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Open 1 
10 Am r 
1(11 9 p m 

general c^nvenisnceof Subsvrtbcr^ n 
ir-Mrl;-Tetiirft of aajoloiht ubroiy ] 





■ON, ESQ. 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^V ^^1 A tmr^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^M 


^^^^H 0«, THt ^^^^^1 



^^^^^^^^ "tiu mn-woE gr a va^waUiV." ^^M 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H fl^F l^^^^B*'^ - ^^^^P^r^^^H^^^^Blfi' ^^^^^^^^^^1 

^^^^^ ^^H 


^^H ^M 




It Is a eingulor f&ct, thtit in the uiiddJc of lie 
nineteenth centuiyi there ia lesa known of Uueaia 
lUaii of fl.ny aiher (^iiuntry, — mont c«rtiiiiJy, tluin 
of any other country in Rur*i[>e>' — anil ytitmore is 
•aid of It, more obloquy ib b^s.pL'J ui>ou >t, and 
more unjnBt etatemonts mode concorning it than 
it dt^crvcs, witli M ite ftLulU. Kitmour^ take ihc 
place of facts, anJ In tlie eatiniatioa ihf tJie worliJ^ 
KiUEts \s conaiilcred a^ an ntiappnuictiLhlF^ limits 
m kind of baxrtor to the advancee of crvilieed 

Il3 Stormy ecae and chcorlcaa cUmate dcterrc<I 
even tho enterprise of commercial adventure, till 
within tlie last two hunOriKl yoorfl ; attl h similar 
prestige jid regards private intercour^^ aeeme now 
to effect the epiril of individual curiosity and 

Tlie author of tlie following pag<5s has not tli« 
vanity to believe thai hia ftw alight aketi^hes will 
supply all that la wanting of ioiormation on th« 




Bubject of Eus^a, nor that the mere outline of 
facts and deacripdon of incidental ecenea, conveyed 
in a familiar correspondence, will represent a 
perfect picture of the country; but still he hopes 
that what he haa written may assist in giving a 
tolerable idea of the country and its inhabitants, 
and in forming just opinions of the Imperial 
system of government. 

London^ l&i8. 



Hghnitilff - — Ucmorks ou tlitf Eujiviur I'aul^t D»l!i.^ 
I^Aboln of EgpHfiis^E 'iJiJ of tiaiiaiial Jtalouvy. — Diif in uf i 
TmvuHtfr-^-C'litirJi'teToflht HiiE-JqiiK, — Voyngti to Hvntttiig, 

Simui Duut' — Uuuil rriNu Uiiuiliuij; t» LuLxJuk- — Lubcrlu 

■^^Vofiigv up thu BhIeEc Kictiangp of Sli«itn lIo«Uk 

Vlolcul TombJo, — Arpival ac St. Potertbuf^ — Prohlbhtdi 
Qj iRad.— AlHvniv uf PiiasjioK, — Puiuii^ntt cuuAutiiL uinlL^r 
Guarit- — Rhbpr^ tiitfi T.ffti-ptr. — Stt^B vrith [IinoiUri OfSi^er- 
^Fpgliftgi of ConBlniint tf iiTL^pi^hfiiiJ b^ Trnvullrtp jp Bu^a 
^ExiiitiiJiJitivp by ll](T«Gret PdIIik - . . Fugv 1 


SiuDDHT Night* Eti UuMin — SI«puig VillH^FV — FlKt Aipv9l 

tff Su rcltiabur;-^ — Tymouy nnd EiiOFtion. — Lnw tif ihc 
€«iiad-kLip, — KHieBcyvra Brihi:^'^ nL-Liitrniliniiig li^Pl'cts jT 
Ua^mli^m.^ Hilling Ftini-'ipl^r uf Hit iCiivnans. — l^rnTuifteitl 
Fuitufcfi aT BIp Pcivrabur^i — Strcuts and SigiiHrc?. — Hovsn 
aail FumlUirPh — Tw Wiuitc FaliUK. — SiugnW Cu^iom in 

ItayLl IC«id?nccL..— liio CuiravitrrL ami Si^rrdoin I'hf 

AdcuirpJt* Squ&Tc — A1ank>lith ofllie Emperor Alciimdor, — 
Smtvv at TftLT the GrnL^ ^lili^L-") i^rulic. '^ Ituttta ai]4 
Jto^rdlug llouivt — ^i^ir-importunce cf omundpiitrd Serfs IG 


* Patfmnl Govcmrntnt '" uf RuHia,— Hflbiii of Ihs Bvpil 

A. 4 



*— Fiini*h»ment ^r Flogging. — Ai'i'irrn'y Jmpr^nnme™!, — 
Ifoword And otli^T fhiliiiiLLtoptbl^. — StaUi vf PtUoiiq in 
Tlu%ia. — SilitKa lUv Doom <ir Lbk' CunJrmnifJ.^- Fatal CuiJ- 
«^iim|i:^ uf imprioDiiLAg Witni^Aua.— Tj-rBriELy of f lie Tc- 
Uii* --------- Piigo 3fl 


Cuivpraik] DroAil of It^y Police. ^ Penally of Impcriol Cfw- 
dcALviiiun, — ' Inatii'tja] Um^ia. — CcFGJUDDy uJ' Ivbuuii^ llifi 
Walen. — Tt^U^lon of Ru'^iiiL — Flirting in Ltnt and Fcostlug 
•I li^aitcr.^ Bunion Suji^nvliliun and FatmLLBn - ^ iS 


dcU^on of KinHiA. — Thi> Mwiiigc Ceremoaf^ — Funeml 
HitT>.^Tlia PAH]jori to Urovtii!'— -■ Ri-cLillcciii^ci Moiida/*" 
— NiiLonal Chamcier intiuf iLccd by Religinr iiad Sujientition. 
— 'Dvipolum t^t-f.-ti ta jif\-tAov yri-ludimfi, — TAtviil ami 
CoutBflC oF the H^mpcruf Nicliulo!!. — IK' quLllt ihc CJiolrrn 
lliiftj willi u wuriL — CliutL'li ArvUittiLCuiv oT Ru^tin, — Durk 
Com^lenLDiuof Chrvil ami tTiL- Vir^n MothtM'. . — Coittuintf of 
Fricjtt> of thu Crmk Church . . - . . fig 


Porildus FofiJtiDii of St Fottnlmrjj — Amhitmiw Fitlii^y cif 
ItuKia. — Frc^uL^dt R\se cf the Ni^vji. — JiLuniialioM of Sr. 
Fvi^Mnborgi — CtikiiK — Dri<]gL-« o»tr tlic Neva. — * Huhuui 
Vvnaliiy. — lee Fields — TToTtiti^-matebc* Dii lb* loP-.— Ii¥ 
HJli>, — Englibh Ici^buBt.^ — Cetvinoi^y of Dpcning tiio Uivor. 
^Grobs TiulaiiL'^oriieLly TjraDuy.— Auibitiikiitfnd fiervjijty 
af the Penple. — Kiiifnjile of Fliii^mTi ■' Di»cipU(ic."-"Thp 
TTogbcEakoi Family. — Thurmoincltfn, — t'lieikomena of ifii- 
iiviini ColJ,— rJryiii^ CfoLl^tH by Truit, ^ Euinous Efl<cl« uf 
want of Snow.— Preimrmioiia fur Wiiiipr--^ ^TngicHl Efliiffn 
of KiitiB Froit. — Slcdgvfl. <— Ei^uipngv of tUt Kmpreai. >- 
Ccimow of the CoMhUM .••--< 74 


IKAvuttIn of th« Huska Lart|:iii|fc.— Shop^ljn* Mid lo- 

tpriptioHA- ^- Sop4rLi1# tXii^i^"* utigned lo pvtievltf 'TWd9»~ 
— Qiciniils fi^utiticil ^/ llic P«h«, — Sliiking TeibIhiuk of 

Kub-kUii SvrvilUy- — Buiii|ueiiit n HuitUiiiiCJuli.^Imuiiinilitj' 
of Iwivly \n Kunki^, — Pretiiliwo« of GimbliiigT — Foimillinj 
AajrEvm.^ Poy SotJlcTH.' — T^e Antj tlir tmljr %iur«c of 

J)illH<iint CUsft«« of SwiJDEy dcTiriL^d bj Lair.^'rian Elat of 
BliBiib — 'nii^ii Pmilfjf« and Ci>iD|>anLiLui.— Ndttvc Mu- 
ditnit cbucd luidtr iIikv Quilila. — Ftin-i^Ji MLTcltanii — 
NNRV INliOHj LDd Coloiiivlh-^DiiieJiir^d Suldiun.'— 
£feaiDfipaii?i ScrTi. -- Tiilw oFolber NuEioii^— Scfft ctf tho 
flwl.'-' Cunditicn uid TEvatiiiait uF Sgi-Ih^— ItwkJtHbiiukt tit 
lh> Ftfiibl t'flrit.^ [j'unmtr ■laniig thu Sprfi,— P^imliiliun 
of iHiBiMi? oi StAte. —EnxbeaXtJnent a( Eoglith (tubvirip-> 
liga fji ihe i^iiirtief^ je "M^nnw,-^ hkiufrotiCton of SviTa,^ 

levied on ihuQ. — Eniiotf*)!!; of lIiv ■miill<r titri Owners-— 

Ibe Empomr. — AsEUii; ClutuoUr of ItUHitiin CmtiiniCK- IDT 


AiBLoii dE a Cvd^BgrDtiob. — Vastdcn llae Gnnii of RiiDHiB.^^ 
— TuliL-i^ Rii^ulaEiotih — Bunuui Y'liv Tmrniinoii CourjiAnK*!, 
-^ FuTtil^i InMLimtK^ prohihitHL — Hnl low Tcv'ilf tDtioiX ^^ 
FotHng of Rnimint, -- llnpncUy, VilJdciy, utA Vttverteotm 
flf PolicwniBn,— Kiuivi:i> of Offttinla, — AJn^ittwuuf TbWc*. 


^ Acidrvs» ; St. Alujiiuiilur Nu&lu^ St. Aaur i St.Cfoigo; 

ac coktilNtj*. 

3l. VliuSiuiir; dLCntWtiiiu. — IVcpfuiiuiiofL^msHiiHiidiUHliLlH. 
^ T>ir[ of thik Kmpflior in bi^Htiiiring OftuimliLiti?— Ilin 'I'ldi' 
jaiil Powof,^ — Tulos of CoKnt Kiroa. — The ilusaiaa Empirv 
-I vail Diun^T^iMi Enr,— Rpt'OD of EHptviia|{e uHuMLaliCLl by 
Crjnoi Pi?noltpn<lcnf,— HollowreHiind InFlibilify of The RiH- 
d4il' Ijatfirunnent - - , . ^ . J^tgu 140 


AincuL'i; of Bur»Ov in Si, Ppieialiufg, — No piivule VTiituhouxvik 
^ n*mo[fin«s nf Government Deitnti.^^OlWLnictioni; ni 
Tradu. — Thu '» Chinovniii,," or Pluccrayn, — Their ViiiiJilily. 
— The " Attclcliifca," vt MvsiVXii^aTE. — Tlielr FideUlyi — 
Rus^iui Joint Sutck Bank, propn^pd. — EvLli of Mciniipolj'. — 
Suicide of % CVbm Piu^cJi^f, — Terror of the CajjtiLui tpf Ihc 
Ru^Jui Aulhoril^icA, — Smugj-Un^ (Mtvnslvdy oirlccl on. — 
W<:Ht Defproes of St- Petersburg- — Itu^nan mfprior Naval 
I'ovi'i-. — >Joral Cinlfrfaot Si- Pi»[pr«hu»g — KiisiiJin Sranuin- 
ahip.— ' ChaTACtcriatiGs ut Ru»Ua GoverDmcnL — Snpicmc 
PiowcT uF the Emperor - - - , - _ us 


MiliUiy Munia of [he Eiupctwi" — Sham Siege of St. P«tvift* 
Tmrg. ^ -^ nmjul Kcric* of Ut Traopa. — Miyestin Bearinif of 
tho KmpcroT. — Viii.t En'jiiin]-m«Dt uid Itfvitw At Kfoanao 
Selutf.— Ru4ai4ri Citidty lo AniniEJt. — Thi- Troopa at 
ETUtiug Prayer, -* A rtillery Pritritu. — - Sliuin Figlil. — 
Si^nultutuiiia AJTntiCJ t\{ tha vlmla CiiviJiy and Arlillery, — 
Pf^nnnt In Ixjnour of tbt IViiicc»af MMikl^nbmgli. — GT'iad 
niuminntitni of Si. PcteriJjurg, — Do"ii?<tic AfftnitBH of clii' 
Eio^iOfor NJo1i4lii>,^Olllchl Pnigrarmne of Ifio l-L-n-mtkni^l 
at thv Morrirtgc ofthtf Grand Duf tit» Marie lu th? Duke de 
LmiebteDbPfg - - - ' - » - 104 


Pftlftoo of VcUtrhor, — Fihj TJflj of \hv Emprrta. — BMnly af 
Ui? lii]|)i-EJar I'^ainity, — Lcte of Cliu Pvo^Ir i£k iIk- PiL^4«Ct 
^ Sinking HUitrfuti af CondllSEUt oad Conumc- — Mdiolm 

ami yiirivlfluii.^ FfbUvhiib in Ibu Out^l-u* (if PutFrbdf— • 
A^icniiK Tri^- — iTiiprrial PftmuKHnitf /m iwj/mtnl — llii«ian 
lAodc «r ^treDling the Snvfi«ii(^ — Sple^iHiil [lluTntiLAlian nf 
the Gaiiitiii. — ■ Aitl^il llLjriknaiu J*tiJ CttiiftropEir. — Sujj- 
ffpwnn nl Ficln hj llio Pnlin', — rnkeruil nupli^fl^ amt 
FaitMfiwn&M or tbo E'liHi^nt. — Ariit>?tAlv And AuluurBti4 
DupDtiajLb. ^ 3tCEuLiriixii]|; butiiicuiEi jii Suvictv. — lii^trwiig 
InMiitncfi of cHitiuuaJ drimt— . Fimt Tim ruUiiy Vaittyr in 
Roi^^ Gloom BBd MLfttuat |iruvtlwit > < Pago 1 IB 

ttnok and A*lii rompiTDd,'— Su([r1r<n Uu» of Kuedi. — fllow 

C-rowfb (»f f^l■(iLl»dl JtiklitutiuDa. — Dnpirfia aaJ AfpuhliamL 
GbtuiLiiDmU.^ ItiisiiAU ILcVLilulJvnti.-^ ruJir^ ufllit: N(jlj]». 
^ Cimililitm iVii Siilltrrngs of ibt? St-ffn. — rk-i]i<itiKrn of tliu 
LBitdlDTiift.-' rr4TnAlur« Civillfiation of I'cia ihc GtvoI, — 
Itu^HCD IVv'Ki'ltnthLiu on C4|»1a1 Fdni«l)nit»tb. — Tlir KibOuL 
'^" ftimniTig iht GLiaFiiIri."— ttu»liui InquHiikvcnes tud 
THUhiiry. — Aeaidautnl KuiLCDitm wiili tlm KinpVEvr. '— 
CudcEit gf 'r\dnkat ^lu, — OU PaIjlw uf Hit Kibpfo* 
Cdtlnmne.— Imiwriiil rnlWUmm uf Wmki of Art^Tliu 
Fioi,' Arts in llu^'iit. — Dipioniiiiji] Tuct nt'lfcaa Huimuiikk. iJOQ 


Cmtnli^alJolt of BuHia-— Suppllct foj tte CopituL — Oiua of 
tilt ljkiai<i«, — F;ijwu Miiktl uf 3l TvU-istjiiJ'e. — Lots 
ftom n TUiw.— Pyramidi of frnion GrouBe^^— DnuiuQ of 
labour ouJ BeucJil- — Shipping Trade uf Crujiitidt — Hcnvy 
Dutjtfa i>n Eftpuilb, — iUJl^ftida aiud ^li^Hin Coiuiimiuii'itiLiu 
intmilni'L'f) into Biiskih. — FlipdrTiitioii of Curxx Iroin ktiiAHiii. 
— - Prohittilar^ Dutivh ob IiDpt^rtJ- — Dutitrs pijd un iluDwip 
FruJiic? by E^ftliu'^Ji — 'Suiiig^lLii^,-^ BaiiitrB, — Influx of 
Adicntiirfn lo Kuhiji. — Impcrinl Rnpm"jgi?tnm( of Wnr- 
lilw: Intp]viiuh(i.n — HnWrv «A<!n(jul lo Sucifta-L. — F'l^udd- 
Iriil Ai/ptupfUlJuii ul'tliL" iJi'M vf rivjit'L-ii*. — PuiHjlBliunuf 
Vn IlLAiuk FjiT|iLri',— Pioportton of Sh'fCt.^ ^ncHng Army, 
^ PiuipUnd af UtHpntJam - - - S 19 



Riiulun Fipfd .S|>arE^ — ^Vctr-ShmEing. — BpHr-HiititLiig. — 

att-ti king/*— Elk Huntiug Tliv Lyiii Tiiv Wliilv Fji. — 

Cciintnon Foie'i,— "Wliiieant] oLher Hnn-L >— Crruiiv. Watgr- 
Fovl. — l^ucbu d ritli l''Twld t'oi \hs fibturnliEl — ^Ufs. — 
Ifi-dwr Druks — MuEiLn^t; IVljirL zin Vrlnl-Mundar' ■— Ad- 

pual rramvnadi! D4JK ..... Page asa 



Journpf tn Mr>frow,^— IVaTfHniEig in Ajst^n. — ExFoitions oi 
PdrtmQirers, — Hugged Koodc, — ticvemmynl L'ourLm-' — 
InUudutLiuJi uf Ilailt*4ipi(j1<i Uiinnia ^aqtrtilvi'i?. — -V MuiHiue 
at Impenul Puljiy, — Uikoov DaiLonaLty ibt Cfipiinl tif tJig 
I^mjiJTG, — ils ^trikiDg A»^>i]p1 nivl Tuiilonpnl Importonw,^ 
Butniii^ bf yionto^f not (rrv'Eni'JilaU'il. — Divclmmcr uf thv 
£iapi:rar AUiiULElcr- — Uoaiupdiiii't Dtuial uf CLuuiilidLy,— 
Knn^ to nfoncDw.^ FiLrntl^l Kfkfid ti> Novg^smef. — llflfe and 
M4jde of TwvelUpg. — Mclonahaly Aapuot of ihe Country. — 
Sfuiittd Trws n-ud CaXt^v.^ Ahsl:a^iv uf Si;i)hi;!t'y. — 3vaiily 
Pirimliitian.— ' Lag Hniiios.ta'Klt^eiitng on SUtva^ or in ibe 
Op4D Air. — MounloDDUfl AipLi:t of llie ViEEngeH. — Gipsies. 
— Dtvnrt of ilic Fciuab PftjaiiiU.' — Wmsl above tbe BiMora. 
- — NoTgnTor^^— T\iT. — ^ Torjnfc, — SitTll of liuf&ion Dnvers, 
l^niru t}f Tul^ajK. — l^'laplib of ILbtciu. — AburtlniiciT of 
Gairu:. — SiipCT^IiLiiHin PrvjuJu'Va agalEi^t valing IJoTCt ditd 
Pigeaiifi.— Food ot Tartim dli'I Husionti — Edibit: Toad- 
fclouU.— KiUnt View oi Moscov - - - . V44 


McHc/kv. — Tho Kremlin. — HL^cpiiDn?H— DtfTirronUD of Maa- 
wia \n3twtvi\ Mv&u^w uLiJ St, l*i:LtF!ibu[^.— Mirjituluua Fig- 
tjifti.' — H0I7 Gureofthf? Kratnlin.. — Viott of Mowi>w fhim 
tijf TDi-fuoin^ — 8i^Ti» ArcttiicuLiire *>f tlio Cliuic^^c". — Cn- 
irjL'ilial vl' Si. Bnail. — Tliv Eiemlin the flnit of Mdkqw.^ 
Toviir nrtvin Wliki. — Aiid«nt Piloce of the Czars.—* An- 



ckM lUfW,^''*'"'^™™^' — CmiumH And Ectu]^*^ cf 
Uiw ^affijl^ " TlffTrrr' Cidwp^ and SL^cpirvt uf fuiLifiii'rri 

— liTinifi^ Wnnhipn Ludicrcua Pnlnlings uf Kcri|Tiufti Sub- 
JcvUf^— IMIJliul Vff cfT Supi-ittiti^iL bj Vmivt ibc OiciU. — 
ChUdlifce TPtKmtflrt of Piaan Saiois • - Pagt Sfil 


FtoPlPHiion vf iliv KfT?itillri. — WiiiJimr CamIv ttnil iJie Kri'nilin 

compai*d.^The Murt of Mowo*.^ iUr;gnLiLm^ "ITia 

Tthot> or Cdculqting Muohinc, — RccimLion of Sh<)|4k(vpc» 
Lii MnHTJw, — Tca-JriiikiiiEiK Jtunin.^ DJvl o^tltv Coinrmui 

rH»t"lp- — Orlenml ^sptrl of MunL'nw ^ fiip*)' Siii;^T» 

I'diTiclliiig Ai^liiEHd — Jium^niC! RiitiDg Schoalfl. — Itunjiiii 
'lU«r«. — Newness of iiii- Cjy.— rurmng oJ' Mnncow At- 
Kflbtd.^-Altvmpi Tulib« up Llir Krpinlin hj the ^rvncib,— 
HfiTTJire of thv l-[K.'1rca1 frvm A]i>-j^rtv. — TrL-ttoiunt ni [•'rtinch 
Fn^ionc't- — DanialtmL'iil lu Sibcriik' — Ituastiiii Exile and 
EQ)r|iklj TfitiVtiJurEJitkii t^ompa^ed. — TrinuLi of ^eittciicvd 
Eli1ti«, — Fn^oii \''L4itoTL-^ Ikfpvrlara of Prlfoncrs ftor ^i- 
beiiL^ Eflcctt E>f ihi^ KnuuE. — IH, Jliu^> th^ JluiaUn 
Huwurd.^ Petnacutioiiw «f ilw Jtf*a,^ AlR^utine Srept of u 
Jonntih riirnilj in FriioTi. -^ Arbilmry Pavnr of iht OlfidBU, 
— DcpflrtUFd flrom IVIoacow _ - - _ ^ y76 

Tleium lo Si, FeU.'rsbur(j;,— ^Oveifluwiii^ i>f ihe Volga. — Tra- 

lur^,— Huaijui Lota of FlDwert — Botanicol Gifi'cnn *ni 
Apolliecury'iB Lilfliiil.^Binuuciijf ibe Oijiirtle- — Ri»u of tU« 
Nc*(i,— ' Offloiid Trpnlmenl nf IntecfDnt. — The Emp^nr^ ihc 
Centre affltv InriuEifial Syilom. — Ha LiberoliEy. ^Et(j>rtiDii 
hy ths AulhoritiM,— Tl»c ltlJ^lLAI1 i^tciiiitc^ — Guvi^rninenL 
Munvpirly iff ^irits. ^ Rui^inik DnJnkAtds. ^ Inec>«4iil 
K-diilH nftlip (fii«d on Duty. — Tliu AIiDaak't of til, Pettn- 
burgr — Dangvroui IV|»i|ui:ra(ic Frirlii;, — Impj^riol Prudii^l 



Jnk*,^ r*imivle FUttcBrj <i{ ihe Emperor —Wit mvJ Bon- 
IjQQimic uf lilt Ortiid Duk? MlfilHti^l * . . pBgi>id9S 


TIjl- HufiiUn J'lccL — SliiatiuiL uT Uwd^^UnbLirieJ Cui'pFie 
tif liiii-it\ DelMor-— '?#t-nc^Ty of Ht>l3iii^fnr«.— PAaa^e fa 
Abn. -- Tranquil Sccn?^ — TIodk^ j^ri^ai'iBltaiifr. — A Nigbt 
on a Oirdtii Iknoh,^ Vkwi fium t]j^CbtL'rvuii>i> irf<MKi.^ 
l.Ab>Tmth of THlcL&^jManJ.^l'fireinDnioiis H^fi-ption,^ 
jltiSHlon P«tciaDii uf Abuid. — VipierituJcB of the Svjisqns.^ 
Arrirft] At 3lockliulm.^Pa[]cr Cunvncy cjf SCutklhuIni,^ 
Tumpenot-.halfppnny Nofen, '— Piiiidhe* for Poptr-mnnoy^ — l"n- 
laec aL Stocliliolni. — Islnnd Siiliutbn, — Si>i;nDry. — Aji^ocir- 
jkTicci:'t'StiKl.l>ol[i], — ' Tht Ridji^rlialaii— — Ti>ii]b4 uf Gu>lbvua 
Arffilrliri* nnrt rimflts TwL'lnh.-i- Clnihe* of Dinrtov 
the rvelfVh, — - Oftlniona at ta hii D&arh- — - ClinruiMtfr ujid 
Cktter tff Be'niidi>Mt»^ Itis Fcnun niiiJ M^Ak o1' Lite — 
Fi^Ufj uf (lie nuKiuii EiiijiDrcir, — HitriijiDC*.' nf Rptrfillty.—^ 
Drortit>itglH>lDi,<— VcfwrBtEtin ftJP I^nhJiut. — UBcoraCiaiii ot' 


[nduveincnl* to vuil Sffed^n, — Cli.irBGti?r uf thii SitdJa.-' Sl- 
milFtTit^ of Swpilish and Sfnitti^k Ai:ci^m.>~ Labnriniu Hmi- 
putifiiix uf ths Woriiiin,— * AiiJruv Her^Eiirdj IS* Volol-de pltcr, 
— rinp Vic* of Stockhofm. —The Park,— Maikel-ppLn«lr. 
-'— Fiflliin^-licjJUi," Sw'tdlth Vlmids. — A GiiU on die Wenor 
LiikD. — lliD GoEhii CsnaC — VaWs af l^olhatbja^ — &lDi<iri 
of tliC Lnkc and thu Ilivi?r. — Scincry aXajifi tlic Canal. — 
Mr. [Joyd'4 ttcaideute, — GoVltuiburg.— Russian Tfuvrf- 
IffM '- SHJ 


PuT^ L RnBSian Ice Hilla 
ViGNBTTH, Droshkj Drivers - 

Guiding the Sledge 

Sledge used on Ice-hills - 

Police Stadon, or Si^ 

Policeman's House 
FI.ATE XL RoHsian MiliUrj Encajnp- 
meut - - - - 

ViGNETTfl. lUunuiifltdoD DeYice 
Plate TTT. Sledge passing a Barrier - 
Platb IV- Perilous Situation of a Russian 

Sportsman _ _ _ toJacep*^e2^ 



- page 










' page 


to face page 




Imp^uiont on vUitin/: a Foreign ComOr^. — t'ujfafu ani 
Si/tttiUltT.^ ncaturki on iAe Sinpcrvr rtints Death* ^ 

v/ it Truufllrr* — Chtfrm:UM' ff th< JfuMmnA. — V\n/a^e to 
HtiiahMtg- — Diiffh Futhrn^ finif hrfaitnieil.-^ Discnmfurtit 
c/ nn Etii^hsh Stcnm Botit — Rinid /torn Hmnhur^ In 
Zvheckl — Lubecti. — Vo^ige vp Ihf Biiltii% — Krt'Juingit i^ 
Sfcnvi ffnri*'- — Vio£imi Tonuida. — AtTtval at St P^Um- 
lntr^. — Pfvhihitio'i ti> knd. — Alasnce vf Patsport^ 
J^OKtifffJ^ifHijinefi under Guard.' — Bri^trrif taut Idimjm.^ 
-J5^xnc o-ii/i Ptiaaion O^cei', — Fcctmgjf i^f Vtmsttfiint ez- 
jtrriepr&I Inj TromSrFS in Jhatiifi. ^ ETamHviHfm hjf tht 
^etrtt Poltfx. 

th-'fi first imprceaiouB on Yisiting a foreign c^>untiy 
are generally vague and uikSOtUeU : au luileGuuble 
kind of cacitBoiftat, in fact, |irevcnifl om" eeeing 
tliinga in Uieir true light, and wilW that ilielinot- 
ni%4 whicli custom ft1on4> <jan produce, Kabit> 
pftrliifcjiR, blunls tlw keenness of onr observation, 
ATn\ CxwWmnty m^y Ijliiul ^idto mnny Hlti^ukrhiea 
(>r irmnticrK nnil cuatc>nis; ^et if \e*s he tirld in 
QOllflCc|iiCUce, tli^tt littlu m at aU t^vouU divOBU-d uf 
cjMggcrfltioti. and of all f^iU^ tone and, o^Iouriof. 



After several visitfl to tlie ciorfL, therofci'o, T 

ougliL to [jc m a jjtJsiTioii to give .t correct uIhi of 
the countrjr aiid its iiiliulfitiinfa, wlUioiit treaillng 
m tlie steps of uiy j>redec(?daor*, vvlwae dpacrijilIoTia 
we Luvc read logctlier, or luniuug the riak of 

Lg JLu"f|Uis lie Cuatjce ia, perLnps, the only 
aiilhor who has treated of Itufisi^ tru vrm phi- 
iasoplui; and hb work, iJthough tingcLl wltb too 
lUUcK of ihc amour proprc |)OGQliar to his iifttioD, 
(to say notLing cf a fooliiali feitt f:n' Lis personal 
Bttfety, wliich poeeceeed ium,) mar bo pi-Quounood 
tile inoft able critique of the Ru^ba syet«Ta 
that has appeared. Sulinitaler ie tlie only other 
writer who caa be c[uf>ted as an aiuliority ; and 
the iiriiple opportnnitics he enjoye<l, enabled liint to 
fimiiMh aa perfect a. fitaiintJoil hi8toiy s\s the re- 
BtricLive operiition oC ihu most vigiUtnt etinsor- 
rfiip would allow. A reuiai-kuMo luaLaiM^e fjf the 
pciwer i>r supjjressiug the details of uotorioiie 
«Teut« which the Ruthin Government exercises 
m ocooaioo, is oilbnlcd by the inct, that m &u 

ur an comparatively recent aa the asaaasbntion 
of the Emperor Paul, and even while some of the 
ducf actars ia tlic eccnij still survive, bo many 
vcrdone of the deed ehoiild bo afloat; nnH that 
hiatory (that ia^ Ruaainn hJelory) does not breathe 
A syllable on the subject, beyoud dtatiug with 
jeauitiijul ri?fiiiemenl, that he " eeased to live." 

The human mind in Rus^ may be compared 



to a fiUcring rinvncJ, in the bnnJ capacity of 
which, nutiirflt iricftrt snd opini^inri find nmpic 
^[Micc, but arc eo strjiineil ofT iwd frilt<?rc(i away in 
fwweinfj ihrouph the imrrow nporttirc, tliat tho 
ftrijcinal ingredxent* itre not ovcii rtK^ogniaabk. 
Ffom the reserve hnMtunlly incnlcatcd by tlc*- 
potisttij nnd tbe ilinPiplitie tft which the totiguo 
hne been brouglil l>y tbp lerpnrR fif n mnflt Hiihtl^ 
Mid ijbi(]^uitous system of eqitonage. it is impoi^iiible 
for the mere IranAient Traitor l4) arrive nt juat 
coru-iuuims nr to ii^t-ertjTn rea! Tucta : the fnce of 
Bnciety, Lminsil aJid diatTljiliinMl, ia like the rnin'oi', 
whioh> reflecting only the extemtd expects of 
tluo^, must be tlivested of its opaf[ue liaicig if 
vfc wisli to extend our vision. 

The diiTcrcnoc in ninimora and Custoius ia ob- 
vious to the idle tourist who trflvcla only for tlic ex- 
chcTOCnt of ehiLUf^e; but aie these tend materially 
to form tho cboKicter of the people^ ihey are not 
to be chrtmeterieed truly ficcordin*^ to firel iri* 
prcea]oti& Honoo the diffieully of writing nl sM 
ftbout Rufsi^; and hence the many iklse dedutv 
lions timt have been drawn from Jippparaticea by 
Xhoac who have ventured on this themo. 

The first duty of ft ti^TBtlet iP» I conecl\e, to 
^\n some inj-igbt iiitn the t'.horiu^ler and liabifs 'if 
the people lie ia «bouL to vihU, by uiukin^^ hmieelf 
m^Btci' of the boat wrJlers on the mdyeot : not 
to depend entirely upon them, m if they irera 
mercJy eho^iacn at an cxlubitioui nor to allow hj9 
a 2 


opinion? to be formeil hj ctHpr8> ag is tlie riiw 
WTtli [eeuJd'polhicUns in rojidiiig iba leiiditig 
jLrtii^le of n newspjijjijr ; but to |ire|>iLi'e biiuBulfp 
in mioG measure, ligainst llie effects of surfrri^p 
ttad those eiTora crF juilgnjent winch ensue from 
the novelty of poeition and circumatoncea. llnbit 
ha3 jicutmli&cd these cffccte in mo ; aad tbc doubt 
only remains wliQthor I have not become bo 
fiuniliarisod witii the change of cbcructor, uaagea, 
and manners, as to cguaq to obeerve tboeo dif- 
fareitfe^ wliich no.lcing^r elartlo. Indoi^d, I could 
eo readily naluraliBC myself in Ruesia, Tliai 1 a:n 
more Tikeiy to fall into the otber extreme, and 
describe those things aa natural and habitnaj 
which, in faetj form the very contrasts that d\s- 
tingnin^h one nation from another. 

As regar<!s hhe character oF llie Rtisamnn, T 
ha^e read Eaucli, and ohirericil more, and midline 
to the belief that Scbnitzlere iiccouat of tlieni is 
just and correct; at allcTentfl, it tallies so exactly 
with my own impressionSf th;it 1 ehall uee Ina 
worda in clcscrihiDg it. 

" The RtiE&lan nation haa preserved to a groat 
extent the (^unhtica and dtifccta of a people not 
yet oiTUiflcd; but it by no moang doecrvee to bo 
dcBcribed ae a race of slaves, bowed down by the 
rod, and ineapnblo of gGocrotie feclinge, 

" The RusEian ^s good, obliging, officious, and 
remarkably hoepitahle : bia natnral politeness, 
thougb flowing from tb« vmmenEe tliatance be- 


hhn an<l the aristocracy, and the tuuallUy 
"wlilSk lUiit nuik imjKML>» on liiii:, ^ves him a ocr* 
tavB style, vrbioli sits w«U opon bim: ho i« guy, 
aedve^ J^^I'Jt "■"*! ^^^^"^ guUlnrJ, anO hi.* i>l»y" 
Hognoniy bot(»kon& iiilelligejiw. TIu l^ (kr'mg 
even 1o riidhiLV^ aiitt passive tu the lut dq>ree. 
If he \j\tsnesaii& hut Vitllt: [ji^r^ijvGiitNCt', Hlill liia 
firmnces in nionjeiita of need if eqiml W aoy triftL 
biAcniiible to fear, he is rarely cwLnrrft^ed ; 
r|nick at repartee, and witli abunJaiU common 
WDftO, h\3 fortilo guniaa never IcovciJ hiui at a 
lo4fi for reaourecs ; and with a tlioufland cs|icdicjita 
at hucomnmtid, hi^ dcxtoruy in umployiag them 
M fietoEishio^. Obediont to thi^ laws of hia 
country, however oppressive thvy tatxy be, he is 
fiuihful to hU Bovoreigu anrl devoted to Uia coun- 
tfy, ^vliich he le proud of, aod^ in bh igncranco, 
comidcra superior tu all iiiber* on the glube» 
Kf^ligioiiA QTiiix^umrJn^liU deyouonvMuLia the 
duties ]*rt'srrU>eil liy the ehiireh, he is liScrnl iD 
Lie* gift»i (m ihr poor, aiifl hi>Jioiirs the mtiiiorj of 
tlie Ui^ad wU!i thi^ riitrst HOi'upiiloiis regiird. He 
fladreuea hla t^^'igueur without f<!ar i>i' tiiLiuLidfi- 
tioD, and even witii a degi^ce of bohlucs^ He 
13 cloqucnli and h\A Lingiugc, moUplaorJcal aad 
vanning, approaehce even to the poetical, while hia 
fflniiiiar ftllocuiione of "little fdhorj" "duuiuiiig 
little miTGC,'* moiitvcTindla Karmilitsa^ bLM^atha the 
kindest Feeling. On the other himd, it tauet bo 
coufcsfcd that Jiifi heart conceals the most vic^letit 
a :t 



pnseioQs, whiclij ft?arfiil wlien i\wy burst forth, 
destruy every feature of iLat guudjieas of heitrt 
whieti ia w> ch&i'Hcieriatic o? tlm Itu^iuiiF Jl'a 
nutunJ pilltdtes^ and &Li[tunoFkty of inaTinrr }iulil 
to a brutality which betrays itaeli" by tiie lauet 
coarse and vulgar language ; in tins paroxyHm of 
rage tbc barbarian slanJa conieascd in full force. 
Hifi oalha excel in ooftrsencaa thoec of other 
nationSf and, fruitful in iavcetivcT each aoo mora 
ilieguatlng tlian the kst, he vomita tbem forth 
with ths Tiiov^ inteuaity tlial viulenee or blows 
are selUom hnd reeour^se to. Witii htt^ face flitshodr 
ftod his gestieiiUtion an>m^ted by ci brutal energy, 
no considerutSou cixn ato^i ihe fearful ;ia»J entira 
djapky of tbe nncivilistd Kivago. 

'* Kcverlhele^ his njijuu'eut ]>ridc humbler itself 
at tlic leant pnJSjH)i:t of pn^liL ; he kis&ea ihe aku-ls 
of the cent, or tbe arms of those he oupplicale* ; 
ho toncUoe ths earth with lua hanUa as a proof 
of hia aubraiasion, and %>'ill not Ike^iliite to pro- 
etornate himaolf at the feet oi' tho^ who have 
any outliority over him, Tho Iovq of gain U iiU 
j^od; his activity ia boundlosa, and to satisfy it 
at tli<j lea&t possible cost, he will fiaciiSce lua 
natural pride, hia good ialth, and even hi^ mo* 
niUty, if his ignorance permits hun to tnow tho 
muuning of the word>" Madiiiutr de Sliii'h in bcr 
WorW *' ^^ Ann^eH d'Eiil," »ayp with great 
truth, tliat thtft j;^ as rnauh Ut 1)^ lookixl djv lut 
hoi*^ilu1Ity ; "Us vuue lioaiicnt couiuiti iU vou4 



pronn^t, selon que In mm ou U ^j^orofliti? pnrlo 
^ Icur iumgiimtmtL" Tliey lire Uiua the more 
d&Qgcrous, be<:tiu&e, ini?x1inustib]a in artifice, they 
f*OTiceijI then" cunning umW the lUfwk t>f Wiottty 
and goixl iiiiiiiLjur, tvEiictL em^ily doccivei^ In 
ft wnn], tLe (JiaLructi^r of the Hu^mtis \s that of 
& peujjlf- tiicrgetic aud gifted by nalure, but on 
wtom mstniction has not yd e^^rcioed her swaj-. 
siad to whom trn cnllgliteued pliilosopliy has not 
yet given an clcvntcd feeling. It in poay tt> ibre- 
ecc tbo poeitioD iLtry will ono day hold, for thoy 
pa«»c^ nil the qunlitica nccc^arj to mnkc a j^cat 
p»>opW, with the exception, purhap^. of that de^ith 
of feeling to which a niiud too dovotod to traffic, 
and of too spoculaiive a tuni, can setdom attain. 

Bnt here I am in "tlie bowel* of the land," 
Bnd writing you a long eastiy on tho peopk before 
I tell yon how I got here. T ehnll therefore resume 
tlic suhjoct in a. futiifo letter. 

rTejiljiiie waa pmiiitioiijn, and we <^rort?«d the 
Ncrtli Hen, ill an uninterrupted i^iTuij iiiiikijig the: 
pjLMBge to rTrirnhurg in fifty-four boitre- A Dutch 
iiahiug ^ninclt lay bccainied diitcl in our course, 
broiling nnJcr an intense heat, and unable to 
di^lay a sigiii^l from the perfect etlllne« of the 
oir. Tho shouting of tbo crow for iiBsiatance 
induced our ^Icippcr to Glookon bJa apoed uud to 
Bcnd A boat to board them. It tumed cut tbat they 
had bpcn thue booidmed for the twodayKpreviouf!, 
and hud txpcmicd all tboir water and bread. 

B 4 



A eupply was of ootirec? deapalolied to tbcm, trnd 
thoy in mlum loaulcd us ^vitfi turboU and dopcoe, 
wbidi during tlie reuuiindct cf tlie voyfiga formed 
an cjncurejin ti'ent for dinner nnd breakfnat. The 
perrL'ttiui] ill tlii^se fish cotiidals in lioiling them in 
flf'ji water. 

There is n cojLrstiliGSB at the titlJes of English 
fiteamhoats wlilch ia extremely diAogrecahle ; It 
parUk/Js too much of the mode of living Lahituol 
to the capt^n, vtho fumiabes the tjtUlei and who 
believes timt maasivc joints imd plenty of tht^iii arc 
the pcrfcotion of gf.iod toptc. The rcprcaentallon 
of nn ci^hloonpenny ordinary is mieplaecd on 
bourd ship, where delicacy aod olcnnlincas fllono 
ehould be found. In foreign aleamboats. it l* 
pcrfoelly poaaiblc to foi^ct for tlie moment that 
you nrc not seated at a well -appointed tnblo 

Tlie BidLie stcftmers leave Liibcclt, or rathiir 
Tiiivciijunile, on every Srtlnnlayaft.cnnianjirecitn;ly 
nt three o'clock; there it* cousdciui^ully buL jii*t 
suifieient time before yon to traveree the dij^ttmCfl 
between that place and Hambnrgi, anH^ till lately* 
the road woa eo disgracefully bud that cvcu 
thxit was barely posfliblc- A new and diortcr 
rood line, hosvcTcr, been conatruotcd, but too laX<s 
to benefit the now ruiuciJ fortnnee of Lubock, for, 
in order to divert the trade from tbo Elbe to hid 
own port**, Iho King of Denmark kia Inid down o. 
nulrood from jUlona to Kiel. The bed of the 


Trtvo ia fillinp up, tlio trade of Hi(> tnlj is Oc^ 
cli&ingT ard lhu« ** Trojn. fuU"' would be a iiwro 
bccoftilng motto over its gate* tliau the Lomliiutic 
wWk^h atill exists, lis ifia mockcn\ Ifi^ory, 
;i'r, will ivuinl tliv TkJiini:^ of liuljt^'k fur lh<j 
vnlmnt (Irfent^u of itF< cili£(?r»K u^nioM, the ntrrick 
uf the Frencli, nud An tli<! la^l ataiwl tiutie tlitrti 
Ly Dlacher ftftcr hia maatcrlj retreat in ISOC. 

Lubeck jb a fitrikiu^ luetEince of tin? cfiect cf 
sociaI itiid elemental ix^volutiona on bfCal pvo^ 
pcrity. She wufl undoubtedly at one period the 
queen oi' tbc Baltic -the Vcxiicc of tlic norths 
ond the oUlos of tbo Mnrio Kirclio diroiJcle her 
ffway on tho toblot^, or rather monuments, eroctQcl 
to the memcry of her UoptirteJ adtaimla Theee 
momoriala are piled Iiigh n^met the pillAre in 
fill the prido of curved ombU:conry, etirrounding 
EOOitly A portrait of the hero himself, and nar- 
niting ft fulfiikme ciitnlogue of derd;^, important 
only in th<i estiniatlun <\t the man xrhu perfnrniod 
^eni. One, however, is remarkiibly ^igiuliei^nt, 
and stmngely imagined, Ai lis hiiAO — as if 
Iiavlug pai'LiuHy c]ai[ibcii.'Ll tip the pllliir, un ]iart 
of which it xeeta — a Hkclcton, with cmtstretclied 
txto, and boldlug a, sponge, is in tho act of blotting 
0«t the recorded inscription. I forget the datCj 
but a few short years have iilrcndy na much crnaed 
the numo From the page of hUtory fte if the 
allegory itEclf hud been fulfilled. 

Id a aide chapel is the eolebmtud picture iff ttie 



Dnaoe of Death, by Albroclit Diiror, II la fho 
singularity of tliQ idea ifither thnu tbo exccutjoti 
wliich stJimpe it ns a. work of f^nius: but tliougk 
It occupies tliree sides of tke clinpcl, yet, being 
tn a bud lights aud obscured with ilirt, it loses ita 
real importauce. 

The gte(iples of M tJie cliurehea — jind Uiey aro 
nioatly loft,/, pointed, sUted, iwm atrui:tiirua — 
lenn at -in !J.nglc of luiui^ iVet; T tluiik tn ouq 
iuefaiice of eight, ^ud aiiollier of thirteen, Whe^ 
ihcT thia vras caosed hj a ainking of tlie eoil, or 
whether they were originally buHt at ai; inclina* 
tion, like the falling tower of Pien, I know noti 
Lubeck ia the abode of dulacaa ; the c&uac of which 
I haro nlroady cxpkincA In a few years it will 
resemble those ntLcjcnt eQOrportaj eince become 
inliuid towns, which we bavo in Kugloudj par- 
tioiilnrly on the coast of Kont. 

Favoured by the amne ierenity of weather, tvo 
made n qiilck rua up tlie Balticj and reached 
Cinuatodt in eighty-four liourg ; and rot ono 
hoiu' too Hoon. I have been on the Doltio when 
ita BurfrLce wns bo glsieay smooth that the rI|iplo 
caused hy the seltliiig of a bird on ita surface 
could bo seen ; I biive been on it in snow unci 
iroat, in fog and in etorm; but T ncyer had 
witn^acd euch a tornado aa thr^t which swept 
Over ua shortly after we nnchoredn In an Instant 
the waves were Iiwhcd into fury, and the waters 
beaved with tho moat \iolcnt ournmotion s eoils 




epar? Uiappcd in all <]lrcclioD0; 
Swedish cmXt were EunJc, iitid tho 
whole ecenc woa ouxi of ^ImsiCT axiH devolution. 

The Bidtic fleainers nxo Ijirgc; tui<), bciiig of 
druiif-ltt to f):LBi over tlio bur &t ibo 
i« Neva, smaller vcfi^cls aro employed 

convey ihe pai^engera to St- reteraburg. The 
ojNnutiuit (jf tTU-TJshipincrit, E>; inejinN of pTMiiki 
laitl Acrow from one voni^t to iheutlit^r, IiujI Lu^tm 
bcrore ihe liun'icaEie wa^ a:; its ht'iglit, but tlio 
daoger became to that tlic amallci^ \e«dcl 
was forced to CiU^t off witii half the pas.^engcr.'s 
ftod to ebift for itaolf, ^Vlicn fuirly off, vfc bcgtin 
to Icoli round lo ace iljftt our luggage waa right* 
ftnd that tho police officer weu ua bounJ witb our 
pMiportf, but tho latter had been left behinij. 
Xhd ^itiifitioD wad not pl(!a8a;it to thnt ro«pect; 
but wo hojHHl thtttj under the t>trcunist:iiiocii of 
the cs4e> some indulgence would be ebown ta us. 
However, wo were doouiwl to be disappointeil. 
Our new dlvipjier, with liis wrtlLibi^d crew of tw» 
lurultt ^fia frigWUncn], aiitl wiJihcd In aiiclnjr; but 
ihut we strf^TiHotiftly resbted, aud cotupelled bim 
t« proceed. Our steruu powor waa not fiuffi- 
dcoi to g«t Uie vessel nbautp und, lu ibc help- 
Icasncae of tliu olsc, eome of us got a forusail upon 
her And brought her rciood. After eight lioura 
del AY, during which time we vfeva buiictiug 
agaiuat tlic tcmpcstj wc Arrived, tind expected to 
be allowed to laud. But no: TLintoIus-lihc, wo 

12 PAe££XO£]tB CONrZKED L1VD&B <aUABl>. 

woro rofuflcd the relief tbnt eocmcd within cmr 
T^acb- Oiir fiLto wuh at \&ngt\i dQ^Aded : liaviD|^ 
no [Jaaspcirts, we were marched off under a, guard 
of fiolfliers, and locked up in ft large comfortlea* 
■vntrehotise. It was ten f'clock, a, m,, and TCe had 
Tiot broken our faat; and wc were denied n^iy 
rcfn.'&limeiir, a.rnl (iven the meuns of cotnmaniiyitlng 
with our friends: rmBLnnc^e, thErefitre, W3s Umdly 
talked of :ia timu gr^w ou. I dw.liiitd. joining in 
tbe scheme, loicwing, from past experience, the 
tneftna of effecting n. quiet escape, wliich 1 ao 
compliahcd ut 6 i\ iL^ ivflct eight hcura ccniine- 
mmt, A fiilvcr rouble placed in mv enuf}-box 
iras too tempting u pinch to the eei^fint of the 
guard to be refused, and I was at libofly in 3 
moment* At tea o'clock at night the [nifleports 
arrived, und I w^nt to d.iim mine, but ihc saaiQ 
difficulty w(ia offered to toy entrance as there had 
been before to my e^it* The officer in commandj 
speing me, at once accosted mp^ ''Monsieur, oft 
avet voutt I'll;? Je na vinw ai pas tvouvr tiujLot,*' 
"Moil nulle[i;irt./* replied I, laughing, " MmSj 
hadiDflge Gjiart, 11 faut nic Je dii'c, n'cst ce pns 
voua vouB ^tca ^chap|ji? Comment Tqvcz voiie 
&itt OttTOUe a aid^?" "Four ^a je euis franc 
rao^'on, ct gardo hien mon secret? maie je voua 
dit en contiEuice quo je mo euis mavG pnr mea 
tnlGQta ct par mes tnlone.^ "Trefi-bienl lunii 
voLis axez deane un rouble dnrgcnt nii eerjennt 
lu bus-" "Ccmmcnl savez vous cek?'* "Oh! 

.EU5, 13 

jc le saU bien ntoi*^* replicJ be, tnppmg hin pocket 
ftt the eactc time* X took the ti'oulric to iiJi]uirc> 
and fvunil tJmt, on m'l&aing tiic, he had taxed the 
ecrpcftnt w-ith linving received a bribe, wid had 

(coolly tmaaferrcd tho douceur to hia own pockot. 
The difficulUeSr the ebelrudionB, tbe uEultipli- 
caiion ef fomie and cerenioniof, wlucli a imvcUcr 
lijw to encounter oo coloring the Riia^mn cio- 
mintona, jtre bej-ond ile&crlpti<^n invn thoir vnrieiy, 

Iasd ndieuloris from their niiDUU'nej«a : ihey are 
•irrv]eeiil>!L', bnweiorj in jjTepnriag lliu tniveller 
fur the great change he haa ki experience, A 
feeling of IiiJeJiiiztljk coii^traiut^ a kuid of mcnttd 
calbiultueiit, ujid JUi uiLpli:ut<iLutSf}u£aliou of pi;Tao- 
oal jfieecorityt oppress onc*a cntrgk-s. The epint 
B of diacipUnc Jiad subjugation sprcada like sin intec- 
tion : and. iliHtresscd at tbla firat expencaec uf a 
■ ncwfcelingj wediscoTcr, on uttempting to nonljac 
B itt that our individual reepouBibllity and voluntary 
agency has ceased, axtd t)mt our conditioD baa 

■ bocomo altogoth^r pitsaive and dcpendout. Pre- 
vious Yoya^B hftvo in no reapeot changed ot har- 
dened me, aind 1 resume tho chiuna with idl the 
• dif^u&t ofn DnvifX'- 
On presenting myself at the bf>ad qirartvi-d of 
the eccrotn police, llie day nftcr my ft^^»vftl^ to claun 

■ «« UAtliil ati order for my tickut ot ret^idenoc : that 
J0, a pcrmlfii^ion to reside : I wua lOCLi^iiltied, ur 
dsc notice bud been given by the police who cx- 
umiiicd uH at Cronatadtj that I was no uevr 



tnivollcr, unJ accwirdTngly I xviui subjected to a 
*t.riul ex^Lnii nation ; the t^lject of my jitarney wns 
£icrcnipf.(rrilj^ i]rinumlEil of me, and I gine the 
usual uugwcFj **UTi vojage 6\gT^\aGni.*^ "But, 
sir, it ia not usufll ihr people to return to thia 
country eevcral timeft on a voyi^e d'agrument: 
have ihckiiidncM to await my return." To hear 
wa* lo obey : I hiii3 do clioicc left, even had I 
wiehod, or had rcasiDii to refuse- Summoned |tro- 
6ontl7, 1 followed my conductov to naothcr nport- 
ment» whore 1 waa iotrodiioed to an officer of 
r:ialt, in imiform, anJ with a full complement of 
stars and orderB on Ida breast. Ho begnn: "It 
H ueeleaa for lOO to tell yon that the rcjisnn you 
haye asaignml fiir rtliiniing to Ku^da is inadmis- 
flihlc ; and it )9 my duty to irKjitirc into the real 
motive, since wp cjtnnot (jiilte belteve m tlic Unif 
taring siivti^uitnt you niildi: just iiowj of^ tu yimr 
journey being repented eolely for the iittractions 
you may find here" ** Willi your Excellency I 
ran have no scruples; hut you tnuat be aware 
tJiftt it 13 not always agreeable to be too csplkat 
with ^abordinatosi" He bowed, And I continued: 
" the fact i^ your Excellency, tliat I c^nie hero 

by the tji^elal deeii-o of Count on the iiflhir 

of , and iioi the boarcr of this lettei" to him i 

whicli, T tPudL is ti sariifactory voncl^er for my 
prrnon and the object of my journey." ^'I have 
lipanl of tliifl before, but did not know lliat iu you 
T should hiive thu liouour of oieeting that gentle* 


man. I am sony you should have been troubled ; 
praj accept my excuees." 

This Bcene will convey to you, more than any> 
thing I can add, the Argus-eyed jealou^ of the 
police, and the subjection which it imposes on 
every one. 

1 shall doubtless have occasion to give you other 
examples during my stay here- 



Svntm^r J^iffhU in Rfutia, — Jfiwping VUhfftJrt. — FtrH.^ 
A.ij'ticl xif Sl PcieFfibiirg. — Ttjritnn^ iinii Ej-to/'thn^ ^ 
Zo"^ 0/ thu Vfjisoniitp.^ E^cncjf fyf n Srihp- — JJerpo* 
rnlimng Hjfccix nf Dcfi]i-}tUnt. — Jitliiif^ Prinripli: >f_f the 
Ifnsninat. ^ Pt-onmevt FfAturen af St, PetfVjtbtirg-. ^ 
Sff'-eeti ffwi Si/ttarc4, — HouJten ttnH Fvmiture. -^ 7^ 
Wivfrr i'iiifu''^. —~ Sitii^filitr Citali'i'i m fttifftil Iffwlenc^i. 
— T'hn Ciar-ip'ifh *iinl Scr/doin. — 1'he Admirolfjf Squartj. 
—-Moutjtifh t'f ihn Ertperor AlfrintiJft: — Siat^'} »/ Frivr 
tAg (ffvcit- — ■SQiiot'-'a i-Vfj/ff, — Hoteh and BoardiT^g Houael. 
^ Sd/'impi/rtaiKe ofcjRaHcipateil Scr/jf* 

I KNOW of DO flenaAtlon more extraovdinTiry amd 

striking than tha^t wliid^ affects the truvelkr, oa 
he npprotLcbea tlio north in the summer aabtiee; 
|)utlii;ukr]y when for the firat titim lie liada him- 
self no Longer ici a counlry 

" Whpi-e liplit Jind dnrknfU^i in pprpptiiiJ round 

The French tnivellet Custbe haa moal admirably 
deacriUci thla feeling, "Hier csi A peine fioi, d(^- 
mi\in commence:'* this is lUevally true, for there 
U nothing to mark the puBSflgc of time. The ne- 
cessary obacrvimcc of the convcntionnlitic^ of Jifo 
imd eooicty remintU us of pnrlioulav ]>Grtodp, but 
the aaaooiation of idejis which attended those 


periods no lorger escUte; thd mm^t VVt an Ql 
rr^ilntiul tifiKvptcner, tuiH nfi ncffiimcy in itn movs- 
ni4?rttA. Niglkt brirgs na clnrknetia [n iis trnm; a 
nubdnctl liglit aa i^mpiirtxl to llie gaibli ilay, ra 
tte only eiullcm of the approach nod existence of 

To riso earl^ on a anmiuer'a morning in more 
eontbcm lAtitudofi, luid to find nil nature atill m 
rcpoee, atn^vare ivasonjiblo, becauac the scnooii of 
seet b&e not expired} but to mintlGT AbrooxJ ftt 
midnight (If auch an cxpT-oMion oau be uscJj and 
to ^d oil ^tlll ,is tlc^th both in town nnd countrj, 
^ve tho ocoftaionn] pntrole of n^ounted Co^siicke, 
wbon nature does not alumber, wcjgba down the 
mind vnth the sense of a pretenwliiral state. The 
exMlmnHng et'&mtli on which one haa eiperiencod 
\ti England ami ofhcr nTirnpoan rmrnlnee, fvota 
iku: fre;thncss iipd iiewneha of eirly tiiorniiig, wben 

'^ All nHtiire'a t^Lildroi ft^el tLc mittin hpring 
Of Uf* reviving, with reviving rln^n" 

uv mi^ed b«iG; ftnd in tbcir pUi;e n woart^omo 
monotony, the etTect of a hard, dry, fijced nlaio* 
vfpherc, {>erva4tcs every thing. The rew day — 
lh« to-morrow — seem B hs if it hud asit up all 
nigbi ; and dl niitin^ jiniiiintc^ tiiid inanimate, 
piirl&kca of Its influence. Ah tbc clothing of the 
<jcs "id sleep refieftbea uiiU iavigoi'ati;* the body , 
the tnatertal substance cif our nnt^ive requiring tLia 
relaxation so wonderfully and mcrcifnlly con- 



Lrlvcd^ 90 llkewi&e Ihe jinnuterloJ spirit, tlic muu?/ 
fioa no equal iieceMity fcir e. flca^oii of calinnefia 
aiiU rc{j06e, when, in the abeeiLcc o? the exciting 
aniJ buatJing activity i-rlilcii absorbs ltd energies 
by (ley, it can, uoJcr the elmdcs of night, revert 
'nitlim iist}\f, ix^tlcctin^ on tJio past a.nd ccntcm- 
pladng the future. Imaginatiua is more lively 
wlien undiaturbcd by tLo Imprcsstocfi on tlid 0£^ 
leruui aonetft, aaU the scjlemnity of iLiricoees, with 
itfl train of uncertainty and shIldo\^^ fears, fitampe 
its civatjona with the viviil forma nnd ctiloure of 
reality, Tlic awklhing iafluencta nt' tIiim peri<^d can 
only be justly uppi'ecijiteil by those who Imve ex- 
penvHOcd tlie eoutraatp 

Often In travelling iuto tke intcncr of Kusain 
I have paeacd through viilnges at oac and two 
o'clock of tiie morning, anil seen long Unoa of 
Bleeping forma, stretched on tlio ground along tlie 
frontB of tlioir houses; the mmatoe hnvmg been 
driven out by the extreme heat and closcnesa of 
their dwcllinge, and (aa aeaudal has it) to avoid 
also the innuiQerabk swarma of bugs with which 
they are infesled.. Undisturbed by the rmtibling 
of ihe veticlo, and even by tlie process of chnnglng 
horses, they &ve fit eEnblcnia oftlje tecasou — sleep 
witluait rejioae, night without darkiiess. To sncli 
a^ remaiji within, tha mode of ta.king reat is 
e^^ually unrefreshing ; I have passed from room to 
room, luid found the leathern ecfa"^, and even the 
tahUs, occupied by sleepers, divcatcd of none of 

er. TETEQBsrBO. — BBTBcny- 


^thing and wcnnog Ihcir ilaHy ^arb, If 
l^tfon briugp no reFroahing chiinge, why should 
they be at Tnriance with tier? 

The (iret riftpoarflnee of St. Petersburg la more 
ui:[i<j&bg than n^j^roeable : its giMcd domca nnd 
cpirca HFC vlBible nt sl conaUlf^mble di^tiince, 
glittering nnjer tlie sun's rays, but tli« city its«If 
i« nnt discernible till the ve?s«I a[i|)ruiLtbea the 
ijuity. THr absence of all bual.le and jxjpulatian, 
find llie CoJd, stately ai^cEmnce of the Iwhj^pr, ndd 
to the chill wlnc)i tlie inquiBition of the pdJce, 
and tho u&eleg? iormg g£ the custom 'hou^e antho* 
ritieSt have already product The uncomfortable 
Icotion obtnidoE itflelf that power ia Inw, with- 
It itppcol or remedy, eaeepting under tho in- 
fluenoo of ^hL Docility and cGouplianoe Arc oi' 
little uee where the govtjrmng prinei pie is tyranny 
and extorttan- Imaginary difficnUies uro crert-ted 
for the »ole purpose of exacting a douceur, which, 
vrbeD duly fldniiiii9l"?m(I, is equally tiynilitble id 
oviultcg the tiio^t stringent re^litions. The law 
of the censorahip le very severo, and worts cf 
ccrfain dpsfriptions are grrit-tly prohibited; nmong 
vfliicli hiaturies of rc^volutioiiB stnnd first. The 
case of bfxjks I took with me conlftined several of 
thnt clmmrt^r. and I wuh natumlly anxitjiis not lo 
he de^rivf^tl of tln^ui; they nn^lit have been 
craninncd with trcaaon, and I &bould bine had 
nothing to fear ; for a ten rouble note, applied in 
the right quai'tcr, bi^ught the bos to my door 
c U 



wicli(ji[t 11 mLil liuvuig been diAltiriietL Th? igno- 
nuice in this dcparLnieut muBt l>e very gi'oss, if it 
be li'ue^ ^ I Lave l»i;u[i tulJ, iLiita Uxtk |ii'trfeF^iiig 
to treat on the revolntiQiio of tlie hcaveulj bodies 
was (letf"unc<;! as being £>f a dangerous tendency. 

To reatrict the mtcUett by conSciog the ideas 
moij aid dcapot'sni in its work, but tt can never 
elevate 11 poojile to cope with other niitioES, nor 
riiisc iu fitundard oi* civilisation. Tho Kiieeiana 
luc natnraUy davor and apt, and capable of tha 
Ughost ftUainrjiGrts ; but whit nulb only Ima en- 
joiaed, babit luu reconciled thcni to : literature, 
tlicrefoi-e, ie not one of lhci.r rosouroea; and the 
con^eiiucnco x.% that flinaipsttion iird rooted idlenesa, 
wilUliucityof moriils vdijii supreme. Conversation 
la DatiirEiJly tiDiited, frum the prohibition of certain 
Bubjectfl, or the fi^iti" of Inliodueiug ihum ; evea if 
tilt ig[JOi'aucc, in wMcli all are kejit, of tiie lending 
events of tho day, were removed ; thus there la no 
common ground on which nil may meet \ and tt iB 
not to be wondered at that tho miudi over active 
in aomc pursuit or other, alioidd fly to the iVivolitiea 
ot life for its atnusemuat* If the preservation of 
power can only be maintained on theeo princuploa, 
the reBponrability of him who holds it is groat 

The leading prinelplcs of action among the 
Rus?iaua maybe divided into two heads; namely^ 
fear tuwarJi^ enj>eriorSr and tyranny to inferiore. 
The randuet of the superior influences the inferior: 



far la tiiu:Lljr lu proportion to ilic degree of poircr 
exercised by the onc^ is the tyrnntij- wilh which 
iU belieaU ai'etrauAUiitteddown tLc various gndca 
ofmbordtnntcgle theothcx: increaabg in rHpcti^ 
at etery etcp, till It cdiIs with the poof mnjilc*, 
«Tea in blowA 

VaTtnee* and apaec are the most prominent 
fcntureji m St Petf^r^but^: the aca}c on wluch 
the buildjcgs are plaimetl, the exinmie ^T^tdth of 
the Btiweti, and die ^mxligiiiaB extent occupied hy 
tJiP aquaivs And |iiiIj1jc p1nce«, weaiy aii<l bewtMer 
Uir eje, Klr^iice aiul li.%rntony are not ulitainetl, 
because ptoporliiiina are not kept ; foi'> however 
cohnsil tha buildings, titc efTe^t L^ marr^, citber 
liT difftaoee <fi: W the uuolicuinsa'lU?!! space 
iiround them. The streets are imdeviFHingly 
Btr^ght, intOTfeetting cnch other at right angle*; 
Olid the three main iho rough fiirc^ ^rcnd oat tao- 
like from one ecmraon centre, of which the 
AdmirjJty etcei>Ic U the pciiit. 

Most of tlie hotis^ ore hudt in <]^iiadrsi]gUe, 
bftving a large eotirt-yard in the c<^Dtr«, which is 
waed for atabling and for hijuiing tlxe etiormou* 
pile* of wood laid in for winter fueL They have 
oommun-^tair^ llkft those in Edinburgh, orthe inna 
of court m Ix>ndun, uml vaeU llcctr tiften t^ouTiiins 
mttj Hepiirate teneinwili*- TItey wre generjtlly erf 
vaat ttiEe. or thret* or four atiirteft htgh, find necont- 
iiiodtt€ on iiicredil)le Duujber of families; one 

c 3 


nocess ajtd rtntiriTU&E. 

house. Tor iuetruicc, to tlie Nefekol Proflpocku 
whcru I hud to deliver a letter, was occupied by 
170 ditiereDt aet^ of teitantB, mid, aa tLcre wtxA no 
rcgiBtcr of' tilcir namca, I i'ouncl ]t imposEiblc to 
execute my (jommiasion. Tie groumJ-fioor facing 
the Btroot, cvea in the liouecs of the highest 
nobiiity> is uaetl for ahope : but the umformity of 
the building U not disiutljed hj tliis armngumctit ; 
for the windowa arc not altered to form what are 
fjitlec] shop-fronts in England. Indeed, anj devia- 
tion from the u^tial form wmiK] Im irnjiiissiUe, as 
thert! would be uo mevii^ of pul.liog tii tho Oauhle 
aoelicH or frumtj^ which are iudla^cnAable preeer*^ 
vatUtri iiguuiHt i,Le soverity t*f tlie colJ lU wLiter, 
The foiniturc, paper, and other hriiigingain the 
housed are fia^hj but not Bubotantial, and mnjiy 
little articles which htg eccn id the meanest lodg- 
iDgB in England^ such as window-blinde, bcd- 
cu/taius, wiidh-baiid etandg, &o.j are not to hQ 
found; but there are niin'Ofs, aofu&, lustres, French 
engravings, and other orn&Tuenlal ihinga, of ten 
times the vulue of thoee es£entiale that arc wiuiting. 
This is typical of the state of things throughout 
the country ; whic^h eeeke, by imjiusing on the eye 
by extem:d elfet^la, tu blind the judgment to the 
inonJ and phyKicul ohiLniCleristii-H of ihiiigi^ beneath 
the SLirfacCp The prJiiciple of g^.i^froment and 
the regnUuuns (d' society know no olhtr t>bjecL: 
and to de&ccud to realities the glltledng and noblc- 
Icokins cdificoa, unaubfltaatial mockeries of Italian 



BpTcndour vi^ng from &a arctic nioraj^, nrc hut 
so mMiy incrustations cf iilustcr, cnimbliog itniJcr 
the rigours of winter, nntl requiring; to bo renewed 
ami restored ogaio, to clieut tlie eye with u moak of 

Tbe Winter Palace is the most prominent 
arcliiiectnnil fcp.fiira of the capiial, unci excitea 
;bi]inir:itiati in tlie tugbeet tlegree ; from every point 
of view tfu8 iinjxwiitg stmctiim attracts tlnir utten- 
uon ftbcrvu all other objects. Pwticulady Uappj 
in ltd BituatioD. it stfmcta in a Taat open eipuce in 
the centre i>f tbe ciiy : tlie river, iLc bridge^ the 
columns, tbe stntuce anJ tbe shipping, inetcJLd of 
disturbing the mam lUvjhitocturTLl effect, ftoem to 
form pRTtb and cercomitinta of a vast whole. It 
is in the Loiiis XIV, etjle, and of auoh vaat 
dimensions, that it is mi^ to be capable of lodpng 
three fhoLiBiind souls. Certainly it Unoatdensely 
inhabitf^d, Bs yon may imagine from the fiit^t thjtt, 
since the deatructiun ijf the foniier jialafe by firo, 
n cctr|is of three hundred Srcmen form pari of 
tho hetcrogenccjU3 osaemblage within ita walla. 
On one eide it la houniled by the river, from which 
it ia protected hy ahroadiind maesivc granite quayi 
the citadel or fcrtrcBd facing it on the opposite aida 
of the etrmm; on nnother it U comieeto^ by a 
covered bridge with the Hcrmilage, formerly the 
favourite reei'Jence cf the Empresg Catherme H., 
but now a picture giUlery ; and the otlier two aides 
fiice the great Admiralty square. This ^aat pile 
c 4 



rose like tliepaWe of AM^lin, incamitarWm w!th 
th(? tiiii« usuiilly ft>und iiQccfiSftry for tLe erecliow 
ori>uiIdinge oF eiich raagnitude, — it rose ae it were 
tho t^mapatlon uf n, ul^'lit. It was liiilt upon the 
aahc^a of a fornjcr cditcu tJmt hud liecn burnctl 
dowxk. &iid it was constructed and Itdiabitcd in the 
brief tpncQ of two years : a fhort time under atiy 
eiKUtnatoncGBj but InQonccivubly so wben the 
limited duration of the eenaon avftilable for ballding 
in Kua^ia ib tiiken into ocineideration. It is in each 
efforts as thia that th^ grent power whieh the 
Emjieror hns ovei-hJs pecple, iind ibe extraordiufirj 
vigour he: can infus*^ intr> iheir iimceedinga, become 
nianifeet. DifHeullieH nnd iuijxjeeibi lilies seem to 
be almobt indi>t[}eui!tiLlklc ^ticiidiuita to him. 

The Winter FaLice contiuita seTcraJ noble halla ; 
among which, that Ciilicd St. GeoigeX in which 
the cb]Lptci~a of the different orders Arc held, is rc- 
markttblc for ita chaflte nrd EtricUy clMsicnl style; 
but wljcthcr from aome defect in conatnictioa, or 
from a Bettlomcnt of the wal]£> the roof fell in a 
fihort time Ginco, and destroyed it entirely : it hiuir 
however, been recooBtructed- The interior of the 
pilkeo gentM-ally ig us snraptuous as eiin be desired 
to coetribute to the pomp nod splendour of & 
moniLreh; it is adomeJ with all lhn.t Eurojwnn 
luxury And Eastern magnificence enn devlac ; 
fHwtly nmlnchite, poi"[ihyry and the most exrjuliilt^ 
marbkfi* ^'olden orn^mienla, Iminenee i;niiToiv> cmd 
nobly itslud parq^uctfi, d&z^le the agbt, whieh U 



bewildered by tbc number nnil vaetcic(8 of tbc 


WbeUier U be n EtiperstUiciR, or rapect for 
the memory of tbc illuetrioua dead, tliAt doome 
luxurioua splendours tn a alencc nnd ^litade 
ejccedpd only by ibat of tbe (omb, T know not; 
thouj^li »o similHr obsoniinci? olrtaios in the gntdt.« 
of souicty Ijeaeath tb*i nionairh ; bi]( il is ■ 
CUfituiii, obsi^rvetl to tbc present day» tljut nritber 
the Tixmx cccupk'd by ibc dcccnaeJ sovercigu> nor 
tfac palace itself, ftbnll in fiitnrc be occufjcd by 
roytJly. At tlic paJacc at Tiawk'ic Scio, the 
upiirtnicnts of tbc lute Emperor a,tG kept m the 
sUile In which Lo left thciUi when be sot out on 
his last journey to tbe ^oiith : tmtcuniitcilf but 
ready, as if for hU return ; even t'> the inJnut;» 
of the toilot tMc and articTea of dress. T]io room 
in which ibo Emperor Pavil ftll, U closed, and !be 
pnlsipc IS converted into a kind of college. The 
HpjTuJtiigu IS ronvertvd irjto n picture goUeiy; 
the iufl.rhlo palMcii is de-^olate fkud ahMiidoui^d ; aqJ 
tbe Tjiurida has bciiomc a mere moumnciit of the 
pixat- It docs not upiieuf rcfit^jriahlc tbnt the 
glories of the Winter Palucc ebould hi} offered np 
to the rnanee of the prc&cot Eciperor even: and 
yet who would attempt to break through tbe 
cbum of &u|3CTsti(ioue reverence, wJuch bos been 
ao sedulously practised upoD tbc people? 

It IB reported of the Hoir Apparent, thai be h 
not much imbued with these feelings; nnd that. 



notwitTiBtuncling Tiie mOdoflSe of dispoaition, hU 
miTvl aonra nliiove tbo wcakncaseB whioli liuva 
toand hU nico to popular obe^rvnncea. Hia reign 
will lie looked to witli aiixii?*^, na nn importaat 
era, Sy the RiJui^iana, who eijieut Eiiuch trom 1d§ 
avowed opinion ou tho eubject of the eerffl. He 
is ansioua for their emniiclpation ; but the danger 
of attctiipting it la greats and twofold; tithoc he 
must disappoint the ulrendy esdtcd espcclationa 
of tho sorfs thomaelves, by withholding thoir 
freedom J or, ho will raise a fatal conspiracy 
among the Noblos, who will Bt(^d^!tfltly roeist all 
innovation on their property and feudal righta- 
Arerolatlou from ilus eoui*c<i would be inevitable, 
nnd a ehaage in the form of government hut a 
natiM'uI reeulL Tbe Herr8 would not l>e :ible to 
discrimmixft' between nit ionjil liberty — nil ctmin- 
cipulicin fi'oin feudal opprc^ion, und uucouLrolled 
^cencc. Already an outhrcflltbiiBoccurred through 
some inlaunderptood cspreesion of the Emperor; 
and the district ia which the Berts rose wa« 
devastated in their nnbridJtd paeaiona with fire 
and sword. The obrok or licftd-moncy which the 
pro|jnctors rucoivo from tbwir scrfd for pcriaifcdon 
to bo tibecnt from tho goiU ftud to labour elsuwheroj 
la too important an item in the inhume of the 
Bu^Hiiin nobles to be parted with on easy tennH- 
One Of two nomea have been csied to me of men 
holding their hnni^red thousand serfs; ten and 
twenty thousand are no uncommon number* of 



tLewyrf^A ascriptl, btlunging lo om* mail. Tlwy 
tnkde,ftu<! mftTiy linvc rexdi^ed lurge fortunes; but» 
M it id optional WLtli tli^ir (Liiuter» to free thcm^ 
they coutlniic in « etite of vaseabgc: notwkb- 
flUndine ibot thej- offcv litrgc eume for their 
freodom. Singulur pride, wLich pcmuu a oieui to 
eayf " 1 bnve a serf noh^r tluui myself*" 

The AJnilrnJty Square, in wJiich tho Winter 
Pdacc fetand^, \% uD^^qualkd^ I LcUover in extent, 
otii] ccrlKiul}^ in inconTcnieDce^ hy nny other in 
Europe, nil Accuuut uf itH Tust dlmon^oDs, iind 
Urcf i^loiitls of dust wbi(:b envelopt^ it oii. ibi; least 
brmtEi uf wiud. It conUiina llie Sernite^hc^use, the 
ImacV Ctttbedral, ibt Ww-office, tlie Etat-m^yov, 
llie Adminilly, and Ltvo large rldiug^clioolef 
bc(iJc3foniG other public bu^dio^, cocb occupying 
nu e>len«vc frontage; and yet the importance of 
tbcac edifices \b lo*t ia the area beloro them- 
Org hundred tlioueand mun may be mnnccurrod 
in it with coec : nnJ it ia an oociL^mud whim of 
the Emperor to oause the whole of tlio troops 
etAtion«d in and about the cily. iimouutiikji; to full 
that number^ to psx^ in review before htm in tho 
8qunrc> with thrir artillery, pontoons, and all tLo 
munttionji of wiir. Suf^Zi a force, besides innu- 
moi'ftbJe «|>ecf;ttor8, filli-d ihin vast ar^a on tho 
ocoifiioni>rci'oi.-tiiigi1ti;cf:'1t;br;kte<i inE>m>1Ith, raided 
by the pi'eMiiiit Empeitir l« the riietaory of bia 
brother, the late Emperor Altxaudcr- UTie shaft; 
of tlus pillar^ whicU ia of red gmtiite and without 



ft join cr flaw, is eighty-four feet high; and it 
WM slimg and fixed upoa" ita pedestal without the 
sliglilOfit acf;idtfnt- It is, cortainly^ in every 
respect a. GtupendDua monument: hut it h mt^ 
plftcei], for It lude^ in ]iit[>ortiinca and duule from 
the iiuiuciifie spuct! uroinid. 

Tlie fiu'-raiinjU titjitQi! (if Peter the GreaL, which 
the Empi'eaa Catherine II. cnUBcd. to be erected 
to hifl ti»cmary, occupies another extremity of the 
Ai-hniralty Square. It WMild be mure pertincnti 
pcrbapa, to aay tliflt the Btntuo wae erected in 
honour cf him, aiiice htfl' tacmory is imporish* 
able, nt leEiat in Rmeia : it 19 one of tha gloriGS of 
ihc empiro* and la identified with its preoent 
gmndcur. The greatnesa of the Cznr Peter is 
every where present: hid em con^tlTuteil the 
brojid ruad Cn:an eivil (LLfknass to the new ^yetem. 
tvliich he {^r^tiiitcd ; from ihm e]>jeh uvunia rdH 
dates are reckoned: and it forms, aa it were, the 
great landmark in the chrorjologlcitl etrcana of 
RiiBdian history. The atntuc, oa h VcU known, 
ia equestrian; aod to the Kuaaijm it is au ctttjeot 
of veneration, not only for the proud assooiationB 
it aw.ikena in hie mind, hut for the gli^ry he 
flttaebefi to it, as an unrivnlled national monu- 
ment: he hua atudlod it under sJl nsiiects find 
poeitlona^ and delights in pl[icing hinieelf nt a. 
partieuliir angle of the Admiralty Boulevard tx^ 
wards duek, when, unilor tlie suhdned light, it 
stAUds nut in hold relief iigniniit the sky. In thiai 


'-**--, **,-r» — 




ImprcswTc aiatue, the w:r)ptor> H. FrJconct* \ia» 
umted tbt grcalcst eiujiilicily wilt Uje most 
pcrtcct grandeur f>t' ccmccplion. He waa iodebted 
to no othor gtntuo, cither nnciciit or mmlerEi, for 
the dcfi^, which, miiquo of its kind, eiprcesea 
Qjost ftdnurably tlie character of the mno and of 
the mttion over whJch he rc-igned. The pedeelal 
U 1U1 enormoa^ inn^s of ^nite^ formmpr im m- 
cllncd pliine, up tlie ascent of which the hor^ U 
Iftbounngj ti.rHl a|^[>eiirs to have nearly i^^jirhetl the 
aumniit' Ttio n]tilui.le \\o» fifn>i>IeLl a Hut o]>[x>r- 
tucity for the displij^ of skill nrnl SLiiiitfjiiiioil 
knowlinlgf^, es|ieclull^ tn the iiiodcllLiig of tho 
liorteV hind (luiirter*; nu wLicli thi; whole weight 
of the anuQ.ll 19 occcBaaiilj ll^rotvn ; to pi^serve 
ai due equilibrium in the bolanoo of the metal 
cf which the etatue U composed, thcee pnrtd 
arc loaded vith lead. The fig;iirc of the Csar ia 
fitti of Bit imd animation : be la scatud on a bcor^a 
ekin, and is dud in a eimplo tunic ^od nmntlct 
not characteristic of a. pnrtioidtxr age or country, 
bm tiDch ^A might be woro becomingly by the in- 
liftHitimt of any. He looks in the direction towards 
wbidi the right hand pninta» apparently at a distant 
object, *npposal to be the citadel, where the fmt 
foundation tif his iufiiuL cnpllid wa^ htid. On tfie 
side of the roeU is iiiacribed Pctro Prlvw, CaOie- 
Ttnn Sccunda, 17^^: an iimcrlptlun* thu jrrcgaant 
flluiplicity of which tniplics a volamcr of wluoh 
hidtoiy fuinbhcd the contents. 


A &AItOJl'e ITBOlie, 

It ie rcoordod of Falw>nct, ttat^ while worlcing 
on tho inoUol, ho tried lo calcl, ae far a& poaaiblc, 
tlio t^onubo fcdln^ of the groal MuBCovito 
iDonarcih, and to give Iiiin sueli an ex]>re3eion 
iLS tI]G CKar liimself wouM have owned- *' I have 
not dccUtd hU pei'son," said hej " with euihleniH 
of Roman (^-^naitlage, nor plnwd n maT^chnl's baton 
in his liand : an uncAcnl dms* would have been 
iiniiHhir:tl, ami die Kii^simi <*ue he himself wihheJ 
to ft!KjIish. The skin, ou which he is seutej, is 
emblematical of the nation he refined, Posfithly 
the Csat would have asked mc, why 1 did not 
pat a Bfibrc into hia hand : but* pcrl^ivpsi he modo 
tco greot a uey of ll when nlirc. A sculptor 
enght only to exhibit ihoeo parts of a character 
which reflect honour on it, and should acck rather 
to draw It veil ncroee flio crrore and vices which 
tarnbh it. A laboured panvgerio would Imvo 
been equally Injudicious and unneeejssarv, fiinco 
histoiy hivi nhan^Y perfoi-nied that officQ with 
impartial justice, and held »ip his name to uni- 
veTiiial regfuvh I must di> Her Mfije*itv the Em- 
preha the jiMtJce fo siiy, ihnt r>he h:id tasle suid 
diaccrniueut enough perfectly to as^ thia, mid to 
prefer tlie present short uiacri|ition to any otlier 
which could be couiposci" 

A laughable incident connected ^th thiF atatuc 
occurred a few daya eiucc. Some American 
Bdilorfi, who hud been making rather trjo free with 
the jolly godj eallled furth on a frolicaome cruiee, 



and one of them, nol baving the imi of the poUce 
W*>i^ his cyc-?, climbed over the iron paliaadc 
8iuT0aading the ^talac, and, cliuoberin^ Lp the 
rock, aCAtcd himeelf en t-rmtpc behind the Eaiperor. 
He was speedily disritouritedT nnd, ftftcr a nigbt^e 
OOlkfin^mcnt, was brought before th<2 divisional 
officer of police. His caso was stimnmril v- disposed 
of, antl HO heavy a Sup. inflicted, thnl he nalui'aJly 
remonatmfed, "Nci, no/' anid the officer^ "we 
can niakc no ttliatcrient: if you will ride With 
grciit piTrtjiie, jou Hiusl \\x\y great pcojilu's price.*' 

!FrL>ni tlie (utiJ iilibcui^^ ul vvei'ytliiDg like 
comfoit, deiinliiie5fl, or attenclrtncc, nt the liotela 
hi St- Pctetahurg, aeveral boiii-diDg-housea hnve 
epmng intk) existence ; which^ being conducted by 
Engiieh women, combine c\cry ndvautnge that ih 
Wftvcllcr *NJa cspcct or require. Those kept by 
Mic5 Beoaon on iho Englij^h Quay, and by Aliea 
Dee in the Galcmy, fli-e exlveraely good: the 
attention and amingomcnt of tho^c Indiee leave 
nothing to be dtjslred. They are fi-o<|uentt^d by 
nnmtwrre of English and Amerieans, nnd ocoa«ion- 
aJIy by iravellerfl of other niit.ioiia; and, as En- 
gliflh IB natiinilly the Inngiiogp iistrJ, thcrf» is legs 
conatnLint and reserve, probnblyj ih&n nt other 
tables ia thvi empin-^ of a public nnture. 

1 Iiave mentioned cbewbd'c^ thuL the Husftlnna 
are most apt imitators, and prompt of comprehen- 

Jn; they are al8<> *'ponIonslbgmate,'' Oncof tte 
ten acrvnnls in the house in which I am etnyiug 



hoe contrive*! to make liiraBelf tolemily convOT- 
Vint with EagliEli, merely from bearing :t ^pokon 
at tabic ', but %a Kg his been in the hubit of seeing 
more Am^ricina than Kngliuli, nnJ bns piplccd up 
hia ulu;iH of our kjLgimgv fi-oiik tlmiiij \m thinka it 
a bamjwi^d one on rjur pjirt, and aaaigns its (jrigin 
to America : iK^i^l;i.rtng that ho docs not npeuk 
English, but AiUf^L'ican I 

Very few of the serfs who ha\e succeeded in 
purchasing tlieir freedom, remain in eemce; but 
where auch is the aa&Hj they ftaaumo a sclf-noport- 
ancCi iia<l cxnct a deference from, nnd superiority 
over, other domcatice: it b a caricature of the 
groat nationul tyrnnny- I have juet witncseod a 
mo^t ludicrous instance of it, whidi I give &s 
an eiample of the ruling principle in Buaaion 
aocietj". The Dvomiks or yard-ser^'ftnta, whose 
occupntioas place tbena In an inferior graJt-, are 
trcalcd Jia subonlinatea, even by the other scr\'niila 
of the house. One of iheee men in our establish- 
ment \mi) 11 rtieJer about to be married, jmil, Ijeing 
iin^doua to give the utmost crUt to the ceretmmy, 
urgentJy pressed the bod.icniRid to grace it with 
her presence. Her scruples being at kogth over- 
come (for the kdy had conaidcnjblc pretcnB^ionsa 
from Imving purohneed her freedom}, ?ht exaetod 
that ho t:houId have a carriage at the door to carry 
hot to the eccne of fcelivity, and that bo should 
not presume to ride vith her otherwise thoax 


standing behind as a footman I Having had a 
hair^lreseer to arrange her curls and flowers, ahe 
y/ras handed into the vehicle with the utmost 
gallantry and politeness, and the happy Andrew 
jumped on the footboard, delighted with her con- 




'* Patertifil GorerrimHtil'* oj IiuMti/i.^Tliifiil!i uf tfia Em} 
^- Spreiie Sttlffeetion fitd uuLcursid VifnalUi/ af tfit 
t^jfS.^ PuriiihvvnU of Fh/firiig- — Arlilrui!/ IinpriMta* 
vmnt. — Howard and othef P/iiitinthpopials- — Stare ff 
Priiunii in Eit^sio. — Sihrrin the D^xnn itfUie Condetaticd. 
— I^alal C^mifoqutmcei ttf itapristonmg Witnfssfi. — T^* 
rtaaijf of the Poiice. 

Rdssia l>oiiste t!i«t it IS timltr n |aik'ni!il govfil'i]- 
me:it> iLuil del lilies ilat^lf witli the ple;ifluut fiction 
iavoU-ed m the phraae. Tlic people cither do not 
or pietend not to perceive that all the laws are 
caloukteJ to aid oppreasion, and that those who 
hftvc the gi"ente^t cause for complaint are ex- 
chidcd fruni ihuSr rights, and ilivcElod of the indc- 
pcndcoce neceaaary to obtain rcdresa. Surely 
the trui; menning of tlie phrase U dvepodBin oci 
the throncj and tyranny every where. AgDVOm- 
ment asserting this prerogntive, keeps a naliou, 
rot only in leading-atnnga, but in actual bondage. 
The development of it^ power is Gopstaotly 
cnhEiiped ATul circuEJiHcnbed, And ils energies an; 
panilysed by tho eji.utioa neGt?*siir/ to be obeerved. 
Literature is at a low t^bb, bccziUbC of thu ccndor* 
ship of the press ; tho arte and ecieucea languish 



bcc«iie« the govcmmont monopolies tte direction 
tf thom ; ond uiuniiraetiiro* iiro ij|j(>reHf4e<! by the 
competiitOD of iho government : instead nf pro" 
moHng ttnd enctjiimgtng Uieso lE^^iitiEinfi* tfforl*. 
It )i(u e^tAbli^he'] xnAl works of nmi^y flei^cnp* 
tjcni«, ^vhurh jL Rurnes on for ifs uwu pmfil, riiTW 
that ll>e ncccMity of c3aDi|rlc has ceased. It ia 
iuipfm«blc tliat otic head r^n wlniinLatcr tlic nffajra 
uf flo VEist Jin ctupire in all Ita dcjiarimcnls, with- 
out tlic existence of DumcT\>UB jind ftcondnloua 
abuaea, for the very aicnnea bj which infuiiaa- 
tiuQ is cbtAincd arc pollutci), and tho facts tiiem- 
Gclvos arc distorted ntid Bclf-inttrostcd- 

But the Emperor, *inc<! he hiw nndcrtnken the 
toek, tlcvoltii hill utmost enci^iiM to acconiplidb 
it; and, I believe, conBciontiouily, It ]» eaid 
that ho aflfcct* toimituic N^!i|Jo!c:on in some thirty; 
and cerffunty, m regAr^la hh iTkierfeTeDCo wirh find 
peinotiAl diriKTtidEi of t-^eryttirtig, he is not bolund 
his pro1t]ty]>e. His cabinet 18 u jtlam rooni, and 
C0Kn|i1ete1y thut ofa miui of bujiinew; he is nevei 
cinLijf uiiiftimi, &iid iitvcr laje aaidwbia i^ockeU-hat 
and flowing ^hitc pannchc, cxccptiug he leaver 
tbccnpttaJ, viht^n ht wcara a Uttlc vrhlte foni^ng- 
cap. With the noblest ajid nno«t corumanding 
fcnriv be is of Herculean mould, luid of dn iron 
constitution, rcgiirdlcm nlike of bodily imd of 
mental fctiguc : controiiiug and in&peotiag cvciy 
department and CGtiiblidhmotit himscdfj be seems 

l» 2 


pcisstiSseJ of tlm jimter of iiliiquUj- PTTfi^dly 
iinattenJetl, he ti^ iiitlier Jiiehiiig tliiTiugli the 
gtreets ill a little twt^linrsfd duksLkj?, or walking 
Uirougii the crowded lliorougliinrcp, vieitiDg the 
doclc-yorda, bflrr^icka. hoiinUb, nruX other govern- 
ment cBlablietmeiitE- He arrWce wbcn ha&t ex- 
pcctcdi find the consequence h that ihere i« no 
ucgligenco or inattcalion : but precision, loiHtciry 
prceifiiim, and iinitbnnity provail tJiroii^hout. The 
vcr)' poBScngers in tbo streets, itnd particularly tbc 
military, who form ii largo prriportion of the 
crowd, EiiiFt be on the ^Jii vive to s-ilute the 
monaroh as he passes ; nndthis, mtb the ULiIitnryj 
id n maitCT reqtiiriog some dciTerfty, No officer 
18 (Lllciwetl to appear in public out of uniforrQj ex- 
cepting us re^nl* tlie cocked -hfil ; thia is hiilf- 
uinfc^rni, ami inity he worn in any autnner most 
coBvGiiLtiat, Odd la tLua bcen curmouittiug the heutl 
lit every poasille angle : bat for anlutiDg, it njiisl 
be worn cm^^njs, nnd tliua the wearer Ims to 
thift it to the rcq^LiirpJ position, and at the same 
time to throw biick liia largo grey clofilc, to ehow 
that it conceals no neglect in the rcgulntione ae 
to droBfi. TiiQ effect of this marwDuvre, while the 
body ie being preaonted ^* front faco/' is very 
ludicrous. The common soldier bus lo take off 
tis foraging eap, and to carry it for some diBlance 
io bis hiindj vvlion pneaing; no cffif^er. 

Theae observan*ys may wiToiir of discipline, but 
not of inJlitury bcnnng ; they are not proofs of re- 

THE ItLSSlA^ i filttTHItEGHT. 


Epoct, but rather of thai Servile guljection towards 
th^ir euperiorg wLiich roi^ne ihroiighout the em- 
fAr^ froca tho highest to the lowoei, — with thia 
remarlEfibk fiddition as regards the latter, ihat the 
lower a man> mnk and position is, the more 
tTmntd he has to opfreaia hlin, and the grenter U 
hill ^ubmifisiuu. It i« the Kiisaian'a hirthright ; 
anO, whether from huMt, or a ctingeniliil d[S|K>' 
fiJtio», he never mi)rmiint nor oomjilmtm of ]th 
lot. Th^ cunaCLOUsim^ of his inferiority luultes 
hiin conform the more leiidSly, whon he ^eea those 
of oven cIii^TLtod rank tnugo and troinblc bct^>rfl 
the powers above tJiciu. TJua tlio hcjut bccomos 
callous to insult, mid lo^t to iJiofc rvtiacnicnts of 
fooliog which form the grouuUwork of dvjlisa- 
tion. The Emperor is deified, lHX»tiec he is to 
bla eiupmj what thi^ uoul le to ths body; but bia 
ftatt*llite^ the dispL'iigerfl of lui^ frowua aad smiles, 
miut he wor«hipr>cd after a etcnier manoer: iho 
On^ xrUes frcm choice and free-wiU, but the other 
from cairtetiiin nnd nawssilj'- 

SBCiirity 10 KuHbIa bangu like the sword of 
Tl;WTJodes: au iiitiititwue word, or in Jiciual or 
iillw^ed oflence, umy Lreuk the hair* and disgrace 
and fuiii attend Lta fall. Virtue, and that liighf 
soult^l ambition which devotes itaelf to gain 
houourdblii dJatinction by unceasing etioria to 
cudvADCe the piilUc good, can take no roiH iu each 
a «oii ; where cabal ia ever insidiously at work to 



jKise wauU dtsciosL^ iiiitl evt?nLimlly destmy, the. 
syslem of con-u[)tii>it auJ opprts^ion wlncli liitldrt 
au (lucliatiulrixl iloiriiiiLoii lu tlie iu'luiIh ttf oU. Tli« 
lUftcUinery enipluyed to work thc^c iutriguca ia so 
artfully contrived, tLal, while iu operations zir^ 
cf>nc]ueive, he caktenct; ia uiikttovvn and uneeeii; 
Mid cTcn tho Emfcroi' jiclda to its Kcrci influence : 
vrith hi3 CVTQ crc9 he eccs anil judges of things, 
and as l^ug aa huitude punotjlioitd reguJ^tyf and 
rigid discipline^ outvardly* obflcfTcd, he believes 
that tliej ore BulEtaiitiallj feo frotn tlieir fi>tinda- 
tioa ; and not a mere lapqucrcJ covering to conceal 
deceptions and impositions, prar^tised fur the pur- 
pose ofspeculntions and fmuih Truth, mercy, nnd 
jaatice, iire nnlcnown potenlinJitiea among the 
Rrmsiao virtu i:s r thpir namci^ aiv si mocWoiy, and 
their worship Ja gtiM Ofiioials nP every ^mde nm 
poorly paid, and tJiCj iu« thtarefore open to any 
bi-ilje^ nndctcri'cd by citber delieaoy or ecruplie*- 
The syaLeni ia loo common nnd univerBal to cre- 
ate the ellght^it remark, or to attacii disgrace to 
the recipient; perhaps a, little prudence is oh* 
served ^ but still person*!, whose ^aiarie* arc Icnowii 
to be under ono hundred pounds a year, openly Itro 
at tho rate of ton timca lliat amounl> donvod from 
60uix?efl which nre perfuotly notorious. Bnberyie a 
weed of Bueh dvep root and ancient growth, and BO 
eogiiiftod \viib the nature of the [leoplc, that neither 
the CDrnmandd of the Emperor, nor % tenfold in* 



CalKcnue u|>i:ul/ GajKraH:<J it; and it 10 iccoidcd 
of hnr thM, f^ 6DIDC rcnUjr luiaot fiinctioiuuy 
|ietiCianmg for an addltluu 10 hla pay, tvLicli ww 
infiufficicnt f*>r his aaiiport, ahc c^clciimccl, " Tho 
AM I I liave kd hiai to the taanger and hu rcfUacd 
to cat." 

But Bu^eian vemUitj in matters of jUBtloB i» 
the most unpttfdoimblo foiituro of the ctU, The 
scales are G\'eu here llio most appropriate flyiiiLols 
of the Gcx]dcS9, as aigiuficaatly iro^ilying thai tho 
beam f)repaii<1&rat^9 wltb the wciglitie^t btilie. 
Ib it thflt tho mind retrogradca in the nhscnce of | 
thuse moral \irtuea whicli tlcvute the cluimcter of | 
a ^>«j£i1e, rt^Uxizii^ itn strict discipline from being ^ 
subject to no controul froiu piJiiiiW opiiuoii; or 
d<i^ It intuitively coiiforuk Lo, awl ikttbiuiilitts 
itself with, the orilcr of tilings flrowad it? A 
fncod of mine bwog i:ieulted by 3 droaliky driver, 
ordered the man to take him to the ncstt police 
station: there, a sitort statement, biiokud by tx ton- 
rouble notCi was conclusive, and, without being 
pcnoitCed fL c]c1cnur^f the man wns t^xhen into tho 
yard sind flogged- The punielmionl U not inflict- 
ed with the object of diagraoing; the: wan; for 
tlutt it vould be ii^Ieaa to attempt ; but its iuten- 
tio^j ancj ('fleet, are to keep the epirit of euhjectlon 
In fall and undimmisbed power. Such BceiteB are 
eonimon, but 1 never yet met with a person who 

i> -1 



had witnessed one, cor have I ever known nrn5 
ID be rJeBoribed. Chnnce ni^rle mo an G:icejjiion 
*m iL former vlait, when I noled tlown T.he follow- 
irtr rirt!nTnstan(*es. 

AUjuihetl to every hcuMe U a man called a 
d?ornik, or yard-man; wHoirie duty it is to ki-ep 
the ati'cet cle^n in front of \us Dmtler'a housct to 
Bcrnpe llie enow off the pnvement, find to strew it 
with Band, to prevent accidonta to foot paaacogcrs* 
The Emperor, m wnlkiag dong the alrect, slipped 
and fell i he took down the nnnic of the houec he 
WAS paaaingT and, going etraigbt to tLo ncnreet 
police stntion^ diroctiid the dvornik of that litiupe 
to bo ficiaed nnd flogged. Short w/ia tlie abrift: 
allowed tho o^cuder; n Persian buatrntido would 
not have bean more prompt. Surrounded by all 
the dvomiks of the nelghbonrhood, collected for 
the pnrpoae of being edified by the example, sfnod 
the unfort.imale culjirlt.,in the pre&enee of ihe whole 
fltufTof the police of the dihirict, In the centre 
of t!ie yard lay a furin and two huudliyiof biu^hen 
n>da; and all wita anxious expectation. At it 
fiignal e^ery head waa uncovered, in deference, I 
fluppoee, to the autbcnty represented by the pu- 
nishment ; and though the thermomctet was oX ten 
degrees below freezing point, the offender was 
aflizod,eliiptechool-boy fashion onBlmilarocCflsione, 
anci laid flat on the bonoh. Odc man sat en hia 
l<|ge, and nnothor held bra arms croasod beneath 
the bench, while on each gide of kim, wllh a bundle 



cif rtxls onilop tlid&Jiniw, >U)*m1 tw<j(jtln:r licturs 
CultiEig uiv;ijr idlt^rmitc-ly ul Liuii ucul e^ti^Wigtng 
the rods as of^cn as they gnt diillj imtU the ivhi>]6 
were eipendtd- The punUliniciit wm not severe? : 
tiMzre woff no blood drawTi, nm\ ibc mao, who 
jclkd Lorrlbly, wnJkeJ nwaj nft&r its infliction; 
It waa epim out to three or four hundred blowsi 
cnidly meant and vigorously bcetowcd; but tha 
art of rod-maldng litis still to Lo Ican^U Such 
i« pfilernal dificiflino: a falhgr correcting his 
childr^Q I 

Bui justice (?) IS not always thus prompt in its 
actions: perso us arrested lumraimly^nndnrbltninly 
liprietin^, <?iperienc(> groat trouble in coinmuni* 

ling Willi tlieir frlt^iid-s who urc ibiis thrown 
into a elate of the greiitcst dDiiht iiii-l uit^de^'. 
Ill going ttvt^r the jirifu^xpiil ppison, a fp.w days 
nace> iQ com|>uuj with an ujdi3-dix.-iun[j of Count 
Ejitfcn, the civil governor of the city, who was 
deputed to attend me* I became the acclUenlal 
auiec of Uicliberation of an unfortun-iHte black mun; 
trboae coee, had it not been for the proacnco of 
tbo cud«-do-cauip, 1 ahould prohnbly not bavo 
boon allovved to hear. It appeared^ from tho pri- 
(mner'fl statement, that ho had boon ecrvnnt to 
B^nod Englieh or Amerioim ^cntlemcin, w!io had 
died at Odes¥n : and, do^paii ing (^f Ending a vessel 
IherQ to carry him back to the United Statos, of 
whirh h<? wns a citi7i?nv he hnd worked hU wny to 
fit- Peteisburg, where li« hsid either liwt, or been 



robbed of, his paaq>ort. It vfoa sufficient that ho 
WB3 without this vitluabk document, for him to bo 
fiiTtifitcd and lo(Ig«Kl in prison; where he hod 
already been three monlhe without an exnmination, 
or the lacana of proving his case, when be deter- 
mined on addrt^Bsing vac, I confess I was not a 
little BLirprised lo hesir a fiimilmr " How do you ilo, 
sir?" witliin thoHe wnlls; and I did not rendily 
distingulab from whom llie voice proceeded, till I 
fiiw aif ansioua black face j>epping tlirougli a 
grated window* lie told me Ubtnle, and I then 
equally attotiislied him by calling him by hi6 own 
name ; for tlie fact was I hod accidentally heanJ 
that this mnn woa miaain^, ond that all trace of 
tim bad been lost by the American nnthoritiei. 
I of ccnrac promiaod lo make hia position known 
in the proper quarter; and in two days he wus agiun 
a free man. 

The memory of the phllantliropiat Howurd, who 
died nt Cherson in 1790, is much respected by the 
Bussian&; nnd probably, bad hie life been spnred, 
he would have hiid the foiiiidation of n better 
syatem, as rt^iirds the prison Jiacipline of ihe 
empire, A inii*ler mind like his. and tlie devot&l 
eneigles of a life, can rtloiie cope with the hjdra- 
lieaded oba true lions, and the multiplicalion of 
ceremonial difficulties Find form.^j with which the 
aelf-iatoreat of partiers^ or tlie struggle for the 
preaorvntion of power, pcrpoliially accke to bafflo 
tlio course of improvement. The wunt of syotom 

BTAT£ OP THE P£I30ya. 


iQtne regulntion of BnetkL prbona i« macti com- 
plnined of; und the f«cblc clfi^irU of pliilntitlirop^ 
to eofteii iho tigour ofooofiaemout are of Utile 
avail, wht^i^ tbe fottnilntion cf 1I10 evil U In tlic 
ftdminUtriLtiDH of tlie Iilw*^ lUid in tlie nppruadvu 
power of the exticutivcfl. CommTttoes of b^ 
iKiVultni iiidividuaLis num^ itf iKrtn twlic^^ sittic* 
tiouuJ by Uiti i*ulLoiilii:», ilit; iil]i>vvL'd free acctiBs 
to the prlfi^iu for tbc; piirpmi; <jj' iLmclliiiUt'iiig tlic 
CODcUtkia of tlielr inmiit^a; but, iJie^cpencnc^ as, 
they ii-re in the pricciplca of clnssiiicnlioD, and of 
intornal JisoipUne, their carta arc jiiiucipally 
«iorotQd to the pcrsoiifll comfort of tho prifloners, 
and t€ tho euppljini:; tLom \vith dutluag and 
books, and cho inipicmcnld oud mftt<innl for Buch 
trades iw they Are nllowod to curr^' on. Tbcee 
o1iAritabl& kb;:iur« extood, of cour^Oj only to debtors 
und untried prkoiiei^: nfter oonviGtion, prUoEcre 
are seot either lo Siberia, or to bard lubour in tbe 
dock-yards and arsennls. In tlie lengilieaed mter- 
XtJ beLiV4'eTi rirreat nrd jtidgim-nt, ihey an? hi?iiped 
peU-iccll together, with no ijtlier distinction ihaxi 
tbnt of spxes. The vngmnt si:id tbc burgkr, tho 
debtor aad the murderer occupy tlia siiniii ward, 
vilhout tb« ^tlghtfst itttompL ut cljusi£catiuu, 
except M regfti'da nublo dcit*jrs, who, by Tirtue 
of thoir riLiik, aro separated from tiic common herd. 
Cleonliitcsa (not of tbc person), and regularity aa 
rcjfiirdfl tlio minute cbsctTnnco of fyrme, nre to an 
Oltcnl compolaory, from the foar of the sudden 


tki-:;atme?4t of prison liiis. 

ancl iines^jccted visitfl <3f tljc Einpoi-or; but tlere 
le no vetiula-tion : n lieatod anr] imwliolesiimc siTf 
pervades tire builtling, gUing I'ise to numerous 
cases of tlie jnll f^ver, anJ tdJiitg vis^ihly no llie 
comilcnoncea of tLoao i^hofie coiislituliuua rceUt 
ltd influeuc*;. 


"LaanHt' ogni iipvTRTi^n, v^i <i1j" entrftte." 

Tho moniont tho prison (;atc sliute on its victim, 
lif(jT as regntcU die conDocLions ami aaaociatioria of 
the past, may be conaidered as si Tie'ion, for wiih 
its retiUties ihe ualmppy cnplive will have no more 
cciiuraimicrti. From tliU niomt^nt the " pm^uiul 
ctire of the:*iate" uudertskes for hiuij iiud pri?pares 
himhy a]>n)trn(it<?<l nTiJjealoiia <"onfinom(!nt, for the 
new life he is (le*-liiie(.l to pursue. ^VliiiLuver [nay 
be the UenojniuixLion of thofieiitein^c, Siberia laJiis 
certAia fi^te. la caae«^ of cniiie, it h teiuted 
baniehmcct acoompaitieLl with labour, increasing 
la fiCTcirhy according to the magniluile of the 
oflliucoi but for misdciacanour aawl \ugroiicy tho 
gcutJo epithet of colonieatioUa h ftpphcd lo tho 
edict which removes him for ever from nil social 
intercom-ee. The proof of guilt t>c itinocenee may 
lie in a dietant provijice, eufipicion dione juslifies 
the flppi'chensioQ of nii Individnfll, aud motilhs, 
njiy years, priftfi uwity in lenglhoned and detailed 
covrc»|>onilenf:e bciween th& disCunt official*, 
founded on onil evidence extmcted from the pri- 
soner. I have niyself Bpoktii to partiee who wcic 


mpRisr^yocewT or wiryEMES- 


completing ibtir thinl ymrori^ijnfinemL^nt, witLoul 
a. Lo^re of hiivlng tlielr ca^ca flcckled. 

Aa the uio^LHi) of eofm-cing (he ^ittcudaucu of 
wjtnc^aca £Lrc uikknovD in Kus^'m, excepting b^ 
keeping them ^curo, pcraona who«c kBtimony ia 
rcquirctli nrc nctuixlly ctjntincd till thtir jK^rviccA 
ui'ti required. Now to bravo troprieonnieiilt evtsQ in 
furtliernncc of the einltf of jiistice. U bi^roTjd the 
uMinar^ Urund^ of pulrloifdio : henc^ a tamiilt in 
the street, or a crime committccl on the highwny, 
14 the flignnl fur efcry pa»*^ii^er lo dy in ft con* 
trary direclion, \n orJer tn nvoiil tlie duty of giving 
nvidE?noej which ui otlier cimrtriei fitrengthcns 
the arm (jfjiititif^c. Thiw huniHiNty MufTRrj^liy this 
iaiquit^Qj* a\t\i*n of ni'bitmrj power; emcc to 
viine«e u traneactiou is equivalent lo being jmr^t- 
ci^s rfiminig t nntl, furlber, to render lu^Utatico in 
oucA of accKicnt. ilhicae^ or sudden doitli iu tJio 
atrect, bitoItc^ the humane pct^n in tho most 
dKD^rou!» reflponmbilitj ; for ft poraon found wilh 
A ooxpM miwt ftcoount for tba dc&th, and cluar 
hirnaelf from tlio fiuapicicn which hia prefieuoo 
inevitably attft*:hcs to fiito. Ignonini^t*, lioiuttcd 
Sgnci^ncc', incironaos lliat hLtrdne^a of honrt und 
ag^thy to mift'oring which tMa drt^adful rt'gulation 
bus ttu-tlc hnhitiinl to vvury Kuk^ijliu A fi-tv dftya 
»n4ji>t iia T uari walking ihroiigh ol\\^ nf tliu juin* 
cipal fcirtt^ta ii ri^sipoctably dn^fscd nimi l*efore 
iiii^ Bln^rrcd unJ fell. Lik^ the Levitc iii the 
parflbW> I, with the other pntaetigera " pnascd by 



im llie oilier aiJe j'* but I sIdlhI at a iliatanoe ami 
watcbed tJie result- I wiw ns I pawed llie mau, 
ibat it wa* a cnae of apojilexy, aud ilint witli 
immediate atlention lie might piobablj Lava 
rccoTcrcd; but no, in oppoailion to the cctnmoccAt 
dioUtce of I'coectN, an in.rerior policcmaiii wliu ^VQ& 
attraotud to tho spot^ net dftring to act wUhoat 
tbe authority cf Iiie superiors tUrew n cloth over 
tho Dianas face, and lift Urn la |>^riBb by euilbca- 
tion while bia w«at for help. The delay, lo say 
oothing of the Application of the cloth, wnfi fatal. 
How flogmutly deficient and ineffer^tivc muat 
Ije the lawfl of this country, not only for the pr^ 
vertion jini! detection af mine, hut for tht- [uti- 
tcctioii of it» people! Tht jodousy «jf the police 
ia a poor eubstituti^ for sttfety ; and tljc sXneacQ 
of coufidence in their integrity, and the fear of 
Ixjjng dii^god within their vortcx» only strengthen 
the tyranny thoy wieldi The powor of the poli&c 
U indefinite, and iho abuees of it are monatrous ; 
slavi^ fajifj Ltnd the dread of <!xioruou9 and 
annoyance, combine to produce a willing eub- 
nufifiion. Flight or reM&tunco are nt'ver even 
dreamt of: a cobweb would bind the lirnbs like 
a link of :;damaiit. It i& no unueuul thiug to aee 
a procesaion o f |Tri*oners, pLid^iLi^ ironi ona district 
cif thi! city to another, under llm ntuniiia} charge 
of two or three suhordtnjLtc^, and th« siill more 
nouiinal security of a piOL;B of f>ack-threEtd fufltened 


round the arm. All ideas of escape and self-pre- 
Bervation have vamahed; the mind loeTitably 
yields to the conTiction that the whole empire is 
one vast prison-house, in which freedom exists 
only in a negative degree. 


DftBAD 01 

Uidvfranl Drttid if thr PoUefi. — Ptr^uUij nf Imjio-inl Coif 

tht Wotpf^- — Itrligion i>f ]iii/iicia- — Fntting in Lont and 
Fiffuttiiig at £tmti:r, — Rojuiun Sitjmt'sCUiv/i and J^titaKiffn- 

A GESTLEMAy residing on the Englieh Quai, on 
roturning liome one night ratlier Jale, found the 
dead bodj^ of a rann lying oa the atepe of tis 
door: to allow II to rpmaic would be subjocting 
himself ic susjjicion, and the most seriouB embar- 
m^nient; therefore, without heHt-aCion, iillhuijgh 
sit ii liti.le |n?rfloual rlak> he dnt^^ged the coqjse to 
El dii^Lniu^Ct :ui the liu.Qchh:tck did in the Axabizui 
Night*, but witljout jeopardising un*>thec in<3i- 
Tidual. Ukxc^ we have a practiciil instaiicu of 
tiie disadvanto^a of a aystem, wliic}u 
by ftjor and tyranny, destroys the powers \Tliich 
n'ould render it ^irotoctise and usofuU It la an 
uaoiiiidoiJs, 1L8 well as n most daii;^crou9 pvuiciplor 
to permit the police ttA an executive body to bo 
inveaiedwitU the jwweraof arrest and of judgment 
fllao: to mfiintnin iia conaistcney, it must be 
infallible ; and hence ita decisions justify its cap* 
iuT\^3. The pnlice is not ninde for thp ]n:np!e, 
but ihe peuple for Lh(! pj>li(;e ; it 19 not u proteciivn 

DUfiAD 07 IHPEItLhL CC»rDE6C£N910Vp 49 

tody, but nn aggressive and controlling power; 
arrcgatmg to lt£t^£ iho privilege and cxclufihc 
fncult)' of diroctiag the conduct, aud even de- 
veloping tho tastGi of the public To uao a 
lligbland proverb, *' there is aotbing loo hot or too 
heavy for them ; " and th^Ir inventive and jealoiia 
Bpiril is ever rondy to torture the most simple 
tnuiMUCUOTJ into ii sorioue wrong. 

Il ih not unusual lor ilia Enqwror to «top and 
luldr€&B a jicr^rjii hi the fitreei; but tlie lueklt»< 
individua.! has little to boast of in bo fluttering a, 
distincticn ; in a niojucct he is arrested, by one 
of tbe ubiqnitoas ngonta of the police, itnd 
chaigcd with the offence of having addrteacd tlie 
Kmjjci'or- He ia aulhorilativcly rcqiurcd to repeat 
the eubstftnce of what ha hnd said; and a conBce- 
lent of some dnys inevitably follows: which the 
Iminiatration cf a bribe, or th* exertion of some 
powcrfid influence cnn alone terminate. Thig 
occurred to s celebrated French actor, who haviag 
V'cn ill, iiJid nimble lo perfonn fi-r »ome time In 
consequence, was iiceuflted by the Kmperor, who 
inquired after Ills benUh, and nrged him lo resume 
hla LheaLrical fuiLctlociB && eoou is& pobalblc. The 
imfortunjito nctur was immediately arrested, and 
had eome trouble in getting liberated. The cix- 
ouoaataiicc reached the cara of the Empf^ror, who, 
viahiug la moke him eomc reparation, di;elictl to 
know in what nuinner he coiild oblige him. *'ln 
nothing, aire>" replied the comedian, ''but that 



ycur Mftjcfity will ocTer oondoeceud to epcok to 
me in the street agiuflp" 

These perambiJatione uf tl»o Emperor are often, 
like tlioao of Haraun al RaschuJ, otlended by 
avnguKr mlvBntni'ee. I recently witnessed tlie 
following iMcident^ Two or three little boys 
beggeil af dm Emperor iia he waa pasaing alongj 
of course without knowing him: be gave ihem 
Dionej'a hut liudliig be b^I iiverhti>](^d oiie^ be 
desired Uie Lid to follow him: a public droshky 
driver, however, having whispered to the boy 
yrho bi^ leader was, ihc Uttlo urchtn fled at hla 
Utmost epocd. TIjo Kniperor ordered a couple 
of soldiera who were etanding ncor, to fotoh 
the boy boet ; but tlio uruhin threw hkosclf on 
the gi'ound, nnd offered eueh violent reaistimoe, 
that ibey wore compelled to carry him by force 
to the Emperor'^ fresenee, who, smiling at the 
flcenc, directed them to take him to the pakcc, 
where he wns probubly transferreiT to ono of the 
militAi'y -lohixil^. 

I biive dwell somewlmt n.t Isngth on ibe sidiject 
of the ptili^^e, J^ifV, as the reguktuij^ power of the 
Qrnptre, it atampa the whole eyateui of KuBsJaJi 
society: indeed, it has been one of the moat in^ 
fiuontial in^^titutioni' for forming the national cbo- 
rnctcr; and it ia thue> by exanumng into the 
nature of the e&naee, that we Ate better able to 
judge of (he cifcctfl- 

Free-will, sclf-relianee, aad independoM action, 


PQl:aCIiIPTl?E C&A^O&B. 


are qualities vnknown in tin? couipoaition of tho 
iiu^giun cLaractcr. Fettered hy the state of 
pupillage in wliicli tliey ar^ kcpl by tlie govern- 
mOTit, and contvollcd by ignorance imt] auperaEition, 
whicli it ia nut titt interL-al of the prle^tliood ta 
diepol, the Ruftsiaca are uiij^uble of no spontiineona 
mom] eflFort, nor of ;iny vi»lnn(jiry uflsninplion of 
reapimaibilily- Some of tlieii' uaages anil obscr- 
VEii.ief^^ pirLikc nil mucli of tlie absutxliLiee pructi^d 
In the EaeU whicU are so vividly described by 
Biorier in liia amusing titlca, tlmt, wcro tbcy not 
avowedly fised im a- rcii^ioue biiais» iLc analogy 
would bc3 perfect Eut yt:t rdigiou, aa a tbeling 
itf cot the true ingredient; for a mere moclianicol 
obGdieoeo, without the slightest Gxprea^iou of 
thanksgiving or prayer, ia the duvkest auperBlitlon : 
it has not even the merit of outward form. For 
example, the rouds may be in gt«od order fur 
sledgeSj but yot they nr*? a*it in be ao ii»cd till 
the fwL^t of Si. Kicliolns : the fields mny be green 
wiUi btibage, tint il»i? uatthi miibt. nut be dfiveii 
forth till tlie fo^itlval of St- St-eplitn ; ihcr wtwthcr 
may Ijl* mtiiF^t pi'u^iiLli>us, buL the plough may not 
be put into the laud till the jvnnivcr&n,ry of St- 
Qeorge; and even an applo may uot be gathered 
till St< Mary'a day, when, wliether ripe or nott 
tbey arc indbM^rlmiaatcly eaten. 

Twice ill the yjar, uamcly, on the first days of 
Jcinunry imd August^ the waters arc bloat by tho 
prieete, On tho former of these days, the cere- 

R 2 


bl:£33ihq op the wateqs. 


monyr ne |Jcrformc(l nt St. Pctorebi 
impoaing ^ the array of mitred bUbopa nod olh^r 
orders of clergy, tbe prcaencG of the Emperor 
witb a brilliant staff, awl a dense nifias of Boljiery, 
can make it. Howc^ver incJemenl tbe weather, 
however severe tire cold^ tlie ceremonial is nellLer 
Biiapended nor curtailed. On the fri>£en surfiice 
of tliR river, a lemple-ahiijjed baildtn^ la erected, 
Tlclily liung v/iih tapii^try, and decorated witJi 
tlie buunera of tlie cliurch, and ctlier ornaments 
of 'A religious character; a flight of step^ in the 
centre of tlic building leads down to a large 
hole broken tbrodgb ths ice. The shores and the 
icy aorface of tbe stream arc covered Kitb thou<' 
8and3 of spectators; nnd, ainidi^t the tgrt of 
anillery, the gorgeous proce^on alowly winds its 
way from the palace. The bencdiclion being 
concliidcdj and a largo silver veaecl having been 
filled with the water for cburclj purposes, the 
proeosaion retires m the ssimo i^vder. Happily 
iha diataiipp i^ not grrat, nor tho aervice long, 
for sbitc unifortiiflj ami other full-dn^ss coatuine&, 
witlioiit the prottclion of either r.loak or wrapper, 
ai-e but ill adapted to ibeeipoeuie which etiquette 
requirBH- The withdrawal of the actors in this 
scene la the aignul for a moat tumuitutius mah 
DO the part of the populace, who, with bottles and 
vcdBcIa of all deecriptionff, precipitate themselves 
<lown the etopa to obtain a supply of tlic water, 
wbkb 18 considered to poascfs most extraordinary 



Virtues iu curing diseases. It wxs forrocrlj ttc 
custom to iiiiDieTee mfmite m tho stream va thesfi 
occ^iQua, AA being more holy nud cflicAcioue iUtm 
ike usual form cif buptbm, but o^ intmy of thcua 
died from the effccte, it ia no longer porniittcd. 
I huvc been credibly iufornied tlmt aut tv few 
infemte (^eriebed en the epot, by elipping from iho 
l>euumbed haudB of tJiemetropolltuit : who, uotbing 
daonlcd by tlie midiap, «^cliitmed, "God giveth, 
God tEiketh nwny, blessed be the name of thfi 
Loi^," — " Give nie aTnit1ii?r cbiliL" 

Tikc ceremony iii AiiguBln is a mere lufmiitiirc 
■Jlklr, aud frum what I wltueeaed, u,ppt:iLrti to be 
jiti>rR a imittei' of Fonii tliau a religious rllt. 

The i-eligluu of the Buasian is more mattei' of 
belief and ccrcmomol than of action: he dsldoo] 
combine* faith and worka. He will cominit a 
robbery, and forthwith proceed to tie obuich to 
crOBs ood prostrate Limeelf ; and, not improbably^ 
ho will commit tbc ?a,mc crinic at tho fir^t poaeiblo 
opportunity- A figiu^e of the Virgin Majy, with 
A burning lamp boforo it, hangs within his ahop, 
and hU jkalron saxat oocupted ah additional niche; 
but be will not hesitate to Impose upon biii eu»- 
lomers to tlie utmost of his power : hia eonseience 
iH iko graven XM% but «tuui]t4 veTf-abftulved by 
the s^MiDgclike virtue of bia creed. I huve eeen 
tht: steps of iiduirth crowded wUli people, uwiiitlng 
the exit of a blshc^p, to kiB« hlfl Laitda, clothes, &nd 

I 3 



even \m feet; his holy touch being regai'ded aa 
fin net of Tcgcacrn.tioii, 

Tlic TT^holc period of Lont 13 kq>t no rigidly oa 
n Taai, tbat not ar nlom of ftTiim^l ealiBtonco oatora 
into the food used at tbat time ; ve;;;t)t[ible oiJ, not 
of the beet <juality> boing atibfliitntcd for butter: 
I hiive known a person huve recourse to an t^ioGtic 
after having incniitiouely oaten something of 
which an egg had formed an ingi-odieiit. This 
lengthened iiiortifcflticjti ]» borna with the mmt 
exemjJiiry fortitude: butj iinhnp|jily, that \n the 
ouly virtue attrLched to so jiraiseworlh/ a Bi*lf» 
denial ; for the moment the hour of midiiight, on 
Easter eve, annoiincce, with the roar of artjllery 
and the ringing of beOa, the glad tidings of i"cleaae 
to the anjdouB mnltitudee, than tha city is blading 
with festivity, the eatin^-honeee ari5 thronged, 
and diaaipation, and tlie grossest epicuriBuij reign 
with unbridled license. The ciurches up to this 
moment are der§ely thronged, eapecklly the 
Kn/an cafhedral, around which a nimierona body 
of priesfi;, IjoHJiJi^ baniierti ».ad toruhea, anj fol- 
lowed by ci'owda of pt-ople, Avind in [jr^eeKsiua, 
eoeking the body of tin.' Saviour. Tliej pjochum 
the aenrcL to buve been uusucce^Ltl, and cmn- 
mcnce from the altur, " Crifilus \oakriBS." Chriat 
ie riaco, A soene of general congi-!itulat,ion 
caauoa; people crabmco 000 another iudiscriiiii- 
natcly, and at kaat one gcwxl point is gained, 
out of the great mass of euiJCrstitioD and painfol 





absaidStj, la this grand dispky of " b[''>tlierly 
Imw," Piled up in ihe recesses oP the church, 
and Bpr<!(«l uiuk-r tlio protiM^ting intorpositloii oi" 
th& CDlutuTi8t ure heaps ofdlaheawith vmtidd in- 
tended for the npprijuchjng biuiquQt.s, after hiivuig 
received the hlcsaiiig of the pnesU It ia difficult 
t*> rtfty where devotion hegins, or acnauala^ stop* ; 
if the service of ilie Creator be uot altc^gother 
aeeoiid&ry to the gratidcatioa of the crea.tarc> 

Tho last, tliue scrupulously obscrred, aud rif>- 
touely' clnacd, is un prod noli vo of tlie lenst tnorol 
good ; instead of ahofitLUiiug the iidiid, and operating 
on ita worldly tondcucice, tlic sensual uppetJtcs, 
60 long rJ^iJiiiLincdj bi^ctuuo i]i]|>uliGnt for itb toi'ini- 
nation, and ft scf^nc of intolerable depravity sind 
licentiousncFS ensues. A innre complpie eieinpli- 
fic.tttoii of the pnrahle of the unclKUi spirit, which, 
after wulkiiig tliroiij^h dry pba<^ej*j relunLod to its 
llouBf^, and Found it swept aud garnished, cannot 
be- icuigiiied. Thu temporal pctmlty u*, however, 
in nujneroua instancca ftoon puld ; For^ it le a well 
known fact, that more deaths emuQ From the 
elTocte of this one dvh^^ucli, than occur from like 
cauBce, thffiuj^hout the empire, in a whole yooi. 

Tho chimLctcr of tho KuaeiaD ib more than 
tinged M^ith ^upcrelitlon; he h imbued witli it: 
h*? yields to lie influences implicitly^ iind nllowfl 
it to dctctmine tlie most mntmul uctic^s of his 
life- The Hnsalau U, besides, a fotnlist ; and thua^ 
his superatitioos fears, wjuibmed with ilie dread 

■ 4 



he fo<^lB Hi doing any thicf* wliiab, in Lis opinion, 
mav controTert the irrevoculik* decrees of fate, 
leave him to be toased to and fro, tlie sport of idle 
terrors and grouiidlesa npprehen^ons, wilbcmt 
dGL-idion or energy of purpufte. 

Bobber/ froui tlio [lerson, tnul of property, m 
ttou&ee, ifi Itioet common; but tliopbrGJiking 1q a 
crime rarely henrd of. The tradcamen, m many 
infitnnces^ particularly tho^ of the public bazdre, 
(which I wilt describe in another pkccj) do not 
r^eidc at t^icir bualnosa promigcSf v^hioh &ro thus 
Icfl without protection i but, though avmling 
tbouiBolvtia of all tho precautions of bolt-a nnd 
bir^, thcj trust lam to them than to the aupcr- 
Btition of their countrjmiin- They ftfBs soala to 
thoir doora, nnd wiqdow-ahutters ; and, as St. 
^Ticholns, the nn.tionuI sfttnt^ 19 supposed to be pecu- 
liarly the protRCt.or of such arjcuriCiea, uo thief 
would yeature to cnmintL the sacrilege of breaking 
them, whilebara and chains would nfter no iiapcdi* 
meat to his violenct?. Individual co^a of auper^ti- 
tion are numbcrlc^; but it would be dilticidt to 
find a more striking illustration of it as a general 
prjuciplci than in the abovo-uihtnvd instance. In 
the days of pagnniemf the worship of Mercury 
would have bacn analogous. 

Fatjkliara is a religious sentiment; and as it i« 
the only one which cxeroifiea tin active influcnco 
on the m'md and conduct of the people^ it* 
efibcta u^ deadening. To appear to rssleC the 




itablo (loorecB of Providence, or o\ei3 to [jtc* 
]mv agfLinat tliQiT poe^iblc mARLfogtntion, would 
be regarded se an oiT^itce cqiml to itMupiing tha 
Alraigbty; rebelling, in sborl, ngninst ilie fat3 
aBHl^iitiil ut li'iA birth to ea^rb one uf tbe bumau 
race. Sfi tcitacidus an; tbc Rufiamnfi (tftbiB acnti- 
mGutt dmt tbe estnbl lament of a life oj^suranco 
compfirv hy ibe EiigtL«b mercbaDtA wtifi id Grat 
looked iipoQ ELH an act of im|;icl^ iuid godle^ baiUi- 
hood. The advant^gea of Life ABHumaoCj however, 
lire begmning, but very elowly, to be apprtoiattd, 
and the mica of the company, probably to mcict 
the jealous ft?nro of tlio Ritesiaas, arc uct bo eovoro 
as in this country. The facility of raiding lonos 
on the deposit of the policy &a a. sm!urilyj tind tha 
grent beneGta which nre aeen to arise to the 
fiimilk^s of those whoa^ Hvce hod been insured, have 
done much to wealfcu the nationiLl prcjiid-ice ; but 
ftlSll tie objections ure deep-rooted- 

T bave seen men iicl with jifitoiiniling rL'ckleflB* 
iies» njid dnrlug» from tbc strength ofllicir belief, 
thiit nothing, H'liJch tbey cnn do, will avert, either 
the manner or the moment of their den th. Tbey 
peril lif^ aud limb with a foulhardint^aa -wliii^h 
would be incoDccivablQ on other groimdi?. Un- 
deterred by the £cercbing heat> and I'ogardlcas of 
burning rafters falling aroiind them, men ply 
their tdofl is the very heat of a Bre, without 
a thought of dangeroua eonaeqiionces. PUco 
them en the ice to restore the bridges, which 



LaTO l>een cut array to dimiuieh ibo preasuro cf 
tho Unnting ma&sc?» and ihey toil mth the 3taa& 
indiflcrciiou na to aafcly ; drifting down the 
etroam on dclacbcd. piecca of ico, and forcing 
ibem hy their weight beocalJi iho alivadj- coiu- 
pftct field. It 13 not the abaence of fear, but the 
abitndonmcnl of life to an inevitnblo destiny; 
wmilar in ovciy rpiJ.pGct to the humet of tho 
Kiisi. The o^M-'ration of fiLfttlUin iijion them i^ 
not 31 stimulAiit t{> exertion^ Imt aimjily t\, pi&MVc 
ohcdionoo to (I. pcrvnding pniicipic : suid, liowever 
depliu'able it lonj bo, il ia jet most soi-vJceable 
in its elTecta; for, the Bussiana being habitually 
pfl£)?iTC iinUcr their mortnl ijooiu, conform tb£ 
more readiJy to any chimgcs anJ dcatiiiatioEB 
whicli llio aiitlioritics comi}cl ihcua to undergo; 
they follow OS implio'itly tlic path of lifo mark^ 
out for tliem, afl if it lutd boon pointed to by the 
finger of God. Bui it mu£t be owned, that, so 
long !Lft fotoliem cutidouea to he the ruling prin- 
ciple of life and f;iith fltnot^g a nntion, tlit: in- 
tellect of the peoplij 10 in too tovr a etate, and 
their cwpncity for mental fri^udora loo limileil, 
for th<!UL to adva^c^t! ^i J^ti^p towards seh-euian- 
oi[)alion or coiietitutioosd. goverumeub; and, the 
m^untcnancc of power being tJic sole object of the 
state in Ku^sla, it would be prpjudi^iiul to its 
interests to subvert a doctrine ao coududvo to 
Ihat passive and blind obcdlcnee which dc^potiam 
exoeU IJvrni tho subjoote of it£ tyrauny. 





Fel^hn qf Nuiti/t— Thp Mtirringg Cfr*jntmy. — Funrml 
Ritet, — TTii? Pttia/iorS fo Uimvch! — '^ JtecoHt^ion Mori' 
dag." — Natmnai Chttmi-tiT v^ueuctd Irjj Retigitm ami 
SupBratiliiiv. — Dvijiolism diifBrn to pi/pulrir Prt^ViUcea.—^ 
TuiUittaitd C'iamgr •>/ the Ein^ttrar Nkhda&-—IIaq*i9lh 
the C'fioiera tfiofa leif/i a H'ord. — ChntTh Ari^hiU^cturt of 
liiuitiii.^J)\irk CvmpL'jiitfKa v/ Cfin'/te uiid tlip Virgin 
Motht"-. — Cm-tiTne iif PFifiln tt/ thr Oi-etk CAi^j'A, 

If Fanalioiaiu bo on innato cliaracteridtio of 
ih*} RjesianSf ita opcralioiis on tlko Diiad domo 
AiIditHtiial Mtr<?iigtli from thp miigmfipent rites ani) 
ceremonirs of the Gn^ok cimreh; which, cnptU 
vating tin- jujiigiiiiition tliri*ugli the Bons^jt, lesivc 
lin inOtillUTi iiu|jreB6ion on llie mind. Keligion, 
ih\ib !iup|Hirtecl, rttjjsert to hv a fei'llngoftW liettit, 
aaJ iwlorntiuu of tht; Aluiiglitj' bei^umee it loeie 
ocrwDonkl obaorvance, Tt la inciJiicclvaLlc how 
ft mnu of M. t]e Chntcaubriiin<I*$ calibre could 
hare eeriously stated, '* (jue le protcetanttymc C3l 
la religion dca princca : " mesHning that the visible 
prcBODCC of tbo hcrtd of thu Komish cliui'ch, in tho 
peraoQoflhe Popo, alone accutcs the independence 
of religlorij aiid its exemption from th« doepotlo 
jutcrfcrcnce and coutrowl of ttmpoml princes, 
'whose powtre are Btrengibenvd by the uaurpaiiott 



of its authority. To rcfwon froLQ analogj^, we 
may bo allowed to tako tho conTcrfic, aud to say 
that KoTUMiiBm ib tho t'oligiou of tho people ; ziud 
tten ihc aDQolii of the Frencb nntion wlQ show 
to what extont it j^uardcd ite eacred truet^ Aud 
revorsipg the picture, let ua turn lo our Jamca IL, 
whoeo fall at once proclaims the error of M. do 
Clintea.ubrianJ's dtjcrtrinp^ and thu trinraph of iL 
DAtioiiH Peter the Grenf, who eould lirook no 
livaJ [lower In hia gigantic scheme of dDmiuiou, 
abolished the ofiiot; anJ aut!iority of the Piitrlarch, 
and coui^titLiLed Lhri3i;lf the huud of ihe church i 
tuid thie ecde^oatical Authority hla descecdantfl 
have presctved, delegating tlie exercifle of their 
funetiona to A e^'nod. Tolcrjition 'i& permitted: 
indcod how could it bo otbcrwiao, in so vnat an 
empire, embruoing ^taliomedism in the East, rind 
LuthonLtii^m in the Woet, boBidea numberleea 
Other denominations of religloug heBcf among the 
many nations of diffti'oiit (^ii.'ede and languagea 
which it eon tains ! But npost^cy, or conversion 
ftom tlio Greek churchy in a crime of thu highest 
uiogtilmde, visited by uo 1e«s a j>ani>ibment than 
deportation to SlheHiu 

The iiiarriag<5 cej'enjony, however aoIeniiL it 
may he accoimted, as one of the offices of the 
Churcb, ]s so cloaked with thejvtrical cflect* a« to 
lose much of ita spiritual B-binctity. It would 
eccni that ihc external acnscg mthcr than the 
feeHngd of the heart, or mind were to be wrought 






n'piiti ; or pcrhnpe it h coneiclcrcd thnt tlio fc^ctiDgs 
tfirc only imprceeed hy the agency of tho s«n»e«i 
Be thifi a* h may^ marriago is a drawing-rooni 
scene, iiad«r prieatly auspices^ lay frivolilled are 
intermingled with eccleaiiLatical pagcimtiy; nnil 
the thotLtrlcal effect U enhanced by hd bsiDg maild 
nn evpniDg perrdiiiiftnce- Tho eilcTic^r of ih© 
diurch i« iHumimitei] ; but the brOl'uiiiL'y uut^^^o 
la eclipses) by thi? lilaze of tlie interior, wLkli, 
gtutlcTeiT with camlleH smd cUantlelien*, Wks noro 
like A aiiloon at pleasure tlmu a tfinple of woraliip. 
Tbe gue^ifl and THerKls tnvhed tm be present 
appear in. full di'c^:?. and are luarahoJIed to the 
rcfipcctivt^ eidea of tlie building appropriated to 
tbem by a innster of the ceremonies sLpjjoiiitcd 
for tlio occaeioji ] the fricnUa of caoh of the cou- 
rting porticit b(?Liig grouper! toffctber on cither 
^adC) leaving the oi?ntio freu : fur llicro ute neither 
pewa nor scats ofsny kind in tb^KuBaiancburchoa. 
The entmnc*^ of the bridegroom is welcomed by 
n clmunt from the chori&lers, who take n. leading 
part in the cereiiiany : no inetrumentid music being 
nllowcd in th« Greek churches ', and a 1}rideHinan 
immedinti-ly hnrriea to the regiJence of tl^e biide 
tti notify that her intc'ndecl ia nwfltUng her. This 
IB often intimated gmcefuUj' anil silently by 
the presentation of a bouquet of Uowers. On 
the bndc's arriTol tbe chorieters &gnin chauut a 
wclo^mc, and she takes her place unong her 



The drosfi of tlio bride b as sumptuous aa 
jeweU nud the uiiMt costly articles ciin make 
itj if tlu^ meftna of ber family ndinit of Btiuh n 
diqiTny. She ;h !iBhcr<?d into the itseeTiiMy hy 
& klnil of pr'n^efwion, hcatil^-il hy one of ber own 
fftniily, hi^arUig lieioi-e Iiim Ihc iiclily omamwitttl 
picturi: uf lier ajdnt, tvbicli is dc^tiutil Lo occupy 
A cotntr of ber future apaitmeiit, and which, 
during the cereiuony, ie placed on the high altar, 
A smnll terapomry oltar, or I'cading-dcsk, covered 
with roae-colourccl silk auJ oroatoertcd wilK 
Oliver fnage and laco, ia placed in the centre of 
the pai'tjuot, m which the prieet officiates. 

The aervice is long, and coneiets in reading tho 
lives of AbrRham and Sarith, nn exhortaticm to 
the new conple, and much singing. The rings 
arc dchangod at the belroiliiJ, and therefore 
that symbol fiirnis no ji»rt of the Hervice. The 
piur, hearing lighted luptTa in their hands, aiul 
having large gilt crowns held fiver their beaila, 
walk thrice round the altar, graB]jJ(ig the priest's 
robca, and during the ciliortalioE ihey stand on 
a. large ]>ieco at* iicfi ailk^ winch becomes the 
parquiaito of tlic pi-ict^t. Tliis portion of tho 
ceremony hamg concluded, tho saoromont ia 
ftdminlstcrcd, and tho now married coiipio pro- 
ceed to tiic grand altar, where they proatrato 
thQiUAeiv«s with forcheode to the ground before 
the various pictures of the aaints, and hiss thom 
with maay crossings and genuHectionB. The 





w>ngrfl,ti:lntioTia of the fni^jiJs iiciw F^lluw ; tljr 
liitc i>r ik'in»R"itiJii is brokcu tlirou^li, a.uil all 
pnrtiei a^cmbleil^ botli men and wonKMi, kis» 
each olher. A briliiant supper anaits the wliole 
party at the house (generally) of the prvrtnte of 
the bndo ; dauclng is kept u^r to a late liovir, nnd 
not Tinfrr^fjncnily the plcrtsurcs cf tJio tnhlo dc- 
gciK^Tftte into cxcgbsc?. Suporstitluii pcnuitQ of 
ouiy c^nwn daya for tho pcrformnnco of tho 
marriage ceremony; euro being taken io nvoiil 
the ev6 cf aoy i'nat or partietikr prnyer day. 

Previous to the marriage, the boirothorl parties 
are naturally subject, to thi; qiiiizirigs and sly 
jokes of their friuinl*, mcliuling aue very sin- 
gnlnr onstuni, to which they are expected ta 
>Dforni. At rhi" dinner- table, if any one on 
fillrng hffl glass crlts "gorkne, gorki>e,'* (bitter, 
bitLar,^ the brldegroijiu elect la cocflideiied bound 
t€ remedy the alleged evil by kisabg hie in- 

The JVjncral service varies in importance, as 
n^mia both the external diaplay and the pomp of 
iLc Church oercmonj, according to ihft r^nk of the 
^dceoasod, Tho procession T^mdcd thi^uugh thu 
Itreet!, the hearse hcing canopied with doth of 
gold, and followed by a long train of cnT-riagfls, is 
but a prelude to the gorgeous and anlemn BOPne 
which IB enacted ib the cburch. An. altnr, like a 
pJiitfnrni, miaeil ou ji succession of stqifs rci^eivca 
the I'iddy ornmiieuted coffin ; frt>m which Ibc 



ai'nlicil lid is reniovtJ, leftving Om ci>r|)6a pninii- 
nenllj- eijioeedp A crowd of offid.iting jji'i*:hla 
dreased in ite coatume appropriate to tbe core- 
monj, chaunt and recJle the acrvicc, assiatcd bj 
tlie clioiTp It 13 very long, consisting of several 
parts i at one of wbich lighted lapel's arc diittti- 
buted to nlJ tho eongrcf^iitionf whilo a priest 
holding ono cf three brurchee, emblemftttcal of 
tbo Trinity, wovca it round the corpse ; he thca 
poura a dnrk kind of inccuBC into the coffin, and 
reads a long printed paper, which lie afterwards 
thrusts into the bre.tat of the <leceased. The 
IVietida then inount the stepst. Vise tbeir departed 
friendj nnd the pricat closes the ceremccv by 
throwing n, m\i»[m veil over tlio Ixx]^ ; the lid of 
til 9 coffin ia then re^ilaced, und the pi'cice^ion 
winds Ue way to the cemetery ; wbidi, being 
without the ctty, is two or three miles distant. 
Few of t!ic fi'icnds Tcntare time far j for, con- 
sidering their duties to Kavc been completed at 
the chui"oh» they Icotc tho Inat act to the offi' 
ciala* Tho streets for aouio little dietanac in the 
Imc of tho procession aro strewed wJtli tLo amnll 
lips of fir branches; and a moflt ruffinnly-look- 
iag set of men, more or le^ numerotis stccording 
to the impoilanee of the fanoral, wcaricg eloucbud 
hats and loose bliick robea, and carrying lighted 
torches, follow in files by the side of the pro- 

1 inti-ctduced myself a few dajr« abce aa a apeo 

TJJSStO^TB 10 6T< rEtEK. 


tfltor ai the funcnl of a maJDr of the CuIrnsaieT^ 
4t la ; liai tliu cliun;]i being i'ull oi~ miii- 
tnry mun, all of whuiu I knew could not bo eoii- 
necicd witli (ho ilcccoaed, I vcaturod to eook a 
little (xpbinatjon, Th^ dcccneetl luy expoai^d in 
full tnufurin ; «nd ivLen the priest unbuttoned tlio 
cofti, to insert the paper before irienlioiicd, I 
begged of au officer elanding nest to me to ex- 
plntu that parE of the ceremony. He looked fit 
vw dn haul tti hi^, uiid, Juet uA I Wiis uii the [loLtit 
cif offdi-itig »ii jtpriilogy, lio said, in u tone whi(;h 
indinited hie surjjrHe at iny igiiornncc and wiut 
i»rruil.h, that it wrifl the |iiiS6iKfrl to St. PeUsr Ui 
Opeii the gates of heaven to the deccnecd I Can 
llus be u CliL'i£tl;tii country, I a^cd injaelf ; where 
I see the pi'ie.*t3 prftctiaing tiuch gross dcluaione, 
and pronjulgatlng ^ doctrine litilc ehorl of iUol- 
ali'y, and cntirolj flub*er*ivc of that laid dowa 
by our Snviour? If eineijro, how totiiUy urmc- 
qumntcd must tlicy bo with tbc? tenets of ChriBti- 
unity \ iind if dissemblers, how det*p must be their 
f^Uilti in imposing ou The credulity and ignorance 
of tlie people ! This pretended a^sumptloix of tlie 
Divine power to bind or to loose, ja perhaps the 
most effective weajMJn in the bunds ^^fjiii anibitioua 
Iiicmmhy : fur^ if ju^kii owl edged, chuveli doiiiinn- 
tion niu8t bo tiirprenie, eince. net one ivould be found 
linrdy enough tti risk hih fuhurfi aiate by disobe- 
dience to Llio j^ricfitly ^vilh The iufluenee of 
fiupcistition artfnUy wielded, uink^^ tbe tudk of 



govfrt]nn?Tit ea^yr wh(?re the nation b unen- 

At the ceraetery, where Do further pervico w 
perfonncd, the Bimplo iluty of conainitting tJie 
lM>dy ti> tlic grftve nione remains. tSKould iinj of 
the frienrle be preeent, the sexton takea round to 
them a email bushel cortlaimiig cartli, and a ajM^oti; 
that tbcy mny literally aid in burying tlic dccetiBcd 
by CAHting the firet inBtalment of cnrth cm hie 

In Roman Catholic countries it is usual to 
devote All SoinTs' T3ay to the memory of the 
deadj by visiting the couieteries and other places 
of interment, t'l repair the jierinJ^rible iLicmoriale 
of tlie depnrtetl, hiiiI Ii> rcplnct* the flowers and 
other Utile uflTenngs, whirli*i!i>ntly Jitlost theafTeo 
tionwhlrhhifiiaheynnd ihetomh: n jTionsjictj giving 
birth to the most sfllutmy lu/Iuciiceft; fur il thiit? 
the worldly Ppirit is subdued, and the sunivor* 
return borne with chaatcnt'd feeluiga and aerious 
tlioughta. excited by gratcrHl though saddened 
rccoUoctaona, whioli the hnllowed duties of the 
day have renewed. 

The KtiBfiinn eburoh devotee to this Boletnn 
puqjosa the Mondoy nftct Eaetor? hoiico called 
Porolnatelnui ponycdelnek. or Rocolleelion Mon- 
iky. Bi^th the Romisli smrl Greek chnrches had 
donbtleas the eaine object in ^ew, m instituting 
thi* niage ; by petting apart; a day of eooimemo- 
ratioUr lu tlificijjbne the ndtirls of thL*ir t1uc1c« by 




contctnplatiou, and thoac serious rcrtcctions which 
the jjAture of tleii- duty and ths eolemmty of tfco 
oocofiiDii vould A> naturally awaJcen; and that, 
while tncditAting on the social lost lU^y hiid eiis- 
tAiiKy^, they might how with rc^vcr^itml eiibriia- 
uon to thut destiny wliioh awaLfla thdru6eh'4!», and 
which had freed thi?ir ilnpnrU'd friends from the 
litfiritiwA of tIfcU wiirlil, t» riwi u^uin Lo tlw joys and 
happiTiew of m\ endle^ liri^. Hut wliile the 
lU>iiuin CritiidiC ^[iciidH the day with dcC(TD:c:ry and 
ivoitr^etyt the Rcisaliia uf thi; Git!ij£ ChLjrt^li 
bfinga it to ft close ill revellkng and drunhenueag. 
The tboufiund^ who coiigrcgalc tt^ether, fecem 
rather iit the enjoyment of a iiatLoiml holiday, 
thiLa a5 huviDg met on a tnourtdul (uitilvcr^tuy ^ 
cloths ore dpr«ad on the oortbon iikouods^ and the 
flat atone tOnhs of the gravcti; oatablcd of all dc* 
ecnptLUDs oi'e piled on them, tbo hiesing eaiua- 
Tar ia provi<1&[] For ten, nod bottles of beer, punch, 
lukd oth^i' oon^jiouudfi stand ready to enliven their 
apirils. "Hcrc'a to the memory of Ivan Dimit- 
livitcli,^ s»y» one, with a ^ass of hrandy in hia 
band. '*Foor Ivrm ■ he cannot ilrjnk hJmj^elf, and 
therefore we will drink for him." Jn drowning 
their sorrow (?) the roiwoo is drowne<I ideo: *ni 
nl tlic condition of ibis day ttf fimereal pio;>ie^, 
tlie streets ure tlirougcd witfi hclpV:;^ l^einga 
reeling towiirds tlicir Loiucs, and '' Ri;cullei;|joa 
MonJziy " entlfl in an ohli«oa of dehftucheiy. 
This profanity doee not cxbt among the higher 

r 2 

0cnGmiiJM t9t 



iNTHlllHBnT ipf Cffl 


claeac3, who, Imvlng perforineil thetr dutieH, retire 
at nn early hour. 

Intonnont in the churchcn ia entirely prohi- 
bited, excepting as roo:ard3 the impcnal family. 
One solitary departure Jrom tlip law was |:)cri:iittcd 
in iho caac of the cekhratGd Kiitusof, whoso re- 
mains are dopoBited in the Knzaii Cfltlicdral. Xo 
cofltly monnmeTit ifl ercctci! over the spot, which 
ig imUcated hy r little olw^tiiir*? tablet placed oloBo 
to the gi'ouui:! : hut iierhapa tlie noblpst recfH"<l of 
Ills niemorj' and gren-liiess i-« the ltlti.ui of Field 
Marflhiil Diivoust, which w:iH taken *m the re- 
treat of the French from Moscovr, and now hangs 
ou a column adjt>ining the gr^TO of Kutueof. 
Tha wealthiest clasaea am very generally buried 
in ccmctcric5 attjtchcd to difTorcnt conventa : the 
price pitid for thie privilege is beyond mcaaiirc es- 
orbitaut, amounting to many thoustind rouhlcsp 

How extonsivoly may the manners and customa 
of Tx people be traced to their reii;?(0li3 ritoflj tho 
influenco of the priesthood, and their cheriched 
0uper«titionA ! All thcfio combmo to form the 
leatUng features of th<* nutional chnnicter, and in" 
fluoncG thp minor dctiiila of ita comprMition, 
The stilful npplicjilioii of this knowledge, 
Birengthena the handw of a government, while, to 
Dpjicarauce. it seems to be indifferent to the :id- 
\antage; for, to ncknowledge that it fu&tera an* 
tional prcjudicets ^ould be to disclose one of its 
fiouroea of power. For inetance; there ia oae 




polsii wiiioli not even the Emperor dixrcs ovcrrolc. 
KugEiA is tbo od\j country m Eiiropa wbidt con- 
tinues to compute time hj tho JitLiun ycai', or old 
style, as it is termed ; and lie non-confi^'niiity to 
Uxo olliarwieo j^oncrsil sptcm of lie Gregorian 
cycle, arificfl fron a tiau' of doiu^ Tiolcnct to the 
Ignorftncts tiuJ aupersthion of tbe 2>eople, Tht 
cliange woiiM l>e bcyonil tlicir Mnflerets^niliiigfl on 
tic (me liHnO, ami insulting to th(*ir flujieretiiian 
on the uthct'. The attempt to ourtail the yi^ar^ 
p«r ^tLiuu of tw<^lve ilaya» Ju order to reconcile a 
pOLut, tu tlitiui ^a uuiiili'IliglLlt; ua It kvould be 
woiu3por:&nt, vfoM bettpntempktetl witKconater- 
imlion hy IjcjIIi people and priests; the impiety 
oi" ditfranchialiig twelve oAinta m the calemlar- — 
for every da-y Ina its eaint,— and ci' putting tlicm 
C*u the ehclf lor one ycnr, wo\dil be n tJan;^eroUH 
exjienmcnl, ns lutinifefitiu^ a. dierogoril fur the 
sanctity of the church, nad a defiance of populnr 
prtJiidi<:o ; hoth of which form fuuiIiiineriLil yRtis of 
the imperial power. Even absolute Jcypotism haa 
limita and reaCminta ta iu dunuuion; aaO idtbongh 
ita sceptre holds its away in \irtueof jjopuUir igno- 
nuiot^, yet n^pect inui^t be pnld lo that IgrtonLnue, 
rQTiuther to iho prejudieeH which it fosters. 

No miLU probcibly knows the huuiOD mind better 
than the Emperor Nicholas ; and h'ts lite haa been 
iuarkt;d by several cKtruordmiiry dieplflye of hero- 
liem &nd ecIT-dcvotioD, io ivhicii he has nvaiied 
limself of the vory i^xisq of tumult to sirre^t iU 
p » 



j>rogros3i tuming thua the very weapon of nttacb 
into n rneana of ddtmco. In the memorable yc(ir 
of tlio choLcm, 1H31, the public mind was muah 
disturbed by tlie belief thai the epidemic wss 
ocesLsioncd by j>oi&ciiif oiid on ile firai appoaraiiee 
at Moeijow public dletiitbances werenpprehcndod: 
but they were prevented by the prompt interpo- 
sitltiD uf thu Einpenjr. I r^uote ihu words uf the 
Irtte Srr George Lefevre iii Ms Irentbu on chiilera. 
" Tlie Eiuprtir imnie[UAtelj liiirrJi;d off to tbut 
capital (Moscow)* and coutnbntcj much by hiB 
pEeaeiiec to calm the public mind. Jli» presence 
at Bti Peteraburg was not Icaa valuable, u»t from 
jnJeundeRtanding on the one hand, and evil die- 
poeition on the other, everything contributed to 
csclto popular coiTimotion t but as eoon oa bis 
Majesty waa appriecd ni the proceedings, ho 
haetered to town from Liis country I'O^ldenee, ttod 
hiif pi'eseoce not only qu<3llcd all temporary eotn- 
uiotion, but disorder ciitirely ccnacd, und waa not 
again renewed." 

The (not le, that a btUef in a general syeteni of 
pOiftoniTig beearae sn fTfinfirmGdj that tbe populace 
n>ge, with the hitentjon of destroying iha ehulera 
hiK^pital, iind of ma^ancringtbepfiyHiomne. Some 
riofing oueueili aud a, mob uf wVL?ral (boueandn 
liad collected, wben tlie F-iuperor appeai'ed sujiltuily 
among ihcm, The effect w.vs electrical. He ptacetl 
himself on the step* of a church commanding tho 
whole pquarci ondj declaring thai It yvfm the band 



cmmcn JkEcurrEOTrnE, 


of God* :uid Dot Uic work of m&Qj wliicli Lad 
braugtii the Tititat,i()Ti upun them, onlci'ctl the 
wIjoU mnaa to fall vu their knucs to [iray Clod 
for forgivcnce*!, aod to witlidraw the cjilamily 
from thcjni, luiiucdiute tmnfiuillit)' eiiKuccI, and 
eQlliufiiasLio I'cvcronce for Xh& man grew out of 
thniatooed violenov and deBtmetioD. Tlie tnut 
W!w Tiohte, and the jnrJgTiient perfect^ which, 
ftj)[healiag to tlic rcliglouH feelings of tLo pouple, 
diaur-uiidd igiiunuiea of tU brutality. 

TliL- tvtcrnaJ krcLittcIure of tile Ititsaan 
lihurcliee Jiifera wry Jittl*-, if any; the gfiiiunJ 
Gguxe belug thiit tjf -j, AEEdii'tw (l^uti^f vhith aa 
nuLuy doiiief a& iht^rc uro luiu^reta to a Mu.buin>* 
mcdan iiioa<jikc. The rido appuora to be to encirdo 
one Jaige cupula vitlk four atnallcr onc^r and to 
cON'cr tLom with gUdcd cop|>cr, or to pu^nt tlicm 
blue, boepatigling tUo Eurfooo witli gold etare. To 
the former claas boJougs the dome of tbe n^vr 
Isaac's Cutliedrol^ wluch is little iiiieilor Lu ita 
diiueiisioDs to iLai of St Paul's, and required i8U 
poimdfl weiglit of duciLt gold to cover its surface. 
But at Miwicow lUo ui&iv fur the gaudy aiid fan- 
tjutic is carTifld to a gpoaier length ; and it is liero 
ULore cojupicitous, from the greater nuniher of 
oburch(-s th^it city I'oiit&iiia^ nnd tliu divt^rt^ity of 
tirn»ifH>rit ^vblch dii^tingLiitiljog thetii : ^tlu «)]vei'eij, 
jmiutid blue, red, greiTn, or in uh«quers likt & 
WIet|UJu'fi Jn>fl, or m couceJitviud cuj:>eftj like 
the figures cnllcd Turks' caii:*, drawn by children ; 
1 -I 



each one ia deoorntcd different from lt» nciglibour, 
except In having a stujieiidtma cross surmounting 
the principfll dunic. There \s raucL f>f caeteitL 
effect in this ; nnd tliia idea is not diepdllcd by tltc 
gencraJ oppcaraDco of n crcaccut at tlio foot of tJco 
oroBS. These huge crosfica arc eeourod from tlic 
effects of violent winda and other accidents by 
four ^nlt cihaius moi-ting at a common (*entre on 
the top of ihc crcsa, sind broiiglil down Xo as m^iny 
different angloe an the top of the roof. The effeet 
of the feHttKJns, whR'Ii thesu ulifiins form, it- ex- 
tremely grs.refnij and hiLrniooJ/es witl* the geneni! 
hizartr. aiipcumnro of the wlinle &trn(5liirt% The 
ornnmenlh Vi'itlnu are coHily, andj in riiiniy 
instance*, hiiirbaruiia; a jMjgaii temjile cjui Ly,rdly 
be more ao. Wlxat Is denied them in eculptnicd 
figurea iXity malte up by paintinga nf GhrUt, the 
Virgin, ^c, ; which are decked in real l^ead-tlresaee, 
of gold and eilTorj and eonictiniea with connpLcte 
hnhits of tJio same luixtErJcIa richly cmboeecd with 
the most costly gema; and leaving only the faeca 
and liaiidfi expi>$ed for the homage iind Idai^ad of 
the people. 

It is rcDinrkable, that Jn iheee pictoriil rcpre- 
aentfltinnfl the SavJonr an^l tbe Virgin Mnry urc 
pninted bWk, or nt l*?:Lnt of the dcq^j^I Indian 
olive, colour, uearJy apjinmrOiing in il ; and it 14 
not inipvoliJiblo that, in tins partitndar, they yivH u 
jusier Idcit uf ihe conjplciionfc of Jcsns Chnel, and 
of hie mother, than Ilaphael or Cuido; aiuoo tho 



Syrians of inferior condition, wLo arc exposed to 
Ulv !iun m Uk- olinata of Pd(:stinu> must nodcs^a^nl^ 
Vo of a iJocp lawny coinplaxion. Sabaettun dd 
PiombOj in bis oeleL rated pictore of the "Raieing 
of Lazarus," in our Nntional GsiUery, afpcars to 
hfive stclfH on this irleri. 

The jinejilrt or [hj|ies ns tbcy ^rp rnlkfj, nrQ 
dwHsed m veHtuicnla nut altfigellicr UTillki- tbe 
iRoiikii^b i^Wgy : they are itiostly (^inii|ji>se<l nf 
btEiivy liflsiiQ and e^EpeuBive eilka ridily embroidered 
witb go!d and eilvcr* bjt \arjii»^ in claractev, 
according to the nature of the eervico to 'be 
performed. The dross Lif tho ccclceiosUce in the 
etreeta la a vie Ict-colo tired silk roljc, with a broad- 
brimmod Iwt, eunnonnting a head ivhoae flijwing 
bair and long bciird, cnrchiUy coinboil> form a cape 
or tipjJOt iiroand tbo iippur purt uf tho por^on, A 
silvt^r chjun acd crucifix dependent henoatli tbw 
frioiTO of hair, nod a jfold-hendod aire, of suoJi 
poTlentous IcngTh tlml it is grasped almost in tho 
centre, romplete tlie costume of the priests. 



Perilous Pazition q/" Sf. FeUrah\trg.— Amhitiota Pa^ic^ iff 
Jffafin. — Fi'pijueiif Uiif of /he Nrro. — hnn/fiitiim of 
St. Pctcrafivrgw — Canals. — ffndgc/i ooor tha NfC/L — 
ilusmm V^itUljj. — jFt'JlrliU-—Tft/Uh*^^tniiIrhrjnm ihefep- 

— /iTff kith, — Jifif^inh Jiv t/iiat, — V'-renumif of opHTtitig 
the Jiirtrr. — Grois tiuttavcf ttf petty Tyranny. • — Atri^itio^n 
tfuf Seredify vfthe Peitpfe. ^- Ejoiaplo of Rmatn *^lHi' 
dpUw-^ — Thf Troitbftiktu fuuiilij. — T/tenHvritetcra. — 
PhewtmeTiij oferlr/^mp C^M. — Tiryinf^ CU>rhfit fit/ Frnst-'^ 
fftiiftvtut c0i-cii afirviiltif Snimi,~^Prcptiraitinin/orWin/er, 

— ^ftf^iCfd f^rfji rif Riiff Prnsf. — Sfp'fgtfi. — Eqaipoge 
iyf' ifiu Kmpread- — Vo*tw/ic of iji^ Coiujhuwfu 

PmiLic titt&nlton U oconeionnlly dmwn to tbo 

perilous position of this city ; for, rsiised by art in 
Opposition to all natuml (3ifficiiltiea anil danger, 
it TTiiwt ever hold b. most precarious tonure. Am- 
bili{iJi5ttrnl rlii^ iJutiJi'inirialiuu ti>i'it.eni.i its froftti^-r 
l>eyoud the opiiosUc banlie oftlie Neva, ilelenniiied 
Peler I.Uu Crroii.t ni Btk-ctiiig f.Lis site for liis new 
wtplul; m l;hu erection of wlacb, if tlie ainsumiitian 
of liuimui liic luay Ih; umitted front our conaldur* 
ation, lie exhibited a vigour iinJ porsevoraiicc 
which no difiiciikiefl could danat The hUtory of 
tide OnAT recounts tb« gr«nt peraooal sucriSce to 
which }ic fiubmittedi in order to niako Kuasia & 
poworfut mutitimc country, and to raiac a nnval 


force for her nggrnnHizcracnt. A sen port on liie 
Boltm wod ntJcoEKary for the cijmpltittuit of tiut 
great eobemOr of wtich bia prophetic cyo may 
buve eeen ilie devt^lopnieiitj nitbough lU rciilisa^ 
tioD ia left foi^ future gencnUiorts lo wilncflii. 
Most c!crt:ut]ly liU spirit hns iJeaucndtd to hia 
ire, nnd the ohjccl ho liad in view remnina 
le to tliu jire«?ifl day. Safe wittin hcreL^lf, 
und lu'ldirg n prL-jxindenLlirig influence hi the 
Baltic (vhich hiiH n*i«uiiici] the ehHraf^t^r of a 
RusAmn tuke), uf wh;LL rcjd [liiUc>:iii1 Iteutiit ia tJie 
gtgHjitii^ Jiavul forC4j oi' RubhLi? Shu \ms nt) 
cciDuncrcc to protect, no colonies to defend. For 
t'lJi munthfi in the j<;ar tht; seasooh difi|Jiiie licr 
lOVcrtiigTity otct the seai, and duting the other aiat 
the jealousy of other natiooaccmpela horto confino 
her Pipiftflron within her own limits. ThusHuaaia, 
iKjhvithfrtandiTig her extent of territory, and tho 
tnnk she holds timong ihe first powers on nceouQt 
of I]<!t rp^om-ocs nnd Etrent^'thj ig ne much eir- 
Cumacnbed a& elatea i:»f inferior magnitudo. Tho 
problem however reamins to be solved, whether 
Ru^ik, with her iiomors*? nmy, will eontinnp to 
ntaiu hct dngiiW potLiti^n an a GrsUntli: nciviJ 
powor in two knd*lo<.'ked Sfi-n^, tho gat«ti of which 
are iiiipcmtivL'ly cli)>eil fig:im*t hi^r. Her far- 
»criii^ prtlif'y fum) untirSiiy wnhttion aim at inie 
w\c object 1 liiuiitiiy, i\ foolmg on tliosc privileged 
)rc« which woidd give her a. right to the free 
■fltrictvd ujivi;pition of the aea^, nnd n voico in 

76 iwrLrENCn op wint« ow THB hbva, 

the great qu^etiond of maritime law. The barriers 
of the Sound nrc dependent ou those cf the 
Boiftphorus; iia Ihe poeacaaion <>f iho ktlct would 
give ft rirrhl to the pnssago of tlu> ibrraci' i and 
hence tUt^ coveting jiiraflp which ie so orien *axl€ndeJ 
towards the Turkish provincosp The jeidouay 
of rival Tiationa n^ay eeok to preserve the balance 
of pnwei% nnd avort thi; ovil <lay ; hut the purpose 
will ciintiniie in iitilIi mini shed force, till time ,ind 
dn!u mntaiii>?*i ?-h:ill present thedesiredoiiportunily, 
whi>^h wHl hfi si'ij^eil with eaj^er |irtimptltnde» 

The BLiltic. liku uth^r iiiliuid at^ut, i^ iii>t under 
the inflneov^e of tides, but it is peouliarlj" suhjcct 
to CiitKnt^, produced hy the agency of the winds. 
Thufl a west or eouth-wo^t wind forcca tho water 
up the Gulf of Finland, Cfmein^' a rieo of ecYoral 
tbct in the Neva; and this Btt rapidly, that, ahoiild 
the wlad hlow with any dej^ree of TiLilunce, the 
river overAovT£ its h&nks m the conrAc of a few 
hoiu^. A north-e3§l wind, Oi|iiidly powerful in tte 
effects, senda the wnlti's hack npon the Baltii^, 
(tnd so j^'dncpB thu depth of water ou tte bar at the 
emlumdiuro rif thfi river, ihat nnvigadnn, except- 
ing fur very f^itiiill d'aftfi, is ahnost PJispcnJeil 
dnring itsctjolinuitnef^; and it 18 not at a.]] uiiu«nal 
for the commumcation hetweeu the city and 
CroDsladt to he interrupted from thia cauaSi In 
cojimjquence of thia very precarione etait of things, 
and the loafl and sufi'cring which have already 
been experienced, anO to ^vdni^li the eity mnst 



cv<?r CDnlimic liable, a most ^igibnt wotth is kept 
by tUo rLUtboriliee» wlio give public waniiitg, by 
signals and iho firing of alanim-gimfi from tlie 
oit^elj tie momont thu water bus renobed a certain 
point. No caJntnity of any aorious nature has 
ocouired since llw IStli of KoTumbor lS24j vihen 
the nity ww« HTirler wAl<*f for somii hours; aiiil in 
wnut? (larts to the iJepth of fourteen feot, m indi* 
caUil by rcil pUkn, tlcscriplive of the event, 
nfHjied tcr tbe ]i<iuac£ nt the very [xiiiit i-curlit^d l»jr 
the Bcod, iitud fi>r ihc fuLther pnipu^c of Uo^ptng 
the different lercla of the city lima aingularJy 
tnariiod. The lo^e of Life find property wn@ never 
!;nowR: or, if known, it was kq>t frora tire public 
with the iif ual iiimoGcaefli^ jciilotisy and eocrecy of 
the polic'e ; but it is eatimated that 20,000 jtcreons 
peviebcd : iin amount which is probably not ex- 
uggeratoil, when it le considered bow large a 
poFLion of ibe population r«£ide in the celkre of 
th^ houseSj and with what niDasiing rapidity tlie 
floijd uverLook 1,h<?iii. Thi^^ iniind:ilion, wbtn the 
inolemeut seuBtui of the yenr, the violence of the 
wind, itnd the huge maiwea of ice wliieb were lionie 
along on ibe fuiToce of the water, um taken into 
account, wa» a most uppalliug apectiu^le. It spread 
tbrougli the etiTJcIa like a foaming eea; vc^elo 
were torn awjiy with ita inipcttioaity ; timber and 
planks, cnkehing legctbcr. carried dcatmetion in 
tbcir course: the Utllo etntion-bou&cE of the fiolice 
floated belpleaaly about} with the miserable tenants 



clinjj^in^ to ill? Ttxiii for *n,fi?ty; tlio <lcad ftntl 
dying encumbered the surfn^e; whilo gcoj* aail 
furniture of all deawnptiona, mixed la tho genoml 
wroi'-k, cnrnpleti^d thtj pitrliirft of i^c^^oliitiuii. A 
tiiori^ iLwrul am! a[ifialliiig R'tiiif L-Mniiot well be 
conceives); ^ni1 tu aiiiiilur vhitutiuna the cihymtiKt 

The numerous ofinula with wbicli the city a 
intoracctcd, aud whioti comiiiuuicatc chiefly with 
the iseva, are i'urniehcd with brodd fjuaya fnced 
witb piirapiitB ofUrgc blcck^ of granite ; but, unlike 
those of other couotrlca, the ctuials of St, PctcrS" 
burg nrc not used for oomiticrco : thtiy were 
formod solely na dr.iios to the marali on whtiih tho 
city ia built, and hi iaiilfitiou of the Dutch towns 
which Peter biwl visited. Time lliey oxe dull and 
fi^rhle^3 adjiiuota to the Bcen^*, and siro important 
totbeinhabirrtnt.sonlyfromth(?f!»cilitytlii?y afford to 
the imiuonae bary:s?aj Lu discbjirging their c^jirgoee 
of fitv-AoiJiJ, and fnr tho conveyiirir*' uf Ijullding 
iiuLtt^riuls Aui] rulihi^li. Iluat'.t^ the eliectA are le^d 
Rucumbcred with heavy waggoas and rjirta than 
the towns of other couut ries; occasionally, however, 
long liiica of tftlegua tnay be aeen passing in endless 
^iicceflaioQ, Inden with produce and Diercbandi^ 
from (ho interior j but by f^ir the grcuteat propor- 
tion of good@ IB brought into tho city to the 
(Afferent public wnrohouacB by wfttcr couvcyAno©> 
which Gxteiide to the&outh of Rusaiaj through the 
niudium of the Neva and i\\s Volga, united nt ttie 





Lado^ hka by a cunal. These ounala aro al^o 
cxErvoicly convortk'iit to the liiliiiiritimta for iIlo 
pviq^ee of waehti^ : the women pureue their 
av>>catioi>B, regsrclle^ of eensou uml utntlier, tm 
litUe fiduting [JiLtfomiB on u li*vel wllli the water ; 
for, ns pumps ami nlhoi" convenipncps aTO wn- 
Vnown, the»c» doKiestit^ iluticH iimat Iw jicrforineil 
wl tliH wfiLtvrwJci nail even wfttcr fvr llie Uble 
ftnJ other hguscLoIJ Uf?£t? U fetclied in liitrruls from 
tlie riTCr. 

The cIittDHol of the ?ieva la generally of so 
great a ilcpth tliat no ftttcmpt ha? bccTi made till 
Jatcly to oonptruct n etationnry briJgo over ifca 
8trc»En: indeed the grcnt boflioa of ice, which arc 
brought down hy the current at the eettiog ia of 
winter, ADd which tcqulre a free pneenge, have 
liwl to the belief that no bridge of innaoary coiild 
rosbt tlit'ir pressure. The Eiiiperur husj liuwevur, 
set hinjaelf fn the tn*k, atiJ the permanent union 
iif l.he two flhtires ih lilniidy in pragretK Tin* com^ 
muiiiiiiition is iit prftatiiit kept up by three puiitoon 
bndgcfl, which are cumpplled to he reamved ftt 
ihii i^iumeu cement of the wiutti, la order lliat 
the kc may lueet with noobatniclioninitepiissage. 
But when the ice is fast* and sufficiently airong 
to bear hciivy weights, which ia generally in a 
▼cry fovr duy&, a grcftt rmoibor of workmen arc 
employed tt> cnt n channel, and to haul tho bridges 
baek to their propter phice^ A couaidor^Lble in- 
terruption to tmffiCj and mmli iaconTcuience, taUo 



fi'OTD tilts EUApcnaion of tbe coninmnic^tbiL, us the 
briJgos aTL* frequently ci^inpelled to be removed 
at a tninutc^fi notice, und cannot he ropkcoit ;igiiin 
until aftv?r mi intervj^l of ftoiiie il*ys. Tins uioy 
ocoiir sevftTil t'liuee b<5rore tLo riviir is perfectly 
iised, and tlm risk of passing m lx>ata :uin>iig ibc 
Luge and accumuialing n^aascs of ice ia great, and 
often fittiiL It le a^aortodj and I bcUevc with 
aoiue trutlijtliat tlie fcnymec, wKo makcagoldcn 
hiirvcst tit this time, bribe tbc bridgcmnaler to 
delay tbo restoration of tho bridges to the latest 
poaaibJe period. National venality, iilcou jiri^vail- 
in^ cpidcfDic, ie irrcBiatiblo ; and, provided it can 
only iw glossed ovci% Lowevcr aballowtbe pretext, 
it fibsurbg every fetiling and justifies every act- 
Diacovcry only bnn^ a fiharer to tbe epoU^ nnd 
an nnblu^hlng accompliee la added to the achome 
ofiVAixl itnd oppressive rt-reng. 

The fippruiicli of tlm ice, wbiuh comra dDivn in 
jjirge flukoH fi-oin tlie Lailii^ii Inko, ilrWing uiid 
craahing every lliliig before it, h known by tho 
]>0rfectly still mid oily (^alo) jijipearance of tho 
WAtcr^ and by tbc viijx>nr wLicli is tliTOwn up, 
A bend in ti»e stream auddenly arreata tbe ice ia 
its progreA^T and Ike cbonnel flceme 6:ied; but 
some didodgomcnt ocoiu^, and tbi; ice is H^ula in 
motion, toariug fiwi^y and crualiiiig in ita iirc9i«tiblo 
oonrsct tho small cmft nnd wood barks moored to 
tlio sides of tbe qunye. It is a Polnr ae-i in 
Tuimalure, In tiie winter of 18^1 this occurred 



four timo^ and iLc brSdgc^a were as mnny tinioa 
rcplnociL Wbou tlio luo baa gained a cortuin 
thJcknuaB, tlio (X^licj [>crniit a Tree and indUcriiui- 
nato pOflBflge over th<j river: fcM>t passengers cross 
it in tUl dlreotiotirs, and rosul^ are marked out for 
cnrriage? hy &ia^]\ Sr trees eluck tn avetiuea on the 
Igcl Portions of the surface, ffeefromineqiialitiea, 
ftr^ railed off, from wLicli bugu blocks are cut riut 
find carted uwtiy to Ull iha ice cellurs with winch 
every liouaa is fiirnislkcrl, Tliese hliwks are 
|i»iraHelo|i;p(?d3, froiTi two to lliree feet thitik, nnd 
wt^i^hing fionie cigbt ijc ten cvrts< ; the icc buiiig 
perfectly pure md tranapjireut. Pluces near the 
eliote are kept open to enable the inlinbitants to 
fetcbi water ibr domeatxo purposes, and for the 
coiivenicaoo of tbc w^ashcr women, who pursue 
ihciv work Lurcfootcd, witJi tbc thornacmcter ot 
Kuro of FabrcnliL'il. A Utrgc epaoe in also carc^ 
fLiLly l«V4?Ilc<l And enclosed for trotting matcbee 
in liLiroc^; a riwourite amusement of thi^ Ilti^sian 
mep^-'bitnts, who pride themselves on the upeod 
and Hctlou of their horsefl. The eledgei^ ui^ed for 
this purpose are of tht slightest pcsaible coustruc- 
tioflf not weighing nicire timn fiHj pouiidsp It la 
entirely a Sunil;iy'g luauBement ; as untst of ihwr 
plcursuriibli:; pur»aLla me. 

Tbua tfie river preaenta a sceneof great aiiim&- 
ti<]n and gatety* Bkating, which would natarally 
be Biippoecd to be a continued eouree of amuae^ 
Qient, IB not prnctlaed beyond n few weeks j when 




it ie totally fori^aktn for tlie more cscitins; and 
t^rccaVIo piislimo of tho loc-hille, which by that 
time an prci>ar«<li ^nd remain the grcnt focu5 of 
attrnctbn ua long; SiS xh^ ?n>&l li&tfi. The Kuasiiui 
ttohility, th>* Englifihj the G^i'niana and Fi"encb, 
huTC each iJteir separate hills, erected by sul>- 
fioriptfoD nmnng thpmselvea m eome enclftaet! 
spGt; niitl i]ti'-re nvc be^ulea an immf^riEe iiiuuIht 
uf public ones for tlm utlitr djiases. Two strong 
wikkTcu lowers, iihoiit flfly feet liigli, ar^i erei^twl 
i^early oppoute to, hut nt ii (liBtiLiicc of j^orciftl 
LiuiElred feel from ench othei'* A commodious 
£igbt of etepe, at the Ixtck of ench, Icmla to the 
eunumt, tVoni wliich an mclincil plaDc^ ai the 
eharpeet poeaible ftoglc, formed oi' mmicnfltj bUcka 
gf ice, ccmtiDtfid toc^cthcr by water poured into 
the interetioas, leitda to the bottom up plane, 
whitih GDtitiQuee on a bed of similar blocks of ice, 
protected at the sidea wUh little emhftuknienla 
of anow, to the end of the grourid, Purlies thja 
duaeend one hUl, an*l by the impetus iw^iiinid, 
arrive rapidly at tke end of the run, w}iore ilwy 
leave iheh" sl&lges, which .ire estrried iiy lutfn 
employed for thu purpoflo in tho top uf the other 
taw^L'^ when they ugiuu luuni;U ofi*- To the tlu* 
initiated this la ratlicr haitardoua eporl, and every 
beginner has to pay liis footitxg at the tspcnac of 
eoiQc ecvcTc fjiUa: for the Icttat dcviatiou from 
the true Lcn, particularly in descending tlic a1oj>e, 
when th« speed Is terrific, aeuda both ths eledge 



aud lU oocmpaot hciwllong ewid whirling nfter mrh 
other m utter htilploAenMa. The niftna,g*^nxitnl of 
ttc elcdge ia however *> flimplo thut a few triaW 
are suffident to ranBler it. The sletlgo b a allgbt 
fromo-wnrlt of eteel, itbout one f.Kit high and three 
loDg, htt^Tiig a cushion on ihc top foi tho aeat. 

Tlie riUer pUcee himaelf at th*s extremity with 
fais legs ftdTnnced before htm, and hie haiLi.b> pro- 
tecUtl hy strong gloveg, touching the Ice en 
eiTher ^irl^j but rather behind him : thea^s act as 
the nifkW; for the sliglilest tonch is sufficient to 
regulikte the iliroclitJii of tU<; tileJge even at its 
utiuoflt ep^cd. All iMlp|>t takEi* cliiirge of a la^y, 
who tfltfl bctneuu hi?) I<?g^ ami a,way they dash ; 
but I hayt ftecn aome ladiea kneel, and even ^lalnl 
ou tlic akdgo behind the gentlemeti, and perform 

« 3 



the descent without the eligJilcBl nak. AltliougH 
tlie speed cftnnct be less than thiny luileg nti 
liDiir, to tliu ladles t1iJ« 18 n inovil, n.grei;^1e and 
healthy re*)rl, a.nd the tixeri^ii* ih ahiiost ne- 
ce^fiary, for tlie inteu^ cold would reudei- the 
urdinarj recreaUon of walking luhi-dly endurah!«- 
To make twenty dcecenta it ia iLeces^nry to mount 
2000 steps, being fifty for eacli tower, which ia 
of itself a good day'fl work. The exciting ecneation 
occQfiioncd Ly tbo apcod aod the uucoutroliod head- 
long impetuB of tlie elodgo will not admit of n 
dcficriptioa It is, howo%'Gr, of that plcasumblc 
Duturo that iho nimely l*> enjoy it is ever on tlic 
incroaec. Among other amusements of the season 
the English resident* liave started an ice-hoat, 
in which they make cieursions to Cronatadt and 
other spots ia the Gulf of Finland. In fact the 
ice ia tniversed in all directions to tfcpso places 
by aledgRH ; but an extiaordinary look*<int in kept, 
and liT.tlp hut* fi>r the cnatiim -house nfficers iirv 
tliidsly planted about to present ainuggliug. 

In the at^ence (>f those excitements and popular 
wmiflementa which eitiat in other countricD, where 
tho chilling power nf the police docs not interfere 
with the free cxoroiec of exprceeion and action, 
the least tiling is turned to account in KuBsia, 
which will aid tho passage of time, Tbua, tho 
cloeing and opening of the river are mattere of 
great apeculalion, and conwderable wagers are laid 
on these fiventa; oddi not im&equently being 




offereil that tbey will cccur on B|>etiSc Jays, and 
even :it oertttin liuurs c>f those Oujh, Aa regard* 
tlie ujie^iing of the nvert it le lujiJe u mattur of 
official ccrwuony ; luid, ollbougli there maj not 
be A particle of Ice visible in the Mream^ etUI no 
boat ifl allowtii to be Jcumchotl till tbc goveruor of 
the dtadcJ hfi& made hh ofHcial report to tho 
Empcron Ho carrier to hU l^Iojesty a cup filled 
with walcr irom the Ncvn, tuid anuouncce ihe 
rrecdotiL of the fitreaui. The Emperor, after 
drinking the eontents> tetume the cup to the 
gnvernnr fillj^ij wkh ducaU; and Si gun from ihe 
i^itaildr [jrocUimuig rhc completion of the cere- 
luony, fhe nvur in idiiitwt lu^-taii tail eon nly covered 
^ith bo^le. Vou Eiiiist uudt^rBlJLnd tliat kiku'c; is 
(me of the great evils of Su PetcisbuTg, EUid ihua 
tlie bridges are at very coi^elderckble dlfilunceA 
from oaclj otiter. A more direct communication 
between the two shores ia therefore nooceatLTy, to 
provide wliich, swarms of fcrry-bouts are per- 
petually crossing. 

I hdve to-day eeea a praolJcal <ixemplificQtloa 
of llmt grinding tyranay which 1 have ftllemptod 
to desrribo in my former lef Icrs : it was ^o wantoii 
and nnealled-for, that 1 was j;stoniahe<J, oa much 
At the ifubiuihtiDn of vim niAii, lu at ihe de#[iotic 
Dppresnion of the other. A ytjung, well-drc*titd 
man, appareutly a ntudeut, hud just eugugvd tlo 
only bunt fXt the station to Uke hiio across the 
river, and ho had ecarc^ly sciktcd himself vhcti 



an officer came down for the eamc purpose. To 
bfLVC takea bia parage at tl)c &amc tiiuc woiJd 
bave been ttic tmtural and rojidy colu'sOi but tbcn. 
the military dc^pi^t; could not have Ratified tbut 
love of tyranny »J3(1 exercise of authority which 
influenco the conduct of every man in j>owcr 
towards lus inferior; so he oompeUed the bont" 
msiE to return to the qiisy, and ordered tho 
young niiin to surrender hia place and to Wve 
the boat« To hear waa to obey. I turned 
Dwny eqinJly diJ^isled ut the hiK^e servility of 
the uludant^ and the arbitrary vloltnoe of the 
oSoer: and yet this wa« only an epitoiue of 
the government iteelf^ The KuaaiAns may c;Jl 
it *' Jiiciplioe," and believe what they aaaert ; 
but it is nererthelcBd oiontal degradation and 
Mn^lt^ Bul)nii3scr. And for what pnrpoee? To 
Attain power. 

The ruling paaeion in the breast of every 
Russian ia ambition ; and in thoir nttempts lo gain 
their object, they submit to groas bsull and the 
moat galling humilifltiou, Tliey Wve eretrled an 
earthly i<iol for their worship, aod how down 
h^rure the ]>olttica] altni' they h^Lve rahvi^ tu biui. 
KemoTcil to an Jnuneaaumble distiucc from tbe 
power whom llicy glory lo serve, they humiliato 
thcmaclve?, and yield to him on unqufditied nub* 
mi^onj in the hope of concUiating the authority 
which may place them in the position they lu^pirc 
to filh Ruseian " di^ipLine " b ecr^Uty under 






fnbe ooloure : t1i« dlfivrcncs of tTio tLimo d^^as not 
ollt-r the loo nutorioujA fuct, Liot thu IblloTrmg 
exnmple prove my aaaertioDi 

At n review at "W:ire»w the Into Gnmd Dulcft 
Coi^slaittine wyied to jirovo to soma traveller of 
[listiuctioti the extraurditiuiy BCMe of dijiciplivu 
of tliL' Ruj^iiiiu tru(i]>a. lie Jltimuuutcd, uJiJ, ajK 
proacliiog one of Jos own gcnernls, pierced hi« 
foot wuh hiB srtoril, coolly unJ preiucUitMtcJly, 
ivitliout offci'iog a rcm^wk or flUcging tbe &l(glnert 
reoion for the aot The gencml roioflinod notJon- 
IcAfif without uttering a cowpUint, nnd wtva carried 
off tho ground when tho Grand Duko witlidrow 
from it. A civilina would Bavo oxoiNsiecd tha 
Bame etoioi^m, »ud, hka tbo £pa»idt would fawn 
apoQ tho hand that struck him. 

Prince Truubetzlcoi ie a convict in Siberia, 
for llio share he took in tlie iiisarrecllon of 
1624; ojkI ]m funnily influeuccL can obtain for 
Mm no I'oMcf, no miti^tlion of ]»& r^tilTi? rings; 
he la deprived of li'is iiaiue, and diatiin^nii^hed 
OEdy by a number. lie oaks for pcnniMioti to 
buvc his children cdiicati^d, and to place tbcra 
vrbcrc tlioy ma.y liavt^ thg buncfit uf uiL'dic4J 
treatment* But no : ths eina of the father arc 
to bo vidltod on tho children; for the imperial 
mandate hue ducltir<?d that the children of a galley- 
slavo require no educjitioD. And the Xroubctx- 
koid ure sttll coiirtlere, and constant in their 
homaige and devotionB l€ their Imperial master. 

a 4 



T aliiill have occaeion to return to the subject of 
Sibei'ia ail a future timcj wlieu JcSiT.ribing the 
pri-Bon of tlie eiUes nt Mcwcow* 

In England, two juH:»ple rar^^ly ii^cet without 
pitaeiEig Sftmc remarks on the sLitle of the vreather, 
&iid in RumIji the opening toj^lc h iDvariaUy ou 
the temperature: " my thertjiometer la at 15" of 
cold, but tbcj LiiTC 20'' on the Vaallii Oatrgf;" 
The whole city ia studded with thcrmomctcrrt ; 
all the houflCs, ttnd many wiodijws in ovciy houeCj 
ojElkibil thorn, aci-ewcd on to the outaida of tho 
window frames. If they do not influence t!io 
moveuoenta of Ihe day, tijey entirely regulate tho 
dres?. A snilor at sen wnlchee the dog-vane with 
T1I3 greater aniiety, than a Rnaaiandoc? lijs thci'mo- 
meter: but the cold i? seldom eo intense us to pit 
ft ttcp to the jivoi*fltir>ns nflho people. Wlien the 
<iold of thcatmoHphfre U below the freei^mg piJint 
of water* it a^un^e t^i afTcel the fluidity of the Stir, 
and to ])roducc long iind slcitLly calms, as if it froa^ti 
the very wind iteclfi It i* tliia wiuter caliii,whcn 
the Gold had act in, which makes it pmcticahlc to 
prosceuto all cut-door cniployrocDta with facility. 
In lower ktitudosj man could not cnduro the 
coldp though k^ intense; but the calmnoss of tho 
fiir, induced by extreme cold, is a land of natural 
eafeguavd, protecting aoinidlifeagaioat its severity. 
In the calm of a degree of eold near the freezing 
point of mercury, the abelrae.tion of hen.t from 
uur bodies in going oil much less ra^iidly, a[id 





we are ai^hitJlj feeling le^j und are bsa injiireil 
by tLe cold, iLjiD if ^e were cApo&cd to a blcLik 
vric<], a.t a muok higher temperature. A con- 
Biderabk exijcnse was incurred, and great ingc- 
miity displayed some few yeare trace, ic Siting up 
an appanituB f[>r drjing clothes on board the ahip9 
employed in tho ]\"ortli Western expedition under 
Sir Edward Furry- Thia might have bcea eptirod, 
hftd tho dnipLo procoBd adopted t>y the Russian 
woBherwoniett betu known. Tlu'y han^ their linen. 
in aoice place exposed to the air, leuvlug it to 
freeze. In a. few day?i, when tlie power nf the 
ftost 19 loat. It bocciiaea dry amd perfeefly flexible- 

Akiiougb the wintci"B aie mostly very severe, 
And the tharmorneter fallfl from 20" Uy 25* below 
the lero (if Fu.hreuheit, yet there lire occa&ional 
.fixoeptiuns, when the uiefcury hardly exceeds 
^IKit): thei^e arc enllcd mild winters; however 
fierce eucii ccmparative mildncaa uiMy nppear to 
U& The absence of enow, that is of any materia! 
quantitj, ia of tiio utmost eonscqiicneo to the 
COmforte and industry of the people ; from the 
euspcnejon that it oauBCs to all traffic on the 
roadfi, aikI to coniraiinictttiofl between the vniioiie 
tcptrns nnd piRCee* As regards the transpchrt 
:Of provi^ODfi, thiH i^ almo[;t ti nntional lona, 

im th« extreme fliifTerirg nnd distrej** ueejwioned 
by tbe ruin of the many thousands of penwnrt 
Cug.tguil in (he (raffic^ 

In autlt'niatitm uf the aeasouj the mt>at careful 



|>r(!p!ii".il.iiir^ nre maite timrflt if* aciverity: m the 
liuuiK'9 iIr' Jouhle tflmlow-sasbfts are fiied, stoves 
put in order, nnd tKe garnaon a« it %vere put into 
a state of d^^fenoe. WItbout doora, tLe sUtues in 
the public pliici'fi are wrapi round with mattiiigt 
and cnce&ed in wooden fraince, to prevent their 
being splii or scaled oft' by tbe froat; nnd the 
poplar trees* which oTC not Buffidcnlly hardy to 
reeisi the dim alo, ond Bold om attiiin. to any height, 
are protected bv coveringe of etniw and mato, 
A marked altemtion now begins to bo visible in 
die dreasoa of the peq*le in the streets : few ven- 
tiiTing nbroftdj exeepring m fur cloaks nnd aheep- 

The effect of a severe frost on the beards of the 
wacEf nud tLf; uo^triis of the horses ifi very rJiigular : 
they are Uterally fringed with tdule^, formed l>y 
the congeUtion of the breath. At the uune 
timci the wand of magic eecma to have c^:*^^cieed 
itfl sportive inilneiice, both in the city nnd tho 
oeuntry. In the former, the vuet Alexander 
column, and tho pcriatylo of the leaac^d CnthodnJ : 
indeed, tlic wholo building itaclf, which we bad 
eeen yesterday, presenting a deep contrast between 
die wluten^ surface of the ground and tlie dork 
red granite of Iho filrncture, are to-dfiy reeplen-* 
dcntly white, nnd glittc?riog na ihe purest marble. 
In the ?imdsoapo, the bmnchefl of the treea have 
thrown off thL-ir leaflefi* and mDnf>tonous appear-* 
&i)ce,and are encaaed with rime fr[»t, two fingers 



UiiL^k, gbVtcning la ihc i»nn» and radiant with 
tbou«in'1-iof prienuvlio cuiours. It le a HCt'no of 
eiicJiaatRicnt, who^e e^i^encc de^reudd on n brcatii ; 
us the IcJLst nir destroys the fm^Uc ^bric, nnd 
diepeU the illu«oii: eudi ia tho effect of tho 
lightest eveniug migt. 

Thoncci^Eityof snow for the purpoaee of tniffic^ 
CT^a ic the city, is prtniraount, to enable the sledges 
to Euperfiede the use of cwrlngea ; vfliioh latter, 
duri&g tbe intensity of the frost, sire welUntgh 
Uflt'h'Hi; for it nfun lm[h]ii-u* tbat x\m hliglitofet 
atjjjijmgu IjBi^Jines frilul li> ull further fJi'ogre**, by 
cijiiguiiliiig lLu greaee in tliti box of the wht-ei, a.iir1 
tbuB ffTcctually arresting tLs revolution. Sl^jJgee 
awai'm \r iIjc Etixxrts^ and the abeence iif oil noiee 
[■reeente n ^rlking contrast to the din and rattle of 
vbeeU, to which the car Imd prcviouBlj been ao 
coetoTucd. HgMq um forbidden; and thus, the 
foot paeeengers h^vQ to trust lo their own vigi- 
Iflnccj (lud to the reiterated cry of ''pode, padc," 
from the iflvoatchlt or dnver, to uscapo from 
danger in croseing the wide streets, Ths foot 
pavcmonia are iidimmbly kept; being regularly 
ewept ancl siuided iifiter eyery fall tif aniiw. 

Tlic publie ftledgeft nre oomforiflhle vehicles, 
boMhig^ tvfo peraoHfi, with a large witnii apruu to 
covpr ibem. The drivpr is seated lu front with 
Lb legs d;i.ugHng by thi? horae's taih TLe motion 
u agreeable ; but tbere ia a great annoyance from 
tbc anow kicked up by the horao in ita progress, 



which plenlifiiUj besprinkles the riders. Tl»c 
private sledgca are prolectcd from tbia unplcaauint- 
nesa hj liflving a gaj-colourc<I net fiietcncd to 
the aaddio of the horae, and briiught down to the 
da^lc^ of tho glodge. The gcneriil effect of tliie, 
added to tho ridi dresecs of the ludios, and th<i 
costly furs and eilka which are piled around tliem, 
and the plunging epeod of their btgh-mettl<^d 
boraea, is extremely pk^asiiig. 

The filedge of tlie Empreas, who drives daily 
through the fiiBhionabl*; sti-i-ety, ia a nroet superb 
Bqnijjugej it i6 driiwn by fimr nuLgnifiiXiiil ItorBC^e, 
driven Uy & ciiachmitn heiirded to the brouat, tmd 
wearing Lbe Inug blue national i^aTtau, with a 
gold eaah ; and two richly dreased Coisacs standing 
on the footboard. Of course it eclipca all others. 
For the service of evening parties, or for nightlj- 
inckmcnt weather, the bodies of carriages aro 
tJiken off" the wheels, and placed on ninoera s and 
tho ci'evioes of the windowe buiiig well atop]jed 
With atripa of fur, the seaacii h defied, and hi 
guletioH enjoyed without risk or expoaure. 

The siin^mer Tiead-drees of !L eoochmnn (bolli 
publics «nd priviite) ia ii very low crowned luil, 
ornninented with a Itirge luckle iu front ; and in 
winter, the hat is supplimled V»y a eiimstwi velvet 
four-coraored cap, bordered with fur, TIic blue 
caftan \s atill worn; but beneath it is a robe of 
^hcepakin, with the wool tiiriied iinvards. It h 




not at all nn untigiial thing to Bee ibe Imt^ oF the 
drivers of the piiUIc di'oshlijre ornftmciitcd with 
peacock fcatheraj artiiioinl flowers, or bita of old 
faded ribboDt stuck in the baad. 



D{^t'.jdti/!Ji of ifie HfUaian Langiuige. — Shnp'gi^ra and 
Jnxcrijjtiviut. — Sepnratit quarttrf tiwigiufi to particalar 
^ru'let. — CticmULi ri^gnJutail hy the P'jlvMt.-^^ Stripling 
imtavce of ftiitfian Sfn^ihty. — Sa-npset at a Enssian 
Clufi. — Tinim*rriiifs 'if Socieftf iit Jtv^sia. — Prepalencp i'/ 
GamhiiTtg. — Fnnrifffwg AjiyliiVi. — Bo^ Suttiiers. — TA* 
Armj^ ehr- oidif mivnc a/ Uvnaara. — Pervading iafiueiue 
n/ EruifiitiTi Dvupotlvn. 

It IS I'cconrod of Calo, lliiit lie leimt llie Grt'ek 
Uingurtge when lie was tjghtj- ymrs old : a me- 
luotflHble eininplc of j>crflcvertincc i but I thiuk 
Cfito would liave failed had he attempted It asauin* 
To quote n FroochmaiiT whom I heard tMprcssing 
hiH diEniny at its difficultiua, **c'e3t line Uogue 
JiniiOEably." It ajipeara to onibmcc every poeeible 
CombinalicJn of Bound and uccenl ; and, indeed, 
the Russians thomaelvos attrihute their facility 
as ItugutBts to tliie cause. How<?vor, it is most 
GOi'laiQ th-it nothing but a lengthsDcd rcEiJoticQ 
in the country will ever conquer ila accent, or 
muster hs idioms. 

I hitve 1>eork amusing n^y^lf in my ^ssnge 
ihpfujgli the streets by renJirjg tlie ahop Higtis, to 
txijrtJiiie myself in the rhJiCitutera of the Ru?*smn 
alphribet; and thi« led me to remark the eJLtraor* 



Rnary nu^kce tbo people nwikc, by sul.>3tilutiug 
one Icllor for nuotlier, wiien llicy attempt lo an- 
nounce their truie or avocation ia cither Germt^n 
or Freoeb. Tliia 1:^ liona very fre<]^a<>iitlj'; but 
on entering tlie abop in tlii3 bopc of making yotir^ 
aelf at Irk^t uoJerBtoodr jou find tlie Eliopkvi'|>ur 
can Hptalc neither the one nor the oihfr The 
rause of theae mbtnJceB U in ^nie in&tancet* easily 
iccountwi iVrr, in the ^lifference of dit chjiiTti;ief 
of the letter& The Rcruuiu p, fur inblunce^ i» 
their T, fbJid the c tiicir e ; hnt in olhcr r^pecta 
the oflhogmphy ia vile- For es^mple : 

SaIou pout hx coupcr dca chevuitF atcc ftiesure, 

Solon pour In ronpc dee chcTcns avcc tnaii/^e. 

Jlauttaci luh ina^h <]r. 

Gemmm wine celhir. 

TWa cellitr- 

VcrkauR alle gvadJechten Brot (gc£(:hlecht«a 
mefiTis sexes). 
BcftulcK mjTOV others efjudJy ridieuloua 

TIh; vurii.iU8 tiiiJuK iire iiiOBtly distiEgnipheJ by 
tibhuhir reprove ntatioufi nilrxcd Ti^iust the houM?s ; 
by uo mi'ans au unntxt^T^sary finniiiiiHrenjent 
where reiuling is not a uuivcrBal itccuruphtfhuieut- 
JMaiiy Iradct, such aa butchers, pouluirera, Sic arn 
carried aa in qnart^ra particularly aligned to 
thufu ; and othur^^ m dnipvra, clothicra, Stc, occupy 
Qortiun districts cxcluaivcly: an mTangcEucuit at- 
tended with much inconvcnicnec^ not only from 
]Jam diatancu to b^ travL^reQd to reach th@m, hut 



fniin hlifi nnncjyftnce cxperiiini^*! liy the cr>ripe- 
titioQ and itiipoi-tLJiulicb of llic purtleb. MethoLl 
— if this extraordJuary utid ELwtei-a rn-itoui of 
classing the trades C4tn be called by each a name 
ia au (uhiti-ory intcrfcreucc with tho comforts of 
the people. The toetca nnd roiiQcmcota of cis'ilised 
Europe have introduced sotuc iuDovatione, and to 
sofne extent revolittiooiscd tho nntional custom? ; 
but flome few Hnguknties, howep'^r, remain; fiuch 
US the employnient of men to uinke wom^n'a 
UreKseSf uiid the eeinhlued nyoeation, el^where 
ol)8o3ete> of the biirl>t!r-niirg(![jn, Tl)e estami- 
nete aud chemielfl are piirluiiil.irly uuiler the 
(lirection tifthc poliiw; (he latter nn: n-Mti-irted iti 
nuuibkir, and gpccSally licenaed; wLidi Is Dotifie/J 
by an luitnenae spread eagles the natiooiil emblemt 
can'cd m wood and affised over the door. The 
regulationa cnibrccd upon them arc aovere, and 
cstremcly inoonvcnicnt to persona who, like my- 
ficlf, may require tlicir littlo travelling iQcdioine 
cbcfit to bo re-furniehed. In my own case I woa 
peremptorily refused, unle^a I brought a regular 
prescription signed by a local physiciflu. No law 
cau bo more effective for ihe prevention of the 
eale of jioirions, nor more beneficial to the faculty, 
by annihilating nil qii:ickg and empinca, and 
tbufl couipullin;^ the fli^^k to luive recourse lo the 
legltirautepmclitioner. T found a eimihit regulation 
ID foree in Dtiiiiuark alaiT- LegiBlfi.tit»n in tritks la 
oue of the great cviJs of a despotic governmeot. 




and its jealous mtcrlbrcnco In all ihc trwi«ac:iioDa 
oTlltb lA iu leading chftractcrifftic Xhceon^c Wto 
atid os^amptioii of tUc ilisplay of powvr^ und of 
UgiUaUng for Uttld ihiogs, (li&tinguiebcs cqunliy 
ft democmtio g^^-vnimeiit. The two uxtrumaa 
reaemS^le cadlx otUer in many cdici pomu, bat 
tynnny h the foundiLtiou of boiK 

Living ID An HTtiticial ntnioaplierej and umler 
ft coDtioTiod tbaugh Mnsaen atalc of Harv^IllaJicei 
the RuasinnH seldom venture on foraiing on c»pmiun, 
anil KH i^fLiiik )tAve Uie iijijKirfiLniw of i;x|ii\?Mliig 
it. Rfcently, however, it i^ii^B oixuiral, wiir-h* 
ejdiiblliiig lUeir cluLncler m ita true light, proves 
iacuoiteatahly tlit: uutioiml servility, and Uicir ;(b- 
ject J'eor of th<: u^tiiurkic^ The club originuHy 
eatabliflkcil by the EnglUh, and sttLi dUtingoiflhcd 
by their tijiioe, i» |rrincipAliy coiapooed of the 
ICus^au ariatCKjtucy and the uwal influcatml 
|iCOplo ; iLQd adiaiBfiion ifi difficult, in oonscqiiCDcc 
cf tlie vnat numlfcr of ciinJidnloa, who aro elected 
hy ballot on the occnri'cncc of vacaacice, Tchcr- 
niohcft^ the minintcr of witr, who is highly- un* 
|H)piilar, cm his unrnG being put up, wjls blackhnUed 
by so laj"ge a majority lliat the greatest conater* 
^nation waa crealcd among the bailoling paniea, 
who were principnlly irulitury fnen. It could 
iiol h;;ye been a. itfvann^etUHl pl&it, l>eonusc no 
man would have Vf^ntured to have hrcathi^d hJs 
luttintion, on a.<MuuQt of the ctrlainty of btung 
betraje^ The consequences, in this ca^e, wliere 



every nnnio wotild be known, aiul retribudon 
would ccrtftinlj be tnctcd out to tLo lunoocut aa 
well as the g^iJty, led to a reconsideration of the 
vote ', n new bflllol was *leoidcd on* when, ^ if to 
prove the terror of ' diacipline,' thci"o wfts not one 
blaok balL By etioh ncte as tlicso, worthy of the 
vngaals of a Persian Salrppi the RnesiauB rivet 
tlieir own chnina^ ami Btr<?nt!:then the bonds which 
ihetr own servility liaa formed. 

Besides thw elub tliere is one other called the 
Cu(inii*?iTi)il ; siudj although puhliL- dinner* are 
uecear^Firily iinktiuwu in KusbiEi, Ijeejuijcf? no ^los^ible 
circuuialauce vmi occur to give rise lo theiu, these 
two establisluuents rekltrale their amiiv*!r*Hriefl 
by a public iKHiquct- I was ft gueat on one occa- 
sion, und tlie description may amu5c you. The 
UU of fare placed by my eidc waa as followa: 

Diner du 20 Deccmbre. 

K Potage A. In tortiie et ^ k Julienne. 

2, Filet de B<euf. 

3. Soudiike et Truitcs dc Giitcliinn- 

4. PoiiUnlea saat^^ea aux truli'tts, 

6, Affperges* 
(J. Punch glae^- 

7. Koti, diiidc^ ot goUnottc^ 

5, Plum-pudding. 
9. Doaeert, 

10, GUcea nux fmits et Moringuea glaec^s. 



Shortlj before dinner was eervcd, the wJioIc 
party, numbering upwordBof two bLinclroi] pciipki 
crowded into t)i« antc-rooui for tlio *ivboli' whou 
caviare, herring, aalmoti, hnmiuid rdn-decr'a fieik, 
in a perfectly uceookvcl atnte, disappeared nith 
marvellous celerity, aod wftfi topj^d by a glass 
of liqaetu'. The dlunei* being concluded, the 
chairmnn proceeded to give the tnrtatu; tbt^ :ire 
jjrerlotiely dc?tc'rminett upon, itnd eu*!!i peraon is 
funiiebed with » print<;d lisl of them in Bus^^mn 
ainl Germain; the latter Uiiguu^e being the one 
current ior the ck^. They are limited, and given 
without tbo slightest pi^facc or renutrk ; but the 
din which ensued nt each UjvjsU fcoiii lEie noie^' 
ero^h oi' ti hummed military instmnienta playing 
an Imperial ^alvo, the elatterin^ of kitivcs i^ainBt 
gin&see, and the thunipiiigs on the tfible, ia pcr- 
felly unbearable; fortunately there iire but few 
tofl£ta, or no human ncrvee could bt^ar the discoiNj, 
A* SI <^eat proportion of the party ia composed *>£ 
foreigners, it ciuet be the love of uproar and 
CoaftUioUj TliOre tJmu the upiHt of enlhuttuismj 
whu'h aetiiales fliem. Tbe Umeia are Htiffiijiently 
illui^lralive of the restrictions nnd eercuiojiiDUB 
CAUtton im^H)^ even on the hour ofmirtlu — 
L To the health of Lie Majesty the Emperur- 
S, To the health of Ler Majesty the Emprew, 

3. To the health of hxi Imperial Iti^lme^s the 
Gtand Duke, and all the Imperial family. 

4. Prosperity to Kueeia, 




5i Florcftt Comiucrciump 

There Ib no singing, nor, in fact, any thirg to 
break tlko tedium of b. cold and lifclc^a formality, 
til! a general ndjoamiaoat liikca plftCo to the other 
rooms, whicb uro by tltis ticii3 tbrongcd with Mies 
tr> tnkG pu't in the ball, that te]*miDiLtea the 

It TippeflTB t(i he the fnisf^im of the Knglish to 
ri^niftin for n a!iort time al\or |^le rhitir h.tfi been 
vtCAted, fo enjoy n JVw of their nalioiial habita 
nnd recnUectiouH. They HjijioiHt ji diMirmnri, and 
drink their fiwn national Uiasls, and sume i<:w 
others with the ns^ml accompnniraont of cheei'A. 
Attracted by tbe ahouta, a circle of ttinTigera is 
Boon formed round them, to heur the sj-eeche*, and 
to vritueaa thia little display of national ftfoling. 
The "eoll loben"of the Germany is the nenrpst 
thing which approuchei- to thie: and they alone 
eeem to undcrstiind it. 

The pi>wer of deepoliam and ihs ftfribility of the 
throne m&j be strengthened by criimping und 
diHclplmmg the mind, by drilling it into ft pedantic 
eyfiteni of order and <ibflervance ^ but the resnlt 
lends tn a vicimii^ and imnmnd «n?iul etiile, Tho 
forced and unnatural diri^tion given to the ideafl» in 
the Irrie spirit of pedogogy, renders thwui duetilt 
and pasfivo to the will \j£ the great ruler; who, 
ftwuming to himaelf the moral power and mental 
feelinga of hJe people, pcnniu only the exercise 
of reason, will, thought, and imagination ia tlic 



way lie rony point out und prcBcnbe- But the 
huiaiiu uliHTRctcr UHntioi support this ctiLte of 
pu|n11iigt)j iWw tJVL*-liku Lraiiiiii<r, w'll.Iioiit ijillliig 
back on scuae tJtdteuients wbidi are free frooi 
arUtraTj reatrlctions* Denied tLe udvaulages of 
rnt]<^ual aiiiii»e[);icat and of innocent Aociul dijuj- 
mento, and deprived of Uiooe rsacpiiroea, wlHoh* 
wlivie they dispel frtnuit elovatc the fcclingB, tLe 
mind rcdt>rte to dc^nsuuJ iadulg^ncca aud tbo 
gratification of the puaaiona, for the porpoae of 
finding rtsoreiition and relief from the denclcning 
prc^uro cf dcGputbm. Iiamoraiity taxd intrigue 
ftre of univei'ejLl pi<ovnldnc& ; And^ in n ^ocia,] BQuse, 
arc hiirdly looked upon os cnrnjual act^ wliile 
gambling and Jebuucbcry are tbe uatuiuL codsi^ 
quencca of the* tedious monotony from wlucb all 
seek to escape, by indulging in groa^ and viclooji 

The luvD of ilif^plny and extravugunoc in divm 
Bkts Iciidm^ truJlg in tbc cbaj'jictui' of tlie lugbcT 
orJei^, and &how mnat be obtained uL every 
sacrifice; but giimbliag lb tbe prevailio^ puj'suit, 
ojid it ia a nationitl rice in Ru^fliu. Tbe JiLvourite 
gome ifl short wlki&t, with Swcdiah pointfs tlic aci^ro 
of wliicb oiuy mount up to forty-four in arubbcr; 
Ofldt us Qo countora coul(J suffice for^ bo largo ft 
reckoning, the aoonj i* kept on the Lilotb of tlia 
tiible witb chalk, and oiraL;i3d wlieo necessary by 
muniifl of little brushes, with wbieb audi tiLble a 



The cflcd mnnufnclory is a prvvil^ge reserved t»> 
iteclf by the government, and tlie |irocecde are 
devoted to the mainlpQancc of the colossfll Fi:tuad* 
ling AsyJum^ I say coloasnl, nt>t hecanae of its 
extent, (wliidi, liowevi^r, wiadd jiiiliry ibe ajiiid- 
latioDj) but. Im!C-iii&o of llie nujnber of chiltlren 
m^stereil va its booka : they amoimt, I ara 
informed, to 15,000. These, you miiat under- 
stajid. are not foundlings m tlic rcu.] sense of the 
term, but children (many of thum illegitianatc) 
plEiced there, cither by the povorty of their parents, 
or tlirir disincRnation to rcur them. A rapid 
inoroa&o of populittion \s ulnioBt caecntitd in 
Rueaia; not only on fux^Qunt of the f^rcat wnsto 
of homan life, but from the ihiiily-peoj^lcd enrfiice 
cf the country; thus, while an asylum is offered 
to the helplees, n door \a opened to imraorality, 
and the reputlintii^n of the moat snered of pjireiilfd 
duties. The Kmpei'or cl^ins^ lu return for this 
privilege, tlie sitisolut^* di^ijioBiil ef llie unfoi'timate 
helng^tliua thrown frieodleaBtm the world. Wliat 
a revolting picture ! A iialionul vice b made 
auh5f!rvient to the maintenanoe of a charitable 
institution; which, in ita ti»rc, offers a premiuia 
to profligacy, end to the unnaturoJ abnndoniricnt 
of their offspring by parents. What is a rocTO 
pnrndox in tbia country, would be considered a 
flagrant nbiiBC in others. 

Some bundredfl of these children are employed 
at the Imperial manufactory at AlexiLudrofski, 



WKere I h^vo seen thcin ; and I ood testify tliat 

their appeftvjiiicej nnd ths attention to tiieir per- 
SQimi comtWta, reiieot ih& highcEt credit on the 
inaQa<>emoiit of tlie goyefoor, Gotiernl Wilson- 
Their playgroumls are fitlod up with a quantity 
of gymnaatic apparjilus; ^raong which wae a *ee- 
HftWj nt which they are untvjmmoiily expert ; 
■tmidiiig on tht' tsuJa oi' the [jluuk, Llii;y spring 
juto tho uir, at cs.c\t LKsi^tlLiLiou, to a t^fu^icltiuMi; 
height, desceodbg with the most perfect aplomb 
cu their I'eet, ii^nd giving the rebound to their 
conipii&lon ; fiome of the girU, certainly, eprang 
up 6is or eevcn fcot. If taij of them »bow any 
partiouhir talcnl for any of the soicncea, they are 
inimediatGly draflixl *i% mid placed in the cst^" 
hhshmsnts connected witli thcu for inBtruction; 
nud thug, eventutdlyT tht?y lu^ enabled to support 
ttemeelvGS, although their Betvices nre never nt 
their own djapo&tiL The preesure of population 
)□ RusBin, will never be t'elli vtor cause the com- 
pelitioii for work to be a sourne of jjiiver'ty. The 
paucity of hjiiidA rendi^'a viiiployLueut alwH^f €a»y 
of uttainitient, stnd the ab^cju'c of children m the 
streets, prcvee thaL thty are Bet early to aoice 

It 10 mA n little aiagular to meet such large 
numbers of boy-eoldicraj drcBBcd in every respect 
like the regular txocpa ; tlicre are several c4m1cI 
eohoola, or corps, an they arc cjxlled, where many 
hiwdreda of bo^E, arc truiiicd to the uiiUtoiy service 

H 4 




OS offipcrfi. Tlii^j tire roriucd into rt^imcnte, and 
hnvo 1o ^ through all the di^plinc and ordGfJfl of 
the old SDilrlLere; even to f^oing into ear^ompmont 
in tlio siJiiimor, and putting up with boiuu of thd 
hardshipg of flcttisil service. The po<jr urchJni 
fofi'er in f>0Q9tifulioti by tliuee precocious e:tertiora, 
and mnnv of thnm sink t^ncnth the fatigue; hut 
what le that to ihn KuiyfAror, pro\iiIeil liia syeltau 
of <li*ciplin'^ is iiphcliJ> iiml DiiliUry anVnir iiiaira- 

As military rank ia ihe only roeogiiiaed dis- 
tinction in the empire, even the hirtbrig;!]! of 
honour ia only titutAr, and confers no privileged 
until a certain military ^mdc hne been atttuniHl ; 
it bocomos, therefore, n mnttor of noooaeity, tor 
thoea wha have either pTet€n£ior? or ixrnhition, to 
enter the army, H*}rc is another proof of tho 
urbitmry power of the Emperor, ivnd of his extm- 
ordinni^ nplitude in converting tb« tempera and 
ruling pasaiftnfl of his people to hie own purponew. 
It i& ri novel iji'a tn rcndor thft pride fif high btrch 
n,ml ilhialrioua deMOflntdormunt, ftiid tcj eomptl the 
anihitirus to acrvn tui appn^ntiueshipj before thiT 
rights and prlvilegos of noliility^nr tlie aoaiiii^ ^Jirit 
of ibmbitiou, fil] l>e rectiguigei?. The &rniy hnlils 
out too few inducements for men generally to 
outer it from choice ; so thnt, while the confcription 
of the serfs fill^ tJic mnka vrith ease, n method 
Oqiml to eompuleion, is ndoptcd to officer tho 
CduntlesB hoat. The restroiuta of civil life aro 


ftbeoTuti> fVwiiom, when ©imiiRrcfl t<.i the rigid tint! 
tnartmrt i|[Kci|iliiii; at thu RuM^i^tn urmj^. Tlia 
most Krniiiiik'tH ;i(ri?ntioii to tlit mttst ti'lfliiig 
mfnutitC it> 4:xart<?t1 from iill runk^ of lliu uiilttiuy. 
A biiltou awrj', or the devifltlau of aliair In jtptqnt 
of i-eguliilioD, nre visited as ofTeuc&a of the highest 
degree; &nd the rcloxntioii uf lading a^ide tho 
uniform is naost im|>unitively forbidUon, Wcari- 
lioea nnd disguet arc the inscpai'ablo offspring of 
thifi eyf^tcni, find ttc cndle^B monotony cf ltd de- 
tiule IjiirOcns tho mind with ajrathy, and an in- 
tolemble feeling of bondage. 

The Kueainn, prone to gaiety and bonhommie, 
relaxes only whco diaianoe from his country 
loosens his I'esti'aints. It la said, thiit Uie 
Rupttian laniling at Lidiook, »» the most complete 
uontmst to thn cue embarkioir; this oua ia almat 
to re-uuler liie vast priflon, while the other is ex- 
pevipndng the firet seaaatioas of uniJIoyed freedcm 
aud stlf-aclion. It has been my foitune to trftyel 
with some of thcao released captives, and It 
wofl quite amnaing to witncea the tliflicully 
they felt in. eonfonning to the caey ami natiiraJ 
froodom, both iu epecch and ntannerr of thoae 
who surroTicdcd them ; the attempt, for soitie 
tline> fiat s^ ill upon them ae Their homrgeois 
costume. How extraordinary Is the power, whoso 
fieocndQuey leaver the indelible imprint of subjec- 
tion tm the human mind, wbiuh, oniniprcHfint, 
pervadea marCi whole nature; inQuendng his 


thoughts and ac^one, and coercing him to jield an 
implicit obedience, even when removed from Ita 
empire. Truly has it been said, *'Le pouvoir 
abaolu, quand il est ime y€iitS, troublerait, i la 
loDgue, la raison 1& plus fenne; le despotisme 
ftveugle \es honimes ; peuple et souverain, tons 
B^^vrent ensemble. 4 la coupe de la tjrannie." 



D^^rmt Clfatn f/ &otifit^ defined h^ fjta^— Tifr$ Eimtf^ 
Hrasia. — Thfir Prmic^ifjf onil Cotnp<»ititfn* — AitfiCtf 
i/ffit^anU rloMPd wmffr Ihrff QuiltU. — Forf>ig7i Mer^ 
fhtndi. — Nfftivf Pr-ina7itry wml Volonitis. — Discharged 
SahlieTf^—^Emitiu^ijHiieil Spr/k. — TribtDinf ether Nnfj/i»x, 

— Sarft qf the Sitil. — Voiu/rtton ami Tfeattn^itt i'f ^evj'a. 
^ HfcklfUKsina o/thf Fvuihd Lonh. — Ftijiiiiuf amira^ the 
S^/s. — S^ffcaldtian lyf a MinitUr of Stnfr. — Em^ 
becittment qf EifffHafi S'tl^jrrijitiim fur the Sfijfertrs at 
Mtintsiit: -^ Jntti/rr/vrion f^fSfirft.^ HorHhte Otitragex,^ 
^^urnher of S^vf^ I'jt Jiuaaia. — Taxes Uttiedon thttn, — 
E^ociitifin t'f thr. ximtihr Sfrf Oir^iiiTii, — Miti'fiirji Lertj. 

— Cufitnm t>f prtunitirt^ Ji^flad o/id ^tt ta tho Etiiperur. 

— diiaiia cftarafta' tfjl^taiati Cuetttuns. 


Amongi otbor aingulnritice which diatinguish tliia 
country is Ibo Iftw whicb j\tA only dcfince tho 
di^vr«nt clascs of eocioty, but also lava down iBo 
dietiflCtionB nnd privilogefl towhi^^h thej are GnUtled. 
"Whflt iv'e term the middk-chigSj op tlie gentpj-, 
IS unknown, so lh».t, in fact, no interaaedinte step 
lietwi^n the nobles tind the tiers (^tat is rccognisL-d; 
hut, tw it is difBcult tti friunie m w<}rJ In it\^^X rh<j 
rMse, I will ct)Utinn<? tlio !Lp|H'IhiT,iou cf iicrs ir.titi; 
and il lb, in tnitlif ]K!rini^fiihle. ai8 by Lhe Kuaaiuii 
law tlje uilildiiitg cIj;&$ la u.iunlguujiiliitl with it. 
A merchaut and u trat^e^mrm are held iu the same 



estimation by law, and differ only in the more 
exr^rniltil priviltige the (me has ever the oT.lier hy 
llie payment uT Vi» ttiliiLtt or guild money ; and 
ttua tlie nobles and the riilitai^ are tlio only 
gentlemen recugniiicd by tlie stale. I projiose, at 
ft future tmievtoglveyau au:kccLit]]itortbt;furmer j 
but at jireisent I Intend to confine myeelT to the 

Tkb cli^aof aociety OH it exists inRu&aiiif is but 
littlo known beyond the Ibuita of tho empire, 
Seluiitdor deGorlbce it ot loigth, and a^ liU dctulTa 
in a) at^tieticAl eonao are most uorreot, I shtxli quote 
Iarg4]Iy from lim. It w entirely diflbrent from 
anything of ihe kind m Europe in ha ocitistruction, 
privilogpa, and restnctiona ; which ute dearly 
defined hy In^v, and most Liudlng iti opemtion. In 
England, ;kud most of tht utber cikuntrifi^ of 
EurO|Hi, Iho difleient grades i>f Hcnnoty of which iT, 
15 composed are of aconvpjitional character; vrealth 
and superior intelligence entitling their powesBors 
1o stand in the &-»t ranit, nhile birtlif unless 
connected ^vith cither of the furnicr, maintiunA 
comparatively ng poaition- 

In Koe^ia thi^ Xl^ivA ^tat (^ompri^cfi the whole 
ctn^ of society below tho noble!* and above the 
acrfa ; ^vhlab latter form a chsd of tlien^elvc^, ftnd 
of n still inferior dcnomiaation. It is composed 
of two trlemt^nU, Qoniely, the inliabitauts of cities, 
and A claw of perwonfi scattered thnrngh tlip prt*- 
vlnoiul towns (|>o^ad) ;md country plmcea. Tha 

,E6ES OF C1T1ZK7(5. 


firsi nre cotnprehondcJ ander tlic name of crliien 
(mccb&Jiftnic)» &iid ihc d^rcond as rrunotcbineti, or 
people of vnrioit^ cla^acf* Tbe name mcchtchaninCi 
howcxer, does not include in ite etncl sense the 
whole nwisa cf citizenfi. 

The citiTcns ha\c veverfil pcciilifLr priTilcgeei 
they riuse tbeir wives, bowcver inferior they may 
Itava Ikei'n^ to rlieir own mnk ; and tmnannt 1o 
th^ir children tlie fin:ne rights they enjoy ihcm- 
selves They require no liwnee to eretl n monu- 
fnti< iry, or t<.) 4*ngayf in iiny rif tlie arlfi lUiJ siyonopi*, 
M.nd ihey mny *li*£)ose of iheir proptTly «t pleiuure. 
The law gnnrnnleeH their [iemjni>, goude, nud uume, 
from all ^iijlenL-.^; ami tLcj caanot be mulcted of 
their fortune, nor deprived of tiirir honour, c^Ecepting 
by a judicial sentence. They Lave their peculiar 
tribuuftla, where tbcy arc (ricd by tbcir cquaU; 
they cnn hold real e^tatCj nnd are e^tcmpt from all 
FtatutQ work imposed by the crowiu TheJf 
towns huve etxch n municipal ssn}, panted by the 
cujperor; they may o^tabUab a t<jwn-Lall, keep 
u paid secretary, and support a local fund op 
treasury. The leitera patont> which nre ^ven 10 
them on the esiabli^m^nt of tbeir miinicipallCyj 
divirlctt the inhabitants under the ^x following 
titW: tkt« liuri^»6es or ordinary iTihubitanlM, tha 
mercliaat^ of t]i(^ three gifihls, artifeuus of diilereut 
Kirtfl, Forolgn seLllcrs or thoMi fruin otbcr tuwue, 
and the po^adbki. 

The eminent citizens form tho first eliieta. wluch« 



indoponi^Giilly of tliosG wlio bavo fiHeJ tlio muni- 
Cijml c>tHi!0 lit diH'sr(,'Dt tioi^g, atirl liave been 
elected nt lea^t tvrice £ie aa3i3««ora of t1ie town, or 
hiive boPM appointeil to tlir nv'tgifitmcy by tltts 
^o^urr IT limit, coriiprWH iiLi'j'^iry itiuji, iurmali^d 
with a diploroa or tertiJityitL? from ti j^uperior 
collagi! ; ntti^ts, being muiiil>Gi-s of tlie a^aUeuiy ol' 
arts, or eitiimnicd and recognised by it ; pri™to 
individujtUi poseeescd oF ni least 50,000 rouUob; 
whc'Ie^e mcicbanta ^ho hiwe no fthop; ancl the 
owners of veaaele. At the third generation. 
individuals of tliia close (who arc even then for 
from being numcrouB) may obtain lottora of 

Tlie nierdiantfl of lUe throe f^ilds ft>llow nest : 
they and their familiea are eicmpt from every lax, 
excepting that whlL»b is levied on their capitid; 
and they fire not linble to ndlJtnry service. If 
brought t\i trial, H^ea^ors fruui theif own (du^ure 
asHr>ciivted with the iiHiml jiid^i-b of the town. At 
the gistli ci^uaus, ^hich wua tid^ou jiriirr to 1829, 
their numbere were rotumed at 10£l,7flO ; of whidi 
17,134 belonged to the govemQient of Moscow; 
6970 to that of Saratof; 6S73 to th^t of Tver; 
£431 to that of Ealouga; 5341 to that of KouL^k ; 
£200 to tbut of St. Petersburg ; sind 4812 lo thnt 
of Vlndimir. In tho otbor govcrnmaatg ihoir 
nuukbcra oru inconaidcrahle. 

A uierclmnt of the £rat guild, th^t is, ono 
Ijosaeasing a decluretl eapilftl of at lea&t 50,000 





Touliles, 13 in the enjoyment of considemHe pil- 
vilcgOfi. Indepcndcutly of hU (Iwelllrg-houacj 
and of the mftnuf'ictorice be ie at liberty to cslabliah, 
heifl pennittcd lo have gar Jens and cotjuti^-honflt^fl ; 
but he mn,y not owrt serfe. Ho moy carry on any 
comuaercc; either home f*r foreign^ without reatrio- 
tion, ivnd may be a ship-owner. Hq ie ofEen 
crt'atod Doblo, and enjoys amny of tlie privileges 
attached to thut rant. 

Ta he insorihed sh a member of the secCBd 
guild it IB only Qecep^iLT'y lo Jet^lare lo the CD|)ital 
of lOjOOO roubI<Wj and to piy tlic tax therooti. 
It ghee the liglit to tmctliig j^nerally in the 
interior of the country, to establish fjihries, to 
keep inns, and to own boata. Like the merchanta 
of tlic firat gniiti, they are exempt from corporal 
punulunent ; but tliey nmy only driyc two horse* 
m their town carrui^e, and must coniine tha.t 
vebicio to a oaluohc 

TIio inoroliante of the third ^uild arc taxed on 
n dediired capital of 8000 rol)bl£^3, and ure other- 
wise afeeimilated to tlie other hur^essea. They 
nniy ewrry on retail trades in the towns and 
countiy places; ibey may keep inns, ntid boats^ 
and looms, and nay frequent falre nnd markcfs. 
This numerous cIum (.■j>niprisefl people of all de- 
grees beyond n ftlate of biwidagi?. 

Fcniiign mercliiuita, orsettlere from otbfir towns 
(inti^annn, or jovgoroduii goet,) form a separate 
clasfl, and are aldo entitled to certain priyilegee. 



BcsiJes tJic frc*? 

.r til 

nUpt *1j 

lirive the ngljt to be r^^prcHuut^t] iu tb^ iJiUEiici|xd 
coiinciLt, if they amount tc 500 familie*. and unj 
proceris wlucli concerns ihcm must llnjn be pUadcJ 
in their own liingiii^C- They inay cstnLliHli 
fkbric0 and m;i.iiuf?tctureei and tr.ido vritliout ro- 
BtrictioTi. Thoy arc at liberty to quit the country 
on taking with thom thoir foiuiljea and goode, 
having pr&vionBly notified their intention to the 
police of the dLBtrict^ aad eaitiBSed eJI detnanda of 
their creditora - and, finally, they muat jmy & 
three years' tits on their dochir'-d capital as a iine. 
The RftKfiotJ^liiosti, who ron^pi-iae thi? cliise which 
cannot be iricbjdcd iji thi; ronnt-r, pjiy no btFid or 
poll tax, and a™ i»*i,rtMd)y subject to the coii- 
»cri|itinn, TJiere ia no certaSu return given of 
their uuiulhar, but they are eatimatedjit 3^000,000 

Thc Pocadsfcii or inbabitants of the provincial 
towns and suburbs, may either be free men or 
Borle of the ci*0WQ, Kc^glalcred on thcjir own 
application, they nrc liceae^t^ to open workshops, 
to kcvp pubHc-bou&ee, bathe, and ebopB) to take 
contmcts, and to tnke land on leai^e. 

The Odnovortsea, or proprietors of a single 
farm (Einbofiner, as they are called in Germany), 
ar^ free ]kL-a4anls, wbOj poHse^^iog in tlieir i^wn 
Hght th«> Inni) tboy till, are nt liberty to lake np 
other btiaine«si!ti, and lo register fhcniaelvcs in 
any uf the au|reriuf degiec«. M- ZiubhfBki tntcee 



their urigln bark to tbe Slrelitzes, tlie clitlJrea 
of tiie Tiofixtfl, nntl the CoAmcka jif tlii? ^tinitwfl, 
t^ whom ii'ii^wn IjukIh Wfi^ fonrierly distributed 
in Lot*, on which they b^ih their housps, and 
ma,i]itaiii lliat they are iKirtiJilly tJesc^imled frinn 
very .incicat but estinct faiiiUJi-H. Tln^j are anh* 
jcct lo mUitary serviflo and levies, II U princi- 
pally in Little Kudeui that tliia commcTiceniciit of 
rural freedom is lo be met with- The numl^er of 
OtinlvorUoa b oeUanalcd at lOjOOO.OOO, of which 
the govGrnraeat of Koupsk jioaacMea 3211,001 f, on 
a population of IjSCOjOO'Jj and the govcnimont 
of Voron^e 500,000 on 1,400,000 inhabitantB. 
The peasants cf theBftkic provinces Eire alao free; 
but tliey are not entitled to own land. Thus the 
conijni^rei.! iirminoes ape ^bjet^t fti restrietions, 
wLit'li dt!|>re¥n their enepgies and limit their iree- 
diim, Tlioae in tlie norLh, wbidi )\n\e been 
created ftiwl peopled n.1 more recent pecLodn, iiru 
.altogether <lelic:ient lo this cluaa of tlit: p^piilation, 
because the uuth^nkrulneaB of tbe eoU will not 
nuLintiiin ihcm. while thogerma ofical And natnr&I 
feedom cjcist onlj among tbe rural tribes und 
ftnoicnt people of Hoaiia Proper. 

The lamtcbika form <i tribe in wHoh some 
ftQCtcnt eustooifl, and a. few privileges, arc etili 
continued- Tbey nre exempt fi-om all personal 
tax, anO have the right to present thcmeelvoe 
before the Emperor by Jeputclion on ccrtflin oc* 


CJuioDfl. Thoii* name, wbicli beloDgod to iin (lucieiat 
iTinniab race, iTii|iliea in ilie [n'&*eut day tho iii- 
Imbitantfl uf nii Fjitiie, or of n villttge, tlie mde 
|»o[iiiktion ofwbioii ib 2irinci[;iiinjf^ fHM^iip(*il in tbe 
trail ^j">rt of tmvellvrs mid giioils. Thcro wi-e 
many villugee vlileli Imvu iiti uther itilinbirunta 
tban these carrlera iind drivers. la tlic ^ijvtrrn- 
rocnt of Tobolsk alono there are 15,504 lodJ- 
Yiduals of thie clo^a; in rhat of 8m»>len4k 12,108; 
in tiiQt of Novgorod 8,353 ; nud the totrl numbcr> 
thougb iocf>mplcto, rettirocd at tbo census before 
tin,m<;d? rtmountcd to 80fOI5> 

Tlie ooloTUJite^ wLo nre numerous, pdrticularly 
in the south and aoiith-eixst *>f the empire, imd 
ore also to be found in the neigbbourhood of 
St. Petersburg, are prirflipally Gonnims irom 
Wirtrnihiirg ntjd the (.-rmnd Duchy of DAdoD. 
Tlwiv rurjtl txxitioniy Is \\r superior to tbiit of the 
RuB&iau penflfiiits to whimi ibey iii»ght wervo uet 
models, luid for vvhlcli |jurpose tbi?j wcrii firat 
iatroduced by tlic Kmpre^a Ualhcriiic, Tbeir 
viilagee, whkh are exclusively Inhabited by them, 
Brc built iu the Qonuzin styk* and iu appoju-anisc, 
olciLuiinCBE, and comfort, present n marked con- 
trftsl to tho durk, liniHiialed iog-houaes of the 
Ruaaiana; lUidj true to the etrong njttioTmlity of 
the GermUnUa, they preserve thoir vwn koguago 
without any pntois or udiulitiir** of Ruae> Like 
them, the free peasant* of Fmluml have never 
known rfavory; but yet they are iufioilely beneath 





th&m, not only as regards tlieti' cti-onmAtancoj*, Lut 
in iDtclUgcnce &ni\ activity. 

With respect to retired eoldkra, who receive 
their discharge after Iwonly-two ycara* ^^rxieop 
they of^en ibtrtin tlie gniat of ii furm fivjm the 
crown Innil^j and tliii^ have the meana hi tlit'ir 
latter *}ays of reulising & degree of nidtpeiidence 
find proflperily. Thc^e cire, how^vor, mnliily at- 
tribiKftblo to tlieir greuter c5i|H'rieiice of the woild, 
to the activity of mind insepnriiLle fVam h long 
re8idenc<j in ^^iiinjiw, a.TiJ to tliu tttui|m,risoiLH thcj 
UiLve btien enLiljlt-J to foi'iti, in thtiir dIaljLut ex- 
pcditioDB, between tbcii" own conDtry people nnd 
ioTcSgn pen£JinU. A gri^at proportion oi" tiierti, 
however, gain their scanty subairtencc a* portera 
lind door-koepora to the great lionace and jjublio 

Einiinclpated serfs are indebted for ihoir free- 
dom eitbor to ibo generoEity of Ihcir ronttcrfl^ 
of which many in? tanc^s occurred during tJje reign 
of the Emperor Alesaoder — or to the piircbaii> 
of itj which tht'y ihemselves effect tlirough tho 
gning and aavinge of tht^ir H^rvicr^ But it is HOC 
c<jm[iul*iry on theinaater tj) iiocept this [juyment; 
junl, as the price t* discrctbnml with hira, ho oan 
affix it ni lucli a rate that iLe object can never be 
obhiincd. There are nmny dipgritcet'ul tnatanues 
known of injvaters bftving affixed a price, recciycd 
Uic money, and fLftcrwArdar^iHiflcd the papcra of 
manuniiauciL. These frccdrucn occupy thcmaelre^ 


ai^ haw1c:er4, an Ishourem uti the piihllu worlcB, and 

ilieiiitfdveA 9A agricultimst« or in sedentary jjur- 

lastly, there may be leckonefl fttnong the froa 
people whole trilics iind nationa, either aubjctttil 
tu liue^mi or plfi^d under its protection, aod who, 
escTnpt frora tho conscription, fumiah a oortiiin 
oantingorit cf troops, And ^oQiotirtios n. tax, In pro- 
duce or kind, Theao uro the Cossace, tlie Kid- 
muclie> the Bachkira, the Von^oules, ic. ; in the 
whole about two malliona cf miUes ; Imt the period 
of iheir service does unt eaceed seven years. The 
Jgw« ftrc henvily taieJ, ftnd have heen liable to 
the recruiting sj^iteTii since 1B20, 

The hxHi claes la that of the peaenntA attached 
t3 the ai*ll, and who are t!ie propetLy uf their 
masters. They arc eold together with iho land* 
which b taacd in proportion to the number cif 
eerfa bclciiging to it. Each acrf ia estimated 
at from 700 to 2000 roubJoS) ncoording to the 
value cf the knd he eultivatea. In forraer ttmca 
the cmiJerors were m th© bnbit of bestowing 
thoiu by thoua:indi on such of their favourites 
whoae Jeal auJ ftcifvicea they were de^nrou^ of 
rewarding; but in the presenl day, nien ai'o not 
iacladed in gifts of (hia nature, whieh are confined 
to the hind, without inoluding the serfs upon it, 
The pe<iple of this cln^ are for the most ji^n. poor 
and Ignomiit ; ijut their amy nnd reckldsa hatnour. 





tlie mUJnt^aH anJ liuiuaiiJtj willi which they nr^ 
ofteTi treated, the a'^sletancc wbich their msaters 
are bound lo a3i:*ri thcui when cither sick or in, and, coaaequently, ihe certainty of having 
whcrowUlml to aulwLat npon, rondcr Uicpi muoh 
IoB3 niiscmblc thiin wjuld be eiippoaed* They 
Arc, bceidee, nmlor tha protection of tho laws; 
for, although * Tiioeter can ftlill inilici corpcrnl 
pimiahiuent, he haa no longer ihe powi^t of Vif& 
and df^th over hia slfkv^, nor can he hani^h him 
to Siberia wlchoviC tbc srinction of th« governor 
cf luB province- Some of (hem, by dintof laboiirj 
realise siil^cient properly to etuihk iheia to pur- 
cbn)ie the prlvIlL-ge i.i{' going free whero xiwy jdea«Ct 
until aummoncd Ijuek by tlmir masters j hut It 
ia more difficult to purchase their full libcrtj* 
na their moatera often refuse the jnost tempting 

Thoac feiittftl lords, however, are of cstravaguot 
nnd profligate hiiljila^ iind otcnaionnlly haraea thuir 
eorfa with the meet gnnd'mg oppreseion nnd ex- 
tortion, while their neglect and inability to pro- 
Tide che Etoreg and magazines diroeled by the 
governnieut, reduce their serfs, in unpri>pitioui 
eensoDs, to wanl and the moat hfirrible suderingn 
(]f fainme, Tl^is ciceiirred to u frightful extent in 
the year 1840, in tho govcninitnls uf Touhi, 
ItiaKJtn and Klil^:uga, when thi? people were driven 
fur BuhaisLiiur-e lo thebarksof trees. TheEUininer 
vfl8d9wB£ so exces*i vdy hot that the parrhed 

I 3 



land yielded no prorlucc, and thftt of 1840 wn^ bo 
oold nnd wut thai the crops entirely railed. Tho 
conflaqucnce was, tlmt the mc«t dreiLdfiil dietreea 
prevailed, imd thouaanfla perished from str^rvntion. 
Wlicn tins renehed tlie ours of the F-mperor, hti 
doapEitcUGd one of hie ministers with ample fnnda 
tn ^tfii.inl relief to the ftiiflerei'ss but the in'esmlihle 
inlliienrii of the ^jit national victi jiervertBtl tliia 
streum of iwiLCVolence- Tlie iiuntsl*rr returned 
iroin liu» TiLisaioHf afiaurlng the Emperor that th« 
atatcmfnt had been mucli exAggcruted, banding 
orer a portion of the fanda wliJdi lud been pkcod 
at \us disposal- Other riiraoiir3» howevor, caiiio 
to tho Emperor'e kn'>wl<idge, and » freeh cinissury 
WOB 6cat down* when the lamentable tmlh was 
disclosed, and proof Adduced, tlmt the niiniflier 
had deceived his ImiJerial Master by a pUuaible 
tale; for, though, in faei, he kid distributed eoiue 
moopy, ho had gloaspd oi'er hln mttjuitoiia atwtrafi- 
tion of n. large pro pirtioa of the fiindB l*y returiilug 
ft btilaiiee to the Entpcinr : hla dlf^nii^^al and 
diagraec ounfinni^ the r»iot. This system ia too 
prevalent, and the imculiitii^ti la uoL confiidcrcd 
didionournblc. It is a well-known fact that the 
large f^ums mscd hy sabscription in England, for 
the relief of the 8uftcrcr3 by the burning of 
jouw in 1612, wcpo most ahamcfnlly niieap- 
-ifintcd and plnndcpod by the authoritiea to 
whom ihej were ontrustoi^. 

Thc^re is a previdunt opinitm entertained by the 



that the Emperor u oppnsud to the system 
evrfdoin, nod would gkdly itbolieh it* The 
crown serf* arc certainly in a far bettor condition 
llifln the privati" od4?e, iliilI suR'vt ke^ from exac- 
liona ; hence tliey arc object of envy to their U'«* 
fortuDtttu hrttliren. A mUuiLdersCcod expresaioo 
of tbc Emperor's to some privflte eerfa, wlio he- 
emi^ht Iiini t<i ru3d their territory aliO ttj aomu 
neighhuLcring ;Lc^r|iLLsitiun whiuh hjid ju^t bei?n nkadfi 
hy tlin crown, was l!ic winn^''e of a mtirt 
bornhle lnigc<ly, Intoxicalwl with iheheUeftJuit 
they luight criti/hikclp^to thcm^elvefl, they orgnniacd 
a powerful conepincj'. and arming thcmBelvoa* 
dc«ohhtcd tlio couDtry nround them with tire nnd 
sword; perpetrating Lorrora not to he exceeded hy 
Iho aanguinory scenes of St. Domtago, und tlifl 
woret days of tho French rcTolntion. It is ettitod 
that titiy outofTthe Icgsniid anus of their victiiiie, 
beating thorn todcaih with the mutHfltedmomhers 
and aiifling thtir drtodfiil erice by thruatin^ the 
mniigled f^ei inio their mouths. HiiDian nature 
in its Bcmw'tvilisod itate roust be *-^ftencd, the 
mind i?nligh|i?ui?d and mndo fully to itndoratftnri 
lU r^-^spncrp^ilnlities, and its ahligiLtiotift l^t Kr>rio(y, 
boforo it can nppreeinfe the renl ble wings of 
freedom; for a Midden i^uclion inu^if.iihly pn>* 
duCHA tbo most L'jL]nmiLi>us rcaulle. Unbrii^Ucd 
licentioiianesa and tbe mo«t cxtr&Tagmt «xcea*« 
arc Ihc nulural i-bullition* of aenii-barbjirmiM, 
excited by mbtakcL idcua of frccvloiiii »s opposed 

I 4 



to the prioclplea of eiibmiaaon to laws ntiJ consti- 
tuted autljoritios. Freedom is a ferocious aniQid, 
unload governed hy reiiaoQ, and made otneimble 
to tlie publl<^ safety. To mtme politicul lil^erty 
tn a people who would compromise its encrtd 
cbnnicter by their means of attiuamg Jt, would be 
tfj destroy its eii^fi^nne and to enfjihliali n,ti;ircljy 
m iu pldce. Sliould tble event i-vcr oca^uv In 
RuE^ia, revoluLioii and iiiH«hacre would spi-eud 
with tbc ppci'tl of ligbliimg f.Lrouj^b the lnad» 

Tlierc are about I8>0*XJ,000 of male acrib 
scattered ttrougbout Great Ituaeia, tKe Polieb 
province* a:id Old Finland: in Now Finland 
flkycry hns ncYcr been Jmawn; in tho Baltic 
pi'<Aincce it liaa bccn aboliebod witbiD tJio Inet 
f^w years ^ nnd in. Little RuEsiii tbe pci;ss.ntfi are 
mostly- free. 

The peasants nittachcd to the soil nre e!tli4ir 
eerft of the orown or of private iudivJduale. Tlie 
latter, mnounting to 10,411,753 males, inprease 
more in proportion to the former, whise cundillon, 
ac>ertheV«^, i* more emy smd ^*.f^» preairioiia, 
The i:rimn serfs lire i.rfiiiled by tlie govevntrjent 
with the utinoet indulgL'iu^; yet it was foimd 
that, in the interval tlie lust two renaiiDes, 
their number liad conaide roily decreased; wluio 
the returna oi' the priTate serfs eLowctl a consldc;^ 
ftbic iiicrcivdc- Both claeecs ai'o <^nipIoyLil, without 
distinction, cithera3lalx>nrcrj:,mechnmc^ or miners. 
Thdy rceldo ia wretdiud villages, in a state of 




rude siutjiliuity, xrhit'li refaUe piwerfully the first 
coninium "f man; auiU even Lhfixr Wil savours 
ulrongljr of tlieir Jgnoi-auce nnd destilulJon- The 
govcriuocnt fisce auniinmily- Ijolli a* tt> time and 
rotinner^ the Biiiuber oi' reci'uit^ it may require 
fn>m among the two closacs; and it is eetiaiated 
that a levy of siir men ou a thou^nnil will protliicc 
a corps of 250^00(J mon. The crown Idvioe « 
tax on ita awn peasants, wbioh vnrioe nccorJing 
to the necessities uf the etiitQ; but the ueuaI 
average 18 Ato poiiblea anmiaJly: it also ciaota an 
nggregxiteil siim ftova tho priTiiie seife, which 
their mnsier i» rfmipcIlcJ to jwy ; reiinbursiag 
himacir bfLt?rnanls ai his own pleasure. The 
xiiiuunt of this aa^'jHsuicnt ilepeDil^ ciitLrdy on 
the wlil of die atible; but the orJiiiMTj' emu 
enrurceJ is ulrtmt ttu rouhleH y«irJy» Thi; Inrge 
propnetors of eerfa I'cflhse an juimense income 
from this capitation tax; thoy create, beside*, 
anol!ipr great source of revenue which 13 called 
the obrok ; thittia, the annnaipnymantof ft etipij- 
Intod Slim by tlio penaiDta for pcrraisfcion to ongrtgc 
thcmsdvcs cillier in traJe or tloiutSBtio eervico, and 
tc abwTit themaelvea fi-om tho district for the apaec 
of three ycare. This sum may he estimRted at 
from thirty to fifty rooLles in orUiiiiiry cils<?s : bnt 
with the sninll flci'f owners there are 110 liavils to 
their exactions, rs thej' attempt to wring every 
hafil-cfimpd from the already net'<-'Sditou» 
wreldi. A iwrvitnt in the house at which 1 have 



been Tcaitling here b one of tLt^ae uufortunj 
for his mlslrOM poaacamng only &ix ecri's, and 
weekly viaita of extortion bccoDiing so ajinoying^, 
it had bccii arranged that the man shnll never 
dmw hi« w^i^c-0 but in aiuiUl aums, <ia puqioso 
to dorcut her lymnny. 

The militnry levy docs not Hf penj to bg so (Ub- 
treasiEg to the eerf^ of the inteKor aa to tho 
p^aeartlB of the Dallic provinoes, who endeavour 
to tho utmost to acreen thcmselvea from it: it 
deprives them uf nothing of what they mny 
poSBesBj tmd thu duties itiiTipoees on them sir? not 
more atvere th;i.Ti t,ho«« froio whrdi tlity »rc? rc- 
movt^] : ant}, btfcldeh. It cinnntnpntes tUeia ja well 
as iLeir future o^priug. It is true it hreuka 
those links which have already been formed; and 
it 13 melancholy to ecc that the masters look moro 
to their own intcreataj in tho compulaory flurrcnder 
of their filnvcs, than to the neoeseiticH andaitnaiion 
of iboao who arc at their mercy. 

Those defftila will ^ivc yon o. more comprchcnBive 
ideaortheatatcof society and of tlie position of thd 
people thfln any other deecription I could oftbr 
you ; iind it expbiins, bcEides, the mmute foriua of 
government over th]£ almost nomad race. 

A highly singular custom prevnlls throughout 
RlissIu. in tho pi'ei^LAntatton Mfbrehd and Kilt lo the 
Emperor or Erapreaa on their first, visit to suiy 
town, as a symbol of the loyalty and homagt; of 
the inhabitants. It na^iy poseibly be of Ka«tera 




ori^n; where the partaking of these tu'liclca 
renders the person of iho guest »ici-c(l, unU eafe 
fiiofatreachorji Tttibr-L^odaiideultivro ccnUmodiQ 
u Ktlt'CcUiir and plnte of gold^ whleh appcnr to be 
carefully preserved ; for in lli© Imperial treasury 
in the KremUn at Moscow^ ihore are ft great 
number which belonged to former emperors ; and 
iij the Winter paluce Ht St. Peteralfliri^ tlit^re 
ia even u gTmtc:r Ulapluy nf tnbuLi's lu thij pn^aent 
EiQpcror, snuxiged in glus^ ouea on the v/oWa of 
the private aportinentfi* 

The genuine RuB^^lana evidentlj' piirtako much 
locrc of the Aeiatie tksLa of the European m their 
co&tume: the men among tJie lower chiBace uni- 
Tcreahy wear the bcnrd, in dcBjmcc of all the 
attempta to abolieh it; from the time of the 
rigorous decree of Fctof the Oreut tu the milder 
*fi'orlfl of the p'eaont Bovorcign. Theh^ir is tvora 
long in front; and by the lalteiirlng chhsses is con- 
fined by a thin fillet cf father; but it la fihftved 
from iho hack of tbt htnil, almoat In a litie with 
the top of the eai's. Thu ordinary pfiatume con- 
HiHLd «f a blue or pink shirt wurn over the liouserup 
which JU'e tucked Into the boota reaching nearly 
to the knee; and a blue cartun, or robe, fitting 
eloec to the neck unJ fdling to the ankles; or a 
sheepskin coat of tlic oume iiitihion worn, witii th^ 
wool either la or out, aeeording to the season, imd 
bound round the vrai^t with a red sa^h. The 
women in geneml only bind their heade with pieces 


of silk or linen, put on with leaa t&ate than the 
French toque; and BOmej eHpeciallj thoae from 
the provinces, wear as a headnireee a kind of 
coronetj five or bix inches high in front and lower 
behind, enriched either with pearls or gold lace ; 
others have a kind of cap fitting close to the bead, 
and composed of a net-work of pearls ; a long 
Bpencer of the most gaud^ colours reaching to the 
hips, and lined with fur, with collar and cuffs of 
the same material^ and gathered in at the waiet in 
large plaits, forme her holiday dreea. 




'/Vi? of St, PtlfTAfmr^ — Fire Poltpf*. — DctfTHftimi rmd 
C'viifi/trivn ut it CaiiJIii^rtitiofi-^- 1 '*i-titir-ai iJifJJaiif; tf Russia . 
-^—I'tjiiee Rv^iu^oiij . — K-asniira Fire Inimiitirr C'ltmiifimfs. 
^Ftfteigri, Iitxwanci' pmhifafed^ — Hoilow Viviliaatioti. — 
Fi-ciiag of Itc«t7'<iifiL—Iiiipiicitij, ViUtiitjf, anil Pfn-frnmemi 
^ PulitemeiL — Ktiiipiri-^ t^ 0£^ioii, — Adrcntiieaa of 
ThieucB. — Demoralising EJfr^cUt ttf DvipoUsm. 

1 HAVE ja?t witneef^ed a fire; snO, aa in other 
things, the WJintofdimplidty in tke nn'oo^cmoata 
and the ovor^orowding them with iisclc&& discipline, 
render all atlcmpta to outiDguifih tho flames dlHi- 
cult. if not almost alxirtive. This kind of calfttnity 
n icfls de«tructiv<:: than lu furmer tiriioa^ brick 
buUdiugs having g*?iierHlJy been Eubaijiut<rtl for 
the wooden ones whiclj originnlly compo§ed the 
city; but still tlie iitino^t prc-raiiiliona are taken, 
and Ik mD8fH vigilimt wiitt^h inuintuirii^il. 

St. PeLerslmrg is divided intoaeTeral di**trictHj or 
tjiiartti^, erti^b of which hns Uj ftepiirale e^UMish- 
meat of police* tcnned n aieL^; \\i\b is gciicndl/ u 
hnilding of eoiu^idcruhlc t^xtent, fiurmoLiiited hy u 
loll wooden tower, on the eniuaiil of wluch two 
Dutchmen patrol, daysxnd night, to give the nUmi 
of fire ; which their coanmamling position enables 
thciJi nt once to detect- By pulling a string, 
oommunicotiiig with a bell in the ynrd below, in 



which a M\ coiopICTUcnt of engiii^^^ i& kcpti the 
iiruuiuu ELTO Uippmcd of a £rc having broken out- 

-'- -'-^JiC 

Should the fins be m another distncti tbe exact 
epot ie ftt on<M^ poinKxl out by means of a telfr- 
gmphio communication bctwoLTn llio different 
eic^^cB^UfttuoIj-, iiy balls suqicnded by <\ny, and by 
laiiterna suepen^toii at night, at various onglea, 
from an sfon fmnio on the tower. Thus fai* 
notliing oao be more pcrf(!ct ; nml the cknmeES of 
ibe atmoapherei iinsnllie*! hy smoke, facilitaie* 
tlic duty of the watc^limen. The niiginfiq nro 
mimeroiM, a» are also the mcniLpjKiiiited Ui tliem ; 
but the former pof^ess but Httlc power, and tKo 
ktEi^r, ihou^li during to a fsiull, ai^t without [}w3 
knowledge of the <^ommoncst pnnciplcB, brcAlcing, 


for infstnncct every pane oF glasj* tbiouglioul lliv 
hcniee* to enable lliem, aa tlicy suy. to (im wlicre 
tlie iirc le, aud tliiw incrcaaing the flamee by ad- 
mitting a free current of air. Furuiturc ia not 
romovuJ, h\ii is thro^vu bodily out of iho windowa, 
— mirrors, piitno-ft>rtes,pioturcSj and thefirettUnga 
they lay thGJr banl^ od, come cm^ihing into tho 
street ; where tlieir destruciioa is speeflily con- 
atimmaled by ibo rolling of the waler cai'ts, the 
plunging of the horses, nnd the violonct? of th« 
iTuru. From tie HitujilJorr of the vUy tm wjiltr mn 
he oljti^ineJ Bifejiling from the river sihJ the 
can»lr«; Lci eai'^h engine, th<:refore, Sire altacEied 
several barrel rarih, ilrJiwn by two horet's, wbldi 
plying bet wecu the pkeefui iv^lcrsiucl the engines, 
are pumped full by ha.rid at the ouo spot, and 
emptied by the auction of the engine at the other. 
Tlic bustle und confumon ari^in^ from the Atolcut 
driving of the eEirts, the baekmg of the hortscB dad 
the pliirging ond terror of Ibc bciisls, aildod tc 
ihfi rushing of the ratn liere jtnJ there are iude- 
fcribflbld. The brand majoFj the minifltcr and 
chleffl of thij police, the cuuimandant and civil 
giivciruar nf the city, and aometirnea even the 
Enkperor and hia son, bn^ten to tbe a^rut to direct 
th(} operations ; and besides, a largp body of .^oldicrg 
iadrrivrn lip ut the principal avcnuca, to prevent 
any intruftiun of the people. The display of force 
a]>peared to me to be ao over proportioned to the 
cxigencica of thie, or indeed of any other case, 
short of a gcncr&l coD^ogrivtion, that I hare been 




at flomc trouble to Ictivn the exact extent of it 
whoii in aciion. EficU at>:^ Ucapatchc^ tsvo «n-» 
giiies, cftj'tjing twelve raca, a oarringc with thir- 
tcca ollmrfl, four wixtoi' carta unil tx truck full of 
Ifld'lcrs and finj-honkt : there is also a rosQrvE% 
cent from tlio hoail (juartewj of tlirtio enginca, foup- 
teen water carta, six can-Iugea conveying firemen, 
iinJ one for the hi^oks. This mmate enunioraticn 
of the forces oollceteil i& sufiicicrlly indt(?al]VO of 
the precautions taken again^ minflngnition ; but 
U as cleiirly jimvoa thiit tf^e 8ysti?;u is loocvusvilod 
to he vtry ufiecllve, and ti*i» large to lie eiwilj 

VflHtu^s is the rock on wliichoverylliinjif seems 
to Hplh, and BO that it can he uiaintiLiuecl, tifiEity ia 
disrogni'deil. Territoiy without popiiUtion; navie* 
without eeas ; the simplest defiiiU of hualnPFiM ho 
overh»fiduil wiT,h funnt* and ceremonioK, unf) llm 
piihlii; iluliee BO eiicuml>ered wllh rmjdityht that 
all unite in liantpenu^ uud checking the progress 
of the empircp Such Is the ttate of things Jn 
Bussia, l''adtity and pe]'9pi^:iiity are mere fanoiea 
of tim mind, and utter iuiposBibilitiiia under the 
prc-^cnt organiaation of the govotnra«nt, 

1 jhall novf dcBcribe to you, ns 1 proposod. the 
position and privileges of the varloite clu^fleii of 
the nobles; nnd you will th*>ti perceive how por- 
feotly impossible it is to etf^sct tiny cb.tnge in thu 
eyat'^m, even if the pdople v«re loas wGilded to it^ 
or aw.tre of its diswl vantages. The fouiidiitloa 
of the evil li«i3 in the upholdiag the chimwmfuif 



an inforior class of Doblce, whose pride prolubitu 

them from pntenrg into bnninoaWj and who nre 
iJjiH [ilaiTcd in cniwdfl in ihe |juMii? ofGw*, ami 
weigh like BR incubufl on the stAti^ Tliey, nnd 
the senseless multi|)lic:il.ifiiis tif unnett*S!iJ'y fiirm*( 
and dcl^lri, aru like riogs Ut tliu wheel, a,uil iTiijiede 
the progress of the huge niachmer/ oF the state. 

Wooden liouste, with very few exceptions, arc to 
be met with only in the out^hirte of the cltj, 
whore the effects of fire arc moot to bo dreaded ; 
and there the police compel the inhabiianla to 
kce|> on the roofs of their houacs ti mop and ti 
largo tub of water for any eiigeacy of the kind I 

In the villages every inhnbhrint U bouml to 
pi-ovide some implemenl or utensil neceesaiy In 
nnbdning a fire, and these, us the honses nre in- 
vnrisibiy of wood, and there nrp no cnginea, nre of 
lh(- txiimt vurzed kinda. To a^^unimodiite tTit.* tin^ 
lenrn(r*I, und to mIhiw at onee whure thi^ae urtioles 
are [o ht-^ hrtd» pi^*l.i^^lJll re|ireaentfitions of theiu 
are Snlli^cd ovt^r ibc doors — rude enough In tl«?ir 
execution, but j*till they sutficicntly rcprescuL 
AHwa, ftxes, buekets. Ijidilera, ^c • 

One of the greot drawbacka to rcid improvement 
in KuflBm is the aanotioa given to vu^Dopolics, 
or, its they ftrc jcsuitioilly callod, privi|pgc3 ; tboy 
are restrielif>ne to competition, and extremely 
oppT'e^&ive and arbitrary in their cliarstcter Thore 
tire at present only two firo-ini^urance compftoiea 
in St. Peterebui^: the first of these, on obtaining 

PIRK UrainiAVCKfl. 

its ]>ntent, or privilege, rerunc<I all pnlli^ips «x- 
4Tepting those of the cctmiiein k'lnti, leaving ihoae 
wliich wc term baznnVm^ wUimut tlie iiic^ita of 
protocting themselves, Aa tills cotnpiiny resolutely" 
ad!keTe<l to tin? determination, tlie Eniperor per- 
itiitt':^(l tlic formalJoD of aiiother conipoay ; liut it 
ie only allowed to cntetlain the policies which the 
otUnr dociinue, Thia Ic^elating for petty tbingB, 
tliie etixipiog to minutiw, sooma beneath the atten- 
tion cf aprent mind; but the principle of govern- 
ment in Ttn^in^ like the proboBcis of tHe elepbant, 
acoonimodatcs ita power to every pussible coo- 

In hi3 anxiety to prpvpcit the inventnu^nt and 
expenditure of monipy beyarKl Ms ilomidiuti*', tlw 
emperor hu^ fallen into the fihrrt-t^ighted jHjlicy 
of proLiLiling tlie cilectiug of lobarcincea in 
foreign countries ; altliough tlie recent example 
at iltiiiiburg, wlicrc aCf Lir^c lui umount of Engliah 
capitnl was poured In to cover the iiisurEinocfl 
effected in London by the Hamhurgera, la u 
mifficiently convincing proof of the wiadoni of 
throwing the ridk ou anotlicr <!Ountiyj ujid thus 
replacing the logsea from extnxaenUB aoiirces. 

As the elder nations of Europe huve risen to 
prospentyjOrhuve at least niflntnined their position, 
by piiinhd stjiiggleH anil lon^ itnd rli^ar*bought 
erpcrienee, it would \^ natural to BUp|jfT^ thai 
more recent people would [nke advanlage of the 
ciir.iiniatnnrf, and, antioipHtiUg eipcriiiitnt, would 

F0RCE1» OlVlLiaATlOW. 


■a ■_- J 

ttt once erlcct the beet of tHoac ]>omtd and insti- 
tutions wliick h:id ivcoived tlio iipprobftlion of 
time, and ndnpt them t<^ their own neceeBities^ 
insltfMl of bL^ginning almost at a stnte of imture, 
when tlipy might at once lin^e jinj^Fieil (j\er the 
dOAAOTi of childhood into mature uge. It wua this 
athatitjigi? the <i(idy uJialiliantft uf the world 
hml uvt^r fiur Brht |iar»nt», lu availing tLemeelvefl 
of t.iio i^llght cApericurie uud kuo^rlcdge tlie^ bad 
gained, iuBlead of toihng upvsardH from the njUta 
of i^jnornnoe of the iufunt world, and Euccce^ivc 
generations ha\c jp Qoch descent iniproycd on tho 
experience of the past 

Bussia ooonpiofl ftt this momont iho t^ro CX- 
tromoei (ind, to uao a homely eaying, it hiLS at- 
b^mpted to run before it Cftn wallc. A ft^rced 
Attempt at civillefltion has left the lower alassea 
in a condition of scmi-bai-bariflmj while ihe upper 
ones nt^ in an srtifii^i^ etjite, and nnimbued with 
those reiinfimentH and elegiiricleB which form lis 
cbitnciH Mild dcliglit- 

If the fettling uf reAlruinl is so powerful on one 
QA a alrang^^rj Ita i^flucie niubl be filill mans putent 
on the Hu^iitnis themselves: hnbit may to aoi extent 
i-econcite them to the chain, but they can never 
lo*e sight of it; for, lilcu tho tethered os trcailing 
on ita linkfl, thoy nro momcnlorily ivicallcd to a 
scnso of their t>andii£o. TJilb ohtnuive feeling 
brkunta them like a epoctro, or confronts tliein at 
every turn in its vifiiblertiility — proclaiming, even 



throLigL tiic wrctdicd aulortlmatca of po^vCTj the 
prfMJcncu of tbc dcopot- 

ProtmJing on the pavcmcnf, ia most of tBe 
public thorouglifixrcd, stands a aiiiJiU cboquor- 
puintcJ wcxKJeii htmsc, about twe(vo ieet ^quarffl, 
whicb is, at the eame tims, ibo resideace and po^ 
of three |jolicejiienj one of wlioin is always on 
gimrd at iho door, carrying ii huge long-liiindled 
juce Its an euiblem of Lia authority, Drtsaed in 
H imiftjrnL of dirty grijj, ami feO at the 07cp*:nBG 
of tlie gaveniment, his lift amy be s^iid tn be 
jjiwsed like lliat of a dog diaiiied lo ils teiiucl. 
They are a worLlilt^s nice ^ and, u^ th^ luLscL-tLbl^ 
pay does not esctiLxl oni: jHmud a yeiir, l.hey live 
notoriously on the public by c3ai:tion& and cnuje, 
They tuto toll of every wood-cart that paaece t}iRm, 
by extracting suventl billets, and cxft^t luoney 
froci the dvoruiks, or y^rd-jicrvitats of ihtiir 
district, by tbrealeniiig to report ihetn for ncglfloi 
in sweeping the elreois. Li eohtarj ajjota it ifl 
not always aafo la pitas witliiii their rpucli, us 
murder and rohheiy Jiro deeds perfwtly fttniilijvi' 
to them. A notorious oulprit of tbi* driss was 
dittCO^ered iu cue who hod hie jio&t i.rn one of the 
cunol bridges, and who coolly acLnuiv led jri.>d, cm 
onu murder bdog traced hom^' to bim, that be had 
committed twelve others. Acting up to the letter 
of iheir iofltruclione, uv pled dc la Icttic, when 
placed on any particiih>r duty, tiicir brutal igno- 
rouccj added to tbc fear uf uaing the shghtost 




llion im^ler pjty cxlrftordiiiary oircumataniTea, 
tbcm tt> tho eserciec of iho niuat aiisurd iind 
tyranncme a^jtborityp StJitionc(Jal|>aiticiilaro[itlctfl 
of tlio quai, while the froicu surTuce of llie ri\er 
ia considoi'Gtl uneafi?, and bi^forc ih<* briilges nro 
repkcedj Ihoy are ordcreil to lUlow no one to ptisa. 
Some ventiiresomfl iTidivHiMil, cut (iff from liis 
Kume, or ^vliose |iretHiug biielncHti niSLy reijuirr, 
liim on tlie nllicr »idt, pa^seu over frxifjj sunie 
uiigurLi'ded fpi>t,» iind atietn[)t» to laud : but no, he 
10 tlniist back J for the order muet be obeyed, 

^althoLgh it nicaat that no one should pu^s tlie 
poHccmeD to giun the river. Tims a frcah d^ger 
jDUBt be mcurrcd by rccrossing. or a dc^pcmte 

'd&eh bo Boado at somo more tortunuto iiud loee 
guarded Epot. ^Vlien Uie ice has acquired ^mo 
degree of condietency, a. platform of bonrile is 
laid aerow the river for the aocommodation of the 
public I but !t ie not allowed to be crowded ; nud 
tven thnt rFgiilniioti is as usual a eftnse of uaeleeie 
oppreuBKni and 1jriinnit*rd nuthorit^. A fimonil 
with ita few uttfudajtls (it W&s that of a [njtiT 
iuan) staight the faesage on i(fl wajr ro f.he ceint- 
teiy 1 but it^ progie^fl was prohibited. Tlie paity 
carried their nicJancholj load to ^ further dlfitaneo 
down the river, beyond the prefitoce of the police* 
and iittoippkd to croae ou the ico. It wob unequal 
to their weight, and both the living and the dead 
id ibe siLini! grove, and were ODrrJod beneath 

'die ice. The risk was parmiflBibloj becAueo tho 
I a 



police were not directed to watch that quarter, 
an*] tK'ir <iuty limited tficm to prevent drowning 
only at porticulur apota; clsowhcrcj fta in the 
UDBtanoo nicnttonodj wholoado dC8tructioii mi^ht 
occur Without an att«in:pt at preveotion- Tli6 
tLbfiiirditj, liowOTOr, lioe bc-<x prLmllclvd in the city 
of London, in tlio caging over tha top of tKo 

Butj iadep^nJently of ttie DEitiirLd. viUany of 
CbeM inaiij and thc^r laMtigation txy ci'ime fVom 
poverty, tlioj tire led on in tlicir cai'i;tr by i\n\ 
cx;tiiiple <if tliejr miperiors. Trj my own diitlrkt a 
OUise rw^ntly oci^urred, whicL wiu* a matter of 
public t^onvf^rsntiou, n& Tut aa pe<}pl» daved to givo 
uttonince to the tide* It appoare that a rich 
Moscow merchant fell deud in the atrcct, and wad 
promptly ciinied to tho police station, where, on 
being searched, u lat^o eum, stiitcd to bo 80,00U 
roubles, waa found upon hini. Hie relationSj oa 
being apprised of hia dcuthj made every inquiry 
as to the money, wliieh they knew he bad with 
him, but in vain. At length a uuspidon became 
attnched to the major of the ei^ge, from hie having 
kunuhed out into a mure eoatly KLyle of Jiving; 
ajtd eventually h<] ^\iis deteeted tii pEiyhtg into 
thoinnV sttMie ijj'vernnioiithills which were known 
to Iiave bclouytd to t}ie deceased. lie vnw 
immediately dO(f|)ended aud placed under cloie 
artcft, in the fidl expectation of every one that a 
signd puiuahuiciit awaited bim; but, to the 



eurprise of all, h*i vrsm shortly wicatiited, and the 
whole ftflhir hiwlusd up, wliicb was Ooublkee 
effi'Cted by the pji.jTTicut of it hfui<leoine hrihe TO 
tIjOM) uniler whom he hold his office. 

A mtiu mu8t he more than n Ruj^ihioii to with- 
atanO the teioptnt.ionfi which arc put ui his wnj, 
and wliicli, uujur the prolecl.ion of his ofHcej he 
ha& BO juany wctys of turiiijig to uccounl ; aud 
bceidcis Lis natura,! iiigeuuity nud imc^Bse iie^er 
leave him at a lo^s i\*T ucw Bclicmes. 

Among other itgulittions of the police i» a very 
etnngciit one with respect to casualties arieiug 
from people being run over or trampled, on by 
Carrin^^ aud horses in the etreoti?^ There ia do 
reBtrietion aa to epccd^ and it is therefore Eur- 
prieiiig, eonEidcriutr the vaet cuuihar of carriages 
eircukling in tho streets, and the terrific pnce at 
which they are diiveo, thiit ao fuw accideola occur. 
The pennlty ciartcd by the police is n<i le&H than 
the entire forfeiture of the \ehicle und liorseB, the 
value of whioli ib supjiosed to go to the »kuffeivT ; 
but it iH tt mere hypothcHiB, tott tis tlic chicfa of 
the dJiiercut siegeii hjiv^c the u,uthL>nty to provide 
hofHe* for their firc-hdgnde*, they find an et 
zHM-ket for the forfeited cuttlu. The Euipcror haa 
been known to descend from hi? Cfirriogc and to 
abandon it to the palice ^Icr tt hjke been tho OILBSe 
of an tLccidcnt ; doubtlcaa in the full hchuf that lid 
vtas making & rcpai-ution to thu partj iujurod. 

The ^'igilancoof the police la oltogothor inefHcicnt 

K 4 



m ebeckjug the i^areer of the Ugit-fiugered gentry, 
vrho j\M 10 none in "Europe in sidroitncas and 
TuiRsw? ; liwi} who, If iIclLHiu^d by ihuir mtoudi^il 
victiwe* are gtiicrally nllnweil to osemx?, oiiitcvMunt 
of the anno^ituce^ and <IISicnItie6 exjieneiiced m 
bringttkg them lo justice. Siiiiiiiiarj puuiahment. 
In the phnpe of a. ^mart CFining> U tlieoue moat 
often rcsoi'tcd to; which ccpcraony, in&tcad of 
collecting a crowd, gencmlly clciirs the street, for 
the penalty of being conipeUcd to atloDd as a 
witno^e IB ijmost: as great as having to iippcur as n 
deliuquent. Becogn!zajiee0 ore uukuown; auid 
tliUB, to Bf^curc the presence of li witness^ he la not 
unuBiidly kept in confinement^ to be proriuced 
when nece^ary. 

The following devi*^« for jraii^Bing stolen piro* 
perty In l.!ie .-.irtu'lM wilhoot lofJng ihiif, uml to 
nvcid ihu riHk of its bekig found on the thief 
tf cnptiirodj ia noveh to any the \eaBt of It ; and it'^ 
diflcovery waa the renult of a mere accident : — A 
gentleman buying a cap, selected cue of aa ua- 
uaunJ almpc from the imttcr'a counter^ and after 
much haggling purchased it ; although it had been 
made to onler, and the party Ibr whom it Tvaa 
intended waa oxpcctcil to fetch Jt moDientarily> 
Toeccurc it^ the gontloaian put it on hiflhcad, and 
departed. In the eourse of his walk be found in 
hia pocket a gDuff-box which did not belong to 
him; mid which he knew was not there h, ohort 
time before ; he could ncit aocouut for it ; pre3enlly 



lis (bcv^ forth ft ftnmge liAmlkcrckief, eui^ 
«h.>rlly Afterward* he fonod hunself enriched with a 
poekei-book^ Su^piciciiiB of ili^c lulditioas lo 
his pTO|wriyjhecIci€rtninedtofitPolllei&nre!y nbont 
to wiitrh the result : nml &t lengthy from the quiin- 
tJty of tilings plHoeil ^My about hi« pt-rsoD, hq 
tieciirut! (Nji^vin(M.fI tliLtf. he wius couveitE^il into fta 
aiubulatory rL-ceiver of ;?ti*lL'j] goods, of ivhii^Ii iho 
C]i|i iviLf tht^ slgiL lie Dt fiucc made ihu dbcovery 
lo tht p.ihce, who were ool long in tiimiug the 
information to accotmt- 

I caonot re«Ut adding the following auecdotCi 
on a<w>iiFil of ihc extraordinary coolneas and 
knowledge of life displayed by the [triucipk* per* 
formor ; — A mihtary mm was making some 
]>iirchiis^ in n ehopr and while there n w*ll- 
ilre^^ed perBon walkod in, who, from hia manner, 
seemed to he a compauion of the cuBtomer; 
this seemed to b*? fnrlher confirtoixl by his tidiing 
from off" tlie counter tbe pocJtci-honk of the 
onSL'er, vrho^ head was avnrttid, B,Dd leaving 
tbe fthiip, f»fter making aii intelligent Rign to the 
tihopkecpcr lo enter into tJie appjtreut joke 
Tlic boi^k was 6000 mis^, and the &lKipninn 
iwinting round the doer, aidd> " Your friend took 
it: he is outside/^ It is almost needle?.? to ndd, 
thiit it vtaa ji well-executed theft, 1 niy^flf loafc 
a valuable silver snull-hos. which was taken out 
of toy poc^kct by a nurec with n child in her urme, 
who pa£SG<l mc whilu I waa etauding dunag a 



abower of nim \n the paeaa^ of a hou^e talking 
to & friend. Xo other peraon went by us; and 
we belli reiimrked tbut it, wan fidd ihiit she shotjlil 
go (lilt aitil ex|kOK(^ hcv cLiUI Ut (lit- weiitlier. 

Wln^i'e iKere ii? no excitcuient to virtue, there 
U no feeling of self refi|)ect ; but, on ihc contraoj, 
A total callouenetfl to the (li^ace of being sua- 
pected. There ia no scope for the exprceeJon of 
the finer feeliiig;^ suid thus a gcnernl apathy 
cf the raisd prcvaila; mJecd real moral worth 
cannot pxi^ under llio predominating ejfltcm of 
poculation and fratiJ^ which ohumctciiE^s the 
whole country, and enters even into the delmlfl 
€>f privute life. Charyre them and reprotujh them 
IM you will, BtiU reaentment tn*h no rocm in 
their breaats; and. they will Auhmit to huniilintion 
and degruJatiun witliout a ruunnur, or nn attempt 
at defence. Kindness and ^oil wonb are not 
tmly lopt upon ihem, but iws aiire ti> bo titken 
advimtJtge of by deception, and by pTiwrtitting rm 
^x ensuieBfl of your temper: fiternnea», ae verity, 
and promptneaa nrc imtural to them, and can 
alone comimmd rospcot and ensure good conduct. 

This 10 a £ad picture of the human race, but 
it 10 litonilly trnc ^ and it ehowe how cojnplutc 
ia tbo Bubjngattim of the mind under the withering 
influence of n despotic ]iower, deaeendiii^ etep 
byetop from thu Emperor to bislowe^l ^iibordinatCi 
and increasing in rigour at each stage of its 
progress. It appe:u^ incredible that the minda 



of meu deprecating thla Bjetem, and ixware ot' 
itfi deep liuuLiliiLtioDfi, shouliJ> oliunickuu-likoi 
take tticircoltfur tVom the tilings around tlLcm, und 
feci the ^tern uocos^ity of asbimUuting tlii^ 
conduct to tiiat of this everbearing juid severe 
disciplinarian tiiey av^ iiseociated with* A lew 
days aiiice I iianginGti that I bad euddetily lost 
my hLUiiikerohief ; and p-3rceiving a nmii close 
upon my heels, I immediaiely sstzci} iiim and 
taxed him vrkb tho th^fl: he denied it; »,ad, 
nUlirjugh Uj }lU appe;ir]tnci; n n^peclfLhle luuuj I 
dta^tiil liiin mio a dixjrwuy auid seai'i^hed lunrii 
I blushed At inj own Tioleiice> ttnd f'oJt huw 
impoBaible it would have been lo m^v dispoaition 
io have acted thne dBcwherc ; iur altliough I am 
Batjeficd that the mast entci't^Dcd no ide& of 
haring bccQ iuBuUcdi 1 felt it fur him* 


nresiAN nodiutt. 


Prk'iles'^i of Jlimi'mt noJulit'j. — Onhrs (mil th<-nrati(iTHi ; 
0/ Sr. ATnlrrui: Sf Atr-taiuier Nffxki: St. Aarta : SL 
Oc'ttgc; SL Vfadirnir-! St. Cuthermc. ^- Pro/tmoTi nf 

ifflfi>rurifjftjr. — I^iit titlu niitt poicvr. —Titics of Count 
MiMJi. — 77tf.' JfiiUKiiia Fjupira tj i-'ast Diiiiif/sfiin tf'jr. — 
S^ntf-m of enpiona!^' rHfablifAeri htf Covjit Ifuriekeadorf- — 

NoHlTilTY III Riwsin, II* flsewLer*!, u by ilew^nt 
iiud hy creation ; l>Lit ths foriueiv a& I liiive 
before atateJ, ia titular only, unless acoom^jainecJ 
by a. certjup. military rWt. Tte Bame etylc and 
title deeceniJfl to every anai and alttiougli the 
DLmibcr of princea and ooimtfi in a. FtimUy mny 
tbus be very jfroat, yet they ato moBlly mcto 
patroaymica. The reetriction as to finvilugoe 
is thuB rather advixalngcoiia, aiuoe it correcte to 
some extent llie preponderating icflaciKie of 
their cla«a by redacmg tlie DUtnljera of the feudal 

Thii jirivilei^iis vrliuJi thi^y [lOraCH* are ]}<iL?.iiliar, 
ami i^tearly defineil by ])tw» Tlipy cjiuiujI- be 
dejirlvediif tbmr honours, their ]jroperty, mtv ihuir 
llvt:^, but Ly a veidlct; ihey cau only be tried 
by their peers, and the sentence of dcttth recorded 



figainst tliem must be confirrm^d by llie seunta 
and sajjctToncd hy fhe Km^xror; ihey are not 
Htii^imble to ciH-pontl puiiiBliuitJiit, even whun 
eerrvinjr a8 common BoJditrsi tliey are exempt 
from (ill kind t>t BPrvicc^ unless ihey l>e seiiteiK'^d 
t»it for smne seriiniH ufitju^u; llivy aru al libt^rty 
to enter ioto the service of a fru'elgii power> 
provided that atate be 4t ptaci: with their own ; 
if tliej prefer serving in Hupsia tliey maj obtain 
their diechnrgc immediately on making the de- 
maud ; they can ilieposc of property ocquired by 
thumsolvott on the sole oonditioi of conforming 
to tb<? law of hereditury descent; the giKxis and 
poeacBsiond of a degraded aobla cnnnoc be eon^ 
fietatcd, but are restored to his fiunily ; they 
may egiAblish fnlirici^, rikantifiictoric^ tuwM-i and 
marWet^, oti their eatftie*; their dwellings are 
exempt from tho biUeU cf soMlei-s; ihey iimy 
brU all iheir proJouo wboleaale, and the Lreaaure 
and iiiinee whtc^li iheir laud;? miiy prodiirp brTorig 
to tliem without any Jnterfizience from the ,rtite. 
In the Baltic provinces, where the nobles have 
prcservcil some of their feudal rights, no person 
of an inferior clase can eiterciee an o\7Dcr3bip In 
the doih 

The daughter of a (loble nifirryinff a fomgncr 
loeea all right to her inlierilanee, which, if ehe 
bo the only child] pag^ee to the nosct belr. 

The enumeraiion c»f tlnj varioug orders and 
decoradona may bs: rather tedtouE, but there 



tat «onie ciirioua ttistonrfkl facts connectec] with 
thciQ> and they throw a great Hght »jn Bomc of 
the cuetoiriB and obscrranocB of the court, 

Itidcpenclfintly of the order of Mnlta, or of St. 
John of Jerusalem, which was ro-esTnbliabed in 
Ilu3&in when tho Emporor Pnu! ooastilutcd Iiim- 
aelf its grand master in 1 798, thoro stre five 
other orders cf chivftlry, ©dch of which haa its 
chapter; and the whole nre placed under the 
control and nmnngement of the gnuid chancellor 
of the ordera of thi? T?m|iire. 

Peter I-, after having pat down the inj^urreclioiia 
promotttd by the guiinla of the 4Str(ililzes in 1G98, 
foucidt4 tbe [in*t <nder wbic-b was known in 
HufiAUu II wiis thitt of St. Andrew the Martyr, 
whom the RiiMiciiis couwder to be their tutelary 

anU Count GoUovine, gr;md chancellor and 

Lud wlmiral, was the first Imight of the order. 
It haei only one dcj;jrcc ; but t!ifi ilmmond cvoea of 
tho ordor id considered a EpeeiAl diatincttou, and 
this oqimlly aiiplies to all the other orders : it is 
jMU"ticulurIy the distinction of the Imperial fnmilyj 
and the Etnperor pftaaes the rollar bclonfring to it 
round the neck of the empress wfter hitviug 
erawncd her, • Tliu biidge r(*prespnU tlie figure 
of the Siiint, wblcli langr) fmrn n blue erituuelled 
crosH Burnjountcd by u. c,r:»wn: the reverse rcpre- 
seiit« an eagle dlAphiy&d with nu InHi^rijitjun 

TLia ceramoDj ia pcrfoTuiqd bj tko Emporor LunKifn 



bearing tLe name of St. Andrew: wid on the 
eagle the^e irorde arc emblaswied, Za verion t ver- 
jwstt (pour ta foil ct Ja £ilc[jt(:). The cross is 
worn with ik blac nbbot), and the colbr conaieta 
of ibo St. Andrew croea auJ « crown placed 

Th^ GHtAbliflmiont of the order of St, Alexander 
Nefiki, HumiLmijd tlie fnilhful or believer {hjago- 
Kf?-nii\ goes back also to the fiine of Peter the 
Grtnt : but it wn^ the widow who, in fixct, fjundeil 
il ill 1T25, It lisift also only one d^-grui?. Tu 
emtjlem 13 a red Kuaniclled cross with goldeu 
engle^ and the f gure of thu Su.ldI on LoiitolNick 
in tLe ceoti'e, beuritig llic lu»cri|jlioD, S. A. (St, 
Alexander) et finndpibua patrliu, Thic Jcco- 
nitioD, which all the knights of St. Andrew arc 
entitled to wcftr, ie woru with a sc^'lct ribbun, 

Thii crdor o^ St, Auiio bcJonga especially to 
the hcuse of Holetoin Gottorp, the preeect reign- 
la^ family, aud wn£ fotinded in 1730 by the 
Biike Chm'lea Frederic, who v/aa naturfili^ed in 
KusaiiL when the unhappy Peter HI. ascended 
the throne of liis father Pcler Alexeiovilch- 
Tliere uiv four clasnot*, anil even a fifth, which is 
given to twidiera diBLinguif^4?d fur tlielr hraverj- 
TljO ribbon 16 red, with a yellow burner, eupjKirtin^ 
n red cDain&l1e<l cross, which is worn according to 
its runk, on the sword, at the button- hole, lonad 
the ncok, or on the bro&et. 

The order of St, Georg^j founded by the lim- 


ORDEItft At!n> D^OftATTONS. 

prcj^a Catlimue IL in I76!>, is the only pii«ly 
loiliUry order* It waa roatorcd by tl)e Emperor 

Alexander en Kis occci^eioD to tlic ihronci aad 
enjoys tlio highcal conaiclcroliF>n. It has four 
dasBoa^ ihii laal of which te conferi-ed without 
distinction on !i]l miliury men of the rank at 
officer who have been twenty years in ihe servJcOp 
an<l have borne an irrcprosichable chnracter ; but to 
obtnin tlio flUtinclion of lb<-* first clnss. it U n&- 
cessary to hnvo giLiiied h biittln, nnd to bavt? saved 
tlie empire ; ciniJ unlcats the Emperor hlme^lf fihall 
hiive peiionnf J theat uoadilions, liu U not en- 
titled to wear it. It la a cro^ of white eoAmelt 
bearing the eacutchccu of St- George, and bungs 
from aycllow^and h lack striped ribbon. Cofumon 
soldicrfl receive n BmoU silver cross attached to a 
ribbon ot* the same colour after twenty years' 

Tho order of St> Ylft^mir is both civil and 
miHtiiT)', and la divided into four cla^ece. It iB 
considci'cd on honourable distinction, and conKsts 
cf a deep red oDnmcUed cross fa^ened to sl eci^rlet 
ribbim hnrr^crcd witli black, Tt waf^ founded by 
Cn-tlu^riue II. iji I7fi2, mid was reatui'od by the 
EiJiperor Alcxaiider in 1801. 

All these orders, to which peufiions were foi"- 
mcrly attached, possess tlicir «tiLtutes, jliilI confer 
the rank of nobility on their wearer; excepdug in 
the infonor clitfwce, which, with some dccoTntiona 
<jf a tcmpomry nature, arc conferred on the coin mon 



«^diora. Among tKc ln*t, niny be redeemed the 
doooraticn given hj virtue cjf the L'kosse of 
An^ist 22, IH'2B, to ptiblic Funotionwiea for irrc- 
proaohabJe conduct; the modal fi>r th<] oimpnign 
of }H]2i thnt for the full of Parie, in 1814; 
and intLuy othor marks of distinolion aocorUod to 
individuals, under varioiia titles and in rJiflcrcnt 
forms. It requires some miLiiagement to di&plnj' 
the number cf little cToesoA and medals which 
Jidom the bj-easts of the common eoVliery ; for six 
is no nncoirjmun nuniLer, and ciglit and ten ooca" 
ei(ma]ly cxxiur. A inccc of iln or copper of pro 
poitionato length, aceorJing to cirouinfttft,Q(;es, 
iH attached to tlic left hreaat, with the different 
dletinctiona b^ngiiig &om it ia a row, and tritb 
the colour of lite ribbon peculiar to each painted 
upon it. A large gold medal of tho Kmperor. 
worn round the ncck, ia not at MJ unuaiiaJ among 
the mercantile clnsflCP, who rcooivc it aa it reward 
for some invontioi:! or Bpintcd undcrtnkmg* 
Clerks and fiinctionarie^ in ptjblie oi^ece, as well 
ufi military uxaa, are entitled to a land of buckle, 
boaring on it a number denoting how many years 
they have served beyond ten, nad increasing 
ijui □f|UennAally . 

Tliere h, besides, the onler of St Catherine, 
peculiar fo ladtei^ which was founded by Peter to 
eonimemorAte the stsrvicea of the Empresti lu hw 
wax against the Turkic. It h^ Lnu clst^eg; the 
decoration represents tlie figure of the stunt, and a 



nest ofeiiglefs on Ji. liiU, s»t tlie ftmt a? wliiirli am 
two eAglcB h^ildiiig serpunlH iu iLeii' In.'ZLkFi, and It 
U worn with a, acnrlet rthhoo hordcrc<l wilt wtjtc. 
It- Wars as a motto " jT^([uat; uauaera coinpanB." 
Tlio Empresfl ia Graod Mialress oftlic order, and 
confers it on the moat distinguished ladii^A o£ her 
court; Bomo ofwhom, who receive in addition the 
disltnctivG honour of Her Majesty's minicituro in 
cnnmd, to be worn on tho shoulder, arc OLtlod tho 
Ludioe of th& Portrait. In iho mnntli of Jnnuary, 
1?2I?, Iho Emperor fouudedimc-thor order, iu hon- 
our of tho Virgin Msiry, for the purpose of ro- 
compenftmg the irT'L-proaohahlo servieos of women, 
and particuhxrly tlioec connected, with achoola and 
public f*st!Lhlishmprts. Tho first clm^sis lipstowed 
on iho^ vThofihull have served witlunH rcproae-h 
for at luiJsL twenly-five j-earfl, wlierfias fifl-ecn are 
sufficient to constkutc tt claim for the Accoiid- 
The dccomtion consists of a hinc enamelled croes, 
omituiciitcd \nth a garland, ^nd be.irlug the 
ioitiald of the late Empre^ ilaric Ftcdoroviiap 

The cloflfl of tho Chinovnika 1 loavo for tho mry- 
mcnl, as Ihciv peouliaritiee will be mnro in ploco 
when fjjocJcmg of Ihu rognlatioii* connected with 

The alxave do tait showfi ihal induoemente 
enough nve held ont to virtue tind goud eonduct; 
and, H8 it is more ^ngnlnr to £nd u man und^ 
corjiled than covered with disti Tuitions, if wouhl 
appear that it \s more difficult to h.y thi^ Jinjjer on 
ail uniui^rltorious individual^ tlinn to load the de^ 




aerving with dLilinctbos. It is a cheap wnj oF 
compensating for uiiaoi'ably [mti aorvice : \}ride in 
the rewnrO woiiM loac its value witli otlier pcoplci 
from ftio pi-ofueion wilU which it ib bcetowod, but 
horo, wticro ncnrly nil aro di^corat^d, the abecnce 
of tho ciublonifi eocnis to imply ilia^rooc and neg- 
lect, ftnd diey are thus prized ncoc^rdiiigly. The 
Emptron who isuproficroiitiii hiatirt, knows havr 
to eicJle public tnthuBin^ni, and lo etimukle the 
ilevotion c>f ih^ soldiery i nnd tlnu aelzes o(*(!swiona 
to mnl^^ piitilic. {If^iiMirkBtnLfiiirr^ vC Iji^ Htvour, X 
raw hhti onin-j rifler ii rcvjtw of hi;? guards^ »i>imt 
00,000 fltnwig, order Llit" wluili: of Ihc ct)i"ju>ruls of 
the forre to form ii hollow tm the parii.ilc 
ground; HJid, liaving cntci'ed It aud haruiiguud 
thctn on their dutiea and the d-iBciplinc of the 
men. he cliatributed Wgcly luiiOTig; tbcin^ with hi» 
own hand, a vnricty of er4>s6C9 ftnd mcdihUi Thci^ 
WCTO at lead two thouaond of thGac men, and thei^ 
YifiB not one that did not leave tlio proecnee ele- 
vated in his own efetiniatioHj and more ^eoloUB in 
hi£ devotion lo the Emperor. 

Where th*^ gcivt-minedt is vested in one iodm- 
d[ml> wiio nsH^l^^es the ivhnlc reaponsibiltty, with* 
out allowing nny portion of his funi?tiorw^ or any inti.'rfri-enc^ in state affairs, Lo ]»e extiTiiaedj 
by biQ mmidtere, tlicAi- jmTjlic exblbLliun.*, uni^ this 
identification of hluiAGlT with ihcpopola.!- fe&]i7igK, 
heconie an ftbaohitc nre^wity in order to prove 
the reality of Lis power. Thu representative and 

L i 



delegated authority of a constitutional monarclky, 
pft'iiiit^ ilie sovei'eign to enjoy *oine case and re* 
lireinent; but nclivhy, [!en(aiiFi1 sii|)?rmteiid€iicei 
and piililio (1]tijj1a,y, o;in rilorie niitintaln order iwt\ 
di«:it>liiiLi in a tkj'jKitir state : they stre the peniilties 
wliich the nder must pay for the fiecurity of hii* 
(LUtlioritj-. The expreeaion of Napoleon^ "Mol, 
je suie I'etat," explains in a word, not truly what 
the sovereign afl@uinc9> but vrhat tljc people are to 
follow. Wo iiavc hardly u word in our language 
which givCB tho meaning of tlio title the Emperor 
adoptr^i Jxnd [n'l^Bxcti to all his public acts. Samo- 
dcrgUOf or Sf-lbsih^mf^heT the Gc-rman tcnn, iB 
toloiubly coot prt^hensi Via of the exprcedon I have 
juat quoted of Nnpoleon; and impbee, indeed, 
somewhat more ; for the strict IransIaiJoD ig " Self- 
governor" — appomted by myself and of myself. 
We ^aTO only lo rdnsider that tbis nuthority ex- 
t<!ud» over a Lliinl of EunDpc and sixty inilbonH of 
inbabilantti, tn fwl the enon^ouft power wielded by 
one niaU) and to woiLder at iht^ subjugation as^rt^xl 
by his title and ackcowledged by hie aul:jeota. 
This title coHipriaes every oibcr, and rcquii-ea do 
additiotie to aggrainlizo the man; but not bo witli 
the toiportanl' personagcA bci^eath him. Count 
Esscti signa UiniBeit'thua: "GonemJ of Infantry of 
Ilia Imperial Mnjeety my Most Gracious Mae- 
tcr. Councillor of State, Military General Governor 
and Civil Director of St. Petereburg, Kuight of tlus 
High Orderscf St. Andrew, St. Alexander Kef»Jii 
with brilliant*. Grand Croea of the First Cliss of 


Si. Vlinllinir, of th« Wliite Eh^'Ip, of llie TLirJ 
Cliisg cif St» George, of tLe First of Si. Anne, nho 
Orand CniM i>f t,}ie Ilo^fil riusBiJiii Order of the 
Bcti Edgle, unci PoosQaaor of a OolUea diitnwnd- 
mouiitcd SwonI, the reward of bniTcry. nnd of 
the Medal fur Uie y&u- 1612. COLNT EsSEW." 

Ifkm rcQiLDdcd of an cxpi-cedion I onoc heard in 
France* '*Lee deoorationa nc ioot jins I'bommo, 
c'cft tliomiTio qui fait loe dccozrUionfl.^ But oSiQT 
allowing £onitithtDg for national imd vxcu^ble 
vJinity, l\ioJ'ii/tfar"iirf.fnh ttf Count Eaeen ia only 
c*jUiiUGd hy ihe Eaattm boml>aat of ''Brotlier to 
die Sun/' " Uncle to ibe Moon," &c. In Ms 
cnpttcity nf gox'emor of Sr Petersburg the Count 

by tbo6e of Coimt Deiick€ndorf> the head cif the 
secret jjulirp, over whidi ilcpariuietit be preaiiles 
wilh tbe uddrcsti and Aubtlt^Ly of a FuucIil', lin.t-Liig 
under hie oominand b. strong raounicd fcircc of 
gendiunncrioi bcfijdca on iniiiuljr of mikncwn 

Tbi: EuaftiAn vraila Imvc moro thim c^ira; the 
vholc country 10, in foctf a Dionysinn &r; so 
perfect id tltv eyritoni of o^ionago cstablidiod by 
Couni Bt-ncbcndorf. Thia power is n* much 
dreadol] cu tbv borrorB of the It]r;[uU]tton» to 
winch, in Bone respectej it muy safely be com- 
|MLfcd. By hvt Tulei, £U4pioiou is no n«irly txUied 
to actiHil guilt, ihat innocence cn.n barrlly cscflpe 
die ^lunuttWJt uf irrbne. Society i« miacd ; ngd 

150 noLLO' 

an uiiguurOed raunrk may ciliisq the cxj^oaion, 
which wUl sc^lI iIk futc of tLc uncctUBclou? delin- 
quent, OTuI consign him at ctDCc to an unknown 
dooiD ; or, if a foi^cignor, f jcpol liku from tho 
couatry at tw^nt.y-tbur houre' notice. The r«- 
marltd I ]mv& umdv ill thld letter wouU hriikg me 
within the kttcr category. 

NcttvrJlliet^ULdSii*^ his absolutenesa, the Kmp^ror 
does not put ibitli ofteji the whole of lus power; 
for if he. []]i]j it might nr>t lii^ permittatl lo endlire 
long, &fi tlio c.tiinijiles of aouit; »>r liia predecessor* 
prove, to uudtir&iimi] well the dilRciillies of Uit 
pcculi^kT polilii^iLl pDtilioD i>r Lliih countrj, you 
muflt remenibi'j l.hut the vengemicc of iLe people 
wculd be the more terrible tVom their ignorance, 
and from tho kngtJi of their endurance. A 
government which bluslice ot notUiiig* because it 
plumes itodf on the ignorance with which it 
fchronda its tin-cgution of jwwer, U okore drerulcd 
thau pormaneiit: misery in the notion; brutiah- 
neaa in the iirmy ; terror of each Cklher araoug 
those moEt to bt^ dreodod ; wrvility in the church ; 
hypocrisy among ihe nobles ; TgDorjinoe and 
sq^uulidlty tunung the people — rnich is tlie sLn.te of 
tlie couiLli-y, which the lEiAcrutalde dei^ree of 
Pmvidcncc ]\'j» creaUd; and it la with ihia 
heterogeiieoue niaaa of corrupLiou and batfeneefl 
that the Em^ieror attempts to throw ]A& weight 
into the bal^ince of Europe, and to eAtfihliE^h hh 
dominiou m the TVc&t. The vastiicaa of hia 


power Lupobea it^ own liimtf4» And cvcq placet 
hiiu at the mercy of bis ogente and Ucuti^niiQU: 
dUtauou, anil thu ignoraticc of facta resulting 
froEii it, customs, and the scLf-intcrcet of hia 
eubordiiiutcti, niitke him dcp<iu{lcul oa reports, 
liiid thu good I'ruth in nhioh they hfq broiigtiL to 
hinij for maoh of the inforui&tioii ho receivQB. 
Combined Europe, at a. brcftth, might compel 
KuB^iH] fi-om Ler geographical |JOb!itiuii, tu fdl in 
the acnie of jmikma, and to coafciis tbnt her power 
It* one more of sitffcranw? tliiiH pyality. The oul- 
wUii>] appcamncc of hs j^riindeiir la hutnu iUuaitiu, 
foundei] on uii ittLempt to nppear ci\itl»ed wltlaout 
being *u; it is likf the figure in tlic ilrciTii of 
Nebuchailiitziur, with ita feet of cky. If tlio 
eovcreignfi of Buaelu aougbt I'^aDy to civihae tho 
empire by its own cDergiee- — by cidtiYiiting the 
fldmirabb gcniid which niitLirc hua placed ia the 
hearts of the pcoplo — tboy would dazzle Europo 
B, but they would acquire m hietiag tind more 
■toteneiva glory, and w3 Bhould aas them cxcrciding 
a legitimate influonoe and powtr ojuong other 
nalious. Turkey itself might then Buccumb to 
this influence^ without <?ivadug among other 
StAtea any j«Aloiisy or alfirm at thi^ incT^Goae of 
jfcower. But since tbo country has flw<?r\ud fi"om 
ibe well-dufi[ied track iu tlm liigh mud of' rivil- 
iaatton, no tffijrtj* can place it In the right tourae, 
and the iaeue will bi; a apect-dole &r future gent^i^ 

u 4 



Absence of Bvfitity ivi St. Pe/frfbitrg, — Ha priputc Warf- 
hinuttfi. — Reuiofeneuf'/ Otrtftrmncfti Dep^Iic.—Obs£riif-tfOM/^ 
Ai Trade. — Tft/i " C^Aio'iPuJiM." or PUt<wiiiffn. — Thiftr 
Yemlity. — Tfa *' A/ielchihii" or MracHffen. — 7*hcir 
Fidi'lit^.-^ Jfwfxiait Johtl Stt>fk Baith jrniptised.^^ Krtln of 
J^foHOp'fiff^ — Suicide qf it CriliH Patit-iigcr. — Terror of the 
Ofipfow nf tJic pHifKian Ajrtfinnf'fiii — fiimit^f^hag e:rlt^imr^idy 
carried tn. — H*inik Di^ftfifcjf of St. Pclnrabvr^.- — Uttmiia 
ail iJiffriof JVara/ Ptwer. — Aauuf Cadeit id St Petenbwg. 
— liitJtitinn Stutni/iwthip. — CftaraeteriAftCft </ flwffi'tm Oo- 
vt^kmcid. — SvpmmK Poieer '//thr. Empenn-- 

1h a large and oijulent city, wlioat: foreign trade 
is of the firet mngnitiide, we lr>»lc naturally fur 
warcbou8ca nnd Dingaziacs, itnd fiomc real CTidcQCC 
of the bustle anil activity of commerce: hut in 
St, Potcreburg wo look in vfltn : it ia QesontiMJly 
a court town, and, as even its laerclitLnts iire not 
allowed to holl tlieii' becoming' rank in eooi^yj 
the depots of trade are removed as far from tho 
public eje, and the resorCa of fiwhionable life, aa 
j>0£s1ble- There no privnto warehouses of 
any drsmprion, bnt act'ommiKliii^jn is fiinitshed 
at tlie gnvemmeni depots ^ nnd, tilher to cany 
niil the ndtnir [fasaion ftir iimrormlty, i*r to [pre- 
vent all ajj]j«arancQ f)f trada io the ijuftya ailid 



streets, ihcee buUclings, each of wKicli is re- 
stricted ti> tho reception of one article onlj, Arc 
plDC«i At tho fiirt}ieut voctrcmitie^ of the cit^, 
QfLCh removed from the other alraost by iU whole 
length or broorlfh, Thui:^ the linrteed wnj'chcmec 
10 At least livo rnilee dtatunt from the tiJlow 
whnrf^ whioh in Agiiin two or three uulea nwny 
fram (he liemp whrxrC; the oil dop6t ifl at diiotlier 
q^oi, lentlicr anti herrings &t otherij und the 
Cufltrrni'lioiiHe fttr AWiiy fruiiL any of tlietiL Tlie 
EicliiLQj^*?, which is, in dTe*itj -a noWe IjiMliling, i& 
^[unWy ineoiiv^iiii!iitJy faiuuitej : In ikcl, fttciliiititi 
for tmde are not to be looked for, hut rather 
obetntclitiiiA of all kirids. These ccjmmt'nco with 
the arrivftl oi' the ve*«ela oifCi'oujtrtdl. which are 
compelled iio anchor i>ff'thc gimrd ship to undergo 
certain formiilit! ; boqio hcura of Uctciitioii ihiis 
OD necessarily ocrMir, {luring; whieh trme one of 
Iho sudden equolle coEumon in the gulf not un- 
frequctitly comce on, and llio vcadole aro cither 
injurod, or coet on one of the dan^rous molea 
which ?iii-round the roadsteiLd. R^gtrictions «uoh 
Uthette would be tokrflted In no other country; 
and it iH sufprising that remonatraueee have not 
been inade by the different govfrumcnl^, whoio 
ftuhjocis have to Hiibiuit lo theui under Mtcli 
iiiimtrietit rliik of life nnd property, althougli, 
perliut^^t it is hopi?lf?as lo ujcpeiit Hiiiiplir-itj" or 
promptitude suuld^t the liost uf public fiiuotiun- 
orJee who are em|:layed, cr to curtail the groat 


1BE. CHl^OVntK^ 

euperfliiity of public forms, writings, and iiaoleee 
rf^pciitious, wliich encumber the slight<^t triniia- 
aclion. Busuieea is, in fnct, niivdu ftjr ttcm, and 
not th<^ for ttc bu&incas. The whole system 
ciLU i>i;lj be ct>i]|pQr(?d tu jlet AitgniAn stable, 
whitih R^ists alike the ckunsing atrtsim cf public 
oplmciii, niid (bt interfftrencts of ibe Eiiippror- A 
clumge liiiiet takt? plaice cjver the wbolL? surtVice of 
fiocietjj before njiy limovatioii cuii be uttemptt^Ll i 
becau»ei to a considcrabk eAtcnt, tht^ evil dcrivcB 
its s*'urcc and at.rengtb irom aoticty it^cjf. 

Scrfa, and others of the lowcel dose, arc uever 
employed even in the most aubordinate offices, 
wbioh arc flUoJ, for ihti most part, by rctirod 
eoldicrSf wbiJo the highest appointtnent^ in the 
vanouB pnblic oiBccs are ia the bmdB of men in 
the first rank ; but the intcmtediiife t^Adce, And 
tbeii" name is legion, ore confciivd on &u ano- 
mnlmis HaAs, culled the Chinovniki. These men 
an? frt'G by hiith, and would form, in other coun- 
tries, H daMFi i.if geudeuLE-n; but jib ibikt dLHlbiclioa 
Tft not revo^TiiHed in Russia, they ure, ns their 
name implies, (ittadif^d to tbe nobiltty, Jicnoug 
wboiu they hold the lowest rank. To find eiu|]loy- 
ment for thle race tike piibllc ofFicee are tbmuged ; 
an<l, fta they have no property and are misenbly 
paid, they contrive ta rcaliao a sutHcicnt income 
bycxaoiing brlboss or extorting morcy for services 
rondurcd though tlicir interest whh tboir supcriorfl, 
fgr whom they, jackal-liko, hunt down the game, 


tiHfl sliuro t.lie spoil. Tt am lyinly be ojiicei vcd 
that tliey are not (ivct orrujmUms, atwl tlint they 
coutnvR* for i\n: jjiirjiLiae of levying fi 
fine Ibr tlieir reiuaval. 

Tliere li» anotlicr body of iTiiifividuftle connected 
with tritUe, Cfille<3 " ArtdcBlks,^' th« singularity 
of whofle avocation and employment dcscrvca a 
few words. A nutoLcr of serfs unite thonist^lvoB 
into a club or com|JunyT tornicd an Artel, nnd 
liire tlK^m^clvcg to merchants as meegenget^ and 
confidential eoanting hou^e eervante, the Artal 
holding itself rer^ponsible for tl»e character of yaoh 
individual, and for any loee which may be sua- 
tained through bini, and forming thus, aa it were^ 
a kiTuI of Mutual TToiier^ly Comimuy. Ad th^j'e 
ftre no bankft through wliich jtayiiicnls can be 
mad^ anil bills himonred, every mi^rchnnt is com- 
pelled (o be hia vna banker; ilII uiout;y iTanti- 
actions, therefore — which are efleoted by various 
dcuomiQations of iiotL:i?» and by hard c^iahi piinci- 
pally of .^iJvci" — arc onerous, loth as rogui'ds iho 
trust to Ui rcpoftcd in the bearer, and the weight of 
the coin to be transferred. This biiaioeaa devolvca 
entirely on the Artelchik, who counts the coin 
into bogi; and arrangi?3 the notes into jimi'Oclfl 
acoording to their value, marking the envL'lo|>eB 
with his initiala in proof of their oorroctne»3. 
Thift account la received by the mcpchant without 
any further cheek or cxaminfitiftn, juid the sums 
ait: repaiil awuy h: the same stale wllUont feur or 



hftsitetioQ. Theie muii are poor, find Lheir poy 
ifl alight, conaideriDg the r»ature of their cm]iloy- 
mont and tlie temptations to wliicli thej are cx- 
poaetJs tuid yet t\ defalofttion, oro bctmyulof triiHt» 
is raroly known. 

Tha cigtabiiohmoDt rtF a Joint Stock Banlc, under 
tho preTaiLiog eyAtom *>£ IcgAliBerl monojkoly, could 
not fail of bein^ most beneficial U* the Bhare* 
boH^re, AA 80UII u.e its merits urd nttondtiut con- 
veTitences t'ame to be imdcrstood. Tlie priyudit^t^a 
wMcli it would have ttk otuMLnt«r Wi."«1d lie tuiou 
ftunnouated, nnd thp chief, if not oidy difficiiliy, 
wifuld be in the opjKwition of Uig liirge moixauilile 
hi.Hiaej*, whoac pcr-contagt-s cm m^giilifLilug billB, 
and iu nmlcing I'emlititutiea to other couutnea, 
would be neceeearily abridged. Tlie formation 
of Euch a company could not be eficcted without 
apecial pemiiesioa ; but ita mouo^talifiing <jliiir»cter, 
while it prot^tcd ilselfi would have no injurioua 
operation on the public, which cannot bo said of 
other bwlio8 foujiiiod on tbo ^mo bade. 

There IB not a public; company in llio empire 
wlilcb is not eettljliehed in the- moBt ftrbitrary 
spirit, of monopoly, and whicli cun in no way bo 
interfv^red with, iis Ioq^ a£ tho period allotted to 
its patent right esinta. In some imsesf portioiilnrly 
06 vegnrds tmvelliii^, the evil in iditiuHt iiiiheitr- 
iible. The Bulfie Sea,, foi' ItiBlsiuep, the highwjiy 
froiu Gfinniiny fji the Nortli, ia a i"ios« iiifiiiopoly 
a.1 ccnccrn* llic transit of poiscngCTi* by :»tcam ; a 

TEftBon or BTTsaiAir laws. 


Dutch company hnviug secured that privilege ioT 
ft strhos of \ejire. The cctisuqLicnec iii tiint, with 
one excoptioD, the vot^aele aro bad, find tio clmrgo^ 
immixlcrately Hjgli; nndf with true Dutch ccononiy, 
to ea\o the C'ojjf nin from a lots in pro^idiii;; & tahle, 
the saeaU a.rc charged for^ whether pnrtuken of or 
wot. An indirect opjjoshiou Laa Bprong up by 
ve*i>*Gle jJying fmra T-j^nd<*ii and Havr** ; but atil], 
OH people profpr tljc aliorlcr sen va^a^ti^ thu evil 
reuioina unaltered. 

Tlie*i5 jieoijle, holding ilirnr privili^e frota the 
Kustian Oo\eninLCiit, lUid navigating bt^r A^a* ara 
amenable to her Ihwb. A singuUr proof of tLe 
Inrror of tlieni oceuricd in connexion wiih n 
iJielaDcholy event wliiich tock place on one of my 
piid3ngeew I hod noticed for & ample of daja 
something etmngc in the ftppeariincc of one of our 
pu^^engers, who was i^lightJy afflitkxi with pnm^ 
ly^Uj and who astld llut ha wns going with hia 
mother nnJ young 3<>n to try the effect of the 
Gtrmati bnths. To aceomnjodatc his iofiruuty his 
bc<l wu armng^d for hini at night on one of the 
eo&a of the ^tntc cnhin, a,nd thither I saw him 
rrimir ]ait^ un ihit tliird ntglit. T was tht; ouly pe^ 
ton upi and continued reading till about tvro a.m., 
:vnd hjid hardly laacrted myself into my hcrtli 
before 1 heani a moit piercing scream. In an 
Instant the thcnight utruek me thn-t the al^icted 
DDAu hod destroyed hiniBclf, and I rushed upon 
deck: the aurmioe woe too true; he hud thrown 



hauds aiuk beneiLlli the wJiite line of tliQ wuko of 
the aliip. The steiun wns iratnoiliatply slojijiod, 
iinJ thtj HtGrii lnjut UiwurcJ with llif iitrjiost 
promjJineis: but it. vra^ twt Inte; be njse iii> Jiiorc- 
Theelffi'^t of ftl*ip|>big tbe «hjp WI, na Ilapiipared, 
disturbed lii» motlter^ wlic» [t[li.'d ^\it[j tome ]>re- 
aentinjent of" evil, aime upon deck. exclmmiJig for 
her eon before she knew of hi? loe& Tbe painful 
duty of mfiking her uo([Liiuiiti^d with it dr:volvcd 
<*n 1110 ; and, ne thcro wiifc fortunntoly another lady 
pa&ecnfjor on bfiJird, I took the bcrcnrcd mother 
below, nnd left hor m hor iihoi-go. 

I h<:lievc llml people always become selfiali Jif sen.j 
and that which would dietreEd tbeui on ahcir^e, u.ud 
dwell on the recollection, haa only a momentary 
effeet nfloat, nnd ia forgotton, I nsneui^Jer ihni 
when T rolated tlie circiimstflnre n.t breakfast, 
every one iippeared shoc-ked for the motiient ; but 
in Imlf an hour tin* ciies^ and eiml hibhw wprt: in 
full itpei'atiou, wa If the eveut hiid been ft d]'eu,m. 
The captain woe m the grcatQst dtstreea, beings ae 
he said he vjoa, nccountalde to the Itue&iiwi Uovem- 
mont for bet' subjt^cto, antl bow eould he pci'aiiadc 
the authorities that he was not to bkme. In hia 
terror he wae a ]>erfoet polyglut, niising ijp ovory 
huiguage he was acquainted with (and tlicy wero 
not ft fQw\ in hie attempts to exonerate bbn^elf 
from bUme, wliere there was really none to be 
attached to him. He w^ied vi^ry mueh to draw 



up a aj^mopml of llie onse, ani] to gel all Iho 
psw*engcr**ti)sigTiit; but t.liat wjib too nbaurd, for 
they were nJl usWji : bo I took down for him ihe 
cviilcna.^ of every person wlm wft.'? present, nnil, 
imiklDg eacb one sign it^ g:tve It ti) h\t)i. On A 
aubBi!<jutnt voyage with the suiaioniaji he lold me 
that it Wd been Kvtjfrfactorily recelveil onii that 
lie had hnd no trouble in the buslneee. 

Smtigrglliig by oonaent, and even tbc free en-- 
titmco of goods, ia practicable, provided the fee 
bo sufficient to parcbnee the jKinuiSBiou ; but 
EU! this is still heavy, ingenuity and cunniao; arc 
ftt work to biiffl* the most vigilnni pa^cautiona. 
But the Cufttiim-houfle aulhoritius ui'e not ndcpl* 
enough jit iheir biie'meaa: their ^yatem is too 
clumsy nnd bnlky Tobe worked with tlio neocaBflry 
promptnOTB nnd energy, aa tin.' following circuoi- 
atjinci! illuslrutc*. A trnder^ kwlng paid the 
duty no «, certain number of caakB of ixiJFee, ro- 
(jaeftted ijerniissiou of the Cufitoui'houac jiulho- 
ritica to re-*Lip them to Cronsladt, uudoi- the pre- 
tence tliat he eould not eell it to odvaiitnge in the 
city, but believed he could find a ready market 
for it ;Lmong the shipping at Cronstadt, Aa there 
appoftrod to bo no roMonablc ohjoction to this 
uppliealion, oonaiitit vva^ given j and avraj went n. 
lot of ciukft, well filled with gravel. Weekd pussed 
siwuyj and agnin tho dealer presentei himself to 
tht* heads of iho Ciistonis, begging for a permit 
1.0 liavf hiM roffiT haok, hs the saasmi was elosiii" 
and he had made no snlea^ The retitiired sanction 



wa* obtained, and ngniii tlie eatks were brought 
back; but now they contnined tlie renl article, 
which UbJ been smuggled into tlic^n At Cron- 
aXadt. Such :ind numeroua oilier liiijlanr^eii occur 
of exteoHive smiiggliug being cArrled on under 
tlie very eyoa of the dtipvd authoritlaa, A Imud- 
£ome fee wlll» however, cau^ tbeo) to wink at 
these rraud:3, iwdevcn to facUitatc Uicm. 

St. Petersburg la dtfcndcd naturally by the 
bar at the cmbocichurc <«f the river, which, 1 bo- 
licvc, en ordinary ooca^iona, doee not carry moro 
than eight foot water^ thoa precluding any but 
ecaall craft from paeaing; and it ia funher pro- 
tOCtod by the fortifieations at Crynatadtj which 
are brisiUiig with cannon : yet, in orfler to conceal 
iis real weakness, and to <:nmpi?l vi-sfltl.-s to kei-p in 
a given channet, reports are iDdiiatrioTisly cir- 
culfiti^d of the exietence of fllioaU aud roc-ka at the 
buck uf tbc itikudftf Croni^ladi, tvlucL !b perfectly 
iui]>rotu<:ted; for, to forbid iko navigation, would 
be tatitauiount to an acknowledgment of ita prac- 
ticability and their own dcfcucdcasacsQ. The 
numb^L' of Ihc ^'una renders tbc place formidable 
to appcftroiicc; but^ aa thvj are mounted on rani' 
pBrt3 without any brca&twork or protection, ih^ 
fact mnet be ctherwiae, I reaiember on my first 
voyage flleepin^' on board fihip ai ihc' anchorage, 
eurrounded by the fortified niolc^j and being much 
Hiruck witb the "AIT* w*U" of the ficutries, 
who are cofnpcUoti to show their watclifulneea by 



iitteritig at e^uij few ininutt* a Itfud bliDutt 
prolonged tiU its power ceaaes witli the bi'eftth- 

Tliere ure iiinay leasona rtliich will prevent 
Kusaia from becotulng n firat-rate navnl power ta 
long (IS ihc ]& rcsUiotcd to hor preacnt bcundurice. 
Whctlicr from the effcctfi of the climate, or from 
60tne peeulmritf in tlic wntars of the Gulf and tho 
BilUlc> her Bhlpa Iil^ but a fov yc^dhrc; tJit^u, for 
more thaD ox months in the yea,r they ore dis- 
roantlcd, hwirded over, and laid up in ordinary in 
the docfcd, and every yoTir fresh anil^-ra are to ba 
formed^ Thi? mnnning of tlie ehijis ttnd the re- 
Cntiting cf the army are on the same footing; 
imU the govenimc?nt, which thinks and hcXa for 
the ptiopk'j eonipuU thum Ut HC'CL^miuodjilL' tbeiU' 
selves lo iU wjuiU, without regard to theJr iaste^ 
or t[iialiBi:utii^iiA : it ^tnly t^urt^fi ihr tho nutUiiid 
whicli iiiiic ajid diflclpUjke are to model. Thus 
rien are drcifl^d into tLc n^vy without the slightest 
.'preTiuue acqiLEUDtaoce witli tlicir duties; H.nil the 
OomplcnHait of tho ships, though perfect in lis 
numbers, ia sadly deficient in seLuueru Tho con- 
eequenco ia, that iLey are most Jubbcrly hflndlcd, 
And worau montBurred. I do n<)t venture this 
tcuiark oa my own autliontji but on that of a 
puelH'aptain in our own navy, who paid aome 
attention to these iniitten on the a^HiU There 
IB a strong naval cadet corps at Sl Petergbm'g 
for the education of youug lada to officer the £eet, 
uid vrlioluiveas^gued to them three email Jrigatefl 


in which they nve siid to go to sea during 
tln' MirnitKir inniitliji; liiil. lliiilr vo>a^ sirUUmi 
exlmJy beyoml Pi^terh^tf, a tlihUiire <ff twenty 
milcaT whero ihcy lie ni juic^hor oflT, the piilftce. 
WitU lUo besl and atrougcat iuienlioM, and 
energies worthy u better i-esiilt> tlicre U so tnuch 
pettlncfis, and sacrifice of real benefit to the krvo 
of dispUy and appeanuicc, thiit tho ovU ovor- 
bnlancoB tho gooii, imd no roal iwlvancoment is 
made. Itu^sinn seunmnehLp b lilcc the movement 
of a rooking-horfl",^ — motion wilhonl prii^'pw. 
The notions that thcso boy* nrqiiirt of tcamiin^liip, 
by getting snil on a mast croi;t^I in one cf tlio 
Imlla of iht-ir college, would h*> of little asaistanco 
when attempted to betpui inuiai'.tion allcmt. We 
mount Willi i^4>nfidflnc(* a Indder piiiteotfid at ita 
flklea by siirroiinrlmg walls; but wp nhnuhl be 
unequal to the li^k of ascending one phit^XHl on ix* 
th« roof i>f' n Uoiise. The bc*st t>fliu^rr& ni the 
Itui^i;].!! Hut;!, nr^: KnglUluiion, mid Huiseiana who 
served aa midahit»iuou iu our own ahipflj but tho 
former are now uisiirly catlncL 

The effect prwluced on the mind in Kufleia* 
without »dludin^ to ile rcstrictionB iind ix»li*^y, ift 
like being in the presence oi a giani, whoso 
nientnl |iowcra art nniinmd lo bifl physical atrcngtli; 
vrhich he puts forth ue n proof of bis BmewB, 
without appljfjng it to a ay real use: ibe sliow- 
man direci*, and the majohine obeye- A line of 



Horace 8tnte» mc aa Ijoiiig pocullarlj to tbe 
point; — 

The myfllery and soci'e^y in wliich every tiling 
la enveloped huve a twofold object: tliejr add 
importance and wtlght to thegi>verninent: wltlrh, 
confident in ]ts resoiircef^ and ability, jmH-i^eib 
boldly m lis course, witUout set^ting aid nr udvbe, 
btrldiEig itacir auperioi' to tlio oominon htvd of 
iDunkind: and thor iiapoec o degree of paadiycneaa 
And nou-mterfercnce on tbc pooploi from their 
poaltive ifrnorjmoc of nW thnt connerna thcra; 
fioiding thtis ttioir depeiidene^ und gubjiiction. 
Tbia kboiir — for laboitr it ia to keep in conetimt 
and never deoreasin^ operation so vnat a nm-* 
chineiy, auch complicated fonoB, and bo jealoua 
a system — is in?hieved for no national good, but 
solely to mftintftin thp pnipiiv^ under the control of 
one man? to whom, perliypa, more than to anj 
other living tnonflroh, the celebrated lliitt<*ry of 
Virgil might be apjiUoU, 

" Divisunt ijii|)criuiu curu Jove Otcaor liabet ;" 

an bfiaiidl*iafl i^ bis authority, and so irresj«iiaiblii 
Mn nde* Tlie lint of bi^ will, cuirie*! out in de- 
fiance of tite olidt^tclets of tliis climate and tb^ 
elements, Btomp him aa a man endDwed with 
almoHt supcrhumiui powers* 

H 2 



Mihtitry Maitia of the Emjieror^—^Sham Si»^i of Si. Pettm- 
hnrg.—' Amtiuii Ucnitwofiht Tnftrj/i,-^Majeiitic Beer" 
*tiff 'if th.e Empfror.^ VtiAf Ein'omjnftt^t and Jfeviefi: at 
Kreunioc Scto. — Jtussiari CrUfUij lo AnitimU, — TAc 
Triiopn nf ETcning Pra^fT, — A^iUi^ Pnnitcr.— Slurm 
Fig/if- — Simtdtatiefmit Atiprrti^G of ike ichoU Vtuidry 
otul AftiUpT^. — Pngcant m tToTWiir af the Friiicfi^a tif 
Mecklsnhur^h. — Qraud JLl\tuihiiitit>n of St. Pctefahaigt — ■ 
Dvmeark AjfecHoiu v/ifit Eutpvr^ir Nkhifbts, — Offidai 
Prugftcftatie \yf tho Ctremoniat at the Mamago qf the 
Griiml IhichpES Marie ttf the Dakt; de Lr/tchttJilvr^. 

No country tn Europe ain eqiinl Rufisiii m the 
brilliancy of ita mil'itoijf ^llapkj^fl, nor in the gt- 
gfi.ntic P>rce ehe britiga forwnrd on sucb occaaons ; 
but> notwithaUoding this, ehe la not a mUitftry 
njitiDii like France; t.lmt is, inspired with military 
ardour, and tho lovo of arma ; for what tho latter 
hft5 by intuition, slic only knoAvs in tho mcchnnicai 
ohediencij aod compulsory Bcrvice yjelJcd to tbo 
military mania of tho Einporor- The love of 
conqui^et, and the fullilincnt of amhitiouB pre- 
dcstiDfitioD, are deeply graven in his heart, and 
keep alive Within liim a restlesa feeling; wEieL, 
in the ahscTHie n( the atpni rcalitic-* of war, he 
giveti full [>Uy to tu aoinc of the most exlnLorJluury 



oxKibitiona and fvcrfornmncoB whict cad be con- 
ceived, particulntiy ia the heart of a krgo city. 

Pioture to yourself the cficct of rcproaonting 
thia citj' in a aiate of siege; which actiiaUy oo- 
cuTred, and was to have laeted for Three davB; 
but n suct^eseion of violent raina tlirew n diimp 
(eiccuse the pun) on the operntionSj and they were 
brolcu cIT on (he &etruinl day. The pr()gmiiuu(^ 
waHtJiiH: die hcBic^giTig itrmy vits 10 driye hi the 
defending coUjidhh, which were to toVc refuge in 
the cilade.l. An invefltmeni who to tiitftjiWe, jind 
finally a vigorous eorlie made by iLe beaieged* 
a^idtefl by troojis who were to eucceed in joining 
them ftoni the cily, wae to rcpulac the enemy, and 
raiee the siege. To the iDtnthitanl-s thi^ vn^ most 
inooDvoniout and annoying? bnt it amuaed nic to 
pat?3 ttlonj; the bridges and lending avenues, and 
to find tliem ocoupied by troope imd artillury> 
with Codsoclca bivotiacWing on the quays, and to 
jee the paride of giin-boate en the river to aseUti 
in the operaiioua. The closing acena would raaJlj 
have been worth seeing. 

The Emperr>r frequcniJy roviewp tbe regiment 
on turn for llie dnty of the diiy, and, acting aa hU 
ownauljittant, givuHthe ivonla of commahd himself. 
Once in the c<;mrse of ihe winter he ivtH^v-U the 
whole toroG of uH .urms wittiin the dty, aud 
causes il to defile hefLire liiJit, aa he dtzmds t>Li a. 
balcony in ihe paW^e. This I have spenaleo; 
but the cftbct of crowding npwards of 60,000 men. 



cnvalry, infnntry, and artillery, tumttrild, pontoons, 
ami hoBpital-wag^ona, even into that Jnrgc epacc, 
ia littlo better thnr\ confiiaion to a epcctator. 

On the let of May, the great aaniittl review 
talcefl pla<7(? on the Cbfimp 'I*? Miirs; Imt it tc- 
quiroe the graphic powors of a Scott to di* juatiec 
to the wene. It la n <li?plfty wliicli would griitify 
the pri*lc of tiMy monjirch, jind pa.rticnkrly ^mo &o 
fi-mliitiiuisofimUtiiry glory IIS tlifc Kmporor Nicho- 
las. It muitl be to satisfy this feeling, nml Id 
rei'cive the. h*iTnage of this iinrivnllpil Force, that 
be has ordained llu* Irilliaiil sjnictui:li3, Throtigh 
the kindness of i^ friend, I had the a<lTaut^€ of 
a windc»w comraandiEg the whole sceoc, which 
more than dazzled me, — it bewildered loe. The 
Tftri^ty of the uaiforme, tho splendour of the 
flppointmont9> tlio varied and ptcturceque costumes 
of the differcLt ti'ibegj with lli*.^ glittorirg of amis 
resplendent um^er t)ie r&ya of an unclouded eun, 
formed (he most gorgeoua eight I hnve ev^ 

There i>i something chlvalnc m the bearing and 
ejnidiu!t of rbi* Kmpiiror, wliieh {ji ves gnxci^ to the 
suene, nud fills llxo tiiiud uilh ndniimlion crf iho 
man. who thrown himself for tim monient into the 
ebad^, and aa^umca, compamtmly, a subordinate 
part in thcgrand performance of the dny; iJtbough, 
doubtleaa, tliia great adupt in the knowledge of 
human nature h aware cf the effect he is pro- 
ducing on the njinda of hie subjects. Attended 



liy a ItriHiant iiflft^ he e^corte tlic Enipioae nud 
lier iliiKglili^ns through the cxtencW ranki- to a 
^jperL Lent pru[jjn^i.l for tttem j iLnJ, tultJiig hvt 
posrtEou iiu hurf^i ilfiit'k ]iy their sMl:, lit criiHma.D(la 
tbe whole niasfl to Jcfilo Ijefore tUem, colujnn 
auccecdjng column inalnicsteniillcBS array. Twine 
this ie rc'pcatetlj and tKc ket tJiue hy the <Niviilry 
an<I artillei^ at^{K^e<l- The infanlrj of the guard, 
the cuiraaflitrs, Unccra, and ctlicr cavalry^ tho 
CoB3ft{?lie with ihoir Jong epcare, tlio CircaBeiana 
I[k cliiuri armour- and armed witli bows jind 
arrows, n cumcroua field of arfiUcry, fl counted 
130 pecOBj) and lastly, n complete aervicc of 
|K)iitooQs, swoj^p round the ground. The oye, 
i.-on(iii4i.-d by the vast mnsi* of woving bemgs lironght 
wiihiu iU Hfiijio, })eC'<Hiitn ilix/lnil hy ifie gleHnuiig 
rtf the wdiijMnia, ntid tlic rii^hnesH and \nnitty of 
Uie coediuitb. Tb^ eight of thib imiuiinHi hubLj 
eplfindid m its appointmentflj perfect in il^ die* 
ti|iL!ne, and devoted Ld hia will, unisi be a proud 
moment to the Emperor, aiiice It thrille even 
the bre&fit of a epcctator. 

Shortly ufter this fiftoir, the chief body of the 
troops, with olhers drawn logethei- for the occa- 
eiont Are inn.r(jhed off to the plains of Kriunoc 
Selo to thu cncanipiiLErnt prepared for tbeni, 
forming n force of IOC),000 on:m; ftnd ibcre, ae 
hm just oocurred, it is tbe habit of the Emperor 
it} rammarKl in peivon ftir tlir^je days. The re* 
iticmbriLmrt; uf tlie nccne >vi]l 



M 4 



Pdnaeed on £aj uiciuory ; Lut, \ivid as it is now, 
Td^Bpnir of oonvcying to jou even a shadow of 
the reality; whicli ifi without its ei^njil, were it 
only for tli^i simple rcnson llmt no oihor coimtry 
can prtHluce fliicH a force aa tLe ^Ite of its ajftiiy. 
The gniu-fja alone niimericaJly exceed ibe etrraglh 
any tini<^ in the Peninsula. 

KraantHi Selu ia only a vlUage, in wln^h tli« 
Enipei'or hy.» huilt ai uiinitier of hiiusen for lihii&elf 
anil fluile^ and which are occupied only during llic 
time of tlie eacAinpuient ; afterwards it rckpeca 
into its original dulne^e. Its populEition cf pi^a- 
Bautfif atoadilj go through the tneh of cultivating 
the htiii, which, however, never yiclda a crop, na 
it l& trodden duwu iknd ruinod tj tho truopa ; hut 
thoy nre handsomely compensiLt^ cmd arc, in 
fiiotj gftiner^j jm thuy nro ntft ^lubjtct to any loes 
£jK>Ya BQusooQ or otlioi" incidental c:in^cs. 

These revlewa ar^ entirely of &n exclusive 
character, and no person is pennifled to he prcecnt 
excepting by tJit especial invitntir»n of the Em- 
peror iind in full unlfomu 1, however, ventured 
on intnuling; und wiiSj litem.lly, tiot orJy thti 
sole civiliim prtiBttnt, hut also tim only s]K!ctatnr. 
A wifili expre»«xl to his aiirha^^ndor hy any 
foreigner holding [icomiuisslou, and cointuunlaited 
by him to the j^roper aulhuriticfi. Is sure to he 
fevourably noticed by the Emperor, who orders 
quarterfl to he ;aaaigned to lum; and, coneidcring 
him n& hia gueat, tUTDishca liia ti^blc, plixas a 



CArringc at Ms disposal, and mounts liiiii froui bia 
own E^tud. My tnhvellJng compamoiu u poet* 
coptmn in our Jiayjt being entitled to tlieae pri- 
vileges, received im invitation, and we joumf^ycd 
down tog(3ttier> Tlic distanet) \\o.& not gn^at; but 
we were oompctleU to ncccminodaU' ouraolvcs to 
theeQfitom of the ooantry, and to travel with four 
hoK^ea abrciu^t, which, dospito tho dust Aud the 
h&nt, took us down al epoed; iLml^ t^; my great 
diBtress, in gc-iug into the coocb-yaj-d the next 
uiorniiig, I found tlie pour ti-^usts still in harness, 
ftDd uttiuihcJ tt> l?n! ('iirriji^fii. TLe Hui^aiuns are 
brntiil hwfleiniiflters; mid our driver, an my ex|iostu- 
latiiij; with Miri, sidd tluit itwjw of ni> matter, and 
tbat the hurses were ufied to it -, but T Lisisled on 
hia relieving them cf their hamesa* ThiH is a 
proofi if It were ivuiiiing, of the gra/Jnlion of 
tyranny. The Bu^^ian huato yield himself hourly 
a wiUing elavc to the capriuee and neglect of hie 
maetcrj — to osort hie powcre of t^nduninoo to thd 
\t!£t degree, — till life even pusses away in the 
torpor atteadnni on prolonged exposure to the 
cold; and thus he treats the bea^u entrusted to 
him with a brutality nnd indiflei'ence akia to 
that whieh be eippriencea himself. "Were he 
eonsLMOiiB of hb inhiinmiiity, he would, by a parity 
of rtjifiijning, jien;;elvp the ojiteut of Lis own 
wreli'liird Hud mt<\:haniL^!d t^lt^Lt^nee, and in thla 
firet dawTiing of his i-eascm would vssUt the yoke 


0A31P AT KBAEXC^; 8£L0E. 

which hoa [jliiccd him nlmoet out oi' the piilc o1 

On iL[i|^i reaching ova deBtuialioDj we found the 
vUIa^oe ccuvertcd into Qutpuale, anJ filkd with 
troops, x'^idcttea stationed along tbe road itt in- 
tervsils, and field-pieucs drawn up at difTerent 
poiotA^ sti as ti} (^ominnnd every avenue lo tlie 
c^mip, wliiolt wt? CDiild Hec wliilening the t^1<j|tes 
in llie dislfmcc. Wt Hti^jlleil tliitlier in tiie 
cvemug; udJ, tbe fuJl uniform tif luy ctjiujHiuioii 
Acting an a passport, wc ^ent thruugli pi rxm^ 
eiderable pitrt of it. The infwitiy oouupicJ the 
tob!e la:id, tho cuvalry wore in the rear, and thfi 
attUlery placed in tlie adviuico. Brood roads, run- 
ning dt right angles, form the divl^iou^ Lotwcon 
the dinereiit r&rrimenta; in tlie front centra of 
cacli of wViioh a, kind of military trophy is ur*joled, 
ooiaposed of the I'egimenta.I olours, &evei"al stands 
of arrtiH, dnims, and a kind of pedestal, on which 
are dt^poshal the sworda of such officers tta mny 
bo under arreal. Tlie offii^ors, U' whrnri this 
annnnl repclitlciii of eiposurff uucl cliacomforL is 
exce»»uely irkboiiie> have craitrived, in diifirintie 
of the regulLitcooji) and at ao[ue risk thumfurei a 
complete wooden lining to Uieir teats; over whiob 
the canvasB h drawn, and completely <x>nceals 
tho innovation of wbicii they arc guilty. 

Frcacatiy, at heat of drum, the plain, CodiuuB- 
Ukc, woe ahvo with men; the whi^le inu^e of in* 
fanlry, G0,000 strung, txjrniug out, and forming a 


fine tivo deep in front ol'the cocumpraentH ;Vi'tcr 
n pause of tUo uioet profound eikticcj the Ijoutl^ cf 
the fUffcroni regiments e^mmoTiced playing, sind a 
rocket ehooling into the air^ g'""S ^^^^ uppciuted 
Rgan), the fivening giin was firod, unti che l>and£ 
coin;l«ded witt the tiittif>iiiil hymn. Agnin tliere 
WRS a dead i*ilenee ; atnl, ni. the worrl, giv<»n eveiy 
html WUM lijired, and some ni3nute& were ilcvuted 
t<) [jmjerd and croesing. Tlie men were then dT»- 
luisaed to theii li^ikts, aud iigzun tLe ground wiu» 
cleai" of all but the aeatrige ; — 

'^ Itflecm'tJ na if (tcir matfior *nrtli 
Hud BWallowfl up fi^r warlitu b[rtb." 

I traa forcibly struck with this aocuc : anc]« di- 
vesting it of its mornl character, felt liow power- 
ful rin orgnu wns kept in GLnietciiit opc^mtJou by 
the Emperor, to rivet his own po^ver, and to be 
avntlAblo dd an el<^inent in rouging th« euthusijiAm 
of the lucn, when circnQistiLnc<>s ahonld rcndcf 
ihm jLiltlitloDaJ stimiihmt tiee^^sHiiry. It ijh but A 
continuation of tlie Si^r^teiTi nf the Inte Ein^jeror^ 
whoi^*? [luhlSc prot^knifltioii, puriieukrl/ on the 
ocefliicn of tiit French ijivasiouj bi\^athed a re- 
ligious »piriL> oud cuU<^ on Uie nation to de- 
fend ita attara; — a Hoanan cuetonii perpetuated in 

Tho next moraing* at the efirly hour of fire, 
we wero Ponaed b/ aa aidc-dc-ctimpj who, apolo- 
gizing for hie curly intmflion, brought my friend 


to have jLs effect in t!ie poUliral circles. At tliia 
moment tltc whole urtuj wae out of sight ; but 
proflcjxtly he auiamoncd an aide-de-camp, and the 
staff nrrnngod thcmeclvca in a line behind him, 
niounlod ae he w«3 on n bo-iuliful black cLargor, 
one of the moet hoXAg locking nnimala I hr^vc 
evera^oa. Shortly afterwards :i lowdidlniroblinr^ 
Bonnd was hpurd, nnrl, as it approaclied, the enrth 
seemed to groan under its iiiftiienoe ; ii was the 
wliole mass of cavalrj^ and ortilleiy lulvaneing 
in sf[aaii\infi au pita ilc fhari^c : CuAiiUK'kH, Cif- 
oipsktis, HasUkii's Hiibuis hmcftrs, hufisjirs, dra- 
goons, ouimabiers, aud ^liiller^, alJ pM^^ed with 
a salute and a cheer. The gi-ouud appeared Ui 
trcDiblo at the of the guns aod the rapid 
trampling of upwai'ds of 110,000 hcreea; — 

^ Qujuijii]ri^iiiuj^fje putrem soaitu i)Ufttil uJi^« i;jLinp;iii" 

If the line was not t/uo, he halted the aquadron 
io fault, (and necessarily those m the reiir^) re- 
jkrinitLniltid th*- (^ffio4-r, and ttgam mtni lhi.'ni oil. 

Thus closed the scene, whicli left Ixith ejn and 
ititiid flxhausled with lis iinprising rtplendoure. 

But other fatigues were in coutsmplatiou for a 
portion of tlic tr(K>p0^ whom I aaw preparing for d 
nmrch of upwards of 600 miles. Distances count 
for nothing io Huaciitw Kvcry rcgimt^nt in tho 
empire which had ecrvcd at the battle of Uoro' 
dini^, hotl to ecnd a considerable detachment to 
that spot, vrh€re the ompi^ror intonded to go 



tlii'oij^^li llic Qiaiiu'ijvi'es of battle, to cele- 
bmlc tJii^ compktiop of a trophy or column of iri>n 
which lie liod oiuscd to be erected on tJmt mcuio- 
mcnublc field* 

Amonfc tlic troops la a rogimenl cAlled llio Pav- 
loaki, from bftviog bcoa partiouliirly fnvourwl by 
the emperor Paul. wLich wears, an a mark of dia^ 
tinction, the sini:^LTar brafie-frontciJ niitre-«hftpdd 
cop |>oculiiir to thut dixy i and, ha it liaa seen much 
service, the braae ft-ont^, perforated uilh shot-holes, 
wc jjorpetualed auJ wore nt ibe present moment. 

Wliile OQ the subject of pwgi?a.T»taj 1 lyiruot re- 
fndn frniD describing one of n peiicerul chanuitttFj 
wh1(^li reeenrly took [y\nr.^ on the <iccfi>ih»n uf the 
<*nti'*fC jnio the enpilvk] (if tlie prmcesa of Meck- 
knburgli, the betrothed of the Gmnd Duke Con- 
Btiiiitlne* At au eaily hoHr the military bad 
tciken up thinr poeta in erne unbroken Hue, three 
deep* on one ndc of the strcdei extending from tbc 
outaltirtH of the town to the pukce; and, a^ the 
dietiLimc is not loaa Ihim aix verats^j thore could not 
be IcsB than lOOjOOO mon under urme. Tho po- 
pulace were couBned by the jwlice to the opposite 
aide of the road, loaTing the centre tbiis free, 
Cftrpetftj Upe3try, and ahnwU, hanging from the 
windiiwa, whldi were crchwded with sjiet^Iators, 
added to the life and gniety of tlie »rene, Tn due 
iliTie the ^uund of mju^ial nnttiic buret upon the 
CftT, iiud ihe glitturliig of arme in the dibtaiioe an- 
Dounoed the apprDacIi of the proc€6aioo i which 


consifitetl entirely of caTalrj of tiiC rcgimcuta 
d'<^tc, in the highest ftate of equipraciit ; — tho 
Ciroo^siatis and GeorgianB^ riding with shovel- 
aha])0il atirrupa, and mouoteJ on wLito horseE,th« 
extremity cf whose laile were dyed red ; Cosaaoka 
of the Don and tlio Ukraine, and a hoet of other 
tnh^ in llieir pecuHar national costuiaee; and, 
COTispiciiotifl among the rest, a rvtpmtDt of cunia- 
siera in while imiforma, weiring hlnck ciuniwu* 
and helm^tfi, and inciunted on hiack horfle^, swept 
by, 4r{im(]TOD itfter si^itjulron^ in nil tli^ [iom|i mid 
pride of the favoured and pinked wjtrrutrs uf thor 
couutryt and at last, preceded by a staff of the 
most dbtinguifihed roen lu the cmpiro, came tho 
liopefial carriagiii. i rcnienaber lo have aecn en- 
gravings of the old 3tylij of equipage ueod in Eng- 
land one hundred years ngo^ and aiich ware thd 
Btfttti vculuolye in question, — iarge, unguinly, cum- 
bersome ftffairsj covered with gilding, drawn by 
eight horaee, enjrariEoutid in tho same old «tyle, 
and bestrode by postillions in cocked hats, limg- 
tailed coal§r hijfjitck-hooU, atid bearing whip» ug 
long as tht^instilvc*. Every thing, iii fact, wu« 
rich and nuhle* but antiitiuitcd and pnnderoua. 

The EtupreEB, one of her d;iughterfl, and the 
hnde elect Decupled the £ret carriage ^ on cttlicr 
aide of which, the Kniperor and hiB eon. the Grand 
Duke, rode on horseback. IStmda of honour and 
damcs-dc-ooiu' followed in other carriagcfi, and a 
elrong rear-guard of cavalry closed what really 


form^ llio procetiaiijo; but ea<ih rc^imunt of 
InfiLutry foil liucocsfivdy into tho rear aa the 
QortSge [lOtsed it, imd lUua lengtlK'nod the bcforo 
interminable line. 

In tJia evening the city was bnlLinnlly illu- 
tniTUteil, On orclinary oo.w^itknu^ »iiich aa ^LLirtti* 
thi}-8 imd nn ravers a nen, whinli tiiMMjr rrr', 
vrliun lUnEnliLitLiousuri^ uEijoiuuil by (Ik' iHrl'uu-, ii fr-w 
greaee-jxtta \u:c at(i<^k iiloni* the ctuli of tbe ptve- 
iDcut ; but, in ihis jnatfLacfl, aU that Ingenuity auj 
the uio^ Invliiih cxpcndituTt] coiild contrive wna 
oflectcd. TbcKudiiauftj-ii-Cfici'liiiiily miwtera ofibid 
art, find of iircwgrks ; but, like the rcet oi'lheir un- 
dcrtoklngd tbcj cannot uudci'atand thhim on a amoJI 
eonlf> : ilko olognnco nnd eimplicity <il' ii dcrvic^ is too 
unimportant tind microacoino For the eye hocmb-* 
tomed lo immensity; and ihiia frnnieworkd uiid 
etogesare erected of ]>rodigi<ni3 magnitude and cx- 
tent. The pnhlii^ bnildinga hiul huge ran gestifscaf- 
fbldltig carrif.'d up tu their full height ami lonffib, 
repreBtirftiii^ ucubUi^ctiiml dcviui-s v.\i\i binding 
wilb ]ighl«, or thmr whole outline w:ia traced with 
btmps ; the ^oi'lrut ul the !dnb Miijor rdnne cc»t<it 
3000^ In the streets n.a unbroken line of wooden 
frames yvae continuijd, runuiug Along tho frot;t of 
the kerb-etone, the occu punts of each Loubb 
following their fancy ; uud thua touiplce, altars, 
atftrs, fofitoons, &c, blazed forth with the light of 
duy. Little glutece with a cottt^o wiok ineorte^ 


10 talJow, ftnd fixed in wire cockftls, are themcyitifl 

Sevcml Bb.[r& of war, which were moored off 
the paJacG, and had bocn dcokcd out with flage 
during the dfly, wore illuminated in the evening ; 
thoirhulls, jardsi and atindingriggin^j being hung 
with lamps. The moat Borone wcalhcr favonrod th© 
diepUy, wh:ch wns lo have Wted for throe uightB ; 
but a stonn of rain oonolnded tht? st^^ne. which, 
gorgeous as it wnn^ 1»eg»n Ut pn,ll (in th^^ nt^nA^s, 
Tlie iihiio^t order and ri'gnlirily pri'Vftlleil, and, 
no carriage boiiig idlowal iu the nirttfp, ihodcune 
pcipitlLition had ronni ti? cii'culate without diLiif^er; 
and l^)esUli?H, from the pnaltion of the waffiihlingri 
hearmg the illummatious, the i*oad wns the only 
pJnce from whii^h they could be seen. Sovereign^ 
paasefi throngh the atreetB at &]] tiinvs vritliout 
cftttBing oonftisioQ or csoiting crowds, and. rccog- 
nieod only by atlant and rcBpcotfal diUutds; oud 
now, when the mass was almost wedged together, & 
few mo[int4?d policemen ckared a space, and the 
Emperor und his family, In a plain two-hormd 
riage drove l^^isurely tliTough the etreots, to 
and be B^en. 

The jonng oreatare in honour of whom this 
great nationjd ri^oiHng took plnoe inn>*t havp expe- 
nuDUcd Eitrangs feelings ai this lier firi^t itilroduo 
tion to her adopted country, and nl ihc ej^cbangc 
from a petty Gennan court to that of the raat 
empire in which her future lot ie caet* A con- 



iblc Lluic muAt ckp»<?> according io Kiissiaii 
bcinrc the nmrtia^p: takup pUict ; jie iJic 
gMbqI must knnw fiometliing cf Kuas, and ba 
taugbt the dcmcittf of the fiilth of the (Ircck 
churuhr intu wliioli «bc is to ho bnptizocL 

A ^milAT event t<i timt which I Lave j\ist do- 
BGnhL>i took [ilaoe on the narnftgo of tJie Here- 
ditwy (^rftnd Duke. The aiK^cetf^ion to t.K^ thrmid 
has been etr^ugthL'^nxl bj tl)« Liitli of a Aiin, to tins 
great joy of the Emperor, who ia naoet tenderly 
Bttoichcd to hie family, anJ ^(.'ks relaintion in 
domestic hnppineH*. I hHve s&tn him mir^p thifi 
child* siinl carry it to the wliidnw at tlic pctkce ivl 
pQterhof, to shfiv/ it to iht! cn^wd coUwlerl 10 
oelel^i'nti; the Eujprtes nnnivc rsory, 1 w^mt 
nothing more tlmn Biich o ecene ne tliie to fitwure 
ioe of the rtal hencvoknce of liem-t wnd affection 
of the Euiporor ; for, although dcubclcee lU^ted, 
and tlie impreeeion it wns to crento felt, yet it 
could not ho-vc been premcditatod, but was rather 
the eponlftnooua action of ihc mnn, arising from thd 
oireunutnneo of the moment, and fnan his con- 
ituiU dcsife to keep up the pwt he hi» set himself 
to j*c-r^riii. The ^lighicet naU of 6uch a miin ate 
cooetnieil into a. nienning ; snd it 19 not thd lea^t 
pnrt of his poltej tc Inke care thnt they shall be 
con^trui^J rij^htly, nnd thnt when he troiuls the 
(itage, his pprfomkinrc shall be mirkofl and perfect- 
The wlide empire la a living witiiKisthsLtkiadnpsa 
of heart in htm ig ;i natunJ Attributt' ; fur, deapol 


THB EVPsncm'B ^rFECTIOir. 

though he l>c, he stops abort of the tyrant; whoa 
the two chnractcra might not oul^' bo eombuicd 
&Dm diepoeitionT n^ was tho caso in Paul, but 
might becoiDQ so from the knovvlcdp;e andexcrciee 
of iinlimilecl powoiv Hip afTectton for the Euiprees 
IB ailmilted by stU; Bud her great influence over 
him coiToborati>ft the fact i tho Kmperor also slaks 
into the father, in isci-^kirig la fteoiin? tJiu Inippinese 
of hiti daughters nUbL-r tlmn to e?u-nfi(!i; them ta 
the intereata of Hlttte [n>liny, by [wrTriittirg iheni to 
raaki^ their own fieloction in marriage, iusteitd nf 
folloiving the esaniple of ctlier ix>wci'9 by neddiug 
them without confluUiDgtbtir iiffbctionB. Honour 
to him for the deed! It is one of the brighle*t 
jewels JQ his crown, and ccrtiilnly enhances liis 
f^opnlonty. So true is it that the mind h moi'o 
opemled on by the display of kind and nntural 
inipoUtiB than by the fonniil and heartJess show of 
rank iind pctnp : tbe one Etnkes chords wbtob 
vibrate in unieon, and tbe oiher gluncee off the 
heart, whiiJi it leaves unioiiubwi 

The prt^rainnie of the ninrnagi? cf hitt eldest 
<kuglitDr the Grand Dneheiis Mane with tlie 
Dnkc of Leurhtenbei^, wbtcli was relebrateil in 
1039,19 so sjngukr, and tlirow*Boinuch light over 
the peromonie* of lh*i Court, and the pomp iiud 
grandeur of the empire, tc» *rty nothing of the 
minute ultentton of 



dlfiniplliio, and hia Jcte of display and pageantry, 
ihiLt I ttdd it vorbatini as it -was pubhahod. 






BOS AhTmSS s£q]^V1S5IMK 


AffTQHcS fstr Sa MajiMlJ rEiaptrtiHr. 

Lejritrqui num (^ti: choifei pour la c^n^mnnie, ime 
ealre dt cinq coups dc canon, tin's de la Ibrtercsde dc 
Salnt-i:'i^te]'^l)L>Lirgr :kDiLOTicora (jtte (tana c{^1te JuvtriicQ 
flevr.i Jivoir lieu Iil (^iHuliratitm du MuHsge de Sojff 
ALXKasE Imr^aiALe^ Mai'&mb i^ GiLuvue Dvgqkbbb 
Mailic NiooLAiuvTflx nvBc Son Ali'usc Sarcnissimo 

I>"iLiir^a lus ftuinjEit'ta qui nui'oiit ^le euvojL'CB, 1^ 
Mombrcfl du Saiiil Synodc ot du }iiiut ClcrgS, la Cour 
W lea au tree j>ersoniR>* dfl dUtim'ioo deaden« acxQS, 
rr 3 



ks Aiubdssade 111* ct Miniatrcn rtnujgers» kw G^n^ 
mux, lea OfficiurB dtt tout gruJe <le in Garde ul Ua 
Officien sup^rieurs dea autres iroupei, se r^iiniront 
ttu PtUtLis tl'EIhcr II - . ' lieui'cA diL uiaLiiii lee Danics 
en eoetume rLisao, lea CavjiU4;rH en granJ unltormE^^ 

Loreque les Jntues rl'honneuT, qoi aurout i?t^ npp^ 
lecfl pour bib1>ill^r TAu^ustc Fjuuci^e* eurLirvnl dea 
appBrtomeaie lEit^rit^ure, afr(!s avoir aocoitipE! ucUt} 
fon^tion, im MnJtre des Ci^n^moniM en nvcilira I'Au- 
^Mbie Fi&QCif. et raccoiupogiiia^ jubiju'uux uppoiiO" 

Diina cette jouro^e, TAui^usie Tianefe portera une 
ct>uroiiiJti Hur k telG, et par d^aaua la tdbe uti nunl^ua 
de Tcloura poncfiau, doubld d^hcrminc, dont la longuo 
qu«ue Sbva por1>^-&auK uoti^^ par quatre CliAuibeMans^ 
m \i rexiri^mili^ pur le djgiuljure cij Touulloua d'Ecuyer 
dc la Cojr de Sun AlU^^t^c Iiup^rialc. 

I^euva McJGst^E TEmpereur el rimptratrics st reu- 
drojit tks jippurtenifiuiji inl^neurs k lii OlmptUf! du 
Palais dujia iWdi^ «uiva&t : 

L>ia FowrierN dft 1ft Cour el lea Foarrier^ de 1& 
Chambre Ixrf-KULEC, 

L^t Mnitrea de» C^i^onice et 1e Grund Mnitrc dea 


Lea G^DtilsliomEiK.'^ de In Cliainbre, leii Charnbelliuia 
qI lea Cavaliurs Ji:; Ju C^ur IjMri]tiAL£ niurcbaaldduux 
lb doux, lea moina ancieDB cti avont. 

Les prcminra Charges de 1a Cour, deux }k ilcux, Ic* 



i|uc Ooiri AidtH tie Cftuip Gt^'tLL-ruux ct Aidoi dg Camp 


GicAMifl Di^oH Const JIN riM KicoLi IK V ITCH br MicnKi. 


GiiANi> Due Michel Pavw>titch bt Mai>amx la 



DLCneasQ Marie Nicolaievka, nvcc gou Augaale 
Finned, Sopf Altessk Si^r^tssimf Mt-NstiGHEDit le 


Leura AlleaBj^,^ lmp(<rifi1i>s M^arlnmes lea Granitvi 

I3uc1ieMC» O^B^ NicotaiiiTiia, Alcxaadra Nicola^ cvtuw 
«t Marie Mikhaibvn-O. 

Leuj^ Alli^aaeb St-i^eiiiseiiuea Moni^liJgtlf!lJ^ lePriiiue 
X 1 


PaOOUAMMK OF mahbiaoe 

PiriEUK D'OiJ>fiMim]RS et ^ladamo Ja Prinoesee son" 

Jj09 D^uuod d'hoancuTt lea DcmoiacUeA dlionaeur ^ 
portrart, lea DomdaeUos d'bonneur de Sa Ma.tbut£ 

MitSDAiica LKs GiiAKin:3 DccuEsaca, ajusi que Ua 
ftiitrGS |:«r3onn^ de diatincUui). d&8 deuK dexe^, suj- 
vrciil pDT (irdre dVn(nimtiCTt6. 

A I'entrue Jo la Chapt-lle, Lettes MAJESTEa Jmf^- 
niAtLS Bbront r«i;U€i po-r lea M<^mbr(i8<lu S^iut Synods 
ft du hitiit Cli^rgi^, pui'tbnt 1a oroix et Teaii iH^nite. 

An cammeDcsaLcnt du aervice diviu, lorsquc Ton 
chnntDm lo veraet: rooiio.Mi riiAoio uUioeio 

condtitrn ke Augu^tea Fiances Sk la place prtpai^e 

pour la cvl6brn.tJ0Ti du Moi^Jagc, et en m^iiie temps lee 
pt*rHOnnta df^eigni^os pour porter Isb couroiines a'appro* 
cheroot des Augustes Fianu^B- 

AJora coiamenccrn, d'aprea le rit de I'EglifiC gre^Mino, 
1a ci*r^indTiie dti Mnriage, pendani laqiieUt-, uprte 
rE7aui»iIe, oo T^ia iHifliTTon, diftM 1ft priftre pour la 
FAmLLB iMpisuLE, dc Mudaiut; la Grrjide Dut^hceec 
MnHe Nicolaiema et de son Epous- 

Apn^rt k (!i'ir*^roonie. du Mnri^i^y, les AugUHt«R Epoux 
pr&cnterout leure romercleinents h Leura Majestca 
Impenflles, et revicndpftnt ivicupcr leura plntee, Le 
MtflPopolitiiit], iiftsj^ti^ d?a "Membre^ du Stiint Syrioilt-, 
commencerfl enswhn lea prfires d'actioii& dc p;r^'ea; ct 
lorwiju'on onlomiem le Te Dciim^ il &?ra lire^ des rem- 
{HirtA rie liL fonercsse de. Sflitil-Pi'lerslHmrg, unfi eulvfl 
dc cent <;oupB dc cadod. 

A rUfiUG de In cMmoaJe roligieiiBe, ks Mf-mbres 



nAUcaetla FiLciUle Imp^nAle ration ntirrunf <Hu* hi 
■ppartenaenta Int^Hcura &yoo Io m^tac corl^f^o ct dons 

iVmtre ^tonci^ ci'di^^iis^ A LeUh iki-rivt^-* rluTifl to 
pthem oh un Aiiid CntljLilif|m'. juini ^'t'; drrawi', S* 
Uajeste l'Empi^keuu coiiiluira Lc» AupiMco Epoux 
il <»t Aulol, <iii In eJn^iuont^ <tu AfHriaj^ft AikriL «]ors 
oflt^Lr^ d*l|fJr^s If rir CnthoUe Romiiiti. A Tiisuc di* 
cette c^ri^oui^, lu Famille lMrKJtrAL.E i^uit«ru daua 
tint&r'ieut des uppor terns 013^ nprus avoir rcgu lc« tifUU 

Lor«C[un r]ii:iire dii l>iiLrtiit;t »cm vc^nue, el que ItJ 
tbguilairoe tics trci^ premjtrta du^J^^v iiuri^nt occupy 
Uc plA««u( qui Iciir auront M il^fign^^ on riendrft Tnti- 
DOJicerl LtTSiis MiJicsria IiiriRiALLA, qui se reiiOi'oiit 

pr*:p5d(^'o» dc In Cour. 

LtuiiH MAJjur^ Iuj'/kialca et lou£ les Mi'nkbrejt 
dc In lurOLtALr acront tcrsh k ta.bU par dcs 
Chambc'llans I loa couple &L<ru])t prije^nt^e^ a Lsnita 
MA'iKsrr^h Iwi-fi^.rcuLRii \*av 1^^ Crrkiidfl EHiniiAorH; lUiK 
Aa£»9tG9 noavcckux Epou3(, par k digaitairo on focc* 
tioiie d'Hcu j<;r dti la Courdt^ SoM Atteb&e iMriuTALS 
MiiMMK t^ Glcam>k Dri:HEBSR: I LKirns Altrsbbs 

Ivt'^UtALfLd Mo>B£:iGM£UR LE CE3ARE\1TC1I G|1ANI> 

BlRsiULifi:^ Lic» GiiA7Tiii:Fi DuoEi£HbEH, [ur dt» Chun* 

pendant Io ropod, il y aura un concert toceiI et 

Li^ loflgla «croj]t port^ft nu bnill dcs salves d'nrtil- 



lerie. tiri^te dea refupnil!! tit la furteruuti Jtr SaLit- 
TiJtcrsbfiurg ; 
8jtvoir ■ 

1. AliisanL^deLicuitaMAJit^r^alMF/^ituj.its:^! coups 
de Cfttion 1 

2. D*fi Augustus noHvenux iCpoux t 31 coups de canon ; 

3. I)e tDiJlEi In FiL[[]i1]o lui'KKLjii.t: : til ifrujK i]t- cunoa ; 
t Do Son Alttsirt finale Modame iu DuchcJtw dc 

Lsitchlenhcrtr : 31 coiipi dtf ccinoii ; 
S. Da Cl^r^^ H i1(f luufi It^ l]i]Mi^ ^uJeU de Si. Ma- 
^KSTb L'£»i-sitcu]( : 31 ci>up3 dc cniion* 
Apr&B leianqutl* LtoRs Ma-iest^ Imp£rulii» et 

eorli.'gi-, HHTT9. l"** appnviemenis tutmoura, 

Duua lu aoirvc du m^me jouT^ il y u-ura, un bol pu^ 
auqud as&iBtcront tuutt^ k^ pvi^oimos *lo di^tiDutiaii 
dca deuK acx^f, lea AmbassactGai'a el Mfnisires <>tnLTt- 

Avant lu fin du lial, l1^8 pursouiKis ileai^^^cs par 
rEuFicQicun pour reocvoir lefi tjoiivenui Epous w 
TCTwIiviKt Omi& lifS nppm'U?iTie«U d*' Lrurit H^/ffj-w*, o& 

pr^o^^es de Iq Cour, lea (mrompugaeront. 

A Ten tr^ lie cca app&rttui^ntSt Lcltjis MA.iKvTibi 
Iwi-£kui-ss ot lea nouv&im Epoux Aeront rr^aa par 
1^4 ^tertonttea d^gndea ik o^t ^ttvt, el ee rendrortt «»- 
fliiite HnnH Vtnt^rieiir doi ■ppm-ti.nii^ntft, ob ^ tnunm 
uub I>Am« iJ'hoiiti^ur pour k d^'almbilLe de Madauatia 

Dnnsj^yitejournee, il eerarc'cUe <li'h pri<*'i'(.yi<T"iu."tion* 
dtf grfives diLita loulea It-e i^li^ea, ct \ci clochc« acmoc- 
Tont, oinai qae ka deux joura suiviuite; la oapitala 
EGT^ iUumin^ le edr pendant trda joan. 




bcurcA du raMln, Icd ri'LidiAtii^nit ik'4 fHr^iniu do 
dirtmt'lion di?jtdetiK ttxvt luJmiiteih \a Cour, ot i une 

Lc soir, il y ftiim Spi^ctAfJc au (irand Th^^lrn, en 

1m u jiilllet, grand Bnl dniiF In ShHq Blaiu^hr da 

Palais 4'nivei-. cl 60Up£, 

La 9 juillet, Bal ckoa lo iVwwie tf Oidvititour^. 

l^ ICl jijUk% D^MUt de L» C^iur Iui*itmAi-ic pour 

Lc ] 1 juilhft, tial uflFK^u^ public et illujnin«lion Jt 


;■•.■-■•■■ : ;- ■■•■■■. 
; ■■:■■ ::::::::.-:; -■:■ \ 


ELLiniIr>llAB (Ulldk. 





I'lacr o/Pftt^i//. — Fete Dtijf a/ iJit' Empreta.— Tienut^ 
of the IiHprriiil Fti/aifif. — -Lcotc lyfthc Pcuple in the Piilace. 
•-^.^tTikiiif^ CimtrnHtJi i\f f'/mffifiou ami Cintrun/: — NirltJiin 
ajtd Napoleon. — Fcatttittcn in tJnr GardLtit of Pet'-r/t^^. 
— AtptetfUJ TVflf, — Imperial Prorneniuli* en Toiture,^ 
Jiuisiitn Mciifj itf griivtittff the Sovfrsign, — Splc/atiit Ittv- 
mtnutiou of UiK Gitr'ht\j*- — Aufitl Hnnicane mid Cida- 
ittritphr. — Sf/'prcnarrfii of J-^fiCit h^ the Police, — {Jnitr.rgid 
Uuj/li^iftj iiml F<iitJitcaiiu:Hit tff th: HanAtniti. — AriftHi'/tiiic 
crJiti AvtotyraUc JJcspotism — S''n'f>ii'a'jig SnnjtH'niv m 
Sacift^.—Deprcising Iiijiucnre fif^tdvauit Dread. — f rar, 
thti ndiTig Pimserin HwiJiia. ^— Olwtm and Mittnut pr^' 

TnERE are three palac^A In tlic i»ighbouvlif»ntl 
©f St. Petersburg, vrhich are oecupicd by llic 
Imperial &mi!y nt stated nnd regular pcriodn 
during llic eunimer niontha; those nl Tafir&koPj 
Solo, and <}U the Yelogcn Inland lU^J, iu fact^ 
private re^id^ncce ; where the fritigues and ccrn- 
moiiios of tIil* court are, lo a grenl eitent, dls- 
|tcnaed with, nrid as mtic}] trnnijiiUlity tiud rc- 
drenieiit ohtalned a^ eaD f:dl To tike lotofrayiiky ; 
tiut tliut ut PcttrlLcif, ulthtiugh tht^rc U nlat> a 
II dcincstic residence attached to it, is devoted 
to the &plcuduur nnd ionuEiIiiJce of tho 
oomt. It JH the aconc of a grcQl imtionn.1 rtpcifl- 
tiiclc, which has uot its pj;ruliel ^bewherd in on- 



fpilarilj and effvct. ItN fpirdciu flrc vciy «x- 
t«miive, Ijing along ihe fhoTus of the Giilf of 
Fiiiliuit], ami wfiAli^ hy itowulemi Tu iW iDuLit 
of llifriiL otandfi tJie pixlocc; iUt^lf, tirtiuilcd od sq 
cuuucQcc, flnd convmanrlm^ a fine tjcw. It wm 
bcj^un by the indefatigable Pct«r, but ha« been 
enlnn^^l hnd lEiijiroveU by liU duoccttton, so that 
it w DOW of i?.rtnfli<lfirablc cit«nt. In the froQt b 
n coEud of some tiundred yarde in bngtb — a rolio 
of Pcterfl Dutcli fimte, — which joins the gulf, nnd 
ftxtin which jeTs-treiiu iiod other firtific^iAl watf*r- 
worka ore siippliixL Then nre fkr iDPerior to 
those at Vtra!iiUyj<, to whioli thi.'y hiiw. ht^u mm- 
pureil — |jrul>.i1>lv, on iK.'.<^uuiit uf ilin (Iiilioultr 
of constructing fininUina oil nxi cjttcn^vrr sialic 
in eiicli u cUiEmtu. Tbo u|]tu'tnic?nta iltit vcrjr 
fplijuiLd, uuil cciitfttn «ojoc line paintingis nmoiig 
wluch is a rcmfirkivblf} (rnc of the Kinprctftf Cathe- 
nnc II- She 19 rcprc^ntcii in the Kup^ian uDt- 
ionn^ booted, and sitting tulnUc on u while home , 
in her hat is the onkcn hnin<^b «hc woro at tho 
memorable revolution which phtcuJ her on tbo 
throuo, nnd wliiob waa th^ dtfitiD^ruiflljini; badgo 
of ker adhurentf. 

At thia Bpot, on the 2d July (old style), theain- 

livoreary of tlic Emjiress* f^ttwlny h held — n dny 

F|kf conHidt^ittbk^ exL-ir^rneut n^ iregnrdh tlie inha^ 

bitAntA of St, PftRrsljurg. Every carriHge b in 

rir<iul*ilioii, uad iLe tliruuged decks of tlic eteaiu- 

botktf, which arcjilyiog lucescoiilly, urc siifliciently 



indicativo of tlio popuUir fooling. Tt la CFtimator 
that at least 2U0,i.KMJ people congregate on the 
occasior, Etirpiette is to « certain extent nlxv 
lished, nnrl ibe people are allows*! to feel, foi' a 
moment, some reUxation from the diUIing wvertty 
of rliBOTplme and reatminr. Thepnj*t i* forg">tten, 
find in the enjjiynientB of thn tXny lliay disregiiH 
(he future, with tta recurring hfl^rBlin^'ae and gp- 
preseion. Order iind regidiirltj arc, liowever, 
never loat sight oF, and Tiolencc and boistertjus 
Tnidh do not disturb tLo general harmony: for 
tie KTta^mn. even when intoxicated, h cheerful 
and good-humoured. 

The (labce is thrown oj>oti to all indiBcrimi- 
nntoly, although, to ohecrvo aomclhing like pro- 
priety, there la an order that every ore shall wenr 
a Wod of blaolt mantle, or half domino; hnt H 
» not enforced, and the long auite of rooma \& 
densely filler! with all oUaees. Tlie TmjirrJftl 
fiiraily, ranged in a circle at the end of tli-.- hist 

loon, fliirroiindeJ l)y a crowd of ndniJ^tc^ft and 

ler pcrwinages of ranV, witii thu aiuioas riowd 
^uceiing forward h> gjiiu n glimpee of the re- 
splendent gronp, foi-m a Jovely pictlitc in i» nidc 
and uncouth frames No court in Europe can 
equal the dispUy^ of beauty and grace concentrated 
m that circle, di^tinguielitd ufl every member of 
H ifl for personal ailmeiions of the highcet order* 

confeea that I lust much thnt wne vorth ob- 
ring in the eiewd, being foscinated hy the 


LBTfe OF TTTB rEt>rL«. 


cliorma t>f tlie ImpcrialfcuUyT whom it is tn.n^l5 
po&sibk to 6t:c calkctcd enccptirgoQ tbiaot^ca^on. 
But I might have eporcij myedf on that point, 
had I booji iiwiu'c of tho eti'angc cuetcm of the 
dny. It IE fl lev^ of the people, nnd not of tho 
goveroiga ; tbey iwaemble lo congratuhilo liiiu by 
tbeir |ir(?aence ; aiitl, reversing the order of eti- 
quette, be preaenta him!^**lf anil IVimily lo them. 
At occnsionnl tni ervnle he letuls forth the Empreas, 
!ind, Fotluvved by bis fuiiiily nnrl ooart, pussca 
thrrtuyb the difltreni rooms timidat tl»c beitrclcil 
crowd- wbtE^li £\i[\& bui^k aud luuvu:? an avenuL' Car 
thein to pass. The great sirgalarity of thi« o^ 
nTraoay la increitsed by the strong (:outinHL between 
the chief performers and tiK: spcctatore ; the latter 
irith their flowing beards nod Long blue cuftntid, 
and the former in ciU iho splendour tind niflgnifi- 
oencc of piiiicely dignity. TLit Einpirror, aa I 
saw lum, was eonepicaoue by tho eimplicity of 
hid dress: wearing the red coat of the cuii-rissiCTB 
of the guikrd, with a aiogle t^iar, wbile others weru 
covered with decomtionB: but among tb« Udiee, 
hilling ns they wory with jewels and tht* ineigma 
of their different orders, the Emjireas stood di^ 
llnguished by n. Kplondid tiitrsi of diitiuonds, iind 
a necklar^ of sujgle p(.^r]> of die icioeL eoitnit^r- 
diDBry vl^e, Tlie tintiotial couit drcBS Is eeldoiu 
worn, and tlieii only by c;q>rces command 

Tht attatihruent and aftcclioii of the Emperor 
to hifl family lUX of the purest cliAraclcr, &iid 



prove that the sovereign onn forget in ibc fattier 
Ujo p[>licy wliioh Jictateo liie conduct to bia pco- 
plot for their boppiiiofifl ho diecftvfU every urn- 
bitioti? project or atata alliance^ whieli, whilu it 
imgbt atld to what lie moat covetSj would perhaps 
doom them to tlie misery and dUtre^^ of lui ilU 
jiasoilecl mnlch; miil thiii he pUow* ihem wilh- 
oiit (iLiCHtriiiat, ti> r<jnu u-lUsuicee of itfleulion rend 

iVrsiik tlie CQiitL-iist tif 11 few yeiir» in the Uvea and 
fmtiiEicfi of Hoiu^ indiviJiial-^H Niipoleoa raiacd 
tim^lf nod faioilj to thrones f;itd flozuinion, and 
history aluuo is Ivft to record the tftct; while 
they> having performed their vivid and oomefc-Jike 
coiir&c;, have sunk into exile and unobtni^ivo 
privacy. He roputlinted JoeepKinc, whoae ex* 
qui^ite o;rauo Qi\d perception ae^idcd io much in 
eetablishiiig hia crupiiG in t.homindfi of iho French, 
and sought to per[>Ptu»te hU dyiia&t}' by eonneot* 
ing himself with the danghtcr of ibo proudest 
house in Europe. Hie prtstige failed him; for, 
when hi« thi'orieclepjirtacl from Mm like n. Bhiuhiw* 
his Trnperiid cousorr fornook Ins fcrltines, imd 
e*eiituiilly humbled Lyieulf by a. niaxriage with 
Iier own ubumberljiin ; wlnle the dcaucndEuitei of 
tbu neglected Joaephiuo, rising superior to the 
frovrn-s of tiite, were taking firm root in the soil, 
and Aoun^hiiig in couimandlng and powerful 
poijilion?. Of liio two dcecendanta of Kngi^no 
Bcnuhurnoie, one ib innrried to tlie cldoet daught<ir 



of tlic Emporcr Nicholas, ai^d tho other iK QuGGfi 
of SwGtlcc. 

But to rotura to the fut^ In the garil^ns the 
most imrc5irioteil liberty is allowed : ftntl, although 
nu portion of them L^ willihL'Ii] hvta the jjuMic, 
neither trespass on good uiiUintTB ntir wilful mia- 
cJuef octura. The Uiaenuit dealer* m fniitd and 
di'LTtks erect tLck ttallb on the meet onuLuiQuUil 
IiituSt Had tLu tea-liuoths occupy the most fa- 
vourite iccceee^t: the very «cutjneJ3i wLo are £tt 
all timcfl aL]|£ciuutlj aumerous, fiOcm to l>0 at 
their p03t» as o, mere matter of fcitrUf iiiul to have 
forgotten Uicir u&moX warning, " oto ne poKvolcao" 
(it is not pci"mittc<l)i to tlic ti'Cepflsaors on Ihoix 
heats. Tho waterworks ore one of thd cliiof 
uttioctiona ; and, connected with them, in % ee- 
qucstertd part of the garJen, is a large metal 
tree, which, in the siihiliicd light of tho spotj is 
not rcftdily iliHtmguTr^hcd from an aiitual and 
living Bpe<^nieD. J\y ut&uis ufuuimte pipes water 
in uiJLda to posa tljniiigh every Irruiifili u> ilia ex- 
ti'cmitlea of the Jeavea. oxid the gi-ounJ itruund 
it being int^raecled with a ipiantity of luddeo 
epriiigs, the valvcj? open on tiie pressure of the 
foot* and drfinch the unfortunate victim decoyed 
witliin ita bmits. This ia ufttiirally on abundant 
jiourct* of fiin and amuftemenl. 

Towards evening tho orowda begia to ccn- 
ceatrat<* tlieowelrea b the main avenue, in ci- 
pcctntion to wilnesa the pronitnade en voiturfff 



^htuK tukeb ptrice in ttic full bliiKu of tlio illti- 
niiiialiona. Prcccilcd by a Jew mouutcJ cu'i- 
r;if«ierd, tbc ImpctLU fEimily, tl^^ members of tbe 
coui't, aod tbc numerous gueata of tLe day, in the 
lOfjet gorgeous di'oaece ojiJ uniforms, scfitttl in 
open carriftgcfli called "liueaa,*" drawn by fotir 
horaes cacb, malto tho circuit of tbc ganJcna. No 
doecriptioa can resUim tbe |x>iikp :Liid lungnifloonco 
of this e^Etroordinut^^ pr<iceB£Lon ; ite tfimililudo u 
only to be found in the talea of the Ai-abinji 
Nighle. The aBBemblpd multiluclGs form into 
lines to allow the caiTiagee to pasa, anJ preservo 
the moat re^ppctlul Hilcncu. We do not imder- 
Htand ill Knglanil how tu sliuw our untlmsiusm m 
fliieiiw*, bill JD tilts country il is otliei'wise; ebeeriiig 
IS here confined Ut ihn military, and wiUi tbt.'ni tD 
one slinplc isLout, which, tniliiL^I na they itre to 
the most mtnuic pomt^ of di^ciplmcT b giv^n by 
Cc^nunand, zxaiJ uttered as one volcc» prompt i^nd 
true* 1 aaw a curions in^once of ihiU at tht; 
review at ETa&noe Seln. WliUe riding in front 
of tbe truops, thfu drj.wn up in line, the Emparor 
receipe<3 a dispntch from the Empress (who waa 
in GcTmuny for hor Uetdtlx): he at onec coin- 

* Tfai9 rin^AT cati-iagu \* an op^rn oti« on fiiur wheets. 
holdicg twtU'u porpnn*, unci hin i^xiLctly ibo opptoranc?a of 
two nl<l-fiiaTii^ni^1 nofia joinml b:irk Lo IihcV, widi n frmt- 
bonrd or sfep runnrng tlie wbolo ledgTli /or Iho fi?oI ; thus 
tbi- fKfiupuutd natur&llj ri<lo Aiiltiwnyiv an in an Itiflb .imint- 



mTmii-iitod to tliciii tJiat U cont:t]no(l mti^Uigence 
of li(»r Impmverneiit, antJ, siiiiultaneouslj-, rej^ment 
liy n^imunt touk up (Lo shout m the mosr juat 
luvnird, nml witli (JrainriliR pflP^nt. 

Ht» well orgnnined, tliii.t, uo a sigiuil rtrnket, being 
tlirowJi u\f, 8L-venil liumlrtda of mtfii arc ti4>«n 
flwamiing over (he frumeworks, like great (Q^IdetB, 
aiid in less tlian Intlf u.n hour aU is light- It i« 
tmpo&siblc to give ao idcn cJ' the number of ligbtH? 
but the quantity of tnllow cc^usumoil is i^stJmatcd 
at SOOO/., and the extent of ground covered at 
five iiiiloe : every avenuo htia ite vvalU of light, in 
varioua dcvieea, on frHines from twelve to fiftoon, 
and ill aoiiiG lufilaQOea *ven forty fe«l high, con- 
tinued m one unbroken line on etu^h side. Two 
prodigious arcniilea of fire extend rdoiig the cEinol 
in frotit of the ptliiee^ and tertniuale byn Cflscivle, 
lighted iu th« inaiJe, bo qa Ui produce the etTeiit 
of II cuitifcirj of firii. Besides tlifjise w^^re HUtnnitr- 
bouae^. pyrjitiud^, aud teuiple^ of f]j,me, uud be* 
youd nil apjicarcd the yacht frigfttee of tljo nnval 
cadets in the domo biilliant and diicKUiLg oraa* 

Nothing oan be hotter calculated to produce 
that giddy and rnmultuoua fecliog of mingled 
woniler aud dolight, which, though it uriscs from 
neither the imdergtamling nop the hen-it, has yet 
amoet powerful influence over both. There is so 
little obscurity tit this eeajJon cf tho year that the 



iUumma*ion8 conlil not produce thoir full effect, 
WCTB it tinl for M. liWk MiiKHiT, wUidi^ wising fnnTi 
auuU a. iiJtjkttUf]& of IniEipti, luid hitnglug over th^ 
ganK'iis, caiisp* fi deeji glooin^ iuciviiseil hy the 
uiitural density of the foliage of l!ic treee. 

Weeks are ^ent in prepAriog thia ftpectacle. 
There ia no ouc to hint at ccoaoiay, nor to com- 
pliun cf the IftTieh expenditure ; and all return 
home iaiitiafied — from the mcdmuio, who has «i- 
tiatod himself in one of ihoiiumcrouelciitfl jjublicly 
proTided by the Emperor for the refrcahmont of 
tho people, to the eommoo mujik, who htu only 
rcgnJtjd hiB eyes. 

A fearful catastrophe happened on this annU 
vcrsBiry in IS39, by oii« of th[)Be sirdden hnrncAtK?^ 
which oocji^ioniilfy rwcnr in the Gulf, when 2000 
jmoplc rt'cre ftupjwsod to hav*^ [jerishci] cm iheir 
vfny to the fete. I HQiled rroui CruDalHdt tat Eng- 
land on that day, itnd was, happily, out of the 
i<cacb of Jtfl influence ; but an cye^witnc® told 
lue that itfi cfTci^t wad bo powerful tliat he &n^ a 
largo portion of iho iron roof of the n&vjil ut^oal 
at St. Potortburg rolled up lihe paper and t^nrricd 
away many yftrds. There was no iLpiJL'ni'ancc in 
the beavQafi to indicate its approach ; it waa un- 
noeonipflnkd by min» and fortunutcly was not cf 
louG dnraliuri. So cornpltitely are nil things 
mystifiod iinJ Vrpt IVom the knowledge of the 
Buaeiau public, wiIIujuL juiy iLfsigiiablE.* rnjLson or 
uLjcctf tlknteveu in tLiB iutlunet'^ Hiheadietre^a wjut 




At itM ticijfht, nn6 tnoomen couM not be blinilcd 
to their ealiLTLiIty, tho police were inntnictud to 
put the; (loitlis al one humli^l t but th^ fad could 
not Ija r^uncoMled, itltboiigh hiifntin evIdcEit^f* wnB 
euimrcsiw J ; for the water* ct)j)liriiiecl fur iti:mj 
da/s to give lip their deaj regarvlltss cf ihn tiJiei. 

More reCGEitljr 3 coUIaioq look pkce uii the 
1aai»k(;c Sclo tailroa^l of a very fntal tlescnpt^oiu 
of whicli the aurrivors vrere able to give ^^ositiTC 
dotaila. uud lo apcnk with some ccrtuiotj ae to 
ihti uutnbcr of lived toct: but ngniEi the rFy^tcm 
of diipjicitj woe pmcti^cil, uud ultbuugli iicurly 
one bundivd i^coplo perished, thoy wttta asseuad 
&t eix mdivldutiU bj tho [hAIcq i tvlio guarded tho 
Bptii, find refund all approach to it till ever/ tract 
of the mrident hiul been rcrauvcd. 

This poIi£?y of deceit is in*?xplicab!e » for i;istt?ad 
of cultiiing tli^ [>uh)ii! mind, suspicion ii^ etigen- 
dured, auj the luiivcrsii] impre^Ion uuturally ia, 
that n fiudt baa btca coiuuiiUcd hy tlio fnilhn- 
nti^e, wliicli they try to glo^ over; bc^"nlcs» the 
diBcloaurc of the truth iavolvef no x>oliticnl prin* 
ciplc> The ejateio of iakebood thua Banctiijued 
influences materidlj tuid mUebkvoualj the cha- 
racier of tbo people, whose duplicity is a uaticmd 
vice; they feel tbut to lie i& but the pGrfontumco 
of 11 needful duty, luid thfl,l the utti^nuico of truth, 
even m the most tricing j^ubjectE, i£ a. defiance of 
the anlhoritiea. It ia iiiij>o«eible lo \th(ie ihti 
iJigbtesL reliiLDCe on any iiiiur'niaticin whii'li you 



may receive ; for, ejtiier from fear, or from a deeire 
tomialend and to pcrpIcK llic icieoaof etrongcraitbcy 
overcoiour their etotcmcct or pervert the truth 
ta eoxiie way* Accuatoaiod hy hubit to dtdguiBC 
the tnitii to oihere, they nrriva a^t luet ut iliQ point 
of not perueiviiig the evil in ihcm^elves, eioepling 
through a veil, which hourly thickens its folds. 
Thoy deooivti jou ivithout mUtnist of discovery, 
and utlcr falechoods with the ingcnuousTiesa of 
CMtidoiir. It would he curious to as^pnain (if it 
were poSi^iMe) sit what perioiT friJ^rho*)*] t't'iieeb to 
Lie o:4t[iuat(Kl as a <^nine, lor It nm^tt hjtvc aa Qtirly 
origin lu tlioac who live by fear. 

The aiucllty of a. promise, even, ia no guaran- 
tee of good faitb ; anJ, aa its fullilnicDt was ticver 
cootcmplatedr forgctfulncDB offers no excuse for its 
vioklion. Habit tolcmtca the [^rijidplct i>nd seif- 
interoet unbluBhingly cxeuace tlit: ubn^^c, Dolwith- 
atan'liag ita criminality and the JiCitrt-trenkiug 
coiiaequenos it Giiliiilti. It is w<:Il known tluit 
the head of a uohle hou?c promised to craant^ipato 
A famtly of peaSQuts ut th^^ random of the krg^ 
sum of SO,ono roubles; hiir, tmving received the 
money, Uq continued t^i kee[i i\m Jtitided victims 
among the i4erf« on hie »4tute. 

Such irB th-c achuol of buncnty und good f^iith 
lu which tho Buaaiau peuB^LnU wo inatiuctcd 
under the crnahlng despotism of the urislocracy, 
d&dpitc tlie contruUing inllueiice of autooni.tioal 
dcapottem. The hUtcr ruled by fonns, oi'dcr3^ and 




Will : bat tfie former gragpiu nt fliibHtn.fitialitiea 
and disregards vtrlitLliT-iua. Nn flionsircb ho flat- 
ifired U If^ss obeyeil^ And luorc deo«iyed, th&ii 
tbc 8t^lf-slylwl iuitoi^nit uf iTie Itusgmn umpire: 
disobedit^nce iiiid contempt are diLogergae ; but 
the couatr/ U T&at, atid eilcnce reigns in iW 

Thc irankncfls and candour whicli cbaracteriso 
other nations tire in Hueeia aupcrecdcd by an 
inimicuJ aurvoiUanco, u fiorutinisiTi^ maUgnity, a 
jcoloue ccudonctiBneas, and a atircaetio and Bua]n- 
cioufl reeei've, wbich create universnl apprehension 
and mislniet. The Ht'verity of ihp govt^rnmtnl, 
and the system of cspioQagt, cngendor gloom and 
deprcasion cf the? apirit^ and continual iiiiagiTings. 
There is ever jrineeiit an uiidelTnidde dreud itf 
Home one or nf Koinclhing, whioh ia the greater 
bi:cuuse il hus a cautiej thijugh the prei^is^ ^ruitutl 
of alarm ia unknown. ThU fear i& not avowed, 
but it ciuinot be roucoiled, partjcoiu'ly frirm the 
ivatchfal scrutiny ol" a pcreon of quick nnd inlcUi- 
gcnt obecrvution, A Kussiaa'a lirat advaiLccQ to 
you ATG marked by an apparent iorwanlnosst akia 
to the hoBpitftlity of the East; but even ia thia 
officious rcccplioD there is more oBtentation thim 
cordinlity: thej- eerutiniso the most trifling rc- 
murkii, autl suhinit tlie most insignificant actioua 
to n priticjil c3ian>iruitioii ^ watching the effoet of 
tlioiT obsor rations, traomg tbo imprGsaion they 
produce on your ci"edence, and divining your very 



tbougbta by the eGarching glnnce of their cold, 
lieuetmting eye. 

Ti'ue greatiiosa of uitiTil hiis its recompenHtf 

witLm itffpir, Binl wliat it hnys hy TliftmtereatoJ- 
ncaa it gaioa in ]>oflr« : ebewberc it opcratts beao- 
£oial]y on maukiad ; but here it would be bonerul, 
because it would bo looked apon as a blind aad a, 
prctenoe- Clernciioy la raidtakcn for wecikncae, 
bj- a people rendered coUoub by fear : foftr ulono 
eubduea them ; iin|vlaoablo sc\eHtj humbles 
tbem to tbe <Iuat; but purduo, ou the contrary, 
would rcrnder ihom pr^iiniptuoiiH. It ia impot^ 
Bible lo ooiovmcc tlieni, and tberefore tti&y miwt 
be dnven into Bubjection: ibey rebel nt mildc^Ai^ 
and obey hnrshncaB, wbitili tlit^y miatake ibrpowtr, 
Tbifi esplaina tlic ^tj-flteci of governineDt Ji^loptrd 
by tbe Etnpftror, wbt> knows and fttJa what iB 
tweotiftUy iiecesfiary to eDforce obedience by bia 
power: ttnd, probably, he darea not follow hi» 
natural good di«poAitioD, owirg to a belief that it 
would bo dangurous to njanircat feelings toi> ex- 
(dtcd fof the poopio to oomprohcnd and appro- 
ciatc. Everything ie gloomy und silent inKue^ia: 
tbe reciprocal imainiat of tbo government and tbo 
people dUpt^ls till mirth. Tho minds of thd pwple 
are drilled, and thtir feelings weighed and moa* 
Bured, na if every pleaanre and piL?aon hiul to 
ii£«wer for their af^tinn^ to suiiie Hgid iTunfesi^or 
in the ibsgHiec? of ati agent of pn1ice> Bi]t tliia 
dot« mit disturb the geiicml routine of things^ 


which U the more durable, and appears to be the 
more firmly efltabHshed, because it resembles, in 
its mysterious and inevitable power, death itself : 
that which retnina life camict be extemunated, 
and thus the Rusaian reverence for despotism in- 
volves an idea of etenial existence and omnipotent 



Rujiaa nud Asiacomjuirfd^^Stukien Rise 0/ Hjaata.^Sliivt 
OroMtth 9/ Nntiojfoi lptfit}ifioin- — Dt^j^potic andHepvhtiean 
Choet-nments. — Jtiitaiv-u Recvlufi-Jiu- — Putit'tf 'i/the Nii- 
Ueit. — Cofniitioa ami vSv^'erwfigt of the Srrrfe. — T>nipottwm 
of tht LaadUrriU. — VremoDi-rr, Citiilisiitio'i of Peter thti 
iSrtaL — JbitBiaii Pfppariruiti'iii en Capital Pvntahtnents. 
— THb K-noi/f. — ^^ Hiiftiirng tht (riuiftllaL' — Jiutsrti-a hi- 
tpii^itiniiTie.\A and TreacAi-r^i.'— Actriiientiil Htucrmtrt} with 
the EmpBTar. — GtifiUjiit af Ta*irnhop Selo.— Old Patnrt^ 
oftki;J*iiipreei Caikeriae. — Iini/rrml C'lfiUitiviio vf Wur/i/i 
iff Art. — The J-^nif Artu in Rvgita. — Viplontatio Taet qf 
the Rtuiiaiut. 

TcEBE IB I^B known of Ku^dn than of Ad% and 
it ha» been leae often described ; but it h, never* 
tlielesa^ af (;un[niH a. Quid aa A&hx ilscir, f^v^n wil.H 
reg&nl lu the m(h luii1 llie e<.-uiioinj ofltiu }ketj)k', 
Htid cHpei'iall^ ni n'lutioii t(" hi>t<iiy. A»in, tlie 
cnulle i}f tlie hiinmn vncti, mid once the aent at 
dvilL«atii>D &ad domtmoDt liaa little uiova iLaii 
the biettincai tnbdition of itn grcfitnea-s left to it- 
tbe tide of empire and of acieucc hta ebbed a-vfiky 
from Its ahorc^ and gntdaaL decay in its institu- 
tions and influence hae marked its progress 
RuBBia, on the ootitmryr unknown, mvc 03 a boitlo 
pbarburiiua, |dungt.'d in ignorinco, and rcetriotcd 
tbln the Uiiiite of its iuhoepitablc climate, baa 




»trugglurl out. of ihs frightfiji tiiisl »vlili:!i bui^ 
rouLjdo] il, and extending its domatos, and ad- 
vancing oawaril with gjnnt Bt«pa iq the race lor 
|)0wcr4 cl^ma a precedence among nations aad a 
right to interfere in the councils of the world, 
IVhilo Eiii'oiJC alrcudy heJd the eceplrc of do- 
minion m her hand, tlic &uil of hor cxcrlioJie for 
miuuy eucoGEPiFC- a'^as, Kiisfiia etill lay bound m tho 
Seythiiin gloom of her tbrtt*ls^ uniiluined by tho 
wye of oivUiantion flud eocinl order. Centuries 
of conquest, the eombinfltloa of events, and the 
fliicccpeefiil fltnigij;le agaiiiflt. the j<iMjrnisiea sud 
uggreMiuns nf other niLT.ioDSj formed the ordenl 
liroLigli which thv empireg of KuTt^pL- hud t(>j^)UaBj 
-liefore l.he^ coidd coueolidnle (heir Blrcngth a.nd 
establieh Bcciirely tJieir dtimcAtic govei'Dmciil. 
History teems wkh the purteiitiiLis recurda of thoBS 
dny& of difRcult/ and Cf^ntentiou, and time hna 
sot tlio tmprint of antiquity upon tliem. But 
Knaain. burst from it^ torpor at the bidding of one 
mflu, and entered at onec into the ranks of Euro- 
\iQan oivilieatton, le[i%'ing tha dark pngee of hor 
domeatie feuds nnd blood-stulned tyranny for tho 
Tv&w and vigorous careoi" ebe was preparing to 
enter upon. Iti the tliort eprtoe of one hundred 
nnd fiO.y years Russia haa oveileaped the land- 
marks t*f tiiui^, n-ndj knowing no infancy, hiis 
sprung, MSnerva-like, frora the brain of noe man, 
inLo i'ull luatmity- Hiid in rivalry willi ihe rest of 
Europe, ller true hiritoiy as at nation diiteB froiii 

204 OEOw^rn op national lysriximoifB, 

Peter the Groat, ami no other kingdoro can record 
eqtial advances, or moro poweriVil ijiflueoc© ob- 
taitied witliiii so dh<:rt a lime; years in her ca- 
lendar are cenluriefi in tint of the world, 

A <'ompariaoii between the Jiffi^rpnt sintes of 
Eun>iJB iliows that t]vj»& which ha,\e clung in tJieir 
time-lionoured mstilutione, uitrodiicing only such 
unproTcmeatA as circucnstxtnceH and evGuta Ijqtc 
rejidcred neoc«F<ury, wJtLuut dtaturhiiig the foun- 
dations of the fulirid, have lidilcn sitfcly over the 
biUuwa of every etorui» and increased in yigour 
atul proBpcrily; while their more voktUc octgh- 
bouK, earriod awoy hy Utopian theories of tho 
rightfl of mail, are ever building up now flehomce 
of governnieal, and introducing dangerous ex- 
periments fln{J innovations, to the dealruction of 
all aqciaI order and @ta1>le good. 

I rtjinemher to hitve rend somewheTe, I think 
in AljB<tirs History of Eurujie, the folhis^ing 
passage, Ibe truth jtnd ju^Ir\t i>f whkh struck mo 
ao forcibly that it hn^ljecimie fixed lu my memory ; 
— ''Human iiistitutlona are not Ukc the palace 
of the arcliilect, framed according to fixed rutcv, 
capahlo of erection In a.ny aituation and ccrialn 
ia the effect to be produced. They resemble 
rather the trees of the forojt, b!ow of growthj 
tftrdy of dcToIopmcutt and readily fiU£ccptiblQ of 
dGStmotion. An inetant will destroy what it 
will take eenturiea to |)roduee ; and centunos 
must aga^n elnjise before-, in the s^une situation^ a 



dmilnr production can be Ibmicd, Tranftplant^ 
UoD, diiHcuLt in t)io vegetable, is impo^iblc in the 
tncml WDi'ld ; tlic ecoUling must be oouriahcd io 
tilt soil, iuurcd to the cliinatc, aud Lai^dciicd by 
tho winds. Mimy csatnplee aro lo be foimd of 
inetitutioDa b^iug impoecd ttpon a [H^ople ; 
none of thosd so formed h:\Ting any long dumtion. 
To be ndji.pLiiil 1.0 tlii^rr clijjriicltT und ImbiLw, they 
II1I181 bri\e gmwn with their gRiwth and slreiiglb- 
cued with tijeir fltteiigth," 

Thia |ircambie is the reaitit of the reflcctioiu 
which httvo forced theniaeh-o* upon mc id etiidj'- 
big tbc governiDciit of Ruaaia; particularly m 
rcgnrds its orgxiineatiaTi and it& tiQ'ects, Ktiasia 
cjtbibiie tho cxliaovdinary paradox of t, gc^cm- 
nioot formed without roference to the oplaiona of 
ite aubjecita ; and without availing itself of the «:- 

deuce of tlie pitst lo unprove its syilstu. The 
;e of A nation, ihat ia, ita helplesa dep^nd- 
ISoe on tho absolute will of one man, and it* 
■ubjec^tion to the uppi^eBsivt- tyranny of a. prtmd 
oli^^roliy, liavET ftlway^ fettered iLh moral ad^ 
TUJicj-'ioeiit and rcEtriiiU'd its Bnergies; and tliuj* 
vre fifld tliat, by throviing off the feudal joke> he 
people bflTO emerged froru a stale of ignunutcc 
and ecrvilc feur, and hare Cdttvliliahcd that Umitcd 
monarchy and representative form of goycriimont^ 
^hich ie tho eascnoo of liberty, from its (U vision oi' 
power and ita spirit of mutual control. The two 
extremee, nmnetyr llie despotic and repubLicflJl 


RI.'HSIAM BKvoLrTinxa» 

forma of government., nrc Gqiin.lly darigprotia nn^l 
iitisouu<l; ih(? unc coti[:L'rilmt,iiig irvrry power 
williiiL itself, and jiorvertiug it Lo tU own tLctfifili 
ii^'gnindlaeuicikt, ujitl iJiu othur bunJing luul viuy* 
ing witli every caprice of the |>cople. aud Imving 
oo Htability, owing to Ihc tnLnaicfit authority of 
its ruJerS} and their anxiety to court |>o]>uIiir ap- 

Tlio extent of tlic Russian empire and tbe 
paucity of ptipulflliou over itw auHrioe ascomparvd 
to that extent, are the ffreat di-awboclts ti> miy 
organieed plan for rt^mo<!i*lling its fomi of gov"*rn- 
ment; nnd^ allhotigh Jt has wUnoBf^cd more revo- 
lationa than any itllav vuunCry, and its nobler 
liave nut 1iesit:iti3il lik more timii one inHtance to 
remove by vliJcace their oliiioiiou* sovercigns, 
yet they Imve nuvyr attfimptfid any mnovalion 
Dor a.Liy cliaage in ibeir poJity, but have qiiit^tly 
allowed the old crder of tlunga to be resumed, 
when tlic direction and dictatioa of them va4 in 
their own handsp The reason for Ihie is obviouA ; 
for althougli fear for their poi'sonal safety might 
compel them to doetriij the dretukd tyrantj yet 
the prGsciralinn of their own ^-owcr aud jx^ses- 
aione depondad on tbo maiutcnanuo of that form 
which coald alone secure ihem. The omancipti^ 
tioD of their ^erfa would have heen the immedijtto 
and necessary reeidt of a change m the §ystem of 
goveniitK^nt ; atiil thus their own mKiepfs arr the 
>ure«tguarautt.'i:rur Uit^perjietattllnnuf uh5<jluLwu, 

€oin>rrioH of Tne SEitFg. 


Tho ijTicrancc antl stliject humility of l!ie aoifs 
arc the atrongeat aocutititfa flgftSn^t R.ny effbrt* 
of their own t^>ivnrda mlicnal freedom : and the 
impoaeibility of ihcir uniting in &u0ioient num- 
bcre ir so acattcrcci ft popnUtion roiidora any 
orgEirisptl conspiracy liopeloes. 

The RiiPeiiiiiH attempt to prove to yon that the 
condition of tlicir serfs is onviithle (*om[>ated to 
that of th^ pesfiimte in othsr crnintrles- It ifl ft 
miserahlc tleceprion. In thp distant and aeqites- 
tered JEL-|)artrneiils thoiiwinds vf fajiiilii?»H jmss 
through all the horrors of starvatjon, r4,nd perish 
from luieerT and UnJ effccta oF hrutiility^. Jlumnn 
nature Buffere umversaJJy in Russia ; hiit the 
moa who form the etaple of the soil have the 
hardeat lot. It i^ in Viiin to ccnteud tliflt they 
are entitled to the neceaajtrica of life, when thej" 
haTC not the power to enforce tlic fulfilment of 
this illueivc priviloiic, Tho truth ie stitied under 
tho fftUacioue, thouarh efioeioue, axioni, that it ia 
to the interest of a roaster to provide for hia 
oreatures: hut it le not every man who uuder- 
stands and appreciates hia inttrests. In other 
aocietipfl, and aTiiong other peopio, the had eeono* 
mist niinf* himaelf. and tUi ovil extends ro furiher; 
but here, as human life ronntltutps the wealth 
of i\n indlvidualj tvhole vjll;Lgn» and cantons fall 
«ctims to the iniprovidenee ituJ recklesHntBe of 
their owner- It ia tioie that the government 
steps in and appUea & reiuedj' for these evils, by 



placing the estntcs in trust, wlien it le aware of 
the mi'inhinf ; Ijut tliis tartly relief iijiminl reHtijra 
tin'- ilt?i»1» Pii^ture to jouraulf tJm iiiiisa of iku- 
known miRVringn aittl iiivjiuMefl [>rodiicft] hy audi 
GUfituuu^, under euch a, guvsrEinieut and w suirh n 
clini&tol The despotism of theac laDfUrjrda la 
more aggravated than thfttoi'tbeEmporor bimse^f; 
becauae, from ht^ing withdrawn frtjui the public 
eye, it is not ojiitrollod by the fear of public 
opinion. The epint oi' cIcBpoliam ia nut to bo 
found in tbc equality c^f ite victims, but m tbcir 
icntfniuoo of tbo value of freedom und in their 
fear of tyranny* The power of tin nbBoluta 
tim^ter U a uionster ulnaya remjy to n^&Hate a 
worse, nnoiely tlie tyranny of the people. Domo- 
onitir -Limm^hy (i^mn(tL lie of long dnrjition, fnr its 
voiy eleiueuT.s, Iiti*s«niiello-likef involve its vwn 
downfal; but tho Bydtematic operation of the 
abuses cf autocracy perpetuate fnun gencmtion 
to gcueratioc, unJci' the maak of betJevoJeace. 
uioral ancirohy, tho 'worst of evils, cind material 
obedience, the most dftn^^roiifl of virtuca. 

Tbc hceotfcocJ prlJc of the rulot? \s iutcxicatcd 
with tho iJen of oivilieation without b<nn^ ctvil* 
bod theinselvos; und thu> it i@ with a nation aa 
with au individual, tbo mind must work and pre- 
pare itself by Mtnily nnd refltiction before it can 
tft^te the avroeta of cultivation, Tht^ erentiou of 
the world out of chuos was j>o?idMe to the DeSty 
olono^ und it is superhumun to nrrogutc to ihc-m- 



aelvcs the power oC cxerciaing clvilieatiiH], when 
they theinflclvc0 have harJly cmcrgctl from tho 
oondifion of a lioriio disciplined by terror and 
■ governed by borbn-rinua- 

Tho root of iill tbeee evilfl lios m ibo fsilsQ nnd 
fsrenmture syslera of olvilisalion adopted by Peter 
IfiO elnc.P r Ituj^^m will feel for yotu^ft tho 
efR'cr,^ uf tbc pride of tbat rann. He |x^Hses5r?d 
a dminodd of irtupprodnblti vidui-, but in bie^ im« 
putic^neie to itdd luatrc to Li« cinnHf be dt^viilt^d 
it to hia purpc«e9 in its rough und unpoH^hod 
staten Tbe glory wbiofi bi^toi'y baa atliicbed to 
hi9 tubtne m the object of ^muktioii by his Buo- 
ccfiBors, who seek to rcaemble bim by perpetiiatrng 
his False polity; and who yet have fiuled in per- 
(iciving that the result of hid Inbour has been to 
give an arlificiRl fliii*facc to society — tho vurnieh 
of rofinejncnt upon the I'ude nature of barbarieiu— 
with a view to tnsike tbe rmtion appear civilised, 
bfifore he bad moulded the cbaTacTer of tbe people, 
by developing tb<nr f-iipibilities with jiidgment, 
according to tbeir quality and meana oTactioiL. 

Labouring always to niiiinfjim ninre than tbeii 
true ptiaitiuii, and to aasiiniB a siiiieilonty over 
other nations in this very [xjintof civlliMtion, the 
timdidtonc of tbc^ strength and virtnos ijf a pci.>ple 
— and which, notwitb standing ibcix Bclf'sufficicucy 
and Gmaitr proprc^ they know U tbcir falling 
weakncaa^thc Ruasiana bcapt, ^-ith feclingi^ al(ia 
to tho^ of a einve, wHo belicvce himaclF virludly 



free bccQiLw rcknecd from Itb fcitcrr, that tlifl 
punielxiueat of death is unknown ueocing tliem. 
It ie bacdJy possible to bdieve In such infatuntion, 
or to cuno^Ive ao stolid a perversion of the truth; 
for flltbough, tiv pied df la Zrrfr^, judicial deAth 
ioncj^ DO part of their pe:ia1 code, yet tht^ mode 
of mltnjaieteHiig |JllIu^Lu]tul ifl as eiiru to eBttu! 
It as if the seateucf were fatiL No prevarication 
am be more luijmdeiit ; it is thccryof '* stop thief '' 
raided b^ the rL>hhcr himacif to shield hia own 
crime* Tho Kuesion^ raiso the utmidfird (S hu- 
paaiutjt while thev ure intiicting forturca, under 
the orudty ijf which the Iflc^uted victim dii^s h 
hundrod deaths. The distinction miLdc in tlio 
etnteoco of tlie punishment iiwarded, esjwjses in 
its full deformity this monatroua and preeump- 
tuouB qntbhlc. 

The secret* of the knout «re not supposed to 
iranspire, Jiud its horrors, l.licreri»ro, 4n>unt ft>r 
nothing' ^vith thi:8e ndvi>oite& for hiniiaiilty, 
EitrojH.' iloca not witDcae its lufliction, nml thiLft 
the apiHiamnce of the mildncsa of their U'iI^uh.-iIh 
ie maintained. A few blows of this wenpon 
Applied luteratly flcroee the loins produce certain 
death; &nd this is tiot of rnrc occurrence; id ita 
kfle fatal ahupc it is inflicted latigitudinolly down 
the bocki Icuving indelible marke, aa of fl rod-hot 
yjto^ This i» but tlie £rfit inetiUment of the 
doom allotted to the eulpril in Slhcrift. 

Tlie invention of torture haa, howex'er, not 
stopped here ; fox there isj if possible, a still more 

BiTjmnra the gauntlet; 


atrnclous coutriviincc of bzLrbarlani in e^ieteooei 
termed "mnntng tJie gauijtlct." The law in* 
flicta no capitxl juJiilalimeiit. M if ita reg^ird 
for hu»taa litb was atrictljr Mccre, and at 
TtLriance witJi the giiucinl mtUfFci'oncc mniu- 
fe^tcd in ita belialf throughout tbc empire i but it 
ord&iiie it pmiiehment beyond the power of the 
Imiiin^n fr^ino to sueIiiiu, smd if the victim sinks, 
ae ^ink h& must, the vaunti^d ukildn^&d of tht: 
judicAturo IS upheUI under the mtjjcr.ibEe plea 
that he porishe^l iVouj pli^^i'^^d c-nin^t'if, and from 
no intentional resuU «f tlie sent,i!ticu. It is prin- 
cipiill/ a military iJUuiBliiutnt, ioJIicted on the 
offender by his own couifaJo, thmugh whose 
muks he is dragged, reotivitg frtmi each man n 
blo^v >vith a hcuT/ cane, till cither he ha& imder- 
gotie tlie many hundreda of strokes awarded him 
juid iicridhcd Irora tiieir cfFcota, or the pawcr of 
ondurnncc laiUng him, nature anticipAtcs the 
bt'utftlity cf hia, nnd tormlnaloe Lia 
cxisienue on the Epot. Thbi la no over-drawn 
picture; but its truth ib not g^nemlly hnowilj 
hec^auai? the iufauiou^ nud furmidalilc di^ipUue of 
rh*? Imoiit ba* superseded ah other Kuaslaii 
pimishmonis in the tmnginftJton of eiviLiecd. 
Europe. Tlie Jauufe-hke TUju.-i-t (]f tliis rouiiliy 
ijioTie of il* most rcmarkftMe oJinrrW^tcnstics: one 
luigliL for^vtf the duplli^ily. were it not for tL 
couiwioDsnetw one fceb (if bciug thougiit the dupe 
of *uch miemiUc oophietry. 


DelicjKjjr of fieQUmcnt ifl vainly aought for in 
the catalogue of Kussiim virtuosi the people <lo 
not fnll jnto tijc offoneivaicBB of American vul- 
garity, but ihcy ore equally n^ penitiacioua in 
their mode of qocEtionipg : the fftmiliiirity of 
which ti not at oM cf-ngcmal to thci prUlc lUid 
bahiual reserve of the English chnracler. Tlieir 
iuqui*Ilivene§i9 arucumt* to intm^ii'^n, fi'mn iti^ por- 
sotuil character; and ttv nn imgiinrded person, led 
away by tlie BBeiuiiig intereaE of the ([iie^tiutier 
to reply 111 u ti^ue iif fraiikii^s, tlie iiinat dnngiM'- 
oua coflHi'cpieiiceB might pnai^e. I wa^ mmh- n 
principuJ in one of these uiqui^itorljil couversa- 
twius II few (hija Mtice, while going by the rail- 
r<*ad t*y Tsarakoc Selo; the ol:>je<rt of my visit to 
Rnano, my Ideas of the country and. itd iu^titu- 
tioue, the opinion cnt^talnc^I in England of the 
reigning dynaaty, and the cflect pioduccd by the 
™it of the Hereditary Grand Duke* wtire all mofft 
pcn:itedly aakcd, and, T being on my guard, were 
as ftfitutdy answered- Ton miglil weU charge mc 
with bttug guilty of insincerity in the courso I 
adopted ; hut you niu&i. rcinemhev that T Imd to 
look til my own sifety, and tiiat riiy surest conrae 
waa to clothts myself id tbe habitual hypoeni;^ of 
th^ roijutry. I Lavi? sinco had iho whole eonvoi^ 
stttlon reported (o me by s. friend, wlu» hod hi^rd 
it in Oiiictbcr qijart<-r, with the rcntarlt tliat I waa 
jrcu arisiorr<*t / Thua it i» in Kufisiji; where, to 
1196 an old French Baying, one oiust hi:^ plus hyat 


tpte U roi, or be utterly mote, lo avoid sUBpicion 

and c<>nae[;|Uonl rieV- 

At Ttarskoo Selo 1 Utul the iortiine in meet 
die KmpL-ror in a retired jmrt of llic giirdci^y, rn 
riffjtii// ; J wiy fnrtuiit', beumise, dryni-gtul its he is, 
il. i& imtieuMl fu !^uL' Iiiiii iii uiurUiL gULHC, utidiallu- 
gHiplied hj the trappings of roynlt^j imd the 
i>rou4 bearing itnd theatrical deportment li^lntual 
to hiia, 1 waa flt his aide witliont recogni.^ing 
liim in He looflD surtout and traTclling cup, efroU- 
ing nlong m deep contoirpltUion ; and it vrnn not 
till our eyee met, tliat I fell hi^ prosenee, — 
ye&j felt is the only appUcoble teriD ; for it is 
impos£]l>Ie to xviiEifland his en^le glance without 
an indcdiifiblc ^ensQtion of awe. He had juet 
arrivt*d from Moacow, and being nlmost uo- 
i*iisct»ptible of fatigue, \ met him xtgain in the 
cuiirse of my u'idk, driving tJie Er^preas in a little 
giiiiltn ciinLtg*'. 

Tl^e gurdeiis jj,1 Tsy,ri«toe are hiiil out witli great 
elegance and eiFect, in the landsca|je style, and are 
the only rei^Uy unartificial tilings Id tbe dotnaia: 
the little aririoury, and tlic dairy-fann 6toclcc3d witJi 
Durham onttlc, are in e^ix'llcnt ta*tc. But the 
old palace, the seat of the orgies tif tlic Emprcd^ 
Cnihcnnc, is tlio moet cxtravngant and limtaetio 
Bimeture conceivable. The promineut jmrts of 
the extoririr of the hnildicg hav« boon at one 
tune gilt, hut the e^cti» of lime iind clinintci hav< 
removed every traoe of goldj and nothing reniaini 
r Z 



but tlic ycilow coa.ting on which the precious 
iJKttil wan kid. Intcrnalij, chllcli8h fiiucy and 
barbaric sploiidour arc ao blenJed, that Na[*lcon'» 
Ctjlobi'atcd snying, " dn flubtim*' au ridictth il u'lf 4t 
^it'tin pasj" wning from him by feigned indif- 
ference to hia Ruasinn die4iet<*rfi, might with great 
jdfitice be applied to l!ibt dieplny of former Hnflsiaa 
lii^te. IncoDgniity ri^igria througbtiul tbe ti]«Lrt* 
mcntfl, and the most violent extreiuea are brought 
into close contaol, Tn one room the wiiU«, and 
even the Ixxl^ttwd, ai*e uf ghiej, in uiiuthcr tht-y 
Jire ctmted with iimhur, tn a tbird theysrc ryretrt'd 
with jupan-work ; iiml, m if tr> oatvie In cxtmvat- 
garKtr "liven thi.^^-e f/istly nnd jib^iml wKuos, unothcr 
room h bedecked vt'nh a kind of putchwork of 
pioturca by the old nnwtcre, to the destruction of 
cffijct, symmetry and arrangement, lu the con- 
fusion of otijectf* tliue crcjitcd, it ie almost inipos- 
ttible to fonn any opinion of their vuluc ; and the 
ju<Igmont 13 besides disturbed by the rogrot of 
Boeing such costly articles applied ai& a caBmg to 
the wall^, disfiguring what they «>ught to cnui- 

Tlio ynliio und nnmber of works of art by the 
old niMterHj conlfliiied in tbe Impcriail collection^ 
lA hflnlly known to the gciier^ilily of Knrthjie, but 
lljey arc vtry oonaidenible and ever <in the In* 
orrsi^c ; llie ntlive agentft of the Emperor in 
diAci'ent countries never neglecting to procuic 
the finest epccimenfi aci they l^eccme soJcablc, The 

Tnre ARfiiN RuesTA. 


Husaiitns |x>int with pride to these a^lcliT.ioDs, 
US a proni' of their aiipcrior wculth and luiigui- 
fiocuoe; Irat like tLo jowd In the liunghiJJ, thoy 
nru of littlo value to those who seek the ^nin cf 
com in tha feubelantialities and onjoymeota of life. 
The oraviag for ^plenduur and effoct, liko n gaudy 
binding to u bocik of bliink leapt?^. is only ineant 
to dazzle the pje whiL? it ikcpivGS the irari^na* 
tion. There is n.n old ancotlotR of a litnatip wh*>, 
believiag him^lf in ihe pnp4fii^8!!i]on of uD^KHindod 
riohes,atul thelnxHrics ofn well-a|njcvinted kitchen^ 
coiuplalned th^it everything tasted of gruel, whicli 
indeed woe hb only fare : aoid diiis it i^ with the 
HuasiiLua; display and extcniiLl giiuideur give the 
appetiisQce of eubntantUL wealth and happiuc^^ 
but, alns ! it ia a hollow mockery ; for th<wc are 
but a glittering veil thrown over the sense to 
conceal the nrUccdncBs of the land, of which the 
people th6iiieeh\« are unooueciouB. Their eove- 
p<iign phjeician may gild the piU as he will, but 
the knowledge of Ita bitter ingredients i^ to the 
healthy taste r^voliiDg ttn^vc ad nauaeaBi. 

The fine arfs ore certainly in a raoei flnTirishing 
«t]ilL', in tlie Russlun defliLitiou of the term ; tlint 
ifi» there are lunnonne biiildiega called Auidemiea 
ftud Institutions witli a full ^^tJifT of pnifessnrs ; 
the Bludeiite ure »U dressed In n aeuii-ndlitary 
amform nnd go punctually ihioiigh tlie dis^cipline 
of thcii' studies: the outward effect is perfect; but 
not ao the inward m^ult. Is it from on inhcreat 

r 4 



defect of tbo ftjstem, or froio tliQ cffccte of the 
climato, or from both, that any real advancement 
in llie arU reumins a dead letter ? Tlie Litlur 
cerifiwly Kmb ita influence^ for tKe obli<itie rays of 
q, northern sun have never yet succeeded \n 
kindling the fire» of crentive faacy i iiud where 
tbi5y linvi* family gVimiiieretl, the* spnrk han 
been kinclled from iin^re g<iniii,l jiinirces. Th« 
fomier, hijwever, is th*) niliiig i^nst^ fur the arts, 
to fiounah, mu-'tt be fi'ee; ue in^pinitLoiiB cf ibct 
nund, they refuse coercion and the ffttercd dis- 
cipliuc of system; they cannot be tlrilkd into a 
mere mcdianicaJ routinccf cxJelcnc^. The goniua 
of Brunow warnn-J into eomcthiiig lihc life during 
bis residcuco an<l etiidjct- in Italy, but \ih powcra 
chilled and <rmduaUy ff»raoak hira on hia return, 
and he ia cow reported to bitve :ibftndoned the 
easel and to havo fidlen into ii conrse of vicloua 
intempemnee. Hih large picture of the Destruction 
of Pompeti ia finely conceived, but is laiileil v-dth 
too iniieli of tlie tbeiitri^yil i-fTL^i^t jwdiiliiir to tht? 
Preach sclioul. 

A large |iainttn^ of the Kfihiing of tlie Serpent 
m tlie Wildcrncae h'M been dcpouted lu a room 
of the Winter Pnbiac, to which tlic public y/rso 
permitted to have a.c<:cHa. It ia mentoncus n^ a 
Kuaaian work of art: but there itU pmiac must 
<^oo^j for it ia utterly deficient in &11 poetic feelings 
and griindciir of coatieption. Moecs and Anr<in 
arc riiduced to mere shado^vy forme, standing at 



Llie eiitr:iiL<^c of it cave In the middle grouuil, wbiJe 
llie ferpfiut, iikr>EiL(]cd into tlio fttrra of a cnpitnl 
romau S, h perched on the top of on ekborately 
finiaLed Ionic stoa© column I To say nolhing 
cf the umichronjam, a strict adherence to the 
description \u Uic Vulgate would have shown a, 
higher fccliDgj if not a bettor toeto; but the 
piCtiii<o U ottt^^rwiee full of d^feota botb in the 
grtmpin;; ;»nd attitudes of the people : tlie former 
■ U not ^utlSekntly unasked, and the Utter gives the 
idea of worship rnlhcr tlmn of ubedicncc nnd awo. 
Niitiire on the Dne hand, Jind tbeir fiimi of gi^ 
\eT7ioiGnt oa tlie olberj have hcI limits to the 
mental [Hiwer of the RnsffliJtns in most renpfcl*; 
liut have oinupetissited to tliutu in aome dq;rce \ty 
endowing thorn mth one .<iunlifioation m which 
they are unequalled. The intellect, undisturbed 
by the aecinircmciit of lighta- and moi-o elegant 
puTfiuite of JiTo, hue been nble to concentfdte itself 
on one point ; wbieh hahJt, dcnved irora a eonec 
of rteoesHity, hoB rendered perfect, Accuetoracd 
to obeervatioii of ohm^aoter, and to diesimulntion 
and the conctialmtnt oC iheir ft\vn feelings; es- 
chewing ftincei'ity ti* a most dangei'oua evil; they 
are nntn.itclied as tliplouintists : indeed thdr quick 
|jercepti[>r, tiriLitiwd eunniii*^ and imhouiided fei^ 
tiliLy in rciour'ties, remler tlie a.rt uiitural tt) tlii*m 
without Btudy or [iractlco. It h nuL a mere 
politicalsciencewttlitliem, but one which also enleis 
mto tlie daily tmnafictioua of life, and forma the 


groundwork of tbeir general deftllngB. Tbe Ger- 
man epithet of Menechenkennem is exactly ap- 
plicable to them, for their knowledge of the 
hnman character is astonishing^ considering that 
it can only be derived from a source presenting 
ever apparently the same monotonous and disci- 
plined aspect Tbey poaaeea all tbe elements 
necessary to make them the most espert chess- 
players : in fact the empire is to them an immense 
table, on which they are studying their own moves 
aa well as watching those of their opponents ; the 
very pieces, in the actions assigned to them, bdng 
figurative of thdr own restricted motions and 



CrHtridisudifii of Riuiiia.-^ Siijfj/lit'H ftrr tfie Capiti^.'-OxcTb 
nfrhf UhTQinf,^- Fi\i!eji Murhfft of SL PftprsJmrg. — 
Lvm/'-itm n 7h'i*i:-^I^r>imiiti' of frotftii Grfirutt,- Drri- 
tion of T^/xiur mid Rrnfljif. — Shijrpivg TiYidr of C'niitMtridL 
^^Hi'avji I}utir.f en E.spo/ij. — liailrofht aiitl Steam Cam- 
mnnicalUnt iiUfjditced intu Rusiiu. — Espm-UiUiHi vf Ctrrn 
Jroj'i Hus'ui. — PYiihiiiitor^ Ihitiot oti Importn. -^ Btttita 
pttiil tfn liasiian /NiflJut-c iry Efiglaml, — Sringglili^^ — - 
Biirritfrt- — /irj/fsj cf Aiheiitiirfrw To ltN**w.^ Imjtti/il 
Eiuyytiri'^enii^it fff Wcrli^i: Implrm'^viii. — Uriherij esacn- 
fml Fo Stit^Lfis.—Frniuhift'Ht Apfmiprtijrtmi nf th'* Idrvi *}f 
Pngt'ct^rt. — Ptipu-luli-'jn *if the Eufi&tQn Empirfl^—^ I'nt' 
jiorlitm of SfrjU. ^Staudme At-mjf,-^ Di/cijiUnn a/ Tict^ 

Russia uiftj be said to coTiilVme Iwo points af 
ceutruliBiitTon ; njiruclj, the Euijicror iiui his 
capititl ; t!ie latttr a& the Tocua iroin wbiclitrery-' 
thing rnr^aics or crinvergca, an^ the fonnet as the 
oraclo towarda which cyery hope und object apo 
directed: but it is to ihc latter 1 oow wish lo 
driisv your attcntiDiu ^tatiaticiilly sifcaking, llue 
centr:Llisntion manlfceta itfiolf in n. most cxtni- 
oi^dinary munner; f(jr tbo wbok^ etiergiue of the 
empire, to its remolcet [wirla, are occiii>ied with 
the menriB of fiiraUhing the cu|}ital with sup- 
plies- The positioa of xh^ city in the tnidst of a 



renrleiiug besides an/ produce from tie alicndy 
ungmtcfTil ai^il uu iupufi^ibUiiy ^ it \a enilriAy 
dependant on tLo distaiit provinces for every 
article of conaiinmtion. Lite ante, tiic people JU'e 
compelled tijcierdec their ioreaight in prcpaititione 
agiunst the winter, and to lay in those atorca which 
from their bulk can only reach tlicm by wator 
oonveyanee frotn the south. Watot-mctona nnd 
the choice frnita are brought up from the govera- 
raent3 >»eynnd Mc»8CM:f^v ; for ihe climate at Sf- 
Peioribury; bo fn.r forbids any produce of the kind 
that cherrieB nuigt be grown under glw^. Jnj- 
men^e htrilK of ospn iirp winatanlly arriving m 
siicceasiua IVom the ITkniiiie; the nieat, notwith- 
9Unding tlie length of the journey, uUltough not 
fat» is good flu^ eucculent, but the mutton iq 
scarce and bad. These oxen lire fine large bea«to, 
of an uniform pale slate oolour> with black muzzles 
and hoofs and crcsoent-shajicd horna : nnd it atrikne 
me that the intrcdiicfi.on of the breed into Ihia 
country would bo hcnc^eial to ourgraaiicrs* Tho 
importiitioii of Flemish horeea haa certainly Im- 
proTed our beasts of heavy draught, and wliy should 
not the Rueaiau cuttle protluc** an equally good 
resolt? In the aummer, matters proceed smoothly 
enough, and it wouM he imagined that winter 
Woulfi present insuperable difficnltipa and ob*tflrlos 
to the arrival of aupplie*; hut the reviTsc is tlia 
eatBBr aa UjhI seaaoo hueomet ii> ffict tho purveyor 



of delicacies which can be procured at no other 

The Frozen Market, ae U I9 caUadi U porh&po 
one of the moat roniiirltrLbk* eifchta in St* Pelora- 
burg. It begins at Cbi^slJiinfi, and losta till tlio 
tbaw la iiboul to Bi-'t in. The produce of tbe aal© 
of thp coinmcKlitiofl ii conlaine, furnishes the metiiu 
of (ixretenwi tL> distriuf a tit many hundnide of niil^ 
from the nietroiwillp, even to the ehoi'i?^ cf the 
White Sell; but atitl ii ih h uiatter of speciilutioUf 
for tlic \rinler6 m llua*ia are woi a3>vaya Mvevi 
cnciugh, as rogarda the fall of auow, to allow 
the ttiknffit of the slcd^ca. Should the atkow act 
in late, or fail the pcoaaiita nHer they arc well 
advanced on thoir JQurncy^ — for of ooui^o Loth 
tho enow and the winter Eire ea.r]ier n,nd Ic8# 
variable in the more northern p^rte — the gooda 
pcrleh and are destroyed nn the road. As aoon as 
the winter commences, thou sand e of sledges leave 
the Ciatricis bordering on the IVliUe Sea, laden 
with the frozen ciirciisea of pig*, goixts, reindeer 
and oxen, the white hnre, the rajtevcajliio, and 
other indigenoujj Ppecicss of gc"ou&(>, cud fish, 
Iwluugu, sturgeon and a multitude of olher titih> 
nil fni^en to that extent that they yield only to 
the Iiatchot and eaw, Thia Journey, of three or 
four thniiaand verdta*. occuijies eomc time, and 
tlte great object of the pcaeants is to arrive &t it* 

* A voret is about thrw <ii.mrtur« of an En^lt^h mile- 



termination ly Cbristiuaa-clftj i but, as T hitvc 

juBt et-ite'l, they occasLonally find the anow fail 
ihnia a& lliey work aautb, anO thtifi the pafleap;o of 
tlioir fledge* is stopjicri. If but a mooicariiry 
inlerviil of inilti wPiitbtr occiirti^ thaw nffi-ct? their 
perwhnble OiCiTnm«ditiPS, ilecfiy begins, nrnl the 
liicial polici? inti-rfermg, rill tlie provisions are 
IfUJ'utj as mifil Cur fijoJ iiiul lo pruviint luftclkin. 
Tho hi&fl IS iiitiJcuhihlc to jXKjr uiiiu i auJ tlie 
want uf the usual auppl/ la severely feU in the 
metropolis. An inetiinuo cf this occurred tn aomc 
extent ia tUo winter of 1841 ; during the whole 
of which tiio thcrtnomt^tcr hni'dly fell below zero 
of FahreiJuit- 

The KueBUin^ diinda their wbtcr into two 
|:erLod^ dUtingniehed its the Uttle mid the great: 
the fi>riner, wJiich b comparatively apeftking mild^ 
and intorrupletl by oo^iuional ihaws and rain*, 
lastfi till the n(?w your; whor the frost sets in 
without ft choekr raacbiiig itH gn>iiterit twvi^rity In 
Pebniswy; iVw they term iJie great winter. It 
u thej-eibre lo tltc ^-idwitiidts iif llie litUr wiuUrr 
that the speculators In fi'o:£en ^ooJa luv ttibjt^ct, 
A large Held ni the ontratie-e of the city, iuid ono 
of tlio public ifquarw, arc the epoto wberc tho 
Froecti Market tako place The diflcrcnt clt?- 
meiitd Bccm lo have oxhauAtcd thcm^vce in fup- 
Duhing ihis imtacn&Q imd viiricil iuppltcV) wluoh 
nro eomowhat tastefully arcn.»f:od, :dthoiif^h the 
general appviLrojiCti U not teniptiiig ; theri^ Eire ao 




fatiarc*! njidthcnrls ncccsfory to \iftu llicec arc 
a. milrtwil from St Petersburg to Moscow, and a 
itCftm communicfttion on the Volgn^ from Tver to 
Astrnchaa. They &yq both efniivnleat to n now 
crofttion of tho rpsources of the couutry. Rugeta 
ftboundft in a mLLllilude of produc tiding which have 
been hnrdly uvailuble, nml if at all, onljr hy a mast 
teiioaa nnd expensive process, thnmgh the want 
of convpyanue ; minerals, the exuheiiuice of her 
harvest, anil tlie vnst variely of its veg^itshlc pro- 
ducts will now he btaught l« renily markcta. The 
iTitiat fertile put iif the country will bo fippruxT- 
mnted vxith the mo^t bnrreDr and the chii^f diffi- 
culty of ti-avelling the enormous clistaaces from 
city to city, will be almost citinguiahisj. The 
commiLmcation of mtclligoncc, a matter of singulftr 
importance in advJLncing civih'eation in KuaBia, 
will aha operate moat bcnolicinily on the moral 
state of the people* 

lu on ft^icu!lural point of view, as regards iho 
esportatioa of corn, Rueeia takes iho lead of all 
other countries of Europe ia the following pro- 
portions! — 


Gcnnuij and Huuburg 


• 175,000 



would BoC bo wdk wiih uiy oilier curgo, BcaSdei 
all tboselocsl JcnvuKb on Hut mdasirj oftlie pecH 
pl«, ilm fimdgn trndc tAkw iilfiui CDOTtiiquiiqnD. 
ttty of uicrvlL^uidiM;, Uitli ru uid mAaufaiTtijrrtl, 
vliich fifids it« vp-ny into {be cit^ for sLipneiit; 
but, u I liave before lold jrou, it U Dowherevmu 
Tbc appcftrancc of St. IVtcrsbing banlij wunnta 
ikc fiu:t tliat upwvda of fiiWn hondrod ahijw 
Jcavc Crijn«tadt flnctiiLlijr vitb cargoca during 
the short eunuuCT ecodoo ; and d»ul>tlcu tbc num- 
ber wvuld bo even plater, but for «oqic tm«ri«e 
fiscal rcfltrietiocA of the Emperor. Alanr Amcri- 
coR cbipa which urnvt 6Ugar-ltfd«a retam cni|^^ 
because ihe hca;^ export dntios on cordage, dude, 
and sulcloth, drive them to oth^ countried ; in* 
<|e6d, genenUly q^eaking, the whole commerce of 
the ciupirt> hu received a eeviere blow by the 
recent a^tdittJia rhe Emjirror hfU fnnde to the 
duties uii dU gouds eixportal, tn tliu bi^lUff dial be 
Btwidif wkboiil n cumjjetiUir, aol tl^mt hII uiber 
ociunLri<^ uivst txioie to huu frmn n^^ci^^ait j. 

The Emperor i« oow preixirlug two of tins 
greftiwt boons he can bestow upon hh empire, 
wtuc}i will not cm)j aH^t most bene&cUUv the 
iatentti rcsourcca of the country, but aM Ba^U 
itself: they will be the first real ucpctus cvcar 
given to its positive eiviLisation, by tca^liif^ tbe 
poopkt ibc bcetmcona of taking advantage of thear 
edit uxtnicting thuiu hx tho use cf mac^eTT-, 
and oprcading the knowledge of medicine, coAnti- 



l>oot1ie nor 3ho]*e, but evcrythmg is m pteiit air^ 
pilod uf) 111 t,he sludges or built up in layers* It 
nppeoTH Lke cxu,ggerAtioii to any ttni tlio grouee 
ma heapod h\ pyriuuiJs hj thouga&ils: but so it 
i* \ and they meot with a rewdy sale. Tbc bgjere 
store theiu lu tbtir ice-ccUars by dozens, uiid keep 
them tLu8 till thti eosiuog suinmer, wbi^u tUey 
Hftf tbiiwed by botng pliingeil \nX\\ cold wairr, and 
l^rovL' gtjod eating. 

K^te tlkG iuipcLus giveij to the dtlT«reiit 
pftTie of the empire to proride fi*r tlilfi caipitjd, 
dcauded of ibe comiuonest eelf-rcaource; uud 
rciruirk^ beside, how equally the benefits ^re 
divided by the advantage *o tikilt'idly takeu ol'thc 
tiCBSOD* In tho winter, ae wcliavc actn. tbc hardy 
people of tbc extreme north areoo the aicrti while 
the more aoulhcm prcmucee are I'cduced to iu- 
iwti^ity. In the Buiumer huge drovea of cattlo 
are brought up from the Ukraine, water-melona 
and frait^ from Ode^a and Aatrachiui^ and com 
from Tambof ; hay, piled up ioto Tast stacks of 
lusnTiy tons weight, is Hoated m Uu^ce from the 
inicrior; and firewood, principiUly of ihc birch 
trw!, cut iutu billets i-etuly for ilie stove, follows 
Ilk tt HiiiiiUr rnanneiv Ttie eonati'uetiou erf thoae 
hurgesjiuiil the felling of Llie trees, are the principal 
empJojincnts of the pcaaajitry during the winter 
months* As the Imrges never return, but are 
broken ujj for firewood, they ai^c meal roughly 
put together and barely water-tight j indeed tbcy 


FKOiiimroKr orTfES. 

The Tiverii*p! price niiiy lie iii\cn tit40^. 6*/^ [ler i)r<j 
(rcG nil lma,ril. CiiLiiiucrctitl ti'trrittisft ara doubtless 
iiiobt vaUialple aa ^eciinng the mclpi'ociil gnod 
faitli of nati*>us> a[ii3 catahlielijiig iLeiv rclalions oa 
a firm ba^ia ; ami they arc also neoessary aa oata- 
hJiehiogTnutnnl]>nTilc^ to the cxcluaion of other 
nations, whtt^c dc^mesticpolipyiaof too prohibitory 
ft charaotcr. In hor anxiety to promote her own 
DULDufncturc-e RiisaiA haa ufi^sod sv fcalo of datioa 
on all foreifjn merchandize, 00 nearly approachinff 
to prohibitiotk, that her tmpoita are moat incon- 
iidembk; ancl at the Bum? time ahe cbarget 
heavily on her exjiorts, because she feel? flhe baa 
almost tht? eniirt iiionajjoly of them. Self interest 
la the first oliject of every stiile, jind Russia is not 
at all di&postsd to rhaugw lier policy from mere 
motives of mislakcn phibiuthropy. Drngs, ooaK 
indigo, aod a few other minor jirtic[e»« are all ehe 
reOMves from England ; which in return take^ 
more than half of the produce ahe czporta. 

England &£t]i!s ^«Arly 10 St, Feti^rBbiirgb aboai MUO 
AmcricB - - - -70 

Frunce • - - - 70 

Tbo roH of Eorope tad other pnTla - - SQO 

The followiDg table will give you an idea of 
tbe quantity of the exports to England onlyi anj 
of the amount of duty levied upon tbeip. 




R^jub^^A ^^^^^^H 

1 Hemp - 




■ n^ * 




■ Tdlow - 



620,726 ^^^1 

1 PMaflhtt 




^^H Brifttka - 



^TM ^^H 

8(Lniovy - 




9>e4T ^^H 

Glue - 




WooJ - 



Froif ^^H 




2,(iOd ^^H 




i-2i ^^H 

Kdc5t tDV 




HLrlP9« fnnn&] 








Rop^s. n)d 




Oatum - 














ieo,B3J Tdiecvcrtd 


Wl\eflT, - 


!7,0afi " 




l.&3e Ank. 


QuiUfi - 


2,91-1,«7^ " 


t Mat* - 


7*,3a'i « 

9,199 ^^H 



483.380 " 

Si7 ^^H 

D(3lJ« . 


3I>;^,3Q0 doK, 


97S,fi60 ^^H 


aSvor roobloBk equal to lA0,l>00f» ^^^M 

• Pood i& about 40 \he. 


^ ThvsG umU iov niad& tram the li&rk of th 

a Liiidfiri troo ^^| 

in the norlh-eBst 

of KuHLiK from Ihi? Oofboe a.ttd iho ^H 

WtUugUl. 10 KiunAi.'ibl>i:H. 14,000,000 iirti HUp^joaed Ui bi- ^| 

tnjLdt* j^urlj, atcipfiinj 

1,000,000 treefl. und ruLurnuig ^| 

3f000,000 ulvci roablM. 

<* 2 






BMCOdLINO ^BAllBre&fl. 

Tiiia jum tlic jwopic of England aunufilly pay 
for the prinlcgu of the trade In iuldition to 
tltcso coEnmoiiliOB, 4^7,416 yards of t^raght to- 
gotbor villi other iirticloa, are also tukon ; but I 
um nut :iware at tliU mameiU of the e^iLct noiount 
of duty they pay. 

SiuD^ling, AA you may itnagine, ftnd a» I bave 
Tncntioned oa a previous ou'iisioa, ia r-arried oti to 
a vcry^ conslderahlc oiiLeiit; iiotA^itlwUikdiii^ the 
cordon of custom-Lfiiiae officern dniwn nnitid th« 
rily, tHe nigh(Iy pjitmle ftf ti mounted giiar«I> and 
0. vigiLiiit luok-out at the borriera of the city* 
ThcBO bnrrieTA ure an adaptation oi* the Oenaan 
tfvhlagbaum, and ai'c always kept dmvm across 
thfi roLnl, and guarJcd hj BcntinoU ; whose dulj 
it ia to questioQ the oemipants of every carringo 
or other \chicla as lo tJieir deetination of going 
outj and iheir pcriut of departure if coming in. 
But il la QD absurd practice; for, excepting la 
Ca*ics cf euspiciou, the eaiTiage U never aearohed, 
and the j^eiieml reply of " na datrJia" (tu my 
estate), t^ invoriahTy ^uSicjent to raise the ma* 

Aiuou^ the few travellers who resort to Bueaia^ 
it U singular bow large a proportioa of them are 
iUtmctcd hither by a spirit of adveuiui'e; ito 
muniliccncc of the Emperor in rewarding those 
who place Ui^ful diacoveric^ and inTcntloKe at his 
di-^o£!il on the one liand^ and a general feeling 
which exiats tUi'oughout both Europa and Aweriea, 



that in the low state uf the arts and inanufaclure* 
of rtus&la, there i* n Lirge field for tbe speculitor 
in new Bysteiue and pmci|jleB on the other, bring 
ycaxiy a number of eoi'disaot invdotmra and 
plannore. But fbw succeed ; and tho roat, after 
having waited ibr mpntlis, living oa hopes never 
to be realised, althi^ugh [lerLaps led on by epeoioiu 
promises of etieouragemeut, abandon their attempt* 
in utter hopelesaoc-ss and despair. The inveiiiion 
of a gun on a new and good principle, however, 
or the tDiprovement en auy otfker warlike c?T]g1n9 
meet with intrnediate attention fToni the Knijieror, 
and ;l princely reword eatl^fiea tbe fortuuatc pn> 
jeotor, Tliet^e are aiAtters of personal iJittrest t« 
him ; but other Bchciues must pas^ thtvugh the 
tedious proccda of o&ial eomtiny; and tbe no- 
lhorilie&, without an exception* regulate their 
decision Aud opiuious in pruporticn to tlic omount 
of Bubatantial interest they beeome the reeipient* 
of individually. This iniquitous ^jstetn biif been 
the m4?anB of defeating many a well-coueeiicd 
project and heneticid discovery; besides deterring 
men of high tiilent and great ability fi-om devotirg 
tliemselves to the wunte oftlie country. It la an 
onleul which few liigh-minded toen will consent to 
Hubinit tg. Fre^iuent instances occur of a augges* 
tion being wcllreceived.andof its details and opera- 
tiona being honestly but unguardedly oxjihiined by 
ita projector; and after the whole matter is tiilly 
understood, ho civjlly receiver his oongi5, miil i^ dc- 


fVAUtletl of liiH jIiic^h : Kin tilrju Wiig i^nrrirnl (nit by 
othrrr?!. wJtiiuut eitlicr tlinjAs or rw^mMpanre to 
himwir. Suoc«»* cfin only h\'. vn»urcd, even after 
the payiiwut of t]i« necc^ary douceur, cxcvjidii^ 
by tfkc docpcit cnutkan, and inoflt jcalous Tigil&ncei 
by ahrotuliii;; tht; iieud in the diirkcflt tutd mo»t 
impmotrablc foLdst to prevent tliclr boing dagucr- 
rotyi>cd by tlit- cxqiiiaili,' fincsed and wily liubtlcty 
of 1L08C moatcr-epiritfl of duplicity. Tlic charaotor 
of tho f coplo, like their soU, ie (Without eclidity ; 
and U rcqulrcfl grout k[tawt<K]gi> find oxpcrii^ao^ to 
avoid tho dangers concealed by its tr^chcrous 

Tn SL fc^nnor letter when dcsc^rTbing tho position 
of f he BL'i'f^, I gftve you Buiiie viva of ihdr nunibera, 
from ftn oM ccii«uhi a ihotg recent one hiu just 
bemj publiHUed, wliJrh puts tho totn! popiilution of 
the Rii^simi empire at fifty-three oillioaa five 
hundred thounand sotila; of which only eleven 
mtllions five hundred thousand arc free [teoplc, 
<iTi(l tlic rotnaining forty-two millions eerfa ; fiftcciL 
Oiilliona belonging to the crown, and twontj-eevcn 
miltinna to private imlividufil& Thiie, only one 
mnn in five ib free lu Ruflj?in ; &nd every tenth man 
w a aoldior : tho atnnding army being computed at 
1,200,000 ; n forof! exoeeding that of En^jland, in 
proportion to il* pofiulntion, by 955,000 men ; 
nitbout a colony to |irij|(M?t, or a ftjrtlficd lown to 
defend. Large mroiesj ftmounting to 300,000 men, 
nuuupy PoIiukI and arc eiigp4gG<) m tb*^ Circas&iun 


war : but tlie rest of tLIa enormous host is dieta-* 
buted througliout the empire, to overawe and keep 
in due subjection the preponderating numbers of 
the serfs. Fifty-three millions of people are dia- 
cipLined to conform to a government eetabliahed, 
not for their benefit, but to eecure to one man 
the unbounded privileges of rank, ambition, and 
power; from any participation in which, as the 
natural right and inheritance of mankind, tbey are 
peremptorily excluded. 



wiSTKtt sronTS. 


— A'«rrrJi/i Karape n/ it Sporfrnimt. — ^n Englt«h '* T.s^a- 
ther-Stockiug. " —Elk Si^iting. -- Th: Ly^.—A W^ite 
Fox^"' Ci>min/m Foj^a. — Wh'tt ayut othrr tlatp^.^ 
Orowe, Wfiter-Foufl. — Husdia a rtch Ftdd for tho 
Nttbtmlvit. — Fun. — In-dour Jtreaa. — MatTia^e Mart 
on Wk^ Monday, — Armuai I'rotwtiadtt Uajfit. 

You rany probably hnve imngined Llmt in a ccun- 
tiy otiFcriog each a wide field t*> tbe sportsman, I 
htt\e indulged in my fevoiirile exerci§e, and been 
initiated Into tlin mysteries of the noi1,bem eporta ; 
but, in truth, I have hnd but little op[>orliintty- 
The winter aporta are the most prominent and 
exciting, being confined prinriimlly to the ellc, 
liear, Jiml wolf; but it is nepcswiry for a man to 
}iuvc hia wholt^ aoul iu the chase, aud to he entirely 
devoted to its pleosurts to eiyoy them fiiUy, There 
ifl no retreating when he is om^em the field; thea-c- 
fore, ho must be prepared for fiitigueandespoenrc; 
and he must be posaeaaed of nerve and presence 
of mindj aa the pursuit ia not devoid of danger. 

Tlio woli" is destroyed in ft variety of wsiye; 
eomotimce he ia ridden down by two horscmca, 
whose horsoe, prwaing with oaec and rapidity over 
the hard-frozen surfaee of the ghow, eoon brmg 



tbcm fibrcu&t of hxm, when hfi le brctught down by 
a pietiiil i3hot ; and at other timcB ho is enticed 
■withm gun-shot, by tnen dru-ing in a elcdgo in 
'tiie neighbourhood of his hnunta, aoil <^raggiug a 
bundle of hay hebmd them with a long cord, 
viiiie a [Jig, which they have with ibcin, is made 
to BrjneaL The wolf, attracted by the cries, and 
lavenoua from hunger, pLii^ues the olijev;!, tntiUiig 
behind^ &Dd l8 despatched hy a rifle ^hot from tJie 
riedgcw This flport cuu unJy he folluwcd vat oa 
mootiliglil nightie, and la paitlctJuily Jjing^iroua 
when BCYcral wolves join Jn purstiit of the akdge. 
The elk ftnd bear arc "ruiig,*^iia it ia technically 
termed The pcu^onts toko great ploo^urc in this 
proccsB, and the more ao a& thoy obtain a hand- 
eoDiii gratiuty if they Euc<:e<;d in acoomphshiiig 
the oporfttioD ; which they will travel ft hundred 
milea to communicate to any gportsinim willing tf> 
BTail himaelf of it; and there U no Jack of thenu 
Engaged, prolwbly, in their daily vocation of fell- 
ing wood, in plac^ aimroa^hablu only under the 
influcnco t»f ihe frciat, they fir^t perceivt the tr:ick 
of the bt^iut in the sntiw, and trui^mg it tUl it is 
lost 111 aouit wood or cover, they encircle the spot 
at fiome distance, to bo eatlafied thut tbe gajiic is 
Bafcly lodgedi Tliia task is rcj>eated for ecvenj 
eiJ-cceedvc duys, with the moat watohfiil eye for 
&ny frcah tracca which might announce its cecapCj 
and if there bo none, a mceaenger niounte Iub 
dodge atid starts for St Pct^^ebiirg to sell hie 



diecOYCr^ (if oP a bciir, for one hundred Toub]oe)i 
and rotuni with the party of epoTtemen to indicate 
tho spot. 

A crovrd of poostuils eurround tlio plooo, and 
ftmong ihera, at proper intcrcaU, tho ii^ftrkanicn 
tttke their 9tanU. T}^c do^ ur<; ttirncd iu, unii, if 
Jt bo a bear^ it is soon roused, and attempte to 
bretik the Hng; an ui]hT.iL*«?sHful sluit tiirus liifn 
back, to ap[>eHr at ^inotlit^r pbce, anil if \ui he not 
fortunatH eJioiigh to g(.-t clpJir, which et^hlom 
occiiiN liig doom ib ik>im flAed. Sometiuitua ihere 
ys a difficulty in di^lodgiiig litui, and the hunters 
ai'O compelled U> enter the wood to face hmi in 
hi5 own faatnc33C3; which h an aiiair oi' some 
danger, oa he then often turnsj and bccomca tho 
attftckiug party. A gentleman of my 3c<iimiat- 
ance bad ti very narrow eecapo of hb life in one 
of these encounters; and, indeed, but for hla 
strong nerve aJid high courage, he must hove 
perished. In following up a woinid<*d elk, ho wune 
moat unexitL"Clei.]Iy on a she bear, with (wu cubi* 
of tlic previous summer by her aide; iie firc-d mid 
niip8e<1, and, befoi-« h« had time to defend lumaeif, 
ahe rose at him, aod stmck hin:i down, but left 
him iii her aiixicly for her cube ; ho iuioiodiiitcly 
got on. hid leg?, and, firing again, woondcd tho 
beaut, which again nxn at bim^ threw him down 
in tho struggle, tore hia thigh with her liind oluwe, 
bit him severely through the arm find wriet, and, 
without rolinquishitig lier grasp, £toud ovGf biu, 




boldinff him down, Notwitbttflnding the acute 
itgt>uy he- Vp'om BufTi'i'Iiigf ELiLtl Lid nlmost jjowerles^ 
conclllTOD, lie cootriveiJ lo draw Lis Jiimliug knitc^ 
iiTtd lo inflict a deep wound In the rcgitm of the 
heart i»f ihe heawt; whirlihi>,liowever, just miHStwi, 
HM I saw :ii^.urwan]s nti disstjcrlion, j\ft(;r this eiTort 
it u.[i|jeiir@ he nank eihmietad; liiit his rcbad, vrhu 
hitd henrd ihi^ *twrta from a little dwtaiice, having 
provJdcDtiuJly liEtiTied il|^ though Csorfull^ nlmiiiod 
at the atiLte of hw companion, went up to the head 
ot the hear, and diachEu'gcd his rllfo intu ita hrain. 
The nnliunl fell dcnd on the bod^ ol' his unconscious 
nntngouiftt, who waa immodmt«ly oxtricated i^nd 
restored, iwid hmi nervo enough lo trixvcl homo at 
Bfood, a iIibIShHoo of iipwm'da of one hundred mtloB, 
to got the oBfliatiincG there which u would have 
htivn in va^in to have isought lor in the wUda of the 

Singlfvluuided purauit \b eehJitm ventured on; 
but !J.Ti Knglitfh gt^iitlcmnD in tho R»asian iniliUry 
eervicp. who if? a, perfect "Leial.her-??lorViog" in 
hia huhits and t&slf^ Is siLid tu preftr ihU imxli^f 
and will Hi)end weeks alone in the woods. In the 
winter of 1841 I aaw an immcuac bear of fax 
hunilrod weight, wliich he bnd ktpt in piiranit of 
foi' two dn>& It is imtioafflMe to oeliruato tho 
dlatanec he traversed in Ihnc tiaio; but tlie feet of 
the bear were rubbed raw by the continuance cf 
it« exertions, Oq imotber occasion^ and when leee 
ciperienced in the fpori, he wa^ «howii » boor 



tdeeping in lui tAptiseJ pkcc under tLc faTli:!! trunk 
cf a tree- Ic order to approncli tlie haxst witltout 
dieturbing itj aud to prevent the ahurjj cr;ickliiig , 
ecuu<l of thc^now, he U'ok od'bie ^hoc^ andatock-^H 
ings, rcgnrdlceu cf the intense cold, nnd on coming ^^t 
up to it, ho found the tiniuiid m «oUcd up> aud 
with ita pftwa so drawTi ovor ita howl, tbttt a de- 
cisEvi) shot wa» inipoasible- Ho uoLogitatiiigly 
poked it with the muxsle of his piece, and on ita 
arousing, destroyed it by a weW directed ehot in 
the Lend. lUs biirrnck-i-ooiu n,t & G&tchtna is no 
baronial hall^ but truphi^a and wenpon^ of the 
chjLse i:hm9,TiieDt: ita waJts mu^t (^h^iLUteriatitMlly. 

The c^lk is n, tiinlf] u]iiiii:Ll, iinJ diflioijlt (ji* i&p- 
proatlij fi'cfiiifHliiig ihe low Jind *wanijjy fijiots in 
tpbe woods; geuendl^ in small herda of »evea or 
eight individuals, The taine process of "ringing ^* 
and surrounding it i^ observed ae mth the bctu-; 
but the Bport rcnuJre^ grantCf quickocefl and 
watchfulnc&3> The apccd oi' tho elk ia tremendous ; 
nnd it iB as much by tUo oar aa by tlio cyo that 
ita progrees i& u^ccrtuined ; the ci'aghing of the 
branched, n^ be plungos through them, giving inti- 
mation of his cq^proaub. It is e^Etremely di^cult 
on thiit account to hit him niortaJly, if at till ; for 
n ^ot to hit him mimt be Hred at leo^t a yard a 
head of liim, and almost in anticipation of hia np- 
penjanec, us be crosi^t^ the narrow opeuingd iii ihr 
woods; and if the wuunJ be not niurtal at once, 
liia grciit sLrengtli will enable Jum to cover an 




ifnmenfle cIIxULiice befoi^t? he fiJls^ or, jx^rliitpe^ to 
ipn 1-ntinJj-; hut ff BtruuU on tlic h&ttl or 
vuldev lie incurs Lis guiut li(^ight ii^ llie air, and 
falls buokwartls- A full'-grown elk iviU measure 
j-tvcutoen liuuds Ligt, In tlie BummtT of 1831) 
one vfaa caught aliyc, b/ eome bofttmcn, witUia 
two milce oF St. Fclcraburg, as It waa awunmuig 
acroas the Xct^ to gnin the Finniah eide- 

Tbc cxtraordinnry e|)cod mid powers of cndur- 
Aoco cf ihts oik led to its being ufod fcr purpo^ca 
ofUrrtught; but, as crimmal* avjiiled tbomgclvcsof 
tli^ee advanlagee to elu<3e juelic^, eitber by poai- 
tivc escape, or by c^v^idiEig eiuploion by traoepctt- 
ing tbemeolveB, in an incr<?diblc short space of 
tiroe. to a diataat part (like Turpia in his ride to 
York), the omplojment of this animal is atriutly 
prohibited bndi in Riisnui iind Swedpa_ 

Of Intii ye:i(i* some small berdimf the roebuck 
have }?een mi?l with; bnt my inlWmaDt tells me 
ibuy have as yd beeti tinruolGated. 

The lyiuc ia not uikcommoii ; but, from tta ex- 
treme cunnirg, it la rarely cajitured* TLe only 
Bpecimen I have seen was cstughl iu a etccl trap 
buried beneath the anow ; but 1 bnvc heard of 
tholr hnviiig boon eccu, during the sovcrily of 
wintCT) in the gardens of the eubjrbe of tJio dty- 
It h the true Fvif's Z*ynx, and ukejisurcg about 
three feet in length.: the tuil being from six to 
seven mohea, and the tuft of hair at the tips of 
the ears being very strougly defined. 



The white fox {Vulpea arcticni) of tlic arctic 
regjoiu hoA teen fcuiid once only \ anU Dr- Biundt 
of the Imperial MiieeuQj likU tolO mt; tkut he 
consldi^re that fru't aa tlie [iic^t extnciiilintir^ nne 
in niiiwi\.\ bidtury wliidt Iias f^ver couic wiUiln 
bb kaowledgt! ; u,s they liitvt; nevt?r been Icnuwn 
BU far south, aiiU tbtir ui^mttt bahiUt — wlitre 
they arc rare, even — la full one tbousaml miles 
from the pl&cc whore thia inJividuat vraa aliotj 
namely, in HS^ or 70° of hititudci The animal 
in queatidu w&e shot by a ^casatit at Pihia, about ^j 
thirty oiilcs frora St, Pcterflbuig, iii tbt dopth 
of winter ; and la the euhdoqucnt ematacr aootbcr 
perfectly black aoimol was gcen, which, lieiog the 
colour of the youni^, pi'oves tliat the one killed 
was not a solitary apecimon. 

The eomiuon Sox is very abundant ; find its f\ir> 
fi\^m its great length and ihickneas, ifi mucJi pi'iK^d 
a& A limng for Isulii^s' cloaks ; — fifty poanJs bmn|j 
tlie UMiial jirice for a »itit of nklnF*. It ih not fol- 
liiwGil FL|4 a bciist of cliut^^, exL'^pting iu thi^ Tt(;igh* 
ijourhchid of St, Petersburg, where a sobflcriiition 
pack of houada Is kcpL up hy aonie of the Engliab 
lucrcliaote ; but thtir aucceaa bo* bccu very 
paitiol* iuid the only good run which I believo 
tbcy havG on record is one they hnd with a wolf, 
which wfl* fairly run into tho open couDtry, oftor 
a two boare' buret without a check. Tbo abort-* 
ucfiB of tbo Bea09i)i and the nbomjji&blc mar«by 


Countiy which they have to travergQ, rojulily nc- 
O0nnt» for tLc short regiaicr of deaths* 

The white hiirc, and a \w^ vixri«iy of the 
coiuiron apecxca, ?ire very abuudiint. The fonuor, 
which U, during the flunimer months, of ft wbitiah 
grey, do*?* not Jisflume its winter garb till tlie and 
of October; atiJ even then Buine few ajkeramens 
which came imJ*.'r my iiutiL:e ri^toined tiiine slmde 
of iheir suuiinei' ctmi: h is, hinviiver, propurly 
sjjeakicjg, of a pure white, with a little hkok epot 
* ftt lliP extrcrauy of each ear. The other viu-icly 
I have alluded to elanila rouiarhivhiy high c«i its 
kg», whiol* fttc very &jie and slender, and weigha 
lis mueh ii3 ^ftccn pounds 

The CApercalij the hazel ( 2^cfrao bf?nasia)t nud 
t^e willow gPOUBe (TetroQ saltceti) Bre OKtretoely 
ftluEidart ; but the fim ie dxffioull of apprcmch, 
and is rarely procured eict'pt at tho first Jilwh of 
day. The shooting sc»bod. Ii^ins on the let of 
July, \m-\g before the young broixls are strong 
enough Ut riffmd L^itiinate s|x>rt. 

Ducks and other wa,ter fowl nfTtird ecniic sport 
in t.lit; early spring, on their I'etum from the 
eoutli ; but they do uot fcnu n pronjiiieiit feature 
in the catalogue of apurts. 

To the naturalist, tAkin^ it in its fbH extent, 
thia country is the richcat field in Kuropo iu every 
branch of natural hlatoryi but ita very extent la 
a difficulty uot to Iw overcome, Spooiinuue wo 
not easily procured, excepting in oruitkriogy i and 



tlicac miiy bo fountl in cooffiderablc variety in the 
bird marlcet of St. Petereburg. I often vinit 
tho epot f>r ttal purpoeo, and Imiva picked up 
epccimonH wliith are rymitrknbly Bcarce in Eng- 
land ; liut, ihough they nrc often BiifficiCTilly 
abandunl, they am rarely in a fit state to prefiorro, 
Tlje grent hlnxik won<]ppckor (/Vow* Tnarfiirs^ ia 
Ly no means unctntimoti ; but it is invariably de- 
prived of its bill, fniin iHimG fluperHliliuUH ftt'ling 
of the people; aJiJ ihe bag tailed duck (Anas 
glactaliit) is always in^pci'fcct In its tall feathcrji. 
The pine grosabeak {Loxia etiucleator) I hftTO 
bought, both alive and dead, for two-ponce, and I 
occiwionfllly aec the enowy owl [StrU ttrfctea)^ 
the poaflcrino (Strh paasfTt'na), tbe great-oarcd 
owl (5fri> huhf?), the hawk owl (Sirir m/^rw), 
tho epoas-bill {Loxia pitifi>pBitf-aciis\ anow buntmg 
(^Emhvrixa nivall.'iy eliore lark [Alaudu ntpe»t:i-U\ 
blue-t.Hroatod warbler {Si/hut svtHfo), and the 
Tctrtto mfvitux, n bird which hua been erroneously 
auppcB^'d tii be a bjbrid bt-tween the cnptn^uU 
ftud t!ie black -Cdck. 

At the i;oiiiiiicn(^ement fif the winter, T have 
found dead buUfincbefl and wasen chattei'cra (T 
can never get thU latter alive) exposed for »ilti in 
vast profusion nsan article of food much eatccmodp 
The BOiwon makes no difforcnoo in the exposure 
of birdE: in cagoa for pole; and aa a eubfititntc for 
water, the drioking Iroughfi arc kqit filled with 
Buonr- The Kussiana are particularly fond of 


birds, anil having ao few natui-jl sougstera of tbetr 
own ill tbc nortlicrn district?, tlioy ar<i sup- 
plied by the Gcmmos* who bring, in tlie tirat ships 
on tho opwiing cf tho [invioatiouj uiyriiMia ijf IoHeb 
and Qtxnariesj whicli fill the air with their mcJi^dy 
in the garden of the cuBtoni-hoiise, whtire they 
sue viposed for ettle. 

It is, I Jielirvps » general opinion in En^laudT 
thm this is the rt-^mi uf furs, and tJint they ata e. 
kindof stf*pleof the coiiDtry ; than which notluiig 
cnn ht more crrotiertus. They lire nat only ex- 
pcnulve, hilt the iitdlgcnoiu^ vncs ma ^ruacrU>eiI 
by the impcnoua law of fufihion, excepting tho 
rnier and luora costly kindd, euch as tlie aable 
arul black fjx ; which latter is ftlnioat beyoikd 
pncG. Krmiae la forhiddcn to all but roynlty ; 
squirrol ia too commoQ, bonidc:^ being too heavy ; 
in factj the rod fos xtnd the nvcoon arc almost the 
only varieties woi-n by the respectable cluaaos. 
nnd they art prtXiured princifjally through tho 
medium of the Hiwsiitn sud North Aiiienc:ui fur 
compunius, and are subject to very heavy fiacAl 
charge* on importfttioii. In oup owa oouctry 
tht Gennsms art the principal furriers, and here 
tliey^ entirely engross tht Inule, bewidL's taking in 
charge, duiing the summer uiOJilhp, tlie fur*+ of 
thcii" customer* to secure tliem from moth and 
damage. TKe consumption, of animcd life is bo 
great to meet tho dcpi^de ibr thie indispcua&bk 



ftrticJo of clothing, that the wonJor is how 
production cwi Loop pace with iu 

It is ooneidered thi? ht-if^ht of iH-breeiiing to 
enler an apnrtnitnt in either cloak or wrapper, 
aatl 0, 8<;Tvnnt U Jilwaya at hunil in ihe hn]l to 
take charge of them, and to throw them ov«T 
ynu whun jtiii Itave. At tho English (*,hnrch 
ther« Jtre acTCcal men dn»p!oye*l for this [mrp(HO, 
for the wtme nils is ohaerved even there; !U»d 
beHiclcfl, the well-regulateil tcinfjcralurp of ttic 
place would render warm clothing an incoiiTC- 
Ttkcncc. Thus, al«j, in their dwcUiDg-hniiaea, the 
ladles may, nnJ do wear the lightuet drcseee ; for 
A aummcr hcnt rcngns vrithin^ and wiati^r clothitig 
wonld be oppitvseivo. 

The diief opportunity of seeing native finery 
mixed up with a ciirioue cuslom ohflcrved on 
'hit ^^ondMy at the aiininicr gardens, when the 
uninnrried girls pamde thenieelves, on iho chance 
of hciing selectecl ntid soaght in iimrringo hy thono 
whuiire on ih*^ Ixik-iitU ior wives. These joting 
jici^)pli:i arrange tliemaelves in rows hy the aidf^K of 
the Irmg avi?niieft, ittli'mlej hy Lh*_'ir niot!it-nf| 
Icckcti out ID their gayest costiimc; while con- 
-gatt^d (hou»auda promenade up ami down m 
lonau ci'owds* The idea rcftliic* what wc call 
"lovcat tirat 3ight,*'andidcertiunly anovol wny of 
puttinf^ the poorer of Cupid to the tcflt If us 
arrow telle, the party introduces himself to the 
mother, cxchaDgce addresses^ and the matter 10 



ncg;otiatod at home. This Is conficiGd to ihc 
little people — I menu xhoeo^ juet iibove iLo lower 
c\n£ei but iu fonaer times it was curamQn to aU 

Certain days stem, hy n, Itind of jirescrTptive 
right, to be set apait foi- public as^omblngoe and 
jirrjmetuuleB; dilJ>i> on. the £ri?t of Ma.y, the grmlcna 
Kt Tlkiilhterof, Oeaerled nlmoftt othi^rwiat', aru 
CTortilcii with uijuijfa^es anJ ^ledestmrih*, like the 
Lougclioiijjis iu P^ri^ It is ix kind of ^lay-day 
oeremouyj to usher iu and welcome tbc return of" 
epriug; in which the imperial louuly take pait, 
and tippcar in Btutc A ^imilnr aceoc is got up in 
the Yclagon ielaud at i; more advaoctd period of 
the eoQflon i and ihie, from tUo moro attractivo 
Bfli^nery, aud the more eetllcd atato of the woatlior, 
ifi the preferable lounge, it Uoiog, be^des, at thnt 
period- the court residence* 


■louRinrr TO Mo«cov, 


•/'mriirtj fti Mitst^vn'. '—Trinjellmi^ in Ritjisia. — ^jtortionn ijf 
Po9t?iiatti!rt. — Hugged Huaih, — 0*it^ermnr>nt Cattriera. 

— Introd^iCtion qf Hailwavi tiUu P.iuaiti jtrtnmtofT. ^ A 
Hffiuairr nf tmp^rial Pntiry. — Mosco^i' nntion^lfy tht 
Capital of the Emptrn-^Jtn niriAinf^ Atj'cil ninl Uuf^jrk-al 
/■^portFimw. — Jiu-ming t^f Morrojo Ji<}t premeditate. — 
Digeiaiptirr nj'the KmpcrorAhi-tfndcr . — RooUipcftinx Denial 
of Cofnjiiicit^. — Roa/I Ta Mnacow, — Poraliel Hood til 
^oi}goi-ud. — J£^c and Mofk- tf Trusvdliit^- — MclttA- 
fhtHjj A^nvi f'f {hv Cttnilry. ^^Staaied Tri^s aniS Catth. 
— Atsoiifv o/Scgiv^^.^ Scanty Piipviafian. — J,iig //siwff*. 
^ Slt'rping iiH Stuivs* or in tliL- Often Air^—' !^ftnutt'>ibuiu 
Aapfi^f ofthf Villages -^ Otjisiet- — Drens (^ the FtnhtiU 
Paasnnts. — H'aiat abopa the Soiomi — Nof^gorod,— ITtcr. 

— Tflrjitk. — Skili af Rfutnimv DriJ^ra. — TraiNH i>f 
TifligB*, — Fiockit nf Hoecnt. — AJiunda7[co itf Game. — 
Skpnratitwaj PrrJtiiJii;tnt againai e-'Uinff nare-tnitifi Pigiitfua. 
^ Food if Tattara awl iiuiatuni- — Kthb^ I'i^adstaoi: 

— Diflftuif Vitw vf ATwcmti* 

1 iiA^"B been cngfigcd for tlic lost few days iu 
coixvpleting my nrrnngdmcntB for a. jotimcy to 
Mo^^Wj whoDco probably thie letter will be 6fi^ 
patcHod. Tou might imagine, from this an- 
nouncement, thtit lay prC'paniHtionB Imve booa 
nnnecee^irilj gf^Jil, flfl suited to a cimpaign 
rather thnn lo a mere oipertitlon ; but ihe fnci h, 
that iK&rt is mt>re idvoIv^mI in the jounii-y dmn 
llie r^uealion ii£ triinBition. Tlie viuiurjB difl:- 



cullieB siat? objections huvo, howaver, been sur- 
mi>unt<x3, by an ftgTOOmont made between an 
Knglifili and an Aiuerioiin j^entlemon and myailf 
b3 iceiire tho mafle^^i>t/e, whlcb only cnrrie^ lliroe 
[maspngGre, The other deRcriptiooa of public 
vcbicles are so iibommably bad, Ihal thie i6 be- 
aeged by pa^scngor* for tiumy t1a.ys in atlviiticit ; 
and aa it combiner; j^|>tH^d with i^oinfLirt* it io even 
moi'e eJjgiiile tbim a j>rivatc i:i)ijvcyani:!e. To 
travoJ po(jt, is to coffer oneself as a, victim to ail 
Idnd^ of iropoaition and ejitortiion ; tor though 
armed with a /WarMArefl! (the government order 
for the eupply of post-horacs), yot the pogtmoetora 
iflvnriably iatcrposo obatoclos and dohiye, which 
tttc not to bo fiot usidc without gati^fying thuir 
oupidity by a bnbe^ 

Travelling in itia counti^ has a marked resem- 
blance to all its ether features, ard isan additional 
[cbfinnel for tyranny imd abua« of ofHct^. The 
'poslmaster ia not n whit behind tJlG ernploifi in 
Ws tergivcraili'in?; nnd, gamUer-lilieJjc cnlcLdatea 
Lla obanc<*s Uow far he may hazard htH tmftty And 
poeition Hgninat (ificn oxtrrtioTi nud wilfuT ob- 
tniction, F)iciUty ofmlercourec bting ihe very 
ler-Ktone cf civilization, all nivlural pnigress to 
its iLttainnii^it is arrcstrd in liniine, hoxh by the 
Ii5nal rcatrictiona in wiiicb every proceeding is 
enveloped, and by the impi^dimcata intttrpoacd by 
the authorities on tJic rotid ; indeed^ tbc roads 
themselves, CJkCcptisg tbc two great channMcs to 
n 3 



TVlnscow nnd Wftrnnw, sitt. ptmngh tn dol^r r11 
IiuIp thi- imisl *lciut-lifiUirlr4 i«h1 rubiisj, frfim m»- 
C4>untenDg Lh«ir hont)ra. T)je Fcl<^iig«r«, u 
fcalinrdijiaie Idiid uf coiinvr, ^hv> trayursp tho 
counliy in ail directiona dinrgod wJtU the trw»> 
niusiaii of the gcTcrnineiit orcJcror ^k under the 
ncciimulation oE' liardeliip and fatigue in seven 
ycare* S<mtod in & little open tfiit-(fa, without 
either bjic!*^ or qiringa — for n£> qirmgs could atiind 
the ehockfi of tlic rugged ffuri'aco of tbc rottda — 
they travel ibonennds of vereia n.t the gr^tOHt 
«pe«d, wilhout ri.'po6G or test, oxpoeed to all the 
viciasitudes of the climate, iwd bound to the 
great est waicbfulnese- 

This BtiilG of things is precisely analogous to 
the (iharaotiir df the ptojile, if diTG3t.e(l of the 
arfifiwil g(LrlT of civlUmtlun wldt-J] hitg heen 
ttrown ujKia thum like an lU-iiiailc ganiicnt ; but 
the companaDD may be cnrried further, with refer* 
eucG to the ni^n cm intu wlitch (he ciiuntry u 
ftbout to enter by the adoption trf tht^ railway 
syttcui. Civilimtion wnr» forced upon ihc people 
tdintj^t bofoi*© ita rudimcutfl cxiHttiJ; ami in like 
iDnnncr, the ml way revolution U to be iutroduccd 
bcforo the wacltd or lmbit« of iho poopk- uro au& 
dontly ndvancal to roquiro it. Ae the fcmicr 
woa done per uiitum^ creating in n day what 
other coiintriee had takea yeftre to nccompUsh — 
tranpiplnnlingj ns it were, ihe fidl-grown Ire^ 
lu^iliuid itF wnlcliing sjid training the Eajkliog in ite 



gro^irth — copying C'thcr nations, art<l introducing 
new forms which the pooplw'a miofU wotg not 
roiuly tQ roooivo, eo tlio ktt«r h also on tho cvo 
of being eBUl>nehGd, to anticlpitc circvimsuucea 
which Q^ilher the present mimnricnl state of the 
popnlalioHj nor the nece^sUii^ of the country 
require, na rogHiils nctnnJ tmnsit only. The 
moral eiT^M^ta lu be guinoil eventually nrc duuLtlcM 
immense, a.nJ the extended mt^arii^ of cuinLHunl- 
Cfltlon will ulliTUrttely UJUTy tocial luiin-oveineut 
witli ihem ; but the o^tnal neccaaities of tlie two 
cajjjtulfl demand no sucb a|>pL'o)diD;itioc a& will be 
nffbrded hy a ratirowl IndotM), itt present, the 
rcstrictionfl impoaed by Uiejealcueyof the govern- 
mcnt wUJ milJtatc agninst any rciil freedom of 
lutorcoureo ] for it is not to bo euppo&cd that the 
Yigiloncc and regulations of the police, ad rtgarde 
trctvellei'8, will be n^lox^, or that any facility 
of movement beyond ajlditioiud speed will be 
afforded tliem. 

Experience hns eatablished the fuct, the 
tnmrat of gooilt by rftilwsLy nuikea iii> conip«u- 
eatiug return, citjil ibul pa»en^'er8 alcne nre to be 
liHrkeil tu ae the aource of ptuUt; therufore, 
altliougb iLc produt^D which reaches St. Peters 
bui^ vid Moaeow, \a very- coti^id<^r;]ib]e, that 
intcicst has not inflviencc^ the conicmpiatttt 
worka; nor, in strict truth, hoe tht; idea of tbo 
wfint3 of the populivtion been much more con- 
sidorcd: the projected lino vb» in ahort^ a state 

a 4 



engine to serve the Emporor'a |)urpo50s. It wii 
pass throLigli a dlgti'tct witltcut oittjcr po|iulaf.iGii or 
cotnmf^rce to a&^st or to he n^disUKl, following an un- 
iotemiptcd level of nearly 500 uiflea (for the Val- 
dni hUh nre of no ftCi^oiml), full (if innnnieraMo 
diffipultiee from the swrnnpy ninure (*f the ^il, 
posaeflsing nrly thrrc inronaiilcrahlp towns aiding 
its whole exLtnt. tiumcly Nowgorocl, Tvtn',H.uilToi'- 
jok^Jdtdllic Hiirfaceof OKietmntry hiding oiherwwi? 
Lilt thiulj' iiiLjililtod Di^tautj dieti'ittft, where tliii 
climate tuid the so\l do not eubduo t1ie etiergicflt 
lior i^ender futile the industry of tlie |>eople, may 
he called ioto more actiro life; but tho govorn- 
lucat rauat fii-et abondon its lendrng-at rings, and 
jhcrmit thnt ucrcetriotcd freedom of wliicli tha 
demolition of space nJid distance is tLo type. 

MoBOCJw 18 ita holy and as sotTcd a City to tho 
RussiiinB, ae Rome is tj^ the PajiifilSj or Mecca to 
the Miisaulmen : they regai'd it not only with 
enthusiasm, as the cradle of tteir empire, hut With 
rf*liguj|iB vLiitratiun as the inetropulis of tlit^Jr 
church. Tt IS, In ^t, ho far bs conoenia aII 
nulionnl *!i:r<niionTes, the I'ajihiil : it is in \hn 
Krtjmliu that the Emperor useumes lus cr«wn ; 
luad iwpoUr otistom refpitret? that ihe Emjn'CJM 
fibfJI ho confined of hci first child witKiu jld wiUk. 
Peter could remove tJtc aedt of govcraaicnt; but 
bcyood tbnt hc^ could not fcnturti to trcd^pu^a on 
the jircjudicirs of his subjects* 

Tho untravclltfd etciiugor coimectn an idcu of 



Aflmtic aplcudour with hU ei>nce\ii\an of il, mul 

wonders at iho gloi-loa af iLe Kremlin, TLe 
faojOTiy legions of NapcIt^oDj whjjsii conquests Iitid 
ifiudu tlieiit FiiEniliar wUli thid tnopt c^clelimtt^d 
Cities in Ruicipc, ««jl"l iicut rettniin tlicii' jnliiiir:i^ 
timi as thfi vi(?vr firef bitfst ujion them* Tn Lrutli, 
Moscow is a noLlu citj-; and, but fot iJie insig- 
nificatice of the Moakwa, wluch flow* through it* 
it would oot shrinlc from a comparison with (Jon- 
ettmtinoplc. And upart from nU local <^uQsidera- 
tioQfl, Iiialfirj has affixed an impcrishablo numc lo 
it, fur the memoruUo act of eelf-Jerotion which 
conaignod it to the flames, nnd thva slnick the 
fir^t fatLd blow ai thy ccjiossal power whidi held 
Europe j)i"oalrate at iis foet. Popular opinloQ 
insists that the act was promcditnied nnd organised, 
and Europe pays the trihuto of ndmii'ation and 
praise- to I ha hcnjism and Kigitoity which ^jmrapt*.-!! 
it ^ hittj ; it Jiibould L'on^tittite h. iLntioa*^ 
pride, the Emperor Alosaudtr uIvtu_vb averred 
most Jti-ongly that ho utTor cither ordcK'd or cou- 
templated the conflagration of the citj, aod 
Boelopchin denied most positiTiily that it waa wil- 
fully commitlod. Indeed, after a\oliintflry exile 
'pf eoroo ycara in Franci.', ho thought it ncocseary 
lo preftieo his rcinm to his native ccuntry by the 
piiblieation rhf a paraplilet, lEtended to stifle any 
palriotie renown which might he attached to him, 
by proving that the fire had hurst forth spon- 
taneously, and had oot originntcd in any prooon- 



ccivcd plan- ll ifl eingular thjit be should have 
folt iL incumbent oq him to dUcIihim in KuB^ia tui 
act of hcroianiT for which all Europe, aatoni0h<»I 
at iu gi^udour, gnvo him CTGdit: and ttnt ho 
sbould decry as a OJilumay tlie ^lory attacla<^I to 
him 00 thi? tjaviour of his country. Tlio denial is 
not creditiible to him ; for it proi'ee> notwithatajid- 
ing the noljleuess of the uct, ihitt h*; has not the 
BDulof n, K^ro^ The mau who f<<ard tho li^ht cf 
hii^ciwa grj^atue^B, h IQ fact but tho oi'diDaiy hinng 
L(i ri:'pre«eiits hiinai*!/ to be ; but lU tfiW iTLbtnrtr<ij 
perhapsT n mitn wniilJ uot refuser tu |uisk iltjwji 
eanobted in biaLory, did hi? not fci;] bound to 
tificiifice fainc to (otpt^ilic^Di^y : a aiihjugated pi^ople 
ia aliv»js ^tfriiid of iu own hcruitin, and ia this 
ootintry, where men are noturnlly and of nccciwity 
reacrvtd njid jiruJunt, each one struggles to luum- 
txiia nn imcaviablc poaitioE of xjuigmficancc and 

A jouraey of eizty-two houte, unhrokea by inj 
tucidunt, hoi brought un here. Tlie roud 'm ua- 
cxceptionfibty Qood, end in ad fine order &b if 
McAduTu hiiniw-'lf tupinntuTOltj! it ; th<> cur^ of it U 
cntniflloil lu retired auldlvrB^ -who K-^ide in tUtlon* 
]|ou»:f« 4ip;ct*'d at dibtanco) of five n(ilc» froia cnch 
uther, and la kfpt with uiUUiLry preciaiuu. li 10 
throughout of Goubidcrabk svldlli, ai:d on cither 
eido nn addil ionnl extent la luorkud off hy iaW puku, 



to Indicftle tlic line which ma-y be triVTcrscJ by the 
ele{I[»CB in wmter with sitfety. Ki^muunU of the 
old GOixluroy road oj'e still \Liiblc lu eouie ^Licea : 
& curioBity, o& showing tlic oarlf priiiolpic of road 
mnking. From St Petersburg ns far a« Nov- 
gorod^ onothtir rocid^ equally ua hrgCf ruus [xirallol 
^Ih the miuii odo ; oad le intended for the uee 
of wfljtg<mE ftnd flmvds of cnltlo on tha day* when 
the Einperui* la passing, tc bave liiin fccuu tlio 
elouda of dust, and the dolnya and iBterruptions 
aLriHing frortj <he Mum of tuli^giiB Eind other country 
<Tqii]|jEigi% nmviug fmm tht; interior. Tlua ur- 
riio^Einent 13 highly singuhir, ami can only he 
ex|>lftLrjfiil hy Uiu fuct thut thu niimhtTr of v(?hide« 
on th« ro^td ta greater when uenr the eiL[>it&l» and 
that lar^G drorea of bcfifita and loi]|^ liaea of carte 
driven by one uisn ure not eii^lly ninnj^ed, and 
might enu^e serious accidcotd when tho apocd &t 
whiob the Etiii>eror travels h taken into eontudoro- 
tioD. With ordinaiy trftvollerej indeed, there La 
tittle td comf loin of oa to Jiavt^, for the Kuaaiuns 
keep their hor^^a up to tho highest pitch of their 
powers, Tlieae aninials are amjiil, but atrong, 
active, and fvdl of vigour ; hnmeased fonr nbreaat, 
and without blinkers, they are driven by a man 
clad In a rough gray i^ftan ■ — or. If th« wentlter 
be wnriTi, in n eoleured bhirt^ worn timii: THfthinn, 
— w!»>, willi vxiiindi^d aruiHj and \\U Umaltt filial 
with the iuiiltj{j1iuly of rein^ urj^ his catUi^ 
foi'ward witlt hi,n voice and a variety of gesticiiln- 



tic^ne ; for tho whip is a mere ftppeiulage, ncd ir- 
operativc from ita size. 

The country pre»cnte tlirouglitiut tlie Eutm; 
melancholj' nnpi't uf lUtermlnaMe flwiiiiip,fc!u<Uarl 
with plaulJttioiis of .ilwrtivfi bin:K-t,rpe& and thinly 
acftllereJ fira. The *i/e seeks in vain f(*r Ttfresli- 
iu^ Tiiriotit^!! <tf cultivation, or well gi'owu timber 
trees with thick Mijige, and encounters nothing 
save an inipDveiifiheJ aoil JiuJ patches tif stunL<?(l 
ft)rcfli:» The very cattle arc ill grown and of n 
wrctchc(J kind; as ii" the ciiukatc opprcaacd iha 
bcSiGiA in the rutio thai dce()otiam tjrAnniEca over 
the huionu buiiige : indoc^J, it appcore as if both 
naliipo and govoramcnt in Rusfiiit wcJrc in icngud 
to render csistence nharjahip. When one I'eflecta 
on the phyBicnl source from which it waa oGcea- 
aary to slurt to organiHO siich ti state of society, 
diETe is no furificr ivinm for asfonii?bracnt ; iinlee* 
it be to lind malLriRj civiliriiutinn £if uJvniiced 
among & [icopk so little favoured liy n^Uure. 

Tbe hoiJAOii eelduui bounds the; \\ew i>f thv? 
pkin, at the obetaclc of a buah or fcntse on the 
drcnry level conceals mtles oF Its extent, without 
n riso or aiidulfltion to mark the: distance beyond i 
in fact, there ia no sceacry to fix the memory, no 
bits of landscape to gluldcn tl:o tiyc. The Viildai 
hill^, amoDg wbich the Volga takcB ite Bourcej ari^ 
of jncoDfiidcmblu ekraticn, and prcumt no now 
foaturo ]□ the ^ccne. 

The signs of population nru «osinty, iind tho 



a|:ijjeamiice of villages citKct in the distance or 
on ihf main rcHtd^ iinirequofit- Tha liousoa are 
entirely of wouil (]og-hDLiBe8, as tLe Anmi'iOiLnri 
GJi.ll t^ieni), formed, of the rougL stuiiie of trRes 
witb the Sulereticea stuffed with moaa an J lime; 
but, uiicouth aa they are, they ate not unsightly, 
nor withcut fionie pretcndon to a kind oi' rustic 
elegance : the gable ia ifivanably mode to fucc Ihc 
itrectj and ia e<lgoJ with n kind uf liicc-ivoi'k of 
oarvod wood, often pwntod in guy ooloure. Aiid 
this ia a lypo of the nntioucj character, wliorc ex- 
ternal difpliiy and snporfidnl cSect mask sordid 
want and squalid misery ; while the absence of 
many of the neco^aary comforts of life pvockim 
the semi-barbailin. The rooms are <3iLrICj close, 
jmd unwbolpanrip, scantily fim it eh ed, Jtnd wanting 
the luxury of a bed. In the whiter the ii]haLit:mt.s 
sleep hnddled up on ihe top of tlie at<ive ; and lik 
the aiiminer iJiey tithe.r tliK">w thoinselves on the 
beiichefl fised round the room, or more fi-equently 
revolt to aa open bulcony affiled to the houao, or 
lay themselve* at full lengtli oji the groiiud, by 
the aide t*f the street- I have seen long lines of 
tboee alteping figurca wmppcd up in fhcir ahccp 
fikine in many of the villages wc paeeed. eimk in 
£0 deep a clumber that I havo steppod over tLem 
and ontei-ed the houeee without dUturbing them. 
The gtneral aspect of these villages is monotououe : 
they constat mvariiibly of two rows cf houses ro- 
ittoved to some litile disc&nce &om the road, 


itus&uy oirsiEA 

already too witle; and oa tlic tlistfuice from Sl 
Polcraburg incrcaaca, they look more impovcrlfiJicd 
and nu;;]cotC(!. Every liov&d {& iaoUted, aoJ aiir- 
roundod with a tall wooden fenoci within whi(^ll 
vuriet J of domcelto officca arc gniiipcd ? ttii» giv 
thcni an air of couifoit aod aisc, which, in trut 
thuy nm for from actually pofleeanng* But hot/' 
ever poor the people, there ia no houBG where tho 
tamn/yar is aci to be found, nor whe?3 the peasant 
will in>t furnish you with tea for a triflmg cjmi- 

In sevenvl p1;ic?3 nhing the ro»i1 gipsiCft have 
jvgularly luculed llieiiifielvc* ; but, though drivwn 
hy ttip clinialif U> alkttndim t>uc pn,n, uf their hnbllfli 
they refcidcln houses, and, constriuned by the lawn of 
the country} they remain atationaryt their gono- 
Talchnmctcri^unohnngcd: for, iivei'aeto inda<noii9 
pursuits, they gala a liTin^ by borsc-dcflliu^; and 
jobbing, [t id cingukr that thcBc pooplc should 
have travtjllcd 00 far northi And inte a country ao 
uikcongeniflj with thmr habits; for thoro is ao 
douLt Od to their race ; and be&idee, 

" ihcy iliow % lA^uy ikiii { 
The vdlvm of tlic p<y)i;gr«v they citini " 

The i*u!L5ftnt women are lew sbrovl timn the 
men, and tiav^; Icm coqnctry or love of drc^s thwi 
others of tlic^ir Ben ; in i'act they exhibit anything 
buC good lii&tc, and ftpporcclly consider the toilet 
to form no part of llieir uttrnctioii^ They weoE 



a looeo voho foetcncd fil the nock (tod fnlliagto tlic 
ground, not fitting to the shapes but merely but- 
toned down the front : over thie tJioy put n Urgo 
apron ct the same len^^lli^ ritstcncd over the 
BliouMere hy two short bmces croaaric eiich otlujr* 
Thoj mo«ly go barefooted; for it » only the 
more affluent who arc shofl, and tliey vveur coarse, 
heavy, :iiii) clumsy bonts T&iclung tn ihc knee. 
Their lienddrefli* t8 cither a luindkeifJiit-f or n piece 
oT aluff twtsttid oil ; excepting on f&te djvym, when 
l.bey ft<lopt the national ctJiflure before de^rriljed. 
Miiny of theui iidopt i; moat liidcoua ffishiou, ao 
inconceivably outrugeous and u&naturjil. that the 
wonder is liow it can bii supported- Tlioy contriTe 
to niftke the wniat above inatou-d of below tho 
boBom ; eo that tbc sa^b, if they wora ono, vrould 
coma oloec up under the nrme* Of roiu^sc ullgmcc 
and beauty of fovni ie tliu* desti"oyed, and ni^t only 
ifl an apponnonce of deformity produced, but the 
deformity ileelf actually exiJ^ts. 

Of the three great towns which tbe road to 
Moscow trayersuaj Novgorod was once sl republic, 
und siihaequently beeamethecmdli?of the Riisalnn 
Empire; it« antiquity i« uiidoubtt^d, and tbu ex- 
teuuTe walls ofita Kremlin, though in a dilapidated 
state, atill give proolV of ita former graudeui" and 
iinportaneo. It woa conquoix^ nud auhjugatcd by 
Ivan Vnaailicvitch, in UTO> and itebiaCovy le littlo 
clee than ofic of Blaughter on<l cnntinunl contlicl. 
Ila commercial proeporlty waa very oooeidcrAblc 


itrs$u\ nmvEHfi. 

tiU llie fouridntioii of St. P^terabiirg ftb*orb&3 tt* 
energii'K, iLn<I rcdnoeflit lo ItfipFEsent dtscaj^fd and 
unitnportttnt ('.oiididou. 

Tver IS a neat quiet llulp town, (Ipriviiig ficine 
little jmporti^Qce from the Volgji. flosviug tLnttigh 
it. Torjtik owes its celeLrity to Ita <:ACcUent 
mauuFactflr]^ ot omumented katber, axid its far- 
i'axacd cutlets. The town itecU" look* cheerful, 
and there ia a general appcuru&cc of improvcmeot 
flTound it in ciiltivftlion Euid rural eoooomy: but 
still there Is no beauty in the ^cncrv, altJiough 
the oye rejoices in the change frutu poailive etcri' 
lity to comparative product! veneee ; for the vast 
and dreary waste 1>4^hind it Imd not even tho 
grandour of the dtaert to dignify the sci^ne. 

Travellera on the road are few^ and there id 
tittle to draw the attentTon beyond ocoaslomil 
ehatires of an HccideHt, and the slight nWm thua 
ixiaisioafld. The skill of tho driver, howcvr.r, la 
equal til every cpImh, Hnd he *ii*eQW to glory in 
Opporlunitlea ufTfirded him of showing hlf. dex 
torily: he handles Ids four beafits as if they w 
oomprouud inbo one; aametimee bringing thom 
into tlic cloecBt poaaibJc contact with each other, 
ftnd thcoj Dd quddcnly. spreading them o^iiT t 
road to the fnlleal strcti^li of their traces, muutfiu 
himself with Ducrow-like fenlfi while ho 
ui*ges the auimala to fho top of thcar Bpeod, 
neeeaaarily fallows that on a road Intersected by 
BO many etreama, the brid^ must be very nu 


tU«^ ^^1 



tdcroup ; unil wlicn it hjipptsna ihtl they uro out of 
rei^nir, tomporiiry oanA are erecteil near them ; ia 
tlicac c^isQB the (bilker, without rclo^ng his apeed, 
tiirne his i|undriga aa on ft jnvot out of the road, 
lUK^I paaaca the insecure and rattlitig planlcs wilJi 
a kind of fienJiali delight. Even on the miun 
rood iWelf, ho SGldom ke^ipa » straight coiiTse^ but 
crosses froDi aUIg to gid(? with 1\\g mum uuJlngging 
speed, tlire^dhig thcoiJt^U the- (iruwde tif lel^^a* 
tK^^iitt^red L>v(^r liic roid without ordt^r ; for m tea 
or a do£cn <»f thcec littlo carl^ each drawn by one 
horoc, are under tlie directiori of one hkid. It is 
impo&aihlo fcr hup to keep them iii sk line, and 
tbf!^ carnvand often conaist of a liunilrcd vchioJes. 
The road is thus neccBEarily oncumhured wilh 
tiiem; and, hut for the address of the dnvor in 
winding through the labyrinth, it wiiiilJ bu ne- 
cessary either to atop or to move wilh ab niuch 
cnre aa in passing a flock of sheep. Tbest tQUgm 
or Httle carts nre of tlie mdeat possible con- 
struction, iind not iHpnblu of hesiring n.ny eon- 
fflderable weight; the little ftniuisila wbicb dntw 
them nre vigorous for their ai/e, nnd r^mtnine 
their toil»i>iue journej^ witli uoubattd cnei^, 
dropping from exbnustioa rather than lagging; 
aiid although, pcrbttpa* tba load may bo but one 
caslt gf t*-Lllow or a few hides, yet it has been 
dragged huniJroda of vcistSi cron jroai (he 
Ukriitnti itsolf. 

At one spot on the rof^d, 1 saw a peasant emeigo 



fi-om ji wood with a ciperciulie he b,vl just efaot; 
anJ aa Litlierto, I Jiad ucTcr had a fr&*l> spcdmcii 
in mj* hniLd. I vm onxioiia to acc it ; but to stop 
the mftil for that purpcrae would hare been im- 
TCBsonablci however, within n few yarJa, one of 
our hoTBOS foU, (uid as wc were going nl full 
epcod it wot dogged a coneidorablo djptnnoc bcfora 
the carnage could be etoppetl \ to mieo iho horao 
ond re-adjust its harn*?fi^ (for it wa« not hurt^ was 
the work of some miimlee, wbii?b I took ad^-antag© 
of t*> hull llie [*a*iLul, Th** bird wiis nn old one, 
End thtref(n>? would ha despised for the lablp by 
the Ruflslan gaHtrofiomea; but It was in splwudid 
foitliei', nod I t:oiil(l have niTiived It fiii' fiftee 
copecksf about aeTen[>cuce English money* 

Uawka are numerouB over the cotiutiy, and 
ocCiiaionally an englc sbowed itaolf ; but the number 
of ravcEfl along the road waa jwrfcctlj n^onlflhiug : 
^07 wore in little flooka like rooke, which, is 
utterly at variance mlh the Eolitarj habits wo 
a£cribc to ths bird. Giune U abunclaut, iiud in 
iho wivHtca of the interior the operatlone of tho 
game lawa (for tKey have such enactmentK in 
Kufi^m aho) do tiot oslQud; a happy privilege 
for the jieasnntj who avails hunself largely of tho 
bountiiul supply. 

There is anme 8ii[ierstitiou£ prejudice ag&io 
liarea, which are flehlom enlen; but it U not 
uccouiit of the eMQG «crtip1ce whidi deter them 
from eating pigeoiM ; these b^ng entirely of 



religious cltarsicter* Custom, cvon if the origin of 

!t he unknown, i^ most binding; bnt t}ie peawintB 
iske no heed of tiiose wlii:i set its rnloi at di*Riince, 
TLi: Turtaj race, who dwell m some niuiibers in 
tiiC large towuSj carrying on a Icadc aa liawkere 
of dressing gnwna and stuffa m imilaliou nf 
tlic PeraiJtn manufacturosT indulge in bheir nn- 
tionaiiliea, even to feeding on hor^c-flesh, wiiLout 
reiimrk or i^caudid, Tlic Kn^eiaaa thcmeclvca 
art: cert[ net oser itiTU]m\ous in ^nio tilings, 
and eat with gnelo many anicloa vvliich wc not 
only rejeetj but eoneider actually dGloteriuua : 
londstoola, for inatance, at© conadered a dainty ; 
and T bare counted no less than fifteen vai'ietJes 
ihf thone fiin^ tsxjiostij for anle in tJie majkets, 
Wlictlier t.lidr nn-de of dreaang tliein — for tliey 
upe an abuiidaucff of snlt lo l}»<? prepiration — or 
whether the cliiimtc direpta them of tlieir noxious 
qualitlea, I axn unable to ea.y. 

Tlio approach to Moscow from tlie north curries 
with it no ido;tof the neighbourhood of the capital 
of an cmpirci nor even of a large city ; (hat is, 
there arc no suburba nor groups of bouses in. the 
vicinity, nor ie there any bnatle to indioBto the 
presence of a dense population. As seen at Tho 
digtanco of a few miles, it preaenta % coufueed 
c<j|ltieriofi of ciipolaa, spiresj and mjnnr4?ta glittering 
with gokl, and all the faneifiJ deeoratione of 
coluur; and for the first tiiue, the eye eea»cs to 
ecujuoter tlie liarabj atiff outline uf objects rearing 


themselvea abruptly mto the sky ; for, at length, 
there ib a back-ground to the picture, formed by 
the wooded elopes of the Sparrow hills, and pre- 
eenting the first true bit of hindscape scenery in 
an extent of 500 mtles. The mind fiags, and 
getB wearied with the endless auccession of plain 
and unbroken horizon : it ia like the monotony of 
ship-board ; and one seeks relief in the imposing 
grandeur and majesty of mountain scenery, which 
the nch and varied landscape alone can effect. 




MoHrtiitJ--^ T^f KrevilitL — Rrrffectionjif — DijTerertce 0/ 
ManMfrrit hffiLvu Mnnffan nn'f Si. Pe/iTxhirg, ^ Mi* 
racrtlf'iis Picture. — Uoi^ Oats of the Krvr/tliit. — Viev 
of Moii>^uv /toir rhf TVnvftr- — Uru/rrv Ari'httt^vt^trf r/ 
fkf CUreftgs. — VaJh-ilral 0/ St. Bitta.— The Krvpdin 
the Hi^irt vif Moit-uti-.— ToatT 0/ laat Velihi. — A^cirtii 
PaUiCf^ ofihc Tunra.—^ Anrifint Mthrary At^i^antrvmi'atJi.--^ 
Codtvoi atid Eqjtipagee of Che Tars,'—Thtvim, Crtmnu, 
ttiHf Sc^pfrfx nf eomjat'TVil Mumn^tik. — Cbvrclt of the 
A^mifipt'oiu — Cationiicd Pii'tierea. — Itaofft Wortkip, — - 
Lttdicfottn Piiintingitif Si-rijiNri' Sut^t-rtA. — PnlHintl fJjte 
pf Svpfr^Mion ij P^b-r tlti UmJtt. — ChiUltka Tmiabanfii 

X HAVE rtt length aooompllabod one of my (Wrest 
wtahoa, and nm fnirly ogtablishcd for some duy» 
in tijiB cxtmorJiimry city. Allotting my usiijil 
habit of seeing for myself, and fonnmg my own 
impreseioris without eniluriiig the pnrroi^likt de- 
scriptions nriil ti?jliouH C'ininifm-]i1:iiy?ji (if si vh.1cT.- 
de-pliice, I h^ve pi|ot«Hl myself u»d followeil n 
perfectly independent course. Iiiftliiict ted oic at 
Jimt mid at once tii tlie Kremlinj and I Ntuod Le- 
ELCblh ita Moiifiiih hattlcmentiv imiJnUeiit to enter 
within it^ witUs but unaUc to brcnk the dwirn 
which fii£»clmitcd ma to the e]>ot. Fruin tliose 


XHB KRi;] 

w(tlla, the ware of crmiiueBt hati rolled bncfc, 
carrjing on ita aiirgc the uiotlcm Xcrxce, till it 
broke oq ttc r<»cks of St. Ilckniu The towere 
of the Kri^mliD oloQO stood Jn^ponehablo in a eod 
of tire; and ite atroiig foundations had resisted 
even the doterniined efforta of tha Frcncli en- 
gineere to destroy Utem by IJi^ting. All wafi 
now calm und serene ; but beneath the apot T 
stood on, hundreds of miserable wreldien lay 
heaped, tvlio^u frozen liiiibti, fixed in ibe dieturted 
ftltituJi?a in which death overtook them, had been 
hewn oiFwUli axes txt aLcconimodale theni to the 
pit^ into which they were promiecuoualy thrown. 

There Ja n perceptible diffcreace between the 
manners anil cnetonie of this place and thoec nt 
St. Petersburg; they eito more Dationtd, as being 
Icaa influenced by the concourec of atrangcre, and 
the ndmisturo of foreign habile. Siiperatitioti ie 
canned farther, ai^d the ]jiibiJc exhibitioa of it OS 
nn enlarged scale wixa one of the firat things I 
enconntered aa I iipproEwbed the gates of the 

I had nodced a group of people colketed round 
a little miniature chapel placed at the entrance 
and dividing the gateway into two nrcliGs, when 
» ofUTiago with four horses, tl^o c^oiioliinan and 
two footmen bure*faeaded, drove tip; two |iri(uit» 
ftlighted, bearing a lai^' picture between them 
with tbegi-eale*t veneration and ceremgny; the 
people uncovctol their heads at the sight ol' it, 



forming tKcmsclvos Into a line, and on tho pricals 
elevating the picture, lliey piieeed beneath it with 
bows and crofieinge, aaJ, waiting till it was dc- 
poflitt^d wiihin Iht thajjol, they fil^;d in ia tliii like 
good ordtT, proatcrnating tliemaclvea before it and 
kiH&ing it. Thii^ picture, jl sorry work of aj-I, but 
In vilI liable from the coally jewel* with which it is 
Btudileil, \\n& (iiic (jf the Virgin Miiry, und ib kepi 
iu this]i|ri.l, and !b Hiippii^ed to t)ti |joHBeHded uf 
miraculoue pcwc:r, pEurtkidiirly in goags cf sickne^. 
The income of thia pii:ture ia voi^y great from the 
gU'ifi of ita dcvotccfl, and it mnjutftma the ca.rriagG 
I saw for ile owa particular uao : tbc it ia cw-ned 
in stale to the bedside cf the eutierCR to exert 
ite healing vii-tuce, and when thus rouiuvcd, tho 
people patiently wait ite roturn to pay thoir 
accuatoinod dovotiou before ttwy ;vill pat^ the 
Bancttinry. The batilcnionted wolle I hod been 
surveying surroiuid the cut«r court of thy Krem- 
lin, which ifl protected by a second clrcLinivttlliitioEi 
of grent thickness, through which a iong un;hed 
pnaeage hnds ti> the cynosurd itadf; but here 
tJiori! isu form to be obaTvoil, from which stmngera, 
whatever uiay he ihuir ei-ecJ, nrc not even exem^it, 
Ttili cnti^nee is enlled the Holy Gate (S^to^Me 
Vttro£a), the origia of wbiob epitljct is loot, but 
.tradJlioE aayH that a nui-aculuna figure cf our 
Sttviour Burroountedit; however, no one id allowed 
to pas« thiwigh the arch witiiout taking ofi" hia 

1 4 



hat, wbicli the sentry \cry unct?rciin»moiiBly rc- 
movee should t!io woarer omit tlist cercmony« 

The Kremlin Hlamle on an cniincnoo, which 
is nol perceptible till you arc witliia it^ wnJIa, 
limd wIlod you omor^ from the gambre jm^^ige 
of the Holy Gate, und reach the terriice, the most 
beanlifiU vtvw suddenly brooks uptm the eyi^; a 
View, which of itat'lf ia giiffii^ient to r^ipny tho 
fiitigue nnd tedioufinosJt of xha jciiimey hithiir. 
I havB Been it under every effect, and at »11 Itournt, 
for my steps nlmosl intinlively liid me t.ln?ix% and, 
whE!tlier glittering under n sultry sun, rtuhdueij b^ 
tlie fihndce of cvcrimg, or in die repose of moon- 
light (if such it ciQ be called when wc Jirc yet ill 
the longest days, uiul tlie moon hua i:lo fimotiona 
to pcrfunn), it comuiLinda tbo mofit unqualifiod 
admiration. My forte docs not lie in dcacription, 
but :4till I must attempt aoaictliing, if it be a 
mere outline, to give you im idc^a of tlie picture:. 

An Been from this temtoe, the <ye becomea 
firit aware of the iuequftlitiee of the grouiid on 
which MtiUxJw is lnult» It ib flftid of it, lis of 
ancient Rnmr, that it Is built on sevi?n hilla ; Imt 
however t!iiit fn«t may he, tliRie is no doubt but 
the gentle unduljitioDJ^ of the Ismd fono the pnn- 
cipnl chiinns (pf tlm scene. The terrace, brekcin 
in its k'irglh at inttrvale by picturesque Mooriati 
towers, slopes down to the nvtt Moskvrn; So the 
iQiddla difllaucc portii^fle of tlio city dcit-lop thcm- 
scItcBi not crowded together and lkcn|>^ iii djirk 



aaiMefi, 1>ut Lrokea by gnrdetiB nnd plcint^ epncee ; 
among which thn whiipnrd Itoiwp^i, softt^ tlius 
in llieir outline^ hnrnumtze most ngn^eabljr. The 
hatik-gnnrnd \s filled up liy ineitdowR, which In*? 
lhe[ii^clvt« m the woiKltfid fihJe« of the Sparrow 
lulls thai liouml the honjfiiin. Stilly [ierha]>Sf 
the tiiosL remarkable objects In llue vaat am* 
phtthcfLtre. epread out map-Ukc before jou^ are 
the immenao cumber of domes and eteeplcsj h^ 
Icai^itg to the ohurohcs and conymita. la 1730, 
Weber estimated the number of churches at 1 600, 
and in 177S Cox© fixed them at 4S4j which 
probably, notwithstanding the oonflngrulion of 
1812, h Dcnr the mark. 

The orthodox form of the Greek church ie that 
of a Maltese cross, surmounted by several towers 
or domes oF varioua height&j but iievei* less than 
five, the centrG one being ihi? most eonsiJeralJe- 
TJieae viiry in their furiris, wliicli ure ^iiii^timoa 
moat biy^n^e^ representing a mitre, n ti:tnt» a 
minaret^ a. turbrm, a globe or a ilome tcrmiuatuig 
la a point; each HUpjxirliug s, hirge gilt cior^e^ 
from wliioh icetoons of bright chains depend, 
graceful iLB an ornament, and ncceeeary aa a 
BOCarity. The singularity of the architocturc is 
onhjvncod further by tho slylcB of decoration, over 
vrhioh tbt most sportive fancy £ccnie to havD 
pi'Osided^ It is a kind of mnsriuerade, and the 
eye la liter&lly das^rled by the brilliauey of tho 
eBto produced by the varied foims and rich 



covoriDga of the roofd \ gold and silver, and colours 
of the Ifrightcet huca glitter in tho sua from nur- 
fnooe einotith like a cuiruaa, coned UIco a piue* 
apple, scaled like a aerpenl, tinted aa a riiinLow, 
rayed as a zebra, or ribhed like a laelon, Horo 
and tliere the tail thin tower of a miaarot con- 
nected Willi the worahip of Mnhotnet or the re* 
ligioTk of l!ie Tnrlava presents itself, and seems to 
realise the idcn that one h transportod to a scene 
of Eastern rom:ince- 

Thi-ri; is oi)e liuildlng in the midst of three 
stmiij!;!! cr(?alianb which excels them all, ami la so 
entirely »iUiout a t^uizJlijl, LhatltdubL-rvi.-«a pecu- 
liar uccounL It ia the cuthedrcd of St, lioail — 
Vaeilii Blagennoi, built by Ivan Vaasilievitch to 
commomcmtc the capture of Kasan. Ivna wae a 
tyrotit in cruelty, wlio, to prevent thu m-chiicct 
from rearing a aimiljir edifice ctscwherej caused hia 
«y&s to be put out* Jt consists intomally of a 
nmnber of s£*pnrate chupeU, I believe twentyj 
grouped together, and having no coniraunlcatiOQ 
with oaeh other. ItH eatemal elevation laay be 
said to be withijut symmelry, for amoug t!»e whole 
of lt« eixleei; ci^polft.% fniidl aad great, there arc 
no two whidi reBBLnbl? each other, other In form 
or orDameut. A diversity of colour, which, h(»w* 
ever, doea not phwk the eye, ajMBitft rflthci" the 
tfiect pro^hic^d by the fiintflaticfll style of th© 
building; from tlie centre of which a tall steeple 
riece, terminating in a cTo»e, liaviug the crescent 



beneath lU to indii^iite the triuroplie or Chri^ 

tiflnity over the religion of ]^lii}i<ini4^t. X borrow 
the words cf n recent writer, which I think will 
convey to you, belter than I have done, the reaJ 
ehunictei' <if the Gflect. 

"Figurez vciiih line aggloint^ration lie petitea 
lourelles im^gaks; Sgure:^ vmia phitfit une csp^ce 
do fruit irreg^iilipr, t^nir, herKse flVxcroUwjicos un 
melon <:&utMloiip ^ c6tca brodi-es, ou luicux eDcore 
une cnatuUia^tion de mlJJe couJeurs, dout le poli 
metEiUiquQ a dee Kflete qui biilleiit de loin aux 
myons tlu eolcil commQ Ic vcrrc Oc Bobt'cie ou do 
VcnUo, comme la faience do XJolflt la plue to* 
ml6?, commo TOmniJ do In chino !o rnioiw vcrui; 
00 ecnl Ocs i^tiailles do poisBocs Jot-^tffl, ^vs peaux de 
serpents I'tenduea sur dee taa de pierres mformeflj 
dea t^te^de drngons^ dee nnnurc^ ddli^zardsa teintea 
<^huuge!Lntesr des omaiDetits d*».ut[;l, dea hiihits 
di? pr^tres; et le tout ^fit Eurmouti'de R^ohefi dimt 
1& peinture re&sofnble it dee ^tciRea de »i>ie nior- 
ddti^e: dan* le» ^.iroito latervsdltfl de cce cilul* 
pauilleH, <Frju^i4 cirninie on imn^rait dc8 personnel* 
vous voyci reluire des toita peints en couleur 
gorge dc pigeon* en rose, en tizm\ ct toujoure 
bicQ vcrnis : k somtillcmcnt dc ccr^ tcipca^erica 
i^blouit Tcoil et fas&Liio llmagiDutioD. CertCB, le 
pay& ofl un fiireil monument e^npfictlQ un lieu do 
pj'icrej nV&L [me IXuiijp^^, c'o^t I'lodc, hx PoreOj 
k Chine, at Lce hcmmea qui vent adcret Dicu 


(liviis r^ntl-tt Uiite des ronfituiis nu sont paa dc* 

The Krtnilin is not & palace oor a cJtedel, but 
the heart of llic city, in which the most snored 
nfttioral object* grouped nnd preecrvcdi The 
{lakcc, tbc tiizoauryi tJic ftrecnftl, many ohuroho*, 
the patriarchttl roi^donoc, the eonate liousei and 
tbc anci<>nt piiU»ce of the Tsai's stand close tc-» 
gefher ; mid tlie celi?l.'ratc!d great boll and tbe tall 
tower of Ivan Veliki we ainopg iu ciariositiea. 
The former haa recently been raided by M. Fal- 
COnnet from the deep pit in which it hna k»o for 
fa mtaiy year^^ and now ntui^de conhpiijiiotiji iin 
& }A.f^ peili'sliiT ; the w 8lirn)ly wliat I have 
(tailed, it, a Ijill tower, lis ttrigimil piir|>ofio in 
unknown, but on cnoli stage of it wholo families 
of bellfl are Lung, from ihe pcnnkieus giant down- 
wards to a mere Lilliputian tinkler; tbc pano- 
ramic view from tlio aiimmit ia perfect ; nod before 
the French invaaion a cross of Bc*lid gold crownod 
it, but aa it formed \i^H of their Bpoile, it hns 
been replaced by a more humllo ropreecaitative. 

The ancient palaco cjf tlio Taarg., or, oh it la com* 
monly Galled, the Tuitar palnci.', is a most beaa> 
tiftil toy, and a choice relic of nntitjdity; whteh, 
by the gin;*] t'iet(? of the Emperor, liae been por- 
ftx^lly restored, without lujiuy or addifjiou to Its 
original charai^Ler, It is decidedly tjrMooriah aixhi- 
tccturctand&taodd out light amljoyouB from among 
the heavy modern etructiirce which euirouod it 





If Is in ibo pigoibt tovrn of Cliina, « buccc^on ut 
teiraccs rising on cncli other, attcnuflti:ig nt thcj" 
riac, tUl llie^ tenauiittc tii a e'ltigk uiiLrv(U(!i:-Ukc 
cbftmbcT. Tho flight overliAikging roofe gAil^ 
pointed, and tbc blender pi[lua'» which support 
cihch eucccesiTc mngc of tJ^cni, ^ro peculiarly 
elegant, Tho interior id pauitod in rioh ura- 
bee<]uo work, iiXid nil xlm adjuncts aro in pnrtit^u- 
larly good keeping, and contrt^et agreestbly witli 
the somewhat sevcro style of the preaeot day. 

Cannon of n.!! ddstrlplioafl, trupKice of wtir 09 
well as thoHo dcsigTiixl fur BRi'vii^e, are piled id 
bing rows nrniind the nrsenit], williii) which aton» 
of modern weap(.<n* brittle sinitiirg llti; rtlic* uf the 
i-Hrller piirts of the ei^litceutli osuturyj kept ae 
cbitractcL'iatice of tlie tiLueai I have eeen In no 
Other country mementoci* of &ucb recent datc> and 
y«t tliey oni as fcUl cf inttirectb aa tbc luaileil ftuits 
of the stccl-cJad warriore of ntitiqtiityi KubielA la 
peculiarly rioh in ihoe* eiiuple onnaU, and accma to 
prOBcrvo in tlic national repositories ej>ociiutii& of 
tbo drc^ and oocoutrcmcnlf of its iiiilitury, as 
changp-e hnvo succeeded each otlier. The litiJo 
comcidinfiiniry cop of red cloth, the 1 urge awkward 
gj>rgGt of ihc officers, and tlie enormous niasaof the 
pavjilry boot, are outious recoi'd^ of old milititry 
eofltiinic. But the wftpdi'ol>tw of thti Huvert'igua are 
not tbt? least singular iieuig in this colleution. 
Tlitflr »l«Ie robes eliiO a set cf their ordlrijiry 
ap^Kirc!, from the daya of Peter to tbo*c of Alcjt- 

if-^,-*J .^..^ 

i70 cRowwa* THbowb^TaStS 

amlcij nie Irud cut in etate. ofletitig a etr^inge 
contruat between bi^rl^rlo inn^nificcncc au*\ olc- 
gant eimplicity. The stn-tc equipages hiive hJbo 
»ji nsylunii wid mark iiccuratQly tlio history 
ic ihc prof^rces of couch building- The early 
ones arc ah rough and uncoutli as it 10 possible to 
imagiDO) the windowa being fixtui'ee nnd com- 
posed of liom. 

Among tbe more costly objects of real hiBtoricil 
inlcreat, are the crtiwTis oF the oonquereJ guvem- 
cneTir« iiiineKed X^^ Riift^ia, tlio litrcp mi wliiRb 
CImrles XIL wns iKjrne at ibe Ittiltle uT Puhowjt, 
and tbe book of the uonBtitulioii of Poliind, 
The urowna v-te plart^tl on. velvet cuBlutiur^ resting 
on pcdeat£ils> bobmd each of which titc riiagcd 
as many thrones elevated on plalforms — a con- 
vocation of tbc attribiitca of royalty to prove tike 
instability cf hunmn affaira. These tlironca arc 
higblj curious, and valutiblo from tbo quantity o€ 
precious metals used in tPteir conatructionj nnd tbc 
profusion of jewela with wHtth stime of tJieia 
are studded. The moflt romnrkablo perhaps is 
that of Ivan III- crtrved in ivory, and a sUvOr 
one of iht tirothers Ivan nntl Poter AlexeJevitcb, 
with a Utile reccaa hebbd itaed by tbc prinoesfi 
Sopbia to j>rrtiii[it them ; an offiee ahe t^xt^reiAed 
during iJie \\(*s of tlic Jornierj and till Peter, 
aasuniing ihc aok miiia of govenniiRut, rid faim* 
self of her obnoxious and usuqvcd authorlty- 
The mci5t iincicnt crown u that t>f Mouomaqix^ 

OT coNQrr.nisD uo?tabcii$. 


leiiring ^atc 1 1 16. Then follow those of Kaaan, 
AatracKttD, Gcor^^ one tancle to rcprcseat the 
conquest of Slboriii, and the blowly Uiiulom of 
Polnnd ; the more modom ones arc tho^o of 
Peter, Catherine I.j and Klutibeth. What an 
iiupoBiag guLuey of eplcndour ! Thd wociltli 
ccllected there in diamondia and the c!lioicest 
jewels IS worth an empire. Gloties, eceptres, 
iind batons swell the list of tlie canstelljitions ; 
diey blaxe na aatellites around the in»peri:il dia- 
<!ein. tell thi^ ttdo of nutionaj and are tlie only 
monuQicuts left of thoJr eii^lencc^ aaviu^ l\ni fevr 
iinea which thcj- nany oocu[i^ in the dark ftnd 
remote pages cifhUtory. They represent, in lact» 
the chnjnology of the empire. The enchanted 
ecODcg of the Arobian Nights and the gorgeous 
pdoecof Alftdrlin seem to be rottliaed in this unique 
fliid rupplondont eullcetioti. The unticjuorion and 
the virtuoso mipKt pass their Uvea in g^ing 
through lie treaanres in delitiLl. The golden bay- 
leafed ecronet of jini^ioni Rome freBh and anm- 
jiired, vaeea and goblets of the precious metnlsj 
curved and inlaid with tlie elioioest jewels, 
crystal (siips of every age and countTjj armour 
nnd horti^ fiiriliititre stndd^I with diamonilH and 
turquoiaej bewilder the seu&ea ; whUe hunitrede of 
banners flimting round the walla, distinguiahed by 
the nationixl emblenia of Persia, Turkey. Poland, 
France, and Sweden, complete this hetcrc^neouB 
oeaeinblo^ of the national wealth and glory. 


cmracK or thk AasLiMPTioy. 

Of tJie several chiirches j^oiipod togctlicr m 
tl»G area of the Kremlm» thai (if dit Aiwumptioa 
i^ tlie most rGmarkablo, and is bc^ide^ the ccliflcQ 
in which the ooronnftnn of tin.- Emj)t"ri>r tjilcc** 
]ilaow. It Ih rtiiiMrk^lily ^il(lpk, but nMy duu*- 
rjktedr and |ielIdIci] with the %tirLia of siunta itui! 
at^tions illustrative of llieiu Lo tliu very roof; fniui 
the iwintrc of ^vhich a colossal face of our SuTioiir 
looka duvrn ou the wctrshippera below. The 
ioonast, which ie the screen dWiding the sanc- 
tuary from the uavo of the chui-ch, b ix uia^^aifi- 
CCnt piece of gilded iron worJi, extending to the 
roof itgolf, whore it terminates in a glory bearing 
the dove. Its ^vnteet treasure is a pnintiiig of 
the VirgiQ Ma,ry iieci'ibed to St. Lute ; but, 
Betting its ori^a^ilily (?) aside, the preeiouB stones 
with which it is studded, even tc tlie frame-work, 
are Rifficient to excite thnt DdntiritLifni which the 
more pioufl would believi^ to hb due to the 

The number of thcae miraculous pictures in 
llu3dia ia quite iDOonociT^xbJc, rwd the readient 
laitl) ta bcstess^ed en them; althougli the prie&ta, 
like their heathen brethren of eld, thcniseJvcn prc- 
paro the fraud, to ^^hich it 10 impoe^blo they otui 
be diif^ee, Thua, For inatanoe. tlie arehimundrite 
of the Soukaref monastery declared that he bad 
diacovered the pieture of a uunt of diir|xi88in^ 
power, and enceJ?edocl in ^'etting it cimtiniKKl. 
Till? fnnio of it wws induetrioualy spread. 



IJKmBftnrl* gf pil^rlind visUed it and contnliuted 
their ofl«rIiiga. W!(L the imuicitec »um tlma 
raised ilic Arthimrindtite orcctcd a lofty tower 
at the c&tracc of hb nioiiustcrj, aud ahortly aftori 
requiriupr aomc further additions, he alleged that 
ho liad found onotlior picture |>038e»Bing ^vtiiider- 
fdl virtue, and aj>|>liod to the ejTfcoU to havo ii 
alflo canonized; but tlicy replied that tht?y couM 
not grant ti (Jouble pi-ivilege to any applicant 
witliout iajiistice to others. It U ti duty a^ well 
na uTi irn[ilmitril feeli^^ Ut :Mriiyn injthiug but 
»:hat 13 ncrftct »n our iden^ iitul wnrslilp of tin; 
Altuiglityi and yet ilm Kouiau Culltolio« \tay the 
deej»er*t duvoiiuji to the most tuwilry eiuU tiJistilkd 
figures cf the Vxrg'm, jluJ the Gretk Church proe- 
tratcb Itself before pictures which are & libel en 
humanity, and much more on a siunt. 1 can 
imagine IftDati^iiaui bowing bcf»>rc the sabUiue 
conception of a ThorwaUlsoo, or worahippiug the 
repreacntfttione of n. Aturillo or n Raphael, but 1 
cannot cotieejve the genuineness i>roven mJetaken 
devotion, when its objects are cither a oarieaturo 
or a biu"leaque ; it is hui a step removed from the 
hidenua iilniK of (he South SeaLS, and iTnme:»Bnr- 
ably l)elimil the inythol^^icaJ worsliip of aricieat 
Ttiuue iu)d Greeoe, whone gods repreeenttd the 
bcAU-ideid of f(triu eluiI giiicc. 

It if? not uuubuiil Itj uruAuieut the wuilb in thtf 
Ureftk churches init pictured illuatrationa of 
paeea^ of Scripluro; ihcso paintings exhibit 




eotsc of the most extnionliimry Hcoa wliich ever 
entered llic imngination of niuu, and ttu^w a 
doubt even upon the poetry of the art, unices ci- 
travft^ancp Ij*j bucIip An oHinmy arti&t would 
probubly bo nt somo loefi liow to depict the 
moral lesson of Scriptiiro,— ** Why Lclitddoet thou 
the moto that is in thy brother'^ <iye, but per- 
ceiveet not ihe beam thnt is m thine own eye?" 
But not so the Ku-'^^ao ; liTa in^^nuity in;t9terd 
the diffitiilty at once, and accordingly he paintu a 
mnn \*itli a vaat hcinii of timbri' literally prrjlrti* 
ding from iho cje ! Tliis monatrcms pivjtJLcfmr 
is acLuttUy bimg up in one of the churclit^a at 
fit, Petersburg! Such tabular coniukcii lories on 
the 8criptiireS) nddcd to the use of the &c1a\0Dtc 
dinloot in tbc ecrvioo of the Chm-olu sufficientljr 
ftccount for the entire aiincnoc of the IC]iowlcdg;OoP 
the doctrinpfl of religion in th'i minds of the |>copJc: 
their's ie not a. faith which mske? nil things poe- 
etble. but Li euperstit3t>n which believes tiican 

It is inconcpivnble bow the maater-spirits of an 
i^o, whose minds sire nnehacltellwl, and snpe™)!' 
to vulgJir fnnatir.isni, sbnuld not only tolerate,, but 
in fnrt encoimige its o[»ration. Peier nwiKted 
its irifliKTive whc'i] il. Hi»te:l bin own piirpoAcsi, but 
lie did nntbbig lo d[S])el the inrpulir duluoion, 
although Ills acta were sufficient to nviftkrn diAtniAt 
of iinintly efficacy in Use believing minde than 
tJioec he governed. The tnith in St. Alexander 


Xofakl WLi;^ in hi3 lime, aa it still !«, UDl>OLtudvO, 
rukij he tliougKl it neceHsary to remove tbe boiiee 
of the Biiint fixiui their rePtiTig-|jlace in llie convent 
of Gorodichetcho, on Iho baJika of the Volgii* to Wis 
inJtnit capita!, not only to fix a sanctity Vj the 
fpot, but aUo to attract tliilhur the jiilgriioa to hie 
ebrino. The monks, however, wore not <lifij}oeed 
to |>art so reailily with thctr troiuiire, ami twice 
coDveyed it haok to its origiQu] hofDej allt^giDg 
that the 3ftitK !m<i in a mintt-nlous iniiiiTier trang- 
feiTw] hhiiHolf thithfr: but Pclt'r% ^ujitrstition 
wtts Ticit etjiifLl tt» t,hi,i iitt'Jtiijit oi\ his trcdulity, far 
lie (ledjirt'J lliat aliouU tiic «ttiul i^fiiee id reiuuu 
iu the cJiunJi whirli lit IumI built njiJ coiiwirrflli-vl 
to hjiUj he would visit lila otTcuce co:iJigi]ly on the 
monka ; and thu« the aointly warfAre cea»cd< The 
shrine of Ht. Alexander Nefeki le the aio*l 
costly moDUTucnt ever erected, it leiug entirely of 
eilv[>r, die weight of wHch U compntcU at three 
thotiBivniJ pounds. 

I have known instances of people vowingto the 
Utile pictured flaint hanging in their chaiubera 
ati adiKtioDft! lamp or de&iration if 3ueU am! ^iith 
things occnrred, aa one wnuld ofler n hrib*^ to a 
child; btit the result having proved untoward, 
they liave piminh^d their reiVaotory giiHrdkAii hy 
tnniLug Ub fuct: to tht wall, like putting the 
child in a corner. Can ab^uiility be eanicd 





F\acifuttiQH i]f thf Krerulh. — Windimr Cojidf and 
Krrwiitn eomjiared. — 3'fie Mart o/MoKino. --Burgtiin* 
ing. — T'Ae 3VAirf. or CaiatU(in^ Muiftinn — Hcc/cutiurt 
cf Shophfitp^n in Mbtt^tte- — T<^tnhmftingta Ruxina — Uu^f 
of ihe Common People^ — Opifntd Af/irct lyf Mimcnu: — 
Oipi^ Singers. — F'nattUing Aiii/him. — Irjimctup Rttti 
A-ftiWir. — Rua^uiH litjofd. ^- Neutmsa 0/ tht C1/5, 
3urfiirig q/ Moscovj de^L-ribtd. — Attempt to blow itp 
Kmndifi i'ff thv J-^^fncft. — Hurritrt 0/ the iielmat from 
Mus^cvc — Trpntmtiit 0/ Preach P^'imnh-iH. — 7]'ifiithnii:jit 
to Sibfrta- — Riisuvm E-nlf and l£ngli-'h 'J'riiTiXf'rla/i^'n 
ctttApui-ed ^ Pnaon of aeMeaced EjUci. — Prtmn fwif- 
ora — Di'j\firturt of Priso-nfru for Sfbcria. — E^i^ett i^ 
the Knout — J^r. Ilmijiy th< ItanAtan Howard,^- PflrJti-cU' 
tioni lifthv Jtjws^ — A^fCtiag Scimi: i^u JVwuA Family 
Pnaon. — Arifitnity Paietr of ike O^Uvdt. ^^ Depv 
from AIiKCoof. 


X iJEOiNto fear thrtt T *hnll Icixvc Moscow irtth 
Kn-ving aoen mavt timu tlic Kr<imllu> pci diffictilt 
I find it to tcnv rfij0cU' IVoni tbc v^poU I spcu 
houre OE iw torraoo, or in tbe gardcnctl alo 
boneath, or T moiiut the tower of Ivaa Voliki, or 
I gel to ihQ coraer of ih^ stone bridge, wliic 
commands the fiao^t riow of the enceinte. Ii 
gino rny*<!lf looking at one of tht* fubled cfofttionii 
of the Erist, jmlncee built hy gmii, or tlie gorgco 

. or^ 



i^flecLs of t.lit-al.ricftl scenic: repivnisntaUoiifu I oame 
cxpet^Lliig im]<:1i, nud^ unlike tikc general ig^uc of 
Bucli uutLCi^tiuus, kive tuuiul more. The ad- 
dDinitioa I bave for WiDdaor Cflstie, which I 
conceire fo be the aomc of all tUiit h uoblc and 
princely, U of a difFcrent Itind^ though equally 
fervent ; it ia the a<ln>irfltiou of the minJ» whereas 
ihat of the Kremlin h <*f tfce senses ; they tire the 
rcpreacntationa respectively of ri«nnnce and his- 
tory — the oue briglit and joyous like the maalc of 
Como, the oilier proud and kmgly, reigmag over 
thj? matchleflH aeiinery (if-EiiglisIi laiidst'Hpc. 

WEthi[i the prcri[)ubi of thtr outer wall ia the 
great lunrt for businoss — thcr FCffai ///trifif, lUenilly 
thiT Chiuusu towo, iiaswcriiig to iLo Goatinoi I}vtfr 
at S(. rcteraburg, but aiore cxlcimive. It con- 
tains ft Iflbyrintli of pacsagee, eat'li pnapajie being 
devoted to its particular trade : but the anikoyaiicc 
arising from this sy^^m w cxtrcmcT for the momuut 
you ontor there ia u. perfect flerauibJe to secure your 
favour, Au appearance of cenipctitioa which id not 
boniG out by the prices iteked, Bnt what you 
would shrink from elsewhere U expected, and t^ven 
necessary here : the avdwetJ ftyalem \s for th*i piir- 
chaeer to lender half the priee naked, and to rise 
progressively by IraetioiiB till the Lar^iii is ulritek, 
which IB generally at si ipiarter or third lese thiiu the 
Bum di!iniinded. The RuBsiaii tries nlivaya (or higli 
prefitH, but rather iLau not dad lie wiH he sAti&- 
licd with a trJ^c. 

T 3 



Their calculntiong aru all iormcd on -■ 
mucliinc with tcnrowe orbcA<Jjof tliticmntcolourn, 
c-allc<l tx tchot^ mid they will not truHt ttictueolvca 
even lo pay a difiofcnoo in chango without havii 
TcriStid it by this procees. It is a ^inrpilHt ai 
primitive moile of cyphering, and n eiibslitutc ft 
ni^utiil cideulutlon and tlie ordinary ruled a.i 
t-nblpH of sirJtlnnt^tiO. Wc sliDuld be dispnwd 

foi'tii but iLii inillfit'rent tipiciim of fbe pn*sperily of , 

a traileatiiau, or of hifi Httentlon Us liurfiiiefta, if W^^| 
fcrniid biir» only Ullhig away \m tinjE-.; Imt tli^^l 
Kui-«^|]iTt HliiTipniai) la evi:i' uiiLsidt tiia door eugagt^ 
ia ^jlaying draiiglfcta with Lia ncigKbour : the 
seems to be a-s indispcnBaUle to tUcir habits U 
morro to the Italians. 

Tea in Russia ie moru frogniitt, nud ccrtaiu] 
superior to that winch wc niaot with ia Engkatif 
and it niny be oollcil tho natiijiial l«iVow|;Gj zi 
after qvaea, »x hf^rrible tloooction from rye, it U 
geuend iiac. At St. Ptlcrsbuig it ia aoid in the 
atreeis to the people by icioenLut dealers with 
nrn elung under tbizirarnigj and theriJ are teA-alti 
of indifFi?reut rjuality in abundiini^ alao ; btit 
they ate Orst-rate estalilialjnenU no a large bi 
Parties resort tliei'e to talk ovti' their luudni 
na thi-y do with au ice at Tortoaisal PjiHs, Tbo 
Ruaaiaii, however, ia no tea-totaller ou piinciplo ; 
be i* ft true connoisacnr, and loves \\xs cup, wbioh 
he lakes as a hixury, not mixed wllh milk, but 
with u thia slice of leiaou ttoatiug on tUe turfs 

hi* 1 



The atttmdantA wear a kiLil of Asiflfio costume^ 
not unllkE! tbiLt of the Lfigc'fii^, namely, a sort of 
whito slilrt, witK trutiBera uf tlie saiiie muterml, 
ln>[mtl njuiid tLe waist wkli a rml ^jlbIi, and the 
hair Jong c]coe|)tiiLg al the uw[ie uf tlto neck, ami 
ODnBued b/ a little bather JiUlL 

Tho comiaod people uiiist pu^^ea In a rcQikuvk- 
able dogi'cc the '^dura ilia mcssoruni" — fyrao or- 
dinary atomfl.uU oan be equal to tho toak ae^igncd 
to it — in triturating raw carrotSj broad bisaas, and 
uushelled peaa, whii^Ji ihey niuDJ^h with real guato, 
and ID goodly qunntitie&j fi'om aupplies liuwked 
about forthv jmipose : but these arc trifles without 
thr; addenda oi' toa.dstool^ fitcwed in liimi oil nnd 
oabbage soup a few dpgrcas worau tlian suucr 
krouL NutwitbHUiidlng thegunural poverty of UiL^ir 
aiiiiipnt, they are a. fme itii.^j; of intn, w.nd hardy, 
but without the bmwjiy unc^w uud muHCulur de* 
vclopmcnt of our own peasantry, 

Oue of the chief recorumeudatloue in the ap- 
poaraucc of Moscow is the absence of tbc dia- 
oiplinod unifoiioitj in the structuro of the hooBoa. 
Tho fitrocts ore ^njghi ae un arrow^ running at 
right angle*, but broktju by gardens, and varyhig 
lu 1}ic plan aod dcvatiou of the buildings; eotno 
of which are eiill of wood, and contract oddly 
t'n<iugh with the pala4M?a or fetntdy edifioes ail- 
Joining them. The fewo^F« of the Fihop^ gives 
an air of dullne«4 to this Buone, a* rcj^ardb the 
bustle of coaiiueicti and iho atLfatliuu of the 

T 4 



display (\( g'xnls; hut tlii' cloud of Jrdshkj* iM 
aa great a^ at St, Ft^torHbiirg^ tlw nnnibor of 
mititiiry as itbunJaoL, iliiJ tliere ih lilso n greuter 
variety lii cotlunic. Tt is Jilim^^t flifficult to le^ 
ooncUe the iilea Ui;it odc la in n Euritiiom city ; 
amd the numbers of biizzTLrtU fic^fLiing nbore or 
dashing into the court-jiLvda, wbwo they [icrfomi 
the dutios of sonvengera, incrcnec the delii^ion. 

1 incnliuncd to jou that we fell in with gypuee 
on our routo^ and hero tliorc ia nnrtlhec colony oi 
them Batahliflhed as public eJnKer*, — nat ballud or 
etrcct eiriging, thio^ ultogollior iinfciicuFD, but OS 
performers in the puhli*; gardens uud other places 
of recrenlion* '^^i'^y have attained a high per- 
feciion in th(?ir art, and their g!tes iwi\ choniaea, 
unBided by inatnimental masiLv are both pkiwing 
and hnrmanJinia. Sc<in(^ of ihe fpmale* are of 
great beiiuly, which ih^y perffi^tly uiidtTsland 
how to advance Uie value of by a becoming tut 
coqueltifih dress and the dioplay of licli omai- 
mcnta about their persons. It i.^ singular that 
thia mec» floattcrcd oa it ia over the worUl, eUonld 
everywhere prcecrve the came habit*, and liavo 
the rnimo ditdneli nation to follow stuwly and in* 
duetnoii8 puiisuitt^ — lining, like their prebablfi 
prygenitors tlio Aruht, the wild litV wliieh thoir 
coQloct with olviliinlion has never betn nhle to 
flubdue. Like ihc wild nnimul tainod nnd subjected 
to mnn, wlnt>h Qvdr mniutains soin^hing of lU 
former ehamctcrj so tlie gyp>^v, confornilng to 




tfcc Inwg of the country he inLabite, rctama nlwQir^ 
the impression of tho unrc^dalt]lcU wandering tnbo^ 
of tlie cloeort — with th'\6 eiuglo oxcc^ptiou, that in 
rhie (country the cliiuretts tlie j^aucity of popuk* 
tioE over ite surfLtcB, and tlie ecutitiii^se of ctjlci- 
vntion it) tJienurtheni parts, compel Liin to change 
Ills tent mid opcTi bivounc for the aheltoF of n 
hiiuse nml llie residence of a tu<u-ii. THl-j iirt-> 
Sri cinnpired tt> the nauvc Rin^iiiane, wliat thia 
dtj' IB tu die rei*i of d^ie empire- — fcutuics uf tlie 
E^Lst in a, northern land^cupe. 

A foundling cftnMitihment itppeorn to be of 
primary coneidcratioaj idtbougK in point of fact, 
its designation is the \cry rcTcrac of tlic system 
it |iurHuos; but tho unnatural ooudnct of paronla 
in both inetnncc* may bo tbo promoting CflUsG for 
tho foumliition of fluch infititutione ; yet in iho 
Btrict adhcronco to the tnleiition of tlicac eburiliefi 
the hand of coruT^flAriion and bumivnity n atretf^bcd 
oat only to relieve and save the wrclchtd being* 
whom cither abject m][?ery or liufdi-TUMl luiliiie 
leave to chance or death. In HuAsIn, huwover, 
a premium U nffered to the heartlej?s by ojxjmng 
ilje doura of Hit u^ylum, diflgiu^ under a phiVLn- 
thropio naniGf for tlie rece^rtiou of all chUdrcn 
whoso parontfj dcaeit lliem at their birth, and 
leave them to the vicjirioua charge of the ritato. 
which asaunjea ever ai\tv tJic entire control and 
di^pofial of them \ in a word, tho mnke of the 
army and niLvy arc ;wdled nt IUg eJEpocee of 




tlifl tiofl of ri?lip'n:>n itnJ nature- The fotindling 
wylum here b on a litrgcr BCiUe eveu th^tii tlmt 
ai St- Fetereburg ; but iU capaciouB giLlJt^rics 
ami a^urta sre at this momcni oiiiptv', an nl! tin* 
iitiriatt^ iini ilistriLj(i(i?d I'ljuiiil llic [idghbi>Ltrl)f.Hxl 
t4^ make mum fur a Imst of ^miiilei^ stid wbit&- 
waahera* Tiie ftelmgft eiiJoriuuiiG i clilU wUl« 
conteuijilating thes^;l'eceplaclcafo^hc!lpleBBinf^lDCJ'^ 
wLere lUoufiandH Legin a hojieless c^cuv, un* 
bles&cd by parental love ; tlie jojoue aprightlinca* 
of i^hiidhacsd id nipped hy the cold le^^ooa of 
diwiplln^^, and the mttutui inipubee «f 1iicDd«hip 
and Ei,6eotioiL blighted in tho ^rm, till tliu hcnrt, 
hfti'doiicd and citllouj?, is stoelcd Mid indiffcront to 
t)ie mi£crii?s of tho future: & fitting ecljool to 
prepare tbem for a life of oppresdoQ and unre- 
kniing tyranny in their superiors, 

Tiie arm of power is not idlowcd to rest or 
bi-ni>iue itmctivu from want of prHi;tlce ar from 
IttAily fhf diiH-'iplim.', whidi ini^ht arise fnmj (he 
lezi^Lh [uiU severity uf tbc winter by pre^'cnting 
drill and othct military eJtcToifca^ Ewd thcroToro 
itiUQcnK ndiDg-si;h.rjoId arc constructed capai>le 
ofpcruiittrng the juaaaiuvrLiB of very couaidecablo 
bodies of trccpe ; the priccipol one of tlicoc 14 
really, iw rcgnriU its roof, au oatonisliiiig pieCO 
of architect ore, covoriag im aroa of bvc hundred 
by oao bundrcd juid thirty fuet without tlio eupport 
of oitliGr pillar or Arch. The RiiBajuiE nre ujn 
doubtudly masters in tlie art of roof-buildmg i 



iTOii tS the ^eueral mAk'tiid, laid om ut a ^Ight 
angle m sbeets nhbcd inti:> cacli ctlicr ami fittiDg 
bj tlicirtJffn wtight, JinU painLed cither in green 
or red ; llms the rooie, fnr from offending the 
cyCj are omamoutal nnd hnvo a general uppcDT- 
uncc of lighiness; antl tbe cltcct, as eccn from na 
eminence, In oppoeltion to the dazzling whiloocsa 
of the houses, la very iigreejibl& 

The newness in the appearance of *very thing 
in MoBeow brings the catastrophe of 1812 jier* 
pctijflUy lipfijre the niiiid as an evei'»rec'imiig 
reasijii to aeuoimt for tlio abwnct of tirriu'worn 
uJificcHj and vfuerablo buildlnga in tliie the ao- 
ciciit r^pitjil af ihe eii>piro ; nad ef rlfdnly nii otlier 
country luMliQg of two t^ujjilidri am pomt to 
them HE h&viag bc^^n orectod aliocst within the 
memory of man ; for St Pctersbiu-g hu* tati heca 
butU more tliua one hundred atid fii'tj jaa'a, A 
great nuzDbcr of tJic inhahitauU of Moecow, who 
enw it^ i'a]l> yet survive, aiKl ltd d-i'HtruclJou h not 
at all tiu unfrcquont to])}c- Thoy tmj tha-t tho 
number of hoiiee^ which fell u prey to iho fl^n^Ofl 
aniounfed to 13^800, i3id£?p<?iidtiatly nf ^ahvvM, 
cburehe^^ and otlier public! edifice*, and that the 
47«t]nifLled liKwof property pquaUed twenty mi! lioiw 
of ])oundFi aferling. 

An c'yo-witnf:*» toM mc tltiit Nj^jnleon eatJt* 
bltnlitrd bla bt'ml-iiujirtera nt tlie KihuiHd on 
the 15th of &cptcuibv:r, and timt the £re broke 
cut the same day Huiotig thu ahope of the Kit&i 


Gorod, auU in ihe «>ur»e of n few hoiin shoireA 
ttaclf in izianj other qunrtcr* of the ciTVp TBo 
taiglil cf llic IClh gloaiuod luridly ami leurfiillj', 
Lit up with th4) flames of a «^onor-Ll contingration* 
Kicplosjun?. IcitiJ flncL vitiTent, shook thi^ ground, 
and cnnihuatihles, linrlcd wildly from tbc steeples 
and hcnpvd up wJih self-dcvoticn in tbetr own 
hnMs by lUc |mtriotic inhiLbiriints, and fired 
with Ihe reftuhition of dce^x^nitiori, pvoduinuHl 
al onf^ llie origin eihiI |iijr|ioaes of u diwd ilD* 
paralleled in tlii- ajiimlH of llie worlA Ton^cci 
of flauifc leaped aci'Oft**thc ronda, envelopiDg tbc 
buildings whicJi they pcenicd baroly to touchf 
epi^iding with n fearful velocJtT, but yet not 
ttimracnenrfttc with the devoted courage and 
or^acy of the pco)>lo. llic horizon, illunituatcd 
to a diatcuicc of ecvtml miloa. announteil to th* 
fijing orowdd thdt they- wore hoHSoloee nnd involved 
in one conitaon ruin. The fire kiudleJ, bkxcd, 
find 3,a.n1cj lenving in hs tram f\i it procc<Hlod a 
bliiek Hinikking wnste^ in which lh(? Iieig of ritrv^frU 
could ho di>iil.irigiii*liod only by f.he remain* nf 
cnlcinud pillars imd bhichciied atfinon. Tli** tbrror 
of Lbe scene waa inLTeased by u b»oJ rumiilg floiwd 
like A troTihled sea, citnaed by the fierce wind 
which the flumes created by the esihaustion of the 
a,ir. From time lo lime huge mixsics of buildingtt 
£gU with a proJ]^!i>us cnteh, nud tlic bewildered 
eye could dietinguUh nothing but snioUmg mini 
nnd a Boa of fliimep The knoll of n bell eounded 
£Lbovo the ineooaant roar of the Snmcs like tho 


toonn of alnriD or the ei^^nl for renewed (ixc^rliou; 
%nd etlll the fire sproikj, leaping from Ilqumc to 
house ft& if Impelled hy lui inviaiblo power, imd m 
deiiiLnco of T,he scntlnela who wen? pluc^d around 
the houses for their pnrtt'tTiinii. 

Notwillmtfloding that the city wii* principally 
cimHt.nictiid of W(XkI, it was eevenil iluj* hi'furir 
thefirfihndeiLpanJtd iudi'; at last iLtitt rt-iniiiin?d 
io few hoiisp* fnjm the vrcc\, tliut llie ^trel!ta 
were not diBceralbk, and it becjLmv iniiiwnjble 
to identify any ^pot as having btcn the ette of a 
purticuhir building, T!ic accnc tif horror was 
eompIetwJ by thcehooking nfipearanoe of himflrcdB 
of hum^n bodice half burnt or crushed bt'iiL^ELth 
the tullen rukLSj iutcrmia|^led with the ciiroaiiECB 
cf horecs And cattle calcined and contannnating 
th« air. 

Napoleon left tho Kremlin when it woa no 
loDf^er considered safe, and sought an ^^ylom in 
tliP country pilnuu of Petrofsky, prweing benenth 
nrclien (if flmne in Ui^ paj^8Hg4?, He f)LI>rt^s8ed Iiih 
dittlN^lit^f lltat Hiv. nonflELgnitiou w«s a volucitiiry 
act. It wna not till about tlie 20th of October 
tbul the French uroiy fairly evaonatvd the vlifltrict, 
when they attempted theii laet act of rcreiige iu 
th<-* dtHtruelion of the Kn^mlin, Tht night was 
profoundly darlc when the fire firet buret i'orth id 
tho oneiml of thi^ Kremlin, in tho ml^st of which 
till* report, of the firtt txplorion was diatinclly 
audible, followed at tfhort iutcrvid^ by six utherd^ 


nonnoitft OP Till 

llio Bprinj-Uif; of n« many uiLnuBp XotliiDg ooi 
b*} nirtro ten-ibic ; s»toiic* of Iftrgp as^ were liurfod 
to a di^tuucd of aoveiiil tiuadreil feol« »q<1 dnflhod' 
into the BiirroHnrJiiig ftpnnmcnts, carrying etya* 
Kternufion tuul di^^trurtiou with them. Every 
ivindow was bvokpn liy the concussitnj ; luuny of 
ihc hullclitiifpi wrnv" rthiittrriMl ilmiI their wjilU split; 
^vtiral of tlic loAvcra od the walls und a jxirllon 
nf ihe wrtUe thciuach'&s wero tUn>vrii dnwii; and 
Utt whole wcultl (toubtl.c»^^ liavc foi'iuc*] uau ramo 
of ruins, hut for the strength of the old TwrUr 
cooatructioni nhich <lcfiti(i the hkats <^f tiie pi>wdcr* 
Xritiirc WEI5 not eIow in wronldn^ vcngnoitix on 
thv spolifttow* fcv thccliinato, fltron^in tho aeveritj 
of an unusnully early winter, prutucd h^vil on thoiT 
tmclc, and strewed the line of march witli thouMind< 
of stiifcnoc] victims- 

Tiie i^re^ence of ihe acene whcro events have 
oucnrrwl not only rcxW&i tlic n^nipmhrance of 
tTieih, but iiL:^iitiiio4 \tn uilh thein, aitcl uhithtw 
tlieui with a degree (jf pt^n^orhd intorpftU The 
(hoitrtandt who havii ifisited ihv pliunn of Wn(rrli>o, 
Of [*lixnicd over the broken plait on tlit Ucr.k of 
the Victory, where Kelson fell, have fvll experienced 
lor the moment tl deep feeling of iaterctt — a kind 
ofinciitul pQrticj|ijitit-n in the dccdif which ibey 
before treated as raiittcra of liii^tory — o, ictdtn^ 
too, ooi^idemhly cnhimoiKl where tho nnrrAtor 
of the scene hag hccn nn oycwwitne^e and coa- 
veraaiU with all the details. Such hu bucn my 



fortune ill this luatance ; and hence jou are in- 
debted for thia account cf an oft-toW tiUc, in tlic 
portiouliira of whioU thorc cnnnot be much dcTw- 
tion, allhoijp;h I have vontured to recap ituluto 
what my informant saw. 

Whnt the liorrore of the pctrcnt from Mn^co^v 
were, Ciinnot be conceived ; nor do T believe thnl 
any de^crijjtiDn cnn nt nil approach Tf> the renlity- 
S^ime years ^inaa I mot wltli an intelligent Frencii 
peaHLMt, who h&A been a sofJior, itnil had ^ervBd 
through tht- riinijiaign; hh mimitive wus pnnoJ- 
[juUy of It |jersciiiiJ ujitiirc ; Ijiit iti describing iJie 
gctictftl feeling, Lc siid tKat the men. grew ao callouB 
irum !utF(^nng, and the aight of dciUh in its inG^L 
terrible forms, that they were iudifiercnt lo [life 
theinflclvee, and witliout eympftthy for olhora: ho 
enid he th{>i)ghi of it oa a Lorriblo drcfun, but 
that at the limo it wae Ftrnfir riaiuc. 

CoTrtplBintH find reproswhea were loudly uttered 
throughout the war agnliiBt all countries as to 
their iiHKlonfli\?;itiTi^ their pri'^onety; hut I do not 
bi^ltcve tSnt in nny in^tnnce they none innTf: do- 
ftcrvcd t!ifiu by Rud^Ia. She Cf('l:u.iuly had deep 
wrotige lo avenge atid had suflenjd sevcrclj' ffgm 
the rava^ft and reckless gpoIUtlun vf tbc French 
eoldicry ; yet it wa-i cxjicling hcirivy vengeance to 
morcli tlio mifloriLble <^ttplivoa to Siberiu, bcyi>iid 
filmo«t the pftlc of human mtcrcoursc, T^hcrc iJi^ 
renmined fornotton and tnjriod for year?, and 
whence only a small remnant emerged lon^ after 
thfi |)cac«. 

uncaiua sxile. 

^llicnaf with \U. cxilc^ la fiumViAr to otir cars; 
uud tW Juia;;iimliijii cmborlJos with it iicojitia of. 
tlio Ucupc^t iliBfre^ Q.ail e-afff-rm^ whicti wa Icnow 
ID many easeu, as in the Troubelzhoi fmniil/ for 
iniieEifiro, ftre not uni^ ; but the general tWing 
of ihosL* under the t^vnttuce of eadle U not of that 
(■hrimcT.rr. T have spent gome hotjrs in the prison 
in v/hU-h Uir^e |inrtltfs are tijnfiiieilj wnd }mvH ■ 
ho'I ^MN.] (.ippiK'tunllice of JTiLlgiu^ uf tim i^tate of ' 
their iruJiJs ou the Bubjeut, &n<l of tht^ir oocKlu<;t ' 
wljtfii tbe fiiiul aentence wa^ communiCiitod to 
lliem : and certainly tliej evinced, no np^ia^hcnsioa 
nordocp dletrcas ou hearing ihcir doom. To ixianyi | 
pcrhjiprt, the world hod no tic^, &nd nnj placo iJi ' 
indificrcnt to them ; but fiomc thcia'o must bo 
whoBi' ftfeiliona are still warm, and who cling to • 
general jweociatioua ami habits of iatewoiintc from 
wbicli the seiMxratioa is to be as lijml iw iLe tomb. 

Much has been said rn this snbjr^it, and tWTOrs, 
whidh in fiiut do not PiUl to the t^xteiit dvijipo»t^, 
are asiirlTicd to h. It in l^i the sj^lcni oJoifce— llio 
dcvprttic diape.naation of judgment — tlia.t ihtt n>* I 
]>roiM!hi^ bulong, tkntl not to (lie puui^huiOiEt arul 
)t» c^eotf: I inenti, of coui^c. in it9 bro^id r^CinsCt 
wItliuuL dUtiugiiUhing tlie flagrant and inhaioui 
invtfuicc^ of men condemned to a living interment 
in tho luiutss, with lubour for life, boroit of n&inc 
and the oommonost privil^es of humEuuty. Thd^ 
tcnnEJ, whetlit^r of exilo or tmrt^portiUlon, ne t^ 
ganlft criminals, are synonymouf, und the dfo 



the aentaoce in aU countries la to s«ver every Huk 
of f/)nneclion with eooiety: but lo ihe Russian 
thb *3xtremiry of tha evil lb coTDpHr!i.tiv<ily un- 
known, fls hie wife and children are allowed to 
Ijuitf him L'oiTi[kii(y, iinil In sliiire liipi fortunea 
without i.ho coiiijiolftiori ifl' hibuuu The iHilicy of 
tliis arraugeuieiit U obvious ; yet whatever t^c 
motive tany be» it ib a boon which softcoa tho lot, 
and ia appreciated ji^ an iicl of iiaerc;. ji 
noble spirit wnong our own countrywomen wouldj 
if permitted, follow t))e fortunes of her unhappy 
partnerj and it le most certain that the extension 
of encb n privilege would do much to reckim even 
the htirdened o^endt^r, by mnldnpr him eenaibk 
ihjLt even in hia punlduoeenC the iboUn^d of 
bumanity Imve not been loai sight oL Besides, 
under the existing flyatem, the puni^ment of the 
huabriud riilla with i^ruahiug severity on iUp wife; 
whoj thrown ua her own exertions for tiiipnort, 
theecorn of her uelghlKuirs, Jind shiiimed pl^JbHhIy 
IL0 tui infected thing, eiuke in\n ^^ject poverty and 
want; aud Su^y^ under the uut^uujulation of 
evib, ia forced to throw hcrpelf on her parish and 
becomes a public burthen- The subject is worth 

To [nftny an offender in Rueeia, tbo day which 
proclainia to him \m eentenco of odlc may bo 
considered as that of frMdum- The elow march 
of juaticej aud ihe delays which necessarily occur 
in getting evidence from Oistaut parta of tho 




country, mnko the impni<oniiicQt prclinuuttr^' ta 
the ivlixl jvluiofft ijidcfiiute : 4iiJ tlius xhti excluiDgia 

to i'^'cc nir and comparative Liberty w a welcone 
bGon. To tho i^riimnuls of the wor<3t cloths ouJy, 
wh^ ATO oontkniTkcd to the romoa for Ufv, ia tlio 
cxilu cluthcd witlj lQrnjr0 ; to tltu rb|>utuil vji^Tant 
And uiincir offender th^ oxch^itigo la iiafi^iitelj to ItU 
a^vuntii;(o. Compdled tt> leave Iiie ab^mdoJMHl 
ftud vagaWnd life, lie ia sent into a Dew country 
to coLoniKO it} and to work <»ut li» t^^fl]rmft1k>Il 
Willi K'TLvfii tu liliiiHeir: for» |>lai;ed unOer n iitrict 
surveilLiiicc* hU time must bn Applind to UmAiI 
anil nj^t.Lve purauka. As tlie inlLlH.lor^ »U^p hw m 
rcun.»veil, iifttr hia Inal, ?unn thij ^*^.lnlIlir>ft jiriaooi 
to that o^tcluBively devoted io tlio CAilee, on the 
Spnmnr hills elI Moh^w ; n-hithcr aU odcudere 
intcxidod i*jv tbe eame destination arc^ iniLtGhcil, 
as to a oommon ccntrcj i'rom oil part^ oi' itc em- 
pire. A plain tuid 'w&WiUTc woodun buUding of 
conBukrsbk extentf ^unrcled withoiit by a i'ctv 
»GUtiucls, i& tbe only UHTier between liun onti 
freedom : he knows hh doom. And yci h« luokea 
ao effort to *ecaj>e, couaeitius, perhaps, tUut tho 
ubiquitous arm of the police woiiUJ soon nrri?st bk 
HKcleHS ^ight; in fiiot the fncilitiea for e«eapo look 
lik^ as a\v.iiy luduceEueolN ^ertr it nut for iHir 
reetruiniug iHjwijr wliK'li di^clurts cvt^ry nttcfopt 
liopek'ffe. The internal dwcipUuc atuJ auraug^ 
uicNt of this an4;miilou» rcccptnclc nro lax lu 
the lust (Ivgr^i;, and tbcru h no attempt at diu«i- 

viaiToms Of the paison. 


ficftrfon citber as regawla Atx or tlie luiture of the 
oflPpnca The fViL^nfU of tlie prisoners nre iLl]otT«>d 
freunccesatothejti,aiKievcn tiironuiin for ilnya with 
ihem; thus tlie ciifitivi:^ and tbe free, uidfscnTiii- 
nat^Ij miiwl, owu|»y the vast IxuTftck-Uke i^jdjus 
witlifiut regard tu couifoii oi" deceiicj' — Jccemry, 
ihat iflj ixi our acceptation »f the term, and m 
wLat we ooaaJer rnx'CflaiLry to the d^uorooa coii- 
dact amd regulations ot^ a prioon ; for lo the 
Buadkn, accustomed to herd witli hb wbolc fkmily 
on tho top of hie ytovc, and to bivTs but one coio- 
mon apartment, there is no tdca of iiuprofrioty 
nor fecHng of indtlicitcy in thia indiaoriicuiiLte 

A ccmrjittee select^ fi-om dmon^ the mo#l 
ro«pe(rtftUe inhnbitAiiTs c4 Ihe city are the ap- 
pointed Victors of th« pTt^n, whose duty it h to 
ntt«nd, eapeciftHy on the days (*?vciy Sunday) 
vrlico the detaclimctit* un; lunrchod off lo theu" 
deatination. Tt is a mi>^t. hum^Fie procjjciliiig, and 
lU good <^cirifi nTK momft^t hy iLe exucUeut nr- 
rang^meiiU and gtvai v(m»'t\\^Ti\.CMQ tAiown lo tLe 
comfort?* anJ wi^e? of the piison^ra, Tttre is 
not the ali^htofit attempt to throw any judicuil 
itnpoftancc into the ecene, nor is ii rendered im> 
pomng ly an Atrtuj of offioini*, or the ccromonics 
of d court- Tho governor und Kw aocrct-ftty, w^ith 
a few nieinbcre of tho committee, piee from wwd 
to ward} where the niunee of the |)ui'ti«€ are called 
oul> thtie: — "Ivan IvanoWlch, you have boca 
t 2 


fuunJ gUilLjr uf JeaLT(jng jour raasl.erj anil nrA" 
sentenced to be cent to Sibevift to colonise; " or, 
"70U hftve beea convicted of munler, and arc 
acntcnix^ to 8i[>2rm to W4>rk tlie minca ; have yea 
any rcneon to &?ivc-, or rcquoat to make, why yen 
flhouU not depart Ihie duy?" The man expects 
Ha brother, or aome other rolfition, iu a wc^ or ft 
fortnight, and begs for tliat delay, which id im- 
medialdy grnnied : and thug the roster ie gone 

Tlie ^oeiw '\» then IrjiinifexTeil I0 a yard, wbviv 
the imrliea hk jiU ^xtllt-^dd ; aevt^id hnJTiilp of 
qvnaa, and iibiuidiinoe of bn:ad, are praviiled fiir 
tlieii' refrcahmeut, and a \tviti€l riinilsh*^* ^mrh per- 
Bon witb a book of prayers, and other religious 
TTorka ; what little money tliey may have h taken 
from them, to prevent their loeing :1, or being 
plundered on the road, and a receipt h given tJiciu 
for the fnll mnoujit ; which thoy are entitled to 
rcdEum on thou' nrriyal. All thje ia excellent and 
praiae worthy, but the worrt b to foUow» Piles 
of chfuns and an anvil tell the lale cf eufferiDf; to 
he endured on the woiiry march, and aa the men 
fire arrmged in little sn»ads of six or eight indlvi- 
dnalfl, thu* mjiniuzlea nre fijed, which urc not to be 
I'eniovcd till fhu JouriK^y !« accompli shod. Single 
individuals L^^ve ivirns riveted round (he nitklce 
Ci-iuneeLed vviLh chiuns fjialciied round ihe waust, 
and thu£ are comparatively free in their move* 
menta ', but othcrst being handeuil'ed nod linked 



to fl longf cbain pnssing Troru one lo llio oilier, ure 
«ntifel^ depen^Ieiil on estch other's will :ik they 
walk ID iile. The iliiy'a uiarcb ja ubuiit twelvif 
iikllc», ai)il tIriiM tie jvnirTicy oijciijii"'* nt kiji*1 four 
moatlis, (luring which time the chains lire iiut re- 
iiiuYtiil, Dirr the mr^kngcmoil Altered. It ifl worse 
thiLa h.iiddhip; it ia torture, Tho women pri- 
sonera are without lonJe, aiid hriug up the icar of 
the proceflflion with the little carts contftining the 
baggfige of the party, and the wives iiad cliildroa 
who have selected a velimtary cxiIdl The <.'ftrftVttn 
10 accompoiiiixi hy n guard of soMiere, whose re- 
spoQfiibility if of eo penal n oIijLmct^T that they 
ore maJu tt> tnke the pliwe and suffer the eeu- 
tpnee of aay faisoner who may (iifjiipe. On this 
uL'cnsioTi T saw t^ighiy indiviihiiLk i*iit of a body 
ciffibout IWiJ hundred priannrra takn their defiaiv 

While in the prlfiou I cApressed a wifJi io T}r, 
Ilfta^, a pliihuithnifilc' liidlvkdijul, who Laa epeiit 
hit whole life and ibrtune, ^i'tor the eiAm[>le of 
our Howard, in attempting to mitigate the horrora 
of aprieonj and Ut reftirm its iuiuiLti*, lo aec the 
ciibot^ of the knout. Ue immediatclv colled out 
luul d^Birod ftziy [^ctboq who \mi nadcr^uo tho 
punishiuent to como forwnixi, when n ^oung 
woman of about twianty pi^e^out^d herself, and 
withuLLt the ^ghteet hepitaticin or ccintpunction, 
bared her hiick. A Lwelvojnojith hAdt^lnpned emce 
Uiu purmliDient had been inllicledj which ia her 


oa*e hail bwn rrmfiaL'i tc» five laslie*. The wouni 
Iiotl, of course, long healed, and tTie skiD per- 
feotl)^ enioot}i ovi?r tlietn, but fii« nnl fiiuHts of s 
firgcr'a 1)r{>iiiUh each, atuI of considei^Ue IcQgtlip 
if«re intlclUily iiujirliiti^d betWL'en her (Jiaiildcn^ 
ltd irbraTiOeil Ijy firc iltr i^iiuc, nhicL *be had 
to c^piat^ in BifcGii-1, was the burnitLg Iv:t 
'9 dwcUIng-KoiiBc. 

1 have never eccn pliilftotlimpv afcrricd m> finr, 
noT gratitude ^ duoply oxprosdod fu^ wilh rcfor^ 
ODOC to Dr. HoAf. His appcaronco in iho priwa 
wag thp agtial for tutnultuoiifl joy ; the poop ©««• 
tures crowded ^-xrcu ml hinij hung upon hiiiij kiflsmg 
hU honde, ami ev&i \as fi^et* and loading biin wtth 
bles&mga for his caroa and ntlf^ntiona ^ tnatiy 
begged his intei-cesBHuie, and nfine hogged in vain : 
— ii wiiH a le.a^n of mercy. At hii own i?oflt, and 
frimi lii.s fiwfi rej^fiurctt^, he ling f^er^iblir^hrd niul 
iDfiiatalna an cxccllcut lio^^ilal connected with the 
prisou : and, m r^tnt, his eelf-^fincnficc is so gnmtj 
that he liaa I'CAli'ictcd Ikinieclf ^huost to ^K>Tcrty to 
cnny out his priaoipkie of bcncrolcncc. Though 
ecnipulourily clo^'hn, hie giLnticnte ate the ciuhlcTna 
of hie ^If-domnlf and inor^ to be hcmcinrcd than 
tho CTinlnod roboe of rojalt^. He hiia noblj 
fulBUed hi* self-impnpfid duty, ixnd wormed nuuiy 
a hettrt thai wae ohecrle^s, and thought iUulf 
utterly friemlleie and forFiiken. 

Jpw? itTp btirely tolernleil in Tiiisf^in, and Ihej 
nr^ loHjled with muny insults and h»,r4.lsluji9, wb&la 


tlie MuBsuIinau Ln pf■ot^>o^?d nnd pnvilogei:!. In 
lhi» pery pnstm we iVinml, in a little si^flluiU^il trelJ, 
whiuh they li^ (vjiprojirijileil, n whole Jewish 
fmnily^ the fatlier of wlium wii» under fituteace (a 
Slberiu foraa alleged cbm^e ui samgglmg; but 
for two yeave he had contrived, probablv bj- 
bribes, to get Ilia tena delayed, in the hopca of 
obtnimtig piu"dc«i. He waa a noble- linking old 
man, i>owod down by care otid diatrk^Bs; and as he 
cnme forthj removing his littlo fttP cap, with hia 
family hanging itround hini, begging UB> by tha 
God we worehi|^»ped in oomitjon, to hays pity on 
him Olid to interctfdo for hiin, the groplilc ftcenes 
of Scott rushed vividly to my recollectiou, and I 
fittuld funey I aiw bcfor(3 rae the prototype of 
l«mu of V(*rlc in the tale of I\anhiH.^ Poor ninn T 
his case wrung my enul i for what could I, iia ii 
Btnuiger, dup nml it wju** men^y in tcD him so* 
Aa he retrc/kled, with a hopeless sigh, to hta cell, 
1 thought of Sti^rtie's cyptive -. " I btbeld hiH body 
half wailed ftway with long espectation and con- 
finonii^Tit, ttud fell what kind of ^ckncee of bcort 
it i« which aruwe from hope deferred," 

If my thoughts wore divcrti^d by onolhur ind- 
dent, it wjiB only for a niomonl ; for this unfbrtu- 
nare being occupied my mind for many un hour 
flfffT, A comictd-lcoking man cATae bowing up 
to me and begged mu to hear his tale, for perha^rs 
nmnt'thing might be done for him. Hy oLw waa 
u Jew luid hu^l embnitwd Cbristianityj but hitd 




rdApACfl ; for wbidi he wna to ha sent to 8!b<u^ ; 
the autiioritica had no faith in lus profc«Bion» but 
Ilo (tcclnx«d he woa sincere and wcuTd bccwmc u 
Chri^tiuu ngniti ^'ould tlicj but toIc^iso Linu 
**Look/' Siiid he, ** hew they Imivg diffigurcd 
mo i" and ho rcmomi hie cni»> oihibiting & hctud 
ehftvei^ oonipletely^ ne to one side of il- It is tlie 
castom ii> slmvf' the Lehdb of convicts in thi« 
mamu^ ; distinguishing soldiei^ from ci^ians by 
fihaving the fitntier fViini haok tii fnmt. iLTiiI llie 
latter acrijs* from ear to ear. — Tlii* man wa* a 


These applicfttiona for inCerfeience ftod intcf^ 
ccfifiiot) epeak volumes aa to tlie power of the con- 
Slatut^d authorities ; whose prerogatives, whether 
of imniehiucut or of mcruy, arc tootToUcd by n6 
law and arc subject to uo infiucDcc in ibccxcrcifcof 
either of thorn. Skvoiy and ahjcot humility miut 
olwn^e exlet whci'Q the people are under the pfo- 
teotion of DO law, ta^d the mn^iLtce of the land 
are restricted by no Beuee of duty nor of right. 

The vi'ikni^e of the rnin, whiob has hw^ii fmlling 
ine^wftntly for the Inst two (kyfl, s^^mr. to migur fl 
eoritiiiujiriee of hnd weattlier ; I \in\f therefore r«- 
»olvi!*l, ruthfir siiildtiiiiy, to turn ivj ^le|>ii hack to 
St- PctciBbur^, and to avuil myself of the clmuces 
of the rcniiunder of the ecaaoii to return to Eng- 
land through Sweden. However, you ehall hear 
again from me :kt St. Petersburg when my plan 
is tiscd : for L am compelled to rcmun there tea 


daya, at the leaat, to go through the form of ad- 
vertieing my intended departure three times m 
the gazette : — a precaution takea by the goTem- 
ment to prevent peopte abscondiug from thdr 
creditors, any one of whom haa the power to put 
&n embargo on the passport, and to detain hia 
debtor till hie claim is satisfied. 


ftiBfi cnt <me vouaA. 


TraofUipg nf Sfiectt. — ^fva'ptUpe*. — Scciicy isnintt Si, 
Ppurnhnrir. — Kusniait I^i>f nf FUnrers-- — H^ir^iuie/it 
Gardeta on Aipot/iffTir^'g le/atuL—HiAr of thfr Nepti^ — 
Qffiirud Trti:fiiL^a af Iitpptaars. — The Emperor the 
Cmtro ^f the Jndtalrial Syaten^ — Un Liberalttjf. — 
EittrliaA by the AiiHiar Hies • -^ The Ihuniiai Sf^vM.—' 
G^vemtatmt Mt/Turjxt!^ of Spitib. — Riaiiait DrvnhtrtU, 
— Inccstojit Solutes of Me Oiujrd jr J>tfff,— TA* 
Almntkii af Sf. Ptitrrvhirg-^ Dutt^nntiH MfHt^t^rtuU 
Frvlio. — liRperiai Practical Johc.—FcRn^ Flaitcr^ t/f 
thu Eiri]ierirr. — Wil aivl Botihonipt t^f lite (hniut Oakt 

St Petersburg, 

Again I am i^ektbliv^Lct] la my ofd qiiurtert^, uni), 
ufiur liHvItig ImlJ iLe liixitrj of a true Ru^lan 
biilbj exjjtiii^nut! no feeling of fiitigue irgin the 
journey ; wUicK struck me aa being mure modO- 
tunotia tlian before, itrlsiug doubtless from tlic 
contro&t bctweeo tlie sucnca 1 hnJ leftt anil the 
we&TjT ilikt I was travcTBing* Tlie rftin hiul faUcxk 
ao dbundaotly that, oil mnviug wi Tvur, wc found 
tho Volga haJ ri^cu fcurlcou fctit, orcrtiowing iu 
banki^, nitd ktd cjirricd away tlio bridgo of boata 
wliioU crofcHod tbo atroaiu- -^Vfler a dolfly of aevo- 
ruL bouj^e A kincJ of patcb-worL atTur WJi€ con- 



Btrnctc^. by the exertions of aorae cngmccr cffiocre, 
over which our cEwriflgo scmuiblcJ in aafoty. To 
aiftko u\i for loet timo wo wero drivcJi ai additional 
Bpee<l, arwl at 3omo liltle boKitrdf wsoklesa of ob- 
ataclen and obstractiona. At Zimsgoy, for in- 
BtaiJce, ft large village oonBitfting of (>ne long street, 
w<> fuirly **hnrged inio an immense benl of oxen ; 
the aflVightwI In^uflt*. wit.h oriiJ (icoonl, set off at 
their U»p 5jie+?ilj clearing ihc slmel of every jijw- 
aenger by die trenieadivus front ihcy tifleitd. wud 
fiiirly (ralliijied }>c'f<jre ua, till at the teniiiuation 
of ihe village tliey were enabled to disperae into 
the open ^jound and permit us to pnae. The hccho 
wae highly ludicroua; but bnd nny thing stood 
in the way of their progroafts tho result muAl hftvo 
been fattd. 

At ni^bt tho muaquitocs swarmed to u frightful 
extent^ hulthoonly annuyniicel exjuirieuced from 
theui wfts in their irumpeting Knind; my oom- 
jiiiDKin however wna not, sit fortunate, for ihey nt- 
tackeil him without uitK'y, iUid he 1h now iii bed 
8iiil**nog nuder fever with swelli^d liuiids and fiM!«, 
aiid liU-rally blind. 

lam convinced that no traveller should approach 
St, PcturAburg from the eeuth, for however tedious 
the stepjiea miiy be, he is yot leaving a more 
ogrcofkblo Uud6ca|jQ and a better elimat^i St> 
Pctcrsbin^ tisu. etarting-point will hold ite ground, 
but it wil] not bear a oom|wriaon after Moaeowj 
and ai regunU scenery it inn}^ be aald to be iso- 


nuwsiAs LOVE or flowekb. 

IftteO, tor ltd fiUiTOuQ'iliiig tointOTy ia oncugb "to 
iloteT ^T>y person from attempting a cln&cr jicquaiii- 
tuncci witli iL TImj islujuls ftirm ii aljglii exception 
as tliey are agrecaMy plantcLl and rttutlOtNl wilh 
Tillaf, niutjy of wliirJi are tiatcfuUy designed, m 
tlic nuJat oJ* uruautcnUl guiiIeuB and lawub ; but 
tlic prcTailing love fci' Itftlian arcHtecture ia net 
fitted to tlic jmic blue ^7 of tlic dimatc nor to 
the goneral effect of the lundftcupc dothcd only 
witli ihc bipcli «nd fir, Flowora in profijeion 
dedorjite every dispoaitble spot, and tha rejxjac (ind 
elegitnoe of the scene couvey the idea of more 
fftvourod lands : but in trutli the duration of the 
picture cxlcnde only to a few woekfl ; after which 
time what waa guy nod fjishiotuible \& deserted ft* 
s. wilderness, the InniBes are closetlj the plantii re- 
tDGTod to glass honsTB, itnd the inhshitants fled 
into the city. 

The lore of fiowcTH is a etnking and pltiriBing 
feature of the Kusaian cliaiactec ; they di?t:<)rnl« 
their hnoBca with them ami nurse them througUijiit 
the winter with tlio utmost eolidtudc, Iry, which 
19 not indigenous in the country, u made to servo 
a pretty anil_ornninenlal purpo^iu in thcLr drawiog- 
roome ; thoy contrive a little frame of light Uttico- 
work en wheels, over which the ivy is tnado to 
twine, forming a pleaaant and refre&hing-looking 
flthour under whidi the bdy of the house ensconce* 
herself in a liind nf rural retirement. 

One of the laUiids lihove alhid^J ti.) is ditfUiui 


gLUfthed aa (lie Apotliccury'e island, £vou\ Itb cuQ" 
tflinii^g the botanicLiI gardens; which, indeed, 
OGCupj its wliole 3uri"flce, 1 nui afraid lo aaj or 
gue&s the extent which ia c<>vered in wiih ^Ia^i 
but it ie flomcthiiig pPodiglouB^ ioriniiig ono un- 
broken range witU iuleiual divisione to acpiirale 
tho dilfcrcnt elngst*^ of plaaite ; theeCj ob rcg&rde 
t]ie iFO|jioii! and the larger decldaoiiB onee, aru set 
in tho soil and flourish iu great luxtiriauee. The 
wholo eetabliehruent h in e^tceUcnt condition and 
reflects llio highest crL^dit tm tin? governiiitnt, or 
nihher on Lite Emperor, who jirovidt'» thi? lieiivy 
fuudif ueceBsai'y for ila niaiLlenancei X^verything 
in tliiB country, no matter of what tliariiuttr, is 
done with ret'erence to the winter; niid from 
habit the some cver-rcourring reoatm suggcats it- 
self tu a atriujgcr to account for many singvilarltica: 
thue in tliia garden or coueervatory I furgot Tor 
the moment that the fir-tree is the otJy evergreen 
IB the north of Eum^ and was aur|)m«d to 6nd 
dw laurel and ihc belly us much petted as the 
palm and the migar-cnue ; ai)d fVoui tLt- ^aum canae 
I iiiude n passing rctritrlc thut it was hite to force 
peiiclies and nel.^tarines, fbrgottlng that c\eu cher- 
ries must be grown under gla***. Wilh the ex- 
ception of the nrctic plants and animals, i3«u is 
the oaily being which ciro iiccomroodate himMli to 
the violent extremes of climate, and support lii'e 
under its Tiei&situdce: these muet he tiied to be 
uuderitoodi the tlicrmomotor at e4*ofFuhron- 



Iwt uul cit 22" >»eIoTr aero, wUjoH T have 
perieoeedt are trying diD'crojncc^. 

It hfis been blovring strung for ^vcrol dAys 
ffvm iLo VV- anJ S.Wi, throwing the cunxuit of 
tim N<2va hock on ha ^tircc lijr the pre^uro of the 
watere of the Golf; the river boa in coaacquenco 
nw?ii muny feet, itiid *evoril of the cunals hxve 
eni-Toarhed on the strrpto; the rer] flag of danger 
is humtaJ at the (^itiuJel, mid fllurm gtiMs are boing 
fu-eil A'oiii tiiiiR totiuie: if the wloil ahoulfl ral 
ftiile »11 will he right in n. few liuiira, otlierwise W6] 
may e*pe<^t iiiJ«."liifX. This pliKiinnieiimi hiurj 
naturally a coutr^ry effect oti lh<^ 6oulhera ^dui 
of the Baltic ; ivhciicc the waters recede in an «r- 
trtiordinfiiy extent, stopping iLc navigation uf th« 
Travo and rcdxicuig Lnhcck to the cooditioD 
on inland town. 

The Emporor b gone to Wareaw, tho not^tf ] 
hAvc left for their e^taiee or to tmvel, ami tbel 
balk of llie military arc etiU aX tho OfURp At 
Ki'iLsao^ Celo, SCI thai tho ehy is dull aji<I half 
deserted. A few travelbra havm mado th^ir ftp- 
l>eAmnee, rrmny of wlichm are iiitepo*led in tho 
intrmdiietion of eom^ diacovery nr inveTitwn wW^h 
they wished to ge}l to the Eiti|ief«r; wIkj ha* ih< 
repiitjiiitm for rcwanlhig nnW lihtmlly tlio«« wb 
really liuw oiiythlug snhBtantial tn rvmminaid 
them. One person Iim lhv< Merct of eoiue lueclMi- 
niejil iJowcr to be applied tc> pumpi* nnd fire-cngiuei^ 
another hn? got ecme <jttraordij^ury lt]'j)rovcinont. 



in tbft BJBtem of fovn^ng cannon, or in nmking 
Ibft iimaket mtm oflbotivoi nnd the^ men, mi^ 
pioioud to a, dcgroo, refuse to cshibit Uic proof of 
their aobcniea uulca^ thoy ttre fiiniishod with a 
gnnfantoc that thuy iHnil be romunt^nttx] if thoy 
produoB the pfomieed roaulta: ihe govommcat^ on 
the other bimd, listens to theta, dpmandg n prric- 
lit!al denKfiifitrntion, and lefida theia on witli pro- 
mifl«8, hopiGg to extort thft secret acd secure the 
benc^St witfiniit iinyrtiODt ; aiuufiing l}ieni, in fnct, 
and contnvin^' ddsija to weary md llreir [mtieTn.-i* 
till they succeed in liieirobject, or t!ie disappointed 
iijipliciuit reLurna to lii« ccfUuLry In dib^^t. 

Thert i* aometKinp of tlie national chamcter in 
this tricky kind of ne^^Dtiatjon : nJthough prudcncG 
in oertninly necessary when wi lurmy lulvcnturnr* 
flock to the country m the hopca of cnnching 
thctneelvos by one j^ood coup. In any other 
country private Gntevprizo or n pijblic company 
Wf>uld curry *int beneficial inveutiona. but hero 
the Empoi^r repro^^nta ^vcry iot6ri?;t, and in 
him ftlone is conCL-otnited lh»* application of the in- 
dustry of the empire r nicvreover, there la buriUy a 
hruneh of nsmjfiicture thiit \i not carried c>ti na 
Hfi Impertftl etdublisliment. Tlit: Libcmlity uf the 
Enipcrtir acl* 311" Jin iodijcpnieul- to l.hcau fortune- 
huutrr*, who Wk to Rueaiii as the El dorado for 
«peculatc^> The CApt^in of sin Kngli«h merchant 
TC^-T-I direct from the AV^at Indies preseulod Ins 
Mttjcaty lately wilii '* a fine lively tunics'* which 



wa« acknowkclgwl by the gift of a apleudlj iWur 
TRQiid nng ; and ftxt AoiericKi gentlenmn tiAs juAl 
received a eimilnr token tor a. pretty llLtl« model 
of u locomotWr dtcam-Cftrrmgc. On the otlier 
hand, tlio KumisohntltiL stOTLQi-frlgatOi a vcf^^?! uf 
2500 tonfi, buUt by order in ttie Cnitod Stat<3, liu 
anived out with it* conetruotor lo clitLm llic pay- 
ment of hia work ; but tliilicultics nfii tfarowD in 
his way tmd objeetiona rusgiI, for which ha will 
hfive to pay moat hnndsomely. It ia alle^Gl tbil 
he hfts cn?ccclfd the terms of tbe oontract, that the 
principle of tbg enginofl is not good: timt iii [>oiDt 
of fad tbe autlidritiCB irnyLti lo bTivc a fllioe of the 
cokf? Ijefore Uiey g"ve in their rejwrt to tlie Em- 
peror to j«Ly for it. One necewnjy consei|uiMioo 
of this fiyslcm of exturtion h, thnt the cO!>t w 
\dwSLy& so arntDgcd tliat U will bear tbe ulliuid 
deducticai!* nod perr|iii3itef* without injury or lorn 
to the claimant ; an impoaition whidi tlio Emperor 
has to pny for lo a disgraceful extent, and ia tile 
inowtablc rceult of a modo of govommont whioh, 
aesiiming everything to itself. Is compdled in tho 
multiplicity of ita dntice to tnist lo the n?porta of 
olhers for the execution of wlmt it purposes. 

The senate repreBccts no public mtereet, but 
mther the Enipejvir hiiriEtlf ; who delegates to it 
the exHinmtilTon uiLd coincide ml inn of projects aixl 
laws he mny have in eonlempliitlon, iiiid on whieh 
tlicy iiizike a n^porl ; it it nolu dchulin^ aaaeiuhty 
bulla divided into conunittce^, acooixliDg to ifm 



natnrc of the subjects Bubniitted to thcni for (3c- 
liburation* The number of incmbtti^ h unlimited, 
nail they oi'o noHimatcd by the Enipcrorj mid 
receive ii certain euWy. 

The only portion of the revenue thnt U fiii'mt^d 
cut, or allowed to be contraciOLl for, is, I belleTe, 
thnt derived from (lie sale oraplritiS. The govern* 
raeDt diAtih JL fiury mid ihtmIcious ^^pitit from ryt, 
teniied WjLiIki; which lltey mgH 1.o the oontrnetSng 
[FiiHy, vrhi> litdoils it lu hln nnn wny> kctpiiig it 
witliin a limited standard of Btreiigi.!^ and ^^illa it 
to the retail dealers. Here again h u njouupuly 
of mnuufactute eccured by the government ; 
Y^htch* to add to the eviU gtiniulntea the uatitiiml 
Tioc by GJtai^ticig the highest iioseible t^m^ for ita 
Gcry compound. 

There ia not a European ofranlry in whtoh the 
esproaeion of "aoniotlung to drink '^ is not used 
as the tenn for elaiiniug a reeompcnee for a gerviee 
performed; the h^ t^iMi of the Rii?iHian*j tho 
pimT hoire of the Fvenchj the Trinh^eM of the 
GennanSj and the Diner'* partt iiehtr of the Spa- 
iimrili*T lei wiy rjothiny of th« luiimmnible upplici- 
tiona for pulatiuna in our own countiy, are horno- 
gcnuoufi phrases. Thi5 KiiHt^iiii], however, riirfily 
indulges at the momeuL ; he waits for a cuuveidcnt 
time, or till the inclination \& strong upon liim, 
aiid then quat^ oft' lud draught at one breath, 
creating inetftntancoue intosieatioo. He knowa 
nothiag of tho progrcaaivc etagos from sobriety to 


^resiAiT i>RinntABDfl. 

dmukcDDCfiAf nnd la not M on by ctrcitrnstiuinti or 
floclfty : liiit, pi'edeter mined nnd witTiouL ixna- 
paoionflLijj, lie ewtillowa ;t nieaaure safKcient to 
eccnrc hia purpo^o, Lt is do uncomn^on thing to 
ecc a lielplcas fltH^k-loi:iking object thrown acroMB It 
dro^hky or liindlcd into fi cnrt; it u a beJplcM 
mujlkp so bi'utnJly drunk titat tho politic Imvo 
picke<l bim out of ttc gittter jind are convoying 
him tt* the ]Kjlio*? stutiou to cool himself. Other 
inducem^nta for idleness and dis^p;i(ion are not 
wfliiting, for the mnjiy holydays alhiweJ by the 
Churoli and permittwl as (tiv days cir anniveraaric!* 
of the tucinT*cr3 of the Inipiirud family, are taken 
ftdviiiil:^'^ of t<i th«ir fidkht (.'itent. Tn (lie wiatf*r 
time inubriety meets vi'ith Its own puuibhmeDt; na 
mnuy a mieeriiblc wrotchi fctiiggmcg aXung la bis 
helpleaanese, fnlle and slcepe to awake no uiore^ 

Tiio alecnce of the oiurt And of nio«t of the 
military mou of rank makcd a, perceptible diflcrcncQ 
m tho duties of tho men on g;uard al the diifcrcnt 
etationa throughout the city. It ia non' n mccha:- 
nioal and oompomtively cnreleag perronoancc, 
whil^ bcfuro it was unxious nud nnccfli^iiig; for 
the soniry on one side and a look-out mun on tlie 
other were ever Btrftinbig thcmi^elvcs lo detect in 
the passing crowils the flowing pliimo of the offif^r 
of rank, in time to Mimmon tht* ^ituixls tn liim dot 
to anlute. The fi'eiiHenoy of tbcfli? ciilk, nnd the 
hftBle neccflsstiy to meet the spcod of the gnst 
ujau*a equi]>age, buvc compiled tbctn to adopt « 


fihuple process: each nu&tet rp^ta on alittIeprop» 
(!loee tu the soldierV nmiilit^r in Ills r'iiiri|kim}., iitiil 
u rnitietl line ninring T.lie length of ttiu ]jktfori[i 
cncib W eveiy Toan to '* dress " as )ic atcjis lu Ui Ljs 
fJuoe; tlius^ when the ^ntrj pulls his hlllts bell* 
ao the ai^al for the tuTii-out, the line ia formed 
and itniis presented in an mcreJibi^' ehort s|>ace of 
tinaOi The Hmac reapcct is sliosvn to fiiricmi?, M 
tho ci>rtoj;c paaflcs; 6o tJint, tthai with the hviog 
and thfi dcud, the duty of u gunrd is n inc^ ha- 
rassing ftffiar. It ie no eTtrijj;gciratii>Q wh^ii I say 
that I have eai^n the gtiJLtd on the Aduuralty 
equare tiirti oat five tim^a in na QiEiny mmuted. 
Imagine ihis to be going on when the winter h at 
itfl eeverest pomt, imil the men are forced to be 
relieved e?piy ten lulnutta. 

T hnvc to-day had pointe*! out to me a youtig 
msm of high f/uiilly wmnctcleil wilh ihe Cadet 
<»rp, wliftf-e iiuri^i:»iA in life lo Ineui-^d by a hii- 
gidar circiinwtrtnoi?* wliich is wurt]i relating. I 
must carry you hnck to cm early evasoti iff the 
year, at the period of the nobility balls ils they 
are caJlod ; the Almack's, in facti of St. Petersburg, 
and which 1 hctievc I have omitted to doseribc to 
you. The hall-roooa h cou^idored to bo tho finoit 
in Europe, and aerlainly it doea not helie its cha- 
ractcr; it ia on an immense scale. The ceritre, 
devoted it> dandng, is sunk several feet b^jluw the 
common level^ and around it rows of aeat^ llk^ 
those of an Hni^hltheatre auconimtxhite the Bitte^s- 
X i 


nrflFlTAfl ALMACK*^ 

by and iTic Ifx^kcr3'<*n ; boliind tlic 
colonimdu, whidi nitpports the roof, form3 & Idnj 
of brofld giJlcry, where llic card- play ere nrc: biuyj 
said tlic diaengngcd partice promenade without m- 
temiption to xhs <litncera, A Vox plat^^d in i 
comnmndbg position is prejmrcd fair tlio ftOCOObi 
modatioTk of tbd lm[>pH:i.l fnniily, some of wliond 
gern-mlly ii-Ltetid, Often towiirdf* tbe rrmcludafl 
of the biill a niaHfpiemdo la jjurmittL-d; tliat i^ 
ladiuG uppcjLT in doinluo and in mask, nnd tlie gen^ 
tlcmnn thrown a little bifick scarf over tbe sliouMcri 
Jt waa at f>ne of tbcac tuo^qxieradcd iJiaL tlt4 
following incident took place. It is tbc priT]leg« 
of the maakci^ to accost any ono they please, it 
wiklk with UiGJD ; fiQdf ID Bhort, to ecloot a person 
thoy know in order to mystify bim. Th<? Kmpcro^ 
;;onom]ly ittteudBj and eeerii^ to onjoy tlic mftttcff 
vnntly ; and jb often taken by tbu nrm by on© ol 
the unknown fmr ones : he bowcver exercMx^s htB 
own i'l»oieu also, and frequently attGrapta to ]>eno> 
T.rnti! thi" ilJ'^giiiBt*. Stni«k by tlie ^legnncN? ol 
fl|^Tire Jiinl rfibt.iniie of one party, lie iiddr^sscd t^« 
pi*r*(nu imd tnkitig the lodividutil itilo bis privut^ 
room iuflistiij oil knowing who the person wa^ 
EiTid tbut the ma»k gbould be removed. The part^ 
picadtM] (or nici"cy, dechired that the EmperortI 
anger would be kindled, and that absolute miq 
must bo tbc isatic of the discovery* Tlie Kmperoi 
promised tbrpvcnese under any circiiraatanixa. an j 
plcdgod his word that no resentment of his dioulj 



foil for any offcac© j whereupon the di&guiae was 
reiuovecl and n cadel stood confi^flscd before him. 
The Emperor's rage was esoeeeive ; but ni Inat hd 
said to ihe trembler before hiiu, " Tou have btokca 
the rul«s of the service by being absent Ironn your 
corps; you hsive befooled m^, nnd have ventured 
on cxactiug n, pleilge frtjiii mc, for whidi yoii 
dtwerve ihe severeat pum*ihim?nt; hut I will k«i:p 
niy jrruml^p gu coudlE-jon that jou re^uiue your 
disguiac and ccimuence au iJitrJguc with my 
brother the Gmnd Dulte Michitcl, making nn 
appointiiiccl will) him in the court of yctu- corps 
At Doon to-morrow? tit which hour I shall givo 
diroutione that you shall ho put oiiguiUNl ihoro: 
bo alcnt and I will protect you.'' The ficbomo 
WM well carried out, the ajj^Kiintment miulci, and 
at noon tho Grand Diikc made hia nppoaranc^, 
followed close by tho Enipeix)r; who, aocoating 
him, taxed hini nt once with his o>iject, and drawing 
him up to the i^iidet ]n<|iiir«l whether any lady 
hiwl been there. After eoinc kitilenog, lie dis- 
oloBod the Irick, uf, which they lx»tb latched un- 
luodorateiy ; the Graiid Duke pi'ouil&ing lu liofrleud 
tho boy. and the Emperor at once attaching him 
to hia owD pereoD* 

Pcraonal iluttory le net spared ; for I ovctheurd 
a. raaeic haaguig on the Eoipcrcr'e arm eay ** Ali ! 
tu ce beau : " I caught only a portioTi of the reply, 
"Eah I tu me finttei*.*' The n^aek wne riglit, and 
whom the Emperor itddresticd 

many a jiarty 

1 3 


hiTii.aeir in the ociurse of the evening tliouglit as 
she dul; for he flmttod fainiliarlj with many of 
the joiingtfT Ijulien- 

The Gi-EiiiH Ditl'ic MiohficT 10 believed to be AD 
enUsUre and violent inun; but iliosc who tniow 
hiLEi sa^ that he aasumes thiit character iWm 
public raotiveft. aoJ thftt he 19 at heiirt good* 
ziatui'cd, a groat humourist, and iwi inveterate 
punster. It is certain thnt hardly a bon-mot geU 
ioto eireuktion without the nuthorchip being im* 
pntod to hini. 


r lutve dekyei] sending thia letter till I (^oiiKl 
tell j'oii jKiiaiJ^ivrly U^e Unenf roiit^^ for iiiyreUira ; 
it is definitively filed, and I lakft my juiaait^ nt% 
Friday in the Ftiral Menchlkoff Htejimer for Revel 
and Hclsingfora, on my KVfty to ^tookbolm. Not- 
withstanding it^ many rirawbacka I ehall leave St* 
Potcraburg with regret, mi<i not without ft hope of 
revteiting it; it containa many clomonta of hap- 
pirofei but hcrc^ lu ckcwhcre, much dependfl on 
cur^elv^ and on our own lubit« und punail*. 




Vff^fy^c lo TUo^. — HtuslaK Ladies in ieareh of $oa J.zr.— 
K/rbniiiri'tif-jt^ iiii Bmrd the -STfiiNu-r.^-. OhnqniitjiB /n- 
irhder- — The ^wijtiua. Fleet, — Sitiuitron *>/ ]iei*ei. — 
Ihimriptl CiTfjiieii/a Diuxtl Ufbinr. ^ Scfjirry if Hfl- 
nn^ftjpi/. — Pu&itixga to Aho, — Tratuptil Sfjflto- — i/uflifl 
AjUin-iiUiojis. — ANijfht \Jiiu Garden lieitch.-^ i'ieti7ij'rii/ti 
the Obvrvatory 0/ Aba.^Labyrttitfi of lAleti-—AIJiwl.— 
Vcnttteniitfu JleccptioA-^Riuiaati Po^ach^wh qf AJand^ 
^~ Viti'ixinifJfX nf fhf SentflVK. — Arrinidjit St/ii-lihiitm.~^ 

~"Pviir?icsj'iir raper-TRtiiiey. — Palave'<i£ Stoc/Jiolm. ^ 
luttatd Siihiths. — Scetftr^- — Ap/vfirance of SiiJr'-kh'iI'n. 
— T7ie KuLti-rkohii,- — Twhh» (^ Giutfoi'ii^ Adtfljihw ami 
CharlPffhi' I'M-dfih. — Vhthvs of VhnHn* ihs Twelfth. — 
OjiudifjU' tis to htK Detifh. — Charar.tifv ami Cfirtxr nf 
B/trmidnfie — Hfn Person tmd Mcite of Lfr. — Pah'ct/ of 
Vic fitmsrsn Empi:r0r. — Pomancc of Piig<klitfj. — UtOH- 
fi'H^hoim. — Vnieratioit for LiRnavg^ — Defmratwf/tiioftAc 

Bt some iiiistsike I b:we lost a post lUy, ami ihaa 
hn\c been Li;ru fi >vt^f?k» witluiul Ije^tiov biruu ablo 
to write, appriAiug yuu of di^ uriivaL My vt>^&ge 
WHS agrcejtbk, aad I am highljOcliglited with my 
firogrc-aB thiia iitr- The ixisaengwe tivnn St- Peters- 
burg wcro numeroua; cIiieHy UuUea, bound to 
BovcL find Kclairgi'ore, for wl»at they in their 
aimpliotly ouJled seu aJr» They were new to the 

I 4 


rMPi.fcWlTlOX ox ^OAKD 

Wftter,itinlllicire5clniiiftli*ni3,iifl welosl eight of Innd, 

wert BUfficiently nbe«ril ; bntitslightrip|ili? re^iliecd 
nil their idewt of buiug at sea, alntie U {iroilucseil 
qunlicirt, and eveiilimlly tTio Hi;knes* ili*ielf, wLicJi 
tliey liiul been rlclkuliag, TLc tiilibua were 
orowJed by th(JBe wKu had secuniJ alwrjiujg [tlacea; 
or I'alher the steamcx wa& divi<lefl iptr* three clfieoctfr 
viB- the ealocii, iore cabin* and deck; the fonuer 
being full, 1 naturally selected the dock, paying 
Biilooa price for tlio pririlogo of hcing aft; but 
whoa dinner was announced and I was m^Lklng 
my way into the cnhin, I ^'ae pci'coijJtorily stopped^ 
with the intimatioa that deck paascDgers, no 
loatler of what gi-ailo, were not allowed to <ime in 
tbe SftlooDj but w^uld mesa aftcrwaiTls with the 
engmecT^ stewiird, &c. A scere is of all thingK 
llie one mtj^l. to be avoided, and partienTarly where 
one 18 tht wtyike**L 1 therefore told the ^tew.tnl 
thut I was in tLie habit cif rboosing my owu wieiely, 
and, declining the honour h^ propoacd Ui me, in- 
fested on being served on deck, or he would 
Lve no fee froin mc at the termination o£ the 
'Oyflgc. T had the Ku^aian nt my mercy on tbnt 
point \ hie cupidity was touched, and no attention 
or acrvilily could exceed hSe. I vowed* however, 
that I woiJd expode tlie ayelem in tJio Hamburg 
and German papoT^, as a caiUion to Toyogcni 
again*t ihc Fiirst McTichikoff: and thin led fimoet 
tx* pi 1 1 si ve -looking man to Attempt to explain the 
(!irciimjrt*ince : ho Ulked of the ner^Gftstty of A dift- 

Tin; fPrst menchiroff. 313 

tinction, smU Low Ii^trd it fell in aoine G^et^ smd 
made a variety cC other excuses I huffed my 
aum nfl'a^ nell us 1 cfFuIii» and tried to prevent hie 
fLxing Iiiiaeclf ud me; but lie wne a limpet, a 
perfect old mnn of the sea, and would not under- 
stand ii cold eboulder. At I.xat he iinloelccd a 
large aqunrc Lok at his elbowj nud djgpkt^'iiifr a 
cimleeu well filled witb boltlRa, urged mo to lake 
a bottle of Kli^ni^li with him; it vm&j aa ho 
dcclarral, af'htPr SteinhargcT CaMnet, wliicli, Ixnng 
n bori vivanL, hn was reiimrkuljly clioict? or, TTail 
it betiu noctiic of tin; gml*. I could mil kivu 
ii^Qaved it fi't>ni sudi hauUa ; i'or t had Laken a 
iXiDt^ diBlikc to the man frimi lit? upjjcuniuc^ ; and 
beaJea, I could not underetajid the motive fur the 
wrcteha civility: it wae espliuned aftenvfirdfl hj 
my difcoveriug that he was an owner of the 

The night was fine* mid, wrapping tnysolf in my 
c1o!Lk, I slept soundly : at daylight wo woro 
drawing into the ahoro in tlio bay of Eevtl, and 

nt fleven o'clock we anchored. Madame D • 

and her two dimglitcrB with wham I had formed 
n.ti aeq^uaintiUit'd an boniy], b»*sk]es having met 
them at St. Peterahnrgj seeing me prepare to go 
on shore, heggr>J that we migirt foirni one party 
and breakfast together in the town. After Homo 
trouble we yiteeueded in finding a ktnd of itujk 
where we eatahliehcd ourdelvc*; but hardly wens 
tho cuticte on the tabic tlian the dieguating mounter 



of tha *tenm-boat eDterei and actuoJly acatcd 
ticnseir with the intentioTi of joining ua; ttii^ 
IioW€Terj was beyond my patience, and I pcreinp- 
tiiriiy inflisted nn Me rpfno^al : reminiling liim xh%t 
he W4# not a flrtlu^rj jueeengcr, Jtnd iitUHt, acc^iinling 
to the rales uf hi» own vessel, lulcu Iiib ine»J vr'ith 
like ACTvai]f& AAcT niiii:h rt:iiiuii^ti'uiic<j» ^ls it wr> 
the only ronm m the hotiac For gue&td, he nae 
oUov^ed to hjiTC a table to himself; nud with thtbt 
our int^rcouree (*ofisEd. 

The Ku^iiLn H<!t^t is divklod into three sqaadroni, 
occupying ns lanny porU; muncily CroikatAdt, 
Kevd, and Hcloingfors, Wc found a conEidcmbJc 
force at anchor In iho port of Eevol* wliidt U 
completely L-mbayed and protected by the <ur- 
roimduig hilb ; which, beaidea being well wooded 
and renlly picttireac^iier hvA ^idditiouoL chiirnifl to 
the eye so long uaed to the uti varying flatness and 
unifunnily of the srene wu had left. The town 
U bnllt Ein a >i1rarp emincni^c, heitJ U nu old nod 
uregular aa any Ijver of antiquity could desire; 
but the abort tunpiatourdUpoBiU, whdia theAtmxah 
boot was (Jiking in fresh ccnlfl, only permitted ua 
to reach the Js'icolai church, whore the; unburicd 
body, or rather mummy, of one of the Dukes dc 
la Croix ia oipoBcif to the curious, in the full 
costMTriQ of hif dny: in ^t the f-amc whicli be 
wore while lmng> It appears that the old gen* 
ll©raiin died very much in debt 9omo humlrcd and 
fifty years amce, and by the law of the |>eriod hia 



crcdcturs prtvcnted LiLs reiiiajus being burleil LiU 
their denumds irf:i'e Eada£.ij[I ^ this was ncvei^donfii 
anJ what tbuj rcfTjaeJ no one haa since voluiilecred 
to perform. The siitgiilaritj of the hof.\y being 
preserved from Uecfly^ aucl tLo ciirioailj of the 
dreed, attract maiiy u vi^toi- to the apnrtmcatj 
where the ^e^tou huM iogiulled bi^ iMitrotj, Ei9 ho 
cclUs the defunct ; und certam}y the uupic velvet 
CQitf full vvig imd pomt kce c^rnvat and nitHoB, 
shrouding the same form which they clothed ao 
msiiiy yean siai^^f puHs^Bai a ccrtniii di^gree of in- 
tertsst, lis cmivtrying ^ more vivid idea *if the 
cohtuiite of those days tliutj any pit^turinl repr&- 
ficiktfttioii could di>. 

The limit allotted lo n^ Laving now expired^ wc 
hmrvcd on board and were eo*iii Dodcr wagh for 
the oppoeiie eliorc, with a reduced complement of 
paawngcra. it waa late in tlie ailcnioon of a 
splendid day thnt we approachod Helsicgfors t 
threading through Auch ii Bucccd&ion i>f idkndB, 
that m fjLCt it appeared oa if wo had left the ^ulf, 
&nd were deep In aome inland navigation. To 
coiae suddenly and u«ex|>ectedly on & mngc of 
beautiful fiten^ry gives txn additlunal zeat in ih© 
]>lett8ure v/e tleiive; nnd lo conf^s the truth I 
WHS c(nnplet(;ly iakvn by Hurprine. Thu |Ktrt is 
defended by n reinarkiibly strong citadel, urrathcr 
ft cluitcT of forLH> uuiiDtrui^Lct] on fiuven islaiid^ «t 
itbfjut twoniilcefvom the lovvni which nowbrcalcA 
t hae, 1 bolifvc, been rebuilt 





wilJim tli« luat thirty yeara, auil luuks new iirtd 
froslij iLo v\liite kotises iisiBg gmdiuilly up llic 
aide of a JiiU ivhioU id aurmoittitod by the djurcii. 
I wjindei'et] helpleaely about for a long^ time seeking 
nccoiumoJiitioQ ; i'or 1 haid arrived iii a country 
which is witliout iho Jiisuryof a legitimate inn. Al 
liLfil I oddreeacd myaclf to an offioorr and briefly 
dxphuned my prodicament. He good-na-turodly 
iutruduci^d me iitto a liouee ; whtoh here, ad in 
Other partg of Fioknd and Sweden, is called the 
Sotriety's houdSj and nnswej^ in some respect* to 
LUi inn ; tlioogh it ii^ a kltid of nundi^i^uript Ijctw^un 
]t ciLf(^ ami A c-lnh, lltiwcvor I got a veiy lole- 
lubli? dinner, anil thi* u&*i of el I'lHiin iar my able* 
tioDb. A» ihe bt&vu-bimt wh'icli wits to lake me 
ou to Abo was not tu l^ve till two o^olock in tht 
inoriilMg, I hiid jimplt: tloie to t?auulci loiiud Uie 
town, and ti> gain one or two benutiful points of 
viow t'l'otn the neigh Ijounng ctniDcucc^. THe 
population cannot cxect^ LO,<XKt bouU; bijt, aa 
tho plj^o U tho capita of Finlandj and la tbv 
seat of the iiniverfiky adnce the d(;5triiction of 
Abo by fire in 1827, it hide fidr to boootne of 
flome importance. Th© eite h adiuiraUIy choeciD, 
both ua regai'da tho pieturcsque luid for the monm 
of defence, uod the nnlural borhour nifovde n aeoutu 
dook for thnt portion of ihe fleet wJiieh winters 
withm it 

I liad arningi'd for my onward ^«<iflgc; in oa 
of&ec which led nic 1o expect by it« AppcaniuciG 



on'] the fonnnlitiGe <^f tlio ii^enl, fiocommotlation 
superior to the Fiii'st Mcnchikoff; but imugino 
my eurpriee, aa I gropeii my way on board ti»e 
Abo baat, to find myself aitiong n cargo of okgd, 
ibrougli wbit^h I had to wort t.[> i-&«A\ tliu slcm 
of tbe.veaaeL The return of duyligbt exphiincd 
this amLDgement ; and the gotxl-hnniourwd civility 
of the little flkipppi" miule hiA vxaTl- tar nioro n^^roe- 
nble than the bnughl.y cxtrliislvenfis^ iiiul ^rtifit^ial 
conseqoenco of the Fiirfil RlencbikofT, The vraatd 
TV09 aa krffc, but wfts ctecked only fore and aft, 
the midAbjp being open and appropriated entirely 
to the trnn^poit of cattle s they provc<l to be no 
annQyanoe, and the un pretend irg nrrnngcmcnts 
for the prtsaODgcrs were onhnncod by nn anxiety 
to pleaae. Our eodety vroa email but agrcefiblo 
and friendly — a Kue^iita general talcing liis young 
wife to Abo to meet her parents; some other 
officers, a Swedish bnron, a. Da,nish general 
retnming fnim n miaaion to St, Petersburg, and 
two or ihrce students. 

At no pmod. of our pMaage wore we renlly in 
opui water, the islauds ihiekooing as wendvaueed^ 
some barren rocks, and othera clothed to (he 
water's edge wit1t £r trees; Pet? inhabited, and 
thoac only by aoUfjiry fiehcrmen. wlwsc little hut* 
gave tho [>uly indications of life. It was a beau- 
tiful day, and the watcre were as a ehect of glo^i 
flhowi|]g difltinctly the ripples of tho niiineroua 
wild-fowl ag they ewam by, and the laiy plungo 


ABa nOWE F2£LtK03. 

of the acnl jis it BCramtled off t}ie roclta M our 
approoch. It was the most pciicctui scene I h^tre 
ever witiicae<?d : it wjw Suodiiy, and natun; wm 
in hannintiy with the day of rest : the vory birde 
seemed to [jf*B9Gss n. sense of protoctinn : for, im- 
Alftrmed hy the steani'-Wit^ thoy fioatcd od tlie 
water within guii-^hot^ and ptocd preening ihcm- 
Hplvea im the ntclcy islets, so P^tl§.e ihftt I could 
distinguish thtfii" viirit^lietf with my naked eye. I 
have imule n vow to rciul thin jiBgu of the Xmak of 
nutiiTt? jt liTthi i^.lnEiir ; nml If oier 7 have tliQ 
powoT, I will epcud ;v iiunnth in Lhi^ spiing of Lliu 
year to learn a Jittic more of tliesc my favouritca- 
It was evening ns wc nciircd Abo, whose now 
fDrfcikcn obscrvutoryj pcrdied high on nil emi- 
DCDce, v^e bnd ocoiuionnfly cittiglit gtimpaee of io 
tbo distanoo ; and, after f<;llowins,' the !^iiJUi>}Uice 
of » rreelc imbedded in hilU of rockj thij town 
suddenly opened on otir view, and we wero 
moored alongside a vessel from Hull, It waa a 
fragmont of English ; and, notwithstaniing my 
codiuojxJittsb feelings, my heart glowed and vw 
bmted m if the ehor<l of hoiu(* hail bei?n touohod, 
thfi hcmjEi of my earJy rei^ollectiotis and Fiflvctinn«, 
for the later o[]e« boiti no fhiil of promuCi A^j^^n 
I wits a wEindtTur in scnrdi of ^ht'llci", and ag^n 
1 found it in a SijcieLy** huupit; hut ihc vrj^t I 
requii'cd. after the fatigue of llic thi^ce prcvioim 
daya and i!K|>osuro at niglit on the deck, wae 
impoaaihJe ; for the room eivanucd with vermin, 



whioH Eprtinjr inW> activity before I lost con- 
aciouen^j^s In ^ecp. 1 passed the niglit en a 
bench in the garden, the only e^ft^ pluce I c.oulcl 
have found, ns the landlord loM mo, for the 
whcle town ts iiifetitiHl with i^n^&tj ac^iui^cfl of reat, 
hpyond all belief. 

The Stockhohn atea-mt^i va& not to leave till 
dajli^ht the next moroing, so I had a long dny 
heftfre uie ; eomc hours of wliich I apeat enjoy^Ing 
a beautiful panoramic view from the obacrvutory, 
whioli Btanda oa ihc tjp of u high linked rock of red 
^mnitc ; the open s^a is nowhefo vi^iblCf nnd a 
labyrmlh of ielnmle studding tho aurfaoo of tbo 
wator givOE it the appearance of a large omnmeutal 
Itike. The town la ee^ntiiilly duU^ bui the on- 
rirons are pretty and well wooded; divet^ified 
with crags and huge maa^es of granite scattered 
wildJy (*ypr llie wirface of the knA 

For obvious reiitions t^onnpcted with (be liiel 
n'ght*B di8coiufortH,ttiid Jifniid iiflho riKkfl nf even 
the ciibin iofa, I figniu touk up iny quartet's i>q 
the deck, ftnd slept till vro gui under weigh at 
daylight. Our whole coiiTfle wns through a laby- 
ricth of GniaJl roclc^ and ialcta, many of them 
cororod with fire and a^pcoa to the water'? edge ; 
8omo tew preen and bcaiitiful, but the greater 
niunber barren and mgp'iHl, iiiliabitcd t>y floolcB of 
water-fowl and aquatic birds, and fj^equented by 
nuiaerous seals which plunged slowly iiilo tbe 
ws-Un as the veasel appToacheil ibcra. The scenery 


laLCTl*- ALAJtfD. 

rcBcmbles the Cyclad*!3 so raoiuits lu ancienl stojy, 
Sometiuics the ptusage lends through chnniielB of 
only twenty or thirty feet in liteiuJtU ; Boiut^imuii 
the wnti^r opcn^ into a ct^iiHldeniLlB expat^i^e, anti 
often tliere a|ipfcarti ttj be no outlet ou any #i<lc- 
It U Bfltoniehing linw tliti siiilora wj cj^zictly kuuw 
thi'^ track iu tliu mtricato hikI perplexing oiazCi 
through which nclhing but experience could con- 
dnot them. 

Thoflc iohta are ao amal! that even a map on u 
largo ecalc can givo no idea of thcit numbers: 
took, for instaocc, at Alttndf it seomfl to <>c<mpy 
the centre of tlio or»tranco to th^ ;;;ilf of BothniAj 
and to stand conspicuous ; and yel wc approachod 
it as one of a co^intksa group, giving no iudlcAtion 
of its compfl.rfl.rive superiority in iiae, till we 
moored alongairle a quay, and found thai it con- 
tained ti ^mall lowu, wlioHe luhabitanU fliicki^ 
down ti find tt change from theii' uiouotony lu our 
[Hjor eteam-bcjat. 

Ahind 16 a military station of eome importance, 
as boiug on the fnmtiera of the Qtnpirc; ttnd OUT 
pftsacjigcrs landed to go round the fortificatiODS* 
^vhili: tbe captain arranged his little local titifKo. 
Being etill within tho KuasioD doimiuone thoy 
were neceesarily in unifcnn, and were ncoivcd 
with honours; and In thia obaeurv lelot ibf^iy- woa 
05 much ceremony for the munient, as if it hftd 
been a reception at St. Peti?rsburg: offioer* in 
fall uuifun II Jostling eatrh other, and wcU-drewed 



Indies iQ P^irisiiin faahiona clajiuing tlic privilege 

This ij^land was betrayed lo iheKuasiana, — sold 
ia Ibu more corrout term, — and, by a aiugtilur frenk 
of Ibrtunoj one of our f>a£60Qgcra, a colonel of 
cngOLuere, who wod making n rapid oilicifiJ in- 
qveotioE of the works wittiiQ the oitad*l, vtoa the 
son of thti very man who lietrnyed it, and went 
Ctyev to the Kusfliaii t^^rvicc*. Tlila truosou wb>^ 
consiunmati^d in the winter, after the plsx^ had 
undergone a long nnd idinotit friiit1(*sB eiege ; iuid 
tlio Rnaaian trooj;i3 wtre compelled lo p^iaa ovtr 
UI1 the icc^ i[i onlt^r lo Uke po^seatdaii. Strang 
vidfisididfi of ^ftsoiiw! lUe av^^hk of to-dny h 
hushed uud glowini^ under an iutcris^ hail; aud 
in A few uliort wccke, an iron frcKAt will make tluG 
urm of the Baltic a solid highway. 

After a passage of about sbity houre we ap- 
proached Stookholm: but the: aitiuoaitJca of our 
courfl(.', the ]>roj(?ctiiig hcudhtndfl, and the constant 
intorvcDtJon of the islaade, gnvc ua no opportunity 
of catching a glunpso of tho city tfll vve were 
fstii'ly within ile limits. It ia so ciobayerl, and 
the sen itself ao broken by istnads, aad i?lofl&l in 
by high crags, ib&t it aeaunics entirely tlte cha^ 
meter of river scenery. 

UiidiiJ* the guidan(:e of n kniive of a valet-de- 
phice, I wris tiwupieil for two good hour* after I 
landud lo Budcavouriag to fidd a KidgiiLg, for he 



lifidurod roc tK^rc ivas no inn; imct it is hnrd to 
gay liuw lung lio wtiuld tliua have jbiiLii^ himj»clf 
at my expense, had I not luckily met n ^ntlcman, 
whom 1 had agqh at St. Peti^r^hui^, who tit onoe 
llTGi^ted mc tt> a very comfortable jilru^, — the 

>lel de Commeroe. 

I woA m the mitst uwhwurd predie^ment Trom 
want of m(>nfiy, for iii'inL* htiug ttll m KiisKinn 
goUl, Hiiil nift (Mirrfiiit, I could find iu» i>iw to 
cliuijge It; Hi 1bv^> an a high fiLvour, tlia ^Russian 
conaul iifsifted n^c. It'?t<icka qY noitA coa&tititlK 
ircolth, J waa a ridt man, Tar I wae in pg^taeAbiiJu 
of butidica -, but the aiuount they I'cpreflGntod 
rmdu but a aony figure when mduced to pounds 
Btcrliii^, Tho (iiin'oacy ii^ nlmoat excluoivcly pf 
paper, nod to accrimmndato thifl ti^ meet the cliG<tf(- 
jxn'se of nrtioloB, thuEG nutt^ go lu luw in value M 
twopence halfj^enny, but then there i*ftlwayB uomo 
t:iGiittil calcuIiLtion neoeesary to umingo the iuo«t 
trifling expemlituro, jw tho [inyinenl* are iimdc 
1:1 piper Id iin>t't n charge in hanca; it reqnirca 
aiirae jiractlee, and is €<3CC«»ively- trouhk'^umc* 
This load of pnpet rnnnrit he ct^tiveniotitly tarried 
ahuuL the pL-raon like other money, uud tlu-Oii-fijnj 
uccAiaious n Btngu1»r cciatorn, which I did not 
pci"ceiye the mcanSog of at fireL I imd riotiooil 
pcr>p]c wearing round tlicir Deck«» by a btcul 
chain, n large ctuspeJ hag or rctiouk. not unlike 
the tolHM^co-pouches of the CJcrinaas, and whi<A 
I really bcUcvcd were ascd for the anmc purpose; 



but llmj are Uturallj pursea to hold tliosa ex* 
trutfidinaiy halfpe tiny worth's of pn|wr, 

Tbe leajding fcAtm^e of Stc<ckiioIjii b the pdacc, 
bat the descriptione given of tt xcc coneidcmbly 
^iver-mtcd ; it haa boon iinjufltJy ]>lacc<] ftbove 
thueo of ihc otiicr Northern «»pital?, while it it 
only eupcTior to tbivt of Copenlia^u as i^^'arda 
sitiifltiOQf and i* iiifiniUly inferior to the winter 
paltLCout St- Petersburg in every respect. SUunJ- 
ing Id tli^ ocatre of the ciiy in » ooniiniuidlDg 
position on llie shore of (he Baltio. which tliere 
ujiftume» tlie appearance of an inUmllflko, bowlereil 
by a. broftJ and ninseive ijuny, it brrM» [mith cif its 
liiipiirt!u»c« fnini Un? want of extent, tir open 
spacf, cm tw<^ sides of it- Tt in an obltmg nq^unrc, 
fronting every way ; and thougli vast in dinu^Ji- 
sk'ns. ic t» rksutute of all aivhilecturnJ oiuaiucnt 
to a^eiat its proportions cr relieve the mouotonjr 
of the gcucTFU eftbot. The front comnkftiKia a most 
pleasing and nttraotivc view, tho extent of water 
Ixiinjr brolion by a number of auiaM i^kode, the 
«:dc« of which nro studded with public buildings 
and well-built houses ; in filets the ieliuidi^ im> so 
tbick, lliat almoat every mag.i-'iinQ of naviil and 
military elorea occnpioa u, tlctayhcd one, connected 
witli the mpin lund by floating Liidgce, or com- 
iininieatlit^ wllli h by a iiuihtturle of ferry*bo'^s 
pnippllrd by rvrwi* of DnlGcarliLin woicen. 

Tit- fH^ent^ry alt.ngelbcr is ufawild androiaflntic 
character, biTTken imd unibihitiiig: in riutne 



T 2 


wLUc in otters tbe Jork granite ivck rises sheer 
out of the >Yat*;r to a coneidcmblc liei^bt, ciotlicd 
witli iire ant( bnrdj ehmbs. 1'he oppcaraace of 
tte city hus it grci^t reaemblancc lo what Hanibarg 
was boloro the confln^^tion, a^ rt^^^da tho style 
of tbc lioueee uiLd the arran^^tucnt of the Create, 
and 18 equally im remarkable for tbe variety of 
the peafinnta' costume. It le more tbe genem] 
efftL't of tbe cit/, than xiuy indiviiiuiil poiola or 
buddingi^j wtieh distingtiisbea it, und give* eo 
much cLnrm to tbe Inntlfjfnp*;. 

8nnip nf tbe public (iditireB are not witlmut jire- 
t«ision&> fis|wcinlly the Ridderliolm; wbldi, ex- 
ternnliy, liaj* tli(^ appoaraiK*** of « chiir<.-h, il^ tall 
tdeoder steeple of opeuiron-%vurk,reaciDtibcg, oti u 
large acalc, tbe beautiful oniamcnta ia Beilin work, 
which were nt one time ho geRtrnlly worn. It Is 
solely Jipproprifttcd aa a mauaolcum for tbe Bovo- 
t^iiguB tif Sweden, and may therefore be very ap- 
proprmtcly eonsidort?/! oa an hietoricnl tiionument- 
Thc ictcrioc ia licvoid of a]] iLrchitcolural oma- 
luentj and, iudutfJ, ia too aimple for a buihUtij; of 
such magmiiide and external pretenaiona. In ibe 
centre is rangiN^ n long row of e<]u<i»triari figure*, 
wearing the armour of the early kinp;8, and of th« 
ejiieffl who dialAngdisbed tbemselvii* in th*? Thirty 
Years' War. The two prinei|>iil tombs are IIkihc 
erected uver the remarna of QiihIjivmji Adolplnin 
and Ohurlea XIL ; hot they pii^ausH ao luerit uh 
works of art, being in fact but plain ra.rcopluigi ; 

ciiahlcs sii. and QUfiTAVXra 3S5 

the latter bos a o!ub unJ lion'a skin sculptured on 
tbo top, while tbii former i^ etii]pl3' hdtimod witli 
a trophy composed of tho ftctual nniiour <:if iho 
hero ; of which the sword, n ptjutlcrous two-bonded 

It Is dngiilar that the cicadas af xhttae tvro 
moimivhs, butli the gi'e^itest wBjriora of their day, 
(ilitrtild be wmpt in mystery ; for alllit'Ugb they 
bodi ft^ll iu Ijnttlc, ur rnlljer in ibe fiui*! of the 
onemy, yet the erxepidon bwa alwnye esieteJ tlisit 
ibo blows weruittrnck by assiasin's hands. Tho 
clolbcB wbicb Cbnilea XIL won; wlicn he fell, 
[irc carefully prceerved in a gla^ cuse by tbe sido 
of liifi tomb ; and aa iiispcctiou of hia but ibitiws 
strong doubt over the biflloricnl version i>f bU 
dcatb. Voltaire sitya, " tliftt a balJ woi^biac^^ balf 
a pound Htruulc bun in the right temple, miiking 
a hole larga ouougb to ndjuit tbreo fiugcrv;'' imd 
he ndds in oni^tLct pIncG, " that tbo emidlue^E of 
the bole in the bat U one of thi> rcawnc adduced 
by tLose who lielieve that he perbbed by aasna^- 
ntiun."* Now tbe perforation in quealioTi is not 
more than half an inch id diameter, if so much^ 
nnd i^rtaiuly would b^ve been uior<^ vjtti?neivi<i 
from the pft«ea^ of il lar^e BhoL; as felt, unlike 
niajiy other eubaittuecAj docs nuL p»i'tiuUy reunitt; 
.bjr ftlaaticity. The evidentre of CiJUiil Liewen, 
'cr ratbcr his opiiiloD, etrorgiy conobornics the 
ouBpidon of foul play. Ho eayd, '*! voa In tbo 
camp bclcic FredcricabaJ, uud bad tbe honour to 

T 3 



eOTTc tlic king in quality ct page on tbc njght lus 
wnA kltkd. I have nti Joubt he tvus us^ts^imitotL 
The night wne oxtrcmoly dtirk, and it waa aUoLtei 
ui irapoaeibilitT that a ImU iron) the (oH could 
enter his fieod, at the dist^incc acul oa tbo spot 
where he stood. I saw the kingfi htydyt nnd nm 
cevtain that the wounci en bu tiiraple wm made 
by !i pitlo! bullet, AVho gnve it is unknown, 
Siknr witrt stiicpectt^J, bcGuu^e he wu not with Ilia 
Mftjoflt^ previou8 to (In.- blow* but JtppeAi^ a 
mofiiont fifleT. Thuee who v.nx ii?ed li» etiilifjiry 
aSuii'd kiijw thv rvpurt luid nuiEe wliieh a (^fiunuu 
ball niak<:^, but the report of tbe tihot which dc- 
Atroj«d the }dng vhua thnt of zt piece do&c at butd* 
aad entirely dificrent" 

As regnrda tbc rest of the olothtia, thcry cowoat 
of a plain blue rcgimcaln] coot of coaree doth, 
faced with rod, a brofid buff kathcr bt^lt, leathuT 
bi'oocbce, and a piiir of most unwieldy rtqtiaro' 
t<»ed j&ck-bcwta. The glovM arc of Hue leather; 
the l^ft is perfectly un&oilel, but the right one 
b BtaineJ in ih^^ p^ilm with bloud, lu ta tho tbftC 
part of tlm belt by the hilt of tbe sword ; «> tJiat 
it would appritr that thi' king put hi^ band In liui 
bc!iul cm r^-ci^viiig the vhot* bufurL^ be iiLteiiipCei] 
td draw his aword, which wa« tlie attifnOc in 
whi<^h b<T ffilt, (w drjitribfid by Vultair*, TTua 
cffurl at ftftlf-dcfiiiice 10 mJsu stioujjly corroborative 
of the snepicion of murder ; itnumnch a« it may 
be iidUtred ilibt the king mm Uie hand vrUicli 



dealt the bloWf and fell in the \tia% etru^lc to 
rvdcnt Jt Well hne Dr. Johnecn I'L^oordcd tho 
ovcnt in th^ familiar Udcs : — 

"IEh fall! ivoA dtflUtietl to a iV^rGi^ fltTSDd, 
A puttj foTtrmB aad a dubious tond i 

i'o ptMBl a iQtjPiU, or nJoru a taii^." 

B«madotbe, the I^t ^f the liat of eovcreiguB who 
rose to power through the effects cf the French 
Kevolutton, hii3 nuw been added to ttc iUuslrioue 
<j(wd wjthiu the aacnc walls ^ and aa ilc^rvcdly 
fUU & niche In thu tuin)>]c of htatory as thoeo who 
preceded liiui. CuJIcd to u throiio by a pooplo 
to wh[)ni he %vtt3 nn alieiii itnd ngAin&t whom he 
had bsen in aniie, lie £Uod hie high destiny with 
n moderntioQ nud Binglenoss of piirpoee, imkDown 
to the ujonajohs crcfltcd by the iiud of his kte 
ma^er on the wrecks of ihc dynaaties he hml 
dcratroyi'd- Thrtiat nn unwilling nntioua amidst 
the i.'4.mvijlairmt< wluiili eliook MK-.tcly to it^ centre, 
they prcflcrTOf] their eplw'iuorn,l authority only 
during ihi? nuu^on of %'iulenoc mid cunfiisiouj mid 
fell as birnn as the uleiuuuU^ iff Aoeiiil Order began 
to rt^upgi^Bir out of the t^aot- uf JeEputlsm and 
uflui-[)atioa ; when c^di^uated Europe, with the 
rencncd atrength of an Antrous, rose in the ful- 
neda of ita might t^ anbdue tbe tyranny Ihnt liad 
oppressed it, and to aTcngc the wrongs that hud 
bcdn pcrpctmtcd on the nations. But not go with 

T 4 



Charles John XIV. A ^inplo eoldicr of the 
ropiiblLc, but gifled willi those p'>vverfiil attributed 
which have ftiU ecope for their energiee during 
p&riod* of excitement aiiri agritatioiij he raee rapidly 
U* mnli niitJ fjinn*^ and Fought the bnttlt'S of tlio 
repnhlic wiih a ekUl and ability, whi*?!! j>kced him 
furemoet among tlio cdebrsiteJ marnhalH iif iho 
empii-e, A *^tern ropribli..*an ir liia prints ipl(?h(, 
he upheld the dcM:t,i'iiies of liis party a:* a meiribcr 
of the Jaci>bin Cluh to the cloac of its exUlcaoe ; 
nnd rather than vc\nj. one pointof his tenets* even 
when, In the receesitiea of the state, distracted 
France hehctd with joy the daring hand of Jiona- 
parte pull down the tottering po>vcr uf the di- 
roclory nnd build the coLsular fabric on its ruinet 
he refuBtid hJ£ aid, and kid the foiiMdatioti of th&t 
jealousy which over nfter existed between liim 
and hia imperial master ; but when the dyra*ty 
of the Utter (teemed G^ied, he nover nlloned thoue 
prinetpjps to interfere with his views of pcr^onid 
itmliition. Ap* Princt^ ot PontecJi^rvu he :uM.'P|itcd 
liorh mnk and title, aftiT having frniglit in the 
ranku in iiboll^li Hiich ilisliiictiotis ; und tlie r-iitim 
chitni^t; ID tlio character uf the man vn\B cousuni* 
iijatcd when the throne of Swcil^^n vsaa nfftird 
for hh acceptance. 

ThoTu is not, perhftps, to be found in the ^lioU 
annuls of history a Eiore remarkable illufttration 
of the sDorot object of dcmootncy ; the cxhiljation, 
namely, of that thirst for power uud rule, wtuch, 
prodominfttin£( over every other feeling, feeks the 


nttainnient of its purpose hy the sulvcraioii of 
j^i:ivcrnTncrt and tlic pence of tbo land; nnd wliicH, 
onoD ittamodf eociiroe ita ricqnidtloD by roiling 
with a tyrnnny unsurpa^ccl by En^tcni ileepotism. 
Tli«i caTj^«T of Nftpoleon has exemplified ll»is fact. 
Bernadottc, his cleTttlioii not being of hxs own 
creation, CimcTljr discarded the principlefi which had 
hi^tyn the pol;ir star of hh hCv, wntl passed over to 
thti tt-nt'ti^orfL et.iDiiflUuLiunal nionurchy. Falibftil 
to the trust ivjKiJwd in htm, iia an sulopicd «on of 
ihiit nice, he aimk the recoil ecX ion a of tlie pu«L 
and LLu tlcb irf nutioiiutit/ (lliouglL not nltlioui 
compunction), and brought the exercise of hia 
great military tdcnls to bear ngun^t hia fontitT 
oomrodcs at Dcnncwitz and Lcipaia The rc^to- 
ratiivn of the liourbcnd nftor the fall of Kapoloon, 
wliich hG had long foreseen, dissolved tlic dream 
of ambition ho had formed, of abounding tho va- 
cant throne of France; and he retired to till iho 
noore humble oBe which had been so unexjieet* 
odly plsj^ed in his power. 

Hi? peaeoful roiga was occupied in pTomothig 
the int^fniiil proapr?rity of his dominious; nnd to 
hiH iminagement h to bu uttribiiteil ihe hiMiling of 
ihc bittei'nesa find dUeonlcnt expericnord hy the 
Norwegtana^ in being transferred from thu Bccptre 
of Denmark to that of Sweden. Hie popuWUj 
wu undoubted ; but he could not accommodate 
himeolf to tb€ language of tho countryj and hia 
love for retircmcBt waa increiwcd by hb objection 
to tlic leaat cxpoGure to the cUmate in ivJntcr: 



hu eoutliern constttutioa not bem^ able to reei^tbG 

wgoura t»f tlje so;iHon, hu ktTjTl Vimstlf a close pri- 
Buni.T lu the [tfiliicedunagilslongiLnddryaTyroigti. 

A small iinpret^ndiDg rctrcut, enMcd Roi^cndnl, 
9t the out'ilfirts of tlie rity, whb fi fiLvoitrite rcsopi 
of tlie old kings fluring the summer months ; and 
it vraj tht^re I vuw lilm. H<! wsu dressful en 
hoitrrjriiiSi with :i large coc^kt-d hnt, i-ilgwl witli 
wliiuj fe.'ithei'^ which, unlike trther ^overcigiM, 
he riu?fcd frum liis head lo returu n. sulute; liit 
liatr \Y]i& ipihilc 3ia «uow, iiiid LIh Ijlcc and [lensuu 
pu-ticularly 9trik:lug ; toll imd £pjirc, the wcigkt 
<^f eighty yciire dkl nyt eeem to liavc otfcct^d hta 
figiirc A single outrider in plnin liTcry, birt 
wcnring a nioet pxtrfiordinury hat orniuijcnted 
vnth hirgfl ostrich fcnthcro of red, blnCj tint! yollovft 
woe tho only iLttomlaat on hts curHng^ na bo drove 
forth fur an evc^ning ritlc> siud the few eoldicrt 
ttboLit the jvBidouee were on duty witliout oriUft; 
they beokoDcd mc wiiliio rto pi-ecinctfi, imimntingp 
as wt^ll an 1 c^oidd iinili^rgtimd theni,. thAH frpe qccuan 
wafl permitted lo tlip grounds. The einipliciiy of 
Ins life, SD in occordunce wllh the njtUjmul irha- 
roctert und the ahseDCu ttf nil Bt.Eite and nLjliiaHry 
retinue, were thu T.houic of pndsu nnioiig htt 

By hifl death tho great northern bond — ibo 
eviduat mm of tht^ lluet^on uutocrat — hoa been 
BtrcDglhcncd by cue link, the present Quccq of 
Swakn being i:oniicct<id with Lis bouse by 
DU&Riu^* A ricmlftc UiIliiLQCQ waa alec tonaed 

fjCKKtr or wmcnBX, joHKPniwn. 33! 

with Denmark ; but the recent death of the Grnnd 
T^icFiess Alf-xnn<tniin, who wit» m^rHed to iho 
lieir pi't-Humptivo of tlia throne of thut kingdnni, 
\iH3 to some extent broken the fniail;^ «li&Uij which 
would else Unve siiiTDiLiiilccl the Btdtic, uid cuu- 
vei-ted it {iii\y u Ruaalaii Uko. 

The giniKl-dmightcr pf the Empress Josepl»lnc 
IB the [jrceent qucca, a droamstaiicc which luakea 
the history of her iil-fwtcd ancestor the more 
cxtraonUuniy. Kniaed from tlic middle claes of 
eooicij', [liwi cscuping irons jmpriacnmeni and 
duath in tiic Ro:gn of Terror only hy the ikil of 
Bobespierre, ahe passed to tho gloinoe cf a throne, 
whicli sho filled with » meteor-like^ l)ril!jnncy» and 
foil, Icitvtng only a name for history to i-ocord; 
while tho deacendnnt of her more huniblo sphere 
pitiiieijmtcs m iheinheritanceof acrown,cf which 
her ohildrvn wtll perpeiiiafe the dynasty. It sar- 
piLfld(!» even vrhnt Is cli1V'<1 the tf>ninnoc of rea! life. 

Then? ii aiMuhpr royal rendeneci culled Orwn- 
unigliolni, At uhout Cvc miles frura the eajulal, 
on the bEUik» of tht MeWlobu; but it luu not 
been inbiihitcd Irir Aonic yenrs. Ita style ia of the 
ecvcntceuth cealury; the gardona arc large, and 
laid out in the old French fjuihion. The stnhlcB 
tire crowded cloee up to the main cntmnoc of th« 
building, and ruin the npproneh. Time hns pro- 
duced but few iimovations in Sweden in two 
hundred joftr^, and the chiuncter of the pooplo 
has loHt littlu of ite primitivene^; so tliat the 
kp of onginaliiy Biill rcLoamo* Tba rorwoi 


Colle<^tu)nB ijf the qiieeii iif* Ailolpliun still rfrmftin 
vitliin ihc vni\h of tin* (inlrwp, jv* nn iimiiy iinmii- 
nienls of lii?r rtiftii«il Uuili? wnJ lm>^ i»f tlie «i1wi 
lujickrtg B. jwoplc who have ucvtr eigmj-liseJ tht^in" 
selves by any love or la^te far tbc scioDces. 

To liflve prixliiced one man, whose rcplitfttlOQ 
haa become the |3i'oj>crty of the hhitctm^ is t!i«ir 
boast and pride to tliifl dtxy ; anil, as if to prove 
what the force of oxflTn]4e of one ;froat mind can 
effect, tlio love of botjujy among the Swedes is a 
ruling pos^on. Tl)€ Litiiut^a borenlie, a little 
a^eoping plupt of ddicioiie fragninco gniwing 
wild !n the woods, sinil first dlacovored by LItj- 
OffiOfl, 9.Ttcl with which they hive crowned hU bti»t, 
laj>eTfectly venemleiL In oiie of my nuuhies in 
tlie country, gome achoolhoys wlio were fnllowlDg 
the ^aiofl ptith, cnine ninniog to me, etnuiger ii« I 
Vf'dti. (jacbiLfliug — ■' See, 9U', we liave found Kim^ 
of the Liudtcci boreaUs.*' 

Cut to return to tlic |>iilacc: — the gems and 
mcdala arc very beaiilifuU and there ia a good 
coUeclion of mnrblcu^ pctrifactioni*, and DaUind 
OUtio^iticJ^, he^idoe some vafy valnidrle anti<|ulticfi 
from Herciilnneum, Tlio Iibrm-y la Lir^, and can- 
tfuna 60U1C very mre worke in the highcFt condi- 
tion; eome fine pidtires by Rubena, Paul Vero- 
noBc, atid Gcmbmndt, adorn its walU. Bui iimidfit 
nil those evidences of ihe oultivAted mind aad 
finished judgment, there is mtich of ^incTent bar- 
ImitUiii lobe foutiJ m the alttmpt »t deeumlion 
and elftict^ the lar^ &nd maMivo »tAirc4uw, for 


iitatoncc, Ime iu wAlla dLiubcd over by ftoaic >i]kgc 
artiet in cliBtk^in^r, to roprescnt Itoliiin gordctia} 
alcovcB, interior fttitl cjttcrior juinLIo:) logetlior, 
without per&poclivc, n.nJ ngninat all nilcs of art, 
like the aiugular proJucllone of tUo Cliineee. Oco 
remnrkaWe picfure, tbe size of life, TCprcecotjCf; 
Aicftn in a sledge drawn by a rem*dcorj im par- 
dculfiHy jiomierl oiit liy the cuatodian, ns a work 
of historicifti iiitetpst. It is tlu^ portrait nf a per- 
ion. who liaviDg come to the knowledge of eume 
dniifjc^roiis con^pii'ncy, drove )iU deer to tlte^Hpital 
to lay I.hi? information befocci his srJvejeigL ; at> 
coLuplJaLing the inorcdthlc distance of 600 milea 
in furty-eigtit hourt^. UIb hcasl drupjiud dr>wu 0«eJ 
on it3 urrivdl ; but Its niu.9tcr waa cnnolled tor tho 
service he hnd [jcrformcd. The legend, which I 
tlkiuk goee hack to the year 1699, ia douhilca* 
exaggerated as to the dctaiU, but ie correct ia 
the luoin fi& rc^ardg the foot. 

T hnvo writt^in at Ci>naiderable It^ngtlij ae it is 
doubtful whether I shall remaio here long enough 
to be able to avail myself of the tieit post ; but 
nniler nil eirn.imstaiir<s 1 bKuII bt» iti n cuudilion 
to iliisjjati:h u letter to yaa iJ^a momwit I teadi 
Oottcnbiirg — my phiti being to tmvel tu ihxtt 
^L jplace by steam, through tlie Gotha Ctuitt] — und 
V during the voyage I aiiall btve abondanee ot'lioLC 
I tocouUnue thefketch t>f my periuikbulEitlons about 
I Btoekholoi. 




Stuiuctmuntu At piVtT *SWiif«. — Chat\ictor ef the Sttf^dn.^ 
Sijnilaritjf i^ Stifftlinii mill SaAih Actfttt. — Ztibt^rioHs 
Oect/patjjm of thi* Wt'Ttf". — Aiidritw UtrgUi'niL, the I'^iff- 
lU'ftLiHE. — Fifu VU-of uf Sfork/iijiM. — TAc PiirA. — 
Mnrhet-pto^e. — F'sfiittg-fwuft . — Sjt>*dttfi TWi/ij. — 
A Oaie on (krWtiier Lu}u7.— The Oalhi Cn'iti. — FaiU 
of TrolhitttJi. — SaliBun ff tfip fjnirr unif Jh^ Riprr.— 
Sue^frjf ^hn^ the CuiujI — Mr. UajftTs lUeiiUhcf, — 

IvLM uuw an 111/ yfHt^ to Qottenburgt liaviug eum^ 
wlijij, cui'tailed luy slny itt StookLt^hii for tlir pi^r- 
|ioae of i\;v]siti[jg Ci>pciiLag^i : fi^r wbicL jJ&ce 1 
ahiLll emburk at Gotteubur^ and liiially conclude 
my tour by tokuig the St. Pciei^burg ^E^um-boiit 
06 it touohc* there on its way to London, 

I r«^et tlmt lUy dmu would not uHoi^ me to 
lengtlien my ^qjoutn at Stockholm, to tXwdy the 
habite and cLiLniotcr of the pisjplv moro tlian 2 
li&TO b«eD en&bled to do; luid bcfiidoej I wae 
ajiiious 10 ivacK UpsAln and tht mint'* at Dnn- 
nfimorn: but thoy mn^t now remaia a« induce 
nent? for another tuiir to these pnrtH, so litU« 
visited itnd ^et ho full of ititer^at. Ilio fSr^tjiiig 
nltiiic would re}]»y the Loih< of the joumcy ; and 
ut^ ior i9[i(jrt, lijuri; Is tiut h iiiutj] Li Llie lli^dtindM 
tlmt cn.n bo^t the g^nie with which th id country 
abounds To people of dniiill iticuinedr and who 

can find plcaaurt^a in the scclue'n>n oF a country 
roadcncc, thorc m pcrlmps no cuimtTy tliat oHcra 
umiUr ndvzmtu^OQ ; as a eliglit inaltinct; of whichj 
it occurrod to mo in stopping nt n eniMl peuoaut 
fami, whilo mmlilin;; in die inleriur, to a4c for a 
dr&i)p;ht of milk And a bit of trend, ih^t I cnuld 
not produOL* n^oney amull t-noiigh to nuiut tho pay* 
menlj and a tw.i|x^rce-h!tl (penny note waa lilc- 
rally refn*od na Ijcirg loo exeeaaivG. 

Ttke Swedua Are certainly an hoiieBt race, vritb 
liigh iiolioiks iif ret^tiliide Hiid pnijHrr WMii^, but 
f^JSing ofT &ndly 0^ n^jjui'ds 1.h«ir mtimU; iriiWd, 
ofToiki^cA Against them arc not )ix>kcd u^ioa with 
ctnaure or contumely* I tJunk th;il cvvry ontj 
who IioB visited the country nuist hnve roinarked 
the cxtroArdinary miuilarit^ thtit cxieta bolwc^ea 
the Stvcdifh nccciit imd th^it of the Scotch ; I was 
obeolntelyatitrtlcd. whnn 1 fin-t heard it, nntl <:ould 
have faooicfd tt a fitmilior djal^t. The Swt^ce, 
likd tbo Biiafimne, ni'c quicrk of coiuprchunaioti, 
and supply tht^ iguomucu 4>f their liiit^n};;^ with 
mnrvellons celerity j tioy are houpinWc, cour^ 
IcouB, and uEioBteQtiiioua. Tim elements of lmp> 
pLiiefiB in the C3iintry arc nbiindtml, nnd iT tho 
eitd be nrjt iittainefL it iiiuet at'isa (ti^n a ci>TUti> 
tiition^it fiLifing m ihi* rniiiphiiiuiig pnrtj'- 

Labour of all kiiiUi4^ aud of undoubted Acverityr 
dcTolvca miich on the wotnun; tlicy tml at tho 
«ar, work h\ the iicldi^. and fuUil all household 
Attice. The eamc circucivitanco in France ie 



attributed to the noooBaity wh'ioh arose from tlio 
grcAt donin.n(I for raon un^cr iho cciiacriptioit, mid 
llie feurfiil loafl of huainu life in thi5 ware of Ka- 
pokiin; habit, inherited hy dtaccnl, may hiive 
estnblUhoil tlio custom hert;, fur iu all proljubilicy 
the waat.G of life during thcThinyVeara' War, and 
llio military epiriL irifuseil Into ilie nation hj 
Cliarliia XIL> threw the I>urtlicas of life on the 
woiueii, fr<>iu which thty have aevtr been reiicv*\ih 
The datiefi of the Bleaiu-hoatB^ n* tcga^ds iLc yna- 
sengcns arc all pcrfrnacd by women; who, who* 
ther yoang or oM, uro aiwaja callotl Fliicke igirl), 
something in ibc same way tliat, bowovcr aiitiqua-> 
ted a post-boy inuy be with ast he novcr reoditti 
manhood in tbat chniiicter — at leaet in name* 
Before I paae from thia subject, let me recomipeiid» 
iiB the princG of valoi4 and fiuthful flttcndiiale, 
Andrew Bi*rglr.nd, whoee services to me httTc 
l>eetk initjiprcoLible, nnd whii oomblncfi in liimseir 
every good ijunllty whhont ti fault- Poor fdlow! 
few tinvelk'ia gladden his eyeJi; and though )in 
Kfc \s one of poverty itad hardflhip, I115 in thiuilcFiil, 
gnrl ubufies uu conjidenee. lie lias InEiAtod mi 
my piuehosmg mnnc rehi-dcer liatii^^ wKicJi be 
pronounces to be ^anz vortrt^kh. 

I have often noticed how inrtinctivcJj pcoplOi 
oa arriving m a strange town, hit upcm tlw mort 
fiivourite resort^s acileeting the ntont odTVitAgcouA 
points for a <'oup d'ufl and the cnji.*yment of the 
most striking view^ and ihere they rutrsice tb^ 

BLtf|w imvJiLumiiklly ; Ubuh. il»tily liiivo I cDjiilit;)! 3,n 
alitiodl irri^cipttoiw Alrcct> nut] aa ol'icii, ujj(.h1(igiHiag 
fur my mtruftion, have ttiipwcd tny request tci 
thco^nerof a garden for pcj-iulaalon to lounge 
nn hour in his Auaimcr hnti^e, wliich couituzvndft 
a motil delightful view, cuibniciug In its mtige 
the outeprcad city* the Mclcr Lake, the island- 
etiiddcil ItaJtic, luiil a bodl etrctoli int(> the interior. 
It hue never yot been my fcrtuuo ti> viuit the 
■uuth of Europe, but 1 ixm eatiEtir^^l ihnt Stock- 
boltn, Boec und«r the elT^ota of a lieh Buumier 
sun, will bear a cotnpnrison with lh<; cb'iiic 
grouoda of Italy u rcgArda acinic efllbct The 
thermometer stood at 84^ in the aliade while I 
waa at Stockholmj witli a respi^ndent aim, wliluh 
threw its hroad luaaaea of Irght and »hade on the 
hmd^Kuijm, — uids without whlah ti purailise would 
Xm iiiflipid. 

The p£,rk^ of wliich the ILos^ndlAl occupi^A u 
nookj ia cue of tlio niosl agreeable sputa in tlip city, 
C<Trcflpoiiding in some respects to the Chatii)rB 
Klys^es of Paris; that ia, with coimtry houiw, 
caft^^, nnd placce of amuacmcnt occupyiug its aktrtSi 
while this finoly wooded, undulnting cxpariJc, w 
intcracclod with drives, htwu?. und crnojiEOiitDi 
phmtatiotia; it it eo little cramped hy style and 
fanciful etFeola, that it seeins like a beautUal bit 
of nature i^refiilly atienileil to. 

The public markets nre always & source of 
luriuAement to mc; 1 lovo lo i^ei? thr? ui^t {JciuiAnt 



costume coquetliehJf ftrntngcd for tlic city gnj»!. 
Olid to B|j«culatu an the oct-^u^tiond and little 
c1<jincstic pInnB of the vllkgei^a^ m (liey arniujjfO 
tlicir wares and produce in ihe most ternptinp; 
forms ; it ia almost poBSihlc to ivad iheir cburnrter 
and histunoB as they piieli their little ooauiieivi*. 
The Swefleg aro uertiLiuJy hidiistrimw and in- 
telUgeiit, ;;iLrr)^iHg on many little Irivlos iu T.hpir 
retired villitges iiiid (he litlle t€<i»*uiiere<l i^landft, 
where they live flhut out from the vorlil, and 
only emerge in their little frciil boiht? to dispow 
of their articles in the niarketa. llough and 
alngulor ae many of these objects Q&turrdly ar«, 
they pkiise mc by the nidc attempt at omnmcntAt 
tmd by tho ingcDuity of native bkill to coutrivo 
that which ei fini^hi^d workman acoampli^bes by 
rule and science- 

Fish h miTurally & ^eal etitple, nnd ie brought 
uUve in woll»^ contrived in the sterns of the boatt, 
Tbii gives ilio ti-ihitig boats a singt^nr upp^^aranoc 
when iiuil^r natl, jlk lb<^ wt^i^ht rdV. iIeprt.-H»^ tliat 
part of ihc bmt to n level with thu w«l.€fr, 4Uid 
raises th^ hows pri>|Hirlii.iniibly high. Tlie fish, 
tii'uwdcd in this ^niall recei>lflclc, woiJd rfuuu 
puneli wore the wntcr uot ki?[jt from &tjtgnatiag 
by the Agitation ca\i3cd by ilir motion of the boftl ; 
nnd, therefore, when in harbour, they aling a tn^gc 
«tofiG to the pcah of the ynrd-anut which* bt^o^ 
swung pi^rpolmdly lo and fr<], kccpR up n constant 
undulating movoment, and prt^eervce tliti tu^h in 



fijll vigour- STuoked Bnlnion, bronght by peatonlB 
fmin inttridfr in m gn^rU nlmnrlunoe, and ]s n 
UTklverAal dish ; Init mh it is piil on taltlu wtduiut 
ui3Jej;goii)g any ritlier pnicess, T fulnl in my fii'*l 
altctiipt at drglutlLiuu, Id fitct, I bcHcTe It la & 
depnived ap|H^LJlu Lliat ou,u enjoy bnui, lierriiig, 
and aalmon, in an uncooked and £emUr;iw &late: 
and TCt with the NortliHicn tlic cjjici.»riein is 
JuLbilaaU The eoura mid sweets of Gemmny jire 
nt first rothcr difficult to tlis pnlata, but the 
appHoation of sugJLr to nionf, nnd llic profVieo 
introduction of cunU in Swcdisli cookery, a« 
far more objec lion able. Andrevv Bergland had 
cautioned me ns to tlie diet, on bovird the eretimers 
jtlying on the Gotha CiLiiiilj and advised nie to 
ky in » lillle e^tbin store for inyBelf ; but a« I am 
not very tl^inly> T refuted all Imt a cuke of 
|)oitable »Dup, wliJch iii Ins Mjupbcity and vrithout 
eo-yin^ any more thcui be bad put it tu the cabin, 
he bftd wrapped up in Unen cloth : the intense 
beat dtill continuing, aoon told upon tlic soup iLnd 
f^rly disaolycd it. It would have been highly 
nCHSciitabIc to me one night when wo wcroebcH of 
prDviaione, with only a precnrioiiB chance of ro- 
^ieiualling on tlio morrow. It wae on the Wenor 
Lake (the lar^e^t in Kurej^ nAer the Ladoga), an 
immense inland sea, into wbieb wc ottered early in 
the morning, with a head wind, which, fro*heniiig 
OA the day grew on^ lumed lo a perfect gale before 
evening, with n high sest rutming. Our littlu 
« 2 




vu«cl strugglct^ fkgftLtii't \U ^Kipping ocoaAiODaDjr 
BOine biNivy »caf, aii^ »t Itiat our captain devintod 
comcTThat frotn his course itad sought ttc Jce of A 
eiiLiill rooky it^laDd, wIict^ wc hxy at ojichor jail 
night, hrtving ncocintjilisheJ only half our dietnnoo* 
We Ijnd not seen bi-il all day, but iho t^haugc io 
fl»r course htiving brouglit us within a fpw miles cf 
ir, we pusheil Tienrer in at il^ylightt ftTirl despatched 
n liimt ashore t" a Viitla vIUnftL' For pnviaioDBr for 
we were clearly dt^^unei] to s[>eird anotlter diiy hi 
dciiriug tilt; lube. Tlie Utile 5ttpni*hi"Llj^ employ »l 
uu this tiurviL^e nii3 Ti(>t ijtntti nda]>pt?d Tor iht^. 
rough weftthcr they rou&l meet with on ihia lake 
and its aieUr the Wetter, and of nlach wc Wl a 
aharp specimen* for to enable thera to paw the iiiul- 
titudo of lookd nitb whivh thiB lalund navigAtton 
Hhonnde, thoy ai'c built so extremely nnrrOWi that 
they socm to be all length ; but then) is no diui^cr, 
for they are comminded by able men, officcns ia 
the Swedish uiivy, whom the p;overrment urges 
into the employment to make tlieiu piucticnt 
pilots of the intricate pitrta of the oavigmjon, of 
which rho mnal js onlv the c!(tnnr»:i^tinEr nLediuin. 

Tlic CSotha Cniial fi£»i»lH in fttniiiiig an inland 
navigAtioti of flOO milea in eseenl, and i* one of 
tlie- n^oHt oxtmordinary worka ever eiirrJcd tmU 
Tho echemc wea proposed by Admind Platetir 
who lived to tfGG It iieai-ly cumplel&d; and, vm 1I10 
most honourable tribute to hh genius &od isnlef- 
|uitfc, he i« buried oii the bunk? of the oiimlt 


bcDcatli auftit monument erected lohia mciuory; 
OTit of rcDpcct for which tvcry stumn-lxjat iti pn«^ 
iiig Urea a mlotc of IIuy^ guii«. By mcaiM of 
tliis canal, tEic Sound diK^s ore avoided, the stormy 
pueangc of tJio llAltic is Bdved, nnd tlic nitc- 
rior of the country' U uarblied by tJio fflcilitics 
^von to trade and th«5 iacxeoeed vaeaQ» of coin- 
municitioa : thtse sire the nntiooal beni>Ste, amd 
spcftk tbr tbemeeUva; but their imporlono*? can- 
not be justly apprecijiled wiihovit recollecting 
that th!a gigantic work has been cjirrk-d out by 
± country of such somll rc^iurce^ and limiiecl 

At Wi'nerhiirg, wheifr tbe Wener Lake tJ.*r- 
luiiiAte^, ami di^chargL^s itself by the TroUiutton 
FiiUs Into tlte river Gotho, the deeicenti occom- 
jiljabttl by mean* of locks anccecding each other 
in citric proKimily Uke stcpe> c?;ceedd t^ro hundred 
fcot» cut tbrough eoDd grarute took, — an Hcrco- 
loAH Jubottr; nnd as if enough hud not been 
[ichicv<x], u aoconJ branch is iiow in the O4>urao of 
fomiftlton. It) Tucel the liitrpaecd nnvigatioa, and 
lo gave deliiy, by dcvotlcg one flrni to vessels 
ascending, and the ctbcr to thoae doftceudioj:;- 
Thit openiliou ocoupiea Decirly three honr>i, whrnli 
I^Vfis the pusjwngere a-bundanco of luiit* lo wander 
Alviut ttit! ni!jghl>aurhoi>d uuil to se^* tbe fnllif. 
They are both piGtnrci»*iiie and gmnd ; lJi« jier- 
jM^iwlirnhur frdl, in'rhajis, diifs nnt trxueed Ifl/cuty 
tvtl, bill the nuh afltrwrtnU h fearfully grand; 


I iVtl, ui 


Tnit TROLHArrES FAtLft. 

tbo wntent ditsliing down tLc Iodjz <LnN^cut. broken 
by huge fia(;tii<?nU of rcKsk* aod divided vrtthin u 
hundred ynriU of the faU Ijy one ucroi^jue mnibi 
cov(>red vf'iih fir trees (where uo hmuim foot hoe 
«ver trod), wid which they 8ei>ni rriidy to tear 
f^'oiu lU biiso; uud tlie d(>afeiiiug voaj seema to 
realise the idpia of a gpwit eonvulflion of natiirr. 
High l^iukjscr nuher eliflTs cif ^niniltT rn^k^clolhmi 
with (\r liee^, riMi f'raiii the watered ladge, an<l b/ 
GorilmcLiiig the tvldlli of the Lurri^utj u,ild tti Uir; 
desijcration of Its courBC. Tlic view of the bniik 
of the fnJI is loi^t ; f^rr the daring luid ingeaiiky uf 
roan have coiifltnictcd on the very TCrgo a dooccfl- 
sion of efiw mills, whose conTtDucd UtTOure arc 
munifiiaied by thu hilla of suwduet which lukVG oc- 
oumuJated on Iho iidjoiiun^ Jnnds, tlie ^voro- 
ment hu^'in? forbidden it to be cast into ihft 
Gircani, from it& guttling) iiad chubIi);:; obr^tructiona 
lower down in ita course- 

Thi;! adjaceiil couniry is htlly» wild, aad highly 
picturesfjue ; being covered with fin^ trees, wliieli 
A&nm to grow out of the ro[.*k itself, so coiiiplGtely 
doffl ihe gmrdte tl];i.nieteri»t* tht- wl»nh; di,'5l-rict- 
Suhufjn abnund Ifdow the rjipidf, iiiid tlLti luku 
above is well stocked: but aa no fluli could ever 
Eurivc ilicre irum bcucatK I ^m mtJnfied tiiat it 
cannot be the Sahito jtalnff or comuiOD eAlmon, 
that ie found there ; and froni a dcftcription which 
I endeavoured to gather from a [»e&«ant who had 
noticed iJic dirtbrcncc between the lieh of the two 



phcc^j 1 auapoct thsit tho lake etilnum U tUo Thif~ 
niaUuR mtlr/arifs fir gmylizi;^. 

The general iiajioct of tbo ccmntry tHrtJiigh 
wliict the canal passes ia not fertile, 6s in places 
the surface la ynctiinbered with blicks of gmnlte; 
but where ll is ii'ee it U cheerful, and shows that 
great industry is Imslnwed. ujwn it. The little 
white (^ctttLgee of the pc^ieiiiilry, with tlieir 
(lazzliii^ roil nicifa peering thcoii^'h tho trees, aro 
Ix^mtifLil nbjccts m tliQ htmUcipe; but uo town^ 
nc»r tfven conAidevahle villager, are lu lje ateu 
tliiougboiit the whole pnsajigc, until Wcnerburg i* 
reached ; and the (taiy iutllcatien of their cxia- 
tcncc h markc*! by an oooaHion^J spire rising in 
tfie dietoBce- liulow the Trollintt'^n FnlU, the 
lieuse of oar coimtryraimj the well-known north- 
cm eport^rean Mr, Lloyd, elands faeicg xha eanel; 
the epoi h well aelcoted for hia pureuil*, in which 
ho seems to hnve no rivnl. 

It "wafl evening iia we i*<?aehed Goltenhurg, aftur 
n jmiiaiige of eighty-four bours, pi en«intly spent, 
aiid abguudJug in agrec^ihle rtcolleetionM- 

By the recommendalion of a felhiw iwj*sciiger I 
liavo taken up iny quaiter^ at nn inn kept hy a 
J^cotchwomiin, wlicrc i aiu iti the enjoyment of 
CTOty comfort i and by the kindness of the Mmc 
party I htive been introclaeed to the Merchants' 
Cbib, where, for the first time for many inonlhw, 1 
have been able to rciifi'c^h my oyos with the tii^A 
of nn Enf^ljdh newspaper. 


Here I have parted witli two Rusaiane who 
have been my companions tJiroughout frooi St, 
Petersburg; one is bound to Oatend, for the 
benefit of aea^bathiog, and the other U on his way 
to England, being deputed by an agricultural 
society at Moacow to make some arrangements 
with our society in England, They were agree- 
able and talented men, full of military anecdote, 
for they had both seen service ; and they im- 
proved dally as the distance Irom home increased, 
till they were really frank and unreserved in their 
opinions and communications. 

Gottenburg reminds me much of I>unkirk, 
but is, if possible^ more dulL The business, par- 
ticularly in dealfi and timber, is very extensive, 
and the people appear to be wealthy, happy, and 
hospitable, living on terms of good neighbourhood 
and sociabOity. 





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