thankful to God that the flag which fifty years ago led 
our soldiers to the charge, floats to-day triumphantly in 
the &ce of treason at home. 

May its starry folds ever kindle in the bosom of 
American patriots an invincible courage to vindicate its 
honor when tyrants or traitors assail it. And may time 
in its unnumbered years still perpetuate the spirit of 
General Jackson and the Republic of our Fathers. May 
this &ir land be the home of the oppressed, an asylum 
for the poor and down-trodden millions of every land ; 
for Uncle Sam, after all the blood and treasure spent in 
putting down this rebellion, is still rich enough to give 
them all a farm ! 

INAVGVMjLtlOK J>AT. 

The fourth of March, 1865, was a high day in this 
city. At an early hour in the morning, the busy note 
of preparation gave token that something unusual was 
on hand, and soon Canal Street became thronged with 
people, getting into position to witness the scenes about 
to transpire. Twenty-four fire companies made their 
appearance, ^vith engines glittering like gold, and be- 
decked with magnificent wreaths, and a profusion of flags. 

The procession was formed by marshals rapidly dash- 
ing to and fro, the music fell in and helped to heighten 
the general interest, and &r above and below the " Clay 
Monument," flags and banners fluttered in the morning- 



OBSEKVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 229 

Prayer and spoecbea. The Nation's standard-bearer. 

breeze. In oomplianoe with resolutions of general assem- 
bly, both houses met at noon to attend the inauguration 
of Grovemor Wells, who was to succeed Grovemor Hahn, 
he having resigned for the purpose of representing his 
state in the United States Senate. At the appointed 
hour, all being in readiness, the proceedings were opened 
with prayer by the Rev. Dr. Newman, who solemnly 
invoked the continued aid of Almighty God, to his ser- 
vant about to be clothed with the high distinction, and 
weighty responsibilities of governor — ^that He would 
grant him ability to discharge successfully the duties in- 
volved in his important office, as executor of the will of 
the people, and endow the representative of the State, 
with divine direction and blessing, and keep poor mortal 
ashes from temptation to do wrong. 

He also devoutly thanked the Lord of Hosts for 
victory to the arms of the Union, and the progress of 
the glorious flag of liberty, and prayed for continued 
success to the army and navy, to the second term of 
Abraham Lincoln as president of this great republic, 
and the nation's standard-bearer, that in his day, and 
speedily, the banner of an undivided nation might wave, 
and this iniquitous rebellion might soon be overthrown. 

The prayer, which was one of the most appropriate, 
and eloquent I ever listened to, >vas followed by patriotic 
music, and then the oath of office was administered to 
the new Governor, after which he delivered his inaugural 
address. The band then played "the star-spangled ban- 



20 



230 LIFE IN THE ARMT. 

A memorable day. Br. J. T. E. Smith. 

the audience by Ex-Grovernor Hahn, and was received 
with great applause. He very eloquently sketched the 
progress of the war^ the baptism of blood and fire 
through which the country had passed during four years 
of strife, and alluding to President Lincoln, made some 
impressive and thrilling encomiums upon that great and 
good man. He closed with the sentiment : " God pre- 
serve the United States, the banner-bearer of freedom.^' 
The band then played "The red, white, and blue," 
and the ceremonies were closed with the benediction by 
Dr. Newman, the crowded concourse slowly retired, and 
this "Inauguration day" will long be remembered in 
the history of the " Crescent Gty." 

A J}ISTiyGV18IlEJ> TATBIOT. 

Among the names which will ever be cherished by the 
country with gratitude for disinterested patriotism, and 
valuable service during the war, will be that of Dr. J. 
V. E. Smith, formerly mayor of Boston, and now an 
agent, and active worker for the Christian Commission 
in the Department of the Gulf; his head-quarters are 
at New Orleans. To enter this field he resigned the 
professorship of Anatomy in the New York Medical 
College, his sense of duty to his country and her noble 
defenders being so strong, and his nature so benevolent, 
he renounced position, ease, and home enjoyments to 
minister to the w^nts of the " weary and heavy-laden" 
among our soldiers, who love him as a &ther, and confide 
in him as their best friend. His labore have been arduous, 



OSSERT.iTI05:5 EST SUT OKLEAXS. 231 

and highly suooessfiil in this bruKJi of that great cbaritr, 
\rhidi now ocHnmands die won^ and the admiration 
of all Europe, as well as oar own land. So enturely 
devoted is he to the wants of others that he gives his 
valoahle time, skill, and strength to the caose, without 
fee or reward, and to mj certain knowledge, he has 
even givoi the ooat off his back to a poor soldier who 
had none. The Doctor is one of the most intelligent 
men I have ever known. Th^« is scaroel j a place of 
note on this wide globe he has not visited. His hrilliant 
lectures at the Smithsonian Institute, (m bis return firom 
extended explorations, commanded the attention of mem- 
bers of Congress, and scientific men everywhere. TThea 
the names of our true American heroes are inscribed on 
the. high roll of renown, such men as Professor Smith, 
will be entitled to a proud place, as a benefactor to his 
race, and an honor to his country. 



232 LIFB IN THE ARMY. 



Joyftil oewi. Excitement of the people. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

OBSJBBrATlONS COKTiyUJSJX 

KEWS OF TICTOBT-TIDINGS OF THE ASSASSINATION OF PRESIDENT 
UNOOLN-^OY TURNED TO MOURN INO-OREAT DAY OF HUMILIA- 
TION—IHMENSE GATHERING AT LA FAYETTE SQUARE— TEARS AND 
WOE-MOURNFUL MUSIC— FLAGS AT HALF-MAST— BUILDINGS DRAPED 
—A CITY FILLED WITH SORROW— PRAYER BY THE REV. DR. NEW- 
MAN—PUBLIC ADDRESSES BY GENERALS HURLBUT AND BANES- 
MEETING AT DR. PALMER'S CHURCH— PRAYER BY DR. PEARNE— 
STIRRING ADDRESSES — CONTRAST — RETRIBUTION FOR 8ECESH 
PREACHER&--GREAT SCARE OF THE REBELS— THEIR HOUSES IN 
SACKCLOTH— REFLECTIONS— THE BEPUBUC STILL LIVES ! 

But a few weeks had run their round, after the occa- 
sion just referred to, when alas ! the dismal tidings came 
like a knell to all our anticipations, of the assassination 
of the honest, patriotic, and liberty-loving President, 
Abraham Lincoln. Before this awful event was known, 
news followed news of the victories of Grant around 
B.ichmond, the triumphal march of Sherman and his 
legions, and the climax was reached when it became 
known as a fact in New Orleans that Lee had surren- 
dered, the Confederacy caved in, and the rebellion at 
last had its backbone and neck broken ! We were al- 
most wild with joy; congratulations flowed on every 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 288 

A great sorrow. Great meeting. 

hand^ and people oould not sleep, and would not rest, 
because of the exhilaration produced. 

But suddenly these bright sunbeams of gladness are 
plunged in eclipse, joy is turned to sorrow, and mourning 
mantles all loyal hearts. The atrocious crime of the 
14th of April fell like a dull, heavy stroke upon us, that 
made us speechless with horror and demented with woe. 

The change was so rapid, so unexpected, so tremen- 
dous — ^fix)m the highest pinnacle of our long-looked-for 
and now realized triumph to the deepest depths of be- 
reavement, as if every man had lost a &ther, or a first- 
born, by the cruel stroke of a dagger piercing his heart, 
that the whole city was quickly robed in mourning and 
covered with gloom. 

The 22d of April was set apart as a day of special 
mourning, and the history and feelings of that day can 
never be forgotten. The whole population, it would 
seem, were moved by one impulse; although some &mi- 
lies and individuals doubtless secretly felt a malicious 
pleasure in the strange and sad event, yet none dare 
evince the slightest show of triumph. As in northern 
cities, so here, the temper of a* patriot could not brook 
or bear an insulting word or look from those who were 
rebels at heart The public buildings and. many private 
residences were heavily draped in the habiliments of 
woe. People thronged the streets, wearing badges of 
mourning. La Fayette Square was again the point to 
which this now sad and sorrowing mass of humanity 
wended their way. The fire companies again turned out 

20 • 



) 



234 LIFE IN THE ARMT. 

Moorsing eT«rywher». Large meeting. 

in full uniform, and their apparatus, as well as them- 
selves, all wearing emblems of the nation's loss. Vari- 
ous societies helped to swell the throng, and solemn mu- 
sic wailed forth its dirge-like strains. 

Around the large stand, which was appropriately 
draped, the multitude gathered, and tears fell like rain. 
The whole space was crowded with a silent, sad audience. 
Every banner was fringed with crape, and hung at half- 
mast, and still the slow, mourning music, helped to make 
the scene more impressive and awful. Dr. Newman 
was selected to offer prayer: and such a prayer! pathetic, 
earnest, soul-moving, while emotion rose like a silent 
tide, and rolled over that vast throng. The brave and 
eloquent General Hurl but then addressed the people, 
followed by General Banks, whose words never were 
more wisely chosen, or more effective in making a deep 
impression. 

At the First Presbyterian church a crowd assembled, 
the building being hung with black. The exercises were 
commenced with a powerful prayer by the Rev. W. H. 
Pearne, D.D., followed by an address from Hon. Mr. 
Roselius, in which he reviewed the administration of our 
late president, and declared that it had been pure and 
correct, and that the deluded people of the south had 
themselves destroyed the institution of slavery. He con- 
sidered Mr. Lincoln entitled Jx) a degree of veneration 
second only to the immortal Washington. 

Thomas J. Durant, Esq., followed, and, in his dis- 
course, said, liberty had lost one of her firmest friends 



AOSSS IS 9X9^ fpBI¥ilB 235 



and nohksl iViiliHr m t&e deatk of oor uuut^r e J 
ptesidcBl^ He iiifcifiril ^ob jasdoe beii^ admuusterod 
to triifag^ dbii tkoe eo«Id be ao tame oi tkk eomdryjor 
ike leaden of dkis vicfeed irhrffinn, and that Mr. Lin- 
coln's wiMwin i iiwi vas die vesnk of a preoooeerted plan 
of the lebdfioos people of die soodi, iriio, in dieir fiaid- 
ish K^e, took this means of lewnge. 

I wished frooi mj heart that sodi amds as were 
nttered there that dqr were bamed into the hearts of all 
the tnutcxs of die land. What a contzast was sodi a 
meeting as this to the time when the onoe in&moos, bat 
now repentant Dr. Pdmer fiilminatpd his £mi1 treason 
fiom the po^at. Sabbath after fSahhath| and even pub- 
lished hk sermons bjr tens of thooaands to fire the heart 
of the whole sonthem peo^ with hatred against the 
government, and bittemeas toward the north. No one 
man, perhaps, did more to infioence Looisiana to adopt 
and practioe the hereej of secession than this same Dr. 
Palmer. Let him now, while he professes to b^ pardon 
of Grod and man for the errcRS be taught, and the ruin 
he helped to brii^ upon his ocmgr^atacm and country- 
men, look forward to the bar of inflexible justice, where 
he most meet the thooaands who were urged to fight and 
fiJl as traitcxs bjr his connseL There will be a day 
of fearful reckoning and terrible retribution for such 
men, that no bitter tears or jtrhining prayers can alter or 
avert 

Many of those known to be rebels in this city were 
the first and most zealous in the work of draping their 



236 LIFE IN THE ARMT. 

Hypootey. The s&tion's faith. 

liouses. This was not from sincere feelings of sorrow, 
but because they noshed to deceive union people as to 
their real sentiments, or because they feared the military. 

They fiiirly trembled with apprehension lest the union 
soldiery should wreak a summary and indiscriminate 
vengeance upon them. Indeed there was a rumor among 
them that all citizens' were required by order from army 
head-quarters to exhibit publicly the emblems of mourn- 
ing, but such an order was never published or perhaps 
thought of. The scare, however, did them no harm, but 
doubtless made many of them reflect seriously, and show 
a decent respect at least outwardly for the memory of 
our much-loved President. 

God's ways are a great mystery to short-sighted mortals. 
We cannot penetrate the inscrutable counsels of his will, 
or understand some of the designs of his dealings. 
Here faith comes in to aid us, and this faith, while the 
body of the good and gr§at Abraham Lincoln was borne 
to its final resting-place, held fast to God, and enabled 
the nation to bow, and meekly say, " Thy will be done." 
What a wonder it was, that all through this deplorable 
period of confusion, the functions of the government 
were kept regularly in operation, and, instead of falling 
to pieces by the shock, our God-preserved republic 
gathered new force and energy from this disaster to carry 
forward, and accomplish fuljy its sublime mission. 

It was doubtless the hope of those who instigated the 
conspirators to destroy the lives of the President, Mr. 
Seward, and others, that there might be a sudden revolu- 



OBSKKTATIOVS 19 ISISW O&LBAKS. 287 



tion, and in the oonfiision and excitement of the moment, 
that the established order of the government might be 
overdirown — ^leaving adventorers, who had the nerve 
and boldness to assome dictatorship, the opening they 
coveted to readi that position, even through a sea of 
blood. Bat (Sod signally foiled their wicked purposes. 
Lincoln's name is ever hallowed by its association with 
mar^nrdom f<nr principle, and the crown he won and 
wears will never grow Instreless, while an American 
heart beats iroe for liberfy. 



238 LIPB IN THB ARMY. 



Th« Black Oode. Horrible oppressions. 



CHAPTER XXYIII. 

OBSMRVATIOKB COimKUED. 

THE BLACK CODE OF LOUISIANA— KEEP IT BEFORE THB PEOPLE— THE 
TOICE OF SAGES-CHBISTIAN PATRIOTS— STATESMEN, PHILOSOPHERS 
AND PHILANTHB0PI8TS, IN CONDEMNATION OF HUMAN SLAVERY— 
WHAT THE PEOPLE CAN NOW UNIVBKSALLT EXCLAIM — UNION, 
AND UBERTT. 

To show the friends of freedom, how the South has 
degenerated and relapsed to i^ptian barbarism, I will 
present a synoptical view of the pertinently named Bldck 
Code of Louisiana. Any slave killing or attempting to 
kill, whether maliciously, or in defense of his family 
or self, shall be hung. If a slave strike his master 
or mistress, or their children, or any white overseer, 
he shall be hung, or be imprisoned at hard labor 
for ten years. If a slave shoot or stab any person 
with intent to kill, he shall be hung. If any slave or 
free person of color shall attempt to poison any person, he 
shall be hung. Any slave guilty of encouraging an in- 
surrection shall be hung. Any slave or free person of 
color who shall attempt to burn any building or out-house 
shall be hung. Any slave who shall be guilty for the 
third offense of striking a white person shall be hung, 
unless the blow was given in defense of his master, some 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 239 

Hanging and whipping. No freedom. 

member of his femily, or person having charge of him, 
when the slave shall be excused. Any slave forcibly 
taking goods or money from any person shall be hung, 
or as the court shall adjudge. Any slave who shall break 
into a place and attempt to steal, or commit any other 
crime, shall be hung. Any person cruelly treating a 
slave shall not be fined to exceed two hundred dollars. 
Any person who shall remove any iron chain or collar 
fastened to a slave may be imprisoned for six months. 
If any person shall, by words or action, advise any slave 
to insurrection, he shall suffer death or imprisonment. 
Whosoever shall attempt to produce discontent among 
the free colored or slave population, shall be imprisoned 
at hard labor, or suffer death. . Any person from the bar, 
the bench, the stage, the pulpit, or any other place, who 
shall be guilty of discourses or signs tending to produce 
discontent among the free colored, or slave population, 
or who shall bring into this state any paper, pamphlet or 
book having such tendency, may be imprisoned twenfy- 
one years, or suffer death. Slaves accused of capital 
crimes shall be tried by two justices of the peace and ten 
owners of slaves. Any crime not capital shall be tried 
by a justice of the peace and four owners of slaves. 
One justice and nine jurors shall constitute a quorum foi 
the trial of slaves accused of capital offenses. If a slave 
is convicted, the said justice of the peace shall sign the 
sentence. If the court disagree and do not convict, it 
shall have the power to inflict corporeal punishment ac- 
cording to its pleasure. All slaves sentenced to death or 



240 LIFE IN THB ARMY. 

Cruelty. Ippeal tohiftory. 

perpetual imprisonment, shall be paid for oat of the 
public treamry. A slave may be forced to testify against 
his fellow-slave, bat he is not permitted to testify against 
a white man. Any slave aocused of a capital crime in 
this parish shall be tried by the judge of the First 
District Court and six slaveholding jurors. No slave 
can leave the plantation without a written permission ; 
and any person giving permission without authority shall 
be fined fifty dollars. Any person who shall mutilate a 
slave and render him incapable of work, shall be fined 
fifty dollars, and pay the master two dollars per day for 
every day lost ; and if the slave be forever made unable 
to work, then the ofiender shall pay his value, or suffer 
one year's imprisonment. Any person, having been a 
slave, returning to this state without permission, shall be 
forced back to slavery. Any free person of color who 
may be ordered to leave the state and does not^ may be 
imprisoned at hard labor for five years. Free persons of 
color are not allowed to land in the state without a legal 
permit. A master of a vessel must give a bond for the 
non-landing of free pei^ons of color, &c. &c. 

Permit me to ask you to listen to the voice of sages, 
Christians, patriots, statesmen, philosophers, and philan- 
thropists of this and other nations, concerning this hell- 
begotten wrong and outrage. Washington said it was 
his first wish to free America of the curse. Jeffei'son, 
the Apostle of Liberty, said he trembled for his country, 
and declared it was written in the Book of Fate, that the 
people should be free. Patrick Henry detested slavery 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 241 

Tlie world's opinion. Great men on the tide of freedom. 

with all the earnestness of his nature, and believed the 
time was not &r distant when the lamentable evil would 
be abolished. Madison denied the right of property in 
man, and contended that the republican principle was 
antagonistic to human bondage. Monroe considered 
slavery as preying upon the very vitals of the Union. 
John Sandolph detested the man who defended slavery. 
Thomas Baudolph deprecated the workings of the evil. 
Thomas Jefferson Eandolph classes the "institution" 
among the abominations and enormities of savage tribes, 
and as tending to decrease free populations. Peyton 
Bandolph lamented its existence. Edward Eandolph, 
as member of the Convention that framed the Constitu- 
tion of our nation, moved to strike out " servitude,'' and 
insert "service,'' because the former was thought to ex- 
press the condition of slaves, and the latter the obligation 
of free persons. Henry Clay would never, never, never, 
by word or thought, by mind or will, aid in subjecting 
free territory to the everlasting curse of human bondage. 
The great Benton, in view of the peace and reputation 
of the white people — the peace of the land — the world's 
last hope for a jfree government on the earth, and be- 
cause it was a wrong, condemned its extension and exis- 
tence. Colonel Mason contended slavery discouraged 
the arts and manufactures, made labor disreputable, 
prevented immigration of whites, who enrich and 
strengthen a country, produced pernicious effects on 
manners, made the master a petty tyrant, and invited 
cakmities to the nation. Governor McDowell says this 

21 



242 LIFE IN THis: ARMY. 

The roll call. Ko excuse fur slarory. 

people were born to be free, and their enslavement is in 
violation of the law of Deity. Judge Ire<lell, of North 
Carolina, would rejoice when tlie entire abolition of 
slavery took place. William Pinckney, of Maiyland, 
considered it dishonorable and iniquitous. Thomas 
Marshall, of Virginia, said it was ruinous to the whites. 
Boiling said the time would come when this degraded 
and oppressed people would free themselves from their 
thraldom. Chandler calls it a cancer, and said it would 
produce commotion and bloody strife. Summers said 
the evils could not be enumerated. Preston said the 
slaves were men, and entitled, to human rights. Birney, 
of Kentucky, said the slaveholder had not one atom of 
right to his slave, and that all people rejoice when they 
hear that the oppressed are set free. McLaue, of Dela- 
ware, said, I am an enemy of slavery. Luther Martin, 
of Marj'^land, said slavery is inconsistent with the genius 
of republicanism. 

John Jay called it repugnant to every principle of jus- 
tice and equity. William Jay contended the time had 
arrived when it was necessary to destroy slavery to save 
our own liberty. John Quincy Adams — ^the old man 
eloquent — said it perverted human reason and tainted 
the very sources of moral principle. Webster regarded 
it as a great moral and political evil, sustained by migU 
against rigJU, and in violation of the spirit of religion, 
justice and humanity. Noah Webster claimed freedom 
as the sacred right of every man. De Witt Clinton sa;^s 
the despotisms and slavery of the world would long since 



OBSERVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 248 

The verdict of humanity. The voice of England. 

have vanished, if the natural equality of mankind had 
been understood and practiced. General Joseph Warren 
says personal freedom is the natural right of every man. 
England, through her Mansfields, calls it odious ; her 
Locke, so vile that a gentleman cannot plead for it ; her 
Pitt, that it should not be permitted for a single hour ; 
her Fox compares it to robbery and murder; her Shak- 
speare said that heaven will one day free us from this 
slavery; her Cowper and Miltons have, in immortal 
verse, execrated it ; her Doctor Johnson says no man is, 
by nature, the property of another ; her Doctor Price 
says, if you can enslave another, he can enslave you ; 
her Blackstone tells us we must transgress unjust human 
laws, and obey the natural and divine ; and her Coke, 
Hampden, Wilberforce, and many of her other learned 
and good men, endorsed this doctrine, Ireland's Burke 
said it ought not to be suffered to exist; her Curran de- 
manded universal emancipation; her great O'Connell, 
speaking to his countrymen, said he would not recognize 
them, if they countenanced the horrors of American sla- 
very. Father Mathew said slavery is a sin against Grod 
and man, and called loudly on all true Irishmen to help 
to move on the Car of Freedom. Scotland's voice is as 
potent in condemnation of this stupendous crime. Her 
Beattie said it is opposed to virtue and industry, and 
should be viewed with horror ; her Miller said every 
individual, whatever his country or complexion, is enti- 
tle to freedom. France, speaking through her La Fay- 
ette, the friend of Washington and Liberty, tells the 



244 LIFB IN THE ARMY. 

FntDM and the iincients. The Bible againit darery. 

world he would not have drawn his sword in the cause 
of America, if he could have conceived that thereby he 
was founding a land of slavery ; his grandson said the 
abolition of slavery commanded his entire sympathy. 
Montesquieu said the earth shrank in barrenness fix)m 
the contaminating sweat of a slave. Louis X. said the 
Christian religion and nature herself cried out against 
the state of slavery, and demanded the liberty of all 
men. Rousseau said slavery and right contradicted and 
excluded each other. Brissot viewed it as a d^radation 
of human nature. Schiller, Grotius, Goethe, Luther, 
Humboldt, and thousands of freedom-loving Germans, 
have spoken deeply in condemnation of this n^onster 
iniquity. This noble people were the earliest to denounce 
the sin, and went so far as to declare the slave justifiable 
in the murder of his master who refused to let him go 
free. The greatest of Alexanders has declared, by a 
solemn ukase, the universal enfranchisement of his peo- 
ple, and sixty millions of human beings are thereby made 
fi-eemen, to love God and the ways of justice and virtue. 
Cicero tells us all men are born free, and that law cannot 
make wrong right. Socrates calls slavery a system of. 
outrage and robbery. Plato, that it is a system of the 
most complete injustice. The great Cyrus said that to 
fight in order not to be made a slave, is noble. The 
churches of the world hold this sin as an abomination 
unto the Lord. The true interpretation of the Bible 
])roclaims liberty throughout all the land, unto all the 
inhabitants thereof, and commands us to let the oppressed 



OBSEBVATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS. 246 

No palliation. A free land. 

go free, to call no man master, neither to be called mas- 
ters. Slavery is the black and loathsome sin that will 
not be forgiven in this world, nor the world to come. 
Thus the intelligent and great men of all nations de- 
noance this foal system. 

Now that the rebellion has gone down, and slavery 
with it, never to have a resurrection, we as a free and 
independent people, can universally exclaim : 

"Who would sever Freedom's sbrine? 
Who would draw the invidioas Hoe ? 
Though by birth one spot be mine, 
Dear is all the rest 



"Dear to me the Sooth's fair land ! 
Dear the central mountain band ! 
Dear New England's rooky strand; 
Dear the prairied West ! 

" By onr altars, pure and free ! 
By the law's deep-rooted tree ! 
By the Past's dread memory ! 
By our Washington ! 

''By our common kindred tongue! 
By our hopes, bright, buoyant, young, 
By the tie of country strong ! 
We will still be one ! 



" Fathers, have ye bled in rain ? 
Ages, shall ye droop again ? 
Maker, shall we rashly stain 
Blessings sent by Thee? 
21 » 



246 LIFE IN THE ARMT. 

Otu* heritage. 

" No ! receive onr solemn tow^ 
While before thy throne we bow, 
Ever to muntain, as now, 
'Union, Liberty!'" 

The great danger is past. The "conflict of ages" is 
settled. From the reefs, and shoals of political antago- 
nism, the good old Ship of State is saved. Although 
strained and battered by the " windy storm," she will 
rapidly right herself for a long and prosperous voyage, 
and bear to posterity the freight of universal liberty. 

It becomes every patriot now, to guard well the heri- 
tage God has given us. 

** A Union of lakes — a Union of lands, 
A Union which none can sever ; 
A Union of hearts — a Union of hands. 
And the flag of onr Union forever!" 



HOMEWARD BOUND. 247 



Homeward bound. Th« ** Commonwealth." 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

HOMEWAMJD BOVHTID. 

OPF POR OAIEO-THE STEAMBE "COMMONWEALTH," SECBSH OFPICERS- 
THB CAPTADTS OPINION OP OBSEN BACKS— TREATMENT OF A TJNION 
SOLDIER BT THE CLERK— A REBEL LIEUTENANT GETS « TIGHT"— 
OPINION OF A PASSENGER, AS TO WHERE THE NEW CONSTITUTION 
OF MISSOURI WAS PREPARED— HIS PREFERENCE FOR EX7R0PEAN 
GOTERNMENT— A FEMALE ADYOCATE FOR POOR JEFF— ABANDONED 
PLANTATIONS-PORT HUDSON— BATON ROUGE-NATCHEZ— REAL CHA- 
RACTER OP A PROFESSED UNION MAN— VICKSBURG— THE GREAT 
SIEGE AND CAPTURE-GENERAL DAVIDSON— ELECTION— REBELS IN 
THE ASCENDANT— MARTIAL LAW STILL NECESSARYr-LAKE PROYI- 
DENCE— THE FOURTH JULY ON BOARD-NAPOLEON— MEMPHIS— INCT- 
DENTS— SCENERY— WASTE LANDS— A DROWNED MAN— ARRIVAL AT 
CAIRO— HOME AGAIN. 

I LEFT New Orleans on the 1st of July, 1865, on leave 
of absence, to visit my friends in Pennsylvania, and sup- 
posed, when I stepped on board the steamer " Common- 
wealth," bound up the Mississippi, that I should have 
to return at the expiration of my furlough. Circum- 
stances, however, so altered the case, that my departure 
was for an indefinite period, and my farewell to the scenes 
and associations of the " Crescent City," was perhaps, 
for ever. 

The " Commonwealth" was a first-class riyer-stearaer, 



248 LIFE IN THE ARMT. 

** Ori«f of rebels." Graentacki like the Jewi. 

with ample accommodations for a large passenger list, 
and a pleasant sojourn during the progress of the up- 
ward trip. Her officers, I found to be reserved on the 
subject of outspoken and hearty adhesion to the govern- 
ment Although they rated themselves as Union men, 
yet I more than suspect, the majority of them were 
among the disappointed chivalry, who mourn over the 
misfortuues of the bursted bubble of southern confede- 
racy, and need a severe and thorough "reconstruc- 
tion.^^ 

It is, indeed, a notorious fact that most of the officers 
of the river steamers, all through the war, have been 
do\\Tiright rebels; and many of them have come to 
grief in consequence of their sympathy with treason. 
They have been affi>rded many opportunities for medita- 
tion and amendment in various guard houses and pris- 
ons, under the eye of some of Uncle Sam's boys, with 
fixed bayonets, and a grim determination to "settle their 
hash" without extraordinary provocation, should they 
show a disposition to be unruly. 

The captain of our noble steamer entertains no very 
favorable opinion of "greenbacks." He says, like the 
Jews, they have no redeemer! yet he much prefers, and 
doubtless has for some time past, to receive this kind 
of currency to the scrip of his favorite party in the south, 
when taking an equivalent for passage or freight The 
clerk of the boat appeared to be a little in advance of the 
others in sentiment, and evinced his hatred to our cause 
by inhuman treatmeint of a poor Union soldier on board. 



HOMEWARD BOUND. 249 

A rebel officer tigbt. Aristocracy. 

I felt it to be my duty to interfere in the premises, and, 
but for this, it would have gone very hard with the vet- 
eran in the hands of such cruel and unprincipled rascals 
as these river rebels have shown themselves to be. 

There were quite a large number of passengers on 
board, most of whom were, or professed to be, of the 
straight-out, unterrified, and not-to-be-conquered class 
of secessionists. They made their conversation studiously 
disagreeable and insulting to the friends and flag of this 
glorious union. A rebel lieutenant among them seemed 
to be a special favorite with both the officers and passen- 
gers, and was preyed so earnestly and often to ^^take 
something,'' that he soon became as drunk and as silly 
as a fool, and acted accordingly. A man of sense and 
pati*iotic impulses, in such a crowd, must bear a vast 
amount of insult and impudence, especially from these 
swaggering "Johnny Rebs," who, on the strength of bad 
whisky, fight their battles over again, and immortaUze 
themselves by the tales they repeat of personal bravery 
in killing Yankees. 

The conversation turning on the Missouri constitution, 
an old dilapidated individual declared that, in his opin- 
ion, that document emanated from Massachusetts, and 
was dictated and written somewhere in the meridian 
of Boston. He said he liked the laws of Europe better 
than those of this country, because there the poor man 
was not allowed to vote. I thought, at the time, what 
a great blessing it would be if all these old broken-down 
dignitaries of the aristocratic dynasty that has, thank 



250 LIFE IN THE ARMT. 

Oppodng the goTernment. Abandoned plantationi. 

Grod, been broken up, wonld leave this conntiy. It 
would certainly be for the country's good if they would 
emigrate to the r^ons of despotism, and end their days 
in the worship of peerage and tinseled royalty. 

I heard some of these rebels talk over their plans to 
embarrass the government at every point, and aid those 
who had been in armed rebellion in their efforts to gain 
power and position in the administration of public aflBiirs. 
A secesh female was very earnest in argument with a 
gentleman of union sentiments, showing the virtues of 
Jeff. Davis, and his claims to the love and sympathy 
of the people. The other, however, put an extinguisher 
on the question by saying he ought to be hung. 

In passing up the Mississippi the traveler will see a 
great many abandoned plantations on every hand. Our 
pilot thinks they can never be cultivated with success 
unless slavery be, continued, but we differ with him on 
that point, and time will soon demonstrate the fact that 
he and thousands like him are under a great mistake. 

Port Hudson, La., comes into view, and reminds us 
of General Banks and his forces who lay so long in close 
proximity to this little town. It is situated on the east 
bank of the river, and appears to be a place of but little 
importance, aside from the part it played in the history 
of the war. 

Next appears Baton Rouge, once the capital of the 
state, and the scene of some severe fighting. Natchez is 
quite a large and imposing town, standing on a bold 
bluff on the east bank. A certain man resides there, 



HOMEWABD BOUND. 251 

Singnlar coudact of a "Union" fitthar. Tickibnrg. 

whom the government has confided in, and protected, as 
a staunch friend of the Union ; but when his son who 
had been in the rebel army returned home, after surren- 
dering as a prisoner of war, this supposed Union-loving 
father shut the door in his face because he had disgraced 
Jiimself by a surrender to the Yankees ! This is not the 
first instance, by a Jpng way, in which rebels have hood- 
winked our officers by deception and false pretense. 

Vicksburg, Mississippi, soon comes into notice. This 
place is memorable, as offering such a long and stubborn 
resistance to General Grant, who finally captured it and 
took possession on July 4th, 1864. It is a city of about 
eight thousand inhabitants, and is four hundred miles 
above New Orleans. It is now under guard by a force 
of fifteen hundred colored troops, with (Jeneral Davidson 
as commander of the post. I heard a couple of the citi- 
zens invite this officer up to drink with them, and he re- 
fused to do so, which fact raised him considerably in my 
estimation. There had been an election held here on 
July 1st, in which the rebels, as in all other places, under 
the present policy of reconstruction succeeded in elect- 
ing candidates of the most ultra Southern stripe. Grovernor 
Sharkey^s private secretary, I am told, is an ex-rebel 
colonel, which, however well such an arrangement may 
suit the views of the people, is an insult to loyally. The 
South is highly pleased with the present attitude of the 
general government, and most agreeably disappointed in 
the measures of leniency pursued towards some of her 
most criminal and dangerous citizens. They have every- 



252 LIFE IN THE ARMT. 

unitary role DMd«d. A sorry ** fourth of JoJ j * 

thing their own way in many places, and are as insolent 
and overbearing as ever. Give them the reins again, 
and Union-loving people most flee for their lives. Let 
them manage their own afiairs, and liberty, law, and 
everything for which our brave armies fonght, is as 
much a dead letter as if they, and not us, were the con- 
querors. If order and peace is to be restored, and life 
and property protected, if the colored man is indeed a 
freeman, and his friends are to have liberty of speech, 
nothing will answer yet awhile but strong military occu- 
pation, and the steady hand of martial law, until these 
traitors are thoroughly subjugated and safely recon- 
structed. 

Leaving Vicksburg, our course was still up the river, 
when the morning of the glorious Fourth dawned upon 
us. The day passed, I am ashamed to say, without the 
least demonstration on board our floating 'palace, to sig- 
nify the joy of American citizens, not only in memory of 
the Declaration of Independence, but in celebration of 
our victory over the combinations of internal treason, 
and the overthrow of the bogus Confederacy. "While 
cannon are thundering, bonfires blazing, and the hearts 
of millions in the great North and "West throbbing with 
emotions of thankfulness to our fiithers' God, here we are 
cabined and confined among a set of sulky passengers, 
who it seems would rather curse than bless the starry 
flag that waves in triumph elsewhere to-day. Even the 
flag is not hoisted on our boat, which shows beyond all 
question that the captain is a rebel. 



HOMEWARD BOUND. 253 

BemonstxatioD on the lower deck. AttractioiiB of Memphis. 

When I say there was no demonstration on board, I 
ought perhaps to make an exception in favor of the 
American citizens of African descent, who got up a 
rousing dance on the lower deck, and enjoyed themselves 
in their own peculiar style, without let or hindrance. 

I noticed, as we passed, a place called Lake Provi- 
dence, but there is nothing of importance about the 
place, except a steamboat landing. Successively, we 
passed Napoleon, Arkansas; White River, Friar's Point, 
Mississippi ; and Helena, and reached the City of Mem- 
phis, which is on the Tennessee side on a high bluff, and 
occupies the most notable and commanding site for a 
city, between Cairo and the Belize. Memphis contained 
a population of over forty thousand before the rebellion. 
The war was damaging to its business interests to a very 
large extent, but trade is reviving, and things b^in to 
assume a lively appearance about the streets and landing 
again. The city is very attractive to a stranger, who 
will find here many evidences of taste, enterprise, and 
refinement. Fort Pinckney commands both the city 
and river front, with its rows of heavy guns. " Court 
Square," in the centre of the city, is a very beautiful 
place. 

Fort Pillow may be seen on the east bank as you pass, 
and is memorable as the scene of a diabolical massacre 
of Union soldiers and citizens, including even women 
and children by the blood-thirsty vagabonds who com- 
posed Forrest's marauding band. The very name will, 
in all future time be a standing rebuke to the wicked 

22 



254 LIFB IK THB ARMY. 

Low laadB. * Warte placM." 

men, who let loose sDch demons on a defenseless few, 
and mardered them in cold blood. Surely a just God 
will remember such wicked acts^ and not allow the guilfy 
to live and die unpunished. 

New Madrid is on the Missouri side of the river, and 
appears to some advantage. Hickman is next reached, 
^and there is but little left of it, after the numerous raids 
that were made by parties, whose delight seemed to be 
destruction, and whose track was everywhere marked by 
devastation and ruin. Columbus comes into view, and 
is, as will be remembered, the highest point on the river 
where the rebels attempted to fortify themselves, and 
withstand the onset of our armies. Large portions of 
the country all the way up from New Orleans, are low, 
and constantly liable to inundations; the scenery is very 
monotonous, presenting few features of attraction to the 
eye of a traveler. 

There are millions of acres of unoccupied land all 
along the banks of the Mississippi, which, doubtless, in 
the course of time, will be reclaimed and put in a state 
of cultivation. But population must increase, and im- 
migration turn its mighty tide in this direction ; then 
improvement will b^in, and the great valley, capable 
itself of supporting one hundred millions of people, 
will become the very heart of our immense country. 

On the 6th of July, as we were rapidly steaming 
against the current^ an object was observed floating on 
the surfece of the river, which, as it swept past, proved 
to be the body of a drowned man. This sight awakened 



HOMEWARD BOUND. 255 

A drowned iniui. ScenM io Cairo. 

some peculiar and sad reflections in my mind. Who was 
he? Where and how did the life, so dear to him, and 
perhaps so valuable to friends or family, suddenly close? 
and whither drifting, without a coffin, a tear, or the rites 
of Christian burial ? 

My destination was Cairo, 111., which was reached in 
due time, and going on shore, I enjoyed an opportunity 
of giving this celebrated place, which figured so promi- 
nently in connection with military operations conducted 
by the great western wing of the Union army, a tho- 
rough personal examination. It is located at the junc- 
tion of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, and covers the 
point of land which lies between both. It is now a 
large, populous, and flourishing town, having improved 
greatly since the commencement of the war. The chief 
drawback to its prosperity arises from the constant dan- 
ger there is, when the rivers rise, to be overflowed. Le- 
vees and embankments protect it ordinarily, and the cit- 
izens, to be provided against emergencies, have con- 
structed sidewalks at an elevation of ten to fifteen feet 
above the surface of the ground, on which they may 
travel to and fro in times of high water, and enter their 
dwellings tlirough the second or third story window. It 
is said that this is quite an unhealthy locality, but men 
will brave health for the sake of wealth, and go through 
fire as well as flood to accomplish the purposes of their 
worldly ambition. The locality, if the ground were 
higher, would suit admirably for a very large and enter- 
prising city. 



J 



256 LIFE IN THB ABMY. 

On to Pbiladttphia. Bamt •gda. 

My next mode of transit w^s by rail to Indianapolis, 
thenoe to Pittsbarg, and on to Philadelphia, where I ar- 
rived safely on the 8th of July, making the entire trip 
from New Orleans in eight days. I need not here detail 
the incidents of my rapid railroad journey, and could 
not, if even I tried, describe the feelings with which I 
once more entered the dty of Brotherly Love. Ap- 
proaching it, the very spires and domes, its uniform 
blocks of brick and mortar, and regular streets and 
squares, and, more than all, its people, among whom I 
claim many cherished friends, gave me indescribable joy. 



CONCLUSION. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

CONCLVSIOy, 

HUSTERED OUT— REVIEW OF lOUB TEABS-OBSERTATIONS ON THE PRO- 
SECUTION OF THE WAR-DESPERATION OF THE ENEM7— NECK OR 
NOTHING— ABSURBITT OF THE MILK-AND-WATER POUCT— MEANNESS 
OF NORTHERN ALLIES OF JEFF. DATI8— THE CONSTITUTION— SELF- 
PRESERVATION— TRAITORS SHOULD BE HUNG-OOBONG EVENTS— 
THE SOUTH A SPOILED CHILD— RECONSTRUCTION— THE PISTOL AND 
BOWIE KNIFE POLICY— CHARACTER OF THE MEN WHO FOUGHT THE 
FIGHT— BRAVERT AND ENDURANCE— A JUST CAUSE— FAITH IN GOD 
—OVERTHROW OF SLAVERY, THE FUTURE OF THE COLORED RACE- 
SOUTHERN HATRED— OPPRESSION— SWORN ENEMIES SHOULD NOT BE 
ALLOWED TO CONTROL THE COUNTRT— EQUALITT TO ALL— NO DANGER 
OF COLLISION— THE NATION'S NEEDS— A GENERAL REVIVAL OF RE- 
LIGION— TQE TRUE BOND OF UNION— LESSONS OF THE WAR. 

With the obligation resting upon me to return to New 
Orleans, and report myself for duty within a specified 
time, I was hurrying through a round of very pleasant 
visits, to places, and persons associated with my earlier 
life, and making preparations for my departure, when, 
on the 25th of August, 1865, a document found its way 
to my tempoi'ary address, the contents of which gave me 
the highest degree of satisfaction. The rapid reduction 
of the army, the breaking up of hospitals, and the con- 

22 * 257 



I 



258 LIFE IK THE ARliY. 

A journey obrUtad. Mmtered out. 

sequent duty of mustering out of service, a large pro- 
portion of post and army Chaplains, brought me the 
welcome relief of an honorable discharge from farther 
service in the relation I had sustained. Not that such 
service was disagreeable, or that I had become weary in 
ray work, for I did not intend to back out of responsi- 
bility so long as in the judgment of others I was needed : 
but it was natural to suppose, had I returned, it would 
have only involved a tedious journey there, and in a short 
time, home again for good. My papers, therefore, came 
at a most opportune moment, and in a very brief period 
of correspondence with the Department, I had the grati- 
fication to feel that my accounts were all settled, and 
my record approved in an honorable and satis&ctory 
manner. 

It remained, therefore, for me to turn my attention to 
the demands of duty in civil life, and again fall in line 
with my brethren and fellow-laborers, of the Philadel- 
phia Conference, as a worker in the ranks of the regular 
itinerancy. 

In giving the foregoing chapters a hasty review, I 
find but &w subjects &lling within the scope of my title 
page, that have not been touched upon, and however 
brief, or incidental the allusion, yet my views have been 
stated and observations given, with frankness, emphasis, 
and a strict r^ard to unvarnished fact. 

As I look back over the record of four fleeting years, 
and try to compass in my thoughts the wonderful story 
of war, with its marshaled millions, its fierce encounters. 



CONCLUSION. 259 



The drama closed. Gaie of Israel. 



its rapid evolutdous, its sad, and yet thrilliDgly grand re- 
sults, I suppose I am not alone when I confess, that the 
whole drama, upon which the curtain has now faillen, is 
more like a dream than the reality. 

The historian who shall faithfully write this record, 
will not lack for evidence of the great truth, that there 
is a " God in history ;" that " his ways are not our ways, 
neither are his thoughts our thoughts/' He sets his 
bounds, appoints his own times, modes, and seasons for 
mighty revolutions ; and then, as though perfectly na- 
tural causes, conspired to render certain results inevitable, 
He, the Almighty Ruler, works out the counsels of his 
mil, whoever and whatever may oppose. 

Look at Israel in the land of groaning I Look at 
tribes, and peoples down the roll of past centuries, cry- 
ing, O Lord ! how long? Look at men professing to be 
wise, planning, predicting, and foreshadowing this, that, 
or the other event, as contingent on their theories of go- 
vernment, morals, or philosophy : but " He that sitteth 
in the heavens, shall laugh : the Lord shall have them 
in derision V^ 

''Blind unbelief is sure to err, 
And scan his work in vain; 
God is his own interpreter, 
And he will make it plain." 

Who does not now see plainly that this nation needed 
a chastisement of just such a character and in just such 
proportion as it has received for its complicity with the 
"sura of all villanies;" its subserviency to proud, wicked 



260 LIFE IN THE ARMY. 

Th« ways of ProYidenca. DeTelopment of ideal. 

men, and its time-serving and truckling policies for party 
power and the lust of office, of wealth, and of godless 
ambition ! 

It was written of old, " He will not forget the cry 
of the needy," and, "although hand join in hand, the 
wicked shall not go unpunished/' Behold the fulfil- 
ment! Truth, long crushed to earth, comes forth in its 
native proportions of beauty; righteousness, trodden un- 
der foot, asserts its sway ; and now a redeemed nation 
should humbly adore the providence, the power, and the 
mercy that has saved it from shipwreck and final de- 
stfiiction. 

From stage to stage of development we have been led 
on successively until ideas once spumed as crude, unrea- 
sonable, or insane, are adopted ; and education goes on 
year after year of bloody war, until seeming impossibil- 
ities become the recognized doctrines and practical out- 
growths of the exigencies of these tremendous years of 
civil strife. The " considerate judgment of mankind," 
to which the great Lincoln appealed in closing that im- 
mortal proclamation which unfettered millions of bond- 
men, after appalling wonder and reluctant assent, slowly, 
but surely and soundly, comes round, with its confirma- 
tory sanction, its calm endorsement, and, finally, its un- 
measured applause ; until the world is resounding with 
the paeans of liberty to all, victory for right, and the 
principle of free government and republican liberty vin- 
dicated, settled, and established on the American con- 
tinent forever ! 



CONCLUSION. 261 



What hath God vrronght Blindness before destruction. 

"From this time," therefore, "it shall be said, *What 
hath Ood wrought?' " For " God" hath gained for his 
own eternal name the glorj and strength, the wisdom 
and might, the honor and everlasting praise. Infidelity 
has waned before the nation's growing faith, and men 
who refer events to accident or chance, have learned, in 
the school of rigid trial, a better and more consistent 
philosophy. 

It is useless now to speculate as to what might or might 
not have been the consequences of this or that cause. 
As surely as Pharaoh's eyes were blinded, and his heart 
allowed to grow more and more implacable, so surely 
did that Being who presides over the destinies of na- 
tions, and in whose hands are the hearts of all men, al- 
low the leaders of the great rebellion to become infatu- 
ated with their folly, and insane as to the end of their 
mad revolt The mustering of armies, the furore, the 
fiery zeal, and the reckless desperation of the enemy, 
growing more vicious in the flush of apparent success, 
and more callous in the midst of disaster and defeat, all 
combined to make the final catastrophe to their arms, 
their flag, their boasted prowess, resources, and the staple 
of their sunny clime; and to the comer-stone and pillar 
of their Confederacy, more signal and irreparable. 

Abolitionists wrote, reasoned, and often raved, against 
the institution of slavery : philanthropists perilled life, 
in the endeavor to scatter a little light, where darkness, 
bitterness, and cruelty reigned ; Christians prayed and 
waited, and lo ! after all, the abettors, the advocates, and 



262 LIFE IN THE ARMY. 

Suicide like Stimaon. Rule or min. 

the actual owners of " personal property" in flesh and 
bones, and blood, themselves strike the blow, that re- 
bounds and breaks the manacles from shrivelled hands, 
almost paralyzed with long " stretching forth unto the 
Lord of Sabaoth." 

Slaveholders become their own executioners, and 
blindly, like Samson, pull down the temple, they had 
reared, in crashing ruin on their own heads. The boom 
of that gun pointed at the " Star of the West," standing 
in toward Sumter one day, rolls on, reverberating as the 
knell, the death-knell of American slavery. Its tones 
struck terror to southern hearts, and this is wliy their 
cause became a " neck or nothing" affair. From the 
start it was their motto to "rule, or ruin," and the 
wonder now is that our government failed so long to com- 
prehend the situation, and leaned toward mercy, com- 
promise, and milk-and-water policy, until its own honor 
and very life, had well nigh gone down, in the black, 
seething whirlpool of domestic insurrection. 

We can recall the facts of 1861, when statesmen could 
with impunity extol Jeff. Davis, and newspapers assail 
the powers that be ; when a great political party joined 
hands with our desperate foes to subvert civil liberty, and 
all the vulgar epithets in the dictionary, were marshalled 
and used against the man whose honest heart welled out 
in " Charity toward all, and malice toward none ;" when 
caricatures, inuendoes, and malicious slanders were used 
to inflame the rabble, and bring the bloody tide of war 
to all portions of the noble north! And now, these 



CONCLUSION. 268 



Th« Constitation. Self-prcserration. 



mean, unprincipled, and, as yet unhung, incendiaries in 
the north, step forward like Betsy's poltroon of a 
husband, in the story, to claim their share of credit in 
killing the bear 1 Only a few days ago, one of these 
sham democratic bedlamites actually declared that it was 
his party and its principles that saved the nation, and 
suppressed the rebellion! O shame! where is thy 
blush? 

It was a favorite, and very popular rallying-cry with 
these detestable traitors in the rear, to say the " Consti- 
tution" had been violated, the safeguards of Liberty 
destroyed, and under the beneficent working of a sus- 
pension of the habeas corpus, they felt insecure and very 
unhappy. 

No doubt of it. " No rogue e'er felt the halter draw 
with good opinion of the law." So with them. Loyal 
men were not in mortal ti*epidation, did not rail against 
martial law, or feel their hearts thump, at every knock 
at their doors. They could sleep at nights, and go about 
their business with a clear conscience. They knew 
moreover, that this hue and cry about the " Constitution" 
was all " clap trap." In no single article, section, para- 
graph or line, had that glorious instrument been over- 
leaped. Does it not expressly provide for emergencies ? 
Does it not specify the duty of the executive, in times 
of insurrection ? Does it not make his duties impera- 
tive, under a solemn oath ? Has it not inherently the 
principle and the power of self-preservation ? And does 
it not afford authority to hang traitors ? Ah ! there's the 



26i LIFE IN THE AKMY. 

A dance <»i nothing. Who shall mla. 

rub. Carry out the Constitution and you may depend 
on it, the price of hemp will take an upward tendency ; 
for there are thousands who are fit for nothing, in all 
candor and earnestness, but to execute a modern horn- 
pipe with their toes above the surface ! 

The^hangman has, however, been oflen cheated of his 
due, and in all probability many, if not most of these 
flagrant offenders will, true to the wriggling and slip- 
pery propensities of their namesake, escape the just re- 
ward of their deeds. 

What concerns the future of this country now is the 
great question, " Who shall rule ?" " Coming events," 
it is said, "cast their shadows before," and the indica- 
tions are growing fearfully significant and strong that 
the animus of treason is not quite extinct. Like the old 
field adder, a little warmth of public patronage or politi- 
cal power, will restore their poisonous propensities North 
and South, and soon we shall have all the knavery of 
democracy permeating our national counsels, if the cop- 
perheads are not kept under. 

The South, like a spoiled child, has been petted with 
government pap so long, and indulged in its fits of bad 
humor, during which it has upset and broken things 
generally, to such an extent that its old proclivity is 
returning as though nothing had happened, and about the 
very halls of the White House and the doors of Congress, 
hungry tribes of ex-generals — colonels — captains and 
heads of headless departments have the brazen effrontery 
to congregate; no longer it is true, with pistol and 



CONCLUSION. 265 



An old XMdr of brMChca. Baconttrnction. 

bowie-knife blustering for their rights, but whining for 
something in the way of position and power. 

I suppose most of these fallen heroes, if they can't 
command a seat in the Senate, or a place in the Cabinet, 
or even a few thousand a year in some subordinate 
office where there is nothing to do but chew tobacco, 
would come down, like the office-hunter in General 
Jackson's day, to accept thankfully an old pair of 
breeches ! 

Seriously, the best method of " reconstruction," and 
the safest for posterity and future peace, is to allow no 
man or set of men who have taken part in the murder 
of Union soldiers or citizens, and who premeditated the 
murder of the nation itself, to hold any office whatever. 
Let good, honest Union men who have a clean record 
be sent into all the Southern Territory, and back them 
up with the irrepressible bayonet, at whatever expense 
to the national exchequer, and let the laws be adminis- 
tered by those who are reliable, and not by vagabonds 
who have proved themselves to be recreant to everjf 
obligation, &ithless to every trust, and whose "recon- 
struction" to be valid, should be like the little boy's old 
knife which needed new blades, new spring, and a bran 
new buck-horn handle ! It is folly to play with fire. It 
is absurd to expect honor and fidelity where both have 
been outraged. A perusal of the daily papers will con- 
vince any unprejudiced mind that there is a great deal 
of work in the way of subjugation yet to be done, and a 
great deal of wisdom and firmness needed to do it. 

23 



266 LIFE m THB ARMT. 

▲ plMt for the soldier. Bndnruice and bravery. 

As a measure of sheer justice, as well as national safety, 
the men to colonize, control, and revolutionize the old 
ideas and order of things in the late rebel states, are 
those who fought the fight and, under Gk)d, saved the 
country. 

Some will say they are unfit for such responsibilities. 
Why so? Who are they? With some exceptions, that 
have been easily detected, the great majority of our 
officers, yea, and multitudes of the steady, patriotic sol- 
diers, are men of the finest education, genteel in manners, 
refined in character, liberal in their views, and well versed 
in the science of government. Those who suppose our 
officers and men were mere adventurers have not wit- 
nessed what I have seen. In the camp, on the march, 
in battle, or maimed with wounds in the hospital, these 
brave men were true as steel. Not a murmur from their 
lips, even under the knife, or a sigh of regret while 
pining in loneliness. And why? ""^ecause the cause in 
which they embarked was, to their inmost souls' con- 
ikiousness, a just one. Because they had firm reliance 
on God, and believed the great issue was in his hands, 
and would be successful. 

These men undet*stand the posture of affairs. They 
fought to reestablish the national authority, and plant 
again the flag in every spot where the one had been 
defied, and the other insulted and spit upon. And more 
than this. They have discrimination enough to know 
the cause, and reprobate the occasion of resistance against 
a benign government. They pressed their energies to- 



COKCLUSION. 267 



Safety for the negro. Fatare of the race. 

ward the extirpation of that cause. For the overthrow 
of slavery they endured the toil and braved the danger 
which met them at every turn. And they mean that 
this business shall be a finality. Slavery in any form, 
oppression in every respect, and the avarice that wrings 
out of the sweat of the poor, defenseless, and unlettered 
African the means for pampered idleness, they are deter- 
mined shall never lift its hydra-head again. 

In the hands of good, true, untainted loyal men, alone, 
the poor negro is safe from indignity, imposture, and 
continued degradatiou. Leave the freedmen to the ten- 
der mercies of their former ownei-s as neighbors, and they 
shall be hunted like sheep, and ground under the heel 
of a hatred tliat has lately become intensified to fury. 

The future of the colored race in this land is one 
of the problems over which hangs a thick vail of obscu- 
rity. Shall the prophets who have declared their exter- 
mination, or the politicians who have sneered at their 
efforts to become intelligent and useful citizen^, or the 
demagogues who catch the ague every time politi JP 
equality is mentioned — shall these have things all their 
own way?. God forbid! 

He that hath so strangely opened up for this long- 
neglected people a path through the deep waters, will 
feed them in their present wilderness state, and spread 
his covering wings around their unprotected heads ; and 
in due time we shall see a silver lining fringe the gloomy 
cloud, and a future for this race which will be charac- 
terized by independence, consideration, and respect, and 



268 LIFE IN THE ABMY. 

** Free and wtoaL" A firm podtion. 

advancement to that inheritance to which the fathers of this 
nation declared all men to be bom. 

The Declaration of Independence and the Emancipa-^ 
tion Proclamation must now be framed together. The 
great fact announced in the former becomes a practical 
thing in the latter, and is now the supreme law of this 
" heaven-fiivored land," although it required fournscore 
years of schooling to bring the popular conscience and 
heart squarely up to its avowal and maintenance. 

Southern hatred must be put under bonds for decent 
behaviour. Oppression must cease, and the sworn 
enemies of our nation must be educated into proper sub- 
jection by the " logic of events," and the strong and 
steady hand of centralized power. 

Instead of becoming our rulers these late rebels must 
accept the " issue of battle," and in a generation or two, 
perhaps, their descendants may become eligible to public 
confidence and a share in the government 

In the doctrine of human equality before the law, and 
'^^this position I take my stand, there appears to me to 
be nothing like danger to liberty or disaster to the inter- 
nal harmony and peace of the community. There can 
be no collision of races unless it is provoked by the whit€ 
people. It is reduced to an absolute certainty that the 
educated colored man, if let alone, will not meddle with 
us. Treat him fairly and he will appreciate your kind- 
ness. Pay him for his labor and he will earn faithfully 
his bread and butter. Let him vote — ah! here's the 
tiouble — ^and he wonH vote for old hunkers ; he won't 



CONCLUSION. 269 



The world mourn. Oar louree of itr«n|^. 

forget who the copperheads were ; he will tell his chil- 
dren and his children's children to beware of a part)*^ 
that rose to power and long maintained supremacy solely 
on oppression of the colored race ; and to its last gasp, 
tried to rivet the chains on that people with merciless 
Vigor and unabated cruelty. 

Well — the world moves ! What a transition in five 
years ? What a triumph of principle over self-interest, 
pride, and sectional bitterness, we can rejoice in to-day ? 
The black man is a freeman, at least in form. The white 
man who wanted liberty of opinion, of speech, and of 
the press, is free. The Bible is unfettered and the gos- 
pel is free ! Hallelujah ! 

No longer can " Mason and Dixon's line" bound the 
spread of liberal sentiments, popular education, or the 
fifty-eighth chapter of Isaiah! We have now a fair 
field, and may Grod prosper the right 

Before the calamity of war overspread the land with 
darkness and wailing, there came an unseen hand, ^. 
silent, but powerful force of conviction, which toudieq^ 
the hearts, and tendered the feelings of tens of thousands, 
leading them to prayer, repentance, and trust in Christ, 
as the all-sufficient and only Saviour. We recall the 
great revival of 1858, and its incidents of dirilling 
power, and gracious visitation of the Holy Spirit, What 
does this whole nation need most at present? 

One will say "a chief magistrate, who understands 
his responsibility, and will do right." Another will 

23* 



270 LIFE m THE AKMY. 

Xffectt of religion. Signi of piroiniM. 

look to the Congress of the nation, and say, ^^ Here is the 
centre and source of our strength and safety.'' 

Others will give opinions as diverse as their own vary- 
ing views, on ^^ reconstruction/' tariff, taxes, and com- 
merdal, or industrial interests. But this whole country 
needs, now, more than anything else, in my judgment, a 
wide-spread, deep, and powerful revival of the work of 
God. This alone can make crooked paths straight, and 
rugged places, in every department, even. This alone, 
can furnish an enduring basis, and eflectual bond of fra- 
ternity between enemies and friends. 

This will heal the breach, restore the waste places, and 
bring forth in the desert land springs of water, and the 
bloom of posterity again. A thorough revival, in which 
God's people shall be quickened to holy zeal, and sinners 
by hundreds of thousands, converted from the error of 
their ways, will right up the gallant ship that was so 
nearly stranded, and fill the hamlets and homes of the 
nation, where mourning has been endured for a weary 
li^ight, with joy and rejoicing. 

For a revival then let Christ's ambassadors preach, 
and all his people pray, until the little cloud appearing, 
shall spread over all the sky, and teeming showers of 
blessing come on the thirsty land. Then shall there be 
a sound in the tops of the mulberry-trees, and the God 
whose goodness we have all seen and acknowledged, 
will be honored and glorified, and He will return unto 
us, and cause his fiice to shine, and we shall be saved. 

It is coming ! The drops are falling ! Sinners are 



CONCLUSION. 271 



Leatons of the war. Finis. 



crying ! Saints are full of immortal hope ! The churches 
in this city, and elsewhere, — O may it be so everywhere! 
are waking up to effort, and the prospect is that even as 
in former times, and much more abundantly, our Father 
in heaven will rquiember Zion, and turn the hearts of 
the disobedient to the wisdom of the just. 

The lessons of the war will be lost on us unless we 
are brought nigh to the throne : unless the whole na- 
tion is humbled on account of sin, and then exalted on 
account of practical righteousness. " Help, Lord !" "It 
is time for Thee to work !" And for us, a people pre- 
served to Thy praise, " It is high time to awake out of 
sleep." 

As I lay down my weary pen, and commit these 
pages to the press, I am happy to assure the reader, 
that in preaching salvation to perishing souls, and point- 
ing the inquirer to the Lamb of God, I hope to spend 
the remnant of my days. Pray, that my faith may &^ 
not, and that we may meet at last on the banks of eter- 
nal deliverance ! 



THB END. 



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